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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

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BERKELEVS 

LIBRARY IEESE LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA ) 

' ITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



LIBRARY 



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EARTH 




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MANUAL 



OF 



ONCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

CONTINUED BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY. 



. XII. 

STOMATELLID.-E, SCISSURELLID.E, PLEUROTOMARIID^!, HALIO- 

TID/E, SCUTELLINID^E, ADDISONIID/E, COCCULINID^], 

FISSURELI.ID.E. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Conehologieal Section, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COR. IQTH AND RACE STS. 

1890. 



' It o^^ 

UNIVERSITY 



EARTH 

SCIENCt* 

UBRAW 



BINDER 8c KELLY, PRINTERS, 518 AND 520 MINOR STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



The present volume is devoted to those families of the suborder 
Khipidoglossa which have not already been included in the MANUAL. 
The sequence in which the families of this group have been mono- 
graphed, is, owing to causes not controlable by the writer, not entirely 
natural ; a better arrangement is given in the appendix. 

The terms used in descriptions are the same as in the previous 
volume: spiral indicating a direction parallel to the volutions, 
longitudinal meaning parallel to the axis of the shell. The writer 
is aware that some authors have given these terms a different sig- 
nification ; making longitudinal a synonym of spiral, and substi- 
tuting transverse for sculpture parallel to the shell-axis ; But the 
w r ord transverse has also been used by A. Adams and others, in a 
sense synonymous with spiral The words longitudinal and trans- 
verse have thus come to mean " all things to all men." Disclaiming 
any intention or desire to criticize the usage of other malacologists, 
the writer has adopted the nomenclature preferred by a majority of 
English and continental authors ; merely noting in this place the 
diametrically opposed senses in which authors have employed these 
descriptive terms. H. A. P. 

Philadelphia, April, 1890. 




MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



MONOGRAPHS OF THE FAMILIES STOMATELLIDJE, 
SCISSURELLIDJt, HALIOTID^E, Etc. 



Family STOMATELLID^ A. Adams, 1850. 

Stomatiidce of Fischer and others, is synonymous. 

Shell either spiral, subglobose, depressed, or haliotis-shaped, or 
non-spiral and limpet-like ; imperforate ; aperture very large, pearly 
inside ; muscle-impression cresceutic, open in front. 

Animal with a broad foot, longitudinally divided by a median 
line below, and tuberculate above. Muzzle broad, ending distally in 
an oval disc, the mouth rounded ; tentacles long, pointed ; eyes on 
short heavy peduncles outside and behind the tentacles ; epipodium 
prominent, fleshy, with or without cirri ; frontal lobes present ; 
mantle-edge simple or reflexed and foliated ; not slit in front. 
Operculum small, horny, thin, multispiral, often wanting. Gill a 
single curved plume on the left or outer side of the mantle cavity, 
its distal third free. Verge wanting. Formula of teeth (00.1) 5. 1. 
5 (1.00). 

A family of small, brilliantly nacreous shells closely allied to 
Trochidse but with fewer whorls, and larger aperture. There have 
been considerable differences observed between the animals of various 
genera of Stomatellidce ; under Stomatella I have described the 
animal examined by myself. 

These shells tell very clearly the story of the origin of limpet-like 
types in the Rhipidoglossa. From Stomatella we can trace by a chain 
of closely allied forms, the uncoiling of the spire and increase of the 
body-whorl to Stomatia, Gena, and finally Broderipia, where some 
species have the form of typical Patella. 

The monographic works on Stomatellidce are as follows : 

(5) 



b STOMATELLID^:. 

An arrangement of Stomatellidse, including the characters of a 
new genus and of several new species. By Arthur Adams, R. N., 
F. L. S., etc. This paper was published in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1850, and Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist, vii, 1851. 

Monograph of Stomatellinae, a subfamily of Trochidse. By A. 
Adams, in Sowerby's Thesaurus Conchyliorum, vol. ii (1855). 

Monographs of Stomatella, Stomatia, Gena and Broderipia, by G. 
B. Sowerby Jr., in Reeve's Conchologia Iconica, vol. xix, April, 
1874. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus STOMATELLA Lamarck, 1819. 

Shell imperforate, spiral, orbicularly depressed ; spire elevated 
but short, conic ; whorls rounded not plicate below sutures, the last 
forming the greater part of the shell ; surface spirally ribbed, 
variegated ; aperture large, wider than long, pearly inside ; oper- 
culum circular, multispiral, horny. Type, S. imbricata Lam. 

Subgenus SYNAPTOCOCHLEA Pilsbry, 1890. 

Shell oval, intermediate between Stomatella and Gena in contour ; 
spire very short, sub-marginal ; surface spirally striated or decus- 
sated ; aperture very large, longer than wide. Operculate. Type, 
S. montrouzieri Pilsbry. 

Subgenus NIPHONIA A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell depressed-globose, thin, imperforate ; whorls rapidly increas- 
ing ; aperture large, circular ; peristome duplicated, outer margin 
thin, acute, ascending on the last whorl, inner margin thickened, 
continuous with outer lip. (Ad.) Type, N. pulchella Ad. 

Genus PHANETA H. Adams, 1870. 

Shell imperforate, trochiform ; spire of few whorls, the last car- 
mated, expanded; base depressed; aperture ample, rounded, an- 
teriorly subsinuated, pearly inside ; columella revolute, acute ; per- 
istome simple, straight. (Ad.) Type, P. everetti Ad. 

Borneo* 

A fluviatile mollusk. 

Genus STOMATIA (Helbling) Lamarck, 1801. 

Shell spiral, oblong or depressed orbicular ; spire prominent but 
short ; surface tubercled or keeled ; whorls with a series of short 



STOMATELLA. I 

folds below the suture ; aperture either oblong or transversely oval, 
and longer than wide or the reverse ; pearly inside. No operculura. 
Type, 8. phymotis Helbling. 

East Indies. 

Subgenus MICROTIS H. & A. Adams, 1850. 

Shell spiral, suborbicular, depressed, with two tuberculated ridges ; 
spire slightly projecting; aperture very large, wider than long, 
pearly within ; coluuiellar margin spiral, visible as far as the apex 
of the spire. Operculum none. (Ad.) Type, M. tuber culata Ad. 

Philippines; Neiv Caledonia; Paumotus. 

Genus GEN A Gray, 1850. 

Shell subspiral, Haliotis-shaped, oblong ; spire minute, sub-lateral 
surface smooth or striated ; aperture very large, nearly as long as 
the shell, pearly within. Operculum none. Type, G. planulata 
Lam. 

Indian Ocean to Central Pacific. 

Subgenus PLOCAMOTIS Fischer, 1885. 

Shell polished, the body-whorl not striated as it is in typical Gena, 
and the animal with epipodial cirri. Type, G. Icevis Pease. 

Genus BRODERIPIA Gray, 1847. 

Shell oval, limpet-shaped, bilaterally symmetrical when adult, the 
apex either subcentral or posterior, and either remaining as a minute 
recumbent spiral or lost in the adult shell. Interior brilliantly 
iridescent or almost deprived of nacre. Type, B. rosea Brod. 

S. Pacific and Indian Oceans. 



Genus STOMATELLA Lamarck, 1819. 

StomatellaljAM. (Philos. Zool., 1809, mentioned but not described, 
and no species cited) Anim. s. Vert. vol. vi, p. 209, 1819. First 
species, S. imbricata Lam. 

The smaller foot, provided with an operculum separates this genus 
from Stomatia and Gena. Several species referred to Euchelus have 
a great likeness to the shells of this genus, partaking of the form 
and sculpture to a remarkable extent. E. cancellatus Krauss is an 
example of this. That species is however umbilicated, and seems to 
belong rather to the Trochidce than to Stomatella. An examination 



8 STOMATELLA. 

of the anatomy only can definitely settle this point. There seems to 
be an almost perfect transition in some species of Stomatia to this 
genus ; in these again, we await a knowledge of the animal to 
definitely group them. There is also a certain analogy between 
some Stomatellw, such as S. coccinea, and the species of Gena having 
carinated upper whorls, G. rosea for example. The transition to 
Stomatia seems to be formed by S. notata Ad. and other forms of 
that group. 

The writer has given the results of an examination of an alcoholic 
specimen of the animal of Stomatella Godeffroyi Dkr. (8. mariei 
Crosse, var.) in Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1890. Part of the figures 
are reproduced on pi. 22, figs. 30-33. The foot is broad and fleshy, 
deeply divided by a median longitudinal groove and transversely 
wrinkled, emarginate posteriorly. Its upper surface is granulate and 
tuberculate. The muzzle is rather broad, transversely wrinkled, 
ending in a flat, oval disc, the mouth about in the center ; tentacles 
stout but tapering ; eyes on peduncles outside and a little above the 
bases of the tentacles ; these peduncles are short and stout. The 
epipodial ridge commences on a short triangular lobe behind the 
right eye-peduncle ; the edges of this lobe are somewhat upturned, 
like a short trough. Along the sides of the foot the ridge is prom- 
inent, fleshy ; and bears two short slender cirri ; it terminates 
posteriorly at the operculigerous lobe. On the specimen before me 
there is no operculum, and the hind margin of the foot is upturned 
partly over the lobe, probably from contraction in alcohol. There 
are two minute frontal lobes between the tentacles, not connected 
across the muzzle. No external male organ was observed. The gill 
is single, composed of numerous (about 130) narrow plates, arranged 
in one series, its anterior third free. The anus opens at the summit 
of a short peduncle. 

The radula bears a general resemblance to that of some Trochidce. 
The rhachidian tooth has a broad expanded base, narrowed, reflexed 
and denticulated at apex ; the laterals (5 on each) are quite compli- 
cated in form (see Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890) ; their cusps 
are well reflexed and denticulate. The inner uncinus has a very 
broadly expanded, triangular body and narrow cusp ; the following 
uncini are narrow, not notably different from the usual conformation 
in Rhipidoglossa. The outer uncini have very long, serrate cusps. 
The figures on pi. 22 are considerably enlarged. A specimen collect- 



STOMATELLA. 

ed by the GodefFroy expedition years ago, No. 60696 of the Academy 
register, furnished these notes. 

The species may be grouped by shell-characters into three or four 
sections, as follows : 

Group of S. imbricata Lam. Shell depressed ; aperture excessively 
oblique ; sculpture consisting of close, equal spiral cords. 

Group of 8. sulcifera Lam. Shell globose depressed ; aperture 
less oblique ; surface nearly smooth, or with alternately larger and 
smaller spiral riblets, the interstices obliquely latticed by lines of 
increment. 

Group of S. mariei Crosse. Shell depressed, rather flattened above 
and below ; aperture quite oblique ; sculpture consisting of numerous 
spirals, of which several are low carinse, more numerous inter- 
mediate riblets, and still more numerous interstitial spiral strise ; 
sometimes decussated by growth-lines. 

Group of S. coccinea Ad. Small species, resembling the last group 
somewhat. 

The first three groups are East Indian in distribution, the last one 
is West Indian. 

NOTE: The diagram on pi. 51, figs. 4, 5, illustrates the method 
of measurement adopted for the species of Stomatella. The vertical 
line d. e., is the altitude ; the line /., c. the diameter ; the radii are 
measured from a. to b. and from b. to c. 

A. Oriental species. 
( Group of S. imbricata jCam.) 

S. IMBRICATA Lamarck. PI. 5Sy fig. 62 ; pi. 51, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell very much depressed, solid, white with scattered dots of red- 
dish ; surface covered with very numerous, close, equal spiral riblets, 
separated by deep interstices, and closely finely scaly. Spire low, 
short ; whorls 4, widening with extreme rapidity. Aperture sub- 
horizontal, transverse-oval, lined with a closely sulcate silvery and 
iridescent nacre; columella broad, flattened, a little eoncave, its, 
edge arched and thin. 

Alt. 18, diam. maj. 34 mill. ; aperture, breadth 24, oblique alt. 24 
mill. 

Port Adelaide, Port Jackson and Torres Ste., Australia; Java. 

Stomatella imbricata LAM., Anim. s. Vert, vi, p. 209. DESHAYES 
Encycl. Meth. iii, p. 984, t. 450, f. 2. A. AD. in Sowerby Thes. 
Conch, ii, p. 833, t. 174, f. 1. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 218. WAT- 



10 STOMATELLA. 

SON, Challenger Kept., p. 111. Stomatia imbricata SOWB., Genera 
ii, t. 143, f. 1. S. imbricata Lam. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
W. ii, p. 46. 

One of the largest species. The very depressed form, nearly 
horizontal aperture and closely, evenly spiralled surface distinguish 
it. 

(Group of S. sulcifera Lam.} 

S. PAPYRACEA Chemnitz. PI. 52, figs. 46, 47 ; pi. 51, fig. 9. 

Shell globose, thin, obliquely conoidal, fawn colored, with a series 
of short markings at the periphery alternately reddish and white, 
and narrow girdles on the spirals of fine arrow-shaped articulations. 
Surface shining, polished, spirally sculptured by numerous low wide 
riblets ; striae of increment fine. The spire is conical, small, acute; 
whorls 5 to 6, the last very rapidly enlarging, those of the spire with 
narrow sharp spiral lirse decussated by close raised longitudinal 
striae. Aperture oval, acutely angular above, not very oblique, 
brilliantly iridescent inside, and lightly silicate ; columella deeply 
arcuate, umbilical region covered by an opaque, white, arcuately 
striated callus, its outer edge well defined. 

Alt. 25, diam. 28 mill. ; aperture, breadth 18, oblique alt. 20 
mill. 

Sooloo Archipelago (A. Ad.) ; Moluccas (Gould). 

Cochlea lunaris papyracea fragilissima, etc., CHEMNITZ, Conchyl. 
Cab. v, p. 215, t. 182, f. 1817, 1818 (tfSl^.Stomatella papyracea 
Chemn., A. AD. in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 836, 1. 174, f. 4, 5. SOWERBY 
in Reeve's Conch. Icon, xix, f. 3. Stomatella tumida GOULD, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H. iii, p. 74, 1849 ; U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., p. 209, 
f. 249. 

The animal, according to Adams, has a horny operculum and 
although bulky is able to retract entirely within the shell. 

The shell is smoother, more polished than any other large species ; 
the umbilical callus is also notable. 

The S. tumida of Gould is figured on pi. 51, fig. 9. 

S. BACONI A. Adams. PL 52, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell oval-orbicular, subturbinate ; spire produced, apex acute ; 
whorls concave above ; dull white, variegated with reddish-brown, 
transversely spirally sulcate, the interstices longitudinally striated ; 
aperture sulcate within ; inner lip a little thickened, white, reflexed,. 



STOMATELLA. 11 

concentrically striate. Smaller than S. papyracea, more solid, and 
more sharply sculptured. 

Swan River (Mus. Cuming). 

S. baconi A. AD., P. Z. S. 1853, p. 73 ; in Sowb., Thes. Conch, ii, 
p. 838, t. 174, f. 25, 26. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 16. 

This seems to me a variety of the papyracea. The whorls are 
clouded with rufous, and the lirse are minutely articulated. The 
sculpture, especially the longitudinal striae, are decidedly stronger 
and sharper than in S. papyracea. 

S. SULCIFERA Lamarck. PI. 52, fig. 59. 

Shell orbicular, rather thin, the spire short, conoidal, grayish or 
pinkish, with narrow reddish-brown irregular longitudinal stripes, 
often broken into dots on the spirals. Sculpture of narrow spiral 
riblets with interstitial smaller threads, the interstices finely latticed 
by raised close longitudinal stria?. Whorls about 4, the last 1? very 
rapidly widening, descending anteriorly. Aperture large, oblique, 
oval, lightly sulcate within and brilliantly iridescent, with red, sky- 
blue and green reflections, neither predominating. Columella 
arcuate, thin, with a new-moon shaped flat white or slightly irides- 
cent tract bounding it. 

Alt. 19, diam. 22 mill. ; aperture, breadth 15*, oblique alt. 19 
mill. ; greater radius 17, lesser 6. 

Philippines. 

S. sulcifera LAM., An. s. Vert., p. 210. DELESSERT, Rec. de Coq., 
t. 33, f. 3. ADAMS, in P. Z. S. 1850, p. 30 ; in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 
833, t. 174, f. 3. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 11. 

This is a less globose shell than S. papyracea or baconi, with more 
oblique aperture and rougher sculpture. From most species having 
alternately larger and smaller spirals and latticed sculpture it is 
separated by the more globose body-whorl and the greater difference 
between the longer and shorter radii, the ratio being about 3 to 1, 
more or less. 

S. ELEGANS Gray. PI. 51, figs. 15, 16, 10 ; pi. 53, figs. 78, 79. 

Shell oblong, rather depressed, white, black-spotted, showing the 
pearl through the semitransparent outer coat, closely and regularly 
spirally striated and concentrically wrinkled. Spire small, conical ; 
whorls rounded, convex ; the last very rapidly enlarging. Mouth 
oblong, spread out twice as wide as the diameter of the last whorl 



12 STOMATELLA. 

but one ; the pillar less arched, flattened. The axis imperforated. 
Throat silvery pearly, smooth. ( Gray.) 

Raine's Island, N. Australia. 

S. elegans GRAY, in Appendix to Narrative of the Voyage of H. 
M. S. Fly ii, p. 359, Marine sh., t. 2, f. 1, 1847. SOWERBY in 
Conch. Icon., f. 27 a, b. 

Fig. 10, of pi. 51, is copied from Gray's original figure. Figs. 78, 
79, pi. 53 are from Sowerby. I have represented on pi. 51, figs. 15, 16, 
a specimen before me which I believe to be the same species. Com- 
pared with S. sulcifera it has far more rapidly widening last whorl and 
wider aperture ; the sculpture is much finer. The surface is dull 
whitish, very irregularly streaked with purplish. The sculpture is 
scarcely visible (except as fine spiral strife) except under a lens ; then 
there are seen very numerous unequal or nearly equal spiral threads, 
slightly crenelated by excessively dense, close incremental elevated 
striae, which are irregular, somewhat tortuous and elevated in the 
inter-liral spaces. The spirals are narrower and the striae coarser, 
more distant, on the upper surface ; at the periphery the spirals are 
wider, the striae of increment excessively fine and close. The aper- 
ture is silvery inside, with reflections chiefly of red and blue ; the nacre 
is almost smooth ; the columella has a new-moon shaped white tract 
as in S. sulcifera. 

Alt. 16, diam. 25 mill. ; aperture, breadth 18, oblique alt. 19 
mill. ; greater radius 20, lesser 6? mill. 

S. LYRATA (A. Ad.) Pilsbry. PI. 2, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell depressed-globose, thin but solid, pinkish, with dots of deep 
brown or black and white on the spiral riblets. Spire short ; sut- 
ures deeply impressed ; surface of whorls encircled by narrow spiral 
lirae, separated by spaces about 1 mill, wide (in a specimen of 15 
mill, diam.), these interstices closely latticed by oblique raised striae, 
and bearing on the last part of the whorl from one to three minute 
spiral interstitial threads. There are about 16 principal threads on 
the body whorl of the largest specimen before me, but this character 
is extremely variable. Whorls 3, convex, the last descending. 
Aperture large, very oblique, rounded-oval, nacreous, iridescent 
and slightly sulcate within, corresponding to the sculpture of the 
outside ; columella arcuate, narrow, flattened. 

Alt. 11, diam. 15 mill. ; aperture oblique alt. 11, breadth 10 mill. 

Japan. 



STOMATELLA. 13 

Several specimens of this well-marked form are before me, procured 
from various sources, and under various names, one of which is S. 
lyrata Ad. I do not find any description of such a species by Adams, 
and doubt its existence. Specimens of the species now before me 
were received by Mr. Tryon from Arthur Adams under the name of 
" S. elegans Gray." 

S. CUMINGII A. Adams. PI. 52, fig. 67. 

Shell auriform, imperforate ; spire depressed ; whitish, buff glisten- 
ing, transversely spirally ribbed, the ribs elevated, subequal, 
crenelated, articulated with reddish-brown, the interstices or- 
namented with delicate longitudinal lamella? ; aperture patulous, 
sulcate within ; inner lip subreflexed. This is a large and elegant 
species, with a peculiar yellowish glistening tinge in the intervals 
between the spiral rugose ribs ; the aperture is very transverse, and 
the inner lip is reflexed on the columella. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. cumingii AD. P. Z. S. 1853, p. 74; in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 834, t. 
175, f. 38. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 32. 

S. ARTICULATA A. Adams. PI. 52, fig. 43. 

Shell suborbicular, imperforate, convex, thin, grayish, with trans- 
verse ribs articulated with black, the interstices with elevated lon- 
gitudinal lines ; spire rather prominent ; whorls rounded ; aperture 
oblong oval, longer than wide. (Ad.) 

Australia; Lord Hood's Island, on pearl oysters; Japan. 

S.'articulata AD., in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 834, t. 174, f. 2. SOWB. 
in Conch. Icon., f. 22. DKR., Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 145. 

Like S. sulcifera in form, but with strongly cancellated sculpt- 
ure. 

S. MACULATA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 51, figs. 17, 18, 19; pi. 52, 

figs. 60, 61. 

Shell small, oval, inflated, with rounded prominent spire of 4 
whorls. It is very delicately striate longitudinally and transversely, 
pale yellow, marbled with brown and reddish-brown. The col- 
umellar margin is flattened. The regularly oval aperture is nacreous 
and striate within. Longitudinal diam. 9?, transverse diam. 7 lines. 
Operculum very thin. (Q. & G.) 

Island of Vanikoro ; Bet Id., Torres Sts. (Brazier). 



14 STOMATELLA. 

S. maculata Q. & G., Voy. de 1'Astrolabe, Zoologie iii, p. 305, t. 
66 bis, f. 13-16. f S. maculata AD., in Sowb., Thes. Conch, ii, p. 
834, t. 175, f. 32-34. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ii, p. 46. 

I am not sure that the S. maculata of A. Adams is the same. His 
figures from the Thesaurus are copied on pi. 52, figs. 60, 61. Speci- 
mens were collected on Luzon, Philippines, by Mr. Cuming, accord- 
ing to Adams. 

S. MONILIFERA A. Adams. PI. 53, fig. 92. 

Shell suborbicular, convexly depressed, imperforate, whitish, 
spotted with rufous, and ornamented with transverse close-set 
granular ribs; aperture oblique, subcircular. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. monilifera AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 30; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 834, t. 
174, f. 13. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 7. 

S. MALUKANA A. Adams. PI. 53, fig. 95. 

Shell suborbicular, imperforate, convex, transversely sulcate, 
longitudinally striate, encircled by transversely striated riblets, 
yellowish brown variegated with rufous-brown, below with reddish 
and white articulated ribs ; spire rather prominent, aperture oval, 
longer than wide. 

This is a solid orbicular rather depressed species, variegated with 
reddish-brown, and with the whorls adorned with transverse striated 
ribs. (Ad.) 

Moluccas. 

S. malukana AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 31 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 837, t. 
174, f. 17. SOWB., in Conch. Icon., f. 24. 

S. CLATHRATULA A. Adams. PI. 53, fig. 94. 

Shell imperforate, turbinate-depressed, spire a little elevated, 
whorls convex, transversely lirate, articulated with red, crenulated, 
the interstices closely latticed ; umbilical region impressed ; col- 
umella thick, reflexed ; aperture moderate, rounded pearly within. 
(Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. clathratula AD., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 133. SOWB., in Conch. 
Icon., f. 31. 

S. COMPTA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell Haliotis-shaped, orbiculate-depressed, brown, vividly iri- 
descent within ; spire rather obtuse ; whorls convex, longitudinally 



STOMATELLA. 15 

obliquely striated, transversely lirate, the lirse unequal, some more 
prominent and nodulose ; umbilical tract impressed ; columella 
acute, aperture suborbicular. 

A well-defined thin brown species, with transverse elevated 
nodulose lira? and with the interior of the aperture vividly iridescent. 
(Ad., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 133.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. DORI;E Issel. PL 51, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell fragile, thin, orbiculate-conoid, much depressed, imperforate, 
transversely minutely striate-costulate, whitish painted with irregular 
chestnut spots ; spire obtuse ; whorls 4, convex, separated by im- 
pressed sutures ; first narrow, slowly increasing, the last large, rather 
convex above, rounded beneath ; aperture very oblique, large, sub- 
rotund ; peristome interrupted, acute ; columellar margin a little 
reflexed at the insertion ; throat a little pearly. 

Alt. 2|, diam. 4?, diam. apert. 2f mill. (Issel.) 

Strait of Suez. 

Savigny, Descript. de 1'Egypte, Coq., t. v, f. 8. Stomatella dorice 
ISSEL, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 228, 1869. 

S. SCITULA H. Adams. PI. 53, fig. 93. 

Shell ear-shaped, thin, encircled by numerous unequal riblets, 
whitish; spire prominent; suture distinct; whorls 4, convex; aper- 
ture very oblique, suboval ; columella acute, revolute ; pearly inside. 

Alt. 3*, diam. 5, long. 7 mill. (Ad.~) 

Red Sea. 

S. scitula AD., P. Z. S. 1872, p. 10, t. 3, f. 4. 

( Group of S. mariei Crosse.) 
S. MARIEI Crosse. PI. 53, figs. 68, 69, 70, 71, 72. 

Shell depressed, thin, with small, erect, acute spire ; color a delicate 
pinkish fawn, clouded and mottled with reddish-brown, articulated 
on the. spirals with white spots ; the base with radiating whitish 
ilames. Surface scarcely shining, sculptured with separated nar- 
row spirals above, and very numerous finer ones covering the spaces 
between them ; stride of growth excessively close and fine, scarcely 
visible. The principal spiral threads are articulated white and 
pink, and a trifle crenulated ; base smoother, with separated linear 
spirals. The spire is short, its outlines concave ; apical whorl 
corneous, projecting, rounded ; following whorls of the spire lirate, 



16 STOMATELLA. 

with scalloped sutures ; last whorl descending anteriorly, very broad ; 
aperture oval, finely sulcate within, nacreous, the predominant color 
being silvery or pinkish ; columella a little expanded above, over a 
minute umbilical chink, surrounded by a cresceutic opaque white, 
sharply defined tract. 

Alt. 13, diam. 19 mill.; aperture, breadth 12, oblique alt. 11 

mill. ; greater radius 13, lesser 6 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

S. mariei CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1871, p. 329 ; 1872, t. 13, 
f. 13. 

The measurements given by Crosse are : alt. 9, diam. maj. 24, 
min. 17 mill. The species is larger than S. sanguinea and differently 
sculptured. 

A form of this species bearing the (unpublished ?) name of S. 
Godeffroyi Dunker, is figured on pi. 1, figs. 12-14. It differs 
slightly from the type, but probably is not even varietally distinct. 
The animal is figured on pi. 22, and also in Proc. Phila. Acad. N. 
S., 1890. The last reference includes a figure of the dentition also. 

S. DECOLORATA Gould. PL 51, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Shell ear-shaped, depressed, rather rounded in outline, dead white 
above, with spots of milk-white and blotches of pale sanguineous 
especially near the suture ; whorls 4, forming an acute, moderately 
elevated spire, somewhat crenulated at sutures ; surface conspic- 
uously grooved, those above the periphery having 3 or 4 smaller 
stride intervening ; beneath somewhat imbricated upwards, and 
barred in the intervals by the lines of growth, which do not pass 
over the ridges ; one-half the breadth of the base adjoining the col- 
umella is plain, without striae, banded by a raised and milk-white 
line ; a slight reflection of the columella against a minute perfora- 
tion ; aperture transverse, rounded-oval, nearly circular ; interior 
porcelain-white and shining. (Old.} Alt. 13, diam. 22 mill. 

Island of Mangsi (j=Mangaia /). 

S. decolorata GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. iii, p. 73, 1848 ; U. S. 
Expl. Exped. Moll., p. 210, f. 250. 

Evidently allied to S. mariei, etc. I do not know the locality 
given by Gould. It may be Mangaia, one of the Cook Islands. 

S. ORBICULATA A. Adams. PI. 52, figs. 44, 45. 

Shell depressed, thin, \\ithsmall acute spire; color greenish-gray, 
with radiating streaks of reddish, splitting and broken into spots 



STOMATELLA. 17 

below the periphery, the spiral riblets dotted minutely with white. 
Surface lusterless, sculptured with narrow, acute, slightly granose 
spiral riblets, their interstices bearing numerous, unequal spiral striae 
or threads ; decussated by very close, fine striae of growth ; the spiral 
riblets obsolete in the center of the base. Whorls 5, the apical 2 
smooth, corneous, rounded ; the last large, rapidly increasing, briefly 
descending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, oval-quadrate, sulcate with- 
in, and pearly, the iridescence chiefly emerald-green within the 
throat, more silvery on outer lip ; columella narrowly reflexed over 
a minute umbilical chink, bordered by a crescentic white tract. 

Alt. 13, diam. 18 mill; aperture, breadth 12, oblique alt. 11 
mill. 

Darnley Id., Torres Sts. (Brazier), Mozambique (Cuming), Japan 
(Dkr.). 

S. orbiculata A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 31 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 837, 
t. 174, f. 23, 24. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 23. BRAZIER, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ii, p. 47. DUNKER, Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 
145. 

The columella and aperture are quite similar in form to S. mariei; 
but the shell is much less depressed and more coarsely spiralled than 
that species. 

S. RUFESCENS Gray. PI. 51, fig. 11. 

Shell suborbicular, rather depressed, brown. Spire conical, rather 
acute. Whorls rapidly enlarging, rather convex, concentrically 
striated with rather unequal acute spiral ridges, the upper whorls 
with two or three of the ridges larger and higher than the rest, the 
last with closer, less raised ridges in front. Mouth oblong, two- 
thirds the diameter of the shell in width, inner lip arched, edge 
crenulate. Axis imperforated ; throat silvery pearly, with a pale 
reddish edge. (Gray.') 

Maine's Island, N. Australia. 

S. rufescens GRAY, in Appendix to Jukes' Narrative of the 
Voyage of H. M. S. ' Fly, ' ii, p. 360, t. 2, f. 2 (1847). 

S. SELECTA A. Adams. PI. 53, fig. 73. 

Shell Haliotis-shaped ; spire rather prominent ; subperforate, 
greenish, maculated and dotted with red, brown and white ; longitu- 
dinally obliquely striated, transversely lirated ; umbilical region 
white, smooth ; aperture vividly pearly within ; columella reflexed 
above, partly covering the umbilicus. 



18 STOMATELLA. 

This is a species of great delicacy and beauty, most nearly allied 
to S. haliotidea of Sowerby, but with the umbilical region surrounded 
by a smooth white space and with the columellar margin reflexed 
and producing the appearance of an umbilicus. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. selecta AD., P. Z. 8. 1854, p. 133. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 
29. 
S. FULGURANS A. Adams. PL 52, fig. 42. 

Shell depressed, thin, with small, erect, acute spire ; light fawn- 
colored or grayish, with close narrow oblique stripes of reddish, as 
wide as their intervals; surface lusterless, sculptured with very 
close, fine spiral striae, scarcely visible except under a lens ; there 
are also a few (3 or 4) slightly elevated carinse on the upper surface. 
These are scarcely noticeable. There are minute, close stria? of 
growth, more prominent on the spire. The base is much smoother. 
Spire acute, apical whorl rounded projecting, brown. Whorls 5, the 
last very large, scarcely descending anteriorly. Aperture quite 
oblique, slightly sulcate within, the layer of nacre very thin ; col- 
umella a trifle expanded at the axis over a minute umbilical chink, 
bounded by a crescent-shaped white tract. 

Alt. 9, diam. 14 mill. ; aperture, breadth 9, oblique alt. 8! mill. ; 
breadth of columellar white crescent 2i mill. 

Philippines. 

S.fulgurans AD., P. S. Z. 1850, p. 32 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 837, t. 
174, f. 12. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 1. 

Very similar in contour to S. mariei, but differing in color and 
sculpture. 

S. SANGUINEA A. Adams. PI. 53, figs. 85, 86. 

Shell depressed, thin, deep crimson colored, with a crescent of 
white bordering the columella. The sculpture consists of rather 
narrow, spaced, acute spiral cords, of which there are two larger ones 
on the upper surface (one at the shoulder), the spaces between 
occupied by intervening smaller spirals and very close, fine, micro- 
scopic spiral striae, decussated by finer radiating striae of increment ; 
the upper whorls with low, radiating, scarcely visible folds. The 
base is nearly smooth, having only fine separated spiral threads with 
flat inter-spaces, all sculpture becoming obsolete in the white cres- 
cent except the fine, very oblique growth-lines. The principal 
spirals of the upper surface are more or less distinctly beaded ; the 



STOMATELLA. 19 

whorls of the spire show only two spiral carime. The spire is short, 
acute. Whorls 4%, the last rapidly enlarging, descending toward 
the aperture. Aperture extremely oblique, oval, reddish, scarcely 
iridescent. 

Alt. 7, diam. 9-10 ; of aperture, breadth 7, oblique alt. 7 mill. ; 
greater radius 7, lesser 3 mill. 

Ticao, Philippines ; Viti Is. ; Upolu; Paumotus. 

S. sanguinea AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 32 ; in Thes. Conch, ii; p. 835, 
t. 174, f. 30. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 2. S. notata A. AD. in 
Thes. Conch., p. 835, t. 174, f. 18-21. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 
12. MARTENS & LANGKAVEL, Donum Bismarkianum, p. 49. 
Stomatia depressa SOWB., Conch. Icon.', f. 12, 1874. 

May be known by the bright coral red color, or white with lon- 
gitudinal stripes, usually broken into distinct squarish spots. The 
principal spirals above are granose. There is an astonishing amount 
of variation in degree of depression. It is an abundant Polynesian 
species. The nacreous layer is excessively thin, especially in the 
typical form. 

Var. NOTATA A. Ad. PI. 52, figs. 48, 49, 50, 51. 

White with longitudinal stripes or very distinct crimson or 
purplish spots, visible also within the aperture. Sometimes uni- 
colored white. 

Alt. 6, diam. 9? ; alt. 5, diam. 8 ; alt. 5, diam. 7 mill. 

A mere color-form, not separable from the type by any constant 
characters. The color, size and proportions are very variable, as 
will be seen by comparing the measurements given. The greater and 
lesser radii in the most depressed specimen before me measure 3 
and 5 mill. The Stomatia depressa of Sowerby, pi. 54, figs. 14, 15, 
seems to correspond with very depressed specimens of notata before 
me. 

S. SPECIOSA A. Adams. PI. 51, fig. 25. 

Shell orbicu late-conic, white, spotted with blood- red ; transversely 
keeled, the keels obtuse, prominent, with other smaller keels between 
them, longitudinally strongly striate. Spire rather prominent, its 
whorls tri-carinate ; aperture oval, pearly within. (Ad.*) 

Grimwood's Island. 

S. speciosa AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 32 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 835, t. 
174, f. 29. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 9. 



20 STOMATELLA. 

S. CANDIDA A. Adams. PL 53, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell suborbiculate, depressed, white, transversely carinate all 
over, the riblets small, close, very numerous, a little elevated, sub- 
nodulose ; interstices very delicately striate ; spire rather depressed ; 
whorls rounded ; aperture oblique, subcircular, longer than wide. 

A pure white species, orbiculately depressed, with numerous acute 
keels on the whorls, and with the spaces between the ribs finely 
striated. (Ad.) 

Corean archipelago, on coral reefs. 

S. Candida Ad., in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 136, t. 174, f. 22. Sown, 
in Conch. Icon., f. 8. 

S. HALIOTOIDEA Sowerby. PL 52, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell Haliotis-shaped, thin, apex acute, brown, painted with varied 
white and rufous, sometimes whitish spotted with green ; whorls 
rather flattened, transversely lirate, the lirse close, rather roughened ; 
umbilical region impressed, scarcely rimate ; aperture rounded-oval, 
oblique. 

Shell rather orbicular, with an acute apex, transversely lirate, 
and variously colored with red, green, brown and white. (Ad.) 

Philippines. 

S. haliotoidea (Sowb.) A. ADAMS, in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 837, f. 174, 
f. 10, 11. SOWB., in Conch. Icon., f. 4. 

S. JAPONICA A. Adams. PL 53, fig. 97. 

Shell suborbicular, imperforate, convex, brown, transversely cost- 
ulate, the riblets close, noduled, the interstices very finely longitu- 
dinally striated ; spire rather prominent ; whorls costate, rounded ; 
aperture subcircular, pearly within. 

The aperture in this species is subcircular, and the whorls are 
rounded and transversely ribbed ; the color is brown, and the ribs 
are nodulous and close-set. (Ad.) 

Japan. 

S.japonica AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 31 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 838, t. 
174, f. 14. DUNKER, Moll. Jap., p. 23. SOWB., in Conch. Icon., 
f.6. 

S. PALLIDA A. Adams. PL 53, fig. 82. 

Shell suborbicular with acuminate spire, white, painted with pale 
longitudinal rays, transversely lirate, the interstices decussately 



STOMATELLA. 21 

striate ; aperture transverse, suboval, porcelaneous within ; inner lip 
nearly straight, callous. 

A species somewhat resembling in coloring striped varieties of S. 
notata, but which differs materially in form and sculpture. (Ad.) 

Lord Hood's Island. 

S. pallida AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 36 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 838, 1. 175, 
f. 44. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 19. 

S. BICARINATA A. Adams. PI. 52, figs. 53, 54. 

Shell turbinate, umbilicate; spire produced; buff, ornamented 
with radiating green maculations ; whorls rather flattened, angular 
above, the last w^ith two elevated carinse; transversely spirally 
striate ; aperture moderate, subtetragonal ; columella straight, scarcely 
callous anteriorly. 

This is a very pretty species, with a deep umbilicus and straight 
columella ; the whorls are furnished with prominent keels, of which 
there are two on the last whorl ; the shell is ornamented with green 
blotches. (A d.~) 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 

S. bicarinata AD., in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 839, t. 175, f. 39, 40. 
SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 25. 

Perhaps is not a Stomatella. Compare Gibbula coxi Angas. 

S. BIPORCATA A. Adams. PI. 52, fig. 52. 

Shell turbinate, subdepressed, red and white, obscurely variegated, 
transversely sulcate ; spire acuminate, whorls 4, the last with two 
prominent ridges ; aperture subquadrate, pearly within ; inner lip 
nearly straight; outer lip bi-angulate in the middle; umbilicus 
covered by a callous. 

A small red species, with two rounded ridges on the last whorl, 
and with a subquadrate aperture. (Ad.~) 

Australia. 

S. biporcata AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 33 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 839, t. 
175, f. 43. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 21. 

S. TIGRINA A. Adams. PI. 53, fig. 84. 

Shell orbiculate-conic, perforate, whitish, ornamented with radiat- 
ing red stripes, bicarinate, carinse rather elevated obtuse, transversely 
striate, striae regular ; spire prominent, whorls angular ; aperture 
subcircular ; inner lip subreflexed, callous ; umbilicus distinct, nearly 
covered. 



22 STOMATELLA. 

White, umbilicated, with radiating fuscous bands ; whorls with 
two elevated obtuse, transversely striated keels. (Ad.*) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. tigrina AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 33 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 839, t. 175, 
f. 37. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 18. 

S. ARABICA A. Adams. PL 52, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell ovate-globose, subturbinate, umbilicate, white closely va- 
riegated with red ; spire produced ; whorls lirate, the last ventricose, 
convex, transversely striated ; aperture open, suboval ; columella 
oblique ; umbilical region impressed ; lip white, thin, reflexed, partly 
covered the umbilicus. 

This is a small species, with the whorls round and simply striated ; 
the color and markings vary ; the ground however is usually white, 
with large irregular blotches. (Ad.) 

Red Sea. 

S. arabica AD., P. Z. S. 1853, p. 74; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 836, t. 

174, f. 27, 28. SOWB., Conch. Icon., f. 14. 

S. MARGARITANA A. Adams. PI. 51, fig. 22. 

Shell turbinate ; spire elevated ; whorls rounded, red, longitu- 
dinally striate, transversely costulate, costulse subnodose, unequal ; 
aperture suborbicular ; pearly within ; lip semicircular ; umbilicus 
covered by a callous. 

A small red, transversely ribbed species, having very much the 
appearance of a Margarita. (Ad.) 

Australia. 

S. margaritana AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 33 ; in Sowb., Thes. Conch, 
ii, p. 839, t. 174, f. 31. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 17. 

S. OALLIOSTOMA A. Adams. PI. 53, figs. 80, 81. 

Shell ovate-subturbinate, rimate ; spire depressed; reddish, va- 
riegated with brown, transversely lirate, lirse elevated, unequal; 
aperture transversely oval, rosy within, iridescent ; inner lip thin, 
acute, arcuate. 

The interior of the aperture in this species is of a beautiful reddish 
or violet tint ; externally the whorls are spirally lirate, and of a dull 
reddish-brown, variegated with markings of a darker color. (Ad.) 

Ceylon. 

S. calliostoma AD., P. Z. S. 1853, p. 74 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 840, t. 

175, f. 41, 42. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 33. 



STOMATELLA. 23 

S. MODESTA H. & A. Adams. PI. 53, fig. 83. 

Shell subcircular, iraperforate, depressed, spire small ; whorls con- 
vex, transversely lirate, lirse unequal, articulated with gray, some 
of them stronger ; aperture ovate, oblique, vividly iridescent-white 
within, clouded with gray. 

A neat lirate species, clouded with pale gray, and a few darker 
blotches at the sutures. (Ad.) 

Red Sea f 

S. modesta AD., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 433. SOWB. Conch. Icon., f. 34. 

S. ELATA H. & A. Adams. PL 58, fig. 90. 

Shell orbiculate-conic, imperforate ; spire elevated, whitish, radi- 
ately painted with brown at the sutures, ornamented with sub- 
quadrate brown spots at the periphery ; transversely lirate, lirse un- 
equal, articulated with brown ; aperture subcircular, inner lip sub- 
calloused, reflexed. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. IRISATA Dufo. Unfigured. 

Animal covering a part of the shell with the mantle edges ; exte- 
rior black. 

Shell very depressed, ear-shaped ; spire little elongated, but appar- 
ent ; aperture rounded, wider than long ; right margin striate with- 
in ; surface striate and granulate, white, with black bands and red 
points ; left side white ; interior subnacreous, with greenish bands. 
(Dufo.) 

Id. of Make, Seychelles. 

Dufo, Ann. des Sci. Nat. 1840, p. 201. 

S. MINIMA Dufo. Unfigured. 

Shell depressed, ear-shaped; spire little conspicuous; aperture 
oval, much wider than long ; the right margin smooth and acute, 
the left smooth and flat; outer surface not striate, white marbled 
with red ; interior not nacreous. (Dufo, I. c.) 

Make, Seychelles, on Avicula margaritifera, in 6 fms. 
Probably a Gena, allied to G. Icevis and G. lutea. 

S. NIGRA Anton. Unfigured. 

Obliquely oval, convex ; spire small, lateral ; black, the margins 
red-and-white striated; aperture oval-rounded, inner volutions 



24 STOMATELLA. 

scarcely visible; mouth slate-gray, the margins spotted with red 
and white. Breadth H, length 2 lines. (Anton.) 

Persian Gulf? on pearl oyster. 

Probably a Gena. 

B. Antillean species. 

S. COCCINEA A. Adams. PI. 52, figs. 55, 56. 

Shell perforated, small, depressed, with short, conical spire ; deep 
crimson with a white umbilical crescent, and often white spots at the 
periphery. The surface is slightly shining, encircled by numerous 
raised spirals, of which every 4th one is larger ; midway between 
these are smaller ones, and there are still finer spiral striae occupy- 
ing the interstices ; the whole decussated by fine striae of growth. 
There is an angle or carina midway between the periphery and sut- 
ure of the last whorl, which angulates the spire whorls. Spire short, 
conic ; suture impressed. Whorls 4, the apex smooth, white ; the 
last rapidly enlarging, subangular at periphery. Aperture red with- 
in, oblique ; inner lip gently curved, narrowly reflexed over but not 
concealing the umbilical chink. Umbilical tract white, impressed. 
Color, deep crimson, under a lens seen to be minutely, closely artic- 
ulated with lighter, especially on the spire, and often with a series 
of white dots scattered along the periphery. Alt. 3, diam. 4 mill. 
St. John's (Cuming), St. Thomas, and St. Croix, W. Indies. 

S. cocdnea A. AD., P. S. Z. 1850, p. 33 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 840, 
t. 175, f. 35, 36. Sows, in Conch. Icon., f. 26. KREBS, The West 
Indian Marine Shells, p. 85. 

A very distinct coral-red species, with white tipped apex and 
white umbilical crescent. The following seems to be a variety. 

Var. RUBROFLAMMULATA Pilsbry. PL 2, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell with the same sculpture and form ; umbilicus quite evident ; 
whorls of the spire minutely plicate just above the sutures; color 
white, with large, irregular red tracts or spots below the periphery. 

Alt. 4, diam. 5 mill. 

St. Thomas. 

This beautiful color-variety is very variable in markings. The 
figures represent the most usual pattern. Other shells have large 
irregular radiating flames above the periphery, which under a lens 
are seen to be of an olivaceous tint, veined and dotted throughout 
with red ; the base closely red-articulated. Another specimen is 



V 

STOMATELLA. 25 

deep brown, almost black, with snowy-white spire, and umbilical 
tract. 

S. DELICATA H. & A. Adams. 

Shell orbiculate-conic, imperforate, the spire rather elevated, va- 
riegated snowy and pale green, sparsely spotted with blood-red ; 
transversely lirate, with more prominent distant lirse ; upper whorls 
uni-carinate ; aperture ovate, oblique, white within. (Ad.*) 

A delicate species, varied with snow-white and pale green, with a 
few blood-red spots. (Ad.) 

St. Thomas. 

S. delicata H. & A. AD., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 432. 

Were it not for the "testa imperforata" of Adams' description I 
would unhesitatingly refer the specimens I have described above as 
Var. rubroflammulata to this species ; for the coloration of my variety 
is sometimes precisely that attributed to delicata. It is not impossible 
that Sowerby's " S. dilecta H. Ad. " is intended for S. delicata H. & 
A. Ad. 

S. DILECTA (H. Ad.) Sowerby. PI. 53, fig. 91. 

Shell trochiform, rather rosy, painted with red spots in rows ; spire 
prominent, whorls roundish ; last whorl biaugular, belted with strong 
ribs at the angles ; interstices striated. Resembling S. modesta in 
the markings, but more trochiform. (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. dilecta (" H. Ad. ? ") SOWERBY, in Conch. Icon., f. 30. 

Section Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890. 

This is a group of little shells, more elongated than Stomatella 
with larger body-whorl and aperture and smaller spire. They are 
like the typical Stomatice (phymotis, australis) in contour, but have 
no nodose keels, being simply spirally striate or slightly granose. 
They are scarcely more spiral than Gena, but some of them are 
known to have opercula, wanting in that genus. The species have 
been pretty impartially distributed in Gena and Stomatella by 
authors. S. montrouzieri Pilsbry, (picta Montr, not Orb.), may be 
considered the type. 

S. STELLATA Souverbie. PI. 53, figs. 76, 77 ; pi. 2, figs. 35, 36, 37. 
Shell ear-shaped, with minute spire and very large, convex body- 
whorl ; surface somewhat shining, black with scattered whitish dots, 



26 STOMATELLA. 

spots or zigzag lines ; sculptured by numerous close microscopic spiral 
striae, several smaller alternating with larger ones, and somewhat 
decussated by impressed growth lines. The spire is very short with 
minute whitish nucleus; whorls 3, convex, the last very large. 
Aperture ovate, angled above, polished, and bright inside, and of a 
blue color. Columella arched ; a slight chink is at the place of the 
umbilicus. 

Alt. 7, breadth b\ ; aperture, length 5, breadth 5 mill. Meas- 
ured as directed for Gena on p. 37.) 

New Caledonia ; Viti Is. ; Barnard Id. No. Ill, N. E. Australia- 

S.stellata SOUVERBIE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1863, p. 169, t. 5, f. 10. 
8. ornata BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ii, p. 47 (1877). 

The color is very dark (" nigrescente plumbea ") in this species, 
sparcely dotted with white ; but the dots are as often replaced by 
spots, or V-shaped markings. On these the lip is edged with a row 
of white dots. Color-varieties in the collection before me are figured 
on pi. 2, figs. 35-37. It is this variability that causes me to consider 
Mr. Brazier's S. ornata a variety of stellata. Its sculpture is the 
same as the type fine spirals with several still finer ones inter- 
posed, decussated by growth-striae ; color, " undulated brown, white 
and pink flames, sometimes in the form of lengthened spots." Local- 
ity, Barnard Is., N. E. Australia. 

From the Viti Islands I have a smoother form, with the minuter 
spiral striae obsolete. The color is sepia or umber-brown or pink, 
with numerous spots and V-shaped marks of white. It may be called 
variety ornati*sima. (pi. 2, figs. 35-37.) 

S. CRASSA Montrouzier. PI. 55, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell ovate-oblong, thick, back convex, with radiating, impressed 
striae of growth decussated by spiral subelevated striae ; dull ashen- 
blackish, scarcely shining ; spire lateral, prominent ; whorls 4, con- 
vex, separated by impressed sutures, the last one forming the greater 
part of the shell. Aperture ample, rounded-ovate, bluish-white and 
shining inside ; right margin acute, left subarcuate, appressed at the 
columella and united with the right lip. Length 10, width 6 mill. ; 
alt. 4? mill. ; aperture 7 mill, long, 5 broad. Measurements of an- 
other specimen, length 8, breadth 5, alt. 4 mill.; aperture 6 by 4 
mill. (Montr. & Souv.) 

Island of Art, New Caledonian Archipelago. 



STOMATELLA. 27 

Stomatella (Genaf) crassa MONTR., Journ. de Conch. 1870, p. 74, 
t. 9, f. 6. 

S. MONTROUZIERI Pilsbry. PL 53, figs. 74, 75. 

Shell small, ovate, back convex, transversely striated, the striae 
decussated by slightly elevated spiral striae, with smaller ones between 
them ; deep opaque black, obliquely girdled with white ; spire lateral, 
slightly prominent ; whorls 4, separated by impressed sutures, rounded, 
the last forming the greater part of the shell ; aperture ample, 
rounded-ovate, somewhat dilated below, shining within, concolored, 
with very translucent white bands ; right margin acute, left sub- 
thickened, arcuate, reflexed posteriorly, and appressed ; umbilicus a 
very narrow fissure. Operculum corneous, rounded, very thin. 

Length 4, width 3, alt. 2 mill. ; aperture, 3* mill. long. (Montr.) 
Id. of Art, New Caledonian Archipelago. 

Stomatella picta MONTROUZIER, Journ. de Conchyl. 1862, p. 239, 
t. 9, f. 7 (not S. picta d'Orbigny, a species of quite similar form). 

S. CALIGINOSA H. & A. Adams. PI. 55, fig. 26. 

Shell ear-shaped, imperforate, oblong, blackish ; spire small, 
transversely lirate, larger and smaller lirse alternating, obsoletely 
articulated with white ; aperture oblong, very oblique, greenish- 
white within, margin crenulate, black ; inner lip rather flattened ; 
a narrow lunar umbilical rimation. Operculum thin, orbicular, 
multispiral. (Ad.) 

A brownish-black lirate auriform species, more resembling a Gena 
but with the operculum of Stomatella. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. caliginosa AD., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 434. Gena caliginosa Ad., 
SOWB., Conch. Icon., f. 10. 

S. GRANOSA Lambert. PI. 51, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell small, thin, subtranslucent, ovate-oblong, the back convex ; 
spire lateral, short, prominent; transversely impressed-striate, the 
striae gathered at and radiating from the suture on the last whorl, 
spirally granulose-costate and impressed striate, with an interstitial 
crenulated riblet between the spiral ribs ; scarcely shining, sub-red- 
dish-black, smooth inside, shining, bluish; whorls 4, rounded, 
separated by impressed sutures, the first two (embryonic) white, 
smooth, the last forming the larger part of the shell. Aperture 



28 STOMATELLA. 

rounded-ovate, within subsulcate and whitish radiate, columellar 
margin subthickened, white, right margin simple. 

Long. 5, lat. 4, alt. 2 mill. ; aperture 4 mill, long, 3 broad. (Lam- 
bert.) 

Loyalty Is., New Caledonian Archipelago. 

Stomatella granosa LAMBERT, Journ. de Conchyl. 1874, p. 374 ; 
loc. cit. 1875, t. 4, f. 2. 

S. CONCINNA Gould. PI. 2, figs. 6, 7 ; pi. 55, figs. 27, 28. 

Shell small, with large, oval body-whorl and minute spire ; sur- 
face covered with equal spiral riblets, separated by interstices nearly 
as wide as themselves, and cut into tiny, compressed beads by close, 
regular impressed lines of increment. Color white, with oblique 
spiral bands of red, frequently broken or splitting. Spire extremely 
minute, of 3-4 whorls ; aperture roundly oval, white and showing 
pink stripes within. 

Alt. 4, diam. 3 mill. ; aperture, alt. 3i, width 2f mill. 

Sandwiches .; Paumotus. 

Stomatella concinna GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 26, 1845. 
Gena concinna Old. ADAMS in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 831, t. 173, f. 20, 
21. 

A pretty little shell. The deep red color of the stripes does not 
extend into the inter-liral grooves, being confined to the riblets. One 
specimen before me is unicolored deep purple-brown, with a pink- 
edged columellar crescent of white. 

S. PULCHELLA A. Adams. PI. 2, figs. 32, 33, 34. 

Shell convexly depressed, oval, white, spotted with red ; back 
convex, all over striated ; spire rather prominent, whorls rounded ; 
aperture large, oval, pearly and iridescent within. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Gena pulchella AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 38 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 831, 
t.173, f. 17, 18, 19. 

S. ASPERULATA A. Adams. PI. 55, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell haliotis-shaped, back convex ; rufous-brown, ornamented 
with a broad white girdle ; decussated by elevated rather close-set 
lines and oblique striae ; spire posterior, rather prominent, white ; 
aperture long, oval. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 



STOMATELLA. 29 

Gena asperulata AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 38 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 830, 
t, 123, f. 28, 29. 

May be a true Gena, but the sculpture and form are more like 
the present group. 

S. PICTA d'Orbigny. PI. 54, figs. 19, 20 ; pi. 21, figs. 22-25. 

Shell minute, ear-shaped, with large oval body-whorl and minute 
spire ; surface shining, encircled by very numerous, fine, unequal 
spiral threads, cut into close but indistinct granules by close impressed 
longitudinal strise. Flesh colored, the spirals dark red ; spotted and 
longitudinally maculate with opaque snowy-white ; columella white ; 
spire minute; whorls 2J, the last large, oval, descending. Aperture 
ovate, angular above, maculate within. 

Greatest length 4, greatest breadth 2i mill ; aperture, alt. 3, 
breadth 2 mill. 

St. Thomas and Cuba; Florida Keys. 

Stomatia picta ORB., Moll. Cuba ii, p. 184, t. 24, f. 19, 21. 
Stomatella picta Orb., BALL, Bull. 37, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 168, 1889. 

This species is usually a little smaller than the measurements 
given above. About 30 specimens from St. Thomas are before me. 
There is considerable variation in the intensity of the color, one 
specimen being unicolored black, reddish on the spire. I have not 
seen specimens truncated below as d'Orbigny's figures show his to 
have been. It is reported from the Florida Keys by Dall and by 
Simpson. S. concinna Old., is a very similar species. 

Subgenus NIPHONIA A, Adams. 

Niphonia AD., Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 3d ser., 
vi, p. 336, 1860. Type, N. pulchella A. Ad. 

This little genus most nearly resembles Stomatella, but the shell is 
very thin, and the aperture has an internal ledge, as if for the oper- 
culum. Two specimens only were obtained, both dead, and both 
wanting the opercula. (Ad.) 

N. PULCHELLA A. Adams. 

Shell smooth, pale brown, shining, spirally lirate ; whorls 2J, con- 
vex ; the last having five larger transverse lirse and many smaller 
basal ones ; umbilical region impressed ; margin of peristome acute. 

(Ad.) 

Off Mino-Sima, Corea Strait, 63 fms. 

N. pulchella AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. 1860, p. 336. 



30 PHANETA-STOMATIA. 

Genus PHANETA H. Adams, 1870. 

Phaneta H. AD., P. Z. S. 1870, p. 793. TRYON, Struct, and Syst. 
Conch, ii, p. 317. FISCHER, Manuel de Conchyl., p. 839. 

The animal is unknown. The genus was placed by Adams in the 
Valvatidce, probably because it is a fluviatile mollusk. Try on first 
placed it in the Stomatellidce, and is followed by Fischer, who places 
the group between Stomatella and Gena. It is not known whether 
an operculum is developed, but I regard it as likely. 

P. EVERETTI H. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 1.8, 19, 20. 

Shell depressed-trochiform, rather thin, whitish, covered with a 
thin pale reddish epidermis ; spire convex-conic, apex obtuse, sub- 
lateral ; suture distinct ; whorls 3, slightly convex, rapidly increas- 
ing, ornamented with obscure oblique striae and some irregular spiral 
ones ; the last whorl acutely carinated ; base subconcave, the col- 
umellar region excavated, closely concentrically striated. 

Alt. 6, diam. maj. 8*, min. 7i mill. (Ad.} 

Siniwan River, Borneo, near Sarawak ; attached to submerged 
logs. 

Phaneta everetti H. AD., P. Z. S. 1870, p. 794, t. 48, f. 20. 
Genus STOMATIA (Helbling) Lamarck, 1801. 

Stomatia HELBLING 1779. Stomatia LAMARCK, Syst. des Anim. 
s. Vert, et Tab. gen. etc., p. 96. Type, S. phymotis Helbl. Stomax 
MONTFORT Conch. Syst. ii, p. 110, 1810. 

Stomatia is closely allied to Stomatella, differing in the generally 
more elongated shell with a series of short folds or puckers below 
the sutures ; usually the body-whorl has a tuberculous carina ; there 
is no operculum typically. I am prepared however to learn that 
some of the species are operculate. The animal is too large to en- 
tirely enter the shell ; the foot large, fleshy, tubercular, greatly 
produced posteriorly ; epipodium fringed, with a more prominent 
fimbriated lobe behind the left tentacle, and on the right there is a 
slightly projecting fold or gutter leading to the respiratory cavity. 
There are digitated inter-tentacular lobes. 

S. PHYMOTIS Helbling. PL 54, figs. 16, 17, 21, 22. 

Shell Haliotis-shaped, lengthened, with scalar spire, the last whorl 
very deeply descending; solid, lusterless, red, marked at suture, 
keel and base with olive or brown articulated with white. Surface 
very rough, with a strong double nodulous keel at the middle of the 



STOMATIA. 31 

whorl, several nodose spiral riblets and threads below it, strongly 
plicate or puckered below the sutures. Aperture irregular-qval, 
nacreous inside. 

Alt. 28 mill. ; of aperture, alt. 22, breadth 14 mill. 

Philippines ; Viti Is. ; Japan. 

Stomatia phymotis HELBLING, Beitrage zur Kenntniss neuer und 
seltener Conchylien, in Abhandlungen einer Privat-gesellschaft in 
Bohmen zur Aufnahme der Mathematik, der Vaterlandischen 
Geschichte und der Naturgeschichte, iv, Prague, 1779, p. 124. 
VON MARTENS in Mai. Blatter, xvi, p. 236. A. ADAMS, in Thes. 
Conch, ii, p. 841, t. 175, f. 48-52. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 2. 
LAM., An. s. Vert., vi, p. 211. DUNKER, Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 
146. Stomax fur oncu lus MONTF., Conch. Syst. ii, p. 111. 

S. australis AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 34. Sowb., Conch. Icon., f. 1.- 
JS. obscura " Lam. " Sows., Conch. Icon., f. 3. S. obscurata LAM., 
An. s. Vert, vi, p. 212. DELESSERT, Rec. de Coq., t. 33, f. 5. 

The largest, most strongly tubercled species. There is consider- 
able variation in both form and color. Figs. 21, 22, of pi. 54, rep- 
resent the form called S. obscura " Lam. " by Sowerby and others. 
It is probably S. obscurata Lam. 

Var. AUSTRALIS A. Adams. PL 54, figs. 1-3, 34. 

Smaller than the type, shorter, with shorter, less scalar spire; 
surface with sharp, unequal spiral threads, tubercled and plicate as 
in S. phymotis, or sometimes nearly smooth except for the fine spirals. 
Color greenish-yellow, pale red, or variegated. 

Alt. 20 mill. ; aperture, alt. 15, breadth 11 mill. 

S. DUPLICATA Sowerby. PI. 54, figs. 4, 5, 8, 9, 10. 

Shell depressed-globose, with conical spire ; longitudinally striped 
with purplish or red and white. Rather solid ; surface with numer- 
ous fine, unequal spiral threads above, two strong nodose keels at 
periphery, and about 7 subequal line on the base, their interstices 
spirally striate ; spire prominent ; whorls 3, bicarinate, the last not- 
ably so, concave above the carina. plicate below the sutures ; aper- 
ture rounded, oblique ; columella concave, thin ; umbilical tract a 
little grooved, white. x 

Alt. 14, diam. 14 mill. ; alt. 10, diam. 10 mill. 

Philippines. 



32 STOMATIA. 

S. duplicates SOWB., Genera, Stomatia f. 3. A. ADAMS in Thes. 
Conch, ii, p. 841, t. 175, f. 61-63. SOWB., in Conch. Icon., f. 11. 

Far more depressed than S. phymotis or australis. The strongly 
marked double nodose keel will separate it from the following. 

S. ACUMINATA A. Adams. PI. 54, fig. 18. 

Shell Haliotis-shaped, suborbiculate, rather brown, cancellated, 
transversely costate, ribs 3, prominent, middle one very prominent, 
tuberculate ; strongly plicate at the suture, longitudinally elevately 
striate ; spire rather prominent, acuminate ; whorls 4, angular ; 
outer lip with 3 angles. * 

This is a cancellated, transversely-ribbed species, strongly plicate 
near the suture. (Ad.) 

Philippines Is. 

S. acuminata AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 34 ; Thes. Conch., p. 843, t. 
175, f. 64. SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 7. 

S. DECUSSATA A. Adams. PI. 54, fig. 12. 

Shell ovate-oblong, longitudinally and transversely decussately 
striate, with 2 simple or subtuberculated angular, prominent carinse ; 
pale, varied with brown spots ; spire elevated ; aperture oblique, 
nearly circular, lip biangulate in the middle. 

This species is decussated with transverse and longitudinal striae, 
and there are two prominent, angular, keels on the whorls ; the 
spire is acute and prominent. (Ad.) 

Luzon, Philippines. 

S. decussata AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 34 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 843, t. 
f!75, . 60. SOWB., in Conch. Icon., f. 6. 

S. ANGULATA A. Adams. PI. 54, fig. 6 ; pi. 51, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell depressed, thin but rather solid, with very short, conical 
spire ; greenish-gray, obscurely longitudinally striped with dull, 
pale reddish-brown ; surface lusterless, with numerous unequal spiral 
threads, latticed by wavy riblets of growth ; the whorls encircled by 
two strong carinse above, and numerous smaller lirse below the 
periphery ; and with strong, short subsutural folds. Whorls 3*, the 
last large, depressed, impressed at the place of umbilicus. Aperture 
oblique, subrotund. 

Alt. 7, diam. 9 mill. ; aperture, alt. 6J, breadth 6? mill. 

Luzon, Philippines. 



STOMATIA. 33 

S. angulata A. AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 34 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 
842, t. 175, f. 57. SOWB., Conch. Icon., f. 10. 

A small species, intermediate in characters between S. duplicata 
and S. rubra. 
S. RUBRA Lamarck. PI. 54, figs. 31, 32, 33 ; pi. 51, figs. 26, 27, 28. 

Shell depressed, with small, conical spire ; rather thin ; reddish 
brown, lighter beneath, or variously variegated. Surface covered 
with close fine hair-like spiral striae, and with two low keels above 
the periphery, the upper one nodose ; there is a series of short folds 
below the suture. Whorls of spire with a beaded carina ; last whorl 
wide, depressed, flattened above, convex below, and impressed at the 
axis ; aperture large, rounded, very oblique, iridescent within. 

Alt. 11, diam. 15 mill.; aperture, oblique alt. 9, breadth 10 
mill. 

Philippines ; Strait of Corea. 

S. rubra LAM., An. s. Vert. (ed. Desh.) ix, p. 16. Eiicycl. Meth., 
450, f. 3. ADAMS in Thes. Couch, ii, p. 842, t. 175, f. 53-56. 
SOWB., Conch. Icon., f. 8. DUNKER, Ind. Moll. Jap., p. 146, t. 6, f. 
11-13. 

Differs from all the preceding in the more depressed body-whorl, 
which is much like some species of Stomatella of the group of S. 
mariei. The surface has very fine regular hair-like spiral strise 
above. The following species seem to be very closely allied. 

S. LIRATA A. Adams. PL 54, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell orbiculate-convex, provided with transverse subequal elevated, 
slightly nodulose lirse, the interstices strongly longitudinally striate ; 
subplicate at the sutures ; pale, radiately marbled with brown ; 
spire rather prominent ; whorls rounded ; aperture oblique, oblong- 
oval ; lip convex, rotund. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

S. lirata AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 35 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 842, t. 175, 
f. 58, 59. SOWB., Conch. Icon., f. 9. 

S. DECORATA A. Adams. PI. 54, fig. 7. 

Shell Haliotis-shaped, orbiculate-depressed, covered-umbilicate ; 
whorls of the spire bicarinate, transversely sulcate and striate, 
obliquely plicate at the sutures, the last whorl unicarinate ; aper- 
ture white inside, opaque, pearly ; color brownish-buff, dotted and 
spotted with red. 
3 



34 STOMATIA. 

This is a large and showy species, somewhat resembling S. rubra 
Lam., in the character of the markings and color ; it is not tubercular 
like that species. (Ad.) 

Stomatia decorata AD., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 132, t. 28, f. 2. 

This species and S. splendidula I have not seen. They seem to be 
near to S. rubra Lam. 

: S. SPLENDIDULA A. Adams. PL 52, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell Haliotis-shaped, orbicularly depressed, imperforate ; whorls 
of the spire 3, bicarinate, the last whorl transversely lirate, line un- 
equal, roughened, the interstices longitudinally striated ; pale above, 
with radiating reddish-brown flames at the sutures, below reddish 
dotted with brown ; base ornamented with red radiating flames. 
Aperture white and opaque within, with bright green lines, margin 
pearly. 

In this species the columellar margin is reflexed and pearly, but 
the interior of the aperture, with the exception of the internal mar- 
gin of the outer lip, is opaque white, with green spiral lines. (Ad.*) 
Japanese Sea (Adams) ; Paumotus (Martens). 

S. splendidula AD., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 133 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 838, 
t. 174, f. 15, 16. DUNKER, Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 145. SOWB. 
in Conch. Icon., f. 15. MARTENS & LANGKAVEL, Donum Bis- 
markianum, p. 48. 

S. VARIEGATA H. Adams. PL 54, fig. 13. 

Shell subrimate, oval-oblong, convex, transversely costate, the 
costse subdistant, interstices longitudinally striated, red, varied with 
white ; spire rather prominent ; apex acute ; suture distinct ; whorls 
3, convex ; aperture oval, inner lip callous, outer lip ascending a 
little. Alt. 9, diam. 7 mill. (H. Ad.} 

Mauritius. 

Stomatia variegata H. AD., P. Z. S. 1868, p. 12, t. 4, f. 1. SOWB. 
in Conch. Icon., f. 5. 

S. PALLIDA Tapparone Canefri. 

Shell thin, spirally encircled by delicate unequal lirse, depressed 
and plane above ; spire a little elevated, acute, grayish-white, 
longitudinally painted with pale brown streaks ; whorls 4, separated 
by a distinct suture, sutural folds little conspicuous ; last whorl 
large, flat above, depressed at the suture, spirally ornamented with 
sharp elevated striae and two spinous-tuberculate carinse ; very con- 



STOMATIA. 35 

vex beneath transversely finely granose-cingulate, and sculptured 
with longitudinal elevated, distant, obsolete, flexuous, very oblique 
stride decussating the cinguli ; aperture moderate, ovate-rounded ; 
throat pearly, marked with blackish spots. 
Alt. 82, diam. 6J mill. (Canefri.~) 

Sorong. 

Stomatia pallida TAPP. CAN., Annali del Museo Civico di Storia 
Naturale di Genova ix, p. 288, 1877. 

Subgenus MICROTIS H. & A. Adams. 

Microtis ADS., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 36. Microtina ADS. olim. Mir 
crotina Ads., CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1871, p. 188. 

The animal of Microtis is like Stomatia, but the foot has a deep 
anterior fissure for the snout, the front edge bilobed. There is no 
operculum. 

M. TUBERCULATA H. & A. Adams. PI. 54, figs. 25, 26, 27. 

Shell tuborbicular, ear-shaped, greatly depressed, variegated with 
green, transversely striated, bicarinated ; keels tuberculated, nodosely 
plicated near the suture ; spire scarcely elevated, whorls carinated ; 
aperture large, oval, pearly within, with two concentric parallel 
grooves. (J.d.) 

Is. of Capul, Philippines, on the sands, high w r ater. 

M. tuberculata ADS., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 36. AD. in Thes. Conch, 
ii, p. 841, t. 175, f. 45-47. Stomatia tuberculata A. Ad., SOWB. in 
Conch. Icon., f. 4. Microtina tuberculata Ad. CROSSE, Journ. de 
Conchyl. 1871, p. 191. 

Adams' figures of the animal of M. tuberculata are reproduced on 
pi. 54, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

M. COMPTA Martens & Langkavel. 

Pale greenish-yellow, with blackish zigzag stripes. Ribbed like 
Stomatella notata Ad., but the prominent ribs are stronger, with 
large white and blackish spots. The last whorl less depressed than 
in S. notata. Columellar margin thickened, nacreous, so broadly 
concave that one can see almost the entire second whorl within it, 
from beneath, as in Microtis tuberculata, while this is not the case 
with 8. notata or S. splendidula. 10 mill, in greater diameter, 7 high, 
aperture 7i mill. Distinguished from M. tuberculata Ad. by the 
rounded shell, with less prominent spiral keels. In all of these 
species the inter-lira! spaces are finely spirally striated ; and oblique 



36 STOMATIA-GENA. 

lines parallel to the lip-margin pass over the ribs and interstices. 
The interior of the mouth is furrowed and beautifully nacreous. 
(Mart. & Langk.) 

Paumotus. 

Microtis compta M. & L., Donum Bismarckianum, eine Samm- 
lung von Siidsee-Conchylieu, p. 49, 1871. 

M. HECKELIANA Crosse. PL 51, figs. 33, 34, 35. 

Shell suborbicular, haliotis-shaped, very much depressed, flat- 
tened, very finely striate spirally, whitish, with little longitudinal 
stripes of light brown on the base, not very obvious, and slightly 
undulating, their edges serrate (dechiquetes) in a peculiar way, and 
more pronounced in the central part of the stripes. Spire excessively 
depressed, completely flat or a little concave ; suture well-marked, 
provided with nodose folds or denticulations moderately spaced. 
Whorls of the spire 3, flat ; last whorl large, with two spiral series 
of undulations above, then obtusely carinated, becoming convex on 
the base. Aperture large, oval, auriform, brilliantly nacreous with- 
in. Columella forming a spiral visible as far as the apex of the 
shell, white and shining. Peristome simple, basal and outer margins 
acute ; outer margin angular and strongly receding below. 

Alt. 3j, diam. maj. 11, min. 8 mill. (Crosse.) 

Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Microtina heckeliana CROSSE, Journ. de Conch. 1871, p. 191, t. 6, 
f.2. 

Easily distinguished from M. tuberculata by the flat spire, as well 
as by the form and color-pattern of the last whorl, which has 
tremulous or wavy serrate rays of light brown, instead of green as 
in the other species. (Crosse.) 

Genus GEN A Gray, 1850. 

Gena GRAY, Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum, 
42d edition, 1840, p. 151 (no description given nor species men- 
tioned) ; GRAY, in P. Z. S. 1847, p. 146 (no description, but Patella 
lutea named as a species) ; GRAY, Guide to the Systematic Distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, p. 159, 1857. Gena Gray, 
A. ADAMS, Monogr. of Stomatellidse in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 37 ; 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, vii, p. 223, 1851 ; and of subsequent authors. 
Stomatella and Stomatia in part of early authors. 



GEXA. 37 

Gena and other of J. E. Gray's genera purporting to date from 
"Syn. Brit. Mas. 1840, " were not really described in that publica- 
tion, which is merely a popular account of the contents of the British 
Museum. The genera of Mollusks are enumerated on pages 150- 
156, but without author's names, and without even a species men- 
tioned as an example ; nor are the new names distinguished in any 
way from the old. Adams first characterized the genus in 1850 ; 
and this may be considered the actual date of publication. The 
genus differs from Stomatella and Stomatia in having no operculum, 
and in the less spiral shell, with larger body-whorl and finer sculpt- 
ure. The observations upon the animal show great differences 
among the few species examined, which will probably require the 
dismemberment of the genus when more species are known anatomi- 
cally. The dentition has not been well figured. The animals of G. 
planulata Lam. and nigra Q. & G. have a large foot, not capable of 
retraction under the shell ; the muzzle is squarish, as in Trochus ; 
tentacles subulate, eyes on short peduncles ; there is a pair of 
arborescent frontal palmettes, and the epipodium bears no lateral 
filaments. G. Icevis Pse. has a more lengthened form of muzzle ; there 
are siphons or conduits for the entrance and egress of water, and 
ciliated filaments on the epipodial line (see description of animal 
under that species, and pi. 55, fig. 16). To the last-named species 
Fischer has given the name Plocamotis. 

The shells are separable by slight but apparently constant features 
into two sections ; but it remains to be seen whether their characters 
are correlated with those of the soft parts. 

Sub genera. 

GENA, s. s. Shell with the body- whorl all over finely spirally 
striated. Animal without epipodial cirri or lengthened cervical 
water conduits. Type, G. planulata Lam. 

PLOCAMOTIS Fischer. Shell with polished body-whorl, the penul- 
timate whorl and base finely spirally striated. Animal with epipodial 
cirri and cervical water conduits. Type, G. Icevis Pse. 

NOTE. The measurements of length and breadth are taken 
parallel to the plane of the peristome. The length is measured along 
the line a, b in fig. 20, pi. 2 ; and the breadth along the line c, d. 



38 GENA. 

Subgenus GENA s. str. 

G. PLANULATA Lamarck. PI. 55, figs. 1, 2, 3 ; pi. 2, figs. 17-20. 

Shell much flattened, oval, the spire very minute, and very near 
the end; aperture almost as long as shell, its margins level, not 
arched. 

Oval-oblong in contour, the two sides about equally curved ; much 
flattened, like a Navicella. Surface shining, very densely and 
minutely striate in the direction of the whorls. Color, very deep 
blackish-olive with white dots, or finely variegated and marbled all 
over with gray and olive-brown ; under a lens seen to be finely 
articulated on the stria?. Whorls 3, spire minute, not projecting 
beyond the general ontline of shell. Aperture very large, oval, the 
columellar and lip margins equally curved, upper end rounded, 
a pearly callus filling the angle ; interior nacreous, with blue-green 
and fiery-red reflections. Length 19, breadth 10 mill. ; aperture, 
length 16, breadth 9 mill. Length 17, breadth 10 mill. ; aperture, 
length 15, breadth 9 mill. 

Philippines ; Australia. 

Stomatella planulata LAMARCK, Anim. s. Vert., ed. Desh. ix, p. 
17. Encyc. Me"th., t. 458, f. 4. Gena planulata Lam., AD. in Thes. 
Conch, ii, p. 829, t. 173, f. 1-3. 

This species is more depressed and flattened than any other. The 
spire is very minute. The aperture is not angulated posteriorly, but 
rounded by a callus which fills the angle. 

G. NIGRA Quoy & Gaimard. PL 51, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell elongate-oval, convex, smooth, black ; right margin longitu- 
dinally striate, violaceous shining within; spire minute, subter- 
minal ; aperture oval, entire. 

A very elongated little species, contracted, convex, arched so as to 
rest upon the extremities alone ; the spire is short, nearly terminal 
on the right margin, composed of 4 whorls. The right margin has 
six or seven longitudinal striae, the others, parabolic behind and in 
front, are incremental. This shell is shining black above, with viola- 
ceous nacre within the entire oval aperture. (. & G.) 

Tonga-Taboo. 

Stomatella nigra Q. & G., Voy. de 1'Astrolabe, Zool. iii, p. 307, t. 
66, f. 10-12, 1834. 



GENA. 39 

Known to me only by the above translated description and the 
original figures. Adams identified this species with one I believe to 
be entirely different. 

G. STRIGOSA A. Adams. PI. 55, figs. 31, 32 ; pi. 2, figs. 8-16. 

Shell depressed, Haliotis-shaped, oval, the right side straightened, 
the left strongly curved ; aperture angled above, narrower than the 
shell, its margins arched, so that when placed on a plane the shell is 
supported by its extremities. Surface very densely and finely 
spirally striated all over, these fine, even striae decussated by oblique 
growth-lines ; color various. 

The spire is very short, consisting of a minute projecting cone of 
about 3j-4 whorls; it is decidedly more elevated and more remote 
from the margin than in G. planulata, and the body of the shell is 
more convex than in that species. The surface is shining, very 
finely, closely striated. The color is excessively variable, but in all 
the mutations there is a white tract along the columella with, usually, 
a series of red flammules bordering it. The aperture is not bilater- 
ally sym metrical as in G. planulata, but angled at the termination of the 
straightened outer lip, the columella very much arched. The interior 
is nacreous, its reflections chiefly silvery and green, but sometimes as 
fiery red as in G. planulata. 

Length 18, breadth 10-1 mill. ; convexity when resting on a plane, 
5 mill ; aperture, length 14*, breadth 8? mill. 

Length 16, breadth 9 mill. ; convexity 4| mill. ; aperture, length 
12:1, breadth 7 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

G. strigosa AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 37 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 830, t. 
173, f. 11, 12. G. nigra AD., Thes. Conch., p. 829, f. 14-16 (not of 
Quoy and Gaim.). G. plumbea AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 37; Thes. 
Conch., f. 13. 

The species of Gena are difficult to distinguish without fuller 
descriptions or better figures than those in the Thesaurus, though the 
latter are good. Under the head of strigosa I have here grouped 
shells agreeing with Adams' strigosa, nigra, and plumbea. These 
three seem to represent merely extreme color-patterns in a species so 
variable that scarcely two of the twenty specimens before me are 
alike. 

The typical STRIGOSA (pi. 55, f. 31, 32) is "rather depressed, the 
back equally convex, striated all over, olivaceous varied with white 



40 GENA. 

and lilac, marked with alternate light and dark bands, the light 
bands sometimes articulated ; spire depressed, outer lip slightly 



The G. nigra of Adams (but surely not nigra Quoy !), is figured 
on pi. 55, figs. 5, 6, 7, and pi. 2, figs. 11, 12, 13. It is of a dark olive- 
brown variously banded and maculated with pink or grayish-white, or 
suffused with pink under the brown, or unicolored olive-brown (pi. 
2, figs. 8, 9, 10), and this last coloration seems to be G. plumbea of 
Adams (pi. 55, fig. 4). Some specimens before me have no brown 
markings, but are very light, with pink spiral, articulated bands ; 
others are closely painted with green arrow-shaped articulations. In 
all, the outer lip is a little sinuous. 

G. STRIATULA A. Adams. PL 55, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell haliotis-shaped, ovate-oblong, rather flattened on the back, 
striated all over, the striae deep and rather wide apart ; red, varied 
with orange, yellow, and brown ; spire prominent, sometimes rather 
distorted ; outer lip strongly flexuous. (Ad.} 

Calapan, Mindoro, Philippines, 9 fms. ; Australia. 

G. striatula AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 37 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 829, t. 
173, f. 9, 10. 

Has more strongly flexuous outer lip than G. strigosa. 

G. DILECTA Gould. PI. 55, fig. 33. 

Shell small, thin, lengthened oval, shining, yellowish-green, orna- 
mented with white triangular spots with dark apices, sometimes in 
series ; decussated by incremental and deeper spiral strise ; whorls 3, 
apex nearly terminal ; aperture narrow, oval, the ventral face nearly 
level ; inside shining, greenish. Very delicate and slender, allied 
to G. planulata, a much larger species, and G. strigosa, of which it 
may possibly be the young. Length 8, breadth 4 mill. ( Gld.~) 

Hakodadi Bay, Japan. 

G. dilecta GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii, p. 44, 1859. 
SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 14. 

Subgenus PLOCAMOTIS Fischer. 

Plocamotis FISCHER, Manuel de Conchyliologie, p. 840, 1885. 
Type, G. Icevis Pse. 



GENA. 41 

O. L^EVIS Pease. PL 55, figs. 15, 16 (enlarged). 

Shell oblong, flatly depressed on its upper side, rounded on its 
lower edge, smooth, solid, marked transversely by striae of growth ; 
outer lip straight, inner lip thickened on its edge ; aperture oblong 
oval ; spire posterior, small, slightly elevated ; greenish-olive, va- 
riously spotted or mottled with white, brown or red, sometimes wholly 
of a dark green color. Length 11, diam. 6J mill. (Pse.) 

Tahiti. 

Gena Icevis PSE., Arner. Journ. Conch, iii, p. 283, t. 23, f. 7, 28, 
29 (1867). 

This is a depressed form, polished save for close, fine spiral striae 
on the penultimate and beginning of the body-whorl, which are 
continued around the base as in other smooth Gena. The spire has 
a faint keel sketched around the shoulder. The outer lip is some- 
what sinuous. The shell is supported by the extremities when 
standing upon a plane. 

Length 9J, breadth 5 mill.; convexity 2J mill.; aperture, length 
8, breadth 4-9 mill. 

The animal lives in the upper region of the laminarian zone, 
on branched coral, but is usually found under loose stones, on mud 
or sandy bottom, at low water-mark. The color above is similar to 
that of the shell, of an olivaceous or brownish-olive, reticulately 
veined with dusky, lomocotive disc and tentacular appendages pale. 
The first is large and cannot be wholly retracted beneath the shell ; 
it is oblong rounded behind, thick and fleshy, ciliated around the 
margin, and slightly tuberculated on the posterior upper portion. 
When expanded, three hirsute cylindrical tapering cirri project from 
each side of the shell, which are attached to the upper surface of the 
foot, and at the outer base of each is a minute aborescent appendage. 
The mantle is margined with a single series of pinnate cirri, which, 
when the animal is in motion, are recumbent on the margin of the 
shell. Head proboscidiform, well developed, lips wrinkled, mouth 
elliptical. Tentacles very long, tapering and hirsute. Two abores- 
cent appendages in front of the tentacles. Eyes on hirsute pedicels 
at the hinder base of the tentacles. A siphon projects on each side 
of the neck, the left incurrent, and the right excurrent ( Garrett in 
Pease, loc. cit.). 

G. ROSACEA Pease. PL 55, fig. 12. 

Shell oblong oval, convex, somewhat depressed on upper side near 
the apex, rather thin, concentrically distantly and elevately striate, 



42 GENA. 

transversely very minutely striate ; outer lip straight ; spire posterior, 
whorls angulated, slightly elevated ; variously mottled with pink and 
white ; concentric striae red, spire yellowish or white. 
Length 6, diam. 4 mill. (Pse.) 

Paumotus.. 

G. rosacea PSE., Amer. Journ. Conch, iii, p. 284, t. 24, f. 1. 

This is very similar to the last species. The close, fine, spirals of 
the penultimate whorl become nearly obsolete on the last, except on 
the base. The coloration consists of close fine V-shaped reticulations 
on a lighter ground, but sometimes is "pinky-cream, unicolored, or 
dark reddish, like G. caledonica, with radiating zigzags of white. 

Length KH, breadth 6 mill. ; convexity 2 mill. ; aperture, length 
8|, breadth 5 mill. 

G. NEBULOSA A. Adams. PI. 55, fig. 13. 

Shell haliotoid, ovate-oblong, the back all over striated ; white, 
clouded with reddish-brown ; spire somewhat prominent, whorls 
angular; aperture elongate, oval ; columella covering the umbilical 
fissure with a thick callus. (Ad.) 

Australia. 

G. nebulosa AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 38 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 830, t. 
173, f. 23. 

This is, I believe, a decidedly young specimen of a species 
immediately allied to G. Icevis and rosacea of Pease. 

G. CALEDONICA Crosse. PI. 55, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell imperforate, depressed ovate, thin, slightly shining, under a 
lens showing scarcely conspicuous transverse impressed stride, some- 
what decussated by very delicate lines of increment, roseous-brown, 
apex varied with white ; spire scarcely prominent, apex rounded ; 
sutures linear; whorls 3, rather convex, the last large, elongated, 
the base somewhat concave ; aperture subovate, striatulate inside, 
lined with a thin layer of nacre ; peristome slightly thickened, mar- 
gins joined by a white callus, columellar and basal rather thick, 
scarcely pearly, white, the outer subreflexed, acute, pearly. 

Diam. maj. 6, min. 3, alt. H mill. (Crosse.) 

New Caledonia. 

Gena caledonica CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1871, p. 330 ; I. c.. 
1872, t. 13, f. 4. 



GEN A. 43 

Specimens of this species before me are deep claret colored, with a 
few white dots and white flames on the spire ; spiral stria? are 
obsolete except on the base ; the incremental stria? are regular, and 
quite prominent under a lens. The spire is perhaps more elevated 
than in either G. Icevis or G. rosacea and it shows no trace of the keel 
sketched around at the shoulder in those two species, the outer lip 
is straight. 

Length 10J, breadth 5? mill. ; convexity 3 mill. ; aperture, length 
9, breadth 4f mill. 

G. AURICULA Lamarck. PI. 2, figs. 21, 22, 23. 

Shell of an elongated, rather narrow Haliotis-shape, smooth, 
polished, except for growth-lines near the lip ; body-whorl not spirally 
striate ; color golden, finely reticulated with light golden-brown, and 
showing several broad and narrow spiral crimson bands. 

The outline is long, with sides more parallel than in G. strigosa ; 
It further differs from that form and its allies in the polished surface, 
without spiral stria? except on the penultimate and beginning of the 
last whorl, where fine, scarcely impressed, close spiral lines can be 
seen under a strong lens ; a few separated impressed stria? extend 
along the columellar margin of the base ; the upper surface has sub- 
regular radiating stria?. The ground color consists of a fine zigzagged 
mottling of whitish and light brown, through which the underlying 
nacre shines with a golden iridescence. There are several narrow 
spiral lines articulated remotely with white dots; and on the latter 
part of the whorl these are replaced by bands or lines of crimson. 
The aperture is oblong, the posterior angle filled by a pearly callus ; 
outer lip sinuous ; there is a slightly projecting angle where the 
columella joins the basal lip. 

Length 18, breadth 9 mill ; convexity when lying upon a plane, 
4i mill; aperture, length 15 j, breadth 7f mill. 

East Indies ; Hong Kong. 

Stomatella auricula LAM., An. s. Vert., ed. Desh. ix, p. 17. Encycl. 
Meth., t. 450, f. 1. 

I have been unable to see that this species is the same as that 
identified by Adams with lutea Linn. I have therefore taken the 
figure in the Encyclopedic Methodique as a type, and have described 
and figured a shell closely resembling it. As in all Gena the colora- 
tion will doubtless prove to be variable within wide limits. I have 
therefore described in detail that of the individual figured. Form 
and striation are the only reliable characters in this group. The 




44 GENA. 

columellar margin is slightly bowed or concave ; the lip margin 
is not bowed, but in one plane ; so that when lying on its face the 
peristome is in contact with a plane surface all the way around 
except the median part of the columellar lip ; whilst in other polished 
species the extremities alone support it, both lips being bowed. 

G. LENTRICULA A. Adams. PL 55, fig. 14. 

Shell haliotoid, oblong, back convex, all over very delicately 
striated, thin, fragile, flesh-colored, spotted with red ; spire nearly 
terminal, small, laterally inclined ; aperture open, very much 
lengthened. (Ad.) 

Calapan, Island of Mindoro, Philippines ; in 9 fms- 

G. lentricula AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 38 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 830, t. 
173, f. 22. 

G. LUTEA (Linn.) Adams. PI. 2, figs. 29, 30, 31; pi. 55, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell Haliotis-shaped, quite convex, variegated white and pink- 
ish-brown ; surface polished ; outer lip sinuous ; shell resting on the 
two ends only when placed upon a plane. 

In shape it is shorter than G. auricula, with the outer lip more 
sinuous and more bowed. Surface polished, showing radiating 
growth-striae above, under a lens, and close microscopic spiral stria? 
on the base, the beginning of the last, and the earlier whorls. The color 
is a brownish pink, mottled and lineolate throughout with white. 
Aperture oblong, silvery within and iridescent ; outer lip sinuous, 
columella arcuate. 

Length 13J, breadth 8, convexity 4? mill.; aperture, length 11, 
breadth 7 mill. 

East Indies. 

Gena lutea Linn. A. ADAMS, in Thes. Conch, ii, p. 828, t. 173, f. 
4, 5. (? Patella lutea Linn., Syst. Nat. x, p. 783.) 

I can but agree with Hanley that the Patella lutea of Linne is 
unidentifiable. The shell described above, and figured on pi. 2, figs. 
29-31, is, I believe, the G. lutea of Adams. It is a less lengthened 
species than G. auricula, and the lips are so curved that the shell is 
supported by the ends alone when placed face down upon a plane. 
It is much more convex than G. rosacea, Icevis, or caledonica, and 
does not have the faint shoulder carina of the first two. I do not 
know what relation exists between this and the next species, tor 
while Adams says it is easily distinguished from that form, he does 
not tell the differences. 



GENA. 45 

G. VARIA A. Adams. PL 55, figs. 19, 20, 21. 

Shell haliotoid, ovate-oblong, polished, back equally convex, left 
side striated, buff, varied with white and red ; spire rather prominent, 
erect, acuminate. 

A pretty little species, usually confounded with G. lutea, but 
easily distinguished when its profile is examined ; the dorsum is 
equally convex and polished, and the spire is rather prominent, erect 
and acuminated. (Ad.) 

Calapan, Island of Mindoro ; Acapulco ; on the sands. 

G. varia AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 37 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 828, t. 173, 
f. 6-8. 

G. CALLOSA Fischer. PI. 51, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell complanate, ovate, elongated, transversely delicately striate ; 
whorls 2 ; apex somewhat prominent ; aperture oblong, ear-shaped, 
right lip simple, somewhat excavated in the middle ; columella mar- 
gined, strong, thickened, callous and provided with a tooth-like 
tubercle ; margins continuous, joined by a callus. 

Length 11, breadth 7 mill. (Fischer.') 

Suez. 

SAVIGNY, Descript. de 1'Egypte, t. v, f. 10. Gena callosa FISCHER, 
Journ. de Conchyl. 1871, p. 218. 

** * 
G. ORNATA A. Adams. PI. 55, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell subturbinate, oval, smooth, polished ; reddish-brown, orna- 
mented with longitudinal black lines articulated with white ; back 
convex ; spire rather prominent, rosy ; aperture oval, columella 
arcuate, simple ; outer lip reflexed, posteriorly subflexuous. (Ad.^) 

Ticao, Philippines, on the reefs. 

G. ornata A. AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 38 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 831, t. 
173, f. 24, 25. 

This and the next species are more spiral than other species of 
Gena. They may belong elsewhere. 

G. LINE ATA A. Adams. PI. 55, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell subturbinate, solid, smooth, polished, convex, pink, with 
longitudinal red lines; spire rather prominent, whorls rounded; 
aperture subrotund ; columella planulate, callous, rather flattened ; 
lip simple. (Ad.') 

Habitat unknown. 



46 GENA-BRODERIPIA. 

G. lineata AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 39 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 830, t. 
173, f. 26, 27. 

Genus BRODERIPIA Gray, 1847. 

Broderipia GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1847, p. 146. Type, 
Scutella rosea Brod. Scutella BRODERIP, in part, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 48, 
not Scutella Lamarck. 

The animal of Broderipia is unknown. The species may be 
divided into two sections. I, species with the apex decidedly 
recurved, nearer the posterior margin than to the center, includes 
rosea, iridescens, subiridescens, cumingii. II, species with more 
conical, limpet-like form, the apex nearer the middle than the edge, 
nitidissima, eximia. 

B. IRIDESCENS Broderip. PI. 1, figs. 5-8 ; pi. 2, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell limpet-shaped, with oval outline and posterier apex, the 
margins expanded ; in profile it is very depressed, highest a little 
back of the middle, the slope from apex upward short and concave, 
from apex downward gently convex. Surface lusterless, with 
scarcely visible growth-striae ; opaque-white, radiately striped with 
olive-bordered red lines, generally interrupted and forming a tessella- 
ted white and dark pattern. The apex is minute, recumbent, spiral, 
dextral. Inside brilliantly iridescent, not showing the color-pattern 
clearly except at the red-and-white spotted margins. 

Length 8, breadth 5, convexity If mill. 

Grimwood's Island, S. Pacific ; Is. of Reunion. 

Scutella iridescens BROD., P. Z. S. 1834, p. 48. Broderipia irides- 
cens Brod., ADAMS, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 39 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 832, t. 
173, f. 32, 33. DESHAYES, Cat. Moll, de rile de la Reunion, p. 69. 

Beautifully iridescent inside, and more depressed than the follow- 
ing forms. It is quoted by Deshayes from Reunion, on the west side 
of the Indian Ocean giving the form a very wide distribution. 

