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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

Y OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFOR 




Y OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 



LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFOR 




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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 



LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 



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LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 




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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 



MANUAL 



OF 



ONCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 




BY GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

CONTINUED BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY. 



Vol. XIII. 

LEPETID.E, PATELLID/E, TITISCANIID.t. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
Published by the Conchologieal Section, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COR. igTH AND RACE STS. 
1891. 








EARTH 

SCIfNCtt 

LIBRARY 



In the present volume the important and difficult of group Doco- 
glossate Gastropods, the Limpets, is monographed, and in addition a 
small group not heretofore included. The material studied in 
the families Acmceidce and Patellidce is exceptionally extensive. A 
large number of forms are herein for the first time figured and 
adequately described. The value of the work has been enhanced 
by the liberality of Dr. W. H. Dall, of \\ r ashington, who placed at 
the author's disposal for study the magnificent collection of the 
Smithsonian Institution, a collection especially rich in species from 
the west coast of America, and containing the types of species 
described by GOULD, CARPENTER and DALL, many of which have 
not before been figured. No effort has been spared to make the 
synonymy and references complete and reliable ; and it is hoped 
that conchologists will find the labor of classifying their collections 
of these intricate groups decidedly lightened. 

Philadelphia, June, 1891. H. A. P. 




MANUAL OF GONCHOLOGY. 



Monographs of the Acmceidce, Lepetidce, Patellidce and Titiscaniidce. 



Family A WLEID.E Cpr. 

Acmceidce CPR., Maz. Cat. p. 202, 1856. Tecturidce GRAY and 
authors. Lottiadce GRAY. Patellidce, in part, of authors. 

Shell patelliform, conical, the apex more or less anterior, the 
embryonic shell conical, not spiral. Animal having a free branchial 
plume above the neck on the left side ; radula without median teeth. 

Animals of this family differ mainly from the Patellidce and Lep- 
etidce in having a cervical branchial plume. 

The shells may generally be known from Patellidce by their dif- 
ferent texture and the more or less distinct internal border of the 
aperture. They are never iridescent within. 

They live on rocks and sea weeds, generally at very moderate 
depths. One species, Acmcea fluviatilis, is known to inhabit brackish 
water, and a few, like Pectinodonta arcuata, are abyssal. 

The shells are excessively variable, as is usually the casein seden- 
tary mollusks. 

The author has examined very large suites of specimens, including 
nearly every species and variety described from the waters of Xorth 
and South America, both east and west, and of Japan, Polynesia and 
Europe. The Australian and Xew Zealand forms are known to me 
by fewer specimens, and a number of the species of those regions I 
have not seen. 

In the treatment of species I have aimed to be strictly conserva- 
tive, reducing no described form to a variety or synonym without 
the most ample evidence of identity or intergradation of characters ; 
and on the other hand, 1 have refrained from burdening science 
with new names for the vast number of transitional or divergent, 
forms in the collections examined. 

Xo characters diagnostic of the genera of Acmseida? can be found 
in the shells. 

(5) 



6 PECTINODONTA. 

Synopsis of genera. 

I. Radula with a single lateral tooth on each side ; no uncini, 

PECTINODONTIN^:. 

Genus PECTINODONTA Ball, 1882. 

Animal blind ; having a cervical branchial plume but no 
branchial cordon. 

II. Radula having three lateral teeth on each side, ACM^IN^E. 

Genus ACMJEA Eschscholtz, 1830. 

Animal having a cervical branchial plume but no branchial cor- 
don ; eyes present. 

Genus SCURRIA Gray, 1847. 

Animal having a cervical branchial plume and a complete or 
interrupted branchial cordon. 



Subfamily PECTINODONTIN.E. 
Genus PECTINODONTA Dull, 1882. 

Pectinodonta DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1881, p. 409, 1882 ; 
Blake Gastrop. p 411. 

Shell resembling Scutellina but with a blunt subcentral apex. 
Soft parts resembling Acmsea except in the following details : Ani- 
mal blind, with the front part of the head between the tentacles and 
above the muzzle much produced upward and forward, extending 
considerably farther forward than the end of the muzzle, which is 
marginated with lappets at the outer corners. Jaw thin, translu- 
cent. Gill exactly as in Acmsea; sides of foot and mantle edge 
simple, nearly smooth. Dental formula (1.0.1.) 0; teeth large, 
with transverse pectinated or denticulated cusps, the serrated edge of 
which is turned toward the median line. The number of teeth is 
the smallest in any known limpet. (Dall.) 

The dentition is figured on pi. 33, fig. 74. 

P. ARCUATA Dall. PI. 33, figs. 74, 75, 76. 

Shell white, elongate-ovate, moderately elevated, with a blunt 
polished apex, on which in young specimens, remain traces of the 
disk-like, chalky, embryonic shell ; the slopes from the apex to the 
ends both convexly arched ; margin simple or slightly denticulated 
by the radiating sculpture ; within polished ; scars as in Acimea ; 



ACM^EA. 7 

epidermis none ; sculpture externally of fine, uniform, rounded, 
closely set threads, radiating from near the apex to the margin and 
reticulated by the fine, rather prominent, regular, concentric ridges 
of growth, both ridges and threads averaging near the margin about 
three and a half to the millimeter. Length., from end to end, 14'5 
mm. ; from apex to anterior end 5*5 mm. ; lat. lO'O mm. ; alt. 5'5 mm. 
(Dall} 

Off St. Lucia, 226 fms. ; of Dominica, 333 fms. ; off Guadelupe, 
583 fms.; and off St. Thomas. 

P. arcuata BALL, Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus. 1881, p. 409, 1882 ; Blake 
Rep. p. 411, t. 25, f. 3, 3a, 3b. 



Subfamily 

Genus ACM.EA Eschscholtz, 1830. 

Acmcea ESCH., in append. Kotzebue's Neue Reise, ii, p. 24, 1830, 
type A. mitra Esch. FORBES & HANLEY, Brit. Moll., ii, p. 433. 
CPU., Mazat. Catal. p. 202. DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 
237. WATSON, Challenger Gastr. p. 28. FISCHER, Manuel, p. 
865. Tecture AUD. & MILXE-EDW., in Cuvier's Rapport sur trois 
Meinoires, etc., Aunales des Sci. Nat. xxi, 1830, p. 326, published 
not before 1831, type P. virginea. Tectura of GRAY, H. & A. 
ADAMS, JEFFREYS, et al. Patelloidea QUOY & GAIMARD, Voy. 
Astrol. iii, p. 349. Type P. fragilis (Chemn.) Q. & G., 1834. 
Lottia GRAY, in pare, Philos. Trans. 1833, p. SQQ.Lottia of GOULD, 
et al. Erginus JEFFREYS Ann. Mag. X. H. 4th ser., xix, p. 231, 
March, 1877. Type Tectura rubella Fabr. Collisella DALL, Amer. 
Journ. Conch, vi, p. 245, 1871. Type .4. pelta Esch. ColUsellina 
DALL, I. c., p. 154, type A. saccharina. L. 

Shell conical, patelliform, apex more or less anterior. Animal 
with a branchial plume at the left side of the neck above; no 
branchial cordon. Dentition, see below. 

The shells may generally be distinguished from Patella by the 
different texture and marginal border of the inside. 

The thorough discussion of the generic name of this group con- 
tained in the various papers of Dr. Dall and others, renders any 
justification of the view of its nomenclature here taken, unnecessary. 

Tectura and Erginus must be regarded as absolute synonyms of 
Acmcea s. sir. ; Patelloidea Q. & G. will probably be found to differ 
somewhat anatomically, and may then be utilized for a subgeueric 
group. The subgenera Collisella and ColUsellina are defined below. 



8 ACM^A. 

Species of the genus Acinsea are found in the littoral and lamin- 
arian zones of nearly all seas, except the waters adjacent to the con- 
tinent of Africa. 

The shells are subject to even greater mutations than the Patel- 
lidse, and species are correspondingly difficult to define and limit. 
More than any other shells, these must be studied with constant 
reference to not only habitat geographically, but station as well. 
For an exact knowledge of the group we must therefore wait until 
observations on the species are made with especial reference to their 
modes of life and surroundings. Such data should be attached to 
every limpet collected. 

Acmcea has been divided by Dr. W. H. Dall into a number of 
groups which may be tabulated as follows : 

A. Muzzle with lappets ; no uncini ; formula of teeth (3.0.3) 0, 

Acmcea s.s. 

B. Muzzle without lappets, uncini present, Collisella Dall. 

a. formula of teeth 1 (3.0.3) 1 Collisella s.s. 

b. formula of teeth 2 (3.0.3) 2 Collisellina Dall. 
The type of Acmcea is A. mitra Esch., dentition pi. 42, fig. 82 ; of 

Collisella, A. pelta Esch., dentition pi. 42, fig. 8J ; and the type 
of Collisellina is A. saccharina L., dentition pi. 42, fig. 83. 

It is practically impossible at present to group the species of the 
entire world according to anatomical characters, or to decide to what 
extent these divisions will prove applicable to the entire series. 

The most convenient and in most cases the most natural division 
of the genus is geographic. Thus considered, the species fall into 
six groups : 

I. North Atlantic and Arctic. 

II. Western coast of North America. 

III. Western coast of South America. 

IV. West Indies. 

V. Japan. 

VI. Indo-Pacific. 

(VII. Species of unknown habitat.) 

Of these groups, the second has great affinity to the first and fifth; 
the fourth may be regarded as derived from the second during the 
early tertiary period. 



I. SPECIES OF EUROPEAN SEAS AND THE NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Many specimens of all of the species of this region have been 
examined by me. 



ACHJEA. 

A. RUBELLA Fabricius. PI. 42, figs. 79, 80. 

Shell small, rounded-oval, conical, apex elevated, situated at the 
anterior fourth of the shell's length ; front slope steep, straight or 
concave, posterior slope convex. Surface smooth, showing faint 
lines of growth. Color reddish-buff or orange ; inside of the same 
color, the border flesh-colored. Length 5, breadth 4, alt. 2J mill. 

Finmark, Norway ; Greenland, 5-40 fms. 

Patella rubella FABR,, Fauna Gronl., p. 386, USQ.Tectura 
(Erginw) rubella JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H., Mar., 1877, xxi, 
p. 231. SARS, Moll. A ret. Norv. p. 121, t, 8, f. 5 ; t. ii, f. 11 
(dentition), 1878. Pilidium fulvum, in part, DALL, Am. Journ. 
Conch, v, 1869. Acmcea rubella BALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
1879, p. 337. 

This little shell is of a more erectly conical form than Pilidium 
fulvum, and lacks radiating sculpture. It is smaller than A. vir- 
ginea and not radiately painted, besides having the summit more 
anterior and more elevated. The specimens before me are from 
Greenland. It has been reported from the New England coast, but 
I am not sure of the correctness of the determination. 

A. VIRGINEA Miiller. PI. 10, fig. 13, 14. 

Shell small, oval, conical ; apex at or a little back of the anterior 
fifth of the shell's length. Surface having delicate, almost obsolete 
radiating strise and delicate growth lines. Color a delicate pink, with 
numerous (about 13) pink rays. Upper part of the cone buffish- 
white. 

Inside pink or white, center flesh-colored or opaque white. 

Length 9-10, breadth 6f-9, alt. 3^-4 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Atlantic from Norway and Ice- 
land to the Canaries, Azores and' Cape Verde Is., low water to 60 fms. 

!?23> 

Patella virginea MULL., Zool. Dan. Prodr. i, p. 43, 1776. GMEL., 
Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3711. Acmcea virginea HANLEY, Br. Mar. Conch, 
p. 32, 1844. FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 437, t. 61, 
f. 1, 2. DALL, Am. Journ. Conch. v>, p. 243, 1871. : BUQUOY, 
DAUTZ, & DOLLF., Moll, du Rouss. p. 478, t. 51, f. 12, lTcctura 
virginea JEFFR., Brit. Conch, iii, p. 248 ; v, p. 200, t. 58, f. 4. 
SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 121, t. ii, f. 10 (dentition). Patella 
parva DA COSTA, Brit. Conch, p. 7. t. 8, f. 11, 1778, of DONOVAN 
and MONTAGU. Lottia unicolor FORBES, Rep. ^Eg. Invert, pp. ] 35, 
188,1844. L. pulchella FORBES, I. c., p. 137. Lottia pellucida 



10 ACM^A. 

WKINKAUFF (not Linne) Journ. de Conchyl. x, p. 334, 1862. 
Patelloidea virginea COLBEAU, Moll. viv. de la Belg., p. 14. Patella 
cequalis Sow., Min. Conch, t. 139. Patella astensis BONELLI. 

A small and delicate species, pink rayed on a pale ground. It is 
widely distributed in European seas. The following mutations 
have received names : 

Form cornea Jeffr. Smaller than the type, more conical, summit 
more elevated, nearly central. This form is figured by Wood, 
Crag Moll. pi. 18, f. 60. 

Form rotundata Monts. More rounded than the type. 

Form depressa Wood. Crag Moll. pi. 18, f. GA. 

Form unicolor Forbes. Of a uniform rosy color, without rays ; 
small. 

Form lactea Jeffr. Milky-white. 

A. TESTUDINALIS Miiller. PI. 9, figs. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. 

Shell conical, oval, the apex a little in front of the middle ; pos- 
terior slope slightly convex, other slopes straight ; surface- more or 
less distinctly, finely radiately striated ; color yellowish-gray, with 
numerous blackish-brown stripes, generally broken into a coarse 
network, or tessellated pattern. 

Inside white, with a large dark brown central area, the border 
tessellated brown and white. Length 38, breadth 28, alt. 13 mill. 

North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, southeast to the English Channel, 
southwest to Long Island Sound; North Pacific from Sitka (and 
Yesso f) to the Arctic Ocean. 

Patella testudinalis MULL., Prodr. Zool. Dan. p. 237, \ljfi. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 70. Tectura testudinalis JEFFREYS, Brit. 
Conch, iii, p. 246; v, p. 200, t. 58, f. 3. OLD., Invert, of Mass., 
Binney's edit., p. 267, f. 529. Acmcea testudinalis FORBES & HAN- 
LEY, Hist. Brit. Sh. ii, p. 434, t. 62, f. 8, 9 ; t. AA, f. 2 (animal). 
DALL., Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 249, t. 14, f. 13 (dentition) ; 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1878, p. 339. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. 
p. 120, t. ii. f. 9 (dentition). Lottia testudinalis FORBES, Malac. 
Monensis p. 34. OLD., Invert, of Mass., 1st edit., p. 153, f. 12. 
Patella testudinaria and P. tessellata MULL. P. dealandi SOWB., 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xi, p. 621. P. amcena SAY, Journ. Acad. N. S. 
Phila. ii, p. 223. DE KAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 162, t. 9, f. 196. P. cly- 
peus BROWN, 111. Conch. Gt. Br. t. 37, f. 9, 10. Patella alveus CON- 
RAD, Journ. Acad. N. S. Phila. vi, p. 267, t. 11, f. 20, 1831. Patel- 



ACM.*: A. 11 

loidea alveus COUTH., Bost. Journ. N. H, ii, p. 177. Lottia alveus 
GLD., Inv. of Mass., p. 154, f. 13. lectura alveus BINNEY in 
GOULD, Inv. of Mass., 2d edit., p. 269, f. 530. Acmcea testudinalis 
var: alveus DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1878, p. 340. 

Atlantic specimens of this well-known shell, although very vari- 
able in size and coloration, are readily distinguished from the other 
forms, the only considerable divergence being found in var. alveus. 
Specimens from the Aleutian Is., according to Dr. Dall, completely 
bridge the gap between testudinalis and patina. I have retained 
the latter separate, simply as a matter of convenience ; but I do not 
doubt that it must be regarded as a geographic race of testudinalis. 

American specimens are generally larger than European; figs. 
27-29 represent specimens from Maine, figs. 25, 26 from England. 

Var. ALVEUS Conrad. PL 42, figs. 90, 91. 

Small, thin, compressed at the sides; apex acute and a little 
hooked forward. Surface delicately striated, interruptedly striped 
or tessellated with brown. Inside showing the markings of the 
exterior. 

Massachusetts to Arctic Ocean ; Sitka northward. 

Numerous transitions occur between this and typical testudinalis. 
The narrow form is caused by the residence of individuals on sea- 
weed or Zostera fronds. 

*** 

II. SPECIES OF THE WESTERN COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 

The author has examined specimens of all of the species of this 
region, including many original types. Of most species many 
hundreds of shells have been studied. The elaborate papers of 
Dr. P. P. Carpenter, and of Dr. Win. H. Dall have been freely 
used. 

A. PATINA Eschscholtz. PI. 2, figs. 34, 35, 36, 37 ; pi. 9. figs. 6-14. 

Shell large, oval or rounded-oval, depressed-conic, the apex 
rounded and near the middle ; slopes slightly convex. Surface 
obsoletely radiately striated, olive-gray, tessellated, or more rarely 
striped, with black. 

Inside white with an irregular brown central area and a rather 
wide dark or tessellated border. Length 53, breadth 46, alt. 18 mill. 

Aleutian Is. to Sa?i Diego, California. 



12 ACM^A. 

A. patina ESCH., Zool. Atlas, edit. Rathke., p. 19, t. 24, f. 7, 8. 
MIDD., Sib. Reise, p. 187, t. 16, f. la-d, 2a-c, 3. CPR., Mazat. Cat. 
p. 207 ; Araer. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 333. A. scutum ESCH., not 
Orb. P. mammillata NUTT., Jay's Catal. no. 2839. RVE., Conch. 
Icon f. 140. P. tessellata NUTT., Jay's Cat. no. 2885. P.fenestrata 
NUTT., Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 121. P. verriculata RVE., I. c., f. 87 
P. nuttalliana RVE., I c., f. 81. P. cumingii RVE., I. c., f. 37. Lot- 
tia pintadina GOULD, U. S. Expl. Exped. t. 29, f. 455. Collisella 
patina DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 247, t. 14, f. 4 (dentition). 
A. testiidinalis var. pato'na.DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, p. 340. 

P. cinis Rv., considered a synonym of patina by Cpr., belongs to 
A. pelta. P. strigillata Nutt. mss. is a form of fascicularis, judging 
from the suite deposited by Nuttall in the Academy collection. 

This is the commonest of all western limpets. Although it has 
been shown to intergrade with A. testudinalis on the Alaskan coast, 
yet I cannot rank it as a variety of that species in the sense in 
which alveus is a variety. It is thoroughly differentiated from testu- 
dinalis throughout most of its range. The two forms vary in quite 
diverse directions, patina having no form corresponding to the var. 
alveus of testudinalis, but having its own peculiar mutations, not 
found in the other species. 

It would be an advantage if we were to use the term " form " 
(forma) for such mutations as alveus, nacelloides, etc., reserving the 
rank of " variety " for true geographic subspecies. 

The principle mutations of A. patina are as follows: 

Var. PINTADINA Gld. (pi. 9, fig. 6). Large, flat, open, apex 
subcentral ; tessellated white and dark. P. cumingii Rv. (pi. 42, 
fig. 87) and tessellata Nutt. belong here as synonyms. This form 
passes into the striped form nuttalliana Rve. (pi. 2, figs. 32, 33, and 
also f. 36, 37). The last figures correspond to Reeve's verriculata. 

Another mutation is the form fenestrata Nutt. (pi. 9, figs. 10, 11, 
12, 13, 14), of which cribraria Gld. mss. is a synonym. This shell 
when young is dark olive closely dotted all over with white, the 
eroded apex black ; when adult it is usually uniform dull slate-color 
outside with a ring of light around the black apical spot ; inside it 
has a wide dark border, a large, irregular central dark patch, and 
generally is suffused with dark brown all over. Sculpture obsolete. 
This form is from San Francisco, Santa Cruz, etc. 

Var. OCHRACEA Dall (pi. 9, figs. 7, 8, 9). Externally of a very 
light yellowish-brown, without spots or rays ; internally white with 



ACM^A. 13 

the characteristic dark brown stain of patina in the visceral area. 
The exterior is covered with fine, regularly radiating, close, equal, 
thread-like riblets, which pass from apex to margin without bifur- 
cation, imbrication or asperities of any kind. These riblets will 
serve to distinguish it from any of the other limpets of the coast ; 
otherwise it approaches very close to some varieties of scabra and 
can be traced right into some varieties of patina. {Dall.) 

This variety was described from^Monterey, Cal. ; it has also been 
found on Vancouver Id. 

A. DALLIANA Pilsbry. PI. 7, figs. 57, 58, 59, 60. 

Shell large, oblong, depressed, rather thin. Apex low, curving 
forward; length of front slope contained about 3? times in the 
length of the shell ; posterior slope gently convex. Surface covered 
with close, slightly unequal radiating riblets, each rendered rasp-like 
by very close, regular and erect delicate lamellse ; interstices narrow, 
having growth-striae but no lamellse. 

The color is chestnut-brown, becoming dark umber in places, 
having short streaks and spots of white, forming a sparse tessellation. 
Inside light blue, with a small brown spot at the cavity of apex, 
and showing the color-pattern of the outside faintly through. Bor- 
der wide, deep brown with white spots. 

Length 46, breadth 32, alt. 6i mill. 

Angel Island, Porto Refugio, Gulf of California. 

This is one of the finest American Acmceas. The oblong, some- 
what parallel-sided and depressed contour, thin texture, and the 
beautifully sharp and regular lile-like sculpture of the low, close 
riblets, are its prominent features. It is allied to A. scabra, but the 
enormous number of specimens of that species wnich I have exam- 
ined in the Philadelphia and Washington collections, furnish no 
forms leading toward the Dalliana. The species is named in honor 
of Dr. \Vm. H. Dall, who outlined the classification of the Acmse- 
idse in essentially its modern form, twenty years ago. 

A. SCABRA Reeve. PI. 3, figs. 38-49. 

Shell thin, rounded-oval, depressed ; apex situated between the 
center and the anterior third ; surface sculptured with close, fine, 
minutely scaly riblets, of which larger ones are placed at regular 
intervals. Color light yellow 7 , indistinctly spotted (rarely striped in 
divaricating pattern) with brown. 



14 ACM^EA. 

Interior porcelain-white or blue-tinted, with sometimes a few faint 
spots of brown in the cavity. Inside border transparent-yellowish 
or showing faint brown markings.) 

Length 37, breadth 31, alt. 7-8 mill. 

Vancouver's Island to Acapulco, western Mexico. 

Patella scabra Rv., Conch. Icon. f. 119. Acmcea scabra CPU., 
Am. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 340. Collisella scabra DALL, 1. c., vi, p. 
251, t. 14, f. 12, 12a (dentition). Acmcea (scabra var.?} morchii 
BALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1878, p. 47. 

The typical form is easy to recognize by its light coloration and 
the jine rasp-like riblets of the surface. Forms in which the outer 
layer of the shell is deep brown instead of buff, and the inside bor- 
der consequently blackish, are quite similar to some variations of 
A. patina ; but sculpture and color-pattern will usually permit one 
to separate them readily. 

Two forms have been described : 

Var. LIMATULA Cpr. PI. 3, figs. 38, 39, 40. 

Outer layer of the shell black, covered with an olive-green, or 
sometimes light bluish, epidermis ; inside border black ; a deep 
brown central spot. Distribution mainly southern, San Diego to 
Acapulco. 

A very beautiful color-pattern is shown in figs 45, 46, drawn from 
San Diego specimens. White rays alternate with dark olive. 

As an extreme form of this variety, Var. MORCHII of Dall (pi. 3, 
figs. 47, 48, 49), must be ranked. It is typically much elevated, the 
apex subcentral and curved forward, sculpture coarse. Otherwise 
like var. limatula. Locality, Tomales Bay, Luw^r California. The 
large suite of shells before me from Tomales Bay show every inter- 
mediate stage between the high, cap-shaped forms and the normal 
limatula. The former constitute a peculiar phase of development 
attained by comparatively few individuals. Figures 47-49 are 
drawn from Tomales Bay specimens. 

. 
A. SPECTRUM Reeve. PL 1, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Apex rather anterior ; slopes rather straight ; sculptured with 
very strong close rough ribs, with smaller intervening riblets ; cen- 
ter of the inside white, with dark spots and bars. 

Normally it is solid, rather depressed, with from 20-30 very 
strong, rounded ribs not evanescent anteriorly, the interstices being 
occupied by intercalary riblets. The color is white, with fine lines 



ACALEA. 15 

of brown (not striped as in pelta and persona) between the principal 
ribs, which delicately dot the otherwise uniform white margin. 
Sometimes the principal ribs are rather sharp, palmating the margin, 
occasionally they are small and crowded, becoming faint at the mar- 
gin, when the shell presents the internal aspect of A. mitella; at 
other times assuming that of Patella pediculus. Generally the apex 
is at the anterior third ; rarely at the anterior fourth, with very 
elongated outline ; but sometimes is nearly central, with a rounded 
shell. In this species also there is occasionally found a var. textilis ; 
when the ribs become faint and distant, the color-lines run into net- 
work, and the shell is of a thinner texture. The young is extremely 
inequilateral, and rapidly developes the characteristic ribs. Inside 
the shell has a white callus, through which the dark irregular blotch 
appears. This occasionally takes the form of irregular ghostly bars, 
which gave the name to the species. (Cpr.) 
Length 34, breadth 24, alt, 12 mill. 

Bodega Bay and San Francisco south to Lower California. 

Patella spectrum Rv., Conch. Icon. f. 76. Acmcea spectrum CFR., 
Amer. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 339. Collisella spectrum DALL, Amer. 
Journ. Conch, vi, p. 251, t. 14, f. 10 (dentition). Lottia scabra 
OLD. (part), Expl. Exped. Shells. 

The very strong ribs of the outside, and the curiously marked 
interior, like print of a hand, are prominent characters of this 
species. 

It belongs to a group of forms represented in South America by 
A. variabilis and A. ceciliana ; in China by ^4. hieroglyphica, and 
in Australasia, by ^4. marmorata, etc. All showing curiously figured 
interiors. 

A. PERSONA Eschscholtz. PL 2, figs. 25, 26, 27, 28 ; pi. 3, figs. 51-56. 

Shell oval, apex pointing forward, posterior slope long, convex, 
anterior slope short. Sculptured with strong, rounded ribs, usually 
nodulous, but sometimes obsolete. Whitish, with stripes and zigzags 
of blackish-brown, or olive-green variegated and speckled with 
white. Margin crenated by the ribs. 

Inside white or stained with yellowish-brown, with a large central 
deep brown area, rarely absent ; border articulated black and gray 

Sitka to Turtle Bay, L. Calif ornl . 

A. persona ESCH., Zool. Atl. v, p. 20. no. 9, t, 24, f. 1, 2. CPR., 
Amer. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 337. A. ancylus ESCH., /. c., t. 24, f. 



US TY 

Otfe 



16 ACM^A. 

4-6. A. digitalis ESCH., I. e., t. 23, f. 7, 8. P. umbonata NUTTALL, 
in RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 107. P. oregona NUTT., I. c., f. 112. L. 
textilis GOULD, Expl. Exped. Sh. t. 29. f. 456. Collisella per- 
sona PALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 250, 1. 14, f. 8 (dentition). 
L. scabra OLD. (in part), Expl. Exped. Sh., f. 456b. A. radiata 
ESCH., Zool. Atl. p. 20. Tectura person a MARTENS, Mai. Bl..xix, 
p. 95, t. 3, f. 5, 6. 

An excessively variable species, ranging from about 30 to 50 
N. lat. 

The typical PERSONA is rather a smooth shell, corresponding to 
figs. 51, 52, of plate 3. 

Two main races may be distinguished. The minor modifications 
of each are numberless. 

Var. DIGITALIS Esch. PI. 2, figs. 29, 30, 31 ; pi. 3, figs. 53, 54, 55, 56. 
This is the most usual form found north of San Francisco Bay. 
It is dull, lusterless, whitish, with stripes and zigzags of blackish- 
brown. The apex is usually decidedly anterior and elevated ; the 
front ribs are obsolete, the posterior ribs strong, rounded, often 
uneven. Inside margin conspicuously tessellated ; central area 
generally dark and rather narrow. This is the oregona of authors, 
and probably radiata of Eschscholtz. It resembles the striped vari- 
ety of the Chilian A. ceciliana so closely that it would be absolutely 
impossible to separate a mixed lot. 

Var. UMBONATA Nuttall. PL 2, figs. 25, 26, 27, 28. 

The prevalent form southward of San Francisco is an oval shell 
with rather spreading sides, the ribs narrow, interspaces wide and 
flat. Color dark olive to blackish, closely flecked with fine white 
dots, and usually having coarse white dashes also. 

This variety becomes at times wholly free from ribs. 

Another variety, typically equally distinct, but nameless, is found 
rom San Francisco to San Diego. It is a small shell resembling 
somewhat A. patina. There are no riblets. The surface is luster- 
less, white, with numerous, rather narrow, radiating brown stripes, 
often broken or abruptly divaricating. Inside generally without a 
central dark area. Gould's figures of the synonymous L. scabra are 
copied on pi, 29, figs. 47, 48, 49. 



ACM.EA. 17 

A. PELTA Eschscholtz. PI. 8, figs. 86-95. 

>hell oval, conical, apex a little in front of the middle. Surface 
having rather coarse low ribs. Dark border of the inside very narrow, 
or reduced to a series of dark scallops. 

Aleutian Is. and south coast of Alaska to the Santa Barbara Islands, 
California. 

A. pelta ESCH., Zool. Atl. pt. v, p. 19. CARPENTER, Amer. 
Journ. Conch, ii, p. 336. BALL, Proc. V. S. Xat. Mus. 1878, p. 
338. Patella Jimbriata OLD., U. S. Expl. Exped. atlas, f. 44o. 
P. leucophcea (Xutt.) RYE., Conch. Leon. f. 101. P. mouticola NUTT., 
mss. ? A. cassis ESCH., Zool. Atl., p. 19, t. 24, f. 3. ? A. pileolus 
MIDD., Beitr. zu Mai. Ross, ii, p. 38, t. 1, f. 4, teste Cpr. Collisella 
pelta BALL, Amer. Jouru. Couch, vi, p. 246, t. 14, f. 6 (dentition). 
Tectura cassis MARTENS, Mai. Bl. xix, p. 92, t. 3, f. 9, 10. Patella 
cinis RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 60a, b, c. A. pelta var. nacelloides BALL., 
Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p, 247, t. 17, f. 36. 

Prominent characters of this species are the erect, conical form, 
rather wide coarse ribs, and the narrow margin of the inside, usually 
not continuous but composed of scallops or square spots. 

The variations may be classed under two main grouj >, as follows. 
Numerous intermediate forms occur. 

(1) Var. PELTA Esch,, typical. PI. 8, figs. 90, 91. 

Rather large, solid, strong, with low coarse ribs, almost obsolete, 
or visible only posteriorly. Central dark spot of the interior rather 
small or wanting. Grayish-white, with numerous radiating black 
stripes, often divaricating or broken into a tessellated pattern. 

As the ribs become stronger this passes into 
Form cassis (Esch.) Martens. PI. 8, figs. 86, 87, 88, 89. 

** 'lid, strong, having stout radiating ribs about 25-27 in number, 
those in front narrower or obsolete. Bark spot of the inside small 
or obscured ; margin with a mere dark line, or a series of scallops 
between the ends of the ribs. Outside dull, grayish. 

Another form connecting with the typical pelta is figured on pi. 8, 
figs. 92, 93, 94. It is small, conical, elevated, having much the 
shape of A. mitra. The color outside is gray, pink or light purple, 
painted with few or many black stripes. A dark spot is inside. 
Ribs obsolete. This is common at Olympia, Washington, growing 
on Mytilus. See Hemphill, Proc. A. X. S. Phila., 1881, p. 88, 
2 



18 ACM^EA. 

(2) Var. NACELLOIDES Ball (PL 6, figs. 43, 44, 45), agrees with 
A. instabilis in the blackish-brown color and in sculpture, but it is 
less compressed laterally, and the basal margins are level, not 
elevated at the ends. It is abundant, living on kelp, at Monterey. 
The proof of the alleged specific identity of instabilis with pelta 
is incomplete. The specimens collected by Henry Hemphill and 
described by him in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1881, p. 87, under 
the name instabilis, are typical nacelloides. Hemphill found that 
when these limpets live on the fronds and stems of kelp (Phyllospora) 
they have always the Nacella-like form and are black or dark brown ; 
when an individual leaves the kelp for a station on the rocks its 
additional growth is of the normal black and white striped or tessel- 
lated pattern usual in typical A. pelta. A specimen of this form, 
beginning life as nacelloides and becoming pe Ita, is figured on pi. 8, 

fig. 95. 

J^ 

A. INSTABILIS Gould. PI. 6, figs. 32, 33,, 

Shell narrow and oblong, the basal margin elevated at the ends ; 
texture thin ; slopes convex or bulging. Surface finely radiately 
striated ; dark brown or black. Inside white or bluish, with or 
without a faint brown spot in the cavity. 

Large specimens measure li inches (38 mill.) in length by 1 in. 
(23 mill.) breadth ; but the usual length is about one inch. 

Vancouver Id. to Monterey, Cat. 

P. instabilis GLD. ; Proc. Bost. Soc. K H. ii, p. 150, 1846 ; U. S. 
Expl. Exped. Atlas f. 454, 454a. Nacella instabilis CPR., et al. 
Acmcea instabilis DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 245. 

This species has been considered by some to be a form of A. pelta ; 
but no specimens connecting the two species have been reported, 
although it is not at all improbable that such may occur. At present 
A. instabilis has as valid grounds for being retained as a distinct 
species as A. insessa or A. asmi. 

A. INSESSA Hinds. PI. 6, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell rather thin but strong ; outline oval or oblong, the sides 
often parallel ; elevated, conical, the apex in front of the middle, 
slopes convex ; surface smooth, polished. Color varying from yel- 
lowish or olive-brown to chocolate ; inside usually very deep brown 
with a lighter border. Apex blackish, sometimes having snowy dots 



ACMJEA. 19 

or two crescents, the horns of one directed forward, of the other back- 
ward. Length 20, breadth 11, alt. 12 mill. 

Sitka south to San Diego, California. 

Patella insessa HINDS, Ann. and Mag. N. H. x, p. 82, t. 6, f.3. 
Nacella insessa CPU., Suppl. Rep. Brit. Asso. 1863, p. 650. Acmcea 
insessa BALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 244, 1. 14, f. 3 (dentition). 

A small, smooth, dark species. Faint, almost obsolete, radiating 
lines are usually perceptible. It is much larger than A. paleacea 
or depicta and is not so narrow. Compared with A. asmi it is larg- 
er, longer, and brown instead of black. 

The Bay of Monterey is probably the central point for this species, 
in regard to numbers of individuals. It lives on the fronds of sea- 
weed-. 

A. ASMI Middendorff. PI. 6, figs. 38, 39. 

;ell small, thin but strong and solid, elevated, conical, the base 
short-oval, apex erect, a little in front of the middle ; slopes of the 
cone somewhat convex. Surface lusterless, usually corroded, smooth 
except for very fine radiating stride visible with the aid of a lens, 
but obsolete in adult shells. Color rusty black. 

Inside black, with a brown zone just outside the muscle-scar. 

Length 10, breadth 8, alt. 7 mill. 

Length 8-i, breadth 7, alt. 8 mill. 

Sitka to Turtle Bay, Lower California. 

Patella asmi MIDD., Mai. Ross, ii, p. 39, t. 1, f. 5. Acmcea asmi 
CPR., Amer. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 341. Collisella asmi DALL, I. c., 
vi, p. 252, t. 14, f. 7 (dentition). 

In the suite of thirty or more of this species before me, no speci- 
mens show characters which warrant a union with any of the other 
species. It is an erectly conical, solid little shell, of a more rounded 
outline than A. insessa, and black instead of corneous in color. It 
is generally found living on Chlorostoma fanebrale or other black 
shells. 

A. DEPICTA Hinds. PL 6, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell small, thin, long and narrow, the sides parallel ; apex at the 
anterior fourth or third. Surface smooth, shining, having light 
growth-lines. Very light brown, with narrow dark brown stripes 
radiating from the apex and from the ridge of the back, where they 
form a series of v's. 



20 A CM.*: A. . 

Inside bluish-white, showing the color pattern of the outside 
through the shell. Length 11, breadth 4, alt. 3 mill. 

Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Diego, California. 

Patelloida depicta HINDS, Ann. and Mag. N. H. x, p. 82, t. 6, f. 
4 } 1842. Collisella ? depicta BALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 254. 

Resembles no species but A. paleacea. The long narrow form is 
caused by growth on Zostera fronds. There is some variation in the 
coloring, broad bands sometimes replacing the narrow lines. The 
front end is generally of a decidedly darker shade. A specimen of 
average proportions is figured. 

The form of this species as developed when growing on a flat sur- 
face instead of a narrow frond, is shown in fig. 41 of pi. 6 drawn 
from a specimen in the Smithsonian collection. It measures, length 
6, breadth 4-], alt. 1 mill. Sculpture and coloration are as in the 
type. 

A. PALEACEA Gould. PL 6, fig. 42. 

Shell small, thin, long and narrow 7 , parallel sided ; apex near the 
front end. Surface sculptured with close radiating riblets. Color 
yellowish-brown, darker toward the margins and on the front slope. 

Length 7, breadth H, alt. 2 mill. 

Monterey, Santa Barbara and San Diego, California. 

A. paleacea GLD., Mex. and Cal. Shells p. 3, t. 14, f. 5. CPR., 
P. Z. S. 1856, no. 40. Collisella paleacea DALL, Amer. Journ. 
Conch, vi, p. 253 (dentition). 

Smaller and narrower than A. depicta, the surface radiate! y ribbed 
and not variegated. The sculpture is quite distinct under a lens of 
moderate power. 

A. TRIANGULARIS. Carpenter. PI. 7, figs. 74-78. 

Shell small, rather thin, either oval or narrow and parallel-sided ; 
elevated, apex subcentral, a trifle recurved ; surface nearly smooth, 
but showing very fine radiating strife under a lens. Color pure 
white, sometimes immaculate, but usually having 6 or 7 wide brown 
rays, which usually do not extend to either apex or basal margin. 
There is almost always a brown spot just behind the apex. Inside 
pure white. 

Monterey and Baulinas Bay, California. 

Nacella (? paleacea, var.) triangularis CPR. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
iii, p. 213, 1866. Collisella (7) triangularis DALL, Am. Jour. Conch, 
vi, p. 254. Nacella casta CPR. olim. 



ACM.T.A. 21 

" They present nearlv every variation in form, from wide, oval and 
nearly flat, to narrow, triangular, high and very compressed. The 
extreme apex is almost always black. It is usually furnished with 
a few dark brown stripes, radiating from near the apex but seldom 
reaching the margin in adult specimens. These however are want- 
ing in some specimens. In all its forms it is a well marked species 
and cannot be united with any now known from the California coast. 
Dr. Carpenter proposes to rename this form specifically " casta " and 
to apply the term triangularis to the compressed variety only ; it is 
doubtful, however, if such a course would be admissible, as every 
transition in form can be observed in a very few specimens. (Dall.) 

Typical triangularis is shown in figs. 77, 78. An example meas- 
ures: length 6|, breadth 3, alt. 4 mill. 

The form called CASTA is illustrated by figs. 74, 75, 76. This is 
really the normal form of the species, the other being modified by 
the narrow frond supporting it. A large example measures : length 
12, breadth 9 ; alt. 4.} mill. 

Var. ORCUTTI Pilsbry. PL 42, figs. 84, 85, 86. 

Has the oval base of -4. i-#ta, but the apex is decidedly anterior, 
as in ^4. persona. Surface lusterless. having rather rude growth- 
lines and very obsolete, low, wide radiating riblets, some at wide inter- 
vals slightly more prominent. Color white, or tinged with cream or 
green ; apex obtuse, eroded, but around the eroded area there are 
brown dots, indicating that the young were marked like A. casta. 
Interior white or fleshy-cream tinted, sometimes with slight greenish 
or brown stains in the cavity : border wide, darker than the rest of 
the interior. Length 11?, breadth 9, alt. 03 mill. 

San Diego, California. 

Specimens of this curious variety were received from Mr. C. R. 
Orcutt. It has the coloration of some specimens of ^4. triangularis, 
but the form recalls ^4. persona. 

A. ROSACEA Carpenter. PL 7, figs. 71, 72, 73. 

Shell small, conical, thin, smooth or with very obsolete ribs. The 
young are pale roseate, with few white and brown subradiating 
spots ; the adults have rosy brown and whitish streaks or are dotted 
with pale rose. Apex elevated, a little anterior ; inside white or 
rosy. Length 8, breadth 6i, alt. 3? mill. 

San Diego to Monterey, California. 



22 ACM^>A. 

Acmcea (f pileolus var.~) rosacea CPR., Proc. Cal. Acad. iii, p. 213 ; 
Amer. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 341. Collisella (?) rosacea DALL. Amer. 
Journ. Conch, vi, p. 256. 

The shell is small, obtusely conical with an erect, subcentral apex. 
The ground color of the surface is a translucent white, suffused with 
rose toward the margin, where several indistinct rays of rose color 
appear. These are more evident on the inside. The extreme 
nucleus is usually white. The apex is profusely dotted with minute 
dark brown and opaque white specks of color, which are not rays, 
nor are they often arranged with any regularity ; these are more 
numerous on the posterior portion of the shell, but vary exceedingly, 
from a dark reticulated brown network of lines to wavy irregular 
penciling or sparse brown dots, usually most plenty on the inter- 
spaces of the ribs. The surface is smooth, especially in front, but 
from the apex radiate (especially on the posterior half of the shell) 
a number of very marked riblets which appear as if indented from 
below, and do not materially interrupt the smoothness of the surface, 
though the margin is rendered slightly crenulate by them. They 
are also of a more opaque white than the remainder of the shell, and 
sometimes form conspicuous white rays. (Dall.*) 

A. SYBARITICA Dall. PI. 9, figs. 22, 23, 24. 

Shell depressed, thin ; apex subcentral, more anterior in the 
young. General shape rounded-oval, hardly more narrow before 
than behind. Surface nearly smooth, with rounded concentric lines 
of growth, in young specimens a few faint hardly noticeable elevated 
radiating lines or riblets may be observed near the margin, which 
is entire. Internally smooth, border polished and also the cavity 
of the apex above the muscular impressions. Color a clear rose-pink, 
varying from quite deep and a little livid in some specimens, espe- 
cially the young, to a very faint pink. Apex white, even in very 
young specimens entirely eroded, rather blunt and inconspicuous ; 
sides of the shell ornamented with rays of a darker shade of pink, 
more or less gathered in groups, and more or less evident, accord- 
ing to the shade of the remainder of the shell. Internally the vis- 
ceral area is bluish-white, usually washed with a faint yellowish- 
brown, often hardly evident, in which case the area is whitish ; the 
successive layers of brown sometimes appear externally around the 
apex when eroded. The inner margin, and to some extent the 
whole interior, exhibit the external markings or rays through the 



ACM.EA. 23 

somewhat pellucid shell. Texture hard and brittle. Epidermis 
exceedingly thin, usually evanescent ; translucent, brownish. 
(Dall.) 

Pribiloff Is. to Hakodadi, Japan; Aleutian Is.; southeast to 
Chirikoff Island. 

A. sybaritica DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 257, t. 17, f. 34, 
1871 ; Proc. V. *. Nat. Mus. i, p. 341. 

A beautiful species. The largest specimens attain one inch in 
length, but those before me measure scarcely over 10 mill. It is 
always much depressed. Inhabits rather deep water. 

A. PERAMABILIS Dall. PI. 33, figs. 80, 81, 82. 

Shell thin, delicate, ovate ; externally of a uniform dark-rose-color, 
with a few scattered irregular blotches of light or dark-brown, 
nucleus pale. Within polished, bluish-white, with a chestnut-brown 
spectrum with sharply defined edges, outside of which for a short dis- 
tance the white is unsullied, but further toward the margin in adult 
specimens, radiating brown blotches may be observed forming a more 
or less interrupted band around the shell, which is wanting in the 
young. The margin is of the same deep rose as the exterior. Shell 
moderately elevated, with the apex well marked, sub-acute and situa- 
ted in the central third. Nucleus smooth, pale, sharply decurved 
with a chink beneath it, in front. Sculpture of fine, sharp, elevated 
threads which extend from the vertex to the margin without bifur- 
cation. These are crossed by very fine sharp lines of growth slightly 
elevated. 

Length 1-03 in. lat. 0'8, in. alt, 0'33 in. Posterior slope slightly 
arched. (Da//.) 

Shumagin group of islands; Alaska Territory, on rocks near low 
water mark. 

This lovely species has no relations with A. sybaritica Dall 
and rosacea Cpr., except those of color. The two latter are much 
smaller and the rose color is much lighter and differently disposed. 
Its nearest allies are some varieties of A. patina, in none of which 
have I observed any approach to the color of this species, and 
which have a different nucleus, and the sculpture in slender rounded 
riblets instead of sharp threads. The shell of patina is also in 
general much more solid and thick. The animal partakes of the 
rosy hue of the shell except the margin of the mantle which is 
furnished with brown dots. It belongs to the subgenus Collisella. 



24 ACMJ-.A. 

It is worthy of note that when there is a brown marking on the 
exterior, in the region of the sub-marginal internal mottled band, 
the latter is interrupted by a white space corresponding in size and 
width to the external marking. (Dall.) 

A. (Collisella) peramabilis DALL, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iv, p. 302, 
Dec. 17, 1872 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i. p. 341, 1878. 

My figures are drawn from a type specimen. It is a most 
beautiful shell, as delicate in coloring as a rose-petal. 

A. APICINA Dall. PL 7, figs. 66, 67. 

Shell small, conical, thin, rounded, more or less elevated ; whitish 
or isabelline, the apex erect, buff; inside buff, whitish or brown, 
smooth ; provided with subobsolete lines of growth outside. Length 
6, breadth 5, alt. 4 mill. (Dall.) 

Pribiloff Js. on the north ; Aleutians from Amchitka eastward to 
the Shumagitis, 0-70 fms. 

A. ( Collisella /) apicina DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, p. 341, 1878. 

Among 1 other small shells obtained from time to time on the beach 
or in the dredge, occasional specimens occurred which at first were 
supposed to be the young of A. mitra or pale specimens of A. sybar- 
'iticit. After eliminating some of the these, there remained, after care- 
ful study, a residue which do not appear to coincide in character with 
any described species. They are small, thin, conical, with a blunt 
erect apex marked by a light yellow spot, the rest of the exterior 
white or faintly yellowish, marked by obsolete lines of growth, 
smooth or nearly so but not polished. Within, fresh specimens are 
yellowish, whitish or orange-colored, and quite polished. The out- 
side is almost always covered with Nullipore. The chief characters 
are the rounded base, regularly conical and yellow spotted apex, 
with a thinner shell than A. mitra. (Dall.) 

My figures are drawn from* one of the types in the Smithsonian 
Institution, no. 30787 of the museum register. It is allied to 
A. mitra and A. virginea. 

A. MITRA Eschscholtz. PL 3, fig. 50. 

Shell dull-white, aperture nearly circular, wider behind, in some 
young examples somewhat elongated, oval; form conical, apex erect, 
nearly central, blunt, smooth, posterior surface usually straight, but 
occasionally a little convex ; exterior smooth, marked with very 
faint concentric lines of growth, devoid of epidermis ; margin entire, 
polished, with a narrow semi-pellucid rim inside. 



ACM.KA. 25 

Internally smooth or furnished with grooves radiating from the 
apex more or less strongly marked. Muscular impressions deep, 
strong, horse-shoe-shaped, with the marks of the anterior ends of the 
adductors rounded and broader than the rest, connected by a slender 
impressed line marking the attachment of the mantle. Young shells 
are .often furnished with irregular riblets more or less strong, many or 
few in number, radiating from the apex, but stronger towards the 
margin. Color dead-white inside and out, often livid or tinged a 
fine pink or pea green from Nullipore, never wax-yellow or horny- 
pellucid as in the normal state of Scurria scurra. 

Length 35, breadth 31, alt, 23 mill. 

Length 23, breadth 20, alt. 17 mill. 

Aleutian Is. to San Diego, California. 

A. mitra ESCH. in Rathke, Zool. Atl. pt. v, p. 1 18, t. 23, f. 4. 
DALL, Amer. Jour. Conch, vi, p. 241. A. mammillata ESCH., I.e. p. 
18. A. marmorea ESCH., I. c. p. 19 Scurria mitra GRAY, ADAMS, 
CARPENTER etal. S. f mitra DALL, Amer. Jour. Conch, v, p. 149 
(dentition) Lottia conica GLD., (part) Moll. U. S. Expl. Exped. p. 
346. S. mitra var. tenuisculpta CPR. Amer. Journ. Conch ii, p. 346. 
Scurria f fwiiculata CPR. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 214, 1865 ; 
Brit. Asso. Rep. 1863, p. 650 ; Amer. Jour. Conch, ii, p. 347. 

The shell of this conical white species is very distinct from the 
others inhabiting West America. It resembles Scunda scurra Less., 
of Chili in form, but has not the waxen-yellowish outer layer of that 
species. The largest specimen I have seen measures, length 45, 
breadth 41, alt. 28 mill. 

Var. TENUISCULPTA Cpr. Sculptured with distant radiating striae 
or lirulse. 

Var. FUNICULATA Cpr. Shell small, whitish, regularly conical, 
apex acute, elevated, a little in front of the middle; sculptured with 
strong rounded riblets, sometimes a little nodulous ; sometimes single, 
sometimes gathered into two's and three's ; with wide interspaces in 
which intercalary riblets appear. Length 6, breadth 4$, alt. 3 mill. 

Monterey, California. 

A curious small shell, having the contour of A. mitra, but with 
strong, smooth, crowded unequal ribs. The measurements are from 
the type in the Smithsonian Institution. 



26 ACM^EA. 

A. FASCICULARIS Menke. PL 6, figs. 50, 51, 52, 53. 

Shell rather thin, depressed, oval ; surface closely radiately stri- 
ated, the strife low, often obsolete but indicated by light dark lines. 

" The prevailing tints are a reddish-brown outside, more or less 
mottled or striped with white ; inside a prevailing white, more or less 
penciled or fretted with brown, and a border, sometimes white with a 
tessellated penciling of brown ; sometimes a delicate fawn shading 
into a pinkish or slightly greenish tinge, with or without penciling. 
The body mark is of a dark lustrous brown, or very light with a 
greenish tinge, or nearly absent. It is large for the size of the shell, 
more or less removed from the margin. In shape, A. fascicularis is 
much longer, and generally smaller than discors. The standard 
color of A. mesoleuca is green, of A. fascicularis red. In A. meso- 
leuca the markings are laid on with stripes and patches, in A. fascic- 
ularis with very fine penciling. In the latter the outline of the 
body mark is much more regularly gathered up into points with 
concave margins between, the points often making regular lines radi- 
ating from the center. The surface of A. mesoleuca is covered with 
granulose ribs with soft interstices and a very thin smooth epidermis ; 
that of A. fascicularis is very much more finely marked, showing under 
the glass, smooth ribs with the interstices extremely finely cancel- 
lated with very close, slightly rugose concentric stride, covered with 
an extremely thin, rather velvety epidermis. The surface of A. fascic- 
ularis is much more generally abraded ; and as the young shells were 
not uncommon in the Spondylus and Chama washings, while not one 
was found of A. mesoleuca, it is presumed that their station is different. 
The apex is sometimes brown, sometimes white ; and in the smallest 
specimen, '035 by '025, shows no trace of being spirally recurved. 
The young shells are known by their finely cancellated texture and 
delicately reddish penciling ; and generally, by a white spot pro- 
ceeding from the apex posteriorly bounded by red lines. In all 
stages it is thin, and very glossy within." (Q?r.) 

Length 27, breadth 21, alt. 6 mill. 

Mazatlan, and Gulf of California generally. 

A. fascicularis MKE. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1851, p. 38. CPU. Mazat. 
Cat., p. 255. DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 253, t. 14, f. 11 
(dentition). A. mutabilis MKE, in part, 1. c., p. 37. Patella opea 
RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 79, teste CPR. 

A beautifully penciled species, allied to S. mesoleuca. The 
synonymous P. opea of Reeve as represented on pi. 6, figs. 52, 53. 



ACM^EA. 27 

A. STRIGATELLA Carpenter. PI. 7, figs. 83, 84, 85. 

The shell is ovate, a little wider behind, elevated ; apex at the 
front fourth of the length. Young with excessively fine dose radiat- 
ing stria*, crossed by growth-lines, largely worn off in adult specimens. 
Apex very acute in young, eroded, dark brown and polished in old 
shells. Coloration : Marked with irregular, forking black stripes on 
a white ground, interspersed around the apex when not eroded, with 
dots and small narrow or needle-shaped white streaks. Inside bluish- 
white, with the central area indistinctly irregularly clouded with 
brown. Border wide, vividly tessellated with blackish-brown. 

Length 19, breadth 14, alt, 7 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 

A. strigatella CPR., Ann. Mag. N. H. 3d. Ser. xiii, p. 474. A. 
strigillata CPR., Suppl. Kep. 1863, p. 618. Collisella strigatella 
DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 253. 

The figures and description are from a type in the Smithsonian 
Institution collection. The A.filosa of Carpenter of which I have 
seen the type, seems to be a variety of this, differing in sculpture and 
the more depressed form. The Carpenterian specimen of strigatella 
in the Philadelphia collection has the radiating stripes less regular, 
k more anastomosing. 

A. FILOSA Carpenter. PL 7, figs. 80, 81, 82. 

Similar to A. mesoleuca in form and texture; but sculpture much 
more delicate ; young shell smooth ; then with delicate acute lirulje, 
scarcely granulose, very distant, sometimes obsolete; interstices 
wide, smooth; thin, flat. Oval, subdiaphanous, blackish-brown 
radiately strigate or variously maculated with corneous. Inside 
livid or whitish, the colors of the outside showing through; border 
broad, acute. Length '7, breadth '56, alt. "12 inch. (Cpr.) 

Panama. 

Lottia ? patina C. B. AD., Cat. Pauam. Sh. no. 367. Acmcea (f 
floccata, var.^filosa CPR., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 276. 

In shape and texture, but not in color or sculpture, these shells 
resemble ^4. fascicu la ris ; in the latter respects, .4. strigatella. ' (Cpr.) 

I have examined the type of this species. It has much the 
appearance of A. strigatella, but differs in sculpture, having the liru- 
Ise very delicate and more widely separated. It measures, length 
171, breadth 14, alt. 2i mill. 



28 ACM/EA. 

A. SUBROTUNDATA Carpenter. PI. 33, figs. 1,2, 3. 

Shell similar to A. filosa, but subrotund, more elevated, vertex 
subcentral ; color more intense, the corneous lines closer, narrow ; 
young shell paler, with two triangular rays posteriorly ; inside callus 
livid, thinner. Length '53, width '45, alt. '15 inch. (Q>r.) 

Panama. 

Lottia sp. ind. a, C. B. AD., Panam. Cat. no. 368. Acmcea (f 
floccata, var.} subrotundata CPU., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 277. 

I give figures of the type of this species, no. 15922 of the Smith- 
sonian Institution collection. It is a subcircular shell, with the sub- 
acute, erect apex near the center. The surface has sub-obsolete nar- 
row, separated radiating threads. If held toward the light, fine close 
unequal brown radiating lines are seen through it. The outside 
appears of a dingy brownish, with obscure lighter lines. The inside 
is bluish-white, with a chestnut spot in the cavity of the apex ; border 
wide, dark, with close lines of dark brown. Length 13-}, breadth 
11, alt. 4 mill. ; distance of apex from front end, 51 mill. 

In my opinion the A. vernicosa of Carpenter is a variety of this. 

A. VERNICOSA Carpenter. PI. 33, figs. 99. 

Shell small, subrotund, depressed-conical, apex situated at the 
front two fifths of the shell's length ; whitish-green, ornamented here 
and there with a few reddish-brown streaks ; sometimes with white 
rays ; sculptured faintly with acute, radiating very distant lines, 
sometimes obsolete; inside livid, callous, generally with a white 
spatula; base subplanate, border narrow. (Cpr.) 

