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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

/BE * K E L E V 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
V'CAUFORMIA 



EARTH 

iCIENCES 
LIBRARY 




MANUAL 



OF 



NCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC, 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W, TRYON, JR. 

CONSERVATOR OK TIIK COM HOLOOICAL SECTION- OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 
OK PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. IX. 

SOLARTID^E, IANTHINTD.E, TRICHOTROPID^, SCALARIID.E, 
CERITHIID.E, PJSSOID.E, LITTORINID.E. 




PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by tlie Author, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COH. I9TH &. RACE STS. 

1887, 



SOB*** 



^ 




\V.\i. 1'. KII.I.AIU:, I'm M 1,1:, 7::i AM. Tin SANS..M SI-KI.I:T, 1'n II.ADKI.IMHA 



MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



MONOGRAPH OF THE FAMILY SOLARIID.E, 

BY WILLIAM B. MARSHALL, B. S., 

Assistant, Conchologieal Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 



FAMILY SOLARIIDJZ. 

Shell depressed conic, turbinate, or planortyform ; aperture 
entire, angular or subcircular ; lip and columella simple, interior 
without nacre ; umbilicus wide and deep and usually with crenu- 
lated margins; main sculpture usually spiral. Operculum corne- 
ous, spiral. ; V>, 

Animal with very large, oval foot, notched in front ; tentacles 
cylindrical, thick, with eyes sessile on swellings near their outer 
bases. Dentition variable. In Solarium (PI. 1, figs. 5, 6) and 
Philippia (PI. 1, fig. 8) the teeth are long, spiniform, pronged and 
without a central tooth. In Torinia (PI. 1, figs. 11, 12) there is 
a small central tooth, a lateral tooth with pectinated and incised 
edge united to the central tooth, and two marginal teeth which 
are straight and digitated at their extremities. The jaw of So- 
larium and that of Philippia are figured on PL 1, figs. 4 and 7. 

The proper systematic position of the family Solariidse was 
long a matter of doubt. By most authors it was assigned to the 
neighborhood of Trochidse. Gray in 1847 (Zool. Proc., p. 151), 
substituted for Solarium the name Architectoma, which was 
evidently a typographical error for Architectonica, Bolt., and 
placed the genus in the Littorinidse. In 1850 (Figs, of Moll. 
Anim.), he raised the genus to the rank of a family, and naming 
it Architectomidse, he placed it between the Littorinidae and 
Melanidae. In 1853 (Zool. Proc., p. 394), believing the animal 
to be without teeth, he placed the family in his group Gymno- 

(3) 



4 SOLARIUM:. 

glossa, and II. and A. Ad., naming the family Architectonicidae, 

made the same disposition of it. March, likewise, failed to find 
teeth, and formed for the family a new group to which he gave 
the name A-lossa (Mai. Blatt., p. 129, 1859). 

Dr. Troschel found both teeth and jaws to be present, and 
remarked the affinities existing between the dentition of the 
Solarmhe and others of the Ptenoglossa (Archiv. fur Naturg., i, 
p. 91, 18(11). This arrangement has been generally accepted, 
most authors placing Solarium near to Scalaria and lanthina. 

The Solariidse have been monographed by : 

Hanley (Solarium, Torinia), in Sowerby's Thesaurus Conch}'- 
liorum,iii, p. 227, 186<>. 

Reeve, Conchologica.Iconica, xv, Solarium, 1864. 

Kiener, Coquilles Yivantes, Solarium. 

Philippi, in Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1853. 

A large proportion of the Solariidae were first described by 
Hinds in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1844, and 
afterwards figured in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Sulphur, 
Plate 14. 

Marquis Monterosato published in 1873 a pamphlet entitled 
" Notizie Intorno ai Solarii del Mediterraneo," having sixteen 
pages and one plate. 

The genus Adeorbis, Searles-Wood, has been placed in the 
family Sohiriidiu by Jeffreys, and a few authors have followed 
this classification. I have deemed it best to exclude the genus : 
tor a discussion of the proper position of Adeorbis, see Journal 
de Conchy liologie, p. 1G6, 1885. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

FAMILY SOLAEIIDJS. 

SUBFAMILY SOLARI1NJE. 

Shell depressed conic, angular at the periphery, umbilicus 
usually with strongly crenulated margin. Operculum corneous, 
paiicispiral. 

SUBFAMILY TORINIIN^. 

Shell turbinately elevated or planorbiform, whorls usually 
rounded, margin of umbilicus slightly crenulated. Operculum 
corneous, conically elevated or plain, externally spiral of num- 



SOLARIIDvE. 

erous volutions, internal face smooth, with a spirally twisted 
median projection. 

SUBFAMILY EUOMPHALIN^E. 

Shell depressed, planorbiform ; whorls rounded, in contact 
except in Eccyliomphalus, in which the} r are widely dissolute ; 
spire flattened or involute. 

(Solariinse.) 
Genus SOLARIUM, Lamarck, 1799. 

Shell depressed conic, angular at the periphery; aperture 
subquadrangular, lip simple ; umbilicus with crenul-ited margins, 
spiral, wide and perspective. 

Animal with large foot, notched in front, and having a very 
pronounced marginal fold ; head large, furnished with two 
tentacles which are short, thick, C3'lindrical and folded, with the 
suture below; eyes on swellings near the outer bases of the 
tentacles; gill-cavity divided by a longitudinal fold. (PI. 1, 
figs. 1, 2). 

Architectonica (Bolt. 1798), Gray, is a synonym. 

Inhabits warm seas, world-wide. Fossil, more numerous. 
Eocene. 

Subgenus SOLARIUM, Lamarck (restricted). 

Surface of the shell strongly and closely sculptured longi- 
tudinally, spirally sulcate and ribbed. Operculum corneous, 
paucispiral, with the nucleus subexcentric. 

Solariorbis, Conrad, is a synonym. 

Subgenus PHILIPPIA, Gray, 1840. 

Shell without longitudinal sculpture, spiral sculpture nearly 
obsolete. Operculum flattened ; whorls numerous, with the 
nucleus subcentral, internal face bearing a subspiral calcareous 
process. (PL 1, fig. 9). 

Disculus, Deshayes, 1863, is a synon3 r m. 

Genus PLATYSCHISMA, JVTCoy, 1844. 

Shell depressed, trochiform ; whorls somewhat rounded, 
ornamented with small transverse striae ; spire short ; whorls 



6 SOLARIID.K. 

few; aperture oblique; umbilicus small, rounded, its margins 
without crenulations. 

Fossil, Silurian. United States; Europe. 

Genus FLUXINA, Ball, 1882. 

" Shell porcellanous, depressed conical, umbilicate, strongly 
cariuate, with a stout umbilical rib, above which the pillar is 
thin and emarginate ; from the umbilical rib to the carina the 
lt:is;l margin of the aperture is deeply flexuously emarginate ; 
above the carina it is again but less deeply emarginate, then 
sweeps forward roundly and then slightly recedes before joining 
the preceding whorl. 

This curious form belongs in all probability to the Solariidnc ; 
representing among them Basilissa among the Trochicbe and 
recalling Flatychisma, but with a different aperture. When 
perfect the margin at the carina must project forward like a 
claw, or nail, as in Schizostoma. When adult, the nuclear 
whorls are filled up with a solid deposit of shelly matter, and it 
is probable that there is a slight notch at the end of the umbili- 
cal rib." West Indies. 

( Toriniinx:) 

Genus TORINIA, Gray, 1840. 

Shell turbinately elevated or in some instances planorbiform ; 
umbilicus typically moderate to wide, perspective, its margins 
slightl}' crenulated ; lip and columella simple. Operculum cor- 
neous, typically conically elevated, externally spiral, of numer- 
ous volutions margined by projecting edges ; internal face 
smooth, bearing a spirall}' twisted, median projection (PI. 1, 
tig. 13). 

Tropical seas, world-wide. Fossil, Paris Basin. 

Subgenus TORINIA, Gray (restricted). 

.Shell turbinately elevated ; whorls rounded, granulated, spir- 
ally ribbed; aperture subcircnlar, lip simple, columella perpen- 
dicular and thickened. Operculum typical. 

Animal (PI. 1, fig. 10) with thick, long obtuse tentacles, the 
eyes situated upon swellings near their outer bases ; foot very 
large in proportion to body and shell, oval, emarginate and 
auriculate in front. 



SOLARIID^l. 7 

Heliacus, d'Orb., 1841, and Teretropoma, Rochebrune, 1881, 
are synonyms. Antilles; Pacific 0. ; Indian 0. 

Subgenus PSEUPOMALAXIS, Fischer, 1883. 
Shell discoidal, plan orbi form ; whorls and aperture quadran- 
gular. Operculum as in Torinia restricted. 

Mediterranean ; Madeira. 

Subgenus GYRISCUS, Tiberi, 1808. 

Shell turbinated, conicall} r turriculated, nmbilicated ; whorls 
rounded, granulated, spirally sulcate and ribbed ; aperture sub- 
circular, the simple margins united by a callous deposit. Oper- 
culnm externally flat and multispiral, furnished internally with 
a central styliform process (PI. 1, fig. 17). Mediterranean. 

Subgenus EPISCYNIA, Morch, 1875. 

Shell glassy ; periphery with a double series of cilia ; apex 
simple, direct. Cuba. 

Subgenus CLIMACOPOMA, Fisch., 1883. 

This snbgeneric name was proposed by Dr. Fischer (Manuel 
of Conchyliologie, Fasc., viii, p. 714) upon grounds purely hypo- 
thetical. When Deshayes found in the Paris Basin a fossil 
operculum having all the characters of the operculum of the 
recent Torinia, he suggested that perhaps it belonged to Sola- 
rium patulum, Lam., but never succeeded in finding it in posi- 
tion. Dr. Fischer, anticipating the discovery of such a species, 
with the shell of Solarium and the operculum of Torinia, has 
proposed for the discovery, yet to be made, the above sub- 
generic name. 

Genus OMALAXIS, Desh., 1830. 

Shell subdiscoidal, flat or slightly concave above; whorls 
carinated at the periphery ; peristome not continuous ; umbilicus 
wide and deep. Operculum multispiral. Bifrontia, Desh., 
1832, is a synonym. Coast of New England Brazil. Fossil, 
Eocene. 

(Euomphalinae.) 

Genus OPHILETA, Vanuxem, 1842. 

Shell discoidal, planorbiform ; whorls numerous, in contact, 
very convex. Fossil, Paleozoic. 0. levata, Hull, New York. 
(Struct, and Syst. Conch., PI. 65, fig. 19.) 



8 SOLARIUM. 

Genus EUOMPHALUS, Sowb., 1814. 

Shell depressed, planorbiform ; spire plane or concave; infe- 
rior face widely umbilicated : whorls in contact, convex at the 
periphery, superior face carinated. Fossil, Paleozoic. 

Genus SCHIZOSTOMA, Bronn, 1835. 

Shell discoidal, planorbiform ; whorls more or less angulated 
at the periphery, with a carina above and below; aperture 
clasping, subtrigonal, lip sinuous, prolonged into a claw. Fos- 
sil, Paleozoic. United States; Europe. S. Puzosiij Vern. 
(Struct, and Syst, Conch., PI. 65, f. 11.) 

Genus ECCYLIOMPHALUS, Portlock, 1843. 
Shell subdiscoidal, planorbiform ; whorls few, rounded above, 
flattened below, widelj r dissolute ; lip simple. Fossil, Paleozoic, 
a few species. E, serpula, Kon. (Struct, and Syst. Conch., PI. 
05, fig. 20). 

Genus SOLARIUM, Lam., 1799. 
Subgenus SOLARIUM (restricted). 
S. PERSPECTIVUM, Linn. PI. 2, figs. 18-21. 

Umbilical crenulations brown; whorls spirally sulcate below 
the suture, ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed 
above and below the periphery and near the umbilicus; color 
purplish ash or light yellowish brown with interrupted or con- 
tinuous brown bands next the suture and below the upper sulcus 
and interrupted brown bands on the ribs about the periphery 
and another near the umbilicus. Diam. 2*5 inches. 

Indian 0.; Pacific ; China to Australia. 
S. trochleare and S.formosum, Hinds; S. zonatum and S. in- 
cisum, Phil., are synonyms. 

Yar. AUSTRALIS, Phil. PI. 2, figs. 20, 21. 

A smaller shell than the typical S. perspeciivum ; color olive- 
brown with a very light chestnut band at the suture, a white 
band above and a very dark brown band below the upper sulcus, 
rib above the periphery with an interrupted reddish brown band, 
periphery and rib below it spotted with yellow or yellowish 
brown ; umbilical crenulations yellowish or purplish brown. 



SOLARIUM. 

S. MODEST UM, Phil. PL 2, figs. 22, 23. 

Umbilical crenulations white ; whorls spirally sulcate near the 
suture, ribbed at th,e periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed above 
and below the peripheiy and near the umbilicus ; color ash-white 
or brownish with an interrupted brown band near the suture, 
continuous brown bands below the upper sulcus and on the rib 
above the periphery, periphery and inferior rib with distant 
brown spots ; base with an interrupted brown band near the um- 
bilicus. Diam. 1 '3 inches. 

China; Society I*. 

Yery much resembles S. perspectivum and may perhaps be a 
variety of that species ; it differs in the coloring only. 

S. PERDIX. Hinds. PI. 2, figs. 24, 25. 

Umbilical crenulations small, white ; whorls spirally sulcate 
near the suture, ribbed at the peripheiy, spirally sulcate and 
ribbed above and below the peripheiy and near the umbilicus, 
ribs crenulated ; color pale brownish ash with bands of distant 
red-brown spots near the suture, on the ribs about the peripheiy 
and near the umbilicus. Diam. 1*3 inches. 

Malacca; Ceylon; N. W. Australia. 

In general appearance this species very much resembles the 
young state of S. perspectivum but is easily distinguishable by 
the finely crenulated ribs about the peripheiy and the small 
pearl-like crenulations of the rib around the umbilicus. 

S. DuNKERr, Hanley. PI. 2, figs. 2C>, 21. 

Umbilical crenulations white; whorls spirall}' sulcate near 
the suture, ribbed at the peripheiy, spirally sulcate and ribbed 
above and below the peripheiy and near the umbilicus, ribs 
crenulated ; color fulvous-drab with interrupted brown bands 
near the suture, on the ribs about the periphery and near the 
umbilicus, and with obscure, radiating, interrupted brown 
blotches. Diam. 1-1 '5 inches. 

Indian Archipelago. 

This species resembles S. perdix,]mt is more plentifully spotted 
and has obscure, radiating blotches. 

S. MAXIMUM, Phil. PL 3, figs. 31-34. 

Umbilical crenulations white ; whorls spirally striated, spirally 
bisulcate below the suture, ribbed at the periphery, spirally 



10 SOLARIUM. 

sulcate and ribbed above and below the periphery and near the 
umbilicus; color as in S. perspectivum, except that the brown 
band below the upper silicas is usualh' wanting. 

Diam. 2'5 inches. 

Java ; Ceylon. 

S. Taylori, Hanley (PI. 3, figs. 33, 34), has somewhat coarser 
sculpture and a double band of color below the suture, but I 
agree with Reeve in tlrnking it to be the same shell as S. 
maximum. 

S. QUADRICEPS, Hinds. PI. 4, figs. 39, 40. 

Umbilical crenulations tinged with reddish-brown ; sculpture 
and color as in S. Taylori. Diam. 2*5 inches. 

Zanzibar ; Bay of Panama. 

This species is certainly very closely related to S. maximum, 
and is probably identical. 

S. PICTUM, Phil. PL 3, figs. 35, 36. 

Umbilical crenulations white ; sculpture as in S. maximum ; 
color purple-fawn, with two interrupted bands of reddish-chestnut 
below the suture, the ribs at the periphery spotted with reddish- 
chestnut ; base with a band of distant, round reddish-brown spots 
near the umbilicus. Diam. 1-5 inches. 

New Guinea. 

S. fragile, Hinds, is a synonym. This species is probably 
identical with S. maximum. 

S. TRYONI, Marshall. PI. 2, figs. 28, 29. 

Umbilical crenulations white; whorls spirally bisulcatc below 
the suture, ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed 
above the periphery and near the umbilicus, ribs crenulated ; sur- 
face of the shell covered with radiating, almost direct, impressed 
growth-lines ; color light purplish chocolate, with an interrupted 
chestnut band on the space between the suture and the upper 
sulcus, another very narrow band just below the upper sulcus, 
none of the spots reaching to the second sulcus, a band reaching 
from the periphery beyond the rib above it and changing from 
orange-3 r ellow on the periphery to chestnut above; base with the 
rib of the periphery elevated and an interrupted band of orange- 
brown near the umbilicus. Diam. 1 inch. 

? Moluccas. 



UF 

SOLARIUM. 11 

This shell, which is just approaching maturit^y, has the color 
and sculpture of the upper surface very much like to that of 
6'. maximum. The distinguishing- characteristics are the basally 
projecting rib of the periphery and the absence of the usual rib 
and sulcus below the peripheiy. 

S. REGIUM, Hauler. PI. 2, fig. 30. 

Umbilical crenulations white ; whorls spirally bisulcate near 
the suture, ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed 
above and below the periphery and near the umbilicus ; color 
purplish flesh, with an interrupted chestnut band spreading from 
the suture beyond the second sulcus, one on the rib above the 
periphery and a very fine interrupted band just above the rib. 

Diam. 1'2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

In sculpture this species resembles S. quadriceps ; the color 
bands are its chief characteristics. 

S. PURPURATUM, Hinds. PI. 4, figs. 41, 42. 

Umbilical crenulations pale fuscous ; sculpture as in S. maxi- 
mum ; color dark purplish ash with a double band of chestnut 
near the suture, periphery and the superior rib plentifully 
blotched with duplicated brown spots; base slightly convex, 
plentifully marked with radiating reddish brown streaks. 

Diam. T5 inches. 

Moluccas. 

S. stella turn, Phil., is a synonym. 

This species differs from S. maximum in the darker color, the 
duplicated spots, the more convex base and the fuscous crenula- 
tions of the umbilicus. 

S. GRANULATUM, Lam. PL 5, figs. 53, 54. 

Umbilicus contracted, crenulations very strong; whorls spir- 
ally sulcate with four principal sulci and traces of others, the 
impressed growth-lines of the spire breaking the surface into 
coarse granules ; color purplish ash or livid flesh, with a band 
of distant yellowish brown spots next the suture and a few light 
spots sprinkled over the surface ; base many ribbed and crenated, 
ribs specked with yellowish brown. Diam. 2 inches. 

North Carolina to West Indies; 

Panama to L. California. 



12 SOLARIUM. 

Solarium perspectivum, Chemn. (in part), is a synonym. 
Hinds, in the " Vo} T . of the Sulphur," erroneously gives Asia as 
the habitat of this species. 

S. VERRUCOSUM, Phil. PL 3, figs. 37, 38. 

Umbilicus contracted, c re n illation 8 white, very strong whorls 
spirally sulcate and, in the spire, granose ; color yellowish cream 
with interrupted bands of chestnut-red below the suture, at the 
periphery and above and below the middle of the whorl ; base 
many-ribbed and crenated, ribs specked with yellowish brown. 

Diam. 1-2 inches. 

West Indies. 

S. nobile, Hanley, is a synonym. 

This species is probably synonymous with S. granulatum. 

S. L^EVIGATUM, Lam. PI. 4, figs. 43, 44. 

Umbilicus narrow, crenulations white or cream color; whorls 
smooth, spirally quadri-sulcate, ribbed above, on and below the 
periphery and near the umbilicus; color pinkish-purple plenti- 
fully sprinkled with yellowish-brown ; base with fine, revolving 
interrupted orange-brown lines and plentifully blotched near the 
periphery with the same color. Diam. 1-1'5 inches. 

India. 

Easily distinguished by the pinkish-purple color, the smooth- 
ness of the shell, the four spiral sulci and the line revolving 
orange-brown lines on the base. 

S. REEVEI, Hanley. PI. 4, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell very conoidal ; umbilicus rather narrow, with white 
crenulations; whorls spirally unisulcate or bisulcate near the 
suture, ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed 
above and below the periphery and near the umbilicus, ribs 
finely crenulated, entire surface of the shell covered with close, 
obliquel}' radiating growth-lines; color pinkish-flesh with inter- 
rupted orange-brown bands below the suture, on the ribs about 
the periphery, and liner bands near the middle of the whorls. 

Diam. 1 inch. 

Australia. 

Easily distinguished by the fine crenulations of the narrow 
umbilicus, the very conoid shape and the line sculpture. Reeve 
has suggested that this species may be an Australian dwarf 



SOLARIUM. 13 

variety of S. laevigatum : The two species agree in general 
shape, in the narrow umbilicus and in the general color, but in 
S. laevigatum the main sculpture is spiral while' in S. Eeevei it is 
longitudinal. 

S. FULIGINOSUM, Hinds. PL 4, figs. 47, 48. 

Umbilical crcn illations reddish-brown ; whorls spirally sulcate 
near the suture, ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate and 
ribbed above and below the periphery and near the umbilicus ; 
color livid-white with obliquely radiating dusky-brown blotches 
and interrupted brown bands near the suture, on the ribs about 
the periphery and near the umbilicus. Diam. 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

S. maculatum, Reeve, and S. Hanleyi, Sowb. (PL 5, figs. 
55, 5G), are synonyms ; the type of the latter is a deformed 
specimen in which the base is very convex. This species is 
easily distinguishable by the radiating brown blotches. 

S. CUMINGII, Hanley. PL 5, figs. 57, 58. 

Umbilical cren illations tinged with reddish-brown ; whorls 
spirally sulcate near the suture, ribbed at the periphery, spirally 
sulcate and ribbed below the periphery and near the umbilicus ; 
color livid-yellowish with obliquely radiating, interrupted 
reddish-chestnut blotches and light chestnut bands at the 
suture, on the ribs about the periphery and near the umbilicus. 

Diam. T5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

This species differs from S. fuliginosum in having the blotches 
of a lighter color and interrupted and in the absence of a distinct 
rib above the periphery. It is perhaps only a variety. 

S. BAIRDII, Hanley. PL 4, fig. 49, 50. 

Whorls with radiating growth-lines broken into five series by 
spiral sulci, periphery ribbed, spirally sulcate and ribbed below 
the periphery and near the umbilicus, ribs crenulated ; color pale- 
fulvous with remote obscure spots. Diam. 20 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
S. PLACENTULA, Hinds. PL 4, fig. 51, 52. 

Shell discoid, very depressed; whorls smooth, regularly spi- 
rally striated, broadly ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate 



1 4 SOLARIUM. 

and ribbed near the umbilicus, ribs crenulated ; -color pale- 
fulvous with distant reddish brown spots on the periphery ; base 
slightly concave near the periphery, somewhat swollen near the 
middle. Diam. 12-25 mill. 

Bay of Magdalena, L. California. 

This species is remarkable for the absence of a sulcus below 
the suture, and ribs above and below the periphery. 

S. IMPRESSUM, Nevill. PI. 4, figs. 52, a b. 

Umbilical crenulations white ; whorls f>, granosely shouldered, 
obsoletely spirally ribbed, ribs four or five, minutely granose, 
periphery roundly angular; color glassy white, with obliquely 
radiating patches of chestnut, or of a uniform reddish ; base 
very convex, with two impressed spiral lines and an interrupted 
brown band near the umbilicus, umbilical wall obsoletely spiral!}^ 
ribbed; aperture subquadrangular. Diam. 6 mill. 

Ceylon. 

Utifigured and Doubtful Species. 

S. CALCAR, Costa. Mediterranean. 

S. WROBLEWSKYI, Morch. Eio Janeiro. 

S. KREBSII, Morch. Porto Plata ; Curasao. 

S. TRTCARINATUM, Stearns. }\ r est Indies. 

S. VALEXCIKNNESII, Morch. Peal jo. 

Subgenus PHILIPPIA, Gray, 1840. 
S. HYBRIDUM, Linn. PI. 5, figs. 59-62. 

Umbilicus contracted, crenulations white, very strong ; whorls 
smooth, ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate, and ribbed 
above and below the periphery and near the umbilicus ; color 
varying shades of reddish brown with patches of white ; base 
very convex, usually of lighter color than the upper surface. 

Diam. 20 mill. 

Philippines; Java; Australia; Cei/lon. 

S. Layardi, A. Ad., and Trochns per spec tivunculus, Meusch., 
are synonymous. 

Var. UNDATI M, Hanley. PI. 5, fig. 61, ('.:>. 

Color white, with narrow, radiating, undulating, reddish 
blotches ; base with alternating bands of yellowish brown and 
white. 



SOLARIUM. 15 

Var. AUSTRALTS, Hanley (tinfignrccl). 

Tawn}^ brown or reddish brown color, cither with spiral lines 
of a darker color or banded above with small, close, white spots 
and below with angnlated white spots ; base and apical whorl 
with spiral light and dark lines of color. 

S. CINGULUM, Kiener. PI. 5, figs. 63, 64. 

Umbilicus contracted, crenulations white, very strong ; whorls 
regularly, spirally striated, ribbed at the periphery, spirally 
sulcate and ribbed above and below the periphery and near the 
umbilicus ; color white, upper part of the whorl yellowish-brown 
with rays of the same color descending to the periphery ; base 
slightly convex and of a pale-smoky color. Diam. 1 inch. 

Sandivich Is.; Fiji Is.; Philippines. 

This species is easily distinguished by the scalloped white band 
above the periphery. The shell differs from S. hybridum in the 
coloring and in the less convex base, but is probably only a 
variety of that species. 

S. OXYTROPIS, A. Ad. PI. 5, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell depressed, umbilicus wide; whorls smooth, plane, ribbed 
at the periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed above the periphery 
and near the umbilicus; color white, glassy, ornamented with 
yellowish brown ; base convex. Diam. 13 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

The type of this species which has been considered by Hanley 
to be a young specimen of S. hybridum, differs from that form 
in being quite depressed, in the widely open umbilicus, and in 
the absence of a rib below the periphery. 

S. PSEUDOPERSPECTIVUM, Brocchi. PI. 5, figs. 67, 68. 

Shell very depressed ; umbilicus rather narrow ; whorls planu- 
lute above, having three nearly obsolete moniliform raised bands, 
ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed near the 
umbilicus ; base slightly concave near the periphery, convex in 
the middle. Diam. 1*4 inches. 

Mediterranean, Naples. 

S. perspectivifprme, Tiber! ; and S. discus, Phil., are synonyms. 

S. MEDITERRANEUM, Monts. PI. 5, figs. 69, '70. 

Whorls 4-5, smooth, rapidly increasing, ribbed at the periph- 
ery, spirally sulcate and ribbed above the periphery and near the 



I ; FLIXINA TORINIA. 

umbilicus; color fulvous; base with numerous concentric im- 
t'd lines; aperture subpyriform. Diam. 1 inch. 

Mediterranean. 

S. pseudoperspectivum of authors (not Brocchi), is a synonym, 
to which may be added S. sulcatum, 0. G. Costa, 1841 (not of 
Lamarck, 1822), and S. pulchellum, Tiberi, 1868 (not of Michc- 
lotti, 1841). 

S. LUTEUM, Lam. PI. 5, fig. 71, 72. 

Umbilical cren illations white; whorls few, somewhat rounded, 
ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed below the 
periphery ; color yellowish with bands of very fine brown dots 
below the suture, and on the ribs about the periphery ; base 
slightly convex, spirally striated ; aperture subrotund. 

Diam. 7*5 mill. 

Australia. 
S. ONULUS, Weinkauff. PL 5, fig. 73, 74. 

Shell conical; umbilical crenulations white; whorls few, 
rounded, ribbed at the periphery, spirally sulcate and ribbed below 
the periphery; color brownish-yellow, the ribs at the periphery 
obscurely spotted with white; aperture subrotund. Diam. 13 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

S. hybridum, Monts. and Petit (not Linn.), is a S3 r nonym. 

This species, which many authors include in the synonymy of 
the preceding, differs from it in being more elevated, in the 
darker color, in the absence' of the band below the suture and 
in the obscure banding of the ribs about the periphery. 

Genus FLUX1XA, Dall, 18M>. 
F. Bin NNKA, Dall (unfigured). West Indies. 

SUBFAMILY TOEINIINJ:. 
Genus TORINIA, Gray, 1840. 
Subgenus TORINIA (restricted). 
T. VARIECSATA, Gmeliu. PL 5, figs. 75-70; PL 1, figs. 14-1G. 

Shell depressed or conicnlly elevated ; whorls longitudinally 
striated, spirally siik-iite and ten-ribbed, that on the periphery 
and the one below it being the strongest; color radiating, alter- 




TORINIA. 17 

nate, stripes of white and brown; margin of umbilicus crenu- 
lated, umbilical wall with a crenulated, medial rib. 

Diam. 10-17 mill. 

Red Sea; Indian 0.; Pacific 0. 

T. gyra, Meusch. ; T. areola, Gmel. ; T. perspectiviuncula, 
Dillwyn, and T. tesselata, Desh., are synonyms. 

Yar. DEPRESSA, Phil. PL 5, figs. 78, 79. 

Shell very depressed ; color white with radiating brown 
streaks, interrupted -white bands on the strong ribs about the 
periphery, umbilical crenulations and surrounding portion of 
the base white. 

Yar. PLANULATA, Hanley. PL 5, fig. 77. 

Shell very depressed ; color brownish, with interrupted white 
bands above the suture and on the two strong ribs about the 
periphery. 

In the American Journal of Conchology (vol. v, p. 81, 1869), 
W. H. Pease states that the operculum of T. variegata from the 
West Coast of America, differs widely from that of the same 
species from Hawaii and the East Indies. He thus describes it : 
" It is composed of plates disposed in the shape of a screw, of 
three whorls. The plates are wide apart, and furnished on their 
edo-es with short, stout bristles and the sides reticulated with 

O 

raised striae" (PL 1, fig. 14-16). 1 have examined specimens of 
the West Coast species, kindly loaned by Dr. Robert E. C. 
Stearns, of the United States National Museum, and am unable 
to verify Mr. Pease's statement, the opercula being normal. 

T. DORSUOSA, Hinds. PL 5, figs. 80, 81. 

Shell depressed ; whorls longitudinally striated, spirally sul- 
cate and ten-ribbed, the rib on the periphery and that below it 
being strongest ; color reddish brown, confusedly blotched with 
white, the two stout ribs about the periphery with interrupted 
white bands ; umbilicus moderate, crenulated, umbilical wall 
with a spiral medial rib. Diam. 13 mill. 

Pacific Islands. 
T. CYLTNDRICA, Gmelin. PL 5, fig. 82. 

Shell conic, elevated ; whorls longitudinally striated, spirally 
sulcate and ten-ribbed, the three ribs about the periphery being 
strongest; color chestnut-brown, sparingly mottled with white 
2 



18 TORINIA. 

at the periphery and above the suture ; margin of umbilicus 
slightly crenulated, umbilical wall with three spiral ribs. 

Alt. 13-18 mill. 

West Indies. 

T. Heberti, Desh. ; T. cyclostoma, Hanley ; T. cylindracea, 
Dillwyn, are synonyms. 

T. CYCLOSTO.MA, Menke. PI. 5. fig. 83, 84. 

Sculpture as in T. cijlindrica ; color greenish black, with 
interrupted white bands above the suture and on the periphery ; 
umbilical wall with two or three spiral ribs. Alt. 13 mill. 

West Indies. 

T. dZthiops, Hanley, is a synonym. 

This species differs from the preceding in coloring, but is 
perhaps only entitled to varietal rank. 

T. J^THIOPS, Menke. PL 5, figs. 85, 8G. 

Shell globose, conic ; whorls longitudinally sulcate, spirally 
sulcate and ribbed, the three superior ribs the smallest ; color 
greenish black with interrupted white bands above the suture, 
on the periphery and on the rib below it, and a brownish white 
band in the aperture ; umbilical wall with two spiral ribs. 

Alt. 10 mill. 

West Indies. 

Easily known by the globose shape, the banding, the two 
ribs on the umbilical wall and the whitish band in the aperture. 

T. NUBILA, Menke. PI. 5, fig 86 a. 

Shell globose-conic; whorls eleven-ribbed, sulci punctate, 
color whitish, the middle of the whorls with smoky brown spots ; 
umbilicus moderate, umbilical wall with three or four spiral ribs. 

Alt. 10 mill. 

West Indies. 
T. TROCIIOIDEA, Desh. PL 5, figs. 87, 88. 

Shell conic; whorls longitudinally striated, spirally sulcate 
and ten-ribbed, rib at the periphery elevated, very strong, gran- 
ular ; color grayish white ; margin of umbilicus crenulated, 
umbilical wall with two spiral ribs. Alt. 20 mill. 

Manilla; Society Islands. 
T. dealbala, Hinds, is a synonym. 



TORINIA. 19 

T. MIGHELSI, Phil. PI. 6, figs. 89, 90. 

Shell convex; whorls 4-5, longitudinally striated, obsoletely 
spirally sulcate and ribbed, periphery strongly suleate, suture 
profound ; color grayish ash throughout ; umbilicus rather open, 
its margin slightly crenulated, umbilical wall with or without 
spiral ribs. Diana. 8-12 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

It is T. cyclostoma, Migh. (not Menke). 

T. DILECTA, Desh. PI. 6, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell discoidal, slightly convex; whorls 6, longitudinally 
striated, spirally sulcate and ribbed, granular, periphery strongly 
ribbed, suture distinctly channeled; color tawny; umbilicus 
very wide, with a crenulated rib at the border. 

Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 
T. STRAMINEA, Gmel. PL 6, figs. 93-96. 

Shell convex; whorls longitudinally striated, spirally sulcate 
and ribbed, ribs broad and flat, suture profound ; color uniform 
3'ellowish brown ; umbilicus wide, ribbed at the border, rib 
crenulated, umbilical wall with or without spiral ribs. 

Diam. 1 inch. 

Tranquebar; Philippines; New Guinea. 

T.fulva, Hinds, is a synonym. 

Yar. SICULA, Cantr. PI. 6, figs. 95, 96. 

The older authors g#ve the East Coast of Africa as the habitat 
of S. stramineum, but afterwards a smaller shell agreeing with 
this species in sculpture and color, and differing only in size, 
was found in the Mediterranean and identified by Philippi 
(Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 173) as the same shell. Cantraine con- 
sidering the difference in size and the widely separated habitats 
has made the Mediterranean shell a distinct species, and named 
it T. sicula. At the best Cantraine's species is but a variety, of 
which T. fallaciosa, Tiberi, is a synonym. 

T. INFUNDIBULIFORME, Gmelin. PL 6, figs. 97-99. 

Shell depressed, convex; whorls rounded, descending slowly, 
channeled at the suture, longitudinally sulcate, spirally sulcate 
and ribbed, ribs granular ; color uniform brownish ; umbilicus 



TORTNTA. 

very wide, deeply channeled, umbilical wall spirally ribbed ; 
aperture round, nearly continuous, interior with alternating 
bands of light and dark brown. Diam. 20 mill. 

Philippines; Lord Hood /#/., Sandwich Is. 
T. cylindracsa, Hanley (in part) ; T. Chemnitzii, Kien., are 
synonyms. T. crenella, Linn., is possibly the same, but the 
description is too vague. 

Var. STRIGATA, Hanley. PI. 6, fig. 99. 

Periphery and the rib below it ornamented with white and 
smoky-brown spots. 

T. FENESTRATA, Hinds. PI. 6, figS. 100, 1. 

Shell depressed, slightly convex; whorls granular, longitudi- 
nally striated, spirally sulcate and ribbed, the three ribs about 
the periphery being strongest, suture channeled ; base rounded, 
granular; umbilicus wide, margin many crenulated, umbilical 
wall with fine spiral ribs; aperture round, nearly continuous. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

New Guinea. 

Hinds states that the type of this species was a dead shell, 
without color and, evidently, had been lying in the mud for 
some time. He thinks that perhaps the cancellation is somewhat 
more distinct than may be looked for in living specimens. 

T. VIRGATA, Hinds. PI. 6. figs. 2, 3. 

Shell discoidal ; whorls granose, flat on top, rounded below, 
narrowly channeled at the suture, longitudinally striated, spirally 
sulcate and ribbed, the rib on the periphery and that below it 
being strongest; color pale-fulvous, with chocolate-red bands 
above and below the suture, on and below the periphery and 
near the umbilicus ; umbilicus moderate, with white crenulations, 
umbilical wall of a chocolate-red color, not ribbed ; aperture 
slightly angular. Diam. 6 mill. 

New Guinea. 
T. CJELATA, Hinds. PI. 6, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell discoidal; whorls spirally sulcate and tubercular near 
the suture, radiately striated in the middle, periphery broad, 
with two tubercular ribs ; color fuscous, shining ; base rounded 



TORINIA. 21 

radiately striated, spirally sulcate ; umbilicus wide, margin 
numerously crenulated, umbilical wall with a spiral rib. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Straits of Macassar. 

Easily known by the flatness of the shell and the two very 
prominent ribs about the periphery. Hanley's figure of this 
species in Thes. Conch, is a very poor representation. 

T. DISCOIDEA, Pease. PI. 6, fig. 6. 

Shell very depressed ; whorls finely granulated, slightly chan- 
neled at the suture, spirally sulcate and ribbed, the two ribs of 
the periphery being very strong; color white, clouded with very 
faint chocolate; base rounded, umbilicus lightly crenulated, 
channeled, umbilical wall with two spiral ribs. Diam. 63 mill. 

Paumotus. 
T. ASPERA, Hinds. PI. 6, figs. T, 8. 

Shell discoidal, slightly conical; whorls rough, tubercular, 
radiately striated, spirally sulcate, strongly ribbed on the per- 
iphery; base rounded, umbilicus very wide, its margin numer- 
ously crenulated. Diam. 94 mill. 

Straits of Macassar. 

The type of this species was a dead shell and consequently 
without color. 

T. ARCHITJE, Costa. PI. 6, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

'Shell discoidal; whorls flat above, rounded below, channeled 
at the suture, longitudinally and spirally sulcate, crenulated ; 
color yellowish white; umbilicus very wide, margin finely crenu- 
lated. Diam. 7'5 mill. 

Mediterranean. 
T. SOWERBYI, Hanley. PL 6, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell nearly discoidal ; whorls channeled at the suture, with 
four granose cingulae, the upper three of which are equal and the 
fourth greater, last whorl with 13-14 cingulae, periphery sloping 
off, not biangulate ; color yellowish white, clouded or varu gated ; 
umbilicus moderate, its margins crenulated. Diam. 6 mill. 

Mediterranean, Tunis. 

This species is distinguished from the preceding by the much 
more narrow umbilicus. 



22 TORINIA. 

T. BISULCATA, d'Orb. PL 6, figs. 14-16. 

Shell depressed, conic ; whorls 5, longitudinally striated, spir- 
ally snlcate and five-ribbed above, periphery two-ribbed, base 
six-ribbed ; color dirty white ; umbilicus moderate, margin cren- 
ulated, umbilical wall without ribs. Diam. 10 mill. 

Went Indies. 

Hanley'a figure of this species in Thes. Conch, is very poor. 

T. DELPHI NULOIDES, d'Orb. PL 6, figs. 17-19. 

Shell depressed, conic ; whorls 4-ribbed, body-whorl 12-ribbed ; 
color uniform whitish ; umbilicus broad, margin slightly cren- 
nlated, not channeled, costate ; aperture round. Diam. 7 '5 mill. 

West Indies. 

This and the preceding may be different stages of growth of 
the same species. 

T. NANA, Koch. PL 6, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell depressed, globular; whorls rounded, angular above, 
upper part of the whorl with four elevated ribs ; color white with 
radiating red blotches ; base smooth ; umbilicus moderate, cup- 
shaped, margin strongly crenulated, umbilical wall radiately 
striated, and having spiral, granular ribs ; aperture roundly 
quadrangular. Diam. 6 mill. 

Chili. 
T. EGENA, Gould. PL 6, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell globose; whorls rounded, channeled at the suture, spir- 
ally sulcate near the umbilicus, last whorl 5-ribbed, the two 
nearest the suture being granular; color nearly white; base 
convex; umbilicus wide, margin strong^ crenulated; aperture 
subcircular. Diam. 7 '5 mill. 

New Zealand. 

This and the preceding species present such an intermixture 
of the characters of Torinia and Solarium that I am in doubt as 
to which genus they should be referred. 

T. BOREALTS, YerrilLand Smith. PL 6, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell depressed ; whorls 4, crossed by numerous, (lexuou-;, low 
ribs, with shorter ribs interpolated near the periphery, periphery 
strongly ribbed, body-whorl flattened just above tin; periphery 
and having about 6 small spiral ribs which are separated by 



TORINIA. 23 

impressed spiral lines ; color yellowish brown ; base slightly coTP 
vex, having numerous fine spiral lines near the periphery, also 
covered with low ribs radiating from the umbilicus, near which 

they are nodulous. Diam. 12 mill. 

Coast of New England. 
T. ROSULENTA, Watson. PL 6, fig. 34. 

Umbilicus very wide ; whorls 5, shouldered with three or four 
elevated spiral threads, last whorl with numerous spiral threads, 
the upper four of which are very strong; color ruddj^-yellow 
with bright crimson spots ; umbilical wall with numerous spiral 
threads ; aperture round. Diam. 6 mill. 

Port Jackson. 



Unfyured and Doubtful Species. 

T. RIISEI, Morch. West Indies. 

T. SULCIFERA, Pease. Polynesia. 

T. BICARINATA, Phil. China Sea. 

Probably not a member of this family. 

T. TRTCINCTA, Phil. > Guinea. 

T. IMPLEXA, Migh. Oahu. 

.Subgenus PSEUDOMALAXIS, Fisch., 1883. 
T. ZANCLEA, Phil. PL 6, figs. 20-28. 

Shell minute, planorbiform ; whorls quadrangular, periphery 
broad, with a rib above and another below; color fulvous, 
clouded with alternate light and dark ; umbilicus very wide ; 
aperture nearly square. Operculum as in typical Torinia. 
Diam. 3'5 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

Subgenus GYRISCUS, Tiberi, 1867. 
T. JEFFREYSIAXA, Tiberi. PL 6, figs. 20, 30 ; PL 1, fig. IT. 

Shell turbinate ; whorls 7, rounded, granular in spiral series, 
suture profound, last whorl slightly depressed at the base; color 
yellowish, passing into a pale reddish brown ; umbilicus moder- 
ate, deep; aperture subrotuncl, the margins united by a callous 
deposit, columellar lip sinuous, reflected, closing a part of the 
umbilicus. Diam. 8-9, alt. 10-11 mill. 

Mediterranean. 



24 TORINIA OMALAXIS. 

Subgenus EPISCYNTA, Morch, 1875. 
T. INORNATA, d'Orb. PL 6, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell convex ; whorls 5, smooth, glass}^ white, shining, roundly 
carinate at the periphery; base convex; umbilicus moderate, 
smooth ; aperture oval. Diam. 3 mill. 

St. Thomas, West Indies. 

The smoothness of the shell, its glassy appearance, its minute- 
ness and the simple umbilicus are perphaps enough to rule this 
subgenus out of the family. 

Genus OMALAXIS, Desh., 1830. 
0. PERNAMBUCENSIS, Watson. PL G, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell discoidal ; whorls about four, contiguous, except the last 
which is slight!}" dissolute, convex, obsoletely spirally threaded, 
longitudinally ribbed ; color white, glassy or porcellanous ; 
umbilicus very wide, exposing all the whorls ; aperture oval, lip 
not in contact with the whorl above. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Pernambuco. 
0. NOBILIS, Yerrill. PL 6, fig. 31. 

Shell planorbiform, upper surface nearly flat, base very con- 
cave ; whorls 5, nearly quadrangular, the two peripheral angles 
strongly granosely carinate, peripheral area spirally ribbed, sur- 
face of the shell with radiating, elevated growth-lines ; color 
pale chestnut, irregularly and indistinctly banded with whitish 
chestnut ; base spirally striated ; aperture trapezoidal with the 
outer corners angular and the inner corners rounded. Opercu- 
lum thin, horny, multispiral, slightly concave. Diam. 11 mill. 

Chesapeake Bay. 

Un figured Species. 
0. LIRATA, Yerrill. Newport, R. I. 




INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

SOLARIID^E. 



PAGE. 

(Torinia), Menke. Synopsis, p. 142, 1830, . . 18 
JEthiops (Torinia), Hanley. Thes. Conch., iii, f. 68-70, 

1866. = T. cyclostonia, Menke, 18 

Architse (Torinia), Costa. Atti dell' Acad. Scienze., iii, p. 

40, No. 15, 1830, . . ... 21 

Arcliitectoma, Gray. Zool. Proc., p. 151, 1847. 

= Architectonics, Bolt., ....... 1 

Architectonica, Bolt. Mus. 1798. = Solarium, Lara. . 5 
Areola (Torinia), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Ed., xiii, p. 3575. 

= T. variegata, Gmel., 17 

Aspera (Torinia), Hinds. Zool. Proc , p. 23, 1844, . .21 
Australia (Solarium perspectivum, var.), Ph. Zeitsch. fiir 

Malak, p. 168, 1848, 8 

Australis (Solarium hybridum, var.J, Hanley. Thes. Conch., 

iii, p. 236, 1866, ... ... 15 

Bairdii (Solarium), Hanle} 7 . Sowb. Thes. Conch., iii, p. 231, 

f. 48, 49, 1866, . . 13 

Bicarinatum (Solarium), Phil, in Kuster, ed. Chemn., p. 23, 

t. 3, f. 14, 1853, .23 

Bisulcata (Torinia), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 66, t. 19, 

f. 17-20, 185:*, . . 22 

Bifrontia, Desh. Coq. Foss. de Paris, ii, p. 221, 1824-37. 

= Omalnxis, Desh., ^32 7 

Boreale (Solarium \ Verrill and Smith. Conn. Trans., v, p. 

529, t 57, f. 29,30, 1882, 22 

Brunnea (Fluxina), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool , ix, p. 52, 

1882, 16 

Cfelata (Torinia), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 25, 1844, . . 20 
Calcar (Solarium;, Costa. Microd. Medit., p. 58, t. 11, f, 5, 

1861, ... 14 

Chemnitzii (Solarium), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 12, t. 4, f. 8. 

= Torinia infundibuliforme, Gmel. . . . . .20 

Cingulum (Solarium), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 6, t. 3, f. 6, 6 a, 15 
Climacopoma, Fisch. Manuel de Conch., p. 768, 1883, . 7 
Conica (Torinia), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 514, 1865. 

= T. Trochoides, Desh. 
Conulus (Solarium), Weink. Conch, des Mittelmeer., ii, p. 

261, 1868, 16 

(25) 



26 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAOB. 

Crenella (Torinia), Linn. Syst, Nat. Ed., xii, p. 628, . 20 

Cumingii (Solarium), Hanley. Zool. Proc., p. 204, 1862, . 13 
Cyclostoma (Torinia), Hanley. Tlies. Conch., iii, f. 66, 67, 

1866. = T. cylindrica, Ginel 18 

Cyclostoma (Torinia), Migh. Bost. Proc., ii, p. 22, 1845. 

= T. Mighelsi, Phil. . 19 

Cyclostoma (Torinia), Mcnke. Synopsis, p. 142, 1830, . 18 
Cylindracea (Torinia), Hanley (in part). Thes. Coi ch., 

iii, f. 99, 1866. = T. infundibuliforme, Gmel. . . 20 
Cylindracenin (Solarium), Dillw. Cat., ii, p. 767, 1815. 

= Torinia. cylindrica, G-mel. . . . . . .18 

Cylindrica (Torinia), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3572, v . . 17 

Dealbata (Torinia), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 24, 1844. 

= T. trochoides, Desh. . . ... . .18 

Delphinuloides (Torinia), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba., ii, p. 67, 

t. 19, f. 21-24, 1853 22 

Depressa (Torinia variegata, var.), Phil. Conch. Cab., t. 4, 

f. 10, 1853, . . 17 

Dilecta (Torinia), Desh. Conch, de Tlsle de Reunion, p. 68, 

t. 9, f. 3-6, 1863, 19 

Discoidea (Torinia), Pease. Amer. Journ. Concb.,iv,p. 102, 

t. 12, f. 18, 1868 21 

Discultis, Desh., 18C3. = Philippia, Gray, ... 5 

Discus (Solarium), Phil. Enum. Moll. Si'cil.,ii,p. 225, t. 28, 

f. 12, 1844. = S. pseudoperspectivurn, Brocchi, . . 15 
Dorsuosa (Torinia), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 23, l44, . .17 
Dunkeri (Solarium), Hanley. Zool. Proc., p. 204, 1862, . 9 

Eccyliomphalus, Portlock. Geol. Kept., p. 411, 1843, . 8 

Egenum (Solarium), Gld. Bost. Proc., iii, p. 84, 1849, . 22 

Episcynia, Morch. Mnl. Blatt., xxii, p. 155, 1875, . . 7 

Euomphalus, Sowb. Min. Conch., 1814, .... 8 

Fallaciosa (Torinia strarninea, var.),Tiberi. Bull. Mai. Ital., 

v, p. 35, 1872. = T. sicula, Cantr 19 

Fenestrata (Torinia), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 25, 1844, . 20 
Fluxina, Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 51, 1882, . 6 
Fonnosum (Solarium), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 22, 1844. 

= S. perspectiyum, Linn. ....... 8 

Fragile (Solarium), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 24, 1844. 

= S. pictum, Phil . 10 

Fuliginosum (Solarium), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 158, 1844, 13 
Fulva (Torinia), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 24, 1844. 

= T. straminca, Gincl. ....... 19 

Granulatum (Solarium), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., Edit. 

Desh., ix, p. 98, 1845 11 

Gyriscus, Tiberi. Journ. de Conch., p. 303, 1867, . - . 7 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 27 

PAGB. 

Gyrus (Troehus), Meusch. Gronov., p. 323, No. 1487. 

= Torinia variegata, Gmel. . . . . . .17 

Ilaiileyi (Solarium), Sowb. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 1866. 

= 8. fuliginosum, Hinds, . . . . . . .13 

Heberti (Torinia), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, p. 159, 1830. 

= T. cylindrica, Gmel., . . . . . .18 

Ileliacus, d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 68, 1853. 

= Torinia, Gray, 1^40, , 7 

Ilybridum (Solarium), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1228, 1767, . 14 
Hybridnm (Solarium), Petit (not Linn.). Journ. de Conch., 

iii, p. 176. = S. contilus, Weink., . . . . .16 
Hybridnm (Solarium), Monts. Notiz. Solar. Medit., p. 7,f. 

'10,11,1873. = S. conulus, Weink., . . . .16 
Implexa (Torinia), Migh. Bost. Proc., ii, p. 22, 1845, . 23 
Impressum (Solarium). G. and H. Nevill. Journ. Asiatic 

Soc. Bengal, p. KJ2, t. 17, f. 11, 1869, .... 14 
Incisum (Solarium). Phil. Zeitsch. f'iir Malak., p. 169, 1848. 

= S. perspectivum, Linn., ...... 8 

Inf'undibnlitbrme (Torinia), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Ed., xiii, p. 

3575, 1793 19 

Inornatum (Solarium), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 67, t. 

19, f. 25-27. 1853, 24 

Jeffreysianus (Gyriscus), Tiberi. Journ. de Conch., xv, p. 

303", 1867, .23 

Krebsii (Solarium), Morch. Mai. Blutt., xxii, p. 155, 1875, 14 
Laevigatum (Solarium), Lam. Anim. sansTert., Edit. Desh., 

ix, p. 98, 1845, 12 

Layardi (Philippia), Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 317, 1854. 

= Solarium hybrid um, Linn., ...... 14 

Lirata ( Omalaxis), Yefrill. Conn. Trans., v, p. 529, . . 24 
Luteum (Solarium), Ph. (not Lam.). Ennm, Moll. Sicil., i, 

p. 174, t. 10, f. 27, 1836. p= S. conulus, Weink. 
Luteum (Solarium), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., Edit. Desh., 

ix, p. 100, 1845, ... .... 16 

Maculatum (Solarium), Rve. Element. Conch., pi. 13, f. 62, 

1860. = S. ftiliginosum, Hinds 13 

Mnximum (Solarium;, Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. . p. 170, 

1848, . . 9 

Mediterranea (Torinia straminea, var.), Phil. Conch. Cab. 

Index, 1853. = T. sicula, Cantr -19 

Mediterraneum (Solarium), Monts. Notizie Foss. M. Pelle- 

grino e Ficarrazi, p. 31, 1872, ...... 15 

Mighelsi (Torinia), Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., p. 36, 1853, 19 
Modestum (Solarium), Phil. Zeit. fiir Malak., p, 171, 1848, 9 
Nana (Torinia), Koch. Zeitsch. fur Malak., 1851, . . 22 



28 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Nobile (Solarium), (Bolt.), Hanley. Thes. Conch., iii, p. 

280, f. 35, 1866. = S. verrucosum, Phil. ... 12 

Nobilis (Omalaxis), Yerrill. Conn. Trans., vi, p. 423, t. 44, 

f. 12, 1885, 24 

Nubila (Torinia), Mke. Dkr., Zcitsch. fiir Malac., p. 170, 

1848, 18 

Omalaxis, Desh. Enc Meth., p. 659, 1832, . ... 7 
Ophileta, Vanuxem. Pal. New York, i, p. 11, 1842, . . 7 
Oxytropis (Philippia), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., p. 317, 1854, 15 
Perdix (Solarium), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 22, 1844, . . 9 
Pernambucensis (Omalaxis), Watson. Challenger Exped., 

xv, p. 157, t. 8, f. 13, 1886, . .... 24 

Perspectiviforme (Solarium), Tiberi. Malac. Ital., v, p. 32, 

1872. = S. pseudoperspectivnm, Brocchi, . . .15 
Perspectiviunculus (Trochus), Dillvvyn. Cat., ii, p. 783, 

No. 59. = Torinia variegata, Gmel. . . . .17 
Perspectiviunculus (Trochus), Meusch. Gronov., p. 323, 

N. 1486. = Solarium hybridum, Linn. . . . .14 
Perspectivum (Solarium), Linn. Syst. Nat.,Ed.xii,p. 1227, 

1767, . 8 

Perspectivus (Trochus), Chemn. (in part). Conch, v, p. 121, 

t. 172, f. 1695, 1696, 1781. = Solarium granulatum, Lam. 12 
Philippia, Gray, 1840 ? Zool. Proc., p. 146, 1847, . . 5 
Pictum (Solarium), Phil. Zeit. fiir Malak., p. 171, 1848, . 10 
Placentula (Solarium), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 22, 1844, . 13 
Planulata (Torinia variegata, var.), IIanle3 T . Thes. Conch., 

iii, p. 238, f. 63, 1866, 17 

Platyschisma, McCoy. Carb. Foss. Ireland. 1844, . . 9 
Pseudomalaxis, Fisch. Man. de Conch , p. 767, 1883, . 7 
Pseudoperspectivum (Solarium), Weink. and authors (not 

Brocchi). = S. Mediterranean), M on ts 16 

Pseudoperspectivum (Solarium), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. 

Subapp., ii, p. 359, t. 5, f. 8, 1814, 15 

Pulchellum (Solarium), Tiberi. Journ. de Conch., xvi, p. 

179,1868. = S. Mediterranean, Monts. . . . 16 

Purpuratum (Solarium), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 25, 1844,'. 11 

Quadriceps (Solarium), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 23, 1844, . 10 

Reevei (Solarium), Hanley. Zool. Proc., p. 204, 1862, . 12 

Regium (Solarium), Hanley. Zool. Proc., p. 205, 18(>2, . 1 1 

Riisei (Torinia), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. 156, 1875, . 23 
Rosulentum (Solarium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvi, 

p. 610, 1883, . 23 

Schizostoma, Bronn. Leth. Geogn., i, 1835, ... 8 
Sicula (Torinia straminea, var.), Cantr. Bull. Acad. Brux., 

ix, p. 343, 1842, 19 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 29 

PAGE. 

Siculum (Solarium), Petit (not Cantr.). Cat. Test. Mar., 

p. 120, 1869. = S. con ul us, Weink. 
Solariorbis, Conrad. Amer. Jour. Conch., i, p. 30, 1865. 

= Solarium, Lam. ........ 5 

Solarium, Lam. Journ. Soc. Nat. Paris, 1799, ... 5 
Sowerbyi (Torinia), Ilanley. Zool. Proc., p. 206, 1862, . 21 
Stellatnm (Solarium), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 172, 

1848. = S. pnrpuratum, Hinds, . . . 11 

Straminea (Torinia), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3575, . . 19 

Strigata (Torinia infundibuliforme, var.), Hanley. Thes. 

Cone., iii, f. 94, 1866, .... ... 20 

Sulcatum (Solarium), 0. Costa (not Lamarck). Mem. Acad. 

Napoli, 1844. = S. Mediterraneum, Monts. . . .16 
Sulcatum (Solarium), 0. G. Costa, 1841, 

= S. Mediterraneum, Monts. 
Salcifera (Torinia), Pease. Amer. Journ. Conch., v, p. 79, 

1870, .23 

Taylori (Solarium), Hanley. Zool. Proc., p. 205, 1862. 

= S. maximum, Phil. ....... 10 

Teretropoma, Rochbrune. Bull. Soc. Philomat. Paris, 1881. 

= Torinia, Gray, 7 

Tessellata (Torinia), Desh. Enc. Meth., p. 160, 1830. 

= T. variegata, Gmel 17 

Torinia, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840; Zool. Proc., p. 151, 

1847, 6 

Tricarinatum (Solarium), Stearns. Bost. Proc., xv, p. 23, 

1873, . 14 

Tricincta (Torinia), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., 1851, . . 23 
Trochleare (Solarium), Hinds. Zool Proc., p. 25, 1844, 

= S. perspectivum, Linn 8 

Trochoidea (Torinia), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, p. 160, 1830, . 18 
Tryoni (Solarium), Marshall, ...... 10 

Undata (Philippta hybrida, var.), Hanle}'. Thes. Conch., 
iii, p. 236, f. 42, 43, 1866, . . ... 14 

Yalenciennesii (Architectonics), Morch. Mil. Bla-tt., vi, 

p. 122, 14 

Variegata (Torinia), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3575, ... 16 

Verrucosum (Solarium), Ph. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 172, 

1848, 12 

Yirgata (Torinia), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 24, 1844, . . 20 

Wroblewskyi (Solarium), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. 154, 
1875, . .14 

Zancleus (Omalaxis), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 28, f. 1 1 , 1844, 23 
Zonatum (Solarium), Ph. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p, 173, 1848. 
= S. perspectivum, Linn. ....... 8 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



SOLARIID^E. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAGB. 

1. Solarium perspectivum, Linn. Animal. Kien. Coq. 

Viv., t. 1, f. 1, . . . . . . . .5 

2. Solarium perspectivum, Linn. Animal. Archiv. fur 

Xaturg., t. 5, f. 1, 1861, 5 

3. Solarium perspectivum, Linn. Tentacles. Ibid.,t. 5, f. 2, 5 

4. Solarium perspectivum, Linn. Jaw. Ibid., t. 5, f. 3, 1 

5. 6, Solarium perspectivum, Linn. Dentition. Troschel. 

Gebiss der Sclmecken., ii, t. 15, f. 4, 1 

7. Philippia lutea, Lam. Jaw. Archiv. fiir Xaturg., t. 5, f. 

10, 1861, 1 

8. Philippia lutea, Lam. Teeth. Trosch. Gebiss der 

Schnecken., ii, t. 15, f. 5, . . . . . .1 

9. Philippia lutea, Lam. Opcrculum. Phil., Raster's, 

Conch. Cab., t. 4, f. 11, . . . . .5 

10. Torinia variegata, Gmel. Animal, Quoy, Voy. Astr., 

t. 62, f. 24, 6 

11, 12. Torinia cylindrica, Gmel. Dentition. Trosch. 

Gebiss der Schneck., ii, t. 15, f. 7, . . . 1 

13. Torinia dik-cta,Desh. Operculum. Conch. lie Reunion, 

t. 9, f. 6, 6 

14-16. Torinia variegata, Gmel. Operculum of West Co. 

America specimens, according to Pease, Amer. J.ourn. 

Conch., v, t. 8, f. 6, IT 

17. Gyriscus Jeffreysianus, Tibcri. Operculum. Journ.de 

* Conch., t. 5,'f. 1, 1868, 7 

PLATE 2. 

18, 19. Solarium perspectivum, Linn. Hanley,Thes. Conch., 

iii, f. 19, 20, . . ... 8 

20, 21. Solarium Var. Australis, Phil. Raster's Conch. 

Cab., t, 4, f. 8, 8 

22, 23. Solarium modestum, Phil. Hanlev, Thes. Conch., 

iii, f. 11,12, 9 

24, 25. Solarium pordix, Hinds. Yoy. Sulph., t. 14, f. 3, 4, 9 
26, 27. Solarium Dunkeri, llanley. Thes. Conch., iii, f. 29, 

30, .9 

28, 29. Solarium Tryoni, Marshall. From Type, . .10 
30. Solarium regium, llanley. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 16, 11 

(30) 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 31 

PLATE 3. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

31, 32. Solarium maximum, Phil. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 

iii, f. 5, 6, 9 

33, 34. Solarium Taylori, Hanley (= maximum). Ibid., f. 

31,32, 10 

35, 36. Solarium pictum, Phil. Ibid., f. 33, 34, . . . 10 

37, 38. Solarium verrucosum, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab ,t. 

2, f. 5, 6, . . .12 

PLATE 4.' 
39, 40. Solarium quadriceps, Hinds. Hanle}', Thes. Conch., 

iii, f. 25, 26, 10 

41,42. Solarium purpuratum, Hinds. Ibid., f. 7, 8, . .11 

43,44. Solarium Irevigatum, Lam. Kiener,Coq.Viv.,t.2,f.3, 12 

45, 46. Solarium Reevei, Hanley. Thes. Conch., iii, f. 9, 10, 12 

47, 48. Solarium lulio-inosum, Hinds. Ibid., f. 13, 14, . 13 

49, 50. Solarium Bairdii, Hanley. Ibid., f. 48, 49, . . 13 

51, 52. Solarium placentula, Hiiids. Ibid., f. 23, 24, . 13 
52a,&. Solarium impressum, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. 

Bengal, t. 17, f. 11, 11, a, 14 

PLATE 5. 
53, 54. Solarium ^ranulatum, Lam. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 

f. 1,2, . . . . . . .11 

55, 56. Solarium Hanleyi, Sowb. (= fuliginosum). Ibid., 

f. 15, 16, . 13 

57, 58. Solarium Cumingii, Hanley. Ibid., f. 44, 45, . . 13 
59, 60. Solarium hybridum, Linn. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 

iii, f. 40.41, 14 

61, 62. Solarium, var. undatum, Hanley. Ibid., f. 42, 43, . 14 

63. Solarium cingulum. Kien., base. Ibid., f. 56, . .15 

64. Solariumcingulum, Kien., spire. Rve., Conch. Icon., f.19, 15 

65. 66. Solarium oxytropis, A. Ad. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 

f. 46, 47, 15 

67, 68. Solarium pseudoperspectivum,Brocc. Ibid., f 83,84, 15 
69, 70. Solarium Mediterranean^ Monts. Solar. Medit., 

f. 8,9, ... .... 15 

71, 72. Solarium luteum, Lam. Hanlev, Thes. Conch., iii, 

f. 53,54, \ . . . .16 

73, 74. Solarium conulus, Weink. Erom specimen, . . 16 
75, 76. Torinia variegata, Gmel. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 

f. 61,62, : . . . .16 

77. Torinia, var. planulata, Hanley. Ibid., f. 63, . . 17 

78, 79. Torinia, var. depressa, Phil. Raster's Conch. Cab., 

t. 4, f. 10, 17 

80, 81. Torinia dorsuosa, Hinds. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 

iii,f. 73,74, 17 



32 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

82. Torinia cylindrica, Gmel. Phil., Kiister's Conch. Cab., 

t. 4,f/4, 17 

83, 84. Torinia cyclostoma, Menke. Ibid., t. 4, f. 3, . 18 
85, 86. Torinia ^Ethiops, Menke. Ibid., t. 4, f. 1, . . 18 
86 a. Torinia nubilum, Menke. Ibid., t 4, f. 2, . . 18 
87, 88. Torinia trochoidea, Desh. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 

iii,f. 89,90, 18 

PLATE 6. 
89, 90. Torinia Mighelsi, Phil. Hanley, Thes. Conch., iii, 

f. 87,88, . . .19 

91, 92. Torinia dilecta, Desh. Moll. He Reunion, t. 9, f. 3, 19 
93, 94. Torinia stramiuea, Gmel. Hanley, Thes. Conch., 

f. 95, 97, 19 

95, 96. Torinia straminea, var. Sicnla,Cantr. Phil., Kiister's 

Conch. Cab., t. 4, f. 14, 19 

97, 98. Torinia inf'undibulifbrmis, Gmel. Hanley, Thes. 

Conch., f. 92,93, 19 

99. Torinia infundibulitbrmis, var. strigata, Hanlej 7 . Ibid., 

f. 94, 20 

100-1. Torinia fenestrata, Hinds. Ibid., f. 79, 80, . . 20 
2, 3. Torinia virgata, Hinds. Ibid., f. 85, 86, . . .20 
4, 5, Torinia cnelata, Hinds. Voy. Sulph., t. 14, f. 11, 12, 20 

6. Torinia discoidea, Pse. Amer. Jouru. Conch., iv, t. 12, 

f. 18, 21 

7, 8. Torinia aspera, Hinds. Yoy. Sulph., t. 14, f. 9, 10, 21 
9, 10, 11. Torinia Architse, Costa. Monts. Notiz. Sol. 

Medit., f. 21-23, 21 

12, 13. Torinia Sowerbii, Hanley. Thes. Conch., iii, f. 81,82, 21 
14-16. Torinia bisulcata, d'Orb! Moll. Cuba, t. 19, f. 17-19, 22 
17-19. Torinia delphinuloides, d'Orb Ibid.,t, 19, f. 21-23, 22 
20, 21. Torinia nana, Koch. Phil., Kiister's Conch. Cab., 

t. 4, f. 5, 22 

22,23. Torinia egena, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' U. S. Exp. 

Exped., f. 226, ... .22 

24, 25. Torinia boreale, Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 

57, f. 29, 30 22 

26-28. Torinia Zanclea, Phil. Hanley, Thes. Conch., iii, f. 

101-103, 23 

29, 30. Gyriscus Jeffreysianus, Tiberi. Journ. de Conch., 

1868, t. 5,f. 1, , 23 

31. Omalaxis nobilis, Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, t. 

44, f. 12 24 

32,33. Episcyniainornata,d'0rb. Moll. Cuba, 1. 19, f. 25, 26, 24 
34. Torinia rosulentum, Watson. Challenger Exp., xv, t. 

8, f. 126, 23 

35,36. Omalaxis Pernambucensis, Watson. Ibid., xv, t. 8, 

f. 136, c, 24 






! 



FAMILY IANTHINIDJE. 

Shell thin, fragile, turbinated; whitish or purplish; aperture 
oval or subtetragonal, the columella a little twisted, lip simple, 
curved. No operculura. 

Animal pelagic, sustained by a vesicular body called the float, 
and to which the eggs are attached. The float is composed of 
a mass of vesicles filled with air, the walls resisting, subcartila- 
ginous, supported by a narrow peduncle, formed by and adhering 
to the foot. Sexes separate, no copulatory organ. Rostrum 
proboscidiform ; no jaws ; radula composed of a great number 
of elongated teeth, no central tooth. Carnivorous. Secretes a 
purple fluid, which is ejected from the branchial cavity, when 
irritated. 

Genus IANTHINA, Lam., 1799. 

Head large, muzzle-shaped, eyes not visible or sessile, tentacles 
forked so that each appears like a pair, foot rather short, the 
epipodial lobe somewhat elongated and ciliated, branchial 
plumes two, unequal. 

The float is found in both sexes, and whilst in the female the 
eggs are usually attached to the lower surface thereof, the 
animal in some species is viviparous ; embryos taken from 
the uterus are operculated, the head has a ciliated velum, the 
C3 r es are large and well pigmented. 

Shell imperforate, without epidermis, fragile, trochiform or 
turbiniform, nucleus small, styliform, oblique, spire light pur- 
plish white, base deeper purple ; whorls few, convex, with stride 
of growth, angular or gathered at the periphery ; outer lip with 
a sinus in the middle, columella thin, twisted. 

About 30 nominal species have been described, from the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans ; I reduce them to three species, 
with a few varieties. 

A species is found in the Pliocene of Italy. 

Reeve monographed lanthina in 1858, including 25 species, a 
portion of which he first described, and Morch, in the Journal 
3 , (33) 



34 

de Conchyliologie, 261, I860, gave a more scientific synopsis of 
the species, increasing their number to 31 ; finally, Sowerby 
(Thesaurus Concli3<liorum, v, 1882) reduced them to 11. 

The following sections of Morch have very slight value. I 
include the first and second in a single species, whilst the other 
three ma}' divide two species between them. 
Section IODES (Leach), Gray, 1847. 

Solid, depressed conical, last whorl obtusely cariuate. Vivi- 
parous. I. BRITANNICA, Leach. 
Section ACHATES (Gistel), Morch, 1860. 

Shell thin, acutely carinated. Oviparous, marsupial. Proboscis 
inflated. I. FRAGILIS, Lam. 
Section IANTHINA (Bolten, 1798)., Morch, 1860. 

Globose, with deep suture, columella produced, aperture 
sinuated below. Oviparous, marsupial, proboscis cylindrical, 
branchia protruding. I. NITENS, Menke. 
Section AMETHISTINA (Schinz, 1825), Morch, 1860. 

Like the last, but aperture rounded below. I. PALLIDA, 
Harvey. 
Section IODINA, Morch, 1860. 

Costulate, lip incised. Oviparous, marsupial. I. EXiGUA,Lam. 

The lanthinse, or Purple Snails, are gregarious and very 
abundant on the surface of the ocean where the water is deep 
and similar in color to themselves. They live on Velellae, Por- 
pitae, Physalii-e and other soft animals, usually of similar violet 
coloring; finally a bluish crustacean dwells on their float. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Coates they sometimes eat their own species. 
The float is readily, even spontaneously detached, and is often 
encountered in numbers, apart from the animal. If its vesicles 
are punctured the air escapes and the animal falls to the bottom, 
from which it appears unable to ascend, and is supposed to 
perish. The stem of the float is attached to the posterior part 
of the foot ; the anterior part of the foot becomes tubular by the 
turning over of its margins, and when protruded from the water, 
encloses a bubble of air, which, being enveloped in a mucous 
secretion, is added to the anterior portion of the float. There 
has been much written upon the homologies of this raft ; the 
accepted opinion compares it with the byssus of lamcllibranchs. 



IANTHINID.E. 35 

M. Lucaze-Duthiers made interesting observations upon the 
secretion of the float by lanthinse in captivity (Ann. Sci. Nat., 
iv, 329, 1865 ; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xvii, 278, 1866); Mr. Arthur 
Adams has also given notes on the habits of these animals (Ann. 
Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., x, 417). Dr. Ruschenberger, in his Voyage 
around the World, p. 21, remarks that when captured, the 
lanthina emits about a teaspoonful of violet liquid, and he 
supposes that this copious discharge, like the ink of the cuttle- 
fish, serves to facilitate the escape of the mollusk from its 
enemies. 

Genus RECLUZIA, Petit, 1853. 

Shell paludiniform, thin, white under a brown epidermis; whorls 
ventricose ; aperture obliquely ovate, slightly effused at the base, 
peristome not continuous, the outer lip acute, entire, columella 
oblique, somewhat sinuous. No operculum. 

Animal like lanthina, provided with a vesicular float. 

The species inhabit the Arabian Gulf and Pacific Ocean. 

Genus SCALITES, Conrad, 1842. 

Shell turriculated, whorls flattened above, carinated at the 
shoulder, and convex below; outer lip sinuous; umbilicus none 
or very small. S. ANGULATUS, Conr. Silurian. United States. 
(Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 67, f. 51.) 

The systematic position given this fossil as well as its sub- 
genera, is mere guess-work. 

Subgenus RAPHISTOMA, Hall, 1847. 

Shell turbinated,more depressed, with carinated shoulder, and 
convex below, as in the typical group. S. STAMINEA, Hall 
(Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 67, f. 52). 

Subgenus HOLOPEA, Hall, 1847. 

This palaeozoic group is composed of incongruous elements ; 
its first species has been referred to Littorinidae, another evi- 
dently belongs to Naticidse, a third resembles lanthina. The 
species are mostly casts, and there appears to be no good reason 
for retaining the group. Cyclora, Hall, 1845, has been con- 
sidered synonymous. 



36 IANTHINA. 

Genus IANTHINA, Lam., 1799. 
I. FRAGILIS, Lam. PI. 9, figs. 94-5 ; PI. 10, figs. 6-10. 

Whorls slopingly convex, with obtusely angulated periphery, 

outer lip of aperture very slightly sinuous, violaceous white 

above, uniform purplish or violaceous below. Diam. T5 inches. 

Mediterranean, Atlantic 0., Indian 0., Pacific 0. 

This is probably Linnaeus' Helix lanthina. 

Reeve and others distinguish two species which they suppose 
Lamarck at first confounded under the name of I. fragilis; they 
restrict this name to the more acutely angulated forms (figs. 94, 
3, etc.), whilst /. communis, Lam. (fig. 99) the name by which 
he intended to replace his I. fragilis is reserved for those with 
obtuse periphery. I confess that I cannot divide them satisfac- 
torily ; consequently I include here as synonyms a series of 
intermediates, which have received the names of: 

/. Costae, Morch, proposed for /. bicolor, Costa (not Menke) ; 
/. vulgar is, Gray ; Helix lanthina, Forskal ; /. violacea, Adams ; 
/. penicephala, Peron ; /. violacea, Morch ; /. grandis, Brown ; 
/. striulata, Carp. = I. Carpenteri, Morch (fig. 3), and var. con- 
torta, Carp., from Mazatlan ; /. Orbignyi, Morch ; I. bicolor, 
Menke. 

Yar. PLANOSPIRATA, Ads. and Reeve. Figs. 94-98. 

Depressed, with slopingly convex whorls, obliquely plicately 
striated ; columella arched, somewhat dihitely reflected ; aper- 
ture transverse, a little sinuous on the middle of the outer lip. 

Diam. 1*4 inch. 

Atlantic Ocean, St. Helena, etc. 

May be nominally distinguished from I. fragilis by its more 
rounded periphery and more depressed spire, as well as by the 
light color of the base immediately around the columella; but 
apparently connects with it by intermediate stages. Among 
these, having the form of planospirata, but with usually uniform 
purple base, may be placed here as synonyms I. depressa, 
Reeve (fig. 97); /. cserulata, Reeve (fig. 9fi) ; /. casta, Reeve 
(fig. 95) ; I. balteata, Reeve (fig. 98) ; forms with more elevated 
spire, approaching /. fragilis are /. bicolor and /. fragilis, of 
Lesson. 



IANTHINA. 37 

Tar. BRITANNICA, Leach. Figs. 100-2, 5-9. 

Shell a little more elevated than in the type, whorls more ex- 
serted and more convex, darker colored, 

I. roiundata, Leach; /. grandis, Reeve (fig. 2); perhaps /. 
Smithiae, Reeve (fig. 1); /. affinis, Reeve (fig. 6); I. fibula, 
Reeve (fig. 5) ; /. roseola, Reeve (fig. 7) ; /. involuta, Reeve 
(fig. 8), peculiar growth the result of an injury; /. Africana, 
Reeve (fig. 9), are synonyms. 

Var. TROCHOIDEA, Reeve. Fig. 10. 

Spire much more elevated, the whorls flatter. 

Zanzibar, Mauritius. 

1. GLOBOSA, Swainson. PL 10, figs. 11-16. 

Thin, inflated, subglobose, spire short, somewhat immersed ; 
whorls rounded, outer lip a little sinuous in the middle, aperture 
produced into a short open channel at the base. Light viola- 
ceous, becoming a little darker towards the base. 

Diam. 1*5 inches. 

Mediterranean, Atlantic 0., Mazatlan, Mauritius, etc. 

The synonyms are /. prolongata and /. violacea, Blainv. ; 7. 
nitens, Menke (fig. 11); I. communis, Costa, Chenu, Scacchi ; 

2. elongata, Maravigna ; I. splendens, Monts., and var. minor, 
Monts. ; var. Atlantica, Morch ; /. decollata, Carp. (fig. 13) ; 
/. nana, Gray ; J. iricolor, Reeve (fig. 14). 

Yar. PALLIDA, Harvey. Figs. 15, 16. 

Lower part of aperture broadly rounded, instead of being 
produced and subchanneled. 

Europe. 

Although usually considered a distinct species, this is rather 
an occasional from of I. globosa than a variety. In a series 
from the West Indies before me the intermediate apertures 
make a connecting series. The synonyms are /. rosea, Anton ; 
/. patula, Phil. ; var. minor, Monts. (= /. l&ta, Monts.) ; I. 
striolata, Ads. and Reeve (fig. 16). 

I. EXIGUA, Lam. PI. 10, figs. 17-22. 

Conically turbinated, whorls a little flattened above, forming 
an obtuse peripheral angle, spire not sunken at the sutures, sur- 
face closely flexuously striate, corresponding with a deep per- 



38 IANTH1NA RECLUZIA. 

ipheral incision on the outer lip, aperture broadly produced 
below ; light violaceous, darker in the smaller specimens, light 
banded at the suture. Diam. *25-'75 inches. 

California, Sandwich Islands, Australia, Chili, 

Cuba, Madeira, Atlantic 0., M. of Bourbon. 
The S3 r nonyms are /. bifida, Nuttall (fig. 19); I. capreolata, 
Montrouzier (fig. 18); /. Vinsoni, Desh. (fig. 20); and ? /. umbili- 
cata, Orb.- (figs. 21, 22), the .latter a malformation. 

Un figured Species of lanthina. 

I. ALBA, Anton. Hab. unknown. 

I. MEGASTOMA, A. Ad. Indian Ocean. 

I. N1TIDA, A. Ad. 

I. INCISA, Phil. Senegal. 

The three latter are probably synonyms of /. exigua, Lam. 

Genus RECLUZIA, Petit, 1853. 
R. JOHNII, Chemn. PI. 10, fig. 24. 

Rather thin, shining, transparent, with fine, slightly undulated 
spiral striae, periphery obtusely angulated and grooved ; whitish, 
with very light bluish violaceous maculations. Length, 23 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 
We have no satisfactory account of this species. 

R. HARGRAVESII, Cox. PI. 10, fig. 23. 

Thin, olivaceous horn-color, very indistinctly banded, spirally 
obsoletely striated. Length, 38 mill. 

Port Stephens, N. S. Wales. 

Very probably identical with the preceding species. 

R. ROLLANDIANA, Recluz. PL 10, figs. 25-27. 

Rather thin, olivaceous brown, with irregular, subundulating 
spiral striae. Length, 23 mill. 

Mazatlan ? New Caledonia. 

E. Montr ouzieri, Souverb. (fig. 27), appears to be a synonym. 

Var. ANNAMITICA, Wattebled. Fig. 26. 

Shell more depressed and more inflated, rarely with darker 
bands ; peristome sinuous, columella twisted a little. 

Length, 25 mill. Annam. 










KEOLUZIA. 39 

' 

R. JEHENXEI, Petit. PI. 10, fig. 28. 

Subperforate, whorls rapidly enlarging and very convex, with 
deep suture, obsolete^ spirally striated, light olivaceous brown. 

Length, 19 mill. 

Arabian Gulf. 

Differs from the last species in being shorter and more convex, 
and from its variety mainly in the more regularly rounded 
aperture ; it is possibly the same species, however. 

R. GLOBOSA, E. A. Smith. PL 10, fig. 29. 

Thin, imperforate, whitish, strigate with light brown, with 
incremental striae, more distinct and scale-like at the suture, 
and slight, smooth, spiral sculpture. Length, 11/5 mill. 

Solomon Islands. 

Its pertinence to the genus is somewhat doubtful ; it was 
described from a specimen denuded of epidermis. 



Unfigured Species. 

R. TURRTTA, Busch. Hob. unknown. 

R. ERYTHR/EA, Jickeli. Red Sea. 

R. BENSONI, A. Ad. China Sea, off Formosa. 

R. APERTA, Jeffreys. = Torellia vestita, Jeffreys. 



FAMILY TRICHOTROPIDJE. 

Shell thin, turbinated, carinated, the ridges bearing epidermal 
fringes in fresh or living specimens, umbilicated ; aperture angu- 
lated or subchanneled below, lip sharp, columella obliquely 
truncated, operculum generally lamellar, with apical nucleus. 
(PL 10, fig. 38). 

Animal with a short, broad head ; tentacles somewhat distant, 
with eyes about their middle ; foot elongated ; siphon very 
short, but evident. 

Central tooth of the radula subquadrangnlnr, multicuspid, 
lateral large, transverse with finely crenulated margin, two 
marginal teeth on either side, curved, sharp, simple (2 ri'1'2). 

PI. 7, fig. 37. 

Genus TRICHOTROP1S, Brod. and Sowb., 1829. 

Characters those of the family. There are about 15 species, 
inhabiting Arctic seas. Fossil, in the English Crag. 

Trichophora, Desh., 1830, is a synonym. The name signifies 
" hairy keel." 

The following sections of Trichotropis have been proposed : 
they have little value : 

Section TRICHOTROPIS (sensu stricto). T. BICARINATA, Sowb. 
Section ARIADNA, Fischer, 1864. 

Shell without epidermal fringes. T. BOREALIS, Brod. and Sowb. 

Has the epidermal fringes in fresh specimens. 

Verena, Gray, 1857 (not H. and A. Adams, 1854), is a synonym. 
Section IPIIINOE, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

Shell widely umbilicated, aperture subtriangular. T. UNICARI- 
NATA, Sowb. 

The width of the umbilicus varies in the species, so that the 
group is unimportant in its characters. 

Subgenus ALORA, H. Adams, 1861. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, slightly umbilicated, thin ; spire elevated ; 
whorls convex, cancellated with elevated spiral ribs and longi- 

(40) 



TRICHOTROPID^. 41 

tudinal lamellae ; aperture oval, slightly produced in front, inner~ 
lip smooth, rounded, slightly reflexed in front, outer lip simple, 
acute. T. GOULDII, A. Ad., W. Coast Central Am. 

Subgenus GYROTROPSTS, Gabb, 1876. 

Shell thin, spire elevated, umbilicus wide, funnel-shaped, last 
whorl angulated above and below the periphery, and covered 
with very thin foliated longitudinal varices. T. SQUAMOSA, Gabb. 
Cretaceous, N. Carolina (PI. 7, fig. 39). 

? Genus SEPARATISTA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell subdiscoidal, with very short spire, the last whorl sepa- 
rated from its predecessors, forming a very large umbilicus; 
aperture slightly channeled at the base. This group, which I 
formerly included in Muricidse (see Manual, ii, p. 213), is doubt- 
fully referred to Trichotropidse by Dr. Fischer and others. 

Genus TORELLIA, Loven, in Jeffreys, 1867. 

Shell narrowly perforated, globular, covered by a pilose epi- 
dermis ; spire short, depressed; mouth rounded, with a hardly 
perceptible basal sinus; lip thin, curved; columella concave, 
subtruncated at the base. 

Differs from Trichotropis in being holostomate and subglobose. 

Trachyoma, Seguenza, is a synonym. T. VESTITA, Jeffreys. 

Arctic Seas. 

Genus SEGUENZIA, Jeffreys, 1876. 

Shell thin, turbinate or subtrochoid, translucent, the outer 
layer very slight, somewhat nacreous in fresh specimens, with 
spiral carinations ; aperture irregular, sinuous behind, columella 
twisted, base with a sinus. Operculum thin, oval, with sub- 
central nucleus, and with obsolete, numerous concentric lines 
(PI. 7, fig. 41). Radula (PI. 7, fig. 40). 

The position of this group of deep-sea minute shells is not well 
ascertained. The soft parts have not been described. Yerrill, 
who obtained the dentition, formed for the species a family, which 
he located near Chenopus ; Dr. Jeffreys places them near Solar- 
iidae and Dr. Watson in Trochidse (on account of the operculum 
and slight pearly layer of the shell). I place the group here, for 
the present. 



42 TRICHOTROPIS. 

Lseocochlis, Danker and Metzger, has been referred to Tri- 
chotropidae by Dr. von Martens. I shall include it in my 
monograph of the family Cerit.kiidae.- 

Trichotropis has been monographed by : 

Sowerby, Thes. Conchy 1., iii, 321. 12 species. 
Sowerb}', Conch. Icon., xix, 13 sp., 1874. 



Genus TRICHOTROPIS, Brod. et Sowb., 1829. 
T. BICARINATA, Brod. and Sowb. PI. 7, figs. 42, 43. 

Rather thin, whorls few, the last very large, encircled by two 
distant ciliated keels ; umbilicus rather large, with ciliated 
margin ; epidermis yellowish brown. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Japan, Alaska, Grinnell Land. 

T. Sowerby anus, Lesson, is a synonym, and T. tennis, E. A. 
Smith (fig. 43), is a monstrosity. 

Yar. ALT A, Dall. 

Whorls 4, with more elevated spire, aperture narrower and 
smaller, umbilical excavation much narrower and smaller ; solid 
and strong. 

Plover Bay, E. Siberia. 
Yar. srECTABiLis, Dall. 

Whorls 5, with elevated spire ; columella narrow, waved, not 
truncate, straight, not arched as in the two preceding forms, its 
outer edge strongly elevated ; umbilicus a mere groove ; whorls 
much flatter above and below, the last wide out of proportion to 
the spire, the second carina apparent on all the whorls ; aperture 
sharply pointed below, painted with sea-green within and on the 
columella. 

Near Plover Bay, E. Siberia. 

T. BOREALTS, Brod. and Sowb. PI. 7, figs. 44-48, 52, 59. 

Umbilicated ; whorls few, shouldered, and spirally keeled, the 
last with two to five strong keels, varying in development; 
covered with a yellowish brown epidermis, hairy on the ridges, 
aperture often pink within. Length, 1 inch. 

Northern Europe, Greenland to Massachusetts, 

Arctic America, Japan. 

There are a number of synonyms, partly in consequence of 
the great variation in the development of the keels, much 



TR1CHOTROPIS. 43 

affecting the contour and general appearance. I include here : 
T. Atlantica,Reck-, T. acuminata, Jeffreys ; T. contellata, Couth. 
(fig. 48); T. inermis, Hinds (fig. 52); Fusus Laskeyi, Macgill.; 
Fusus umbilicatus, Brown ; T. conica, Moll. (fig. 45); T. quadri- 
carinata, A. Ad. (fig. 44), from Japan ; T. inaignis, Midd., var. 
of Aurivillius (fig. 59). 

T. CLATHRATA, A. Ad. PL 7, fig. 51. 

Umbilicus narrow, whorls angular, carinated above, cancel- 
lated with slightly beaded spiral ribs and interstitial regular, 
small, longitudinal riblets ; epidermis thin, yellowish brown. 

New Zealand. 

T. inornata, Hutton, is a synonym. I have not seen this 
species, which so greatly resembles T. borealis, but is from an 
entirely different locality. The figure shows no trace of hairs 
on the epidermis. 

T. CANCELLATA, Hinds. PL 7, figs. 49, 50. 

Umbilicus small, whorls about T, well rounded, with elevated 
spire, with a number of spiral ribs, obsoletely cancellated here 
and there by distant longitudinal and less prominent ribs ; epi- 
dermis light brownish or grayish; aperture often pink. 

Length, 1-1*4 inches. 

Alaska to Vancouver's Inland. 

Appears to be peculiar to the west coast of North America, 
where it replaces T. borealis. Jeffreys considers it identical 
with that species, and as Arctic mollusca are exceedingly varia- 
ble, this may be so ; yet I find no conclusive evidence of it. T. 
flavida, Hinds (fig. 50), belongs here, 

T. CORONATA, Gould. PL 7, figs. 53, 54. 

Umbilicus rather wide and deep, acutely margined ; whorls 
about G, tabulate and carinate at the angle; epidermis ash- 
colored, fibrously produced at the angle. Length, 25 mill. 

Sts. of Semiauine, Arctic Ocean; Behring^s Sea. 

The first figure given above is supposed by Krause, who 
publishes it, to represent the species, but it does not appear to 
roe to agree with the description. Gould never figured it. I 
have added a figure given by Aurivillius, which is probably a 
better representation of it, and approaches T. unicarinata. 



44 TRICHOTROPIS. 

T. UNICARINATA, Brod. and Brod. PI. 7, fig. 56. 

Whorls tabulately shouldered, with a single beaded keel at 
the angle ; umbilicus wide, surrounded by a keel, rest of surface 
smooth ; pinkish, covered by a brown epidermis. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Japan. 
T. CEDO-NULLI, A. Ad. PL 7, fig, 55. 

Spire elevated, whorls rounded, umbilicus minute or imper- 
forate, cancellated by spiral beaded ribs and longitudinal riblets, 
columella truncate and a little turned back at the base, epidermis 
reddish brown. Length, 12 mill. 

Japan. 
T. FIMBRIATA, Jeffreys. PI. 7, fig. 57. 

Thin, semitransparent, imperforate ; whorls 4-5, with spiral 
ciliated riblets, of which there are 8-10 on the body-whorl; 
columella straight. Length, 2-5 mill. 

Atlantic (Porcupine Exped.). 

Evidently a very young shell. 

T. DENSISTRIATA, Jeff^s. PI. 7, fig. 58. 

Thin, semitransparent, imperforate ; whorls 3-4, rather tumid, 
with numerous spiral striae, which are covered by minute, close- 
set prickles, body-whorl with a shallow peripheral sulcus ; 
columella straight, truncate below. Length, 2 mill. 

Cape Verd I.; 11 92 fms. 

This, like the last, is a very young shell. 

T. KROYERI, Phil. PI. 8, figs. 61, 60, 62-64. 

Shell thick, widely umbilicated ; whorls 5, with distant spiral 
ribs ; umbilicus encircled by a rib ; epidermis yellowish brown. 
Length, 1/5 inches. 

Spitzbergen, Behring^s Strait. 

The synonyms are T. Kuzeri, Phil., and T. Ruzeri, Phil., of 
Reeve and Brazier respectively, both misprints ; T. ciliata, 
Kroyer; T. dolium, Petit; T. arctica, Midd. (figs. 62, 63). 
Aurivillius has figured an immense specimen of this species 
(fig. 60), and another, with a tubercle near the base of the 
columella (fig. 64), which he has distinguished as T. solida. 



TRICHOTROPIS SEPARATISTA. 45 

T. INSIGNIS, Middendorff. PL 8, fig. 88 ; ? PI. 7, fig. 59. 

Umbilicus small, shell thick, somewhat globose, with undu- 
lating crenulated spiral ribs, two of them usually more prominent, 
angulating the body-whorl, aperture margin often crenulated, 
epidermis light 3 T ellowish brown. Length, 18 mill. 

Behring's Straits. 

The second figure is referred to this species as a lengthened 
variety by Aurivillius ; it appears to me more like a variety 
of T. borealis. 

Un figured Species. 

T. MIGRANS, Dall. Near Havana, Cuba. 

Remarkable as the first species of the genus found in tropical 
waters. 

T. PUSILLA, Gould. (= Fossarus). 

T. PERAMABTLIS, Dall. Sitka. 

T. INFLATA, Friele. North Sea. 

T. ELLIPSOIDEA, Gould. Hong Kong Bay. 

T. d'OiiBiGNYANUM, Petit. (= Coralliophila, Manual, ii, 206). 
T. TRICARINATA, and T. GRACILENTA, Brazier. N. Australia. 

T. (ALORA) GOULDII, A. Ad. Panama. 

Genus SEPARATISTA, Gray, 1847. 
S. BLAINVILLEANA, Petit. PL 8, fig. 69. 

Widely umbilicated, membranaceous, pellucid, under a roseate 
corneous epidermis ; whorls 6, rapidly increasing, broadly tabu- 
late, periphery with two spiral distant ribs on the spire, and 
three on the body-whorl ; aperture transverse, a little channeled 
below. Diam. 10 mill. 

? Marianne Is. 
S. CHEMNITZIT, A. Ad. PL 8, fig. 70. 

Spire more depressed than the preceding species, with fewer 
whorls, which are convex, the three peripheral keels closer and 
not so prominent as in the last species. Diam. 18 mill. 

Philippines. 
S. GRAYI, A. Ad. 

Spire depressed; whorls with five keels ; aperture transversely 
oblong; inner lip reflexed, anteriorly rounded. TJnfigured. 

Cape of Good Hope. 



46 TORELLIA SEGUENZTA. 

Genus TORELLIA, Love'n, 1867. 
T. VESTITA, Jeffreys. PL 8, fig. 66. 

Narrowly umbilicated, subglobose, rather thin, semitrans- 
parent, chalky white, under a pale yellowish brown, velvety 
epidermis ; whorls 5-6, tumid, rapidly enlarging, with numerous 
fine spiral and less conspicuous longitudinal stria? ; aperture 
nearly entire, round. Diam. 15 mill. 

Norway, Shetland, Martha's Vineyard, etc. 

First described by Jeffreys as Eeclazia aperta. 

T. DELICATA, Phil. PI. 8, fig. 67. 

Narrowly umbilicated, very thin ; whorls 6, well-rounded, with 
deep suture, very finely reticulated by longitudinal and spiral 
striae. 

Messina, Sicily. 
T. FIMBRIATA, Yerrill and Smith. PI. 8, fig. 68. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, fragile, suture deep ; whorls 5, 
very convex, rapidly enlarging, with spiral, hairy carinaa, about 
ten of them on the last whorl, the interspaces finely, nodulously 
reticulated by growth and spiral lines ; colurnella callously 
thickened below. Diam. 17 mill. 

Off Martha's -Vineyard, Mass. 
Yar. TIARELLA, Yerrill. 

Subsutural carina well developed and hairy, the other carinae 
nearly obsolete. 

Genus SEGUENZIA, Jeffreys, 1876. 
S. MONOCINGULATA, Seguenza. PI. 8, figs. 71-73. 

Imperforate; whorls with revolving ribs, of which the lat has 
about four distant prominent ones, besides minor stiias on the 
base; white. Length, 6 mill. 

N. Atlantic, New England, Bay of Biscay, 

S, W. of Bermudas, Gulf of Mexico. 
S.formosa, Jeffreys, is a synonym. 

Yar. LINEATA, Watson. Figs. 72, 73. 
Same localities as the type. 







SEGUENZIA. 47 

Yar. NITIDA, Yerrill. 

Thinner, more translucent, with less acute spire, and more 
delicate sculpture, the spiral lines on the base more numerous 
and closer. 

S. ERITIMA, Yerrill. PI. 8, fig. 74. 

Sculpture more delicate, carinae less acute, riblets finer and 

closer, basal lines finer and more numerous than in the pre- 

ceding species ; it is also narrowly umbilicated. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Off New England, 1290, 1467 and 2033 fins. 

S. ELEGANS, Jeffreys. PL 8, fig. 75. 

Umbilicated, shorter, more globose than S. eritima, lip fissure 
close to the suture, columella produced below, aperture broadly 
truncately sinuous on the base. Length, 3 mill. 

Bay of Biscay. 
S. TRICARTNATA, Jeffreys. PI. 8, fig. 76. 

Umbilicus narrow, slightly keel-margined; depressed-globose, 
convexly shouldered above, then three-keeled ; lip fissure wide 
and shallo/w, aperture narrowly produced at the base ; white. 

Length) 2 mill. 

Off Cape Verd Is.; 1192 fms. 

Not adult. 

S. IONICA, Watson. PI. 8, figs. 77, 78. 

Umbilicated, depressed trochiform, with two strong spiral 
ridges and a number of basal striae most distinct around the 

O 

outer margin, and surrounding the umbilicus. Diarn. 6 mill. 

W. of Azores ; West Indies. 

S. TRISPINOSA, Watson. PL 8, figs. 79, 80. 

Umbilicated, elevated trochiform, suture deep, with three 
rather close tubercular spiral ridges, base with numerous spiral 
striae, the outer one much more distinct. Diam. 3'75 mill. 

Pernambuco. 
S CARINATA, Jeffreys. PL 8, figs. 81-83. 

Umbilicated, rather smooth, with a single peripheral carina, 
showing at the base of the spire-whorls, base nearly smooth. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

N. Atlantic *Bay of Biscay, Canaries, Azores, Pernambuco. 



48 SEGUENZIA. 

S. RETICULATA, Phil. PL 8, figs. 84, 85. 

Umbilicated, trochiform, periphery acutely angulated, ele- 
gantly granularly reticulated, base smooth, obsoletely cingulated 
at the periphery. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Portugal ; off Ascension I. ; West Indies. 

Fossil, pliocene of Calabria. 

It is Trochus (Solariella) Lusitanica, Fischer. 

S. LAXA, Jeffreys. PI. 8, figs. 86, 87. 

Shell consisting of scarcely two whorls, which are cylindrical 
and scalariforra, regularly spirally striated ; mouth nearly de- 
tached, quadrangular, a little produced at the base; umbilicus 
narrow and deep. Length, 6 mill. 

Atlantic (Porcupine Exped.). 

Only a fragment obtained. Its generic position is very doubt- 
ful. 

S. DELICATULA, Dall. (uiifigured). Gulf of Mexico. 



FAMILY 

Animal having a retractile proboscis ; tentacles close together, 
long and pointed, the eyes on slight elevations near their outer 
bases ; mantle-margin simple, with a rudimentary siphonal fold ; 
foot truncated in front, extending far in advance of the head. 
Jaws oval or semicircular, spiny, or denticulated only on the 
margin; radtila composed of elongated unciform or aciculated 
teeth, many in a series (PI. 11, fig. 30). Sexes distinct. 

Shell usually white and polished, turriculated, perforate, but 
the umbilicus frequently covered by an expansion of the inner 
lip-margin ; whorls numerous, convex, usually loosely coiled, 
often barely or not at all in contact ; aperture entire, circular 
or oval. Operculum corneous, few-whorled, nucleus nearly 
central. 

These mollusks are somewhat closely allied to the lanthinse, 
of which they may be regarded as creeping representatives. The 
form of the shell remotely suggests Turritella. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Genus SCALARIA, Lam., 1801. 

Shell mostly pure white and lustrous, umbilicated or imper- 
forate ; spire elongated, the apex more or less inflected ; whorls 
numerous, rounded, in contact or separated, ornamented with 
longitudinal ribs or thin lamellae, often continuous across the 
suture ; peristome entire, thickened, reflected. Animal as in the 
family description. They are predaceous. Dr. Gould fed them 
on raw beef, which they eat voraciously, They exude a purple 
fluid when irritated. 

The genus commenced in the Trias, and has continued its de- 
velopment to the present time ; about 200 fossil species have 
been described, and not far from the same number recent. They 
are found from low water to 80 or 100 fathoms and occur 
throughout the world, the Arctic seas furnishing representations 
of peculiar type ; but the largest, finest and most typical species 
4 (49) 



50 SCALARIID^E. 

are tropical. The West Indian province appears to be the me- 
tropolis of the genus ; at least more species have been described 
from that than from any other region. The name indicates a 
fancied resemblance to a ladder; in the vernacular the shell is 
usually known as u Wentle-trap." The synonyms include Scala, 
Klein, 1753; Cyclostoma, Lam., 1799, and Sthenorytis, 1868; 
Compsopleura and Scalina, 1865, by Conrad, the three last pro- 
posed (but not described) for American tertiary fossils. 

A number of genera and subgenera have been described, 
based upon characters of secondary importance, and which can 
be mostly advantageously reduced to the rank of sections. 

Section SCALARIA (sensu stricto). 

Whorls a little separated, crossed by regular lamelliform 
varices, umbilicated. Aciona, Leach, 1815, is a synonym. 

Section CLATHRUS, Oken, 1815. 

Shell moderately thick, often colored, whorls united, longi- 
tudinal ribs usually numerous, aperture suboval, umbilicus 
covered by the left lip, no basal rib. Janthoscala and Turbona 
(Brown), Morch, 1876, published without diagnosis, appear to 
include species of this section. 

Section OPALIA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Shell turriculated, imperforate, whorls united, the last with 
a basal spiral rib. To this group may be referred Psychrosoma, 
Canefri, 1876, and perhaps Compsopleura (Am. tertiary), Conrad, 
1865. 
Section AM^EA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Shell turriculated, thin, whorls united, cancellated, with some 
thin, irregular varices; aperture semilunar, inner lip gibbous in 
the middle, outer lip thin, simple. 

Section CIRSOTREMA, Morch, 1852. 

Shell turriculated, solid, whorls cancellated, with a few irre^u- 

' & 

lar, thick, crispate varices ; aperture bordered by a thick crcnu- 
lated varix. 

Section ACIRSA, Morch, 1857. 

Shell turreted, thin, whorls united, varices obsolete; lip thin, 
simple. Arctic Seas. 



SCALARTIDJS. 51 

Section ACHILLA, H. Adams, 1860. 

Shell moderately thick, turritelliform ; whorls united, with 
very numerous filiform ribs, last whorl with subcarinated 
periphery ; lip of aperture thin. 

Subgenus CONSTANTIA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell small, perforate or imperforate, oval, with elate spire; 
whorls rounded, decussated by thin longitudinal plications and 
revolving elevated lirae; aperture oval, margin free, continuous, 
acute. 

Subgenus CROSSEIA, A. Adams, 1865. 

Shell turbinate, umbilicated, white ; whorls convex, in contact, 
cancellated, simple or with distant varices; aperture somewhat 
produced and channeled in front; umbilicus surrounded and 
restricted by a callus. Japan. 

Genus SCALIOLA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell turriculated, whorls in contact, without varices, agglu- 
tinating to the surface minute particles of sand, etc. Animal 
with elongated, cylindrical, annulated rostrum, eyes prominent, 
black, foot short, oval, acuminated behind. Operculum corneous, 
oval, subspiral, with subtermirial nucleus. Japan. 

Genus FUNIS, Seeley, 1861. 

Shell turreted, thin ; whorls with lamelliform ribs, and usually 
also with spiral striae, so as to produce a cancellated surface ; 
aperture ovate, margin thin, produced below. Characters inter- 
mediate between Scalaria and Turritella. 
F. ELONGATA, Seely. Fossil in the Cambridge Greensand, 

England (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 67, f. 46). 

Genus EGLISIA, Gray, 1840. 

Shell imperforate, elongated, solid ; whorls numerous, rounded, 
spirally grooved, with indications of longitudinal varices; aper- 
ture small, orbicular, columellar lip curved, thick, flattened and 



52 SCALARIID^E. 

angulated in front, umbilical region filled by a twisted funicu- 
lum. Operculum corneous, few-whorled, with subcentral nucleus. 
Europe, West Coast of Africa, West Indies, 

India n Ocean, Japan . 
Smithia, Maltzan, 1883, is a synonym. 

This genus has usually been arranged with the family Turri- 
tellidae. 

Genus ACLIS, Loven, 1846. 

Animal with long, retractile proboscis, tentacles close together 
at the base, slender, cylindrical, eyes sessile at their external 
bases ; foot truncate ; mentum narrower than the sole, and 
extending far beyond the head ; operculigerous lobe ample, 
unsymmetrical. Radula of numerous, simple, aculeiform teeth. 
Shell narrowly umbilicated or rimate, small, turreted, subulate, 
smooth, or usually with spiral riblets ; aperture oval, entire, the 
peristome not continuous, lip thin, simple. Operculum corneous, 
thin, ear-shaped, paucispiral, with marginal nucleus. 

Aclis resembles Turritella in form, but is much smaller and 
umbilicated. A few living forms are found in European seas, 
and a dozen fossil species, commencing with the Devonian, are 
also referred to the genus. 

Ebala (Leach), Gray, is a synon} r m. 

Section ACLIS (sensu stricto). 
Shell spirally sulcate. 

Section HEMIACLIS, Sars., 18*78. 

Shell smooth, spire elongated, a little conical, apex regular, 
obtuse; base a little dilated, aperture rather large. 

Section GRAPHIS, Jeffreys, 186T. 

C}4indrical, longitudinally striated or reticulated ; spire elon- 
gated, apex obtuse and twisted ; aperture oval, contracted. 
Cioniscus, Jeffreys, 1869, is a synonym ; the earlier name was 
unnecessarily changed on account of being preoccupied in 
lichens. 

Section PHERUSA, Jeffreys, 1869. 

Shell subcylindrical, smooth, subperforate ; apex obtuse, 
twisted, but not sinistral ; aperture angulated at the base, lip 




SCALARIID^J. 53 



sharp, sinuous. Menippe, Jeffreys, 1867, is a synonym, preoc- 
cupied in Crustacea. 
Section IOL^EA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell umbilicated, turriculated or subulate ; whorls slightly 
convex, spirally sulcate, with fine longitudinal striee in the inter- 
stices ; aperture oblong, acuminated behind, rounded in front, 
lip free, simple. 
Section ACT^EONEMA, Conrad, 1865. 

Shell slightly umbilicated, conical ; whorls numerous ; aper- 
ture suboval, rounded and reflected at the base, lip not continu- 
ous, sharp. C&latura, Conrad, 1865, is a synonym. 

A. STRIATUM, Lea. Eocene of Alabama. 

Genus STILBE, Jeffreys, 1884. 

Shell conical, elongated, smooth, shining, apex regular and 
sharp ; whorls numerous, but slightly convex ; aperture sub- 
oval, angulated in front and behind, lip sharp. Atlantic Ocean; 
abyssal. 

Jeffreys has placed this group in Turritellidae ; it appears to 
be more nearly related to Aclis. 

Genus HOLOPELLA, M'Coy, 1852. 

Shell elongated, slender, of numerous gradually increasing 
convex whorls, with deep suture, usually arcuately striate, or 
smooth, sometimes reticulated ; aperture circular, with contin- 
uous peristome ; base rounded, with or without a minute umbili- 
cus 

Silurian-Triassic. H. GREGARIA, Sowb. 

About a dozen species are known. Adisina, de Koninck, 
1881, is a synonym. 

? Genus ELASMONEMA, Fischer, 1885. 

Shell sometimes elongated, sometimes short or globular, with 
rather distant, sublamellar longitudinal striae ; whorls convex ; 
mouth circular, lip continuous, thin. 

Silurian. E. SCALARIFORME, Lindstrom. 

The name is proposed instead of Callonema, Hall, 1879, not 
Conrad, 1873; but if the latter is really, as suspected, a syno- 
nym of Spironema, Meek, 1864, Hall's name might be retained. 



54 SCALARIA. 

Scalaria has been monographed by : 

Kiener, Iconog. Coq. vivantes. 20 species. (No date.) 

Sowerby, Thesaurus Conchyliorum, i. 93 species. 1847. 

Sowerby, in Reeve's Conch. Icon., xix. 125 species. 1874. 

Besides these, Morch has published in the Journal of the Phila- 
delphia Academy ,viii, 187 6, an impoitant paper on the West Indian 
species, based principally on the study of the specimens belonging 
to the Robert Swift collection, in the museum of that institution. 

An alphabetical catalogue of the recent and fossil species of 
Scalaria, published by H. P. Nyst in the Annales de la Soc. 
Malacol. de Belg., vi, 1873, includes 102 living, 161 tertiary, 51 
cretaceous and 4 Jurassic species. 



Genus SCALARIA, Lam., 1801. 
Section SCALARIA (sensu strict o). 
S. PRETIOSA, Lam. PI. 11, fig. 31. 

Widely umbilicated, smooth, polished, usually fleshy white, 
the ribs ivory-white ; whorls 8, rounded. Length, 2 - 5 inches. 

China, Australia, Moluccas. 

This is the well-known " precious wentletrap," the Turbo 
scalaris, of Linnaeus. 

S. CRENULATA, PeaSC. PI. 11, fig. 32. 

Umbilicated, smooth, white; whorls 4, separated by a deep, 
wide suture; lamellae 6,crenulated on the edge. Length, 5 mill. 

Tahiti. 

At first sight appears like a diminutive S. pretiosa, but is 
wider, with less numerous, crenulated varices. 

S. PALLAST, Kiener. PL 11, fig. 33. 

Shell narrower than S. pretiosa, with narrower umbilicus, fleshy 
white between the ribs; whorls 8, somewhat disunited, lamellae 
more numerous than in S. pretiosa, usually slightly hooked at 
the top of the whorls. Length, 1-5 inches. 

China, Philippines, Mauritius. 

The synonyms are S. neglecta, Reeve (not Adams and Reeve); 
S. subpretiosa, Blainv. ; S. notha, Menke, and S. Nicobarica, 
Beck, MS. 



SCALARIA. 55 

S. NEGLECTA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 11, figs. 34, 35. 

Umbilicated, pale fawn-color, the ribs white; whorls 7-8, 
rounded, rather numerously lamellate, the lamellae uneinated at 

the top of the ribs. Length, 1'25 inches. 

China Sea. 

S. inclyta, Melvill (fig. 35), appears to me to be an old, well- 
grown specimen of this form ; the author distinguished it from 
S. neglecta, but apparently has taken Reeve's incorrect identifi- 
cation of that species (see preceding description). 

S. IMPEBJALIS, Sowb. PI. 11, fig. 30. 

Narrowly umbilicated, fawn-color between the white lamellae, 
which are numerous and rather close ; whorls about 8, well 
rounded, rapidly increasing. Length, 1'25 inches. 

Mozambique ; Swan River, Australia. 

S. BULLATA, Sowb. PI. 11, fig. 37. 

Narrowly umbilicated, short and broad, very ventricose ; 
whorls 6, very rapidly increasing, with oblique lamellae, some- 
what uncinate at the suture. Length, 20 mill. 

Ins. Capul, Philippines. 
S. OBESA, Sowb. PL 11, figs. 38, 39. 

Whorls 6, ventricose, rather solid, contiguous, with numerous, 
thick, rounded lamellae ; margin of aperture usually fulvous. 

Length, 16 mill. 

Australia. 
S. ALATA, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 40. 

Narrowly umbilicated, white, often broadly diffusely banded 
with fawn-color; whorls 7, not in contact, with distant, thin 
lamellae, angulated above, with somewhat pointed angle. 

Length, -5-'75 inch. 

Singapore, Philippines, Viti Is. 

S. FASCIATA, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 41. 

Umbilicus nearly covered, white, single-banded with brown 
between the varices ; whorls 7, rounded, hardly touching, lamel- 
lae acuminately angled above. Length, 23 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 



56 SCALARIA. 

S. MARMOrfATA, Sowb. PI. 11, fig. 42. 

Scarcely umbilicated, marbled with brownish between the 
lamellae ; whorls 8-9, obtusety angulated above, the varices also 
angulated, narrow and thin. Length, 1 inch. 

India. 

Differs from the preceding species by its more numerous, 
angulated whorls, thinner and more irregular varices, and 
coloring. 

S. REPLICATA, Sowb. PI. 11, fig. 43. 

Scarcely perforate, stout, white ; whorls 6, a little disunited, 
lamellae rather distant, recurved, uncinate near the suture. 
Length, 19 mill. 

Lord Hood's Isl. ; Kingsmill Is. 

S. TENUICOSTATA, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 44. 

Almost imperforate, thin, subventricose ; whorls 8, with thin 
lamellae, uncinate above. Length, 20 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 
S. CLEMENTINA, Grateloup. PL 11, figs. 48, 47. 

Narrowly umbilicated, short, ventricose, fawn color, with three 
narrow chestnut bands, lamellae white ; whorls 6, rounded, 
lamellae numerous, unequal. Length, 19 mill. 

Singapore ; Philippines. 

S. trifasciata, De Haan (fig. 47), is a synonym. The bands 
are sometimes faint or obsolete. 

S. LATiPASCiATA, Sowb. PL 11, figs. 45, 46. 

Spire longer than in the preceding species, with broad chest- 
nut bands. Length, 23 mill. 

Mauritius. 
S. BULBULUS, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 49. 

Subimperforate, short, ventricose, fawn color ; whorls 5, 
rounded, contiguous, with rather distant, slightly arched, 
rounded, white lamellae. Length, 13 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
S. OPTABILIS, A. Ad. PL 11, fig. 50. 

Subimperforate, short, ventricose, whitish, interruptedly two- 
banded, appearing like two rows of spots ; whorls 6, the lamellae 
rounded, equal, rather distant. Length, 12 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 



SO AL ART A. 57 

S. TENUILIRATA, Sowb. PI. 11, fig. 51. 

Perforate, purple brown between the varices ; whorls 6> 
rounded, rapidly increasing, with deep suture, lamellae very 

close, unequal, thin, rounded, reflected. Length, 12 mill. 

Japan. 

S. LAXATA, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 52. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, smooth, white ; whorls 6, much 
disunited, with numerous, thin, scarcely regular lamellae. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 

S. HYALINA, Sowb. PL 11, figs. 53, 54. 

Widely umbilicated, solute, smooth, thin, pellucid, white; 
whorls 6, with distant, crenulated varices. Length, 18 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines ; Singapore. 

S. SOLTJTA, Dunker. PL 11, fig. 55. 

Umbilicated, white ; whorls 5, well rounded, disunited, with 
about ten crenulated white lamellae, usually four-lobed in the 
last whorl. Length, 5 mill. 

St. Thomas, West Indies. 

S. SEMIDISJUNCTA, Jeffreys. PL 11, fig. 56. 

Subim perforate, corkscrew-shaped, white ; whorls 7-8, flat- 
shouldered, with close-set, flexuous, sharp lamellae, the inter- 
stices very finely spirally striated. Length, 12 5 mill. 

Azores, 2199 fms. 
S. VERMETIFORMIS, Watson. PL 18, fig. 74. 

Solute, thin, white; whorls 6, rounded, with numerous low, 
fine, sinuous lamellae, and fine spiral lines. Length, 6 mill. 

Off Pernambuco (350 fms.). 

S. PRINCIPALTS, Pallas. PL 12, fig. 58. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thick, white, irregularly spirally stri- 
ated ; whorls 8-10, well rounded, scarcely in contact, with rather 
numerous, low lamellae. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Tortola, W. Indies. 
S. COSTULATA, Kiener. PL 12, fig. 59. 

Narrower, with more numerous, lower lamellae than the prece- 
ding species, but possibly only a variety. Length, 34 mill. 

W. Columbia (Cuming). 



58 SCALARIA. 

S. STATUMINATA, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 60. 

Narrowly perforated, short, thick, whitish; whorls 8, round- 
shouldered, with few, thick, obliquelj- continuous varices. 
Length, 15 mill. 

Payta, Peru. 
S. OBTUSA, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 61. 

Subimperforate, rather ventricose, white ; whorls 6-7, convex, 
contiguous, with rather numerous, thin lamellae, obtusely angu- 
lar above. Length, 18 mill. 

St. Elena, W. Co. Central America. 

S. KREBSIT, Morch. PI. 12, figs. 62, 63. 

Narrowly umbilicated, polished, irregularly spirally striated, 
white, light fulvous about the middle of the whorls ; whorls 5-6, 
scarcely joined, convex, slightly plane above, lamellae ten, a 
little uncinate at the suture. Length, 17 mill. 

St. Thomas and St. Martin, W. Indies. 

S. SWIFTII, Morch. PI. 12, fig. 64. 

Scarcely perforate, white, polished, with very obsolete spiral 
striae ; whorls 7-8, with rimate suture, lamellue about twelve, 
subcontinuous, not produced above. Length, 14 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I. 
S. INCONSPICUA, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 65. 

Narrowly umbilicated, ventricose, short, white; whorls 6, 
well rounded, with numerous, close, vor3 r thin lamellae. 
Length, 13 mill. 

West Indies. 
Morch indicates a var. INFLATA. L. 9, lat. 55 mill. 

S. NANA, Jeffreys. PI. 12, fig. 66. 

Narrowly umbilicated, semitransparent, not glossy, whitish, 
with a few spiral striae ; whorls 7-8, convex, with about thirty 
close lamellae. Length, 3'75 mill. 

Bay of Biscay. 
S. BREVIS, d'Orbigny. PI. 13, fig. 4. 

Widel} r umbilicated, thin, whitish ; whorls 4, obtusely angu- 
lated on the periphery, spirally striate, with narrow, distant, low 
lamellae. Length, 1 mill. 

Falkland Is. 

Evidently a very young shell. 



SCALARIA. 59 

S. CRASSA, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 57, 

Slightly umbilicated, white, smooth; whorls 6, well rounded, 
slowl}- increasing, with rather numerous, thin, low varices. 

Length, 22 mill. Ihilippines. 

S. LYRA, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 69. 

Narrowly umbilicated, whitish, with close, very thin lamellae, 
w r liite, two- or three-banded with chestnut; whorls 7, rounded, 
contiguous. Length, 22 mill. 

Japan, Philippines, Viti Is. 

Differs from S. Clementina and S. latifasciata by its thin, 
numerous lamellae. S. lineata, Kiener (in part), is a synonym.. 

S. LINEOLATA, Sowb. PL 12, fig. 81. 

Narrowly umbilicated, fulvous, two-bauded with chestnut 
between the lamellae ; whorls 8, well rounded, with numerous, 
thin, rounded, white lamellae. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Japan. 
S. MARIEI, Crosse. PL 12, fig. 87. 

Subim perforate, whitish, maculated with chestnut in about 
three spiral series ; whorls about 7, separated, with very distant, 
low, small lamellae. Length, 22 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
S. ATJRITA, Sowb. PL 12, fig. 84. 

Narrowly perforate, pale fawn-color between the ribs, spirally 
two-banded with chestnut; whorls 8, well rounded, with thin, 
arched, rather distant decumbent varices, joined at the suture. 

Length, 22 mill. Coast of Coromandel ; Japan. 

Narrower than the preceding species. 

S. GLABRATA, Hinds. PL 12, fig. 85. v 

Narrowly perforate, yellowish with three interrupted series of 
chestnut maculations or bands between the lamellae ; whorls 
about 9, well rounded, with distant, white, continuous lamellae. 

Length, 20 mill. Sis. Macassar ; Malacca. 

S. MACULOSA, Ads. and Reeve. PL 12, fig. 86. 

Narrowly perforate, 3 T ellowish with chestnut maculations 
between the varices ; whorls about 9, with distant lamellae, 
slightly angulated and aculeate above. Length, 10 mill. 

China Sea. 



60 SCALARIA. 

S. KUBROLINEATA, Sowb. PI. 12, figs. 82, 83. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, yellowish white, two-banded with 
light chestnut, the upper band narrower and fainter, sometimes 
obsolete ; whorls 5, well rounded, with rather numerous, thin, 
erect lamellae. Length, 15-20 mill. Australia, Philippines. 

S. DUBTA, Sowb. PL 12, figs. 67, 68. 

Moderately umbilicated, white ; whorls 9, well rounded, con- 
tiguous, with numerous thin, thread-like, low lamellae and 
scarcely perceptible spiral striae. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Port Essington, Australia. 

The original description was from a young specimen ; the 
adult was described by Gray, three years subsequently, under 
the name of S. striata (fig. 68). 

S. UNDULATISSIMA, Sowb. PL 12, fig. 70. 

Perforate, thin, white, very minutely spirally striated, with 
close fine undulated lamellae, a little aculeate at the top of the 
whorls ; whorls 9, well rounded, slightly shouldered at the 
suture. Length, 1 inch. Habitat unknown. 

S. IRREGULARIS, Sowb. PL 12, fig. 71. 

Umbilicated, white, thin, with very thin, numerous irregular 
varices, a little aculeated above ; whorls 6, well rounded, con- 
tiguous. Length, 22 mill. Philippines. 

Yery closely allied to S. dubia ; the figure, however, represents 
closer, coarser lamellae than in that species. 

S. SIMILTS, Sowb. PL 12, fig. 72. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, white, very minutely spirally 
striated ; whorls 6, contiguous, lamellae close and thin. 

Length, 18 mill. Philippines. 

S. SMITHII, Tryon. PL 12, fig. 73. 

Fulvous grayish, very finely spirally striated; whorls 8, 
rounded, the last, somewhat inflated, with close, thin lamellae. 

Length, 14 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

This species was described as S. miranda, E. A. Smith, and 
the name is changed on account of the previously published 
Crosseia miranda, A. Ad. 




61. 

S. CATANUANENSIS, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 74. 

Shell ventricose, with seven rounded whorls, yellowish brown 
with very small, close, thin varices, and a conspicuous one on 
the back, near the a,perture, minutely decussated by spiral striae. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Catanuan, Philippines . 

In Conchologia Iconica, the figures of this species and of S. 
pulcherrima have been transposed. 

S. IMMACULATA, Sowb. PI. 12. fig, 80. 

Subumbilicated, minutely spirally striate, whitish ; whorls 
about 9, rounded, contiguous, with rather numerous, very thin, 
unequal lamellae, disappearing about the middle of the whorls, 
and crispate at the suture. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines. 
S. FRIABILTS, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 75. 

Scarcely umbilicated, very thin, white; whorls 8, but slightly 
convex, the suture not deeply impressed, with very thin, close 
lamellae, aculeate close to the suture. Length, 20 mill. 

Swan River, Australia. 
S. CRTSPATA, Pease. PI. 12, fig. 79. 

Subimperforate, thin, white, finely spirally striated ; whorls 
8-9, convex, contiguous, the last whorl slightly ventricose, with 
numerous, close, small, thin, crenulated lamellae. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
S. INDISTINCTA, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 76. 

Subimperforate, rather solid, white, minutely spirally striated; 
whorls 9, well rounded, with very fine close lamellae, a little 
crispate at the suture. Length, 23 mill. 

Gulf of California. 
S. TENUISTRIATA, d'Orb. PL 14, fig. 52. 

Subimperforate, thin, whitish ; whorls 8, convex, subcancellated 
by very numerous close lamellae and fine spiral striae. 
Length, 16 mill. 

Bahia Blanca, Buenos Ayres. 

S. TENERA, H. Adams. PI. 12, fig. 77. 

Subimperforate, thin, very finely spirally striated, white ; 
whorls 9, well rounded, with numerous close, thin lamellae, a little 



62 SCALARIA. 

crispate at the suture and almost disappearing on the middle of 
the whorls. Length, 7 mill. 

Philippines. 

Described by H. Adams as S. delicatula, a name preoccupied 
by Crosse and subsequently changed as above by Adams, and 
a year later to S. subnudata, by Sowerby. 

S. JEFFREYSTI, Tryon. PI. 12, fig. 78. 

Slightly umbilicated, thin, semitransparent, glossy, whitish, 
with a few delicate, rounded, spiral striae, more conspicuous 
towards the base of each whorl; whorls 10-12, convex, with 
moderate suture, with about 25-30 low, rounded riblets, incon- 
spicuous or obsolete on the body-whorl. Length, 12 mill. 

Atlantic 0. (Porcupine Exped.). 

Described by Dr. Jeffreys as S. tenera, preoccupied (see pre- 
ceding species). , 

S. FORMOSISSIMA, Jeffreys. PI. 17, fig. 34. 

Narrowly umbilicated, very thin, nearly transparent, rather 
glossy, white ; whorls 12, convex,narrowly,slopingly shouldered, 
with 40-50 crowded, slight riblets, closely decussated by thread- 
like spiral striae. Length, 15 mill. 

Azores. 

S. PYRAM1DALIS, Sowb. PI. 13, fig. 89. 

Narrowly umbilicated ; whorls 9, well rounded and scarcely in 
contact, with rather distant lamellae, narrowly angulated and 
produced at the top of each whorl. Length, T25 inches. 

Philippines. 

Section CLATHRUS, Oken, 1815. 

S. GRADATA, Hinds. PI. 13, fig. 88. 

Whorls 12, slowly increasing, narrow-shouldered above, 
lamellae numerous, oblique, a little produced on the angle of the 
shoulder. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Ainboyna. 

S. nodosa, Opr. MS., in Brit. Mus., is a synonym. 

S. AUSTRO-CALEDONICA, Montr. PI. 13, fig. 94. 

Whorls thin, 8 or 9 in number, separate, joined by 7 strong 
lamellae, which are shouldered and aculeate at the top of each 
whorl ; white, with a single irregular chestnut band. 

Length, 23 mill. New Caledonia. 



SO AL ART A. 6 5 

S. ACULEATA, Sowb. PI. 13, figs. 90, 91. 

White, narrow, with eight contiguous whorls, and rather dis- 
tant erect lamellae, slightly produced and aculeated above, near 
the suture. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Philippines, Hong Kong, Malacca. 

S. EXIMTA, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 92. 

Pale fulvous, spirally striated ; whorls 10, narrow-shouldered 
above, with regular white lamellae ; aculeate at the shoulder angle. 

Length, 8 mill. 

China Sea. 
S. PORRECTA, Hinds. PL 13, fig. 93. 

Imperforate, yellowish brown, aperture yellowish; whorls .8, 
turreted, with numerous, rather thick lamellae. Length, 10 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 
S. MURT-CATA, Kisso. PI. 13, fig. 95. 

Whorls 8, distinct!} 7 shouldered, the somewhat distant, rather 
broad lamellae expanded and aculeate on the shoulder. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

S. MlTR^EFORMTS, Sowb. PI. 13, fig. 1. 

Similar to the preceding species, but with the lamellae more 
numerous, narrower, and forming smaller, sharper points at the 
angle. Length, 18 mill. 

Guacomayo, W. Coast of Cent. America. 

S. FOLIACEICOSTA, d'Orb. PL 13, fig. 96. 

Imperforate, somewhat solid, whitish, a little shining; whorls 
11, almost distinct, with six or seven lamellae, broadened above 
and aculeate. Length, 15 mill. 

West Indies. 
S. OCCIDENTALIS, Nyst. PL 13, fig. 97. 

Thin, smooth, white; whorls 8-9, almost separate, with thir- 
teen or fourteen oblique continuous lamellae, excavated on the 
narrow shoulder and aculeate. Length, 13 mill. 

West Indies. 

The name is substituted for S. tennis, Sowb. (non Gray). 

Yar. AURITA, Morch. 

Lamellae eleven, thicker. Length, 11 mill. 
A young shell. 



64 . SCALARIA. 

Yar. BLANDII, Morch. 

Perforate, the suture less open, lamellae ten, with smaller and 
more numerous lobes. 

S. CENTIQUADRA, Morch. PI. 13, figs. 99, 100. 

Thin, white, decussated by fine growth-lines and spiral striae, 
the latter usually alternating larger and smaller ; whorls about 
8, with ten or eleven subcontinuous lamellae. Length, 15 mill. 

West Indies. 

It is S. denticulata, Sowb., not Mtg. (fig. 100). 

S. VITTATA, Jeffreys. PI. 13, fig. 3. 

Thin, semitransparent, not glossy, pale yellowish brown, with 
three chestnut bands on the body-whorl, two on those of the 
spire ; whorls 12-14, moderately convex, with deep suture, with 
about 15 sharp, rather low lamellae, aculeate above. 

Length, 125 mill. Mediterranean Sea, W. Co. Africa. 

S. ALGERIANA, Weinkauff. PI. 13, fig. 2. 

White, turreted ; whorls about 10, with slight spiral striae, and 
fourteen lamellae, narrowly shouldered and aculeate above. 

Length, 6 mill. Cape Breton; Mediterranean Sea. 

This is S. coronata and S. Schultzii, Weinkauff, and S. multi- 
striata, Phil., not Say. 

S.. TURBINATA, Conrad. PL 13, fig. 8. 

Imperforate, white, body-whorl dilated ; whorls about 4, with 
strong lamellae, terminating in a prominent angle above. 

Length, 8 mill. Near Beaufort, JV. Carolina. 

S. POURTALESII, Yerrill and Smith. PL 13, fig. 6. 

Pure white, rather stout, with seven well rounded, scarcely 
united whorls, crossed by about sixteen high, thin, lamellae, 
aculeate and angulate below the suture, interstices microscopi- 
cally spirally striate. Length, 17 '5 mill. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 

S. ECHINATICOSTA, d'Orb. PL 13, fig. 98. 

Whorls 6, rapidly enlarging, almost distinct, with about a 
dozen lamellae, produced into three or four lobes on each whorl. 

Length, 3'5 mill. West Indies. 




SCALARIA. 65 



S. PERNOBILIS, Fischer and Bernard!. PL 13, fig. 5. 

Whorls 5-6, rapidly increasing, ventricose, with deep suture, 
crossed by 14-15 strong, recurved lamellae, with undulating 
edges, and somewhat aculeately produced above. 

Length, 40 mill. 

Ins. Marie- Galante, W. Indies. 

Somewhat resembles, but is very much larger than 8. echina- 
ticosta, d'Orb. Also related rather closely to S. turbinata, Con- 
rad, and S. Pourtalesii, Verrill and Smith. 

S. FRONDOSA, Sowb. PL 13, fig. 7. 

Subperforate, whorls 7-8, with about 14, rather stout, erect or 
slightly recurved lamellae, a little produced above, forming a 
narrow shoulder. Length, 20 mill. 

Mediterranean, Bay of Biscay. 

The synonyms are, according to Dr. Jeffreys: 8. Celesti, 
Aradas; 8. pwnila, Libassi; S. rugosa, Costa; 8. eximia, Pec- 
chioli; 8. Pecchioliana, Issel; S. Gravitellensis, Seguenza, and 
8. soluta, Tiberi, 1868, not 1863. 

S. PAUMOTENSIS, Pease. PL 13, fig. 16. 

Thick, smooth, white; whorls 6, rounded, narrowly separated, 
with seven, stout, regular, continuous, recurved lamellae. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Paumotus, Kingsmill and Viti Islands. 

S. JAPONICA, Dunker. PL 13, fig. 15; PL 14, fig. 24. 

White, smooth, with seven rounded, scarcely touching whorls, 
crossed by rather solid, obliquely continuous, subdistant lamellae. 

Length, 15 mill. 

Japan. 

This is 8. Japoniea of Reeve, not Nyst the latter being a 
Constantia and substituted for 8. elegans, A. Ad., preoccupied. 

S. DECUSSATA, Pease. PL 13, fig. 14. 

Rather thick, white; whorls 6, rounded, narrowly separate, 
crossed by seven stout, regular, continuous lamellae, the inter- 
stices decussated by very minute raised striae. Length, 9 mill. 

Kingsmill, Viti and Sandwich Islands. 
5 



66 SCALARIA. 

S. ANGUSTATA, Dunker. PL 13, fig. 13. 

Narrowly turreted, white, whorls rounded, with equal, some- 
what distant, continuous lamellae, a little declining. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Japan. 

S. SYMMETRIC A, Pease. PL 13, fig 12. 

Solid, w r hite; whorls 6, contiguous, spirally striated, with 16 
thick, slightly recurved, continuous varices. Length, 8 mill. 

Tahiti. 

S. GRACILENTA, Gould. PL 13, fig. 10. 

Shell white, with 9 contiguous whorls, with profound suture, 
crossed by 16 thin, rather low lamellae, the interstices minutely, 
spirally striated. Length, 6*25 mill. 

Ins. Mangsi. 

S. TEXTURATA, Gould. PL 13, fig. 9. 

Subperforate, yellowish white; whorls 8, rounded, nearly 
separate, crossed by nine whitish, elevated reflexed ribs, slightly 
aculeate above, interstices microscopically decussated. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

One of the species of the Wilkes' Exploring Expedition, pos- 
sibly Polynesian. 
S. PHILIPPINARUM, Sowb. PL 13, figs. 18, 19. 

Imperforate, white, or fulvous between the lamellae; whorls 
about 10, well rounded, crossed by rather distant lamellae, a 
little produced above. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Australia, Amboyna, etc. 

This species is quite common in collections and seems to have 
a pretty wide distribution. Very probably some of the nearly 
related forms are really only slight variations and should be 
united with it 
;S. JUKESIANA, Forbes. PL 14, fig. 20. 

Imperforate, white; whorls 9, narrower than the preceding 
:species, separate at the suture, with more numerous, nearly 
equal lamellae. Length, 17 mill. 

Australia. 

S. Wellingtonensis, Kirk, is said to be a synonym, but the 
specimens received under that name at the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy, from a distinguished Australian conchologist, appear to 
= S. Philippinarum. 




SCALARIA. 67 

S. SUBAURICULATA, Souverb. PI. 14, figs. 22, 21. 

Whorls 9, narrow, rounded, scarcely in contact, with seven 
rather solid, oblique, subreflexed lamellae, interstices microscopi- 
cally spirally striated. Length, 6*25 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

I place here as a synonym, but with some slight doubt 
JS. attenuate,, Sowb. (Fig. 21), a species described without locality, 
and the name subsequently changed by Canefri to S. microsoma, on 
account of the previously described S. attenuata, Pease. 

S. GRACILIS, Sowb. PL 14, figs. 28, 29. 

Whorls 9-10, narrow, well rounded, contiguous, fulvous, with 
subdistant, continuous, rather thick, white lamellae, a little aculeate 
near the suture. Length, 18 mill. 

Philippines. 

If this species equals S. subauriculata, Souverb. described above, 
its name should take precedence. 

S. CASTA, A. Ad. PL 14, fig. 23. 

White, whorls 8, moderately convex, with distinct suture, the 
varices numerous, some rather thick, slightly aculeate at the suture. 
Length, 18 mill. 

Japan* 
S. CONCINNA, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 25. 

Whorls 6, rapidly enlarging, contiguous, whitish, with numerous, 
close, rather thick, simple lamellae. Length, 15 mill 

Ins. Bohol, Philippines. 

S. MULTICOSTATA, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 26. 

Whorls 6-7, somewhat convex, fulvous, contiguous, crossed by 
numerous, rather thick, unequal, white varices. Length, 14 mill. 

Ins. Corrigidor, Philippines. 
S. OBLIQUA, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 27. 

Thin, attenuated, white; whorls 7, rounded, scarcely contiguous, 
crossed by numerous, close, oblique varices, slightly angular near 
the suture. Length, 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
S. MINDOROENSIS, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 31. 

Whitish, with 5 or 6 rounded contiguous whorls, crossed by 
numerous, thick, rounded simple varices. Length, 17 mill. 

Ins. Mindoro, Philippines. 



68 SCALARIA. 

S. ALBOLINEATA, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 30. 

Chestnut colored between the varices; whorls 8, crossed by some- 
what distant, rather thick, white varices, which are obscurely 
angular in the centre. Length, 14 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

Said to resemble 8. Philippinarum, but with the whorls less 
separated, and the varices slightly angular in the middle. 

S. PULCHERRIMA, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 32. 

Brownish purple; whorls 6, rapidly enlarging, slightly convex, 
contiguous, suture not deep, lamellae numerous, oblique, white, 
acuminately lobed at the suture. Length, 12 mill. 

Philippines. 

This is S. Catanuensis of Reeve's plate but not of the description, 
the numbers of that species and of S. pulcherrima having been 
transposed on the plate. 

S. PUMILA, A. Ad. PL 14, fig. 33. 

Shell minute, rather short, ventricose, pale fulvous; w r horls 6, 
rounded, distinct, with rather thick, rounded, approximate white 
varices. Length, 15 mill, (magnified?) 

Japan. 
S. CREBERRIMA, Hinds. PI. 14, fig. 34. 

Pale grey, smooth ; whorls 6, well rounded, with numerous close, 
rather prominent lamellae. Length, 15 mill. 

New Guinea. 
S. LACTEA, Krauss. PI. 14, fig. 35. 

Minute, whorls 9, white, with crowded small thin lamellae, suture 
profound. Length, 8 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
S. SULCATA, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 36. 

Thin, white, minutely spirally striated ; whorls 7, narrow, rounded, 
with moderate suture, and numerous, close, thin lamellae. 
Length, 18 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 
S. SUBTILIS, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 38. 

Narrow, brownish, spirally minutely striated; whorls about 8, 
moderately convex, contiguous, slowly increasing, the lamellae close, 
minutely crenulated. Length, 11 mill. 

Philippines. 



SCALARIA. 69 

S. VESTALIS, Hinds. PL 14, fig. 37. 

Whitish, very minutely spirally striated; whorls 6, rounded, 
crossed by numerous, close, minute, simple varices. Length, 14 mill. 

New Guinea. 
S. DELICATULA, Crosse. PI. 14, fig. 39. 

Thin, narrow, acuminated, very minutely spirally striated; whorls 
about 11, rounded, crossed by unequal ribs, most of them lamellar, 
some thickened, simple at the suture. Lengtn, 12 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Reeve mentions a keel on the last whorl, but his figure does not 
show it, and it is neither in the original figures nor the descriptions. 
S. OVALIS, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 40. 

Minute, thick, bluish white; whorls 5, contiguous, somewhat 
convex, lamellae oblique, white, thick, not numerous, elevated above 
the suture ; aperture auriform, margin expanded. Length, 5 mill. 

Ins. Mindoro, Philippines. 
S. CONNEXA, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 41. 

Pupiform, with obtuse spire, pale purple between the w r hite 
lamellae; whorls 5, very slightly convex, lamellae oblique, white, 
close, connected. Length, 8 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 
S. DUCALIS, Morch. PL 14. fig. 47. 

Whorls 8, rounded, contiguous, crossed by regular, subdistant 
strong lamellae, a little dilated and irregularly joined at the suture. 

Length, 1 in. 

Xipixappi, W. Columbia. 

This is not S. principalis of Pallas, for which it is erroneously 
figured in the Thesaurus and Iconica, The name was changed to 
S. ducalis by Morch in 1875 and to S. simillima by Tapparone- 
Canefri, in 1876. S. tenuis, Gray (not Sowerby) is the juvenile. 
S. ACICULINA, Hinds. PL 14, fig. 42. 

Narrow, chestnut brown; whorls 9, rather convex, crossed by 
somewhat distant, thin, white, lamellae, subangulated in the middle. 

Length, 9 mill. 

? W. Coast of America. 
S. POLITA, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 43. 

Thin, highly polished, pale grey, very narrow, whorls 10, convex, 
with numerous, close, rather thin lamellae, obsolete in the middle of 
the whorls. Length, 22 mill. 

Xipixappi, W. Columbia. 



70 SCALARIA. 

S. ELENENSIS, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 44. 

AVhite, whorls 7, convex, with deep suture, lamellae about 6, very 
distant, continuous, slightly plaited at the suture. Length, 10 mill. 

St. Elena, W. .Columbia* 
S. HEX AGON A, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 45. 

Thick, white; whorls 6, moderately convex, with six strong, 
oblique, thick lamellae, Length, 15 mill. 

Acapulco* 

S. CURVILINEATA, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 46. 

Whitish, whorls 6, oblong, not very convex, contiguous, lamellae 
thin, curvilinear, simple. Length, 15 mill. 

Sonsonate, Central America. 

S. INDIANORUM, Carp. PI. 14, figs. 48, 49. 

Rather thin, white, whorls 10, rounded, scarcely in contact, with 
8 15 (usually about 12) lamellae, narrowly aculeated at the top of 
the whorls. Length, 1 in. 

Vancouver's Isl. California. 
Var. TINCTA, Carp. Fig. 49. 

Costae acute, not reflected, whorls posteriorly tinged with brownish 
purple. 

Southern California. 
S. VENOSA, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 50. 

Smooth, white; whorls 9, separate, with about 11 lamellae, some- 
what reflected and subangulate at the suture. Length, 13 18 mill. 

West Indies, Venezuela. 
S. MODESTA, C. B. Ad. PL 14, fig. 60. 

Ventricose, short, pale fulvous; whorls 7, rather convex, with 
rather distant simple lamellae. Length, 14 mill. 

West Indies* 
S. ORBIGNYI, Nyst. PL 14, fig. 51. 

Solid, white, whorls 9, with very deep suture, lamellae 14, thick,, 
low, angulated at the suture. Length, 15 mill. 

West Indies, Patagonia* 
It is S. elegans, d'Orb., not Risso. 
S. ANGULATA, Say. PL 14, fig. 53. 

Whorls about 7, subcylindrical, white, separate, with about 9-10, 
strong lamellae, slightly angular above. 

Connecticut to Florida* 
This is S. clathrus, Say (not Linn.), and S. Humplireysiana, Kiener.. 



SCALARIA. 71 

S. GRADATELLA, Morch. PI. 14, fig. 54. 

Narrow, white, polished; whorls 9, flatly convex, with about 11, 
low lamellae, a little angulated above. Length, 12 mill. 

West Indies. 

Narrow, with more whorls than the preceding species. 
S. UNIFASCIATA, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 55. 

White with a single narrow chestnut band at the suture; whorls 
about 7, with 6, straight, subcontinuous lamellae. Length, 15 mill. 

West Indies. 

S. UNDECIMCOSTATA, Morch. PI. 14, fig. 56. 

Solid, white or yellowish white, microscopically spirally striate; 
whorls 6, convex, with deep suture and 11 regular, strong, subcon- 
tinuous lamellae. Length, 10 mill. 

W. Indies. 

S. EBURNEA, Pot. et Mich. PI. 14, figs. 57, 58. 

Rather thin, smooth, white, shining, with obsolete spiral striae ; 
whorls about 9, very convex, with deep suture, with 12-13 sharp 
lamellae. Length, 20 mill. 

West Indies. 

The synonyms are S. fragilis, Hanley (fig. 57) S. albida, d'Orb. 
(fig. 58), and probably S. ligata, C. B. Ad. Morch has mentioned 
vars. pumilio and angusta. 

S. TERES, Bush. PI. 14, fig. 59. 

Thin, semi-transparent, very shining, bluish white with a delicate 
pink apex; whorls about 9, very convex, crossed by about 27 very 
thin, delicate lamellae, a little oblique, with an almost imperceptible 
angle at the suture. Length, 4 mill. 

Cape Hatteras, N. Car. 

S. Nov-ANGLiaa, Couth. PI. 15. fig. 62. 

Thin, white, with here and there a rusty blotch ; whorls cylindrical, 
barely touching, minutely decussated between the lamellae; whorls 
10, crossed by eleven, somewhat oblique, delicate lamellae, not 
continuous, a little aculeate at the top of the w r horls. L. 17'5 mill. 

A single specimen from a fish, caught off 

Cape Ann, Mass. 
I know nothing of this species. 



72 SCALARIA. 

S. MULTISTRIATA, Say. PI. 15, fig. 63. 

Thin, white, very minutely spirally striated; whorls 8-9, very 
convex, crossed by about 15 slightly oblique delicate lamellae, very 
slightly shouldered at the top of the whorls. Length, 18 mill. 

Southern Coast of the United States. 

S. CANDIDISSIMA, Monterosato. PI. 15, fig. 64. 

Narrow, rather thin, white; whorls 9, very convex, crossed by 
rather distant, simple lamellae. Length, 15 mill. 

Algiers. 

Something like S. eburnea, Pot. et Mich., but narrower. 

S. COMMUNIS, Lam. PI. 15, figs. 65, 66. 

Rather thick, smooth, flesh colored, with light purplish macula- 
tions, and usually a basal band of the same color; whorls about 12, 
scarcely in contact, with about 9 erect, broadly recurved varices, 
subcontinuous and also maculated. Length, 1*25 1*75 in. 

Europe. 

It is S. clathrus (not of Linnaeus), authors, S. laevigata, Calcara. 

S. TURTONIS, Turton. PI. 15, fig. 67: 

Resembling the preceding species in form and coloring, but the 
lamellae flat, instead of raised, some of them much thicker than 
others, appearing like varices; the ribs are less convex than in 
S. communis. Length, 1 1*5 in. 

Europe, Madeira. 

The synonyms are S. planicostata, Bivona, 8. tenuicostata, Mich. 

S. CANTRAINEI, Weinkauff. PI. 15, fig. 68. 

Flesh color or corneous, trifasciate with brownish; whorls 10, a 
little flattened, with 12 strong lamellae, a little coronate at the 
suture. Length, 5 mill. 

Algiers-Bay of Biscay. 

S. Kusmid, Brusina and 8. Trevelyana, Tiberi are synonyms. 

S. TREVELYANA Leach. PI. 15, fig. 69. 

Fleshy white, whorls 10, convex, rapidly increasing, with about - 
16 rather low, somewhat recurved lamellae, some of them much 
thicker than the others. Length, 1 inch. 

Northern Europe. 
8. pseudopulchella, Seguenza is a synonym. 







SCALARIA. 73 

S. CLATHRATULA, Adams. PL 15, figs. 70, 61 ; PI. 13, fig. 17. 

Kather thin, semitransparent, glossy, white, irregularly, indis- 
tinctly, spirally striated; whorls 12-13, convex, with deep suture, 
crossed by about 18, subequal, thin, erect lamellae. Length, 15 mill. 

Europe ; Madeira ; New England. 

The last locality is for S. Dalliana, Verrill and Smith, (fig. 61), 
dredged by the U. S. Fish Commission, and which Dr. Jeffreys makes 
a synonym. S. Georgettina, Kiener has also been referred here by 
Dr. Jeffreys, probably correctly. 

Var SPINOSA, Jeffreys. 

The ribs a little aculeate at the suture. 
Var. PRODUCTA, Jeffreys. 

Spire longer, ribs much more numerous. 

S. HELLENICA, Forbes. PL 15, fig. 71. 

Narrow, subcylindrical, whorls 8, with low, distant costae, slightly 
coronate at the suture, aperture margined. Length, 8 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, Canary Islands. 

The figure of Rissoa coronata, Phil, which I copy, appears to 
represent that genus rather than a Scalaria but Dr. Jeffreys makes 
it a doubtful synonym. He also refers here 8. Seacchii, Homes. 

S. PULCHELLA, Bivona. PI 15, fig. 72. 

White, whorls 10, very convex, with close, numerous, slender 
lamellae. Length, 18 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
S. BAIRDII, Smith, PL 15, fig. 73. 

Bluish white, finely spirally striate; whorls 9, with moderate 
lamellae, obsolete in the middle of the whorls, raised into knobs at 
the suture, where the interstices are somewhat pitted. 

Length, 15 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

Reeve's figure of this species differs so much from the original 
illustration that I doubt it ; it recalls S. crenata, Linn. 

S. WEBBII, d'Orb. PL 17, fig. 53. 

Whorls about 6, convex, spirally striated, with about 23, equal, 
low, slight lamellae. Length, 4 mill. 

Teneriffe. 



74 SCALARIA. 

Section OPALIA, H. & A. Adams, 1853. 

S. DIANJE, Hinds. PI. 15.. fig. 74. 

Whitish, whorls ventricose, smooth, very rapidly enlarging, lamellae 

distant, broadly expanded above. Length, 9 mill. 

Amboyna. 
S. CONSORS, Crosse and Fisher. PI. 13, fig. 11. 

Narrow, whitish, whorls 11, rounded, in contact, with regular 
simple lamellae, base with spiral rib. Length, 13 mill. 

St. Vincent's Gulf, Australia. 

S. PHILTATA, Watson. PI. 18, fig. 78. 

Thin, subhyaline, white ; whorls 7, flatly convex with deep suture, 
with about 25, longitudinal oblique lamellae, cut across by two or 
three strong spiral furrows, causing the lamellae to appear in prickly 
interrupted series, base with a spiral thread. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Tristan d'Acunha, (100 to 150 fms.) 

S. LAMELLOSA, Lam. PI. 15, figs. 84, 76, 77, 82, 83. 

Whorls about 8, well rounded, smooth, flesh color, more or less 
definitely darker banded at the suture and above the basal rib, and 
intermediately marbled, lamellae thin, white, blade-like, continuous. 

Length, 1-1 '5 in. 

Mediterranean, West Indies, Sandwich Is. Mauritius. 

I include here several species which I find it impossible to 
separate by characters of value. Morch (Jour. Philad. Acad. VIII, 
200) says that the Mediterranean S. pseudoscalaris, Brocchi (fig. 77) 
differs in being narrower, with equal ribs, and that the Polynesian 
S. perplexa, Pease (fig. 83), has single high, alternating with pairs 
of lower ribs; but both these forms differ widely in series of 
specimens and are clearly traceable one into another. 

I also include here S. coronata, Lam. (fig. 76) said by Kiener to 
come from Cape of Good Hope, and by Morch believed to be West 
Indian : it appears to be merely a w r ell-grown S. lamellosa, the number 
of lamellae varying. 