B. SUBIRIDESCENS Pilsbry, PL 1, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell limpet-shaped; outline oval; apex nearly attaining the 
posterior margin ; in profile the posterior slope is very short, concave ; 
the anterior long and convex ; it is highest near the apex. Surface 
nearly smooth, concentric growth-lines microscopic ; white, covered 
with a netted pattern of dots connected by lines of red. Apex 



BRODERIPIA. 47 

minute, recumbent, spiral, dextral, the tip eroded. Inside scarcely 
nacreous, the color-pattern showing through. 

Length 6, breadth 4, convexity 1*6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This is a shell smaller than B. iridescens, and more convex ; the 
apex is nearer the posterior margin ; the interior is scarcely pearly. 
The coloration and lack of granulation distinguish it from B. 
cumingi Ad. 

B. CUMINGII A. Adams. PL 2, figs. 43-44. 

Shell ovate, depressed-convex, subpellucid, pallid, painted with 
red rays, concentrically corrugated-striate, stride granulose ; vertex 
posterior, excentric, submarginal ; aperture patulous, pearly within, 
the margin acutely angular, prominent, posteriorly rather straight- 
ened. Granulated on the upper surface ; the columellar margin is 
also prominent and angulated. (Ad.) 

Capul, Philippines. 

B. cumingi AD., P. Z. S. 1850, p. 39 ; Thes. Conch, ii, p. 832, t. 
173, f. 34, 35. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., f. 2. 

Sowerby says that the shell from which the original figures were 
drawn has been lost but an inferior specimen remains. 

B. ROSEA Broderip. PL 2, figs. 24-28. 

Shell limpet-like, but with a recurved beak projecting beyond the 
posterior outline of aperture; very convex, sloping convexly toward 
the front margin. Surface lusterless, showing under a lens rather 
rude concentric growth-lines, and very numerous, close, fine stria? 
radiating from apex to margins. The coloration consists of narrow 
red stripes obliquely descending from the median line to the borders, 
forming a series of V-shaped markings. The beak is rolled forward 
and a trifle inclined laterally, but the (dextral) apical whorl is lost. 
The aperture is oval, posterior margin scarcely expanded ; its cavity 
is deep, scarcely perceptibly nacreous. 

Length 4, breadth 2, convexity 21 mill. ; length of aperture 
31 mill. 

Grimwood's Island, S. Pacific; Ceylon. 

Scutella rosea BROD., P. Z. S. 1834, p. 48. Broderipia rosea 
GRAY. B. rosea Bred., ADAMS, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 39 ; Thes. Conch, 
ii, p. 832, t. 173, f. 30, 31. SOWERBY, in Conch. Icon., f. 1. 

The shell described above and figured on pi. 2, figs. 24, 25. 26, seems 
to me to represent this species. Arthur Adams has wrongly referred 



48 BRODERIPIA. 

to it in his Monograph in the Thesaurus, having transposed the 
figures with those of B. cumingi. I suppose Sowerby to be correct in 
his figures. The measurements of my specimen correspond with 
those given by Broderip. It may be noted, however, that that author's 
measurements of B. iridescens show it to have been more convex than 
the specimen of that species before me. Nevill has recorded B. 
rosea from South Ceylon. 

B. NITIDISSIMA Deshayes. PI. 1, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell patella-shaped, ovate-oblong, symmetrical ; apex subcentral ; 
radiately ribbed, the ribs strong, convex, simple, whitish, the inter- 
stices irregularly marbled with brown ; interior vividly pearly, with 
a rather large central spot of dull white notched in front, and 
bounded by the whitish muscle-impression. The rest of the inside 
has a nacre of unequaled brilliancy with opalescent reflections. 
The largest specimen measures: length 9, breadth 7, alt. 3 mill. 
(Deshayes.^) 

Island of Reunion. 

B. nitidissima DESH., Moll, de File de la Keunion, p. 69, t. 6, f 
20-22, 1863. SOWERBY, in Conch. Icon, xix, f. 3. 

B. EXIMIA Nevill. PI. 1, figs. 9-11 ; pi. 2, figs. 38-40. 

Shell patella-shaped, oblong-oval in outline, elevated, with the 
apex a little above the middle, and a little curved upward ; the pro- 
file from apex to posterior margin is straight or a little concave, 
from apex to anterior end it is a little convex. Surface radiately 
ribbed, with shorter riblets inserted between the principal ones to- 
ward the periphery ; whitish, more or less marbled with blackish- 
brown. Interior with a small central opaque white callous, the rest 
brilliantly pearly, opalescent. 

Length 9, breadth 6*, alt. 4 mill. ; length 10, breadth 7, alt. 4 
mill. 

Southern Ceylon. 

B. eximia G. & H. NEVILL, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xxxviii, 
pt. 2, p. 69, t. 13, f. 7, 1869. 

Description and figures 9-11 of plate 1 are drawn from a speci- 
men from the authors. The species seems to be very closely allied 
to B. nitidissima but has less strongly developed riblets, is more 
elevated, and the central white callus of the interior is smaller. 



BRODERIPIA-SCISSURELLA. 49 

Family SCISSURELLID^E. 

Shell minute, imicolored, umbilicated, turbinate or depressed, few- 
whorled, thin, with a thin layer of pearl inside ; aperture oval, outer 
superior lip with a foramen or slit as in Pleurotomaria, and with a 
differently sculptured band or anal fascicle encircling the whorls 
Operculum circular, corneous, thin, multispiral, with central nucleus. 

Animal with a rather long rostrum, long, ciliated tentacles, the 
eyes at their outer bases ; foot rather narrow ; epipodium bearing 4 
ciliated cirri on each side. Radula as in Trochidse ; tooth formula 
cc'l (4-1-4) I'oo . Central and lateral teeth with large expanded 
basal plates and finely denticulate recurved cusps. Uncini very 
numerous, narrow, with serrate cusps (pi. 50, fig. 18). 

A group of very small shells, most of them living in deep water. 
The fossil (tertiary) species number about as many as the recent. 
The shell has a considerable resemblance to that of Pleurotomaria, 
but the dentition and external anatomy of the animal is decidedly 
nearer Trochidce. 

Genus SCISSURELLA d'Orbigny. 

Shell with an open anal slit, extending backward from the peri- 
stome ; slit fasciole extending nearly to the apex. Type, S. Icevigata 
Orb. 

Genus SCHISOMOPE Jeffreys. 

Anal fissure closed, forming a foramen in the outer wall of 
aperture; slit fasciole shorter, not over 1J whorls in length. Type, 
S. cinyulata Costa. 

Genus SCISSURELLA Orbigny, 1823. 

Scissurella ORB., Mem. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, i, p. 340, 1823. 
Anatomus H. & A. ADAMS, Genera, i, p. 439 not Anatomus Mont- 
fort, 1810. Schizotrochus MONTEROSATO, Nom..Gen. e Spec., p. 39, 
1884, type, S. crispata Flem. 

The type of Scisurella is S. Icevigata Orb., not S. elegans Orb., 
which is the last species in Orbigny's original monograph. Orbigny 
mentions a deep slit, but not a foramen in the outer lip. There is 
considerable variation in contour among the species, and this may 
sometime be utilized to break the genus into sections ; meantime, as 
I do not see any characters of much value, I consider Schizotrochm 
of Monterosato a synomym. 



50 SCISSURELLA. 

S. COSTATA d'Orbigny. PL 50, fig. 1. 

Shell thin, transparent; spire depressed, composed of 4 whorls 
plane on their upper surfaces, strongly carinated at the periphery, 
convex below the carina ; last whorl very large, widely umbilicated ; 
aperture oblique, subquadrangular ; columella simple, arcuate ; lip 
simple, sinuous, with a narrow profound fissure ; slit fasciole forming 
the carina of the whorls, with elevated, lamellar edges, and arcuate 
growth-lamellse ; umbilicus broad and deep, carinated at the border ; 
surface sculptured with arcuate longitudinal riblets, widely spaced 
and a little undulating, and fine spiral striae ; color white. 

Alt. 1, diam. H mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Madeira; Teneriffe, Canaries. 

S. costata ORB., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris i, p. 340, t. 23, f. 2, 
1823. CHENU, Manuel, f. 2716. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. des Mitt- 
elm, ii, p. 385. DE FOLIN, Les Fonds de la Mer i, p. 266. 
JEFFREYS, Proc. Zool. 1883, p. 89. MONTEROSATO, Norn. Gen. e 
Spec., p. 39. BUQ., DAUTZ., and DOLLF., Moll, du Rouss., p. 430, t. 
51, f. 8-11. S. Icevigata ORB., loc. cit. supra, p. 340, t. 23, f. 1. 
Argonanta uniumbilicatus O. G. COSTA, Test, e Crust. Micros., t. 10, 
f. 1, 1828. S. plicata PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 187 ; ii, p. 159, 
t. 25, f. 18. S. d' Orbignyi SCACCHI, Catal. Conch. Reg. Neap., p. 16, 
1836. Padollus orbignyi O. G. COSTA, Catal. Taranto, p. 51, 1839. 
Delphinula calcaroides CANTRAINE, Bull. Acad. Bruxelles ix, p. 
341, 1842. S. cancellata JEFFREYS, Piedm. Coast, p. 27, f. 1. S. 
affinis O. G. COSTA, Microd. Medit., p. 60, t. 10, f. 2. S. decipiem 
COSTA, 1. c., p. 60. S. striatula PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 160 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 37, t. 6, f. 9. 

Var. L^VIGATA Orb. PL 50, fig. 2. 

Longitudinal riblets entirely wanting. 

The name Icevigata really has priority of costata, and if, as the 
authors of Mollusques du Roussillon state, the two forms are con- 
nected by imperceptible gradations, Icevigata should be taken as the 
typical form, of which costata is a variety. In nature, however, the 
reverse is doubtless the case. 

S. DORBIGNYI Audouin. Vol. XI, pi. 67, figs. 85, 86, 87. 

The shell is thin, transparent, glassy, white, ovate, rather de- 
pressed, consisting of 3 rather rapidly increasing whorls, and has a 
very peculiar sculpture ; under the rather elevated slit fasciole there 
are two elevated lirse, and the base has concentric lirse and grooves, 



SCISSURELLA. 51 

while the usual growth striae are not lacking. In the example 
figured in the Description of Egypt there is a deep groove between 
the keel and the upper of the two spiral lirae ; in the examples 
observed by me the groove is very shallow, and bears an elevated 
line. The umbilicus is moderate, the aperture obliquely ovate. 

Diam. about H mill. (Phil.) 

Red Sea. 

AUDOUIN'S Descript. de 1'Egypte, Coq., t. 5, f. 30 (no descript.). 
8. d'Orbignyi Aud., PHIL., Conchyl. Cab., p. 38, t. 6, f. 10. 

S. RETICULE Philippi. Vol. XI, pi. 67, figs. 49, 50, 51. 

The shell is thin, transparent, glassy, white, ovate, rather de- 
pressed, but. with convex whorls, and consists of 3? pretty rapidly 
increasing whorls. The striae of growth are cut into a reticulation 
by impressed transverse lines. The umbilicus is moderate, showing 
none of the whorls ; the aperture is obliquely ovate. 

Diam. 2 mill. (Phil.) 

Red Sea. 

S. decussata AUDOUIN, Desc. 1'Egypte, t. 5, f. 29 (not S. decussata 
Orbigny, a fossil species). S. reticulata PHILIPPI, Conchyl. Cab., p. 
38, t. 6,f. 11. 

S. KOENENI O. Semper. PL 57, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell small, fragile, subpellucid, rather narrowly umbilicated, 
orbicularly depressed; first whorl embryonic; second sculptured, 
angular, convex below the angle, the anal fasciole situated on the 
angle very densely encircled with spiral lines, and with remote, in- 
flexed longitudinal lamellae ; anal fasciole a little immersed, its mar- 
gins lamellose, elevated ; aperture rotund, the slit subangulate. 

Alt. 1, diam. If mill. (Semper.) 

Bohol, Philippines. 

S. koeneni SEMPER, Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 286, t. 12, f. 3. 
S. HOERNESI O. Semper. PL 57, figs. 15, 16. 

'Shell very small, very fragile, greenish, narrowly umbilicated, 
orbicular, depressed ; first whorl embryonic, smooth ; second whorl 
sculptured ; whorls convex, with incurved longitudinal lamellae and 
very delicate encircling striae; median slit-fasciole commencing on 
the penultimate whorl, simulating a carina, finely striate longitu- 
dinally, margins sublamellose ; aperture oblique, rotund. 

Alt. 1, diam. 1J mill. (Semper.) 

Luzon, Philippines. 

The slit-fasciole is not visible on the whorls of the spire. 



52 SCISSURELLA. 

S. CRISP ATA Fleming. PI. 58, figs. 22-25. 

Shell globose, sloping toward the periphery, delicate, semitranspar- 
ent, glossy ; the sculpture consists of numerous fine, curved, longi- 
tudinal ribs, interrupted by the slit fasciole, closer on the base, 
intersected by minute spiral strise in the interstices; color pearly 
white ; epidermis thin, caducous, pale yellowish-brown ; spire usually 
rather depressed, but variable ; whorls 4, flattened above, rapidly 
enlarging ; slit long and narrow, nearly central ; slit fasciole deep, 
striated across, edges somewhat thick, sharp, prominent ; aperture 
rounded, oblique ; peristome continuous ; outer lip thin ; inner lip 
folded back on the columella ; umbilicus deep, but exposing only the 
last whorl. Operculum very delicate, with numerous^ whorls, the 
last large. Alt. 1, diam. 2 mill. 

Spitzbergen to Sicily and Azores, Greenland to New England, 4-790 
fms. ; off Culebra, West Indies, 320 fms. : Pliocene of Italy and 
Rhodes. 

Scissurella crispata FLEMING, Mem. Wern. Soc. vi, p. 385, t. 6, f. 
3, 1832. FORBES and HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 544, t. 63, f. 
6. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 283. SARS, Moll. Arct. Norv., p. 
126, t. 8, f. 7. S. angulata, LOVEN, Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 20. var. 
paucicostata JEFFR., Brit. Conch. S. aspera PHIL., Enum. Moll. 
Sicil. ii, p. 160, t. 25, f. 17 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 35, t. 6, f. 6. 

Var. ANGULATA Loven. Spire higher ; ribs above fewer. 

S. UMBILICATA Jeffreys. PI. 51, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell forming a depressed sphere which is equally raised above 
and below, rather thin, semitransparent and somewhat glossy ; sculpt- 
ure, none except very fine and close set, but indistinct, lines of 
growth ; color white ; spire slightly raised ; whorls 4-5, flattened 
above and sloping outwards ; they rapidly enlarge, so that the last 
or body- whorl considerably exceeds in size the rest of the shell ; slit 
long and central, equal in width, with upturned edges ; mouth nearly 
circular, but somewhat angulated where it is united to the body- 
whorl below the peripheral keel; peristome continuous, although 
not free in consequence of the inner lip being attached to the shell ; 
outer lip thin and sharp ; inner lip spread on the lower part of the 
body-whorl ; umbilicus rather large, funnel-shaped, and deep ; oper- 
culuin not observed, the specimens now described being dead. 

Alt. O'l, diam. O'l. (Jeffreys.) 

North Atlantic. 



SCISSURELLA. 53 

This differs from any other species known to me in being devoid 
of sculpture, and in having a conspicuous umbilicus. (Jeffreys.) 

Seissurella umbilicata JEFFREYS, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 88, t. 19, f. 1. 
S. TENUIS Jeffreys. 

Shell forming a depressed cone with an expanded base, sloping to 
the periphery and slit, very thin, scarcely transparent, and rather 
glossy ; sculpture, extremely numerous and fine curved longitudinal 
striae, and equally numerous and fine concentric or spiral striae, which 
by their intersection cause a regular but minute cancellation; the 
concentric striae at the base are stronger and more distinct than the 
longitudinal striae ; the sculpture is of course interrupted by the 
peripheral slit and groove ; color pearly white ; spire greatly depressed ; 
whorls 5, somewhat flattened below the suture ; the last enormously 
exceeds in size all the others put together ; slit central, long and 
broad; groove also broad, marked across by regular but rather 
distant curved striae ; edges sharp and upturned ; mouth obliquely 
oval ; outer lip thin ; inner lip folded back and curved ; pillar 
nearly straight, having a twisted fold in front of the umbilicus, which 
is small and narrow. Alt. 0'25, diam. 0'2. (Jeffreys.} 

North Atlantic. 

This differs from S. crispata and its varieties in its depressed shape, 
thinner texture, more delicate sculpture, the larger size of the last 
whorl in comparison with the others, the pillar being furnished with 
a fold, and in its narrower umbilicus. (Jeffreys.') 

Stissurella tennis JEFFREYS, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th series, 
vol. 19, p. 234. 

S. CONICA d'Orbigny. PI. 57, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell orbicular-conic, globulose, pellucid, transversely lamellose- 
ribbed ; spire elevated ; carina wide ; aperture rounded ; umbilicus 
large. Alt. 2 mill. (Orb.) 

Falkland Is. 

S. conica ORB., Voy. dans 1'Amer. Merid., p. 470, t. 78, f. 7-9. 
PHILIPPI, Conchyl. Cab., p. 35, t. 6, f. 4. 

S. BERTHELOTI d'Orbigny. PI. 58, fig. 26. 

Shell orbicular-depressed, vertex a little flattened, transversely 
striate-costate above, striate below ; spire depressed ; whorls 3, 
rounded ; carina broad, acute ; aperture orbicular ; lip thin, acute ; 
umbilicus open. Slit fascicle smooth ; color bistre-brown. (Orb.) 

Teneriffe, Canaries. 



54 SCISSURELLA. 

S. bertheloti ORB., in Webb et Berthelot's Hist. Nat. des lies 
Canaries, p. 96, t. 7, f. 2-5. 

S. MANTELLI Woodward. PL 57, fig. 12. 

Scissurella mantelli resembles the type of the genus, S. elegans 
d'Orb., but is rather larger, more depressed, more strongly orna- 
mented, and has a longer scissural band. The specimen has been 
in my hands several years, but I did not think it worth publishing 
until I observed that it exhibited a character hitherto omitted in all 
descriptions of the genus, viz., that the shell when young has no slit. 
M. d'Orbigny's figures of Scissurella elegans, elaborate and highly 
magnified, represent the scissural band winding round all the whorls 
and extending to the extreme apex ; but on referring to the speci- 
mens collected by Mr. Jeffreys at Spezzia, I found that the band 
really terminated within half a whorl of the aperture a smaller 
proportional distance than in S. mantelli, and that during the first 
part of its life the S. elegans also had a simple, entire lip, like the 
ordinary Trochidse. ( Woodward.} 

New Zealand. 

Scissurella mantelli WOODWARD, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 202, t. 46, f. 8. 

Woodward is in error in considering S. elegans the type of 
Scisure lla. 

S. MUNIERI Fischer. 

Shell ovate-conic, subelongate, umbilicate ; umbilicus moderate, 
profound ; whorls 5, rounded, cancellated, nearly plane above, sub- 
concave ; sutures profound ; anal fascicle wanting on the earlier 2 
whorls, strongly impressed on the following 3, margins expanded, 
lamellose, especially on the last whorl ; fissure moderate ; aperture 
rounded. Alt. 1'66, diam. 1-5 mill. (Fischer.) 

China Sea. 

S. munieri FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl. 1862, p. 390. 

Belongs to the group of Scissurella having elevated spires and 
allied to S. mantellii Woodw., aspera Phil., etc. (Fischer.") 

S. SUPRAPLICATA Smith. PL 58, figs. 27, 28. 

Shell heliciform, spire short, narrowly perforate, thin, semi- 
pellucid, white, with a caducous rather thick pale olive epidermis ; 
whorls 3, the first ? (abrupt), second a little convex, somewhat 
planulate above and radiately arcuately plicate, the last large, having 
a thin double carina (slit fascicle) a little above the middle, radiately 



SCISSURELLA. 55 

arcuately plicate above the carina, below it with stride of growth ; 
aperture large, irregularly circular, very slightly expanded at the 
basal margin, peristome continuous, slit narrow, profound. 
Alt. 1, diam. H mill. (Smith.') 

Sivain's Bay, Kerguelen Id. 

S. supraplicata E. A. SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. xvi, p. 72, 1875 ; 
Philosoph. Trans, Roy. Soc. Lond., vol. 168, p. 176, t. 9, f. 5, 1879. 

S. ALTA Watson. PI. 58, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell globose, thin, transparent, strongly sculptured, with a tumid 
base, a small umbilical chink, a short subscalar spire (on which the 
old canal slit forms the edge of the successive whorls), and a small- 
ish somewhat prominent rounded tip. Sculpture : Longitudinals fre- 
quent, strongish, rounded, curved riblets radiate out from the sutures ; 
they are of much the same strength on the base as above. Spirals 
at about one-third of its height from the suture, the last whorl is 
carinated somewhat feebly by the old canal scar, which is depressed 
and finely scored across between the narrow slightly projecting lip- 
edges ; on the upper surface a few very obsolete spirals may be seen ; 
the w r hole base is reticulated by spiral threads, which are closer set, 
but almost as strong as the radiating riblets. Color white. Spire 
rather depressed, conical, rising regularly to the extreme tip. Apex 
round and prominent. Whorls 5, flat and sloping above, carinated ; 
below the carina towards the mouth slightly openly constricted and 
then tumid on the base. Suture impressed. Mouth round. Outer 
lip freely curved. Inner lip thin, concave at the base of the pillar, 
straight, rounded, and very much expanded on the pillar, with an 
angulated and very patulous junction to the outer lip in front ; there 
is a small umbilical furrow and chink half hidden behind it. 
( Watson.') Alt. '082 in., diam. '08. 

This species extremely resembles Scissurella eximia, Seg. (see Form. 
Terz., p. 272, pi. 16, fig. 32), both in form and sculpture, but the base 
is more tumid, the whole shell more compressed, and the apex is a 
little larger and more exserted. In its strong, radiating ribs it is like 
Scissurella staminea A. Ad., from Japan, but it is much larger and 
higher. ( Watson.) 

Off Culebra Island, West Indies, in 390 fms. ; off Fay al, Azores, in 
450 fms. 

Scissurella alia WATSON, Challenger Rep., Gasterop., p. 113, t. 8, 
f. 1, 1886. 



56 SCISSURELLA. 

S. AEDONIA Watson. PL 58, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell depressedly globose, strongly sculptured, with a rather high 
scalar spire, exserted whorls, a very sharp and expressed carina, a 
minute tabulated apex, a strong and impressed suture, a tumid base, 
and a large pervious but half covered umbilicus. Sculpture : The 
radiating ribs are pretty strong, sharp, and equal above and below 
the canal. Spirals the whole surface is closely sharply, and 
regularly scored with fine threads, which are a little stronger (but 
not quite so sharp) on the base than above. Color white. Spire 
high, scalar, each whorl rising and expanding above the suture. 
Apex very small and tabulated. Whorls 5 ; they slope down flatly 
(barely convex) from the suture, are very sharply carinated at the 
canal, the under edge of which in particular is prominent and ex- 
pressed ; below the canal they contract into the suture ; the base is 
tumid. Suture strongly impressed and very distinct. Mouth quite 
round. Outer lip thin, regularly arched. Inner lip on the body 
thin, and very short, regularly curved throughout, on the pillar-lip. 

Alt. -099 in. ; diam. '09. (Watson.) 

This species has the strong lamellae of lamettata, A. Ad., from 
Japan, but these are here still stronger, with a high spire and tumid 
base. It has some resemblance to Scissurella umbilicata, Jeff., but 
the spire is much higher, the whorls more exserted and contracted 
below the canal, and the sculpture is quite different. ( Watson.) 

OffPernambuco, in 350 fms. ; Nightingale Island, Tristan da CunJia, 
100 to 150 fms. 

Scissurella cedonia WATSON, Challenger Rep. Gasterop., p. 114, t. 
8, f. 3, 1886. 

S. CORONATA Watson. PL 58, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell obliquely discoidal, strongly ribbed and spiralled, flattened 
above, with the apex rising like a coronet above the flat upper 
surface of the whorls, a largish very oblique oval mouth and a large 
funnel-shaped pervious umbilicus. Sculpture : Longitudinals above 
the canal the surface is distantly, radiatingly, and curvedly undulated 
(like a Haliotis), with minute, sharp, close-set threadlets in the 
intervals; below the canal there are high, narrow, distant, very 
curved ribs, which begin feebly below the canal-ridge, and die out at 
the edge of the umbilicus. Spirals the old canal rises on a rounded 
and very prominent ridge, which is perpendicular on the outer and 
elevated on the inner side ; the canal itself is not depressed, but is 



SCISSURELLA. 57 

very strongly concavely scored. This ridge lies between the suture 
and the periphery, rather nearer the latter, and forms a crest to the 
whorls. Above this ridge the slightly depressed surface is scored 
with very fine threads, parted by little rounded furrows of about 
twice their breadth ; below the canal edge these spiral threads are 
stronger, and give a serrated crest to the longitudinal riblets. Spire 
scalar, but very depressed, the square steps of the whorl edges being 
very short. Apex small, forming a flat, square-edged coronet, with a 
slightly depressed minute tip. Whorls 3J to 4, flat or slightly 
concave above, highly and squarely keeled by the canal-edge, below 
which they are very slightly constricted ; after this they are tumid 
to the periphery and on the base. Suture angularly impressed. 
Mouth narrowly oval, very oblique, largish. Outer lip descending 
and inflected above, very regularly curved, deeply cut by the fissure, 
slightly patulous toward the lower outer corner. Inner lip very 
shortly and thinly appressed on the body between the periphery and 
the edge of the wide open pervious umbilicus. On the pillar it is 
barely expanded, is very thin, and runs straight but very obliquely 
to the point of the base. ( Watson.) Alt. '048 in., diam. '065. 

This is one of the most beautiful species of this very beautiful 
genus. Its sculpture and form are very marked. ( Watson.) 

Tahiti Harbor, near the reefs, in 20 fins. 

Sdssurella coronata WATSON, Challenger Rep., Gasterop., p. 114, 
t. 8, f. 4, 1886. 

S. DECLINANS Watson. PI. 58, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell square above and tumid below, very delicately, sharply 
sculptured, with a short scalar spire, a minute tabulated apex, an 
angulated suture, descending mouth, and a large shallow funnel- 
shaped carinated umbilicus. Sculpture : On the last whorl there are 
very fine, sharp, close-set, curved radiating threads, which on the 
upper whorls are strong riblets ; between them the whole surface is 
finely, closely, microscopically scored with hair-like lines of growth. 
Spirals the whole shell is delicately marked with very fine, regular, 
rather distant threadlets ; a little way below the suture and within 
the periphery is a sharp, narrow keel formed by the upstanding 
edges of the old canal-ridge. Color dull hyaline. Spire slightly 
raised, and scalar in very short angular steps. Apex extremely 
small, tabulated. Whorls 4, of very rapid increase, almost perfectly 
flat above, keeled by the canal-ridge, below this slightly constricted 
and then tumid. Suture obtuse angled. Mouth round, small, not 



58 SCISSURELLA. 

very oblique ; the fissure is very narrow. Outer lip very regularly 
curved. Inner lip very short and thin on the body, sharp and thin 
and not much expanded on the pillar. Umbilicus defined by a keel 
and channelled. Alt. '044 in., diam. '063. ( Watson.) 

A small species of great beauty, differing in form of sculpture 
from Schismope carinata Wats., with which it has some relation. 
( Watson.) 

Raine Island, Cape York, N. E. Australia, 155 fms. 

Scissurella deelinans WATSON, Challenger Rep. Gasterop., p. 115, 
t. 8, f. 2, 1886. 

S. OBLIQUA Watson. PI. 58, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell small, depressedly and obliquely globose, rough, and un- 
adorned in any way, with a small, rounded, barely prominent apex, 
a large, round, very descending mouth and small umbilicus, sculpture 
none, but some harsh and irregular lines of growth. Color semi- 
transparent white beneath a yellow epidermis. Spire slightly raised, 
and more or less subscalar. Apex very small, and the extreme tip is 
tabulated. Whorls 3? to 4, of very rapid increase, well rounded, 
but a little flatter and more sloping above than below ; they are 
scored by the old canal, which lies about half-way between the 
periphery and the suture, presenting no ridge, but scored across as 
usual with concave lines. Epidermis yellow, membranaceous, rather 
thick. Suture slightly openly impressed. Mouth round, but very 
oblique. Outer lip thin and sharp, shortly but rather widely cleft ; 
a little inflected above, excessively patulous on the base. Inner lip 
thickened, extremely short, and slightly disunited from the body ; 
very concave on the pillar, where it is bent back so as to cover the 
umbilical perforation, which presents a narrowed and not pervious 
but very strong depression. Operculum large, corneous, thin, 
yellow, with central nucleus and many spiral whorls, which seem to 
become more numerous toward the margin. 

Alt. -037 in., diam. '041. (Watson.) 

This is a very small and unattractive-looking species, entirely desti- 
tute of the beautiful sculpture common in the genus. Compared to 
S. supraplieata Smith, from Swains Bay, Kerguelen, this is much 
smaller, more depressed, more oblique, and unsculptured. ( Watson.) 

Royal Sound, Kerguelen Islands. 

Scissurella obliqua WATSON, Challenger Rep., Gasterop., p. 116, t. 
8, f. 5, 1886. 



SCISSURELLA. 59 

Unfigured species of Sdssurella. 
ANATOMUS JAPONICUS A. Adams. 

Shell trochiform, spire conical ; whorls 3?, rather convex, finely 
decussated by elevated longitudinal stria? and close spiral stria?, the 
longitudinal stria? flexuous on the base ; aperture subcircular ; inner 
lip dilated and retiexed in the middle. 

This is a large and very beautiful species, very like A. crispatus 
in sculpture. It also resembles A. conicus Orb., but it is more de- 
depressed, and instead of being simply striate it is finely decussate; 
the base of the shell, moreover, is anteriorly produced and angulated. 
This species and S. carinata are met with in greater abundance than 
the other members of the group, and both occur in deep water. 

(Ad., in Ann. Mag. N. H. 1862, vol. x, p. 347.) 

Mino-Sima, 63 fms. ; Seto- Uchi ; Gotto ; 0-sima. 

ANATOMUS LAMELLATUS A. Adams. 

Shell globose-conoidal ; spire conical ; whorls 3?, a little convex, 
cancellated with radiating, subdistant lamellae, and elevated trans- 
verse lines in the interstices ; lamella? flexuous on the base ; aperture 
subcircular ; inner lip dilated, angular and broadly reflexed in the 
middle. 

In form this species is most like A. japonicus ; but the upper part 
of the whorls is adorned with fine curved radiating lamella?, and the 
inner lip is broadly reflexed, and partly covers the umbilicus. 

(Ad. I c., p. 347.) 

Mino-Sima, 63 fms. ; Gotto, 71 fms. ; 0-sima, 26 fms. 

ANATOMUS TURBINATUS A. Adams. Shell turbiniform ; umbili- 
cus deep, perspective ; spire elevated ; whorls 4, a little convex, 
sculptured with longitudinal, close, radiating lamella?, angular in the 
middle, and little, elevated, transverse lines ; base ornamented with 
concentric elevated lira?. This species is elevately turbinate, with 
two conspicuous carinate whorls and a deep perspective umbilicus. 
The fine lamella? of the upper part of the whorls are bent or 
angulated in the middle. (Ad., 1. c., p. 347.) 

Mino-Sima, 63 fms. 

ANATOMUS CONCINNUS A. Adams. Shell ovate, rather depressed ; 
spire small, scarcely elevated ; narrowly, profoundly umbilicated ; 
whorls 2*, convex, decussated by elevated radiating and concentric 
stria?; aperture oblique, suborbicular. Under the lens this little 
species seems to be intermediate in character between A. crispatus 



60 SCISSURELLA-SCHISOMOPE. 

Flera., and A. reticulatus Phil, the ducussation not being so fine as 
in the former, nor so coarse as in the latter. (Ad., 1. c., p. 348.) 

Rifunsiri, Japan, 35 fms. 

ANATOMUS MIRIFICUS A. Adams. Shell ovate, depressed ; spire 
plane ; broadly and profoundly umbilicated ; whorls 2?, rather plane, 
regularly and elegantly clathrate with elevated radiating and con- 
centric lines ; umbilical region nearly smooth ; aperture very ob- 
lique ; inner lip receding. 

In this large and beautiful species the entire surface of the whorls 
is regularly and delicately, finely clathrate, and the umbilicus is very 
wide and open. (Ad., 1. c., p. 348.) 

Lo-shan-Kow, Shantung. 

ANATOMUS STAMINEUS A. Adams. 

Shell ovate, depressed ; spire plane ; umbilicus moderate ; whorls 
2, nearly plane, broadly clathrate with thread-like elevated radiat- 
ing lines, stronger below the carina, and concentric elevated stria? ; 
umbilical region with elevated concentric lines ; aperture rounded- 
ovate ; inner lip receding. 

This species is widely clathrate, with conspicuous thread-like 
radiating and concentric lines, the former of which assume on the 
spire a lamellar character ; the umbilicus is moderate. 

(Ad., 1. c., p. 348.) 

Tsu-Sima, 25 fms. 

ANATOMUS DOHRNIANUS Dunker. 

Shell globose, very thin, subdiaphanous, concentrically very del- 
icately striate, narrowly umbilicate ; whorls 3, carinate ; spire small, 
scalate ; slit not very deep, occupying the carina of the whorl ; lip 
thin, acute ; aperture oblique, suborbicular, quite elliptical. 

Diam.2* mill. (Dkr., in Mai. Blat. viii, p. 35, 1861.) 

Red Sea, 

Genus SCHISOMOPE Jeffreys, 1856. 

Sehisomope JEFFR., Ann. and Mag. N. H. xvii, p. 321, 1856. 
Woodwardia CROSSE and FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl., 1861, p. 
160. Scissurella (in part) ORBIGNY, 1823. Scissurella A. ADAMS, 
Ann. Mag. N. H. 1862, p. 346. Anatomus (in part) H. and A. AD., 
Genera, p. 439. 

Sehisomope is a Scissurella in which the anal slit becomes closed in 
the adult, and transformed into an oblong perforation like one of the 



SCHISOMOPE. 61 

holes of a Haliotis. It bears much the same relation to Scissurella 
that Trochotoma does to Pleurotomaria. The species inhabit deep 
water ; there are a number of fossil forms described. A. Adams is 
clearly in error in his use of the name Scissurella, instead of 
Schisomope. 

S. CINGULATA O. G. Costa. PI. 57, figs. 1-7. 

Shell extremely minute, globose-turbinate, white, fragile, thin ; 
spire very short and obtuse ; whorls 3, very convex, rapidly increas- 
ing, sculptured with distant elevated radiating lamellae ; the last 
whorl very large, globose, with longitudinal rather distant lamellae 
the interstices decussated by numerous very fine growth lines and 
spiral lirulse ; anal fasciole commencing on the last whorl opposite 
the aperture, terminating in a long, narrow slit which does not attain 
the edge of the peristome, its margins elevated, irregular, lamellar ; 
aperture ovate, narrower above. Alt. '70 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

Scisurella dngulata COSTA, Microd. Medit., p. 61, t. 12, f. 8, 9, 
1861. Schisomope dngulata Costa, MONTS., Norn. Gen. e Spec., p. 
39. S. elegans Orb., of Authors, not of d'Orbigny. 

This seems to be the shell called " S. elegans Orb." by Woodward 
and many others ; that species however is a fossil Scissurella ; 
synonymous with it is 8. striatula Philippi. The specimen from 
which my description is drawn has a much longer, narrower foramen 
than the figures (copied from Woodward) on pi. 57 show. 

S. FERRIEZI Crosse. PI. 22, figs. 43, 44, 

Shell umbilicate, turbinate-subdepressed, longitudinally and sub- 
obliquely striatulate, yellowish-white; spire short, obtuse; whorls 
3-3?, the first 1 smooth, separated by simple sutures, the remaining 
whorls rather plane, lamellosely bicarinate above the middle, 
channelled between the carinse, the last whorl subdescending, a little 
constricted just below the carina, then inflated, convex ; the groove 
terminates a short distance behind the lip in an oblong foramen, 
which does not attain the edge of the lip, a smooth space intervening. 
Aperture ovate-rounded ; peristome simple, thin, acute, subcontin- 
uous. Alt. H, diam. 21 mill. (Crosse.} 

Noumea, New Caledonia. 

S. ferriezi CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1867, p. 318, t. 11, f. 7. 



62 SCHISOMOPE. 

S. MORLETI Crosse. PL 22, figs. 37, 38, 39. 

Shell broadly and profoundly umbilicated, turbinate-depressed, 
transversely strongly cristate-carinate, longitudinally subobliquely 
striate, except on the carina ; thin, rather translucent, dull whitish, 
unicolored ; spire very short, depressed ; apex planate ; suture linear ; 
whorls 3$, rapidly increasing, subplane, the last descending, large, 
turbinated, quadricarinate, constricted between the carinse; first 
second and third carinse strong, prominent, the interstices concave, 
subobliquely striated, the fourth carina, much smaller, basal. Fissure 
situated in the first carina a short distance from the lip, oblong, 
scarcely attaining the edge of lip ; umbilicus concentrically striate, 
but smooth within ; aperture irregularly subquadrate-ovate ; peri- 
stome simple, margins joined by a very thin callus ; columellar 
margin thin, filiform, subarcuate ; basal and outer margins subacute. 

Alt. H, diam. 1? mill. (CVosse.) 

New Caledonia. 

S. morleti CROSSE, Journ. de Conch. 1880, p. 114, t. 4, f. 3. 
S. MOUCHEZI Velain. Vol. XI, pi. 57, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell thin, fragile, depressed, umbilicate, subcircular, grayish- 
white ; spire composed of 3 rapidly increasing whorls; the first 
embryonic, nearly smooth ; the second strongly transversely ribbed ; 
the third very large, angulated by the slit fasciole ; below this the 
whorl is plane or a little convex, with longitudinal little prominent 
ribs and spiral striae ; above the fasciole there are riblets or stride 
intersected by well-marked close longitudinal ribs ; slit-margins 
well-marked, the foramen closed, oval-pyriform ; umbilicus moderately 
large. Alt. 1, diam. f mill. 

Id. of St. Paul, inside the crater, in 30-45 meters. 

Schisomope mouchezi VELAIN, Comptes Kendus de FAcad. des sci., 
July 24, 1876. Arch, de Zool. Exper. et Geuer. 1877, p. 119, t. 4, 
f. 7, 8. 

A variety is described which differs in being more elevated, more 
convex above, longitudinal ridges obsolete or nearly so, transverse 
riblets but slightly indicated on the last whorl. 

Alt. H-2, diam. f-1 mill. 

S. TABULATA Watson. PL 6&, figs. 14, 15, 16. 

Shell obliquely discoidal, finely ribbed and spiralled, flattened 
above, with a very small slightly depressed apex, impressed suture, 
very large round mouth, large lacuniform umbilicus, and a last 



SCHISOMOPE. , 63 

whorl carinatad in its latter half by the prominent upstanding 
canal-ridge. Sculpture: Longitudinals there are fine, sharp, 
pretty close-set, curved, radiating riblets, which are nearly equal 
above and below the canal ; between these in the furrows there are 
fine lines. Spirals fully one-half of the last whorl is keeled by the 
canal ridge, which forms a crest round the top of the whorl a little 
within the periphery ; its outer edge is slightly overhanging, its 
inner edge raised a very little, the canal is narrow, and sinks between 
these two edges; it begins in a small oval and ends in a tumid 
swelling, in which is a small oval hole, sharp-pointed in front. This 
hole is not cut in the shell after that has been formed, but is devel- 
oped along with it, the lines of growth conforming to the foramen. 
The hole is continued within the shell by prominent lips, and a strong 
little furrow is carried in the substance of the shell from the hole 
to the edge of the outer lip. This furrow is marked outside by a 
very slight ridge, but still more by the interruption of the riblets, 
which curve sharply back, becoming at the same time very faint. 
The whole surface is scored and the riblets serrated by sharp, fine, 
remote threads, between each two of which towards the mouth a 
weaker similar one appears. Spire quite flat. Apex very small, 
slightly depressed. Whorls 3 to 3, of very rapid increase; above 
they are barely convex, on the base they are tumid. Suture slightly 
impressed. Mouth large, round, very oblique. Outer lip very 
descending, flat above, well curved and patulous below ; it is con- 
tinued, as in Lacuna, by a sharp keel, which runs straight up into 
and encloses the umbilicus, but does not include its outer edge. 
Inner lip short but strongish and defined on the body ; it very patulous- 
ly overhangs the umbilicus, with a broad rounded furrow between 
its sharp umbilical edge and its inner rounded border ; the sharp 
umbilical edge runs straight down to join the outer lip on the base, 
and the inner border runs down within the basal lip, flattening out 
into a very slight callous. Alt. *055 in., diam. "083. ( Watson.) 

Off Culebra Island, West Indies, in 390 fms. 
Schismope tabulata, WATSON, Challenger Rep., Gasterop., p. 117, 
t. 8, f. 7, 1886. 

S. LACUNIFORMIS Watson. PI. 68, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell obliquely, flatly globose, very finely striated longitudinally 
and spirally, with rounded whorls, a very small, slightly raised apex, 
barely impressed suture, very large gibbously round mouth, large 
lacuniform umbilicus, and a mere dot of a fissure. Sculpture : the 



64 SCHISOMOPE. 

whole surface is striated with very fine, slightly raised, distant, very 
oblique longitudinal threads, and with very similar spiral threads, 
which are a little finer and closer, but on the upper whorls relatively 
stronger, these longitudinals and spirals (the latter on the top) cross 
one another, but not at right angles, and do not form tubercles at their 
intersections. Spire short, slightly raised. Apex very small, prom- 
inent; the first whorl and a half seem to be embryonic, and are 
very finely, microscopically, reticulately scratched. Whorls 4, of 
not very rapid increase, convex above, rounded at the periphery, 
and a little excavated on the base by the large-mouthed umbilicus. 
Mouth large, very oblique, and round, but a considerable section of 
the circle is cut off by the irregular and twisted pillar. Outer lip 
descending, well arched all round ; beyond the point of the pillar it 
sweeps on with a sharp, prominent edge, enclosing the umbilicus, up 
into which it plunges direct. Inner lip strong and defined, but 
excessively short and retiring on the body, being cut quite away so 
as completely to expose the umbilicus, deeply but widely sinuated at 
the top of the pillar, which is slightly twisted, has an oblique, sharp, 
rounded, but not at all patulous edge ; is bluntly toothed, and slightly 
truncate at the point, which does not run out to the edge of the 
outer lip, but dies out gradually just within it. Puncture consists 
of a single most minute oval pore, which opens in a slight bulge of 
the exterior a little way back from the lip-edge, and has a very 
slightly thickened margin inside ; from it a slight straight furrow runs 
forwards along the inner surface of the shell ; the surface longitu- 
dinals bends sharply backwards at the hole, and a little way before 
the opening is reached, as if preparation were being made for the 
formation of the opening before it was accomplished. 
Alt. -053 in., diam. '078. (Watson.) 

The peculiarity of the outer lip in its relation to the umbilicus in 
in this and the preceding species, a feature which often occurs also 
in the fossil genus (Trochotoma), will probably offer a sub-generic, 
or even generic distinction, for those who love to multiply our 
difficulties of nomenclature. (Watson.) 

Off Culebra Island, West Indies, in 390 fms. 

Schismope lacuniformis, WATSON, Challenger Rep., Gasterop., p. 
118, t. 8, f. 8, 1886. 



SCHISMOPE. 65 

S. CARIXATA Watson. PL 6$, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Shell tumid, but depressed, finely ribbed and strongly keeled, 
with a flattened but scalar spire, convex whorls, a minute apex, a 
tumid base, and a large funnel-shaped, shallow, carinated umbilicus 
Sculpture: there are both above and below sharp, little, distant, 
curved, radiating riblets, between which the whole surface is exquis- 
itely scratched with microscopic lines. Spirals : there is a strong, 
rounded, expressed double keel, formed by the two edges .of the 
canal scar, which encircles rather more than the whole of the last 
whorl (except near the mouth); this canal is sunken and is strongly 
scored. Above the canal the surface is smooth, but a few micro- 
scopic spiral threads exist ; below and remote from this canal there 
are on the base three strong, round to square threads, of which the 
highest is the strongest, and tends to become flattened and expanded 
into a great spiral fold of the shell rather than a mere thread ; 
besides these another similar but weaker encircles the umbilicus. 
Color hyaline, but hardly glossy. Spire slightly exserted, the 
whorls being flat on their upper surface, and rising roundly from 
the suture. Apex very small, tabulated. Whorls 4, of very rapid 
increase, very strongly keeled by the canal-ridge, and angulated by 
the largest and highest thread ; the base is very tumid. Suture 
rectangular. Mouth oval, very oblique. Outer lip runs in straight 
lines and angles, but is somewhat curved on the base. Inner lip 
very thin and very short on the body, extremely retiring, being cut 
quite away, so as to completely expose the umbilicus, concave on 
the pillar, where it is sharp edged ; in front it is subfcruncate and 
slightly twisted, but passes on into the outer lip-edge at the umbili- 
cal carina. Umbilicus large, defined by a keel, shallow. Puncture 
very long and narrow, blunt and rounded at the upper end, and 
extending to a long fine point in front ; it opens on the top of a 
swollen ridge ; it has no projecting lips on the inner side of the shell, 
but is produced there in a long narrow furrow. 

Alt. -052 in., diam. '062. ( Watson.) 

The young of this species, it is almost certain, will be taken some 
day for a Trochus, and the adolescent for a Scissurella, the great 
length of the old canal and the open foramen being peculiarly 
deceptive. In this state, when nearly full grown, it is singularly 
like S. costata, D'Orb., from the Mediterranean, but its sculpture is 
5 



66 SCHISMOPE. 

different, the mouth is larger, and the umbilicus is wider and yet 
more shallow. ( Watson.} 

Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia, in 6-15 fms. ; Raine Island, Cape 
York, North-Eastern Australia, in 155 fins. 

Schismope carinata WATSON, Challenger Hep., Gasterop., p. 119, 
t. 8, f. 6, 1886. 

S. ATKINSONI Tenison-Woods. 

Shell minute, globose-depressed, brown ; spire short, low, blunt ; 
whorls 3, rapidly widening, plane above, the last very deeply de- 
scending toward the aperture, with a strong keel at the shoulder, oc- 
cupied by the anal fasciole, and another keel at the periphery, the 
space between them concave ; below this carina there are about 3 
rather separated spiral lir3, and around the umbilicus three more ; 
the keels are obsolete for a short distance behind the aperture ; 
growth-striae fine, scarcely perceptible. Slit fasciole present on the 
last 1 whorls, very narrow, its edges pinched up into a strong keel. 
It terminates about ? or f of a mill, behind the peristome in a long, 
narrow slot. Aperture very oblique, ovate, narrowed above ; colu- 
mella slightly arcuate, nearly vertical ; umbilicus narrowly perfor- 
ated, funnel-shaped, smooth inside. Alt. 2}, diain. 2? mill. 

Tasmania. 

Scissurella atkinsoni T.-WooDS, Proc. Hoy. Soc. Tasm. 1876, p. 149. 

Very like Scissurella declinans Watson in outline, except that the 
superior whorls are not ribbed. On old shells the median carina 
becomes rounded on the last f whorl, and there are numerous spiral 
riblets both above and below the slit fasciole ; the lines of increment 
are sometimes quite prominent in the interstices between the spirals. 

S. CROSSEI Folin. Vol. XI. PL 57, figs. 51. 

Shell minute, subturbinate, depressed, subcrystalline, slightly 
shining ; spire short, very obtuse ; whorls 4, moderately convex, rib- 
bed, joined by a slightly crenulated suture, the last whorl has a 
double carina [slit fasciole] for two-thirds of its extent, and is or- 
namented with narrow, very prominent longitudinal, slightly oblique 
ribs, which attenuate or nearly disappear at the double carina [or 
fasciole] which is marked by deeply sinuous riblets, and perforated 
by an oblong-lanceolate foramen. Between the longitudinal ribs 
there are subundulating spiral lirulse decussating them. Base deeply 



SCHISMOPE. 67 

umbilicate ; aperture large, subcordiform ; peristome simple, poste- 
riorly a little angulated and reflexed, continuous. 
Alt. -05, diam. "09 (de Folin). 

Saint Vincent, Cape Verde Is. 

Trochotoma crossei DE FOL., Les Fonds de la Mer, i, p. 144, t. 22, 
f.6,7. 

Unfigured species of Schismope. 

SCISSURELLA CARiNATA A. Adams. Shell ovate, depressed ; spire 
nearly plane; whorls 2J, plane, the last radiately striate above the 
carina (more strongly at the sutures), below the carina ornamented 
with elevated, transverse cinguli ; base with elevated concentric lines, 
the interstices cancellated ; aperture oblique ; inner lip receding. 

This species and the others I have named Scisurella have a fora- 
men instead of a fissure, and would be called by some Schismope or 
Woodwardia, both of which names I believe to be synonyms of Scis- 
surella proper. S. carinata has a flattened spire and three prominent 
keels on the last whorl below the carinate periphery ; it most nearly 
resembles S. d'orbignyi ; but there are three keels besides the fissural 
carina. (Ad. in Ann. Mag. N. H. 1862, p. 346.) 

Okosiri, 35 fms. ; Seto-Uchi, Wfms.; Gotto, 71 fms. Japan. 

SCISSURELLA MODESTA A. Adams. Shell ovate, depressed, Stom- 
atelliform, narrowly umbilicated ; spire small, scarcely elevated ; 
last whorl concentrically striated above the carina, below the carina 
longitudinally plicate ; base ornamented with spiral lirulse ; aper- 
ture very oblique, transversely ovate. 

A small simple white species, without keels, striated above the 
somewhat rounded periphery, and obsoletely plicate below. (Ad., 
1. c., p. 346.) 

Tabu-Sima, 25 fms. 

SCISSURELLA MIRANDA A. Adams. Shell ovate, depressed, broadly 
umbilicated ; spire nearly plane ; last whorl very delicately striate 
concentrically above the carina, beneath it ornamented with oblique, 
subnodose, longitudinal, distant plicse ; base with concentric lines ; 
aperture very oblique, transversely ovate. 

In this small but very pretty species the last whorl is nodosely 
plicate below the fissural keel. (Ad. 1. c., p. 346.) 

Mlno-Sima, 63 fms. 

S. BEDDOMEI Petterd. Shell small, turbinately depressed, sor- 
didly white, dull, thin ; whorls 3?, apical flat, sinus conspicuous with 



68 SCHISMOPE. 

raised margins; longitudinally plicate, plica? more prominent at 
the base ; aperture ovate, of moderate size. Alt. 1, diam. t mill. 
(Petterd). 

Northivest Coast of Tasmania. 
S. beddomei PETTERD, Quart. Journ. Conch. 1884, vol. iv, p. 139. 

S. PULCHRA Petterd. Shell thin, white ; whorls 4, last with two 
prominent keels at the periphery and several smaller at the base, 
longitudinally striate, stria? passing over the keels, giving them a no- 
dose appearance. Alt. 2, diam. 1 mill. (Petterd.) 

Northivest Coast of Tasmania. 

In form not unlike S. atkinsonii Ten ison- Woods, but very differ- 
ent in ornamentation. It was found in shell sand, and from its light 
texture is generally more or less broken. This is the fourth species 
of the genus described from our coasts. (Petterd.) 

Schismope pulchra PETTERD, Quart. Journ. Conch. 1884, vol. iv, 
p. 139. 

S. TASMANICA Petterd. Shell minute, obliquely globose, per- 
forated, thin, white, somewhat shining ; spire scarcely raised, 
minute; whorls 3, last much inflated, perforation deep, margined 
with a prominent ridge which is faintly serrated ; obscurely irregu- 
larly striate all over ; sinus deeply open, the fascia of which forms a 
deep groove encircling body whorl ; aperture rounded, inner lip 
faintly dilate, labrum thin, acute. Alt. 2, diam. 2 mill. (Petterd.') 

Blackmail's Bay, Tasmania. 

The second species discovered here ; it may be easily known from 
the first, S. atkinsoni Tenison- Woods, by the smooth globose form 
and color. I have only collected two specimens in shell sand at 
the locality given. (Petterd.) 

Schismope tasmanica PETTERD, Quart. Journ. Conch. 1879, vol. 
ii, p. 104. 

SCISSURELLA RiMULOiDES Carpenter. Shell rapidly enlarging, 
whitish, very thin ; apex concealed ; whorls 3, radiately lirate, the 
lira? subdistant, acute, oblique ; umbilicus large ; lip sloping, scarcely 
fissured, but with an aperture formed posteriorly as in Rimula, sub- 
quadrate, elongate ; peristome continuous, oblique. 

Alt. -023, diam. '03 in. 

Only one specimen was found of this beautiful little species, the 
first known from America. It looks like a Velutina crossed by 
sharp ribs in the direction of the slanting mouth. In the first whorl 



PLEUROTOMARIID.E. 69 

the ribs are very close. It then assumes its normal sculpture, but 
there is nearly a whorl before there is any trace of incision. This 
appears to have begun as a slit, which was afterwards closed up. A 
band, marked off by ten transverse ribs showing stages of growth, 
encircles the shell as far as the hole, which is long and somewhat 
rectangular ; but there is no band between the hole and the outer 
lip. The shell furnishes a complete transition to Rimula. (P. P. 
Carpenter.) 

Mazatlan. 
Scissurella rimuloides CPE., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 271. 

Family PLEUROTOMARIIDJE Dall. 

Shell trochoidal, nacreous within, umbilicate or imperforate, hav- 
ing a slit or sinus in the outer superior margin of the peristome, 
which serves the purpose of an outlet for the anus, and leaves on the 
corresponding part of the whorls a peculiarly sculptured baud, the 
" anal fasciole" or " slit fasciole." 

Animal without frontal lobes or appendages ; eyes at the outer 
bases of the tentacles ; muzzle as in Trochida? ; tentacles long, sub- 
cylindrical, bluntly pointed. Epipodium broad, thin, entire, fringed 
with a row of small, short papillae, but not bearing cirri, closely ap- 
plied to the shell. Radula long ; rhachidian tooth narrow, lanceo- 
late, its tip narrow, recurved ; laterals 26, the outer 5 without cusps ; 
the inner ones larger, with wide cusps and narrower bases. Outside 
of the laterals are 2 rows of unciui, the inner series about 18 in 
number, large, strongly curved, with scythe-shaped 1-3 denticulate 
cusps ; outer uncini very numerous (40-50), small, very oblique. 
(P. quoyana.') In P. adansoniana there are considerable differences 
in the teeth ; some of the uncini bearing little tufts of bristles at 
their apices. Jaws subobsolete. 

Genus PLEUROTOMARIA Sowerby, 1821. 

Pleurotomaria J. SOWERBY, Mineral Conchology iii, p. 139, t. 
278, Dec. 1821. Pleurotomaire DEFRANCE, Tabl. des. Corps Foss., 
p. 114, 1824 (no descr.). Pleurotomaria Defr. J. de C. Sowerby, 
Min. Conch, vii, p. 69, t. 640, Nov. 1844. CROSSE, Journ. de Con- 
chyl. 1882, p. 1. FISCHER Manuel de Conchy]., p. 849, 1885. Pleu- 
rotomaria Sowb., DALL, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xviii, p. 396. 

Dr. Dall has satisfactorily shown that the name Pleurotomaria 
should be attributed to James Sowerby, not to Defrance, who never 
denned nor latinized his " Pleurotomaire." 



70 PLEUROTOMARIID^;. 

The genus includes several hundred fossil forms, mostly Paleo- 
zoic. It is one of the oldest Gasteropod genera, commencing in the 
Cambrian. There have been published several valuable articles 
upon the recent species, among them Mr. Crosse's Monograph in the 
Journal de Conchyliologie for 1882, and Dr. Ball's study of the soft 
parts of P. adansoniana and quoyana in the Blake Report, making 
known for the first time the anatomical structure of this most inter- 
esting type. The recent species are four in number. About a dozen 
specimens are known, in all. They fall into two sections. 

Section PEROTROCHUS Fischer, 1885. Form conical ; base not 
umbilicated ; whorls striate or granulate. Anal fascicle submedian 
or below the middle ; slit short. (Type P. quoyana.) 

Section ENTEMNOTROCHUS Fischer, 1885. Shell conoidal, striate, 
umbilicate ; anal fascicle a little above the middle of the upper sur- 
face of the last whorl ; slit long, but not much exceeding the half of 
a whorl. (Type P. adansoniana.) 

Section PEROTROCHUS Fischer. 
P. QUOYANA Fischer & Bernardi. PL 56, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell trochiform, obtusely carinated, with the base rounded, flat- 
tened and concave but not umbilicated. Spire turbinate, terminat- 
ing in an acuminate apex ; whorls 9, slowly increasing, rounded and 
swollen toward the suture, divided into two unequal portions by the 
slit fasciole, granulose. Slit fascicle below the middle, decussated by 
semicircular and spiral striae. Slit quite wide, but short ; umbilical 
depression excavated, nacreous, iridescent, and surrounded by slight 
concentric grooves. Aperture semioval, nacreous within. Col- 
umellar margin recurved with a nacreous callosity; outer lip not 
reflexed, nearly sharp. Color pale rose, with obscure dashes or 
flammules of reddish-brown. 

Alt. 40-42, diam. 48-50 mill. ; width of slit, 2* mill. Operculum 
nearly circular, brown, with 10 whorls, 7* x 7 mill. 

Off Barbados, 73 and 84 fms. ; Off Yucatan, 130 fms. (dead) ; Id. 
of Marie- Galante, near Guadelupe. 

P. quoyana FISCHER & BERNARDI, Journ. de Conch yl. v, p. 165, 
t. 5, f. 1-3, 1856. CROSSE, 1. c. xxx, p. 14, 1882. SOWERBY in 
Reeve's Conch. Icon., f. 2, 1874. DALL, Report on Blake Gasterop., 
p. 397, t. 29, f. 1 ; t. 31, f. 1 ; t. 37, f. 5. 

The smallest of the recent species. The animal is described by 
Dall, /. c. The above description is taken from that of Crosse. 



PLEUROTOMARIID.E. 71 

P. BEYRICHI Hilgeudorf. PI. 56, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell trochiform, as high as broad, with flat base, moderately 
numerous spiral line, pale yellow, beautifully flamed with red, 
whorls 11, regularly increasing, on the penultimate whorl with 8 
line above, 2 in, and 2 under the slit fasciole ; these line are beset 
with weak nodules, about 3 times as long (in the direction of the 
spiral) as high or broad. The last whorl has a blunt angle at base ; 
base with 20 concentric lirse, and in the middle a deep pit or " false 
umbilicus," outside white, inside pearly ; columellar margin thick, 
pearly, ^-shaped. Alt. 82, greater diam. 83, lesser 78 mill. 

Japan. 

P. beyrichi HILG., in Sitzungsb. d. Gesellsch. Naturf. Freunde 
Berlin, 1877, p. 72. MARTENS, Conchol. Mittheil. i, p. 33, t. 7. 
CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. xxx, p. 16, 1882. 

The above description is translated from Von Martens. A single 
specimen is known. It was discovered by Dr. Hilgendorf in an 
ancient Japanese collection. 

Section EXTEMNOTROCHUS Fischer. 

P. RUMPHII Schepman. PI. 57, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell broadly conoid, the base convex, moderately umbilicated, 
the umbilicus penetrating to the apex, a little plicated within by the 
prominent growth-lines ; color yellowish-white, with flames of orange 
or carmine red, and light violet, particularly developed on the last 
whorl ; apex eroded and yellow ; number of whorls uncertain, prob- 
ably between 11 and 13. Whorls visibly convex, divided into 
nearly equal portions by the slit fasciole, which is a little above the 
middle. The sculpture is composed of oblique, radiating striae, more 
prominent on the upper whorls ; base almost smooth, with slight 
stride of growth and very fine concentric lines. The aperture is 
obliquely quadrangular, nacreous; basal margin continuous with 
the columella, not angulated at its junction with it. 

Alt. 170, diam. 190 mill. ; length of slit, 230 mill., width 2} mill. 

Moluccas. 

P. rumphii SCHEPMAX, Tydschr. d. Ned. Dierk. Vereen, iv, p. 163, 
1879. CROSSE, Journal de Conchyl. xxx, p. 8, 1882. SOWERBY, 
Thes. Conch, v, p. 185, t, 490, f. 1, 2. 

The only specimen known of this largest species of Pleurotomaria, 
is in the Zoological Garden of Rotterdam. 



I '1 P LEUIt' >TO:IA RIID.E-HALIOTID.K. 

P. ADAXSOXIANA Crosse & Fischer. PL 56, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell trochiform above, plano-convex beneath, and concave in 
the middle, concentrically costate-sulcate, the ribs granulose ; 
broadly and deeply unibilicated, the umbilicus pervious ; longitu- 
dinally rugulose ; color pale yellowish-fleshy, with numerous, irregu- 
lar, reddish spots, sometimes vivid, sometimes more or less effaced ; 
apex acuminate, smooth, yellowish; whorls 11, slowly increasing, 
rather planulate at the sutures ; unequally divided by the slit fas- 
ciole, below it traversed by 7 to 8 spiral granose ribs, above it with 
longitudinal, oblique, rather separated stria? and two spiral, slightly 
marked series of granules; last whorl obtusely bicarinate; slit 
fascicle with semicircular, delicate, impressed stride. Aperture sub- 
quadrate, pearly within. Alt. 74, diam. 80 mill. (C. & F.) 

Of Barbados, in 69-200 fins. ; Guadelupe, 150 fms. 

P. adansoniana C. & F., Journ. de Conchyl. ix, p. 163, t. 5, f. 1, 
2, 1861. DALL, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 78, 1881. CKOSSE, Journ. 
de Conchyl. xxii, p. 12, t. 1, f. 1, 2, 1882. DALL in Agassiz, Three 
Cruises of the Blake ii, p. 69, f. 288, 1888 ; and in Kept. Blake 
Gasterop., p. 400, t. 30, t. 31, f. 3-6, t. 32, f. 10, t. 37, f. 4, 1889. 
SOWERBY in Conch. Icon.,f. 1, J874. 

Two specimens dredged by the Blake measure as follows: 

a. Alt. 130, diam. 130 mill. ; length of slit, 200 mill. 

b. Alt. 70, diam. 88 mill. ; length of slit, 142 mill. 

The operculum as described by Dall, measures 54 mill, x 47 mill., 
is almost flat, with 10 whorls of which the central ones are rather 
indistinct. The outer surface is minutely sharply spirally striated, 
and a central spot the size of a pin head is indistinctly indented ; 
the inner side is polished and shows a somewhat egg-shaped scar of 
attachment ; it is of an amber-brown color. The extreme margin is 
thin and a little frayed. The anatomy and dentition are described 
and figured by Dall, in the Blake Report. 

Family HALIOTID^E. 

Family characters. 

Shell nacreous, spiral, the spire small, body-whorl very large and 
depressed, having a row of round or oval holes along the left side, 
aperture very large, occupying nearly all of the lower face, colti- 
mella (properly speaking) absent, the spire being open in the middle, 
seen from below ; but the columellar margin is produced into a 



HALIOTID^E. 73 

flattened spiral plate. * Muscle-impression horse-shoe shaped, the 
left branch narrow, inconspicuous, inside the columellar plate, the 
right branch very large, rounded, situated in the middle of the 
aperture. 

Animal with a fleshy foot, a fleshy epipodial ridge fringed with 
cirri, a frontal vail connecting the short eye-stalks ; the mantle slit 
along the row of holes, branchial cavity containing a gill on each 
side of the slit. 

The above-defined family constitutes one of the most distinct 
groups in the Rhipidoglossa, most nearly allied probably to the 
Pleiirotomariidce. Of the genealogy of the family little is known. 
A few fossil forms not differing materally from the recent ones have 
been discovered in the Pliocene and Miocene, and one in the upper 
cretaceous of Germany. Others will probably be found when the 
Australian Tertiary and Secondary strata are more fully explored. 

The comparatively slight differences observable among the num- 
erous recent species, and their distribution, seem to point to a rapid 
and recent development ; but the isolation of the group as a whole 
indicates its considerable antiquity. 

The " center of distribution" is in the Australian and adjacent 
seas. Here are found the greatest number of species and greatest 
diversity of forms. The largest species inhabit the west coast of 
North America, but they belong to only two closely allied groups, 
and probably reached our shores by way of Japan and Alaska. 
Not one species is found on the east coast of North or South Amer- 
ica, and only one, H. pourtalesii, on the west coast of the Americas 
south of Lower California. 

The shells are much used for the manufacture of pearl buttons, 
buckles and inlaying. On the Californian coast " they are captured 
by Chinese boatmen, who row along near the rocks, when the tide 
is low, and peer curiously down into all the cracks and clefts where 
these great creatures hide. When one is discovered, a wedge on the 
end of a pole is employed to suddenly dislodge the mollusk from his 
strong-hold, and a boat-hook draws him up from the water into the 
hands of the enemy." (Keep, in the Nautilus iv, p. 14.) 

" They are found under stones or in out-of-the-way places among 
the rocks when the tide is low. All of these mollusks are rock 
lovers, and it is idle to seek for them except among the crags or 
broken boulders. It is exceedingly interesting to capture a good- 
sized fellow and watch his mode of locomotion. When placed on a 



74 HALIOTID^;. 

smooth rock he moves along at no snail's pace, but strides on like 
an elephant. Not quite so fast, to be sure, but the motion of his 
body, slightly swaying from side to side, and the tremendous mus- 
cular force which he evidently exerts cause one to involuntarily 
compare his gait to that of the great proboscidian." 

" Very fine green pearls, almost rivaling the product of the 
pearl-oyster are sometimes taken from its mantle. Its flesh is good 
for food, though perhaps few people except Chinese and Indians ever 
indulge in that luxury. I can speak from experience however, and 
am ready to affirm that ' abalone soup,' well made, is fit for the table 
of the most fastidious." (Keep, I. c.) 

Very young shells have no perforations, just as the young 
Scissurella has no slit. 

In California these shells are known as " Abalones," a local name 
of uncertain etymology. They are called " ormers " in England, 
where quantities of H. tuberculata are manufactured into buttons. 
French names are " Ormier " and " Silieux " (six yeux, six eyes). 
The Japanese call them " awabi." 

The animal (pi. 1, fig. 17) has a strong fleshy foot as long as the 
shell (or in Teinotis a little longer), its upper surface granose. Head 
with a short thick proboscis ending distally in a rounded disc, in its 
center is the mouth, a longitudinally oval orifice ; there is a frontal 
vail, somewhat lobed but not fringed, connecting the short eye- 
peduncles, which lie just above and outside of the subulate tentacles. 
A fleshy and prominent epipodial ridge surrounds the foot, its 
border tuberculate and fringed with short cirri. In front this 
epipodial ridge terminates just under the tentacles; behind it is 
interrupted by an oval rugose tract of the integument (the oper- 
culigerous lobe) indicating the position of the absent operculum. 
The mantle is slit at the position of the row of holes, the slit extend- 
ing as far back as the last open hole, which is occupied by the pro- 
longed free anus. The gills are long, one on each side of the slit, 
each composed of two series of lamellae united by a central rachis. 

Haliotis has been monographed by REEVE, Conchologia Iconica, 
vol. iii, 1846. This work contains descriptions of many new species. 
The descriptions are extremely poor. Reeve did not figure or des- 
cribe the characters of the interior. His figures of the outside are 
good. 

G. B. SOWERBY Jr. in the Thesaurus Conchyliorum, vol. v, 1882? 
Contains more species than Reeve's work, being later. The figures 
are not so good. 



HALIOTIS. 75 

WEINKAUFF in Systematisches Conchylien Cabinet von Martini 
u. Chemnitz, 2d edit., 1883. Most of the figures are very poor, but 
the text is superior to the other works. The author had not, how- 
ever, seen nearly all of the species. 

In neither of these works are the species arranged systematically. 

Synopsis of Genera and Sections. 

Genus HALIOTIS Linne, 1858. 
Characters those of the family. 

Section HALIOTIS s. sir. 
Shell oval ; the foot projecting only a short distance behind it. 

Section PADOLLUS Montfort, 1810. 

Shell rounded, depressed, having a sulcus parallel to the row of 
holes. 

Section TEINOTIS H. & A. Adams. 

Shell very long and narrow, smooth ; foot of animal projecting a 
greater distance behind it than in Haliotis s. sir. 

Genus HALIOTIS Linne, 1758. 

Haliotis LINN, Systema Naturae x, p. 779, 1858 (first species H. 
midce) ; and of authors generally. Padollus MONTF., Conch. Sys- 
tem ii, p. 114. Sulculus H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, 
p. 443. 

The principal characters for distinguishing the species are the 
outline of the shell, which is either equally curved on the two sides 
or straighter on the right margin ; the convexity of the back, which 
may be carinated or rounded at the row of holes ; the sculpture ; 
the position of the spire ; the color of the inside ; smoothness or 
roughness of the muscle-scar ; width and slope of the columellar- 
plate ; and within rather wide limits the number of open holes. 

NOTE. The measurements are taken as I have directed for the 
species of Gena (see bottom of page 37 ; and pi. 2, fig. 20). The 
distance from apex to margin should be measured in a plane parallel 
to the plane of the peristome, as one would measure it on a figure of 
the dorsal surface of the shell. 

It is convenient to segregate the numerous species of Haliotis into 
groups ; and the following is offered as a preliminary arrangement : 



76 HALIOTIS. 

Group of H. albicans. 

Shell almost smooth, having obsolete fine spiral strise ; oval, evenly 
convex, the two sides equally curved ; not carinated at the row of 
holes ; cavity of spire large, not concealed ; nacre silvery ; muscle- 
scar not distinct ; holes very small, about 12 in number not tubular. 

Australia. 

Group of H. craclierodii. 

Shell smooth or with low obsolete coarse spirals; oval, evenly 
convex, the two sides equally curved ; not carinated at the row of 
holes ; cavity of spire minute, concealed or nearly so ; nacre silvery ; 
muscle-scar generally not distinct; holes small, numerous, not 
tubular, outside black. 

California. 
Group of H. corrugata. 

Shell large, rounded-oval, convex, carinated at the row of holes, 
with coarse spiral cords outside and often obliquely waved or cor- 
rugated ; nacre brilliant, muscle-scar distinct, rough (except in H. 
gigantea and assimilis) ; columellar plate wide, sloping inward, nearly 
concealing the small cavity of the spire. Holes few, tubular, a 
channel below them. 

P W- Coast N. America; Japan. 

Group of H. tuberculata. 

Shell much depressed, long-oval, spirally striated and often with 
coarse radiating lamellae ; carinated at the holes ; cavity of spire 
small, close to the posterior margin, but visible ; nacre silvery ; 
muscle-scar not distinct. Holes slightly raised; columellar plate 
flat, rather narrow. 

Japan and Seas of Europe. 

Group of H. stomaticeformis. 

Shell small, oval, often much elevated ; sculptured with spiral 
cords and radiating folds or lamellae ; more or less carinated at the 
row of holes ; spire subterminal. Holes five or less, somewhat 
tubular ; columellar shelf wide above, and flat. 

Japan to Viti Is. and N. Caledonia. 
/UiW 
Group of H. pustulata. 

Shell long-oval, right side generally straightened ; carinated at the 
row of holes ; surface spirally striated, often pustulated or waved ; 



HALIOTIS. 77 

cavity of spire not concealed, but near the posterior end ; nacre sil- 
very ; muscle-scar not distinct. 

Indian Ocean. 

Group of H. diversicolor. 

Shell oval evenly convex, the two sides equally curved, scarcely 
carinated at the row of holes ; spirally striated ; apex very close to 
the posterior margin. 

Japan to Australia. 

Group of H. iris. 

Shell rather large, oval, convex, carinated at the row of holes ; 
apex subterminal ; nacre dark, the muscle scar roughened ; cavity 
of spire minute, concealed; peristome continuous. 

New Zealand. 

Group of If. rugosoplicata. 

Shell oval, light, convex, radiately corrugated above, spirally 
ribbed below the row of holes ; nacre silvery. Holes circular, 
slightly tubular, 6 to 8 in number. 

New Zealand ; S. Australia. 

. 
Group of H. mar ice. 

Shell oval, spire small, subterminal, surface with strong spiral 
ribs ; inside silvery, muscle-scar not distinct ; holes 6, circular, a 
little tubular. 

/ - Australia. 

'-y>lW 

Group of H. inidcB. 

Shell rounded, convex, spire large ; nearly smooth or with radiat- 
ing lamellae or wrinkles, spiral sculpture wanting or obsolete ; 
muscle-scar distinct or not ; young with a blood-red spot inside the 
spire ; a carina at the row of holes. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Group of H. ncevosa. 

Shell rounded, flattened, the spire large ; surface having spiral 
striae (sometimes obsolete) and usually radiating waves ; a carinse 
at the row of holes ; inside silvery. 

New Zealand ; Australia. 



78 



Group of H. excavata. 



Shell subcircular, very convex, spire subcentral ; spirally lirate 
and radiately folded. 

Australia. 

Section PADOLLUS Montf. 
Group of H. parva.y 

Upper surface closely spirally striated, having a strong, rounded 
spiral rib inside the row of holes ; with or without radiating lam- 
ellae between that rib and the spire. 

Group of H. pulcherrima. 

Small ; upper surface radiately corrugated, scarcely striated 
spirally ; 7 to 8 hol^pen.^ ^^^ ^ 

Group of If. ovina. 

Spiral striation obsolete ; having coarse radiating folds above, or 
a spiral row of tubercles ; no spiral rib inside the row of holes ; per- 
forations 4 to 5. 

Group of H. brazieri. 

Flattened, with a spiral rib inside the row of holes ; surface 
smooth, without radiating folds or spiral strise. 




up o . aican 

A large oval smooth shell is the following, having obsolete spirals. 
It probably has no especial relationship to H. cracherodii, but shows 
the same curious parallelism in characters exhibited by a number of 
New Zealand and Australian shells belonging to various families. 

H. ALBICANS Quoy & Gaimard. PL 5, fig. 27. 

Shell large, oval, distance of apex from margin one-sixth to one- 
eighth the length of the shell ; nearly smooth but with obsolete 
spiral lirse ; orange or orange-scarlet, radiately striped with contin- 
uous white flames ; perforations very small, about 12 in number. 

The outline is oval, right and left margins about equally curved ; 
back convex, rounded, not angulated at the row of perforations. It 
is rather thin, the coloration consisting of continuous oblique stripes 
of scarlet and whitish. Surface sculptured with nearly obsolete 
spiral threads and cords. Spire moderately elevated, whorls about 
2?. Inside silvery, the nacre almost smooth, but showing traces of 



HALIOTIS. 79 

spiral sulci, and very minutely wrinkled. Columellar plate rather 
wide, sloping inward, flattened, obliquely truncated at the base. 
Cavity of spire large, rather shallow. Perforations unusually small, 
their borders not raised outside. 

Australia. 

H. albicans QUOY ET GAIMARD, Voy. de P Astrolabe iii, p. 311, 
t. 68, f. 1, 2. DESK, in LAM., An. s. Vert, ix, p. 31. KEEVE 
Conch. Icon., f. 30. PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib. ii, t. 4, f. la, 
lb. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, t. 3, f. 20. WEIXKAUFF, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 71, t. 28, f. 2. H. glabra^ SWAINSON, Appendix to Bligh 
Catal., p. 1, 1822. 

Distinct in its smooth rounded form and radiating stripes. All 
previous monographers have given New Zealand as the habitat of 
this shell, but Hutton drops the species from his New Zealand list 
of 1880. 

Group of H. cracherodii. ^ ^ 

v 

This smooth black species is probably * divergent branch of the 
group of H. corrugata. 

H. CRACHERODII Leach. PI. 10, figs. 52, 53. 

Shell oval, convex, spire near the margin ; surface almost smooth, 
but usually showing nearly obsolete spiral lira. Perforations about 
8, color greenish-black or dull purplish-black. 

An oval shell with the two sides equally curved, the back regularly 
convex, not carinated at the row of perforations ; outside covered 
with a thick black layer. Surface smooth, except for spiral lirse 
which are sometimes wholly obsolete, and lines of growth. Spire 
low, near the margin. Inside smooth, silvery with red and green 
reflections ; columellar plate not truncate below, sloping inward, its 
face concave ; cavity of spire very small, almost concealed. 

Length (of an average specimen) 112, width 85, convexity 30 
mill. 

Fallarones Is. to San Diego, Cal. 

H. cracherodii LEACH, Zool. Misc., p. 131. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 23. CARPENTER, Report, p. 390. WEINKAUFF Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 12, N t. 5, f. 1, 2. H. glabra SCHUB. & WAGX. Continuation 
Conch. Cab. xii, p. 76, f. 3036, 3037 (not glabra Chem.). H. cali- 
forniensis SWAINS., Zool. Illust. ii, t. 80. REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 8. 
f. 26. CARPENTER, Rep., p. 199, 320. 



80 HALIOTIS. 

A well-known and abundant species, peculiar in its uniform 
blackish color and numerous small perforations. The muscle 
attachment is usually smooth, but specimens occur having a small 
roughened area there. The largest shells I have seen of this species 
have a length of about 160 mill. 

The H. californiensis of Swainson is a specimen with more numer- 
ous perforations than the type. It can scarcely be separated varie- 
tally. 

Group of H. corrugata. 

These shells are eminently characteristic of the western coast of 
America, all of the species of that region except jET. cracherodii 
grouping here. The group comprises most of the large species of 
Haliotis, and the two largest (gigantea and rufescens). One species, 
(H. gigantea) exhibiting numerous diverging varieties and forms is 
found in Japanese waters. 

H. CORRUGATA Gray. PI. 5, fig. 24. 

Shell large, subcircular or short oval, very convex, like a half- 
globe ; surface corrugated all over, the wrinkles nodose ; perfora- 
tions elevated, tubular, three open ; inside dark, very brilliantly iri- 
descent, muscle scar distinct, roughened. 

The outline is more rounded than usual, being a very short oval ; 
the back is very convex. The strong epidermis is dull, olive-brown 
usually having wide oblique greenish intervals ; the sculpture be- 
gins as crowded spiral cords or lirse, but over the greater part of 
the body- whorl these become nodose at short intervals, or are crossed 
by obliquely radiating corrugations. It is angled at the row of 
holes; below these there is a distinct spiral channel or furrow, 
bounded below by a more or less distinct row of nodules ; and be- 
tween this and the columellar margin it is obliquely corrugated, the 
folds scalloping the lower part of the columellar margin. The spire 
does not project above the general outline of the shell. Inside it is 
dark, iridescent, red predominating in the coloration. The muscle 
impression is large, distinct, roughened all over, and like fine 
mosaic work in its brilliant coloration. The flat or concave colu- 
mellar plate slopes strongly inward, and is not at all truncate at the 
base ; above it almost conceals the small cavity of the spire. The 
large tubular perforations are sometimes two, but normally three in 
number. Length 155, width 122, convexity 57 mill. 

San Diego, CaL, southward ; Catalina Island. 

H. corrugata GRAY in Wood's Index Test. Suppl., t. 8, f. 5. 
REEVE Couch. Icon., f. 12. SOWB. Thes. Conch., t. 4, f. 26 (excL 
var .). WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 67 t. 25, 26. KEEP, West 



HALIOTIS. 81 

Coast Shells, p. 94. H. nodosa PIIILIPPI, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1845, p. 
149 ; Abbild. u. Beschreib. ii, p. 69, t. 5, 6, fig. 1. 

Distinguished by the corrugated-nodose outer surface, orbicular 
and strongly convex form, and the deep channel revolving below the 
row of perforations. 

H. FULGENS Phillippi. PI. 12, figs. 61, 62. 

Shell large, oval, quite convex, sculptured all over with equal 
rounded cords or lirse ; of a reddish-brown color. Generally five 
holes are open. 

The form is oval, as in the other American Haliotis, the back 
quite convex. It is solid, but thinner than H. rufescens. The out- 
side is a uniform dull reddish-brown. It is sculptured with rounded 
spiral lira, nearly equal in size, 30 to 40 in number on the upper 
surface. At the row of holes there is an angle, the surface below it 
sloping almost perpendicularly to the columellar edge, and having 
an obtuse keel about midway. The spire does not project above the 
general curve of the back. Inside dark, mostly blue and green 
with dark coppery stains, pinkish within the spire ; the muscle im- 
pression painted in a peculiar and brilliant pattern, like a peacock's 
tail. Columellar plate wide, flat, sloping inward. Cavity of the 
spire small, almost concealed. Perforations rather small, elevated, 
circular, about 5 in number. 

Length 170, width 130, convexity 48 mill. 

Lower California and California, northward to Monterey Bay. 

H.fulgens PHIL. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1845, p. 150 ; Abbild u. Bes- 
chreib. ii, p. 220, t. 7 ; t. 8, f. 1. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 
24, t. 7, 8. If. splendens REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 9 ; Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond. 1846, p. 54. And of authors generally. H. planilirata 
RVE. Conch. Icon., f. 62 (young). 

This magnificent shell has long been known under the name of H. 
splendens. Philippi's publication was before Reeve's, as the brothers 
Adams and Weinkauff have already announced. The restoration 
of the oldest name becomes therefore simply a matter of justice and 
necessity. 

It is a thinner species than H. rufescens, with darker interior and 
different sculpture. The mingling of tints upon the great muscle- 
scar is indescribably rich and effective. 

The H. planilirata of Reeve (pi. 19, fig. 9) is a young shell of 
this species. 
6 



82 HALIOTIS. 

H. RUFESCENS Swainson. PI. 20, fig. -11. 

Shell large, heavy and solid, oval, not very convex ; sculpture 
consisting of unequal spiral cords and threads and wide low radiat- 
ing waves ; color dull red ; holes three or four. 

The shell is very large, sometimes attaining a length of 9 inches ; 
it is thick and heavy, covered outside with a thick brick-red layer 
which projects at the edge of the lip forming a narrow coral-red 
edge. The spiral cords are unequal in size, and finer than in H. 
fulgens; the waves of the surface are large and oblique. Below the 
row of holes there is a depression, followed by a low ridge bearing 
usually large obtuse tubercles. The spire does not project above 
the general curve of the back. Inside the nacre is lighter than in 
either H. fulgens or H. eorrugata, and the play of tints not so much 
broken. The colors are chiefly pink and light green, with here and 
there a small area of prussian blue. The muscle scar is large, pecul- 
iarly and variously striped with olive-brown, green and blue; a 
portion of it is roughened by coarse raised cords which take a 
spiral direction. The columellar plate is rather narrow, its lower 
part sloping inward somewhat. Perforations large, somewhat 
tubular, 3 or 4 open. 

Length 185, width 150, convexity 40 mill. 

Length 235, width 185, convexity 58 mill. 

Mendocino Co., to San Nicholas Island, California. 

H. rufescens SWAINS., Catalogue of the rare and valuable shells 
which formed part of the collection of the late Mrs. Bligh ; appen- 
dix, p. 2 (1822). REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 6. SOWERBY, Thes. 
Conch., t. 5, f. 35. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 69, t. 27, fig. 1. 
? H. ponderosa ADAMS, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, Second Ser., 
vi, p. 138, 1848. 

This is the Red Abalone of commerce, the nacre of which is used 
for the manufacture of buttons, for inlaying, etc. The animal is 
dried by the Chinese in California and used for food. 

The H. ponderosa of Adams is probably a form of this species. 
The original description is as follows : 

Shell ovate, convex, ponderous, with coarse, unequal incremental 
striae and concentric ridges (not folds), and a few broad low tuber- 
cles on the ridges ; spire elevated, subterminal ; four perforations 
open, the inner one very large; exterior surface brick red; inner 
surface elegantly iridescent with innumerable shades of delicate red, 
purplish-red, and green. 

Length 8 2 in.; breadth 6fiii.; depth within 3iin. 



HALIOTIS. 83 

Comparison with the well-known H. rufescens Swains., will render 
a figure unnecessary. A large specimen of Swainson's shell before 
me has exactly the same superficial dimensions, but is only 2 inches 
deep. H. ponderosa is nearly or quite destitute of the spiral waves 
of If. rufescens, is of a darker red without, wants the inner margin 
of the outer lip, and within has the clouds of iridescent colors 
remarkably small and numerous, while in H. rufescens they are 
remarkably large. It is more ponderous than any Haliotis which 
we have seen, weighing 2 Ibs., 2 oz., avoirdupois. (C. B. Ad.) 

H. ASSIMILIS Dall. PI. 22, fig. 29. 

Shell short-oval, very convex, the spire short but projecting above 
the general outline of the back ; surface spirally lirate and having 
low, rather obscure radiating waves ; perforations five ; inside sil- 
very, with red, blue and green reflections. 

The form is the same as in H. corrugata, except that the spire is 
more produced in the present species. It is solid and strong but not 
very thick. The epidermis is dull reddish and greenish. Surface 
sculptured by numerous spiral cords, alternately larger and smaller, 
and obsoletely waved radiately. Below the row of holes there is a 
shallow channel ; the area between the row of holes and the colu- 
mellar margin is spirally lirate, and has an o'btuse carina in the 
middle. Inside light, the nacre silvery, red and green ; the muscle 
impression is smooth in the specimens before me. Columellar plate 
rather narrow, not at all truncated below, sloping inward. 

Length 110, breadth 82, convexity 34 mill. 

Monterey and San Diego, CaL, in deep water. 

Haliotis (f wr.) assimilis DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, 1878, p. 
46. 

This is a smaller species than the other California!! Abalones, and 
curiously intermediate between them in its characters. It resembles 
H.fulgens in having five open perforations, but differs from it in the 
light tint of the nacre and the unequal spiral cords of the surface. 
It is like corrugata in possessing quite a deep channel just outside of 
the row of holes, but has a higher spire than that form, less rough 
sculpture, a greater number of holes, and lighter nacre. Finally 
we may compare H. rufescens, a species more nearly allied, but still 
readily distinguished by its far thicker and larger shell, fewer holes 
and other obvious characters. 



84 HALIOTIS. 

H. GIGANTEA Chemnitz. PI. 7, fig. 42. 

Shell very large, rounded-oval, quite convex, distance of apex 
from margin between one-ninth and one-tenth the length of shell ; 
surface with coarse, low, unequal spiral cords and broad wave-like 
undulations ; perforations on volcano-like elevations. 

The typical form of this shell is one of the largest in the genus. 
It is of a rounded-oval outline, the back quite convex, highest in the 
middle. It is solid but not very thick, reddish-brown, radiately 
streaked more or less with chocolate and green. The spiral cords 
are low but strong, and there are irregular but very strong wave- 
like obliquely radiating folds above. The perforations are situated 
in high tubercles upon a strong dorsal angle, below which the left 
side slopes steeply to the columellar margin; this slope has low 
spiral cords, waved or festooned below the row of holes, and it has 
also an obtuse ridge parallel with that row, not far below it. The 
spire is very small, quite low. Inside there are shallow spiral sulci 
and indentations at the positions of the cords and waves of the ex- 
terior. The nacre is light colored or silvery, to a high degree iri- 
descent, reflections of emerald green and red predominating. The 
muscle attachment is smooth, but its posterior and lateral outlines 
are marked by a rugose line. Columellar plate wide, its face con- 
cave, sloping inward. Open perforations 4. 

Length 220, width 183, convexity 50 mill. 

Japan. 

H. gigantea CHEMNITZ, Conchyl. Cab. x, p. 167, t. 1610, 1611. 
GMELIN, in Linne, Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3691. REEVE, Conch. Icon.,, 
f. 19. LISCHKE, Moll. Jap., p. 101 ; ii, p. 91. SOWERBY, Thes. 
Couch, v, t. 7, f. 44, 50. WEINKAUFF, Conch. Cab., p. 26, t. 4, f. 1, 
2. H. tubifera LAM. An. s. Vert, vi, p. 214. H. discus REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. ,f. 31 . SOWERBY, t. 5, f. 32. H. Kamtschatkana JONAS, 
Zeitschr.f. Mai. 1845, p. 168. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 8. PHILIPPI, 
Abbild. u. Beschreib. ii, t. 8, f. 12. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, f. 
33, 34. H. Sieboldii, REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 32 a, b. H. coreanica 
A. Ad. mss. teste Weinkauff. 

The above description is drawn from a magnificent specimen the 
largest on record in the collection of John Ford, Esq. This typi- 
cal form may be known by its large size, rounded outline, tubular 
perforations, etc. The following may be considered varieties : 



HALIOTIS. 85 

Var. KAMTSCHATKANA Jonas. PL 9, figs. 47, 49. 

Shell oval, rather depressed, rather thin ; surface with uneven 
spiral cords, often almost obsolete, and strongly elevated undula- 
tions or lumps ; color dull red, green, or red and green marbled. 
Perforations elevated, 4 in number. Inside silvery, very iridescent ; 
columellar shelf narrow, flattened, sloping inward. 

Length 96, breadth 67, convexity 22 mill. 

Monterey, CaL, to Kamtschatka. 

Var. DISCUS Reeve. PI. 8. fig. 46. 

This is closely allied in all characters to the preceding, but more 
elongated than the typical Kamtschatlcana. The interior has a 
peculiarly metallic luster, light bronze-green and coppery-red pre- 
dominating. Length 120, width 78, convexity 25 mill. 

Japan. 

H. Sieboldii Reeve (pi. 15, figs. 78, 79) is in all probability a 
monstrosity of If. gigantea. The single specimen known is in the 
British museum. 

Group of H. tuberculata. 

Flattish, oval forms, having a tendency to develope coarse radiat- 
ing wrinkles. The distribution is like that of the subgenus Bolma 
of Astraliwn, Japanese and Mediterranean Seas. 

H. TUBERCULATA Linne. PI. 1, fig. 17 ; pi. 3, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell long-oval, much depressed, spire submarginal ; spirally 
striated and more or less wrinkled radiately ; holes about 6. 

The form is a regular oval, right and left sides about equally 
curved ; it is depressed-convex above, having a slight ridge at the 
row of holes, and a depression or shallow sulcus below it. The color 
varies from light gray to reddish-brown spotted or mottled with red- 
dish-brown, pale green, and often speckled with white ; surface dull 
and lusterless, covered with close, unequal spiral striae and radiat- 
ing growth-wrinkles. Spire low, 3 to 4 whorled, the distance of the 
apex from the margin one-tenth to one-twelfth the length of shell. 
Inside showing 1 } whorls, nearly smooth, the muscle impression not 
distinct ; the silvery nacre is brilliantly iridescent, with green, steel- 
blue and red reflections ; lip-edge duller. Columellar plate flat, nar- 
row, scarcely truncated at the base. Cavity of spire visible from 



86 HALIOTIS. 

below. Perforations 6 to 8, round, separated by spaces longer than 
themselves. Length 95-105, breadth 63-73, convexity 15-20 mill. 

Atlantic Coast from the Channel Islands to the Canaries, and the 
entire Mediterranean Sea. 

H. tuberculata LINNE, Syst. Nat. x, p. 1256. JEFFREYS, Brit. 
Conch, iii, p. 279 ; v, t. 60, f. 2. HIDALGO, Mol. Espan. t. 29, f. 
3. WEINKAUFF in Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet, p. 3, and of 
authors generally. H. mdgaris DACOSTA, Brit. Conch., t. 2, f. 1, 2. 

(Var. lamellosa Lam.) 

H. striata LINN., Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1256 (teste HANLEY, Shells 
of Linnseus). WEINKAUFF, 1. c. (as var. of tuberculata). H. 
lamellosa LAM. Anim. s. Vert, vi, 2d pt., 217, 1822. BUQUOY, 
DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll, du Rouss. i, p. 426, t. 52, f. 1-7 ; and of 
authors generally. H. tuberculata of some authors. H. parva 
Risso Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid. iv, p. 252. H. marmorata, H. 
glabra and H. bistriata O. G. COSTA Cat. sist., p. 117, 118. H. re- 
ticulata RVE. Conch. Icon., f. 48. MONTS, Norn. Gen. e Spec., p. 38. 
H. glabra DILLW.; H. marmorata and bicolor COSTA ; H. neglecta 
PHIL. 

This is a very variable species, allied closely to several species of 
Japan and elsewhere, but the only one of the genus inhabiting 
European seas. Young shells are more brightly colored than old 
ones, as usual in the genus. The following varieties may be recog- 
nized ; but their characters have no constancy, and intermediate 
specimens are numerous. 

Color-var. RETICULATA Reeve. PL 24, fig. 66 ; pi. 47, fig. 8. 

Surface without radiating lamellae or folds ; coloration generally 
mottled or with triangular spots. 

This has received the following names: reticulata Reeve, secer- 
nenda Monts, glabra Costa, marmorata Costa, bicolor Costa, tuber- 
culata var. lucida Requien, varia Risso. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
Var. LAMELLOSA Lamarck. PI. 3, figs. 9, 10. 

Like the type in COD tour, except that the lip-margin is frequently 
straighter than the other side ; the surface more strongly striated 
spirally, and having coarse, prominent, radiating wrinkles or 
lamellae above. Length 72, breadth 45 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 



HALIOTIS. 87 

It is the Var..rugosa of Weinkauff. Lamarck's name is so well 
known for this form that I deem it inadvisable to revive the doubt- 
ful " siriata " of Linne, which Hanley believes to be the same. 

H. SEPICULATA Keeve. PI. 16, fig. 86. 

Shell ovate, spirally peculiarly ridged, ridges narrow, erect, very 
irregular, radiating, undulately plicated ; perforations large, six open ; 
dark olive-green, here and there dotted with white. Well charac- 
terized by the erect development of the ridges. (Eve.} 

Habitat unknown. 

H. sepicu/ata REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 14, f. 50, 1846. . 

H. JAPONICA Reeve. PI. 14, fig. 77. 

Shell long-oval, depressed, spire submarginal, its distance from 
the nearest edge about the same as in H. tuberculata. Sculpture 
composed of fine close equal spiral threads and more or less developed 
radiating coarse folds or elevated wrinkles. Perforations 5 to 7. 
Yellow, variegated with red, olive-brown and green. 