Length 7, breadth 5f alt. 2 mill. 

Panama. 

Lottia sp. ind. b, C. B. AD., Panam. Sh. no. 369. Acmcea (f var.) 
vernicosa CPR., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 277. 

Had this form been brought from the China Seas it might have 
been taken for A. biradiata Rv. From its solidity, however, its 
rough exterior, and its callous interior, it appears to be adult. It is 
barely possible that it may develop into A. vespertina. It differs 
from the young of A. subrotundata in being much thicker and less 
spotted with the green tint. (Cpr.) 

To Carpenter's description and remarks I add figures from the 
type, in the Smithsonian collection. It is a small, yellowish form, 
very solid, with erect, acute apex. I regard it as a probable variety 
of A. subrotundata Cpr. With " vespertina " it has nothing to do. 



A OLE A. 29 

A. MITELLA Menke. PI. 6, figs. 46, 47, 48, 49. 

Shell small, conical, oval, apex in front of the middle ; slopes 
straight or nearly so, surface radiately sculptured with larger and* 
smaller riblets ; color greenish or gray, often encrusted with a white 
coralline. Edge scarcely crenulated. 

Inside white, with margin regularly spotted with black ; central 
tract marbled with brown, generally with a bluish-black spot near 
the center. Length 11, breadth 8, alt. 5 to 6 mill. 

Mazatlan to the Gulf of California. 

A. mitella MKE. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1847, p. 187. CPR. Mazat. 
Cat. p. 210 BALL, Am. Journ. Conch, vi. p. 253, t. 14, f. 9 (denti- 
tion). P. navicula RYE. Conch. Icon. f. 130. 

Small, conical, rather finely radiately ribbed, the inside border 
regularly spotted with black. 

A. DISCO RS Philippi. PI. 9, fig. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell oval, solid, depressed, apex near the anterior third ; slopes 
gently convex. Surface generally encrusted ; having about 10-15 
strong radiating folds around the apex, usually lost by erosion in 
adult shells and wholly absent on the later growth of the shell, which 
is closely, finely radiately striated. Margin very finely crenulated, 
often dotted with black. Color greenish or grayish-white, with more 
or less distinct radiating black lines. 

Inside white, often mottled with purple or brown. Muscle-scar 
distinctly impressed. Length 48, breadth 37, alt. 14 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas and Mazat Ian to Panama. 

P. discors PHIL. Abbild., t. 2, f. 6. RVE, Conch. Icon., f. 78. 
CPR. Mazat. Cat., p. 201. 

This species is peculiar in being puckered around the apex, when 
not eroded. It is usually encrusted with coralline, alga?, etc. 

A. ATRATA Carpenter. PL 7, figs. 61, 62, 63, 64, 65. 

Shell solid, oval, apex at the anterior third; sculptured with un- 
equal, irregular ribs, the interstices narrow. On a whitish ground it 
has black stripes and lines, and the eroded apex is black. 

Inside white ; the border yellowish-gray, tessellated with square 
black spots, usually bifid; the central area callous, white, clouded 
with brown and faint livid-purplish tints. It is excavated anteriorly 
at the cavity of the apex. Muscle-scar distinct, rugose. 

Length 31, breadth 24, alt. 14 mill. 



30 ACM^A. 

The young (figs. 64, 65) are flatter, and have very close, acute, 
unequal ribs, sharply crenulating the margin. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 

A. (7 var.) atrata CPR. Ann. Mag. N. H. 3d Ser., xiii, p. 474. 
Collisella atrata DALL, Amer. Jour. Conch, vi, p. 225, t. 14, f. 15, 
15a, (dentition.) 

A perfectly distinct species, allied to A. pediculus, but more 
elevated, with differently patterned interior. My description and 
figures are drawn from the types in the Smithsonian Institution 
collection. 

A. PEDICULUS Philippi. PI. 6, figs. 34, 35 ; PL 7, figs. 68, 69, 70. 

Shell normally flat, oblong, solid, with ten stout rounded ribs 
projecting at the margins, of which two are in the axis of length 
with four on each side ; ribs and interstices radiately striated ; yel- 
lowish-white generally with more or less of black or brown tortoise- 
shell markings within, sometimes with black between the ribs. 
Sometimes the shell is more rounded and the ribs more angular, in 
which state it might be taken for the young of P. mexicana. 
Occasionally a few other intercalary ribs appear. In a very few un- 
usually large specimens, the ribs are nearly obsolete at the margin 
and the shell is much lengthened. The body mark varies as usual; 
when plain it is gathered into points as in P. discors. The very 
young shells appear not to develop the ribs marginally, in which 
state they might be taken for the young of P. discors. The stout ribs 
of the adult shell however bear no analogy with the very finely 
marked surface of the latter with its curiously puckered circum-un- 
bonal portion. With the young of P. mexicana it has much more 
close analogies. The largest specimens of P. pediculus however do 
not at all run into the smallest of P. mexicana. They have all the 
appearance of being old shells, with the margift narrow and the 
shape long and irregular, while P. mexicana, as it is traced upwards, 
displays a very wide semitranslucent margin, and a broad regular 
shape, with the ribs not rounded and prominent but simply giving 
an angular form to the shell. Even when very young, they are 
almost always incrusted with corallinous matter. ( Cpr.) 

West Mexico, Mazatlan to Acapulco. 

P.pediculus PHIL. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p 21, No. 8. CARPEN- 
TER, Mazat. Catal. p. 200. P. corrugata RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 132, 



ACMJEA. 31 

1855 Collisella pediculus DALL, Amer. Journ. Couch, v i. p. 255, 
t. 15, f. 16 (dentition). 

The ribs extend to the margin in this species; in A. discors they 
merely pucker the central part. Some specimens have the interior 
most beautifully variegated with rich brown, black and steel-blue. 
One of these, from the Academy collection is figured on pi. 7, fig- 
ures 68-70. The figures on pi. 6 represent Reeves synonymous P. 
corrugata. 

A. STIPULATA Reeve. PI. 6, figs. 27-31. 

Shell solid, ovate-oblong, depressed, apex in front of the middle ; 
slopes convex ; sculptured with about 10 principal radiating ribs, 
scarcely larger than the numerous wide and narrow, rounded inter- 
mediate ribs, but giving a somewhat angular outline to the base. 
Color " greenish-black, faintly rayed with a few whitish lines " or 
light green, blotched with dark olive. 

Inside white tinged with green, muscle-scar impressed, narrow, 
white, the tract within it olive-green ; border of shell light green, 
clouded with blue-green and irregularly dotted with black. 

Length 27, breadth 18, alt. 6 mill. 

Panama. 

P stipulata Rv., Conch. Icon. f. 117, 1855. 

A solid, depressed species, with low, rounded ribs, the interior 
having an olive or brownish-green central area. A specimen in the 
collection of the Smithsonian Institution agrees with the one figured 
from the Philadelphia collection (figs. 29, 30, 31). The other fig- 
ures, 27, 28, are from Reeve, and represent a slightly different 
coloring. 

Undetermined West American species of Acmcea. 

Patella (Acmcea /) personoides Midd., Beitr. zueiner Mai. Rossica 
ii, p. 37, t. 1, f. 2, (=A. ancyloides Midd., Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 
vi) from Kenai Bay, north-west Coast America, is probably a form 
of A. pelta Esch. 

Patella (Acmcea f) ceruginosa Midd., /. c., p. 38, 1. 1, f. 1, is perhaps 
a form of A. patina. 

Lepeta puntarence Morch (Mai. Bl. vii, p. 175) is perhaps an 
Acmcea. The description is as follows : Shell oval, apex elevated, 
excentric; inside milk-white, outside yellowish, closely decussated 



32 ACMJEA. 

with thick, narrow radiating and concentric subequal lines, the inter- 
sections nodose ; margin entire. Has the aspect of Lepeta cceca 
Mull. Length 6, breadth 4, alt. 2 mill. 

Ptmtarenas (W. coast Central America). A single specimen. 
Differs from L. caeca in the very coarse and close concentric lines, 
and the numerous finer radiating lines. 

*** 

III. SPECIES OF THE WESTERN COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

Of the following species, I have not seen A. coffea Rv., exilis 
albescens and nisoria Phil. Of the others, numerous specimens have 
been examined. 

A. SCUTUM Orbigny. PI. 4, figs. 77, 78, 79, 80, 81. 

Shell rounded-oval, conical, the apex directed forward, nearer the 
middle than the front margin. Front slope straight, back slope 
somewhat convex. Surface nearly smooth, but finely radiately 
striate, the stride obsolete on some specimens. Color black, dotted 
or spotted more or less profusely with white. Edge of the shell 
smooth, even. 

Inside white, with a broad black margin (often spotted with white), 
and a'dark brown central tract, which is usually partially or wholly 
concealed in old individuals by a white layer. Muscle-scar incon- 
spicuous. Length 40, breadth 35, alt. 15 mill., or less. 

Peru to Sts. of Magellan. 

A. scutum ORB. (not Esch.), Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 479, t. 64, f. 
8-10. CARPENTER, Amer. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 335. L. punctata 
GRAY, where? 

Has some resemblance to black forms of A. patina. It is a solid, 
black species, usually rather conical, more or less dotted with white. 
Young specimens have the apex decidedly hooked forward, and the 
central spot dark and prominent. It is a true Acmcea. 

A. VIRIDULA Lamarck. PI. 1. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Shell rounded-oval, conical, or depressed, the. apex in front of the 
middle. Surface having about 20 low, rather wide radiating ribs, 
and obscurely, finely striated all over the ribs and interstics. The 
color-pattern is a close, fine network of light-green on a white 
ground, the intervalsjbetween the ribs with larger spots of green, 



ACM.KA. 33 

ribs lighter; adults more of an even gray all over. Edge of shell 
even, smooth, with a green or light green border within. 

Inside pure white in old shells, but with an irregular green >r 
brown central spot in the younger stages. 

Length 70, breadth 60, alt. 23 mill. 

Peru to Chili. 

Patella viridula, LAM. An. s. Vert, vii, p. 539 DELESSERT, 
Recueil, t. 23, f. 2 RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 26 a, b, c. Lottia viridula 
OLD., T. 8. Kxpl. Exped. p. 353, t. 30, f. 459. Patella pretrei ORB., 
Toy. Amer. Merid. p. 481, t, 78, f. 15, 16.? P. (Acmtw pluvt 
PHIL. Abbild iii, t. 2, f. 3.? .4. nisoria PH., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, 
p. 49; Abbild. t. 2, 8. 

Differs from Scurria zebrina in the character of the painting, and 
in the sculpture. The viridula lacks the cordon of branchial papilla? 
possessed by the other species. 

Orbigny's P. pretrei (PL 34, figs. 9, 10) is evidently a variety. 
A. piano- Phil, may perhaps be the youn^of this species ; see under 
A. araucana. A. nisoria probably belongs here also. The descrip- 
tion is as follows. 

Var. NISORIA Philippi. PL 4, figs. 82, 83, 84. 

Shell solid ; suborbicular, elevated-conical, radiately obscurely 
ribbed-striate ; whitish, subtessellated with lines, flames and dots of 
brown ; apex situated at the front two-fifths of the length. Inside 
white, often brown in the cavity, the border dotted with brown. 
Length 15, breadth 14, alt. 6 mill. The impressed radii are irregu- 
lar, and sometimes there is a weak indication of about 16 radial 
ribs. The nearly circular form, the height and thickness of the 
shell, as well as the coloration, mark out this species from its allies. 
(Phil) 

A. CECILIANA Orbigny. PL 34, figs. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 14, 15, 16. 

Shell solid, oval, elevated, the apex in front of the middle, some- 
times decidedly anterior ; posterior slope frequently decidedly arched. 
The surface has 13 to 16 strong elevated radiating ribs, those upon 
the posterior slope most strongly developed. Color grayish, with 
several black lines in each intercostal space. Edge of shell more or 
less strongly crenated by the ribs. 

Inside soiled white, the margin articulated with black. The 
central area has five or six longitudinal black stripes on a white 
ground. Length 17, breadth 14, alt. 7 mill. 

3 Falkland Is.; Strait of Magellan ; Chill. 




34 ACM^EA. 

Patella ceciliana ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 482, t. 81, f. 4-6. 
GAY, Hist. Chil. viii, p. 260, 1854. L. viridula GLD., in part, 
Exped. Atlas, f. 459c, 459d, 459e, and text, p. 354. P. monticula 
NUTTALL mss. teste Old., /. c. 

This shell has much resemblance in form to strongly sculptured 
examples of A cmaza persona of California; and it is as variable as 
that species. Some specimens are so elevated that the height of the 
cone is equal to the breadth of its base, and others are comparatively 
depressed. The curious streaks of the central area are very charac- 
teristic of typical specimens, but in old individuals this is often more 
or less obscured. Dwarfed specimens before me measure, length 9, 
width 82, alt. 7 mill. They have strongly arched basal side-margins, 
probably from growing pebbles or small gastropod shells. 

Figures 17, 18, 19 are D'Orbigny's figures of ceciliana. 

I rank the following described form as a variety : 

Var. SUBPERSONA Pilsbry. PI. 34, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell the shape of Acmcea persona. Apex curved forward, its 
distance from front margin i to i the length of the shell. Anterior 
ribs obsolete, ribs at the back and sides 10-12 in number, rounded, 
sometimes irregular, some of them obsolete. White, with v-shaped 
or irregularly triangular black markings, the black often predomi- 
nating, and frequently finely speckled or netted with white dots. 

Inside white with gray and black spotted margin and solid, dark 
chestnut central area. 

Valparaiso, Chili, southward. 

A. VARIABILIS (Sowerby) Reeve. PI. 34, figs. 1-8. 

Shell short, oval, very much depressed, the apex a little behind 
the anterior third. Slopes somewhat convex. Surface sculptured 
with numerous low, close, subequal riblets; gray or of a light green 
tint, radiately painted with black lines of varying widths in the 
intercostal intervals ; edge smooth, even, scarcely modified by the 
ribs. 

Inside smooth, the muscle-scar white (rarely dark in the young), 
the central area black, conspicuously mottled with white ; border 
broad, grayish or greenish- white, articulated with black; tract 
between border and muscle-scar white, chestnut or blackish-brown. 

Length 32, breadth 26, alt. 5-7 mill. 

Chili. 



ACM.V.A. 35 

Lottia variabilis SOWERBY (in part), Zool. Beechey's Voy. p. 147, 
t. 39, f. 5, not figs. 3, 4; 1839. Patella variabilis Gray, RYE., Conch. 
Icon. t. 25, f. 63, 1855. P. penicillata RYE., 1. c., f. 102. P. 
(Acmcea?) lineata Phil., Abbild. iii, t. 2, f. 1 (1846). 

This is unquestionably a distinct species, characterized by its 
depressed contour and mottled central area. The outside is usually 
much eroded. The black lines of the exterior are often interrupted, 
and in large specimens they are arranged in about a dozen broad 
but indistinct bands. The synonymy given above is unquestionable. 

A. ARAUCANA Orbigny. PI. 16, figs. 21, 22, 22. 

Shell ovate, extremely depressed, costate, whitish, inside whitish, 
margin crenulated, brownish. Diam. 30, alt. 4 mill. (Orb.} 

Valparaiso. 

P. araucana ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 482, t. 65, f. 4-6. 
Collisella araucana DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 257 (animal). 
f Patella plana PHIL., Abbild., Patella, t. 2, f. 3. P. plana RY., 
Conch. Icon., f. 133. 

The specimens before me are longer than Orbigny's figured type, 
and the ribs are more separated. The shell is frequently distorted. 

I am inclined to believe that A. plana of Philippi is a synonym or 
variety of A. viridula ; but A. plana of Reeve is very probably a 
synonym of araucana. My material is too limited to enable me to 
decide this question. 

A. COFFEA Reeve. PI. 4, figs. 91, 88. 

Shell ovate, convexly depressed, radiately densely ridge-striated, 
always very much eroded ; brown-black within and without, finely 
denticulated at the margin. (JRw.) 

Valparaiso. 

P. co/ea RY., Conch. Icon., f. 139, 1855. 
A. EXILIS Philippi. PI. 4, figs. 89, 90, 91 . 

Shell minute, thin, elongate-elliptical, convex, smooth, white, 
painted with brown rays ; apex at the front third. 

Length 6, breadth 4, alt 2i mill. 

In size and form just like Patelloidea elongata Q. & G., and per- 
haps is only a variety of it. That species should be netted over a 
greenish-yellow ground, according to the description ; but the illus- 
tration of it shows simple red rays upon a gray ground, the two pos- 
terior rays broader and darker ! The present species has about 20 



36 ACM^EA. 

to 24 dark reddish-brown rays, mostly in pairs, the interstices often 
milk-white, and a brown apex. The inside is similarly colored. 
One specimen is flatter. (Phil.) 

Cape Horn. 

A. exilis PH., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 50 ; Abbild. iii, t. 2, f. 6. 
Probably a young shell. 

A. ALBESCENS Philippi. PI. 4, figs. 85, 86, 87. 

Shell small, thin, ovate-oblong, elliptical, conical, sculptured 
with close, little elevated, obsolete radiating ribs ; whitish, sometimes 
radiated and spotted with brown ; apex elevated, situated at the 
front third. Inside white, margins incumbent at the ends. 

Length 10, width 7i, alt. 4 mill. 

Six specimens are before me. In the young the acute apex is very 
prominent, and also the ribs, of which I count about 24, are much 
more distinct. With age they become more and more obsolete, 
and in old examples which have lost the apex by erosion, they 
often can not be recognized with certainty. Young examples are 
frequently pure white with yellowish apex ; older ones have more or 
less brown markings. The border is pale brownish, and does not lie 
in a plane, for the sides are higher than the ends. The inside is 
white, or brownish when there is brown to be seen outside. (Phil.) 

Central Chili. 

A. albescens PH., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 50; Abbild. iii, t. 2, 
f. 7. 

This seems to be young. 

* * * 
i 

IV. WEST INDIAN SPECIES. 

Many specimens of all described West Indian Acmaeidse, except 
the doubtful A. Antillarum Sow., have been examined by the 
author. 

The West Indian Acmseas are few in number and of small size. 
Their affinities are with the species of western Mexico. The syn- 
onymy is involved in great confusion. Of the four commoner species 
I have seen hundreds of specimens, and am still inclined to consider 
them quite distinct. 

The Acmcea hamillei of Fischer (Journ. de Conchyl. v. p. 277, 
and J. de C. 1872, p. 145, PI. 5, f. 6) is the same as Scutellina antil- 
larum (Shutt.) Dall, and as the latter was until 1890 a mere mss. 
name, the species should hereafter be known as Scutellina 
hamillei. 



A< M.KA. 37 

The species may be briefly diagnosed as follows : 

.-I . punctulata Grn. Depressed or low-conic, the apex acute, conical, 
subcentral ; riblets irregular ; pinkish, usually dotted with red. 
Inside white with a narrow, pale margin, the spatula white or sal- 
mon colored. 

A. candeana Orb. Depressed, low-convex, closely and finely 
radiately striate. Light yellowish with narrow brown lines usually 
gathered into rays. Inside with a wide border and central brown 
area. 

A. earpenteri Pils. Moderately elevated ; closely evenly and finely, 
rather obsoletely radiately striated ; rayed with pinkish-purple on a 
light buff ground. Inside with a rather narrow border, spotted at 
the terminations of the rays. The central area more or less marked 
with brown. 

A. antillarum Sowb. See under A. candeana. 

A. oni/china Gld. Depressed, solid, having low but rather wide 
ribs, the fibs and intervals closely, finely, radiately striate. 

A. leucopleura Gm. Conical or depressed, the apex subcentral ; 
coarsely radiately ribbed, ribs white, intervals dark or spotted 
with dark brown or black ; inside with a very narrow border and 
brown or brown-outlined central tract. 

A. cubensis Rve. Conical, solid, with fine radiating riblets ; 
closely marked with radiating black lines which frequently bifurcate 
and anastomose ; inside with a verv narrow dotted border and a 
dark central area. 

A. PUNCTULATA Gmelin. PL 5, figs. 99, 100, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 
13. 

Shell wide-oval, depressed or depressed-conical, the apex acute 
and subcentral. Surface sculptured with rather rude, low separated 
riblets of which some (about every third or fourth rib) are larger. 
Color yellowish or delicate pink, marked with distinct red dots be- 
tween the riblets. 

There is apparently no epidermis. Often the surface is finely 
speckled all over with pink, and there is sometimes a blotch of 
carmine on each side of the apex. The inside is white; the border is 
very narrow, irregular, translucent gray. There are often reddish- 
brown dots sparsely scattered along the border, which seem to be 
under the gray edge. The central tract is short, wide, and either 
white or of a light salmon color. Length 24, width 19, alt. 7 mill. 



38 ACMvEA. 

Bermuda and Key West, Florida, south to Guadeloupe and Vera 
Cruz, Mexico. 

Patella punctulata GMELIN, Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3705, no. 68, and 
again p. 3717, no. 132. ?, P. punctata LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 333, 
no. 34. P. puncturata LAM., 1. c., p. 333, no. 35. RVE, Conch Icon., 
f. 122 a, b. Patella pustulata HELBLING, Beitrage zur Kenntniss 
neuer and seltener Conchylien, in Abhandlungen einer Privatgesell- 
schaft in Bohmen zur Aufnahme der Matheraatik, der Vaterland- 
ischen Geschichte und der Naturgeschichte, vi, p. 110, t. 1, f. 12, 
Prag, 1779. GMELIN, Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3720, no. 147. ARANGO, 
Fauna Mai. Cubana, p. 230. Patella cubaniana ORB., Moll. Cuba 
ii, p. 199, t. 25, f. 4-6. P. confuta and P. pulcherrima GUILDING. 

A very variable shell, but easily known from its West Indian fel- 
lows. There are sometimes delicate raised laminae in the direction 
of growth lines, making wide low scales over the ribs. The young 
are almost always high and conical, very different from the depressed 
adult form. A frequent variation is illustrated by fig. 5, represent- 
ing a convex, dome-shaped variety. Specimens from Key West, 
Fla., are small, thin, and narrower than most from the Islands ; they 
form the var. pulcherrima Guild., of authors. The Bermuda speci- 
mens are small and conical. 

Figs. 11-13 represent the cubaniana of Orbigny. 

/A. CANDEANA Orbigny. PI. 5, figs. 91, 92, 93, 94, 95. 

Shell ovate, depressed, the apex in front of the middle, slopes 
genily convex ; surface finely, regularly striated radiately ; gray or 
dull buff, with radiating black lines, often gathered into 7 to 9 
broad rays. 

Inside white (or brown tinted), with a wide translucent-gray 
border usually closely articulated with brown lines; central area 
generally brown or brown and white marbled. 

Length 25, breadth 21, alt. 8 mill. 

Bahamas and West Florida to Tobago, West Indies. 

P. Candeana ORB., Moll. Cuba ii, p. 199, t. 25, f. 1-3. A. can- 
deana DALL, Cat. Mar. Moll. s.-e. U. S. p. 156. Patella tenera 
C. B. AD., Synopsis Conchyliorum Jamaicensium, etc., in Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 8, 1845. RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 104. Patella 
(Acmcea?) elegans PHIL., Abbild. iii, p. 34 (Patella p. 6, t. 2, f. 2.) 

More finely and regularly striated than A. punctulata, the apex 
less erect, more anterior. The color-pattern also is quite different. 



ACM.EA. 39 

There is considerable likeness between this species and A.fascicu- 
fdj'ift Mke, a form from the Gulf of California. 

In thin or young specimens the lines of the outside show through 
the bluish-white internal layer. Sometimes the light ground-color, 
sometimes the dark markings predominate in the coloration. 

The form called elegans by Philippi (see pi. 5, figs. 96, 97, 98) 
differs in having the border very narrow. It was described from La 
Guayra, Venezuela, in 1846; and if I were assured of its identity 
with candeana, I would call the species Acmcea elegans, as that 
name has some years priority over Orbigny's. 

A. catideana is more depressed than A. Carpenteri, with wider, 
differently marked internal border and different coloration. 

Var. antillarum Sowb. A curious varietal form referable to A. 
candeana is figured on pi. 42, figs. 92-95. It is decidedly elevated, 
the surface having minute radiating striae around the apex, becom- 
ing obsolete below. It is rayed with narrow, light blue stripes on a 
blackish ground, dotted with blue around the apex. Inside bluish- 
white, the body-mark deep chestnut in the young and half-grown 
(fig. 95), but partly overlaid with white in the adult ; border dark, 
articulated with light, Length 20, breadth 16, alt. 74 mill. The 
specimens were collected at St. Kitts by Dr. \Vm. H. Rush, l>. S. N. 

I have little doubt that this is the Lottia antillarum, some speci- 
mens in Dr. Rush's collection agreeing exactly Sowerby's figure. 

Lottia antillarum Sowerby (pi. 5, fig. 7), has never been charac- 
terized in any way. The original figures are copied on my plate, 
(see Sowerby, A Conchological Manual, p. 59, fig. 231, 1839.) 

A. < AEPENTKRI Pilsbiy. PI. 33, figs. 70, 71, 72, 73. 

Shell oval, rather thin ; apex situated near the anterior third of 
the length, obtusely rounded ; surface very finely, evenly radiately 
striated all over, rayed with purplish-pink on a light buff ground, 
the rays 8-12 in number, the anterior ones narrower; more or less 
flecked with light brown around the apex. 

Inside white, either immaculate or having a brown spot in the 
cavity and a narrow outline around the central area ; rays of the 
exterior generally indistinctly showing through ; margin narrow, 
buff, with brown spots at the ends of the rays. 

Length 204, breadth 154, alt. 8 mill. 

West Indie*. 



40 ACM.KA. 

A. melanosticta CARPENTER, in Mus. Smithsonian Institution, 
not P. melanosticta GMEL., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3724; founded on Die 
weiase grau gestrahlte and schwartz punctirte Napfschnecke of 
SCHRCETER, Einleitung in die Conchylienkenntniss, ii, p. 497, t. vi, 
f. 9, an unidentifiable but certainly different Acmwa. 

The young or half grown are often prettily flecked with light 
brown v-shaped or zigzag markings, most distinctly seen on the in- 
side (fig. 73). The rays are sometimes absent, and are usually 
obscure on unworn adult specimens, which are dull and lusterless 
outside. My figures are drawn from the types in the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

The stria? are more even, more obsolete than in A. candeana; the 
apex is more elevated, more anterior, the coloration is of a different 
pattern, and the internal border is narrower, and either unspotted or 
with fewer spots than in the candeana. 

The synonymy given above is merely nominal, and is introduced 
only to explain the labels given by Carpenter to the specimens in 
the Smithsonian and probably in other collections. Anyone who 
suspects that this is the melanosticta of Gmelin, after a perusal of his 
description, may consult the reference in Schroter, and be satisfied 
that it is not. Gmelin's diagnosis was compiled from Schroter's. 

A. LEUCOPLEURA Gmelin. PI. 5, figs. 16-26. 

Shell solid, rounded-oval, erectly conical or depressed, the apex 
subcentral; surface sculptured with about 12 strong primary ribs, 
but large specimens have 20 to 30 ribs around the base, the number 
being increased by the interposition of interstitial ribs, not reaching 
to the apex. Ribs white, interstices brown or black. 

Inside white with a narrow gray border usually black dotted, the 
central area brown or outlined with brown. 

Length 23, breadth 18, alt. 9 mill. 

Southwest Florida to Guadeloupe. 

Patella leucopleura Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3699, no. 34. LAM.> 
An. s. Vert, vi, p. 332. Acmcea melanolenca DALL (not Gmelin), 
Catal. Mar. Moll. S.-E. U. S. p. 156. P. albicosta C. B. AD., Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 8, 1845. P. atbicostata RYE., Conch. Icon. f. 
128, 1855. P. balanoides Rv., 1. c., f. 137. P. occidental-is Rv., 
/. c., f. 135.; P. cimeliata Rv., I. c., f. 116. 

There is considerable variation in this species, but it is always 
much more coarsely ribbed than A. cubensis Rve. The extremes 



ACM.V.A. 41 

of form are shown by tigs. 18 and 19, representing small specimens. 
The best figure referred to by Gmelin is that in Knurr's " Vergnugen 
der Augen, etc. vi, pi. 28, fig. 9, really an excellent figure. The fig- 
ure in Lister is less characteristic ; and Martini's figures do not 
belong to this species at all. This last fact precludes the use of the 
name melanoleuca Gm. for this species, and indeed it is only in the 
last few years that the name has been so used. The melanoleuca of 
Reeve is not this shell. Unquestionable synonyms are P. albicosta 
Ad. (albicostata Rv.), figures 22, 23 ; P. balanoides Rv. figs, 24, 25 ; 
and P. occidentalis Rv. fig. 26. A more doubtful form is P. cime- 
liata Rv. figs. 14, 15, of pi. 5, said to be from Honduras. 

A label in our museum, written by Robert Swift, gives the name 
" Patella fungus Mke." as a synonym of P. albicosta. I have seen 
no description of P. fungus. 

A. CUBEXSIS Reeve. PI. 4, figs. 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 69, 70. 

Shell solid, ovate, elevated, the apex a little in front of the middle ; 
surface sculptured with numerous narrow riblets, often obsolete. 
Closely marked all over with bifurcating and anastomosing black 
lines on a white ground, the black sometimes confluent into large 
blotches. Edge of shell smooth. 

Inside white with a brown central area marbled with white ; 
rarely entirely white ; border very narrow, black with light dots, or 
light with black dots. Length 21, breadth 16, alt. 10 mill. 

St. Thomas, St. Croix, Guadeloupe etc., West Indies north to the 
Bahamas. 

Patella cubensis RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 125, 1855. P.melanoleuca 
RVE. I. c., f. 134, not P. melanoleuca GMELIX. P. leucopleura 
RKEVE, /. c.J. 138. 

This is a solid, conical species, having the riblets much more 
numerous and finer than A. leucopleura, and marked in a peculiar 
pattern of forking and anastomosing black lines. The variations of 
this pattern are sufficiently shown by the figures. 

Of the names applied to this species, none prior to Reeve's can be 
identified with any confidence. P. melanoleuca Gm. is much more 
likely to be Subemarginula noiata L. than 'this species. The figures 
in Martini referred to by Gmelin correspond exactly with half- 
grown notata, but are too depressed for A. cubensis; and in any 
case leucopleura has priority. P.melanosticta Gm. is a wholly differ- 
ent shell, evidently a depressed species (" planiuscula "), larger and 
differently marked. Neither description nor figure apply to cubensis. 



42 ACMvEA. 

Figs. 69, 70 are copies of Reeve's illustrations of his cubensis ; figs. 
56, 57 are melanoleuca Rv. not Gmel. ; figs. 58, 59, 60 are drawn 
from a large specimen of typical cubensis. 

Var. SIMPLEX Pilsbry. PI. 4, figs. 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68. 

Shell having a tendency to be squarely orbicular when fully 
adult, and much elevated, the black lines continuous, separate, 
rarely splitting more than once. This is the P. leucopleura of Rv., 
not Grn. nor Lam. Specimens from the Bahamas were collected 
from the shells of Livona pica ; figures 66, 67, 68 were drawn from 
one of these. Fig. 63 represents a large specimen of the typical 
form of simplex. 

Another modification of either the cubensis or the leucopleura 
stock is figured on pi. 4, figs. 61, 62. It is small, conical, apex 
erect and subcentral. When cleared of the extraneous calcareous 
coating it is seen to be either smooth or obsoletely ribbed, the ribs 
narrow, separated ; marked with blackish-brown radiating blotches 
which split into two or three branches toward the basal margin. 
Inside with a dark central area with or without a white central 
spot, the border black spotted with white. The external color- 
markings may be faintly seen inside. The exact status and Affini- 
ties of this form are somewhat doubtful. It is abundant at Man- 
cheoniel and Port Antonio, Jamaica. 

The locality " West Indies" given in the books for Subemarginula, 
notata L. is probably owing to a confusion of that species with these 
similar AcmaBas. Specimens of notata marked " Ceylon " are before 
me, and I have no doubt that it is an oriental species. The very 
strongly inflexed ends of the muscle-scar, and the slight trace of a 
groove between the apex of the cavity and the front margin will 
enable one to separate S. notata from all Docoglossate limpets. 

A. ONYCHINA Gould. PI. 34, figs. 22, 23, 24. 

Shell small, thin, irregular, depressed, broadly ovate, with twenty 
or more obsolete, unequal ribs. The general color is ashy green, 
with deep olive stripes between the ribs. Besides this, the whole 
surface is marked with fine radiating striae, and by crowded loose 
lines of growth, giving the surface a decomposing aspect. Margin 
sharp, irregular ; interior mottled with cream-color and clear 
chestnut-brown ; central spatula thick and well marked ; a marginal 
border is striped alternately chestnut and yellow, answering to the, 



ACM^EA. 4o 

ribs and intervening spaces. Summit eroded, dark brown. (Old.} 

Length 20, alt. 6 mill. 

Barbados to Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

f Acmcea subrugosa ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 479. 1 847. Lottia 
onychina OLD., U. S. Expl. Exped., p. 355, atlas, f. 461. Colli*ella 
subrugosa DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch. \i, p. 255, t. 14, f. 14 (denti- 
tion). Patella (Teduraf} Mulleri DKR., Jahrb. D. M. Ges. ii, p. 
246, 1875. , 

The specimens before me are much eroded. I have no doubt that 
P. mulleri Dkr. is synonymous, but give the original description 
here for comparison. A. subrugosa Orb. is also in all probability 
the same, but the description is wholly insufficient for identification, 
and should not be allowed to displace Gould's excellent diagnosis 
and good figures. 

P. mulleri. Shell solid, ovate or elliptical, often irregular, more 
or less convex, seldom conic ; with weak ribs and fine stride, which 
also cover the ribs, but are seen only on fresh, uncorroded specimens. 
The obtuse apex lies at about two-fifths the shell's length. From it 
unequal dark brown streaks radiate, which often split, and which 
show through on the shining inside, and are especially distinct 011 
the border. The center is whitish or liver-brown ; margin acute, 
simple or subcrenulated. Length 22-24, alt. 10 mill. 

Bay of Maldonado, and Destero, Province of Sta. Catharina, 
Brazil, abundant. 

Undetermined West Indian species. 

Patella (Acmcea /) antillarum Philippi (as of Sowb.) PI. 5, figs. 8, 
9, 10. 

This is a dark colored, very finely striated, depressed shell. I 
have seen nothing like it from the West Indies. Philippi gives 
Antilles as the habitat. There is no resemblance between this and 
antillarum Sowb. Compare Scurria parastica Orb. 

(See Phil., Abbild., etc. iii, Patella, t. 2, f. 12.) 

*** 
V. JAPANESE SPECIES. 

The species of Japan are allied to those of Western North 
America. Specimens of all of them have been examined by the 
writer. 



44 ACM^EA. 

A. SCHRENCKII Lischke. PI. 2, figs. 21, 22, 23, 24. 

Shell elliptical, much depressed, rather thin. The apex is 
situated between the front sixth and eighth of the shell's length ; 
posterior slope convex, its curve generally higher than the apex. 
Sculptured with very fine, unequal thread-like riblets, which are 
very closely granose ; of an olive-ashen color, variously marbled 
with blackish-olive. 

Inside light blue with a broad blackish border and an ill-defined 
dark chestnut central area. 

Length 31, breadth 22-24, alt. 4-6 mill. 

Ojima and Nagasaki, Japan. 

P. schrenckii LISCHKE, Mai. Blat. xv, p. 220 ; Jap. Meeres-Con- 
chyl. I p. 107, t. 8, f. 1-4. Tectura schrenckii DKR., Ind. Moll. 
Mar. Jap., p. 155. 

My description is drawn from typical specimens collected at 
Ojima by Mr. Frederick Stearns. The species is variable in mark- 
ings, the mottling sometimes being converted into stripes obliquely 
radiating and curving from the central dorsal region. It is closely 
allied to P. concinna, but is of a longer elliptical outline, is more 
depressed, and the granulation is finer. Still, I am disposed to 
believe that the two will be united when fuller collections are made. 

A. CONCINNA Lischke. PL 2, figs. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. 

Shell oval, rather thin ; apex at the front fifth or sixth of the 
shell's length ; posterior slope convex. Surface sculptured with 
close fine unequal riblets, finely and distinctly granulose ; of a uniform 
blackish-olive shade, or variegated with olive, green or brown on a 
very light green ground. 

Inside light blue, with a wide dark or spotted border, and an ill- 
defined central darker tract. Length 24, width 20, alt. 6 mill. 

Yokohama to Enofhima, Japan. 

P. concinna Lischke, Mai. Bl. xvii, p. 25 ; Jap. Meeres-Conchyl. 
ii, p. 98, t. 6, f. 1-6. Tectura coneinna DKR., Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap. 
p. 154. P. granostriata SCHRENCK, Amurl. Moll. t. 14, f. 1-3. 

Closely allied to A. schrenckii, probably a variety of that species, 
but rounder, more elevated, more distinctly granulose. These 
Japanese forms have much in common with A. scabra of the Cali- 
fornian coast, but they are abundantly distinct in sculpture, the 
position of the apex, and the general tone of coloring. 



ACM^EA. 45 

Numerous specimens collected by Frederick Stearns and others 
are before me, exhibiting considerable variation. A variegated 
specimen is figured on pi. 9, fig. 30. This species is the P. yrano- 
striata of Schrenck. The true granostriata of Keeve (Conch. Icon., 
f. 126) described without habitat, is very likely the same as con- 
cinna ; but without more information it would be mischievous to use 
that name for this or any other species. 

A. HEROLDI Dunker. PI. 2, figs. 18, 19, 20, (enlarged) ; PI. 9, 
figs. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. 

Shell small, ovate-elliptical, not much elevated, sculptured with 
more or less distinct close riblets ; whitish, ornamented in various 
patterns with brown ; vertex elevated, situated at the anterior fourth 
of the shell's length. Inside white or bluish, brown in the middle. 
Length 11, width 8, alt. 4 mill. (Dkr.} 

Nagasaki and Decima, Japan. 

P. heroldi DKR. Moll. Jap. p. 24, t. 3, f. 13. Acmcea heroldi 
LISCHKE, Jap. Meeres-Conchyl. ii. p. 96. P. comilus DKR. I.e. p. 
24, t. 3. f. 19. P. pygmcea DKR. I. c. p. 24, t. 3, f. 20. 

A small species, varying much in degree of elevation, coloration 
and position of the apex. It passes through the same mutations as 
most other Acmseas. I have not seen the typical form. 

Form conulus Dkr. PL 9, figs. 17, 18. 

Small, much elevated, apex more central. Length 8, breadth 6}, 
alt. 5J mill. The figures are drawn from a specimen before me. 
Of this form I have seen a good many examples. The radiating 
riblets are wanting or obsolete ; most are marked with dull olive 
or brown stripes. 

Form pygmcta Dkr. PI. 9, figs. 19, 20, 21 (enlarged). 

This is the narrow form, probably growing on fuci. It is very 
finely striated radially. The size is smaller than the figures. 

A. DORSUOSA Gould. PI. 33, figs. 88, 89, 90 ; PL 9, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell oval, elevated conical, having the form of A. persona Esch. ; 
solid. Apex curved forward, situated one-eighth of the shell's 
length from the anterior end. Surface having strong irregularly 
nodose radiating cords, separated by spaces of greater width than 
the ribs and having occasional strongly marked concentric depres- 
sions, indicating periods of growth arrest. Color, blackish-brown 



46 ACM^EA. 

with irregular obscure lighter olive-yellow streaks in the interstices. 
Interior bluish-white; border not distinctly defined, having indis- 
tinct dark tesselations. Central area defined and obscurely clouded 
with dark chestnut. Length 30, breadth 24, alt. 14 mill. 

Hakodadi, Japan. 

A. dorsuosa OLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii, p. 162,1859. Otia,p. 
115.__\y A TsoN, Challenger Gastrop. p. 29, t. 4,f. 1. 

This species, which I have figured and described from types, is evi- 
dently allied to A. persona and pelta of the Californian coast, but is 
quite distinct. The ribs are variable in number, 20 to 27 being de- 
veloped ; they are obsolete in front. The periods of arrested growth 
are strongly marked. It is likely that " Tectura digitalis " reported 
from Hakodadi by Dunker (Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap. p. 154) is this 
species. 

No other Japanese Acmcea is so strongly ribbed as this. 

Watson figures a slightly differing variety from Oosima. See pi. 
9, figs. 15, 16. 

. *** 

VI. INDO-PACIFIC, AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND SPECIES. 

The Australian region is rich in forms of Acmcea, but the number 
of species is doubtless less than are herein admitted. The lack of 
extensive suites has prevented me from working up the synonymy 
as fully as I would desire. 

There are but few Polynesian Acmseas, and a still smaller number 
are found in the Indian Ocean. 

The following species I have not seen : A. biradiata Rv., rugosa 
Q. $L G., cingulata Hutton, conoidea Q. & G., petterdi T.-W., septi- 
formis Q. & G., laciniata Rv., cantharus Rv., scabrilirata Ang., 
flammea Q. & G., subundulata Ang., pileopsis Q. & G., orbicularis 
Q, & G., mixta Rv., elongata Q. & G., punctata Q. & G., squamosa 
Q. &G. 

A. CONOIDALIS Pease. PL 33, figs. 93, 94, 95. 

Shell solid, thick, short-oval, elevated, straightly conical, the apex 
erect, pointed, subcentral, slopes of the cone straight or the posterior 
a little convex. Surface sculptured with numerous close, rather 
fine radiating threads, alternately larger. Whitish or yellowish- 
white. Edge thick, very finely crenulated. 

Inside yellowish, the central area opaque white. Basal side mar- 
gins somewhat arched. Length 22, breadth 17, alt. 11 mill. 

Raratonga, Cook Is. ; Hervey Is. 



ACM/KA. 47 

Tectura conoidalis PSE., Amer. Journ. Conch, iv, p. 98, t. 11, f. 
22. MARTENS & LANGKAVEL, Donam Bisraarkianum, p. 51. 

Allied to A. mitra, but more obviously radiately ribbed than any 
of the varieties of that species, and differing in the yellowish interior, 
with opaque white central tract. The largest specimen before me 
measures, length 28, breadth 23, alt. 14 mill. The species varies 
considerably in degree of elevation. 
A. GARRETTII PiUbry. PL 33, figs. 96, 97, 98. 

Shell small, oval, conical, the apex acute, erect, slightly in front 
of the middle ; slopes convex. Surface having numerous close radi- 
ating riblets, of which a few (about seven) are generally larger. 
Color dull blackish-brown, or gray with lines of dark. 

Inside white, the large central area either solid blackish-brown or 
clouded ; border narrow, black or light, dotted dark brown. 

Length 13, breadth 10, alt. 5 mill. 

Length 11, breadth 9, alt 5J mill. 

Viti Islands. 

A small species, collected by Garrett, and apparently distinct 
from the described Australasian forms, as well as from the few- 
described from Polynesia. The figures represent a strongly sculpt- 
ured specimen, but some specimens have the riblets more nearly 
equal in size, and in some the color, both inside and out, is lighter. 
It is a very solid little shell, somewhat similar to some forms of 
A. cubensis. It is much more solid and differently sculptured than 
A. mitella. 

The only species reported from the Viti Islands besides A. sacch- 
arina is a Patella nana Dkr., enumerated in the Mus. Godeffroy 
Catal. v, p. 149, 1874; but I have been able to find no description 
of it. It is again catalogued in the Catal. vi, Nachtrage zu Catal. 
v, p. 91, 1877. 
A. STRIATA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 19, figs. 37, 38 ; PI. 35, figs. 25-29. 

Shell orbicular, convex, very delicately striated, brown or black ; 
inside sky-blue, the margin brown. Apex obtuse. 

A large species, nearly round ; the summit is anterior. Length 
30, breadth 25, alt. 6 mill. (.) 

Licoupang, Celebes. 

Patelloida striata Q. <fc G., Astrol. p. 353, t. 71, f. 8-11. Patella 
striata Rv., Conch. Icon. f. 58 (not fig. 99). 

The additional locality, Philippine Is., is given by Reeve. 



48 ACM^EA. 

A number of specimens of this form are before me. They differ 
from A. borneensis Rv. only in being more distinctly striated and 
darker colored. The largest specimen. I fcave seen measures, length 
43, breadth 39, alt. 9 mill. 

VAR. BORNEENSIS Reeve. PI. 35, figs. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. 

Shell rounded -oval, rather thin, depressed, the apex at about the 
anterior third ; slopes convex ; surface nearly smooth, but obscurely 
radiately striated ; dull-grayish-white with close hair-like radiating 
black lines and more or less speckled with brown or blackish, these 
last markings frequently forming obscure darker rays ; sometimes 
blackish all over. 

Inside bluish-white, with a wide dark border and a small brown 
central area. Muscle-scar inconspicuous, remote from the margin. 

Length 29, width 24, alt. 7 mill. 

Amboyna ; North Coast of Borneo. 

P. borneensis Rv. Conch. Icon. f. 113, 1855. Collisella borneen- 
sis DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 259, t. 15, f. 17 (dentition) ; t. 
17, f. 38 (shell). A. Bickmorei DALL mss. 

A depressed species, nearly smooth, hair-lined with deep brown 
or black and more or less speckled with the same color. I have 
seen none with the rays so pronounced as in Reeves figure. 

A. FLUVIATILIS Blanford. PI. 35, figs. 40, 41, 42. 

Shell much depressed, conical, subcircularly oval, thin, covered 
with a very dark olive epidermis, always eroded at the subcentral 
apex ; marked with fine radiating raised lines, and with close and 
minute concentric striae of growth. 

. Inside the shell is bluish-white, sometimes with one or more 
milky concentric bands, or the whole interior is milky, except the 
cavity of the apex which is invariably ferruginous. (Blanf.) 

Length 2H, breadth 20, alt. 6 mill. 

Length 20, breadth 17, alt. 5-1 mill. 

Length 14, breadth 12, alt, 4 mill. 

Delta of the Irawadi River, Pegu. 

Tectura fluviatilis W. T. BLANFORD, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 
xxxvi, pt. 2, 1867, p. 62, t. 13, f. 2, 3, 4 (1868). 

This species is found on rocks, rarely on trunks of trees, in many 
of the creeks near high-water mark, in brackish water. It was not 
met with near the sea, where the water was very salt. The foot is 



ACMJEA. 49 

large, filling the cavity of the shell, muzzle broad, tentacles long 
and fine, mouth not notched beneath. It does not appear to keep 
to one place and form a hole for itself like some Patellae, but it is 
very sluggish in its movements. (Blanf.) 

The only specimen of this species which I have seen is in the col- 
lection of Dr. W. H. Dall. It has the appearance of an ordinary 
Acmcea of the type of A. striata Q. & G. 

A. BIBADIATA Kceve. PL 42, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell nearly orbicular, conoidly depressed, apex nearly central ; 
radiately striately ridged ; whitish, rayed with blue-black near the 
margin, conspicuously ornamented posteriorly with two broad, pale 
bands ; interior vividly painted with the same color. (Reeve). 

China Seas. 

P. biradiata RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 142. 
A. HIEROGLYPHICA Dall. PL 33, figs. 77, 78, 79. 

Shell small, stout, rugged, with a sub-central, more or less eroded 
apex moderately elevated. Muscular impression pyriform. Shape 
of shell ovate ; exterior with rather strong white ribs, 14-20 in 
number, with riblets between them, interspaces brown. Striae of 
growth somewhat imbricated, less prominent on the ribs. Internally 
white, with brown maculae on the margin corresponding to the 
brown interspaces of the exterior. Margin strongly crenulated. 
Spectrum pyriform with the smaller end anterior, consisting of a 
sharp black line forming a pyriform figure with three longitudinal 
black lines inside of it. In the larger specimens these have a faint 
bluish halo about them, but in the smaller they are simply black 
on a white ground. The same figure of less size is conspicuous on 
the outside of the eroded apex, soft parts unknown. (Dall.) 

Length 7, breadth 5i, alt. 1J mill. 

China. 

A. hieroglyphica DALL, A. J. C. vi, p. 258, t. 17, f. 37. 

This little species of the A. spectrum group, has much resem- 
blance to the Chilian species A. ceciliana. I have seen no specimen 
but the type, which was found in a box of Chinese shells in a San 
Francisco tea shop. 

A. SACCHARIXA Limie. PL 36, figs. 60, 61, 62, 78 ; pi. 18, figs. 31, 
32; pi. 24, figs. 12,13. 



50 ACM^EA. 

Shell solid, conical, having seven prominent, angular radiating 
ribs, projecting at the margin ; surface finely radiately striated when 
not eroded ; variously marked with black blotches, usually v-shaped, 
on a whitish ground. 

, Inside white, the border gray marked with black or entirely 
black ; central area with a patch of black or deep brown, covered 
over with white in old specimens. Length 40, breadth 30, alt. 18 mill. 

Viti and Fiji Is ; Amboyna to Japan. 

P. saccharina L., Syst. Nat. x, p. 781, no. 660. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon. f. 72. LISCHKE, Jap. Meeres-Conchyl. p. 113, 1869. 
DUNKER, Index Moll. Mar. Jap. p. 155. Acmcea saccharina HAN- 
LEY, in Wood's Index Test., 2d edit. p. 185, 1856. Gollisella sac- 
charina DALL, Am. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 259, 1. 15, f. 18 (dentition). 
Patella lanx Kv., Conch. Icon. f. 82. 

The typical saccharina is best represented by the figures 60-62 of 
PL 36. Sometimes smaller ribs are developed between the principal 
ones, as in PI. 18, figs. 31, 32. Reeve's P. lanx (PI. 24, figs. 12, 13,) 
is not a constant color variety. 

Var. STELLARIS Q. & G. PL 36, figs. 63, 64, 67, 68. 

Resembles saccharina in form. Central area of the inside dotted 
with brown. 

New Ireland, etc. 

Patelloida stellaris Q. & G.. Voy. Astrol. Zool. iii, p. 356, t. 71, 
f. 1-4, 1834 Patella stella LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool. ii, p. 
421, 1830. P. octoradiataHuTTON. See below. 

A beautiful variety, of which numerous specimens from the col- 
lection of Mr. John Ford, of Philadelphia are before me, (figs. 
63, 64). 

The types of Quoy & Gaimard (figs. 67, 68,) differ somewhat 
from the shells before me, in having the ribs more prolonged at the 
margins, but agree in the number of principal rays, seven, and the 
dotted spatula. Reeves P. stellaris is unlike the true stellaris in hav- 
ing eight principal ribs and a solid brown spatula. See below. 

The name proposed by Lesson is anterior in date (1830), but be- 
ing briefly described without a figure, is scarcely entitled to displace 
the unmistakable diagnosis and good figures given by Quoy. 

Var. PERPLEXA Pilsbry. PL 36, figs. 69, 70, 71. 

Depressed, star-shaped, with four large rounded ribs behind, 
three in front of the apex ; ribs and intervals closely striated. 
White or creamy, with fine radiating reddish-brown lines. 



ACM^EA. 51 

Interior white with a few flesh-colored spots ; border narrow, dot- 
ted with pinkish. Length 31, breadth 27, alt. 8 mill.; a smaller 
specimen measures, length 21, breadth 20, alt. 4i mill. 

Australia (Phil. Acad. Coll.) 

? P. stellaris REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 114, not stellaris Q. &. G. 
? P. octoradiata HUTTON, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 44, 1873.? P. 
stellaris (Q. & G.) HUTTON, Journ. de Conchyl. 1878, p. 37. 

It is with great doubt that I give the above synonymy for this 
species or variety, for Hutton has never made clear what his octora- 
diata really is ; referring it first to stellaris Q., and then omitting it 
from his Manual of 1880. It is, however, fair to assume that in 
1880 he included his specimen under the name P. stella Lesson. 
Lesson's species is no doubt completely synonymous with Quoy's P. 
stellaris ; and I, therefore, offer a new and definite appellation for 
this form. The Patella stellaris Rv. (not Q. & G.) is an octo- 
radiate limpet resembling somewhat the shells above described, but 
not agreeing in characters with any of the specimens before me. 
Reeve's figures are copied on pi. 36, figs. 65, 66. They should 
be compared with certain varieties of Patella pentagona. 

Under whatever name this variety or species is ultimately placed, 
it is well characterized by the number of ribs, which is constant in 
the large suite before me, the rounded form of the ribs and their 
striated surface. The interior does not have the dots characteristic 
of A. stellaris Q. & G. The ribs are not carinated as in Patella 
longicosta Linn., nor are interstitial riblets developed. Two ribs are 
upon the central longitudinal line of the shell ; which is not the case 
in .1. saccharina or A. stellaris. 

A. COSTATA Sowerby. PL 36, figs. 72-77. 

Shell solid, ovate, conical, apex a little in front of the middle ; 
slopes convex or straight ; surface having 17 to 25 strong unequal 
ribs, the ends of which denticulate the margin. 

Inside white, with a narrow gray border, often having black 
scallops between the marginal projections ; the central area is more 
or less clouded with brown, usually having a distinct outline. The 
inner surface is sometimes stained with patches of livid purplish, 
light olive or brown. Length 36, breadth 29, alt. 13 mill. 

South Australia ; Tasmania; Chatham Is. 

Lottia f costata SOWB., Moll, of Beechey's Voyage, p. 147, t. 39, 
f. 2, 1839. Acmcea costata TENISON-WOODS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 



52 ACM^EA. 

for 1876, p. 50, 1877 (animal). P. alticoatata AD. & ANGAS, P. Z. 
S. 1865, p. 56, t. 2, f. 11. Patella costata ANGAS. P. Z. S. 1867, 
p. 221. 

A very variable form in sculpture and coloration. The outside 
is dull, usually corroded; rubbed specimens which have black 
scallops on the border show narrow lunate black markings in the 
spaces between the ribs. 

Figures 72, 73 are Angas's alticostata ; the other figures are 
drawn from specimens before me. 

A. MARMORATA Tenison-Woods. PL 42, figs. 66-70. 

Shell irregularly ovate, low-conical, the apex eroded, at about the 
anterior third. Surface dull, eroded, having 7 to 10 wide ribs, often 
sub-obsolete. The ribs are light, interstices dull black ; edge of the 
shell irregular. 

Inside having black stripes between the ribs, which are indicated 
by light stripes; central area yellowish-brown, closely dotted or 
marbled with black. There is a snow-white line just within the 
muscle-scar. Length 15, breadth 13, alt. 5 mill. 

Tasmania ; Port Jackson, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

Acmcea marmorata TENISON-WOOD, Proc. & Rep. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 
for 1875, p. 156, 1876 ; Ibid. 1876, p. 53, 1877. 

May be known at once by the peculiarly dotted, marbled interior. 
There is a variety which may be called submarmorata, in which the 
inside is not distinctly radiately striped around the central area, 
the white line within the muscle-impression is narrow or obsolete, 
and the outer surface has numerous rather narrow riblets in place of 
the few wide ribs of the typical form. This variety is from Port 
Jackson. It is represented on pi. 42, figs. 69, 70. 

A. RUGOSA Quoy & Gaimard. PL 37, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell ovate, conic, with radiating rugose unequal ribs ; margin 
crenulated ; broadest behind ; apex sub-median, acute; inside bluish, 
border and center blackish-chestnut. 

Length 16, breadth 12, alt. 6 mill. (.) 

Amboyna. 

Patelloida rugosa Q. & G., Astrol. p. 366, t. 71, f. 36, 37. 
Compare A. lacunosa Rve. 
: A. LACUNOSA Reeve. PL 37, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Shell small,' oblong, apex near the front third, or nearer the mid- 
dle ; surface dull, lusterless, rough and irregular, having 18 to 24 



A. 53 

rude, strong, usually unequal ribs, which denticulate the margin ; 
the ribs are whitish, interstices dull-black ; sometimes the whole 
shell is of a light buff- tint. 

Inside white with either a blue or a pink tint ; central area irreg- 
ularly clouded with rust-brown or black, showing through a thin 
white layer ; border white, black, or dotted. 