This is S. clathrus of Linnaeus, 12 Edit, (not 10th Edit.) and of 
most American authors, and S. monocycla, Lam. (fig. 82). Mon- 
terosato has given the new name of commutata to the Mediterranean 
specimens because, he says, that of S. lamellosa is preoccupied by 
Brocchi for a large Grignon fossil, and the true S. pseudoscalaris , 
Brocchi is somewhat spinose. It does not seem advisable again to 



SCALARIA. 75 

change the name of this species, so long known as S. clathrus, and 
now equally well-established as 8. lamellosa. Monterosato has given 
the name Candida to a variety. 

S. NAUTL^E, Morch. PI. 15, fig. 78. 

Whorls about 8, convex, with subimpressed suture, lamellae 12, 
linear, angularly reflexed at the suture. Length, 12'5 mill. 

Mexican Gulf. 
S. ANDREWSII, Verrill. PI. 15, fig. 79. 

Whorls 7, well-rounded, white, suture deep, lamellae 13, regular, 
moderately elevated, the interstices crossed by spiral cinguli, which 
also render the ribs a little nodulous. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Off Newport, E. L, 100 fins. 

S. LONGISSIMA, Seguenza. PL 15, fig. 85. 

Whorls 11, thick, whitish, closely, lightly, spirally striated, with 
low, broad longitudinal ribs and equal interspaces. Length, 18 mill. 

European Atlantic* 

Described as an Italian pliocene fossil. 

S. FUNICULATA, Watson. PI. 18, fig. 79. 

Whorls 8-9, darkish colored, with fine close spiral striae, with 
10-12 narrow, low, strong ribs and much wider interspaces. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Off Pernambuco, Brazil* 

S. ACUS, Watson. PI. 16, fig. 92 ; PI. 18, fig. 80. 

Solid, white, faintly spirally striate; whorls 12, flatly convex, 
constricted at the suture, ribs 15-17, strong, rounded, with somewhat 
narrower interspaces. Length, 5*5 mill. 

N. Atlantic, 49-1254 fms; W. of Azores, 1000 fms; off Culebra, 
W. Ind, 390 fms. 

S. TORTILIS, Watson. PI. 18, fig. 76. 

Whorls about 10, well rounded, slowly enlarging, with 9-10 close- 
set thread-like spiral striae, extending over the 14 remote, distant, 
longitudinal ribs. Length, 10 mill. 

Off Culebra, W. Ind., 390 fms. 

S. COARCTATA, Jeffreys. PI. 15, figs. 80, 86. 

Whitish, or brownish white, solid ; whorls 7-9, convex, with very 
slight close spiral striae, and about 20 longitudinal, low, rounded 
ribs, with equal interstices. Length, 13 mill. 

Norway. 



76 SCALARIA. 

S. obtusicostata (fig. 80) and S. varicosa (fig. 86) of Bars, not 
Brocchi, are synonyms. 

S. OCHOTENSIS, Middendorff. PI. 15, fig. 87. 

Thick, white, subdiaphanous ; whorls numerous, flatly convex, 
with irregular spiral impressed striae, tand very irregular thick 
slightly oblique, low ribs. Length, 60 mill. 

So. Coast of the Sea of OchotsJc. 

One of the giants of the genus. 
S. BOREALIS, Gould. PL 16 fig. 89. 

Solid, whitish, smooth, with seven or eight, stout ribs and much 
wider interspaces, whorls about 8. Length, 1%5 in. 

Vancouver's Isl. northward. 

On account of S. borealis, Beck, an unacknowledged species, the 
name was changed independently in the year 1876 by Canefri to 
S. Gouldii, and by Morch to S. Wroblewskyi. 

S. AUSTRALIS, Lam. PL 16, fig. 90. 

Thick, whitish, whorls about 10, slightly convex, smooth, with 9 
or 10 very thick, rounded ribs. Length, 1'5 in. 

Australia. 

Very closely allied to the preceding species, which has been 
confounded with it. About the only differences consist in one or 
two more ribs to each whorl. It remains to be seen whether this 
difference is constant. 

S. MAGELLANICA, Phil. PL 15, fig. 88. 

Shell white, solid, subventricose ; whorls 8, distinct, with rather 
thick, numerous ribs, bent in a roundish angle near the suture. 
Length, 1 in. 

Straits of Magellan. 
S. GRCENLANDICA, Chemn. PL 16, fig. 91. 

Whorls 10-11, convex, thick, distantly spirally grooved, con- 
tiguous, with stout, recurved or sub-decumbent ribs. Length, l'5in. 

Greenland to Massachusetts; 

S. subulata, Couthouy is a synonym ; as is also S. planicosta, Kiener. 

S. LOVENI, A. Adams. PL 16, fig. 94. 

Whorls 8, somewhat convex, spirally sulcate, ribs flattened, 
bluntly aculeate above. Length, 15 mill. 

Arctic Sea. 



SCALARIA. 77 

Perhaps a small variety of the preceding species, from which it 
differs in the produced terminations of the ribs. 

S. UNCINATICOSTA, d'Orb. PL 16, fig. 95. 

Whorls about 6, whitish or yellowish, with distinct, regular spiral 
lirse, with 12 strong, thick equal lamellae, aculeate above. 

Length, 7 mill. 

West Indies. 
S. CANDEANA, d'Orb. PL 16, fig. 96. 

Whitish, shining, whorls 6, rapidly enlarging, convex, with close 
spiral lirse, and 12-16 simple ribs. Length, 6-9 mill. 

West Indies. 

S. acuta, Pfr, is a synonym. 
S. CRENATA, Linn. PL 16, figs, 15, 97, 98. 

Thick, white, closely spirally striated, with about 12 rather close,, 
low spiral ribs, usually becoming obsolete on the middle of the last 
whorl and produced above into sutural crenulations. 

Length, 15-17 mill. 

Southern Europe ; Canary Is ; W. Indies. 

It is S. raricostata, Costa. 
Var. S. CRENULATA, Kiener. Fig. 97. 

The West Indian specimens are wider than those of the 
Mediterranean and Morch considered them a distinct species, they 
are so close, however, in other respects, and particularly in the- 
peculiar appressed sutural crenulations of the ribs, that I hesitate 
to give them a separate position. 
Var HOTESSIERIANA, d'Orb. fig. 98. 

A v$ry narrow form, differing considerably from the usual West 
Indian type, as above, being as much narrower than S. crenata as 
the former is wider. Length, 11*5 mill. 

West Indies. 

S. crassicosta, Gray Ms. and of C. B. Adams are both referred 
here by Morch ; the former, which is figured by Sowerby from a 
specimen without locality in the British museum (fig. 15) appears 
more like the typical S. crenata. On account of the fossil S. 
crassicostata Desh. Nyst changed Gray's name to S. grossicostata* 
Morch adds S. conifera, Mtg. 

Var. CRENATOIDES, Carp. PL 16, fig. 1. 

Stout, like Var. crenulata, but shorter. Length, 13 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, S. Diego, CaL 



78 SCALARIA. 

Carpenter writes "additional specimens may connect this with the 
Portuguese S. crenata," and again, in describing the pleistocene 
fossil ? Var. insculpta, "it is quite possible that the three forms had 
a common origin." 

S. DIADEMA, Sowb. PI. 16, figs. 99, 100. 

Solid, short, ventricose, shouldered, smooth, pale fulvous or 
greyish, with thick longitudinal ribs, nodose at the shoulder-angle, 
sometimes obsolete on the middle of the last whorl. Length, 18 mill. 

Gallapagos Is. 
S. ZELEBORI, Frauenfeld. PI. 15, fig. 75. 

Whorls 9, very convex, strongly spirally costate, with rather 
broad, somewhat recurved lamellae, white, somewhat solid. 
Length, 22 mill. 

New Zealand, Australia. 
S. VULPINA, Hinds. PI. 15, fig. 81. 

Orange brown, thick, spirally striated; whorls 10, well rounded, 
with strong, rib-like lamellae. Length, 6 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 

Section AM^A, H. & A. Adams. 1853. 

S. MAGNIFICA, Sowb. PL 16, fig. 16. 

Whorls 10, well-rounded, thin, with spiral riblets and somewhat 
wider interstitial spaces showing growth-striae, on the last whorls 
occasional longitudinal, narrow ribs, white or brownish white. 

Length, 4'25 in. 

? China. 

It is S. principalis, Chemn. not Pallas. 

S. MARTINII, Wood. PI. 16, fig. 5. 

Thin, white ; whorls 7-8, convex, very minutely, closely, spirally 
striated, with occasional or numerous, irregular, varix-like ribs. 

Length, 1 in. 

Philippines, Mauritius. 

Reeve's locality, West Indies, is erroneous. S. striata, Kiener, is 
a synonym. 
S. RARICOSTATA, Lam. PI. 16, figs. 2, 3. 

White, rather thick, fimbriately cancellated (when fresh) by 
close fine lamellae and spiral striae, with occasional stout variceal 
ribs ; whorls about 6, rapidly enlarging and very convex. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Ceylon, Mauritius. 

It is S. reticulata, Helbling. 




SCALARIA. 79 

S. SUTURALIS, Hinds. PL 16, fig. 8. 

Narrow, whitish, stained with brown, minutely spirally striated ; 
whorls 9-10, convex, contiguous, rather compressed, keeled and 
grooved at the suture, with very infrequent rounded varices. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Malacca. 
S. GENICULATA, Brocchi. PI. 16, fig. 17. 

Eeddish brown, whorls 8, well rounded, with fine, close, longitu- 
dinal lamellse and occasional thick varices. Length, 1 in. 

Atlantic and Mediterranean Europe. 

First described as a pliocene fossil. Kecent specimens are occa- 
sionally dredged at considerable depths. 

S. TURRICULA, Sowb. PL 16, figs. 13, 4, 6. 

Covered perforate, rather thin, turreted, white, often with two 
faint chestnut bands, with very close fine spiral lirse; whorls 8-9, 
with 12-13 lamellse, some of which are varicose. Length, 18 mill. 

West Indies. 

S. turrita, Nyst is a synonym; S. nuda, Sowb. (figs. 4, 6), 
described without locality, appears to be another. 

S. LINEATA, Say. PL 16, figs. 14, 9. 

Shell thick, shining, porcellanous, with traces of fine lamellse, 
with wider interspaces, and occasional varices ; whorls 6-7, moder- 
ately convex, white or yellowish or brownish white with two narrow 
chestnut bands, the lower one the most conspicuous. 

Length, 12-15 mill. 

Southern Atlantic Coast of the United States. 
Reeve's figure represents a specimen in which the lamellse are 
unusually developed, whilst the normal denuded state is 
described as a new species, S. unicostata, Sowerby (fig. 9), and 
changed by Canefri to S. Fisclieriana on account of 8. uncinaticosta, 
d'Orb, mistaken by him for unicostata. 

S. ERRONEA, Canefri. PL 16, fig. 7. 

Attenuated, smooth, whitish, with fulvous apex, whorls 8, convex, 
with rare varices. Length, 18 mill. 

? Port Jackson, Australia. 

Wrongly figured by Sowerby for S. Morchi, Angas, which is a 
very different species. 



80 SCALARIA. 

Section ACIRSA, Morch, 1857. 

S. GRANULOSA, Quoy. PL 16, fig. 11. 

Rather thick, fulvous, with a white band, or whitish, very min- 
utely nodose, with vestiges of ribs, gathered and crenulated at the 
suture ; whorls about 9, a little sloping. Length, 1 1'25 in. 

Swan River, Australia. 

Very closely allied to 8. costulata, Mighels and Adams, and may 
be a variety ; it has about the same nearness to that species that & 
Australe has to 8. borealis. 

S. COSTULATA, Mighels and Adams. PL 16, figs. 10, 12, 18. 

Whitish or greyish fulvous, thick ; whorls 8, slopingly, slightly 
convex, with a spiral rib below, upper portion more or less distinctly 
longitudinally ribbed, gradually fading until the body whorl is 
smooth or nearly so. Length, 18-22 mill. 

Greenland to Cape Cod, Mass* 

Mighels describes a young specimen, in which the ribs are more 
apparent. The synonymy includes 8. borealis, Beck, 1839, proba- 
bly (not described), 8. Eschrichti(H.ol\).~), Holier (fig. 12), Turritella, 
Hibernica, Waller, and 8. undulata, Sowb. (fig. 18). 

S. SUBDECUSSATA, Cantraine. PL 16, fig. 19. 

Whorls about 11, rather flattened, the upper ones with longitu- 
dinal ribs, which soon become obsolete, distantly, lightly, spirally 
striated, a slight spiral rib on the base of the body whorl. 
Length, 23 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

Like 8. costulata, but narrower. The synonyms are 8. Philippii, 
Aradas, and probably S. striata, A. Ad., said to come from the 
Philippines. 
S. GRACILIS, Verrill. PL 16, fig. 20. 

Whorls about 6, well rounded, with deep sutures, and rather 
prominent, close, rounded ribs, fading out on the middle of the body 
whorl. Length, 5 mill. 

Martha's Vineyard. 

Probably not adult. 

S. PYRRHIAS, Watson. PL 18, fig. 75. 

Shell thin, slopingly shouldered, white ; whorls about 8, rapidly 
enlarging, with several distant spiral threads just below the shoulder- 
angle, and about 11, oblique, procumbent lamellae. Length, 5 mill. 

Off Culebra Isl. West Indies, 390 /m. 



SCALARIA. 81 

Section CIRSOTREMA, Morch, 1852. 

S. KIENERI, Canefri. PI. 17, figs. 21, 22, 26. 

Whorls about 15, well rounded, with a narrow shoulder above, 
aculeately decussated by spiral ridges crossing thin longitudinal 
lamellae. Length, 2'75 in. 

Mauritius, New Caledonia. 

S. cancellata, Humphreys, is a synonym. For the figure given by 
Kiener for this species (fig. 26) Canefri has substituted the name S. 
Kieneri, as he believes it to be different not only from Lamarck's 
species (a Grignon fossil), but also from Sowerby's figure. To the 
latter I cannot agree, for making due allowance for a worn speci- 
men, and the general unnaturalness resulting from the method of 
drawing Kiener's figures, they appear like enough. 

S. VARICOSA, Lam. PI. 17, figs. 23, 27. 

White, thick, cancellated by spiral and longitudinal lamellae, the 
longitudinal sculpture more prominent, fimbriated, with occasional 
strong tuberculated varices and a spiral basal rib ; whorls 12, with 
very slight shoulder and deep suture. Length, 2 in. 

Philippines, Australia, Mauritius. 

S. attenuata, Helbling and S. fimbriata, Lam. are synonyms. 
Var. ABBREVIATA, Sowb. Fig. 27. 

Shorter and thicker, the lamellae aculeate at the top of the 
whorls, the margin crenated. Length, 1 in. 

Mauritius. 
S. COCHLEA, Sowb. PL 17, figs. 24, 25. 

White, spirally striate, fimbriating the numerous rather thin, 
sharp longitudinal lamellae, with occasional thick tubercular 
lamellae ; whorls 8, with flattened shoulder and deep suture, basal 
rib fimbriated. Length, 1'5 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea, Madeira, W. Coast of Africa, West Indies. 

Distinguished from the preceding species by its flattened shoulder 
and general corkscrew-like appearance. The name of varicosa has 
been applied to this species but the figure in the Encyc. Meth. cited 
by Lamarck, although very poor, could never be mistaken for 
coehlea. Brocchi, in 1814, described an Italian fossil under the 
name of S. pumieea (fig. 25) which has been identified by several 
good naturalists with the present species ; if this identification be 
correct, Brocchi's name should have precedence, but I am not sat- 
6 



82 SCALARIA. 

isfied of this. Another name for the fossil species is probably S. 
^errata, Calcara. 

S. MULTIPERFORATA, Sowb. PI. 17, fig. 33. 

Fulvous, with broad, decumbent, undulated ribs, angularly fluted 
on one side, the interstices pitted ; whorls 8, compressed, channeled 
at the suture, crowned with raised points, last whorl keeled below, 
pitted at the keel, varices few, irregular, thick, raised and produced 
at the suture. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Mauritius, Singapore. 
S. MORCHI, Angas. PI. 16, iig. 7. 

Solid, whitish ; whorls 9, rounded, decussated with longitudinal 
ribs and more numerous spiral ridges, the longitudinal ones evanes- 
cent at the base, suture impressed. Length, 10 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
S. CRASSILABRUM, Sowb. PL 17, fig. 32. 

Whitish or yellowish white ; whorls 7, subbiangular, shouldered 
with deep suture, rather obsoletely ribbed, aperture with thick, 
expanded, minutely striated margin. Length, 6 mill. 

Philippines ; Central America ; Mazatlan. 

I know nothing about this species or its localities. 

S. BICARINATA, Sowb. PI. 17, fig. 28. 

Subcylindrical, whitish, narrow, very minutely cancellated, with 
two spiral ribs on the body whorl, suture pitted. Length, 18 mill. 

Philippines. 
Perhaps a variation of the last species. 

S. ATTENUATA, Pease. PI. 17, fig. 29. 

Narrower and more tapering than the preceding species, with the 
keels on the last whorl nodose and much less distinct. 
Length, 11 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Very probably a mutation of the preceding form. 
S. LEEANA, Verrill. PI. 17, fig. 31. 

Whitish, with well rounded ribs and deep suture, the ribs and 
interspaces both crossed by numerous fine, spiral striae, each whorl 
with a strong varix. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, 146 fms. 

S. DENTISCALPIUM, Watson. PI. 18, fig. 77. 

White, with 10 convex whorls and moderate suture, with very 
numerous, oblique, minute riblets, and finer and more numerous 



SCALARIA. 83 

spiral striae, mouth encircled with a strong varix. Length, 4 mill. 

Torres Sts., N. Australia. 

Section ACHILLA, H. Adams, 1860. 

S. ACUMINATA, Sowb. PI. 17, figs. 30, 35. 

Narrow, with 15 somewhat convex whorls, pale fulvous, with two 
chestnut bands, and very numerous, close longitudinal, curved 
strise, base keeled. Length, 1 '5-1*75 in. 

Malacca, Japan. 
S. FTJSCA, Sowb. PL 17, fig. 37. 

Narrow, with 9 somewhat convex whorls, yellowish brown with 
longitudinal chestnut flames, spirally very finely striated. 
Length, 22 mill. 

Sierra Leone. 
S. MINOR, Sowb. PL 17, fig. 38. 

Whorls 8, well rounded, a little angular above, yellowish brown, 
with two spiral chestnut bands, obliquely, longitudinally sinuously 
ridged, with a single spiral ridge at the lower part of the body 
whorl, and chestnut colored below it. Length, 18 mill. 

Mouth of the Indus. 

Described by A. Adams under the preoccupied name of gracilis. 
Its nearest ally is S. acuminata. 

S. PR^LONGA, Jeffreys. PL 17, fig. 36. 

Whorls 12-15, convex, gradually enlarging, with numerous sub- 
distant, oblique, curved, riblets, and about 5 spiral striae, whorls 
angulated in the middle, base with a spiral keel, and smooth below 
it. Length, 17'5 mill. 

N. Atlantic. 



Unfigured Species. 

S. FORMOSA (for S. pulcherrima, Mts., not Sowb.), S. HISPIDULA 
and S. STRIATISSIMA, Monts. Mediterranean. 

S. RUPICOLA, Kurtz. N. Carolina. 

S. LEPTALEA, Bush. N. Carolina. 

S. SUBVARICOSA (Dkr. Ms.), S. SC^EVE, S. FILARIS, S. JEOSPILA, S. 

PRETIOSULA, S. TURRITELLULA, and Var. RlISEI, S. OCTOCOSTATA, 
S. QUINDECEMCOSTATA, S. MICROMPHALA, S. ERECTISPINA, S. 

VOLUBILIS, S. SPIN^E-ROS^:, S. SPURIA (S. j}seudo-scalata, Chemn.), 
S. NOVEMCOSTATA, all of Morch. West Indies. 



84 SCALARIA. 

8. CRISPA, Lam. Kiener. Fossil. 

S. BOTTGERI, S. TROCHIFORMIS, S. SENEGALENSIS, Maltzan. 

Senegal. 
S. KOBELTI, Jickeli. Red Sea. 

S. SPIRALIS, S. LILIPUTANA, S. PRJECLARA, S. FIMBRIATA, S. ELEGAN- 
TULA, S. TRABECULATA, S. SOLUTA, S. (OPALIA) EXQUI8ITA, S. 

(CIRSOTREMA) CRIBARIUM, (S. CIRSOTREMA) TURBONILLA, all of 
A. Adams. Japan. 

S. TENELLA (S. lineolata, Htn., not Kiener, and S. lyra, Htn., not 
Sowb.) Hutton. New Zealand. 

S. CANCELLATA, Woods. Tasmania. 

S. FUCATA, S. MILLECOSTATA, S. UMBiLicATA, Pease. Sandwich Is. 

S. REFLEXA, S. CREBRICOSTATA, S. BELLASTRIATA, S. SUBCORONATA, 

S. HINDSII, S. (OPALIA) RETIPOROSA, S. (OPALIA), SPONGIOSA, S. 
(ACIRSA), MENESTHOIDES, all of Carpenter. 

W. Coast of N. America. 

S. CROSSEANA ($. bullata, Carp., not Sowb.) and S. CARPENTERI 
(S. raricostata, Carp., not Lam.) Tapparone Canefri. 

W. Coast of N. America. 

Subgenus CONST ANTIA, H. Adams, 1860. 

S. JUCUNDA, Canefri. PL 17, fig. 41. 

Thin, pale brown, rimate, whorls 6, slightly convex, the three 
first smooth, the others decussated by slight close longitudinal 
plications and spiral striae. Length, 4 mill. 

/Straits of Corea. 

Described by A. Adams under the name of Constantia elegans, 
which being preoccupied in Scalaria, was changed by Nyst to 
Japonica (also preoccupied) and subsequently by Canefri as above. 

S. TANTILLA, A. Ad. (unfigured). Japan. 

Subgenus CROSSEIA, A. Adams, 1865. 

S. MIRANDA, A. Ad. PI. 17, fig. 48. 

White, whorls 3-4, rapidly increasing, very convex, spirally 
striate, and with 3-4 thin, low, longitudinal varices, aperture pro- 
duced below. Length, 4 mill. 

Is. Gotto, Japan, 71 fathoms. 



SCALARIA, SCALIOLA. 85 

S. BELLULA, A. Adams. PL 17. fig. 46. 

More globose than the preceding species, regularly spirally 
striated with trellised interstices, umbilicus covered by a callus, 
columella projecting at the base. Length, 1*5 mill. 

Is. Gotto, Japan, 64 fms. 

Very probably an embryonic shell, and its pertinence . to this 
group is somewhat doubtful. 
S. CONCINNA, Angas. PL 17, fig. 45. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, white, semipellucid, suture 
distinct , whorls 5, rounded, first three transversely ribbed and lon- 
gitudinally striated, remainder transversely punctate-striate ; um- 
bilicus bordered by a rounded callus ; aperture with a channeled 
angular projection in front. Diarn. 4 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

This species, like the last, appears to be a young shell, and a 
doubtful member of the group. 
S. STRIATA, Watson. PL 18, fig. 68. 

White, spirally striated, Avith a small, strongly bordered umbili- 
cus ; whorls 4, well rounded, a litle tabulated below the suture, last 
w r horl tumid. Length, 1*5 mill. 

Near Cape York, N. Australia. 

Differs in form and striae from the preceding species. 



S. CANCELLATA, (Delpliinula Johnstoni, Beddome), and S. LABIATA, 
Tenison Woods. Unfigured. Tasmania. 

Genus SCALIOLA, A. Ad., 1860. 

S. BELLA, A. Ad. PL 17, fig. 39. 

Umbilicated, thin, white ; whorls 9, convex, covered with agglu- 
tinated grains of sand, suture channeled. Length, 4 mill. 

Japan. 
S. CALEDONICA, Crosse. PL 17, fig. 42. 

Umbilicus scarcely rimate, whitish, with agglutinated grains of 
sand ; whorls 9, convex. Length, 3*25 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
Differs in form from the preceding species. 

S. ARENOSA, A. Ad. PL 17, fig. 47. 

Scarcely rimate, turriculated, with narrow shoulder, white ; 
whorls 7, convex, suture deep. Length, 2'75 mill. 

N. Australia ; Honolulu, Sandwich Is. 



86 EGLISIA, ACLIS. 

Unfigured Species. 

S. GLAREOSA and S. GRACILIS, A. Ad. Japan. 

S. ELATA, Semper Ms. Red Sea. 

Genus EGLISIA, Gray, 1840. 
E. SPIRATA, Sowb. PI. 18, fig. 58. 

Pyramidally turreted; whitish, obliquely stained with fulvous 
brown; whorls 12, concavely shouldered at the suture, spirally 
somewhat obtusely ridged. Length, 2 in. 

St. Thomas, W. Indies. 
It is E. suturalis, Gray. A very rare shell. 
E. LANCEOLATA, Reeve. PI. 18, fig. 59. 

Light fulvous bay, with 8 rather obscure spiral ridges, the inter- 
stices microscopically cancellated ; w r horls about 18, rounded, with 
deep suture. Length, 1*5 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 
E. TRICARINATA, Ads. and Reeve. PL 18, figs. 60, 61. 

Turreted, of 18 tricarinate whorls, cancellately striate, slightly 
shouldered, with deep suture, ashy brown. Length, 2'25 in. 

China Sea. 

Var. CONSPERSA, Ads. and Reeve. Fig. 61. 
Longitudinally undulated with chestnut. 
E. GRACILIS, Maltzan. PL 18, fig. 62. 

Turreted, whorls 9, distinct, shouldered, closely spirally striated, 
violet brown, somewhat tessellated with whitish, aperture chestnut. 
Length, 15 mill. 

Ins. Goree, W. Africa. 

A variety is yellowish with sigmoid flames and dots of brown. 
It is the type of the genus Smithia of Maltzan, but appears to differ 
only from the typical Eglisia in being a little more unwound. 



Unfigured Species. 

E. CUMINGII, A. Ad. Japan* 

E. PLICATA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

Genus ACLIS, Loven, 1846. 

Section ACLIS (sensu stricto). 

A. ASCARIS, Turton. PL 17, fig. 50. 

Whorls 8-9, convex, with deep suture, white, solid, semitrans- 
parent, rather glossy, with four or five strong spiral ridges, base of 



ACLIS. 87 

body whorl smooth. Length, 2'5 mill. 

N. Europe. 

A. SUPRANITIDA, Searles Wood, PI. 17, figs.49, 56. 

Whorls 12, broader, and more rapidly increasing than in the 
preceding species, distinctly umbilicated, surface varying L from 
smooth and glossy to several spiral ridges, obsolete or distinct, round 
shouldered. Length, 6'25 mill. 

Europe, Madeira. 

A. WALLERI, Jeffreys. PI. 18, fig. 65. 

Narrowly umbilicated, whorls 10, rather convex in the middle, 
sloping above and below, with deep suture, shell very thin, trans- 
parent, lustrous, with a few microscopic spiral striae. 
Length, 3'5 mill. 

N. Europe, Labrador, N. England. 

It is A. Nisoides, Brugn. 

A. CARINATA, Smith. PL 18, fig. 63. 

Whorls 9, slightly convex, with narrow spiral sulcations, the 
periphery subacutely carinated ; soiled white. Length, 10 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

A. STRIATA, Verrill. PI. 18, fig. 70. 

Whorls 5, well-rounded, with deep suture, whitish, rimate, closely 
spirally striated. Length, 4 mill. 

Near Eastport, Me. ; off Newport, R. I. 

A. TENTHS, Verrill. PI. 18, fig. 71. 

Very slender, white, glossy, whorls 9, evenly rounded, nearly 
smooth, with microscopic spiral lines or obscure angles on the lower 
whorls, suture well impressed, umbilicus rimate. Length, 3'8 mill. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, Mass., 100 fms. 

Section HEMI ACLIS, Sars., 1878. 

A. VENTROSA, Jeffreys. PI. 16, fig. 93. 

White, whorls 8, well rounded, smooth, rapidly increasing, suture 
well impressed, narrowly margined. Length, 6 mill. 

Lofoten Isl. ; Bergen ; Mediterranean Sea. 

A. inflata, Monts. is a synonym. 



88 ACLIS. 

A. GLABRA, Sars. PI. 18, figs. 72, 73. 

Shining, vitreous, white, smooth ; whorls 9, convex, narrower 
and not so rapidly increasing as the preceding species. 
Length, 5*5 mill. 

Norway 
A. EXIGUA, Sars. PI. 17, fig. 57. 

Whitish, subopaque, glabrous, whorls 8, slightly convex, the last 
a little dilated at the aperture, umbilicus distinctly rimate. 
Length, 2 mill. 

Arctic Norway. 

A. ATTENUANS, Jeffreys. PL 17, fig. 40. 

Thin, white, smooth, transparent, glossy; whorls 6-7, convex, 
suture well-defined, but not deep. Length 1/25 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

The aperture is a little more contracted below than in the last 
species and the columella more perpendicular; perhaps not adult. 
A. SARISSA, Watson. PL 17, fig. 54. 

Smooth, white, glossy, umbilicus a mere chink ; whorls 9 ; well 
rounded ; with a few slight growth lines. Length, 3'75 mill. 

Off Pernambuco, 350 fms. 

Broader, with fewer, rounder whorls than in A. Walleri. 

A. MINUTISSIMA, Watson. PL 17, fig. 55. 

Smooth, pale brownish hyaline ; whorls 7, slightly convex, 
aperture a little narrowly produced below. Length '25 mill. 

OffRaine Isl, N. E. Australia, 155 fms. 

Probably the smallest known gastropod, being the one-hundredth 
of an inch in length. 

Section GRAPHIS, Jeffreys, 1867. 

A. UNICA, Montagu. PL 18, fig. 66. 

Thin, white, semitransparent, somewhat glossy, with numerous 
flexuous, longitudinal ribs, reticulated by many fine spiral ridges or 
striae ; whorls 9-10. moderately convex', very slowly increasing, with 
deep suture. Length, 3 mill. 

Europe. 
A. GRACILIS, Jeffreys. PL 18, fig. 67. 

Thick, semitransparent, glossy, yellowish white; whorls 5, 
convex, very slowly increasing, a little round shouldered, with about 




ACLIS. 

25 sharp, flexuous, longitudinal ridges, and no spiral sculpture. 
Length, 2*5 mill. 

Mediterranean, Bay of Biscay, W. Africa, Azores. 

A. HYALINA, Watson. PI. 17, fig. 52. 

Minutely umbilicated, thin, glossy, white ; whorls 12, convex, 
.smooth or with faint indications of ribs, especially on the upper 
whorls, under a lens the surface appears angulated or malleated 
with slight decussating stride. Length, 10 mill. 

Off Pernambuco, 350 fms. 

A. JEFFREYSII, Tryon. PI. 18, fig. 69. 

Thin, semitransparent, glossy, whitish ; whorls 8, very slowly 
enlarging, with close, longitudinal, thread-like riblets, and very 
slight microscopic spiral striae ; no umbilicus. Length, 3'75 mill. 

Tunis; W. Coast of Africa, 300-1 261 fms. 

Described by Dr. Jeffreys as A. striata, a name preoccupied by 
Prof. Verrill. 

A. MIZON, Watson. PI. 17, fig. 51. 

Thin, lustrous, white ; whorls 15-16, convex, with about 40 
feeble, unequal, rounded riblets ; minutely umbilicated. 
Length, 15 mill. 

Teneriffe. 

Section PHERUSA, Jeffreys, 1869. 

A. GULSON^, Clark. PI. 17, fig. 43. 

Very thin, transparent, lustrous, clear white, without sculpture, 
spire with a blunt, nearly globular apex, which is decidedly intro- 
verted but not sinistral ; whorls 6-7, convex, with deep suture ; 
outer lip remarkably flexuous, prominent, expanding, almost 
notched below ; umbilicus closed, but with a chink-like depression. 
Length, T7 mill. 

Europe, Madeira. 

Section IOL^EA, A. Adams, 1860. 

A. SCITULA, A. Ad. PI. 17, fig. 44. 

Rather solid, white ; whorls 6, slightly convex, with subdistant 
spiral grooves, the interstices longitudinally finely striated. 
Length, 3 mill. 

Strait of Corea. 



90 ACLIS, STILBE. 

Unfigured Species of Aclis. 
A. (IOL^EA) AMABILIS, A. (loL^EA) scuLPTiLis, A. Ad. Japan. 

A. LABIATA, A. CINGULATA, A. SULCATA, A. LIRATA, A. FULGIDA, 
A. CRYSTALLINA, A. LOVENIANA, A. (EBALA) DIAPHANA, A. 

(EBALA) SCINTILLANS, A. (EBALA) VESTALIS, A. (EBALA) 

VIRGINEA, all of A. Adams. Japan. 

A. ANGULATA, Fischer. Figure inaccessible. 

A. CRENULATA, Folin. Andaman Is. 

A. MICRA, A. TURRITA, Petterd. Tasmania. 

A. HYALINA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

A. TRISTRIATA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

A. POLITA (Verrill). r=EuLiMELLA, Manual, viii, 342- 

Genus STILBE, Jeffreys, 1884. 

S. ACUTA, Jeffreys. PL 18, fig. 64. 

Umbilicus minutely rimate, thin, semitransparent, milk white 
smooth ; whorls 10, moderately convex. Length, 6*25 mill. 

N. Atlantic 0.; Long. 54 33' W., lat. 55 36' N. ; 1622 fins. 



NDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



SCALARIID/E, IANTHINID/C, TRICHOTROPIDXE. 



PAGE 

Abbreviata (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 124, 1874. 

= S. varicosa, Lam. Var. ....... 81 

Achates (Gistel), Morch. Jour, de Conch., 277, 1860, . . 34 

Aciculina (Scalaria), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 125, 1843, . 69 

Aciona, Leach. Zool. Misc., ii, 79, 1815 = Scalaria, Lam. 50 
Acirsa, Morch. Prodr. Moll. Groenl., 1857 ; H. & A. A^ams, 

Genera, ii, 621, 1858, 50, 80 

Aclis, Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., 16, 1846, . ; .52, 86 

Aclisina, Koninck. Bull. Brux, 1881. = Holopella, M'Coy, 53 
Acrilla, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 241, 1860, . . 51, 83 

Actseonema, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 147, 1865, . . 53 

Aculeata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 12, 1844, . . 63 
Acuminata (Trichotropis), Jeffreys. Malac. and Conch. Mag., 

No. 2, 36. = T. borealis, Brod. and Sowb. ... 43 

Acuminata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p, 31, 1844, . . 83 
Acus (Scalaria), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvi, p. 607, 

1883, 75 

Acuta (Scalaria), Pfr. Archiv. fur Naturg., p. 256, 1840. 

= S. Candeana, d'Orb 77 

Acuta (Stilbe), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 130, t. 10, f. 2, 1884, . 90 
Aeospila (Scalaria), Morch. Journ, Phila. Acad., viii, p. 202, 

1875, 83 

Affinis (lanthina, Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 2, 1858. 

= I. fragilis, Lam. Var. . . ... . . .37 

Africana (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 8, 1858. 

= I. fragilis, Lam. ........ 37 

Alata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 10, 1844, ... 55 

Alba (lanthina), Anthon. Verzeichniss, p. 50, 1839, . . 38 
Albida (Scalaria), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 17, t. 10, f. 

24, 25, 1853. = S. eburnea, Pot. and Mich. ... 71 

Albolineata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 33, f. 52, 1847, 68 

Algeriana (Scalaria), Weink. Journ. de Conch., p. 247, 1866, 64 
Alora, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 27, 1861, . .40 
Alta (Trichotropis, bicarinata, var.), Dall. Amer. Journ. 

Conch., vii, p. 120, 1872, . 42 

Amsea, H. and A. Adams. Genera of Rec. Moll, i, 223, 1853, 50, 78 

Amabilis (lolsea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 310, 1867, . . 90 
Amethistina (Schinz, 1825), Morch. Jour, de Conch., 282, 

1860, ... 34 

(91) 



92 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Andre wsii (Scalaria), Verrill. Conn. Trans., v, p. 526, t. 57, 

f. 35, 1882, 75 

Angulata (Scalaria), Say. Amer. Conch., iii, t. 27, 1831, . 70 
Angulata (Aclis), Fischer. Berchon's Fonds de la Mer., i, p. 

150, t. 23, f. 1, 90 

Angusta (Scalaria eburnea, var.), Morch. Journ. Phila. 

Acad., viii, p. 199, 1875, 71 

Angusta (Scalaria), Dkr. Moll. Japonica, p. 13, t. 1, f. 11, 

1861,. . . . . 65 

Annamitica (Recluzia Rollandiana, var.), Wattebled. Journ. 

de Conch., p. 67, t. 3, f. 4, 1886, 38 

Aperta (Recluzia), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., iii, 

114. =5= Torellia vestita, Jeffreys 39, 46 

Arenosa (Scaliola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., Dec., 1862, . 85 
Ariadna , Fischer. Jour, de Conch., xii, 247, 1864, . . 40 
Arctica (Cancellaria), Midd. Beitrage, p. 112, t. 9, f. 11, 12, 

15, 1849. = Trichotropis Kroyeri, Phil. . . . . 44 
Ascaris (Aclis), Turton. Conch. Diet., 217, .... 86 
Atlantica (lanthina nitens, var.), Morch. Journ. de Conch., 

p. 280, 1860. = I. globosa, Swains 37 

Atlantica (Trichotropis), (Beck), Moller. Index Moll. 

Grcenl., p. 85, 1842. = T. borealis, Brod. and Sowb. . 43 
Attenuans (Aclis), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xi, 

p. 396, t. 16, f. 3, 1883, ....... 88 

Attenuata (Scalaria), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 400, 1860, . . 82 
Attenuata (Scalaria), Sowb. (not Pse.). Conch. Icon., sp. 116, 

1874. = S. microsoma, Tap.-Canefri 67 

Attenuates (Turbo), Helbling. Abhand. Privat-Gesell. 

Bohm., iv, t. 1, f. 10, 1779. = S. varicosa, Lam. . . 81 
Aurita (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 26, 1844, . 59 

Aurita (Scalaria occidentalis, var.), Morch. Journ. Phila. 

Acad., viii, p. 196, 1875, . . . . . .63 

Australis (Scalaria), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vi, 2nd Ed., p. 

228, f. 6, . . . 76 

Austro-Caledonica (Scalaria), Montrouzier. Journ. de Conch., 

p. 373, 1859, . . 62 

Bairdii (Scalaria), Smith. Zool. Proc., p. 734, t. 75, f. 14, 

1871, 73 

Balteata (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 11, 1858. 

= I. planospirata, Ad. and Rve 36 

Bella (Scaliola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., vi, p. 120, 1860, . 85 

Bellastriata (Scalaria), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 221, 1868, . 84 

Bellula (Crossea), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., xv, p. 323, 1865, 85 
Bensoni (Recluzia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 402, 

1861, 39 

Bicarinata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 30, 1844, . . 82 
Bicarinata (Trichotropis)* Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Journ., iv, 

p. 374, t. 11, f. 4-8, 42 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 93 

PAGE. 

Bicolor (lanthina), Less. Voy. Coq., ii, pt. i, p. 365, t. 8, f. 

2, 9, n. 1830. ? = I. planospirata, Ad. and Reeve. . . 36 
Bicolor (lanthina), O. Costa. Cat. Syst., p. cvi, No. 27, 1829. 

= I. Coste, Morch. . . . . . . . .36 

Bicolor (lanthina), Menke. Synopsis, p. 84, 1828. 

= I. fragilis, Lam 36 

Bifida (lanthina), Nuttall. Jay's Cat. of Shells, p. 68. 

= I. exigua, Lam. ..... 38 

Blainvilleana (Separatista), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 22, t. 

1, f. 5, 1851, .... . . .45 

Blandii (Scalaria echinati-costa, var.), Morch. Journ. Phila. 

Acad., viii, p. 195, t. 29, f. 8, 1875, ... .64 

Bcettgeri (Scalaria), Maltz. Nachrichtsb. der Deutsch. 

Malak., xvii, p. 26, 1885, . . 84 

Borealis (Trichotropis), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Journ., iv, 

p. 375, . . . 42 

Borealis (Scalaria), Gld. U. S. Expl. Exped., p. 207, . . 76 
Borealis (Scalaria), Beck. Ind., 1839. 

= S. costulata, Mighels and Adams 76, 80 

Brevis (Scalaria), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 390, t. 75, 

f. 22-24, .58 

Britannica (lanthina), Leach. MSS. Forbes and Hanley, 

Brit. Moll., iv, 260. I. fragilis, Lam. var. ... 37 
Bulbulus (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, t. 34, f. 85, . 56 
Bullata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 27, 1844, . . 55 
Bullata (Scalaria), Cpr. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xv, p. 397, 

1865. = S. Crosseana, Canefri. ..... 84 

Cselatura, Conrad. Am. Journ. Conch., i, 28, 1865. 

= Acteeonema, Conrad. ....... 53 

Cseruleata (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 7, 1858. 

= I. planospirata, Ad. and Rve. ... .36 

Caledonica (Scaliola), Crosse. Journ. de Conch., xviii, p. 

299, 1870, ' ... 85 

Callonema, Hall. Pal. N. York, v, pt. 2, 1879. 

- Elasmonema, Fischer. . . . . . .53 

Cancellata (Scalaria), Tenison- Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

p. 122, 1877, .... . .84 

Cancellata (Crossea), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 85 

Cancellata (Scalaria), Humph. Mus. = S. Kieneri, Canefri. 81 
Cancellata (Trichotropis), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 17, 1843. . 43 
Candeana (Scalaria), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 20, t. 11, 

f. 28, 30, 1853, .77 

Candida (Scalaria pseudoscalaris, var.), Monts. Jour, de 

Conch., 37, 1877, 74 

Candidissima (Scalaria), Monts. Journ. de Conch., p. 37, t. 

2, f. 5, 1877; . .... .72 

Cantrainei (Scalaria), Weink. Journ. de Conch., xiv, p. 

246, 1866. = S. muricata, Risso 72 



94 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Capreolata (lanthina), Montrouzier. Journ. de Conch., t. 2, 

f. 4, 1860. = I. exigua, Lamarck 38 

Carinata (Aclis), Smith. Zool. Proc., p. 734, t. 75, f. 20, 

1871, 87 

Carinata (Seguenzia), Jeffreys. Proc. Roy. Soc., p. 201, 1876, 47 
Carpenteri (Scalaria), Tap. Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 154, 

1876, ... . 84 

Carpenteri (lanthina), Morch. Journ.de Conch., p. 277, 1860. 

= I. fragilis, Lam 36 

Casta (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 4, 1858. 

I. planospirata, Ad. and Rve. ..... 36 

Casta (Scalaria), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. Conch. Icon., sp. 86, 

1873, .... 67 

Catanuanensis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 27, 1844, s . 61 
Catanuanensis (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon., fig. 67 (not 

of text). = S. pulcherrina, Sowb. ..... 68. 

Cedo-nulli (Trichotropis), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., v, p. 411, 

1860, . . 44 

Celesti (Scalaria), Aradas. = S. frondosa, Sowb., 1853, . 65 
Centiquadra (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 

194, t. 29, f. 4, 1875, .64 

Chemnitzii (Separatista), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 45, 1850, . 45 
Ciliata (Trichotropis), Kuzer. Sowb. Thes. Conch. Plate. 

= S. Kroyerr, Phila 44 

Cingulata (Aclis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., vi, p. 118, 1860, . 90 
Cioniscus, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., v, 210, 1869. 

= Graphis, Jeffreys. ........ 52 

Cirsotrema, Morch. * Yoldi Cat., i, 49, 1852, ... 50, 81 

Clathrata (Trichotropis), A. Ad. MSS. Thes. Conch, plate. 43 

Clathratula (Scalaria), Adams. Microscope, t. 14, f. 19, . 73 
Clathrus, Oken. Lehrb. Zool., 1815, . . . ^ 50, 62 
Clathrus (Scalaria), Say (not Linn). Am. Conch., iii, PI. 27. 

S. angulata, Say. . . . . . * . .71 

Clathrus (Turbo), Authors (not Linn). 

=Scalaria communis, Lama. ...... 72 

Clathrus (Scalaria), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1237 (not of 

Edit., x). = S. lamellosa, Lam. ..... 74 

Clementina (Scalaria), Grat. Mem. sur les coq., p. 61, 1840. 56 

Coarctata (Scalaria), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 139, 1884, . 75 

Cochlea (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 35, f. 142, . . 81 
Communis (Scalaria), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. Edit. Desh., 

ix, 75, 72 

Communis (lanthina), Costa. Cat., p. 112, 1829. 

= I. globosa, Swaiuson 37 

Communis (lanthina), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. Edit. Desh., 

ix, p. 4. - I. fragilis, Lam * . .36 

Commutata (Scalaria), Monts. Ann. Mus. Genova, ix, 420. 

S. lamellosa, Lam. ....... 74 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 95 

PAGE. 

Compsopleura, Conrad. Am. Journ. Conch., i, 28, 1865. 

= Opalia, H. and A. Ad. . . 50 

Concinna (Crossea), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 911, t. 44, f. 14, 

1867, 85 

Concinna (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 28, 1844, . . 67 
Conica (Trichotropis), Moll. Index Moll. Groenl., p. 82, . 43 
Conifera (Scalaria), Mtg. Brit. Shells, p. 314. 

= S. Hotesseriana, d'Orb . 77 

Connexa (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 28, 1844, . . 69 
Conspersa (Turritella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

47. =Eglisia tricarinata, Ad. and Rye, var. ... 86 
Consors (Scalaria), Crosse and Fisch. Journ. de Conch, p. 

347, 1864, 74 

Constantly A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., v, 300, 1860, 51, 84 
Contorta (lanthina Carpenteri, var.), Carp. Cat., p. 186. 

= I. fragilis, Lam. ........ 36 

Coronata (Scalaria), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vi, 227. . 

= S. lamellosa, Lam. ........ 74 

Coronata (Scalaria), Scacc. Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 127, 1844. 

= S. Hellenica, Forbes. . .... 73 

Coronata (Scalaria), Weink. Journ. de Conch., x, p. 348, 

1862. = S. Algeriana, Weink. . . . . .64 

Coronata (Trichotropis), Gld. Bost. Proc., f. 324, 1860; 

Krause, Archiv. fur Naturg, li, 268, . . ^ . .43 

Costse (lanthina), Morch. Journ. de Conch., 2d Ser., iv. 274, 

1860. = I. fragilis, Lam .36 

Costellata (Trichotropis), Couthouy. Bost. Journ., ii, t. 3, f. 

2, 1839. = T. borealis, Brod. and Sowb 43 

Costulata (Turritella), Mighels and Adams. Bost. Journ. 

Nat. Hist., iv, 50, 1842. == Scalaria 80 

Costulata (Scalaria), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 5, t. 2, f. 4, . . 57 
Crassa (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, t. 33, f. 55, . . 59 
Crassicosta (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., p. 6, 1845. 

=; S. Hotesseriana, d'Orb. ... ... 77 

Crassicosta (Scalaria), Gray. Brit. Mus. Sowb. Thes., p. 104, 

f. 119, 1847. = S. Hotesseriana, d'Orb 77 

Crassilabrum (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 135, t. 35, 

f. 115, 116, 1847, 82 

Creberrima (Scalaria), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 125, 1843, . 68 
Crebricostata (Scalaria), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 222, 1868, 84 
Crenata (Scalaria), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1238, . . 77 
Crenatoides (Scalaria), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d Ser., 

xiv, 47, 1864. = O. crenata, L. Var. .... 77 

Crenulata (Aclis), Folin. Moll. Andaman., p. 5, . . .90 
Crenulata (Scalaria), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 17, t. 6, f. 20. 

= S. crenata, Linn, var. ....... 77 

Crenulata (Scalaria), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 290, 

t. 24, f. 13, 1867 54 



96 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE, 

Cribrarium (Cirsotrema), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii ,p. 483, 

1861, . . ^ . . . ' 84 

Crispa (Scalaria), Lam. Ann. du Mus., viii, t. 37, f. 5, a. b. 84 
Crispa (Scalaria), Scacchi. = S. frond osa, Sowb. . . 65 
Crispata (Scalaria), Pse. Amer. Journ. of Conch., iii, p. 

289, t. 24, f. 12, 1867, 61 

Crosseana (Scalaria), Tap.-Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 154, 

1876, 84 

Crosseia, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xv, 323, 1865, 51, 84 
Crystallina (Aclis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

43, 1861, .90 

Cumingii (Eglisia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 204, 1850, . . 86 
Curvilineata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 94, t. 32, 

f, 59, 1847, . . . : . . ... .70 

Cyclora, Hall. Am. Journ. Science, xlviii, 294, 1845. 

= Holopea, Hall. . . 35 

Cyclostoma, Lam. Prodr. (in part), 1799. = Scalaria, Lam. 50 

Dalliana (Scalaria), Verrill and Smith. Amer. Journ. Sci., 

xx, p. 395, 1880. = S. clathratula, Turton, ... 73 
Decollata (lanthina), Carp. Cat. Reigen Coll., p. 187. 

= I. globosa, Swains, ....... 37 

Decussata (Scalaria), Pse. Amer. Journ. of Conch., iii, p. 

289, t. 24, f. 10, 1867, . 65 

Decussata (Scalaria), Sowb. ('not Lamarck). Thes. Conch., 

t. 35, f. 140. = S. Kieneri; Canefri 81 

Decussata (Scalaria), Kien. Coq. Viv., t. 7, f. 25. 

= S. Kieneri, Canefri 81 

Delicata (Torellia), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 222, t. 28, f. 3, 

1844, 46 

Delicatula (Scalaria), Crosse. Journ. de Conch., p. 347, t. 3, 

f. 9, 10, 1864, ... . . 69 

Delicatula (Seguenzia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 

48, 1882, . .48 

Delicatula (Scalaria), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 274, t. 19, f. 9, 

1869. = S. tenera, H. Ad 62 

Densistriata (Trichotropis), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 48, t. 5, f. 

8, 8a, 1885, 44 

Denticulata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 87, t. 32, f. 

25, 26, 1847. = S. centiquadra, Morch 64 

Dentiscalpium (Scalaria), Watson. Journ. Linn Soc., xvi, p. 

607, 1883, ... 82 

Depressa (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 14, 1858. 

= I. planospirata, Ad. and Rve. ..... 36 

Diadema (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 55, 1832, . . 78 
Diana; (Scalaria), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 125, 1843, . . 74 
Diaphana (Ebala), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vii, 44, 1861, 90 
Dolium (Trichotropis), Petit. Journ. de. Conch., ii, p. 21, t. 

1, f. 4, 1851. = T. Kroyeri, Phil -44 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 97 

PACE. 

d'Orbignyanum (Trichotropis), Petit. Journ. de Conch., p. 

261, t. 7, f. 2, 1851. = Coralliophila, Manual ii, 206, . 45 

Dubia (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 13, 1844, . . 60 

Ducalis (Scalaria), Morch. Mai. Blatt., p. 143, 1875, . . 69 

Ebala, Leach. MS. Gray, Zool. Proc., 147, 1847. 

= Aclis, Loven. 52 

Eburnea (Scalaria), Pot. and Mich., Cat. Douai, p. 344, t. 31, 

f. 1-2, 1838 ; Morch. Journ. A. N. S., viii, p. 199, t. 29, f. 10, 71 
Echinati-costa (Scalaria), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 18, t. 

11, f. 46, 1853, , .... 64 

Eglisia, Gray. Synops. Brit. Mus., 1840, ... 51, 86 
Elasmonema, Fischer. Man. de Conch., 778, 1885, . . 53 
Elata (Scaliola), Semper, in Sched. Issel, Mar Rosso, 198, . 86 
Elegans (Seguenzia), Jeffreys. Proc. Roy. Soc., p. 200, 1876, 47 
Elegans (Scalaria), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 389, t. 54, 

f. 1-2. = S. Orbignyi, Nyst. . . . . . .70 

Elegans (Constantia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., v, 

300, 1860. = Scalaria jucunda, Tap.-Canefri. . . . 84 
Elegantula (Scalaria), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 481, 1861, 84 
Elenensis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 29, 1844, . . 70 
Ellipsoidea (Trichotropis), Gould. Bost. Proc., 324, 1860, . 45 
Elongata (lanthina), Maravig. Aradas and Benoit, 148. 

= I. globosa, Swains, 37 

Erectispina (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 

196, 1875, . 83 

Eritima (Seguenzia), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, 189, . 47 
Erronea (Scalaria), Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 155, 1876, 79 
Erythrsea (Recluzia), Jickeli. Jahrb. Malak. Gesell., ix, 367, 

1882, 39 

Eschrichti (Scalaria), Moller. Kroyer's Tidsskr, iv, p. 83, 

1842. = S. costulata, Migh 80 

Exigua (lanthina), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vi, p. 206, . 37 
Exigua (Aclis), G. O. Sars. Moll. Arct. Norv., p. 196, t. 22, 

f. 8, 1878, 88 

Eximia (Scalaria), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 51, t. 

11, f. 16, 1850, . . . ."' 63 

Eximia (Scalaria), Pecchioli. = S. frondosa, Sowb. . . 65 
Exquisita (Opalia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., xiii, p. 310, 

1864, . .... .84 

Fasciata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 11, 1844, . . 55 
Fibula (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 17, 1858. 

= I. fragilis, Lam. Var. . . . . . .37 

Filaris (Scalaria), Morch. Jour. Philad. Acad., viii, 203, 1876, 83 
Fimbriata (Torellia), Verrill and Smith. Conn. Trans., v, p. 

520, t. 57, f. 27, 27a, 1882, 46 

Fimbriata (Scalaria), Lam. E. M., t. 451, f. 4a, b. 

= S. varicosa, Lam. ........ 81 

7 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Fimbriata (Scalaria), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 480, 

1861, 84 

Fimbriata (Trichotropis), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 48, t. v, f. 7, 

7a, 1885, 44 

Fischeriana (Scalaria), Tap.-Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 

152, 1876. == S. lineata, Say 79 

Flavida (Trichotropis), Hinds. Voy. Sulph., t. 11, f. 11, 12, 

1844. = T. cancellata, Brod. and Sowb. . . . .43 
Foliacei-costa (Scalaria), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 17, t. 

11, f. 26-28, 1853, 63 

Formosa (Sequenzia), Jeffreys. Proc. Roy. Soc., p. 200, 1876. 

(Wood cuts.) = S. monocingulata, Seguenza. ... 46 
Formosa (Scalaria), Monts. Poche Note, p. 12, ... 83 
Formosissima (Scalaria), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p' 140, t. 10, 

f. 10, 1884, . . . . ' . . . . . .62 

Fragilis (lanthina), Lesson. Voy. Coq., p. 363, t. 8, f. 1. 

? I. planospirata. Ad. and Rve. ..... 36 

Fragilis (lanthina), Lam. Syst. Anim. sans Vert., p. 89, 1801, 36 
Fragilis (Scalaria), Hanley. Book of Species. 

= S. eburnea, Pot. and Mich. . . . . . .71 

Friabilis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 27, 1844, . . 61 
Frondosa (Scalaria), Sowb. Min. Conch., vi, p. 149, t. 577, 

f. 1, 1829, . . . . . . . . . .65 

Fucata (Scalaria), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 400, 1860, . . 84 
Fulgida (Aclis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 43, 

1861, . 90 

Funiculata (Scalaria), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, 609, 

1883, 75 

Funis, Seeley. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d Ser., vii, 285, 1861, . 51 
Fusca (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 30, 1844, . . .83 

Geniculata (Scalaria), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. Subap., ii, p. 

659, t. 16, f. 1, 79 

Georgettina (Scalaria), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 14, t. 5, f. 15, . 73 

Glabrata (Scalaria), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 124, 1843, . . 59 

Glabra (Hemiaclis), Sars. Moll. Norv., 198, 1878, . . 88 

Glareosa (Scaliola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., Dec., 1862, . 86 

Globosa (lanthina), Swainson. Zool. Illustr., 1st Sec., ii, t. 37 

85, 1822, 

Globosa (Recluzia), E. A. Smith. Journ. Linn. Soc., xii, p. 

551, t. 30, f. 8, 1876, 39 

Gouldi (Scalaria), Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 154, 1876. 

= S. borealis, Gould. 76 

Gouldii (Trichotropis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 369, 1856 ; Ibid, 

272, 1861, 45 

Gracilenta (Trichotropis), Braz. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, p. 

313,1876, 45 

Gracilenta (Scalaria), Gld. Bost. Proc., ii, p. 252, 1847. . 66 

Gracilis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 12, 1844, . . 67 




INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 99 

PAGE. 

Gracilis (Acirsa), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 377, 

1880, . 80 

Gracilis (Acrilla), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 241, 1860. 

= S. minor, Sowb. ... .... 83 

Gracilis (Scaliola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., Dec., 1862, . 83 
Gracilis (Smithia), von Maltzan. Nachrichts. der Deutsch. 

Gesell, p. 98, July, 1883, 86 

Gracilis (Cioniscus), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 341, 1884, . . 88 
Gradata (Scalaria), Hinds. Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, t. 34, f. 

109, . . . . . . . . . . .62 

Gradatella (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 

198, t. 29, f. 11, 1875, .71 

Grandis (lanthina), Browne. Jam., p. 399, t. 32, f. 2. 

= I. fragilis, Lam. ........ 36 

Grandis (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 3, 1858 ; Thes. 

f. 16, 18. = I. Britannica, Leach, var. .... 37 

Granulosa (Scalaria), Quoy. Zool. Voy. Astrolabe. . . 80 
Graphis, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, 102, 1867, . . 52, 88 
Gravitellensis (Scalaria), Seguenza. = S. frond osa, Sowb. . 65 
Grayi (Separatista), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 45, 1850, . . 45 
Groenlandica (Scalaria), Chemnitz, xi, p. 155, f. 1878-1879, 76 
Grossicostata (Scalaria), Nyst. Tableaux, p. 36, 1873. 

S. Hotesseriana, d'Orb. ....... 77 

Gulsonae (Chemnitzia), Clark. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d 

Ser., vi, p. 459, 89 

Gyrotropis, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad., 300, t. 17, f. 6, 1876, 41 

Hargravesii (Recluzia), Cox. Zool. Proc., p. 172, t. 16, f. 8, 

1870, 38 

Hellenica (Scalaria), Forbes. Rep. JEg. Invert., 189, 1844; 

Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 140, 1884, 73 

Hemiaclis, Sars. Moll. Arct. Norv., 197, 1878, ... 52 
Hexagona (Scalaria), Sowb. Zooi. Proc., p. 29, 1844, . . 70 
Hibernica (Turritella), Waller. Jeffreys, Ann. Mag., xix, 

241, 1877. = S. costulata, Mighels. . . . . .80 

Hindsii (Scalaria), Carpenter. Zool. Proc., 165, 1856, . . 84 
Hispidula (Scalaria), Monts. Notiz. Conch. Medit., p. 59, ; 

Jour, de Conch., 264, 1874, 83 

Holopea, Hall. Pal. N. Y., i, 1847, 35 

Holopella, M'Coy. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vii, 47, 1852, . . 53 
Hotessieriana (Scalaria), d'Orb, Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 16, t. 10, 

f. 22, 23, 1853. = S. crenata, Linn., var. . . . . 77 
Hiimphreysiana (Scalaria), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 15, t. 5, f. 

16. S. angulata, Say 70 

Hyalina (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 11, 1844, . . 57 
Hyalina (Aclis), Hutton. New Zeal. Journ. of Sci., ii, p. 173, 

1884, 00 

Hyalina (Aclis), Watson. Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 

246, 1881, 89 



100 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE, 

lanthina, Lam. Prodr., 75, 1799, .... 33, 36 

lanthina (Helix), Linn. Syst. Nat. Ed., x, p. 772, 1758. 

= lanthina fragilis, Lam. ....... 36 

lanthina (Helix), Forskal., p. 26, No. 75. 

lanthina Costa?, Morch. 36 

lanthoscala, Morch. Jour. Philad. Acad., viii, 203, 1876, . 50 
Immaculata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 26, 1844, . 61 
Imperialis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 13, 1844, . . 55 
Incisa (lanthina), Phil. Zeitsch fiir Malak., p. 149, 1848. 

= I. exigua, Lam. ........ 38 

Inclyta (Scalaria), Melvill. Jour, of Conch., iv, 316, 1885. 

= S. neglecta, Ad. and Keeve 55 

Inconspicua (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 90, t. 33, f. 

53,1847, 58 

Indianorum (Scalaria), Cpr. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., xiv, 

28, 1865, 70 

Indistincta (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 27, 1844, . . 61 
Inermis (Trichotropis), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 18, 1843. 

= T. borealis, Brod. and Sowb. 43 

Inflata (Trichotropis), Friele. Nordmeer. Exped., p. 275. 

1879, 45 

Inflata (Scalaria inconspicua, var.), Morch. Journ. Phila. 

Acad., viii, p. 203, 1875, 58 

Inflata (Hemiaclis), Monts. Bull. Mai. Soc. ItaL, vi, p. 69, 

1880, 87 

Inornata (Trichotropis), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z., p. 

26, 1873. = T. clathrata, Sowb 43 

Insignis (Trichotropis), Midd. Malac. Ross., p. 107, t. 10, f. 

7-9, . . . 43, 45 

Involuta (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 12, 1858. 

- I. fragilis, Lam. Var. ....... 37 

lodes (Leach), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. Hist,, xx, 1847, . . 34 
lodina, Morch. Jour, de Conch., 282, 1860, .... 34 

lolsea, A. Adams. Ann. Mag., v, 300, 1860 ; Zool. Proc., 310, 

1867, 53, 89 

lonica (Seguenzia), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 589, 1876, . 47 
Iphinoe, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 2*0, isr>4, . 40 
Iricolor (lanthina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 23, 1858. 

= I. globosa, Swains. ....... 37 

Irregularifi (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 13, 1844, . . 60 
Japonica (Scalaria), Reeve (not Nyst.). Conch. Icon., sp. 

122.. = S. Japonica, Dunker 65 

Japonica (Scalaria), Dkr. Moll. .Japon., p. 13, 1. 1, f. 13, 1861, 65 
Japonica (Scalaria), Nyst. Tab. Syn., 1*71. 

8. iucunda, Canefri. ....... 84 

Jt-trivvsii ( Aclis), Tryoii. ." 89 

Jeft'reysii (Scalaria), Tryon. ....... 62 

Jehennei (Rcdu/ia), Petit. Journ. de Conch., iv, p. 118, t. 

5, f. 3, 1853, ... 39 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 101 

PAGE. 

Johnii (Helix), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, p. 284, t. 210, f. 

2076-77 ; Jousseaume, Rev. et. Mag. Zool., xxiii, 205, 1872, 38 
Johnston! (Delphinula), Beddome. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

1881 ; Ibid., 170, 1882. == Crossea cancellata, Tenison-Wood. 85 
Jucunda (Scalaria), Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 153, 1876, 84 
Jukesiana (Scalaria), Forbes. Voy. Rattlesnake, Append, p. 

383, t. 3, f. 7, 1852, . 66 

Kieneri (Scalaria), Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 155, 1876, 81 
Kobelti (Scalaria), Jickeli. Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak., vii, p. 

292,1880, 84 

Krebsii (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, t. 29, f. 

1, 2, 1875, . 58 

Kroyeri (Trichotropis), Phil. Zeit. fur Malak., f. 175, 1848, 44 
Kusmici (Scalaria), Brus. Journ. de Conch., xvii, p. 346, 

1869. = S. Cantrainei, Weink 72 

Kuzeri (Trichotropis), Phil. Reeve, Icon., sp. 4. 

= T. Kroyeri, Phil 44 

Labiata (Aclis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., vi, p. 118, 1860, . 90 
Labiata (Crossea), Tenison- Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 

151, 1875 85 

Lactea (Scalaria), Krauss. Sudaf. Moll, p. 94, t. 5, f. 27, 

1848, 68 

Lseta (lanthina), Monts. Norn. Gen. e Spec., p. 105, 1884. 

= I. pallida, Harvey. ....... 37 

Laevigata (Scalaria), Calcara. = S. coinmunis, Lam. . . 72 

Lamellosa, Lam. Anim. sans Vert 74 

Lanceolata (Eglisia), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp., 2, 1849, . . 86 
Laskeyi (Fusus), Macgillivr. Moll. Aberd., 170. 

= Trichotropis borealis, Brod. and Sowb. .... 43 
Latifasciata (Scalaria), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 117, 

1874, 56 

Laxa (Seguenzia), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 44, t. 5, f. 4, 4a, 

1885, 48 

Laxata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 11, 1844, . . 57 
Leeana (Scalaria), Verrill. Conn. Trans., v, p. 526, t. 57, f. 

34, 1882, 82 

Leptalea (Scalaria), Bush. Conn. Trans., vi, p. 465, 1885, . 83 
Ligata (Scalaria), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., No. 4, p. 67. 

= T. eburnea, Pot. et Mich 71 

Liliputana (Scalaria), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 481, 

.1861, . ... 84 

Lineata (Seguenzia monocingulata, Var.), Watson. Jour. 

Linn. Soc., xiv, 587, 46 

Lineata (Scalaria), Kiener (in part). Iconog., g, t. 2, f. 5, not 

Say. E S. lyra, Sowb 59 

Lineata (Scalaria), Say. Amer. Conch., No. 3, t. 27, . . 79 



102 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Lineolata (Scalaria), Hutton (not Kiener). Cat. Mar. Moll. 

N. Z., p. 22; Jour. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ix, 943. 

= S. tenella, Hutton 84 

Lineolata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 89, . . . 59 
Lirata (Aclis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., vi, p. 119, 1860, . 90 
Longissima (Scalaria), Seguenzia. Form. Terz. Reggio, p. 

266, 1879, . 75 

Lovenii (Scalaria), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 1, 1856, . . 76 
Loveniana (Aclis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 43, 

1861, 90 

Lusitanica (Solariella), Fischer. Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 44, 

1885. = Seguenzia reticulata, Phil. ..... 48 

Lyra (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Zool. Proc., p. 13, 1844, 59 
Lyra (Scalaria), Hutton (not Sowb.) Man. Mar. Moll. N. Z., 

p. 70. = S. tenella, Hutton 84 

Maculosa (Scalaria), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 51, t. 

11, f. 14, 1850, ... 59 

Magellanica (Scalaria), Ph. Archiv. fur Nature., i. p. 65, 

1845, .76 

Magnifica (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 102, t. 34, f. 

103, 1847, 78 

Mariei (Scalaria), Crosse. Journ. de Conch., p. 136, 1873, . 59 
Marmorata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 11, 1844, . . 56 

Martinii (Scalaria), Wood. Index Test 78 

Megamastoma (lanthina), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 

403, 1861, 38 

Menesthoides (Acirsa), Cpr. Ann. and Mag., xiii, p. 478, 

1864, 84 

Menippe, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, 107, 1867. 

= Pherusa, Jeffreys 53 

Micra (Aclis), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., iv, p. 136, 1884, . 90 
Micromphala (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Philad. Acad., viii, 

p. 197, 1875, ... 83 

Microsoma (Scalaria), Tap.-Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 251, 

1876. = S. subauriculata, Souverb. ..... 67 

Migrans (Trichotropis), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 

71,1882, . . . . . . . . . .45 

Millecostata (Scalaria), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 400, 1860, . . 84 
Mindoroensis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 40, 1844, . 67 
Minor (lanthina nitens, var.), Monts. En. e Sin., p. 35. 

= I. globosa, Swains. ....... 37 

Minor (lanthina pallida, var.), Monts. En. e Sin., p. 35. 

= I. Iseta, Monts. 37 

Minor (Scalaria), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon., sp., 70, 1873, 83 
Minutissima (Aclis), Watson. Challenger Exped., xv, 504, 

1886, 88 

Miranda (Scalaria), Smith. Zool. Proc., p. 734, t. 75, f. 15, 

1871, 60 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 103 

PAGE. 

Miranda (Crosseia), A. Adams. Ann. Mag., N. Hist., Apr., 

1865, .84 

Mitraeformis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc.. p. 12, 1844, . 63 
Mizon (Aclis), Watson. Journ., Proc. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 245, 

1881, 89 

Modesta (Scalaria), C. B. Ad. Jamaica Shells. ... 70 
Monocingulata (Seguenzia), Seguenza. Boll. Comitato Geol- 

ogico, vii, 188, May, 1876, 46 

Monocycla (Scalaria), Kien. Iconog., t. 3, f. 9. 

= S. lamellosa, Lam. ....... 74 

Monocycla (Scalaria), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vi, Pt. 2, p. 

225. = S. lamellosa, Lam 74 

Montrouzieri (Recluzia), Souv. Journ. de Conch., xix, p. 334, 

1871 ; xx, t. 1, f. 8, 1872. == K. Kollandiana, Petit. . 38 

Morchi (Scalaria), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 15, t. 1, f. 7, 1871, 82 
Morchi (Scalaria,) Sowb. (not Angas). Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 76, 1873. = S. erronea, Canefri 79 

Multicostata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 28, 1844, . 67 
Multiperforata (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 125, 1874, 82 
Multistriata (Scalaria), Phil, (not Say). Zeitsch. Mai., 108, 

1844. = S. Algeriana, Weink. . . . . .64 

Multistriata (Scalaria), Say. Amer. Journ. Sci., No. 3, t. 27, 72 
Muricata (Scalaria), Risso. Hist., iv, p. 113, f. 45, . . 63 

Nana (lanthina), Gray. Fig. Moll. Anim., t. 48, f. 3. 

= I. globosa, Swains. ....... 37 

Nana (Scalaria), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 134, t. 10, f. 6, 

1884, ... 58 

Nautlse (Scalaria), Morch. Journ., Phila. Acad., viii, p. 202, 

1875, 75 

Neglecta (Scalaria), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 1, 1873 (not 

Ad. and Reeve). = S. Pallasii, Kiener 54 

Neglecta (Scalaria), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 61, t. 

11, f. 15, 1850, 55 

Nicobarica (Scalaria), Beck. MSS. Thes. Conch., i, 83. 

= S. .Pallasii, Kien 54 

Nisoides (Odostomia), Brugn. Misc. Mai., p. 8, f. 8, 1875. . 

= Aclis Walleri, Jeffr. ... . 87 

Nitens (lanthina), Menke. Synopsis, p. 84, 1828. 

= I. globosa, Swains. ....... 37 

Nitida (Seguenzia monocingulata, Var.), Verrill. Trans. 

Coun. Acad., vi, 188, 47 

Nitida (lanthina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 620, 1868, . . 38 
Nodosa (Scalaria), Cpr. MS. Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 2. 

= S. gradata, Hinds. ....... 62 

Notha (Scalaria), Mke. Synopsis, p. 85, 1828. 

= S. Pallasii, Kien. . ' . . . . .54 

Nov-Angliae (Scalaria), Couth. Bost. Journ., No. 1, t. 3, f. 5, 71 



104 INDEX AKD SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Novemcostata (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, 

p. 193, 1875, 83 

Nuda (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 110, 1874. 

= 8. turricula, Sowb. 79 

Obesa (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 89, t. 33, f. 70, 

71, 1847, 55 

Obliqua (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 89, t. 33, f. 69, 

1847, 67 

Obtusa (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 29, 1844, . . 58 
Obtusicostata (Scalaria), G. O. Sars. Moll. Arct. Norv., p. 

194, t. 22, f. 9a, b. =S. coarctata, Jeffreys. ... 76 
Occidentalis (Scalaria), Nyst. Tableaux, p. 48, 1873, . . 63 
Ochotensis (Scalaria), Middendorff. Malac. Rossica, ii, p. 98, 

1849, 76 

Octocostata (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 

198, . . 83 

Opalia, Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d Ser., xv, 1865. 

= Psychrosoma, Canefri 50 

Opalia, H. and A. Adams. Genera of Recent Moll., i, 222, 

1853, . 50 

Optabilis (Scalaria), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. Sowb. Reeve's Conch. 

Icon., sp. 85, 1873, 56 

Orbignyi (lanthina), Morch. Journ. de Conch., p. 278, 1860, 

= I. fragilis, Lam. . . . . . . . .36 

Orbignyi (Scalaria), Nyst. Tableaux, p. 48, 1873, . . 70 
Ovalis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 29, 1844, . 69 

Pallasii (Scalaria), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 4, t. 2, f. 3, . . 54 
Pallida (lanthina), Harvey (MSS.). Thompson, Ann., t. 2, f. 

6, 1841. = I. globosa, Swn. Var 37 

Patula (lanthina), Ph. Enum. Moll. Sicil, ii, p. 224, t. 28, f. 

14, 1844. = I. pallida, Harvey 37 

Paumotensis (Scalaria), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 289, 

t. 24, f. 11, 1867, . . 65 

Pecchioliana (Scalaria), Issel. = S. frondosa, Sowb. . . 65 
Penicephala (lanthina), Peron. Voy., t. 27, f. 7. 

=1. fragilis, Lam. ........ 36 

Peramabilis (Iphinoe), Dall. Amer. Journ. Conch., vii, p. 

119, 1872, . 45 

Pernobilis (Scalaria), Fisch. and Bern. Journ. de Conch., p. 

293, t. 8, f. 23, 1854, 65 

Perplexa (Scalaria), Pse. Zool. Proc., 1860, Amer. Jour. . 

Conch., iii, 228. = S. lamellosa, Lam 74 

Pherusa, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., v, 210, 1869, . . 52, 89 
Philippii (Turritella), Aradas. Boury, Jour, de Conch., 151, 

1878. = Scalaria subdecussata, Cantr 80 

Philippinarum (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 12, 1844, . 66 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 105 

PAGE. 

Philtata (Scalaria), Watson. Challenger Reports, xv, 142, 

1886, . . 74 

Planicosta (Scalaria) Kien. t. 7, f. 21. 

= S. Groenlandica, Chemn. ...... 76 

Planicostata (Scalaria), Bivona. Nuove Genera, t. 2, f. B. 

== S. Turtonis, Turton, 72 

Planospirata (lanthina), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

54, t. 11, f. 10, 1850, 36 

Plicata (Eglisia), Hutton. Cat. Marine Moll. N. Zeal., p. 29, 

1873, 86 

Polita (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 30, 1844, ... 69 
Polita (Aclis), Verrill. Amer. Journ. Sci., iii, p. 210, t. 6, f. 

5, 1872. = Eulimella, Vol. viii, p. 342, .... 90 
Porrecta (Scalaria), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 126, 1843, . . 63 
Pourtalesii (Scalaria), Verrill and Smith. Amer. Journ. of 

Sci., xx, p. 395, 1880, 64 

Prseclara (Scalaria), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 481, 

1861, ... ....... 84 

Praelonga (Acirsa), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag., xix, p. 241, 

1877, . L 83 

Pretiosa (Scalaria), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vi, Pt. 2,225, 

1819, 54 

Pretiosula (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 

192, 1875, 83 

Principalis (Scalaria), Pallas. Spicil, x, 32, 1774, Naturg. x, 

51, t. 3, f. 3, 6. Morch. Jour. Philad. Acad., 2 ser., viii, 193, 57 
Principalis (Turbo), Chemn. (not Pallas). 

= S. magnifica, Sowb. ....... 78 

Principalis (Scalaria), Sowb. (not Pallas). Thes. Conch., i, p. 

88, t. 34, f. 75. = S. ducalis, Morch 69 

Producta (Scalaria clathratula, var.), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 

p. 136, 1884, 73 

Prolongata (lanthina), Blainv. Diet. Sci. Nat., xxiv, p. 155, 

1822. = I. globosa, Swains. . . . . . .37 

Pseudopulchella (Scalaria), Seguenza. 

- S. Trevelyana, Leach 72 

Pseudo-scalata (Scalaria), Chemn. Conch. Cab., iv, p. 275, f. 

1438. = S. spuria, Morch 83 

Pseudoscalaris (Scalaria), Brocchi. p. 379, t. 7, f. 1, 1814. 

= S. lamellosa, Lam. ....... 74 

Psychrosoma, Canefri. Jour, de Conch., xxiv, 154, 1876, . 50 
Pulchella (Scalaria), Bivona. Nuove Genera, 21, . .73 

Pulcherrima (Scalaria), Monts. Notiz. Conch. Medit., p. 39. 

= S. fprmosa, Mts. ... .... 83 

Pulcherrima (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 68. 

=8. Catanuanensis, Sowb. ....... 61 

Pulcherrima (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 28, 1844, . 68 
Pumicea (Scalaria), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. Subap., ii, p. 380, 

t, 7, f. 3, 1884, 81 



106 INDEX AMD SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Pumila (Scalaria), Libassi. = S. frondosa, Sowb. . . 65 
Pumila (Scalaria), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. Conch. Icon., sp. 79, 

1873, 68 

Pumilio (Scalaria eburnea, var.), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., 

viii, p. 199, 1875, 71 

Pusilla (Trichotropis), Old. Bost. Proc., iii, p. 197, 1850, . 45 

Pyramidalis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 12, 1844, . 62 

Pyrrhias (Acirsa), Watson. Challenger Reports, xv, 145, 1886, 80 

Quadricarinata (Trichotropis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, 
p. 135, 1861. = T. borealis, Brod. and Sowb. . . 43 

Quindecemcostata (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., 
viii, p. 197, 1875, .... 83 

Raphistoma, Hall. Pal. K Y., i, 1847, .... 35 
Raricosta (Scalaria), Costa. Cat. Syst., 104. 

= S. crenata, Linn 77 

Raricostata (Scalaria), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., Ed. 2, ix, p. 

76, 78 

Raricostata (Scalaria), Cpr. Mazatlan Shells, p. 447. 

= S. Carpenteri, Tap. Canefri 84 

Recluzia, Petit. Jour, de Conch., 116, 1853, . . 35, 38 
Reflexa (Scalaria), Cp. Zool. Proc., p. 235, 1855, . . 84 
Replicata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 11, 1844, . . 56 
Reticulata (Seguenzia), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 149, 

t. 25, 6, 1844 ; Jeffreys, Zool. Proe., 43, 1885, . . 48 

Reticulata (Scalaria), Helbling. Abhandl. Privat Gesell. 

Bohm., iv, t. 1, f. 11, 1779. = S. raricostata, Lam, . . 79 
Retiporosa (Opalia), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 222, 1868, . 84 
Riisei (Scalaria turritellula, var.), Morch. Journ. Phila. 

Acad., viii, p. 202, 1875, . .83 

Rollandiana (Recluzia), Petit. Journ. de Conch., p. 119, t. 5, 

f. 12, 1853, 38 

Rosea (lanthina), Anthon. Verzeichniss, p. 50, 1839. 

= I. pallida, Harvey. 37 

Roseola (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 1, 1858. 

= I. fragilis, Lam. Var 37 

Rotundata (lanthina), Leach MS. Dillwyn. Contr. Hist. 

Swansea, 59, 1840. = I. Britannica, Leach. ... 37 
Rubrolineata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 91, t. 34, 

f. 83, 84, 1847, 60 

Rugosa (Scalaria), Costa. S. frondosa, Sowb. ... 65 
Rupicola (Scalaria), Kurtz. Shells of North Carolina, p. 7, 

1860, 83 

Ruzeri (Trichotropis), Braz. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, p. 313. 

1876 (misprint for Kroyeri, Phil.). . ... 44 

Sarissa (Aclis), Watson. Journ. Linn Soc., xv, p. 247, 1881, 88 
Scacchii (Scalaria), Homes. Foss. Tert. Wein., i, p. 479, t. 
46, f. 12, 1851. = S. Hellenica, Forbes 73 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 107 

PAGE. 

Scaeve (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 204, 

1875, 83 

Scala, Klein. Ostracol., 52, 1753. = Scalaria, Lam. . . 50 
Scalina. Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 27, 1865, ... 50 
Scaliola, A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vi, 120, 1860, . 51, 85 

Scalaria. Lam. Syst. An. 88, 1801, 49 

Scalaris (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit. Gmelin, 8603. 

Scalaria pretiosa, Lam. ....... 54 

Scalites, Conrad. Emmons, Geol. N. Y., ii, 1842, . . 35 

Schultzii (Scalaria), Weink. Conch. Mittelm., ii, 239; 

Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 134, 1884. = S. Algeriana, Weink. 64 
Scintillans (Ebala), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vii, 44, 

1861, 90 

Scitula (lolsea), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1860 ; 

Journ. de Conch., xvi, t. 4, f. 3, 1868, .... 89 
Sculptilis (lolaBa), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 303, 

1861, > 90 

Seguenzia, Jeffreys Proc. Roy. Soc., 200, 1876 ; Watson, 

Challenger Exped., xv, 105; Vearill, Trans. Conn. Acad., 

vi, 186 ; Jeffreys, Jour. Linn. Soc., xiv, 605, . . 41, 46 
Semidisjuncta (Scalaria), Jeffreys. .Zool. Proc., p. 135, t. 10, 

f. 7, 1884, 57 

Senegalensis (Scalaria), Maltzan. Nachr. Deutsch. Malak., 

xvii, p. 26, 1885, . 84 

Separatist^ Gray. Zool. Proc., 136, 1847. ... 41, 45 
Serrata (Scalaria), Calcara. Conch. Foss. d' Alta, p. 47, t. 2, 

f. 4. ? = S. pumicea, Brocchi, 82 

Similis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 27, 1884, . . 60 
Simillima (Scalaria), Tap.-Canefri. Journ. de Conch., p. 152, 

1876. = S. ducalis, Morch 69 

Smithii (Scalaria), Tryon, 60 

Smithia, Maltzan. 1883. = Eglisia, Gray. . . 52, 86 
Smithise (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 15, 1858. 

= I. Britannica, Leach. ....... 47 

Solida (Trichotropis), Aurivill. Arktiska Hafsmoll., p. 328, 

t. 12, f. 16, 1885. == T. Kroyeri, Phil 44 

Soluta (Scala), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., ix, p. 296, 1862, . 84 
Soluta (Scalaria), Tiberi. Journ. de Conch., p. 84, t. 5, f. 3, 

1868. = S. frondosa, Sowb 65 

Soluta (Scalaria), Dunker MS. Morch, Journ. Philad. Acad., 

viii, 195, 1876, . 57 

Sowerbianus (Trichotropis), Lesson. Illust. de Zool., t. 41, f. 

1-3, 1832. = T. bicarinata, Brod. and Sowb. ... 42 
Spectabilis (Trichotropis bicarinata, var.), Dall. Am. Jour. 

Conch., vii, 120, 1872, . . . . . . .42 

Spinae-rosae (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viiii, p. 

194, 1875, 83 

Spinosa (Scalaria clathratula, var.), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 136, 

1884, .73 



108 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



PAGE. 



Spirata (Eglisia), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 14, No. 1449, . 86 
Spiralis (Scalaria), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 481, 1861, 84 
Splendens (lanthina), Monts. Nomen. Gen. e Spec., .p 104, 

1884. = I. globosa, Swains ....... 37 

Spongiosa (Opalia), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 222, 1868, . 84 
Spuria (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 194, 

1875, ........... 83 

Statuminata (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 30, 1844, . . 58 
Sthenorytis, Conrad. 1868, ....... 50 

Stilbe, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 130, 1884, . . . 53 

Striata (Scalaria), Gray. Voy. of the Fly, ii, p. 358, t. 2, f. 

5, 1847. = S. dubia, Sowb. . . ' . . . .60 
Striata (Aclis), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 377, 

1880, ........... 87 

Striata (Crossea), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvi, p. 609, 

1883, . ......... 86 

Striata (Mesalia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 279, 1851. 

= S. subdecussata, Cantr. ....... 80 

Striata (Scalaria), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 20, t. 5, f. 14. 

= S. Martini, Wood ......... 78 

Striatissima (Scalaria), Monts. Journ. de Conch., p. 151, 

1878, ........... 83 

Striatus (Cioniscus), Jeifr. Zool. Proc., p. 342, 1884. 

= Aclis Jeffreysii, Tryon. ....... 89 

Striolata (lanthina), Ad. and Eve. Voy. Samarang, p. 54, t. 

11, f. 9, 1850. = I. pallida, Harvey. . 37 

Striulata (lanthina), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 185. 

= I. fragilis, Lam. ........ 36 

Subauriculata (Scalaria), Souverb. Jour, de Conch., xiv, 

147, 260, 1866, ......... 67 

Subcoronata (Scalaria), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 221, 1868, . 84 
Subnudata (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. Ill, 1874. 

= S. tenera, H. Adams. ....... 62 

Subdecussata (Scalaria), Cantraine. Mai. Medit. ... 80 

Subpretiosa (Scalaria), Blainv. = S. Pallasii, Kiener. . 54 
Subtilis (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 28, 1844, . . 68 
Subulata (Scalaria), Couth. Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, 

No. 1. = S. Grosniandica, Chemn. ... .76 

Subvaricoca (Scalaria), (Dkr. MSS.), Morch. Journ. Phila. 

Acad., viii, p. 204, 1875, ....... 83 

Sulcata (Aclis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., vi, p. 119, 1860, . 90 
Sulcata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 35, f. Ill, . . 68 
Supranitida (Aclis), Searles-Wood. Crag Moll, 99, 1842, . 87 
Suturalis (Scalaria), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 125, 1843, . . 79 
Suturalis (Turritella), Gray. Wood's Ind. Test. 

= E. spirata, Sowb. ........ 86 

Swiftii (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 193, 

t. 29, f. 3, 1875, ......... 58 




INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Symmetrica (Scalaria), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 
290, t. 24, f. 14, 1867, 66 

Tantilla (Constantia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 483, 

1861, . . 84 

Tenella (Scalaria), Hutton. Jour. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ix, 

943, 1885, 84 

Tenera (Scalaria), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 139, t. 10, f. 9, 

1884. = S. Jeffreysii, Tryon, 62 

Tenera (Scalaria), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 209, 1873, . . 61 
Tenuicostata (Scalaria), Mich. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord., iii, p. 

260. = S. Turtonse, Turton 72 

Tenuicostata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, t. 34, f. 76, 

1847, 56 

Tenuilirata (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon.,sp. 118, 1874, . 57 
Tenuis (Aclis), Verrill. Conch. Trans., v, p. 628, t. 58, f. 19, 

1882, 87 

Tenuis (Scalaria), Gray. King's Narrative, ii, App., p. 482. 

= S. ducalis, Morch 69 

Tenuis (Scalaria), Sowb. (not Gray). Zool. Proc., p. 110, 

1844. == S. occidental, Nyst 63 

Tenuis (Trichotropis), E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag., xx, p. 

135, 1877 ; Jeffreys, Ibid, 239. 

= T. bicarinata, Brod. and Sowb. (monstrosity), . . 42 
Tenuistriata (Scalaria), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid, p. 390, t. 

54, f. 4-6, . 61 

Teres (Scalaria), Bush. Conn. Trans, vi, p. 465, t. 45, f. 8, 

1885, 71 

Texturata (Scalaria), Gld. Bost. Proc, ii, p. 252, 1847, . 66 
Tiarella (Torellia fimbriata, Var.), Verrill. Trans. Conn. 

Acad, v, 520, 1882, 46 

Tincta (Scalaria), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, 3 ser, xiv, 28, 

1865. = S. Indianorum, Carp, Var. . . . .70 
Torellia (Loven), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iv, 244, 1867, 41, 46 

Tortilis (Scalaria), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc, xvi, 607, 

1883, . ... 75 

Trabeculata (Scalaria), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag, viii, p. 480, 

1861, 84 

Trachyoma, Seguenza. Tert. Reggio, 1879. 

= Torellia, Jeffreys. ........ 41 

Trevelyana (Scalaria), Leach. Winch, Ann. Phil. N. S, iv, 

434, 72 

Trevelyana (Scalaria), Tib. (not Leach). = S. muricata, Risso. 63 
Tricarinata (Eglisia), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 49, 86 
Tricarinata (Seguenzia). Jeffreys. Zool. Proc, p. 43, t. 5, f. 

2, 1885, 47 

Tricarinata (Trichotropis), Braz. Linn. Soc. N. S. W, i, p. 

312, 1876, ..... 45 



110 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Trichophora, Deshayes. Encycl. Meth., iii, tabl., 1830. 

= Trichotropis, Brod. and Sowb. ..... 40 

Trichotropis, Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., iv, 373, 1829, 40, 43 
Trifasciata (Scalaria), De Haen. Sowb., Thes. Conch., i, t. 

33, f. 42-44. = S. Clementina, Grat 56 

Trispinosa (Seguenzia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xiv, 591, 47 
Tristriata (Aclis), Tenison- Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p, 

150, 1876, 90 

Trochiformis (Scalaria), Maltzan. Nachr. Deutsch. Malak., 

xvii, p. 25, 1885, , . 84 

Trochoidea (lanthina), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 10, 1858. 

= I. fragilis, Lam., Var. ....... 37 

Turbinata (Scalaria), Conrad. Journ. Phila. Acad., vii, p. 

263, t. 20, f. 26, 1834 ; Proc. A. N. S., 302, 1878, . . 64 
Turbona (Browne), Morch. Jour. Philad. Acad., viii, 198, 

1876, 50 

Turbonilla (Cirsotrema), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., viii, p. 

483,1861, 84 

Turricula (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 92, t. 33, f. 61, 

t. 34, f. 88, 1847, 79 

Turrita (Recluzia), V. D. Busch., 1847. (Phil. Zeitsch., p. 

15,1847.) 39 

Turrita (Scalaria), Nyst. Tableaux, p. 66, 1873. 

= S. turricula, Sowb. , 79 

Turrita (Aclis), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., iv, p. 140, 1884, 90 
Turritellula (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 

202, 1875, 83 

Turtonis (Scalaria), Turton. Conch. Diet., 208, ... 72 

Umbilicata (Scalaria), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., v, p. 76, 
1869, 84 

Umbilicata (Janthina), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., No. 319, 
1840. ? = I. exigua, Lam. . . . . . .38 

Umbilicatus (Fusus), Brown, Wernerian Memoirs, viii, 98, t. 

I, f. 2. = Trichotropis borealis, Brod. and Sowb. . . 43 
Uncinati-costa (Scalaria), d'Orb, Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 19, t. 

II, f. 25-27, 1853, . .77 

Undecemcostata (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., 

viii, p. 198, 71 

Undulata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 35, f. 136. 

= S. costulata, Mighels 80 

Undulatissima (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 121, 1874, 60 
Unicarinata (Trichotropis), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Journ., 

iv, 376, 44 

Unicostata (Scalaria), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 55. 

= S. lineata, Say 79 

Unicus (Cioniscus), Montagu. Test. Brit., 290, ... 88 

Unifasciata (Scalaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, t. 33, f. 68, . 71 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. Ill 

PAGE. 

Yaricosa (Scalaria), G. O. Sars. Moll. Arct. Norv., p. 348, 

t. 34, f. 9, a ,-c. = S. coarctata, Jeffreys. . .75 

Varicosa (Scalaria), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vi, 227, . . 81 
Venosa (Scalaria), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 13, 1844, . . 70 
Yentrosa (Aclis), Jeffreys. Friele, Bidrag til Yestland. 

Moll., p. 5, t. 1, f. 7, 7a, 7b, 1875, ..... 87 
Verena, Gray. Guide Brit. Mus., 44, 1857. 

= Ariadna, Fischer .40 

Yermetifbrmis (Scalaria), Watson. Challenger Exped., xv, 

142,1886, 57 

Yestalis (Scalaria), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 125, 1843, . . 69 
Yestalis (Ebala), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., vi, p. 119, 1860, . 90 
Yestita (Torellia), Jeffr. Brit. Conch., iv, p. 244, t. 4, f. 1, 

1867, . 46 

Yinsoni (lanthina), Desh. Moll. Reunion, p. 94, t. 11, f. 9, 

10. = I. exigua, Lam. ....... 38 

Yiolacea (lanthina), Blainv. Man. Mai., t. 27b, f. 1. 

= I. globosa, Swainson. ....... 37 

Yiolacea (lanthina), Ad. Gen., p. 86, t. 69, f. 1. 

= I. Costse, Morch 36 

Yiolacea (lanthina) (Bolt.), Morch. Yoldi Cat., 49. 

= I. fragilis, Lam. . . . . . . . .36 

Yirginea (Ebala), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., vi, p. 119, 1860, 90 
Yittata (Scalaria), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 133, t. 10, f. 4, 1884, 64 
Yolubilis (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 

195, 1875, 83 

Yulgaris (lanthina), Gray. Fig. Moll. Anim., t. 117a, fig. 3. 

= I. Costse, Morch 36 

Yulpina (Scalaria), Hinds. Zool. Proc., p. 125, 1843, . . 78 

W alien (Aclis), Jeffreys. B. C., iv, p. 105; v, p. 210, t. 72, 

f. 4, . .87 

Webbii (Scalaria), d'Orb. Moll, des Canaries, p. 80, t. 6, f. 

14-16, . . . 73 

Wellingtonensis (Scalaria), Kirk. Trans. New Zeal. Inst., 

xii, p. 307, 1880 ; Trans. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, 943. 
= S. Jukesiana. Forbes. ....... 66 

Wroblewskyi (Scalaria), Morch. Journ. Philad. Acad., 2d 

Ser., viii, 190, 1876. = S. borealis, Gould, . 76 

Zelebori (Scalaria), Frauenfeld. Reise Fregatte Novara, ii, 
pt. 3, p. 7, t. 1, f. 6, 1868, 78 



FAMILY CERITHIIDJS. 

Shell spiral, elongated, many whorled, frequently varicose, the- 
surface usually tuberculated, spinose or costulate ; aperture chan- 
neled in front, the outer lip generally expanded in the adult. 
Operculum corneous, spiral with central or sublateral nucleus. 

Animal with a short contractile muzzle, distant, slender tentacles 
and eyes on peduncles connate with the tentacles or sessile at their 
base ; mantle margin with a short, rudimentary siphonal fold. 

Dentition. The usual formula is 2'l'l'l-2 (PI. 19, figs. 1, 2) r 
but in Triforis the marginal teeth are multiplied 4'1'1'1*4 (PI. 19,. 
fig. 3). 

The Cerithiidse occur principally about tropical and semitropical 
shores, on rocks or among marine plants, littoral or in shallow 
w r aters. Many of them are estuary mollusks, and some inhabit 
fresh waters. 

The shell is very variable in form, and especially in the anterior 
canal of the aperture, which is always short, but sometimes disap- 
pears completely. 

The Cerithiidse have been monographed by : 

Kiener. Coquilles vivantes. 81 species. No date. 

Sowerby. Thesaurus Conchyliorum, ii. 184 species. 1855. 

Sowerby. Reeve's Conchologia Iconica, xv. 232 species. 
1865-6. 

Dr. Jousseaume has recently published a monograph of Triforis,. 
of which he has made a family, with a number of genera (Bull. 
Soc. Mai. France, i, 217, 1884). 

Genus CERITHIUM, Adanson, 1757. 

Shell turreted, imperforate, many whorled, tuberculate usually, 
with indistinct varices ; aperture small, with a short posterior chan- 
nel and a better marked oblique one in front, outer lip expanded, 
inner lip thickened, concave. Operculum corneous, paucispiral, 
with submarginal nucleus. Animal (PI. 19, figs. 14, 13) truncated 
and grooved in front, attenuated behind ; muzzle large and long, 
sinuated at the end, tentacles thickened posteriorly and bearing eyes 
externally at a short distance from their base ; siphon short. Foot 
secreting a mucous thread by which the animal is able to suspend 
itself (PL 19, fig. 6). Some of the species emit a bright green fluid 
when molested. 

112 



CERITHIIDJE. 113 

Central tooth of the radula multicuspidate, lateral securiform, 
the margin toothed, marginals narrow, with comb-like extremities 
(PL 19, fig. 1). _ 

Marine, inhabiting temperate and tropical seas ; fossil, nearly 500 
species are enumerated, commencing in the Trias and attaining it? 
maximum development in the Cretaceous. 

Subgenus CERITHIUM (sensu stricto). 

Columella thickened, with a tooth-like posterior tubercle, outer 
lip dilated at the base, whorls varicose. 

Section COLINA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Shell elongated, whorls numerous, convex, nodulous, spirally 
striated , aperture oval, prolonged in front into a short recurved 
canal, columella simple, oblique, outer lip expanded and reflexed. 
Middle whorls gibbous, sculpture usually obsolete on the last whorl. 

The few species inhabit deep water, sandy bottom, at the Philip- 
pines, China, etc. 

Section LIOCERITHIUM, Tryon, 1887. 

Shell pupoidal or subcylindrical, without ribs or nodules, usually 
spirally grooved. C. INCISUM, Sowb. 

Subgenus STILUS, Jeffreys, 1885. 

Shell spit-shaped, reticulated ; apex forming a twisted and 
abruptly semi-detached peak ; basal groove short and recurved. S. 
INSIGNIS, Jeffreys. 

Subgenus CERITHIODERMA, Conrad, 1860. 

Acutely ovate, striate ; lip grooved, umbilicated, columella 
recurved inferiorly or subtruncate ; aperture patulous, margin 
obtusely rounded inferiorly ; beak very short, narrow, recurved. 

Fossil only. C. PRIM A, Conr. Eocene, Alabama (Struct, and 
Syst. Conch., t. 69, f. 51). 

? Subgenus BRACHYTREMA, Morris and Lycett, 1850. 

Shell turreted, turbinate, solid, whorls nodose, costulate or can- 
cellate, the last whorl large, ventricose, angulated ; columella 
smooth, rounded, obliquely truncate at the base forming a short 
oblique canal, aperture obsoletely channeled above, lip thickened 
and usually exteriorly subvaricose. C. WRIGHTI, Cotteau (PI. 19, 
fig. 8), 16 sp., Jurassic, Europe. 
8 



114 CERITHIIDJE. 

Has the general appearance of Tectarius, and I formerly referred 
it to that group ; yet its anterior canal, and varicose lip remind one 
of Cerithiwn. 

Subgenus VERTAGUS, Klein, 1753. 

Canal long and strongly recurved, columella Avith an oblique 
median plication. 

Rhinoclavu, Swainson, 1840, is a synonym. 

Subgenus CAMPANILE, Bayle, 1884. 

Shell very large ; columella simple, or with plications throughout 
its length ; aperture short ; lip sinuous, oblique ; canal strongly 
twisted. 

C. L^EVE, Quoy and Gaim. is a typical living example of this 
group ; which appeared in the upper Cretaceous and flourished 
during the Eocene period. 

Subgenus BEZANCONIA, Bayle, 1884. 

Suture strongly channeled, periphery continuous and detached. 
C. SPIRATUM, Lam. Eocene of Paris basin. 

Subgenus BELLARDIA, Mayer, 1870. 

Last whorl with a series of tubercles, separated by a narrow, par- 
tially closed transverse fissure. Fossil. C. JANUS, Mayer. Nuni- 
mulite of Vincentin. 

Subgenus CERITHINELLA, Gemmellaro. 1878. 
Subperforate, very long, cylindrical or turreted, plicate, and 
spirally lined, growth lines recurved near the suture ; aperture 
quadrangular with a very short canal, columella straight. Having 
the aspect of Nerincea. C. ITALICA, Gemm. Jurassic of Sicily. 

Subgenus PSETJDOCERITHIUM, Cossmann, 1884. 

Shell elongated, narrow, multispiral, with axial ridges forming a 
sort of pyramid twisted on its axis; aperture entire, slightly twisted 
in front. 

C. COXTORTU.M, Deslongchamps. Jurassic of Normandy. 

Subiivmis TOMOCHILUS, Gemmellaro, 1879. 

Subumbilicated, short, pupoid-conic, whorls cancellated; aper- 
ture rounded, oblique, channeled behind, dilated anteriorly, colu- 
mella thick, forming a slight depression at the base. 

C. DESLONGCHAMPSI, Gemm. Jurassic of Sicily. 



115 

Genus FASTIGIELLA, Reeve, 1848. 

Perforate, elongated, turreted; whorls numerous, convex, with 
spiral riblets ; aperture terminating in a short, slightly twisted 
canal. 

One or two recent species occur in the West Indies, and several 
fossils from the Eocene of the Paris basin are also referred here. 

Genus BITTIUM (Leach \ Gray, 1847. 

Shell elevated, with numerous granular whorls and irregular 
varices ; anterior canal short, not recurved ; inner lip simple, outer 
lip not reflected, usually with an exterior rib. Operculum four- 
whorled with central nucleus. 

Animal with lanceolate foot, subtruncate in front ; eyes placed at 
the external base of the rather long tentacles ; operculigerous lobe 
with rudimentary expansions on the sides , siphon rudimentary. 

Numerous small species inhabiting temperate waters. 

Cerithiolum, Tiberi, 1869, and Platygyra, Morch, 1860, are 
synonyms. 

Section CERITHIDIUM, Monts., 1884. 

. Mouth somewhat rounded, scarcely showing any canal below. 
C. SUBMAMILLATUM, Rayn. 

Genus POTAMIDES, Brongniart, 1810. 

Imperforate, turreted, angulated, tuberculate, spiny, etc., and 
covered by a thick, olive-brown epidermis, apex often decollated ; 
whorls numerous, narrow, the last short; aperture channeled in 
front, outer lip simple or thickened. Operculum corneous, multi- 
spiral. 

Animal with subcircular foot, obtuse behind ; eyes on the 
side of the tentacles at a third or half of their length ; siphon usually 
fringed. 

Middle tooth of the radula small w r ith toothed margin, lateral 
tooth large, subrhomboidal, with a rostrated base and toothed mar- 
gin, first marginal tooth narrow, with a slight posterior projection, 
second marginal tooth sometimes elongated and simple, sometimes 
with a large external wing (PI. 19, fig. 2). 

The type is a fossil, P. LAMARCKI, Brongniart. 

Inhabits brackish and fresh waters, in Tropical countries, parti- 
cularly swamps, and the mouths of rivers, where they frequently 
remain for long periods out of the water, and in the dry season 



116 CERITHIID^. 

suspend themselves to mangrove roots, weeds, etc., by means of 
glutinous filaments proceeding from under their closed operculum 
(PL 19, fig. 6). 

Subgenus TYMPANOTONOS, Klein., 1753. 

Shell with angular, spinose whorls ; columella twisted, canal 
short ; outer lip broadly sinuated anteriorly, and less distinctly so 
posteriorly. Animal with fringed siphon. P. FUSCATUS, Linn. 

Subgenus PYRAZUS, Montfort, 1810. 

Whorls angular ; aperture w T ith a short anterior canal, prolonged 
posteriorly ; outer lip thickened, expanded. Animal with fringed 
siphon. P. EBENINUS, Brug. 

Subgenus PYRAZISINUS, Heilprin, 1886. 

Combining the general characters of Tympanotonus and Tere- 
bralia, differing from the former in the non-canaliculate character 
of the aperture, and from the latter in the possession of a deep sinus 
in the labrum, which is effuse, thickened, and carried completely 
over to the labium, so as to enclose a round siphonal aperture, as 
seen in Terebralia. 

P. CAMPANULATUS, Heilprin (PI. 19, fig. 10). Tertiary, Florida. 

Subgenus TEREBRALIA. Swainson, 1840. 

Shell with exterior varices and corresponding interior teeth, 
surface spirally channeled ; aperture channeled behind, with short 
anterior canal ; lip curved, dilated in front and prolonged so as to 
partially close the canal ; columella with strong plications corre- 
sponding to the teeth on the interior of the outer wall (PI. 19, fig. 
4). 

P. PALUSTRIS, Brug., occurs in great numbers in the salt marshes 
of the Eastern Archipelago, and is assiduously collected by the 
natives, who roast them and suck the contents of the shell through 
an aperture made by breaking off the tip of the spire. 

The internal teeth do not approach the aperture, and are only 
discovered by making a longitudinal section of the shell. They 
have not been found in any of the related groups. 

The genus BROTIA, H. Adams, 1866, is founded onMelaniapago- 
dula, Gould, a Burmese species resembling in general form Tere- 
bralia Humboldti, Val. Adams says that it has a multispiral 
operculum, and therefore places it under the above name in the 
Cerithiidse. I agree with Dr. Brot that the species has so com- 



CERITHIID^E. 117 

pletely the aspect of a Melanian that it is very probable Adams was 
deceived as to his operculum really belonging to it. 

Section GOURMYA. Bayle, 1884. 

No internal plications or tubercles ; outer surface smooth. 
Section DITRETUS, Piette, 1874. 

Turreted, with longitudinal rows of tubercles ; outer lip thick- 
ened, prolonged below so as to close the canal w T hich is short, 
inner lip spread out, callous. P. ROSTELLARIA, Buv. Jurassic. 

Subgenus TELESCOPIUM, Montfort, 1810. 

Shell conical or trochoidal, of numerous flat whorls, the aperture 
subquadrangular, short, not channeled behind; lip thin, sinuous, 
prolonged at the base ; columella interiorly plicate, plication visible 
near the suture. 

P. telescopium is so abundant near Calcutta as to be used for 
burning into lime ; great heaps of it being first exposed to the sun, 
to kill the animals. In Borneo it is an article of food. 

Subgenus Vic ART A, d'Archiac, 1854. 

Turreted, spirally striated, with a row of tubercles next below 
the suture ; canal very short, recurved, inner lip callously thick- 
ened, the callosity prolonged behind, where the aperture is chan- 
neled ; outer lip strongly sinuated posteriorly. 

P. VERNEUILI, d'Arch. Nummulite, India. 

Subgenus PIRENELLA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell turriculated, granose, with irregular ribs and varices ; 
aperture rounded, terminating in a short anterior canal; inner lip 
simple, outer lip thin, sinuous. P. MAMILLATUS, Phil. 

Subgenus CERITHIDEA, Swainson, 1840. 

Turriculated, longitudinally ribbed; whorls numerous, apex 
more or less truncated ; aperture rounded, slightly transversely slit 
anteriorly ; outer lip expanded, thickened, broadly rounded below 
and usually produced into a beak, crossing the sinus to the left. 
Eye pedicels long and thick, connate with the tentacles nearly to 
their tips. 

They are so commonly out of the water as to have been taken for 
land shells. P. DECOLLATUS, Linn. 

Section APHANISTYLUS, Fischer, 1884. 

Shell decollated, thin, last whorl carinated ; lip not dilated, nor 



118 CREITHIIDJE. 

prolonged in front. Ocular peduncles long, tentacles not visible. 
P. CHARBOXNIERI, Petit (PL 19, fig. 5.). Von Martens suspects 
that the ends of the tentacles are bent back when the animal is at 
rest so as to become invisible ; at least this is the case in Potamides 
obtusus (Archivfur Naturgeschichte, li, 48). 

Subgenus LAMPANIA, Gray, 1846. 

Turriculated, a little curved, whorls without varices; aperture 
subtruncate at the base, with a scarcely distinct, straight canal ; 
lip sinuous. P. ZONALE, Lam. China. 

Batillaria, Cantor, 1842, is the same, and has priority; but 
Lampania is well established, and need not be changed. 

Section LAMPANELLA, Morch, 1876. 

Shell small, decussated. P. MINIMUS, Gmel. 

Subgenus ESCOFFIERIA, Fontannes, 1880. 

Turriculated, narrow, whorls numerous, subsolute ; aperture sub- 
circular, with sharp lip, columella excavated, canal obsolete. P. 
FISCHERI, Fontannes. Upper Tertiary of the Rhone basin. 

? Genus SAISTDBERGERIA, Bosquet, 1860. 

Shell small, ornamented like Bittium, with a rudimentary broad, 
shallow, short canal, lip curved, prominent at the base, columellar 
extremity surrounded by a basal fasciole. Operculum said to be 
concentric and calcareous, but there is some doubt about this : if it 
is so, the group is certainly out of place in Cerithiidse. S. ANTE- 
CEDENS, Stol. Tertiary. 

Genus DIASTOMA, Desh., 1848. 

Turriculated, with numerous ribs and a few varices ; inner mar- 
gin of the aperture partially detached from the previous whorl, the 
aperture is strongly contracted posteriorly, sinuous and subangular, 
but not channeled at the base, channeled behind, columella con- 
cave, simple. 

D. VARICULOSUM, Desh. (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 72, f. 50), 
Eocene. 

? Genus MESOSTOMA, Desh., 1861. 

Subrimate, elongated, turreted ; aperture nearly circular, dilated, 
oblique, terminating in front by a semicanaliculated angle; 
columella slightly concave, lip simple, slightly expanded. 

M. GRATUM, Desh. Eocene, Paris basin. 




? Genus EXELISSA, Piette, 1860. 

Shell small, elongated, subcylindrical, somewhat pupiform, many 
whorled, longitudinally costate, tuberculate, or spinose, last whorl 
tending to separate from the axis, contracted at the base ; aperture 
orbicular, entire, the lip produced and slightly thickened, colu- 
mella solid. Kilvertia, Lycett, 1863, is a synonym. 

E. FORMOSA, Lycett (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 69, f. 62). Oolite, 
England. A doubtful member of the family. 

? Genus PTEROSTOMA, Deshayes, 1861. 

Shell small, turreted, subcylindrical, whorls numerous, with lon- 
gitudinal tubercular ribs, and spiral strise ; aperture circular, entire, 
margin dilated, exteriorly thickened. 

P. TUBA, Desh. (Stmict. and Syst. Conch., t. 72, f. 42). Eocene, 
Paris basin. 

Genus CERITHIOPSIS, Forbes and Hanley, 1853. 

Small, imperforate, more or less cylindrical, narrow, tuberculate, 
not varicose ; whorls numerous, the last narrower in proportion ; 
aperture small, with a short, truncate, nearly straight canal. Oper- 
culum suboval, paucispiral, with sublateral, internal nucleus. 
Animal with a narrow foot, subtruncated in front and attenuated 
behind, with a longitudinal sulcus on the sole ; tentacles cylindrical, 
the eyes sessile at their base ; opercular lobe simple, well developed. 

Radula with an oval central tooth, its margin dentate, a large, 
bicuspid lateral tooth, and unicuspid laterals with smooth margin. 
Mostly occurring in northern and temperate seas. Fossil, Cre- 
taceous. 

C. TUBERCULARIS, Mont. 

Section METAXIA, Monts., 1884. 

Base truncate, basal area not cingulate and concave, canal open, 
incipient. C. RUGULOSA, Sowb. 

Section SEILA, A. Ad., 1861. 

Shell with simple spiral ribs. C. DEXTROVERSA, Ad. and Reeve. 
Cinctella, Monts., is a synonym. 

Section LOVENELLA, O. Sars., 1878. 

Shell subulate; whorls numerous, cancellated, aperture termi- 
nating in a short, distinct, reflected canal. C. METULA, Loven. 
Northern Seas. 

Cerithiella, Verrill, 1882, is a synonym. 



120 CREITHIID^. 

Section EUMETA, Morch, 1868. 

Lateral and marginal teeth of the radula finely pectinate. C. 
ARCTICA, Morch. Northern Seas. 

Subgenus L^OCOCHLIS, Dunker and Metzger, 1874. 

Shell sinistral, elongated, granose, canal twisted. L. GRANOSA, 
Wood. Boreal Seas. 

The dentition of this species is as near that of Trichotropis a# 
Cerithiopsis, and von Martens has put it in Trichotropidse ; but the 
affinities of the shell appear to be Cerithid. 

Genus CERITELLA, Morris and Lycett, 1850. 

Shell small, smooth, with sharp spire and flattened whorls, the 
last whorl large, ventricose ; aperture elongated, oblique, narrow, 
terminating in a very short canal, slightly turned outwards, lip 
thin, columella smooth, rounded, subreflected at the base. 

C. ACUTA, Morris and Lycett (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 60, f. 
57). Jurassic. England. 

Section TUBIFER, Piette, 1856. 

Shell formed like Actceon, the last whorl cylindrical, large ; aper- 
ture long, the lip thin, simple, descending as far anteriorly as the 
canal ; canal long, thin, tube-like. 

C. NUDA, Piette. Jurassic. 

Costellifer, Meek, 1863, may probably be referred here. 

Section FIBULA, Piette, 1857. 

Shell elongated ; columella straight with a rudimentary umbilical 
groove near the base ; outer lip notched at the suture ; base of 
aperture with a slight canal, or rounded and entire, depending upon 
its age. 

C. UNDULOSA, Piette (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 60, f. 56). 21 
sp. Jurassic to Cretaceous ; Europe, India. 

Genus EUSTOMA, Piette, 1855. 

Shell when young resembling Cerithitim ; in the adult there is a 
long, narrow, nearly straight anterior canal, and an ascending 
posterior channel, the lip is dilated, and there is a large spreading 
columellar callosity. 

E. TUBERCULOSUM, Piette (PI. 19, fig. 7). Jurassic. 

Genus TRIFORIS, Deshayes, 1824. 
Shell elongated, sinistral, granular ; whorls numerous ; aperture 



CREITHIID.E. 121 

small, with tubular, short, anterior canal. Operculum paucispiral, 
with sub central nucleus. 

Animal with elongated foot, truncated in front, where it forms a 
duplicature, the upper margin (mentum of Loven) less developed 
than the lower ; tentacles long, cylindrical, united by a sinuated 
veil, eyes at their exterior base ; snout very short ; operculigerous 
lobe simple. 

Dentition (PL 10, fig. 3). Central tooth very short, transverse, 
multicuspidate ; lateral tooth also transverse and multicuspid ; 
marginals four, small, transverse, simple (4'1'1'1*4). 

About a hundred living species are known, all quite small, in- 
habiting the West Indies, Europe, Indian Ocean, Polynesia. Fossil. 
Tertiary. Tristoma, Blainv., 1825, is a synonym. The Triforis 
often attains a considerable size before losing its larval characters, 
particularly when distant from the shore. Dr. Fischer has captured 
on the high sea, between Provence and Corsica, a T. perversa, of 
which the shell had eight or nine whorls, yet the animal still 
retained its larval vellum. 

An anomaly of the shell is the occasional preservation of a second 
canal upon the back of the body whorl, showing the termination of 
a former aperture. This is present in the fossil species upon which 
Deshayes established his genus, and which is named from this character. 
Dr. Jousseaume, in his recent monograph of the group, divides the 
species according to the presence or absence of this posterior open- 
ing, and creates certain new groups, of his division having three 
apertures, which he admits are identical in other characters with 
the sections Lio and Mastonia of Hinds, which he places among 
those having two apertures. Having examined several species with 
three apertures I incline to the opinion that the posterior canal is 
only accidentally preserved in some cases by reason of its deflection, 
which causes its tube to be surrounded with shelly matter during 
the growth of the shell, and that it bears no relation to the economy 
of the animal. This view is fortified by the consideration that 
neither in this group nor in any other group of the mollusca are we 
acquainted with any organ which might occupy or occasion this 
tube for the purposes of its economy. Moreover, in one of the 
species before me two individuals possess the third opening, whilst 
two others have it not. In consequence of this view I relegate Dr. 
Jousseaume's groups Iniforis and Mastoniceforis to the synonymy of 
Ino and Mastonia respectively. 



122 CREITHIID.E CERITHIUM. 

Section TRIFORIS (sensu stricto). 

Shell longitudinally ribbed, with one or two spiral lines ; aperture 
round, entire ; canal closed. 

T. PLICATA, Desh. Eocene, Paris basin. 

The genera Trituba, Stylia, Eitthymia and Metalepis, Jousseaume, 
1884, are synonyms. 

Section INO; Hinds, 1844. 

Shell cylindrical ly subulate, elongated, with flattened whorls, 
tuberculated in spiral series, spire sharp-pointed ; aperture entire, 
margin continuous. 

T. CORRUGATA, Hinds. India, Bayle, 1879, was proposed 
because Ino has been used twice in Entomology, but I see no occa- 
sion for making the change for such reason at this late day. Ini- 
foris, Jousseaume, 1884. is a synonym. 

Section MASTONIA, Hinds, 1844. 

Shell swollen in the middle, contracted and rounded at the base, 
tuberculated usually in two spiral series. T. VULPINA, Hinds. 
Mastoniceforis, Jousseaume, 1884, and Monophorus, Grillo, 1877 
(===J?if0rwa, B. D. D.), are synonyms, 

Section VIRIOLA, Jousseaume, 1884. 

Shell with strong smooth, spiral ridges and channels ; last whorl 
flattened and angulated at the base. T. BAYANI, Jouss. Jousseaume 
makes C. dextroversa, Ads. and Reeve, the type of his group, but 
that species is already the type of Seila, A. Ad., a section of 
Cerithiopsis. The sculpture of the two groups is the same, but one is 
dextral, the other sinistral ; I prefer to limit Viriola to the sinistral 
shells. 

Section SYCHAR, Hinds, 1844. 

Elongated, with rounded whorls. T. VITREA, Hinds. 

Genus CERITHIUM, Adanson, 1757. 
Subgenus CERITHIUM (sensu stricto). 

C. NODULOSUM, Brug. PI, 19, figs. 13, 14 ; PL 20, fig. 15. 

Ribs and tubercles crossed by spiral ridges and sulci, becoming 
coarser on the base ; whitish or greyish, maculated and spotted with 
chestnut and chocolate color. Length, 3-4 in. 

Singapore, Moluccas, Philippines. 

It is C. tuberosum, Dillw., and C. aluco, Born (not Linn.). 



CERITHIUM. 123 

. ERYTHR.EONENSE, Lam. PI, 20, fig. 16. 

Shell smaller than C. nodulosum, with similar but neater sculp- 
ture ; greyish with numerous small chestnut spots more or less con- 
fluent into longitudinal streaks. Length 2'5-3 in. 

Red Sea. 

I suspect that this will prove a synonym or at least only a 
variety of C. nodulosum. The synonyms are C. striatum, Schroeter, 
and C. tuberosum, of Reeve and Sowerby. The latter name being 
preoccupied by Grateloup for a fossil species, Bayle has changed it 
to C. omissum. 

C. COLUMN A, Sowb. PL 20, figs. 17-20. 

Shell with usually alternate larger and smaller spiral ridges, the 
larger ones more or less tuberculate, and both crossing somewhat 
distant pinched up longitudinal ribs ; greyish, between the ribs with 
chestnut or chocolate dots and lines more or less confluent, interior 
sometimes white, sometimes chocolate-lined on the spiral ridges. 
Length, 11*5 in. 

Mauritius, Philippines Central Polynesia. 

It is C. echinatum, Kiener, C. Menkei, Desh. (fig. 19), from I. of 
Bourbon. 

Var. SCABRIDUM, Reeve (not Phil.). Fig, 20. 

Smaller, strise scabrous, canal shorter and more open. 

Red Sea. 
C. CITRINUM, Sowb. PL 20, figs. 21-23. 

Solid, spirally striated, with distant, large, rounded longitudinal 
plaits, last whorl with a single varix, rounded below, canal long and 
curved ; whitish, clouded with citron color. Length, 1'5 in. 

Philippines. 

I think that C. siphonatum, Sowb. (fig. 23), will prove synonym- 
ous ; C. bicolor, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 22), also appears to be iden- 
tical, or at least only a variety ; finally the whole are probably 
mere varieties of C. columna. 

C. SUTURALE, Phil. PL 20, fig. 24. 

Longitudinally nodulosely ribbed, crossed by spiral lines, outer lip 
crenulated ; whitish, with a chocolate sutural band. Length, 1 in. 

Philippines. 
C. ECHINATUM, Lam. PL 20, figs. 25-27. 

Covered by revolving riblets, some of them bearing strong, pointed 
series of nodules, others alternately larger and smaller and unarmed, 



124 CERITHIUM. 

usually five rows of nodules on the body whorl, outer lip fimbriated ; 
white, with scattered or close chestnut dots or lines. 
Length, 1-5-2-5 in. 

Society and Paumotus Is* 

C. mutatum, Sowb.. is a synonym, and C. Adansonii, Reeve (fig.. 
27), not Brug. = C. tuberculiferum, Pease, is a narrow form, 
scarcely entitled to varietal designation. C. album, Hombr. et Jacq.. 
(fig. 26), is a form with the tubercles only slightly developed ; occa- 
sionally the face of the body whorl is almost devoid of them. 

C. RUPPELLII, Phil. PI. 20, figs. 28, 29. 

Much narrower than the preceding species, the whorls somewhat 
shouldered, the tubercles small and rounded ; whitish, spotted and 
marbled with chestnut. Length, T75 in. 

Red Sea~ 

Reeve's figure (fig. 28) is somewhat abnormal. C. Savignyi, 
Fischer (fig. 29), and C. alucoides, Brocchi, are synonyms. This is 
C. scabridum, Philippi, but not of Reeve. 

C. ADENENSE, Sowerby. PI. 20, fig. 30. 

Shell narrow, longitudinally distantly ribbed, with spiral riblets,, 
two of which bear tubercles on crossing the ribs, tumid and tuber- 
culated at the suture, then excavated; white, sparingly marbled 
with chestnut. Length, 22 mill. 

Aden. 

This may be a young specimen of the preceding species. 

C. ARMATUM, Phil. PI. 20, figs. 31, 32; PL 21, fig. 33. 

Shell narrow, augur-shaped, the w r horls with a series of large 
nodules next the suture, and three series of small papillae beneath 
on the body whorl, a varix on the latter, and a few others near the 
apex ; pale yellowish brown, spotted with chocolate. 
Length, 1'25 in. 

Philippines. 

C. nigropunctatum, Sowb. (fig. 33), appears to me to be the 
juvenile of this species. 

C. NOV^-HOLLANDI^E, A. Ad. PL 21, fig. 34. 

Shell narrow, with flexuous longitudinal plaits, somewhat tumid 
near the suture, merging below on the last whorl, into three spiral 
series of tubercles ; aperture crenulated within ; whitish, variegated 
with chestnut on the lower half of each whorl. Length 1'5 in. 

Australia- 




CERITHIUM. 125 



. FILOSUM, Sowb. PI. 21, fig. 35. 

Longitudinally plicate, with three spiral rows of rather large 
rounded tubercles, and an intermediate smaller row, interstices 
narrow ; white, with chestnut lines between the ribs. Length, 22 
mill. 

Philippines. 

C. CORALLINUM, Dufresne. PL 21, fig. 36 ; PI. 24, fig. 46. 

Shell with strong, rounded longitudinal ribs, crossed by spiral 
riblets and intermediate striae, the intersections tuberculated, aper- 
ture crenulated within ; chocolate brown. Length, 40 mill. 

Philippines^ 
C. SCULPTUM, Pease. PI. 21, fig. 37. 

Shell spirally, nodulosely ridged, obsoletely longitudinally ribbed, 
regularly and evenly engraved throughout with close-set lines; 
whorls flatly convex ; canal rather long and oblique ; white, apex 
tinged with violet. Length, T25 in. 

Paumotus Is.; Tahiti. 

I am inclined to consider this identical with, and a synonym of 
Vertagus torulosus, Linn., but retain it here on account of some lin- 
gering doubts about it. 
C. VULGATUM, Brug. PL 21, figs. 38-47. 

Shell with distant, spiral, nodulose ribs, one row of nodules on 
each whorl more prominent, between the ribs are fine, close, en- 
graved striae ; color variegated with grey, and chocolate or chestnut 
in undulating strigations and spots, interior similarly colored, the 
lips often tinged with orange brown. Length, 1-3 in. 
Southern Europe, West Africa, Cape of Good Hope (Challenger 

Exped.). 

The synonymy, including varietal names is enormous. I do not 
think the species varies more than is usual in the genus, and I am 
not disposed to recognize the so-called varieties as having any real 
claim to separation from the type ; however, as they are admitted by 
some European naturalists of the " modern school " I figure a num- 
ber of them. 

Locard identifies this species Avith Strombus tubereulatus, Linn. ; 
to this may be added, among other names C. subnodosum, Adams 
(fig. 39), from a worn and somewhat aberrant form, C. Moluecanus, 
Renieri, C. alucoides, Olivi, C. Goumier, Adanson, C. nerinaeeus, 
Renieri, C. Milne- Edwardsii, Calcara. C. modosus, Schroter, C. 
aluco, Marschlius, and the following "varieties" : 



126 CERITHIUM. 

Var. nodulosa, Phil., var. provinciate (sp.). Locard, var. alucaster, 
Brocchi (fig. 40), and var. plicata, Phil. (fig. 49), which is the same 
form, var. subvulgatum (sp.), Locard, and its synonym, C. spinosa, 
Blainv. (fig. 41), var. Bourguignati (sp.), Locard, and its synonyms, 
C. tuberculata, Phil., C. alucaster, Scacchi, and C. intermedia and C. 
minima, Weink., var. Servaini (sp.), Locard, var. mutica, Bucq. 
Dautz. et Dollf. (fig. 42), var. angustissima, Weink. = C. stenodewn, 
Locard,' var. protractum, Bivona, and its synonym var. gracilis, 
Phil. (fig. 43), vars. hirto-, seminuda (fig. 45) and longissima (fig. 44) 
of Bucq. Dautz. et Dollf., var. inscriptum, Monts, (for var. repanda. 

B. D. D., not Monts., fig. 46), var. repanda, Monts., vars. albina, 
r it,- in <i and melania, Monts., var. minuta, de Serres, var. pulchella> 
Phil. (fig. 47). 

C. RUPESTRE, Risso. PI. 21 , figs. 48-50. 

Shell spirally engraved, with subnodulous oblique longitudinal 
low riblets, stronger at the suture and fading out below ; greyish, 
numerously spotted and striped with chestnut. Length, 1 in. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Always smaller, smoother and less angulated than the preceding 
species ; the painting has frequently a minutely tessellated appear- 
ance. The synonyms are C. lividulum, Risso* C. fuscatum, Costa, 
('. ^[editerraneum, Desh., C. tubereuhttum, Blainv., C. variegatum, 
Menke, C. doliolum, Weink., C. verrucosum, Renieri. As in the 
case of C. vulgafum, several species and varieties have been manu- 
factured out of forms of this shell, such as var. strumaticnm (sp.), 
Locard = - C. tubereulatum, Blainv. = = var. /Jicdtti, B. D. D. (fig. 
49), var. Massiliense (sp.), Locard = var. in I nor, B. D. D. (fig. 50), 
and var. attenuata, B. D. D. 

( I, AnrsTi'M, Kiener. PL 21, figs. 51, 52. 

Whorls angulated and tuberculated above, with sometimes two or 
three inferior rows of small tubercles on the body whorl, closely 
spirally striate, the stria? sometimes grain >se ; columella with a heavy 
posterior callus ; whitish, obscurely clouded with grey, with more 
or less interrupted chestnut or chocolate spiral lines and macula- 
tions. Length, l'5-2'25 in. 

Qallapagos Is., Panama to Mazatlan. 

The synonyms are C. nebtilostun, Sowb. (fig. 51), C. maculosum, 
Kicuer. In the typical C. adustum the tubercles are obsolete, so 
that the shell is nearly smooth. 



CERITHIUM. 127 

C. C^RULEUM, Sowb. PI. 21, fig. 54. 

Solid, ventricose, finely spirally striate, with several spiral rows 
of tubercles on the body whorl, the upper ones larger, and forming 
an angle or shoulder ; ashy grey, maculated with chocolate. Length , 
40 mill. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean.. 

C. GUINIACUM, Phil. PI. 22, figs. 55, 56. 

Lightly spirally striated, with large, distant, rounded, longitu- 
dinal plicse, tumid near the suture, fading out on the body whorl ; 
whitish, under a yellowish corneous epidermis. Length, 34 mill. 

Gabon country, W. Africa (Philippi). 

In Keeve's Iconica the habitat of this species is said, on the 
authority of Cuming, to be " Lord Hood's Island, coast of Guinea"! 
C. SANDWICHENSE, Sowb. PI. 22, fig. 58. 

Whitish, spirally lirate, crossing strong, rounded longitudinal 
ribs ; whorls 9, convex, suture margined. Length, 27 mill. 

Sandwich Isla / 1 < /*. 

Described from a single, not fully matured specimen. Appears 
related to the preceding species. 
C. AEMULUM, Sowb. PI. 21, fig. 53. 

Shell turreted, with distant pinched up plications, and revolving 
stride, appearing as though tessellated ; yellowish white, with con- 
centric reddish or violaceous lines; Length, 45 mill. 

Cape Verd Is. 

The specimens obtained were fossilized but retained their color ; 
and the shell is probably still living in the neighboring waters. 

C. TESSELLATUM, Sowb. PI. 22, fig. 59. 

Shell minutely regularly tuberculated, whitish, with chestnut 
colored small tessellations, outer lip thick, crenulated. Length, 22 
mill. 

Darnley's IsL, N. Australia. 
C. . CIRCINATUM, A. Ad. PI. 22, fig. 57. 

Dark chocolate color, with filiform spiral, Avhite grooves, rather 
nodose between the grooves, distantly longitudinally plicate. 
Length, 22 mill. 

IsL Mindanao, Philippines. 
C. UNCINATUM, Gmel. PI. 22, figs. 60, 61. 

Shell with a superior row of pointed tubercles forming an angle 
on the whorls, and two series of small nodules below, on the body 



128 CERITHIUM. 

whorl ; white, mottled with chestnut and ornamented by punctured 
lines, the large tubercles black tipped. Length, 1 in. 
Wrt Indies (Morch, Sowb., etc.) ; West Coast of N. Amer. (Car- 
penter, Adams, etc.). 

This species I have not seen, but from the figure it appears to be 
very close to, perhaps a spinose variety of the West Indian C. 
eburneum, Brug. Morch included it in his West Indian catalogue 
and refers it to the MS. name C. Antillaram, D linker. On the 
other hand, Carpenter includes it among his Mazatlan shells and 
considers C. famelicum, Ad., an unfigured species from Panama, a 
synonym ; he has described a var. mediolceve. 

C. LITTERATUM, Born. PI. 22, figs. 63, 64. 

Shell with close granular, spiral stride, narrowly shouldered by a 
row of tubercles ; white, the interstices of the granules chestnut or 
chocolate spotted. Length, 1-1'5 in. 

West Indies, Florida. 

It is C. angustum, Anton. 

C. MUSICUM, Sowb. PL 22, fig. 65. 

Rudely plicate, forming a concave shoulder on each whorl ; white, 
with music-like chocolate lines and spots. Length, 1 in. 

Habitat unknown. 

C. SEMIFERRUGINEUM, Lam. PL 22, figs. 66, 67. 

Spirally, granosely striated, with a pair of stronger tuberculated 
riblets in the middle of the body whorl, and a still stronger sub- 
sutural row, extending to the spire whorls ; yellowish white, irregu- 
larly maculated and spotted with orange, chestnut or chocolate 
color. Length, 1-1 '5 in. 

West Indies. 

C. pictum, Wood (fig. 67), is a synonym. 

C. ATRATUM, Born. PL 22, figs. 68-70. 

Shell with a sutural row of small nodules, succeeded by a row of 
larger ones, and below it, on the body whorl, about four rows of 
slight granules, between each row several close incised spiral lines, 
body whorl with a varix opposite the aperture ; greyish, more or less 
clouded with chocolate, often almost entirely covered by varying 
shades of the latter; when the shell is dark the aperture becomes 
violaceous-blue. Length, 1-1*5 in. 

II 'rat Indies, Florida. 




CERITHIUM. 129 

^^^^BfHBBKHBCS^^^ 

C. caudatum, Sowb. (figs. 69, 70), is a synonym ; Morch makes of it 
a var. tennis. I think that the unfigured C. Floridanum, Morch, 
may also be referred here. 

C. EBURNEUM, Brug. PL 22, figs,^ 71-75, 77-80. 

Shell granose or tuberculated, one row of tubercles stronger, 
forming an angle on the middle of the spire whorls ; between the 
tubercles are spiral fine striae, finely spotted with chestnut or choco- 
late ; sometimes the whole shell is pure white ; there are generally 
occasional varices ; interior of aperture marked like the exterior. 

Length, 1 in. 

Florida, West Indies. 

The synonyms are C. semiferrugineum of Morch (Yoldi Cat.) 
= var. solida, Morch, C. umbonatum, Sowb. (fig. 62), C. Novce- 
Hibernice, A. Ad. (figs. 73, 74), said, notwithstanding its name, to 
come from Florida, C. fenestratum, Sowb. (fig, 75), C. graciliforme, 
Sowb. (fig. 77), C. pulicarium, Phil. (fig. 77a), C. striatissimum, Sowb. 
(figs. 78, 79), and f C. planispiratum, Sowb. (fig. 80). 

C. ALGICOLA, C. B. Adams. PL 22, figs. 82, 81. 

Closely, longitudinally plicate, crossed by spiral striae, forming 
small tubercles, whorls concavely shouldered ; white, variegated with 
fulvous. Length, 20 mill. 

West Indies. 

I am not acquainted with this species. Morch refers to it doubt- 
fully, C. punctulatum, GmeL, C. litteratum, var. parva, of Kiener, 
and he adds vars. vittata and tennis. C. lentiginosum, Sowb. (fig. 
81), appears to be very like this species; it is described without 
locality. 
C. MUNITUM, Sowb. PL 23, figs. 82-84. 

Whorls flattened, varicose, with rude longitudinal plaits, crossed 
by spiral costulations, two spiral rows on the middle of the body 
whorl, strongly tuberculated ; yellowish white, stained and lined 
with light chestnut. Length, 1 in. 

Philippines, Viti Islands* 

Reeve's locality " Mediterranean " and his reference to Philippi as 
authority are erroneous. With this species I unite as a synonym C^ 
pyramidatum, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 84), a name preoccupied by 
Deshayes for a fossil species, and changed to C. proditum by Bayle, 
and which the latter author, having previously used this specific 
name in the same paper to designate another species, finally changed 
to C. Audouini. 
9 



130 CERITHIUM. 

C. SPATHULIFERUM, Sowb. PL 23, fig. 86. 

With distant, longitudinal and spiral riblets the intersections 
forming two revolving rows of strong tubercles on the spire whorls, 
three on the body one of which is above and two below the peri- 
phery, tubercles flattened ; yellowish white or ash color. 

Length. 1'25 in. 

Hab. unknown. 

Probably a variety of the preceding species. 

C. OPPORTUNUM, Bayle. PL 23, fig. 85. 

Shell distantly costate, so as to appear many-sided, crossed by 
somewhat distant spiral riblets, the body whorl with two larger ribs, 
on the periphery and below it ; ashy gray, Length, 2 in. 

N. Australia. 

The name has been recently proposed instead of C. polygon urn, 
Sowb., preoccupied by Leymerie for a fossil species. 
C. DIALEUCUM, Phil. PL 23, figs. 88, 87. 

Nodose, crossed by riblets and intermediate fine striae ; yellowish 
white or \vhitish, with narrow r chestnut or chocolate bands between 
the revolving riblets. Length, 1 in. 

Philippines. 

C. striatum, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 87), is a synonym. 

C. PRODITUM, Bayle. PL 23, fig. 89. 

Longitudinally plicate, tuberculated by the crossing of spiral 
riblets, whorls angular in the middle, the last with two beaded rib- 
lets below ; whitish, stained with chestnut between the plications. 

Length, 1 in. 

Philippines. 

Described by Sowerby under the name of C. fusi forme, a name 
preoccupied by Leymerie for a fossil species. 

C. ROSTRATUM, Sowb. PL 23, figs. 90, 91. 

Graceful, thin, white, longitudinally plicate and finely granosely 
ribbed, often minutely chestnut dotted between the granules ; canal 
produced, usually stained with chocolate, Length, 15-22 mill. 

Philippines, Viti and Sandwich Island*. 

C. gracilis, Pease, is a synonym. 

C. LISSUM, Watson. PL 23, fig. 92. 

Longitudinally rather closely ribbed, cut and somewhat tubercu- 
lated by spiral striae ; brownish white, with a white varix on the 
body whorl. Length, 1 in. 

Fiji I*. 



CEBITHIUM. 131 

0. CUSTOS, Bayle. PI. 23, figs. 95, 96. 

Turreted, whorls strongly, tubercularly shouldered, elsewhere 
granular, varicose ; orange-brown, whitish on the tubercles. 

Length, 23 mill. 

Philippines. 

Described by Sowerby as C. coronatum, a name preoccupied by 
Bruguiere for a fossil species. I have a suspicion that this will prove 
a denuded state of the next species. 

C. PLANUM, Phil. PI. 23, figs. 98, 99, 97. 

Narrow, flat whorled, subcylindrical, distantly, rather indistinctly 
longitudinally plaited, last whorl crenulately ribbed on the peri- 
phery and somewhat concave below, canal produced ; white, with a 
single band of chestnut on each whorl. Length, 15 mill. 

Philippines, Viti Island*. 

C. invaginatum, Gould (fig. 97), from the last named locality, is a 
synonym. 

C. SALEBROSUM, Sowb. PI. 23, figs. 100, 1. 

Slightly, tuberculately shouldered, with a pair of granulated 
revolving riblets on the lower part of the body whorl, ribbed, 
crossed by spiral lines ; yellowish brown, more or less tinged with 
chestnut between the ribs. Length, 1 in. 

Lord Hood's Island. 

I am almost certain that this is simply a more flourishing state of 
C. custos, and consequently identical with C.planum. 

C. BALTEATUM, Phil. PI. 23, figs. 2, 3. 

Varicose and longitudinally ribbed, tuberculated, swelled above, 
narrowed near the suture, last whorl with two strong tuberculated 
ribs below the periphery, and contracted below them ; whitish, with 
a narrow, central, orange brown band, or brownish with a central 
white band. Length, 23 mill. 

Philippines. 

This may be another state of C. planwn, Phil. ; it is at least very 
closely related to it. 

C. RUBUS, Martyn. PI. 23, figs. 4-9, 15. 

Varicose, brownish or brownish white, the whorls longitudinally 
plicate and spirally striate, with three spiral rows of tubercles on 
the spire whorls and about seven rows on the body. Length, 1 in. 

Ceylon ; Singapore ; Philippines. 



132 OERITHIUM. 

C. serratum, Wood, C. mitrceforme, Sowb. (figs. 5, 6), which 
varies in having a white sutural band, C. eximium, Sowb. (figs. 7, 
8), C. granosum, Kiener (fig. 9), and C. sordidulum, Gould (fig. l5), 
are synonyms. 

C. TENELLUM, Sowb. PI. 23, figS. 10, 11. 

Thin, nearly transparent, white or rose color, sometimes with rows 
of small chestnut spots, varices white, whorls with excavated shoulder, 
tuberculated more strongly at the suture and shoulder angle than 
elsewhere, canal short and open, outer lip single. Length, 21 mill. 

Philippines. 
C. MUSCARUM, Say. PI. 23, figs. 12, 13. 

Whorls convex, crossed by rounded ribs, with wider interspaces, 
spirally lirate, forming granules on the ribs, fine striae between the 
lirse ; whitish, chestnut colored or chocolate, with series of minute 
chestnut punctations, sometimes on the ribs, sometimes between 
them. Length, 20 mill. 

Florida ; Bahamas. 

It is C. notatum, Menke. 

C. OCELLATUM, Brug. PL 24, fig. 19. 

Blackish, spirally punctate with white, under a thin, olivaceous 
epidermis, whorls slopingly concavely shouldered, with a single row 
of tubercles at the angle. Length, 1*5 in. 

Gallapagos Is. to Mazatlan, Muscat, Madagascar. 

The Pacific and West American localities furnish this shell nu- 
merously, but specimens are in the British Museum, from Madagas- 
car, and in the Phila. Academy are others from Muscat, collected 
by Dr. Ruschenberger, U. S. N. C. irroratum, Gould, and ( 1 . 
stercus-muscarum, Val., are synonyms. 

C. INFLATUM, Quoy. PI. 23, figs. 16-18 ; PI. 24, fig. 23. 

Chocolate color, under a yellowish olivaceous epidermis, usually 
shouldered, varicose, and roughly longitudinally plicate, tubercu- 
lated by the intersection of spiral rib lets, with intervening spiral 
engraved lines. Length, 22 mill. 

Philippines. 

C.. Billeheusti, Petit (fig. 18), is probably, and C. brewculum, 
. (fig. 18), is almost certainly a synonym; C. Metcalfei, Sowb. 
. 23), can be added to the list. 



CERITHIUM. 133 

C. CARBONARIUM, Phil. PI. 24, figs. 34, 24. 

Thick, dark chocolate, sometimes yellowish banded below the 
middle, whorls with two spiral rows of large blackish tubercles, with 
five additional rows, of smaller size on the body whorl, interstices 
finely spirally engraved. Length, 1-1 '25 in. 

Japan, China, Philippines, Seychelles, etc. 

This is C. tuberculatum, Born, (not Linn.) == C. Bornii, Sowb. 
(fig. 24), and C. Tourannense, Eyd. et Soul. Keeve's figure of C. 
carbonarium represents a C. morns. 
C. PATULUM, Sowb, PI. 24, figs. 20-22. 

Irregularly varicose, covered by a strong brownish epidermis; 
longitudinally strongly plicate, encircled by two strong tuberculated 
ribs, with other smaller ones, and intermediate lirse on the body 
whorl, body whorl distorted, narrowed into a distinct channel below, 
lip lirate within. Length, 1 in. 

Philippines, Viti Is. 

C. gibberuhim, Frauenf., and, I think, C. pellucidwn, Hombr. et 
Jacq. (fig. 22), are synonyms. 
C. TUBERCULATUM, Linn. PL 24, figs. 25-28. 

Varicose, with irregular large tuberculated ribs, and revolving 
rows of granules, with fine engraved lines between them ; whitish, 
greyish, or yellowish, the granules and tubercles tipped with choco- 
late, so that the surface appears as though encrusted with gems. 

Length, 1 in. 

Polynesia. 

This species, though varying considerably, may be distinguished 
from all its allies by usually possessing a strong oblique varix on 
the back of the body whorl. It is more usually known under the 
name of C. petroswn, Wood. C. Janelli, Hombr. et Jacq., is another 
synonym. 
Var. PUPA, Sowb. Fig. 28. 

Whitish or light lilac, with a fulvous band at the suture, and 
another below the middle of the body whorl. 

Philippines. 
0. MORUS, Lam. PI. 24, figs. 32, 33, 29-31, 35-37, 39, 40, 41, 43, 

45, 47 ; PI. 25, figs. 55, 57, 58, 65, 66. 

Dark chocolate color, with a varix on the body whorl opposite 
the aperture, spire with three, body whorl with about seven rows of 
small black tubercles, with a single stria between each. 

Length, 1 in. 

Red Sea, Madagascar, Philippines, Australia, Viti Is., etc. 



134 CERITHIUM. 

C. concisum, Hombr. et Jacq., C. obscurum, and C. gemmulatum 
(figs. 57, 58), of the same authors, C. carbonarium, Sowb., not Phil., 
C. breve, Quoy, and C. moniliferum, Dufresne (fig. 35), are synonyms. 

Var. VARIEGATUM, Quoy. Figs. 41, 43, 45, 65, 66. 

E. A. Smith, in the Mollusca of the Alert Expedition, refers C. 
variegatum, Quoy, to the preceding species ; judging from the origi- 
nal figure, and a large series of specimens evidently identical with 
it, none of them having the varix on the back, I believe that it is a 
small variety of C. morus, averaging 15 mill, in length, tessellated 
or irregularly variegated with dark brown on the tubercles, the 
aperture often violaceous. As to the C. variegatum figured in 
Reeve's Iconica (figs. 29-31), that appears to represent variations of 
C. morus depending on the slight development of tubercles and 
lighter, blotched coloring, but is much closer to the type than Quoy's 
species. 

C. humile, Dunker (fig. 66), C. nivosum. Sowb. (fig. 45), 0. 
gemma, Sowb. (fig. 41), C. California}, Sowb. (fig. 43), and (X 
acutum, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 65), are probably synonyms. 

Var. PATIENS, Bayle. Figs. 36, 37, 47. 

The longitudinal ribs more developed, making the tubercles 
larger and more irregular in development ; yellowish white or greyish 
irregularly blotched and spotted with chocolate, sometimes chocolate 
color with whitish markings. 

Polynesia. 

A much rougher shell than the typical C. morus, the tubercles 
larger and the intermediate spiral strise faint or obsolete. Usually 
recognized as a species, under the name of C. rugosum, Wood, which 
is preoccupied by Lamarck for a fossil species. The characters 
appear to merge gradually into those of the type. C. tuberculatum, 
of Reeve's Iconica, is a synonym, and C. inuxicitm, Hombr. et Jacq. 
(fig. 47), is a small form of it. 

Var. BIFASCIATUM, Sowb. Figs. 39, 40, 55. 

White, with a chestnut band on the spire, and two bands on the 
body whorl. 

Philippines. 

Probably C. vittatum, Sowb. (fig. 55), changed by Bayle to 0. 
Uranus, because of the fossil C. vittatum, Lam., is a depauperate 
young shell of this form. I add C. nigrofasciatum, Sowb. (fig. 40). 



CERITHIUM. 135 

C. LEMNISCATUM, Quoy. PI. 24, fig. 38. 

Varicose, roughly granulated in revolving series, with usually 
single intermediate lirse, in the middle of each whorl a few of the 
granules are larger, more like tubercles ; whitish, more or less speck- 
led or clouded with chocolate, frequently with a chocolate band on 
the spire, and tw r o bands on the body whorl. Length, 1*25 in. 

Philippines, Viti Islands. 

C. TRAILLII, Sowb. PI. 25, figs. 47-54, 56, 59. 

Varicose, w r ith spiral beaded striae alternating with smaller plain 
ones ; yellowish white, or clouded with chestnut or chocolate, the 
beads chestnut or chocolate color. Length, 1*5 in. 

Singapore ; Java; Philippines. 

Differs from the preceding species in its finer, more regular spiral 
sculpture, variegated coloring, and absence of tubercles : it is possi- 
bly only a variety of it. C. nitidum, Sowb. (fig. 54) = gentile, 
Bayle, and / C. baccatum, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 59), are synonyms. 

Var. LUCTUOSUM, Hombr. et Jacq. Fig. 56. 

Stouter and smoother, the granules more distant and fewer ; nearly 
uniform w r hite, the granules milk-white. 

Var. ALTERNATUM, Sowb. Figs. 48-50. 

The granules larger, spiny, shell white, or chocolate color, or 
white with interstitial bands of chocolate. 

Philippines. 

C. robustum, Sowb. (fig. 50), is a synonym. 

Var. SPLENDENS, Sowb. Figs. 53, 51, 52. 

Granules larger, spiny, one or more series more developed, so that 
the whorls apppear subangulate and the lip margin crenulated ; 
whitish to chocolate color, on the lighter colored specimens the spines 
are chestnut colored. 

Philippines. 

C. purpurascens, Sowb. (figs. 51, 52), is a synonym. 

C. HANLEYI, Sowb. PL 24, fig. 42. 

Shell with rounded longitudinal plications, varicose, slightly nod- 
uled by spiral sculpture ; yellowish brow r n, with regular chestnut or 
chocolate spiral lines. Length, 22 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

C. rubrolineatum, Sowb. (figured), is precisely like Hanleyi, 
which was first described of the two on the same page of the 
Thesaurus. Why Sowerby abandoned the latter name in favor of 
the former, I cannot imagine. 



136 CERITHIUM. 

C. MILLEPUNCTATUM, Hombr. et Jacq. PL 25, fig. 60. 

Varicose, with alternate spiral rows of faint nodules and interme- 
diate striae ; whitish, with chestnut spots. Length, 22 mill. 

Ins. Hogoleu. 

I know nothing of this species, which it appears had become lost 
to the scientific world. 

C. ASPERULTJM, Tryon. PL 25, fig. 62. 

Brown, slightly shouldered, longitudinally plicate, with spiral 
lines of chestnut colored nodules and minute intermediate striae, 
nodules sharp, outer lip thickened crenulated. Length, 14 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Mr. Pease called this species C. asperum, a name preoccupied in 
the Vertagus group. 

C. ELUDENS, Bayle. PL 25, fig. 63. 

Whorls angulated, ventricose, plaited at the angle, girt beneath 
the suture with a tuberculated line, body whorl biangulate, both 
angles tuberculated ; fulvous, chestnut spotted between the tubercles. 

Length, 15 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Described by Sowerby as C. dubium, preoccupied by the Sowerby 
of the " Mineral Conchology." 

C. USTUM, Hombr. et Jacq. PL 25, fig. 61. 

Narrow, decussated by longitudinal and spiral sculpture, the 
former more prominent, aperture striate within, ribbed without, 
brownish. Length, 28 mill. 

Solomon's Archipelago. 

C. NIGROBALTEATTTM, E. A. Smith. PL 25, fig. 64. 

White, chocolate banded above the suture, and on the periphery 
of the last whorl ; whorls 12, convex, strongly longitudinally ribbed 
and spirally ridged and sulcated. Length, 15 mill. 

Prince of Wales' Channel. 

