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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

iRKELEY 

BRARY 

IVERSITY OF 
&LIFORNIA 

IARTH 

iCicNC& 
.S3RARY 






FRONTISPIECE 




MANUAL 



OF 



CONCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W.^RYOW JR. 

CONTINUATION BY yf 

HENRY A. PILSBRY, 

CONSERVATOR OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE ACADEMY OF 
NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



Vol. XVI. 

PHILINID^E, GASTROPTERID^, AGLAJID^), APLYSIID^E, 
OXYNoEID^l, RUNCINIDyE, UMBRACULID^, 




yN PLEUROBRANCHID^:. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
^Published by Conchological Section 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
OF PHILADELPHIA. 

1895-6. 



9 









A* 





EARTH 

SCIENCES 

UBRARY 




THE present volume is devoted to the monographs of Tecti- 
branchiate mollusks, in continuation of Volume XV. The 
CEPHALASPIDEA herein monographed belong to groups of 
which but few species are represented in'the collection studied, so 
that little beyond the merits of a careful compilation can be ex- 
pected. In the ANASPIDEA, more material has been available, and 
it is hoped that progress has been made in the classification and defi- 
nition of subfamilies and genera, as well as in the facilitation of 
specific determinations. To a less extent this also applies to the 

NOTASPIDEA. :.\i^ . 

A single family of ASCOGLOSSA, Oxynoeidce, is included herein, on 
account of the Bulla-like shell developed. The other ASCOGLOSSA 
and the NUDIBRANCHIATA proper, which have no shells when adult, 
will not be included ; the fruitful labors of Bergh rendering their 
treatment here inadvisable, especially in view of the fact that few 
conchologists concern themselves with those groups. 

In an appendix, the Tectibrauch groups of Volume XV are 
brought up to 1896. 

A brief introductory chapter embodies the views of the author on 
the classification of CEPHALASPIDEA ; the chief departures from 
previous arrangements being in the dismemberment of the old family 
Bullidce, with the creation of Akeratidce; and the rearrangement of 
the families into phyla based largely upon the mode of specialization 
of the radula, and the development of the pleuropodial lobes. 

H. A. P. 



in 




CLASSIFICATION AND PHYLOGENY 
OF TECTI BRAN CHI ATA. 



The Tectibranchiate mollusks have been divided by Dr. Paul 
Fischer into three main groups, based largely upon external anatomy : 
I. Head bearing a fleshy shield ; tentacles or rhinophores (as such) 
usually wanting ; male organ or its orifice widely separated 
from the female orifice. CEPHALASPIDEA. 

II. Head without shield, bearing a pair of enrolled, erect rhino- 
phores, with usually an anterior pair of labial tentacular pro- 
cesses ; gill dorsal ; male and female orifices widely separated. 

ANASPIDEA. 

III. No head shield ; back protected by a fleshy shield or mantle, 
the gill below it on the right side ; male and female orifices 
contiguous or not widely separated. NOTASPIDEA. 

The families of Cephalaspidea are defined below. The group 
Anaspidea contains but one family, Aplysiidce (see page 59). The 
families of Notaspidea, three in number, are defined on page 170 of 
this volume. 

The numerous families of Cephalaspidea, or shield-headed Tecti- 
branchs, fall into four well-defined groups or series, of about equal 
rank, as follows : 

Operculate. 

I. Radula multidentate ; no pleuropodial lobes, Actceonidce, Vol. 
XV, p. 135. 

Not operculate. 

II. Radula multidentate ; pleuropodial lobes developed. 

a. Head-shield without tentacles; shell thin, light yellow, 
brown or green ; aperture frequently with a posterior 
sinus or slit at the suture, Akeratidce, Vol. XV, p. 350. 
aa. Head-shield bearing 2 or 4 tentacles ; shell decidedly varie- 
gated ; no posterior slit, Hydatinidce, Vol. XV, p. 385. 



VI 

III. Radula with few teeth in a row, or none. No pleuropodial 

lobes. 

a. Shell oval, solid, mottled and variegated (except in a few 
deep water forms), spire umbilicated or concealed ; rad- 
ula formula 1.2.1.2.1, the rachidian tooth largest; 3 
corneous, dumb-bell shaped stomach-plates, 



aa. Shell small, unicolored ; no teeth ; 3 flat, oval, stomach- 
plates with coarsely tuberculate inner faces, 

TornatinidcB, Vol. XV, p. 180. 

IV. Radula with few teeth in a row, or none ; pleuropodial lobes 

well-developed or very large (? except in Ringiculidce) . 

shell often concealed and partly uncoiled or degenerate. 

a. Shell obese, ovate, small, with thick outer lip and plicate 

columella (pleuropodial lobes wanting?), 

Ringiculidce, Vol. XV, p. 393. 

aa. Shell few-whorled or degenerate, if spiral the aperture very 
large, as long as the shell. Pleuropodial lobes large. 
b. Shell external to mantle, 

Scaphandridce, Vol. XV, p. 242. 

bb. Shell wholly concealed in the mantle ; no rachid- 
ian teeth. 

c. Radula present ; shell spiral, more or less 

open, wholly calcified; pleuropodia of mod- 

erate size, Philinidce, p. 1. 

cc. Radula present ; shell reduced to a minute 

nautiloid calcareous spire and a large, 

open cuticular body- whorl ; pleuropodia 

extremely large, Gastro2)teridce, p. 39. 

ccc. No teeth ; shell a flattened open spiral ; 

head and back shields subequal, the pleu- 

ropodia reflexed partly over them, 

Aglajidce, p. 43. 

The accompanying diagram expresses the general relationships of 
the families of Cephalaspidea, as understood by the writer. 



vii 



K I 

<# s 



I I t 

ill 

!<?? 



Philinidae. 



Scaphandridse. 

I 



Approximate phytogeny of the families of Cephalaspidea. 

The group of families on the left side are the most primitive of 
recent Tectibranchiata ; the median and right hand groups being 

ir more specialized, and more remote from the Notaspidea and 

[naspidea. 
A phylogenetic table of the shell-bearing Opisthobranchs has been 

jiven by M. Co&smann in a work of great merit, "Essais de Paleo- 
conchyliologie Comparee " (1895), derived mainly from his studies of 
the fossil forms. The great discrepancy between the results obtained 
by the distinguished French author and myself, are in part trace- 
able to the widely different material studied, and in part to the fact 
that Tectibranchs, like Pulmonates, are singularly non-committal in 
the characters of the shell. In fact, I feel that it is not extreme to 
state that the shells alone, in either group, are totally inadequate to 
express the affinities of families and genera. In so many groups are 
the shells more or less degenerate, so many are the cases of parallel 
or converging development of the shells, that conclusions based upon 
them alone, without a knowledge of the soft anatomy for a primary 
guide, are practically valueless for the appreciation of the affinities 
of genera and families, either in Tectibranchiata or Pulmonata. 
There can be no doubt, however, that palaeontology will prove of 
great value in supplementing the evidence of comparative anatomy; 
and the best results can only be obtained by a union of the two 
methods. 



OFTHE 

UNIVERSITT 




UNIVERSITY 



Family PHILINID^. 

Philinidce FISCHER, Man. de Conch, p. 563. 

Shell capable of containing but a small part of the body, entirely 
internal, covered by the reflexed and united mantle ; whitish, fragile, 
open from in front or below, consisting of 2 to 1 whorls; spire sunken 
or absent ; aperture extremely large, the outer lip often produced in 
a lobe or point above. 

Body oblong, the head-shield having no tentacular processes, pro- 
vided with sessile eyes or without them ; foot truncated or rounded 
behind; parapodial lobes very large and conspicuous, more or less 
folded over the back. 

Radula lacking central teeth ; laterals large, uncini few or none. 
Formula varying from 6*1*0*1*6 to 1*0*1. 

The family Philinidce is most nearly allied to Scapliandridw, but 
differs in having the mantle reflexed and closed over the shell, in 
lacking rhachidian teeth, and in the degeneration of the shell as a 
protective armor. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Genus PHILINE Ascanius. 

Shell spiral and moderately developed ; foot about two-thirds thV 
length of body, obliquely truncated. 

Genus? PHILINOPSIS Pease. 

The characters given by Pease are quite insufficient to show the 
position of the group. It may belong to Aglajidce, which see. 

Genus CHELIDONURA A. Ad. 

Shell small, rudimentary, uncoiled ; foot long, rounded behind ; 
epipodial lobes long ; mantle with two tail-like appendages ; head 
with three groups of bristle-bearing tubes. 

Genus CRYPTOPHTHALMUS Ehrenb. 

Shell small, rudimentary, uncoiled ; foot as long as body, rounded 
behind ; parapodial lobes large, as long as foot ; mantle without 
tail-like appendages ; head lacking bristle-like sense-organs. 



2 PHILINE. 

Genus PHILINE Ascanius, 1772. 