Length 53, width 34 mill.; convexity 12 mill. 

Length 89, width 60 mill.; convexity 18 mill. 

Japan. 

H.japonica REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 5, f. 13. SOWB. Thes., t. 4, 
f. 29. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 58, t. 22, f. 5, 6. H. aquatilis 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 54. H. incisa RVE. 1. c. f. 57. 

This species is almost exactly like the Mediterranean H. tubercu- 
lata var. la.mellosa. It differs in having finer, equal spiral threads. 
Weinkauff places H. reticulata Rve. in the synonymy of japonica, 
but Monterosato having examined the type in the British Museum, 
identifies it with a Mediterranean variety of H. tuberculata. 

H. aquatilis Reeve (pi. 6, fig. 35) is doubtless synonymous. It is 
from the Kurile Islands, south of Kamtchatka. It has been 
referred by Schrenck to H. Kamtschatkana, but the greater number 
of perforations (6) and the absence of strong undulation will sep- 
arate it from that form. 

H. incisa Reeve has also been placed in the synonymy by Wein- 
kauff. 

H. BISTRIATA Gmelin. PI. 48, figs. 14, 15, 16 ; pi. 4, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell oval, much depressed, distance of apex from margin about 

one-eleventh the length of the shell ; sculpture consisting of very 

clearly-cut, low, rounded spiral cord.-?, alternating with narrow 



8S HALIOTIS. 

threads; crossed by a few radiating folds marking the positions of 
former peristomes, holes five. 

The shell is oval, both sides curved ; quite depressed and flat, 
with a wide superficial spiral depression around the middle of the 
upper surface. The entire surface has spiral cords and stria?. The 
sculpture has a clear-cut appearance, as if engraved. The area be- 
tween the row of holes and the columellar margin is wider than 
usual ; it has a strong spiral cord midway, above which it is con- 
cave, and below which it is convex. In the middle of the concave 
portion there is another strong spiral. The color in the typical 
form is a clear light green, becoming reddish on the spire, and hav- 
ing a pink area on the part of the body- whorl adjacent to the spire. 
Inside silvery, very bright and somewhat iridescent. Columellar 
plate narrow, obliquely truncated. Cavity of spire small. 

Length 47, width 32, convexity 8* mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H. bistriata GMEL. in Linne, Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3689. WEIN- 
KAUFF, Conchy 1. Cab., p. 9, t. 3, f. 1. 

This is the true bistriata of Gmelin, agreeing exactly with the fig- 
ure of Martini to which he refers. I do not know whether the H. 
bistriata of Reeve and of Sowerby (see pi. 4, figs. 11, 12) is the same 
but think it likely. A specimen before me, drawn on pi. 48, figs. 
14-16, agrees with the figure in Chemnitz in a surprisingly minute 
manner. Another is flecked and speckled all over with brownish- 
orange on a pink-white and pale green ground. It is very delicate 
and pretty in coloration, and may be known by its flatness, the wide 
bi-striate area below the holes, and rather narrow columellar plate. 
The spirals are minutely granose. on the spire ; and some shells have 
very close fine distinct growth strise all over. 

Group of H. stomaticeformis. 

This comprises a number of small shells, the smallest of the gen us 
distributed from Japan to New Caledonia and eastward to the 
Viti Islands. The spire is somewhat raised, frequently notably so ; 
the sculpture consists of sharply-cut spiral cords and more or less 
prominent radiating folds ; the holes are few in number and more or 
less tubular. It may be doubted whether all of the species here 
admitted are valid. 

H. squamata, a larger species than the others, and with numerous 
perforations, seems to group with the stomaticeformis. 



HALIOTIS. 89 

H. STOMATIJEFORMIS Reeve. PL 3, fig. 4 ; pi. 49, figs. 30-35. 

Shell small, oval ; the spire subterminal ; sculptured with clearly, 
deeply cut spiral cords and radiating folds, which on the last whorl 
project as little scales on the spiral lirse ; holes 3 to 5, somewhat 
tubular. 

The right side is decidedly straighter than the left, the convexity 
variable. The color is brown, variously marked with white and 
green. The spiral lirse are deeply-cut, 24-30 in number (counting 
along the lip-edge) exclusive of 5 or 6 below the row of holes ; they 
are crossed by numerous uneven radiating folds, those on the later 
part appearing as projecting lamellae across the riblets. The 5 or 6 
unequal spiral cords between the row of holes and the columella are 
more or less beaded or scaly. The spire is small, not much elevated, 
its distance from nearest margin one-fifth to one-seventh the total 
length of shell. Inside silvery, iridescent. Columellar plate wide 
above, gradually narrowing and not at all truncate toward the base. 
Holes 3 to 5, subcircular, somewhat tubular. 

Length 32, width 20, convexity 7 mill. 

Length 31, width 18 , convexity 7* mill. 

New Caledonia ! Viti Islands ! 

H. stomaticeformis REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 17, f. 74. SOWERBY, 
Thes. Conch, v, p. 26, f. 22 (excl. syn. and fig. 23). IT. exigua DKR. 
in Godeffroy Cat. v ; and WEINKAUFF in Conchy 1. Cab., p. 29, t. 
13, f. 2, 3. 

I believe this to be the shell to which the name exigua was given 
in the Godeffroy catalogue but without description. Afterward 
Dunker published another species under the same name. The 
stomaticeformis has a very rough, sharply-sculptured exterior, and 
.the spire-cavity is concealed by the wide coluniellar lip. 

Reeve gives New Zealand as the locality ; collectors have not 
recently found it there ; numerous specimens are before me from the 
localities given above. 

H. JACNEXSIS Reeve. PL 3, fig. 7. 

Shell oblong-ovate, spirally peculiarly rudely ridged, ridges very 
irregular and rather scaly, somewhat smooth next the perfora- 
tions which are slightly tubiferous and distant ; reddish-orange ; in- 
terior silvery. A very characteristic species, to which there is little 
or no approximation in any other. (Reeve.) 

Jaena, Island of Bohol, Philippines. 



90 HALIOTIS. 

H.jacnensis REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 17, f. 73. SOWERBY, Thes. 
Conch, v, p. 28, f. 48. H. jacnaensis Eve., WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 70, t. 27, f. 2. 

H. ECHINATA Sowerby. PI. 4, fig. 13. 

Shell small, ovate, depressed, brown, concentrically roughened, 
sculptured with strong spiral line over spiny-scaly wrinkles ; 
marginal area roughened and having three spiny ribs ; spire rather 
prominent, acuminate ; holes upon tubular tubercles. Small, oval, 
depressed, dark-brown, concentrically wrinkled, sculptured with 
strong spiral ridges forming squamose spines on the wrinkles, mar- 
ginal area with three rows of spines. Unique in Mr. Hanley's col- 
lection. (Sowb.") 

Habitat unknown. 

H. echinata So WE. Thes. Conch, v, p. 18, f. 124. 

This seems closely allied to H. stomaticeformis, but is of a more 
oval form, both sides equally curved. Contrary to Mr. Sowerby's 
surmise, it has nothing to do with If. gigantea. 

H. EXIGUA Dunker. PL 49, figs.' 36, 37, 38. 

Shell small, ovate, plane, channelled in the middle, spirally 
densely striate and lirate, obsoletely plicated ; provided with five 
open, close, somewhat tubular round holes ; apex a little prominent ; 
spire small, sublateral ; inner lip flat ; area between margin and holes 
costate and canaliculate. Color grayish, variegated with reddish, 
brown or scarlet ; nacre vividly iridescent. (DJtr.) 

Length 22 mill. Japanese Seas. 

H. exigua DUNKER Mai. Bl. 1877, p. 69 ; Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., 
p. 148, t. 6, f. 8, 9, 10, 1882. Not H. exigua DKK. in Mus. GodefFroy 
Cat. v, p. 148 (only a name) or of WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 
29, t, 13, f. 2, 3, 1883. 

I have not seen this little species. It differs from those with 
which it is here grouped in showing a larger spire-cavity inside, on 
account of its less lateral spire. The H. exigua of WeinkaufF is 
quite a different thing. 

H. ELEVATA Sowerby. PL 4, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell obliquely subtrapezoidal, Stomatia-shaped, greenish, broadly 
banded with green toward the angle; spirally elevately lirate, line 
scaly. Spire elevated, coppery ; whorls obtusely angular. Having 



HALIOTIS. 91 

the same Stomatia-like form as H. stomaticeformis, but with strong 
scaly ridges, and the whorls of the elevated spire more sloped. 

(Sowb.) Habitat unknown. 

H. elevata Sows. Thes. Conch, v, p. 27, f. 116, 117. 
H. HANLEYAXA Sowerby. PL 11, fig. 59. 

Shell red variegated, silvery inside, rough, narrow trapezoidal, 
with concentric thick elevated undulating wrinkles and spiral 
elevated line, line unequal, subalternating. Spire acute, much 
elevated, w r horls angular. Marginal area tuberculate-ribbed. 
Laminated more thickly and roughly than H. lamellosa, and chiefly 
remarkable for its exserted and elevated spire, in which respect it 
resembles H. stomaticeformis. (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

H. Hanleyana SOWB., Thes Conch, v, p. 26, f. 28. 

This is perhaps a distorted H. lamellosa Lam. 

H. YENUSTA Adams & Reeve. PL 20, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell ovate, depressed-plane, spirally delicately ribbed and striated, 
ribs distant nodulose ; foramina sub-prominent. White variegated 
with vivid scarlet, tinged at the apex with purple. Inside silvery. 
(Ads. & Eve.) Eastern Seas. 

H. venusta ADS. & RYE. Voy. of H. M. S. Samarang, ZooL, p. 
69, t. 13, f. 5a, b. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, p. 29, f. 55. 

Compared by Sowerby with H. concinna. I have not seen the 
species. 

H. SQUAMATA Reeve. PL 18, fig. 2. 

Shell long-oval, , very convex ; spire nearly terminal ; surface 
closely, finely lirate, the lirse finely scaly. Holes small, oval, seven ' 
or eight open. 

The shell is long, elliptical, with quite convex back. The right 
side is generally a little straighter than the left. The color is 
various, but usually a rich dark red or reddish-brown, with yellowish 
or greenish-yellow stripes and patches. The surface has numerous 
close, minutely scaly spirals, alternately larger and smaller or with 
every fourth one larger than the three intervening. There are also 
elevated plate-like folds developed on the later part of moderate or 
large specimens, like those of H. lamellosa Lam. but less prominent, 
smaller, more irregular. The spire is very small, subterminal. In- 
side silvery, iridescent, Columellar shelf concealing the cavity of 



92 HALIOTIS. 

the spire, rather wide, sloping inward. Perforations oval, numerous, 
seven or eight open. Length 69, width 42, convexity 16 mill. 

Northwest coast of Australia. 

H. squamata REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 12, f. 35, 1846. SOWERBY, 
Thes. Conch., f. 68, 62. WEINKAUFF, Conch. Cab., p. 59, t. 23, f. 
1, 2. H.funebris REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 12, f. 38. 

This is a species closely allied to H. stomatictformis, differing in 
being larger and more convex. It is quite distinct from species of 
the other groups. The spire is more than usually terminal ; the 
spiral riblets closely scaly ; the color a rich reddish-brown, varied 
with yellowish patches, or rarely it is green-tinged yellowish all 
over, with a few pale red zigzag streaks. Perhaps belongs to the 
group of H. diver sicolor. 

Yar. FUNEBRIS Reeve. 

Shell ovate, somewhat depressedly convex, spirally ridged, ridges 
slightly squamate, here and there larger, transversely peculiarly 
rugosely plicated ; perforations eight or nine open ; reddish chest- 
nut sometimes tinged with green, with a few indistinct light flames 
around the spire. This is a larger and flatter species than H. 
squamata, and the ridges are more widely separated and less 
squamate. (Reeve.*) 

M/H/ Australia. 

Group of H. pustulata. 

H. SPECIOSA Reeve. PL 16, figs. 89, 90. 

Shell oblong-ovate, flatly convex, depressed in the middle, spir- 
ally elevately striated ; striae close-set ; 6 perforations open ; scarlet 
red, beautifully variegated with black-edged white. This is a very 
gay species, the color being a rich scarlet red, variegated with broad 
zigzag flames, edged along the front with black. (Reeve.} 

Habitat unknown. 

H. speciosa REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 47. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch. 
v, p. 25, f. 107. Weinkauff, Conchyl. Cab., p. 49, t. 18, f. 7, 8. H. 
janus REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 55. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, p. 25, 
f. 81. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 64, 65. 

I have not satisfactorily identified this species ; and I doubt the 
identity of the specimen described and figured by Weinkauff. The 
last named author places Reeves' H. striata in the synonymy, al- 
though he had already considered that to represent a small form of 
H. tuberculata from the west coast of Africa. 



HALIOTIS. 93 

Var. JANUS Reeve. PL 9, fig. 48. 

Shell oblong-ovate, spirally ridged, ridges fine, narrow, interstices 
excavated, six perforations open ; yellowish-orange, ornamented 
next to the perforations with a broad white band, colored with large 
broad spots. The peculiar double style of painting which this shell 
exhibits is peculiar to the species, and not, as one might be led to 
imagine, a mere casual variety. (Reeve.} 

Habitat unknown. 

H. ROSACEA Reeve. PL 24, figs. 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65. 

Shell oval, depressed, distance of apex from margin one-eighth to 
one-tenth the length of shell; closely, finely striate spirally, decus- 
sated by still finer and closer growth-striae ; color reddish-brown, 
generally with white patches ; perforations 6. 

The right side is not quite as much curved as the left, and the 
shell is rather depressed. It is quite solid and heavy. The outside 
is dark reddish-brown, sometimes without markings, but usually 
having angular patches of white or greenish around the middle 
part of the body-whorl, and on the spire. The spiral strise of the surface 
are fine, close, often disposed in pairs ; they are decussated by very 
close fine radiating stria3. The spire is low, inside silvery, smooth 
except for fine spiral folds in the nacre, which has light green and 
red reflections. Columellar plate flat, wide (its width one-sixth to one- 
seventh the width of shell), generally not sloping inward or slightly 
so, and not distinctly truncate below. Cavity of spire wholly or 
partly concealed if the plane of the peristome is held at a right 
angle to the line of vision. Perforations oval, situated in slight 
prominences, separated by spaces greater than their own length, 5 
or 6 in number. 

Length 55, width 38, convexity 11 mill. 

Length 59, width 41, convexity 11 mill. 

West Coast of Africa. (Phil. Acad. Coll.) 

H. decussata PHIL. Abbild. u. Beschreib. etc., iii, p. 89, t. 9, f. 
2a, b (April, 1850). WEIMKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 43, t. 17, f. 
3, 4. H. virginea REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 36 (not virginea Chem.). 
H. rosacea REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 60 (July, 1846). H. mar- 
morata Sows. Thes. Conch., t. 11, f. 88, 89. (Not of Linne nor 
Gray.) 

A species easily recognized by its closely decussated sculpture, 
broad columella, edged outside with red, and by the outer lip which 



94 HALIOTIS. 

is continued further than usual around the spire, and is very wide 
and flat at its junction. The description above applies to Philippi's 
H. decussata. The typical rosacea is described by Reeve as " mar- 
bled with deep coral-red punctured with green." Besides the spec- 
imens figured there are others before me obliquely streaked with 
green, yellow, red and white, much as in the H. diversicolor of Reeve. 
The original figure of rosacea is given on pi. 24, fig. 65. Figs. 59- 
64 of the same plate represent color-varieties in the collection of the 
Academy. Fig. 62 is Philippi's original of decussata. 

This species, as well as others, has been supposed by some authors 
to represent the H. virginea of Chemnitz. 

Var. STRIATA Reeve. PI. 50, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

This is the " H. tuberculata" of Dunker's Moll. Guin. Infer. It has 
been referred by Weinkauff to tuberculata as a variety, but it prob- 
ably belongs here. It is of a yellowish color, marbled with red and 
spadiceous. 

Lower Guinea. 

" It is Haliotis tuberculata var. striata Martini" of Weinkauff " H. 
striata Linn" of Reeve (Conch. Icon., f. 58). The true striata of 
Linnaeus cannot be identified. Sowerby calls the variety " marmor- 
ata Linn." Another unidentifiable form. 

H. RUBIGINOSA Reeve. PI. 17, fig. 92. 

Shell ovate, rather convex, radiately plicately wrinkled, spirally 
ridged, ridges obtusely scaled ; perforations rather approximated, six 
open. Exterior rusty orange spirally streaked with white. 

Besides the peculiarity of sculpture it is very fairly characterized 
by its rusty orange painting and silvery interior. (Reeve.') 

Habitat unknown. 

H. rubiginosa REEVE Conch. Icon., f. 45, 1846. SOWB. Thes. 
Conch, v, p. 30, f. 71. 

H. ASTRICTA Reeve. PI. 4, fig. 19. 

Shell ovate, convex, spirally ridged, radiately crossed with ir- 
regular raised striae and laminae ; four perforations open. Exterior 
marbled with white and olive-green, interior iridescent. Dis- 
tinguished by the strong decussating sculpture of the cross-ridges. 
(Reeve.') 

Habitat unknown. 

H. astricta REEVE Conch. Icon., t. 13, f. 41, 1846. SOWB. Thes. 
Conch., p. 28, f. 83. 



HALIOTIS. 95 

Of this poorly characterized species Sowerby says : Narrower than 
varia, pustulata, and with fine sharp striae intersecting wrinkles and 
deep lines of growth. The rugose sculpture is finer and closer, and 
wants the pustules of varia. 

H. VARIA Linne. PL 17, fig. 99 (type); pi. 17, figs. 91, 93, 100 
(vars.); pi. 23, figs. 53, 54, 55. 

Shell oval or oblong-oval, convex, distance from apex to margin 
about one-eighth the entire length of shell ; sculptured with numer- 
ous very unequal spiral cords ; crossed by low radiating folds form- 
ing tubercles on the cords ; open perforations 5, situated on moderate 
tubercles. 

The right margin is straighter than the left, but still convex ; the 
shell is rather convex especially when well-grown, and in many 
examples the spire is somewhat conoidally elevated ; it is rather 
solid and strong. The color-pattern is various, but usually consists 
of broad white or greenish rays upon a dark chocolate, olive-brown 
or green ground. The surface-sculpture is excessively variable, but 
in the typical form consists of " swollen nodules ranging across the 
shell in oblique waves." The spire is rather large. Inside silvery, 
generally with very little iridescent color ; rather indistinctly spirally 
furrowed, and having slight excavations or pits at the positions of 
the principal tubercles of the outer surface ; columellar plate rather 
broad and heavy, flattened, and in adult shells sloping inward ; not 
truncated at base. Cavity of spire visible from below. Perfora- 
tions varying from round to oval. 

Length 50, width 35, convexity 13 mill. 

Length 47, width 31, convexity 12 mill. 

Length 60, width 41, convexity 18 mill. 

Australia and Philipirines to China ; Mosambique, Red Sea, Island 
of Bourbon, Mauritius, Ceylon, Nicobar Is., Malay Archipelago. 

H. varia LINNE, Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1256. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 4. SOWB. Thes. Conch, v, p. 28, f. 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 61. WEIN- 
KAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 10, t. 3, f. 4. MARTENS in Mobius, Reise 
nach Mauritius, Moll., p. 298. H. semistriata REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 5 la, b, c. H. viridis REEVE, 1. c. f. 40. 

A widely dispersed form, variable in both color and sculpture. It 
may be distinguished from the following several species by the nar- 
row unequal spiral cords, which are rounded, not broad and flat- 
tened, and bear unequal tubercles at uncertain intervals. 



96 HALIOTIS. 

The form called semistriata by Reeve is figured on pi. 17, figs. 93, 
100. It is reddish-brown, the earlier portion, radiately striped with 
white, the body generally with a wide white spiral stripe in the mid- 
dle, as shown in fig. 100. Toward the spire from this stripe the sur- 
face is sharply sculptured by close, rounded, spiral cords ; but out- 
side the stripe it is much smoother, having the cords almost obso- 
lete, but generally with one or two low, nodulous spiral ridges. 
Holes 4 to 5, on tubercles. 

The If. viridis of Reeve, pi. 17, fig. 91, is whitish, stained and 
radiately marbled with green. It is undoubtedly synonymous. 
This is not, however, the shell Weinkauff identifies as viridis. 

A form which may be called variety pustulifera is figured on pi. 
23, fig. 52. It is chocolate or olive-brown, radiately painted with 
broad flames of white finely reticulated with olive-green. The sur- 
face is comparatively smooth except for three or four spiral rows of 
small pustules. It is the form figured by Weinkauff as varia 
(Conchyl. Cab., t. 3, f. 4) ; I consider Reeve's figure of varia the 
type-form of that species. See pi. 17, fig. 99. 

H. DRINGII Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 25. 

Shell orbicularly ovate, spirally striated, radiately plicated and 
tuberculated ; perforations a little tubiferous, four open. Exterior 
pale greenish yellow, conspicuously stained in the middle with 
scarlet ; interior silvery. (Reeve.} 

North coast of Australia. 

H. dringii REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 17, f. 65. SOWERBY, Thes. 
Conch, v, p. 32, f. 42. 

This may be a young shell. 

H. CONCINNA Reeve. PI. 5, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell somewhat oblong-ovate, spirally striated, slightly tuber- 
culated in the middle, obliquely rather obscurely plicated. Four 
perforations open. Fleshy-white, profusely variegated with scarlet 
rose. (Reeve.} 

Zamboanga, Island of Mindanao, Philippines. 

H. concinna REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 66. SOWERBY Thes. Conch, 
v, p. 28, f. 46, 54. 

This may be compared with H. varia, the young of which it seems 
to resemble. Sowerby says that Reeve named the species from a 
very young and uncharacteristic specimen, and gives a figure and 



HALIOTIS. 97 

diagnosis of a larger one (fig. 22). " Shell complanate, subovate, 
wide behind, somewhat narrower in front, milk-white variegated with 
red and green ; spirally lirate, the lira? distant, elevated, undulately 
nodose, interstices irregular, narrow ; holes a little prominent, small ; 
apex almost immersed. The sculpture is somewhat finer, but quite 
as irregular as in H. varia. The flatness and breadth of the spire 
and comparative attenuation of the anterior give a different appear- 
ance to the shell. The prevalence of bright scarlet in the markings 
is noticeable." 

This species is considered by Weinkauff a synonym of H. uni- 
lateralis Lam. 

H. UXILATERALIS (Lam.) Weinkauff. PI. 17, figs. 97, 98. 

Shell egg-shaped or long oval, depressed-convex, rough, encircled 
by spiral lirse, w r hich above are beset with low tubercles ; variegated 
or marbled with orange, red and white, and strewn with little brown 
flecks and a few larger ones. Spire distinct and rather lateral in 
position, little elevated, with numerous scarcely elevated perforation- 
tubercles, of which five remain open. They are more nearly circular 
than oval. Inside scarcely furrowed, having silvery nacre giving 
very faint reflections of red. Cavity of the spire visible and sur- 
rounded by a riblet. Columellar plate curved, -pretty wide, espe- 
cially above, margined outside, produced inward, emarginate below. 
Lip short, thin and blunt, scarcely crenulated. ( Weinkauff.) 

Timor and Australia (Lam.}; Philippines (Owning); Mascarene 
Is. (Robillard) ; Massana, in the Red Sea (Jickeli) ; Suez (fir Andrew). 

H. unilateralis LAM. Anim. s. Vert., vi, p. 217. WEINKAUFF, 
Couchyl. Cab., p. 55, t. 21, f. 4. 5. 

I have given Weinkauff's description and figures of this species. 
I have not seen specimens. Weinkauff considers H. concinna Rve. 
a synonym. 

H. PAPULATA Reeve. PI. 3, fig. 6. 

Shell somewhat orbicularly ovate, spirally obtusely ridged, ridges 
rather distant, conspicuously tuberculated ; perforations a little 
tubiferous, four open ; dark coral-red, variegated here and there 
with patches of yellow. 

rX 1TY 



98 HALIOTIS. 

The pimpled sculpture of this shell is of a much more prominent 
character than that of dringii, concinna or gemma. (Rve?) 

North Coast of Australia. 

H. papulata RVE. Conch. Icon., t. 17, f. 69, 1846. 
Probably immature, but not a young ovina as Sowerby surmises. 

H. GEMMA Reeve. PJ. 7, fig. 37, double natural size. 

Shell somewhat orbicularly ovate, flatly convex, left side rather 
broad ; spirally tuberculated, radiately very beautifully minutely 
plicately scaled ; perforations a little tubiferous, four or five open ; 
yellowish, stained with scarlet and green. 

The surface of this beautiful little species besides being tubercu- 
lated, is covered with minute scales, which present a rather more 
prominent character on the left side beneath the perforations. 

(Rve.~) Habitat unknown. 

H. gemma RVE. Conch. Icon., f. 67, 1846. 

This is evidently a very young shell, whether a distinct species or 
not can only be determined by an examination of the type. 

H. DOHRNIANA Dunker. PI. 7, figs. 39, 40, 41. 

Shell ovate-oblong, subelliptical, little convex, white and rose 
variegated, with large brown or greenish, often subquadrate spots 
toward the margin; sculptured with oblique folds and 34 to 36 
close, subimbricately nodose spiral riblets; transversely striated. 
Perforations 4, subtubulose ; part between perforations and lip slo- 
ping, subexcavated. Columella wide, flat. Nacre brilliant silvery, 
a little iridescent. 

There lie before me three specimens of this species, having much 
the same general form and sculpture ; one is more elliptical in con- 
tour. The moderately convex shell is covered with closely crowded 
spiral riblets, of about equal size, and 34 to 40 in number. Toward 
the margin they have blunt, erect scales, and here and there are 
nodose. The margin is sloping, concave in the middle, and trav- 
ersed by 6 to 8 cords like the spirals of the upper surface. Four 
holes are open. The inner lip is flat aud pretty wide ; the nacre 
white and unusually brilliant, but only slightly iridescent. (Dun- 

ker.) 

New Hebrides. 

H. dohrniana DKR. in Novit. Conch., p. 48, t. 15, f. 13-15. 
This seems to be very closely allied to certain forms of H. pustu- 
lata Reeve. 



HALIOTIS. 99 

H. PLAXATA Sowerby. PL 11, fig. 58 ; pi. 49, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Shell oval, very flat, solid, spire not at all raised, distance of the 
apex from the nearest margin about one-sixth the length of the shell. 
Surface sculptured with numerous uneven spiral cords ; open per- 
foration five. 

The outline is oval ; it is very much depressed, flatter than any 
other species. Outside it is chocolate brown stained in places with 
green, having oblique, branching streaks of cream-white, or blotches 
of the same tint. The sculpture consists of numerous spiral cords 
separated by deep grooves, the cords more or less nodose from the 
intersection of uneven radiating folds, often obscure. Toward the 
lower end, outside of the row of holes, the cords are obviously scaly 
or granose. Spire plane, generally eroded and white. Inside 
silvery, iridescent, spirally grooved. Columellar plate very wide 
above, flat, not quite covering the small spire-cavity. Perforations 
four to five, small, oval, their edges a trifle raised. 

Length 41, width 29, convexity 6 J mill. 

Philippines (Sowb.) ; Viti Islands (Garrett !). 

H.planata (CARPENTER, where?) SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, p. 
30, fig. 74. 

This is the flattest species I have seen. The columellar ledge is 
very wide and flat above ; the coloration is peculiar but variable in 
pattern. I have been unable to find that Carpenter described such 
a species. 

H. CRUENTA Reeve. PI. 4, figs. 17, 18 ; pi. 49, figs. 24, 25, 26. 

Shell oval, depressed ; distance of apex from nearest margin one- 
sixth to one-seventh the length of shell ; finely spirally striate ; holes 
8, small, circular. 

The shell is about the size and shape of H. pustulata but is finely 
striate spirally. The right side is straightened, the color is a rich 
reddish-brown varigated with creamy markings. Surface spirally 
marked with unequal stride, and having some wrinkles marking the 
places of former peristomes. The spire is only a trifle raised. In- 
side it is silvery and beautifully iridescent, nearly smooth. The col- 
umellar plate is wide above, as in pustulata (see fig. 24, pi. 49). 
Cavity of spire rather large. Holes numerous, small, circular. 

Length 46, width 29, convexity 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



100 HALIOTIS. 

H. cruenta REEVE, Conch. Icon., 1. 15, f. 56. SOWB. Thes. Conch., 
f. 63, 101. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., t. 24, f. 4. 

Closely allied to H. pustulata but at once separated from that by 
its fine spiral striation. There are traces of pustules on some of the 
wider stria? on the earlier portion of the whorl. Reeve gives the 
locality " New Zealand" ; but it has not been found there by resi- 
dent collectors. Hutton says : " perhaps the same as rugosoplicata" 
a complete misapprehension, as it has no affinities whatever with 
that shell. 

H. ANCILE Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 23. 

Shell ovate, uniformly convex, faintly spirally nodulously stri- 
ated, nodules sometimes nearly obscure, interrupted ; perforations 
numerous, small, eight open ; olive-green, nodules and around the 
spire coppery-rose-red. 

A uniform, convex shell, striated with faint interrupted, irregular, 
nodulous stria3 of a coppery-rose hue, with the perforations small 
and numerous. (Reeve.*) 

Habitat unknown. 



H. ancile REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 71. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., f. 
65. WEINKAUFF, Conchylien Cab., t. 28, f. 3. 

Closely allied to H. pustulata, perhaps not specifically distinct. 

H. PUSTULATA Reeve. PI. 11, fig. 57 ; pi. 23, figs. 48, 49, 50, 51, 

56, 57, 58. 

Shell oblong, depressed, the distance of apex from margin about 
one-seventh to one-eighth the length of the shell. Sculptured with 
coarse unequal spiral cords separated by deep interstitial grooves, 
usually more or less obviously radiately plicate in the vicinity of 
the spire, the penultimate and beginning of the last whorl usually 
having series of small pustules along the spiral cords ; growth-stride 
very close and fine ; perforations generally 6. 

The right side is almost a straight line from its junction with the 
spire to the termination of the row of holes ; the left margin is 
arched ; the body is less convex than in most specimens of H. varia. 
The coloration of the typical form is a dark irregular mottling of 
brown, green and sometimes whitish ; but many specimens are a rich 
chestnut marbled with yellow or white, or are light yellowish-brown 
with reddish-chestnut spots. None of the shells before me have the 
broad radiating flames characteristic of H. varia. The surface has 
numerous strong unequal spiral cords, more or less undulating and 



HALIOTIS. 101 

more or less tuberclecl, especially on the earlier part. There are 
usually low wave-like radiating folds on the inner part of the body- 
whorl, but these are often absent. There is great variation in the 
degree of elevation of the spire. Inside silvery, with red and green 
reflections, strongly spirally grooved. Columellar plate wide, flat or 
a little concave, scarcely truncated at base. Cavity of spire rather 
deep, the rib bounding it having a shallow furrow around it. 

Length 50, width 30, convexity 11 mill. 

Length 53, width 33, convexity 11 mill. 

Ceylon and the Red Sea to Mosambique ; Mauritius. 

H. pustulata REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 52. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 45, t. 17, f. 5-8 (as " jtms^osa"). SOWB. Thes. Conch. v,p. 
28, f. 112. MARTENS, Mobius' Reise n. Mauritius, Moll., p. 298. 
H. alternata So WERE Y, Thes. Conch, v, p. 23, f. 51. 

This is an excessively variable form, allied to H. varia, but dis- 
tinguished by the coarser and flattened cords of the surface. The 
following forms I believe to be mere varieties ; the development of 
the spiral sculpture is excessively variable and irregular, and can- 
not be depended upon for specific distinctions in the group of spe- 
cies immediately surrounding H. varia. 

Var. SCUTULUM Reeve. PI. 18, fig. 5. 

Shell convex, spire depressed, rather concealed, spirally faintly 
ridged, ridges flattened, waved, here and there larger ; 6 holes open ; 
olive-brown very beautifully articulated dotted and spotted with 
green. The ridges of this shell have a peculiar undulating charac- 
ter, and toward the middle of the shell are arranged one broad 
and three narrow alternately. (Reeve.} 

H. sciitulwn REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 63. 

Var. PERTUSA Reeve. PI. 8, fig. 45. 

Shell oblong-ovate, spirally posteriorly very finely grooved, grooves 
pricked, anteriorly faintly ridged, grooves and ridges rather irregular 
and waved ; 6 perforations open ; exterior ruddy-brown with a few 
yellowish zigzag streaks near the spire, interior brightly iridescent. 
One half the shell is sculptured with faint pricked grooves, the 
other with fine waved ridges. (Reeve.) 

H. pertusa REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 61. 



102 HALIOTIS. 

Var. NEBULATA Reeve. PL 46, fig. 1. 

Shell oblong-ovate, convex, spire rather elevated, spirally grooved, 
grooves small, waved, perforations rather approximated, 7 open ; 
clouded throughout with brown and red. (Reeved) 

H. nebulata REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 49. 

This variety forms a transition to H. revelata Desh. 

H. REVELATA Deshayes. PI. 15, figs. 81, 82. 

Shell ovate-oblong, depressed, a little convex above, broadly open 
beneath ; whorls 3, the last large, obsoletely longitudinally sulcated, 
having 7 narrow perforations ; brown marbled with white and green, 
vividly pearly inside, columella flat, subtruncated below. (Desk.) 

Length 61, breadth 37, convexity 15 mill. 

Island of Bourbon (Reunion) ; Mauritius. 

H. revelata DESH, Moll, de File de la "Reunion, p. 70, t. 9, f. 1, 2. 
MARTENS in Mobius Reise n. Mauritius, p. 298. 

This is an extreme form of the series of pustulata and nebulata. 
It is smoother than the other forms, and the apex is more terminal. 

H. ZEALANDICA Reeve. PI. 3, fig. 5. 

Shell oblong, rather depressed, spirally irregularly grooved, inter- 
mediate ridges obtuse, now broad, now narrow ; 6 holes open ; ex- 
terior peculiarly marbled with reddish-chestnut and red-tinged 
white. (Reeve.) 

New Zealand (/) 

H. zealandica REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 64, 1846. HUTTON, 
Manual of New Zealand Mollusca, 1880, p. 105. N. novce zeelandia? 
Reeve, MARTENS, Critical List. Moll. N. Z. 1873, p. 34. 

This is a form very similar to certain varieties of H. pustulata or 
nebulata, but is narrower with more terminal apex. 

It may also be compared with stomaticeformis. 

H. RUGOSA Reeve. PL 12, fig. 64. 

Shell ovate, convex, slightly depressed in the middle, radiately 
plicately wrinkled, spirally ridged, ridges obtuse, here and there 
larger ; perforations rather large, 4 open ; exterior marbled with 
olive-brown and green. The ridges of this species are somewhat ir- 
regular near the apex, but in the middle they are arranged alter- 
nately one broad and three narrow. (Reeve.) 

Habitat unknown. 



HALIOTIS. 103 

H. rugosa REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 59 (not H. rugosa, LAM. an 
unidentifiable species, said by Lamarck to lack nacre). H. strigata 
WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 20, t. 2, f. 8. 

A form closely allied, apparently, to If. pustulata. 

H. COCCINEA Reeve. PL 10, figs. 54, 55 ; pi. 47, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Shell oblong, depressed, the spire small, elevated, distance of apex 
from margin one-fourteenth to one-seventeenth the entire length of 
shell. Surface spirally ribbed ; color reddish-chestnut with very 
irregular white patches and radiating zigzags ; perforations 5. 

The right side is nearly straight, the left curved ; body-whorl con- 
vex. It is moderately solid ; the surface on both sides of the row of 
perforations has close spiral cords, alternately larger and smaller, 
their interstices usually occupied by minute spiral threads. The 
spire is rather elevated, whorls about 2?. Inside it is silvery with 
red and green reflections, a little blue showing in some lights ; mus- 
cle impression not distinct ; columellar plate not wide, somewhat 
flattened, a little truncated below. Cavity of spire visible from be- 
low, but half concealed by the columellar plate. Perforations 5, 
almost perfectly circular, situated on low tubercles and separated by 
spaces of twice their own diameter. 

Length 52, width 30 mill ; convexity 10 mill. 

Cape Verde Islands f 

H. cocdnea REEVE Conch. Icon., f. 22, 1846. SOWB. Thes. Conch, 
v, f. 64, 95, 120. WEIXKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 41, t. 16, f. 5, 6. 
/ H. maculata KUSTER, Weinkauff, Conchyl. Cab., p. 83, appen- 
dix ; t. 2, f. 7. 

I do not believe this to be a variety of H. tuberculata ; it is a 
wholly different thing. The spiral cords are far coarser than in 
that species. I am far from placing confidence in the locality given 
by Reeve. No one who has written on the Cape Verde fauna has 
found the species. It may prove to be an Indo-Pacific form. The 
specimen before me is figured on pi. 47, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

H. ELEGANS Koch. PI. 13, fig. 70. 

Shell elongated, rather narrow, subtruncate at base, spirally 
densely and deeply sulcate, scale-ridged ferruginous-buff, marbled 
and flamed with red. Inside lightly grooved, brilliantly pearly. 
Spire very short. 

This beautiful and rare mollusk is distinguished as well by its 
long drawn out form as by the shining nacre, which shows furrows 



104 HALIOTIS. 

corresponding to the ribs of the outer surface. The outer surface is 
closely and deeply furrowed by rough, prominent spiral ribs ; these 
are closely scaly, and often between two thicker ones there is a 
weaker lower riblet. A few folds in the direction of growth-striae 
make the surface still rougher, and are also visible on the inside. 
The color is a dirty yellowish-brown, flamed and marbled with red- 
dish-brown, especially in young individuals. (Phil.) 

Length 80, breadth 43, convexity 16 mill, (ex icon.) 

Port Adelaide, and West coast of Australia. 

H. elegans KOCH in PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib. i, p. 119, t. 
1, f. 1, 2, 1844. REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 7, f. 21. SOWEKBY, Thes. 
Conch, v, t. 11, f. 82, t. 14, f. 119. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 
51, t. 20, f. 2-4. 

An elegant species which I have not seen. The form is exception- 
ally slender. There are about 8 holes open. 

Group of H. diver sicolor. 

These are oval shells, quite convex on the back and not so car- 
inated at the row of holes as are the forms grouping around H. 
pustulata, varia, etc. 

H. DIVERSICOLOR Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 80. 

Shell long, oval, the spire very near the margin, surface spirally 
lirate ; colors reddish-brown, scarlet and green in irregular patches 
and streaks ; holes usually 7 to 9. Inside silvery. 

The two sides are equally curved, and the back is quite convex. 
Coloration very variable. Surface spirally lirate, the line unequal, 
rounded, crossed by low folds indicating former positions of the per- 
istome. There is no angle at the row of perforations, and the space 
between perforations and columellar margin has unequal spiral 
cords, not coarser than those of the rest of the disk. Inside silvery, 
with light green and red reflections. Columellar plate rather nar- 
row, flattened, sloping inward, not in the least truncate at base, so 
wide above as to wholly conceal the cavity of the spire. Perfora- 
tions oval, 7 to 10 in number. 

Length 63, width 41, convexity 12 mill. 

Length 86, width 57, convexity 19 mill. 

Australia (Reeve) ; China ; Nagasaki, Japan. 

H. diversicolor REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 39, June, 1846. SOWERBY, 
Thes. Conch, v, p. 27, f. 69. . 



HALIOTIS. 105 

A form variable and rather bright in coloration, distinguished by 
its long oval form, numerous perforations and spiral liration. The 
following seem to be varietal modifications. 

Yar. TAYLORIANA Reeve. PL 15, fig. 83. 

Shell oblong-ovate rather solid, convex, spire nearly terminal ; 
spirally obtusely and irregularly ridged ; seven to nine perforations 
open ; exterior scarlet-brown, clouded near the spire with yellow 
spotted with scarlet-brown. Interior white. (Peeve.') 

Habitat unknown. 

H. tayloriana RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 43. WEIXKAUFF, Conchyl- 
ien Cabinet, p. 57, t. 13, f. 1, 4 ; t. 22, f. 3, 4. 

Yar. GRUNERI Philippi. PL 47, figs. 1, 2 ; pi. 6, fig. 31.- 

Shell elliptical, moderately but equally convex, rufous, almost 
unicolored ; sculptured with 35 to 40 elevated, spiral lira?, alter- 
nately larger and smaller, between spire and perforations, and 
about 9 irregular ones on the columellar slope; open perforations 
7, little produced. 

The form of this species is almost exactly elliptical ; the con- 
vexity even, without the depression so prominent as in H. sanguined, 
speciosa, etc. The segment between the row of holes and the colu- 
mella is also evenly curved. The wave-like folds, parallel to the 
lip-edge are wanting or indistinct. The elevated spiral lira? are very 
regular, alternating broader and narrower, separated by narrow 
deep furrows, and cut by close growth-striae. The spire is very 
small, and stands almost perpendicularly over the margin. The 
color is brown-red, almost concolored, but whitish with beautiful 
red flecks toward the spire. The inner lip lies completely horizontal, 
and is pretty broad. The nacre is white and iridescent. The shell 
is rather thick. (Phil.) 

China. 

H. Gruneri PHIL. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 16; Abbild. u. 
Beschreib. iii, t. ix, f. 1. 

Pliilippi's excellent description is translated above. Specimens 
before me correspond with it. A variegated specimen is figured by 
Lischke. (See pi. 6, fig. 31.) 

H. <;RAYAXA Sowerby. PL 6, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell depressly ovate, effused posteriorly on the right side ; spire 
nearly terminal ; spirally, flatly ribbed, intermediate ridges rather 



106 HALIOTIS. 

excavated, six or seven perforations open ; dark green, marbled with 
red, interior whitish. (Reeve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

H. marmorata Gray in REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 44 (not H. mar- 
morata Linn.). H. Grayana SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, p. 20, f. 87, 
111. 

Probably closely allied to H. diversicolor, but the lip seems to be 
continued a greater distance around the spire. 

H. GLABRA Chemnitz. PI. 9, fig. 50 ; pi. 12, fig. 63. 

Shell oval, depressed, marked with arrow-shaped olive or green 
spots on a lighter ground ; surface nearly smooth, perforations small, 
six to eight in number. 

The shell is oval or elliptical, right and left sides equally curved ; 
depressed, the spire small, lateral, scarcely projecting above the 
general outline of the shell. The ground-color is whitish-green, 
mottled and marked all over with triangular or arrow-shaped spots 
of green or olive. The surface is smooth except for very light 
growth-striae and narrow impressed spiral lines ; there are a few nar- 
row raised strife between the row of holes and the columellar mar- 
gin. Inside silvery, iridescent. Columellar plate flat, wide above, 
gradually becoming narrower toward its base. Cavity of spire 
minute, concealed. Perforations generally 6 or 7, small, their edges 
not raised. Length 47, width 32, convexity 8 mill. 

Philippines; Australia. 

H. glabraCn. Conchyl. Cab. x, p. 311, t. 166, f. 1602, 1603. 
GMELIN in Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3690. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 2, and 
of authors generally. H. ziczac REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 8, f. 24. 

This is one of the smoothest species. Its oval form and the green 
arrow-shaped blotches of the surface well distinguish it. The H. 
ziczac of Reeve (pi. 12, fig. 63) is founded on a specimen having 
slightly more prominent spiral striae. 

H. SUPERTEXTA Lischke. PI. 6, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

Shell ovate, closely, densely lirate, radiately obsoletely plicate, 
olivaceous or grayish-rufous, variegated with blood red, having 
streaks of red and green ; line nearly equal, crossed by lamellae and 
very close erect scales, separated by deeply cut grooves. Spire small ; 
perforations 6-7 open, rounded-ovate ; columellar margin subplane. 



HALIOTIS. 107 

The whole shell is traversed by spiral cords, nearly regular, al- 
most equal in size, and covered with very numerous close lamella?, 
part erect, part scale-like, looking like threads spun over it. The 
lira? are separated by deeply cut furrows, showing growth-lines, and 
in old examples an interstitial thread is developed on the part near- 
est the outer lip. There are besides, in the neighborhood of the 
apex, irregular longitudinal folds, and on the rest of the surface a 
few indistinct ridges indicating periods of growth. The carina has 
in three specimens 6, in one 7 open perforations. The portion be- 
tween the row of holes and the columella slopes obliquely with very 
slight indication of a depression. The younger examples are olive- 
yellow or grayish-reddish, with blood-red flecks, and the earlier 
half of the older ones is the same, but somewhat darker ; the latter 
portion of the surface marked with a few brownish-red and green 
streaks. The columellar plate is bordered outside by a narrow 
brownish-red edge. The inside of the shell is marked by narrow 
spiral and broader longitudinal depressions, corresponding to those 
of the outer surface, the longitudinals being more conspicuous within 
than outside. The nacre is white, with red and green reflections. 
(Lischke.} 

Length 61, width 42 mill. 

Nagasaki, Japan. 

H. supertexta LISCHKE, Japanische Meeres-Conchylien 2ter Theil, 
p. 92, t. 6, f. 13, 14, 15 ; Mai. Bl. xvii, p. 24 (July, 1870). WEIX- 
KAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 42, t. 16, f. 7, 8. 

Distinguished by the sculpture of close, elevated lamellae of growth 
over spiral lira?. The form belongs to the circle of diversicolor 
Tayloriana, Japonica and Gruneri a group, the Japanese species 
of which need thorough revision by someone having more material 
than any of the authors who have yet written on Haliotis, the 
variations of sculpture being peculiarly perplexing. 

H. VIRGINEA Chemnitz. PI. 47, figs. 9, 10 ; pi. 17, figs. 94, 95, 96 ; 

pi. 18, figs. 3, 4 ; pi. 6, fig. 34. 

Shell oblong-oval, very convex; spire almost terminal; spirally 
lirate, having a few radiating wrinkles, sometimes obsolete ; perfora- 
tions small, oval or rounded, about 7 in number. 

The outline is oval, right and left sides equally curved, widest at 
about the middle ; back very convex, not carinated at the row of 
holes, but having a very shallow excavation just below it. Color 



108 HALIOTIS. 

dark brown marked with more or less perfect V-shaped green streaks, 
green sometimes predominating. Surface spirally lirate, lirse some- 
times unequal, about 44 in number between spire and perforations ; 
they are rendered somewhat beaded by growth-stria? ; there are some 
small folds radiating from the spire over the middle part of the 
back, but these are obsolete on some examples. The spire is almost 
terminal, very small ; whorls 2*. Inside spirally striate, somewhat 
corrugated obliquely, very brilliantly iridescent, the prevailing 
colors green and red. Columellar plate flattened or a little concave, 
decidedly sloping inward, subtruncate at base, concealing the cavity 
of spire above. Perforations 6 or 7, separated by spaces exceeding 
the length of the holes. 

Length 54, width 35, convexity 13 mill. 

New Zealand; Australia. 

H. virginea CHEMNITZ, Syst. Conchyl. Cab. x, p. 314, t. 166, f. 
1607, 1608. GMELIN, Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3690. SOWERBY, Thes. 
Conch, v, p. 20. DUNKER, Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer., t. 5, f. 6, 7, 8 
(not of REEVE). H. gibba Phil, REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 42. 
SMITH, Voy. Erebus & Terror, Zool., Moll. p. 4, 1. 1, f. 16. HUTTON, 
Manual K Z. Moll., p. 104, 1880 (not H. gibba Phil.). IT. sub- 
mrginea WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 33, t. 13, f. 7, 8; t. 17, f. 
1,2. 

A small species having a dull brown-and-green exterior, spirally 
lirate and with a cluster of wrinkles (well shown in fig. 9 of pi. 47). 
Inside it is exceptionally iridescent with metallic green and red re- 
flections. The outside sometimes has distinct V-shaped green stripes, 
dotted with white ; and in these examples the area between the row 
of holes and the columella has a number of vertical white bars 
across it. I have no doubt that this is the true virginea of Chemnitz, 
although there has been a great deal of confusion in the monographs. 
I cannot agree with those writers who identify the form with H. 
gibba Phil. ; for the description of that species indicates a different 
specific type. 

H. Huttoni Filhol (Comptes Rendus xci, p. 1094) is probably a 
variety of this. I have not seen the description. 

H. GIBBA Philippi. PI. 47, figs. 3, 4. 

In its great convexity, dark brown color and small lateral spire 
this species is very distinct. I count about 20 elevated transverse 
lines as far as the row of perforations, between them still smaller 



HALIOTIS. 

ones are placed ; oblique waves (similar to those of H. iris and 
australu) cut these, so that it appears somewhat granose. The 
space below the row of perforations also has longitudinal lines, and 
besides these a broad but shallow channel, such as occurs in so many 
species. The perforations are circular, their diameters about half 
the width of the interspaces. Five of them are open. The nacre 
is whitish. Length 24*, width 18], alt. 9 lines. 

Australia f 

H. gibba PHIL. Abbild. u. Beschreib. ii, Haliotis, t. 4, f. 2a, b 
(Feb. 1846); not of Reeve and others. 

The above paragraph is a translation of Philippi's description, 
and the figures are drawn from his. No one has identified this 
form since its original publication, so far as I know. It is separated 
from H. virginea Chem. (subvirginea Weinkauff, gibba Reeve) by 
its greater convexity, greater width, fewer, more separated, round 
perforations, and the less numerous spiral riblets. 

H. CRISPATA Gould. PI. 16, figs. 87, 88. 

Shell small, very thin and delicate, of an elongated oval, and more 
than usually convex form, the surface marked with fine, regular, 
equal, revolving threads, and with very delicate, branching, oblique, 
zigzag ripples, which are almost equally conspicuous in the interior. 
The spire is prominent, of a little less than three whorls, the apex 
nearly on the median line. The perforations are small, rounded, 
slightly tubular, numerous and crowded, six or seven of them open ; 
and external to the series is a deep canal. The color is bright 
brick-red or red-lead color, having between the canal and the mar- 
gin a few narrow and distant yellowish-white stripes. The interior 
is brilliant, silvery, and somewhat iridescent. (Gould.) 

Length an inch and three-eighths ; breadth seven-eighths of an 
inch. 

Australia f 

H. crispata GLD. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 251, Dec., 1847; 
U. S. Expl. Exped. Shells, p. 208, f. 248, 248a, 

About the size and form of H. stomaticejormis Rve., but distin- 
guished from all others by its crowded angular ripples, arranged 
somewhat like the colors on H. ziczac. No shell approached it in 
this respect except the very young of H. Australis. (Old.) 



110 HALIOTIS. 

Group of H. iris. 

A beautiful shell, well-named iris, is the type of this group. It 
is peculiar in having the lips continuous and united across the 
spire end. 

H. IRIS Martyn. PL 13, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell oval, the two sides equally curved ; convex ; spire oblique, 
short, whorls 2 ; surface pitted ; lip continuous, produced beyond 
the body-whorl ; inside dark metallic blue and green, with yellow 
reflections ; muscle impression distinct, roughened. 

The back is convex, angled at the row of perforations ; outside 
pale brown or light olive-green, pitted as if by the intersection of 
two series of low oblique folds. The spire is very short, with fewer 
whorls than usual. Inside it is brilliantly pearly, prussian blue and 
green predominating, but with reflections also of purple, orange 
and a little red. The columellar plate is broad, passing into the 
expanded continuation of the outer lip above, not truncate below ; 
its face is flattened, and slopes inward; cavity of spire small. 
Perforations 5 to 7 open. Length 95, width 70, convexity 25 mill. 
Chatham Is., Auckland Is.; Auckland to Dunedin, New Zealand. 

H. iris MARTYN, Univ. Conch, ii, t. 61. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 37. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, p. 20, t. iii, f. 24, 25. WEIN- 
KAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 11, t. 4, f. 1, 2. BUTTON, Manual of 
Moll. N. Z., p. 104, 1880. 

A beautiful species, quite distinct from all other forms. Wein- 
kauff gives Viti Islands as a locality, and Reeve says Kangaroo 
Island, Australia. It is known however to be an abundant New 
Zealand species, and other localities require confirmation. 

Group of H. rugosoplicata. 

H. RUGOSOPLICATA Chemnitz. PI. 20, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell oval, quite convex, distance of apex from margin one-eighth 
to one-ninth the length of shell ; sculpture consisting of faint spirals 
and a close strong radiating corrugation ; perforations circular, their 
edges elevated, 6 to 8 in number. 

Outlines oval, the right margin a little straighter; back convex, 
not carinated at the row of holes ; thin, light yellowish-brown, red 
on the spire, or light green flamed with red. The surface has almost 
obsolete spiral cords, and regular, close, radiating folds ; between the 
row of holes and the columellar margin there are no radiating folds, 



HALIOTIS. Ill 

but several (generally three) strong spiral ribs. Spire a little ele- 
vated, whorls 3. Inside corrugated like the exterior, silvery with 
blue, green and red reflections, the latter predominating. Columel- 
lar plate narrow. 

Length 94, width 71, convexity about 30 mill. 

Length 82, width 56, convexity 22 mill. 
Omaha to Dunedin, N. Zealand; Chatham and Auckland Is.; S. 

A ustralia. 

H. rugoso-plicata CHEM. Conchyl. Cab. x, p. 311, t. 166, f. 1604, 
1604. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 7. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, p. 
21, f. 9, 10, 53. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 15, t. 6, f. 5, 6. 
H. australis GMEL., Syst. Xat., p. 3689. H. ruber LEACH, Zool. 
Misc. i, p. 54, t. 23, teste DILLWYX. H. costata SWAINSON Appen- 
dix Bligh Cat., p. 3. 

The corrugated exterior is quite constant and characteristic. 
Young specimens are more strongly ribbed spirally, and often have 
radiating stripes of red on a delicate green ground. 

Group of H. maria\ 

H. MARINE Gray. PI. 19, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell large, oval, convex, distance of spire from margin (in the 
specimen before me) about one-fifteenth the length of shell ; sculpt- 
ure consisting of very strong squarish spiral ribs, separated by wide 
excavated interstices ; perforations 5 or 6 open. 

The right margin is quite convex, especially in the part of the lip 
adjacent to the spire ; the back is convex ; it is not carinated at the 
row of holes, but there is a shallow sulcus just below it. The color 
is a reddish-brown, with irregular zigzagly radiating white flames. 
The surface has very prominent unequal spiral ridges, often double, 
or divided by a groove in the middle ; the number is variable, the 
specimen before me having thirteen. The spire is near the margin, 
not elevated, and something like that of H. iris in being few-whorled. 
Inside silvery, with red, blue and green reflections, the nacre sulcated 
spirally. Columellar ledge flattened, becoming gradually narrower 
below, not at all truncated ; cavity of spire almost concealed by the 
overhanging columellar plate, very small, scarcely spiral. Perfora- 
tions 5 or 6, subcircular, their edges moderately prominent. 

Length 109, width 84, convexity 21 mill. 

Australia, 



112 HALIOTIS. 

H. marice GRAY in Wood's Index Testaceologicus, suppl., t. 8, . 
6. REEVE Conch. Icon., f. 11. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, p. 19, 
t. 6, f. 40, 41. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 53, t. 21, f. l.H. 
dentata JONAS mss., teste Reeve. 

This seems to be an exceedingly variable form. Sowerby figures 
a very different variety (see pi. 19, fig. 11), and says of it: " the 
flatness of the early growth is very remarkable, and so is the transi- 
tion of character to be seen in the after-growth." It is probable 
that this form is the dentata of Jonas. A variety resembling this 
last form is figured by Weinkauff. 

H. SQUAMOSA Gray. PI. 20, fig. 14. 

Shell oblong-ovate, transversely obliquely wrinkled, spirally 
tubularly ribbed, tubercles scale-like, ribs sometimes close, sometimes 
with a fine ridge running between them ; perforations rather large, 
seven open ; exterior spotted and variegated with yellow and orange- 
brown, interior whitish, iridescent. 

An extremely interesting species, well characterized by its close 
ribs of scale-like tubercles, ranging across the shell in oblique waves ; 
in the middle portion of the shell there is a fine ridge running 
between the ribs ; the color is also peculiar, a kind of burnt-umber- 
stained orange. (Reeve.} 

Australia. 

H. squamosa GRAY, Appendix to King's Survey of the Inter- 
tropical and Western Coasts of Australia ii, p. 494, 1827. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., t. 7, f. 20. H. quamosa Gray (typog. err.),WEiNKAUFF 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 22, t. 3, f. 2. H. bistriata var. /?, GMELIN. ? H. 
Roedinyi Chemn., MENKE, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1844, p. 97. 

Group of H. midce. 

Characteristic of the South African zoological province. Spiral 
sculpture is scarcely visible on these shells, but radiating folds or 
lamellae are prominently developed. Young shells have a blood-red 
spot within the cavity of the spire. 

H. MIDJS Linne. PL 8, figs. 43, 44. 

Shell large, rounded-oval, moderately convex ; distance of apex 
from margin about equaling one-fifth the greatest length of shell ; 
body-whorl strongly angled at the position of the perforations, per- 
pendicularly descending from the angle to the columellar margin, 



HALIOTIS. ] 13 

surface having strong, elevated, radiating wrinkles or lamella?, but 
no spiral markings when adult; perforations 6 to 11, small, subcir- 
cular, separated by spaces greater than their own diameter. 

The two sides are about equally curved ; the convexity varies 
with age. Color yellowish-gray, the folds usually stained with coral- 
red. Surface dull, with fine oblique growth-wrinkles and coarse, 
prominent, less oblique elevated and wavy radiating lamellae. Spire 
low, composed of about 3 whorls, the last angulated at the row of 
perforations. Inside pearly, many-colored, red predominating in 
young specimens; muscle-scar large, rounded, very rough, especially 
in old shells, which often have coppery stains inside ; columellar 
plate rather broad (one-seventh to one-tenth the width of shell), 
sloping inward, its face a little concave ; not at all truncated at base. 
Cavity of spire large, showing about 1J whorls from below. 

Length 138, width 111 mill.; convexity 42 mill. 

Length 128, width 102 mill. ; convexity 27 mill. 

Length 170, width 140 mill.; convexity 45 mill. pd^Y 

Cape region of South Arrt&fim. 

H. midce LINN. Syst. Nat. x, p. 779. HANLEY, Shells of Linn- 
seus, p. 409. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 16. SOWB. Thes. Conch, v, 
p. 31, f. 31. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 7, t. 2, f. 9, t. 3, f. 3. 

Belongs to the group of sanguinea and capensis. It is much lar- 
ger than the former, with less excentric apex, stronger sculpture and 
more rounded outline ; from capensis the different sculpture will sep- 
arate it. 

Var. ELATIOR. PL 21, figs. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. 

Shell very deep and bowl-like, the spire more elevated than in 
typical H. midce. Sculpture of outer surface unknown. Inside 
light, clouded with red, green and purplish, and having a few 
olive-brown stains. Muscle-scar large, very rough, extending upon 
the spiral columella. Peristome produced beyond the body-whorl, 
free, continuous ; the columellar margin wide, sloping strongly in- 
ward. 

Length 130, width 112, convexity 53 mill. 

Length 125, width 110, convexity 56 mill. 

I had at first considered these shells a new species, but further 
study convinced me, after figuring them, that they are merely a 
small form of H. midce. The specimens are very old and so much 



114 HALIOTIS. 

altered outside by the ravages of a boring sponge that the surface- 
sculpture cannot be made out. 

H. CAPENSIS Dunker. PI. 50, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell when adult very large, thick and heavy, oval, depressed, 
convex, strongly angled, the left margin very high and perpendicu- 
larly descending ; back reddish-brown, lighter at the margins, more 
of a yellowish-red, with whitish streaks showing the places of former 
peristomes. Sculpture peculiar and irregular ; in the young with 
longitudinal lamellae which branch or bifurcate ; later transverse, 
becoming thick ribs, cut by the lines of growth, curled and having 
the appearance of locks of hair, and having the peculiarity of 
changing their direction with each segment of growth, beginning 
as longitudinal lamellae running parallel with the lines of growth, 
becoming more and more oblique, until next to the lip-edge they 
stand at right angles to the growth-lines. The striae being undulat- 
ing, and the ribs equally so, they assume the appearance of locks. 
Spire rather high, margined, convex, the part next to the whorl 
above impressed except on the last whorl where it remains level. 
The number of holes is uncertain ; they are on nodes ; 7 to 9 
remain open. Inside umbilicated. Impression not distinctly 
bounded, marked by little pearly prominences arranged somewhat 
in spiral rows ; the nacre is a mingling of silvery- white, rose red 
and green'hues. Columellar margin arcuate, broad, flat, somewhat 
concave. Length 145, width 114, convexity 40 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. midce in part, of authors. H. capensis DUNKER, in PHILIPPI, 
Abbild. u. Beschreib. etc., Haliotis, t. 1, f. 4. WEINKAUFF in 
Conchylien Cabinet, p. 23, t. 9, f. 1 ; t. 10, f. 1, 2. 

Agrees with H. midce in size and general form, but differs in 
sculpture. I have not seen this form. The above description is 
taken from that of Weinkauff. The young are similar to H. midce 
in sculpture. 

H. SANGUINEA Han ley. PI. 18, fig. 6. 

Shell oblong-ovate, narrowed toward the anterior end', depressed, 
the distance of apex from margin contained 7 or 8 times in the 
length of shell; spiral striae, when visible, very indistinct but with 
radiating, coarse, oblique folds ; perforations 7 to 9. 

The left margin is regularly arcuate, the right one straightened, 
a little concave along the middle part of the outer lip ; it is solid but 



HALIOTIS. 115 

rather thin, dark reddish-brown, variegated with blotches of snowy- 
white, especially in the young ; the spire often of a peculiar bronze- 
red. Surface with a few impressed spiral stria?, often scarcely visi- 
ble, and low, very irregular undulations or radiating folds, these, 
too, often subobsolete ; it is not strongly carinated at the position of 
the row of perforations, in adults, and there are several rather strong 
cords revolving parallel with the holes, between them and the colu- 
mellar margin. Spire low, composed of about 3 whorls. Inside 
brilliantly pearly ; columellar plate narrow, its edge rounded, con- 
vex, sloping outward, obliquely truncated below. Cavity of spire 
visible from below, rather deep, usually of a beautiful red-bronze 
color inside. 

Length 66, width 40, convexity 18 mill. 

Length 71, width 46, convexity 22 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. sanguinea HAXLEY. Young Conchologists' Book of Species, p. 
60, frontispiece f. 5 (1841). REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 17. SOWB. 
Thes. Conch, v, p. 93, 94. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., t. 16, 
f. 3, 4. H.ficiformis MENKE, Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1845, p. 97. PHIL. 
Abbild., ii, p. 70, t. 4, f. 3. H. spadicea KRAUSS, mss. 

The more prominent characters are the peculiar form, narrowed 
at the anterior end, the reddish or chocolate surface, smooth except 
for radiating folds, and the coppery- red stain within the cavity 
of the spire. This last feature is sometimes absent. The perfora- 
tions are numerous, close together and almost perfectly circular. 
The columellar shelf or plate slopes outward, is rather narrow and 
convex on its face. The shell when placed upon a plane surface, 
rests upon its two extremities, both lips being arched. The apex is 
nearer to the margin than in either H. midce or H. capensis, the two 
Cape species with which this one agrees in lacking spiral striation. 

H. MULTIPERFORATA Reeve. PL 6, fig. 36. 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather flexuous, spiral portion of the whorls 
somewhat elevated ; spirally linearly grooved, grooves a little 
waved, irregular ; holes rather small, numerous, ten open ; exterior 
dark brown, varigated with green, interior whitish. 

This darkly variegated species, the surface of which is smooth, en- 
graved with fine waved spiral lines, has somewhat the form of the H. 
sanguinea ; the spiral portion of the shell being more than usually 
raised. The holes are numerous and close-set. (Reeve.} 

Habitat unknown. 

H. multiperforata RVE. Conch. Icon., t. 9, f. 15, 1846. 



116 HALIOTIS. 

Group of H. ncevosa. 

These shells are flat, rounded, the spire more than usually central. 
They form a transition to the section Padollus. 

H. CUNNINGHAMI Gray. PL 7, fig. 38. 

Shell very large, rounded-oval, flattened and disc-shaped ; dis- 
tance of 'apex from margin something more than one-fourth the length 
of shell. 

The outline is more orbicular than in H. ncevosa, and flatter. 
The right side is less curved than the left. The perforations stand 
upon a carina. It is a solid shell. The specimen before me is dull 
red, with obliquely radiating revolving flames of whitish-yellow on 
the earlier part of the body-whorl. (Reeve describes it as " reddish- 
brown, variegated with green and darker brown." Philippi says 
the coloration is a marbling of large spots of pale green, whitish, 
brownish-red and dark reddish-brown, the brownish-red predominat- 
ing.) On the earlier portion the surface is finely spirally striated, but 
this sculpture becomes obsolete upon the greater portion of the body- 
whorl, giving place to coarse wrinkles of growth. There are also low 
radiating waves or folds in places. The spire is not much elevated. 
Inside it is light, very iridescent, red and silvery predominating. 
Columellar ledge or plate flat, broad, obliquely truncated below, of 
about equal width all around. Cavity of spire large, very broad, 
shallow. Number of open perforations very variable ; usually 7 in 
young shells, about 5 or 6 in adults, very old individuals having 4. 

Length 190, width 155, convexity 35 mill. 

Australia. 

H. cunninghami GRAY, in appendix to King's Voyage ii, p. 494. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 3. SOWERBY Thes. Conch, v, p. 30, f. 
36. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 25, 1. 10, 11. H. ncevosa DESK. 
in LAM., An. s. Vert, ix, p. 34, excl. syn. PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. 
Beschreib. i, t. 2, 3 (not ncevosa Martyn). H. gigantea MKE., Spec. 
Moll. Nov. HolL, p. 31 (not of Chemnitz). 

A magnificent species, very large and flat, the apex more central 
than in the allied H. ncevosa, and the cavity of the spire consequently 
wider. The disc is covered with fine spiral striae, but in old in- 
dividuals these become obscure. 

H. NCEVOSA Martyn. PI. 11, figs. 56, 60 ; pi. 5, fig. 26. 

Shell large, rounded-oval, much depressed, the distance of apex 
from margin one-fifth the length of shell ; sculptured with fine spiral 



HALIOTIS. 117 

cords cut by close minute striae of increment, and having radiating 
waves or folds above ; a slight angle at the row of perforations, be- 
low it broadly excavated and then carinated ; perforations about 6, 
elevated, circular. 

The outline is suborbicular, much depressed ; solid but not thick ; 
surface either dark red with few radiating angular white patches, or 
dull red and green, streaked and mottled. The spiral cords of the 
outer surface are either nearly equal, or have slightly larger ones at 
wide intervals ; they are decussated by close growth-striie. Whorls 
a trifle over 3. Inside corrugated like the outer surface, silvery, 
very brilliantly iridescent, the reflections chiefly sea-green and red. 
Columellar plate broad, flat, obliquely truncated at base. Cavity of 
spire wide, open, but shallow. 

Length 120, width 90, convexity 28 mill. 

Australia. 

H. ncevosa MARTYN, Univ. Conch., t. 63. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
27 a, b, c. SOWERBY Thes. Conch, v, t. 10, f. 73. WEIXKAUFF, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 34, t. 14, f. 1, 2, 3.H. clathrata REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 72. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, t. 6, f. 39. 

This is a variable form, in color varying from dark coral red to 
dull red streaked with pale green. The young have been re-named 
H. clathrata by Reeve (see pi. 5, fig. 26). 

Reeve gives the localities Tasmania, New Zealand and Bohol, 
Philippines, in addition to Australia. The Philippine Island local- 
ty is for clathrata. 

H. ROEI Gray. PL 18, fig. 1 ; pi. 48, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell short-oval, distance of apex from nearest margin somewhat 
over one-fifth the greatest length of shell; sculpture consisting of 
strong unequal spiral cords crossed by radiating folds. Perfora- 
tions 7 to 9, nearly circular, rather small. 

The right side is straighter than the rounded left margin, and the 
back depressed ; color scarlet-red, more or less marbled with olive- 
green, painted with broad white rays. The spiral riblets are num- 
erous, unequal, separated by deeply cut grooves, their summits cut by 
fine radiating strice ; they are further rendered uneven by more or less 
developed folds radiating from the suture. The spire is rather 
elevated. Inside silvery, very iridescent, with pink, green and steel- 



118 HALIOTIS. 

blue reflections. Columellar plate narrow, obliquely truncated at 
its base. Perforations a little raised, numerous. 

Length 75, width 58, convexity 23 mill. 

West Coast of Australia. 

H. Eoei GRAY, King's Voy., vol. ii, appendix, p. 493. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., t. 4, f. 10. SOWB., Thes. Conch, v, f. 77, 78. WEIX- 
KAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 37, t. 15, f. 4-6. H. scabricosta, MENKE, 
Moll. Nov. Holl. Spec., p. 31. PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib. i, p. 
120, t. 1, f. 6. H. Haryravesi Cox, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1869, p. 
49, t. 26, f. 4. 

The orbicular form, and knotted spiral cords separated by deep 
grooves are characteristic. The columella is rather narrower than 
usual. 

The specimen before me is half-grown, like the figures on pi. 48, 
representing the H. scabricosta. H. Hargravesi is a still younger 
shell. 

H. SULCOSA Philippi. PI. 48, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Shell suborbicular, rather depressed, reddish ; having about 30 
squamose ribs above ; spire moderately large, a little prominent ; 
perforations very small. Inside white, pearly, scarcely sulcated. 

The thirty riblets between the suture and the holes, as well as the 
six riblets between holes and columellar margin are made almost 
scaly by close elevated growth-lines. They are much more num- 
erous and less raised than in H. scabricosta. The color of the back 
is reddish-brown, tending toward gray. The inside is not furrowed 
as in other species, and has a silvery-white nacre with a few brown 
spots. The holes are much smaller^ than in H. scabricosta, and it is 
more convex. (Phil.') 

Australia. 

H. sulcosa PHIL. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1845, p. 150; Abbild. u. Bes- 
chreib. ii, p. 157, t. 6, f. 2a, b, c. 

H. COCCORADIATA Reeve. PL 4, figs. 16, 20. 

Shell oval, depressed, distance of apex from margin about one- 
sixth the length of shell ; spirally striate, decussated by closer, finer 
growth-striae ; perforations 6 ; color yellowish or olive, with irregular 
radiating stripes of vivid scarlet. 

The shell is rather small, right margin decidedly less convex than 
the left ; upper surface depressed, flattened, and having a spiral de- 
pression around the middle of the body-whorl ; rather thin ; radiately 



HALIOTIS. 119 

striped with scarlet, and in the specimen before me the closed per- 
forations are scarlet ; spire pink. Surface having numerous unequal 
spiral threads, decussated by distinct, close growth-stria?, as in H. 
rosacea; there are also inconspicuous short folds radiating from 
the suture on the earlier portion of the body-whorl, and just outside 
of the median spiral depression on the body. Inside bright silvery, 
with green and red reflections, the nacre having spiral folds. Col- 
umellar plate flat but rather narrow, obliquely subtruncate at base. 
Cavity of spire visible. Peforations 6, nearly circular, separated by 
spaces about as wide as the holes. 

Length 42, width 29, convexity 8 mill. 

Australia. 

H. cocco-radiata REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 46 (1846). WEIN- 
KAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., t. 23, f. 3, 4. 

The decussated sculpture, scarlet markings, etc., are characteristic. 
The cavity of the spire is wholly visible, not concealed as it is in H. 
rosacea ; and the columellar plate is rather narrow. The figure of 
the interior of this species (fig. 16) has been united with the exterior 
view of H. cruenta by the artist. The smaller size separates the 
species from H. ncevosa, which is closely allied. 

H. LAUTA Reeve. PI. 3, fig. 8. 

Shell ovate, anteriorly attenuated, undately swollen, spirally 
ridged, ridges very fine, close-set, decussated with minute striae, per- 
forations rather large, five open. Irregularly marbled with red and 
yellowish-white. (JReeve.~) 

Swan River, Australia. 

H. laida Reeve, Conch. Icon., t. 17, f. 68, 1846. 

Group of H. excavata. 

H, excavata stands in that neutral borderland which forms a sort 
of Alsace and Loraine between Haliotis proper and Padollus. 
Like the group of H. ncevosa, which also occupies this debatable ter- 
ritory, the H. excavata has been from time to time annexed to one 
or the other group, according to the fancy of systematists mapping 
these regions. 

H. EXCAVATA Lamarck. PI. 9, fig. 51 ; pi. 49, fig. 23. 

Shell nearly circular in outline, elevated, somewhat turbinate, the 
distance of apex from margin between one-third and one-fourth the 
greater diameter of the shell. Body-whorl rounded, convex above; 



120 HALIOTIS. 

surface covered with spiral cords and threads, and having numerous 
folds radiating from the suture. Perforations 5, oval, not raised. 

The shell is nearly circular, very convex, the spire decidedly ele- 
vated, formed of about three rounded whorls ; the last whorl has a 
blunt keel at the row of holes, and a narrower, more acute carina a 
short distance below it, the space between being a little concave. 
The entire surface has close spiral cords and threads which are 
sometimes somewhat granose, and there are numerous folds radiat- 
ing from the suture, but not long enough to reach the periphery. 

The coloration consists of broad radiating patches or oblique 
stripes of chestnut-brown, green and flesh-color or whitish. Inside 
it is silvery with red and green reflections ; muscle-impression not 
distinct. Columellar plate flat, not truncate below, strongly slop- 
ing inward. Perforations generally 5, oval, their edges only a trifle 
raised. Length 68, width 56, convexity 26 mill. 

Australia. 

H. excavata LAMAECK, An. s. Vert, vi, p. 215. REEVE Conch. 
Icon., f. 25. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, v, t. 3, f. 21 , 26. WEINKAUFF, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 39, t. 16, f. 1, 2. 

The elevated spiral tendency is stronger in this species than in 
other Haliotis. It is possibly more nearly allied to the little H. 
pulcherrima than to other species. 

Section PADOI^LUS Montfort, 1810. 

Scarcely separable from the ncevosa group of Haliotis being con- 
nected by numerous intermediate species. It is convenient, how- 
ever, to recognize the small rounded species by this term. Australia 
is the center of distribution ; but a species is found on the South 
African coast, one off the Galapagos (singularly close in characters 
to the S. African), and H. ovina is reported from as far north as 
China. 

They fall into four groups ; see synopsis antea, page 78. 

Group of H. parva. 

Spirally striated ; no radiating lamelhe between the spire and the 
inner spiral rib, ..... parva ; pourtalesii. 

Spirally striated ; having raised lamellae between spire and the 
inner spiral rib, ..... emmce; tricostulis. 

H. PARVA Linne. PL 14, fig. 74. 

Shell rather small, oval, depressed, having a strong rounded rib 
on the upper surface parallel with the row of holes; the surface all 



HALIOTIS. 121 

over covered with fine closer spiral threads and much finer radiating 
>tria? ; perforations 6. 

The form varies from elliptical to rounded-oval ; the spiral rib of 
the upper surface is also variable in prominence. There are no 
radiating lamella? between the spire and the rib, and as usual there 
is a shallow channel outside of the row of holes. The color is 
between scarlet and brick-red, with irregular, often radiating white 
patches. The spire is raised and rather prominent. Inside silvery, 
with red and green reflections; having a furrow corresponding to 
the rib of the outside. Columellar shelf narrow, flattened. Holes 
subcircular, 6 open. 

Length 47, width 34, convexity 10 mill. 

Length 40, width 29, convexity 9 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H.parva LINX. Syst. Xat. x, p. 780. HANLEY, Ipsa Linn. Conch., 
p. 413. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 53a, b. KRAUSS, Die Siidaf Moll., 
p. 94. WEIXKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 8, t, 2, f. 11. Sulculus 
parvu* ADS. Haliotis canalicitlata LAM. Anim. s. Vert, vi, p. 217. 
And of DESHAYES and BLAINVILLE. Padollus canaliculate 
CHEXU, Manuel, f. 2748, 2749. H. vulgaris BLAINVILLE, Mai. pi. 
de princ. no. 2, f. 6. H. carinata SWAINS, in Bligh Catal., appendix, 
p. 2. 

Distinguished by the fine even spiral striation, the strong central 
rib, and the entire lack of radiating folds or lamelke. 

H. POURTALESII Dall. PL 22, figs. 27, 28. 

Shell small, of a pale brick-red color, with white dots on some of 
the spirals, rather elevated, with about two and a half whorls ; 
apex small, prominent ; holes about twenty-five, of which "five remain 
open, the margins of these rather prominent ; outside the row of 
holes the usual sulcus is strong-ly marked ; about midway from the 
suture to the lines of holes is a raised rib, rather obscure, but 
differing in different individuals and corresponding to an internal 
sulcus ; between the central ridges and the suture there are no 
undulations or transverse ridges of consequence ; sculpture of well 
marked, rather flattish, spiral, close-set threads, sometimes with a 
single finer intercalary thread, overlaid by smaller rather com- 
pressed transverse ridges, in harmony with the incremental lines ; 
on top of the spirals the ridges bulge like the threads of worsted on 
canvas embroidery ; spire situated well forward and with subvertical 



122 HALIOTIS. 

sides ; interior pearly, the coil of the spire rather close and the 
margin of the pillar flattened. 

Longitude of shell, 23 ; latitude, 18 ; altitude, 11'5 ; nucleus behind 
the anterior end, 17 mill. (Dall.) 

The nearest relative of this shell is If. parva, from the Cape of 
Good Hope, which differs from our specimens chiefly in the greater 
prominence of the central rib, and in being a little more circular in 
outline. 

The shell from the Galapagos agrees so exactly with what we 
know of H. Pourtalesii and with my own recollection of the type 
specimen destroyed in the Chicago fire, that I am unwilling to 
separate it, though the distance between the two localities is so 
great. (Dall) 

Near Charles Island, of the Galapagos group, in the Pacific. (In 
33 fms., sand.) 

H. Pourtalesii DALL, Rep. on Albatross Moll., in Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. xii, p. 355, t. 12, f. 1, 3, 1889. / H. pourtalesii DALL. 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, p. 79, 1881 ; xviii, p. 395, 1889. 

A species of Haliotis believed by Dr. Dall to be the same as the 
one above described was dredged near the Florida Reefs, in 200 fms., 
from the bed of the Gulf Stream by PourtalSs, March 31st, 1869. 
The specimen contained the animal. It was destroyed in the great 
fire of 1871 in Chicago, together with the entire collections of 
Pourtales and Stimpson. . No specimens of Haliotis have been 
found since in the West Atlantic or Gulf. 

H. EMM.E Gray. PL 14, fig. 75 ; pi. 49, figs. 27, 28, 29. 

Shell rounded, ovate-depressed, having a low convexity (scarcely 
a rib) on the upper surface parallel with the row of holes, and 
numerous lamellse radiating from the spire ; sculptured throughout 
with fine spiral cords ; open holes 6. 

The form is short oval, right margin straighter than the left. 
The upper surface has a low wide spiral rib with oblique undula- 
tions or folds upon it which take the direction of tangents from 
the spire ; and between this and the spire there are numerous radiat- 
ing raised lamellae like pinched-up folds taking the direction of 
growth-stride. The entire surface has acute growth-stride, appearing 
as little scales on the fine rounded spiral cords. There is a channel 
outside of the row of holes. The color is a beautiful orange-red, 
with wide rays of lighter ; outside of the row of holes there are 



HALIOTIS. 1 23 

numerous descending stripes alternately darker and lighter. In- 
side silvery, sculptured to correspond with the spiral and radiating 
ribs of the outside, iridescent. Columellar shelf narrow, flat. Per- 
forations low-tubular, about 6 open. 

Length 47, width 34, convexity 10 mill. 

Length 90, width 70 mill. (Reeve's figure.) 

Australia. 

H. emmce GRAY in REEVE, Conchol. Icon., 1. 10, f. 29. SOWERBY, 
Thes. Conch, v, t. 2, f. 16. WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 56, t. 
22, f. 1, 2. 

The specimen described above and figured on pi. 49, figs. 27-29, 
is much smaller than that figured by Reeve. The species is inter- 
mediate between H. parva and H. tricostalis, having the general 
appearance and color of the first, but agreeing with the last-named 
in having radiating lameike or folds. 

H. TRICOSTALIS Lamarck. PI. 16, figs. 84, 85. 

Shell rounded-oval, depressed, having a strong spiral rib on each 
side of the row of perforations, and prominent elevated radiating 
lamellae around the spire ; 5 to 6 open perforations. 

The shell is moderately large but thin, of the depressed, irregularly 
oval shape common to all Padollus. Color " reddish or variegated 
olive and green." Surface having a strong rounded ridge inside of 
the row of elevated tubular holes, and a smaller, nodose ridge outside 
of it ; above finely striated spirally, and with coarse raised lamellae 
between the spire and the inner spiral rib. Inside it is silvery and 
very iridescent, with excavations corresponding to the elevations of 
the outer surface. The columellar plate is narrow, obliquely trun- 
cated below. Perforations tubular, 5 or 6 open. 

Length 74, width 53 mill. 

Australia; Java. 

H. tricostalis LAMARCK, Anim. s. Vert, vi, p. 218. DESH. in 
Lam., ed. 2, ix, p. 30. WEINKAUFF, Conchy lien Cabinet, p. 13, t. 
5, f. 3, 4. Padollus rubicundus MONTFORT, Conch. Syst., p. 114, 
115 (very doubtful!). H. rubicundus Lam., REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 5. H. canaliculata SCHUBERT & WANNER, Fortsetz. des Conch. 
Cab. xii, p. 177, t. 224, f. 3088, 3089. Padollus tricostalis H. & A. 
AD., Genera, p. 443, t. 15, f. 7. CHENU, Manuel i, f. 2746, 2747. 

Easily known by its three spiral ribs and the radiating lamellae 
above. 



1-4 HALIOTIS. 

Group of H. pulcherrima. 

H. PULCHERRIMA Martyii. PL 13, fig. 69. 

Shell small rounded-oval, flattened ; distance of apex from margin 
about one-fourth the length of shell ; surface finely corrugated by 
radiating deep folds. Perforations generally 8, small, round, tubular ; 
the row bordered on each side by a shallow channel. 

This little shell is straighter on the right than on the left margin. 
The color is whitish or flesh-colored with broad oblique red rays. 
The surface is finely corrugated, the folds strong, close and numer- 
ous, not extending quite to the row of holes ; their summits are 
crenulated by inconspicuous spiral strise. Outside of the row of 
holes the surface slopes flatly to the strong angle or carina at the 
columellar margin ; and the descending folds on this portion are 
cut into granules by spiral striae. The spire is somewhat elevated. 
Inside it is silvery. The columellar shelf is flat, rather wide. 

Length 27, width 21, convexity 7 mill. 

Length 26, width 20, convexity 9 mill, 

Pawnotus ; Lord Hoods Island ; and S. Australia. 

H. pulcherrima MARTYN, Univ. Conch., t. 62. CHEMNITZ, Con- 
chyl. Cab. x, p. 313, f. 1605, 1606. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 1. 
MARTENS & LANGKAVEL, Donum Bismarkianum, p. 49. WEIN- 
KAUFF, Conchyl. Cab., p. 16, t. 6, f. 7, 8. 

A beautiful little shell, with finely corrugated surface. 

Group of H. ovina. 

H. OVINA Chemnitz. PL 19, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell rounded-oval, depressed, distance of apex from margin a 
little less than one-fourth the length of shell ; perforations tubular, 
elevated ; upper surface with strong radiating folds ; green or red- 
dish, radiately painted with white ; inside silvery ; columellar plate 
flat, very wide. 

The shell is rounded-oval, quite flat ; the whorls of the spire hav- 
ing a corona of tubercles ; the last whorl has radiating folds some- 
times ending in a series of knobs around the middle of the upper 
surface ; some trace of fine spiral cords may usually be seen near 
the lip. The elevated tubular perforations are situated upon a low 
keel ; below this there is a depression and then another keel at the 
periphery, upon which there are several granose spiral cords. The 
color is ochraceous-pink with broad radiating patches of white, 



HALIOTIS. 12-5 

which have reddish dots scattered in them and along their edges. 
Sometimes a beautiful shade of green replaces the reddish. It is 
silvery inside, and corrugated by the folds of the outer surface. The 
columellar plate is flat and exceptionally broad. The cavity of the 
spire is large. Perforations four or five, circular, tubular. 

Length 58, width 43, convexity 13 mill. 

Length 64, width 47, convexity 15 mill. 

Australia; Philippines; Navigators Is.; Liu-Kiu Is. 

H. ovina OHEM. Syst. Conchyl. Cab. x, p. 315, t. 166, f. 1609. 
GMELIN, in Linne, Syst. Xat. xiii, p. 3691. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 23. PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib. iii, t, 9, f. 3. WEIXKAUFF, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 18, t. 6, f. 11. H. latilabris PHIL. Abbild u. Bes- 
chreib. t. 9, f. 5. 

A beautiful shell, either ochery-reddish or of a darker olive- 
green hue, having radiating patches of white. The radiating folds 
of the upper surface are most prominent around the middle of the 
last whorl. The perforations are erect and tubular. The green 
variety was called H. latilabris by Philippi. 


Group of H. brazier i. 

H. BRAZIERI Angas. PI. 13, figs. 67, 68. 

Shell small, rounded oval, flattened ; surface smooth except for a 
strong rounded rib revolving midway between the spire and the row 
of perforations, and fine, hair-like growth-stria? all over ; the perfora- 
tions are round, erect, tubular, 4 to 6 in number. Color red, va- 
riegated with olive-green. 

The shell is about the form of H. pulcherrima but flatter, without 
radiating folds or spiral striie except for indistinct indications on 
the spire ; a close inspection shows close fine radiating striae all 
over. The surface between the holes and the columella is strongly 
convex. One of the specimens before me is flesh-colored, the other 
blood-red ; both are curiously variegated with a few zigzag green 
markings above, and outside of the row of holes there are numerous 
short flames extending toward the columella. Inside it is silvery- 
pinkish. The columellar plate is not wide ; it is flat. The cavity 
of the spire is red inside. Length 30, width 22, convexity 8 mill. 

Bottle & Glass Rocks, Port Jackson; Vancluse Point; and 
Macquerie Lake, Australia, 



126 HALIOTIS. 

H. brazieri ANGAS, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1869, p. 45, t. 2, f. 1. 
SOWEBBY, Thes. Conch, v, t. 6, f. 43 ; t. 14, f. 114. WEINKAUFF 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 77, t. 29, f. 4. 

A handsome little species, smooth except for fine growth-striae and a 
more or Jess conspicuous spiral rib midway of the body-whorl. 
The perforations are round and tubular, as usual in the subgenus 
PadolliLS. 

Section TEINOTIS H. & A. Adams, 1858. 

Teinotis H. & A. AD. Genera Keceut Moll, i, p. 442. Tinotis 
FISCHER. 

The shell is over twice as long as broad in Teinotis, and the foot 
is correspondingly elongated. It projects more posteriorly than in 
the rounder species of Haliotis. Like the others, this species has a 
developed operculigerous lobe ; with a deep longitudinal central 
furrow. 
H. ASININA Linne. PI. 14, fig. 76. 

Shell oblong or kidney-shaped, over twice as long as wide ; spire 
subterminal ; surface nearly smooth ; open holes five to seven. 

This is an elongated species, convex ; either greenish or flesh- 
colored, with triangular brown markings. The surface is almost 
smooth, polished ; the spire has narrow spiral threads, 6 above, 2 
below the row of holes ; these threads are separated, and composed 
of tiny beads, brilliant colored, usually alternately orange, robin's- 
egg blue and yellow or white; the surface between holes and colu- 
mella is convex, and has five or six smooth spiral threads. The 
spire is composed of 3 whorls ; it is rather elevated. Inside silvery, 
beautifully iridescent ; columellar plate wide, sloping outward. 
Holes oblong, their edges not raised. 

Length 80, width 37, convexity 12 mill. 

Japan; China; E. Indies ; Australia. 

H. asinina LINN., Syst. Nat. x, p. 780, and of authors. 

A species like no other in form. There is considerable variation 
in color. The spiral dotted threads of the spire are also unique. 



Unidentified Species of Haliotis. 

H. SEMIPLICATA Menke, Moll. Nov. Holl. Specim. p. 32. 
H. ROTUND ATA and SINUATA Perry, Conchology, pi. 52, figs. 1, 2, 

1811. 
H. CRENATA Swainson, Bligh Catal. p. 3. 



SCUT EL LIN A. 127 

Family SCUTELLINID^E Dall. 

Shell ovate, depressed-conical, surface with radiating sculpture or 
cancellated ; apex posterior and submarginal ; muscle-impression 
horse-shoe-shaped, open in front. 

The dentition is purely rhipidoglossate, resembling that of Neri- 
tina and Helicina. The gill is situated like that of Neritina or 
Acmcea, on the left side above the body, and pointed to the right 
over the back of the neck. The anal papilla and that by which the 
products of the renal organ are ejected, are situated exactly as in 
Acmcea. The tentacles are long and slender, the eyes well-devel- 
oped and placed on swellings at the outer posterior part of the ten- 
tacles. The distal end of the muzzle is expanded, semilunar, smooth, 
with a continuous margin a little produced at the outer corners. 
The mouth is small and situated in the center of the disk. The 
dental formula (for a half-row) is 1. (1. 2. 1.). oc . The rhachidian 
tooth is flat, squarish, and edentulous, as in Helicina orbiculata. 

Shells of this family may be known from Patellidce and Acmcei- 
dce by the posterior position of the apex, which is directed away from 
the opening in the horse-shoe-shaped muscle-scar, while in the fam- 
ilies mentioned the apex is more or less anterior, at the same end 
that the muscle of attachment is open. Broderipia has a very sim- 
ilar shell, but it is pearly inside, while Scutellina is not. Anatomi- 
cal characters as well as the limpet-like shell seem to throw the three 
families Scutellinidce, Addisoniidce and Cocculinidce into proximity; 
but. there are other features sufficiently isolating each. It must be 
understood that their natural position is by no means between Hal- 
iotidce and Fissurellidce, families with which these little limpets 
have no especial affinity. 

According to Dall, there is no relic of epipodium nor any intro- 
niittent organ in the specimen of S. antillarum described by him, 
which may have been, however, a female. The margin of the man- 
tle has a minute fringe of papillae. 

Genus SCUTELLIXA Gray, 1847. 

Scutellina GRAY, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 168 (type S. crenulata Brod.). 
DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 236. H. & A. AD. Gen. Rec. 
Moll, i, p. 460. DALL, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 342, 1889. Scutella 
BROD. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 47 (not of Lamarck). 



128 SCUTELLINA. 

For characters see above. This is a small group of shells very 
like Acmcea in appearance, but having the apex back of the center, 
as usual in limpet-like rhipidoglossa, and having the lingual denti- 
tion distinctly rhipidoglossate in character. The following list of 
species must be regarded as provisional, as the soft parts of most 
of them are unknown. 

S. CRENULATA Broderip. PL 46, fig. 6. 

Shell subconical, concellated, with sharp radiating stride ; white ; 
shining inside ; marginal ring and margin crenulated. Length i|, 
width I, alt. i inch. This shell was found dead on coral sand on 
the beach of the island at a distance from any fresh- water. The 
marginal ring is very strongly developed, and the margin itself is not 
even ; for when the shell is placed with the aperture downwards on 
a flat surface, it rests on the two ends, the sides of the margin 
forming a low r arch. (Brod.) 

Chain Island, S. Pacific. 

Scutella crenulata BROD., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 48. 

S. CINNAMOMEA Gould. PL 46, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Shell small, thin, oval, convexly arched, of an intense cinnamon- 
color within and without. The apex is acute, projecting even beyond 
the anterior margin and nearly touching it, so that the apex is far 
below the most elevated point of the shell, which is nearly central. 
Surface covered with minute very numerous radiating strise, which 
are rough with crowded points that are very slightly vaulted. The 
aperture is an elongated oval, the margin minutely crenulated, and 
at the anterior portion broadly excurved and strengthened within 
by a white marginal rib, causing the interior to resemble a Navicella. 
(Old.) Length , breadth f, alt. 9 o inch. 

New South Wales. 

Patella cinnamomea GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 151, 
1846 ; Exped. Sh., p. 9 ; U. S. Expl. Exped., p. 345, f. 449, a, b. 
ANGAS, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 97. 

According to Mr. Angas, the S.ferruginea of Adams is synony- 
mous. 
S. PULCHELLA Lischke. PL 46, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell small, thin, more or less equally arched, elliptical, inequi- 
lateral, yellowish, cancellated with very close radiating unequal 
riblets and dense subundulating interrupted concentric lirulse ; riblets 
sculptured with very fine erect scales ; apex curved, obtuse, ter- 
minal. Length 8J, width 53, alt. 4 mill. 



SCUTELLINA. 129 

This species of which three specimens lie before me, is elliptical, 
thin, yellowish. The example of which measurements are given 
above is very high in the back, the sides rather steeply sloping ; the 
others, although of the same size (length 8, breadth 5-5 mill.), are 
less convex, only 3 mill, high, and more regular. The blunt curved 
apex is over the posterior margin in the more convex example, in the 
others very near to it. The apex is not exactly in the middle later- 
ally, but a little to the left of it ; the shell consequently is inequilateral. 
The sculpture consists of fine, close radial riblets of unequal size, 
and similar transverse cords, forming erect scales where they inter- 
sect the radials. These last cords are short and irregularly placed, 
running often over several radial ribs and their interstices, not form- 
ing concentric lines, but merely interrupted wavy lines. The inner 
margin is scarcely noticeably crenulated and is sloping all around. 
(Lisehke.) 

Nagasaki, Japan. 