C. TORRESI, E. A. Smith. PL 23, fig. 14. 

Whitish, with spiral series of chocolate colored spots upon the 
lirse between the longitudinal granose ribs; whorls 11, very 
slightly convex ; aperture with external varix and interior grooves. 

Length, 14'5 mill. 

Prince of Wales' Channel, Torres Straits, Australia. 

Resembles C. muscarum, Say, of the Southern United States' Coast. 



He ^ 

VHJVERSITY 



CERITHIUM. 



C. KOBELTI, Dunker. PI. 25, fig. 67. 

Yellowish brown, varicose, roughly nodulous, with decussating 
sculpture ; whorls 8-9, convex, with deep suture ; lip thickened, 
grooved within. Diam. 23 mill. 

Japan. 

C. ISSELII, Pagenstecher. PI. 25, fig. 68. 

Whorls 8, convex, decussated by close, fine longitudinal and spiral 
sculpture, brownish. Length, 22 mill. 

Red Sea. 

Unknown to me. 

. EGENUM, Gould. PI. 25, fig. 70. 

Whitish, with small brownish dots at the base ; whorls about 10, 
nearly flat, spirally threaded, last whorl somewhat swollen, varicose. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Wilson's Isl 

Reeve's figure does not represent this' species. 

. IANTHINUM, Gould. PI. 25, figs. 71, 72. 

Light, violaceous, the suture, lip and varices white, with close, 
spiral, thread-like, somewhat granose striae. Length, 9 mill. 

Clermont Tonnere; Ins. Bourbon. 

C. aspersum, Desh. (fig. 72), from the last-named locality, is a 
synonym. 

. MAILLARDI, Crosse. PL 25, figs. 73, 74. 

Greyish white, with small interrupted dark spiral lines , whorls 
11, convex, quadrisulcate and granular, with frequent varices. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Ins. Bourbon. 

I doubt whether this is distinct from the last species. It was first 
described by Desh ayes as C. Crossei, a name preoccupied by Tiberi. 

C. MACULOSUM, Mighels. PI. 26, figs. 75, 76. 

Club-shaped, with spiral striae, and longitudinal wrinkles on the 
upper part of the whorls, which are a little concavely shouldered ; 
shining white, irregularly blotched and spotted with chestnut or 
chocolate, sometimes covering most of the surface, at other times 
faint, and sparse. Length, 9 mill. 

Sandwich and Viti Is. ; Mauritius. 

C. Nassoides, Sowb. (fig. 76), is a synonym. 



138 CERITHIUM. 

C. DIMINUTIVUM, Phil. PI. 26, fig. 77. 

Turreted, with obsolete rounded longitudinal ribs, and fine spiral 
stride, developing a line of tubercles on the shoulder angle ; whitish, 
orange brown between the sculpture. Length, 7 mill. 

Friendly Is. ; Paumotus. 

C. ZEBRUM, Kiener. PL 26, figs. 78-82. 

Minutely, regularly granulated by fine decussating sculpture, 
white or fulvous, chocolate or chestnut banded at the suture and 
periphery, occasionally varicose. Length, 8 mill. 

Gallapagos Is. ; Samoan Is. 

C. delectum, Sowb. (figs. 80-82), is a synonym ; the whorls are 
sometimes rosy or dark, with minute spiral series of black specks. 

'C. ICARUS, Bayle. PI. 26, figs. 83, 84. 

Longitudinally plaited, spirally closely ridged, white, maculated 
with brown, often dark banded at the suture, and on the periphery 
of the last whorl, outer lip crenulatad within. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Loochoo and Bonin Is. 

Described by Sowerby as C. tenue, preoccupied by Deshayes for a 
fossil species. 

C. INTERSTRIATUM, Sowb. PL 26, fig. 85. 

Granosely costulate, crossed by close spiral lines, whitish, with 
chestnut colored spots in spiral series. Length, 13 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

C. UNILINEATUM, Pease. PL 26, fig. 86. 

Slightly longitudinally ribbed, spirally striated, rather frequently 
varicose, whitish or yellowish, sprinkled with pale chestnut spots, 
with a sutural chestnut band. Length, 6 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

C. FUCATUM, Pease. PL 26, fig. 87. 

Pale fawn color, encircled by three series of nodules, between 
them spotted with chestnut, suture excavated, whorls occasionally 
varicose. Length, 10 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 



C. PAXILLUM, Pease. PL 26, fig. 88. 

Brownish, longitudinally plaited, spirally tuberculated upon the 
plaits, and striated between the tubercles. Length, 6 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 



CERITHIUM. 139 

C. PLACIDUM, Gould. PL 26, fig. 89. 

White, with rough spiral ridges and deep interstices, whorls flat, 
suture excavated. Length, 6 mill. 

China Seas* 

C. RARIMACULATUM, Sowb. PI. 26, fig. 91. 

Turreted, shouldered, spirally striated, the shoulder-angle tuber- 
culated ; white, with a few chestnut spots irregularly disposed. 
Length, 10'5 mill. 

Ins. Zebu, Philippines. 

C. REPLETULUM, Bayle. PI. 2#, fig. 92. 

Short, ventricose, grey tending to black, banded with dark spots 
and interrupted lines, whorls plaited above, aperture lirate and dark 
banded within. Length, 22 mill. 

Ins. Bohol, Philippines. 

Described by Sowerby as C. obesum preoccupied by Deshayes 
for a fossil species. 

C. OBESULUM, Sowb. PI. 26, fig. 93. 

Solid, blackish, slightly angularly elevated on the back of the 
whorls, with spiral series of beaded ribs, aperture whitish, lip 
crenated within. Length, 11 mill. 

Sab. unknown* 

C. FLAMMICULATUM, Sowb. PI. 26, fig. 98. 

Greyish, with chocolate between the spiral series of small nodules 
or grains. Length, 15 mill. 

Hab. unknown* 

C. ADUNCUM, Gould. PL 26, figs. 96, 97. 

Solid, distorted, with a stout varix on the body whorl, rather 
smooth, with thin, thread-like spiral striae ; whorls 9, flattened, suture 
scarcely impressed ; yellowish ash-color, tinged with brownish. 

Length, 1 in. 

Philippines* 

C. dorsuosum, A. Ad. (fig. 97), is a synonym. 

. ALBOLIRATUM, Carp. PL 26, fig. 90. 

Obsoletely ribbed, spirally lirate, one or two of the lirse more 
prominent, forming an angle on the whorls, whitish. 

Length, 1-3 mill. 

Mazatlan. 

A very young species, probably a juvenile of some other species of 
our Pacific coast. 



140 CERITHIUM. 

. TROCHIFORME, Sowb. PI. 26, fig. 95. 

Trochiform, longitudinally plaited, tuberculated by the crossing 
of spiral sculpture, last whorl rather flat below, and less sculptured ; 
chocolate color. Length, 3 mill. 

California. 

A juvenile, which I am unable to refer definitely to any form 
known to me. The locality needs confirmation. 

. FERRUGINEUM, Say. PI. 26, figs. 99-5. 

Orange-red to chocolate color, sometimes whitish on the lower half 
of the body whorl, sometimes variegated, with small, oblique, 
rounded ribs, cut into numerous tubercles by spiral grooves, lower 
half of body whorl less distinctly tuberculated, "whorls occasionally 
varicose. Length, 12-15 mill. 

So. Carolina to Florida ; West Indies. 

Var. VERSICOLOR, C. B. Adams. Figs. 100-5. 

The West Indian examples of C. ferrugineum have received this 
name : they usually vary from the type in being parti-colored as 
above, and a little stouter in form. These differences are not very 
constant, C. Eriense, Val. (fig. 1), of which the figures in Reeve 
and Sowerby (copied by me) appear to be magnified representations, 
a,nd which Morch calls var. major, may be here referred, as well as 
C. stercus-muscarum, Kiener, C. variabile, C. B. Ads. (fig. 2) = var. 
grisea, Morch, C. nigrum, Phil., C. Bermudce, Sowb. (fig. 4), C. 
Thomasice, Sowb., C. lutosum, Menke (fig. 5). 

C. RISSOID^E, Sowb. PI. 26, fig. 6. 

Small, whitish, spirally striated, longitudinally plaited, with small 
tubercles in three rows on the spire whorls, suture deep,. last whorl 
alternately ridged beneath. Length, 7 mill. 

Ins. St. Thomas, W. I. 

A much smaller species than the foregoing, always white, or yel- 
lowish white. 

C. SAGR^, d'Orb. PI. 26, fig. 94. 

Ovately ventricose, beaded in three spiral series on the upper 
whorls, more numerously on the lower one, the row immediately 
below the suture more prominent ; whitish, longitudinally irregularly 
stained with chestnut. Length, 9 mill. 

Cuba. 

C. megasoma, C. B. Ad., is a synonym. Morch mentions a var. 
pallida. 



CERITHIUM. 141 

C. MUTABILE, C. B. Adams. PI. 26, fig. 7. 

Whorls convex, with a narrow shoulder under the suture, sculp- 
ture very faint, showing under the glass minute granulations and 
striae, spirally disposed ; white, variegated and blotched with chest- 
nut, sometimes wholly chestnut ; aperture large, the outer lip well 
rounded, thin. Length, 9 mill. 

Salt Lakes, Bahamas. 

C. CRASSILABRUM, Krauss. PI. 27, fig. 17a. 

Whitish, spotted and dotted with chestnut, ribbed, angulated 
above the middle of the whorls, with beaded spiral striae ; outer lip 
slightly expanded, crenulated, spotted. Length, 12 mill. 

^ape of Good Hope. 

C. SEROTINUM, A. Ad. PL 27, figs. 19, 20. 

Whitish or pale brownish, longitudinally closely plicated, spirally 
striated, whorls ventricose in the middle, body w r horl truncate 
below, canal contracted, short, columellar lip free. 

Length, 12-18 mill. 

Van Dieman's Land 

C. rhodostoma, A. Ad. (fig. 20), is a synonym. 

C. PAUXILLUM, A. Ad. PI. 34, fig. 95. 

Subcylindrical, pale fulvous, longitudinally plaited and spirally 
ribbed, the intersections nodulous, suture deep. Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 

Section COLINA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

C. PINGUE, A. Ad. PI. 26, figs. 8, 9, 11, 

Finely, spirally striated, whorls tuberculated above the suture, 
body whorl plicate above ; yellowish chestnut color, interior lined 
with chestnut. Length, 18 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Varies considerably in outline : C. contractum, Sowb. = C. 
crumena, Bayle (fig. 9), and C. tceniatum, Sowb. (fig. 11), being 
synonyms. 

C. CYLINDRACEUM, Pease. PL 26, fig. 12. 

White, with pinched-up, curved longitudinal distant ribs, and 
more numerous sutural crenulations, and minute, distant, bead-like 
spiral striae, closer at the suture. Length, 23 mill. 

Paumotus Is. ; Viti Is. 



142 CEEITHIUM. 

. MACROSTOMA, Hinds. PL 26, figs. 13-15, 10. 

Pale fulvous, or whitish, thin, spirally striated, longitudinally 
ribbed, spire whorls more or less angulated in the middle, ribs less 
distinct on the body whorl , outer lip thickened. Length, 12 mill. 

Borneo. 

I unite with this species C. costatum, A. Ad. (fig. 13) C. costi- 
ferum, A. Ad. =- C. rigens, Bayle, 'C. pupceforme, A. Ad. (fig. 15), 
which, according to the form of the aperture, and sharp lip is not 
adult, and C. pygmcea, H. Ad. (fig, 10), the latter a more highly 
colored specimen. 
. BRAZIERI, Try on. PL 26, fig. 16. 

Subcylindrical, fragile, white, whorls angulated and tuberculated 
on the middle, finely spirally striate, longitudinally faintly costate, 
aperture prolonged below into a straight, sharp canal. 

Length, 1 in. 

Australia. 

An aberrant form, almost deserving to be made the type of a new 
group. The extreme fragility and form of the mouth indicate 
juvenility. Mr. Brazier sent us several specimens, which all exhibit 
the above characters. 



C. GR AGILE, H. Adams (unfigured). Eastern Sea*. 

Mr. Adams says that this species was subsequently described by 
Mr. Sowerby under the name of C. coarctata; I have not found this 
latter description. 

Section LIOCERITHIUM, Tryon, 1887. 
. INCISUM, Sowb. PL 27, fig. 22. 

Shell with spiral incised grooves, whitish or grey, marbled with 
chocolate, sometimes articulated at the suture, interior white, 
grooved with chestnut. Length, 1 in. 

L. California; Guaymas, Mex. 

The localities Australia and Philippines, of the monographers, are 
incorrect. 
C. CURTUM, Sowb. PL 27, fig. 23. 

Shell similarly sculptured and colored as the preceding, but 
shorter and stouter. Length, 18 mill. 

Cerros Is., L. California. 

This may be a variety of the preceding species, but I have not 
seen intermediates. Bayle has changed the name to C. Euros, on 
account of C. curium, H. C. Lea. 




CERITHIUM. 

C. INTERRUPTUM, Menke. PL 27, figs. 24, 25. 

Form of the preceding species but more finely irregularly 
grooved, with' intervening ridges ; whitish, marbled or closely 
spitally lined with chocolate. Lerjgth, 12-15 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. Cal. to Panama; Gallapagos Is. 

C. sculptum, Sowb. (fig. 24), is a synonym. 

Var. GALLAPAGINIS, A. Ad. Fig. 25. 

The spiral grooves crossed by slight, close longitudinal riblets, 
forming a somewhat beaded surface. 

Guacomayo ; Gallapagos. 

C. NITIDUM, Hombr. et Jacq. PL 27, fig. 31 (lower). 

Vitreous white, channeled, with a line of tubercles next below 
the suture, which are sometimes yellowish. Length, 1 in. 

Mangareva Is. 

C. B^TICUM, Pease. PL 27, fig. 26. 

Thin, with alternate shallow grooves and ridges, the former yel- 
lowish, the latter chestnut colored ; these colors also appear in the 
aperture ; the upper whorls are obscurely ribbed and nodulous. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

C. LINEATUM, Dunker. PL 27, figs. 27, 28. 

Granulated by revolving ribs and intermediate grooves, and less 
prominent longitudinal sculpture ; white, with two close, interrupted 
chestnut lines on the middle of each whorl. Length, 5 mill. 

Viti Is. 

C. MONACHUS, Crosse and Fischer. PL 27, fig. 21. 

Rather thin, subtranslucent, reddish yellow, covered with minute 
chestnut markings ; whorls 10, rounded, obtusely carinated, carina 
forming an articulated band, last whorl with two obtuse carinse, 
spirally striated, occasionally varicose. Length, 18 mill. 

Port Adelaide, Australia. 

The authors consider the species a Cerithidea. 

C. LACTEUM, Kiener. PL 27, figs. 29, 30, 33. 

Spirally grooved, crenulated near the suture, or sometimes min- 
utely granular ; white, or yellowish white, sometimes with a row of 
subsutural chestnut spots, sometimes with obscure zigzag chestnut 
strigations. Length, 15 mill. 

Sandwich and Viti Islands. 



144 CERITHIUM. 

C. pusillum, Nuttall, is probably, and C. papillosum, Sowb. (fig, 
33), is certainly a synonym. 
C. PIPERITUM, Sowb. PL 27, figs. 31, 32. 

Spirally ribbed and grooved, white, the ribs chestnut spotted, 
whorls angulated in the middle. Length, 18- mill. 

Philippines ; Polynesia. 

C. punctatum, Brug., and C. alveolus, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 32), 
are synonyms. 

Subgenus STILUS, Jeffreys, 1885. 
C. INSIGNIS, Jeffreys. PL 26, fig. 17. - 

Kather thick, glossy, with numerous longitudinal ribs, crossed by 
three spiral striae on each whorl, the intersections tubercular, peri- 
phery of body whorl ridged, base smooth and somewhat concave, 
white. Length, 6 mill. 

Atlantic 0. (Porcupine Exped.) 



Unfigured and Undetermined Species of Cerithium. 

The following are all described under the generic name of Ceri- 
thium, and are accordingly included here, although it is probable 
that some of them belong to other groups in the family. 
C. STIGMOSUM, Gould. Boiiin Is. 

C. MINUTUM, Nuttall. Sandwich Is 

C. ALABASTRUM, Morch. St. TJwmas, W. L 

C. RAWSONI, Krebs. Morch. Barbados, W. L 

C. EPESCOPALE, C. ELONGATUM, C. FULVUM, C. FRAGILE, C. GRANU- 
LOSUM, C. GRACILE, C. IRREGULARE, C. MUREX, C. PAGODULA, 
C. PLATYNOTUM, C. PICTUM, C. RUBROPUNCTATUM, C. RUDE, C. 
CONICUM, C. CONULUS, C. VENTRICOSUM, C. TURRITELLA, all of 

Anton. Local, unknown. 

C. SCABRICOSTA (Loc. unknown), C. TUBULUS (Bass Sts.), C. FUS- 

CUM (Navigator's Is.), C. GIBBEROSUM (Nicobar Is.), all of 

D linker. 

C. DORSUOSUM, Menke. Australia, 

C. VERSICOLOR and C. PUMILUM (Hob. unknown), C. GLABRATUM 

(Australia), C. FILOSUM (California), C. SPADICEUM (Yucatan)? 

C. EXIGUUM (Friendly Is.), C. CECILLII and C. NEBULOSUM 

(Loochoo Is.), C. ANTARCTICUM and C. PULLUM (Magellan's Sts.), 

all of Philippi. 



CERITHIUM. 145 

C. ABBREVIATUM (jV. Guinea), C. BICANALIFERUM and C. MINIMUM 

(N. Australia), of Brazier. 

C. GRACILENTUM and C. LACINIOSUM, Mighels. Sandwich Is. 

C. VARIEGATUM, Folin. Panama. 

C. CANCELLATUM, H. C, Lea. (Minute, perhaps not a Cerithium). 

Delaware Bay. 

C. PROTEXTUM, Conrad. = Terebra. 

C. GIGANTEUM, Lam. (Not Australian, but) Fossil. Paris basin. 
C. DISLOCATUM, Say. = Terebra. 

Subgenus VERTAGUS, Klein., 1753. 

C. MACULOSUM, Martyn. PI. 27, fig. 35. 

White, marbled and longitudinally interruptedly marked with 
chestnut ; earlier whorls longitudinally distantly ribbed, all the 
whorls with incised lines marking off alternately wider and narrower 
spiral interspaces, which, at the base, become rounded, rugose ribs. 

Length, 5 in. 

Gallapagos Is. 

C. marmoratum, Quoy, C. marmoreum, Kiener, C. magnum, Jay, 
and C. clava, Brug., are synonyms. 

C. SOWERBYI, Kiener. PI. 27, figs. 36, 37. 

Upper whorls irregularly ribbed and spirally striate, lower ones 
smooth, with a faint or obsolete shoulder of tubercles on each whorl ; 
yellowish white with quadrangular chestnut spots in spiral series, 
overlaid by irregular chocolate blotches. Length, 3*5 in. 

Philippines; N. Australia. 

The pattern of coloring varies to yellowish white, with close 
irregular longitudinal chocolate blotches, and no rows of spots, they 
coalescing into the blotches ; in this state,it is C. Cumingii, A. Ad. 
(fig. 37). It is C. clava of Sowerby's "Genera." 

C, ALUCO, Linn. PI. 27, fig. 38. 

Whorls slightly angled and distantly nodose-spinose below the 
suture, upper whorls spirally ridged and cancellated, lower ones 
with an occasional, low spiral rib, otherwise smooth ; white, thickly 
speckled, blotched and strigated with chestnut or chocolate. 
Length, 2'5-3 in. 

Philippines ; Viti Isles. 
Murex coronatus, Born, is a synonym. 
10 



146 CERITHIUM. 

C. OBELISCUS, Brug. PL 27, figs. 39, 40. 

Whorls with tuberculatecl spiral ribs and intermediate granulated 
spiral striae, the tubercles more prominent on a slight shoulder of 
each whorl ; yellowish white, more or less thickly spotted and 
clouded with chestnut or chocolate ; last whorl with an obtuse 
lateral varix. Length, 2-2'5 in. 

East Indies, Polynesia, Mauritius. 

It is C. Sinensis, Gmel. A smaller form, in which the sculpture 
is sharper has received the name of C. cedo-nulli, Sowb. (fig. 40). 
C. CORDIGERUM, Bayle. PL 27, fig. 41. 

Shell finely, closely, spirally striated, with a line of tubercles at 
the suture, and a second, less prominent series below it on the spire, 
two or three inferior distant riblets on the body- whorl ; whitish or 
yellowish brown, the riblets of the body-whorl often articulated 
with chestnut. Length, T5 in. 

Australia. 

Notwithstanding the difference in the sculpture I suspect that 
this will prove to be a mere variety of C. obeliscus. It was described 
by Lamarck as C. semigranosum, but as that author previously used 
the same name for a different, fossil species, Bayle changed it as 
above. 
C. PULCHER, A. Ad. PL 27, fig. 42. 

Spirally striated, obsoletely longitudinally ribbed, with a row of 
nodules at the suture, and a varix on the last whorl ; yellowish, with 
chocolate spots between the sutural nodules. Length, 2 in. 

N. Australia. 
C. GEMMATUM, Hinds. PL 28, figs. 44, 45 ; PL 27, fig. 43. 

Spirally grooved, the interstices more or less tuberculated, a 
stronger band of tubercles next the suture, body whorl flattened in 
front, with a large lateral varix; yellowish white, marbled and 
spotted with chestnut or chocolate. Length, 1-5-2 in. 
Mazatlan to Panama ; Viti Islands ; Australia ; Indian Archipelago. 

The West American localities are for the type, the others for 0. 
articulatum, Ads. and Reeve (fig. 45), which I cannot separate even 
as a variety ; C. tenuiseulptum, Sowb. (fig. 43), is another synonym. 
C. SEMINUDUM, Sowb. PL 28, fig. 46. 

White, spirally grooved, whorls angulated above the middle, 
armed with three series of large, sharp tubercles, body- whorl with- 
out tubercles below. Length, T25 in. 

New Caledonia. 



CERITHIUM. 147 

C. TORULOSUM, Linn. PI. 28, figs. 50, 52, 53. 

Whitish, with noduliferous ribs, beaded and tumid at the suture, 
spirally ribbed, outer lip digitated. Length, 1*5 in. 

Society Is. 

It is C. annular e, GmeL, and C. annulatum, Mart. 

C. RECURVUM, Sowerby. PI. 28, fig. 47. 

Spire whorls with three rows of granulations, seven rows on the 
body whorl ; white, with chestnut spots between the nodules. 

Length, 2 in. 

Red Sea. 

C. KOCHII, Phil. PL 28, figs. 48, 49. 

Spire longitudinally ribbed, ribs cut into nodules by spiral incised 
lines forming alternately wider and narrower interspaces ; the ribs 
are obsolete on the body whorl, which has a single sutural row of 
nodules ; yellowish white more or less marbled or tinged with light 
brown, sometimes the incised lines are chestnut colored. 

Length, 1*5 in. 

E. coast of Africa. 

C. GRANIFERUM, Pease. PI. 28, fig. 51. 

Yellowish white, suffused with pale brown, minutely brown- 
spotted between the granules ; whorls with tuberculated ribs below 
the suture, then two distant, smaller spiral series of granules, inter- 
stices striated, body whorl rounded and granulated beneath. 

Length, 1 in. 

Sandwich Is. 

C. RAVIDUM, Phil. PI. 28, fig. 54. 

Fulvous, irregularly varicose, longitudinally plicate and spirally 
striated, the ribs tuberculated, a stronger spiral series just below the 
suture; canal narrow, long, only slightly recurved. Length, 1 in. 

Sandwich Is. 

Reeve's Iconica gives two figures of C. graniferum, of which the 
first (fig. 6) represents this species. 

C. TURRITUM, Sowb. PL 28, figs. 55, 56. 

Distantly ribbed, the ribs cut into tubercles by three spiral rib- 
lets, between which are spiral striae, suture excavated. 

Philippines ; Japan. 

The last-named locality is for Pfeifferi, Dunker (fig. 56), a 
synonym. 



148 CERITHIUM. 

C. ATTENUATUM, Phil. PI. 28, fig. 57. 

Whitish, more or less suffused with chestnut, or entirely chestnut 
color ; whorls rather flat, with alternate large granulated and small 
smooth spiral riblets ; outer lip crenated, canal long, narrow, 
oblique. Length, 2 in. 

Philippines. 

It is C. longicaudatum, Ads. and Reeve. 

C. MATUKENSE, Watson. PL 28, fig. 58. 

With close, rounded longitudinal ribs, granulated by distant 
spiral threads, three or four on a whorl, occasionally varicose; 
whitish, with glossy brown spiral lines, and speckled with milk white. 

Length, 1*5 in. 

Viti Is. 

Allied to the preceding species in form, but differs in sculpture. 

C. PHOXUM, Watson. PL 28, fig. 59. 

With 10 or 11 longitudinal riblets, gradually becoming less regu- 
lar, and four or five spiral striae, tuberculating the riblets as they 
cross the latter, the wider spiral interspaces have each two or three 
inferior striae ; besides these, the whole surface is covered with finely 
fretted microscopic spirals ; waxy straw color, stained with brownish 
flesh color. Length, 17 mill. 

Viti Is. 
C. NOBILIS, Reeve. PL 28, fig. 60. 

Solid, smooth, flat, tumid at the suture, upper whorls angular, 
ribbed, tuberculated by spiral sculpture, lower whorls with spiral 
elevated lines ; yellowish white, with fulvous, waved, longitudinal 
strigations. Length, 5 in. 

Philippines. 

C. BITUBERCULATUM, Sowb. PL 28, fig. 61. 

Whitish, whorls with a pair of largely tuberculated spiral ribs 
beneath the suture, and a smaller granulated rib above it, finely 

striated. Length, 45 mill. 

Australia. 
C. ASPER, Linn. PL 28, figs. 62, 63. 

With numerous, pinched-up, obliquely longitudinal ribs and equal 
interspaces, asperated at the crossing of spiral ribs, the interspaces 
of the latter often bearing several incised spiral lines ; white, or yel- 
lowish white, the spiral riblets sometimes chestnut colored. 

Singapore, Mauritius, Madagascar, Friendly Is., etc. 

It is C. vibex, GmeL, C, granulatum, Linn, C. rugatum, Mart., C. 
lineatwn, Lam. (fig. 63). 



FASTIGIELLA. 149 

C. FASCIATUM, Brug. PL 28, fig. 64 ; PL 29, figs. 65-67. 

Smooth, longitudinally plicate at the suture, more or less spirally 
incised, upper part of spire nodosely ribbed ; whitish, spirally lined, 
or interruptedly spotted or blotched with chestnut color. 

Length, 2'25-3'5 in. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines. 

It is' C. procerum, Kiener, C. Martinianum, Pfr. (fig. 67). 

C. PHAROS. Hinds. PL 29, fig. 68. 

Closely longitudinally plicate at the suture, spirally distantly 
incised, upper whorls granularly ribbed ; whitish, frequently spirally 
lineated with chestnut. Length, 2-2'25 in. 

Paumotus, Viti Is., Indian Ocean. 

Narrower and smaller than C. fasciatum, with finer and sharper 
sutural sculpture, but possibly only a variety of that species. It is 
C. subulatum (Lam.), of Kiener. 

C. VERTAGUS, Linn. PL 29, figs. 69, 70. 

Ventricose, smooth, longitudinally plaited at the suture, with 
distant faint spiral incised strise, upper whorls asperate ; yellowish 
white, sometimes more or less stained with, or entirely chestnut 
color. Length, 2-2'5 in. 

East Indies, Philippines. 

V. vulgaris, Schum., is a synonym. 

Var. T^ENIATUM, Quoy. Fig. 70. 

Smoother, the sutural plaits obsolete ; yellowish white, chestnut 
banded. 

' New Guinea. 
Subgenus CAMPANILE, Bayle, 1884. 

C. L^EVE, Quoy. PL 29, fig. 71. 

White, ventricose, spirally striated, slightly tuberculated at the 
suture, last whorl roundly angulated and somewhat inflated beneath, 
columella twisted. Length, 6 in. 

Australia. 

The largest living species of the family. 

Genus FASTIGIELLA, Reeve, 1848. 
F. CABINATA, Reeve. PL 29, fig. 72. 

White, with three strong spiral keels on the spire whorls and ten 
on the body whorl, the interstices and suture excavated. 
Length, 1*75 in. 

Hab. unknown. 



150 BITTIUM. 

F. SQUAMULOSA, Pease. = Coralliophila. 

F. POULSENII, Morch. (Unfigured.) Eleuthera, Bahamas. 

Genus BITTIUM (Leach), Gray, 1847. 

B. GEMMATUM, Watson. PI. 29, figs. 73, 75, 85. 
Longitudinally ribbed, spirally ridged, developing two spiral 

rows of rather large tubercles on the centre of each whorl, thin, 
translucent white. Length, 8 mill. 

Atlantic Coast of Spain, Portugal; 27-994 fms. 

Sometimes the sculpture* is so faint as greatly to alter the appear- 
ance of the shell. 

Jeffreys changed the name to . Watsoni (figs. 75, 85) on account of 

C. gemmatum, Hinds ; but the latter is not a Bittium. 

B. LACTEUM, Phil. PI. 29, figs. 74, 76, 77. 

Whorls flattened, with three spiral rows of tubercles on each, 
body whorl with three inferior rows of less tuberculate ribs ; white. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, Canary Is. 

The synonyms include B. niveum, Bivona, B. elegans, Petit, B. 
Algerianum, Sowb. The following are slight variations from the 
typical form : var. lutea, B. D. D. (fig. 76), uniformly yellowish ; 
var. tessellata, B. D. D., tessellated with chestnut between the granu- 
lations ; var. quadriseriata, B. D. D. (fig. 77), with four rows of 
granules instead of three on the lower whorls. 

B. RETICULATUM, Da Costa. PI. 29, figs. 78-83. 

Whorls convex, with four spiral ribs, crossed by longitudinal 
plications and occasional varices, the intersections scabrous or 
nodulous, base of body whorl with spiral sculpture only ; uniform 
chestnut color. Length, 13-15 mill. 

Europe, Canary Islands. 

The synonymy includes B. scabrum, Olivi, B. lima, Brug., 
B. Latreillei, Payr., B. granulosum, Kisso, B. mamillatum, Risso, B. 
angustum, Desh., B. ferrugineum, Midd., B. vulgatissima, Clark, 
B. afrum, Sandri, B. acuminatum, Pennant, B. Danicum, Beck, B. 
elongatum, Sowb., B. spina, Tiberi, B. baccatum, Costa, B. granula- 
tum, Costa. 

Bucquoy, Dautz. et Dollf. (Moll. Roussillon) enumerate the fol- 
lowing varieties ; which are however, scarcely entitled to varietal 
rank: 



BITTIUM. 151 

Var. SCABRA, Olivi. 

Dark brown, granulations rounded, regular, theee series on a 
whorl (== var. rudis, Bragnone). 
Var. LATREILLEI, Payr. Fig. 80. 

Sculpture finer, light brown, the granulations dark brown, 
varicose. 

Var. variegata, Monts., is a synonym. 
Var. PALUDOSA, B. D. D. Fig. 81. 

Whorls convex, longitudinal sculpture more prominent. Brackish 
water. B. melanosa, Monts., probably belongs here. 
Var. JADERTANUM, Brusina. Fig. 82. 

Smaller, more lanceolate, whorls a little more convex. 

Var. minor, Phil. = this form. 
Var, EXIGUA, Monts. Fig. 83. 

Much elongated, whorls subcarinated in the middle, aperture very 
small. 
Var. BIFASCIATUM, B. D. D. 

Spiral sculpture scarcely visible, appearing as though only longi- 
tudinally costate, light yellowish, with two chestnut bands. 

Probably var. Sueziensis, Issel, from the Red Sea, does not differ 
materially. 
Var. LACTESCENS, Jeffreys. 

Uniform whitish. - B. albina, Monts. 
B. AMBLYTERUM, Watson. PL 30, rigs. 93, 95, 99. 

With close, rounded longitudinal ribs terminating in a spiral 
row of tubercles at the top and another at the bottom of each whorl, 
base of body-whorl smooth, translucent white. Length, 6'5 mill. 
Bay of Biscay to N. W. Africa, 681 to 1261 fins.; Azores, 450 fms.; 

Pernambuco, Brazil, 675 fms. 

Watson thinks it probable that Ceritliiella Whiteavesii, Verrill, 
will turn out to be the same species ; B. gracile, Jeffreys (fig. 95), is 
a synonym ; B. mamillanum, Watson (fig. 99), described from a 
single specimen, afterwards broken, from Pernambuco, is apparently 
another. 
B. ABRUPTUM, Watson. PI. 30, fig. 97. 

Longitudinal ribs about a dozen, low and narrow, divided by flat 
broader furrows, crossed by four spiral threads, forming prominent 
tubercles, base of body whorl smooth ; translucent white. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Fayal, Azores; 450-500 fms. 



152 BITTIUM. 

B. ENODE, Watson. PL 30, fig. 1. 

Finely longitudinally ribbed, terminating in a spiral subnodulous 
thread at the suture, a little below this a raised spiral line forms a 
slight carina, a less distinct one forms the inferior termination of the 
ribs, base of body whorl concave, smooth ; ivory white. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Off Pernambuco, Brazil; 675 fms. 

B. VARIUM, Pfeiffer. PI. 29, fig. 86. 

Thin, diaphanous, greyish brown, unicolored or with chocolate 
cingulse, longitudinally plicate, decussated by spiral striae, the pli- 
cations obsolete on lower part of the body-whorl which is varicosely 
gibbous. Length, 5 mill. 

West Indies. 

It is B. reticulatum, Muhlf., and B. gibberulum, Ads. 

B. PALLIDUM, Pfr. PI. 29, fig. 87. 

Somewhat solid, whitish or light corneous ; whorls 9, slightly 
convex, longitudinally plicate and spirally minutely striate, the last 
varicose. Length, 6 mill. 

Cuba, St. Thomas, W. I. 

Larger and more robust than the preceding species, B. colu- 
mellare, d'Orb., is a synonym. 

B. NIGRUM, Totten. PL 29, figs. 88, 89. 

Chocolate color, and conical-elongated when young, becoming 
lighter colored and less conical when adult, tuberculated by decus- 
sating sculpture, of which the spiral only persists on lower part of 
body-whorl. Length, 5 mill. 

New England to Florida. 

The synonyms are B. reticulatum, Totten, and B. Sayi (Menke), 
of Gould, etc. 

B. iota, C. B. Ad. (fig. 89), is probably only the juvenile of this 
species. 

B. FILOSUM, Gould. PL 29, fig. 90. 

Whorls 8, planulate, each with four incised spiral lines, usually 
becoming obsolete on lower part of body whorl, suture excavated ; 
corneous, varying to chocolate color, sometimes light colored with 
the incised lines chocolate, interior chestnut color. Length, 15 mill. 

Sitka to Monterey, Cal. 




BITTEUM. 153 



B. ESURIENS, Carp. PI. 30, fig, 16. 

Like the preceding, of which according to Carpenter it is possibly 
a degraded variety, but much smaller. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Vancouver's 1st. to San Pedro, Cal. 

B. QUADRIFILATUM, Carp. PL 29, fig. 91. 

Whorls slightly convex, with well-impressed suture, narrow, with 
close longitudinal ribs, crossed by four raised spiral threads, base of 
body whorl smooth, light ash color varying to chocolate, interior 
chestnut color. Length, 8 mill. 

& Pedro S. Diego, Cal. 

B. ASPERUM, Gabb. PI. 30, fig. 7. 

A stouter species than B. quadrifilatum, the whorls slopingly 
convex, forming an obtuse angle above the suture, sculpture simi- 
lar, but stronger. Length, 10 mill. 

Southern California. 

Described as a fossil of the pleistocene of the same region, but has 
since been discovered recent. B. rugatum, Carp., is a synonym. 

B. ATTENUATUM, Carp. PI. 30, fig. 8. 

With about 10 rather narrow, rounded whorls, with scarcely 
impressed suture, with longitudinal riblets, distinct only at the top 
of the whorls, where they are decussated by two spiral lines, the 
spiral sculpture also becoming fainter below, base of body whorl 
prolonged, with about six spiral striae. Length, 10 mill. 

California. 

B. PERUVIANUM, d'Orb. PI. 30, fig. 21. 

Ventricose, whorls slightly convex, granulated by longitudinal 
rounded ribs and spiral striae, chestnut color. Length, 7 mill. 

Near Arica, Peru. 

B. PIGRUM, Watson. PL 30, figs. 4, 2, 3, 11. 

With about 21 flatly rounded longitudinal ribs, and subequal 
interspaces, with three fine spiral threads, forming rounded tubercles 
on the ribs, suture defined above by a raised thread, which termi- 
nates the sculpture on the body whorl, being smoother on the base ; 
dead white. Length. 9'5 mill. 

Tristan da Cunha Is. 

I think B. lustince (fig. 2), B. philomelce (fig. 3), and B. cedonicum, 
Watson (fig. 11), are merely young shells of the species; they are 
all from the same locality. 



154 BITTIUM. 

B. DELICATUM, Watson. PI. 30, fig. 6. 

With about seventeen longitudinal ribs, separated by equal 
grooves, abruptly terminating about half-way on the rounded body 
whorl, spiral sculpture minute and faint, most prominent near the 
suture ; translucent, glossy white. Length, 3'3 mill. 

Tristan da Cunha Is. 

B. GEORGIAN, Pfeiffer. PL 29, fig. 92. 

Whorls with three strong spiral cingulse completely dominating 
the distant longitudinal costulations ; rather thin ; yellowish white 
with a few minute irregular fulvous spots, under a light yellowish 
epidermis. Length, 5 mill. 

South Georgia Isl. 
B, TRICARINATUM, Pease. PL 30, fig. 9. 

Whorls turreted, rounded, with three strong spiral keels, longi- 
tudinally plaited, suture well impressed, light yellowish brown. 

Length, 7'5 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 
B. TURRITELLIFORMIS, Angas. PL 30, fig. 13. 

Rather thin, finely spirally ridged, interstices very minutely lon- 
gitudinally striated ; whorls 10, the last keeled below, with smooth, 
somewhat concave base ; light yellowish brown, inclining to reddish 
purple on the upper whorls. Length, 8 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

B. PERPUSILLUM, Try on. PL 30, fig. 17. 

Brownish, whorls 910, with four spiral rows of granules, longi- 
tudinally subplicate, base with five additional spiral riblets, suture 
deep. Length, 6 mill. 

Japan. 

Described by Dunker as B. pusillum, preoccupied by Gould. 

B. ALUTACEUM, Gould. PL 30, fig. 10. 

Whorls strongly longitudinally ribbed, crossed by three spiral 
ridges, forming three series of large tubercles, interstices deeply 
pitted, suture deep ; brownish, the ridges of the last whorl spotted 
with chestnut. Length, 6 mill. 

China Sea. 

B. LAWLEYANUM, Crosse. PL 30, figs. 5, 94, 96. 

Whorls flatly convex, rounded at* the suture, spirally distantly 
grooved, bluish, white banded. Length, 10 mill. 

So. Australia, N. Zealand. 



BITTIUM. 155 

Closely allied to B. filos-um, Gould, of the West Coast of North 
America ; it is also very nearly related to the next species. B. 
insculptum, Sowb. (fig. 94), is a synonym, and B. arctum, Hombr. et 
Jacq. (fig. 96), described from a single poor specimen, is probably 
identical ; if so its name should have precedence. 

B. PLUMBEUM, Sowb. PI. 30, fig. 23. 

Scarcely longitudinally costate, spirally striate, whorls 10, some- 
what convex, brownish or plum color. Length, 13 mill. 

Australia* 

B. LACERTINUM, Gould. PL 30, fig. 100. 

Whorls crenulated at the edge, with four spiral tuberculated ribs, 
two upper ribs approximate, the others more distant, with an inter- 
stitial line, brownish. Length, 13 mill. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

This has been considered a synonym of the next species, but I 
think its relationship rather remote. 

B. GRANARIUM, Kiener. PI. 30, fig. 98. 

Longitudinally costulate, crossed and cut into numerous beads by 
spiral sculpture, base of body whorl smooth or spirally striate, 
reddish brown or chocolate color, sometimes the beads are chestnut 
colored on a light ground. Length, 22 mill. 

JSo. Australia, Tasmania* 

B. GLAREOSUM, Gould. PL 30, fig. 19. 

Longitudinally plicate, crossed by four spiral rows of beads, 
suture excavated, blackish brown. Length, 5 mill. 

Loochoo and Bonin Islands. 

B. PARCUM, Gould. PL 30, fig. 20. 

Longitudinally roundly plaited, spirally ribbed, ribs tuberculated 
on the plaits ; whorls few, slightly ventricose, the last rather fusi- 
form ; yellowish white. Length, 3 mill. 

Loochoo Is* 

B. PUSILLUM, Gould. PL 31, fig. 25. 

Longitudinally about 10 ribbed, crossed by four lines on each 
whorl, forming granules, spiral sculpture more numerous on the 
last whorl, extending to the base ; whorls 8, convex ; fulvous. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Sandwich Is* 



156 BITTIUM. 

B. ALTUM, Sowerby. PL 31, fig. 26. 

Pale fawn color, with white varices, spirally banded with chest- 
nut, minutely decussated by spiral and longitudinal lines. 

Length, 23 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
B. OOSIMENSE, Watson. PI. 30, fig. 12. 

Whorls flatly sloping, with about 13 oblique longitudinal ribs, 
and narrower interstices, the ribs terminating on the spire whorls 
in a spiral tuberculated angle, just above the suture, on the body 
whorl becoming gradually evanescent below the angle, spirally 
striate throughout ; brownish grey, suffused with ruddy brown, 
with white spots where the spiral sculpture crosses the ribs. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Oosima, Japan. 
B. AMBOYNENSE, Watson. PL 30, fig. 15. 

Whorls with about 20 rounded ribs and narrower interstices, 
crossed and divided into rounded tubercles by three or four spiral 
furrows, a smaller spiral thread just above the suture and on the 
middle of the body whorl, below this, on the latter, the sculpture is 
continued, but fainter; pale yellowish brown. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Amboyna. 
B. DIPLAX, Watson. PL 30, fig. 14. 

With 10-15 small, narrow riblets, with much wider interspaces, 
crossed on each whorl by two spiral riblets, forming nodules at the 
intersections, and causing each whorl to have a sloping angle above 
and below, and a concave flat area between the spirals, base of body 
whorl with three or four additional, non-tuberculated riblets ; white 
or sandy, with a chestnut tinge towards the apex. Length, 25 mill. 

Amboyna. 
B. CYLINDRICUM, Watson. PL 30, fig. 18. 

With about twenty-five longitudinal riblets separated by subequal 
interspaces, and crossed by three threads, which expand into 
depressed, rounded tubercles, below the middle of the body whorl 
the surface is smooth, the pillar defined by a minute spiral thread. 

Length, 6'5 mill. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 
B. PUPIFORME, Watson. PL 30, fig. 22. 

With about twenty-five proximate tuberculated ribs, and three 
spiral threads on each whorl, and a strong sutural furrow ; shell 
solid ; translucent, glossy white. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Cape York, Australia. 



BITTIUM. 157 

B. FURVUM, Watson. PI. 31, fig, 27. 

Clathrate by 12-15 narrow ribs, and three narrow spiral riblets, 
the intersections nodulous, the wide interspaces with decussating- 
microscopic stride, whorls slightly shouldered, body whorl with 
several spiral ridges below the middle ; dark chestnut colored. 

Length, 2'7 mill. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

B. XANTHUM, Watson. PI. 30, fig. 24. 

Less shouldered and not quite so stout as the preceding species, 
with about 18 ribs, base longer and more attenuated, no microscopic 
striae ; shell thin, ochraceous. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Torres Strait, N. E. Australia* 

B. PERPARVULUM, Watson. PI. 31, fig. 29. 

Shell only about half the size of B. furvum, but so close to it in 
form and sculpture that I suspect that it will prove a minor form of 
that species. The small differences are comparative only and can 
be seen by inspecting the respective figures. Yellowish, or pale 
chestnut, becoming nearly white below, sometimes chestnut or white 
throughout. Length, 1*5 mill. 

JV. E. Australia to Sandwich Is. 

B. LEUCOCEPHALUM, Watson. PI. 31, fig. 30. 

About 12, rounded ribs, with wider interspaces, crossed by three 
narrow spiral ridges, the intersections nodulous, whorls a little 
shouldered as in the preceding species, but not so high, base and 
aperture also shorter ; yellowish or whitish. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Off Honolulu, Sandwich Is. 

Very like the preceding, with wider, fewer ribs and shorter base. 

B. PORCELLANUM, Watson. PI. 31, fig. 28. 

Whorls slopingly shouldered above and below, the wide, flat- 
tened middle space only bearing distant narrow longitudinal ribs, 
base of body whorl with three spiral ridges, porcellanous white and 
glossy, apex yellowish chestnut with a whitish tip. 

Length, 3'75 mill. 

Cape York, N. E. Australia. 

Section CERITHIDIUM, Monts., 1884. 

B. SUBMAMILLATUM, Rayneval. PL. 29, fig. 84. 

Whorls 12, convex, with deep suture, with eight longitudinal 
ribs and much wider interspaces, crossed by five revolving riblets, 



158 POTAMIDES. 

(eight on the body whorl), forming obscure nodules ; yellowish or 
brownish. Length, 5 mill. 

Cape Breton ; Mediterranean and Black Seas. 

It is f C. Scliwartzii, Homes, a fossil form, and C. pusillwn, 
Jeffreys. The last-named would have priority, but Gould used the 
name for another species six years earlier. Monterosato has enum- 
erated vars. albina, ecostata and baliolina, but without description. 



Unfigured Spedes of Bittium. 

B. ORYZA, B. CINEREOFLAVA and var. CROCEA, B. ALABASTRULUM 

and B. GALACTIS, Morch. St. Thomas, W. I. 

B. YUCATECANUM, Dall. Yucatan Strait. 

B. RUGULOSUM, B. VICINUM, B. BICOLOR, B. GEMMULOSUM, 

B. LATUM, B. EXILE, all of C. B. Adams. Jamaica. 

B. ARMILLATUM, B. FASTIGIATUM, Carp. California. 

B. NITENS, Carp. C. St. Lucas, L. California. 

B. MINIMUM, B. TURBONILLOIDES, and B. SEMiLJEvis, Tenison- 
Woods. Tasmania. 

B. EXILE, Hutton. New Zealand. 

B. TEREBELLOIDES, Martens (B. cinctum and B. Kirki, Hutton). 

New Zealand. 

B. CRATICULATUM, Gould. Hongkong. 

B. SCALATUM, Dunker. Japan. 

Genus POTAMIDES, Brong., 1810. 
Subgenus PYRAZUS, Montfort, 1810. 

P. EBENINUS, Brug. PL 31, fig. 31. 

Longitudinally plicate, spirally ridged, angulated, nodose at the 
angle ; dark chocolate color, spire usually lighter colored towards 
the apex, aperture pale fawn color. Length, 4 in. 

Australia, N. Zealand. 

P. PACIFICUS, Sowb. PI. 31, fig. 32. 

Chocolate colored or brownish, spirally striated, whorls with an 
acute spinose-nodose angle. Length, T5 in. 

Panama to Valparaiso. 

f C. Humboldti, Val., is a synonym. 



POT AMIDES. 159 

P. LAMARCKII, Valenc. PI. 31, fig. 33. 

Fawn or light chocolate color, whorls shouldered, plicate, sloping 
to a peripheral double angle, with a double line of small tubercles. 

Length, T35 in. 

Coast of Cumana, Venezuela. 

Subgenus TYMPANOTONOS, Klein., 1753. 
P. FUSCATUS, Linn. PI. 31, fig. 34. 

Solid, spinosely tuberculated in the middle of the whorls, with 
spiral rows of granules above and below the suture, body whorl 
with two rows of granules below the peripheral angle, base closely 
spirally ridged ; epidermis thick, chocolate brown, aperture yellow- 
ish white. Length, 2*3 in. 

Gambia, Cape Palmas, W. Africa. 
P. muricatus, Brug., and P. cingulatus, Gmel., are synonyms. 

P. RADULA, Linn. PI. 31, figs. 35, 36. 

Spirally ridged, and beaded by the crossing of longitudinal rib- 
lets, whorls concavely channeled below a sutural row of beads, base 
spirally ridged ; epidermis dark chocolate color. Length, 1'75 in. 

W. Africa. 

Different as this appears from the preceding species, the speci- 
mens before me almost prove a transition from one into the 
other. P. terebella, Gmel., P. granulatus, Brug., P. fluviatilis, and 
P. aculeatus, Gmel., P. Owenii, Fer. (fig. 36), are synonyms. 

P. HOMOLOGUM, Bayle. PI. 31, fig. 37. 

Narrower, more cylindrical than the preceding species, sculpture 
similar in pattern, but more minute; variegated chocolate and 
white. Length, T75 in. 

W. Coast of Africa. 

This is P. multigranosus, Sowb., preoccupied by Deshayes for a 
fossil species. 

P. FLUVIATILIS, Potiez et Michaud. PL 31, figs. 38-40 ; PI. 32, 

figs. 49, 51, 52. 

Whorls flattened, with deeply incised suture, each with three flat- 
topped spiral ribs, tuberculated in longitudinal ro\vs, tubercles 
obsolete on the back of the body whorl except a sutural row, base 
spirally ridged; aperture in the adult expanded, angularly pro- 
duced above, oblique, outer lip produced below ; yellowish white or 
glaucous, narrowly banded with chocolate, sometimes white-banded 
at the suture. Length, 2 in. 



160 POT AMIDES. 

/ 

India, Singapore, Borneo, China, Japan, Philippines, Australia* 
The type was a younger shell in which the aperture had not 
yet expanded ; Kiener described the adult as P. micropterus (fig. 
39). Other synonyms are P. alatus, Phil. (fig. 49), P. radix, Dufo, 
P. incisus, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 51), and var. minor, Tapparone 
Canefri, P. retifera, A. Ad. (fig. 40), P. euryptera, A. Ad. (fig. 52), a 
pupoidal-shaped variation, from the Philippines. 

P. PALUSTRIS, Linn. PI. 32, figs. 41, 42. 

Whorls flat, with deep suture, divided by three spiral incised 
lines, upper whorls longitudinally plicate, gradually becoming indis- 
tinct below ; epidermis and interior dark chocolate, the latter some- 
times banded. Length, 4-5 in. 

India, Java, Australia* 

The synonyms are P. agnatus, Gmel., and P. crassus, Lam. 

P. CALEDONICUS, Jousseaume. PI. 32, figs. 43, 44. 

Like P. palustris in sculpture, but the longitudinal ribs much 
more distinct, form narrower, more cylindrical; yellowish white, 
more or less banded and blotched with chocolate. Length, 2*5 in. 

New Caledonia. 

Subgenus TEREBRALIA, Swains., 1840. 

P. SEMITRISULCATUS (Bolten), Morch. PL 32, fig. 45. 

Upper whorls flat, plaited, all of them with incised revolving lines 
of which there are about five on the penultimate whorl ; glaucous, 
more or less broadly banded and variegated with chocolate. 

Length, 2-5-3 in. 

Australia, Java* 

P. SULCATUS, Born. PL 32, figs. 46, 47. 

Whorls longitudinally strongly ribbed, tuberculated by the cross- 
ing of incised spiral sulcations, chocolate brown or glaucous, 
banded with chocolate, aperture often banded. Length, l'5-2'25 in. 

Singapore, China, Philipjnnes* 

The synonyms are P. Molluccanus, and P.fuscus, Gmel., and P: 
Mangiorum, Schrreter. 

P. GOURMYI, Crosse. PL 32, fig. 48. 

Smooth, finely, closely, spirally striated; epidermis yellowish 
brown, reticulately longitudinally strigate, or interruptedly blotched 
with chestnut, interior white. Length, 2'5 in. 

N. Caledonia ; Bampton Reef, So. Pacific 0* 




POTAMIDES. 

Subgenus TELESCOPIUM, Montf., 1810. 
P. TELESCOPIUM, Linn. PL 33, fig. 56. 

Whorls with about three spiral sulci, dividing broader, flat-topped 
ridges, base strongly ridged, varying to nearly smooth, channeled 
around the spirally twisted columella ; chocolate brown of varying 
shades, sometimes obscurely banded. Length, 3-4 in. 

India, Singapore, Borneo, Philippines, etc. 

P.fuscum, Schum., and P. indicator, Montf., are other names for 
this species. 

Subgenus CERITHIDEA, Swainson, 1840. 
C. MONTAGNEI, d'Orbigny. PL 33, figs. 57, 58 ; PL 32, fig. 50. 

Chestnut or chocolate color, with a narrow, medium white band, 
often with darker bands, interior banded with chocolate and light 
yellowish brown, base of body whorl defined by a slight ridge. 
Length, l-5-l'75 in. 

Panama to Lower California; Cerros Is. 
It is C. Reevianiim, C. B. Ad., and C. Largillierti, Phil. 

Var. PULCHRA, C. B. Ad. Fig. 50. 

Whorls varicose, the sculpture stronger, often becoming subnodose. 
Gulf of California to Panama ; f Chili. 

The synonymy includes C. varicosa, Sowb. (preocc. = C. fortius- 
culum, Bayle, fig. 58), C. Hegwischii, Phil, and C. valida, C. B Ad. 
C. OBTUSA, Lam. PL 33, figs. 59-61, 63 ; PL 32, fig. 53. 

Ventricose, sinuously longitudinally ribbed, spirally grooved, 
rendering the ribs nodulous ; chestnut color, light banded below the 
suture, and again below the periphery of the body whorl ; apex 
decollated. Length, 2 in. 

Malacca, Singapore, Philippines^ 

Var. KIENERI, Hombr. et Jacq. Figs. 61, 53. 
Narrower, ribs more distant, apex not decollated. 

Var. QUADRATA, Sowb. Fig. 63. 

Whorls white-banded in the middle instead of at the suture. 

C. DECOLLATA, Linn. PL 32, fig. 54. 

Chestnut or chocolate color, usually more or less banded in dif- 
ferent shades, with frequently a white band at the suture, closely 
longitudinally ribbed and spirally striate, the striae appearing mostly 
in the interstices of the ribs, apex decollated. Length, 1*33 in. 

India, Timor, Madagascar, etc. 
Turbo pulcher, Dillw., is a synonym." 
11 



162 POTAMIDES. 

C. RHIZOPORARUM, A. Ad. PL 33, figs. 67, 62. 

More robust and cylindrical than last species, with whorls not so 
convex, with numerous rounded ribs cut into nodules by spiral 
ridges, light yellowish brown, with chestnut lines, or a central pair 
of them, or sometimes a single peripheral band ; apex decollated. 

Length, 1'33 in. 

Borneo and Philippines, on Mangroves. 

C. Quoyi, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 62), is a synonym. 

C. CORNEA, A. Ad. PL 32, fig. 55. 

Thin, obscure brown, rather distantly, smoothly, obliquely ribbed, 
finely spirally striated, base of last whorl spirally striate, defined by 
a peripheral ridge ; apex decollated. Length, 28 mill. 

Borneo, mouths of rivers. 

C. ORNATA, A. Ad. PL 33, fig. 64. 

Chestnut color, white banded below the suture, and below the 
periphery of the last whorl, distantly, longitudinally, plicately 
ribbed, scarcely spirally striate except on the base ; apex slightly 
decollated. Length. 1-1*5 in. 

Philippines. 

C. FORTUNEI, A. Ad. PL 33, figs. 65, 66. 

Whorls well rounded, including the body whorl, sinuously longi- 
tudinally ribbed, spirally striate on the base ; glaucous, banded with 
brown, or all brown ; apex acute. Length, 11*5 in. 

Shanghai, China. 

C. SACRATA, Gould. PL 33, figs. 69-72. 

Epidermis thin, glaucous, under which the shell is chocolate 
colored, often with a central narrow white band; longitudinally 
ribbed, and occasionally thickly varicose, crossed by spiral ridges, 
the crossings varying from nearly smooth to roughly tuberculate ; 
apex usually entire. Length, 1'25 in. 

* Mazatlan to California. 

C. Calif ornica, Hald., is an earlier name for this species, but it 
has not obtained currency. C. Mazatlanica, Carp. (fig. 70), is a 
roughly sculptured, and C. pullata, Gould (fig. 71), an almost 
smooth form. 

Var. ALBONOPOSA, Carp. Fig. 72. 

Shell smaller, with thick white varices. Length, 1 in. 



POT AMIDES. 163 

C. RISSOIDEA, Sowb. PL 33, fig. 73. 

With curved, longitudinal, oblique ribs, which are noduliferous 
beneath ; whorls convex, base spirally ribbed ; brown, the ribs 
whitish; Length, 19 mill. 

Port Natal, So. Africa. 

C. MORCHI, A. Ad. PI. 33, fig. 68. 

Rather thin, glaucous, more or less spirally lined with red ; lon- 
gitudinally rather faintly ribbed, closely spirally ridged ; apex 
decollated. Length, 1 in. 

Philippines. 

C. TURRITELLA, Quoy. PI. 34, figs. 93, 94. 

Chestnut colored or lighter, often with a white band, granulated 
in three or four spiral rows by decussating sculpture, lower part of 
body whorl with revolving riblets only. Length, 1 in. 

Australia. 

Almost exactly like C. cornea, Blainv., of the Mediterranean Sea, 
as to form and sculpture ; the base is longer and more' rounded, and 
it has not the iufrasutural white band of that species. 

C, BICARINATA, Gray. PI. 35, figs. 15, 16. 

Obscurely, distantly, longitudinally, narrowly plicate, spirally 
striate, base defined by a double ridge ; chocolate color, white at 
the suture, interior brownish. Length, 1 in. 

New Zealand. 

C. lutulentum, Kiener, is a synonym. 

Var. SUBCARINATA, Sowb. Fig. 16. 

Base with three ridges. 

C. Australis, Gray (not Lam.), and C. nigra, Hombr. et Jacq., 
are considered synonyms by Hutton. 

C. SCALARIFORMIS, Say. PL 33, figs. 78, 75, 76. 

Whorls slopingly convex, the well impressed suture usually 
defined by a narrow thread, with numerous, close longitudinal 
riblets, and less distinct spiral sculpture, base of body whorl with 
spiral riblets only ; whitish, glaucous; light fawn color to chocolate, 
the lighter colored specimens often with chocolate, the darker ones 
with whitish lines ; aperture like the exterior. Length, 1 in. 

Florida. 

C. tennis, Pfr. (fig. 76), is very probably a young shell of this 
species. 



164 POT AMIDES. 

C. IOSTOMA, Pfr. PI. 34, fig. 79. 

Shell strongly longitudinally ribbed and varicose, spirally striate, 
striae stronger on the base ; chocolate color, with a narrow central 
white band. Length, 22 mill. 

So. Carolina West Indies, Belize. 

Narrower and much more rugose than the preceding species. 
Reeve's figure is not characteristic. This is probably (7. Lafondi, 
Mich., and C. Hanleyi, Sowb. (fig. 74), a white variety of it. Many 
of the figures in d'Orbigny's "Cuba" are so poorly drawn that their 
recognition is somewhat difficult, yet I think C. Lavalleana, d'Orb. 
(fig. 77), may be referred here, rather than to C. scalar if ormis. 
C. COSTATA, Da Costa. PI. 34, figs. 80-82. 

Shell narrowly elongated, with numerous rounded longitudinal 
ribs, more or less beaded by several spiral riblets, suture well- 
impressed ; chestnut or chocolate color, sometimes white-banded. 

Length, 15 mill. 

West Indies. 

C. ambigua, C.B. Ad. (fig. 81), is a vatiety in which the spiral 
sculpture is more strongly developed, making the surface roughly 
nodulous ; other synonyms are C. salmacida, Morelet (fig. 82), and 
C. Petitii, Schramm. 
C. TURKITA, Stearns. PI. 34, fig. 83. 

Rather thin, purplish white to chocolate, often with an inconspic- 
uous central white line ; whorls convex, with thin, numerous 
whitish longitudinal ribs, ending below the periphery in a spiral 
thread, no other spiral sculpture, suture deeply grooved. 

Florida. 
Section APHANISTYLUS, Fischer, 1884. 

C. CHARBONIERI, Petit. PI. 34, fig. 96. 

Thin, corneous brown, smooth, with distant rude, low, longitudi- 
nal plications : whorls rather flat, with a spiral thread at the suture, 
forming a carina on the body whorl, base spirally striated. 

Length, T75 in. 

Borneo. 

C. unicarinata, Metcalfe, is believed to be identical ; it was the 
first published, but has not been illustrated. 
C. SINENSIS, Phil. PI. 34, figs. 97, 98. 

Thin, light corneous, smooth, with low rounded ribs and subequal 
interspaces, body whorl obtusely angulated at the periphery, base 
smooth ; sometimes a faint chestnut line below the periphery. 

Length, 1*2 in. 

China; Annam. 



POTAMIDES. 165 

I think that C. Moreleti, Wattebl. (fig. 98), will prove to be a 
minor form of this species, or perhaps with shell not fully developed; 
a faint double carina encircles the base. It is from the last-named 
locality. 



Unfigured Species. 

. MINOR, Morch (C. minuta, Dkr. MSS.). Cuba. 

C. PUPOIDEA, Morch. West Indies. 

C. PLICULOSA, Menke. West Indies. 

C. SIMILIS, C. RARICOSTATA, C. CRASSILABRUM, C. BALTEATA, C. 

ALBIVARICOSA, all of A. Adams. Philippines. 

C. ALTERNATA and C. TRicARiNATA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

Subgenus PIRENELLA, Gray, 1847. 
P. LAYARDI, A. Ad. PI. 34, figs. 86, 87, 84. 

Glaucous to chocolate color, usually light banded at the suture, 
whorls with three series of nodules caused by decussating sculpture, 
on the body- whorl the spiral sculpture becomes more prominent, the 
ribs fading out. Length, 15 mill. 

Ceylon ; Cape York, N. Australia. 

C. Bombayana, Sowb. (fig. 84), appears to be a more than usually 
smooth state of this species. 
P. CONICA, Blainv. PI. 34, figs. 88-92, 85. 

Glaucous, chestnut or chocolate color, white banded at the suture, 
and sometimes on the periphery, with three rows of beads on the 
upper whorls and four rows on the Body whorl, formed by decussat- 
ing sculpture, base with a few spiral ridges. Length, 1 in. 

Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea. 

The principal synonyms are C. mamillata, Phil. (figs. 88-90), and 
C. Sardoum, Cantraine (fig. 92). Monterosato has enumerated color- 
varieties, albida, fasciata, atra and fusca. C. Cailliaudi, Pot. et 
Mich., from the Red Sea, does not appear to differ, except in the 
nodules being somewhat more prominent ; the same may be said of 
C. cinerascente, Pallas (fig. 85), Isle of Karak, Persian Gulf. 

P. CLATHRATA, A'. Ad. PL 27, fig. 18. 

White, turreted, whorls 9, ventricose, spirally two-ribbed, crossed 
by numerous longitudinal plaits forming beads at the intersections, 
last whorl angular beneath, with a double rib at the angle. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Ins. Bohol, Philippines. 



166 POT AMIDES. 

Described by A. Adams as Cerithium clathratwn, and changed by 
Bayle to C. sinon, on account of C. clathratum, Desh., a fossil species- 
of the Paris basin ; the original name can stand under the present 
classification. 

Subgenus LAMPANIA, Gray. 

L. AUSTRALIA Quoy. PL 34, figs.. 99, 100. 

Rather distantly longitudinally plicate, forming a nodulous slight 
shoulder on the whorls, with spiral beaded riblets and intermediate 
thread-like striae ; chocolate and glaucous, often white banded at 
the suture ; interior whitish, with chocolate sulcations. 

Length, 1'6 in. 

Australia. 

L. UNDULATUM, Sowb. PL 34, fig. 2. 

Whorls with rounded, nodulous shoulder, and beaded spiral 
riblets ; light yellowish brown, black-spotted between the shoulder- 
nodules. Length, 22 mill. 

This name being preoccupied in Cerithium for a fossil species, 
Bayle changed it to C. rivale. 

L. SUBVIRIDE, Sowb. PL 35, fig. 18. 

Whorls rather flat, a little tuberculate at the suture, spirally 
sulcate ; yellowish brown, with an interrupted band of chocolate at 
the suture. Length, 22 mill. 

Hob. unknown* 

This and the preceding will probably prove identical. 

L. DIEMENENSE, Quoy. PL 34, fig. 1. 

Yellowish olive color, chocolate colored beneath the epidermis, 
with strong longitudinal plications, and spiral striae, whorls without 
shoulder. Length, 18 mill. 

Tasmania* 

L. CUMINGII, Crosse. PL 34, fig. 7. 

Short, rather inflated on the lower part of the whorls, spirally 
sulcated, varicose ; yellowish, with a broad chocolate band. 

Length, 1 in. 

L. Steenstrupi, Troschel, is a synonym. 

Var. CONCOLOR, Schrenck. 

Entirely chocolate color, or obscurely tessellated. 



POT AMIDES. 167 

L. ZONALE, Brug. PI. 34, figs. 3, 4 ; PI. 35, fig. 14. 

Obscurely longitudinally plaited, forming slight tubercles on the 
shoulder of the whorls, spirally sulcated ; chocolate brown, white 
banded on the shoulder. Length, T5 in. 

Hongkong (Stimpson) ; Japan (Lischke). 

It is L. pyrenale, Quoy. 

Var. ATERRIMA, Dunker. Fig. 14. 
Shell unicolored, dark chocolate. 

Japan. 

L. ATRAMENTARIA, A. Ad. PI. 34, fig. 5. 

Whorls somewhat inflated below, spirally sulcate ; dark chocolate 
or obscurely tessellated ; white at the suture ; columella arched, 
white. Length, 1'5 in. 

Hob. unknown. 

L. MULTIFORMIS, Lischke. PL 35, fig. 13 ; PL 34, figs. 6, 8. 

Short, club-shaped, spirally striate, sometimes with longitudinal 
ribs, stronger at the suture ; chocolate color, or tessellated or banded 
with white. Length, 1 in. 

Japan. 

L. Cumingii of Reeve's Iconica (not Crosse). 

L. ANGULIFERA, Sowb. PL 35, fig. 17. 

Whorls flat, angulated on the body-whorl, longitudinally plaited, 
cut into tubercles by three spiral grooves ; brownish or olivaceous- 
black ; aperture grooved. Length, 1 in. 

Australia. 

Section LAMPANELLA, Morch, 1876. 

L. MINIMUS, Gmelin. PL 34, figs, 9-11. 

Longitudinally obscurely ribbed, ribs, fading towards the middle 
of the body whorl, spirally ridged, ridges beaded, more nodose 
above; black (epidermis olivaceous), often with a white sutural 
band, or white with a central black band, or chestnut or chocolate 
colored or white or yellowish brown, sometimes white with chocolate 
lines, interior chocolate brown. Length, 15 mill. 

So. Carolina to West Indies; Bermuda. 

I have endeavored vainly to separate into several species, as 
Morch has done, this very variable form; the coloring patterns 
have not sufficient constancy for even varietal distinction. The 
synonyms are : 



168 POTAMIDES, CERITHIOPSIS. 

L. septemstriata, Say, usually applied to specimens with white 
sutural band, L. nigrescens, Menke, for the uniformly dark colored 
specimens, L. nigrinum, Phil., being identical, L. clathrata, Menke, 
L. heteroclytes, Lam., L. striatella, Dillw., L. albovittata, C. B. Ad., 
L. Peloritana, Cantraine, L. laevigata, Phil. (== desolata, Bayle), 
probably a worn specimen. Cerithium Brongniarti, Marav. (C. 
Piraini, Benoit, and C. Hymeremis, Calcara, are said to be syno- 
nyms), has been referred here by some European authors ; others 
have considered it a distinct species allied to C. vulgatum; its iden- 
tification remains doubtful. 

L. CORNEUM, Kiener. PI. 35, fig. 19. 

Thin, translucent, with rounded whorls and narrow longitudinal 
plications, spirally striate ; reddish brown. Length, 10 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

I know nothing about this species ; it seems to have escaped sub- 
sequent monographers. It is scarcely a member of the present 
group. 

Genus CERITHIOPSIS, Forbes and Hanley, 1853. 

C. TUBERCULARIS, Montg. PL 35, figs. 20, 22-25, 27. 

Apicial whorls smooth, the apex somewhat styliform; normal 
whorls with three spiral rows of regular, rounded tubercles, peri- 
phery of last whorl angular, marked by a thread, base flattened, a 
little concave ; chocolate brown. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Europe, Madeira, W. Africa, W. Coast of N. America. 

The synonymy includes C. pulchella, Jeffreys (fig. 23), C. Henkel- 
insii, Nyst, C. Clarkii, Hanley (fig. 25). 

Var. ACICULA, Brusina. 

Form very narrow, elongated. 

C. nana, C. Barleei (fig. 27), and C. acicula, Jeffreys, are 
synonyms. 

Var. ALBA, Jeffreys. 
Shell white. 

Var. OBESULA, B. D. f). 

Shell smaller, form pupoidal. 

Var. BILINEATA, Hoernes. Fig. 24. 

Shell with two rows of tubercles on each whorl. 

C. Barleei, Tiberi, C. ventricosa, Brusina, C. Coppolce, Aradas, 
are synonyms. 



CERITHIOPSIS. 169 

Var. TUBERCULATA, Carp. 

Appears to differ from the European examples only in being 
more robust. 

Vancouver's Isl. to Southern Coast of California. 

I have tried in vain to find characters of sufficient importance to 
distinguish this from the type specifically. 

Var. TUBERCULOIDES, Carp. Fig. 22. 

Smaller than European examples with the tubercles farther 
apart. Length, 375 mill. 

Southern California to Mazatlan. 

Var. ALBONODOSA, Carp. 

Like the preceding, reddish brown, with whitish tubercles, the 4 
nuclear whorls subcarinated. 

Mazatlan. 

C. MINIMUS, Brusina. PL 35, fig. 26. 

Pupoidal, embryonal whorls smooth, white, the others dark brown, 
with three rows of granulations, base convex, spirally striate. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Europe, Madeira. 

Distinguished from the preceding species by its smooth, white 
embryonal whorls, its smaller size, and rounded striated base. ' C. 
neglecta, Weink., is a synonym. 

C. ATALAYA, Watson. PL 35, fig. 28. 

Apical whorls 4, longitudinally finely ribbed, cut across by two 
spiral threads near the bottom of each whorl ; normal whorls as in 
C. tubercularis, body whorl with a circumbasal thread, within which 
the base is radiatingly striated. Length, 6 mill. 

Madeira. 

Jeffreys considers this a variety of C. tubercularis. 

C. DIADEMA, Watson. PL 35, figs. 30-32. 

Apex spirally striate, other apical whorls finely obliquely longi- 
tudinally ribbed, becoming keeled below, and finally nodulous ; 
normal whorls as in C. tubercularis, base smooth encircled by two 
ridges, of which the outer one is nodulous. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Mediterranean ; Madeira. 

C. fibula, Jeffreys, and C. tiara (fig. 30) and C. Fayalemis, 
Watson (fig. 32), are probable synonyms. Monterosato has referred 
to a C. corona, Watson, and named a variety scalaris ; I find no 
description of this species and think it probable that C. diadema 
was intended. 



170 CERITHIOPSIS. 

C. HORRIDA, Jeffreys. PL 36, fig. 44. 

Apex blunt, smooth, next whorl with a few longitudinal ribs, 
normal whorls as in C. tubercularis, base concave, encircled by a 
slight ridge ; color pale brownish yellow. Length, 9 mill. 

Mediterranean ; Madeira. 

C. GEMMULIFERUM, E. A. Smith. PL 35, fig. 33. 

Whorls 11, the first three smooth, the others with three rows of 
granules, the infrasutural series small ; light brown. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

C. GREENII, C, B. Ad. PL 35, fig. 36. 

Swollen in the middle, with subulate spire, whorls brown with 
deep suture, and three rows of granules, base convex, with a few 
spiral striae. Length, 45 mill. 

Massachusetts to Florida. 

Dr. Jeffreys considered this = C. tubercularis, Mtg., but I think 
its relationship is closer to C. minima, Brusina. I am not prepared 
to pronounce upon their identity. 

C. PUNCTATUM, Linn. PL 35, figs. 34, 35. 

Whorls flat, longitudinally ribbed, ribs cut into three rows of 
granules by spiral sculpture, the upper.and lower rows more promi- 
nent, the middle one often reduced to a mere line, minutely or 
scarcely granular, and nearer the upper than the lower row, suture 
deeply excavated, body whorl with the base concave, smooth, 
encircled by a pair of cord-like ridges ; light or dark brown, usually 
darker brown in the suture. Length, 12 mill. 

Massachusetts to Florida ; West Indies. 

This species is better known to American conchologists as C. 
Emersonii, C. B. Ad. (fig. 35), but was previously described from 
accidentally occurring European specimens as C. subulatum, 
Montagu, and C. elegans, Blainv. Philippi was the first to identify 
it with C.punctatum, Linn., the description of which suits it well. 

C. FLAVUM, C. B. Ad. PL 35, fig. 37. 

Bright yellowish brown, with three spiral carina3, and about 26 
less prominent longitudinal ridges, the intersections feebly nodulous, 
base bounded by an additional slightly nodulous ridge ; whorls 9, 
slightly convex, thin, with distinct suture, base flattened; canal 
short, very wide. Length, 5 mill. 

Jamaica and St. Thomas, W. I. 



CERITHIOPSIS. 171 

C. PULCHELLUM, C. B. Ad. PL 35, fig. 38. 

Subcylindrical-pupoidal, whorls with two spiral ridges of rather 
large nodules, of which the upper one is larger, and is doubled on 
the lower whorls, anteriorly with two additional ridges, of which 
the upper one is subnodulous ; whorls about 11, the lower one a 
little contracted, terminating obtusely ; white, with a brown band 
on the lower spiral row of tubercles. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Jamaica, Guadeloupe, West Indies. 

C. GUARANIANUM, d'Orb. PL 35, fig. 39. 

Shell brown, with four spiral rows of somewhat oblique tubercles, 
base defined by a thread-like ridge. Length, 3 mill. 

Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

C. STEJNEGEBI, Dall. PL 35, figs. 40, 41. 

Thin, purplish, with white nucleus and columella; nucleus 
smooth, partly immersed, normal whorls 6, strongly sculptured, 
rather rounded, sculpture consisting of three spiral series of tuber- 
cles, separated by rather deep channels, anterior channel bordered 
by the raised, Convex, smooth base. Length, 5*5 mill. 

Alaska. 

Var. TRTJNCATUM, Dall. Fig. 41. 

Nuclear whorls large, of a soft, almost fleshy consistency, break- 
ing off in drying. 

This is probably a pathological condition of the species, as sur- 
mised by Dr. Dall. 

C. COLUMNA, Carp. PL 35, fig. 21. 

Purplish brown, with. 9 normal, flat whorls, and distinct suture, 
having a clathrate 'pattern of nodules formed by the crossing of 
longitudinal ribs by three spiral ribs, base rounded, spirally ridged. 

Length, 8'5 mill. 

Vancouver's Isl. to Southern Coast of California. 

"Easily recognized, even in portions, by the 'strung-fig' pattern." 

C. PTJRPUREA, Carp. PL 35, fig. 43. 

Upper half of whorls brown, or brownish purple, lower half 
white or lighter brown, body whorl brown, with a white peripheral 
band ; with three spiral series of nodules, base rounded, with spiral 
lirse. Length, 7'5 mill. 

California. 



172 CERITHIOP8IS. 

C. MUNITA, Carp. PI. 35, fig. 42. 

Like'C. purpurea, but narrower, with almost straight margins, 
spiral costse stronger, nodules less expressed, base equally lirulate. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Vancouver's Island. 

C. CONVEXA, Sowb. PI. 36, fig. 54. 

Whorls 10, convex, with deep suture, elegantly cancellated, the 
intersections subnodose, the interstices quadrate, revolving ribs four 
on each whorl, peripheral carina not tuberculated, base concave, 
smoothish. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Mazatlan. 
C. GRACILLIMA, Sowb. PI. 36, fig. 45. 

Dark brown, longitudinally lightly plicate ; spirally tuberculate ; 
whorls oblique, rather ventricose, suture slightly excavated. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

I know not whether it is by accident or design that Sowerby's 
figure represents a reversed shell. 

C. DESTRUGESI, Folin. PI. 36, fig. 46. 

Yellowish, brown banded above and below the suture ; whorls 
14, with four spiral series of beads on each, caused by crossing of 
longitudinal and spiral riblets, the two middle series smaller, base 
defined by a ridge, and bearing several lira. Length, 6 mill. 

Bay of Panama. 
C. CLELATUM, Couthouy. PL 36, fig. 47. 

Light chestnut, color, with thirteen scarcely convex whorls ; lon- 
gitudinally plicate and encircled by three rows of nodules, suture 
impressed, marked by a thread, which also appears on the periphery 
of the last whorl, base smooth. Length, 19 mill. 

Terra del Fuego. 
C. PULVIS, Issel. PI. 36, fig. 48. 

Cylindrically pupiform, attenuated towards the apex, which is 
mucronate, fulvous chestnut ; whorls 7-8, almost flat, slowly enlarg- 
ing, at first smooth, afterwards granulate in three series, the upper 
row darker colored, base smooth, defined by a row of minute 
granules. Length, 2*25 mill. 

Gulf of Suez. 
C. ANGASI, Semper. PI. 36, fig. 49. 

Rather thin, pale yellowish brown ; whorls 12, flattened, encircled 
by three somewhat distant rounded riblets, clathrate by close lougi- 



CERITHIOPSIS. 173 

tudinal, somewhat undulating, raised striae, suture deeply impressed, 
base of last whorl radiately striated. Length, 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Described by Angas under the preoccupied name of C. clathrata. 
C. GRACILIS, Sowb. PL 36, figs. 50, 51. 

Very slender, white or brownish, reticulated by prominent, 
minutely beaded spiral ribs, crossed by longitudinal raised lines ; 
whorls oblique, ventricose. Length, 18 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

Sowerby's specific name being preoccupied in Cerithium, Bayle 
changed it to C. amabile. 
C. SUBRETICULATA, Dunker. PL 36, fig. 57. 

Shell brownish, whorls 11-12, with three spiral series of granules, 
of which the middle one is depressed, suture well impressed, base 
smooth, concave, defined by a thin thread. Length, 6 mill. 

Japan. 

C. BALTEATA, Watson. PI. 35, fig. 29. 

Whorls with a row of rounded tubercles just below the suture and 
short longitudinal ribs below them ; yellowish white with a broad 
brown band. Length, 2 mill. 

Fiji Is. 

Section METAXIA, Monts., 1884. 
C. METAX.E, Chiaje. PL 36, figs. 52, 53. 

Whorls narrow, convex, with three spiral series of transverse 
nodules on the upper and four on the lower whorls, the nodules are 
arranged to show longitudinal ribs; last whorl with carinated 
periphery, base smooth, flattened or concave ; columella twisted, lip 
deeply cut out at the base ; color varying from light yellowish 
brown to ferruginous red. Length, 8 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

The synonyms include C. Crosseana, Tiberi (fig. 53), C. subcylin- 
driea, Brusina, and C. rugulosum, Sowb., with its vars. fulva, flava 
and exilissima, Mts. 

C. ANGUSTISSIMA, Forbes. PL 36, fig. 55. 

Whorls 16, strongly angulated in the middle, with deep suture, 
earlier whorls smooth, rounded, subsequent #nes ribbed, divided by 
two nodulous spiral ribs above and two below the carina ; yellow- 
ish, under a corneous epidermis. Length, 9 mill. 

Palermo. 
C. Benoitianum, Mts., is a synonym. 



174 CERITHIOPSIS. 

Section SEILA, A. Ad., 1861. 

C. TEREBRALE, C. B. Ad. PI. 36, figs. 56, 58. 

Whorls 10, flattened, with three sharp, elevated spiral ridges on 
each, the intermediate channels showing microscopic longitudinal 
striae, base short, smooth, bounded by a ridge ; chocolate brown. 

Length, 7*5 mill. 

Massachusetts to West Indies. 

The synonyms are C. terebellum, C. B. Ad., C. interruptum 
(Menke) Krebs, C. trilineatum, Phil. (fig. 58). 

C. ASSIMILATA, C. B. Ad. PL 36, fig. 59. 

Chocolate color, three revolving sharp ribs on the spire whorls, 
with additional ones on the periphery and base of the body whorl 
the last minute ; whorls 1618, flattened, suture very indistinct. 

Length, 6-10 mill. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

. CARINATA, E. A. Smith. PI. 36, fig v 60. 

Whorls 15, the first three smooth, convex, with three narrow 
spiral carinse, the interstices longitudinally closely striated. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Whydah, W. Coast of Africa. 

C. BACILLUM, Issel. PL 36, fig. 63. 

Whorls 10-11, convex, with deep suture, whitish, with four spiral 
fiords, and close longitudinal striae in the interstices, base smooth. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Red Sea. 

C. KANONI, Folin. PL 36, fig. 62. 

Whitish, shining, maculated with longitudinal chestnut veins; 
whorls 11, flat, each with three rounded spiral ribs, between them 
widely longitudinally striated, base smooth, short, concave, defined 
by a slight ridge. Length, 5 mill. 

Bay of Panama. 

C. MORELETI, Folin. PL 36, fig. 61. 

Chestnut brown, yellowish white towards the apex; whorls 11, 
flat with three revolving narrow ridges, the somewhat wider inter- 
spaces distantly longitudinally lirate, as though beaded, base smooth, 
defined by a thread. Length, 8 mill. 

Bay of Panama. 



CERITHIOPSIS. 175 

C. DEXTROVERSA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 64.' 

Whorls about 18, spirally tricarinate, the middle carina much 
smaller, between them wider interspaces or channels, distinctly lon- 
gitudinally striate; whitish. Length, 12*5 mill. 

China Sea. 
C. CEREA, Sowb. PI. 36, fig. 65. 

Whitish, with three spiral ribs, and narrower intermediate sulci. 

Length, 16 mill. 

Australia. 
C. CROCEA, Angas. PI. 36, figs. 66, 67. 

Rather thin, orange colored, deeper tinted in the channels; 
whorls 14, each with four rounded, close-set spiral ribs, the very 
narrow interstices longitudinally striated, base flattened and smooth, 
nuclear whorl sinistral. Length, 10 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia ; Viti Is. 
Var. PURPUREA, Angas. Fig. 67. 

Purplish brown, the ribs usually lighter tinted, a little more 
cylindrical, with a narrower base, and smaller than the type. 
Length, 7 mill. Tenison-Woods has described, but not figured, a 
variety Atkinsoni. 

Section LOVENELLA, O. Sars., 1878. 
C. METULA, Loven. PI. 36, fig. 68. 

Solid, opaque, glossy, yellowish white ; whorls 18-20 with two or 
three thread-like spiral ridges (four or five on the last whorl) and 
slight microscopic intermediate striae and growth lines, the ridges 
are crossed by numerous curved, fine ribs, producing nodules or 
small tubercles at the points of intersection, base and apical whorls 
smoothish, the apex bulbous and obliquely twisted ; canal distinct, 
narrow, twisted. Length, 20 mill. 

Norway to Bay of Biscay, Villafranca. 

C. nitidum, McAndrew and Forbes, is a synonym. 

C. OBELISCOIDES, Jeffreys. PI. 36, fig. 69. 

Rather thin, semitransparent, glossy, white ; whorls 7-9, convex, 
with deep suture defined by a spiral thread, with numerous fine 
longitudinal strise, and several thin spiral threads on the middle of 
the whorls. Length, 4 mill. 

Atlantic 0. (Porcupine Exped.). 

C. CYLINDRATUM. Jeffreys. PI. 36, fig. 70. 

Thick, opaque, lustreless, pale yellowish brown ; whorls 10-12, 
rounded, but compressed, with numerous straight longitudinal, 



176 CERITHIOPSIS. 

crossed by three spiral riblets, the intersections minutely beaded, 
body whorl with four spiral striae, besides a line below the periphery. 
Length, 5 mill. 

Mediterranean, Atlantic. 

C. PROCERUM, Jeffreys. PI. 36, fig. 71. 

Solid, opaque, pale yellowish white, glossy ; whorls 13-14, some- 
what convex, with curved, oblique longitudinal ribs, about 30 on 
the last and 20 on the penultimate whorl, three uppermost whorls 
nearly smooth, base marked with flexuous striae, in continuation of 
the ribs, periphery of last whorl with a spiral ridge. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Between Scotland and Faroe Is* 

C. Danielseni, Friele, is a synonym. 

C. BIZONALIS, Jeffreys. PL 36> fig. 72. 

This is a fragment obtained by the Porcupine Expedition in the 
North Atlantic O. It shows longitudinal distant riblets crossed by 
two distant spiral riblets on each whorl. 

C. WHITEAVESII, Verrill. PL 36, fig. 73. 

Whorls angular, with longitudinal riblets, forming tubercles on 
the angle, and an inferior row of tubercles just below the suture; the 
body whorl has a spiral thread below the angle, with a smooth base. 

Length, 4 mill. 
Off Martha's Vineyard, Mass. (365-500 fms.) ; Gulf of St. Lawrence 

(200 fms.). 

C. costulata, Whiteaves (not Moller), is a synonym. 

Section EUMETA, Morch, 1868. 

C. COSTULATA, Moller. PL 36, fig. 74. 

Shell solid, semitransparent, glossy, white, with sharp, prominent 
longitudinal ribs, cut off at the periphery by a spiral ridge ; ribs 
traversed and indented by two or three thread-like impressed lines 
or striae, besides slighter, finer intermediate striae in the interstices of 
the ribs and on the base. Length, 10 mill. 

Northern Europe Arctic America New England. 

It is Bittiwn arcticum, Morch, and C. Naiadis, Woodward. . 

Unfyured Species of Cerithiopsis. 

C. HANLEYANA, C. CONTIGUA, Monts. Mediterranean. 

C. CINGULATA, A. Ad. Japan. 



CERITHIOPSIS, TRIFORIS. 177 

C, INTERCALARIS (Guacomayo), C. FORTIOR (Sta. Barbara, Cal.}, of 
Carpenter. 

C. CEREA, C. SOREX, C. DECUSSATA, C. PUPiFORMis, Carpenter. 

Mazatlan. 

C. NEGLECTA, C. BiMARGiNATA, C. B. Adams. Panama. 

C. FUSIFORME, C. B. Ad. ( C. negleeta, Sowb., not Adams, may be the 
same). Jamaica. 

C. CRYSTALLINA, C. SIGSBEANA, Dall. West Indies. 

C. JOHNSTONI, Petterd. Tasmania. 

C. ALBOSUTURA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

C. SCABRELLA, Tapparone-Canefri. Papuan Is. 

C. PAXILLUS, C. ROSEA, C. PAGODULUS, C. CERINA, C. BACULUM, C. 

CLAVULA, of A. Adams. Japan. 

C. AURANTIACA, C. LAQUEATA, C. RUGOSA, C. SEMIPICTA, of Gould. 

China Sea. 
Subgenus L^OCOCHLIS, Dunker and Metzger, 1874. 

L, GRANOSA, S. Wood. ' PL 36, fig. 75. 

Shell reversed, whorls well-rounded, closely spirally ridged, lower 
part of body whorl smooth, occasionally longitudinal sculpture is 
developed ; white. Length, 40 mill. 

Arctic Europe. 

First described as a pliocene fossil. It is L. Pommeranice, Dunker 
and Metzger, Triforis MacAndrece, A. Ad., and T. nivea, M. Sars, 
MSS. 

Genus TEIFOKIS, Desh., 1824. 

T. REGALIS, Jouss. PL 37, fig. 76. 

Solid, white, or rarely maculated with chestnut, truncate, persist- 
ent whorls about 12, longitudinally costate, cut by closer spiral 
sculpture, suture scarcely impressed, thread-margined. 

Length, 8-11 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Very closely allied to the next species. 

T. NODIFERUS, Ad. and Reeve. PL 37, fig. 77. 

Whorls 12-14, turreted, subangulated in the middle, nodose in 
three spiral series, nodules strongest on the angle ; white. 

Length, 7 mill. 

China Sea* 
12 



178 TRIFORIS. 

T. TIBIALIS, Jouss. PI. 37, fig. 78. 

Solid, white, with interrupted chestnut lines, costate, granulated 
by the crossing of four spiral Iira3 ; whorls 17, suture scarcely con- 
spicuous ; aperture chestnut and white, maculated. Length, 13 mill. 

Tahiti. 
T. GIGAS, Hinds. PI. 37, fig. 79. 

Long and narrow, whorls 25-28, planulate, granular in four 
spiral series, the lower one the strongest, base granularly punctate. 

Length, 1 in. 

New Guinea. 

T. ACUTUS, Kiener. PI. 37, fig. 85. 

Shining, whitish, with numerous whorls, triseriately granular. 
Length, 10 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
A doubtful species. 

T. CONCORS, Hinds. PI. 37, fig. 80. 

Whorls 22, flattened, with three spiral series of nodules, the mid- 
dle one smallest, suture lined. Length, 14 "mill. 1 

Straits of Malacca. 
T. DOLICHA, Watson. PI. 37, fig. 81. 

Whorls 11, flat, with channeled suture, the ribs made nodulous 
by three spiral series of lines, base defined by a carina, two-threaded, 
.canal short and broad ; light brown, with dark stains. 

Length, 5 mill. 

N. E. Australia. 

T. SCULPTUS, Hinds. PI. 37, figs. 82, 83. 

Light brownish, with 15-18 concave whorls, nodosely carinate 
.above and below, with a smaller carina in the middle. 

JLength, 12 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 

T. pyramidalis, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 83), from China Sea, appears 
to be identical. 

T. REEVEi,.Desh. PL 37, fig. 84. 

Whitish, with a black tip ; whorls 15, narrow, each bearing a 
row of granules above and below, the lower row smaller, concave 
between them. Length, 5 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

Smaller than the preceding, without the centre carina, but very 
likely the same species, notwithstanding these differences. 




P^Lu 



TRIFORIS. 179 

T. BILIX, Hinds. PL 37, fig. 86. 

Outline a little convex on the sides, whorls 18, light colored, tri- 
carinate, the lower carina larger, marbled, middle carina smallest. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 

T. MAXILLARIS, Hinds. PI. 37, fig. 87. 

Roseate or light chocolate color, whorls 16-18, smooth, bisulcate, 
the margins of the sulcations very minutely granular, as are those 
of the sulcate suture. Length, 13 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 

T. MICANS, Hinds. PL 37, figs. 88, 89. 

Brownish, with 20-22 whorls, each with three series of whitish 
granules, the lower series largest, the upper one smallest. 

Length, 14 mill. 

New Guinea. 

I think that T. alveolatus, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 89), from China 
Sea is synonymous. 

T. VERRUCOSUS, Ad. and Reeve. PL 37, fig. 91. 

Whorls 18-20, with three spiral series of transversely oblong, 
strong tubercles ; whitish. Length, 8*5 mill. 

China Sea. 

T. HINDSI, Desh. PL 37, fig. 90. 

Light brownish, sides slightly convex ; w r horls 12, with three sub- 
equal spiral series of whitish granules. Length, 6 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

T. FORMOSUS, Desh. PL 37, fig. 92. 

Light violaceous, sides a little convex ; whorls 15, flattened, with 
channeled suture, each bearing a spiral row of whitish granulations 
above and below. Length, 6 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

T. ANGASI, Crosse. PL 37, fig. 93. 

Rather thin, brownish; whorls 15, with three spiral series of 
quadrate, flattened tubercles, the body whorl with four series, the 
lower one bearing a white band ; aperture lirate with brown within. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Gulf of St. Vincent, N. Australia; N. Zealand. 

Cerithium minimum, Hutton, is a synonym. 



180 TRIFORIS. 

T. MARMORATUS, Pease. PI. 37, fig. 94. 

Whorls 15, slightly convex, with three spiral series of granules, 
the lower series largest ; light brownish, the granules white. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

T. FUSCA, Dunker. PI. 37, fig. 95. 

Somewhat solid, brownish, sides a little convex ; whorls 12-14, 
with distinct suture, with close, subconflueut granules in three spiral 
series, the middle narrower and fainter. Length, 10-11 mill. 

Japan. 

T. ISLEANUS, Velain. PL 37, fig. 96. 

Shell yellowish, whorls 14 or 15, scarcely convex, with three 
spiral rows of granules, the upper one less developed. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Islands of /St. Paul andAmsterdam, Ind. Ocean. 

T. MALVACEUS, Jousseaume. PL 37, figs. 97, 97a. 

Rather solid, violet-ash color, granules white ; whorls 18, biseri- 
ately, spirally granulated, the granules margining the suture on 
either side. Length, 5-9 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

T. DOUVILLEI, Jouss. PL 37, fig. 98. 

Solid, yellowish white ; whorls 15, biseriately spirally granulated 
Length, 6 mill. 

Mauritius. 

T. BLAINVILLI, Jouss. PL 37, fig. 99. 

Rather solid, light cinnamon brown ; whorls 16-17, with three 
spiral series of tubercles, and well impressed suture, body whorl 
with two additional carinse, not tuberculated. Length, 4'5 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 

T. MARIEI, Jouss. PL 37, fig. 100. 

Rather solid, narrow, yellowish white ; whorls 15, flat, with three 
spiral series of granules, the middle one smaller, the first whitish, the 
third yellowish, body whorl with two additional series. 

Length, 6*5 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 

T. BIGEMMA, Watson. PL 37, fig. 1. 

Solid, yellowish white, pale brownish at the base of each whorl 
and base of body whorl ; whorls about 22, convex, with deep suture, 



TRIFORIS. 181 

minutely margined above and below, with two spiral rows of tuber- 
cles, connected in each row by a spiral thread, and a much smaller 
row of granules next below the suture. Length, 15 mill. 

West Indies, 390-640 fins. 

T. cylindrellus, Dall. (unfigured), is referred here by Jousseaume, 
and T. abruptus, Dall. (unfigured), is said to be a variety. 

T. HEBES, Watson. PI. 37, fig. 2. 

Solid, translucent white, whorls 12, with three spiral rows of 
strong tubercles, separated by spiral squared channels, margin of 
base defined by a thread. Length, 6 mill. 

Tristan da Cunha Islands, So. Atlantic 0. 

T. INFLATA, Watson. PL 37, fig. 3. 

Solid, opaque, glossy, white ; whorls 13, the normal ones slightly 
convex, with two spiral rows of tubercles, separated by a narrow 
triangular furrow, below them is a wider furrow, extending to the 
suture, above the suture is defined by a narrow marginal line, which 
is undulated rather than tuberculated. Length, 5 mill. 

West Indies, 390-640 fms. 

T. ASPERA, Jeffreys. PL 38, fig. 5. 

Rather solid, nearly opaque and glossy, pale yellowish, with a 
faint tinge of brown, apical whorls dark brown; whorls 21-22, 
with two spiral series of strong tubercles and a subsutural series of 
minute granules, base with two spiral lines, and defined by a strong 
peripheral ridge, suture slight. Length, 15 mill. 

Say of Biscay ; Sciacca, Sicily ; Gulf of Mexico. 

More slender, with stronger tubercles and more abrupt base than 
T. perversa. 

T. ASPERRIMUS, Hinds. PL 38, fig. 6. 

Whorls 24-26, angulated in the middle, with two spiral series of 
tubercles, granularly carinate near the suture. Length, 13*5 mill. 

New Guinea. 

Distinguished by its very narrow form. 

T. GEMMULATUS, Ads. and Reeve. PL 38, fig. 7. 

Pyramidal, with abruptly plain base, pellucid white ; whorls 12- 
15, with three distant series of granules, the central one narrow, 
almost obsolete, causing the whorls to be concave in the middle, 
suture defined by a marginal line. Length, 7 mill. 

China Sea. 



182 TRIFORIS. 

T. ANGUSTISSIMUS, Desh. PL 38, fig. 8. 

Shining, whitish, marbled with chestnut; whorls 14, narrow, with 
two series of rounded tubercles, last whorl with a peripheral carina 
and several raised lines on the base. Length, 4 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 
T. PFEIFFERI, Crosse. PI. 38, fig. 9. 

Rather thin, subtranslucent, whitish, regularly maculated with 
chestnut, whorls 18, with three spiral rows of beads, the middle one 
minute, the lower largest, and bordered below by a thread which 
is articulated with white and chestnut, base smooth. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Gulf of St. Vincent, N. Australia. 

T. MIRIFICUS, Desh. PI, 38, fig. 10. 

Yellowish white, whorls 15, narrow, each with two rows of pel- 
lucid granules, and a wide concave interspace, on the body whorl 
four rows of granules, which are smaller. Length, 7 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 
T. DECORATUS, C. B. Adams. PI. 37, fig. 4. 

White, maculated with somewhat quadrangular large chestnut or 
chocolate spots, with three nearly equal spiral rows of beads and 
intermediate, narrow, deep channels, body whorl anteriorly with 
two additional smaller, more or less beaded spiral ridges ; whorls 
16, planulate, the suture deeply grooved. Length, 14 mill. 

West Indies, Florida. 
Section MASTONIA, Hinds, 1844. 
T. VIOLACEUS, Quoy. PI. 38, figs. 11, 12. 

With convex sides and base, violaceus, w r horls 20, suture slightly 
grooved, whorls with two rows of tubercles, which are rounded, rosy 
white. Length, 8-10 mill. 

New Caledonia, New Ireland, Viti Is. 

T. Ducosensis, Jouss. (fig. 12), was separated because it has only 
one canal-opening, whilst the true violaceus has a dorsal one remain- 
ing ; a merely individual difference, as I have explained. 

T. RUBER, Hinds. PL 38, figs. 13-16. 

Pink, with the two rows of granules on each whorl, which are 
often yellowish, suture marked by a raised line. Length, 9 mill. 

New Ireland, Tahiti, Isle of Bourbon. 

T. roseus, Hinds (fig, 14), appears to differ only in the interposi- 
tion of a minute additional series of tubercles ; a condition fore- 



TRIFORIS. 183 

shadowed, according to Hinds, in some of the specimens of the 
typical ruber. T. distinctus (fig. 15) and T. Adamsi (fig. 16), of 
Deshayes, from the Isle of Bourbon, may be considered identical 
with T. roseus. 

T. VULPINUS, Hinds. PI. 38, fig. 17. 

Whorls 14, with three nodulous spiral carinse, blackish, the 
lower carina white. Length, 6'5 mill. 

New Ireland. 

T. MONILIFER, Hinds. PI. 38, fig. 18. 

Whorls 10, biseriately spirally granular, the upper series white, 
the lower one articulated in the intervals with chestnut or chocolate. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 

T. GRANULATUS, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 38, fig. 19. 

Whorls 12-14, yellowish white, with three crowded spiral series 
of nodules five series on the body- whorl. Length, 6 mill. 

China Sea* 

T. SUTURALIS, Ads. and Keeve. PI. 38, fig. 20. 

Whorls 12-13, pellucid white, with three spiral series of granules,, 
suture channeled, smooth, body whorl with an additional smaller 
series of granules and smooth base. Length, 6 mill. 

China Sea. 

T. SPECIOSUS, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 38, fig. 24. 

Whorls 18-20, biseriately nodose, the upper series much the 
largest ; whitish, with an orange-red line below the upper series of 
nodules. Length, 8 mill. 

China Sea* 

T. ACICULA, Issel. PI. 38, fig. 25. 

Whorls 14, with two series of small granules and a wide, shallow 
interspace on each whorl, suture deeply channeled. 

Length, 3'5 mill. 

Red Sea. 

T. CLEMENS, Hinds. PI. 38, fig. 21. 

Whorls 15, triseriately granose, the middle series minute, the 
lower one large ; yellowish corneous, the granules paler. 

Length, 6'5 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 



184 TRIFORIS. 

T. CARTERETENSIS, Hinds. PI. 38. fig. 22. 

Whorls 14, triseriately granular, sulcate between the series, mid- 
dle series small ; yellowish white. Length, 6'4 mill. 

Port Carteret, New Ireland. 

T. CRENULATUS, Desh. PI. 38, fig. 29. 

Whorls 14, triseriately ridged, the lower ridge granular ; yellow- 
ish white, with oblong, subquadrangular chestnut stripes. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

This is said to be a doubtful synonym of T. cemulans, Hinds 
(unfigured). 

T. TASMANICA, Tenison Woods. PI. 38, fig. 31. 

Whorls about 12, yellowish, triseriately granular, the lower row 
chestnut-spotted between the granules, suture deeply channeled, 
body whorl with several ridges, without tubercles, on the base. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Tasmania. 

T. CONCINNUS, Hinds. PL 38, fig. 23. 

Whorls 11, triseriately granular, middle series small ; yellowish 
brown, the lower series of granules black or brown, body whorl with 
five series of granules and two bands. Length, 6 mill. 

Pacific Ocean (Hinds). 

A specimen in the collection of the Academy at Philadelphia is 
labelled "Honduras". 

T. PUP^FORMIS, Desh. PL 38, fig. 26. 

Whorls 12, suture scarcely distinctly channeled, biseriately 
granose, the granules lighter colored on a purplish ground, base 
bisulcate. Length, 4 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

T. ATOMUS, Issel. PL 38, figs. 33, 32. 

Similar to the above in form, ornamentation and color, but with 
three rows of basal granules, instead of the two sulci ; whorls 6. 

Length, l'5-2'5 mill. 

Red Sea, Mauritius. 

Very likely this will prove synonymous with T. pupceformis. 
The last locality is for T. crassula, Martens (fig. 32). 



TRIFORIS. 185 

T. OBESULA, Jouss. PL 38, fig. 27. 

Whorls 13, brownish; becoming yellowish at the tip and base> 
with three series of spiral nodules, of which the middle one is minute, 
the body whorl with five series of nodules. Length, 4 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
T. PERLATUS, Issel. PL 38, figs. 28, 34. 

Shining, whitish, whorls 12-13, with two spiral series of equal 
nodules, body whorl with three additional smaller anterior series of 
nodules. Length, 4-5 mill. 

Red Sea. 

Narrower than T. atomus, but similarly ornamented. T. Servaini, 
Jouss. (fig. 34), has a general coloring of dark yellow, but seen 
through a glass it has a yellow band and a white one on each whorl, 
the latter with dark spots between the nodules ; it comes from the 
Red Sea also, and will, I think, prove to be a better colored speci- 
men of the above. 

T. CHAPERI, Jouss. PI. 38, fig. 35. 

Solid, white, yellowish brown at the base, whorls 12-1 4, biseriately 
tuberculated, last whorl with three series, suture linear. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 
T. XYSTICA, Jouss. PI. 38, fig. 36. 

Shell chocolate color, the tubercles whitish ; whorls 14-15, flat- 
tened, with channeled suture, and three spiral series of tubercles, last 
whorl with five series. Length, 13 mill. 

Madagascar. 
T. ROSSITERI, Jouss. PI. 39, fig. 39. 

Whorls 14, flattened, with channeled suture, reddish yellow, with 
four spiral series of sharp whitish granules, eight series on the body 
whorl. Length, 5-6 mill. 

New Caledonia. 



T. ^EGLE, Jouss. PL 39, fig. 40. 

Yellowish ash color, tubercles paler ; whorls 15, biseriately tuber- 
culate, last whorl with three additional, smaller, anterior series. 

Length, 5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
T. CNODAX, Jouss. PL 39, fig. 47. 

Rather solid, yellowish, with the tubercles red; whorls 15, sub- 
distantly biseriately sharply tuberculated, the body whorl with three 
series. Length, 6 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 



186 TRIFORIS. 

T. FUNEBRIS, Jouss. PI. 39, fig. 48. 

Solid, whorls 15, each with a band of black, followed by one of 
white, biseriately tuberculate, body whorl with four series, of which 
three are black, the lower one being white. Length, 4-6 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
T. LIMOSA, Jouss. PI. 39, fig. 38. 

Rather solid, blackish-brown; whorls 1617, biseriately tuber- 
culate, the wider interspace with a median line, suture scarcely 
distinct, last whorl with six series of ridges, of which the three 
anterior ones are unarmed, Length, 8 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 
T. LEVUKENSE, Watson. PI. 39, fig. 37. 

Solid, yellowish white, with an interrupted amber-colored thread 
near the base of each whorl, glossy; whorls 17, suture sharply 
impressed, margined above by a minute flat surface, triseriately 
tuberculated, with two additional anterior smaller series on the 
body whorl. Length, 5*5 mill. 

Viti Is. 
T. RUFULA,- Watson. PI. 39, fig. 41. 

With five apical and eight normal whorls, yellow, more or less 
ruddy, clathrate by distant rounded longitudinal and three spiral 
riblets, the intersections nodose, suture deeply channeled, body whorl 
with several ridges below the tubercles. Length, 7'5 mill. 

Off Wednesday Island, Cape York, N. E. Australia. 

T. CINGULIFERUS, Pease. PI. 39, fig. 43. 

Whorls 10, biseriately granular, with sometimes a minute series 
between the two on the later whorls ; yellowish, the lower series 
chestnut colored, the base with additional alternate yellow and chest- 
nut granular ridges. Length, 6 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 
T. TRICOLOR, Jouss. PI. 39, fig. 49. 

Solid, whorls 14-15, pale yellowish with two sutural bands, one 
white, the other black, triseriately tuberculate, last whorl with five 
series, suture deeply channeled, Length, 6 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 
T. ALTERNATUS, C. B. Adams. PI. 39, fig. 50. 

White, with a brown band below the suture, whorls 17, with 
inconspicuous suture, triseriately tuberculated, with two additional 
no n- tuberculated ribs on the last whorl. Length, 7 '5 mill. 

Panama. 

T. cucullatus, Folin, is a synonym. 



TRIFORIS. 187 

T. TRISTOMA, Blainv. PL 39, fig. 42. 

Whorls 15, triseriately tuberculated, the upper row strongest, 
suture whitish, channeled, with a minute row of granules ; yellow- 
ish-chestnut, with a row of darker spots between the granules of 
the lower series. Length, 12 mill. 

Australia. 

The species was based upon its " three-mouths," and can no longer 
be identified with certainty. 

T. EXILIS, Dunker. PL 39, fig. 45. 

Whorls 1011, triseriately granose, suture narrow, not deep, 
brownish, with a lighter line. Length, 5 mill. 

Japan. 

T. PERVERSUS, Linn. PL 39, figs. 44, 51. 

Whorls about 16-18, flat, clathrate, with three series of rovolving 
and numerous longitudinal riblets, the intersections nodulose, body 
whorl with four spiral series, below which are two spiral ribs ; yel- 
lowish brown, or chestnut color. Length, 15-30 mill. 

Eurbpe, Canary Is. 

The synonyms are T. Maroccanus, Brug., T. radula, Olivi, 21 
reticulatus, Donov., T. granulosus, Scacchi, T. tubercularis, Blainv., 
T. seriatus, Muhlf., T. inversus, Costa, T. Savignyanus, Chiaje, to 
which European authors often add Cerithium pusillum, Pfr. 

Var. BENOITIANUM, Aradas. 

Established on a single individual 34'5 mill, long, with four series 
of granules on the spire and five on the body whorl, lip much 
dilated. 

Ognina* 
Var. ADVERSA, Montg. Fig. 51. 

Shell smaller, 15 mill. long. This = var. minor, Monts., and T. 
Belli. Wood. It is found also on the California coast at least no 
differences have been detected between these and European 
examples. 

There are also vars. eylindrata, obesula and attenuata, Monts., 
founded upon the form of the shell, and the following color-varieties. 

Var. BICOLOR, Mts. Brown, with white tubercles. 
Var. CINCTA, Mts. Brown, with a white median zone. 
Var. PALLESCENS, Jeffreys. Light fawn color. 
Var. LACTEA, Mts. White. 



188 TRIFORIS. 

T. NIGROCINCTUS, C. B. Ad. PI. 39, fig. 52. 

Dark chocolate color ; whorls about 13-15, with three series of 
subequal granules, suture excavated, bearing a thread, body whorl 
with four series of tubercles, and two or three basal ridges below 
them. Length, 10 mill. 

New England to West Indies. 

Generally considered by European conchologists a variety of T. 
perversus, Linn., and perhaps should be relegated to that species. 
Dark specimens are unicolored, but lighter ones show the sutural 
thread darker whence the name. T. modestum, Ads., appears to 
be the same, and Morch refers here Cerithium pusillum, Pfr. 

T. TURRIS-THOM.E, Chemn. PI. 39, fig. 53. 

. Whorls 11, each with a spiral series of large white tubercles, and 

a much smaller chestnut colored series, forming a band. 

Length, 5 mill. 

West Indies. 

T. mirabilis, Ads., is a synonym. 

T. INTERMEDIUS, C. B. Adams. PL 39, fig. 54. 

Whorls about 12, at first with two, afterwards with three spiral 
series of tubercles, and three additional less nodulous ridges at the 
base of the body whorl ; reddish brown, with a white spiral band on 
the lower part of the whorls. Length, 6-8 mill. 

West Indies. 

This is T. turris- Thorns, d'Orb., not Chem. 

T. ORNATUS, Desh. PI. 39, fig. 46. 

Triseriately tuberculate, dark brown, with here and there a white 
tubercle, and the lower series white banded. Length, 7-10 mill. 

West Indies. 

This and the two preceding species, though nearly related, appear 
to be distinct ; the present is the most robust of the three. 

Section SYCHAR, Hinds, 1844. 

T. VITREA, Hinds. PI. 39, fig. 55. 

Pellucid, yellowish white; whorls 15, smooth, rounded, with a 
strong median raised line and a smaller one below it. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 




TRIFORIS. 189 

Section VIRIOLA, Jousseaume, 1884. 
T. VITTATUS, Hinds. PI. 39, fig. 57. 

Smooth, corneous, with a central dark brown line ; whorls 22-25, 
with two subequal spiral ridges and alternate sulci. 
Length, 18 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 

T. BAYANI, Jouss. PL 39, fig. 56. 

Solid, reddish-purple, a little shining ; whorls 23, with three 
spiral carinse, the interstices clathrate, suture linear, thread-mar- 
gined, last whorl 5-carinate , aperture white, brown-zoned. 

Length, 17 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Is very probably a synonym of the next species. 

T. CORRUGATUS, Hinds. PI. 39, fig. 59. 

Corneous ; whorls 17-20 tricar inate, the middle carina smaller, 
corrugated between them, suture with a thread-like margin. 
Length, 15 mill. 

New Guinea. 

T. CONNATUM, Montr. PI. 39, fig. 60. 

Whorls exceeding twenty, with three or four cingulse, the wider 
interstices longitudinally punctate ; chocolate color. 

Length, 13-15 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

T. DUNKERI, Jouss. PL 39, fig. 61. 

Rather solid, brownish ; whorls 1416 with two strong and one 
thin revolving ribs, the interstices longitudinally costulate and 
spirally striate ; base planate. Length, 9 mill. 

Japan. 

Described by Dunker as T. eingulata, preoccupied by A. Adams. 

T. ELEGANS, Hinds. PL 39, fig. 62. 

White, marbled with chestnut; whorls 16-18, quadricarinate, 
carinse alternating in size, close, maculated with white and chestnut. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 

T. CAXCELLATUS, Hinds. PL 39, fig. 64. 

Whorls 15-18, yellowish brown, bicarinate, the carinse maculated 
with white, cancellated between them and marked by alternate 
chestnut and white longitudinal lines ; suture channeled. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Straits of Malacca. 



190 TRIFORIS. 

T. HILARIS, Hinds. PL 39, fig. 63. 

Whorls 14, tricarinate, the two lower carinse subequal, whitish, 
the upper one a little larger, maculated with chestnut. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Pacific Ocean (Hinds). 

T. INCISUS, Pease. PI. 39, fig. 65. 

Whorls encircled by three prominent, smooth, regular ribs, 
interstices deep, very finely longitudinally striated ; irregularly 
spotted and marbled with various shades of yellowish white, brown 
and purple. 

Sandwich Is., Isle of Bourbon. 

The last named locality is for T. triliratus, Desh., which Pease 
considered a synonym. 
T. DEXTROVERSUS, Ads. and Reeve. PL 39, fig. 58. 

Shell dextral, whorls 17-18, concave in the middle, spirally tri- 
carinate, the middle carina much smaller, the interstices minutely 
concentrically striated, yellowish white. Length, 12 mill. 

China Sea. 

Differs from all the other species in being dextral, and for that 
reason I have already included it in Cerithiopsis ; as it has usually 
been considered a Triforis, I repeat the description here. 

Unfigured and Doubtful Species. 

T. VARIEGATUS, A. Ad. ( T. Arthuri, Jouss.) St. John's, W. I. 
T. INFREQUENS, T. BiMARGiNATUS, C. B. Ad. Panama. 

T. LACTEA, T. IANTHINA, T. MARGARITACEA, T. GRANULIFERA, T. 

VENUSTULA, T. DiSTiNGUENDA, of Dunker. Viti Is. 

T. HARPERI, Jouss. (T. alternata, Pease) Sandwich Is. 

T. BICOLOR, Pease. Sandwich Is. 

T. FASCIATUS, Tenison Woods. Tasmania. 

T. NIGROFUSCUS, and T. LABIATUS, A. Ad. Sydney, Australia. 
T. CONSPERSUS, A. Ad. Japan. 

T. LUSORIUS, T. LINEOLATUS, T. MiNUTissiMus, Tapparone-Canefri. 

New Guinea. 
T. INTERFILATUS (Hongkong), T. CALCULIFERUS (Loo Choo), T. 

CLATHRATUS, and T. INTERCALARIS ( China Seas), of Gould. 
T. KAUAINUS, Jouss. (T. gracilis, Pease, preocc. by himself). 

Sandwich Is. 



TRIFORIS. 191 

T. ORYZA, T. BRUNNEUS, T. MACULATUS, T. PUSTULOSUS, T. TUBER- 

CULATUS, Pease. Sandwich Is. 

T. GRANOSUS ( Tahiti), T. CYLINDRICUS (Ins. Apaiang), T. ROBUSTUS 
(Ins. Makaimo*), T. PUNCTATUS and T. COSTATUS (Ins. Annaa), of 
Pease. 

T. TRITICEA, T. PALLIDUS, T. SULCOSUS, T. GRACILIS, T. PERFECTUS, 
T. FLAMMULATA, T. SIMILIS, T. MINIMUS, T. CLAVATA, all of 

Pease. Sandwich Is. 

T. PEASEI, Jouss. ( T. affinis, Pse., preocc.). Sandwich Is. 

T. FESTIVUS, T. SCITULUS (Port Lincoln, Australia), T. PULCHELLUS 

(Hob. unknown), T. VESTALIS and T. ALBIDUS (Honduras), T. 

CINGULATUS (Red Sea), all of A. Adams. 

T. IBEX, T. COLON, T. INTERMEDIUS, T. TRISERIALIS, T. LONGISSI- 

MUS, T. TORTICULUS, T. HiRcus, all of Dall. West Indies. 

T. NANA, T. PUSIOLA, T. SCHMELTZIANA, T. QUADRILINEATA, T. 

PENUTICULATA, T. VENTROSULA, all of Dunker. Upolu, etc. 

T. EXIGUUS, T. NANUS, T. DEALBATUS, T. MELANURA, of C. B. 

Adams. 4 Jamaica. 

T. MARMORATUS and T. AFFINIS ( West Indies'), T. GRAYI (Mediter- 
ranean), T. COLLARIS and T. PAGODUS (Philippines), T. JEMU- 
LANS and T. CCELEBS (Pacific Ocean), T. CASTUS, T. CANDIDUS, 
T. TRISTIS and T. METCALFEI (Hob. unknown), all of Hinds. 

T. EXILE and T. DEFORME, Eichw. These are generally referred 
to C. ferrugineum, Brug., but the figures represent them sinistral, 
like Triforis. 



NDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



CERITHIID/t. 

PAGE, 

Abbreviatum (Cerithium), Braz. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. I. p. 316, 

1876, 145 

Abruptum (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv. 119, 

1881, 151 

Abruptus (Triforis), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix. p. 84, 

1882. = T. bigemma, Watson, Var. ... .181 

Acicula (Cerithium), Brus. Conch. Dalmat. Ined. p. 17. 1864, 

= C. tubercularis, Mont. Var. . . . . . .168 

Acicula (Triforis), Issel. Mai. Mar. Rosso. 279, t. 4, f. 3, 1869, 183 
Aculeatus (Strombus), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3523, 

= Cerithium radula, Linn 159 

Acuminatus (Murex), Pennant. Brit. Anim. 

= Bittium reticulatum, Da Costa. . . . . .150 

Acutum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zelee, 

V. p. 105, t. 24, f. 27, 1854. = Morus, Var. variegatum. . 134 
Acutum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 79, t. 32, f. 2. . . 178 
Adamsi (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 100, 1. 11, f. 23, 24. 

1863. = T. ruber, Hinds 183 

Adansonii (Cerithium), Rve. (not Brug.), Conch. Icon. Sp. 11, 

1865. = C. tuberculiferum, Pease .124 

Adenense (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve. Conch, f. 89, 1865, . . 124 
Aduncum (Cerithium), Gould, Boston Proc. iii, f. 119, 1^49, 139 
Adustum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 37, t. 13, f. 2, . . 126 
Adversum (Cerithium), Mont. Test. Brit. p. 271, 1803. 

=: Triforis perversus, Linn. Var. ..... 187 

^Edonium (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 121, 

1881. ? = B. pigrum, Watson 153 

(Mastonia), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, PI. 3, p. 256, 

t. 4, f. 12, 1884, .186 

^Emulans (Triforis), Hinds, Ann. and Mag. xl. p. 20, 

1843, .......... 184, 191 

JEmulum (Cerithium), Sowb. Darwin, Geol. obs. on Volcan. Isl. 

App. p. 153 No. 2 127 

Affinis (Triforis), Hinds, Ann. and Mag. xi. p. 10, 1843, . 191 
Affinis (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 434, 1860, 

= T. Peasei. Jouss 191 

Afrum (Bittium), Danillo & Sandri, Elenco nom. Zara. p. 15, 

1856. =B. reticulatum, DaCosta 150 

Agnatus (Strombus), Gmelin, Syst. Nat. Ed. xiii. p. 3523. 

Potamides palustris, Linn 160 

(192) 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 193 

Alabastrulum (Bittium), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 101, 

1876, . . . . . . . . . . .158 

Alabastrum (Cerithium), Morch, Mai. Blatt. xxiii. p. 120, 

1876, 144 

Alatus (Tympanotonos), Phil. Abbild. p. 17, t. 1, f. 11, 1849. 

^Cerithium fluviatile, P. and M. .... 160 

Alba (Cerithiopsis tubercularis, var), JefFr. Ann. and Mag, ii. 

p. 129. 1838, 168 

Albida (Pirenella conica, var.), Monts. Nom. Gen. e Spec. 

Conch. Medit. f. 122, 1884, , . .165 

Albidus (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p, 278, 1851, . 191 

Albina (Cerithium rugulosum, var.), Monts, Nom. Conch. Medit, 

p. 125, 1884, . . . . . . ... . 173 

Albina (Cerithium submammillatum, var.), Monts. Nom. 

Conch. Medit. rj. 123, 1884, 158 

Albina (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Mts. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 

V. p. 225, 126 

Albivaricosa (Cerithidea), A. Ad, Zool. Proc. p. 85, 1854, . 165 
Albo-liratum (Cerithium), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, sp. 336, 

1857, 139 

Albo-nodosa (Cerithidea), Carp. Moll, of W. North America, 

= C. sacrata, Gld. var. . . . . . . .169 

Albonodosa (Cerithiopsis tuberculoides, var.), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 

443, 1857, ' . ' . . .162 

Albosutura (Cerithiopsis), Tenison-Woods, Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

p. 140, 1876, 177 

Albovittatum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 122, 

1850. - Lampania minimus, Gmel. . . . . .168 

Album (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zelee, 

V. p. 101, t. 23, f. 22, 23, 1854. = C. echinatum, Lam. . 124 
Algerianum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii. p. 878, f. 

230, 231. 1855. = C. lacteum, Phil 150 

Algicola (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc. ii. p. 5, 1848, . 129 
Alternata (Cerithidea), Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 26, 

1873, 165 

Alternata (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 434, 1860, 

= T. Harperi, Jouss. . .190 

Alternatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii. p. 872, f. 70, 

73 & 179. = C. Traillii, Sowb. var. . . . . 135 

Alternates (Triforis), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, 158, 1852, . . 186 
Ahum (Cerithium), Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 126, 1865, . . 156 
A hi caster (Cerithium), Scacchi, Cat. Reg. Neap. p. 131, 1836. 

= C. vulgatum, var. Bourguignati, Locard. . . . 126 
Alu caster (Murex), Brocchi, Conch. Foss. Subap. p. 438, t. 10, 

f. 4, 1814. = Cerithium vulgatum, Brug. .... 126 

Aluco (Cerithium), Born, (not Linn), Mus. Caes. Vindobon. 
= C. nodulosum, Brug. . . . . . . .122 

Aluco (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit. xii. p. 1225, 

Cerithium, Brug. ..... .145 

13 



194 INDEX AND .SYNONYMY. 

Aluco (Murex), Marshlius, (not Linn.) Reise, Keen. Neap. 

p. 373, 1793. = Cerithium vulgatum, Brug. . . .125 
Alucoides (Cerithium), Brocchi. Cat. Conch. Golfo Arabico. 

p. 28. = C. Ruppellii, Phil 124 

Alucoides (Murex), Olivi. Zool. Adr. p. 153, 1792. 

= Cerithium vulgatum, Brug. . . . . . .125 

Alutaceum (Cerithium), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii. p. 387. 1861. . 154 
Alveolatus (Triforis), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang p. 45, 1. 11, 

f. 39, a. b. 1850, . . . 179 

Alveolus (Cerithium), Jacq. Voy. Pol. Sud. v. p. 105, t. 24, 

f. 28, 29, 1854. = C. piperitum, Sowb 144 

Amabile (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 246, 1880. 
= Cerithippsis gracilis, Sowb. . . . . . .173 

Ambigua (Cerithidea), C. B. Ad. Bost, Proc. ii. p. 4, 1848, 

= C. costata, DaCosta. 164 

Amblyterum (Cerithium). Watson. Journ' Linn. Soc. xv. p. 

108. 1881, 151 

Amboynense (Cerithium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 

110, 1881, 156 

Angasi (Cerithiopsis). O. Semper. Cat. v., Mus., Godeffroy. p. 

108, No. 6882, 1874, 172 

Angasi (Triforis), Crosse, Journ. de Conch, p. 46, t. 1, f. 12, 

13. 1865, ... 179 

Angnlifera (Lampania), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. Sp. 1, 1866, 167 
Angustissima (Cerithium vulgatum var.), Weink. Conch. Mittel. 

ii, p. 154, 1868, . 126 

Angustissimum (Cerithium), Forbes. Rep. ./Eg. Invert, p. 190, 

1843, . . . . . . . . . .173 

Angustissimus (Triforis). Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 104, t. 12, 

f. 1, 12, 1863, 182 

Angustum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 66, 1839. 

= C. litteratum, Bom .128 

Angustum (Cerithium), Desh. Exped. de More"e, p. 183, t. 24, 

f. 17, 19, 1832. = Bittium reticulatum, Da Costa. . . 150 
Annularis (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Edit. xiii. 

= Cerithium torulosum, Linn. . . . . . .147 

Annulatus (Turbo), Martyn. Univ. Conch. 

= Cerithium torulosum, Linn 147 

Antarcticum (Cerithium), Phil. Abhandl. Nat. Gesch. zu Halle, 

1868, 144 

Antillarum (Cerithium), Dunker, Morch, Mai. Blatt. xxiii. 

113. = C. uncinatum, Gmel 128 

Aphanistylus, Fischer, Mannel de Conch. 682, 1884, . 117, 164 
Arctum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zele"e. 

v. p. 106, t. 24, f. 37, 38, 1854, 155 

Armatum (Cerithium), Phil. Zietsch. fur. Malak., p. 22, 1848, 124 
Armillatum (Bittium), Cpr. Ann. Mag. p. 276, 1866, . . 158 
Arthuri (Triforis), Jouss.Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, p. 221, 

1M4, .180 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 195 

Articulatus (Vertagus), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 43, 

t. 10, f. 14, 1850. = C. gemmatum Hinds. Var. . 146 

Arcticum (Cerithium), Morch, Prod. Faunae Moll. Groenl; 

Arctic Man. p. 127. = C. costulata, Moller. . . .176 
Asper (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, 1226, . . .148 
Aspera (Triforis), Jeffr. Zool. Proc. p. 58, t. 6, f. 7, 7a, 1885. 181 
Asperrimus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi. p. 18, 1843. 181 
Aspersum (Cerithium), Desh. Conch. Reun. p. 97. 1. 11, f. 16-18, 

1863. = C. lanthinum, Gld 137 

Asperulum (Cerithium), Tryon. ...... 136 

Asperum (Bittium), Gabb. Proc. Phila. Acad. p. 368, 1861 ; 

Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 1866, 153 

Asperum (Cerithium), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 433, 1860. 

C. asperulum, Tryon. . . . . . .136 

Assimillata (Cerithiopsis), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, 150, 309, . 174 
Atalaya (Cerithiopsis), Watson,. Journ. Linn. Soc. xix, p. 94, 

t. 4, f. 9, 9a, 1885, 169 

Atkinsoni (Cerithiopsis crocea, var.), Tenison- Woods, Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, p. 139, 1875, 175 

Atomus (Triforis), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, 280, t. 4, f. 4, 1869, 184 
Atra (Pirenella conica, var.), Monts. Nom. Gen. e Spec. Conch. 

Medit. p. 122, 1884, 165 

Atratum (Cerithium), Born. Mus. CSBS. p. 324, t. 11, f. 17, 18, 128 
Atramentarium (Lampania), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 881, f. 

249, 250, 1855, . 167 

Attenuata (Cerithium rupestre, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. p. 

203, t. 23, f. 3, 4, 1884, ... ... 126 

Attenuata (Triforis perversus, var.), Monts. B. D. D. Moll. 

Roussillon, 212, 187 

Attenuatum (Bittium), Carp. Journ. de Conch, p. 142, 1865, 153 
Attenuatum (Vertagus), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 21, 1848, 148 
Atterima (Lampania), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. xxiv, p. 70, 1877. 

= L. zonalis, Brug. var. . . . . . . .167 

Audouini (Cerithium), Bayle. Jorn. de Conch. 354, 1880. 

= C. munitum, Sowb. ........ 129 

Aurantiaca (Cerithiopsis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 388, 1861, 177 
Australe (Cerithium), Quoy, Voy. Astr. iii, p. 131, t. 55, f. 7, 

1834, . 166 

Australis (Cerithidea), Gray, (not Lam.), Dieff. New Zealand, 

ii, p. 341, 1843. = C. subcarinata, Sowb. . . 163 

Baccatum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zelee. 

v, p. 102, t. 24, f. 11, 12, 1854. ? = C. Traillii, Sowb. . 135 
Baccatum (Cerithium), Costa, Kien. Coq. Viv. t. 23, f. 4. 

= C. reticulatum, DaCosta, . . . . . .150 

Bacillum (Cerithiopsis), Issel. Mar Rosso, p. 151, 1869 . . 174 

Baculum (Cerithiopsis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. vii, p. 130, 

1861, . . \ .177 

B^ticum (Cerithium), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 433, 1860, . . 143 



196 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Baliolina (Cerithium submammallatum, var.), Monts. Norn. 

Conch. Medit. p. 123, 1884, 158 

Balteata (Cerithidea). A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 84, 1854, . . 165 
Balteata (Cerithiopsis), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 124 

1881, 173 

Balteatum (Cerithium). Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 22, 1848, 131 
Barleii, (Cerithiopsis), Jeffr. B. C. iv, p. 268 ; v. p. 217, t. 81, 

f. 2. C. tubercularis, var. sublata, Wood. . . .168 
Barleii (Cerithiopsis), Tiberi (not Jeffr.) Bull. Mai. Ital. ii, p. 

267, 1869. = C. bilineata, Hoernes 168 

Batillaria, Cantor, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, ix, 488, 1842, . . 118 
Bayani (Viriola), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, p. 267, 

t. 4, f. 20, 1884, 122, 189 

Bellardia, Mayer. 1870, . 114 

Belli (Triforis perversus, var.), Wood. Crag Moll. Add. PI. f. 

17. - Var. adversa, Montagu. . . . . . . 187 

Benoitiana (Triforis), Araclas. Atti Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat. Catania. 

xii, 549, 1869. = T. perversus, Linn. var. . . . 187 
Benoitianum (Cerithium), Monts. Journ. de Conch, p. 275, 1. 13, 

f. 2, 1869. = C. angustissimum, Forbes. . . . 173 

Bermudse (Cerithium), Sowb. Keeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 86, 1865. 

= C. ferrugineum, var. versicolor 140 

Bezanconia, Bayle. 1884. ... , . 114 

Bicanaliferum (Cerithium), Braz, Linn. Soc. N. S. W. i, p. 317, 

1876, . . 145 

Bicarinata (Cerithidea), Gray. Diffenbach's New Zealand, ii, p. 

241, 1843, 163 

Bicolor (Cerithium), C. B. Adams. Bost. Proc. ii, p. 5. 1848, . 158 
Bicolor (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. t. 23, f. 11. 

= C. citrinum. Sowb 123 

Bicolor (Triforis), Pse. Am. Jour. Conch, iv, 127, 1868, . . 190 
Bicolor (Triforis perversus, var.), Mts. B. D. D. Moll. Roussil- 

lon. 212, . . . 187 

Bifasciatum (Bittium reticulatum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. 

p. 215, 1884, 151 

Bifasciatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 874, f. 198. 

1855. = C. morus, Lam. var 134 

Biforina, Bucq, Dautz, Dollf. Moll. Roussillon, 1884. 

- Monophorus, Grille. . . . . . . .122 

Bigemma (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 101, 

1881, ....... . . 180 

Bilineata (Cerithiopsis), Homes, Czj/ek's Krlaut zur Geogn. 

Karte von Wicn, p. 21, 1848. = C. tubercularis, Mont. var. 168 
Bilix (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 17, 1843, . 179 

Billeheusti (Cerithium), Petit. Journ. de Condi, p. 265, t. 7, f. 

3. 1851. - C. inflatmu, Quoy. . .132 

Bimarginata (Cerithiopsis), C. B. Adams. Panama Shells. No. 

195, 1852, 177 

Bimarginata (Triforis), C. B. Ad. Pan. shells, 151, . . .190 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 1QI 

Bittium (Leach), Gray. Zool. Proc. 154, 1847, . . 150, 115 

Bituberculatum (Vertagus), Sowb. Keeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 17, 

1865, 148 

Bizonalis (Cerithiopsis), Jeffr. Zool. Proc. p. 62, t.,6, f. 10, 1885, 176 
Blainviliei (Inella), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3. p. 244, 

t. 4, f. 6, 1884, 180 

Bombayana (Cerithidea), Sowb. Reeve's Conch, Icon. sp. 24, 

1866. ? n= C. Layardi, A. Ad !<>> 

Bornii (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 869, f. 175, 1855, 133 
Bourgnignati (Cerithium), Locard. Ann. Soc. d' Agriculture 

Lyon, viii, p. 186, 1885. = C. vulgatum, Brug. var. . .126 
Brachytrema, Morris and Lycett. Moll. Great Oolite. 24, 1850, 113 
Brazieri (Cerithium), Tryon. . . . . . . .142 

Breve (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astrol. iii, 116 to 54, f. 9-12. 

= C. morus, Lam. . . . . . . . . 133 

Breviculum (Cerithium). Sowb. Genera of Shells. No. 42. f. 1. 

? =C. inflatum, Quoy. 132 

Brongniarti (Cerithium) Maravigna.' Rev. Zool. 326, 1840, . 168 
Brotia, H. Adams. Zool. Proc. 150, 1866, .' . . .116 
Brunneus (Triforis). Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 777, 1870, . . 191 

Cselatum (Cerithium). (Couth. MS.) Gld. Bost. Proc. iii, p. 123, 

1849, . . 172 

Cseruleum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p 866, f. 61, 62, 

1855, . . . . . . . . . 127 

Cailliaudi (Cerithium), Potiez and Mich. Cat. Moll. Douai, t. 

31, f. 17, 18. = C. conica, Blainv !<>:> 

Calculiferus (Triforis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 389, 1861, . 190 
Caledonica (Clava), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, p. 191, t. 4, 

f. 12, 1884, 160 

California? (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 104, 

1865. = C. morus, var. variegatum. ; .... 134 
Califbrnica (Cerithium), Hald, Fresh- Water Univ. Moll., cover 

of No. 1. = C. sacrata, Gould 162 

Campanile, Bayle. 1884, 114, 149 

Cancellata (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 18, 1843. . 189 
Cancellatum (Cerithium), H. C. Lea, Amer. Journ. Sci. xlii, p. 

iii, t. 1. f. 8, 1842, 145 

Candidus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xl, p. 21, 1843, . 191 
Carbonarium (Cerithium), Sowb. (not Phil.) Conch. Icon. f. 59. 
= C. morus, Lam, var. ....... 134 

Carbonarium (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 142. 

1848, . . . . . 133 - 

Carinata (Fastigiella), Rve. Zool. Proc. p. 15, 1848, . .149 
Carinatum (Cerithium), E. A. Smith, Zool. Proc. p. 736, t. 75, 

f. 21, 1871, 174 

Carteretensis (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 20, 1843, 184 
Castus (Triforis), Hinds, Ann. and Mag. xl. p. 20. 1843, . 191 
Caudatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 856, f. 71, 72, 

1855. = C. atratum, Born. . .129 



198 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Cecillii (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 23, 1849. . 144 
Cedo-nulli (Vertagus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 852. f. 38-40, 

1855. = C. obeliscus, Brug 146 

Cerea (Cerithiopsis), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 443, 1857, . . .177 
Cereum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 880, f. 244, 245, 

1855, 175 

Cerina (Cerithiopsis) ,A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. vii, p. 130, 1861, 177 
Ceritella, Morris and Lycett. Ann. and Mag. N. Hist, vi, 418, 

1850, 120 

Cerithidea, Swainson. Man. Malac. 203, 342, 1840, . 117, 161 

Cerithidium, Monts. Nom. Gen. e Spec. Conch. Medit. 

p. 123. 1884, 115, 157 

Cerithiella. Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, 522, 1882. 

Lovenella, Sars. . . . . . . . .119 

Cerithinella, Gemmellaro. Giorn. Sci. Nat. Palermo, xiii, 165, 

1878, . 114 

Cerithioderma. Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad. iv, 295. 1860, . 113 
Cerithiolum, Tiberi. Bull. Mai. Ital. ii, 263, 1869. 

= Bittium, Gray. . . . . . . . .115 

Cerithiopsis, Forbes and Hanley. Brit. Moll, ii, 367, 1853. 119, 168 
Cerithium, Adanson. Hist. Nat. Senegal. 153, 1757, 112, 113, 122 
Chaperi (Mastoniseforis), Jouss, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, 

p. 243, t. 4, f. 4-5, 1884. . .... 185 

Charbonnieri. (Cerithidea), Petit. Journ. de Conch, p. 264, t. 7, 

f. 7, 1851 . 118, 164 

Cincta (Triforis perversus, var.), Monts. B. D. D. Moll. Rous- 

sillon, 212, 187 

Cinctum (Cerithium), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 27. 

= Bittium terebelloides, Martens. . . . .158 

Cinctella, Monts. Norn. Conch. Medit. p. 123, 1884. 

= Seila; A. Adams 119 

Cinerascente (Cerithium), Pallas. Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, 282. 

= C. conica, Blainv. . . . . . . . .165 

Cinereo-flavum (Bittium), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 102, 

1876, 158 

Cingulata (Cerithiopsis). A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. vii, p. 130, 

1861, .176 

Cingulata (Triforis), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. vi, p. 236, 1860. 

= T. Dunkeri, Jouss. 189 

Cingulatus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Edit, xiii, 

= Potamides fuscatus, Linn.. ...... 159 

Cingulatus (Triforis). A. Ad. Zool. Proc, p. 279, 1851, . . 191 
Cinguliferum (Cerithium), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 434, 1860, 144, 186 
Circinatum (Cerithium), A. Ad. MSS. Reeve, Icon. sp. 61, 

1865, . .127 

Citrina (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Mts. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 

v. p. 225, 126 

Citrinum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 855, t, 179, f. 

66, . 123 




INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 199 



Clarkii (Cerithiopsis), Hanley. Sowb. 111. Ind. Brit. Shells, t, 15, 

f. 12. == C. tubercularis, Mont ...... 168 

Clathrata (Cerithiopsis), Angas. Zool. Proc. p. 16, t. 1, f. 12, 

1871. = C. Angasi, O. Semper ...... 173 

Clathratum (Cerithium), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 883, f. 258, 

1855. = C. sinon, Bayle. 1880. ..... 166 

Clathratum (Cerithium), Mke. Synopsis, p. 32, 1826. 

C. minimum, Gmel. ....... 168 

Clathratus (Triforis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 389, 1861, . 190 

Clava, Mart, (in part), Jousseaume, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

190,1884. -- Terebralia, Mart, in part ..... 116 
Clava (Cerithium), Brug. Enc. Meth. p. 479. 

C. maculosum, Martyn. . . . . . . .145 

Clava (Cerithium), Sowb. Genera of Shells. 

= C. Sowerbyi, Kien. . . . . . . .145 

Clavata (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 434. 1860. . . .191 

Clavula (Cerithiopsis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. vii, p. 130, 

1861, ........... 177 

Clemens (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 20, 1843, . 183 
Cnodax (Mastonia), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, p. 

260, t. 4. f. 14, 1884, . ...... 185 

Ccelebs (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 20, 1843. . 191 
Coarctata (Cerithium), Sowb. H. Adams. Zool, Proc. 308. 1867. 
= C. gracile, H. Ad ......... 142 

Colina, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Kec. Moll, i, 286, 1853, 113, . 141 
Collaris (Triforis), Hinds. Zool. Proc. p. 23, 1843, . . 191 

Colon (Triforis), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 86, 1882, 191 
Columellare (Cerithium), d'Orb. Moll. de Cuba, ii, p. 155, t. 23, 

f. 13-15, 1853. = C. pallidum, Pfr. . . . .152 

Columna (Cerithiopsis), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 3 Ser. xiv, 

1864, . .......... 171 

Columna (Cerithium), Sowb. Gen. of Shells. No. 42. f. 7, . 123 

Coucinnus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 20, 1843, . 184 
Concisum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zelee. 

v. p. 102, t. 24, f. 12, 1854. = C. moms, Lam. . . . 134 

Concolor (Lampana Cumingii, var.), Schrenck. Amur. Moll. p. 
314, 1859-1867, ..... . . 166 

Concors (Triforis), Hinds. Ann and Mag. xi, p. 17, 1843, t .178 
Conicum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 65, 1839, . 144 

Conicum (Cerithium), Blainv. Faune Franc. Moll. p. 158, t. 

6 a, f. 10, 1826, . ....... 163, 165 

Connatum (Cerithium), Montr. Journ. de Conch, p. 236, t. 9, f. 

4, 1862, . . .... 189 

Conspersus (Triforis), A. Ad. MS. E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag. 

xvi, p. 106, 1875, . . 190 

Contigua (Cerithiopsis), Monts. Journ. de Conch, xxvi, p. 156, 

1878, . .......... 176 

Contractum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 877, f. 218, 

1855. = C. crumena, Bayle ....... 141 



200 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Conulus (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p, 64, 1839, . .144 

Convexa (Cerithiopsis), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 444, 1857. . . 172 
Coppolse (Cerithiopsis), Aradas. 1868. 

= C. bilineata, Homes .168 

Corallinum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 59, . . 125 
Cordigerum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 249, 

1880, - . .146 

Cornea (Cerithidea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 85, 1854, . . 1H2 
Corneum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 91, t. 32, f. 3. * . . 168 
Corona (Cerithiopsis), Watson MSS. Monte. Enum. e Sin. p. 

39. = C. diadema, Watson 169 

Coronatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 863, f. 118, 

1855. = C. custos, Bayle. . . ...... 131 

Coronatus (Murex), Born. Test. Mus. Vind. p. 322. 

= C. aluco, Linn. . . . . . . '. 145 

Corrugatus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 18, 

1843, . . , . 122, 189 

Costata (Cerithidea). A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 86, 1854. 

= C. macrostoma, Hinds. . . . . . . .142 

Costata (Cerithidea), Da Costa. Brit. Conch. 118, t. 8, f. 14, . 164 
Costatus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 775, 1870, . . .191 
Costellifer, Meek. Am. Jour. Sci. xxxv, 88, 1863. 

?=C. Tubifer, Piette 120 

Costiferum (Cerithium), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, t. 184, f. 222. 

C. macrostoma, Hinds. . . . . . . .142 

Costulata (Cerithiopsis), Moller. Ind. Moll. Groenl. p. 10, . 176 
Costulatum (Cerithium), Costa. 

= C. reticulatum, Da Costa. 150 

Costulatus (Cerithiopsis), Whiteaves (not Moller). 

= Cerithiella Whiteavesi, Verrill 176 

Crassilabrum (Cerithidea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 84, 1854, . 165 
Crassilabrum (Cerithium), Krauss. Ind. Moll. t. vi, f. 10, . 141 
Crassula (Triforis), Martens. Mobius, Mauritius, p. 282, t. 22, f. 

1,1880. = T. atomus, Issel. . . . . . . 1M 

Crassum (Cerithium), Lam. Anim. sans Vert, ix, p. 294. 

= C. palustris, Linn 160 

Craticulatum (Bittium), Old. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 387, 1861, . 158 
Crenulatus (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 99, t. 11, f. 21, 

22, 1863, .... 184 

Crocea (Bittium cinereo-flavum, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 

p. 102, 1876, i . 

Crocea (Cerithiopsis), Angas. Zool. Proc. p. 16, t. 1, f. 13, 1871, 175 
Crosseanum (Cerithium), Tiberi. Journ. de Conch, p. 160, t. 6, 

f. 2, 1863. = C. Metaxae, Delle Chiaje 173 

Crossei (Cerithium), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 96, t. 11, f 12, 

14, 1863. == C. Maillardi, Crosse. . ... 137 

Crumena (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 243, 1880. 

= C. pingue, A. Ad 141 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 201 

Coystallina (Cerithiopsis), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 

89, 1882, .... 177 

Cucullatus (Triforis), Folin. Les. Meleagrini coles, p. 72, t. 6 

f. 13, 1867. - T. alternatus, C. B. Ad 186 

Cumingii (Lampania), Crosse. Journ. de Conch, p. 54, t. 1, f. 10, 

11, 1862, 166 

Cumingii (Lampania). Reeve. Conch. Icon. 

L. multiformis, Lischke. . . . . .167 

Cumingii (Vertagus), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 850, f. 19, 

1855. = V. Sowerbyi, Kiener, var. . . . . .145 

Curta (Lampania), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 869, f. 153, 154, 

1855, 142 

Custos (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 244, 1880, .131 
Cylindraceum (Cerithium), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch, v, p. 77, 

*1869 .... 141 

Cylindrata (Triforis perversus var.), Mts. B. D. D. Moll. 

*Roussillon, 211, 187 

Cylindratum (Cerithium), Jeffr. Zool. Proc. p. 55, t 6, f. 5, 5a, 

^1885, 175. 

Cylindrellus (Triforis), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 83, 

*1882. = T. bigemma, Watson .181 

Cylindricum (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 118, 

'1881, 156 

Oylindricus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 776, 1870, . . 191 

Danicum (Cerithium), Beck, 

= Bittium reticulatum, Da Costa. . . . . .150 

Danielseni (Cerithium), Friele, Prelim. Report OR Mollusca 

p. 3. = Procerum, Friele. . . . . . .176 

Dealbatum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Centr. Conch, p. 117, 1850, 191 
'Decollata (Cerithidea), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, p. 1226, 117, 161 
Decollatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Genera of Shells, 

= C. obtusum, Lam. . . . . . . . .161 

Decoratus (Triforis), C. B. Adams, Contrib. Conch. 117, 1850, 182 
Decussata (Cerithiopsis), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 445, 1857, . .177 
Deforme (Cerithium), Eichw. Zool. Specialis. i, p. 295, t. 5, f. 11, 

1829. =C. ferrugineum, Brug. .... 150, 191 
Delectum (Cerithium), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, 875, 

1855. = C. zebrum, Kr 138 

Delicatum (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 120, 

1881, . . . . . . ' . . . .154 

Desolatum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 247, 1880. 

= Lampanella minimus, Gmel 168 

Destrugesi (Cerithium), Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles, p. 71, t. 6, 

f. 12, 1867, .... ...... 172 

Dextroversus (Triforis), Ads. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang. 45, 

1850, . 119, 122, 175, 190 

Diadem (Cerithiopsis), (Watson, MS.), Monts. Journ. de Conch. 

p. 273, 1874; Jour. Linn. Soc. xix, 93, .... 161) 



202 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Dialeucum (Cerithium), Phil. Abbild. t. 1, f. 5, 1849, . . 130 
Diastoma, Desh. Traite. Conch. 46, 1848, . . . .118 
Diemenense (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr. iii, p. 128, t. 55, f. 

11,13,1834, . . . 166 

Diminutivum (Cerithium), Phil. Archiv. fur Natur. p. 67, 

1845, 138 

Diplax (Bittium), Watson, Challenger, Exp. xv, p. 555, t. 38, 

f. 4, 1886, . ' . . .156 

Dislocatum (Cerithium), Say. Journ. Philada. Acad. ii, p. 236, 

1822. = TerebraPetiti,'Kiener 145 

Disiinctus (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 103, 1. 11, f. 30, 

31, 1863. - T. ruber, Hinds. . . . . . . 183 

Distinguenda (Triforis), Dkr. 1881, Jouss, Bull. Soc. Mai. Pr. 

227,1884, ...... ... 190 

Ditretus, Piette, Compt. rend. Assoc. Franc. 1875, . . .117 
Dolicha (Triforis), Watson, Challenger Exp. xv, p. 565, t. 42, 

f. 1, . . , .178 

Doliolum (Cerithium), Weink. Conch. Mittel. ii, p. 157, 1868, 

= C. rupestre, Risso. . . . . . . . .126 

Dorsuosum (Cerithium), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 867, f. 138, 

140, 1855. = C. aduncum, Old 139 

Dorsuosum (Cerithium), Menke. Zeitsch. fur Malac. p. 60, 

1844, 144 

Douvillei (Triforis), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, f. 241, 

t. 4, f. 3, 1884, 180 

Dubium (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 864, f. 120, 

1855. = C. eludens, Bayle. 136 

Ducosensis (Mastonia), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 

251, t. 4, f. 10, 1884. = T. violaceus, Quoy. . . .182 
Dunkeri (Triforis), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 222, 

1884, .189 

Ebeneum (Cerithium), Brug. Euc. Meth. t. 442, f. 1, a. b. 

= P. ebeninus, Brug 158 

Ebeninus (Cerithium), Brug. Diet. No. 26, ... 116, 158 

Eburneum (Cerithium), Brug 128, 129 

Echinatum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. 7, t. 3, f. 1. 

C. columna, Sowb 1 23 

Echinatum (Cerithium), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. sp. 12, . 123 

Ecostata (Cerithium submammillatum, var.), Monts. Nom. 

Conch. Medit. p. 123, 1884, 158 

Egenum (Cerithium), Old. Bost. Proc. iii, p. 120, 1849, . .137 
Elegans (Bittium), Petit, (not Blainv.), Journ. de Conch, iv, p. 

431, 1853. = B. lacteum, Phil lf>0 

Elegans (Cerithium), Blainv. Faune Franc. Moll. p. 159, t. 62, 

f. 9, = C. punctatum, Linn. . . . . . .170 

Elegans (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 18, 1843, . 189 
Elongatum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 66, 1839, . .144 
Elongatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 878, t. 84, f. 

233, 234, 1855. = C. reticulatum, Da Costa. . . . 150 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 203 

Eludens (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 245, 1880, . 136 
Emmersonii (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Bost. Journ. xv, p. 284, t. 