Length 14, breadth 10, alt. 4* mill. 

New Zealand. 

Patella lacunosa REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 120, 1855. Acmcea cor- 
ticata HUTTON, Man. X. Z. Moll. p. 89, 1880. / Fissurella rubiginosa 
HUTTON, Cat. K Z. Moll. p. 42, teste Martens Zool. Rec. x, p. 150. 

A small, roughly sculptured species, with much the aspect of 
Siphonaria. This likeness is increased by the frequent unsymmet- 
rical distortions of the shell. Reeve figured a clear buff specimen ; 
but this coloration is comparatively rare, only one out of twenty- 
three shells before me being wholly without the black stripes. When 
the outside lacks stripes, the inside is very light, its border without 
dark dots. The young often show dark rays within like A.jackson- 
iensis. 

I have some doubt about the A. rubiginosa. It may prove a dis- 
tinct species, being shorter and rounder. The original description is 
given in the MANUAL Vol. XII, p. 216. See also torn. ciL p. 291. 

A. CINGULATA HuttOH. 

Shell moderately thick, white, oval, conical ; apex about one-third 
of the length from the anterior end ; about 30 to 50 low radiating 
ribs. Interior white, the margin light brownish-pink, banded with 
white. Length -56, breadth '45, alt, *2 inch. (Hutton.) 

Lyttelton and Dunedin, Xeiv Zealand. 

A. cmgulata HUTTON, Trans. N. Z. Institute, xvi, p. 215, t. 11, f- 
5 (dentition), 1884. 

The shell much resembles that of A. lacunosa Rve. (=corticaria 
Hutton), but the ribs are finer and the margin differently colored ; 
the teeth, however, are very different ; it may prove to be a variety 
of A. rubiginosa, the dentition of which is not yet known. 

(Hutton.') 

A. CONOIDEA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 37, figs. 84, 85. 

Shell ovate, arcuate, decidedly conical, apex obtuse, rounded ; 
ashen ; inside corneous-brown, margin spotted. 



54 ACM^EA. 

Length 13, breadth 10, alt. 11 mill. 

Port Lincoln, S. Australia, on stones at low water ; Sow & Pigs 
Reef, Port Jackson. 

Patelloida conoidea Q. & G., Astrol., p. 355, t. 71, f. 5-7. 
Acmcea conoidea ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 186. 

A. CALAMUS Crosse & Fischer. PI. 37, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell small, round-oval, erectly conical, apex in front of the 
middle, slopes nearly straight. Surface sculptured with many acute, 
unequal radiating riblets ; dull pinkish-white, often with some ir- 
regular dark brown markings. 

Inside white, lilac or pink-tinted, central area more opaque white 
with a small brown spot in its depth ; border sparsely spotted with 
brown. Length 10 J, breadth 9, alt. 5 to 6 mill. 

Port Lincoln, on stones at low water ; Tasmania' 

Patella calamus C. & F. Journ. de Conchyl. 1864, p. 348 ; 1865, 
t. 3, f. 7, 8. Acmcea calamus ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 186. 

A. ALBA Tenison- Woods. PL 42, figs. 76, 77, 78. 

Shell broad, oval, depressed, scabrous, thin, white, subshining; 
apex sub-median, acute; radiated with numerous small, acute, un- 
equal scaly-granose ribs, gathered into groups ; interstices delicately 
and most closely undulose-striate. Inside shining-white, sometimes 
rayed or clouded with pale-brown ; no spatula. Margin acute, 
slightly undulating, elegantly fringed with a pale-tawny line. 

Length 26, width 22, alt. 7 mill. (T.-W.) 

North Coast of Tasmania. 

A. alba T.-W. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1876, p. 155, 1877. 

A white, silky species ; porcellanous inside and delicately mar- 
gined with light-brown, not unlike the Chinese umbrella-shell, but 
smaller. The fine scabrous ribs are gathered sometimes into a bun- 
dle, which thus forms a compound rib. It is very different from any 
other southern form, and rare. ( T.-W.) 

The single specimen of this species before me does not agree very 
well with the original description. This specimen is figured on my 
plate. 

A. PETTERDI Tenison-Woods. Unfigured. 

Shell broadly ovate, tumid, depressed, apex acute and submar- 
ginal ; shining, dull white, very closely undulately striate with con- 
centric growth lines and indistinctly radiated with wide, rude tawny 



ACM.KA. 55 

interrupted sulci. Margin acute, elegantly fringed within with 
chestnut or tawny ; inside white, clouded with pale chestnut ; spat- 
ula tawny, sharply defined. Length 22, breadth 20, alt. 7 mill. 
(T.-TT.) 

Northwest coast of Tasmania. 

A.petterdi T.-W.,Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1876, p. 155, 1877. 

Larger than A. septiformis, an old enlarged specimen of which it 
somewhat resembles. It is dull white and shining, with the lines 
of growth very distinctly marked. 

A. SEPTIFORMIS Quoy & Gaimard. PL 37 figs. 93, 94. 

Shell oval, convex, very delicately radiately striated, tessellated 
with green or white, ornamented with radiating brown lines ; inside 
blue or whitish, lineolate with brown. 

Length 14, breadth 12, alt. 6 mill. (.) 

King Georges Port, W. Australia, Kiama and near New Castle, 
New South Wales ; Tasmania; on rocks between tides. 

Patelloida septiformis Q. & G., Astrol., p. 262, t. 71, f. 43, 44. 
Tectura septiformis ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 220. Acmcea septi- 
formis TEN.-WOODS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1876, p. 50, 1877, 
(animal.) 

A. scabrilirata Angas, and A. cantharus Rve. are considered 
synonymous by Tenison-Woods. 

A. LACINIATA Reeve. PL 35, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell oblong, ovate, rather sharply convex, laterally slightly com- 
pressed, radiately densely elevately striated ; whitish, reticulately 
rayed everywhere promiscuously with numerous fine red lines, net- 
work around the apex interruptedly open ; interior bluish-white. 

(A0 

Australia. 

P. laciniata RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 100, 1855. 
Compare the following species. 

A. CANTHARUS Reeve. PL 37, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell ovate, rather thin, convex; apex very anterior, sharp, 
hooked; smooth; black, irregularly blotched with white; interior 
blackish-chestnut. (jRve.) 

New Zealand ; Tasmania ? 

P. cantharus Rv., Conch. Icon. f. 131, 1855. A. cantharus HUT- 
TON, Man. N. Z. Moll. p. 88, 1880. 




56 ACM.KA. 

A. SCABRILIRATA Angas. Unfigured. 

Shell small, thin, subovate, a little planate ; outside of a whitish or 
gray color, variously maculated and penciled, sometimes streaked ; 
very elegantly ornamented with more or less distant, most minutely 
granulose, very acute radiating riblets, the interstices wide, flat. 
Apex curving forward, at the third or fourth of the length. Inside 
very shining bluish-green, varied with reddish-brown ; margin wide? 
tesselated or penciled ; central area rarely conspicuous. (Angas.) 

Length 12 mill. 

Port Jackson ; Port Phillip ; Port Lincoln ; Hobson's Bay, Viet. ; 
Holdfast Bay, St. Vincents Gulf. 

A. scabrilirata ANG., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 154 ; I. c., p. 186 ; /. c. 1867, 
p. 220. 

This small and tender, but exceedingly beautiful species is gener- 
ally more or less abraded ; but when perfect is easily recognized by 
the sculpture, which consists of distant, extremely slender riblets, 
each of which consists of, or is surmounted by, a series of minute 
granules. A rare variety is striped like the young of A. pelta (A. 
strigillata Nutt) ; but in general it is more or less, mottled, some- 
times delicately penciled, like A.fascicularis Mke., from the Gulf of 
California. 

May be a form of A. septiformis. 

A. CHATHAMENSIS Pilsbry. PI. 35, figs. 43, 44, 45, 46. 

Shell oval, depressed, apex within the middle third of the length ; 
radiately striated; interruptedly banded and spotted with umber on 
a white ground. Spatula chestnut, well-defined ; border wide, light 
with brown dots and lines. 

The surface has even rather fine, close and obsolete radiating 
riblets. The coloration is peculiar, consisting of dots, spots and stripes 
formed of interrupted brown lines. The stripes when present are 8 
or 10 in number. 

The inside is white or suffused with yellow, with a brown central 
area and a wide border variously marked. 

Length 30, breadth 24, alt. 6 mill. 

Length 24, breadth 20 J, alt. 8i mill. 

Chatham Is. 

This very pretty white species is quite different from any known 
to me from any part of the world. 



ACM.KA. 57 

A FLAMMEA Quoy cv, Gaimard. PI. 37, figs. 78-83. 

Shell small, ovate-conic, very delicately radiately striated, buff, 
flamed and reticulated with brown. 

Aperture brown, white or yellowish, with a blackish border. 
Length 10, breadth 8, alt. 5 mill. (.) 

Hobart-toivn, Tasmania ; Isl. of Guam, Marianne Archipel. 

Patelloida flammea Q. & G., Astrol. p. 354, t. 71, f. 15-24. 
Acmcea flammea TEXISOX- WOODS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasin. for 1876> 
p. 51 (animal). 

The elliptical, convex and turgidly conical form of the shell, as 
well as its greater solidity will separate this species from A. septi- 
formis. Mr. Tenison- Woods refers A. subundulata Angas to this 
species, with doubt. 

A. SUBUNDULATA Angas. Unfigured. 

Shell small, thin, oval, elevated ; outside of a pale brownish-cor- 
neous color, variously maculated or streaked with brown ; radiating 
lira? obsolete, a trifle undulating ; growth-striaB very close ; apex 
scarcely curved forward, more or less anterior, at a third or two- 
fifths the shell's length. Inside brownish, variously maculated or 
streaked with blackish-brown ; spatula usually dark ; margin scarce- 
ly apparent. Length 13, breadth 10, alt. 5 ] mill. (Angas.) 

Port Jackson ; Port Phillip ; Port Lincoln ; Hobsoris Bay, South- 
ern Australia; between tide marks*. 

A. subundulata ANG., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 155; /.c.p. 186; ibid. 
1867, p. 220. 

A variation has the inside paler, radiating streaks narrow. 

A. PILEOPSIS Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 37, figs. 90, 91, 92. 

Shell ovate-convex, very finely radiately striated ; blackish, dotted 
and netted with whitish ; apex recurved to the margin ; inside 
bluish, margin black, the center of a chestnut color. (.) 

Length 18, breadth 14, alt. 8 mill. 

Bay of Islands and the French Pass to Dunedin, New Zealand; 
Auckland Is. 

Patelloida pileopsis Q. & G., Voy. Astrol., p. 359, t. 71, f. 25-27. 
Acmcea pileopsis HUTTOX, Manual X. Z. Moll., p. 88, 1880. 

A. ORBICULARIS Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 37, figs. 95-99. 

Shell conical, orbicular, transversely striated, reddish-green, 
marked with radiating brown or reddish rays ; inside bluish ; ver- 
tex submedian. Length 18, alt. 6 mill. (.) 

Island of Vanikoro. 



58 ACM^EA. 

Patelloida orbicularis Q. & G., Astrol. iii, p. 363, t. 71, f. 31, 32 ; 
var., f. 33, 35. 

A variety (pi. 37, figs. 95-97) from Amboyna is less rounded, 
more oblong. 

A. JACKSONIENSIS Reeve. PL 42, figs. 71-75. 

Shell ovate, conical, the apex near the middle or somewhat in 
front of it; surface smooth (or obsoletely radiately striated), dull, 
usually corroded or incrusted ; color whitish rayed with brown. 

Inside conspicuously rayed with brown and white ; the central 
area variously mottled with brown, or continuing the rays ; border 
narrow, scarcely different from the rest of the inside layer in color. 

Length 19, breadth 15*, alt. 8 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia, on rocks at low tide. 

Patella Jacksoniensis Rv., Conch. Icon. f. 127, 1855. Tectura 
jacksoniensis ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 220. 

The smooth exterior and prominently rayed interior are the more 
striking characters of tnis species. The central area inside is vari- 
ously clouded ; often the rays are continued into it. When the center 
is entirely dark it is peculiar in shape ; see fig. 75. There is often 
a tendency to form a white line just within the muscle-impression. 
A depressed specimen measures, length 18, alt. 5 mill. 

Var. MIXTA Reeve. PI. 35, figs.. 32, 33. 

Shell ovate, rather thin, conoid, compressed at the sides ; apex 
rather anterior, obsoletely decussately striated ; peculiarly mottled 
with black and yellow, variegated in the interior. 

A thin, peculiar mottled shell, with somewhat the aspect of our 
northern P. testudinalis. (JRve.) 

Port Phillip, Australia. 

P. mixta RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 129, 1855. 

Seems to be a synonym or variety of A. jacksoniensis. 
A. CRUCIS Tenison-Woods. PI. 37, figs. 12, 13, 17, 18, 19. 

Shell oval, conical, apex somewhat in front of the middle ; slopes 
nearly straight ; surface smooth, without radiating sculpture] lines of 
growth fine, regular. Color a dead- white, with white apex, sur- 
rounded by a small brown ring, from which four brown stripes, (in 
the direction of major and minor axes of the shell) radiate. 

These stripes sometimes do not reach to the basal margin ; some- 
times they split, and additional stripes appear in the intervals. 



ACMLT-:A. 59 

Inside white, usually showing the brown stripes faintly through ; 
central area usually brown or outlined with brown, clouded with 
light blue in the middle. Length 22, breadth 17, alt. 9 mill. 

Tasmania. 

A. crutis T.-W., Proc. Koy. Soc. Tasm. for 1876, p. 52, and 
animal p. 53, 1877. 

Perfect, unworn specimens do not show the maltese cross of brown 
at the apex, it being covered by the outer layer ; and they have a 
narrow brown border. 

The figures represent specimens somewhat worn. 

A. ELONGATA Quov and Gaimard. PL 37, figs. 86, 87. 

Shell small, ovate-elongated, fragile and pellucid ; subconvex, 
smooth, gieenish, ornamented with longitudinally reticulating reddish 
lines; inside white; apex marginal. Length 6, width 4 mill. (.) 

King George Sound, S. W. A ustralia. 

Patelloida elongata Q. & G., Astrol., p. 358, t. 71, f. 12-14. 
A. PUNCTATA Quoy & Gaimard. PL 37, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell small, oval, fragile, convex, smooth, whitish or buff, very 
delicately dotted with reddish ; inside white, apex obtuse, at the 
margin. Length 6 mill. (Q.) 

King George's Port, S. W. Australia.' 

Patelloida punctata Q. & G., Astrol., p. 365, t. 71, f. 40-42. 
A. FRAGILIS Quoy & Gaimard. PL 37, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell membranaceous, pellucid, ovate, flattened ; smooth, green, 
ornamented with concentric brown rings ; inside with an emerald 
ring around the muscle-impression, margin brown. 

Length 15, width 12, alt. 2 mill. 

The apex is anterior, sub-marginal, a little to the left of the 
middle. 

East Coast of the North Island, New Zealand, under stones. 

Patelloida fragilis Q. & G., Voy. Astrol. iii, p. 351 1. 71, f. 28-30. 
Lottia fragilis GRAX, Dieff. N. Z. ii, p. 240, Acmcea fragilis 
HUTTOX, Man. X. Z. Moll. p. 89, 1880. Patella solandri COLENSO, 
Tasmania Journal of Natural Science ii, pp. 226, 250, 1841 ; Trans. 
N. Z. Institute, xiv, p. 168, 1882. P. unguis-almce LESSON, Voy. de 
la Coquille, Zool. ii, p. 420. 

This is one of the most peculiar and distinct species. In its flat, 
scale-like form and green color it is unlike anything else. 



60 ACM^A. 

A. SQUAMOSA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 35, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell orbicular, subplane, fragile, radiately very delicately striated, 
painted with green and brown areoles ; inside bluish, margin black- 
ish, center chestnut colored. Length 16, breadth 14, alt. 4 mill. 

() 

Isle of France. 
Patelloida squamosa Q. & G., Astrol. iii, p. 260, t. 71, f. 38, 39. 

VII. SPECIES OF UNKNOWN HABITAT. 

The original figures and descriptions of these are copied. I have 
been able to identify none of them, and they have not been noticed 
by other authors. 

A. ACHATES Reeve. PI. 35, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell ovate, rather thin, convexly depressed, radiately densely 
striated, striae here and there finely corded ; intense black, irre- 
gularly variegated with lightning-marked white rays ; interior bluish, 
with a broad black variegated border. (Rve?) P^^^. /2 ^r ? - H^ 4 * 

Habitat unknown. 

P. achates RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 123, 1855. 
A. LENTIGINOSA Reeve. PL 37, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell ovate, convex, apex inclined anteriorly, obtuse, radiately 
striated, stria} more or less eroded ; whitish, interruptedly rayed 
and promiscuously wave-freckled with blackish chestnut ; interior 
bluish-white. 

This species is well-characterized by the promiscuous wave- 
freckled style of its dark chestnut painting. (JJve.) j, , 

Habitat unknown. 

P. lentiginosa Rv., Conch. Icon., f. 110. 

It is very difficult, in the absence of locality, to identify limpets. 
The species from different parts of the world sometimes resemble 
each other so closely. This should be compared with the form 
described by me as A. chathamensis, and with the more speckled 
forms of A. borneensis. 

A. LIMA Reeve. PL 33, figs. 86, 87. 

Shell oblong-ovate, convex, apex anterior, rather hooked, radi- 
ately closely ridge-striated, striae very minutely prickly-scaled; 
greenish-olive, interior bright, blue green, purple-brown at the mar- 
gin. (Rve.) 

Habitat unknown. 



SCTJRRIA. 61 

A. lima Rv., Conch. Icon. f. 144, 1855. 
A. NIMBUS Reeve. PL 35, fig. 30, 31. 

Shell ovate, slightly attenuated anteriorly, rather sharply convex ; 
apex somewhat anterior ; everywhere decussately wave-striated, the 
radiating striae being the stronger ; olive, elegantly rayed with faint 
yellow, purplish around the apex. The rays of this species are very 
softly expressed, and have more the appearance of rays of light than 
is presented by any other species, whilst the surface stria? are finely 
waved throughout, (five.*) 

Habitat unknown- 

P. nimbus RYE., Conch. Icon., f. 143. 
A. UNCINATA Reeve. PL 33, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell ovate, sharply conoid, apex a little hooked anteriorly; radi- 
ately profusely finely ridged, interstices obscurely cancellated ; 
whitish, tessellated or diagonally streaked with blackish-brown ; 
interior bluish-white, transparent, tessellated and stained with faint 
chestnut. (Eve.') ^ 

Habitat unknown. 

P. uncinata RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 141. 

Spurious Species. 
Tectura pusilla Jeffir.=CoccuiJNA. 

Tectura adunca Jeffr.=CoccuLiXA. 

Tectura galeola Jeffr.=CoccuLixA. 

Xacella peltoides Cpr. belongs to SlPHOKABDGDJB. 

Tectura tahitensis and T. radiata PSC.^PATELLA. 

Genus SCURRIA Gray, 1847. 

Scurria GRAY, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 158 ; Guide Syst, Dist. Moll. B. 
M. p. 171. DALL, Arner. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 262. Not Scurria 
Cpr. Helcion, Lottia and Acmcea, in part, of authors. 

Shell patelliform. Animal having a branchial plume as in 
Acmcea, and an accessory branchial cordon extending entirely around 
the foot, or interrupted in front. Formula of radula 1 (2-l'0'l-2) 1. 

This genus differs from Acmcea in possessing a branchial cordon, 
like Patella, in addition to the branchial plume. It agrees with 
Acmcea in dentition (S. mesoleuca, pi. 39, fig. 22). The subgenus 
Lottia differs from typical Scurria in having the branchial cordon 
interrupted over the head, but this distinction alone seems scarcely 
sufficient for generic separation. 




62 SCURRIA. 

Numerous specimens of all the following species have been exam- 
ined by the author. 

S. SCURRA Lesson. PI. 39. figs. 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 

Shell solid, straightly conical, elevated, the outline short oval, or 
nearly round, apex sub-central. Surface smooth, having fine incon- 
spicious radiating striae and concentric lines of growth. Color light- 
brown or buff, outer layer with a waxen translucency. 

Specimens are not infrequent in which the growth has been inter- 
rupted, producing an abrupt change in the color, or giving the steep, 
volcano-like cone, a terraced appearance. The apex, when retained, 
has the shape of a tiny Lottia gigantia. It lacks radiating striae, 
but is colored with several brown stripes, as shown in figs. 23, 24 
of PI. 39. The interior is pure white. 

Length 32, breadth 28, alt. 18 mill. 

Length 27, breadth 22, alt. 22 mill. 

12 to 41 S. Lat. West Coast of South America. 

Patella scurra LESS., Voy de la Coquille, Zool., p. 421, 1830. 
Acmcea scurra Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid. v, p. 478, t. 64, f. 11-14. 
GAY, Hist. Chile, Zool. viii, p. 252, Atlas t. 4, f. ll.Scurria 
scurra GRAY, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 171. DALL, Amer. Jour. Conch, vi, 
263. Lottia pallidaSw., Moll. Beechey's Voy. p. 147, t. 39, f. 1, 
1839. Lottia conica GLD., Moll. U. S. Expl. Exped. p. 346. 
Acmcea cymbula HUPE in Gay, Historia de Chile, Zool. viii p. 252, 
Atlas, t. 4, f. 12, 1854. 

This straightly conical species resembles the Californian Acmcea 
mitra Esch. in form. It differs in being of a buff color, in the acute, 
anteriorly directed apex, etc. 

S. ZEBRINA Lesson. PL 1, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell ovate, elevated, apex in front of the middle ; slopes some- 
what convex. Surface having 12 strong radiating ribs, about as 
wide as their interstices or narrower ; these ribs making the margin 
strongly notched, when their ends are not eroded. Ground color 
greenish, the intervals between tne ribs (or sometimes the whole sur- 
face) closely marked with triangular black blotches. 

Inside smooth, muscle-scar white, scarcely impressed, the area 
within it chestnut colored with a darker border, becoming lighter 
with age, until in old shells it is almost entirely concealed by the 
white layer. The area outside of the muscle-scar is white or slightly 



SCURRIA. 63 

clouded with brown. Edge of the shell deeply sinuated by the ribs, 
articulated with black ; inside of this there is a narrow blue band. 

Length 54, breadth 44, alt. 20 mill. 

Chili. 

P. zebrina LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, p. 417, 1830. ORB., Voy. 
Amer. Merid., p. 480, t. 65, f. 1-3. P. concepcionensis LESS., I. c., 
p. 418. Lottia zebrina OLD., Moll. U. S. Expl. Exped., p. 352, t. 
130, f. 460. Tectura zebrina GRAY. Lottia variabilis GRAY ? 
Beechey's Voy., t. 39, f. 3, 4, but not f. 5. Scurria (?) zebrina 
DALL, Amer. Jouru. Conch, vi, p. 264. 

The color pattern of triangular black spots is characteristic when 
not obscured by erosion. The eroded shell is gray, or purple tinged, 
with a darker apical tract. 

S. PARASITICA Orbigny. PI. 4, figs. 74, 75, 76. 

Shell oval, rounded-conical, solid and strong, the apex at the 
anterior third, rounded oft' by erosion ; front slope nearly straight, 
posterior slope convex. Surface closely and finely radiately striated 
all over ; light gray or whitish, with broad and narrow radiating 
blackish-gray stripes, about 11 in number. Edge of shell smooth 
even. 

Inside white, more or less clouded with chestnut inside the muscle- 
scar ; the yellowish-white border is rather broad, and alternately 
light and dark the one or the other frequently predominating. 

Length 22J, breadth 17, alt. 7* mill. 

Valparaiso, etc., Chili. 

P. parasitica ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid. p. 481, t. 81, f. 1-3. 
Lottia cymbiola OLD., Moll.. U. S. Expl. Exped. p. 350, t, 29, f. 
453. Xot Patella parasitica RVE. P. (Acmcea) leucophcea PHIL., 
Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 22; Abbild. iii, t. 2, f. 10.? A. puncta- 
tissima PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 23; Abbild. iii, t. 2, f. 11. 

A finely striated, arched or dome-shaped species. The basal side- 
margins are usually arcuate. It lives upon other shells, usually S. 
zebrina. There is but little variation in this species, and the several 
names are completely synonymous. 

The following form seems to be closely allied, the distinction being 
founded mainly on the finely speckled or dotted surface a common 
aspect of variation in West American limpets. 



64 SCURRIA. 

Var. PUNCTATISSIMA Philippi. PI. 4, figs. 71, 72, 73. 

Shell ovate-elliptical, somewhat depressed, obsoletely sculptured 
with about 20 riblets and impressed radiating lines ; white, minutely 
tessellated with impressed brown dots ; apex at the front third of 
the length, eroded. Inside brown, maculated with black in the 
cavity ; border wide, white, articulated with black ; margin very 
finely crenulated. Length 14, width 11-J, alt. 4 mill. 

Like leucophcea in size and form, but differing in sculpture and 
coloration. The form is elliptical, a little narrower in front. Of 
ribs one sees only weak indications, and shallow furrows only toward 
the margin. The rest of the outside is decorated with little brown 
impressed dots very regularly arranged in bands, and looking very 
pretty on the white ground. There are besides inconspicuous brown 
rays. The border inside is 1 to 1J mill. wide. (Phil.) 

Chili. 

. S. MESOLEUCA Menke. PL 8, figs. 96-100, 1,2; PI. 33, figs. 83, 

84, 85. 

Shell extremely variable in color and markings, but generally 
rather broad and flat, with the apex somewhat inclined anteriorly, 
especially in the young shell. Outside with the apex and sometimes 
with a considerable portion of the shell nearly smooth ; generally 
with extremely fine ribs, sometimes sharp, sometimes rounded, gener- 
ally slightly granulose ; sometimes with broad strong ribs ; some- 
times nearly smooth with radiating lines of granules. Sometimes 
intercalary ribs are found, much larger than the rest ; sometimes dif- 
ferent plans of sculpture are seen on the same shell. The color out- 
side is generally olive or brownish-green ; sometimes without mark- 
ing, generally with white lines either radiating or broken up ; often 
with white patches tesselating with the brown ; or changing from 
one pattern to another. Inside, the shell is generally whitish 
about the middle, (whence the name) with more or less of a bluish- 
green tinge, sometimes dark-green, sometimes brownish, sometimes 
with an element of ochre-yellow more or less mottled. There is 
almost always a large dark spot at the body mark, of a brownish- 
olive green, in which sometimes the brown, sometimes the dark- 
green predominates. The body stain is irregularly and slightly 
gathered into points ; the head mark is generally shown by a stain 
shaped like a sector, bounded by two radii from the apex, about 70 
apart. The margin is generally broad, occasionally very narrow, 




SCURRIA-LOTTIA. 



bounded inside by a greenish line ; ordinarily tessellated with 
brown and white, sometimes with green or yelloAv ; not unfrequeiitly 
with very slight markings of white, or none at all, in which case the 
color is either dark-greenish-brown, (P. striata five.,) or with inter- 
mediate stages to very light-greenish-white. (Cjpr.) 

Length 34, breadth 28, alt. 8 mill. 

Central America to Guff of California. 

Acmcea mesoleuca MKE., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1851, p. 38. CPR. Maz. 
Cat., p. 203. -4. mutabilis (part) MKE. /. c., p. 37. P. diaphana Rv., 
Conch. Icon., f. Ql.Lottia patina? C. B. AD., Pan. Cat., p. 241. 
Lottia pintadina (part) GLD., Exped. Sh., p. 9. P. striata RVE., 
Conch. Icon. f. 99. P. vespertina Rv. 1. c. f. 67. Scurria mesoleuca 
BALL,- Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 264, t. 15, f. 19 (dentition). 

This variable species has much in common with Acmcea patina; 
that species, however, is not green inside. Specimens from the 
Galapagos Is., are nearly typical. They have been described by 
'Reeve as Patella striata, (not P. striata Quoy). See PI. 8, figs. 100, 1. 

The P. vespertina of Reeve (PI. 8, figs. 98, 99) is doubtless 
synonymous. 

Subgenus LOTTIA (Gray) Carpenter. 

Lottia (GRAY mss.), SOWB., Genera of Shells, pi. 42, fig. 1. 
CARPENTER, Journ. de Conch. 1865, p. 140. Am. Journ. Conch, 
ii, p. 342, 1866. DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 260. Tecturella 
CPR., Smiths. Check List W. C. Sh., p. 3, I860. Tecturina CPR., 
Smiths. Rep. 1860, p. 219. Lecania CPR. mss., see Amer. Journ. 
Conch, ii, p. 343. 

The branchial cordon is interrupted over the head. Animal 
otherwise as in Scurria. Dentition, pi. 38, fig. 3. 

S. GIGANTEA Gray. Plate 38. 

Shell large, solid, oval, depressed, the apex near the front margin ; 
outer surface^troded, of a spongy texture, dull brown, gray toward 
the summit. Inside having a black rim around the margin, deep 
chestnut brown outside of the muscle-impression, which is strong, 
bluish or purplish-white. Central area chestnut brown, more or less 
mottled with white, rarely entirely white. 

Length 75, breadth 55-60, alt. 17-20 mill. 

San Francisco, Cal., to Panama. 
5 



66 LEPETID.E. 

Lottia gigantea GRAY, in SOWERBY, Genera Sh., I. 1. REEVE, 
Conch. Syst., f. 1. CARPENTER, Amer. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 343. 
DALL, /. c. vi, p. 260, t. 15, f. 20 (animal and dentition). Acmcea 
scutum AUCT., not of Esch. nor d'Orb. Tecturella grandis Gray, 
CPR., Smiths. Chk. List no. 176; Brit. Asso. Rep. 1861, p. 137. 
Patella kochi PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib. iii, Patella, t. 1, f. 1, 
Jan., 1849. 

Young specimens (fig. 4) have fine, nearly obsolete radiating stride 
and are roughened by low, obliquely radiately ribletsin front and at 
the sides, which on the posterior half of the shell become broken 
into low rounded tubercles or bosses arranged in curved rows 
obliquely descending from the central line of the back. 

This is the largest and handsomest of the California!! limpets. 
Philippine excellent illustration of it seems to have been unknown to 
writers on west coast shells. 

Family LEPETID^E Gray. 

Lepetidce GRAY, Guide Syst. Dist. Moll. B. M., p. 172, 1857. 
PatellidcB and Tecturidce, in part, of authors. 

Shell conical, patelliform, with subcentral or anterior apex ; sur- 
face feebly sculptured, the edge smooth ; muscle-impression as in 
Patella. Embryonic shell spiral. 

Animal without external branchiae; radula provided with a 
rhomboidal cuspidate rhachidian tooth ; no lateral teeth ; uncini 
slender, two each side, their cusps simple or fringed. Formula 
2-O1-0-2. 

It will be noted from the formula given that the side-teeth are 
considered uncini rather than true laterals. The lateral teeth are 
either aborted or represented by the lateral cusps of the rhachidian 
tooth, which is, if this be the case, a compound body formed by 
coalescence, as is the case in Phasianella {Orihometus) virgo Ang. 
I am not inclined, however, to believe this to be the case in Lepeta. 

The very different dentition of the genus Lepetella renders its 
reference to this family somewhat doubtful. 

Synopsis of genera and subgenera. 
Subfamily LEPETIN^E Dall. 

Radula having a large central tooth w y ith several cusps, and two 
side-teeth on each side. 



LEPETID.T:. 67 

Genus LEPETA Gray, 1847. 

Shell patelliform, the embryonic nucleus spiral, lost in the adult ; 
apex in front of the middle ; no internal septum. Animal without 
external branchiae ; having the muzzle produced into a labial 
process on each side. Dental formula 2'O1'02, the uncini narrow, 
erect, provided with cusps. Type, L. cceca. 

Section Lepeta s. str. Apex erect ; anterior terminations of the 
great muscle-scar in front of the apex. Color whitish or light-brown. 
Surface granulate. Apex of rhachidian tooth 5-cu?pidate, middle 
cusp large, lateral cusps small ; uncini subspatulate at apex, obtuse, 
not ciliated. 

Section Cryptobranchia Midd. Ape^: inclined forward, the 
anterior terminations of the muscle-scar not in front of it. Surface 
not granulate ; color whitish. Apex of rhachidian tooth tricuspi- 
date, the cusps nearly equal ; uncini spatulate. Type, C. concentrica. 

Subgenus PILIDIUM Forbes. 

Apex of shell anterior ; surface delicately radiately ribbed and 
granulate ; color dark orange or reddish. 

Apex of rhachidian tooth tricuspidate, the middle cusp much the 
-t, side cusps small, triangular, disjoined from the central one 
at their bases ; uncini elongated, apex lanceolate, its inner margin 
densely ciliate. 

Genus PROPILIDIUM Forbes & Hanley, 1849. 

Shell patelliform, elevated ; the spiral nucleus retained in the 
adult ; apex central ; surface cancellated ; inside having a small tri- 
angular plate situated deep in the cavity, as in Puncturella. Type, 
P. ancyloide. 

Rhachidian tooth tricuspidate, the central cusp rather long, sidei_ 
cusps small, separated from the middle cusp at their bases. Uncini 
with the cusps finely denticulated. 

Subfamily LEPETELLIX^E Ball. 

Radula having three teeth on each side of the simple central 
tooth. 

Genus LEPETELLA Yerrill, 1880. 

Shell patelliform, small, smooth, oval, conical, with a subcentral 
apex, spiral in the young. Animal having distinct eyes. Radula 
having lateral teeth and uncini, formula 2'1'1'1'2. Type, L. tubi- 
cola. 



68 LEPETA. 

Subfamily LEPETIX^E Dall. 
Genus LEPETA Gray, 1847. 

Lepeta GRAY, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 168. DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, 
v, p. 140. 

Dentition of L. cceca, pi. 40, figs. 31, 31 ; enlarged apex showing 
spiral embryonic shell, pi. 40, fig. 32. 

L. C.ECA Miiller. PI. 40, figs. 29-32. 

Shell rather straightly conical, apex erect ; front slope one-half the 
length of shell ; surface sculptured with fine close radiating striae, 
rendered granulous by the intersection of equally close low thread- 
like concentric striae ; color light-brown, sometimes having a pinkish 
tint. 

The outline is oval ; front slope nearly straight, posterior slope a 
little convex, both often slightly concave above. The beaded sculpt- 
ure is most developed toward the upper part of the cone. Inside 
dirty white or pink tinged. Apex generally eroded ; basal margins 
of shell level. Length 14, breadth 11, alt. 5 mill. 

Arctic Ocean, and North Atlantic, South to Massachusetts Bay, 
Scotland and Denmark; Off Sea Horse Is., near Point Barrow, 
Alaska, and North from Bering Strait. 

Patella cceca MULL., Prodr. Zool. Dan., p. 237. Lepeta cceca 
GRAY, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 168. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch, in, p. 252. 
DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, v, p. 141 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, p. 
334, 1878. GOULD, Invert, of Mass. 2d edit., p. 270, f. 531. 
BERGH, Verh. z.-b. Ver. Wien, xxi, p. 1300. SARS, Moll. Arct. 
Norv., p. 123, t. 20, f. 17. Patella cerea MOLL., Grcenl., p. 16. 
Patella Candida COUTHOUY, Bost. Journ. N. H. ii, p. 86, t. 3, f, 17, 
1838. >GOULD, Inv. of Mass., p. 152, 1841. Pilidium candidum, 
STIMP., Sh. of New Engl., p. 29. f Lepeta franklini GRAY, Guide 
Syst. Disk, p. 172. 

This is a small whitish species, seen under a lens to be very dis- 
tinctly and beautifully granulated. 

Section Cryptobranchia Middendorff, 1851. 

Cryptobranchia MIDD., Sib. Reise, p. 183. DALL, Amer. Journ. 
Conch, v, p. 143, 1869, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, p. 334, 1878, and L 
c. iv, p. 412. 



LEPETA. 69 

Differs from Lepeta s. str. in having the apex of the shell more 
anterior, the surface not granulate, the median cusp of the rhachidian 
tooth not longer than the side cusps. Dentition of L. concentrica, 
pi. 40, fig. 35 ; of L. alba, pi. 40, fig. 40. 
L. COXCENTRICA Middendorff. PL 40, figs. 33, 34, 35, 36, 37. 

Shell depressed conical, apex directed forward ; front slope one- 
third the length of the shell or a little less; surface faintly radiately 
striate (more distinctly so in young specimens), not decussated or 
granulose; light-brownish or greenish tinted. 

The outline is ovate, a little narrower in front ; front slope 
slightly concave, posterior slope convex. The fine thread-like 
radiating stria? are larger on the longer slope of the shell ; they are 
not interrupted by concentric growth-lines, the latter being incon- 
spicuous, or sometimes strongly impressed at intervals. Epidermis 
very thin, yellowish-brown, deciduous. Inside polished, white, the 
anterior terminations of the muscle-scar a little behind the apex. 
Edges of shell level, narrowly bordered with gray, especially in the 
young. Length 20*, breadth 16, alt. 6 mill. 

North Japan, along the Aleutian Is. and along the southern coast 
of Alaska, southward to Puget Sound. 

Patella ( Cryptobranchia) cceca var. concentrica MIDD., Siber. Reise, 
p. 183, t. 16, f. 6, 1851. Cryptobranchia concentrica DALL, Amer. 
Journ. Conch, v, p. 143, t. 15, f. 2, 1869; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, 
p. 334, 1878. Lepeta c&coides? n. sp., CPU., Suppl. Rep. Br. Asso. 
Adv. Sci. 1863, pp. 603, 651. Lepeta ccecoides COOPER, List Cal. 
Moll., p. 24. CPR., Proc. Acad. X. S. Phila. Apr., 1865, p. 60. 

Differs from L. cceca in the simply striated, not granulose surface, 
more anterior apex, larger size and more depressed form. , 
Var. IXSTABILIS Dall. PL 40, figs. 44, 45, 46. 

Shell depressed, apex anterior, length of front slope contained 
three and one-half times in the length of the shell ; surface smooth, 
with occasional rings caused by more impressed growth-lines. 
Basal margin curved upward at each end. Color whitish. 

The outline is shortly ovate, front and posterior slopes nearly 
straight, the young may be lightly striate. Shell thick, solid, 
muscle-impression deep. Length 14, breadth 12, alt. 4 mill. 

Sitka, Alaska, in 10 fms. 

f Cryptobranchia instabilis nom. prov., DALL, Amer. Journ Conch, 
v, p. 145, t. 15, fig. between 3b and 5b, 1869. C. concentrica v. in- 
stabilis DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, p. 335, 1878. 



70 LKPKT A -PILIDIUM. 

May be known by its rounded form, the ends turned upward, much 
as in Clypidella pustula. The soft parts are unknown. 

There is an error in the numbers of the plate referred to by Dall. 
The figure between figs. 3b and 5b represents this species. 

L. ALBA Dall. PL 40, figs. 38, 3D, 40. 

Shell pure white, smooth or with extremely faint striae ; solid ; 
interior pure white ; apex directed anteriorly, inconspicuous; shell 
arcuate before and behind. 

Length of adult 24, width. 17?, alt. 10 mill. 

This species differs from the last in its smooth shell, greater size, 
pure whiteness, greater lateral compression, and generally more 
rounded back, from the less prominent apex. The tentacula in a 
specimen twice the size of a concentrica were not half as large. The 
teeth differ in. the shape of the central tooth and the greatly broader 
cusps of the laterals, and their striation, resembling those of Pilidium 
fulvum. 

Aleutian Inlands ; Seniavine Strait ; Plover Bay, E. Siberia. 

Cryptobranchia alba DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch. 1869, p. 145, t. 
15, f. 3a-d; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, p. 335, 1878. Patella alba 
AURIVILLIUS, Vega-expedition ens Vetenskapliga lakttagelser, iv, 
p. 318, t. 12, f. 10,11, 1887. 

Subgenus PILIDIUM Forbes, 1849. 

Pilidium FORBES, Athenaeum, Oct. 6, 1849, p. 1018. FORBES & 
HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 440, 1849. DALL, Amer. Journ. 
Conch, v, p. 146, 1869. lothia GRAY, (not Forbes) Guide Syst. dist. 
Moll. B. M., p. 172. Scutellina CHENU, in part, and of SARS, Moll. 
Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 122, not Scutellina of Gray and authors. 
Not Pilidium MIDD., Capulacmcea SARS, (see Capulidce.) 

The dentition of P. fulvum is figured on pi. 40, fig. 43. 
L. FULVA Miiller. PI. 40, figs. 41, 42, 43. 

Shell small, apex strongly inclined forward, near to the front 
margin ; front slope steep, somewhat concave, posterior slope long, 
convex ; sculptured with delicate, closely granular radiating threads. 
Color orange or reddish. 

The form is oval ; apex pointed, prominent. The riblets of the 
surface are delicate, thread-like, separated by intervals wider than 



LEPETA-PILIDIUM. 71 

themselves ; they are closely, finely grauulose. Interior polished, 
orange reddish, rarely white. 

Length 4'7, breadth 3'3, alt. 2 to 2'2 mill. 

Coast of Scotland and Ireland ; Scandanavia, 5 to 100 fras. 

Patella fulva MULLER, Prodr. Faun. Dan., p. 227. Pilidium 
fulvum FORBES, Athenaeum, 1849, p. 1018. FORBES & HAXLEY, Hist. 
Brit. Moll, ii, p. 441, t. 62, f. 6, 7 ; pi. A A, f. 3. DALL, Amer. Journ. 
Conch, v, p. 147, 1869, t. 15, f. 4, 4a; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. i, p. 
335. Tectura fulva JEFFR., Brit. Conch. Hi, p. 250. Scutellina fulva 
BARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 122, t. II, f. 12 (dentition). Pa te lla 
forbesii J. SMITH, Mem. Werner Soc. viii, p. 107, t. 2, f. 3. BROWN, 
111. Conch. Gt. Br., t. 57, f. 3, 4. lotliia fulva GRAY, figs. Moll. An., 
p. 93, 1854. 

May be known by its small reddish or dark colored shell, anterior 
apex and fine beaded radiating riblets. Patella rubella Fab. has 
has been referred here as a synonym, but it is a species of Acmwa. 
L. COPPIXGERI E. A. Smith. PI. 39, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell cap shaped, thin, sculptured with numerous fine, thread-like, 
granulous lirse radiating from the apex to the margin, and with fine 
concentric lines of growth. The color is dirty white, varied with 
two or three bands of a pale slate-color which encircle the shell at 
irregular intervals, and are interrupted by the radiating lira?, which 
are white. This feature is more apparent within the shell, where 
the surface is very smooth and shining. Margin nearly simple, very 
crenulated by the extremities of the ridges, roundly ovate in form. 
Apex rather acute, not greatly curved down, and very near the an- 
terior end. Length o mill., diam. 4J, height 2. (Smith.) 

Sandy Point, Eastern part of the Sts. of Magellan, Patagonia, 9-10 
fms. 

Tectura (Pilidium) coppingeri SMITH, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 35, t. 4, f. 
12, 12a. 

This is the southern representative of the northern Tectura 
(Pilidium) fulva of Miiller. It is rather more circular than the 
latter ; and the color of the single specimen at hand is different. 
(Smith.) 
L. EMARGINULOIDES Philippi. Unfigured. 

Shell minute, elliptical, rather depressed, white, thin ; vertex 
nearly marginal ; having about 30-36 scaly ribs ; margin subdentate. 

Length If, breadth 1 }, lines. (Ph.) 

Magellan. 



72 PROPILIDIUM. 

Patella? emarnuiulokhs PHIL., Mai. Bl. xv, p. 224, 1868. 

A single specimen seen. Has the aspect of Emarginula, but no 
trace of any incision in the shell. The riblets in front are smaller, 
filiform ; wider and more distant behind. The animal soaked in 
water showed elongated tentacles with eyes at their bases, but 
branchiae could not be made out. (Phil.) 

This may be referred to Lepeta provisionally. 

Genus PROPILIDIUM Forbes & Hanley, 1849. 

Propilidium F. & H., Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 443, 444. BARS, 
Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 123. FISCHER, Manuel, p. 863. BALL, 
Blake Report, p. 412. Eostrisepta SEGUENZA. 

The adult shell of this genus retains the distinctly spiral nucleus ; 
and in the cavity of the apex it is furnished with a small plate or 
septum, like that of Puncturella. 

The dentition (pi. 39, figs. 13, 14) is very similar to that of 
Pilidium. It may well be doubted whether there are any gills, 
although Forbes' original figure shows a pair of small plumes. This 
point calls for additional observation. At all events, the position of 
the genus is doubtless in Lepetidce, for the dentition agrees with no 
other family of limpets. 

P. ANCYLOIDE Forbes. PL 39, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. 

Shell having an oval outline, compressed at the sides, rather thin, 
semitransparent, glossy at the apex, but elsewhere of a dull hue ; 
sculpture, very numerous and close-set fine striae, which radiate from 
the beak and are exquisitely granulated in consequence of their being 
intersected or decussated by equal sized concentric striae ; color 
dirty white, occasionally diversified by a few clear longitudinal 
rays or lines; beak smooth and highly polished, styliform and 
slender, pinched up into a minute spire of between one and two 
whorls, which curls downwards at the posterior end ; mouth oval ; 
of nearly the same breadth throughout; margin thin and even, 
minutely tuberculated in immature specimens ; inside nacreous, 
furnished in the centre with a thin laminar partition, like the half 
deck of a vessel, which has its opening towards the head or anterior 
part; pallial scar broad. 

Length 0'15, breadth O115 inch. (Je/r.') 

Coasts of Ireland and Scotland ; Scandanavia ; Naples, and Tra- 
pani, Sicily, 10-145 fms. Fossil in Sicilian, Pliocene. 



PROPILIDIUM. 73 

Patella.' ancyloides FORBES, Ann. Mag. X. H. v, p. 108, t. 2, f. 
16.Propilidium ancyloide F. & H., Hist. Brit. Moll, ii, p. 443, t. 
62, f. 3, 5 ; t. AA. f. 4. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 254. SARS, 
Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 123, t. 20, f. 18a-e. DALL, Blake Report, 
p. 412, t, 31, f. 2 (dentition). P. ancyloides JEFFR., P. Z. S. 1882, 
p. 673. Rostrisepta parva SEG., teste JEFFR. 

The small internal transverse septum is a peculiar feature of this 
species. 

P. SCABROSUM Jeffreys. PI. 40, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell roundish-oval, expanded, rather thin, seraitransparent and of 
a dull hue ; sculpture, numerous but not close-set, slight stria? which 
radiate from the beak and are more or less covered with short 
tubercles, especially behind ; there are also several concentric ridges 
as in the last-named species; color whitish ; beak small, pinched up, 
incurved, and forming a minute spire of two whorls; mouth 
roundish oval; margin thin; inside glossy; septum thick and 
strong. Length O'lo, breadth 0*15 inch. (Jeffr.) 

Adventure Bank, Mediterranean. 

P. scabrosum JEFFR., P, Z. S. 1882, p. 674, t. 50, f. 6. 

Differs from P. ancyloides in being round instead of oval, and in 
having much fewer and tuberculated striae ; but I am not quite 
satisfied that it is more than a curious variety. It somewhat 
resembles the young of Gadinia garnoti ; but that shell has not the 
internal septum which is characteristic of the present genus. 

P. AQUITAXEXSE Locard. Un figured. 

Shell very small, patelliform, conic a little elevated ; thin, rather 
solid, opaque, a little rugose, ornamented with longitudinal striae 
which are very obsolete, visible only toward the base. Basal margin 
continuous, smooth, irregularly level, visibly turned up at the two 
extremities, descending at the median part ; aperture very broadly 
elliptical, a little contracted behind, well rounded in front. Summit 
subcentral, a little anterior, little elevated, recurved toward the an- 
terior region. Length 2, width If, alt. If mill. (LocardJ) 

France. 

P. aquitanense LOCARD. Proc. de Malac. Francaise, Obs. sur la 
Faune Marine des Cotes de Fr., in Annales de la Soc. Linn, de Lyon, 
xxxii, 1885, p. 244 (1886.) 

This form has not been figured, and no locality is given by Locard 
in his worthless publication. It is said to be near P. scabrosum 



74 PROPILIDIUM. 

Jeffr. but less regularly elliptical, more lengthened, narrower behind ,- 
the altitude less in proportion to the greatest diameter, the apex a 
little more anterior, surface less ornamented. 

P. PERTENUE Jeffreys. PI. 40, fig. 49. 

Shell oval, convex, ver}- thin and delicate, transparent, and 
glossy; sculpture, none ; color whitish ; beak small, cylindrical, and 
incurved, forming a minute spire of two whorls ; mouth oval ; mar- 
gin even ; inside glossy ; septum small. 

Length Ol, breadth 0'075 inch. (Jeffr.) 

Off Rinaldo's Chair and Palermo, Mediterranean 162J fms. 

Off Rhode Island, 640 fins. 

P.pertenue JEFFR., P. Z. S. 1882, p. 674, t. 50, f. 7. VERRILL, 
Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, pp. 262, 271. DALL, Blake Gastrop., p. 412. 

The young shells of P. ancyloides are much smaller than the species 
now described, are more expanded or depressed, and have the same 
sculpture as the adult ; they are also proportionally solid as well as 
of a dull hue. 

The inner layers of most of the specimens are permeated by a 
microscopic and branching spore-like orgajiism, perhaps of a fungoid 
nature. 

An imperfect specimen of another small and apparently distinct 
species occurred also in Station 17. It has the characteristic septum, 
but otherwise resembles a Lepetella. The beak is very much shorter 
than in P. pertenue; and the spire has barely one turn. 

I have originally given the species above described the ma. name 
tenue. (Jeffr.) 

The identity of the specimens collected off Ehode Island, by Prof. 
Verrill, is not certain. 

P. COMPRESSUM Jeffreys. PI. 40, fig. 50. 

Shell differs from P. pertenue in being oblong intead of oval, and 
in being laterally compressed like Patella (Lepetella} latero-com- 
pressa of Rayneval, a Monte Mario fossil, and, according to Dr. 
Tiber! , living in the Bay of Xaples ; and it is also not quite smooth, 
but is marked by a few slight longitudinal stria3 ; the beak is pro- 
portionally longer, somewhat twisted to one side, and nearly over- 
hangs the hinder margin, instead of being placed (as in P. pertenue) 
at about one-third of the distance from it. 

Length O'l, breadth 0'065 inch. (Jeffr) 

North Atlantic. 



LEPETELLA. 75 

P. compression JEFFR., P. Z. S. 1882, p. 674, t. 50, f. 8. 
P. ELE<;AXS Yerrill. Unfigured. 

Shell small, very thin and fragile, translucent bluish-white, rather 
depressed, elongated-elliptical with the recurved apex situated at 
about the posterior third. The nuclear whorl is very minute, smooth 
glassy, compressed, strongly involute and turned a little to the left, 
forming a complete whorl, visible in a side view. The whole surface, 
under the microscope, has the appearance of a very fine shagreen. 
This is produced by very minute, short, wavy, raised lines, which are 
mostly arranged in zigzag or in herring-bone style ; in some parts 
the two sets of lines, running obliquely, cross each other at nearly 
right angles ; on other portions one or both sets are replaced by 
minute punctations, or granulations. This sculpture is visible only 
under a strong lens or with the compound microscope. The internal 
lamina or septum is narrow, crescent-shaped, situated behind and 
some little distance below the extreme apex, and not forming an 
elongated channel ; it is distinctly visible from the outside, owing to 
the translucency of the shell. (Verrill.') 

Length 3*5, breadth 2*5, alt. 1 mill. 

Off Chesapeake Bay, 1395 fms. 

P. elegans VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad. vi, p. 205. 

The animal has a short, broad ovate foot, subtruncate in front, 
with the edge frilled. Frontal disk rather large, broad semicircular 
or crescent-shaped, with the angles extending back in a large obtuse 
lobe on each side. Buccal area semicircular ; mouth surrounded 
with four convex elevations, one before and one behind it, and one 
on each side. Tentacles slender, tapering, acute. Eyes apparently 
wanting. No cirri on mantle. (Verrill.) 

Subfamily LEPETELLINJE Dall. 
Genus LEPETELLA Yerrill, 1880. 

Lepetella YERRILL, Amer. Journ. of Science, 3d Ser., xx, p. 396, 
Xov., 1880; Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus. iii, p. 375, Jan., 1881. BALL, 
Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus. iv, p. 408, 1882 ; Blake Gastrop., p. 413. 

The animal has eyes. There are seven rows of teeth, the dental 
formula being 2'1'1*1*2 (pi. 39, fig. 17). Soft parts otherwise as in 
Lepeta. The embryonic shell is spiral (pi. 39, fig. 19.) 

L. TUBICOLA Yerrill & Smith. PI. 39, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Shell thin, white, smooth, conical with the apex acute and nearly 
central; aperture broad elliptical, oblong or subcircular, usually 



76 PATELLID.i:. 

more or less warped, owing to its habitat; edge thin and simple. 
Sculpture none, lines of growth slight, outer surface dull white; 
inner surface smooth, with the pallial markings faint. 

Length 3'75, breadth 3, alt. 2 mill. ( F.) 

Off Martha's Vineyard ; Gulf of Mexico between the delta of the 
Mississippi and Cedar Keys, Fla., 130-388 fms. 

L. tubieola V. & S. Amer. Jn. Sci. 1880, p. 396.; Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 1881, p. 375 ; Trans. Conn. Acad. v, p. 534, t. 58, f. 29, 29a. 
BALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. iv, p. 408 ; Blake Gastrop., p. 413, t. 
25, f. 6 (Dentition.) 

Young specimens show that the nucleus is subspiral, as in other 
Lepetidce. 

Family PATELLIDJE. 

Docoglossate gasterpods having a simply conical shell, non- 
spiral even in the embryo. Breathing by a cordon of branchial leaf- 
lets attached to the mantle between its thickened edge and the sides 
of the foot; having no cervical gill-plume. Radula having three 
uncini and three laterals on each side, the rhachidian tooth being 
either present, rudimentary or wanting; jaw developed. 

The Patellidce differ markedly from Acmceidce and Lepetidce in 
the gills, which form a complete or interrupted cordon, not accom- 
panied by a cervical branchial plume, and not homologous with the 
gills developed in other Prosobranchiata. 

The shells may generally be distinguished from those of the 
Acmceidce and Lepetidce by their texture and the lack of a defined 
internal border ; but the distinction is difficult or impossible to ex- 
press in words, and must be learned by actual familiarity with 
the objects themselves. 

In the arrangement of the species and groups I have made use of 
the character of the texture of the interior, heretofore neglected by 
systematists, but undoubtedly of equal importance in many cases for 
the discrimination of groups with the character of the gill-cordon 
and the presence or absence of a rhachidian tooth. 

The rhachidian tooth is now proven to be decidedly variable in 
closely allied species. It is well-developed and bears a cusp in 
Ancistromesus and many species of Scuteltastra ; is represented by a 
linear rudiment in Patina, Nacella, Patinella and Helcioniscus. It 
is apparently wanting in Patella s. str. 



PATELLID.E. < t 

Aii original formula is herein used to express the arrangement of 
teeth upon the radula, not from any preference for novelty, but 
because the new method is believed to be more graphic. 

The gill-cordon is probably always interrupted by a narrow hiatus 
at the front left side but practically it is considered " interrupted" 
only when absent above the neck for a considerable distance. 

An excellent paper by R. J. Harvey Gibson on the anatomy of 
Patella vulgata, in Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. xxxii, pt. 2, p. 601-638, 
5 plates, gives the most complete account yet published of the 
anatomy, histology and physiology of Patella. Illustrations of 
the dentition of various Patellidce have been published by Dall, Sars, 
Hogg, Hutton and others. 

Numerous classifications have been proposed for the limpets. The 
systems of the earlier authors, as well as of H. & A. Adams, are very 
crude, being founded upon the shell alone. J. E. Gray (Guide) 
offered a somewhat better but still very imperfect arrangement. 
Dr. W. H. Dall in 1871, proposed a system based mainly upon the 
gill-cordon and dentition. This was somewhat modified by him a 
decade later in Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus. iv, 1881, p. 412, 413 (1882). 
His modified arrangement is as follows : 

A. Branchial cordon complete. 

a. With rhachidian tooth ; branchial lamellae arborescent, pro- 
duced; sides of foot smooth. AXCISTROMESUS. 