S. pulchella LISCHKE, Mai. Bl. xviii, p. 41, Jan. 1871 ; Jap. 
Meeres-Conchyl. ii, p. 100, t. 6, f. 20-23. 

S. UNGUIFORMIS Gould. 

Shell small, white, lucid, rounded-elliptical, depressed, arched, 
apex minute, deflexed ; outside decussated by concentric and radi- 
ating most minute striae, gemmulate toward the apex. Length 6, 
width 5, alt. 1 mill. (Old. in Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii, p. 162.) 

Kagosima. 

S. SCOBINATA Gould. 

Shell small, cinnamon colored, rounded-ovate, much elevated ; 
apex terminal, deflexed ; outside ornamented with concentric undu- 
lations and extremely close radiating striae, and roughened by ir- 
regular, elongated, oblique granules; inside subnacreous. 

Length 8, width 7, alt. 4 mill. (Old. 1. c., p. 162.) 

Oosima 

S. CANCELLATA Pease. 

Shell oval, somewhat conical ; surface cancellated by fine radiat- 
ing ribs and concentric raised striae ; apex extending to the poste- 
rior margin. Color white. (Pease in P. Z. S. 1860, p. 437.) 

Sandwich Is. 
S. COMPRESSA Pease. PI. 46, fig. 3. 

Shell oblong-ovate, posteriorly elevated and compressed laterally, 
radiately ribbed, ribs small, regular, close and somewhat wrinkled, 



130 SCUTELLINA. 

transversely, minutely elevately striate. Yellowish red, margins 
yellowish. (Pse.) Length 5. diani. 3 mill. 

Tahiti. 
S. compressa, PSE., Arner. Journ. Conch, iv, p. 99, 1868. 

S. GRANOCOSTATA Pease. 

Shell oval, white, radiately granosely ribbed, granules rounded, 
transversely, minutely elevately striate ; apex posterior, extending 
to the margin. (Pse. 1. c., p. 100.) Length 73, width 6 mill. 

Hawaii. 

S. ACULEATA Pease. 

Shell orbicular, elevated, covered with small prickly nodules and 
very finely decussated with raised striae, concentrically ridged to- 
ward the apex ; apex posterior, not extending to the margin. Yel- 
lowish, apex reddish. (Pse. 1. c., p. 100.) 

Hawaii. 
S. ANTILLARUM Shuttleworth. 

The shell, the only Scutellina I have seen from the Gulf or 
Antilles I suppose to be Shuttleworth's species. It is a small thin 
shell, about 8 by 6 mm. at the base, and 3'0 mm. high. The apex 
is situated in the posterior fourth of the length, and has a minute 
dextral half-immersed spiral nucleus, whose extent is marked by a 
slight contraction where the conical shell begins. The anterior 
slope is prettily and evenly arched, the posterior slope steep and 
concave beneath the apex. The surface is of a brownish straw- 
color, the interior subtranslucent white of brilliant polish but not 
nacreous. The sculpture is of very numerous, fine, radiating raised 
lines, with minute spines or vaulted scales closely set upon them, 
giving a rasp-like surface ; there are no regular concentric lines, but 
only occasional lines of growth. 

I have described it thus fully as I suspect Shuttleworth's name is 
a mere catalogue name which has never been validated by a de- 
scription or figure. At least, after very full search I have failed to 
find any description or reference to a description. It is not the 
Patella (Acmsea) antillarum of Sowerby and Philippi. 

S. antillarum Shutt., DALL, Blake Gastrop. in Bull. M. C. Z. 
xviii, p. 342.? S. antillarum Shutt., POULSEN, Cat. of W. Ind. Shells, 
p. 14, 1878. 

S. FERRUGINEA, (pi. 46, figs. 2, 2.) ASPERULATA, COSTATA, 
ELONGATA, GALATHEA, GRANULOSA, L^VICOSTALIS of A. Adams 



COCCULINA. 131 

and S. ARABICA Kiipp. are species enumerated in the Genera of 
Recent Mollusea. but of which I have not seen descriptions. 



Family COCCULINID^} Dall, 1882. 

Shell patelliform, not nacreous, symmetrical, with an entire non- 
sinuated margin and a posteriorly inclined apex with a (usually 
deciduous) spiral nucleus ; muscular impression horse-shoe-shaped, 
interrupted over the head. 

Animal with a prominent head and muzzle, the males with an 
intromittent organ at the base of the right tentacle ; a single lam- 
ellose asymmetrical gill (resembling in form and place of attach- 
ment the gill in Acmsea) between the under surface of the mantle 
and the upper surface of the body from a point above and behind 
the head, extending around toward the right, and even backward 
on the right side ; attached only at its base. Eyes wanting in the 
known species. Anus anterior, opening in a papilla above and be- 
hind the head. Mantle margin and sides of foot plain, without 
epipodial papillae or processes, but they are sometimes present 
behind. Radula with a small or moderate hardly raised rhachidian 
tooth (the cusp in one species obsolete), three moderate inner laterals 
with denticulate cusps, a larger denticulate major lateral with a 
stout and twisted stalk, and on each side a stout base from which 
spring numerous slender uncini hooked at their tips. There is no 
jaw. The dentition resembles in a general way that of Parmophorus 
and of some species of Helicina. 

Genus COCCULINA Dall, 1882. 

Coceulina DALL Proc* U. S. Nat. Mus. 1881, p. 402 ; Blake Re- 
port in Bull. M. C. Z., vol. xviii, 1889, p. 345. VERRILL, Trans. 
Conn. Acad. v, p. 533 ; vi, p. 202. JEFFREYS, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 
393. FISCHER, Manuel de Conch., p. 841. WATSON, Challenger 
Gasterop., p. 30. Tectura sp. JEFFREYS, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 672. 

The animal is blind ; the shell colorless, with radiating and con- 
centric sculpture; other characters are given in the diagnosis of the 
family. About a dozen species are known, one from the Philippines, 
the others from the Atlantic. All are deep-sea forms. Dr. Dall 
divides the genus into two sections : COCCULINA s. s., foot having 
two posterior epipodial filaments, and COCCOPYGIA, foot without 
epipodial filaments. The last-named section contains C. spinigera 
Jetfr. 



132 COCCULINA. 

C. RATHBUNI Dall. PI. 25, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell white, depressed, the slopes flattened, sides subparallel r 
with slight radiating and concentric sculpture and a subcentral apex 
from which the nucleus is usually lost, leaving a little scar on the 
shell. Length 10-13 mill. 

Shell depressed, white, thin, with sides nearly parallel and their 
slopes lightly flattened, and with ends similarly broadly rounded ; 
sculpture of faint closely (but irregularly) set grooves radiating 
from a smooth apex (which has originally a subspiral nucleus), and 
crossed by concentric growth lines, which are more or less ir- 
regular in different individuals ; faint yellowish areas seem to in- 
dicate a thin, very closely adherent epidermis; apex prominent, 
more or less incurved and slightly laterally compressed, usually 
showing a scar where the embryonic nucleus was attached ; inside 
polished or smooth. (Dall.) 

Length 11, breadth 6'5, height 275 mill. 

Another dead specimen is three times larger. 

100 miles S. and E. from Martha's Vineyard in 506 fms. ; Off 
Barbados in 399 fms. ; off St. Vincent in 464 fms. ; off Martinique in 
502 fms. 

C. Rathbuni DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat.. Mus. 1881, p. 402 (1882) ; 
Blake Gastrop., 347, t. 25, f. 5, 7, 7a. VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad. 
v, p. 534. 

C. BEANII Dall. PL 25, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell elevated, white, the anterior slope much the longer and con- 
spicuously arched, the posterior slope excavated concavely, the 
apex elevated, subposterior and much incurved, the nucleus gener- 
ally gone in adults, leaving a little scar ; sculpture stronger and 
more distinctly cancellated in some specimens than in C. Rathbuni. 
The young are more sharply sculptured than the old, and at the 
intersections the riblets are nodulous or even slightly spinose, the 
shell is smaller than in C. Rathbuni. (Dall.} 

Length 8, breadth 5, height 4 mill. 

79 miles S. of Martha's Vineyard, in 100 fms.; also in the West 
Indies off Barbados, Martinique, Guadelupe and St. Vincent, in 399 
to 583 fms. 

C. Beanii DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus. 1881, p. 403 (April, 1882) ; 
Blake Gastrop., p. 347, t. 25, f. 2, 4, 8. VERRILL, Trans. Conn. 
Acad. v, p. 533. 



COCCULINA. 133 

. ADUNCA Jeffreys. PL 25, fig. 21. 

Shell oblong, raised but contracted near the beak so as to make 
the latter more prominent, rather thin, opaque and lustreless : sculpt- 
ure, several fine striae which radiate towards the margin ; most of 
them are alternately larger and smaller ; they do not extend to the 
upper part of the shell ; color whitish ; beak placed in front, about 
one-third of the whole length ; it is strongly incurved or hooked, 
and has a subspiral and deciduous apex ; mouth oblong ; margin 
thin, entire ; inside smooth and glossy ; head scar semicircular. 

Length 0'2, breadth 0'125 inch. 

A single and imperfect specimen but characteristic. Mr. Dall 
has seen it, and says it is probably his Cocculina beanii. I will, 
however, retain provisionally the specific name which I have given. 
(Jeffreys.} 

Northeast Atlantic. 

Tectura adunca JEFFREYS, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 672, t. 
50, f. 4. 

C. LEPTALEA Verrill. PI. 25, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell small, oblong ovate, rather high, with a prominent, small 
compressed, strongly recurved apex, with the tip small, strongly in- 
curved ; in eroded specimens becoming free and overarching, situated 
at about the posterior third of this shell. 

The anterior slope of the shell is decidedly convex and consider- 
ably longer than the posterior slope, which is nearly straight, but a 
little concave beneath the apex ; the side slopes are moderately con- 
vex. The sculpture consists of strongly marked, raised, very thin, 
and pretty regular concentric cinguli, which usually become finer 
and much closer towards the apex, but continue nearly to the 
extreme tip in perfect specimens ; the intervals on the lower part of 
the shell are four times as wide as the cinguli, and are crossed by 
numerous, fine, wavy, radiating lines, much finer and closer than the 
cinguli, but easily visible with a lens ; in crossing the cinguli they 
become a little thickened and give the margin of the latter a slightly 
crenulated appearance when viewed from above. In some cases 
these slight thickenings have the appearance of minute beads strung 
along the upper margin of the cinguli. The aperture is oblong- 
ovate, a little narrower anteriorly, with the sides a little compressed, 
but still somewhat convex, and with the anterior and posterior mar- 



134 COCCULINA. 

gins bluntly rounded. The margin is thin, sharp, and plain. Color 
pale yellowish white. Epidermis indistinct. (Verrill.*) 
Length 4, breadth 2'8, height 2'5 mill. 

OffS.-E., New England, in 1395 to 2033 fins. 

Cocculina leptalea VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, p. 202, t. 32, 
f. 20, 20a, 20b. 

C. DALLI Verrill. 

Shell moderately elevated, with the front slope long and convex ; 
the apex is small, acute, situated far back, nearly over the posterior 
margin, and not turned to either side ; the posterior slope is abrupt 
and concave. Aperture broad oblong-elliptical, with the margin 
sharp and plain, muscular scars distinct. The sculpture consists, on 
the anterior half, of numerous well marked but small, raised, radiat- 
ing ribs, which are crossed by thin, raised, concentric lines of growth, 
so as to form a row of small granules or vaulted scales along each 
rib. Along the sides the ribs are fainter, and posteriorly they are 
nearly obsolete, while the concentric lines remain distinct. Color 
grayish-white. ( Verrill.) 

Length of aperture 6, breadth 4*3, height 3, length of anterior 
slope 6 mill. 

OffS-E., New England 

Cocculina dalli VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, p. 203. 

C. CONICA Verrill. 

Shell very small, thin, translucent, white, rather high, conical, 
with a very broad-ovate or nearly round base and a prominent, sub- 
spirally twisted apex, which is turned strongly backward, and 
obliquely to the left. The subspiral apex is relatively rather large, 
and the extreme tip seems to have been deciduous. The anterior 
slope of the shell rises at first rather abruptly, and then becomes 
very convex, forming the central and highest part of the shell, from 
which it descends a little to the apex ; the posterior slope is concave 
under the overhanging apex, and then descends with a short, abrupt 
slope to the margin, which extends back but little beyond the apex. 
The sculpture consists only of rather irregular, concentric raised 
lines of growth, which run subspirally on the upper portion of the 
shell. The animal in alcohol has a nearly round foot and two small, 



COCCULINA. 135 

slender, cylindrical tentacles, and is apparently without eyes. 
(Verrill.') Length 1, breadth 1, height 1 mill. 

OfS.-R, New England, 499 fnis. 
Coceulina conica VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, p. 204. 

C. SPINIGERA Jeffreys. PI. 25, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell oval, convex, rather thin, semi-transparent, somewhat glossy, 
especially on the upper part, where the spines have disappeared ; 
sculpture: extremely numerous and delicate striae which radiate to- 
wards the margin ; these striae are crested by rows of minute 
tubercles, each of which supports a fine short hair-like spine or 
prickle ; the spines are easily removed, and disappear when the shell 
is subjected to the action of potash-water, showing that they are of a 
chitinous nature ; the apex is quite smooth ; colour white ; beak 
very small, incurved and twisted downwards, forming a single 
whorl ; it is persistent, but sometimes broken or injured by attrition ; 
its propinquity to the hinder margin is in the proportion of 2 to 6 
as representing the total length of the shell ; mouth oval ; inside 
polished ; there is no septum. (Jeffreys.) 

Length 0'175, breadth '125 in. 

Northeast Atlantic and off New England, 335-843 fms. 

This species, obtained by Dr. Jeffreys in the Porcupine and Triton 
dredgings in the north Atlantic, is much smaller than either of the 
two preceding, or the specimens I have seen may not be fully grown, 
averaging only 1'5 to 2*0 mill, in length. It has the form of C. 
beanii, so far as the shell is concerned, with the sculpture of the most 
strongly sculptured specimens of that species, which, as above 
mentioned, sometimes have minute spinose projections at the inter- 
sections of the radiating and the concentric ridges. The nucleus, 
however, in the specimens of C. spinigera examined was constantly 
present, symmetrical and subspiral. 

One feature which is often noticeable on the sedentary deep-sea 
shells, and especially on the limpets, is perhaps worth mentioning. 
A sort of spongy organism, apparently a sponge or a hydractinian, 
often covers the upper surface with a coating of fine straight spinules, 
which appear to be attached to the shell but are easily removed by 
wetting and rubbing. They are very abundant on Terebratulina 
Cailleti and other sculptured brachiopods, and I have observed them 
on all the species of Coceulina and on Lepetella. Dr. Jeffreys states 
that the spinules are not soluble in potash. There has been no dis- 



136 COCCULINA. 

tinct outer crust nor any particular shape, to the aggregations of this 
sort which have come under my notice, but they seem to be prefer- 
ably attached to prominences of the sculpture, and might easily be 
mistaken, in some cases, for part of the shell itself. 

This Coceulina has fine sharp spines, properly belonging to the 
shell ; but among those in the Jeffreys's collection I have seen none 
quite as sharp and long as those in the magnified figure (la) of the 
plate to Dr. Jeffreys paper on the Triton mollusks. 

The section Coccopygia, to which I have referred this species, 
probably includes C. angulata Watson, and other species which have 
not yet been critically examined with regard to the epipodial fila- 
ments. (Dall.} 

Coceulina spinigera JEFFREYS, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 393, t. 44, f. 1, 
la, Ib, lc. DALL, Blake Gastrop., p. 348-350, t. 31, f. 7, 8, 9. 

C. CORRUGATA Jeffreys. PI. 25, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell oval, convex, but somewhat depressed, thin, opaque and 
lustreless ; sculpture : regular, fine and close-set concentric striae or 
wrinkles, which are chiefly observable and stronger round the mar- 
gin, especially in front or at the broader end ; color chalky-white, 
except at the margin, which is yellowish-brown ; beak small, in- 
curved and slightly twisted to one side ; the spire has a single 
whorl ; the beak is placed close to the hinder margin, and nearly 
overlaps it ; mouth oval ; inside smooth ; no septum. (Jeffreys.) 

Length '075, breadth '05 in. 

Northeast Atlantic. 

A few specimens, with the last, and occurring under the same cir- 
cumstances. This species differs from C. spinigera in size, sculpture 
and the position of the beak. It is also eyeless. (Jeffreys.*) 

Coceulina corrugata JEFFREYS, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 394, t. 44, f. 2, 2a. 

C. PUSILLA Jeffreys. PI. 25, fig. 22. 

Shell roundish-oval, somewhat depressed, rather thin, opaque and 
lustreless ; sculpture : extremely numerous, crowded and irregular, 
delicate, minute striae, which radiate toward the margin as in other 
species, and cover the whole surface ; color whitish ; beak placed at 
less than one-third from the front margin ; it is slightly incurved 
and pinched-up ; apex apparently deciduous ; mouth roundish-oval ; 
margin thin ; inside smooth and glossy ; scars indistinct. (Jeffreys.) 

Length 0'125, breadth O'l in. 

North Atlantic. 

Tectura pusilta, JEFFR. P. Z. S. 1882, p. 672, t. 50, f. 3. Coc- 
eulina pusilla DALL, Blake Rep. p. 345. 



COCCULINA. 137 

C. GALEOLA Jeffreys. PL 46, fig. 7. 

Shell resembling an ancient helmet or casque, strong and thick 
for its size, opaque and lustreless ; sculpture : numerous and close-set 
fine and minute radiating striae, which covers the whole of the ex- 
terior ; there are also occasional and well marked lines of growth, 
which are somewhat crowded towards the margin ; color whitish 
beak small, incurved and pointed, placed very near the front mar- 
gin and almost overhanging it ; margin entire, compressed and form- 
ing a rim on the front half; inside smooth ; scars as in Lepeta caeca. 
(Jeffreys.} Length "225, breadth *175 inch. 

A single specimen. 

If the peculiar shape of this shell may be regarded as a generic 
character, I would suggest for it the name DALLIA, as a mark of re- 
spect for the great malacologist, Mr. Dall, who has examined my 
specimen. He says it is " not an Acmeid," and would place it near 
Capulus ; but he qualifies his remark by saying that " it is barely 
possible it may be a Cocculina." He is an unquestionably good 
authority on this as well as other departments of the mollusca and 
I venture with hesitation to differ from him. (Jeffreys.') 

Northeast Atlantic. 

Tectura galeola, JEFFR. P. Z. S. 1882, p. 672, t. 50, f. 5. 

A species of very doubtful generic position. 

C. ANGULATA Watson. PI. 25, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

Shell small, thinnish, with a strongish membranaceous epidermis, 
compressedly patelliform, oval, with a long convex anterior 
slope, a short slightly concave posterior slope, while the compressed 
side slopes are very steep and very slightly convex ; there is a blunt 
reverted tip, but no embryonic shell ; the surface is rayed by fine 
smooth, rounded, unequal riblets. Sculpture : longitudinals from 
the top proceed radiating riblets, which are regular, delicate, well 
rounded, raised and unequal, a few being a little stronger than the 
rest, which, to the number of two to four, closely occupy the inter- 
vals. Spirals these are microscopic, rounded, close-set, and very 
faint. Colour: under the strongish, hard, membranaceous, pale 
brownish epidermis the shell is porcellanous white. Apex : the 
embryonic apex has been removed, and a scarred plug at the very 
top of the back slope fills the hole it left. Margin thin and broken, 
and overlapped by the epidermis. Inside porcellanous, delicately 
fluted, open to the apex, with a strongish horse-shoe scar, with two 



138 COCCULINA-ADDISONIA. 

oval muscular impressions, and the prominent head-scar shaped like 
that in Patella, only somewhat larger in proportion. (Watson.*) 
Length 0'13, breadth 0'07, height 0'07 in. 

Philippines, 20 fms. 

Cocculina angulata WATS. Challenger Rep. Gastrop., p. 30, t. 4 r 
f. 2. 

This species belongs to Dr. Dall's section Coccopygia. 
Family ADDISONIID.E Dall, 1882. 

Shell asymmetrical, porcellanous, something like Caplulacmcea, 
Sars. 

Soft -parts much as in the last family, but strongly asymmetrical, 
with an enormously developed lateral series of separately inserted 
gill-laminse, like those of Patellidce, and without filamentary append- 
ages of any kind. Radula with a large simple rhachidian tooth 
with, on each side, two large, simple transverse laterals, followed by 
two minute ones, and a large outer lateral with a strong tridentate 
cusp, outside of which is a single scale-like flat uncinus, bearing an 
elongated thickened ridge, but no cusp. 

This family might be incorporated with the last were it not for 
the differences in the branchiae and in its dentition. These latter are 
of great weight. The dentition of Addisonia is like nothing known 
in the whole group of Rhiphidoglossa, but, while it recalls the den- 
tition of the Chitonidse in some features, has a decidedly docoglossate 
aspect. Perhaps the most rational hypothesis is that this group 
bears to the preceding family much such a relation as in Pulmo- 
nata is borne by Cyclotacea of Troschel toward the Cyclostomacea, 
indeed, the resemblance of the radula of Cocculina rathbuni to that 
of the species of Helicina figured by Troschel is quite remarkable. 
This family contains, so far as known, but one genus. (Dall.) 

Genus ADDISONIA Dall, 1882. 

Addisonia DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1881, p. 405, April 1882 ; 
Rep. on Blake Gastrop., p. 344. JEFFREYS, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 673 ; 
1884, p. 148. FISCHER, Manuel, p. 757. WATSON, Challenger 
Rep. p. 32. 

Shell ovate, subconical, strongly symmetrical, porcellanous, thin ; 
with a blunt apex curved backward, downward, and to the left, 
without an epidermis ; with an unthickened, simple, entire margin ; 
pedal muscular impression horseshoe-shaped, interrupted in front. 



ADDISONIA. 139 

Soft parts : head provided with two tentacles without eyes or eye 
tubercles ; muzzle plain, simple ; foot thin, orbicular, without lateral 
or posterior tubercles, processes or fringes ; mantle edge simple, thick- 
ened ; gill composed leaflets as in Patella, the series starting on the 
right behind the head and continued within the mantle edge back- 
ward, the body of the animal being asymmetrically placed with 
regard to the aperture of the shell to afford room for the enormous 
series of branchial leaflets; anus opening behind and^above the 
head slightly to the right of the median line, and indicated by a 
small papilla. (Dall.) 

A. LATEKALIS, Requien. PL 25, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell oval, obliquely conoidal, very smooth, shining, decussated 
by extremely fine radiating and concentric striae. Nucleus excen- 
tric, posterior, obliquely recurved, situated below the lateral apex. 
Aperture oval, margin simple, acute. (Tiberi.) 

Length of largest specimen 17, width 14, alt. 11 mill. ; but usu- 
ally smaller. 

Mediterranean; North Atlantic, both European and American 
shores, living in 50-640 fms. ; found dead in a wider range of depth. 

Gadinia lateralis REQ. Coq. de Corse, p. 39, 1848. PETIT, Cat. 
Moll. pp. 92, 264, 1869. Gadinia excentrica TIBER: Journ. de 
Conch yl. 1857, p. 37, t. 2, f. 6. \VEiNKAUFrConchyl.desMittelm. 
ii, p. 177. DALL, Amer. Naturalist, p. 737, 1882. Tylodina excen- 
trica MONTS. Not. intorn. Conch. Medit. p. 57, 1872. LOCARD, 
Cat. Moll. Mar. Fr. p. 67, 1886. Addisonia excentros JEFFR. P. 
Z. S. 1882, p. 673; 1884, p. 148. Addisonia lateralis DATJTZEN- 
BERG, J. de Conchyl. 1886, p. 205. DALL, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii p. 
344. A. paradoxa DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1881, p. 405, Apr. 
1882. A. lateralis var. paradoxa DALL, Bull. M. C. Z. xviii, p. 344, 
t. 25, f. 1 a-e. 

Yar. PARADOXA Dall. PL 25, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell ovate, thin, whitish ; apex presenting an appearance as if 
an embryonic tip (perhaps spiral) had fallen and been replaced by 
a peculiarly blunt ovate apex, which in the young shell is nearly 
marginal, posterior and to the left of the middle line, but in the 
adult is considerably within the margin, curved downward and 
backward and much more asymmetrical ; sculpture of faint grooves 
radiating from the (smooth) apex and reticulated by the stronger 
concentric lines of growth, beside which the extremely inflated arch 



140 FISSURELLID^E. 

of the back is somewhat obscurely concentrically waved ; over the 
sculpture the shell has a polished appearance ; margins thin, sharp ; 
interior smooth, somewhat polished ; the scar of the pedal muscle 
narrow, a considerable distance within the margin, the anterior ends 
of the scar enlarged, hooked backward on their inner edges ; these 
ends connected by a line broadly arched forward and marking the 
attachments of the mantle to the shell over the head. (Dall.) 



Family FISSURELLID JE. 

Shell conical, limpet-shaped, non-spiral, (but with a spiral nucleus), 
having a perforation, anterior slit, notch or emargination for the 
passage of the anus ; not nacreous ; having a horseshoe-shaped im- 
pression of the adductor muscle ; bilaterally symmetrical. Animal 
bilaterally symmetrical externally, the anal orifice on the median 
line either anterior, central or posterior. Gills paired, one on each 
side of the back, their free ends extending to the neck ; muzzle stout ; 
eyes on peduncles of variable length at the outer bases of the ten- 
tacles ; mantle continuous or slit anteriorly ; foot fleshy, bearing 
generally a row of epipodial papillae. Adductor muscle horseshoe- 
shaped, open anteriorly. Radula with central, lateral and uncinal 
teeth, the laterals usually 5 in number, narrow except the outer one 
which is very large with a strongly recurved and denticulated cusp. 
Uncini numerous as usual in the Rhipidoglossa. 

The classification of this very natural and well-defined family is 
still in an unsatisfactory condition, owing to the lack of knowledge 
regarding the animal. I have examined all of the alcoholic 
material accessible to me, and have freely used the results of my 
work, in combination with the observations of others authors, in the 
formation of generic groups. The dentition does not exhibit 
great diversity, and will need still more study before the value of 
certain characters can be regarded as settled. For this reason, and 
because the limits of my work forbid full illustration of the radulse I 
have studied, I have deferred any detailed discussion of the dentition. 
I may, however, call attention here to the reliance I have placed on 
the form of the rhachidian tooth as a diagnostic character of my 
subfamily Fissurellince. It may also be noted that in most 
EmarginulincB the odontophore is bilaterally asymmetrical, a unique 
and anomalous arrangement. 

I believe that the genus Fissurella (as restricted herein) represents 
the latest modification of this family. I have seen no fossil species 
belonging to it. The Emarginulince include the more primitive 



FISSURELLID.E. 141 

types. Nearly all of the tertiary species, both of Europe and Amer- 
ica, described as " Fissurella" belong to the genus Glyphis- a genus 
which is shown herein to have no especial relationship to Fissur- 
ella proper, beyond the bond of belonging to the same family. 

Synopsis of Subfamilies of Fissurellidce. 

Subfamily I. FISSURELLIN^E Pilsbry. 

Apex of shell wholly removed by the anal perforation, which is 
bounded inside by a callus with entire margins, not truncated or 
excavated posteriorly. Central tooth of the radula narrow. Shell 
wholly external, capable of containing the entire animal. 

Subfamily II. FISSURELLIDIN^E Pilsbry. 

Apex of shell wholly removed by the large anal perforation 
which is bounded inside by a callus with entire margin not trun- 
cated posteriorly. Central tooth of radula much broader than the 
adjacent laterals. Mantle generally enveloping shell and foot, 
wholly or in part ; the animal much too bulky to be contained in the 
shell. 

Subfamily III. EMARGINULIN^ Pilsbry. 

Apex of shell generally not removed, the anal tube occupying an 
anterior slit, notch or sinuation ; or if apex be removed by a per- 
foration, the hole is provided internally with a shelf or septum project- 
ing forward and downward from behind it, or if bounded by a callus, 
the latter is truncated or excavated posteriorly. Central tooth of 
radula broad. 

Synopses of and keys to the genera are given under each of the 
subfamily heads, where also the characters of each subfamily are 
discussed in detail. 



Subfamily I. FISSURELLIN^E Pilsbry. 

Animal not too large to be contained in the shell when in a state 
of rest. Rhachidian tooth of the bilaterally symmetrical radula nar- 
row, like the lateral teeth on each side of it, and having a well- 
developed cusp at its apex. Shell with the apex wholly removed 
by the subcentral or anterior perforation, which is bounded inside 



142 FISSURELLA. 

by a callus rim the outlines of which are entire, not truncated 
posteriorly. 

The summit of the shell is always a little in front of the middle, 
even in those forms having it subcentral, and the border of the shell 
is in a plane, not elevated at the ends, except in the subgenus 
Clypidella. 

The anatomical characters as far as known do not indicate more 
than one genus in this subfamily. 

Genus FISSURELLA Bruguiere, 1791. 

Fissurella BRUG., Encycl. Meth., LAMARCK, An. s. Vert., and of 
authors. 

Fissurella of early authors comprised all of the perforated limpets. 
It is, of course, as now understood, much more restricted by the elim- 
ination of the large-fissured forms (Fissurellidea etc.), and the genus 
Glyphis, which belongs to the subfamily Emarginulince. 

Details of the anatomy are given under the several subgeneric 
heads. 

Synopsis of Subgenera and Sections. 

I. Summit of shell near the middle ; basal margins level, not ele- 
vated at the ends. Subgenus FISSURELLA Brug. 

a. Margin of shell not crenulated, dark-bordered inside. 

Section FISSURELLA s. s. 

b. Margin of shell crenulated, without a dark border. 

Section CREMIDES Ads. 

II. Summit leaning forward over the front end of shell ; basal 
margins level. Subgenus FISSURIDEA Sw. 

III. Shell flattened, shield-shaped, the two ends elevated, gaping ; 
perforation narrow, situated in front of the middle. 

Subgenus CLYPIDELLA Sw. 



Subgenus FISSURELLA. 

The anatomy of the typical species (F. picta and its allies) is not 
thoroughly known. It appears that the mantle-edge is thick, cren- 
ulated above and below, granulate or papillose on its rather broad 
surface, the anal pore is surrounded by slender processes or papillae, 
and the row of epipodial papillae is continuous. In all of the species 
of the genus, the mantle and animal are contained completely within 
the cavity of the shell, in alcoholic specimens. 



FISSURELLA. 143 

The animal ofF.virescensSovfb. (belonging to the section Cremides) 
is figured on pi. 61, figs. 13-15. The mantle-edge is fleshy and 
papillose, broad. The upper surface of the foot is longitudinally 
wrinkled and sparcely granose ; epipodial row of papillae extending 
all around the foot, and out upon the rostrum as far as the insertion of 
the tentacles. Gills equal, symmetrical, their anterior third free, 
and extending from a little behind the anal pore to the back of the 
neck. Border of anal pore minutely serrate. 

In F. ( Cremides} barbadensis the edge of the mantle is not at all 
fleshy, but is very narrow. It is not a simple edge, however, hav- 
ing short papillose scallops on the upper and lower edges, as if 
pinked." 

Section FISSURELLA, s. str. 

These typical Fissurella are confined in distribution to that 
portion of the Western coast of South America washed by the cold 
Peruvian Current, which is derived from the eastward moving stream 
encircling the globe between 40 and 50 degrees S. lat. Upon strik- 
ing the southern extension of S. America a portion of the current 
is deflected downward around the Horn, the rest following the coast 
up along Chili, leaving *it in the neighborhood of Payta, Peru, 
whence it turns toward the Galapagos Islands and becomes lost in 
the Southern Equatorial current. The mollusks under considera- 
tion therefore, probably do not find waters which become warmer 
than about 70 Fahrenheit favorable to their existence ; in these 
warmer regions they are replaced by other groups of Fissurella. 

The typical Fissurella, those having a distinct dark marginal border 
inside, and with the edge of the shell not crenulated, fall into four 
groups of species, thus : 

A. Hole long, its edges broadly eroded; interior wrinkled. 

Group of F. crassa. 

B. Edges of hole not much eroded ; interior not deeply wrinkled. 

a. Shell with radiating riblets. Group of F. picta. 

b. Shell ovate or elliptical, with radiating strice or smooth. 

Group of F. limbata. 

c. Shell oval or subcircular, striate. Group of F. peruviana. 
The last division (c, group of F. peruviana), contains species 

ranging from Peru northward to California ; thus falling outside the 
limits imposed by physical conditions upon species of the other 
divisions. 



144 FISSURELLA. 

Group of F. picta Gmel 

F. PICTA Gmelin. PL 45, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Shell conical, elevated, basal outline elliptical, the summit about 
central ; having radiating riblets and strong concentric undulations ; 
perforation oblong, twice as long as wide, about one-ninth the 
length of shell. Length of shell a trifle less than 1 J times the width. 

The outline is elliptical, a trifle narrower in front. The slope ol 
the sides is nearly straight, somewhat shorter and steeper in front. 
Color whitish with broad radiating stripes of purplish-red, about a 
dozen in number. The radiating riblets are numerous and some- 
what unequal, not granose ; they pass over from four to seven strong 
concentric folds, which give the slope a terraced appearance, when 
strongly developed. Inside white, smooth, with a narrow, grayish 
or purple-black edge. Muscle impression not rough, the area be- 
tween its terminations and the perforation scarcely wrinkled. Mar- 
gin entire. Sides of hole vertical. Length 82, width 56, alt. 28 mill. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 

Patella picta GMEL. in Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3729. Fissurella picta 
GOULD, U. S. Expl. Exped., atlas, t. 31. fig. 469, animal. Un Lepas 
rare de Magellan, etc., DAVILA, Cat. Syst.*et Raisonne des Cur. etc., 
i, p. 88, t. iii, f. C. 1767. Lepas ovata ampla, etc., MARTINI Syst. 
Conchyl. Cab. vol. i, p. 131, t. xi, f. 90. 

I have omitted all references except those of Gmelin, whose know- 
ledge of the species was derived from Davila and Martini. 
Martini, too, seems to have known the shell from Davila's work 
only, and copied his figure. The illustration and especially the de- 
scription given by Davila are excellent and unmistakable. I 
suppose that this is the F. picta of Reeve and other authors, but 
none of them give any differential characters from F. maxima either 
in figures or descriptions. The great altitude and strong concentric 
ridges are diagnostic. The dark rays are split into groups of lines 
by the white inter-liral interstices more than in F. maxima. The 
riblets are more equal than in F. lata, and the form is longer. 

F. DARWINII Reeve. PI. 30, fig. 7 ; pi. 46, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Shell oblong, conical, the summit a little in front of the middle; 
sculptured with numerous low rather obscure radiating riblets 
which are a little uneven but scarcely to be called granose. Per- 



FISSURELLA. 1 45 

foration oblong, nearly twice as long as wide, about one-ninth the 
length of the shell. 

It is a little narrower in front, more conical than F. maxima but 
less elevated than F. pida. Whitish, becoming dark ashen or 
bluish at the edges, painted with numerous (about 13) reddish rays. 
Inside white, with a bluish-black border. Muscle-impression wide, 
smooth, not defined. Length 56, breadth 37, alt. 15 mill. 

Straits of Magellan. 

F. Darwinii REEVE Conch. Icon. f. 7, 1849. 

This form is closely allied to F. maxima, but is higher, the mus- 
cle-scar broader and nearer to the margins, and the border is deep 
blackish-blue in color. Figs. 15-17 of plate 46 are drawn from 
the only specimen I have seen. It differs from F. picta in being 
less elevated and lacking strong concentric wrinkles, but may never- 
theless prove to be an immature or arrested stage of that species. 

F. MAXIMA Sowerby. PI. 30, figs. 8, 9 ; pi. 33, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell elliptical, a little narrower anteriorly, rather depressed, the 
apex subcentral; sculptured with rather weak radiating riblets, 
which are somewhat uneven or tuberculate. Perforation oval, 
about one-tenth the length of shell ; interior dark-edged. Length 
11 times the breadth, more or less. 

The outline is egg-shaped, more broadly rounded posteriorly. 
The cone is low, slopes feebly convex, often subconcave in places. 
It is solid and strong, of a whitish fawn-color, with broad rays of 
purplish-red, about 13 in number. The surface has rather weak, 
unequal radiating riblets, somewhat granose or roughened by rude 
growth-lines. The perforation is subcentral, about H times as long 
as broad, elliptical in form. Inside white ; central callus elliptical, 
not thickened ; margin not crenulated, pallidly edged with the 
colors of the outside. 

Length 82, width 56, alt. 13 mill. 

Length 100, width 68, alt. 21 mill. 

Valparaiso, Chili, to Peru. 

F. maxima SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 123 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 18. 
Sows. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 187, t. 236, f. 8, 9. D'ORBIGNY, Voy. 
Auier. Merid. v, p. 475, t. 64, f. 4-7. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 22. 
WATSON, Challenger Gastrop., p. 33. PHILIPPI, Abbild. ii, t. 
l,f.l. 

10 



146 FISSURELLA. 

More depressed than F. picta, with wider perforation. It is an 
abundant species, and is well represented in figs. 46, 47 of plate 33. 
The radiating riblets are usually somewhat granose. 

As varietal manifestations of F. maxima I am inclined to rank 
the following described forms : 

Var. CONCINNA Philippi. PL 32, fig. 33 ; pi. 45, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell oblong, narrower in front, thick, whitish rayed with purple ; 
perforation large, oblong, bidentate on either side ; margin rounded, 
pale, crenated outside. 

Length 43, width 25, alt. 10 mill. ; length of foramen 6 mill. 

The form is narrower than F. oriens, and proportionally broader 
behind. I count about 28 rounded large ribs alternating with the 
same number of smaller ones, of about a third the size of the first, 
with very narrow interstices between them. The growth-lines form 
wavy wrinkles (the ribbing is unfortunately poorly rendered by the 
artist). On a whitish ground there are about fourteen purple rays. 
The edge is thick, rounded, not at all level and horizontal as in F. 
latemarginata, and bordered by a narrow yellowish or brownish 
crenated border. The interior is as usual, white. (Phil.) 

Chili. 

F. concinna PHIL. Abbild. iii, p. 66, t. 2, f. 5. 

Reeve's figure of this form is copied on pi. 32, fig. 32 ; I do not 
know whether it really represents the species. The other figures are 
Philippi's. I have specimens of maxima which answer to the de- 
scription -and figures very well. 

Var. HONDURASENSIS Reeve. PI. 35, fig. 6. 

" Distinguished by the superficial wrinkled character of the spread- 
ing ribs and the dark olive and black dotted marking around the 
orifice." 

Hondurus f 

F. hondurasensis REEVE Conch. Icon. t. 7, f. 48. 
This seems to me to be merely a young maxima. The locality 
may be regarded as doubtful. 

F. PHILIPPIANA Reeve. PL 33, fig. 40 ; pi. 58, figs. 24, 25, 26. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather depressed, black, sculptured with very 
numerous radiating unequal riblets and elevated incremental striae ; 
foramen oblong, horizontal, submedian ; margin black, crenulated. 

In its coloration and the narrow crenate border this species is 



FISSURELLA. 147 

very easy to tell from the similar Chilian forms. The riblets as well 
as the lines of growth are sometimes stronger, sometimes weaker, so 
that the shell is sometimes very rough, sometimes smooth ; but never 
is it so smooth as F. grandis [F.. nigra Less.] or F. violacea, and 
young individuals are remarkably latticed. These have also, 
frequently, light rays, which vanish further on. Size, contour and 
altitude are similar to F. oriens Sow., the hole smaller, placed more 
posteriorly, and surrounded by a narrow horizontal white margin. 
(Phil.) Length 20, breadth 12, alt, 5 lines. 

Chili. 

F. nigra PHIL. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1845, i, p. 60 ; Abbild. ii, t. 
2, f. 2 (not F. nigra Lesson). F. Philippiana REEVE Conchol. 
Icon., errata to Fissurella and f. 37. SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 186, 
f. 30. .F. atrata REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 11, f. 73. 

The F. atrata of Reeve (pi. 34, fig. 59) is evidently synonymous. 

F. LATA Sowerby. PI. 31, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell rounded-oval, elevated, conical, the summit a little in front 
of the center, radiately sculptured with unequal, somewhat granose 
riblets. Perforation oblong, a little less than half as wide as long, 
and about one-ninth the length of shell. 

The shell is quite conical, short-oval, the sloping sides a little 
convex or nearly straight. It is a trifle wider behind the middle ; 
solid, grayish with numerous rays of purplish-red. The surface has 
numerous little-raised and rather ill-defined radiating riblets, of 
which one in the middle of each light ray is generally stronger ; 
they are all roughened by low, irregular but rather acute granose 
swellings. Inside white, rather smooth ; margin alternating gray 
and reddish, especially in immature examples. Sides of the perfora- 
tion nearly perpendicular, and in some shells the surface just around 
it is rather speckled than rayed. 

Length 83, breadth 66, alt. 28 mill. 

Length 63, breadth 50, alt. 25 mill. 

Chili. 

F. lata SOWERBY P. Z. S. 1834, p. 124 ; Conch. 111. f. 63. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 5. 

A shorter, more elevated species than maxima ; more allied to the 
F. codata of Lesson, but that shell is flatter and the perforation is 
smaller. 



148 FISSURELLA. 

F. COSTATA Lesson. PI. 30, fig. 10 ; pi. 35, fig. 11. 

Shell depressed, rounded-oval, apex a trifle in front of the center ; 
having radiating riblets ; perforation small, oblong, twice as long as 
wide, one-thirteenth to one-fifteenth the length of the shell, and hav- 
ing a tendency to develop two little projections or teeth on each 
side. 

The shell is very like F. lata, but is more depressed more nearly 
circular, and the hole is smaller. It is ashen grayish, rayed rather 
obscurely with olive-brown. 

Length 74, width 63, alt. 27 mill. 

Length 67, width 55, alt. 17 mill. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 

F. costata LESSON, Voy. de laCoquille p. 410, 1830 ; Illust. Zool., 
t. 12. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 14. SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 
187, f. 15, 205. .F. chilensis SOWB. Conch. Illust., f. 36. F. rudis 
DESH., teste Reeve & Sowerby. 

More rounded than usual, and with an exceptionally small foramen. 
Specimens of very depressed form occur, the flattest I have seen 
measuring, length 49, breadth 39, alt. 10 mill. ; the altitude 
being a trifle over one-fifth of the length, while in the more typical 
examples the height is contained about three times in the length. 

F. POLYGONA Sowerby. PI. 60, fig. 84. 

Oval, angulate, anteriorly narrowed, white, interruptedly rayed 
with purple ; with numerous scabrous striae and fewer cateniform 
radiating riblets ; inside white, margin spotted. This beautiful shell 
is distinguished by scabrous strise, with noduliferous or chain-like 
ribs at intervals. (Sowb.') 

Falkland Is. 

F.polygona SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 186, f. 177, 137. 

F. EXQUISITA Reeve. PI. 32, fig. 34. 

Shell ovate, scarcely attenuated anteriorly, thin, rather depressed, 
raised in the middle, radiately closely ridged, ridges somewhat ir- 
regular, corrugated, obscurely nodulous, orifice very large, con- 
tracted at the sides ; yellowish-white, conspicuously regularly rayed 
with purple-black ; internal margin tessellated. (Eve.) 

Straits of Magellan. 

F. exquisita RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 74, 1850. 

F. STELLATA Reeve. PI. 32, fig. 32. 

Shell ovate, depressed, rather elevated in the middle, obscurely 
rayed with ridges which are obsoletely nodulous ; orifice oblong, 



FISSURELLA. 149 

rather narrow, its sides excavated in the middle ; whitish rayed 
with light red, the rays being blotched with blackish -purple ; inter- 
nal margin broadly tessellated. (Rve.) 

Valparaiso. 

F. stellata RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 80, 1850. SOWB. Thes. Conch, 
iii, p. 187, f. 82. 

This is unquestionably a young shell of one of the larger species, 
but without series from young to adult, it is impossible to determine 
"which. 

Group of F. limbata Sowb. 

F. NIGRA Lesson. PI. 35, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell large, oval, conical, the summit in front of the middle ; color 
black or purplish black, not rayed ; surface nearly smooth, but with 
fine, obsolescent radiating striae. Perforation oblong, about one- 
tenth the length of the shell, its sides in young specimens bidentate. 

The form is oval, conical ; surface nearly smooth, of an inky 
purplish-black hue. Inside white with a black border. 

Length 100, breadth 70, alt. 32 mill. 

Valparaiso and Isl. of Chiloe, Chili ; Peru. 

F. nigra LESSON Voy. de la Coquille, Zool., vol. ii, p. 412, 1830. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 11. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, iii, p. 184, 
f. 14. .F. grandis SOWERBY P. Z. S. 1834, p. 123 ; Conchol. Illust, 
f. 48. PHILIPPI, Abbild. ii, t. 2, f. 2. F. violacea Escholz, 
PHILIPPI, Abbild. ii, t. 2, f. 3. 

Readily recognized by its large size, purplish-black inky color, 
and the nearly smooth surface. 

F. LIMBATA Sowerby. PI. 32, figs. 26, 39. 

Shell oval, conical, the summit a little in front of the middle; 
surface nearly smooth, not striate ; perforation long and rather nar- 
row, more than twice as long as broad, the sides nearly straight, 
usually more or less bideutate ; length of hole contained 7 to 8 times 
in total length of shell. 

The form is ovate, slightly narrower in front, conical, the height 
of the cone being between one-fourth and one-fifth the length of the 
shell. It is solid, of a light grayish color conspicuously rayed with 
reddish-purple, the rays having a tendency to split into two ; and 
usually a tract around the hole is stained deep blackish-purple. 
Old specimens, however, are almost always eroded or dull and cor- 



150 FISSURELLA. 

roded in appearance, scarcely showing rays. There are no striae, 
even in young shells. The inside is white, with a rather narrow 
purplish-black border (2 to 3 mill, wide) ; muscle-impression con- 
spicuous, roughened. 

Length 77, breadth 51, alt. 20 mill. 

Length 52, breadth 39, alt. 14 mill. 

Chili. 

F. limbata Sows. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 123 ; Conchol. Illust. f. 74. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 10, 12. SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 184, 
f. 23, 24. 

Allied to F. nigra, but having color rays and entirely lacking 
radiating striae. 

F. PUNCTATISSIMA Pilsbry. PI. 58, figs. 21, 22, 23. 

Shell ovate, conical, the summit about central ; sculptured with 
close fine radiating striae, which become coarser toward the margins. 
Perforation oblong, 2} times as long as broad, parallel sided, its 
length contained 8 times in the length of the shell. Dark margin 
of the inside very narrow. 

The outline of the base is about as in F. latemarginata, but it is a 
much more elevated cone. It is solid, thick, of a reddish fawn 
color, radiately closely striate. The inside is white, with a very 
narrow dark-grayish border. The area to the sides and in front of 
the hole, as far as the adductor muscle, is finely and closely punctate. 
The muscle scar is conspicuous, being moderately roughened. 

Length 88, breadth 66, alt. 22 mill. 

Length 93, breadth 66, alt. 23 mill. 

Chili. 

The diagnostic characters of this large species may be very briefly 
stated : exterior finely radiately striated ; inside white with a very 
narrow dark border, the area occupied by the gills densely punctate. 
There is no eroded tract around the key-hole. One specimen was 
presented to the Academy by Mr. Frank C. Baker, and another is 
in the collection of John Ford Esq. of Philadelphia, with the 
locality Valparaiso, Chili. 

F. BELLA Keeve. PI. 33, fig. 48. 

Shell deeply convex, rather elevated in the middle, acuminately 
attenuated anteriorly, radiately, obscurely grooved ; basal margin 
narrow ; orifice oblong ; ash-brown, banded concentrically alter- 
nately lighter and darker, rayed with bright crimson lake. A com- 



FISSURELLA. 151 

paratively smooth species, conspicuously painted with thirteen pur- 
ple lake rays, (five.") 

Cape Horn. 

F. bella RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 21, 1849. SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, 
p. 185, f. 25. 

The elevated form, notably narrowed in front, is characteristic. 

F. PULCHRA Sowerby. PI. 33, fig. 50. 

Shell ovate-oblong, depressed, smooth ; perforation oblong, more 
than twice as long' as wide, and a little less than one-seventh the 
length of the shell, the sides each with two little denticles. 

The form is long-ovate, narrower in front, much depressed. Color 
light purplish-ashen, obscurely rayed with purplish-red, and pro- 
fusely speckled around the orifice with red dots. Inside white with a 
border (2 to 3 mill wide) of dark purplish-brown. Muscle-scar dis- 
tinct. Length 54, breadth 35, alt. 7 mill. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 

F. pulchra SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 124 ; Conchol. Illust. f. 24. 
REEVE, Couch. Icon. f. 9. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, iii, p. 184, f. 31. 

In general form and flatness this species is like latemarginata ; 
but it is not radiately striated. The sprinkling of red dots around the 
middle part is also characteristic. This is a character usually 
shown by young specimens of many rayed species, but in this one it 
extends over a larger tract and is, therefore, retained in the adult. 

F. BRIDGESII Reeve. PL 30, fig. 3. 

Shell ovate, slightly attenuated anteriorly, rather thick, depressed, 
concentrically very finely striated ; orifice oblong, rather wide, sides 
excavated in the middle ; concentrically banded with brownish- 
purple and ashy-black, obscurely white rayed ; basal margin very 
broad, purple. (Rve.) 

This fine species approaches the F. latemarginata in general aspect 
but will be found to differ materially on comparison. It is of 
thicker growth, not radiately striated ; the orifice differs in being 
larger and excavated at the sides, and the painting is of a lighter 
purple-ash. (jFfoe.) 

Qumtero, Chili. 

F. Bridgesii RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 16, 1849. SOWB. Thes., iii, p. 
184, f. 21, 22, 34. 

Compare also F. limbata. 



152 FISSURELLA. 

F. GRISEA Reeve. PL 39, fig. 9. 

Shell ovate, rather depressed, smooth, concentric lines of growth 
somewhat irregular. Orifice rather small, oblong. Ash-gray, violet 
toward the base, obscurely rayed. This species has no sculpture 
to characterize it, but the coloring is peculiar. (jRve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. grisea RVE, Conch. Icon., f. 38, 1849. SBY. Thes. Conch, iii, 
p. 184, f. 85. 

Evidently closely allied to F. bridgesii, but more oval and 
elevated, the foramen more central. 

F. FULVESCENS Sowerby. PL 33, fig. 49. 

Shell oblong, depressed, fulvescent, narrower in front ; milk-white 
inside, the margin subthickened, subreflexed ; outside smooth, 
radiately substriate and painted with rufous ; aperture oblong, its 
sides obsoletely bidentate. (Sowb.) 

Length 1-6, breadth 0'9 inch. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 

F.fulvescens Sow. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 127 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 49. 
REEVE Conch. Icon., f. 42. SOWB. Thes. Conch., p. 184, f. 36. 

Reeve says : From the bright yellow coloring of this shell, the 
rays have very much the appearance of sunbeams. 

F. ORIENS Sowerby. PL 46, figs. 18, 19 ; pi. 34, fig. 58. 

Shell oblong, conical, summit about central; sculptured with 
close fine distinct radiating striae. Perforation about one-ninth the 
length of the shell. 

The outline is elongated-elliptical, more lengthened than a 
specimen of F. maxima or F. darwinii of equal size, and the radiat- 
ing striation is much finer, more even, than in these two species and 
their allies. The color-pattern in typical examples, consists of con- 
centric zones alternately light grayish and darker purplish ; over 
the whole are reddish rays (to the number of 13-15), each one split 
more or less obviously into two. The tract immediately adjacent 
to the perforation is speckled. Inside white, the marginal border 
grayish, rather narrow. Length 46, breadth 27, alt. 11 mill. 

Coast of Chili and Is. of Chiloe. 

F. oriens SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 124 ; Conchol. Illust. f. 25. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 13. SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 186, f. 19, 20. 

It is like latemarginata in the fine even striation, but is a narrower, 
higher shell, with pale narrow internal border. 



FISSURELLA. 153 

F. MEXICANA Sowerby. PL 34, fig. 60. 

Shell oblong, reddish-brown with darker rays and numerous close- 
set radiating grooves, which are decussated by very fine concentric 
striae ; dorsal aperture oblong, rather contracted in the middle, and 
with two obsolete teeth on each side ; inside white with a purple- 
brown crenulated margin. (Sow.) 

Length 1'25, breadth 0*56 inches. 

Real Llejos, Mexico. 

F. Mexicana Sow. Conch. 111. Fissurella p. 8, fig. 61. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 40. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, iii, p. 186, f. 26, 27, 
28, 78. 

The orifice, says Reeve, has a very decided white border. I have 
not seen authentic examples. Compare F. oriens Sowb. The local- 
ity needs confirmation ; for, as I have shown on page 143 , the spe- 
cies of this group do not extend above Peru. 

F. LATEMARGINATA Sowerby. PI. 32, figs. 36, 37, 38. 

Shell depressed, ovate, narrower anteriorly, summit a trifle in 
front of the middle ; radiately finely striated all over. Perforation 
oblong, twice as long as wide, with straight, parallel sides, its length 
contained 8 times in the total length of the shell. 

The shell is depressed, egg-shaped in outline, the front part being 
narrower ; it is solid, of a uniform reddish purple color outside, 
white with a broad dark purple or chocolate border inside. The in- 
terior has indistinct radiating fine striae. The muscle-impression is 
quite broad, and is near to the wide dark margin. The sides are a 
little arched, so that when resting on a flat surface the ends alone 
support the shell. 

Length 68, breadth 50, alt. 12 mill. 

Length 69, breadth 49, alt. 11 mill. 

Chili; Peru. 

F. latemarginata Sow. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 126 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 
69. REEVE, Conchol. Icon., f. 19. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, iii, p. 
185, f. 6, 7, 12. 

The broad purple border of the interior, and fine striation and 
uniform color of the outside are characteristic. 



154 FISSURELLA. 

Var. BIRADIATA (Frembly) Sowb. PI. 35, fig. 3 ; pi. 46, figs. 12 y 
13, 14. 

Shell of the same general form as latemarginata, similarly striated, 
but marked outside with obscure milky-bluish rays, of which one on 
each side of the perforation is more prominent. 

Valparaiso, Chili; Iquiqui, Peru. 

F. biradiata (Frembly MSB., in) SOWERBY, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 124 ; 
Conchol. Illust., f. 23, 52. REEVE Conch. Icon., f. 20. SOWERBY 
Thes. Conch, iii, p. 185, f. 1-3. F. galericulum REEVE Conch. Icon., 
f. 77. 

F. galericulum Rve. (pi. 39, fig. 93) is the same. Fully adult 
examples scarcely show the two side rays, but the obscure rays over 
the whole disk usually persist. Other specimens lose all rays when 
old, the younger shells having only the two side streaks. 

Yar. CUMINGII Reeve. PI. 30, fig. 1. 

"Radiately ribbed, ribs obtuse, unequal, obscurely squamately 
nodose ; purplish ash or rust color, rayed with deep purple, white 
around the orifice, sprinkled with a few obscure dots ; basal margin 
very broad, fulvous ash, blotched with purple." (Eve.) 

Quintero, Chili. 

F. Cumingii RVE. Conch. Icon., f. 17, 1849. SOWERBY, Thes. 
Conch, iii, p. 187, f. 5, 132. 

The specimens before me differ from latemarginata in having 
coarser radiating striae, in being rayed, and in the color of the broad 
basal margin inside, which is of a grayish tint tessellated with dull 
red, instead of being uniform deep brown as in the typical late- 
marginata. 

Group of F. crassa Lam. 

F. CRASSA Lamarck. PI. 34, figs. 51, 52, 53. 

Shell oblong, depressed, with subcentral summit. Surface smooth 
except for broad, low, scarcely perceptible radiating waves, more 
prominent at the front end. Perforation sole-shaped, narrowed a 
little in front of the middle, one-sixth to one-eighth the length of 
the shell, the margins eroded around each end of the hole. 

The outline is oblong, a trifle narrower in front, the sides about 
parallel. It is solid and thick, lusterless, of a brownish fawn-color. 
The interior is pink within the muscle-impression, and in front of the 
hole and at its sides there are strong converging wrinkles or fur- 



FI8SURELLA. 155 

rows. The muscle-impression itself is yellowish in color, and is 
roughened at its posterior curve. There is a narrow brown margin. 
Length 85, breadth 52, alt. 16 mill. 

Chili. 

F. crassa LAM. Anim. s. Vert, vi, 2d pt., p. 11, 1822. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 4. SOWERBY Thes. Conch, in, p. 184, f. 15, 16. 
SOWERBY, Conchol. Illust., f. 11. 

The measurements of an average specimen are given above. The 
pink interior, wrinkled as if guttered by running water (as indeed it 
probably is) is very characteristic. 

Group of F. peruviana Lam. 

Smaller shells than those of the preceding groups, of a conical 
shape, and having a narrow but well-defined dark border inside. 
The few species range from Peru and the Galapagos Islands to 
California. 

F. PERUVIANA Lamarck. PL 33, figs. 41-45 ; pi. 42, fig. 57, 58, 59. 

Shell rounded-oval, elevated, conical, the orifice a little in front 
of the middle ; radiately finely striated ; perforation small ; oval, 
about one-tenth the length of the shell ; inside white, margin alter- 
nately red and gray. 

The form is conical, elevated, lateral slopes nearly straight. It 
is rather thin, finely radiately striated ; inside smooth ; margin 
smooth, narrowly bordered. Color blood-red toward the summit, 
becoming darker, more purplish below, and generally more or less 
rayed with deep purple. The radiating striae are not equal in size, 
from 3 to 7 smaller ones intervening between slightly larger riblets. 
On some specimens this inequality is more marked. 

Length 35, breadth 30, alt. 18 mill. 

Length 26, breadth 21, alt. 10 mill. 

San Antonio, mouth of the Rio Maipa ; S. Lorenzo ; and Callao, 
Peru. 

F. peruviana LAM. An. s. V. No. 17. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 
26. SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 185, (not F. peruviana Deles- 
sert, Recueil, t. 24, f. 7 !) jP. subrotunda DESK, in Encyc. Meth. and 
2d. edit, of Lamk. vii, p. 602. F. affinis GRAY, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 
125. SOWB., Thes. Conch, iii, p. 185, f. 42, 179. Conch. Illust., f. 
44. F. ocddens GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 156, 1846 
Exploring Expedition Shells p. 364, figs. 473. 



156 FISSURELLA. 

May be known by the conical form and purple-red coloration. 
Carpenter's citation of this form from Mazatlan needs confirmation. 

F. CLYPEUS Sowerby. PI. 60, fig. 82 ; pi. 31, fig. 20. 

Shell ovate, rather thick, depressed, obscurely radiately ridged, 
ridges distant, obsoletely prickly nodose ; orifice oblong-ovate, rather 
small ; whitish peculiarly rayed in a reticulated manner with burnt 
black ; interior margin tessellated, (five.) 

St. Elena, West Columbia. 

F.clypeusSow.P. Z. S. 1834, p. 128; Conch. Illust., f. 77. 
EEEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 76. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, iii, p. 185, f. 63. 

F. MURICATA Reeve. PI. 39, fig. 5. 

Shell ovate, conical in the middle, rather depressed at the sides, 
radiately, somewhat obscurely ridged and striated, ridges prickly 
nodose ; orifice oblong, sides excavated in the middle ; blackish- 
purple, whitish around the orifice, (five.) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. muricata RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 103. SOWB. Thes., p. 186, f. 68. 

F. VOLCANO Reeve. PL 62, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell oval, usually a little narrower in front, the.orifice a little in 
front of the middle, oblong, often obscurely tripartite, about one- 
eighth the length of the shell ; surface with radiating unequal rib- 
lets, often subobsolete. Color pink- ashen with 13 to 16 purplish 
rays, often speckled near the summit. Inside white, smooth, fre- 
quently with a pink line bounding the callus around the perfora- 
tion ; border narrow, dark, alternately pink or purple and gray. 

Length 24, breadth 18, alt. 11 mill. 

Length 25, breadth 17, alt. 10 mill. 

San Hippolite Point, L. Cal. to Sta. Cruz, Cal. 

F. volcano RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 2, 1849. SOWERBY, Thes. Conch, 
iii, p. 192, f. 87. And of authors generally. F. ornata Nuttall MS. 
in CARPENTER, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 222. 

A pretty species, abundant on the coast of California. Beach- 
worn shells are pink with red rays, but fresh specimens have a dul- 
ler ashen color. There is considerable variation in the prominence 
of the radiating riblets. 



FISSURELLA. 157 

F. SPONGIOSA Carpenter. Unfigured. 

Shell elongated, compressed, conical, narrower in front, dilated 
behind; outer surface not lirate or striate, but having a sort of 
spongy texture ; green, the young with lines, adult with radiating 
spot of chestnut. Aperture elongated, obscurely trilobed ; inside 
shining, ashen-white, showing more or less the spots of the outside ; 
marginal callus of the hole purple-red; muscle-cicatrix irregular, 
calloused inside and punctulate anteriorly ; margin acute, hardly 
crenulated, in young shells spotted with chestnut. ( CprJ) 

Length '7, breadth in front '3, behind '43, alt. '24 ; hole '14 by 
04 inch. 

Mazatlan ; extremely rare. 

F. spongiosa CPR. Mazat. Cat. p. 219, 1857. 

Carpenter says : " Only two specimens were found of this singu- 
lar little shell ; the younger one of which, though most highly col- 
ored, is diseased within, and displays neither the livid color of the 
fsecal callus nor the punctures on the anterior part of the general 
callosity which fills up the space between the irregularly jagged 
muscular scar and the region of the hole. It most resembles F. cat- 
illus Reeve. The external surface is loose and rough." 

Unfigured species. 
F. RADIOSA Lesson. 

The shell of this Fissurella is oval-oblong, lightly convex, the 
sides a little depressed. The fissure is elongated, contracted, 
provided with two teeth on each side, and a little in front of the 
middle of the shell ; its circumference is smooth, white. The upper 
surface is covered with straight ribs radiating from center to circum- 
ference, enlarging toward the latter. These ribs are traversed 
by concentric fine, close striee, which make the surface granular. 
The ribs are separated by profound narrow grooves, and they are 
arranged with three smaller ribs between each pair of larger ones, 
all over. The outside is golden yellow, with gradually widening 
violet-purple rays. The edge is regular, denticulated below, white 
and purplish-black alternately. Inside smooth, porcellaneous white. 
(Less.} Length 13, breadth 7, alt. 2 lines. 

Falkland Is. 

F. radiosa LESS. Voy. de la Coquille, ii, pt. 1, p. 411. 
Compare F. darwimi. This species has not been figured, or noticed 
in the monographs. 

^r^ 
Y ) 



158 FISSURELLA. 

F. OBOVALIS Lesson. 

This Fissurella is elongated-oboval, rounded posteriorly, contracted 
in front, a little produced in front and behind so that when placed 
upon a horizontal plane the extremities alone support it. Fissure 
oblong, its sides straight, thick, 4-toothed ; the fissure placed in 
front of the middle. Outer surface having close radiating ribs, 
decussated by concentric striae. It is olive-brown, often encrusted. 
Inside porcelain-white. Edge entire, blackish, a little oblique. 
The horse-shoe-shaped muscle-impression is strongly marked. (Less 
I. c.) Length 21, breadth in front 8, behind 18, alt. 7 lines. 

Province of Conception, Chili. 

Section CREMIDES H. & A. Adams. 

Cremides ADS. Genera Rec. Moll, i, p. 446, 1858. 

Fissurella with the orifice near the middle, the outer surface radi- 
ately ribbed or striated, the inside without a dark marginal border, 
and more or less crenulated on the edge, group in this section. 
They inhabit tropical and subtropical coasts of America, with a 
few species from South Africa and the Mediterranean. 

The species, in the following pages are grouped geographically 
a grouping probably as natural as any other that could be devised 
for such variable shells. 

Species from the West Coast of the Americas. 

F. VIRESCENS Sowerby. PL 31, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Shell oval, elevated, conical ; the orifice about in the middle, 
large, contracted in the middle, its sides more or less flaring out- 
ward. 

The shell is very solid and strong, oval, or a little narrower 
anteriorly, elevated, sculptured with numerous fine unequal (alter- 
nately larger and smaller) radiating riblets. Color uniform greenish 
gray without rays. Inside green, smooth, the callus around the 
perforation flat ; border finely crenulated. 

Length 50; breadth 38, alt. 18 mill. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

F. crassa SOWB. Genera of Shells, (Cephala), Fissurella f. 2. F. 
nigropunctata SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 125 ; Conch. Illust., f. 51. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 8. Sowb. Thes. p. 188, f. 33. F. virescens 
SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 125. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 12. SOWB., 



FISSURELLA. 159 

Thes. p. 188. f. 37. CARPENTER, Maz. Cat. p. 213. C. B. AD. 
Panama Sh., p. 238. 

A very solid, conical species, green inside and having a bipartite 
orifice. The callus around the hole inside is flat, like a little deck, 
and of a still darker shade of green. The synonomy given above, 
cannot, I believe, be seriously questioned. The name virescens has 
priority in Sowerby's original paper. It differs from the form called 
nigropunctata in being a little more expanded for its height, having 
the radiating riblets larger and less equal ; uniform greenish-gray 
without rays. 

Var. NIGROPUNCTATA Sowb. PI. 31, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Differs in being a little more elevated, the radiating riblets 
smaller, more equal ; greenish-gray, having about 9 rays, each com- 
posed of a group of black lines which are usually interrupted into dots. 

Length 43, breadth 32, alt. 20 mill. 

Length 58, breadth 43, alt. 24 mill. 

Panama; Gallapagos Is. 

F. MACROTREMA Sowerby. PI. 31, fig. 14. 

Shell ovate, sometimes rather elevated, radiately striately grooved ; 
orifice elongately oblong, contracted in the middle ; greenish, rayed 
with brown, red or purple-black ; interior pale green. (Eve.) 

Gallapagos Is. 

F. macrotrema SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 125 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 41. 
KEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 31. SOWB., Thes., p. 191, f. 86, 90. 

F. ALBA Carpenter. PI. 45, figs. 1, 2/3, 4. 

Shell oval, a little narrower in front, conical, summit a little in 
front of the middle. Perforation oblong, contracted in the middle, 
about one-sixth the length of the shell, its sides produced upward in 
little points on either margin of the orifice. 

The form is conical, elevated, with an orifice of the same shape as 
that of F. virescens. It is solid, white (rarely black-rayed), 
sculptured with radiating riblets, very variable in size, and usually 
a' little uneven or nodulous. Inside white (or very pale flesh color), 
rarely with a slight greenish tinge toward the callus. Orifice sur- 
rounded by a thick callus, (not so flat as in F. virescent), bounded 
by a black line; outer margin crenulated. 

Length 32, breadth 24, alt. 10 mill. 

Length 31, breadth 22, alt. 12 mill. 

Length 27, breadth 17, alt. 11 mill. 

Mazatlan. 



160 FISSURELLA. 

F. alba CPR. Mazat. Cat., p. 218. F. gemmata MKE. Zeitschr. f. 
Mai. 1837, p. 186 (probably ; see Maz. Cat., p. 218.) 

Generally encrusted with coralline, as the specimens figured are. 
The white, ribbed shell, with a dark line around the internal callus, 
reminds one of the Cape Verde Island group of F. alabastrites, F. 
humphreyi and F. glaucopsis. 

F. TENEBROSA Sowerby, Jr. PI. 60, fig. 69. 

Shell similar to F. nigroeincta but more rounded, with cloudy 
black rays ; riblets scarcely elevated, subnodose. Margin of the 
aperture scarcely crenulated. A more rounded shell, more loosely 
ribbed and cloudily black-rayed than the preceding \_F. nigrocincta'], 
only slightly crenulated at the margin of the aperture. (Sowb.) 

" California." 

F. tenebrosa SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 192, f. 67. 

Evidently very closely allied to jP. nigrocincta, probably falling 
within the range of variation of that form. 

F. OSTRINA Reeve. PI. 34, fig. 54. 

Shell ovate, slightly conical, rather compressed at the sides, radi- 
ately ridged, ridges subrugose, irregular, obscurely nodulous ; orifir e 
oblong, narrow, sides excavated in the middle ; very dark purple, 
pinkish toward the orifice, greenish within. (Reeve.) 

Panama. 

F. ostrina RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 106, 1850. 

F. NIGROCINCTA Carpenter. PL 45, fig. 5, 6. 

Shell oval, broad, conical, elegantly painted with radiating black 
lines ; sculptured with delicate radiating strise ; orifice subcentral r 
obscurely trilobed ; inside white, margin delicately crenulated, 
denticulations black ; callus white, encircled by a black line. 

Differs from the young of F. alba in its greater breadth, less com- 
pressed form, finer striae and crenulations ; from F. nigropunctata in 
the black line around the callosity ; and from both in the form of 
the hole, which is trilobed, not contracted in the middle. (Carp.) 

Length '75, breadth '52, alt. '3 inch. 

Mazatlan. 

F. nigrocincta CARP. Mazat. Cat., p. 217. SOWB. Thes., p. 191, f. 
64, 65. 



FISSURELLA. 161 

F. RUGOSA Sowerby. PI. 31, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell oblong, the outline generally angular, narrower in front, 
depressed ; summit in front of the middle. Hole variable in size 
and shape, oval or oblong, its sides vertical, not noticeably contracted 
in the middle. 

The outline is very variable and irregular, usually angled ; rather 
depressed; rather thin ; varying from red to white in color of the 
outside; sculptured with numerous unequal, more or less nodulous 
radiating riblets. Inside pale green, the callus encircled by a 
slightly darker line or not. Border irregularly toothed and cren- 
ulated. 

Length 30, breadth 20, alt. 6J mill. 

Length 27, breadth 17, alt. 7 mill. 

Mazattan to Gallapagos Is. 

F. rugosa SOWB. Conch. Illust., f. 51. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
56. SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 189, f. 46, 47. CARPENTER, Maz. 
Cat., p. 215. F. chlorotrema and F. humilis MENKE, Zeitschr. f. 
Mai. 1847, p. 186. ?-F. viminea MKE. Zeitsch. 1851, p. 131, (not of 
Rve.) 

The ribbing of this species is extremely variable, but generally 
more irregular than in F. virescens. The orifice is more anterior 
than in that species. 

F. RUBROPICTA Pilsbry. PI. 36, figs. 34, 35, 36. 

Shell varying from ovate to elliptical, conical, the summit a 
little in front of the middle, sculpture consisting of rather rude 
radiating riblets alternately larger and smaller. Dorsal orifice 
oblong, each of its sides a little contracted and bidentate, becoming 
smaller as it penetrates ; its length measured inside, contained 8 to 
10 times in the length of the shell. Inside greenish, stained with 
crimson inside of the muscle-scar, the perforation- callus green. 

The form is rather straightly conical ; surface dull, lusterless, cor- 
roded, the sculpture being entirely effaced on the earlier portion of 
adult shells ; ribltts uneven, unequal. Color on the corroded sur- 
face greenish, painted on the lower part with narrow black rays. 
These rays are far more prominent on young shells. The inside is 
of a delicate green shade, fading to white at the border, the distinct- 
ly impressed muscle-scar white, area inside the muscle-scar of a deep 
crimson, or crimson and white, the hole-callus green, oval and dis- 
11 



162 FISSURELLA. 

tinct. Margin prettily crenulated, dotted at irregular intervals on 
the very edge with black. 

Length 32, breadth 2H, alt. 11 mill. 

Length 30, breadth 18, alt. 9 mill. 

Length 28, breadth 19. alt. 11 mill. 
Lagoon Head (Mainland of Lower California opposite Cedros Id.) 

This species, collected by Henry Hemphill in 1889, seems quite 
distinct from other forms I have seen. The crimson interior is es- 
pecially notable. 

F. MICROTREMA Sowerby. PI. 34, fig. 55. 

Shell ovate, somewhat attenuated anteriorly, rather depressed, 
rough, radiately thinly ridged, some of the ridges rather prominent ; 
orifice minute; brown, sprinkled with a very few whitish spots, 
ridges purple-red ; dark green around the orifice ; interior greenish. 
(Eve.) 

Real Llejos, Central America. 

F. microtrema SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 125 ; Conch. Illust., f, 50. 
REEVE Conch. Icon. f. 44. SOWB., Thes., p. 190, f. 54, 55. 

Sowerby says : foramen small, black margined, situated above 
the middle, calloused inside, the callus white, black-margined. 
Like asperella but with the minute ribs imbricated. 

Rochebrune has reported this species from the Cape Verde Is. ; 
but his identification is probably incorrect. (See Nouv. Arch, du 
Mus. 1881, p. 271.) 

F. ASPERELLA Sowerby. PI. 31, fig. 23. 

Shell ovate, somewhat attenuated anteriorly, rather depressed, 
radiately striated and obsoletely ribbed, roughened throughout with 
raised dots ; orifice ciblong-ovate ; variegated with olive and red, 
rayed anteriorly with white. (Eve.) 

Lobos Island, Peru. 

F. asperella SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 127 ; Conch. Illust., f. 71. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 58. SOWB., Thes. p. 190, f. 56. 

F. MONILIFERA Sowerby Jr. PL 58, fig. 28. 

Shell oval, conic, rugose, with radiating alternately black and 
fulvous beaded riblets. Hole large, oval, somewhat narrowed in the 
middle. Internal callus with a red line. This must have been a 
beautiful shell in living condition, the alternate ribs consisting of 



FISSURELLA. 163 

minute regular black beads. A pink line defines the inner callus. 
The worn but still pretty specimen is in Mr. Hanley's collection. 
(Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. monilifera SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 188, f. 175. 

F. LONGIFISSA Sowerby Jr. PI. 58, figs. 27. 

Similar to F. macrotrema but vividly red rayed. Hole elongated, 
tripartite, narrow. Inside callus rose-bordered. The fissure of this 
brightly-rayed shell is so peculiarly long and narrow as to distin- 
guish it from the preceding, which it otherwise resembles. (Sowb.~) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. longifissa SOWB. Thes., p. 191, f. 66. F. macrotrema var. 
Conchol. Illust., f. 41. 

A specimen before me is from the Gallapagos Is. It is very 
closely allied to F. macrotrema. 

F. OBSCURA Sowerby. PI. 31, fig. 25. 

Shell ovate-oblong, radiately costate, the riblets obtuse and rather 
wide. Inside greenish, margin undulating, crenulated, paler. Out- 
side radiately painted with varied colors, a few black dots radiating 
around the hole. Hole subelongated, wider in the middle, the 
callus surrounding it inside bordered with red. 

Length M, width 0'7 inch. (Sowb.~) 

Gallapagos Is. 

F. obscura SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 125 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 27. 
KEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 46. SOWB. Thes., p. 191, f. 80. 

*** 

Species from the East Coast of America and the West Indiet. 
F. NIMBOSA Linne. PI. 36, fig. 32. 

Shell long-ovate, elevated conical, the summit a little in front of 
the middle. Sculptured with more or less obsolete radiating riblets. 
Orifice oblong, a little contracted in the middle, from one-seventh 
to one-ninth the length of the shell. 

The outline is long-ovate, a trifle narrower in front of the middle. 
Color grayish-pink, with eleven or more broad black rays. Inside 
light greenish, with a black line around the edge. The edge is 
thin and finely crenulated. Length 45, breadth 32, alt. 17 mill. 

Carthagena, New Granada ; Venezuela ; W. Indies (?). 



164 FISSURELLA. 

Patella nimbosa LINN. Syst. Nat. x, p. 785. F. nimbosa LAM. 
An. s. Vert, vi, 2d pt., p. 10. REEVE Conch. Icon. f. 29. Sows. 
Thes. Conch, p. 192, f. 136. 

Has more the aspect of the Chilian species than of the West In- 
dian. It is a dark shell, obsoletely ribbed and rayed with black. 

F. NODOSA Born. PI. 37, figs. 46, 47, 48. 

Shell conical, elevated, the base oval. Apex a little in front of 
the middle. Sculptured with strong nodose radiating ribs. Orifice 
oblong, more than twice as long as wide, contracted in the middle, 
one-seventh to one-ninth the length of shell. 

The form is variable but usually much elevated. Unicolored, 
varying from brown to white. Ribs prominent, principal ones about 
23 in number, but usually there are some small interstitial riblets 
also. These ribs are conspicuously nodose. Inside white ; margin 
conspicuously dentate. 

Length 36, breadth 25, alt. 17 mill. 

Length 29, breadth 22, alt. 15 mill. 

Tortugas ; Florida Keys ; Bermuda ; West Indies generally south 
to Barbados. 

Patella nodosa BORN, Test. Mus. C^s. Vindob. p. 429, 1780. 
Fissurella nodosa of LAMARCK!, REEVE et al, and of ARANGO, Fauna 
Mai. Cubana, p. 228. DALL Prelim. Cat. Moll. S-E. U. S., p. 170. 
Patella spinosa GMEL. Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3731. Patella Jamai- 
eensis GMEL. 1. c., p. 3730. 

A very distinct form, known by the dumb-bell shaped, perfora- 
tion and strong nodose ribs. 

F. BARBADENSIS Gmelin. PI. 37, figs. 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 49 ; pi. 

60, figs. 73, 74, 75. 

Shell conical with oval or ovate base, the apex subcentral, pierced 
by a small orifice short-oval or almost circular in form. Surface 
sculptured with radiating ribs of which about eleven are generally 
stronger, continuing from perforation to the basal margin. 

The form varies immensely, as the figures show. The primary 
ribs are sometimes very strong, sometimes scarcely more prominent 
than the others. The ribs are uneven, irregularly serrated in the 
more* coarsely sculptured forms; in those with subequal, small 
riblets, the larger ones bear numerous erect, delicate scales. The 
color is grayish, grayish -green or grayish-pink, often blotched in 
the spaces between the ribs with purplish-brown. The inside has 



FISSURELLA. 165 

alternately green and white concentric rings, the perforation-callus 
being green, usually bounded by a brown line. Margin strongly 
crenulated. 

Length 34, width 22, alt. 10 mill, (average specimen.) 

Length 35, width 25, alt. 16 mill. 

Length 37, width 24, alt. 9J mill. 
Charlotte Harbor, Florida, and Bermuda southward to Trinidad. 

Patella barbadensis GMEL., Syst., p. 3729. Fissurella barbadensis 
LAM., and of authors generally. Patella porphyrozonias and rosea 
GMEL. F. antillarum ORB. Moll. Cuba ii, p. 198, t. 24, f. 40-42. 
F. edititia REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 47. 

One of the most abundant species of Fissurella throughout the 
West Indies. The very short orifice, more nearly round than in 
any other species, is diagnostic, varying less than usual. The form 
and sculpture of the shell is excessively variable. One delicate 
variety has erect scales upon the larger ribs, and is painted with ten 
or eleven rays composed of red lines. 

F. edititia Reeve (pi. 30, fig. 4) is a pretty color-mutation, with 
the inter-liral spaces pink or red. 

Var. SCHRAMMII Fischer. PL 60, figs. 77, 78, 79. 

Shell depressed, oblong-ovate, decidedly narrower in front. Fis- 
sure small, oblong ; radiately sculptured with 9 or 10 principal ribs 
and numerous interstitial riblets, the larger ribs projecting at the 
margins. Inside of a delicate green color, whiter around the mid- 
dle, cream colored at the edge, the hole-callus brown. 

Length 23, width 14, alt. 4* mill. 

Guadeloupe ; St. Thomas. 

F. schrammii FISCHER. Journ. de Conchyl. vi, p. 383, 1. 11, f. 5, 6, 
1857. 

Var. INTENSA Pilsbry. PL 60, fig. 76. 

Shell conical, long-ovate, chocolate colored, with some white rays 
around the nearly circular, small hole, the peripheral margin buff; 
radiating ribs very unequal, subsquamose. 

Length 18, breadth 12, alt. 5 mill. 

Var. BERMUDENSIS Pilsbry. PL 60, figs. 70, 71, 72. 

Shell elevated-conical, with ovate base ; of a delicate green tint all 
over, or with reddish-brown lines in the narrow interstices between 
the riblets. Sculpture composed of numerous radiating rounded 



166 FISSUEELLA. 

riblets, every fourth one a little larger. Fissure nearly round. 
Inside light green, having a dull reddish line around the central 
callus, and sometimes mottled with pink outside of the muscle im- 
pression. Border finely crenulated. 

Length 21, breadth 15, alt. 8 mill.; number of radiating riblets 
about 60. 

Length 16, breadth 12, alt. 7 mill. ; number of riblets 40. 

St. Thomas; Bermuda. 

The St. Thomas specimen is larger and has more riblets than 
those from Bermuda, and it is more variegated inside with pink. 
It is the one figured. The Bermuda shells, which may be regarded 
as typical, have the orifice a little larger. They were collected by 
Professor Angelo Heilprin. 

F. ROSEA Gmelin. PI. 62, figs. 19, 20, 21. 

Shell conical, oblong-ovate, narrower in front, the apex a little in 
front of the middle of the shell. Sculptured with numerous unequal 
rounded radiating riblets, sometimes scaly. Grayish, having 10 to 
12 broad red or purple rays. Perforation oval, small, its length one- 
ninth to one-twelfth the length of the shell. 

The outline is about as in F. nubeeula of European seas. Altitude 
quite variable, generally one-half the breadth or a little less. Ribs 
more prominent than in F. nubeeula. Interior uniform green or 
with a white tract not extending outward as far as the muscle im- 
pression. Hole-callus bounded by a red line. Border a little cren- 
ulated. Muscle-impression rather wide, not distinct or impressed. 

Length 26, breadth 16, alt. 8, mill. ; length of hole 2 mill. 

Length 26, breadth 16 J, alt. 6J, mill. ; length of hole 2i mill. 

Length 24, breadth 15J, alt. 7, mill. ; length of hole 2 mill. 

Matanzas, Cuba ; Vera Cruz, Mexico ; Costa Rica ; Guiana, and 
Rio Janeiro. 

Patella rosea GMEL. Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3730. F. rosea LAMARCK, 
An. s. Vert, vi, 2d.*pt-> p. 12. SOWB., Thes. Conch, iii, p. 190, f. 
91, 92, 150. 

This species seems to be abundant along the coast of the main- 
land of America from Vera Cruz (Heilprin, 1890) southward to 
Costa Rica (Gabb), and specimens are also before me from Guiana 
and Rio Janeiro. I have above pointed out the differences between 
this species and the Mediterranean F. nubeeula L. There is a 



FISSURELLA. 167 

variety in which the white rays bear much more prominent ribs 
(pi. 60, fig. 80, 81). This may bear the name of var. SCULPTA. 

V 

Species of the Cape Verde and Canary Is. and adjacent Coasts. 

The genus Fissurella is represented by numerous forms in the 
Cape Verde Archipelago, but specimens of them are rare in collec- 
tions. It would be easy to throw a number of the species together, but 
synonomy made without the examination of large suites is less use- 
ful than an unprejudiced statement of the facts actually known. 
All of the species are here for the first time collocated into one group. 
They are doubtless connected by the bond of common ancestry. 
The group seems to have been derived, probably at no very ancient 
date, from the West Indian fauna. 

The species stand thus in the order of publication : 

1. F. coarctata King, 1831. 4. F.alabastritesRve., Aug., 1849. 

2. F. afra Q. & G., 1834. 5. F. glaucopsis Rve., Aug., 1849. 

3. F. verna Old., Aug., 1846. 6. F. humphreyi Rve., June, 1850. 

7. F. conioides Rve., Aug., 1850. 

F. HUMPHREYI Reeve. PL 39, fig. 4 ; pi. 60, figs. 88, 89, 90. 

Shell conical, the base oval ; white ; sculptured with numerous 
(about 40) radiating ribs and riblets, very unequal in size, and more 
or less obviously nodulous. Summit a little in front of the middle. 
Fissure oblong, a little over twice as long as wide, somewhat con- 
tracted in the middle, and about one-seventh the length of the shell. 
Inside pure white ; edge denticulate. 

Length 28, breadth 20, alt, 10 mill. 

Cape de Verde Is. 

F. Humphreyi REEVE Conch. Icon. f. 85, June, 1850. SOWB., 
Thes., p. 189, f. 61. 

This form is very closely allied to the West Indian F. nodosa. 
The radiating riblets are, however, more unequal, and the altitude 
is less. It is similar to F. alabastrites, but has a smaller fissure and 
the ribs are swollen at intervals, making them nodose. 

F. ALABASTRITES Reeve. PL 60, fig. 93. 

Shell conical with oval base, summit a little in front of the middle ; 
strongly radiately ribbed ; orifice large, about one-fifth the length 
of shell, contracted in the middle. 

The shell is white, sculptured with about 25 strong radiating ribs, 
not equal in size. The orifice is sole-shaped, having a dark line 



168 FISSURELLA. 

just within its edge, the two sides projecting upward and contracting 
it about the middle. Inside porcellaneous white, the perforation- 
callus bluish, bounded by a black line. Margin denticulated by the 
ribs of the outside. 

Length 24, breadth 17, alt. 10 mill. 

Santiago, Cape Verde Is. 

F. alabastrites RVE. Conch. Icon., f. 27, 1849. Sows. Thes. 
Conch., p. 188, f. 43, 44. Cremides alabastrites Reeve, ROCHEBRUNE, 
Nouv. Arch, du Mus. 1881, p. 271. 

Diagnostic points are the large orifice, bounded by a dark line 
and contracted in the middle ; the inside callus also bounded with 
black ; and the strong ribs of the exterior. 

F. COARCTATA King. PI. 39, fig. 94. 

Shell ovate, attenuated anteriorly, radiately very closely striated ; 
orifice oblong, very much contracted in the middle; greenish-white, 
very closely rayed with black lines around the orifice. (JRt>e.) 

Island of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago. 

F. coarctata KING, Zool. Journ. v, p. 339, 1831. SOWERBY in 
Conchol. Illustr., f. 22, 37. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 32. SOWB. 
Thes., p. 188, f. 60. Cremides coaretata King, ROCHEBRUNE, Faune 
de 1'Archip. du Cap Vert, in Nouv. Arch, du Mus.2d. Ser. iv, 1881, 
p. 271. 

A species allied to humphreyi, alabastrites, verna, and glaucopsis 
species described from the Cape Verde Islands. Distinguished by 
its large bipartite orifice and fine radiating striae. 

Reeve gives Benguela, W. Africa, as the habitat. Rochebrune 
says that both recent and fossil specimens are in the Paris Museum. 

F. VERNA Gould. PI. 42, figs. 49, 50, 51. 

Shell symmetrical, solid, depressed-conical, of a greenish-ash color, 
and broadly rayed with dark purple ; apex nearly central, purple 
at tip ; surface with a thin epidermis and with about 20 to 30 
depressed, nearly equal flattish ribs, the intervening spaces of about 
an equal width, and subdivided by one or two striae. Aperture 
regularly oval, edge coarsely scalloped. Interior of a pale verdigris 
or leek-green color. Fissure small, oval, surrounded interiorly with 
a finely striated callus margined with bluish. ( Old.) 

Length 1^, breadth li, alt. \ inch. 

Porto Praya, Cape de Verde Is. 

F. verna GLD. Proc. Bost. Soc. K H. ii, p. 155, Aug. 1846 ; U. 
S. Expl. Exped. Moll. & Shells, p. 366, f. 472a, b, c. 



FISSURELLA. 169 

The specimens before me are less rayed than Gould's. A small 
variety is described by him, as more solid, more elevated and 
rounded, externally cinereous, the ribs smaller and rounded, without 
radiating striae and without purple rays, but sometimes with dots 
about the apex ; outline arched-conical, fissure elongated. Interior 
very pale green, the internal callus sometimes surrounded with 
violet ; margin creuated on a smaller scale. It is figured on pi. 60, 
fig. 83. I do not know whether this small form really belongs to 
verna or not. 1 have specimens before me from Teneriffe, Canaries. 

F. verna belongs to a group of species comprising F. glaucopsis, 
humphreyi, alabastrites, conioides and obtusa. The form and size of 
the fissure is remarkably diverse in the several species. 

F. AFRA Quoy & Gaimard. PL 59, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell ovate-oblong, convex, buffish painted with brownish-violet 
rays, white within ; longitudinal striae obsolete ; foramen oblong, 
compressed. 

This species resembles the F. nimbosa of Lamarck, but is not the 
same. The summit is more elevated, and the aperture is more car- 
ried forward ; there is also a difference in appearance. For the 
rest, it is ovate, conical, obtuse at summit ; the fissure is ovate, con- 
tracted in the middle. It is very finely striated radiately, and 
marked in the same way with radiating bands of a violaceous-brown 
on a yellowish-white ground. The fissure is bounded with darker. 
( Q. et 6r.) Length 9, breadth 7, alt. 51 lines. 

St. lago, Cape Verde Archipelago. 

F. afra (Fissurelle de Praya*) Q. et G., Voyage de F Astrolabe, 
Zool., vol. 3, p. 336 ; atlas, t. 68, f. 5, 6. 1834. 

Compare F. verna Gould. 

F. GLAUCOPSIS Keeve. PL 38, fig. 67 ; pi. 60, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell depressed, the base oval, summit a little in front of the mid- 
dle ; sculptured with about 21 principal radiating ribs, and the 
same number of smaller ones between them. Fissure small, oval. 

The form is much more depressed than F. alabastrites, being more 
like F. verna. The color is pure white, with an eroded bluish tract 
just around the perforation. Inside white (or the most delicate tint 
of green), stained with black or purplish-black around the hole, 
which is encircled by a black line. Margin coarsely toothed. 

Length 28, breadth 22, alt. 8 mill. 

Cape de Verde Is. 



170 FISSURELLA. 

F. glaucopsis RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 28, Aug., 1849. SOWB. Thes, 
p. 188, f. 45. 

Allied to alabastrites in color, to verna in form and character of 
the fissure. It may prove to be a variety of the verna. 

F. CONIOIDES Reeve. PI. 38, fig. 79. 

Shell ovate, elevately conical, thick, radiately corrugately ribbed, 
ribs very irregular and rugose ; orifice ovate, central, white, ashy- 
black around the orifice, greenish in the interior. Closely allied to 
the F. glaucopsis and alabastrites from the Cape Verde Is. (Eve.) 

Cape of Good Hope. 

F. conioides RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 95, Aug., 1850. F. conoide* 
SOWB. Thes. Conch., p. 189, f. 51. 

V 

Mediterranean and S. African etc., species. 
F. NUBECULA Linne. PI. 60, figs. 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99. 

Shell conical, ovate-oblong, summit a little in front of the middle. 
Sculptured with numerous subobsolete, unequal radiating riblets. 
Grayish, with rays of dull purple. Fissure oblong, parallel-sided, 
its breadth two-fifths of its length. Inside white or bluish -white in- 
side the muscle-impression, the rest of a delicate green shade. Hole- 
callus white or green, bounded by a brown line, which is often 
obsolete. Margin acute, a little crenulated. 

The typical form is oblong, narrower in front, altitude not quite a 
half of the breadth ; fissure oblong, about one-seventh the length of 
the shell ; inside colored as above described, the muscle impression 
rather distant from the margin (in this respect differing from the 
South African species mutabilis and incarnata, which have the im- 
pression near the margin), and the scar is narrow, generally deeply 
impressed. The riblets of the outer surface are low, rounded, obtuse, 
often subobsolete. 

Length 22, breadth 14, alt. 6* mill. ; length of hole 3 mill/ 

Length 25, breadth 15 , alt. 8 mill.; length of hole 31 mill. 

Length 24, breadth 16 , alt. 7? mill. ; length of hole 3? mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf 
of Gascogne and Mogador to Cape Verde Islands. 

Patella nubecula LINN. Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1262. Fissurella nube- 
cula L. HANLEY, Ipsa Linn. Conch., p. 434, t. 4, f. 10. WEINKAUFF, 
Conchyl. des Mittelm. ii, p. 394. ARAD. et BEN. Conch. Viv. Mar. 
della Sic., p. 128. BUQUOY DAUTZENBERG & DOLLFUS Moll, du 



FISSURELLA. 171 

Rouss. i, p. 438, t. 53, f. 11-14. F. rosea Gin. PHIL. Enum. Moll. 
Sicil. ii, p. 91. and of some other authors, not of GMELIX. F. nim- 
bosa L., SCACCHI, and PHILIPPI, olim. F. lilacina O. G. COSTA 
Catal. Taranto, p. 42.^. viridis COSTA, 1. c., p. 43, t. 4, f. 1. F. 
cinnaberina COSTA, 1. c., p. 43, t. 4, f. 4. F. Philippii REQUIEN, 
Coq. de Corse, p. 40. 

The only Mediterranean species of true Fissurella, the others 
belonging to the genus Glyphis. It is rather variable in color and 
form, but is constantly separated from the West Indian F. rosea by 
the decidedly larger perforation and more obsolete ribbing. The 
similar South African species have the muscle-impression much 
nearer to the margin than it is in this form. 

Varieties recognized by Messrs Buquoy, Dautzenberg and Dollfus 
are as follows : SQUAMULIFERA B. D. & D., radiating riblets bear- 
ing numerous projecting, imbricating scales. Patras, Greece. Color- 
forms LILACINA, VIRIDIS and CINNABERINA are sufficiently described 
by their names. 

Dunker (Ind. Moll. Guin. infer.) has reported the species from 
Guinea. 

F. MUTABILIS Sowerby. PL 39, figs. 2, 3. 

The shell is ovate or long-ovate, rather thin, higher behind than 
before, more or less convex, and always sufficiently so that the sides from 
apex to base are not contracted as in F. incarnata, but are somewhat 
convex. The orifice is in front of the middle and usually slopes for- 
ward ; it is always encircled by a rose-red border, narrower front 
and back, and widest in the middle. The edge is acute and finely 
crenulated, but generally rubbed smooth. The shell rests upon the 
entire margin, rarely the front end gaping or elevated a little. The 
muscle-impression lies near the margin, as in F. incarnata. The 
inner callus of the orifice is more or less rose-red. There are two 
color- varieties ; a banded and a marbled. 