4, f. 10. = C. punctatum, Linn. . . . . .170 

Enode (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 115, 1881, 152 

Episcopale (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 66, 1839, . . 144 
Eriense (Cerithium), Valenciennes. Kiener, t. 24, f. 1. 

= C. versicolor, Ad. Var. . . . . . . . 140 

Erythneonense (Cerithium), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. p. 292, . 123 
Escoftieria, Fontannes. 1880, . . . . . . .118 

Esuriens (Bittium), Carp. Jour, de Conch, p. 142, 1865, . 153 

Eumeta, Morch, 1868, Jeffreys, Zool. Proc. 61, 1885. 

= Cerithiopsis, Forbes and Hanley, Section. . 120, 176 

Eurus (Cerithium), Bayle. Jour, de Conch, p. 244, 1880. . 142 
Euryptera (Tympanotonos), A. Ad. Reeve's Iconica. Tymp. 

sp. 8, 1866. = P. fluviatilis, Pot. and Mich. . . .160 
Eustoma, Piette. Bull. Soc. Geol. France 2d. Ser. xii, 1107, 

1855, 120 

Euthymia, Jousseaume, Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 237, 

1884. = Triforis, Desh 122 

Exelissa, Piette. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, xviii, 14, 1860, . 119 

Exigua (Bittium reticulatum, var.), Monts. B. D. D. Moll. " 

Rouss. 215, t. 25. f. 26, 27, . . ' . . . .151 

Exiguum (Cerithium), Phil. Archiv. fur Naturg. i, p. 67, 

1845, 144, 191 

Exile (Bittium), Huttou. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 27, 1873, . 158 

Exile (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 120, 1850, . 158 
Exile (Cerithium), Eichw. Zool. Specialis, i, p. 295, t. 5, f. 10, 

1829. = C. ferrugineum, Brug 150, 191 

Exilis (Triforis), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. vi, p. 237, . 187 

Exilissima (Cerithium niguloeum, var.) Monts. Nom. Conch. 

Medit. p. 125, 1884, '. 173 

Eximium (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 873, f. 192, 

1855. = C. rubus, Martyn 132 

Famelicum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Shells of Panama, p. 152. 

?= C. uncinatum, Gmel. . . . . . . .128 

Fasciata (Pirenella conica, var.), Monts. Nom. Gen. e Spec. 

Conch. Medit. p. 122, 1884, . . , 165 

Fasciata (Triforis), Tenison- Woods, Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 34. 

1878, 190 

Fasciatum (Cerithium), Brug. Enr. Meth. p. 474, . . . 149 
Fastigiatum (Bittium), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, xv, 177, 

1865, 158 

Fastigiella, Reeve. Zool. Proc. 14, 1848, . . . 115, 149 

Fayalensis (Cerithiopsis), AVatson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 125, 

1881. = C. diadema, Watson 10!) 

Fenestratum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 860, f. 100, 

1855. = C. eburneum, Brug 129 

Ferrugineum (Cerithium), Middendorff. (not Brug.) Malac. 

Mar. Rosso, p. 49, 1849. = Bittium reticulatum, Da Costa. 150 



204 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Ferrugineum (Cerithium), Say. Amer. Conch, v, t. 49, f. 2, 

1832, . . . 140' 

Ferrugineum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 177. 

- C. veriscolor, C. Bad . . 140 

Festivus (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 278, 1851, . . HM 
Fibula (Cerithiopsis), Jeffr. Zool. Proc. p. 60, 1885. 

= C. diadema, Watson 1 fi!> 

Fibula, Piette. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, xiv, 1857, . . 120 

Filosum (Cerithium), Gld. Bost. Proc. iii, p. 120, 1849, . l->2 

Filosum (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 143, 1848, . 144 
Filosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon. sp. 82, 1865, 12 > 
Flammiculatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 875, f. 

206, 1855, . . . 1:J!> 

Flammulata (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 434, 1860, . .191 
Flava (Cerithium rugulosum, var.), Monts. Nom. Conch. Medit. 

p. 125, 1884, . 17: y 

Flavum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 122, 1850, . 170 
Floridanum (Cerithium), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 114, 1876. 

? = C. atratum, Born 129 

Fluviatile (Cerithium), Potiez and Michaud. Cat. Moll, de 

Douai, p. 363, t. 31, f. 19, 20, 159 

Fluviatilis (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3562. 

= Cerithium radula, Brug. 159 

Formosus (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion p. 102, t. 11, f. 29, 

1863, . 179 

Fortior (Cerithiopsis), Cpr. Ann and Mag. xv, p. 397, 1865, . 177 
Fortiusculum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 250, 

1880. = C. Montagnei, Orb. var. pulchra. . . . 161 

Fortunei (Cerithidea). A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 85, 1854, . . 162 
Fragile (Cerithium), Anton, Verzeich. p. 65, 1839, . .144 

Fucatum (Cerithium), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 432, 1860, . . m 
Fulva (Cerithium rugulosum, var.), Monts. Nom. Conch. Medit. 

p. 125, 1884, .... . 

Fulvum (Cerithium), Anton, Verzeich, p. 95, 1839. . .144 
Funebris (Mastonia), .Jouss. Bull. Soc, Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 

262, t. 4, f. 15, 1884, !*(> 

Furvum (Bittium), Watson, Challenger Exped. xv, p. 556, t. 

38, f. 5, 1886, ir>7 

Fusca (Pirenella conica, var.), Monts, Nom. Gen. e Spec. Conch. 

Medit. p. 122, 1884, 1<>~> 

Fusca (Triforis), Bunker. Mai. Blatt, vi, p. 237, 1860, . . 1W 
Fuscatum (Cerithium), Costa (and authors), Cat. Sist. p. 154, 

1826. = C. rupestre, Risso. 12f> 

Fuscatus (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, p. 755 . . 159 
Fuscum (Cerithium), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. xviii, p. 152, 1871, . 144 
Fuscum (Telescopium), Schumacker, Essai NQUV. Syst. 233, 161 
Fuscus (Strombus), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Edit, xiii, 3523, 

Cerithium sulcaturn, Brug 160 

Fusiforme (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 120, 1850, 177 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 205 

Fusiforme (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 862, f. 106, 
107,1855. = C. proditum, Bayle. . . . . .130 

Galactis (Bittium), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 95, 1876, . 158 
Gallapaginis (Lampania), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 869, f. 155, 

156, 1855. = C. interruptum, Menke, Var. '. . .143 
Gemma (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 873, f. 51, 1855, 
= C. morus, Var. variegatam, Quoy. . . . . .134 

Gemmatum (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 113, 

1881, . . . 150 

Gemmatus (Vertagus), Hinds. Voy. Sulph. p. 27, t. 11, f. 5, 6. 

1844, . . . . . . . . . . .146 

Gemmulatum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and 

Zelee. v, p. 102, t. 24, f. 34, 7-10, 39-41, 1854. 
= C. morus, Lam. ........ 134 

Gemmulatus (Triforis), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang. p. 46, 

t. 11, f. 34, a, b. 1850, ..... .181 

Gemmuliferum (Cerithium), E. A. Smith, Zool. Proc. p. 736, 

t. 75, f. 22, 1871, * . 170 

Gemmulosum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 119, 

1850, 158 

Gentile (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 248, 1880. 

= C. Traillii, Sowb. ,. .135 

Georgianum (Cerithium), Pfeffer. Natur. Mus. Hamburg, p. 

97, t. 2, f. 7, 1886, . 154 

Gibberosum (Cerithium), Dkr. Verhandl. Zool. Botan. Vereins. 

Vienna, xvi, p. 911, 1866, . ... 144 

Gibberosum (Cerithium), Frauen. Voy. Novara. ii, Pt. 3, p. 7, 

t. 1, f. 7, 1868. = C. patulum, Sowb 133 

Gibberulum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc. ii, p. 5, 1848. 
= C.varium, Pfr. . . . . . . .152 

Giganteum (Cerithium), Lam, Kien. Coq. Viv. t. 11, . . 145 
Gigas (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, xi, p. 17, 1843, 

Voy. Sulph. p. 28, t. 8, f. 1, . . . . . . 178 

Glabratum (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 66, 

1851, . . 144 

Glariosum (Cerithium), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 387, 1861, . 155 
Goumier (Cerithium), Adan. Voy. Senegal, p. 156, t. 10, f. 3, 

1757. = C. vulgatum, Brug. ... . 125 

Gourmya, Bayle. 1884, 117 

Gourmyi (Cerithium), Crosse, Journ. de Conch, p. 171, t. 6, f. 

1, 2, 1861, 160 

Gracile (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 64, 1839, . . 144 

Gracile (Cerithium), Jeffr. Zool. Proc. p. 54, t. 6, f. 3, 3a. 1885. 

= Bittium amblyterum, Watson. 151 

Gracile (Cerithium), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 432, 1860. 

= C. rostratum, Sowb. . . . . . . .130 

Gracile (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 879, f. 228, 229, 

1855, . .173 



206 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Gracilentum (Cerithium), Migh. Bost. Proc. ii, p. 22, 1861, . 145 
Graciliforme (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve. Conch. Icon. sp. 49, 

1865. = C. eburneum, Brug . 129 

Gracilis (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Phil. Moll. Sicil i, p. 193, 

t. 9, f. 5. = Var. protractum, Bivona 126 

Gracilis (Colina), H. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 150, 1866; 308, 

1867, 142 

Gracilis (Triforis), Pse. Proc. p. 774, 1870, . . . .191 
Gracilis (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 777, 1870. 

Preoccupied by the same author on p. 774, of the same book. 

= T. Kauainus, Jouss. ....... 190 

Gracillimum (Cerithium), Sowb. Conch. Icon. sp. 138, 1865. . 172 
Granarium (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 72, t. 19, f. 3, . 155 
Graniferus (Vertagus), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 433, 1860, . . 147 
Graniferus (Vertagus), Reeve, Conch. Icon. sp. 6, 1865, (not 

Pease). - V. ravidum, Phil 132 

Granosum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 57, t. 4, f. 3. 

= C. rubus, Mart. . . 177 

Granosum (Cerithium), S. Wood. Crag. Moll. 73, 1848, . . 197 
Granosus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 776, 1870, . . 147 

Granulatum (Cerithium), Brug. Enc. Meth. t. 442, f. 4. 

=e P. radula, Linn 159 

Granulatum (Cerithium), Costa. 

= C. reticulatum, Da Costa. . . . . . .150 

Granulatus (Murex), Linn, (not Brug.) Edit, xii, 1226. 

= Vertagus asper, Linn. ....... 148 

Granulatus (Triforis), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang. p. 46, t. 

ll,f. 33. a. b. 1850, 183 

Granulifera (Triforis), Dkr.. Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. 227, 

1884, .190 

Granulosum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 64, 1839, . .144 
Granulosum (Cerithium), Risso. Europe Merid., iv, p. 157, 

1826. = C. reticulatum, Da Costa 150 

Granulosum (Cerithium), Scacchi. Cat. Reg. Neap. p. 13, 1836. 

= Triforis perversus, Lin;n. 187 

Grayi (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 19, 1843, . 191 

Greenii (Cerithiopsis), C. B. Ad. Bost. Journ. ii, p. 287, t. 4, f. 

12, 170 

Grisea (Cerithium versicolor, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 

p. 117, 1876, . . . 140 

Guaranianum (Cerithium), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid. v, p. 443, 

t. 77, f. 11, 12, . . . 171 

Guiniacum (Cerithium), Phil. Abbild. p. 17, t. 1, f. 13, 1849, . 127 

Hanleyana (Cerithiella), Monts. Nom. Conch. Medit. p. 123, 
1884, 176 

Hanleyi (Cerithidea), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 874, f. 193, 1855. 
? = C. iostoma, Pfr. var. . . . . . .135,164 

Harperi (Triforis), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 222, 
1884, 190 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 207 

Hebes (Cerithium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 103, 

1881, 181 

Hegwischii (Cerithidea), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 19, 1841, 

= C. Montagnei, Orb. var. . . . . . .161 

Henkelinsii (Cerithium), Nyst. 

= C. tubercularis, Mont. . . . . . . .168 

Heteroclytes (Cerithium), Lam. Anim. sans. Vert, ix, p. 299. 

= C. minimum, Gmelin. (monster) 168 

Hilaris (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 21, 1843, . 190 
Hindsii (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 98, t. 11, f. 19, 20, 

. 1863, 179 

Hircus (Triforis), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 83, 

1882, 191 

Hirta (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. p. 

201, t. 22, f. 13, 1884, 126 

Homologum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 248, 

1880, . 159 

Horrida (Cerithiopsis), Jeffr. p. 60, t. 6, f. 9, 9a. 1885, . 170 

Humboldti (Cerithium), Valen. Rec. d'Obs. Zool. ii, p. 280, 

1833. = C. pacificum, Sowb. . ' . . . .158 
Humile (Cerithium), Dkr. Moll. Japan, p. 9, t. 2, f. 17, 1861. 

? = C. morus, var. variegatum. . . . . . .134 

Hymerensis (Cerithium), Calcar. Monog. Claus. e Bui. etc. 49, 

1840. = C. brongniarti, Marav 168 

lanthina (Triforis), Dkr. 1881, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. 227, 

1884, 190 

lanthinum (Cerithium), Old. Bost. Proc. iii, p. 121, 1849, . 137 
Ibex (Triforis), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 86, 1882, . 191 
Icarus (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 249, 1880, . 138 
Incisa (Lampania), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 868, f. 152, 1855, 142 
Incisum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zele"e, 

v, p. 97, t. 23, f. 8, 9, 1854. = P. fluviatilis, Pot. et Mich. . 160 
Incisus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 434, 1860; Am. Jour. 

Conch, vii, 25, 190 

Indicator (Telescopium), Mtf. Conch. Syst. 

= Cerithium telescopium, Linn. . . . . .161 

Inella, Bayle. Jour, de Conch, xxvii, 35, 1878. 

= Ino, Hinds. . . . ... . .122 

Inflatum (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr. iii, p. 130, t. 55, f. 10, 

1834, 132 

Inflatum (Cerithium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 103, 

1881, 181 

Infrequens (Triforis), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells. 159, 310, . . 190 
Iniforis, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mat. France. Pt. 3, p. 235, 1884. 

= Ino, Hinds 122 

Ino, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur. Zoology, 28, 1844, . . 122 

Inscriptum (Cerithium), Monts. Nom. Gen. e spec. Medit. p. 

119, 1884. = C. vulgatum, Brug. var 126 



"208 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Insculptum (Cerithium), Sowb. Conch. Icon. sp. 128, 1865. 

= C. Lawleyanum, Crosse. . . . . . . .155 

Insignis (Stilus), Jeffr. Zool. Proc. p. 52, t. 6, f. 1-lb. 1885, . 144 
Intercalaris (Cerithiopsis), Carp. Zool. Proc. p. 281, 1865, . 177 
Intercalaris (Triforis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 388, 1861, . 190 
Interfilatus (Triforis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 388, 1861, . 190 

Intermedia (Cerithium), Weink. Conch. Mittelm. 1868. 

= C. vulgatum, var. tuberculatum, Phil. . . . .126 
Intermedium (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 119, 

1850, . . . . . . ; -.... .188 

Intermedius (Triforis), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 85, 

1882, 191 

Interruptum (Cerithium), Krebs. Cat. p. 48. 

= C. terebrale, C. B. Ad. . . . . .174 

Interruptum (Cerithium), Menke. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 178, 

1850, 174, 143 

Interstriatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, .ii, p. 876, f. 

216, 1855, _ . . .138 

Invaginatum (Cerithium), Gld. Boston Proc. iii, s p. 120, 1849. 

= C. planum, Phil 131 

Inversum (Cerithium), Costa. Cat. p. 84, no. 26, 1829. 

= Triforis perversus, Linn. . . . . .187 

lostoma (Cerithidea), Pfr. Archiv fur Naturg. i, p. 357, 1839, 164 
Iota (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc. ii, p. 5, 1848. 

?=B. nigrum, Totten 152 

Irregulare (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 65, 1839, . . 144 
Irroratum (Cerithium), Gould. Bost. Proc. iii, p. 119, 1849. 

= C. ocellatum, Brug. . . . . . , .132 

Isleanus (Triforis), Velain. Comptes Rendus July 24th., p. 285, 

1876, ... . . . ... 180 

Isselii (Cerithium), Pagenstecher. Kossman's Reise in Roth. 

Meer. p. 44, 1877, . 137 

Jadertinum (Bittium), Brus. Conch. Dalm. Ined. p. 16, 1865. 

- B. reticulatum, Da Costa, var. 151 

Janellii (Cerithium), Honibr. et Jacq. Astr. et Zel. t. 24, f. 19- 

21. C. tuberculatum, Linn. ..... 133 

Johnstoni (Cerithiopsis), Petterd. Journ. of Conch, iv, p. 142, 

1883, 177 

Kanoni (Cerithium), Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles, p. 70, t. 6, f. 

11,1867, . . 174 

Kauainus (Triforis), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, 224, 1884, 190 
Kieneri (Cerithidea), Hombron and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zele"e, 

v, p. 96, t. 23, f. 4, 5, 1854. = C. obtusa, Lam. var. . . 161 
Kirki (Cerithium), Button, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 27, 1873, 
= C. terebelloides, Martens. . . . . . .158 

Kobelti (Cerithium), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. xxiv, p. 67, 1877, . 137 
Kochii (Vertagus), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 21, 1848, . 147 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 209 

Labiatus (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 279, 1851, . . 190 
Lacertinum (Cerithium), Old. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 386, 1861, . 155 
Laciniosum (Cerithium), Migh. Bost. Proc. ii, p. 23, 1848, . 145 
Lactea (Triforis), Dkr. 1881, Jouss. Bull. Mai. France. 227, 

1884, 190 

Lactea (Triforis perversus, var.), Monts. B. D. D. Moll. Rouss- 

illon, 212, 187 

Lactescens (Bittium reticulatum, var.) Jeffr. .... 151 
Lacteum (Cerithium), KieD. Coq. Viv. p. 58, t. 7, f. 3, .143 

Lacteum (Cerithiolum), Ph. Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 195, 1836, 150 
Lseocochlis, Dunker and Metzger. Nach'r. Mai. Gesell. 7, 

1874, ..... . . 120, 177 

Lseve (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr. iii, p. 106, t. 54, f. 1-3, 

1834, . . . . ..149 

Lsevigatum (Cerithium), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 161, t. 

25, f. 32, 1844. = Lampanella minimus, Gmel. . . 168 
Lafondi (Cerithidea), Sowb. Conch. Icon, (not Kiener or Mich.) 
= C. scalariformis, Say. . . . . . . .163 

Lafondi (Cerithium), Michaud. Actes Linn. Soc. Bordeaux, t. 

5, f. 7, 8, 1829. = C. iostoma, Pfr 164 

Lamarckii (Cerithium), Valenc. Kiener Icon. Cerithium, 

84, .159 

Lampanella, Morch. Mai. Blatt. 93, 1876, . . . 118, 167 
Lampania, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus. 90, 1801, . . .118, 166 
Laqueata (Cerithiopsis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 387, 1861, . 177 
Largillierti (Cerithidea), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 20, 1848. 
= C. montagnei, d'Orb. ....... 161 

Latreillei (Cerithium), Payr. Moll. Corse, p. 143, t. 7, f. 9, 10, 

1826. - C. reticulatum, DaCosta. var. . . . . 151 
Latum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 122, 1850, . 158 
Lavalleanum (Cerithium), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba ii, p. 156, t. 

23, f. 16, 1853. f= C. iostoma, Pfr 164 

Lawleyanum (Bittium), Crosse. Journ. de Conch, p. 87, t. 1, f. 

4, 1863, . 154 

Layardii (Cerithidea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 86, 1854, . . 165 
Lenmiscatum (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr. iii, p. 119, t. 54, 

f. 16-18, 1834, ... 135 

Lentiginosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 77, 

1865. ?= C. algicola, Ads 129 

Leucocephalum (Bittium), Watson. Challenger Exp. xv, p. 

558, t. 38, f. 7, 1886, .157 

.Levukense (Triforis), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 100, 

B 1881, ' 186 

Lima (Cerithium), Brug. Anim. sans Vert, ix, p. 304. 

C. reticulatum, Da Costa. 150 

Limosa (Mastonia), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, p. 

263, t. 4, f. 16, 1884, 186 

Lineatum (Cerithium), Dunker. Mss 143 

14 



210 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Lineatum (Cerithium), Lam. Enc. Meth. t. 443, f. 3a. b. 

= C. asper. Linn. var. 148 

Lineolatus (Triforis), Tapp. Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa. 

ix, p. 283, 1877, ' 190 

Liocerithium, Tryon. 1887, 113, 142 

Lissum (Cerithium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 107, 

^1881, . . 130 

Litteratum (Cerithium), Born. Mus. Cses. p. 323, t. 11, f. 14, 

15, ' 128 

Lividulum (Cerithium), Risso. Europe Merid. iv, p. 154, 1826. 

= C. rupestre, Risso. . . . . . . .126 

Long icaudatum (Cerithium), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang. p. 

43, t. 10, f. 15, 1850. = Vertagus attenuatus. Phil. . 148 

Longissima (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. 

p. 200, t. 22, f. 10, 1884, 126 

Longissimus (Triforis), Dall. Bull. Mus. Compar. Zool. ix, p. 

80, 1882, 191 

Lovenella, O. Sars. Moll. Norv. 187, 1878, .... . 119, 175 
Luctuosum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and 

Zelee, v, p. 98, t. 23, f. 12, 13, 1854. == C. Traillii, Sowb. 

var. ... . . . . . . .135 

Luscinise (Cerithium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 112, 

1881. ?== B. pigrum, Watson. . . . 153 

Lusorius (Triforis), Tapp. Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, ix, p. 

283, 1877, . 190 

Lutea (Bittium lacteum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. p. 217, t, 

26, f. 3, 4, 1884 .150 

Lutosum (Cerithium), Menke. Synopsis, p. 86, 1828. 

= C. ferrugineum, Say. Var. versicolor. . . . .140 
Lutulentum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 63, t. 22, f. 3, 

= Cerithidea bicarinata, Gray 1(>7 

Mac Andrese (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 1, 1856. 

= Laeochochlis granosa, S. Wood. . . . , .177 
Macrostoma (Cerithium), Hinds. Voy. Sulph. p. 2, t. 16, f. 12, 

1844, 142 

^ Maculatus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 777, 1870, . . 191 

Maculosa (Clava), Martyn. Univers. Conch, t. 57, . . 145 

Maculosum (Cerithium), Kiener. Coq. Viv. p. 36, t. 13, f. 3. 

= C. adustum, Kiener. ....... 126 

Muculosum (Cerithium), Migh. Bost. Proc. ii, p. 22, 1848 . 137 
Magnum (Cerithium), Jay. Cat. of Shells. Edit. 2, p. 83, t. 2, 

f. 5, 1836. = C. maculosum, Martyn 145 

Maillardi (Cerithium), Crosse. Journ. de Conch, p. 397, 1863, 137 
Major (Cerithium versicolor, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 

p. 117, 1876, . ... 140 

Malvaceus (Iniforis), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 

239, t. 4, f. 1-2, 1 W, 180 

Mamillata (Cerithium), Risso. Europe Merid. iv, p. 158, 1826. 

= Bittium reticulatum, Da Costa. . . . 150 




st 

DHIVJ 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY 211 

Mamillatum (Cerithium), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 194, t. 11, 

t 11, 12, 1836. = C. conicum, Blainv. . .165 

Mamillanum (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 

109, 1881. = B. amblyterum, Watson 151 

Mangiorum (Strombus), Schroeter. Phys. Conch, p. 383. 

= Cerithium sulcatum, Brug. . . . . . .160 

Margaritacea (Triforis), Dunker. 1881, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

France, 227, 1884, 190 

Mariei (Inella), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 246, 

t. 4, f. 7, 1884, 180 

Marmorata (Triforis), Pse. Martens. Donum. Bismark. 38, t. 2, 

f. 7, . 180 

Marmoratum (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr. iii, p. 109, t. 54, 

f. 4. 1834. = C. maculosum, Martyn. . . . .145 
Marmoratus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. ix, 18, 1843, . 191 
Marmoreum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. t. 31, f. 1. 

= C. maculosum, Martyn. 145 

Maroccanum (Cerithium), Brug. Diet. No. 34, 1789. 

= Triforis per versus, Linn. . . . . . .187 

Martinianus (Vertagus), Pfr. Register, p. vii. 

= Cerithium fasciatum, Brug. ...... 149 

Massiliense (Cerithium), Locard. Ann. Soc. cT Agriculture, 

Lyon. viii, p. 188, 1885. = C. rupestre, Var. . . .126 

Mastonia, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, Moll. 30, 1844, . . 122, 182 
Maatoniseforis, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 236, 1884. 
- Mastonia, Hinds. . . . . . . . .122 

Matukense (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 105, 

1881, . . 148 

Maxillaris (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 18; 1843, 179 
Mazatlanica (Cerithidea), Carp. Mazat. Cat. No. 395. 

= C. Sacrata, Gld. 162 

Mediolaeve (Cerithium), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 334. 

= C. uncinatum, Gmel. var. . . . . . . 128 

Mediterraneum (Cerithium), Desh. Anim. sans Vert, ix, p, 313. 
= C. rupestre, Risso. ........ 126 

Megasoma (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 119, 1850. 

=C. Sagrse, d'Orb 140 

Melania (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Monts. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Ital. v, p. 225, . . . 126 

Melanosa (Cerithium paludosum, var.), Monts. Nom. Gen. e 

Spec. Conch. Medit. p. 121, 1884, . . 151 

Melanura (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 117, 

1850, . 140, 191 

Menkei (Cerithium), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 97, t. 11, f. 15, 

1863. = C. columna, Sowb 123 

Mesostoma, Desh. Paris Fossils. 2d. Edit, ii, 416, 1864, . . 118 
Metalepsis Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p, 236, 1884. 

=? Triforis, Desh 122 



1 



212 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Metaxse (Cerithiopsis), Delle Chiaje. Memoire. iii, p. 222, t. 49, 

f. 29, 30, 1829, . . '.173 

Metaxia, Monts. Norn. Conch. Medit. p. 125, 1884. 

= Cerithiopsis, Forbes & Hanley 119,173 

Metcalfei (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 869, f. 157, 

158, 1855. =C. inflatum, Quoy 132 

Metcalfei (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 11, 1843, . 191 
Metula (Cerithium), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand. p. 23, 1846, . 175 
Micans (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. Mag. xi, p. 18, 1843, . .179 
Microptera (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 93, t. 30, f. 3, 

= C. fluviatile, P. and M ' . 160 

Millepunctatum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and 

Zelee. v, p. 103, t. 24, f. 13, 14, 1854, 136 

Milnes Edwardsii (Cerithium), Calcara. 

= C. vulgatum, Brug. monstrosity. . . . . .125 

Minima (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Weink. Conch. Mittel. 

p. 154, 1868. = Var. Bourguignati, Locard. . . .126 
Minimum (Bittium), Tenison-Woods, Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 

35, cfr. Ibid. 1877, 123, 1878, 158 

Minimum (Cerithium), Braz. Linn. Soc. K S. W. I. p. 317, 

1876, 145 

Minimum (Cerithium), Brus. Conch. Dalm. Inedit. p. 17, 

1864, . . 169, 170 

Minimum (Cerithium), Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 27, 

1873; Jour, de Conch, xxvi, 26. 
= Triforis Angasi, Crosse. . . . . . . .179 

Minimus (Lampanella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 3564, . . 118, 167 
Minimus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 774, 1870, . . .191 
Minor (Cerithidea), Morch Malak. Blatt. xxiii, p. 92, 1876, 1(>5 
Minor (Cerithium lima, var.), Phil. Moll. Sicil. 1, 195, 

= C. Jadertinum, Brusina. 151 

Minor (Cerithium rupestre, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. p. 203, 

t. 23, f. 7, 8,- 1884. = Var. Massiliense Locard. . . 126 

Minor (Triforis perversa, var.), Monts. Poche. Note Conch. 

Medit. p. 13, 1875. = Var. adversas, Mont. . . .187 
Minor (Tympanotonus fluviatilis, var.), Tapp-Canefri. Voy. 

Magenta, p. 38, 1874, . ... \ 160 

Minuta (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), de Serres. Phil. Enum. 

Moll. Sicil. i. t. 11, f. 8, 126 

MiDutissimufi (Triforis), Tapp. Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa. 

ix, p. 283, 1877, .'.... ... 190 

Minutum (Cerithium), Nuttall. Jay's Cat. of Shells, p. 75, . 144 
Minutus (Potamides), Dkr. Ms. 

- Cerithidea minor, Morch. . . . . . .165 

Mirabile (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 118, 1850, 

= T. turris-Thomse, Chemn 188 

Mirificus (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 104, t. 11, f. 32, 

33, 1863, . 182 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 213 

* 

Mitrseforme (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, 873 f. 190, 

1855. = C. rubus, Martyn 132 

Modestum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 117, 1850. 

= T. nigrocinctus, Ads 188 

Mollucanus (Cerithium), Renieri. Tavol. alfab. 1804. 

= vulgatum, Brug. . . . . ... .125 

Molluccanus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 35, 93. 

^Cerithium sulcatum, Born. ...... 160 

Monachus (Cerithium), Crosse Journ. de Conch, p. 347, 

1864, . .143 

Monilifer (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 19, 1843, . 183 
Moniliferum (Cerithium), Dufresne. Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 49, t. 

16, f. 3. = C. Morus, Lam. ..... .134 

Monophorus, Grillo. Desc. quelques esp. 15, 1877, . . . 122 
Montagnei (Cerithium), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid. v, p. 443, 

t. 63, f. 3, 4, 161 

Montagnei (Cerithium), Sowb. var. Thes. Conch. 

= Cerithidea Fortune!, A. Ad 162 

Morchii (Cerithidea), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 888, f. 283, 

1855, 163 

Moreleti (Aphanistylus), Wattebled. Journ. de Conch, p. 59, t. 

4, f. 5, 1886. ? = C. Sinensis, Phil 165 

Moreleti (Cerithium), Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles, p. 68, t. 6, 

f. 10, 1867, 174 

Morus (Cerithium), Lam. Anum. Sans Vert. Edit. 2, ix, p. 

302, 133 

Multiformis (Lampania), Lischke. Mai. Blatt. p. xvi, 106, 1869, 167 
Multigranosus (Tympanotonos), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 891, 

f. 302, 1855. = Cerithium homologum, Bayle. . . . 159 
Munita (Cerithiopsis) Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 3, Ser. xiv, 

1864, . 172 

Munitum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 858, f. 93, 

1855, ......?.... 129 

Murex (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 66, 1839, . . .144 
Muricatum (Cerithium), Brug. Diet. No. 27. 

= Tympanotonos fuscatus, Linn. . . . . .159 

Muscarum (Cerithium), Say. Amer. Conch, v, t. 49, f. 1, 1832, 132 
Musicum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 865, f. 130, 

1855, 128 

Musivum (Cerithium), Homb. Voy. Pol Sud. t. 24, f. 23, 24. 

1854. *= C. patiens, Bayle 134 

Mutabile (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc. ii, p. 5, 1848, . 141 
Mutatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Gen. of Shells, No. 42. 

= C. echinatum, Lam. ....... 124 

Mutica (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. p. 

200, t. 22, f. 8, 1884, 126 

Naiadis (Cerithium), Woodward, 

= Cerithiopsis costulata, Moller. . . . . .176 



214 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Nana (Cerithiopsis tubercularis, var.), Jeffr. Brit. Conch, iv, p. 

267, 168 

Nana (Triforis), Dkr. 1881. Jouss. Soc. Mai. France. 227, 1884, 191 
Nanum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 117, 1850, . 191 
Nassoides (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 875, f. 200, 

201, 1855. = C. maculosum, High 137 

Nebulosum (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 66, 1851, 144 
Nebulosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 866, f. 60, 

1855, 126 

Neglecta (Cerithiopsis), C. B. Adams. Panama Shells No. 201, 

1852, 177 

Neglecta (Cerithiopsis), Weink. Cat. Coq. Mers d'Europe p, 13. 

= C. minima, Brus. " . . 169 

Neglectum (Cerithium), not C. B. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 
235, 236. ?=C. fusiformis, C. B. Ad. . . . . .177 

Nerinaceus (Cerithium), Eeineri. Tavol. alfab. 1804. 

C. vulgatum, Brug. . . . . . . .125 

Nigra (Cerithidae), Hombr. et Jacq. Astrol. et Zel. 

= C. subcarinata, Sowb. . . . . . . .163 

Nigrescens (Cerithium), Menke. Synopsis, p. 85, 1828. 

= L. minimus, Gmel. . . . . . . .168 

Nigrinum (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak. p. 24, 1848. 

= L. minimus, Gmel. . . . . . . .168 

Nigro-balteatum (Cerithium), Smith. Zool. Alert Exped. p. 65, 

t. 5, f. n. 1884, 136 

Nigro-cinctus (Triforis), C. B. Ad. Bost. Journ. ii, p. 286, t. 4, 

f. 11, 188 

Nigro-fasciatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. p. 58, 

1865. = C. morns, Var. bifasciatum, Sowb. . . . 134 
Nigro-fuscus (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 278, 1851, . 190 

Nigro-punctatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 860, f. 

97, 1855. ? = C. armatum, Phil. . . . ' . .124 
Nigrum (Cerithium), Pnil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak. p. 19, 1848. 

= C. variabile, C. B. Ad 140 

Nigrum (Cerithium), Totten, Silliman's Journ. xviii, p. 352, f. 8, 1 oU 
Nitens (Bittium), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. xiii, p. 478, 1864, . lf> 
Nitidum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zelee. 

v, p. 106, t. 24, f. 30-33, 1854, . . . 143 

Nitidum (Cerithium), Me Andrew and Forbes. Ann and Mag. 

xix, p. 97, t. 9, f. 2, 1847. = C. metula, Loven. . . 175 

Nitidum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 872, f. 180, 181, 

185."). = C. gentile, Bayle 135 

Nivea (Triforis), M. Sars. .\IS. 

= Lieocochlis grauosa, S. Wood. . . . . . 177 

Niveum (Cerithium), Biv. 

= Bittium lacteum, Phil. 150 

Nivosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 875, f. 205, 

1855. = C. morus, var. variegatum. .... 134 

Nobilis (Vertagus), Reeve. Conch. Syst. . . . . .148 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 215 

Nodiferus (Tritons), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang. p. 46, t. 11, 

f. 37, a. b. 1850, . 177 

Nodosus (Strombus), Schroeter. Thes. Conch. 386. 

= Cerithium vulgatum, Brug. ...... 125 

Nodulosa (Cerithium vulgatum, var.) Phil. B. D. D. Moll. 

Eouss. 200, 126 

Nodulosum (Cerithium), Brug. Enc. Meth. t. 442, f. 3, . 122 

Notatum (Cerithium), Menke. Synopsis, p. 33, 1826. 

= C. muscarum, Say. . . . . . . .132 

Novae-Hibernise (Cerithium), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 857, f. 

84, 85, 1855. = C. eburneum, Brug 129 

Novse-Hollandise (Cerithium), A, Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 864, 

f. 54, 1855, 124 

Obeliscoides (Cerithium), Jeffr. Zool. Proc. p. 55, t. 6, f. 4, a. 

1885, . . 175 

Obeliscus (Cerithium), Brug. Encyc. Meth. t. 443, f. 4, a. b. . 146 
Obesula (Cerithiopsis tubercularis, var.) B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. 

p. 205, t. 27, f. 4, 1884, 168 

Obesula (Mastonia), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 

255, t. 4, f. 17, 1884, 185 

Obesulum (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 149, 

1865, 139 

Obesulus (Triforis perversus, var.), Monts. B. D. D. Moll. 

Rouss. p. 212, t. 26, f. 18-20, 1884, . . . . .187 
Obesum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 868, f. 141, 142, 

1855. = C. repletulum, Bayle. 139 

Obscurum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Yoy. Astr. and Zelee. 

v, p. 102, t. 24, f. 5, 6, 1854. = C. moms, Lam. . . 133 
Obtusum (Cerithium), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. No. 17, . 161 

Ocellatum (Cerithium), Brug. Enc. Meth. No" 43, . 132 

Omissum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 250, 1880. 

= C. Erythrseonense, Lam. . . . . . .123 

Oosimense (Cerithium), Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 117, 

1881, 156 

Opportunum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p: 248, 

1880, .130 

Ornata (Cerithidea), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 887, f. 277, 

278, 1855, .162 

Ornatum (Cerithium), Desh. Encyc. Meth. iii, 1053, 1832, . 188 
Oryza (Bittium), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 121, 1876, . 158 
Oryza (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 776, 1870, . . .191 
Owenii (Cerithium), Fer. Martini Conch, t. 155, f. 1459. 

= C. radula, Linn. . . . . . . . .159 

Pacificum (Cerithium), Sowb. Gen. of Shells. No. 42, f. 9. . 158 
Pagodula (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 65, 1839, . . 144 
Pagodulus (Cerithiopsis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. p. 130, 1861, 177 
Pagodus (Triforis), Hinds. Zool. Proe. p. 22, 1843, . . 191 



'216 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Pallescens (Triforis perversus, var.) Jeffr. Brit Conch, iv, p. 

262, 187 

Pallida (Cerithium Sagrse, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p 



119, 1876, 

Palliclum (Bittium), Pfr. Archiv fur Naturg. p. 287, 1840, 
Pallidus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 774, 1870. 



140 
152 
191 



Paludosa (Bittium reticulatum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. p 

215, t. 25, f. 14-19, 1884, 151 

Palustris (Potamides), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, 1213, . 160 
Papillosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 876, f. 215, 

1855. = C. lacteum, Kiener. . . . . . .144 

Parcum (Cerithium), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 387, 1861, . 155 

Parva (Cerithium litteratum, var.), Kien. Coq. Viv. t. 14, f. 1. 

= C. algicola, C. B. Ad 129 

Patiens (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 249, 1880, . 134 
Patulum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 871, f. 74, 

1855, 133 

Pauxillum (Cerithium), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 86, 1854, . 141 
Paxillum (Cerithium), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 433, 1860, . . 138- 
Paxillus (Cerithiopsis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. p. 130 1861, . 177 
Peasei (Triforis), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 222, 

1884, . 191 

Pellucidum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and 

Zelee. v, p. 101, t. 23, f. 24, 25, 1854. ? = C. patulum, 

Sowb 133 

Peloritanum (Cerithium), Cantraine. Mem. Acad. Brux. ii, 392. 

= Lampanella minimus, Gmel. . . . . .168 

Penuticulata (Triforis), Dkr. 1881, Jouss. Soc. Mai. France. 

227, 1884, 191 

Perfectus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 775, 1870, . . 191 

Perlatus (Triforis), Issel. Mar Ross. p. 152, 1869, . . 185 
Perparvulum (Bittium), Watson. Challenger Exp. xv, p. 554, 

t. 38, f. 3, 1886, 157 

Perpusillum (Bittium), Tryon. ...... 154 

Peruvianum (Cerithium), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid. 443, t. 77, 

f. 9, 10, 153 

Perversus (Triforis), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit. xii. p. 1231, 1767, 187 
Petitii (Cerithium), Schramm. Guadl. p. 11, 1M!). 

C. costatum, Da Costa. . 164 

Petrosum (Cerithium), AVood. Ind. Test. Suppl. t. 4, f. 9, . 133 
Pfeifferi (Triforis), Crosse. Journ. de Conch, p. 47, t. 1, f. 14, 

15, 1865, 182 

Pfeifferi (Vertagus), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. xxiv, p. 75, 1877. 

= C. turritum, Sowb. '...... 147 

Pharos (Vertagus), Hinds. Voy. Sulph. p. 27, 1. 11, f. 3, 4, 

1844, . 149 

Philomela? ^Cerithium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 113, 

1881. ?= B. pigrum, Watson. 153. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 217 

Phoxum (Cerit hium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 106, 

1881, 148 

Pictum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 64, 1839, . 144 

Pictum (Murex), Wood. Ind. Test. Supp. t. 5, f. 2-4. 

= C. semiferrugineum, Lam. ...... 128 

Pigrum (Cerithium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p, 111, 

1881, 153 

Pingue (Cerithium), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, 877, . 141 
Piperitum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 867, f. 136, 

137, 1855, . .144 

Piraini (Cerithium), Benoit. Bicerche Malac. 12, 1843. 

= C. Brongniarti, Maravigna. . . . . .168 

Pirenale (Cerium), Quoy. Voy. Astrolabe. 

= Lampania zonalis, Brug. . . . . . .167 

Pirenella, Gray. Zool. Proc. 154, 1847, . . . 117, 165 

Placidum (Cerithium), Gould. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 386, 1861, . 139 
Planispiratum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 857, f. 91, 

1855. = C. eburneum, Brug 129 

Planum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeichniss. p. 66, No. 2288, 

1838, .131 

Platygyra, Morch. Mai. Blatt. 81, 1860. 

Bittium, Gray. . . . . . . . .115 

Platynotum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 66, 1839, . 144 

Plicata (Cerithium rupestre, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. p. 

203, t. 23, f. 5, 6, 1884. = Var. strumaticum, Locarcl. . 126 
Plicata (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Phil. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 192, 

1836. = Var. alucastrum, Brocchi. .... 126 

Pliculosum (Cerithium), Mke. Verz. Malsb. p. 27, 1829, . 165 

Plumbeum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 889, f. 293, 

1855, . .160 

Polygonum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 854, f. 46, 

1855. = C. opportunum, Bayle. . 130 

Pommeraniae (Laeocochlis), Dkr. and Metz. Jahrb. Deutsch. 

Mai. Gessell. i, p. 146, t. 7, f. 3, 1874. 

= L. granosa, S. Wood 177 

Porcellanum (Bittium), Watson. Challenger Exped, xv, p. 559, 

t. 38, f. 8, 1886, \ 157 

Potamides, Brongniart. Ann. du Mus. xv. 367, 1810, . 115, 158 
Poulsenii (Fastigiella), Morch. Journ. de Conch, xxv, p. 207, 

1877, . . 150 

Procerum (Cerithium), Jeffr. Ann. and Mag. p. 322, 1877, . 176 
Procerum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 22, t, 18, f. 1, la. 

= Vertagus fasciatus, Brug. . . . . . 149 

Proditum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 246, 1880, . 129 
Proditum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 249, 1880. 

= C. Adouini, Bayle. 130 

Protextum (Cerithium), Conr. Proc. Phila. Acad. iii, p. 26, 

1848. = Terebra. . 145 



218 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Protractum (Cerithium), Bivona. MSS. Aradas and Benoit. 

230. = C. vulgatum, Brug, var 126 

Provinciale (Cerithium), Locard. Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon. 185, 

1880. dt C. vulgatum, Brug .126 

Pseudocerithium, Cossmann. 1884, . . . . .114 

Pterostoma, Desh. Paris Foss. 2d Edit, ii, 428, 1864, . . 119 
Pulchella (Cerithiopsis), Jeffr. Ann. and Mag. ii, p. 129, t. v. 

f. 8, a-c, 1858. = C. tubercularis, Mont. var. . . .168 
Pulchella (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. 

i. t. 11, f. 9, 126 

Pulchellum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 121, 

1850, 171 

Pulchellus (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 278, 1851, . . 191 
Pulcher (Turbo), Dillw. Cat. No. 91. 

= Cerithidea decollata, Linn. . . . . .161 

Pulcher (Vertagus), A. Ad. Conch. Icon. sp. 20, 1865, . . 146 
Pulchra (Cerithidea), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat. p. 156. 

= C. montagnei, d'orb. var. . . . . . .161 

Pulicarium (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 20, 1848. 

= C. eburneum, Brug. . . . . . . .129 

Pullatus (Potamis), Gld. P. R. R. Kept, v, p. 333, t. 11, f. 23, 

24. Cerithium sacratum, Gould. . . . . .162 

Pullum (Cerithium), Phil. Archiv. fur Naturg. i, p. 66, 1845, 144 
Pulvis (Cerithiopsis), Issel. Mar Rosso, p. 150, 1869, . . 172 
Pumilum (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 66, 1851, . 144 
Punctatum (Cerithium), Brug. Enc. Meth. No. 40. 

= C. piperitum, Sowb. . . . . . . .144 

Punctatum (Cerithium), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, 1231, . 170 
Punctatus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 775, 1870, . . 191 

Punctulatum (Cerithium), Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 3503. 

?= C. algicola, C. B. Ad 129 

Pupa (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 84, 1865.. 
= C. tuberculatum, Linn. var. ..... 133 

Pupseforme (Cerithium), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 877, f. 221, 

1855. = C. macrostoma, Hinds. ..... 142 

Pupseforme (Cerithium), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 114, 

1881, .156 

Pupseformis (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 105, t. 12, f. 

3, 4, 1863, . 184 

Pupiformis (Cerithiopsis), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 443, 1857, . 177 
Pupiformis (Colina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 176, 185:}. 

= C. macrostoma, Hinds. . . . . . . .142 

Pupoidea (Cerithidea), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 93, 1876, . 165 
Purpurascens (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 872, f. 

182-186, 185.1. = C. Traillii, var. splendens, Sowb. . 135 

Purpurea (Cerithiopsis), Angas. Zool. Proc. p. 36, t. 5, f. 7, 

1877. = C. crocea, Angas. var. . . . . .175 

Purpurea (Cerithiopsis), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. xv. p. 397, 1865, 171 



'n/YL 

VJSB 



C4LIF 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 219 

Pusillum (Bittium), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. vi, p. 224, 1860. 

= B. perpusillum, Tryon. . . . . . .154 

Pusillum (Cerithium), Gould. Bost. Proc. iii, p. 120, 1849. . 155 
Pusillum (Cerithium), Jeffr. Ann. and Mag. t. 2, f. 10, 11, 1856. 
= B. submamillatum, Rayn. . . . . . .158 

Pusillum (Cerithium), Nuttal. Jay's Cat. of Shells, p. 75. 

? C. lacteum, Kiener. . . . . . .144 

Pusillum (Cerithium), Pfr. Arch. f. Natur. p. 256, 1840. 

?= Triforis perversus, Linn. 187, 188 

Pusiola (Triforis), Dkr. 1881. Jouss. Soc. Mai. France. 227, . 191 
Pustulosus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 775, 1870, . . 191 

Pygmaja (Colina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 308, t. 19, f. 19, 1867. 
= Cerithium macrostoma, Hinds. . . . . .142 

Pygmajum (Cerithium), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 162, t. 

15, f. 26, 1844. C. tubercularis, Mont. var. . .168 

Pyramidalis (Triforis), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang. p. 46, t. 

11, f. 36, a. b. 1850. = T. sculptus, Hinds. . .178 

Pyramidatum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and 

Zelee. v. p. 100, t. 23, f. 20, 21, 1854. = C. munitum, 

Sowb. 129 

Pyrazisinus, Heilprin, Trans. Wagner. Inst. i, 115, 1886, . 116 

Pyrazus, Montf. Conch. Syst. ii, 459, 1810, . . . 116, 158 

Quadrata (Cerithidea), Sowb. Conch. Icon. sp. 5, 1866. 

C. obtusa, Lam. var. . . . . . . .161 

Quadrifilatum (Cerithium), Carp. Journ. de Conch, p. 143, 

1865, . .153 

Quadrilineata (Triforis), Dkr. Soc. Mai. France, 227, 1884, . 191 
Quadriseriata (Bittium lacteum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. 

p. 216, t. 26, f. 7, 1884, .150 

Quoyi (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zelee. v, 

p: 97, t. 23, f. 6, 7, 1854. = C. rhizoporarum, A. Ad. . 162 

Radix (Cerithium), Dufo. Ann. Sci. Nat. p. 62, 1840. 

= C. fluviatile, P. and M. 160 

Radula (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, 1226, . . 159 

Radula (Murex), Olivi. Zool. Adr. p. 152, 1792. 

= Triforis perversus, Linn. ... . 187 

Raricostata (Cerithidea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 85, 1854, . 165 
Rarimaculatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 875, f. 

204, 1855, . 139 

Ravidum (Cerithium), Phil. Abbild. p. 15, t. 1, f. 8, 1849, . 147 
Rawsoni (Cerithium), Krebs. MSS. Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 

p. 120, 1876, . ... . 144 

Recurvus (Vertagus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 854, f. 20, 

1855, 147 

Reevinanum (Cerithidea), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat. 

= C. Montagnei, d'Orb 161 

Reevei (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 101, t. 11, f. 25, 26, 

1863, .... 178 



220 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Regalis (Euthymia), Jouss. Bull. Soc, Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 

265, t. 4, f. 18, 1884, 177 

Repanda (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), B. D. D. (not Monts.) 

Moll. Rouss. p. 201, t. 22, f. 14, 1884. 

= Var. inscriptum, Monts. . . . . . .126 

Repanda (Cerithium vulgatum, var.) Mts. Enum. e Sin. p. 37, 126 
Repletum (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 248, 1880, 139 
Reticulatum (Cerithiolum), DaCosta. Brit. Conch, p. 117, t. 8, 

f. 13, 1779, . 150 

Reticulatum (Cerithium), Totten. Silliman's Journ. xxviii, p. 

352, f. 8. = C. nigrum, Totten 152 

Reticulatus (Strombus), Muhlf. Verh. Berlin. K F. p. 207, t. 

2, f. 1, 1829. = Bittium varium, Pfr 152 

Reticulatus (Turbo), Donov. Brit. Shells, v, t. 159, 1803. 

= Triforis perversus, Linn. . . . . . .187 

Retifera (Tympanotonos), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 892, f. 295. 

1855. = P. fluviatilis, Pot. and Mich 160 

Rhinoclavis, Swainson. Malacol. 157, 315, 1840. 

= Vertagus, Klein. . . . . . . . .114 

Rhizoporarum (Cerithidea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 85, 1854, . 162 
Rhodostoma (Cerithium), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 861, f. 103. 

1855. = C. serotinum, A. Ad. . . . . t . 141 

Rigens (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 244, 1880. 

= C. macrostoma, Hinds. . . . . . .142 

Rissoidea (Cerithidea), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 889, f. 289, 

1855, 163 

Rissoidae (Cerithium), Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 107, 1865, . 140 

Rivale (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 250, 1880. 

= C. undulatum,Sowb. ....... 166 

Robustum (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 44,1865. 

C. Trailii, var. alternation, Sowb. ..... 135 

Robustus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 775, 1870, . . 191 

Rosea (Cerithiopsis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. p. 130, 1861, . 177 
Roseus, (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 21. 

. = T. ruber, Hinds . . . .182 

Rossiteri (Inella), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 249, 

t. 4, f. 9, 1884, 185 

Rostratum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 861, f. 104, 

1855, . 130 

Ruber {Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 19, 1843, . 182 
Rubrolineatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 874, f. 

199, 1855. = C. Hanleyi, Sowb 135 

Rubropunctatum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. 65, 1839, . 144 
Rubus (Cerithium), Martyn. Universal Conch, t. 28, . . 131 
Rude (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich. p. (i<;, 1839, . . . 144 
Rudis (Bittium reticulatum, var.) Brugnone. Cat. Mont. Pellegr. 
t. 1, f. 4. = Var. scabrum, Oliv. ..... 150 

Rufula (Triforis), Watson. Challenger Exp. xv, p. 56(>, t. 42, f. 2,. 186 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 221 

Rugata (Clava), Martyn. Universal Conch. 1. 12. 

= C. asper, Linn. . . . . . . . . 14<S 

Rugatum (Bittium), Cpr. Brit. Assoc. Kept. p. 539, 1866 ; 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 18W>. = B. asperum, Gabb. . . 153 
Ru-osa (Cerithiopsis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 388, 1861, . 177 
Rugosum (Cerithium), Wood. Ind. Test. Suppl. t. 4, f. 10. 

= C. patiens, Bayle. 134 

Rugulosum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, p. 121, 1850, 158 
Rugnlosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 237. 

= C. metaxae, Delle Chiaje. .... 119, 173 

Rupestre (Cerithium), Risso. Hist. Eur. Merid. iv, p. 154, 

1826, 126 

Ruppellii (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. % fur Malak. p. 22, 1848, . 124 

Sacrata (Cerithidea), Gld. Bost. Proc. iii, p. 118, . . .162 
Sagne (Cerithium), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 157, t. 1846, . 140 
Salebrosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 862, f. 114, 

115, 1855, . . .131 

Salmacida (Cerithidea), Morelet. Test. Noviss. Cubanee. p. 27, 

1849, '.' 164 

Sandbergeri, Bosquet. Mem. Desc. Geol. Neerlande. iii, 53, 

1861, . 118 

Sandvichense (Cerithinm), Sowb. Conch. Icon. sp. 37, 1865, . 127 
Sardoum (Cerithium), Cantraine. Acad. Brux. ii, p. 392, 1836. 
= C. conica, Blainv. . . . . . . .165 

Savignyi (Cerithium), Fisch. Journ. de Conch, p. 244, 1865. 

= C. Ruppellii, Phil 124 

Savignyus (Murex), Delle Chiaje. Mem. iii, t. 49, f. 32, 34, 1841. 

= Triforis perversus, Linn. . . . . . . 187 

Sayi (Cerithium), Menke. Gould. Invert. Mass. 1st. Edit. 128. 
= B. nigrum, Totten. . . . . . . .152 

Scaber (Murex), Olivi. Zool. Adr. p. 153, 1792. 

= Cerithium reticulatum, DaCosta 151, 150 

Scabrella (Cerithiopsis), Tapp. Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, 

ix, p. 282, 1877, 177 

Scabricosta (Cerithium), Dkr. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p, 110, 1853, 144 
Scabridum (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 23, 1848. 

= C. Riippellii, Phil .124 

Scabridum (Cerithium), Reeve. Conch. Icon. 

= C. columna, Sowb. . . . . . . .123 

Scalariforme (Cerithium), Say. Journ. Philada. Acad. p. 128, 

1*25, 163 

Scalaris (Cerithiopsis corona, var.) Monts. Nuova Rev. p. 38, 

1875. ?= C. diadema, Watson. 169 

Scalatum (Bittium), Dkr. Mai. Blatt, xviii, p. 153, 1871, . 158 
Schmeltziana (Triforis), Dunker. Jouss. Soc. Mai. 227, 1884, . 191 
Schwartzii (Cerithium), Homes. 1856. 

?= C. submamillatiim, Rayn. . . . . . .158 

Scitulus (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 278, 1851, . . 191 



222 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Sculptum (Cerithium), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch, v, p. 77, t. 8, 

f. 8. 1869, 125 

Sculptum (Lampania), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 868, f. 144, 

145, 1855. = C. inteiTiiptum, Menke. .... 143 
Sculptus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. and Mag. xi, p. 17, 1843, . 178 
Seila, A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, vii, 130, 1861, . 119, 174 

Semifermgineum (Cerithium), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. . .128 
Semi-ferrugineum (Cerithium), Morch. Cat. Yoldi. No. 1123. 

= C. cordigerum, Bayle, . . . . . . .146 

Semilsevis (Bittiuin), Tenison- Woods. Roy. Soc. Victoria, xiv, 

p.^8, 1878, . 158 

Seminuda (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. 

p. 201, t, 22, f. 11, 12, 1884, 123 

Seminudus (Vertagus), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 24, 

1866, 146 

Semipicta (Cerithiopsis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 388, 1861, .177 
Semitrisoulcatus (Pyrazus), Bolt. Morch. Yoldi Cat. p. 57, . 160 
Septemstriatum (Cerithium), Say. Amer. Conch, v. t. 49, f. 2, 

1832. = C. minimum, Gmel. . . . '. . .168 
Septem-striatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch. No. 158. 

= Bittium albovittatum, C. B. Ad .168 

Seriatus (Trochus), von Muhlf. Verh, Berl. Ges. i, p. 200, t. 1, 

f. 7, 1824. e Triforis perversus, Linn 187 

Serotinum (Cerithium), A. Ad. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 861, f. 102, 

1855, . .141 

Serratus (Murex), Wood. Index. Testae. 

= Cerithium rubus, Marty n. . . . . . .132 

Servaini (Cerithium), Locard. Ann. Soc. d' Agriculture, Lyon. 

viii, p. 186, 1885. = C. vulgatum, Brug. var. . . 126 

Servaini (Mastonia), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 

253, t. 4, f. 11, 1884. = T. perlatus, Issel. . . .185 

Sigsbeana (Cerithiopsis), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 

87, 1882, " . . .177 

Similis (Cerithidea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 84, 1854, . . 165 
Similis (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 774, 1870, . . .191 
Sinensis (Cerithidea), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 19, 1848, . 164 
Sinensis (Murex.), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Edit, xiii, No. 54. 

= Cerithium obeliscus, Brug 146 

Sinon (Cerithium), Bayle. Journ. de Conch, p. 243, 1880, . 166 
Siphonatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve. Conch. Icon. sp. 90, 

1865. = C. citrinum, Sowb 123 

Solida (Cerithium eburneum, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 

114, 1876, 129 

Sordidulum (Cerithium), Gould. Boston Proc. iii, p. 119, 1849. 

= C. rubus, Martyn. . 132 

Sorex (Cerithiopsis), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 444, 1857, . . 177 

Sowerbyi (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 18, t. 7, f. 2, . 145 
Spadiceum (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 67, 

1851, . .144 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 22% 

Spathuliferum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 859, f. 

94, 1855. . . 130 

Speciosus (Triforis), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang. p. 45, t. 11, 

f. 28, a. b. 1850, - . . .183 

Spina (Cerithiolum), Tiberi. Bull. Mai. Ital. p. 264, 1869. 

= Bittium reticulatum, DaCosta. . . . . .150 

Spinosa (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Blainv. Faune Franc, t. 

vi, a. f. 3, 126. = Var. subvulgatum, Locard. . . 126 

Splendens (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 872, f. 191, 

1855. = C. Traillii, Sowb. var. . . . . .135 

Squamulosa (Fastigiella), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch, iii, p. 290, 

t. 24, f. 15, 1867. = Coralliophila 150 

Steenstrupi (Lampania), Troschel. Gebiss der Schneck. i, p. 

149. = L. Cumingii, Crosse. . . . . .166 

Stejnegeri (Cerithiopsis), Dall. Proc. Nat. Mus. vii, p. 345, 

1884, . . . . ... . . .171 

Stenodeum (Cerithium), Locard. Ann. Soc. d' Agriculture, 

Lyon. viii, p. 186, 1885. = C. vulgatum, Brug. var. . 126 

Stercus-muscarum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv. p. 4, t. 49, f. 

2. = C. versicolor, C. B. Ad. var 140 

Stercus-muscarum (Cerithium), Valenc. Obs. Humb. and Bonpl. 

ii, 278. = C. ocellatum, Brug. 132 

Stigmosum (Cerithium), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 386, 1861, . 144 
Stilus, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. 52, 1884, .... 113, 144 
Striatellus (Trochus), Dillw. Cat. p. 813. 

= C. minimum, Gmel. . . . . . . .168 

Striatissimum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 856, f. 86, 

87, 1855. = C. eburneum, Brug 129 

Striatum (Cerithium), Homb. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. and Zele'e. 

^ v, p. 100, t. 23, f. 16, 17, 1854, 130 

Striatus (Strombus), Schroeter. Einleit. Conch. 

= Cerithium Erythraeonense, Lam. .... 123 

Strumaticum (Cerithium), Locard. Ann. Soc. d' Agriculture, 

Lyon. viii, p. 187, 1885. = C. rupestre, Risso. var. . . 126 
Stylia, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France. Pt. 3, p. 236, 1884. 

= Triforis, Desh 122 

Subcarinata (Cerithidea), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 889, f. 287, 

1855. = C. bicarinata, Gray. . . . . . 163 

Subcylindricum (Cerithium), Brus. Conch. Dalm. Ind. p. 17, 

1864. = Cerithiopsis Metaxae, Delle Chiaje. . . .173 
Submamillatum (Cerithium), Rayneval. 1864. Monts. Nom. 

Conch. Medit. 123, 1884, 157 

Subnodosum (Cerithium), Adams. Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 

864, t. 178, f. 47, 1855. = C. vulgatum, Brug. . . 125 

Subreticulata (Cerithiopsis), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. vi, p. 224, 1860 , 173 
Subulata (Cerithium tuberculare, var.), Wood. Crag Moll. p. 

70, t. 8, f. 5-7, 1848, 168 

Subulatum (Cerithium), Lam. Kien. Coq. Viv. t. 19, f. 1. 

= C. Pharos, Hinds. . .'.'.". . .149 



224 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Subulatus (Murex), Montagu, (not Lam.) Supp. p. 115, t. 30, f. 

20. = Cerithium punctatum, Linn. . . . .170 
.Subviride (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 881, f. 247, 

1855, . .166 

Subvulgatum (Cerithium), Locard. Ann. Soc. d' Agriculture, 

Lyon. viii, p. 185, 1885, 126 

Sueziensis (Cerithium reticulatum, var.), Issel. Mar Ross. p. 

149, 1869, -..'.. 151 

Sulcatum (Cerithium), var. Kien. Coq. Viv. t. 27, f. 1. 

= C. semitrisulcatum. Bolt. . . . . . .160 

Sulcatus (Murex), Born. Mus. p. 320 160 

Sulcosus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc. p. 774, 1870, . . 191 
Suturale (Cerithium), Phil. Abbild. t. 1, f. 4, 1849, . . 123 

Suturalis (Triforis), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang. p. 45, t. 11, 

f. 29, a. b. 1850, . .183 

Sychar, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur. Moll. 28, . . 122, 188 

Tseniatum (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr. iii, p. 113, t. 54, f. 

21, 1834. = C. vertagus, Linn. var. . . . .149 
TaBniatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 119, 

1865, == C. pingue. A. Ad 141 

Tasmanica (Triforis), Tenison- Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 

28,1875, . .184 

Telescopium, Montfort. Conch. Syst. ii, 438, 1810, . 117, 161 

Telescopium (Trochus), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, 1231, . 161 

Tenellum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 857, f. 88-90, 

1855, 132 

Tenue (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 876, f. 212, 1855. 

= C. Icarus, Bayle 138 

Tenui-sculptus (Vertagus), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon. sp. 22, 

1866. = C. gemmatum, Hinds. . . . . .146 

Tenuis (Cerithidea), Pfr. Archiv. fur N"aturg. i, p. 357, 1839. 

?= C. scalariformis, Say. . . . . . .163 

Tenuis (Cerithium algicola, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 

115, 1876, . . ... 129 

Tenuis (Cerithium atratum, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 

113, 1876, 129 

Terebella (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Edit. xiii. 

= Cerithium radula, Linn. . . . . . .15!) 

Terebelloides (Bittium), Martens, Liste des Moll, de Nouv. Zeal. 

p. 27, 158 

Terebellum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Cat. Shells Jamaica, p. 19, 

1847. =C. terebrale, C. B. Ad 174 

Terebrale (Bittium), C. B. Ad. Host. Proc. p. 134, 184(5, . 174 

Terebralia, Swuinson. Man. Malacol. 157, 315, 1840, . 116, 160 
Tcssellata (Bittium lactuin, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rouss. p. 217, 

t. 2H, f. 5, 6, 1884, 150 

Tessellatum(Cerithiiun) } Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 867, f. 133, 

134, 1855, . . . 127 




INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 225 

PAGE. 

Thomasise (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon., sp. 108, 

1865. = C. ferrugineum, Say. Var. versicolor. . . .140 
Tiara (Cerithiopsis), Watson. Monts. Jour, de Conch., 274, 

1874; Jour. Linn. Soc., xix, 92, 1885. 
= C. diadema, Watson, . . . . . . 169 

Tibialis (Euthymia), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, pt. 3, p. 

266, t. 4, f. 19, 1884, .178 

Tomochilus, Gemmellaro. Giorn. Sci. Nat. Palermo., xiii, 182, 

1879, .... 114 

Torresi (Cerithium), E. A. Smith. Zool. Voy. Alert, p. 66, t. 

5, f. O, 1884, . . . . ... .136 

Torticulus (Triforis), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 82, 

1882, 191 

Torulosus (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat. 

= Cerithium, Brug. . 125, 147 

Tourannense (Cerithium), Eydoux & Soul. Voy. Bonite., p. 

601, t. 39, f. 3, 5, 1852. == C. carbonarium, Phil. . . 133 
Traillii (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 871, f. 173, 174, 

1855, 135 

Tricarinata (Cerithidea), Hutton. New Zealand Jotirn. Sci., i, 

p. 477, 1883, 165 

Tricarinatum (Cerithium), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 433, 1860, . 154 
Tricolor (Mastonia), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, p. 

258, t. 4, f. 13, 1884, 186 

Triforis, Desh. Basterot, Bord., 61, 1824, . . 120, 122, 177 
Trilineatum (Cerithium), Phil. Moll. Sicil, ii, p. 163, t. 11, f. 

13. ** C. terebrale, C. B. Ad 174 

Triliratus (Triforis), Desh. Conch. Reunion., p. 102, t. 11, f. 

27, 28, 1863. = T. incisus, Pease 190 

Triserialis (Triforis), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 84, 

1882, 191 

?Tristis (Triphoris), Hinds. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 16, 1843, . 191 
Tristoma, Blainv. Desh. Encyc. Meth., iii, 1053, 1825. 

= Triforis, Desh 120 

Tristoma (Cerithium), Blainv. Malac., t. 20, f. 3, . . .187 
Triticea (Triforis), Pse. Zool Proc., p. 433, 1860, . . .191 
Trituba, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, p. 235, 1884. 

= Triforis, Desh. . . 122 

Trochiforme (Cerithium), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 132, 

1865, .... 140 

Truncatum (Cerithiopsis Stejnegeri, var.?), Dall. Proc. Nat. 

Mus. 304, 1886, 171 

Tuberculare (Cerithium), Blainv. (in part), Faune Franc., 

p. 157, t. 6, A, f. b, 1826. = C. perversum, Lam. . . 187 
Tubercularis (Cerithiopsis), Mont. Test. Brit., p. 270, 

1803, . . 119, 168 

15 



226 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Tuberculata (Cerithiopsis), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 442/1857. 

= C. tubercularis, Mtg. var 169 

Tuberculata (Cerithium vulgatum, var.), Phil. Moll. Sic., i, 

p. 193, t. 11, f. 6, 1836. = Var. Bourguignati, Locard. . 126 
Tuberculatum (Cerithium), Blainv. (not Lam.) Faune Franc., 

p. 154, t. 6, f. 5, 1821. = C. rupestre, Risso. . . 126 

Tuberculatum (Cerithium), Blainv. (not Linn.). Faune Franc., 

t. 6, A, f. 5, 1826. = C. rupestre, var. strumaticum. . . 126 
Tuberculatum (Cerithium), Born (not Linn.). 

= C. Bornii, Sowb 133 

Tuberculatum (Cerithium), Linn. Edit, xii, 12, 13, 1767. 

Locard, Ann. Soc. Agric., Lyon, 184, 1885. 

?= C vulgatum, Brug 125 

Tuberculatum (Cerithium), Linn. Syst. Nat., No. 544, . . 133 
Tuberculatum (Cerithium), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 21, 1865. 
= C. patiens, Bayle. . . . . . . . .134 

Tuberculatus (Triforis), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 776, 1870, . . 191 
Tuberculiferum (Cerithium), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., v, p. 

76,1869. = C. echinatum, Lam 124 

Tuberculoides (Cerithiopsis), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 442, 1857. 

= C. tubercularis, Mtg. var. . . . . . .169 

Tuberosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 855, t. 178, 

f. 49, 1855. - C. Erythrseonense, Lam 123 

Tuberosus (Murex), Dillw. Desc. Cat. 

= Cerithium nodulosum, Brug. ...... 122 

Tubifer, Pi^cte. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., xiii, 1856, . . .120 
Tubulus (Cerithium), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 152, 1871, . 144 
Turbonilloides (Bittium), Tenison- Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasma- 

.nia, p. 39, 1878, , . .158 

Turrita (Carithidea), Stearns. Bost. Proc., xv, p. 24, 1873, . 164 
Turritella (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich., p. 64, 1839, . . 144 
Turritella (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr., iii, p. 131, t. 55, f. 8, 

1834, 163 

Turritelliformis (Bittium), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 174, t. 26, 

f. 14, 1877, 154 

Turris-Thomae (Cerithium), d'Orb. Moll, de Cuba, ii, p. 155, 

t. 33, f. 10, 12, 1853. Triforis intermedius, C. B. Ad. . 188 
Turris-Thomae (Triforis), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab., xi, 310, 1795, 188 
Turritum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 860, f. 101, 

1855, 147 

Tympanotonus, Klein. Ostracol. 30, 1753, . . 116, 159 

Umbonatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 859, f. 

95, 1855. = C. eburneum, Brug 129 

Uncinatum (Cerithium), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3542, No. 57, . 127 
Undulatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 881, f. 

248, 1855, 166 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 227 

PAGE. 

Unicarinatum (Cerithium), Metcalfe. Zool. Proc., p. 73, 1851. 

= Cerithidea Charbonnieri, Petit. ..... 164 

Unilineatum (Cerithium), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 432, 1860, . 138 
Uranus (Cerithium), Bayle. Jouru. de Conch., p. 251, 1880. 

? = C. morus, var. bifasciatum 134 

Ustuin (Cerithium), Homb. & Jacq. Voy. Astr. & Zelei., v, p. 

100, t. 23, f. 18, 19, 1854, . 136 

Validum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat; p. 157. 

= Cerithidea Montagnei, Orb. var. . . . . 161 

Variabile (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., ii, p. 5, 1848. 

= C. ferrugineum, var. versicolor. ..... 140 

Varicosum (Cerithium), Sowb. Gen. of Shells, No. 42, f. 5. 

= C. fortiusculum, Bayle. . . . . . . .161 

Variegata (Cerithium Latreillii, var.), Monts. Conch. Medit., 

p. 121, 1884, 151 

Variegatum (Cerithium), Folin. Fonds de la Mer., i, p. 135, . 145 
Variegatum (Cerithium), Menke. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 126. 

= C. rupestre, Risso. . . . . . . . 126 

Variegatum (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr., iii, p. 129, t. 55, 

f. 17, 1834. C. morus, Lam. var. ..... 134 

Variegatus (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 27*7, 1851. 

= T. Arthuri, Jouss 190 

Varium (Bittium), Pfr. Archiv. fur Naturg., p. 256, 1840, . 152 
Ventricosa (Cerithiopsis bilineata, var.), Brus. Bull, Mal.Ital., 

iv, p. 5, 1871, 168 

Ventricosum (Cerithium), Anton. Verzeich., p. 66, 1839, . 144 
Ventrosula (Triforis), Dunker, 1881. Jouss. Soc. Mai., 227, 

1884, .191 

Venustula (Triforis), Dkr, 1881. Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr., 

227, 1884, 190 

Verrucosum (Murex), Renieri. B. D. D. Moll. Eouss., 202. 

Cerithium rupestre, Risso. . . . . . .126 

Verrucosus (Triforis), Ad. & Rve. Voy. Samarang., p. 45, t. 

11, f. 32, a, b, 1850, 179 

Versicolor (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 119, 

1850. = C. ferrugineum, Say. var. ..... 140 

Versicolor (Cerithium), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 20, 1848, 144 
Vertagus (Cerithium), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1225, . 149 
Vertagus, Klein. Ostracol., 31, 1753, .... 114, 145 

Vestalis (Triforis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 278, 1851, . . 191 
Vibex (Strombus), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Edit., xiii, 3522. 

= Vertagus asper, Linn. . . . . . . .148 

Vicaria, d'Archiac, 1854, 117 

Vicinum (Cerithium), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 122, 1850, 158 
Violaceum (Cerithium), Quoy. Voy. Astr., iii, p. 134, t. 55, 

f. 22, 23, 1834, . 182 



228 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Viriola, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, p. 238, 1884, 122, 189 
Vitreus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. & Mag., xi, p. 19, 1843, 122, 188 
Vittata (Cerithium algicola, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiii, 

p. 115, 1876, . . ' 129 

Vittatum (Cerithium), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 874, f. 194, 

1855. C. moms, var. bifasciatum. ..... 134 

Vittatus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. & Mag., xi, p. 17, 1843, . 189 
Vulgaris (Vertagus), Schumacher. Nouv. Syst., 228, 1817. 

= C. vertagus, Linn. . . . . . . . .149 

Vulgatissima (Kissoa), Clark. Brit. Mar. Test., p. 375, 1875. 

= Bittium reticulatum, Da Costa. . . . . .150 

Vulgatum (Cerithium), Brug. Enc. Meth., No. 13, . . 125 
Vulpinus (Triforis), Hinds. Ann. & Mag., xi, p. 19, 1843, . 183 

Watsoni (Cerithium), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 56, t. 6, f. 6, 6a, 
1885. = C. gemmatum, Watson 150 

Whiteavesii (Cerithiella), Verrill. Proc. Nat. Mus., p. 375, 
1880. = C. gracilis, Jeffreys 151, 176 

Xanthum (Bittium), Watson. Challenger Exped., xv, p. 557, 

t. 38, f. 6, 1886, 157 

Xystica (Iiiella), Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. France, Pt. 3, p. 247, 

t. 4, f. 8, 1884, . . 185 

Yucatecanum (Bittium), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 
p. 90, 1882, . . 158 

Zebrum (Cerithium), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 71, t. 25, f. 4, . 138 
Zonalis (Lampania), Brug. Diet., No. 30, . . . 118, 167 




LITTORINID^E. 229 

FAMILY LITTORINID^. 

Animal (PL 40, fig. 74.) Proboscis wide and short; tentacles 
long, cylindrical, with eyes on small swellings at their outer bases; 
foot anteriorily truncate. Penis well developed, behind the right 
tentacle ; reproduction o^mrous or ovoviviparous. Hadula long 
and narrow, 2'M-r2 (PL 40, fig. 66.) 

Shell spiral, turbinate or globular, not nacreous ; aperture oval- 
rounded, entire, lip simple, columella thickened, flattened. Oper- 
culum (PL 40, fig. 75) corneous, paucispiral. The Littorinidse have 
been monographed by Reeve, in Conchologia Iconica, vol. x, and by 
Ku'ster and Weinkauff, in the Conchylien Cabinet. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus LITTORINA, Fer. 1821. 

Shell imperforate, turbinate, usually thick ; aperture rounded, 
outer lip acute, columella rather flattened. 

Foot obtuse behind, longitudinally divided, so that in walking 
each side advances alternately. The species inhabit the sea, brack- 
ish, or sometimes even fresh water, and are mostly littoral, feeding 
on algse. Some of the species are the food of man in Europe, and 
they are also extensively gathered for bait. The lingual ribbon of 
the periwinkle is two or three times the length of the body of the 
animal; its canal passes from the back of the mouth under the 
oesophagus for a short distance, then turns up on the right side, and 
terminates in a coil resting on the plaited portion of the gullet; it 
contains about 600 rows of teeth. 

The best-known species, L. littorea, is very abundant on the 
coasts of Northern Europe, and is also rapidly extending its area 
on our New England shores, where it appears to have been re- 
cently introduced. 1900 tons of this mollusk are sold annually in 
the London market, employing a thousand persons in gathering it. 
It is extensively distributed by English fishermen over the oyster 
beds, in order to keep them clear of sea-weed. 

This and other large species are in a great measure amphibious, 
living on rocks and grasses where they are washed by the high 
tide : they will consequently withstand deprivation of water for a 
period ; and several specimens of a West Indian species existed for 
over a year in my cabinet. 

About 150 species have been generally admitted, inhabiting all 
parts of the globe. Fossil, they are rather numerous, commencing 



230 LITTORINID^E. 

with secondary forms : there are also some older fossils of somewhat 
problematical position, which may perhaps belong in the family. 

Section LITTORINA (sensu stricto.) 

Turbinate, thick, with moderate spire and acute apex. L. LIT- 
TOREA, Linn. & 

Section MELARAPHE, Muhlfeldt, 1828. 

Shell rather thin, conical, with pointed spire; surface with re- 
volving sculpture, and usually variegated with brilliant colors. 
Tropical and subtropical. L. SCABRA, Linn. 

Littorinopsis (Beck), Morch. 1876, is a synonym. 

Section NERITOIDES, Brown, 1827. 

Shell short, turbinate or subglobose, spire very short, with ob- 
tuse apex; solid, inner lip much thickened and excavated. L. OB- 
TUSATA, Linn. 

Neritrema, Recluz, is a synonym. 

Section LAMELLILITORINA, Try on. 

Whorls crossed by lamellae, like Scalaria. L. ALBICANS, Met- 
calfe. 

Section L^EVILITORINA, Pfeffer, 1886. 

Chitinous, scarcely chalky, fragile, rimate; lip thin, sharp, the 
extremities united by a thin callus ; epidermis smooth. 

L. CALIGINOSA, Gld. Antarctic Sea. 

Section PELLILITORINA, Pfeffer, 1886. 

Thin, imperforate, brownish, with rounded hairy whorls, colum- 
ellar callus weak, peristome thin, acute. L. SETOSA, Smith. 

Antarctic Sea. 
Section AQUILONARIA, Dall., 1886. 

Paludiniform, thin, membranous, imperforate, smooth, under a 
rough shaggy epidermis. Operculum paucispiral, with a raised 
subspiral rib on the inner side. 

Animal (PI. 40, fig. 73) much like Littorina, with entire sole, 
tissues soft and gelatinous, with a profusion of tenacious mucus; 
no jaw; phytophagous; mantle-edge plain, no opercular appen- 
dages; oviparous. A. TURNERI, Dall. 

Labrador, and Arctic Ocean, north of Bering's Strait. 



LITTORINID^E. 231 

? Genus PORTLOCKIA, de Koninck, 1881. 

Turbiniform, imperforate ; spire somewhat elevated ; whorls con- 
vex, with fine spiral ribs, some becoming larger on the last whorl ; 
mouth oval, lip and columella thin. 

10 species. Devon, to Garb. ; Europe. P. PARALLELA, Phil. 

? Genus RHABDOPLEURA, de Koninck, 1881. 

Conical, height and diameter about equal ; whorls 4-5, slightly 
convex, rapidly enlarging, the last more than half the total length, 
spirally ribbed ; aperture transversely rounded, the inner lip some- 
what callous, curved, and thickened below. R. SOLIDA, de Kon. 
Carboniferous. 

Genus CREMNOCONCHUS, Blanford, 1869. 

Shell perforate, turbinately globose, spirally ribbed; aperture 
subovate, margin simple, columella scarcely callous. Operculum 
partly calcareous. 

Animal small, with short, thick proboscis, and long tentacles, 
with eyes on swellings at their base, foot short and rounded at the 
extremities, mantle margin finely crenulated. Dentition similar to 
Littorina. Found in India, upon rocks wetted by fresh water. C. 
SYHADRENSIS, Blanf. 

First described as Oremnobates, Blanford; preoccupied in ich- 
thyology. 

Genus TECTARIUS, Valenc., 1833. 

Usually imperforate, turbinated or subconical, tubercular or mu- 
ricate, periphery frequently angular or biangular; aperture striate 
within, columella callous, subdentate at the base. Operculum pau- 
cispiral, with a broad membranous border. The animal is like 
Littorina : radula seven times the length of the shell, according to 
Quoy. Tropical. 

T. PAGODUS, Linn. 

It is Pagodus, Gray, 1839, Pagodella, Swains, 1840. I am also 
compelled to unite with this group, as synonyms, Nina, Gray, 1850, 
and Echinella, Swainson, 1840; their characters being very vari- 
able, and shading into those of the type. 

?Subgenus BRACHYTREMA, Morris and Lycett. 

I have described this form in Cerithiidse (see p. 113), but its re- 
semblance to the present group is also very marked. 



232 LITTORINID^:. 

Genus PURPURINA, d'Orb, 1850. 

Shell narrowly perforate, turbinate, ventricose, thick, whorls 
rounded, channeled at the suture, longitudinally ribbed, spirally 
striate; aperture oval, subchanneled in front, columella arcuated, 
lip simple. P. BELLONA, d'Orb. (PL 40, fig. 78.) Jurassic. 

Genus MODULUS, Gray, 1840. 

Narrowly umbilicated, top-shaped, solid, grooved or ribbed and 
tuberculate ; columella grooved, ending below in a sharp tooth. 
Opercultim multispiral. Animal with long, cylindrical tentacles, 
bearing eyes at about half their length, mantle margin fringed, 
foot truncate in front, attenuated behind. M. TECTUM, Gmel. 
There are about a half dozen species, living in warm seas. Denti- 
tion, PI. 40, fig. 71. 

Genus RISELLA, Gray, 1840. 

Shell trochiform, with flat whorls, angular periphery and Cl- 
eave base, iniperforate ; aperture rhomboidal, lip simple, usually 
brown-margined within. Operculum paucispiral. 

Eyes on short peduncles at the base of the tentacles. Dentition, 
PL 40, fig. 67. R. MELANOSTOMA, Gmel. 

Australasia. 

Subgenus PEASIELLA, Nevill, 1884. 

Shell umbilicated or perforate. Operculum concentric, multi-. 
spiral. R. TANTILLA, Gould. 

Polynesian, Indian. 

Subgenus PLESIOTROCHUS, Fischer, 1878. 

Imperforate, elongately conic, whorls numerous; aperture sub- 
rhoinboidal, smooth within, prolonged into a short canal below, lip 
subrostrate in the middle. R. SOUVERBIANA, Fischer. 

New Caledonia. 

Subgenus LIMNOTROCHUS, E. A. Smith, 1880. 

Umbilicated, conic, spirally ridged, aperture smooth within, the 
outer lip oblique, basal margin broadly sinuated, columella some- 
what reflected, united to the lip above by a callosity. 2sp. 

Lake Tanganyika, E. Africa (fresh water). 

Scarcely separable from the preceding except by its different 
habit and locality. R. THOMSONI, E. A. Smith. 



LITTORINID^E. 233 

? Genus CYCLOCHEILA, Coiirad. 

Pyramidal ; aperture circular ; labrum expanded, columella flat- 
tened, subangular at the base ; periphery angular. 

A doubtful little tertiary shell from South America; probably 
fluviatile. 

Genus LACUNA, Turton, 1827. 

Shell turbinated or globular, thin, covered by an epidermis; 
aperture semilunar, columella flattened, with a parallel groove be- 
hind it ending in the umbilicus, lip sharp, arcuated. Operculum 
paucispiral (fig. 77.) 

Animal (PI. 40, fig. 76.) Proboscis short, tentacles long, thread- 
like, with eyes nearly sessile at their outer base, foot truncate in 
front, attenuated behind, operculigerous lobe with a long filament 
on either side. Dentition (PI. 40, fig. 68.) 

Spawn vermiform, thick, semicircular. Range low water to 50 
fathoms. The Lacunae feed upon sea weed, and the animal takes 
on the color of its food-plant. 

Temana (Leach), Gray, 1847, is a synonym. 

North Atlantic. 

L. PALLIDULA, DaCosta. Fossil, tertiary ; a single Triassic 
species. 

Section LACUNA (sensu stricto.) 
L. PUTEOLUS, Turton. 

Section EPHERIA, Leach, fide Gray, 1847. 

Shell thin, usually with spiral colored bands ; spire rather ele- 
vated ; inner lip thin, sharp, umbilical fissure linear. L. VINCTA, 
Turton. 

Section MEDORIA, Leach, fide, Gray, 1842. 

Conical, solid, with elevated spire, peritreme dilated, anteriorly 
reflected ; inner lip thick, flattened, umbilical fissure obsolete. 
L. CRASSIOR, Mont. 

Section HERSILIA, Monts, 1872. 

The paper in which this group was published is inaccessible to 
me ; I am therefore unable to give the diagnosis. 

L. MEDITERRANEA, Monts. Mediterranean. 



234 LITTORINID^;. 

Section LACUNARIA, Conrad, 1866. 

Ovate-conoidal or subglobose, thin, with delicate, close spiral 
lines; aperture entire, angulated posteriorly, margins disunited, 
columella flattened, with a long groove descending from the umbili- 
cus. Eocene ; United States and France. L. ALABAMENSIS, Whit- 
field (Struct. & Syst. Conch., t. 69, f. 34.) 

Section HALOCONCHA, Dall. 1886. 

Depressed, heliciform, few whorled, thin, with a strong epider- 
mis, lip thin, with narrow reflexed margin in the adult, continuous 
with the thin, sharp, unreflected arcuate columella ; umbilicated. 

L. REFLEX A, Dall, Alaska. 

It is Lacunella, Dall (not Desh), and Lacunaria, Dall (not 
Conrad.) 

Section MEGALOMPHALUS, Brusina, 1871. 

Shell naticiform, with short spire, normal apex, and rounded 
whorls, thin, minute, with a wide, plicate umbilicus. Operculum 
spiral. 

L. AZONA, Brusina. Mediterranean Sea. 

The species of this group were first described under Fossarw, 
from which they differ in apex, sculpture and operculum. Fischer 
considers Megalomphalus a member of the family Adeorbiidae. 

Section STENOTIS, A. Ad., 1863. 

Shell compressed, elongately ovate, auriform ; spire short, acute ; 
whorls flattened, the last solute ; aperture oblong, narrow behind, 
margin continuous, acute ; umbilicus patulous, its margin angulate. 

L. LAXATA, A. Ad. Japan. 

Section CITHNA, A. Ad., 1863. 

Shell shaped like Lacuna, but without epidermis (?) ; apex trun- 
cated or flattened, umbilicus defined by a ridge. 

Tentacles ciliated. L. TENELLA, Jeffreys. Europe, Japan. 

Hela, Jeffreys, 1870, is a synonym. 

Subgenus LACUNELLA, Desh, 1861. 

Shell oval, thin, pellucid, shining, apex obtuse ; aperture large, 
dilated, with thin, expanded margin ; columella narrow, thin, con- 
cave, divided by a narrow channel, scarcely perforate at the base. 
L. DEPRESSA, Desh. (Struct. & Syst. Conch., t. 69, f. 36.) Eocene; 
Paris basin. 



FOSHARID^E. 235 

Subgenus SPIRONEMA, Meek, 1864. 

Shell ovate; whorls rounded, and separated by a rather deep 
suture ; aperture ovate, lip thin, continuous ; columella not thick- 
ened, perforated by a very small umbilicus ; surface with revolving 
lines and furrows. L. TENUILINEATA, Meek and Hayden (Struct. 
& Syst. Conch., t. 69, f. 35.) Cretaceous. Nebraska. 



FAMILY FOSSARIDJE. 

Head proboscidiform, with a median longitudinal sulcus; tenta- 
cles thread-like, sharp, grooved; eyes at their external base; two 
frontal lobes between the tentacles ; foot obtuse at both ends. 

Central tooth of the radula (PI. 40, fig. 72) with a triangular, 
finely dentate cusp ; lateral tooth transverse, with a strong cusp 
and a series of fine denticulations its entire length ; marginals elon- 
gated, simple. 

Shell turbinated, rather solid, white, grooved or ribbed spirally ; 
aperture entire, lip simple, undulated, columella nearly straight. 
Operculum corneous, subconcentric or subspiral. 

Genus FOSSAKUS, Phil., 1841. 

Shell perforate, subglobose, spirally ribbed, spire rather short, 
last whorl large ; aperture semicircular, columellar margin nearly 
straight, outer lip rounded, undulated. Operculum concentrically 
grooved. 

The nucleus of the shell is sharp, subcylindrical, of several 
whorls, caducous. 

Animal having two frontal lobes. 

About fifty living species have been enumerated ; there are four 
fossil species, miocene of Europe. F. AMBIGUUS, Linn. 

Maravignia, Aradas & Maggiore, 1841, is a synonym. 
Section PHASIANEMA, S. Wood, 1842. 

No frontal lobes. ? Shell clathrate. F. SULCATUS, S. Wood, 
Mediterranean and pliocene. 

Clathrella, Kecluz, 1864, is a synonym. 

Section ISAPIS, H. & A. Adams, 1854. 

Shell umbilicated, spire elevated, cancellated, or with revolving 
ribs; columella with a small median tooth, sometimes obsolete, 
outer lip crenulated, interiorly grooved. West Indies, Mazatlan. 
F. ANOMALA, Adams. 



236 FOSSARID^:. 

Section COUTHOUYIA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell ovate, profoundly, widely rimate ; spire acuminated ; 
whorls convex, decussated, with impressed suture ; aperture semi- 
ovate ; inner lip straight, dilated in front, outer lip arcuate, simple. 

Japan. F. DECUSSATUS, A. Ad. 
Section CONRABIA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Turbinate, rimately umbilicated, spire somewhat elate ; whorls 
convex, concentrically carinated ; outer lip fimbriated, inner lip 
not dentate ; umbilicus margined by a semilunar rib. F. CINGULI- 
FERUS, A. Ad. 

Japan. 
Section GOTTOINA, A. Adams, 1863. 

Shell spirally ribbed, solid, imperforate. F. SULCIFERUS, A. Ad. 

Japan. 
Section TUBA, Lea, 1833. 

Shell conical, umbilicated ; whorls rounded, cancellated ; aper- 
ture rounded, margin not continuous above, columella thickened 
and reflected at the base. F. ALTERNATUS, Lea. Eocene. 

A labama. 

Subgenus FOSSARIOPSIS, Laube, 1870. 

Distinguished from Fossarus by its closed umbilicus, and the 
callous expansion of the inner lip. F. RUGOSO-CARINATUS, Klipst. 
Triassic. 

Subgenus RAULINIA, Mayer, 1864. 

Imperforate, rather thin, oval-oblong, spirally sulcate ; outer lip 
simple, inner lip curved, with a central tooth. F. ALLIGATA, 
Desh. Miocene. F. BADIA, Tenison-Woods, is a recent Australian 
species. 

Subgenus IPHITUS, Jeffreys, 1883. 

Imperforate, conical, with spiral rows of tubercles, apex com- 
posed of a styliform process of several whqrls, closely striated 
lengthwise ; aperture rounded, entire, with simple lip. Operculum 
corneous, paucispiral. I. TUBERCULATUS, Jeffreys. 

N. Atlantic 0. 

Genus FOSSARINA, Ad. & Ang., 1863. 

Auriform, a little depressed, narrowly umbilicated, spire short ; 
aperture oval, oblique, lips rounded. Operculum multispiral. F. 
PATULA, Ad. & Ang. 

Australia. 



PLANAXID^E. 237 

Genus ATRESIUS, Gabb, 1869. 

Elongated, spire elevated, whorls rounded ; aperture ovate, 
slightly produced in front, outer lip entire, thin, columella not cal- 
lous ; imperforate ; surface marked by spiral ribs. A. LIRATUS, 
Gabb. Cretaceous. 

California. 
Possibly belongs in Cerithiidse. 



No recent illustrated monograph of Fossaridse has been pub- 
lished. Dr. Fischer printed a systematic Catalogue of the Species, 
with synonymy, in " Journal de Conchyliologie," for 1864. 



FAMILY PLANAXID^E. 

Shell oval conic, spire elevated, without varices ; columella flat- 
tened, truncate anteriorly, lip rounded, simple, notched in front. 
Operculum corneous, subspiral. 

Animal with rather long rostrum, subulate tentacles and eyes 
on swellings at their base. 

The Planaxidse have been monographed by Sowerby, in Con- 
chologia Iconica, xx. 

Subfamily PLANAXIN^E. 

Siphon very short, foot simple. Shell spirally grooved. Den- 
tition (PI. 40, fig. 69.) 

Subfamily LITIOPIN^E. 

Animal (PL 40, fig. 79.) No siphon, foot with three cirriform 
filaments, operculigerous lobe with two posterior filaments. Denti- 
tion (PI. 40, fig. 70.) Shell minute, thin, smooth, plicate or 
spirally striate. 

Planaxince. 

Genus PLANAXIS, Lamarck, 1822. 

Shell imperforate, oval-conic, solid, with epidermis, and elevated 
spire, usually spirally sulcate ; ^columeUa callous, flattened, truncate 
at base, with a narrow sinus; interior of aperture ridged, base 
notched. Operculum paucispiral, with a nearly terminal nucleus. 

Amphibious, crawling on stones near the margins of pools left by 
the retiring tide, or adhering to mangrove roots. About fifty 
species are known, tropical or subtropical. Fossil ; pliocene of the 
West Indies. P. SULCATUS, Born. 



238 PLANAXIDJE. 

Section HOEA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell smooth, covered by an epidermis ; whorls flattened ; outer 
lip thick, sillonated within. P. BRASILIANUS, Lam. 

Subgenus QUADRASIA, Crosse, 1886. 

Shell smooth, spirally striated, imperforate ; peristome thickened, 
the margins joined by a strong parietal callus, columella dilated 
with a rounded obtuse tubercle at the base, base of aperture emar- 
ginate. Operculum thin, corneous, paucispiral, the apex almost 
terminal. Fluviatile. Q. HIDALGOI, Crosse. 

Philippines. 

Perhaps more nearly related to Melanopsis. 

Subgenus QUOYIA, Desh, 1830. 

Conically elongated, apex decollated, whorls solid, flattened, 
spirally striated, mouth notched in front, grooved within, columella 
smooth, truncate in front, with a posterior spiral plication. 

P. DECOLLATUS, Quoy. 

Fissilabra, Brown, 1836, and Leucostoma, Swains, 1840, are syno- 
nyms. 

Subgenus HOLCOSTOMA, H. & A,, Adams, 1853. 

Shell thin, covered with a bristly epidermis, aperture with a 
posterior produced canal, with an anterior sinus, columella concave, 
with a posterior callus. P. PILIGERUS, Phil. 

Indian Ocean. 
Litiopince. 

Genus LITIOPA, Rang, 1829. 

Shell minute, conoidal, columella truncate at the base, outer lip 
simple, thin, notched in front. Operculum spiral. 

Animal (PI. 40, fig. 79) with three cirriform filaments on each 
side, operculigerous lobe with two posterior appendices, no siphon. 

To ascend through the water this little pelagic animal emits an 
air bubble enclosed in a glutinous secretion, which draws out a 
thread as it rises, and finally attaches itself to floating sea weed. 
Bombijxinus, Belanger, 1834, is a synonym. L. MELANOSTOMA, 
Rang. 

Subgenus ALABA, A. Ads., 1862. 

Shell ovate-conical or elongated, subdiaphanous, whorls plicate 
or varicose, apex submammillate, columella often truncated, oper- 



PLANAXID^E-GIRAUDID^E. 239 _ 

culigerous lobe with four filaments, tentacles obtuse at their ex- 
tremities, the right one much longer. 
A. PICTA, A. Ad. About 25 species. 

Japan, Australia, Mazatlan, West Indies. 

Subgenus DIALA, A. Adams, 1862. 

Shell spirally striate, not varicose, sometimes a little nodulous 
around the middle, columella nearly straight, not truncate, lip 
simple. 5 sp. 

Philippines, Australia, Japan. 

D. VARIA, A. Ad. 

(Subgenus STYLIFERINA, A. Ad., 1860.) 

This group I have included in Eulimidse (Manual, viii, 286) ; 
but Mr. Adams, in 1862, regarded it as a member of the Litiopidse, 
in which opinion he has been followed by Watson and others. I 
introduce the group again, in order to include some new species by 
Watson, which may possibly really belong in Litiopidse. 

? FAMILY GIRAUDID^E. 

Characters those of the following genus. 

Genus GIRAUDIA, Bourg., 1885. 

Shell oval, spire conoid, transparent, polished, without epidermis, 
last whorl extending upwards at the aperture half way upon the 
penultimate ; aperture oval, superiorly angular, with a trace of a 
sinus, columella short, robust, enlarging below, peristome strongly 
thickened ; imperforate. Operculum unknown. G. PR^CLARA, 
Bourg. Fresh water. Lake Tanganyika, Africa. 

As neither animal nor operculum are known, the only characters 
are those of the shell-which is unfigured. Bourguignat is unable 
to assimilate the group with any previously-known family. 

Genus REYMONDIA, Bourg., 1885. 

Shell oval-conoidal, more or less elongated, reddish chestnut 
color with a lighter sutural band, smooth, polished, without epider- 
mis ; last whorl slightly ascending at the aperture, then shortly de- 
flected at the insertion of the strongly-thickened patulous lip, 
which is without external rib, columella with a longitudinal-curved 
ridge ; no umbilicus. Operculum unknown. R. HOREI, Smith. 

Lake Tanganyika, 






240 LITTORINA. 

Genus LITTORINA, Fer., 1821. 

Section LITTORINA (sensu stricto.) 
L. GRANDIS, Middendorff. Plate 41, fig. 80. 
Solid, whorls a little concave round the upper part, smooth or ob- 
soletely keeled, spirally striated towards the apex ; bluish grey, the 
keels more or less interruptedly banded with chocolate, edge of lip 
with a few chocolate spots. Length, 40 mill. 

Sea of Ochotsk. 
L. SQUALIDA, Brod. & Sowb. PI. 41, fig. 81. 

Solid, slightly striate, greenish grey, with narrow chestnut bands, 
outer lip with chestnut markings, columella white, last whorl ven- 
tricose, a little concave above. Length, 1 in. 

New Zealand. 
L. LITTOREA, Linn. PL 41, figs. 82-85. 

Solid, smooth, spirally striated, sometimes impressed round the 
upper part of the whorls ; dark brown, olivaceous, yellowish or red- 
dish, usually spirally lineated with a darker shade, interior of aper- 
ture chocolate brown. Length, 25-40 mill. 

Europe; Northern Coast of United /States (introd.). 

This is the common edible periwinkle of Europe, which of late 
years has been observed as an inhabitant of the rocky coasts of the 
New England States, spreading southward with wonderful rapidity. 
The name periwinkle is supposed to be a corruption of pettMMwnkle 
or whelk, in contradistinction to the whelk or winkle proper^jHch 
is Buccinum undatum. The extent to which this mollusk is^on- 
sumed is indicated by the late Dr. Jeffreys, who states that in the 
Billingsgate Market of London, about 65,000 bushels are sold an- 
nually. They are also utilized in keeping oyster beds free of sea- 
weed. Fig. 82 represents an abnormally-shouldered specimen. 

The synonyms include L. vulgaris, Sowb., and L. ustulatus, Lam. 

L. SITCHANA, Phil. PL 41, figs. 86-91 ; PL 45, fig. 12. 

Subglobose, moderately solid, strongly spirally ridged, usually 
with subequal intervening furrows; dark chocolate color, often 
with a broad white peripheral band, interior chocolate. 

Length, 15-18 mill. 

Vancouver's Isl., northivard ; Japan and north coast of Asia. 

This is very close to L. rudis, Donov., with which it has been 
identified by some of the California!! conchologists, and very possi- 
bly it is a variety of that species ; but it appears to vary constantly 




LITTORINA. 241 



in being much thinner, with coarser sculpture. The coloring varies 
to greenish grey, orange-yellow or reddish, the lighter colors often 
without a band ; one variety is white, with a broad chocolate band 

The synonyms include L. Kurila and L. subtenebrosa, Middend., 
L. cineta, Gould=L. Gouldiana, Weink., L. castanea, Ads. & 
Reeve, L. rudis, Cooper, L. tenebrosa, Schrenck, L. Mandschurica, 
Schrenck (fig. 86), a depressed variety. 
Var. BREVICULA, Phil. Figs. 89, 90, 12. 

Whorls somewhat slopingly flattened above, the last with from 3 
to 5 spiral ribs, and smaller, more numerous ones on the base, the 
principal ribs subnodulous ; olivaceous or brownish, variegated and 
strigated with white. 

L. balteata, Reeve, and L. Souverbiana, Crosse (fig. 90), are 
synonyms. 

North China. 
Var. ALEUTICA, Dall. Fig. 91. 

Spire depressed, the nodules on the ribs more developed. 

Aleutian Is. 
L. RUDIS, Donovan. PI. 41, figs. 92-4. 

Shell very solid, with -short, sharp spire, smoothish, usually 
spirally linearly grooved ; whitish, varying to orange-red, with 
sometimes a -lighter or darker peripheral band ; columella callous, 
flattened. Length, 15-22 mill. 

Northern Europe and North Coast of the United States, 

L. zonaria, Bean, and L. simplex, Reeve (fig. 96), from Cape Verd 
Is., are synonyms. 

A very unstable species, as the following varieties testify : 
Var. OBLIGATA, Say. Fig. 94. 

Whorls more convex and thinner, spirally obsoletely ridged ; 
columella broadly dilated, aperture a little produced below. 

Greenland, New England. 

L. castanea, Desh., L. sulcata and L. Grcenlandica, Menke, L. in- 
carnata, Loven, L. eostulata, Midd., and L. litorea, Fabr., are syno- 
nyms. 
Var. NIGRILINEATA, Gray. Fig. 95. 

The engraved lines black. 
Var. JUGOSA, Mont. 

Smaller than usual, with strong, sharp spiral ridges, variable in 
number, and sometimes alternately larger and smaller. 

Perhaps not distinct from Var. obligatai 
16 



242 LITVTORINA. 

Var. PATULA, Thorpe. Figs. 98-100. 

Somewhat auriformly expanded, thinner; spire not prominent, 
placed somewhat obliquely ; mouth wide. 

England. 

L. labiata, Brown, is a synonym. 
Var. SAXATILIS, Johnston. Fig. 97. 

Thinner, whorls more convex, subglobose, small, tessellated with 
olivaceous brown and white. Length, 9-12 mill. 

In deferance to European authority, I include this as a variety 
of L. rudis, but it appears to me to be very distinct from that form, 
whilst it certainly .shades gradually into the variety below. 

L. negleeta, Bean, is a synonym. 
Var. TENEBROSA, Montg. Figs. 1-4. 

Thin, whorls rounded, with elevated spire ; brownish or yellowish ; 
usually tessellated with white. Length, 9-12 mill. 

See remarks under foregoing variety. 

L. vestita, Say., and L. marmorata, Pfr., are synonyms. 

L. LITTORALIS, Linn. PI. 41, figs. 5-8. 

Rather solid, globosely ovate, with low pointed spire, whorls not 
very convex, suture scarcely impressed, surface smooth ; yellowish, 
brownish, or brownish red, often with a faint, finely tessellated pat- 
tern, sometimes spirally banded or lineated. Length, 9-12 mill. 

Lapland, Norway, Greenland, New England. 

L. littoralis has usually been considered synonymous with L. 
obtusata, Linn., but I agree with Dr. Jeffreys in referring it to the 
species known in America as L. palliata, Say. It does not appear 
to occur on the British Coasts. 

L. arctica, Moll. (figs. 6, 7), L. limata, Loven, L. tenebrosa, var. 
obtusata, Midd. (fig. 5), are synonyms. 

L. VENTRICOSA, Phil. PI. 41, fig. 9. 

Rounded oval, spirally engraved, sometimes granulated ; whitish, 
with pale red streaks ; columella excavated, and with aperture, flesh 
color. Length, 18 mill. 

Pulo-Penang. 
L. PORCATA, Phil. PL 41, fig. 10. 

Umbilicated; coarsely spirally ribbed; bluish white, the exca- 
vated columella and interior of aperture chocolate color. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Galapagos Is. 




LITTORINA. 243- - 

Section MELARAPHE, Muhlf., 1828. 

L. SCABRA, Linn. PI. 42, figs. 18-20. 

Rather thin, slantingly convex, somewhat coarsely spirally stri- 
ated, periphery angulated and carinated, suture linearly channeled; 
yellowish or greyish, punctate or nebulously spotted, or interrup- 
tedly or continuously obliquely strigate with chocolate, interiorly 
similarly marked, with the color intensified on the inner margin of 
the lip. Length, 1 1*5 in. 

Mazatlan, Sandwich Is., Viti Is., Philippines, China, Indian Ocean. 

Including its varieties, this species stretches nearly around the 
world, extending from West Africa around to Arabia; .but it has 
not been detected in the Mediterranean Sea. 

The synonymy of the typical form embraces . angulifera, Lam., 
L. ahenea, Reeve (in part), the vars. rubra, suturalis, lutea, flam- 
mulata, articulata, punctata (fig. 20), ventricosa, of Philippi, var. 
concolor, Weink., var. tennis, Nevill. 

Var. LINEATA, Gmel. PL 42, figs. 11-13, 15-17. 

Thin, imperforate, finely, closely spirally striated, suture narrowly 
channeled, body whorl with rounded or scarcely angulated peri- 
phery, not carinated ; yellowish or greyish, tessellated or obliquely 
irregularly strigate with chocolate, sometimes with a series of large 
chocolate spots next the suture. Length, 1'25 in. 

West Coast of Africa, West Indies, Florida. 

The history of the nomenclature of this variety or quasi-species 
is somewhat complicated. It was at first confounded by both Lin- 
naeus and Lamarck with the Polynesian form, which differs in being 
somewhat more coarsely striate with a carinate periphery. Subse- 
quent authors, in distinguishing the species, have restricted La- 
marck's species to the West Indian form, notwithstanding the sig- 
nificance of his name for it, and the fact that the only figure he re- 
fers to, as well as his description, clearly indicate the L. scabra of 
Linn. I have concluded to adopt for the present variety Gmelin's 
name, which appears to me to have been clearly intended for it. 

L. scabra, of d'Orb. (figs. 12, 13), L. ahenea, Reeve, in part (fig. 
11), perhaps L. aurea, Bonnet (fig. 17), described without locality, 
and the forms described by Philippi as vars. flavescens, rubra (fig. 
16), strigata (fig. 15), belong here. 



244 LITTORINA. 

Var. INTERMEDIA, Phil. Plate 42, figs. 21-24. 

Shell smaller, narrower, with engraved spiral lines, tessellated 
with chestnut and white, periphery angulated or carinated. 

Length, 15-20 mill. 

Sandwich Is., Central Polynesia, Ceylon, China. 

To this are to be added vars. artieulata, punctata, strigata, of 
Phil., var. minor, Weink., L. Sinensis, Phil. (fig. 23), L. New- 
combii, Reeve (fig. 24), L. Novce-Hibernice, Lesson. 

Var. FILOSA, Sowb. PI. 43, figs. 31, 31a; PI. 42, figs. 25-30. 

Whorls encircled by more or less distant thread-like ridges, and 
usually showing intermediate striae ; color sometimes pale, without 
variegated markings, sometimes strigated or tessellated, as in the 
type. 

Japan, Philippines, Polynesia. 

The synonyms of this variety include L. pallescens, Phil. (fig. 
30), L. arboricola, Reeve (fig. 25), L. Sieboldi, Phil. (fig. 26), L. 
Philippiana, Reeve (fig. 27), L. eingulata, Phil, (fig. 29), L. subcin- 
gulata, Nevill, L. carinifera, Menke (fig. 28), L. perdix, King, L. 
Icevior, Nevill. 

Var. NEBULOSA, Lam. PL 43, fig. 38 ; PL 42, fig. 14. 

Shell much thicker, ashy yellow, more or less nebulous, or with 
chestnut punctations, strigations or zigzag lines, densely spirally 
striate, periphery slightly angulated, aperture light yellowish. 

Length, 1-1'25 in. 

West Indies. 

L. tigrina, d'Orb. (fig. 14), is possibly a synonym. 

L. UNDULATA, Gray. PL 43, figs. 39-41. 

Rather solid, smooth or spirally striate, yellowish or ashy white, 
with undulating chestnut strigations, sometimes tessellated or 
dotted, or suffused with chestnut or chocolate, with large white 
spots forming a row at the suture and another at the periphery ; 
aperture yellowish, chestnut or violaceous, often with the markings 
of the exterior, columella flattened, violaceous. Length, 1 in. 

Viti Is., Japan, Philippines, Java, Ceylon, etc. 
Distinguished at once by its solidity and violet columella, 
The synonyms include L. conica, Phil. (fig. 41), and its vars. 
delicatula and subintermedia, Nevill. 



LITTORINA. 245 ~ 

L. FLAMMEA, Phil. PL 43, figs. 34-36. 

Narrow, thin, whorls slightly convex, the last with obscurely or 
distinctly angulated periphery, closely spirally striate ; yellowish, 
tessellated or with zigzag markings of chestnut. Length, 20 mill. 

China. 

Thinner and narrower, and without the violet columella of the 
preceding species. In the form figured by Reeve as L. Fortunei 
(fig. 35), the peripheral angle is less prominent. L. luteola, Quoy. 
(fig. 36), also appears to be a synonym. 

Our museum possesses specimens from Port Natal, South Africa, 
probably referable to this species. 
L. ABERRANS, Phil. PL 43, fig. 32. 

Thin, slender, with rounded, whorls and deep suture, finely spi- 
rally striated, plicately decussated by growth lines ; flesh white, the 
ridges opaque, lip and columella thinly reflected, tinged with violet ; 
subperforate. Length, 18 mill. 

Panama. 

Described from a single specimen in the Cumingian collection. 
The locality has not been verified. Looks as much like a Bulimus 
as a Littorina. 
L. STRIGATA, Lischke. PL 43, fig. 33. 

Inflated, somewhat solid, spirally striate ; yellowish, with inter- 
rupted chestnut spiral lines, forming oblique strigations. 

Length, 9'5 mill. 

Japan. 

Distinguished by its short, bulbous form. 

L. MELANOSTOMA, Gray. PL 43, figs. 42, 43. 

Rather thin, whorls flattened, obliquely, obscurely subrugose, 
spirally distantly engraved, periphery angulated ; straw color, with 
usually a longitudinal pattern of short, numerous, chestnut lines ex- 
tending from sulcus to sulcus, either all over the surface or dis- 
continued at the periphery ; columella dark chocolate. 

Indian Ocean, Ceylon, Java, Singapore. 

Nevill has indicated a var. artieulata, (fig. 43). 

L. COLUMELLARIS, d'Orb. PL 43, figs. 37, 51 ; PL 44, fig. 79; PL 

45, figs. 14, 15. 

Stout, convex, thick, closely spirally striate, whitish, yellowish, 
purplish white or rust color, aperture light yellowish, columella 
excavated, flattened, violaceous. Length, 1 in. 

West Indies, Brazil. 



246 LITTORINA. 

Frequency named L. Mauritiana, Lam. in American collections; 
that, however, is a Polynesian and Australasian species, smaller, 
Avith chestnut or chocolate aperture having a white band near 
the base. 

It is L. Sayi, Phil, not Reeve. 

Var. FLAVA, Brod. Fig. 51. 

Spiral sculpture stronger, one or two of them more prominent on 
the periphery, which thus becomes angulated. 

Rio Janeiro. 

L. Cubana, Weink. (figs. 79, 14, 15). is possibly a connecting link 
between this variety and the type of the species: it is evidently 
poorly figured, and I cannot identify any of our shells with it. 

L. VARIA, Sowb. PI. 43, figs. 44-46. 

Rather thick, ventricose, convex, closely slightly striate, varying 
to cord like spiral ridges; yellowish white, spirally lineated with 
chestnut, often broken* up into tessellated markings, and these fre- 
quently gathered into irregular oblique strigations, interior edge of 
lip spotted with chestnut. Length, 1'25 in. 

Peru, Panama, Mazatlan. 

The synonymy includes L. fasciata, Gray. (fig. 45), L. variegata, 
(fig. 46), L. costulata, Souleyet, and probably L. bicarinata, Gray. 

L. PULCHRA, Sowb. PL 43, fig. 47. 

Ventricose. a little flattened round the top of the whorls, densely 
spirally striate, thick, yellowish brown, with irregular oblique 
chocolate strigations, interior similarly colored. Length, 1*5 in. 

Panama. 
L. IRRORATA, Say. PL 43, figs. 48, 49, 50. 

Whorls flattened, the last a little constricted above, swollen below, 
thick, spirally costulate; yellowish white, more or less clouded with 
light purple, apex purplish, the striae bearing numerous minute 
chestnut dots, columella tinged with orange color, outer lip with 
chestnut marginal spots. Length, 1 inch. 

Southern Coast of the United States, from Texas and Florida 
northward to Atlantic City, N. Jersey; Costa Rica, West Indies, 
Brazil. 

It is only of recent years that this species has appeared so far 
northward as Atlantic City, where it was first detected by Mr. John 
Ford of Philadelphia. It is L. Sayi of Reeve (fig. 49), not Phil. 
L. exarata, Phil. (fig. 50). 



LITTORINA. 247 

L. SULCULOSA, Phil. PI. 43, fig. 52. 

Rather thin, whorls flatly convex above, spirally obtusely ribbed, 
with intervening broad grooves, periphery angulated; fawn color, 
ribs sometimes stained with livid purple. Length, 20 mill. 

North Australia. 
L. OBESA, Sowb. PI. 43, fig. 53. 

Solid, smooth, shining, very finely spirally grooved, periphery 
obtusely angulated, suture sometimes margined; flesh color or 
nearly white, aperture and columella orange-brown, the latter 
sometimes purplish. Length, 18-22 mill. 

Sandwich and Viti Is., Philippines, Australia. 

It is L. coccinea, Martyn, L. Umax. (Mart.) Gray. 

L. MAURITIANA, Lam. PI. 44, figs. 71, 70-75. 

Ash colored, often with a suffused or narrow darker band round 
the middle, smooth, or minutely spirally striated, periphery obtusely 
angulated, columella and aperture chestnut colored, the latter with 
a white band near the base. Length, 20-23 mill. 

Mauritius, N. Zealand, Australia, Lord Howe's IsL 

L. laevis, Reeve, (fig. 72), "not Phil."=L. pseuMaevis, Nevill, 
L. laevis, Phil, (for I think Reeve's figure represents Phillippi's 
species), L. unifaseiata, Gray, L. Diemenensis, Quoy, (fig. 73), L. 
antipodum, Phil. L. Africana, Reeve, not Phil. (fig. 75), L. aeuta, 
Menke, L. penitaria, Wood, L. luetuosa, Reeve, (fig. 70), and L. eincta, 
Quoy, (fig. 74), are synonyms. 

L. RUFA, Recluz. PL 43, fig. 54 (enlarged). 

Rather solid, minute, slightly umbilicated, smooth, polished, 
orange brown, indistinctly banded with chestnut; aperture small, 
lip thick. 

Hab. unknown. 

Described by Reeve from a specimen named by Recluz, in the 
Cumingian collection ; dimensions not given. 

L. STRIATA, King. PI. 44, figs. 58, 59. 

Subglobose, whorls convex, rapidly enlarging, spirally sharply 
striate; ashy grey or brownish, aperture chocolate color with an 
inferior light band; columella widely excavated, chocolate above 
and below, flesh color in the middle. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Azores, Cape Verd and Canary Is. Guinea. 
It is L. globosa, Dkr. (fig. 59), L. Canariensis, d'Orb., L. 
arenicola, (Nutt.) Dunker, L. affinis, d'Orb. 



248 LITTORINA. 

L. PLANAXIS, Nuttall. PI. 43, figs. 55, 56 ; PL 44, fig. 57. 

Whorls convex, rapidly increasing, smooth or very minutely 
spirally striate, light chocolate color, shining, under a thin olivaceous 
epidermis, speckled and spotted irregularly with white, interior 
chocolate color, with a white band near the base ; columella broadly 
excavated, yellowish brown. 

California, Lower California. 

The young shells are often beautifully variegated with bands and 
tessellations of chocolate and white, but these colorings rarely per- 
sist in the adults. Fig. 57 represents (enlarged) one of these young 
shells, described by Philippi under the name of L. picta, with a 
variety marmorata. 

L. ambigua, Reeve (fig. 56) and L. patula, Gould are also syn- 
onyms. 

L. PUNCTATA, Gmel. PI. 44, figs. 60-64. 

Ventricose, rather thin, smooth, polished, very minutely spirally 
striate, periphery obtusely angulated, last whorl a little concave be- 
low it ; olive brown, tessellated with white, aperture chocolate col- 
ored, with an inferior white band. Length 12-15 mill. 

West Africa, Mediterranean Sea. 

The synonyms are L. guttata, Reeve (fig. 61), L. Syriaca, Phil. 

Var. FRASERI, Reeve. Figs. 62, 63. 

Livid purple, very minutely, numerously dotted. 

West Africa. 
Var. PULCHELLA, Dunker. Fig. 64. 

Spirally engraved, flesh color, with purplish dots, interior choco- 
late. 

West Africa, Teneriffe. 
L. MELEAGRIS, Beck. PI. 45, fig. 10. 

Smooth, thin, flesh color or ashy, closely, usually regularly retic- 
ulated with chocolate, forming oblique series. 
Length 8 mill. 

West Indies. 
L. guttata Phil, and L. punctata, Pfr. are synonyms. 

L. AFRICANA, Krauss. PL 44, figs. 66, 65, 67-69. 

Ash colored, smooth, spirally engraved, periphery angulated, 
aperture chocolate, with an inferior white band. 

Length 10 Mill. 

Cape of Good Hope, Natal. 



LITTORINA. 249 

L. decollata, Krauss (fig. 67) is a synonym ; and perhaps L. leu- 
eosticta, Phil. (fig. 69), described without locality, is another. 

Var. KNYSNAENSIS, Krauss. Figs. 65, 68. 

Shell very minutely, elosely dotted with rust color. 

L. picea, Reeve (fig. 68) is a synonym, 
L. NovvE-ZELANDiy*:, Reeve. PL 44, figs. 76, 77. 

Globosely turbinated, whorls rounded, with deep suture, irreg- 
ularly spirally grooved, white or yellowish white, longitudinally 
marked with faint chestnut ; interior of aperture chestnut color, 
with a white band near the base, columella violet tinted. 

Length 19 mill. 

New Zealand, Solomon Is. 

L. melanaeme, Smith (fig. 77), from the Solomon Is., is probably 
identical. Nevill changed the name to L. erronea, because he was 
convinced that the species does not come from New Zealand. 

L. PERUVIANA, Lam. PL 44, fig. 78. 

Whorls smooth, dark chocolate color, with zigzag longitudinal 
white markings, aperture chocolate color. Length 22 mill. 

Central America to Chili. 

Nevill has indicated, without description, a var. nana. 

L. ASPERA, Phil. PL 44, figs. 80-85 ; PL 45, fig. 87. 

Coarsely, sharply, spirally ribbed, whitish, longitudinally lineate 
with chestnut, columella and aperture chocolate or chestnut color. 

Length 16 mill. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

L. puncticulata, Phil. (fig. 83), and var. fortisulcata, Nevill are 
synonyms. L. irrorata, Reeve (fig. 87), said to come from Sitka, 
can probably be added. 

Var. CONSPERSA, Phil. Figs. 82, 80-83. 

Thinner, the spiral sculpture closer and flatter, whitish, some- 
times with spiral series of chestnut dots, interior light chestnut. 

Typical specimens of this variety and of L. aspera appear very 
different in texture, sculpture and coloring, but in large series inter- 
mediates are not uncommon. 

L. albida, Phil. (fig. 81) and L. modesta, Menke (fig. 80), are 
synonyms. 

Var. PHILIPPII, Carpenter. Fig. 84. 

Obliquely strigate with greyish chocolate. 



250 LITTORINA. 

Var. PENTCILLATA, Carpenter. Fig. 85. 

Small, flatly, closely spirally striate ; ash color, with irregular 
longitudinal chestnut lines and two distant bluish spiral lines. 

Length 6 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. Cal. 

L. PINTADO Wood. PL 44, fig. 86; PL 45, fig. 88. 

Yellowish white or greyish, smooth or slightly, closely, spirally 
striate, whole surface covered by very minute, close chestnut dots, 
aperture yellowish chestnut with darker spiral lines. 

Length, 16-24 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

The synonyms are L. serialis, Souleyet, L. ambigua and L. tene- 
brata, Nuttall, (fig. 88). 

L. PAYTENSIS, Phil. PL 45, figs. 90, 91, 95, 96. 

With distant engraved lines, and angulated periphery, whitish, 
punctate with chestnut and w y ith an obsolete chestnut band, aperture 
chestnut color, with two pale bands. Length, 12 mill. 

Payta, Peru. 

I am not acquainted with this species, L. Araucana, d'Orb. (figs. 
95, 96), is probably identical. 

L. CINGULIFERA, Dunker. PL 45, fig. 97. 

Obsoletely spirally, engraved, white or ash color with spiral chest- 
nut lines, aperture bluish, with chestnut lines. Length, 12 mill. 

Guinea, W. Africa. 

L. SCUTULATA, Gould. PL 45, figs. 98-3. 

Faintly striate with spiral impressed lines, olivaceous chestnut or 
chocolate color, including aperture, sometimes not variegated, but 
usually with longitudinal zigzag white markings, sometimes broken 
up into spots, and frequently with an articulated white and chestnut 
band on the periphery. Length 9-12 mill. 

Washington Territory to Southern California. 

The variations of this beautiful species are too numerous for des- 
cription: several of them have received names; such as L. plena> 
Gould, (fig. 1), L. lepida, Old. (fig. 2), L. pullata, Carp. (fig. 3). 

L. TESSELLATA, Phil. PL 45, fig. 89. 

Shell rather thin, whorls convex, the last very obtusely angulated 
on the periphery, closely lineately grooved and finely tessellated 



LITTORINA. 251 

with square light chestnut and white spots, aperture and columella 
light purplish, the former showing the exterior markings. 

Length 18 mill. 

West Indies. 

Rather a rare form, more inflated than those which follow. It is 
possible that L. tigrina, d'Orb. doubtfully referred to L. scabra, 
var. nebulosa (p. 243), should be placed here. L. tigrina, C. B. Ad. 
(Morch), and L. undulata, d'Orb. are synonyms. 
L. ZICZAC, Chemn. PI. 45, figs. 5-7, 92. 

Sculpture varying from smooth to spirally striate, periphery from 
obtusely angulated with slightly convex whorls to strongly carin- 
ated with nearly flat whorls, stout or slim ; white, with a bluish 
cast and zigzag longitudinal chestnut lines, the latter sometimes faint 
(generally so in large specimens), but often stronger and closer, the 
blue clouding intensified on the middle of the body whorl, and the 
whole appearance thus becoming much darker, as though forming 
the ground color, with the strigations white ; aperture light or dark 
chocolate or bluish, often with a light band near the base, some- 
times with a second superior light band. Length 10-25 mill. 

West Indies, Florida, Brazil. 

The light colored, larger variety, with very obtuse angle, is usu- 
ally known in American collections as L. lineata, Lam. L. debilis, 
Phil. (fig. 7) is a half-grown one, and L. glabrata, Phil. (fig. 92), 
said to be from Payta, Peru, is full-grown. L. d' Orbigniana, Phil. 
may be added. 

Of the darker colored and more angulated forms, the wide, stumpy 
specimens have been distinguished as L. floccosa, Beck, and L. glau- 
cocincta, Beck, L. cingulata, Pfr. L. R'dsei, Morch are synonyms ; 
whilst the narrower forms (typical ziczac) include L. angustior, 
Morch, and its var. fasciata, L. carinta, d'Orb and L. Jamaicensis, 
Ads. 

L. PUSILLA, Phil. PL 45, fig. 8. 

Decollated, slightly spirally striate, bluish white, with dark chest- 
nut longitudinal, oblique lines; last whorl obsoletely carinated; 
aperture chocolate color, with a basal white band, and variegated 
outer lip. Length, 5 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 
L. COLUMNA, Jonas. PI. 45, fig. 9. 

Solid, closely spirally striated, whorls rounded, the last with deep 
suture and without carina; whitish, with longitudinal chestnut 



252 LITTORINA. 

strigations, interior violaceous, with a wide yellowish band, lip 
maculated within. Length, 16*5 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
Described from a single specimen. 

L. MINIMA, Gray. PI. 45, fig. 11. 

Slightly umbilicated, smooth, white, with scattered small chocolate 
spots. Length, 5-8 mill. 

West Indies. 

L. NEKITOIDES, Linn. PL 45, fig. 13; PL 46, fig. 18. 

Whorls smooth, slightly impressed round the upper part, olivaceous 
grey, with a central chocolate band, aperture chocolate color, with 
a white band at the base. Length, 5-7 mill. 

Southern Europe, Madeira. 

The synonymy includes L. ccerulescens, Lam. L. Basterotii, Payr. 
L. elegans, Risso, L. glabrata, Pfr. L. melanostoma, Kryn. L. 
Petrceus, Mtg. L. saxatilis, Olivi, L. tricolor, Risso, and Var. pau- 
percula, Monts. 

L. thersites, Reeve (fig. 18), said to come from the coast of Chili 
and Peru does not appear to possess any distinctive characters; the 
locality needs confirmation, and may be regarded as very doubtful. 
L. MESPILUM, Muhlf. PL 45, figs. 16, 17. 

Smooth, solid, subglobose, with more convex whorls than in the 
preceding species ; chestnut colored, often with a darker band, aper- 
ture chestnut, without band ; umbilicus frequently subrimate. 

Length, 5-7 mill. 

West Indies. 

L. fusca, Pfr., L. Gundlachi, Phil., and L. naticoides, Orb. (fig. 
17), are identical. 

L. ACUMINATA, Gould. PL 46, fig. 19. 

Solid, shining, livid with darker flames or interrupted striga- 
tions, often maculated with white on the periphery and at the su- 
ture ; whorls 6, planulate, the last subangulate, with spiral striae; 
columella tinted with mulberry color. Length, 7'5 mill. 

Mangsi Isl., Sooloo Sea. 

Section NERITOIDES, Brown, 1827. 

L. OBTUSATA, Linn. PL 46, figs. 20-22, 23. 

Subglobose, with scarcely elevated spire, whorls flattened, suture 
not deep, last whorl a little tumid above, compressed on the side, 




LITTORINA. 253- 



thick, imperforate, smooth, or obscurely engraved-striate ; light 
yellowish to dark chocolate color, sometimes with two bands. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Northern Europe. 

It is L. littoralis, Forbes & Hanley, L. retusa, Lam., L. wtulatus, 
Blainv., L. neritiformis, Brown. 

Var. L. FABALIS, Turton. Fig. 22. 

Light yellowish red, closely reticulated or zigzagged with darker 
lines. Scarcely deserves to be distinguished as a variety, as many 
of the darker colored specimens of the full-grown L. obtusata very 
indistinctly preserve these markings. 

L. Beanii, Macgill., and L. vittata, Phil., are the same. 

Var. ^STUARII, Jeffreys. Fig. 23. 

Smaller, with more elevated spire, uniform greenish brown, the 
aperture chestnut color. Length, 10 mill. 

Near Sutton, and at Manningtree, Suffolk, England. 

Inhabits between tide marks in brackish water. In deference to 
Dr. Jeffreys' opinion, I quote the species here, but specimens re- 
ceived from him, appear to me to be rather allied to L. littoralis 
than to this species. 
L. UMBILICATA, d'Orb. PI. 46, fig 24. 

Smooth, or with a few spiral striae anteriorly ; blackish or bluish 
black. Length, 1-5 mill. 

Per u and Bolivia. 

Evidently a very young shell ; its mature characters it would be 
unsafe to surmise. 

Section LAMELLILITORINA, Try on, 1887. 
L. ALBICANS, Metcalfe. PI. 46, figs. 25, 26. 

Whorls rounded, spirally linearly grooved, obtusely keeled at the 
suture, last whorl lamellarly varicose, thin, semitransparent ; white, 
purple tinted towards the apex, filleted with chestnut at the keel, 
lip thinly reflected. Length, 22 mill. 

Sarawak, Borneo. 
L. AKDOUINIANA, Heude. PI. 46, fig. 28. 

Spirally striate, thin, epidermis marbled with white, body whorl 
with several longitudinal lamellae. Length, 20 mill. 

Along, Tonquin. 

Described as a doubtful Leptopoma, and by Mr. Crosse, referred 
to Littorina ; very possibly a variety of L. albieans. 



254 LITTORINA. 

L. TENUIS, Phil. PL 46, fig. 27. 

Very thin, thinly spirally striate, whorls often tumid above, then 
flattened, with obtusely angulated periphery ; whitish with faint 
angular longitudinal chestnut lines, epidermis yellowish, obliquely, 
faintly lamellar. Length, 14 mill. 

Ins. Ticao, Philippines. 

Section L^EVILITORINA, Pfeffer, 1886. 

L. CALIGINOSA, Gould. PI. 46, fig. 29. 

Smooth, or with slight incremental striae, thin, epidermis chestnut 
color or olivaceous brown, sometimes maculated with yellow ; whorls 
4-5, ventricose, with deep suture ; interior livid or chestnut colored- 
Length, 5 mill. 

Terra del Fuego ; South Georgia. 

L. VENUSTA, Pfeffer. PI. 46, fig. 30. 

Inconspicuously rimate, thin, olivaceous corneous, three banded 
with chestnut, with a very thin epidermis ; whorls 4 1, with deep 
suture ; aperture bluish-ash color, with bright purplish bands. 

Length, 5'6 mill. 

South Georgia. 
L. GRANUM, Pfeffer. PL 46, fig. 31. 

Kimate, thin, slightly longitudinally, and distantly, obscurely, 
spirally striate, light corneous, under a membranaceous yellowish 
epidermis ; whorls 4J, the last a little inflated ; aperture corneous. 

Length, 1-6 mill. 

South Georgia. 

L. PYGM^A, Pfeffer. PL 46, fig. 32. 

Strongly pitted-umbilicate, thin, chitinous, with thin longitudinal 
plications and spiral indistinct striae, reddish brown, under a thin 
epidermis of the same color, columella violaceous, outer lip black- 
margined. Length, 2 mill. 

South Georgia. 
L. UMBILICATA, Pfeffer. PL 46, fig. 33. 

Very distinctly umbilicated, thin, with a peripheral carina and a 
distant one above it, longitudinal sculpture obsolete, epidermis very 
thin, smooth, ochry olivaceous; whorls 5, convex, suture strongly 
coarctate ; interior light chestnut color. Length, 3 mill. 

South Georgia. 

The specific name is preoccupied by d'Orbigny for a doubtful 
species. 



LITTORINA. 255 

L. HISSEYANA, Tenison-Woods. PL 46, fig. 35. 

Narrowly rimate, spirally striate, thin, greyish, yellowish or 
orange-red, apex violaceous, sometimes with a broad darker peri- 
pheral band. Length, 3 mill. 

Tasmania. 
L. PALUDINELLA, Reeve. PL 46, fig. 36. 

Subglobose, thin, horny, with impressed suture, smooth, oliva- 
ceous chestnut, aperture yellowish chestnut, columella excavated. 
Length unknown ; figure magnified. 

Tasmania. 

Section PELLILITORINA, PfefFer, 1886. 
L. SETOSA, E. A. Smith. PL 46, figs. 37, 38. 

Imperforate, thin, yellowish corneous, epidermis stout, olivaceous 
brown, with numerous short erect hairs disposed in longitudinal 
and spiral series; whorls over 5, decussated beneath the epidermis; 
interior pearl colored. Length, 14 mill. 

Kerguelen Is I. 
L. PELLITA, Marts. PI 46, figs. 39-41. 

Thin, greyish brown, epidermis covered by spirally arranged 
series of curved hairs, beneath the epidermis punctate and can- 
cellate ; whorls 4, convex, a little flattened at the suture ; colum- 
ella yellowish or violaceous. Length, 18 mill. 

South Georgia. 

Section AQUILONARIA, DalL, 1886. 
L. TURNER:, DalL PL 46, fig. 42. 

Imperforate, very thin, white, under a tough, shaggy, brownish 
epidermis, which, near the aperture, forms the entire substance of 
the shell. Length, 14 mill. 

North Labrador ; Arctic Ocean, north of Behring's Strait. 



Un figured and doubtful Species of Littorina. 

L. VIDUA, Gould. Japan. 

L. VARIA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

L. LUNATA, H. C. Lea. Cape May, New Jersey. 

L. BLANFORDI, Dunker. Rockhampton, Australia. 

L. APICINA, Menke. Mazatlan. 

L. PARVULA and L. PHASIANELLA, Phil. Panama. 

L. BECCARII, Canefri. Papuan Is. 

L. PULCHELLA, Ad. (= L. ADAMSI, Reeve.) Jamaica. 

Belongs to the Trochidse. 



256 CREMNOCONCHUS-TECTAEIUS. 

Genus CREMNOCONCHUS, Blanford, 1869. 

C. SYHADRENSIS, Blanford. PL 46, fig. 47. 

Subcovered-perforate, with elevated spiral ribs, with the inter- 
stices decussated by smaller spiral lirse and incremental striae, epi- 
dermis olivaceous brown; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, the last 
angulated round the umbilicus. Length, 7 mill. 

Western Ghats, near Bombay, India. 

C. CONICUS, Blanford. PI. 46, figs. 44-46. 

Imperforate, solid, whitish, often with a chestnut band above the 
periphery, epidermis olivaceous, not shining, suture deep ; whorls 
5, convex, the last subangulate at the periphery ; aperture fulvous 
or whitish, often banded. Length, 8-9*5 mill. 

Torna, near Poona, India. 

L. Fairbanki, Blanford (fig. 45), appears to be a synonym. 
Var. CANALICULATUS, Blanford. Fig. 46. 

Suture channeled, the whorls acutely carinate at the top. 

Var. EDECOLLATA, Nevill. 

Stoliczka considered C. conicus a variety of the next species, and 
Nevill believes this probable. 

C. CARINATUS, Layard. PI. 46, fig. 43. 

Subperforate, solid, whitish, with a chestnut band above the 
periphery, carinated at the periphery and suture, with a sutural 
channel ; whorls 5, rapidly increasing ; aperture whitish, chestnut 
banded. Length, 7'5 mill. 

Mahableshwar, India. 

The preceding species, perhaps, ought to be united with this. 

Var. GIGANTEA, Nevill. 

Bombay Presidency, India. 

Genus TECTARIUS, Val., 1833. 

T. PAGODUS, Linn. PL 47, fig. 48. 

Spirally tubercularly ribbed, the tubercles in oblique longitudi- 
nal series, last whorl encircled by two spinose carinse, those of the 
spire by one, yellowish white, often stained with chestnut brown, or 
the spiral sculpture lineated with that color ; columella white, 
slightly tuberculated below, aperture ridged within. 

Length, 2*5 in. 

Australia, Moluccas, Ceylon, Zanzibar. 

T. bicolor, Lam., is a synonym. 



TECTARIUS. 257 

T. BULLATUS, Martyn. PI. 47, figs. 49-51, 53, 58. 

Shell thicker than the preceding species, imperforate, spinose- 
papillary upon spiral ribs, the interstices closely spirally lirate, 
suture often channeled by the exsertion of a row of spines above 
it ; whorls often somewhat angulated by the greater prominence of 
a pair of peripheral nodulous ribs ; cream white, reddish tinged 
towards the summit ; columella toothed below, aperture lirate with- 
in. Length, 1*5 in. 

Indian Ocean, Australia, Polynesia. 

T. grandinatus, Chemn., T. papillosus, Lam., T. coronatus, Val., 
and vars. vera, subinermis, rustica, quadriseriata and elegans, of 
Phil., are synonyms. T. spinulosa, Phil. (fig. 58), is a juvenile. 

Var. CORONARIA, Lam. Fig. 53. 

Shell longer, the spines shorter and smaller. 

Connects insensibly with the type, although formerly considered 
a distinct species. 

T. TECTUM-PERSICUM, Linn. PI. 47, fig. 52. 

Spiny tubercles larger, more compressed, blunter than in T. bul- 
letins, usually fewer spiral series ; cream color, often lineated with 
chestnut. Length, 30 mill. 

Zanzibar, Madagascar, Mauritius. 

Notwithstanding its more rugose appearance, I think it probable 
that this will prove to be a mere variety of T. bullaius. 

T. CUMINGII, Phil. PL 48, fig. 73. 

Deeply umbilicated, umbilicus defined by an angle, encircled by 
spinose ribs, of which two are very prominent on the body whorl 
and one on the spire, irregularly granularly lirate between them, 
flesh color, interior light orange-brown, not ridged, columella not 
toothed. Length, 22 mill. 

Philippines, Polynesia. 

The type of Gray's section Nina. It is T. echinulatus, Kiener. 

T. ARMATA, Issel. PI. 47, fig. 54. 

Imperforate, thick, solid, spirally granularly costate, with a peri- 
pheral series of compressed spines, appearing on the whorls of the 
spire, yellowish white, aperture lirate within, columella subdenti- 
form below. Alt. 14 mill. 

Two of the figures of T. tectum-Persicum, in Kiister's Monograph 
of Littorina, refer to this species. 

Suez. 
17 



258 TECTARIUS. 

T. TECTIFORMIS, Watson. PJ. 47, fig. 55. 

Umbilicated, with longitudinal plications, small at the suture, 
then becoming evanescent, but reappearing more prominently at 
the periphery, where they become tubercles on the carina, vanishing 
on the flattened base, peripheral carina visible on the spire-whorls, 
whole surface covered by fine, unequal spiral threads ; yellowish 

white. Length, ? 22'5 mill. 

Japan; 565 fms. 

The apex and base of the single specimen obtained were broken. 
Watson is not certain of the generic position of this shell, which 
was obtained by the Challenger Expedition. 

T. MURICATUS, Linn. PL 48, fig. 68. 

Imperfbrate or rimate, solid, yellowish or greyish white ; whorls 
rounded, a little flattened below the suture, encircled by close series 
of granules, the series either in juxtaposition or with intermediate 
spiral stria?; aperture light chestnut color, usually smooth within, 
or very faintly ridged. Length, 1 in. 

West Indies, Bahama*, Flor'nla. 

This species has been known to live about a year in a cabinet, 
deprived of its native element. 

T.NODULOSUS, (Jmel. PL 47, figs. 5<)-(>4 ; PL 48, figs. 72, 74, 75. 

Bluish grey, spirally striatc, whorls biangulate in the middle, the 
angles tuberculated, usually yellowish white, aperture and columel la 
chestnut or chocolate color, the former often obsoletely banded, 
base of aperture a little produced. Length, 18 mill. 

North Carolina, Bahama*, West Indies, Ceylon, I'hi/i/ytliH'*, 
Australia, New Zealand, Marquesas. 

T. dilatatus Orb. (fig. 60), T. tuber eulatus, Menke, T. thiarella, 
Anton, (fig. 59), T. trochiformi*, Phil., T. nodulosus, d'Ork, not 
GmeL, T. tuberculatus, Gray (fig. 74), T. Anton i, Phil., T. seabra, 
Anton., are all synonyms referring to the American form, generally 
known as T. dilatatus; whilst the oriental examples have been 
heretofore known as T. nodulosus (fig. 75), with T. trocho-idr*, (Jray 
(fig. 61), T. r/Y/X Munke (fig. 64), T. Malaccana, Phil. (fig. 3), T. 
monilifera, Soul. (fig. (12), T. pyramidalis, Quoy. (fig. 72), and T. 
trochiformis, Dillw., as synonyms. .My sufficient justification in 
uniting species with such distant habitats, and no intermediate lo- 
calities, isthat it is impossible to distinguish them by any character. 



TECTARIUS. 259 

T. MONTROUZIERI, Fischer. PL 47, figs. 56, 57. 

Thick, whitish, light flesh color near the suture, spirally cingu- 
late and longitudinally costate, the intersections forming close series 
of nodules ; aperture sulcate within, basal margin plicate, colum- 
ella white, subdentate at the base. Length, 10 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

T. NODOSUS, Gray. PL 47, figs. 66, 65, 67 ; PL 48, figs. 83-86. 

Spirally striate, with three spiral ribs, which are more or less 
nodose, yellowish or greyish, sometimes indistinctly banded or 
marbled with chestnut, the ribs, in fresh specimens, chocolate 
colored, interrupted by the white tubercles, interior chestnut or 
chocolate color, light-banded at the base. Length, 18-21 mill. 

Indo- Australian, South Africa. 

Fig. 66 represents the typical form ; a more elate, worn speci- 
men is represented in T. subnodosus, Phil. (fig. 65.) 

T. Natalensis, Krauss (fig. 67), and T. lemniscata Phil. (fig. 86), 
are also synonyms. 

T. MILIARIS, Quoy. PL 48, figs. 78, 76, 71, 82, 77, 69. 

Short ovate, closely spirally striate, the strise nodulous above the 
rounded periphery, bluish grey, mottled with greyish white, colum- 
ella and aperture chocolate color, the latter with a basal white 
band. Length, 13 mill. 

Ascension Isl., Viti Is., Australia. 

T. echinatus, Anton., T. granocostatus, Reeve (fig. 82), T. Fee- 
jeensis, Reeve (fig. 76), and perhaps the doubtful T. reticulatus, 
Anton (fig. 71), of unknown habitat, are synonyms. 

Var. GRANOSUS, Phil. PL 48, fig. 77, 69. 

Subconical, whorls flattened above, with an obtuse peripheral 
angle, roughly granulated by longitudinal, crossed by spiral ridges, 
the granules smaller, in spiral series on the base, bluish grey, more 
or less marbled, columella and interior chestnut color or bluish. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Fernando Po. 

Frequently narrower, and more elate than the specimen figured. 

T. glans, Reeve (fig. 69), is a synonym. 

T. RUGOSUS, Menke. PL 48, fig. 70. 

Solid, imperforate, tumidly conve$, spirally linearly grooved, 
longitudinally strongly ribbed, the intersections forming tubercles 



260 TECTARIUS-MODULUS. 

on the upper part of the whorls, flesh white, interior yellowish, 
columella flesh purple. Length, 22 mill. 

Mouth of Swan River, Australia. 

T. GRANULARIS, Gray. PL 48, figs. 84, 85, 79-81 ; PI. 45, fig. 4. 

Ovately ventricose, closely spirally striate, the strise minutely 
granose on the upper part of the whorls, yellowish white or ash 
colored, sometimes marbled, columella and aperture chocolate 
color, the latter with a white basal band. Length, 9 mill. 

Loochoo and Viti Is., Red Sea, Japan. 

L. millegrana, Phil. (fig. 85), T. cinereus, Pease (fig. 81), T. Vi- 
tiennis, Dunker, T. plena, GodefFr. Cat., T. radiata, Souleyet (fig. 
4), T. exigua, Dunker, T. ventricosa, Phil, are synonyms. 

Var. SUBGRANOSUS, Dunker. Figs. 79, 80. 
Whorls slightly shouldered. 

Madras. 



Unfigured Species of Tectarius. 

T. CECILLEI, Phil. Loochoo Is. 

T. LUTEA, Gould. China Sea. 

T. RUBRA, Anton. Hob. unknown. 

Genus MODULUS, Gray, 1840. 

M. TECTUM, Gmel. PL 48, figs. 87-89. 

Subperforate, inflated, tumidly convex above, with distant, 
rounded, oblique plications, spire depressed, suture well impressed, 
whole surface spirally striate, strise often alternately larger ; whitish, 
marbled and lineated with light chestnut, aperture white, closely 
ridged, sometimes chestnut margined. Diam. 28 mill. 

Sandivich and Viti Is., Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mauritius. 

M. retusus, Brug., M. obtusatus, Phil. (fig. 89), M. cidaris, Reeve 
(fig. 87), M. candidus, Petit (fig. 88), are synonyms. 

M. FLORID ANUS, Conr. PL 48, fig. 90. 

Suborbicular, whorls convex above, with subnodular radiating 
ribs, terminating above a peripheral spiral rib ; below the periphery 
are several spiral, subnodular ribs and equal interspaces, which are 
striated ; whitish, with chestnut small spots on the ribs, interior 
white or violaceous. Diam!*15 mill. 

West Coast of Florida. 



MODULUS. 261 

M. LENTICULARIS (Ghemn.), Auct. PL 48, figs. 91, 92. 

Flattened above, with distant radiating ribs, periphery acutely 
carinated, defined by a rib, convex below, everywhere minutely 
spirally corded, spire-whorls often exserted sufficiently to show the 
carina ; whitish, articulated with reddish chestnut. 

Diam. 15-18 mill. 

West Indies. 

Distinguished at once from the preceding species by the flatter 
top, and stronger carina, It is M. modulus, Linn., and M. filosus, 
Helbling. 

M. DISCULUS, Phil. PL 48, figs. 93, 94; PL 49, fig. 95. 

Spire conical, more elevated than in the preceding species, the 
distant radiating ribs forming by their terminations a series of tu- 
bercles on the sharply carinated periphery; base flatly con vex, with 
close, subnodulous spiral cords ; white, tessellated with chestnut at 
the suture and periphery, aperture violaceous. Diam. 10 mill. 

Acapulco, Mazatlan. 

M. dorsuosas, Gould, (fig. 95), and perhaps M. lividus, Phil., are 
synonyms. 

M. CERODES, A. Ad. PL 49, figs. 96, 97. 

Depressed, distantly radiately ribbed, the ribs projecting at the 
carinate periphery, where they are cut by two or three impressed 
spiral lines, base with several revolving riblets, two of which are 
larger and tuberculate. Diam. 12 mill. 

Mozambique (Cuming), Gulf of California (Carpenter.) 

The two series of tubercles often unite into one. 

M. UNIDENS (Lister), Auct. PL 49, figs. 98-100. 

Conical, whorls flattened, obsoletely, radiately, distantly ribbed 
above the angulated periphery, everywhere closely spirally corded ; 
white, the cords minutely punctate with reddish chestnut. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

West Indies, West Coast of N. America, Philippines, etc. 
The synonymy includes M. angulatus, C. B. Ad., M. Sayi (Nut- 
tall), A. Ad., M. trochiformis, Eyd. et Soul. (fig. 100), M. perlatus, 
Dillw., M. Carchedonicus, Lam., M. catenulatus, Phil. 

M. MORELETI, Fischer. PL 49, figs. 1, 2. 

Narrowly subperforate, rather thick, spirally lirate, carinate, the 
body whorl bicarinate ; lip thick, sub-bilabiate ; whitish, the upper 



lijl|fe- 



262 MODl|-RISELLA. 

part radiately maculated with chestnut, the base minutely punctate. 
Diam. 2 mill. 

New Caledonia. 



Unfigured Species. 

M. OBLIQUUS, A. Ad. Red Sea- 

M. DUPLICATUS, A. Ad. Hab. unknown. 

M. KREBSII, Morch. West Indies. 

M. CONVEXIOR, M. PISUM, M. CANALICULATUS, (Beck) Morch. 

West Indies. 
Genus RISELLA, Gray, 1840. 

R. MELANOSTOMA, Gmel. PL 49, figs. 99, 3-29 ; PI. 50, figs. 30, 31. 

Conically elevated or depressed, with rounded, somewhat tuber- 
culated periphery on the elevated specimens, acutely carinated on 
the depressed ones, radiately ribbed above, or nearly smooth, spi- 
rally striate, most distinct on the base; yellowish or olivaceous 
brown, more or less articulated with chestnut, sometimes obliquely 
longitudinally strigate, aperture dark chocolate color, varying to 
orange brown, lip brown spotted. Length, 15 mill. 

South Australia, Tasmania. 

It. aurata, Quoy (fig. 6) ( R. imbricata, Gray (figs. 8, 9), R. Kiel- 
manseggi, Zelebor (fig. 7), R. vittata, Phil. (figs. 28, 29), R. lutea, 
Quoy (fig. 3), R. plicatula, Phil. (figs. 24, 25), R. cicatricosa, Jonas 
(figs. 4, 5), R. nana, Lam. (figs. 99, 13, 14), R. picta, Phil. (figs. 16, 
17), R.plana, Quoy (figs. 10, 11, 12), R. livida,Phil. (figs. 30, 31), 
R. Australia, Gray, R. grisea, Phil. (figs. 18, 19), R.fimbriata, Phil. 
(figs. 26, 27), R. flaveseens, Phil. (figs. 22, 23), R. Bruni, Crosse, 
(fig. 15), and probably R. crassa, Dunker, are all synonyms. 

In the range of varieties presented by this assemblage, we find 
the shell high, with a roundly angular periphery, or low with a 
sharp periphery, all degrees of development of the radiating ribs* 
sometimes entirely wanting, or replaced by color strigations, etc. I 
have endeavored, in vain, to eliminate distinct or even varietal 
forms, and at hist put them all together. This was practically 
done ten years ago by Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods (Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N. S. Wales, i, 242, 1876), and more recently Mr. E. A. Smith 
(Zool. Alert Exped., p. 62), has partially concurred. The collec- 
tion of specimens before me is sufficiently large and varied to give 
me abundant evidence in support of the Australian oom-hologist's 



RISELLA. 263 

views. I retain Gmelin's name for the species, although it cannot 
be satisfactorily identified, because it is the oldest name, and by 
common consent for many years has been generally applied to one 
or another of the above forms. 

Subgenus PEASIELLA, Nevill., 1884. 