Ancistromesus Dall. 3 (i 212 i)3- 

b. Without rhachidian tooth ; branchial lamella short, lingui- 
form. PATELLA. 

Patella Linne. Foot smooth ; branchial lamellae sub- 
equal all around. 3 (i 202 i) 3 . 

Patinella Dall. Foot with scalloped frill interrupted 
only in front ; gills as in Patella. 3 G lol 2)s- 

yacella Schum. Foot frilled ; gills very small in front ; 
shell peculiar ; lateral teeth all bidentate. 3 ( 2 101 2 ) 3 . 

B. Branchial cordon interrupted in front, 
a. Sides of foot smooth. HELCION. 

Helcion Montf. Third laterals posterior, bidentate. 

( 202 \ 
3U 1J3' 

Eelcioniscus Dall. First laterals anterior. 3 G 101 2) 3 . 
Patina Gray. Third laterals posterior, denticulate; 

shell peculiar. 3 G 202 i)s- 

* 
* * 

Metoptoma Phillips (fossil.) 



78 PATELLIDyE. 

Dr. Paul Fischer's classification (Manuel de Conch., p. 866, 1885) 
is as follows : 
Genus PATELLA. 

Subtgenus Patella s. s. Brachial cordon complete ; no tuber- 
cles on the epipodial line ; dentition 3(i 202 i) 3 . P. vulgata, etc. 
Section Ancistromesus Dall. P. mexicana. 
Section Olana Ads. P. cochlear. 
Section Scutellastra Ads. P. pentagona. 
Section Cymbula Ads. P. compressa. 
Section Patellastra Monts. P. lusitanica. 
Subgenus Patinella Dall. Branchial cordon complete ; epipo- 
dial line scalloped ; no central tooth ; dentition 3 ( 2 101 2)3. P 
magellanica. 

Subgenus Nacella Schum. Animal as in the last. Shell 
oval, thin, pellucid, summit anterior, submarginal. N. 
mytilina. 

Section ? Cellana Ad. 

Subgenus Helcion Montf. Branchial cordon interrupted in 
front. Epipodial line papillose; dentition 3 (i 202 i) 3 . H. 
pectinatus. Synonym Patina (Leach) Gray. P. pellucida. 
Subgenus Helcioniscus Dall. Branchial cordon interrupted ; 
sides of the foot smooth ; dentition 3 (< 2 lo \~)z. H. variegatus. 
Genus TRYBLIDIUM Lindstr., 1880. Shell like Patella; muscle- 
scar broken into a number of separate impressions (fossil.) 

Subgenus Palceacmcea Hall, 1873. Shell like Scurria; 

muscle-scar like Tryblidium (fossil.) 

Dr. Fischer places Metoptoma in Capulidce on account of the pos- 
terior apex, which is unlike all docoglossate limpets. 

It is evident that a great mass of material must be examined 
before a just appreciation of the constancy of the characters used to 
separate groups in this family can be attained. 

A survey of all available sources of information upon the soft 
parts and radulaB has convinced me, against my preconceived ideas, 
that the presence or absence of a rhachidian tooth and the continuity 
or interruption of the branchial cordon are not sufficiently constant 
to be used as characters for the separation of genera. In some cases 
it is evident that they are scarcely specific. The radulse should be 
thoroughly re-examined, as many of the published figures are not 
sufficiently accurate to be of much use. 



PATELLID.E. 79 

Synopsis of Groups of Patellidce. 

A. Two inner lateral teeth on each side anterior. 

Subgenus PATELLA Linne, 1758 (restricted.) 

Branchial cordon complete; sides of foot having no epipodial pro- 
jections. Two inner lateral teeth on each side anterior, the rhachidian 
tooth present or absent. Apex of the shell near the center. Type 
P. vulgata. 

Section PATELLA s. sir. Inner layer of the shell subtranslu- 
cent, exhibiting when closely examined a concentrically 
fibrous texture ; more or less iridescent. Radula without 
a rhachidian tooth ; formula 3 (i 202 i) 3 . Type P. vulgata. 
Cijmbula Ads. and Patellastra Monts. are synonyms. 
Section SCUTELLASTRA Ads., 1858. Inner layer of the shell 
opaque, porcellanous, not iridescent. Radula either with 
or without a rhachidian tooth; formula 3 (i 202 i) 3 or 3 (i 212 i) 3 . 
Olana Ads. is a synonym. 

Section ANCISTROMESUS Dall, 1871. Inner layer of the large, 
massive shell porcellanous, opaque. Rhachidian tooth of 
the radula developed, bearing a cusp ; formula 3 (i 212 i)3- 
Type P. mexicana. 

Subgenus HELCIOX Montfort, 1810. 

Branchial cordon interrupted in front; side of foot smooth, with- 
out epipodial processes. Inner two lateral teeth on each side ante- 
rior, no rhachidian tooth. Shell oval, apex anterior. Formula of 
teeth 3(^)3. 

Section HELCION s. str. Shell oval, with anterior apex ; sur- 
face sculptured with scaly radiating ribs. Type H. pect- 
inatus. 

Section PATINA (Leach) Gray, 1840. Shell with anterior or 
subcentral apex ; radiately striated, polished. 

B. One inner lateral tooth on each side anterior. 

Subgenus XACELLA Schumacher, 1817. 

Branchial cordon complete; sides of foot bearing a scalloped 
epipodial ridge. One inner lateral tooth on each side anterior ; 
rhachidian tooth none or rudimentary. Interior of shell having a 
satin-like or metallic luster. 



80 PATELLA. 

Section IS" AC ELL A s. str. Gills very small in front. Shell 
oblong, thin, the apex curved forward, near or at the an- 
terior extremity of the shell. Type P. mytilina. 

Section PATINELLA Dall, 1871. Gills equally developed all 
around. Shell solid, colored, ribbed, the apex subcentral 
or anterior. Type P. magellanica. 

Subgenus HELCIONISCUS Dall, 1871. 

Branchial cordon interrupted ; sides of the foot smooth, lacking 
epipodial processes. One inner lateral tooth on each side, anterior. 
Shell solid, having the apex subcentral or subanterior, inner layer 
subtranslucent, more or less iridescent or satiny. Type H. variegatus 
Rve. 

Resembles Patinella in texture of shell and dentition, but lacks 
an epipodial ridge, in the latter respect resembling Patella. It 
differs from both in having the branchial cordon interrupted in 
front. 



Genus PATELLA L., 1758. 

Patella L., p. Syst. Nat. x, p. 780 (in part). Eruca TORNEFORT. 
Pateliites WALCH. Patellaria LLHWYD. ? Goniclis RAF. olhn. 
Patellus MONTFORT. 

Subgenus PATELLA (restricted.) 

The subgenus is here considered to= Patella-}- Ancistromesus of 
Dr. Dalls's arrangement. It is one of the best-defined groups of the 
family, being characterized by (1 ) the continuous branchial cordon, 
(2) smooth sides of the foot, having no epipodial ridge or processes, 
and (3) having a peculiarity of the radula found in none of the 
other groups except Helcion-{- Patina ; viz., the two inner lateral 
teeth on each side are unicuspid and situated in front of the third 
laterals, which are larger and have several (generally three) cusps. 
This disposition is easily understood by reference to pi. 52, fig. 1 
representing the odontophore of Patella vulgata. In some species a 
central or rhachidian tooth is developed, and when this is the case 
it is placed on the same level with the inner laterals. See under 
section Ancistromesus. 

A reference to the synopsis of groups on page 79 shows that the 
subgenus consists of three sections, of which the first is 



PATELLA. 81 

Section PATELLA (restricted.) 

Cymbula H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., p. 466, is a synonym, 
its type being P. eompressa L. 

Rhachidian tooth of the radula absent. 

Inner layer of the shell subtranslucent, exhibiting when closely 
examined a fibrous texture ; usually more or less iridescent. 
Distribution : European seas, West Africa and the adjacent islands. 

The oceanic and west African allies and varieties of P. ccmt/eaare 
much in need of revision. Too many species have been made, most 
of which are here retained for want of sufficient material to show 
their actual specific affinities. 

P. FERRUGINEA Gmelin. PI. 53, figs. 1, 2, 3 ; pi. 17, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell oval, conical, solid, the apex in front of the middle ; slopes 
straight or convex ; roughly sculptured with numerous (44-50) strong, 
unequal rounded radiating ribs, which are wider than their inter- 
spaces, and which strongly denticulate the margin. Dull and 
lusterless, ashen, more or less stained with brown. 

Interior bluish- white, porcellanous ; muscle-scar deeply impressed ; 
central area thick, callous, opaque-white, its border well-defined. 
Margin strongly fluted, having a brown line at the edge. 

Length 62, breadth 50, alt. 20 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, from the ^Egean to Spain. 

P. ferruginea GMEL., Syst. p. 3706. WEINKAUFF, Conch yl. des 
Mittelm. ii, p. 401. P. lamarckii PAYR., Moll, de Corse p. 90, t. 4, 
f. 3, 4. DESK., Exped. Sci. de Moree iii, p. 1 33. P. plicata COSTA, 
Catal. Sist. p. 119. P. costosoplicata REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 14. 
HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. xv, p. 416. Lepades vertice integro, 
margine lacero, ovatce, costoso-plicata, etc. MARTINI, Conchyl. Cab. 
i, p. 91, t. 8, f. 66 ; also Lepas magna, vertice inteyro acuto, albo, etc., 
etc., t. c., p. 117. P. rouxi PAYR., Moll, de Corse, p. 90, t. 4, f. 1, 
2. P. pyramidata LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 327. DELESSERT, Rec., 
t. 22, f. 3. P. ferruginea var. pyramidata WEIXKAUFF, Conchyl. 
des Mittelm. p. 401. 

The strong rounded ribs, deeply crenulating the margin, distin- 
guish this from other European species. The interior is faint bluish 
and slightly opalescent outside of the muscle-scar ; inside of it there 
is a distinctly defined, opaque white callus. The ribs number from 
44 to 50 in all. 



82 PATELLA. 

There is no warrant whatever for the use of the name " contoso- 
plicata Martini " for this shell. There is riot the slightest pretension 
to or attempt at binomialism or the use of generic names in the first 
volume of Martini. 

De Gregorio has described the following varieties : sitta, imperat- 
oria, percostata, ficarazzensis (Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. x. p. 120, 124.) 

P. VULGATA Linne. PI. 10, figs. 1-6. 

Shell solid, oval, conical, the apex a little in front of the middle ; 
slopes nearly straight ; surface sculptured by numerous radiating 
ribs (often subobsolete), the spaces between the ribs having radiating 
trie. Color varying from whitish to pink, yellow, slate, olive, or 
black, the ribs generally lighter. 

Interior somewhat opalescent in dark specimens, usually yellow- 
ish and showing faint rays around the edge, the central area varying 
from white to dark-brown. Length 44, breadth 37, alt. 17 mill. 

Lofoten Is., Norway, to Spain. 

P. vulgata L., Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1258. FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. 
Brit. Moll, ii, p. 421, t. 61, f. 5, 6. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch, iii, p; 
236 ; v, t. 57, f. 1-4 (with varr. elevata, pieta, intermedia, depressa, 
ccerulea). HIDALGO, Mol. Mar. Esp. t. 52, f. 1-8 ; t. 53, f. 7, 8. 
BALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 268, t. 15, f. 23 (anatomy). 
SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 118, t. ii, f. 7a. 7b. (dentition). 
HARVEY, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. xxxii, pt. 3, p. 601-636, 1885 
(anatomy and histology). ? P. radiata PERRY, Conch., t. 43, f. 1. 

The common Patella of northern Europe is the typical vulgata of 
Linne. It is more elevated than the Mediterranean shells, but some 
specimens of the latter can scarcely be separated specifically. The 
species is excessively variable : The forms recognized by Jeffreys 
occurring on the English coast are as follows : 

Form elevata Jeffr. Much smaller, rounder and higher. 

Form pieta. Smaller and thinner ; with alternate rays of reddish 
and dark blue. 

Form intermedia Knapp. Smaller, natter and oval, with finer 
ribs and an orange crown ; inside golden-yellow or tinged with flesh- 
color (occasionally cream-color) in the center, and beautifully rayed 
toward the margins (Ann. Mag. N. H. xix, 1857, p. 211). 

Form depressa Pennant (pi. 11, figs. 24, 25, 26). Much depressed, 
more oblong than the usual form ; ribs finer but sharp ; apex more 
anterior; inside porcellanous with a pale orange head scar or 



PATELLA. 83 

spatula. P. athtetica F. & H. is a synonym. This form is thicker 
and more coarsely sculptured than the var. aspersa Lam. 

P. CCERULEA Linne. PI. 10, figs. 7-12. 

Shell depressed, thin, spreading, usually more or less distinctly 6 
or 7 angled ; riblets rather fine and notably unequal. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Madeira ; Azores; Canaries. 

P. ccerulea L., 1. c., p. 1259. HAXLEY, Sh. of L., p. 421. PHIL., 
Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 109, t. 7, f. 5. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 28. 
-HIDALGO, Mol. Mar. Esp., t. 50, f. 5, 6 ; t. 51, f. 1, 2. BUQ. 
DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll. Mar. Rouss., p. 471, t. 58, f. 1-7. P. 
fragilis PHIL., Enum. i, p. 40, t. 7, f. 6. P. subplana P. & M., 
Galerie de Douai, i, p. 524, t. 37, f. 3, 4. P. ccerulea v. subplana 
BUQ. DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll. Rouss., p. 473. P. tarentina LAM., 
not v. SALIS. P. scutellaris BLAIXVILLE, not LAM. 

P. aspera LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 327. P. bonnardi RVE., not 
PAYR. 

P. tarentina v. SALIS, Reise ins Koenig. Neapel, p. 359, t. 6, f. 2. 
P. bonnardi PAYR., Moll, de Corse, p. 89, t. 3, f. 9-11. 

P. crenata GMEL., Syst., p. 3706. ORB., Moll. Canaries, p. 97, t. 
7, f. 6-8. DROUET, Moll. Mar. Agores, p. 40. 

Separated from P. vulgata mainly on account of its more 
expanded, depressed, generally thinner shell and more southern 
range. I am wholly inclined to believe that the line of separation 
is artificial, and that the two species vulgata and ccerulea fade into 
one another. 

The variations of the genuine ccerulea are numerous including the 
following forms : 

Form fragilis Phil. Shell thin, the radiating strise very fine. 

Form intermedia B. D. & D. Intermediate between the regu- 
larly oval and the polygonal forms. 

Form adspersa B. D. & D. Dotted with white on a greenish- 
gray ground. 

Form subplana Pot. & Mich. (figs. 7, 8). Large, thin, pentagonal, 
the apex quite anterior. This is P. scutellaris of Blainville, Reeve, 
and others. As mutations under it rank form stellata B. D. & D., 
having the angles prolonged, star-like ; form cognata B. D. & D., 
having the pentagonal form of subplana and the rugose sculpture of 
aspera. 




84 PATELLA. 

Var. ASPERA Lamarck. PL 11, figs. 20, 20a, 21, 22, 23; pi. 53, 
figs. 4, 6. 

Solid, depressed, the growth-lines rising into more or less promi- 
nent scales on the conspicuous ribs. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

Form tarentina von Salis. PL 53, fig. 6. Conspicuously rayed 
with brown ; nearly smooth. 

Form spinulosa B. D. & D. (pi. 53, fig. 4). Ribs spinose. 

Additional names applied to forms belonging to the vulgata and 
casrulea stock are forms comma, depressaspera, macrina, albula and 
cimbulata De Greg., Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. x, 1884, pp. 122, 123; P. 
tasleij ordinaria, goudoti, servaini and teneriffce J. Mabille, Bull. 
Soc. Philomathique de Paris, 1887-1888, pp. 78-81. 

Var. CRENATA (Gmelin) Orbigny. PL 54, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Depressed, irregularly oval, having numerous rather low riblets, 
over which small granules are scattered more or less closely. 
Yellowish-brown or tawny outside ; the inside usually bluish, more 
or less iridescent, white in the middle. 

Azores and Canary Is. 

Var. LOWEI d'Orbigny. PL 53, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 ; pi. 29, figs. 44, 

45, 46. 

Depressed, spreading, angularly ovate, solid, the surface very 
densely ribbed, the ribs unequal, scaly, especially toward the mar- 
gins. Color varying from dull brown or rust red to blackish-brown ; 
sometimes rayed with white. Edge of the shell denticulate, the pro- 
jections compound, foliated. 

Inside varying from white to deep blue, iridescent, having a 
fibrous texture ; the central area generally white, and much thick- 
ened, callous. 

Madeira, Azores, Cape Verde and Canary Is. 

P. lowei ORB., Hist. Nat. Canaries, Moll., p. 97, t. 7, f. 9, 10. 
DAUTZENBERG, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, iii, p. 161, 1890. DROUET, 
Moll. Mar. Ayores, p. 40. P. azorica NUTT., teste JAY, CataL, 4th 
edit, 1852, p. 100, no. 2798. 

More spreading and angular than var. aspera, and the marginal 
denticulations are foliated. Figure 43 of pi. 29 is not characteristic. 



PATELLA. 85 

The other figures are drawn from specimens before me. Dr. H. 
Simroth (Zur Kenntniss der Azorenfauna, in Archiv fur Naturge- 
schichte 54th year, 1888, p. 215, Apr., 1889) ranks the Azores 
Patella under the single species aspera, with several varieties as 
follows : 

"Patella aspera Lam. 

a. typical form,=P. loivei Orb., P. baudoni Drouet, P. specta- 
bilis Drouet, not Dkr. 

b. P. moreleti Drt., P. crenata Gin. of Orb., in Moll. Canar., 
and probably P. gomezi Drt. 

c. var. simrothi v. Martens. Narrower, oval, flat. Ribs weaker, 
more rounded than carinated, either entirely smooth or hav- 
ing distinct scales. Margin but little crenated. Color of the 
outside pretty regular dark reddish-brown ; inside also pretty 
dark, obscure violet, sometimes more reddish, sometimes 
more dark blue, the central area bluish-white or gray-blue, 
sometimes with an admixture of yellow ; rarely having dis- 
tinct dark rays inside. The margin is often somewhat 
horizontally dilated. Apex at the front f. Length 41, 
breadth 30, alt. 14 mill.; length 32, breadth 24, alt. JO mill. 
Azores. Approaches P. ccerulea L. but evidently deserves a 
separate name. 

d. var. accedens ad lusitanicam Gmel. Higher, broader 
more bluntly elevated, ribs and border simila r to the fore- 
going. Colored outside and inside with broad dark, defined 
rays on a light ground. Central area lead-gray, rarely 
yellowish or reddish. Only small specimens, length 25 
breadth 21, alt. 11 mill., apex at f of the length. The P. 
nigrosquamata Dkr. of Drouet is perhaps this, but without 
rays." 

P. MORELETI Drouet. PL 56, figs. 27, 28. 

Shell subdepressed, very rugose, ribbed, the ribs scaly, scarcely 
solid ; brownish-green outside : inside brownish or reddish, iridescent, 
with a white spot at the summit. Apex acute. Aperture ovate, 
crenulated. Length 40, breadth 30, alt. 12 mill. (Drouet.) 

Fayal, Azores. 

P. moreleti DR., Moll. Mar. Acores, p. 42, t. 2, f. 10, 11, 1858. 

Considered a variety of P. aspera by Simroth. 



86 PATELLA. 

P. GOMESII Drouet. PI. 54, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell large, subdepressed, rugose, ribbed-plicate, rather solid; 

outside grayish-brown or rufescent ; inside shining, brown, pearly ; 

apex situated at the front third of the length, obtuse ; aperture 

oval, entire. Length 50-60, breadth 50-53, alt. 12-15 mill. (Drouet.) 

Bay of San Lourenzo, Santa Maria, and Pico, Azores Is. 

P. gomesii DROUET, Mollusques Marins des lies A9ores, p. 39, t. 
1, f. 6, 7, 1858. 

More depressed and less elongated than P. candei, the ribs more 
conspicuous, the summit more obtuse. 

Referred by Simroth to P. aspera var. moreleti Drt. 

P. BAUDONII Drouet. PL 54, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell large, subelevated, coarsely ribbed, plicate, solid, thick; 
outside grayish-green, inside white ; vertex subacute, submedian ; 
aperture oval, a little crenated. 

Length 60, breadth 50, alt. 25 mill. (Drouet ) 

Santa Maria and Pico, Azores. 

P. baudoni DR., Moll. Mar. A9ores, p. 41, t. 2, f. 8, 9, 1858. 

This seems to be very closely allied to P. ferruginea Grael. It is 
referred by Simroth to P. aspera. 

P. CANDEI d'Orbigny. PL 55, fig. 22, 23, 24. 

Shell elevated, conical, thick, smooth or irregularly roughened ; 
ovate, margin entire. Inside buff, bluish in the middle ; outside 
pale yellow. Length 67, breadth 58, alt. 27 mill. (Orb.) 

Canaries. 

P. candei ORB., Hist. Nat. Canaries, ii, 2d part Mollusques, p. 
98, t. 7, f. 11, 12, 1844. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 34, 1854. 

P. CITRULLUS Gould. PL 28, figs. 39, 40, 41. 

Shell sub-diaphanous, thin, sub-conical, moderately elevated, sum- 
mit prominent ; apex anterior, acute, feebly incurved, usually some- 
what eroded ; a great number of faintly elevated lines, studded 
with fine tubercles or asperities, radiate from it, and become obsolete 
about half way towards the margin. Striae of increment coarse and 
irregular, overlaying each other, so as to give the shell a rude, con- 
centrically squamose aspect externally ; disk nearly oval, a little 
narrowed anteriorly ; margin very thin and sharp, finely and irreg- 
ularly undulated. External color a dusky olive-green, with a shade 



PATELLA. 87 

of brown showing through it, ornamented with concentric, undu- 
lating lines of obscure white. Interior greenish-white, with bright 
iridescent reflections ; a slight spatulaform deposit at the fundus, 
bluish at the edges and forepart, passing into greenish towards the 
middle and posterior portions. ( Gld.} 
Length 1~, breadth H inch. 

Funchal, Madeira Is. 

P. citrullus OLD. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, p. 149, July, 1886 ; 
U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll. & Sh. 335, f. 448. 

This shell resembles somewhat the skin of a cucumber externally. 
The radiating stria? occupy the upper half of the shell, and the 
lower half is somewhat imbricated by the stage of growth. It is 
somewhat like P. Candei D'Orb. (Old.) 

I have not seen this species. It should be compared with P. 
ccerulea var. crenata, and with P. candei. 

P. LUSITAXICA Gmelin. PI. 11, figs. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Shell solid, conical, rounded-oval, the apex elevated and slightly 
in front of the middle ; front slope straight, posterior slope slightly 
convex. Surface dull, lusterless ; having close unequal, granose radi- 
ating riblets. Ashen-white, with blackish rays wider than the 
white ones, the granules on the ribs black. 

Interior rayed with brown or purplish-black on a lighter ground, 
the central area white, brown or blue-black, often surrounded by 
a yellow stain. Length 35, breadth 29, alt. 16 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Atlantic coast of Portugal and 
S. W. France (Gironde*) ; Madeira. 

P. rustica Lixx., Syst. Nat. x, p. 783, teste HAXLEY, Shells of L., 
p. 427 (Not P. rustica Lixx., Mus. Ulrica, nor of REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., nor of MEXKE, Moll. Nov. Holl. Spec.). P. lusitanica GMEL., 
S\>t. p. 3715. PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, p. 110. HIDALGO, 
Mol. Mar. Esp. 51, f. 3, 8. BUQ. DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll. Mar. 
Rouss. i, p. 469, t. 57. P. gramtlaris v. SALIS et al, not Linn. 
P. nigropunctata REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 57. P. piperata GLD., U. 
S. Exped. Moll. p. 338, atlas f. 449. 

The conical form and dark or black granules upon the radiating 
riblets readily distinguish this species. 



88 PATELLA. 

P. pipcmta Gould (pi. 29, figs. 50-52) is identical. The P. rux- 
tica of Linne (Syst. Nat. x) is, according to Hanley, who has studied 
Linne's type, the same as lasitanica; but Linne afterward described 
another and entirely different shell under the same name, and as his 
original description is insufficient, the name rustica had better be 
dropped entirely. 

The conical, compact form and subgranose riblets, dotted with 
blackish, are characteristic. The species may perhaps be found to 
intergrade with P. guttata Orb., but proof of this is lacking at 
present. 

P. GUTTATA d'Orbigny. PI. 56, figs. 29, 30, 31. 

Shell elevated (the young depressed), conical, thick, unequally 
ribbed, the ribs alternately large and small, longitudinally tuber- 
culate, the tubercles black ; interior grayish, yellowish-red in the 
middle. (Orb.) 

Length (adult specimen) 54, breadth 46, alt. 35 mill. 

Length (young specimen) 23, breadth 19, alt. 5 mill. 

Teneriffe and Grand Canary Is., Canaries. 

P. guttata ORB., Hist. Nat. Canaries, Moll., p. 98, t. 7b, f. 13-15, 
1844. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 91. DAUTZENBERG, Mem. Soc. 
Zool. Fr. iii, p. 161, 1890. P. frauenfeldi DUNKER, Verb. k. k. 
zool.-bot. Ges. in Wien, xvi, p. 914, 1866. FRAUENFELD, Reise 
der Oesterreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool. Theil, ii, Moll., p. 15, 
t. 2, f. 26. 

The black nodules upon the ribs and the red stained interior are 
prominent and characteristic marks. It is somewhat allied to P. 
granularis, natalensis, etc. 

P. nigrosquamosa Dkr. is probably a variety or synonym of this 
species. Yon Martens (Zool. Rec. iii, p. 188) having examined part 
of the original specimens of P. frauenfeldi, considers them identical 
with guttata. The locality " Madras " is an error. 

P. NIGROSQUAMOSA Bunker. PI. 13, figs. 57, 58, 59. 

Shell ovate, convex-conic, whitish with large and small scaly radi- 
ating ribs; scale* erect, blackish. Apex subcentral, rather acute. 
Margin crenulated. (Dkr.) Length 19 mill. 

Horta, Fayal Is., Azores. 



PATELLA. 89 

P. nigroaguamoM DKR., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1846, p. 25. P. nigro- 
squamosa var. minor DKR., Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer, p. 41, pi. 7, f. 
4-6. 

We must retain this name for the Azores form for which it was 
originally proposed. Dunker subsequently included the larger 
Cape species, P. natalensis. 

Compare P. guttata Orb. of which this may prove to be a variety. 

P. RANGIANA ( Valenciennes) Rochebrune. PI. 58, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell ovate, depressed-convex, rufous ; vertex submucronate, 
usually eroded, situated at t of the length ; having larger and 
smaller radiating broad, very scaly ribs, scales subimbricating, 
obtuse, lenticular ; margin undulating ; interior bluish, silvery- 
pearly, rayed with bands and spots of purplish, the center spatulate, 
pale orange. Length 44, breadth 36, alt. 19 mill. (Rocnebr.') 

Porto Praya, Cape Verdes. 

P. rangiana (Valenc. ms.} ROCHEBRUNE, Bull. Soc. Philomathique 
de Paris, 7th Sen, vi, p. 29, 1882; Nouv. Arch, du Mus. 2dSer., iv, 
p. 267, t. 18, f. 7, 1881. 
P. GUIXEEXSIS Dunker. PI. 12, figs. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38. 

Shell oval, sometimes elliptical, subelevated, rather solid, con- 
centrically striate and subrugose; furnished with close, unequal 
subnodose radiating ribs, in part obsolete. Buff-orange, rayed 
and variegated with brown. Apex projecting, inclined forward, 
submamillar, situated at the front of the length. 

Interior buff-orange, center milky and lurid. Margin acute, 
slightly crenulated, nearly simple, Length 27 mill. Ratio of 
length, breadth and alt. = J 00 : 88 : 30. (Dkr.) 

Loan da, Guinea. 

P. guineensis DKR., Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer, p. 40, t. 7, f. 19, 20, 
21, 1, 2, 3. 
P. SPECTABILIS Duuker. PI. 12, figs. 45, 46, 47. 

Shell ovate, subdepressed, solid, buff or dull white, rayed with red- 
dish ; apex somewhat obtuse, situated at the length, or the space 
in front bearing to the space behind the apex the ratio of 3 to 4. 
Having numerous radiating ribs, which are rugulose, subnodose, 
subimbricated toward the margin. Interior bluish, the center 
white ; margin irregularly folded, crenulated, scarcely angular. 
Length 43, breadth 34*, alt. 12 mill. A large example measures 
62 mill, in length. (Dkr.~) 

Loanda, Guinea. 



90 PATELLA. 

P. speetabilis DKR., Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer., p. 39, t. 6, f. 7-9. 

Should be compared with P. ccerulea var. aspera. 
P. SAFIANA Lamarck. PL 55, figs. 19, 20, 21. 

Shell ovate-oblong, convex, variable; having equal radiating 
flattened white ribs, the interstices brown ; apex subacute, inflexed. 
It is of grayish whitish above, and rayed between the ribs with yel- 
lowish or slightly brown rays. The internal border is of a bluish 

nacre. (Lam.*) 

Ocean coast of Morocco. 

P. safiana LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 329, 1819. DELESSERT, Rec. 
de Coq. t. 22, f. 2. 

The following species, conspicua Ph., is probably identical wfth 
this forgotten Lamarckian shell. 

P. CONSPICUA Philippi. PI. 56, figs. 25, 26, 26. 

Shell rather thick, ovate, a little broader behind than before, with 
about 34 flat, somewhat sharply angular, coarse ribs, and about 
double that number of weaker riblets in their interspaces ; the 
border is irregularly toothed and crenated by these ribs. The apex 
lies at the front third of the length ; the front slope is straight, back 
slope convex. The color is whitish, with blackish-brown interrupted 
rays, here and there connected by transverse striae. Inside, the outer 
portion is whitish, showing the external black rays through the 
shell ; in the center more or less reddish-yellow. Sometimes the 
reddish-yellow color includes the central area and the muscle-im- 
pression, sometimes the muscle-impression is the darkest reddish- 
yellow, and the centrum itself lighter. (Phil.) 

Length 80, breadth 62, alt. 24 mill. 

Gaboon, Guinea. 

P. conspicua PHIL., Abbild. iii, p. 71, t. 3, f. 1, October, 1849. 
DKR., Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer., p. 43.? REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 12. 

I have not identified this species with certainty. The original 
figures and description are given. 

It is doubtful whether Reeve's figures represent this species. I 
have copied them on pi. 21, figs. 47, 48. 

P. LUGUBRIS Gmelin. PI. 57, figs. 32, 33, 34, 35 ; pi. 12, figs. 39, 

40, 41, 42, 43, 44. 

Shell conical, short-oval, solid ; the apex situated in front of the 
middle ; slopes slightly convex ; sculptured with numerous (34 to 



PATELLA. 91 

37) strong radiating ribs, most of which are compound, as if formed 
by the coalescence of several smaller ribs. Color dull black, some- 
times rayed with white. 

Interior blue, the central area either blue or white ; border crenu- 
lated. Length 60, breadth 50 alt. 20 mill. 

Loanda and Benguela, Guinea ; Cape Verde Is. 

P. lugubris GMELIN, Syst. p. 3705. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 32, 
1854. DUNKER, Ind. Moll. Gum. Infer, p. 38, t. 7, f. 9-11, 22-24. 

The uniform black color is sometimes relieved by light rays, visi- 
ble inside, and sometimes the whole central area is white, the black 
rays not extending to the apex. These color-marks are best seen 
by looking through the shell at a strong light. The ribs are usually 
seen to be compound, or partially split into several smaller riblets ; 
but of the principal ribs there are generally about 34. 

P. PLUMBEA Lamarck. PL 24, figs. 11, 14, 15 ; pi. 57, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell low-conic, oval or elliptical, rather solid; apex at the ante- 
rior two-fifths of the shell's length ; slopes convex. Surface 
sculptured with numerous riblets, sometimes narrow, irregular and 
close, sometimes separated. Color dull black, sometimes rayed 
with grayish, the rays scarcely perceptible outside. 

Interior blue, the central area elongated, white, often clouded or 
stained with rich brown. Margin crenulated. 

Length 53, breadth 42, alt, 15 mill. 

Senegal ; St. Helena. 

P.plumbea LAM., An. s. Vert.vi, p. 328, 1819. DESH., /. c.vii,p. 
530. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 5 and 46. E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S. 
1890, p. 296. P. ccerulea QUOY & GAIM., Voy. de F Astro!. Moll., 
iii, p. 342, t, 70, f. 4-6. P. cyanea LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, ii, 
p. 417. P. canescens RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 103. 

This species is extremely variable in sculpture. The ribs are 
narrow, rather separated, but often increased in number and close- 
ness by the secondary ribbing which transforms each rib into three, 
the middle one larger. The ribbing is finer than in P. lugubris, the 
shell is more elliptical, more depressed, and the central spatula of 
the interior is longer and narrower. 

The variations exhibited by the series before me cause me to 
regard P. safiana Lam. and compicua Phil, as close allies, possibly 
varieties of this species. 



92 PATELLA, 

The form called P. canescens by Reeve is figured on pi. 57, figs. 
36, 37. It has quite a different appearance, but I am disposed to 
believe that Mr. Smith is justified in placing it in the synonymy. 

Var. VATHELETI Pilsbry. PI. 57, figs. 40, 41, 42, 43. 

Shell low-conic, ovate-rectangular, solid ; sculptured with numer- 
ous unequal riblets, and having about nine larger but often indis- 
tinct ribs or angles, distinguished by white stripes, giving a more or 
less polygonal outline to the shell. The radiating ribs and riblets 
are closely cut or crenulated by concentric strise. The principal 
ribs are white, the intervals black. Upper part of the cone eroded, 
grayish- white. 

Interior w T hitish, somewhat stained with yellow, blotched around 
the margin with black, the central area either coal-black or mar- 
bled black and white. 

Length 28, breadth 22, alt. 7 mill. 

Senegal. 

These small shells are evidently allied to P. plumbed, but differ 
in contour, in the very short, broader central area of the interior, 
etc. They were collected by the Abbe A. Vathelet. 

P. ADANSONII Dunker. PI. 12, figs. 30, 31, 32, 33. 

Shell oblong-ovate, subelliptical, moderately elevated, sculptured 
with about 80-100 unequal ribs ; whitish, marbled and striated with 
black, brown and olive. Apex situated in front of the anterior third 
of the length. Interior bluish, the central area white and rufescent, 
sometimes rather flesh-colored or liver-colored ; toward the edge 
rayed with reddish. Margin subcrenate-dentate. (Z)&r.) 

Length of large specimen 50, breadth 41, alt. 17 mill. 

Loanda, West Africa. 

P. adansonii DKR., Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer., p. 42, t. 6, f. 10-15, 
1853. 

This species is evidently closely allied to P. plumbea Lam., differ- 
ing mainly in the varied coloring of the exterior. The number of 
riblets is very variable ; one specimen has 120. There is a small 
riblet on each side of the larger ones, as in conspicua, plumbea, and 
many other species from this region. 

P. KRAUSSII Dunker. PI. 13, figs. 54, 55, 56. 

Shell ovate, thin, rather depressed, pale brown, subcorneous, 
radiately ribbed and transversely striated, ribs unequal, subundulat- 



PATELLA. 93 

ing; apex acute, curved over, somewhat hooked, situated nearly at I 
of the length. Margin acute, obsoletely plicate and crenulated be- 
neath. Interior somewhat hoary and bluish, the center dull white 
and yellowish. Length 31, breadth 22, alt. 8 mill. (Dkr.*) 

Loanda, West Africa. 

P. kraussii DKR., Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer., p. 42, t. 6, f. 4-6, 1853. 

There are 100-120 radiating libs; the intervals between the 
larger ribs are occupied by' 2 or 3 smaller riblets. The larger ribs 
are scaly and nodulous ; and the whole surface is very delicately 
lineated. 

P. COMPRESSA Linne. PI. 61, figs. 68, 69, 70. 

Shell thin, narrow, oblong, the sides compressed and parallel ; con- 
ical, the apex in front of the middle and curving forward. Covered 
with close unequal radiating riblets ; dull straw-colored, the young 
often finely dotted, spotted or rayed with bright crimson, pink or 
orange often marked with opaque-white dots or triangles. 

Interior white, or in the young marked like the outside. Edge of 
the shell even, the ends elevated. 

Length 94, breadth 45, alt. 35 mill. 

Cape Good Hope. 

P. compressa LINN., Syst. x, p. 783. KRAUSS, Su'daf. Moll. p. 
50. Q. & G. Yoy. de 1'Astrol., iii. p. 338, t. 70, f. 1. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon.f. 13a, and of authors. P.miniata BORN, Test. Mus.Cses 
Vindob. p. 420. LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 333. KRAUSS, DieSiidaf. 
Moll. p. 51. P. umbella GMEL., Syst. p. 3706. LAMARCK, An. s. 
Vert, vi, p. 327. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 17. P. sanguinolenta 
GMEL., Syst., xiii, p. 3716, no. 130. P. sanguinalis RVE., Conch. 
Icon. f. 95. 

This species is readily known by its compressed sides, elevated 
end-margins, and straw-yellow color. It is occasionally found varie- 
gated with red on the upper part of the cone, and the young are 
almost always so marked. 

Dead specimens have been found at St. Helena, doubtless drifted 
thither on seaweed. (See Smith, P. Z. S., 1890, p. 248.) 

The typical form of this species is never found living on shore. 
It lives upon large seaweeds, as one might readily tell by the form 
of the shell. When living on rocks it develops into the form known 
as P. miniata. Specimens which have changed their stations and 
show a corresponding abrupt change of sculpture are not very 



94 PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 

infrequent. Parallel mutations occur in Acmcea pelta, Patella gran- 
iilaris, Patina pellucida, etc., etc. 

Var. MINIATA Born. PI. 26, figs. 22-27. 

Shell thin, varying from depressed and broadly ovate to conical 
and narrowly ovate ; sculptured with numerous acute unequal radi- 
ating riblets, more or less destinctly decussated by growth-striae. 
Riblets white or yellowish, interstices occupied by red rays ; the 
young speckled and blotched with red (rarely brown or purple- 
black). 

Interior having an opaque-white central area, the outer portion 
transparent and showing the color-rays. 

Length 70, breadth 58, alt. 13 mill, (normal.) 

Length 58, breadth 42, alt. 18 mill, (more elevated specimen; figs. 
23, 24.) 

There is great variation in the form, still greater in the sculpture 
of this shell. Some young specimens are nearly smooth, having fine, 
subequal radiating riblets, scarcely decussated, whilst others have 
the riblets distinctly cut into close, compressed beads by the con- 
centric sculpture. 

In young shells the apex is much nearer the anterior end than in 
adults. 

P. ELECTRINA Reeve. PI. 18, figs. 33, 34. 

Shell orbicular, attenuated in front, rather depressed ; sharp at 
the apex ; radiately densely ridged, ridges rough, irregular, bluntly 
squamate. Light fulvous, rusty about the apex and between the 
ridges. Interior transparent white. (Rve.*) 

Australia. 

P. eleetrina RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 55. Dec., 1854. 

Of a transparent texture, stained with amber rust about the apex 
and between the ridges, the color showing conspicuously through in 
the interior, (five.) 

Compare P. miniata and P. lowei. 

Section SCUTELLASTRA H. & A. Adams, 1858. 

Scutellastra ADS., Genera Rec. Moll, i, p. 466, types P. gorgonica 
Humph., pentagona Born, plicata Born. Olana ADS. /. c., type P. 
cochlear Gmel. 

Inner layer of the shell opaque, porcellanous, not iridescent nor 
fibrous in texture. 



PATELLA-SCUTELL ASTRA. 95 

Animal similar to Patella, except that a small rhachidian tooth is 
frequently developed. 

Distribution, S. Africa to Central Pacific. 

I have separated this group from Patella s. s. mainly on account 
of the different texture of the shell. Although this distinction has 
not heretofore been noticed, 1 am confident that it is constant and 
of sufficient systematic value to warrant the course here taken. 

(1) GROUP OF P. BARBARA. 

Erect, oval shells, with numerous ribs or riblets. 
P. ARGENVILLEI Krauss. PI. 22, figs. 15, 16 ; pi. 58, fig. 44. 

Shell large, solid, elevated-conical, ovate, apex in front of the 
middle, slopes nearly straight. Surface closely sculptured with 
numerous (80-100) crowded, obtuse radiating riblets, obscurely 
alternating in size, and roughened by the low, scaly growth-Hues. 
Color blackish, having concentric lighter zones. 

Interior white, stained at the muscle-scar with brown or yellowish- 
brown, the edges of the central area well-defined, laciniate, stained: 
border brown, closely crenulated by small teeth arranged in pairs. 

Length 81, breadth 62, alt. 43 mill. 

Table Bay, South Africa. 

P. argenvillei KRAUSS, Die Sudafric Moll., p. 49. REEVE, Conch 
Icon., f. 20. ? Lepas ecaille ARGENVILLE, La Conchy 1., p. 504, t 
3, f. G. 

P. XEGLECTA Gray. PI. 20, figs. 41, 42 ; pi. 58 , figs. 40, 41. 

Shell large, solid, elevated-conical, elliptical or ovate ; apex at 
about the front third ; slopes nearly straight. Surface sculptured 
with coarse, irregularly subnodose, unequal radiating riblets. Ribs 
whitish, interstices blackish brown. 

Interior white, tinged with flesh-color, having some yellowish- 
brown clouds or stains in the central area ; muscle-scar distinct, 
light-buff or flesh-tinted. Edge of the shell crenated, conspicuously 
marked with black-brown blotches, mostly in pairs. 

Length 95, breadth, 68, alt. 40 mill. 

Length 106, breadth 80, alt. 41 mill. 

King George's Sound, Mistaken Island, and Swan River, Aus- 
tralia. 

? P. rustica LINN., Mus. Lud. Ulricse p. 694, (not of Linn. Syst. 
Nat. x, P. Imitanica Gm., q. i;.) P. rustica L., MENKE, Moll. 



96 PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 

Nov. Holl. p. 33, 1843 ; and also Zeitschr. f. Malac. 1844, p. 62. 
P. pileus MKE., mss. f P. indica GMEL., Sygt. Nat. xiii, p. 3716, 
founded on Gualtieri, Testarum, t. 8, f. E, and Martini, Conch. 
Cab. i, p. 106, t. 7, f. 49. P. melanogramma f SOWERBY, Genera, 
Patella, f. 1 (good!); not P. melanogramma Gmel., Syst. xiii, p. 
3706, no. 74. P. neglecta GRAY, in Capt. King's Survey of the 
Inter-tropical and Western Coasts of Australia, ii, appendix, p. 
492, 1827. P. zebra REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 7, Oct. 1854. 

This large species is much more strongly ribbed than P. argent- 
villei. The ribs are very unequal. The position of the apex is 
more anterior in my specimens than in Reeve's figures, in one speci- 
men being decidedly in front of the anterior third, nearly reaching 
the fourth. The ribs are rudely nodular in young or half grown 
shells, but become obsolete and eroded with age. 

Notes on synonymy. That this species is not the P. rustica of 
Linnaeus' Systema x, is obvious (see under P. lusitanica, this volume). 
Whether it is the rustica of his later publications (Mus. Lud. 
Ulricse, p. 694, etc.) or of Gmelin, is a useless question into which 
we need not enter, but with Menke, I am disposed to believe that it 
is. Reeve's P. rustica has nothing to do with this species, being 
either a large P. lowei or an immature P. patriarcha. The P. indica 
of Gmelin, founded upon Gualtieri's figure and Martini's embellished 
copy of it, is very doubtful at best. Sowerby gave a most excellent 
figure under the name melanogramma, but it is not the shell so 
named by Gmelin. Gray fixes the identity of his P. neglecta by 
stating that it is the P. melanogramma of Sowerby's Genera, not of 
Gmel. 

P. BARBARA Lhme\ PI. 59, figs. 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 ; pi. 15, figs. 

1,2. 

Shell rather large, depressed or conical, ovate ; apex central ; 
slopes nearly straight. Sculptured with numerous elevated, acute 
narrow 7 riblets, which bear conspicuous narrow vaulted spines. 
White or tinged with brown, the spines usually tipped with brown. 

Interior white, either immaculate or having the central area 
stained with light orange-brown. Margin strongly toothed, having 
a colorless border. Length 72, breadth 60, alt. 27 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

P. barbara LINN., Syst. Nat. x, p. 782. HAN LEY, Shells of 
Linnaeus, p. 418. LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 325. P. plicata BORN, 



PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 97 

Mu<. C*s. Yindob., t. 18, f. 1. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 16. P. 
barbata LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 326. DELESSERT, Rec. de Coq., t. 
21, f. 1. P. spinifera LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 326. DELESSERT, 
Rec., t. 21, f. 2.?? P.cypria GMEL., Syst. xiii, p. 3698. 

In all the variety of forms and names in which this species 
masquerades, it may be known by the acute, high, compressed ridges, 
which bear vaulted or sometimes solid spines, usually touched with 
brown at their tips. The ribs are unusually variable in number, 24 
to 30 being developed on moderate sized individuals, not counting a 
few small interstitial riblets. The spines are rarely as numerous as 
Reeve's figures show. These are reproduced on pi. 15, figs. 1, 2. 

An elevated, conical form is figured on pi. 59, fig. 55. 

A* form which may be known as var. OVALIS is figured on pi. 60 y 
figs. 56, 57, 58. It is ovate and has about 41 ribs. Interior pure 
white. 

Length 95, breadth 70, alt. 31 mill. 

(2) GROUP OF P. STELL.EFORMIS. 

Shell having coarse, unequal ribs or riblets. 

P. PICA Reeve. PL 22, figs. 9, 10, 13, 14 ; pi. 59, figs. 47, 48, 49 ; 

pi. 26, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell solid, depressed, apex a little anterior, ovate, broad behind, 
more or less narrowed in front ; having numerous (about 21) rude 
angular radiating ribs, and more or less obviously radiately striate. 
Whitish or ashen, irregularly blotched with black. 

Interior white, the central area sometimes stained with yellowish 
or brown. Edge crenated, having a narrow border which is usually 
whitish-buff dotted and blotched with black, but sometimes lacks all 
dark markings. 

Length 43, breadth 31, alt. 10 mill. 

Length 47, breadth 37, alt. 10 mill. 

Mauritius and Reunion* 

P. pica REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 45, 1854; also f. 68. P 
chitonoides REEVE, f. 52. DESH., Moll. Reunion, p. 43. P. moreli 
DH., Moll. Reunion, p. 43, t. 6, f. 13. P. levata DH., 1. c. } p. 44, t. 
6,f. 14. ; P. dentata DUFO, Ann. Sci. Xat, 1840, p. 204. 

The outline is somewhat spoon shaped, approaching that of P. 
cochlear. The ribs are usually subequal, and about 21 in number, 
but sometimes they are very irregular, as in the figures on pi. 59. 



98 PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 

In the form called chitonoides Rv. (pi. 26, figs. 28, 29) the ribs are 
somewhat more numerous, and the entire surface is purple-black. 

I am unable to find differential characters in the P. moreli of 
Deshayes. I have copied the original figure on pi. 58, fig. 45, re- 
presenting an immature specimen. The same is true of P. levata 
Dh. (pi. 59, fig. 46). 

This species seems to be more than usually encrusted with 
calcareous growths, algse, etc. The specimens before me are from 
Mauritius, collected by Robillard. 

P. EXUSTA Reeve. PI. 24, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell ovate, a little attenuated in front, flatly convex, rather 
spread ; apex inclined anteriorly ; radiately ribbed, ribs with the 
surface rude, irregularly, obscurely prickly-scaled, interstices 
obsoletely latticed, with rather distant concentric ridges; burnt- 
black, red-tinged, interior marble-white ; edge remotely denticulated, 
purple-black. 

An extremely characteristic species, marble-white within, reddish- 
burnt black without, but of singular rude irregular, obsoletely 
latticed sculpture. (JRve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P. exusta RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 35, Oct., 1854. 

This may prove to be the same as P. pica Reeve. If so the name 
exusta will take precedence. 

P. FUNEBRIS Reeve. PL 60, figs. 59, 60, 61. 

Shell ovate, slightly attenuated in front, elevately convex ; smooth, 
rayed with tubercled ribs, tubercles swollen, sometimes rather 
distant. Dull black, rusty-white at the apex. Interior opaque 
white, sometimes rust-tinged. (Rve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P.funebris RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 54. 'Dec., 1854. 

P. STELL^FORMIS Reeve. PI. 17, figs. 25, 26, 27 ; pi. 61, figs. 62-65. 
Shell solid, low-conic, angularly oval, the apex central. Surface 
vary irregularly and roughly sculptured with carinated radiating 
ribs and riblets, 8 or 9 being more prominent in the typical form of 
the species. The ribs are rude, irregular, often somewhat scaly. 
White, sometimes marked in the interstices with black or rusty- 
black. 



PATELLLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 99 

Interior white, frequently slightly stained in places with yellow- 
ish ; central area white or stained with fleshy-brown, the muscle- 
scar sometimes outlined with reddish-brown. Margin very irregu- 
larly toothed. Length 45, breadth 35, alt. 14 mill. 

Japan to Port Jackson, S. Australia ; eastward to Viti, Cook's and 
Society Archipelagos. 

P. stellceformis REEVE, Conch. Syst, ii, p. 15, t. 136, f. 3, 1842. 
BUNKER, Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 156. P. pentagona REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., f. 48, 1854 LISCHKE, Jap. Meeresconchyl. i, p. 114 
(not P. pentagona Born). ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 221. DALL, 
Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 272, t. 15, f. 22 (dentition). P. paumo- 
tensis GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 150, 1846; U. S. Expl. 
Exped. Moll. & Sh., p. 339, f. 440. P. cretacea REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 53. P. tramoserica AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. 1868, p. 369. 

This excessively variable species is allied to P. pica, differing 
mainly in not being narrowed anteriorly as a general rule. The 
main distinction, however, is geographic, the present form being 
Pacific, in distribution, whilst pica (and its immediate allies or 
varieties) is from the western part of the Indian Ocean. I doubt the 
occurrence of true stellceformis in the last mentioned area. 

It is impossible to say what P. pentagona Born (Mus. Test. Cses. 
Yindob., p. 421, t. 18, f. 4, 5) is intended for. It is certainly not 
this species. Von Martens surmises that it may not belong to the 
Patellidcz. The figures somewhat resemble a large Siphonaria. 

The typical form of stellceformis has 8 to 10 larger ribs. 

Among the large number of minor modifications, typically quite 
diverse but intergrading by easy stages with the types, the following 
may be noticed : 

Var. PAUMOTENSIS Gld. (pi. 47, figs. 4, 5). Outline much more 
regularly oval ; riblets very numerous and subequal. P. cretacea 
Rv. is a synonym. 

Another slightly differing form is figures on pi. 61, figs. 62, 63, 64. 
It is large, oval, coarsely ribbed, with fine secondary radiating stria?. 
The interior is marked with brown. 

The specimen figured on pi. 61, fig. 65 has a great similarity to 
Reeve's P. stellaris, and I am inclined to believe it is the same. It 
is very distinctly octoradiate, the ribs wide ; both ribs and intervals 
finely striated radially. See p. 51 of this volume for remarks on 
Reeve's stellaris, and pi. 36, figs. 65, 66, copies of the original 
figures. 



SE LfBfy^s 
*Hg ^r 
UNIVERSITY 



100 PATELLA-SCUTELL ASTRA. 

Var. NIGROSULCATA Reeve (pi. 61, figs. 66, 67). " Ovate, rather 
solid, radiately grooved, grooves narrow, rather distant; rough 
chalk-white, grooves more or less black; interior yellowish-white, 
border faintly lineated." This seems to be a regularly oval form 
smaller than v. paumotensis, and more stained w r ith rust-red inside. 
Numbers of shells before me correspond with Reeve's figures. 

P. ACULEATA Reeve. PL 25, figs. 20, 21 ; pi. 62, figs. 71, 72, 73. 

Shell oblong-oval, solid, conical, the apex at the front third. Sur- 
face dull, having numerous (about 23) strong, carinated, and more 
or less scaly-nodose ribs. White, with inconspicuous rust- reddish 
concentric bands. 

Interior whitish, tinged toward the middle with orange-brown, the 
cavity of the apex white with blue-black stains. Edge of shells 
dentate, having several narrow short reddish lines in each interval. 
Clarance River to Twofold Bay, Australia ; Tasmania. 

P. aculeata REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 90, 1855. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 
1867, p. 221. TENSION- WOODS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1877, p. 22. 
BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. xiii, p. 224, 1883. P. 
squamifera Rv., 1. c., f. 94. ANGAS, I. c., p. 221. 

There are about 23 large ribs, and some smaller ones in the 
interstices. The apex is at the anterior third, not central as it is in 
P. stellceformis, and the ribs are scaly. It is a common form at Port 
Jackson. The description of Reeve's P. squamifera, which Brazier 
considers a mere synonym of this variable shell, is as follows : 

P. squamifera Reeve (pi. 62, figs. 74, 75). Shell ovate, somewhat 
depressed, rather thick, apex nearly central ; radiately roughly 
ribbed and ridged, ridges irregularly rudely scaled. Whitish tinged 
with ash and black. Interior bluish-white. 

This is a solid, ash-colored shell, roughly sculptured throughout 
with irregular scaly ribs and ridges. (jRve.) 

P. MORBIDA Reeve. PL 15, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell ovate, rudely depressed, rotundately raised in the middle, 
radiately fimbriately ridged, more or less eroded, ridges obsoletely 
short-spined. Interior yellowish-white, more or less irregularly 
stained with black ; exterior rust-eroded. (Rve.} 

Cape of Good Hope. 

P. morbida RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 64, Jan. 1855. 

Of a characteristic depressedly furbelowed growth round the mar- 
gin, the radiating ridges armed here and there with short, sharp 



PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 101 

black and white spines. Exteriorly the shell is roughly rust-eroded ; 
interiorly it has a peculiarly diseased look. (Eve.) 

P. CHAPMANI Tenison- Woods. Unfigured. 

Shell ovate, somewhat broad behind, reddish or scorched and 
nebulously brown, apex acute, submedian ; with 8 radiating ribs 
more or less valid, and depressedly rounded, profusely radiate with 
very fine Iira3, and girdled with irregular sulci ; margin angulate, 
nodulose. White within and clouded pale rose color, spatula 
scarcely visible. Length 20, breadth 15, alt. 5 mill. (21- IF.) 

Tasmania. 

P. chapmani T.-W., Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. for 1875, p. 157, 1876. 

Very rare. Four of the ribs are posterior, and the four anterior 
are smaller. (T.-W.) 

P. I-STULATA Reeve. PL 22, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell somewhat squarely ovate, a little attenuated in front, pos- 
teriorly convexly depressed, anteriorly tumidly umbonated, apex 
obtuse ; radiately elevately striated, strife scabrous next the mar- 
gin ; burnt-red, neatly rayed with rather distant narrow white bands, 
strise more or less black next the margin, interior white. (Rve.) 

Tasmania (Tenison- Woods). 

P. ustulata RVE., Conch. Icon f. 88, Jan., 1855. TEXISOX- WOODS, 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm, for 1876, p. 49, 1877. P. tasmanica T.-W., 
/. c. for 1875, p. 157, 1876. 

Tenison- Wood's description of his P. tasmanica is as follows : 

Shell ovate, solid, sordidly yellowish white, often corroded, apex 
sub-median with about 21 valid, angular radiating ribs, and the in- 
terstices rayed profusely with very fine subimbricated line ; within 
ivory white and shiny, more or less tinged with yellow ; margin 
narrow, elegantly pectinated ; margined with a very fine blue line 
within, and an interrupted dusky brown line outside. Spathula 
scarcely defined. 