Philine ASCANIUS, K. Vet. Ak. Stock. Handl. 1772, p. 329. 
Bullcea LAM., Syst. Anim. s. Vert. p. 63, type B. planciana Lam., 
P. aperta L. (1801). Lobaria MULLER, Zoologise Danicse Pro- 
dromus, p. 226 (1776). Utriculopsis M. SARS, Nyt. Mag. f. Natur- 
videns., 1870, xvii, p. 177 (see p. 16). Colpodaspis M. SARS, Bidr. 
Kundskab. Christianiafjordens Fauna, ii, p. 74 (1870). Colobo- 
cephalus M. SARS, t. c., p. 54, type C. costellatus M. Sars, pi. 11, f. 
7-14. Ossiania MONTS., Nom. Gen. e Spec. p. 147, type P. quad- 
rata S. Wood (1884). Hermania MONTS., /. c.,type P. scabra~M.\ill. 
Phyline and Philwa of some writers. 

-\-Laona A. Ad., Johania Monts. and Megistostoma Gabb. 

Shell ovate or squarish, thin and fragile, smooth, spirally striate 
or punctate, or latticed, translucent, pale colored ; consisting of few 
loosely convoluted whorls, which are entirely open from below ; 
spire sunken ; aperture very large, broadly effuse below, the outer 
lip retracted joining a wide sinus above. Columella thin, arcuate, 
type P. aperta L. 

Animal much too large to be included in the shell. Head disk 
oblong, large, without eyes : parapodial lobes fleshy and erect ; foot 
obliquely truncated behind, the shell and mantle projecting beyond 
it. Mantle reflexed and completely united over the shell. (PI. 3, 
figs. 53, 54, P. aperta ; pi. 4, figs. 77, 78, P. pruinosa'). Gizzard (pi. 
9, figs. 6 from above, 7 lateral view) containing three lozenge- 
shaped plates, with the inner face convex, outer face concave and 
pierced by two foramina (pi. 9, f. 1-3, P. aperta). Sometimes giz- 
zard-plates are rudimentary or absent. 

Radula without rhachidian teeth, the laterals large, erect, claw- 
shaped ; uncini to 6, small, narrow, and curved acicular when pre- 
sent (pi. 9, figs. 4, 5 P. aperta ; fig. 10, P. pruinosa). 

The names Lobaria and Bullcea are absolute synonyms, being 
founded upon the type species of Philine. Utriculopsis, Colpodaspis 
and Colobocephalus were based upon the young of various species of 
Philine, although I believe that the last-named has not been ident- 
ified as yet with any adult form. The dentition of Colobocephalus 
as figured by the younger Sars (see pi. 9, fig. 8) agrees well with that 
of Philine. 

Sometus Ferussac (Tab. Syst. p. xxx) and Blainville (Malaco- 
logie, p. 478), Sormei of Adanson, has sometimes been placed in the 



PHILINE. 6 

synonymy of Philine, but a reference to Adanson's work shows it 
to be a doubtful synonym and practically useless. 

G. O. Sars has proposed an arrangement of the Scandinavian 
Philines based upon the nature of the gizzard-plates, which may be 
calcified or cartilaginous, and the presence and number of uncini ; 
and his scheme forms an admirable basis for the classification of the 
entire genus. Monterosato proposes several sectional groups based 
on shell contour and sculpture, but as these features change gradu- 
ally as we pass from one species to another, the names he gives are 
hardly worth retaining. If sectional names are required the follow- 
ing scheme may serve until a study of the anatomy of all the species 
still unexamined, gives ground for a natural classification. 

Section PHILINE s. sir. 

Shell smooth or with spiral striae or dot-series ; type P. aperta. 
Includes Hermania Monts., type P. scabra ; Ossiania Monts., type 
P. quadrata Wood ; Megistostoma Gabb, type P. striata Gabb not 
Desh.,=P. gabbi Cossm. (Cretaceous). 

Section LAONA A. Adams. 

Shell with latticed sculpture. Contains at present two species only : 
P. pruinosa Clark and P. zonata A. Ad. 

Section JOHANIA Monts. 

Shell with an external pumice like reticulated layer. Type P. 
vestita Phil. No other species are known to belong to this group. 

** * 

Subgenus PHILINE Ascanius. 

I have above expressed the opinion that the sections Hermania 
and Ossiania are no aid to a right comprehension of the internal 
relationships of this genus. As to Megistostoma, the type specimen 
before me shows no departure of value from typical Philine, except 
that the sculpture is not quite like that of any recent species. The 
evidence of a thick inner lip is most unsatisfactory ; the posterior 
lobe of the lip is more produced than in the average P. aperta, but 
probably not more than extreme forms of that species. It is broken 
off in the type, and so appears more rounded than it really was. 

The following table is slightly modified from Sars. It is much to 
be desired that those species not yet sufficiently known to be inserted 
herein, be examined and their positions indicated. 



4 PHILINE. 

Partial Key to Species of Philine. 

a. Gizzard-plates distinct, calcareous. 

b. Uncini 1 on each side, rudimentary ; shell spirally chain- 

striate, oblong : scabra, catena, loveni. 
bb. No uncini ; shell wider. 
c. Shell spirally striolate. 

d. Striate delicate, wavy, close : finmarchica, oss!ansarsi r 

fragilis, japonica. 

dd. Striae thick, opaque : cingulata. 
cc. Very smooth ; no spiral striae : aperta, infortunata. 
aa. Gizzard-plates rudimentary, cartilaginous; 2 uncini on each 
side ; shell with spiral series of oblong rings : punctata, angul- 
ata. 

aaa. Gizzard-plates entirely wanting. 
b. Uncini strong, hamate. 

c. One uncinus on each side; shell very smooth, oblong 

nitida. 
cc. Two uncini on each side; shell spirally chain-striate. 

d. Shell ovate : quadrata. 
dd. Shell oblong : lima, 
bb. Uncini delicate, exserted, little curved, 
c. Six uncini on each side. 

d. Shell latticed : pruinosa. 
dd. Shell striated lengthwise : flexuosa. 
cc. Two uncini on each side ; shell very smooth : velutinoides* 

P. ARGENTATA Gould. Unfigured. 

Shell square-ovate, compressed, very thin, lucid, with the luster 
of talc ; concentrically waved and engraved with transverse silvery 
lines. Apex indented and calloused ; lip widely standing out be- 
hind, subtruncate in front; columella with a distinct fold. Length 
6, diam. 5 mill. Very much like P. scutulum Loven, except in its 
sculpture. Distinguished from P. vitrea by its off-standing lip and 
silvery grooves. ( Old.*). 

Hakodadi Bay, Japan, 2-6 fms. (Stimp.) 

Philine argentata GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. vii, p. 139 ; Otia, p. 111. 
P. ACUTANGULA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell rather squarely ovate, white, thin, somewhat truncated be- 
hind ; transversely sulcate, the sulci excavated-punctate; last whorl 



PHILINE. 5 

with subparallel sides ; aperture open ; lip-edge semicircular, with 
the hind angle incurved, produced and acute. (Ad.*). 

Gulf of Lian-tung ; Hulu-Shan Bay (Ad.). 

P. acutangula AD. Ann. Mag. (3), ix, p. 161. 

The nearest approach to this species is P. scutulum Loven ; but 
the produced sharp hind angle of the outer lip will serve readily to 
distinguish it. (Ad.}. 

P. TRUNCATISSIMA Sowerby. PI. 2, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell short, subquadrate, subcompressed, thin, diaphanous, marked 
with distant concentric opaque lines which are angular in front; 
aperture very wide in front, widely truncated ; outer lip angular. 
(Soub.}. 

Habitat unknown. 

Philine truncatissima SOWB., C. Icon, xviii, pi. 1, f. 5a, b. 

This transparent little species is remarkable for the truncated 
character of the widened anterior, producing an angle on the lower 
part of the outer lip ; which is beautifully indicated by the opaque 
white lines delineating the edges of former outer lips. (Sowb.~). 

P. JAPONICA Lischke. PL 2, figs. 23, 24 (type) ; figs. 17, 18 

(striatella Tap.-Can., enlarged). 

Shell square-ovate, thin, milky or bluish-white, generally pellucid 
below ; sculptured with irregular, low growth-wrinkles and close, 
fine spiral impressed lines, sometimes subobsolete below. Vertex 
narrow, rather deeply umbilicated, showing one whorl ; body-whorl 
with a shallow, wide spiral depression in the middle and another 
above it. Aperture extremely large, broad, effuse and subtruncate 
below, deeply sinused above; outer lip prominent and obtusely 
angular at the junction of the lightly arcuate outer and basal mar- 
gins, produced in a widely rounded lobe above the vertex. Col- 
umella deeply and equably arched, margined by a slight groove. 
Alt. 12-13, diam. 10 mill. ; alt. 14, diam. 1H mill. 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Yokohama (Magenta). 