R. TANTILLA, Gould. PL 50, figs. 32, 33, 34. 

Perforate, whorls 4-5, flattened, with carinate periphery, ob- 
liquely very finely striate, base with two spiral granular threads ; 
yellowish ash, sometimes showing radiating, flexuous chestnut lines, 
aperture orange-brown. Diam. 4-5 mill. 

Sandwich Is., Viti Is., Australia, Ins. Nossi-be. 

It is Margarita angulata, A. Ad., Trochus diminutivus, Reeve (fig. 
34), R. parvula, Dunker, var. subinfraeostata, Nevill. 

R. CALEDONICA, Grosse. PL 52, fig. 9. 

With wide funnel-shaped umbilicus defined by a carina, another 
carina on the periphery, a third at the suture, microscopically stri- 
ate longitudinally, yellowish brown ; whorls 4, angulated by the 
carinse, rapidly increasing, base flatly convex. Diam. 2'25 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Described as a Fossarus. It appears to differ from the other 
species by its wider umbilicus. 

R. GAIDEI, Montr. PL 50, figs. 35-37. 

Umbilicated, spirally striated, periphery acutely carinated and 
denticulate by the projection of longitudinal, rounded ribs ; yellow- 
ish white, spirally articulated with brown above the periphery and 
on the base. Diam. 2*75 mill. 

Li/ou, Loyalty Is. 
R. CONOIDALLS, Pease. PL 50, fig. 38. 

Narrowly perforate ; whorls flatly sloping, spirally grooved, pli- 
cately longitudinally wrinkled, undulating the carinal line, base 
flatly convex, finely grooved ; whitish, stained with saffron yellow. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

Paumotus. 
R, ISSKLI, Semper. PL 50, figs. 39, 40. 

Umbilicated, spirally engraved above, costate on the base, upper 
part with low, broad, rounded undulations or ribs, modifying the 
carinated periphery ; yellowish, articulated with brown at the 
suture and periphery. Diam. 2*5 mill. 

Suez, Zanzibar. 



264 RISELLA. 

R. INFRACOSTATA, Issel. PI. 50, figs. 41, 42. 

Narrowly umbilicated, minutely radiately striate above, concen- 
trically, distantly costulate below; whorls somewhat convex, the 
last with peripheral carina ; yellowish, maculated with brown at the 
suture and periphery. Diam. 2 mill. 

Suez. 

R. Sismondi, Issel, Mss., is a synonym. 

Possibly only a variety of the preceding species. 
R. ROEPSTORFFIANA, Nevill. PI. 50, fig. 43. 

Narrowly perforate, nearly smooth above, suture not subimbri- 
cated, periphery rarely undulately waved ; yellowish, sometimes 
with a dark basal zone. Diam. 3'75 mill. 

Andaman Is., Mergui, Hong Kong. 



R. TEMPLIANA, Nevill., and vars. NIGROFASCIATA and SUBIMBRI- 
CATA, Nevill. (unfigured.) Andaman Is. 

Subgenus PLESIOTROCHUS, Fischer, 1878. 

R. SOUVERBIANUS, Fischer. PI. 50, figs. 44-46. 

Perforate, spirally striate, rather indistinctly longitudinally rib- 
bed, ribs low and wide, rounded, undulating the peripheral carina ; 
aperture produced below into a short, narrow canal ; yellowish 
white, with thread-like spiral purplish lines interrupted by the ribs 
and generally arranged in pairs, a purple articulated line at the 
suture and periphery, another on the base. Length, 7 mill. 

Lifou, Loyalty Is. 

Subgenus LIMNOTROCHUS, E. A. Smith, 1880. 

R. THOMSONI, E. A. Smith. PI. 50, figs. 47, 48. 

Narrowly umbilicated, moderately solid ; whorls 7, flattened, with 
a broad, deep furrow at the lower part, margined above by a keel, 
which is nodulous on the lower whorls, above this there are three 
granular spiral ridges, base with about eight ridges, and intervening 
finer concentric striae ; basal margin of aperture broadly sinuated, 
excurved and slightly effuse; livid purplish, dotted with brown, 
whitish at the suture and base. Length, 18 mill. 

Lake Tanganyika, Africa (fresh water.) 

R. KIRKI, E. A. Smith. PI. 50, figs. 49, 50. 

Narrowly umbilicated, dirty white ; whorls 6 or 7, slightly con- 
cave, with arcuate, flexuous growth-lines, and 6 or 7 granular spiral 



UK 




RISELLA-LACUNA. 265 



that on the periphery strongest and duplicate, base with a 
nearly smooth band within the peripheral lirse, then with several 
granular lirse round the umbilicus. Diarn. 18 mill. 

Lake Tanganyika, Africa* 



R. CYCLOSTOMA, and R. GIRAUDI, Bourg. (unfigured.) 

Lake Tanganyika* 

Genus LACUNA, Turton, 1827. 
Section LACUNA (sensu stricto.) 

L. PUTEOLUS, Turton. PI. 50, figs. 51, 52. 

Semiglobose, slightly expanded at the base, periphery obtusely 
angulated, rather solid, opaque, glossy ; whitish, yellowish or reddish 
white, sometimes trifasciate, the middle band broadest ; umbilicus 
narrow, deep. Length, 4 mill. 

Northern Europe, France, Portugal. 

L. aurieularis, Mont., L. fasciata, J. Adams, L. parva, DaCosta, 
Helix lacuna, Mont., L. rufa, Dorset. Catal., L. Montagui, Turton, 
L. expansa, J. Adams, L. pallidula, Meyer & Mobius, L. intermedia, 
Locard, are all synonyms, besides the quasi-varietal names conica r 
lactea, clausa, expansa, etc., of Jeffreys. 

L. PALLIDULA, DaCosta. PL 50, figs. 53, 53a, b, 54. 

Widely umbilicated, largely, obliquely expanded, rather thin, 
opaque, glossy ; under the epidermis are growth lines and a few 
spiral scratches ; pale yellowish or olivaceous yellow; whorls 3, 4, 
rapidly increasing, the last disproportionately large, suture deeply 
impressed. Diam. 8-9 mill. 

Northern Europe, Iceland, Greenland, Spitsbergen, New England. 

L. neritoidea, Gould (fig. 54), L. patula, Thorpe, L. Thorpeana, 
Phil., and vars. subtriangularis, Kobelt, and albescens, Thorpe, are 
synonyms. 

L. PORRKCTA, Carpenter. PI. 50, figs. 55, 56, 57. 

Larger than L. puteolus, with more developed spire, body whorl 
slopingly expanded, effuse below, thinly spirally striate upon the 
thin olivaceous yellow or light brown epidermis, sometimes with a 
pale band under the obtusely angulated periphery. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Isl. to San Diego, CaL 



266 LACUNA. 

Var. EFFUSA, Carpenter. Fig. 56. 

Larger, more effuse, whorls more tumid with well-impressed 
suture. Length, 17 mill. 

Var. EX^EQUATA, Carpenter. Fig. 57. 

Whorls flattened, suture scarcely impressed. Length, 12'5 mill. 

Section EPHERIA, Leach, 1847. 

L. VARIEGATA. Carp. PL 50, fig. 58. 

Thin, expanded in front, periphery rounded or obtusely augu- 
lated, smooth, polished, fulvous, irregularly strigate with chestnut, 
with frequently a peripheral band of white spots, and sometimes 
another below the suture. Length, 7*5 mill. 

Vancouver's Isl. to San Diego, Gal. 

L. BOURGUIGNATI, Kochebrune. PL 50, figs. 59, 60. 

Ventricose, subdistorted, thick, yellowish brown, spirally lirate, 
longitudinally striate by growth lines, umbilicated, lip rather thick. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Cape Verd Is. 

L. DIVARICATA, Fab. PL 50, figs. 61, 62, 64-73, 75. 

Obliquely conical, periphery obtusely angulated, somewhat thin, 
translucent and glossy, with slight, numerous spiral striae; white, 
yellowish or yellowish brown often with four brown bands of vary- 
ing width, sometimes confluent into one band, and so disposed as to 
exhibit a white band just below the suture. Length, 11 mill. 

Northern Europe, Iceland, Greenland, New England, N. W. Coast 
of North America. 

It will be seen from the above synonymy that the species is cir- 
cumpolar in distribution. The banding is most conspicuous on 
young specimens, but frequently it is entirely absent. 

The synonyms include L. bifasciata, L. cornea and L. striata, 
Brown, L. fuxca, Binney (fig. 64), L. vincta, Mtg. (figs. 67, 68), L. 
solidula, Loven. (fig. 69), L. labiosa and L. albella, Loven., L. per- 
tusa, Conr., L. borealis, Phil. (fig. 75), L. arctica, Phil. (fig. 73), 
L. gracilior, Metcalfe (fig. 65), a narrow, elongated form, some- 
times considered a variety, var. ecanalicalata, Jeffreys, L. canalw, 
Mont., L. quadrifasciata, Mont. '(fig. 66), and the following forms 
from the West Coast of the United States : L. compacta, Carp., L. 
carinata, Gould (figs. 71, 72.) 



LACUNA. 267 

L. UNIFASCIATA, Carp. PL 50, figs. 63 74. 

Small, glossy, generally with a colored keel, the band sometimes 
broken up into dots. Length, 4 mill. 

California. 
Var. AURANTIACA, Carp. 

Orange-white, the band and keel obsolete. 

Section MEDORIA (Leach), Gray, 1841. 

L. CRASSIOR, Mtg. PI. 50, fig. 76. 

Stout, solid, opaque, epidermis light yellowish ; whorls convex, 
a little tumid or round-shouldered above, epidermis thin, often 
gathered into obliquely longitudinal folds, under it the surface is 
minutely spirally striate ; pillar lip flattened, expanded; imperfor- 
ate. Length, 12*5 mill. 

Northern Europe, Greenland, Sitka, 

L. (/I<u"ialis, Moller, and L. pallida, Donovan, are synonyms. 

Section HALOCONCHA, Dall. 1886. 

L. REFLEXA, Dall. PI. 51, fig. 80. 

Thin, light to dark chestnut brown, nearly smooth ; whorls 21-3, 
rapidly increasing, the last somewhat slantingly flattened above, 
inflated, suture distinct, umbilicus narrow. 

Length, 10, diam. 13'8 mill. 

Aleutian and Commander Is., Alaska. 

L. ANTARCTICA, Martens. PL 51, figs. 81, 82 ; PI, 46, fig. 34. 

Thin, chitinous, rather widely, excavately umbilicated, thinly, 
subirregularly longitudinally striulate, with indistinct spiral lines, 
yellowish brown or chestnut color, umbilical region defined by a 
decided angle, and depression, interior chestnut color, with a pearly 
sheen. Diam. 6'8 mill. 

South Georgia, Kerguelen Is. 

L. pumilio, E. A. Smith (fig. 34), is probably the young of this 
species. 

Section MEGALOMPHALUS, Brusina. 1871. 

L. DEPRESSA, Seguenza. PL 51, fig. 83. 

Minute, whorls rapidly enlarging, the last slantingly inflated, 
with microscopic, close-set longitudinal folds and intermediate 
spiral striae, umbilicus wide, its wall flattened, aperture obliquely 
ovate. Length, 2 mill. 

Algiers, Messina, Britidisi; 11-108 fms. 



268 LACUNA. 

Supposed by Jeffreys to form a connecting link between Adeor- 
bis and Fossarus. 



L. AZONEA, Brusina (unfigured.) Mediterranean Sea. 

L. Crosseana Kleciak, L. Petitiana, Tiberi, L. mutabilis, Costa, 
are synonyms. 

L. EXCAVATA, Monts. (unfigured.) Palermo. 

L. Monterosati, Granata, is a synonym. 

Section STENOTIS, A. Ad., 1863. 

L. LAXATA, A. Ad. PL 50, fig. 77. 

Oval elongated, compressed, thin, whitish, spire small, pointed, 
whorls 3, flattened, rapidly increasing, the last one large, inflated, 
dilated in front, umbilicus large, open, defined by an angle. 
Length, 2 mill. 

Japan. 
Section CITHNA, A. Adams, 1863. 

L. TENELLA, Jeffreys. PL 51, figs. 84, 85. 

Thin, semitransparerit, glossy, without epidermis?, with a few ir- 
regular, microscopic, spiral lines on the body whorl, white, yellowish- 
brown at the apex, which is abruptly truncated ; whorls 5, convex, 
gradually enlarging ; aperture somewhat expanded and angulated 
at the base. Length, 3 mill. 

N. of Hebrides Is., in 189 and 650 fins., Mediterranean, Azores, 
Pernambuco, and E. of Japan; 114-2050 fms. 

Var. MARGARITIFERA, Watson. Fig. <S~). 

More or less strongly striated lengthwise, especially on the upper 
whorls. 

Dr. Jeffreys thought this identical with and a synonym of his 
var. costulata; granting the identity, the Jeffreysian name should 
become the synonym, being latest published. 

L. ADAMSI, Jeffreys. PL 51, fig. 86. 

Thin, semi transparent, glossy, no sculpture except the umbilical 
ridge, white; whorls 4], moderately convex, rapidly increasing, 
with deep suture; umbilicus narrow, enclosed by a sharp ridge. 

Length, 1'5 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean (Porcupine Exped.). 



LACUNA. 269- 

L. CARINATA, Jeffreys. PL 51, fig. 87. 

Thin, opaque, glossy, biangulate, base with a few slight striae, sur- 
face appearing closely granular under the microscope, white, yel- 
lowish brown towards the apex ; whorls 5-6, flattened between the 
suture and upper keel, as well as between the two keels of the body 
whorl. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean (Porcupine Exped.). 

L. CINGULATA, Verrill. PL 51, fig. 93. 

Rather solid, depressed, spirally striated, biangulated, white with 
a brown nucleus ; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, flattened above and 
between the carinae ; umbilicus rather narrow and deep. 

Length, 2'2, diam. 3'6 mill. 

Off New England Coast; 906-1467 fins. 

Resembles the preceding species, but is more depressed. Verrill 
observes that a young specimen, apparently of this species, has a 
distinct epidermis, bearing small hair-like processes, most prominent 
on the carinae. 

L. CINCTA, Jeffreys. PL 51, figs. 88, 89. 

Thin, opaque, glossy, with a few spiral striae, of which one below 
the suture is more prominent, and mhiutely tuberculated on the 
upper whorls, white ; whorls 5, convex, with deep suture ; outer lip 
thin, slightly expanding, folded over the pillar, inner lip attached 
to the pillar ; umbilicus shallow, enclosed by a semicircular ridge 
and ending in a small, deep perforation. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean (Porcupine Exped.) 

L. NATICIFORMIS, Jeffreys. PL 51, figs. 90, 91. 

Obtusely triangular, with excentric spire, thin, semi transparent 
and glossy, with a few rather strong basal striae, besides the umbili- 
cal ridge, white ; whorls 3, convex, rapidly increasing ; umbilicus 
rather large, with a small, deep perforation. 

Length, 1'75, diam. 2'75 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean (Porcupine Exped.) 

L. OLIVACEA, Verrill. PL 51, fig. 92. 

Thin, translucent, Avith 4 convex whorls, the suture scarcely im- 
pressed, smooth, glossy, covered by a greenish yellow, thin, closely 
adherent epidermis ; imperforate. Length, 4 mill. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 



270 LACUNA. 

Probably not a member of the group, differing in having no ex- 
cavated umbilicus, and in possessing an epidermis?. 



Unfigured Species of Cithna. . 

L. PICTA, Watson. Lat. 9, 5', S. ; long. 34, 40', W. 

L. INFLATA, and L. GLABELLA, Monts. Mediterranean. 

L. SPIRATA, and L. GLOBOSA, Adams. Japan. 



Doubtful and Unfigured Species of Lacuna. 

L. DECORATA, L. LATIFASCIATA, L. LEPIDULA, L. TURRITA, and 

L. INFLATA, A. Ad. Japan. 

L. CARINIFERA, A. Ad. Borneo. 

L. UNICARINATA, E. A. Smith. Japan. 

L. (ERSILIA) MEDITERRANEA, Monts. Mediterranean. 

L. SUCCINEA, Morch. West Coast of Central America. 

L. VESTITA, Dunker and Met/gar. North Sea. 

L. PARVULA, Velaiu. PL 51, fig. 78. 

Whorls angulated by spiral carinse, of which there are three on 
the body whorl, fading towards the aperture ; umbilicus narrowly 
rimate. Length, 1 mill. 

Isl. St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

L. HEBERTI, Velain. PL 51, fig. 7i>. 

Smooth, w r ith three convex, rapidly increasing whorls, yellowish 
or brownish grey, umbilicus scarcely rimate. Length, 1*75 mill. 

Isl. St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

This and the preceding species are of doubtful pertinence to the 
present group. 



FOSSARUS. 271 

FAMILY FOSSARID^E. 
Genus FOSSARUS, Phil, 1841. 

F. AMBIGUUS, Linn. PI. 52, figs. 3-5. 

Spirally striated, three of the striae usually more prominent so as 
to cause the body whorl to appear angulated or carinated, epidermis 
light yellowish brown, aperture white. Length, 5 mill. 

Mediterranean, Senegal. 

The synonyms include F. Adansoni, Phil., F. Lanoei, Baudon, 
P. lucullana, Scacchi, F. Sicula, Aradas, F. costatus, Scacchi, F. 
Kutschigi, Brusina. 

F. ELEGANS, Verrill & Smith. PI. 51, fig. 96. 

Spirally carinated, the last whorl with a carina at the shoulder, 
often with a smaller one just below it, a larger one again at the 
periphery, and three or four smaller ones below, besides a spiral 
fold round the umbilical region ; there are also sometimes two or 
three strong raised varices, whorls latticed between the carina?, 
white, umbilicus narrow, sometimes closed. Length, 5'3 mill. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, Mass.; 100 fms. 

This may prove to be a variety of F. ambiguus. 

F. ORBIGNYT, Fischer. PI. 52, fig. 6. 

Umbilicated, white, rugose, with several distant spiral riblets, the 
interstices longitudinally striate ; whorls 4, convex, with excavated 
suture. Length, 8, diam. 9 mill. 

Cuba. Sta. Lucia, Jamaica. 

Described by d'Orbigny as F. sulcatus, and changed as above on 
account of F. sulcatus, Wood. 

F. MEDIOCRIS, Folin. PI. 51, fig. 97. 

Minute, imperforate, spirally ribbed, the sulci between the ribs 
longitudinally crenately striate ; whorls 4, convex, with simple 
suture, chestnut colored. Length, 2*6 mill. 

Bay of Panama. 

F. LAMELLOSUS, Montrouz. PI. 52, fig. 7. 

Imperforate, solid, with acute spire and dilated base, with sharp, 
distant spiral ribs, of which there are four on the body whorl, the 
two upper ones strongest, interstices longitudinally lamellarly striate. 

Length, 6-8 mill. 

New Caledonia. 



272 FOSSARUS. 

F. PUSILLUS, Gould. PL 52, fig. 8. 

Umbilicated, whitish, with minute spiral lines and three distant 
spiral ribs on the body whorl. Length, 4 mill. 

Fishtown, Liberia. 

Described as a Trichotropis. 

F. ATRATUS, C. B. Ad. PL 52, fig. 10. 

Minutely umbilicated, blackish, sometimes with a few white spots 
on the last whorl, and several revolving keels; the species variable 
in form and number of keels, conic when young, subglobular when 

mature. Length, 2 mill. 

Panama. 

Section PHASIANEMA, S. Wood. 1842. 
F. RETICULATUS, S. Wood. PL 51, fig. 98. 

Kather solid, semi transparent, lustreless, with numerous, sharp, 
distant longitudinal riblets crossed by more numerous, close spiral 
stria3, subimperforate ; whorls 4, rather convex, the last inflated, light 
yellowish brown. Length, 1'5 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean (Porcupine Exped.) 

F. interjunctus, Jeffreys, Ms., is a synonym. 
F. SULCATUS, S. Wood. PL 51, figs. 94, 95, 99, 100. 

Spire elevated, whorls a little shouldered, the last large, with 
about six spiral riblets, the interstices clathrate, yellowish white ; 
lip denticulated ; umbilicus rather widely rimate. Length, 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is F. clathratus, Phil., F. costatus, Brocchi., F. minutus, Mich. 
Two unfigured species from the Asiatic Seas, F. tornatilis, Gould, 
from Hong Kong, and F. Japonicus, A. Ad., from Japan, were con- 
sidered by the latter author synonymous with F. costatus. To this 
Eastern synonymy must be added F. Stoliczkanus, Nevill (fig. 95.) 



Unfigured and Doubtful Species. 

F. GARRETTI, Pease (Adeorbis costata, Garrett). Sandwich Is. 

F. GRANULUM, Brugnone. Mediterranean Sea. 

Section ISAPIS, H. & A. Adams, 1854. 
F. FENESTRATA, Carp. PL 52, fig. 11. 

Umbilicated, spirally lirate, the lirse acute, distant, about 9 on the 
body whorl, the wider interstices with closer longitudinal sculpture ; 
light yellowish brown, epidermis shaggy. Length, 5-6 mill. 

Vancouver's Isl. to Lower California. 



FOSSARUS. 273 

F. OBTUSA, Carp. Fig. 12. 

Narrower, whorls less convex, less sharply costate than F. fenes- 
trata; whorls flattened behind, ribs swollen, uneven. 

Southern California. 

I suspect that this will prove to be a mere variety of the pre- 
ceding species. 



Unfigured Species of Isapis. 

F. ANOMALUS, C. B. Ad. Jamaica. 

F. LIRATUS, and F. CONOIDEUS, A. Ad. Japan. 

F. MACULOSUS, Carp. Mazatlan. 

F. OVOIDEUS, Gould. Mazatlan. 

Section COUTHOUYIA, A. Adams. 1860. 
F. INSIGNIB, Nevill. PL 51, fig. 1 ; PL 52, fig. 13. 

Widely umbilicated, whorls convex, the last subevolute, suture 
deeply channeled, surface spirally cingulated, elegantly reticulated 
by longitudinal lines. Length, 7 mill. 

Singapore, Ceylon, Japan. 

F. reticulatus, A. Ad. (fig. 13), is a synonym ; it was first described, 
but the name is preoccupied by S. Wood. 

Var. DELICATULA, Nevill. 

Smaller, thinner, umbilicus smaller, spiral ribs one or two fewer. 

Bombay. 
Var. PERSOLUTA, Nevill. 

Last whorl considerably less ventricose and more solute than in 
the typo. 

Japan. 

Unfigured Species of Couthouyia. 

F. SUBRETICULATUS, Nevill. India. 

F. SOLUTUS, and F. APPRESSUS, Nevill. 'Persian Gulf. 

F. STYLIFERINUS, Nevill. Singapore, Bombay. 

F. PLICIFERUS, F. STRIATULUS, and F. DECUSSATUS, A. Ad. Japan. 

Section CONRADIA, A. Ad., 1860. 
Unfigured Species. 

F. DOLIARIS, A. Ad., and var. MINOR, Nevill. 

Japan, Hong Kong, Bombay. 
F. PULCHELLUS, F. TORNATus, F. ciNGULiFERUS, A. Ad. Japan. 

18 



274 FOSSARUS. 

F. ADAMSIANUS, Nevill. Persian Gulf. 

F. CLATHRATUS, A. Ad. (F. Adamsianus, Fischer.) Japan. 

Section GOTTOINA, A. Ad., 1863. 

F. CEREUS, Watson. PI. 51, fig. 2. 

Rather solid, translucent, with a thin, polished, yellowish epider- 
mis, imperforate ; nearly smooth, with rather obsolete spiral threads, 
closer on the base ; whorls 3, convex, rapidly increasing ; columella 
a little truncate at the base, where the aperture is slightly produced. 

Length, 5 mill. 

N. E. Australia; 1400 fms. 



F. SULCIFERUS, F. PYRGULA, A. Ad. (unfigured.) Japan. 

Unfigured Species of Fossarus. 

The following species, said to belong to the genus, have not been 
placed in either of its groups : 

F. EXCAVATUS, F. ANGIOSTOMA, F. MEGASOMA, F. FOVEATUS, F. 

ABJECTUS, C. B. Ad. Panama. 

F. ANGULATUS, F. TUBEROSE, Carpenter. Mazatlan. 
F. PARCIPICTUS, F. PURUS, Carpenter. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 

F. TASMANICUS, F. BTJLIMOIDES, Tenison Woods. Tasmania. 

F. FENESTRATUS, A. Ad. Japan. 

F; CUMINGII, A. Ad. Hab. unknown. 

F. TROCHLEARIS, A. Ad. Philippw*'*. 

F. BICARINATUS, A. Ad. = Separatista. 

F. MIRABII.IS, Nevill. Arakan. 

F. IMPERFORATUS, Nevill. Penan ff. 

F. MULTICOSTATUS, Pease. Sandwich Is. 

Subgenus RAULINJA, Mayer, 1864. 
F. BADTA, Tenison Woods (unfigured.) Tasmania. 

Subgenus IPHITUS, Jeffreys, 1888. 

F. TUBEBATUS, Jeffreys. PI. 52, fig. 14. 

Imperforate, solid, opaque, dull white, with a faint tinge of yellow, 
spirally ridged, the ridges tuberculate, base spirally striate, styli- 
form process broken off; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, the last with 



FOSSARUS. 275- 

obtusely angulated periphery; outer lip undulated by the spiral 
sculpture. Length, 2 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean (Porcupine Exped.) 

F. TUBERCULATUS, Watson. PI. 52, fig. 15. 

Solid, glossy white; whorls 7 -8, flattened, slowly increasing, 
with spiral, stoutly tuberculated ribs, of which there are four on 
the body whorl, periphery angulated, lip varicose, continuous, in- 
terior margin double. Length, 1*75 mill. 

Off Culebra Isl, West Indies; 390 fins. 

The styliform apex consists of 3 whorls, the first two smooth, the 
last with a half dozen spiral threads. 

Genus FOSSARINA, Ad. and Angas. 1863. 

F. PETTERDI, Brazier. PL 52, figs. 20, 21. 

Narrowly umbilicated, faintly spirally striate, with hardly visible 
longitudinal striae, dark purplish black, with a few irregular white 
markings ; whorls 3, convex, the last large and rounded, umbilical 
region white ; interior greenish black, showing the external white 
markings. Operculum thin, many-whorled. Diam. 4*25 mill. 

Hobart Town, Tasmania. 

Hutton remarks that this species has the dentition and opercu- 
lum of the Trochidse but not of the Littorinidse, and that it may 
possibly be an Adeorbis. Proc. Linn. Soc., N. S. W., vii, 66. 

It has not the pearly nacre of Trochus. 

F. Simpsoni, Tenison Woods, is a synonym. 

F. PICTA, A. Ad. PL 52, fig. 16. 

Widely umbilicated, spirally lirate, yellowish, irregularly macu- 
lated with chestnut ; whorls 4, convex, periphery rounded. 

Diam. 3 mill. 

Japan. 
F. BRAZIERI, Angas. PI. 52, fig. 17*. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, ash grey, maculated with 
purplish brown, irregularly spirally ridged, two of the ridges more 
prominent, like carinse, longitudinally striated ; whorls 3, with well- 
impressed suture. Diam. 3*5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

F. FUNICULATA, Tenison Woods. PI. 52, figs. 18, 19. 

Subumbilicated, solid, opaque, almost ear-shaped, with rounded 
alternately larger and smaller spiral ribs, more minute on the base; 



276 PLANAXIS. 

whitish, with dark zigzag lines and spots; whorls 82, the last much 
expanded. Diam. 5 mill. 

Victoria, Australia. 
F. PATULA, Adams & Angas. PI. 51, fig. 2, a. 

Widely umbilicated, with alternate larger and smaller tubercu- 
lated spiral ribs, ribs simple on the base, umbilicus acutely carinate- 
margined; whitish, sparsely maculated with dark brown ; whorls 3, 
convex ; outer lip ascending posteriorly. Length, 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Appears to have the ornamentation, but not the form of the pre- 
ceding species. 



Unfigured Species. 

F. VARIA (Adeorbis), Hutton. New Zealand. 

F. LEGRANDI, Petterd. Tasmania. 

F. VARIEGATA, A. Ad. Eastern Seas. 



FAMILY PLANAXID^. 
Subfamily PLANAXIN^. 
Genus PLANAXIS, Lam., 1822. 
P. SULCATUS, Born. PL 52, figs. 22-27, 31, 32. 

Thick, spirally ribbed, with equal grooves, tessellated with white 
and chocolate color, sometimes becoming irregular longitudinal stri- 
. gations, interior chocolate, ridges and columella white. 
Length, 1 in. 

Sandwich Is., Australia, Philippines, Mauritius, South Africa. 

It is P. buccinoides, Desh., P. Menkeanus, Dunker, P. pyramidalis, 

Gmel., P. undulatus, Lam., and probably P. obscurus, A. Ad. (fig. 

31.) 

I think that P. brevis, Quoy. (fig. 32), is the young of this species; 
it is sparsely dotted with white. 



PLANAXIS. 277 

Var. BREVICULTJS, Desh. Fig. 24. 

Shell shorter, more ventricose, grooves and ribs less strong. 

Persian Gulf, Moluccas, New Guinea. 
Nevill has described a var. tessellaia. 

Var. SAVIGNYI, Desh. Figs. 25-27. 

Flat-ribbed, with narrower grooves, sometimes nearly obsolete, 
greyish brown, tessellated and undulated with chestnut, often with a 
lighter band at the periphery and another at the suture. 

Red Sea, Persian Gulf. 

P. grisea, Brocchi., P. encamtica, E. A. Smith (fig. 27), and var. 
subnigra, Nevill, are synonyms. 

P. CRASSISPIRA, E. A. Smith. PI. 52, fig. 28. 

Distantly spirally grooved, grey, spotted and shortly strigate 
with chocolate. Length, 20 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Probably a very narrow form of P. sulcatus. 

P. PLANICOSTATUS, Sowb. PI. 52, fig. 30. 

Dark chocolate color, with subequal alternate spiral ribs and 
grooves, lighter colored within. Length, 1 in. 

San Bias, Panama, Galapagos Is- 

It is JBuce. planaxis, Wood, P. canalieulatus, Duval, P. circinata, 
Lesson. 

P. SUTURALIS, Smith. PI. 52, fig. 33. 

Yellowish white, spirally deeply grooved, with intermediate flat 
ribs. Length, 6 mill. 

Chinese Seas. 
P. NUCLEUS, Lam. PL 52, fig. 36. 

Chocolate color, epidermis shortly velvety, flat ribbed and spirally 
grooved, but the sculpture obsolete except close to the aperture at 
the suture and on the base, the outer lip being fimbriated by it, in- 
terior chocolate. Length, 15-18 mill. 

West Indies. 

P. semisulcatus, Sowb., is a synonym. 

P. ABBREVIATUS, Pease. PI. 52, fig. 40. 

Shorter than the next species, and without the expanded lip of 
P. nucleus, blackish chocolate, with closely-engraved stria?, obsolete 
except at the base. Length, 7*5 mill. 

Tahiti 



278 PLANAXIS. 

P. NIGRA, Quoy. PL 52, figs. 37, 39, 41-47. 

Epidermis chocolate or olivaceous chocolate, smooth, a few close, 
narrow, engraved lines at the base, and occasionally vestiges of 
others on the spire and at the suture, interior polished chocolate. 

Length, 13-15 mill. 

New Ireland, Viti and Sandwich Is., South Africa. 

P. Hanleyi, Smith (fig. 39), P. similis, Smith (fig. 44), and P. 
acutus, Krauss (fig. 42), are synonyms. P. Albersi, Bunker (fig. 
46), from Guinea, West Africa, may be identical, or it may be the 
young of P. nucleus ; and probably P. atropurpureus, Recluz (fig. 
45), from the "South Seas," may be added. 

Var. NIGRITELLA, Forbes. PL 52, figs. 47, 43. 

Dark chestnut or chocolate color, polished, under a thin epider- 
mis, closely, narrowly spirally engraved, usually obsolete on the 
middle of the body whorl. Length, 12-15 mill. 

It is somewhat difficult to distinguish this variety from the type, 
except by its distribution; it is usually lighter colored and occurs 
at Mazatlan, West Coast of Mexico. 

P. acutus and P. obsoletus, Menke, are synonyms, and very prob- 
ably P. castaneus, Smith (fig. 43), is to be added ; it is described 
without locality. 

P. LINEATUS, Da Costa. PL 53, figs. 49-57, 59, 63-66 ; PL 52, figs. 

38-48. 

Small, nearly smooth, polished beneath the epidermis, light yel- 
lowish varying to orange brown and chestnut color, spirally lineated 
with chestnut and chocolate. Length, 6-12 mill. 

West Indies, Madeira, Paumotus, Tahiti, Solomon's Is., etc. 

The lineations are usually regular throughout, but sometimes few 
and distant, at others the upper or lower part of the body whorl is 
devoid of them. First described in error as British. 

The synonyms are Bucc. zebra, Megerle, B. strigosum, GmeL, 
P. pedicularis, Lain., Bucc. pygmceum, Brug., P. succinctus, A. Ad. 
(fig. 65), P. eboreus, Smith (fig. 64.) There can be no doubt of the 
specific identity of the Polynesian representatives which have re- 
ceived the names of P. lineolatus, Gould (fig. 57), and its var. pro- 
ductus, Nevill, P.fasciatm, Pease (fig. 66), P. atra, Pease (fig. 38), 
named from specimens so dark in color that the banding is scarcely 
visible except by transmitted light, P. cinyulatus, A. Ad. (fig. 48), 
P. variabilw, E. A. Smith (figs. 50, 51), P. ineptus, Gould (fig. 52), 




PLANAXIS. 279 

and its variety persulcata, Nevill, P. virgatus, Smith (fig. 49), P. 
zonatus, A. Ad. (fig. 53), P. longispira, Smith (fig. 55), P. strigatus, 
Hanley (fig. 59), and P. Hermannseni, Dunker (fig. 54.) 
Var. LABIOSUS, A. Adams. Fig. 41-56. 

Shell larger and stouter, frequently covered by a persistent 
shortly pilose epidermis, upon which the darker bands of the shell 
are somewhat elevated. 

Polynesia. 

P. striatula, Phil. (fig. 56), P. vestitus, Dkr., P. plumbeus, Pease 
P. pedieulux, Krauss, P. Bronni, Dunker are synonyms. 

This catalogue of synonyms may appear to some to be a ruthless 
slaughter of species. I can only say that the admirable collection 
before me fully justifies me. 
P. PUNCTOSTRIATUS, E. A. Smith. PI. 53, figs. 60, .61. 

Whorls convex, with very minute punctured spiral striae, pale 
fulvous, ornamented with spiral rows of small square chestnut 
spots ; margin of outer lip spotted. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
P. TENUIS, E. A. Smith. PI. 53, fig. 58. 

Thin, elongated, polished, semipellucid, white, with a few distant, 
spiral, red lines, lightly spirally grooved, body whorl strongly 
grooved and ventricose below ; outer lip thin. Length, 5*5 mill. 

Hab unknown. 

Very probably a variation of P. lineata, DaCosta. 

Section HINEA, Gray, 1847. 
P. MOLLIS, Sowb. PI. 52, figs. 34, 35, 29. 

Whitish under a yellowish brown, minutely pilose epidermis, 
sometimes with a darker peripheral band, smooth, with several en- 
graved lines near the base, aperture } ellowish white. 
Length, 20-25 mill. 

Easter Island, Australia, Nicobar Is. 

First described by Lamarck under the name of P. Brasiliensis, 
a misnomer. Other synonyms are P. pigra, Forbes, Bucc. Iceviga- 
tum, Wood, P. fulvu, A. Ad. I think that P. Nicobaricus, Zelebor 
(fig. 29), will prove to be at most a slight variety. 

Subgenus QUADRASIA, Crosse, 1886. 
P. HrDALGOi, Crosse. PI. 53, figs. 67, 68. 

Imperforate, solid, dull, orange brown, minutely spirally striulate, 
suture margined, outer lip simple, not dentate within. 
Length, 13 mill. 

(Fluviatile) Philippines. 



280 PLANAXIS. 

This appears to be an undoubted inhabitant of fresh water, and 
as such is an interesting novelty; but are not its affinities with 
Melanopsis rather than with Planaxis? 

Subgenus QUOYIA, Desh., 1830. 
P. DECOLLATUS, Quoy. PL 53, figs. 71, 70. 

Strongly spirally grooved, grooves stronger on the base ; colum- 
ellar lip excised above; epidermis olivaceous, with dull chestnut 
obliquely longitudinal strigations ; apex decollated. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Philippines, Ascension Isl.,New Guinea. 

It is Monoptygma melanoides, Lea, and P. Miehaui, Crosse and 
Fischer (fig. 70.) The latter is founded on a younger specimen, in 
which a chestnut peripheral band appears, and the interior of the 
outer lip is not ridged ; both these characters merge into the normal 
type of the species with increasing age. 

Subgenus HOLCOSTOMA, H. & A. Ad., 1853. 
P. PILIQERUS, Phil. PL 53, figs. 62, 69. 

Smooth, under a bristly epidermis, yellowish brown, with two 
chestnut bands, outer lip dentate within. Length, 8 mill. 

Mauritius. 

The first figure is from an adult denuded of epidermal hairs, the 
second represents H. setigerum, A. Ad. (fig. 69), which is said by 
Mr. E. A. Smith, of the British Museum, to be identical ; if so, it 
must be a much -magnified figure of a young shell which has not 
yet acquired the teeth to the outer lip. 



Unfigured Species of Planaxis. 

P. INCISUS and P. TTENIATUS, Phil. Hob. unknown. 

P. NUCLEOLA, Morch. West Indie*. 

P. BUCCINEA, A. Ad. West Indies. 

P. GOULDI, Smith (P. cingulatus, Gld., not Ads.) Japan. 

P. AREOLATUS, Lesson. Tnlu'fi. 

I*. SKMILTKVIS, Martens. Socotra. 

P. EBENINUS, Menke. Peru. 

Subfam ily LITIOPIN^K. 
Genus LITIOPA, Rang., 182!). 
L. MELANOSTOMA, Rang. PL 53, figs. 72-75, 78. 

Whorls about 9, slightly convex, towards the apex microscopi- 
cally longitudinally costulate, other whorls very finely spirally stri- 



LITIOPA. 281 

ate ; light yellowish brown, outer lip often bordered internally with 
black. Length, 6 mill. 

Pelagic, universally distributed in warm seas, on floating seaweed. 

The synonymy includes L. striata, Pfr., Buccinum litiopa, Mrs. 
Gray, L. bombyx, Rang. (fig. 74), L. maculata, d'Orb., L. divisa, 
Carp., L. nitidula, Pfr. (fig. 73), L. decussata, Gould (fig. 78), and 
L. Grateloupiana, Drouet. (fig. 75.) 
L. SAVIGNYI, Issel. PL 53, fig. 76. 

Smooth, translucent, whitish or yellowish, with numerous small 
opaque white spots ; whorls 7, suture impressly margined ; colum- 
ella subtruncate. Length, 3 mill. 

Suez. 

The figure has the aperture of a Diala, but Issel describes the 
columella as above. 
L. JEFFREYSIANA, Issel. PL 53, fig. 77. 

Whitish, subpellucid, shining, smooth ; whorls 9-10, the last 
subangulate above and below ; columella straight, subtruncate at 
the base. Length, 2 mill. 

Red Sea. 

Possibly synonymous with L. melanostoma. 

L. BELANGERT, Eyd. et Soul. PL 53, fig. 79. 

Longitudinally costate towards the apex, very finely spirally 
striate elsewhere, reddish brown, with darker spiral bands ; colum- 
ella not truncate below. Length, 6 mill. 

China Sea. 



Un figured Species. 

L. VENTROSA, A. Ad., and var. MENOR, Nevill. Indian Ocean. 

L. EFFUSA, and L. OBESA, C. B. Ad. Jamaica. 

L. VENTROSA and L. CARINATA, Pfr. Cuba. 

Subgenus ALABA, A. Ad., 1862. 

All the species of the typical group (most of them by Arthur 
Adams), remain unfigurecl, and I have no reliably determined 
specimens from which to represent the types. 



Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

L. TERVARICOSA, L. MELANURA, C. B. Ad. Jamaica. 

Cingula prcpMsta, Recluz is said to be a synonym of the last- 
named species. 



282 LITIOPA. 

L. SUPRALIRATA, L. VIOLACEA, L. TEKEBRALIS, L. ALABASTRITE8, 

L. CONICA, L. SCALATA, L. MUTANS, Carp. Mdzatlan. 

L. PICTA, L. LEUCOSTICTA, L. CORNEA, L. ZEBRINA, L. IMBRICATA, 
L. FELINA, L. LUCIDA, L. INFLATA, and L. SUBANGULATA, A. 

Ad. Japan. 

L. VIBEX, L. PULCHRA, L. PAGODULA, A. Ad. Australia. 

L. BLANFORDI, A. Ad. Siam. 

L. PUNcft>STRiATA, Gould. Loo Choo Is. 

L. SENEGALENSIS, Maltzan. Senegal. 

L. RECTANGULA, Craven. Ceylon. 

L. WOOD-MASONIANA, Nevill. Andaman Is. 

L. DORI^E, Issel. Suez. 

L. St. CLAR.E, Tenison Woods. Tasmania. 

Subgenus DIALA, A. Ad., 1862. 

L. SEMISTRIATA, Phil. PI. 53, fig. 81. 

Thin, reddish brown, variegated with a lighter shade ; whorls 
7, flattened, the last with subangulated periphery, spirally ribbed 
and sulcate below it. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Mauritius, Japan, Hong Kong, Bombay, Suez, etc. 

It is L. macula (Recluz), Nevill, and L. varia, A. Ad. 

L. INCERTA, d'Orbigny. PL 70, fig. 64a. 

This species, which I placed among the unfigured Eulimidae in 
vol. viii, 278, was figured in the Moll. Cuba. I now add illustra- 
tion and description. 

Shell smooth, polished, whitish, with spiral white maculations ; 
whorls 8, the last a little angulated, striated below. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Cuba. 

L. MARTENSE, Issel. PL 53, fig. 82. 

Shining, closely spirally striated ; whorls 71, subplanulate, with 
deep suture, last whorl with obtusely angulated periphery, and spi- 
rally sulcate below it. Length, 2*25 mill. 

Red Sea (subfossil.) 

L. LAUTA, A. Ad. PL 53, fig. 83. 

Whitish, with spiral interrupted brown lines; whorls 7, flat- 
tened, spirally sulcate, periphery subangulate, sulci stronger on the 
base. Length, (5-7 mill. 

Port Adelaide, South Australia. 

L. punctata, Tenison Woods, is a synonym. 



LITIOPA. 283 

L. PHASIANELLA, Angas. PI. 53, fig. 84. 

Thin, semipellucid, smooth, whitish, encircled by several thread- 
like, more or less interrupted chestnut lines, with a band of alter- 
nate white and chestnut spots above the suture, and a few short 
longitudinal flames beneath them. Length, 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

The original description gives the whorls as nearly flat, but in 
the figure they are moderately rounded. 
L. ALBUGO, Watson. PI. 53, fig. 88. 

Spirally striated, fulvous, spotted with white in spiral lines, and 
irregular broad longitudinal strigations, and forming irregular 
white bands at the top of the whorls and angulated periphery ; 
whorls 6, flattened. Length', 3 '3 mill. 

Wednesday IsL, N. E. Australia. 
L. SUTURALIS, A. Ad. PI. 53, fig. 85. 

Subumbilicated, white, shining, subdiaphanous ; whorls 7, flat- 
tened, with channeled suture, spirally sulcate, last whorl subsolute, 
with subangulated periphery, and narrow bands articulated with 
white ; columellar lip obsoletely plicate. Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 
L. LEITHI, E. A. Smith. PL 53, fig. 86. 

Imperforate, thin, yellowish, with narrow chestnut bands, two in 
the last whorl ; whorls 9, convex, spirally striate, the last whorl ob- 
tusely angulated. Length, 7'5 mill. 

California. 

In error the figure accompanying the original description is la- 
belled Carinifex Ponsonbyi. 
L. MARMOREA, Carp. PL 53, fig. 87. 

Solid, glossy, whitish, with faint chestnut longitudinal strigations ; 
whorls flattened, periphery faintly angulated. Length, 5 mill. 

Monterey, Cal. 
L. LIMN^EIFORMIS, Watson. PL 53, fig. 89. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, smooth, whitish horny ; whorls 3, rapidly 
increasing, suture deep ; columella subtruncate. Length, 2'25 mill. 

Prince Edward's Isl. 



Unfigured and Undetermined Species of Diala. 
L. MONILE, A. Ad. (L. tessellata, Tenison Woods, a syn.) 

Australia. 
L. TUMIDA, Tenison Woods. Tasmania. 



284 LITIOPA. 

L. ACUTA, and L. ELECTRINA, Carp. California, Lower California. 
L. PAUPERCULA, C. B. Ad. (L. mammillata, Carp.) 

Panama, Mazatlan. 

L. SUCCINCTA, A. Ad. Suez. 

L. SULCIFERA, A. Ad. Japan. 

L. RUFILABRIS, A. Ad. (Is a Hydrobia.) Australia. 

L. TENUIS and L. SIMPLEX, E. A. Smith. Japan. 

Subgenus STYLIFERINA, A. Ad., 1860. 

See Monograph of Eulimidse, Manual, viii, 286. 

The following additional species are published in the Keport of 
the Challenger Expedition, in which work the group is referred to 
Litiopidse. 
L. STRIATA, Watson. PI. 53, fig. 80. 

Spirally striated and longitudinally ribbed, the intersections 
nodulous, style short, cylindrical, whorls convex, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5, besides 3 smooth whorls of the style ; columella a little 

truncate below. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Tahiti. 
L. FULVA, Watson. PI. 53, fig. 90. 

Fulvous, narrowly, distantly longitudinally ribbed, more closely 
spirally striate ; apical whorls 2, smooth, the others 10, convex, 
periphery slightly angulate ; columella obliquely, slightly truncate. 

Length, 3'3 mill. 

Cape York, N. E. Australia. 
L. SULCATA, Watson. PL 53, fig. 91. 

White, spirally striated, the striae obsolete on the middle of the 
body whorl ; apex scarcely styliform, normal whorls 5, convex. 

Length, 1'75 mill. 

Cape York, N. E. Australia. 

The appearance of a canal in the figure is caused by a portion of 
the base of the aperture being broken off. Watson remarks that it 
may be the young shell of some other genus. 
L. GONIOCIIKILA, A. Ad. PL 53, fig. 92. 

Thin, vitreous, pellucid, with a single spiral series of milk-white 
maculations on the middle; whorls 9, somewhat convex, suture 
margined. Length, 5 mill. 

Japan. 

This was included among the unfigured species of Eulimidse, in 
Manual, viii, 280. 1 am now able to add a figure from the Chal- 
lenger Report. 

L. LIOIMDA, A. Ad. (unfigured.) Japan. 



GIRAUDID^E-REYMONDIA. 285 

FAMILY GIEAUDID^E. 
Genus GIRAUDIA, Bourg., 1885. 

G. PRJECLARA, G. GRANDIDIERIANA, Bourg. (unfigured.) 

Lake Tanganyika. 

Genus REYMONDIA, Bourg., 1885. 

R. HOREI, Smith. PL 70, fig. 64b. 

Smooth, chestnut colored, with a white line beneath the suture ; 
whorls 62, scarcely convex, suture simple, last whorl rising some- 
what upon the preceding near the aperture, then suddenly descend- 
ing, furnished with a slight basal thickening ; lip a little thickened, 
especially towards the suture, somewhat patulous near the base. 

Length, 14 mill. 

Lake Tanganyika. 

Described as a doubtful Melanian. From the figure, it appears 
to me to be not very distantly related to Melanopsis. 



R. GIRAUDI, Bourg. (unfigured.) Lake Tanganyika. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY, 



LITTORINID/E. 



Abbreviata (Planaxis), Pse. Zool. Proc., 1865, p. 515, . . 277 
Aberrans (Littorina), Phil. Zool, Proc., p. 142, 1845, . . 245 
Abjectus (Fossarus), C. B. Ad. Cat. Panama, . . . 274 
Acuminata (Littorina), Gld. Bost. Proc., iii, p. 88, 1849, . 252 
Acuta (Diala), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 218, 1868, . . .284 
Acuta (Littorina), Menke. Moll. Nov. Hollan., p. 9, 1843. ' 

= L. Mauritiana, Lara. ....... 247 

Acutus (Planaxis), Krauss. Sudafrik Moll, p. 103, t. 6, f. 2, 

1848. = P. nigra, Quoy. . . . . . .27* 

Acutus (Planaxis), Menke (not Krauss.) Zeitsch. fur Malak., 

p. 169, 1850. = P. nigritellus, Forbes, . . . .278 
Adamsi (Cithna), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. Ill, t. 20, f. 10, 

1883, 268 

Adamsi (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 85, a, b., 1857, . 255 
Adamsiana (Conradia), Nevill. Hand List, p. 169, 1885, . 274 
Adamsianus (Fossarus), Fisch. Jour. Conch., 259, 1864. 

- F. clathratus, A. Ad 274 

Adansoni (Fossarus), Phil. Arch, fiir Natnrg., i, p. 47, 1841. 

= F. ambiguus, Linn 271 

Jilstuarii (Littorina obtusata, var.), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., v, 

p. 205, t. 101, f. 8, 253 

Affinis (Littorina), d'Orb. Moll. Canaries, p. 79, t. 6, f. 11, 12. 

= L. striata, King 247 

Africana (Littorina), Krauss. Sudafrik. Moll., p. 102, . . 248 
Africana (Littorina), Rve. (not Phil.). Conch. Icon., f. 37. 

L. Mauritiana, Lam. ....... 247 

Ahenea (Litforina), Rve. (in part.) Conch. Icon., f. 13, b, c, 

1857. : L. lineata, Gmel 243 

Ahenea (Littorina), Rve. (in part.) Conch. Icon., f. 15a. 

= L. scabra, Linn. . . . . . . ... 243 

Alaba, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., x, 293, 1862, . 238, 281 
Alabastrites (Alaba), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 368, . . 282 
Albella (Lacuna), Loven. Index Moll. Scand., p. 23. 

= L. divaricata, Fab . . 266 

Albersi (Planaxis), Dkr. Nov. Conch. Supp., ii, t. 2, f. 35-87, 

1853. ? P. nigra, Quoy 278 

Albescens (Lacuna pallidula, var.), Thorpe. Brit. Mar. Conch., 

1844, 265 

Albicans (Littorina), Metcalfe. Zool. Proc., p. 73, 1851, . 253 

(286) 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 287 

PAGE. 

Albida (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., iii, p. 57, t. 7, f. 9, 1848. 

L. conspersa, Phil. ........ 249 

Albugo (Alaba), Watson. Challenger Exped., xv, p. 568, t. 

43, f. 3, 1886, . . . . 283 

Aleutica (Littorina), Dall. Calif. Proc., iv, p. 271, 1872, t. 1, 

f. 3. = L. Sitchami, Phil, var 241 

Ambigua (Fossarus), Linn. Syst. Nat. Ed., xii, p. 1251, . 271 
Ambigua (Littorina), Nutt. Mss. in Phil. Abbild., p. 56, t. 

7, f. 6. = L. pintado, Wood, 1846, 250 

Ambigua (Littorina), Rve. (not Nutt.). Conch. Icon., f. 64, 

1857. = L. picta, Phil, var 248 

Angiostoma (Fossarus), C. B. Ad. Ann. Lyceum, p. 394, . 274 
Angulata (Margarita),. A. Ad. . Zool. Proc., p. 190, 1851. 

= Risella tantilla, Gould 263 

Angulata (Monodonta), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., 1845. 

= M. unideus, Lister. ........ 261 

Angulatus (Fossarus), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 354, . . 274 
Angulifera (Littorina), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 54. 

L. scabra, Linn. ........ 243 

Angustior (Littorina), Morch. Mai. Blatt., p. 139, 1876. 

L. ziczac, Chemn. . . . . . . . .251 

Anomalus (Fossarus), C. B. Ad. Contrib., p. 109, . . . 273 
Antarctica (Lacuna), Martens. Sitz.-Bericht. Berlin, p. 92, 

1885, 267 

Antipodum (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., t. 4, f. 2, 1847. 

= L. Mauritiann, Lam. ....... 247 

Antoni (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., ii, t. 2, f. 18. 

= L. dilatata, d'Orb. . 258 

Apicina (Littorina), Menke. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 164, 1850, 255 
Appressus (Fossarus), Nevill. Hand List, p. 167, 1884, . . 273 
Aquilonaria, Dall. Proc. IT. 8. Nat. Mus., p. 204, 1886, . 230, 255 
Araucana (Littorina), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 393, t. 

53, f. 8-10. = L. Paytensis, Phil 250 

Arboricola (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 27, a, b. 

= L. scabra, Linn. v:ir. ....... 244 

Arctica (Lacuna), Phil. Conch. Cab., p. 41, t. 6, f. 5, 1853. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr. ....... 266 

Arctica (Littorina), Moll. Fauna Gronlandica, p. 9. 

= L. littoralis, Linn. . . . . . . . . 242 

Ardouinianum (Leptopoma), Heude. Hist. Nat. Empire 
Chin., iii, t. 25 ; Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 55, 1885. 
= Littorina, ......... 253 

Arenica (Littorina), Nutt. Dkr. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 166, 

1845. = L. striata, King 247 

Areolatus (Planaxis), Lesson. Revue Zoologique, 187, 1842, . 280 
Armata (Littorina), Issel. Mar Rosso., p. 192, t. 11, f. 7, . 257 
Articulata (Littorina intermedia, var.), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 
1.41, 1845, . . . ... . . . .244 



288 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PYGE. 

Articulata (Littorina melanostoma, var.), Nevill. Hand List, 

p. 151, 1884, ... 245 

Articulata (Littorina scabra, var.), Menke (in letter), Phil. 

Abbild., t. 5, f. 4, 1847, ....... 243 

Aspera (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 139, 1845, . 249 

Atra (Planaxis), Pse. Amer. Jour. Conch., v, p. 72, t. 8, f. 4, 

1869. c= R lineatus, DaCosta 278 

Atratus (Fossarus), Ad. Panama Shells, 271, 1852, . . 272 
Atresius, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, 268, 1869, . . . .237 
Atropurpureus (Planaxis), Recluz. Rev. Zool. Cuv., p. 261, 

1843, .278 

Aurantiaca (Lacuna unifasciata, var.), Carp. Zool. Proc., 1856, 

p. 205 ; 2d Report, 656, 267 

Aurata (Risella), Quoy. Voy. Astr., iii, p. 276, t. 62, f. 15, 

16. = R. melanostoma, Gmel. . . . . . . 262 

Aurea (Littorina), Bonnet. Guerin's Rev. & Mag., xvi, p. 

281, t. 22, f. 4, 1864. ? == L. lineata, Gmel. . . .243 

Auricularis (Lacuna), Mtg. Test. Brit., 308, 1806. 

= L. puteolus, Turton. ....... 265 

Australis (Littorina), Gray. Beechey's Voy., p. 141, 1839. 

- Risella nana, Lam 262 

Azonus (Megalomphalus), Brus. Conch. Dalm., p. 29, 1865, . 268 

Badia (Raulinia), Ten ison- Woods. Linn. Soc. N. 8. W., ii, p. 

264, 1878, ... . 274 

Balteata (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 71, a, b, 1857. 

= L. brevicula, Phil. var. ....... 241 

Basterotii (Littorina), Payr. Moll. Corse, p. 115, t. 5, f. 19, 

20, 1826. = L. neritoides, Linn. . . . . .252 

Beanii (Littorina), Macgilliv. Aberdeen. S., 179. 

= L. obtusata, Linn. var. ....... 253 

Beccarii (Littorina), Tapp. Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, 

vii, p. 1031, 1875, 255 

Bellarigeri (Litiopa), Eyd. & Soul. Voy. Bonite, p. 586, 1852, 281 
Bembicium, Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., 1846. 

= Risella, Gray 232 

Bicarinata (Littorina), Gray, Wood. Supp., t. 6, f. 47. 

= L. varia, Sowb. 246 

Bicarinatus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 187, t. 20, f. 11, 

12, 1853. = Separatists . .... 274 

Bicolor (Littorina), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 31. 

== L. pagoda, Linn. ........ 256 

Bifasciata (Phasianella), Brown. Illust. Brit. Shells, t. 46, f. 

44, 45. - Lacuna quadrifasciata, Mont 266 

Blanfordi (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., x, p. 296, 1862, . 282 
Blanfordi (Littorina), Dkr. Mai. Bliitt., xviii, p. 150, 1871, . 255 
Bombix (Litiopa), Gray. Syst. Arrang., p. 70. 

= L. melanostoma, Rang. ....... 280 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 289 

PAGE. 

Bombix (Litiopa), Rang. Ann. Sci. Nat., p. 303, 1829, . . 281 
Bombyxinus, Belanger. Lesson, Illust. de Zool. Append., 1834. 

= Litiopa, Rang. . 238 

Borealis (Lacuna), Phil. Conch. Cab., p. 39, t. 6, f. 2, 1853. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr 266 

Bourguignati (Lacuna), Rochbr. Bull. Soc. Philom., 30, 1881, 266 
Brachytrema, Morris & Lycett. ...... 231 

Brazieri (Fossarina), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 18, t. 1, f. 24, 

1871, 275 

Brazilianum (Buccinum), Lara. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 272, 

1822. Planaxis mollis, Sowb 279 

Brevicula (Littorina), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malac., p. 166, 1844. 

= L. Sitchana. Phil, var 241 

Breviculus (Planaxis), Desh. Mag. Zool., t. 108, 1844. 

= P. sulcatus, Born. 277 

Brevis (Planaxis), Quoy. Voy. Astr., ii, p. 488, t. 33, f. 30- 

32, 1832. ? = P. sulcatus, Born. Juv 276 

Bronni (Planaxis), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., viii, p. 41, 1862. 

= P. labiosus, A. Ad . . 279 

Bruni (Rissella), Crosse. Journ. de Conch., p. 239, t. 11, f. 3, 

1864. = R. melanostoma, Gmel 262 

Buccinoides (Planaxis), Desh. Anim. sans Vert. Ed., 2, ix, p. 

237. a P. sulcatus, Born 276 

Buccinea (Planaxis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 272, 1851, . . 280 
Bulimoides (Fossarus), Tenisoii Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

p. 148, 1876, 274 

Bullata (Littorina), Martyn. Univ. Conch., p. 38, . . . 257 

Cserulescens (Turbo), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. Desh. Edit., ix, 

p. 217. = Littorina neritoides, Linn. .... 252 

Caledonicus (Fossarus), Crosse. Journ. de Conch., p. 206, 

1874, xxiii, p. 139, t. 6, f. 6, 1875, 263 

Caliginosa (Littorina), Old. Bost. Proc., iii, p. 83, 1849, . 254 
Canaliculata (Planaxis), Duval. Rev. Zool. Cuv., p. 107, 

1840. = P. planicostatus, Sowb. . ... 277 

( 'analiculatus (Cremnoconchus conicus; var.), Blanford. Journ. 

Asiat.Soc. Bengal, xxxix, p. 10, t. 3, f. 4, 1870, . . 256 

Canaliculatus (Modulus), Beck, Mss. Morch, Mai. Blatt., 

xxiii, p. 131, 1876, . . . . ' . . . .262 

Canalis (Lacuna), Mont. Test. Brit., p. 309, t. 12, f. 11. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr. ....... 266 

Canariensis (Littorina), d'Orb. Moll. Canaries, p. 78, t. 6, f. 

<S-10. = L. striata, King. ... ... 247 

Candid us (Modulus), Petit. Journ. de Conch., p. 132, t. 6, f. 

11, 18.^. = M. tectum, Chemn 260 

Carehedonicus (Monodonta), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 

33,1822. = Modulus unidens, Lister 261 

19 



290 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Carinata (Cithna), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. Ill, t. 20, f. 9, 

1883, . 269 

Carinata (Lacuna), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, p. 75, 1848. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr 266 

Carinata (Litiopa), Pfr. Archiv. fur Naturg., i, p. 255, 1840, 281 
Carinata (Littorina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, p. 209, t. 15, f. 1-4, 

1853. == L. ziczac, Chemn .251 

Carinatus (Anculotus), Layard. Zool. Proc., p. 94, 1854. 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., xxxix, t. 3, f. 5, . . . 256 

Carinifera (Lacuna), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 225, 1851, . . 270 
Carinifera (Littorina), Menke. Synopsis, 2d Edit., p. 51. 

= L. scabra, Linn. var. ....... 244 

Castanea (Littorina), Ad. & Rve. Voy. Samarang., p. 49, t. 

11, f. 8, 1848. = L. Sitchana, PhiL var. . . . . .241 

Castanea (Littorina), Desh. Anim. sans Vert., ix, p. 206. 

L. obligata, Say. ........ 241 

Castanea (Planaxis), Smith. Zool. Proc., 41, 1872. 

? P. nigra, Quoy, var 278 

Catenulatus (Modulus), Phil., 1847. Kust. Conch., p. 110, t. 

1-8, f. 4. : M. unidens, Lister .261 

Cecillei (Littorina), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 78, 1851, . 260 
Cereus (Fossarus), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 97, 

1881, 274 

Cerodes (Modulus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 204, 1850, . . 2ol 
Cicatricosa (Rissella), Jonas. Phil. Abbild., iii, Trochus., t. 2, 

f. 2. R. melanostoma, Ginel. ...... 262 

Cidaris (Modulus). Rve. Elements of Conch., 1. 13, f. 63, 1849. 

M. tectum, Gmel 2(>0 

( mcta (Cithna), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. Ill, t. 20, f. 8, 1883, 269 
Cincta (Littorina), Gld. Bost. Proc., ii, 1847. 

= L. Sitchana, Phil, var 241 

Cincta (Littorina), Quoy. Voy. Astr., ii, p. 481, t. 33, f. 20, 

21, 1832. = L. Mauritiana, Lam. ... . 247 

Cinerea (Littorina), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., v, p. 78, t. 8, 

f. 14, 1869. = L. millegrana, Phil. var. . . . 2l>0 

Cingulata (Cithna), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 182, t, 

32, f. 7, 1884, 269 

Cingulata (Littorina), Pfr. C. B. Ad. Cat., p. 19. 

= L. floccosa, Beck. . . . . . . . . 2-')l 

Cingulata (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc,, p. 142, 1845. 

= L. scabra, Linn. var. ....... 244 

Cingulatus (Planaxis), A. Ad. Thes. Conch., p. 175, f. 39, . 27* 
( -iiiii'iilatus (Planaxis), Gld. (not Adams.) Bost, Proc., vii, p. 

385,1861. P. Gouldi, E. A. Smith 2NO 

C'mirulifora (Littorina), Dkr. Zcitscli. fur Malak., p. 16(>, 

1845, . . . . 2f)0 

( 'iniiMiliferus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., v, p. 410, 

I860, . .273 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 291 

PAGE. 

Circinata (Planaxis), Lesson. Rev. Zool. Cuv., p. 187, 1842. 
P. planicostatus, Sowb. . . . . . . .277 

Cithna, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 113, 1863, . . . 234, 268 
Clathratus (Fossarus), A. Ad. (not Phil.). Ann. &. Mag., v, 

p. 410, 1860, . . 274 

Clathratus (Fossarus), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 148, t. 

25, f. 5. = F. costatus, Brocc. . . . . . .272 

Clathrella, Recluz. Journ. de Conch., p. 251, 1864. 

= Phasianema, S. Wood 235 

Clausa (Lacuna puteolus, var.), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iii, 

349, 265 

Coccineus (Limax), Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 68. 

- Littorina obesa, Sowb 247 

Columellaris (Littorina), d'Orb.' Moll. Cuba, t. 13, f. 18-20, 

1840, .... 245 

Columna (Littorina), Jonas (in letter), Phil. Abbild., iii, p. 

14, t. 6, f. 15, 1847, 251 

Compacta (Lacuna), Carp. Ann. & Mag., xiv, p. 428, 1864. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr. . 266 

Concolor (Littorina scabra, var.), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 37, t. 

4, f. 8-11, 1882, . . . . . . . . .243 

Conica (Alaba), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 368, . . . 282 
Conica (Lacuna puteolus, var.), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iii, 

349, 265 

Conica (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 141, 1845. 

= L. undulata, Gray. . . . . . . . . 244 

Conicus (Cremnoconchus), Blanford. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Ben- 
gal, xxxix, p. 10, t. 3, f. 3, 1870, ... . 256 

Conoidalis (Risella), Pease. Arner. Journ. Conch., iii, 287, 

1867, 263 

Conoideus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. Ill, 1863, . 273 
Conradia, A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., v, p. 409, 1860, . . 236, 273 
Conspersa (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., t. 4, f. 14, 1847. 

= L. aspera, Phil. var. ....... 249 

Convexior (Modulus), Beck, Mss. Morch, Mai. Blatt., xxiii, 

p. 129, 1876, . i . . /.'/. . . .262 

Cornea (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., viii, p. 243, 1861 ; x, 

295, 1862. = Alaba. ... ... 282 

Cornea (Phasianella), Brown. Conch. Gt. Brit. 

= Lacuna divaricata, Turt. ...... 266 

Coronaria (Littorina), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 33, . 257 
Coronatus (Tectarius), Valenc. in Humboldt. Rec. d'Observ. 

de Zool., p. 271. Littorina bullata, Mart. . . .257 
Costata (Adeorbis), Garr. Calif. Proc., p. 103. 

= Fossar Garrettii, Pse 272 

Costatus (Fossarus), Brocc. Conch. Foss. Subapp., p. 300, t. 1, 

f. 11, . . .272 



292 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Costatus (Fossarus), Scacc. Osserv. Zool., p. 24. 

- F. ambiguus, Linn. . . . . . . .271 

Costulata (Cithna tenella, var.), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 110, 

1883, 268 

Costulata (Littorina), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite., ii, 561. 

- L. varia, Sowb. ........ 246 

Costulata (Littorina tenebrosa var.), Midd. Malac. Ross., ii, 

p. 61, t. 8, f. 6-8. == L. rudis, Donov 241 

Couthouyia, A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., v, p. 410, 1860, . 236, 273 
Crassa (Risella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., viii, p. 42, 1862. 

? R. melanostoma, Gmel. ....... 262 

Crassior (Lacuna), Montg. Test. Brit. Suppl., p. 127, t. 20, . 267 
Crassispira (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., ix, p. 39, 

1872, 277 

Cremnobates, Blanford. Ann. & Mag., xii, p. 184, 1868. 

= Cremnoconchus, Blanford. ...... 231 

Cremnoconchus, Blanford. Ann. & Mag., iii, p. 343, 1869, . 231 
Crosseana (Natica), Kleciak in Weink. Conch. Mittelm., ii, 

p. 257, 1868. = Megalomphalus azonea, Brus. . . . 268 

Cubana (Littorina), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 68, t. 9, f. 2, 3, 

1882. ? = L. columellaris, Orb. var 246 

Cumingii (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 187, 1853, . . 274 

Cumingii (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 138, 1845, . . 257 

Cyclocheila, Conrad. . 233 

Cyclostoma (Limnotrochus), Bourg. Not. Moll. Lac Tangan- 
yika, p. 60, 1885, ... . 265 

Debilis (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 140, 1845. 

= L. ziczac, Chemn. ........ 251 

Decollata (Littorina), Krauss (in letter), Phil. Abbild., t. 4, 

f. 3, 1847. = L. Africana, Krauss 249 

Decollata (Planaxis), Quoy. Voy. Astr., ii, p. 489, t. 33, f. 

33-34, 1832, 280 

Decorata (Lacuna), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., viii, p. 304, 1861, 270 
Decussata (Litiopa), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, p. 75, 1848. 

= L. melanostoma, Rang. ....... 281 

Decussatus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., v, p. 410, 1860, 273 
Delicatula (Fossarus reticulatus, var.), NevilL Hand List, p. 

166, 1884, .... .... 273 

Delicatula (Littorina conica, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 149, 

1884. = L. undulata, Gray 244 

Depressa (Megalomphalus), Sequenza. Bull. Real Comit. 

Geol. Ital., i'i, p. &S2, 1*74; Jeffreys, Zool, Proc., 41, 1885, 267 
Diala, A, Ad. Ann. & Mag., viii, p. 242, 1861, . . 239, 282 
Dicniononsis ( Littorina), Quoy. Voy. Astr., ii, p. 479, t. 33, 

f. 8-11, 1832. = L. Mauritiana, Lain 247 

Dilatata (Littorina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, i, p. 207, t. 14, f. 20- 

2: 1 ,, 1853. T. iKxlulosus, (jmel. . . . .258 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 293 

PAGE. 

Diminutivus (Troohus), Rve. Conch. Icon., xiii, f. 57, 1861. 

= Risella tantilla, Gid . . 263 

Disculus (Modulus), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., 51, 1846, . 261 

Divaricata (Lacuna), Fabr. Faun. Grcenl., p. 392, 1780, . 266 
Divisa (Litiopa), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 234, 1855. 

= L. melanostpma, Rang. ....... 281 

Doliaris (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 112, 1863, . . 273 
D'Orbignyana (Littorina), Phil. Abbild. iii, f. 12. 

= L. ziczac, Chemn . . 251 

Doria3 (Alaba), Issel. Nevill, Hand List, 183, . . .282 
Dorsuosus (Modulus), Gould. Mex. & Cal. Shells, 10, t. 14, f. 

12. = M. disculus, Phil 261 

Duplicatus (Modulus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 204, 1850, . 262 

Ebeninus (Planaxis), Menke. Troschel, Archiv fiir Naturg., 

i, 162, 1852, . 280 

Eboreus (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., ii, p. 42, 

181. = P. lineatus, DaCosta 278 

Ecanaliculata (Lacuna divaricata, var). Jeffreys, Jour. Linn. 

Soc. xii, 106, . . . 266 

Echinata (Littorina), Anton. Verz. p. 53, 

= L. miliaris, Quoy. ........ 259 

Echinella, Swainson, Treat. Malac. 211, 352, 1840, . . 231 

Echinulatus (Trochits), Kien. Species, t. 43, f. 2. 

= Littorina Cumingi, Phil. ...... 257 

Edecollata (Cremnoconchus cOnicus, Var). Nevill, Hand List. 

p. 171, 1885, . .256 

Effusa (Lacuna porrecta, var). Carp. Ann. & Mag. xiv, p. 

428, 1864, 266 

Effusa (Litiopa), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch, p. 71, 1849-1852, 281 
Electrina (Diala), Carp. Ann. & Mag. 478, 1864, . . 284 

Elegans (Fossarus), Verill & Smith. Conn. Trans, v, p. 522, 

t. 47, f. 38, 1882, . . 271 

Elegans (Littorina bullata, var). Phil. Abbild. und Beschreib., 

t. 2, 1846, v 257 

Elegans (Littorina), Risso. Hist, iv, f. 46, 1826, 

= L. neritoides, Linn. ....... 252 

Encaustics (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag. ix, p. 38, 

1872. = P. Savignyi, Desh. var. . . .-.:-. .277 
Epheria, (Leach), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, xx, 1847, . 233 
Erronea (Littorina), Nevill, Hand List. p. 152, 1884, 

L. Novae Zelandise, Reeve. ...... 249 

Ersilia, Monts. Conch. Med. p. 33, 1872 233 

Exsequata (Lacuna porrecta, var). Carp. Ann. & Mag. xiv, 

p. 428, 1864, 266 

Exarata (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., iii, p. 57, t. 7, f. 8, 1848, 

= L. irrorata, Say. ........ 246 

Excavatus (Fossarus), C. B. Ad. Ann. N. Y. Lyceum, p. 392, 274 



294 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Excavatus (Fossarus), Moots. Enum. 37, .... 268 

Exigua (Littorina), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. vi, p. 226, 1860, 

= L. granularis, Gray. ....... 260 

Expansa (Lacuna puteolus, var). Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, 350, 265 

Fabalis (Littorina), Turton. Zool. Journ. ii, p. 366, t. 13, f. 

16. = L. obtusata, Linn, var. ...... 253 

Fairbanki (Cremnocconchus), Blanf. Conch. Ind. t. 146, f. 7, 

= C. conicus' Blanf. 256 

Fasciata (Lacuna), Ad. Linn. Trans, v, t. 1, f. 20, 1. 

= L. puteola, Turton. . . 265 

Fasciata (Littorina angustior, var). Morch, Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 

p. 139, 1876. = L. ziczac, Chemn 251 

Fasciata (Littorina), Gray. Beechey's Voy. p. 139, 1839. 

= L. varia, Sowb .246 

Fasciatus (Planaxis), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch, iv, p. 102, t. 

12, f. 17, 1868. = PL lineatus, DaCosta 278 

Feejeensis (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 82, a. b. 1857. 

= L. miliaris, Quoy. var. ....... 259 

Felina (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. x, p. 297, 1862, . . 282 
Fenestrata (Isapis), Carp. Ann. & Mag. xiv, p. 429, 1864, . 272 
Fenestratus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 110, 1863, . 274 
Filosa (Littorina), Sowb. Gen. of Shells. No. 37, f. 5. 

= L. scabra, Linn. Var. ...*.... 244 

Filosus (Trochus), Helbling. Privat. Bohmen, iv, 1779. 

= Modulus lenticularis, Chemn. ..... 261 

Fimbriata (Risella), Phil. Zeitsch. far Malak. p. 32, 1851. 

= R. melanostoma, Gmel. . . . . . . . 262 

Fissilabra, Brown, Edinb. Jour. Nat. Hist. 1836, 

= Quoyia, Desh. 1830 238 

Flammea '(Littorina), Phil. Abbild. ii, t, 6, f. 21, . . . 245 
Flammulata (Littorina scabra, var), Phil. Abbild. ii, 222, 

1847 243 

Flava (Littorina), Brod. Zool. Journ. p. 345, 1832, 

L. columellaris, Orb. Var. ...... 246 

Flavescens (Littorina angulifera, var), Phil. Abbild. ii, 22, 

1847. - L lineata, Gmel. 243 

Flavescens (Risella), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 39, 1851. 

= R. melanostoma, Gmel. . . . . . . . 262 

Floccosa (Littorina), Beck. Morch. Mai. Blatt. p. 140, 1876. 
= L. ziczac, Chemn. var. ....... 251 

Floridanus (Modulus), Conr. Amer. Journ. Conch, v, p. 107, 

t. 12, f. 6, 1870, ..... . . 260 

Fortisulcata (Littorina conspersa, var), Nevill. Hand List 

Moll. p. 138, 1884, .... .249 

Fortune! (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 42, a. b. 1857. 

= L. flammea, Phil 245 

Fossarina, A. Ad. & Angus.. Zool. Proc. p. 423, 1863, 236, 27f> 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 295 

PAGE 

Fossariopsis, Laube, 1870, ....... 236 

Fossarus, Phil. Archiv fur Naturg. i, p. 47, 1841, 235, 271 

Foveatus (Fossarus), C. B. Ad. Ann. Lyceum, p. 397, . . 274 
Fraseri (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 47, 60, 1857, 

- L. punctata, Gmel. var. ..... . 248 

Frigida (Lacuna), Loven. Index, Moll. Scandin. p. 23. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr. . . . . . . 266 

Fulva (Alaba), Watson. Challenger Exped, xv, p. 571, t. 42, 

f. 5, 1886, . .284 

Fulva (Planaxis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 271, 1851. 

= P. mollis, Sowb. var. . .'.'. . . > .279 

Funiculata (Fossarina), Tenison-Woods. Roy. Soc. Victoria, 

xvii, p. 81, t. f. 6-8, 1881, .... .275 

Fusca (Lacuna,) Binn. Invert. Mass. p. 263. 

= L. divaricata, Fab. . . . . . . . 266 

Fusca (Littorina), Pfr. Arch, fiir Naturg. 254, 1840. 

= L. mespilum, Muhlf. . 252 

Gaidei (Littorina), Montr. Jo urn. de Conch, xxvii, p. 26, t. 3, 

f. 3, 3a 263 

Garrettii (Fossar), Pease. Amer. Journ. Conch, iv, p. 128, 

1868, . 272 

Gigantea (Cremnoconchus, carinatus, var), Nevill Hand List. 

p. 173. 1885, 256 

Giraudia, Bourg. Not. Moll. Lac Tanganyika, p. 61, 1885. 239, 285 
Giraudi (Linmotrochus), Bourg. Not. Moll. Lac Tanganyika, 

p. 59, 1885, . .265 

Giraudi (Reymondia), Bourg. Not. Moll. L. Tanganyika, 

(io, 1885 285 

Glabella (Hela), Monts. Atti Acad. Palermo, p. 25, 1875, . 270 
Glabrata (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc. p. 140, 1845, 

= L. ziczac, Chemn. ........ 251 

Glabrata (Paludina), Pfr. Naturg. Deutsch. Conch, iii, p. 46, 

t. 8, f. 9, 10. = Littorina Neritoides, Linn. . . . 252 

Glacialis (Lacuna) Moller. Index. Noll. Grcenl. p. 9, 1842, . 267 
Glaucocincta (Littorina), Beck. Mss. 

= L. floccosa, Beck, ........ 251 

Glaus (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 62, a. b. 1857. 

= T. granosus, Phil . . , .259 

Globosa (Littorina), Dkr. Zeitsch. fiir Malak. p. 165, 1845. 

= L. striata, King 247 

Globosus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 113, 1863, . . 270 
Goniocheila (Styliferiiia), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, p. 335, 

I860; x, p. 299, 1862, 284 

Gottoina, A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 112, 1863, . . 236, 274 
Gouldi (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag. ix, p. 42, 1872, 280 
Gouldiana (Littorina), Weink. Conch. Cab. p. 105, 1882. 

=L. Sitchana; Phil. 241 



296 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Gracilior (Lacuna), Metcalfe. Thorpe, Brit. Mar. Conch, f. 86. 

L. divaricata, Fabr. ....... 266 

Grandidieriana (Giraudia), Bourg. Not. Moll. Lac Tanganyika, 

p. 63, 1885, . . . . ' . . . ...-'. .285 

Grandinatus (Trochus) Chemn. Conch. Cab. f. 1639. 

= Littorina bullata, Martyn. . . . . . .257 

Grandis (Littorina), Middendorff. Beitr. Malac. Rossica. Pt. 

2, p. 57, 1849, . 240 

Grauo-costata (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 79, 1857. 

= T. miliaris, Quoy. ........ 259 

Granosa (Littorina), Phil. Abbild. iii, p. 65, t. 7, f. 14, 1848, 259 
Granularis (Littorina), Gray. Beechey's Voy. p. 140, 1839, 260 
Granulura (Fossarus), Brugnone. Misc. Malac. p. 13, f. 25, 

1873, . 272 

Granum (Lsevilitorina), Pffr. Natur. Mus. Hamburg, p. 87, 

t. 1, f. 10, 1886, 254 

Grateloupiana (Litiopa), Drouet. Moll. A cores, p. 28, t. 1, f. 

1-2, 1858. = L. melanostoma, Rang 281 

Grisea (Planaxis), Brocchi. Cat. Conch. Raccolte G. Forni, 

p. 22, Savigny, Egypt, t. 4, f. 29. 

= P. Savignyi, Desh. ........ 277 

Grisea (Risella), Phil. Zietsch. fur Malak. p. 31, 1851. 

=R. melanostoma, Gmel. ....... 2(52 

Groenlaudica (Littorina), Menke. Synopsis, p. 45, 1830. 

= L. obligata, Say 241 

Gundlachi (Littorina), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 150, 1848. 

?= L. inespilum, Muhlf. 252 

Guttata (Littorina), Phil. Abbild. ii, 29, t. 4, f. 7, . . 248 
Guttata (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 76. 

L. punctata, Gmel 248 

Haloconcha, Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. p. 212, 1886, 234, 267 
Hanleyi (Planaxis), Smith, Ann. & Mag. ix, p. 41, 1872. 

P. nigra, Quoy. . . . . . . . . 27<S 

Heberti (Lacuna), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exper. vi, p. 113, t. 

3, f. 13, 1877, ... 270 

Hela, Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. vi, p. 76, 1870; Zool. Proc. 18*3. 

Cithna, A. Ad., ........ 2M4 

Heliciella, (). E. Costa, 1861. 

- megalomplmlus, Brus, (in part.) 234 

Hermannseni (Planaxis), Dkr. Ind. Moll. Guin. p. 16, t. 2, f. 

33,34,1853. P. lineatus, Linn 279 

Hersilia, Monte. Conch. Med. p. 33, 1872; Conch. Medit. 54, 

1884. = Ersilia, Monts 233 

Hidalgoi (Qnadrasia), Crosse, Journ. de Conch, p. 161, t. 8, f. 

7, 7a-c, 18,S<;, :;7!) 

Hinea (Leach) Gray. Zool. Proc. 138, 1M7, . . 238, 279 



UNI\ 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 297 

PAGE. 

Hisseyiana (Littorina), Tenison-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasm. p. 

148, 1875, 255 

Holcostoma, H. & A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 174, 1853, 238, 280 

Horei (Reymondia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, vi, 427, 1880, 285 

Imbricata (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. x, p. 297, 1862, . 282 
Imbricata (Risella), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. p. 141, 1839. 

= R. melanostoma, Gmel. . . 262 

Imperforatus (Fossarus), Nevill. Hand List. p. 165, 1884, . 274 
Incarnata (Littorina Groenlandica, var). Loven. (in Letter). 

Abbild. 1. 1, f. 11-13 241 

Incerta (Alaba) d'Orb. Cuba, 2, p. 218, t. 16, fig. 7-9, . 282 

Incisus (Planaxis), Phil. Zeitsch. far Malak. p. 92, 1851, . 280 
Ineptus (Planaxis), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 385, 1860. 

P. lineatus, Da 'Costa. . .... 278 

Inflata (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. x, p. 297, 1862, . 282 

Inflata (Hela), Monts. Not. Conch. Medit. p. 38, 1872, . 270 

Inflata (Lacuna), A. Ad. Ann & Mag. viii, p. 304, 1861, . 270 
Infracostata (Risella), Issel. Mai. mar Rosso, p. 195, 1869, 
Savigny, Egypt, t. 5, f. 40, ... ... 264 

Insignis (Fossarus), G. & H. Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 
xl, Pt. 2, p. 4, 5, t. 1, f. 9, 1871. 

= F. reticulatus, A. Ad 273 

Interjunctus (Fossarus), Jeffreys, Mss. Zool. Proc. 41, 1885. 

= F. reticulatus, S. Wood 272 

Intermedia (Lacuna) Locard. Cat. 290. 

= puteolus, Turton 265 

Intermedia (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc. p. 141, 1845. 

= L. scabra, Linn. var. . . . . . . . 244 

Iphitus, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. p. 113, 1883, . . . 236, 274 
Irrorata (Littorina), Rve. Couch. Icon. f. 56 a-b, 1857. 

s L. aspera, Phil 249 

Irrorata (Littorina), Say. Journ. Phila. Acad. ii, p. 239, . 246 
Isapis, H. & A. Ad. Gen. of Moll, i, 320, 1854, . 235, 272 
Isseli (Risella), Semper, in Sched. Issel, Mar. Risso. 194, 
Savigny, Egypt, t. 5, f. 35, not 35 e 263 

Jamaicensis (Littorina), C. B. Ad. Coutrib. p. 71, 1849-1852. 

= L. carinata, d'Orb. 251 

Japonicus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, p. 139, 1861, 

- F. costatus, Brocc. ........ 272 

Jeffreysiana (Litiopa), Issel. Mar Rosso. 290, t. 5, f. 4, 1869, 281 
Jugosus (Turbo), Mont. Test. Brit. t. 20, f. 2. 

= Littorina rudis, Maton. Var. ...... 241 

Kielmannseggi (Risella), Zelebor. Zool.-Bot. Vereins Vienna, 
xvi, p. 913, 1866. = R. melanostoma, Gmel. . . . 262 

Kirki (Limnotrochus,) E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag. vi, 426, 
1880, .' . 264 



298 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Knysnaensis (Littorina), Krauss. Phil. Abbild. t. 4, f. 4, 1847. 

= L. Africana, Krauss. ....... 249 

Krebsii (Modulus), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 129, 1876, . 262 
Kurila (Littorina), Middendorff. Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, 

vii, No. 16. = L. Sitchana, Phil 241 

Kutschigi (Stomatia), Brus. Verhand. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien. 

p. 29, 1865. ? Fossarus ambiguus, Linn. . . . 271 

Labiosa (Turbo), Brown. 

= Littorina patula, Thorpe. 242 

Labiosa (Lacuna) Loven. Index Moll. Scand. p. 23. 

= L. divaricata, Fab. . 266 

Labiosus (Planaxis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 272, 1851. 

=5= P. lineatus, Da Costa, Var. . . , . . .279 
Lacuna (Helix), Mont. Test. Brit. p. 428, t. 13, f. 6. 

= Lacuna puteola, Turt. ....... 265 

Lacuna, Turton. Zool. Journ. iii, p. 190, 1827, . 233, 265 
Lacunaria, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch, ii, 77, 1866. . . 234 
Lacunaria, Ball, (not Conr). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vii, p. viii, 

(errata) 1884. = Haloconcha, Dall. ..... 234 

Lacunella Dall. Proc. United States Nat. Mus. vii, p. 344, 

1884. = Haloconcha, Dall 234 

Lactea (Lacuna puteolus, var), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iii, 349, 265 
Lacunella. Desh. Foss. Paris Basin, 1861, . . 234 

Lsevigatum (Buccinum), Wood. Ind. Test. Supp. 1828. 

= Planaxis mollis, Sowb. ....... 279 

Laevilitorina Pffr. Natur. Mus. Hamburg, p. 81, 1886, 230, 254 
Lsevior (Littorina carinifera, var), Nevill. Hand List. p. 151, 

1884, . . . 244 

Lsevis (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc. p. 140, 1845. 

- L. Mauritiana, Lam. , . 247 

Lsevis (Littorina), Rve. (not Phil). Conch. Icon. f. 95. 

= L. Mauritiana, Lam. ....... 247 

Lamellilitorina, Tryon 230, 253 

Lamellosa (Littorina), Montrouz. Journ. de Conch, ix, p. 273, 

t. 11, f. 3, 1861, ... 271 

Lanoei (Fossarus), Baudon. Journ. de Conch, p. 348, 1857. 

= F. ambiguus, Linn. ... 271 

Latifasciata (Lacuna), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. p. 350, 1863, . 270 
Lauta ( Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. x, p. 298, 1862, . . 282 
Laxata (Stenotis), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. xi, p. 351, 1863, . 2H8 
Legrandi (Fossariha), Petterd. Quar. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 

104, 1879, 276 

Leithi (Diala), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc. p. 539, 1875, . 
Lemniscata (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc. p. 139, 1845. 

T. nodosus, Gray. ........ 259 

Lenticularis (Trochus), Chemn. Conch. Cab. v, f. 1665, 1781, 261 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 299 

PAGE. 



Lepida (Littorina), Gld. Bost. Proc. p. 83, 1849. 

= L. scutulata, var . 250 

Lepida (Styliferina), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. x, p. 299, 1862, . 284 
Lepidula (Lacuna), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. xi, p. 350, 1863. . 270 
Leucostica (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, p. 243, 1861 ; 

x, 295, 1862. = Alaba 282 

Leucostica (Littorina), Phil. Abbild. t. 3, f. 11, 1847. 

? = L. Africana, Krauss. . . . . . . 249 

Leucostoma, Swains, Treat. Malac. 172, 336, 1840. 

= Quoyia, Desk 1830 238 

Limata (Littorina), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand. p. 22, No. 164. 
= L. littoralis, Linn. var. ....... 242 

Limax (Littorina), Gray. Beechey's Voy. p. 139, 1839. 

= L. obesa, Sowb. ........ 247 

Limnaeiformis (Litiopa), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 

123, 1881, 283 

Limnotrochus, E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag. 5 ser. vi, 420, 

1880, 232, 264 

Lineata (Littorina), Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 3493, . . . 243 
Lineata (Phasianella), Lam. An. sans Vert. Edit. Desh. ix, 

243. = Littorina zicznc, Cheran. . . . 251 

Liiieatus (Planaxis), Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 130, 1776, . 278 
Lineolatus (Planaxis), Gould. Bost. Proc. iii, p. 118, 1849. 

= P. lineatus, Da Costa 278 

Liratus (Fossarus), A, Ad. Ann. & Mag. 1860, . . . 273 
Litiopa (Buccinum), Mrs. Gray. Figs. Moll. Anim. i, t. 24, f. 

1, 2. = Litiopa melanostoma, Rang. .... 281 

Litiopa, Rang. Ann. des Sci. Nat. xvi, p. 303, 1829, 238, 280 
Litorea (Nerita), Fabricuis. Faune Gronl, p. 403. 

= Littorina obligata, Say. ....... 241 

Littoralis (Littorina), Forbes & Hanley. Brit. Moll, iii, p. 45, 

t. 84, f. 3-7. - L. obtusata, Linn 253 

Littoralis (Littorina) Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit. 12, 1153, . . 242 
Littoreus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, p. 1832, . 229, 240 
Littorina, Fer. tabl. Syst p. xxxiv, 1821, . . 229, 230, 240 
Littorinopsis, Beck, Mss. Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 135. 

- Melaraphe, Muhlf. 230 

Livida (Risella), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak. p. 131, 1846. 

-- R. melanostoma, Gmel. . . , . . . . 262 
Lividus (Modulus), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak. vi, p. 168, 1849, 

? = M. disculus, Phil 261 

Longispira (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag. ix, p. 45, 

1872. = P. lineatus, Da Costa. ... . 279 

Lucida (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. x, p. 297, 1862, . . 282 
Luctuosum (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 65, 1857. 

= L. Mauritiana, Lam. ....... 247 

Lucullana (Rissoa), Scacc. Catal. Conch. 14. 

= Fossarus ambiguus Linn. 271 



300 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Lunata (Littorina), A. C. Lea, Bost. Proc. p. 205, 1844, . 255 
Lutea (Littorina scabra, var), Phil. Abbild. t. 5, f. 6, 2847, . 243 
Lutea (Risella), Quoy. Voy. Astr. iii, f. 271. t. 62, f. 8-11. 

=R. melanostoma, Gmel. ....... 262 

Lutea (Tectarius), Old. Bost. Proc. viii, p. 14, 1862, . . 260 
Luteola (Littorina), Quoy. Voy. Astr. ii, p. 477, t. 33, f. 4, 7, 

1832. ? = L. ftammea, Phil 245 

Macula (Diala), Recluz. Nevill, Hand. List. 180. 

= L. semistriata, Phil. 282 

Maculata (Litiopa), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 141). 

= L. melanostoma, Rang 280 

Maculosus (Fossarus), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 355, . . 273 
Malacca na (Littorina), Phil. Abbild. t. 6, f. 17, 1847. 

= T. nodulosus, Gmel 258 

Mamillata (Diala), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 412. 

= D. paupercula, C. B. Ad. . . ... 284 

Mandschurica (Littorina). Schrenk. Moll. Amur Land. p. 

333, t. 14, f. 14-20, 1859-1867. 

= L. Sitchana, Phil 241 

Maravignia, Aradas & Maggiore. Atti Acad. Geneva., xvii, 

42,1840. = Fossarus, Phil 2.,5 

Margaritifera (Lacuna), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., XV T , p. 

97, 1881. = Cithna tenella, Jeflr., var. costulata. . . 268 
Marmorata (Littorina), Pfr. Arch, fur Naturg., i, p. 81, 1839. 
= L. tenebrosa, Mont. ....... 242 

Marmorata (Littorina picta, var.), Phil. Abbild., 3, f. 26, 

1846. = L. planaxis, Nutt. 248 

Marmorea (Diala), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 218, 1868, . . 283 
Martensi (Alaba), Issel. Mar Rosso., 206, 1869, . . . 282 
Mauritiana (Littorina), Lain. Anim. sans Vert., ii, p. 244, 24(>, 247 
Mediocris (Fossarus), Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles, p. 50, t. 5, f. 

8, 1867, 271 

Mediterranea (Lacuna), Monts. Test. Sicil., 15, 1869. 

Ersilia. Monts. Notizie Conch. Medit., 1872, . . . 270 
Medoria (Leach), Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., (50-90, 1842, . 233, 2<>7 
Megalomphalus, Brus., 1871. --- Fossarus, Phil., . . 234, 2f>7 
Megasoma (Fossarus), C. B. Ad. Ann. Lyceum, p. 398, . 274 
Melanacme (Littorina), E. A. Smith. Journ. Linn. Soc., xii, 

p. 552, t. 30, f. 21, 1.H76. ? s= L. Novse-Zelandiic, Rve. . 249 
Melanoides (Monoptygma), Lea. Contrib. ( Jeol., 185, 1833. 

Quoyia decollata, Quoy 280 

Melanostoma (Litiopa), Rang. Man. Hist. Moll., p. 129, . 2S() 
Melanostoma (Littorina), Gray. Beechey Woy., p. 140,1839, 245 
Melanostoma (Littorina), Kryn. Bull. Soc. Imp. Moscow, p. 

60,1837. L. neritoides, Linn. .... .252 

Melanostoma (Risella), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3581, 1789, . 2(52 
Melanura (Alaba), ('. H. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 116, 1850, . 2*1 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 301 

PAGE. 

Melaraphe, Miihlf. Menke, Synopsis, 23, 1828, . . 230, 243 
Meleagris (Littorina), Beck. Potiez & Mich. Gal. Douai, i, 

p. 311, 1836, 248 

Menkeanus (Planaxis), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., p. 41, 1862. 

= P. sulcatus, Born. Ann. & Mag., xvi, 47, 1885, . . 276 
Mespilum (Littorina), Muhlf. Verb. Berl. Ges. Nat., i, p. 

219, t. 8, f. 8, 1824, 252 

Michaui (Quoyia), Cr. & Fisch. Journ. de Conch., p. 375, t. 

13, f. 6, 1863. = Q. decollata, Quoy 280 

Miliaris (Littorina), Quoy. Voy. Astr., ii, p. 484, t. 33, f. 16- 

19, 1832, 259 

Millegrana (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., Hi, p. 65, t. 7, f. 15, 

1848. sa T. graimlaris, Gray 260 

Minima (Turbo), Gray MSS, Wood. Index. Test., t. 6, f. 29, 252 
Minor (Conradia doliaris, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 169, 

1885, 273 

Minor (Litiopa ventrosa, var.), Nevill. Hand List, 178, 1885, 281 
Minor (Littorina scabra, var.), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 37, t. 

4, f. 16-18, 1882, ... . ... 244 

Minutus (Fossarus), Mich. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord., ii, p. 122, 

t. 2, f. 7, 8, 9, 1828. = F. costatus, Brocc. . . .272 
Mirabilis (Fossar), Nevill. Hand List, p. 165, 1884, . . 274 
Modesta (Littorina), Menke. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 164, 

1850. = L. conspersa, Phil. . .... 249 

Modulus, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840, .... 232, 260 

Modulus (Trochus), Linn. Syst. Nat., x, 1758. 

M. lenticularis, Chemn. ....... 261 

Mollis (Planaxis). Sowb. Genera of Shells, i, f. 2, 1824, . 279 
Monile (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., x, p. 296, 1862, . 283 
Monilifera (Littorina), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite, ii, p. 559, t. 31, 

f. 37-39, 1852. = L. nodulosa, Grnel 258 

Montagui (Lacuna), Turton. Zool. Journ., iii, p. 191, 1827. 

= L. puteola, Turt. . . ... 265 

Monterosatoi (Megalomphalus), Granata. Desc. esp. nouv., 

1877. - Fossarus excavatus, Monts. ..... 268 

Montrouzieri (Littorina), Fisch. Journ. de Conch., xxvi, t. 3, 

f. 6, . 259 

Moreleti (Modulus), Fischer. Journ. de Conch., xxx, p. 109, 

t. 7, f. 2, 261 

Multicostatus (Fossarus), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 398, 1860, . 274 
Muricata (Littorina), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1232, . . . 258 
Mutabilis (Heliciella), O. G. Costa. Microd. Med., p. 64, t. 

10, f. 4, 5, 1861. == Megalomphalus azonus, Bras. . . 268 
Mutans (Alaba), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 369, . . .282 

Nana (Littorina zebra, var.), Nevill. Hand List Moll., p. 140, 
1884, ....... ... 249 

Nana (Risella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., 1st Ed., vii, p. 30. 

R. melanostoma, Grnel. . .... 262 



302 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Nanus (Trochus), Quoy. (not Lam.). Voy. Astr., iii, 7, 273, t. 

62, f. 5-7. = Risella picta, Phil ...... 262 

Natalensis (Littorina), Krauss. Sudafrik. Moll., p. 102. 

= L. nodosa, Gray. ........ 259 

Naticiformis (Cithna), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 112, t. 20, f. 

11, 1883, .......... 269 

Naticoides (Littorina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, p. 214, t. 15, f. 22, 

23, 1853. = L. mespilum, Muhlf. ..... 252 

Nebulosa (Littorina), Lam. Aniin. sans Vert., ix, p. 244. 

= L. scabrti, Linn, var ........ 244 

Neglecta (Littorina), Bean. == L. saxatilis, Johnston. . . 242 
Neritiformis (Littorina), Brown. 111. Conch., p. 18, t. 16, f. 

24, 1845. = L. obtusata, Linn. var. . . . . . 253 

Neritoidea (Lacuna), Gld. Silliman's Journ., xxxviii, p. 197; 

Invert. Mass., p. 163, f. 170. = L. pallidula, DaCosta. . 265 
Neritoides, Brown. Brit. Conch., 1828, .... 230, 252 
Neritoides (Littorina), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1232, . . . 252 
Neritrema, Recluz. Actes. Soc. Linn. Borcl., xxvii. 

= Neritoides, Brown. H. & A. Ad., Gen. i, p. 314, . . 230 
Newcombi (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 28, a, b, 1857. 

= L. scabra, Linn. var. ....... 244 

Nicobarieus (Planaxis), Zelebor. Zool. Bot. Vereins, Wien., 

xvi, p. 910, 1866, .... ... 279 

Nigra (Planaxis), Quoy. Voy. Astr., ii, p. 491,. t. 33, f. 22-24, 

1832, . ... ... . 278 

Nigrilineata (Littorina), Gray. Zool. of Beechey^s Voy., p. 

140, 1839. = L. rudis, Donov. Var ...... 241 

Nigritellus (Planaxis), Forbes. Zool. Proc., p. 273, t. 11, f. 6, 

1850, ..... . .278 

Nigrofasciata (Risella Templiana, var.),' Nevill. Hand List, 

p. 161, 1884, . . . . ' ..... 2(>4 
Nina, Gray. Figs. Moll. Anim., iv, 87, 1850, . . 281, 257 
Nitidula (Litiopa), Pfr. Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, i, p. 255, 

1840. = L. melanostoma, Rang. . . . . .281 

Nodosa (Littorina), Gray. Zool. of Beechey's Voy., p. 139, 

1839, ........ , . . .259 

Nodulosa (Littorina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, i, p. 205, t, 14, f. 11- 

14,1853. = L. dilatata, d'Orb ..... . . .258 

Nodulosus (Turbo), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Ed., xiii, p. 3f>N2, . 2-"^s 
Novse-HibeniisB (Littorina), Less. Voy. Coq., p. 338, IS.'JO. 

= L. scabra, Linn ......... 244 

Noviu-Zelandia- ( Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 74, 1857, . 249 
NiiHt-ola (Plaimxi.-), Morcli. Mai. Blatt., xxiii, p. 126, 1876, 280 
Nucleus ( Purpura ), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 1822, . . 277 



Obesa (Litiopa), ( 1 . T>. Ad. (out rib. Conch., p. 71, 149-1^)2, 2<si 
Obesa (Littorina), Sowb. Gtenera of Shells, No. 37, f. n', . 247 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 303 

PAGE. 

Obligata (Littorina), Say. Journ. Phila. Acad.. ii, p. 241. 

L. rudis, Montg. var. . ...... 241 

Obliquus (Modulus), Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 204, 1850, . . 262 
Obscura (Planaxis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 271, 1851. 

? = P. sulcatus, Born ......... 276 

Obsoletus (Planaxis), Menke. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 170, 

1850. =s P. nigritellus, Forbes ....... 278 

Obtusa (Isapis), Carp. 2d Report, 142, ..... 273 

Obtusata (Littorina), Linn. Syst. Nat. Ed., xii, p. 1232, . 252 
Obtusata (Littorina tenebrosa), var.), Midd. Mai. Ross., ii, 

p. 63, t. 8, f. 1-5. = L. littoralis, Linn ..... 242 
Obtusatus (Modulus), Phil. Conch. Cab., ii, 1846. 

= M. tectum, Gm. var ........ 260 

Olivacea (Cithna), Verrill. Conn. Trans., vi, p. 185, t. 29, f. 

5, 1884, ........ .269 

Orbignyi (Fossarus), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 256, 1864. 

= F. sulcatus, Wood ......... 271 

Ovoideus (Fossarus), Gould. Zool. Proc., 1856, . . 273 



, Swainson, 219, 351, 1840. = Tectarius, Val. . 231 
Pagodula (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., x, p. 297, 1862, . 282 
Pagodus, Gray. Beechey's Voy., 141, 1839. 

= Tectarius, Val ........ .231 

Pagodus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. Ed., xii, p. 1234, . . 256 
Pallescens (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 142, 1845. 

= L. filosa, Sowb ......... 244 

Palliata (Littorina), Say. Journ. Phila. Acad., ii, p. 240. 

= L. littoralis, Linn. var. ....... 242 

Pallidula (Lacuna), DaCosta. Test. Brit., t. 4, f. 4, 5, 1778, . 2(55 
Pallidula (Lacuna), Meyer & Mob. Kieler Bucht., p. 25, 
1872. = L. puteolus, Turt ....... 265 

Pallidus (Turbo), Donov. Brit. Conch., t. 178, f. 4. 

Lacuna crassior, Mont. . . . . . . . 267 

Paludinella (Littorina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 84, 1857, . 255 
Papillosa (Littorina), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 32. 

= L. bullata, Marty n ......... 257 

Parcipictua (Fossarus), Cpr. Ann. & Mag., xiii, p. 476, 1864, 274 
Parva (Cochlea), DaCosta. Brit. Conch., 1798. 

= Lacuna puteola, Turton. ....... 265 

Parvula (Lacuna), H. Martin MSS. Monts. Conch. Medit., 
109. = Megalomphalus azonus, Brus. .... 268 

Parvula (Lacuna), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exper., vi, p. 113, 
t. 3, f. 11,12, 1877, ........ 270 

Parvula (Littorina), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 149, 1848, . 255 
Parvula (Risella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., viii, p. 42, 1862. 

= R. tantilla, Gld. var ........ 2153 

Patula (Fossarina), A. Ad. & Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 425, 
1863, . . 27<i 



304 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Patula (Lacuna), Thorpe. Brit. Mar. Conch., f. 83. 

= L. pallidula, DaCosta 265 

Patula (Littorina), Gould. Otia Conch., p. 52. 

= L. planaxis, Nutt 248 

Patula (Littorina rudis, var.), Thorpe. Brit. Mar. Conch., 259, 242 
Paupercula (Diala), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat. . . . 284 
Paupercula (Littorina neritoides, var.), Monts. Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Genoa, ix, p. 418, 1877, . . ' . . . . .252 
Paytensis (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., t. 3, f. 23, 1846, . . 250 
Peasiella, Nevill. Hand List, p. 159, 1884, . . . 232, 263 
Pedicularis (Planaxis), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 275. 

P. lineatus, DaCosta 278 

Pellilitorina, Pffr. Natur. Mus. Hamburg., p. 77, 1886, . 230, 255 
Pellita (Littorina), Martens. Sitz-Bericht Berlin, p. 92, 

1885; Natur. Hist. Hamburg^ 79, 1886, . . . .255 
Penicillata (Littorina), Cpr. Diagn., p. 461. 

= L. aspera, Phil. var. ....... 250 

Penitaria (Littorina), Wood. Nevill, Hand List, p. 142. 

= L. Mauritiana, Lam 247 

Perdix (Littorina), King. Zool. Journ., p. 345, 1831. 

L. carinifera, Menke. ....... 244 

Perlatus (Trochus), Dillwyn. Desc. Cat., ii, p. 788. 

Monodonta unidens, Lister. . . . . . .261 

Persoluta (Fossarus reticulatus, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 

166,1884, ...... . 273 

Persulcata (Planaxis ineptus, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 188, 

1885. - P. lineatus, DcCosta .279 

Pertusa (Lacuna), Conr. Journ. Phila, Acad., vi. p. 266, t. 

11, f. 19. = L. divaricate, Fabr 266 

Peruviana (Phasianella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 53, . 249 
Petitianus (Fossarus), Tiberi. Journ. de Conch., p. 179, 1868. 
= Megalomphalus azonea, Brus. ...... 268 

Petneus (Littorina), Mtg. Test. Brit., p. 403, 1802. 

L. neritoides, Linn. . . . . . . . 252 

Petterdi (Fossarina), Braz. MSS. Crosse, Journ. de Conch., 

p. 303, 1870 ; J. C. 1871, t. 12, f. 1, 275 

Pfeifferiana (Littorina), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 46, t. 5, f. 15- 

16, 1882. = L. dilatata, d'Orb. . . . ' . . .258 
Phasianella (Alaba), Angas.' Zool. Proc., p. 113, t. 13, f. 18, 

1867, . 283 

Pliasiaiiclla (Littorina), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 14i), 

1848, 255 

Phasianema, Searle^Wood. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, ix, 1847, 235, 272 
Philippiiiiui (Littorina), live. Conch. Icon., f. 22, a, b. 

L. scabni, Linn. var. ....... 244 

I'liilippii r Littorina), Cpr. Magadan Shells, p. 341). 

L. aspera, Phil, var 249 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 305 

PAGE. 

Picea (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 83, 1857. 

= L. Africana, Krauss, var. ...... 249 

Picta (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., viii, p. 243, 1861 ; x, 
295, 1862. = Alaba. ........ 282 

Picta (Fossarina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 312, t. 19, f. 26, 

1867, 275 

Picta (Lacuna), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 96, 1881, . 270 
Picta (Littorina), Phil. Abbild. Zool. Proc., p. 139, 1845. 

= L. planaxis, Nutt. 248 

Picta (Risella), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 132, 1846. 

= Risella melanostoma, Gmel 262 

Pigra (Planaxis), Forbes. Zool. Proc., 1850. 

= P. moll is, Sowb 279 

Piligerum (Holcostoma), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 164, 

1848, . . . . 280 

Pintado (Littorina), Wood. Suppl., t. 6, f. 34, 1828, . . 250 
Pisum (Modulus), Beck,Mss. Morch, Mai. Blatt., xxiii, p. . 

130, 1876, 262 

Plana (Risella), Quoy. Voy. Astr., iii, p. 274, t. 62, f. 13, 14, 

1832. = R. melanostoma, Gmel 262 

Planaxis (Buccinum), Wood. Index Test. Supp., p. 12, t. 4, 
f. 15a, 1828. = Planaxis planicostatus, Sowb. . . .277 

Planaxis, Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 50, 1822, . . 237, 276 
Planaxis (Littorina), Nuttall. Phil. Abbild., t. 4, f. 16, 1847, 248 
Planicostatus (Planaxis), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 13, 1825, 277 
Plena (Littorina). Mus. Godef. Cat., v, p. 105 (not of 
Gould.) = T. granularis, Gray. ..... 260 

Plena (Littorina scutulata, var.), Gld. Bost. Proc., p. 53, 

1846; p. 83, 1849, . 250 

Plesiotrochus, Fischer. Journ. de Conch., xxvi, p. 212, 1878, 232, 

264. 
Plicatula (Risella), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 39, 1851. 

= R. melanostoma, Gmel. ....... 262 

Pliciferus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. Ill, 1863, . . 273 
Plumbeus (Planaxis), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 244, 1861. 

- Plabiosus, A. Ad 279 

Porcata (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 139, 1845, . . 242 
Porrecta (Lacuna), Carp. Ann. & Mag., xiv, p. 428, 1864, . 265 
Portlockia, de Koninck, 181, . . . . .231 

Prseclara (Giraudia), Bourg. Not. Moll. Lac Tanganyika, p. 

62, 1885 285 

Prseusta (Alaba), Reeluz. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., x, 

295, 1862. ?= A. mclanura, C. B. Ad. .... 281 
Productus (Planaxis lineolatus, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 

187, 1885, 278 

Pseudolaevis (Littorina Diemenensis, var.), Nevill. Hand List, . 
p. 141, 1884. = L. Mauritiana, Lam. . . . . . 247 

Pulchclla (Conradia). A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., viii, p. 307, 1861, 278 
20 



i 



306 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Pulchella (Littorina), C. B. Ad. Mss. Mas. Cuming. 

= L. Adamsi, Rve. ........ 255 

Pulchella (Littorina), Dkr. Zeitsch. fiir Malac., p. 166, 1845. 

L. punctata, Gmel. var. ....... 248 

Pulchra (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., p. 296, 1862, . . 282 
Pulchra (Littorina), Sowb. Genera, t. 2, f. 3, . . . 246 
Pullata (Littorina), Carp. Ann. & Mag., xiii, p. 476, . . 250 
Pumilio (Littorina), E. A. Smith. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc., 

clxviii, 173, 1879, " . .267 

Punctata (Diala), Tenison Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasm., p. 15, 

1875. = D. lauta, A. Ad . 282 

Punctata (Littorina angulifera, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 5, f. 

13, 1847. = L. lineata, Gmel 243 

Punctata (Littorina), Gmel. Syst. Nat,, p. 3597, . . . 248 
Punctata (Littorina intermedia, var.), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 

141, 1845, ... 244 

Punctata (Littorina), Pfr. Archiv fiir Naturg., i, p. 255, 

1840. = L. meleagris, Beck. . . . . . .248 

Punctata (Littorina scabra, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 5, f. 5, 

1847, . 243 

Punctata (Phasianella), Pfr. Wiegmann's Arch., i, 255, 1840, 

= Littorina guttata, Phil. 248 

Puncticulata (Littorina), Phil., t. 4, f. 15, 1847. 

- L. aspera, Phil. var. ....... 249 

Puncto-striata (Alaba), Gld. Otia Conch., p. 144, . .282 

Punctostriatus (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., ix, p. 

355, 279 

Purpurina, d'Orb., 1850, 232 

Purus (Fossarus), Cpr. Ann. tt Mag., xiii, p. 477, 1864, . 274 
Pusilla (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., t. 3, f. 23, 1846, . . 251 
Pusillus (Fossarus), Gld. Boston Proc., iii, p. 193, . . 272 
Puteolus (Lacuna), Turton. Diet., p. 193, .... 265 
Pygrnam (La3vilitorina), Pffr. Natur. Mus. Hamburg, p. 86, 

t. 1, f. 11, 1886 .254 

Pygmseum (Buccinum), Brug. Euc. Meth. 

= Planaxis lineatus, DaCosta 278 

Pvraniidalis (Littorina), Quoy. Voy. Astr., ii, p. 482, t. 33, 

'f. 12-15, 1832. L. noduiosa, Gmel 258 

Pyramidalis (Planaxis), ( Jinol. Syst. Nat., p. 3488. 

I*, sulcatus, Born 276 

Pyrgula ( Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 1 13, 1863, . . 274 

Qmulrasia, Crosso. Journ. de Couch., p. 159, 188(>, . .238 

Quadrifasciata ( Lacuna), Mont. Test. Brit., p. 328, t. 20, f. 7. 

L. divaricata, Fa.br. var. ...... 206 

Quadrix'riata < Littorina hullata, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 2, 

1846, 

Quoyia, J)esh. Enc. Meth., ii, 1880, .... 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 307 

PAGE. 

Radiata (Littorina), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite., ii, p. 562, t. 31, f. 

46, 47. = T. granularis, Gray, 1852, . . . .260 
Raulinia, Mayer. Journ. de Conch., p. 180, 1864, . . 236, 274 
Rectangulata ( Alaba), Craven. Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. Bull., 

xcvi, 1880, .282 

Reflexa (Lacunella), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vii, p. 344, 

t. 2, f. 1-3, 1884, 267 

Reticulata (Littorina), Anton. Verzeich., p. 53, 1839. 

? = T. miliaris, Quoy . . .259 

Reticulatus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 186, t. 20, f. 

13,1853. = F. insignis, Nevill. . . . . .273 

Reticulatus (Fossarus), S. Wood. Crag Moll, i, p. 122, t. 12, 

f. 10, . . .272 

Retusa (Monodonta), Brug. Encyc. Meth., t. 447, f. 4. 

= Modulus tectum, Grael. ....... 2(>o 

Retasus (Turbo), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 48. 

= Littorina obtusata, Linn. 253 

Reymondia, Bourg. Notice L. Tanganyika, 64, 1885, . . 239 
Rhabdopleura, de Koninck, 1881, ...... 231 

Riisei (Littorina), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiii, p. 140, 1876. 

= L. ziczac, Chenin. . . . . . . . .251 

Risella, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840, .... 232, 262 

Roepstorffiana (Risella), Nevill. Hand List, p. 161, 1884, . 264 
Rubra (Littorina), Anton. Verzeich., p. 53, 1839, . . . 260 
Rubra (Littorina angulifera, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 5, f. 12, 

1847. L. lineata, Gmel 243 

Rubra (Littorina seabra, var.), Phil. Abbild., ii, 222, 1847, . 243 
Rudis (Littorina), Cooper. N. Pacific R. R. Survey, 374. 

= L. Sitchana, var. . . . . . . . .241 

Rudis (Littorina), Donov. Brit, Shells, i, p. 33, f. 3, . . 241 
Rufa (Lacuna), Dorset. Catal., t. 14, f. 12. 

= L. puteolus, Turt 265 

Rufa (Littorina), Recluz. Reeve, Icon. Sp. 87, 1857, . . 247 
Rufilabris (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., p. 298, 1862, . . 284 
Rugosa (Littorina), Menke. Moll. Nov. Hollandiae, p. 9, 

1843, 259 

Rustica (Littorina bullata, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 2, 1846, . 257 

Savignyi (Litiopa), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso., p. 197, 1869, . 281 
Savignyi (Planaxis), Desh. Mag. Zool., t. 109, 1844. 

= P. sulcatus, Born, var 277 

Baxatilis (Littorina), Johnston. Berwick Club, i, p. 268. 

- L. rudis, Mtg. var. ........ 242 

Saxatilis (Littorina), Olivi. Zool. Adriat., 1789. 

= L. Neritoides, Linn. ....... 252 

Sayi (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 140, 1845. 

= L. columellaris, d'Orb. var. . . . . . .24(5 



308 INDEX AND SYNONOMY. 

PAGE. 

Sayi (Littorina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., p. 96, a, b. 

= L. irrorata, Say. var. ....... 246 

Sayi (Monodonta), Nuttall. A. Adams, Zool. Proc., 203, 1850. 

= Modulus Carchedonicus, Lam. 261 

Scabra (Littorina), Anton. Verz., p. 53, 1839. 

= L. dilatata, d'Orb. . 258 

Scabra (Littorina). Linn. Syst. Nat, p. 1243, . . . 243 
Scabra (Littorina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, p. 212, t. 15, f. 15-17. 

== L. lineata, Gmel 243 

Scalata (Alaba), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 368, . . . 282 
Scutulata (Littorina), Old. Bost. Proc., iii, p. 83, 1846, . 250 
Semilsevis (Planaxis), Martens. Conch. Mittheil., ii, p. 151, 

1881, 280 

Semistriata (Alaba), Philippi. Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1849, p. 34, . 282 
Semisulcatus (Planaxis), Sowb. Genera of Shells, i, f. 3, 1824. 

= P. nucleus, Lam 277 

Senegalensis (Alaba), Maltzan. Nachrichtsblatt, xvii, p. 28, . 282 
Serialis (Littorina), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite., ii, p. 558, t. 31, 

f. 34-36, 1852. = L. pintado,. Wood, var 250 

Setigerum (Holcostoma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 174, t. 20, f. 

5, 1853. = H. piligefum, Phil. ... .280 

Setosa (Littorina), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., xvi, p. 69, 

1875, ......... .255 

Sicula (Maravignia), Aradas. Atti Acad. Genova, xvii, 42, 

1840. = Fossarus ambiguus, Linn 271 

Sieboldi (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 142, 1845. 

= L. scabra, Linri. var 244 

Similis (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., ix, p. 41, 

1872. = P. nigra, Quoy .278 

Simplex (Diala), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., xvi, p. 105, 

1875, . .284 

Simplex (Littorina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 63, a, b, 1857. 

= L. rudis, Mtg .241 

Simpsoni (Fossarina). Tenison Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

p. 149, 1875. = F. Petterdi, Brazier 275 

Sinensis (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., iii, p. 52, t. 6, f. 23. 

= L. intermedia, Phil. var. ...... 244 

Sismondi (Risella), Issel,Ms. Nevill, Hand List, 160. 

? R. infracostal a, Issel 264 

Sitchana (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 140, 1845, . . 240 
Solidula (Lacuna), Loven. Index Moll. Scandin., p. 23. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr 266 

Solutus (Fossarus), Nevill. Hand List, p. 167, 1884, . . 273 
Souverbiana (Littorina), Crosse. Journ. de Conch., p. 53, t. 1, 

f. (), 7, 1862. = L. brevicula, Phil. . . . . .241 

Souverbianus (Plesiotrochus), Fischer. Journ. de Conch., 

xxvi, p. 212, 1878, 264 




INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Spinulosa (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., iii, p. 17, f. 24, 1847. 

=== T. bullatus, Mart, var 257 

Spiratus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 113, 1863, . . 270 
Spironema, Meek. Smithsonian Check List, Inv. foss., 35, 

1864, 235 

Squalida (Littorina), Brod. & Sowb. Zool. Journ., iv, p. 370, 240 
St. Claras (Alaba), Tenison Woods. Proc. Koy. Soc. Tasm., 

184, 1876, . . . . 282 

Stenotis, A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., xi, p. 351, 1863, . . 234, 268 
Stolizkanus (Fossarus), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., Pt. 

2, p. 4, 5, t. 1, f. 10, 1871. = F. costatus, Brocchi. . . 272 
Striata (Alaba), Watson. Challenger Exped., xv, p. 569, t. 

42, f. 6, 1886, 284 

Striata (Litiopa), Pfr. Archiv fur Naturg., i, p. 255, 1840. 

= L. melanostoma, Rang. 281 

Striata (Littorina), King. Zool. Journ., v, p. 345, . . . 247 
Striata (Phasianella), Thrown. Conch. Gt. Brit. 

= Lacuna divaricata, Turt. ...... 266 

Striatula (Planaxis), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 91, 1851. 

= P. labiosus, A. Ad. var. . 279 

Striatulus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. Ill, 1863, . . 273 
Strigata (Littorina), Lischke. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 148, 1871, 245 
Strigata (Littorina angulifera, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 5, f. 

14, 1847. = L. lineata, Gmel .243 

Strigata (Littorina intermedia, var.), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 

141, 1845, .244 

Strigatus (Planaxis), Hauley. Thes. Conch., 176, f. 24. 

= P. lineatus, DaCosta. ....... 279 

Strigosum (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3488. 

= Planaxis lineatus, DaCosta 278 

Styliferinus (Fossarus), Nevill. Hand List, p. 167, 1884, . 273 

Styliferina, A. Ad., 239, 284 

Subangulata (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., x, p. 298, 1862, 282 
Subcingulata (Littorina filosa, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 

149, 1884, 244 

Subgranosa (Melarapbe), Dkr. Zool.-Bot. Vereins Vienna, 

xvi, p. 913, 1866, = T. granularis, Gray, var. . . . 260 
Subimbricata (Risella, Templiana, var.), Nevill. Hand List, 

162, 1884, . . 264 

Subinermis (Littorina bullata, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 2, 

1846, .... 257 

Subinfracostata (Risella tantilla, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 

160, 1884, 263 

Subintermedia (Littorina conica, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 

150, 1884. = L. undulata, Gray. 244 

Subnigra (Planaxis Savignyi, var.), Nevill. Hand List, 185, 

1885, ... .281 



310 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

.PAGK. 

Subnodosa (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., ii, p. 19, t. 3, f. 8, 9. 

= L. nodosa, Gray 259 

Subreticulatus (Fossarus), Nevill. Hand List, p. 168, 1884, , 273 
Subtenebrosa (Littorina), Middendorff. Bull. St. Petersburg 

Acad., vii, No. 16. = L. Sitchana, Phil. var. . . . 241 
Subtriangularis (Lacuna pallidula, var.), Kobelt. Faun. 

Europ., 171, . . . 265 

Succincta (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., vi, p. 124, 1870, , 284 
Succinctus (Planaxis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851. 

= P. lineatus, DaCosta, var 278 

Succinea (Lacuna), Morch. Mai. Blatt., vii, p. 70, 1861, . 270 
Sulcata (Alaba), Watson. Challenger Kept,, xv, p. 570, t. 42, 

f. 7, 1886, ......... 284 

Sulcata (Littorina), Menke. Synopsis. = L. obligata, Say. . 241 
Sulcatus (Fossarus), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 17, f. 28. 

= F. Orbignyi, Fischer -271 

Sulcatus (Fossarus), S. Wood. Crag Moll., i, 120, 1848, . 272 
Sulcatus (Planaxis), Born. Mus. Vindobon, p. 258, 1. 10, f. 5, 6, 276 
Sulcifera (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., x, p. 298, 1862, . 284 
Sulciferus (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 112, 1863, .274 
Sulculosa (Littorina), Phil. Zool. Proc., p. 142, 1845, . . 247 
Supralirata (Alaba), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 366, . .282 
Suturalis (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., p. 298, 1862, . . 283 
Suturalis (Littorina scabra, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 5, f. 7, 

1847, . . . . 243 

Suturalis (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., ix, p. 43, 

1872, 277 

Syhadrensis (Cremnobates), Blanford. Ann. & Mag., xii, p. 

184, t. 4, f. 1-7, 1863, 256 

Syriaca (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., t. 3, f. 21, 22, 1846. 

= L. punctata, Gmel. var 248 

Tseniatus (Planaxis), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 165, 1848, 280 
Tantilla (Risella), Gld. Bost. Proc., iii, p. 118, 1849, . . 263 
Tasmanicus (Fossarus), Tenison Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

p. 148, 1876, 274 

Tectarius, Val. Zool. Voy. Hurnb., ii, 271, 1833, . . .281 
Tectiformis (Echinella), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 

94, 1881, 258 

Tectum (Modulus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3569, 1791, . . 260 
Tectum-Persicum (Littorina), Linn. Syst. Nat. Ed., xii, p. 

1234, ' 257 

Tectum-Persicum (Littorina), WeinkaufF. Kuster's Conch. 

Cab., t. 5, f. 3, 4. T. armatus, Fischer 257 

Temana (Leach), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xx, 1847. 

= Lacuna, Turton. ........ 233 

Templiana (Risella), Nevill. Hand List, 161, 1884, . . 264 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 311 

PAGE. 

Tenebrata (Littorina), Nuttall, Ms. Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 

63, 1882. ^ L. pintado, Wood .250 

Tenebrosa (Littorina), Schrenk. Nord Japan, 321. 

= L. Sitchana, Phil, var 241 

Tenebrosus (Turbo), Mont. Test. Brit., ii, p. 303 ; Supp. PL 

20, f. 4. = Littorina rudis, Maton. var. .... 242 
Tenella (Hela), Jeffreys. B. C., v, p. 204, t. 101, f. 7, . . 268 
Tenuis (Diala), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., xvi,p. 105, 1875, 279 
Tenuis (Littorina), Phil. Abbild.; Zool. Proc., p. 141, 1845, . 254 
Tenuis (Littorina scabra, var.), NevilL Hand List, p. 146, 

1884, ... 243 

Tenuis (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., ix, p. 45, 

1872, .279 

Terebralis (Alaba), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 367, . . 282 
Tervaricosa (Alaba), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch. . . . 281 
Tessellata (Diala), Tenison Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasm., p. 15, 

1875, . 282 

Tessellata (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., t. 5, f. 26, 1847, . . 250 
Tessellata (Planaxis breviculus, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 

186, 1885, 277 

Thersites (Littorina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 78, 1857. 

= L. neritoides, Linn. ....... 252 

Thiarella (Littorina), Anton. Verz., p. 53, 1839. 

= L. dilatata, d'Orb .258 

Thomsoni (Limnotrochus), Smith. Ann. & Mag., vi, p. 425, 

1880 ; Zool. Proc., p. 285, t. 33, f. 17, 17b, 1881, . . 264 

Thorpeana (Lacuna), Phil. Kust. Conch. Cab., p. 48, t. 6, f. 

14, 1853. = L. pallidula, var. . . . . . .265 

Tigrina (Littorina), C. B. Ad. Morch, Mai. Blatt., xxiii, 137, 

= L. tessellata, Phil 251 

Tigrina (Littorina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, p. 211, t. 15, f. 9-11, 

1853. = L. nebulosa, Lam 244, 251 

Tornata (Conradia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 112, 1863, . . 273 
Tornatilis (Fossarus), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 44, 1861. 

= F. costatus, Brocc 272 

Tricolor (Turbo), Risso. Eur. Merid., t. 4, p. 116. 

= Littorina neritoides, Linn. ...... 252 

Trochiformis (Littorina), Phil, (not Dillw.). Abbild., ii, t. 2, f. 

12-15. = T. dilatatus, Orb 258 

Trochiformis (Modulus), Eyd. & Soul. Voy. Bonite, Zool., t. 

37, f. 25-31. = M. catenulatus, Phil. . . .261 

Trochiformis (Turbo), Dillw. (not Phil.). Cat., ii, p. 826. 

- Littorina nodulosa, Gmel. . . . . . 258 

Trochlearis (Fossarus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 187, 1853, . 274 
Trochoides (Littorina), Gray. Zool. of Beechey's Voy., p. 

140,1839. = L. nodulosa, Gmel .258 

Tuba, Lea. Contrib. GeoL, 127, 1833, 236 



312 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PACK, 

Tuberatus (Iphitus), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 114, t. 20, f. 12, 

1883, . ........ 274 

Tuberculata (Littorina), Menke. Cat. Malsb., p. 10. 

= L. dilatata, d'Orb. ... .... 258 

Tuberculatus (Iphitus), Watson. Challenger Exped., xv, p. 

583, t. 46, f. 5, 1886, 275 

Tuberculatus (Turbo), Gray. Wood, Ind. Test. Supp., p. 19, 

57, t. 6, f. 30, 1828. = T. dilatatus, Orb. . , . .258 
Tuberia, Carp. Mazat. Cat., 365, 1857. 

= Alaba, H. & A. Ad. 238 

Tuberosus (Fossarus), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 354, . . 274 
Tumida (Diala), Tenison Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 15, 

1875, 283 

Turner! (Aquilonaria), Ball. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, p. 204, 

t. 3,f. 1-3, 1886, . 255 

Turrita (Lacuna), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., viii, p. 305, 1861, . 270 

Umbilicata (Laevilitorina), Pffr. Natur. Mus. Hamburg, p. 

88, t. l,f. 12, 1886 ... 254 

Umbilicata (Littorina), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 394, t. 

76, f. 1-3, 1843, 253 

Undulata (Littorina), d'Orb. (not Gray.) Moll. Cuba, p. 212, 

t. 15, f. 12-14, 1853. = L. tessellata, Phil. . . . 251 
Undulata (Littorina), Gray. Zool. of Beechey's Voy., p. 140, 

1839, 244 

Undulata (Planaxis), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., x, p. 236. 

= P. sulcatus, Born. ........ 276 

Unicarinata (Lacuna), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., xvi, p. 

104, 1875, . 270 

Unifasciata (Lacuna), Carp. Zool. Proc., 205, 1856. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr. ....... 267 

Unifasciata (Littorina), Gray, in King's Survey, p. 483. 

= L. Mauritiana, Lam. ....... 247 

Unidens (Modulus), Lister (Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, p. 290, 

1788), Auct. ... 261 

Ustulatus (Littorina), Blainv. - L. obtusata, Linn. . . 253 
Ustulatus (Turbo), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 199. 

= Littorina littorea, Linn 240 

Varia (Adeorbis), Hutton. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal., 1873, . 255, 27<> 
Varia (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., viii, p. 243, 1861. 

= L. semLstriata, Phil 282 

Varia (Littorina), Sowb. Genera of Shells, No. 37, 1824, . 246 
Variabilis (Planaxis), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag., ix, p. 44, 

1872. = P. lineatus, DaCosta 278 

Variegata (Lacuna), Carp. Ann. & Mag., xiv, p. 428, 1864, . 266 
Variegata (Littorina), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite., ii, p. 560, t. 

31, f. 40-42, 1852. = L. varia, Sowb 246 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 318 



PACK 



Variegatus (Fossar), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 187, 1853, . . 276 
Varius (Littorina), Hutton. Man. Moll. N. Zeal., p. 35, 1873, 255 
Ventricosa (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., iii, 15, t. vi, f. 19. 

= L. granularis, Gray. ....... 242 

Ventricosa (Littorina scabra, var.), Phil. Abbild., t. 5, f. 8, 

1847, 243 

Ventrosa (Litiopa), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., viii, p. 404, 1861, 281 
Ventrosa (Litiopa), Pfr. Archiv fur Naturg., i, p. 255, 1840, 281 
Venusta (Laevilitorina), Pffr. Natur. Mus. Hamburg, p. 85, t. 

1, f. 9, a, b, 1886, 254 

Vera (Littorina bullata, var.), Phil Abbild., t. 2, 1846, . 257 
Vestita (Lacuna), Dkr. & Metz. Nordsee Exped., p. 256, . 270 
Vestitus (Planaxis), Dkr. In collection. Donum. Bism., 41. 

= P. labiosus, A. Ad 279 

Vestitus (Turbo), Say. Journ. Phila. Acad., ii, p. 241. 

= L. tenebrosa, Montg. ....... 242 

Vibex (Alaba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., x, p. 296, 1862, . . 282 
Vidua (Littorina), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 138, 1861, . 255 
Vilis (Littorina), Menke. Phil. Abbild., ii, p. 15, t. 2, f. 21. 

L. nodulosa, Gmel. ........ 258 

Vincta (Lacuna), Mont. Test. Brit., p. 307, t. 20, f/3, 1803. 

= L. divaricata, Fabr 266 

Violacea (Alaba), Carp. Mazatlan Shells, p. 367, . . 282 

Virgatus (Planaxis), Smith. Ann. & Mag., ix, p. 44, 1872. 

= P. lineatus, DaCosta 279 

Vitiensis (Littorina), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 150, 1871. 

= T. granularis, Gray 260 

Vittata (Littorina), Phil. Abbild., iii, p. 58, t. 7, f. 11, 1848. 

= L. obtusata, Linn. var. ....... 253 

Vittata (Risella), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 131, 1846. 

= R. melanostorna, Gmel. . . . . . . . ^62 

Vulgaris (Littorina), Sowb. Genera of Shells, No. 37, f. 1. 

= Turbo littoreus, Linn 240 

Wood-Masoniana (Alaba), Nevill. Hand List, p. 182, 1885, 282 

Zebra (Buccinum), Meg. Berl. Schrift., viii, t. 1, f. 7, 1811. 

= Planaxis lineatus, DaCosta. ...... 278- 

Zebra (Littorina), Wood. Suppl., t. 6, f. 33, 1818. 

= L. Peruviana, Lam. ....... 249 

Zebrina (Diala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., x, p. 296, 1862. 

- Alaba 282 

Ziczac (Littorina). Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, p. 69, f. 1599, 

1560, 251 

Zonaria (Littorina), Bean. L. Rudis, Donov. . . . 241 
Zonatus (Planaxis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 271, 1851. 

= P. lineatus, DaCosta. . . 279 



314 RISSOIID^E. 

Monograph of the Families RissoiidcK, Jeffreysiidce, Skeneidos, Cho- 
ristidce and Homalogyridce. 

FAMILY RISSOIID^E. 

Animal with a more or less elongated muzzle ; elongated, cylin- 
drical tentacles, with the eyes on swellings at their outer bases ; 
verge (male organ) exserted, situated at a considerable distance be- 
hind the right tentacle; gills both pallial, the right one largest, 
rather short and broad, composed of few laminae, which are much 
broader than high ; foot oblong, punctate before, rounded or 
pointed behind ; operculigerous lobe well developed. Operculum 
corneous, paucispiral. Dentition (PL 54, fig. 98.) 

Shell small, usually turbinate or elongate, often more or less um- 
bilicated ; peristome continuous, more or less rounded, never truly 
channeled in front. 

The Rissoiidse are small, often minute, phytophagous marine mol- 
lusks, inhabiting all parts of the world, frequenting algse, zostera, 
etc., from which they often suspend themselves by a mucous fila- 
ment. 

Formerly a large number of fresh and brackish- water forms were 
here included, which, although nearly allied both as to animal and 
shell, are now perhaps more properly considered to form a family 
apart Hydrobiida?: these will be considered in the series of the 
Manual devoted to Fresh Water Mollusks. 

The Rissoiidte have been monographed by: Schwartz von Mohren- 
stern, Denkschriften K. Akad. Wissen, 1860-04. 

Sowerby, in Reeve's Conchologia Iconica, xx, 123, sp. No date. 

Wcinkauff, in Kuster's Conoh. Cab., 273 species, 1876. 

Synopsis of Genera and Subordinate Groups. 
Genus RISSOIA, Fr&nenville. 1814. 

Shell tmperforate or subperforate, more or less oblong, turbinated, 
usually thick, white or corneous, smooth, ribbed or cancellated, 
aperture entire, oval, peristome thick, simple or reflected. Oper- 
culum corneous, paucispiral (PL 54, fig. 95). 

The animal has long, slender tentacles, sometimes ciliated, with 
eyes on small prominences near their outer bases ; mantle with a 
tentacular appendage in front, on the right side, or on either side ; 
foot truncate in front, attenuated behind, with a glandular sulcus 



RISSOIID^E, 815 

on its lower side ;. opereuligerous lobe with a wing-like expansion 
on either side, with one to three posterior filaments. Jaws oval, 
lingual teeth 2-1-1-1-2 (PI. 54, fig. 98). 

Fully 200 recognized species have been made known to science, 
besides unfigured species and synonyms amounting to perhaps 400 
more. From their minute size it is probable that many more re- 
main to be described. They inhabit all seas, from high water to 
100 fathoms, but being phytophagous, abound most in shallow 
water, near shore, on beds of seaweed. 

There are a few secondary species, but Rissoia is principally 
found fossil in tertiary beds. 

Rissoia is active and bold, floats like its congeners, and spins a 
byssal thread instantly upon being detached from its foothold. The 
incessant play of the tentacular cilise is very striking. The pallial 
filaments probably are, like the tentacles, tactile in function. 

Subgeiius RISSOIA (sensu stricto). 

Shell elongated conic, longitudinally costate; aperture oblong, 
with a thickened peristome bearing an exterior rib. 

R. VENTRICOSA, Desmarest. 

The characters of the following subordinate groups so merge one 
into another that in many cases the relegation of species to a par- 
ticular division is an entirely arbitrary matter. I shall indicate 
the sections ; but it must be understood that many of the species 
have not been assigned heretofore to any section, and that others 
belong to two or more sections, according to the variation of their 
characters. No doubt the institution of divisions founded upon 
such unsubstantial characters has tended to the undue multiplica- 
tion of species ; but I am unable to satisfactorily arrange the sy- 
nonymy this can only be done by one who will devote himself to 
the subject, as a specialty. 

Section APICULARIA, Monterosato. 1884. 

Shell turbinate, whorls and aperture more rounded, the inter- 
stices of the rounded ribs spirally striate. R. EHRENBERGI, Phil. 

Section RISSOSTOMIA, Sars. 1878. 

Shell very thin, smooth or slightly longitudinally costate, often 
with zigzag longitudinal fulvous markings. 

R. MEMBRANACEA, AdaillS. 



310 KISSOIID^E. 

Section PERSEPHONA (Leach, 1852), Monts 1884. 

Originally included a heterogeneous assemblage of species of 
various types. Monterosato has recently restricted it to those 
having punctate spiral lines; either longitudinally ribbed or smooth. 

R. RUFILABRIS, Leucll. 

This group shades unmistakably into the typical one. 
Section SCHWARTZIA, Bucq. Dautz. et Dollf. 1884. 

Shell elongated, conic, longitudinally ribbed or smooth, colum- 
ella dentate. R. MONODONTA, Bivona. 

Section ZIPPORA, Leach. 1847. 

Claufeilia-like, generally elate, smoothish or longitudinally ribbed ; 
margin of aperture dilated or reflected. 

Acme, H. & A. Adams, is a synonym. R. AURISCALPIUM, Linn. 

Section TURBELLA, Leach. 1847. 

Shell ovate, minute, often flamed or maculate with chestnut, with 
rounded longitudinal ribs, becoming obsolete on lower part of body 
whorl, or sometimes smooth, no spiral strire. R. PARVA, DaCosta. 

Pusillina, Monts., 1884, may be united with this section. Whorls 
turriculated, ribs interrupted, lip acute, not externally varicose. 



? Section MOHRENSTERNIA, Stoliczka. 1868. 

Turriculated, thin, semipellucid ; whorls frequently transversely 
costulate ; columella fissured at the base ; aperture subovate,. angu- 
lated behind, rounded in front, margin very little dilated, outer lip 
simple, scarcely varicose. Fossil in brackish or fresh-water de- 
posits, R. INFLATA, Andrzejowski. Eastern Europe. 

Section MAN/ONIA, Brusina. 1870. 

Shell more or less shouldered, longitudinally ribbed, spirally 
ridged, peristome duplicate. European. R. COSTATA, Ads. 

Flemingia, Jeffreys, 1884, is a synonym. 
Section FOLINJA, Crosse. 1868. 

Turriculated, longitudinally ribbed, spirally striate, posterior end 
of aperture with a small sinus. R. INSIGNIS, Folin. Panama. 

Subgenus SABANTKA, Leach. 1847. 

Shell smooth, stout, elevated conic, peristome thick, continuous. 

R. FLAMMEA, Fraueiif. 



RIS8OIIDJK. 817 

Section CORENA, A. Adams. 1870. 

Elately turbinate, with obtuse apex, rimate ; aperture circular, 
peristome duplicate, continuous, outer lip externally reflected, inner 
lip with thin, callous expansion and posterior tubercle. 

K. TUBERCULIFERA, A. Ad. Gulf of Suez. 

Section AMPHITHALAMUS, Carpenter. 1865. 

Shell smooth, pupoidal, with large nucleus ; peristome duplicated, 
the inner lip produced forward, with a subbasal space behind it, 
outer lip joining it posteriorily, suddenly contracted in the adult. 
California, Australia, Japan. R. INCLUSA, Carp. 

Scrobs, Watson, 1886, is a synonym. 

Section NODULUS, Monts. 1878. 

Shell subcylindrical, with obtuse spire, whorls smooth or feebly 
spirally striate ; aperture rounded, peristome thick, continuous. 

R. CONTORTA, Jeffreys. 

Peringiella and Pisinna, Monts, 1878, may be united with this 
group. 

Section ANABATHRON, Frauenfeld. 1867. 

Shell scalariform, with a carinated shoulder, imperforate, smooth ; 
aperture rounded, peristome continuous. R. CONTABULATA, Frauenf. 

Section PELECYDIUM, Fischer. 1872. 

Imperforate, elongate, sub arcuated, finely striate; whorls some- 
what flattened, apex mamillate ; last whorl small, descending, de- 
viating; aperture semicircular, exserted, entire, peristome con- 
tinuous, somewhat thickened. R. VENUSTULA, Fischer. 

Section HEMISTOMIA, Crosse, 1872. 

Imperforate, elongated, thin, smooth, olivaceous corneous, under 
a persistent thin epidermis, apex mamillate, obtuse ; aperture a 
little solute, peristome continuous. 

New Caledonia. R. CALEDONICA, Crosse. 

The characters of this group correspond mainly with those of the 
preceding one, but the corneous texture and brackish water habitat, 
have led Dr. Fischer to place it in the Hydrobiidse. If it should 
prove identical with Pelecydium, the latter name will become a 
synonym. The operculum of Hemistomia is unknown. 



318 RISSOIID^E. 

Subgenus CINGULA, Fleming. 1828. 

Shell thin, smooth or spirally striated, spotted or banded near 
the suture, outer lip sharp, or slightly thickened. 

R. CINGILLUS, Montg. 
Oingilla, Monts. 1884, is a synonym. 

Section CINGULA (restricted.) 

Shell elongated, with subacute spire, whorls flatly convex. 

Section ONOBA, H. & A. Adams. 1854. 

Turbiniform or somewhat elongated, whorls convex, conspicu- 
ously spirally striated, sometimes with short longitudinal plicae at 
the suture ; aperture oval, peristome continuous, thin or slightly 
thickened. R. STRIATA, Mtg. 

Section CERATIA, H. & A. Adams. 1854. 

Subcylindrical, thin, whorls flatly convex, with obtuse apex ; 
outer lip thin and sharp. 

Animal with flattened, mostly short and claviform tentacles, foot 
bifurcate behind. R. PROXIMA, Alder. 

Section HYALA, H. & A. Adams. 1854. 

Shell elevated conic, thin, hyaline, smooth or spirally striate ; 
aperture oval, slightly emarginate anteriorily, outer lip thin, simple. 
Operculum subspiral. 

Tentacles with setaceous summits. R. VITKEA, Forbes & Han- 
ley. 

Section PLAGIOSTYLA, Fischer. 1872. 

Smooth, transparent, apex papillary, last whorl descending ; aper- 
ture semilunar, pillar lip oblique, rectilinear, outer lip not varicose. 

R. ASTTTRIANA, Fischer. 
Section SETIA, H. & A. Adams. 1854. 

Whorls few, smooth, ventricose, spotted, spire short, with obtuse 
apex, aperture suborbicular. Animal with pilose tentacles. 

R. PULCHERRIMA, Jeffreys. 
Subsection MICIIOSIOTIA, Monts. 18M. 

1m perforate or rimate, minute, brightly colored, often fasciate, 
smooth. 

Pseudosetia, Monts. is a synonym. R. TURGIDA, Phil 

Subsection (!ix<;ruxA, Monts. 1884. 

Obtuse or globular, unieolored, lip thickened, covering the um- 
bilicus. R, Ai;i)ioi;i, Jeffreys. 



31 tt 

Subsection PARVISETIA, Monts. 1884. 

Imperforate, spire rather short, apex obtuse, aperture expanded, 
semilunar, lip thickened. R. SCILL.E, Seguenza. 

Subgenus RISSOPSIS, Garrett. 1873. 

Thin, elongated, cylindrical, apex truncate ; aperture subovate, 
angular above, entire, peristome rather thin, somewhat expanded, 
columella oblique, arched. R. TYPICA, Garrett. 

Subgenus ALVANIA, Risso. 1826. 

Shell oval, turbiniform, spire short, with sharp apex, whorls 
rounded, nodulously cancellated, aperture subcircular, crenulated 
or grooved within, outer lip margined exteriorly by a varix. 

Acinus, Monts, 1884, is a synonym. R. CIMEX, Linn. 

Section ACINOPSIS, Monterosato. 1884. 

Aperture subcanaliculate anteriority, columella tuberculate below* 

R.CANCELLATA, DaCosta. 
Section NEVILLIA, A. Adams. 1868. 

Imperforate, acutely ovate, whorls convex, spirally lirate, longi- 
tudinally striate ; columella callous, toothed below, outer lip smooth 
or toothed within, varicose exteriorly. R. PICT A, A. Ad. 
Section ALVINIA, Monts. 1884. 

Whorls shouldered, spiral sculpture stronger than the longitu- 
dinal ribs. R. WEINKAUFFI, Schwartz. 

Oaleodina, Monts. 1884 (~R. carinata, DaCosta), is a synonym. 

Section THAPSIELLA, Fischer. 1884. 

Elongated conic, whorls flatly convex, cancellated by close, 
small riblets and spiral lines, lip thin. R. RUDIS, Phil. 

It is Thapsia, Monts. 1884, not Albers. 1860. 

Section MASSOTIA, Bucq. Dautz. et Dollf., 1884. 

Shortly oval, last whorl swollen, aperture large, surface feebly 
reticulated. R. LACTEA, Michaud. 

Section ACTONIA, Monts. 1884. 

Lip inferiorly, obliquely expanded, externally thickened ; turbi- 
nately elongated, decussed by close riblets and spiral striae. 

R. ABYSSICOLA, Forbes. 

Genus RISSOINA, d'Orbigny. 1840. 

Rissoiform, ribbed or cancellated, whorls numerous, apex mamil- 
lated ; aperture semilunar, lip thickened within, a little reflected, 



320 RISSOIID.E. 

anteriorly effuse or faintly channeled. Operculum corneous, thick, 
semilunar, paucispiral, with a claviform process on the internal face. 
(PL 54, figs. 93, 94.) 

The form of the operculum, and effuse character of the base of 
the aperture are distinguishing features of this group. The species 
inhabit warm and temperate seas, are world-wide in distribution, 
and over 100 good species have been characterized. There are 
some secondary and tertiary species. 
Section RISSOINA (typical). 

Longitudinally costate, with or without spiral stria3, aperture 
produced below, without funicular rib on the base. R. INCA, Orb. . 
Section RISSOLINA, Gould. 1861. 

With funicular rib below. R. ELEGANTISSIMA, Orb. 
Section MICROSTELMA, A. Ads. 1863. 

Turreted, ovate, rimate, spire conic, whorls longitudinally plicate ; 
aperture oblong, produced anteriorly, subcanaliculate, inner lip 
thickened, outer lip simple. R. DJEDALA, A. Ad. Japan. 

Section SCHWARTZIELLA, Nevill. 1884. 

Aperture without basal emargination. R. BRYEREA, Mtg. 
Section PHOSINELLA, Morch. 1876. 

Shell reticulated by subequal sculpture; aperture profoundly 
sinuated below. Operculum denticulate posteriorily. 

R. SAGRAIANA, d'Orb. 
Section ZEBINELLA, Morch. 1876. 

Shell very finely longitudinally costellate and spirally striate ; 
aperture widened and emarginate below. R. RETICULATA, Sowb. 

Section MORCHIELLA, Nevill. 1884. 

Upper part of shell longitudinally ribbed, lower part smooth, or 
spirally striate. R. GIGANTEA, Desh. 
Section ZEBINA, H. & A. Adams. 1854. 

Shell white, solid, opaque, polished, smooth or partly striate; 
outer lip rather thick, often with one or more anterior internal tu- 
bercles. R. BROWNIANA, d'Orb. 
Section PYRAMIDELLOIDES, Nevill. 1884. 

Narrowly turreted, with spiral ribs, tuberculated below the suture. 

R. INSOLITA, Desh. 
Section STOSSICHIA, Brusina. 1879. 

Embryonal shell sinistral ; whorls cancellated ; aperture canali- 
culated in front, lip varicose, dentate within, axis subperforate. 



321 

R. MIRABILIS, Dunker ; R. PLANAXOIDES, Desm. Miocene of Aqui- 
taine. . ..:. ! 

The group was proposed first for fossil species, but the above re- 
cent shell, referred by Semper to a new group Isselia (preoccupied, 
and by Nevillto Isseliella, 1885, may be included. 

Subgenus EATONIELLA, Dall. 1876. 

Smooth, aperture subcircular, peristome simple, continuous, not 
effuse below, lip margin not thickened. Operculum paucispiral, 
with an interior claviform process. R. KERGUELENEUSIS, Smith. 
3 sp. Kerguelen Is. 

Name substituted for Eatonia, E. A. Smith, preoccupied. 

Genus BARLEEIA, Clark. 1855. 

Conically turbinated, whorls slightly convex, smooth; aperture 
oval, entire, rounded in front, lip sharp. Operculum subconcentric, 
not spiral, with lateral nucleus, and an internal rib-like processs. 

Operculigerous lobe without processes, tentacles moderate, simple, 
obtuse at their extremity, foot a little emarginate behind, truncate 
in front. B. RUBRA, Adams. Europe. 

Many conchologists place this group in connection with Jeffrey- 
siidae, rather than with Rissoiidse. 

Genus KEILOSTOMA, Desh. 1848. 

Elongated, turriculate, usually spirally striate ; aperture short, 
entire, twisted at the base, angular behind, lip very thick, exteriorly 
varicose, laterally produced, sinuous behind. 