Recherche Bay and south generally. Nearer to P. alticostata 
Angas than any other. 

Length 49, width 38, alt. 20 mill. (T.-W). 

"If I am right in my identification of this shell, it must be the 
same as my P. tasmanica described in last year's Proceedings of this 
Society. Reeve gives no habitat for his shell, which from appear- 
ance was worn and corroded. The unworn specimens found living 



102 PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 

on the rocks are as different as possible, the ribs and riblets being 
then conspicuous, and the whole shell a dull yellowish- white with 
no trace of the scorched coloring. When dead, however, and 
thrown on the beach this feature is conspicuous. It has many fine 
riblets between the coarse, somewhat nodular ribs, and the margin 
is very finely pectinated. A peculiarity of the animal is that it 
seldom comes above low w r ater mark, and prefers situations where 
it is much exposed to the waves. It is very stationary, often being 
sunk into a regular pit in the rocks, and appears to live upon the 
fine green ulva on the rocks. It is nearly always covered, not 
only with confervoid growths, but also nulliporse so as to quite 
alter its shape and appearance. This often alters the height of the 
shell, which is usually depressed, and changes the position of the 
apex, which is usually submarginal. The interior is white and the 
spatula not defined. 

"The animal is of uniform pale yellow 7 at the base ; white above 
the foot, gills semi-pellucid and continued as a delicate fringe all 
round the mantle I, however, noticed one exception where, like 
the former species, the gills were discontinued in front of the head, 
mantle without tentacles ; head livid, with semi-pellucid tentacles ; 
eyes very small and at exterior base ; buccal mass red and fleshy ; 
cartilaginous jaws long and less tumid than most limpets ; odonto- 
phore scarcely as long as shell ; not coiled, but bending with intes- 
tine in two folds. Teeth closely set and not high, composed of five 
central small curved cusps, and two tri-lobed laterals, all narrowly 
tongue shaped, laterals more acute. The five centrals have the 
middle tooth often small. Teeth brown, lighter on the summit." 

(3) GROUP OF P. GRANULARIS. 

Shell oval, sculptured with numerous granose riblets, none of them 
notably larger. Central tract of the inside and border generally 
dark. Disk, S. Africa. 

P. GRANULARIS Linne. PI. 63, figs. 80, 81, 82, 83. 

Shell solid, conical, ovate; apex in front of the middle; sculpt- 
ured with numerous (about 50) regularly granose riblets; the gran- 
ules usually like small solid scales. Color dull brown, blackish, or 
ashen, dull reddish above. 

Inside opaque-white, with a broad black or dark brown border and 
a large reddish-chestnut central area. 

Length 58, breadth 48, alt. 26 mill. 

Cape Good Hope. 



PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 103 

P. granularis LINN., Syst. Xat. x, p. 782. HAXLEY, Sh. of Linn, 
p. 419. LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 330. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 
31. KRAUSS, Die Siidafric. Moll. p. 52. QUOY & GAIMARD, Voy. 
de 1'Astrol. iii, p. 341, t. 70, f. 12-15. 

Characterized by the closely granose riblets of the outside and 
the broad dark border and large orange-brown central area of the 
interior. It is not at all iridescent within. 

In one specimen (pi. 63, fig. 83) of this species before me the 
earlier portion is black, finely but obsoletely radiately striated, dif- 
fering totally from the normal later growth. A similar change of 
structure has already been noticed in this volume, page 18, under 
Acmcea pelta var. nacelloides. 

P. NATALENSIS Krauss. PI. 13, figs. 65, 66, 67. 

Shell oval or oblong, conical, rather solid, slopes straight ; apex 
at the front third. Surface sculptured with 40-46 rather separated 
regularly granulose riblets. Color ashen or blackish, the granules 
black ; apex generally eroded. 

Interior white, the margin intensely black, having a border of 
blackish-brown flames ; central area dark reddish-brown. 

Length 31, breadth 23, alt, 12 mill. 

Length 27, breadth 20, alt. 11 mill. 

Natal, northward to Guinea. 

P. natalensis KRAUSS, Die Siidafric. Moll., p. 53, t. 3, f. 10, 1848. 
P. echinulata KRAUSS, I. c., p. 52, t. 3, f. 15. P. nigrosquamosa 
var. miliaris PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 162. P. nigrosquamosa 
var. 1, DKR., Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer., p. 41, t. 7, f. 7, 8. 

This is a compact, long-oval species. The outside is blackish with 
black tubercles on the riblets. The eroded apex is brown or clouded 
with brown, and surrounded by a white tract, which usually is 
digitate or rayed more or less, as figure 66 shows. The black outer 
layer is quite thin. The .margin is intensely black. The central 
spatula varies from olive-brown to a deep red-brown. Philippi's 
?;u7i'am Dunker's var. 1 of nigrosquamosa (pi. 13, figs. 63, 64) is a 
synonym. 

Var. ECHINULATA Krauss. PL 13, figs. 60, 61, 62. 

Smaller, narrower; grayish-brown, rayed with whitish. The 
basal side-margins are somewhat raised, so that the shell rests upon 
the ends only. 

Table Bay. 



104 PATELLA-SCrTKLLASTRA. 

P. VIDUA Reeve. PI. (53, figs. 78, 79. 

Shell ovate, moderately convex ; strongly, sharply ribbed, ribs 
alternately smaller, minutely scaled, scales distant, the alternate rib 
sometimes nearly obsolete ; rusty-black, eroded at the apex. Inte- 
rior whitish, with a broad rusty-black band at the edge; nucleus 
pale rust. (Rve.) 

Island of Camiguing, Philippines. 

P. vidua RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 22, Oct. 1854. 

A moderately convex shell, rayed with sharp ribs, alternately 
larger and smaller, each rib being roughened with minute, some- 
what distant scales. The chief characteristic of this species lies in 
its broad deep rust-black marginal border. (Rve.) 

(4.) GROUP OF P. COCHLEAR. 

Shell spoon-shaped, produced and narrowed in front ; ribs numer- 
ous, subequal. 

P. COCHLEAR Born. PL 27, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell spoon-shaped, depressed, solid ; apex subcentral. Surface 
having numerous close radiating riblets, grayish or blackish, usu- 
ally encrusted or eroded. 

Interior white or purplish-blue, the muscle-scar black. 

Length 60, breadth 45, alt. 15 mill. 

Cape Good Hope. 

P. cochlear BORN, Mus. Cses. Vindob. p. 420, t. 18, f. 3. REEVE, 
Conch. Syst. ii, t. 136, f. 5; Conch. Icon. f. 24. KRAUSS, Die 
Siidafric. Moll. p. 48. 

The curiously narrowed anterior end gives a spoonlike appear- 
ance to this shell. Some specimens are almost perfectly flat, and 
have a red central callus. 

It has been made the type of a subgenus by the Adams brothers, 
but a number of other species approach it m contour, and form con- 
necting links with the oval limpets. 

(5) GROUP OF P. LONGICOSTA. 

Shell large, having some (usually 7-11) of the ribs decidedly 
larger, rendering the outline more or less polygonal. Distribution, 
S. Africa. 



PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 105 

P. PATRIARCHA Pilsbry. PI. 64, fizs. 84, 85 ; pi. 65, fig. 86. 

Shell very large and solid, conical, the apex a little in front of the 
middle ; rounded oval, nearly as wide as long. Surface dull, coarsely 
ribbed, 9 or 10 primary ribs radiating from the summit, the secondary 
ribs numerous, some of them nearly as prominent as the primaries ; 
radiating striae also are to be seen in some places ; growth-lines fine, 
inconspicuous. Color dull reddish-ashen. 

Interior pure white, the edge reddish-brown, bordered by a narrow 
subtranslucent band, sometimes not conspicuous. 

Length 127, breadth 112, alt. 45 mill. 

Length 117, breadth 105, alt. 43 mill. 

Cape Good Hope. 

? P. rustica REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 8, 1854, not P. rustica Linne 
(1758), nor P. rustica Menke (1843.) 

This is, next to P. (Ancistromesus) mexicana, the largest limpet 
I have seen, one of the specimens before me attaining a length of 
five inches. The interior is pure white, totally lacking the fibrous 
texture which renders P. ccerulea and its allies iridescent. The 
shell figured by Reeve as" P. rustica Linn." is probably an immature 
specimen of this species, having the sculpture sharper. The true 
rustica of Linue is the small shell known to us as P. lusitanica (q. 
i 1 .). The rustica of Menke is the same as P. neglecta Gray (q. v.) 

P. TABULARIS Krauss. PI. 16, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell ovate, solid, much depressed, whitish, with radiating reddish 
lines ; radiately ribbed and striate, the striae and ribs unequal, cari- 
nated, scaly; larger ribs 12-14 in number. Margin digitately 
toothed ; vertex obtuse, situated at two-fifths to one-third the length. 

Inside white, having a peripheral border of dull yellow spotted 
with brown, 2 mill, wide ; space between border and muscle-impres- 
sion white ; the muscle-scar and central area pale brownish. 

Length 59, breadth 46, alt. 8 mill. 

Table Bay, S. Africa. 

P. tabularis KRAUSS, Die Siidafric. Moll. p. 47, t. 3, f. 8. DKR., 
Ind. Moll. Guin. Infer, p. 41. P. obtecta KR., I. c. p. 49, t. 3, f. 11. 

Reported by Dunker from Benguela, W. Africa. The strongly 
angular, star-like form and closely scaly ribs and striae are the 
prominent characters of this shell. 



106 PATELLA-SCUTELLASTRA. 

Var. OBTECTA Krauss. PI. 16, figs. 7, 8. 

In sculpture like P. tabularis; but narrower, more elevated, less 
strongly ribbed. The central area of the interior is brown. 

Length 30, breadth 22, alt. 8 mill. 

Table Bay. 

P. GRANATINA Linne. PI. 62, figs. 76, 77. 

Shell large, rather thin but solid, conical, angularly ovate; apex 
subcentral, eroded, rust-color or dark brown. Surface having 
unequal radiating ribs or carinse, of which one at each side and three 
in the rear are especially prominent. Color dull whitish, closely 
marked with black spots, often zigzag or angular. 

Interior white, the portion outside of the muscle-scar having a dis- 
tinctly fibrous appearance ; central area blackish- brown, sometimes 
mottled with white. Border very narrow, finely dotted with black 
and brown. Length 85, breadth 72, alt. 30 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

P. granatina L., Syst. Nat. x, p. 782. LAMARCK, An. s. Vert, vi, 
p. 324. KRAUSS, Die Siidaf. Moll., p. 43. KEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
4. P. a.picina LAMARCK. DELESSERT, Rec. de Coq., t. 21, f. 4. 
? P. picta PERRY, Conchology, t. 43, f. 7. 

The prominent ribs of the exterior and the spotting of black 
(sometimes lost by erosion) are characteristic; inside the white, 
fibrous appearance and deep brown center are excellent diagnostic 
points. 

In old specimens the dark center is often considerably invaded by 
white in the middle and forward. 

P. OCULUS (Born) Auct. PI. 27, figs. 30, 31, 32. 

Shell large, angularly oval, conic or depressed, solid. Apex in 
front of the middle. Sculptured with large angular unequal ribs, 
which project at the margins ; and having a secondary sculpture of 
radiating strise when not eroded. Color blackish or dull brown 
outside ; usually eroded. 

Interior having a very broad blackish-broivn border, a light zone 
just outside the muscle-impression, the latter strongly marked, 
bluish-white. Area inside the impression callously thickened, yellow- 
ish flesh-colored. 

Length 88, breadth, 75, alt. 25 mill. 

Length 64, breadth 63, alt. 12 mill, (younger shell). 

Length 110, breadth 106, alt. 42 mill, (largest specimen seen). 

Cape of Good Hope. 



PATELLA-AXCISTROMESUS. 107 

P. oculus BORN (in part), Mus. Civs. Vindob. p. 418. SOWB., 
Conchol. Manual, f. 229. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 2. P. badia 
Gniel. Syst. p. 3700. P.fuscescens GMEL., Syst. p. 3701. P.schrce- 
teri KRAU.SS, Die Siidafric. Moll. p. 43. 

Allied to P. granatina, but not variegated outside except in the 
young (fig. 32), and entirely different in color inside ; this species 
being broadly black bordered with a light central area. The more 
markedly stellate forms, such as fig. 31, approach P. longicosta in 
outline, but the coloring of the interior is constantly distinct. 

It seems advisable to retain the well-known name oculus for this 
species, despite the fact that Born included another and probably 
distinct species with this, in his references. 

P. LOXGICOSTA Lamarck. PI. 28, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell depressed, star-shaped, having 7 to 9 principal ribs which 
are carinated and project at the margins, and a variable number of 
smaller projecting ribs. Color black, usually rayed with whitish. 

Interior white, the central area often yellowish or flesh-colored, in 
the young generally stained or mottled with blue-black. The 
laciniate edge is bordered with black, often dotted with gray-white, 
rarely entirely white. Length 75, breadth 70, alt, 20 mill. 

Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope. 

P. longicosta LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 326, 1819. DELESSERT, 
Rec., t, 21, f. 3. REEVE, Conch. Syst. ii, p. 136, f. 6 ; Conch. Icon., 
f. 11. POT. & MICH., Galerie, i, t. 37, f. 7, 8. P. gorgonica 
HUMPH, mss., teste Reeve. 

Allied to some forms of P. oculus, but much more distinctly 
stellate, and having a narrower black border within. 

Section Ancistromesus Dall, 1871. 

Ancistromesus DALL, Amer. Jour. Conch. Apr. 4, 1871, p. 276. 

Shell very large and heavy, its inner layer porcellanous, opaque. 

Animal with a complete branchial cordon, the lamella? long and 
slender, subequal ; sides of foot smooth ; radula furnished with a 
simple rhachidian tooth having a cusp; the two inner laterals on 
each side anterior to the third pair, which are large and quadri- 
dentate ; uncini simple. 

Formula of teeth 3 (i 212 i) 3 . PI. 31, fig. 62. 

The shell resembles very closely, in texture, sculpture and form, 
the larger South African species of Patella (Scutellastra of my 



108 PATELLA-HELCION. 

arrangement), some of which also possess a rhachidian tooth, 
as Hogg and others have demonstrated. 

P. MEXICAN A Broderip & Sowerby. PI. 31, figs. 59-62. 

The shell is very large, thick and heavy, oval, conical, with 
central summit. The dull, soiled white, eroded surface shows about 
10 low angles or obsolete ridges, and young shells are rather finely 
striated (fig. 61). 

The interior is pure white or tinged with flesh-color, having also, 
usually, some brown or purplish stains. The muscle-scar is con- 
spicuous, roughened. 

Length 200, breadth 150, alt. 80 mill. 

Mazatlan! San Bias! Acapulco ! W. Mexico; also Central 
America. 

P. mexicana B. & S., Zool. Journ. iv, p. 369. MKE., Zeitschr. f. 
Mai. 1851, p. 37. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1. CARPENTER, Mazat. 
Cat. p. 199. Ancistromesus mexivanus DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, 
vi, p. 266, t. 15, f. 21 (dentition). Lottia gigantea GLD., ms. in 
B. M. Patella maxima ORB., Voy. Amer. Merid. p. 482, and in 
B. M. Catal. d'Orb. Moll., p. 53. 

This is the largest living species of limpet, frequently attaining a 
length of 8 to 14 inches. The animal is black, more or less mar- 
bled and streaked with white. The shell is often used as a wash- 
basin in Central America. (See Dall, I. c.) 

D'Orbigny described this species as P. maxima, giving the 
locality Payta, Peru. 

Subgenus HELCION Montfort, 1810. 

Helcion MONTF., Conch. System, ii, p. 62. GRAY, Guide, p. 176. 
DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 276. 

Helcion is composed of limpets differing from Patella s. s. in hav- 
ing the gill-cordon interrupted in front, the shell cap-shaped, apex 
curving forward. Two sections are distinguishable : HELCION 
(restricted), having a strongly convex solid shell with scaly radiat- 
ing ribs, and PATINA, in which the shell is nearly smooth and 
thinner. 

Section HELCION s. s. 

The gill-cordon is interrupted over the head, composed of small 
and filiform strands. 



PATELLA-PATINA. 109 

The dentition is said by Dall to be tbe same as Patella except 
that the third or outer cusp of the third lateral tooth is obsolete. 

The shell is cap-shaped, scaly-ribbed, the apex strongly curving 
forward. 

P. PECTIXATA Born. PI. 51, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell solid, oval, elevated, cap-shaped, the apex curved forward, 
nearly to or over the anterior margin. Surface sculptured with 
numerous close, densely prickle-scaled riblets, alternately larger and 
smaller. Riblets black, the intervals buff or pinkish. 

Interior of a dull lead color, sometimes a little iridescent at the 
edge. Length 27, breadth 22, alt. 14 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Patella pedinata BORX, Mus. Cses. Yindob. p. 423, t. 18, f. 7, 
(1780). LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 334. POT. & MICH., Galerie, i, 
p. 529, t. 37, f. 11, 12. KRAUSS, Die Siidafric Moll. p. 57. Not 
Patella pedinata Lixx., Syst. Nat. x, p. 783, nor of GMELIX, Syst. 
xiii, =8iphonaria! Patella intorta SOW T ERBY, Genera of Shells, 
Cephala, Patella, f. 5. Patella pectunculus GMELIX, Syst. xiii, p. 
3713. Helcion pectinatus MOXTF., Conch. Syst. ii, p. 63. GRAY, 
Guide Syst. Dist. Moll. B. M., p. 126 (descr. of branchiae). DALL, 
Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila. 1876, p. 244 (dentition). 

This cap-shaped, scale-ridged black species is unlike any other 
limpet, having much the contour of Scutellina. Linnaeus is gener- 
ally but erroneously quoted as the authority for the name. It is a 
common Cape species. 

Section PATIXA (Leach) Gray, 1852. 

Patina LEACH, Moll. Gt. Brit. (Gray's edition) p. 223, 1852. 
GRAY, Syn. Br. Mus. 1840 (-name only no definition ; no type 
mentioned). Ansates SOWB., Conch. Man. edit, ii, p. 68. Helcion, 
Patella and Nacella sp., of authors. 

The branchial cordon is interrupted in front ; side of the foot with- 
out an epipodial ridge or papilla. 

Dentition, pi. 52, fig. 2. Two inner lateral teeth on each side an- 
terior, having simple cusps, the third lateral having a broad tri- 
partite cusp. Formula of dentition ad 202 ^. 

Epipodial papillae have been ascribed to this group by a recent 
authority, but I have satisfied myself that none are present by an 
examination of specimens. The sides of the foot are as smooth as 
in Helcioniscus exaratus. 



110 PATELLA-PATINA. 

The shell has the contour and texture of Helcion but is generally 
thinner and the radiating sculpture is obsolete. 

P. PELLUCIDA Linne. PI. 51, figs. 4, 5, 9, 10. 

Shell thin, oval, elevated, the apex curved forward, near the an- 
terior end. Surface polished, smooth except for very faint radiating 
stride. Dark olive or brownish horn-color, reddish or blackish at 
the apex, and usually having a few radiating interrupted lines of 
vivid blue. Interior brownish, reddish or dusky within the cavity. 

Length 20, breadth 15, alt. 8 mill. 

Lofoten, Norway, to Cascaes Bay, Portugal. 

P. pelludda L., Syst. Nat. x, p. 783. FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. 
Brit. Moll, ii, p. 429, t. 61, f. 34; t. AA, f. 1 (animal). P. ccerulea 
PULT., Cat. Dorset., t. 23, f. 6. P. bimaculata MONT., Test. Brit, p. 
482, t. 13, f. 8. P. cceruleata DA COSTA, Brit. Conch., p. 7, 1. 1, f. 5, 
6. P. elongata and elliptica FLEM., Encyc. Edin., t. 204, f. 2, 3. 
P. cornea POT. & MICH., Galerie Douai* p. 525, t. 37, f. 5, 6.? P. 
intorta PENNANT. P. minor WALLACE and P. cornea MICHAUD, 
teste Jeffr. Patina pelludda LEACH, Moll. Gt. Brit., p. 224. DALL, 
Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 280, t. 16, f. 30 (dentition). He/ci(m 
pellucidum JEFFR., Brit. Conch, iii, p. 242, t. 5, f. 4. Nacella 
pelludda SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 119, t. 2, f. 8 (dentition). 
P. cypridium PERRY, Conchology, t. 43, f. 6. P. Icevis PENNANT, 
Brit. Zool. iv, p. 144, t. 90, f. 151. Patina Icevis LEACH, 1. c., p. 224. 
Patella cornea HEEBLING, Beitrage zur Kenntniss neuer u. seltener 
Conchyl., in Abhandlungen einer Privatgesellschaft in Boh men zur 
Aufnahme der Mathematik, der Vaterliindischen Geschichte und 
der Naturgeschichte, iv, p. 107, t. 1, f. 8, 1779. 

A delicate cap-shaped shell, common on fronds of laminarise 
throughout the seas of northern Europe. 

Var. L^VIS Pennant. PI. 51, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell more erect, the summit more nearly central ; solid, thick, 
more obviously radiately striated and having coarse concentric 
wrinkles. Length 22, breadth 18-20, alt. 8-10 mill. 

The distribution is the same as the typical pelludda. The differ- 
ences are the result of station, the Icevis living imbedded in the 
stems of fuel. Specimens of all sizes may be found having the typi- 
cal Icevis form, but frequently a Icevis is surmounted by an earlier 
growth of the pelludda type, like the similarly caused forms 
of P. granularis, compressa, Acmcea pelta, etc., etc. 



PATELLA-PATINA. Ill 

P. TELLA Bergh. PL 51, figs. 12-26. 

Under this name Bergh has given the following description and 
figures of the soft parts of a specimen, the shell of which had been 
detached and lost. 

The body measured in length 8'5, breadth 5 mill. The sole of 
the foot (fig. 14) is oval, 8 mill, long, 4* broad. The color is light 
brown, the sole having a median longitudinal band shining like a 
tendon, not quite reaching to the posterior end. The foot was very 
strong, having a narrow fringe except at the head and behind, but 
not scalloped as it is in P. pellucida. The branchial cordon is inter- 
rupted in front. The head is strong, exactly similar to that of P. 
pellucida. At the three-cornered, kidney-shaped anterior end (fig. 
13) is the broad three-cornered mouth, and behind it the oblique, as 
if cleft, front end of the buccal mass. The tentacles were pretty 
short, quite cylindrical (figs. 12, 13), similar to those of P. pellucida. 
Unlike the latter, the eyes were not visible through the integument. 
On the upper side of the head the radula showed blackly through. 
The mantle-margin shows none or slight trace of a clothing with 
closely placed, short, tentacular bodies. The positions of anal and 
infra-anal papillae could not be determined. 

Above in the mouth-opening projected the edge of the upper jaw. 
The buccal mass was strong ; about 2.5 mill, long by 1.5 broad. The 
form of the basal-plate of the jaw was* not observed. The cutting 
(anterior) plate (fig. 17) was large, 1*3 mill, broad, light brownish- 
yellow, darker at the back margin,. half-moon-shaped, a little nar- 
rower in the middle than at the sides, with obliquely excavated 
anterior margin, thin back margin. The tongue was similar to that 
of P. pellucida, strongly black-pigmented at the side areas. The 
teeth had fallen off. The number of rows, however, seems to have 
been 11. The odontophore sheath is very long, reaching over the 
upper surface of the foot. The posterior end is lacking ; the remain- 
der has a length of 7 mill., its middle brownish, the sides with a 
peculiar greenish-yellow luster. In the sheath there are 38 devel- 
oped, 2 nearly developed (lighter colored) and 6 colorless, unde- 
veloped, transverse series of tooth-plates. The dentition agrees in 
all important characters with that of P. pellucida, as figured by 
Loven. In each row there are 12 teeth, the formula being 
3 (^ 202 M ) 3 . On the rhachis there is in the middle-line (figs. 19, 
20), a low r , elongated, narrow (median) ridge, without cusp 
(homologous with the rhachidian tooth in Aneistromesus), and on 



112 PATELLA-PATIXA. 

each side of it three strong lateral teeth, of which the inner one is 
more or less fused with the median at their bases. The inner lat- 
eral (fig. 21) and the median lateral were rather similar to one 
another, the second lateral (rig. 19a, a, 20a, a) being only somewhat 
stronger, with somewhat S-shaped base (fig. 19); the cusps being 
on both strong but narrow. The outer lateral was much stronger 
than the others; the basal-plate broader (fig 25) ; the cusp broad, 
three-cuspidate, the outer cusp shovel-shaped, the two inner nar- 
rower, more acute. Of the 3 uncinal teeth on the pleura of each 
side (figs. 23-26), the outer is larger (fig. 23), the inner the smallest. 
They show themselves often as if fastened on the upper part of the 
basal-plate of the outer lateral tooth (figs. 23, 24). All three pairs 
of lateral teeth show the basal part and the outer portion of the 
cusp amber-yellow, the intermediate part was almost as clear as 
glass. The side cusps were light horn-yellow. The length of the 
basal-part of the middle lateral tooth is about 0"15 mill.; the height 
from O15-016 mill. The length of the base of the outer lateral 
tooth 0-145-0-15, the breadth 0'14 mill. ; the height of the tooth 
016-0-18 mill. ; the breadth of the cusp was about 0'12-0'13 mill. ; 
the length of the outer side-cusp 0*1, the middle 0"08, the inner 
0*056 mill. The cusp of the outer was 0'025 mill. high. 

In the stomach was found a large-celled vegetable mass, similar 
to that found in various Pleurophyllids. 

Sargasso Sea. 

Patina tella BERGH, Beitrage zur Molluskeu des Sargassomeeres, 
in Verhandlungen der k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesellschaft in Wien, xxi, p. 
1297, t. 12, f. 12-26 (1871.) 

The explanation of figures is as follows: 

12. Head, from above. 

13. Head, from in front. 

14. Sole of the foot. 

15. Buccal mass from the side ; a anterior end, b broken radula 
sheath. 

16. Buccal mass from below, a, b, as above. 

17. Front or cutting plate of the jaw, cutting edged turned up- 
ward. 

19. Median ridge, inner and middle lateral teeth from the under 
side. 

20. Median ridge, inner and a middle lateral tooth, obliquely 
from beneath. 




HELCION-PATIXA. 113 



21. Inner lateral tooth, from the side. 

23. Outer lateral tooth and side cusp, from the inner side. 

24. The same, from the outer side. 

25. The same, from the posterior side. 

26. The three uncini. 

P. PRUINOSA Krauss. PI. 51, figs. 11, 11 ; pi. 13, figs. 68, 69. 

Shell oval, depressed-conical, nearly smooth, the apex near the 
front fourth of the length. Surface having faint radiating stride. 
Color varying from yellowish-olive to blackish-olive often mottled or 
rayed, and having fine interrupted radiating lines of blue. Interior 
olivaceous, dusky-whitish in the cavity. 

Length 28, breadth 21, alt. 6 mill. 

Length 31, breadth 24, alt. 9 mill. 

Cape Good Hope. 

P. pruinosa KRAUSS, Die Siidafric. Moll., p. 56, t. 3, f. 9. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., f. 109. Patinastra pruinosa THIELE, Das Gebiss der 
Schn. ii, p. 326, t. 28, f. 24, 25 (dentition and jaw.) 

It is larger and more depressed than P. pellucida. The blue lines 
are broken into minute dots. It has the same indistinct radiating 
striae that are to be seen on the European species. 

Dr. Thiele has made this the type of a new genus, Patinastra, 
founded upon a very slight difference in the dentition, which is inter- 
mediate between that of Patina and Helcion. 

** * 

P. ROSEA Dall. PI. 50, fig. 44. 

Shell small, egg-ovate, of a deep rose color ; externally smooth 
except for very faint radiating ridges divaricating from the apex, and 
for lines of growth. Margin entire ; apex minute, produced before 
the anterior margin. Interior smooth, white except the margins, 
which are polished and of the same color as the exterior. Nacre, 
especially when weathered, silvery. Length '35, width *27, alt. '12 
inch, of largest specimen. (Dall.} 

East side of Simeonoff Island, Shumagins> 

Nacella (.*) rosea DALL, Proc. Cal. Acad, Sci. iv, p. 270, t. 1, f. 2 
(Oct. 8, 1872.) 

The soft parts have not been examined. The position of this shell 
in Nacella where originally placed, is therefore, doubtful. It may 

8 



114 NACELLA. 

prove to be a Patina, which the types, seen by me in the U. S. 
National Museum, resemble as much as they do Nacella. 

Subfamily NACELLIN^E, Thiele. 

The researches of Thiele have demonstrated that there are but 
two lateral teeth on each side in Nacella, Patinella and Helcioniscus, 
whilst Patella, Helcion, Patina, etc., possess three on each side. 
This difference is undoubtedy of considerable value, and I therefore 
depart from the arrangement adopted in the synopsis of groups on 
page 79, and consider the forms in my second division " B. One 
inner lateral tooth on each side anterior " as constituting the sub- 
family NACELLIN^E. 

The subfamily differs from PatellincK in possessing the character- 
istic dental formula 3 (i m i)3, and in the shells having a distinctly 
metallic luster inside ; the genus Patella having the formula of teeth 
3 ( l ' 212 1 ) 3 and the inside of the shell either transparent and fibrous, or 
opaque, porcellanous. 

On pages 79, 80, I have divided this group into two subgenera : 

(I) NACELLA, with sections Nacella s. s. and Patinella Dall, and 

(II) HELCIONISCUS Dall. These divisions are used in the same 
limits by Thiele (I. c.), except that he considers the three as of 
generic rank, as Dall has already done. 

Genus NACELLA Schumacher, 1817. 

Nacella SCHUM., Essai d'un nou.v. Syst., p. 179. DALL, Amer. 
Journ. Conch, vi, p. 274, 1871. THIELE, Das Gebiss der Schn. ii, 
p. 329. not Nacella of CARPENTER, SARS, et al 

The gill-cordon is continuous. 

The foot is encircled by a scalloped epipodial ridge, interrupted in 
front. 

The dentition is practically the same as in Heleioniscus (q. v.~), 
differing notably from that of Patella and Helcion-}- Patina. 

The shell has the apex subcentral or anterior, and is characterized 
by a peculiarly metallic texture, having the central area of the in- 
terior generally of a red-bronze color. 

The shell and dentition of Nacella approach near to Helcioniscus, 
but from this and all other Patellidce it is sundered by the presence 
of a developed epipodial ridge. 

Cape Horn was evidently the birth place of Nacella and Patinella. 
Thence they have been distributed eastward to the Falkland, New 



NACELLA. 115 

Georgia and Kerguelen islands, by the eastward sweeping Antarctic 
current, carrying them upon sea weeds. 

A number of West American species placed under Nacella by 
Carpenter and others belong to Acmcea. 

Two sections, having but slight distinctive characters in either 
shell or soft parts, have been instituted : 

(1). Nacella s. sir., having the gills smaller in front, the shell thin, 
light, nearly smooth, the apex far forward. 

(2). Patinella Dall, in which the gills are equal all around, the 
shell more solid, and deeply colored. 



Section Nacella Schum. (restricted.) 

The dentition has been figured by Dall, and lately with more 
exactness by Thiele. 

According to Thiele, the typical N. mytilina is more closely allied 
in dentition to Patinella than to the other species of Nacella 
recognized by him, N. vitrea and N. hyalina. The rhachidian tooth 
is rudimentary and bears no cusp. The inner side-tooth (homolo- 
gous, according to Thiele, with the second lateral in Patella) is 
broad, truncated, and has an outer cusp ; the second side tooth is 
posterior, and bears a small cusp on each side of the broad, truncated 
median cutting edge. PI. 74, fig. 3, represents N. vitrea Phil. ; pi. 
74, fig. 4, represents jY. mytilina Helbl. 

Only one species of this section, as restricted, is 'known. It lives 
upon the great sea weeds of the Tierra del Fuego shores. 

N. MYTILIXA Helbling. PL 50, figs. 32-39. 

Shell thin or fragile, elliptical, convex, the apex strongly curved 
forward and downward near the anterior end ; surface smooth except 
for narrow, faint, separated radiating riblets, more distinctly devel- 
oped in front, Color usually light brownish, the apex coppery. 

Inside silvery, large specimens usually having a coppery stain in 
the middle. Length 41, breadth 24, alt. 17 mill. 

Sts. of Magellan ; Kerguelen Is. 

P. mytilina HELBLIXG, Abhandl. einer Privatgesellsch. in 
Bohmen zur Aufnahme der Matheraatik, der vaterlandischen 
Geschichte u. der Naturgeschichte, iv, p. 104, t. 1, f. 5, 6, (1779). 
P. mytilina GM., Syst. xiii, p. 3698. SCHUB. & WAGX., Conch: 
Cab. xii, p. 124, t. 229, f. 4052, 4053. P. conchacea GM., 1. c., p. 



116 NACELLA. 

3708. Nacella mytiloides SCHUM., Syst. Vers Test. p. 179. N. 
cymbularia LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 335. PHIL., Abbild., iii, t. 1, 
f. 2 (not P. cymbularia DELESSERT, Rec. de Coq. t. 23, f. 8, P. 
cenea Martyn). P. cymbuloides LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, p. 
422. Nacella cymbalaria (sic) ROCHEBRUNE & MABILLE, Mission 
Cape Horn p. 97. Nacella eompressa MABILLE & ROCHEBRUNE, /. 
c. p. 98, t. 5, f. 9. P. cymbium PHIL., Arch. f. Naturg. 1845, p. 60 ; 
Abbild. p. 7. P. vitrea PHIL., Abbild., t. 1, f. 4. Nacella vitrea 
THIELE, Das Gebiss, ii, t. 28, f. 28 (dentition). P. hyattna PHIL., 
1. c., f. 3. Nacella hyalina THIELE, I. c., f. 29 (dentition). Nacella 
mytilina BALL, Am. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 274, t. 16, f. 26 (dentition). 
THIELE, I. c., t. 28, f. 30, (dentition). P. (Nacella) mytilina SMITH, 
Philos. Trans, clxviii, p. 181. 

The thin texture, oblong form and anterior apex are diagnostic 
of this delicate species. It varies considerable in the position of the 
apex ; in some specimens it is nearly marginal. The color is also 
variable, " some being of a general grayish tint, varied at intervals 
with darker concentric rings and often a few radiating palish stripes 
on the ribs. Others are uniformly yellowi'sh-brown, others pale luteous 
broadly striped with black, and finally, others are of a uniform 
pale horny color, but all have the apex cupreous." ($.) 

There is.no reason for ignoring Helbling's work on this species 
except that his book is not a common one. But surely if Martyn's 
names are to be accepted, one cannot close the door upon the 
properly proposed names of the German author. 

The synonymous P. eompressa Mab. & Rochebr. is figured on pi. 
50, fig. 37. 

Var. HYALINA Phil. PI. 50, figs. 38, 39. 

Apex at or very near the anterior margin. The specimens before 
me show numerous forms between this and the typical mytilina. 

A large series of radulse must be examined before the differences 
found by Thiele can be acknowledged to be of specific value. This 
organ no doubt varies just as the shells do, in minor characters. In- 
deed there is often considerable variation in the teeth of a single 
odontophore ! 

Section Patinella Dall, 1871. 

Patinella DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 272. THIELE, Das 
Gebiss der Schuecken, ii, p. 330, 1891. 



NACELLA. 117 

This section differs from Nacella s. s. in having the branchial pro- 
cesses equally developed all around, and the shell more solid and 
more intensely colored. 

The dentition is in all essentials similar to that of Nacella s. str. 
Indeed there are no characters upon which a separation more than 
specific can be based. At the same time, there is some considerable 
variation observed among the various species of Patinella, part of 
which may be specific, part merely individual variation. A large 
number of radulse must be examined before safe specific characters 
can be based upon this organ, as it varies just as do the shells. PL 
74, fig. 5, represents the dentition of N. venosa ; pi. 74, fig. 7, 8, that 
of X. juegiensis. 

The Xew Zealand species referred by Hutton to Patinella belong 
to Helcioniscus (q. v.). They have the branchial cordon incomplete 
in front, and no epipodial ridge has been observed in them, this 
last character being the main diagnostic mark of Nacella-}- Patinella. 

X. .ENEA Martyn. PL 15, figs. 5, 6 ; pi. 45, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell solid, elevated, ovate, the breadth three-fourths of the length ; 
apex somewhat anterior, but behind the anterior third, and always 
somewhat curving forward. Sculptured by 34-38 rather strong 
radiating ribs, which are typically closely scale-grained, but as 
frequently almost smooth. Color brownish-ashen with several con- 
centric dark brown zones ; when worn, of a ferruginous-brown all 
over. 

Interior lustrous, whitish or of a bronze tint, the center with an 
irregular red-bronze area, which is generally (but not always) rather 
small and indistinct. Margin scalloped. 

Length 63, breadth 48, alt. 26 mill. 

Straits of Magellan. 

P. cenea MARTYN, Universal Conchologist i, t. 17. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., f. 9. SMITH, Philos. Trans, vol. 168, p. 179, 1879. 
? P. rustica PERRY, Conchology, t. 43, f. 2. P. guadichaudi BLAINY, 
Diet, Sci. Nat. xxxviii, p. 93 (1825.) 

Typical cenea is thicker than var. deaurata ; the dark stripes of the 
exterior are faint or imperceptible within ; the apex is more central. 
It is more ovate than var. magellanica, the apex less erect. 

Th,3 description and figures given above, as well as the synonymy, 
apply to typical cenea only. 



118 NACELLA. 

The series of this species before me is very extensive, and shows 
such remarkable variations that it is not unlikely that all described 
species of Patinella will be found to be connected by intermediate 
forms. The specimens of cenea may be separated by moderately 
definite characters into three varietal types: (1) typical ^ENEA, de- 
fined above ; (2) var. DEAURATA ; and (3) var. MAGELLANICA. 

Var. DEAURATA Grnelin. PI. 46, figs. 28-36. 

Shell rather thin, oblong, depressed, the apex in front of the an- 
terior third, somewhat curving forward. 

Interior showing bronze-brown radiating stripes on a light ground, 
the central area reddish or blackish bronze, oblong, generally dis- 
tinct. Length 56, breadth 38, alt. 16 mill. 

Straits of Magellan. 

P. deaurata GMEL. Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3703. P. cymbularia 
DELESSERT (not Lam.) Rec. de Coq. Lam'k., t. 23, f. 8. P. fer- 
ruginea SOWB., Genera of Shells, Patella, f. 4. P. delessertii PHIL., 
Abbild. iii, p. 9, t, 1, f. 5. P. varicosa REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 21. 
? P. adunca PERRY, Conchology, t. 43, f. 5. Naeella strigatella 
ROCHEBR. & MAB., Mission du Cap Horn, Moll., p. 96, t, 5, f. 8. 
P.ferruginea WOOD, Index, Patella, f. 32. 

Distinguished from typical cenea by being more depressed, thinner, 
the apex more anterior. The riblets of the outer surface are some- 
times nearly obsolete, sometimes strongly developed ; and they may 
be either smooth or granose, the grains having a scale-like character, 
as in cenea. 

I am much disposed to consider P. polaris of Martens and Pfeffer 
a form of this variety. 

Specimens in which the stripes anastomose and branch were 
called varicosa by Reeve (pi. 46, figs. 33). I surmise that Gmelin's 
P. flaminea (Syst. xiii, p. 3716) and Woods' P. flaminea (Index, pi. 
38, f. 7J.) are identical with varicosa. 

The outer surface is frequently bluish-white, ribs yellowish, but 
sometimes the ribs are rust-brown. I have seen specimens of a clear 
yellow, lacking radiating stripes ; and others occur in which the 
stripes unite to make a uniform dark brown shell. 

This variety is further modified into oblong forms having the apex 
decidedly curved over, and near to the anterior end. Such a form 
is that called cymbularia by Delessert (pi. 44, fig. 20), and striga- 



NACELLA. 119 

tella Rochebrune and Mabille. These forms are like Nacella mytilina 
in contour, but they are more solid and ribbed. 

Var. MAGELLANICA Gmelin. PI. 44, figs. 9-17 ; pi. 43, figs. 1-6. 

Shell rounded-oval, high-conical, the apex nearly erect ; varying 
from strongly radiately ribbed to smooth. Unicolored, radiately 
streaked, or having oblique stripes. 

Interior generally very dark, the muscle-scar sometimes snowy- 
white. Length 45, breadth 36, alt. 27 mill. 

P. magellanica GMEL., Syst. xiii, p. 3703. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 19. Patinella magellanica DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 273, 
t. 15, f. 24 (soft parts and dentition). Patella atramentosa RVE., 
Conch. Icon., f. 41. P. venosa Rv., f. 18. P. chilwisis Rv., f. 98. 
P. merid'ionalis ROCHEBRUNE & MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Phil. Paris 
7th Ser., ix, p. 109, 1885 ; Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn, vi, 
p. 94, t. v, f. 4. P. metallica R. & M., 1. c., p.* 91, t. 5, f. 5. P. 
pupillata R. & M., /. c., p. 92, t. 5, f. 6. P. tincta R. & M., I c., p. 
93, t. 5, f. 7. 

Rounder than typical cenea, and having a more central, erect and 
elevated apex. 

Here belong a number of forms described by Reeve years ago, 
and by Rochebrune and Mabille recently. The paper by the last 
authors, on the mollusks of Cape Horn, is an admirable specimen of 
how systematic zoological work should not be done. The ignorance 
displayed is only excelled by the lack of judgment. We should, 
however, give MM. Rochebrune and Mabille the benefit of the 
doubt as to whether their species and groups were intended seriously 
or as a jest. 

This variety is well represented by the figures 9-11 of pi. 44, 
drawn from specimens collected at Santa Cruz River, Patagonia. 
The ribs are strong and carinated in some specimens, almost com- 
pletely obsolete in others, this comparative smoothness not being the 
result of erosion. The central area of the interior is sometimes 
partly of a snow-white color (pi. 44, fig. 12) ; sometimes the muscle- 
scar is white (pi. 44, fig. 16.) 

P. meridionalis R. & M. (pi. 43, figs. 1, 2), P. pupillata R. & M. 
(pi. 43, figs. 3, 4), P. tincta R. & M. (pi. 43, figs. 5, 6) and P. 
metallica R. & M. (pi. 44, figs. 17) are ordinary forms of magellanica. 

The form called atramentosa by Reeve (pi. 44, figs. 13, 14,) has 
the ribs wide and subobsolete ; whitish with broad blackish rays. 



120 NACELLA. 

Reeve's P. chiloensis (pi. 45, figs. 20, 21,) is similar to atramentosa 
but darker. 

The P. venosa Rve. (pi. 45, figs. 24-27) is rounded, the ribs almost 
completely obsolete, painted with divaricating stripes. The interior 
is peculiarly rich in coloring, being suffused with bronze-red, the 
muscle-scar lilac. Numbers of this form are before me. 

I suppose the P. areolata Gmel. (Syst., p. 3716 ; Wood's Index, pi. 
38, f. 70) to be the same as venosa. 

N. INRADIATA Reeve. PI. 20, figs. 43, 44. 

Shell ovate, elevately convex, somewhat compressed at the sides, 
everywhere rather obsoletely, radiately latticed ; whitish, obscurely 
rayed with a very few red lines in pairs, lines irregular, distorted. 
Interior white, red lines distinct, chestnut in the middle. (Rve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P. inradiata REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 77. Jan., 1855. 

A deep cup-like opaque-white shell, obscurely latticed throughout, 
irregularly rayed with a few straggling red lines, which are most dis- 
tinctly seen in the interior. (Rve.) 

This is a form I have not seen. It may prove to be one of the 
many color-varieties of P. cenea var. deaurata. 

N. POLARIS Hombron & Jacquinot. PI. 49, figs. 21-27. 

Shell oblong-ovate, more or less compressed, sculptured with 
rounded, rather distant, sparingly nodose radiating ribs, often 
obsolete ; margin roundly crenated ; exterior usually eroded 
brown ; interior shining bronze-black ; vertex inclined forward, 
situated at the front J-f of the length. (M.) 
Length 51, breadth 36, alt. 23 mill. 
Length 48, breadth 35, alt. 26 mill, (especially high.) 
Length 59, breadth 40, alt. 22 mill (the longest, rather flat.) 
Length 47, breadth 33, alt. 14 mill, (the flattest.) 

South Georgia. 

P. polaris MARTENS & PFEFFER, Mollusken von Siid Georgien, 
in Jahrb. der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten iii, p. 
101, t. 2, f. 11-13 (1886). P. polaris H. & J., Ann. des Sci. Nat. 
(ii) xvi, p. 191, (1841.) 

P. kerguelensis E. A. Smith is notably wider posteriorly, and is 
not so dark inside. (Mart.) 



NACELLA. 121 

P. polaris approaches certain forms of P. cenea var. deaurata, but 
the ribs are more obsolete and the interior darker than is usually the 
case in that form. 

N. KERGUELEXSIS E. A. Smith. PI. 43, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell oval, a little narrowed in front, rather elevated convex, the 
apex prominent and well toward the front, especially in the young ; 
widely radiately ribbed, the ribs little prominent, and often with 
interstitial smaller riblets ; sculptured with elegantly undulating and 
close concentric growth-lines. Exterior bluish-ashen, the ribs 
usually darker, toward the apex ferrugineous in eroded examples. 
Interior bronze-brown, generally paler toward the margin, which is 
a little undulating; muscle-scar visible; a large example measures, 

Length 82, breadth 70, alt. 45 mill. (Smith.) 

Swain 9 s Bay and Royal Sound, Kerguelen Island, in about 1 fm. 

P.ferruginea (SowB. MS. in Mus. Cuming) REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 40, not P. ferruginea Gmel. nor P. ferruginea Sowb. Genera of 
Shells, f. 4. P. kerguelensis E. A. SMITH, Zool. of Kerguelen Id., 
Moll, in Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. vol. 168, p. 177, t. ix, f. 13, 
13a, (1879.) 

Differs from P. amea Martyn in having the shell less prominently 
costated, differently colored, and in the apex being very prominent 
and much curved over, so as to give it a capuliform appearance, a 
character constant in all specimens, young and old, elevated and de- 
pressed ; it also differs in the coloration of the animal. (Smith.) 

IS". FUEGIENSIS Reeve. PI. 49, figs. 28, 29, 30, 31. 

Shell oval, rather thin, semitrausparent, rather compressly raised ; 
apex rounded, inclined anteriorly; radiately ridged, ridges thin, 
numerous, densely crossed with concentric striae ; greenish, more or 
less stained and blotched with chestnut-brown, apex bronze ; interior 
iridescent-bronze, radiately grooved, grooves sometimes partially 
obsolete. (Reeve.) 

Tierra del Fuego ; Orange Bay; Falkland Is.; Royal Sound and 
Swain's Bay, Kerguelen Id., everywhere common on the submerged 
fronds of long floating kelp (Macrocystis) bordering the shore. 

P. fuegiensis REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 73, (1855). Patella 
(Patinella) fuegiensis SMITH, Philos. Trans, vol. 168, p. 180, t. 9, f. 
14, 14a. P. fuegiensis ROCHEBRUNE & MABILLE, Miss. Sci. du 
Cap Horn, Moll., p. 95. 



122 NACELLA. 

" The description given by Keeve is very good, but he does not 
lay sufficient stress upon the beautiful raised concentric ridges. He 
calls them striae, which term scarcely gives the idea of thread-like 
lirations such as these. They are very closely packed and undulate 
very prettily on and between the numerous radiating ribs. 

" The figure, except in outline and the position of the apex, gives 
but a poor idea of this beautifully sculptured Patella. It represents 
the number of ribs at about forty, whereas there are usually about 
sixty. The specimens from Kerguelen's Island are a trifle narrower 
and much more depressed than examples from the Falkland Islands ; 
in fact, it is only near the apex that they are at all raised, and to- 
ward the margin they are upturned, so that the dorsal surface is 
concave, and this form of the shell certainly prevents the animal 
from entirely concealing itself when adhering to a flat surface. But 
this peculiarity of form only exists in adult specimens, for several 
small ones are like ordinary species in this respect. The radiating 
ribs are almost obsolete in the flat examples, but the undulating 
concentric lirations, which are more prominent and farther apart 
than in the type form of the species, define their position ; in young 
shells they are more pronounced. Color generally uniformly 
purplish slate, with the apical region ferrugineous ; interior similarly 
tinted, but rather more deeply. One shell has a white border. 
They are all very thin and fragile, and the edge is very liable to 
break off in a line with the concentric raised lines of growth. 

" The animal has the sides and sole of the foot greenish-grey, the 
edge of the mantle and gills pale buff, th.c tentacular filaments 
on the margin of the mantle blackish except at their tips, tentacles 
short and thick, pale buff, with a black spot above. 

" The frill-like expansion of the foot, similar to that of P. cenea 
and P. kerguelensis, is a little above its edge, is bluntly serrated, and 
interrupted beneath the head. 

" Teeth of the lingual ribbon slightly hooked, in pairs, scarcely 
diverging; the central pair two-pronged, the inner prong much 
larger, spear-head shaped ; the lateral pairs alternating with the 
central ones are four-pronged, the innermost prong smallest, the 
next two subequal, and the outside one situated nearly at right 
angles to the rest of the tooth, about the same size or a trifle larger." 
(Smith.) 
N. CLYPEATER Lesson. PI. 50, figs. 40, 41, 42, 43. 

Shell circular or rounded-oval, rather thin but solid, de- 
pressed, the apex a little in front of the middle. Outer surface 



HELCIONISCUS. 123 

lusterless, sculptured with fine and rather close radiating riblets, 
sometimes subobsolete. Brownish or tawny, the riblets often 
lighter, usually mottled with whitish toward the apex. 

Interior bright silvery, the central area of a deep red-bronze, 
muscle-scar snowy-white, surrounded with red-bronze. 

Length 61, breadth 58, alt, 14 mill. 

Coast of Chili at Valparaiso and Saint Vincent. 

P. clypeater LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool., p. 419, (1830). 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 38, 38b. 

A nearly circular, depressed shell, having the bronze-brown color- 
ing characteristic of Patinella. The interior sometimes has no white 
horse-shoe ; and in some examples the silvery outer zone is consider- 
ably invaded by bronze stains. 

This species has been reported from California, Lower California 
and Japan, but not correctly. 

C4ui 4</a-o 6ftf) <^o ^ 

Genus HELCIONISCUS Dall, 1871. 

Helcioniscus DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 227, (type Patella 
variegata Reeve). THIELE, in contin. Troschel's Das Gebiss der 
Schnecken, ii, pt. 7, 333 (full discussion and figures of the dentition). 
-Cellana H. ADAMS, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 274, (type N. cernica.) 

The gill-cordon is interrupted in front. 

There are no epipodial processes or ridge on the sides of the foot, 

The formula of teeth is 3 (i ul i)s. 

The radula is long and spirally rolled. The rhachidian tooth is 
narrow, with a variously shaped forward appendage. The inner 
lateral has an outward wing, and a simple, long, cusp ; the outer 
lateral has an inner long point with an outer side-cusp, besides a 
short, mostly rounded longitudinal cutting-edge. The marginal 
teeth are characteristic in appearance, the posterior part being 
divided from the anterior, the connection being so thin as to be im- 
perceptible. The inner marginal tooth has a cusp on its front end 
(pi. 74, fig. 6, P. capensis Gmel.) 

The shell is conical, apex subcentral or subanterior ; inside hav- 
ing a silvery and mica-like luster. 

Distribution, Indian and Pacific Oceans, but not found on the 
American shores north of Chili. No species have been found in 
the Atlantic Ocean. 

This group is closely allied to the Patinella section of Nacella, 
having a very similar radula. It differs in the lack of an epipodial 
ridge, in having the gill-cordon interrupted, and in the silvery- 



124 HELCIONISCUS. 

micaceous rather than bronzed-metallic luster of the interior of the 
shell. 

I have adopted below a division of the numerous species of 
Helcioniscus into geographic groups as follows : 

1. Chilian species. 

2. Polynesian and East Indian species. 

3. Japanese and Chinese species. 

4. Species of New Zealand and Australia. 

5. Species of East Africa from the Ked Sea to the Cape, and the 
adjacent islands. 

6. (Species of unknown locality.) 

Without having examined all of the species, a perfectly natural 
zoological grouping would be impossible. Certain apparently 
natural groups, however, force themselves upon us. Such are the 
group of P. sagittata, containing sagittata, tahitensis, ardosicea, amus- 
sitata, toreuma, nigrolineata. 

The group of P. exarata, containing exarata, argentata, melano- 
stoma, boninensis, nigrisquamata, stearnsii, grata. 

The group of P. rota, containing rota, capensis, novemradiata, vari- 
abilis, dunkeri, cernica, eucosmia, garconi, etc. 

The New Zealand and Australian species also form a natural 
group of equal value with the preceding. 

A number of outlying forms, as well as some described species the 
shells of which I have not seen, apparently belong to neither of these 
four assemblages. 

(1). CHILIAN SPECIES. 

The limpets of South America belong mainly to Acmceidw. The 
Patellidce being represented by Nacella-\- Patinella and by one or 
two forms of Helcioniscus. Of these, the habitat of P. ardosicea is 
unquestionable, but that of P. nigrisquamata may still be con- 
sidered open to revision. 

H. ARDOSI^US Hombron & Jacquinot. PI. 32, figs. 63, 64, 65, 66. 

Shell erectly conical, short-oval or nearly circular, the apex nearly 
central ; slopes straight. Sculptured with close radiating striae, 
which are not granose, every fourth one being somewhat larger. 
Slate colored or light bluish-olive, darker on the upper part of the 
cone, 'the eroded apex usually reddish . 

Interior bluish- white, with silvery and opalescent reflections, the 
central callus opaque-white tinted more or less with reddish, the 



HELCIONISCUS. 125 

front segment often darker, the edges more or less leaden. Edge 
of shell narrowly bordered with slate-color. 

Length 58, breadth 52, alt. 19 mill., (fig. 65.) 

Length 48, breadth 40, alt. 24 mill., (fig. 66.) 

Island of Juan Fernandez. 

P. ardosicea H. & J., Ann. des Sci. Nat. (2), xvi, p. 190, (1841). 
P. clathratula REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 30, (1854.) 

This is a very distinct form, allied to P. iahitensis Pse. but not 
granulose (although there are concentric strise), and not variegated. 
There are often very fine concentric wrinkles inside ; and the interior 
sometimes has an opaque white or lemon-tinted peripheral zone, or 
rarely the entire surface between the reddish spatula and the narrow 
border is silvery-yellow. 

Half-grown specimens greatly resemble Hutton's P. olivacea 
except that that species has the apex slightly more anterior, the 
spatula broader in front and not reddish, and the border narrower 
and blacker. 

This is one of the few species of Hombron and Jacquinot's paper 
which is portrayed by them with unmistakable accuracy. The 
specimens orginally described and those of Reeve, as well as the 
originals of my figures 64, 65, 66, were from Juan Fernandez. 

H. NIGRISQUAMATUS Reeve. PL 19, figs. 35, 36 ; pi. 48, figs. 13, 14, 

15. 

Shell solid, oval, erectly, straightly conical, the altitude about half 
the breadth ; apex erect, acute, a little in front of the center. Sculp- 
tured with strong, narroiv, closely nodule-scaled ribs, obscurely or 
obviously alternating in size, and about 46-51 in number. Color 
yellowish, often blackish-gray above and orange around the circum- 
ference, having here and there scattered black scales or nodules. 

Interior silvery, more or less orange-tinted and decidedly iri- 
descent, the central area small, dark chestnut colored. In young or 
half-grown shells the interior shows black spots corresponding to fhe 
black nodules of the outer surface, but in adults they are obscured by 
the enlarging central callus. Edge having a narrow distinct fleshy- 
orange border. 

Length 63, breadth 52, alt. 28 mill. 

Length 83, breadth 71 mill. 

Concepcion, Chili (Dr. Ruschenberger) ; Australia (Reeve.) 