P.japonica LISCHKE, Malak. Blatter, xix, p. 105 (June, 1872) ; 
Jap. Meeres-Conchyl. iii, p. 77, pi. 5, f. 13, 14. P. striatella TAP.- 
CAN. Zool. del Viaggio intorno al Globo dellaR. Fregata Magenta, 
Malacol., p. 109, pi. 2, f. 9, 9a (shell), 96 (dentition) ; 1874. 



6 PHILINE. 

The squarish form and close, simple striae are characteristic, 
though in some specimens the grooves are rather irregular and 
more spaced, and subobsolete on the base. Often there is an ap- 
pearance of two or three faint, more hyaline bands on the back. 
Occasionally the grooves of the outer surface project as slight raised 
threads inside the shell, as Lischke describes for P. sealpta Ad. The 
dentition according to Tapparone-Canefri, is after the formula I'O'l, 
laterals denticulate. The gizzard-plates of specimens collected by 
Frederick Stearns are well calcified, two of them large, subtriangular, 
with a slight swelling on the middle of the long side, ends attenu- 
ated ; the third is shorter, much narrower and fusiform. P. stria- 
tella T.-C. is undoubtedly synonymous ; the type measured 14 x 11J 
mill., exactly the dimensions of a specimen collected by Stearns. 

P. SCALPTA A. Adams. PI. 2, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell oblong ovate, white, thin, semipellucid ; subplicate length- 
wise, the folds irregular, engraved by wavy, transverse, distant im- 
pressed lines. Aperture ample ; columellar margin thin, acute ; lip 
regularly arched, rounded posteriorly. (Ad.'). 

Bay of Yedo (Lischke) ; Tsu-Sima 30 fms. ; Corea Strait, 46 fins. 
(Ad.). 

P. sealpta AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), ix, p. 160 (Feb., 1862). Lis- 
CHKE, J.M.-C. ii, p. 171 ; iii, p. 76, pi. 5, f. 15, 16. cf. P.sculpta 
(sic), Tap.-Can., Viag. Magenta, p. 109. 

Bulla exarata Ph., or Haminea sinensis A. Ad., is the only species 
resembling this in sculpture ; but the form is very different ; the 
body-whorl in that species is large, and the outer lip narrowed pos- 
teriorly and greatly produced. (Ad.~). 

Lischke has figured this species from specimens collected in the 
Bay of Yedo, and gives the following notes: These have much 
similarity to P.japonica in form, especially in the proportion of the 
convolute portion of the shell to the extremely wide aperture ; but 
the shell is thinner, narrower, equably and less strongly convex than 
in P.japonica; the spire is only superficially sunken, the columella 
without bordering groove, the outer lip not so much extended above. 
Especially different is the sculpture, which here consists of coarse, 
irregular growth-striae and more deeply cut, less wavy spiral grooves, 
more widely spaced, with broader smooth girdles between. These 
grooves are so deep in comparison with the thickness of the shell 
that they form fine raised lines on the interior of the aperture. 



PHILINE. 7 

P. CRENATA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell ovate, white, slightly solid; somewhat angular behind; 
transversely deeply sulcate, the sulci transversely excavated-punc- 
tate, their margins crenate. Aperture dilated ; columellar margin 
obliquely truncated in front; lip semicircular, a little produced be- 
hind and rounded. (Ad.). 

Tsu-Sima 30 fms. ; Korea Strait, 46 fms. (Ad.). 

P. crenata AD., 1. c. p. 160. 

No species has been described resembling this, which is nearly as 
large as P. eoreanica. The edges of the transverse grooves are 
conspicuously crenate, and the puncta or pits are transversely 
oblong. (Ad.). 

P. STRIOLATA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell small, ovate, white, thin, semipellucid, rounded behind ; 
plicate lengthwise, transversely striolate, the striolfe close and very 
fine ; aperture dilated ; columellar margin arcuate ; lip regularly 
semicircular, produced and rounded behind. (Ad.). 

Tsu-Sima, Japan, 30 fms. (Ad.). 

P. striolata AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), ix, p. 161. 

In form this little species most nearly approach es Bullcea pruinosa 
Clark, from the British Seas ; but in sculpture it is entirely differ- 
ent, being very finely transversely striated. (Ad.*). 

P. COREANICA A. Adams. PL 2, fig. 15. 

Shell subquadrately oval ; outer margin rather straight, its upper 
angle truncated ; spire rather elevated. (Ad.). 

Corean Archipelago, on mud flats (Ad.). 

Bulla (Philine) eoreanica A. AD., Thes. ii, p. 601, pi. 125, f. 166 
(shell). B. eoreanica ADS. & KVE., Zool. Samarang, Moll. p. 65, pi. 
18, f. 3 (animal). P. eoreanica SOWB. in Conch. Icon, xviii, f. 3. 

P. VITREA Gould. Unfigured. 

Shell of moderate size, fragile, glassy, pellucid and iridescent; 
roundly ovate, depressed, marked with sinuous concentric waves. 
Apex opaque, hardly indented, showing one whorl. Aperture very 
ample ; lip rounded above ; columella acute, foldless, openly show- 
ing the interior of the shell. Length 10, breadth 8, dorso-ventral 
alt. 3 mill. (Old). 

Hong Kong (Stimp.). 



8 PHILINE. 

Philine vitrea OLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 139, (Oct. 
1859); Otia Conch., p. 111. 

P. ORIENTALIS A. Adams. PI. 2, fig. 16. 

Shell ovate-rounded, subinvolute, white, solid, shining ; no spire; 
aperture large, spreading in front ; lip semicircular, the upper 
angle produced and rounded. (Ad.). 

This species has somewhat the form of P. aperta, but wants the 
transverse impressed groove seen in that species ; the plates of the 
gizzard, moreover, are produced at each end into long, slender pro- 
cesses, somewhat similar to those of P. schrceteri, the shell of which 
is very different in form. (Ad.). 

Lat. 6 54' N., long. 122 18' E. Of Malanipa, Basilan Strait, 
Philippines, 10-20. fms. (Challenger). 

P. oriental-is A. AD., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 672. SOWB. in Conch. 
Icon., xviii, pi. 2, f. 11. WATSON, Chall. Gastr., p. 672. 

P. ANGASI Crosse & Fischer. PI. 3, figs. 59 (type), 57, 58. 

Shell oblong, longitudinally very delicately wrinkle-striate, thin, 
pellucid, shining, hyaline-milky ; apex rounded, a little concave in 
the middle ; convex outside, subcylindrical, spirally convoluted 
within. Aperture very ample at base, the outer margin semicircu- 
lar, simple, acute, extending some above the apex. Interior covered 
with a white, pellucid, very thin callus in adults. Alt. 30, diam. 20 
mill. Stomach plates very solid, looking like a cocked hat. (C. & 
F.). 

St. Vincent's Gulf and Port Jackson (Angas) ; Torres Strait (Bra- 
zier) ; New Zealand (Hutton). 

Bullcea angasi C. & F., Journ. de Conch., 1865, p. 38, pi. 2, f. 8. 
Philine angasi ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 189 ; 1867, p. 227. 
BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 88. Sows, in Conch. 
Icon., xviii, pi. 1, f. 4. WATSON, Chall. Gastrop., p. 671. HUT- 
TON, Journ. de Conch., 1878, p. 41. 

This species has repeatedly been declared identical with P. aperta, 
but it seems to have the lip less angular above than usual in that 
species, and the stomach-plates are probably different, judging from 
the brief remark of C. & F. to the effect that they are very solid 
"et affectent 1'apparence d'un chapeau a cornes." One would 
hardly say this of the plates of P. aperta (pi. 9, f. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7). At 



PHIL1NE. 9 

all events the matter merits further investigation before the conser- 
vative malacologist can be satisfied to declare the Austral and North 
Atlantic forms identical ; and in this connection the alleged occur- 
rence of P. aperta or schroeteri in the Philippines needs confir- 
mation. Watson (7. c.) retains angasi and aperta distinct. 

P. CAURINA Benson. Unfigured. 

Shell ovate-oblong, white, very thin, papery, transversely elegan- 
tly and most minutely striatulate; aperture auriform, narrowed 
above, patulous below ; lip rising above the vertex ; spire none. 
(Bens.). 

Tinghae, Chusan (Dr. Cantor). 

Bullcea caurina BENS., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xxiv, 1855, 
p. 128. 

The part of the body-whorl which is visible when the aperture is 
turned towards the observer, is small in proportion to the mouth. 
The summit of the shell resembles the same part in Bulla navium 
and B. solida, but the outer lip is destitute of the fold where it rises 
above the apex, which appears in those species ; resembling in this 
respect B. ampulla. The thinness of the inner lip locates this shell 
in Bullcea. Its being internal, probably accounts for the state of 
Dr. Cantor's specimens from the contraction of the cooked animals, 
compressing the very fragile shells. The same circumstance may 
have occasioned the want of success met with in the search for liv- 
ing examples. (Bens.). 