The banded form has 12 or 13 reddish-brown rays, the white in- 
terspaces somewhat narrower ; is somewhat thick, sculptured with 
radiating riblets, those on the white rays stronger than on the pink. 
Length 13, breadth 7*, alt. 3 mill. 

The marbled form is grayish or reddish, flecked with darker, 
very obscurely rayed around the orifice, or with a couple of white 
interrupted rays in the middle. This form is thinner than the 
other, more finely striated, more elongated. Length 17, breadth 9, 



1 72 FISSURELLA. 

alt. 4 mill. Transition forms connecting with the radiately painted 
specimens occur. 

Table Bay, False Bay and the Natal Coast. 

F. mutabilis Sows. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 127 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 67, 
70. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 43 a, b. SOWB. Thes., p. 190, f. 70, 
79, 93. KRAUSS, Die Siidaf. Moll., p. 65. .F. sagittata REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 34. Sows. Thes. Conch, p. 201, f. 83. 

The above is mainly taken from Krauss who collected and ex- 
amined great numbers. It is a very variable species, as I see by the 
few specimens before me. Sowerby considers F. incarnata a syn- 
onym. 

I take F. sagittata Reeve to represent the second or marbled vari- 
ety of Krauss. It is figured on pi. 30, fig 2. The shell is radiately 
striate ; rayed with pink, and has dark arrow-shaped flecks and dots. 
Were it not for Krauss' insistence on the identity of the two forms 
of mutabilis I should consider them distinct species. 
F. CATILLUS Reeve. PL 30, fig. 5. 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather thick, a little compressed at the sides, 
obscurely decussately ridged, ridges somewhat rude, almost faded ; 
orifice ovate, rather large ; pinkish, rayed with dull white. This 
specimen is unicolored around the base, which is not likely to be a 
character of the species. (Eve.*) 

Java. 

F. catillus RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 91. SOWB., Thes., p. 191, f. 81. 

F. ROTA Reeve. PI. 39, figs. 99, 100. 

Shell ovate, rather depressed, radiately obscurely obtusely ridged, 
ridges decussated with concentric grooves ; orifice elongately oblong, 
a little contracted at the sides ; olive-brown, conspicuously white- 
rayed, rays blotched near the margin with brown ; pink around the 
orifice. (Eve.) 

Cape of Good Hope. ( 

H. rota RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 79, 81, 1850. SOWB. Thes. p. 191, 
f. 72. 

F. TJSNIATA Sowerby, Jr. PL 59, fig. 41. 

In form resembling F. mutabilis, but without striae and marked 
by eleven pairs of brown rays. (Sowb.} 

Cape Verde Is. 

F. tceniata SOWB. Thes. Conch., p. 191, f. 77. 



FISSURELLA. 173 

F. OBTUSA Sowerby. PI. 38, fig. 61. 

Shell ovate, rather elevated in the middle, radiately ribbed in a 
somewhat wrinkled manner ; ribs irregular, interstices slightly im- 
pressed ; aperture rather small, oblong, with the sides excavated. 
Kayed with pink and white, white rays narrow, conspicuous, pink 
rays broader, fading into light green near the margin. The pink 
coloring which forms the radiating bands of this species, appears 
only in the grooves of the sculpture, and has the appearance of fine 
lines. (Eve.) 

Cape of Good Hope. 

F. obtusa SOWB. Conch. 111. p. 7, f. 59. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
56. SOWB., Thes., p. 189, f. 75, 76. KRAUSS, Die Siidaf. Moll. p. 
66. 

Krauss seems to regard this as synonym of F. mutabilis. I have 
not seen the species, and have taken both description and figure 
from Reeve. These should be compared with the original figures 
in the Conchological Illustrations, which show the hole of a very 
different shape. 

F. NATALENSIS Krauss. PI. 38, figs. 76, 77, 78. 

The shell is almost always encrusted ; eroded in the neighborhood 
of the apex, the sides straight, rarely a little convex. The bluish- 
black rays are unequal, being wider and more distinct on the front 
part than upon the posterior ; and if the shell be held up toward 
the light they may be seen faintly from the inside. Of the 45 to 50 
riblets, 10 to 12 are somewhat stronger -than the rest, and these are 
usually situated in the white rays. All the riblets are little-raised, 
blunt, made a little rough by the irregular growth-lines, and scarcely 
project at the edge, which is consequently but slightly crenated. 
The side margins are a little concave, so that the shell rests upon 
the two ends only. The orifice is 2*5 lines long, 1 line wide, rounded 
and widest at the ends, narrowed somewhat on the sides, with two little 
teeth on each side. Interior smooth and white, the edge black and 
white, from the color of the outside, but not really margined. The 
muscle-impression lies about two lines from the edge. (Krauss.) 

Length 16, breadth 9'5, alt. 5 lines. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

F. natalensis KRAUSS, Die Siidaf. Moll., p. 66, t. 4, f. 8. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 15. SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 190, f. 69. 



174 FISSURELLA. 

F. OMICRON Crosse & Fischer. PL 22, figs. 45, 46, 47. 

Shell of an oval, depressed form, ornamented outside by radiat- 
ing ribs, crossed by fine concentric striae, especially developed 
toward the summit, and giving that part of the shell a granular 
appearance. The intervals between the ribs are occupied by radiat- 
ing strise. The inside is smooth, shining, bluish-white. Margin 
simple, acute. Fissure oval, bordered within. (Fischer.) 

Length 13, breadth 10 mill. 

Saint Vincents Gulf, S. Australia. 

F. omicron C. & F., Journ. de Conchyl. 1864, p. 348 ; /. c. 1865, 
p. 41, t. 3, f. 4-6. 

Species oj which the habitats are unknown. 

F. OLIVACEA Gray. PL 59, figs. 51. 

Shell ovate, scarcely attenuated anteriorly, rather conical, 
radiately somewhat irregularly roughly ridged, ridges obsoletely 
nodose ; orifice oblong-ovate, slightly contracted in the middle ; 
whitish, neatly rayed with olive. (Rve.} 

Habitat unknown. 

F. olivacea GRAY, SOWERBY'S Conchol. Illust., f. 57. RVE. Conch. 
Icon., f. 61. 

F. BALANOIDES Reeve. PL 59, fig. 40. 

Shell ovate, a little attenuated anteriorly, rather conical, smooth, 
radiately slightly grooved ; orifice oblong-ovate, a little contracted 
in the middle ; yellowish, sometimes faintly tinged with rose, rayed 
with olive and dark green, rays marked with lines of the color 
darker, greenish white around the orifice. (Eve.~) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. balanoides RVE. Conch. Icon., f. 66. Sows. Thes., p. 192, f. 
94. 

Compare F. nlmbosa. 

F. MELVILLI Sowerby Jr. PL 59, fig. 29. 

Shell oval, rather elevated, broad behind, slightly contracted in 
front; radiately closely ribbed, ribs very little raised, alternately 
larger ; concentrically wrinkled ; pale green, interior greyish-white. 



FISSURELLA. 175 

Orifice round, subcentral, margin slightly, irregularly wrinkled. 
Differs from its congeners chiefly in the rotundity of its orifice. 

(Sowb.) Length 50, width 40, alt. 22 mill, 

Habitat unknown. 

F. melvilli SOWB. P. Z. S. 1882, p. 120, t. 5, f. 11. 

Subgenus FISSURIDEA Swainson, 1840. 

Fissuridea SWAINS. Malacology, p. 356. Type F. pileus Sw.=F. 
pileopsoides Rve.=.F. galeata Helb. 

The apex leans forward over the anterior end of the shell, in this 
section. The perforation is small, oval, opening forward rather 
than upward. The callus surrounding the hole inside is oval, with 
entire, not very distinct edges. Outer surface having radiating 
riblets, and fine concentric striae. 

Animal not observed. 

F. GALEATA Helbling. PI. 60, figs. 66, 67, 68. 

Shell oval, elevated, the apex projecting anteriorly as far as or 
over the margin. Perforation small, oval, directed forward. Sur- 
face with radiating riblets decussated by finer concentric striae, 
color white. Length 17, breadth 10$,' alt. 8 mill. 

Isl. of Masbate, Philippines. 

Patella galeata HELBLING, Beitrage zur Kenntuiss neuer und 
seltener Conchylien, in Abhandl. einer Privatgesellschaft in Bohmen 
zur Aufnahme der Mathematik, der vaterlandischen Geschichte und 
der Naturgeschichte, Bd. iv, p. 103, t. 1, f. 3, 4, 1779. VON MAR- 
TENS, in Malak. Blatter, xvi, p. 235. F. pileopsoides RVE. Conch. 
Icon., f. 99, 1850. F. pileopsides (sic.) SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 
199, f. 120, 121. F. pileus SWAINS. Malacol., p. 356 (teste H. & A. 
Ads.), not described. 

A curious shell, having the summit hooked over the front margin. 
Since there is some doubt about which of the two names pileop- 
soides or pileus, should be used, it is certainly best to revert to the 
ancient one proposed by Helbling. 

Subgenus CLYPIDELLA Swainson, 1840. 

Clypidella Sw., Malacol. p. 356. Type, F. pustula, (Sowerby's 
Genera, Fusurella, fig. 3.). Clypidella, in part, of authors. 

The shell is short-oval, depressed, saddle-shaped, the two extremi- 
ties elevated so that when standing on a plane the side margins 



176 FISSURELLA. 

alone support it. Surface radiately ribbed. Orifice long, narrow, 
dilated in the middle, bordered inside by an oval callus which is 
not truncated posteriorly. Edges crenulated. 

The animal has been figured by A. Adams (Genera Rec. Moll.) 
and by Dr. Fischer (Journ. de Conchyl. vi, pi. vii). The former 
author has unquestionably made a mistake in the species ; his figure 
does not represent Clypidella pustula. This blunder has mislead 
most subsequent investigators, causing them to give the group 
higher systematic value than its characters warrant. Fischer's 
figures show the animal to be very similar to the other species of 
Fissurella, comparatively small, and wholly covered by the shell, 
except the projecting head. 

The animal with shell is shown on pi. 59, fig. 42 ; in fig. 43 it is 
seen from above with the shell removed ; fig. 44, ventral aspect of 
the same. It is, says Fischer, quite flat, and in the contracted con- 
dition the free borders of the mantle do not extend to the edge of 
the shell by several millimeters ; in the living state it is expanded, 
its fringe corresponding to the sinuosities of the shell-edge, but not 
reflexed up ovr the shell, which has epidermis and is often covered 
all over with marine incrustations. The mantle-edges are double, 
ornamented with little tubercles ; the upper edge is very regularly 
crenulated, corresponding with the depressions in the edge of the 
shell ; the lower edge has fine papillae throughout its length. Anal 
orifice oval, elongated, pretty large, membranous; its edges not 
digitated nor formed into a siphon ; muscle-impression extending far 
forward, narrow, rounded at its anterior extremity. The two ends 
are united by a narrow, horizontal transverse muscle band, lacking in 
other species. The head is robust, elongated, extending in front 
of the shell when alive. Tentacles thick and short ; mouth forming 
a vertical slit. Foot exactly oval, a little wider behind, quite thick, 
perceptibly rugose above, but not having tubercles large enough to 
be seen on a design of natural size. Epipodial row of tubercles 
present. 

F. PUSTULA Lamarck. PI. 59, figs. 42-47. 

Shell rounded-oval, depressed, truncated in front ; margin sinuous, 
elevated in front and behind ; orifice cross-shaped, situated at the 
front third of the shell, bounded by a red line. 

The outline is oval, more or less truncated in front, much de- 
pressed, the altitude contained about four times in the length. 
The color is usually buff with short red rays around the perforation, 



FISSURELLA. 177 

but specimens of a white or crimson color occur, still having, how- 
ever, the short white flames around the orifice. The sculpture 
consists of numerous radiating riblets separated by narrow grooves ; 
these riblets being smaller in front. Inside white, with a red line 
bounding the perforation-callus ; edge crenulated. 
Length 20, breadth 17, alt. 5 mill. 

Cape Lookout to Barbados. 

F. pustula LAMARCK, An. s. Vert, vi, 2d pt, p. 14, 1822 ; and of 
subsequent authors. Not Patella pustula LINN., Syst. x, p. 784, an 
unrecognizable species of Glyphis. 

A well-known species, inhabiting Cuba, St. Thomas, St. Croix and 
the West Indies generally, recently reported by Dall from the 
region of Hatteras. It is readily seperable from F. fascicularis by 
the more anterior position of the orifice, and the shorter shell, ob- 
viously truncated in front. 

F. FASCICULARIS Lamarck. PI. 37, figs. 59, 60 ; pi. 59, figs. 48, 49, 

50. 

Shell oval, depressed, not truncated in front ; margin sinuous, 
elevated in front and behind ; orifice cross-shaped, separated from the 
front margin of the shell by double its own length or more. 

This shell has the same saddle shape as the preceding, but is less 
truncated in front. The radiating riblets (usually about 47 in num- 
ber) are coarser ; they are slightly cut by concentric striae. The 
color is usually crimson-red, the interstices whitish ; darker rays 
when present, not conspicuous. Inside white or tinged with pink, 
the perforation-callus sometimes bordered by a red line. Edge cren- 
ulated. Length 30, width 22, alt. 6-8 mill. 

Florida Keys to Porto Rico and Jamaica. 

F. fascicu laris Lam. An. s. Vert, vi, 2d pt., p. 14. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 59. ARANGO, Fauna Mai. Cubana p. 228. SOWB. Thes., 
iii, p. 204, f. 212-214. Clypidella fascicularis Lam., DALL, Prelim. 
Cat. Moll. S-E. U. S. p. 173. 

More oval than F. pustula, and having the fissure nearer the cen- 
ter. 

Dall (1. c.) places this species in Clypidella, but separates F. pus- 
tula under Fissurellidea. F. pustula is, however, the type of Clypi- 
della ! 

12 



178 FISSURELLIDIN^E. 

Subfamily II. FISSURELLIDIN^, Pilsbry. 

Animal much too large to be included in the shell, even when 
contracted in spirit. Rhachidian tooth far broader than the laterals, 
not narrowed above. Shell with the apex removed by a large per- 
foration, which is bounded inside by an entire, not truncated, callus 
rim. 

It is not improbable that Macroschisma and Lucapinella will be 
found to belong elsewhere ; in this case, the subfamily will be re- 
stricted to the forms included under my first division in the con- 
spectus of genera. 

The shells of this group may generally be recognized by the large 
perforation, gaping extremities, and entire, not truncated, hole- 
callus. 

I have used shell-characters as largely as possible in the following 
analytical table, which represents, however, the natural grouping of 
the forms as I understand them. 

Conspectus of Genera. 

I. Mantle wholly or in part covering the shell, and enveloping 
the foot ; its border without papillae. 

A. Shell with a white rim or border above; very small in 
proportion to the animal ; mantle extending far beyond the 
foot on all sides, 
a. Edge of shell rounded ; mantle-margin thickened. 

Genus FISSURELLIDEA, Orb. 
b> Edge of shell grooved, acute ; mantle margin thin. 

Genus PUPILL^EA, Gray. 

J5. Shell not white-bordered above, more than half the length 
of the animal ; mantle extending but little beyond the 
borders of the foot. 

a. Edges of shell nearly in a plane, finely crenulated, the 
ends not elevated. Genus LUCAPINA, Gray. 

b. Edges of shell elevated at each end, blunt at the sides, in 
adults not crenulated. Genus MEGATEBENNUS, Pils. 

II. Mantle not enveloping either shell or foot, the latter large and 
fleshy, produced posteriorly beyond the shell ; shell with the 
posterior margin more or less elevated, sides and front margin 
in a plane. 

A. Apex of shell posterior, removed by a large triangular fis- 
sure, the wide end of which is very near the posterior margin 

of shell ; tentacles long, subulate. 

Genus MACROSCHISMA, Sw. 






FISSURELLIDEA. 179 

B. Apex subcentral, perforation the shape of the shell ; ten- 
tacles short, blunt. Genus LUCAPINELLA, Pils. 



Genus FISSURELLIDEA s. str. 

Fissurellidea ORB., Voy. dans TAmer. Merid., p. 447. Type, F. 
megatrema Orb.=hiantula Lam., not of authors. 

The oblong shell is nearly covered by the mantle ; its edge is 
thickened, rounded, with a white rim above. The fissure is very 
large, subcentral in position. 

Animal much larger than the shell ; mantle thickened at its bor- 
ders, much exceeding the foot in size. The latter bears a row of 
epipodial papillae along its sides. Dentition unknown. 

But one species of the genus as here restricted is known. 

F. HIANTULA Lamarck. PI. 43, figs. 89, 90, 91, 92, 93. 

Shell oval, thin, depressed, nearly smooth, whitish, radiated with 
purplish ; inside white ; margin thickened ; foramen oval, large, 
(two-fifths the length of shell), broadly margined within. ( Orb.) 

Length 29, alt. 5 mill. 

Ensenada de J?os, on the coast of Patagonia, 15 leagues south of the 
Rio Negro. 

Fissurella hiantula Lam., An. s. Vert, vi, pt. 2, p. 14, 1822. 
Fissurellidea hiantula H. & A. AD. Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 449 (not 
F. hiantula of Reeve, Sowerby, et al.). Fissurellidea megatrema 
ORB. Voy. dans 1'Amer. Merid. p. 477, t. 63, f. 5-10. Fissurella 
aperta Sow., REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 39. 

Animal, according to Orbigny, very large, fleshy, coriaceous, de- 
pressed. Mantle very large, smooth above, strongly thickened at 
the edges ; it encloses the shell almost completely. Foot not so large 
as the mantle, oval, a little acuminated behind. Head very volu- 
minous, with a very fleshy muzzle, the tentacles short, compressed, 
obtuse, bearing the eyes at their bases. Between the foot and the 
mantle there is a row of little papillae. The sole is of a blue color, 
the rest yellowish. 

This is unquestionably the true hiantula of Lamarck, agreeing 
with his description, and with the figure in Bora's Test. Mus. Caes. 
Vindob., p. 414, vignette fig. F. The shell identified as " hiantula" 
by Reeve and others is quite a different form, having no resem- 



180 PUPILLAEA. 

blance to Bern's vignette cited by Lamarck. See also under F. 
scutellum Gmel. H. and A. Adams confused an oriental species 
with this under the name of F. liiantula. 



Genus PUPILLAEA (Gray) Krauss, 1848. 

Pupillia GRAY, Synops. contents Brit. Mus. 42d edit., p. 151, 
1840 (only a name ; no description or type indicated) ; Guide Syst. 
dist. Moll. Brit. Mus., pt. 1, p. 167, 1857. Pupillaea Gray, KRAUSS, 
Die Siidafric. Moll., p. 62, 1848. Sows., Thes. iii, p. 204. 

The shell is completely covered by the mantle, its edge white, 
sharpened and grooved ; aperture very large, a little back of the 
middle. 

Animal much larger than the shell, covered above with a leathery 
mantle, thin at its edges ; foot much smaller than the mantle, tuber- 
culate and wrinkled. The nature of the epipodial ridge and denti- 
tion is not known. 

Gray neither defined the group or specified what species belonged 
to it in 1840. Sowerby says that he mentions it in the appendix to 
Beech ey's Narrative, but I have not been able to find it there. 

P. APERTA Sowerby. PI. 44, figs. 6, 7, 8 ; pi. 62, fig. 9. 

Shell oblong-elliptical, solid, convex, less so in front than behind ; 
a little elevated or " gaping " at the ends, but not nearly so much as 
F. scutellum Gray ; very prettily waved-striate concentrically and 
finely radiately ribbed. The riblets are very close, and are narrow 
and somewhat elevated in front and behind, but on the sides are 
again as broad and rather flat. The orifice is very large, long- 
elliptical, its edges rounded, and is situated a little behind the middle 
of the shell. The edge of the shell is double, consisting of the upper 
layer, which is colored and ribbed outside, and the inner layer, 
smooth and white, projecting a millimeter beyond the outer layer, 
upon which the animal is fastened by a thin coat. This peculiarity, 
which serves to distinguish the shell from that of Fissurella, may 
serve as an additional generic character. The shell is bluish-gray 
with 6 dirty reddish-brown broad rays, and several lines, sometimes 
interrupted, of the same color. Inside white and shining. (Krauss.) 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Fissurella aperta SOWB. Catal. Sh. Coll. Tankerville, appendix, p. 
vi, 1825. F. hiantula Lam., SOWB. Conchol. Illustr., f. 10 (not F. 
hiantula LAM. !). Pupillaea aperta Gray, KRAUSS, Die Siidafric. 



PUPILL^EA-LUCAPINA. 181 

Moll, p. 62, t. 4, f. 11. SOWB. Thes. iii, p. 204, f. 228, 229. 
Pupillia apertura GRAY. Not F. aperta Reeve. 

This shell may be recognized by the peculiarity of the margin, 
the inner layer projecting at the border beyond the outer, forming 
a narrow, white ledge. The sculpture of fine concentric striae over 
radiating riblets, is shown in fig. 7 of pi. 44. I have been unable 
to find the description of P. aperta in the appendix to Beechey's 
Voyage. 

Krauss describes the animal thus : The animal has the size and 
form of Onchidium peronii Cuv., is oval-elliptical, strongly convex, 
spreading out near the margins, smooth, covered with a leathery 
skin, whitish, perhaps also reddish-gray, with many unequal black 
flecks. Above, a third part from the front, there is a small hole, 
only 4 mill, long, in the depth of which, exactly as in Fissurella, 
there is a thick membrane pierced by a round opening, which serves 
as a gill-hole through the fissure in the shell. The shell is com- 
pletely covered by the leathery skin, so that one must cut through 
it to extract the shell. The head lies several lines within the ex- 
panded front border of the mantle, and has two short tentacles, 
scarcely reaching as far as the end of the snout. The mantle-mar- 
gin is thin, and much broader than the wrinkled and granulated 
foot. 

Genus LUCAPINA Gray, 1857. 

Lucapina GRAY, Synops. Brit. Mus. 1840, p. 151 (no diagnosis or 
species mentioned) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1847, p. 147 (Fissurella 
aperta Sow. and Lucapina elegans Gray mentioned) ; Guide to the 
Syst. Distrib. Moll. Brit. Mus., p. 166, 1857 (the genus for the first 
time diagnosed, L. eancellata and L. crenulata mentioned). Lu- 
capina of P. P. CARPENTER and American authors generally. Not 
Lucapina H. & A. ADAMS, Genera Rec. Moll, i, p. 447, 1858. 

There seems to have been the greatest indecision in Gray's mind 
as to which group of the Fissurellidse he w T ould attach this name. 
He finally decided on the West American species in 1857. It should 
be noted that Lucapina of the brothers Adams is the same as 
Glyphis Cpr. 

Shell large, oblong-oval, imbedded in the mantle, but large enough 
to cover most of the upper surface of the animal ; apex a little in front 
of the middle, entirely removed by the large oval perforation ; edges 
of shell not thickened, very regularly and finely crenulated at all 



182 LUCAPINA-MEGATEBENNUS. 

stages of growth ; internal callus-rim of perforation somewhat ex- 
cavated posteriorly in young shells. 

Animal black, " like India-rubber," the finely granulose mantle 
covering the shell in life, its edges smooth, thinned, not papillose ; 
border of dorsal pore simple, not papillose. Foot (in alcoholic spec- 
imens) extending posteriorly a short distance beyond mantle, encir- 
cled by a row of short papillae borne on a low epipodial ridge. Ten- 
tacles long, pointed, clavate, eyes on prominent rounded peduncles 
behind them. 

L. CRENULATA Sowerby. PI. 44, figs. 95, 96. 

Shell very large, light buff or stained with grayish, the surface 

radiately striate, obscurely decussated by growth-lines and wrinkles. 

Edge very regularly and finely serrated ; interior white ; muscle- 

' scar broad, not impressed. Perforation large, oval, a little in front 

of the middle. Length 120, breadth 78, alt. 23 mill. 

Monterey to San Diego, Cat. 

Fissurella crenulata SOWB. Catal. Tankerville, Appendix, p. vi, 
1825 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 31. REEVE, Gonchol. Icon., f. 18. La- 
capina crenulata of Carpenter and others. Megathura California 

NUTTALL MSS. 

For account of animal and dentition see Dall, Amer. Journ. 
Conch. 1872, p. 131. 

This is the largest of the Fissurellidse, and in its great size and 
beautifully crenulated border is one of the most distinct. 

See under Glyphis for certain points in which some species of that 
genus and this seem to approach. 

Genus MEGATEBENNUS Pilsbry, 1890. 

The small species grouped under this name agree with Fissurellidea 
(as restricted to Orbigny's type) in having a partially internal, large- 
apertured shell, a mantle ample enough to cover the entire dorsal 
surface of the foot and head, its edges entire ; they differ from 
Fissurellidea in the much greater proportional size of the shell, more 
elevated body, the foot (viewed ventrally) almost as extensive as the 
mantle, the margin of the latter not at all thickened, and the shell 
not white-bordered above. 

F. bimaculata Dall may be considered the type. 

In the specimen examined by me, the very densely and minutely 
granulate mantle envelopes the entire head and upper surface of the 



MEGATEBENNUS. 183 

foot, and extends upward well over the margins of the shell. Its 
edges, both above and below are smooth, thin. The epipodial ridge 
is a simple raised line. The dorsal pore has no papillae or processes 
around it. 

The specimen having been long in alcohol was much contracted 
and of a uniform brown color. It is drawn on pi. 61, Fig. 11 repre- 
senting a side view of animal with shell. 

Fig. 10 ventral aspect of foot, showing the head enveloped by the 
mantle. 

Fig. 12 mantle cut away to show head with tentacle and eye, and 
beginning of the epipodial ridge. 

Compare Dall's description of F. bimaeulata. 

M. BIMACULATA Ball. PI. 44, fig. 94. 

Shell ellipsoidal when young, subquadrangulate and a little nar- 
rower in front than behind when adult. Aperture the same shape 
as the shell, slightly encroached upon in some specimens tiy a point 
on each side. External surface furnished with radiating rounded 
costse, widening slightly toward the margin ; these are crossed by 
evident but not very strong lines of growth, which in some individuals 
are rather strong. Anterior declivity of the shell concave, sides 
flattened, posterior declivity rounded convex. Color whitish with 
numerous radiating rays of brown or slate color, usually with a 
broad fasciculus of darker rays in the middle of each side extending 
from the apex to the margin, and occasional dark dots on the ribs. 
Shell occasionally entirely brown or slate-color, with two darker 
rays on the sides. Epidermis none. Interior pure white, the two 
dark rays sometimes showing through the shell. Extreme outer 
edge finely denticulate or rounded and smooth according to the 
stage of growth. Margin as a whole broad, smooth, differentiated 
from the rest of the surface by a wide shallow groove. Margin of 
the aperture similarly bordered. .Muscular .impressions distinct, 
surface marked by fine radiating lines ; polished. Anterior and 
posterior margins internally concave or emarginated, so that when 
laid upon a flat surface in the natural position the ends of the shell 
do not touch it. (Dall.) Length 16, breadth 10, alt. 31 mill. 

Monterey, Baulinas Bay, Santa Barbara, Purissima, and Lobitas, 
Cal 

Fissurellidea bimacidata DALL, Amer. Journ Conch, vii, p. 132, t. 
15, f. 7, 1872. Clypidella bimaculata DALL ms. 



184 MEGATEBENNUS. 

Dr. Ball's original description is given. The external anatomy 
is described by him in the place cited above. The epipodial line 
has papillae, according to him ; so it is likely that my specimen was 
deficient or imperfect, perhaps from too long remaining in alcohol. 
It is described above. 

Section AMBLYCHILEPAS Pilsbry, 1890. 

Large-fissured Fissurellidse with a saddle-shaped shell, elevated 
at the two ends, its margin thickened, blunt, not crenulated and 
without a white border or rim above. The perforation oblong or 
oval, subcentral. Type F. trapezina Sowb. 

The animal is not known. The excessively unsatisfactorily con- 
dition of our knowledge of the animals of the Fissurellidse renders 
systematic work with the shells alone very uncertain. It has seemed 
to me necessary to institute this group in order to have a place for 
the following oriental species, which have a somewhat different 
aspect from the West American Megatebennus. 

M. scutellum Gmel. (hiantula auct. not of Lam.) is probably 
equally typical of the group with the trapezina. 

From Clypidella the shells of this genus are separated by the 
much wider, subcentral (not anterior) orifice, non-crenulated mar- 
gin, etc. 

M. SCUTELLUM Gmelin. PL 39, fig. 89 ; pi. 44, figs. 99, 100, 1, 2. 

Shell oblong-oval, low-conical, compressed at the sides ; perforation 
a little in front of the middle, rather large, oval, about one-fifth the 
length of the shell. Color grayish, with broad rays of purple or 
red. 

The outline is oblong ; in front and back more or less convex, 
compressed and flattened along the sides. The margin at both ends 
is strongly raised, so that when placed on a plane the sides alone 
support it. It is sculptured with very numerous close radiating rib- 
lets, subobsolete concentric growth-lines, and generally has the posi- 
tions of one or two former peristomes marked by slight ledges. In- 
side white or nearly so, having a rather wide callus margin around 
the perforation. Muscle-scar deeply impressed, very near the edge, 
its anterior extremities connected by a deep, curved muscle-impres- 
sion. Margin blunt, not crenulated. 

Length 34, width 21, alt. 10 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 



MEGATEBENNUS. 185 

Das Durchbohrte Schildchen MEUSCHEN, Conchyliologische Briefe, 
In Der Naturforscher, 18te Stuck, p. 11, t. 2, f. 3, Halle, 1782. 
Patella scutellum Gmel. Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3731. Fissurella scutel- 
lum Gray, KRAUSS, Die Siidaf. Moll. p. 63, 64. Fissurella hian- 
tula Lam., REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 36, Aug. 1849. Fissurellidea 
hiantula Lam., SOWB. Thes. Conch., iii, p. 202, f. 193, 194, 195. F. 
hiantula of some other authors, but not of Lamarck, nor ofH. & A. 
Adams. 

The confusion in the books is so great that no course seems open 
except an appeal to the original authors. Gmelin cites only one 
figure for his Patella scutellum (exclusive of varieties); that one is 
Meuschen's excellent and unmistakable illustration, with which 
the brief description also agrees, and which represents the F. 
hiantula of Reeve and others. This is not the F. hiantula Lam., 
for Lamarck refers to Bora's vignette (Test. Mus. Ca?s. p. 414, fig. 
F.) as an illustration of his shell. This vignette represents F. 
megatrema Orb. (Note especially the characteristic white border !): 
Certainly not the hiantula of Reeve and modern authors. Sowerby 
{Conchol. Illust.) refers hiantula Lam. to Pupillia aperta a wholly 
improbable supposition. 

M. CHEMXITZII Sowerby. PI. 36, fig. 90. 

Shell ovate, attenuated anteriorly, rather depressed, peculiarly 
compressed at the sides, lifted at the extremities ; radiately ribbed, 
ribs rugged, unequal, obsoletely nodose, rather swollen here and 
there ; orifice large, oval ; stained and rayed with olive-green and 
purple-rose. (Rve.) 

Benguela, West Africa. 

F. chemnitzii Sows., P. Z. S. 1834, p. 126 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 55. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 1. Fissurellidea chemnitzii SOWB. Thes., 
p. 202, f. 29, 192. 

M. SELLA Sowerby Jr. PL 62, fig. 8. 

Shell short, narrowed in front, sides a little compressed, ends 
much elevated ; fulvous-reddish, minutely striated, grayish inside ; 
margin smooth, circumscribed by a purple callus. An interesting 
saddle-shaped shell, which has the pinched-up character of F. hian- 
tula [=-F. scutellum Gm.] etc., but is much shorter. It has the ends 
raised more than any other species. (Sowb.~) 

South Africa. 

Fissurellidea sella SOWB. Thes., p. 203, f. 297. 



186 MEGATEBENNUS. 

M. COMPLANATA Sowerby Jr. PI. 62, fig. 13. 

Shell oblong, depressed, white, ends a little elevated, with impressed 
radiating lines and concentrically most minutely striated ; inside 
with thickened crenulated margin, circumscribed by a wide callus ; 
foramen large, oval, central. A thick shell, with ends slightly 
elevated and very large fissure. (Sowb.~) 

East coast of Africa. 

F. complanata SOWB. Thes. Conch, iii, p. 203, f. 201. 
M. FLORESCENS Sowerby Jr. PI. 62, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell oblong, thin, narrowed in front, subdepressed, the ends a 
little elevated, concentrically undulately striated, radiated with de- 
pressed, unequal riblets ; reddish-brown, variegated with red, white 
inside. Margin crenulated, rosy, perforation-callus rose-margined ; 
foramen large, a little below the middle. A very pretty shell in 
Mr. Hanley's collection, in some respects resembling F. chemnitzii, 
but much thinner and not so much pinched at the sides or elevated 
at the ends. (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

F.florescens SOWB. Thes., p. 202, .202, 203. 

M. INCARNATA Krauss. PI. 35, figs. 4, 5. 

The shell is ovate-oblong, usually of equal width in front and be- 
hind, rarely narrower in front, thin, sometimes depressed, some- 
times convex, rose-red, marked with dark or reddish-brown bands 
and flecks. The radiating striae are very fine, distinct and rather 
equal, quite so in a few specimens. The orifice is a little back of the 
middle, oblong, of equal width (in the figured specimen measuring, 
length 1-8, breadth '8 lines), whitish or grayish on its outer edge. 
The edge of the shell is, in well-preserved specimens, very sharp and 
finely crenulated, but often is worn and smooth. The shell gapes 
strongly at both ends, and when standing on a plane, rests only up- 
on the middle of the side-margins. Inside it is shining, white or 
pale rose, somewhat darker at the periphery, the perforation-callus 
edged with gray. The muscle-impression is distinct, and lies about 
a millimeter from the margin. 

The proportion of breadth to length varies much. 

Length 7'8, breadth 4, alt. 1*8 lines. (Krauss.) 

Length 7, breadth 4, alt. 1'9 lines. 

Length 6'6, breadth 4'2, alt. 1'6 lines. 

Table and False Bays, Natal. 

F. incarnata KRAUSS, Die Su'daf. Moll., p. 65, t. 4, f. 7. 



MEGATEBENNUS. 187 

This species is thinner, more finely striated than F. scutellum 
Gmel. and has proportionately far smaller orifice. 

It is separated from F. mutabilis var. sagittata by the form of the 
shell-edge, which is curved at the ends, so that the shell rests on the 
side-margins alone when placed upon a plane surface. 

M. NIGRITA Sowerby. PL 44, figs. 97, 98. 

Shell oblong-oval depressed, the orifice nearly central or a little 
behind the middle, large, oblong, nearly one-third the length of the 
shell. Surface finely radiately striated and with uneven growth- 
striae ; dark brown in color, obscurely rayed with darker. 

The form is oblong, both extremities decidedly elevated, so that 
the shell rests upon the sides when standing upon a plane. The color 
is " dark ash-brown, obscurely black-rayed." The inside is bluish ; 
orifice surrounded by a narrow marginal callus ; edge of shell blunt, 
smooth. Length 14-16, breadth 9, alt. 4 mill. 

South Australia; Tasmania. 

F. nigrita SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 127 ; Conchol. Illust., f. 47. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 41. SOWB. Thes. Conch., Hi, p. 203, f. 196. 

A dark colored species, elevated at both ends, with larger perfora- 
tion than F. scutellum Gm. (F. hiantula Auct.), and a narrower mar- 
ginal callus around the perforation. It is less compressed at the 
sides than most scutellum. 

M. CONCATENATA Crosse & Fischer. PI. 22, figs. 40/41, 42. 

Shell oval, depressed, without radiating ribs, very slightly com- 
pressed laterally, ornamented all over the outside with an elegant 
pattern of little rounded pits, becoming oval near the margins. Per- 
foration large, oblong, a little over one-fifth the length of the shell. 

The outline is oval, depressed ; color pure white ; sculpture look- 
ing like the base of a honeycomb, but the pitting somewhat irregular 
usually. Inside with a narrow callus rim around the perforation ; 
muscle-impression not impressed, close to the margin. The shell is 
rather thin. 

Length 15, breadth 10, alt. 3i mill. 

Length 18, breadth 13 mill. 

Port Lincoln, S. Australia, and Lake Macquarie, JV. S. Wales. 

Fissurella concatenata C. & F. Journ. de Conchyl. xii, 1864, p. 
348 ; I c. 1865, p. 41, t. 3, f. 1-3. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 184. 
The peculiarly pitted surface is highly characteristic. 



188 MEGATEBENNUS. 

M. TRAPEZINA Sowerby. PI. 62, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

Shell short, quadrate, the angles rounded, fissure a little in front 
of the middle, rather large, elliptical, one-fifth the length of the shell 
or a little more ; concentric striae fine, regular, more obvious than 
than the radiating ones. Color a light fawn tint, rayed with brown. 

The outline is unusually square in adult shells (but the half-grown 
are oval), the front margin being abruptly truncated, and strongly 
arched upward. The posterior end is broadly rounded, and also a 
little curved upward. The surface is sculptured all over with 
beautifully fine and regular concentric striae, decussated by equally 
fine radiating striae, scarcely visible except near the summit. The 
color is a very delicate fawn or cream, upon which rays and lines of 
light, but rich brown, radiate toward the margins. Inside of a rather 
soiled white, the perforation bordered by a strongly defined callus, 
which is bounded by a roughened tract. The muscle-impression is 
very deep, close to the edge of the shell, its enlarged anterior ex- 
tremities connected by a roughened scar. The edge of the shell is 
blunt. Length 25, breadth 20*, alt. 7 mill. 

Guichen and Holdfast Bays, S. Australia ; Tasmania; New South 
Wales, Australia. 

F. Javanicensis LAMARCK, An. s. Vert, vi, pt. 2, p. 14. Deles- 
sert, Rec, de Coq., t. 24, f. 8. F. trapezina SOWB. P. Z. S. 1834, p. 
126. F. scutellwn (GRAY in coll. Brit. Mus.) SOWERBY, Conch. 
Illustr., p. 5, f. 34. F. scutella Gray, REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 33. 
Fissurellidea scutella G. B. SOWB. JR., Thes. Conch, iii, p. 203, f. 
207. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 868. (not Patella scutellum GMELIN). 
Fissurella tasmaniensis BONNET, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 2d ser. 
xvi, 1864, p. 72, t. 6, f. 5. 

A squarish species, much shorter than F. scutellum and beautifully 
striate concentrically. The coloration is peculiar. 

This shell was first described by Lamarck, and should perhaps 
bear the name imposed by him. I have rejected it because the 
species* does not occur within a thousand miles of Java, and because 
he described a young shell. Sowerby's F. Javanieensis (Conch. 
Illust., f. 12) is quite a different thing, probably a form of F. scutel- 
lum Gmel. The locality given by some authors, Cape of Good 
Hope, requires confirmation. 



MACROSCHISMA. 189 

Genus MACROSCHISMA Swainson, 1840. 

Macrochisma SWAINS., Malacol., p. 356, 1840 ; type, M. hiatula 
Sw., (Sowerby's Genera, Fissurella, fig. 5). Macroschisma of most 
authors. 

Generic characters. 

Fissurellidce with an oblong shell not at all covered by the mantle, 
and much shorter than the long fleshy foot, its apex near the posterior 
margin, wholly removed by a large subtriangular fissure the wider end 
of which is very close to the posterior end of the shell. 

The shell is situated on the front part of the body, the mantle ex- 
tended a little in front of it. Tentacles long, subulate, the eyes on 
slight swellings at their outer bases. Epipodial ridge wholly obsolete. 
Anal tube rather long, directed backward. 

Species distributed from Tasmania to Japan. 

The more obvious characters are the large fissure close to the 
hinder end of the shell, margined inside by an entire narrow callus, 
and the posterior position of the vertex. 

Swainson described Macroschisma as a subgenus of Fissurella. 
The brothers Adams (Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 449) consider it a genus; 
they commit the absurd error of mistaking the back for the front end 
of the shell an error immediately detected by a glance at the 
muscle impression . inside. Gray, Sower by, and even our model 
systematist Fischer, all say that the perforation is close to the an- 
terior end ! all of which goes to show how a book-maker depends up- 
on his predecessors. 

Fischer, in classing Macroschisma under Fusurella as a subgenus, 
is clearly in error. The group constitutes one of the most distinct 
genera of Fissurellidce. 

3[acroschisma has been monographed by Arthur Adams, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1850, p. 202, (8 species) and by G. B. Sowerby 
Jr. ; Thesaurus Conchyliorum, vol. iii, p. 205, (12 species). The last 
monograph is valuable for its illustrations of Adam's unfigured 
species, but none of the published descriptions are worth much. 
Sowerby seems to have wrongly identified a number of forms (M. 
hiatula Swains., for example), and for this reason I have omitted 
referring to the Thesaurus in some cases. Thirteen species are de- 
scribed herein, but some of them will doubtless prove syftonyms. 

The animal pi. 59, fig. 59, of M. sinensis is thus described by Ar- 
thur Adams : Animal very large and elongated, bearing the shell 



190 MACROSCHISMA. 

in a sloping direction obliquely upwards on the fore part of the body. 
The tentacles are filiform and very long ; and the eyes large, black, 
and conspicuous, are on slight swellings at their outer bases. The 
front edge of the mantle is extended, and gives the appearance of a 
large veil over the head. The mantle is not developed, nor does it 
cover the shell as in some members of the Fissurellidce, and neither 
the mantle margin nor the anal tube is fringed. The edge of the 
mantle is furnished with short papillae, four on each side and two 
behind, which are recurved over the edge of the shell. The anal 
tube is elongate and cylindrical, and is directed backwards and a 
little upwards through the foramen in the shell. The foot, large 
and fleshy, is produced behind and tapers to a point. It is ovate in 
outline, and the sides are simple, and not furnished with cirri or 
papillae. 

In progression the form of the foot varies considerably, sometimes 
being greatly dilated at the sides, and at others extended in front 
and contracted and pointed behind. The tentacles are red ; the 
eyes black with a light areola ; the body is light brown, lineated 
with darker brown. 



Species. 

M. SINENSIS A. Adams. PI. 59, figs. 56, 57, 58, 59. 

Shell oblong, the length a little exceeding twice the width, 
elevated, the altitude about one-fourth the length. Lateral margins 
a trifle convex, subparallel. Surface seen under a lens to be all over 
exquisitely latticed by clear-cut radiating and concentric striae. 
Perforation narrow, long, somewhat wider posteriorly, about one- 
third the length of the shell. Color grayish-white, with one or two 
broad radiating brown bands on each side. 

The peristome in this species is curved upward both in front and 
behind, but decidedly more so in the rear. The outline is quite 
blunt at the ends, especially posteriorly. The color of adults is a 
dull whitish, with a broad brownish ray extending toward each 
corner of the shell, the posterior pair arising from about the middle 
of the perforation. This fissure is very narrow, its greatest breadth 
scarcely a*fourth of its length ; it is scarcely dilated posteriorly, but 
as in the other species the margin is excavated there. Inside whit- 



MACROSCHISMA. 191 

ish, obscurely showing the dark rays of the outer surface ; perfora- 
tion margined by a narrow callus. 

Length 10* breadth 5, alt. 2 mill. 

Tabu-sima, Japan ; China Seas ; Singapore. 

M. sinensis A. AD. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 122. Sows. Thes., p. 205, f. 
215. A. AD. P. Z. S. 1867 ; p. 312, t. 19, f. 28 (animal.) 

A beautifully clathrate species, the concentric raised striae being 
equally as elevated as the radials, but narrower. Some specimens 
have only one pair of broad rays, the anterior pair being absent. 
There is sometimes a pink tint on each side of the fissure. 

M. WELDII Tenison- Woods. PI. 59, figs. 33, 34, 35. 

Shell lengthened (the length a little exceeding twice the breadth), 
elevated (the altitude contained about 4? times in the length) ; 
lateral margins nearly straight, but a trifle convex ; surface finely 
radiately ribbed, the riblets subequal, but occasional ones are a trifle 
larger; growth-lines fine, irregular. Perforation obtusely wedge 
shaped, its length contained five times in the length of the shell. 
Color grayish, closely speckled and suffused with black in more or 
less distinct rays ; lighter around the edges. 

The peristome is strongly curved upward posteriorly, not at all 
in front. About every fourth riblet of the outer surface is a trifle 
larger than the others, but the difference in size is not notable. In- 
side bluish-white. Fissure surrounded by a rather narrow callus 
rim; muscle-impression not deeply impressed excejt posteriorly. 
Fissure oblong-wedge-shaped, rounded at each end, its length a little 
over twice its greatest width, excavated on the back margin. 

Length 2(H, width 9, alt. 4* mill. 

Circular Head, Tasmania. 

M. tasmanica TEN.- WOODS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1875, p. 157, 
1876 (not M. tasmanice Sowb.). M. weldii T.-WooDS, P. R. S. Tasm. 
for 1876, p. 156, 1877 ; and var. rosea radiata, I. c. 

First described as M. tasmanica, the name changed on account of 
the similarity to Sowerby's M. tasmanim. 

Var. ROSEORADIATA Tenison-Woods. 

Ornamented with numerous rose colored rays. 
M. TASMANIA Sowerby Jr. PI. 59, figs. 52, 53, 54. 

Shell oblong, the length double the breadth or nearly so, elevated', 
the altitude one-fourth to one-third the length ; lateral margins 



192 MACROSCHISMA. 

somewhat convex ; radiately ribbed, ribs made irregular by irregular 
growth wrinkles ; anterior ribs alternately large and small. Per- 
foration wedge-shaped, its length contained about 4? times in that 
of the shell. Color whitish, obscurely concentrically clouded with 
yellowish, and having riblets at intervals speckled with brown. 

The peristome curves strongly upward posteriorly, and this end is 
more bluntly, broadly rounded than the other. The front end is not 
curved upward. The radiating riblets are much stronger on the 
long anterior slope, and alternate with much smaller ones ; they are 
rendered uneven by irregular growth-marks. The orifice is on the 
posterior slope, which below it is broadly eroded, the erosion not ex- 
tending, however, to the posterior edge of the shell. Inside it is 
white, except a tract on each side and in front of the fissure, which 
is pink. The fissure is double as long as its greatest width ; it is 
surrounded by a callus, wide except on the back margin. Muscle- 
impression narrow, deeply impressed, especially posteriorly. 

Length 27, breadth 14, alt. 8-9 mill. 

Tasmanid. 

M. Tasmania Sows. Thes., p. 206, f. 223.? M. Tasmania Gray, 
ANGAS, List of addit. sp. Marine Moll. S. Australia, in P. Z. S. 1878, 
p. 868. 

M. MAXIMA A. Adams. PL 62, fig. 22. 

Shell oblong, ornamented with little-elevated, subrugose riblets 
and obsolete concentric striae ; radiately maculated with brown. 
Back elevated, sides planulate, front extremity rounded ; posteriorly 
elevated, subtruncate ; foramen dilated, excavated posteriorly. (Ad.) 

Hakodate, Japan. 

M. maxima AD. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 202 ; H. & A. AD., Genera Rec. 
Moll, iii, t. 51, f. 5. DUNKER Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 150. Fis- 
surella macroschisma Chemn., SCHRENCK, Reisen u. Forsch. im 
Amur-Lande, ii, Moll, des Amurlandes etc., p. 308. 

The original description and figure are given. The name macro- 
schisma has been applied to this species by some authors, but a glance 
at the figures in Chemnitz, and in Sowerby (Genera, Conch. III. and 
Thesaurus) show that at least two species have been confused under 
that name. Enquirers into the involved synonymy should consult 
Schrenck and Dunker (I. c.), but bear in mind that these authors 
have not properly discriminated between the two species mentioned 
above. It has not seemed expedient to give full references, at the 
risk of still more mistakes. 



MACROSCHISMA. 1 93 

M. DIT.ATATA A. Adams. PL 59, fig. 63. 

Shell ovate-oblong, radiately costate, red variegated with white, 
rounded all around; sides dilated; foramen oblong, narrowed in 
the middle. (Ad.} 

Habited unknown. 

M. dilatata AD. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 202. Sows. Thes. iii, p. 206, 
f. 220. 

M. HIATULA Swainson. PL 59, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell ovate-oblong, radiately costellate, brown, subdepressed, the 
sides concave, all over rounded ; foramen large, oblong, posteriorly 
dilated ; posterior extremity much elevated, margin scarcely sinuous. 
(Ad.} 

Habitat unknown. 

M. hiatida SWAINSON MalacoL, p. 356. AD. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 
202. Fissurella macroschisma SOWB. Genera of Shells, Fissurella 
fig. 5. 

This species has the slit rather narrow, not much dilated pos- 
teriorly. 

M. COMPRESSA A. Adams. PL 59, fig. 64. 

Shell narrowly oblong, white radiately painted with rose, decus- 
sated by granulose riblets and concentric striae, rounded, the back 
convex, sides compressed, inflexed in the middle ; posterior ex- 
tremity much elevated; foramen large, lanceolate, posteriorly 
dilated. (Ad.) 

Suez. 

M. compressa AD. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 202. SOWB. Thes., p. 205, f. 
218 FISCHER, Journ. de Conchy 1. 1871, p. 210. 

M. MEGATREMA A. Adams. PL 59, fig. 32. 

Shell ovate-oblong, white, radiately painted with rose ; sculptured 
with rugose riblets and concentric striae ; back subelevated, sides 
plan ul ate ; foramen ovate, lanceolate, very large. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

M. meyatrema AD. P. Z. S. 1850. SOWERBY, Thes., p. 205, f. 
227. 

M. CUSPIDATA A. Adams. PL 59, fig. 60. 

Shell ovate-oblong, anteriorly narrowed, produced, acuminate; 
posteriorly elevated, rounded; margin deeply undulating; brown 
13 



194 MACROSCHISMA. 

ornamented with concentric brown rings, cancellated with elevated 
and concentric lines; pale around the foramen; posterior extremity 
much elevated ; foramen large, cusp-shaped, dilated posteriorly. 

Cagayan, Philippine Is. 

M. cuspidata AD. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 202. SOWB. Thes., p. 106, 
f. 226. 

M. PRODUCTA A. Adams. PI. 59, fig. 62. 

Shell narrowly oblong, back elevated, convex, white, variegated 
with pale brown ; obsoletely decussated with elevated lines and con- 
centric striae ; anteriorly narrow, produced, sides planulate, posterior 
extremity rounded, elevated : margin deeply sinuated ; foramen 
very long, triangular, posteriorly dilated. (Ad.) 

Port Lincoln, S. Australia, deep water. 

M. producta AD. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 202. SOWB., Thes., p. 205, f. 
224. ANGAS, Moll. Fauna S. Austr., in P. Z. S. 1865, p. 185. 

M. ANGUSTATA A. Adams. PL 59, figs. 61. 

Shell narrow, oblong, back elevated, rounded, white, painted arid 
tessellated with brown lines and reddish-brown spots ; sculptured 
with obtuse, subrugose riblets and depressed, subdistant concentric 
lines ; posterior extremity elevated, margin sinuated ; foramen large, 
elongated, subtriangular, posteriorly dilated, excavated. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

M. anguxtata AD. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 203. SOWB. Thes., p. 205, f. 
225. 

M. BAKIEI (A. Adams) Sowb. PL 59, fig. 65. 

Shell oblong, subquadrate; anterior margin elevated, reflexed, 
sides anteriorly depressed ; posterior margin depressed, subtruncate ; 
having rounded, subnodulous ribs, alternately larger in front ; white, 
ornamented with radiating bands varied with brown lines at the 
sides and between the ribs of the posterior portion. Foramen at 
the posterior margin. (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

M. Bakiei A. AD., (where ?) SOWB. Thes. Conch., iii, p. 206, f. 221. 

M. NOV^ECALEDONI^: Sowerby Jr. PL 59, fig. 55. 

Shell oval, grayish-red, minutely punctate, radiated with minute 
riblets larger posteriorly ; anterior margin elevated, posterior mar- 
gin subdepressed, scarcely acuminate ; foramen rather short, situated 



LUCAPINELLA. 195 

at the anterior margin. A more regularly oval species than the 
preceding [3/. tasmanice], and of a speckled reddish color. (Sowb.) 

New Caledonia. 

M. novas- Caledonia SOWB. Thes. Conch., iii, p. 206, f. 222. 

The absurdity of mistaking the head for the tail, in Sowerby's de- 
description, translated above, I will leave the reader to correct for 
himself. 

M. SCUTIFORMIS Nevill. PI. 6 I, fig. 20. 

Shell ovate-elongate, laterally a little compressed and slightly 
insinuated ; moderately elevated, a little solid, ornamented with 
radiating and minute concentric striae; dull white, marked with 
a few radiating brown bands; foramen long, excentric, occupying 
nearly a third part of the entire length, narrowed behind ; margin 
of the aperture a little obtuse, simple ; margin of the foramen thick- 
ened within. Length 12:}, width 6, alt. 2 mill. (Nevill.) 

S. province Ceylon. 

M. scutiformis G. & H. NEVILL, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
xxxviii, p. 103, t. 17, f. 14. 

Genus LUCAPINELLA Pilsbry, 1890. 

Lucapinella PILSBRY, Manual of Conchology, pt. 47, p. 179. 
Issued December 16, 1890. Clypidella and Fissurella, in part, of 
authors. 

Fissure II idee with an oblong shell, not sunken in or covered by the 
mantle, and about as long as the foot ; its apex subcentral, wholly 
removed by a rather large oblong perforation, which is margined 
within by an entire (not truncated) callus; edge of shell blunt, scarcely 
crenulated in adults except in front and behind; sculptured with 
scaly riblets ; front and side-margins level, posterior margin a little 
elevated. Animal ivith a fleshy foot, much too large to be contained 
in the shell ; mantle-edge thickened, papillose on its lower edge and 
having narrow processes extending up over the shell-edge ; tentacles 
short, obtuse; foot surrounded by a row of epipodial papilla? ; dorsal 
pore surrounded by papillar jtrocesses. 

The genus defined above differs from Fissurella s. s. and Clypi- 
della in the much larger, fleshier foot ; from Fissurellidea, Megate- 
bennus, Ptipillcea and Lucapina in not having the shell at all im- 
bedded in the mantle ; and finally from Macroschisma by the sub- 
central fissure, short tentacles and possession of an epipodial row of 



196 LUCAPINELLA. 

papillae. The basal margins of the shell are nearly level, not ele- 
vated at the ends as much as in Megatebenmis, etc. The inside cal- 
lus-rim of the perforation is not at all truncate posteriorly, as it is 
in Glyphis, and it further differs from that genus in having the sum- 
mit rather behind than in front of the middle. The type is " Clypi- 
della " callomarginata Cpr. of California. 

Adam's figure of the animal of Clypidella (Gen. Rec. Moll., pi. 
51, fig. 3) was probably drawn from a species of this genus, not from 
the true Clypidella pmtiila, which has been carefully examined by 
Dr. Paul Fischer, and found to be entirely different. 

In an alcoholic specimen of L. callomarginata examined by me, 
the edge of the shell is scarcely covered by the mantle, but slender, 
rather distant processes extend up over it. The edge of the mantle 
is thick, finely granulose, its lower edge somewhat iuflexed and 
papillose. Just under the mantle-edge, and concealed by it, is the 
row of epipodial papillae, extending all the way around the foot. 
The. foot itself is fleshy, higher behind, very minutely granulose, 
somewhat wrinkled, of an oval shape. The rostrum is short ; the 
tentacles very short and stumpy, eyes on low inconspicuous swell- 
ings at their outer bases. Dorsal pore with papillose processes. 

Fig. 4 of pi. 61, side view of animal in shell, double natural size. 

Fig. 5 side view of head (the mantle turned upward), showing 
the short blunt tentacle and the beginning of the epipodial row of 
papillae. 

Fig. 2 fore part of foot and head, seen from beneath. The 
broad mantle is seen over the oral disk, and the tentacles on each 
side of it. 

Fig. 3 enlarged view of the dorsal pore from above, the shell 
removed. The oval boundary-line corresponds to the outline of the 
internal callus around the hole in the shell. 

L. CALLOMARGINATA Carpenter. PI. 44, figs. 3, 4, 5 ; pi. 61, figs. 

1-5. 

Shell oblong, a trifle narrower in front, rather depressed, the sub- 
central summit occupied by a rather large fissure, shaped like the 
shell and from one-fourth to one-fifth the shell's length. Surface 
having radiating riblets and concentric growth-laminae, which are 
elevated into imbricating scales on the ribs ; color gray or white, 
radiated with black. 

The form is oblong, sides subparallel or somewhat convex. The 
front slope of the cone is a trifle convex, the lateral slopes straight 



LUCAPINELLA. 197 

or a little concave, the posterior slope concave. The two sides of 
the fissure project upward in more or less salient points. The 
sculpture consists of alternately larger and smaller radiating riblets, 
crossed by sharp, concentric lamina), elevated into imbricating 
scales on the ribs. The blackish rays sometimes cover most of the 
surface, sometimes are narrow and few. Inside bluish-white, with 
a rather wide callus rim around the fissure; lateral edges blunt, 
ends slightly crenulated. In immature specimens the edges are 
crenulated. Length 19, breadth 10, alt. 4J mill. 

Lobitos and San Diego, CaL, to San Ignacio Lagoon, Lower CaL, 
in about 6 fins. 

Clypidella callomarginata (Cpr.) DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch. 
1872, p. 133, t. 15, f. 8. 

The animal is described under the generic head. When stand- 
ing on a plane surface the broad posterior extremity is seen to be a 
little elevated. The sculpture is very sharp and beautiful. 

L. ^EQUALIS Sowerby. PL 31, fig. 24. 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather thin, depressed, decussated with dis- 
tant obtuse radiating and concentric striae; orifice ovate, rather 
large ; ashy-black, rayed with white. Unusually thin and depressed, 
with a rather large orifice. {Reeve.) 

St. Elena, West Coast S. America. 

Fissurella cequalis SOWERBY, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 127; Conchol. 
Illustr., f. 56. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 55. Fissurellidea cequalis 
SOWB., Thes. Conch, iii, p. 203, f. 200. 

A species not seen by me, probably grouping with callomarginata. 

L. ACULEATA Reeve. PL 36, fig. 19. 

Shell oblong-ovate, slightly attenuated anteriorly, depressed, 
rather elevated in the middle, radiately finely ribbed, concentric- 
ally laminated, lamina elegantly prickly-scaled ; orifice ovate, 
large ; fawn-white. The radiating ribs of this elegant species are 
almost wholly formed of elevated prickly scales. (Rve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. aculeata REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. Ill, 1850. SOWERBY, Thes. 
Conch, iii, p. 201, f. 186. 

This and the next species may possibly prove identical ; but the 
more anterior position of the orifice perhaps indicates Glyphis 
rather than Lucapinella. In the absence of information regarding 
the inside, the generic positions of many species are problematical. 



198 LUCAPINELLA-LUCAPINA. 

L. LIMATULA Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 13 ; pi. 61, figs. 6, 7, 8, 9. 

Shell small, oblong, narrower in front, rather depressed, the sub- 
central snmmit occupied by the oblong fissure, of the same shape as 
the shell, its length contained in that of the shell about 4 times. 
Surface sculptured with alternately large and small radiating rib- 
lets in front, but at the sides and posteriorly, three small riblets 
occur between each pair of large ones, and of these three the middle 
one is largest ; all this radiating striation is crossed by regular con- 
centric laminae, a little over a half millimeter apart, rising into erect 
semicircular scales wherever they intersect the radiating riblets. 
Color white, unicolored or rayed with ashen or blackish. 

Inside white, showing the dark rays when they are present on the 
outside; callus rim of the perforation narrow. Muscle-impression 
not impressed ; edges thickened at the sides, crenulated front and 
back. 

Length 13, breadth 7i, alt. 4 mill. 

Length 13, breadth 7i, alt. 2'8 mill. 

Cape Fear; Key West. Fla.; St. Vincent and JBarbadoes, West 
Indies. 

Fissurella limatula REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 115, Aug., 1850. 
Fissurellidea limatula, Rve. DALL, Rep. on ' Blake ' Gastropoda, p. 
409 ; Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus. no. 37, p. 170. 

Very similar to the Californian L. callomarginata, but lighter 
colored and smaller. When adult the lateral margins of the shell 
are thickened, as in callomarginata. 

*** 
Genus LUCAPINA Gray. (See p. 181). 

Since the account of Lucapina was printed I have studied certain 
species which I had formerly referred to Glypliis ; and have con- 
cluded that the following West Indian forms should be placed under 
Lucapina, as a section having no especially distinct characters. 

Section C/ilamydoglyphis Pilsbry. 

Shell thin, oblong, low-conical or depressed ; orifice rather large, 
oval, situated in front of the middle ; surface distinctly cancellated ; 
internal hole-callus truncated behind ; basal edges of the shell in 
one plane, not elevated at the ends ; margin finely crenulated. 

Animal in general characters much like that of Megatebennus, 
higher behind, depressed in front, the mantle covering about a 



L.UCAPJNA. 199 

third of the shell, falling over and enveloping the head and body, 
its edge simple, not papillose. There is a row of epipodial papillse, 
about 20 on each side. Dentition unknown. 

Comparisons should be made with the West Coast forms, the soft 
parts of which I have figured in Proc. Phila. Acad., 1891. 

Species three: elongata, a small, narrow 7 , parallel-sided form; 
adspersa, wider, larger ; and cancellata, more conical, stained around 
the hole with black. Numerous shells of all lie before me. 

L. ELOXGATA Philippi. PI. 62, figs. 1, 2 : pi. 36, fig. 31. 

Shell small, narrow, oblong, depressed ; the side margins parallel, 
length twice the breadth (more or less). Front slope less than half 
as long as the posterior slope. Sculptured with alternately larger 
and smaller radiating riblets, with usually some short interstitial 
threads posteriorly. About 32 to 38 riblets may be counted around 
the perforation. These radiating riblets are crossed by elevated 
concentric threads, about 8 to 10 of which may be counted on each 
side of the perforation. Length of hole from one-sixth to one-sev- 
enth the length of shell. 

Yellowish or white, irregularly freckled with brown. Inside 
whitish with radiating whiter lines, the hole-callus white, truncated 
posteriorly. Length 13, breadth 6J, alt. 2J mill. 

St. Thomas, West Indies. 

F. elongata PHIL., Abbild. u. Beschreib., etc., ii, p. 33, Fissurella, 
t. l,f. 2. (Oct., 1845). REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 110. SOWERBY, 
Thes. p. 201, f. 185. ARANGO, Fauna Mai. Cubana, p. 228. 

Closely allied to the following, but narrower, the orifice more 
anterior, the rays interrupted into sparsely scattered dots and short 
lines. Arango seems in doubt about his identification. He records 
the species from Cuba and Guadalupe. The specimens before me 
are from St Thomas, collected by Robert Swift. 

L. ADSPERSA Philippi. PI. 62, figs. 6, 7 ; pi. 38, fig. 69. 

Shell oblong, depressed-conical, the front slope more than half 
the length of the posterior slope ; sculptured with radiating alter- 
nately larger and smaller riblets crossed by numerous concentric 
raised threads. Perforation oval, about one-seventh the length of 
shell. 

White, brown-tinged or greenish-yellow, with 7-9 broad rays 
varying from flesh-colored to ashen or olive-brown. These rays are 
interrupted or broken into dots and spots in many specimens. In- 



200 LUCAPINA. 

side bluish-white, showing the dark marking of the outside through 
the thin shell. Hole-callus usually having a greenish streak on 
each side, truncated behind. Edge crenulated. 

Florida specimens of the typical form measure: 

Length 21, breadth IV, t alt. 4J mill. 

Length 21 breadth Hi, alt. 5 mill. 

Key West, Florida ; St. Thomas and St. Croix, West Indies, 

F. adspersa PHIL., Abbild. etc. ii, p. 34, t. 1, f. 3, (Oct., 1845). 
F. aegis REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 72, (June, 1850). SOWB. Thes., p. 
201, f. l8S.Lucapina t fasciata (Pfr. Where?) DALL, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus. 1883, p. 336. Fissurellldea fasciata Pfr., DALL, Catal. 
Moll. S.-E. U. S., p. 172. 

This species may be considered the type of Chlamydogh/phis. It 
differs from elongata Phil, in the larger size, more convex side 
margins and less excentric orifice; from cancellata in being lower, 
and not stained with blue-black around the orifice. 

The external anatomy has been described by Dall (/. c.). From 
his description my knowledge of it is derived; unfortunately the 
form of the gills and the dentition is not yet known. The localities 
given are for specimens in the collection of the Academy. 

In the typical adspersa the color-rays are much interrupted into 
dots and spots. In the form called aegis by Reeve (pi. 38, fig. 69) 
the rays are continuous. Intermediate specimens are to numerous to 
permit me to call cegis a variety. The largest specimen before me 
measures, length 30, breadth 17, alt. 5 mill. 

F. lentiginosa Rve. (pi. 36, fig. 33) seems to be a synonym of the 
typical adspersa. 

L. CANCELLATA Sowerby. PI. 63, figs. 1, 2, 3 ; pi. 37, fig. 58. 

Shell oblong-ovate, conical, stained with bluish-black around the 
orifice and the internal hole-callus. Sculptured with alternately 
larger and smaller radiating riblets, latticed by concentric raised 
threads. Orifice in front of the middle, oval, about one-eighth the 
length of the shell. 

White or pale brown, unicolored or with pale brown rays, or 
flecked with brown dots. Inside white, hole-callus bluish -black, 
slightly truncated behind. Length 23, breadth 15, alt. 62 mill. 

Bahamas and Tortugas south to St. Thomas and St. Barts. 

F. cancellata (Solander mss.) SOWERBY, Conch. 111. f. 29. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 51. SOWB., Thes., p. 200 f. 189. ARANGO, Fauna 



EMARGINULIN^E. 201 

Mai. Cubana p. 228. F. hondurasensis RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 70 
(=F. sitffiisa Rve. /. c., errata). Glyphis cancellata Sowb., DALL, 
Catal. Mar. Moll. S. E. U. S., p. 170. 

Sowerby's original figures look more like F. adspersa than like 
the species universally known as cancellata. The cancellata of all 
authors is the shell described above, characterized by a large oval 
orifice, a black hole-callus and blackish-blue around the hole out- 
side. F. hondiirasensissvffusa is an absolute synonym, said to be 
from Honduras, the only mainland locality reported. 

Subfamily III. EMABGINULIN^E (Gill) Pilsbry. 

This subfamily is probably equivalent to Dr. Gill's family Emar- 
ginulidcB (Arrangement of the Families of Mollusks, 1871, p. 13) ; 
but I do not know whether Gill would have included Glyphis in hia 
family, or restricted it to forms im perforate at the apex. 

All FissurellidcB having the apex persistent in the adult belong in 
this subfamily, and also those having the apex removed by the hole 
or fissure, behind which, inside, there is a septum or deck, or a pos- 
teriorly truncated hole-callus. 

The EmarginulincB as a whole differ from Fissurellince in having 
the rhachidian tooth of the radula broad ; the radula bilaterally 
asymmetrical; the hole-callus, (in forms having a perforation) 
truncated behind. From Fissurellidince this subfamily differs in hav- 
ing the hole small, when present, the hole-callus truncated behind, 
the shell wholly external and capable of containing the entire 
animal. 

Emarginulince, includes the more primitive types of the Fissurellid 
stock both from the morphological and the palseontological stand- 
point. 

Beginning with a few doubtful forms in the Carboniferous, the 
family attains a considerable number of species in the early Tertiary ; 
but as far as I have seen, no described species older than Pliocene 
is to be referred to Fissurellincc or Fissurellidince ; they are all 
Eniaryinulince, of the genera Emaryinula (-\-Rimula and Deslong- 
cliampsia), Pancturella (and its subgenera Fissurisepta, Rostrisepta 
etc.), and Glyphis. 

The presence of a verge in Cranopsis, Puncturella, etc., and its 
absence in the more modern and differentiated groups, such as 
Fisxurella, indicates that that organ is a common inheritance of the 
primitive Rhipidoglossate stock, now lost in the various divergent 



202 EMARGINULIN.SE. 

branches. The genera of Emarginulince exhibit nearly every stage 
from a Patella-like shell to the centrally perforated type. The more 
simple and primitive forms are Scutus and Subemarginula ; then 
follow Emarginula, Rimula, Puncturella, and finally Glypliis, the 
most modified form. 

The generic groups of this subfamily are moderately well-defined, 
and our ideas respecting their affinities and systematic importance 
will probably stand the test of time in essentially their present form. 
The following analysis of genera is based on shell-characters for the 
convenience of conchologists; but it should be remembered that a 
study of the soft parts of most of the genera has fortified the posi- 
tions taken. 

Key to Genera and Subgenera of Emarginulince. 

I. Apex in front of the middle, absorbed by the hole, the latter 
bounded inside by a distinct oval hole-callus, truncated behind. 

Genus GLYPHIS Cpr. 

II. Apex central or post-median, persistent or absorbed ; anal fis- 
sure either a closed hole or a slit open in front ; no distinct 
hole-callus, but having a septum or " deck " extending forward 
from back of the fissure, inside. 

A. Anal fissure a closed hole at summit or on the front slope, 

Genus PUNCTURELLA Lowe. 

a. Apex persistent, the fissure in front of it. 

1. Fissure at the summit, Section Puncturella s. s. 

2. Fissure on the front slope, Section Granopsis Ad. 

b. Apex absorbed by the oval fissure ; surface without radi- 
ating riblets, Section Fissurisepta Seg. 

B. An open fissure in the front margin, Genus ZEIDORA Ad. 

III. No internal hole-callus or septum ; apex not absorbed. 

A. A siit-fasciole or band in front, distinctly differentiated 
from the other radiating riblets, extending upward from 
the fissure, Genus EMARGINULA Lam. 

a. Fissure an open anterior slit, Subgenus Emarginula s. s. 

b. Fissure a closed hole on the front slope, 

Subgenus Rimida Defr. 

B. No distinctly differentiated slit-fasciole or band ; ends of 
muscle-scar distinctly hooked inward ; shell having radia- 
ting ribs or riblets and crenulated edge, slit short or none 

Genus SUBEMARGINULA Blainv. 

C. No anterior slit or slit-fasciole ; muscle scar near the edge 



(JLYPHIS. 203 

of the shell, its front ends not hooked inward ; shell de- 
pressed, oblong, truncated or sinuous in front ; surface 
lacking distinct radiating sculpture ; edge smooth 

Genus SCUTUS Montf. 



Genus GLYPHIS Carpenter, 1856. 

Glyphis CPR. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 223, footnote. Type F. aspera 
Esch.; Catal. Mazat. Sh., p. 220. Lucapina, in part, H. & A. 
ADAMS Genera Rec. Moll. 

Few words are sufficient to distinguish this genus from all 
Fissurellinse and Fissurellidinse : Rhachidian tooth of the radula 
wide; internal hole-callus of the shell truncated behind. 

Shell ovate, conical, the orifice in front of the middle. The apex 
spiral, inclined backward in the young, wholly absorbed in the 
adult. Surface cancellated by radiating and concentric riblets or 
strine. Internal hole-callus truncated behind or having a pit there. 
Basal edges of the shell in a plane or the sides slightly elevated ; 
ends never elevated ; margin crenulated. 

Animal capable of being entirely contained in the shell, resembling 
Fissurella in external characters. Snout short, ending distaDy in 
an oval disc with the mouth in the center ; tentacles subulate with 
black eyes on little projections at their outer bases: epipodium con- 
sisting of a fringe of short filamentous processes alternately larger 
and smaller, becoming more obsolete posteriorly where it is marked 
by little tubercles in place of the filaments. Mantle-edge smooth 
or papillose, usually rather broad. Central tooth of the radula 
wide. 

This genus has been confused by all authors (except Carpenter) 
with Fissurella. It certainly belongs to a distinct subfamily, being 
more intimately related to Emarginula and its allies. 

The young Glyphis (3-4 mill, in length) has a recurved spiral 
apex with the fissure in front of it, exactly as in Rimula. The 
truncation and pit back of the hole-callus are homologous with the 
septum and pit back of the hole in Puncturella ; a fact not hereto- 
fore noticed. Glyphis may be considered the highest or most modi- 
fied form of the subfamily Emarginuttnce, and Scutus the lowest or 
most archaic. 

It is doubtful whether the fossil group Atractotrema of Cossman 
(Mem. Soc. Roy. Malac. de Belgique, xxiii, p. 31) should be referred 
to Glyphis or to Rimula. 



204 GLYPHIS. 

Group of G. calyculata Sowb. 

Shell having several of the posterior radiating ribs much more 
prominent than the others. 

G. calyculata has almost as distinct a septum and pit behind the 
hole as some species of Puncturella. 

G. CALYCULATA Sowerby. PI. 36, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell ovate, angular behind, elevated, conical; front slope con- 
cave, posterior slope convex. There are three or four very promi- 
nent ribs radiating backward from the vertex, the intervals between 
them each bearing three riblets; sides and front of the shell having 
numerous subequal riblets; the whole latticed by numerous concen- 
tric laminae, about a half mill, apart, cutting the interstices into pits 
and forming low scales on the radiating riblets. 

The color is pink, with dots, and radiating and concentric lines 
of red. Inside pinkish-white; there is a very deep pit just behind 
the nearly round hole. Length 16, width 1(H, alt. 7 mill. 

Natal, near Cape L'Agulhas. 

F. calyculata SOWB., Genera of Shells, Cephala, Fissurella, f. 4 ; 
Illustr. Conch, f. 19. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 88, 109. SOWB. 2o., 
Thes. p. 193, f. 126, 127. KRAUSS, Die Siidaf. Moll. p. 68. 

May be known by the three strong, imbricated posterior ribs and 
the very deep pit behind the hole-callus. The coloration is more 
or less rosy. 

G. SIEBOLDII Reeve. PI. 38, figs. 58, 59. 

Shell ovate, angular behind, elevated, conical; slopes nearly 
straight ; hole in front of the middle, its posterior margin elevated. 
Sculpture consisting of about 11 strong radiating ribs, of which those 
at the back and sides are strongest, bearing three riblets in each 
interval ; in front the ribs alternate with smaller ones. The 
whole latticed by elevated, separated concentric laminae, forming 
scales on the ribs ; between these laminae there may be seen fine con- 
centric threads or striae, two or three in each interval between the 
lamella?. 

The color is whitish, variegated with ashen or dotted on the ribs 
with pale flesh-color; orifice small, shortly oblong ; hole-callus nar- 
row, truncated behind; margin serrated. Length 17, breadth 11, 
alt. 7 mill. 

Singapore to Japan. 



205 

F. sieboldii RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 102, 1850. DUNKER, Ind. 
Moll. Mar. Jap., t. G, f. 14, 15. SOWERBY, Thes., p. 193, f. 138. 

F. octagona, nigro-ocellata of Rvc. and F. varicosa Sowb. are prob- 
ably forms of this species. The original descriptions and figures are 
given below. 

F. odagona Rve. (pi. 39, fig. 97). Shell ovate, rather elevated, 8- 
ribbed, with small minutely granulated ridges in the interstices; 
orifice ovate, rather broad, inclined anteriorly ; whitish with broad 
light-brown rays near the margin, bluish around the orifice. Length 
6 mill. Ticao, Philippines. (Couch. Icon.,/. 11G.) 

F. niyroocellata Rve. (pi. 39, fig. 98). Shell ovate, rather elevated, 
strongly radiately and concentrically ribbed, ribs rather distant, 
interstices thickly latticed ; orifice orbicular; white painted with a 
row of black spots near the margin. Length 5=} mill. Ticao, 
Philippines, in 6 fms. (Conch. Icon.,/. 117.) 

Both of these are evidently young shells. 

F. varicosa Sowb. 2d. (pi. 63, figs. G, 7.). Oblong, conical, apex 
elevated, with three large radiating strongly nodulose ribs behind, 
six large ones in front with smaller riblets in the interstices ; 
cancellated by elevated, distant concentric lines. Internal callus 
scarcely septiform ; orifice small, round, situated at and inclined to- 
ward the front. It is not internally chambered as in F. calyculata. 
The three posterior prominent ribs are very coarsely knobbed. 
China Seas. (Thes. Conch. Hi, p. 193, /. 52, 53.) 

Group of F. grceca Linn. 

Coarsely latticed by radiating ribs and concentric cords. 
G. GR^ECA (L.) Auct. PL 35, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

Shell oval, usually a little narrower in front, depressed or ele- 
vated ; lateral slopes nearly straight, front slope straight or subcon- 
cave, posterior slope a little convex, sculpture consisting of strong, 
elevated radiating ribs, alternately larger and smaller, usually with 
minute riblets in some of the interstices, latticed by elevated con- 
centric lirse, rendering the ribs nodose at their intersections, and cut- 
ting the interstices into square pits. 

The color is whitish-yellow or brown, unicolored or rayed with 
darker brown. The inside is white, margin strongly denticulate, 
toothlets generally in pairs. Length 26, breadth 18, alt. 8-11 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Atlantic, from Southern English 
coast to Gibraltar. 



206 GLYPHIS. 

Patella grceca LINN., Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1262 (doubtful). Fissur- 
ella grceca DESK., SCACCHT, PHILIPPI, LAMARCK, DUNKER, JEF- 
FREYS, WEINKAUFF, BUQ., DAUTZ. & DOLLF. and others. Patella 
reticulata DONOVAN, Brit. Sh. i, t. 21, f. 3. Fissurella reticulata 
FORBES & HANLEY, Brit. Moll, ii, p. 469, t. 63, f. 4, 5, and of some 
others. F. mamillata Risso, Eur. Merid. iv, p. 257, t. 10, f. 145. 
F. dominicana O. G. COSTA, Catal. Taranto, p. 43, t. 4, f. 2F. 
corrugata COSTA, 1. c. p. 44, f. 3. F. recurvata COSTA, I. c. p. 44. 

F. occitanica RECL., Rev. Zool. Cuv., p. 111. Cemoria montaguana 
LEACH, Syn. Moll. Gt. Br. p. 213, t. 10, f. 6. 

An excessively variable species. The surface in the more typi- 
cal forms is cut into square pits by the strong riblets and concentric 
line. There is much doubt as to whether this is really the Patella 
grceca of Linnaeus, but the use of that name by the great majority 
of authors has fixed it too firmly to be changed; especially since 
the name reticulata Don. is preoccupied by Linnaeus. 

It is smaller than the West Indian G. listeri, and the fissure 
is more anterior. 

The named mutations are as follows: (1) conica Req., summit 
much elevated; (2) gibba Jeffr. (not Phil.!), form elevated, the 
apex more anterior than in the type, base strongly arched; (3) 
depressa Monts., depressed, the reticulation obsolete ; (4) ima Greg.,, 
still more depressed. Palermo ; (5) mucronata Monts., large and 
coarsely latticed ; (6) minor Marion. 

G. LISTERI Orbiguy. PI. 37, figs. 37, 38, 39 ; pi. 62, fig. above 31, 
32. 

Shell ovate, conical, elevated, summit a little in front of the 
middle; front slope straight, back slope somewhat convex. Sculpt- 
ure consisting of numerous strong radiating ribs crossed by elevated 
concentric cords which render the ribs nodose at their intersections 
and cut the interstices into square pits. 

The shell is solid, grayish-white or buff, unicolored or having 
radiating black stripes. The radiating ribs are usually alternately 
large and small ; the concentric cords are equally spaced and prom- 
inent. The perforation is key-hole shaped, encircled at the edge by 
a blackish line. Inside white, the hole-callus either white or 
"bounded by a blue-black line. Border crenulated, the denticulations 
in pairs. Length 40-42, breadth 29-30, alt. 15-17 mill. Specimens 
of ordinary size measure 25-30 mill, in length. 

Florida Keys to Nicaragua and Barbados ; West Indies generally. 



GLYPHIS. 



207 



F. listeri ORB., Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 197, t. 24, f. 37-39. ARANGO 
Faun. Mai. Cubana, p. 228. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 71. SOWB. 
Thes., p. 194. f. 130, 131. DALL, Mar. Moll. S.-E. U. S., p. 170. 

Nearly related to G. grceca of the Mediterranean, but attaining 
much larger size, the latticed sculpture generally coarser, the apex 
more central, bounded by a black line, as it usually is in the grceca. 
The two forms are very closely allied, separated more on account of 
their different distribution than for any other reason. F. nigro- 
ocellata Rve. should be compared with the young of this species. 
See under G. sieboldii Rve. 

G. FONTAINIANA Orbigny. PI. 62, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

Shell ovate-oblong, subconic, narrower in front, white, longitudi- 
nally and transversely ribbed, decussated, the ribs acute, unequal ; 
fissure subrotund, large. Length 20, alt. 8 mill. This charming 
species approaches the F. grceca, but it is more elevated, more conic, 
the hole rounder, wide and horizontal ; the ribs are more elevated 
and salient, spinose ; the internal hole-callus is narrow and. equal 
all around, not truncated behind. ( Orb.) 

Islay, Peru, in 30 meters depth. 

F. fontainiana ORB., Voy. dans i'Amer. Merid., p. 477, t. 78, f. 
12-14. 

G. FOVEOLATA Garrett. PI. 03, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Shell oval, conical, hole a little in front of the middle, slopes 
straight or convex posteriorly. Surface having about 18 strong 
radiating ribs (with some smaller interstitial riblets usually) crossed 
by raised concentric threads, which bead the ribs and cut the inter- 
stices into deep squarish pits. 

White or brownish, with irregularly scattered spots of black or 
deep brown, the spots showing through the thin shell on the inside. 
Hole-callus truncated behind. Lengths.}, width 6, alt. 3} mill. 

Viti Islands. 

Very coarsely sculptured, like a small G. grceca or G. listeri. 
The hole-callus is dark. The largest specimen was unfortunately 
broken, so that the figures and measurements are from a smaller 
one. I do not know where it was originally described. The speci- 
mens are from Garrett. 

G. GHANIFERA Pease. PL 63, fig. 13. 

Shell small, oval, conical, elevated, the apex a little in front of 
the middle ; slopes straight or nearly so ; sculptured with subequal 



208 GLYPHIS. 

radiating beaded riblets, about 28 in number, latticed by concentric 
lirae. 

White with 8 or 9 green rays; orifice small, oblong. Interior 
showing the rays. Hole-callus distinctly truncated posteriorly. 
Length 51, breadth 4, alt. 2 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

F. granifera PSE., P. Z. S. 1861, p. 244. Glyphis granifera CAR- 
PENTER, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 516. 

The small size, short-oval, conical form and light green rays 
(rarely absent) distinguish this form. The specimen figured is from 
Pease. 

G. SIMILIS Sowerby. 

The ribs are thinner and the shell more elevated and conical than 

F. listeri; these with the Australian habitat may justify the distinc- 
tion. (Sowb.) 

Australia. 
F. similis G. B. SOWERBY 2o., Thes. iii, p. 194, f. 143. 

The 'original description is given above. 

G. SALEBROSA Reeve. PL 39, fig. 7. 

Shell somewhat orbicularly ovate, depressed, radiately rudely rib- 
bed, ribs nearly equal, conspicuously fimbriately squamate through- 
out, with concentric lamina? ; orifice rounded ; whitish, here and 
there stained a-nd linearly marked with brown. (Rve.~) 

Kurrachee, Mouth of the Indus. 

F. salebrosa RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 78, 1850. 

G. JUKESII Reeve. PI. 38, fig. 60 ; pi. 39, fig. 61. 

Shell oval, conical, the slopes straight, orifice a little in front of 
the middle. Sculptured with 19-23 strong radiating ribs, separated 
by very deeply cut interstices which generally bear an intermediate 
riblet ; latticed by elevated concentric lamellae forming recurved 
scales on the riblets, and cutting the interstices into deep pits. 

The color is whitish, nearly unicolored or spotted with blackish- 
brown. Interior white, the hole-callus bounded by a dark line, 
abruptly truncated behind. Orifice small, oval. 

Port Lincoln, Port Adelaide Creek, S. Australia; Port Molle, N. 
E. coast of Australia. 

F.jukesii RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 45, 1849. SOWB., Thes., p. 193, 
f. 147, 148. Glyphis jukesii AKGAS, P. Z. S. 1805, p. 184. F. fim- 
briata RVE., /. c. f. 104, 1850. 



GL.YPHIS. 



209 



A beautifully sculptured form ; the interstices are very deeply 
carved, the concentric lamellae are elaborately frilled. 

G. CYATHULUM Reeve. PI. 39, fig. 95 ; pi. 61, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell ovately conical, elevated, radiately sharply squamately 
ribbed, ribs alternately larger, latticed with narrow concentric 
ridges; orifice small, ovate; whitish, variegated with brown. Some- 
what like F. excelsa but not so elevated, more coarsely latticed, and 
differently perforated. (Eve.} 

Habitat unknown. 

F. cyathulum RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 114. SOWB. Thes., p. 194, f. 
152.. 153. 
G. EXCELSA Adams & Reeve. PL 64, fig. 33. 

Shell elevated-conical, with large unequal subsquamate rudely 
clath rate ribs ; margin crenulated, orifice small, subrotund, inclin- 
ing posteriorly ; whitish or greenish. (Ads. & Rve.~} 

China Sea. 

F. excelsa ADS. & RVE. Zool. Samarang, Moll., p. 70, t. 11, f. 5. 
? Not F. exeelsa Rve., Conch. Icon. 

G. ALTA C. B. Adams. PL 63, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell subconic, high, dingy white, often more or less covered with 
broad ashy black rays, which may be seen through the shell, with 
prominent radiating ribs, of which the alternate ones are excessively 
developed, and intermediate small raised lines ; with many con- 
centric ridges, which are less prominent than the larger radiating 
ribs, and more so than the others ; summit nearer to and somewhat 
inclined towards the anterior extremity ; fissure small, ovate 
elliptic ; margin pectinated by the radiating ribs. 

The following are the dimensions of a very large and high shell 
and of another of average size : 

Height "42 inch. ; length '55 inch. ; breadth *41 inch. 

Height -22 inch. ; length '42 inch. ; breadth '29 inch. (Ad.) 

Panama; Mazatlan. 

F. alia C. B. AD. Catal. Panama Sh., pp. 236, 32Q. Glyphis alta 
CARPENTER, Mazatlan Catal., p. 221. / F. excelsa REEVE, Couch. 
Icon., f. 113, 1850, not of Adams and Reeve. 

Reeve described under the name F. excelsa, in the Conchologia 
Iconica, a shell which seems to be identical with C. B. Adams' alta. 
It is not the excelsa of Adams and Reeve, described in the Zoology 
of the Samarang. The description is as follows : 
14 



210 GLYPHIS. 

F. excelsa Reeve (pi. 39, fig. 96). Shell elevately conical, in- 
clined anteriorly, finely latticed with radiating and concentric ribs 
which are elegantly squamate ; orifice small, sides prettily exca- 
vated in the middle ; brownish-white, spotted here and there with 
pinkish-brown. (Rve.') 

Eastern Seas. 

G. PLUVIANA Ball. PL 27, figs. 52, 53. 

Shell low, conical, reticulated, white or translucent, variegated 
with gray or olive-green lines or dots mostly radiately disposed ; 
form variable with station, but usually in the young and in more 
normal adults both slopes of the cone are a little concave near the 
apex. The anterior slope slightly convex ; the posterior slope 
straight or a little concave, and usually a little longer than the 
other, though these characters vary with station. Base is rounded- 
oval, symmetrical and equal at both ends, with a thin simple mar- 
gin. Sculpture of slightly irregular sudden enlargements of the 
shell, giving the effect of very narrow steps, over which some twenty 
moderately strong, and as many more faint, flattened radii seem to 
flow. In other specimens these step-like ridges are produced into 
low laminse, and the ribs are also stronger and at the intersections 
nodulous, or even a little scaly. Apex erect, truncate by the pore, 
which is circular, simple, and within margined by a narrow horse- 
shoe-shaped callus. Exterior dull or unpolished, interior shining, 
with the color rays and ribs visible through the thin shell. Two 
specimens measure, alt. 4'0 and 6'0, Ion. 1OO and 9*5, lat. 6*6 and 
6*5 mill., respectively. (Dall.~) 

Florida Straits to Barbados, 76-100 fms. 

G. fluviana DALL, Blake Gastrop., p. 408, t. 14, f. 6, 6a. Closely 
allied to G. alia C. B. Ad. 

Group of G. italica Defr. 

Surface rather finely latticed ; the radiating riblets generally 
alternating or unequal in size. 

G. ITALICA Defrance. PI. 36, figs. 14, 15, 16. 

Shell ovate, narrower in front, rather depressed ; lateral slopes 
convex below, becoming concave or straight above; sculpture con- 
sisting of closely crowded, rounded radiating riblets, and very fine, 
-close concentric growth striae. There are about 20 equidistant rib- 



GLYPHIS. 



211 



lets of somewhat larger size, having three smaller intermediate rib- 
lets in each interval. 

The shell is solid, strong. Color whitish or grayish yellow, uni- 
colored or having ill-defined darker rays or occasionally a concen- 
tric hand. Inside white, often with a concentric bluish zone ; bor- 
der finely denticulate, the toothlets usually in pairs ; basal margin 
more or less arched, the ends alone supporting the shell. Length 
57, breadth 40, alt. 20 mill.; often smaller, L. 44, br. 29, alt. 16. 
Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Cape Verde Is. 

F. Italica DEFR., Diet. Sc. Nat. xvii, p. 79, 1820. BUQ., DAUTZ. 
& DOLLF., Moll. Mar. Rouss. p. 476, t. 53, f. 1-3. F. costaria 
DESK., Coq. Foss.' Env. Paris, t. 2, f. 10-12, 1824. PHIL., Enum. 
Moll. Sicil. i, p. 116, and of others. F. defrancia Rrsso, Eur. Merid. 
iv, p. 258. F. neglecta DESK., Encyc. Meth. ii, p. 138, 1830, and 
of authors generally. F. mediterranea GRAY in Sows. Conch. 
Illustr. f. 30. F. crassa and F. tectumpersicum O. G. COSTA, teste 

MONTEROSATO. 

This form, usually known as F. neglecta Desh., is larger than 
other Mediterranean Fissurellidse. It differs moreover in the close 
rounded riblets, decussated by very fine concentric stride. It is 
widely distributed as a fossil (Miocene to Quaternary) in Europe. 

The mutations noted by Buquoy, Dautzenberg and Dollfus (ire 
as follows: (1) conica Monts. (=elevata Monts. olwi) ; (2) major 
Fischer ; (3) minor Monts. ; (4) depressa Monts., very much flat- 
tened ; (5) latereplicata Monts., an exaggerated form of the preced- 
ing, the lateral borders being upturned. 

G. ALTERNATE Say. PI. 37, figs. 50, 51, 52, 53; pi. 61, figs. 24, 

25. 

Shell oval, elevated, conical, front slope straight or concave, back 
slope convex ; surface closely, finely latticed by radiating riblets 
(every fourth one slightly larger) and concentric elevated Iirula3 or 
lamime, which form little scales where they cross the radiating rib- 
lets. 

Color grayish-yellow or buff, unicolored or radiately striped with 
pink, black or brown ; the stripes are eight in number, often broken 
into angular spots ; sometimes unicolored blackish specimens occur. 
Summit in front of the middle, more or less curved forward. Fis- 
sure key-hole-shaped, not encircled by a dark line. Inside white ; 



212 GLYPHIS. 

margin finely crenulated ; pit back of the hole-callus deeply exca- 
vated. 

Length 36, breadth 22, alt. 16 mill. (Largest specimen seen.) 
Length 28, breadth 18, alt. 12 mill. (Average West Indian spec- 
imen). 

Chesapeake Bay to Trinidad, including the entire West Indies; 
Bermuda (Heilprin) ; Vera Cruz and Progreso (Baker) ; Nicaragua. 

Fissurella alternata SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ii, p, 281, 
June, 1822. BINNEY'S edition of Say's Complete Writings, p. 73. 
DALL, Blake Gastrop. p. 407, with var. Sayi; and Catal. Mar. 
Moll. S-E. U. S., in Bull. 37, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 170. Glyphis al- 
ternata Say, BAKER, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1891, p. 55. Fis- 
surella famata RVE., Conch Icon. f. 63. F. Dysoni RVE., /. c. f. 
86. .F. larva RVE, I c.. f. 98. F. metcalfii RVE., 1. c. f. 75. Sow- 
ERBY, Thes. iii, p. 192, f. 140-142. F. viminea RVE., /. c. f. 105. 
F. cayenensis LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, pt. 2, p. 12. DELESSERT, Rec. 
de Coq. t. 24, f. 5. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 82. SOWB., Thes., p. 
197, f. 101. 

This is a very finely, sharply sculptured form, much more finely 
clathrate than G. listeri, and having the concentric threads raised 
into minute scales on the ribs. I have seen no living specimens 
from north of Chesapeake Bay, but dead shells are occasionally 
washed up on the beach at Cape May, N. J. Dr. Sharp collected 
the species at Trinidad. The more prominent riblets number from 
18-24. 

F. larva Rve. (pi. 37, fig. 57) is a dark form ; F. dysoni Rve. 
(pi. 37, fig. 54) is the common black-banded variety ; F. metcalfii 
Rve. (pi. 39, f. 91), and F. viminea Rve. (pi. 39, f. 80) do not seem 
to be distinct. The figures of F. cayenensis Lam. given by Deles- 
sert, Reeve and Sowerby, as well as Lamarck's description, indicate 
that that supposed species also belongs here. Cayenensis is rather 
an elongated shell, more straight-sided than the usual alternata. 
Specimens before me, from St. Thomas and other places, agree with 
the Lamarckian type. Reeve's figure of cayenensis is given on pi. 
37, fig. above 60. 