126 HELCIONISCUS. 

Patella nigrisquamata REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 3, (1854). 
Patella mazatlandica SOWB., Zool. Beechey's Voy. Moll., p. 148, t. 
39, f. 12, 1831. 

This species may be known by its erectly conical form, narrow 
ribs, having close, high solid scales or nodules, of which some are 
black, especially upon the upper part. The central area is small, 
brown. The young (pi. 54, fig. 13) are spotted inside. 

The P. nigrisquamata of Reeve, is a shell exhibiting but little 
variation. Reeve gives the locality " Australia," but this has not 
been confirmed. One tray of the specimens before me are from 
Concepcion, Chili, collected by Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger. The 
others lack record of locality. 

The P. mazatlandica of Beechey's Voyage, was said to come from 
Mazatlan, but this is of course a mistake. Carpenter at one time 
referred it to one of the Californian Acmceas as a synonym, but later 
concurred in Hanley's opinion that it was the same as P. exarata 
Nutt. This opinion I am not prepared to endorse, for the internal 
central callus of P. exarata is white, or sometimes partly black or 
violet-purple, but it is never, I believe, chestnut brown, as in the 
figures and description of Mazatlandica, which correspond exactly 
with young specimens of nigrisquamata, now before me. 

The name mazatlandica has priority, but in view of the doubt 
attaching to its use, and the fact that it is a misnomer, I have deemed 
it wisest to retain Reeve's designation. 

Compare also Patella boninensis Pilsbry. 

The scattered black spots found on the upper part of the cone are 
also seen in some specimens of P. exarata, and some other allied 
species. 

(2). EAST INDIAN AND POLYNESIAN SPECIES. 

This region possesses species of two groups : strong, conical, rib- 
bed species, such as exarata, argentata ; and lower, more delicately 
sculptured forms, sagittata, tahitensis, testudinaria. The Chilian 
forms are evidently derived from this fauna, and the Japanese 
species are very closely allied, belonging to the same two gronps. 

H. EXARATUS Nuttall. PL 47, figs. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 

Shell oval, conical, the apex slightly in front of the center ; slopes 
nearly straight. Surface sculptured with many very strong black 
ribs on a slightly lighter ground, the ribs subequal, about 38-48 in 



HELCIOXISCUS. 127 

number ; a few small intervening riblets often developed. Color 
typically almost black. 

Interior somewhat silvery, leaden-bluish, showing the dark ribs ; 
central area black, whitish in front, sometimes entirely white ; often 
of a beautiful purple. 

Length 40, breadth 34, alt. 16 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Patella exarata NUTT., Jay's Catal., p. 38 ; REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 47a, 47b, and 62a, 62b, 1854. PEASE, Amer. Journ. Conch, vii, 
p. 198, 1872. P. sandwichensis PEASE, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 537; 
Amer. Journ. Conch, vii, p. 198, 1872. P. undato-lirata REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., f. 59. Helcionitcus exaratus DALL, Amer. Journ. 
Conch, vi, p. 279, t. 16, f. 29 (dentition). Patella lugubris Blainv., 
DESH. Trait. Elem. de Conchyl., Atlas, t. 62, f. 13, 14. (iion Blain.) 

This common Patella of the Sandwich Is. is readily known by its 
numerous strong black ribs. It is so variable, and intermediate 
forms are so numerous, that varietal names are scarcely admissible. 

Some individuals (figs. 6, 7) are drab or gray, closely spotted with 
black on the upper part of the cone, and having the ribs nodulose, 
as in Patella nigrisquamata. 

This species has been reported by Schrenck from the bay ot 
Hakodadi, Japan. His specimens were identified by a comparison 
with Reeve's figures, not by comparison with actual specimens. In 
all probability the Japanese specimens were imported, as were those 
said by Reeve to be from Oregon. 

The typical exarata, as first defined and figured by Reeve, is dark, 
with black ribs (figs. 8, 9, 10.) 

Pease states that his sandwichensis differs from typical exarata in 
being thicker, more elevated, ribs generally larger, wider apart, more 
prominent, and crenate or scabrous, generally having smaller inter- 
mediate riblets. It is generally white inside. It inhabits deeper 
water, and according to Mr. Pease, differs in taste from typical 
exarata ! 

The form called lutrata Xutt, (pi. 47, figs. 1, 2, 3) is white, with a 
few of the ribs brown. The central callus of the interior is white. 

H. ARGENTATUS Sowerby. PL 18, figs. 29, 30 ; pi. 65, fig. 93. 

Shell large, solid, of a dome-like conical form, oval ; slopes con- 
vex ; apex subcentral (in the young more or less anterior). Sculp- 
tured with very numerous unequal radiating riblets. Color chest- 



128 HELCIONISCUS. 

nut-brown, becoming coppery when rubbed ; apex usually eroded 
and coppery. 

Inside having a large, distinct central callus of pure white, a 
lusterless whitish zone around the muscle-impression, outside of which 
it is bright, shining, and silvery or of a pale golden tint. 

Dimensions of a moderate-sized individual : length 90, breadth 79, 
alt. 42 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

Patella argentata SOWERBY, in Zool. Beechey's Voy., H. M. S. 
Blossom, Moll., p. 148, t. 39, f. 7, (1839).? Helcioniscus f argenta- 
tus "Gray" DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi, p. 278, (This may be 
P. clypeater Less.). Patella cuprea REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 15, Oct., 
1854, (See also, errata to Patella, at end of index, Conch. Icon.). 
Patella talcosa GLD., U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll. & Sh., p. 334, atlas 
f. 452. P. opea NUTTALL, according to specimens deposited in Mus. 
Acad. K S. Phila, by Nuttall (not P. opea Rve.) 

A large, dome-shaped species, brown outside, pale-golden with a 
white central callus inside. This species has been reported from 
Australia, Chili and Japan, but upon wholly insufficient evidence. 

In Beechey's Voyage, the species is 4 said to be from Chili, but as 
the expedition also touched at Tahiti, and many of their shells be- 
came mixed, there is no doubt of the true locality whence the types 
were brought. The description and figure are unmistakable. 
Several writers on the Japanese fauna have confused this with P. 
clypeater, but this species is more raised than that, more solid, and 
never marked with brown inside. 

H. ARTICULATUS Reeve. PL 65, figs. 87, 88. 

Shell hexagonally ovate, attenuated in front, rather flatly de- 
pressed, everywhere radiately ridged and striated ; olive, yellow rays 
at the angles, ridges articulated with purple-black and white. In- 
terior rather silvery. 

A rather compressly flattened species, divided on the surface into 
seven to ninesubangular areas, rayed with neatly articulated ridges. 
(Eve.) 

Island of Ticao, Philippines. 

P. articulataR,~EEW, Conch. Icon., f. 97, 1855. 

H. TESTUDINARIA Linne. PI. 25, figs. 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Shell large, thick and solid, oval, conic or depressed, the apex at 
about the front third ; posterior slope convex. Surface nearly 
smooth, but showing inconspicuous, close, low radiating riblets, gener- 



HELCIONISCUS. 129 

ally more obvious in the young. Broadly rayed with alternate dark 
chestnut and soiled white or pinkish, the dark rays spotted with 
light, the light rays with dark. 

Interior varying from bluish-white to yellow, somewhat translucent 
and with a micaceous luster, the central area white, often outlined 
with brown or yellow ; border colored by the dark rays of the ex- 
terior. 

Length 85, breadth 75, alt. 33 mill. 

Length 87, breadth 74, alt. 24 mill. 

Philippines (Rve.) ; Singapore (Phil. Acad. Coll.) ; Cape Good 
Hope (Frauenfeld.) 

P. testudinaria LINN., Syst. Nat. x, p. 783. HANLEY, Sh. of 
Linn., p. 427. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 6. P. insignis DUNKER, 
Verh. Zool.-bot. Gesell. Wien, 1866, p. 941. FRAUEXFELD, Reise 
der osterreichischen Fregatte ' Xovara ' urn die Erde, Zool. Theil, 
ii, Moll., p. 14, t. 2, f. 25, 1868. P. rwmpAu BLAINV. Diet. Sci. Nat 
xxxviii, p. 95, (1825.) 

A large solid species, nearly smooth, rayed and curiously spotted 
with brown and whitish. 

H. TAHITENSIS Pease. PI. 67, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Shell conical, rounded-oval, the apex erect, and situated within the 
middle third of the length. Slopes but slightly convex. Surface 
sculptured with closely granulose lirulse, indistinctly alternating in 
size. Color dusky, with indistinct reddish zigzags ; but if held to- 
ward the light a beautiful pattern of distinct reddish zigzag stripes 
on a light ground, is seen. 

Interior silvery-blue, the central callus ivhite in front, becoming 
indistinct and leaden posteriorly. 

Length 34, breadth 30, alt. 11 mill. 

Tahiti. 

Tectura tahitensis PSE., Amer. Journ. Conch, iv, p. 98, t. 11, f. 21, 
(1868.) 

Decidedly more erect than P. sagittata, with coarser radiating 
lirube and different coloring. It is more coarsely sculptured than 
P. amussitata. Fig. 8 represents the color-pattern as seen by look- 
ing through the shell. 

The zigzag or v-shaped markings are much broken in one spec- 
imen before me (fig. 7), and there are several broad red dashes on 
one side. A large series would doubtless show further variations 
and interruptions of the typical pattern. 9 




130 HELCIONISCUS. 

H. SAGITTATUS Gould. PL 65, figs. 89, 90, 91, 92. 

Shell depressed, rounded-oval, the apex curving forward, situated 
at about the front fourth ; surface closely sculptured with radiating 
striae, which are granose in front, usually less so behind. " Color 
dusky olive-green, with obscure radiations of dusky ; but if held up 
to the light the whole shell is found to be most beautifully reticulated 
and radiated with arrow-head dusky spots, often articulated with 
whitish." 

Interior blue or bluish- white, the central callus orange in adults, 
yellowish-green in the young, its outlines not sharply defined. 

Length 38, breadth 34, alt. 13 mill. 

Length 39, breadth 36, alt. 9 mill. 

Mfiti and Fiji Islands. 

P. sagittata GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. K H. ii, p. 148, July, 1846 ; 
U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll. & Sh., p. 337, atlas, f. 449. 

A rounded-oval, depressed and arched species, having finely 
granose radiating lirulse. The coloring is dusky, indistinctly pat- 
terned, but if held toward the light an elegantly figured design 
is seen. There are usually separated narrow radii of alternate dark 
and light, the intervals variously reticulated; but these articulated 
rays are often lost in the general dusky net-work. 

This species differs from P. amussitata in having the apex more 
anterior, the ribs finer, the pattern of coloring different. It is not 
so elongated as P. toreuma and differs in color-pattern and sculpture. 

H. REYNARDI Deshayes. PI. 66, figs. 94, 95. 

Shell ovate, thin, fragile, depressed, radiately striated, striie un- 
equal, subgranose ; apex obtuse; margin entire; interior pearly, 
central disc white; outside having radiating reddish-brown bands. 

Length 50, width 40 mill. (Dh.~) 

Ceylon. 

P. Reynaudi DH., in Belangers' Voy. aux Indes-Orientales, Zool., 
p. 411, atlas t. 2, f. 11, 12 ; DH. in Lam'k., vii, p. 543. 

H. FLEXUOSUS Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 66, figs. 96-98. 

Shell small, fragile, orbicular, angulate, arcuate, the vertex only 
elevated ; margins flexuous, obsoletely striated, whitish-brown 
dotted, apex rosy ; inside bluish, cavity orange. 

Length 10 lines. (. & .) 

Island of Vanikoro. 

P. flexuosa Q. & G., Voy. de 1'Astrol. iii, p. 344, pi. 70, f. 9-11. 



HELCIONISCUS. 131 

(3). JAPANESE AND CHINESE SPECIES. 

The Patellas of this region may be distinguished by the key 
given below. 

Neither P. clypeater nor P. argentata (cuprea) inhabit Japan, the 
citations of these species by Schrenck and Dunker being erroneous. 

Key to Japanese Patellidce. 

Shell more or less silvery or iridescent inside (ffelcioniscus.) 

Conical, having about 50 strong, close elevated riblets, alternating 

[or subequal in size. 
Large, light buff; border of the inside narrow, yellowish, 

H. Boninensis Pils. 

Variegated with brown ; border of the inside conspicuously 

black-blotched, H. Stearnsii Pils. 

Conical, having several smaller riblets in each interval between 

the larger ribs, H. pallidus Gld. 

Ribs fine or obsolete. 

Solid, with radiating dark lines ; spatula orange-red ; ribs 
obsolete, H. nigrolineatus Rve. 

Thin, with very finely beaded riblets or stria?, 

H. amussitatus Rve. 

Thin, with very fine strise, not beaded, H. toreuma Rve. 

Shell porcellanous inside, opaque, not iridescent (Scntellastra.') 

Depressed, having strong irregular ribs, P. stellceformis Rve. 

H. BOXINENSIS Pilsbry. PI. 66, figs. 1,2; pi. 67, fig. 3. 

Shell large, solid, oval, erectly, straightly conical, the apex a little 
in front of the middle ; posterior slope a little convex, the other 
slopes straight; basal side-margins a little elevated, so that the 
shell is supported by the ends alone when resting upon a plane sur- 
face. 

Sculptured with numerous (48-55) subequal radiating ribs (and 
sometimes some small interstitial riblets), the ribs varying from 
closely and rather weakly crenulated to strongly tubercled. 

The color is a uniform light buff, somewhat soiled, and having 
sometimes a few small black spots around the apex. 

Interior: the muscle-impression is of a snowy or bluish-white; 
outside of it there is a broad band varying in different individuals 
from creamy-brown to deep chestnut, outside of which there is a 
silvery, slightly iridescent zone, extending to the narrow yellow 



132 HELCIONISCUS. 

border. The large central area is either cream-colored with a dis- 
tinct dark laciniate outline, or is of an umber-brown, lighter in the 
depth. From each angle of the anterior head-segment of the central 
callus, a narrow dark band radiates, passing through the dark zone 
which surrounds the muscle-scar. 

Length 100, breadth 85, alt. 40 mill. (no. of riblets 53.) 
Length 90, breadth 75, alt. 40 mill. (no. of riblets 50.) 
Length 88, breadth 77, alt. 40 mill. (no. of riblets 48.) 

Bonin Is., north of Japan. 

Patella (Helcioniscus) boninensis PILSBRY, The Nautilus, Nov- 
ember, 1891, p. 79. 

This magnificent limpet approaches the P. nigrisquamata of Reeve, 
but may be readily distinguished by its much larger central callus 
inside, the two diverging brown streaks mentioned in the description, 
etc. The two forms are moreover widely separated geographically. 
The specimens were seen and purchased by Mr. Frederick 
Stearns, of Detroit, Michigan, at the Third National Exhibition at 
Tokyo, 1890. They are called in Japanese, Yome-gai-sara, "Bride- 
cup shells." 

H. STEARNSII Pilsbry. PI. 48, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell solid, elevated-conical, oval ; apex a little behind the front 
third of the length; front slope straight or concave, posterior slope 
convex. Sculptured with about 51 unequal closely nodulose ribs, 
separated by deep interstices. Surface lusterless, soiled whitish, hav- 
ing irregular rays of reddish-brown, and speckled with the same on 
the upper part of the cone. 

Interior bluish-white rayed or mottled with darker by the dark 
rays of the exterior; central area strongly defined, reddish-brown 
with a white stain in the cavity of the apex; edge of the shell 
scalloped. The dark rays become vivid deep brown or black at the 
border, the dark blotches alternating with white. 

Length 41, breadth 3H, alt. 27 mill. 

Length 38, breadth 29, alt. 21 mill. 

Province of Kii, Japan. 

P. (Helcioniscus) Stearnsii PILSBRY, The Nautilus, Jan., 1891, 
p. 100. 

This handsome shell is sculptured with closely nodulose ribs, 
obscurely alternating in size. There are 10 or 11 irregular dark 
rays on the outside, much broken into spots on the upper part of the 



HELCIONISCUS. 133 

cone. The apex is at the front I of the length. The interior shows 
fine transverse wrinkles when examined under a lens. It is not 
especially iridescent except at the border, where there is a narrow 
strip of fiery-orange iridescence between the blue-white of the interior 
and the blackish stained border. The species is named in honor of 
Mr. Frederick Stearns of Detroit, Michigan, who collected the shells 
when traveling in Japan. 

H. PALLIDUS Gould. PL 67, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell subovate, elevated, erectly-conical, solid; white both out- 
side and within, or whitish-yellow ; having close concentric sulci and 
strise, and radiating unequal ribs, the ribs plicate or obsoletely 
plicate-tuberculate ; there are 20-25 larger ribs radiating from the 
summit itself; of the smaller interstitial riblets there are about 60. 
Apex subcentral or at the front f of the length. Margin of the 
aperture undulating. (Schrenck.) 

Length 40, breadth 33, alt. 24 mill. 

Length 60, breadth 51, alt. 29 mill. 

Hakodadi, Japan. 

P.pallida GOULD, Proc.Bost. Soc. N". H. vii, p. 162. DKR., Ind. 
Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 156. P. lamanonii SCHRENCK, Reisen und 
Forsch. im Amurl. ii, p. 303, t. 14, f. 6-9. 

Characterized by its light color and the sculpture, consisting of 
radiating ribs, and having several riblets in each interval. I have 
seen none but immature specimens. 

H. NIGROLIXEATUS Reeve. PL 14, figs. 71, 72, 73, 74; pi. 13, figs. 

48, 49. 

Shell solid, oval, rather depressed ; apex at the front third ; slopes 
slightly convex; surface nearly smooth, the young having sub- 
obsolete radiating riblets ; bluish, with numerous narrow radiating 
stripes of red, or sometimes black. 

Interior dark-silvery, showing (especially in young shells) black 
radiating stripes. Central callus bright orange-red, veined with black, 
its front portion white or nearly so. 

Length 74 ; breadth 60, alt. 18 mill. 

Enoshima (Fr. Stearns), Nagasaki (Lischke) and Tsus-sima (Ad.), 
Japan; Camiguan, Philippines (Rve.) 

P. nigrolineata REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 43. LISCHKE, Jap. 
Meeres-Conchyl. i, p. Ill, t. 8, f. 5-11 ; ii, p. 103, t. 7, f. 1-6. 



134 HELCIONISCUS. 

A magnificent species, the handsomest of the Japanese limpets. 
The rays of the outside are generally dull red, but sometimes are 
brown or dull black. Between them the surface is normally of a 
peculiar light blue tint. In some specimens (pi. 13, figs. 48, 49), 
there are numerous fine, close waved concentric reddish lines, and 
these shells generally show a peculiar mottled pattern inside. The 
spatula is normally orange-red, more or less veined with black, but 
the black sometimes predominates. There is, in all the specimens 
I have seen, a light or white tract on the forward part of the spatula. 

My description is drawn from specimens kindly furnished me by 
Mr. Frederick Stearns. 

Var. DIVERGENS Pilsbry. PL 73, figs. 81, 82, 83, 84. 

A Helcioniscus between nigrolineata and toreuma. It is rather 
thick and solid, at least as thick as nigrolineata. Surface having a 
distinct sculpture of subgranose, crowded unequal radiating stride. 
Apex at the front fourth. Color purplish-brown, having rays of 
greenish-white, of which nine extend to the margin. 

Interior dark, leaden, with silvery reflections, showing the white 
rays. Spatula opaque white in front, leaden-brown behind. 

Length 42, breadth 32, alt. 8J mill. 

Enoshima, Japan. 

Fig. 84 represents the shell as it appears when held between the 
eye and a strong light. The color-pattern, otherwise obscure, is 
thus distinctly seen. 

H. AMUSSITATUS Reeve. PI. 14, figs. 75-79 ; pi. 68, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell thin but rather solid, ovate, conical ; apex in front of the 
middle ; slopes nearly straight. Surface sculptured with fine, close, 
regularly and closely beaded radiating riblets or striae. Light yel- 
lowish-brown, with inconspicuous darker rays, usually 11 in num- 
ber, and sometimes speckled with reddish and opaque white, or 
mottled with purplish. 

Interior bluish-silvery, iridescent, conspicuously finely crenulated 
toward the border ; central area not distinctly outlined, whitish or 
dull brown. Length 44, breadth 36, alt. 12 mill. 

Bonin Is. and Japan to Philippines. 

P. amussitata RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 83. SCHRENCK, Reis. und 
Forsch. im Amurl. ii, p. 30, t. 14, f. 4, 5. LISCHKE, Jap. Meeres- 
Conch. i, p. 109 ; ii, p. 100, t. 6, f. 7-11. DKR., Ind. Moll. Mar. 



HELCIONISCUS. 135 



Jap. p 156. DEBEAUX, in Journ. de Conchyl. 1863, p. 245. P. 
granostriata REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 126. 

This species is extremely variable in degree of elevation. It is 
never so variegated as P. toreuma, is more elevated, thicker, and 
the fine riblets are distinctly, finely and regularly beaded. From the 
Japanese species of Acmcea which have similar sculpture, it is of 
course separated by the lack of a defined internal border to the lip- 
edge. 

I am now disposed to consider Patella granostriata Reeve as a 
synonym of amussitata. 

H. TOREUMA Reeve. PI. 13, figs.' 50, 51, 52, 53. 

Shell depressed, long-oval, thin, the apex between the front third 
and fourth of the shell's length ; front slope straight or concave, 
posterior slope gently convex. Surface having fine close radiating 
stride separated by interstices slightly wider than themselves, the 
striae sometimes a little irregular but not distinctly beaded. Color 
excessively variable, usually greenish or buff, rayed or blotched 
with purplish-black and dotted with white ; sometimes without dark 
markings. 

Interior silvery or bluish, showing distinctly the dark and light 
markings of the exterior, the central area dusky, white or rich 
chestnut, its edges not sharply defined. 

Length 40, breadth 31, alt. 9 mill. 

Nagasaki, Tokio, etc., Japan; China. 

P. toreuma RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 69. LISCHKE, Jap. Meeres- 
Conchyl. i, p. 109, t. 8, f. 12-15 ; ii, p. 102, t. 6, f. 12. DKR. Ind. 
Moll. Mar. Jap. p. 156. 

A thin species, always depressed, remarkable for the endless 
variety of its mottled coloring. It is allied to P. amussitata, but the 
delicate riblets or stride are not beaded as in that species. 

P. GRATA Gould. Unfigured. 

Shell ovate-conic, elevated, apex acute, very much anterior ; out- 
side rude, ashen, with elevated compressed radiating ribs which are 
tubulose toward the margin ; margin expanded, denticulate. In- 
side ochraceous variegated with brown, spatula and submargin 
intense chestnut. Length 30, width 24, alt. 14 mill. (Old.) 

North shores of Niphon. 



136 HELCIONISCUS. 



Patella grata GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii, p. 161 (Dec., 
1859) ; Otia Conchologica, p. 115. 

This may be an Acmcea. It has not been figured, and I have not 



seen it. 



(4.) NEW ZEALAND AND AUSTRALIA SPECIES. 



The Patellas of New Zealand are all, with the exception of P. 
tramoserica, confined to that province. They have been referred by 
Hutton to Patinella, but erroneously, the branchial cordon being 
interrupted in front as in all Helcioniscus, a group with which they 
agree in dentition as well. The correct synonymy of many of the 
species is here given for the first time. 

The dentition of several species has been figured by Hutton, 
Trans. N. Z. Institute, xv. A useful paper on the anatomy of P. 
radians has been published by J. A. Newell, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix, 
p. 157, plate xi, 1887. 

H. REDIMICULUM Keeve. PL 23, figs. 1, 2, 3, 5. 

Shell oblong, rather depressed, solid, the apex between the front 
fourth and sixth of the shell's length, and inclined forward. Sculp- 
tured with about 22 rounded ribs. Ribs dark or buff, intervals 
bluish-white ; having several darker concentric streaks, and marked 
near the apex with oblique black stripes. 

Interior somewhat iridescent, obscurely rayed, having a cream- 
white central callus, often more or less bordered behind with olive ; 
muscle-scar slightly pinkish. 

Length 41, breadth 32, alt. 12 mill. 

Length 43, breadth 34, alt. 12J mill. 

Southern New Zealand and Auckland Is. 

P. redimiculum REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 50, (1854). HUTTON, 
Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. 1880, p. 107. E. A. SMITH, Voy. Erebus & 
Terror, Moll., p. 4, 1. 1, f. 24. P. radians Gm., REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 25, (not of Gmelin). P. pottsi HUTTON, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. 
1873, p. 44, teste Hutton. PatineUa redimiculum Rv. HUTTON, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales ix, p. 375, (1884.) 

The rounded ribs are nearly smooth. The coloring of oblique 
blackish stripes around the anteriorly curved apex is characteristic, 
but shared by some other species. 



HELCIONISCUS. 137 

H. STRIGILIS Hombron & Jacquinot. Unfigured. 

Shell oval, convex, obliquely conical ; two-colored outside, above 
blackish-rufescent, below brownish-rufescent, having few white dots ; 
principal radiating ribs 24, subequal, obtuse, subprojecting beyond 
the margin ; vertex obtuse, white, excentric. Interior blackish- 
purple, the depth pale yellowish. Length 65, breadth 50 mill. 
(H. & J.) 

Auckland Is. (H. & J.) ; Banks' Peninsula to Shag Point, Otago, 
New Zealand; Auckland Is. ; Campbell Id. (Hutton). 

P. strigilis H. & J., Ann. Sci. Nat. (2) xvi, p. 190 (1841). P. 
magellanica HUTTOX, Trans. X. Z. Institute xv, t. 16, f. A (denti- 
tion only) ; Man. X. Z. Moll., p. 107 (1880), not of Gmelin ! Pati- 
nella strigilis HUTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, ix, p. 374 
(1884). 

The original description is given above. This species I have not 
seen. It certainly has nothing to do with Patinella magellanica, 
wnea, kerguelensis or fuegiensis. 

Button's description in P. L. S. X. S. \V., 1884, is as follows : 

" Shell large, solid, obliquely conical, high, with about 20-30 low 
radiating ribs ; the apex subcentral or rather anterior. Brown, 
obscurely marked with yellowish ; interior greenish or yellowish- 
brown above the muscle impression, bluish-white and iridescent 
below it, the margin brown." 

The description in Man. X. Z. Moll, does not, of course, apply to 
this shell. 

H. ORXATUS Dillwyn. PI. 68, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19; pi. 19, 

figs. 39, 40. 

Shell solid, oval or oblong, rather low-conical, the apex at about 
the front third, erect. Surface having larger radiating, coarsely 
nodular ribs, about 11 in number, with a somewhat smaller rib be- 
tween each pair of larger ones, the intervals radiately striated ; 
growth-strife fine, often quite distinctly cutting the radial stride. The 
larger ribs are light, the intermediate ribs are black dotted with white, 
especially in the young, this coloring being less obvious on large 
shells. 

Interior having alternating silvery and black rays, the latter 
usually 11 in number; the large central area black, suffused more 
or less with cream color in the depth of the apex. 

Length 32, breadth 25, alt. 10 mill. 

Throughout New Zealand. 



138 HELCIONISCUS. 

Patella ornata DILLWYN, Descriptive Catal. Recent Shells, ii, p. 
1029, (1817)). P. nodosa HOMBRON & JACQUINOT, Ann. Sci. Nat. 
(2), xvi, p. 191, (1841). Patella margaritaria, testa ovali, etc., 
CHEMNITZ, Conchyl. Cab. xi, p. 180, t. 197, f. 1914, 1915 (1795). 
P. denticulata E. A. SMITH, Voy. Erebus & Terror, Zool., ii, Moll., 
p. 4, t. 1, f. 26. P. luctuosa OLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 150, 
(1846) ; U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll. & Sh., p. 336, f. 446. Patinella 
denticulata HUTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, p. 375 ; 
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xv, t. 16, f. B (dentition). P. inconspicua GRAY, 
in Dieffenbach's N. Z. ii, p. 244, (1843). Patinella inconspicua 
HUTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ix, p. 375. Patella margaritaria 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 74. 

Easily distinguished by its coarsely nodose ribs, eleven-rayed in- 
terior with black central area, and in the young by the alternately 
white-spotted riblets. 

It is a very distinct species, but it has been afflicted with a number 
of names unusual even in this genus. It has no especially close 
relations with P. denticulata Martyn (q. v.) 

Reeve's figures of margaritaria are copied on pi. 19, figs. 39, 40. 
They represent a large, rather round specimen. 

The correct synonymy is herein given for the first time. The 
name margaritaria Chemnitz cannot be used, as that author was not 
a binomialist. 

Var. INCONSPICUA (Gray) Hutton. PL 68,,figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Shell conical, high, the altitude often more than half the length ; 
apex subcentral. Interior brown, with about twelve radiating 
white stripes. (Hutton.) 

Wellington to Dunedin, New Zealand. 

The figures represent the luctuosa Gld. (not Hombr. & Jacq.) 
which is the same as inconspicua. Gray's description is very poor. 

P. DENTICULATA Martyn. PL 68, figs. 23, 24 ; pi. 21, figs. 49, 50. 

Shell solid, oval, elevated, the apex more or less anterior ; sculpt- 
ured with about 31 principal ribs, and some smaller interstitial rib- 
lets all of them closely scale-granose. Color blackish-brown. 

Interior bluish, having a distinct, opaque, flesh-colored or dull 
orange-brown central area. Spotted with brown around the edge. 

Length 55, breadth 43, alt. 24 mill. 

Wellington to Dunedin, New Zealand. 



HELCIOXISi U.S. 139 

Patella denticulata MARTYX, Univ. Conch, i, t. 65 (1784). P. 
imbricata KEEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 95 (1855), not P. imbricata Linne. 
P. reevei HUTTOX, Man. X. Z. Moll. p. 108 (1880). Patinella 
reevei HUTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, ix, p. 376 (1884). 

Differs from other Xew Zealand species in the closely scaled ribs, 
opaque " rust orange " or fleshy central area of the interior, etc. It 
is a solid species, attaining a considerable size. 

Reeve referred denticulata Martyn to P. granularis as a synonym 
and made a new species, "imbricata" of the New Zealand shell. 
Hutton has followed Smith in mistaking the P. ornata Dillw. (mar- 
garitaria Chemn.) for Martyn's shell an error immediately de- 
tected by a reference to the excellent figures in the Universal Con- 
ch ologist. 

In order to finally settle the name and synonymy of this species, 
I have copied Martyn's original figures on my plate 68, figs. 23, 24. 

P. RADIANS Gmelin. PL 69, figs. 25-39 ; pi. 23, figs. 4, 6, 7, 8. 

Shell ovate, depressed, thin but solid, slightly narrower in front, 
the apex at the front fourth or fifth, not prominent. Surface 
sculptured with decidedly separated, narrow radiating riblets, hav- 
ing a number of smaller riblets (sometimes obsolete), in each inter- 
val, and decussated by fine, crowded growth-strise, often obsolete, 
but usually cutting the surface just in front of the apex into fine 
granules. Color bluish-white, usually buff 1 around the apex, striped 
in a divaricating pattern, or irregularly blotched and rayed down 
the ribs with brown or olive. 

Interior buffish-olive, with a silvery luster, showing the color- 
markings of the outside, having a white or brown central callus, 
often ill-defined. 

Length 44, breadth 34, alt. 8 mill, (typical form). 

Throughout New Zealand; Australia. 

P. radians GMEL., Syst. Xat. xiii, p. 3720 (1789). HUTTOX, 
Man. Mar. Moll. X. Z. 1880, p. 108 ; Trans. X. Z. lust, xv, t. 16, f. E 
(dentition). P. argentea Q. & G., Voy. Astrol. Zool. iii, p. 345, t. 
70, f. 16, 17 (1834). P. argyropsis LESSOX, Yoy. Coquille, p. 419 
(1830). P. radiatilis HOMBR. & JACQ., Ann. des Sci. Xat. (2), 
xvi, p. 191 (1841). P. decora PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 162 ; 
Abbild. t. 3, f. 3. RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 33. Patinella radians 
HUTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. X". S. Wales, ix, p. 336 (1884). Patella 
earlii REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 71 (1855). P. flexaosa HUTTOX, Cat. 



140 HELCIONISCUS. 

Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 45 (1873), not of Q. & G.Lottia radians Sow- 
ERBY (de novo), Genera, Lottia f. 3. Patella affinis REEVE, Conch. 
Icon. f. 108, (1855.) P. fusea LINN., Syst. Nat. x, p. 784. HANLEY, 
Shells of Linn., p. 428, t. 4, f. 9 (fig. of Linnaeus' type specimen). 
P. sagittata DONOVAN, Rees' Encyclop., Conchol. t. xvi. 

The earliest name proposed for this shell is that of Linne", P.fusca. 
It was defined in an absurdly inadequate manner, however, and as 
Hanley justly remarks, no claims to precedence can be grounded 
upon the mere preservation of the original specimens. 

Typically depressed, but sometimes as elevated as P. redimiculwn. 
The sculpture of narrow separated riblets, having in the intervals a 
smaller riblet, or numerous minute riblets (sometimes obsolete), is 
characteristic. Sometimes the whole surface between the larger 
ribs is finely granulose, and most specimens retain this granulation 
in front of the apex. 

The connecting forms are so numerous that I am unable to 
diagnose any of the following as varieties worth naming. 

Typical form (pi. 69 figs. 25-28). Much depressed, thin, riblets 
often subobsolete ; conspicuously striped and blotched with brown or 
red on a bluish-white ground, yellow around the apex. 

The form called argentea by Q. & G. is dark, mostly olivaceous, 



The P. decora of Philippi (pi. 69, figs. 29-31) is yellowish with 
about 24 narrow, reddish-brown ribs, alternating with small riblets. 
Reeve's decora is intermediate between this and argentea Q. 

Reeve's P. earlii (pi. 21, figs. 51, 52) is typically more elevated, 
rounder, " pale green, broadly wave-variegated with olive-black." 
It is very closely connected by intervening forms with the type. 

The P. affinis of Reeve (pi. 69, figs. 32, 33) scarcely differs from 
the typical radians. " The surface is carved throughout with simple 
smooth, slightly waved, close-set ridges and striae." 

Var. PHOLIDOTA Lesson. PL 69, figs. 38, 39. 

Ribs small and uniform ; apex very anterior, about one-seventh 
of the length from the anterior end. Olive-brown, largely blotched 
with white, or white with brown radiating bands. (Hutton.} 

Throughout New Zealand. 

P. pholidota LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, p. 420 (1830). P. 
sturnus HOMBR. & JACQ., Ann. des Sci. Nat. (2), xvi, p. 191, (1841). 



HELCIONISCUS. 141 

P. floccata REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 106, (1855). P. radians var. 
pholidota BUTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, ix, p. 377, (1884). 
The figures represent the synonymous P. floccata of Reeve. 

H. OLIVACEUS Button. PI. 70, figs. 46, 47, 48. 

Shell short-ovate, conical, the apex at about the front third ; 
closely but subobsoletely radiately ribbed, the riblets about 70 in 
number, and of nearly equal size; uniform olive colored. 

Interior greenish-olivaceous, iridescent, the center whitish ; edge 
narrowly black-bordered. 

Length 33, breadth 28, alt. 14 mill. 

Dunedin to the Bluff, New Zealand. 

P. olivacea BUTTON, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xv, p. 133, (1883), 
pi. 16, f. D (dentition). Patinella radians var. olivacea BUTTON, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. K. S. Wales, ix, p. 377, (1884.) 

The apex is less anterior than is usually the case with P. radians, 
and it is more erect. It is further distinguished by the uniform 
olive color, and more equal ribbing. My illustrations are from a 
specimen received from Prof. Button. 

This species seems quite distinct from the P. radians, of which I 
have seen many examples. Prof. Button, however, considers it a 
variety of that species, no doubt having good reasons for the union. 

There is a prior P. olivacea of Anton, and a still earlier P. olivacea 
of Gmelin, but as both are totally unrecognizable, the name im- 
posed by Button may be allowed to stand. 

B. STELLIFERA Gmelin. PI. 70, figs. 43, 44, 45. 

Shell depressed, oval, with small granular ribs ; reddish with 
white rays at the apex, or two white lines at the posterior end. In- 
terior white. Apex anterior. Length 25, breadth 19, alt. 7 mill. 

(Q. & G.) 

Cooks' Straits to Bank's Peninsula, New Zealand. 

Patella stellata, seu steUifera, etc. CHEMNITZ, Conchyl. Cab. x, p. 
329, f. 1617 (1788). P. steUifera GMELIN, Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3719. 
P. stellularia QUOY & GAIM., Voy. Astrol. Zool. iii, p. 347, t.70, 
f. 18-20 (1834). REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 96. Patinella steUifera 
BUTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, p. 378. 

Readily recognized by the central white star. 



142 ' HELCIONISCUS. 

H. TRAMOSERICA Marty n. PI. 70, figs. 49, 50, 51, 52. 

Shell solid, short-oval, conical, the apex erect, near the center or 
somewhat anterior. Surface sculptured with numerous (about 40) 
narrow ribs, with usually an interstitial small riblet in each interval, 
the concentric striae of growth crowded, sometimes prominent 
enough to finely crenulate the radiating ribs. Color varying from 
yellowish with blackish-brown rays, to reddish-brown with whitish 
rays. 

Interior yellowish, lustrous, having dark rays and spots ; central 
area having a whitish, orange or olive callus. 

Length 46, breadth 40, alt. 17 mill. 

Wellington, New Zealand ; Chatham Is. ; New South Wales, Aus- 
tralia. 

P. tramoserica MARTYN, Univ. Conch, i, t. 16. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon. f. 27. P. antipodum E. A. SMITH, Voy. Erebus and Terror, 
Moll. p. 4, t. 1, f. 25 (1874). Patinella tramoserica HUTTON, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, p. 377 (1884). ?P. pecten GMVL., Syst. 
xiii, p. 3702. 

The ribs are numerous, their narrow intervals usually having an 
interstitial riblet. The color is dull yellow or reddish, with dark 
rays, which are sometimes seen to be fretted or dotted if held toward 
the light. 

H. FLAVUS Hutton. 

Ovate, conical, radiately ribbed ; apex recurved ; margin 
crenated ; pale yellow, inclining to orange toward the apex ; interior, 
above the muscular-impression more or less orange, below silvery. 

Length 2'2, breadth 1-8, alt. 1 inch. (Hutton.) 

Poverty Bay to Stronghurst, Canterbury, New Zealand. 

P.flava HUTTON, Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z., p. 44, (1873) ; Man. K 
Z. Moll., p. 109, (1880). Patinella flava HUTTON, Proc. Linn. Soc. 
K S. Wales, ix, p. 378. 

The description of this form is scarcely sufficient. 

H. ILLUMINATA Gould. PI. 70, figs. 40, 41, 42. 

Shell elevated conical, with an arched outline, the apex at about 
the anterior fourth ; surface covered with numerous small, obtuse, 
radiating ribs, with from one to three intervening striae ; concentric 
lines of growth crowded, very faint. Color sooty, with scattered, 
yellowish spots, about twenty in number somewhat regularly dis- 



HELCIOXISCUS. 143 

posed, which are transparent when held up to the light, those near 
the margin elongated. Aperture ovate, the margin slightly irre- 
gular ; interior a very dark claret-color, with brilliant silky and 
golden reflections, and yellow spots, corresponding to those of the ex- 
terior ; central spatula dull buft-color. (6r/d.) 

Length 1?, breadth 1], alt. I inch. 

Auckland Is. (Old.) ; Campbell and Macquarie Is. (Hutton.) 

P. illuminata OLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 149, (1846) ; 
Exped. Moll. & Sh., p. 340, atlas f. 441. BUTTON, Trans. N. Z. 
Inst. xv, t. 16, f. c (dentition). Patinella illuminata HUTTOX, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, ix, p. 376. ? Patella terror^ FILHOL, Compt. 
Rend, xci, (1880.) 

* * * 

Australian species. 

H. LIMBATA Philippi. PL 71, figs. 53, 54, 55, 56 ; pi. 17, figs. 28, 

29. 

Shell solid, oval, the apex near the front third ; sculptured with 
from 21 to 31 broad rounded ribs. Brown or reddish, the intervals 
between the ribs brown-striped. Apex eroded. Edge scalloped by 
the ribs. 

Inside whitish, tinted with flesh-color or lilac, the central callus 
generally opaque-white mixed with bluish, becoming olive toward 
its edges. There is a distinct yellow or brown border, within which 
the stripes of the exterior make a ring of vivid blotches, these stripes 
being also, at times, visible through the tinted lining of the shell. 

Length 47, breadth 41, alt. 20 mill. 

Length 59, breadth 52, alt. 29 mill. 

Port Lincoln, S. Australia; Tasmania. 

P. limbata PHIL., Abbild. u. Beschreib., iii, p. 71, Patella t. 3, f. 
2. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 29. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 185. 
TEXISOX-WOODS, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1876, p. 48 (animal). 

A large, solid species. The broad, rounded ribs, narrow inter- 
stices striped with brown, and distinct internal border are charac- 
teristic marks of this species. The eroded apex is usually stained 
with bluish. The number of ribs is excessively variable, sometimes 
as many as 37 being developed. 

H. LATISTRIGATA AugaS. 

Shell very similar to P. limbata, but more elongated ; liver-colored, 
rayed with a few very broad brown-black stripes. Ornamented with 



144 HELCIONISCUS. 

about 12 to 14 irregular, rounded ribs. Spatula of an intense brown- 
black, margined with white. (Angas.) 

Length '7, breadth '45, alt. *2 inch. 

Aiding a Say, South Australia. 

P. latistrigata ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 154, 186. 

H. GEALEI Angas. 

Similar to P. Jacksoniensis, but the interior splendidly metallic, a 
little tinted with golden ; margin narrow. Spatula lurid, clouded 
with leaden and brown. (Angas.') 

Length -1, breadth -86, alt. '4 inch. 

St. Vincent's Gulf, S. Australia. 

P. gealei ANG., P. Z. S. 1865, pp. 57, 186. 
H. ARANEOSA Reeve. PI. 71, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell suboblong-ovate, attenuated in front, rather thin, compressed 
at the sides, apex rather sharply acuminated, anterior ; radiately 
densely striated, strise corded, minutely crenulated with concentric 
strise. Olive-green, conspicuously rayed with numerous opaque- 
white lines. Interior semitransparent. 

A somewhat depressed species, pinched and sharply pointed to- 
ward the apex, which inclines very much to the front, and of a dull 
greenish-olive color, curiously rayed throughout with fine opaque- 
white lines. (Eve.) 

Australia. 

P. araneosa REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 111. March, 1855. 

Gould described in 1846 a different species under this name, but 
it is probably an Acmcea. See appendix to this volume. 

(5.) SPECIES OF SOUTH AND EAST AFRICA AND ADJACENT ISLANDS. 

Limpets of the genus Helcioniscus are not found on the West 
African coast, which is inhabited by the typical groups of Patella. 
Upon the East African shores, however, typical Patella is not 
numerous in species, but Helcioniscus abounds from the Red Sea to 
the Cape. 

H. ROTA Gmelin. PI. 72, figs. 65-80. 

Shell oval, low-conical, the apex at the front third or behind it. 
Sculptured with numerous subequal or unequal, obsoletely granu- 
lous radiating striae. Outside whitish, having purple-brown rays 
which sometimes branch to form v's, sometimes are spotted with light 



HELCIONISCTS. 145 

or split into several narrow stripes. The rays are generally eleven 
in number, but often some of them are multiplied by splitting. 

Interior yellow (or silvery), showing the rays as vividly as the 
outside ; the central area red-chestnut in color. 

Suez and Mozambique (Reeve); Madagascar (Dall) ; Reunion 
(Xevill, in Phil. Acad. Colin.). 

Patella rota, testa subrotunda, etc., CHEMN., Conchyl. Cab. x, p. 
330, t. 168, f. 1619. P. rota GMEL., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3720. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 39a. Heleioniseus rota DALL, Amer. Jour. 
Conch, vi, p. 278, pi. 16, f. 28. Patella variegata REEVE, Conch. 
Syst. t. 136, f. 1. P. petalata RVE., Conch. Icon. f. 56. P. luzonica 
RVE., 1. c., f. 86. P. scalata RVE., I. c., f. 89.? ? P. argentaurum 
LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, p. 414. 

An excessively variable species. It is closely allied to P. nov&tn- 
radiata, but in that species the rays do not bifurcate, although 
they are often split into two, and the indistinctly defined central 
callus is white with more or less bright yellow tint. It is even more 
closely allied to P. capensis Gmel and P. variabilis Krauss, and the 
three may prove to be one species, although in some details they 
differ. I have seen too few of the Cape species to write confidently 
upon their constant characteristics. 

Var. ROTA, typical, (figs. 65-69) may be restricted to the forms 
with chestnut or reddish spatula. As a synonym I have placed 
P. variegata Reeve, founded upon a typical specimen of rota, 
although Reeve afterward shifted the name to a different species. 

The following seem to belong here : 

P. petalata Rve. (pi. 72, figs. 70, 71). "Shell ovate, rather de- 
pressed, obsoletely cancellately ridged ; transparent yellow, painted 
with broad blackish-purple rays. Interior transparent horny, 
nucleus chestnut-purple. Australia.'' (Reeve.} 

P. luzonica Reeve, (pi. 72, figs. 72, 73). " Shell rotundately ovate, 
rather depressed, radiately finely ridged, ridges granuled ; apex 
sharp, anterior minutely hooked ; transparent yellow, rather horny, 
promiscuously stained with large black blotches. Interior trans- 
parent, subiridescent, dark chestnut in the middle. Luzon, Philip- 
pines." (Rve.} 

P. scalata Rve. (pi. 72, figs. 74, 75). " Shell ovate, rather sharply 
convex : apex scarcely central ; radiately obtusely striated, and 
here and there linearly grooved; livid-white, rayed with black 
10 



146 HELCIONISCUS. 

bands peculiarly bi-forked, or diagonally linearly streaked. Interior 
subtransparent, horny. Philippine Is" (five.) 

Var. orientalis Pilsbry. PI. 72, figs. 76, 77. 

Shell more solid, the central area of the interior whitish or more 
or less stained with olive or orange. 

Viti Islands (A. Garrett). 

Var. DISCREPANS Pilsbry. PI. 72, figs. 78, 79, 80. 

Surface with growth-lines but no radiating sculpture whatever. 
Soiled white, with purple-brown rays torn into oblique shreds. 
Length 29, breadth 24, alt. 10 mill. 

Probably a distinct species. The two specimens I have seen are 
unlike any described Helcioniscus in their smoothness and lacerated 
rays. 

H. CAPENSIS Gmelin. PI. 16, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Shell ovate, thin, depressed-conical ; dull white, variously painted 
with brown radiating bands and spots ; radiately striated, the stride 
close, equal, granulose ; vertex acute, erect, situated at about i the 
length ; margin denticulated. 

Interior yelloivish-silvery, with a pearly luster, having rays and 
spots of brown ; central spatula, brown or orange, rarely whitish, 
but always marked with white under the vertex and a brown spot in 
front. (Krauss.*) 

Length 39, breadth 29 mill. 

Natal. 

P. capensis GMEL, Syst., p. 3720. KRAUSS, Die Siidafric. Moll, 
p. 53, t. 3, f. 13. 

There is a white area in the depth of the interior, having an 
orange or brown bar across it, as in pi. 16, figs. 16, 17 ; or the white 
is reduced to a bar in the same place. 

Compare P. rota Gmel. 

H. NOVEMRADIATUS Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 30, figs. 55, 56, 57, 58. 

Shell low-conic, rounded-oval, rather thin but solid, the apex 
slightly in front of the center. Surface lusterless, closely, finely 
striated radially, the stride somewhat granulose, often subobsolete ; 
growth-lines! obvious or obsolete. Whitish, broadly rayed with 
olive-brown or dull rust-red. 

Interior layer translucent, iridescent, conspicuously showing the 
rays of the outside, which become vivid brown at the edge ; central 



HELCIOXISCl >. 147 

area having an ill-defined callus, which is more or less deeply stained 
with bright gamboge yellow. Length 40, breadth 34, alt. 10 mill. 

Mauritius. 

P. novemradiata Q. G., Voy. de 1'Astrol. p. 346, t. 70, f. 22, 23. 
P. aster REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 80, 1855. 

A splendid species. The rays are broad and about nine in num- 
ber, but more frequently they are twice as numerous by the splitting 
of each broad one into two. Quoy & Gaimard described a very 
young shell. Reeve figured under the name P. aster, a small speci- 
men from an unknown locality. The series before me is from 
Mauritius (Robillard Coll.). 

It is a much larger, more spreading and vividly colored shell than 
the allied P. profunda. There is little besides coloring to sunder 
this species from P. rota Gm. Compare also P. capensis and P. 
/ bills, the former of which may be the same. It should be noted 
that Gmelin refers to Kaeminerer, t. 2, f. 1, 2, as an illustration of 
his capensis. These figures represent the typical novemradiata. 

H. VARIABILIS Krauss. Pi. 16, figs. 18, 19, 20. 

Shell ovate, thin, depressed-convex ; whitish or ashen-yellow, 
painted with radiating bands and spots of ashen or brown ; radiately 
striated, stride or riblets unequal, transversely very minutely striated ; 
vertex acute, looking forward, situated at the front third ; margin 
denticulated. 

Interior yellowish, rarely whitish, having radiating bands and 
spots of brown, shining. Central area not distinct, yellowish or 
whitish. (Krauss.} 

Length 32, breadth 24, alt. 7-9 mill. 

XataL 

P. mriabilis KRAUSS, Die Sudafric. Moll., p. 35, t. 3, f. 12 (not 
P. variabilis Sowb., a species of Acmvea.) 

This is a flatter shell than the preceding, rather thin, translucent, 
rarely eroded at the apex. The apex is more forwardly directed than 
in P. capensis. From it many (70-80) alternately larger striae 
radiate, which are cut by very fine concentric stride, scarcely visible 
with the naked eye. The color outside is usually dirty white or 
yellowish with many grayish-brown or brown radiating striaB or 
flecks, which are visible with more intense color through the gray- 
ish-yellow or whitish-yellow shining (but never silvery and pearly) 




148 HELCIONISCUS. 

layer of the interior. The centrum is not sharply defined, generally 
scarcely darker than the circumference. (Krauss.} 

Compare P. rota Gmel. 

The following variations are described by Krauss : 

VsLY.fasciata (fig. 18). Shell whitish, spotted with brown, painted 
with six broad blackish-brown bands. The typical form is irreg- 
ularly and interruptedly striated and flecked, but this has broad 
bands. 

Var. radiata (fig. 19). The usually somewhat stronger riblets are 
white, and the smaller riblets and grooves are brown or blackish- 
brown. Under a lens young examples are seen to be sprinkled with 
little light-blue flecks. The centrum is yellowish. 

Var. concolor. Shell unicolored, blackish-ashen or tawny. Always 
smaller, totally unicolored. Centrum whitish. 

H. DUNKERI Krauss. PI. 16, figs. 11, 12, 13, 14. 

Shell small, ovate, convex, very thin ; subpellucid ; whitish or 
dull yellowish, having 11 radiating black bands and reddish striae, 
sometimes painted with rose and spots of bluish-green ; radiately 
striated, the striae fine, subequal ; vertex acute, inclined forward, 
situated at the front fourth ; margin very finely denticulated, not 
gaping. Interior shining, colored like the outside, the center 
yellowish or ashen-whitish. (-fiTr.) 

Length 17, breadth 11, alt. 4f mill. 

Natal. 

P. dunkeri KR., Die Siidafric. Moll. p. 55, t. 3, f. 14. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 124. PHIL., Abbild. t. 2, f. 9. 

The thinnest of the South African species. It is somewhat inter- 
mediate between P. variabilis and P. pruinosa, according to Krauss. 
Compare also P. compressa young, and P. araneosa Rve. 

H. EUCOSMIA Pilsbry. PI. 71, figs. 61, 62, 63, 64. 

Shell oval, conical, the distance in front of the apex contained 
from 2| to 3 times in the length of the shell. Posterior slope some- 
what convex. Sculptured with fine closely granulous radiating 
riblets, of which every fourth one is usually somewhat larger. Out- 
side gray-white, spotted all over and indistinctly rayed with rusty- 
brown. 

Interior yellowish, conspicuously blotched, spotted and rayed with 
purple-brown or black-brown; the rays being usually 11 or 12 
in number, either wide or narrow, and spotted with light. The cen- 



HELCIONISCUS. 149 

tral callus is dark orange-brown, sometimes encircled by a whitish 
ring. 

Length 40, breadth 32, alt. 15 mill. 

Suez (Fischer) ; Red Sea and GulfofAkaba (Smithsonian Cabi- 
net) : Japan at HaJcodadi (Stimpson and Anthony in Phil. Acad. 
Colin.) ; Australia. (Rve.) 

P. variegata REEVE, Conch. Icon, species 38 (Dec. 1854), not P. 
variegata REEVE, Conch. Syst. pi. 136, fig. 1 (1842). P. variegata 
FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl. 1870, p. 167. Helcioniscus variegatus 
DALL, Amer. Journ. Conch, vi. p. 277, t. 16, f. 27 (animal and den- 
tition). Not Patella variegata DE BLAINVILLE, Diet, des Sci. Nat. 
xxxviii, p. 100 (1825). 

Readily distinguished from P. rota by its blotched and speckled 
color-pattern. 

Part of the localities given above are no doubt incorrect. I have 
examined a very large series, and find but little variation from the 
typical form. I have seen no specimens approaching P. rota. 

Reeve in 1842 described and figured a specimen of typical P. rota 
Gm. under the name variegata. In 1854 he shifted that name to 
the present species, giving no reason for such change, nor even 
admitting that he had made a change. Under these circumstances 
it becomes necessary to give a new name to the present species, and 
thus avoid the confusion otherwise inevitable. It should also be 
noted that there is a prior P. variegata of Blainville, 1825. 

H. CERNICA (Barclay) Adams. PI. 71, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell thin, ovate, depressed-conic; decussated with numerous 
obtuse radiating ribs and close, elevated, undulating concentric 
lirse; whitish, ornamented with reddish-brown rays. Apex sub- 
central, obtuse ; aperture ovate. 

Interior sculptured and colored like the outside, shining, somewhat 
pearly ; margin more or less widely crenulated. 

Length 39, breadth 29, alt. 10 mill. (Ad.) 

Barkly Island, Mauritius. 

Nacella (Celland) cernica Barcl. ms., H. ADAMS, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 
273, t. 19, f. 7, 7a. 

This species is the type of H. Adams' subgenus CELLANA. It 
probably belongs to Helcioniscus rather than to Nacella or Patinella. 



150 HELCIONISCUS. 

The name Cellana has priority over Eelcioniscus but it has not 
been adequately defined. 

H. PROFUNDUS Deshayes. PL 65, figs. 94, 95, 96. 

Shell small, elevated-conical, solid, apex a little anterior, the slopes 
straight ; surface finely closely and evenly radiately striated, white 
with purplish or brownish rays ; the rays usually 10 in number, 
articulated with darker spots which are often angular. 

Inside white, showing the rays faintly ; the central area light 
chestnut or outlined with light chestnut, edge of the shell smooth, 
articulated with white and chestnut. 

Length 16, breadth 12, alt. 7 mill. 

Length 20, breadth 15*, alt. 8 mill. 

Island of Reunion. 

P.profunda DH., Moll. Reunion, p. 44, t. 6, f. 15, 16, 1863. 

A small conical species, nearly smooth, the radiating strise being 
quite fine. The rays are more obvious on worn examples. The 
central area is not calloused. It has very much the appearance of 
an Acmcea. 

Var. MAURITIANA Pilsbry. PI. 65, figs. 97, 98, 99. 

Shell thicker, heavier, more elevated; dull white with reddish 
rays, which are not visible within, and only faintly visible at the 
edge, which is minutely crenulated; basal side-margins slightly 
curving upward ; radiating strise of the surface coarse, unequal. 
Central area of the interior having an orange-tawny callus. 

Length 21, breadth 17, alt. 11 mill. 

Mauritius. 