P. ERYTHEMA H. Adams. PL 3, fig. 60. 

Shell subquadrate-oval, thin, semipellucid, sculptured with dis- 
tant transverse lines ; aperture ample, dilated in front, the columel- 
lar margin thin ; lip rounded behind, margin arcuate. Alt. 8, 
diam. 6 mill. The gizzard of this species has the plates deeply ser- 
rated on the edges (H. Ad., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 11, pi. 3, f. 11, [shell] 

lla [gizzard plate]). 

Red Sea (McAndrew). 

This is "P. erythrceensis aperta " of Cooke (Ann. Mag. N. H. [5], 
xvii, p. 133). It has been stated to be indistinguishable from P. 
aperta, but there seems to be a strong differential feature in the ser- 
rated gizzard plates, those of aperta being smooth at the edges. I 
do not know whether P. vaillanti is identical with this or not, but in 

TuB 

UNIVERSITY 



10 PHILINE. 

the absence of information leave it independent for the present. 
It is a larger shell than this. 

P. VAILLANTI Issel. Unfigwed. 

Shell oblong, longitudinally unequally wrinkle-striated, thin, 
fragile, a little shining, milky-transparent, translucid, with clear 
bands ; convex outside, ovate ; inside spirally convoluted ; apex ex- 
cavated or perforate ; whorls 1-1 i ; aperture large, the outer mar- 
gin strongly arcuate, simple, acute, projecting a little above the 
apex ; inner margin having a very thin whitish callus. Alt. 27, 
diam. 20 mill. ; alt. 24, diam. 19 mill. (Issel'). 

Suez, etc., (Issel). 

P. vaillanti ISSEL, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 166, (1869).=J5. angasi 
Vaillant, J. de C., 1865, p. 110, not of C. & F. 

Compare P. aperta and P. erythrcea. 

P. APERTA Linne. PL 3, figs. 47 to 56. PI. 9, figs. 1, 2, 3 gizzard 

plate ; 4, 5 radula; 6 mouth, radula-sack and stomach seen from 

above ; 7 seen from the side. 

Shell squarish-oval, depressed in front, very thin and fragile, 
semitransparent, glossy and iridescent; sculpture, plait-like and 
irregular lines of growth and a few extremely slight and more ir- 
regular spiral lines, which latter are not discernible except with a 
lens and at certain angles of light; the texture examined under a 
microscope resembles curdled milk ; color whitish, with sometimes 
two or three clear streaks across the back ; spire very loosely coiled, 
with the nucleus extremely small and concealed by a shelly deposit 
from the hinder lobe of the mantle ; it is always more or less in- 
dented, and in the young is slightly umbihcate ; mouth roundish- 
oval, of enormous size compared with that of the convoluted portion 
and occupying seven-eighths of the under surface; it is obliquely 
truncated above and rounded below ; outer lip dilated, with a sinu- 
ous and very thin edge ; the upper part slopes outwards and projects 
considerably beyond the spire ; inner corner receding and acute- 
angled ; inner lip spread over the pillar, and forming at the angle 
where it meets the outer lip, a thick and shapeless callus; pillar 
sharp and flexuous; there is no umbilical groove or depression. 
(Je/r.). 

Alt. 21, diam. 17 mill. 



I. L 

qua 
qua 



PHILINE. 11 

Norway to the Canaries and Cape Verde Is. ; Mediterranean ; low 
water to 50 fms ; Cape of Good Hope ; (Chemnitz, Krauss) ; Quer- 
imba Is. and Inhambane, E. Africa; (Peters). 

Bulla aperta L., Syst, xii, p. 1183. Bullcea aperta LAM., Anim. 
s. Vert, vi, p. 30. Philine aperta FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Brit. 
Moll., iii, p. 539, pi. 114e, f. 1 ; pi. uu, f. 1. JEFFREYS, Brit- 
Conch., iv, p. 457, v, pi. 96, f. 8. HIDALGO, Mol. Mar. Esp., pi. 21, 
f. 6, 7. MEYER & MOBIUS, Fauna Kieler Bucht, p. 77, f. 1-6. 
BUQ., DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll. Rouss., i, p. 540; pi. 63, f. 10-15. 
VAYSSIERE, Rech. Moll. Opisto., p. 33, pi. 1, f. 18-21. SARS, Moll- 
Reg. Arct. Norv., pi. xi, f. 15, (anatomy), and of authors generally. 
See Arch. Zool. Exper., iv, 483, for account of double monsters. 
Phylina quadripartita ASCANIUS, K. Vetensk. Ak. Stock. Handl., 
1772, p. 329, pi. 10, f. A, B. CHENU, Manuel de Conch., i, p. 392, 
f. 2972. A. AD., Thes. Conch., p. 599, pi. 125, f. 159. Lobaria 
driloba MULLER, Zool. Dan., iii, p. 30, pi. C, f. 1-5. Lobaria 

idrilobata GMEL., Syst. xiii, p. 3143. Bullcea plandana LAM., 
Syst. An. s. Vert., p. 63. PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 94, pi. 20, 
f. 3. Bullcea schroeteri PHIL., /. c. p. 94, pi. 20, f. 2. KRAUSS, 
Siidaf. Moll., p. 70. Philine schroeteri A. AD., Thes., p. 600, pi. 
125, f. 160. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 88. 
Bullcea capensis PFR., Krit. Register zu Mart. & Chemn., p. 93. 
Philine capensis MARTENS, Monatsber. K. P. Akad. Wissensch. zu 
Berlin, 1879, p. 738. Amygdala marina PLANCUS, De Conchis 
minus notis, pp. 21, 103, pi. 11, f. d-g. Bulla Candida MULLER, 
(teste Jeffreys]. Bulla bulla DACOSTA, Hist. Nat. Test. Brit. p. 30, 
pi. 2, f. 3, (1778). Bulla emarginata J. ADAMS, Trans. Linn. Soc., 
v, 1800, p. 2, pi. 1, f. 9-11. 

P. aperta L., typical, may be retained for the shells from Cape of 
Good Hope (type locality) and European Seas, with the synonymy 
given above. B. schroeteri Phil. (fig. 50) and B. capensis Pfr. are 
synonyms of the Cape form, the other names belong to the European 
form, which, if it should prove distinct, will be called P. quadripar- 
tita Asc. P. plandana Phil. (pi. 3, f. 47, 48, typical figures, and 
fig. 49) is a synonym of this. 

Var. patula Jeffreys. Smaller, with the mouth larger and more 
expanded. Tenby, Dublin Bay, Connemara. (Brit. Conch., iv, p. 
458). 



12 PHILINE. 

With this species have been united by many late writers, forms of 
Philine from the Red Sea, Australia, etc., which so far as the shells 
are concerned seem to be almost, if not quite inseparable. It 
remains to be seen whether the dentition and gizzard-plates will 
offer features differentiating the Atlantic and Mediterranean form 
from those of the Indo-Pacific. The descriptions of these forms 
have been given above, but the question of their status is of course, 
an open one. 

P. SCABRA Miiller. PI. 5, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell resembling in shape a miniature Scaphander lignarius, but 
more cylindrical; it is of a delicate texture, semitransparent, and of 
a glistening and iridescent lustre ; sculpture, numerous and close-set 
spiral and parallel rows of minute oval dots which are interwoven 
and arranged like the links of a chain ; some of these rows being 
intermediate, and apparently squeezed or compressed, at the sides 
become merely fine lines ; the front edge or base of the mouth and 
top of the outer lip are exquisitely fringed with sharpish points, 
like short teeth of a comb; color clear white when the shell is ex- 
tracted from the animal, afterwards becoming milk-white ; spire 
slightly prominent; whorls 3; the body whorl (as usual in this 
genus) is disproportionately large and voluminous; the other two 
are small with an indistinct and thickened nucleus ; suture deep 
and channelled ; mouth acute-angled above, and greatly expanded be- 
low, with a squarish base; outer lip gently curved, folding inwards 
on the upper part ; the top of this lip is below the spire ; inner cor- 
ner cloven or excavated, so as to cause a disjunction of the suture in 
front and a partial separation of the body-whorl from the next ; 
inner lip forming a rather thick and broad glaze. (Je/r.). 

Alt. 5-8 mill. 

Iceland, Greenland and Norway south to the Bay of Biscay; Med- 
iterranean Sea at Sicily, etc. ; Whydah, W. Africa. 