Cretaceous and Eocene; Europe, India. K. EXIMIA, Desh. 
(Struct. & Syst. Conch., t. 72, f. 39.) 

On account of Chilostoma, Fitz., 1833, Bayan, in 1873, changed 
the above name to Paryphostoma. 

Genus FAIRBANKIA, Blanford. 1868. 

Shell imperforate, turretcd, with a brown epidermis ; aperture 
suboval, rounded in front, lip slightly dilated, with acute margin 
and exterior varix. Operculum corneous, subannular, with an in- 
terior long transverse rib. 

Animal with long filiform tentacles, and eyes sessile at their 
bases ; proboscis elongated ; foot wide, sinuated in front, rounded 
behind. F. BOMBAYANA, Blanf. Estuary; Bombay Harbor. 

21 



322 RISSOIID^E-JEFFREYSIIDjE. 

Combines the epidermis, and to a great extent the animal of Hy- 
drobia, with the peristome of Rissoia and the operculum of Jeffrey- 
sia. 

Genus IRA V ADI A, Blanford. 1867. 

Rissoiform, the apex often obtuse, whorls spirally ribbed and 
covered with an epidermis; aperture ovate, margins continuous, 
anteriorly slightly effuse, outer lip with an external varix. Oper- 
culum and animal unknown. 

Brackish water. India. I. ORNATA^ Blanford. 

Probably closely related to Fairbankia. 

Genus FENELLA, A. Adams. 1871. 

Shell turriculate, subulate, or pupoid, whorls cancellated ; aper- 
ture oval in front, peristome interrupted, lip sharp, thickened or 
varicose. F. PUPOIDES, A. Ad. Japan. 

Some authors place Fenella in Pyramidellidse. 

Genus PUTILLA, A. Ad. 1867. 

Shell turbinated-conic, solid, smooth, rimate ; aperture suborbic- 
ular, lip thickened, subeffuse in front, scarcely expanded. Relation- 
ships obscure. P. LUCIDA, A. Adams. Japan. 

Genus SKKNELLA, Pfeffer, 1886. 

Shell depressed globose, compressed around the umbilicus; peris- 
tome continuous, the inner lip straight, oblique ; operculum pauci- 
spiral, with a projecting lamina, arising from the nucleus. 

S. GKOIKJIAXA, Pfeffer. 
South Georgia. 
FAMILY JKW/fK YSIIDJE. 

Proboscis bilobed in front, forming two sharp, narrow, ciliated 
appendages as long as the tentacles, which arc' equally ciliated ; 
eyes sessile at the base of the tentacles; toot lanceolate. Jsiws 
scaly (PI. 54, fig. 2 i. Radulu variable, short, the central tooth 
small, with slightly reflected margin, lateral tooth arcuate, some- 
times denticulate, sometimes unarmed, marginal teeth absent or 
present ( PI. 54, fig. 1 ). 

Shell smjill, thin, transparent, wit li oval aperture. Operculum 
imbricated, concentric, with marginal nucleus, the inner face With 
a transverse carina (PI. 54, figs. !HI, !)7 *. 



JEFFREYSIID^-SKENEID^E. 323 

Genus JEFFKEYSIA, Alder. 1849. 

Characters those of the family. Distr. Europe, Japan. 

J. DIAPHANA, Alder. 

JefFreysia lives on algye, from which it can suspend itself by a 
mucous thread. The eyes are visible through the shell. 
Rissoella, Gray, 1847 (not described), is a synonym. 

Subgenus TATEA, Tenison Woods. 1879. 

Shell elongate pyramidal. Operculum calcareous, with a vertical, 
submarginal claw. Animal with truncate foot and long tentacles. 
T. HUONENSIS, Woods. Tasmania. 

Subgenus DARDANIA, Hutton. 1882. 

Shell ovate, subconical, smooth, imperforate, olivaceous ; aperture 
oval, entire, rounded in front ; peritreme not continuous, outer lip 
thin. Operculum like Jeffreysia. D. OLIVACEA, Hutton. 

New Zealand. 



FAMILY -XKENEIDJE. 

Head large, proboscidiform, foot truncate in front, operculigerous 
lobe without appendages, tentacles long, cylindrical, eyes nearly 
-sessile, at their external base (PI. 54, fig. 100). Jaws tuberculate. 
Radula like Hydrobia (PL 54, fig. 99). 

Shell depressed, nearly discoidal, few-whorled, widely umbili- 
cated, aperture rounded, peristome continuous. Operculum corne- 
ous, multispiral. 

Genus 8KENEA, Fleming. 1828. 

Characters those of the family. Northern Seas. Low water, 
under stones and on algae. S. PLANORBIS, Fabr. 
Delphinoidea, Brown, is a synonym. 

FAMILY CHORISTID^E. 

Shell heliciform, thin, perforate, covered by an epidermis; aper- 
ture oval, peristome continuous, sharp. Operculum corneous, 
spiral. 

Head short, large, two short anterior tentacles are connected by 
a frontal veil, the posterior tentacles are simple, thick, conical ; no 
eyes; proboscis retractile; foot large, oval, with two anterior ten- 



324 CHORISTID^E-HOMALOGYEID^:. 

tacular processes ; a papilla on either side between the mantle and 
foot, aud two posterior threads below the operculum. Jaws elliptic. 
Radula with three rachial teeth, of which the middle is very small, 
the others unicuspid, lateral tooth large, bicuspid, marginal small, 
curved, simple, a small basal plate exterior to them (PI. 54, fig. 5). 

Genus CHORISTES, Carpenter. 1872. 

The characters are those of the family, the systematic position of 
which is very uncertain. Verrill is inclined to place it among the 
tectibranchs, near Acteeon, but the shell and appendages of the 
cpipodium recall Rissoid characteristics. 

C. ELEGANS, Carp., described from Canadian post-pliocene fossils, 
has been found living on the New England coast, within the egg 
capsule of a ray. 



FAMILY HOMALOGYRIDJE. 

Body flattened, ciliated in front, no tentacles, eyes sessile (PL 
54, fig. 3). Radula narrow, the central tooth having a quadrangu- 
lar base with large cusp, imbricated, one series on the other, a 
lateral, transverse plate replaces the lateral and marginal teeth. 
(PI. 54, fig. 4.) 

Shell planorbiform, spire involute, mouth clasping both sides of 
the periphery. Operculum corneous, few-whorled, nucleus central. 

Genus HOMALOGYRA, Jeffreys. 1867. 

Characters those of the family. H. NITIDISSIMA, Forbes & 
Hanley. Europe, Greenland. 

The external characters of the animal and its dentition are pe- 
culiar, and its systematic position is uncertain. 

Omalogyra, Jeffreys, and Ammonieerina, Costa, are synonyms. 



RISSOIA. 325 

FAMILY RISSOIDJE. 
Genus RISSOIA, Fremenville. 1814. 

R. VENTRICOSA, Desm. PI. 61, fig. 15. 

Whitish or flesh color, with about 12 longitudinal costse, fading 
on the upper part of the body whorl, finely spirally striate, lip pale 
violaceous or reddish, with external varix. Length, 8 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

R. subventricosa, Cantraine, is a synonym. 
R. SPLENDID A, Eichw. PI. 61, fig. 16. 

Scarcely pellucid, polished, white, with faint spiral series of mi- 
nute chestnut punctations, often obsolete, apex and peristome vio- 
laceous, ribs about 14, rarely spirally striate. Length, 5*4 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

The synonyms are R. vfolcestoma, Kryn., and R. ornata, Phil. 

This species, the preceding and the next, run together in such 
manner that it is very difficult to distinguish them ; indeed, it is 
very doubtful whether they are specifically distinct. 

R. PLICATULA, Risso. PL 63, fig. 56. 

Whorls rapidly increasing, flattened, with 12-14 slightly oblique, 
longitudinal ribs, vanishing on the lower part of the body whorl ; 
lip strongly varicose ; yellowish white, with fulvous flames between 
the ribs. Length, 6*3 mill. 

Mediterranean /Sea. 
R. VARIABILIS, Muhlf. PL 61, figs. IS, 17 ; PL 65, fig. 4. 

Whorls 7-9, convex, subangulated, with 10-12 longitudinal costse, 
and punctate, spiral, impressed lines ; lip externally varicose ; 
whitish, or light brownish, with obscure, punctate, spiral, chestnut 
lines, and sometimes an obscure basal band, peristome violaceous. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is R. costata, Desm., R. costulata, Risso, R. Desmaresti, Recluz, 
R. splendida, Sowb., Turbo Rissoanus, Chiaje, R. nodulifera, and R. 
punctata, Kiister, R. protensa and R. neglecta, Locard. 
? Monstr. STRANGULATA, Brasilia. PL 65, fig. 4. 

Upper portion smooth, middle longitudinally costate, body whorl 
tumid, smooth, suture deep ; vitreous white, peristome violaceous. 

Length, 4'5 mill. 

Dalmatia. 

Monterosato considers this a monstrosity of R. variabilis. 



326 RISSOIA. 

R. DECORATA, Phil. PL 62, figs. 30, 31. 

Rather solid, shining, scarcely pellucid, vitreous white, apex vio- 
laceous, with longitudinal chestnut lines between the ribs, sometimes 
tessellated with chestnut ; longitudinal ribs 12, thick, spiral striae 
close, densely punctate ; aperture chestnut-violaceous, with a white 
exterior varix. Length, 5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

The synonyms are R. pulchella, Danilo and Sandri, R. Lanzai, 
Dunker, and var. lineolata, Brusina. 

R. FRAUENFELDIANA, Brusina. PL 66, fig. 37. 

Solid, turreted, with very convex, subangulated whorls and de6p 
suture, with strong, rounded, elevated ribs, fading below the middle 
of the body whorl, crossed by close strise ; lip varicose, produced ; 
color vitreous white, peristome violaceous, varix white. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Dalmatia. 

More narrowly elongated, with more numerous whorls and more 
elevated ribs than the preceding species. 

R. nodosa, Brusina, is a synonym. 

R. GUERINI, Recluz. PL 62, figs. 36, 34, 35. 

With about 10 thick, rounded, longitudinal ribs, and punctate 
spiral striae, last whorl subinflated, usually smooth; lip varicose 
externally; brownish, with close, zigzag, longitudinal chestnut 
lines. Length, 5*8 mill. 

Europe. 

R. speciosa, Brusina, is a synonym. 

Var. COSTULATA, Alder. Figs. 34, 35. 

Narrower, yellowish, apex and aperture violaceous. 
R. subeostulata, Schwartz, is a synonym. 

R. AUKANTIACA, Watson. PL 65, fig. 5. 

Subopaque, subgradate, with deep suture ; ribs 18-20, double the 
width of the interstices, fading out towards the base, with a dozen 
rounded spiral line, sometimes a little nodulous above ; lip thin, 
thickened externally ; orange color, whitish towards the aperture. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Canary 'Is. 

R. MEKANOSTOMA, Requien, and var. AMPHORULA, Brugn. (un- 
figured.) 

Mediterranean. 



RISSOIA. '527 

R. SALEBROSA, Frauenf. PL 66, fig. 44. 

Thick, somewhat shining, brownish, depressed conical, with 10- 
12 strong, close, rounded ribs, subnodose at the suture, and on the 
angulated periphery of the last whorl ; whorls 5a, flattened, rapidly 
increasing. Length, 2'6 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

Section APICULARIA, Monts. 1884. 

K. SIMILIS, Scacchi. PL 61, fig. 2J). 

Thin, pellucid, vitreous, whorls rounded, with 10-14 longitudinal 
ribs, vanishing about the middle of the body whorl, with punctate, 
impressed spiral striae; aperture small, produced in front, lip rarely 
thickened externally ; white, peristome violaceous. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It. arata, Risso, R. ovatella, Forbes, R. rubrocincta, and R. apicu- 
lata, Danilo and Sandri and vars. apieina, striata, decurtata, and 
An'*X Monts., are synonyms. 

R. gemmula, Fischer, is probably a juvenile of this species. 
R. EHRENBERGI, Phil. PL 61, fig. 27. 

Solid, upper whorls smooth, the others with from 12-14 longitu- 
dinal plications, and spirally striated, lower part of body whorl not 
plicate, lip acute, rarely thickened ; whitish, pearly or light yellow- 
ish, with chestnut flames at the suture, inner lip violaceous, outer 
lip with a spot at the base. Length, 3'7 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
It is R. elegam, Brusina. 

R. d'ORBiGNYi, Audouin. PL 67, fig. 68. 

Imperforate, rather solid, with 8-10 longitudinal rounded ribs, 
spirally lirate ; whorls 6, convex, suture distinct; aperture a little 
effuse below. Length, 3 mill. 

Red Sea, 
R. INCONSPICUA, Alder. PL 62, fig. 52. 

Rather solid, but translucent, polished, whitish or light yellowish 
white, sometimes milk-white, occasionally obscurely maculated or 
shortly strigate with chestnut, apex corneous; numerously, nar- 
rowly costate, the interstices closely spirally striate ; lip with white 
varix. Length, 1'8 mill. 

Europe. 

R. maculata, Brown, R. variegata, Schwartz, and var. globosa, 
Morch (R. Kisloensis, Dunker), are synonyms. 



328 RISSOIA. 

K. DELICIOSA, Jeffreys. PI. 63, fig. 85. 

Narrowly rimate, somewhat thick, semipellucid, shining, white, 
with curved, acute, distant costse and more numerous spiral lirse, of 
which the basal ones are more distinct ; lip simple, thin, with ex- 
terior varix. Length, 2 mill. 

Southern, Europe. 

Jeffreys has indicated a var. multicostata. 

R. SYNGENES, Verrill. PI. 68, fig. 97. 

Imperforate, white, with 14-16 longitudinal, subdistant ribs, van- 
ishing on lower part of body whorl, with closer spiral lirse, crossing 
the ribs, and more conspicuous on the base ; there are also micro- 
scopic, close spiral striae. Length, 3 mill. 

Off Cape Hatteras, N. C. 

R. FAYALENSIS, Watson. PL 67, fig. 72. 

Nearly imperforate, white, with about 12 narrow, nearly contin- 
uous, distant, longitudinal ribs, fading below the periphery, some- 
what remotely, feebly, spirally striate throughout ; whorls 5, con- 
vexly conical, with linear, somewhat impressed suture; lip not vari- 
cose. Length, 1'67 mill. 

Azores; 450-500 fms. 
K. PYRRHIAS, Watson. PI. 67, fig. 70. 

Scarcely perforate, glossy, translucent white, with 13 strong, dis- 
tant ribs, fading below, with distant, faint spiral striae throughout, 
stronger on the base ; whorls 6, flatly conical, rapidly increasing, 
suture slightly margined ; lip varicose. Length, 2'75 mill. 

Off Culebra Is., W. L ; 390 fins. 

R. TRAJECTUS, Watson. PI. 67, fig. 78. 

Imperforate, strong, white, with about 18 narrow, rounded ribs, 
stopping on the periphery, spirally lirate throughout, stronger on 
the base ; whorls 5, slopingly, slighlly convex, suture linear. 

Length, 1*5 mill. 

Off Cape York, Australia. 

R. MICROSTOMA, Wutson. PI. 67, fig. 7"). 

Imperforate, translucent, glossy, white, with 10-12 distant, 
rounded ribs, more or less continuous, microscopically spirally stri- 
ate ; whorls 6, slightly convex, roundly angulated at the periphery ; 
aperture very small ; lip varicose. Length, 3 mill. 

Off Culebra IsL, W. /., 390 fins. 



RISSOIA. 

R. NOVARENSIS, Frauenf. PL 66, fig. 45. 

Imperforate, thick, whitish, with two fulvous bands, with 12-13 
narrow ribs, the interstices spirally striate ; whorls 6, convex, sub- 
gradate ; lip produced, varicose. Length, 3 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
R. LILACIKA, Recluz. PL 62, fig. 40. 

Obtuse, solid, porcellanous, shining, violaceous, with curved dis- 
tant ribs, and spiral, densely punctate, impressed striae, apex dark 
violet ; peristome thick, white, violet-margined, bidentate within, 
varix white, with an orange streak behind it. Length, 5 mill. 

Atlantic Coast of France. 

Turbo violaceus, Muhlf., is a synonym. 

Section RISSOSTOMIA, Sars. 1878. 

R. MEMBRANACEA, Adams. PL 61, figs. 19-26. 

Rather thin, membranaceous, subhyaline, smooth or longitudi- 
nally costate, the last whorl inflated, smooth or with short costa3, lip 
expanded and thickened ; corneous or brownish, with undulating, 
longitudinal chestnut lines, sometimes absent ; outer lip usually 
with three chestnut spots. Length, 7-9 mill. 

Europe. 

Varies greatly in texture and sculpture. 

The synonyms are R. labiosa, Montg., R. fragilis, Mich., R. Sou- 
leyetiana, Recluz, R. pulla, Brown, R. cornea, Loven (Figs. 25, 26). 

Var. OCTONA, Nilsson. Figs. 23, 24, 

Shell narrower, more cylindrical. 

Var. angustissima, WeinkauiF, is a synonym. 
R. LINEOLATA, Michaud. PL 61, fig. 28. 

Thin, hyaline, vitreous, with 14-16 slightly oblique longitudinal 
ribs, last whorl ventricose, the lower part smooth ; aperture sub- 
dilated below ; color light yellowish or corneous, with narrow, lon- 
gitudinal fulvous strigations, which become flexuous below, lip with 
a single spot below. 

France. 
R. LIA, Benoit. PL 62, fig. 33. 

Rather solid, opaque, fulvous brown with white apex, with 
rounded longitudinal ribs and thin spiral striae, the sculpture often 
obsolete on the last whorl ; lip simple, columella tinted with viola- 
ceous. Length, 4 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 



330 RISSOIA. 

R. DESMARESTI, Audouin. PL 67, fig. 67. 

Thin, elevated conical, with 10-12 low longitudinal costse, fading 
out towards the base ; whorls 6, slopingly flattened, suture distinct ; 
peristome simple. Length, 3 mill. 

Red Sea. 
R. WAABITICA, Issel. PL 68, fig. 98. 

Rimate, somewhat solid, a little shining, opaque, white, longitu- 
dinally thinly costate, sculpture fading above the middle of the 
body whorl ; interstices spirally striate ; whorls 44, slightly convex, 
with distinct suture ; lip simple. Length, 1*3 mill. 

Red Sea. 
R. PSAMMITICA, Issel. PL 68, fig. 99. 

Rimate, fragile, subopaque, slightly shining, white, densely de- 
cussated by longitudinal ribs, fading out anteriorly, and close spiral 
striae; whorls 4-1, suture a little impressed ; peristome thin. 

Length, 1 mill. 

Red Sea. 

Section PERSEPHONA (Leach. 1852), Monts. 1884. 

R. VIOLACEA, Desm. PL 62, figs. 37-39. 

Solid, with subangulate periphery; longitudinal ribs 10, short on 
the last whorl, which is ornamented with spiral series of puncta- 
tions ; lip externally thickened ; whitish, purplish on the spire, the 
periphery purple-zoned, peristome violaceous, the varix white. 

Length, 5'3 mill. 

Europe. 

It is R. punctata, Potiez, R. purpurea, McAndrew, R. amethystina, 
Renier. 
Var. RUFILABRUM, Alder. Fig. 38. 

Corneous, yellowish or greenish yellow, not banded, lip chestnut 
color. 

It is R. hyalina, Desm. 
Var. PORIFERA, Loven. Fig. 39. 

Corneous or yellowish, periphery rounded ; without ribs, deeply 
spirally pitted ; peristome chestnut color. 

Var. ecostata, Jeffreys, is a synonym. 

Section SCHWARTZIA, Bucq., Dautz., Dollf. 1884. 

R. MONODONTA, Bivona. PL 62, fig. 41. 

Thick, hyaline, very smooth, shining, last whorl sometimes -a 
little angulated ; aperture expanded below, lip varicose exteriorly, 



fc RISSOIA. 331 

columella unidentate ; whitish, irregularly flexuously strigate with 
chestnut, darker behind the varix, columella, periphery and apex 

violaceous. Length, 5'8 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It -is R. subcarinata, Cantr., R. dentata, Dan. et Sandri. 
R. VENUSTA, Phil. PL 62, fig. 32. 

Thick, with 14-16 strong, rounded ribs, those of the body whorl 
terminating at the subangulated periphery, suture undulated ; per- 
istome subexpanded, varicose, columella bluntly unidentate ; yel- 
lowish brown, with numerous chestnut longitudinal, sometimes 
flexuous lines, ribs white. Length, 7 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

R. oblonga, Midd., is a synonym. 

R. GROSSA, Mich. PL 66, fig. 36. 

Thick, strongly, irregularly plicate; columella 'subplicate; yel- 
lowish white, with chestnut strigations between the ribs on the last 
whorl, and two maculations on the varicose lip. Length, 8 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
R. OBLONGA, Desm. PL 62, fig. 45. 

Shining, hyaline, with twelve wide longitudinal plications, short 
on the last whorl, suture subundulated ; lip varicose, columella sub- 
plicate ; white, fulvous between the ribs, three fulvous maculations 
on the lip. Length, 5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is R. elongata, Brusina. 

R. ELATA, Phil. PL 62, fig. 44. 

Shell with acute spire, shining, upper whorls smooth, afterwards 
with strong, irregular rounded costss, evanescent on the base ; lip 
much thickened, expanded, varicose ; white, with fulvous short 
flames between the ribs, and three fulvous spots on the lip. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

R. cylindracea, Kryn., is probably a synonym. 

Jeffreys makes this species a variety of R. membranacea. 



R. PARADOXA, Monts. (unfigured.) Mediterranean. 

Section ZIPPORA, Leach. 1847. 

R. AURISCALPIUM, Linn. PL 62, figs. 42, 43. 

Narrow, subulate, with acute apex, hyaline, translucent, smooth 
or obsoletely widely costate, vanishing on the last whorl, base with 



RISSOIA. 

three or four spiral series of pits ; aperture expanded below, lip di- 
lated, varicose ; whitish or yellowish, often strigate with chestnut, 
varix sometimes three-spotted with chestnut. Length, 7'6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Readily distinguished by its Clausilia-like appearance. The 
synonyms are R. marginata, Laskey, R. acuta, Desm., R. acicula, 
Desm., R. Drummondi, Leach, R. pulchella, Risso, R. latilabre, Jan, 
and var. expansilabris, Bucq., Dautz., Dollf. 

R. SISMONDIANA, Issel. PI. 67, fig. 69. 

Imperforate, thin, whitish, a little shining ; longitudinally densely 
costulate, the interstices minutely spirally striate ; whorls 9, slightly 
convex, suture margined ; lip acute. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Suez. 

Section TURBELLA, Leach. 1847. 

R. PARVA, DaCosta. PL 62, figs. 46-48. 

Rather solid, smooth, shining, white or yellowish, variously 
clouded and irregularly banded with fulvous; with narrow, sub- 
distant longitudinal rounded ribs, terminating abruptly on the 
middle of the body whorl, the intervals spirally striate ; lip with a 
white varix, bearing two fulvous spots. Length, 4'3 miLL 

Europe. 

The synonyms are Turbo albulus, cereus and subluteus, Adams r 
R. cerasina, Brusina, R. obscura, Phil., R. semicostulata, Anton. 

R. INTERRUPTA, Adams. PI. 62, figs. 49, 50. 

Thin, nearly pellucid, smooth, somewhat shining, with two inter- 
rupted irregular chestnut bands and intermediate chestnut flames, 
lip maculate with chestnut. Length, 4*3 mill. 

Europe. 

By some authors considered a variety of R. parva. It is R. 
Matoniana, Recluz. 

R. DOLIUM, Nyst. PL 62, fig. 51. 

Hyaline, shining, whorls 5, rapidly increasing, with deep suture, 
with 14 plicae and intermediate sulcations, abruptedly terminating 
on the periphery of the last whorl; lip scarcely varicose. 

Length, 2'3 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is R. pusilla and R. nana, Phil., R. pulchra, Forbes. 



c 



KTSSOIA. 388 



R. PULCHELLA, Phil. PL 62, figs. 53, 54. 

Subperforate, obliquely subdistantly plicate, last whorl with the 
plicaB short, or smooth ; yellowish, with fulvous flames between the 
ribs, often unimaculate on the base of the lip. Length, 2'3 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
R. RADIATA, Phil. PI. 63, fig. 55. 

Imperforate, thin, hyaline, yellowish brown, irregularly fasciate, 
and strigate between the ribs with chestnut, lip with a chestnut 
spot ; with or without a few obtuse ribs, vanishing at the periphery. 

Length, 4'2 mill. 

Mediterranean, England^ 

It is Jf2. parva, Jeffreys, J2. undata, Bivona. 

Var. SIMPLEX, Phil. 

Very smooth, white or yellowish, with undulating chestnut longi- 
tudinal lines. 

R. AMELIA, Watson. PI. 67, fig. 74. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, glossy, horny white, with about 20 
rounded, wavy ribs and narrower furrows, vanishing at the peri- 
phery, below it spiral threads; whorls 5, moderately convex, with 
impressed suture, periphery very obsoletely angulated; outer lip 
thin. Length, 2*25 mill. 

Off Palma, Canaries; 1125 fms. 

R. ALGERIANA, Monts. PL 65, fig. 20. 

Imperforate, with rounded longitudinal ribs and about equal in- 
terspaces, yellowish brown, with a brown subsutural band and 
three more on the base ; lip simple, sharp. Length, 3 mill. 

Algiers. 

Monterosato remarks that it belongs to the same group as JR. 
Montagui, and Weinkauff thinks it will prove a variety of that 
species. 

Var. RUFULA, Monts. 
Uniform reddish brown. 

R. PINNAE, Krauss. PL 68, fig. 88. 

Imperfonite, somewhat solid, shining, white, lineolate with chest- 
nut, with 8-9 obtuse, remote longitudinal ribs, and obsolete spiral 
striae; whorls 7, convex, with impressed suture; lip acute. 

Length, 5'8-6 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope, on byssus of Pinna. 



334 RISSOIA. 

R. INCONSPICUA, Alder. PI. 63, figs. 57, 58. 

Rather solid, but translucent, shining ; whitish or light yellowish 
white, occasionally milk-white, maculated or strigated with chest- 
nut between the ribs, apex corneous ; suture distinct but not deep ; 
closely, thinly, longitudinally costate, less numerous and stronger in 
the last whorl, with close spiral striae ; lip white-varicose. 

length, 1-8 mill. 

Europe. 

It is R. maculata, Brown. 

Var. VARIEGATA, Schwartz. Fig. 58. 

Shell smooth, yellowish brown, longitudinally flamed with chest- 
nut. 

R. ALBELLA, Loven. PI. 63, figs. 59-62. 

\ Hyaline, subinflated, with convex whorls, spire costate, body 
whorl smooth, or distantly longitudinally costate above, or spirally 
striate ; inner lip free, forming an umbilical fissure ; whitish, flamed 
with chestnut at the suture and base, apex violaceous. 

Length, 3-3'6 mill. 

Northern Europe, Mediterranean Sea f 

A very variable species ; it is R. Benzi, Aradas & Benoit, ft. 
Oenonensis, Brusina, R. supracostata, Sowb., R. Targioni, Appelius. 

Var. SARSI, Loven. Figs. 60-62. 

Thinner, lip acute, entirely smooth, with a series of sutural ma- 
culations. 

R. MARGINATA, Mich. PI. 63, fig. 63. 

Solid, shining, narrowly, rather distantly costulate, suture sub- 
undulated, white-margined; yellowish brown, ribs, base of body 
whorl and varix white, bimaculate with chestnut behind the varix. 

length, 5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
R. ANGULATA, Jeffreys. PL 65, fig. 1 6. 

I mperforate, solid, opaque, a little shining; whorls 4, com- 
pressed, with 10-12 slightly curved strong ribs, and no spiral 
stri:', periphery distinctly tubulated ; lip acute. Length, 2 mill. 

Adventure Bank, Mediterranean. 

R. XANTIIIAS, \VatM>n. PI. 67, fig. 71. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, glossy, translucent white, with from J2-16 
narrow, continuous ribs, vanishing towards the base where' there 



RISHOIA. 335 

aje some faint spiral threads ; whorls 7, flattened, the last with sub- 
a^gular periphery ; aperture small, lip without varix. 
Length, 2 mill. 

Off Culebra IsL, W. I.j 390 fms. 

K. PERNAMBUCENSIS, Watson. PI. 67, fig. 73. 

Im perforate, polished, white, with, 15-20 round, flexuous ribs, 
and broad interspaces, with faint microscopic spiral markings; 
whorls 5, flat, periphery not angulated ; lip varicose. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Off Pernambuco, Brazil; 350 fms. 

R. AURITA, Monts. PL 65, fig. 17. 

Close to R. semistriata, Mtg., but has more convex whorls, and 
narrow sulci. Length, 2 mill. 

A Igiers. 

The author has only given distinctive characters for his species, 
and having no specimen, I cannot describe it. 

R. DOLIOLUM, Phil. PI. 65, fig. 19. 

Pupiform, solid, whitish, or yellowish ; with 14-16, flattened, ir- 
regular, close ribs, and undulated suture ; lip not protracted, nor 
varicose. Length, 2'3 mill. 

Red Sea ; fossil in Sicily. 
K. EUCHILA, Watson. PI. 63, fig. 72. 

Rather solid, vitreous, shining, subopalescent ; whorls 4-5, rap- 
idly increasing, suture distinct ; with 20-30 flexuous rounded ribs, 
about equalling the interspaces, vanishing below, spirally lirate ; 
yellowish white, with two or three spiral series of chestnut spots. 

Length, 1'5 mill. 

Madeira. 

Described by Watson as R. Novarensis, preoccupied by Frauen- 
feld. 
R. TURRICULA, Jeffreys. PI. 65, fig. 18. 

Minutely rimate, thin, semipellucid, a little shining, whitish ; 
whorls 4, tumid, rapidly increasing, with deep suture; with 20-25 
-thin, distant, curved costae, and no spiral sculpture. 

Length, 1*2 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean (subfossil?) 
K. IJRYCHIA, Verrill. PL 68, fig. W>. 

Minutely rimate, thick, brownish, with about 14 rather close 
rounded ribs, fading on the lower part of the body whorl, and rather 



336 RISSOIA. 

wider interspaces, no spiral sculpture ; whorls 4, the apex blunt, 
the others very convex, with deep suture ; lip rather thin, without 
a varix. Length, 2'3 mill. 

Off New England ; deep sea. 
R. HARPA, Verrill. PI. 67, fig. 82. 

Umbilicated, thin, with numerous longitudinal plications, and no 
spiral sculpture ; whorls 5, very convex, rapidly increasing, with 
<leep suture ; aperture small, round, lip thin. Length, 3 mill. 

Off New England ; deep sea. 



R. MUNDA, Monts. (unfigured.) Sicily. 

Section MANZONIA, Brusina. 1870. 

R. COSTATA, Adams. PI. 63, fig. 66. 

Longitudinally, distantly costate, costse acute, elevated, nodose 
above, spirally densely lirate ; whorls convex, round-shouldered, 
suture deeply incised ; lip double, continuous, the internal smooth, 
rounded, the external widely reflexed, thinly sulcate. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonyms are R. exigua, Mich., R. carinata, Phil.. Turbo 
plicatus, Miihlf., Turbo albus, Donovan. 

R. SIBIRICA, Leche. PL 65, fig. 21. 

Turreted, elevated, brownish ; whorls 5, round-shouldered, with 
9-10 obtuse ribs, vanishing on upper part of body whorl, below are 
a few raised spiral lines ; lip simple, edentulous. Length, 5 mill. 

Arctic Ocean, Siberia. 
R. MIRABILIS, Manzoni. PL 65, fig. 22. 

Scalariform, subangulate in the middle, narrowly rimate ; whorls 
62, very convex, with deep suture, with narrow, distant longitudi- 
nal ribs, the wider interstices closely spirally striate; yellowish 
violet. Length, 2%5 mill. 

Canary Is. 
R. GIBBER, Watson. PL 65, figs. 23, 24. 

Widelv umbilicated, gradate, solid, white or yellowish, sometimes 
more or less distinctly four banded with chestnut; whorls 4]-5, 
convex, with stout, rounded ribs, forming an undulated shoulder or 
suture above ; umbilicus defined by a rib; lip continuous, duplicate. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Madeira and Pto. Sancto. 



RISSOIA. 337 

R. PUNCTUBA, Mtg. PI. 63, fig 67. 

Imperforate, semipellucid, light brownish, with a chestnut stripe 
outside the aperture ; embryonal whorls 2, punctate, normal whorls 

6, convex, with deep suture, with numerous, close ribs, and spiral 
line ; outer lip varicose. Length, 3 mill. 

Europe, Teneriffe. 

It is R. textilis, Loven, R. puneturata, Macgill., R. insenghce, Cal- 
cara, R. striatissima, Rayn. 

R. PARVULA, Jeffreys. PI. 65, fig. 26. 

Imperforate, somewhat solid, subtranslucent, scarcely shining; 
whorls 4, convex, longitudinally costate, ribs evanescent at the pe- 
riphery, slightly spirally lirate, suture distinct but not deep; lip 
thin, smooth within. Length, 2 mill. 

Portugal. 

Probably not adult. 

R. MACANDREWI, Manzoni. PI. 63, fig. 68. 

Imperforate, solid, yellowish chestnut; whorls 6, turreted or 
round-shouldered, with close, large, longitudinal ribs, rendered nod- 
ulous by spiral impressed lines ; lip duplicate, the outer one ex- 
panded, with fimbriated edge. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Canary Is. 

Watson has described a variety SPRETA. 

R. WATSONI, Schwartz. PI. 64, fig. 89. 

Imperforate, thin, translucent, shining, white, with chestnut ma- 
culations on the shoulder, between the ribs, with close strong spiral 
ribs, and longitudinal ones distinct on the shoulder only ; whorls 
4?, gradate, subscalar, with flattened shoulder to an angle, suture 
rather deep ; lip a little thickened externally. Length, 2 mill. 

Madeira. 
R. AUBERIANA, d'Orb. PI. 68, fig. 85. 

Imperforate, thin, white, with brownish maculations, with nu- 
merous, thin, longitudinal and spiral costse ; whorls 6, convex, with 
sloping shoulder defined by an angle ; lip thickened. 

Length, 1*5 mill. 

West Indies. 
R. ZETLANDICA, Mtg. PI. 63, fig. 86. 

Imperforate, solid, opaque, whitish ; cancellated and almost mu- 
ricated by subequal longitudinal and spiral distant lirae ; whorls 

7, angularly shouldered above, suture deep, longitudinal sculpture 

22 



338 RISSOIA. 

evanescent on lower part of body-whorl, where the spiral sculpture 
becomes more prominent ; lip thickened. Length, 5 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonyms are R. cyclostomat'a, Recluz, and R. scalar if or mis, 
Thorpe. Jeffreys adds R. carinata, Aradas, and R. canaliculata, 
Phil. 

R. CRISP A, Watson. PL 65, fig. 8. 

Rimate, rather solid, somewhat shining, subvitreous, white, a 
little orange-tinted, with about 12 oblique costae, vanishing below, 
crossed by spiral lirse, of which there are 7 on the last whorl, 
stronger below, the intersections crispate ; whorls 5-6, convex, gra- 
date, suture deep ; lip thickened, externally crenated. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Madeira, Canaries. 
R. MAYENI, Friele. PL 65, fig. 28. 

More or less rimate, solid, reddish brown ; whorls 5, carinate, 
with sloping shoulders, costate above, nodose at the carina, spirally 
lirate below. Length, 5 mill. 

Arctic Ocean. 

First published as R. Jan-Mayeni; subsequently simplified as 
above. 

Friele has described a var. ALBA. 



R. SIMULANS, Monts. Unfigured. (R. Watsoni, Monts., not 
Schwartz.) Mediterranean. 

Section FOLINIA, Crosse, 1868. 

R. INSIGNIS, Folin. PL 63, fig. 70. 

Turreted, distantly obliquely ribbed, the extremities of the ribs 
undulating the shoulder of the whorls, spirally striate ; whorls 5, 
rapidly increasing ; lip wide, outer margin crenulated. 

Length, 2'2 mill. 

Panama. 

The remarkable distinctive character of this group is the small 
posterior sinus of the aperture. 



R. PHARAONICA and R. CLEOPATRA, Folin (unfigured.) Egypt. 



RISSOIA. 339 

Subgenus SABAN^A, Leach, 1847. 

R. FLAMMEA, Frauenf. PI. 63, fig. 64. 

Thick, smooth, subpellucid, shining, vivid brick red ; whorls 5, 
subgradate, with incised suture ; lip a little thickened. 
Length, 2 mill. 

Botany Bay. 
R. INCIDATA, Frauenf. PI. 63, fig. 65. 

Conoidal, thick, smooth, brownish ; whorls 5, flattened, suture 
and periphery channeled ; lip thickened. Length, 1'4 mill. 

Botany Bay. 
Section CORENA, A. Ad., 1870. 

R. TUBERCULIFERA, A. Ad. (unfigured.) Gulf of Suez. 

Section AMPHITHALAMUS, Carp., 1865. 

R. MICROTHYRA, Martens. PI. 63, fig. 69. 

Smooth, a little shining, brownish corneous, sometimes with a 
white thread at the suture, smooth ; whorls 5, slightly convex ; aper- 
ture small, subcircular, peristome simple, thick. Length, 1*5 mill. 

* Mauritius. 

R. BADIA, Watson. PI. 67, fig. 81. 

Scarcely umbilicated, smooth, shining, translucent chestnut, with 
fine growth lines, and a few microscopic spiral strise, most apparent 
towards the top of the whorls and on the base ; whorls 4 J, slightly 
convex, rapidly increasing, with narrow, distinct suture ; aperture 
produced from the body whorl, with duplicate, continuous lip. 

Length, 1'5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia. 

R. SCROBICULATOR, Watson. PI. 67, fig. 80. 

Pupiform, strong, shining, crimson- chestnut color, obliquely stri- 
ate, with faint spiral striae, more distinct below the suture and near 
the base ; whorls 4, flattened, suture linear ; aperture somewhat 
detached and projecting, oblique, with duplicate continuous lip. 

Length, I'l mill. 

Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia. 
R. OLIVACEA, Dunker. PL 66, fig. 43. 

Imperforate, subpupiform, thick, a little shining, fulvous, ob- 
liquely longitudinally plicate, the plicae 25-26 in number, upper 
part of spire smooth ; whorls 6, flatly convex, with slightly incised 
suture ; peristome duplicate, continuous. Length, 2 mill. 

Sydney, Botany Bay, Australia. 



340 RISSOIA. 

R. FRAUENFELDI, Schwartz. PI. 68, fig 86. 

Thick, subpellucid, chestnut color, smooth towards the apex, be- 
low with 18-20 somewhat oblique longitudinal plicae; whorls 6, 
somewhat convex, with impressed suture ; peristome thick, contin- 
uous, duplicate ?. Length, 3*2 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

Unfigured Species. 

R. LACUNATA, R. iNCLUSA, Carp. California. 

R. OBESA, R. PUPOIDES, H. Ad. Lord Hood's Isl. 

R. PELLY^, Nevill. Adelaide, So. Australia. 

Section NODULUS, Monts. 1878. 

R. CONTORTA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, figs. 40-42. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, shortly cylindrical with 
obtuse apex, yellowish or white, with two fulvous bands, smooth, 
shining; whorls 4, ventricose, with deep suture; aperture subro- 
tund, subeffuse, peristome continuous. Length, 1*2 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
Var. ELATA, B. D. D. Fig. 41. 

Spire lengthened. 

Var. INTORTA, Monts. Fig. 42. 

Spire shorter, very smooth, last whorl more solute. 

R. NITIDA, Brusina. PI. 69, figs. 43, 44. 

Rather solid, white, vitreous, transparent, apex obtuse ; whorls 
6, slightly convex, smooth, suture not deep ; lip continuous,, slightly 
varicose, a little produced below. Length, 2*25 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is R. glabrata, var. nitida, Brusina. 

R. GLABRATA, Muhlf. PI. 69, figs. 45, 46. 

Pupiform, rather solid, opaque, smooth, fulvous brown ; whorls 6, 
somewhat convex, the last narrower than the preceding whorl, su- 
ture not deep ; peristome thick, continuous, patulous at the base. 

Length, 1'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, Madeira. 

R. punctulum, Phil., R. Mandralisd, Aradas, and R. sabulum, 
Cantraine (fig. 46), are considered synonyms. 



RISSOIA. 341 

R. LINCTA, Watson. PL 69, fig. 47. 

Rather thick, transparent, glossy, white, sometimes with a yellow- 
ish cast, smooth, barely microscopically striate, more distinctly so 
at the base ; whorls 4-4 J, convex, suture deep ; peristome sub- 
continuous. Length, 1*5 mill. 

Madeira. 
R. L^EVIS, Monts. PL 69, fig. 48. 

The only description of this species is " Its solidity and the teeth 
of the aperture readily distinguished it from its congeners." The 
figure does not exhibit any apertural teeth. 

Algiers. 

It belongs to Monterosato's group Peringiella. 
R. EPIDAURICA, Brusina. PL 69, fig. 49. 

Minute, aciculately-subcylindrical, obtuse, thin, hyaline, very 
smooth, suture moderate, aperture dilated, with simple peristome. 

Length, 1*5 mill. 

Dalmatia, Sicily. 



R. SEMINULUM, Monts. 

Like R. glabrata, but larger, aperture more produced, peristome 
chestnut-margined. 

Algiers. 

Possibly a Barleeia. 
R. NITENS, Monts. (unfigured.) Mediterranean. 

Section ANABATHRON, Frauenf. 1867. 

R. CONTABULATA, Frauenf. PL 69, figs. 50, 51. 

Thick, shining, reddish or purplish ; whorls 5, scalariform, the 
upper part shouldered, and the angle carinated, there is an inferior 
carina on the body whorl, suture more or less channeled ; lip thick, 
continuous. Length, 1*4 mill. 

Botany Bay, Australia. 

Section PELECYDIUM, Fischer. 1872. 

R. VENUSTULA, Folin. PL 69, fig. 53. 

Imperforate, white, subpellucid, transversely striate ; whorls 7-8, 
subplanate, with linear suture, apex obtuse, mamilliform, last whorl 
deviately descending : aperture produced, exserted, semicircular, 
entire, peristome subthickened. Length. ? 

Sonda Strait. 



342 RISSOIA. 

R. VITREA, Garrett. PI. 68, fig. 18. 

Minute, thin, pellucid, smooth, microscopically spirally striate, 
shining, Avhite ; whorls 5, flattened convex, apex obtuse, suture well 
impressed, slightly margined ; peristome rather thick, simple. 
Length, 7*5 mill. 

Viti Is. 
Section HEMISTOMIA, Crosse. 1872. 

R. CALEDONICA, Crosse. PI. 68, fig. 20. 

Subimperforate, subtranslucent, thin, light olivaceous corneous, 
under a darker epidermis; whorls 5J, somewhat convex, moderately 
increasing, with impressed suture ; lip simple, continuous, subsolute. 

Length, 2*5 mill. 

New Caledonia, brackish water. 

Subgenus CINGULA, Fleming. 1828. 
Section CINGULA (sensu stricto). 

R. CINGILLUS, Mtg. PI. 69, fig. 25. 

Rather solid, scarcely pellucid, yellowish brown, with two or 
three chestnut bands; whorls 6, flattened, spirally striate; lip 
acute, not thickened. Length, 4'3 mill. 

Atlantic Coasts of Europe. 

It is R. vittatus, Donovan, R. trifasdata, Adams, Turbo graphicus, 
Brown. 
Var. RUPESTRIS, Forbes. Not banded. 

R. BALTEATA, Manzoni. PI. 69, fig. 57. 

Thin, hyaline, smooth, suture widely margined, apex obtuse ; 
whorls 3-1, flattened; lip simple, solid ; narrowly rimate. 

Length, 1'5 mill. 

Canary Is. 

This should possibly be referred to Ceratia. 

R. MILLERI, Folin. PI. 71, fig. 94. 

Rather smooth, Avith obscure decussating very minute lines, yel- 
lowish or orange color, shining ; whorls 6, slopingly flattened, the 
last with scarcely angulated periphery, suture deep ; lip thickened 
below, base with a few spiral striae. Length, 3'7 mill. 

Cape Verd Is. 
R. CONICA, Perier. PI. 71, fig. 95. 

Shell yellowish, banded with light chestnut, two bands above the 
periphery of the last-whorl and one below it; whorls 5, flattened, 



RISSOIA. 343 

the last with sharp peripheral aDgle ; columella a little twisted, lip 
acute. Length, 2'8 mill. 

Panama. 
R. ANGULIFERENS, Folin. PI. 70, fig. 62. 

Shining, very minutely longitudinally and spirally striate, whitish, 
with a broad fulvous band on the top of the whorls, and another on 
the middle of the base ; whorls 6, flattened with slight angle above 
and below the deep suture, and sharply angulated periphery ; peris- 
tome acute. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Panama. 

R. TENUISCUI.PTA, Watson. PI. 69, fig. 55. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, vitreous, pellucid, yellowish white, with 
incremental striae, and distant, irregular, very slight spiral lines ; lip 
thin, a little produced below. Length, 2 mill. 

Madeira, Algiers, etc. 
R. SCOPULORUM, Watson. PL 70, fig. 60. 

Thin, smooth, glossy, rufous brown ; whorls 9, flattened, with ob- 
scurely angulated periphery and short base, suture slight, defined 
by the peripheral projection of the whorl above ; lip thin, slightly 
patulous on the base. Length, 1*75 mill. 

Reefa off Honolulu, Sandwich Is. 

R. RUSTICA, Watson. PI. 70, fig. 61. 

Rather thick, white, with or without slight traces of longitudinal 
ribs, and traces of microscopic spiral lines, smooth, polished, apex 
large, rounded ; whorls 6, periphery very obsoletely angular, suture 
linear, not impressed; lip sharp, patulous, but a little inverted 
above ; umbilicus rimate. Length, 3 mill. 

Off Pernambueo, Brazil; 350 fms. 

R. ALVEARIUM, Watson. PL 70, fig. 59. 

Slightly umbilicated, with blunt apex, barely convex whorls, 
suture linear ; glossy white ; lip simple. Length, 1*25 mill. 

Off Culebra Isl, W. Indies; 390 fms. 

R. MERCUEIALIS, Watson. PL 64, fig. 92. 

Imperforate, white, translucent, shining, apex obtuse; whorls 7, 
slightly convex, with faint growth-lines and close-set spiral striae, 
suture narrowly margined, not deep ; lip a little expanded. 

Length, 3'75 mill. 

Wednesday Isl.; N. E. Australia. 

Possibly a Ceratia. 



344 RISSOIA. 

R. VILL.E, Issel. PI. 71, fig. 87. 

Bimate, pale corneous or luteous, pellucid, a little shining, 
smooth, very slightly longitudinally striate ; whorls 5i, convex, 
suture margined ; peristome a little thickened. Length, 2-2*5 mill 

Gulf of Suez. 
R. LANTZI, Velain. PI. 71, fig. 83. 

Rather thick, upper whorls subangulated, the last with rounded 
periphery, with spiral engraved lines; white; lip sometimes slightly 
thickened externally. Length, 2 mill. 

Is I. St. Paul, Indian Ocean.- 

R. SUBTRUNCATA, Velain. PL 71, fig. 88. 

Thick, solid, imperforate ; whorls 3, apex obtuse, all smooth, 
white ; lip thickened within. Length, 1 mill. 

Ins. St. Paul, Indian Ocean, 

R. CAZINI, Velain. PI. 71, fig 84. 

White, thick, smooth, imperforate; whorls 5, slightly convex; 
lip strongly thickened within. Length, 2 mill. 

Ins. St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

R. AUSTRALIA, Dunker. PI. 71, fig. 81. 

Somewhat thick, subpellucid, corneous ; whorls 6, subconvex, 
spirally thinly lined, the last whorl with 6-7 lines. 
Length, 2'4 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

R. PURPUREA, Hutton. PI. 71, fig. 89. 

Elongated, with 6 rather flattened, not polished whorls ; corneous 
brown, becoming purple or purplish red on the spire, with a white 
sutural band. Length, 2'5 mill. 

New Zealand. 
Var. SUBFUSCA, Hutton. 

Whorls 5, flattened, smooth, but not polished ; pale brown. 

Length, 3 mill. 

R. CYCLOSTOMA, Tenison Woods. PL 71, fig. 8. 

Scarcely perforate, smooth, opaque, olivaceous or brownish, 
lighter or whitish colored below the suture, apex obtuse ; whorls 6, 
flatly convex, thinly striated ; aperture small, rounded, produced. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Tasmania. 

The author describes a variety ROSEA, which differs only in color. 



(UN 

RISSOIA. 345 



R. SEMICARINATA, Folin. PL 70, fig. 58. 

Whitish, subdiaphanous, whorls flatly convex, spirally cingulate. 

Length, 1*5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
R. ROBUSTA, Dall. PL 71, figs. 76, 77. 

Shell smooth, scarcely rimate, with impressed suture; whorls 4 
5, slightly convex, purplish with whitish bloom, with very fine 
spiral striae particularly towards the base. Length, 5 mill. 

Aleutian Is. ; Plover Bay, E. Siberia. 

Dr. Dall calls the normal form var. Martyni, so that that name 
may be substituted in the event of robusta, Lea being recognized. 

Var. SCIPIO, Dall. Fig. 77. 

Shell more slender. Perhaps males, and the stouter ones females. 
The occurrence of a certain number of intermediate specimens is 
mentioned. 

R. CERINELLA, Dall. PL 71, fig. 79. 

Narrowly rimate, smooth, not polished. Length, 3 mill. 

Behring Sea. 

Close to C. proxima, Alder, but differs in the absence of spiral 
striation and in having less truncate apex, and one less whorl. 

C. ALEUTICA, Dall. PL 71, fig. 78. 

Slightly umbilicated, smooth, with faint growth-lines, no spiral 
sculpture, suture distinct, whorls moderately convex ; brownish, the 
slightly expanded edge of the aperture blackish. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Aleutian Is. 

More slender and smaller than C. minuta, Totten, less slender 
and without the sculpture of C. aeuleus, Gould. 

R. EXILIS, Tryon. PL 71, fig. 80. 

Whorls 6, convex, with well-marked suture, aperture small, sur- 
face covered with slight revolving striae, light .brown. 

Length, 3 '3 mill. 

San Diego, Cal., on salt-water grass. 

R. STIMPSONI, Smith. PL 71, fig. 73. 

Whorls 7, convex, with deep suture, distinctly wrinkled by growth 
lines, apex obtuse, shell thin, dark brown. Length, 5'7 mill. 

Greenport, Long Island, New York. 

I am not acquainted with this species, of which two specimens 
occurred to the author. 



346 



RISSOIA. 



C. L^EVIS, DeKay. PI. 71, fig. 75. 

Shell moderately solid, with 5 very convex whorls, separated by 
a deep suture, smooth, white in adult specimens, corneous in the 
young ; aperture small, umbilicus distinct and rather large. 

Length, 5 mill. 

New York, Connecticut. 

This poorly described and figured species has not been recog- 
nized ; it may be identical with the preceding one, or the following. 

R. MINUTA, Totten. PL 71, fig. 74. 

Thin, smoothish, apex obtuse, suture well -impressed, narrowly 
urnbilicated, yellowish-brown to ferruginous ; whorls 5, convex, 
very finely striate. Length, 3*75 mill. 

New England, Florida. 
R. GEORGIANA, Pfeffer. PL 71, fig. 2. 

Imperforate, shining, smooth, or microscopically striate with 
growth-lines, whitish, under a thin greyish straw-colored epidermis; 
whorls 5, flattened convex, with moderately impressed suture; 
peristome continuous. Length, 2'4-2'8 mill. 

South Georgia Id. 

Unfigured and Undetermined Species of Cingula. 

R. PETININGENSIS, 'Gould. (PL 71, fig. 82.) = Paludestr'nnt. 

R. MODESTA, H. C. Lea. == Assiminea. 

R. SANDERSONI, Verrill. Cape Hatteras, N. C. 

R. CONICA, C. CONCINNA, R. SOLIDA, C. B. Ad. Jamaica. 

R. VERRILLI, and R. ISLANDIC^E, Friele. (Desc. inaccessible to 
me). Arctic Ocean. 

R. PUNCTATO-STRIATA, Tenison Woods. Tasmania. 

R. ATOMARTA, Gould. China Sea. 

R. SCHLOSSERIANA, Brasilia. Leachia elongata, Phil. 

R. FILOSA, Brasilia. Suez. 

Ii. i-AUPERCULA, C. B. Ad. = Diala. 

Section ONOKA, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

H. STRIATA, Mtg. PL 63, figs. 71, 73. 

I Either solid, opaque, scarcely shining, whitish or yellowish, with 
two chestnut bands ; whorls 6-7, moderately convex, spirally 
closely striate, upper portion of whorls shortly longitudinally pli- 
cate ; lip, in the adult, slightly varicose externally. 

Length, 4 mill. 



RISSOIA. 347 

Atlantic Coast of Europe, f Mediterranean Sea, Nahant, Mass., 
Halifax, N. S. 

The synonyms include R. minutissima, Mich., R. communis, 
Forbes, R. semicostata, Turton, Pyramis discors and candidus, 
Brown, R. gracilis, Macg., R. Marionw, Macg. The American 
localities are for R. multilineata, Stimpson (fig. 73), which appears 
to be identical. 

Var. LIKATA, Watson. 

Ribs and basal spiral sculpture stronger. 

Madeira. 
R. SAXATILIS, Moller. PI. 64, figs. 87, 88. 

Imperforate, thin ; whorls 4, very convex, with deep suture, 
spirally cingulated ; yellowish white, translucent. Length, 3 mill. 

Greenland, Behring's Sea, New England. 

R. arctiea, Loven, and, I think, R. leptalea, Verrill (fig. 88), 
who has so named a single specimen occurring in New England 
waters, are synonyms. 

R. ACULEUS, Gould. PL 70, fig. 64c. 

Imperforate, but with a slight depression partly covered by the 
inner lip, apex blunt ; whorls 6, moderately convex, with regular, 
crowded microscopic, spiral lines ; aperture simple, entire ; light 
yellowish horn color. Length, 3'5 mill. 

New England. 

Some European authors consider this a synonym of R. striata, 
Mtg. 

R. AFFINIS, Jeffreys. PL 66, fig. 39. 

Rather thin, semitransparent, glossy, whitish ; whorls 4, slightly, 
indistinctly spirall) striate ; apex blunt; outer lip thin, somewhat 
expanded. Length, 2'7/> mill. 

Vigo Bay. 

Has fewer whorls than R. ztriata or R. aculeus, and they are less 
convex than in R. saxatiti*. 

R. ARENARIA, Mighels and Adams. PL 63, figs. 74, 75. 

Whorls 6, convex, longitudinally subplicate, minutely spirally 
striate, suture impressed, whitish. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Greenland, Canada, Maine, Spitzbergen. 

Stimpson changed the name to R. Mighelsi on account of Turbo 
arenarius (Mtg.?) Maton, Turton, etc., which, however, isOdostomia 
deeussata. R. exarata, Stimpson, is a synonym ; but the figure of 



348 RISSOIA'. 

that species in Gould's Invertebrata of Massachusetts (fig. 75), 
must represent an extreme variety. 

K. BRACHIA, Watson. PI. 64, fig. 9.0. ' 

Umbilicated, thin, translucent, whitish; whorls 4, rounded, 
spirally carinated, carime 5 on the upper part of the last whorl, 
with several less distinct ones on the base ; outer lip sharp, varicose, 
externally. Length, 1/25 mill. 

.A r . of Culebra Isl., West Indies; 390 fms. 

K. MORCHII, Collin. PL 69, fig. 56. 

Narrowly perforate, semipellucid, yellowish brown, apex obtuse ; 
whorls 4, convex, with channeled suture, spirally ridged, about 
eight ridges on the last whorl. Length, 3 mill. 

Siberian Sea. 
R. CARINATA, Mighels and Adams. PL 63, fig. 76. 

Shell very thin, ferruginous ; whorls 5, convex, the upper ones 
with longitudinal ribs, the lower half of the body whorl spirally 
striate ; aperture nearly orbicular, peristome thin and sharp. 

Length, 2'6 mill. 

Maine, northwards. 

It is J!?. semicostata, Migh. and Ad. (not Mtg.), and R. pelagica, 
Stimpson. 
R. AEDONIS, Watson. PL 64, fig. 91. 

Rather strong, subtransparent, white, apex blunt ; whorls 5, 
convex, spirally lirate, about 15 on the last whorl, the interspaces 
much wider ; outer lip sharp, thin. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Nightingale Isl., Tristan da Cunha; 100 to 150 fms. 

R. TRANSENNA, Watson. PL 64, fig. 100. 

Narrowly umbilicated, apex obtuse, translucent white; whorls 
5-5-1, moderately rounded, with a smooth space below the suture, 
then spiral threads, 16-18 on the body whorl, separated by wider 
interspaces ; outer lip sharp, with a feeble external varix. 

Length, 2'5 mill. 

Between Marion and Prince Edward Is. ; 140 fms. 
R. PACHIA, Watson. PL 64, fig. 98. 

Scarcely perforate, subtransparent, suture scarcely impressed, 
white ; whorls 5, narrowly, concavely shouldered, then convex, with 
faint spiral threads and wider interspaces ; lip sharp, with a remote 
external varix. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Off Pernambuvo, Brazil; 350 fms. 



RISSOIA. 349 

R. GLAPHYRA, Watson. PL 64, fig. 97. 

Scarcely perforate, thin, hyaline, white, apex blunt, suture nar- 
rowly margined, slightly impressed ; whorls 5, very feebly ribbed at 
the -suture of the body whorl, very faintly, spirally flat-ridged and 
furrowed ; outer lip thin and sharp. Length, 1/5 mill. 

Off Nightingale IsL, Tristan da Cunha; 100-150 fms. 
R. MONIZIANA, Watson. PL 63, fig. 80. 

Umbilicated, rather thin, frosted (not glossy), transparent, 
slightly longitudinally puckered beneath the suture; whorls 4-5, 
convex, with a narrow, sloping shoulder, spirally ridged, ridges on 
body whorl 7-9; lip subexpanded, thick. Length, 1'75 mill. 

Madeira Is. 
R. CASTANEA, Holler. PL 63, fig. 77 ; PL 64, figs. 95, 96. 

Imperforate, opaque, chestnut color, apex obtuse ; whorls 4i , 
convex, with impressed suture, and distinctly angulate, about 12 
lines on the last whorl. Length, 4 mill. 

Norway, Iceland, Greenland, JBehring's Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Var. ALASKANA, Ball. Fig. 96. 

Thinner, with rather prominent sutural wrinkles, smaller, with 
same number of whorls. Under the pale, yellowish epidermis, the 
shell is pinkish. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Behring's Sea. 
R. CASTANELLA, Dall. PL 64, fig. 93. 

Whorls 5, convex, spirally ridged, about 6 to 12 on the body 
whorl, varying in number ; narrowly umbilicated ; peritreme con- 
tinuous, slightly thickened ; pinkish or brownish white under the 
epidermis. Length, 2'7 mill. 

Behring's Sea. 
R. AURIVILLII, Dall. PL 64, fig. 94. 

Narrowly umbilicated, waxen or yellowish ; whorls 5i-6, with 
strong spiral ridges and concave, much wider interspaces, there are 
about 8 ridges on the body whorl ; lip continuous, slightly thick- 
ened. Length, 4'3 mill. 

Aleutian Is. 
R. GRISEA, Martens. PL 68, fig. 92. 

Scarcely umbilicated, semipellucid, reddish grey, whitish near the 
aperture, under an ash colored, caducous epidermis ; whorls 4, con- 
vex, with low spiral cingulse, separated by narrow impressed stria3 ; 
lip thickened, interior orange-corneous. Length, 2*25 mill. 

South Georgia. 



3/H) RISSOIA. 

K. CINGULATA, Phil. PL 68, fig. 93. 

Somewhat solid, translucent ; whorls 6, convex, with linear su- 
ture, spirally lirate, with wider interspaces, 10 lirse on the last 
whorl ; lip simple, sharp ; yellowish brown. Length, 4 mill. 

Sicily. 
R. TENERA, Phil. PI. 68, fig. 94. 

Thin, pellucid, brownish white ; whorls 5, with deep suture, and 
strong spiral ridges, of which there are 9-10 on the last whorl, the 
wider interstices slightly longitudinally striated ; lip simple, den- 
tate by the ridges. Length, 2 mill. 

Near Syracuse, Sicily. 

R. CRISTALLINULA, Manzoni. PI. 65, fig. 7. 

Vitreous, translucent, shining ; whorls 5, with margined suture, 
the last numerously spirally striate ; lip a little thickened, sub- 
produced ; subperforate. Length, 1-5 mill. 

Canary Is. 
R. CALLOSA, Manzoni. PL 65, fig. 6. 

Imperforate, solid, opaque, whitish, with short spire and indis- 
tinct, submargined suture ; whorls 5, closely spirally striate, last 
whorl inflated ; lip simple, rather thick. Length, 1*6 mill. 

Canary Is., Madeira. 

R. depicta, Manzoni (= R. punctifera, Watson Ms.) is a syn- 
onym. 

R. LAURJE, Folin. PL 71, fig. 99. 

Polished, crystalline, smooth, obscurely spirally lirate at the 
periphery and base ; whorls 8, slightly convex, with shallow suture ; 
aperture with thickened lip, spirally lirate within. Length, 2 mill. 

Panama. 



Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

R. DELICATA, Phil. Red Sea. 

R. LIGATA, Gould. Hong Kong. 

R. PROCERA, R. SUBULINA, R, K!,K< ! ANTULA, R. MUNDULA, R. 
SPIRATA, R. PATULA, R. MIRIFK'A, R. LUCIDA, R. KG K KG I A, all of 

Arthur Adams. Japan. 

R. ALBOLIK A I'A, Carp. Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 

R. TURRICULA, H. C. Lea. So. Carolina. 

This species has not been identified. 



RISSOIA. 351 

Section CERATIA, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

R. PROXIMA, Alder. PI. 63, fig. 82. 

Somewhat solid, a little shining, semipellucid, yellowish white ; 
whorls 6, convex, with impressed suture, almost smooth, very 
slightly spirally striate ; lip a little thickened, but not varicose. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Europe. 

R. striatula, Jeffreys and probably R. pupoides, Requien, are 
synonyms. 

R. MACRA, Watson. PL 64, fig. 99. 

Imperforate, thick, subtransparent white, apex obtuse ; whorls 6, 
rather flat, with narrowly margined suture, and slight spiral striae ; 
outer lip sharp, very feebly varicose. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Off Nightingale Isl., Tristan da Cunha; 100-150 fms. 

R. TRUNCATA, Garrett. PI. 63, fig. 79. 

Imperforate, thin, pellucid, shining, white, apex blunt ; whorls 5, 
slightly convex, closely spirally striate ; peristome thick, slightly 
expanded. Length, 2 mill. 

Viti Is. 



Unfigured Species. 

R. PYRGULA, A. Ad. Gulf of Suez. 

R. MACCOYI, Tenison Woods. Tasmania. 

R. VARIEGATA, Tapparone. Papuan Is. 

Section HYALA, H. and A. Adams. 1854. 

R. VITREA, Mtg. PL 63, fig. 81. 

Imperforate, thin, semipellucid, yellowish white, smooth, very 
lightly spirally striate, apex obtuse; whorls 6, convex, oblique, with 
deep suture ; lip simple, thin, contracted. Length, 4 mill. 

Europe. 

It is R. glabrata, Fleming, R. crystallina and R. virginea, Brown. 



Unfigured Species. 

R. CONCINNA and R. NITIDA, A. Ad. Gulf of Suez. 

R. PUMILA, A. Ad. Gulf of Suez, Japan. 

R. GLABRATA, Phil. Japan,. 



352 RISSOIA. 

Section PLAGIOSTYLA, Fischer, 1872. 

R. ASTURIANA, Fischer. PI. 66, fig. 52. 

Smooth, translucid, spire papillary, imperforate, white; whorls 
4}, subglobose, suture margined, last whorl obliquely ventricose ; 
lip subtliickeiied, columella callous. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Asturia, Spain. 

Section SETIA, H. and A. Adams. 1854. 

R. SEMISTRIATA, Montagu. PI. 69, fig. 21. 

Subsolid, scarcely pellucid, a little shining, whitish with two or 
three spiral series of faint chestnut maculations, suture deep ; 
whorls 5, convex, spirally striate, base rimate. Length, 2'3 mill. 

Europe. 

It. marmorata, Cantr., R. maculata, McJnts., JR. subsulcata, Phil., 
R. tristriata, Thompson, E. pulchra, Johnson, and possibly R. granu- 
lum, Phil., R. aemula, Granata, and R. Galvagni, Aradas, are syn- 
onyms. 
R. PULCHERRIMA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, figs. 22, 26. 

Thin, smooth, striulate, sub perforate ; whitish, with four spiral 
series of chestnut maculations on the last whorl, sometimes more or 
less confluent into strigations, apex obtuse, mamillary ; whorls 4, 
very convex, with deep suture, last whorl expanding towards the 
aperture, base rimate. Length, 2 mill. 

Europe. 

R. amabilis, Monts., is probably a synonym, and I think that R. 
depieta, Weinkauff (fig. 26), not Manzoni, may also be placed here. 

R. PICTA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, fig. 23. 

Somewhat solid, semipellucid, shining, spirally striated, yellowish 
white, with spiral series of chestnut spots, apex obtuse, suture 
moderate, submargined ; whorls 5-6, compressed rounded, base im- 
perforate. Length, 1'75 mill. 

Portugal, Canary Is., Madeira. 

Probably a variety of R. semistriata. 
R. BENJAMINA, Monts. PI. 69, fig. 24. 

Thin, transparent, yellowish, very slightly striate, with series of 
chestnut maculations, apex obtuse ; whorls 5, slightly convex, with 
distinct suture, base imperforate ; lip acute. Length, 2 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, Portugal. 

It is R. concinna, Monts., not S. Wood, and probably a variety of 
R. semistriata. 



RISSOIA. 353 

R. PERMINIMA, Manzoni. PI. 69, fig. 28. 

Imperforate, smooth ; whorls 4, yellowish, with or without bands 
of small chestnut spots, suture margined. Length, T25 mill. 

Canaries, Madeira. 

Too closely allied to R. puleherrima, Jeffreys. 
R. ALBUGO, Watson. PI. 69, fig. 27. 

Scarcely rimate, pellucid, thin, smooth, whitish or yellowish, with 
series of small quadrate chestnut spots, sometimes confluent, with a 
series of opaque white spots on the periphery; whorls 5J, sub- 
angular, spirally sulcate beneath the angle : lip thin, acute. 

Length, 1'6 mill. 

Canary and Madeiran Is. 

Perhaps only a variety of R. semistrmta. 
R. MADREPORICA, Issel. PI. 71, fig. 86. 

Rimate, thin, a little shining, densely spirally striate, white ; 
whorls 4i, a little convex, with well-impressed, margined suture ; 
columella a little twisted, outer lip thin. Length, 1 '3 mill. 

Gulf of Suez. 
R. SCULPTILIS, Monts. PL 71, fig. 93. 

Shell a little shouldered, smooth, yellowish, with dark colored 
punctate dots in spiral series, about six series on the body whorl ; 
lip a little thickened. Length, I'D mill. 

Algiers. 
Subsection MICROSETIA, Monts. 1884. 

R. TURGIDA, Jeffreys. PL 69, fig. 29. 

Rimate, thin, pellucid, very smooth, white or light yellowish, a 
little shining, the periphery with a spiral line, apex obtuse; whorls 
5, convex, the last dilated, suture distinct. Length, 2*2 mill. 

Northern Norway, New England ; (487 fms.) 
R. obtusispira, Seguenza, R. oblita, Tiberi, and R. soluta, var. 
laevis, Sars, are synonyms. 
R. TUMIDULA, Sars. PL 69, fig. 30. 

Rimate, thin, semipel lucid, corneous, very lightly spirally striate, 
apex obtuse ; whorls 4, convex, with deep suture. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Arctic Norway. 
R. ABJECTA, Watson. PL 69, fig. 31. 

Subsolid, opaque, yellowish white, unicolored ; whorls 5-8, some- 
what flatly convex, suture thread-like, slightly channeled, surface 
very minutely spirally striate. Length, 2 mill. 

Madeira. 
23 



354 RISSOIA. 

R. FULGIDA, Adams. PI. 69, fig. 33. 

Scarcely rimate, rather thin, semipellucid, smooth, light yellowish, 
bifasciate with chestnut, penultimate whorl sometimes chestnut 
color; whorls 4, tumid, with deep suture. Length, 7 mill. 

Europe. 

It is R. pygmaea, Mich. Jeffreys has indicated a var. pallida. 
R. FUSCA, Phil. PI. 69, fig. 34. 

Scarcely rimate, smooth, brownish, apex obtuse ; whorls 4-41, 
convex. Length, 1 mill. 

Sicily. 

R. inflata and R. turriculata, Monts., R. paludinoides, Calcara, 
are synonyms. 
R. ALLERYANA, Arad. et Benoit. PL 69, fig. 35. 

Scarcely umbilicated, thin, very smooth, pellucid, white ; whorls 
4, very convex, with deep suture ; lip continuous, simple. 
Length, 1 mill. 

Sicily. 

R. ambigua, Brugn., and var. solidula, Monts., are synonyms. 
R. SCIUTIANA, Arad. et Benoit. PL 69, fig. 36. 

Shell imperforate, smooth, vitreous, shining, yellowish chestnut, 
spire obtuse ; whorls 5, convex, suture moderately impressed. 
Length. ? 

Sicily. 

R. zandeana, Arad. (in tavola) is a synonym. 
R. MICROMETRICA, Seguenza. PL 69, fig. 39. 

Thin, smooth, subtransparent, yellowish, with three or four 
chestnut bands, suture deep ; whorls 4, convex, the last subinflated, 
base narrowly rimate. Length, 1*25 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
R. MARINE, Tenison Woods. PL 71, fig. 9. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, translucent, smoky horn-colored, two- 
banded with yellow, polished ; whorls 4, ventricose, sloping. 
Length, 2'5 mill. 

Tasmania. 
R. ATKINSONI, Tenison Woods. PL 71, fig. 10. 

Imperforate, but channeled, polished, translucent, pale horn color, 
obscurely bifasciato with dusky brown, columclhi black; normal 
whorls 5, well rounded ; aperture produced below, lip thin, acute, 
columellar lip reflected into a false umbilicus. Length, 1 mill. 

Tasmania. 



RISSOIA. 355 

R. POLYCHROMA, Folin. PI. 70, fig. 63. 

Smooth, a little shining, apex obtuse, scarcely longitudinally 
striate, with a very minute spiral thread on the periphery ; whorls 
5, the first two with very minute quadrangular impressions, reddish, 
yellowish or violaceous, or corneous white, with obscure darker 
bands ; aperture subcircular, peristome simple, sharp. 

Length, I'l mill. 

Bay of Panama. 
R. PULICARIA, Folin. PI. 71, fig. 96. 

Very smooth, shining, white, with a series of oblong chocolate 
spots on the periphery and spire, base with a dark band ; whorls 5, 
subglobose, suture linear, scarcely impressed ; aperture subcircular, 
lip simple. Length, 1*3 mill. 

Mauritius. 
R. BRAZIERI, Tenison Woods. PL 71, fig. 97. 

Rimate, smooth, white, broadly banded with fulvous above the 
periphery, narrowly banded below it, under an olive epidermis; 
whorls 5, rounded, the last with sharply angulated periphery ; lip 
sharp. Length, 3 mill. 

Tasmania. 
R. NITENS, Dunker. PL 71, fig. 100. 

Umbilicated, smooth, shining, subpellucid, white, with two in- 
conspicuous pale fulvous bands ; whorls 4, convex, with incised su- 
ture, columella often violet tinted. Length, 1*4 mill. 

Botany Bay, Australia. 

Rv ATROPURPUREA, Dunker. PL 71, fig. 1. 

Umbilicated, smooth, pellucid, polished, dark purple; whorls 4, 
rapidly increasing, suture incised ; lip subthickened. 

Botany Bay and Sydney, Australia. 

R. LIMB AT A, Hutton. PL 71, fig. 98. 

Narrowly Umbilicated, polished, smooth ; whorls flatly convex, 
the last with angulated periphery ; pale olivaceous with zigzag 
white strigations, most apparent as a sutural and a peripheral band. 

Length, 3 mill. 

New Zealand. 



TJnfigured Species Referred to Microsetia. 

R. MACILENTA, R. PUMiLA, R. ccELATA, Mouts. Mediterranean. 
R. OCHROLEUCA, and R. FICARATIENSIS, Briignoiie. Mediterranean. 



356 RISSOIA. 

R. VEXILLATA, Brusina. Mediterranean- 

R. Cossurce. Calcara, R. fasciata, Requien and R. Joenia, AracL 
and Benoit, are synonyms. 
R. MESSANENSIS, Seguenza. Mediterranean. 

Subsection CINGULINA, Monts. 1884. 
R. CONCINNATA, Jeffreys. PL 69, fig. 32. 

Imperforate, scarcely rimate, semipellucid, smooth, with remote, 
very slight incremental striae, whitish, apex obtuse ; whorls 4, con- 
vex, with deep suture ; aperture nearly circular, outer lip thin. 

Length, 1 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
R. SOLUTA, Phil. PL 69, fig. 37. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, very smooth ; whorls 4, very convex, the 
last ventricose. Length, 1 mill. 

Europe. 
R. globosa, Martin, Ms. is a synonym. 

Var. ALBERT, Jeffreys. 
Somewhat larger and thinner, with a more produced and pointed 

spire. 

Northern Europe. 
R. MARIONENSIS, Watson. PL 70, fig. 65. 

Thin, smooth, narrowly umbilicated, ruddy horny, apex blunt ; 
whorls 5, slopingly flattened, slightly convex, with submargined, 
slightly impressed suture ; lip sharp. Length, 1'85 mill. 

Between Marion and Prince Edward Is. 
R. PRINCIPIS, Watson. PL 70, fig. 66. 

Imperforate, rather thick, more or less translucent, white, under 
a thin, caducous, yellowish epidermis; whorls 5, moderately convex, 
apex blunt, suture rather deep ; lip sharp, patulous. 
Length, 2 mill. 

Between Marion and Prince Edward Is. 

R. AUSTRALIS, Watson. PL 70, fig. 67. 

Imperforate, thin, smooth, pale horn color, under a thin yellowish 
epidermis ; whorls 5, moderately convex, with slightly impressed 

suture ; lip sharp. Length, T85 mill. 

Royal Sound, Kerguelcn Is. 

Iv. PHILOMELA, Watson. PI. 70, fig. (>K. 

Minutely rimate, sirbhyaline, white, shining, apex obtuse; whorls 
scarcely 5, convexly conical, suture not deep, slightly margined; 
outer lip sharp, a little patulous below. Length, 1/45 mill. 

Off Nightingale Isl., Tristan da Cunha* 



TJNIVEV. 



KISSOXA. 

E. QUISQUILIARUM, Watson. PI. 70, fig. 69. 

Imperforate, solid, smooth, except a few distant spiral striae on the 
base, apex obtuse ; whorls 5, convexly conical, suture slightly im- 
pressed; lip with a varix. Length, T5 mill. 

Off Fayal, Azores; 450-500 fms. 
K. EDWARDIENSIS, Watson. PI. 70, fig. 70. 

Minutely rimate, rather thick, dull, smooth, ruddy horn color, 
becoming whitish towards the mouth ; whorls 4, convex, the last 
tumid ; outer lip thin, slightly patulous. Length, 0*75 mill. 

Of Prince Edward Isl; 50-150 fms. 
E. SINAPI, Watson. PL 70, fig. 71. 

Imperforate, rather strong, smooth, reddish horn-color, with blunt 
apex ; whorls 4, rapidly enlarging, convex, suture linear ; lip thin. 

Length, 1 mill. 

Royal Sound, Kerguelen Isl. 
E. TRIANGULARIS, Watson. PI. 70, fig. 72. 

Umbilicated, smooth, white, apex blunt, suture impressed ; whorls 
4s, rapidly increasing, convex, base with an angle round the um- 
bilicus ; lip thin, slightly patulous. Length, 1 mill. 

Ascension Isl. ; 420 fms. 
E. APICINA, Verrill. PL 71, fig. 85. 

Narrowly umbilicated, with acute, substyliform apex, striated by 
growth-lines, smooth, dark brown ; nuclear whorls 4, normal whorls 
5, convex, suture deeply impressed, last whorl with an indistinct 
ridge below the periphery. Length, 7'6 mill. 

Off New England Coast; 1608 fms. 

The animal has rather short, stout, tapering tentacles, and is ap- 
parently without eyes. 
E. LATIOR, Mighels and Adams. PL 71, fig. 92. 

Narrowly umbilicated, smooth, pale horn-color, with deep suture ; 
whorls 4, convex, rapidly enlarging ; aperture rounded, inner mar- 
gin with a lamina. Length, 2 mill. 

New England. 

I am inclined to include in this species R. robusta, H. C. Lea, of 
which a single specimen was obtained at Cape May,-N. J. 
E. KERGUELENI, Smith. PL 71, fig. 3. 

Imperforate, thin, vitreous or milk white, light brownish at the 
apex, polished ; whorls 6, convex, apex obtuse, suture very narrowly 
margined ; lip continuous, slightly thickened and expanded. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Kerguelen's Land. 



358 RISSOIA. 

R. NIGRA, Krauss. PL 71, fig. 4. 

Imperforate, thin, rather smooth, violaceous or greenish black, 
apex obtuse ; whorls 5, convex, with deep suture ; lip acute, simple. 

Length, T4 mill. 

Algoa Bay, So. Africa. 
R. LiTTORiNiFORMis, Garrett. PI. 71, fig. 5. 

Smooth, pellucid, shining, white; whorls 51, very convex, rapidly 
increasing, suture deeply impressed, slightly margined ; peristome 
rather thick. Length, 2 mill. 

Viti Is. 
R. HYALINA, Garrett. PI. 71, fig. 91. 

Thin, hyaline, shining, white; whorls 6-7, convex, with very fine, 
crowded, spiral raised striae, crossed by more delicate growth lines ; 
whorls 6-7, convex, with deep suture ; peristome rather thick, sim- 
ple, slightly expanded at the base. Length, 6 mill. 

Samoa, Viti and Paumotus Is. 
R. MELANURA, Tenison Woods. PL 71, fig. 7. 

Scarcely perforate, solid, somewhat translucent, smooth, shining, 
suture impressed, dark olivaceous ; whorls 5, slightly convex, peri- 
phery obtusely angulated ; aperture anteriorly produced, lip simple. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Tasmania. 
R. ANGELI, Tenison Woods. PL 71, fig. 11. 

Umbilicated, turbinate conoidal, thin, pellucid, yellowish, with 
rather sharp crowded growth lines, and thin, slight spiral stria); 
whorls 5, with well-impressed suture ; aperture rounded, lip thick- 
ened. Length, 1*5 mill. 

Tasmania. 
R. CORIACEA, Manzoni. PL 69, fig. 54. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, fragile, coriaceous, longitudinally lamel- 
larly striate, light yellowish brown; whorls 6, convex, with deep 
slightly margined, channeled suture, and rapidly increasing; lip 
thin, simple. Length, 2'6 mill. 

Madeiran Archipelago. 

An abberarit form. 

Subsection PARVLSETIA, Monts. 1884. 

R. SCILL^E, Seguenza. PL 69, fig. 38. . 

Translucent, opaline, very smooth, shining, yellowish, sometimes 
with darker maculations or streaks; whorls 4, convex, the last 



RISSOIA. 359 

whorl inflated, apex obtuse ; aperture nearly round, with simple, 
slightly thickened lip. 

Sicily. 

The spire outline more convex than in the preceding species. 

R. brutia, Tiberi, Ms. has been quoted as a synonym. 

K. TIBERIANA, Issel. PI. 71, fig. 90. 

Bimate, pellucid, whitish or yellowish, shining, very slightly 
longitudinally striulate ; whorls 41, convex, suture impressed, ob- 
scurely margined ; peristome a little thickened, continuous. 

Length, T5 mill. 

Suez. 
R. GLOBULUS, Moller. PL 70, fig. 64. 

Whorls rapidly enlarging, convex, with deep suture, apex obtuse, 
hyaline, whitish or yellowish, shining, smooth. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Norway, Spitzbergen, Greenland, Gulf of St. Lawrence. 



R. GLOBULINA, Monts. (unfigured.) Sicily. 

Unfigured Species of Setia. 

R. PATENS, Gould. Charleston Harbor, S. C. 

R. TRICINCTA, R. CANDIDA, R. BiFASCiATA, A. Ad. Japan- 

R. FLAMIA, Beddome. Tasmania. 

R. BIZONATA, Nevill. Mauritius. 

R. SIENNA, Tenison Woods. = Hydrobiidce. 

R. TORCULARIS, Tenison Woods. Port Jackson, Australia. 

R. GRIEGI, Friele. (Figure inaccessible to me.) Arctic Seas. 

Subgenus Rissorsis, Garrett. 1873. 

R. TYPICA, Garrett. PL. 69, fig. 52. 

Thin, hyaline, smooth, glossy, white ; whorls 6, flat, suture faintly 
impressed, margined ; peristome rather thin, sinuous, somewhat ex- 
panded, columella obliquely arched, slightly callous. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Viti and Samoa Is. 

Subgenus ALVANIA, Risso. 1826. 

R. CIMEX, Linn. PL 65, figs. 11, 12. 

Imperforate, strong, opaque, covered by rounded granules in 
longitudinal and spiral series, white or light fulvous to chestnut 



360 RISSOIA. 

color, unieolored or bifasciate ; lip thick, labiate and sulcate within, 
white-varicose externally. Length, 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

The synonyms are It. calathiscus, Mtg., R. Boryanus, Chiaje, R. 
cancellata, Desm., R. Europea, Risso, R. Fremenvillei and R. mamil- 
lata, Risso, R. granulata, Phil., and vars. paupercula, and depau- 
perata, Monts. 
R. MONTAGUI, Payr. PL 65, fig. 15. 

Imperforate, thick, spirally lirate, longitudinally strongly ribbed, 
whitish, yellowish or chestnut color, plain or with one or two bands; 
whorls 5, suture distinct, subchanneled ; aperture white-lipped and 
sulcate within, with white varix externally. Length, 5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

The most striking difference between this and the preceding 
species is in the prominence of the longitudinal over the spiral 
sculpture. The synonyms are R. Sardoa, Risso, R. Nieolosiana, 
Arad. and Benoit, R. buccinoides, Desh. (in part), and R. Schwar- 
ziana, Brus. 
R. CANARIENSIS, d'Orb. PI. 65, fig. 32. 

Imperforate, solid, white, covered with rounded nodules by the 
intersection of longitudinal and spiral ribs ; whorls 5, slightly con- 
vex, with rather deep suture, lip thickened and margined. 

Length, T75 mill. 

Madeira, Canary Is., Algiers, Palermo. 

R. CALATHUS, Forbes and Hanley. PL 65, fig. 30. 

Like the last species, but more conical, more rudely sculptured, 
the longitudinal sculpture more prominent. Length, 4 mill. 

Europe. 
R. LINEATA, Risso. PL 64, figs. 1, 3 ; PL 65, figs. 13, 29. 

With strong ribs, becoming obsolete on the base, and numerous 
spiral lirse, yellowish or fulvous, the line forming lines of deeper 
color ; whorls 6, convex, with deep suture ; lip thickened externally, 
plicate within. Length, 4 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

R. rugulosa, Arad., R. coronata, Brusina, R. lignea (Thorpe?) 
Reeve (fig 13), var. costulosa, Risso, and R. Peloritana, Arad. et 
Benoit. (fig. 3), are synonyms. 
Var. ASPERA, Phil. Fig. 29. 

Decussations deeper, giving the nodules a rough appearance. 

It is R. variegata, Danilo and Sandri, and R. costulosa, Schwartz. 



RISSOIA. 361 

R. AREOLATA, Stimpson. PI. 68, fig. 83. 

Clathrate by rather distant, narrow longitudinal and spiral ribs ; 
whorls 7, convex, with deep suture ; lip simple. Length, 3'5 mill. 

New England. 
R. ACUTELIRATA, Carp. PI. 66, fig. 41. 

Thin, brownish ash-color, with about 18 longitudinal, distant 
ribs, vanishing on the periphery, crossed by distant spiral lirse (15 
on last whorl), not nodose ; whorls 6, rapidly enlarging, convex, 
with well-impressed suture. Length, 2'25 mill. 

San Diego, Gal. 
R. LANCOC, Calcara. PL 63, fig. 83. 

Yellowish, orange brown or yellowish white ; longitudinally dis- 
tantly costate, spirally lirate, forming nodules on the ribs, base 
without ribs, but spirally striate ; whorls 5-6, very convex, suture 
deep, channeled ; lip externally thickened. Length, 4 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

R.scaura, Monts., and R. Schwartzii, Benoit, are synonyms. 

R. RETICULATA, Mtg. PL 65, fig. 9. 

Imperforate, solid, almost opaque, yellowish or yellowish brown, 
sometimes indistinctly bifasciate, reticulated by numerous, curved, 
narrow ribs, and very distinct spiral lirse ; whorls 6-7, slightly 
convex, suture narrowly excavated ; lip plicate within, with a 
striated external varix. Length, 4 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonymy includes R. textilis, Phil., R. Broechii, Weink., R. 
Beanii, Forbes and Hanley. 

R, FISCHERI, Jeffreys. PL 65, fig. 31. 

Imperforate, opaque, not shining, reticulated by equal, narrow, 
distant longitudinal and spiral riblets, light yellowish or whitish ; 
whorls 5, moderately convex, with deep suture ; lip rather thin, not 
varicose, smooth within. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, Portugal. 

R. JEFFREYSI, Waller. PL 66, fig. 56. 

Whitish or fulvous, with prominent spiral lirse, decussated by 
less elevated longitudinal sculpture, which becomes obsolete on the 
base ; whorls 5, convex, subangulate, suture deep, channeled ; lip 
scarcely varicose. Length, 3*5 mill. 

North Sea, Mediterranean. 

It is .R. sororcula, Granata. 



362 RISSOIA. 

R. TARSODES, Watson. PL 67, fig. 77. 

Scarcely rimate, white, with about 20 narrow ribs, fading below 
the periphery, clathrate by distant, spiral lirse, extending feebly 
over the base; whorls 5, convex, slightly shouldered, with deep 
suture; lip feebly varicose. Length, T87 mill. 

0/Fayal, Azores; 450-500 fms. 

R. DIDYMA, Watson. PL 67, fig. 76. 

Scarcely rimate, strong, dull yellowish, with about 12 strong, 
narrow, distant longitudinal ribs, fading below the periphery, nodu- 
lously clathrate by equal, distant, spiral ribs, with three smaller, 
closer ones on the base ; whorls 5J, with deep suture; lip very thick, 
subduplicate. Length, 2*15 mill. 

Near Culebra and St. Thomas, W. I. ; 390 fms. 

R. CIMICOIDES, Forbes. PL 65, fig. 27. 

Solid, opaque, yellowish or fulvous brown, sometimes bifasciate, 
with rather broad longitudinal riblets, vanishing below, crossed by 
spiral unduluting lirse, forming intersectional nodules; whorls 7-8, 
somewhat flattened in the middle, the last dilated, suture channeled; 
lip varicose. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea to Norway. 

It is R. sculpta, Forbes and Hanley, R. intermedia, Aradas. 

R. GERGONIA, Chiereg. PL 65, fig. 10. 

Solid, fulvous, strongly tuberculated by longitudinal ribs crossed 
by spiral lirse, the subsutural series strongest and largest; whorls 6, 
slightly convex, suture not deep ; lip plicate within, externally vari- 
cose. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

R. Marice, Bucq. Dautz. Doll, (not Orb.), is a synonym. 

R. LUSCINIJE, Watson. PL 67, fig. 71). 

Imperforate, glossy, yellowish white, with about 16, low, rounded, 
distant ribs, nearly obsolete on the last whorl, crossed by rather 
closer, equally strong, revolving ribs, which continue to the base, 
intersections slightly nodulous; whorls 5, convex, with deep suture; 
lip varicose. Length, 2'25 mill. 

Nightingale IsL, off Tristan da Cunlia; 100 to 150 fms. 

R. SUBCRENULATA, Schwartz. PL 64, fig. 2. 

Rather solid, shining, subhyaline, white, with strong longitudinal 
ribs and scarcely smaller spiral lirse, the intersections distinctly 



RISSOIA. 363 

tuberculated ; lip prominently, denticulately varicose externally. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is R. Oceani, Arad. and Benoit, R. granulata, Requien, and 
R. crenulata, Var. minor, Phil. 

R. SCABRA, Phil. PL 63, fig. 84. 

Longitudinally plicate, obsolete below, spirally lirate, forming 
mamillary tubercles; whorls 6, slightly convex; white, maculated 
with chestnut ; lip sulcate within, varicose externally. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Sicily. 

It is R. mutabilis, Schwartz. Ms. 

R. HISPIDULA, Monts. PI. 66, fig. 38. 

Rather solid, brownish, regularly clathrate by longitudinal narrow 
riblets and more numerous spiral lirse; lip plicate within, externally 
dentately varicose ; whorls 6, moderately convex. 

Length, 3'75 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is R. dathrata, Phil. 

R. SUBAREOLATA, Monts. PL 65, fig. 25. 

Imperforate, translucent, brownish, subclathrate by longitudinal 
riblets crossed by spiral line ; whorls 5, convex, with deep suture ; 
columella arcuate, basal area cingulate, lip thickened externally. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Sicily and Algiers. 

It is R. Caribcea, Monts. R. costulata, S. Wood. R. Stefanisi, 
Jeffreys. 

R. LEACOCKI, Watson. PL 65, figs. 33, 34. 

Minutely rimate, solid, translucent, yellowish white, with two 
chestnut bands, white between them, with 15-18 strong oblique 
ribs, and equally strong spiral ribs, forming rather large, close 
nodules ; whorls 5-6, somewhat conically flattened, suture distinct ; 
lip varicose. Length, 2'6 mill. 

Madeira. 

R. CARIBCEA, d'Orb. PL 66, fig. 57. 

Shell imperforate, thick, white, with two chestnut bands, strongly, 
closely nodulous, with spiral ribs at the base; whorls 5, convex, with 
rather narrow suture ; lip thick. Length, 2 mill. 

West Indies. 



364 RISSOIA. 

Closely related to the preceding species. R. corilea, d'Orb. of 
Reeve's Icon, is a misprint for this species. 

R. INTERFOSSA, Nevill. PI. 66, fig. 50. 

Somewhat solid, light fulvous, with three spiral rows of granules 
on the penultimate, five on the last whorl, and two spiral ribs at 
the base; whorls 6, somewhat shouldered, with deep suture; lip 
thickened. Length, 2 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 

R. ELEGANS, Angas. PI. 66, fig. 46. 

Imperforate, rather solid, whitish, closely nodose, in three (on the 
last whorl four) spiral series ; whorls 5, angularly convex, with deep 
suture; lip varicose. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

R. GRACILIS, Angas. PI. 66, figs. 47. 

Imperforate, moderately solid, light purplish brown; whorls 5, 
convex, ribbed as far as the periphery of the last whorl, strongly 
spirally lirate throughout, intersections beaded; peristome thickened. 

Length, 2'5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
R. STIGMATICA Frauenf. PL 66, fig. 42. 

Imperforate, thick, subpellucid, white, with 16-17, longitudinal, 
rather close, rounded ribs, crossed by spiral line which continue 
to the base, whilst the former there become obsolete; whorls 53, 
flattened convex, with moderate suture ; lip varicose. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Kamorta, Nicobar Is. 

R. FENESTRATA, Krauss. PL 66, fig. 40. 

Imperforate, white, clathrate by distant longitudinal and spiral 
narrow ribs ; whorls 7, convex, rapidly enlarging, with deep suture ; 
lip with about 15 minute internal teeth. Length, 3 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope; on byssus of Pinna. 

R. CRYSTALLINA, Garrett. PL 63, fig. 78. 

Shell thin, subpellucid, shining, vitreous, white, with small, flex- 
uously oblique, distant longitudinal ribs, evanescent below, and 
close spiral lira? ; whorls 5, convex, with deep suture, lip thickened. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Viti Isles. 



RISSOIA. 365 

Unfigured Species of Alvania. 

R. CARPENTERI, Weink. Vancouver's Isl. 

Is R. reticulata, Carp, (not Montagu). 

E. FILOSA, Carp. Vancouver's Isl. 

R. PURPUREA, Dall. Monterey, Cal. 

R. PERLATA, Morch. West Coast Central America. 

R. AEMULA, Monts. Messina, Sicily. 

R. MARIONS, Monts. Toulon, France. 

R. BADIA, R. CIRCINNATA, R. CLATHRATULA, R. CONCINNA, R. 
FERRUGINEA, R. MARIELLA, R. SCITULA, R. SEMICOSTATA, R. 

TIARULA, all of A. Adams. Japan. 

R. FASCIATA, Tenison Woods. Tasmania. 

R. FUSCA, R. FENESTRATA, R. GUADRATA, Gould. China Sea. 

R. ACUMINATA, Gould. Bonin Is. 

R. PURA, Gould. Simoda, Japan. 

R. BAYNTONI, Beddome. Tasmania. 

Section ACINOPSIS, Monts. 1884. 

R. CRENULATA, Mich. PI. 65, fig. 14. 

Irnperforate, solid, opaque, yellowish white, tinted and indistinctly 
bifasciate with chestnut, spire mucronate; longitudinally broadly 
ribbed, strongly spirally lirate, the intersections forming strong 
rounded tubercles; whorls 6-7, convex, the suture widely channeled; 
aperture expanded, brownish red and sulcate within, subcanaliculate 
below, lip crenulately varicose exteriorly, columella tuberculated 
anteriorly. Length, 5 mill. 

Europe. 

It is R. cimex, Donovan, R. cancellata (Da Costa ?) Jeffreys, and 
R. verrucosa, Risso. 

R. HIRTA, Monts. Unfigured. Mediterranean Sea. 

Section MASSOTIA, Bucq. Dautz. Dollf. 1884. 

R. LACTEA, Mich. PI. 66, fig. 51. 

Thin, subtranslucid to opaque, feebly longitudinally and spirally 
closely costellate, yellowish white or white ; whorls 5-6, subconvex, 
With linear suture, lip scarcely thickened externally. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, Portugal. 

R. cancellata, Petit is a synonym. 



366 RISSOIA. 

Section NEVILLIA, A. Ad. 1868. 
R. PICTA, H. Adams. PL 66, fig. 53. 

Imperforate, rather solid, with unequal spiral ribs, of which the 
one on the middle of each whorl is strongest, and minutely longitu- 
dinally striate; whitish, maculated with chestnut; whorls 5J, angu- 
lated, with distinct suture; columella callous, with an anterior 
tooth, lip acute, smooth within, varicose externally. 

Length, 2'25 mill. 

Mauritius. 
R. LUCIDA, H. Adams. PI. 66, fig. 54. 

Rather solid, imperforate. subpellucid, white, with subdistant 
spiral riblets, and very minute longitudinal strise ; whorls 5, convex, 
with impressed suture ; columellar tooth and external varix strong. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Mauritius, Isle of Bourbon. 

Section ALVINIA, Monts. 1884. 
K. WEINKAUFFI, Schwartz. PL 66, fig. 48. 

Imperforate, thin, subpellucid, a little shining, whitish or yellow- 
ish, clathrate by longitudinal riblets, and much stronger, distant 
spiral ridges; whorls 6, convex, angulated, shouldered, with deeply 
incised suture; aperture smooth within, slightly varicose externally. 
Length, 3 mill. 

Sicily and Algiers. 
R. dictyophora, Weink. is a synonym. 

R. DICTYOPHORA, Phil. PL 66, fig. 49. 

Thin, hyaline, dark brown or fulvous, with distant thin longitu- 
dinal, and stronger, more distant spiral lira?, two of the latter in 
the penultimate and five in the last whorl;. perforate; lip thin. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Sicily. 
R. PAGODULA, Bucq. Dautz., Dollf. PL 66, fig. 55. 

Imperforate, rather solid, turrited, longitudinally ribbed, spirally 
strongly ridged, the upper ones forming tubercles; whorls 6, subcari- 
nate, shouldered, suture deep; aperture margined. Length, 2 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is R. rinl.-i/>/ii<i-im and Var. bivittata, Jeffreys, R. scabriuscula, 
Req. R. Lancia', M"ts. and R. tessellata, Schwartz. 

R. CHEILOSTOMA, Tenisoii-Woods. PL 68, fig. 91. 

Jmperforate, solid, dull, yellowish, clathrate by longitudinal and 
spiral ribs, the former vanishing about the periphery, the latter 



RISSOIA. 367 

continued, and more conspicuous on the base ; whorls 7, with deep, 
lirate suture, aperture conspicuously bilabiate. Length, 3 mill. 

Tasmania. 
R. MAURITIANA, Martens. PL 66, fig. 35. 

Kather thick, white, strongly, rather closely, longitudinally ribbed 
throughout, crossed by spiral ridges, forming spiral series of nodules, 
of which there are two on the penultimate and five or six on the 
last whorls; whorls 4J, convex; peristome thickened, simple. 
Length, 1'5 mill. 

Mauritius. 
R. VENUSTA, Garrett. PL 68, fig. 90. 

Shell imperforate, solid, vitreous, shining, white, with strong 
compressed spiral ridges, of which there are 5 on the body whorl 
and 2 on the spire, crenulated by close, less conspicuous, longitudi- 
nal, rounded riblets ; whorls about 7, convex, with deep, margined 
suture ; lip very thick, varicose. Length, 3*5 mill. 

Viti Is. 
Section GALEODINA, Monts. 1884. 

R. STRIATULA, Montagu. PL 66, fig/ 58. 

Rather solid, opaque, yellowish white, thinly longitudinally 
striate in the interstices between much stronger spiral ridges, which 
carinate and shoulder the whorls; aperture a little dilated below, 
smooth within, ridged-varicose externally. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Europe. 

R. Russinoniaca, Locard, R. labiata, Phil. R. trochlea, Mich., and 
R. carinata, Da Costa, are synonyms. 



R. CONSOCIELLA, and R. ELECT A, Mts. (Unfigured). Mediterranean. 

Section THAPSIELLA, Fischer. 1884. 
R. KUDIS, Phil. PL 66, fig. 59. 

Hyaline, sometimes faintly strigate with chestnut, spirally striate, 
spire and upper part of body whorl longitudinally, rather faintly 
costate; whorls 6-1, somewhat convex; lip simple, plain within and 
without. Length, 2'6 mill. 

Mediterranean 8ea. 
P. FREMKNVILLEI, Audouin. PL 67, fig. 66. 

Imperforate, shining, white, with longitudinal subdistant ribs, 
fading out on upper part of body whorl, closely spirally striate 



368 RISSOIA. 

throughout; whorls 7, convex, with deep suture; lip simple, con- 
tinuous. 

Suez. 
Section ACTONIA, Monts. 1884. 

R. TEST.E, Arad. and Maggiore. PI. 66, figs. 60, 61. 

Somewhat solid, transparent, whitish, with distant thin plicae, 
vanishing towards the base, subcancellated by less elevated, distant, 
spiral lirae; whorls 6, somewhat convex, with deep suture; aperture 
effuse below, lip acute, smooth within, externally varicose. 

Length, 3-4 mill. 

Norway to Mediterranean; deep sea. 

R. abyssicola, Var. coniformis, and R. asperula, Brugn. are 
synonyms. 

Var. ABYSSICOLA, Jeffreys. Fig. 61. 
Shorter, sculpture less distinct. 

R. SUBSOLTJTA, Aradas. PL 66, fig. 62. 

Somewhat solid, white or brownish, opaline, thinly, rather numer- 
ously longitudinally costulate, riblets vanishing on lower part of body 
whorl, with less prominent, close, spiral striae, stronger at the base; 
whorls 5, convex, with deep suture; aperture expanded below, 
externally varicose. Length, 2 mill. 

Europe, abyssal. 

It is R. elegantissima, and Var. major, Seguenza, R. abyssicola, 
Var. obtusa, Jeffreys, and R. abyssicola, Sars. 



Unfigured doubtful and spurious species described as Rissoce. 

R. PULCHELLA, R. LINEATA, R. LiAYARDI, R. APPROXIMATA, R. 

DUBiA, R. DIEMENENSIS, R. BicoLOR, and R. BADIA, Petterd. 

Tasmania. 

R. AGNEWI, Tenison Woods. Tasmania. 

H. (iRACiLis, A. Ad. Suez. 

R. (GONIOSTOMA) procera, A. Ad. Gulf of Pechili, China. 

R. (GONIOSTOMA) pupiformis, A. Ad. Japan. 

The section Gomiostoma has neither been described nor figured. 
II. I'AITANA, Tapparone-Canefri. Papuan Is. 

R. BELLA, R. KLKGAXS, A. Ad. . Philippines. 

II. AKATA, R. RUFA, R. SOLIDULA, Phil. Guinea, W. Africa. 

R. UMBILH A TA, Phil. China. 



RISSOIA-RISSOINA. 369 

R. SCHYTHEI, Phil. Sts. of Magellan. 

R. L^VIGATA, R. MUCRONATA, R. TUBERCULATA, R. TRUNCATA, 

Menke, R. SCROBICULATA, Moll. Greenland. 

R. GRADATULA, R. EMACiATA, Morch. West Indies. 

R. CRASSICOSTA, R. EULiMOiDES, R. ABERRANS, A. Ad. Jamaica. 
R. INCOMPTA, Gould. Florida. 

R. GENTILISSIANA, Sowb. (PL 68, fig. 5). 

= Hydrobia Gentilsiana, Crosse. 

R. BICINGULATA, and R. TENUICOSTATA, Seguenza. 'Messina. 

R. Boscn, Payr. Corsica. 

R. PUNCTUM, Cantraine. Mediterranean. 

R. WEYVILLE-THOMPSONI, Jeffreys. Arctic Ocean. 

R. PEDICULARIS, Menke. Heligoland. 

R. PR^EUSTA, Recluz. Toulon. 

R. SUBSTRIATA, and R. EXIGUA, Phil. Sicily. 

R. DILECTA, Monts. Sicily. 

R. SCALARIS, Mich. = Truncatella. 

R. GOUGETI, Mich. Senegal. 

R. ELONGATA, R. EXCAVATA, Phil. = Odostomia. 

R. EXIMIA, Jeffreys. = Odostomia. 

R. COOPERI, Tryon. = Amnicolido3. 

Genus RISSOINA, d'Orb. 1840. 

Section RISSOINA (sensu stricto). 

R. INCA, d'Orb. PI. 55, fig. 15. 

Strong, stout, with about 17 elevated, suboblique, flexuous, longi- 
tudinal ribs, and fine spiral strise, more prominent on the base; 
whorls 7-8, nearly flat, suture crenulated ; rosy white. 

Length 8'2 mill. 

Bolivia, Peru. 

R. PYRAMIDALIS, A. Ad. PL 55 fig. 16. 

Solid, dirty white, longitudinally obliquely plicate, spirally striate, 
whorls 8, flattened, suture crenulated. Length, 8'5 mill. 

Philippines. 

R. ASSIMILIS, Jickeli. PL 68, fig. 15. 

Shell solid, white, with 10-11, straight, narrow, longitudinal 
costse, and much wider interstices, which show slight, distinct spiral 
stre; whorls 8, slightly convex, with impressed suture; lip scarcely 
varicose. Length, 8*3 mill. 

Red Sea. 
24 



370 RISSOINA. 

R. CONIFERA, Schwartz. PL 55, fig. 30. 

Somewhat solid, subpellucid, shining, white, with 12-1 4 rounded, 
subdistant, straight longitudinal ribs, the interstices closely spirally 
striated below ; whorls 6-7, turrited, suture crenulated ; lip varicose. 

Length, 5*4 mill. 

Mauritius. 

Described by Schwartz and referred to R. conifera. Montagu, a 
lost species which is more likely to have been a R. Bruguieri. 
Weinkauff erroneously quotes it as R. coniformis and gives it the 
new name R. Montagui. 

R. FASCIATA, A. Ad. PI. 55, figs. 17, 18. 

Solid, chestnut color, with a central pale band, distantly obliquely, 
subflexuously plicate, closely spirally striate; whorls 8, somewhat 
convex, with impressed, crenulated suture. Length, 6'8 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

R. Smithii, An gas, (fig. 18) is a synonym. 

R. BRUGUIERI, Payr. PI. 55, figs. 19, 22. 

Solid, w r hite or yellowish white, with about 16 flexuous, longitu- 
dinal plicae, crossed by strong spiral striae; whorls 7-8, a little 
convex, suture plane, somewhat undulated; varix ridged. 

Length, 7'6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

R. Poliana and R. reticulata, Risso, and R. decussata, Menke are 
synonyms ; and R. striolata, Risso (fig. 22) may probably be added. 

R. HANLEYI, Schwartz. PL 55, fig. 21. 

Strong, shining, milk white, with two orange-brown bands, with 
22-24, close, subsinuous, low, longitudinal plications, and close, 
numerous spiral striae, the sculpture evanescent on lower part of 
body whorl; whorls 7, slightly convex, with impressed suture; lip thick- 
ened, scarcely varicose. Length, 7'3 mill. 

Philippines', Sydney, Australia. 

R. VAIMKCJATA, Angas. PL 56, figs. 43-46. 

Varies greatly in coloring as well as in the development of its 
sculpture. I think that the figures which I have copied from the 
Conch. Icon, are from worn specimens, us they do not exhibit the 
.sculpture to the same extent as Annas' originals, the description of 
this species is not unlike that of //. Jhin/i'i/I, and it will probably 
prove identical with it. 

ri/, A ux 




RISSOINA. 371 

R. MONILIS, A. Ad. PI. 55, fig. 28. 

Solid, light fulvous, with a sutural row of nodules, and close, 
narrow, longitudinal plications, the interstices spirally punctate- 
striate; whorls 7, flattened; varix striate. Length, 4'9 mill. 

Philippines. 
R. KREBSI, Morch. PL 54, fig. 7. 

Semipellucid, white, with about 28 thin, subsinuous, longitudinal 
riblets, cut into a row of tubercles just below the suture, decussated 
by spiral, close stride; whorls 7, convex, with slightly impressed 
suture; lip varicose. Length, 3*5 mill. 

Cuba, Jamaica. 

Schwartz has described and figured this as R. multicostata, Ads. 

R. MICANS, A. Ad. PI. 55, fig. 28. 

Rather solid, white, shining, subdistantly, elevately plicate, inter- 
stices spirally striate, last whorl sulcate below; whorls 9, convex; 
lip varicose. Length, 4*7 mill. 

Philippines. 
R. FORTIS, C. B. Ad. PL 55, fig. 25. 

White, with 22' rather strong, rounded, nearly straight, longitu- 
dinal ribs; whorls 10, somewhat turreted, flattened, with crenulated, 
rather deep suture; lip strongly varicose. Length, 7'4 mill. 

Panama to Cape /St. Lucas. 
R. STRICT A, Menke. PL 55, fig. 26. 

White, densely, smoothly longitudinally costate, the interstices 
obsoletely spirally striate; whorls 7, flattened. Length, 7 mill. 

Mazatlan. 

Very closely allied to the preceding species, if not identical with 
it. 

R. AMBIGUA, Gould. PL 55, figs. 31, 27, 29, 35; PL 54, fig. 7. 

Whitish, with about 20 narrow, small, longitudinal plications, 
often becoming faint on the last whorl, closely spirally striate; 
whorls about 10, flatly convex, with impressed suture; lip varicose. 

Length, 7'3 mill. 

Aden, Ceylon, Singapore, Paumotus, Sandwich IsL, Mauritius, 
Viii Is., etc. 

It is R. pusilla, Schwartz, not Brocchi (fig. 27), R. cincta, Dunker, 
<R. myosoroides, Recluz (fig. 29), R. striolata, Dunker, R. multicos- 
tata, Garrett (fig. 9) R. costulifera, Pease, R. subconcinna, Sou verb, 
(fig. 35) and var. perpusilla, N.evill. 



372 RISSOINA. 

R. WOODWARDI, Carp. PI. 56, fig. 72. 

Whitish, with 12-14, narrow plicae, and wider interstices, which 
are longitudinally, not spirally striated; whorls 7-8, subplanate, 
suture impressed. Length, 3 mill. 

Mazatlan. 

The unfigured E. clandestina, C. B. Ad. has been referred here ; 
if identical, it will take precedence. 

R. COSTULATA, Pease. PI. 55, fig. 32. 

White, with a central chestnut band, prominently longitudinally 
ribbed, spirally striate ; whorls plano-convex, with channeled suture. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 

R. INCERTA, Souverb. PI. 55, figs. 34, 33. 

Solid, subulate, white, with or without a spiral chestnut band, 
obliquely, strongly, longitudinally 12-13 ribbed, interstices with 
crowded spiral striae, most couspicuous anteriorly; whorls 10, slightly 
convex, with deep suture; lip strongly varicose. Length, 8*5 mill. 

New Caledonia, Viti and Samoa Is. 

The latter localities are for E. terebra, Garrett, (fig. 33) which 
appears to be identical. 

R. DEBILIS, Garrett. PL 56, fig. 48. 

White, with small slightly oblique, rounded ribs, fading anteriorly, 
interstices finely striate spirally, the striae continuous and more 
distinct on lower part of body whorl; whorls 8, convex, with deep 
suture ; peristome varicose externally. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Viti Is. 
R. NEVILLIANA, Weink. PI. 55, figs. 37, 38. 

Whitish, indistinctly yellow banded, somewhat shining, with 
strong, longitudinal, unequal costae, and very light spiral striae; 
whorls more than 8, angulated, with very deep suture; lip subvari- 
cose. Length, 13 mill. 

Near Hong Kong, China. 

R. GERTRUDE, Tenison Woods. PL 55, fig. 39. 

Rather thin, translucent, milk-white, with small, rounded, subob- 
solete longitudinal plicae, slightly spirally striate towards the base; 
whorls 8, somewhat convex, suture broadly margined; lip dilated in 
the middle, thickened; base rimate. Length, 4'5 mill. 

King's Island, Tasmania. 



RISSOINA. 373 

K. SPIRALIS, Souverb. PI. 55, fig. 40. 

Whitish, longitudinally costate, with equal interstices which are 
slightly spirally striate, base of body-whorl decussated by spiral 
sulcations; whorls 9, slightly convex, with impressed suture; lip 
continuous, externally thickened. Length, 5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
R. COSTATOGRANOSA, Garrett. PI. 55, fig. 41. 

Solid, shining, ashy white, longitudinally closely, somewhat 
obliquely flexuously, granosely ribbed, spirally closely grooved; 
whorls 9, convex, with deep suture; lip thick, finely crenulated, 
somewhat dilated. Length, 5 mill. 

Viti Isles. 
R. TRIANGULARIS, Watson. PL 54, fig. 12. 

White, with 12-13, low, distant, oblique, flexuous longitudinal 
ribs, and much wider shallow furrows, narrowly spirally striate 
throughout; whorls 8, convex; pillar lip long, oblique, outer lip 
varicose, aperture expanded below. Length, 3'75 mill. 

Cape York, N. E. Australia. 
R. GRACILIS, Garrett. PI. 55, fig. 42. 

Rather thick, somewhat shining, light brown, with rather large, 
closely set, slightly oblique longitudinal ribs and equal interspaces, 
ribs flexuous on lower part of body whorl ; whorls 9, flatly convex, 
with margined suture; lip thick, sinuous above and below. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Viti and Society Is. 
R. TEREBROIDES, E. A. Smith. PI. 54, fig. 6. 

Whitish, with a median chestnut zone, with 11-12 arcuate, strong, 
longitudinal costse, very minutely spirally striate, ribs fading below ; 
where the striae are stronger, whorls about 10, moderately convex; 
lip broadly, strongly varicose. Length, 8'5 mill. 

San Christoval, Solomon Is. 
R. LIRATA, Angas. PI. 54, fig. 10. 

Rather thin, dull milky white, with regular, thin, flexuous longi- 
tudinal ribs, becoming obsolete below, where numerous, very fine, 
close-set spiral striae are visible ; whorls 7, slightly convex ; outer 
lip thickened, varicose. Length, 4 mill. 

So. Australia. 
R. HONOLULUENSIS, Watson. PL 54, fig. 13. 

White, with 15 subcontinuous, narrow, straight longitudinal ribs, 
and much wider interspaces, finely, microscopically spirally striate, 



374 RISSOINA. 

striae more distinct on the base ; whorls 6, besides the embryonic, 
flatly convex ; lip thick, externally varicose. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

R. SUBVILLICA, Weinkauff. PI. 56, fig. 54; PI. 68, fig. 100. 

Whitish, with strong, rounded longitudinal ribs, replaced by 
spiral riblets below the middle of the body whorl; whorls 11, swollen, 
turreted. Length, 15 mill. 

Loochoo Is- 

Figured in Conch. Icon, as R. mllica, Gould, (fig. 100). 

R. COSTULATA, Dimker. PI. 57, fig. 90. 

Shell strong, whitish, rather yellowish below, with about 14 longi- 
tudinal suboblique ribs; whorls 8, slightly convex; aperture chan- 
neled below, lip thickened. Length, 5 mill. 

Japan. 



Unfigured and doubtful Species. 

R. WOOD-MASONIANA, Nevill. Andaman Is. 

R. INDICA, Nevill. Paumben Sts., So. India. 

R. EFFUSA, Morch. West Coast of Centr. America. 

R. FIRMATA, C. B. Ad. Panama. 

The shell figured by Schwartz for this species and copied by 
Ku'ster is a very doubtful identification, as is that of JR. scalar if ormis, 
C. B. Ad. which Carpenter declares to be a young shell of E. firmata, 
from an examination of Adams' type specimens. Sowerby, in Reeve's 
"Iconica," places R. firmata in the synonymy of R. Woodwardi, 
Carp. 

Section RISSOLINA, Gould. 1861. 

R. ELEGANTISSIMA, d'Orb. PL 56, fig. 51. 

Thick, yellowish white, with close, rounded, longitudinal ribs, cut 
into a row of nodules next the suture, spirally very thinly striate; 
whorls 8, rather flat, suture excavated; lip thick, varicose. 

Length, 3'5 mill. 

West In die*. 

R. multicostata, C. B. Ad. is possibly identical. 

R. DUBIOSA, C. B. Ad. PL 56, fig. 52. 

Solid, subpellucid, whitish or yellowish, with about 18-20, straight, 
elevated longitudinal ribs, scarcely spirally striate; whorls 7-8, 



RISSOINA. 375 

flatly convex, subturreted, with impressed, undulated suture; lip 
varicose. Length, 5 mill. 

West Indies. 
It is R. Dunkeri, Pfr. teste Weinkauff. 

K. DISTANS, Anton. PL 56, fig. 56. 

Solid, white, shining, with 12 strong, rounded, longitudinal ribs, 
the interstices scarcely striate; whorls 7, slightly convex, suture 
undulated; lip varicose. Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 

R. canaliculata, Schwartz is a synonym. 

R. PLICATA, A. Ad. PL 56, fig. 58-60, 68 ; PL 54, fig. 8, 

Whitish, strongly, but narrowly, distantly plicate, the shallow, 
concave interstices spirally striate; whorls 8, subangulated above 
and below the suture, the sides flattened; lip somewhat varicose. 
Length, 5'6 mill. 

Philippines, Red Sea, Mauritius. 

The synonymy includes R. scalariformis, Schwartz, not C. B. Ad. 
(fig. 68), R. Bertheloti, Audouin, R. dentioulata, Mohrenstern (fig. 
59), and R. sealarina, A. Ad. Reeve's figure of the latter species 
(fig. 8). is a very poor one, evidently. Probably R. subangulata, 
Schwartz, (fig. 60) is also to be added to the synonymy of the present 
species, as the chances are that it is not properly identified by 
Schwartz as Adams' species and the differential characters are of 
little or no importance. 

R. subangulata, C. B. Ads. is a Jamaica species, and unfigured. 

R. ANGULATA, Jickeli. PL 56, fig. 50. 

Rather solid, white, a little shining, longitudinally costate, costse 
sinuate in the middle, thickened above and below, with two scarcely 
conspicuous spiral ribs at the base ; whorls 6 ?, suture undulated ; 
lip obtuse. Length, 2 mill. 

Red Sea. 

R. BURDiGALENSis, d'Orb. PL 56, fig. 53. 

With about 12 longitudinal ridges, and much wider, shallow, 

concave interstices, spirally lirate, fimbriating the tops of the 

ridges; whorls 7-8, subscalariform, somewhat shouldered or tur- 

reted, suture undulated ; lip with striate varix. Length, 7%3 mill. 

Fossil in the Vienna Basin, etc. ; living at Mauritius. 

The identification of d'Orbigny's fossil with the recent species is 
on the authority of Schwartz. 



376 RISSOINA. 

K. OBELISCUS, Eecluz. PL 54, fig. 9. 

Solid, white, a little shining, semipellucid, with 12-13 strong, 
elevated costee, cutting the basal rib into tubercles, thinly, closely 
spirally striate ; whorls 8-9, turreted, with deep, undulating suture ; 
lip strongly, nodosely varicose. Length, 4*5 mill. 

Mauritius, Upolu. 

It is R. Schwartziana, Dunker (from the latter locality.) 
R. COSTATA, A. Ad. PL 56, fig. 57. 

Opaque, solid, white, with strong, elevated, longitudinal ribs, sub- 
angulated above, closely spirally striate ; whorls 7, flatly convex, 
suture undulated ; columella subtuberculate below, lip subdilated, 
flexuous, strongly varicose. Length, 4*7 mill. 

Cobija, Peru ; Philippines, f 
R. BAXTERIANA, Nevill. PL 56, fig. 75. 

Solid, shining, white, with close, large, rounded longitudinal ribs, 
constricted into three spiral series of nodules, base spirally sulcate ; 
lip thick, but scarcely varicose. Length, 3 mill. 

Red Sea. 

Weinkauff suggests that this is the juvenile of E. nodicineta, A. 
Ad., but I scarcely think so. 
R. SUBDEBILIS, Nevill. PL 55, fig. 36; PL 56, fig. 55. 

Shell solid, whitish, with about 14 compressed, suboblique ribs 
and slight spiral striae, the ribs abruptly terminated by two or three 
basal spiral riblets; whorls about 12, slightly convex, suture sub- 
channeled. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Mauritius. 

It is R. canaliculata, Sowb. (fig. 55). Nevill, who has indicated 
a var. perlanceolata, thinks this may = R. debilis, Garrett. 
R. WEINKAUFFIANA, Nevill. PL 56, fig. 61. 

Rather solid, brownish white, with narrow, rather close, sub- 
flexuous ribs, and numerous, less distinct spiral striae, base very in- 
distinctly doubly ridged ; lip smoothly varicose. Length, 6*75 mill. 

Andaman Is. 

It is not unlikely that this will prove identical with the preceding 
species. In the original figure the ribs are shaded and the inter- 
stices left light, an error which has been carefully copied in my illus- 
tration. 
R. MINUTA, Nevill. PL 56, fig. 65. 

Shining, white, with longitudinal, thick, slightly oblique, some- 
what irregular ribs, and smooth interstices; whorls 8, angularly 



RISSOINA. 377 

turreted, last whorl with a basal spiral row of prominent granules ; 
lip thickened. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Andaman Is. 

R. SCOLOPAX, Sou verb. PI. 56, fig. 66. 

Narrowly, longitudinally costate, costse subflexuous, ending below 
in a narrow, nodose, spiral, basal rib, no spiral striae, white ; whorls 
about 10, subconvex, with moderately impressed suture ; aperture 
a little extended anteriorly, lip subacute. Length, 12 mill. 

Loyalty Group, New Caledonia. 

R. FUNICULATA, Souverb. PI. 56, fig. 69. 

White, with nearly straight longitudinal ribs and about equal 
interspaces, terminating below in a spiral rib, and without spiral 
striae ; lip varicose. Length, 6 mill. 

Ins. Art, New Caledonia. 

R. SUBFUNICULATA, Nevill. PL 56, fig. 64. 

Shell solid, opaque, whitish, with large, rounded, close longitu- 
dinal ribs, and no spiral striae, base with a spiral rib and two lirae ; 
whorls 9, somewhat convex, with deep, crenulated suture ; lip thick, 
varicose, crenulated below. Length, 4 mill. 

Persian Gulf to Singapore. 

R. TURRICULA, Pease. PI. 56, fig. 63. 

Rather solid, shining, white, with flexuous, rather close, rounded 
longitudinal ribs, the interstices lightly striate, base granulosely 
spirally costate and bilirate; whorls 82, suture undulated ; colum- 
ella truncate below, outer lip varicose. Leugth, 3 mill. 

Sandwich and Viti Is., Ceylon, Mauritius. 

Nevill has described a var. Ceylonica, which does not appear, 
from the description, to possess distinctive features. 

R. PLICATULA, Gould. Pi. 56, fig. 62. 

Whitish, with about 15 straight, longitudinal ribs, crossed by 
cut lines, and a spiral basal rib ; lip thickened. Length, 6 mill. 

Bonin and Loochoo Its., China, Indian Ocean. 

Weinkauff suspects that this should be united with R. plieata, A. 
Ad. ; this may be so, but a comparison of figures of the two species 
shows differences as great as are usually accepted for specific in this 
group. 



378 RISSOINA. 

K. FIMBRIATA, Souverb. PL 68, fig. 3. 

Solid, white, rather closely longitudinally costate, base spirally 
tubercularly costate ; whorls 10, planoconvex, suture undulated ; lip 
fimbriately varicose. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Ins. Art, New Caledonia. 
R. RISSOI, Audouin. PI. 57, fig. 78 ; PI. 55, fig. 20 ; PI. 68, fig. 6. 

White, longitudinally flexuously costate, with wider intervals, 
base with a spiral rib, and no other spiral sculpture ; whorls 9, 
somewhat convex ; lip varicose. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Red Sea, Australia. 

The latter locality is for R. crassa, Angas (figs. 20, 6), which is a 
synonym. 

R. INFRASTRICTA, Garrett. PL 68, fig. 89. 

Thick, shining, white, with a few large, longitudinal ribs, no 
spiral sculpture ; whorls 5, strongly convex, restricted at the base 
and slightly so at the suture ; lip varicose. Length, 2 mill. 

Viti Is. 
R. MERCURIALIS, Watson. PL 54, fig. 14. 

White, with about 15 narrow, rounded, subflexuous ribs, contin- 
uous from whorl to whorl, terminating in a large funicular spiral 
rib below, the interstices finely, slightly, spirally striate, three of 
the striae at the base stronger; whorls 82, slightly convex, with 
moderate suture ; lip varicose. Length, 4 mill. 

Cape York, Australia. 
R. SCALARIFORMIS, Watson. PL 54, fig. 11. 

White, with 12-13 narrow longitudinal, flexuous ribs and much 
wider furrows, with scarcely visible spiral striae, base with a stout 
spiral funiculum ; lip varicose. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Honolulu, Sandwich Is. 
R. DUCLOSI, Montr. PL 56, fig. 49. 

White, a little shining, longitudinally, obliquely, subdistantly 
costate, the costse less distinct on the lower whorls, nodosely tuni- 
culate and finely spirally striate below; whorls 8-8 \, planoconvex, 
with moderately impressed suture ; lip acute, varicose. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Ins. Art, New Caledonia. 
R. GRADATA, d'Orb. PL 68, fig. 84. 

Shell pupoidal, strong, white, longitudinally, obliquely, undulately 
cofitate, base with several spiral riblets; whorls 6, turreted, suture 
undulated, channeled ; peristome thick. Length, 2 mill. 

Jamaica. 



RISSOINA. 379 



Described as a Rissoa, but appears to be more nearly related to 
this group. 



Unfigured Species. 

R. TORNATILIS, Gould. Loochoo Is. 

R. LYRATA, Gould. Japan. 

R. MONILIFERA, Nevill. Japan. 

R. SUBANGULATA, C. B. Ad. Jamaica. 

Section MICROSTELMA, A. Ads. 1863. 

R. D^EDALA, A. Ad. Unfigured. Japan. 

R. CONCINNA, A. Ad. Unfigured. Suez. 

This species is said to be a young shell, broken and worn, and to 
R. spirata, Sowb. 

Section SCHWARTZIELLA, Nevill. 1884. 

R. BRYEREA, Mtg. PL 56, figs. 67, 71. 

Solid, subpellucid, shining, white, with about 18-22 longitudinal 
slightly flexuous costse and equal smooth interstices, no spiral striae ; 
whorls 7, suture a little undulated ; lip with a longitudinally striate 
varix, rounded below. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Cuba, Jamaica. 

First described, erroneously, as British. It is R. nitens, and R. 
lactea, Brown. Probably R. scalarioides, C. B. Ad., is a synonym, 
but the figure of that species given by Sowerby in Conch. Icon, 
(fig. 71), is certainly different, and looks more like a worn Scalaria 
lineata, Say. 

R. NIVEA, A. Ad. PL 55, fig. 24. 

Subpellucid, white, shining, subdistantly, elevately, flexuously 
plicate, obsolete anteriorly where the whorl is spirally striate ; 
whorls convex ; lip thickened, but scarcely varicose. 

Length, 3'7 mill. 

Port Lincoln, Australia. 

R. PSEUDOBRYEREA, Nevill. PL 56, fig. 70. 

Shell solid, white, with strong, wide, straight longitudinal ribs, 
crossed by narrow, slight spiral striae ; whorls 8, flattened, a little 
round-shouldered, suture distinct ; lip varicose. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Red Sea. 

It is R. bryerea, Schwartz in part. 



380 RISSOINA. 

R. CHESNELII, Mich. PI. 56, figs. 73, 74. 

White, shining, semipellucid, with about 14, subsinuous longi- 
tudinal costse, and about equal interstices which are scarcely spi- 
rally striate ; whorls 8, a little convex, suture well-impressed, a 
little undulated ; lip with a strong, wide varix. Length, 3*6 mill. 

Florida, West Indies. 

The synonyms are R. Catesbyana, d'Orb. (fig. 74), R. scalarella, 
C. B. Ad., R. Candida, Brown, and var. Floridana, Morch. 
R. TRITICEA, Pease. PI. 56, fig. 76 ; PI. 57, fig. 77. 

Whitish, with 11 compressed, prominent, continuous longitudinal 
ribs, spiral sculpture very indistinct or wanting ; whorls 6, slightly 
convex, with impressed suture ; lip thickened. Length, 2'75 mill. 
Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Polynesia. 

It is R. scalariformis of Schwartz, etc. (not Ads.) in part, R. 
orientalis, Nevill, and R. exigua, Dunker (fig. 77). 
R. BUREASENSIS, Sowb. PI. 68, fig. 10. 

Solid, yellowish white, with slight, curved longitudinal ribs, 
fading out on the upper part of the body whorl, smooth ; columella 
thick, short, rather tortuous, almost truncated, outer lip thick. 

Length, 5'5 mill. 

Ins. Bureas, Philippines. 
R. CINCTA, Angas. PI. 68, fig. 8. 

White, interruptedly chestnut banded, flexuously longitudinally 
costate, the interstices spirally striate ; whorls 7, slightly convex, 
the last subreticulated. Length, 5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
R. FASCIATA, Angas. PI. 68, fig. 7. 

Fulvous, with a peripheral chestnut band, appearing on the spire 
whorls at the suture, with numerous, flexuous longitudinal ribs; 
whorls 7, slopingly convex; outer lip thick, columella short, almost 
truncate. Length, 6 mill. 

New Zealand. 
R. ROSEA, Desh. PI. 68, fig. 4. 

Rosy white, or roseate, longitudinally plicate, plicae occasionally 
varicose ; whorls 8, slightly convex, with submargined suture ; 
columella subplicate, lip white, widely thickened. Length, 6 mill. 

Ins. Bourbon. 
R. FLEXUOSA, Gould. PL 68, figs. 2, 1. 

Yellowish or chestnut brown, with about 15 obtuse, flexuous lon- 
gitudinal ribs, and numerous spiral lines; whorls 7, angularly 



RISSOINA. 381 

shouldered, with impressed suture ; lip slightly thickened, colum- 
ella truncately twisted. Length, 15 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

Gould's description was made from an immature specimen (fig. 
1) ; Angas subsequently described it as R. turricula, which being 
preoccupied by Pease, the latter changed to It. Angasi. 



R. MAINWARINGIANA, Nevill. Unfigured. Persian Gulf. 

Section PHOSINELLA, Morch. 1876. 

K. CLATHRATA, A. Adams. PI. 57, fig. 79. 

Solid, white, a little shining, clathrate by longitudinal and spiral 
ridges ; whorls 9-10, slightly convex, the last whorl with a basal 
sulcus and rib below it ; lip varicose, subchanneled below. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Red Sea, Singapore, Philippines, Australia. 

R,. BICOLLARIS, Schwartz. PL 57, fig. 80. 

Solid, white, with 18-20 longitudinal, clathrate by spiral ridges, 
about 8 of the latter on the last whorl. Length, 7 mill. 

West Indies. 

R. FENESTRATA, Schwartz. PL 57, fig. 81. 

Solid, white, with 12-14 longitudinal, crossed by spiral lirse, of 
which there are 5 on the last whorl, intersections nodose ; lip vari- 
cose, the varix strongly transversely ridged. Length, 4'3 mill. 

West Indies, Florida. 

R. CANCELLATA, Phil. PL 57, figs. 84, 95, 82, 83. 

White, cancellated, with 16-18 longitudinal and 7-8 spiral rib- 
lets on the last whorl ; whorls convex, with deep suture, base with 
a sulcus, below which are three spiral ribs. Length, 3'3 mill. 

West Indies. 

R. Philippiana, Pfr. (fig. 95) is a synonym. 

Var. PULCHRA, C. B. Ad. Figs. 82, 83. 

White, with two distant yellowish bands, cancellated, with 20-22 
longitudinal and 7 spiral ridges in the last whorl, the intersections 
nodose, basal sculpture as in the type. Length, 5'3 mill. 

West Indies. 



382 RISSOINA. 

K. PRIVATI, Folin. PL 58, fig. 9. 

Solid, white, clathrate by longitudinal and spiral ridges; whorls 
11, slopingly convex, suture impressed, crenulated; lip subacute. 

Length, 5'5 mill. 

Haiti. 

Perhaps a variety of the preceding species. 

R. DESHAYESII, Schwartz. PL 57, fig. 87 ; PL 68, fig. 9. 

Solid, shining, semipellucid, white, nodulously decussated by 
about 22-24 erect longitudinal, crossed by equal spiral lirse ; whorls 
9-10, suture impressed, undulated, base channeled and spirally 
ribbed ; lip crenulately varicose , excised below. Length, 9'4 mill. 

Philippines. 

I suppose that R. Deshayesiana, Recluz. (fig. 9), of the Conclio- 
logia Iconica is intended for the same species. 

R. MEDIA, Schwartz. PL 57, fig. 89. 

Solid, white or yellowish, semipellucid, shining, with 18-20 lon- 
gitudinal, crossed by spiral ridges ; whorls 8, subconvex, with dis- 
tinct but narrow suture, the base with a funiculum of three spiral 
riblets ; lip sinuous, produced below, varix crenulated. 

Ceylon, Java, Nicobar Is. 
R. LABROSA, Schwartz. PL 57, fig. 88. 

Solid, white, semipellucid, shining, with 24-26 erect, elevated 
longitudinal, crossed by closer, less elevated spiral line ; whorls 9 
10, flatly convex, suture subcarinated ; lip tumid, thick, broadly 
sinuated below, crenulately varicose. Length, 9'5 mill. 

West Indies. 
R. TRANSENNA, Watson. PL 58, fig. 10. 

Solid, white, with 12-14 remote, narrow longitudinal ribs, crossed 
by somewhat closer spiral lira?; whorls about 7, convex, but with 
somewhat shallow suture, basal funiculum consisting of a single 
nodulous ridge ; inner lip concave in the middle, outer lip with a 
crenulated varix. Length, 3*3 mill. 

Fiji Is. 
R. ERYTHR^EA, Phil. PL 57, figs. 97-2 ; PL 58, figs. 3, 4. 

Rather solid, white, with 12-14 longitudinal costsc, crossed by 
closer line, the two upper line thinner, the lower one granular; 
whorls slightly convex, witli inconspicuous suture ; peristome dis- 
tinctly labiate within, externally varicose, produced below. 

Lcnirlli, !)'75 mill. 

Red Sea to Ho in/ Komj, Loo Choo Is. 



RISSOINA. 383 

R. Jickelii, Weinkauff (fig. 4), R. Blanfordiana, Nevill (fig. 3), 
R. Hungerfordiana, Nevill (fig. 2), R. Seguenziana, Issel (figs. 97, 
98) and R. strigillata, Gould (figs. 100, 1), as figured by Wein- 
kauff, are synonyms ; whether the latter really represents Gould's 
species is extremely doubtful. 

R. BELLULA, A. Ad. PL 57, figs. 93, 85. 

Semipellucid, white, with strong, distant spiral ribs, nodose at the 
intersection of usually closer and smaller, longitudinal lirse ; whorls 

8, slightly convex ; lip produced below, externally crenulately 
varicose. Length, 5 mill. 

Philippines. 

R. nitida, A. Ad. is apparently identical, but the figure of it 
given in Reeve's Iconica (fig. 85), looks very like the next species. 

R. NODICINCTA, A. Ad. PI. 57, fig. 94 ; PI. 58, fig. 7. 

White, with long spiral riblets, generally two on the spire 
whorls, three or four on the body whorl, the upper ones strongest, 
nodulous at the crossing of distant longitudinal riblets ; whorls 9- 
10, biangular, with deep suture; lip flexuous, varicose. 

Length, 10'6 mill. 

Philippines, New Caledonia. 

The latter locality is that of R. hystrix, Souverb. (fig. 7). 

R. GRANULOSA, Pease. PI. 58, figs. 12, 5. 

Solid, white, shining, with three spiral rows of tuberculated ribs 
on each whorl, and two additional, smaller rows on the lower part 
of the body whorl, crossed ,by distant longitudinal riblets ; whorls 

9, slightly convex, closely striate in the interstices, suture deeply 
impressed, base with a funicular rib ; peristome thick, somewhat 
dilated. Length, 8'5 mill. 

Sandwich and Viti Is. 

Pease's single specimen was a juvenile, with four whorls. The 
above description is taken from that of -R. sculptiUs, Garrett (fig. 5). 
The species may prove to be a variation of R. nodicincta. 

R. HORRIDA, Garrett. PL 58, figs. 8, 11 ; PL 68, fig. 11. 

Thick, white, with distant clathrate ridges, the intersections 
nodulous, the interspaces deep, in spiral scries there are two or 
three ridges on the upper whorls, and four on the body whorl, be- 
sides the basal luniculum ; lip varicose, rather widely channeled in 
front. Length,? 7 mill. 

Viti /*., Port Curtis, Australia. 



384 RISSOINA. 

R. Curtisii, E. A. Smith (fig. 11), and R. australis, Sowb. (PL 68, 
fig. 11), are synonyms. 
K. CERITHIIFORMIS, Bunker. PL 57, fig. 92. 

Solid, semipellucid, shining, white, with sometimes a single yel- 
lowish band, with 16-18 riblets, vanishing on the base, crossed by 
spiral lirse, of which there are 4 on the spire, and 7 on the body 
whorl ; whorls 7-8, flatly convex, with channeled suture, base with 
funiculum ; lip externally varicose, columella subtruncate below. 

Length, 3'3 mill. 

Red Sea, Mauritius, Viti and Sandwich Is. 

R. Erythrcea, Schwartz, not Phil., is identical, and is the only 
figure heretofore published ; it shows a basal tooth, which is not 
mentioned in the description, nor does it exist in any of my speci- 
mens. It is probably an accidental effect of the produced canal in 
an old specimen. 
R. EXASPERATA, Souverb. PL 57, fig. 96. 

White, with numerous subobtuse longitudinal ribs and elevated 
spiral lines, forming rough intersections; whorls 8-9, convex, with 
deep suture, base sub compressed ; lip crenulately varicose. 

Length, 3'5-4'5 mill. 

New Caledonia, Viti Is. 
R. SAGRAIANA, d'Orb. PL 57, fig. 86. 

Solid, shining, semipellucid, white, granulated by decussating 
longitudinal and spiral ribs, base with a granular funiculum ; 
whorls 8-9, convex, with deep suture ; lip varicose. 

Length, 4*3 mill. 

West Indies. 
R. SAMOENSIS, Dunker. PL 57, fig. 99. 

Solid, white, with about 14 longitudinal ribs, crossed by spiral 
lines, of which there are 7 in the last whorl, basal funiculum nodu- 
lous ; lip crenulately varicose. Length, 4 mill. 

Ins. Upolu, Taheiti. 
R. CREBRISULCATA, Sowb. PL 68, fig. 13. 

Whitish, scabrous, with strong, longitudinal, suboblique ribs/ 
nodosely decussated by thin spiral lirse ; whorls 8, slightly convex ; 
aperture channeled below, with a short, thick columella, outer lip 
thick, crenulately varicose. Length, 4 mill. 

Sab. unknown. 
R.'SCABRA, Garrett. PL 58, fig. 6. 

Shell solid, vitreous, shining, white, with small, rather close, 
compressed, slightly oblique longitudinal ribs, crossed by numerous 




RISSOINA. 385 



small, spiral ridges, the intersections granular ; whorls 8, flatly 
convex, subturrited, with deep suture ; outer lip stoutly varicose. 
Length, 4 mill. 

Viti and Samoa Is. 



Unfyured Species. 

R. BALTEATA, Pease. Sandwich Is 

R. NITIDULA, Gould. China Sea. 

R. VILLICA, Gould. Loo Choo Is. 
The figure named thus in Conch. Icon, represents R. subvillica, 
Nevill. 

R. INFREQUENS, C. B. Ad. Panama. 

Section ZEBINELLA, Morch. 1876. 

R. RETICULATA, Sowb. PL 58, figs. 14, 16. 

Subsolid, a little shining, whitish, densely reticulated by equal 
longitudinal and spiral striae, suture subplane ; whorls 10-12, rather 
flat ; lip sinuous, produced at the base, subthickened externally. 

Length, 12-14 mill. 

West Indies, Bahamas. 

R. princeps, C. B. Ad. (fig. 16), is a synonym, and I cannot see 
how Dr. Weinkauff was justified in considering Sowerby's figure to 
represent a different species from that of Adams' description. In 
consequence of this opinion he named the former R. pseudoprinceps. 
R. DECUSSATA, Mtg. PL 58, figs. 15, 17. 

Solid, white, shining, with 25-28 slight longitudinal riblets, eva- 
nescent below, crossed by very close spiral lines, suture constricted, 
margined. Length, 5-6 mill. 

Florida, West Indies. 

First described as British, from a stray specimen. The synonyms 
are R. cochlearia, Bast., R. subcochlearia, Orb., Turbo arenarius, 
Maton and Rack., R. alata, Menke, R. pyramidella, Brown, R. 
striato-costata, d'Orb. (fig. 17), R. striosa, C. B. Ad., R. costulina, 
Sismondi. 
R. STRIATA, Quoy. PL 57, fig. 91 ; PL 58, figs. 13, 23 ; PL 68, fig. 12. 

Solid, white, with close longitudinal and spiral lines, the former 

obsolete on the body whorl ; whorls 9-10, slightly convex, apex 
usually decollated, suture linear; aperture expanded, produced 
below, lip externally thickened. Length, 17'6 mill. 

Philippines, Singapore. 
25 



386 RISSOINA. 

It is R. ccelata, A. Ad. (fig. 91), R. grandis, Phil., and R. Cum- 
ingii, Reeve, of Sowerby in Conch. Icon. (PI. 68, fig. 12). 

I think that R. elegantula, Angas (fig. 13), from So. Australia, 
will prove a younger state of the species ; it has 8 whorls, and is 6 
mill. long. A still younger state is probably R. Mohrensterni, 
Desh. (fig. 23), from the Isle of Bourbon ; to which locality Nevill 
adds Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Upolu (R. Schmeltziana, Dkr.Ms.). 

R. ANDAMANICA, Weink. PI. 58, fig. 21. 

Solid, whitish, with narrow, straight, slight, close longitudinal 
riblets ; whorls 8, suture linear ; columella nodosely thickened be- 
low, lip varicose. Length, 8 mill. 

Andaman Is. 
R. CONCINNA, A. Ad. PL 58, fig. 18. 

Solid, shining, white, closely longitudinally striate, the striae ob- 
scure below, and spirally striulate ; whorls 7, slightly turrited, flat- 
tened ; columella callous below, lip externally varicose. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Philippines. 
R. ADAMSIANA, Weinkauff. PI. 58, fig. 20. 

White, very obliquely, flexuously striate, with linear suture; 
whorls 7, flattened ; columella thick, lip thickened and expanded, 
not varicose. Length, 4 mill. 

Japan. 
R. EVANIDA, Nevill. 

White, rather indistinctly, obliquely, longitudinally undulated, 
narrowly and scabrously spirally striate ; whorls 6, somewhat con- 
vex ; lip crenulated and varicose. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Andaman Is. 
R. TENUISTRIATA, Pease. PL 58, fig. 24. 

Solid, white, thinly longitudinally striate, the stride fading below, 
where they are replaced by spiral lines ; whorls 6-7, subconvex ; 
aperture subeffuse, with callous columella. Length, 9 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 

The figure is a copy of that originally given for this species, but 
does not at all correspond with the specimens before me, sent by 
Pease under this mimr. 

R. DIMIDIATA, Jickeli. PL 58, fig. 22. 

Rather solid, whitish, longitudinally narrowly costulate, the rib- 
lets fading on upper part of body-whorl, interstices and base of 



RISSOINA. 387 

body-whorl impressly spirally striate ; whorls 8, slightly convex, 
with impressed suture ; lip scarcely varicose. Length, 4*3 mill. 

Red Sea. 
R. STRIATULA, Pease. PL 68, fig. 16. 

Strong, white, closely and thinly spirally striate ; whorls convex, 
suture shallow ; aperture effuse below, columella callous, lip not 
varicose. Length, 9 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
R. FLAMMEA, Pease. PI. 68, fig. 17. 

Solid, whitish, with longitudinal ashy grey stripes, subconfluent, 
spirally finely grooved, the grooves interruptedly lined with light 
brown ; whorls plane, suture well impressed. Length, 3 mill. 

Caroline Islands. 
Described as a Rissoa which perhaps it is. 

R. ZELTNEBI, Folin. PI. 68, fig. 19. 

. Shell solid, shining, white, with numerous, thin, oblique, longi- 
tudinal striae, evanescent below, spiral striae inconspicuous or ob- 
solete except on the base, where they become distinct and replace 
the longitudinal sculpture; columella a little truncate, diagonal, 
ending in a narrow channel, lip thickened. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Panama. 
R. MILLECOSTATA, Garrett. PI. 56, fig. 47. 

Rather thin, white, with numerous, slightly oblique, close, minute 
longitudinal riblets, and fine spiral striae, both becoming obscure 
below; whorls 11, flatly convex, with deeply incised suture; peris- 
tome thick, slightly sinuous above, not varicose. 
Length, 9 mill. 

Viti Is. 



Unfigured Species. 

R. SIGMIFER, Morch. Bahamas. 

R. JANUS, C. B. Ad. Panama. 

R. MODESTA, Gould. Loo Choo Is. 

R. ANNULATA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

Section MORCHIELLA, Nevill. 1884 

R. GIGANTEA, Desh. PL 58, fig. 25. 

Solid, somewhat shining, white ; whorls 9, convex, the first ones 
with longitudinal costae crossed by thin spiral striae, afterwards the 



388 RISSOINA. 

spiral sculpture alone persists to the last whorl, where it also be- 
comes obsolete ; lip varicose. Length, 28 mill. 

Philippines. 

It is R. Cumingii, of H. and A. Adams, not Reeve. 
R. ANTONI, Schwartz. PL 58, fig. 26. 

Solid, white ; whorls 7-8, well rounded, with channeled suture, 
the earlier whorls longitudinally ribbed, nodulously cancellated by 
three revolving ribs, on the penultimate the spiral sculpture is most 
prominent, and on the body whorl there is no sculpture except a 
narrow shoulder ; lip thickened and varicose. Length, 7*8 mill. 

Java. 

R. SPIRATA, Sowb. PI. 58, figs. 27-29 ; PI. 59, figs. 30-32, 35-37. 

Shell rather solid, smooth, microscopically spirally striate, some- 
what shining, white ; whorls 7-8, flattened, the earlier ones with 
longitudinal costee, often subject to a torsion of the axis, suture nar- 
rowly channeled ; lip thick, but not varicose. 

Length, 15-23 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Japan, Philippines, New Caledonia, Viti Is. 

The above description has necessarily been rendered so as to 
cover a little variation in form and sculpture, necessitated by the 
inclusion of several names as synonyms ; thus some specimens are 
distorted, others straight, there is a difference in the convexity of 
the whorls, and some are smooth, varying to those in which faint 
spiral striae are perceptible. The synonymy includes R. deformis, 
Sowb. (fig. 27), R. Montrouzieri, Souverb. with its vars. substriolata, 
monstrosa and convexior of Nevill held by some conchologists to be 
the R. deformis of the "Conch. Icon." (fig. 35), but not that of the 
" Genera of Shells," R. supracostata, Garrett (fig. 31), R. striolata, 
A. Ad. (fig. 30), R. Lamberti, Souverb. (fig. 32), R. Japonica, 
Weink. (fig. 36), R. d' Orbignyi, A. Ad. (fig. 28), and its vars. sub- 
mar ginata, subspirata and pachylabris, Nevill, and R. Artensis, 
Montr, (fig. 37). R. concinna, A. Ad., made by him a species of 
Microstelma, i's said to be a broken, juvenile of this species. 
R. ALBIDA, C. B. Adams. PI. 59, fig. 34. 

Diaphanous, whitish, spire sharp, elegantly decussated by longi- 
tudinal costa? and spiral line ; whorls 10, suture submargined, body- 
whorl smooth. Length, 6'2 mill. 

West Indies. 

R. affinis, C. B. Ad. (unfigured), is supposed to be a narrower 
variety of this species. 



RISSOINA. 389 

K. PERCRASSA, Nevill. PI. 59, figs. 38, 51. 

Solid, shining, white ; whorls about 12, the earlier normal ones 
longitudinally costate, afterwards smooth, suture narrowly margined ; 
lip thickened, smooth within, externally varicose. 

Length, 12' 5 mill. 

Upolu, Tahiti, Mauritius. 

R.percrassa (fig. 38), was described from a Mauritian specimen, 
abnormal in possessing a strong callous thickening of the lower 
part of the body whorl ; subsequently, what appears to be a normal 
growth of the same species was described by Nevill under the name 
of R. Peasiana (fig. 51). 

K. INSIGNIS, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 59, figs. 40, 33. 

Solid, white, or tinged with yellow ; whorls 5, subgradate, the 
upper ones longitudinally costate, the others spirally striate ; lip 
thick, crenulated within. Length, 9 mill. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, China, Society Islands. 

The last locality is for R. turrita, Garrett (fig. 33). The figure 
and the type specimen do not exhibit the interior crenulations of 
the lip, but they are mentioned in Garrett's description, and prob- 
ably the latter was drawn from a more adult specimen than the one 
sent for illustration. 

Section ZEBINA, H. and A. Adams. 1854. 

R. TRIDENTATA, Mich. PI. 59, figs. 41-44, 39, 54 ; PI. 68, fig. 14. 

Solid, smooth, polished, white, whorls 7, almost plane, the upper 
ones sometimes costate, suture simple; lip subdilated, thickened, 
not varicose, tridentate, bidentate, or unidentate within, sometimes 
without teeth. Length, 8 mill. 

Red Sea, Philippines, Mauritius, Viti and Sandwich Is. 

It is JR. curta, Sowb. Ms., R. cra^silabrum, Garrett (fig. 14), R. 
semiylabrata, A. Ad. (fig. 39), R. bidentata, Phil. (fig. 42), R. coro- 
nata, Recluz. (fig. 43), R. eulimoides, A. Ad. (fig. 44), and R. semi- 
plicata, Pease (fig. 54), not adult. 