H. GARCONI Deshayes. PI. 66, figs. 100, 101. 

Shell ovate, little narrowed in front, conical ; vertex acute, sub- 
central ; ornamented with small granulous radiating stria? ; blackish- 
brown, vividly pearly inside, toward the apex whitish. (Z)/i.) 

Regularly oval, conoidal, the summit elevated, pointed, very 
slightly directed forward, situated at the front two-fifths of the 
length. From the apex radiate a great number of very fine, regu- 
lar, rather equal riblets, which bear long, obtuse granules. The 
margins are simple and sharp. The interior is lined with very 
bright nacre of a whitish-brown, the central callus quite large, 
white, sharply defined by the muscle-scar. The shell is thin, semi- 



HELCIONISCUS. 151 

transparent, of a uniform brown-blackish, but if held up toward the 
light, a few rays of a beautiful red become visible. (#/*) 
Length 23, breadth 19, alt. 9 mill. 

Island of Reunion. 

P. gareoni DH., Moll, de Pile Reunion, p.. 42, t. vi (xxxiii),f. 11, 
12. 

I have not seen this species, which apparently resembles P. oliva- 
cea and P. ardosicea ; but those species are truly unicolored, whilst 
this shows rays when held toward the light. It is probably allied 
to P. profunda Dh. 

H. DEPSTA Reeve. PI. 20, figs. 45, 4H. 

Shell ovate, thin, rather depressed, raised in the middle, rather 
compressed at the sides ; apex sharp, anteriorly minutely hooked ; 
radiately striated, stride raised toward the margin ; reddish-chestnut, 
sometimes faintly rayed with greenish-yellow. Interior livid horny. 

A nearly smooth reddish-chestnut shell, with a sharp minutely 
hooked apex. (Rve.) 

Macao and Island of St. Pan?. 

P. depsta REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 85, 1855. 
H. SANGUINANS Reeve. PI. 30, figs. 53, 54. 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather convex, apex rather anterior ; decussated 
with concentric striae and small superficial ridges ; whitish, here and 
there peculiarly rough, marked with promiscuously flowing blood-red 
streaks, rough surface red-dotted. Interior semipellucid white, con- 
spicuously red rayed. 

A fine new species of an oblong-oval form, rather flattish, with the 
apex situated somewhat anteriorly. It is of a reddish-white ground, 
painted with promiscuous streaks of red, like blood flowing, and the 
ground is singularly overlaid here and there with an opaque, rough 
coating dotted with red. (Rve.) 

Cape Natal, S. A- 

P. sanguinans RVE., Conch. Icon., f. lOa, lOb. Oct., 1854. 
I have not seen this species. It is not mentioned by Krauss or 
other writers on the Cape fauna. 

(6.) SPECIES OF UNKNOWN HABITAT. 
H. MELANOSTOMUS Pilsbrv. PI. 32, figs. 67, 68, 69. 

Shell solid, erectly elevated-conical, the base ovate ; slopes nearly 
straight; apex subcentral, erect. Surface sculptured with numer- 



152 HELCIONISCUS. 

ous (43-45) strong rounded ribs, closely but usually rather super- 
ficially cut by concentric striae. Color clear buff, unicolored or hav- 
ing the ribs black or black-spotted. 

Interior white and silvery, the central callus of a more or less in- 
tense purple- black. 

Length 61, breadth 51, alt. 34 mill. 

Length 50, breadth 41, alt. 30 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Distinguished at once by the unusual coloring of the interior, 
and the sculpture of the outside. All of the specimens before me 
have the upper portion of the cone eroded. In one the central 
black callus is very thick. The ribs are alternately larger and 
smaller. They are scarcely strongly enough represented in the fig- 
ure. 

Specimens having black ribs possess also two short dark streaks 
radiating from the forward angles of the " head-mark " as in P. 
boninensis, with which species this is probably most nearly allied. 

H. ENNEAGONA Reeve. PI. 28, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell ovate, a little attenuated in front, depressed, rather thick, 
obtuse at the apex, subattenuated and inclined, densely crenulately 
ridged, peculiarly nine-sided, the three front areas narrow. Yellow- 
ish, the nine areas diagonally reticulately streaked with deep purple. 
Interior silvery, iridescent. (Reeve.} 

Habitat unknown. 

P. enneagona REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 44. (Dec., 1854.) 

H. LIVESCENS Reeve. PI. 73, figs. 99, 100. 

Shell ovate, rather thin, depressly convex, rather sharply pointed 
at the apex, radiately densely granulately striated, striae slightly 
waved ; apex rather anterior. Pellucid blue-green, rayed with 
blackish-purple, rays sometimes broken up into opaque blotches. 
Interior iridescent-silvery, more or less transparent. (Eve.) 

Mazatlan (Reeve.) 

P. livescens RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 75, 1855. 

A very delicate subpellucid greenish-blue shell, painted with dark 
purple rays which show through into the interior. The sculpture 
consists of numerous slightly waved granuled lines. (Eve.) 

The locality given by Reeve is more than doubtful. It seems 
near P. rota Gmel. 



HELCIONISCUS. 153 

H. DIRUS Reeve. PI. 73, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell ovate, erectly conoid, densely radiately ridged and ribbed, 
ribs and ridges very closely broken up into small warts. Dark blue- 
black, sub-iridescent in the interior. 

Although a similarity prevails between the figures of this and the 
preceding species [P. guttata Orb.], they are very different. P. dim 
being of a deep, erectly conical form, rayed throughout with close- 
set ribs and ridges, crenated with small tumid warts. (Eve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P. dira REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 92, 1855. 

H. FUNGUS Reeve. PL 44, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell ovate, depressly conoid, apex raised, subcentral ; radiately 
densely ribbed and ridged, ribs and ridges narrow, small, everywhere 
finely noduled. Dull ash, dotted around the apex and near the mar- 
gin with reddish-brown, with nodules whitish. Interior semitrans- 
parent, iridescent. 

A dull ash, depressly conoid shell, densely rayed with finely 
noduled ribs and ridges, sparingly marked with reddish-brown dots, 
which are seen most distinctly in the interior of the shell. (live.) 

West Indies (Rve.) 

" Tectura fungus MEUSCHEN " teste Reeve. Patella fungus RVE., 
Conch. Icon., f. 105, 1855. 

This seems to be a Heleioniseus of the H. exaratus type. The 
locality given by Reeve is in all probability incorrect. 

H. (?) ADEL^E Potiez & Michaud. PI. 67, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell ovate, depressed, blackish, painted with nearly regularly 
placed oblong white spots ; radiately most finely costulated, the rib- 
lets very numerous, unequal, subgranulous. Vertex anterior, acute 
and tawny ; margin acute, entire. Inside blackish in the depth of 
the cavity, the margin maculated, intermediate space whitish. 
Length 15, breadth 10, alt. 4 mill. (P. & 31.) 

Habitat unknown. 

P. adelce P. & M ., Galerie des Moll., Mus. de Douai, i, p. 523, t. 37' 
f. 1, 2, 1838. 

H. LINEATUS Lamarck. PI. 73, figs. 85, 86, 87. 

Shell oval, convex, buff-brown, painted with 10-12 yellow lines ; 
excessively numerous longitudinal close stride ; vertex acute, buff. 
Length exceeding one inch. (Lam.) 

Habitat unknown . 



154 UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 

P. lineata LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 331. DELESSERT, Rec. de 
Coq. t. 28, f. 6. 

I do not recognize Delessert's figures of the type of this species. 
Deshayes (in Lam. 2d. edit.) gives no additional information, as 
he did not have access to Lamarck's cabinet. 

H. NIMBUS Reeve. PI. 35, figs. 30, 31. 

I have described this under Acmcea, page 61, but it may be a 
Helcioniscus. I have not seen the species. 

Spurious, Unidentified and Unfigured Limpets. 

The following list consists mainly of such species as I have been 
unable to identify with known forms, and which seem to me fairly 
unidentifiable. A certain proportion of the number I have identified 
with certainty ; and others with doubt, as will be seen by my notes 
below. 

It will be understood that I have no desire to revivify names or 
species which have passed from the memory of man. It is at least a 
half century too late for that. It is not too late, however, to avoid 
the use of these dead names for new forms. The frequent duplica- 
tion of specific names in Patella has shown the necessity of a com- 
plete list such as that here given. I have deemed it neither nec- 
essary nor desirable to change well-known modern names which are 
preoccupied by the old and insufficiently defined names given below, 
although there exist a considerable number of such duplications. 

The species of Clyptrceidce, Fissurellidce, Siphonariidce and Gadi- 
niidce, etc., included by older writers in Patella, have been excluded, 
as far as the original descriptions have enabled me to judge of them. 

? NACELLA SUBSPIRALIS Cpr. (Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 213), 
belongs to the Siphonariidce. 

TECTURA RADIATA Pse. (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1860, p. 437), is a 
synonym of Williamia gussoni Costa Siphonariidce. 

P. YIRIDIS Dufo (Ann. Sci. Nat. (2) xiv, p. 204, 1840). Seychelles 
and Amirantes. Unidentified. 

P. AURIFERA Dufo (Ann. Sci. Nat. (2) xiv, p. 204). Nahe, Sey- 
chelles. Unidentified. 

P. VIRGINUM Dufo (Ann. Sci. Nat. (2) xiv, p. 205). Mahe, Sey- 
chelles. Unidentified. 



UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 155 

P. MALICOLOR Dufo (Ann. Sci. Nat. (2) xiv, p. 205). Make Sey- 
chelles. Unidentified. 

P. DIEMENSIS Philippi. 

Shell ovate-elliptical, convex conic, rather solid, whitish, having 
about 54 brown grooves; interior white, margin crenulated, the 
inside marked with brown dots at the crenations; apex at two- 
fifths of the length. Length 16J, breadth 14, alt. 8 lines. (Phil.} 

Hobarttown, Tasmania. 

P. diemensis PH., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 162. 
Compare Helcioniscus limbata and tramoserica. 

P. CRASSA Lesson ( Voy. de la Coquille, Zool. ii, p. 413, 1830). A 
very thick, massive species, measuring, length 3t, breadth 3, alt. 
If inches. 

Said to be from New South Wales. 

P. COSTATA Lesson, (Voy. de la Coquille, Zool. ii, p. 415, 1830). 
The summit is said to be recurved posteriorly ; sculptured with 
radiating stride fine above, wide at the edge, surmounted by lamellae. 
Outside green, surrounded with blackish toward the apex, having 
the elevations on the ribs bright chestnut. Inside golden red in the 
middle, silvery outside, rayed with blackish-purple at the positions 
of the ribs. Length 12, breadth 9, alt. 3 lines. 

Island of Burn, Moluccas. 

P. BOUROUXIENSIS Lesson, (Voy. de la Coq. Zool. ii, p. 415, 1830). 
Much depressed, oval, white, with black ribs outside, etc. Summit 
much posterior. Length 14, breadth 12, alt. 3? lines. 

Bay of Cajeli, Burn. 

P. CROCATA Lesson (Voy. de la Coq. Zool. ii, p. 415, 1830). 
Irregularly oboval, little elevated, not thick, summit conical, nearly 
central, margins thin and angulose. Covered with close little ridges 
separated into little groups by shallow, spaced grooves. Color whit- 
ish with purple-violet rays. Inside white, tinted with yellow and 
silvery. Center saffron-yellow ; border spotted with purple. 

Length 11, breadth 10, alt. 4 lines. 

Port Praslin, New Ireland. 

P. CONCEPSIONIS Lesson (Voy. de la Coq. Zool. ii, p. 418, 1830). 
Evidently an Acmcea or a Scurria, perhaps A. variabilis (Sow.) Rve. 
Province of Concepcion, Chili. 



156 UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 

P. JACKSONIENSIS Lesson (Voy de la Coq. Zool. ii, p. 418, 1830). 
A species said to resemble P. vulgata. From Port Jackson, N. S. 
Wales. 

P. GRANULOSA Lesson (Voy. de la Coq. Zool. ii, p. 422, 1830). 
Island of Bum. (Bourou.) 

P. GIGANTEA Lesson (Voy. de la Coq. Zool. ii, p. 423, 1830). 
A very large shell, length 7, breadth 5 inches. It is massive, very 
thick, oval, convex, submedian. Muscle-impression deeply marked. 
Interior smooth, whitish, the cavity reddish. Outside covered with 
Serpula tubes. Coral reefs off Borabora, Society Is. 

P. OBLONGA Perry (Conchology, t. 43, f. 4). Unknown and un- 
knowable. 

P. LAMPEDUSENSIS De Greg. An unfigured, imperfectly described 
form, from the Sea of Lampedusa. (Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., x, p. 121.) 

P. GRANULATA Philippi. 

Shell ovate-elliptical, depressed, brown, tessellated with little-con- 
spicuous brown spots ; roughened by elevated very close, minutely 
granose radiating lines. Apex at the front fifth of the length. In- 
terior bluish, margin brown, articulated with whitish. Length 10, 
breadth 71, alt. 2 lines. (PA.) 

China. 

P. granulata PH., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 162. 

Compare Acmcea schrenckii and concinna. 

P. ALBA Hombron & Jacquinot. 

Shell ovate-elliptical, depressed, white ; having sharp carinated 
crests, toothing the margin ; apex excentral, obtuse. Interior white, 
shining, the depth and the margin submaculated with black. 
Length 37, breadth 30 mill. (H. & J. in Ann. des Sci. Nat. (2), 
xvi, 1841, p. 190.) 

Tahiti. 

P. TESSELLATA Hombron & Jacquinot. 

Shell elevated-elliptical, convex-conic ; yellow outside and inside, 
ornamented with undulating, transverse black-reddish lines and 
bands ; having close radiating striae, the chief of which number 
^-bout 32. Vertex acute, gray ; cavity of the same color. Length 



UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 157 

28, breadth 22 mill. (H. & J. Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), xvi, p. 190, 

1841.) 

Island of Mangareve. 

P. OBSCURA Hombron & Jacquinot. 

Shell elevated-elliptical, convex, obliquely conical, blackish-brown, 
lightly tessellated with whitish. 

Inside bluish- white, the cavity reddish-black. Vertex excentral, 
subobtuse. Margin entire, encircled by a black zone within. Length 
26, breadth 20 mill. (H. & J. in Ann. des Sci. Nat. (2) xvi, p. 191, 
1841.) 

Talcahuano, Chili. 

Evidently an Acmcea or a Scurria. 
P. LUCTUOSA Hombron & Jacquinot. 

Shell very angular, star-shaped, elliptical, rough, brown-black; 
with separated radiating ribs, of which 5 are principal and 9 or 10 
adjunct, all extending beyond the margin. Vertex obtuse, excen- 
tral. Inside shining, white-bluish; margin angular, black-zoned. 
Length 33, width 28 mill. (H. & J. in Ann. Sci. Nat. (2) xvi, p. 

191, 1841). 

Mindanao. 

May be the same as Acmcea saccharina. 
P. CRUENTATA Hombron & Jacquinot. 

Shell oval, convex-depressed, white, painted with white and brown 
radiating bands, ribs close, numerous, radiating; vertex brown- 
blackish, acute, central : margin unequally undulating, subdenticu- 
late ; inside pearly, deeply blood-stained. Length 24, breadth 19 
mill. (H. & J., Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), xvi, p. 191, 1841.) 

New Guinea. 

PATELLOIDES ANTARCTICA Hombron & Jacquinot. 

Shell convex-oval, smooth, brownish-olive, painted around the 
margin with greenish-white bands. Vertex incumbent; inside 
white in front, sooty behind, the cavity rufo-castaneous ; edge entire, 
encircled by a black zone spotted with white. Length 31, breadth 
23 mill. (H. & J. in Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), xvi, p. 192, 1841.) 

Auckland Is. 

P. CALLOSA Hombron & Jacquinot. 

Shell oval, depressed ; radiately painted with black and white 
bands ; inside white, the depth thickened, callous, white. Apex ele- 



158 UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 

vated, very acute ; margin entire, colored with alternate black and 
white lines. Length 18, breadth 14 mill. (H. & J. in Ann. Sci. 
Nat. (2), xvi, p. 192, 1841.) 

Vavao. 

P. OKICHALCEA Philippi. 

Shell ovate-elliptical, depressed-conoid, rather thin, pellucid, pale 
corneous; having about 20 narrow, reddish-brown low radiating 
ribs, and sometimes reddish-brown decurrent streaks in the inter- 
stices. Interior beautiful silvery-golden, the center pale brown ; 
apex at } to i of the length. Margin subdentate by the ribs. 
Length 18, breadth 14, alt. 5 lines. (Ph.) 

New Zealand. 

P. orichalcea PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 163. 
Compare P. radians and its varieties. 

P. RETICULATA Anton. Oval, widened in front ; apex posterior ; 
strong-shelled ; finely longitudinally striated. Ground-color yel- 
lowish-white, with brown reticulated markings, which in front flow 
into a broad ray. Length 7, breadth 7i lines. (Anton, Verzeich- 
niss, p. 25, 1839.) 

P. SOLIDA Anton. Oval, strongly arched ; apex nearly in the 
middle. Strong-shelled, ribbed, irregularly rayed and flecked with 
white and brown. Muscle-impression very large. Length 6, 
breadth 41 lines. (Anton, Verzeich. p. 25.) 

-P. OLIVACEA Anton. Refers to Gualtieri pi. 8, fig. R. No de- 
scription. The cited figure is unidentifiable. (Verzeich. p. 26.) 

P. LINEOLATA Anton. Oval, high. Apex at the first third of 
the length ; white, with many small lines and strokes. Cavity of 
the inside brown, otherwise white within, Length . 6, breadth 4 
lines. (Ant, Verzeich. p. 26.) 

P. ALBA Anton. No description. Refers to Gualt. t. 8, fig. L, 
==P. coerulea ! (Verzeich. p. 26.) 

P. SERPUL^EFORMIS Anton. Oval, pretty high, with 10 ribs, 
some projecting over the margin ; brown ; inside yellowish-white. 
Muscle-impression with brown vermiform lines. Length 10, 
breadth 8 lines. (Verzeich. p. 26.) 



UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 159 

P. PURPUKAS< i:xs Anton. Oval, with 19 equal ribs, which 
slightly project at the margin. Apex moderately high, blackish-red. 
Apex and ribs yellow, showing on the inside. Length 11, breadth 
9 lines. (Verzeich. p. 26.) 

P. CONICA Anton. Equals P. vulgata Lam., etc., the varieties 
with equal broad and somewhat separated ribs and conic form. 
Blaiuv. 49, 1 ; Mart. 1, 38. (Anton, Yerzeich. p. 26.) 

P. ALBESCENS Anton. Oval, nearly round, conical; apex wart- 
like, inclined forward. Very finely longitudinally, and still more 
finely transversely striated. Yellowish-white; inside pure white, 
with a brown margin around the muscle-impression, below the mar- 
gin horn- colored. Length 1, breadth 11 lines. Antilles. (Anton, 
Yerzeich. p. 26.) 

P. DICHOTOMA Anton. Oval, conical, white with brown longitu- 
dinal lines, which below mostly divide gable-wise [y\ -shaped]. In- 
terior whitish. Length 6, breadth 5* lines. Has the muscle-im- 
pression of Patella and the outward aspect of Siphonaria. (Anton, 
Yerzeich. p. 26.) 

This may possibly be Acm<ra citbensis Rve. (H. A. P.) 

P. (? TOREUMA, VAR.) TENUiLiRATA Carpenter. 

Shell much depressed, oblong, diaphanous ; corneous, irregularly 
flamed with brownish-purple ; about 22 very delicate lira, the inter- 
stices obsoletely striated ; apex subpromineut, situated about at the 
front fifth. Interior very iridescent, Length 1'38, breadth 1, alt. 
28 inch. (Cpr.~) 

Monterey (Hartweg) in Cuming Coll. 

This shell appears to agree with P. toreuma Reeve in all essential 
respects ; but instead of the fine regular striae of that species, there 
are a few T delicate principal ribs, with obsolete strke between. As its 
neighbor P. oregona sometimes developes large ribs, and is at other 
times nearly smooth, this has not been considered a sufficient differ- 
ence to constitute a species until more is known of its variable 
powers. (Cpr. in P. Z. S. 1855, p. 233.) 

P. RUSTICA Linn. BORN has attempted the identification of this 
perplexing limpet, his selection being perhaps the P. lusitanica % 
His description is on p. 426 of the Mns. Qes., pi. 18, fig. 11. See 
under P. lusitanica and P. neglecta, this 'volume. 



160 UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 

P. LACINOSA Linne., Syst. x, p. 781. Unidentified ; / possibly=P^ 
stellceformis. 

P. TUBERCULATA Linne., Syst. x, p. 782. Unidentifiable. 

All Linnsean Patellae other than these two and those referred to in 
the foregoing text of this volume, belong to other groups, such as 
Fissurellidcd, Calyptrceldce, Capulidce, Siphonariidce, Ancylidce, (q. v.) 

P. ISLANDICA Gmel., Syst. Nat. xiii, p. 3698, ?=P. vulgata. 
P. RUBRA Gmel., p. 3700. Unidentified. 
P. HEPATICA Gmel., p. 3700. Unidentified. 
P. FUSCESCENS Gmel., p. 3701. Unidentified. 
P. MACULOSA Gmel., p. 3701. Unidentified. 
P. ROTUNDATA Gmel., p. 3701. Unidentified. 
P. CORRUGATA Gmel., p. 3702. Unidentified. 
P. ALBORADIATA Gmel., p. 3702. Unidentified. 
P. OLIVACEA Gmel., p. 3702. Unidentified. 
P. CEREA Gmel., p. 3702. Unidentified. 
P. IMPRESSA Gmel., p. 3702. Unidentified. 
P. AURANTIA Gmel., p. 3703. Unidentified. 
P. MELANOZONIAS Gmel., p. 3703. Unidentified. 
P. OCULATA Gmel., p. 3703. Unidentified. 
P. OCHROLEUCA Gmel., p. 3703. Unidentified. 
P. DENTICULATA Gmel., p. 3703. Unidentified. 
P. NODULOSA Gmel., p. 3703. Unidentified. 
P. CINEREA Gmel., p. 3704. Unidentified. 
P. EXALBIDA Gmel., p. 3704. Unidentified. 
P. L^VIS Gmel., p. 3704. Unidentified. 
P. ARGENTEA Gmel., p. 3704. Unidentified. 

P. CUPREA Gmel., p. 3704. I do not know this apparently well- 
marked species. It may be a form of P. magellanica. 
P. SANGUINEA Gmel., p. 3705. Unidentified. 
P. IN^QUALIS Gmel., p. 3705. Unidentified. 
P. FLAVEOLA Gmel., p. 3705. Unidentified. 
P. INFUNDIBULUM Gmel., p. 3705. Unidentified. 
P. CYATHUS Gmel., p. 3705. Unidentified. 




UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 161 

P. ULYSSIPONENSIS Gmel., p. 3706. This is a form of P. ccerulea. 

P. MELANOGRAMMA Gmel., p. 3706. Unidentified. 

P. REPANDA Gmel., p. 3707. Probably=P. aspera of the Mediter- 

rean. 

P. ANGULOSA Gmel., p. 3707. Unidentified. 
P. TIGRINA Gmel., p. 3707. Unidentified. 
P. MONOPIS Gmel., p. 3707. ?=P. ociilus Born. 
P. CHLOROSTICTA Gmel., p. 3707. ?=P. ccerulea var. crenata* 
P. MARGARITACEA Gmel., p. 3707. ?=P. ctrrulea. 
P. TENUIS Gmel., p. 3708. ?=P. arrulea. 
P. PLICARIA Gmel., p. 3708. ' i) .=P. barbara Linn., p. 96. 
P. STANNEA Gmel., p. 3709. ? P. <?nea Martyn. 
P. FASCIATA Gmel., p. 3713. Unidentified. 
P. ELEGANS Gmel., p. 3713. Unidentified. 
P. SQUAMOSA Gmel., p. 3713. Unidentified. 
P. SQUALIDA Gmel., p. 3714. Unidentified. 
P. CROCEA Gmel., p. 3714. Unidentified. 
P. CANDIDA Gmel., p. 3714. Unidentified. 
P. MINIMA Gmel., p. 3714. s> .=Acmti > a virginea Mull. 
P. TRANQUEBARICA Gmel., p. 3714. An unidentifiable Oriental 

Acmcea. 

P. SURINAMENSIS Gmel., p. 3716. Unidentified. 
P. VITELLINA Gmel., p. 3716. Unidentified. 
P. L.EVIGATA Gmel., p. 3717. Unidentified. 
P. CITRINA Gmel., p. 3720. Unidentified. 
P. GUTTATA Gmel., p. 3721. Unidentified. 
P. SCUTIFORMIS Gmel., p. 3721. Unidentified. 
P. CRATICULATA Gmel., p. 3722. Unidentified. 
P. CRUENTATA Gmel., p. 3722. Unidentified. 
P. PAPYRACEA Gmel., p. 3722. Unidentified. 
P. CYLINDRICA Gmel., p. 3722. Unidentified. 
P. DECUSSATA Gmel., p. 3723. Unidentified. 
P. H.EMOSTICTA Gmel., p. 3723. Unidentified. 
P. A-TEROIDES Gmel., p. 3723. Unidentified. 

P. RUBELLA Gmel., p. 3723. Unidentified. 
11 



162 UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 

P. SPECTABILIS Gmel., p. 3723. Unidentified. 

P. CONSPURCATA Gmel., p. 3724. Unidentified. 

P. ATRA Gmel., p. 3724. Unidentified. 

P. SPECULARIS Gmel., p. 3724. Unidentified. 

P. CANESCENS Gmel., p. 3724. Unidentified. 

P. YIRESCENS Gmel., p. 3724. Unidentified. 

P. PULLA Gmel., p. 3725. Unidentified. 

P. REVOLUTA Gmel., p. 3725. Unidentified. 

P. SQUAMATA Gmel., p. 3725. Unidentified. 

P. TESTACEA Gmel., p. 3725. Unidentified. 

P. CAPILLARIS Gmel., p. 3725. Unidentified. 

P. GLAUCA Gmel., p. 3725. Unidentified. 

P. OBSCURA Gmel., p. 3726. Unidentified. 

P. EXOLETA Gmel., p. 3726. Unidentified. 

P. AFFINIS Gmel., p. 3726. Unidentified. 

P. FUSCATA Gmel., p. 3726. Unidentified. 

P. MELLEA Gmel., p. 3726. Unidentified. 

P. GUINEENSIS Gmel., p. 3726. Unidentified. 

P. COMPLANATA Gmel., p. 3726. Unidentified. 

P. NAVICULA Gmel., p. 3727. ?=P. miniata. 

P. CINGULATA Gmel., p. 3727. Unidentified. 

A portion of these species of Gmelin may belong to Siphonariidce , 

although all species belonging elsewhere than in Patellidce and 

Acmceidce have been purposely omitted in the above list. 

P. LUTEOLA Lam., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 327. Unidentified. 

P. TUBERCULIFERA Lam., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 333. Unidentified. 

P. RADIATA Born, Test. Mus. Cses. Vindob., t. 18, f. 10. (P. virgata 
Gmel., Syst. xiii, p. 3727). Unidentified. 

P. BORNIANA Helbling, Abhandl., p. 106, t. 1, f. l.=Acmwa testu- 
dinalis. 

P. ZONATA Schubert & Wagner, Conchyl. Cab., p. 125, t. 229, f. 
4056, 4057. Unidentified. 

P. VIRGATA Donovan, in Rees' Encycl., Conch., pi. xvi. Unidentified. 

P. AURICULA Donovan, in Rees' Encycl., Conch, pi. xvi. Unidenti- 
fied. 



UNIDENTIFIED LIMPETS. 163 

P. STRIGATA Donovan, in Rees' Encycl., Conch, pi. xvi. Unidenti- 
fied. 

P. ONYCHITE.S Menke, Moll. Xov. Holl. Spec., p. 34. Unidentified. 
Western Australia. 

P. PULCHELLA Blaiuville, Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, 
xxxviii, 182-3, p. 92. This may be Patina pruinosa. 

P. LOBATA Blainv., L. c., p. 93. This is either a strongly costate 
form of Nacella mytilina, such as JV. compressa of Rochebr. & 
Mabille, or a nearly smooth 3". deaurata. 

P. CASTANEA Blainv. L. c., p. 94. Unidentified. 

P. VIRIDESCENS Blainv., L. c., p. 95. Probably a form of Nacella 
tenea. Falkland Is. 

P. TENUISTRIATA Blainv., L. c., p. 96. Unidentified. 

P. NIGRA Blainv., L. c., p. 96. Unidentified. 

P. MACULAT A Blainv., L. c., p. 97. Probably it is P. capensis or P. 
C'iriabilis. From the Cape. 

P. DEPRESSA Blainv., L. c., p. 97. Unidentified. 

P. LUGUBRIS Blaiuv., L. c., p. 99. A Helcioniseus, like H. amussitatus. 
Rv. From the Moluccas. 

P. AURANTIACA Blainv., L. c., p. 99. Unidentified. Habitat un- 
known. 

P. VARIEGATA Blainv., L. c., p. 100. Unidentified. From Botany 
Bay. 

P. SQUAMA (Gualt., t. 8, f. L.) Blainv., L. c., p. 101. P. ccerulea. 

P. GRISEA Blainv., L. c., p. 102.=P. aspera. From Greece. 

P. ALBORADIATA Blainv., L. c., p. 102. Unidentified. 

P. PARALLELOGRAMMICA Blainv., L. c., p. 103. Unidentified. 

P. HEPTAGON A Blainv., L. c., p. 104:.=Acmcea saccharlna. 

P. CHILENSIS Blainv., L. c., p. 10.=Siphonaria ? 

P. CONICA Blainv., L. c., p. 107. Island of Maria. This is a large 
species, perhaps Helcioniseus argentatus. 

P. CAMPANIFORMIS Blainv., L. c., p. W8.=Siphonaria f 

P. CARDITOIDEA Blainv., L. c., p. HO.=Xacella deaurata? 

P. RARICOSTA Blainv., L. c., p. 110. Unidentified. 

P. SOLID A Blainv., L. c., p. 110. Unidentified. Australia. 

P. RUBROAURANTIAC A Blainv., L. c., p. 111. Unidentified. 



164 TITISCANIA. 

P. LATICOSTATA Blainv., L. c., p. 111. Probably this is P. neglecta 

Gray. 
P. NIGROALBA Blainv., L. c., p. 111. Unidentified. Cape Good 

Hope. 
P. PERONII Blainv., L. c., p. 111. Unidentified. Port of King 

George, Australia. 

P. MADAGASCARENSIS Blainv., L. c., p. 112. Unidentified. 
P. VIOLACEA Blainv., L. c., p. 112. Perhaps P. vulgata. 
P. ATROMARGINATA Blainv., L. c., p. 11 3. P. granularis. 
P. SUBGRANULARIS Blainv., L. c., p. 113. P. lusitanica. 
P. ZEBRA Blainv., L. c., p. 115. Unidentified. 
P. UNGULIFORMIS Blainv., L. c., p. 115. Unidentified. 

Family TITISCANIID^. 

Animal limaciform, naked, without a shell ; radula rhipidoglosate, 
neritoid, but lacking median teeth like the Neritopsidce. 

This shell-less, limaciform type belongs, as its internal anatomy 
and the armature of the radula show, to the group of the Neritacea; 
and the lack of median teeth places it evidently in the Neritopsoid 
division of that group. 

Genus TITISCANIA Bergh, 1890. 

Titiscania BERGH, Morphol. Jahrbuch, xvi, (1), p. 3. Type, T. 
limacina. 

T. LIMACINA Bergh. Plate 41 ; pi. 39, figs. 28, 29. 

Form quite Umax-like, long-oval, convex above, flat beneath, 
rounded in front and behind. The color above is clear yellowish, 
whiter in the middle, where the violet-gray entrails show through, 
and with a few whitish transverse bands. The back is quite even, 
only with a few white salient points; anteriorly above is the trans- 
verse branchial slit, the end of the gill projecting out of the slit in 
several individuals. The gill has 35 to 40 laminae. In front of the 
gill-slit is the flat and rather wide head with rather long, pointed 
tentacles, having the black, nearly sessile eyes at their outer bases. 
In the male there is behind the right eye a little whitish hump or 
pit (opening) for the end of the seminal duct. The entire length 

is 10? mill. 

Camiguin, Philippines ; Mauritius. 



TITISCAXIA. 165 

Titiscania limacina BERGH in Semper's Reis. Archip. Phil. II, ii, 
Heft ix, t. xli, f. 10 ; Morphol. Jahrb. xvi, p. 3. t. 1, 2. 

The coloration of the specimens from the Philippines is described 
above. The specimens from Mauritius were mostly smaller (length 
9, breadth scarcely 4, alt. 2-2], length of tentacle 1* mill.) the color 
whitish, the entrails not showing through, with the exception of the 
anterior female genital mass which conspicuously shows through. 

Explanation of figures, plate 41. 

Fig. 53. Anterior end of animal from below, showing front gill- 
commissure with retracted gill, then tentacles, oral aper- 
ture and sole of foot. 

Fig. 54. Anal papilla. 

Fig. 55. Alimentary canal. 

Fig. 56. The living animal, enlarged after a drawing by Semper. 

Fig. 57. Tentacle with eye. 

Fig. 58. Radula (xlOO). 

Fig. 59. a, Lateral tooth lying prostrate ; b. Three inner teeth of 
the second row ; c. Two inner supporting plates. 

Fig. 60. Outer plates. 

Fig. 61. Innermost of the outer plates. 

Fig. 63. Outermost plate. 

Fig. 64. Outer end of a row of teeth. 

Fig. 65. A few teeth from the same. 

Plate 39, figs. 28, 29. Nerve ganglia. 



1 66 APPENDIX-ACM.EIIXi:. 

Appendix. 
Family ACM^ID^ Cpr. 

Dr. THIELE, in his continuation of Troschel's Das Gebiss der 
Schnecken, recognizes two subfamilies of Acmceidce, identical with 
those adopted by me on p. 6 of this volume. 

ACM^EA VIRIDULA Lam. (p. 32). Keeve, on a suppressed page of 
the Conchologia Iconica, names this species P. nivalis. 

ACM^EA VARIABILIS Sowb. (page 34.) 

Philippi changed the name of his P. lineata to P. grammia in the 
index to the Abbildungen. This name will also fall into line in the 
procession of synonyms after A. variabilis. 

ACM^EA ANTILLARUM Sowb. (p. 38). 

This name will take precedence over that of candeana, elegant, 
etc., the former of which was used in the text, p. 38. 

Sow r erby's figure of Lottia antillarum, on the plate first cited 
below, is an excellent and characteristic picture of this species in its 
finest development. 

The synonymy will stand as follows : 

Lottia antillarum SOWERBY, Genera of Shells, fig. 4. (Issued 
before 1831.) 

Lottia antillarum SOWERBY, A Concholog. Manual, p. 59, fig. 231, 
1839. (A somewhat different color-form.) 

Lottia antillarum Sowb., REEVE, Conch ol. System., pi. cxxxvii, f. 
4 (printed from same plate as Sowerby's Genera) 1842. 

Acmcea antillarum Sowb., PILSBRY, The Nautilus, Dec., 1891, 
p. 85. 

Patella tenera C. B. ADAMS, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 8 (1845). 

Patella tenera Ad., REEVE, Conch. Icon. fig. 104. 

Patella candeana ORB., Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 199, atlas pi. 25, figs. 
1-3. 

Acmcea candeana Orb., DALL, Catal. Mar. Moll. S. E. U. S., p. 
159. 

Acmwa candeana Orb., PILSBRY, Manual of Conchology, xiii,' p. 
38, pi. 5, figs. 91-95, and pi. 42, figs. 92-95. 

f Patella {Acmcea?} elegans PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib. iii, p. 
34, Patella p. 6, pi. 2, fig 2 (1846). 

? Not P. antillarum Sowb., PHILIPPI, Abbild. iii, Patella, pi. 2, fig. 
12. 



APPEXDIX-ACM/KIIXT-:. 167 

ACM.KA OXYCHIXA Gould. PI. 73, figs. 96, 97, 98. 

The original figures of this species are not very satisfactory, 
although Gould's description is very good. Figures are here given 
drawn from specimens lately collected at Bahia, Brazil. 

The diagnostic characters are, besides the orbicular and rather 
depressed form, the sculpture, which consists of a variable number 
of low, rounded radiating ribs (often nearly obsolete), the'enfrVe 
surface being finely radially striated. The erosion of the surface is 
generally, so far as my specimens show, extensive, the sculpture 
being lost to a corresponding degree. The interior is characterized 
by a black-brown spatula which often has a "tail-piece" similar to 
the usual head-segment, and nearly always there are broad rays 
extending to the front and posterior margins from the central spatula. 
The marginal border is either black or tessellated. This species 
has a wide distribution along the east coast of South America, ex- 
tending as far south as Santa Caterina, in S. Lat. 32 30', where it 
has been collected by Dr. H. von Ihering (see Dall, in The Xautilus, 
Aug., 1891, p. 44). See also the locality of the synonymous P. 
mulleri Dkr., this volume, page 43. The name Acimca subrugosa 
was published by Orbigny prior to the Gouldian name onychina, 
but the diagnosis given is scarcely sufficient for recognition. It is 
as follows : 

A. testa ovato-convexiiiscula, striato-cqstata ; striis incequalibus ; 
albido-virescente zonis fuscis radiata; intus fusco ; margine sub- 
crenato, lutescente, fusco-maculato. Diam. 18 mill., alt. 8 mill. 
(Orb.) 

Mr. E. A. Smith has recently described a form closely allied to 
this species, from the island Fernando Xoronho. It should prob- 
ably be considered a variety of the A. onychina. 

Var. NOROXHEXSIS E. A. Smith. PI. 73, figs. 93, 94. 

Shell ovate, wider behind, moderately elevated, blackish, painted 
with pale rays, eroded and black at the apex, which is situated a 
little in front of the middle ; radiately delicately striated, sculptured 
with lines of increment. 

Interior blackish within the muscle-scar, toward the apex having 
a thin whitish callus ; outside of the muscle-scar, nearly to the edge, 
it is bluish-white ; at the margin narrowly edged with black ; hav- 



168 APPENDIX- 

ing a wide dark ray extending from apex to margin in front, and a 
broader one behind. (Smith.) 
Length 24, width 19, alt. 9 mill. 

Island of Fernando Noronho, off Brazil. 

Acmcea noronhensis SMITH, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xx, p. 495, t. 
30, f. 3, 3a (1891.) 

This species has a smoother surface than A. subrugosa, d'Orbigny 
(=--Lottia onychina Gould), from Rio Janeiro. Like that species, 
however, it has in the interior a broad obscure ray from the apex to 
the margin in front and a broader one at the opposite end. These 
rays, however are more distinct in the present species than in the 
Brazilian shell. The external radiating striae being very fine, do 
not, as a rule, produce a crenulated margin, but in some instances 
a slight crenulation occurs. The surface within the. muscle scar 
is almost black, forming a marked contrast to the pallid space be- 
tween it and the black margin, shells found attached to rocks, when 
placed upon a flat surface, rest upon the anterior and posterior mar- 
gins only, so that the sides are slightly raised. (Smith.) 

SCURRIA ZEBRINA Lesson, (page 63.) 

Following Dall, I included " Patella concepcionensis Lesson " in 
the synonymy of zebrina on page 63. Lesson described no such 
species, his name being " concepsionis " ; and its pertinence to zebrina 
is doubtful. See at foot of page 155, this volume. 

New Zealand Acmceidce. 

ACM^A LACUNOSA Reeve (p. 52). 

Hutton omits this name from his latest revision of the New Zea- 
landic Acmseids (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, p. 372, 1884). 
He considers A. corticata a good species. Figures 9, 10, 11 of my 
plate 37 represent specimens of corticata received from Hutton, and 
figs. 7, 8 of pi. 37 are Reeve's originals of lacunosa. 

A. CINGULATA Hutton (p. 53). 

Add to references : HUTTON, N. Z. Journ. of Sci. i, p. 477, 1883 ; 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, p. 372. 

A. RUBIGINOSA Hutton (p. 53). 

This unfigured species I have not seen. It may = A. lacunosa. 
Hutton considers Patella tampbelli Filhol (Compt. Rend, xci, p. 



APPEXDIX-ACM j;iih>;. 1 69 

1095, 1880) a probable synonym. P. campbelli is insufficiently 
diagnosed. 

A. CONOIDEA Q. & G. (p. 53). 

Hutton records this from Banks' Peninsula, X. Z. 

A. FLAMMEA Q. & G. (p. 57). 

Hutton reports this from New Zealand, Auckland to Dunedin. 

A. CRUCIATA Linne. PL 73, fig. 95. 

Shell oval, moderately solid, varying in elevation from subde- 
pressed to subconical, usually found smooth, but rayed in fresh and 
perfect individuals with very fine raised stride. Coloring rather 
variable, yet almost always exhibiting a more or less cruciform 
arrangement ; when most characteristic, displaying four broad white 
rays upon a white spreckled ground of blackish-brown that are 
usuall v bisected, as they spread, by a short dark streak which at times 
becomes so broad as to produce the appearance of there being eight 
narrow white rays, or of a cross with white edges and a brown 
center ; occasionally, too, there are narrower interstitial rays besides. 
Apex blunt, yet prominent, always white both within and without, 
placed at rather more than one-third the space from the narrower 
end. Interior with a faint central brown spatula-shaped stain, 
intersected by the external rays, which appear more or less visibly 
through the very thin white glaze that lines the rest of the cavity. 
Length three-fourths of an inch ; breadth half an inch. Worn in- 
dividuals exhibit a brown cross upon a white ground. (Hanley.} 

Habitat unknown. 

Patella cruciata L., Syst. Xat. x, p. 784. SCHRCETER, Einleitung 
in die Conchylien-Kenntniss, ii, p. 432, t. 5, f. 6. Acmcea cruciata 
HAXLEY, Shells of Linn., p. 429; Wood's Index Testae., p. 189, t. 
38, f. 78, (edit. Hauley). ? Patella insignia MKE., Moll. Nov. Holl. 
Spec., p. 34 ; Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1844, p. 62. 

Compare Acniwa crucis Tenison-Woods. The figure is reduced in 
size. 

P. IXSIGNIS Menke. 

Shell ovate, convex, shining, subpellucid, obsoletely concentric- 
ally striated, vertically subsulcate behind, whitish, painted with five 
or six rather wide reticulated brown rays. Vertex excentric, mar- 



170 APPENDIX-PATELLIDyE. 

gin entire, length 7'4, breadth 5'7, alt. 3 lines, (Mke. in Moll. Nov. 
Holl. Spec., p. 34.) 

Western Australia. 

This is not P. insignia Dkr., a synonym of P. testudinaria. 

It is probably the same as Acmcea cruciata Linn. 

ACM^A ARANEOSA Gould. PI. 73, figs. 90, 91, 92. 

Shell small, thin, rounded, slightly elevated, smooth, and without 
ribs or sculpture ; apex nearly central, obtuse. Color pale yellow- 
ish-green, reticulated with very fine rusty-brown lines, branching off 
like rootlets towards the margin. The interior is whitish, with a 
rusty ring just within the muscular impression ; the edge is sharp 
and simple, and has a well-defined limbus, so thin as distinctly to 
repeat the external linear markings. 

Length five-eighths of an inch ; breadth half an inch ; height 
one-fourth of an inch. (G7d.) 

A pretty little shell, most probably a Lotti, resembling some of 
the species figured by Quoy, especially his orbicularis.-* Indeed it is- 
so like the reticulated variety figured in Quoy's pi. 71, fig. 33, that 
the examination of a more extensive series might show them to be 
identical. (Old) 

Sooloo Sea. 

Patella (Lottiaf) araneosa GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 
152 (1846) ; U. S. Exped. p. 347, figs. 450. 



PATELLA BARBARA Linne. (Page 96.) 

No locality is given in the text for this species. I am informed 
by MR. GEO. "W. TAYLOR that it is abundant at the Cape of Good 
Hope. 

HELCIONISCUS REYNAUDI Desh. (Page 130). By a typographical 
error this name is spelled incorrectly in the text. 

Family PATELLID^E. 

Dr. Thiele, in his continuation of Troschel's Das Gebiss der 
Schnecken (received at Philadelphia since the publication of part 50 of 
the MANUAL, in which my own classification of Patellidce was out- 
lined), divides the family according to the characters of the radula 
into groups as seen below. The great merit of Dr. Thiele's work 
consists in his demonstration of the existence of a rhachidian tooth 



APPENDIX-PATELLILLE. 171 

in all groups of Patellidce; in his recognition of the fact that the 
primary division of the family is into two groups, based upon the 
number of anterior side teeth a generalization which I had made 
before seeing his publication, as will be seen by my synopsis on page 
79 of this volume. 

I am satisfied that no generic distinctions can be based upon the 
degree of development of the rhachidian tooth. It varies in differ- 
ent species from a mere rudiment to a tooth as well-developed as the 
laterals. It is to be expected that the examination of more material 
will bridge such gaps as still exist in the range of its variation. 

Dr. Thiele's arrangement is as follows. I have quoted in brackets 
the species investigated by him of each group. 

Family Patellidce. 

Subfamily PATELLIN.E [equals in limits and contents, division A of 

my synopsis on p. 79.] 

Genus Ancistromesus Dall. [P. chitonoides, P. pica.] 
Genus PateMidea Thiele. [P. granularis.] 
Genus Patellona Thiele. [P. granatiua, P. plumbea?, P. adan- 

soni.] 

Genus Olann Ads. [P. cochlear.] 
Genus Cymbula Ads. [P. compressa.] 

Genus Patellastra Monts. [P. lusitanica, P. guttata, P. ferruginea.] 
Genus Patella L. [P. tarentina, P. crenata, P. coerulea, P. 

scutellaris, P. aspera, P. lugubris, P. moreleti, P. vulgata.] 
Genus Patellopsis Thiele. [P. ? shell unknown.] 
Genus Helcion Moutf. [P. pectunculus Gm. P. pectinatus 

Born.] 

Genus Patinastra Thiele. [P. pruinosa.] 
Genus Patina Leach. [P. pellucida, P. tella.] 
Subfamily XACELLIXJE [Equals in limits and contents, division B 

of my synopsis on page 79.] 

Genus Xacella Schum. [P. vitrea, P. hyaliua, P. mytilina.] 
Genus Patinella Dall. [P. deaurata, P. venosa, P. fuegiensis, P. 

atramentosa.] 
Genus Helcioniscus Dall. [P. toreuma, P. amussitata, P. testu- 

dinaria, P. exarata, P. rota.] 

Different authors entertain such diverse views upon the amount 
of divergence sufficient to give generic rank to a group, that any 
discussion of this matter would be futile. Such differences of 



172 APPENDIX-PATELLID.E. 

opinion are inevitable, and it must be left to the zoologists of the 
future to sift these things down to a just, convenient and uniform 
usage. It should be noted, however, that most of the above " genera " 
are founded upon the degrees of development of a single organ. 

I have copied on pi. 52, fig. 6, Thiele's figure of the radula of 
Patellidea granularis. On pi. 74, fig. 1, dentition of Patellona grana- 
tina. On pi. 52, fig. 7, the dentition of Olana coehlear. On pi. 74, 
fig. 2, that of Cymbula eompressa. On pi. 52, fig. 8, that of Patellastra 
lusitanica. On pi. 52, fig. 5, that of Patella aspera. On pi. 52, fig. 
9, that of Patellopsis sp., a Cape species of which the shell is unknown. 

PI. 52, fig. 4, represents the dentition of Helcion pectinatus. PL 52, 
fig. 3, that of Patinastra pruinosa. PI. 52, fig. 2, the dentition of 
Patina pellacida. 

On pi. 74, fig. 3, the dentition of Nacella vitrea is figured. PI. 74, 
fig. 4, represent that of N. mytilina. PI. 74, fig. 5, that of Patinella 
venosa. PI. 74, figs. 7, 8, that of P. faegiensis. 

PI. 74, fig. 6, represents the dentition of Helcioniseus capensis. 



It is likely that naturalists of all schools could agree upon some 
such arrangement of this family as the following: 

KEVISED CLASSIFICATION OF THE PATELLID^. 

Family Patellidce. 

I. Subfamily PATELLIN^E. Lateral teeth of the radula three on 
each side, two of them anterior. 

1. Genus Patella L. Branchial cordon complete; apex of 

shell near the center. 

2. Genus Helcion Montf. Branchial cordon interrupted in 

front ; apex of the shell anterior. 

II. Subfamily NACELLIN^E. Developed lateral teeth but two on 
each side, of which one is anterior. 

3. Genus Nacella Schum. An epipodial ridge developed 

upon the sides of the foot; branchial cordon complete. 

4. Genus Helcioniseus Ball. Sides of foot smooth, with no 

trace of an epipodial ridge. Branchial cordon inter- 
rupted in front. 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



VOL XIII. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1, 2. Acmsea viridula Lra. Conch. Icon., . . .32 

3-6. Acmsea viridula Lm. Original, . . . .32 

7-9. Acmsea spectrum Rv. Original, . . . .14 

10. Scurria zebrina Less. Original, . . . .62 

11. Scurria zebrina Less. Conch. Icon., . . . .62 

PLATE 2. 

12-17. Acmsea concinna Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conchyl., . 44 

18-20. Acmsea heroldi Dkr. Moll. Jap., . . .45 
21-24. Acmsea schrenckii Lischke. Jap. Meeres-Conchyl., 44 

25-28. Acmsea persona Esch. Original, . . . .15 

29. Acmsea persona Esch. (P. oregona Rye.). Conch. Icon., 15 

30, 31. Acmsea persona Esch. var. Original, . . .15 
32, 33. Acmsea patina Esch. (P. nuttalliana Rv.). C. Icon., 11 
34-37. Acmsea patina Esch. Original, . . . .11 

PLATE 3. 

38-40. Acmsea scabra var. limatula Cpr. Original, . 14 

41. Acmsea scab ra Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . .13 

42-44. Acmsea scabra Rv. Original, . . . '13 

45-46. Acmsea scabra var. limatula. Original, . . 14 

47-49. Acmsea scabra var. morchii Dall. Original, . 14 

50. Acmsea mitra Esch. Original, . . . . .24 

51, 52. Acmsea persona Esch. typical. Mai. Bl., . . 15 
53, 54. Acmsea persona var. digitalis Esch. Mai. Bl., . 16 

55, 56. Acmsea persona var. digitalis Esch. Original, . 16 

PLATE 4. 

56, 57. Acmsea cubeusis Rv. (rnelanolenca Rv.). C. Icon., 41 
58-60. Acmsea cubensis Rv. typical. Original, . 41 
61 > 62. Acmsea cubensis var. Original, ... 42 

63. Acmsea cubensis v. simplex Pils. Original, . 42 

64, 65. Acmsea cubensis v. simplex (leucopleura Rv.). C. Ic. 42 
66-68. Acmsea cubensis v. simplex Pils. Original, . 42 
69, 70. Acnuea cubensis Rv. Conch. Icon., . . 41 

(173) 




174 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

71-73. Scurria punctatissima Ph. Abbild., . . .64 

74-76. Scurria parasitica Orb. (Lottia cymbiola Old.). U. 

S. Expl. Exp., 63 

77, 79. Acmsea scutum Orb. Amer. Merid., . . .32 

78, 80, 81. Acmsea scutum Orb. Original, . . .32 
82-84. Acmssa nisoria Ph. Abbild., . . . .33 
85-87. Acmsea albescens Ph. Abbild., . . . .36 

88, 91. Acmsea coffea Rv. Conch. Icon., . . .35 

89, 90, 91. Acmsea exilis Ph. Abbild., . 35 

PLATE 5. 

91,92. Acmsea antillarum Sowb. Original, . . 38, 166 
93-95. Acmsea antillarumSby. (candeana Orb.). Moll. Cuba, 38 

96-98. Acmaea elegans Phil. Abbild., ... 39 



99, 100, 1-5. Acmsea punctulata. Original, 

6. Acmsea punctulata. Conch. Icon., 

7. Acmsea antillarum var. Conch. Man., 

8-10. Acmsea antillarum Phil, not Sowb. Abbild., 
11-13. Acmsea punctulata Gm. (cubaniana Orb.). Moll. Cuba 
14, 15. Acmsea cimeliata Rv. (leucopleura Gm.), 
16-21. Acmsea leucopleura Gm. typical. Original, 
22, 23. Acmsea leucopleura (albicostata Rv.). Conch. Icon. 
24,25. Acmsea balanoides Rv. (= leucopleura). ,C. Icon. 
26. Acmsea occidentalis Rv. (=leucopleura). Conch. Icon. 

PLATE 6. 



37 
37 
39 
43 
37 
41 
40 
40 
40 
40 



27, 28. Acmsea stipulata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .31 

29-31. Acmsea stipulata Rve. Original, . . .31 

32, 33. Acmaea instabilis Gld. U. S. Expl. Exp., . . 18 

34, 35. Acmsea pediculus Phil. Conch. Icon., . . 30 

36, 37. Acmsea insessa Hinds. Original, . . .18 

38, 39. Acmsea asmi Midd. Original, . . . .19 

40. Acmsea depicta Hinds. Original, . . . .19 

41. Acmsea depicta var. Original, 19 

42. Acmsea paleacea Gld. M. & C. Sh., 

43-45. Acmsea nacelloides Dall. A. J. C., . . .18 

46, 47. Acmsea mitella Mke. Conch. Icon., . . .29 

48, 49. Acmsea mitella Mke. Original, . . . .29 

50, 51. Acmsea fascicularis Mke. Original, . . .26 

52, 53. Acmsea fascicularis Mke. Conch. Icon., . . .26 

PLATE 7. 

(With the exception of figs. 68-70, the figures of this plate were 
drawn from the type specimens, by the author.) 

57-60. Acmsea Dalliana Pils. Original, . . . .13 

61-63. Acmsea atrata Cpr. Original, . . . .29 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 175 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

64, 65. Acmrea atrata Cpr. young. Original, . . 29 

66, 67. Acinsea apicina Dall. Original, . . . .24 

68-70. Acmrea pediculus Phil. Original, . . . .30 

71-73. Acmsea rosacea Cpr. type. Original, . . .21 

74-76. Acmsea triangularis r. casta Cpr. type. Original, . 21 

77, 78. Acma?a triangularis Cpr. type. Original, . . .20 

79-82. Acmsea filosa Cpr. type. Original, . .27 

83-85. Acmsea strigatella Cpr. type. Original, . . .27 

PLATE 8. 

86, 87. Acnisea pelta v. cassis Esch. Original, . . .17 

88, 89. Acmsea pelta r. cassis Esch. Mai. BL, . . .17 

90, 91. Acmsea pelta Esch. typical. Original, . . .17 

92-94. Acmsea pelta var. Original, . . . . .17 

95. Acmsea pelta plus uacelloides Dall. Original, . .18 

96, 87. Scurria mesoleuca Mke. Original, . . . .64 
98, 99. Scurria mesoleuca (Patella vespertina Rv.) Conch. 

Icon., .......... 64 

100, 1. Scurria mesoleuca (P. striata Rv.) Conch. Icon., . 64 

2. Scurria mesoleuca. Original, . . . . . . .64 

PLATE 9. 

3-5. Acmsea discors Phil. Abbild., . . . . .29 

6. Acmsea patina var. pintadina Old. U. S. Exped., . . 12 

7-9. Acmsea patina var. ochracea Dall. A. J. C., . . 12 

10, 11. Acmsea patina v. fenestrata Nutt. Conch. Icon., . 12 

12-14. Acmsea patina v. fenestrata. Original, . . .12 

15, 16. Acmsea dorsuosa Old. Chall. Gast., . . .45 

17, 18. Acrnsea heroldi v. couulus Dkr. Original, . . 45 

19-21. Acma?a heroldi v. pygmsea Dkr. Moll. Jap., . . 45 

22-24. Acrnsea sybaritica Dall. A. J. C., . . . . 22 

25, 26. Acmtea testudinalis L. F. and Hani., . . .10 

27-29. Acma?a testudinalis L. Original, . . . .10 

30. Acmsea concinna Lischke var. Original, . . .44 

PLATE 10. 