Var. fumata Reeve (pi. 39, fig. 1). Whitish, rayed with olive- 
ash ; bluish around the orifice. This form is before me from Trini- 
dad. It is less sharply sculptured than the type. 

Var. Sayi Dall. Smaller, olivaceous, color-rays faint or absent. 
This is the deep water form. 



GLYPHIS. 



213 



G. TANNERi'Verrill. PI. 63, figs. 25, 26. 

Shell large, ovate, rather thin, with regularly and finely decus- 
sated sculpture. Apex nearer the anterior (smaller) end, moder- 
ately elevated. Perforation not large, round-ovate, conformable 
with the outline of the shell but more rounded, whole surface cov- 
ered with rather fine, raised, radiating lines, with interstices of sim- 
ilar width or narrower ; these are decussated by numerous concen- 
tric raised lines, which rise into nodules, or towards the margin 
form small, arched lamellae in crossing the radii. Shell, externally, 
pale yellowish-gray, internally lustrous bluish-white ; edge finely 
crenulated. Length 46, breadth 31, height 16 mill. ; longest diam- 
eter of apical foramen 4, its breadth 3 mill. ( Verrill.) 

Off Delaware Bay to Hatteras, in 104-142 fms. 

F. tanneri V., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. v, p. 333, 1882; Trans. 
Cqnn. Acad. Sci. vi, p. 255, t. 29, f. 13, 13a. Glyphis tanneri DALL, 
Cat. Mar. Moll. S.-E. U. S. p. 170. 

Closely allied to the Maryland Miocene fossil F. redimieula Say, 
(Journ. A. N. S. Phil, iv, p. 132, t. 8, f. 1.), but longer, narrower, 
less elevated, the orifice less central. It is also allied to F. alternata 
Say. 

G. PATAGONICA Obigny. PL 61, figs. 21, 22, 23. 

Shell ovate, narrowed in front, conical ; the summit in front of 
the middle ; front slope straight, about half the length of the 
slightly convex posterior slope ; sculpture consisting of close fine 
subequal radiating riblets, decussated by fine concentric raised 
threads. 

The color is white, or broadly greenish rayed ; inside white ; hole- 
callus very distinctly truncated posteriorly. Orifice large, wide. 
Length 38, alt. 14 mill. Length 25, alt. 9 mill. 

Rio Janeiro to Patagonia. 

F. patagonica ORB., Voy. dans 1'Amer. Merid. p. 476, t. 64, f. 1- 
3. 

Decidedly more finely latticed than F. listeri, more like the 
Mediterranean G. italica. The fissure is larger than usual in 
Glyphis, and is situated at the anterior third of the length. 

G. SUBROSTRATA (Gray) Sowb. PL 61, fig. 18. 

Shell oval, somewhat depressed, anteriorly subrostrated, extremi- 
ties raised ; white within, with a crenated border ; externally radi- 



214 GLYPHIS. 

ately ribbed, ribs rather distant, muricated ; dorsal aperture small, 
elliptical, its internal edge broad. Length I'l, breadth (V8 inches. 
(Sowb.~) 

St. Vincent. 

F. subrostrata GRAY in SOWB., Conchol. Illustr. p. 6, f. 35. f F. 
subrostrata "Guild.," SOWB. 2o, Thes., p. 192. 
The original description and figure are given. 

G. ASPERA Eschscholtz. PI. 36, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

Shell ovate, narrower in front, conical, the slopes nearly straight 
or a little convex behind the middle. Sculptured with numerous 
radiating riblets, of which 30-34 are larger, the intervals between 
them bearing about three smaller ones ; the whole decussated by 
close elevated concentric lirse, which are more or less scale-like and 
imbricating. 

Color soiled whitish, with numerous wide blackish rays. Inside 
white, hole-callus white, very abruptly truncated behind ; margin 
deeply and sharply crenulated. Perforation short-oval, nearly cir- 
cular, in front of the middle. Length 56, width 40, alt. 18 mill. 

Sitka to Monterey Bay, Cal. 

Fissurella aspera ESCHSCHOLTZ, Zool. Atlas, pt. 5 (edit. Rathke), 
1833, p. 21, t. 23, f. 5. Glyphis aspera of American authors. F. 
lincolni (Gray) in SOWB., Conchol. Illustr. p. 7, f. 14. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon, f 62. SOWB., Thes., p. 198, f. 133. .F. cratitia GOULD, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H, ii, p. 155, 1846 ; U. S. Expl. Exped. Sh. p. 
367, f. 471. .F. aspera SOWB., P. Z. S. 1834, p. 127 ; Conch. Illustr. 
f. 46. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 30. SOWB. 2o, Thes., p. 198, f. 125. 

This is the largest of the West Coast species, in fact the largest 
of the genus, although occasional specimens of G. italica attain 
almost the same size. G. italica has a much larger key-hole-shaped 
perforation. The original figures of Gould's F. cratitia are given 
on pi. 42, figs. 60, 61. It is a broken, worn specimen. 

A more doubtful synonym is F. ASPERA Sowerby. The figure of 
it is given on pi. 30, fig. 6. The original description is as follows : 
" Shell oval, rather high, sharply sculptured, longer behind ; ashen 
inside, the margin white, creuulated ; outside with numerous radi- 
ating riblets, inuricately decussated ; dorsal aperture circular, situ- 
ated in front of the elevated vertex. Habitat, Pacosmayo, Peru." 
If this prove a good species the name must be changed. 



GLYPHIS. 215 

G. DENSICLATHRATA Reeve. PI. 39, fig. 86. 

Shell oval-oblong, elevated, perforation at about the front third 
of the length, front slope straight, posterior slope convex ; sculp- 
tured with very numerous narrow subequal riblets, beaded at their 
intersections with the fine concentric elevated stride. Hole small, 
oval. 

The beads on the riblets are rounded, but irregularly developed 
on different shells. The interior is white, hole-callus white, slightly 
truncated behind, sometimes encircled by a brownish rim. Edge 
finely crenulated ; basal side-margins scarcely arched, nearly level ; 
posterior end of the short-oval hole scarcely more elevated than the 
front end. The surface is lusterles?, dull grayish with blackish 
stripes. Length 16, width 10, alt. 7 mill. 

Santa Barbara, San Diego, etc., California, 

F. densiclathrata RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 64, 1850. 

G. IN^EQUALIS Sowerby. PI. 34, fig. 63. 

Shell oblong, narrower in front, rather depressed, the front slope 
about half the length of the posterior slope ; sculptured with close 
fine subequal radiating riblets, crossed by still closer elevated con- 
centric threads. Perforation about three times as long as wide, about 
one-seventh the length of the shell. 

Inside white or having dark rays, rings or patches, the hole- cal- 
lus wide, very distinctly truncated behind. Riblets of the outer sur- 
face visible as white radiating lines within. Side-margins arched, so 
that the shell rests upon the ends alone. Color yellowish or gray- 
ish, rayed with dull black. Length 27, width 16, alt. 7-8 mill. 

San Ignafiio Lagoon, Lower California; Mazatlan. 

F. incequalis Sows., P. Z. S. 1834, p. 126 ; Conch. Illustr. f. 45. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 50. F. pica SOWB., P. Z. S. 1834, p. 126; 
Conch. Illustr. f. 32, 33. RVE., Conch. Icon. f. W. Glyphis ince- 
qualis Sowb., CARPENTER, Mazat. Catal. p. 220. 

The extreme forms of this species are very dissimilar. Typically 
it has the hole very near the front margin, and long, narrow, tri- 
lobed ; other specimens have a rounder hole, much nearer the mid- 
dle of the shell. 

Var. PICA Sowb. PI. 34, fig. 64. 

Perforation short-oval, nearer the center. 



216 GLYPHIS. 

G. PANAMENSIS Sowerby. PI. 32, fig. 35. 

Shell rotundately oval, a little compressed at the sides, radiately 
thinly ribbed, the interstices being very finely cancellated ; orifice 
small, rounded ; white, blotched and lightning-marked with brown. 
(Rve.) 

Panama, 6-10 fms., on dead shells. 

F. panamensis SOWB., P. Z. S. 1834, p. 127; Conch. Illustr. f. 
72.* REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 87. SOWB., Thes., p. 196, f. 123. 

G. CRENIFERA Sowerby. PL 37, fig. 55. 

Shell oblong-ovate, depressed, radiately ribbed and striated, ribs 
niuricately nodose, obsoletely squamosely decussated with concen- 
tric strise, margin scarcely crenulated, orifice elongately oblong, 
sides excavated in the middle ; broadly rayed with white and brown- 
red, (five) 

Real Llejo, Central America. 

F. crenifera SOWB, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 128 ; Conch. 111. f. 73.- 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 83. 

May belong to Fissurella rather than to Glyphis. It may be 
doubted whether the crenifera of Reeve is the same as that of Sow- 
erby. 

G. SQUAMOSA Hutton. Unfigured. 

Solid, oblong, with strong, radiating, more or less squamose ribs ; 
anal perforation small, apical ; margin crenated. Brownish, inte- 
rior white. Height '25, length '9, breadth '6, anal perforation '08 
inch. (JBT.) 

New Zealand. 

F. squamosa HUTTON, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. 1873, p. 42 ; Journ. 
de Conchyl. 1878, p. 35 ; Manual N. Z. Moll. 1880, p. 105. 

G. RUBIGINOSA Hutton. Unfigured. 

Conical, ovate, apex subanterior, thin, smooth, radiately ribbed; 
ribs 13-17; anal perforation apical, small, covered up from the in- 
side. Outside white, interior pinkish. Height *2, length *6, 
breadth '5 inch. (IT.) 

Chatham Is. only. 

F. rubiginosa HUTTON, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 42, 1873. 
From the description I would think this a Functurella. Hutton 
ignores it in his later lists. 



GLYPHIS. 217 

G. TONGANA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 59, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell ovate-oblong, convex, white ; vertex a little compressed ; 
ribs rugose, cancellated by transverse striae ; hole oval ; margin cre- 
nated. 

There are 15 prominent ribs, with smaller ones between them. 
Length 22, width and alt. 14 mill. ' (. & .) 

Island of Tonga Taboo, S. Pacific. 

F. tnugana Q. & G., Voy. Astrol. p. 335, t. 68, f. 3, 4. 

G. KUPPELLII Sowerby. PL 39, fig. 8 ; pi. 39, figs. 82-85. 

Shell elliptical, elevated, the apex decidedly curved forward ; 
front slope concave ; posterior slope convex ; orifice of a squarish- 
oblong form, about one-tenth the length of the shell. Sculpture 
consisting of very numerous subequal or visibly alternating radia- 
ting riblets, latticed by close concentric raised threads, forming 
beads where they cross the riblets. These threads are about 1 
millim. apart on the posterior surface. 

Color grayish-white, having about 8 broad blackish rays. Inte- 
terior bluish-white, with narrow radiating white lines ; hole callus 
oval, indistinctly truncated behind. Margin crenulated, the den- 
ticulations in pairs. Length 25, width 16, alt. 11 in-ill . 

Red Sea ; Mauritius ; Cape of Good Hope. 

F. ruppellii SOWB., P. Z. S. 1834, p. 128 ; Conchol. Illustr. f. 65, 
75. REEVE Conch. Icon. f. 54. SOWB., Thes. p. 197, f. 107, 108. 
F. elevata DKR. in PHIL., Abbild. ii, p. 67, t. 2, f. 4. KRAUSS, Die 
Sudaf. Moll. p. 67. F. australis KRAUSS, I. c. p. 67, t. 4, f. 10. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon f. 94. F. imbricata SOWB. 2D, Thes. iii, p. 194, 
f. 162. F. nigriradiata RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 81, 1850. 

The strongly elevated apex, curved forward, and the closely, 
evenly latticed sculpture are characteristic. The hole is squarish- 
oblong. Figures 82-85 represent the F. australis Krauss. F. ele- 
vata Dkr., described from the Cape of Good Hope, seems to have 
no differential characters. The F. nigriradiata seems to be a young 
.specimen of this species ; it might possibly be young G. listeri. 

G. DUBIA Reeve. PL 39, fig. 6. 

Shell ovate, attenuated anteriorly, depressed, radiately ribbed, 
and filled with numerous fine concentric ridges ; orifice oblong, 
rather broad, contracted in the middle ; irregularly stained and 



218 GLYPHIS. 

variegated with olive ash. Very closely allied to F. natalensis but 
of much more depressed growth, (five.) 

Port Natal. 

F. dubia RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 35, 1849. SOWB. 2D, Thes. p. 193, 
f. 208. 

G. EXQUISITA Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 26. 

Shell ovate, elevately conical in the middle, scarcely inclined an- 
teriorly, delicately and deeply latticed throughout with radiating 
and concentric ridges, of which the alternate are smaller and disap- 
pear near the orifice ; orifice orbicularly ovate, rather small ; trans- 
parent white. The latticed sculpture of this species is extremely 
delicate and well-defined. (Rve.') 

China Seas (Sowb.). 

jP. exquisita RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 90, 1850. F. venusta RVE., I. c. 
(errata). SOWB. 2o, Thes. p. 196, f. 109. 

Compare G. singaporensis. 

G. BOMBAYANA Sowerby 2d. PL 63, figs. 4, 5. 

Oval, depressed, equally cancellated with concentric line and 
acute scabrous ribs ; tawny, rayed with brown ; white within ; mar- 
gin crenulated ; orifice rotund, in front of the middle. A pretty 
species resembling F. venusta but delicately ranged with brown 
bands and with the costellse scabrous. (Sowb.) 

Bombay. 

F. bombayana SOWB., Thes. p. 196, f. 166, 

G. FUNIOULATA Reeve. PL 38, fig. 66, (62, 65 vars.) 

Shell ovate, narrower in front, perforation in front of the middle, 
small, oval. Sculpture consisting of close fine radiating riblets, of 
which about 24 placed at equal intervals are more elevated and 
prominent, the intervals between these principal ribs bearing usually 
three smaller riblets ; the whole closely latticed by fine elevated con- 
centric threads which are continuous over riblets and interstices, cut- 
ting the latter into little pits. 

The color is whitish, rayed with pale brown ; inside white ; hole- 
callus small, slightly truncated behind ; edge finely crenulated. 

Length 27, width 19, alt. 9 mill. 

Kurrachee, Mouth of the Indus, India. 

F.funiculata RVE. Conch. Icon., f. 65, 1850. F. indusica RVE. 
I. c., f. 67. F. dactylosa RVE. I c., f. 93. 



GLYPH IS. 



219 



Distinguished by the finely latticed and beaded sculpture, having 
larger riblets at regular intervals. 

F. indusica Rve. (fig. 65), and F. dactylosa Rve. (fig. 62) from 
the same locality, are evidently synonymous. This species should 
be compared with G. lineata Sowb. and incii Rve. 

G. LINEATA Sowerby. PI. 63, figs. 29, 30 ; pi. 38, figs. 63, 64. 

Shell elliptical, elevated, front slope straight, back slope convex. 
Sculptured with radiating rounded riblets of which about 18 at 
equal distances are slightly more prominent, the intervals between 
them bearing three slightly smaller riblets, and toward the margins 
in large examples, some small interstitial threads ; the whole lat- 
ticed by slender elevated concentric threads. The more prominent 
riblets are often pink. 

The color is whitish or yellowish, the larger riblets often darker. 
Inside whitish, with fine white lines. Orifice short-oval, its width 
two-thirds its length, the latter contained about 11 times in the 
length of the shell. Hole-callus truncated behind. Edge crenu- 
lated. Length 34, width 23, alt. 13 mill. 

North Australian Coast 

F. lineata SOWB., Conch. Illustr. f. 68. Thes. Conch, p. 195, f. 
134, J35. F. incii RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 69. 

Doubtfully distinct from the later G. juniculata Reeve, but the 
beading is less distinct, the concentric threads wider apart, and with 
fewer fine interstitial riblets. It is not so finely sculptured as G. 
shigaporensis. 

G. SINGAPORENSIS Reeve. PI. 34, figs. 61, 62. 

Shell elliptical, rather depressed, the slopes straight, or the pos- 
terior slope slightly convex ; sculptured with numerous radiating 
riblets, alternating at the sides and back with smaller ones, latticed 
by elevated conceniric threads about as far apart as the riblets, 
forming beads where they cross the radii and cutting the interstices 
into square pits. 

Color whitish, with obscure patches of brown. Interior bluish- 
white, with fine white radiating lines ; hole small, oval ; about one- 
tenth the length of the shell ; situated in front of the middle ; hole- 
callus truncated behind. Length 17s, width 11, alt. 6 mill. 

Singapore. 

F. singaporensis RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 100, 101, 1850. SOWB., 
Thes. p. 195, f. 118, 119. 



220 GLYPHIS. 

A regularly cancellated species, the altitude about one-third of 
the length. The specimens before me are from Singapore. 

Sowerby has described a F. LATIORA, with the following descrip- 
tion but no figure : " Quam F. singaporensis multo latiore. I omit- 
ted a figure of this, not intending to distinguish it from the preced- 
ing, than which, however, it is much broader" (Thes. p. 195). 

G. PROXIMA Sowerby 2d. PL 63, figs. 15, 16. 

Less gibbous posteriorly and less suddenly inclined in front than 

F. ticaonica which it nearly resembles. The variety figured is marked 
by green lines. (Sowb.) 

Australia. 
F.proxima SOWB. Thes., p. 197, f. 115, 116. 

G. LIMA Sowerby 2d. 

Similar to F. aspera but the concentric and longitudinal lirse 
much smaller ; foramen small, oblong. (Sowb.) 

Bombay. 
F. lima SOWB. Thes., p. 198, f. 124. 

G. DIGITALS Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 27. 

Shell orbicularly ovate, gibbously conical, very much inclined 
anteriorly, very closely decussated throughout with raised concentric 
and radiating striae ; orifice small, nearly orbicular ; deep ash- 
colored, brown near the base, bluish around the orifice. (jRve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. digitate RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 92, 1850. SOWB. Thes., p. 198, 
f. 122. 

G. TENUISTRIATA Sowerby 2d. PI. 62, fig. 33. 

Oblong, gibbous, white ; apex inclined forward ; toward the apex 
minutely cancellated, toward the margin minutely radiately 
scabrous striate. Orifice large, round. (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. tenuistriata SOWB. Thes., p. 199, f. 111. 

G. CORBICULA Sowerby 2d. PI. 61, fig. 20. 

More depressed than F. in&qualis, and F. pica with coarser 
cancellation. (Sowb.) 

Australia. 

F. eorbicula SOWB., Thes., p. 200, f. 180. 



GLYPHIS. 



221 



G. LANCEOLATA Sowerby 2d. PL 61, fig. 19. 

The sudden narrowing of the front part distinguishes this from F. 
pica and F. incequalis, besides the cancellation being a little more 
depressed. (Sowb.*) 

Moreton Bay. 

F. lanceolata SOWB., Thes., p. 200, f. 182. 

G. ARTICULATA Sowerby 2d. PI. 63, fig. 11. 

Elongate, compressed, tawny, varied with brown bands, can- 
cellated with concentric lirse and radiating, beaded ribs, alternately 
larger, some of them articulated with black ; foramen elongated, far 
above the middle, (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. articulata SOWB., Thes., p. 200, f. 176. 

G. HANLEYANA Sowerby 2d. PL 61, fig. 27. 

Small, white, subdepressed, narrowed in front, minutely cancel- 
lated ; white within, margin lightly crenulated ; orifice median, 
subtrigonal, with a little elevated point on each side. (Sowb.~) 

Habitat unknown. 

F. hanleyana SOWB., Thes. p. 202, f. 174. 

Group of G. gibberula Lam. 

Small species with the orifice small, anterior, and the basal side- 
margins arched, so that the shell rests upon the ends alone. It is 
not altogether unlikely that Fissuridea galeata Helbling belongs 
here. It may be noted that in the conical species having the apex 
curved far forward, the truncation or pit behind the hole-callus is 
indistinct or subobsolete. 

G. GIBBERULA Lamarck. PL 36, figs. 21, 22, 23, 24. 

Shell small, ovate, elevated ; anterior slope short, straight, pos- 
terior slope long, convex. Sculpture consisting of numerous fine 
subequal radiating riblets decussated by fine concentric lirse, which 
cut the interstices into square little pits, and crenulate the riblets at 
their intersections. 

The color is light yellowish, unicolored or with 8 blackish (rarely 
pinkish) rays. Inside white, showing traces of the fine radiating 
riblets of the exterior. Edge finely crenulated, the denticles in 
pairs. Basal margin more or less arched at the sides. 

Length 11-12, width 7, alt. 4 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Atlantic, from England to 
France, Spain, Canary Is., and Guinea. 



222 GLYPHIS. 

F. gibberula LAM. An. s. Vert, vi, p. 15. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 118, 119. WEINKAUFF, Conch, des Mittelm. ii, p. 394. BUQ. 
DAUTZ. & DOLLFUS, Moll, du Rouss., p. 444, t. 54, f. 1-4. F. 
minuta O. G. COSTA, Catal. Sist., pp. 120, 123 (not of Lam.). F. 
gibba PHIL. Enum. Moll. Sicil., p. 117, t. 7, f. 16. F. Philippiana 
DKR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 26; Ind. Moll. Gum. Infer., p. 37, 
t. 5, f. 23-25. F. eostaria Sows, (not Desh.) 111. Ind. Br. Sh., 1. 11, 
f. 2. 

Allied to F. groeca but constantly far smaller, the apex much 
nearer the anterior margin, sculpture finer, etc. 

The F. philippiana Dkr. seems to be synonymous. It is figured 
on plate 42, fig. 55. 

G. dorsata Monterosato is probably a variety. It is an unfigured 
form, larger than G. gibba Phil., and differing in sculpture. 
Specimens attain a length of 26 mill. It is from Palermo and 
other points in the Mediterranean. See MONTS., Not. Conch, foss., 
Monte Pellegriuo e Ficarazzi, 1872, p. 28 ; and Journ. de Conchyl. 
1878, p. 1-48. 

G. BENGUELENSIS Duiiker. PI. 42, fig. 56. 

Shell ovate-oblong, ovate-conical, yellow, latticed with elevated 
ribs and decussating transverse riblets ; apex excentric, situated at 
a third part of the length ; foramen subrotund, encircled with a 
purple ring; interior whitish, margin lightly crenulated. Length 
5* lines. Ratio of length, breadth and alt. 100: 60: 30. (Dkr.} 

Benguela, Guinea. 

F. benguelensis DKR., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 27 ; Ind. Moll. 
Ouin. infer, p. 38, t. 5, f. 9-11. 

Allied to F. grceca, but the radiating ribs close, much less ele- 
vated, not nodose ; transverse riblets more delicate, not lamellar. 

G. MENKEANA Dunker. PI. 42, figs. 52, 53, 54. 

Shell elliptical, very convex, subgibbous in front, whitish banded 
with rose ; radiately ribbed, subclathrate with transverse striae ; 
vertex obtuse, situated a fourth of the length from the end. Hole 
small, subrotund; margin crenulated. Length 6-7 lines. (Dkr.) 

Guinea. 

F. menkeana DKR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 26 ; Ind. Moll. Guin. 
Infer., p. 37, t. 5, f. 13-15. 



GLYPHIS. 



223 



The ribs are more delicate than in F. philippiana, the foramen 
subrotund, much inclined forward. The ribs are sometimes obsolete, 
sometimes granulose. 

G. AKCUATA G. B. Sowerby Jr. PI. 62, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell small, about the size and shape of G. gibberula of the 
Mediterranean ; ovate, narrower in front ; very much elevated, the 
apex decidedly anterior, the front slope short and steep, the posterior 
slope quite convex ; basal side-margins arched, so that the shell 
rests upon tbe two ends alone. Surface lusterless, covered with fine 
subequal or alternating radiating riblets, which are closely but 
strongly beaded by the otherwise inconspicuous concentric stria?. 

Color white, unicolored or rayed with light brown. Inside white ; 
hole-callus wide, not perceptibly truncated posteriorly, margin finely 
crenulated. The hole is very small, narrow, about one-twelfth the 
length of the shell. Length 9i, width 65, alt. 4-5 mill. 

St. Thomas, West Indies. 

F. arcuata G. B. SOWERBY 2D., Thes. iii, p. 199, f. 163, 164. 

This is a very distinct little shell, comparable in its gibbous form 
and arched side-margins to G. gibberula Lam. The sculpture is 
finer than in that species, however. From the G. minuta Lam., 
the most abundant small species of the West Indies, this convex lit- 
tle form differs notably. 

G. MINUTA Lamarck. PI. 62, fig. 27. 

Shell small, oblong, depressed, the sides subparallel, the summit 
situated at the front third of the total length ; front slope straight, 
posterior slope convex ; finely sculptured with radiating riblets 
(obscurely alternating in size), decussated by numerous fine raised 
concentric line which regularly bead the radiating riblets. 

The shell is thin, yellowish or white, having 7 or 8 broad black 
rays, usually formed of distinct black lines. These rays are visible 
inside through the thin shell. Hole small, the shape of the shell. 
Internal hole-callus bordered by a black line ; border finely crenu- 
lated ; basal side-margins more or less arched, so that the shell rests 
upon the ends alone. Length 10, breadth 5, alt. 2 mill. 

Turtle Harbor, Florida to Guadelupe. 

F. minuta LAMARCK, An. s. Vert, vi, p. 15. F. gemmulata 
RYE., Conch. Icon. f. 121, 1850. ARANGO, Faun. Mai. Cub. p. 
228. BALL, Catal. Mar. Moll. S. E. U. S. p. 170. .K minuta SOWB., 
Conch. Illustr. f. 16. SOWB., Thes. iii, p. 199, f. 169. (Not, accord- 



224 GLYPHIS. 

ing to Deshayes, F. minuta LAM., see An. s. V., Edit. Desh. vii, p. 
599, footnote). 

A beautiful little species, having radiating black lines. Deshayes 
is doubtless wrong in saying that the F. minuta of Lamarck is dif- 
ferent from the species generally known under that name. See 
Delessert, Rec. de Coq., for a figure of Lamarck's type. 

G. VARIEGATA Sowerby 2d. PI. 61, fig. 26. 

Shell small, oblong, about twice as long as wide ; depressed, the 
back slope a little convex, about twice the length of the front slope. 
Orifice narrow, long, tripartite. Sculptured with fine alternating 
radiating riblets crossed by finer concentric threads, continuous 
over the radii. 

Color whitish or buff, with about seven broad dark-brown stripes 
or spots not reaching to the apex, often coalescent around the base. 
Interior white, showing the dark maculations ; the hole-callus some- 
times having a dark horse-shoe shaped boundary, truncated behind. 
Side-margins slightly arcuate. Length 11 , width 5J, alt. 2f mill. 

St. Thomas, W. Indies. 

F. variegata SOWB., Thes. p. 200, f. 172, 173. 

Allied to G. minuta but with the rays not split into lines, the 
intercostal spaces more distinctly cut into pits, the riblets less dis- 
tinctly beaded, the orifice not black-bordered outside. I am never- 
the-less inclined to rank the form as a variety of the G. minuta. 

G. CANDIDA Sowerby. PI. 36, fig. 25. 

Shell oblong, nearly twice as long as broad, depressed ; slope in 
front of the hole less than half the length of that back of it. Length 
of hole contained 7-8 times in length of shell. Sculptured with fine 
alternately larger and smaller radiating riblets, decussated by finer 
concentric strise. 

The color is white or whitish, sometimes with ill-defined, pale 
brown rays. Inside white ; hole narrow, twice as long as wide ; 
hole-callus distinctly truncated posteriorly ; edge of shell very finely 
crenulated. The side margins are somewhat arched, so that the 
shell rests upon the two ends alone. Length 15, width 8, alt. 4-4i 

mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

F. Candida SOWB. Conchol. Illustr. f. 58. REEVE, Conch. Icon, 
f. 89. .F. angustata G. B. SOWERBY 2d., Thes. iii, p. 200, f. 170, 
171. 



GLYPHIS. 



225 



Several specimens of this apparently distinct form are before me. 
It is far more elongated than G. gibberula or G. arcuata, and more 
depressed. In contour G. minuta is near to this form, but the 
orifice of that species is very much shorter. 

G. CRUCIATA Gould. PI. 42, figs. 66, 67, 68, 69. 

Shell minute, thin, shining, elongated-ovate, somewhat arched, 
rounded at extremities, apex elevated at the anterior third, with a 
key-hole perforation slightly contracted at the sides. Surface 
sculptured with about thirty elevated, rounded, radiating ribs, for 
the most part alternately larger and smaller. These are crossed by 
concentric series of regularly and closely arranged elevated threads, 
which are slightly imbricated, giving the surface a beautifully 
cancellated appearance. Colors black and white, arranged so that 
radiating patches of black corrrespond to the two diameters, and of 
white to the two diagonals, the latter not continued to the margin. 
Edge very finely crenulated. Interior white and shining, but blue 
at the parts that correspond to the black of the exterior. A thick 
callus fortifies the perforation. Length two-fifths, breadth one- 
fourth, alt. one-eighth inch. (Gld.~) 

Sooloo Sea. 

F. cruciata GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1846, p. 155; U. S. 
Expl. Exped. Sh., p. 365, f. 474. 

G. TICAONICA Reeve. PL 36, fig. 20. 

Shell ovate, gibbously elevated, anteriorly much inclined, slightly 
hooked ; thickly latticed throughout with strong narrow radiating 
ridges and raised concentric striae ; orifice elongately oblong, sides 
excavated in the middle ; greenish-white sprinkled with dots and 
blotches of olive-green, bluish around the orifice. An extremely 
characteristic species, much elevated and curved anteriorly, with 
the same narrow oblong fissure mostly seen in the flat species. 
(jfcw.) 

Ticao, Philippines, under stones at low water. 

F. ticaonica RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 107. SOWB., Thes. p. 197, 
f. 110. 

G. CRUCIFERA Pilsbry. PL 32, figs. 27, 23, 29, 30, 31. 

The shell is regularly elliptical, little elevated, the slopes straight ; 
the 40-45 radiating riblets are equidistant, elevated, narrow and 
sharp, and are crossed by 12-15 concentric threads of equal 
15 



226 GLYPHI8. 

strength, giving the surface a latticed appearance; between each 
riblet lies usually a still smaller one, reaching, from the margin to 
about the middle of the slope. The edge is crenulated, the denti- 
cles in pairs. Orifice situated two-fifths of the length from the 
front, small, suboval ; hole-callus smooth, blunter behind but with- 
out a pit. Color whitish with four triangular brown rays, those at 
the sides broader. The shell rests upon the two extremities only, so 
that one can see under it when lying on a flat surface. Length 7'8, 
width 4-9, alt. 2'4 lines. (Krauss.) 

Natal. 

F. cruciata KRAUSS, Die Sudafric. Moll. p. 67, t. 4, f. 9, 1848. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 96. SOWB., Thes. Conch, p. 201, f. 291. 
(not F. cruciata Gould, 1846). 

Group of G. viridula. 

Concentric sculpture subobsolete ; color greenish. 
G. VIRIDULA Lamarck. PL 62, figs. 22, 23, 24, 25. 

Shell oval, elevated, the slopes nearly straight, summit in front 
of the middle ; sculptured with separated, closely nodose or subno- 
dose ribs, having usually inconspicuous intermediate riblets ; no 
concentric lircR. Greenish, unicolored or with the principal radiat- 
ing ribs whitish ; bluish-black around the orifice both outside and 
within. 

The margin is finely crenulated ; inside white ; hole-callus black- 
ish or encircled by a black line. Principal ribs of the outside about 
20 in number. Length 26, breadth 17, alt. 10 mill. 

St. Thomas, Antigua, Jamaica, etc., West Indies. 

F. viridula LAM. An. s. Vert. (ed. Desh.) vii, p. 596. SOWB. 
Conch. 111. f. 13. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 25. SOWB. Thes., p. 198, 
f. 62. F. bicolor C. B. AD. 

The obsolescence of concentric sculpture in the intervals between 
the ribs and the blue-black summit are the prominent characters of 
this species. The beading of the ribs is variable, often nearly ob- 
solete. 

G. TEGULA Reeve. PL 34, fig. 56. 

Shell ovate, conical, front slope straight, back slope straight below, 
becoming arcuate toward the summit. Sculptured with low alter- 
nately smaller, slightly beaded radiating riblets; concentric striae 
sub-obsolete. 



GLYPH IS. 



227 



Color slate-blue with numerous (about 20) narrow blackish-green 
rays some of them often split into lines. Hole twice as long as wide, 
indistinctly tripartite, about one-eighth to one-ninth the length of 
the shell, and situated in front of the middle. Interior bluish, the 
hole-callus bounded by a black line, and very distinctly truncated 
behind. Edge a little crenulated. Length 17, width llf, alt. 7 
mill. 

New Guinea. 

F. tegula RVE. Conch. Icon., f. 122, 1850. SOWB., Thes., p. 198, 
f. 57, 58. 

A slate-colored species, black-rayed and having the concentric 
sculpture nearly obsolete. 



Species of doubtful position. 

G. ? MONILIFERA Hutton. Unfigured. 

Ovate, white, radiated with moniliform ribs and obscurely can- 
cellated ; border smooth or crenulated. Height '2, length '6, 
breadth '45 inch. (T.) 

Stewart's Id., 15 fms. 

Lucapina monilifera HUTTON, Cat. Mar. Moll. New Zealand, 
1873, p. 42; Journ. de Conchyl. 1878, p. 35; Manual of N. Z. 
Moll. p. 106, 1880. 

May be a Megatebennus, but the description is not sufficiently de- 
tailed to enable one to classify it. 

G. ? SCROBICULATA Nevill. PI. 41, fig. 38. 

Shell small, depressed, almost regularly oval, the sides a little 
narrowed in the middle, rounded in front and behind ; white, with 
scarcely distinct, brownish, radiating bands. Surface all over min- 
utely pitted and ornamented with subobsolete radiating striae ; fora- 
men wide-oval, surrounded by an elevated margin ; margin of the 
aperture thin, minutely crenulated. Inside white. Length 9s, 
breadth of, alt. 2-1 mill. (Nev.) 

8. province Ceylon. 

Fissurella (7) scrobiculata NEVILL, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 
xxxviii, p. 163, t. 17, f. 15. 

The sculpture of this interesting shell is very peculiar, the surface 
being covered with rough diamond-shaped scrobiculations, perhaps 




228 PUNCTURELLA. 

caused by its being covered by the mantle of the animal. (Nevill.) 
This is a species of doubtful position. The description of the 
sculpture suggests that it may belong near Megatebennus (Ambly- 
chilepai) concatenata C. & F. 

G. ? CANALIFERA Nevill. PI. 41, fig. 37. 

Shell ovate-elongate, narrowed in front and turned up at the end ; 
rather solid, ornamented with unequal radiating striae and rough- 
ened with concentric lamellae; pale brownish, radiately marked by 
a few elongated obscure patches ; foramen long, subcentral, rounded 
in front and behind ; inside whitish ; margin of the aperture rather 
obtuse, nearly simple, minutely crenulated, insinuated in front ; 
margin of the foramen a little thickened, rather obtuse. Length 
14, breadth 7-}, alt. 4i mill. (Nev.) 

S. province Ceylon. 

F. canalifera G. & H. NEVILL, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xxxviii, 
p. 163, t. 17, f. 13. 

Easily distinguished from any other species of Fissurella by the 
curious way in which the shell, at the anterior end, is turned up and 
contracted, thus forming a sort of canal interiorly ; the black 
stripes in position also seem tolerably constant, there being two 
broad ones radiating from the posterior end of the foramen, and the 
same number but narrower and more indistinct, from the anterior 
end. (Nevill.) 

Genus PUNCTURELLA Lowe, 1827. 

Pancturella LOWE, Zoological Journal iii, p. 77, 78, type Patella 
noachina L. A. ADAMS, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 227. FORBES & HANLEY 
Brit. Moll, ii, p. 473, 1853. WOODWARD, Manual Moll., p. 150, 
1853. BALL, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xi, p. 74, 1881, and of 
FISCHER, WATSON, JEFFREYS and others. Cemoria LEACH (MS., 
1819), Moll. Gt. Br. (Gray's edit.), p. 213, 1852, and of H. & A. 
AD., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 450, and of some others, not Cemoria 
Risso, 1826. in part Diodora GRAY, 1840 (no descr.), not Diodora 
GRAY, 1821 (=Glyphisjuv.).Diadora "Gray" BLAINV., Manuel 
i, p. 501 (no descr.). Sipho BROWN, 111. Conch. Gt. Br., t. 36, f. 14- 
16, 1827, not Sipho Klein, Fabr. nor Morch. 

The name Puncturella has been adopted by all recent writers on 
this genus. Dr. Dall (I. c.) has discussed the synonymy in detail. 

The genus consists of small conical shells having a spirally re- 
curved apex either persistent or absorbed in the adult, the fissure 



PUNCTURELLA. 229 

either lanceolate or oval, on the front slope or at the summit of the 
cone; inside there is a plate extending forward forming a conduit 
to the fissure or a " deck " over it. 

The spiral apex is inclined toward the right side, and the fissure 
is also a trifle to the right of a median line, when visibly excentric. 
The surface usually shows minute granules under a strong magnifica- 
tion. 

The tentacles are short and stout ; eyes with or without pigment ; 
epipodial row of papillae present. In many of the species a male in- 
tromittent organ is present, behind the right tentacle. The rows 
of teeth across the radula are oblique, not transverse, the individual 
teeth being oblique, so that it is bilaterally asymmetrical. 

This is mainly a deep sea group. It differs from Rimula, Einar- 
ginula, etc. in having a septum or deck inside ; from Glypliis in 
having no distinct internal callus around the front of the fissure; 
from Zeidora in having the fissure closed, not an open anterior slit. 

Puncturella divides into three sections, which, although used in 
a generic sense by some authors, have only slight systematic value. 

1. Apex persistent; the fissure in front of it. 

a. Fissure at the summit, - Section Puncturella s. s. 

b. Fissure halfway between summit and front margin, 

Section Cranopsis. 

2. Apex absorbed in the adult by the short oval fissure, 

Section Fissurisepta. 



Section Puncturella s. str. 

Herein are included species having the recurved apex persistent 
in the adult; the fissure at or near the summit; the internal plate 
with or without side-props. 

P. NOACHINA Linne. PI. 27, figs. 69, 70. 

Shell oval, elevated, about as high as broad ; slopes nearly 
straight ; the summit in the middle, apex curving downward behind 
it, showing a minute spiral whorl on the right side. Fissure situa- 
ted at the summit, narrow. Sculptured with alternately larger and 
smaller radiating riblets which are slightly irregular but scarcely 
beaded, and seen under a strong lens to be studded with minute 
white specks. Color yellowish-white. 

Interior bluish ; septum small, strongly arched, forming a narrow 
passage to the slit, strengthened by a low buttress on each side. 



230 PUNCTURELLA. 

Length 7, breadth 51, alt. 4i mill. 

Circumpolar ; southward to Cape Fear (in deep water] ; to Scar- 
borough, England ; to Corea and northern Japan ; to Puget Sound, 
West America. In the Southern Hemisphere, off Marion Island, 69 
fms. ; off Prince Edward's Island 310 fms. ; Kerguelen, 60 fms. ; 
Strait of Magellan. 

Patella noachina L., Mantissa, p. 551. Puncturella noachina 
LOWE, Zool. Journ. iii, p. 78, 1827, and of authors generally. 
Cemoria princeps MIGHELS, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1841, p. 49. 
Rimula galeata GOULD, U. S. Expl. Exped. p. 369, t. 31, figs. 476, 
477. 

A very widely distributed species, of a more erect elevated form 
than its allies. 

Var. GALEATA Gould. PI. 42, figs. 62, 63, 64, 65. 

Rather heavier and larger ; buttresses of the internal septum strong, 
forming a deep pit on each side of the hole-channel ; a groove 
running downward from the hole inside. 

Length 10*, breadth 8J, alt. 6i mill. 

Puget Sound. 

P. FASTIGIATA A. Adams. PL 63, figs. 31, 32. 

Whitish, elevated-conical, shining, the acuminate vertex involute ; 
having radiating equal, equidistant riblets, interstices flat with con- 
centric striae of growth. Fissure lanceolate ; aperture oval, margin 
crenulated, septum deeply arcuate, transverse, simple. (Ad.} 

Eastern Seas. 

P.fastigiata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 228. Cemoria fastigiata AD., 
Thes. p. 208, f. 15, 16. SOWB. in Conch. Icon, xix, f. 4. 

P. COGNATA Gould. PL 42, figs. 70, 71. 

Shell small, conical, with the apex curved and the surface orna- 
mented with radiating ribs of nearly uniform size ; aperture rounded- 
oval. Color ashy-white. (Gld.~) 

Orange Harbor, in 16 fms. 

Compare P. noachina. 

P. CONICA Orbigny. PL 63, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell oval, much elevated, conic, thin, white, ornamented with 
alternately larger and smaller ribs, one in front larger than the 



PUNCTUREL.LA. 231 

others. Apex strongly recurved. Margins nearly entire. Length 
4 mill. 

Falkland Is. 

Rhnula contca ORB., Voy. dans 1'Amer. Merid. p. 471, t. 78, f. 
10, 11. 

P. NOHILIS A. Adams. PL 63, figs. 34, 35, 36, 37. 

Elevated-conical, vertex acuminate, inclined, acute ; radiating 
ribs strong, equidistant, interstices concentrically striated. Fissure 
narrow, lanceolate. Margin deeply crenulated. Resembling C. 
cucullata Gould, but with the ribs stronger, wider apart and equal ; 
the apex moreover is considerably more elevated and acute. (Ad.) 

Okosiris, Japan. 

Oemoria nobilis AD. in Thes. Conch, iii, p. 208, f. 6-9. SOWB. in 
Conch. Icon, xix, f. 6. 

P. FALKLANDICA A. Adams. PL 63, fig. 33. 

Whitish, conical, apex incurved ; radiately ribbed, ribs strong, 
subdistant, equal, corrugated by close concentric strife. Fissure 
narrow, lanceolate ; aperture ovate, margin crenated. In this species 
the ribs are very distinct, and the concentric raised lines are acum- 
inate where they cross the ribs. (Ad.) 

Falkland Is. ; West coast of Patagonia, 449 frns. 

Cemoria falkandica AD. in Thes., p. 208, f. 14. SOWB. in Conch. 
Icon., f. 8. Puncturella falkandica DALL, Rep. Albatross Moll., in 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xii, 1889, p. 356. 

Differs from P. noachina only in the generally shorter fissure, 
septum shorter, more vertical, apex less ppsterior, but is doubtfully 
distinct, according to Dr. Dall. The animal has a well marked 
verge. 

P. COOPERI Carpenter. 

Almost exactly like P. galeat.a, but the internal plate solid, plane, 
scarcely anteriorly sinuate, scarcely propped. 

Outside like P. noachina,, but with the lamina like P. cucullata, 
without eye-holes [accessory lateral pits]. The latter species is ex- 
tremely variable in sculpture but never so fine as this ; and the 
shape is less conical. Length 0'30, width 0'21, alt. 0'24 inch. 
(Cpr.) 

Catalina Island, Cat., not rare, 20-40 fms. 



282 PUNCTURELLA. 

P. cooperi CPR., Moll, of Western N. A. p. 137, Smithsonian 
Misc. Coll. 252 ; Proc. Cal. Acad. N. S. iii, p. 214, 1865. 

P. CUCULLATA Gould. PI. 42, figs. 72, 73, 74, 75 ; pi. 63, figs. 38, 
39. 

Shell large for the genus, short, oval, conical, the recurved apex 
about in the center, fissure in front of the summit, wedge-shaped, 
rather short ; slopes straight ; sculptured with numerous radiating 
riblets, every fourth one larger, or in younger shells every alternate 
one larger ; having rather coarse concentric stria?. 

Interior white; septum short, arched, without buttresses, not con- 
cealing the fissure, which continues downward in a groove which 
does not extend to the edge of the shell. 

Length 22, breadth 18, alt. 12 mill. 

Monterey ; Puget Sound ; Neeah Bay. 

Rimula cucullata OLD. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 159, 1846 ; U. 
S. Expl. Exped. Sh., p. 368, f. 475. 

The largest species. The short, arched septum, without side 
buttresses, and the shorter fissure separate this from P. noachina, etc. 
The fissure is wedge-shaped, acute anteriorly, rounded behind. 

P. CLATHRATA Jeffreys. PI. 27, figs. 66, 67. 

Shell small, porcellanous^ oblong, scarcely perceptibly broader in 
front; its slopes are conical and straight till close to the top, which 
projects backwards but little; there are strongish ribs and still 
stronger concentric threads ; the slit is short and broad. Sculpture : 
there are about 35 strongish rounded riblets with feebler ones be- 
tween, bringing up the total number to 60 or 70; overlying these, 
and forming minute knots at the crossings, are rather stronger, con- 
centric rounded threads, giving to the surface a wattled appearance. 
Color faintly brownish-gray. Apex rather coarse, curled in, but 
very little reverted or flattened; there are just two whorls in all. 
Slit oblong, being short and broad ; as seen from without, one-half 
is open leading into the interior, the other is closed by the very 
curved septum. Margin crenulated and crimped by the ribs. In- 
side glassy, blunt at the top, not being hollowed into the apex, 
strongly furrowed by the ribs, less so by the concentric threads; 
there is no anterior furrow seen from within, the slit is semi-oval, 
and the strong septum is excessively short and straight and is 
almost perpendicular ; from it a slight callus encircles the opening 
of the slit. Length 0'25, width 0'16, alt. 0'13 inch. (Wats.) 



PUNCTURELLA. 233 

This species inform somewhat resembles P. agger, but is longer 
and narrower ; the sculpture and slit are very markedly, and the 
apex unmistakeably, different. In all these respects it differs from 
P. iioachina, to the young of which it has a vague resemblance. 
That species also is usually in all stages of growth narrower in 
front than behind. I failed to recognize either the white or trans- 
parent specks one or other of which are generally present in the 
Fissurellidce. ( Wats.} 

North Atlantic; Culebra Id., W. Indies, 390 fms. 

P. clathrata JEFFR. P. Z. S. 1882, p. 676, t. 1, f. 11. WATSON 
Challenger Gastrop., p. 39. 

P. AGGER Watson. PI. 26, figs. 32, 33, 34, 35. 

Shell small, porcellaneous, oval, broader in front ; sides slopes 
straight, the front convex, the back concave rather high, but with 
the top depressed and thrust out backwards, yet little projecting, the 
apex being flattened out on the posterior slope ; there are many not 
crowded slight radiating ribs set with stumpy prickles ; the long and 
lanceolate slit is on the crest, and from it a ridge runs down the front 
slope. Sculpture : The riblets are very slight, but are made distinct 
by the little triangular prickles which pretty closely stud them ; 
these prickles more irregularly and remotely tally with feeble lines 
of growth ; the ridge down the front slope is small, and is crowned 
with two of the riblets parted by a narrow furrow ; these riblets 
along the slit rise into sharp laminae. Color : The shell is porcel- 
lanous white, with a slight ruddy tinge. Apex somewhat depressed 
and shortly projected backward, curling in on the central line of the 
shell, but with the extreme tip flattened out on the posterior right 
slope. There are 2 1 whorls in all. Slit lies high on the front slope, 
distant from the apex about once, and from the margin about twice 
its own length. It is long and narrow, bluntly rounded at the 
upper end, and produced in front to a long sharp point. Margin is 
thin and not fretted with the rib ends. Inside glassy, deeply 
hollowed into the apex, feebly rayed, and having the rays picked 
out with bright specks corresponding to the eternal prickles ; a long 
shallow furrow, bordered by a minute ridge on either side, runs 
widening upwards from the margin to the slit, which is covered in 
all its length by the somewhat contracted, sinuous edged, cross 
scored, straight, glassy septum, which arches in to the apex. 

Length 0'17, breadth O13, alt. 0'09, inch. ( Wats.} 



234 PUNCTURELLA. 

The species has somewhat the form of P. granuluta Seg., but is not 
so compressed, and the sculpture is quite different. ( Wats.') 

North of Culebra Id., West Indies, 390 fms. 

P. agger WATS. J. L. S. L. xvii, p. 32; Challenger Gastrop., p 
40, t. 4, f. 6. 

P. BRYCHIA Watson. PI. 26, figs. 38, 39, 40, 41. 

Shell very small, porcellanons translucent, oval, very slightly 
broader in front ; its side slopes are slightly, its front slope extremely 
convex, its back slope is short and flattened, and very much over- 
hung by the protuberant apex ; there are sparse and distinct riblets. 
The slit is short and coarse, though not large ; and from it a broad 
round ridge trending to the right runs out to the margin. Sculpt- 
ure : The riblets are neither strong nor sharp ; but they are distinct, 
rising as little round threads from the flat surface, and being parted 
by broad intervals, rather strongly pitted by the little specks of the 
genus ; the ridge which runs down the front of the shell is the full 
breadth of the slit ; the concentric striae are mere slight irregular 
lines of growth. 

Color clouded, porcellanous white under the brownish caducous 
epidermis. Apex very much curled in and bent down, but not 
spread out on the backward slope; the minute extreme tip is 
exserted and projects ; the whorls are 2i. Slit: The open part is 
short and narrowly oblong, and as broad in front as behind, from 
which point the old scar runs up the crest. Margin thin, patulous, 
especially behind, crenulated by the riblets. Inside porcellanous, 
deeply hollowed into the apex ; scored by the rib-furrows, of which 
the one in front is very strong, particularly near the slit, which is 
rather closely covered by the strong, slightly arched septum, which 
has a retracted edge and is unbuttressed. 

Length 0'18. breadth 0'12, alt. O'l inch. ( Wats.} 

In the animal the eye-peduncles are present; but no eyes are 
visible. The pedal papillae are very small, as is also the funnel- 
shaped process leading to the shell-slit. 

This species in general form is a good deal like P. agger, but is 
more tumid and higher ; the apex and sculpture are very dissimilar. 
Than P. conica d'Orb., which is much of the same size, P. brychia, 
has the apex much more turned over ; the form is broader and much 
more depressed. ( Wats.*) 

Of Halifax, N. S., 1340 fms. 



PUNCTURELLA. 235 

P. brychia WATS. J. L. S. L. xvii, p. 32 ; Challenger Gastrop., p. 
41, t. 6, f. 7. 

P. OXIA Watson. PI. 26, figs. 46, 47, 48, 49. 

Shell very small, thin, oval, narrowed in front, depressed ; its 
slopes are straight at the sides, slightly and regularly convex in 
front ; merely the extreme tip is curled in, and the top projects 
sharply upward and backwards immediately in front of the break 
of the slit ; the surface is closely dotted with minute tubercles ; the 
slit is rather large and round. Sculpture : There are neither ribs 
nor concentric lines, but the surface is pretty closely dotted over 
with minute rough tubercles, which are arranged in somewhat inter- 
rupted and irregular zig-zags. Color translucent, and at the tuber- 
cles transparent. Apex incurved and turned back, but not bent 
down ; there are two whorls. Slit : There is a largish round hole 
obliquely cut off from the top and prolonged backwards into a point. 
Margin very thin, patulous, not crimped. Inside glassy ; a very 
small hollow runs up into the apex ; the surface is scored with 
many irregular minute scratch like white threads, which are more 
perceptible on a slightly worn than on a fresh specimen ; there is 
no anterior furrow ; the slit, as seen from within, is round, and is 
very little interfered with by the short, thin, triangular, straight- 
edged almost perpendicular septum. Length 0*14, breadth O'l, alt. 
0-07 inch. ( Wats.) 

This species has some features of resemblance to P. profundi Jeffr., 
but is flatter and in sculpture is quite different. ( Wats.) 

Off Culebra Islands, West Indies, 390 fms. 

P. oxla WATS., J. L. S. L. xvii, p. 36 ; Challenger Gastrop. p. 44, 
t. 4, f. 8. 

P. SPORTELLA Watson. PI. 26, figs. 42, 43, 44, 45. 

Shell very small, strongish, oblong, with straight slopes before and 
at the sides, and markedly concave behind ; the apex is very small, 
and it alone projects backwards ; the surface is finely cancellated ; 
the slit is lozenge-shaped. Sculpture : There are very many slightly 
irregular, coarsish radiating riblets crossed by concentric threadlets, 
which are rather finer and closer but somewhat more irregular, and 
which form minute knots in crossing the riblets ; from this sculpture 
results the basket-work appearance from which the name of the 
species has been adopted. Color white, with a faint tinge of rud- 
diness. Apex is exceedingly minute ; and it is the little embryonic 



236 PUNCTURELLA. 

spiral alone which projects ; the entire number of whorls is only 1 %. 
Slit roundish, but acute in front, and drawn out behind (where it is 
closed by the septum) into a sharp point so as to be lozenge-shaped 
when viewed in its entire length. Margin straight on the sides, 
scarce appreciably broader behind than before ; the edge is bevelled 
off so as to be quite sharp. Inside glassy ; feebly marked with the 
ribs, which as well as the concentric threads, shine through as trans- 
parent ; the opening up into the apex is narrow and deep, but not 
pointed ; there is no anterior furrow ; the slit as seen from within is 
roundish, pointed in front, and truncated behind by the short, thin 
triangular, straight-edged, little oblique septum. 
Length O12, breadth O08, alt. 0*06 inch. (Wats.) 
This beautiful species is not improbably full grown, the very 
small apex seeming to indicate that the species is in its own nature 
minute. In outline it somewhat resembles P. granulata Seg. ; in 
sculpture it has relations with P. asturiana Fisch., and P. profundi 
Jeffr. ; in both respects it may be compared with P. clathrata Jeffr., 
but is unlike them all, and may be readily recognized by its minute 
apex. ( Wats.) 

Off Culebra Island, West Indies, 390 fms. 

P. sportella WATS. Journ. Linn. Soc. Loud, xvii, p. 37 ; Challenger 
Gastr., p. 45, t. 4, f. 9. 

P. CIRCULARIS Ball. PL 25, fig. 31. 

Shell white, acutely conical, with the anterior wall slightly, and 
the posterior wall strongly, concave ; tip sharply recurved, acute, 
not spiral, directed backward in the middle line ; surface ornamented 
with about forty very slender radiating lines, fewer toward the 
apex, with intercalary threads toward the margin ; concentric sculp- 
ture consisting of extremely delicate, irregularly disposed aggrega- 
tions of the lines of growth, which now rise above, and now fall 
below the general plane of the surface, giving it under a strong 
magnifier a curiously malleated appearance, between the radiating 
threads, nowhere exhibiting any uniform concentricity ; where the 
lines of growth cross the radiating threads they form fine overlap- 
ping scales closely appressed to the threads ; puncture ovate, pointed 
behind ; margin thickened, perfectly smooth ; septum triangular, 
inclined forward under the puncture which it almost entirely hides 
when viewed from below ; basal edge subcircular. Lon. 5'75, lat. 
5-0, alt. 3-0 mill. (DalL) 

Florida Strait; West Indies, 539 fms. 



PUNCTURELLA. 237 

P. circularis DALL, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 75, 1881 ; Blake Gastrop., 
p. 403, t. 26, f. 7, 7b.' 

P. WATSON I Dall. 

Shell small, greenish-white, exactly resembling in sculpture 
Cranopsis granulata Seguenza (See p. 242, pi. 25, fig. 28); but 
differing from that species in having the slit of Puncturella in- 
stead of Cranopsis, and in having a rather higher and narrower and 
more conical form. The anterior and posterior slopes are not arched 
to the same extent as in the C. granulata, and the shell is proportion- 
ately shorter. The nucleus is small and prominent, and the shell as 
a whole includes two whorls. Max. alt. 3'0 ; max. diam., 2'5 ; max. 
Ion., 3-8 mill. (Dall.) 

Near Barbados, in 100 fms. ; off Bahia Honda, Cuba, 220 fms. ; 
off Yucatan, 200 fms. 

P. Watsoni DALL, Blake Gastrop., p. 403. 

P. TRIFOLIUM Dall. PL 27, figs. 50, 51. 

Shell brownish-white, acutely conical, with anterior and posterior 
walls nearly straight, except near the tip where they are slightly 
concave, especially the latter ; tip erect, squarely truncated at the 
top, not twisted, inclined or recurved; .surface ornamented with 
some twenty-four to thirty strongly elevated rounded ribs, smooth 
for the most part, but undulating a little as they pass over the con- 
centric sculpture and rarely and irregularly spinous ; these spines 
do not exceed two or three on any rib, occur only on the stronger 
ribs, and are short, pointed, solid and acutely triangular ; between 
the primary radiating ribs are secondary ones about equal in num- 
ber, but not spinous and not raised above the concentric sculpture; 
the latter is not strictly concentric except in a general sense, and 
consists of stout spongy bands connecting the ribs, passing from 
base to base between each pair of primary ribs on a level with the 
secondaries, but not evenly continuous clear around the shell, and 
having a pumice-like texture, so that the bands are not defined 
sharply like the ribs ; the spaces left vacant by this reticulation are 
rather deep and have a worm-eaten appearance ; shell inside smooth 
with shallow grooves indicating the stronger external ribs and with 
a striated space over the head between the anterior horns of the 
scar of the great pedal muscle. Puncture 'externally circular, as in 
Glyphis, internally trefoil-shaped from the projection of the middle 
of the septum and two little shelly knobs on each side into the space ; 



238 PUNCTURELLA. 

septum triangular, very small and short, inclined in about the same 
plane as the anterior wall of the shell, in the middle of its lower 
edge produced and thickened like a little short tongue; about half 
way between the base of the septum and the outer upper surface of 
the perforation inside the tube, and at about equal distances from 
each other and from the median line of the septum, are two little 
shelly triangular projections which give to the interior of the apex, 
when looked through, the trilobate outline referred to in the specific 
name ; base of the shell ovate, the margins showing projections and 
indentations corresponding to the sculpture of the exterior. Lon. 
14-0, lat. 10-5, alt. 7*0 mill. (DalL) 

Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 

P. trifolium DALL, Bull. M. C. Z. ix, p. 76, 1881 ; Blake Gastrop. 
p. 403, t. 26, f. 8, 8b. 

P. ERITMETA Verrill. PI. 27, figs. 60, 61. 

Shell small, thin, delicate, translucent white, glossy, moderately 
elevated, with the base between elliptical and ovate, somewhat nar- 
rowed anteriorly, having both ends evenly rounded and the sides 
somewhat compressed, but still moderately convex. The apex is 
minute, nearly central, compressed, turned backward, but scarcely 
incurved, and with the extreme tip smooth and glossy. The pore is 
very small, situated very close to the apex, and it appears to be 
divided by a slight transverse septum, across the middle. The 
sculpture consists of very numerous radiating strise, which are 
decussated by fine and close, raised regularly concentric lines of 
growth of about the same size as the radii on the upper portion, 
where the shell is minutely cancellated, but on the lower part of the 
shell the concentric lines become larger and more distant, and have 
the form of regular raised cinguli ; the intervals between these, 
which are two or three times as wide as the ridges, are crossed by 
the much finer and closer radiating lines, which do not produce a 
regular cancellated appearance on this part. Both the radiating 
and longitudinal lines are so fine as scarcely to be visible without a 
lens. Internally the surface is nearly smooth and lustrous, and the 
external sculpture shows through the substance of the shell. In 
the apex there is a minute transverse lamina, forming a small flat- 
tend tube. The an tenor* slope of the shell, seen in profile, is broadly 
rounded ; the posterior slope falls off abruptly at first, near the apex, 
and then slopes regularly to the posterior margin, with a nearly 



PUNCTURELLA. 239 

straight or but slightly convex outline. The side slopes are steep, 
regularly and slightly convex. 

Length 5, breadth 3, height 2 mill. ( Verrill.) 

Off Rhode Island, 1451 fins. 

Puncturella (Fissurisepta) eritmeta V., Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, p. 
204, t. 32, f. 19, 19a. P. eritmeta DALL, Catal. Mar. Moll. S.-E. TJ. 
S., p. 170. 

P. ABYSSICOLA Verrill. 

Shell moderately large, elliptical or ovate in outline, a little nar- 
rowed anteriorly, evenly convex along the sides, and rounded pos- 
teriorly, moderately elevated, with the apex small, not very promi- 
nent, acute and curved backward and inward, situated a little 
behind the middle. The posterior slope is at first a little concave, 
owing to the position of the beak ; the anterior slope is gently con- 
vex. The foramen is elongated fusiform, broadest in the middle, 
tapering both ways to acute points, but most acute anteriorly ; its 
posterior end does not reach the vertex and terminates some distance 
from the apex ; it is thickened and partly filled up within. A 
.slightly elevated ridge runs from the anterior end of the opening to 
the front end of the shell, but is scarcely larger than the other ribs. 
The sculpture consists of about forty rounded, moderately elevated, 
nodulous, radiating ribs, with an alternating series of similar but 
smaller ribs on the lower half. The surface is covered with concen- 
tric, raised lines, which are nearly as prominent as the radii, pro- 
ducing a cancellated structure and forming the small rounded nod- 
ules where they cross. The internal septum is highly developed, 
large, strong and tubular, extending down in front farther than the 
foramen, with narrow lateral ridges extending nearly to the front 
edge of the shell. The edge of the shell is thin and slightly crenu- 
lated by the ribs. Length 10, greatest breadth 7, height 5, anterior 
edge to apex 8, posterior edge to apex 4'5, length of foramen 1*6 
mill ( Verrttl.) 

N. lat. 39 03' 15", W. long. 70 50' 45", in 1537 fms. 

P. abyssicola VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, p. 425. 

This species differs from P. noachina in being much less elevated, 
with the sides not flattened ; in having the apex less prominent and 
farther back ; in the distinctly and rather coarsely cancellated 
structure ; and in having a broader and more fusiform foramen, 
situated more anteriorly and not extending so far toward the apex ; 



240 PUNCTURELLA. 

the internal septum is larger and more flattened and prolongations 
extend from its anterior edges nearly to the anterior edge of the 
shell. It seems to be very distinct from all the species described 
by Watson, Jeffreys and Dall. ( Verrill.) 

* 

P. ERECT A Dall. 

Shell stout, erect, high, rather short, white or grayish, reticulated ;. 
apex minute ; nucleus smooth, of a single whorl ; radiating sculp- 
ture of three series of threads, the strongest alternating with the 
secondaries and these with the tertiaries, which last are almost hidden 
under the concentric sculpture, which consists of round, even, uni- 
form, equally spaced threads clinging closely to and passing over 
the radii like cords over a rod ; apex at the posterior third, from 
which the posterior slope is straight and steep ; anteriorly the top is 
arched, then falls steeply to the front edge ; slit elongate, with its 
outer edges raised, a suture in front continued to the front edge, 
corresponding to an internal groove which does not indent the 
margin ; perforation long and narrow, contained in the upper half 
of the anterior dorsum ; internally there is no true septum, but a rim 
of shelly matter like a collar is pushed back behind the orifice as if 
the latter had been made by pushing a pin in from the outside and 
pressing it backward ; interior of shell white, muscular impression 
strong, margin of shell slightly crenulated by the sculpture; max- 
imum longitude of the shell 10, latitude 7'5, altitude 6'8 mill. 
(Dall.) 

This is one of those intermediate forms which bridge over the gaps 
between subgenera. It has exactly the sculpture of some varieties 
of Cranopsis asturiana, but its apex is smaller and more close-set, the 
form of the shell different, the perforation nearer the apex of the 
shell, and the shell itself is solid and strong, while the C. asturiana 
is delicate and thin. It is difficult to say whether the present species 
should be called a Puncturella (s. s.), a Cranopsis or a Rimula. 
(Dall.} 

Off North Carolina in 107 fins. 

Cranopsis f erecta DALL, Blake Gastrop., p. 405. Puncturella 
(f Rimula) erecta DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xii, p. 357, 1889. 

Section Cranopsis A. Adams, 1860. 

Cranopsis AD. Ann. Mag. N. H. 1860, p. 302, type C. pelex. 
AD. & SOWB. Thes., p. 208. SOWB. in Conch. Icon. xix. WATSON, 



PUNCTURELLA. 241 

Challenger Gastrop., p. 38. FISCHER, Manuel, p. 862. DALL, 
Blake Gastrop., p. 404. 

Differs from Puncturella s. s. in having the fissure upon the front 
slope instead of at the summit. 

P. PELEX A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 8. 

Shell cap-shaped, ornamented with radiating crenulated line, the 
interstices cancellated ; fissure chambered within, margins callous, 
outside bordered with elevated longitudinal lips. Margin crenulated. 
(Ad.) Length 5 mill. 

Off Mino-Sima, Straits of Corea ; 63 fms. 

P. pelex AD. Ann. Mag. N. H. v, 1860, p. 302. Thes. Conch, iii, 
p. 209, f. 34. SOWB. in Conch. Icon, xix, f. 2. 

P. PILEOLUS A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 9. 

Cap-shaped, with radiating crenulated riblets, the interstices 
cancellated ; vertex strongly curved backward ; fissure acute in 
front, back margin reflexed. This species is more cap-shaped and 
the apex more involute than in C. pelex; it is also more laterally 
compressed and of smaller size. (Ad.} Length 3* mill. 

Off Mino-Sima, Japan. 

P. ASTURIANA Fischer. PI. 26, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell gray, thin, depressed, oval, considerably broader in front 
than behind ; with straight conical sides, convex in front and con- 
cave behind, where in particular the margin is a little patulous ; it 
is scored with sharpish ribs and concentric threads ; the lanceolate 
slit is large and very low placed. Sculpture : From the point 30 
to 40 sharpish ribs radiate out, in whose interstices as they diverge 
smaller ones appear, which finally rival the first, so that toward the 
margin 100 to 130 can be counted. The one in continuation of the 
generic puncture is slightly raised, double and partially split, espe- 
cially above, giving the impression of a suture; these are crossed 
by concentric threads of almost equal strength with the ribs, in 
crossing which they rise into knots which sharply roughen the sur- 
face. Color brownish-grey ; but the specimen is sonewhat black- 
ened and discolored. Apex a good deal depressed, curled in and 
projected backwards exactly in the middle line of the shell, the 
minute tip just standing out on the right, forming a spire of 2] 
whorls. Slit very low, having its center quite two-thirds down the 
front slope; it is lanceolate, square behind, broadening a little 
16 



242 FUNCTUllELLA. 

irregularly in the middle and slowly contracting to a small narrow 
point in front. The old scar is a shallow furrow with sharp sides ; 
and the bottom is scored across with old edge-lines. Margin thin, 
toothed and crimped on the edges by the ribs. Inside porcellanous, 
somewhat indented on the line of the ribs. The apex is deeply hol- 
lowed ; a deepening and widening groove extends from the margin 
to the slit, which is shortly covered by the regularly curved, strong, 
unbuttressed septum. Length O8, breadth 0*62, alt. O32 inch. 

This North Atlantic species is exceptionally large. In outline it 
somewhat resembles Rimula cognata Gould. My remembrance of 
that species is that it is quite small ; but Gould figures it large and 
gives no indication of size beyond saying that it is small. P. astur- 
iana further differs from it in being much rounder and lower with 
a more depressed and reverted apex, and a slit much more remote 
from the top. 

Bay of Biscay, 600-1100 fms. ; Gulf of Mexico, 85-640 fms. 

Rimula asturiana FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl 1882, p. 51. 
Puncturella (Cranopsis) asturiana WATS., Challenger Gastr. p. 45. t. 
4, f. 4. Cranopsis asturiana DALL, Blake Gastrop. p. 404. 

Dr. Dall has demonstrated the presence of a verge in this species. 

P. GRANULATA Seguenza. PI. 25, fig. 28. 

Shell porcellanous white under a meagre yellow epidermis, rather 
thin, narrow, broader in front, oblong, with a depressed and reverted 
top and incurved apex ; the side slopes are steep and slightly con- 
vex, the front edge is long and very convex, the back slope is concave 
in consequence of the overhanging apex; the small close-set radiat- 
ing ribs are beaded with contiguous small rough tubercles ; the long 
narrow fusiform slit rises very high, and is remote from both apex 
and margin. Sculpture : From the apex over 100 small irregular 
and unequal riblets radiate to the margin ; they are closely beset 
with small rough tubercles like beads ; there are no concentric 
threads, but a few unequal lines of growth can be seen ; the riblet 
which runs from the slit is double, with a minute furrow between 
the riblets ; its direction is not quite constant in different specimens. 
Color : The shell is pure white, porcellanous under the thin straw- 
yellow membranaceous epidermis, which is rather caduous. Apex 
very much reverted and depressed so as to stick out backwards 
bluntly, but prominently in the mid-line of the shell ; the minute 
smooth white tip stands out on the right with considerable distinct- 



I'l NCTURELLA. 243 

ness, completing a regular spire of 2-> whorls in all. Slit stands very 
high, its upper end rising to the crest of the shell, though still remote 
from the apex ; it is Jong, narrow and deep, and tapers off at both 
ends; the old scar is deep and narrow. Margin thin and sharp, 
toothed all around, but hardly crimped within ; behind it is very 
patulous, but elsewhere the internal slope is very steep ; the two 
sides are very straight and converge backwards. Inside porcellanous, 
deeply hollowed into the apex ; a sharp little furrow that resembles 
a crack runs up from the margin to the slit, which is almost quite 
covered in all its length by the patulous but small and flatly arched 
unbuttressed septum. Length O31, breadth 0'19, alt. 0*15 inch. 
This species is peculiarly long and narrow, and roomy within from 
its steep walls and blunt apex. Its sculpture too is very striking. 
( Wats.) 

Off Culebra Island, West Indies, 390 fms. 

Riw nld ynuinlata SEG. Pal. Malac. d. Terreni Terz. di Messina, 
Fissurellidi, p. 14, t. 5, f. 6. Puncturella (Cranopsis} granidata 
WATSON, Challenger Gastrop., p. 46, t. 4, f. 5. 

Originally described from the Miocene marls of Rometta, near 
Messina. 

P. PROFUNDI Jeffreys. PI. 27, figs. 73, 74. 

Shell small, thin, roundly oval ; the front slope is slightly con- 
vex, the others still more slightly concave ; the top, of which 
merely the extreme tip is incurled, projects upwards and a little 
backwards in a point which is sharpened by the crater-like hole of 
the slit close in front; minute riblets closely beaded score the sur- 
face ; the slit is large and round. Sculpture : There are very 
many radiating riblets which are sharp and distinct but very min- 
ute ; the surface is also delicately fretted with fine concentric undu- 
lations, which in crossing the riblets rise into sharp little contiguous 
tubercles, but in the narrow intervals are almost invisible. Color 
frosted glassy-white. Apex fine, sharp, prominent, projecting up- 
wards and backwards, with only the extreme tip (which is very 
small) incurled and slightly turned round; there are fully two 
whorls. Slit is a largish round hole with a pointed prolongation 
backwards ; it lies close in front of the tip and cuts away the natu- 
ral top of the shell. Margin excessively thin, patulous all around, 
not crimped. Inside glassy ; a very small hollow runs into the 
apex ; the lines of the outside ribs are just perceptible ; there is no 



244 PUNCTURELLA. 

anterior furrow ; the slit, as seen from within, is round and is very 
little interfered with by the short, thin, triangular, straight-edged, 
little-oblique septum. Length 0-21, breadth O16, alt. O14 inch. 
( Wats.} 

It was with very great hesitation I united the Challenger speci- 
mens to this species ; and in my paper to the Linnean Society (loc. 
cit.) I mentioned various points of distinction between the forms. 
Even there, however, I suggested that a fuller series of specimens 
than I had seen at the time I wrote might supply connecting links 
between them. This actually proved to be the case, so enabling 
me though only at the very last moment and after my paper was 
in print to suppress the name I had chosen for the species and to 
adopt that of the late Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys. ( Wats.) 

North Atlantic, 740-1750 fms. ; Off Culebra Island, West Indies, 
390 fms. 

P. profiindi JEFFR., Ann. Mag. N. H. ser. 4, xix, p. 232, 1877 ; 
P. Z. S. 1882, p. 675, t. 1, f. 10. P. (Cranopris) joro/undi WATS., 
Challenger Gastrop. p. 47. 

Section Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1863. 

Fissurisepta SEGUENZA, Pal. Malac. Terz. Messina, in Annali 
delPAccademia degli Aspiranti Naturalisti, 3d series, vol. ii, 1862, 
p. 83 (1863). First species F. papillosa Seg., 1. c., p. 84, t. 4, fig. 2. 

Fissurisepta is an erect, conical Puncturella in which the short oval 
fissure has wholly absorbed the apex. The internal septum is well 
developed ; there is no radiating sculpture, the smoothness of the sur- 
face being broken only by tiny tubercles or granules, which are better 
developed in species of this section than in the more coarsely sculpt- 
ured forms, although they are as a general rule, to be seen on all 
Puncturella species. 

P. PAPILLOSA Seguenza. PI. 64, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell ovate, small, elevated, conical, very thin ; aperture horizon- 
tal, ovate ; internal plate a little curved ; surface outside ornamented 
with papillae arranged in longitudinal lines. 

Length 2'8, width 1-9, alt. 2 mill. (Seg.) 

North Atlantic. 

F. papillosa SEG. Ann. dell' Ac. Aspir. Nat. 1862, p. 84, t. 4, f. 2, 
2a, 2b. JEFFREYS, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 675. 
Described as a Sicilian Miocene fossil. 



PUNCTURELLA. 245 

This species varies with respect to the size of the tubercles or 
papilla?. Some recent and fossil specimens have very few and slight 
scattered tubercles, or are nearly smooth. The recent are rather 
larger than the fossil specimens, and have usually stronger tubercles. 
(Jeffreys.} 

P. ROSTRATA Segueiiza. PI. 25, fig. 25 ; pi. 64, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell small, ovate, conic, much elevated, a little curved or sub- 
rostrate ; apex subacute ; aperture small, ovate ; internal plate 
large, with two scarcely distinct lateral sulci outside corresponding 
to it. Surface ornamented with minute rounded granules. Length 
5, breadth 3'5, alt. 4'6 mill. (&#.) 

Bay of Biscay ; North Atlantic. Fossil in the Miocene f and Pli- 
ocene of Sicily. 

F. rostrata SEG., /. c. p. 84, t. 4, f. 3, 3a, 3b, 3c. Jeffreys, P. Z. S. 
1882, p. 675. 
Seguenza's description and figures are given. 

Var. TRIANGULATA Ball. 

Shell very small, thin and high, ovate, with slightly impressed 
sides, glassy, dotted in regular oblique-curving lines, with high, 
blunt, minute, glassy tubercles ; the side slopes are high and 
straight, the front edge faintly convex, the back slope slightly con- 
cave ; there is no embryonic apex ; and the slit is a round hole 
parallel to the base. Sculpture: The surface of the shell is glassy, 
but is dotted with minute tubercles which are generally parted by 
more than their own diameter and run in very regular oblique 
sweeps parallel t,o one another. Color transparently glassy, the 
tubercles being dead white. Apex none, the top being slightly 
bent back and the entire tip removed. Slit: A small round hole 
on the very top, with slightly irregular sides. Margin very thin ; 
the sides are almost straight or a little bent in, and the breadth is 
very slightly greater behind than before. Inside quite glassy ; 
there is no anterior furrow, and the straight concave-edged septum 
runs far down the shell parallel and very near to the posterior wall, 
thus cutting off a long sheath-like process. Length O13, breadth 
0-08, alt. 0-12 inch. (Fate.) 

Off Culebra Island, 390 fms. ; Of Campeche, Yucatan, 200 fins. 

/'. (Fissurisepta) rostrata WATSON, Challenger Gastrop., p. 48. 
Fissurisepta triangulate DALL, Blake Gastrop., p. 404. 



246 /KIDORA. 

Numerous specimens of this little shell are before me. They seem 
to differ from the F. rostrata as described and figured by Seguenza, 
in having the apex rather more central and the minute tubercles ar- 
ranged in "oblique sweeps" rather than in horizontal rows. The 
great variation of rostrata as shown in Seguenza's several excellent 
figures, and the fact that Dr. Dall quotes Watson's pi. 4, fig. 10 as 
an illustration of his F. triangulata, while the said figure is in fact 
a copy of one of Seguenza's illustrations of the typical, form of his 
fossil, causes me to hesitate to separate the recent from the fossil 
forms. 

P. GRANULOSA Jeffreys. PL 27, figs. 71, 72. 

Shell roundish-oval, conical, but somewhat depressed except to- 
wards the apex, thin, opaque, and lusterless ; sculpture, very 
numerous fine and delicate stria3 which radiate from the apex or 
beak, and are closely covered with minute tubercles ; some of these 
stride do not quite extend to the apex, and are alternately larger and 
smaller ; the apex is irregularly tubercled ; margin finely crenated 
or notched by the strife; foramen nearly circular; inside smooth, 
but not polished ; septum triangular, covering about half only of the 
foramen on "the underside. Length 0'125, breadth O'l inch. (Jeffr.) 

In my paper on Norwegian Mollusca ('Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History' for June, 1869), I named this remarkable shell as 
F. papillosa of Seguenza ; but I afterwards found that I was mis- 
taken as to the species. The shell now described is more delicate, 
and the sculpture is much finer, with regular and close-set striae 
which are studded with far more numerous and minute tubercles. 
The foramen is circular in the present species, and triangular .in F. 
papillosa. 

North Atlantic; Drobak, Norway, 50 fms. 

jP. granulosa JEFFR. P. Z. S. 1882, p. 675, t. 50, f. 9. 

Genus ZEIDOKA A. Adams, 1860. 

Zeidora A. AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. 1860, p. 301, type Z. calceo- 
lina. AD. & SOWB., Thes. Conch, iii, p. 209. Sows, 2o, in Conch. 
Icon. vol. xix, 1873. WATSON, Challenger Gastrop. p. 36. Zidora 
FISCHER, Manuel, p. 861. Crepiemarginula SEGUENZA, Forma- 
zione Terz. di Reggio-Calabria, p. 273, type C. reticulata &eg.=Z. 
seguenzce Wats. 

Shell oblong, depressed, the apex recurved, posterior; fissure an 
open slit in the front margin ; interiorly provided with a plate or 



ZEIDORA. 247 

"deck" like Ore.p'nlultt. Surface cancellated; front slope grooved 
by a slit-fusciole having elevated edges. 

This little-known genus seems to stand between Puncturella and 
Emaryhiiila. 

Z. RETICULATA A. Adams. PI. 64, figs, between 16 and 20. 

Oblong, the back convex ; decussated with elevated radiating 
lines and concentric lirulse. Margin crenulated ; fissure deep, nar- 
row. This species differs from Z. calceolina in being more convex, 
less obtuse anteriorly, and in the fissure being narrow and deeply 
incised ; the sculpture moreover is very different, being finely retic- 
ulated instead of* widely cancellate. (Ad.} Length 4 mill. 

Mino-Sima, Jajxtn . 

Z. reticulata A. AD., Thes. Conch, iii, p. 209, f. 1, 2. SOW-B. in 
Conch. Icon, xix, f. 1. 

Z. CALCEOLINA A. Adams. PL 64, figs. 27.^ 

Oblong, elegantly cancellated with elevated radiating and con- 
centric lines ; sides of the median furrow elevated ; apex posterior, 
deflexed ; edge of the septum acute, entire. Wider and more de- 
pressed than Z. reticulata, and the concentric and radiating lines 
form a much wider net-work. (Ad.} Length 4 mill. 

Sts. of Corea, 16 miles from Mino-Sima, Japan, in 63 fins. 

Z. calceolina AD. Ann. Mag. K H. 1860, p. 302. AD. & Sows. 
Thes., p. 209, f. 3. Sows., Conch. Icon, xix, f. 2. 

Type of the genus Zeidora. 

Z. XAUFRAGA Watson. PI. 27, figs. 55, 56, 57, 58. 

Shell white, delicate, depressed, oblong, pointed behind, with a 
minute short apex, rounded and cleft in front, with a broad fiat 
keel bearing the old cleft-scar and extending the whole length of 
the shell ; the enormous mouth is closed behind by a crepidula-like 
partition. Sculpture: Longitudinals, from the apex to the cleft 
across the middle of the back runs a broad raised keel, flat on the 
top, where it is scored by the minute, delicate, sharp, prominent, 
close-set, but not contiguous scars of the old cleft ; on either side it 
is bordered by a sharp marginal line: from these marginal lines 
branch off feeble irregular diverging threadlets between which, as 
they go wider apart, others arise ; the intervals between them are 
two to three times the breadth of the threadlets. Spirals, strictly 
speaking, there are none, but the whole surface is scored at right 



248 EMARGINULA. 

angles to the longitudinals with a series of threadlets, very similar 
in form, but rather more closely set ; these radiate from the apex 
and indicate the old mouth edges. Color porcellanous-white, which 
is dead on the threadlets but almost translucent elsewhere from the 
extreme thinness of the shell. Apex : at the posterior end of the 
shell there is a narrow, rounded, prominent beak, within which, a 
little bent to the right and projecting slightly above the margin of 
the mouth, is the minute apex of one whorl. Mouth oblong. Mar- 
gin minutely denticulated by the ends of the ribs ; cleft in front by 
a strong, parallel-sided, blunt-ended fissure; behind, it is peculiarly 
patulous, being markedly bont outwards from the line of attach- 
ment of the septum, this bending being strongly shown on the out- 
side of the shell. Inside glossy, smooth ; a strong depression corre- 
sponding to the exterior keel extends from end to end of the shell. 
Septum : A little way within the margin, and deepest at the end, is 
the short oblique septum, which is faintly arched, with a concave 
edge in front. Length O'oS, breadth 0'2, alt. 0'12inch. (Wat*on.) 
The present species, though somewhat chipped, is of great beauty. 
It differs from Z. calceolma which is rudely cancellated, and is also 
wider and more depressed. It is like Z. reticulata ; but is larger 
and deeper, has the old cleft-scar raised on a projecting ridge which 
forms a strong internal furrow, has the beak sharper and more pro- 
jecting, the form is more oblong and more pinched-in at the sides, 
the sculpture lines are much finer and less regular than in that spe- 
cies. ( Watson.) 

North of Oulebra Id., West Indies, 390 fms. 

Z. naufraga WATS , Journ. L. Soc. xvii, p. 27 ; Challenger Gas- 
trop., p. 36, t. 4, f. 3. 

Genus EMARGINULA Lamarck, 1801. 

Emarginula LAM. Systeme des Anim. etc., p. 69 ; An. s. Vert, vi, 
p. 212. Semperia CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1867, p. 74. 

Shell oval, obliquely conical, the recurved apex directed back- 
ward ; front slope with either a deep incision in the margin (Emar- 
ginula s. s.) or a closed hole (Rimula). A distinct anal fascicle 
extends upward from the fissure, sculptured differently from the 
other ribs of the surface ; surface latticed ; no septum or deck 
inside. 



EMARGINULA. 249 



Subgeaus EMARGINULA s. str. 
Fissure an open slit in the front margin. 

Subgenus RIMULA Defr. 
Fissure a closed hole on the front slope. 



Subgenus EMARGINULA s. s. 

A# sections under Emarginula (restricted), I have placed two 
groups : 

1. Nesta H. Ad., an elongated Emarginula with the recurved 
apex posterior and marginal, and 

2. Emarginella Pils., proposed for a species of doubtful relation- 
ships, the soft parts of which are so voluminous as to be far larger 
than the shell. 

Species of the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the Gulf of Mexico. 
E. HUZARDI Payraudeau. PL 28, fig. 16. 

Shell depressed, oblong-ovate, posterior slope straight, half the 
length of the convex front slope. Slit narrow, one-fifth to one-sixth 
the length of the shell. Surface latticed by alternately larger and 
smaller radiating riblets and delicate raised concentric laminae, form- 
ing compressed scales on the ribs and cutting the interstices into 
pits. 

There are 25-28 primary radiating riblets ; the minute apex is 
distinctly recurved ; the side margins are arched so that the shell 
rests upon the ends only. Inside bluish-white ; a narrow callus ex- 
tends from apex to slit, but there is no groove ; margin finely 
denticulated. Length 11, breadth 7i, alt. 2 mill.; length 13, 
breadth 8, alt. 4 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

E. huzardii PAYR. Moll, de Corse, p. 92 ; t. 5, f. 1, 2, 1826. DESH. 
Exped. Sci. Moree iii, p. 134. PHILIPPI, Enurn. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 
115. WEINKAUFF, Conch, des Mittelm. ii, p. 398. Sows, in 
Conch. Icon., t. 1, f. 4. Bu(j. DAUTZ. & DOLLF. Moll. Rouss., p. 
449, t. 54, f 7, 8. f Patella scissa VON SALIS Reise ins Koen. Neap., 
p. 359, t. 6, f. 1. E. cusmichiana BRUS., Contr. pella Fauna Dalm., 
pp. 38, 81. E. fissurelloides NARDO mss., teste Monterosato. E. 
depressa Risso, Eur. Merid., t. 10, f. 151, not E. depressa Blainville. 

More depressed than its allies, and having the apex nearer the 
middle. 



250 EMARGINULA. 

E. ELONGATA Costa. PI. 64, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell small, elliptical, its altitude contained 2?> times in its 
length ; front slope strongly arched, back slope short, steep, straight, 
less than one-fourth as long as the front slope. Apex strongly re- 
curved, near the posterior end. Sculpture consisting of a lattice- 
work composed of strong, subequal or alternately smaller radiating 
ribs crossed by elevated concentric threads ; radiating riblets 32-36 
in number about 20 of them reaching to the apex. Interstices and 
pits between the ribs having regularly placed microscopic white 
dots of an elongated form, about 6 of them in each pit. 

Inside white, with opaque white dots showing through. No cal- 
lus in front, but a slight sulcus ending in the narrow slit in front, 
the latter a little less than one-fourth the length of the shell. 

Length 9, breadth 6, alt. 3 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Atlantic Ocean at the Canaries, 
etc. 

E. elongata COSTA, Oss. Zool. Is. Pantelleria, p. 10, no. 17, 1829. 
PHIL. Enum. i, p. 115, t. 7, f. 13. BUQ., DAUTZ., & DOLLF., Moll. 
du Rouss. p. 451, t. 54, f. 9-12. 

A white, semitransparent little shell, more elevated than E. liuz- 
ardi, more depressed than cancellata, fissura or solidula. The ribs 
are comparatively few, and the lattice-work coarse. 

E. COMPRESSA Cantraine. 

I have not access to the description and figures of this species. 
Jeffreys say that it differs from E. papillosa in being more compressed 
at the sides, and is shorter or has a rounded and more globular out- 
line; it is readily distinguishable from E. elongata by the shape and 
much finer sculpture. The distribution given by Dall is : 

Off Portugal; Georgia, Florida Strait to Barbados, 84-630 fms. 

E. compressa CANTRAINE, Diagn. esp. nouv. Moll. (Bull, de 1'Acad. 
roy. Brux. ix, 12, 1835), p. 22. JEFFREYS, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 679. 
DALL, ' Blake' Gastrop., p. 406 ; Catal. Mar. Moll. S.-E. IT. S., p. 
170. E. tuberculosa LIBASSI, Mem. Conch, foss. Palermo (Atti, iii, 
1859), p. 15, f. 1. 

E. PAPILLOSA Risso. PL 64, fig. 1. 

Shell sculptured with unequal, alternately wide and narrow radi- 
ating papillose ribs; interstices ornamented with delicate scales; 
apex subdepressed ; epidermis gray. Length 12 mill. (jRtsso.) 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas, 10-40 fms.; Atlantic, off W. 
Europe. 



KMAIIGINULA. 251 

E. p<tpillo*<t Risso, Hist. Xat. de 1'Eur. Merid. 1826, iv, p. 260, 
f. 147. JKKFKKYS, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 679. . Adriatica COSTA, 
teste Jeftr. 

E. CANCKLLATA PhilippL PL 28, fig. 35. 

Shell ovate, conical, front slope convex, posterior slope straight, 
about half the length of the shell; apex recurved, situated half-way 
between the center and the posterior end. Sculptured with close 
radiating ribs alternately larger and smaller, the interstices very 
closely latticed ; radiating ribs 62-68 in all. Inside white ; a white 
callus extending downward to the narrow fissure in front ; this slit 
is about one-fourth as long as the shell. The anal fasciole has rather 
distant arched lamellae. Color white or yellowish. 

Length 12-13, width 9-10, alt. 7-8 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Atlantic Ocean at Madeira, 
Channel Is., 8-250 fins. ; Gulf of Mexico, off Havana and Barbados, 
100-127 fms. 

E. cancellata PHIL. Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 114, t. 7, f. 15. and 
of WEINKAUFF, JEFFREYS, SOWERBY, BUQUOY, DAUTZENBERG & 
DOLLFUSS, (Moll, du Roussillon, p. 452) et al. E. sicula Gray, POT. 
& MICH. Galerie, i, p. 518, t. 36, f. 11, 12, (f f E. sicula Gray). E. 
fissura PAYR. et al., not of Linne. E. reticulata Risso, not of 
SOWERBY. f f E. conica BLAINV. Malac., t. 48, f. 4. 

It is larger, more elevated than E. elongata, and has many more 
riblets. It is less elevated than E. fissura (reticulata Auct.), and 
has more ribs and finer concentric bars in the interstices than that 
species. Dall says that the American specimens are a little more 
elegant in sculpture than the European, but may fairly be referred 
to the same species (' Blake ' Gastrop., p. 406.) 

E. MAGNIFICA Pilsbry. PL 64, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell large, elevated, anterior slope convex, posterior slope con- 
cave above, then straight ; apex recurved, situated at the posterior 
fourth of the shell's length. Sculpture consisting of very numerous 
and close, unequal, narrow radiating riblets, crossed by rather 
thick, somewhat irregular ^concentric threads, cutting the interstices 
into pits and forming rounded nodes upon the radii. The slit is 
one-fifth the length of the shell ; slit-fasciole distinct, finely sculp- 
tured with close arcuate transverse lamella?. Inside there is a 
rather strong callus along the edges of the slit and extending up- 



252 EMARGINULA. 

ward, somewhat grooved in the middle. Border of shell thin, 
finely crenulaled. 

Length 20 J, breadth 15, alt. 8i mill.; length of slit 4, breadth 
f mill. 

Length 15, breadth lO.f, alt. 6 mill.; length of slit 3 mill.. 

St. Croix, West Indies. 

Two specimens of this exquisitely sculptured species are before 
me, agreeing in all respects except size. The color is dull whitish. 
It differs from E. cancellata Phil, in having the concentric threads 
as prominent where they pass over the radii as in the interstices, 
the radiating riblets less unequal in size and more than twice as 
numerous, the cone more slender and graceful and the anal fasciole 
more closely cross-striate. 

E. MULTISTRIATA Jeffreys. PI. 25, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell helmet-shaped, somewhat compressed at the sides, rather 
thin, lusterless, and opaque ; sculpture, numerous slight ribs, which 
radiate from the beak or apex to the front margin on every side ; 
usually, but not regularly, a smaller alternates with a larger rib ; 
the crests are studded with rather distant tubercles, giving a prickly 
appearance ; the intervals between the ribs are filled with minute 
and close-set transverse striae ; colour whitish ; margins slightly 
notched by the termination of the ribs ; beak small, incurved, 
placed perpendicularly to the front margin, slit short, but broadish; 
the fissural furrow is filled up with crowded arched septa or plates; 
inside glossy, showing the impression of the external sculpture. 

Length 0'5, breadth 0'3. (Je/r.). 

Mediterranean and Atlantic, off W. coast Spain, 217-374 fms. 

E. multistriata JEFFR.. Ann. Mag. N. H. 1882, p. 30; P. Z. S. 
1882, p. 680, t. 50, f. 12. 

This differs from E. cancellata Ph., in being proportionally higher, 
narrow or' compressed at the sides, and thinner ; the beak over- 
hanging the front margin ; the ribs are slighter and more numerous, 
and the intermediate strise twice as many. It is also distinct from 
E. tuberculosa Libassi, and E. confusa Seg., in sculpture and other 
respects. 

E. FISSURA Linne. PI. 25, figs. 17, 18, 19, 20 ; pi. 29, figs. 25, 26, 

27. 

Shell usually raised, so as to give a height in proportion to the 
length as 2 to 3, solid, opaque, not glossy ; sculpture, 25-35 strong 
but narrow and cord-like ribs, which radiate from the beak to the 



EMARGINULA. 258 

margin, and as many smaller intermediate ones ; sometimes these ribs 
are equal in size ; they are crossed by from 20 to 30 somewhat 
slighter concentric ribs, imparting a regularly and deeply can- 
cellated or punctured appearance, and forming slight nodules at the 
point of junction ; the surface is also covered with microscopical and 
close-set longitudinal striae, and in the young may be observed the 
same white dots that have been been described with reference to 
Puncturella noachina ; color white, often more or less stained by 
extraneous matter ; beak very small, ribless, incurved and slightly 
twisted to the left, forming a spire of two whorls ; slit of equal width, 
extending from the margin in front about one-third of the way up, 
where it is closed by a subsequent formation of shell, and becomes 
as far as the crown a rather deep groove, which is somewhat closely 
laminated across ; mouth roundish-oval, distinctly scalloped and 
notched by the indentation of the longitudinal ribs ; inside nacreous, 
finely lineated in a concentric direction, and usually exhibiting the 
external larger ribs ; the sides of the slit are thickened, and the out- 
side groove is represented by a white ridge. (Jejfr.') 

Length 9, breadth 7$, alt. 6 mill. 
North-east Atlantic, from Finmark and Faroe Is. to the Canaries. 

Patella fissura~LiK*$. Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1261. E.fissura JEFFREYS 
Brit. Conch, iii, p. 259, t. 59, f. 2. E. reticulata J. SOWEKBY, Min. 
Conch., t. 33, lower figs. FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, 
p. 477. Sow. 2D. Thes., p. 214, f. 37, 38. #. cornea SARS, not 
Schum. E. mulleri FORBES & HANLEY Hist. Brit. Moll., plates, t. 
63, f. 1. E.lcevis, E.fissurata, E. tennis RECLUZ, Rev. Zool. 1843, 
p. 232. E. emendata SOWB. Thes., p. 215, f. 11. Semperia paivana 
CROSSE, Journ. de Conchy 1. 1867, p. 76, teste Watson. 