R. AFFINIS, Garrett. PI. 59, fig. 62. 

Rather solid, smooth, shining, white, spire elevated, rapidly 
tapering ; whorls 7-8, slightly convex, the last swollen, slightly 
compressed, suture linear; lip very thick, dilated, sinuous above 
and below, columella and parietal region callous. Length, 5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 



390 R[SSOINA. 

Appears to differ from the foregoing species, in being usually 
narrower, with as many or more whorls, although smaller in size. 

R. ORYZA, Garrett. PI. 59, fig. 47, 53, 52, 56. 

Solid, smooth, shining, white, spire rapidly tapering, with obtuse 
apex ; whorls 6-7, flatly convex, suture broadly margined ; lip 
thick, dilated, columella oblique. Length, 2 mill. 

Viti Islands (Garrett), Persian Gulf, Mauritius (Weinkauff), 
Japan (Adams). 

R. Stoppani, Weink., not Issel (fig. 53), and R. subulina, Weink. 
(fig. 52), from Japan, are synonyms ; the latter a somewhat larger 
shell (3'75 mill), having 8 whorls. The Red Sea fossil species, 
which Issel called R. Stoppani, has no margined suture. 

Var. SUBL.EVIGATA, Nevill. Fig. 56. 

Appears to differ principally in the aperture being more broadly 
rounded below. 

Indian Ocean, Polynesia. 

R. L^EVIGATA, C. B. Adams. PI. 59, figs. 48, 50. 

Shining, pellucid, smooth, white ; whorls 9-10, slightly convex, 
suture white-margined ; lip subdilated, externally thickened. 

Length, 4'5 mill. 

West Indies. 

The above is the description of R. vitrea, C. B. Ad. (fig. 50), 
which appears to be the adult of the earlier described R. Icevigata. 

R. BKOWNIANA, d'Orb. PL 59, figs. 45, 46. 

Solid, polished, white, usually with two or three chestnut bands 
on the last whorl, bimaculate near the aperture ; whorls 8-9, slightly 
convex; suture not margined; lip thickened externally. 

Length, 4'7 mill. 

West Indies. 

R. Iwvissima, C. B. Ad., is a synonym, according to Morch, etc. 
The figure, however, as given in Reeve's Iconica (fig. 46), appears 
more nearly related to the next species. 

R. SLOANIANA, d'Orb. PI. 59, fig. 49. 

Thick, white, smooth, polished; whorls 5-6, flatly convex, suture 
not margined ; lip externally thickened, with usually two internal 
callous teeth. Length, 3'8 mill. 

West Indies. 

Besides frequently being possessed of apertural teeth, this species 
is stouter, with fewer whorls than the preceding one. 



RISSOINA. 391 

Section PYRAMIDELLOIDES, Nevill. 1884. 

R. MIRANDA, A. Ad. PI. 59, figs. 57-59, 55. 

White, whorls 7, with revolving nodulous ribs, of which there 
are two of unequal size on the spire whorls, the body whorl with 
about four series ; outer lip crenulately varicose. Length, 3 mill. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Japan, Mauritius. 

R. insollta, Desh. (fig. 55), and R. Bellardii, Issel (fig. 59), are 
synonyms. 

Section STOSSICHIA, Brusina. 1878. 

R. PSEUDOCONCINNA, Nevill. PL 58, fig. 19. 

Whitish, thinly longitudinally costulate, and more thinly spirally 
striate, the longitudinal sculpture obsolete below ; whorls 6, some- 
what convex ; aperture narrowly channeled in front, lip varicose. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Japan. 

This name is substituted for R. concinna, Sowb., not Adams. 

R. MIRABILIS, Dunker. PL 59, fig. 60. 

Light ochraceous ; whorls 9, somewhat convex, with close longi- 
tudinal ribs, crossed by spiral lirse, the intersections nodulous ; su- 
ture impressed ; aperture widely channeled below, columella nodu- 
lous below, lip varicose. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Ins. Upolu. 
R. ABNORMIS, Nevill. PL 59, fig. 61. 

White ; whorls 6, with about 15 longitudinal ribs, vanishing 
towards the base, crossed by dense spiral lirse, the intersections sub- 
granular; aperture broadly channeled, lip crenulately varicose. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Mauritius, Ceylon. 

Subgenus EATONIELLA, Dall. 1876. 

R. KERGUELENENSIS, Smith. PL 60, fig. 67. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, semipellucid, blackish olivaceous, lighter 
towards the Up, a little shining, striated by incremental lines; 
whorls 6, convex, suture simple ; peristome simple, continuous. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Kerguelen's Land. 
R. SUBRUFESCENS, Smith. PL 60, fig. 68. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, semidiaphanous, chestnut color, whitish 
towards the lip, smooth, with thin incremental striae; whorls 4], 



392 RISSOINA-BARLEEIA. 

convex, with deep suture ; aperture subcircular, peristome con- 
tinuous. Length, 1/5 mill. 

Kergueleris Land. 
R. CALIGINOSA, Smith. PI. 60, fig. 69. 

Scarcely rimate, rather thin, slightly shining, smooth, with ob- 
solete incremental striae, blackish ; whorls 4J, convex, with deep 
suture ; peristome continuous, smoothly thickened, reflected at the 
whitish umbilical region. Length, 2 mill. 

Kerguelen's Land. 

On account of Littorina caliginosa, Gould, which he supposed to 
belong to the same group, Dr. Dall changed the name of the 
present species to R. Smithii 



Unfigured Species Referred to Rissoina. 

The subdivisions not indicated in the descriptions. 

R. GRACILIS, Pease. Sandwich Is. 

R. TERES, R. PULCHELLA, R. INCONSPICUA, R. INERMIS, R. EFFI- 

CATA, R. CARDINALIS, Brazier. Australia. 

R. SUPRASCULPTA, R. IvERSHAWI, R. CYLINDRACEA, R. CRETACEA, 

Tenison- Woods. Australia. 

R. MINUTISSIMA, R. UNILIRATA, R. FLINDERSII, R. CONCATENATA, 

Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

R. APPROXIMA, Petterd. Tasmania. 

R. EXPANSA, Carpenter. Mazatlan. 

R. INTERFOSSA, Carp. California. 
R. CONTABULATA, Morch. Sonsonate, Central America. 

R. VITRINELLA, Morch. West Indies. 

R. PLICATA, R. RUGULOSA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

Genus BARLEEIA, Clark. 1855. 

B. RUBRA, Adams. PL 60, figs. 70-72. 

Solid, smooth, shining, indistinctly spirally striate, chestnut or 
yellowish brown color; whorls 5-], slowly increasing, suture smooth, 
margined by a darker band, lip thick, simple. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Europe. 

B. unifasciata, Mont. (fig. 71), B. aurantiaca, Brus., B. fulva, 
Mich. (fig. 72), and vars. mujtiseufa, Monts. (major, Monts.), albes- 
, Kequieii, pallida, Jeffreys, are synonyms. 




BARLEEIA-FAIRBANKIA. 

B. SUBTENUIS, Carpenter. PL 60, fig. 73. 

Thin, subpellucid, corneous-chestnut ; with 4 normal whorls, flatly 
convex, with distinct suture ; lip acute. Length, 2*8 mill. 

Southern Calijornia to Mazatlan. 
Var. RIMATA, Carp. 

A little more tumid, whorls less flattened, umbilical slit conspicu- 
ous. 

B. HALIOTIPHILA, Carp. PL 60, fig. 74. 

Smooth, thin, chestnut colored ; normal whorls 5, subplanate, 
with distinct suture, body whorl obsoletely angulated; lip thin. 

Length, 2'5 mill. 

Lower California (on Haliotis). 

B. IMBRICATA, Watson. PL 60, fig. 75. 

Brownish-yellow to white, with incremental striae above, base 
spirally striate ; whorls 8, flat, a little angulated above and below 
the impressed suture ; lip sharp, thin. Length, 2*75 mill. 

Sandwich and Fiji Islands, N. E. Australia. 

B. ROSEA, Hutton. PL 71, fig. 6. 

Whorls 4, flatly convex, smooth, polished, bright pink or white ; 
aperture round. Length, 1*75 mill. 

Stewart IsL, New Zealand, 



R. IMPOLITA, R. NAN A, Hutton. (Unfigured). New Zealand. 

Genus FAIRBANKIA, Blanf. 1868. 
F. BOMBAYANA, Blanf. PL 60, fig. 63. 

Imperforate, somewhat Folid, whitish, under a brownish oliva- 
ceous epidermis, the incremental striae crossed by spiral rather dis- 
tant lines ; whorls 7, slightly convex, suture impressed ; lip a little 
expanded, with strong external varix. Length, 7 mill. 

Bombay. 



F. FEDDENIANA, Nevill. (unfigured). Kathiawar, India. 

Genus IRAVADIA, Blanf. 1867. 

I. ORNATA, Blanf. PL 60, fig. 66. 

Imperforate, solid, whitish under a brownish or olivaceous epi- 
dermis, with spiral costa3, the interstices closely vertically costulate ; 



394 IRAVADIA-FENELLA. 

whorls 9-10, slopingly flattened, suture inconspicuous ; lip nodosely 
varicose. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Pt. Canning and Delta of the Irawady. 

I. TROCHLEARIS, Gould. PL 60, figs. 64, 65. 

Imperforate, thick, ash colored, with 7 whorls, of which 4 are 
normal, with elevated spiral ribs, interstices channeled and very 
finely decussated ; lip subvaricose. Length, 4 mill. 

Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon, Persian Gulf. 

I. sulcifera and I. ligata, Gould, teste Sowb., /. imbricata, Gould, 
/. annulata, Dunker, and var. minor, Nevill (fig. 65), are synonyms. 



I. SULCIFERA, Troschel. PI. 68, fig. 95. 

Turreted, thick, strongly spirally ribbed and sulcate, 10 ribs on 
the last, 4 on the upper whorls, those on the base smaller, suture 
distinct ; lip thick, but not varicose, expanded below. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Peru. 

An aberrant form which I am unable to locate satisfactorily. I 
am not aware that it has been recognized by any conchologist since 
its publication in 1852. 

Genus FENELLA, A. Ad. 1871. 

F. PUPOIDES, A. Ad. PI. 60, fig. 76. 

Imperforate, thin, pupoidal, pale brown, with a chestnut band on 
the middle of the whorls, two on the last whorl ; whorls 7$, earlier 
ones subangulated in the middle, the others convex, spirally striate ; 
lip simple. 

Japan. 

Is perhaps a variation of the next species. 

F. VIRGATA, Phil. PI. 60, fig. 79. 

Thin, yellowish, with light chestnut longitudinal flames, closely 
spirally striate ; whorls 7-8, convex, sometimes varicose ; columella 
subtruncate. Length, 6 mill. 

Red Sea. 
F. SUBPUPOIDEA, Tryon. PI. 60, fig. 77. 

Whorls about 6, convex, closely spirally striate, thin, light oli- 
vaceous or brownish, with a series of chestnut spots under the suture; 
lip simple, sharp. Length, 6 mill. 

Monterey, Cal. 



FENELLA. 39& 

Name changed from F. pupoidea, Carp., preoccupied by A. 
Adams. 
F. EXCURVATA, Carp. PL 60, fig. 78. 

Thin, turreted, purplish brown ; whorls 8, the first two smooth, 
afterwards bi-or tricarinate, the others superficially cancellated, 
base spirally striate only ; lip thin. Length, 2'75 mill. 

Mazatlan. 
F. CERITHINA, Phil. PI. 60, figs. 80, 81. 

Granularly decussated by about 15 longitudinal riblets and 4 
spiral lirse, base spirally costulate, chestnut colored ; whorls 8, flatly 
convex, with deep suture ; lip simple. Length 3*3 mill. 

Ins. Rodriguez, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Japan. 

F. reticulata A. Ads. (fig. 81), and F. scabra, A. Ads., are syn- 
onyms. 

F. ELONGATA, Watson. PL 60, fig. 82. 

White, with lattice-like sculpture of distant longitudinal, ribs, 

crossed by two or three spiral riblets (about four in last whorl) ; 

whorls 12, convexly biangulated, with deep suture. Length, 9 mill. 

Culebra L, W. L; 390 fms. ; Azores, 1000 fins. 

F. INFRATINCTA, GaiTett. PL 60, fig, 83. 

Rather thin, subpellucid, shining, whitish, tinged with brown at 
the base, decussated by longitudinal ribs and spiral line ; whorls 8, 
moderately convex, with impressed suture; lip thin. 

Length, 2'5 mill. 

Viti and Samoa Islands. 
F. SEMICOSTATA, Pease. PL 60, fig. 84. 

Subcylindrical, rather solid, whitish or light yellowish, with 
small, close, longitudinal rounded ribs, crossed by close spiral striae, 
the ribs becoming evanescent on lower part of body whorl ; whorls 
5-6, slightly convex, with shallow, impressed sutured 

Length, 3 mill. 

Caroline Islands. 

Unfigured Species. 

F. FULGIIA, C. B. Ad. (Nevill). Natal. 

F. RISSOIFORMIS, Issel. Red Sea. 

F. CRYSTALLINA, Carpenter. Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 

F. VINACEA, Recluz, (Nevill). Mauritius. 



396 PUTILLA-SKENELLA-JEFFREYSIA. 

DUNKERIA FERRUGINEA, CANDIDA, RUFOCINCTA, FUSCA, CRATI- 
CULATA, ASPERULATA, PULCHELLA, all of A. Adams. 

China and Japan. 
These have been included in Fenella by Nevill. 

Genus PUTILLA, A. Ad. 1867. 
P. LUCIDA, A. Ad. PI. 60, fig. 85. 

Rimate, solid, subpellucid, smooth, shining, white; whorls 4, 
convex; lip simple, thick. Length, 3 mill. 

Japan. 
Genus SKENELLA, Pfeffer. 1886. 

S. GEORGIANA, Pfeffer. PI. 60, fig. 96, 97. 

Shell with Lacuna-like umbilicus, obliquely, longitudinally, 
irrregularly, thinly, plicate-striate, greyish brown; whorls 3, rounded, 
with deep suture; lip simple, acute, continuous, aperture bright corne- 
ous, shining. Length, 1'5 mill. 

Isl. South Georgia. 
Family JEFFREYSIID^E. 

Genus JEFFEEYSIA, Alder. 1849. 

J. BIFASCIATA, Carp. PL 60, fig. 86. 

Narrowly umbilicated, diaphanous, very thin, smooth, light 
brownish, with two darker bands, sometimes absent; whorls 5, 
subtumid, suture impressed, margined. Length, 1'25. 

Mazatlan. 
J. ALDERI, Carp. PI. 60, fig. 87. 

Like the preceding, but much larger and more solid; whorls 5, 
more planate, bands narrow. Length, 1*75 mill. 

Mazatlan; Todas Santos Js., L. Cal. 

J. GLABRA, (Alder) Brown. PI. 60, fig. 88. 

Shell rimate, very thin, pellucid, smooth, vitreous white, spire 
obtusely truncate; whorls 4o, convex, with deep suture; aperture 
rounded, coluniella flexuous. Length, 1'5 mill. 

Europe. 

J. diaphana, Alder is a synonym, and is the name under which 
this species is generally known. 

J. OPALINA, Jeffreys. PL 60, fig. 89. 

Kimate, very thin, semipellucid, shining, , opaline, corneous ; 
whorls 3-1, tumid, rapidly increasing; lip acute, base expanded, 

columella flexuous. Length, 2 mill. 

Europe. 
Monterosato has indicated a var. minor. 



JEFFREYSI A. 397 

J. GLOBULARIS, Jeffreys. PI. 60, fig. 90. 

Narrowly rimate, very thin, pellucid, iridescent, smooth, white, 
apex obtuse; whorls 3s, rapidly increasing, suture deep; aperture 
subsolute, lip thin, a little incurved above. Length, 1 mill. 

Great Britain. 

J. CYLINDRICA, Jeffreys. PL 60, fig. 91. 

Narrowly umbilicated, shining, hyaline; whorls 4, shortly convex, 
apex obtuse, suture distinct; aperture subeffuse, lip continuous. 

Length, 1 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

J. EDWARDIENSIS, Watson. PI. 60, fig. 92. 

Minutely rimate, thin, glossy, hyaline white, microscopically 
longitudinally and spirally striate; whorls 4|, tumidly convex, 
suture rather shallow. Length, 1*85 mill. 

Prince Edward Isl. between Cape of Good -Hope and Kerguelen. 

J. SANCTI-PAULI, Velain. PL 60, fig. 93. 

Minutely rimate , thin, slightly spirally striate; whorls 5, moder- 
ately convex, suture narrowly margined; aperture rounded oval, 
lip sharp. Length, 3 mill. 

Ins. St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 



Unfigured and undetermined species. 

J. MINIMA, J. MUNDULA, J. TURGIDULA, J. HYDROPHANA, J. VIT- 
RINA, J. VESICALIS, J. SPIRALIS, J. OMPHALOTROPIS, A. Ad. 

Japan. 

J. TRANSLUCENS, Carp. California. 

J. TUMENS, Carp. = Oythnia, Vol. viii, p. 293. 

J. NITIDA, Sars. Liostomia eburnea, Stimp. Vol. viii, p. 344. 
7. vitrea, Jeffreys is a synonym. 

Subgenus TATEA, Tenison Woods. 1879. 
J. HUONENSIS Tenison Woods. PL 60, fig. 94. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, smooth, corneous or light olivaceous; 
whorls 7, flatly convex, periphery subarigulated; aperture oval- 
rounded, peristome darker colored, acute. Length, 4 mill. 

Tasmania. 
Subgenus DARDANIA, Hutton. 1882. ( 

J. OLIVACEA, Hutton. PL 60, fig. 95. 

Imperforate, smooth, with fine growth-lines, shining, olivaceous 
or blackish, often showing a few grey spots around the suture, and 



398 JEFFREYSIA-SKENEA. 

another series on the periphery of the last whorl; whorls 4, convex, 
with impressed suture. Length, 2 mill. 

New Zealand (on seawood). 

Family SKENEID^. 
Genus SKENEA, Fleming. 1828. 

S. SUBCANATICULATA, E. A. Smith. PI. 60, figs. 98, 99. 

Shell thin, subdiaphanous, whitish, widely, profoundly umbilica- 
ted; whorls 3, slowly increasing, convex, with deep, almost chan- 
neled suture. Diam. 1*3 mill. 

Kerguelen Island. 
S. PLANORBIS, Fabr. PL 60, fig. 100. 

Rather thin, widely, patulously umbilicated, opaque, brownish- 
yellow, or pale olivaceous, spire slightly elevated; whorls 4, sub- 
cylindrical, rapidly increasing, smooth, base subconcave, suture 
deep. Diam. 1*4 mill. 

Europe, Greenland to Massachusetts. 

It is Helix depressa, Mont., and S. trochiformis, Locard. S, serpul- 
oides of Gould and earlier American authors is also to be placed 
here. 

S. SERPULOIDES, Montg. PL 60. figs. 1, 2. 

Widely umbilicated, its wall with spiral striae, brownish yellow, 
smooth; whorls 4, cylindrical, spire a little elevated, suture deep. 

Diam. 1 mill. 

Europe. 

It is Delphinula Icevis, Phil. (fig. 1.), and 8. divisa, Forbes and 
Hauley. 



Uiifigured Species. 

S. IIKLICINA, (Jeffreys, Ms.), Monts. Mediterranean. 

S. pellucida, Monts. is a synonym. 

S. PETITII, Fischer. (Not a Skenea ?) West In<H<>*. 

S. CORNUELLA, A. Ad. Japan. 

Family ('I1O1UXT1DM. 
Genus C5HOEISTE8, Carpenter, 1872. 

C. ELKCJANS, ('ill 1 ]). PI. 01, iir. 3. 

Thin, fragile, moderately umbilicated, epidermis thin, caducous, 



CHORISTES-HOMALOGYRA. 399 

smooth; whorls 4-5, very convex, with deep suture; lip simple, 
everted partially over the umbilicus. Length, 6 mill. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, Mass. ; 255 fms. 

Recent specimens agree well in form and structure with the above 
named Canadian post-pliocene fossil ; they are, however, somewhat 
larger, and thinner, and Verrill has accordingly given them the 
varietal name of TENERA. 

Family HOMAL O YEID^E. 
Genus HOMALOGYRA, Jeffreys. 1867. 

H. ATOMUS, Phil. PI. 61, figs. 4-6. 

Discoidal, planorbiform, very widely umbilicated, spire depressed 
rather thin, semipellucid, smooth, slightly arcuately striate, some- 
what shining ; whorls 4, convex, rapidly enlarging, with deep suture; 
lip thin, simple. Diam. 1 mill. 

Europe. 

It is Skenea nitidissima, Forbes mid Hanley, If. simplex, Costa. 
vars. pallida and polyzona, Brusina, and Var. vitrea, Duprey. 

H. ROTA, Forbes and Hanley. PL 61 fig. 7. 

Discoidal, flat above and concave below, very smooth, subpellucid, 
shining, with short radiating ribs above and below, enlarging and 
curving from the sutural line, and not extending to the periphery, 
whorls 3, convex, with deep suture. Diam. 5 mill. 

Europe. 

H. pulchella, and H. paueicostata Costa, and Adeorbis costatus, 
AVeink. are synonyms. 

H. FISCHERIANA, Monts. PI. 61, figs. 8, 9. 

Planorbiform, discoidal, fulvous, with three spiral brown lines ; 
whorls 4, Avith slight, numerous, incremental strise. 

Diam. 1 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
H. DENSICOSTATA, Jeffreys. PL 61, figs. 10, 11. 

Planorbiform, semitransparent, glossy, nearly flat above, concave 
below, with close-set incremental strise, finally becoming microscopic; 
whorls 4, rapidly increasing, the last one with a central carina on 
the upper and lower surfaces, and another on the periphery; suture 
narrow, but excavated. Diam. 1*87-3 mill. 

Off Newfoundland, 1622 fins! Cape Hatter as, N. C. 7-17 fms. 

The last locality is for tikenea trilLr, Bush, which appears to me 
to be a better grown condition of Jeffreys' species. 



400 HOMALOGYRA. 

H. CANCELLATA, Krauss. PL 61, figs. 12-14. 

Planorbiform, flat above, concave and widely umbilicated below, 
thin, white, distinctly cancellated ; whorls 5, convex, the last ventri- 
cose, periphery subcarinate. Diam. 2*25 mill. 

Algoa Say, So. Africa. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



RISSOIDXE, JEFFREYSIID/E, SKENEID>, Etc. 



PAGE. 

Aberrans (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., p. 113, 1850, . 369 
Abjecta (Rissoa), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 385, t. 36, f. 23, 

1873, . . .353 

Abnormis (Rissoina), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xliv, 

p. 100, t. 8, f. 23, 1875, . .391 

Abyssicola (Rissoa), Forbes. Brit. Moll., p. 86, t. 78, f. 1. 

= R. Testae, Arad. and Magg. var 368 

Abyssicola (Rissoa), Sars. Moll. Arct. Norv. 176. 

== R. subsoluta, Aradas 368 

Acicula (Rissoa), Desm. Bull. Soc. Phil. Paris, viii, t. 1, f. 3, 

1814. = R. auriscalpium, Linn. ..... 332 

Acinopsis, Monts. Nomenc. Conch. Medit., 63, 1884, . 319, 365 
Acinus, Monts. Nomenc. Conch. Medit., 62, 1884. 

Alvania, Risso 319 

Acme, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 330, 1854. 

= Zippora, Leach. ........ 316 

Actonia, Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 61, 1884, . 319, 368 
Aculeus (Rissoa), Gould. Invert. Mass., p. 266, f. 172, . . 347 
Acuminata (Alvania), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 

p. 402, 1860, 365 

A cut a ( Rissoa), Desm. Bull. Soc. Phil. Paris, t. 1, f. 4, 1814. 

= R. auriscalpium, Linn. ....... 332 

Acutelirata (Rissoa), Carpenter. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1865. 

p. 217, '.361 

Adamsiana (Rissoina), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 67, t. 15a, f. 4, 

18 386 

Aedonis (Onoba), Watson. Challenger, xv, p. 600, pi. 45, fig. 5, 348 
Aemula (Alvania), Monts. Enurn., p. 26, . . . 365 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 401 

PAGE. 

Aemula (Rissoa), Granata. = R. semistriata, Mont. (?) . 352 
^reus (Turbo), Adams. Trans. Linn, iii, p. 65, t 13, f. 29,. 

30, 1797. = Rissoa parva, DaCosta, . . . . .332 
Affinis (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 124, t. 9, f. 8, 1884, . 347 
Affinis (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Boat. Proc., p. 6, 1845. 

= R. abbida, C. B. Ad 388 

Affinis (Rissoina), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 212, 

pi. 2, fig. 10, . 389 

Agnewi (Rissoa), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1876, p. 152, . . .368 

Alaskan a (Alvania castanea, Moll, var.), Dall. Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., p. 300, pi. iv, fig. 9, 349 

Alata (Rissoa), Menke. Synopsis, p. 138, 1830. 

= R. decussate, Mont. . . 385 

Alba (Rissoa Jan-Mayeni, Friele, var.), Friele. Nyt Mag., f. 

Natur 338 

Albella (Rissoa), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 24, 1846, . 334 
Albescens (Barleeia rubra, var.) Requien. .... 392 
Albida (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., p. 6, 1845, . . 388 
Albolirata (Rissoa), Carp. Ann. & Mag. xiii, p. 476, 1864, . 350 
Albugo (Rissoa), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 379, t. 35, f. 17, 1873, 353 
Albulus (Turbo), Ad. Trans. Linn, iii, p. 65, t. 13, f. 17, 18, 

1797. = Rissoa parva, DaCosta 332 

Albus (Turbo), Donovan. Brit. Shells. 

= Rissoa costata, Adams. . . . . . . . 336 

Alderi (JeftVeysia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 362, 1857, . . . 396 
Alderi (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Ann. & Mag. iii, p. 127, t. 5, f. 5, 

a-c, 185S. = R. soluta, Phil, var 356 

Aleutica (Onoba), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1886, p. 306, 

pi. 3, fig. 11, ' 345 

Algeriana (Rissoa), Monts. Jotirn. de Conch., p. 34, t. 3, f. 5, 

1877, . . . . 333 

Alleryana (Rissoa), Aradas & Benoit. Conch. Viv. Sicil., p. 

211, t. 4, f. 11, 354 

Alvania, Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Mend, iv, 146, 1826, . 319, 359 
Alvearium (Cingula), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 605, 

pi. 46, fig. 1, 343 

Alvinia, Monts. Nomenc. Conch. Medit., 60, 1884, . 319, 366 
Amabilis (Setia), Monts. En. & Sin., p. 27. 

? R. pulcherrima, Jeffreys. ...... 352 

Ambigua (Rissoa), Brugn. Misc. Malacol., p. 9, fig. 14. 

== R. Alleryana, Ar. & Ben 354 

Ambigua (Rissoina), Gld. Bost. Proc., p. 118, 1849, . . 371 
Amblia (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 590, pi. 

44, fig. 8, 333 

Amethystina (Rissoa), Renier. R. violacea, Desm. . . 330 



26 



402 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Ammonicerina, Costa. Microd. Medit., 67, 1864. 

= Homalogyra, Jeffr 324 

Amphithalamus, Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, xv, 181, 1865, . 317, 

339. 
Amphorula (Rissoa melanostoma, Req. var.), Bregnone Mss . 

II Nat. SiciL, iii, p. 139, 326 

Anabathron, Frauenf. Zool. Novara Exped. ii, 13, 1867, 317, 341 
Anatasia, Gist. Naturg., 169, 1848. == Kissoa, Freminville. 315 
Andamanica (Rissoina), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 75, t. 15, b. 

f. 6, 386 

Angasi (Rissoina), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch, vii, p. 20, 1872. 

R. flexuosa, Gould. 381 

Angeli (Rissoa), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

1876, p. 153, 358 

Angulata (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 119, t. 9,f. 5, 1884, 334 
Angulata (Rissoina), Jick. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. ix, p. 369, 

1882, . . . ' t .375 

Anguliferens (Rissoa), Folin. Fonds de la Mer. i, p. 134, pi. 

xx, fig. vi, 343 

Angustissima (Rissoa membranacea, var.), Weink. Conch. 

Cab., p. 102, 329 

Annulata (Rissoa), Dunk. Mai. Blatt. vi, p. 235, 1860. 

R. trochlearis, Gould 394 

Annulata (Rissoina), Hutton. N. Zealand Journ. Science, ii, 

p. 173, 1884, .... .... 387 

Antoni (Rissoina), Schwartz. Familie Rissoiden, p. 99, f. 63, 

1860, . 388 

Apicina (Cingula), Verrill. Trans. Conn. A cad. vi, p. 183, 

pi. 32, fig. 8, ' . .357 

Apicina (Rissoa similis, Scacc. var.), Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, 

p. 139,. 327 

Apiculata (Rissoa), Danilo & Sand. Elenco Nom., p. 54, 

1856. = R. silmilis, Scacc .327 

Apicularin, Montcrosato. Nomen. Conch. Medit., 56, 1884, . 315, 

327. 
Approximate (Rissoa), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., 1884, p. 

138, , 368 

Aitproximu (Rissoina), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., 1884, p. 

141, 392 

Arata (Rissoa), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 167, 1848, . 368 
Arata (Rissoa), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid. iv, 16, 1826. 

= R. similis, Scacc 327 

Arctica (Rissoa), Loven. = R. saxatilis, Mo'ller. . . . 347 
Arenaria (Rissoa), Mighels & Adams. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., 

1842, p. 49, pi. iv, fig. 24, 347 

Arenarius (Turbo), Mat. & Rack. Linn. Trans, viii, p. 209. 

= Rissoina decussata, Mtg. ...... 347, 385 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 403 

PAGE. 

Areolata (Rissoa), Stimpson. Shells of New England, p. 35, 

1851, 361 

Artensis (Rissoa), Montrouz. Journ. de Conch, xx, p. 364, t. 

4, f. 5, 1872. r R. spirata, Sowb 388 

Aspera (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 126, t. 22, f. 

6. = R. lineata, Risso, var 360 

Asperulata (Dunkeria), Adams. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 120, 

1868, . . 396 

Asperula (Rissoa), Brugn. Kuster, Monog., 179. 

= R. Testae, Aradas & Magg. Jno. , 368 

Assimilis (Rissoa), Jick. Jahrb. Mai. GeseJl. ix, p. 368, 1882, 369 
Asturiana (Alvania), Fischer. Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. xxix, 

1869 ; Fonds de la Mer., t. 2, f. 5, 352 

Atkinsoni (Rissoa, Cingula), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasm., 1876, p. 153, 355 

Atomaria (Cingula?), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 

p. 403, 1860, . . . . . . .346 

Atomus (Ammonicerina), Ph. Wiegm. Arch., 1841, . . 399 
Atropupurea (Rissoa), Danker. Frauenf. Novara. Exp., p. 13, 

t. 2, f. 21, 1866, 355 

Aurantiaca (Rissoa), Brusina. Moll. Dalm., 28. 

= Barleeia rubra. ........ 392 

Aurantiaca (Rissoa), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 367, t. 34, f. 3, 

1873 . ........ 326 

Auberiana (Rissoa), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 22, t. 11, f. 34- 

36, 1853, .337 

Auriscalpium (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. Ed. xii, p. 1240, 

1757, . 316, 331 

Aurita (Rissoa), Monts. Journ. de Conch, xxv, p. 35, t. 3, f. 7, 335 
Aurivillii (Alvania), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1886, p. 

309, pi. iv,fig. 8, . . . . . . . .349 

Australia (Rissoa), Dunker. Frauenf. Novara Exped., p. 14, 

t. 2, f. 23, 1866, 344 

Australia (Rissoa), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 123, . . . 384 
Australis (Setia), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 608, pi. 

45, fig. 1, . . 356 

Badia (Alvania), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, p. 300, 1861, . 365 
Badia (Rissoa), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., 1884, p. 138, . 368 
Badia (Scrobs), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 612, pi. 46, 

fig. 3, 339 

Balteata (Cingula), Manzoni. J. C., 1868, p. 167, t. 10, fig. 7, 342 
Balteata (Rissoina), Pease. Amer. Journ. Conch, v, p. 72, 1870, 385 
Barleeia, Clark. Brit. Mar. Moll., 391, 1855, . . 321, 392 
Baxteriana (Rissoa), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, i, pt. 

2, p. 161, 1881, 376 

Bayntoni (Rissoa), Beddome. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1882, 

p. 168, 365 



404 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Beanii (Rissoa), Forbes & Hanley. Brit. Moll, iii, t. 78, f. 1. 

= R. reticulata, Mont 361 

Bella (Rissoa), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 267, . 368- 
Bellardii (Rissoina), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, 1869. 

=5= R. miranda, A. Ad 391 

Bellula (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 266, 1851, . . 383 
Benjamin a (Rissoa), Monts. Nomenc., p. 66, . . . 352 

Benzi (Rissoa), Aradas & Benoit. Conch. Viv., p. 195. 

== R. albella, Loven. .' 334 

Bertholetti (Rissoa), Andouin. Expl. Plates. Savig. Descr. 

Egypt, t. 4, f. 2. = R. plicata, A. Ad 375 

Bicingulata (Rissoa), Seguenza. Rendic. Acad. Nap., 1871, p. 1, 369 
Bicollaris (Rissoina), Schwartz. Familie Rissoiden, p. 87, f. 

50, 1860, .... 381 

Bicolor (Rissoa), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., 1884, p. 1371, . 368 
Bidentata (Rissoa), Phil. Archiv fur Natur., p. 64, 1845. . 

R. tridentata, Mich 389 

Bifasciata (Jeffreysia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 362, 1857, . . 396 
Bifasciata (Setia), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, p. 136, 1861, . 359 
Bivittata (Alvania Philippiana, Jeffreys, var.), Brusina. Moll. 

Dalmat., p. 27, 366 

Bizonata (Setia), Nevill. Hand List, p. 128, 1885, . . 539 
Blanfordiana (Rissoina), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. i, 

part 2, p. 1(52, t. 0, f. 16, 1881, 383 

Bombayana ^Fairbankia), Blanf. Ann. & Ma-., p. 89!), 18(58. 393 
Boryanus (Turbo), Delle Chiaje. Memorie, An. sans Vert. 

=; Rissoa ciniex, Linn. ....... 360 

Boscii (Rissoa), Payr. Moll. Corse., p. 112, t. 5, f. 15, 16, . 369 
Brachia (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 599, pi. 

45, fig. 8 l 348 

Bra/ieri (Rissoina [Setia] ), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, 1S75, p. 14b', 355 

Brocchii (Alvania), Weink. Conch. Mittelm. ii, p. 450. 

Rissoa retionlata, Mont. . ^ . . . . . . 361 

Browniana (Rissoina . >, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 28, t. 12, f. 

33, 35, l-s-")!,, 320, 390 s 

Bruguieri (Rissoa), Payr. Cat. Moll. Corse, p. 113, t. 5, f. 17, 

18, 1821$; . 370 

Brutia (Rissoa), Tiberi, ^NISS, = R. Scillse, Seguenza. . . 359 
Brychia (Cingula ;, Yen-ill. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, p. 179, pi. 

32, fig. 9, . . . . ..-.. 335 

Bryerea (Rissoa), Mohrenstern (in part), Rissoiden, t. 5, f. 36a. 

= R. pB6tidobry6rea, Nevill. ...... 379 

Bryerea (KiesoiDa), Mont. Test. Brit,, p. 313, t. 15, f. 8, 1803, 379 
Buccinoides (Rissoa ), Desli. Exped. Moree. Moll., t. 19, f. 41- 

43. = R. Montagui, Payr. 360 

Burdigalensis (Rissoina), d'Orb. Prodrom. iii, p. 30, 1852, . 375 

Bureasensis (Rissoa), Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 90, . . . 380 




INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 405 

PAGE. 

Cselata (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 267, 1851. 

ss R. striata, Quoy 386 

Cselata (Rissoa), Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 74, 1884, . 355 
Calathiscus (Rissoa), Mont. Test. Brit. Supp., t. 30, f. 5. 

= R. cimex, Linn. ........ 360 

Calathus (Rissoa), Forbes & Hanley. Brit. Moll, iii, p. 80, t. 

78, f. 3, 360 

Caledonica (Rissoa), Crosse. Jo urn. de Conch., p. 72, 1872, pi. 

16,%. 8, . > . . \ . . . . 317, 342 

Caliginosa (Eatoniella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

xvi, 1875, 71, 392 

Callosa (Rissoa), Manzoni. Journ. de Conch., p. 166, t. 10, f. 

3, 1868, . ,/ ; 350 

Canaliculate (Rissoa\ Philippi. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 116, 

18S4. = R. Zetlandica, Mont 338 

Canaliculata (Rissoa), Sowb. (not Schwartz). Conch. Icon., f. 

60. = R. subdebilis, Nevill 376 

Canaliculata (Rissoina), Schwartz. Fain. Rissoiden, p. 55, f. 

18, 1860. = R. distans, Anton 375 

Canariensis (Rissoa), d'Orb. Moll. Canaries, p. 18, t. 6, f. 5-7, 

18 360 

Cancellata (Rissoa), Desm. Bull. Soc. Phil., t. 1, f. 5, 1814. 

= R. cimex, Linn. . . 360 

Cancellata (Rissoa), Petit. Jour, de Conch, iii, 83. 

- R. lactea, Mich 365 

Cancellata (Rissoina), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 127, 1847, 381 
Cancellatum (Solarium), Krauss. Die Sudafrik. Moll., p. 95, 

t. 5, f. 29, 1848, 400 

Cancellatus (Turbo), (DaCosta), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iv, p. 

8, v, t. 66, f. 3. = R. crenulata, Mich. . . . . 365 
Candida (Dunkeria), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, 1861, p. 136, 396 
Candida (Rissoina), Brown. Illust. Conch., p. 11, t. 9, f. 75, 

1842. = R. Chesneli, Mich 380 

Candida (Setia), A. Ad. Ann, Mag. N. Hist, viii, 136, 1861, 359 
Candidas (Rissoa), Brown. 111. Conch., p. 15, t. 1, f. 9. 

= R. striata, Mont . . .347 

Cardinalis (Rissoina), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 

i, p. 368, 392 

Caribaja (Alvania), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 21, t. 11, f. 31- 

33, 1853, 363 

Caribsea (Rissoa), Monts. Nuov. Rivista, 27. 

Alv. subareolata, Monts. ....... 363 

Carinata (Rissoa), Aradas. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 116, 1884. 

= R. Zetlandica, Mont. 338 

Carinata (Rissoa), Mighels and Ads. Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist, iv, 348 
Carinata (Rissoa), Phil. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 150, t. 10, f. 10. 

R. costata, Adams. . . . . . . . . 336 



406 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE, 

Carinatus ^ Turbo), DaCosta. Brit. Conch., 1778. 

= Rissoa striatula, Mont. ....... 367 

Carpenter! (Rissoa), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 192, . . . 365 
Castanea (Rissoa), Holler. Ind. Moll. Grcenl., p. 9, 1842, . 349 
Castanella (Alvania), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1886, p. 

306, pi. iii, fig. 5, 349 

Catesbyana (Rissoina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 24, t. 12, f. 

1, 3, 1842. = R. Chesneli, Mich 38Q 

Cazini (Rissoa), C. Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exper., 1877, p. 114, 

pi. 3, fig. 15, 344 

Cerasina (Rissoa), Brusina. Contrib. Faun. Dalmat., 19, 74, 

1866. t= R. parva, DaCosta 332 

Ceratia, H. & A. Adams! Ann. Mag. N. Hist, x, 358, 1852, 318, 351 
Cerinella (Onoba), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1886, p. 306, 

pi. 84, fig. 12, 345 

Cerithiiformis (Rissoa), Dkr. Cat. Mus. GodefF. iv, p. 75, . 384 
Cerithina (Fenella), Phil Zeitsch. fur Malac., p. 34, 1849, . 395 
Ceylonica (Rissoina turricula, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 30, 

1885, 377 

Cheilostoma (Rissoa), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, 1876, p. 152, 366 

Chesnelii (Rissoa), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 15, f. 23, 24, 380 
Choristes, Carpenter. Canad. Nat. vi, 392, 1872, . 324, 398 
Cimex (Turbo), Donovan (not Linn.). Brit. Shells, i, t. 2, f. 1. 

Rissoa crenulata, Mich. ....... 365 

Cimex (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. Ed. xii, p. 1233, . . 359 
Cimicoides (Rissoa), Forbes. Brit. Moll., Brit. Assoc., 1843, . 362 
Cincta (Rissoa), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 114, 1867, pi. 13, fig. 

22, .... 380 

Cincta (Rissoa), Dkr. Schmeltz, Cat. Mus. Godeff. iv, p. 75. 

= R. ambigua, Gld. var. 371 

Cingilla, Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 67, 1884. 

= Cingula, Fleming. . . . . . . . .318 

Cingillus (Turbo), Montagu. Test. Brit, ii, p. 35, . . .342 
Cingula, Fleming. Brit. Anim., 297, 305, 1828, . . 318, 342 
Cingulata (Rissoa), Ph. Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, 152 ; ii, 138, t. 

23, f. 14, 350 

Cingulina, Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 66, 1884, . 318, 356 
Circinata (Rissoa), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, 1861, p. 137, . 365 
Clandestina (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, p. 177, 1852, 

? = R. Woodward!, Cpr 372 

Clathrata (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 223, t. 28, 

f. 20. = R. hispidula, Monts 363 

Clathrata (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 265, 1851, . . 381 
Clathratula (Alvania), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, vii, 

1861, p. 137, 365 

Cleopatrse (Folinia), Folin. Fonds de la Mer. i, p. 267, . 338- 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 407 

PAGE. 

Cochlearella (Rissoa), Basterot. Mem. Soc. Geol. Bord.. p. 

37, 1825. Rissoina decussata, Mont. . . . . 385 
Communis (Rissoa), Forbes. Mai. Monensis, p. 17. 

= R. striata, Mont , . 347 

Concatenata (Rissoina), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasm., 1876, p. 155, ... .... 392 

Concinna (Alvania), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 

1861, p. 137, 365 

Concinna (Cingula?), C. B. Adams. Contr. Conch., p. 70, 

1850, 346 

Concinna (Hyala), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. H. vi, 123, 1.870, 351 
Concinna (Microstelma), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 1870, p. 

121. = Rissoina spirata, Sow., juv. . . . .379,388 
Concinna (Rissoa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 266, 1851, . . 386 
Concinna (Rissoa), Monts. Test. Nuov. Sicil., p. 8, f. 2. 

= Cingula benjamina, Monts. ...... 352 

Concinna (Rissoina), Sovvb. (not A. Ad.). Conch. Icon., sp. 9. 

= R. pseudoconcinna, Nevill. ...... 391 

Concinnata (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Ann. & Mag., p. 396, t. 16, f. 

2, 1883, 356 

Conica (Cingula?), C. B. Adams. Contr. Conch., 1850, p. 70, 346 
Conica (Rissoa), Perier. Fonds de la Mer. i, p. 11, pi. 1, fig. 4, 342 
Conifera (Rissoina), Montagu. Test. Brit., p. 314, t. 15, f. 2, 

1803, .... ^ .... . 370 

Coniformis (Rissoa abyssicola, var.), Jeffr. Ann. & Mag., p. 

13, 1870. = R. Testee, Aradas & Magg. . . . . 368 
Coniformis (Rissoina), Schwartz. Kuster. 

= R. Montagui, Weink 370 

Consociella (Alvania), Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, p. 159, . 367 

Contabulata (Anabathron), Frauenf. Voy. Navara, 13, 1867, 341 
Contabulata (Rissoina), Morch. Mai. Blatt. vii, p. 68, 1860, . 392 
Contorta (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, xvii, 

1856, p. 183, .... .340 

Convexior (Rissoina Montrouzieri, var.), Nevill. Hand List, 

p. 91, 1885. = R. spirata, Sowb 388 

Cooperi (Rissoa), Tryon. Am. Jour. Conch, i, 222, t. 22, f. 13. 

= Amnicolidse 369 

Corena, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, vi, 122, 1870, . 317, 339 
Coriacea (Rissoa?), Manzoni. Jour, de Conch, xvi, p. 166, t. 

10, f. 6, . .358 

Corilea (Rissoa), d'Orb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 24. 

== R. Caribsea, Orb 364 

Cornea (Rissoa), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 24, 1846. 

= R. membranacea, Adams. ...... 329 

Cornuella (Skenea), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, v, 1860, 

p. 412, .... . .398 

Coronata (Rissoa), Brusina. Moll. Dalmat., 26. 

= Alvania lineata, Risso, var. ...... 360 



408 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Coronata (Rissoina), Recluz. Schwartz, Rissoina, p. 109. 

= R. tridentata, Mich 389 

Cossurae (Setia), Calcara. Mon. Spir. et Succ., 10. 

= Rissoa vexillata, Brusina 356 

Costata (Homalogyra), Weink. Conch. Mittelm., 264. 

= H. rota, Forbes & Hanley 399 

Costata (Rissoa), Adams. Linn. Trans, viii, t. 13, f. 13, 14. 

= R. exigua, Desm. ........ 336 

Costata (Rissoa), Desm. Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, p. 7, t. 1, f. 

1. = R. variabilis, Muhl . . .325 

Costata (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 266, 1851, . . 376 
Costatogranosa (Rissoina), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, 

p. 211, pi. 2, fig. 7, 373 

Costulata (Alvania), 8. Wood. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 121, 1884. 

= Alv. subareolata, Monterosato. ..... 363 

Costulata (Rissoa), Alder. Ann. & Mag. xiii, p. 324, t. 8, f. 8, 

9, 1844. = R. Guerini, Recluz, var 326 

Costulata (Rissoa), Pease. Amer. Journ. Conch, iii, p. 295, t. 

24, f. 28, 1867, . . , 372 

Costulata (Rissoa), Risso. France Merid., p. 119, 1826. 

= R. variabilis, Muhl. . . . . . . .325 

Costulata (Rissoina), Dkr. MaLBlatt. vi, p. 235, 1860, . . 374 
Costulifera (Rissoina), Pse. Journ. de Conch., p. 382, 1862. 

= R. ambigua, Old 371 

Costulina (Rissoa), Sismondi. Synopsis, p. 53, 1847. 

= R. decussata, Mont. 385 

Costulosa (Alvania lineata, Risso, var.), Risso. Eur. me'rid. 

iv, 142, . 360 

Costulosa (Alvania), Schwartz, teste Weinkauff. 

= Rissoa aspera, Phil. 360 

Crassa (Rissoina), Angus. P. Z. S., 1871, p. 17, pi. 1, fig. 16. 
= R. Rissoi, Andouin. ....... 378 

Crassicosta (Rissoa), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, 

1 Mf>, p. 6, 369 

Crassilabrum (Rissoa), Garrett. Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc., 

1857, p. 102. = R. tridentata, Mich 389 

Craticulata (Dunkeria), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag.vi, 1860, . . 396 
Crebrisulcata (Rissoa), Sowb, Condi. Icon., sp. 56, . . 384 
Crennlata (' Ivissoa), Mich. Descr. Gen. Rissoa, p. 15, f. 1,2, 

1830, 365 

Cretacea ( Kissoina), Tenison Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 

Wales, ii, p. 2(55, W2 

Crispa (Rissoa), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 369, t. 34, f. 6, 1873, 338 
Cristallinula (Ivissoa), Man/oni. .Journ. de Conch., p. 165, t. 

10, f. 4, 1-SC..S 350 

Crystal! ina (Fcnclla), ( -arpenter. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 

xiii, p. 477, 164, . .395 



>L 

C4ijF 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 409 

PAGE. 

Crystallina (Rissoa), Brown. Conch. G. Brit., 13. 

R. vitrea, Mont 351 

Crystallina (Rissoa?), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 216, 

pi. 2, fig. 25 (not 24), 364 

Cumingii (Rissoa), Reeve. Sowb. Conch. Icon. Sp. 4. 

= R. striata, Quoy 386 

Cumingi (Rissoina), H. & A. Ad. Genera, i, p. 327, t. 35, f. 
1, 1854. = R. gigantea, Desh. . . . . . .388 

Curta (Rissoina), Sowb. Mohrenstern, Rissoina, 107. 

= R. tridentata Mich. . . . . . . .389 

Curtisii (Rissoina), E. A. Smith. Zool. " Alert" Exped., p. 63, 

pi. v, fig. M. = R. Austral is, Sowb 384 

Cyclostomata (Rissoa), Recluz. Rev. Zool. Cuv., p. 104, 1843. 

= R. Zetlandica, Mont 338 

Cyclostoma (Rissoa), Temson Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1876, p. 152 .344 

Cylindracea (Rissoa), Krynicki. Bull. Natur. de Moscow, 

"No. ii, p. 60, 1837. ? = R. elata, Phil 331 

Cylindracea (Rissoina), Tenison Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 
"S. Wales, ii, p. 266, .... . . 392 

Cylindrica (Jeffreysia), Jeff. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, xvii, 
1856, p. 184, . 397 

Daxlala (Microstelma), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. xi, 1863, p. 348, 379 
Dardania, Hutton. Trans. N. Zeal. Inst. xiv, 147, 1882, 323, 397 
Debilis (Rissoina), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 18^73, p. 212, 

pi. 2, fig. 9, 372 

Decorata (Rissoa), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 97, 1846, . 326 
Decurtata (Rissoa similis, Scacc. var.), Monts. . II Nat. Sicil. 

iii, p. 139, . 327 

Decussata (Rissoa), Menke. Synopsis, 1830. 

Rissoina Bruguieri, Payr. ...... 370 

Decussata (Rissoina), Montagu. Test Brit., p. 399, 1803, . 385 
Deformis (Rissoa), Sowb. Genera of Shells, No. 40, p. 20, 

1820-24. = R. spirata, Sowb 388 

Delicata (Onoba), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 34, 1849, . 350 
Deliciosa (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 121, t. 9, f. 7, 

1884, . 328 

Delphinoidea, Brown. Illust. Conch. Gt. Brit., 1827. 

= Skenea, Fleming. ........ 323 

Densecostata (Homalogyra), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 129, t. 10, 

f. 1, 1884, . 399 

Dentata (Rissoa), Dan. & San. in Sched. and in Coll. 

= R. monodonta, Brusina. ..... . 331 

Denticulata (Rissoa), Mohrenstern. Rissoiden, p. 126, t. 3, f. 

23. = R. plicata, A. Ad. . . 375 

Depauperata (Rissoa cimex, var.), Monts. Journ. de Conch., 

p. 34, 1887, . . . .* . . . . . .360 



410 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGF. 

Depicta (Rissoa), Manzoni. Journ. de Conch., p. 246, t. 10, f. 

4, 1868. = R. callosa, Manzoni. ..'... 350 
Depicta (Rissoa), Weinkauff. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 152. 

? = R. pulcherrima, Jeffreys. ...... 352 

Depressa (Helix), Mont. = Skenea planorbis, Fabricius. . 398 
Deshayesiana (Rissoa), Recluz. Rev. Zool. Cuv., 1843, Conch. 

Icon., f. 62. = R. Deshayesiana, Schwartz. . . 382 

Deshayesi (Rissoina), Schwartz. Familie Rissoiden, p. 91, f. 55, 

1860, .382 

Desmaresti (Rissoa), Andouin. Descr. Egypt, p. 171, t. 3, f. 

21, 1826, 330 

Desmarestii (Rissoa), Recluz. Rev. Zool. Cuv., p. 9, 1843. 

= R. variabilis, Muhlf. 325 

Diaphana (Rissoa), Alder. Ann. & Mag. xiii, 1844. 

= Jeffreysia glabra, Brown. ...... 396 

Dictyophora (Rissoa), Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 128, t. 23, f. 11, 366 
Dictyophora (Rissoa), Weink. (not Phil.). Journ. de Conch. 

x, p. 339. = R. Weinkauffi, Schwartz 366 

Didyma (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 594, pi. 

44, fig. 1, 362 

Diemenensis (Rissoa), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., 1884, p. 

138, , 368 

Dilecta (Rissoa), Monterosato. Nuova Rivista, p. 27, . . 369 
Dimidiata (Rissoina), Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. ix, p. 368, 

1882, 386 

Discors (Pyramis), Brown. 111. Conch., p. 14, t. 9, f. 31. 

R. striata, Mont 347 

Distans (Rissoina), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 62, 1839, . . 375 
Divisa (Skenea), Forbes & Hanley. Brit. Moll, iii, 165. 

= S. serpuloides, Mtg. ........ 

Doliolum (Rissoa), Phil. Enuin. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 122, t. 23, 

f. 19, 335 

Dolium (Rissoa), Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 417, 1843, . 332 
d'Orbignyi (Rissoa), Andouin. Expl. Savigny's Egypt, 171, 

1827, 327 

d'Orbignyi (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 265, 1851, . 388 
Drummondi (Zippora), Leach. Synopsis, 169. 

= Rissoa auriscalpium, Linn. ...... 332 

Dubia (Rissoa), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., 1884, p. 137, . 368 
Dubiosa (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Coutrib. Conch., p. 114, 1850. 

= Rissoina Dunkeri, Pfr. ....... 374 

Duclosi (Rissoina), Montrouz. Souverbie, Journ. de Conch. 

xiv, p. 257, t. 9, f. 8, 378 

Dunkeri (Rissoa), Pfr. Weinkauff, in Kiister, p. 27. 

= R. dubiosa, C. B. Ad. . ... 375 

Eatonia, E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 70, 1875. 

= Eatoniella, Nevill 321 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 411 

PAGE. 

Eatoniella, Dall. Bull. N. S. Nat. Mus. iii, 42, 1876, . 321, 391 
Ecostata (Rissoa violacea, var.), Jeffreys. Nevill, Hand List, 

101, 330 

Edwardiensis (Jeffreysia), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xii, p. 

99, 1881, .397 

Edwardiensis (Setia), Watson. Challenger Kept, xv, p. 610, 

pi. 45, fig. 11, . 357 

Efficata (Rissoina), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i, 

p. 366, 392 

Effusa (Rissoina), Morch. Mai. Blatt. vii, p. 67, 1860, . . 374 
Egregia (Onoba), A. Adams. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, xi, 

1863, p. 349, 350 

Ehrenbergi (Rissoa), Phil. Moll. Sicil., p. 127, t. 23, f. 9, 

1844, 315, 327 

Elata (Rissoa), Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 124, t. 23, f. 3, . . 331 
Electa (Rissoa), Monterosato. J. 0., 1874, p. 261, . . 367 

Elegans (Alvania), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 174, pi. 

26, fig. 15, 364 

Elegans (Choristes), Carp. Canad. Nat. vi, 392, . . .398 
Elegans (Rissoa), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 267, . 368 
Elegans (Rissoa), Brusina. Moll. Dalm., No. 19. 

== R. Ehrenbergi, Phil 327 

Elegantissima (Rissoa), Sequenza, Mss. Monts. Nuova Riv., 

p. 27. = R. subsoluta, Aradas 368 

Elegantissima (Rissoina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 26, t. 12, 

f. 27-29, 1853, 374 

Elegantula (Onoba), A. Adams. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 

1861, p. 136, ... 350 

Elegantula (Rissoina), Angas. P. Z. S., 1800, p. 417, pi. 40, 

fig. 10. ? = R. striata, Quoy. . . . . . .386 

Elongata (Fenella), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 249, 

1881, 395 

Elongata (Rissoa), Brusina. Moll. Dalmat., 17. 

= R. oblonga, Desm 331 

Elongata (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., t. 10, f. 16. 

= Odostomia, Manual, viii, 346, 369 

Emaciata (Rissoa), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 54, . . 369 
Epidaurica (Cingula), Brus. Moll. Dalm., p. 29, t. 3, p. 10, . 341 
Erythnea (Rissoa), Schwartz. Rissoiden, p. 163, t. 8, f. 59. 

= R. Cerithiiformis, Dkr 384 

Erythrsea (Rissoina), Philippi. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 93, 

1851, 382 

Euchila (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Reports, xv, 602, . 335 
Eulimoides (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., p. 115, 1850, 369 
Eulimoides (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 279, 1851. 

= R. tridentata, Mich. . . . ' . . . .389 
Europsea (Rissoa), Risso. Hist. Eur. Merid., t. 9, f. 156. 

= Turbo cimex, Linn. ....... 360 



412 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Evanida (Rissoina), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xliii, 

Pt. 2, p. 25, t. 1, f. 14, 1874, . ... 386 

Exarata (Rissoa), Stimpson. Bost. Proc. iv, 15; Shells of N. 

E., t. 1, f. 3. = R. areuaria, Migh. and Ads. . . .347 
Exasperata (Rissoina), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch, xiv, p. 

259, t. 9, f. 10, 384 

Excavata (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., t. 10, f. 6. 

= Odostomia, Manual, viii, 355, ...... 369 

Excurvata (Alvania), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 359, 1857. 

- Fenella 395 

Exigua (Rissoa), Dkr. Mus. Godeff. iv, p. 75. 

? = R. triticea, Pse .380 

Exigua (Rissoa), Mich. Gen. Rissoa, p. 16. 

= R. costata, Adams. . . . 336 

Exigua (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Mol. Sic. ii, p. 125, n. 7, . 369 
Exilis (Rissoa), Tryon. Amer. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 12, t. 2, f. 

18, 1866, . 345 

Eximia (Rissoa), Jeffreys. = Odostomia, Manual, viii, 352, . 369 
Expansa (Rissoina), Cpr. Ann. & Mag. xv, p. 399, 1865, . 392 
Expansilabris (Rissoa auriscalpium, Var.) B. D. D. Moll. 

Roussillon, 276, 332 

Fairbankia, Blanf. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, ii, 399, 1868,, . 321, 393 
Fasciata (Alvania) Tenison- Woods, Pr >c. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 152, 

1876, 365 

Fasciata (Rissoa) Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 264, . . 380 
Fasciata (Rissoa) Req. Coq. Corse, 1848, p. 56. 

= Microsetia Cossurae, Calc. ...... 365 

Fasciata (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 264, 1851, . . 370 
Fayalensis (Rissoa) Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 589, pi. 

44, fig. 7, . . , . 328 

Feddeniana (Fairbankia), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 

1881, 393 

Fenella, A. Adams, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, ? 1860, . . 322, 394 
Fenestrata (Alvania; Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, p. 

402, 1860, . ^ . . . . . . . .365 

Fenestrata (Alvania), Kraus.s, Sudufrik, Moll. p. 86, t. 5, f. 

20, 1848, 364 

Fenestrata (Rissoina), Schwartz, Familie Rissoiden, p. 88, f. 

51, 1860, 381 

Ferruginea (Alvania), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, p. 138, 1861, 365 
Ferruginea (Feiiella) A. Adams. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 

421, 1860, . , , . . . . . . . :JJMi 

Ficaratiensis (Pseudosetia) Brugnone. Misc. Malac. 1876, p. 

21, 355 

Filosa (Rissoa) Brusina. Fonds de la Mer. i, p. 260, pi. xxiv, 

fig. 1, 346 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE, 

Filosa (Rissoa), Carp. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, xii, p. 429, 

1864, . . . 365 

Fimbriata (Rissoa), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch, p. 2, pi. 1, 

fig. 3, 1872, 378 

Firmata (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, p. 401, & 537, 

1852, 374 

Fischeri (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. p. 113, t. 9, f. 1, 1884, 361 
Fischeriana (Homalogyra), Monts. Journ de Conch, p. 274, 

t. 13, f. 1, 1869, 399 

Flamia (Rissoa) Beddome. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania. 1882, 

p. 169, " 359 

Flamrnea (Rissoa), Frauenf. Novara Exp. p. 12, t. 2, f. 18, 339 
Flammea (Rissoa), Pease. Amer. Journ. Conch, iii, p. 297, t. 

25, f. 33, 1867, .387 

Flemingia, Jeffreys, 1884. = Manzonia, Brusina. . . .316 
Flexuosa (Rissoa), Gld. Bost. Proc vii, 1861, p. 400, . . 380 
Flindersii (Rissoina) Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasiu. 

1876, p. 154, ... 392 

Floridana (Rissoa Catesbyana, d'Orb. var.) Morch, Mai. Blatt. 

xxiii, p. 49, . . , . 380 

Folinia, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, xvi, 218, 1868, . . 316, 338 
Fortis (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Ann. Nat. Hist. N. Y. v, p. 402, 

1852, . 371 

Fragilis (Rissoa), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 10, f. 9, 10, 

1830. = R. membranacea, Ad. 329 

Frauenfeldiana (Rissoa) Brusina. Moll. Dalm. p. 22, pi. 3, 

fig. 7, , . - .226 

Fraueqfeldi (Rissoa), Schwartz. Voy. Novara p. 10, t, 2, f. 13, 340 
Fremenvillei (Rissoa) Andouin. Expl. PL Savigny. 171, . 367 
Freminvillei (Rissoa), Risso. Europ. Merid. iv, p. 141, f. 128. 

= R. cimex, Linn 360 

Fulgida (Fenella), C. B. Ad. Nevill, Hand List, 11(5, . . 395 
Fulgida (Rissoa), Adams. Linn. Trans, iii, p. 254, 1800, . 854 
Fulva (Rissoa), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 12, f. 17, 18, 

1830. = R. rubra, Adams .392 

Funiculata (Rissoina), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch, xiv, p. 

25(5, t, 9, f. 7, : 377 

Fusca (Dunkeria), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 1860, . 396 

Fusca (Alvania), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, p. 

403, I860, 365 

Fusca (Setia), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil, 1836, . . .354 

Galeodina, Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit. 65, 1884, . 319, 367 
Galvagni (Rissoa) Aradas. = R. semistriata, Mont. (?) . 352 

Gemmula (Rissoa), Fischer, Fonds de la Mer, t. 23, fig. 3, p. 

51. ? = R. similis, Scacc. juv 227 

Gentilissiana (Rissoa), Sowb. in Reeve. Conch. Icon. Sp. 44. 

= Hydrobia Gentilsiana, Crosse. ..... 369 



414 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Georgiana (Rissoa) Pffr. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, 1886, p. 

92, t, 2, fig. 3, . . . 346 

Georgiana (Shenella) PfFr. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, 1886, 

p. 97, t. 2, fig. 6 a. b 396 

Gergonia (Rissoa) Chiereg, Ip. Con 362 

Gertrudis (Rissoina), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, 1875, p. 147, 472 

Gibber (Rissoa), Watson, Zool. Proc. p. 371, t. 34, f. 7, 1876, 336 
Gigantea (Rissoina), Desh. Traite Elem. Conch, p. 77, f. 18, 

20. 1848, . . 387 

Glabra ( Jeffrey sia) Alder. Ann. Nat. Hist, xiii, 325 ; Brown, 

111. Conch. 13, 396 

Glabrata (Cingula), Miihlf. Verh. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 1818, 340 

Glabrata (Hyala) Phil, fide A. Ads. Ms 351 

Glabrata (Rissoa), Fleming. Brit. Anim. 308. 

= R. vitrsea, Mont. . . ... .351 

Glabrata, Var. (Rissoa) Brusina. Monts. Nuov. Riv. 28. 

= R. nitida, Brusina. ....... 340 

Glaphyra (Ceratia) Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 601, pi. 

45, fig. 6, 349 

Globosa (Rissoa) H. Martin, Mss. Monts. Nat. Sicil. ii, 23, 

= Cingulina obtusa, Cantr. ...... 356 

Globosa (Rissoa inconspicua, Alder, var.) March'. Viden. 

Meddel. Copenh. 1871, p. 120, . . . . . .327 

Globularis ( Jeffreysia) Jeffreys. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Conch. 

iv, app. 268, . .397 

Globulinus (Setia) Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, p. 278, . . 359 
Globulus (Rissoa), Moller, Ind. Moll. Groenl. p. 9, 1842, . 359 
Goniostoma, A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, v, 411, 1850; viii, 

136, 1861, 368 

Gougeti (Rissoa), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 7, f. 7, 8, 1830, 369 
Gracilis (Alvania) Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 174, pi. 

26, fig. 16, 364 

Gracilis, (Rissoa) A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, vi, 1878, 

p. 122, 368 

Gracilis (Rissoa), Macgilliv. Moll. Aberdeen., p. 152. 

=' R. striata, Mont. . . . . . . . . 347 

Gracilis (Rissoina), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 211, 

pi. 2, fig. 8, 273 

Gracilis (Rissoina) H. Pease. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 438, . . 392 
Gradata (Rissoa), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t, 11, f. 37-39, 1853, p. 

23, . 378 

Gradatula (Rissoa) Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 53. . . 369 
Grandis (Rissoina), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak. p. 127, 1847. 

= R. striata, Quoy 386 

Granulata (Rissoa); Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 153. 

= R. cimex, Linn 360 




INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 415 

PAGE. 

Granulata (Rissoa), Req. Coq. Corse, p. 56. 

= R. subcrenulata, Schwartz. ...... 363 

Granulosa (Rissoina), Pse. Journ. de Conch, x, p. 382, t. 13, 

f. 10, 1862, . .383 

Granulum (Rissoa) Philip. R. semistriata, Mont. (?) . 352 
Graphicus (Turbo), Brown. Mem. Werner. Soc. ii, p. 521, t. 

24, f. 6. = Rissoa cingilla, Montagu. . . ' . . 342 

Griegi (Setia) Fr. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 1879, p. 274, . . 359 

Grisea (Rissoa) Martens. Sitzb. Berlin. 1885, p. 92, . . 349 

Grossa (Rissoa), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 8, f. 21, 22, . 331 

Gnerinii (Rissoa), Recluz, Rev. Zool. Cuv. p. 7, 1843, . . 326 

. Haliotiphila (Barleeia), Carp. Journ. de Conch, xii, p. 144, . 393 
Hanleyi (Rissoina), Schwartz. Familie Rissoiden, p. 64, f. 28, 

1860, . 370 

Harpa (Rissoa), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. iii, p. 374, 1880, 336 

Helicina (Skenea) Jeffr. Mss. Monts. Nat. Sicil. 22, 1885, . 398 

Hemistomia, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 72, 1872, . 317, 342 

Hirta (Rissoa) Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit. 64, 1884, . 365 

Hispidula (Rissoa) Monts. Nomenclatura p. 63, . . 363 

Homalogyra, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iv, 67, 1867, . . 324, 399 
Honoluluensis (Rissoina) Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 

619, pi. 46, fig. 9, . . 373 

Horrida (Rissoina), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila. p. 210, pi. 2, 

fig. 5, 1873, . . .383 

Hungerfordiana (Rissoina), Nevill. Weink, Conch. Cab. t. 

loa. f. 9, 1881, 383 

Huonensis (Tatea) Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 

1879, 32, 397 

Hyala, H. & A. Adams. Aim. Mag. N. Hist, x, 358, 1852, 318, 351 
Hyalina (Rissoa), Desm. Bull. Soc. Phil. Paris, p. 8, t. 1, f. 

6. = R. rufilabris, Leach. 330 

Hyalina (Rissoa?) Garrett. P. A. K S. Phila. 1873, p. 217, 

pi. 2, fig. 24, (not 25) 358 

Hydrophana (Rissoella), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 332, 1860, 397 
Hystrix (Rissoina), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch, xxv, p. 74, 

t. 1, f. 4. = R. nodicincta, A. Ad 383 

Imbricata (Barleeia) Watson. Challenger, xv ,p. 584, pi. 43, 

fig. 2, 393 

Imbricata (Rissoina), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, 1861, p. 400. 

= R. trochlearis, Gld. var. . . ... 394 

Impolita (Rissoa) Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zealand, p. 

29, 1873. . ' . ' 393 

Inca (Rissoa), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Mer. p. 52, t. 53, f. 11-16, 

p. 395, .369 

Incerta (Rissoa), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch, p. 53, t. 1, f. 4, 

1872, 150, 1876, 372 



416 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Incidata (Rissoa), Frauenf. Novara Exped. p. 12, t. 1 f. 19, 339 
Incompta (Rissoa) A. Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, viii, 

p. 280, 369 

Inconspicua (Rissoa) Alder. Ann. Mag. xiii, 323, . 327, 334 
Inconspicua (Rissoina) Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 

i, p. 368, . 392 

Inclusa (Amphithalamus), Carp. Ann. & Mag. xv, 1865, p. 

181, 340 

Indica (Rissoina), Nevill. Hand List, p. 75, 1885. . . 374 
Inermis (Rissoina) Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i, 

p. 367 392 

Inflata (Setia) Monts. Nomencl, 72. = R. fusca, Phil. Var. 354 
Infrastricta (Rissoa) Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila. 1873, p. 215, 

pi. 2, fig. 21, 378 

Infratincta (Rissoa,) Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila. 1873, p. 216, 

PI. 2, fig. 22, 395 

Infrequens (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, p. 403, 1852, 385 
Insenghse (Rissoa), Calc. = R. punctura, Mont. . . . 337 
Insignis (Rissoa), Ad. & Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 53, t. 11, f. 

20, 1850, . .389 

Insignis (Rissoa) Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles 48, 1867, . . 338 
Insolita (Rissoa), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 63, t. 13, f. 15, 

16, 1863. = R. miranda, A. Ad 391 

Interfossa (Rissoa), Nevill. Weink. in Kiister, Conch. Cab. 

KiO, . 364 

Interfossa (Rissoina) Carpenter. Proc. Cul. Acad. Sci. 18(1.") 

p. 217, 392 

Intermedia (Rissoa), Aradas. Teste Monterosato. 

= R. cimicoides, Forbes. ....... 362 

Interruptus (Rissoa), Adams. Trans. Linn. Soc. v, t. 5, f. 20, 

21, 1798, . , 332 

liitorta ( Rissoa), Monts. Enum. Conch. Medit. 26, 1872. 

R. contorta Jeff, var. intorta. Monts. .... 340 

Iravadia, Blanf. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 56, 1867, . 322, 393 
Ishmdicax (Cingula) Friele. Nordske Nordhavn Exped. p. 

28,' pi. xi, figs. 8 &9, . :U(I 

Isselia, Semper, Mss. Schmeltz, Cat. Mus. GodefFroy, v. 

Lwelietla, Nevill 321 

Isseliella, Nevill. Hand List Ind. Moll. 98, 1885, . . .321 

.Jaiimayeiii ( Rissoa) Friele. Nyt Mag. 5, f. 4, 1878, . . 338 
Janus ( Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat. .p. 538, 1852, . . 387 
Japonica (Rissoina), Weink. Conch. Cab. p. 65, t. 15a. f. 1, 

18. = 1{. spirata, So\vb 388 

Jeffreysia, Alder. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll. 1849, . . 396 
Jeffreysi (Rissoa), Waller. Ann. & Mag. xiv, 3d. Ser. p. 136, 361 
Jickelii (Rissoa), Weink., Conch. Cab. p. 78, t. 15c. f. 4, 

1881. = R. Blanfordiana, Nevill. . . 383 



INDKX AND SYNONYMY. 417 



Joenia (Rissoa) Ar. et Benoit. Monts., Nat. Sieil. iii, 280. 

= Microsetia, Corsurce ..... . 350 

Keilostonm, Desli. Anim. sans Vert. Bassin Paris, 1848. . 321 
Kerguelenensis (Eatoniella), Smith. Ann. & Mag. xvi, p. 70, 
1875, ........... 391 

Kergueleni ( Rissoa), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1875, 
p." 09, t. 9, f. 12, ..... . 357 

Kershawi (Rissoina) Tcnison- Woods. Trans. Roy. Soc. Vic- 
toria, xiv, ]). 57, ......... 392 

Kisloensis (Rissoa) Dunker. Morch. Vid. Med. Kjoben. 128, 
1871. R. ineonspicna, Alder, var. globosa, Morch. . 327 

Krebsi (Rissoa), Morch. Malak. Blatt. p. 50, 187<5. 

R. multicostata, C. B. Ad ...... . 371 

Labiata (Rissoa), Phil. Enuni. Moll. Sicil. p. 155, t. 10, f. 7, 

R. striatula, Mont ......... 307 

Labiosa (Helix), Mont. Test. Brit. p. 400, t. 14, f. 7, 1803. 

Rissoa Mieinbranacea, Adams. , 329 

Labrosa (Rissoina,), Sdiwart/. Familie Rissoiden, p. 94, f. 58, 
18(50, ........... 3S2 

Lactea (Rissoa), Brown. 111. Conch, p. 11, t. 8, f. 87, 1844. 

- R. Brye.rea, Mont ......... 379 

Lactea (Rissoa), Midland. Desc. (Jen. Rissoa, p. 7, t, 11, f. 
12, 1833, .......... 3(55 

Lacunatus (Aniphifchalamus), Carpenter. Proc. Cal. A cad. 
Sci. 1865, p. 217 ......... 340 

Lsevigata (Rissoa), Menke. Synopsis, p. $2, 1830, . . 309 

Lsevigata (Rissoina), C. B. Ad'. Contrib. Conch, p. 114, 1850, 390 
La-vis (Del])hinula) Phil. Enuin. Moll. Sicil. ii, 14(5, 1844. 

Skenea Serpnloides, ]Mtg. ...... 398 

Lsevis (Cingnlaj DeKay. Nat. Hist. 'N. Y. Mollusca, p. iii, 
pi. 0, fig. 118, ......... 340 

Lievis (Rissoa), Monts. Jonrn. de Conch, xxv, p. 3(5, pi. iii, 
fig. 9, 1877. -- R. sirailis, Scacchi. . . . . 327, 341 

Lievis (Rissoa solnta, var.) Sars. Bidr. Knndsk. Christian, ii. 

= R. turgida, Jeffreys ...... .. . 353 

Lsevissima (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch, p. 115, 
1850. = R. Browniana, d'Orbigny. . . . .390 

Lamberti (Rissoa), Souverbie. Jo urn. de Conch, p. 425, t. 14, 
f. 0, 1870. = R. spirata, Sowb. . . . . . . 3<ss 

Lancia?, (Rissoa) Calcara. Cenno sni Moll. viv. & foss. della 
Sicil. p. 29, pi. iv, fig. 12, ... ... 301 

Lancise (Rissoa), Monts. Nnov. Rivista, p. 27. 

= R. pagodula, B. D. D ........ 300 

Lantzi (Rissoa) C. Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exper. 1877, p. 114, 
t. 3, f. 14, ..... ..... 344 

Lanzai (Rissoa) Dunker (in coll.) ~ R. decorata, Phil. . 320 
27 



418 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE, 

Latilabre (carychium) Jan. Monts., Nat. Sicil. iii, 37. 

R. auriscal'pium. ........ 332 

Latior (Cingula) Mighels & Adams. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 

iii, p. 48, pi. 4, fig. 22, . . 357 

Laurae (Rissoa) Folin. Fonds de la Mer. i, p. 263, pi. xxiv, 

fig. 3, .350 

Layardi (Rissoa) Petterd. Journ. of Conch. 1884, p. 138, . 368 
Leacocki (Rissoa), Watson. Zool. Proc. p. 365, t. 34, f. 1, 

1873, . . . . . ... . .363 

Leptalea (Cingula) Verrill. Trans. Conn. A cad. vi, p. 182, 

pi. 32, fig. 10. = R. saxatilis, Moller. . . / .347 
Lia (Rissoa), Benoit,Mss. Monterosato, Conch. Medit. p. 17, 329 
Ligata (Alvania) Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat Hist, vii, p. 

402, 1860, .350 

Ligata (Rissoa), Gould. Sowb. Conch. Icon. sp. 105, 

= R. trochlearis, Gould. 394 

Lignea (Rissoa), Thorpe. Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 81, 

? = R. lineata, Risso " . . .360 

Lilacina (Rissoa), Recluz. Rev. Zool. Cuv. p. 6, 1843, . . 329 
Limbata (Cingula) Hutton. New. Zealand Journ. of Science, 

p. 477,- i, 1883, 355 

Limpida (Setia) Monts. Nat. Sicil. iii, p. 279, 
Lineata (Rissoa) Petterd. Journ. of Conch. 1884, p. 137, . 368 
Lineata (Rissoa), Risso. Eur. Merid. iv, p. 142, f. 120, 1826, 360 
Lincta (Rissoa) Watson. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 387, pi. 36, fig. 26, 341 
Lineolata (Rissoa decorata, Phil, var.) Brusina. Moll. Dalmat., 

19, 326 

Lineolata (Rissoa). Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 9, f. 13, 14, 

1832, . . . . . ... . . 329 

Lirata (Rissoa striata, Ad. var.) Watson. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 

368, pi. 34, fig. 4, 347 

Lirata (Rissoina) Angas. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 417, pi. 40, fig. 11, 373 
Littorinseformis (Rissoa?) Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phil. 1873, p. 

215, pi. 2, fig. 20, 358 

Loxostoma, Bivona, Gen. e spec. 1838. 

= Rissoa, Freminville. ....... 

Lucida (Nevillia) H. Adams. Zool. Proc. 289, 1868, . . 360 
Lucida (Anoba) A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, xi, 1863, p. 

359, 350, 396 

Lucida (Putilla), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 1. 312, 1867, . . 396 
Luscinise (Rissoa Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 597, pi. 44, 

fig. 3, . .362 

Lyrata (Rissoina), Gould. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 401, 1861, . 379 

Macandrewi (Rissoia), Manzoni. Journ. de Conch, p. 164, t. 

10, f. 1, 1868, .337 

Maccoyi (Rissoa) Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1876, 

p. 154, 351 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 41 9T 

PAGE. 

Macilenta (Setia) Monts. En. & Sin. p. 27, . . . . 355 
Macra (Ceratia) Watson. Challenger Kept, xv, p. 603, pi. 45, 

fig. 10, 351 

Maculata (Rissoa), Brown. 111. Conch, p. 12, t. 9, f. 5, 6, 1845. 

R. inconspicua, Alder. ...... 327, 334 

Maculata (Rissoa), Moots. Test. Nuov. Sicil. p. 7, f. 1. 

= R. semistriata, Monts. (?) ..... 352: 

Madreporica (Cingula), Issel. Malac. Mar Rosso, p. 200, 

1869, t. 2, fig. 8, 353: 

Mainwaringiana (Rissoina), Nevill. Hand List, p. 83, 1885, 381 
Major (Barleeia rubra, var), Monterosato. Journ. de Conch. 

p. 315, 1877. = B. majuscula Monts. .... 
Major (Rissoa elegantissima, Seguenza, var.) Monts. Nuova 

Rivista, p. 27. = R. subsoluta, Arad. . . . 368 

Majuscula (Barleeia) Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, p. 230. 

- B. rubra, Ads. . . ... . . .392 

Mammillata (Rissoa), Risso. Eur. Merid. iv, p. 145, f. 128. 

= R. cimex, Linn. .... , 360 

Mandralisci, (Rissoa) Aradas. Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, 229. 

= R:~punctulum, Philip 340' 

Manzonia, Brusina. Ipsa Chieregh. Conchyl., 201, 1870, 316, 336 
Marginata (Rissoa), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 11, f. 15, 16, 

1830, ... . 334 

Marginatus (Turbo), Laskey. Mem. Wer. Soc. i, p. 406. 

= Rissoa auriscalpium, Linn. ...... 332 

Marks (Rissoa), B. D. D. Moll. Roussillon, t. 36, f. 7-10. 

= R. Gergonia, Chier. 362 

Marise (Rissoa (Cingula)), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, 1875, p. 147, .-".'; ../ 354 

Mariella (Alvania), A. Adams. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 

1861, p. 138, ... 365 

Marionse (Alvania) Mont. Enum. p. 26. .... 365 
Marionse (Odostomia), Macgilliv. Moll. Aderdeen. 

= R. striata, Mont 347 

Marionensis (Setia) AVatson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 607, pi. 

44, fig. 12, .... . . 356 

Marmorata (Rissoa), Cantraine. Bull. Acad. Belg. ix, p. 347. 

= R. semistriata, Mont 352 

Martyni (Cingula robusta, Dall, var.) Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus. 1886, p. 308, pi. iii, fig. 9, 345 

Massotia, Bucq. Dautz. Dollf. Moll. Rouss. p. 298, 1884, 319, 365 
Matoniana (Rissoa), Recluz. Rev. Zool. Cuv. p. 9, 1843. 

= R. interrupta, Ad. ... .... 332 

Mauritiana (Rissoa), Martens. Mauritius, p. 285, t. 20, f. 17, 

1880, 367 

Mayeni (Rissoa), Friele. Nyt Mag. Naturv. p. 5, f. 4 a. b. 

1878, . . . . .338- 



420 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Media (Rissoina), Schwartz. Familie Rissoiden, p. 92, f. 56, 

1860, . 382 

Melanostoma (Rissoa), Requien. Coq. Corse p. 53 no 28, . 326 
.'Melanura (Rissoa) C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch. 116, 1850. 

= Alaba. .......... 

Melanura (Rissoa) Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Sci. Tasm. 

1876, p. 153, 358 

Membranacea (Rissoa) Adams. Liun. Trans, v, t. 1, f. 14, 15, 329 
iMembranacea (Rissoa), var. Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iv, p. 31. 

= R. elata, Phil . . 331 

Mercurialis (Onoba) Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 600, 

pi. 45, fig. 12, . . 343 

. Mercurialis (Rissoina) Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 619, 
',] 46, fig. 8, . . . . . ... . 378 

~ Messaiiensis(Risoa), Seguenza. Mss. Aradas ct Benoit, Conch. 
Viv. Sicil. p. 314, 1870, . . . .356 

; Micans (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 2(55, ls.)l, . . 371 
Micrometrica (Rissoa), Seguenza, Mss. Arada.s. *X; Benoit, 

Conch. Sicil. p. 314, t. 5, f. 3, 3(54 

Microsetia, Monts. Npmencl. Conch. Medit. 74, 1884 . 318, 353 
Microstelma, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, xi, 347, 1*63, 320, 379 
Microstoma (Rissoa) Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 591, pi. 

44, %. 10, . . 32S 

JVlicrothyra (Barleeiu), ^Martens. ]\[aiiritiiis, p. 205, t. 20, f. 

18,1880. Aniphithalamus. . . .339 

"Mighelsi (Rissoa) Stinipsou. Bost. Proc. iv, 15. 

= R. arenaria, Migh. Ad . 347 

Millecostata (Rissoina) Garrett. P. A. iV. S. Phila. 1873, p. 

210, pi. 2, fig. 3, . ' . . mm , 387 

Milleri (Rissoa) Folin. Fonds de la ^ler, i, p. 143, pi. xxii, 

fig. 5, 342 

Minima (Jeffreysia), A. Ad. Ann. & ^lag. vi, :>32, 1860, . 397 
Minor (Jef&eysia opalina, Jeffr. var.') Monts. II Nat. Sicil. 
1885, p. 21, . . . . 

Minor ( Rissoa civnulala, var.), Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 12<>. 

R. subcrenulata, Schwartz. . . ... 3(>3 

Minor (Ris>oina trochlearis, var.), Ncvill. Hand List, p. 97, 

1885, . - 394 

Minuta (Rissoa) Tottcn. Am. Jour. Science, xxvi, 369, f. 7, 
1S34, . . .... . 34(5 

Minuta (Rissoina), Xcvill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. licng. xliii, Pt. 
2, p. 25, t. l,f. 15, 1874, ... . 376 

Minutissima (Rissoa), Mich. Doc. (Jen. Rissoa, p. 17, f. 27, 
28. = R. striata, Mont. ... . 347 

Minntissinia (Rissoina) Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, p. 122,1877, ... . t 392 

Mirabilis ( Rissoa), Man/oni. Journ. de Condi, xvi, p. 165, t. 
10, f. 5,1868, 33fi 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 421 

PAGE. 

Mirabilis (Rissoina), Dkr. Mus. Godeff. iv, p. 75, . 321, 891 

Miranda (Rissoina), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, p. 135, 1861, 391 
Mirifica (Onoba) A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1863, p. 

348, ' 350 

Modesta (Cingula) H. C. Lea. Proc. Bost. Soc. 1844, p. 205. 

Assiminea, ......... 346 

Modesta (Rissoina) Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 

1860, p. 401, . . . 387 

Mohrensterni (Rissoa), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 62, t. 8, f. 6, 

7, 1863, 386 

Mohrensternia, Stolicz. Pal. Indica, ii, 274, 1868, . .316 

Monilifera (Rissoina), Nevill. Hand List, p. 79, 1885, . . 379 
Monilis (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proe., p. 264, 1851, . . 371 
Moniziana (Rissoa), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 373, t, 34, f. 10, 

1*73, 349 

Monodonta (Rissoa), Bivona. Nuov. Riv. .... 330 
Moiitacuti (Rissoa), Payradeau. Moll. Corsica, p. iii, t, 5, f. 

13,14. R. Montagui, Payr .360 

Montao-ui (Rissoa), Payr. Cat. Moll. Corse, p. Ill, t. 5. f. 13, 

14, 1826, . , . 360 

Monstrosa (Rissoina Montrouzieri, var.), Nevill. Hand List, 

p. 90, 1885. R, spirata, Sowb 38& 

Montrouzieri (Rissoina), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch., p. 237, 

t. 9, f. 5, 1862. = R. spirata, Sowb 388 

Morchiella, Nevill. Hand List Ind. Mus. ii, 88, 1884; Section 

F. of Rissoina, Hand List, 73, . . . . 320, 387 

Morchii (Cingula ),Collin. Brachionopoder, Muslinger ogSnegle 

fra Kara-Havet, 16, 1886, . . . .".'.. ."' : ' ; . 348 
Mucronata (Rissoa), Menke. Synopsis, p. 83, 1830, . . 369 
Multicostata (Rissoa deliciosa, Jeff', var.), Jeffr. P. Z. S., 1884, 

p. 121, . ...... 328 

Multicostata (Rissoina), C. J3. Ad. Contrib. Conch., p. 114, 

1850. = Rissoina elegantissinia, d'Orb. . . . 371, 347" 
Multicostata (Rissoina), Garrett. Calif. Proc., p. 103, 1857. 

= R. anibigua, Gld 371 

Multicostata (Rissoina), Schwartz. Rissoiden, p. 86. 

= R. Krebsi, Morch . 371 

Multilineata (Rissoa), Stiinpson. Bost. Proc. iv, 15, 1851. 

- R. striata, Adams. ........ 347 

Munda (Subanea), Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, p. 139, . . 336 
Mundula (Jeffreysia), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 332, 1860, . 397 
Mundula (Onoba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat, Hist, viii, 1861, 

p. 136, .... 350' 

Mutabilis (Alvania), Schwartz, Mss. Weink. Conch. Mitt, ii, 

p. 311. - Alvania scabra, Philip 36^ 

Myosoroides (Rissoina), Recluz. Fide Schwartz, Familie 

Rissoiden, p. 66, f. 30, 1860. = R. arabigua, Gld. var. .. 371 



422 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Nana (Rissoa), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zealand, p. 28, 

1873, 393 

Nana (Rissoa), Phil. Test. Verst., p. 52, 1843. 

= R. dolium, Nyst. . . 332 

Neglecta (Rissoa), Locard. Cat., ]). 256. 

= R. variabilis, Muhlf. 325 

Nevillia, A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 289, 1868, . . . 319, 366 
Nevilliana (Rissoina), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 68, t. 15a, f. 7, 

t. 15d, f. 2, 372 

Nicolosiana (Rissoa), Arad. Benoit. Conch, della Sicil. 

= R. Montagui, Payr 360 

Nigra (Cingula), Krauss. Sud-Afrik. Moll., p. 86, t. 5, f. 19, 

1848, .... 358 

Nitens (Apicularia), Monts. II Nat. Sicil., iii, p. 140; No- 

mencl., p. 47, . . . . . . . . .341 

Nitens (Pyramis), Brown. 111. Couch., t. 50, f. 77, 1827. 

= Rissoina Bryerea, Mont. ....... 379 

Nitens (Rissoa), Dunker. Frauenf. Novara Exped., p. 13, t. 

2, f. 22, 1866, . 355 

Nitida (Hyala), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 123, 1870, . . 351 
Nitida (Jeffreysia), Sars. Vidensk. Forh., 1858. 

Liostomia eburnea, Stimp. ...... 397 

Nitida (Rissoa), Brus.Mss. Monts. Nuova Rivista, p. 28, . 340 

Nitida (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 226, 1851. 

=s R. bellula, A. Ad . . 383 

Nitidissiraa (Skenea), Forbes & Hanley. Brit. Moll, iii, 158. 

Homalogyra atonius, Ph. 399 

Nitidula (Rissoina), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, 1861, p. 400, . . 385 
Nivea (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 265, 1851, . . 379 
Nodicincta (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 266, 1851, 3*3, 376 
Nodosa (Rissoa), Brusina in Sched. Moll. Dalm., 22. 

= R. Frauenfeldiana, Brusina. ...... 326 

Nodulifera (Rissoa), Kust. Conch. Cab., 106. 

= R. variabilis, Muhlf. 325 

Nodulus, Monts. Enum. Sin., 26, 1878, . . 317, 340 

Novarensis (Alvania), Frauenf. Voy. Novara, p. t. 2, f. 16, 

1867, . \. . . ". 329 

.Novarensis (Rissoa), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 377, t. 35, f. 13, 

.1873. = R. euchila, Watson. . . .335 

*Obeliscus (Rissoina), Reclu/. Schwa rt/, Rissoina, p. 53, . 376 
Obesus (Amphithalmus), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 754, 1<S<>5, . 340 
Oblita (Rissoa), Tiberi, Mss. = R. turgida, Jclir. . . 353 

Oblonga (Rissoa), Desni. Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, p. 7, f. 3, 

1814, . 331 

Oblonga (Rissoa), Midd. Malar. Iloss., p. 26. 

= R. venust.il, Phil. . .... 331 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 423 

PAGE. 

Obscura (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic. ii, p. 127, t. 23, f. 

10, 1844. = R. parva, DaCosta 332 

Obtusa (Rissoa abyssicola, var.), Jeffreys. Ann. & Mag., p. 

13, 1870. = R. subsoluta, Aradas 3(>* 

Obtusa (Rissoa), Cantraine. Bull. Acad. Bruxelles, 1842, pt. 

11, p. 348. = R. soluta, Phil 356 

Obtusispira (Rissoa), Seg. Mss. = R. turgida, Jeffr. . . 353 
Oceani (Rissoa), Aradas & Benoit. Conch. Viv. Sicil., p. 197. 

- R. subcrenulata, Schwartz. ...... 363 

Ochroleuca (Setia), Brusina. J. C., 1869, p. 247, . . . 355 
Octona (Rissoa), Linn. Nilsson, Moll. Sued., p. 92. 

= R. membraiiacea, Adams. Var. ..... 329 

Oenonensis (Rissoa), Brusina. Moll. Dalrn., p. 20, pi. 3, fig. 6. 

= R. albella, Loven 334 

Olivacea (Alvania), Frauenfeld. V.oy. " Novara," pi. ii, fig. 

14, 339 

Olivacea (Dardania), Hutton. Trans. N. Zealand Inst., 1881, 

xiv, p. 147, 397 

Omalogyra, Jeffreys. Jour, de Conch., 1860. 

= Homalogyra, Jeffr. ........ 32-1 

Omphalotropis (Rissoella), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag., p. 332, 1860, 397 
Onoba, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., 1, 331, 1854, . 318, 346 
Opalina (Jeffreysia), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d Ser., 

ii,351, . 396 

Orientalis (Rissoa), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Benir., p. 161, 

1881. = R. triticea, Pse :.. . 380 

Ornata (Iravadia), Blanford. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., p. 6, 

t. 13, f. 13, 14, 1867, 393 

Ornata (Rissoa), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 97, 184(5. 

= R. splendida, Eichw. ....... 325 

'Oryza (Rissoina), Garrett. Proc. Phila. Acad., p. 210, pi. 2, 

fig. 4, 1873, . 390 

Ovatella (Rissoa), Forbes. Rep. Brit. Assoc. xiii, p. 189, 

1843. := R. similis, Scacc : ) >27 

Pachia (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 602, pi. 

45, fig. 7, . . 348 

Pachylabris (Rissoina d^Orbignyi, var.), Nevill. Hand List, 

p. 92, 1885. =-- R. spirata, Sowb 388 

Pagodula (Rissoa), Buquoy, D. D. Moll. Rouss., p. 296, t. 56, 

f. 23-26, 366 

Pallida (Barleeia rubra, var.), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iii. . 392 
Pallida (Homalogyra atomus, Ph. var.), Brus. Med. & Adr. . 399 
Pallida (Microsetia fulgida, Ad. var.), Jeffreys. Monts. Nat. 

Sicil. iii, 280, 354 

Paludinoides (Rissoa), Calc. Monog. Spirorbis & Succinia Pal., 

1841, p. 10. r Setia fusca, Philip. . . . '. 354 

Papuana (Rissoa), Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civico, Genoa, ix, 288, 368 



424 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PACK. 

Paradoxa (Zippora), Monts. II Nat. Sieil. iii, p. 137, . .331 
Parva (Rissoa), DaCosta. Brit. Conch., p. 104, 1779, . . 332 
Parva (Rissoa, Var.), Forbes & Hanley. Brit. Moll, iii, t. 7(5, 

f. 6, t, 80, f. 1-4. R. interrupta, Adams. . . . 332 

Parva (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iv, p. 26. 

== R. radiata, Phil 333 

Parvisetia, Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 73, 1884, . 319, 358 
Parvula (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 115, t. 9, f. 2, 1884, 337 
Paryphostoma, Bayan, 1873. = Keilostoma, Desh. . . 321 
Patens (Setia), A. Gould. Proc. Bost, Soc. Nat. Hist, viii, p. 

280, 359 

Patula (Onoba), A. Ad. Ann. AT Mag. Nat. Hist, xi, 1K63, p. 

349, . 350 

Paucicostata (Ammonicerina), (). G. Costa. Microd. Medit., 

p. 7, t. 11, f. 1, 1861. = Homalogyra rota, Forbes & Hanley. 399 
Paupercula (Cinjriila), C. P>. Adams. Panama Catalogue. 

Diala. .... 346 

Paupercula (Rissoa cimex, Linn. var. ), Monts. Bull. Hoc. 

Mai. Ital., 1879, p. 223, . 360 

IVaseana ( Rissoina), Nevill. Weink. Conch. Cab., t. 15a, f. 6. 

= R. percrassa, Nevill 389 

Pedicularis ( Rissoa ), Menke. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 43, 1845, 369 
Pelagica ( Rissoa), Stimpson. Bost. Proc. iv, 15. 

= R. carinata, Mi^liels and Ads. ..... o4S 

Pelecydimn, Fischer.' Fonds de la Mer, ii, 183, 1872, . 317, 341 
Pellucida (Skenea), Monterosato, Mss. Jour. Conch., 1874, p. 

2H3. = S. lielecina, Jeffreys, Mss 398 

Pellyse (Amphithalamus), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1, 

Pt.2, 165, 1881, :)4() 

Peloritana (Rissoa), Aradas tt Benoit, Conch. Viv., p. 205. 

= R. lineata, Risso. . . 360 

Percrassa (Rissoa), Nevill. Journ. Asiat, Soc. Bengal, xliii, 

p. 26, t. 1, f. 13, 1874, IJ80 

Pcringiella, Monts. Kuum. c Sin., 27, 54, 1878, . . 317, 341 
Perlanccolata ( Rissoina subdcbilis, var. ), Nevill. Hand List, 

75, :57<; 

Perlata (Rissoa), Morcli. Mai. Blatt, vii, p. (>^, 1 (>(), . . 3(>5 
I'erniinima ( Rissoa), Man/oni. Journ. de Concli., p. 244, t. 10, 

f. 8, 1868, .",53 

Pernambucensis (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Kept, xv, p. 

5!M), ]>!. 44, %. !), . . . :i:i:> 

IVrpusilla ( Rissoina anibigua, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 

74, 1885, 371 

Persephona, Leach. Moll. Great Brit., 1K9, 1<S52, . . 316, 330 
IVteniiiircnsis ( Ciiiu-iila), (Jould. Wilkes' Fxpl. Fxped., ]K5*J, 

p. 130, liir. 152, I52a, 152b. Paludestrina. . . . : ( 4(> 

Petit ii (Skniea), Fischer. Jour, de (\uich., 173, 2S<S, 1S57, . 3!)H 



. HTJKIVE 
\^^Cr 

INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 425 



Pharaonica (Foliuia), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, i, p. 259, . 338 
Philippiana (Rissoa), Jeffr. Ann. & Mag. xvii, p. 183. 

= R pagodula, B. D. D ..... . . .366 

Philippiana (Rissoina), Pfr. Reeve's Icon., f. 103. 

= R. cancellata, Phil ......... 381 

Philomelas (Setia), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 609, pi. 

45, fig. 2, . ..... . . . . 356 

Phosinella, Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 51, 1876, . . 320, 381 
Picta (Nevillia), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 289, 1868, . . 366 
Picta (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Ann. & Mag., p. 435, 1867, . . 352 
Pinna; (Rissoa), Knius,<. Sud.-Afrik. Moll., p. 87, t. 5, f. 21, 

1848, . . ......... 333 

Pisinna, Monts. Knuin. e Sin., 26, 1K7K, .... 317 

Plagiostyla, Fischer. Fonds de la Mer, ii, 50, 1872, . 318, 352 
Planorbis (Skenea), Fabricius. Faun. Groenl., 294, . . 398 
Plicata (Rissoa), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zealand, p. 28, . 392 
Plicata (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 264, 1851, . . 375 
Plicatula ('Rissoa), Gould. Bost. Proc, vii, p. 401, 1801, . 377 

Plicatula (Rissoa), Risso. Hist. Enr. Merid., p. 143, f. 134, 

1826 ...... ' ...... 325 

Pliratus (Turbo), Muhlf. Verh. Berl. Gesell. i, p. 202, t. 9, f. 

2. Rissoa costata, Adams. ...... 336 

Poliana (Mangeiia), Risso. Hist. Eur. Merid. iv, p. 221, f. 

103, 1826. ' = Rissoina Bruguieri, Payr. . . . 370 

Polychroma (Rissoa), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, i, p. 133, pi. 

xx, fig. 5, .......... 355 

Polyzona (Homalogyra atomiis, Ph., var.), Brus. Med. & Adr. 399 
Porifera (Rissoa), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 24, 1846. 

= R. violacea, Desm. Var ....... 330 

Prausta (Rissoa), Recluz. Rev. Zool. Cuv., p. 105, 1843, . 369 
Pririceps (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., p. 116, 1850. 

= R. reticulata, Sowb. . . .... 385 

Principis (Setia), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 608, pi. 

44, %. 13, . ..... . . . . 35(J 

Privati (RissoinaJ, Folin. Les fonds de la Mer, 1867, p. 16, t, 

1,%8, .......... 382 

Procera (Onoba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 136, 

1861, xi, 1863, p. 348, . . . '. . . . . 
Procera (Rissoa), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 1861, 

p. 13(5, ........... 368 

Protensa (Rissoa), Locard. Cat, 25(>. = R. variabilis, Muhlf. 325 
Proxima (Rissoa), Alder, Mss. Thompson, Ann. & Mag. xx, 

p. 174, . . ........ . 351 

Psammitica (Cingula), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, 1869, p. 201, 

t. 2, fig. 9, . ..... . . 330 

Pseudobryerea (Rissoina), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 

1881, pt. ii, p. 164, ........ 379 



426 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

I'AGK. 

Pseudoconcinna (Rissoa), Nevill. Hand List, p. 98, 1885, . 391 
Pseudoprinceps (Rissoina), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 93. 

= R. reticulata, Sowb. ....... 385 

Pseudosetia, Monts. Nat. Sicil. iii, 281. = Microeetia, Monte. 318 
Pulchella (Dunkeria), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 120, 

I860, 396 

Pulchella (Homalogyra), Costa. Microd. Med. Napoli, 1861, 

p. 71, t. 12, f. 1. = H. rota, Forbes & Hanley. . . . 398 
Pulchella (Rissoa), Danilo & Sandri. Elenco Nom., p. 5<S. 

= R. decorata, Phil 326 

Pulchella (Rissoa), Petterd. Q.uar. Journ. Conch., 1884, p. 

138, 368 

Pulchella (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic. i, p. 155, t. 10, f. 

12, ;]33 

Pulchella (Rissoa), Risso. Hist. Eur. Merid., p. 121, 1826. 

R. auriscalpium, Linn. ....... 332 

Pulchella (Rissoina), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Hoc. N. S. Wales, 

i, p. 367, 392 

Pulcherriraa (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Ann. & Mag. ii, p. 351, 1848, 352 
Pulchra (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. * Contrib. Conch., p. 114, 1850. 

= Rissoa cancellata, Phil. Var 381 

Pulchra (Rissoa), Forbes. Rep. Brit. Assoc. xiii, p. 189, 1843. 

=== R. dolium, Nyst 332 

Pulchra (Rissoa), Johnson. R. semistriata, Mont. . . 352 
Pulicaria (Cingula), Fischer. Fonds de la Mer, ii, p. 207, pi. 

ix, fig. 4, 355 

Pulla (Rissoa), Brown. 111. Conch., p. 13, t. 9, f. 25, 1844. 

= R. membranacea, Adams. ...... 329 

Pumila (Hyala), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, vi, 123, 1870, . 351 
Purnila (Rissoa), Monts. Nomeucl. Condi. Medit., 74, 1884, . 355 
Punctata (Rissoa), Potiez. Galerie, i, p. 274, t, 28, f. 3, 4, 

1838. = R. violacea, Desm. . . . . . . 330 

Punctato-striata (Rissoa), Tenison Woods. P. ]\. S. Ta,sin., 

1878, p. 35, ...... . 346 

Punctifera (Rissoa), Watson, Mss. = R. depicta, Ma/oni. . 350 
Punctata (Rissoa), Kust. Conch. Cab., 1.0(1. 

- R. variabilis, Muhlf. 325 

Punctulum ('Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, 154, t. 10, f. 

11. = R. glabrata, Muhlf. 340 

Punctual (Rissoa), Cantraine. Bull. Acad. Bruxelles., 1842, 

pt. ii, p. 347, 369 

Puncturata (Rissoa), Macgill. Moll. Aberd. 

= R. punctura, Mont. ....... 337 

Punctura (Turbo), Montagu. Test. Brit, ii, p. 320, t. 12, f. 5, 337 
Pupiforniis (Rissoa), A. Adams. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, v, 

I860, p. 411, 368 

Pupoidea (Fenella), Carpenter. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1865, 

p. 217, 395 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 427 

PAGE. 

Pupoides (Fenella), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 1860, p. 336, . 394 
Pupoides (Amphithalmus), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 754, 1865, 340 
Pupoides (Rissoa), Requien. Coq. Corse., p. 56. 

? = R. proxima, Alder 351 

Pura (Alvania), A. Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, p. 

402, 1860, 365 

Purpurea (Alvania), Dall. Anier. Journ. Conch, viii, p. 116, 

1872, 365 

Purpurea (Rissoa), Button. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., p. 29, 

1873, 344 

Purpurea (Rissoa), Me Andrew. Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, 140. 

= R. violacea, Desm . 330 

Pusilla (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic. i, p. 154, t. 10, f. 13, 

1836. =- R. dolium, Nyst 332 

Pusilla (Rissoina), Schwartz. Rissoiden, t. 4, f. 29. 

= R. ambigua, Gld 371 

Pusillina, Monts. Nomenc. Conch. Medit.. 56, 1884, . . 316 
Putilla, A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 312, 1867, . . 322, 396 

Pygmsea (Risso), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 18, f. 25, 26. 

= R, fulgida, Adams :jr>4 

Pyramidalis (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 264, 1851, . 369 
Pyrarnidella (Rissoa), Brown. 111. Conch., p. 11, 1844. 

== R. decussata, Mont. ........ 385 

Pyramiclelloides, Nevill. Hand List, ii, p. 95, 1884, . 320, 391 
Pyrgula (Ceratia), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, vi, p. 

1870, p. 121, .351 

Pyrrhias (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Rept. vi, p. 588, pi. 
'44, fig. 4, . .,328 

Quadrata (Alvania), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 
p. 402, 1868, 365 

Quisquiliarium (Setia), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 609, 
pi. 45, fig. 3, . 357 

Radiata (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 151, t. 16, f. 

15, 183(>, 333 

Reticulata (Fenella), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, p. 422, 1860 ; 

Smith, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vol., 168, 478, .... 395 
Reticulata (Mangelia), Risso. Hist. Europe Merid. iv, p. 211, 

f. 102, 1826. = Rissoina Bruguerei, Payr. . .370 

Reticulata (Rissoa), Carp, (non Mont.) Ann. & Mag. xiv, p. 

429, 1864.=R. Carpenteri, Weink. . . . ..365 

Reticulata (Rissoa), Mont, Test. Brit., p. 322, t. 21, f. 1, . 361 
Reticulata (Rissoa), Sowb. Conch. Manual, f. 346; Genera 

of Shells, t. 208, f. 1, 1820-1824, . . . . . . 385 

Rimata (Barleeia subtenuis, var.), Carp. Jour. Conch., 1865, 

p. 144, . . . . 393 



42'S INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE.. 

Riflsoanus (Turbo), Delle Chiaje, iii, p. 223, 1821). 

= Rissoa variabilis, Muhlf. 325 

Rissoella, Gray. Zool. Proc., 159, 1847. = Jeft'reysia, Alder. 323 
Rissoia, Fremenville. Desm. Bull. Soc. Philom., 7/1814, 314 315 

325. 
Rissoi (Rissoina), Andouin. Expl. Savignv, Descr. Egypte, 

t. 4, f. 1, . ." . 378 

Rissoiformis (Fenella), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, 1869, . . 395 
Rissoina, d'Orb. Voy. Ame>. Mend., 1840, . . . 319, 369 
Rissolina, Gould. Bost. Proc., 1861 ; Otia Conch., 145, . 320, 374 
Rissopsis, Garrett. Proc. Phihul. Acad., 228, 1873, . 319, 359 
Rissostomia, Sars. Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., 179, 1878, . 315, 329 
Robusta (Cingula), Dall. MS. Krause, Archiv fur Naturg. 

li, t. 17, f. 1, ........ . 345 

Robusta (Cingula), H. C. Lea. Proc. Bost, Soc., 1844, p. 204. 

? R. latior, Mighels & Adams. 357 

Rosea (Rissoa cyclostoma, var.), Tenison Woods. P. R. S. 

Tasmania, 1876, p. 153, 344 

Rosea (Rissoa), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 61, t, 7, f. 29, 1863, 380 
Rosea (Rissoa), Hutton. Cat, Mar. Moll. N. Zealand, p. 29, 

1873, . 393 

Rota (Homalogyra), Forbes & Hanley. Brit. Conch, iii, 160, 399 
Rubra (Barleeia), Adams. Trans. Linn. Soc. iii, t. 13, f. 15, . 392 
Rubrocincta (Rissoa). Danilo & Sandri. Elenco Nom., p. 54. 

R. similis, Scacchi. ........ 327 

Rudis (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 128, t. 23, f. 12, 367 
Rufa (Rissoa), Ph. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 167, 1848," . . :',(>S 
Rufilabrum (Rissoa), Alder. Ann. Mag. xiii, 325, 1815. 

= R. violacea, Desm. Var. . . . . . . .330 

Rufocincta (Dunkeria), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. viii, 300, 18(51, 396 
Hufula (Rissoa Algeriana, var.), Monts. Journ. de Conch., p. 

35, 1877 - 333 

Rugulosa (Rissoa), Arad. Foss. Sicilians. 

Alvania lineata, Risso. . . . . . . .360 

Ruirulosa (Rissoa), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zealand, p. 

28, 1873, 31)2 

Rupestris (Rissoa), Forbes. Ann. & Mag. v, p. 107, t. 2, f. 3. 
- R. cingillus, Mont, var. ....... 342 

Kussinoniaca (Alvania), Locard. Cat., p. 248. 

R. striatula, Mont. . . . . . . . . 307 

Rustica (Cingula), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 604, pi. 

44, fig. 11, .. . . 343 

Sal.ana-a (Leach), Gray. Zool. Proc., 152, 1847, . . 316, 339 
Sabulum (Rissoa), Cantraine. Bull. Acad. Bruxellcs, 1842, pt. 

ii, p. 348 ; Watson, Zool. Proc., 387, 1873. 

R. -labrata, Miihlf. 340 

Sagraiana (Risaoina), d'Ofb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 25, t, 12, f. 

4, 5, 1852, 384 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 429 

PAGK. 

Salebrosa (Rissoa), Frauenf. Novara Exped., p. 11, t. 2, f. 15, 327 
Samoensis (Rissoina), Dkr. Mus. Godeffroy, iv, p. 75, . . 384 
Sancti-Pauli (Jeffreysia), C. Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper., 1877, 

p. 116, pi. 3, fig. 20, 397 

Sandersoni (Cipgula), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. iv, p. 241, 346 
Sardoa (Alvania), Risso. Euro]). Merid. iv, p. 145. 

= Rissoa Montagtiii, Payr. ....... 360 

Sarsi (Rissoa), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 24, 1846. 

- R. albella, Loven 334 

Saxatilis (Rissoa), Moller. Moll. Groeii., p. 1842 ; Ball. Proc. 

Nat. Mus. vi, 300, 347 

Scabra (Rissoina), Garrett. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1873, 

p. 210, pi. 2,% 6, . 384 

Scabra (Alvania), Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, 160. 

A. Lancia, Calc 361 

.Scabra (Fenella), A. Ad. Ann. & Mug. vi, p. 421, 1860. 

= F. ccrithina, Phil 395 

Scabra ( Ris>oa ), Phil. Emiiu. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 126, t, 23, f. 8, 

1836, . . 363 

Scabriuscata (? Rissoa), Req. Coq. Corse, p. 52, 1848. 

= R. Philippiana, Jetf'r. . . . . . . .366 

Scalarella (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc. ii, p. 6, 1845. 

'R. Chesneli, Mich. . . " . . .380 

Scalariformis (Rissoina), Schwartz. Rissoina, f. 24. 

R. ])licata, A. Ad . . . 375 

Scalariforniis (Uissoa), Schwartz -& authors (in part). Risso- 

iden, p. 127, (not C. B. Ad.) R. triticea, Pse. . .380 

Scalariforniis ( Rissoa), Thorpe. Brit. Mar. Moll., p. 42, f. 89. 

= R. Zetlandica, Mont "... 33M 

Scalariforniis (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat., p. 538, 1852. 

R. firmata, Ad. Carp. 2d Report, 189, .... 374 
Scalariforniis (Rissoina), Wat>on. Challenger Rej)t. xv, p. 

<U7, ]>I. 40, fig. (J, ". 378 

Scalarina (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc,, p. 265, 1851. 

R. ])licata, A. Ad , 375 

Scalaris (Rissoa), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 18, f. 31, 32, . 369 
Scalarioides (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., p. 113, 

1850. = R. Bryerea, Mont 379 

Schloneriana (Cingula), Brus. Moll. Mai. Ital., 1870, p. 9. 

=- Leachia elongata, Philip 346 

Schmeltziana (Rissoina), Dkr. Nevill, Hand List, 88. 

= R. Mohreiisterni, Desh 386 

Schwartzia, Buccj. Dautz. Dollf. Moll. Rouse., 278, 1884, 316, 330 
Schwartziana (Rissoa), Brus. Contr,, p. 25, t. 3, f. 9. 

= R, Montagui, Payr. . ... 360 

Schwartziana (Rissoina), Dkr. Cat. Mus. Godeff. iv. 

= R. obeliscus, Reclnz. ....... 376 

Schwartziella, Nevill. Hand List Ind. Mus., 73, 1885, . 320, 379 



430 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGK. 

Schwartzii (Rissoa), Benoit. Monts. II Nat. Sicil. iii, 160. 

= A. Lancise, Calc. ........ 361 

Schythei (Rissoa), Phil. Mai. Blatt. xv, p. 225, 1867, . . 369 
Scillae (Rissoa), Seguenza. Mss. Arad. & Benoit. Conch. Viv. 

Sicil., p. 315, t.5, f. 4, . ... 358 

Scipio (Cinirula robusta, Dall., var.), Dull. Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus.,' p. 305, pi. iv, fig. 10, . 345 

Scitula (Alvania), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 1861, 

p. 300, . 365 

Sciutiana (Rissoa), Arad. & Benoit. Conch. Viv. Sicil., p. 211, 

t. 5, f. 1. (= R. Eancieana in Plate, in error.). . . . 354 
Scolopax (Rissoina), Souverbie. Joimi. do Conch, xxv, p. 75, 

t. l,f. 3, . ... 377 

Scopulorum (Cingula), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 605, 

pi. 45, % 4, . . . . . . . . . 343 

Scrobiculata (Rissoa), Moller. Ind. Moll. Grcenl., p. 9, 1842, . 369 
Scrobiculator (Rissoa [Serobs]), Watson. Challenger Rept. 

xv, p. 611, pi. 46, fig. 4, 339 

Serobs, Watson. Challenger Report, (ill, 613, 1886. 

= Amphithalamus, Carp. . . . . . . .317 

Smlpta (Rissoa), Forbes & Hanley. Brit. Moll, iii, p. 88, t. 

*(), f. 5, 6. = R. cimicoides, Forbes 362 

Sculptilis (Rissoa), Monts. Journ. de Conch, xxv, p. 35, pi. 

iii, fig. 6, 1877, 353 

Sculptilis (Kissoina), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 209, 

pi. 2, fig. 2. = R. granulosa, Pease 383 

Segucn/iana ( Rissoa), Issel. Malac. Mar Rosso, p. 209 ; Jahrb. 

Mai. ( icscll. xi, 256. = R. Erythnea, Phil. . . . 383 
Semi-carinatus (Rissoa), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, i, p. 249, pi. 

xxi, fig. 8, 345 

Semi-costata (Alvania), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 

1861, p. 137, ... ... 365 

Scniicostata (Cingnla), Mighcls and Ads. Bost. Journ. N. 

Hist, iv, 49. R. carinata, M. and A 348 

Semicostata (Rissoa), Turton. Diet., p. 201. 

= R. stnata, Mont 347 

Semicostata (Rissoina), Pease. Amer. Journ. Conch, iii, p. 296, 

t. 24, f.32, 1867, 395 

Semicostulata (Rissoa), Anton. Verzeich., p. 62, 1839. 

= R. parva, DaCosta 332 

Semiglabrata (Kissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 279, 1851. 

= R. tridentata, Mich. ....... 389 

Seminulum (Rissoa), Monts. Journ. de Conch, xxv, p. 35, t. 

3, f. 8, 1877, 341 

Semiplicata (Rissoa), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 242, 1862; Am. 

Journ. Conch, iii, t. 24, f. 2!). = R. tridentata, Mich., juv. 389 
Semistriatns (Turbo), Montagu. Test. Brit. Supp., p. 136, . 352 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 431 

PAGE. 

Serpuloides (Skeriea), Gould. Invert. Mass. 1st Edit., 247. 

= S. planorbis, Fabr 398 

Serpuloides (Skenea), Montagu. Test. Brit., 147, . 398 

Setia, H. & A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, x, 358, 1852, 318, 352 
Sibirica (Rissoa), Leche. Kgl. Vet. Akad. Handl. xvi, p. 38, . 

t. 1, f. 10, 1878, . 336, 

Siennse (Rissoa), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1876, p. 153. = Paludina granum, Menke. . . . 359 
Sigmifer (Rissoina), Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, p. 48, 1876, . 387 
Similis (Rissoa), Scacc. Cat, p. 14, 2, Not. 28, ... 327 
Simplex (Homalogyra), O. G. Costa, Microd. Medit., p. 72, t. 

11, f. 3, 1861. ' = H. atomus, Ph. . . . . .399 

Simplex (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. SiciL, p. 129, t. 23, f. 17, 

1844. = R. radiata, Phil 333 

Simulans (Rissoa), Monts. Kobelt, Faun. Europ., 205, . . 338 
Sinapi (Setia), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 610, pi. 45, 

fig. 13,. . . 357 

Sismondiana (Rissoa), Issel. Mar Rosso, 205, . . . 332 
Skenea, Fleming. Hist. Brit. Anirn., 297, 313, 1828, . 323, 398 
Skenella, Pftr. Natur Hist. Mus. Hamburg, 1886, p. 96, 322, 396 
Sloaniana (Rissoina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 28, t. 12, f. 36, 

38, 1853, 390 

Smithii (Eatoniella), Ball. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 42, 1876, . 392 
Smith! (Rissoina), Angas. P. Z. S., 1867, p. 114, pi. 13, fig. 

21 ; 1877, 187. == R. fasciata, A. Ad 370 

Solida (Cingula?), C. B. Adams. Contr. Conch., 1850, p. 70, 346 
Solidula (Rissoa), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malak., p. 167, 1848, . 368 
Solidula (Setia Alleryana, Arad. & Ben. var.), Monts. II Nat. 

Sicil. vii, p. 99, 354 

Soluta (Rissoa), Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 130, t. 23, f. 18, 1836, 356 
Sororcula (Rissoa), Granata. Descr. Coq. Nouv. Nap., 1870, 

p. 1. = R. Jeffreys!, Waller. . . . 361 

Souleyetana (Rissoa), Recluz. Rev. Zool. Cuv., p. 5, 1843. 

= R. membranacea, Adams. . . . . . . 329 

Speciosa (Rissoa), Brusina. Moll. Dalmat., 22. 

=-. R. Guerini, Recluz 326 

Spiralis (Rissoella), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 332, I860, . 397 
Spiralis (Rissoina), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch, xiv, p. 358, 

t. 9, f. 9, . . . 373, 388. 

Spirata (Onoba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, xi, 1863, p. 

348, ' 350 

Spirata (Rissoa), Sowb. Genera of Shells, No. 40, t. 208, f. 2, 

1820-24, 379 

Splendida (Rissoa), Eichw. Nat. Hist. Skizze, i, p. 219, 1830, 325 
Splendida (Rissoa), Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 79. 

= R. variabilis, Muhlf. 325 

Spreta (Rissoa Macandrewi, Manz. var.), Watson. P. Z. S., 

1873, p. 373, pi. 34, fig. 9, 337 



432 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

I'AGK. 

St. Clarse (Rissoina), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasiu., 

184, 1876. = Alaba 

Stefanisii (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Brit. Couch, v, 208. 

= R. subareolata, Moiits. . . . . . . ' 363 

Stiginatica (Rissoa), Frauenf. Novara. Exp., p. 12, t. 2, f. 17, 304 
Stimpsoni (Rissoa), S. Smith. Ann. N. Y. Lvc. vii, p. 157, 

1862; ix,395, . ....'... 345 

Stoppanii (Rissoa), Weiukauft (not Issel). Conch. Cab. 

= R. oryza, Garrett 300 

Stossichia, Brusina. Ipsa Chiereg. Conchyl., 201, 1870, 320, 3D] 
Straugulata (Rissoa), Brusina. Contr., j>. 23, t. 3, fig. 8. 

? = R. variabilis, Monst. ....... 325 

Striata (Rissoa), Mont. Test. Brit, ii, p. 326, t. 13, f. 25, 26, . 346 
Striata (Rissoa), Quoy. Voy. Astr. ii, p. 493, t. 33, f. 38, 3D, 

1832, . . . * 385 

Striala f Rissoa similis, Scacc. var.'), Monts. I] Xat. Siril. iii, 

p. 139, .... 327 

Striatissinia (Rissoa), Rayn. = R. punctura, Mont. . . 337 
Striato-costata (Rissoina), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 27, t. 12, 

f. 30-32, 1853. = R, decussata, Mont 3*5 

Striatula ('Rissoa), Jeffreys. Ann. & Mag., p. 16, 1*4*. 

=== R. proxima, Alder. ....... 351 

Striatula (Rissoa), Montagu. Test. Brit, ii, p. 306, t. 10, f. 5, . 367 
Striatula (Rissoina), Pease. Amer. Journ. Condi, iii, p. 2DH, 

t. 24, f. 31, 18(17 3*7 

Stricta (Rissoiua), Menke. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 177, 1850, . 371 
Strigillata (Rissoa), Gould. Bost. Proc. viii, p. 401, !*(>!. 

? = R, Erythrsea, Phil 3*3 

Striolata (Rissoa), Dkr. (not Kisso), Sclimcltx, ('at. Mus. 

Godeff. iv, p. 75. R. ambigua, Gld 371 

Striolata (Rissoina), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 2(>6, 1*51. 

K. spirata, Sowb 38* 

Striolata (Rissoiua), Kisso. Hist. Eur. Mcrid. iv, p. 119,1826, 370 
Striosa (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Coiitrib. Conch., p. 11(5, 1*50. 

= R. decussata, Mont. ....... 3*5 

Subangulata (Rissoa), Schwartz (not C. B. Ad.). Rissoiua, p. 

50. ' = R, plicata, A. Ad. 375, 379 

Subano-ulata (Rissoina), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., p. 112, 

1*50, 375 

Subareolata (Alvania), Monts. Test. Nuovi Sic., 1869, p. 9, 

fig. 3, 363 

Subcanaliculata (Skenea), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag. Nat. 

Hist., 1875, p. 71, 3D* 

Subcarinata (Rissoa), Cantr. Bull. Brux. ix, p. 347, 1842. 

= R. moiiodonta, Bivona. ....... 331 

:Subcochlearella (Rissoina), d'Orb. Prodr. iii, p. 29, 1852. 

R. decussata, Montagu. ....... 385 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 433 

PAGE. 

Subconcinna (Kissoa), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch, xx, p. 

364, 1872. = R. ambigua, Gld 371 

Subcostulata (Rissoa), Schwartz. Rissoidse, p. 44. 

= R. costulata, Alder 326 

Subcrenulata (Rissoa), Schwartz, Mss. in Appelius, Conch. 

MarTirreno 362 

Subdebilis (Rissoina), Nevill. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 15b, f. 

"9 ; Nevill, Hand List, p. 75, 376 

Subfuniculata (Rissoina), Nevill. Weink. Conch, Cab., t. 15b, 

f. 8, 1881, 377 

Subfusca (Rissoa), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zealand, p. 

28, 1873. = Rissoa purpurea, Hutton. . . .344 

Sublaevigata (Rissoa), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1, Pt. 

2, p. 164. = R. oryza, Garrett 390 

Subiuteus (Turbo), Adams. Linn. Trans, iii, p. 65, t. 13, f. 

15. = Rissoa parva, Maton. & Rack. .... 332 
Submarginata (Rissoina d'Orbignyi, var.), Nevill. Hand 

List, p. 92, 1885. = R. spirata, Sowb. . . . .388 

Subpupoidea (Fenella), Try on 394 

Subrufescens (Eatoniella), E. A. Smith. Ann. & Mag. xvi, p. 

S 71, 1875, 391 

Subsoluta (Rissoa), Aradas. Mem. Malac. Sicil. iii, p. 21, . 368 
Subspirata (Rissoina d'Orbignyi, var.), Nevill. Hand List, p. 

92, 1885. = R. spirata, Sowb 388 

Substriata (Rissoa), Phil. Moll. Sic. ii, p. 132, t. 23, f. 20, . 369 
Substriolata (Rissoina Montrouzieri, var.), Nevill. Hand List, 

p. 91, 1885. = R. spirata, Sowb 388 

Subsulcata (Rissoa), Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 129, t. 23, f. 16. 

= R. semistriata, Mont. ....... 352 

Subtenuis (Barleeia), Carp. Journ. de Conch, xii, p. 143, 

1865, 393 

Subtruncata (Rissoa), C. Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper., 1877, 

p. 115, pi. 3, figs. 16-17, .- 344 

Subulina (Onoba), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 1861, 

p. 299, 350 

Subulina (Rissoina), Weink. Conch. Cab... p. 66, t. 15a, f. 3. 

= R. oryza, Garrett . . . 390 

Subventricosa (Rissoa), Cantr. Bull. Acad. Brux., p. 348, 1842. 

= R. ventricosa, Desm. 325 

Subvillica (Rissoina), Nevill. Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 38, t. 

15d, f. 14, 374, 385 

Sulcifera (Rissoa), Gld. Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 105. 

= R. trochlearis, Gould 394 

Sulcifera (Iravadia), Troschel. Archiv. fiir Naturg., 1852, . 394 
Supracostata (Rissoa), Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 38. 

= R. albella, Loven 334 

Supracostata (Rissoina), Garrett. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1873, p. 209, pi. 2, fig. 1. = R. spirata, Sowb. . . . 388 
28 



434 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Suprasculpta (Rissoina), Tenison Woods. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Victoria, xiv, p. 57, . . . . . . 392 

Syngenes (Cingula), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, p. 180, 

pi. 32, fig. 11, . 328 

Targionii (Rissoa), Appelius. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 116, 1884, 334 
Tarsodes (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 595, pi. 

44, fig. 2, 362 

Tatea, Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 72, 1879, 323, 397 
Tenera (Choristes elegans, var.), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. 

v, 541, 399 

Tenuicostata (Rissoa), Seg. Rendic. Acad. Neap., 1876, p. 1, . 369 
Tenuisculpta (Rissoa), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 389, t. 36, f. 

28, 1873, .^ . 343 

Tenuistriata (Rissoina), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch, iii, p. 295, 

t. 24, f. 30, 1867, 386 

Tenera (Rissoa), Phil. Enura. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 128, t. 23, f. 15, 350 
Terebra (Rissoina), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 212, 

pi. 2, fig. 11. = R. incerta, Souverb. ..... 372 

Terebroides (Rissoina), E. A. Smith. Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. 

xii, p. 554, pi. 30, fig. 19, 373 

Teres (Rissoina), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i, p. 

367, 392 

Tervaricosa (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 6, 

1845. = Alaba 

Tessellata (Alvania), Schwartz, Mas. Weink. Conch. Mitt., p. 

311. = A. Philippiana, Jeffr. var 366 

Testse (Rissoa). Aradas & Maggiore. Catalogo Catan., p. 207, 

1844, 368 

Textilis (Rissoa), Philippi. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 112, 1884. 

= R. reticulata, Mont. 361 

Textilis (Rissoa), Loven. Moll. Scand. R. punctura, Mont. 337 
Thapsia, Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 65, 1884. 

f* : = Thapsiella, Fischer 319 

thapsiella, Fischer. Manuel de Conch., 721, 1884, . 319, 367 
Tiaruhi (Alvania), A. Adams. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 

IWil, p. 137, :}<;;-> 

Tiberiuna (Cingula), Issd. Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 199, 1869; 

Descr. Egypt, t. 3, f. 16, :}">!> 

Torcularis (Cingulina), Tenison Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 

South Wales, p. 263, 1878, :r><> 

Tornatilis ( Uissoina), Gld. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 401, 1861, . :I7! 
Traji'ctus (Rissoa), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 596, pi. 

44, fi-r. 6, . . 32 

Transenna (Ceratia), Watson. Challenger Ixcpt. xv, p. 603, 

pi. 45, fig. 9, :UH 

Transenna (Rissoina), Watson. Challenger Rept. xv, p. 020, 

pi. 46, fig. 10, 



XJNIVEP 

^ f\ 

INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 435 

PAGE. 

Translucens (? Jeffreysia), Carpenter. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 

1865, p. 219, . . 397 

Triangularis (Rissoina), Watson. Challenger Kept, xv, p. 618, 

pi. 46, fig. 7, 348 

Triangularis (Setia), Watson. Challenger Kept, xv, p. 611, 

pi. 46, fig. 2, 357, 373 

Tricincta (Setia), A. Adams. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, 

1861, p. 136, 359 

Tridentata (Rissoa), Mich. Desc. Gen. Rissoa, p. 6, f. 5, 6, 1830, 389 
Trifasciata (Rissoa), Adams. Monteros. Nomencl., 67. 

= R. cingillus, Montg. 342 

Trilix (Skenea), Bush. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, 464. 

= Homalogyra densicostata, Jeffreys. ..... 399 

Tristriata (Rissoa), Thompson. Ann. & Mag. ii, t. 2, f. 10. 

= R. semistriata, Mont. . 352 

Triticea (Rissoa), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 438/1860, . . .380 
Trochlearis (Rissoa), Gould. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 400, 1861, . 394 
Trochlea (Rissoa), Michaud. Family Rissoid., t. 16, f. 3, 4. 

= R. striatula, Mont 367 

Trochiformis (Skenea), Locard. Cat. Moll. France, 299, . 398 
Truncata (Rissoa), Garrett. P. A. K S. Phila., 1873, p. 217, 

pi. 2, fig. 26, 351 

Truncata (Rissoa), Menke. Synopsis, p. 83, 1830, . . .369 
Tuberculata (Rissoa), Menke. Synopsis, p. 83, 1830, . . 369 
Tuberculifera (Corena), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, p. 122, 

1870, . . . 317, 339 

Tumeris (Jeffreysia), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 363, 1857. 

= Cythnia . 397 

Tumidula (Rissoa), Sars. Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 174, t. 

10, f. 2a, b, 353 

Turbella, Leach, 1847, 316, 332 

Turbona (Leach), Gray. Ann. Mag. xx, 1847. 

= Alvania, Risso. ........ 319 

Turgida (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, v, 1870, . 353 
Turgidula (Jeffreysia), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 332, 1860, . 397 
Turricula (Rissoa), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 120, t. 9, f. 6, 1884, 335 
Turriculata (Rissoa), Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 73, 

1884. = R. fusca, Phil. Var 354 

Turricula (Rissoina), Pease. Zool. Proc., p. 438, 1860, . .377 
Turricula (Rissoa), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 114, 1867, pi. 

13,- fig. 20. = R. flexuosa, Old 380 

Turriculus (Cingula), H. C. Lea. Proc. Bost. Soc., 1814, p. 

205, . , < 350 

Turrita (Rissoina), Garr. Proc. Philada. Acad., p. 213, t. 2, f. 

12, 1873. =4 R. insignis, Ad. & Rve 389 

Typica (Rissopsis), Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., 228, 1873, 319, 359 

Umbilicata (Rissoa), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., p. 93, 1851, 368 
Undata (Loxostoma), Bivona. = R. radiata, Phil. . . 333 



436 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE_ 

Unifasciata (Turbo), Montagu. Test. Brit. 320, 1803. 

~ Rissoa rubra, Adams. ....... 392 

Unilirata (Rissoina), Tenison Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, 1877, p. 123, 392 

Variabilis (Turbo), Muhl. Berlin Verhandl. iv, p. 212, 1824, 325 
Variegata (Ceratia), Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civico, Genoa, ix, p. 

288, 351 

Variegata (Rissoa), Schwartz. Rissoiden. 

= R. inconspicua, Alder. Var 334 

Variegata (Rissoa), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 113, 1867, pi. 13, 

fig. 19, .. . . . . . . . . 370 

Variegata (Rissoa), Danilo & Sandri, teste Monterosato. 

= R. aspera, Phil 360 

Variegata (Rissoa), Schwartz. Rissoiden, t. 2, f. 15. 

= R. inconspicua. Alder. ...... 327, 334 

Ventricosa (Rissoa), Desm. Bull. Soc. Phil., 7, 1814, . . 325 
Venusta (Rissoa), Garrett. Proc. Acad. N. S., Phila., 1873, p. 

216, 36T 

Venusta (Rissoa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., p. 124, t. 23, f. 4, 

1844, 331 

Venustula (Pelycidium), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, t. 8, f. 5, . 341 
Verrilli (Rissoa), Friele. Moll. Nordske Nordhavn Exp., p. 

27, t. xi, fig. 5a, . . 346 

Verrucosa (Alvania), Risso. Eur. Merid., 143. 

= R. crenulata, Mich. ....... 365 

Vesicalis (Rissoella), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 332, 1860, . 39T 
Vexillata (Rissoa), Brusina. Moll. Dalmat. 28, ... 35& 
Villse (Cingula), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 198, 1869, . . 344 
Villica (Rissoa), Gould. Bost. Proc. vii, p. 401, 1861, . 374, 385, 
Villica (Rissoina), Sowb. (not Gld.), Conch. Icon., sp. 98. 

= R. subvillica, Weink 38 

Vinacea (Rissoa), Recluz. Nevill, Hand List, 117, . 395 

Violacea (Rissoa), Desm. Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, p. 8, t. 1, 

f. 7, 1814, 33O 

Violaceus (Turbo), Muhlf. Berl. Verhandl. i, p. 213, 1824. 

= Rissoa lilacina, Recluz . 

Viohestoma (Rissoa), Krynicki. Bull. Soc. Mosc. ii, p. 60, 

1830. = R. splendida, Eichw . 325> 

Virgata (Fenella), Phil. Zeitsch. fur Malak., 134, 1849, . 394 
Virginea (Rissoa), Brown. - R. vitrea, Mont. . . . 351 
Vitrea (Homalogyra atomus, var.), Duprey. Ann. & Mag., p. 

188, 1883, . . . 

Vitrea (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., p. 115, 1850. 

= R. kevigata, Ad 

Vitrea (Rissoa?), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 215, 

pi. 2, fig. 19, 342 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 437 

PAGE.~ 

Vitrea (Eissoa), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iii, p. 41. 

= Jeffrey sia nitida, Sars. . . . . . . .397 

Vitnea (Rissoa), Mont. Test. Brit, ii, p. 351, . . . 351 

"Vitrina (Rissoella), A. Ad. Ann. & Mag. vi, 332, 1860, . 397 

Yitrinella (Rissoina), Morch. Mai. Blatt., p. 45, 1876, . . 392 
Tittatus (Turbo), Donovan. Brit. Shells, v, t. 178, f. 61. 

= Rissoa cingillus, Mont. ....... 342 

"Waabitica (Cingula), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, 1869, p. 201, t. 

2, fig. 10, 330 

"VVatsoni (Rissoa), Monts. Nuova Revista, 27. 

R. simulans, Mts. ......... 338 

"Watsoni (Rissoa), Schwartz. Zool. Proc., p. 315, t. 35, f. 11, 

1873, . . . . . . . . . . .337 

Weinkauffi (Rissoa), Schwarz, Mss. Mittelm. Conch, ii, p. 312, 366 
Weinkauffiana (Rissoina), Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. 1, Pt. 2, 

p. 163, 1881, 376 

Weyville -Thompson! (Rissoa), Jeff. Friele, Prelim. Report, 3, 369 

Wood-Masoniana (Rissoina), Nevill. Hand List, p. 74, 1885, 374 

"Woodwardi (Rissoa), Cpr. Mazatlan Shells, p. 357, . . 372 

Xanthias, Watson, Challenger Kept, xv, p. 589, pi. 44, fig. 5, . 334 

Zancleana (Rissoa), Arad. in Tavola. 

= R. sciutiana, Arad. & Ben 354 

.Zebina, H. & A. Adams. Genera Rec. Moll, i, 328, 1854, 320, 389 

.Zebinella, Morch. Mai. Blatt. xxiii, 47, 1876, . . 320, 385 
Zeltneri (Rissoa), Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles, p. 47, t. 5, f. 1, 

1867, 387 

.Zetlandica (Rissoa), Mont. Linn. Trans, xi, p. 194, t. 13, f. 3, 337 

.Zippora, Leach. Gray. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, xx, 1847, . 316, 331 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

(FOR PLATES 1-6 See p. 3O.) 

TRICHOTROPID/E. 

PLATE 7. 
FIGURE, PAGE. 

37. Trichotropis borealis. Dentition. Fischer's Manual f. 

457, 40 

38. Trichotropis borealis. Operculum. Ibid. f. 458, . . 40 

39. Gyrotropis squamosa, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 17, 

f. 5, 1876, 41 

40 Seguenzia formosa, Dentition. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, t. 

31, f. 14b 41 

41. Seguenzia formosa. Operculum. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, 

t. 31, f. 14 a 41 

42. Trichotropis bicarinata, Brod. & Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 2, 42 

43. Trichotropis tenuis, Smith (= bicarinata). Ann. Mag. 

N. Hist. 4 Ser. xx, 136, 1877, 42 

44. Trichotropis quadricarinata, A. Ad. (= borealis). Keeve^ 

Conch. Icon. f. 9, . .43 

45. Trichotropis conica, Moll. (= borealis). Ibid. f. 12, . 43 

46. 47. Trichotropis borealis, Brod. & Sowb. Ibid. f. 1, . 42 
47a. Trichotropis borealis, Brod. & Sowb. Forbes & Hanley, 

Brit. Moll. t. ii, f. 1, 42 

48. Trichotropis costellata, Couth. ( borealis). Conch. 

Icon. f. 13, "... .43 

49 Trichotropis cancellata, Hinds. Ibid. f. 3, . ' . .43 

50. Trichotropis flavida, Hinds (= cancellata). Ibid. f. 6, 43 

51. Trichotropis clathrata, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 10, . . .43 

52. Trichotropis inermis, Hinds (= borealis). Ibid. f. 11, . 43 

53. Trichotropis coronata, Gould. Archiv fur Naturg. li, t. 

16, f. 4, a. . 43 

54. Trichotropis coronata, Gould. AurvilJius, Arct. Hafsmoll. 

t. 12, f. 15, 43 

55. Trichotropis cedonulli, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 7 b. . 44 

56. Trichotropis unicarnata, Brod. & Sowb. Ibid. f. 8, . 44 

57. Trichotropis fimbriata, Jeffreys. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 5, f. 

7 1885 44 

58. Trichotropis densistriata, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 5, f. 8, 1885, 44 

59. Trichotropis insignis, Midd. (= borealis). Aurivillius, 

Arct. Hafsmoll. t. 12, f. 17, . . . . . . 43 

PLATE 8. 

60. Trichotropis Kroyeri, Phil. Aurivillius, Arct. Hafsmoll. 

t. 12, f. 13, 44 

(438) 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 439 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

61. Trichotropis Kroyeri, Phil. Conch. Icon. f. 4, . . 44 

62, 63. Trichotropis arctica, Midd. Midd. Mai. Ross. t. 9, f. 

12, 14, . 44 

64. Trichotropis solida, Aur. (== Kroyeri). Aurivillius, Arct. 

Hafsmoll. t. 12, f. 16, . 44 

66. Torellia vestita, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iv, t. 4, f. 1, . 46 

67. Torellia delicata, Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, t. 28, f. 3, . . 46 

68. Torellia fimbriata, Verrill and Smith. Trans. Conn. 

Acad. v, t. 57, f. 27, 46 

69. Separatista Blainvillei, Petit. Jour, de Conch, ii, t. 1, f. 

5, .......... 45 

70. Separatista Chemnitzii, A. Ad. Genera Rec. Moll. t. 14, 

f. 6, . . . . . 45 

71. Seguenzia formosa, Jeffreys. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, t.' 

31, f. 14, . 46 

72. 73. Seguenzia formosa, var. lineata, Watson. Voy. Chall- 

enger xv, t. 7, f. 1, 46 

74. Seguenzia eritima, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, t. 31, 

f. 15, . . 47 

75. Seguenzia elegans, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 5, f. 1, 1885, . 47 

76. Seguenzia tricarinata, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 5, f. 2, 1885, . 47 

77. 78. Seguenzia lonica, Watson. Voy. Challenger xv, t. 

7,f. 3 47 

79, 80. Seguenzia trispinosa, Watson. Ibid. t. 7, f. 4, . . 47 

81, 82. Seguenzia carinata, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 7, f. 2, . . 47 

83. Seguenzia carinata, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 5,f. 3, 1885. . 47 

84, 85. Seguenzia reticulata Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, t. 25, f. 6, 48 
86, 87, Seguenzia laxa, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 5, f. 4, 1885, 48 

88. Trichotropis insignis, Midd. Conch. Icon. f. 5a. . . 45 

IANTHINID>. 

PLATE 9. 

89. Animal of lanthina, with its float and eggs. Quoy, Vo} . 

Astrol. t. 29, f. 1, 33 

90. lanthina fibula, Reeve. Dentition. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t. 

14, f. 5, 33 

91. lanthina violacea, Ad. Animal. Ads. Genera Rec. Moll. 

t. 69, f. 1, . . 33 

92. 93. lanthina nitens, Mke. Jaws. Troschel, Gebiss. ii, t. 

13, f. 15, 16, 33 

94. lanthina planospirata, Ad. and Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 9, 36 

95. lanthina casta, Rve. (= planospirata). Ibid. f. 4, . 36 

96. lanthina cserulata, Rve. (planospirata). Ibid. f. 7, . 36 

97. lanthina depressa, Rve. (= planospirata). Ibid. f. 14a. 36 

98. lanthina balteata, Rye. (== planospirata). Ibid. f. 11, . 36 

99. lanthina communis, Lam. (= fragilis, Lam.) Ibid. f. 5, 36 
100. lanthina Britannica, Leach. Ibid. f. 13, ... 37 



440 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1. lanthina Smithise, Rve. (= Britannica). Ibid. f. 15, . 37 

2. lanthina grandis, Rve. (Britannica). Ibid. f. 3, . 37 

3. lanthina striulata, Carp. ( Carpenteri, Morch). Speci- 

men 36 

4. lanthina fragilis, Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid. t. 61, f. 8, . 36 

5. lanthina fibula, Rve. (= Britannica.) Conch. Icon. f. 

17b 37 

PLATE 10. 

6. lanthina affinis, Rve. ( Britannica). Conch. Icon, f 

2, b . . .37 

7. lanthina roseola, Rve. (= Britannica). Ibid. f. 1, a. . 37 

8. lanthina involuta, Rve. (= Britannica). Ibid. f. 12, b. 37 

9. lanthina Africana, Rve. (= Britannica). Ibid. f. 8, b. . 37 

10. lanthina trochoidea, Reeve. Ibid. f. 10, b. . . .37 

11. lanthina nitens, Menke. (= globosa, Swn.) Ibid. f. 16, 37 

12. lanthina globosa, Swn. Ibid. f. 18, b 37 

13. lanthina decollata, Carp. (= globosa). Ibid. f. 19, . 37 

14. lanthina iricolor, Rve. (= globosa). Ibid, f 23, . . 37 

15. lanthina pallida, Harvey. Ibid. f. 20, b. ... 37 

16. lanthina striolata, Ad. and Reeve. (= pallida). Ibid. f. 

24 a. . 37 

. 17. lanthina exigua, Lam. Ibid. f. 21, . . . .37 

18. lanthina capreolata, Montr. (= exigua). Jour, de Conch. 

2 Ser. iv, t. 2, f. 4, 38 

19. lanthina bifida, Nutt. (== exigua). Conch. Icon. f. 25, b. 38 

20. lanthina Vinsoni, Desk (= exigua). Moll. He Reunion, 

t. 11, f. 9, . . . ... . .38 

21. lanthina umbilicata, Orb. (= exigua). Moll. Cuba. t. 

20, f. 22, . . .38 

22. lanthina umbilicata, Orb. (= exigua). Conch. Icon. f. 

22, b 38 

23. Recluzia Hargravesii, Cox. Zool. Proc. t. 16, f. 8. 1870, 38 

24. Recluzia Johnii, Chemn. Mart. & Chemn. Conch. Cab. 

xi, f. 2077, 38 

25. Recluzia Rollandiana, Recluz. Jour, de Conch, iv, t. 5, 

f. 12, 38 

26. Recluzia Annamitica, Wattebled. Ibid. t. 3, f. 4, 1886. 38 

27. Recluzia Montrouzieri, Souverb. Ibid. t. 1, f. 8, 1872, . 38 

28. Recluzia Jehennei, Petit. Ibid, iv, t. 5, f. 3, . . .39 

29. Recluzia globosa, E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc. xii, t, 

30, f. 8, 39 

SCALARID/E. 

PLATE 11. 

30. Scalaria tenuicostata, Mich. Radula. Fischer's Manual, 

776 49 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 441 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

31. Scalaria pretiosa, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 4, . . 54 

32. Scalaria crenulata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 24 f. 

13, .54 

33. Scalaria neglecta, Rve. ( Pallasi). Conch. Icon, f. 1, 54 

34. Scalaria neglecta, Ads. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang. t. 

11, f. 15, 55 

35. Scalaria inclyta, Melvill (= neglecta). Jour, of Conch. 

iv, t. 11, f. 1, . 55 

36. Scalaria imperialis, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 6, . . .55 

37. Scalaria bullata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 8, . . .55 

38. 39, Scalaria obesa, Sowb. Ibid. f. 22 a, b. . . 55 

40. Scalaria alata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 15, 55 

41. Scalaria fasciata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 13, . -. . 55 

42. Scalaria marmorata, Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, t. 32, f, 9, . 56 

43. Scalaria replicata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 23, . . . .56 

44. Scalaria tenuicostata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 76, ... 56 

45. 46. Scalaria latifasciata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 

117a. .56 

47. Scalaria trifasciata, De Haan ( Clementina). Ibid. f. 

47a 56 

48. Scalaria Clementina, Grat. Mem. sur les Moll. t. 3, f. 4, 56 

49. Scalaria bulbulus, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 85, . . .56 

50. Scalaria optabilis, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 85, . . 56 

51. Scalaria tenuilirata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 118, . . .57 

52. Scalaria laxata, Sowb. Thes. Conch, t. 32, f. 8, . 57 

53. 54. Scalaria hyalina, Sowb. Ibid. f. 21, 22, . . . 57 

55. Scalaria soluta, Dunker. Jour. Philad. Acad. viii, t, 29, 

f. 5, ... 57 

56. Scalaria semidisjuncta, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 10, f. 7, 

1884, 57 

57. Scalaria crassa, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 25, . . 59 

PLATE 12. 

58. Scalaria principalis, Pallas. Chemnitz, Conch. Cab. iv, 

t. 122, f. 1428, .... . 57 

56. Scalaria costulata, Kiener. Coq. Viv. t. 2, f. 4, . . 57 

60. Scalaria statuminata, Sowb. Thes. Conch, t. 35, f. 127, 58 

61. Scalaria obtusa, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 48, . . 58 

62. 63. Scalaria Krebsii, Morch. Jour. Philad. Acad. viii, 

t. 29, f. 12, . . . 58 

64. Scalaria Swiftii, Morch. Specimen. . . 58 

65. Scalaria inconspicua, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 58, . . 58 

66. Scalaria nana, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 10, f. 6a. 1884, . 58 

67. Scalaria dubia, Sowb. Conch. Icon. t. 10, f. 45, b. . .60 

68. Scalaria striata, Gray (= dubia). Voy. Fly, ii, t. 2, f. 9, 60 

69. Scalaria Ivra, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 23, . . 59 

70. Scalaria undulatissima, Sowb. Ibid. f. 121, . . .60 



442 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

71. Scalaria irregularis, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 40, . . 60 

72. Scalaria similis, Sowb. Ibid. f. 90, . . . .60 

73. Scalaria miranda, Smith (= Smithii). Conch. Icon. f. 

73, . . .60 

74. Scalaria pulcherrima, Rol. ( Catanuanensis). Conch. 

Icon. f. 68a 61 

75. Scalaria friabilis, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 52, . . . 61 

76. Scalaria indistincta, Sowb. Ibid. f. 109, ... 61 

77. Scalaria subnudata, Sowb. ( tenera). Ibid. f. Ill, . 61 

78. Scalaria tenera, Jeffreys. ( Jeffreys!) . Zool. Proc. t. 10, 

f. 9, 1884, 62 

79. Scalaria crispata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 24, f. 

12, . 61 

80. Scalaria immaculata. Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 58, . . 61 

81. Scalaria lineolata, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 48, - . . 59 

82. 83. Scalaria rubrolineata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 83, 84, . . 60 

84. Scalaria aurita, Sowb. Ibid. f. 62, 59 

85. Scalaria glabrata, Hinds. Ibid. f. 101, . . . .59 

86. Scalaria maculosa, Ads. and Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 103, 59 

87. Scalaria Mariei, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 7, 1874, 59 

PLATE 13. 