1-6. Patella vulgata L. Moll. Esp., . . . .82 

7-17. Patella cserulea L. Moll. Esp., . . . .83 

13, 14. Acmsea virginea Miill. Forbes & Hani., . . 9 

PLATE 11. 

15-19. Patella lusitanica Gmel. Moll. Esp., . . .87 

20-23. Patella ca-rulea v. aspera Link. Moll. Esp., . . 84 

24-26. Patella athletica F. & H. (=vulgata) F. & H., . 82 

27-29. Patella crerulea v. lowei Orb. Moll. Guin., . . 84 



176 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 12. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

30-33. Patella adansoni Dkr. Moll. Guin. Inf., ... 92 
34-38. Patella guineensis Dkr. Moll. Guin. Inf., . . 89 

39-44. Patella lugubris Gmel. Moll. Guin. Inf., . . .90 
45-47. Patella spectabilis Dkr. Moll. Guin. Inf., . . 89 

PLATE 13. 

48, 49. Helcioniscus nigrolineatus Rv. var. Jap. Meeres- 

Conch., 133 

50-53. Helcioniscus toreuma Rv. Jap. Mee res-Conch., . 135 
54-56. Patella kraussii Dkr. Moll. Guin. Inf., ... 92 
57-59. Patella nigrosquamosa Dkr. Moll. Guin. Inf., . 88 

60-62. Patella echinulata Kr. Siidaf. Moll., . . .103 
63, 64. Patella miliaris Ph. (^natalensis). Moll. Guin., . 103 
65-67. Patella natalensis Kr. Siidaf. Moll., . . .103 

68-70. Helcion pruinosa Kr. Siidaf. Moll., . 113 

PLATE 14. 

71-74. Helcioniscus nigrolmeatus Rv. Jap. Meeres- Conch., 133 
75, 76. Helcioniscus amussitatus Rv. Conch. Icon., . .134 
77-79. Helcioniscus amussitatus Rv. Jap. Meeres-Conch., . 134 

PLATE 15. 

1, 2. Patella barbara Linn. Conch. Icon., . . . .96 
3, 4. Patella morbida Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . .100 

5, 6. Nacella renea Martyn. Conch. Icon., . . . .117 

/ 

PLATE 16. 

7, 8. Patella obtecta Kr. Siidaf. Moll., . 106 

9, 10. Patella tabularis Kr. Siidaf. Moll 105 

12-14. Helcioniscus dunkeri Kr. Siidaf. Moll., . . .148 
15-17. Helcioniscus capensis Gmel. Siidaf. Moll., . . 146 
18-20. Helcioniscus variabilis Kr. Siidaf. Moll., . . .147 
21, 22, 22. Acmsea araucana Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., . 35 

PLATE 17. 

23, 24. Patella ferruginea Gmel. Conch. Icon., ... 81 
25-27. Patella stelkeformis Rv. Conch. Icon., ... 98 

28, 29. Helcioniscus limbata Phil. Conch. Icon., . . 143 

PLATE 18. 

29, 30. Helcioniscus argentatus Sowb. Conch. Icon., . .127 
31, 32. Acmsea sacchariua L. Conch. Icon., . . .49 
33, 34. Patella electrina Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . .94 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 177 

PLATE 19. 

Fir.URE. PAGE. 

35, 36. Helcioniscus nigrisquamatus Rv. Conch. Icon., . 125 

37, 38. Acrasea striata Q. & G 47 

39, 40. Helcioniscus oruatus Dilhv. Conch. Icon., . . 137 

PLATE 20. 

41, 42. Patella neglecta Gray (zebra Rv.). Conch. Icon., . 95 
43, 44. Xacella inradiata Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . 120 
45, 46. Helcioniscus depsta Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . 151 

PLATE 21. 

47, 48. Patella couspicua Ph. Conch. Icon., . . .90 
49, 50. Helcioniscus denticulatus Martyn (type of P. imbricata 

Rv.). Conch. Icon., . 138 

51, 52. Helcioniscus radians v. earlii Rv. type. C. Icon., . 140 

PLATE 22. 

9, 10. Patella pica Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .97 

11, 12. Patella ustulata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .101 
13, 14. Patella pica Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . .97 
15, 16. Patella argenvillei Kr. Conch. Icon., . . .95 

PLATE 23. 

1-3. Helcioniscus redimiculum Rv 136 

4, 6-8. Helcioniscus radians v. decora Phil., . . . 140 

PLATE 24. 

9, 10. Patella exusta Reeve. Conch. Icon., . . .98 

11,14,15. Patella plurabea Lm. Conch. Icon., . . .91 

12, 13. Acmsea saccharina L. (lanx Rv.) Conch. Icon., . 49 

PLATE 25. 

16-19. Helciouiscus testudinaria L. Original, . . . 128 
20, 21. Patella aculeata Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . .100 

PLATE 26. 

22-25. Patella miniata Born. Original, . . . .94 
26, 27. Patella miniata Born. Conch. Icon., . . .94 
28, 29. Patella chitonoides Rv. Conch. Icon., ... 98 

PLATE 27. 

30, 32. Patella oculus Born. Original, 106 

34, 35. Patella cochlear Born. Conch. Icon., . . . 104 
12 



178 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 28. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

35, 36. Helcioniscus enneagonus Rv. Couch. Icon., . . 152 

37, 38. Patella longicosta. Conch. Icon., . . ... 107 

39-41. Patella citrullus Old. Expl. Exped., . 86 

PLATE 29. 

43. Patella rustica Rv. (reduced). Conch. Icon., . .105 

44_46. Patella coerulea v. lowei Orb. Original, . . .84 
47.49. Patella scabra Gld. Expl. Exped., ... 16 

50-52. Patella piperita Gld. Expl. Exped., . 87, 88 

PLATE 30. 

53, 54. Helcioniscus sanguinans Rv. Conch. Icon., . . 151 

55-58. Helcioniscus novemradiatus Q. Original, . .146 

PLATE 31. 

59, 60. Patella mexicana Brod. \ nat. size. Original, . . 108 

61. Sculpture of a young specimen. Original, . . . 108 

62. Dentition, from Dall., ... .108 

PLATE 32. 

63-66. Helcioniscus ardosiseus H. & J. Original, . .124 

67-69. Helcioniscus melanostomus Pilsbry. Original, . 151 

PLATE 33. 

70, 71, 73. Acmsea carpenteri Pils. Original, . . .39 

72. Acmsea carpenteri. Interior of a young specimen, . . 39 

74. Teeth of Pectinodonta arcuata Dall. Blake Rep., . . 6 

75. Basal plate, the cusp removed, of P. arcuata. Blake Rep., 6 

76. Pectinodonta arcuata Dall. Blake Rep., ... 6 
77-79. Acmsea hieroglyphica Dall. A. J. C., 49 
0-82. Acmsea peramabilis Dall. Original, . . .23 
83-85. Scurria mesoleuca Mke. Original, . . . .64 
86, 87. Acmsea lima Rve. Conch. Icon., . . . .60 
88-90. Acmsea dorsuosa Gld. TYPE. Original, . . .45 
91, 92. Acmsea uncinata Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . .61 
93-95. Acmsea conoidalis Pse. Original, . . . .46 
96-98. Acmsea garrettii Pils. Original, . . . .47 
99. Acmsea vernicosa Cpr. Original, . . . . .28 

1-3. Acmsea subrotunda Cpr. Original, . . . .28 

PLATE 34. 

1-2. Acmsea variabilis Sowb. Conch. Icon., 

3-8. Acmsea variabilis Sowb. Original, . . . .34 

-9, 10. Acmsea pretrei Orb. Amer. Merid., . . . .33 



REFERENCE TO-PLATI>. 


179 


FIGURE. 


PAGE. 


11-13. Aemsea subpersona Pils. TYPE. Original, . 


. 34 


14-16. Acmsea ceciliana Orb. var. Original, 


. 33 


17-19. Acmsea ceciliana Orb. TYPE. Am. Mer., 


. 33 


20 21. Acmsea ceciliana Orb. U S. Exped 


33 


22-24. Acmsea onychiua Gld. U. S. Exped., 


42, 167 


PLATE 35. 




25, 26. Acmsea borneensis Rv. Conch. Icon., 


. 48 


27-29. Acmsea striata Q. Original, .... 


. 47 


30, 31. Helcioniscus nimbus Rv. Conch. Icon., 


. 154 


32, 33. Acmsea mixta Rv. Conch. Icon., 


58 


34, 35. Acmsea squamosa Rv. Voy. Astrol., 


. 60 


36, 37. Acmsea lacinata Rv. Conch. Icon., 


. 55 


38, 39. Acmsea achates Rv. Conch. Icon., . 


. 60 


40-42. Acmsea fluviatilis Blanf. J. A. S. B., 


. 48 


43-46. Acmsea chathamensis Pils. Original, 


. 56 


PLATE 36. 




60-62, 78. Acmsea saccharina Linn. Typical. Original, 


. 49 


63, 64. Acnisea saccharina v. stellaris Q. Original, 


. 50 


65, 66. Patella stellaris Rv. not Q. & G. Conch. Icon., 


99, 51 


67, 68. Acmsea saccharina v. stellaris Q, Voy. Astrol., 


. 50 


69-71. Acmsea perplexa Pils. Original, 


. 50 


72, 73. Acmsea alticostata Ang. ( costata Sby). P. Z. S 


., . 51 


74-77. Acrnsea costata Sowerby, Original, . 


. 51 


PLATE 37. 




78-83. Acmsea flammea Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . 


. 57 


84, 85. Acmsea conoidea Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . 


. 53 


86, 87. Acrusea elongata Q, & G. Voy. Astrol., . 


. 59 


88, 89. Acmsea punctata Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . 


. 59 


90-92. Acmsea pileopsis Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . 


. 57 


93, 94. Acmsea septiformis Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., 


. 55 


95-97. Acmsea orbicularis var. Voy. Astrol., 


. 58 


98, 99. Acmsea orbicularis Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., 


. 57 


1, 2. Acmsea cantharus Rv. Conch. Icon., 


. 55 


3, 4. Acmsea calamus C. & F. J. de C. . 


. 54 


5, 6. Acmsea rugosa Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., 


. 52 


7, 8. Acmsea lacunosa Rv. Conch. Icon., . 


52, 168 


9-11. Acmsea corticata Hutt. Original, 


. 168 


12, 13. Acmsea crucis T.-W. Original,. 


58, 169 


14, 15. Acmsea fragilis Q. cv. G. Original, . 


. 59 


17-19. Acmsea crucis var. Original, .... 


. 58 


20, 21. Acmsea lentigiuosa Rv. Conch. Icon., 


. 60 



180 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 38. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1, 2, 4. Scurria gigantea Sowb. Original, . . . .65 

3. Scurria gigantea dentition. A. J. C., . . . 65 

5-7. Scurria gigantea (kochii Phil.). Abbild., . . .65 

PLATE 39. 

8-11. Propilidium ancyloide Forbes. Moll. Keg. Arct., . 72 

12. The same, young shell. Moll. Reg. Arct., . . .72 

13-15. Dentition and mandible of the same. Blake Rep., . 72 

16. Scurria scurra Less. Original, . . . . .62 

17. Dentition of Lepetella tubicola, 75 

18. Lepetella tubicola Verrill. Trans. Conn. Ac., . . 75 

19. Lepetella tubicola, enlarged embryonic apex, . . 75 

20. 21. Lepeta coppingeri Smith. P. Z. S., . 71 

22. Scurria mesoleuca, dentition. A. J. C., . . .61 

23, 24. Scurria scurra, enlarged apex. Original, . . 62 

25. Scurria scurra, animal. Voy. Am. Mer., . . .62 

26, 27. Scurria scurra Less. Original, . . . .62 

28, 29. Nervous system of Titiscania limacina Bergh. (See 

pi. 41.) . 164 

PLATE 40. 

29, 30. Lepeta cseca Mull. Moll. Arct. Norv., ... 68 

31. Lepeta caeca, dentition. Moll. Arct. Norv., . . .68 

32. Lepeta caeca, apex, x 4. A. J. C., . . . . . 68 

33. 34. Lepeta concentrica Midd. A. J. C., . . 69 

35. Lepeta concentrica, dentition. A. J. C., ... 69 

36, 37. Lepeta concentrica Midd. A. J. C., . . . . 69 
38, 39. Lepeta alba Dall. Original, 70 

40. Lepeta alba Dall, dentition. A. J. C., . . . . 70 

41, 42. Pilidium fulvum Mull. F. & H., . . . .70 

43. Pilidium fulvum, dentition. Moll. Arct. Norv., . . 70 

44. Lepeta instabilis Dall. A. J. C., . 69 

45. 46. Lepeta instabilis Dall. Original, . . . .69 
47, 48. Propilidium scabrosum Jeffr. P. Z. S., . . 73 

49. Propilidium pertenue Jeffr. P. Z. S., 

50. Propilidium compressum Jeffr. P. Z. S., ... 74 

PLATE 41. 

53-65. Titiscania limacina Bergh. Morphol. Jahrb., . . 164 

(See also pi. 39, figs. 28, 29.) 

PLATE 42. 

66-68. Acmsea marmorata T.-W. Typical. Original, . ">2 

69, 70. Acmsea marmorata var. submarmorata. Original, . 52 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 181 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

71,72. Acmsea jacksoniensisRv. Conch. Icon., . . .58 
73-75. Acrnsea jacksoniensis Rv. Original, . . . 5* 

76-78, Acma?a alba T.-W. Original, 54 

79, 80. Acmsea rubella Fab. Moll. Arct. Norv., . . . 9 

81. Acmsea pelta, dentition. A. J. C., . . . .8 

82. Acmsea mitra, dentition. A. J. C., .... 8 

83. Acmsea sacchariua, dentition. A. J. C., . . .8 
84-86. Acmsea (triangularis var. ?) orcuttii. Original, . 21 

87, 87. Acmsea cumingii Reeve (=patina r. pintadina). C. 

Icon., 12 

88, 89, Acmsea biradiata Rv. Conch. Icon., . . .49 
90, 91. Acmsea alveus Conr. Original, . . . .11 
92-95. Acmyea antillarum Sowb. var. Original, . . 39, 166 

PLATE 43. 

1, 2. Nacella magellanica Gm. (meridionalis R. & M.). Moll. 

Cap. H., . . . . . . . . .119 

3, 4. Nacella magellanica (pupillata R. & M. ). Moll. Cap. 

H, 119 

5, 6. Nacella magellanica (tiucta R. & M.). Moll. Cap. H., 119 
7,8. Nacella kerguelensis Smith. Phil. Trans., . .121 

PLATE 44. 

9-12, 15, 16. Nacella magellanica Gm. Original. . . 119 
13,14. Nacella magellauica Gm. (atrameutosa Rv.). Conch. 

Icon., 119 

17. Nacella magellanica (metallica R. &-M.). Cap. H., . 119 

18,19. Helcioniscus fungus Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . 153 

20. Nacella deaurata Gm. (cymbularia Delessert). Rec., . 118 

PLATE 45. 

20, 21, Nacella magellanica r. chiloensis Rv. Couch. Icon., 120 
22, 23. Nacella senea Martyn, typical. Original, . . .117 
24, 25. Nacella magellanica v. venosa Rv. Original, . .120 
26, 27. Nacella magellanica v. venosa Rv. Conch. Icon., . 120 

PLATE 46. 

28-30. Nacella deaurata Gm. Original, . . . .118 
31, 32. Nacella deaurata Gm. Original, .... 118 
33. Nacella deaurata (varicosa Rv.). Couch. Icon., . .118 
34-36. Nacella deaurata Gm. Original, .... 118 

PLATE 47. 

1-3. Helcioniscus exaratus Nutt. (lutrata Nutt.). Original, 127 

4, 5. Patella stellseformis var. (cretacea Rv.). Conch. Icon., 99 



182 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

6, 7. Helcioniscus exaratus Nutt. Original, . . .127 

8,9. Helcioniscus exaratus Nutt. Conch. Icon., . .126 

10. Helcioniscus exaratus Nutt. Original, . . . .126 

11, 12. Helcioniscus exaratus (undatolirata Rv.). Conch. 

Icon., 127 

PLATE 48. 

13-15. Helcioniscus nigrisquamatus Rv. Original, . .125 

16-18. Helcioniscus stearnsii Pils. Original, . . .132 

19, 20. Patella barbara L. Conch. Icon., . . . .96 

PLATE 49. 

21-27. Nacella polaris H. & J. Jalirb. Hamb., . . .120 

28, 29. Nacella fuegiensis Rv. Philos. Trans., . . .121 

30, 31. Nacella fuegiensis Rv. Conch. Icon., . . ."121 

PLATE 50. 

32-34. Nacella mytilina Helb. Abbild., . . . .115 

35, 36. Nacella mytilina Helb. Original, . . . .115 

37. Nacella mytilina v. compressa R. & M. Cap. H., . .116 

38, 39. Nacella mytilina v. hyalina Ph. . . . .116 
40, 41. Nacella clypeater Less. Original, . . . .122 
42, 43. Nacella clypeater Less. Conch. Icon., . . .122 
44. Helcion (?) rosea Ball. Proc. Cal. Acad., . . .113 

PLATE 51. 

1-3. Helcion pectinatus Born. Original, . . . .109 

4. Helcion pellucidum L. Original, 110 

5, 9, 10. Helcion pellucidum L. F. & Hani., . . .110 
6-8. Helcion pellucidum v. Isevis Penn. Original, . .110 

11, 11. Helcion pruinosa Kr. Original, . . . .113 

12-24. Helcion tella Bergh. Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges., . . Ill 

PLATE 52. 

1. Patella vulgata L. Radula. Sars, . . .80, 172 

2. Helcion pellucidum. Radula. Thiele, . . . 109, 172 

3. Helcion pruinosa. Radula. Thiele, . . . .172 

4. Helcion pectinatus Born. Radula. Thiele, . . . 172 

5. Patella aspera Lm. Radula. Thiele, .... 172 

6. Patella granularis Lm. Radula. Thiele, . . . 172 

7. Patella cochlear Born. Radula. Thiele, . . .172 

8. Patella lusitanica Gm. Radula. Thiele, . . .172 

9. Patellopsis sp. Radula. Thiele, . . . . . 172 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 183 

PLATE 53. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1-3. Patella ferrugmea Umel. Original, . . . .81 

4. Patella caerulea v. spinulosa. Original, . . . .84 

6. Patella caerulea v. tarentina. Original, . . . .84 

7-11. Patella omilea v. lowei Orb. Original, . . .84 

PLATE ~>4. 

12, 13. Patella cserulea v. crenata Orb. Moll. Can., . . 84 

14. Patella crerulea v. crenata Orb. Original, . . .84 

15, 16. Patella baudoni Drt. Moll. Acores, . . .86 
17, 18. Patella caerulea v. gomesii Drt. Moll. Acores, . . 86 

PLATE 55. 

19-21. Patella safiana Link. Deless. Rec., . . . .90 
22-24. Patella candei Orb. Moll. Can. and C. Icon., . . 86 

PLATE "><>. 

25, 26, 26. Patella conspicua Ph. Abbild., (^safiana Lmk.) 90 
'27, 28. Patella caerulea r. moreleti Drt. Moll. A core?, . 85 

29-31. Patella guttata Orb. Moll. Can., . . . 88 

PLATE ~>7. 

32. Patella lugubris Gm. Conch. Icon., . . . .90 

33-35. Patella lugubris. Original, 90 

36, 37. Patella plumbea v. canescens Rv. Conch. Icon., . 91 
38, 39. Patella plumbea Lmk. Original, . . . .91 
40-43. Patella vatheleti Pils. Original, . . . .92 

PLATE 58. 

40, 41. Patella neglecta Gray. Original, . . . .95 
42, 43. Patella rangiana VaL Xouv. Arch., . . . .89 

44. Patella argenvillei Kr. Original, 95 

45. Patella moreli Dh. Moll. Reun., 98 

PLATE 59. 

46. Patella levata Dh. Moll. Reun., 98 

47-49. Patella pica Rv. Original, 97 

50-55. Patella Barbara L. Original, . . . . .96 

PLATE 60. 

56-58. Patella barbara r. ovalis Pils., 97 

59-61. Patella funebrisRv. Conch. Icon., . 98 



184 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 61. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

62-64. Patella stellseformis v. paumotensis Gld. Original, . 99 

65. Patella stella3formis Rv. var. Original, . . .99 

66, 67. Patella nigrosulcata Rve. Conch. Icon., . . .100 
68, 69. Patella compressa L. Conch. Icon., . . . .93 
70. Patella compressa L. Original, . . . . .93 

PLATE 62. 

71-73. Patella aculeata Rv. Original, . . .100 

74, 75. Patella squamifera Rv. Conch. Icon., . . .100 

76, 77. Patella granatina Gmel. Conch. Icon., . . . 106 

PLATE 63. 

78, 79. Patella vidua Rve. Conch. Icon,, . . .104 

80. Patella granularis Link. Conch. Icon., . . . 102 

81-83. Patella granularis Link. Original, . . 102 

PLATE 64. 

84, 85. Patella patriarcha Pilsbry. Original, . . . 105 

PLATE 65. 

86. Patella patriarcha Pilsbry. Original, .... 105 

87, 88. Helcioniscus articulatus Rv. Conch. Icon., . .128 
89-92. Helcioniscus sagittatus Gld. Original, . . .130 

93. Helcioniscus argentatus Sowb. Original, . . . 127 
94-96. Helcioniscus profundus Dh. Orig. and Moll. Reuh., 150 
97-99. Helcioniscus profundus v. mauritianus Pils. Original, 150 

PLATE 66. 

1,2. Helcioniscus boninensis Pils. Original, . . . 131 

94, 95. Helcioniscus reynaudi Dh. V. Ind. Orient., . .130 
96-98. Helcioniscus flexuosus Q. V. Astrol., . . .130 
99. Nacella strigatella R. & M. C.Horn, . . . .118 

100, 101. Helcioniscus garconi Dh. Moll. Reun., . .150 

PLATE 67. 

3. Helcioniscus boninensis Pils. Original, .... 131 

4-8. Helcioniscus tahitensis Pse. Original, . . . 129 

9, 10. Helcioniscus pallidus Gld. Amurl. Moll., . . 133 

11, 12. Helcioniscus adeta P. & M. Galerie, . . 153 

PLATE 68. 

11-13. Helcioniscus amussitatus Rv. Original, . . . 134 
14-16, 18, 19. Helcioniscus ornatus Dillw. Original, . . 137 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 185 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

17. Helcioniscus ornatus Dillw. Yoy. E. & Ter., . . 137 

20-22. Helcioniscus oruatus v. incoDspicuus (luctuosa Gld.). 

Expl. Exped., 138 

23, 24. Helcioniscus denticulatus Martyn. Uuiv. Conch., . 138 

PLATE 69. 

25-28. Helcioniscus radians Gm. Original, . . .139 

29-31. Helcioniscus radians v. decora Ph. Abbild., . . 140 
32, 33. Helcioniscus radians v. affinis Rv. Conch. Icon., . 140 
34-36. Helcioniscus radians v. earlii Rv. Original, . .140 

37. Helcioniscus radians Gm. Original, . . . .139 

38, 39. Helcioniscus radians v. pholidota Less, (floccata 

Reeve). Conch. Icon., . . . . . . 140 

PLATE 70. 

40-42. Helcioniscus illuminatus Gld. U. S. Exped., . .142 
43, 44. Helcioniscus stelliferus Gm. Conch. Icon., . . 141 

45. Helcioniscus stelliferus. Q. & G., 141 

46-48. Helcioniscus olivaceus Hutt. Original, . . .141 
49. Helcioniscus traraoserica Mart. Conch. Icon., * . . 142 
50-52. Helcioniscus tramoserica Mart. Original, . .142 

PLATE 71. 

53-55. Helcioniscus limbatus Ph. Abbild., . . .143 

56. Helcioniscus limbatus Ph. Original, . . . .143 

57, 58. Helcioniscus araneosa Rv. Conch. Icon., . . .144 
59, 60. Helcioniscus cernicus H. Ad. P. Z. S., . . . 149 
61, 62, 64. Helciouiscus eucosmius Pils. (variegata Rv. . 

Conch. Icon., .148 

63. Helcioniscus eucosmius Pils. Original, . . . .148 

PLATE 72. 

65-69. Helcioniscus rota Gm. Original, .... 144 
70,71. Helcioniscus petalata Rv. Couch. Icon , . . . 145 
72, 73. Helcioniscus luzonica Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . 145 
74, 75. Helcioniscus scalata Rv. Conch. Icon., . . .145 
76, 77. Helcioniscus rota v. orientalis. Original, . . . 146 
78-80. Helcioniscus rota v. discrepans Pils. Original, . . 146 

PLATE 73. 

81-84. Helciouiscus nigroliueatus v. divergens. Original, . 134 

5-87. Helcioniscus lineatus Lmk. Deless., . . .153 

88, 89. Helcioniscus dims Rv. Conch. Icon., . . . 153 

90-92. Acimea araneosa Gld. U. S. Exped., . . .170 

93, 94. Acmsea onychina var. noronhensis Smith. Lin. Soc. J., 167 



^^\ 

SITYj 



186 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

95. Acmaea cruciata L. Wood's Index, . . . .169 
96-98. Acmsea ouy china Gld. Original, . . .167 

99, 100. Helcioniscus livescens Rv. Conch. Icon., . . 152 

PLATE 74. 

1. Patella granatina. Dentition. Das Gebissd. Schn., . 172 

2. Patella compressa L. Dentition. Das Gebissd. Schn., . 172 

3. Nacella vitrea Ph. Dentition. Das Gebissd. Schn., .172 

4. Nacella mytiloides. Dentition. Das Gebissd. Schn., . 172 

5. Nacella venosa Rv. Dentition. Das Gebissd. Schn. 172 

6. Helcioniscus capensis Gin. Dentition. Das Gebissd. 

Schn 172 

7. Nacella fuegiensis Rv. Jaw. Das Gebissd. Schn. . 172 

8. Nacella fuegiensis Rv. Dentition. Das Gebissd. Schn. 172 



INDEX TO VOL XIII. 



XOTE. The names of valid species and varieties are printed in 
Roman type; of genera and other groups in SMALL CAPITALS; of 
synonyms in Italic. 



Achates Rv., 


. 60 


Ansates Sowb., . 


109 


ACMJEA Esch., . 


. 6,7 


Antarctica H. & J., . 


157 


ACMJEIDJE, 


5 


Antillarum Phil., 


43 


ACM.-EINM: Pik, 


.6,7 


Antillarum Sowb., 


166 


Aculeata Rve , . 


. 100 


Antipodum Smith, 


142 


Adansonii Dkr., 


. 92 


Apicina Dall, 


24 


Adela? P. & M., 


. 153 


Apicina Lmk., . 


106 


Adspersa B. D. & D., 


. 83 


Aquitanense Loc., 


73 


Adunca Jeflfr., . 


. 61 


Araneosa Gld., . 


170 


Adunca Perry, . 


. 118 


Araneosa Rv., . 


144 


^Enea Martyn, . 


. 117 


Araucana Orb., . 


35 


jEqualis Sow., . 


. 10 


Arcuata (Pectinodonta) Dall 


, 6 


j$Srugino8a Midd., 


. 31 


Ardosisea H. & J., 


124 


Affinis Gmel., 


. 162 


Areolata Gm., 


120 


Affinis Rve., 


. 140 


Argentata Sowb., 


127 


Alba Ant., 


. 158 


Argentaurum Less., 


145 


Alba Dal), 


. 70 


Argentea Q. & G., . 139, 


140 


Alba H. & J., . 


. 156 


Argentea Gmel , 


160 


Alba Ten.-W., . 


. 54 


Argenvillei Kr., 


95 


Albescent Ant., . 


. 159 


Argi/ropsis Less., 


139 


Albescens Phil.. 


. 36 


Articulata Rv., . 


128 


Albicosta C. B. Ad., . 


40, 41 


Asmi Midd., 


19 


Albicostata Rv., . 


40, 4t 


Aspera Lam., . . 84, 


85 


Alboradiata Blv., 


. 163 


Astensis (Bon.), . 


10 


Alboradiata Gmel., 


. 160 


Aster oides Gmel., 


161 


Albula Greg., 


. 84 


Aster Rve., 


147 


Alticostata Aug., 


. -32 


Athletica F. & H., . 


83 


Alveus Con., 


. 11 


Atra Gmel., 


162 


Amcena Say, 


. 10 


AtrataCpr., 


29 


Amussitata Rv., 


. 134 


Atromarginato Blv., . 


164 


AXCISTROMESUS Dall, 


79, 107 


AtramentoM Rv., 


119 


Ancyloide Forbes, 


. 72 


Aurantiaca Blv., 


163 


Ancyloides Midd., 


. 31 


Aurantia Gmel., 


160 


Ancylus Esch., . 


. 15 


Auricula Don., . 


162 


Angulosa Gme!., 


. 161 


Azorica Xutt., . 


84 



187 



188 



INDEX. 



Badia Gmel., . . .107 

Balanoides Rve., . 40, 41 

Barbara L., . . 96, 170 

Barbata Lm., . . .97 
Baudonii Drt., ... 86 

Bickmorei Dall, . . 48 

Bimatulata Mont., . .110 

Biradiata Rve., . . . 49 

Boninensis Pils., . . 131 

Bonnardi Payr., . . 83 

Borneensis Rv r ., . . .48 

Borniana Helbl., . .162 

Bourouniensis Less., . .155 

CsecaMiill., ... 68 

Ccecoides Cpr., . . .69 

Cceruleata Da C., . .110 

Ccerulea Q. & G., . .91 

Crerulea L., 83 

Ccerulea Pult., . . .110 

Calamus Cr & F., . . 54 

Callosa H. & J., . . 157 

Campaniformis Blv., . .163 

Campbelli Filhol., . . 168 

Candida Gmel., . . .161 

Candeana Orb., . . 38 

Candei Orb., . . .86 

Candida Couth., . . 68 

Canescens Gmel., . .162 

Canescens Rv., . . .91 

Cantharus Rve., . . 55 

Capensis Gm., . . . 146 

Capillaris Gmel., . .162 

Carditoidea Blv., . .163 

Carpenteri Pils., . . 39 

Cassis Esch., . . .17 

Casta Cpr., . 21 

Castanea Blainv., . . 163 

Ceciliana Orb., ' . . .33 

CeUanaH. Ad., . . 123, 149 

Cerea Gmel., . . .160 
CereaMolL, ... 68 

Cernica Ad., . . . 149 

Chapman! T.-W., . . 101 

Chathamensis Pils., . . 56 

Chilensisl&\v., . . .163 

Chilcensis Rve., . . .119 

Chitonoides Rv., . . 98 



Chlorostida Gmel., . .161 

Cimeliata Rv., . . 40, 41 

Cinerea Gmel., . . .160 

Cingulata Gmel., . .162 

Cingulata Hutt., . . 53 

Cinis Rve., . . .17 

Citriua Gmel., . . .161 

Citrullus Gld., . . .86 

Clathratula'Rv., . . 125 

Clealandi Sowb., . .10 

Clypeus Brn., . . .10 

Clypeater Less., . .122 

Cochlear Born, . . . 104 

CoffeaRv., . . .35 

Cognata B. D. & D., . . 83 

COLLISELLA Dall, . . 8 

COL.LISELLINA Dall, . . 8 

Comina DeGreg., . . 84 

Complanata Gmel , . . 1 62 

Compressa L., . . . 93 

Compressum Jeffr., . . 74 

Compressa Rochebr., . .116 

Concentrica Midd., . . 69 

Conception ens is Less., . 168 

Concepsionis Less., . 155, 168 

Couchae.ea Gm., . .115 

Concinna Lisch., . . 44 

Coneolor Kr., . . .148 
Confusa Gldg., ... 38 

Cornea Blv 163 

ConicaGld., . . 25, 62 
Conica (virginea var.) Jeffr., 1 

Conoidalis Pse., . . .46 

Conoidea Q, & G., . .53* 

Conspicua Ph., . . .90 

Conspurcata Gmel., . .162 

Contosoplicata Rv., . . 81 

Conulus Dkr., . . .45 

Coppingeri Smith. . .71 

Corrugata Gmel., . .160 

Cornea Helbl., . . .110 

, Cornea Mich., . . .110 

Cornea P. & M., . .110 

Corrugata Rve., . . 30 

Corticata Hutt., . . 53, 168 

Costata Less., . . .155 
Costata Sowb., ... 51 

Crassa Less., . . .155 



Craticulata Gmel., 
Creuata Gin., 
Cretaeea Rve., . 
Cribraria Gld., . 
Crocata Less., 
Crocea Gmel., . 
CruciataL., 
Crucis T.- Woods, 
Cruentata Gmel., 
Cruentata H. & J., 
CRYPTOBRANCIIIA Midd 
Cubaniana Orb., 
Cuben^is Rve., . 
Cumingii Rve., . 
Cuprea Gmel., . 
Cnprea Rve., 
Cyan ea Less., 
Cyathus Gmel., . 
Cylindrica Gmel., 
Oymbalaria R. tv, M., . 
CtymbiolaGld., . 
Oymbium Phil., . 
Cymbula Ad., 
Gymbula Hup.. . 
Cymbularia Deles.-., . 
Oymbularia Lm., 
Cymbulata Greg., 
Cymbuloides Less., 
Cypria Gmel., 
Cypridium Perry, 

Dalliana Pils., . 
Deaurata Gmel., 
Decora Phil., 
Decussata Gmel., . . 
Delessertii Phil., 
Dentata Dufo., 
Denticulata Gmel., 
Denticulata Hutt, 
Denticulata Martyn, . 
Denticulata Smith, 
Depicta Hinds, . 
Depressa Blainv., 
Depressa Penn., 
Depressa (A. virginea 

Wood, . 

Depressaspera Greg., . 
Depsta Rv., 



INDEX. 189 




161 


Diaphana Rve., 


. 65 


84; 


85 


Dichotoma Ant., 


. 159 


. 


99 


Diemensis Phil, 


. 155 




12 


Digitalis Esch., . 


. 16 




155 


Dira Rv., . 


. 153 


, 


161 


Discors Phil., 


. 29 


. 


169 


Discrepans Pils., 


. 146 




58 


Divergens Pils., 


. 134 


, 


161 


Dorsuosa Gld., . 


. 45 


. 


157 


Dunkeri Kr., 


. 148 


d.,67, 


68 








38 


Earlii Rv., 


139, 140 




41 


Echinulata Kr., 


. 103 


, 


12 


Electrina Rv., . 


. 94 




160 


Elegans Gmel., . 


. 161 


. 


128 


Elegans Phil., . 


. 38 




91 


Elegans Ver., 


7-3 




160 


Elevata Jeffr., 


. 82 




161 


Elliptica Flem., 


. 110 


. 


116 


Elongata Flem., 


. 110 


. 


63 


Elongata Q. & G., 


. 59 




116 


Emarginuloides Phil., 


. 71 




81 


Eoneagona Rv., 


. 152 




62 


Erg-inn* Jeffr., . 


7 


, 


118 


Eruca Torn., 


. 80 




116 


Eucosmia Pils., . 


. 148 


, 


84 


Exalbida Gmel ., 


. 160 


. 


116 


Exarata Xutt., . 


. 126 


. 


97 


Exilis Phil., 


. 35 




110 


E.roleta Gmel.. . 


. 162 






Exusta Rve., 


. 98 


. 


13 








118 


Easciata Gmel., . 


. 161 


139J 


140 


Easciata Kr., 


. 148 




161 


Fascicularis Mke., 


. 26 


. 


118 


Eenestrata Xutt., 


. 12 




97 


Ferruginea Gmel., 


. 81 


. 


160 


Ferruginea Rve., 


. 121 




138 


Ferruginea Sowb., 


. 118 




138 


Ficarazzensis Greg., . 


. 82 


. 


138 


Filosa Cpr., 


. 27 


. 


19. 


Eimbriata Gld., . 


. 17 




163 


Flammea Q. & G., 


. 57 


. 


82 


Flava Hutt., 


. 142 


var.) 




Flaveola Gmel., . 


. 160 




10 


Flexuosa Hutt., . 


. 139 




84 


Flexuosa Q. & G., 


. 130 


. 


151 


Floccata Rv., 


. 141 



190 

Fluviatilis Bens., 
Forbesii Smith, . 
Fragilis Phil., . 
Fragilis Q, & G., 
Franklini Gray, 
Frauenfeldi Dkr., 
Fuegiensis Rve., 
Fulva Mull., 
Funebris Rve., . 
Fungus Meusch., 
Fungus Rv., 
Funiculata Cpr., 
Fusca Linn., 
Fuscata Gmel., . 
Fascescens Gmel., 

Galeola Jeffr., . 
Garconi Dh., 
Garrettii Pils., . 
Gealei Angas, 
Gigantea Gray, . 
Gigantea Less., . 
Glauca Gmel., . 
Gomesii Drt., 
Goniclis Raf., 
Gorgonica Humph., 
Goudoti Mab., . 
Grammia Phil., 
Granatina L., 
Grandis Gray, . 
Granostriata Schr., 
Granostriata Rve., 
Granularis L., . 
Granularis v. Salis, 
Granulata Ph., 
Granulosa Less., 
Grata Old., 
Grisea Blv., 
Giiadichaudi Blainv., 
Guineensis Dkr., 
Guineensis Gmel., 
Guttata Gmel., . 
Guttata Orb., . 

Hcemosticta Gmel., 
Hamillei Fisch., 
HELCIONISCUS Dall, 
HELCiONMontf., 



INDEX. 



. 48 


Hepatica Gmel., 


160 


. 71 


Eeptaqona Blv., 


163 


. 83 


Heroldi Dkr., . 


45 


. 59 

. 68 


Hieroglyphica Dall, . 
Hyalina Phil., 


49 
116 


. 88 




. 121 IlluminataGld., 


142 


. 70 Imbricata Rv., . 


139 


. 98 Imperatoria Greg., 


82 


. 153 Itnpressa Gmel., 


160 


. 153 Incequalis Gmel., 


160 


. 25 Inconspicua Gray, 


138 


. 140 IndicaGmel, . 


96 


. 162 Infundibulum Gmel., 


160 


. 107 Inradiata Rv., . 


120 


Insessa Hinds, . 


18 


. 61 Insignis Dkr., . 


129 


. 150 Insignis Mke., . 


169 


. 47 Instabilis Dall, . 


69 


. 144 Instabilis Gld., . 


18 


. 65 Intermedia B. D. & D., 


83 


. 156 Intermedia Knapp, . 


82 


. 162 


Intorta Penn., 


110 


. 86 Intorta Sowb., . 


109 


. 80 lothiaGray, 


70 


. 107 Islandica Gmel., 


160 


. 84 




. 166 Jacksoniensis Less., 


156 


. 106 


Jacksoniensis Rv., 


58 


. 66 






. 44 


Kerguelensis Sm., 


121 


. 135 


JiToc/u Phil., 


66 


. 102 


Kraussii Dkr., . 


92 


. 87 






. 156 


Laciniata Rve., . 


55 


. 156 


Lacinosa L., 


160 


. 135 


Lactea (A. virginea var.) 




. 163 


Jeffr., 


10 


. 117 


Lacunosa Rve., 


52 


. 89 


Lcevigata Gmel., 


161 


. 162 


Lvevis Gmel., 


160 


. 161 


Laevis Penn., 


110 


. 88 


Lamanonii Schr., 


133 




Lamarckii Payr., 


81 


. 161 


Lamped 'usensis Greg., 


156 


. 36 


Lanx Rve., 


50 


80, 123 


Laticostata Blv., 


164 


79, 108 


Latistrigata Angas, . 


143 



INDEX. 



191 



Lecania Cpr., . . .65 

Lentiginosa Rv., . . 60 

LEPETA Gray, . . 67, 68 
Lepeta puntarena? Morch, . 31 

LEPETELLA Ver., . 67, 75 

LEPETELLIN.E Dall, . 67, 75 

LEPETID.E, . . .66 

LEPETIN.E Dall, . . 66 

Leucophosa Gld., . .17 

Leucophcea Phil., . . 63 

Leucopleura Gmel., . . 40 

Leucopleura Rve., . . 41 

Levata Dh., . . 97, 98 

Lima Rv., . . .60 

Limacina Bergh, . .164 

Limatula Cpr., . . .14 

Limbata Phil., . . .143 

Lineata Lmk., . . . 153 
Lineata Phil., ... 35 

Lineolata Ant., . . .158 

LivesceDs Rv., . . .152 

Lobata Blainv., . . .163 

Longicosta Lrak., . .107 

LOTTIA Gray, . . 65, 7 

Lottiadce, . . .5 

Lowei Orb., . . 84, 85 

Luctuosa Gld., . . .138 

Luctuosa H. & J., . .157 

Lugubris Blv., . . .163 

Lugubris Desh., . . .127 

Lugubris Gmel., . . 90 

Lusitanica Gm., . . 87 

Luteola Lmk., . . .162 

Lutrata Xutt., . . .127 

Luzonica Rv., . . . 145 

Macrina Greg., . . .84 

Maxidata Blv., . . .163 

Maculosa Gmel., . -.160 

Madagascarensis Blv., . 164 

Magellan ica Gm., . .119 

Magellanica Hutt., . . 137 

Malicolor Dufo, . . 155 

Mammillata Esch., . . 25 

Mammillata Xutt., . . 12 

Margaritacea Gmel., . .161 

Margaritaria Chem., . .138 

Marmorata Ten., . . 52 



Mauritiana Pils., . . 150 

Maxima Orb., . . .108 

Mazatlandiea Sowb., . .126 

Melano gramma Gmel., . 161 

Melanogramma Sowb., . 96 

Melanoleuca Gm., . . 41 

Melanoleuca Rv., . . 41 

Melanostida Cpr., . . 40 

Melanosticta Gm., . . 40 

Melanostoma Pils., . .151 

Melanozonias Gmel., . . 160 

Mel lea Gmel., . . .162 
Meridionals Roch. & Mab., 119 



Mesoleuca Mke., 
Metallica Roch. & Mab., . 
METOPTOMA Ph., 
Mexicana B. & S., 
Miliaris Phil., . 
Miniata Born, . 
Minima Gmel., . 
J/iworWall, 
Mitella Mke., . 
Mitra Esch., 
Mixta Rv., 
Monopis Gmel., . 
Monticola Xutt., 
Monticula Nutt., 
Morbida Rve., . 
Merchii Dall, . 
Moreleti Drt., . 
Moreli Dh., . . 97, 
Mulleri Dkr., . 
Mutabilis Mke., . 26, 

Mytilina Helbl., 
My ti to ides Sch., . 



NACELLA Schum., 
NACELLIN.E, 
Xacelloides Dall, 
Nana Dkr., 
Xatalensis Kr., . 
Naviculti Gmel., 
Navicula Rve., . 
Xeglecta Gray, . 
Xigra Blainv., . 
Xigrisquamata Rv., 
Nigroalba Blv., . 
Nigrolineata Rv., 



79, 



64 

119 

78 

108 

103 

94 

161 

110 

29 

24 

58 

161 

17 

34 

100 

14 

85 

98 

43 

65 

115 

116 

114 

114 

18 

47 

103 

162 

29 

95 

163 

125 

164 

133 



192 



INDEX. 



Nigropunctata Rv., 


. 87 


Nigrosquamosa Dkr., . 


. 103 


Nigrosquamosa Dkr., 


. 88 


Nigrosulcata Rve., 


. 100 


Nimbus Rv. 


61, 154 | 


Nisoria Phil., 


. 33 


Nivalis Rv., 


. 166 


Nodosa H. & J., 


. 138 


Nodulosa Gmel., 


. 160 


Noronhensis Smith, . 


. 167 


Novemradiata Q. & G., 


. 146 


Nuttalliana Rve., 


. 12 


Ob long a Perry, . 


. 156 


Obscura Gmel., . 


. 102 


Obsciira H. & J., 


. 157 


Obtecta Kr., 


. 106 


Occidentalis Rv., 


40, 41 


Ochracea Dall, . 


. 12 


Ochroleuca Gmel., 


. 160 


Oculata Gmel., . 


. 160 


Oculus Born., 


. 106 


Octoradiata Hutt., 


. 51 


Olana Ad., 


. 94 


Olivacea Ant., . 


. 158 


Olivacea Gmel., . 


. 160 


Olivacea Hutt., . 


. 141 


Onychina Gld., . 


167, 43 


Onychites Mke., 


. 163 


Opea Nutt., 


. 128 


Opea Rve., 


. 26 


Orbicularis Q. & G., . 


. 57 


Orcutti Pils., 


. 21 


Ordinaria Mab., 


. 84 


Oregona Nutt., . 


. 16 


Orientalis Pils., . 


. 146 


Orichalcea Ph., . 


. 158 


Ornata Dillw., . 


. 137 


PAL^ACM^EA Hall, . 


. 78 


Paleacea Gld., . 


. 20 


Pallida Gld., . 


. 133 


Pallida Sby., . 


. 62 


Papyracea Gmel., 


. 161 


Parallelogrammica Blv 


, . 163 


Parasitica Orb., 


. 63 


Parva Da Costa, 


. 9 


Parva Seg., 


. 73 



79, 



PATELLA L., 

Patellaria Llhwyd, 
Patellastra Monts., 
PATELLID.E, 
PATELLIDEA Thiele, 
Patellites Walch., 
Patelloidea Q. & G., 
Patelloides, H. & J. 
PATELLONA Thiele, 
PATELLOPSIS Thiele, 
Patellus Montf., 
PATINA Leach, . 
Patina C. B. Ad., 
Patina Esch., 
PATINASTRA Thiele, 
PATINELLA Dall, 
Patriarch a Pi Is., 
Paumotensis Gld., 
Peeten Gmel., 
Pectinata Born., 
Pectinata L., 
PECTINODONTA Dall, 
PECTINODONTIN.E Pils., 
Pectunculus Gmel., 
Pediculus PKiL, 
Pellucida L., 

Pellucida (Lottia) Weink, 
Pelta Esch., 
Peltoides Cpr., . 
Penicillata Rve., 
Pentagona Born., 
Pentagona Rve., 
Perambilis Dall, 
Percostata Greg., 
Peronii Blv., 
Perplexa Pils., . 
Persona Esch., . 
Personoides Midd., 
Pertenue Jeffr., . 
Petalata Reeve, . 
Petterdi Ten.-W., 
Pholidota Less., 
Pica Rv^., 
Picta Jeffr., 
Picta Perry, 
Pileolus Midd., . 
Pileopsis Q. & G., 
Pileus Mke., 



80 
80, 

. 79- 
76, 172 
. 171 
. 80 
. 7 
. 157 
. 171 
. 171 
. 80 

79, 109 
. 27 
. 11 

171, 113 

80, 116 
. 105 
. 99 
. 142 
. 109 
. 109 
. 6 

6 

109 
30 

110 
9 

17 
61 
35 
99 
99 
23 
82 

164 
50 
15 
31 
74 

145 
54 

140 
97 
82 

106 
17 
57 
96 



INDEX. 



193 



PlLIDIl'M F1)S., . . 67, 


70 


Pintadina Gld., . 


12 


Pintadina Gld., . 


65 


Piperata Gld., . 


87 


PA//K/Phil, . . 33, 


35 


Plana Rve., 


35 


Plicaria Gmel., . 


161 


Plicata Born, 


96 


Plicata Co.-ta, 


81 


Plumbea Lmk., . 


91 


Polaris Hombr. & Jacq., . 


120 


Pott si Hutt., 


136 


Pretrei Orb., 


33 


Profunda Dh., . 


150 


PROPILIDIUM F. & H.. 67 


. 7-J 


Pruinosa Kr., 


113 


Putchr/ln Blainv., 


163 


Pulchella (Lottia) Fbs., . 


9 


Pu/cherrina Gldg., 




Pnlhi Gmel , 


162 


Punctata Gray, . 


32 


Puncttita Lm., 


38 


Punctata Q. & G., . 


59 


Piim-tatisMma Phil., . 


64 


Punctulata ( rmel., 


37 


Puncfurata Lm., 


3* 


Punlarena Morch, 


31 


PnpWata Roch. & Mah., . 


119 


Purpnrascetix Ant., 


159 


Pit*iUu Jeftr., . 


61 


Pn*tulfitfi Helbl., 


38 


Pyorina?a Dkr., . 


45 


Pyramidata Lam., 


81 


Radian? Gm., 


139 


Radian* Rve., 


136 


Radian* Sow., 


140 


Radiata Born., . 


162 


Radiata Esch 


16 


Radiata Kr., 


148 


Radiata Perry, . 


X L 


Radiata Pse., 


154 


Rtidiatili* H. cv J., 


139 


Rangiana Val., . 


89 


Rarirotta Blv., . 


163 


Redimiculum Rv., 


136 


Reeve i Hutt., 


139 


Repanda Gmel.. 


161 



Reticulata Ant., . .158 

Revoluta Gmel., . . 162 

Reynaudi Dh., . . .170 
Rosacea Cpr., . . .21 
Rosea Ball, . . . 113 
Rostrisepta Seg., . .72 

Rota Gmel., . . .144 
Rotumiata Gmel., . .160 
Rotund ata( A. virgineavar.) 

Monts., .... 10 
Rouxi Payr., ... 81 
Rubella Fabr., ... 9 
Rubella Gmel., . . .161 
Rubiginosa Hutt., . . 53 
R u bra Gmel., . . .160 
Ruhroaurantiaca Blv., . 163 
Rugosa Q. & G., . . 52 
Rwnphii Blamv, . . 129 
Rti#ti<-a Born, . . .159 
Ru*tic.a L.. . 87, 88, 96 
Riixtica Mke., . . 95, 96 
Rustica Perry, . . .117 
Rve ..... 105 



.49 
.90 
.140 
.130 
. 127 
. 160 

. 93 
. 151 
. 93 
.15 
. 13 
. 56 
. 73 

.145 

. 44 
107 

.62 
6, 61 

. 83 
79, 94 

. 70 

.161 
12 

. 32 



Sat-fharina L.. . 
Satiana Lmk., . 
Sagittata Don., . 
Sagittata Gld., . 
Sandwichfntis Pse., 
San guinea QmeL, 

Sun (jiii nali^ Rv., 
Sanguinans Rv.. 
Sangninolenta Gm., 



ScabraRve., . 
Scabrilirata Augas, 
Scabrosum Jeffr., 

Soi/afn Rv., . 

Sc-hrenekii Lisch., 
Schrceteri Kr 
Scurra Less., . 

IIRIA Gray, . 
Seutellaris Blainv., 

: I:LLASTI:A Ad., 
Scntellina Sars., 
Sciitifoi-mi* Gmel., 
Scutum Esch 
Scutum Orb.. 



194 



INDEX. 



Septiformis Q. & G., . 


. 55 


Surinam etisis Gmel., . 


161 


Serpulceformis Ant., . 


. 158 


Sybaritica Dall, 


22 


Servaini Mab., . 


. 84 






Simplex Pils., 


. 42 


Tabularis Kr., . 


105 


Simrotbi Mts., 


. 5 


Tahitensis Pse., . 


129 


Sitta Greg., 


. 82 


Talcosa Gld., . 


128 


Solandri Colenso, 


. 59 


Tarentina v. Sal., 


84 


Solida Ant., 


. 158 


Taslei Mab., 


84 


Solida Blv., 


. 163 


Tasmanica T.-W., 


101 


Spectabilis Dkr., 


. 89 


Tectura Auct., 


7 


Spedabilis Gmel., 


. 162 


Tecture Aud. & Echv., 


7 


Spectrum Rv., . 


. 14 


Trcturella Cpr., . 


65 


Specularis Gmel., 


. 162 


Tecturidce, 


5 


Spinifera Lm., 


. 97 Tectitrina Cpr., . 


65 


Spinulosa B. D. & D., 


. 84 Telia Bergh, 


111 


Squalida Gmel., 


. 161 Tenera Ad., 


38 


Squama Blv., 


. 163 Teneri/ce Mab., . 


84 


Squamata Gmel., 


. 162 Tenuilirata Cpr., 


159 


Squamifera Rve., 


. 100 ! Tenuisculpta Cpr., 


25 


Squamosa Gmel., 


. 161 


Tenuistriata Blainv., . 


163 


Squamosa Q. & G., 


. 60 


Tenuis Gmel., 


161 


Stannea Gmel., . 


. 161 


Terroris Filhol., 


143 


Stearnsii Pils., . 


. 132 


Tessellata H. & J., . 


156 


Stellffiformis Rve., 


. 98 


Tensellata Miill, 


10 


Stella Less., 


. 50 


Tessellata Nutt., 


12 


Stellaris Q, & G., 


. 50 


Testacea Gmel., . 


162 


Stellaris Rve., 


. 99 


Testudinalis Miill., 


10 


Stellata B. D. & D., . 


83 


Testudinaria Linne, . 


128 


Stellata Chem., . 


* 141 


Textili* Gld., 


16 


Stellifera Gmel., 


. 141 Tfgrina Gmel., . 


161 


Stellularia Q. & G., . 


. 141 Ti'nda Roch. & Mab., 


119 


Stipulata Rve., . 


. 31 TITISCANIA Bergh, . 


164 


Striata Q. & G., 


. 47 


Titiscania limacina Bergh, . 


164 


Striata Rve., 


. 65 


TITISCANIIDJS, . 


164 


Striqaia Don., 


. 163 


Toreuma Rve., . 


135 


Strigatella R. & M., . 


. 118 


Tramoserica Mart., . 


142 


Strigatella Cpr., 


. 27 


Tranquebarica Gmel., 


161 


Strigilis Hombr. & Jaoq., 


. 137 


Triangularis Cpr., 


20 


Strigillata Cpr., . 


. 27 


TRYBLIDIUM Linds., . 


78 


Sturnus H. & J., 


. 140 


Tuberculata L., . 


160 


Subgranularis Blv., 


. 164 


Tuberculifera Lmk., . 


162 


Submarmorata Pils., . 


. 52 


Tubicola Ver., . 


75 


Subpersona Pils., 


. 34 






Subplana P. & M., . 


. 83 


Ulyssiponensis Gmel., 


161 


Subro tun data Cpr., . 


. 28 


Umbella Gmel., . 


93 


Subrugosa Orb., 


. 43 


Umbonata Nutt., 


16 


Subspiralis Cpr., 


. 154 


Uncinata Rv., . . 


61 


Subundulata Ang., 


. 57 


Undatolirata Rv., 


127 




INDKX. 



195 

164 

162 

162 

9 

154 

163 

154 

34 

32 

161 

116 

82 

164 
96 
62 

162 



NOTE. The Parts of Vol. XIII of the MANUAL were issued to 
subscribers upon the following dates: 

Part 49, including pp. 1-64, plates 1-15, August 3, 1891. 
Part 50, including pp. 65-112, plates 16-35, November 3, 1891. 
Part 51, including pp. 113-160, plates 36-55, January 30, 1892. 
Part 52, including pp. 161-196, plates 56-74, March,' 1892. 



Unguia-almoR Less., 


59 


Violacea Blv., 


I'lH/tilifonni* Blv., 


164 


Virgata Don., 


i'nicolor (Lottia) Fbs., 


10 


Virgata Gin., 


Ustulata Rve., . 


101 


Virginea Miill., . 






Virginum Dutb., 


Variabilis Kr., . 


147 


V iridescent Blainv. 


Variabilis Sow., 


34 


Viridis Dutb., 


Vnrlcosa Rve., . 


11* 


Viriflula Old., . 


Varieqata Blv., . 


163 


Viridula Lam., . 


Variegata Reeve, . 145, 


149 


Vitellinn Gmel., 


Vatheleti Pils., . 


92 


Vitrea Phil.; 


Venox Rve. 


1 l ( > 


Vulgata L., 


Verrieulata Rve., 


12 




Vernicosa Cpr., . 


2 


Zebra Blv., 


Vespei'tina Rve., 


65 


Zebra Rve., 


Vidua Rv., 


104 


Zebrina Less., .. 


Virescens Gmel., 


162 


Zonnta 8. c\: W., 




II 




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79 




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PATELLID^E. 



PLATE 5O 




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17 



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37 



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35 



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PATELLIDyE 



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PLATE 73 




PATELLID^E 



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~.. a " 

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