E. fissura is generally rather straightly conical, the apex not 
much behind the middle and never extending over the hind margin 
of the shell. It is more elevated than any of the preceding species. 

Var. 1. subdepressa. Somewhat larger, more depressed, and ex- 
panded at the sides. (Jejfr.) 

Var. 2. elata. Also larger than usual, much higher, and more 
solid. (Je/r.-) 

Var. 3. incurva. Smaller, more raised, and compressed at the 
sides, with the beak almost overhanging the posterior margin ; 
sometimes of a pinkish color inside. (Jeffr.) 

The edges of the fissure are sometimes in contact at the edge, giv- 
ing rise to the form described by Sowerby as E. emendata (pi. 28, 
fig. 14), and by Crosse as Semperia paivana. 



254 EMARG1NULA. 

E. ROSEA Bell. 

Small, elevated-conical, the apex hooked a little over the posterior 
margin ; altitude of shell less than the length of the mouth or base. 

Shell smaller and much narrower than E. fissura, and otherwise 
distinguishable in the following particulars : it is proportionately 
broader in front than behind, and pinched up at the sides; the 
front is more arched or convex, and the back more concave ; the 
longitudinal ribs are more closely set, and mostly equal-sized ; the 
cancellation is smaller, and exhibits round holes instead of square 
lattice-work ; the color is often pinkish ; the beak quite overhangs 
the back margin in full-grown specimens, and it is invariably 
longer, and greatly incurved ; the slit is much shorter ; the mouth 
is smaller ; and the inside is frequently reddish-brown and the can- 
celli are marked by white spots. (Jeffr.) 

Length 51, breadth 4, alt. 4 mill. 

Southern England ; Ocean Coast of France. 

E. rosea BELL, Zool. Journ. i, p. 52, t. 4, f. 1. FORBES & HAN- 
LEY, Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 479, t. 63, f. 3. JEFFREYS, Brit. 
Conch, iii, p. 261, t. 59, f. 3. 

It is less hooked than the following, trhe mouth larger. In fact, 
E. rosea is an intermediate between E. fissura and E. conica. 

E. CONICA Schumacher. PL 28, fig. 19. 

Small, elevated, the apex very strongly hooked over the posterior 
margin ; coarsely latticed ; altitude about equal to the length of 
the aperture or base. 

Surface rather coarsely latticed ; radiating ribs subequal in front, 
alternating at the sides, about 25 to 32 in number, crossed by con- 
centric cords about as far apart as the riblets, cutting the interstices 
into pits and forming narrow nodes on the ribs. Aperture oval, 
margin strongly crenulated ; slit very narrow, about one-third as 
long as the aperture ; slit-fasciole a narrow, deep groove. Color 
yellowish. Length of aperture 4, breadth 3} ; total alt. 31-4 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

E. conica SCHUM., Syst. Vers. Test. p. 181, 1817 (founded on 
Martini's figures, Conchyl. Cab. i, f. 109, 110.) E. pileolus MICH- 
AUD, Bull. Linn. Soc. Bord. iii, 1829, p. 171, f. 23, 24. E. capuli- 
formis PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 116, t. 7, f. 12. E. costcs 
TIBERI, Journ. de Conchyl. vi, p. 38, t. 2, f. 5, 1857. E. curviros- 
L ris DESK., Exped. Sci. de Moree, iii, 2d pt., p. 134. 



i:MAi:<;ixrLA. 255 

Smaller, more elevated and more recurved than E. rosea. Nu- 
merous specimens of this form before me show no transition into 
the form called roaea. I am therefore inclined to consider the 
Mediterranean and Atlantic shells specifically distinct. There can 
be no doubt that this is the E. coiiica of Schumacher, no other spe- 
cies at all resembling it. 

E. SOLIDULA Costa. PL 64, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Small, conical, apex shortly recurved, situated at the posterior 
sixth of the length ; front slope convex, back slope subconcave, 
equalling half the width of the shell. Radiating riblets numerous 
(about 50), subequal, fine ; concentric raised strue very fine and very 
close, minutely crenulating the riblets. Fissure narrow, about one- 
fourth as long as the shell. Color yellowish-white. 

Length 6J, breadth 5, alt. 3 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

E. solidula COSTA, Oss. Zool. Sull'Isola di Pantellaria, p. 10, no. 
1*. PHILIPPI, Enum. i, p. 115, t. 7, f. 14. 

Smaller, with much finer concentric sculpture than E. fissura ; 
far smaller than cancellata, more erect, with more numerous, equal 
riblets. The apex is much less recurved and the sculpture finer 
than in E. elongata. Originally described as a fossil. Recent spec- 
imens from the coast of Sicily are before me. 

E. CRA.SSA J. Sowerby. PL 27, figs. 59, 62, 63, 64, 65. 

Shell usually more depressed than that of either of the two for- 
mer species, moderately solid, opaque, slightly glossy; sculpture, 
40-50 broad and compressed longitudinal ribs (each of which is 
sometimes divided into three) with as many smaller intermediate 
ones ; all these ribs are crossed by fine, equally numerous and wavy 
concentric .-true or wrinkles, producing a delicately granulated ap- 
pearance ; the surface is likewise covered with minute white glisten- 
ing dots arranged in longitudinal rows ; color white ; beak small 
and .somewhat angular, usually less excentric than in the other spe- 
cies ; it is twisted a little to the left, and forms a spire of between 
one and two whorls. Slit rather narrower above than below, ex- 
tending (in adult specimens) from the middle of the front margin 
between one-fourth and one-fifth of the way up, being closed in the 
line of its previous passage, and becoming a rather broad and shal- 
low groove which is closely laminated transversely; mouth varying 
in shape from oval to roundish-oval, delicately scalloped and 



256 EMARGINULA. 

notched by the impression of the ribs ; inside porcelain-white and 
nacreous, exquisitely and closely but irregularly lineated in a con- 
centric direction ; the edges of the slit and groove are thickened. 
(Jeffr.) Length 28, breadth 20 mill., or less. 

West coast of Scotland ; Ireland ; off the Scandinavian coast. 

E. crassa J. SOWB., Min. Conch, p. 73, t. 33, upper figs. FORBES 
& HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 481, t. 63, f. 2 ; t. 200, f. 2. 
JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 263, t. 59, f. 4. 

The young differs from E. fissura of the same size in being more 
depressed, and in its peculiar sculpture. In that species the ribs 
are strong, and the surface is coarsely cancellated ; in this the ribs 
are fine and more numerous, and the surface is delicately granu- 
lated. The rows of small white dots are always visible in E. crassa ; 
and the slit is shorter relatively to the size of the shell. (Jeffr.} 

*** 

Indo-Pacific species. 
Group of E. puncticulata. 

Shell rather elevated, unicolored whitish or yellowish ; apex pos- 
terior; surface finely ribbed and latticed. 

E. FENESTRELLA Deshayes. PI. 41, figs. 44, 45, 46. 

Shell ovate-oblong, narrow, white, rather thick, very inequilateral, 
ornamented with numerous radiating riblets ; having fiat, regular 
transverse stride, the intervals excavated into circular pits. Middle 
rib broad, excavated, ornamented with numerous appressed, arched 
scales. Apex acute, much inclined backward. Fissure short, wide ; 
margin crenulated. Length 10, breadth 7, alt. 4 mill. (Z)/i.) 

Island of Reunion. 

E. fenestrella DH. Moll. Reunion, p. 49, t. 7, f. 12-15. 

The surface has 24 radiating ribs. 
E. BICANCELLATA Montrouzier. PI. 64, fig. 42. 

Shell elongated oval, summit acute, salient, recurved backward 
and situated at the posterior fourth of the shell's length. Front 
slope very convex, back slope straight ; yellowish-white. Sculp- 
tured with 15-17 strong ribs, rendered very perceptibly nodulose by 
by the intersection of concentric less salient ribs ; the decussation 
resulting in a strong latticing of the whole surface. Toward the 
margins the number of ribs is doubled by the intercalation of smaller 



EMARGINULA. 257 

secondary riblets between the principal ribs. Independent of the 
coarse sculpture a marking of very fine longitudinal and transverse 
ridges becomes visible under a lens. The anterior rib terminates in 
a long slit, about one-third the length of the shell. Slit-fasciole nar- 
row, crossed by a series of very regular little imbricating lamellae. 
Edge denticulated. Length 8, width 6 mill. 

Island of Art, New Caledonian Archipelago. 

E. bicaneellata MONTR., Journ. de Conchyl. 1860, p. 112, t. 2, f.9. 
Somewhat allied to E. fenestrella Dh. The above is taken from 
Montrouzier's excellent description. 

E. MICANS A. Adams. PI. 64, fig. 15. 

Elongate-oval, pale brown, shining, vertex declining backward ; 
regularly cancellated with radiating riblets and elevated transverse 
lines; pits square ; margin of aperture denticulated, incision long 
and large. Scarcely differing from E. elongata, which also has the 
interstices deep and shining, except in being a much more conical 
shell. (Ad.) 

Raines* Island, N. Australia. 

E. mieans AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 84, no. 18. Sows., Thes. p. 212, 
f. 60. 

E. CONCINNA A. Adams. PL 28, figs. 5, 6. 

Ovate-depressed, whitish, vertex posterior, declining toward the 
margin ; having about 12 distinct, radiating sulcose ribs, interstices 
finely decussated with longitudinal and transverse lines ; margin of 
the aperture denticulated, deeply incised in front. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

E. concinna AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 55, no. 25. SOWB. Thes. p. 
212, f. 34, 39, 60 ; Conch. Icon. f. 13. 

This may be a synonym of E. decussata Phil, or E. elongata Costa. 

E. BELLULA A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 37. 

Elongate-elliptical subdepressed, whitish, vertex subposterior, 
declining ; closely sculptured with distant, prominent ribs and trans- 
verse lines ; carina punctured above the slit ; margin of aperture 
denticulate, sulcate within, deeply incised in front. The sculpture 
is sharp, almost aculeated, and the cicatrix above the notch is 
elevated into a prominent keel, pitted between two ridges. (Ad.) 

Catanuan, Province oj Toyabos, Luzon, Philippines, 10 fms. 
17 



258 EMARGINULA. 

E. bellula AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 86, no. 31. SOWB., Thes., p. 213, 
f. 55, 50 ; Conch. Icon., f. 36. 

E. CANDIDA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 36. 

Elliptical, depressed-conic, oblique, white ; vertex subposterior, 
inclined backward ; with alternately larger and smaller scaly 
radiating riblets, interstices latticed ; margin of the aperture dentic- 
ulate, deeply incised in front. Differing from E. bellula in being 
more depressed, and more coarsely and obtusely sculptured. (Ad.) 

Port Adelaide, Australia. 

E. Candida AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 85, no. 30. SOWB., Thes., p. 213, 
f. 45, 46. 

E. VIMINEA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 13. 

Ovate-conic, whitish, vertex central, inclined backward, regularly 
cancellated with radiating, nodulous, subequal ribs and thick trans- 
verse lines ; pits deep, punctiform ; margin of aperture crenated, 
deeply incised in front. (Ad.) 

Philippine Is. 

E. viminea AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 85, no. 26. SOWB., Thes. p. 
213, f. 12, 13 ; Conch. Icon. f. 14. 

E. CUCULLATA A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 2. 

Oboval, obliquely conical, white, vertex produced, subposterior, 
incurved ; radiating ribs prominent, nodulous ; interstices cancel- 
lated ; sides of the aperture narrowed in front, margin denticulate, 
rounded behind ; profoundly fissured in front, fissure long and 
wide. Very elevated, narrowest in front, with some prominent dis- 
tant ribs posteriorly. (Ad.) 

Singapore, on shells, 7 fins. 

E. cucullata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 86, no. 35. SOWB., Thes. p. 
213, f. 19, 20 ; Conch. Icon, f, 28. 

E. LONGIFISSA Sowerby. PL 28, fig. 25. 

Subdepressed-conic, all over most minutely cancellated, apex 
elevated, a little behind the middle ; ribs about 16, large, alternating 
with smaller ones ; fissure profound, slit-fasciole profound, continuing 
to apex. Of a light buff color, very minutely cancellated. (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

E. longifissa SOWB., Thes., p. 213, f. 62 ; Conch. Icon., f. 52. 



EMARGINULA. 259 

E. STRIATULA Quoy. PI. 64, fig. 2. 

Shell ovate-conic, fragile, granulose, very delicately ribbed longitu- 
dinally and transversely; vertex oblique, recurved; margin 
creuulated ; slit deeply excavated. 

Length 10, breadth 7, alt. 7 mill. (.) 

New Zealand. 

E. striatula Q. & G. Zool. Astrol. iii, p. 332, t. 68, f. 21, 22. 
Not E. striatula of Sowerby, Thes. Conch., f. 59, and Conch. Icon., 
f. 47. 

I do not know what the E. striatula of Sowerby may be, but it is 
certainly not Quoy's species. 

E. CAPULOIDEA Nevill. PI. 41, fig. 39. 

Shell small, regularly ovate, capuloid, thin, pellucid ; apex pos- 
terior, arcuately incurved ; surface marked with very many acute, 
equidistant riblets alternating with more delicate ones ; interspaces 
rudely and deeply pitted ; margin of the aperture deeply crenated ; 
fissure central in front, narrow and moderately incised ; pallial 
impression rounded behind, deeply insinuated laterally at the apex, 
prolonged and gradually wider in front, truncate at its termination. 
Length 5i, breadth 4, alt. 3 mill. (Nev.) 

Southern province of Ceylon. 

E. capuloidea G. & H. NEVILL, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xxxviii, 
p. 161, t. 17, f. 16, 1869. 

The most nearly allied species, to the above is E. crassicostata 
Sowb. ; it is however much smaller, more elevated, not narrowed 
anteriorly, and the sculpture is somewhat different. (Nevill.') 

E. CRASSICOSTATA Sowerby. PL 29, figs. 30, 31, 32. 

Oval, somewhat narrowed in front, with close^ thick, noduliferous 
radiating ribs, the interstices clathrate ; apex posterior; back 
arched; cicatrix above the suture carinated, foveolate. Oval, 
arched, with thick, rather close beaded ribs, the apex very pos- 
terior. (Sowb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

E. crassicostata SOWB. Thes., p. 214, f. 41. 42. 

E. RETECOSA A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 34. 

Shell elevated-conical, elliptical, whitish, vertex subcentral, 
inclined backward ; ornamented with equal, subnodose radiating 



260 EMARGINULA. 

ribs ; interstices regularly cancellated, the pits arranged in single 
series ; margin of the aperture crenulated, slit profound. (Ad.) 

Bolinao, province of Tambalas, Luzon, Philippines, 10 fms. 
E. retecosa AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 86, no. 32. E. reticosa SOWB. 
(as synonym of E. reticulata), Thes., p. 214, f. 49. 

E. ADAMSIANA Sowerby. PL 28, fig. 32. 

Subroseous, elliptical, cancellated with large rugose radiating 
ribs with smaller intermediate ones, and inequal lirse, all minutely 
scaly. Back arcuate, apex recurving back of the posterior margin. 
This species is more coarsely ribbed than E. rosea, and the surface 
of the ribs is minutely cancellated. (Sowb.) 

Japan. 

E. adamsiana SOWB., Thes. p. 214, f. 27, 28. 

E. GALERICULATA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 20. 

Obliquely conical, capuliform, vertex strongly curved, projecting 
over the posterior margin ; closely clathrate with narrow, crenu- 
lated radiating riblets, with transverse elevated lines in the inter- 
stices ; front rib granulate-punctate above the slit ; margin of the 
aperture crenulated, deeply incised in front. (Ad.) 

Calapan, Id. of Mindoro, Philippines, 12 fms. 

E. galericulata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 84, no. 23. SOWB., Thes. p. 
215, f. 24. 

E. EXCURVATA A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 29. 

Shell elongate-elliptical, depressed-conic, testaceous ; apex acute, 
subposterior, inclined backward ; cancellated with radiating ribs and 
elevated concentric lirse ; lirse nodulous at the ribs ; base arcuate ; 
margin of the aperture excurved, crenulated, deeply incised in front. 
(Ad.) 

Habitat unknown* 

E. exeurvata AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 85, no. 27. SOWB., Thes. (as 
synonym of E. puncticulata), p. 215, f. 35. 

E. TENUICOSTATA Sowerby. PL 28, fig. 21. 

Elliptical, elevated-conic, concentrically subfasciate with green ; 
cancellated with numerous noduliferous ribs and minute concentric 
striae ; fissure profound ; cicatrix behind the slit, foveolate. This 
species resembles E. puncticulata but is much more finely sculptured ; 



EMARGINUI.A. 261 

it is also less expanded posteriorly than either puncticulata or 
crassa. (Soivb.) 

Habitat unknown. 

E. tenuicostata SOWB. Thes., p. 215, f. 17, 18. 

E. SCUTELLATA Deshayes. PI. 41, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell ovate, depressed, subsymmetrical, apex subcentral, recurved ; 
ornamented with numerous radiating riblets, of which seven are 
larger; median rib in front with elevated edges, and numerous 
equidistant scales. Marginal slit short, narrow ; margin irregularly 
crenulated ; inside concave, whitish ashen. 

Length 20, width 15, alt. 7 mill. (D/t.) 

Island of Reunion: 

E. scutellata DH. Catal. Moll, de 1'Ile de la Reunion, p. 45, t. 7, 
f. 1, 2. ? E. planutarum DUFO, Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), xiv, p. 205, 
1840. MARTENS in Mobius' Keis. n. Maurit. p. 298. 

The form is like Subemarginula, but the distinct slit-fasciole places 
the species in Emarginula proper. 

E. COSTULATA Deshayes. PL 41, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell small, convex, ovate-oblong, apex excentric, acuminate, 
much inclined backward ; regularly costellate, riblets narrow, the 
larger ones irregularly and very densely granulose ; transverse lirse 
unequally cancellated ; margin obtuse, regularly crenulated ; an- 
terior fissure narrow, deep. Length 7, width 5, alt. 3 mill. (D/i.) 

Island of Reunion. 

E. costulata DH. Moll. Reun., p. 47, t. 7, f. 3-5. 

The slit is about one-fifth the length of the shell. The edge of the 
shell is quite thick. Color a uniform grayish-white inside and out. 

E. DECORATA Desliayes. PI. 41, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell small, white, limpet-shaped, very unequally convex, longitu- 
dinally ribbed, riblets narrow, interstices with erect lamellae; 
summit excentric, much inclined backward ; slit short, narrow ; 
margin thin, regularly dentate. 

Length 6, width 4, alt. 2 mill. (DA.) 

Island of Reunion. 

E. decorata.Dn. Moll. Reunion, p. 47, t. 7, f. 6-8. 

The apex is situated at the posterior fifth of the length ; fissure 
one-eighth the length of the shell. 



262 EMARGINULA. 

E. SPINOSA Deshayes. PI. 41, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell small, regularly oval, very inequilateral ; elegantly decus- 
sated with numerous, regular, longitudinal and transverse riblets 
irregularly roughened with sparse spines ; central riblet larger than 
the others, ornamented with numerous equal scales ; apex strongly 
inclined backward, acute. Length 4, breadth 3, alt. 2 mill. (Z)/i.) 

Island of Reunion. 

E. spinosa DH., Moll. Reunion p. 48, t. 7, f. 9-11. 

Fissure long narrow, one-sixth the length of the shell ; the mar- 
gin is finely crenulated ; shell thin, fragile, semitransparent, of a 
very pale violet color. 

E. PUNCTICULATA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 30. 

Shell oval, conical, the apex recurved, situated at the posterior 
seventh or eighth of the length. Sculpture consisting of about 28 
principal radiating ribs, each interval bearing three smaller riblets, 
the middle one largest; interstices cut into pits by fine concentric 
raised threads, which only slightly crenulate the riblets. Slit long, 
nearly one-third the length of the shell ; slit-fasciole distinct, 
festooned across by raised lamellae. Color light yellowish. Interior 
white ; a grooved callus extends upward from the slit inside. 

Length 16, breadth 12, alt. 7 mill. 

Calapan, Id. of Mindoro, Philippines. 

E. puncticulata AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 84. Sows. Thes., p. 215, 
f.14. 

The large size, long fissure and the arrangement of the riblets 
described (most obvious on the posterior slope), are characteristic 
features. 

Group of E. maculata. 

Species variegated with dark spots or blotches or of a uniform 
dark color. 

E. SOUVERBIANA Pilsbry. PI. 64, figs. 28. 

Shell ovate-suboblong, elevated-conical, apex prominent, exserted, 
posteriorly incurved, front slope long, convex, back slope shorter, 
straight-subconcave, obliquely descending at an angle of about 45. 
Clathratulate with numerous radiating riblets with smaller ones 
intercalated, and elevated concentric lines ; dull yellowish-white, 
marked with rather numerous dark blackish-green spots. Inside 



EMARGINULA. 263 

shining, showing the spots through ; margin very minutely crenu- 
lated. Fissure narrow, subelongate, equalling two-fifths the dis- 
tance from front margin to summit. Length 6$, breadth 43, alt. 

2:1 mill. (Sow.) 

Island of Art, New Caledonia. 

E. maculata Souv., Journ. de Conchy 1. 1872, p. 55, t. 1, f. 6. 
The name is preoccupied by A. Adams for a Japanese species. 

E. MACULATA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 4. 

Depressed-conic, capuliform, white, spotted with brown, having 
radiating nodulous riblets ; vertex posteriorly inclined ; aperture 
oval, margin crenulated, deeply fissured in front, fissure long, narrow. 
A very pretty cup-shaped species, mottled with pale brown, and with 
the radiating ribs distinctly nodulous. (Ad.) 

Gotto Is., Japan. 

E. maculata AD. in Thes. Conch, iii, p. 214, f. 31, 32. 
E. PUXCTATA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 33. 

Ovate-conic, whitish-gray, beautifully punctate with green ; vertex 
subcentral, inclined backward ; longitudinal ribs alternately larger 
and smaller, beautifully granulated ; margin of the aperture cren- 
ulated, excurved, deeply fissured in front. (Ad.) 

San Nicholas, Id. of Zebu, Philippines, at low water. 

E. punctata AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 84, no. 19. SOWB. Thes., p. 215, 
f. 29, 30. 

E. VARIEGATA A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 12. 

Depressed-conic, white variegated with gray ; apex obtuse, sub- 
central ; numerous rugose, unequal, acute, radiating ribs ; margin 
denticulate. (Ad.) 

Camaguan, Philippines, on rocks at low water. 

E. variegata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 84, no. 20. SOWB., Thes. p. 

215, f. 9, 10. 

E. FULIGINEA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 3. 

Elliptical, much depressed, fuligineous, apex subcentral, inclined 
backward ; ornamented with close, equal, granulose radiating rib- 
lets and concentric incremental lines ; aperture oval, green inside ; 
margin crenulated, fissured in front, the fissure produced into a 
canal inside. (Ad.) 

E.fuliginea AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 84, no. 22. SOWB., Thes. p. 

216, f. 7, 8. 



264 EMARGINULA. 

E. JAPONICA Sowerby. PL 28, fig. 18. 

Sub-purple, subelliptical, conical, narrower behind, sides com- 
pressed, apex obtuse ; fissure small ; ribs unequal, rugose ; posterior 
margin thickened within. Distinguished by a compression of the 
sides, the narrowness of the posterior end, and the thickening of the 
inner posterior edge. (Sowb.) 

Japan. 

Kjaponica SOWB. Thes., p. 216, f. 43, 44. 

E. FISSURATA Chemnitz. PL 29, figs. 28, 29. 

Depressed-conical, wide, red, solid ; apex obtuse, median ; radiat- 
ing ribs numerous, minutely nodulous, interstices smooth ; fissure 
small, a callus extending upward from it inside. (JSowb.") 

Philippines. 

Patella fissurata CHEMNITZ, Syst. Conchyl. Cab. xi, p. 188, 1. 197, 
f. 1929, 1930. Emarginula fissurata AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 82. 
SOWB. Thes., p. 216, f. 104. j. rubra LAMARCK. 

Group of E. incisura. 

Shell depressed ; apex nearer to the center than to the posterior 
end ; basal side-margins arched, so that the ends alone support it. 

Besides the following species, E. huzardi of the Mediterranean 
belongs here. 

E. THOMASI Crosse. PL 21, fig. 26. 

Shell ovate, slightly convex, compressed, narrower in front, 
rounded behind, very elegantly decussated with numerous longitu- 
dinal stibequal riblets and subflexuous concentric lines ; pale green ; 
apex central, obtuse ; fissure very broad ; slit-fasciole having the 
edges elevated, crossed by transverse lamellae ; interior green, pale 
brown in the middle; margin crenulated. Length 22 i, breadth 
16, alt. 6 mill. ; Length of fissure 5, width 2 mill. (Crosse.) 

A den, entrance to the Red Sea. 

E. thomasi CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1864, p. 43, 152, t. 7, f. 1. 

A remarkably large and depressed species, unlike any other. 

E. PLANULATA A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 15. 

Elongate-oval, complanate, summit subcentral, inclining back- 
ward ; whitish ; decussated with equal imbricately-roughened radiat- 
ing riblets and concentric lines of increment ; base arcuate ; margin 
of the aperture deeply incised in front, the slit broad and deep. 



EMARGINULA. 265 

Anterior not so short as in E. incisura, the slit shorter and more 

abrupt. (Ad.*) 

Singapore, 7 fms. 

E.planulata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 86, no. 34. SOWB. Thes., p. 
211,f. 1; Conch. Icon., f. 20. 

E. INCISURA A, Adams. PI. 28, fig. 1. 

Elongate-oval, planulate, pale, tawny, summit in front of the 
middle, inclined backward ; decussated with unequal, scaly-rough- 
ened radiating riblets and elevated concentric lines; base arcuate. 
Margin of aperture crenulated ; deeply fissured ; fissure long ; mar- 
gins calloused within. In this species the slit is long, and a half- 
cut continuation of it extends to the apex. (Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

E. incisura AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 84, no. 17. SOWB., Thes., p. 
211, f. 2; Conch. Icon., f. 18. 

E. CLYPEUS A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 7. 

Elongate-elliptical, much depressed, testaceous, a buff spot in the 
middle of the back ; summit subcentral, inclined backward ; orna- 
mented with close, equal, radiating, scaly-roughened ribs. Base 
arcuate, margin of the aperture crenulated, deeply fissured in front ; 
the fissure large ; aperture two-spotted inside. Narrow, scabrous, 
anol has some prominent ribs. (Ad.) 

Island of Burias, Philippines, 7 fms., on dead shells. 

E. clypeus AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 83, no. 14. SOWB., Thes. p. 211, 
f. 3; Conch. Icon. f. 21. 

E. DILECTA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 17. 

Elongate-oval, subquadrangular, white, much depressed, summit 
subposterior, declining backward ; decussated with subdistaut, radi- 
ating, asperulate ribs, and elevated concentric line ; base arcuate ; 
margin of aperture denticulate, deeply fissured in front. More 
obtusely conical than E. huzardi, with sculpture closer and apex 
nearly central. (Ad.) 

King George's Sound, S. Australia. 

E. dilecta AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 85, no. 28. SOWB., Thes. p. 211, 
f. 5 ; Conch. Icon. f. 23. 

E. MONTROUZIERI Souverbie. PI. 64, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell ovate-oblong, much depressed-conic, apex minute, behind 
the middle (-? the length from the back margin), shortly projecting; 



266 EMARGINULA. 

front slope convex, back slope nearly straight; latticed with radiat- 
ing riblets (20 in number), and concentric riblets, at the intersec- 
tions forming little rasp-like points. Outside dull white, inside 
white, shining, radiately and subnodulately sulcate ; margin cren- 
ulated; fissure narrow, subelongate, equaling f of the distance from 
front margin to summit. Length 8, width 6, alt. 2 2 mill. (Souv.) 

Island of Art, New Caledonia. 

E. montrouzieri Souv. Journ. de Conchyl. xx, 1872, p. 56, t. 1, 
f. 7. 

Differs from the closely allied E. clathrata Pse. in having the fis- 
sure shorter, the shell wider, side margins nearly level, not arched. 
It is less elevated than E. fenestrella Dh. There are fine transverse 
markings on this shell, just as there are on E. clathrata, fenestrella, 
bicancellata, etc. I have seen but a single specimen. 

E. CLATHRATA Pease. PL 63, fig. 12. 

Shell oblong-ovate, depressed ; basatside-margins strongly arched ; 
apex a little back of the posterior third of the shell's length ; length 
of the slit contained 4-4? times in length of shell. 

Surface having 20-21 strong radiating ribs, each one having a 
series or band of fine close transverse incised marks down its center, 
visible under a lens. Interstices cut into pits by concentric cords 
which are less high than the ribs and scarcely modify the latter at 
their intersections. There are about as many concentric cords on 
each side of the apex as there are millimeters in the width of the 
shell ; in front of the apex there are more concentric cords than at 
the sides and behind. Near the summit the cords disappear, fine 
concentric ripples taking their place. In the pits a strong lens 
shows regularly arranged series of dots. Inside white, showing- 
whiter rays and under a lens tessellated with blocks of dots. 

Length 9, width 6, alt. 2 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

E. clathrata PSE., P. Z. S. 1862, p. 241. 

The E. clathrata of Sowerby (Thes. p. 212, f. 54, and Conch. Icon, 
f. 35) is not the same. These figures represent a much shorter sliell 
than any in the two suites before me, received from Pease. 

E. SUBCLATHRATA Pilsbry. PL 28, fig. 27. 

Depressed, broad behind, narrowed in front ; interstices foveolate, 
and cancellated with concentric riblets ; apex placed toward the 



EMARGINULA. 267 

posterior margin ; ribs large, rounded. The ribs, particularly the 
six or eight posterior ones, are large and rounded, the interstices 
deeply pitted. (Soivb.~) 

Sandwich Is. 

E. clathrata SOWB., Thes., p. 212, f. 54 and Conch. Icon., f. 35, 
not of Pease. 

E. EXIMIA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 26. 

Elongate-oval, much depressed, white, subpellucid ; vertex pos- 
terior, inclining backward; with distant, prominent, scaly-nodose 
radiating ribs, interstices widely cancellated with transverse and 
longitudinal ribs ; the whole surface beautifully decussated with 
radiating and concentric lines ; margin of the aperture denticulate, 
deeply incised in front. Remarkable for the large regular pits be- 
tween the ribs. (Ad.} 

San Nicholas, Zebu, Philippines, under stones at low water. 

E. eximia A. AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 86, no. 33. SOWB., Thes., p. 
212, f. 63. 

E. OBOVATA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 11. 

Elongate, obovate, depressed-conical, testaceous, summit subcen- 
tral, inclined backward; cancellated with scaly radiating riblets 
and elevated concentric line ; aperture rounded behind, narrowed 
in front, margin creno-denticulate, deeply incised in front. Shortly 
cancellated, the slit very long. (Ad.*) 

Catbalonga, Is. of Samar, Philippines, 4 fms., on stones. 

E. obovata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 83, no. 16. SOWB., Thes. p. 
212, f. 6; Conch. Icon. f. 2 I. 

E. ACULEATA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 23. 

Elongate-oval, depressed, rufescent, vertex a little behind the 
middle, inclined backward ; with prominent, spiny-roughened radi- 
ating ribs, interstices deeply latticed ; margin of aperture denticu- 
late, fissure profound. Not so enlarged posteriorly as E. obovata. 
(Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

E. aculeata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 86, no. 36. SOWB., Thes. p. 
212, f. 58 ; Conch. Icon. f. 49. 

The narrow brown rays give a sprightliness of appearance to this 
little species, says Sowerby. 



268 EMARGINULA. 

E. SCABRIUSCULA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 31. 

Elongate-elliptical, depressed conic, testaceous, vertex subposterior, 
inclined backward ; cancellated with sharp, unequal, scaly-sub- 
spinous radiating ribs and elevated concentric lines ; aperture nar- 
rower in front, base arcuate, margin creno-denticulate. Distin- 
guished by the small red spots on the intermediate smaller ribs. 
(Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

E. scabriuscula AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 83, no. 15. SOWB., Thes., p. 
213, f. 36 ; Conch. Icon., f. 30. 

E. SCABRICOSTATA A. Adams. PI. 28, fig. 24. 

Oval, much depressed, whitish, ornamented in front with three 
buff, radiating bands ; vertex subcentral, inclined backward ; radi- 
ating ribs distant, corrugated, interstices deeply latticed and corru- 
gated; margin of the aperture dentate and denticulate, deeply 
incised in front. The broad ribs of this little flat shell are minutely 
scabrous, and E. pumila of A. Adams being similarly -characterized 
the two shells are here re-united. (Sowb.) 

Id. of Corrigidor, Bay of Manilla, on dead shells, 12 fms. 

E. scabricostata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 85, no. 29. SOWB., Thes. 
p. 216, f. 61. 

E. VANIKORENSIS Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 64, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell oblong conic, arcuate, fragile, white ; margin crenulated ; 
longitudinal ribs rough ; transverse striae granulate ; fissure narrow. 
Summit median, obtuse, a little inclined backward. The ribs are 
large, rough, and rendered nodulous by the transverse stria?. (.) 

Length 6, width 4 mill. 

Island of Vanikoro. 

E. vanikorensis Q. & G. Voy. Astrol. iii, p. 334, t. 68, f. 19-20. 

E. L^VICOSTATA A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 22. 

Small, elliptical, much depressed, apex subposterior, inclined 
backward ; with about 14 smooth radiating ribs, the interstices 
broadly clathrated with longitudinal riblets and transverse lines ; 
margin of aperture denticulated, deeply incised in front. The can- 
cellated ribs of this little flat species are comparatively smooth and 
the interstices deeply pitted. (Ad.*) 

Habitat unknown. 



RIMULA. 269 

E. Icevicostata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 57, no. 37. SOWB. Thes., p. 
216, f. 57. 

E. BELLA Gabb. Unfyured. 

Monterey, Cal. 
E. bella GABB, Proc. Cal. Acad. iii, p. 188, 1865. 

Section Nesta H. Adams, 1870. 

Nesta AD. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 5. 

Shell oblong-oval, convex above ; apex terminal, subincurved y 
outside decussated; dorsal sulcus ending in a fissure; margin of 
aperture crenulated. (Ad.) 

E. NESTA Pilsbry. PI. 28, fig. 10. 

Shell oblong-oval, thin ; beautifully decussated with elevated very 
delicate concentric and radiating lirulse ; snowy-white ; dorsal sulcus 
with distinct sides, transversely striated ; front fissure strong ; margin 
of aperture a little thickened behind, delicately crenulated all 
around. Length 5J, width 3, alt. If mill. (Ad.) 

Red Sea. 

Nesta Candida H. AD. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 5, t. 1, f. 1, la ; not Emar- 
ginula Candida Ad. 

I am compelled to change the name of this shell as Candida has 
been used several times in Emarginula. I fail to see that Nesta has 
any generic characters. It is simply an Emarginula in which the 
recurved apex is bent down more than usual. 

? Section Emarginella Pilsbry, 1891. 

Founded on E. cuvieri Aud. The animal is black, very volumi- 
nous, mantle extending far over the borders of the foot and parti- 
ally enveloping the shell ; epipodial papillae well-developed. Shell 
coarsely latticed. 

E. CUVIERI Audouin. PI. 64. fig. 32. 

SAVIGNY, Descrip. de 1'Egypte., Coq. t. 3, f. 2. 1, 2. 2, 2. 3, 2. 4, 2. 
5, 2. 6, 2. 7. Emarginula cuvieri Audouin, ISSEL, Mai. Mar Rosso, 
p. 316. E. cuvieri COOKE, Ann. Mag. N. H 1885, xvi, p. 271, 
(E. clypeus Ad. and planulata Ad. said to be the same.) 

Red Sea ; Gulf of Suez. 

Subgenus RIMULA Defrance, 1827. 

Rimula (Rimulaire or Rimule) DEFRANCE, Diet, des Sci. Nat. 
XLV, p. 471, 472. Type R. blainvillii Defr., I. c. p. 472, t. 48 bis., 
f. 1, la, Ib. 



270 RIMULA. 

The figures of the type species, a fossil, show clearly that the 
recent forms are correctly referred to this group. These figures are 
copied (printed from the same plates ?) in Blainville's Manuel. 

The shell is, in effect, an Emarginula in which the slit has be- 
come closed, making a hole, situated half-way up the front slope. 
There is a slit-fasciole extending upward from the hole as in Emar- 
ginula. This group is modified from Emarginula in the same way 
Schismope is from Scissurella. It forms a step in the progress of 
Emarginula toward Puncturella. There is, of course, no internal 
septum or "deck." 

Most authors have considered Rimula a genus but the shells do 
not exhibit as much differentiation from Emarginula as Subemarg- 
inula and other groups which I have considered of generic value. 
Semperia of Crosse forms a connecting link between Rimula and 
Emarginula. 

Indo- Pacific species. 

E. EXQUISITA A. Adams. PL 64, figs. 3, 4. 

Large, oval, semipellucid, white, cancellated with radiating ribs 
and elevated concentric lines ; cancelli subquadrate ; ribs cren- 
ulated, unequal, prominent ; anterior two diverging ; interstices 
having two riblets ; above the perforation concave ; perforation 
elongate, subquadrate. (Ad.) 

Catanuan, Id. of Luzon, and Id. of Burias, Philippines ; on dead 
shells in 7-10 fins. 

E. exquisita AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 226, no. 1. AD. in Thes. iii, p. 
210, f. 3, 4. 

E. CARINATA A. Adams. PI. 63, fig. 8. 

Small, oval, ornamented with very many simple, close, radiating 
riblets ; interstices cancellated, cancelli punctiform ; two anterior 
riblets converging in front and united at the margin of the aperture ; 
interstices above the perforation convex, extending over the summit, 
falsely carinated ; perforation oval, narrow, narrowed in front. (Ad.) 

Cagayan, province of Misamis, Mindanao, Philippines ; on dead 
shells, 25 fms. 

R. carinata AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 226, no. 3. AD. in Thes., p. 
210, f. 5. 



RI.MULA. 271 

E. CUMINGII A. Adams. PI. 63, fig. 9. 

Small, ovate, opaque, cancellated with radiating longitudinal rib- 
lets and thick concentric lines; cancelli transverse, elongate ; ribs 
nodulous, subequal, prominent, distant ; two front ones diverging, 
interstices having two riblets ; perforation elongate, subquadrate. 
(Ad.) 

Eastern Seas. 

E. cumingii AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 227. ADAMS in Thes. p. 210, 
t. 24o, f. 1. 

E. PROPINQUA A. Adams. PI. 64, fig. 29. 

Small, elongate-oval, with subdistant, prominent roughened radi- 
ating riblets, interstices deeply cancellated ; cancelli transverse, 
subquadrate ; two anterior riblets converging anteriorly, joined at 
the margin of the aperture; perforation narrow-oval, acuminate in 
front. (Ad.) 

Catapan, Philippines. 

R. propinqua AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 227, no. 4. AD. in Thes. iii, 
p. 210, f. 2. 

E. MARIEI Crosse. PI. 22, figs. 34, 35, 36. 

Shell elongate-ovate, thin, subopaque, with radiating subnodose 
ribs, cancellated with close concentric riblets, making nodes where 
they cross the radii ; pale huffish-tawny ; apex a little obtuse, fissure 
elongate-subquadrate, margined within. Inside smooth, shining; 
muscle-scar scarcely apparent; margin subdenticulate. 

Length 4}, width 3, alt. 2 mill. (Crosse.) 

Noumea, New Caledonia ; very rare under stones. 

Riimda mariei CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1866, p. 167, t. 5, f. 7. 

E. vKuuiKiii Crosse. PI. 63, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Shell oval, thin, perceptibly translucent, having radiating alter- 
nately larger and smaller ribs, crossed by quite elevated lines, 
arched inward in the interstices of the ribs. Color a dull grayish- 
white. -Summit recurved, blackish-gray. Perforation elongated, 
narrowly oval. Aperture oval, gray-whitish, blackish in the mid- 
dle. Margins denticulate. Length a little more than 7, width 4, 
alt, 3 mill. (Crosse.) 

Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Rimula Verrieri CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. xix, 1871, p. 205; 
L c. 1872, p. 68, t. 2, f. 8. 



272 RIMULA. 

This species, large for a Rimula, approaches R. exquisita Ad. but 
may be separated from that form by the sculpture. The concentric 
elevated threads in passing over the ribs form nodes at their points 
of intersection. 

American species. 
E. FRENULATA Dall. PI. 27, fig. 54. 

Shell ovate, resembling in general shape and color a single valve 
of Limatula ovata Wood ; apex small, laterally compressed, sharp ; 
nucleus very minute, sculpture of fine distinct radiating threads, 
with an intercalary finer thread between nearly every pair. Con- 
centric sculpture of about equally strong threads, which reticulate, 
but do not pass over or nodulate the radiations ; they are not strictly 
concentric, being somewhat flexuous or broken at the sides, and 
somewhat bifurcated. Anal fasciole shallow, continuous from the 
fissure to the apex, narrow and marked with semilunar incremental 
ridges; fissure small, shaped like the top of an exclamation point 
('). Interior glossy, the fasciole marked by two faint ridges extend- 
ing to the apex; margin of the shell crenulated by the sculpture, 
apex reaching almost or quite as far back as the posterior margin, 
but a little raised above it, fissure a little variable in position, but 
mostly in the anterior third of the shell ; dorsal surface gently cou- 
vexly curved. Length 6'25, breadth 3'75 ; alt. 2-3 mill. (Dall.) 

West Florida and the Keys. 

E.frenulata DALL., Blake Gastrop., p. 406, t. 28, f. 4. 

This lovely little shell is remarkably distinct from any of the de- 
scribed species known to me. 

E. MAZATLANICA Carpenter. PL 63, fig. 10. 

Shell small, oblong, compressed, conical ; whitish covered with a 
thin whitish-brown epidermis ; apex planate, narrow ; surface deli- 
cately cancellated, cancelli quadrate; fissure subelongate, subquad- 
rate, within suboval, calloused ; slit occupying a portion extending 
from i to the entire length from apex to margin ; slit-fascicle 
extending to apex, crossed by growth lines ; margin delicately cren- 
ulated. 

Mazatlan, on Spondylus calcifer. 

Rimula mazatlanica CPR., Cat. Mazat. Sh. p. 222, 1857. AD., in 
Thes. p. 210, f. 6. 



STJBEMARGINULA. 273 

*** 

RIMULA ECHINATA Old. Gaspe Straits. 

" An imperfect description from the figure of a shell unfortunately 
lost or missing. * * * may possibly be jR. propinqua A. Ad." 
(Gld. Proc. Bost. Soc. vii, p. 163). 

Genus SUBEMARGINULA Blainville, 1825. 

Subemarginula BLAINV., Manuel de Malacol. p. 501, type Em. 
emarginata Blainv. Hemitoma SWAINSON, Malacol. p. 356. Siph- 
onella ISSEL, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 232, 1869. 

Shell rounded-oval, conical, apex near the middle, curved back- 
ward ; surface radiately ribbed ; anal notch generally short, contin- 
ued upward as a groove inside, occupying the end of a slightly 
prominent anterior rib, which is not sculptured differently from the 
other ribs. 

The great muscle scar exhibits a peculiarity diagnostic of this 
genus : its anterior terminations are recurved and produced inward 
toward the cavity of the apex. This character is found in all of 
the sections I have grouped under Subemarginula, including Tugalia. 

This genus differs from Emarginula in having no distinctly dif- 
ferentiated anal fasciole extending upward from the notch or slit in 
the front edge of the shell. This slit is usually a little to the right 
of the middle. 

Several sections may be distinguished : 

SUBEMARGINULA s. s. Shell short-oval, apex near the middle, 
a groove continuing upward inside from the anal notch. 

Under this as subsections may be grouped (1) Clypidina Gray, in 
which the anal notch is short, the space within the muscle-scar hav- 
ing a dark mushroom-shaped figure; this includes most of the ori- 
ental species. (2) Plagiorhytis Fischer, like the last, but the anal 
notch distinctly to the right, includes S. stellata and S. sulcifera. 

TUGALIA Gray. Shell oblong, depressed, apex posterior, front 
margin without a notch, either rounded or sinuous ; no internal 
anal groove ; no enlarged rib in front. 

Section SUBEMARGINULA s. str. 

American species. 
S. OCTORADIATA (Gmelin) Ad. PL 29, figs. 17, 18, 37. 

Primary ribs 8, not forking or double ; front margin scarcely 
notched. 
18 



274 SUHEMARGINULA. 

Shell oval, conical ; front margin not notched ; apex subcentral, 
inclined backward and to the right side ; front slope convex, back 
slope straight ; sculptured with strong radiating ribs of which 8 at 
equal distances are larger, extending from apex to basal margin, 8 
shorter secondary ribs, and on large specimens still smaller tertiary 
riblets. All of these are rudely nodulose. Color white or greenish 
outside. Interior olive-green (or sage-green), white in the center and 
around the margins. Anterior groove narrow, rather deep. Margin 
coarsely dentate. Length 24, breadth 20, alt. 10 mill. 

Tortugas to Barbados, Nicaragua and Aspinwall. 

Patella octoradiata (in part) GMEL., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. '3699. 
Subemarginula octoradiata A. AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 90, founding 
Gmelin's species upon " Patella alba, paucis et valde eminentibus 
striis stellata" LISTER, t. 532, f. 11 (Barbados). Emarginula octo- 
radiata Gm., ARANGO, Faun. Mai. Cub. p. 229. DALL, Catal. Mar. 
Moll. S. E. U. S. p. 170. Emarginula tricostata SOWB.. Genera, f. 
6 (inside only figured, scarcely recognizable). E. tricostata Sowb., 
REEVE, Conch. Syst.. p. 23, t. 140, f. 5, 6, good! E. depressa 
11 Blainville," SOWB., Conch. Icon. f. 3 and again, f. 55. ? E. guada- 
loupensis SOWB. 2D, Thes. p. 219, f. 69 ; Conch. Icon. f. 60. . 
clausa ORB., in Sagra, Moll. Cuba, p. 269, t. 24, f. 34-36. . 
laqueare GRAY and E. listeri ANTON, teste Arango, on authority of 
Dunker. 

Gmelin's description applies fairly well to this species, but his 
references are all at sea. In accepting Arthur Adams' first identi- 
fication (1851), taking Lister's fig. 11, pi. 532 as the type, we are 
adopting the course pursued by most writers on the West Indian 
fauna. This is the E. depressa of Sowerby 2d. (pi. 29, figs. 17, 18), 
not of Blainville. A wise malacologist will decline to say what E. 
depressa Blainv. (Malacol., p. 501, t. 48bis. f. 2) may be ; from its 
toad-stool shaped central area I would consider it an oriental form. 

This is a well-known West Indian species having eight strong 
primary ribs, and intervening shorter ones. The ribs have no 
tendency to be double, or bifurcate, a diagnostic point of great value. 

S. ROLLANDII Fischer. PI. 64, fig. 36. 

Shell small, oval, apex subcentral, anterior fissure about three 
times as long as wide; front slope convex, back slope straight or 
concave. Sculptured with unequal radiating riblets, very variable 
in number (22-28) ; ribs irregularly beaded, the interstices bearing 



SUBEMARGINULA. 275 

smaller riblets, and crossed by rather coarse low concentric cords. 
Apex recurved. The rib terminating in the slit curves a little to- 
ward the right. 

Color white, pale green or pale flesh-colored ; interior white, pale 
green or pale fleshy-brown, showing white rays. 

Length 9'., width 7, alt. 3$ mill. 

Florida; Guadeloupe and St. Thomas, West Indies ; Bermuda. 

E. rollandii FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl. v, p. 356, 1. 12, f. 10. 
E. dentigera HEILPRIN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1889, p. 142, t. 
8, f. 7. E. pileum HEILPRIN, /. c. t p. 142, t. 8, f. 6 ; and The 
Bermuda Islands, p. 188, 189, t. 17, f. 7, 6, 1889. Sub emarg. 
pumila AD. et auct. (see below.) 

In this small species it is difficult to distinguish the primary from 
the secondary riblets. The fissure is longer than in other species of 
SubemargimUa. E. dentigera Heilpr. (pi. 41, figs. 26, 27) is ab- 
solutely synonymous. 

Var. pileum Heilprin. PI. 41, figs. 18, 19. 

Decidedly more elevated than the type. Length 7, alt. 5 mill. 

Bermuda. 

The figures of dentigera and pileum, copied from Heilprin, do not 
show the anal slit. It is present in his types, now before me. 

I give here the information relating to the synonymous E. pumila. 

E. pumila A. Adams. (PI. 29, figs. 36). Orbiculate-oval, much 
depressed, apex subcentral, inclined backward; decussated with 
nodose, unequal radiating ribs and elevated concentric growth-lines. 
Margin of the aperture denticulate-crenate, in front deeply sinu- 
ated ; sinus subquadrate, produced inside in a canal. (Ad.~) 

Florida; Haiti, (Dall). Honduras, (Sowb.). 

Hiibemarg. pumila A. AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 91. E. pumila SOWB., 
Thes. p. 216, f. 80; Conch. Icon. f. 46. DALL, Catal. Mar. Moll. 
S. E. U. S. p. 170. 

This is the same as E. Rollandi Fischer. The description of the 
latter is about five years later in date than Adams' but being 
accompanied by an excellent figure (while that of Adams' was not 
illustrated until many years later), I have retained the better 
defined name. Besides, the locality, Honduras, for Adams' pumila 
was nut known until 1873, while Fischer described shells from a 
known habitat. Sowerby considers Em. pumila a synonym of 
E. scabricostata Ad. 



276 SUBEMARGINULA. 

S. EMARGINATA Blainville. PL 64, figs. 3, 24, 25, 26. 

Shell oblong, elevated, apex recurved, subcentral ; principal ribs 
10, three front ones prominent, stout, double ; white outside and in- 
side. 

The surface is strongly, coarsely latticed by elevated concentric 
cords or lamellae crossing the radiating ribs. Of the latter, three 
front ones are prominent, the middle one elevated, the two side-ribs 
double ; there are three riblets in each interval between the 10 
primary ribs, sometimes more by the intercalation of minute ones; 
color white or yellowisjh ; interior white ; anterior groove distinct, 
ending in a slight notch. Margins irregularly denticulate, 30-35 
denticles (large and small) in all. Ends elevated, so that the shell 
rests upon the side-margins alone, when placed upon a plane surface. 

Length 25, breadth 14, alt. 13 mill. 

Length 23, breadth 16, alt. 10 mill. 

Florida Keys; St. Thomas. 

Emarginula emarginata BLAINV. Malacol., p. 501, t. 48 bis., f. 3, 
1825. REEVE, Conch. Syst., p. 23, t. 140, f. 4. 

This large species is allied to E. tricarinata, but is thinner, more ir- 
regular in form, and pure white inside. 

The E. guadaloupensis of Sowerby (pi. 29, fig. 37) may be a 
synonym of this species rather than of octoradiata. 

S. ALVEOLATA A. Adams. PI. 29, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell thin, white, subpellucid, depressed-conical ; vertex subcen- 
tral, inclined backward ; irregularly alveolate by radiating ribs and 
transverse lirse ; ribs nodulose at the intersections of the line ; pits 
pellucid ; margin of the aperture dentate, sinuated in front, sinus 
produced into a canal within. (Ad.} 

Honduras. 

Subemarg. alveolata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 90. Sown., Thes. p. 
218, f. 82, 83 ; Conch. Icon. f. 51. 

The figures given by Sowerby do not agree very well with the 
words vertice subcentrali of Adams' description. 

Indo-Pacific species. 

S. TRICARINATA Born. PI. 29, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell an elevated recurved cone ; three anterior ribs stout and 
prominent ; interior bright green. 



SUBKMAROINUIvA. 277 

Front rib strongest, ending in a notch ; surface latticed by the 
concentric cords crossing the radiating riblets ; of the latter every 
third one is larger, these principal ones 12 in number, including 
three large front ribs; a smaller riblet in each internal, and on 
each side of these a minute one. Interior bright green, a small 
central patch and the border white. Margin crenulated. 

Length 21, breadth 14, alt. 12 mill. 

Tonga Tabu, S. Pacific; Philippines. 

Patella tricarinata BORN., Test. Mus. Cses. Vindob. p. 423, t. 18, 
f. 6. Not Patella tricarinata Linn. Emarginula panlii QUOY & 
GAIMARD, Voy. de FAstrol. 327, t. 68, f. 7, 8. Subemarginula pan- 
hiensis A. AD., P. Z. S. 18ol, p. 90. E. panhiensis SOVVB., Thes. p. 
2,18, f. 73, 74, 75. E. clathrata ADS. & REEVE, Voy. Samarang, p. 
69, t. ll,f. 6, 1850. 

A very distinct species. This genus is already in such terrible 
confusion that the inevitable restoration of Born's name to this shell 
is a very slight additional embarrassment. 

S. OLDHAMIANA Nevill. PI. 41, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell small, obliquely conical, the apex twisted to the right and 
backward. Surface bearing strong radiating ribs with smaller 
interstitial riblets, the principal ribs about 8 in number, somewhat 
nodose ; interior yellow or green-tinged, the anal groove deep, green, 
notch short. Length 10, breadth 7, alt. 4 mill. 

Ceylon. 

E. oldhamiana NEVILL, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xxxviii, p. 162, 
t. 17, f. 17, 

A curiously twisted little species, allied to S. tricarinata Born. 

S. IMBRICATA A. Adams. PI. 29, figs. 14, 15. 

Ovate-oblong, subquadrangular, ashy-white, vertex small, central, 
inclined backward ; decussated with imbricated, unequal radiating 
ribs and thick irregular growth-lines ; margin of the aperture den- 
tate, deeply sinuate in front, sinus subquadrate, produced in a canal 
within. (Ad.) 

Month of Victoria River, N.-E. Australia, under stones at low 
water. 

AS. imbricata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 91. E. imbricata Sows., Thes. 
p. 217, f. 70, 71. 



278 SUBEMARGINULA. 

The E. octoradiata of Sowerby (pi. 29, fig. 4) is probably a form 
of this species. It is not the octoradiata of Gmelin and authors 
generally. 

S. AUSTRALIS Quoy & Gaimard. PL 29, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell ovate, conic, inflated, whitish ; radiating ribs alternately 
thick, rugose, and small ; vertex median, obtuse, recurved. Margin 
undulating. Length 28, width 20, alt. 18 mill. (Q. & G.) 

Australia. 

E. australis Q. & G. Voy. de 1'Astrol., p. 328, t. 68, f. 11, 12. 
Sowb., Thes., p. 217, f. 67, 94. 

S. TASMANIA Sowerby. PI. 29, fig. 20. 

Elevated-conical, pale tawny, with distant, large, rugose, alternately 
smaller radiating ribs ; expanded behind, narrowed in front; fissure 
short, apex acute, obliquely recurved. The two prominent anterior 
ribs are not so much produced as in E. australis, while the rib 
formed by the cicatrix is more so ; the apex is very acute and turned 
backward slightly on one side. (Sowb.~) 

Tasmania. 

E. tasmanice SOWB. Thes., p. 218, f. 72; Conch. Icon., f. 58. 

Section Clypidina Gray. 

Clypidina GRAY, Syst. dist. moll. B. M. p. 164. A. ADAMS, P. 
Z. S. 1851, p. 87. 

Internal groove distinct, ending in a short anterior notch ; area 
within the muscle-scar decorated with a dark figure in the form of 
a mushroom of the Agaricus type. 

S. RUGOSA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 64, figs. 39-41; pi. 29, figs. 10, 

11. 

Shell oval, conical, apex subcentral ; sculpture consisting of 13- 
17 primary ribs, which are narrow, raised, continuing to the apex, 
each interval occupied by three small riblets ; cancellated by close 
raised concentric threads which form prickly scales where they 
cross the radiating ribs. Interior greenish (or white), the area 
within the muscle-scar dark or outlined with dark green, usually 
distinctly mushroom- shaped. Length 17 J, width 13, alt. 8-1 mill. 

Australia. 

E. rugosa Q. & G., Voy. de 1'Astrol. Zool. iii, p. 331, t. 68, f. 17, 
18. SOWB., Thes. p. 219. Clypidina Candida A. AD., P. Z. S. 



SUBEMARGINULA. 279 

1851, p. 88. C. annullata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 88. C. scabricula 
AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 88E.fnugwa OLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. ii, p. 
154, 1846 ; Exped. Atlas, f. 491. E. conoidea REEVE, Conch. Syst. 
ii, p. 23. t. 140, f. 7. C. acuminata AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 88, no. 10. 

The primary ribs are not split or double, and beween them there 
are three smaller riblets, the central one often largest ; sometimes 
some of the primary ribs are suppressed on the side-slopes. The mar- 
gin is very finely crenulated, the denticles numbering 60 to 72 in 
all. The picture of a mushroom is usually distinctly outlined in 
dark green or olive, in the interior. Anal groove rather deep, 
notch short. The basal margins are level, sides not arched upward, 
margin not noticably thickened. 

There is a variety in which the riblets are subequal. 

S. PAPILIONACEA Nevill. PI. 41, figs. 34, 35, 36. 

Ovate-elongate, subconic, moderately elevated, thin, white ; apex 
subcentral-posterior, acuminate and incurved ; surface ornamented 
with fifteen strong subtuberculate or scrobiculate radiating riblets, 
with numerous smaller ones interposed ; anterior fissure moderately 
cut, subnarrow. Inside shining, lightly radiately sulcate ; muscu- 
lar impression quadripartite, two anterior parts much smaller than 
the posterior, all triangular, converging. Length 12J, diam. 9 mill. 

The internal impression bears a striking resemblance to a butter- 
fly ; the shell is sufficiently transparent for it to be clearl} r discern- 
ible from the exterior. (Nevill.) 

S. province of Ceylon. 

Emarg. papilionacea G. & H. NEVII.L, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 
xxxviii, p. 161, t. 17, f. 12, 1869. 

S. BREVIRIMATA Deshayes. PI. 41, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell conic, base rounded-ovate ; apex subcentral, inclined back- 
ward ; white, 4 or 5 radiate with green ; longitudinally ribbed, 
riblets unequal, alternating; transversely rugose; larger radiating 
ribs about 25 in number. Front riblet more prominent, convex, 
scarcely scaly, ending in a very short slit. Interior white, marked 
with a pale chestnut spot at the apex. 

Length 7, width 5, alt. 3 mill. (Dh.) 

Is. of Reunion. 

E. brevirimata DH. Moll, de 1'Ile Reunion, p. 46, t. 6, f. 17, 18, 
16a. 



280 SUBP:MARGINULA. 

S. ASPERA Gould. PL 41, figs. 40, 41, 42, 43. 

Four principal posterior ribs double ; about 10 primary ribs. 

Shell oval, elevated or depressed, apex subcentral ; sculptured 
\vith about 10 principal ribs, four of the posterior ones double or 
divided by a median groove ; interstitial riblets irregular, variable 
in number. Concentric strise nearly obsolete in adults, fine and 
obsoletely prickle-scaly in the young. Color grayish-white or 
chocolate-brown between the larger ribs. Inside white, with or 
without dark radiating stripes ; no distinct mushroom-shaped pat- 
tern inside the muscle-scar ; anterior groove very short, but the 
notch rather deep ; margin thick, obsoletely, irregularly crenulated, 
the marginal denticles about 50 in number. 

Length 20, width 14, alt. 8 mill. 

Length 18, width 13, alt. 13 mill, (most elevated seen). 

Fiji, Viti and Philippine Is. ; S. Australia f 

E. aspera GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. K H. ii, p. 154, 1846 ; U. S. 
Exped. Sh. p. 372, atlas, f. 4Q3.E. cinerea GLD., I. c. p. 155 : atlas 
to Exped., f. 494. Subemarginula crassilabrum A. AD., P. Z. S. 
1851, p. 91. SOWB., Thes. p. 217, f. 79. f S. sculptilis AD., P. Z. 
S. 1851, p. 92. 

I have considered the double posterior ribs, short sulcus, etc. to 
be diagnostic points of a species ; and have united certain described 
forms which agree in these characters. The type of aspera (pi. 41, 
figs. 40-43) is a young shell. E. cinerea Gld. (pi. 41, figs. 28-31) 
from Fiji Is. may be distinct. It is thinner, and has a mushroom - 
shaped pattern inside, but the posterior ribs are double. E. crassi- 
labrum Ad. (pi. 29, fig. 16), and E. ossea Gld. (pi. 41, figs. 22-25) 
from the Fiji Is. do not seem to differ. 

S. SCULPTILIS A. Adams. PI. 29, fig. 19. 

Oval, obliquely conical, whitish, radiately maculated with green ; 
summit subcentral, deeply declining backward ; corrugated by 
radiating ribs, the interstices beautifully punctate-clathrate ; prom- 
inent anterior rib crenulated ; margin of aperture undulated and 
crenulated, rounded behind, truncated and sinuous in front, the 
sinus produced into a channel inside. Clath rated as in E. Panhiensis, 
but not so elevated and more compreesed at the sides, with a brown 
marginal spot between each of the larger ribs. (Ad.) 

Calapan, Island of Mindoro, Philippines. 

Subemarginula sculptilis AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 92. E. sculptilis 
SOWB. Thes. p. 218, f. 89. E. sculptilis SOWB. in Conch. Icon. f. 53. 



SUBEMARGINULA. 281 

S. NODULOSA A. Adams. PI. 29, fig. 23. 

Shell ovate, obliquely conical, whitish-rufescent, vertex subcentral, 
posteriorly declining ; decussated by longitudinal nodose radiating 
ribs, two front side ones very large, and irregular transverse lirse, 
margin of aperture irregular, acuminate behind, truncate in front, 
sinuate, the sinus produced inside into a channel. It is like Pan- 
hiensis [tricar inaia] but the rugosities are swelled into large bosses 
on the large ribs. (Ad.) 

Sibonga, Island of Zebu, Philippines, 10 fms. on small stones. 

Subemarginula nodulosa AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 91. E. nodulosa 
SOWB. Thes., p. 218, f. 77. 

S. LAMBERTI Souverbie. PI. 63, figs. 27, 28. 

Shell oblong-ovate, patelliform, much depressed ; apex minute, 
situated almost at the posterior third of the shell's length, shortly 
recurved backward and prominent ; front slope convex and car- 
inated, subconcave-plane behind, having obtuse, rather wide radiat- 
ing ribs, with intervening smaller ones, especially behind, and with 
concentric ribs decussating the ribs and interstices ; white, radiated 
with rosy, the rays seen on the interior ; marginal slit almost none. 

Length 17 2 , width 12, alt. 3 mill. 

Is. of Lifou, (Loyalty), New Caledonian Archipelago. 

S. lamberti Souv. Journ. de Conchyl. 1875, p. 294, t. 13, f. ]0. 

S. POLYGONALIS A. Adams. PL 29, figs. 34, 35. 

Elongate-oval, depressed-conic, white, 8-radiate ; vertex subcen- 
tral, inclined backward ; roughened by subnodulous radiating ribs 
(8 larger ones) and concentric growth-lines ; aperture octagonal, 
margin crenulated, deeply sinuated in front, a canal continuing the 
sinus inside. (Ad.) 

Catanuan, Philippines. 

Subemarginula polygonalis Aix, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 91, no. 16. E. 
polygonalis SOWB., Thes. p. 217, f. 78. 

S. CUMINGII Sowerby. PL 29, fig. 24. 

Oblong, irregularly polygonal, broad, much depressed, sub-green, 
with angular rugose unequal radiating ribs; apex a little before 
the middle, fissure subquadrate, much more depressed and wide 
than E. scutellata, and the sculpture less deeply cut and rugose. 
(Soivb.) 

Australia. 

E. cumingii SOWB., Thes. iii, p. 217, f. 76 ; Conch. Icon. f. 41. 



282 SUBEMARGINULA. 

S. LATA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 64, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell small, rounded, subquadrate, conical, whitish ; vertex curved ; 
with longitudinal ribs and very delicate interrupted transverse striae ; 
margin crenulated. Length 8, width 8, alt. 6 mill. (. & G.~) 

Amboina. 

E. lota Q. & G. Voy. de TAstrol. Zool., p. 330, t. 68, f. 9, 10. 

S. PULCHRA A. Adams. PL 28, fig. 28. 

Depressed-conical, green, beautifully rayed with white ; vertex 
subcentral, inclined backward ; radiating ribs unequal, spinose, 
interstices transversely latticed with elevated lines ; margin of the 
aperture denticulate, incised in front, fissure short, subquadrate. 
This resembles the sharper and younger specimens of E. rugosa, but 
all the radiating ribs on the anterior half of the shell are equal. 

(Ad.) 

Camaguan, Philippines, low water. 

E. pulchra AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 85, no. 24. SOWB., Thes., p. 219, 
f. 50, 51. 
S. CRATITIA A. Adams. PL 29, figs. 21, 22. 

Ovate, conic, whitish, vertex obtuse, central, scarcely inclining 
backward; radiating ribs distant, nodulose; interstices with two 
longitudinal riblets and elegantly cancellated with elevated trans- 
verse lines ; margin of the aperture crenulated, sinuated in front, 
the sinus quadrate, produced into a canal inside. ! Only the forma- 
tion of the fissure and cicatrix distinguish this from E. viminea. 
(Ad. &Sowb.} 

Habitat unknown. 

S. cratitia AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 92, no. 19. SOWB., Thes., p. 218, 
,91. 

S. NOTATA Lirine. Pl.^gT, figs. 34, 35. 

Oval, depressed, ashen, maculated and lined with black ; apex: 
back of the middle, obtuse ; radiating ribs black, rugose, unequal ; 
front margin scarcely notched, internal groove inconspicuous. (Sowb.) 

West Indies f 

Patella notata L., Syst. Nat. Clypidina notata AD., P. Z. S. 
1851, p. 87. E. notata SOWB., Thes. p. 220, f. 86-88 ; Conch. Icon, 
f. 42. 

The habitat, West Indies, given by Adams is doubtful. The spe- 
cies belongs rather to the East Indian type. 



SUBEMARGINULA. 283 

Section Plagiorhytis Fischer, 1885. 

Plagiorhytis FISCHER, Manuel de Conchy 1., p. 860. Type S. 
stellata Ad. 

S. STELLATA A. Adams. PI. 29, fig. 33. 

Rather solid, whitish, elliptical, depressed-conical, apex sub- 
central ; with elevated subspinulose radiating ribs, interstices sharply 
roughened by close decussating striae and costellse ; margin of the 
aperture dentate, sinus sublateral, inside produced in a canal toward 
the apex. This differs from any of the varieties of E. rugosa in the 
production of the ribs at their marginal termination, and the greater 
coarseness of the sculpture generally. (Ad.) 

Australia. 

Clypidina stellata AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 87, no. 7. E. stellata 
SOWB. Thes., p. 219, f. 103. 

S. SULCIFERA A. Adams. PI. 29, figs. 5, 6. 

Oval, depressed-conic, greenish ; vertex obtuse, situated back of 
the middle ; ornamented with radiating riblets, interstices hardly 
equal, and incremental striae ; base arcuate ; margin of the aperture 
crenulated, incision short, sublateral, produced into a canal inside. 
(Ad.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Clypidina sulczfera AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 87, no. 5. SOWB., Thes. 
p. 219, f. 84, 85. 

Unfigured species. 

Clypidina rudis A. Adams. Shell thick, rude, whitish, depressed- 
conic ; 8 angulated radiating ribs, interstices decussated with longi- 
tudinal riblets and concentric lines ; apex subcentral ; base arcuate ; 
margin of aperture crenulated, sinuate in front, sinus produced into 
a canal inside. Hab. unknown. (Ad., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 87, no. 6). 

Subemarginula galeata A. Adams. Shell grayish, rufescent, ele- 
vated-conical, thin, vertex subcentral, inclined backward ; subclath- 
rated with whitish, tuberculose radiating ribs and transverse elevated 
lines ; front rib prominent ; margin of the aperture dentate, deeply 
sinuated in front, sinus produced in a canal inside. Philippine 
Archipelago. (Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 90, no. 9). 



284 SUBEMARGINULA. 

Subemarginula arabica A. Adams. Shell whitish, thick, depressed- 
conical, vertex obtuse, subcentral, inclining backward; latticed 
with tuberculose radiating ribs and elevated transverse lines ; mar- 
gin of aperture thick, crenate, sinuate in front, sinus produced into 
a canal inside. Red Sea. (Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 90, no. 10). 

Subemarginula catillus A. Adams. Shell elongate-oval, much de- 
pressed, vertex little elevated, inclining backward ; ornamented 
with thick nodulous radiating ribs and transverse lines of growth ; 
margin of the aperture irregular, crenulated, callous inside, deeply 
sinuate in front. Hab. unknown. (Ad., P. Z. S. 1851 , p. 91, no. 14.) 

Subemarginula denticulata A. Adams. Shell elongate-oval, white, 
9-radiate, vertex acute, inclining backward ; 9 thick rugulose 
radiating ribs ; intervals having asperulate longitudinal riblets ; 
margin of the aperture dentate and denticulate, emarginate in 
front, sides of incision thickened, produced in front in two teeth. 
Mexico. (Ad. 1. c., p. 91, no. 15.) 

Emarginula ( Clypidina) radiata Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 
vii, p. 163.=? Em. australis Linn, teste Tenison- Woods, Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 256. 

Emarginula pileata Gld. Loo Ckoo. 

Emarginula altilis Gld. Kagosima Bay, 10 fms. 

Emarginula textilis Gld. Ousima. 

Unfigured species, described in Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii, p. 162. 
163. 

Subemarginula picta Dunker. 

(Em. picta DKR. Moll. Jap. p. 24, t. 3, f. 15; Ind. Moll. Mar. 
Jap. p. 152.) 

Allied to Em. pulchra A. Ad., probably a synonym of that form. 
S. arconatii Issel. (Mai. Mar. Ross. p. 232.) Unfigured. 

Gulf of Akaba. 
Subemarginula rugosa H. Adams, (P. Z. S. 1872, p. 10, t. 3, f. 7.) 

The name of this supposed new species is preoccupied by Quoy. 
Subemarginula modesta H. Adams, (I. c. p. 10, t. 3, f. 8). 

This form is doubtless a synonym of an East Indian species. 
Both this and S. rugosa H. Ad. were described under Emarginula. 

Section Tugalia Gray. 

Tugalia GRAY, Guide Syst. dist. Moll. B. M. 1857, p. 163. Tugali 
GRAY, olim. 



SUBEMARGINULA. 285 

Authors have considered this group either a distinct genus or a 
subgenus of Scutus. It is, however, a mere section of Subemarginula, 
with no differential characters worth speaking of, and of course no 
claims to generic rank. To the genus Scutus it has no affinity. 

On the animal of Tugalia see A. Adams, Ann. Mag. N. H. vi, 
1860, p. 112. 

S. PARMOPHOIDEA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 43, figs. 78, 79, 80. 

Shell ovate-oblong, convex and arcuate ; margins denticulated ; 
greenish-yellow ; cancellated with very thin rough and close striae ; 
apex obtuse; fissure almost none. Length 19, breadth 11, alt. 6 
mill. (Q. & (?.) 

Australia; New Zealand. 

Emarginula parmophoidea Q. & G., Voy. Astrol. p. 325, t. 68, f. 
15, 16 Tugalia parmophoroidea A. AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 89. 
Tugalia parmophoridea Sows., Thes. p. 221, f. 5, 11, 16. T. parmo- 
phoidea HUTTON, Man. N. Z. Moll. p. 106, 1880. T. elegans GRAY, 
in Dieff. N. Z. ii, p. 240. 

Sowerby has very likely wrongly identified this species. His fig- 
ures do not agree with those of Quoy. 

S. INTERMEDIA Reeve. PI. 43, figs. 83, 84. 

Shell oblong-ovate, broadly rounded behind, narrower toward the 
front, and having a very shallow notch or emargination in the front 
margin. Apex at the posterior fifth. Surface finely latticed all 
over by numerous close fine radiating riblets crossed by close 
elevated concentric stria? ; color light buff. Interior white, margin 
obtuse, finely crenulated. Length 21, breadth 12, alt. 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Parmophorus mtermedius RVE., Conch. Syst., t. 139, f. 5, 6. 
Tugalia cinerea (" Gld") SOWB. Thes., p. 221, f. 15, 17, (not Emar- 
ginula cinerea Gld.) 

This species differs from S. parmophoidea in being less parallel- 
sided. It is, however, very closely allied. 

S. CARINATA A. Adams. PI. 43, fig. 85. 

Elongate-oval, back carinated ; decussated with close radiating 
ribs and concentric striae ; apex inclining backward ; base arcuate ; 
margin of the aperture crenulated, the sinus produced into a canal 



286 SUBEMARGINULA. 

inside. The anterior sinus is continued to the apex as a keel without 
and a groove within the shell. 

Philippines. 

Tugali carinata A. AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p.* 89. Tugalia carinata 
SOWB., Thes., p. 221, f. 13. 

S. DECUSSATA A. Adams. PI. 43, fig. 88. 

Shell elongate-oval, whitish, planulate, back carinated ; elegantly 
latticed with radiating riblets and elevated concentric lines ; vertex 
acute, posterior ; margin of the aperture crenulated, sinuous in front, 
sinus produced into a canal in front. With a regularly cancellated 
sculpture and a keel from the anterior margin to the apex, (Ad.~) 

Philippine Is. 

Tug. decussate A. AD. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 89, no. 10. SOWB, Thes., 
p. 222, f. 12. 

S. CICATRICOSA A. Adams. PI. 43, fig. 86. 

Shell elongate-oval, white, back much depressed ; decussated 
with radiating riblets and concentric lines; vertex subposterior, 
depressed, excavated, quasi cicatricose, subpellucid, base arched; 
margin of aperture crenulated, front extremity sinuate, sinus pro- 
duced in a canal within. The sinus and cicatrix as in T. cancellata, 
but the shell flat and strongly cancellated. (Ad.} 

Philippines. 

Tug. cicatricosa AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 89, no. 7. SOWB., Thes. p. 
222, f. 14. 

S. SCUTELLARIS A. Adams. PI. 43, figs. 81, 82. 

Elongate-oval, greenish-brown, thin, back planulate, vertex pos- 
terior, acute, scarcely elevated ; decussated with subdistant radia- 
ting riblets and concentric lines of growth ; front end scarcely sinu- 
ous ; aperture brown within ; edge crenulated. (Ad.} 

JBais, Philippines. 

Tug. scutellaris AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 89. SOWB., Thes. p. 222, 
f. 8, 9. 

S. GIGAS Martens. PI. 43, figs. 76, 77. 

Shell oblong-obovate, moderately convex, concentrically rugose, 
radiately costulate ; pale yellow ; in front narrowing, distinctly 
emarginated, median rib wide, the rest smaller, close; posterior 



SCUTUS. 287 

broadly rounded, having wide, subnodose, distant ribs ; summit at 
the posterior f of the length. Inside white, shining. 
Length 89, breadth 55, alt. 22 mill. (Mis.) 

Northern Japan. 

Subemarginula gigas MARTENS, Conchol. Mittheil. ii, p. 103, t. 
19, Dec. 1, 1881. 

This gigantic species is readily known from all others. It is 
called Saru-aivabi by the Japanese, who capture and eat them the 
entire year. 

Unfigured and undetermined species of Tugalia. 

TUGALIA OSSEA (" Gould ") A. Adams. PL 43, fig. 87. 

This form is figured in Sowerby's Thesaurus, iii, pi. 249, f. 18. 
It is identified by Adams with Emarginula ossea Gould, with which 
it has absolutely nothing to do. It may be regarded as a lost spe- 
cies, and the name must in any case be abandoned, as Gould's ossea 
is a Subemarginula. 

TUGALI RADIATA A. Adams. Shell elongate-oval, yellowish, much 
depressed; ornamented with rounded, a little elevated, distant, 
radiating ribs and concentric striae ; aperture whitish within, mar- 
gin crenulated, front end scarcely sinuate. (Ad.) 

Catanuan, Philippines. 
T. radiata ADAMS, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 89, no. 9. 

TUGALIA OBLONGA Pease (P. Z. S. 1860, p. 437.)- 

Sandwich, Is. 
TIGALIA TASMANICA Tenison- Woods. Unfigured. 

N.-E. coast of Tasmania. 

T. tasmaniea T.-Wooi>s, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1876,~p. 156, 
(1877.). 

Genus SCUTUS Montfort, 1810. 

Scutus MONTF. Conch. Syst. ii, p. 58, 59. Type S. antipodes 
Montf ambiguus Chemn. Parmophorus BLAINVILLE, Bull. Sci. 
Soc. Phil. 1817, p. 25. Scutum of some authors. 

The shell is oblong, depressed, apex directed backward ; no anal 
groove or slit, but the front margin more or less truncated and 
sinuous; surface without radiating sculpture; anterior ends of the 



288 SCUTUS. 

muscle-scar converging but riot hooked inward toward the apex, as 
there are in Subemarginula-\- Tugalia. 

The shell is partly concealed by the mantle ; animal black or 
blotched with black, snout and tentacles long; epipodial row of 
papillae present; formula of dentition x (1) 4-1-4 (1) x. 

This Indo-Pacih'c genus represents the more primitive form of the 
subfamily. The lack of radiating sculpture, smooth edge of the 
shell, and differently formed muscle-scar afford amply sufficient 
characters for the separation of the genus from Emarginula and 
Subemarginula. 

Mr. E. A. Smith has thoroughly revised this genus in an excellent 
paper in the Quarterly Journal of Conchology, ii, p. 250, 1879. The 
positions there taken are undoubtedly correct, and I have been 
guided by them in the following account. 

8. ANATINUS Donovan. PI. 40, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell oblong, depressed, sides parallel or converging in front ; 
ends rounded, the front end somewhat sinuous, not squarely trun- 
cated ; surface concentrically striated, not obliquely corrugated ; 
apex at about the posterior fourth of the length. Color buff or 
yellowish-brown. Inside white, usually with some purplish or 
orange stains ; muscle-scar distinct, rugose ; there are usually some 
punctures at and behind the apex of the cavity. An average speci- 
imen measures, length 76, breadth 36, alt. 10 mill. 

Bass's Straits, Port Jackson and Sidney, Eastern and Southeastern 
Australia; broad variety from Western and Southwestern coasts of 
Australia. 

Typical form. Shell elongate, narrow. 

Patella anatina DON. in Rees' Encyclopedia, 1820, v, nat. hist, 
plates Conchol., t. 16. Scutus anatinus E. A. SMITH, Journ. of 
Conchol. ii, 1879, p. 257. Parmophorus elongatus BLAINV., Bull. 
Sci. Soc. Philom. 1817, p. 25 ; Diet. Sci. Nat. xxxvii, p. 557 ; 
Malacol. t. 48, f. 2, 2a. Emarginula elongata SOWB., Genera, f. 1. 
Scutus elongatus A. AD. in Sowerby's Thes. iii, t. 248, f. 1, 2 ; Conch. 
Icon, xvii, t. 1, f. la-b. S. unguis A. AD. in part, (not Linn.) P. 
Z. S. 1851, p. 221. Parmophorus australis LAM., CHEMN., REEVE 
(Conch. Syst. t. 139, f. 2-3), HOGG, Trans. Microscop. Soc. 1868, 
xvi, t. 12, f. 57 (dentition). P. convexus Q. & G., Voy. Astrol. iii, 
p. 322, t. 69, f. 5-16. 



SCUTUS. 289 

Var. AUSTRALIS Q. & G., (pi. 40, fig. 3.) Shell proportionately 
broader. 

Patella unguis SCHUM., part (not Linn.), Syst. Vers Test. t. 22, f. 
a-b. Parmophorus australis Q. & G., Voy. Astrol. t. 69, f. 1-4. 
Scutus elongatus A. AD. in SOWB., Thes. t. 249, f. 10. Sows., 
Conch. Icon. f. Id. S. unguis SOWB., (not Linn.) Conch. Icon. f. 
5b. 

In some of the specimens before me the side-margins are decidedly 
arcuate like the form called convexus Q. & G. 

This species may be distinguished from S. ambiguus by its longer 
form and more rounded anterior end : from S. unguis by its lacking 
the corrugation of the surface characteristic of that species, and in 
having the apex more posterior. 

S. AMBIGUUS Chemnitz. PI. 40, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Shell shorter than S. anatinus, the front margin squarely trunc- 
ated. Length about twice the breadth. 

Length 54, breadth 28 mill. 

New Zealand. 

Patella ambigua CHEMN. Conch. Cab. xi, pp. 178, 181, f. 1918. 
WOOD, Index Test., t. 38, f. 84. Scutus ambiguus Ch., SMITH, 
Quart. Journ. Conch, ii, 1879, p. 258, figs. 1-3. S. antipodes MONTF. 
Conch. Syst. ii, p. 58, 59. Parmophorus breviculus BLAINV. Bull. 
Sci. Soc. Philom. 1817, p. 28; Diet. Sci. Nat. xxxvii, p. 558. LAM. 
An. s. Vert. ed. 2, vii, p. 579. S. unguis H. & A. AD. (not Linn.) 
Genera, iii, t. 51, f. lOa. 

Fig. 11 is a dorsal view of animal showing the anterior position 
of the shell ; fig. 10 represents Blainville's type specimen of P. 
breviculus ; fig. 9, a larger specimen. 

S. UNGUIS Linne. PI. 40, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Shell oblong, depressed, slightly narrowing in front or parallel- 
sided ; apex usually between the posterior third and the middle ; 
ends rounded, the front emarginate more or less. Surface concen- 
trically wavy-striate and obliquely corrugated. Color buff or white. 
Inside white or with bluish zones ; muscle-scar not very distinct ; 
no punctures at the apex of the cavity. 

Length 33, breadth 18, alt. 7 mill. 

Length 54, breadth 28, alt. 8 mill. 

Length 28, breadth 15, alt. 7 mill. 

Port Essington and Moreton Bay, Australia; New Ireland ; New 
Caledonia ; Hong Kong, China ; Japan ; Cape of Good Hope to 
Red Sea; Bombay; Philippines. 19 



290 SCUTUS. 

Patella unguis L., Mus. Uhlricaj p. 69 ; Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1260 
(pt.)- HANLEY, Ipsa Linn. Conch, p. 5, 24, t. 3, f. 4. Scutus un- 
guis AD. (pt.), P. Z. S. 1851, p. 221. E. A. SMITH, Journ. of 
Conch, ii, 1879, p. 261. Parmophorus granulatus BLAINV., Bull. 
Sci. Soc. Philom. 1817, p. 28. S. granulatus AD. in Sowb., Thes. t. 
248, f. 3 ; t. 249, f. 20. SOWB., Conch. Icon. f. 2a-b. P. imbricatus 
Q. & G., Astrol. t. 69, f. 17, 18. P. corrugatus RVE., Conch. Syst. 
t. 139, f. l.S. corrugatus AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 222. SOWB., Thes. 
t. 249, f. 7 ; Conch. Icon. f. 3a-b. TAPP.-CAN., Viag. Magenta p. 
70. P. japonicus CANEFRI, 1. c. t. 2, f. 8, dentition. P. elegans 
GRAY, Annals of Philos. 1825, p. 139. Emarginula brevicula SOWB. 
(not P. breviculus Blainv.), Genera, f. 2. P. breviculus Sow., 
CHENU, Manuel i, f. 2810. S. angustatus A. AD., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 
222. S. breviculus A. AD. (not Blainv.) in Sowb. Thes. t. 249, f. 6 ; 
SOWB. in Conch. Icon. f. 4. S. elongatus A. AD., (not Blainv.) 
Thes. f. 21 ; SOWB. in Conch. Icon. f. Ic. Parmophorus emargina- 
tus PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1851, p. 89. P. ruppeli PHIL., 1. c. p. 
89, P. australis RUPPEL, (not Lam.) Atlas Keise in Nord Afrika, 
t. 10, f. 5. 

This shell differs from the two preceding in being corrugated on 
the whole or some part of the surface. The varieties pass into one 
another by such imperceptible degrees that any division must be 
artificial. Fig. 8 represents the type shell of Linne ; fig. 4 is Reeve's 
corrugatus ; figs. 5 and 6 are the granulatus of Blainville, and re- 
present the Australian type, which is much corrugated and rather 
elevated ; fig. 7 is a broad form with subcentral apex. 

Unrecognized, unfigured and spurious species of Scutus. 

P. fissurella Blainv. P. patelloideus Cantr.= Tylodina. 

P. sinensis Blainv. P. intermedius Hve.= Tugalia. 

P.fragilis Blainv. P. abnormis Nev.=P/to/as, (dorsal plate.) 

P. gibbosus Anton. Scutum dacicum Walch. PMas, (dorsal plate.) 



APPENDIX. 291 

APPENDIX. 

SCISSURELLIDA:. 
SCISSURELLA FUNNAzzENSis de Greg. 

A form closely resembling S. crispata (of which it is a variety) 
but nearly smooth. 

Funnazzi, Sicily. 

DE GREG, in II Naturalista Siciliano, ix, t. iv, f. 9a, 9b, 9c, 9d, 
Nov., 1889. 

HALIOTID^. 
HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA L. (Page 85.) 

M. se T. di Monterosato has diagnosed a large number of so-called 
varieties of this species, and of its varieties lamellosa and reticulata. 
(Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., xiii, p. 166.) 

HALIOTIS N^EVOSA Mart. (P. 116.) 

Add to synonymy, H. ruber Leach, Zoological Misc., p. 54, t. 23, 
1815. 

This is not a synonym of H. rugosoplicata but of ncevosa. 

HALIOTIS HANLEYI Ancey. Unfigured. 

This is a form closely allied to H. dringi Rv. It is from the island 
of Nou, New Caledonia. (See Le Naturaliste, May, 1881, p. 414.) 

This must not be confused with Sowerby's H. hanleyana. 

HALIOTIS JOUSSEAUMI Mabille. Unfigured. 

This is probably a form of H. pustulata Rv. Mabille does not 
state the locality. (See Bull. Soc. Philomathique de Paris, 7th Ser., 
vol. 12, 1887-1888, p. 81, 1888.) 

H. CALIFORNIANA Val., H. INTERRUPTA Val., H. PARMA Val. 

(Recueil d'Obs. de Zool., etc., Humboldt et Bonpland, ii, pp. 267, 
268, 1833.) 

These three unfigured species are not recognizable from the de- 
scriptions. H. interrupta Val. has been referred to H. cracherodii, 
juv. ; but anyone capable of judging will see that such a disposition 
of it is inadmissible, if the original description be read. 

FlSSURELLID^E. 
FlSSURELLA RUBIGINOSA Hutton (p. 216). 

Von Martens (Zool. Rec., x, p. 150) supposes that this is a syno- 
mym for Patella lacunosa. 




292 APPENDIX. 

Fiss. BRUNNEA Anton (Verzeich, p. 27) unidentified. 

F. ROSEA Lam., add to synonymy ; F. rosacea ANTON, Verz., p. 27. 

Fiss. NUBECULA L. F. mondelloensis de Greg. (Bull. Soc. Mai. 
Ital., x, p. 222) is a synonym. 

FISSURELLA ROBUSTA Sowerby, 2d. 

Shell elevated, solid, brown, smooth or obsoletely concentrically 
corrugated ; front slope short, posterior swollen ; perforation mod- 
erate, oval, situated at } of the length. Length 40, diam. 34, alt. 
25 mill. This shell lent me by Mr. Ponsonby is in a very worn 
condition, so that it is impossible from it to give a full description 
of the species ; but it is of a peculiar, robust and elevated form, and 
its surface appears to be nearly smooth without any signs of radi- 
ating ridges (Sows. Journ. of Conchol., Leeds, vi, p. 12, t. 1, f. 5, 6, 
Feb., 1889). 

FISSURELLA FLAVIDA Philippi. Unfigured. 

A species of true Fissurella, allied to F. fulvescens Sowb. 

F.flavida PH., Mai. Bl., iii, p. 165, 1857. 
FISSURELLA ALBA Philippi. PI. 62, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell small, rather convex, white all over, nearly smooth, but 
sculptured with close impressed radiating lines and growth striae ; 
foramen oblong, subcentral, extremities incumbent; margin very 
delicately crenulated. Length 10, lat. 6J, alt. 41 lines. (Ph.) 

Straits of Magellan. 

F. alba PH., Archiv. f. Naturgesch. 1845, p. 61 ; Abbild., p. 34, 
Fiss., t, 1, f. 4. 

FISSURELLA OBLONG A Menke, Moll. Nov. Holl., p. 33. This is 
probably Megatebennus trapezina Sowb. See Tate, Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, vi, p. 411. 

MACROSCHISMA BAIKIEI A. Adams. (P. 194.) 

The name of this species is incorrectly spelled by Sowerby (see 
antea, p. 194). Add to references: Clypidella Baikiei A. AD., P. 
Z. S. 1854, p. 136, t. 28, f. 3. 

GLYPHIS IMPEDIMENTUM Cooke. Unfigured. 

This remarkable shell is of the same type as arcuata, Sow. The 
noteworthy features are the extreme elevation, the very gibbous 
form, and the fact that the apex, which is not at all prominent, is 



APPENDIX. 293 

almost over the margin, so that the posterior end of the shell is al- 
most perpendicular. Viewed from underneath the margins form 
an almost complete circle. Alt. '35, long. '375 in. (Cooke.) 

Gulf of Suez. 

F. impedimentum COOKE. Ann. Mag. N. H., 5th Ser., xvi, p. 270, 

FISSURELLA PARVIPERFORATA Sowb. 2d, Jour, of Conch., vi,p. 12. 
t. 1, f. 7. 

Compare F. elevata Dunker. 

FISSURELLA VITOENSIS de Greg. (Bull. Soc. Mai. ItaL, x, p. 220)= 
Glyphis italica Defr. form depressa Monts. (vid. 1. c., xiii, p. 166). 

F. MIRIGA de Greg. (1. c., p. 221) is a form of Glyphis gibberula 
Lm. 

GLYPHIS FOVEOLATA (p. 207). 

Add the reference: F.foveolata GARRETT, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
iv, p. 203, 1872. 

GLYPHIS FENESTRATA Garrett. Unfigured. 

(F. fenestrata GRT., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., iv, p. 204, 1872.) 

Viti and Samoa Is. 

GLYPHIS MINUTA Lam. Add to the synonymy : Fissurella gran- 
ulata ANTON, Verzeich., p. 27, 1839 (founded on F. minuta " Sow. 
non Link."). 
In case Lamarck's name for this species be rejected, it must be 

called Glyphis granulata Anton, this name having priority over 

gemmulata Rve. 

GLYPHIS CRUCIS Beddome. Unfigured. 

Shell oval, raised and cancellated ; white or yellowish ; two red 
lines on back, forming a cross; aperture oval. 

Length 9, latitude 5, alt. 2 mill. (Bedd.) 

Kelso Bay, Tamar River, Tasmania, 17 fms. 

F. crucis BEDD. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1882, p. 169 (1883). 

PUNCTURELLA NANA H. Adams. 

Shell rather solid, elevated-conic ; sculptured with 15 radiating 
ribs, the front ones wider apart ; apex acute, strongly recurved ; 
aperture oval. Length 2, width H, alt. 2 mill. (H. Ad.) 

Red Sea. 



294 APPENDIX. 

Cemoria nana H. AD., P. Z. S. 1872, p. 10, t. 3, f. 6 ; Ann. Mag. 
N. H, 5th Ser., xvi, p. 271. 

PUNCTURELLA HARRissoNi Beddome. Unfigured. 

Shell ovate, conical ; surface sculptured with radiating ribs ; apex 
subspiral, recurved posteriorly ; perforation narrow, oval ; interior 
with shelly plate half covering the perforation. L. 4, lat. 2'75, alt. 
5 mill. (Bedd) 

Off Old Station, Brown's River Road, 7 fms. ; Bruny Id., Tas- 
mania. 

Cemori Harrissoni BEDD., Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1882, p. 168 
(1883). 

Genus ZEIDORA Adams. (P. 246.) 

Add to synoymy : Legrandia BEDDOME, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 
1882, p. 169 (1883). 

ZEIDORA TASMANICA Beddome. Unfigured. 

Shell oval, radiately ribbed ; front edge fissured ; interior with a 
shelly plate extending \ the length of the shell. L. 5, lat. 3, alt. 
75 mill. (Bedd) 

Kelso Bay, Tamar River, Tasmania, 17 fms. 

Legrandia tasmanica BEDD., /. c., p. 169. 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1, 4. Broderipia subiridescens Pils. Specimen, . . .46 

0, 8. Broderipia iridescens Brod. Specimen, . . .46 
9,11. Broderipia eximia Nev. Specimen, . . . . 48 

12, 14. Stomatella godeffroyi Dkr.=Mariei Crosse, . .16 

15, 16. Broderipia nitidissima Dh. Moll. Reun., . . 48 

17. Haliotis tuberculata L. Animal, Fischer, Man., . . 85 

18, 20 Phaneta everetti H. Ad. P. Z. S., . . . . 30 

PLATE 2. 