88. Scalaria gradata, Hinds. Thes. Conch, f. 109, . . 62 

89. Scalaria pyramidalis, Sowb. Ibid. f. 4, . . . .62 

90. 91. Scalaria aculeata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 35, 36, . . . 63 

92. Scalaria eximia, Ad. and Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 87, b. . 63 

93. Scalaria porrecta, Hinds. Thes. Conch, f. 139, . . 63 

94. Scalaria Austro-Caledonica, Montr. Jour, de Conch, t. 

2, f. 5, I860, 62 

95. Scalaria muricata, Risso. Conch. Icon. f. 43, . . 63 

96. Scalaria foliaceicosta, d'Orb. Jour. Philad. Acad. viii, t. 

29, f. 6, _ . . .63 

97. Scalaria tenuis, Sowb. (= occidentalis). Thes. Conch, f. 

7, 63 

98. Scalaria echinaticosta, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba. t. 11, f. 5, . 64 

99. Scalaria centiquadra, Morch. Jour. Philad. Acad. viii, t. 

29, f. 4 64 

100. Scalaria denticulata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 42, . . 64 

1. Scalaria mitneformis, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 30, . . 63 

2. Scalaria Algeriana, Weink. Zool. Proc. t. 10, f. 5, 1884, 64 

3. Scalaria vittata, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 10, f. 4, 1884, . . 64 

4. Scalaria brevis, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. merid. t. 75, f. 22, 58 

5. Scalaria pernobilis, Fischer and Bernardi. Jour, de Conch. 

2 Ser. i, t. 8, f. 2, .65 

6. Scalaria Pourtalesii, Verrill and Smith. Trans. Conn. 

Acad. v, t. 57, f. 32, 64 

7. Scalaria soluta, Tiberi (= frondosa). Jour, de Conch, t. 

5, f. 3, 1868, 65 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 443 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

8. Scalaria turbinata, Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad. vii, t. 

20, f.26, 64 

9. Scalaria texturata, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped. f. 244, 66 

10. Scalaria gracilenta, Gould. Ibid. f. 245, ... 66 

11. Scalaria consors, Crosse and Fischer. Jour, de Conch, t. 

3, f. 11, 1865. 74 

12. Scalaria symmetrica, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 24, 

f. 14, 66 

13. Scalaria angusta, Dunker. Moll. Japon, t. 1, f. 11, . 65 

14. Scalaria decussata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 24, f. 

10, 65 

15. Scalaria Japonica, Dunker. Moll. Japon, t. 1, f. 13, . 65 

16. Scalaria Paumotensis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 24, 

f. 11, 65 

17. Scalaria Georgettinse, Kiener. Thes. Conch. f..77, . . 73 

18. 19. Scalaria Philippinarum, Sowb. Ibid. f. 3, 2, . . 66 

PLATE 14. 

20. Scalaria Jukesiana, Forbes. Conch. Icon. f. 80, . . 66 

21. Scalaria attenuata, Sowb. (= subauriculata). Ibid. f. 

113, 67 

22. Scalaria subauriculata, Souv. Specimen. . . .67 

23. Scalaria casta, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 86, ... 67 

24. Scalaria Japonica, Dunker. Ibid. f. 122, . . .65 

25. Scalaria concinna, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 63, . . 67 

26. Scalaria multicostata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 96, ... 67 

27. Scalaria obliqua, Sowb. Ibid. f. 69, . . . .67 

28. 29. Scalaria gracilis, Sowb. Ibid f. 33, 34, ... 67 

30. Scalaria albolineata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 57, . . 68 

31. Scalaria Mindoroensis, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 91. . . 67 

32. Scalaria pulcherrima, Sowb. Ibid. f. 92, . . .68 

33. Scalaria pumila, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 79, ... .68 

34. Scalaria creberrima, Hinds. Ibid. f. 69, . . .68 

35. Scalaria lactea, Krauss. Ibid. f. 93, . . . . 68 

36. Scalaria sulcata, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. iii, . . .68 

37. Scalaria vestalis, Hinds. Conch. Icon. f. 101, . . 69 

38. Scalaria subtilis, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 137, . . 68 

39. Scalaria delicatula, Crosse. Conch. Icon. f. 115, . .69 

40. Scalaria ovalis, Sowb. Ibid. f. 96, 69 

41. Scalaria connexa, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 98, . . .69 

42. Scalaria aciculina, Hinds. Thes. Conch, f. 100, . . 69 

43. Scalaria polita, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 77, ... 6,9 

44. Scalaria Elenensis, Sowb. Ibid. f. 102, . . . .70 

45. Scalaria hexagona, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 67, . . 70 

46. Scalaria curvilineata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 49, . . 70 

47. Scalaria principalis, Sowb. (= ducalis, Morch). Ibid. 

f. 12, 69 

48. Scalaria Indianorum, Carp. Ibid. f. 81, . . . . 70> 



444 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

49. Scalaria tincta, Carp. Specimen. ... .70 

50. Scalaria venosa, Sowb. Morch, Jour. Philad. Acad. viii, 

t. 29, f. 9, 70 

51. Scalaria elegans, Orb. ( Orbignyi). Voy. Amer. merid. 

t. 54, f. 2, . . . 70 

52. Scalaria tenuistriata, d'Orb. Ibid. t. 54, f. 6, . . .61 

53. Scalaria angulata, Say. Amer. Conch, t. 27, . . . 70 

54. Scalaria gradatella, Morch. Jour. Philad. Acad. viii, t. 

29, f. 11, ..-..,., . . . 71 

55. Scalaria unifasciata, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 68, . . 71 

56. Scalaria undecimcostata, Morch. Specimen. . . .71 

57. Scalaria fragilis, Hanley (= eburnea). Thes. Conch, f. 

66, .... ..... 71 

58. Scalaria albida, Orb. (= eburnea). Moll. Cuba. t. 10, f. 

25, 71 

59. Scalaria teres, Busch. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, t. 45, f. 8, 71 

60. Scalaria modesta, Ads. Conch. Icon. f. 78, . . 70 

PLATE 15. 

61. Scalaria Dalliana, Verrill and Smith. Trans. Conn. Acad. 

v, t. 57, f. 33, ... .... 73 

62. Scalaria Novanglise, Couth. Bost. Jour. t. 3, f. 5, . .71 

63. Scalaria multistriata, Say. Am. Conch, t. 27, . . 72 

64. Scalaria candidissima, Monts. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 5, 

1877, . . . , ,-. 72 

65. Scalaria communis, Lam. Thes. Conch, f. 18, . . 72 

66. Scalaria communis, Lam. Kiener, Coq. Viv. t. 1, f. 2, . 72 

67. Scalaria Turtonis, Turton. Thes. Conch, f. 107, . . 72 

68. Scalaria Cantrainei, Weink. Cantr. Moll. Medit. t. 6, f. 

16, 72 

69. Scalaria Trevelyana, Leach. Forbes, Brit. Moll. t. 70, f. 7, . 72 

70. Scalaria clathratula, Ads. Ibid. t. 70, f. 4, . . 73 

71. Scalaria coronata, Phil. (= Hellenica). Moll. Sicil. ii, t. 

23, f. 7, . . . . . . . . .73 

72. Scalaria pulchella, Bivona. Cox. viv. t. 6, f. 19, . . 73 

73. Scalaria Bairdii, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 75, f. 14, 1871, . 73 

74. Scalaria Diana?, Hinds. Conch. Icon. f. 89, . . .74 

75. Scalaria Zelebori, Frauenf. Reise Novara, t. 1, f. 6, . 78 

76. Scalaria coronata, Lam. (= lamellosa). Encyc. Meth. t. 

451, f. 5, . ...... .74 

77. Scalaria lamellosa (= pseudoscalaris). Coq. viv, t. 3. f. 

?, 74 

78. Scalaria Nautlse, Morch. Jour. Philad. Acad. viii, t. 29, 

f. 12, 75 

79. Scalaria Andrewsii, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, t. 57, 

f. 35, . .75 

80. Scalaria obtusicostata, Sars. (= coarctata). Moll. Norv. 

t. 22, f. 9, 76 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 445 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

81. Scalaria vulpina, Hinds. Conch. Icon. f. 113, . . 78 

82. Scalaria monocycla, Lam. (== lamellosa). Coq. viv, t. 3, 

f. 9, . 74 

83. Scalaria perplexa, Pease. (= lamellosa). Specimen. . 74 

84. Scalaria clathrus, Linn. (=lamellosa). Thes. Conch, f. 

131, 74 

85. Scalaria longissima, Seguenza. Zool. Proc. t. 10, f. 3, 

1884, . ' . .... .75 

86. Scalaria varicosa, Sars. ( coarctata). Moll. Norv. t. 

34, f. 9, 76 

87. Scalaria Ochotensis. Midd. Reise, t. 12, f. 12, . . 76 

88. Scalaria Magellanica, Phil. Conch. Icon. f. 82, . . 76 

PLATE 16. 

89. Scalaria borealis, Gould. Conch. Icon. f. 75, . . . 76 

90. Scalaria australis, Lam. Ibid. f. 3, . . . .76 

91. Scalaria Groenlandica, Chemn. Ibid. f. 107, . . .76 

92. Scalaria acus, Watson. Zool. Proc. t. 10, f. 8, 1884, . 75 

93. Aclis ventrosa, Jeffreys. Friele, Bidrag, t. 1, f. 7, b. . 87 

94. Scalaria Loveni, A. Ad. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. iii, t. 4, f. 4, 76 

95. Scalaria uncinaticosta, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 11, f. 26, . 77 

96. Scalaria Candeana, d'Orb. Ibid. t. 11, f. 29, ... 77 

97. Scalaria crenulata, Kien. ( crenata). Thes. Conch, f. 

123, ... 77 

98. Scalaria Hotessieriana, Orb. (= crenata). Specimen. . 77 

99. 100. Scalaria diadema, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 121, 122, 78 

1. Scalaria crenatoides, Carp. Specimen. . . . .77 

2, 3. Scalaria raricostata, Lam. Thes. Conch, f. 79, 80, . 78 

4, 6. Scalaria nuda, Sowb. (= turricula). Conch. Icon. f. 

110, 79 

5. Scalaria Martin ii, Wood. Thes. Conch, f. 78, . . 78 

7. Scalaria Morchii, Sowb. ( erronea). Conch. Icon. f. 

76, . . 79, 82 

8. Scalaria suturalis, Hinds. Ibid. f. 104, . . . .79 

9. Scalaria unicostata, Sowb. (= lineata). Conch. Icon. f. 

55, ..... .79 

10. Scalaria costulata, Mighels and Adams. Tryon's Marine 

Conch, t. 11. f. 132, . .80 

11. Scalaria granulosa, Quoy. Conch. Icon. f. 35, . . 80 

12. Scalaria Eschrichti, Moller. Ibid. f. 83, . . 80 

13. Scalaria turricula, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 88, . . 79 

14. Scalaria lineata, Say. Ibid. f. 50, . .79 

15. Scalaria crassicosta, Gray. (= crenata). Ibid. f. 119, . 77 

16. Scakria magnifica, Sowb. Ibid. f. 103, . . .78 

17. Scalaria geniculata, Brocchi. Foss. Tert. ii, t. 16, f. 1, . 79 

18. Scalaria undulata, Sowb. (= costulata). Conch. Icon. f. 

108, ... 80 

19. Scalaria subdecussata, Cantraine. Mai. Medit. t. 6, f. 24, 80 



446 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

20. Scalaria gracilis, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, t. 57, f. 

31, 80 

PLATE 17. 

21, 22. Scalaria decussata (= Kieneri, Canefri). Conch. 

Icon. f. 114 a, b 81 

23. Scalaria varicosa, Lam. Thes. Conch, f. 126, . .81 

24. Scalaria cochlea, Sowb. Ibid. f. 142, . . . .81 

25. Scalaria pumicea, Brocchi. (= cochlea). Foss. tert. ii, 

t. 7, f. 3, 81 

26. Scalaria decussata. (== Kieneri, Canefri). Coq. viv, t. 7, 

f. 23, . 81 

27. Scalaria abbreviata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 124, . . 81 

28. Scalaria bicarinata, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 113, . 82 

29. Scalaria attenuata, Pease. Conch. Icon. f. 71, . . 82 

30. 35. Scalaria acuminata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 74, b. . . 83 

31. Scalaria Leeana, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, t. 57, 

f.34, ". . . . . . . . .82 

32. Scalaria crassilabrum, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 120 a. . 82 

33. Scalaria multiperforata, Sowb. Ibid. f. 125, . . . 82 

34. Scalaria formosissima, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 10, f. 10, 

1884, 62 

36. Scalaria prselonga, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 10, f. 11, 1884, . 83 

37. Scalaria fusca, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 138, . . .83 

38. Scalaria minor, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 70, ... 83 

39. Scaliola bella, A. Ad. Jour, de Conch, t. 4, f. 6, 1868, . 85 

40. Aclis attenuans, Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 5 Ser. xi, 

t. 16, f. 3, . .\ 88 

41. Scalaria elegans, Ads. ( jucunda). Jour, de Conch, t. 

4, f. 4, 1868, 84 

42. Scaliola Caledonica, Crosse. Ibid. t. 6, f. 3, 1871, . . 85 

43. Aclis Gulsonse, Clark. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 

132, f. 6, 89 

44. Aclis scitula, A. Ad. Journ. de Conch., t. 4, f. 3, 1868, . 89 

45. Scalaria concinna, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 44, f. 14, 1867, 85 

46. Scalaria bellula, A. Ad. Jour, de Conch., t. 4, f. 10, 

1868, 85 

47. Scaliola arenosa, A. Ad. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 46, f. 11, 85 

48. Scalaria miranda, A. Ad. Jour, de Conch., t. 4, f. 9, 1868, 84 

49. 56. Aclis supranitida, Wood. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t. 90, f. 2 ' . .87 

50. Aclis ascaris, Turton. Ibid., t. 88, f. 8, . . . .86 

51. Aclis mizon, Watson. Voy. Challenger, t. 34, f. 1, . . 89 

52. Aclis hyalimi, Watson. Ibid., t, 34, f. 2, ... 89 

53. Scalaria Webbii, d'Orb. Moll. Canaries, t. 6, f. 14, . . 73 

54. Aclis sarissa, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 34, f. 3, . 88 

55. Aclis minutissima ( BUpranitida), Ibid, xv, t. 33, f. 9, . 88 
57. Aclis exigua, Sars. Moll. Norv., t. 22, f. 8, . . .88 



A 

((UNI 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 447 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

PLATE 18. 

58. Eglisia spirata, Sowb. Conch. Icon, v, f. 1, . . .86 

59. Eglisia lanceolata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 2, . . . .87 

60. Eglisia tricarinata, Ads. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang.. t. 

12, f. 8, B . . . . . 86 

61. Eglisia conspersa, Ads. and Reeve. Ibid., t. 12, f. 15, . 86 

62. Eglisia gracilis, Maltzan. Nachr. Mai. Gesell. xv, 98, . 86 

63. Aclis carinata, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 75, f. 20, 1871, . 87 

64. Stilbe acuta, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 10, f. 2, 1884, ... 90 

65. Aclis Walleri, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., t. 72, f. 4, . . 87 

66. Aclis unica, Mtg. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 90, 

f. 5, 88 

67. Aclis gracilis, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 1, 1884, . 88 
63. Scalaria striata, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 9, f. 8, 85 

69. Aclis striatus, Jeffr. (= Jeffreysii.). Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 

2, 1884, 89 

70. Aclis striata, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, t. 58, f. 13, . 87 

71. Aclis tenuis, Verrill. Ibid, v, t. 58, f. 19, . . .87 

72. 73. Aclis glabra, Sars. Moll. Norv., t. 11, f. 15, 14, . 88 

74. Scalaria vermetiformis, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 

9,f. 6, 57 

75. Scalaria pyrrhias, Watson. Ibid., xv, t. 9, f. 7, . . 8Q 

76. Scalaria tortilis, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 9, f. 1, 7,5 

77. Scalaria dentiscalpium, Watson. Ibid., t. 9, f. 3, . . 82 

78. Scalaria philtata, Watson. Ibid., t. 9, f. 5, . 

79. Scalaria funiculata, Watson. Ibid., t. 9, f. 4, . 

80. Scalaria acus, Watson. Ibid., t. 9, f. 2, . . . . 75 

CERITHIID/E, 

PLATE 19. 

1. Cerithium vulgatum, Brug. Radula. Troschel, Gebiss der 

Schnecken, 113 

2. Potamides decollatus, Linn. Radula. Ibid., . . . 115 

3. Triforis perversus, Linn. Radula. Fischer, Mass. Conch., 

f. 445, . . . . . . . . .121 

4. Terebralia palustris, Brug. Showing the columellar pli- 

cations and interior teeth of the varix. Fischer, Man. 
Conch., f. 447, . . ... . .116 

5. Aphanistylus Charbonnieri, Petit. Fischer, Man. Conch., 

f. 450, . .118 

6. Cerithidea obtusa, Lam. Suspended by glutinous fila- 

ments. Ibid., f. 449, . .112- 

7. Eustoma tuberculatum, Piette. Ibid., f. 452, . . .120 

8. Brachytrema Wrighti, Cotteau. Ibid., f. 453, . . .113 

9. Brachytrema filosum, Buvign. Ibid., f. 454, . . . 113 
10. Pyrazisinus campanulatus, Heilprin. Expl. Florida. . 116 



448 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

11, 12. Terebralia sulcatus, Brug. Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 54, 

f. 22, . 116 

13, 14. Cerithiumnodulosum,Brug. Quoy, Ibid., t. 54, f. 5, 112, 122 

PLATE 20. 

15. Cerithium nodulosum, Brug. Kiener, Iconog., t. 2, f. 1, . 122 

16. Cerithium Erythrseonense, Lam. Ibid., t. 3, f. 2, . . 123 

17. 18. Cerithium, coluinna, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 56, 58, . 123 

19. Cerithium Menkei, Desh. (= columna). Moll. Reunion, 

t.ll, f. 15, 123 

20. Cerithium scabridum, Reeve ( columna, Var.). Conch. 

Icon., sp. 52, 123 

21. Cerithium citrinum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 66, . . 123 

22. Cerithium bicolor, Hombr. et Jacq. (= citrinum). Voy. 

Astrol. et Zel., t. 23, f. 14 . 123 

23. Cerithium siphonatum, Sowb. ( citrinum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 90, b. . . 123 

24. Cerithium suturale, Phil. Thes. Concji., f. 52, . . 123 

25. Cerithium echinatum, Lam. Conch. Icon., f. 10, 123, . 123 

26. Cerithium album, Hombr. et Jacq. (= echinatum). Voy. 

Astrol. et Zel., t. 23, f. 23, 124 

27. Cerithium Adansonii, Reeve (== echinatum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 11, . . 124 

28. Cerithium Ruppellii, Phil. Conch. Icon., f. 6, . . 12f 

29. Cerithium Savignyi, Fischer (=- Ruppellii). Savigny, 

Desc. Egypt, t. 4, f. 8, . . . 

30. Cerithium Adenense, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 89, . . 124 

31. Cerithium armatum, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. 96, . . 124 

32. Cerithium armatum, Phil. Conch. Icon., f. 14, b, . . 124 

PLATE 21. 

33. Cerithium nigropunctatum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 97, . 124 

34. Cerithium Novae Hollandise, A. Ad. Conch. Icon., f. oO, 124 

35. Cerithium filosum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 82, . . . . 125 

36. Cerithium corallinum, Dufresnp. Thes. Conch., f. 63, . 125 

37. Cerithium sculptuni, Pease. Specimen, . . . .125 

38. Cerithium vulgatum, Brug. Thes. Conch., f. 43, . . 125 

39. Cerithium subnodosum, Ads. ( vulgatum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 4, . 125 

40. Cerithium alucaster, Brocc. ( vulgatum). Moll. Rous- 

sillon, t. 22, f. 4, 126 

41. Cerithium spinosa, Blainv. ( vulgatum). Ibid., t. 22, 

f. 7, .126 

42. Cerithium muticum, B. D. D. ( vulgatum). Ibid., t. 

22, f. 8, 126 

43. Cerithium gracile, Phil. (= vulgatum). Ibid., t. 22, f. 9, 126 

44. Cerithium longissima, B. D. D. ( vulgatum). Ibid., t. 

22, f. 10, 126 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 449 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

45. Cerithium seminuda, B. D. D. (= vulgatum). Ibid., t. 

22, f. 11, 126 

46. Cerithium repanda, B. D. D. (= vulgatum). Ibid., t. 

22, f. 14, . . . . . . . . .126 

47. Cerithium pulchella, Phil. (= vulgatum). Ibid., t. 22, 

f. 15, . . . I. . . . . . .126 

48. Cerithium Mediterraneum, Desh. (= rupestre). Thes. 

Conch., f. 132, . ^ 126 

49. Cerithium plicata, Phil. (== rupestre). Moll. Roussillon, 

t. 23, f. 5, 126 

50. Cerithium minor, B. D. D. -(= rupestre). Ibid., t. 23, f. 7, 126 

51. Cerithium nebulosum, Sowb. (= adustum). Conch. Icon., 

f. 7, b, 126 

52. Cerithium adustum, Kiener. Ibid., 12, . . . 126 

53. Cerithium semulum, Sowb. Nouv. Archives du Mus. iv, 

t. 18, f. 138, .... . . 127 

54. Cerithium cseruleum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 61, . . 127 

PLATE 22. 

.55, 56. Cerithium Guinaicum, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. 127, 126, 127 

57. Cerithium circinatum, A. Ad. Conch. Icon., f. 61, . . 127 

58. Cerithium Sandwichense, Sowb. Ibid., f. 37, . . . 127 

59. Cerithium tessellatum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 134, . 127 

60. 61. Cerithium uncinatum, Gmel. Thes. Conch., f. 78, 79, 127 

62. Cerithium umbonatum, Sowb. (eburneum). Ibid., f. 95, 129 

63. Cerithium litteratum, Born. Ibid., f. 129, . . . 128 

64. Cerithium litteratum, Born. Conch. Icon., f. 25, b, . .128 

65. Cerithium musicum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 40, .... 128 

66. Cerithium semiferrugineum, Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 75, . 128 

67. Cerithium pictum, Wood. Ibid., f. 121, . . . .128 

68. Cerithium atratum, Born. Conch. Icon., f. 32, . 128 

69. 70. Cerithium caudatum, Sowb. (= atratum). Thes. 

Conch., f. 71, 87, 129 

71. Cerithium eburneum, Brug. Conch. Icon., f. 35, a, .129 

72. Cerithium eburneum, Brug. Thes. Conch., f. 83, . . 129 

73. 74. Cerithium Novse-Hibernise, A. Ad. (= eburneum). 

Ibid., f. 84, 85, 129 

75. Cerithium fenestratum, Sowb. (= eburneum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 39, 129 

77. Cerithiu m gracilif orme, So wb. (= eburneum). Ibid., f. 49, 129 
77a. Cerithium pulicarium, Phil. (= eburneum). Abbild. 

iii, t. 1, f. 14, . . . 129 

78. Cerithium striatissimum, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 31, . 129 

79. Cerithium striatissimum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 86, . 129 
0. Cerithium planispiratum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 91, . . . 129 
#1. Cerithium lentiginosum, Sowb. (= algicola). Conch. 

Icon., f. 77, 129 

82. Cerithium algicola, C. B. Ad. Ibid., f. 63, ... 129 
29 



450 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 23. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

82, 83. Cerithium raunitum, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 69, a, b, 12& 

84. Cerithium pyramidatum, Hombr. Jacq. Voy. Astr. et 

Zel., t. 23, f. 20, 129 

85. Cerithium polygonum, Sowb. (= opportunum). Thes. 

Conch., f. 46, . . . . . . . .130 

86. Cerithium spathuliferum, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 50, a, . 130- 

87. Cerithium striatum, Hombr. Jacq. (= dialeucum). Voy. 

Astr. et Zel., t. 23, f. 16, . . . . . . 130 

88. Cerithium dialeucum, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. 98, . . 130 

89. Cerithium fusiforme, Sowb. (= proditum, Bayle). Ibid., 

f. 107, 130 

90. Cerithium rostratum, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 95, b, . .130 

91. Cerithium rostratum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 104, . .130 

92. Cerithium lissum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 40, 

f. 4, 130 

93. 94. Cerithium nitidum, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et 

Zel., t. 24, f. 30-33, . 14a 

95. Cerithium coronatum, Sowb. ( custos). Conch. Icon., 

f. 48, a, 131 

96. Cerithium coronatum, Sowb. ( custos). Thes. Conch., 

97. Cerithium invaginatum, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped., f. 

169, a, 131 

98. 99. Cerithium planum, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. Ill, 112, . 131 
100-1. Cerithium salebrosum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 115, 114, . . 131 

2. Cerithium balteatum, Phil. Conch. Icon.,.f. 72, a, . . 131 

3. Cerithium balteatum, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. 116, . . 131 

4. Cerithium rubus, Mart. Conch. Icon., f. 75, . . . 131 

5. Cerithium mitraeforme, Sowb. ( rubus). Ibid., f. 74, . 132 

6. Cerithium mitraeforme, Sowb. (= rubus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 190, ... 132 

7. Cerithium eximium, Sowb. ( rubus). Ibid., f. 192, . 132 

8. Cerithium eximium, Sowb. (= rubus). Conch. Icon., f. 

76, b, 132 

9. Cerithium granosum, Kiener. (== rubus). Ibid., f. 73, . 132 
10, 11. Cerithium tenellum, Sowb. 'Thes. Conch., f. 89, 90, . 132 
12, 13. Cerithium muscarum, Say. Ibid., f. 108, 110, . . 132 

14. Cerithium Torresii, Smith. Voy. Alert., t. 5, f., O, . . 136; 

15. Cerithium sordidulum, Old. ( rubus). Moll. Wilkes 

Exped., f. 170, 132 

16. Cerithium inflatum, Quoy. Thes. Conch., f. 170, . . 132 

17. Cerithium Billeheustii, Petit. ( inflatum). Jour, de 

Conch, ii, t. 7, f. 3, . . . . . . . 132 

18. Cerithium breviculum, Sowb. (= inflatum). Thes. Conch., 

f. 143, 132 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 451 

PLATE 24. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

19. Cerithium ocellatum, Brug. Thes. Conch., f. 59, . . 132 

20, 21. Cerithium patulum, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 33a, 33b, 133 

22. Cerithium pellucidum, Hombr. Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et 

ZeL, t. 23, f. 24, 133 

23. Cerithium Metcalfei, Sowb. (= inflatum). Thes. Conch., 

f. 157, . " 132 

24. Cerithium Bornii, Sowb. (= carbonarium). Ibid., f. 175, 133 

25. 27. Cerithium petrosum, Wood. (= tuberculatum). Ibid., 

f. 171, 172, ..... ... 133 

26. Cerithium petrosum, Wood. (= tuberculatum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 43a, 133 

28. Cerithium pupa, Sowb. (== tuberculatum). Ibid., f. 84, . 133 
29-31. Cerithium variegatum. Reeve. (= morus). Ibid., f. 

41a-c, 134 

32, 33. Cerithium morus, Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 159, 160, . 133 

34. Cerithium carbonarium, Phil. Conch. Icon., f. 59, . . 133 

35. Cerithium moniliferum, Dufresne. Ibid., f. 20, . . 134 

36. Cerithium rugosum, Wood. (= patiens). Thes. Conch., 

f.195, 134 

37. Cerithium tuberculatum, Reeve. (= patiens). Conch. 

Icon., f. 21b f . . 134 

38. Cerithium lemniscatum, Quoy. Conch. Icon., f. 27b, . 135 

39. Cerithium bifasciatum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 198, . 134 

40. Cerithium nigrofasciatum, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 58, . 134 

41. Cerithium gemma, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 51, . . 134 

42. Cerithium rubrolineatum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 199, . .135 

43. Cerithium Californise, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 104, . . 134 

44. Cerithium Thomasiae, Sowb. Ibid., f. 108, . . . 225 

45. Cerithium nivosum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 105, . . .134 

46. Cerithium corallinum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 63, . . 125 

47. Cerithium musivum, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. & 

ZeL, t. 24, f. 23, . . . . ' . . . 134 

PLATE 25. 

47. Cerithium Traillii, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 24, . . 135 
48 49. Cerithium alternatum, Sowb. (= Traillii). Thes. 

Conch., f. 70, 73, . . 135 

50 Cerithium robustum, Sowb. (= Traillii). Conch. Icon., 

f. 44, ... 135 

51 52 Cerithium purpurascens, Sowb. (= Traillii). Thes. 

Conch., f. 183, 184, 135 

53. Cerithium splendens, Sowb. (= Traillii). Ibid., f. 191, . 135 
54' Cerithium nitidum, Sowb. (= gentile). Ibid., f. 180, . 135 
55. Cerithium vittatum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 194, . . . 134 

56 Cerithium luctuosum, Hombr. Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et ZeL, 

t. 23, f. 12, 135 



452 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

57, 58. Cerithium gemmulatum, Hombr. Jacq., Ibid., t. 24, 

f. 3, 7, 134 

59. Cerithium baccatum, Hombr. Jacq. Ibid., t. 24, f. 11, . 135 

60. Cerithium millepunctatum, Hombr. Jacq. Ibid., t. 24, f. 13, 136 

61. Cerithium ustum, Hombr. et Jacq. Ibid., t. 23, f. 18, . 136 

62. Cerithium asperum, Pease. ( asperulum, Tryon). Conch. 

Icon., f. 96, 136 

63. Cerithium dubium, Sowb. (= eludens). Ibid., f. 78, . 136 

64. Cerithium nigrobalteatum, Smith. Voy. Alert, t. 5, f. N, 136 

65. Cerithium acutum, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., 

t. 24, f. 26, . . . 134 

66. Cerithium humile, Dunker. Moll. Japan, t. 2, f. 17, .134 

67. Cerithium Kobelti, Dunker. Ind. Moll. Maris Japon., t. 

4, f. 8, . .' 137 

68. Cerithium Isseli, Pagenstecher. Savigny, Desc. Egypte, 

t. 4, f. 7, ' . . . .137 

69. Cerithium alveolus, Quoy. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., t. 24, 

f. 28, 137 

70. Cerithium egenum, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped.,f. 171, 137 

71. Cerithium ianthinum, Gould. Ibid., f. 173, . . . 137 

72. Cerithium aspersum, Desh. (= ianthinum). Moll. Re- 

union, t. 11, f. 16, . .137 

73. 74. Cerithium Crossei, Desh. (= Maillardi). Ibid., 1. 11, 

f. 12, 13, . . 137 

PLATE 26. 

75. Cerithium maculosum, Mighels. Conch. Icon., f. 97, . 137 

76. Cerithium Nassoides, Sowb. ( maculosum). Ibid., f. 83a, 137 

77. Cerithium diminutivum, Phil. Abbild. in, 1. 1, f. 17, . 138 

78. 79. Cerithium zebrum, Kiener. Couch. Icon., f. 13, 6a, b, 138 
80, 81, 82. Cerithium delectum, Sowb. (= zebrum). Ibid., f. 

112a, b, c, . . 138 

83, 84. Cerithium tenue, Sowb. (= Icarus). Ibid., f. 130a, b, 138 

85. Cerithium interstriatum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 93, . . . 138 

86. Cerithium unilineatum, Pease. Ibid., f. 99, . . . 138 

87. Cerithium fucatum, Pease. Ibid., f. 102, . . . 138 

88. Cerithium paxillum, Pease. Ibid., f. 115, > . . .138 

89. Cerithium placidum, Gould. Ibid., f. 141, . . .139 

90. Cerithium alboliratum, Carp. Ibid., f. 109, . . .139 

91. Cerithium rarimaculaturn, Sowb. Ibid., f. 103, . . 139 

92. Cerithium obesum, Sowb. (== repletulum). Ibid., f. 62, . 139 

93. Cerithium obesulum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 149, . . .139 

94. Cerithium Sagrse, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 23, f. 17, . . 140 

95. Cerithium trochiforme, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 132, . 140 

96. Cerithium aduncum, Gould. Ibid., f. 57, . .139 

97. Cerithium dorsuosum, A. Ad. (= aduncum). Ibid., f. 

56, b, . . .139 

98. Cerithium flammiculatum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 206, 139 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 453 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

99. Cerithium ferrugineum, Say. Am. Conch., t. 49, f. 3, . 140 
100. Cerithium ferrugineum (=: versicolor). Thes. Conch., f. 

177, 140 

1. Cerithium Eriense, Val. (= ferrugineum). Ibid., f. 119, 140 

2. Cerithium variable, Ads. (= versicolor). Conch. Icon., 

f. 91, . . .140 

3. Cerithium ferrugineum, Rve.( = variabile). Ibid., f. 92, 140 

4. Cerithium Bermudse, So wb. (= versicolor). Ibid., f. 86b, 140 

5. Cerithium lutosum, Menke. (= versicolor). Ibid., f. 113, 140 

6. Cerithium Rissoide, Sowb. Ibid., f. 107, . . .140 

7. Cerithium mutabile, Ads. Ibid., f. Ill, . . . .141 

8. Cerithium pingue, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 217, . . 141 

9. Cerithium contractum, Sowb. (= pingue). Conch. Icon., 

f. 120, 141 

10. Cerithium pygmsea, A. Ad. Zool.Proc., t. 19,fig. 19, 1867, 142 

11. Cerithium taeniatum, Sowb. (= pingue). Conch. Icon., 

f. 119, 141 

12. Cerithium cylindraceum, Pease. Specimen. . . . 141 

13. Cerithium costiferum, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 220, . 142 

14. Cerithium macrostoma, Hinds. Thes. Conch., f. 219, . 142 

15. Cerithium pupseforme, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 221, . 142 

16. Cerithium Brazieri, Tryon. Specimen. . ... 142 

17. Cerithium insignia, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 6, f. 1, 1885, 144 

PLATE 27. 

17a. Cerithium crassilabrum, Krauss. Conch. Icon., f. 98, . 141 

18. Cerithidea clathrata, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 258, . . 165 

19. Cerithium serotinum, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 102, . . .141 

20. Cerithium rhodostoma, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 103, . . .141 

21. Cerithium monachus, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 3, f. 17, 

1865, .143 

22. Cerithium incisum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 152, . . 142 

23. Cerithium curtum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 153, 142 

24. Cerithium sculptum, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Lampania, f. 9a, 143 

25. Cerithium Gallapaginis, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 156, . 143 

26. Cerithium baeticum, Pease. Specimen. .... 143 

27. 28. Cerithium lineatum, Dunker. Specimen. . . . 143 
29, 30. Cerithium lacteum, Kiener. Thes. Conch., f. 213,214, 143 
31. Cerithium piperitum, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 81b, . . 144 

31. Cerithium nitidum, Hom.br. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., 

t. 24, f. 31, ..... ... 143 

32. Cerithium alveolus, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et 

Zel., t. 24, f. 28, 144 

33. Cerithium papillosum, Sowb. (= lacteum). Thes. Conch., 

f. 215, . . .144 

35. Cerithium maculosum, Martyn. Thes. Conch., f. 29, . 145 

36. Cerithium Sowerbyi, Kiener. Ibid., f. 33, . . 145 

37. Cerithium Cumingii, A. Ad. (= Sowerbyi). Ibid.,- f.- 19, 145 



454 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

38. Cerithium aluco, Linn. Ibid., 34, . . . . 145 

39. Cerithium obeliscus, Brag. Conch. Icon. Vert., f. 7, . 146 

40. Cerithium cedonulli, Sowb. (= obeliscus). Ibid., f. la, . 146 

41. Cerithium semigranosum, Lam. Kiener, Coq. Viv., t. 21, 

f.2, . . . .146 

42. Cerithium pulcher, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. Vert., f. 20, . 146 

43. Cerithium tenuisculptum, Sowb. (= gemmatum). Ibid., 

f. 22b, ? 146 

PLATE 28. 

44. Cerithium gemmatum, Hinds. Conch. Icon. Vert., f. 5, . 146 

45. Cerithium articulatum, Ads. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 16b, . 146 

46. Cerithium seminudum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 24a, . . . 146 

47. Cerithium recurvum, Sowb. Ibid., f. 23, ... 147 

48. Cerithium Kochii, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. 15, . . . 147 

49. Cerithium Kochii, Phil. Conch, Icon. Vert., f. 26b, . 147 

50. Cerithium torulosum, Linn. Specimen. .... 147 

51. Cerithium graniferum, Pease. Conch. Icon. Vert., f. 11, 147 

52. 53. Cerithium torulosum, Linn. Conch. Icon. Vert., f. 

25a, b, . . .147 

54. Cerithium graniferum, Reeve. (= ravidum). Ibid., f. 6, 147 

55. Cerithium turritum, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Cerith., f. 88, . 147 

56. Cerithium Pfeifferi, Dunker. (= turritum). Ind. Moll. 

Maris Japan, t. 4, f. 12, 147 

57. Cerithium attenuatum, Phil. Conch. Icon. Vert., f. 12, . 148 

58. Cerithium Matukense, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 

40, f. 2, 148 

59. Cerithium phoxum, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 40, f. 3c, . . 148 

60. Cerithium nobilis, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 28, . . 148 

61. Cerithium bituberculatum, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Vert., f. 

17b, 148 

62. Cerithium asper, Linn. Ibid., f. 21, . 148 

63. Cerithium lineatum, Lam. (= asper). Ibid., f. 15b, . 148 

64. Cerithium fasciatum, Brug. Thes. Conch., f. 6, . . 149 

PLATE 29. 

65. 66. Cerithium fasciatum, Brug. Thes. Conch., f. 7, 8, . 149 

67. Cerithium Martinianum, Pfr. (= fasciatum). Conch. 

Icon. Vert., f. 14b, 149 

68. Cerithium Pharos, Hinds. Ibid., f. 13, . . . . 149 

69. Cerithium vertagus, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 3, . . 149 

70. Cerithium taeniatum, Quoy. (= vertagus). Voy. Astrol. 



t. 54, f. 21, 

71. Cerithium Iseve, Quoy. Thes. Conch., f. 270, . 

72. Fastigiella carinata, Reeve. Zool. Proc., 15, 1848, . 

73. Bittium gemmatum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, t. 39, f 

2b, 



149 
149 
149 

150 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 455 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

74. Bittium Algerianum, Sowb. ( lacteum). Conch. Icon. 

Cerith., f. 145, .150 

75. Bittium Watsoni, Jeffr. (= gemmatum). Zool. Proc., t. 

6, f. 6, 1885, ..... ... 150 

76. Bittium lutea, B. D. D. ( lacteum). Moll. Koussil., t. 

26, f. 3, 150 

77. Bittium quadriseriata, B. D. D. (= lacteum). Ibid., t. 

26, f. 6, 150 

78. Bittium reticulatum, DaCosta. Conch. Icon., f. 134, . 150 

79. Bittium reticulatum, DaCosta. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t. ii, f. 2, . . . . . . . . 150 

0. Bittium reticulatum, Var. Latreillei, Payr. Moll. Roussil., 

t. 25, f. 10, 151 

SI. Bittium reticulatum, var. paludosa,B. D. D. Ibid., t. 25, 

f. 14, . . . . . . . . . 151 

82. Bittium reticulatum, var. Jadertanum, Brusina. Ibid., t. 

25, f. 20, 151 

3. Bittium reticulatum, var. exigua, Monts. Ibid., t. 25, f. 26, 151 

84. Bittium pusillum, Jeffr. ( submamillatum). Ann. Mag. 

N. H. xvii, t. 2, f. 11, 1856, 157 

85. Bittium Watsoni, Jeffr. (== gemmatum). Zool. Proc., t. 

6, f. 6a, 1885, 150 

86. Bittium gibberulum, Ads. (= varium). Conch. Icon., f. 

123, 152 

87. Bittium columellare, Orb. (== pallidum). Sagra's Cuba, 

t. 23, f. 13, 152 

88. Bittium Sayi, Menke. ( nigrum). Conch. Icon., f. 110, 152 

89. Bittium iota, Ads. (= nigrum). Ibid., f. 124, . . 152 

90. Bittium filosum, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped., f. 175, . 152 

91. Bittium quadrifilatum, Carp. Specimen. . . . 153 

92. Bittium Georgianum, Pfr. Nat. Hist. Mus. Hamburg, t. 

2, f. 7, 1886, 154 

PLATE 30. 

93. Bittium amblyterum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 

39, f. 6, .151 

4. Bittium insculptum, Sowb. (== Lawleyanum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 128, .. 155 

95. Bittium gracile, Jeffr. (== amblyterum). Zool. Proc., t. 

6, f. 3, 1885, 151 

36. Bittium arctum, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., t. 

24, f. 37, ... 155 

97. Bittium abruptum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 41, 

f. 4, .... 151 

98. Bittium granarium, Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 19, f. 3, . . 155 

99. Bittium mamillanum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 

40, f. 6, 151 



456 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

100. Bittium lacertinum, Gould. Conch. Icon., f. 129, . . 155* 

1. Bittium enode, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 39, f. 3, 152 

2. Bittium luscinae, Watson. (= pigrum). Ibid, xv t. 41 

f. 1, 153 

3. Bittium philomelse, Watson. (= pigrum). Ibid, xv, t. 

41, f. 2, 153 

4. Bittium pigrum, Watson, Ibid, xv, t. 40, f. 7, . . 153 , 

5. Bittium Lawleyanum, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1. 1, f. 4, 

1863, . 154 

6. Bittium delicatum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 41, 

f. 5, . ^ . . .154 

7. Bittium rugatum, Carp. (= asperum). Conch. Icon., f. 

140, 153 

8. Bittium attenuatum, Carp. Specimen 153 

9. Bittium tricarinatum, Pease. Conch. Icon., f. 127, . 154 

10. Bittium alutaceum, Gould. Ibid., f. 142, . . . 154 

11. Bittium sedonicum, Watson. (= pigrum). Voy. Chal- 

lenger, xv, t. 41, f. 6, 153- 

12. Bittium Oosimense, Watson. Ibid., t. 39, f. 1, . . . 156 

13. Bittium turritelliformis, An gas. Zool. Proc., t. 26 f. 14 

1877, 154 

14. Bittium diplax, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 38, f. 4, 156 

15. Bittium Amboynense, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 40, f. 5, .156 

16. Bittium esuriens, Carp. Specimen. .... 153' 

17. Bittium pusillum, Dunker. (= perpusillum). Moll. Japan, 

t. 2, f. 6, 154 

18. Bittium cylindricum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 

39, f. 5, 156 

19. Bittium glariosuin, Gould. Conch. Icon., f. 131, . . 155 

20. Bittium parcum, Gould. Ibid., f. 125, . . . . 155, 

21. Bittium Peruvianum, Orb. Voy. Amer., t. 77, f. 9, . 15& 

22. Bittium pupiforme, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 41, 

3, . . . 156- 

23. Bittium plumbeum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 293, . .155 

24. Bittium xanthum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 38, f, 6, 157 

PLATE 31. 

25. Bittium pusillum, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 172, . 155 

26. Bittium altum, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 126, . . . 156 

27. Bittium furvum, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 38, f. 5, 157 

28. Bittium porcellanum, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 38, f. 8, . 157 

29. Bittium perparvulum, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 38, f. 3, . 157 

30. Bittium leucocephalum, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 38, f. 7, . 157 

31. Potamides ebeninus, Brug. Conch. Icon. Potamides, f. 2b, 15& 

32. Potamides Pacificus, Sowb. Ibid., f. la, . . . . 158- 

33. Potamides Lamarckii, Val. Kiener, Iconog., t. 27, f. 3, . 159- 

34. Potamides fuscatus, Linn. Conch. Icon. Tyrnp., f. 3, . 159> 
85. Potamides radula, Linn. Ibid., f. 4, . . . . 159* 



U IS J 




REFERENCE TO PLATES. 457 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

36. Potamides Owenii, Fer. (= radula). Ibid., f. 5, . . 159 

37. Potamides multigranosus, Sowb. (= homologum). Ibid., 

f. 6, 159 

38. Potamides fluviatilis, Pot. et Mich. Ibid., f. 9a, . . 159 

39. Potamides micro pterus, Kiener (= fluviatilis). Ibid.,f. 7b, 160 

40. Potamides retifera, A. Ad. (= fluviatilis). Ibid., f. 1, . . 160 

PLATE 32. 

41. Potamides palustris, Linn. Sowb. Thes., f. 261, . . 160 

42. Potamides. Operculum. Conch. Icon. Pyraz., f. 2b, . 160 

43. Potamides Caledonicus, Jouss. Specimen. . . . 160 

44. Potamides Caledonicus, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

ix, t. 4, f. 12, 160 

45. Potamides semisulcatus, Morch. Kiener, Iconog.,t. 27, fl, 160 

46. 47. Potamides sulcatus, Born. Conch. Icon. Pyraz., f. Ib, 160 

48. Potamides Gourmeyi, Crosse. Ibid., f. 3, . . . 160 

49. Potamides alatus, Phil. Ibid., f. 10, . . . . 160 

50. Cerithidea pulchra, Ads. Conch. Icon. Cerithidea, f. 29, 161 

51. Cerithidea incisa, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. 

t. 23, f. 8, .... .... 160 

52. Cerithidea euryptera, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. Tymp. f. 8, b. 160 

53. Cerithidea Kieneri, Hombr. et Jacq. Ibid. Cerithidea, f. 

6, 161 

54. Cerithidea decollata, Linn, Ibid. f. 14, b. 161 

55. Cerithidea cornea, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 21, . . . . 162 

PLATE 33. 

56. Potamides telescopium, Linn. Thes. Conch, f. 269, . 161 

57. Cerithidea Montagnei, Orb. Conch. Icon. Cerithidea, f. 

26, . . . . . . ... .161 

58. Cerithidea varicosa, Sowb. ( fortiusculum) Ibid. f. 19 

a . 161 

59. Cerithidea obtusa, Lam. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 24, f. 3, 161 

60. Cerithidea obtusa, Lam. Conch. Icon. Cerithidea, f. 40, 161 

61. Cerithidea Kieneri, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et 

Zel. t. 24, f. 4, 161 

62. Cerithidea Quoyi, Hombr. et Jacq. Ibid. t. 23, f. 6, . 162 

63. Cerithidea quadrata, Sowb. (== obtusa.) Conch. Icon. 

Cerithidea f. 5, 161 

64. Cerithidea ornata, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 22, b. 162 

65. 66 Cerithidea Fortunei, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 15, a. b. . 162 

67. Cerithidea rhizoporarum, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 13, a. . . 162 

68. Cerithidea Morchii, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 18, ... 163 

69. Cerithidea sacrata, Gould. Ibid. f. 7, . . . . 162 

70. Cerithidea Mazatlanica, Carp. (= sacrata). Ibid. f. 8, . 162 

71. Cerithidea pullata, Gld. (^sacrata). Pacific. R. R. Re- 

port, v, t. 11, f. 23, 162 



458 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

72. Cerithidea albonodosa, Carp. ( sacrata). Conch. Icon. 

Cerithidea f. 1, b 162 

73. Cerithidea Rissoidea, Sowb. Ibid. f. 11, . . . 163 

74. Cerithidea Hanleyi, Sowb. (=iostoma). Ibid. f. 16, . 164 

75. Cerithidea Lafondii, Mich. (=scalariformis), Ibid. f. 2, 163 

76. Cerithidea tenuis, Pfr. (=scalariformis). Ibid. f. 3, .163 

77. Cerithidea Lavalleana, Orb. Sagra's Cuba. t. 23, f. 16, . 164 

78. Cerithidea scalariformis, Say. Specimen. . . .163 

PLATE 34. 

79. Cerithidea iostoma, Pfr. Specimen. . . . .164 

80. Cerithidea costata, Da Costa. Conch. Icon. f. 10, . .164 
SI. Cerithidea ambigua, C. B. Ad. (^costata). Ibid. f. 9, . 164 

82. Cerithidea salmacida, Mor. (^costata). Ibid. f. 23, . 164 

83. Cerithidea turrita, Stearns. Specimen. . 164 

84. Cerithidea Bombayana, Sowb. (=Layardi). Reeve, Cer- 

ithidea. f. 24, 165 

85. Cerithidea cinerascens, Pallas. (=conica). Thes. Conch. 

f. 254, 165 

86. 87. Cerithidea Layardi, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. Tymp. f. 

2, 165 

88, 89. Cerithidea mamillata, Phil. (=conica). Ibid. Ceri- 
thidea. f. 25, 165 

DO. Cerithidea mamillata, Phil. (=conica). Kiener, Iconog. 

t. 22, f. 4, .165 

91. Cerithidea conica, Blainv. Ibid. t. 23, f. 3, . . . 165 

92. Cerithidea sardoum, Cantr. (=conica). Ibid. t. 22, f. 2, 165 

93. 94. Cerithidea turritella, Quoy. Thes. Conch, f. 255, 

256, 163 

95. Cerithium pauxillum, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. Cerith. f. 

144, 141 

96. Cerithidea Charbonnieri, Petit. Ibid. Cerithidea. f. 12, 

a 164 

97. Cerithidea Sinensis, Phil.' Ibid. f. 17, .' .' .' 164 

98. Cerithidea Moreleti, Wattebl. (^Sinensis). Jour, de 

Conch, t. 4, f. 5, 1886, 165 

99. 100. Cerithidea australis, Quoy. Conch. Icon. Lamp. f. 

4, 166 

1. Cerithidea Diemenensis, Quoy. Voy. Astrol. t. 55, f. 11, 166 

2. Cerithidea. undulatum, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 248, . 166 

3. 4. Cerithidea zonale, Brug. Conch. Icon. Lamp. f. 5, .167 

5. Cerithidea atramentaria, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 6, . . . 167 

6. Cerithidea Cumingii, Reeve. (multiformis). Ibid. f. 

2, ......... . 167 

7. Cerithidea Cumingii, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 3 ser. ii, 

t. 1, f. 10, 166 

8. Cerithidea multiformis, Lischke. Jap. Meeresconch. ii, 

t. 5, f. 23, 167 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 459 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

9, 10, 11. Cerithidea septemstrlata, Say. (^minimus). 

Conch. Icon. Lamp. f. 6, . . . . . .167 

12. Cerithium Eriense, Val. (=versicolor). Kiener, Iconog. 

t. 24, f. 1, .140 

PLATE 35. 

13. Cerithidea multiformis, Lischke. Jap. Meeresconch. ii, t. 

5, f. 24, 167 

14. Cerithidea aterrima, Dunker. (=zonale). Ind. Moll. 

Maris Jap. t. 5, f. 8, 167 

15. Cerithidea bicarinata, Gray. Conch. Icon. Cerithidea, f. 

27, 163 

16. Cerithidea subcarinata, Sowb. (= bicarinata). Ibid. f. 28, 163 

17. Cerithidea augulifera, Sowb. Ibid. Lampan. f. 1, . 167 

18. Cerithidea subviride, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 247, . . 166 

19. Cerithidea corneum, Kiener. Kiener, Iconog. t. 32, f. 3, 168 

20. Cerithiopsis tubercularis, Mtg. Thes. Conch, f. 222, . 168 
21 Cerithiopsis columna, Carp. Specimen. . . . 171 

22. Cerithiopsis tuberculoides, Carp. Specimen. . .169 

23. Cerithiopsis pulchella, Jeffreys. (= tubercularis). Ann. 

Mag. N. Hist, ii, t. 5, f. 8, 1858, . ; . 168 

24. Cerithiopsis bilineata, Hcernes. ( tubercularis, var.) 

Moll. Roussil. t. 27, f. 12, .... . 168 

25. Cerithiopsis Clarkii, Hanley. (= tubercularis). Sowb. 

Index, Brit. Shells, t. 15, f. 12, . . 168 

26. Cerithiopsis neglecta, Weink. (== minimus). Thes. Conch. 

f. 235, .... ... 169 

27. Cerithiopsis Barleei, Jeffreys. (= tubercularis, var.) Jour. 

Linn. Soc. xix, t. 4, f. 4, 168 

28. Cerithiopsis atalaya, Watson. Ibid. t. 4, f. 9, . . 169 

29. Cerithiopsis balteata, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 

30, f. 1, . .173 

30. Cerithiopsis tiara, Watson. (= diadema). Jour. Linn. 

Soc. xix, t. 4, f. 6, 169 

31. Cerithiopsis diadema, Watson. Zool. Proc. t. 6, f. 8, 

1885, .169 

32. Cerithiopsis Fayalensis, Watson. (= diadema). Jour. 

Linn. Soc. xix, t. 4,. f. 5, . . . . 169 

33. Cerithiopsis gemmulifera, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 75, f. 22, 

1871, 170 

34. Cerithiopsis punctatum, Linn. Thes. Conch, f. 240, . 170 

35. Cerithiopsis Emersonii, Ad. (= punctatum). Am. Mar. 

Conch, t. 8, f. 71, 170 

36. Cerithiopsis Greenii, C. B. Ad. Ibid. f. 128, 

37. Cerithiopsis ffavum, C. B. Ad. Specimen. . . . 170 

38. Cerithiopsis pulchellum, C. B. Ad. Thes. Conch, f. 239, . 171 

39. Cerithiopsis Guaranianum. Orb. Voy. Amer. t. 77, f. 11, 171 



460 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

40. Cerithiopsis Stejnegeri, Dall. Proc. Nat. Mus. vii, t. 2, f. 

4, . ........ 171 

41. Cerithiopsis Stejnegeri, var. truncatum, Dall. Ibid. t. 4, 

f. 5, 1886, 171 

42. Cerithiopsis munita, Carp. Specimen. . . .172 

43. Cerithiopsis purpurea, Carp. Specimen. . . .171 

PLATE 36. 

44. Cerithiopsis horrida, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 6, f. 9, 

1885, ... 170 

45. Cerithiopsis gracillima, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Cerith. f. 

138, ... 172 

46. Cerithiopsis Destrugesi, Folin. Les Meleagrin. t. 6, f. 

12, .172 

47. Cerithiopsis cselatum, Couth. Moll. Wilkes Exped. f. 

174, . 172 

48. Cerithiopsis pulvis, Issel. Savigny, Egypt, t. 4, f. 5, . .172 

49. Cerithiopsis clathrata, Angas. (= Angasi). Zool. Proc. 

t. 1, f. 12, 1871, 173 

50. 51. Cerithiopsis gracile, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 223, 224, 173 

52. Cerithiopsis metaxaB, Chiaje. Jeffreys' Brit. Conch, v, t. 

81, f. 4, 173 

53. Cerithiopsis Crosseanum, Tiberi. Jour, de Conch, xi, t. 

6, f. 2, . . . 173 

54. Cerithiopsis convexa, Sowb. Specimen. . .172 

55. Cerithiopsis Benoitianum Mts. Jour, de Conch, t. 13, f. 

2, 1869, . .173 

56. Cerithiopsis terebellum, Ads. Thes. Conch, f. 241, . . 174 

57. Cerithiopsis subreticulata, Dunker. Moll. Japon. t. 2, f. 

10, 170 

58. Cerithiopsis trilineatum, Phil. Thes. Conch, f. 242, . 174 

59. Cerithiopsis assimulatum, Ad. Ibid. f. 246, . . .174 

60. Cerithiopsis carinaum, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 75, f. 21, 

1871, 175 

61. Cerithiopsis Moreleti, Folin. Les Meleagrin. t. 6, f. 10, 174 

62. Cerithiopsis Kanoni, Folin. Ibid. t. 6, f. 11, . . . 174 

63. Cerithiopsis bacillum, Issel. Savigny, Egypt, t. 4, f. 28, 174 

64. Cerithiopsis dextroversum, Ads. & Rve. Voy. Samarang, 

t. 11, f. 31, . . . 175 

65. Cerithiopsis cereum, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 244, . .175 
66.. Cerithiopsis crocea, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 1, f. 13, 1878, 175 

67. Cerithiopsis purpurea, Angas. Ibid. t. 5, f. 7, 1877, . 175 

68. Cerithiopsis metula, Love"n. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, v, t. 

80, f. 3, - . .175 

69. Cerithiopsis obeliscoides, Jeffr. Zool. Proc. t. 6, f. 4, 1885, 175 

70. Cerithiopsis cylindratum, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 6, f. 5, 1885, 175 

71. Cerithiopsis procerum, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 6, f. 2, 1885, .176 

72. Cerithiopsis bizonalis, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 6, f. 10, 1885, . 176 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 461 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

73. Cerithiopsis Whiteavesii, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, 

t. 42, 7, . . . . . m . . . 176 

74. Cerithiopsis costulata, Moller. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, v, 

t. 81, f. 5* . . . 176 

75. Cerithiopsis granosa, Wood. (Magnified). Sars, Moll. 

Norv. t. 13, f. 6, . . . . . . . 177 

PLATE 37. 

76. Triforis regalis, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. i, t. 4, f. 18, . 177 

77. Triforis nodiferus, Ad. & Reeve. Voy. Samarang, t. 11, 

f. 37, . . . . . . . . . . 177 

78. Triforis tibialis, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. i, t. 4, f. 19, 178 

79. Triforis gigas, Hinds. Voy. -Sulphur, t. 8, f. 1, . . 178 

80. Triforis concors, Hinds. Ibid. t. 8, f. 2, . . . . 178 

81. Triforis dolicha, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 42, f. 1, 178 

82. Triforis sculptus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 3, . . 178 

83. Triforis pyramidalis, Ads. & Rve. Voy. Samarang, 1. 11, 

f. 36, . . 178 

84. Triforis Reevei, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 11, f. 25, . . 178 

85. Triforis acutus, Kiener. Kiener, Icon. t. 32, f. 2, . .178 

86. Triforis Mix, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 5, . . 179 

87. Triforis maxillaris, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 7, .179 

88. Triforis micans, Hinds. Ibid. t. 8, f. 7, . . . .179 

89. Triforis alveolatus, Ads. & Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 1. 11, 

f. 30, 179 

90. Triforis Hindsi, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 11, f. 25, . 179 

91. Triforis verrucosus, Ads. & Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 1. 11, 

f. 32, 179 

92. Triforis formosus, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 11, f. 29, . 179 

93. Triforis Angasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 1, f. 13, 1865, 179 

94. Triforis marrnoratus, Pease, Donum Bism. t. 2, f. 8, .180 

95. Triforis fusca, Dunker. Moll. Jap. t. 2, f. 22, . . 180 

96. Triforis Isleanus, Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper. vi, t. 3, f. 

10, 180 

97. 97a. Triforis malvaceus, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. i, t. 

4, f. 2, 1, .180 

98. Triforis Douvillei, Jouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 3, . . 180 

99. Triforis Blainvillei, Jouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 6, . . . 180 
100. Triforis Mariei, Jouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 7, . . . 180 

1. Triforis bigemma, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 43, 

f. 6, ' 180 

2. Triforis Hebes, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 43, f. 7, . . 181 

3. Triforis inflata, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 40, f. 1 . 181 

4. Triforis decoratus, C. B. Ads. Specimen. . . 182 

PLATE 38. 

5. Triforis aspera, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 6, f. 7, 1&35, . 181 

6. Triforis asperrimus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 10, . 181 



462 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE> 

7. Triforis gemmulatus, Ads. & Reeve. Voy. Samarang t 

1.1, f. 34, .... . ... 181 

8. Triforis angustissimus, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 12, f. 1, 182 

9. Triforis Pfeifferi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 1. 1, f. 14, 1865, 182 

10. Triforis mirificus, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 11, f. 32, . 182 

11. Triforis violaceus, Quoy. Voy. Astrol. t. 55, f. 22, . 182 

12. Triforis Ducosensis, Jouss. (= violaceus). Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Fr. i, t. 4, f. 10, 182 

13. Triforis ruber, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, f. 15, . . . 182 

14. Triforis roseus, Hinds. (= ruber). Ibid. t. 8, f. 19. .182 

15. Triforis distinctus, Desh. (= ruber). Moll. Reunion t 

11, f. 30, . . ' .' 183 

16. Triforis Adamsi, Desh. (= ruber). Ibid. t. 11, f. 23, . 183 

17. Triforis vulpinus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 13, .183 

18. Triforis monilifer, Hinds. Ibid. t. 8, f. 14, ... 183 

19. Triforis granulatus, Ads. & Reeve. Voy. Samarang t 

ll,f.33, . 183 

20. Triforis suturalis, A.ds. & Reeve. Ibid. t. 11, f. 29, . 183 

21. Triforis clemens, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 16, .183 

22. Triforis Carteretensis, Hinds. Ibid. t. 8, f. 17, . ! 184 

23. Triforis concinnus, Hinds. Ibid. t. 8, f. 20, . . . 184 

24. Trifows speciosus, Ads. & Reeve. Voy. Samarang, t. 11 

. 28, ... 183 

25. Triforis acicula, Issel. Moll. Mar Rosso, t. 4, f. 3, . . 183 

26. Triforis pupaeformis, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 12, f. 3, . 184 

27. Triforis obesula, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. i, t. 4, f. 17, 185 

28. Triforis perlatus, Issel. Savigny, Egypte, t. 4, f. 4, .185 

29. Triforis crenulatus, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 11, f. 21, . 184 

30. Triforis hilaris, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 18, ! 190 

31. Triforis Tasmanicus, Tenison- Woods. Specimen, . . 184 

32. Triforis crassula, Marts. (= atomus). Moebius' Mauri- 

tius, t. 22, f. 1, . 184 

33. Triforis atomus, Issel. Moll. Mar Rosso, t. 4, f. 4, . 184 

34. Triforis Lervaini, Jouss. (= perlatus). Bull. Soc. Mai 

Fr. i, t. 4, f. 11, . . . . . . . 185 

35. Triforis Chaperi, Jouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 4, . . .185 

36. Triforis xystica, Jouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 8, . . . 185 

PLATE 39. 

37. Triforis Levukense, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 39, 

f. 4, . . . .186 

38. Triforis limosa, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. i, t. 4, f. 16, . 186 

39. Triforis Rossiteri, Jouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 9, . . .' i 8 5 

40. Triforis JKgle, Jouss.. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 12, . . 135 

41. Triforis rufiila, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 42, f. 2, 186 

42. Triforis tristoma, Blainv. Malacol. t. 20, f. 3, . ' 187 

43. Triforis cinguliferiiSj Pease. Don. Bism. t. 2, f. 8, . .186 

44. Triforis perversus, Linn. Kiener, Icon. t. 25, f. 1, . . 187 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 463 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

45. Triforis exilis, Dunker. Moll. Japon. t. 2, f. 9, . . 187 

46. Triforis ornatus, Desh. Kiener, Icon. t. 25, 2; . .188 

47. Triforis cnodax, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. t. 4. f. 14, . 185 

48. Triforis funebris, Jouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 15, . . . 186 

49. Triforis tricolor, Jouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, f, 13, ... 186 

50. Triforis cucullatus Folin, (= alternatus). Meleagrin. t. 

6, f. 13, . . . .... 186 

51. Triforis ad versa, Mtg. (= perversus). Forbes & Hanley, 

Brit. Moll. t. 91, f. 6, 187 

52. Triforis nigrocinctus, Ads. Specimen, .... 188 

53. Triforis turris-Thomse, Chemn. Specimen, . . . 188 

54. Triforis turris-Thomse, (= intermedius). Moll. Cuba. t. 

23, f. 11, 188 

55. Triforis vitrens, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 12, . .188 

56. Triforis Bayani, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. i, t. 4, f. 20, 189 

57. Triforis vittatus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 4, . . 189 

58. Triforis dextroversus, Ads. & Reeve. Voy. Samarang t. 

ll,f.31 190 

59. Triforis corrugatus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 7, . 189 

60. Triforis connatum, Montr. Jour, de Conch. 3 Ser. ii, t. 9, 

f : 4, 189 

61. Triforis cingulata, Dunker, (= Dunkeri). Moll. Japon, 

t. 2, f. 1, 189 

62. Triforis elegans, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 8, f. 11, . 189 

63. Triforis hilaris Hinds. Ibid. t. 8, f. 18, . . . . 190 

64. Triforis cancellatus. Hinds. Ibid. t. 8, f. 6, . . . 189 

65. Triforis triliratus, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 11, f. 27, . 190 

LITTORINID>, 
PLATE 40. 

66. Littorina irrorata, Say. Dentition. Troschel, Gebiss. i, 

t. 10, f. 15, 229 

67. Risella imbricata, Gray. Dentition. Ibid, i, t. 11, f. 8, . 232 

68. Lacuna vincta, Mtg. Dentition. Ibid, i, t. 10, f. 13, . 233 

69. Planaxis sulcatus, Born. Dentition. Ibid, i, t. 12, f. 7, . 237 

70. Litiopa melanostoma, Rang. Dentition. Ibid, i, t. 11, f. 

14, .. 237 

71. Modulus lenticularis, Chemn. Dentition. Ibid, i, t. 11, 

f 15, 232 

72. Fossarus Adansonii, Phil. Dentition. Fischer's Man. 

de Conch, f. 481, 235 

73. Aquilonaria Turned, Dall. Dentition. Proc. Nat. Mus. 

t. 3, f. 2, 1886, 230 

74. Littorina obtusata, Linn. Meyer & Mobius, Kieler bucht, 

f. 6, 229 

75. Littorina obtusata. Operculum. Fischer's, Man. de Conch, 

f. 477, . 229 



464 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

76, 77. Lacuna pallidula, Meyer & Mobius, Kieler bucht, 

f. 10,12, . . . . . . . . 233 

78. Purpurina Bellona, d'Orb. Fischer's, Man. de. Conch, f. 

480, . . .232 

79. Litiopa melanostoma, Kang. Ibid. f. 492, . . . 237 

PLATE 41. 

80. Littorina grandis, Midd. Conch. Icon. f. 16b. . . 240 

81. Littorina squalida, Brod. & Sowb. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 

t. 34, f. 12, . . 240 

82-85. Littorina littorea, Linn. Conch. Icon. f. 18, . . 240 

86. Littorina Mandschurica, Schrenck. Reise Amurl. t. 14, 

f. 17, 241 

87. Littorina Sitchana, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, f. 

11, 240 

88. Littorina Sitchana, Phil. Conch. Icon. f. 49, a. . . 240 

89. Littorina brevicula, Phil. Ibid. f. 51, b. 241 

90. Littorina Souverbiana, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 3d. Ser. 

ii, t. 1, f. 6, . 241 

91. Littorina Aleutica, Dall (== brevicula, var.). Proc. Ca- 

lif. Acad. iv, t. 1, f. 3, a. . . . . . 241 

92. 93. Littorina rudis, Donovan. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll. t. 83, f. 4, 6, . .:...;. . . . 241 

94. Littorina Grcenlandica, Mke. (= rudis). Conch. Icon. f. 

52, .... 241 

95. Littorina nigrolineata, Gray (= rudis, var.). Forbes & 

Hanley, Brit. Moll. t. 83, f. 1, 241 

96. Littorina simplex, Rve. (= rudis). Conch. Icon. f. 63, 

b .' ... 241 

97. Littorina saxatilis, Johnston (= rudis, var.). Forbes 

und Hanley, Brit. Moll. t. 86, f. 4, . . . . 241 

98 99, 100. Littorina patula, Thorpe (= rudis, var.). Ibid. 

t. 85, f. 7, 8; t.GG.f. 2, . . ... .241 

1-4. Littorina tenebrosa, Mtg. (== rudis, var.). Ibid. t. 84, 

f. 12 ; t. 85, f. 2, 4, 5, . . . . . . 241 

5. Littorina obtusata, Linn. (= littoralis). Mai. Rossica, t. 

8, f. 2, . . .241 

6. Littorina arctica, Moll. (= littoralis). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 2, f. 14, . .... 241 

7. Littoriana arctica, Moll. (= littoralis). Conch. Icon. f. 

69, 241 

8. Littorina palliata, Say. (^littoralis). Ibid. f. 31, b. . 242 

9. Littorina ventricosa, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, f. 

14, 242 

10. Littorina porcata, Phil. Conch. Icon. f. 89, . . 242 

PLALE 42. 

11. Littorina ahenea, Reeve. (= scabra). Conch. Icon. f. 15, 

b, 243 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 465 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

12-14. Littorina scabra, Linn. Orb. Moll Cuba, t. 15, f. 10, 

15, 17, .243 

15. Littorina augulifera, var. strigata, Phil. Abbild. ii, t. 5, 

f. 14, . ' . 243 

16. Littorina augulifera, var. rubra, Phil. Ibid, ii, t. 5, f. 

12, . .243 

17. Littorina aurea, Bonnet (= scabra, var.). Guerin's Mag. 

t. 22, f. 4, 1864, . .243 

18. 19. Littorina scabra, Linn. Conch. Icon. f. 15, a. 21, b. 253 

20. Littorina scabra, var. punctata, Phil. Abbild. ii, t. 5, f. 

4, 243 

21. Littorina intermedia, Phil. (==: scabra, var.). Kiister, 

Conch, Cab. t. 4, f. 17, 244 

22. Littorina intermedia, Phil. (= scabra, var.). Conch. Icon. 

f. 101, . . 244 

23. Littorina Sinensis, Phil. (= scabra, var.). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 11, f. 9, . . . . . . . 244 

24. Littorina Newcombii, Rve. (=scabra, var.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 28, a. 244 

25. Littorina arboricola, Rve. Ibid, f. 27, . . . . 244 

26. Littorina Sieboldi, Phil. ( scabra, var.). Conch. Icon. 

f. 26, 244 

27. Littorina Philippiana, Rve. (= scabra, var.). Ibid. f. 22, 

b. 244 

28. Littorina carinifera, Meuke (== scabra, var.). Ibid. f. 

29, b 244 

29. Littorina cingulata, Phil, ( scabra, var.). Ibid. f. 25, . 244 

30. Littorina pallescens, Phil, (scabra, var.). Ibid. f. 43, . 244 

PLATE 43. 

31. 31 a. Littorina filosa, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 24, b. c. . . 244 

32. Littorina aberrans, Phil. Ibid, f. 59, .. . 245 

33. Littorina strigata, Lischke. Japan. Meeresconch. ii, t. 5, 

f. 22, . . 245 

34. Littorina flammea, Phil. Conch. Icon. f. 46, . . . 245 

35. Littorina Fortunei, Rve. (=flammea). Ibid, f. 42, . 245 

36. Littorina luteola, Quoy ( flajnmea). Voy. Astrol. t. 33, 

f. 4, 245 

37. Littorina columellaris, Orb. Conch. Icon. f. 97, . . 245 

38. Littorina nebulosa, Lam. (=scabra, var.) Ibid, f. 55, . 244 

39. 40. Littorina undulata, Gray. Ibid, f. 67, d. b. . 244 

41. Littorina conica, Phil, (^undulata). Ibid, f. 36, b. . 244 

42. Littorina melanostoma, Gray. Ibid, f. 45, a. . . 245 

43. Littorina melanostoma, var. articulata, Nevill. Ibid, f. 

45, b. 245 

44. Littorina varia. Sowb. Genera, Littorina, f. 4, . . 246 

45. Littorina fasciata, Gray (varia.). Conch. Icon. f. 103, 

b. ..."...'.... 246 



466 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

46. Littorina variegata, Soul. (=varia). Voy. Bonite, t. 31, 

f. 40, 246 

47. Littorina pulchra, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 17, a. . . 246 

48. Littorina irrorata, Say. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, f; 7, . 246 

49. Littorina Sayi, Eve. (^irrorata). Conch. Icon. f. 96, b. 246 

50. Littorina exarata, Phil, (irrorata). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 7, f. 16, : 246 

51. Littorina flava, Brod. (=columellaris). Ibid, t. 10, f. 3, 246 

52. Littorina sulculosa, Phil. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 39. . 247 

53. Littorina obesa, Sowb. Ibid, f. 41, .... 247 

54. Littorina rufa, Reel. (Enlarged.) Ibid, f. 87, . . 247 

55. Littorina planaxis, Nuttall. Ibid. f. 38, ... 248 

56. Littorina ambigua, Rve. (=planaxis). Ibid, f. 64, . 248 

PLATE 44. 

57. Littorina picta, Phil. ( planaxis). Conch. Icon. f. 81, 248 

58. Littorina striata, King. Ibid, f. 40, . . . . 247 

59. Littorina globosa, Dunker ( striata). Kuster, Conch. 

Cab. t. 11, f. 4, . . , 247 

60. Littorina punctata, Gmel. Conch. Icon. f. 66, . . 248- 

61. Littorina guttata, Reeve. Ibid, f. 76, . . . 248 

62. 63. Littorina Fraseri, Reeve. (= punctata, Gmel.) Ibid, 

f. 60, 47, . . ' . 248 

64. Littorina pulchella, Dunker. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, 

f. 1, . . . 248 

65. Littorina Knysnaensis, Krauss. Conch. Icon. f. 75, . 249 

66. Littorina Africana, Krauss. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 4, f. 

6, 248 

67. Littorina decollata, Krauss. Conch. Icon. f. 92, . . 249 

68. Littorina picea. Reeve (= Knysnaensis). Ibid. f. 83, . 249 

69. Littorina leucosticta, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 8, f. 1, 249 

70. Littorina luctuosa, Reeve (= Mauritiana). Conch. Icon. 

f. 05, 247 

71. Littorina mauritiana, Lam. Ibid, f. 100, . . . 247 

72. Littorina laevis, Reeve. (= Mauritiana). Ibid, f. 95, . 247 

73. Littorina Diemenensis, Quoy. (== Mauritiana). Ibid, f. 

94, . 247 

74. Littorina cincta, Quoy. ( Mauritiana). Ibid, f. 53, . 247 

75. Littorina Africana, Reeve. (= Mauritiana). Ibid, f. 37a. 247 

76. Littorina Nova-Zdaiulia?, Reeve. Ibid, f. 74, . . . 249) 

77. Littorina melanacme, Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc. xii, t. 30, 

f. 21, . . . . . . . . . 249 

78. Littorina zebra, Wood (= Peruviana). Conch. Icon. f. 

61a. ... 249) 

79. Littorina Cubana, Weink. (= columellaris). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab. t. 9, f. 3, 246 

80. Littorina modest a, Mke. (= conspesa). Conch. Icon. f. 

107, 249 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 




467 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

81. Littorina albida, Phil. (= conspersa). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 11, f. 1, 249 

82. Littorina conspersa, Phil. Ibid. t. 8, f. 11, . 249 

83. Littorina puncticulata, Phil. (= conspersa). Ibid. t. 8, 

f. 9, . 249 

84. Littorina Philippii, Carp. Specimen 249 

85. Littorina penicillata, Carp. Ibid, 250 

86. Littorina pintado, Wood. Conch. Icon, f. 54, b. . . 250 

PLATE 45. 

87. Littorina irrorata, Reeve (= aspera). Phil. Conch. Icon. 

f. 56a 249 

88. Littorina tenebrata, Nuttall (= pintado). Ibid, f. 58, . 250 

89. Littorina tessellata, Phil. Ibid, f. 48b. . . . .250 
90 91. Littorina Paytensis, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 9, 

1,4, 250 

92. Littorina glabrata, Phil. ( ziczac). Conch. Icon. f. 104, 251 
95. Littorina Araucana, Orb. (= Paytensis). Ibid, f. 88, . 250 
96 Littorina Araucana, Orb. ( Paytensis). Voy. Amer. 

Merid. t. 53, f. 9, 250 

97. Littorina cingulifera, Dunker. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 8, 

f. 12, 250 

98. Littorina scutulata, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped. f. 24, 250 

99. 100. Littorina scutulata, Gould. Specimens, . . . 250 

1. Littorina plena, Gld. ( scutulata). Moll. Wilkes Exped. 

f. 236, 250 

2. Littorina lepida, Gld. (= scutulata). Ibid. f. 238, . 250 

3. Littorina pullata, Carp. (== scutulata). Specimen, . 250 

4. Littorina radiata, Souleyet (== granularis). Moll. Voy. 

Boiiite. f. 47, 260 

5. Littorina ziczac, Chemn, Conch. Icon. f. 57, b. . . 251 

6. Littorina carinata, d'Orb. (= ziczac). Ibid, f. 50, . . 251 

7. Littorina debilis, Phil. ( ziczac). Ibid, f. 70, . . 251 

8. Littorina pusilla, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 1, f. 22, 251 

9. Littorina columna, Jonas. Ibid, t. 10, f. 13, . . . 251 
10. Littorina guttata, Phil. ( meleagris). Specimen, . 248 
11 Littorina minima, Gray. Conch. Icon. f. 86, . . . 252 
12. Littorina brevicula, Phil. Abbild. ii, t. 3, f. 20, . . 241 

13 Littorina neritoides, Linn. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll. 

t. 84, f. 1, .... ... 252 

14 15 Littorina Cubana, Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 9, 

f. 3. 2 246 

16. Littorina mespiluin, Miihlf. Ibid. t. 2, f. 17, . . . 252 
17 Littorina naticoides, Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 15, f. 22, . 252 

PLATE 46. 

18. Littorina Thersites, Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 78, . . 252 

19. Littorina acuminata, Gld. Moll. Wilkes Exped. f. 239, 252 



468 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

20, 21. Littorina littoralis, Forbes (= obtusata, Linn). 

Conch. Icon. f. 34, ... ... 252 

22. Littorina fabalis, Turton (= obtusata, Var.). Ibid. f. 

90b v 253 

23. Littornia sestuarii, Jeffreys (== obtusata, Var.). Brit. 

Conch, v, t. 101, f. 8, 253 

24. Littorina umbilicata, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid. t. 76, 

f. 3, . . . 253 

25. 26. Littorina tilbicans, Metcalfe. Conch. Icon., f. 44a, b, 253 

27. Littorina tennis, Phil. Ibid, f. 35, .... 254 

28. Littorina Ardouiniana, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin., 

Pt. 3, t. 25, f. 8, . 253 

29. Littorina caliginosa, Old. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 240, 254 

30. Littorina venusta, Pfeffer. Nat. Hist. Mus. Hamburg, t. 

1, f. 9, 1886, .254 

31. Littorina granum, Pffr. Ibid, t. 1, f. 10, ... 254 

32. Littorina pygmsea, Pffr. Ibid, t. 1, f. 11, . . . i>.">4 

33. Littorina umbilicata, Pffr. Ibid, t. 1, f. 12, . . . 254 

34. Littorina pumilio, Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc. clxviii, t. 9, 

f. 7, . .267 

35. Littorina Hisseyana, Tenison Woods. Specimen, . . 255 

36. Littorina Paludinella, Reeve. Conch. Icon, f. 84, . . 255 

37. Littorina setosa, Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc. clxviii, t. 9, f. 6, 255 

38. Littorina setosa, Smith. Nat. Hist. Mus. Hamburg, t. 1, 

f. 7, 1886, 255 

39-41. Littorina pellita. Marts. Ibid, t, 1, f. 6, . . . 255 

42. Littorina Turneri, Ball. Proc. Nat. Mus., t. 3, f. 3, 1886, 255 

43. Cremnoconchus carinatus, Layard. Conch. Indica, t. 

146, f. 10, ... ." . . 256 

44. Cremnoconchus conicus, Blanf. Ibid, t. 146, f. 9, . . 256 

45. Cremnoconchus Fairbanki, Blanf. ( conicus). Ibid, t. 

146, f. 7, ... . . 256 

46. Cremnoconchus canaliculatus, Blanf. ( conicus). Jour. 

Bengal, xxxix, t. 3, f. 4, 256 

47. Cremnoconchus Syhadrensis, Blanf. Couch. Ind., t. 146, 

6, . : .256 

PLATE 47. 

48. Tectarius pagodus, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 4, . . . 2">6 
49-51. Tectarius bullatus, Martyn. Ibid, f. 1, . . . 257 

52. Tectarius tectum-persicum, Linn. Ibid, f. 3, . . . 257 

53. Tectarius coronaria, Lam. Ibid, f. 2, . . . 257 

54. Tectarius armata, Issel. Issel. Mar Rosso, t. 2, f. 7, . 257 

55. Tectarius tectiformis, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 

43, f. 1, . 258 

56. 57. Tectarius Montrouzieri, Fischer. Kiister, Conch. 

. Cab., t. 14, f. 14, 15, 259 

58. Tectarius spinulosa, Phil. (= bullatus). Conch. Icon., f. 5, 257 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 469 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

59. Tectarius thiarella, Anton ( nodulosus). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 5, f. 9, . 258 

60. Tectarius dilatatus, Orb. (= nodulosus). Conch. Icon., 

9, 258 

61. Tectarius trochoides, Gray (= nodulosus). Ibid, f. 105, 258 

62. Tectarius monilifera, Soul. (= nodulosus). Voy. Bonite, 

t. 31, f. 38, 258 

63. Tectarius Malaccana, Phil. (= nodulosus). Conch. Icon., 

7, . . . 258 

64. Tectarius vilis, Menke (= nodulosus). Ibid., f. 12, . 258 

65. Tectarius subnodosus, Phil. ( nodosus). Ibid., f. 10, . 259 

66. Tectarius nodosus, Gray. Ibid., f. 13, . . . .259 

67. Tectarius Natalensis, Krauss ( nodosus). Ibid., f. 102, 259 

PLATE 48. 

68. Tectarius inuricatus, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 11, . . 258 

69. Tectarius glans, Reeve (= miliaris, var.). Ibid, f. 62a, 259 

70. Tectarius rugosus, Menke. Ibid, f. 32b, ... 259 

71. Tectarius reticulatus, Anton ( miliaris). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 8, f. 13, . 259 

72. Tectarius pyramidalis, Quoy. Conch. Icon., f. 14, . . 258 

73. Tectarius Cumingii, Phil. Kiister, Concli. Cab., 1. 12, f. 9, 257 

74. Tectarius tuberculatus, Gray ( nodulosus). Sagra's 

Cuba, t, 14, f. 21, . 258 

75. Tectarius nodulosus, Ginel. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1. 14, f. 2, 258 

76. Tectarius Feejeensis, Reeve (= miliaris). Conch. Icon., 

f. 82, . . . . 259 

77. Tectarius granosus, Phil. (== miliaris, Var.). Ibid, f. 106, 259 

78. Tectarius miliaris, Quoy. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 33, f. 16, . 259 

79. 80. Tectarius subgranosus, Dunker (= granularis). Voy. 

Novara, t. 1, f". 10, '.260 

81. Tectarius cinereus, Pease (= granularis). Am. Jour. 

Conch, v, t. 8, f. 14, 260 

82. Tectarius granocostatus, Reeve (= miliaris). Conch. Icon., 

f. 79, . . . , 259 

83. Tectarius nodosus, Gray. Ibid, f. 13, . . . 259 

84. Tectarius granularis, Gray. Ibid, f. 68b, . . .260 

85. Tectarius millegrana, Phil. (;= granularis). Ibid., f. 99, . 260 

86. Tectarius lemniscata, Phil. (= nodosus). Ibid., f. 6, . 259 

87. Modulus cidaris, Reeve ( tectum). Reeve, Elem. 

Conch, i, t. 13, f. 63, . . . . . . . 260 

88. Modulus candidus, Petit (= tectum). Jour, de Conch. 

- iv, t. 5, f. 11, .... ... 260 

89. Modulus obtusatus, Phil. (= tectum). Specimen, . . 260 

90. Modulus Floridanus, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch, v, 1. 12, f. 6, 260 

91. 92. Modulus lenticularis, Chemn. Specimen, . . . 261 
93, 94. Modulus disculus, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 36, f. 14, 261 



470 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 49. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

95. Modulus dorsuosus, Gld. Mex. & Cal. Shells, t. 14, f. 12, 261 

96, 97. Modulus cerodes, A. Ad. Specimen, . . .261 

98. Modulus catenulatus, Phil. (= unidens). Kiister, Tro- 

chus, t. 18, f. 4, 261 

99. Risalla nana, Lam. Kiister, Eisella, t. 1, f. 13, . . 262 
100. Modulus trochiformis, Soul. (= unidens). Voy. Bonite, 

t. 37, f. 25, 261 

1, 2. Modulus Moreleti, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., t. 7, f. 2, 

1882, 261 

3. Risella lutea, Quoy. Specimen, 262 

4, 5. Risella cicatricosa, Jonas. Abbild. i, Trochus, t. 2, f. 2, 262 

6. Risella aurata, Quoy. Kiener, Trochus, t. 34, f. 2, . 262 

7. Risella Kielmanseggi, Zelebor. Voy. Novara, t. l,f. lid, 262 

8. 9. Risella imbricata, Gray. Kiister, Risella, t. 1, f. 4, 5, 262 
10, 11. Risella plana, Quoy. Ibid., t. 1, f. 6, 7, . . . 262 

12. Risella plana, Quoy. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser. iv, 1. 11, f. 2, 262 

13. Risella nana, Lam. Specimen, ..... 262 

14. Risella nana, Lam. Voy. Astrol., t. 62, f. 5, . . . 262 

15. Risella Bruni, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser. iv, 1. 11, f. 3, 262 

16. 17. Risella picta, Phil. Kiister, Risella, t. 1, f. 11, 12, . 262 
18, 19. Risella grisea, Phil. Ibid, t. 1, f. 19, 20, . . . 262 
20, 21. Risella melanostoma, Gmel. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser. 

iv, t. 11, f. 1, 262 

22, 23. Risella flavescens, Phil. Kiister, Risella, 1. 1, f. 17, 18, 262 

24, 25. Risella plicatula, Phil. Ibid, t. 1, f. 23, 24, . . 262 

26, 27. Risella fimbriata, Phil. Ibid, t. 1, f. 9, 10, . . 262 

28, 29. Risella vittata, Phil. Ibib, t. 1, f. 25, 26, . . 262 

PLATE 50. 

30, 31. Risella livida, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1. 1, f. 27, 28, 262 
32, 33. Risella tantilla, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped.,f. 215, 263 
34. Risella diminutivus, Rve. (= tantilla). Conch. Icon. 

Trochus, f. 57, . . . . . . 263 

35-37. Risella Gaidei, Montrouz. Jour, de Conch., t. 3, f. 3, 

1879, 263 

38. Risella conoidalis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 24, f. 8, 263 

39, 40. Risella Isseli, Semper. Savigny's Egypt, t. 5, f. 35, . 263 
41, 42. Risella infracostata, Issel. Ibid, t. 5, f. 40, . . 264 
43. Risella Roepstorffiana, Nevill. Specimen, . . . 264 
44-46. Plesiotrochus Souverbianus, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 

t. 3, f 4, 1879, 264 

47, 48. Limnotrochus Thomsoni, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 33, 

f. 17, 1881, 264 

49, 50. Limnotrochus Kirki, Smith. Ibid, t. 33, f. 18, 1881, 264 
51, 52. Lacuna puteolus, Turton. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. 

Moll, t. 72, f. 9 ; t. 74, f. 9, 265 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 471 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

53. 53a. Lacuna pallidula, DaCosta. Ibid, t. 72, f. 2, 4, . 265 
53b. Lacuna Thorpeana, Phil. Kuster, Lacuna, t. 6, f. 14, . 265 

54. Lacuna neritoidea, Gould. Invert. Mass., f. 574, . . 265 

55. Lacuna porrecta, Carp. Specimen, ..... 265 

56. Lacuna effusa, Carp. (= porrecta, Var.). Specimen, . 266 

57. Lacuna exsequata, Carp. ( porrecta, Var.). Specimen, 266 

58. Lacuna variegata, Carp. Specimen, . . . . 266 

59. 60. Lacuna Bourguignati, Rochebr. Nouv. Arch. Mus. 

2 ser. iv, t. 18, f. 12, 266 

61, 62. Lacuna labiosa, Loven ( divaricata). Forbes & 

Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 86, f. 7, 8, . . . . . 266 

63. 74. Lacuna unifasciata, Carp. Specimen, . . . 267 

64. Lacuna fusca, Binney (= divaricata). Kuster, Lacuna, 

t. 6, f. 4, 266 

65. Lacuna gracilior, Mete. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 

74, f. 7, . .266 

66. Lacuna quadrifasciata, Mtg. Ibid, t. 86, f. 6, . . 266 

67, 68. Lacuna vincta, Mtg. ( divaricata). Ibid, t. 72, f. 

11, 12, . . *. 266 

69. Lacuna solidula, Loven. Kuster, Lacuna, t. 6, f. 3, . 266 

70. Lacuna frigida, Loven. Ibid, t. 6, f. 6, . . . . 266 

71. 72. Lacuna carinata,Gld. (= divaricata). Moll.Wilkes' 

Exped., f. 23 la, 266 

73. Lacuna arctica, Phil. (= divaricata). Kuster, Lacuna, 

t. 6, f. 5, . . 266 

75. Lacuna borealis, Phil. (= divaricata). Ibid, t. 6, f. 2, . 266 

76. Lacuna crassior, Mtg. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 

72, f. 6, 267 

77. Lacuna laxata, A. Ad. Jour, de Conch., t. 4, f. 7, 1868, . 268 

PLATE 51. 

78. Lacuna parvula, Velain. Archives Zool. Exper. vi, t. 3, 

f. 11, 270 

79. Lacuna Heberti, Velain. Ibid, t. 6, f. 13, . . .270 

80. Lacuna reflexa, Ball. Proc. Nat. Mus. vii, t. 2, f. 1, 1884, 267 

81. 82. Lacuna Antarctica, Martens. Nat. Hist. Mus. Ham- 

burg, t. 2, f. 1, 1885, 267 

-83. Lacuna depressa, Seguenza. Zool. Proc., t. 4, f. 8, 1885, . 267 
84. Lacuna tenella, Jeffreys. Jeffreys' Brit. Conch, v, t. 101, 

f. 7, . . . . .-".. . . . .268 

85. Lacuna margaritifera, Watson. Moll. Voy. Challenger, t. 

43, f. 3, ... 268 

86. Lacuna Adamsi, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 16, 1883, 268 
37. Lacuna carinata, Jeffreys. Ibid, t. 20, f. 9, 1883, . . 269 
88, 89. Lacuna cincta, Jeffreys. Ibid, t. 20, f. 8, 1883, . 269 
90, 91. Lacuna naticiformis, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 11, 

1883, 269 



472 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

92. Lacuna olivacea, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, t. 29, f. 5, 269 

93. Lacuna cingulata, Verrill. Ibid, vi, t. 32, f. 7, . . 269 

94. Fossarus costatus, Brocchi. Moll. Koussillon, t. 27, f. 19, 272 

95. Fossarus Stoliczkanus, Nevill. Jour. Bengal, xl, 1. 1, f. 10, 272 

96. Fossarus elegans, Verrill & Smith. Trans. Conn. Acad. 

v, t. 57, f. 28, 271 

97. Fossarus mediocris, Folin. Meleagrinicoles, t. 5, f. 8, - . 271 

98. Fossarus reticulatus, Wood. Zool. Proc., t. 4, f. 9, 1885, 272 

99. 100. Fossarus sulcatus, S. Wood. Crag Moll., t. 8, f. 23, 272 

1. Fossarus insignis, Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Beng. xl, t. 1, 

f. 9, 273 

2. Fossarus cereus, Watson. Moll. Voy. Challenger, t. 43, 

f. 4, ; 274 

2a. Fossarina patula, Ad. & Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 37, f. 9, 276 

PLATE 52. 

3-5. Fossarus ambiguus, Linn. Kiister, Fossar, t. 1, f. 11, 

4, 5, 271 

6. Fossarus sulcatus, Orb. ( Orbignyi, Fischer). Moll. 

Cuba, t. 17, f. 28, . . 271 

7. Fossarus lamellosus, Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser. i, t. 

11, f. 3, 271 

8. Fossarus pusillus, Gould. Specimen. .... 272 

9. Risella Caledonica, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 6, f. 6, 

1875, 263 

10. Fossarus atratus, C. B. Ad. Specimen, .... 272 

11. Fossarus fenestratus, Carp. Specimen, .... 272 

12. Fossarus obtusa, Carp. Specimen, 273 

13. Fossarus reticulatus, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 13, 1853, 273 

14. Fossarus tuberatus, Jeffreys. Ibid, t. 20, f. 12, 1853, . 274 

15. Fossarus tuberculatus, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 

46, f. 5, 275 

16. Fossarina picta, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 26, 1867, . 275 

17. Fossarina Brazieri, Angas. Ibid, t. 1, f. 24, 1877, . . 275 

18. 19. Fossarina funiculata, Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Viet. 

xvii, f. 6, 7, 275 

20, 21. Fossarina Petterdi, Brazier. Jour, de Conch., t. 12, 

f. 1, 1871, . . . 275 

22, 23. Planaxis sulcatus, Born. Conch. Icon., f. 4, . 276 

24. Planaxis breviculus, Desh. Thes. Conch., t. 483, f. 3, . 277 

25. Planaxis Savignyi, Desh. Ibid, f. 4, . . . . 277 

26. Planaxis Savignyi, Desh. Conch. Icon., f. 30b, . . 277 

27. Planaxis encausticus, Smith. Thes. Conch., f. 32, . . 277 

28. Planaxis crassispira, Smith. Ibid, f. 14, . 277 

29. Planaxis Nicobaricus, Zelebor (== mollis). Moll. Voy. 

Novara, t. 2, f. 1, . ' 279 

30. Planaxis planicostatus, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 26, . . 277 

31. Planaxis obscurus, A. Ad. (= sulcatus). Ibid, f. 5, . 276 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 473 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

32. Planaxis brevis, Quov ( sulcatus). Voy. Astrol., t. 33, 

f. 30, . 276 

33. Planaxis suturalis, Smith. Conch. Icon., f. 18, . . 277 

34. 35. Planaxis mollis, Sowb. Ibid, f. 35, . . . . 279 

36. Planaxis nucleus, Lam. Ibid, 7, 277 

37. Planaxis nigra, Quoy. Ibid, 13, 278 

38. Planaxis ater, Pease (== lineatus). Ibid, f. 18, . . 278 

39. Planaxis Hanleyi, Smith (= nigra). Ibid, f. 12, . . 278 

40. Planaxis abbreviatus, Pease. Ibid, f. 19, . . .277 

41. Planaxis labiosus, A. Ad. ( lineatus, Var.). Ibid, f. 14a, 279 

42. Planaxis acutus, Krauss. Ibid, f. 9, .... 278 

43. Planaxis castaneus, Smith (= nigritella). Ibid, 2, . 278 

44. Planaxis similis, Smith. Ibid, f. 11, . . . . 278 

45. Planaxis atropurpureus, Recluz (= nigra). Ibid, f. 10, 278 

46. Planaxis Albersi, Dunker (= nigra). Ind. Moll. Guin., 

t. 2, f. 35, . .... . . . 278 

47. Planaxis nigritella, Forbes. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 8, . 278 

48. Planaxis cingulatus, A. Ad. (= lineatus). Ibid, f. 15, . 278 

PLATE 53. 

49. Planaxis virgatus, Smith ( lineatus). Reeve,. Conch. 

Icon., f. 24, . . . 279 

50. 51. Planaxis variabilis, Smith' (= lineatus). Ibid, f. 23, 278 

52. Planaxis ineptus, Gld. (== lineatus). Ibid, f. 28, . . 278 

53. Planaxis zonatus, A. Ad. (= lineatus). Ibid, f. 29, . 279 

54. Planaxis Hermannseni, Dkr. Ind. Moll. Guinea, t. 2, f. 33, 279 

55. Planaxis loiiffispira, Smith ( lineatus). Conch. Icon., 

32, . . . .279 

56. Planaxis striatula, Phil. (= lineatus, Var.). Donum 

Bismark., t. 2, 11, . . . . . . .279 

57. Planaxis lineolatus, Gld. (= lineatus). Conch. Icon., 31, 278 

58. Planaxis tenuis, Smith. Ibid, f. 27, .... 279 

59. Planaxis strigatus, Han ley (= lineatus). Ibid, 25, . 279 

60. 61. Planaxis punctostriatus, Smith. Ibid, f. 34, . . 279 

62. Planaxis piligerus, Phil. Conch. Icon., 38, . . . 280 

63. Planaxis lineatus, DaCosta. Conch. Icon., 20, . . 279 

64. Planaxis eboreus, Smith (= lineatus). Conch. Icon., 33, 278 

65. Planaxis succinctus, A. Ad. (= lineatus). Ibid, 21, . 278 

66. Planaxis fasciatus, Pease '(= lineatus). Am. Jour. Conch. 

iv, t. 12, 17, 278 

67. 68. Planaxis Hidalgoi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 8, 

7, 1886, .279 

69. Planaxis setigerus, A. Ad. ( piligerus). Zool. Proc., t. 

20, f. 5, 1853, . 280 

70. Planaxis Michaui, Crosse & Fischer (= decollatus). 

Conch. Icon. Planaxis, 36, 280 

71. Planaxis decollatus, Quoy. Ibid, 37, . . . .280 



474 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

72. Litiopa striata, Pfr. (== melanostoma). Moll. Voy. 

Bonite, t. 37, /. 1, 281 

73. Litiopa nitidula, Pfr. (== melanostoma). Ind. Moll. 

Guin., t. 2, f. 22, 281 

74. Litiopa bombyx, Bang. (= melanostoma). Adams' 

Genera, t. 3, 4, f. 5, 281 

75. Litiopa Grateloupiana, Drouet (= melanostoma). Moll. 

Acores, f. 1, .281 

76. Litiopa Savignyi, Issel. Savigny's Egypte, t. 3, f. 19, . 281 

77. Litiopa Jeffrey siana, Issel. Mar Rosso, t. 5, f. 4, . 281 

78. Litiopa decussata, Gould (== melanostoma). Moll. Wilkes' 

Exped., f. 252, ... .... 281 

79. Litiopa Bellangeri, Soul. Voy. Bonite., t. 37, f. 7, . . 281 
30. Litiopa striata, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 42, f. 6, 284 
SI. Litiopa semistriata, Phil. Savigny's Egypte, t. 3, f. 27, . 282 
82. Litiopa Martensi, Issel. Ibid, t. 3, f. 26, ... 282 
3. Litiopa lauta, A. Ad. Specimen. ..... 282 

34. Litiopa phasianella, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1. 13, f. 18, 1867, 283 
85. Litiopa suturalis, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 172, f. 32, . 283 
36. Litiopa Leithi, Smith. Zool. Proc., p. 537, 1875, . . 283 
87. Litiopa marmorea, Carp. Specimen. .... 283 

38. Litiopa albugo, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 42, f. 3, 283 

89. Litiopa limnaeiformis, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 41, f. 7, . 283 

90. Litiopa fulva, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 42, f. 5, . . . 284 

91. Litiopa sulcata, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 42, f. 7, . . . 284 

92. Litiopa goniocheila, A. Ad. Ibid, xv, t. 42, f. 4, . . 284 

RISSOID>. 

PLATE 54. 

93. 94. Operculum of Rissoina Inca, d'Orb.* Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 5,f.4, .-..;. ... .320 

95. Operculum of Rissoa violacea. Fischer's Manuel, f. 494, 314 

96, 97. Operculum of Jeffreysia diaphana. Forbes & Han- 

ley, Brit. Moll., t, JJ, f. 1, . . . . . .322 

98. Rissoa parva. Dentition. Troschel, Gebiss. i, t. 10, f. 6, 315 

99. Skenea planorbis. Dentition. Ibid, i, t. 10, f. 10, . . 323 
100. Skenea planorbis. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll. t. GG. 

f. 1, . . . . . . . . . .323 

1. Jeffreysia opalina. Dentition. Troschel, Gebiss. i, t. 10, 

f. 12, 323 

2. Jeffreysia opalina. Jaw. Ibid, i, t. 10, f. 11, . * 322 

3. Homalogyra nitidissima. Fischer's Manuel, f. 487, . 324 

4. Homalogyra nitidissima. Dentition. Sars, Moll. Arct. 

Norv 324 

5. Choristes elegans, Carp. Dentition. Trans. Conn. Acad. 

v, t. 58, f. 27, a 324 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 475 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

6. Rissoina terebroides, E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc. xii, 

t. 30, f. 19, 373 

7. Rissoina multicostata, Schw. ( Krebsii). Schwartz, 

Rissoina, t. 6, f. 48, 371 

8. Rissoina scalarina, A. Ad. ( plicata, Ad.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 6, 375 

9. Rissoina obeliscus, Recluz. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 2, f. 

15, 376 

10. Rissoina lirata, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 40, f. 11, 1880, . 373 

11. Rissoina scalariformis, Watson. Voy. Challenger, t. 46, 

f. 6 378 

12. Rissoina triangularis, Watson. Ibid, t. 46, f. 7, . . 373 

13. Rissoina Honolulensis, Watson. Ibid, t. 46, f. 9, . . 373 

14. Rissoina mercurialis, Watson. Ibid, t. 46, f. 8, . . 378 

PLATE 55. 

15. Rissoina Inca, d'Orb, Kiister's Conch. Cab. t. 5, f. 2, . 369 

16. Rissoina pyramidalis, A. Ad. Ibid, t. 7, f. 1, . . . 369 

17. Rissoina fasciata, A. Ad. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 1, f. 3, . 370 

18. Rissoina Smithii, Angas. ( fasciata). Conch. Icon. f. 

68, . 370 

19. Rissoina Bruguierei, Payr. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 1, f. 4, 370 

20. Rissoina crassa, Angas (= Rissoi). Zool. Proc. t. 1, f. 

16, 1871, 378 

21. Rissoina Hanleyi, Schwartz. Rissoina, t. 4, f. 28, . . 370 

22. Rissoina striolata, Risso. (= Bruguierei). Ibid, t. 1, f. 5, 370 

23. Rissoina monilis, A. Ad. Ibid, t. 1, f. 7, ... 371 

24. Rissoina nivea, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 91, . . . 379 

25. Rissoina fortis, C. B. Ad. Ibid, f. 30, .... 371 

26. Rissoina striata, Menke. Ibid, f. 87, . . . 371 

27. Rissoina pusilla, Schw. ( ambigua). Schwartz, Rissoina, 

t. 4, f. 29, 371 

28. Rissoina micans, A. Ad. Ibid, t. 1, f. 8, . . . 371 

29. Rissoina myosoroides, Recluz. (== ambigua). Ibid, t. 4, 

f. 30, . . .371 

30. Rissoina conifera, Schwartz. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 4, f. 3, 370 

31. Rissoina ambigua, Gould. Ibid, t. 3, f. 27, ... 371 

32. Rissoina costulata, Pease. Reeve's Conch. Icon. f. 121, . 372 

33. Rissoina terebra, Garrett. (= incerta). Proc. Philad. 

Acad. t. 2, f. 11, 1873, 372 

34. Rissoina incerta, Souverb. Conch. Icon. f. 46, . . 372 

35. Rissoina subconcinna, Souverb. Ibid, f. 85, . . . 371 

36. Rissoina subdebilis, Nevill. Kiister's Conch. Cab. t. 15b. 

f. 9, 376 

37. 38. Rissoina Nevilliana, Weink. Ibid, 1. 15, a. f. 7; t. 15d. 

f. 2, ....... 372 

39. Rissoina Gertrudse, Tenison- Woods. Specimen. . .372 



476 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

40. Rissoina spiralis, Souverb. Kiister's Conch. Cab. t. 14 

f. 11, 373 

41. Rissoina costatogranosa, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 

2, f. 7, 1873, 373 

42. Rissoina gracilis, Garrett. Ibid. t. 2, f. 8, 1873, . . 373 

PLATE 56. 

43-46. Rissoina variegata, Arigas. Conch. Icon. f. 64, . 370 

47. Rissoina millecostata, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 2, 

f. 3, 1873, 387 

48. Rissoina debilis, Garrett. Ibid, t. 2, f. 9, 1873, . . 372 

49. Rissoina Duclosi, Montr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 14, f. 9, 378 

50. Rissoina angulata, Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. xi, t. 6, 

f. 7, . . . 375 

51. Rissoina elegantissima, d'Orb. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 2, 

f. 12, 374 

52. Rissoina dubiosa, C. B. Ad. Ibid, t. 4, f. 3, ... 374 

53. Rissoina Burdigalensis, d'Orb. Ibid, t. 2, f. 13, . . 375 

54. Rissoina subvillica, Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15d. 

f. 14, . . 374 

55. Rissoina canaliculata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 60, . . 376 

56. Rissoina distans, Anton. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 2, f. 17, 375 

57. Rissoina costata, A. Ad. Ibid, t. 2, f. 16, . . . 376 

58. Rissoina plicata, A. Ad. Ibid, t. 3, f. 21, . . .375 

59. Rissoina denticulata, Mohrenst. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

3, f. 23, . . . 375 

60. Rissoina subangulata, Schwartz. I\is,soina, t. 3, f. 20, . 375 

61. Rissoina Weinkauffiana, Nevill. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

ir>l>. f. 7, 376 

62. Rissoina plicatula, Gould. Ibid, t. 15b. f. 5, . . . 377 

63. Rissoina turricula, Pease. Ibid, t. 15c. f. 6, . . .377 

64. Rissoina subfuniculata, Nevill. Ibid, t. 15b. f. 8, . . 377 

65. Rissoina minuta, Nevill. Ibid, t. 15, f. 12, . . 376 

66. Rissoina scolopax, Souverb. Kuster, Conch. Cab. t. 1-1, 

f. 1, . . 377 

67. Rissoina bryerea, Mtg. Conch. Icon. f. 8, . . 379 

68. Rissoina scalariformis, Schwartz. Rissoina, t. 3, f. 24, . 375 

69. Rissoina funiculata, Souverb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 1 4, 

f. 12, 377 

70. Rissoina pseudobryerea, Nevill. Ibid, t. 15d. f. 1, . . 379 

71. Rissoina scalaroides, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 1, . . 379 

72. Rissoina Woodwardi, Carp. Ibid, f. 104, . . . 372 

73. Rissoina Chesnelli, Mich. Ibid, f. 89, . . . . 380 

74. Rissoina Catesbyana, d'Orb. Ibid, f. 94, ... 380 

75. Rissoina Baxteriana, Nevill. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15d. 

f. 7, 376 

76. Rissoina triticea, Pease. Conch. Icon. f. 102, . .380 



TJNIVEI 

REFERENCE TO PLATES. 477 
PLATE 57. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

77. Rissoina exigua, Dunker. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15c. 

f. 3, . ' . . . . . . ' . . .380 

78. Rissoina Rissoi, Audouin. Ibid, t. 15, f. 13, . . . 378 

79. Rissoina clathrata, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 76. . . 381 

80. Rissoina bicollaris, Schwartz. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, 

f. 5, . . . . . . . . . . 381 

81. Rissoina fenestrata, Schwartz. Rissoina, t. 7, f. 51, . 381 

82. Rissoina pulchra,' C. B. Ad. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, 

f. 7, . . .381 

83. Rissoina pulchra, C. B. Ad. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 7, f. 

52, a. 381 

84. Rissoina cancellata, Phil. Ibid, t. 7, f. 52, . . .381 

85. Rissoina nitida, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 53, .' . .383 

86. Rissoina Sai>Taiana, d'Orb. Ibid, f. 80, . . . .384 

87. Rissoina Deshayesii, Schwartz. Rissoina, t. 7, f. 55, . 382 

88. Rissoina labrosa, Schwartz. Ibid, t. 7, f. 58, . . . 382 

89. Rissoina media, Schwartz. Ibid, t. 7, f. 56, ... 382 

90. Rissoina costulata, Dunker. Ind. Moll. Jap. t. 2, f. 11, . 374 

91. Rissoina ccelata, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 14, . . . 386 

92. Rissoina ErythrsBa, Schwartz. Rissoina, t. 8, f. 59, . . 384 

93. Rissoina bellula, A. Ad. Ibid, t. 8, f. 60, . . . 383 

94. Rissoina nodicincta, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 72, . . 383 
1)5. Rissoina Plnlippiana, Pfr. (= cancellata). Ibid, f. 103, 381 

96. Rissoina exasperata, Souverb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 14, 

f. 10, 384 

97, 98. Rissoina Seguenziana, Issel. Ibid, t. 15, f. 16; t. 15c. 

f. 2, . . . 383 

99. Rissoina Samoensis, Dunker. Ibid, t. 15c. f. 1, . . 384 

100, 1. Rissoina strigillata, Gould. Ibid, t 15, b. f. 14, . 383 

2. Rissoina Himgerfordiana, Nevill. Ibid, t. 15, a. f. 9, . 383 

PLATE 58. 

3. Rissoina Blanfordi, Nevill. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15, d. 

f. 6, 383 

4. Rissoina Jickeli, Weinkauff. Ibid, t. 15, c. f. 4, . 383 
"). Rissoiuu sculptilis, Garrett. Proc. Phllad. Acad. t. 2, f. 

2, 1878, 383 

6. Rissoina scabra, Garrett. Ibid, t. 2, f. 6, 1873, . . 384 
7i Rissoina hystrix, Souverb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15, f. 

3, 383 

8. Rissoina horrida, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 2, f. 5, 

1873, , 383 

9. Rissoina Privati, Folin. Fonds de la Mer. i, t. 1, f. 8, . 382 

10. Rissoina transenna, Watson. Voy. Challenger, t. 46, f. 

10, 382 

11. Rissoina Curtisii, E. A. Smith. Zool. Alert, t. 5, f. M. . 384 



478 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

12. Rissoina granulosa, Pease. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 14, f. 

13, 383 

13. Rissoina elegantula, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 40, f. 10, 

1880, .386 

14. Rissoina reticulata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 75, . . 385 

15. Rissoina decussata, Mtg. Ibid, f. 78, . . . 385 

16. Rissoina princeps, C. B. Ad. (reticulata). Ibid, f. 95, 385 

17. Rissoina striato-costata, d'Orb. Ibid, f. 88, . . . 385 

18. Rissoina concinna, A. Ad. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, f. 

3, 386 

19. Rissoina concinna, Sowb. (=pseudoconcinna, Nev.) Conch. 

Icon. f. 9, .391 

20. Rissoina Adamsiana, Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15, 

a. f. 4, . . . .386 

21. Rissoina Andamanica, Weink. Ibid, t. 15, b. f. 6, . . 386 

22. Rissoina dimidiata, Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gessell. xi, t. 6, 

f. 4, 386 

23. Rissoina Mohrensterni, Desh. Conch. Icon. f. 57, . . 386 

24. Rissoina tenuistriata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 24, 

f. 30, 386 

25. Rissoina gigantea, Desh. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 8, f. 

62, 387 

26. Rissoina Antoni, Schwartz. Ibid, t. 8, f. 63, . . . 388 

27. Rissoina deformis, Sowb. (^spirata). Ibid, t. 8, f. 65, . 388 

28. Rissoina d'Orbigny, A. Ad. (spirata). Conch. Icon. f. 

7, 388 

29. Rissoina spirata, Sowb. Ibid, f. 17, . . . . 388 

PLATE 59. 

30. Rissoina striolata, A. Ad. (spirata). Conch. Icon. f. 

65, '. 388 

31. Rissoina supracostata, Garrett. Proc. Phil ad. Acad. t. 2, 

f. 1, 1873, . 388 

32. Rissoina Lamberti, Souverb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 14, 

f. 7, . . . 388 

33. Rissoina turrita, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 2, f. 12, 

1*73, 389 

34. Rissoina albida, C. B. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 92, . . 388 

35. Rissoina deformis, Reeve ( spirata). Conch. Icon. f. 

(J3, . 388 

36. Rissoina .Japonioa, Weink. (^spirata). Kiister, Conch. 

Tab. t. 1.",, a. f. 1, .388 

37. Ivissoina Artensis, Montr. (=spirata). Conch. Icon. f. 

84, 388 

38. Rissoina percrassa, Nevill. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15, f. 

10, .... 389 

39. Rissoina semiglabra, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 58, . . 389 

40. Rissoina insignis, Xd. and Reeve. Ibid, f. 61, . . 389 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 479 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

41. Rissoina tridentata, Mich. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 9, f. 

74, 389 

42. Rissoina bidentata, Phil. Ibid, t. 9, f. 75, ... 389 

43. Rissoina coronata, Recluz. Ibid, t. 10, f. 77, . . 389 

44. Rissoina eulimoides, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. f. 99, . . 389 

45. Rissoina Browniana, d'Orb. Ibid, f. 101, . . .390 

46. Rissoina Isevissima, C. B. Ad. Ibid, f. 93, ... 390 

47. Rissoina oryza, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 2, f. 4, 

1873, . . 390 

48. Rissoina Isevigata, C. B. Ad. Schwartz, Rissoina, t. 10, 

f. 79, 390 

49. Rissoina Sloaniana, d'Orb. Ibid, t. 10, f. 80, . . 390 

50. Rissoina vitrea, C. B. Ad. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 13, f. 

7, 390 

51. Rissoina Peasiana, Nevill. Ibid, t. 15, a. f. 6, . . 389 

52. Rissoina subulina, Weink. Ibid, t. 15, a. f. 3, .. . 390 

53. Rissoina Stoppani, Weink. Ibid, t. 15, c. f. 5, . . 390 

54. Rissoina semiplicata, Pease. Conch. Icon. f. 100, . . 389 

55. Rissoina insolita, Desh. Ibid, f. 43, . ...... . 391 

56. Rissoina sublsevigata, Nevill. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 15, 

c. f. 7, .... ... 390. 

57. 58. Rissoina mir.mda, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 15, a. f. 8 ; t. 15, 

cl. f. 3, . . 391 

59. Rissoina Bellardii, Issel (Miranda). Mar Rosso, t. 

5, f. 9, . . 391 

60. Rissoina mirabilis, Dunker. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15, a. 

f. 5, . 391 

61. Rissoina abnormis, Nevill. Ibid, t. 15, f. 9, . . . 391 

62. Rossoina affinis, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 2, f. 10, 

1873, 389 

PLATE 60. 

63. Fairbankia Bombayana, Blanf. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 

15, c. f. 8, 393 

64. Iravadia trochlearis, Gould. Conch. Icon. f. 105, . 394 

65. Iravadia trochlearis, var. minor. Kiister, Rissoidse, t. 

2, f. 21, 394 

66. Iravadia ornata, Blanf. Ibid, t. 15, b. f. 1, . . . 393 

67. Rissoina Kerguelenensis, Smith. Ibid, t. 25, f. 16, . 391 

68. Rissoina subrnfescens, Smith. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 25, 

f. 17, . . . , 391 

69. Rissoina caliginosa, Smith. Ibid, t. 25, f. 15, . . 392 

70. Barleeia rubra, Ads. Ibid, t. 29, f. 21, . . . 392 

71. Barleeia rubra, Ads. Conch. Icon., f. 54, ... 392 

72. Barleeia fulva, Mich, (=rubra). Ibid, f. 55, . . 392 

73. Barleeia subtenuis, Carp. Specimen, . ... . 393 

74. Barleeia haliotiphila, Carp. Specimen, . . . 393 

75. Barleeia imbricta, Watson. Voy. Challenger, t. 43, f. 2, 393 



480 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

76. Fenella pupoides, A. Ad. Jour, de Conch., t. 4, f. 5, 1868, 394 

77. Fenella pupoidea, Carp. (=subpupoidea). Specimen, . 394 

78. Fenella excurvata, Carp. Specimen, .... 395 

79. Fenella virgata, Phil. Savigny's Egypte, t. 3, f. 29, . 394 

80. Fenella cerithina, Phil. Ibid, t. 3, f. 23, . . .395 
SI. Fenella reticulata, A. Ad. Trans. Roy. Soc., clxviii, t. 

51, f. 6, , . . .395 

82. Fenella elongata, Watson. Voy: Challenger, t. 34, f. 4, 395 

83. Feuella infratincta, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 2, f. 

22, 1873, . . .395 

84. Fenella semicostata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 24, 

f 22 ' 395 

85. Putilla lucida, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 19' f. 25, 1867, . 396 

86. Jeffreysia bifasciata, Car]). Specimen, 396 

87. Jeffreysia Alderi, Carp. Specimen, 396 

88. Jeffreysia diaphana, Alder. (=glabra). Sowb. Index. 

Brit. Shells, t. 14, f. 13, . ... 396 

89. Jeffreysia opalina, Jeffreys. Ibid, t. 14, f 14, . . 396 

90. Jeffreysia globularis, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., v, t. 69, f. 7, 397 

91. Jeffreysia cylindrica, Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. K". Hist., xiii, 

t. 2,*f. 18; 1856, . ...... 397 

92. Jeffreysia Edwardiensis, Watson. Voy. Challenger, t. 43, 

f. 5, . . . 397 

93. Jeffreysia Sancta Pauli, Velain. Archives Zool. Exper., 

vi, t. 3, f. 20, 397 

94. Tatea Huonensis, Woods. Specimen ->97 

95. Dardania olivacea. Hutton. Specimen. . . . 397 

96. 97. Skenella Georgiana, Pfeffer. JS T at. Hist. Mus. Ham- 

berg, t. 2, f. 6, a. b. 1885, 396 

98, 99. Skenea subcanaliculata, Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

clxviii, t. 9, f. 15 . 398 

100. Skenea planorbis, Fabr. Forbes and Hanley, Brit, Moll., 

t. 74, f. 1, 398 

1. Skenea Ijevis, Phil. (=serpuloides). Ibid, t. 88, f. 5, . 398 

2. Skenea divisa, Forbes and Hanly. ( serpuloides). Ibid, 

t. 74, f. 4, .398 

PLATE 61. 

3. Choristes elegans, Carp. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 58, f. 

27, . . 398 

4-6. Homaloiryra nitidissima, Forbes and Hanley. Brit. 

Moll., t. 73, f. 7-9, 399 

7. Homalogyra rota, Forbes and Hanley. Ibid, t, 73, f. 10, 399 

8, 9. Homalogyra Fischeriana, Monts. Jour, de Conch., t. 

13, f. 1, 1869, . . . 399 

10, 11. Homalogyra densicostata, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 10, 

f. 1, 1884, 399 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 481 

FIGURE. PAGK.~ 

12-14. Homalogyra cancellata, Krauss. Sudafr. Moll., t. 5 f. 

29, . . 400 

15. Rissoia ventricosa, Desm. Schwartz, Rissoa, t. 3, f. 36, 325 

16. Rissoia splendida, Eichw. Ibid, t. 3. f. 37, . . . 325 

17. 18. Rissoia variabilis, Miihlf. Ibid, t. 3, f. 35, 35, a. . 325 
19-22. Rissoia membranacea, Ads. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 1, 

f. 5, 8, 10, 16, 329 

23, 24. Rissoia membranacea, var. octoua, Niks. Schwartz, 

Rissoia, t. 1, f. 8, 399 

25, 26. Rissoia cornea, Loven (--membranacea). Ibid, t. 1, 

f. 9, 9, a. . . 329 

27. Rissoia Ehrenbergi, Phil. Ibid, t. 2, f. 23, . . . 327 

28. Rissoia lineolata, Mich. Ibid, t. 2, f. 27, . . .329 

29. Rissoia similis, Scacchi. Ibid, t. 3, f. 28, ... 327 

PLATE 62. 

30. 31, Rissoia decorata, Phil. Schwartz, Rissoa, t. 3, f. 33, 

33, a. . 326 

32. Rissoia venusta, Phil. Ibid, t. 3, f. 42, ... 331 

33. Rissoia lia, Benoit. Specimen, 829 

34. 35. Rissoia subcostulata, Schwartz ( - costulata, Alder). 

Rissoa, t. 3, f. 32, 32, a 826 

36. Rissoia Guerini, Recluz. Ibid, t, 3, f. 34, . . . 326 

37. Rissoia violacea, Desm. Ibid, t. 3, f. 42, ... 330 

38. Rissoia rufilabrum, Alder (=violaeea, var.). Ibid, t. 3, 

f. 41, ... 330 

39. Rissoia porifera, Loven ( -^violacea, var.). Ibid, t. 3, f. 

43, . . . 330 

40. Rissoia lilacina, Recluz. Ibid, t. 3, f. 40, . . . 329 

41. Rissoia monodonta, Bivoua. Ibid, t. 1, f. 6, . . 330 

42. 43. Rissoia auriscalpium, Linn. Ibid, t. 1, f. ], 1, a. . 331 

44. Rissoia elata, Phil. Ibid, t. 1, f. 2. ... 331 

45. Rissoia oblonga, Desm. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 16, f. 

9, 331 

46-48, Rissoia parva, Da Costa. Schwartz, Rissoa, t. 2, f. 12, 

a.b. 332 

49, 50. Rissoia interrupta, Adams. Ibid, t. 2, f. 14, 14, a. . 332 

51. Rissoia dolium, Nyst. Ibid, t. 2, f. 13, . . . 332 

52. Rissoia inconspicua, Alder. Ibid, t. 2, f. 22, . . 327 

53. 54. Rissoia pulchella, Phil. Ibid, t. 2, f. 21, 21, a. . 333 

PLATE 63. 

55. Rissoia radiata, Phil. Schwartz, Monog. Rissoa, t. 2, 

f. 26, . . . 333 

56. Rissoia plicatula, Risso. Ibid, t. 2, f. 25, ... 325 

57. Rissoia inconspicua, Alder. Ibid, t. 2, f. 22, . . . 334 

58. Rissoia variegata, Schwartz (= inconspicua). Ibid, t. 2, 

f. 15, . . . 334 

31 



482 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

59. Rissoia albella, Loven. Ibid, t. 1, f. 10, . . . . 334 

60-62. Rissoia albella, Var. Sarsi, Loven. Ibid, t. 1, f. 11, . 334 

63. Rissoia margimita, Mich. Ibid., t. 1, f. 16, . . . 334 

64. Rissoia flanmiea, Frauenf. Voy. Novara, t. 2, f. 18, . 339 

65. Rissoia incidata, Frauenf. Ibid, t. 2, f. 19, . . . 339 

66. Rissoia costata, Ads. Kiister, Condi. Tab., t. 3, f. 26, . 336 

67. Rissoia punctura, 31 tg. Ibid, t. 19, f. 4, . . . . 337 

68. Rissoia Macandrewi, Manzoni. Ibid, t. 19, f. 13, . . 337 

69. Rissoia microthyra, Martens. Moebius' Mauritius, t. 20, 

f. 18, . 339 

70. Rissoia insignis, Folin. Les Meleagrin., t. 5, f. 2, . . 338 

71. Rissoia striata, Mtg. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 78, 

f. 9, . . . 346 

72. Rissoia Novarensis, Watson ( = euchila). Zool. Proc., t. 

35, f. 13, 1873, 335 

73. Rissoia multilineata, Stimp. Tryon's Am. Conch., t. 11, 

f. 159, . . 346 

74. Rissoia arenaria, Mighels. Ibid, t. 11, f. 160, . . 347 

75. Rissoia exarata, Stimpson. Ibid, t. 11, f. 161, . . . 347 

76. Rissoia carinata, Mighels. Ibid, t. 11, f. 162, . . . 348 

77. Rissoia castanea, Moller. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 20, f. 2, 349 

78. Rissoia crystallina, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 2, 

f. 25, 1873, 364 

79. Rissoia truncata, Garrett. Ibid, t. 2, f. 26, 1873, . . 351 

80. Rissoia Moniziana, Watson. Zool. Proc., t. 34, f. 10, 1873, 349 

81. Rissoia vitrea, Mtt>\ Kiister, Conch. Tub., t. 20, f. 16, . 351 

82. Rissoia proxima, Alder. Ibid, t, li), f. 3, ... 351 

83. Rissoia Lancise, Calcara. B. D. D. Moll. Rouss., t. 36, f. 1, 361 

84. Rissoia scabra, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Calx, t. 22, f. 3, . 303 

85. Rissoia deliciosa, Jeifreys. Ibid, t. 23, f. 5, ... 328 

86. Rissoia Zetlandica, Mtg. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., 

t. 80, f. 1, . . 337 

PLATE 64. 

\ 

87. Rissoia saxatilis, Moller. Proc. N. S. Nat. Mus., t. 3, f. 

8, 1886, 347 

88. Rissoia leptalsea, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, t. 32, . 

f. 10, .... 347 

89. Rissoia Watsoni, Schwartz. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 22, 

f. 10, 337 

90. Rissoia brachia, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 45, f. 8, 348 

91. Rissoia sedonis,. Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 45, f. 5, . . . 348 

92. Rissoia mercurialis, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 45, f. 12, . . 343 

93. Rissoia castanella, Dall. Proc. U. ft. Nat. Mus., t. 3, f. 5, 

1886, 349 

04. Rissoin Aurivillii, Dall. Ibid, t, 4, f. 8, 1880, . . . 349 
95. Uissoia raslanca, Moller. 'Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 4o, f. 1, 349 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 483 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

96. Rissoia, Var. Alaskana, Dull. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., t. 

4, f. 9, 1886, . . .... 349 

97. Rissoia glaphyra, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 45, 

f. 6, .... . . 349 

1)8. Kissoia pachia, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 45, f. 7, . . . 348 

99. Rissoia macra, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 45, f. 10, . . 351 

100. Rissoia transemm, Watson. Ibid, xv, t. 45, f. 9, . . 348 

1. Rissoia lineata, Risso. B. D. D. Moll. Rouss., t. 33, f. 5, 360 

2. Rissoia -subcrenulata, Schwartz. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 

22, f. 7, .362 

3. Rissoia Peloritana, Arad. (= lineata). Ibid, t. 25, f. 11, 360 

PLATE 65. 

4. Rissoia strangulata, Brusina. Conch. Dalmat., f. 8, . 325 

5. Rissoia aurantiaca, Watson. Zool. Proc,, t. 34, f. 3, 1873, 326 

6. Rissoia callosa, Manzoni. Krister, Conch. Cab., 1. 18, f. 15, 350 

7. Rissoia cristallinnla, Manzoni. Ibid, t. 18, f. 13, . . 350 
<S. Rissoia crispa, Watson. Zool. Proc., t. 34, f. 6, 1873, . 338 
9. Rissoia reticnlata, Mtg. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 21, f. 10, 361 

10. Rissoia Marine, Bacq. ( Gergonia). B. D. D. Moll. 

Rouss., t. 36, f. 8, . . . . . . . 362 

11, 12. Rissoia cimex. Linn. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 3, f. 2, 3, 359 

13. Rissoia ligneu, Reeve (= lineata). Conch. Icon., f. 81, . 360 

14. Rissoia crenulata, Mich. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 19, f. 6, 365 

15. Rissoia Montagui, Payr. Ibid, t. 3, f. 7, . . . . 360 

16. Rissoia angulata, Jeffreys. Ibid, t! 23, f. 7, . . . 334 

17. Rissoia aurita, Monts. Ibid, t. 20, f. 10, .... 335 

18. Rissoia turricula, Jeffreys. Ibid, t. 23, f. 11, . . . 335 
.19. Rissoia doliolum, Phil. " Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 6, f. 20, . 335 

20. Rissoia Algeriana, Monts. Ibid, t. 21, f. 13, . . . 333 

21. Rissoia Sibirica, Lecho. Ibid, t. 23, f. 16, . . . 336 

22. Rissoia minibilis, Manzoni. Ibid, t. 16, f. 10, . . . 336 

23. 24. Rissoia gibber, Watson. Zool. Proc., t. 34, f. 7, 1873, 336 

25. Rissoia subareolata, Monts. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 22, 

f. 15, 363 

26. Rissoia parvula, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 9, f. 2, 1884, . 337 

27. Rissoia cimicoides, Forbes. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 21, f. 2, 362 

28. Rissoia Mayeni, Friele. Ibid, t. 22, f. 13, - . . . 338 

29. Rissoia aspera, Phil. (= lineata, Var). Ibid, t. 22, f. 5, . 360 

30. Rissoia calathus, Forbes & Hanley. Ibid, t. 22, f. 2, . 360 

31. Rissoia Fischeri, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 9, f. 1, 1884, . 361 

32. Rissoia Canariensis, dXJrb. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 3, f. 20, 360 

33. 34. Rissoia Leacocki, Watson. Zool. Proc., t. 34, f. 1, 

1873, . . 363 

PLATE 66. 

35. Rissoia Mauritiana, Martens. Moebius' Mauritius, t. 20, 

f. 17, . . 367 



484 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

36. Rissoia grossa, 'Mich. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 16, f. 8, . 331 

37. Rissoia Frauenfeldiana, Brusina. Faun. Dalmat., f. 7, . 326 

38. Rissoia hiapidula, Monts. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 21, f. 12, 363 

39. Rissoia affinis, Jeffreys. Ibid, t. 23, f. 15, ... 347 

40. Rissoia fenestrata, Krauss. Sudaf. Moll., t. 5, f. 20, . 364 

41. Rissoia acutelirata, Carp. Specimen. .... 361 

42. Rissoia stigmatica, Frauenf. Moll. Novara Exped., t. 2, 

f. 17, 364 

43. Rissoia olivacea, Dunker. Ibid, t. 2, f. 14, ... 339 

44. Rissoia salebrosa, Frauenf. Ibid, t. 2, f. 15, . . .327 

45. Rissoia Novarensis, Frauenf. Ibid, t. 2, f. 16, . . . 329 

46. Rissoia elegans, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 15, 1877, . 364 

47. Rissoia gracilis, Angas. Ibid, t. 26, f. 16, 1877, . . 364 

48. Rissoia Weinkauffi, Schwartz. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 21, 

f. 15, 366 

49. Rissoia dictyophora, Phil. Ibid, t. 3, f. 28, . . .366 

50. Rissoia interfossa, Nevill. Ibid, t. 19, f. 16, . . . 364 

51. Rissoia lactea, Mich. Ibid, t. 3, f. 5, .... 365 

52. Rissoia Asturiana, Fischer. Fonds de la Mer, ii, t. 2, f. 5, 352 

53. Rissoa picta, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., t. 28, f. 2, 1868, . 366 

54. Rissoa lucida, H. Adams. Ibid, t. 28, f. 3, 1868, . . 366 

55. Rissoa pagodula, B. D. D. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 22, f. 4, 366 

56. Rissoa Jeffreys!!, Waller. Ibid, t. 21, f. 1, ... 361 

57. Rissoa Caribsea, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 11, bis, f. 32, . 363 
.">s. Rissoa striatula, Mtg. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 6, f. 8, . 367 

59. Rissoa rudis, Phil. Ibid, t. 3, f. 18, . . . . 367 

60. Rissoa Testa?, Arad. Ibid, t. 23, f. 9, . . . 368 

61. Rissoa abyssicola, Jeffr. (= Testa?). Forbes & Hanley, 

Brit. Moll., t. 78, f. 2, 368 

62. Rissoa subsoluta, Aradas. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 21, f. 8, 368 

PLATE 67. 

66. Rissoia Fremenvllli, Audouin. Savigny, Moll. Egypte, 

t. 3,f. 20, . . . 367 

67. Rissoia Desmaresti, Andouin. Ibid, t. 3, f. 21, . . 330 

68. Rissoia d'Orbignyi, Andouin. Ibid, t. 3, f. 22, . . 327 

69. Rissoia Sismondiana, Issel. Ibid, t. 3, f. 33, . . . 332 

70. Rissoia pyrrhias, Watson. Moll. Challenger Exped., t. 

44, f. 4, . . . 328 

71. Rissoia xanthias, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 5, . . . 334 

72. Rissoia Fayalensis, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 7, . . . 328 

73. Rissoia Pernambucensis, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 9, . . 335 

74. Rissoia amblia, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 8, . . . 333 

75. Rissoia microstoma, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 10, . . 328 

76. Rissoia didyma, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 1, . . 362 

77. Rissoia tarsodes, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 2, . . 362 

78. Rissoia trajectus, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 6, . . . 328 

79. Rissoia luscinise, Watson. Ibid,t. 44, f. 3, . . . 362 






REFERENCE TO PLA1 



^CALV 



FIGURE. PAGE. 

80. Rissoia scrobiculator, Watson. Ibid, t. 46, f. 4, . . 339 

81. Rissoia badia, Watson. Ibid, t. 46, f. 3, . . . . 339 

82. Rissoia harpa, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, t. 57, f. 6, 336 

PLATE 68. 

83. Rissoa areolata, Stimp. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, t. 43, f. 2, 3(>1 

84. Rissoina gradata, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 11, bis, f. 38, . 378 

85. Rissoa Auberiana, d'Orb. Ibid, t. 11, bis, f.*35, . .337 

86. Rissoa Frauenfeldi, Schwartz. Moll. Voy. Novara, t. 2, 

f. 13, 340 

88. Rissoa pinnae, Krauss. Sudaf. Moll., t. 5, f. 21, . 333 

89. Rissoina infrastricta, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 2, 

f. 21, 1873, . . 378 

90. Rissoa venusta, Garrett. Ibid, t. 2, f. 23, 1873, . . 367 

91. Rissoa cheilostoma, Tenison Woods. Specimen. . . 366 

92. Rissoa grisea, Martens. Nat. Hist. Mus. Hamburg, t. 2, 

f. 4, 1886, .349 

93. Rissoa cingulata, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. "22, f. 8, . 350 

94. Rissoa tenera, Phil. Ibid, t. 22, f. 16, .... 350 

95. Iravadia sulcifera, Troschel. Ibid, t. 13, f. 8, . . . 394 

96. Rissoa brychia, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, t. 32, f. 9, 335 

97. Rissoa syngenes, Verrill. Ibid, vi, t. 32, f. 11, . . 328 

98. Rissoa Waabitica, Issel. Moll. Mar Rosso, t. 2, f. 10, . 330 

99. Rossoa Psammitica, Issel. Ibid, t. 2, f. 9, . . 330 
100. Rissoina villica, Gld. Reeve. ( subvillicti). Conch. 

Icon, f. 98, 374 

1. Rissoina flexuosa, Gould. Ibid, f. 97, . . 380 

2. Rissoina turricula, Angas ( flexuosa). Ibid, f. 69, . 381 

3. Rissoina fimbriata, Souverb. Ibid, f. 4"), . . . 378 

4. Rissoina rosea, Desh. Ibid, f. 42, . .380 

5. Rissoina Gentilissiana, So\vb. (= Hydrobia Gentilsiana, 

Crosse). Ibid, f. 44, .... . 369 

6. Rissoina crassa, Angas (== Rissoi). Ibid, f. 70, . . 378 

7. Rissoina fasciata, Angas. Ibid, f. 119, . . .380 

8. Rissoina cincta, Angas. Ibid, f. 71, . . . . 380 

9. Rissoina Deshayesiana, Recluz. Ibid, f. 62, . . 382 

10. Rissoina Bureasensis, Sowb. Ibid, f. 90, .... 380 

11. Rissoina australis, Sowb. Ibid, f. 123, . . 384 

12. Rissoina Cumingii, Reeve. Ibid, f. 4, . . 386 

13. Rissoina crebrisulcata, Sowb. Ibid, f. 56, . . . 384 

14. Rissoina crassilabrum,. Garrett, Ibid, f. 59, . . . 389 

15. Rissoina assimilis, Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., xi, t. 6, 

f. 1-3, .369 

16. Rissoina striatula, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch. Hi, t. 24, f. 31, 387 

17. Rissoina flammea, Pease. Ibid, iii, t. 24, f. 33, . . 387 

18. Rissoina vitrea, Garrett, Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 2, f. 19, 

1873, ... ... .342 

19. Rissoina Zeltneri, Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles, t. 5, f. 1, . 387 



486 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

20. Rissoina Caledonica, Crosse.- Conch. Icon., f. 86, . . 342 

PLATK (><). 

21. Kissoia semistriata, Mtg. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 6, f. 11, 352 

22. Uissoia pulcherrima, Jeffreys. Ibid, t. 18, f. 5, . . 352 
2:]. Rissoia pieta, Jeffreys. Ibid, 1. 18, f. 20, . . .352 

24. Rissoia coiicinna, flouts. ( Benjainina, Mts.). Ibid t 

18,1V ! 352 

25. Rissoia cingillus, Mt. Ibid, t. 6, f. 17, . . . . 342 

26. Rissoia depieta, Weink. (= pulcherrima). Ibid, t. 18, 

f. 12, 352 

27. Rissoia albugo, AVatson. Ibid, t. 18, f. 9, . . . 353 

28. Rissoia pel-minima, Man/oni. fbid, t. 18, f. 8, . . 353 

29. Rissoia tur^ida, Jeffreys. Ibid, t, 20, f. 5, . . . 353 

30. Rissoia tumidula, Sars. Ibid, t. 20, f. 4, . . . . 353 

31. Rissoia abjecta, Watson. Ibid, t. 20, f. 15, . . .353 

32. Rissoia concinnata, Jeffreys. Ibid. t. 24, f. 1, . . .356 

33. Rissoia fulirida, Adams. Forbes & Hanky, Brit. Moll, t 

81, f. 2 . . 354 

34. Rissoia fusca, Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, t, 24, f. 4, . . . : ) ,54 

35. Kissoia Alleryana, Arad. Benoit. Krister, Conch. Cab t 

25, f. 7, . . I 354 

36. Rissoia Bciutiana, Arad. Benoit. Ibid., t. 25, f. S, . . 354 

37. Kissoia solnta, Phil. ( Alderi). Forbes ^ Hanley, 

l)i-it. Moll., t. 75, f. 3. . . 356 

3S. Kissoia Seilhe, Seiruen/a. Kiistei 1 , Conch. Cab., t. 25, f. 9, 358 
:')!). Kissoia niicroinetrica, Se.u-uen/a. Ibid, t. 25, f. 5, . . 354 

40. Rissoia contorta, Jeffreys. 15. 1). I). Moll. Kotiss., t, 37 

f. 13, .. . ..... 340 

41. Rissoia, contorta. Yar. data. Ibid, t, 37, f. 18, . . 340 

42. Kissoia, contorta, Yar. intorta, Mts. Ibid, t. 37, f. 17, . 340 

43. 44. Kissoia nitida, Brusina. K lister. Conch. Cab., t. 25, f. 

*, 4, . . 340 

45. Kissoia glabrata, Miihlf. Zool. Proc., t. 3(5, f. 24, 1873, . :540 

46. Kissoia sabulnni, Cantr. ( glabrata). Ibid., t. 36, f. 25 

1*73 .... 340 

47. Kissoia lincta, Watson. Ibid, t. 36, f. 2(1, 1*73, . . 341 

48. Rissoia kcvis, Monts. Krister, Conch. Cab., t. 20, f. 12, . 341 
4''. Kissoia ejmlanrica, Brnsina. Conch. Dalmat.,f. 10, . 341 
50, 51. Kissoia contabulata, Frauenf. Moll. Voy. Xovara, t. 

2, f. 20b, ji. . . ' . .341 

52. Rissoia typica, Garrett. Pr.>e. Philad. Acad., t. 3, f. 55, 

1873, . . . 359 

53. Rissoia venustula, Folin. Fond? de la Mer, ii, t. 8, f. 5, . 341 

54. Kissoia coriacea, Manxoni. Kijster, (Jonch. Cab., t. 16, 

f. 11, . .... 358 

.5.. Kissoia tenuiscidjpta, Watson. Ibid, t. 18, f. /. . . 343 
50. Kissoia More hi, Collin. Sm-^le, Kara IIa.vt., 16, . . 348 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 487 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

57. Kissoia balteata, Manzoni. Jour, de Conch., t. 10, f. 7, 
1868, . . 342 

PLATE 70. 

58. Bissoia semiearinata, Folin. Fonds de la Mer. t. 31, f. 

8, .... 345 

59. Rissoia alvearium, Watson. Moll. Voy. Challenger, t. 46, 

f. 1 , . . .343 

60. Rissoia scopulorum, Watson. Ibid, t. 45, f. 4, . . 343 

61. Rissoia rustica, Watson. Ibid, t 44, f. 11, ... 343 

62. Rissoia anguliferens, Folin. Fonds de la Mer, i, t. 20, f. 

H, . 343 

63. Rissoia polychroma, Folin. Ibid, i, t. 20, f. 5, . . 355 

64. Rissoia globulus, Moller. Trans. Conn. Acad. v, t. 43, f. 

o 359 
64a. Lacuna incerta, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 16, f. 8, . . 282 

64b. Reymondia Horei, Smith. Zool. Proc, 1881, t. 84, f. 7, 285 

64c. Rissoia aculeus, Gould. Invert. Mass., fig. 568, . . 347 

65. Rissoia Marionensis, Watson. Moll. Voy. Challenger, t. 

44, f. 12, . . . 356 

66. Rissoia principle, Watson. Ibid, t. 44, f. 13, . . 356 

67. Rissoia australis, Watson. Ibid, t. 45, f. 1, . . . 356 

68. Rissoia philomel^e, Watson. Ibid, t. 45, f. 2, . . 356 

69. Rissoia quisquiliarum, Watson. Ibid, t. 45, f. 3, . 357 

70. Rissoia Edwardiensis, Watson. Ibid, t. 45, f. 11, . . 357 

71. Rissoia sinapi, Watson. Ibid, t. 45, f. 13, . . . 357 

72. Rissoia triangularis, Watson. Ibid, t. 46, f. 2, . . 357 

PLATK 71. 

73. Rissoia Stimpsoni, Smith. Ann. N. Y. Lye, ix, 393, . 345 

74. Rissoia minuta, Totten. Am. Mar. Conch., t. 11, 153, . 346 

75. Rissoia hevis, De Kay. Ibid, t. 11, f. 163, . . .346 

76. Rissoia robusta, Dall. var. Martyni. Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., t. 3, f. 9, 1886, 345 

77. Rissoia robusta, Dall: var. scipio. Ibid, t. 4, f. 10, 1886, 345 

78. Rissoia Aleutica, Dall. Ibid, t. 3, f. 11, 1886, . . 345 

79. Rissoia cerinella, Dall. Ibid, t. 4, f. 12, 1886, . . 345 

80. Rissoia exilis, Tryon. Am. Jour. Conch., ii, t. 2, f. 18, . 345 

81. Rissoia Australia?, Dunker. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 24, f. 

13, 344 

82. Rissoia Petiningensis, Gould. ( Paludestrina). Moll. 

Wilkes Exped., f. 152, . . . . , .346 

83. Rissoia Lantzii, Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper., vi, t. 3, f. 

14, 344 

84. Rissoia Cazini, V61ain. Ibid, vi, t. 3, f. 15, . . . 344 

85. Rissoia apicina, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, t. 32, f. 

8, . ' . 357 



488 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

86. Rissoia madreporica, Issel. Moll. Mar Rosso, t. 2, f. 

8, 353 

87. Rissoia Villa?, Issel. Savigny, Egypte, t. 3, f. 17, . 344 

88. Rissoia subtruncata, Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper., vi, t. 3, 

f. 16, 344 

<s ( .). Rissoia purpurea, Hutton. Specimen, . . . 344 

90. Rissoa Tiberiana, Issel. Savignv's Egypte., t. 3, f. 16, . 359 
1)1. Rissoa liyalina, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 2, f. 24, 

187:5, ' 35* 

92. Rissoa latior, Mi^hels and Adams. Am. Mar. Conch., f. 

154, 357 

93. Rissoa sculptilis, Monts. K lister, ('ouch. Cah., t, 22, f. 

12, 353 

94. Rissoa Milleri, Folin. Foiids de la Mer, i, t. 22, f. 5, . 342 

95. Rissoa conica, Perier. Ibid, i, t. 1, f. 4, ... 342 
9(1. Rissoa pulicaria, Folin. Ibid, ii, t. 9, f. 4, ... 355 
97. Rissoa Brazieri, Tenison-Woods. Specimen, . . 355 
!>*. Ris-oa limbata, Hutton. Specimen, .... 355 

99. Rissoa Laura?, Folin. Fonda de la Mer, i, t. 24, f. 3. . 351 

100. Rissoa nitens, Dimker. Moll. Novara, Exped., t. 2,f. 22^ 355 

1. Rossoa atropurpurea, Dunker. Ibid, t. 2, f. 21, . . 355 

2. Rissoa Georgiana, Pfeffer. Nat, Hist. Mus. Hamburg, t. 

2, f. 3, 1886, 346 

'). Rissoa Kergueleni, Smith. Kuster. Conch. Cab, t. 24, f. 

3, 357 

4. Rissoa nigra, Krauss. Sudaf. Moll.,'t. 5, f. 19, . . 358 

5. Rissoa littoriniformis, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 2, 

f. 20, 1873, . 358 

6. Barleoia rosca, Hutton. Specimen, .... 393 

7. Rissoa melanura, Woods. Specimen, .... 358 
*. Rissoa cyclostoma. Woods. Specimen. . . . 344 
9. Rissoa Maria-, Woods. Specimen, . . . . . 354 

10. Rissoa Atkinsoni, Woods. Specimen, . . . 354 

11. Rissoa Angeli, Woods. Specimen, .... 35K 



SOLARIID/E. 



PLATE 1 



, . , 





,- 

:,J 














9 



17 





34- 



15 



SOLARIID^E. 



PLATE 2 




;. 




SOLARIIDvE. 



PLATE 3 



!*&-,. "'-' 




SOLARIIDyE. 



PLATE 




44 



SOLARIID>E. 



PLATE 5 




SOLARIIDyE. 



PLATE 6 




TRICHOTROPID^E 



PLATE: 7 



41 







TRICHOTROPID>E 



PLATE 8 




IANTHINID>E 



PLATE 9 








PLATE 10 




SCALARIID./E. 



PLATE 11 




55 



(f ^ OF 

UNIVERSITY )) 




SCALARIIDyE. 



PLATE 12 




86 



81 



TVER SIT? 

.^ 






PLATE 13 




12 14- 



16 



SCALARIID^E. 



PLATE 14 



53 56 60 57 




SCALARIID>E. 



PLATE 15 




85 



PLATE 16 




ift^ 

-ITY 





SCALARIIDyE. 



PLATE 17 




4-9 50 



56 57 



ERSITY 








SCALARUD>E. 



PLATE 18 




CERITHIIDyE. 



PLATE 19 




CERITHTID^E. 



PLATE 20 




CERITHIID>E. 



PL-ATE 21 





OP THE 

IVEBSITY 






PLATE 22 




78 



CERITHIID^E. 



PL-ATE 23 




f 

SITY 



^X 



CERITHIID/E. 



PLATE 24 





.'tSITY ]] 

XH\k- 



PLATE 25 




70 



CERITHIIDyC. 



PLATE 26 




CERITHIID^E. 



PL-ATE 27 




20 



V 



19 





i 



23 24- 



28" 




CERITHIID^E. 



PLATE 28 




PLATE 20 




82 83 84.- 87 89 90 91 9E 



PLATE 3O 



20 21 22 23 




PLATE 31 




31 



CERITHIID^E. 



PLATE 32 




54 



CERITHIID^E. 



PLATE S3 




^p 

JFORNJ 



PLATE 34 




CERITHIID^E. 



PLATE 35 




19 20 2] 



34 



39 





4-3 



3V" 



33 






CERITHIID^E. 



PLATE 36 



66 67 68 




CERITHIID^. 



PLATE 37 




97a 



100 



86 



CERITHIID^E. 



PLATE 38 




CERITHIID^. 



PLATE 39 




65 



LITTORINID^E 



PLATE 4O 




LITTORINID^E 



PLATE 41 







iK 
[(TJNIVEJ 



LITTORINID^ 



PLATE 42 




LITTORINID^E 



PLATE 43 




LITTORINID^E 



PLATE 44 







57 




58 59 60 



444 

c o ^B^ 



62 63 



65 



64' 




67 





69 



70 




71 






72 



73 74 







77 




81 




78 




85 




. 









66 



4 



68 




75 




79 80 




83 



.;3 

> 
1TY 





LITTORINID^E 



PLATE 45 




4 




88 





30 




A! 4 




38 



92 




4 





97 







100 











10 





15 




LITTORINID^E 



PLATE 46 





22 



20 












25 





18 





V 



31 




23 





.1 



30 







37 I 









35 








39 




47 




4?3 



44- 



45 



PLATE 47 




54 




80 ' 58 




59 



4 4 






67 




ITY 






LITTORINID^S 



PLATE 48 




93 



LITTORINID^ 



PLATE 49 




UNIVERf- 




LITTORINID^E 



PLATE 5O 




74- 75 






LITTORINIDyG FOSSARID^E 



PLATE 51 




93 1UU 



3 4- 



FOSSARIDvE PLANAXID^E 



PLATE 52 






3 * 









16 







* ! ; 



ao 21 



10 




15 



18 




2,?. 






13 






26 







28 






23 



32 



30 



34' 



*r* 









4-1 47 




48 4-4- 



PLANAXIDyE 



PLATE 53 



4 1 4>4 




92 



RISSOID^E 



PLATE 54 





nVERSiTX ll 

4LIFOft^^ 



RISSOID^ 



PLATE 55 




RISSOID^E 



PLATE 56 



4-3 44, 4,5 46 




69 76 



RISSOID^E 



PLATE 57 




37 



RISSOID^E 



PLATE 58 




RISSOID^E 



PLATE 59 




55 62 



61 



RISSOID^ SKENEID^E. 



PLATE 6O 




71 



74- 



65 



4|* 

87 A y8 








83 



30 








94- 



97 




93 98 












RISSOID^E,ETC. 



PL- ATE 61 




RISSOID^E 



PLATE 62 




T b 











52 



RISSOID^E 



PLATE 63 




75 76 78 



RISSOIDyE 



PLATE 64 




34- 



97 



,^% 



PLATE 65 




<27 



H<^ 

ITY 



RISSOID>E 



PLATE 66 




58 



RISSOID>E 



PLATE 67 




77 



RISSOID^E 



PLATE 68 




95 



i 4 I * > 

100 3 5 



7 8 



10 



14- 



4 



17 




4' 



12 



13 



15 16 




13 20 



PLATE 69 




ITY 




RISSOID^E 



PLATE 7O 




RISSOID^E 



PLATE 71 




100 



4 it 



93 



li 









14 DAY USE 

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