Sulla scabra MULL., Zool. Danica, ii, p. 41, pi. 71, f. 10-12. 
Philine scabra FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll., iii, p. 543, pi. 
114E, f. 4, 5 ; pi. VV, f. 1. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch., iv, p. 447 ; v, 
pi. 96, f. 1. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 294, pi. 18, f. 13a-c. 
Scaphander scabra SOWB. in Conch. Icon., f. 6. S. sealer SMITH, P. 
Z. S., 1871, p. 738. B.pectinata DILLWYN, Descr. Cat. Rec. Shells, 
p. 481. " B. pectinata MULL." of some authors, not of Miiller! 
B. denticulata J. ADAM^, Trans. Linn. Soc., v, 1800, p. 1, pi. 1, f. 3, 






PHILINE. 13 

4, 5. Scaphander catenatus LEACH, Synops. Moll. G. B., p. 40. 
Bullcea catena and B. catenulifera MACGILLIVRAY, Hist. Moll. Anim. 
Aberdeen, Kincardine and Banff, p. 68, (1843). Bullcea dilatata 
SEARLES WOOD, olim, see Crag Moll., i, p. 181, pi. 21, f. 12a-c. 
? Bulla angmtata Bivona, Phil., Enum., i,p. 121, pi. 7, f. 17c. ? B. 
punctata PHIL., 1. c. ii, p. 95. (See under next species). Scaphander 
patulus Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 51. Bullcea granulosa 
M. SARS, Beskriv. og lagttagelser, p. 75, pi. 14, f. 36, (1835). 

Some of the earlier names quoted above are more or less doubtful. 
It is allied to P. catena, but readily distinguishable. 

P. CATENA Montagu. PI. 5, figs. 23, 24, 25. 

Shell oval, compressed and expanding outwards, of delicate but 
not fragile texture, semitransparent and glossy ; sculpture, numerous 
and close-set spiral rows of minute links, arranged in a chain-like 
fashion, which vary in shape from roundish-oval to oblong, besides 
occasional intermediate lines as in P. scabra; the edge of the mouth 
(especially at its base and on the upper part of the outer lip) is 
finely scalloped by the continuation of the spiral sculpture ; color 
as in the last species ; spire extremely small, but prominent ; whorls 
2-3, similar (except in size) to those in the last species ; suture nar- 
row, deep and channelled ; mouth equalling about three-fourths of 
the circumference of the shell, broadly oval, contracted above by 
the periphery, with a bluntly rounded (or almost truncated) base; 
outer lip flexuous, slightly indented or concave in the middle ; the 
top is level with the spire, the shell being placed mouth downwards ; 
inner corner cloven and producing the same partial disconnection 
of the body-whorl as in the last species ; inner lip forming a broad 
and thickened glaze. (Jeffr.). 

Alt. 2J to 4 mill. ; the larger forms from northward. 

Lofoten, Norway and British Seas south to Gulf of Gascony and 
Canary Is.; Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; laminarian zone. 
Coralline Crag ; Post-pliocene of Calabria. 

Bulla catena MONT., Test. Brit., p. 215, pi. 7, f. 7. Phil ine catena 
FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll., ii, p. 545, pi. 114E, f. 6, 7 ; 
pi. uu, f. 4. JEFFREYS Brit. Conch., iv, p. 449 ; v, p. 224, pi. 96, f. 
2. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 294, pi. 26, f. 6a-c. BUQ., 
DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll. Rouss., i, p. 543, pi. 64, f. 21, 22. Bullcea 
catina BROWN, Illustr. Conch. G. B., p. 57, pi. 19, f. 33, 34. Bui- 



14 PHILINE. 

Icea angustata Bivona, PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 121, pi. vii, f. 
17 a, b, d. Bullcea punctata PHIL., 1. c. ii, p. 95 (not of Clarke). 
JBullcea catenata THORPE, Brit. Mar. Conch., p. 138, pi. 7, f. 81, and 
of Requien and Petit.? Bulla punctata J. ADAMS, Trans. Linn. 
Soc., v, p. 2, pi. 1, f. 6-8, 1800. ? Bullcea punctata MOLLER, Ind. 
Moll. JBullcea sculpta SEARLES WOOD, Crag Moll., i, p. 180, pi. 21, 
f. 10a-c. 

Var. zona Jeffreys. Rather more depressed, with a belt of clear 
white in the middle, taking in from eight to ten of the chain-like 
rows. Bigberry Bay near Plymouth, and Guernsey. 

P. LOVENI Malm. PI. 4, figs. 83, 84, 85. 

Shell thin, semipellucid, oblong, rather narrow, wider below, 
tapering toward the apex, the vertex narrowly truncate, hardly 
oblique ; spire distinct ; whorls 3. Aperture expanded and obtusely 
rounded below, much contracted above. Sculpture as in P. scabra; 
lip edge smooth throughout, not dentate or serrate. Alt. 7 mill. 
Radula as in P. scabra. 

Norway. 

Philine loveni MALM, SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 295, pi. 
26, f. 5a-d. 

P. FINMARCHICA M. Sars. PL 5, figs. 14, 15, 16. 

Shell thin and fragile, pellucid, of an oblong-ovate form, dilated 
in the middle, the vertex obliquely truncate ; spire minute, im- 
pressed ; whorls 2 ; aperture ample, equably rounded at base and 
rather expanded, contracted behind, the outer lip slightly concave 
in the middle; above forming a narrow lobe scarcely produced 
above the vertex ; columella equally concave. Surface sculpt- 
ured with extremely close simple undulating spiral striae, and less 
close oblique growth-striae ; edge of lip smooth. Alt. 7 mill. 
Lateral teeth rather large, with a finely serrulate crest inside ; no 
uncini ; formula I'O'l. (Bars'). 

FinmarJc. 

P.finmarchica SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. p. 296, pi. 18, f. Wa-d. 

P. OSSIANSARSI Friele. Frontispiece, figs. 19, 20, 21, 22. 

Form oval, the number of whorls 2 -3 are visible on the spire 
which is depressed and in line with the body- whorl ; apex small and 



PHILINE. 15 

not raised ; suture shallow round the top whorl, but deepens toward 
the aperture, and terminates in a rather short and narrow slit; 
ventral whorl is of a size equal to about half the aperture ; col- 
umella much curved, mouth large, piriform, expanded and rounded 
below, contracted above but not pointed; lip very little sinuous, and 
somewhat concave on the upper part ; the inner lip forming a very 
thin callus on the pillar. Shell thin and white ; sculpture consists of 
numerous lines of growth and microscopical close-set transverse 
lines. Alt. 9, diam. 6*5 mill. 

Cold area, N. Atlantic, Norweg. N. Atl. Exp. 1876, station 18, 
400 fins, and station 87, 488 fms. 

Philine Ossian-Sarsi FRIELE, Nyt Magazin for Nattirvidenska- 
berne, 1877, xxiii, 3, p. 9, f. 19 (shell), 19a, b (radula), 19e. (gizzard 
plate) ; Jahrb. D. M. G. iv, 1877,j>. 264. P. ossiani KOBELT, I. c. 
footnote. 

Seems to be a more attenuated species than finmarchica or frag His, 
the species most nearly allied. 

Fig. 22. The teeth (radula) has 16 joints. Gizzard is armed with 
three uncommonly large and stout plates, fig. 21, measuring no less 
than 6 mm. The living animal being 15 mm. long the gizzard 
consequently measures two-fifths of its length and two-thirds of the 
shell. (Friele). 

P. FRAGILIS Sars. PI. 5, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Shell very thin and fragile, pellucid, slightly opaline: ovate, 
rather ventricose, the base widely rounded, vertex truncated by 
nearly a straight line ; spire distinctly impressed ; whorls 3 ; aper- 
ture very ample ; outer lip flexuose, somewhat projecting toward 
the vertex, the terminal lobe rather wide, truncated ; columella pro- 
foundly concave; umbilical impression distinct, linear. Surface 
sculptured with numerous growth-striae decussated by dense, un- 
dulating spiral lines. Alt. 11 mill. Lateral teeth having a smooth, 
not serrate, keel within; no uncini; formula I'O'l. 

Vadso, Nonvay in deep water. 

P.fragilis SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 296, pi. 18, f. lla-c. 

P. CINGULATA Sars. PI. 5, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell minute, but less fragile than ordinary, subopaque, quad- 
rangular-ovate, nearly as wide as long, dilated in the middle; vertex 



16 PHILINE. 

obliquely truncate, the spire impressed, whorls 2. Aperture patul- 
ous, roundly truncate at base, the outer lip nearly straight in the 
middle, the posterior lobe projecting a little above the vertex ; col- 
umella equally emarginate. Surface conspicuously spirally strio- 
late, stria? thick, opaque, formed of a series of many confluent im- 
pressions ; lip edge slightly crenulated. Alt. 2 mill. Lateral teeth 
of radula having a distinctly serrate crest inside ; no uncini ; form- 
ula l-O'l. (Sars). 

Lofoten, Norway, 120-200 fms. 

Philine cingulata SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 297, pi. 26, 
f. 7a-c. 

The comparative solidity, strong sculpture and total lack of un- 
cini are characteristic. 

P. INFORTUNATA Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 5, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell very thin and pellucid, glassy, rotundly-ovate, slightly 
longer than wide, the base equably rounded ; vertex obliquely 
truncate, narrow ; spire distinct, impressed. Whorls 2. Aperture 
very large and spreading, the onter lip obliquely expanded, con- 
tinued above the vertex and forming nearly a right angle there. 
Columella deeply concave. Surface very smooth, rather shining, 
lacking spiral striae, the growth-striae arcuate and very delicate. 