1, 2. Stomatella coccineavar. rubroflammulata Pils. Speci- 

men, 24 

3. 5. Stomatella lyrata Pils. Specimen, . . . .12 
6, 7. Stomatella concinna Gld. Specimen, . . .28 

8, 10. Gena strigosa Ad. var. Specimen, . . .39, 40 

11, 13. Gena strigosa Ad. var. Specimen, . . . 39, 40 

14, 16. Gena strigosa Ad. var. Specimen, . . . 39, 40 

17, 20. Gena planulata Lm. Specimen, . . . .38 

21, 23. Gena auricula Lm. Specimen, . . . .43 

24, 26. Broderipia rosea Brod. Specimen, . . . .47 

27, 28. Broderipia rosea Brod. Thes. Conch., . .47 

29,31. Gena lutea Linn. Specimen, 44 

32, 34. Stomatella pulchella Ad. Thes., .... 28 

35, 37. Stomatella stellata var. ornatissima Pils. Specimen, . 26 

38, 40. Broderipia eximia Nev. J. A. S. B., ... 48 

41, 42. Broderipia iridescens Brod. Thes., . . . .46 

43, 44. Broderipia cumingii Ad. Ibid., . . . .47 

PLATE 3. 

1-3. Haliotis tuberculata L. Hidalgo, . . . .85 

4. Haliotis stomatiseformis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .89 

5. Haliotis zealandica Rve. Ibid., ..... 102 

6. Haliotis papulata Rve. Ibid., 97 

7. Haliotis jacnensis Rve. Ibid., 89 

8. Haliotis lauta Rve. Ibid., 119 

(295) 



296 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE! PAGE. 

9, 10. Haliotis tuberculata v. lamellosa Lm. Hid. and 

Conch. Icon., 86 

PLATE 4. 

11, 12. Haliotis bistriata Gmel. Thes. and Conch. Icon., . 87 

13. Haliotis echinata Sowb. Thes., 90 

14, 15. Haliotis elevata Sowb. Thes., 90 

17, 18. Haliotis cruenta Rve. Thes. and Conch. Icon., . 99 

19. Haliotis astricta Rve. Conch. Icon 94 

20. Haliotis coccoradiata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .118 

PLATE 5. 

21. 22. Haliotis concinna Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .96 

23. Haliotis ancile Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 100 

24. Haliotis corrugata Gray. Conch. Icon., . . .80 

25. Haliotis dringii Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .96 

26. Haliotis clathrata Rve.=nsevosa Martyn. Conch. Icon., 116 

27. Haliotis albicans Q. Conch. Cab., . . . .78 

PLATE 6. 

28-30. Haliotis supertexta Lischke. Jap. M. Conch., . .106 

31. Haliotis diversicolor v. gruneri Ph. Jap. M. Conch., . 105 

32, 43. Haliotis grayana Sowb. Thes., . . . .105 

34. Haliotis virginea Ch. Thes., ... . 107 

35. Haliotis aquatilis Rve.=japonica Rve. Conch. Icon., . 87 

36. Haliotis multiperforata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .115 

PLATE 7. 

37. Haliotis gemma Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .98 

38. Haliotis cunninghami Gray. Conch. Icon., . . .116 
39-41. Haliotis dohrniana Dkr. Novit. Conch., . . .98 

42. Haliotis gigantea Chemn. Conch. Icon., . . .84 

PLATE 8. 

43, 44. Haliotis midse L. Conch. Icon., . . . .112 

45. Haliotis pertusa Rve. (=pustulata var.). Conch. Icon., 101 

46. Haliotis gigantea v. discus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . 85 

PLATE 9. 

47. 49. Haliotis gigantea v. kamtsckatkana Jonas, . . 85 

48. Haliotis speciosa v. janus Rve., 93 

50. Haliotis glabra Chemn. Conch. Icon., .... 106 

51. Haliotis excavata Lam. Conch. Icon., . . . .119 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 297 

PLATE 10. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

52. Haliotis cracherodii (callforniensis). Conch. Icon., . 79 

53. Haliotis cracherodii Leach. Conch. Icon., . . .79 

54. 55. Haliotis concinea Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 103 

PLATE 11. 

56,60. Haliotis naevosa Mart. Conch. Icon., . . .116 

57. Haliotis pustulata Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 100 

58. Haliotis planata Sowb. Thes., . ' . . . .99 

59. Haliotis hanleyana Sowb. Thes., . . . . .91 
60, see 56. 

PLATE 12. 

61. Haliotis splendens Rve.=fulgens Phil. Conch. Icon., . 81 

62. Haliotis fulgens Phil. Abbild, 81 

63. Haliotis ziczac Rve.=glabra Ch. Conch. Icon., . . 106 

64. Haliotis rugosa Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 102 

PLATE 13. 

65. Haliotis iris Martyn. Thes., lib 

67, 68. Haliotis brazieri Aiigas. Thes., . . . .125 

69. Haliotis pulcherrima Martyn. Conch. Icon., . . 124 

70. Haliotis elegans Koch. Conch. Icon., .... 103 

PLATE 14. 

74. Haliotis parva L. Conch. Icon., ..... 120 

75. Haliotis emmse Gray. Conch. Icon., . . . .122 

76. Haliotis asinina L. Conch. Icon., 126 

77. Haliotis japonica Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .87 

PLATE 15. 

78. 79. Haliotis sieboldii Rve.=gigantea Ch. Conch. Icon., 85 
-80. Haliotis diversicolor Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 104 
1, 82. Haliotis revelata Dh. Moll. Reun., . . . .102 
$3. Haliotis diversicolor v. tayloriana Rve. Conch. Icon., . 105 

PLATE 16. 

-84, 85. Haliotis tricostalis Lam. Thes., . . . .123 

6. Haliotis sepiculata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .87 

87, 88. Haliotis crispata Old. Expl. Exped., . . .109 

89, 90. Haliotis speciosa Rve. Conch. Icon., . .92 

PLATE 17. 

91. Haliotis varia v. viridis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . 95, 96 

92. Haliotis rubiginosa Rve. Conch Icon., . . . .94 



298 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

93. Haliotis varia v. semistriata Rva. Conch. Icon., . 95, 96 

94, 96. Haliotis virginea Ch. Ind. Moll. Gum. Inf., . . 107 
97, 88. Haliotis unilateral Larn. Conchyl. Cab., . . 97 
99. Haliotis varia L. Conch. Icon., . ' . . . .95 

100. Haliotis varia v. semistriata Rve. Conch. Icon., . 95, 96 

PLATE 18. 

I ;" 

1. Haliotis roei Gray. Conch. Icon., 147" 

2. Haliotis squamata Rve. Conch. Icon., . ' . . .91 

3. 4. Haliotis virginea Ch. Thes., 107 

5. Haliotis scutulum Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 

6. Haliotis sanguinea Hanley. Conch. Icon., . . .114 

PLATE 19. 

7. 8. Haliotis ovina Ch. Conch. Icon., .... 124 
9. Haliotis planilirata Rve. = fulgens Phil., ... 81 

10. Haliotis marise Gray. Conch. Icon., . . . .111 

11. Haliotis marise v. dentata Jonas. Thes., . . Ill, 112 

PLATE 20. 

11. Haliotis rufescens Swains. Conch. Icon., . . .82 

12, 13. Haliotis rugosoplicata Ch. Thes. and Icon., . . 110" 

14. Haliotis squamosa Gray. Thes. and Icon., . . .112 

15, 16. Haliotis venusta Ad. & Rve. Voy. Samarang, . 91 

PLATE 21. 

17-21. Haliotis midse v. elatior Pils. Specimen, . . . 11& 
22-25. Stomatella picta Orb. Specimen, . .29 

26. Emarginula thomasi Crosse. Journ. Conchyl., . . 264 

PLATE 22. 

27, 28. Haliotis pourtalesii Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., . 121 
29. Haliotis assimilis Dall. Specimen, . . . .83 
30-33. Stomatella godeffroyi=mariei Crse. Specimen, 8, 16' 
34-36. Rimula mariei Crosse. Journ. de Conch., . . 271 
37-39. Schismope morleti Crosse. Journ. de Conch., . . 62 
40-42. Megatebennus concatenata C. & F. Journ. de Conch., 187 
43, 44. Schismope ferriezi Crosse. Journ. de Conch., . . 61 
45-47. Fissurella omicron C. & F. Journ. de Conch., . . 174 

PLATE 23. 

48-50. Haliotis pustulata Rve. Specimen, . . . . 100* 

51. Haliotis pustulata Rve. Specimen, . . . . 100 
56-58. Haliotis pustulata Rve. Specimen, . . 100 

52. Haliotis varia v. pustulifera Pils. Specimen, 

53-55. Haliotis varia Linne. Specimen, . . . .95 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 299 
PLATE 24. 

FKIl'RE. PAGE. 

59-61. Haliotis rosacea Rve. Specimen, . . . .93 

62. Haliotis decussata Phil.=r- rosacea Rve. Abbild., . 93, 94 

63. 64. Haliotis rosacea Rve., var. Specimen, . . .93 

65. Haliotis rosacea Rve. (type). Conch. Icon., . . .93 

66. Haliotis tuberculata L. v. reticulata Rve. Specimen, . 86 

PLATE 25. 

1-3. Addisonia paradoxa Dall. Blake Rep., . . .139 

5, 6. Cocculina rathbuni Dall. Blake Rep., . . .132 

7, 8. Cocculina leptalea Ver. Tr. Conn. Ac., . . .133 

9, 10. Cocculina spinigera Jeffr. P. Z. S., . . . . 135 

11, 12. Cocculina corrugata Jeffr. P. Z. S., ... 136 

13-15. Cocculina angulata Wats. Chall. Rep., . . .137 

16-20. Emarginula fissura L. Forbes & Hanley, . . 252 

21. Cocculina adunca Jeffr. P. Z. S., 133 

22. Cocculina pusilla Jeffr. P. Z. S., 136 

23. 24. Cocculina beanii Dall. Blake Rep., . . .132 

25. Puncturella rostrata Seg. Chall. Rep., . . . .245 

26, 27. Addisonia lateralis Req. Journ. Conchy]., . . 139 

28. Puncturella granulata Seg. Chall. Rep., . . .242 

29, 30. Emarginula multistriata Jenr. P. Z. S., . . . 252 
31. Puncturella circularis Dall. Blake Rep., . . .236 

PLATE 26. 

32-35. Puncturella agger Wats. Chall. Rep., . . .233 

36, 37. Puncturella asturiana Fisch. Chall. Rep., . . 241 

38-41. Puncturella brychia Wats. Chall. Rep., . . . 224 

42-45. Puncturella sportella Wats. Chall. Rep., . . 235 

46-49. Puncturella oxia Wats. Chall. Rep., . . .235 

PLATE 27. 

50, 51. Puncturella trifolium Dall. Blake Rep., . . 237 

52, 53. Glyphis fluviana Dall. Blake Rep., . . .210 

64. Rimula frenulata Dall. Blake Rep., . . . .272 
55-58. Zeidora naufraga Wats. Chall. Rep., . . . 247 

59, 62-65. Emarginula crassa Sow. Forbes & Hani., . . 225 

60, 61. Puncturella eritmita V. Tr. Conn. Ac., . . 238 
66, 67. Puncturella clathrata Jeffr. P. Z. S., 232 
68-70. Puncturella noachina L. (poor figs.), . . . 229 
71, 72. Puncturella granulosa Jeffr. P. Z. S., 246 
73, 74. Puncturella profundi Jeffr. P. Z. S., ... 243 

PLATE 28. 

1. Emarginula incisura Ad. Thes., ..... 265 

2. Emarginula cucullata Ad. Thes., 258 



300 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

3. Emarginula fuliginea Ad. Thes., .... 263 



4. Emarginula marculata Ad. Thes., 

5, 6. Emarginula concinna Ad. Thes.. 

7. Emarginula clypeus Ad. Thes., .... 

8. Puncturella pelex Ad. Thes., .... 

9. Puncturella pileolus Ad. Thes., .... 

10. Emarginula nesta Pils. (Nesta Candida H. Ad. )P. Z. 

11. Emarginula obovata Ad. Thes., . . . , 

12. Emarginula variegata Ad. Thes., 

13. Emarginula viminea Ad. Thes., .... 

14. Emarginula emendata Sowb. Thes., 

15. Emarginula planulata Ad. Thes., .... 

16. Emarginula huzardi Payr. Thes., .... 

17. Emarginula dilecta Ad. Thes., .... 

18. Emarginula japonica Ad. Thes., .... 

19. Emarginula conica Schum. Thes., . 



263 
257 
265 
241 
241 
269 
267 
263 
258 
253 
264 
249 
265 
264 
254 
. Emarginula galericulum Ad. Thes., .... 260 

21. Emarginula tenuicostata Ad. Thes., .... 260 

22. Emarginula Isevicosta Ad. Thes., 268 

23. Emarginula aculeata Ad. Thes., 267 

24. Emarginula scabricosta Ad. Thes., .... 268 

25. Emarginula longifissa Ad. Thes., 258 

26. Emarginula eximia Ad. Thes., 267 

27. Emarginula subclathrata Pils. Thes., . . . .266 

28. Emarginula pulchra Ad. Thes., 282 

29. Emarginula excurvata Ad. Thes., .... 260 

30. Emarginula puncticulata Ad. Thes 262 

31. Emarginula scabriuscula Ad. Thes., .... 268 
-32. Emarginula adamsiana Ad. Thes., .... 260 

33. Emarginula punctata Ad. Thes., 263 

34. Emarginula reticosa Ad. Thes., 259 

35. Emarginula cancellata Ph. Thes., . . . .251 

36. Emarginula Candida Ad. Thes., 258 

37. Emarginula bellula Ad. Thes., 257 

PLATE 29. 

1-3. Subemarginula australis Q. and G. Thes. and Astrol. 278 

4. Subemarginula octoradiata Sow. (not Gmel.) Thes., 276 

5, 6. Subemarginula sulcifera Ad. Thes., . . . 283 
7-9. Subemarginula tricarinata Born. Thes., . . 276 

10, 11. Subemarginula rugosa Q. and G. Thes., . 278 

12, 13. Subemarginula alveolata Ad. Thes., . . 276 

14, 15. Subemarginula imbricata Ad. Thes., . . 277 

16. Subemarginula crassilabrum Ad. Thes., . . 280 

17,18. Subemarginula depressa Sow.=octoradiata Gm. Thes. 273 

19. Subemarginula sculptilis Ad. Thes., . . . . 280 

20. Subemarginula tasmanise Sowb. Thes., .... 278 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. , 301 

FKICKK. PAGE. 

21, 22. Subemarginula cratitia Ad. Thes., .... 282 

23. Subemarginula nodulosa Ad. Thes., .... 281 

24. Subemarginula cumingii Sowb. Thes., .... 281 
25-27. Emarglnula fissura L. Thes., . . . . .252 
28, 29. Emarginula fissurata Ch. Thes., . . . .264 
30-32. Emarginula crassicostata Sowb. Thes., . . . 259 

33. Subemargiuula stellata Ad. Thes., .... 283 

34, 35. Subemarginula polygonalis Sowb. Thes., . . 281 

36. Subemarginula pumila Ad.=rollandi. Thes., . . 275 

37. Subemarginula guadaloupensis Sow. emarginata Bl. 

Thes., .276 

PLATE 30. 

1. Fissurella cumingii Rve. Conch. Icon.,. . . . 154 

2. Fissurella sagittata Rve. (=:mutabilis). Conch. Icon., 

[171, 172 

3. Fissurella bridgesii Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 151 

4. Fissurella edititia=barbadensis var. Conch. Icon., . 165 

5. Fissurella catillus Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .172 

6. Glyphis aspera Sowb. (not Esch. ?) Conch. Icon., . . 214 

7. Fissurella darwinii Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 144 

8. 9. Fissurella maxima Sow. Conch. Icon., . . . 145 
10. Fissurella costata Lesson. Conch. Icon., . . . 148 

PLATE 31. 

11-13. Fissurella virescens v. nigropunctata. Specimen, . 159 

14. Fissurella macrotrema Sow. Conch. Icon., . . . 159 

15-17. Fissurella virescens Sowb., typical. Specimen, . 158 

18, 19. Fissurella lata Sowb. Conch. Icon, and specimen, . 147 

20. Fissurella clypeus Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 156 

21, 22. Fissurella rugosa Sowb. Conch. Icon, and specimen, 161 

23. Fissurella asperella Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . .162 

24. Lucapinella sequalis Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . .197 

25. Fissurella obscura Sowb. Conch. Icon., .... 163 

PLATE 32. 

26. 39. Fissurella limbata Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . 149 
27-31. Glyphis crucifera Pils. Siidaf. Moll., . . .225 
32. Glyphis stellata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .148 
32, 33. Fissurella concinna Phil. Conch. Icon, and Abbild., 146 

34. Fissurella exquisita Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 148 

35. Glyphis panamensis Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . .216 
36-38. Fissurella latemarginata. Specimens, . . . 153 
39, see 26. 



302 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 33. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

40. Fissurella philippiana Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 146 

41-45. Fissurella peruviana Lm. Conch. Icon, and spec., . 155 

46, 47. Fissurella maxima Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 145 

48. Fissurella bella Rve. Conch Icon., .... 150 

49. Fissurella fulvescens Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 152 

50. Fissurella pulchra Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 151 

PLATE 34. 

51-53. Fissurella crassa Sowb. Specimens, . . . . 154 

54. Fissurella ostrina Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 160 

55. Fissurella microstoma Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 162 

56. Fissurella tegula Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 226 

57. Fissurella mus Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 

59. Fissurella atrata Rve.=Philippiana Rve. Conch. Icon., 147 

60. Fissurella mexicana Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 153 

61. 62. Glyphis singaporensis Rve. Conch. Icon., . .219 

63. Glyphis insequalis Sowb. Conch. Icon., .... 215 

64. Glyphis insequalis v. pica Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . 215 

PLATE 35. 

1, 2. Fissurella nigra Lesson. Conch. Icon., . . .149 

3. Fissurella biradiata Fremb. Conch. Icon., . . .154 

4, 5. Megatebennus incarnatus Krauss. Siidaf. Moll., . 186 
6. Fissurella hondurasensis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . 146 
7-10. Glyphis reticulata Don = grseca L., ... 205 

11. Fissurella costata Less. Thes., 148 

PLATE 36. 

12. Fissurella quadriradiata. Conch. Icon., 

13. Lucapinella limatula Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 198 
14-16. Glyphis italica Defr. Moll. Rouss., . .210 
17,18. Glyphis calyculata Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 204 

19. Lucapinella aculeata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 197 

20. Glyphis ticaonica Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 225 
21-24. Glyphis gibberula Lm. Moll. Rouss., . . 221 

25. Glyphis Candida Sowb. Conch. Icon., .... 224 

26. Glyphis exquisita Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .218 

27. Glyphis digitale Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 220 
28-30. Glyphis aspera Esch. Specimens, .... 214 

31. Lucapina elongata Phil. Conch. Icon., . . . .199 

32. Fissurella nimbosa L. Conch. Icon., . . . .163 

33. Lucapina lentiginosa Rve.=adspersa. Conch. Icon., . 200 
3436. Fissurella rubropicta Pils. Specimens, . . .161 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 303 

PLATE 37. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

37-39. Glypbis listeri Orb. Moll. Cuba, . .206 

40, 41, 45. Fissurella barbadensis Gm. (antillarum Orb.). 

Moll. Cuba, . ( - . . . . . .164 

42-44. Fissurella barbadensis Gm. Specimens, . . .164 

46-48. Fissurella nodosa. Specimens, 164 

49. Fissurella barbadensis Gm. Conch. Icon., . . . 164 
50-53. Glyphis alternata Say. Specimens, . . . .211 

54. Glyphis dysoni Rve. = alternata Say. Conch. Icon., . 212 

55. Glyphis crenifera Sovvb. Conch. Icon., . . . .216 
Fig. to the right of 55, G. cayenensis Lam. (=alternata) 

Conch. Icon., . 212 

56. Fiss. suffusa Rve. Lucapina cancellata Sowb. Conch. 

Icon., 200 

57. F. larva Rve.=Glyphis alternata Say. Conch. Icon., . 212 

58. Lucapina cancellata Sovvb. Conch. Icon., . . . 200 

59. 60. Clypidella fascicularis Lmk. Conch. Icon., . .177 

PLATE 38. 

58, 59. Glyphis sieboldi Rve. Moll. Jap., . . . .204 

60. Glyphis jukesii Rve. Conch. Icon., 208 

61. Glyphis obtusa Sovvb. Conch. Icon., .... 173 

62. Glyphis dactylosa Rve. funiculata Rve. Conch. Icon., 218 

63. 64. Glyphis incii Rve. lineata Sowb. Conch. Icon., . 219 

65. Glyphis indusica Rve.=funiculata Rve. Conch. Icon., . 218 

66. Glyphis funiculata Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 218 

67. Fissurella glaucopsis Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 169 

68. Fissurella costata Less. Conch. Icon., .... 148 

69. F. aegis Rve.=Lucapina adspersa Ph. Conch. Icon., . 200 
70-72. Glyphis menkeana Dkr. Ind. Moll. Guin., . . 222 
73-75. Glyphis benguelensis Dkr. Ind. Moll. Guin., . . 222 
76-78. Fissurella natalensis Kr. Siidaf. Moll., . . . 173 

79. Fissurella conioides Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 170 

PLATE 39. 

80. Glyphis viminea Rve. -alternata Say. Conch. Icon., . 212 

81. Glyphis fimbriata Rve. jukesii Rve. Conch. Icon., . 208 
82-85. Glyphis australis Kr.=ruppelli Sowb. Siidaf. Moll., 217 
86. Glyphis densiclathrata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . 215 



89. Megatebennus scutellum Gm. Conch. Icon., 

90. Megatebennus chemnitzii Sowb. Conch. Icon. 

91. Glyphis metcalfi Rve. Conch. Icon., 

92. Glyphis clathrata Rve. Conch. Icon., 

93. Fissurella galericulum Rve. Conch. Icon., 

94. Fissurella coarctata King. Conch. Icon., 

95. Glyphis cyathulum Rve. Conch. Icon., 

96. Glyphis excelsa Rve. alta C. B. Ad., 



184 
185 



154 
168 
209 
209 



304 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE.- 

97. Glyphis octagona Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 205 

98. Glyphis ocellata Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 205- 

99. 100. Fissurella rota Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .172 

1. Glyphis fumata Rve.=alternata Say var. Conch. Icon., 211 

2, 3. Fissurella mutabilis Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . . 171 

4. Fissurella humphreyi Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .167 

5. Fissurella muricata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . 156 

6. Fissurella dubia Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 217 

7. Glyphis salebrosa Rve. Conch. Icon 

8. Glyphis riippelii Sowb. Conch. Icon., .... 217 

9. Fissurella grisea Rve. Conch. Icon., .... 162 

PLATE 40. 

1-3. Scutus anatinus Don. Conch. Icon, and Thes., . . 288 

4-7. Scutus unguis L. Conch. Icon, and Thes., . . . 289 

8. Scutus unguis (Linnaeus' type) Ipsa L. Cpnch., . . 289 

911. Scutus ambiguus Chem. Journ. of Conch., . . 289' 

PLATE 41. 

12, 13. Emarginula costulata Dh. Moll. Reun., . . .261 
14, 15. Emarginula scutellata Dh. Moll. Reun., . . .261 
16, 17. Emarginula decorata Dh. Moll. Reun., . . .261 
18, 19. Subemarginula rollandi v. pileum Heilpr. Proc. Ac. 

Phil, 275 

20, 21. Emarginula spinosa Dh. Moll. Reun., . . . 262 
22-25. Subemarginula ossea Gld. U. S. Expl. Exped., . 280 
26, 27. Subemarginula dentigera Heilpr. rollandi Fisch. 

Proc. Ac. Phil, 275 

28-31. Subemarginula cinerea Gld. U. S. Exped., 

32, 33. Subemarginula oldhamiana Nev. J. A. S. Beng., . 277 

34-36. Subemarginula papillionacea Nev. J. A. S. Beng., . 279 

37. Fissurella canalifera Nev. J. A. S. Beng., . . .228 

38. Fissurella scrobiculata Nev. J. A. S. Beng., . . .227 

39. Emarginula capuloidea Nev. J. A. S. Beng., . . 259 
40-43. Subemarginula aspera Gld. Expl. Exped., . . 280 
44-46. Emarginula fenestrella Dh. Moll. Reun., . . 256 
47, 48. Subemarg. brevirimata Dh. Moll. Reun., . . 279 

PLATE 42. 

49-51. Fissurella verna Gould. U. S. Exped., . . .168 

52-54. Glyphis menkeana Dkr. Ind. Moll. Gum., . . 222 

55. Glyphis philippiana Dkr. Ind. Moll. Gum., . . .222 

56. Glyphis bengueliana Dkr. Ind. Moll. Guin., . 222 
57-59. Fissurella occidens Gld. = peruviana Lm. U. S. 

Exped., 155 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 305 

FIGURt. PACK. 

60, 61 . Fiss. cratitia Old. == Glyphis aspera Esch. U. S. 

Exped., . . .214 

62-65. Puncturella galeata Gld. U. S. Exped., . . . 230 

66-69. Glyphis cruciata Gld. U. S. Exped., . . .225 

70, 71. Puncturella cognata Gld. U. S. Exped., . . .230 
72-75. Puncturella cucullata Gld. U. S. Exped., 

PLATE 43. 

76, 77. Subemarginula gigas Mart. Conch. Mittheil., . . 286 
78, 79, 80. Subemarginula parmophoidea Q. Thes., . . 285 
81, 82. Subemarginula scutellaris Ad. Thes., . . .286 
83, 84. Subemarginula intermedia Rve. Thes., . . . 285 

85. Subemarginula carinata Ad. Thes., .... 285 

86. Subemarginula cicatricosa Ad. Thes., . . . 286 

87. Subemarginula ossea Ad. not Gould. Thes., . . . 287 

88. Subemarginula decussata Ad. Thes., .... 286 

89. 90, 91. Fissurellidea hiantula Lam. Voy. Ame>. Me>id., 179 

92. Fissurellidea hiantula Lam. Conch. Icon., . . . 179 

93. Fissurellidea hiantula Lam. t Animal, reduced in size, . 179 

PLATE 44. 

94. Megatebennus bimaculatus Dall. A. J. C., . . . 183 

95. 96. Lucapina crenulata Sowb. Specimens, . . . 182 
97, 98. Megatebennus nigrita Sowb. Conch. Icon., . .187 
99,100,1,2. Megatebennus scutellum Gin. Specimens, . 184 

3-5. Lucapinella callomarginata Cpr. Specimens, . . 196 
6-8. Pupillaja aperta Sowb. Siidaf. Moll., . . . .180 

PLATE 45. 

1-4. Fissurella alba Cpr. Specimens, ' 159 

5,6. Fissurella nigrocincta Cpr. Thes., . . . . 160 

7, 8. Fissurella concinna Phil. Abbild., .... 146 

9-11. Fissurella picta Gmel. Specimen, . . . .144 

PLATE 46. 

1. Haliotis nebulata Rve. Couch. Icon., . . . .102 

2, 2. Scutellina ferruginea Ad. Ads. Genera, . . .130 

3. Scutelliua compressa Pse., 129 

4, 5. Scutellina pulchella Lischke. J. M. C., . . .128 

6. Scutellina crenulata Brod., . . . . . .128 

7. Cocculina galeola Jeffr. P. Z. S., 137 

8-11. Scutellina cinnamomea Gld. U. S. Exped., . . 128 

12-14. Fissurella biradiata Fr. Specimens, . . . 153 

15-17. Fissurella darwinii Rve. Specimens, . . . 144 

18,19. Fissurella oriens Sowb. Specimens, . . . 152 
20 



306 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 47. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1,2. Haliotis gruneri Phil. Abbild., . . . .105 

3, 4. Haliotis gibba Phil. Abbild., 108 

5-7. Haliotis coccinea Rve. Specimens, .... 103 

8. Haliotis tuberculata L. v. reticulata Rve. Specimen, . 86 

9, 10. Haliotis virginea Ch. Ereb. and Terr., . . .107 

PLATE 48. 

11-13. Haliotis scabricosta Mke. roei Gray. Abbild., . 117 

14-16. Haliotis bistriata L. Typical. Specimens, . . 87 

17-19. Haliotis sulcosa Phil. Abbild., . . . .118 

PLATE 49. 

20-22. Haliotis planata Sowb. Specimens, . . . .99 

23. Haliotis excavata Lam. Specimen, . . . .119 

24-26. Haliotis cruenta Rve. Specimens, . . . .99 
27-29. Haliotis emmse Gray. Specimens, .... 122 

30-35. Haliotis stomatiseformis Rve. Specimens, . . 89 

36-38. Haliotis exigua Dkr. Ind. M. M. Jap., . . 90 

PLATE 50. 

1. Scissurella costata Orb. Moll. Rouss., . . . .50 

2. Scissurella costata v. laevigata Orb. Moll. Rouss., . 50 
3-5. Haliotis speciosa v. striata Rve. Moll. Guin. inf., . 94 

6. Haliof.is capensis Dkr., young. Abbild., . . .114 

7, 8. Haliotis capensis Dkr., x. Conch. Cab., . . . 114 

PLATE 51. 

1-3. Gena callosa Fischer. Sav., ^Egypte, . . .45 

4, 5. Stomatella imbricata Lam. Specimens, ... 9 
6-8. Stomatella dorise Issel. Sav., Jilgypte, . . .15 
9. Stomatella tumida Gld. papyracea Ch. U. S. Exped., 10 

10. Stomatella elegans Gray. Voy. Fly., . . . .11 

11. Stomatella rufescens Gray. Voy. Fly., . . . .17 
12-14. Stomatella decolorata Gld. U. S. Exped., . . 16 
15, 16. Stomatella elegans Gray. Specimens, . . .11 
17-19. Stomatella maculata Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . .13 
20, 21. Genanigra Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . . . .38 

22. Stomatella margaritana Ad. Thes., . . . .22 

23, 24. Stomatella granosa Lambert. Journ. de Conch., . 27 
25. Stomatella speciosa Ad. Thes., . . . . .19 
26-28. Stomatia rubra Lam. Moll. Mar. Jap., . . .33 
29, 30. Stomatia angulata Ad. Specimens, . . . .32 
31, 32. Scissurella umbilicata Jeffr. P. Z. S., 52 
33-35. Stomatia (Microtis) hseckeliana Cr. Journ. de Conch., 36 



REFER KNCE TO PLATES. 307 

PLATE 52. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

36, 37. Stomatia splendidula Ad. Thes., . . . .34 
38, 39. Stomatella baconi Ad. Thes., . . . .10 

40, 41. Stomatella haliotoidea Sowb. Thes., . . .20 

42. Stomatella fulgurans Ad. Thes., . . . . .18 

43. Stomatella articulata Ad. Thes., 13 

44. 45. Stomatella orbiculata Ad. Thes., . . . .16 
46, 47. "Stomatella papyracea Ch. Thes., . . . .10 

48, 49. Stomatella uotata Ad. Thes., 19 

50, 51. Stomatella notata Ad. Thes 19 

52. Stomatella biporcata Ad. Thes., 21 

")'), 54. Stomatella bicarinata Ad. Thes., . . . .21 
55, 56. Stomatella coccinea Ad. Thes., . . . .24 
57, 58. Stomatella arabica Ad. Thes., . . . .22 

59. Stomatella sulcifera Lam. Thes., 11 

60, 61. Stomatella maculata Q. & G. Thes., ... 13 
62. Stomatella imbricata Lam. Thes., .... 9 
63-66. Euchelus cancellatus. (See vol. XL) 

67. Stomatella cumingii Ad. Thes., 13 

PLATE 53. 

68-72. Stomatelia mariei Cr. J. de C., .... 15 

73. Stomatella selecta Ad. Thes., 17 

74, 75. Stomatella montrouzieri Pils. J. de C., . . . 27 
76, 77. Stomatella stellata Souv. J. de C., . . . . 25 
78, 79. Stomatella elegans Gray. Thes., . , . .11 
80, 81. Stomatella calliostoma Ad. Thes., . . . .22 

82. Stomatella pallida Ad. Thes., 20 

83. Stomatella modesta Ad. Thes., 23 

84. Stomatella tigrina Ad. Thes., 21 

85. 86. Stomatella sanguinea Ad. Thes., . . . .18 

87. Euchelus cancellatus. (See vol. XL) 

88, 89. Stomatella Candida Ad. Thes., . . . .20 

90. Stomatella elata Ad. Thes., 23 

91. Stomatella dilecta Sowb. Thes., 25 

92. Stomatella monilifera Ad. Thes., . . . . .14 

93. Stomatella scitula Ad. Thes., 15 

94. Stomatella clathratula Ad. Thes., . . . .14 

95. Stomatella malukana Ad. Thes., . . . . .14 

96. Stomatia rubra Lam. Thes., 33 

97. Stomatella japonica Ad. Thes., 20 

PLATE 54. 

l-o. Stomatia australis Ad. Thes.. . . . . .31 

4, 5. Stomatia duplicata Sowb. Thes., . . . .31 

6. Stomatia angulata Ad. Thes., 32 

7. Stomatia decorata Ad. Thes., . . . . .33 



308 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

8-10. Stomatia duplicata Sowb. P. Z. S., . . . . 31 

11. Stomatia notata Ad. P. Z. S., 19 

12. Stomatia decussata Ad. Thes., . . . . .32 

13. Stomatia variegata Ad. Thes., 34 

14. 15. Stomatella depressa Sowb. notata Ad. Thes., . 19 

16, 17. Stomatia phymotis Helbl. Thes., . . . .30 

18. Stomatia acuminata Ad. Thes., . . . . .32 

19, 20. Stomatia picta Orb. Moll. Cuba, . . . * . 29 

21, 22. Stomatia phymotis v. obscurata Lm. Thes., . . 31 

23, 24. Stomatia lirata Ad. Thes 33 

25-27. Stomatia (Microtis) tuberculata Ad. Thes., . . 35 
28-30. Stomatia (Microtis) tuberculata Ad. P. Z. S., . . 35 
31-33. Stomatia rubra Lam. Thes., . . . . .33 
34. Stomatia australis Ad. Thes., 31 

PLATE 55. 

1-3. Gena planulata Lam. Thes., 38 

4. Gena plurnbea Ad. strigosa Ad. Thes., . . .39 
5-7. Gena nigra Ad. strigosa Ad. Thes., . . .39 

8, 9. Gena lutea L. Thes., 44 

10, 11. Gena caledonica Crosse. J. de C., . . . . 42 

12. Gena rosacea Pse. A. J. C., 41 

13. Gena nebulosa Ad. Thes., 42 

14. Gena lentricula Ad. Thes., 44 

15. 16. Gena Isevis Pse. A. J. C., 41 

17, 18. Gena lineata . Thes., 45 

19-21. Gena varia Ad. Thes 45 

22, 23. Stomatella crassa Montr. J. de C., . . . . 26 

24, 25. Stomatella asperulata Ad. Thes., . . . .28 

26. Stomatella caliginosa Ad. Thes., 27 

27, 28. Stomatella concinna Ad. Thes., . . . .28 
29, 30. Gena ornata Ad. Thes., ..!... 45 
31, 32. Gena strigosa Ad. Thes., 39 

33. Gena dilecta Gld. Thes 40 

34, 35. Gena striatula . Thes., 

PLATE 56. 

1-3. Pleurotomaria adansoniana C. & F. J. de C., . . 72 
4-6. Pleurotomaria quoyana F. & B. . . . .70 

7-9. Pleurotomaria beyrichi Hilg. Conch. Mittheil., . 71 

PLATE 57. 

1-7. Schismope cingulata Costa. P. Z. S., . . . . 61 

8, 9. Scissurella conica Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., . . 53 

10, 11. Scissurella beyrichi (fossil). J. de C. 

12. Scissurella mantelli Woodw. P. Z. S., . . . . 54 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 309 

FICI'RK. PAGE. 

13, 14. Pleurotomaria rumphii Schep. Thes., . . .71 

15, 16. Scissurella hoernesi Semp. J. de C., ... 51 

17, 18. Scissurella koeneni Semp. J. de C., . . . .51 

19, 20. Scissurella philippiana (fossil). Thes., J. de C., 

PLATE 58. 

21-23. Fissurella punctatissima Pils. Specimen, . . 150 

24-26. Fissurella philippiana live. Abbild., . . .146 

27. Fissurella longifissa Sowb. Conch. Illustr., . . .163 

28. Fissurella monilifera Sowb. Thes., . . . .162 

PLATE 59. 

29. Fissurella melvillei Sowb. P. Z. S., . . . .174 

30. 31. Macroschisma hiatula Swains. Sby. Genera, . .193 
32. Macroschisma megatrema Ad. Thes., .... 193 
33-35. Macroschisma weldii T.-W. Specimens, . . . 191 
36, 37. Fissurella afra Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . . .169 
38, 39. Glyphis tongana Q. <fe G. Voy. Astrol., . . .217 

40. Fissurella balanoides Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .174 

41. Fissurella tseniata Sowb. Thes., 172 

42-44. Clypidella fascicicularis Lam. J. de C., . . 177 

45-47. Clypidella pustula Lam. Specimens, . . . 176 
48-50. Clypidella fascicularis Lam. Specimens, . . . 177 
51. Fissurella olivacea Rve. Conch. 111., .... 174 
52-54. Macroschisma tasmaniae Sowb. Specimens, . . 191 
55. Macroschisma novrecaledonre Sowb. Thes., . . . 194 
57, 58. Macroschisma sinensis Ad. Specimens, . . . 190 

59. Macroschisma sinensis Ad. P. Z. S., . . . .190 

60. Macroschisma cuspidata Ad. Thes., .... 193 

61. Macroschisma angustata Ad. Thes., . . . .194 

62. Macroschisma producta Ad. Thes., .... 194 

63. Macroschisma dilatata Ad. Thes., . . . .193 

64. Macroschisma compressa Ad. Thes., . . . .193 

65. Macroschisma baikiei Ad. Thes., . . . . .194 

PLATE 60. 

66-68. Fissuridea galeata Helbl. Thes. and spec., . .175 

69. Fissurella tenebrosa Sowb. Thes., 160 

70-72. Fissurella berrnudensis Pils. Specimens, . . . 165 
73-75. Fissurella barbadensis Gm. Specimens, . . . 164 
76. Fissurella barbadensis v. intensa Pils. Specimen, . . 165 
77-79. Fissurella schrammi Fisch. Specimens, . . .165 
80, 81. Fissurella rosea v. sculpta Pils. Specimens, . . 167 

82. Fissurella clypeus Sowb. Conch. 111., . . t . . 156 

83. Fissurella verna Gld. var. U. S. Expl. Exped., . 168, 169 

84. Fissurella polygona Sowb. Thes., ..... 148 



310 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

85-87. Fissurella alabastrites Rve. Specimens, . . .167 

88-90. Fissurella humphreyi Rve. Specimens, . . . 167 

91-93. Fissurella glaucopsis Rve. Specimens, . . . 169 

93 (central fig.). Fissurella alabastrites Rve. Conch. Icon., . 167 
94-96. Fissurella nubecula L. Specimens, .... 170 

97, 98. Fissurella nubecula L. Moll. Rouss., . . .170 

99. Fissurella nubecula L. Ipsa L. Conch., . . . 170 

PLATE 61. 

1-5. Lucapinella callomarginata Cpr. Specimens, . . 196 

6-9. Lucapinella lirnatula Rve. Specimens, . . .198 

10-12. Megatebennus bimaculata Dall. Specimens, . . 183 

13-15. Fissurella virescens Sowb. Specimens, . . .158 

16, 17. Glyphis alta C. B. Ad. Thes., 209 

18. Glyphis subrostrata Gray. Thes., 213 

19. Glyphis lanceolata Sowb. Thes., 221 

20. Glyphis corbicula Sowb. Thes., 220 

21. 22. Glyphis patagonica Orb. Voy. Ame>. Merid., . 

23. Glyphis patagonica Orb. Specimen, . . . .213 

24, 25. Glyphis alternate Say. Specimens, . . . .211 

26. Glyphis variegata Sowb." Thes., 224 

27. Glyphis hanleyana Sowb. Thes., 221 

PLATE 62. 

1,2. Lucapina elongata Phil. Abbild., . . . .199 

3-5. Fissurella alba Phil. Abbild., 

6, 7. Lucapina aspersa Phil. Abbild., . . . .199 

8. Megatebennus sella Sowb. Thes., 185 

9. Pupill^ea aperta Sowb. Thes., 180 

10-12. Megatebennus trapezina Sowb. Specimens, . .188 

13. Megatebennus complanata Sowb. Thes., . . . 186 

14, 15. Megatebennus florescens Sowb. Thes., . . .186 
16-18. Fissurella volcano Rve. Specimens, . . .156 
19-21. Fissurella rosea Gmel. Specimens, .... 166 

22. Macroschisma maxima Ad. Gen. Rec. Moll., . . 192 
22 (central fig.). Glyphis viridula Lam. Conch. Icon., . 226 
23-25. Glyphis viridula Lam. Specimens, .... 226 
26 (lower central large fig.). Glyphis listeri Orb. Specimen, 206 
27. Glyphis minuta Lam. Conch. Icon., .... 223 
28-30. Glyphis fontainiana Orb. Voy. Amer. Mer., . . 207 

31, 32. Glyphis arcuata Sowb. Thes., 223 

33. Glyphis tenuistriatus Sowb. Thes., .... 220 

PLATE 63. 

1-3. Lucapina cancellata Sowb. Specimens, . . . 200 
4, 5. Glyphis bombayana Sowb. Thes., .... 218 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 311 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

6, 7. Glyphis varicosa Sowb. Thes., 205 

8. Rimula cariiiata Ad. Thes., 270 

9. Rimula cumingii Ad. Thes., ...... 271 

10. Rimula mazatlanica Cpr. Thes., 272 

11. Glyphis articulata Sowb. Thes., . . . . .221 

12. Emarginula clathrata Pse. Specimen, .... 266 

13. Glyphis granifera Pse. Specimen, ..... 207 

14. Glyphis lima Sowb. Thes., 220 

15. 16. Glyphis proxima Sowb. Thes., .... 220 
17-19. Glyphis foveolata Garr. Specimens, . . . 207 

20-22. Rimula verrieri Cr. J. de C., 271 

23, 24. Glyphis alta C. B. Ad. Thes., . . . .209 

25, 26. Glyphis tanneri V. Tr. Conn. Ac., . . . .213 
27, 28. Subemargiuula lamberti Montr. Journ. de Conch., . 281 
29, 30. Glyphis lineata Sowb. Specimens, .... 219 

31, 32. Puncturella fastigiata Ad. Thes., . . . .230 
33. Puncturella falklandica Ad. Thes., . . . .231 

34-37. Puncturella nobilis Ad. Thes., . . . .231 

38, 39. Puncturella cucullata Gld. Thes., .... 233 
40, 41. Puncturella conica Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., . . 230 

PLATE 64. 

1. Emarginula papillosa Risso. Eur. Merid., . . . 250 

2. Emargiuula striatula Q. & G, Voy. Astrol., . . 259 

3. 4. Rimula exquisita Ad. Thes., ..... 270 
5, 6. Emarg. magnifica Pils. Specimens, .... 251 

7, 8. Emarg. montrouzieri Souv. J. de Conch., . . . 265 
9-11. Emarg. solidula. Enum. Moll. Sicil., . . . 255 

12, 13. Emarg. elougata Costa. Enum. Moll. Sicil., . . 250 
15. Emarg. micans Ad. Thes., ...... 257 

16-18. Puucturella papillosa Seg. Seg., .... 244 

19 (between 16 and 20). Zeidora reticulata Ad. Thes., . 247 

20. Macroschisma scutiformis Nev. J. A. Soc. Beng., . . 195 

21, 22. Emarginula lata Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . . .282 
23, 24-26. Subemarg. emarginata Blainv. Specimens, . 276 

27. Zeidora calceolina Ad. Thes., ..... 247 

28. Emarginula maculata Souv.=souverbiana Pils. J. de C., 262 

29. Rimula propinqua Ad. Thes., ..... 271 

30. 31. Puncturella rostrata Seg. Seg., .... 245 

32. Emarginula cuvieri And. Coq JEgypte, . . . 269 

33. Glyphis excelsa Ads. & Rve. Voy. Samarang, . . 209 

34, 35. Subemarginula notata L. Thes., .... 282 

36. Subemarginula rollandi Fisch. J. de C., ... 274 

37, 38. Emarginula vanikorensis Q. Voy. Astrol., . . 268 
39-41. Subemarginula rugosa, Q. typical. Specimens, . 278 
42. Emarginula bicancellata Souv. J. de C., 256 



INDEX TO VOL XII. 



NOTE. The Dames of valid species and varieties are printed in 
Roman type ; of genera and other groups in SMALL CAPITALS ; of 
synonyms in Italic. 



Abnorrnis (Parmoph.) Nev., 
Abyssicola (Punct.) Ver., . 
Aculeata (Emarg.) Ad., 
Aculeata (Fiss.) Rve., 
Aculeata (Lucapinella) 

Rve., . 

Aculeata (Scutellina) Pse., 
Acuminata (Emarg.) Ad., . 
Acuminata (Stomatia) Ad., 
Adamsiana (Emarg.) Sowb., 
Adansoniana (Pleuroto- 

maria) C. & F., 



ADDISONIA Dall. 
Adriatica (Emarg.) Costa, . 
Adspersa (Fiss.) Ph., 199, 
Adspersa (Lucapina) Ph., . 
Adunca (Cocc.) Jeff., 
Adunca (Tectura) Jeff., 
^Edonia (Sciss.) Wats., 
^.Egis (Fiss.) Rve., 
jEqnalis (Fiss.) Sowb., 
^iEqualis (Lucapinella) 

Sowb., . 

Affinis (Fiss.) Gray, . 
Affinis (Sciss.) Costa, 
Afra (Fiss.) Q., 
Agger (Punct.) Wats., 
Alabastrites (Fiss.) Rve., . 
Alba (Fiss.) Cpr., 
Alba (Fiss.) Ph., 
Albicans (Hal.) Q., . 
Alta (Glyphis) C. B. Ad., . 
Alta (Sciss.) Wats., . 
Alternata (Glyphis) Say, . 
Alternata (Hal.) Sowb., 



284 

276 

289 

184 

288 

49 

100 

138 

52 

32 

224 



290 Altilis (Emarg.) Gld., 
239 Alveolata (Emarg.) Ad., . 
267 Ambiguus (Scutus) Ch., . 
197 AMBLYCHILEPAS Pils., 

Anatinus (Scutus) Don., . 
197 Anatomus Ads., 
130 Ancile (Hal.) Rve., . 
279 Angulata (Cocc.) Wats., . 

32 Angulata (Sciss.) Lov., 
260 Angulata (Stomatia) Ad., . 
Angustata (Fiss.) Sow., 

72 Angustata (Macroschisma) 
138 Ad., .... 
138 Annullata (Emarg.) Ad., . 
251 Antillarum (Scute 1 lina) 
200 Schutt., .... 

199 Antipodes (Scutus) Montf., 289 
133 Aperta (Fiss.) Rve., . . 179 
133 Aperta (Pupillia) Sow., . 180 

56 Aperta (Fiss.) Sowb., . 180 

200 Apertura (Pupillia) Gray, 181 
197 Aquatilis (Hal.) Rve., . 87 

Arabica (Scutellina) Ru'pp., 131 
197 Arabica (S.tomatella) Ad., 22 
155 Arabica (Subemarg.) Ad., . 284 

50 Arconatii (Emarg.) Issel, . 284 
169 Arcuata (Glyphis) Sowb., . 223 
233 I Articulata (Glyphis) Sby., 221 
1 67 Articulata (Stomatella) 
159 Ad., .... 
! Asinina (Hal.) L., 

78 ! Aspera (Emarg.) Gld., 
209 I Aspera (Fiss.) Sowb., 

55 i Aspera (Glyphis) Esch., 
211 Aspera (Sciss.) Ph., . 
101 Asperella (Fiss.) Sowb., . 
(312) 



194 
279 

130 



13 
126 
278 
214 
214 

52 
162 



INDEX. 



313 



A8perulata(Scute\\ma,)Ad., 130 
Asperulata (S t o m a t e 1 1 a) 

Ad., .... 28 
Assimilis (Hal.) Dall, . 83 
Asturiana (Punct.) Fisch., 241 
Astricta (Hal.) Rve., . 94 

Australis (Emarg.) Q., . 278 
Atkinson! (Schismope) Ten.- 

Woods, . . . .66 
Atrata (Fiss.) Rve., . .147 
Auricula (Gena) Lm., . 43 
Australis (Fiss.) Kr., . 217 

Amtralis (Hal.) Gra., .111 
Austr alis (Parmoph.) Hupp., 290 
Australis (Scutus) Lm., . 288 
Australia (Scutus) Q., . 289 
Austraiis (Stomatia) Ad., . 31 

Bacon! (Stomatella) Ad., . 10 

Baikiei (Macrosch.) Ad., . 292 

Bakiei (Macrosch.) Sow., . 194 

Balanoides (Fiss,) Rve., . 174 

Barbadensis (Fiss.) Gm., . 164 

Bean! (Cocc.) Dall, . . Io2 

Bella (Emarg.) Gabb, . 269 

Bella (Fiss.) Rve., . . 150 

Bellula (Emarg.) Ad., . 257 

Beddomei (Sciss.) Pet., . 67 

Benguelensis (Fiss.) Dkr., 222 

Bermudensis (Fiss.) Pils., . 165 

Bertheloti (Sciss.) Orb., . 53 
Bey rich! ( Pleurotomaria ) 

Hilg., . . . .71 
Bicarinata (Stomatella) 

Ad., .... 21 
Bicancellata (Ernarg.) 

Montr., .... 256 

Bicolor (Fiss.) C. B. Ad., . 226 

Bicolor (Hal.) Costa, . 86 
Biinaculata (Fissurellidea) 

Dall, .... 183 
Bimaculata(Megatebennus) 

Dull, . . . .183 

Biporcata (Stomatella) Ad., 21 

Biradiata (Fiss.) Sowb., . 154 

Bistriata (Hal.) Costa, . 86 

Bistriata (Hal.) Gm., . 87 

Bistriaia var. (Hal.) Gm., . 112 



Bombayana (Glyphis) Sby., 218 
Brazieri (Hal.) Ang., . 125 
Breviculus (Parmoph.) Blv., 289 
Brevirimata (Emarg.) Dh., 279 
Bridges!! (Fiss.) Rve., . 157 
BRODERIPIA Gray, . . 46 
Brunnea (Fiss.) Ant., . 292 
Brychia (Punct.) Wats., . 234 

Calcaroides (Delphi n ula) 

Cantr., . . . .50 
Calceolina (Zeidora) Ad., . 2 17 
Caledonica (Gena) Cr., . 42 
Californiana (Hal.) Val. . 291 
Califorinensis (Hal.) Sw., . 79 
Calliostoma (Stomatella) 

Ad., .... 22 
Caliginosa (Stomatella) Ad., 27 
Callosa (Gena) Fischer, . 45 
Callomarginata ( Clypidella) 

Cpr., t . . ' . 196, 197 
Callomarginata (Lucapin- 

ella) Cpr., . . .196 
Calyculata (Glyphis), . 204 
Canaliculata (Hal.) Lm., . 121 
etow#cufoto(Hal.)S.&W., 123 
Canalifera (Fiss.) Nev., . 228 
Cancellata (Emarg.) Phil., 251 
Cancellata (Fiss.) Sow., . 200 
Cancellata (Glyphis) Dall, 201 
Cancellata (Lucapina) 

Sowb 200 

Cancellata (Sciss.) Jeffr., . 50 
Cancellata (Scutellina) Pse., 129 
Candida (Emarg.) Ad., . 258 
Candida (Emarg.) Ad., . 278 
Candida (Glyphis) Sow., . 224 
Candida (Nesta) Ad., . 269 
Candida (Stomatella) Ad., 20 
Capensis (Hal.) Dkr., . 114 
Capuliformis (Emarg.) Ph., 254 
Capuloidea (Emarg.) Nev., 259 
Carinata (Hal.) Sw., . .121 
Carinata (Rimula) Ad., . 270 
Carinata (S c h i s rn o p e) 

Wats., .... 65 
Carinata (Sciss.) Ad., . 67 



314 



INDEX. 



Carinata (Tug.) Ad., . 285 

Catillus (Fiss.) Rve., . 172 

Catillus (Subemarg.) Ad., . 284 
Cayenensis (Fiss.) Lmk., . 212 
Cemoria Leach, . . 228 

Chemnitzii (Fiss.) Sowb., . 185 
Chilensis (Fiss.) Sowb., . 148 
CHLAMYDOGLYPHIS Pils., . 198 
Chlorotrema (Fiss.) Mke., . 161 
Cicatricosa (Tug.) Ad., . 286 
Cingulata (Schismope) . 61 
Cinnamomea (Scutellina) 

Old., . . . .128 
Cinnaberina (Fiss.) Costa, 171 
Cinerea (Emarg.) Old., . 278 
Cinerea (Tug.) Shy., . . 285 
Circularis (Punct.) Ball, . 235 
Clathrata (Emarg.) Ad., . 277 
Clathrata (Emarg.) Pse., . 266 
Clathrata (Emarg.) Sowb., 267 
Clathrata (Hal.) Rve., .117 
Clathrata (Punct.) Jeff., . 232 
Clathratula (Stomatella) 

Ad., .... 14 
Clausa (Emarg.) Orb., . 274 
Clypeus (Emarg.) Ad., 265, 269 
Clypeus (Fiss.) Sowb., . 156 
Clypidella Cpr., . .195 

CLYPIDELLA Sw., . 142, 175 
CLYPIDINA Gray, . 273, 278 
Ooarctata (Fiss.) King, . 168 
COCCULINA Dall, . . 131 
Coccinea (Hal.) Rve., . 103 
Coccinea (Stomatella) Ad., 24 
Coccoradiata (Hal.) Rve., . 118 
COCCULINID^E Dall, . .131 
Cognata (Punct.) Old., . 230 
Complanata (F i s s ' i d e a ) 

Sowb., . . . .186 
Com pressa (Emarg.) Cantr., 250 
Compressa (Macroschisma) 

Ad 193 

Compressa (Scutellina) Pse., 129 
Compta (Microtis) M. & L., 35 
Compta (Stomatella) Ad., . 14 
Concatenata (Fiss.) C. & F., 187 
Concinna (Emarg.) Ad., . 257 
Concinna (Fiss.) Ph., . 146 



Concinna (Hal.) Rve., . 96 
Concinua (Stomatella) Old., 28 
Concinnus (Sciss.) Ad., . 59 
Conica (Cocc.) V., . .134 
Conica (Emarg.) Blainv., . 251 
Conica (Emarg.) Schum., . 254 
Conica (Fiss.) Req., . . 206 
Conica (Punct.) Orb., . 230 
Conica (Sciss.) Orb., . . 53 
Conoidea (Emarg.) Rve., . 279 
Conioides (Fiss.) Rve., . 170 
Convexus (Parmoph.) Q., . 288 
Conoides (Fiss.) Sowb., . 170 
Cooperi (Punct.) Cpr., . 231 
Corbicula (Glpyhis) 

Sowb., ..-.'. . . 220 
Coreanica (Hal.) Ad., . 84 
Coronata (Sciss.) Wats., . 56 
Corrugata (Cocc.) Jeffr., . 136 
Corrugata (Fiss.) Costa, . 206 
Corrugata (Hal.) Gray, . 80 
Corrugatus (Parmoph.) Rv., 290 
Corrugatus (Scutus) Rv., . 290 
Costse (Emarg.) Tib., . 254 

Costaria (Fiss.) Dh., . . 211 
Costaria (Fiss.) Sowb., . 222 
Costata (Fiss.) Less., . ] 48 

' Costata (H.z\.) Sw., . .111 
Costata (Sciss.) Orb., . 50 

Costata (Scutellina) Ad., . 130 
Costulata (Emarg.) Dh., . 261 
Cracherodii (Hal.) Leach., 79 
CRANOPSIS Ad., . 202, 240 
C rassa (Fiss.) Costa, . .211 
Crassa (Emarg.) Sow., . 255 
Crassa (Fiss.) Sowb., . .154 
Crassa (Fiss.) Sowb., . 158 

Crassa (Stomatella) Montr., 26 
Crassicostata (Emarg.) 

Sowb., . . . .259 
Crassilabrum (Emarg.) Ad., 278 
Cratitia (Emarg.) Ad., . 282 
Cratitia (Fiss.) Old., . . 214 
CREMIDES Ad., . 142, 158 

Cruenta (Hal.) Rve., . 99 

Crenata (Hal.) Swains, . 126 
Crenifera (Fiss.) Shy., .216 
Orenulata (Fiss.) Sowb., . 182 



INDEX. 



315 



Crenulata (Lucapina) 

Sowb., . . . .182 
Crenulata (Scutellina) Br., 128 
Crepiemarginula Seg., . 246 
Crispata (Hal.) Old., . 109 
Crispata (Sciss.) Fl., . . 52 
Crossei (Schismope) Fol., . 66 
Cruciate (Fiss.) Kr., . . 226 
Cruciata (Glyphis) Gld., . 225 
Crucifera (Glyphis) Pils., . 225 
Crucis (Glyphis) Bedd. . 293 
Cucullata (Emarg.) Ad., . 258 
Cucullata (Punct.) Gld., . 232 
Curningii (Broderipia) Ad., 47 
Cumingii (Emarg.) Ad., . 281 
Cumingii (Fiss.) Eve., . 154 
Cumingii (Rimula) Ad., . 271 
Cumingii (Stomatella) Ad., 13 
Cunninghami (Hal.) Gray, 116 
Curvirostris (Emarg.) Dh., 254 
Cuspidata (Macroschisma) 

Ad., . . . .193 
Cusmichiana(Emarg.)Br\is., 249 
Cuvieri (Emarg.) Aud., . 269 
Cyathulum (Glyphis) Eve., 209 

Dacicum (Scutum) Wai., . 290 
Dactylosa (Fiss.} Eve., .218 
Dalli (Cocc.) V., . . 134 
DALLIA Jeff'r., . . . 137 
Darwinii (Fiss.) Eve., . 144 
Decipiens (Sciss.) Costa, . 50 
Declinans (Seiss.) Wats , . 57 
Decolorata (S t o ra a t e 1 1 a) 

Gld., .... 16 
Decorata (Emarg.) Dh., . 261 
Decorata (Stomatia) Ad., . 33 
Decussata (Hal.) Phil., . 93 
Decussata (Sciss.) Aud., . 51 
Decussata (Stomatia) Ad., 32 
Decussata (Tug.) Ad., . 286 
Defran.cia (Fiss.') Eisso, . 211 
Delicata (Stomatella) Ad., 25 
Densiclathrata (Glyphis) 

Eve., . . . .215 
Dentata (Hal.) Jonas, .112 
Denticulata ( Subemarg. ) 

Ad., . . . . 284 



Dentigera (Emarg.') Heilpr., 275 
Depressa (Emarg.) Eisso, . 249 
Depressa (Emarg.) Sowb., . 274 
Depressa (Fiss.) Monts., . 206 
Depressa (Stomatia) Sowb., 19 
Diadora (Gray), . . 228 
Digitale (Glyphis) Eve., . 220 
Dilatata (Macroschisma) 

Ad., . . . .193 
Dilecta (Emarg.) Ad., . 265 
Dilecta (Gena) Gld., . . 40 
Dilecta (Stomatella) Sowb., 25 
Diodora Gray, . . . 228 
Discus (Hal.) Eve., . . 85 
Diversicolor (Hal.) Eve., . 104 
Dohrniana (Hal.) Dkr., . 98 
Dohrnianus (Sciss.) Dkr., . 60 
Dominicana (Fiss.) Cost., . 206 
Dorbignyi (Sciss.) Aud., . 50 
Dorbignyi (Sciss.) Scacc., . 50 
Do rise (Stomatella) Issel, . 15 
Dorsata (Fiss.) Monts., . 222 
Dringii (Hal.) Eve., . . 96 
Dubia (Glyphis) Eve., . 217 
Duplicata (Stomatia) Sow., 31 
Dysoni (Fiss.) Eve., . .212 

Echinata (Hal.) Sowb., . 90 
Echinata (Rimula) Gld., . 273 
Edititia (Fiss.) Eve., . 165 

Elata (Stomatella) Ad., . 23 
Elatior (Hal.) Pils., . . 113 
Elegans (Hal.) Koch, . 103 
Elegans (Parmoph.) Gray, 290 
Elegans (Schismope), . 61 
Elegans (Stomatella) Gray, 11 
Elegans (Tug.) Gray, . 285 
Elevate (Fiss.) Dkr., . 217 

Elevata (Hal.) Sowb., . 90 
Elongata (Emarg.) Costa, . 250 
Elongata (Emarg.) Sby., . 288 
Elongata (Fiss.) Phil., . 199 
Elongata (Lucapina) Ph., . 199 
Elongatus (Scutus) Ad. . 288 
Elongatus ( Parmophorus) 

Bl., . . . .288 
Elongata (Scutellina) Ad., 130 
Emarginata (Emarg.) Bl., 276 



310 



INDEX. 



Emarginatus (Parmoph.} 

Ph., ,' . . .290 
EMARGINELLA Pils., . 249, 269 
EMARGINULA Lm., . 202, 248 
EMARGINULIN^E Pils., 141, 201 
Emendata (Emarg.} Sowb., 258 
Emmse (Hal.) Gray, . . 122 
ENTEMNOTROCHUS Fisch., 

[70, 71 

Erecta (Punct.) Ball., . 240 
Eritmeta (Punct.) V., . 238 
Everettii (Phaneta) Ad., . 30 
Excavata (Hal.) Lm., . 119 
Excelsa (Fiss.) Rve., . . 209 
Excelsa (Glyphis) Ad. and 

Rve., . . . .209 
Excentros (Addisonia) Jeff., 139 
Excentrica (Gadinia) Tib., 139 
Excurvata (Emarg.) Ad., . 260 
Exigua (Hal.) Dkr., . . 90 
Exigua (Hal.) Weink., . 89 
Eximia (Broderipia) Nev., 48 
Eximia (Emarg.) Ad., . 267 
Exquisita (Fiss.) Rve., . 148 
Exquisita (Glyphis) Rve., . 218 
Exquisita (Rimula) Ad., . 270 

Falklandica (Punct.) Ad., 231 
Fasciata (Fiss.) Pfr., . . 200 
Fasciata (Lucapina) Pfr., . 200 
Fascicularis (Fiss.) Lm., . 177 
Fastigiata (Punct.) Ad., . 230 
Fenestrata (Glyphis) Gar., 293 
Fenestrella (Emarg.) Dh., 256 
Ferriezi (Schismope) Cr., . 61 
Ferruginea (S c u t e 1 1 i n a) 

Ad., . . . 128, 130 
Ficiformis (Hal.) Mke., . 115 
Fimbriata (Fiss.) Rve., . 208 
Fissura (Emarg.) L., . 252 

Fissura (Emarg.) Payr., . 251 
Fissurata (Emarg.) Ch., . 264 
Fissurata (Emarg.) Reel., . 253 
FISSURELLA Brug., . .142 
Fissurella (Parmoph.) Blv., 290 
FISSURELLIN.E Pils., . . 141 

FlSSURELLTDIN^E Pils., 141, 178 

FISSURELLID^E Risso, . 140 



FISSURELLIDEA Orb., . 178 
FISSURIDEA Sw., . 142, 175 
Fissurelloides (Emarg.) 

Nardo, . . . " . 249 
FISSURISEPTA Seg., . 202, 244 
Flavida (Fiss.) Ph., . . 292 
Florescens (Fiss'dea) Sow., 186 
Fluviana (Glyphis) Dall, . 210 
Foveolata (Glyphis) Garr., 

[207, 292 

Fragilis (Parmoph.) Blv., . 290 
Frenulata (Rimula) Dall, . 272 
Fulgens (Hal.) Phil., . 81 
Fulgurans (Stomatella) Ad., 1 8 
Fuliginea (Emarg.) Ad., . 263 
Fulvescens (P iss.) Sow., . 152 
Fumata (Fiss.) Rve., . 212 

Funebris (Hal.) Rve., . 92 
Fungina (Emarg.) Old., . 279 
Funiculata (Glyphis) Rve., 218 
Funnazzensis (Sciss.) Greg., 291 
Furonculus(Stomax)Montf., 31 

Galathea (Scutellina) Ad., . 130 
Galeata (Fiss.) HelbL, . 175 
Galeata (Patella) HelbL, . 175 
Galeata (Punct.) Gld., . 230 
Galeata (Subemarg.) . . 283 
Galeola (Cocc.) Jeff., . .137 
Galericulum (Fiss.) Rve., . 154 
Gemma (Hal.) Rve., . 98 

Gemmata (Fiss.) Mke., . 160 
Gemmulata (Fiss.) Rve., . 223 
GENA Gray, . 7, 36 

Oibba (Fiss.) Jeffr., . 206 

Gibba (Fiss.) Ph., . 222 

Gibba (Hal.) Hutton . 108 
Gibba (Hal.) Phil., . 108 

Gibba (Hal.) Rve., . 108 

Gibberula (Glyphis) Lm., . 221 
Gibbosm (Parmoph.) Ant., 290 
Gigantea (Hal.) Chem., . 84 
Oigantea (Hal.) Mke., .116 
Gigas (Subemarg.) Mts., . 286 
Glabm (Hal.) Chem., . 106 
Glabra (Hal.) Costa, . . 86 
Glabra (Hal.) S. & W., . 79 



INDEX. 



317 



Giabra (Hal.) Swains., . 79 
Glaucopsis (Fis.) Rve., . 169 
GLYPHIS Cpr., . . 202, 203 
Godeffroyi (Stomatella) 

Dkr, .... 16 
Grasea (Fiss.) L., . 205, 206 
Grceca (Glyphis) L., . . 215 
Grandis (Fiss.) Sow., . 149 
Granifera (Glyphis) Pse., . 207 
Granocostata ( Scutellina ) 

Pse., . . . .130 
Granosa (Stomatella) 

Lamb., . . . .27 
Granulata (Fiss.) Ant, 
Granulata (Punct.) Seg., . 242 
Granulatus( Parmoph.)Blv., 290 
Granulosa (Punct.) Jeff., . 246 
Granulosa (Scutellina) Ad., 130 
Grisea (Fiss.) Rve., . . 152 
Gruneri (Hal.) Phil., . 105 
Grayana (Hal.) Sow., . 105 
Guadaloupensis ( Emarg. ) 

Sby., . . . 276 

HALIOTID^E . . 72 

HALIOTIS Linn., . . 75 
Haliotoidea (Stomatella) 

Sowb., . . . .20 
Hanleyana (Glyphis) Sby., 221 
Hanleyana (Hal.) Sowb., . 91 
Hanleyi (Hal.) Anc., . 291 
Hargravesii (Hal.) Cox., . 158 
Harrisoni (Cemori) Bedd., 294 
Harrissoni (Punct.) Bedd., 294 
Heckeliana(Microtis)Crse., 36 
Hiantula (Fissurellidea) 

Lm., . . . .179 
Hiantula (Fiss'idea) Sowb., 185 
Hiantula (Fiss.) Rve., . 185 
Hiantula (Fiss.) Sowb., . 180 
Hiatula (Macroschisma) 

Sw., . . . .193 
Hoernesi (Sciss.) Semp., . 51 
Hondurasensis (Fiss.) Rve., 146 
Hondurasensis (Fiss.) Rve., 201 
Humilis (Fiss.) Mke., . 161 
Humphreyi (Fiss.) Rve., . 167 
Huttoni (Hal.) Fil., . , 108 



Huzardi (Emarg.) Payr., . 249 

Ima (Fiss.) Greg., . . 206 
Imbricata (Emarg.) Ad., . 277 
Imbricata (Fits.) Sby., . 217 
Imbricata (Stomatella) 

Lam., .... 9 
Imbricatus (Parmoph.) Q., 290 
Impedimentum ( Glyphis ) 

Cooke 292 

Insequalis (Glyphis) Sby., . 215 
Incarnata (Fiss.) Kr., . 186 
Incii (Fiss.) Rve., . . 219 
Incisa (Hal.) Rve., . . 87 
Incisura (Emarg.) Ad., . 265 
Iridescens (Broderipia) Br., 46 
Indmica (Fiss.) Rve., . 218 
Intensa (Fiss.) Pils., . .165 
Intermedius (Parmoph.) Rv., 290 
Interrupts (Hal.) Val., 
Iris (Hal.) Martyn, . 110 

Irisata (Stomatella) Dufo., 23 
Italica (Glyphis) Defr., . 210 
Intermedia (Tug.) Rve., . 285 

Jacnensis (Hal.) Rve., . 89 
Jamaicensis (Patella) Gm., 164 
Janus (Hal.) Rve., . . .93 
Japanicensis (Fiss.) Lm., . 188 
Japonica (Emarg.) Sow., . 264 
Japonica (Hal.) Rve., . 87 
Japonica (Stomatella) Ad., 20 
Japonicus (Parmoph.) Tap.- 

Can., . . . .290 
Japonicus (Sciss.) Ad., . 59 
Jousseaumi (Hal.) Mab., . 291 
Jukesii (Glyphis) Rve., . 208 

Kamtschatkana (Hal.) 

Jonas, . . . .85 
Koeneni (Sciss.) Semp., . 51 

Lacuniformis (Schismope) 
Wats., . . . . 63 

Lcevicostalis (Scutellina) 
Ad., . . . .130 

Lewis (Emarg.) Reel., . 253 

Laevis (Gena) Pse., . . 41 



318 



INDEX. 



Lsevicostata (Emarg.) Ad., 268 
Lsevigata (Sciss.) Orb., . 50 
Laqueare (Emarg.) Gray, . 274 
Lambert! (Emarg.) Souv., . 281 
Lamellatus (Sciss.) Ad., . 59 
Lamellosa (Hal.) Lam., . 86 
Lanceolata (Glyphis) Sby., 221 
Larva (Fiss.) Bve., . .212 
Lata (Emarg.) Q., . . 282 
Lata (Fiss.) Sowb, . . 147 
Latemarginata (Fiss.) 

Sowb., . . . .153 
Lateralis (Addisonia) Req., 139 
Later eplicata (Fiss.) Monts, 211 
Latilabris (Hal.) Ph., . 125 
Latiora (Fiss.) Sowb., . 220 
Lauta (Hal.) Rve., . .119 
Legrandia Bedd., . . 294 
Lentiginosa (Fiss.) Rve., . 200 
Lentricula (Gena) Ad., . 44 
Leptalea fCpcc.) Ver., . 133 
Lilacina (Fiss.) Costa, . 171 
Lima (Glyphis) Sby., . 220 
Limbata (Fiss.) Sow., . 149 
Limatula (Fiss.) Rve., . 198 
Limatula (Lucapinella) 

Rve, . . . .198 
Lineata (Gena) Ad.. . . 45 
Lineata (Glyphis) Sby., . 219 
Lirata (Stomatia) Ad., . 33 
Listeri (Emarg.) Ant., . 274 
Listeri (Glyphis) Orb., . 206 
Longifissa (Emarg.) Sow., . 258 
Longifissa (Fiss.) Sowb., . 163 
LUCAPINA Gray, . 178, 181 
Lucapina H. & A. Ad., . 203 
LUCAPINA Gray. . .198 
LUCAPINELLA Pils, . 179, 195 
Lyrata (Stomatella) Pils., . 12 
Lutea (Gena) Ad., . . 44 

Macrochisma Sw., . .189 

Macroschisma (Fiss.) Chem., 192 

Macroschisma (Fiss.) Sby., . 193 

MACROSCHISMA Sw., . 178, 189 

Macrotrema (Fiss.) Sow., . 159 

Maculata (Emarg.) Ad., . 263 

Maculata (Emarg.) Souv., . 263 



Maculata (Hal.) Kiist., . 103 
Maculata (Stomatella) Q. & 

G., .... 13 
Magnifica (Emarg.) Pils., . 251 
Malukana (Stomatella) Ad., 14 
Mamillata (Fiss.) Risso, . 206 
Mantelli (Sciss.) Woodw., . 54 
Maria* (Hal.) Gray, . .111 
Margaritana ( Stomatella ) 

Ad., .... 22 
Mariei (Rimula) Cr., . 271 
Mariei (Stomatella) Cr., . 15 
Marmorata (Hal.) Costa, . 86 
Marmorata (Hal.) Gray, . 106 
Marmorata (Hal.) Sowb., . 93 
Maxima (Fiss.) Sby., . 145 
Maxima (Macroschisma) 

Ad, . . . .192 
Mazatlanica (Rimula) Cpr., 272 
Mediterranea (Fiss.) Gray, 211 
MEGATEBENNUS Pils., 178, 182 
Megatrema (Fissurellidea) 

Orb., . . , B .179 
Megatrema (Macroschisma) 

Ad, . . . .193 
Megathura Calif ornica 

Nutt, . . . .182 
Melvilli (Fiss.) Sowb., . 174 
Menkeana (Glyphis) Dk, . 222 
Metcalfi (Fiss.) Rve, . . 212 
Mexicana (Fiss.) Sowb, . 153 
Micans (Emarg.) Ad, . 257 
Mierotina Ads, . . .35 
MICROTIS Ad, . 7, 35 

Microtrema (Fiss.) Sowb, . 162 
Midse (Hal.) L, . . 112 
Minima (Stomatella) Dufo, 23 
Minor (Fiss.) Mar, . . 206 
Minuta (Fiss.) Costa, . 222 

Minuta (Glyphis) Lm., . 223 
Miranda (Sciss.) Ad, . 67 

Mirificus (Sciss.) Ad, . 60 
Miriga (Fiss.) Greg, . 293 

Modesta (Sciss.) Ad, . 67 

Modesta (Stomatella) Ad, 23 
Modesta (Subemarg.) Ad, 284 
Mouchezi (Schismope) Vel, 62 



INDEX. 



319 



Monilifera (Fiss.) Sowb., . 162 
Monilifera (Lucapina), . 227 
Monilifera (Stomatella) Ad., 14 
Montrouzieri ( E m a r g . ) 

Souv., .... 265 
Montrouzieri ( Stomatella ) 

Pils., .... 27 
Mont a guana (Cemoria) 

Leach, . . . .206 
Morleti (Schismope) Cr., . 62 
Mucronata (Fiss.) Monts., . 206 
Midleri (Emarg.} F. & H., 253 
Multiperforata (Hal.) Rve., 115 
Multistriata (Emarg.) Jeff., 252 
Munieri (Sciss.) Fischer, . 54 
Muricata (Fiss.) Rve., . 156 
Mutabilis (Fiss.) Sow., . 171 

Navosa (Hal.} Dh., . .116 
Nvosa(Hal.) Mart, 116, 291 
Nana (Punct.) Ad., . . 293 
Natalensis (Fiss.) Kr., . 173 
Naufraga (Zeidora) Wats., 247 
Nebulata(HaL) Rve., . 102 
Nebulosa (Gena) Ad., . 42 
Neglceta (Fiss.} Dh., . .211 
Neglecta (Hal.) Phil., . 86 
Nesta (Emarg.) Pils., . 269 
NKSTA H. Ad., . . 249, 269 
Nigra (Fiss.) Less., . . 149 
Nigra (Fiss.) Ph., . . 147 
Nigra (Gena) Ad., . . 39 
Nigra (Gena) Q. & G., . 38 
Nigra (Stomatella) Anton, 23 
Nigrita (Fiss.) Sowb., . 187 
Nigriradiata (Fiss.} Rve., . 217 
Nigrocincta (Fiss.) Cpr., . 160 
Nigrooccellata (Fiss.} Rve., 

[205, 207 
Nigropunctata (Fiss.) Sowb., 

[158, 159 

Nimbosa (Fiss.) L., . . 163 
NIPHONIA Ad., . 6, 29 

Nitidissima (Broderipia) 

Dh., .... 48 
Noachina (Punct.) L., . 229 
Nobilis (Punct.) Ad., . 231 
Nodosa (Fiss.) Born., . 164 



Nodosa (Hal.) Phil., . . 81 

Nodulosa (Emarg.) Ad., . 281 

Notata (Subemarg.) L., . 282 

Notata (Stomatella) Ad., . 19 
Novsecaiedonia? (Macros- 

chisma) Sowb., . .194 

Novcezeelandice (Hal.) Mart., 102 

Nubecula (Fiss.) L., . . 170 

Obliqua (Sciss.) Wats., . 58 
Oblonga (Fiss.) Mke., . 292 
Oblonga (Tug.} Pse., . . 287 
Obovalis (Fiss.) Less., . 158 
Obovata (Emarg.) Ad., - . 267 
Obscura (Fiss.) Sowb., . 163 
Obscura (Stomatia) Sow., . 31 
Obscurata (Stomatia) Lam., 31 
Obtusa (Fiss.) Sow., . . 173 
Occidens (Fiss.) Old., . 155 

Occitanica (Fiss.) Reel., . 206 
Octagona (Fiss.} Rve., . 205 
Octoradiata (Emarg.} Sby., 278 
Octoradiata (Subemarg.), 273 
Oldhamiana (Emarg.) Nev., 277 
Olivacea (Fiss.) Gray, . 174 
Omicron (Fiss.) C. & F., . 174 
Orbiculata (Stomatella) 

Ad., .... 16 
Orbignyi (Padollus} Costa, 50 
Oriens (Fiss.) Sowb., . . 152 
Ornata (Fiss.) Nutt., . .156 
Ornata (Gena) Ad., . . 45 
Ornata (Stomatella) Braz., 26 
Ornatissima (Stomatella) 

Pils., . . .26 

Ossea (Tug.} Ad., . . 287 
Ostrina (Fiss.) Rve., . . 160 
Ovina (Hal.) Chem., . . 124 
Oxia (Punct.) Wats., . 235 

PADOLLUS Montf., . 75, 120 
Paivana (Semperid) Cr., . 253 
Pallida (Stomatella) Ad., . 20 
Pallida (Stomatia) Can., . 34 
Panamensis (Glyphis) Sby., 216 
Panhi (Emarg.} Q., . . 277 
Panhiensis (Emarg.} Ad., . 277 
Papillosa (Emarg.) Risso, . 250 



320 



INDEX. 



Papillosa (Fissurisepta) 

Seg., . V . . .244 
Papillosa (Punct.) Seg., . 244 
Papyracea (Stomatella) Ch., 10 
Papilionacea(Ernarg.)Nev., 279 
Papulata (Hal.) Rve., . 97 
Paradoxa (Addisonia) Dall, 139 
Parma (Hal) Val., . . 291 
Parmophoidea (Tug.) Q., . 285 
Parmopkoroidea (Tug.) 

Ad., . . . .285 
Parmophoridea (Tug.) Sby., 285 
Parmophorus Blainv., . 287 
Parva(HaL) L., . .120 
Parva (Hal.) Risso, . . 86 
Parviperforata (Fiss.) Sow., 293 
Patelloideus (Par moph ) 

Caiitr., . . . . 290 
Patagonica (Glyphis) Orb., 213 
Paucicosfala (Sciss.) Jeffr., 52 
Pelex (Punct.) Ad., . . 241 
PEROTROCHUS Fisch., . 70 
Pertusa (Hal.) Rve., . . 101 
Peruviana (Fiss.) Lm., . 155 
PHANETA Ad., . . 6, 30 
Philippiana (Fiss.') Dkr., . 222 
Philippiana (Fiss.) Rve., . 146 
Philippii (Fiss.) Req., .171 
Phymotis (Stomatia) Helb., 30 
Pica (Fiss) Sby., . .215 
Picta (Fiss.) L., . .144 

Picta (Stomatella) Montr., 27 
Picta (Stomatella) Orb., . 29 
Picta (Subemarg.) Dkr., . 284 
Pileata (Emarg.) Old., . 284 
Pileus (Fiss.) Sw., . . 175 
Pileum (Emarg) Heilpr., . 275 
Pileolus (Emarg) Mich., . 254 
Pileolus (Punct.) Ad., . 241 
Pileopsoides (Fiss.) Rve., . 175 
Pileopsides (Fiss.) Sowb., . 175 
PLAGIORHYTIS Fisch., . 273 
Planata (Hal.) Sowb., . 99 
Planilirata (Hal.) Rve., . 81 
Plantarum (Emarg) Dufo, 261 
Planulata (Emarg.) Ad., 

[264, 269 
Planulata (Gena) Lm., . 38 



Plagiorhitis Fisch., . . 285 
PLEUROTOMARIA Sowb., . 69 
PLEUROTOMARIID^E, . . 69 
Plicata (Sciss.) Phil., . 50 

PLOCAMOTIS Fisch., 7, 37, 40 
Plumbea (Gena) Ad., . 39 
Polygonatis (Emarg.) Ad., 281 
Polygona (Fiss.) Sow., . 148< 
PONDEROSA (Hal.) Ad., . 82: 
Porphyrozonias ( Patella ) 

Gm., . . . .165 
Pourtalesii (Hal.) Dall., . 121 
Producta ( Macroschisma ) 

Ad., .... 194 
Profundi (Punct.) Jeff., . 243 
Princeps (Punct) Mig., . 230 
Propinqua (Rimula) Ad., . 271 
Proxima (Glyphis) Sby., . 220 
Pulchella (Niphonia) Ad., 29 
Pulchella (Scutellina) Lisc., 128 
Pulchella (Stomatella) Ad., 2& 
Pulcherrima (Hal.) Mart., . 124 
Pulchra (Emarg.) Ad., . 282 
Pulchra (Fiss.) Sow., . 151 

Pulchra (Schismope) Pet., . 68 
Pumila (Emarg) Ad., . 275 
Punctata (Emarg.) Ad., . 263 
Punctatissima (Fiss.) Pils., 150 
Puncticulata (Emarg.) Ad., 262 
PUNCTURELLA Lowe, 202, 228 
Pupillia Gray, . . . 180 
PUFILL^A Kr., . . 178, 180 
Pusilla (Cocc.) Jeff., . . J36 
Pustula (Fiss.) Lm., . . 176 
Pustula (Patella) Linn., . 176 
Pustulata (Hal.) Rve., . 100 
Pustulifera (Hal.) Pils., . 96 
Pustulosa (Hal.) Weink., . 101 

Quamosa (Hal.) Weink., . 112 
Quoyana (Pleurotomaria) 
F. &B., . . . 70 

Radiata (Emarg.) Old., . 284 

Radiata (Tug) Ad., . . 287 

Radiosa (Fiss.) Less., . 157 

Rathbuni (Cocc.) Dall, . 132 

Recurvata (Fiss) Costa, . 206 



IN.DJEX. 



321 



Redimicula (Fiss,) Say, . 
Retecosa (Emarg.) Ad., . 
Reticosa (Emarg.) Sowb., . 
Retic'idata (Emarg.') Sowb., 
Reticulata (Fiss.) Don., . 
Reticulata (Hal.) Rve., . 
Reticulata (Sciss.) Phil., . 
Reticulata (Zeidova) Ad., . 
Revelata (Hal.) l)h., . . 
RIMULA Defr., . . 202, 
Rimuloides (Schisniope), . 
Robusta (Fiss.) Sowb.. . 
Roedingi (Hal.) Mke., . 
Roei (Hal.) Gray, . . 
Rollandi (Emarg.) Fisch., 
hosacea (Fiss.) Ant,. . . 
Rosacea (Gena) Pse., . 

Rosacea (Hal.) Rve., . 

Rosea (Broderipia) Brod., . 
Rosea (Emarg.) Bell, . 
Rosea (Fiss.) Gm., . . 
Rosea (Fiss.) Phil., . . 
Rosea (Patella) Gm., . 

Roseoradi ata (Macros- 

chisma) T.-W., . . 
Rota (Fiss.) Rve., . . 
Rostrata (Punct.) Seg., . 
Rotundata (Hal.) Perry, . 
Ruber (Hal.) Leach, . Ill, 
Rubicundus (Hal.) Rve., . 
Rubicundus (Padollus) 

MoDtf. ..... 

Rubiginosa (Fiss.) Hutt., 
[216, 

Rubiginosa (Hal.) Rve., . 
Rubra (Emarg.) Lm., . 
Rubra (Stomatia) Lam., . 
Rubroflanmiulata (Stoma- 

tella) Pilsbry, . . 
Rubropicta (Fiss.) Pils., . 
Rudis (Clypidina) Ad., . 
RufesoeDs (Hal.) Sw., . 
Rufescens (S t o m a t e 1 1 a) 

(Jray, . . . . 
Rugosa (Emarg.) Q., . 

Rugosa (Fiss.) Sow., . . 
Rugosa (Hal.) Rve., . . 
Rugosa (Hal.) Weink.. . 

21 



259 

260 

253 

206 

86 

51 

247 

102 

270 

68 

292 

112 

117 

274 

292 

41 

93 

47 

254 

166 

171 

165 

191 
172 
245 
126 
291 
123 

123 

291 
94 

264 
33 

24 
161 

'2:\ 
82 

17 
27.s 
161 
102 

87 



Rugosu (Subeniarg. j H. Ad., 284 
Rugosoplicata(Hal.)Chem., 110 
Rumphii ( Pleurotomaria ) 

Schepm., . . .71 
Ruppeli (Parmopli.) Ph., . 290 
Ruppellii (Glyphis) Sby., .217 

Sagittata (Fiss.) Rve., . 172 
Salebrosa (Glyphis) Rve., . 208 
Sanguinea (Hal.) Han., . 114 
Sanguinea(Stomatella) Ad., 18 
Sayi (Fiss.) Ball, . . 212 
Scabricosta (Hal.) Mke., .118 
Scabricostata (Emarg.) Ad., 268 
Scabriuscula (Eiuarg.) A*d., 268 
SCHISMOPE Jeflh, . 49, 60 
Schizotrochus Monts., . .49 
Schrammi (Fiss.) Fisch., . 165 
Scissa (Patella) Salis, . 249 

SCISSURELLA Orb., . . 49 
SCISSURELLID.E, . . 49 
Scitula (Stomatella) Ad., . 15 
Scobinata (Scutellina) Gld., 129 
Scrobiculata (Fiss.) Nev., . 227 
Sculpta (Fiss.) Pils., . .167 
Sculptilis (Emarg.) . .280 
Scutella Brod., ... 46 
Scutella (Fiss.) Sowb., . 188 
Scutella Brod., . . .127 
Scutellaris (Tug.) Ad., . 280 
Scutellata (Emarg.) Dh., . 261 
SCUTELLINA Gray, . .127 
SCUTELLINID.E Dall, . 127 

Scutellum (Fiss.) Gm., . 184 
Scutiformis (Macroschisma) 

Nev., . . . .195 
Scutulum (Hal.) Rve., . 101 
Scutum Auct., . . .287 
SCUTUS Montf., . . 203, 287 
Secernenda (Hal.) Monts., . 86 
Selecta (Stomatella) Ad., . 17 
Sella (Fiss'idea) Sowb., . 185 
Semiplicata (Hal.) Mke., . 126 
Semutriata (Hal.) Rve., 95, 96 
Semperia Crosse, . 248, 253 
Sepiculata (Hal.) Rve., . 87 
Sieboldii (Glyphfe) Rve., . 204 
(Hal.) Rve., . 84, 85 



822 



INDEX. 



Sicula (Emarg.) Gray, . 251 
Sinrilis (Glyphis) Sow., . 208 
Sinensis ( Macroschisma ) 

Ad... . . . .190 

Sinensis (Parmopli.) Blv., . 290 
Singaporensis (G 1 y p h i s) 

Rve., 219 

Sinuata (Hal.) Perry, . 126 
Sipho Brown, . . .228 
Solidula (Emarg.) Costa, . 255 
Souverbiana(Emarg.)Pils., 262 
jxuK00a (Hal.) Kr., . . 115 
Speoiosa (Hal.) Rve., . 92 
Speciosa (Stomatella) Ad., 19 
Spinigera (Cocc.) Jeff'r., . 135 
Spinosa (Emarg.) Dh., . 262 
Spinosa (Patella) Gm., . 164 
Splendens (Hal.) Rve., . 81 
Splendidula(Stomatia) Ad., 34 
Spongiosa (Fiss.) Cpr., . 157 
Sportella (Punct.) Wats., . 235 
Squamata (Hal.) Rve., . 91 
Squamosa (Hal.) Gray, . 112 
Squamulifera (Fiss. ) B. 

D. D., . . . .171 
Stamineus (Sciss.) Ad., . 60 
Stellata (Emarg.) . . 283 
Stellata (Fiss.) Rve., . . 148 
Stellata (Stomatella) Souv., 25 
STOMATELLA Lara., . 6, 7 
STOMATELLID^E, . . 5 
STOMATIA Lam., . 6, 30 
Scomatiseformis (Hal.) Rve., 89 
Stomatiidce, ... 5 
Sfriata (Hal.) Linn., . . 86 
Striata (Hal.) Rve., . . 94 
Striatula (Emarg.) Q,, . 259 
Striatula (Gena) Ad., . 40 
Striatula (Sciss.) Phil., . 50 
Strigata (Hal.) Weink., . 103 
Strigosa (Gena) Ad., . 39 

Subclathrata (Emarg.) Pils., 266 

SUBEMARGINULA Bl., 202, 273 

Subiridescens (Broderipia) 

Pils., .... 46 

Sabrotunda (Fiss.) Dh., . 155 

Subrostrata (Glyphis) Shy., 213 



Subvirginea (Hal.) Weink., 108 
Suffusa (Fiss.) Rve., . . 201 
Sulcifera (Emarg.), . . 283 
Sulcif'era (Stomatella) Lam., 11 
Sulcosa (Hal.) Phil., . .118 
Sulculus Ads., . . .75 
Supertexta (Hal.) Lischke, lfl>6 
Supraplicata (Sciss.) Smith, 54 
Squamosa (Fiss.) Hutt., . 216 
SYNAPTOCOCHLEA Pils., . 6, 25 

Tabulata(Schismope)Wats., 62 
Taeniata (Fiss.) Sow,, . 172 

Tanneri (Glyphis) Ver., . 213 
Tasmania? (Macroschisma) 

Gray, . . . . .192 
Tasmanise (Macroschisma) 

Sowb., . . . .191 
Tasmania (Emarg.) Sby., . 278 
Tiismanica (Legrandia) 

Bedd., 
Tasmanica (Macroschisma) 

T.-W., . . . .191 
Tasmanica (Tug.), . . 287 
Tasmanica (Zeidora) Bedd., 
Tasmaniensis (Fiss.) Bonn., 188 
Tayloriana (Hal.) Rve., . 105 
Tectum-persicum ( Fi s s .") 

Costa, . . . .211 
Teytila (Glyphis} Rve.. . 226 
TEIXOTIS Ads., . . 75, 126 
Tenebrosa (Fiss.) Sowb., .160 
Tennis (Emarg.} Reel., . 253 
Tennis (Sciss.) Jeffr., . 53 

Ten uicostata (Emarg.) Sow., 260 
Tenuistriata (Glyphis) Sow., 220 
Textilis (Emarg.) Gld., . 284 
Thomasi (Emarg.) Crse., . 264 
Ticaonica (Glyphis) Rve., . 225 
Tigrina Stomatella) Ad., . 21 
Tongana (Glyphis) .Q., . 217 
Trapezina (Amblychiiepas ; 

Sowb., . . . .188 
Trapezina (Fiss.) Sowb., . 188 
Triangulata (Punct.) Dall., 245 
Tricarinata (Emarg.) Born, 276 
Trlrostata (Emarg.) Sby., . 274 
Tricostalis (Hal.) Lm.,* . 123 



IlfDEX. 



323 



Trifolium (Punct.) Dall, . 237 
Trochotoma, . . .67 
Tubifeni (Hal.) Lam., . 84 
Tuberculata (Hal.) L., 85, 291 
Tuberculata (Microtis) Ad., 35 
Tuberculosa (Emarg.) Lib., 250 
TUG A LI A Gray, . . . 273 
Tugalia Gray, . . . 284 
Tugali Gray", . . .284 
Tumida (Stomatella) Gld., 10 
Turbinatus (Sciss.) Ad., . 59 

Umbilicata (Sciss.) Jefl'r., . 52 
Unguiformis ( Scutellina ) 

GJd., . . . .129 
Unguis (Scutm) Ad., . 288 

Ungvu (Scvtu*) -Ad, . 289 
Unguis (Scutus) Linne. . 289 
/ *// liimbilicatits (Sciss.) 

Costa, . . . .50 
I'nilateralis (Hal.) Lam., . 97 

Vanikoreiisis (Emarg.) Q., 268 
Varia (Hal.) L., . . 95 
Varia (Hal.) Risso, . . 86 
Varia (Gena) Ad., . . 45 
Varicosa (Fiss.) Sowb., . 205 
Variegata (Emarg.) Ad., . 263 
Variegata (Glyphis) Sowb., 225 



Variegata (Stomatia) Ad., 34 
Venusta (Fiss.) Rve., . 218 

Venusta (Hal.) Ad. & Rve., 91 
Verrieri (Rimula) Cr., . 271 
Verna (Fiss.) Gld., . .168 
Viminea (Emarg.) Ad., . 258 
Viminea (Fiss.) Mke., . 161 
Viminea (Fiss.) Rve., .212 
Violacea (Fiss.) Esch., . 149 
Virginea (Hal.) Chem., . 107 
Virginea (Hal.) Rve., . 93 
Viridis (Fiss.) Costa, . 171 

Viridis (Hal.) Rve., . 95, 96 
Viridula (Glyphis) Lm., . 226 
Virescens (Fiss.) Sowb., . 158 
Viloensis (Fiss.) Greg., . 293 
Volcano (Fiss.) Rve., . 156 
Vidgaris (Hal.) Blv., . 121 

Vulgaris (Hal.) Da Costa, 86 

Watsoni (Punct.) Ball, . 237 
W e 1 d i i (Macroschisma) 

T.-AV., . . . .191 
Woodwardia C. & F., . 60 

Zealandica (Hal.) Rve., . 102 
ZEIDORA Ad., . . 202, 246 
Ziczac (Hal.) Rve., . . 106 
Zidora Fisch., . . .246 



NOTE. The parts of Volume XII of tbis MANUAL were issued 
to subscribers upon the following dates: Part 45, May 27, 1890; 
Part 46, August 12, 1890; Part 47, December 16, 1890; each part 
consisted of 64 pp. text and 15 plates. 

Parts 21, 22, 23, of the 2d Series were issued upon the same 
date.-. 



HALIOTTDyE. AND STOMATELLIDyG 

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