Alt. 3 mill. 

Lofoten, Norway, 

Philine vitrea G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 298, pi. 26, f. 
8a, b. Not P. vitrea Gould, 1859. 

Utriculopsis vitrea M. SARS, Nyt Mag. f. Naturvidens., 1870, xvii, 
p. 177, pi. 11, f. 15-18 (animal only, exclusive of shell, which Dia- 
phana globoaa, cf. Manual vol. xv, p. 286) ; Bidr. til Kundskab Chris- 
tianiafjordens Fauna, ii, p. 65, pi. 11, f. 15 (not f. l6-]8,=Diaphana 
globosa Loven). Compare BROGGER, Bidr. Krist. Moll. Fauna, p. 
40; Zool. Rec. ix, p. 141. 

The globose form, angularly produced upper lobe of the lip, and 
lack of spiral striae, are characteristic. The synonymy is not wholly 
satisfactory, but as I have not the means of settling it, I have been 
content to follow Sars' view, which is that the elder Sars figured 
under the name vitrea the animal of this species and the shell of 
Diaphana globosa. His figures of the latter are copied for com- 
parison on pi. 3, f. 44, 45, 46. See preceding volume, p. 286. 



OP THE 
XTNIVERSITY 



PHILINE. 17 

P. PUNCTATA Clark. PI. 4, fig. 69 ; pi. 9, fig. 9 ( Colpodaspis}. 

Shell oval, convex, but somewhat compressed in the middle, of 
delicate texture, nearly transparent, and glossy; sculpture, ex- 
tremely numerous and close set spiral rows of minute rings or im- 
pressed circular dots, which are not united or chain-like, but appear 
punctate ; edge of the mouth plain at its base and slightly scalloped 
at the top of the outer lip ; color as in all the foregoing species ; 
spire very small, but prominent ; whorls 2, similar to those of the 
other species ; suture narrow, deep, and channelled ; mouth regu- 
larly oval, rounded at the base ; outer lip flexuous, widely indented 
or slightly concave in the middle ; the top lies somewhat below the 
spire ; outer corner bluntly angulated, and projecting ; inner corner 
cloven and causing a disconnection of the outer whorl from the next ; 
inner lip narrow, folding over the pillar, behind which is a depres- 
sion or approach to an umbilicus. (Jeffr.). 

Alt. 2*, diam. 1-9 mill. 

British Seas (Jeffr.) ; Florben, etc., Norway (Sars) ; Algiers, 35 
fms. (McAndrew) ; Suda Bay,, Candia, Aegean Sea, 119 fms. 
(Forbes) ; Cape S. Vito and Palermo (Monts.). 

Bullcea punctata CLARK, Zool. Journ. iii, 339. Philine punctata 
FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Br. Moll, iii, p. 547, pi. 114E, f. 8, 9 ; pi. 
UU, f. 5. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch, iv, p. 455 ; v, pi. 96, f. 5. AD. 
in Thes. Conch, p. 600, pi. 125, f. 161. SOWB., C. Icon. f. 9. Bullcea 
alata FORBES Rep. ^Egean Invert., Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. 1843, 
p. 187. Colpodaspis pusilla M. SARS, Bidrag til Kundskab om 
Christianiafjordens Fauna, ii, p. 70-74, pi. 11, f. 1-6. G. O. SARS, 
Moll. Reg. Arct.Norv. pi. xii, f. 15 (dentition). 

P. ANGULATA Jeffreys. PI. 3, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell rhomboidal, depressed, fragile, transparent and glossy; 
sculpture, numerous rows of very fine spiral striae, composed of oval 
and almost microscopic dots, and appearing punctate; the upper 
part of the body-whorl is angulated or margined by a sharpish keel, 
between which and the suture is a flattened space marked with 5 of 
the spiral strise and sloping towards the spire; there is also a 
tendency to angularity in other parts; edge of the mouth plain or 
smooth ; color clear white, becoming opaque in dead specimens 
which have been picked out of shell-sand ; occasionally one or two 
transparent zones may be seen, as in the variety of P. catena; spire 
extremely small, slightly prominent ; whorls 2-3, conspicuous ; the 
2 



18 PHILINE. 

outer edge of each is keeled or ridged ; suture deep and channelled ; 
mouth squarish, remarkably wide and large, nearly truncated at the 
base ; outer lip forming an obtuse angle at the junction of the front 
and base ; the top is higher than the spire, and it projects outwards; 
inner corner deeply and widely cloven, so as to make the disjunction 
of the outer whorl from the next very conspicuous ; inner lip forming 
a narrow but thick ledge or fold, behind which is a slight depres- 
sion. (Je/r.). Alt. 2-5, diam. 1'9 mill. 

Larne Co., Antrim, Hebrides and Shetland, 60-80 fms. ; Aber- 
deenshire. 

Philine angulata JEFFR., Brit. Conch, iv, p. 451 ; v, pi. 96, f. 3. 
SOWB. in C. Icon, f. 12. 

The keeled spire will serve to distinguish this from any other 
species of Philine having conspicuous spire and chain-like sculpture. 

P. NITIDA Jeffreys. PI. 4, figs. 81, 82 ; figs. 79, 80. 

Shell oblong, convex, very thin and fragile, nearly transparent, 
and of a polished luster ; sculpture, none on the body-whorl ; but 
the spire has two keels or ridges, one at the outer edge of each whorl, 
and the other in the middle, giving this part an angulated appear- 
ance, color clear-white, becoming opaque in dead specimens ; spire 
flattened, placed somewhat obliquely; it is quite exposed and 
occupies the top of the shell; whorls 2J, irregularly twisted, but dis- 
tinct ; suture deep and excavated ; mouth oval, truncated above, 
wide and rounded below, its area equals about two-thirds of the 
under surface ; outer lip expanded, squarish at the top, and gently 
curved in the middle; it is level with the spire, viewed mouth 
downward, and is below it, viewed mouth upwards ; outer corner 
angular and projecting ; inner corner considerably receding and 
acute-angled ; inner lip forming a broad glaze on the upper part, 
and reflected on the pillar; there is no umbilical groove or de- 
pression. (Jejfr.). 

Alt. 1-8 mill. 

Stye; HaroldswickBay, Unst ; Ulfsfjord and Tromso, Norway. 

Philine nitida JEFFR., Brit. Conch, iv, p. 456 ; v, pi. 96, fig. 7. 
Philine sinuata Stiinps., BARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 298, pi. 26, 
f. 9o-c. 

Jeffreys' figures would hardly justify the union of his species with 
that of Sars, but the description leaves little doubt of their identity. 



PHILINE. 19 

Compare P. sinuata Stimp. The keeled vertex, exposed spire and 
lack of spiral striation are its more prominent features. 

P. SINUATA Stimpson. Frontispiece, fig. 23. 

Shell minute, ovate, white, pellucid, longitudinally striated ; spire 
conspicuous; aperture dilated in front. Alt. 1'75, diam. 1*25 mill. 
(Stimps.). 

Broad Bay, Boston Harbor, 4-7 fms., sand. 

Philine sinuata STIMP., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. iii, p. 333 (1850) ; 
Shells of New England p. 51, pi. 1, f. 7. GOULD-BINNEY, Invert. 
Mass. p. 213, fig. 502. 

Evidently allied to P. nitida Jeffreys, but the crown is not acutely 
keeled as in that form, and is narrower. 

P. QUADRATA S. Wood. PL 5, figs. 17, 18 19 ; pi. 3, fig. 43. 

Shell squarish-oval, convex, contracted or compressed on the 
upper part below the spire, and bluntly angulated in the middle ; it 
is not very thin, is semitransparent, and when fresh of a glistening 
luster ; sculpture, numerous rows of fine spiral strise, which are com- 
posed of minute oval dots and appear punctate ; these strise are irreg- 
ularly disposed, being in some parts more close together than in 
others, and they here and there form intermediate and slight lines; 
the upper part of the body-whorl is thickened and rounded, and the 
middle is furnished with a blunt and slight spiral rib, which is usu-' 
ally visible also within the mouth ; the top of the outer lip is deli- 
cately scalloped ; color white, crystalline when extracted from the 
animal ; spire small, more or less sunken ; apex obscure ; whorls 2- 
3 rounded; the inner ones are minute; suture deep ; mouth broadly 
oval, contracted above by the periphery, and expanded below, with 
the base obliquely curved and somewhat truncated ; it occupies 
about two-thirds of the underside of the shell ; outer lip nearly 
straight in front and forming an obtuse angle at the junction of that 
part with the base ; the top is rather higher than the spire, and pro- 
jects outwards; outer corner bluntly angular or rounded; inner 
corner receding and acute-angled, but not exhibiting any further 
disjunction of the outer whorl from the next ; inner lip broad and 
thick. ( Je/r.~). Alt. 7-8 mill. 

Northern British Seas ; Scandinavia ; Greenland ; off New Eng- 
land; Bay of Biscay (Jeffr.) ; off Fayal, 50-90 fms., and St. Miguel, 
Azores, 100 fms. (Chall.) ; Si. Helena, 50-80 fms. (Capt. Turton). 



20 PHILINE. 

Bullcea quadrata WOOD, Ann. N. H. (n. ser.) iii, p. 461, pi. 7, f. 1 ; 
Crag Moll, i, p. 179, pi. 21, fig. 9. Philine quadrata FORBES & 
HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll, iii, p. 541, pi, 114E, f. 2, 3. JEFFREYS, 
Brit. Conch, iv, p. 452 ; v, p. 224, pi. 94, fig. 4 ; Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), 
vi, p. 318. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1890, p. 297. P. qvadrata var. grandis 
Leche Kongl. Sw. Vet. Akad. Handl. xvi, p. 75, 1878. SARS, Moll. 
Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 299, pi. 18, f. 9; pi. xii, f. 7. Sows., C. Icon., 
f. 13. GOULD-BINNEY, Invert. Mass. p. 213, f. 503. WATSON, 
Chall. Gastr. p. 672. P. seutulum LOVEN, Ind. Moll. Scand., Ofvers. 
Kongl. Vet- Akad. Forhaudl. 1846, p. 9 ; AD. in Thes. Conch., p. 
601, pi. 125, f. 164. SOWB. in Conch. Icon. f. 6. P.formosa STIMP., 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. iii, p. 334; Shells of New England, p. 51. 

Leche indicates a var. grandis, alt. 10, diam. 7 mill., from the 
Kara Sea. 

P. MONTEROSATOI Jeffreys. PL 4, fig. 65. 

This shell resembles P. quadrata, but is more transparent, ordina- 
rily larger, and has a system of sculpture of great beauty. It is also 
distinguished by the aperture which is rounder, and by a visible 
groove extending from summit to the median part of the shell. 
(Monts.). 

1 Adventure ' Bank, Mediterranean, 92 fms. (Jeffr.) ; Palermo and 
St. Vito (Monts.) ; Marseilles (Marion) ; Gulf of Gascony (Hiron- 
delle). 

P. monterosatoi Jeffr. MS., MONTS., Not. Conch. Medit. p. 55 ; 
Journ. de Conch. 1874, p. 281. DAUTZENBERG, Mem. Zool. Soc. 
France iv, 1891, p. 613, pi. 16, f. 3. 

P. LIMA Brown. PI. 5, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Shell not fragile, rather soli.d, narrowly oblong, the base wider 
and obtusely rounded, the vertex narrow; spire distinct, more or less 
raised, sometimes almost mamillate. Whorls 3-4, separated by a 
narrow suture ; aperture narrowed above and remote from spire, 
below a little dilated ; outer lip slightly sinuous, appressed above, 
hardly lobed ; columella a little concave. Surface sculptured with 
spiral pairs of scalloped lines forming a chain, alternating with 
other more appressed lines ; edge of the lip smooth. Alt. 7 mill, or 
less. (Sars}. 

Ulfsfjord t north of Tromso, Norway; Cape Cod to Grand Manan; 
Palermo ; (Monts.). 



PHIL1NE. 21 

Utriculus lima BROWN, 111. Conch. G. Brit., p. 58, pi. 19, f. 39, 
4Q. Philine lima SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 300, pi. 18, f. 
12a-/. Bulla lineolata COUTH., Bost. Journ. N. H., ii, p. 179, pi. 3, 
f. 15, (1839) ; Amer. Jour. Sci., xxxvi, p. 389, (1839). GLD., Invert 
Mass., i, p. 169, f. 99. DEKAY, N. Y. Moll., p. 16, pi. 35, f. 334. 
Philine lineolata STIMP., New Engl. Shells, p. 51. GLD.-BINN., 
Invert. Mass., p. 214, f. 504. LECHE, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. 
1878, p. 76. 

P. FLEXUOSA M. Sars. PI. 4, figs. 86, 87, 88, 89. 

Shell ovate, white, pellucid, thin, much contracted and slightly 
sinuate above ; growth strise very dense, spiral stria obsolete and 
distant. Spire minute; whorls 6, impressed, slightly umbilicate. 
Aperture widest in the middle, produced and rounded below, nar- 
rowed above; outer lip arcuate, slightly pressed inward and sinuous 
above, then produced, projecting a little way above the vertex, sep- 
arated by a narrow sinus from the columellar margin. Columella 
sinuate-arched, rimate, covered with a thin callus. Alt. 10, diam. 
7 mill. 

Aasgaardstrad,w. side Gulf of Christiania (Sars) ; Yucatan Strait, 
640 fms. (Blake). 

Philine flexuosa M. SARS, Nyt. Mag. f. naturvidens. xvii, p. 181, 
pi. 11, f. 23-26; Bidrag til Kundskab om Christianiafjordens 
Fauna, pp. 69, 70, pi. 11, f. 23-26; Christ. vid.Selsk. Forh., 1858, 
p. 85. G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 303, pi. xii, f. 13 
(dentition). DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 59. 

P. VELUTINOIDES G. O. Sars. PL 5, figs. 26, 27, 28. 

Shell very thin and fragile, extremely pellucid, hyaline, of a 
peculiar ovate triangular form, the length and breadth nearly equal, 
narrowed and rounded towards the base, wider and truncated at 
vertex ; spire distinct, obliquely impressed ; whorls 2J,the first half- 
globular, suture deep. Aperture spreading, the outer lip much ex- 
panded and arched, upwardly projecting above the vertex in an 
obtuse, rounded lobe ; columella slightly concave, bearing a thin, 
reflexed callus, spreading over part of the ventral surface and partly 
covering the narrow umbilicus. Surface very smooth, shining, 
without spiral strise, but with very delicate, arcuate growth-lines. 
Alt. 2-7 mill. (Sars). 

Lofoten, Norway. 



22 PHILINE. 

Philine velutinoides SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., 1878, p. 302, 
pi. 26, f. 10a-c. 

The wideness of the upper part is peculiar and unusual, and lenda 
much probability to the view that Utriculus ventrosus Jeffr. (Dia- 
phana ventricosa Jeflfr., Vol. XV, p. 284) may be the same. In 
that case, velutinoides will become a synonym of Jeffreys' species. 

P. POLARIS Aurivillius. PL 3, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell very thin, fragile, pellucid, oblong-ovate ; whorls 3-4. Aper- 
ture ample, expanded at base, contracted above, the outer lip more 
appressed than in P finmarchica. Surface covered with spiral, very 
delicate pairs of lines, scalloped chain-wise. Alt. 3, diam. 2*5-2 
mill. Radula with the formula 2'1'0'1'2, laterals and uncini eden- 
tulous, of equal length. (Auriv.~). 

N. of Siberia, lat. 73 5', E. long. 144 20', and 73 28', 164 KK, 
8-9 fms. 

P. polaris AURIV., Vega-Exped. Vetenskapliga laklagelser, iv, 
pp. 371, 380, pi. 12, f. 21, 22 (shell) ; pi. 13, f. 18 (radula). 

Shell has most similarity to P. finmarchica. but the radula is more 
like that of P. quadrata except that the laterals apparently have 
no serrate crest. A more proper grouping of the species geograph- 
ically would bring it among the N. Pacific forms, but faunally the 
Arctic Sea is allied more to the N. Atlantic. 

P. MEMBRANACEA Monterosato. 

I do not know that a description or figure of this form has been 
published. The diagnoses of Mediterranean forms of Tectibranch& 
and Polyplacophora in Carus' Prodromus Faunae Medit. are such a 
maze of blunders that the work is not worth quotation ; but this 
form is not mentioned therein. 

Coast of Algeria 207 fms. (Jeffr.); Gulf of Naples (Acton); 
Palermo 60-90 meters (Monts.). 

Pflexuosa Sars, MONTS., Nuova Rivista, p. 48 ; Enum. e Sinon., 
p. 52. Not P. flexuosa M. Sars. P. membranacea MONTS., Bull. 
Soc. Mai. ItaL, vi, p. 78. 

P. STRIATULA Jeffreys. 

Resembles P. punctata Clark in size, but differs in the spire, sys- 
tem of sculpture and the more dilated aperture. (Monts.). 



PHILINE. 23 

Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi, p. 318 ; Rep. Br. Asso., 1873, p. 114, as 
Utriculus striatulus. See Nuova Ri vista, p. 48, and Journ de Conch. 
1874, p. 281. 

Still undescribed, unless the preceding note by Monterosato be 
called a description ; and originally mentioned as a Utriculus by in- 
advertence. Reported thus far from off coast of Algeria 207 fms. 
(Jeffr.), Palermo and St. Vito, 90-200 meters (Monts.), and Bay of 
Biscay (Jeffr.). 

P. VITREA Monterosato. Undescribed ; unfigured. 

Palermo, 90 meters. 
Nuova Rivista, p. 48. A nude and preoccupied name. 

P. INFUNDIBULUM Dall. Unfigured. 

In the multiplicity of species of Philine this one is best described 
by a comparative diagnosis. The soft parts externally are whitish, 
and resemble P. quadrata and P. finmarchica as figured by G. O. 
Sars. It is nearest P. quadrata so far as shell characters go, and 
belongs to the group of species which have the spire entirely im- 
mersed and the posterior junction of the outer lip descending upon 
it in a sort of spiral. The shell is thin, pellucid, and finely closely 
spirally striate. It differs from that of P. quadrata chiefly by its 
larger size and the much smaller proportion wrapped in the body- 
whorl. The soft parts though larger, are remarkably like those of 
P. quadrata, but in that species the ventricular plates are wanting. 
In the present species they are present and of large size, the large 
(right) plate being lozenge-shaped, whitish and slightly concave on 
the side of insertion, covered with a convex, polished nearly smooth 
brown coating on the interior, which is generally worn away by 
friction toward the center. The small plates are nearly the shape 
of half the large one partly hollow and without granules. They 
resemble on the whole, the plates of P. angulata Jeffreys as figured 
by Sars (loc cit., t XII, fig. lOd), but are larger, longer, and more 
pointed at the extremities. The adult shell comprises about two 
whorls, maximum length 12'0, max. breadth 9'0 mm. The large 
plate measures about 4'0x8'0 mm. The axis of the shell is wound 
in a wide pervious spiral, and the body-whorl viewed from below 
extends about half way across the base from side to side, and two- 
thirds the distance from the apex to the front edge. (Dall, Blake 
Gastr., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 57, 1889). 



24 PHILINE. 

Off Bahia Honda, Cuba, in 220 fins. ; near St. Kitts in 245 fms., 
sand ; of Gaudelupe in 175 fms., sand ; off Dominica in 372 fms., 
sand ; off Dominica 138 fms., near Barbados in 118 to 209 fms. 

Bottom temperatures ranging from 43 to 64 F. 

This seems to be a rather common species from the frequency with 
which it was taken. It differs entirely from P. sagra Orbigny, and 
is wider and squarerthan P. candeana Orb., in which, moreover, 
the spire is represented as visible for two turns at the apex. (Dall). 

P. PLANATA Dall. Unfigured. 

Shell resembling that of P. aperta Linne, but flatter, smaller, 
more quadrangular, with a shorter and smaller body whorl, more 
polished surface, and with an impressed spiral line near the apex 
which extends to the margin, where it marks a slight sinus, behind 
which the posterior margin is prolonged into a rounded prominent 
point. The shell is brilliantly polished and smooth except for lines 
of growth, but near the apex are a few microscopic faint spirals 
invisible without a lens. The spire is wholly immersed and makes 
in all about one and a half turns. The ventricular plates are 
formed like those of P. infundibulum, and not like those of P. aperta. 
The outer surface of the right plate has two longitudinal blackish 
lines. The two small plates are somewhat more arched than in P. 
infundibulum. The inner or triturating surface is similar in both. 
The length of the largest shell observed is 11 '5 and its breadth 
9-0 mm. 

The soft parts are in general much the same as in P. aperta, but 
the cephalic lobe extends farther back and the foot is rounder, flat- 
ter and less rolled up at the sides. As seen from below the body 
whorl of the shell equals only about one-sixth of the total width. 

Off Dominica in 138 fms.; off Barbados in 140 to 209 fms., bottom 
temperature 50 to 56 F. 

The species is readily distinguished from any other of the group 
by the posterior point, which, though smaller, recalls that of Cheli- 
donura Adams. The soft parts, however, have no resemblance to 
the very peculiar figure of Quoy and Gaimard. P. amabilis Ver- 
rill is much nearer P. aperta, from which, as far as the shell is con- 
cerned, it chiefly differs by being a little narrower than the average 
aperta. The species are, however, quite variable in this respect. 
(Dall. Blake Gastr., p. 58). 



PHILINE. 25 

P. SAGRA d'Orbigny. PL 4, figs. 61, 62, 63. 

Shell oblong, thin, fragile, loosely spiral, depressed, wide and 
truncate below, rather narrowed and truncate above ; covered with 
spiral lines of small oblong rings placed end to end, alternating 
with a waved stria following the intervals of the rings, and giving 
the appearance of a chain (fig. 62) ; spire embraced, not umbilica- 
ted, but forming a projecting disk. Aperture very wide, the interior 
of all the whorls visible therein ; lip thin, crenulated. Uniform 
white. Alt. 3, diam. 1J mill. (Orb.}. 

Martinique on the strand (Cande) ; St. Thomas (Riise) ; off Hat- 
terns 15 fins. (U. S. F. C.). 

Bulla sagra ORB. Moll. Cuba, i, p. 123, pi. 4, f. 5-8, (1841). 
Philine sagra MORCH., Mai. Bl., xxii, p. 175. VERRILL, Tr. Conn. 
Acad., vi, p. 467, pi, 45, f. 16, 16a. DALL, Cat. Mar. Moll. S.-E. 
U. S., p. 88, pi. 41, f. 16, 16a. 

P. AMABILIS Verrill. Unfigured. 

Shell very thin, diaphanous, delicate and shining with bright iri- 
descence; very large for the genus, and very open, showing the in- 
terior of the spire, broad oblong, with rounded ends ; outer lip 
evenly rounded posteriorly and scarcely projecting beyond the spire; 
apex occupied by a shallow pit. Sculpture, conspicuous wavy lines 
of growth and microscopic wavy spiral striae over the whole sur- 
face. Length of shell 15, breadth 10 mill. Odontophore with a 
large hook-shaped inner lateral tooth on each side, and a slender 
spiniform outer one. Gizzard large, with three calcareous plates. 
Station 876, several living specimens. ( Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci. 
[3], xx, p. 398). 

Off Martha's Vineyard, in 120 fms. 

P. CANDEANA d'Orbigny. PI. 4, figs. 70, 71, 72. 

Shell uniform white, ovate, thin, fragile, much depressed, trans- 
versely striate when viewed under a lens ; spire very obtuse ; whorls 
2 ; columella dilated within, acute ; aperture very large, dilated 
above and spreading. Alt. 12 mill. 

Guadeloupe (Cande). 

Bullaza candeana ORB., Moll. Cuba, i, p. 119, pi. 4, f. 1-4. Phi- 
line candeana MORCH, Mai. 



OP THE 

UNIVERSITY 




26 PHILINE. 

Section LAONA A. Adams. 

Laona AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xv, p. 324 (April, 1865). 
P. ZONATA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell dull white, ornamented with two wide transverse red-brown 
bands; latticed with close, delicate, crenulated longitudinal lamel- 
lae and concentric striae. (Ad.). 

Osima and Yobuko, Japan (Ad.). 

Laona zonata A. AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xv, p. 324, (April, 
1865). 

This species is type of the group Laona, reckoned to be of generic 
rank by Adams, and thus defined : 

" Shell semiovate, thin, rimate, roughened by lamellose growth 
striae ; spire concealed ; last whorl large and rounded ; aperture 
ample, oblique; roundly-oval ; lip receding, arcuate ; inner lip sim- 
ple. The British Bulla, pruinosa belongs to the same group, which 
offers the peculiarity of a decussate surface. The form of the shell 
is also so different from that of any other division of Eullidce that I 
consider it desirable to point out the significance of these shells by 
giving them a distinctive name. The animal is unknown." 

P. PRUINOSA Clark. PL 4, figs. 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78. 

Shell oval, tumid, but compressed or pinched in below the apex, 
more solid than any of its congeners, nearly opaque, glossy in the 
young only ; sculpture, numerous strong and irregular longitudinal 
wrinkly strife (fringed at their edges) and finer spiral striae, which 
by intercrossing give the surface a reticulated and frosty aspect, or 
that af lace work ; the reticulation is less distinct in full grown spe- 
cimens ; the very young have spiral rows of circular dots as in P. 
punctata ; edges of the mouth plain ; color white, with frequently 
a broad tawny band round the middle and a tinge of the same hue 
on the upper part; these markings are rather evanescent, and ap- 
pear to be superficial ; spire very small, sunk below the apex or 
crown, which is considerably thickened; whorls 2. irregularly 
twisted and indistinct; suture deep and excavated; mouth oval, 
contracted above by the periphery and inflexion of the outer lip ; 
curved below; it occupies about two-thirds of the under surface; 
outer lip flexuous, widely indented in the middle, and bending in- 
wards above ; edge often thick ; the top slightly exceeds the crown 



PHILINE. 27 

in height ; outer corner rounded ; inner corner receding and acute 
angled ; inner lip broad and rather thick on the upper part, occa- 
sionally forming in the middle a tooth-like process or fold (in one 
specimen converted into a cluster of minute pearls), behind which 
is a distinct umbilical groove or depression. (Jeffr.~). 
Alt. 6 mill. 

Northern British Seas; Norway. 

Bulla pruinosa CLARK, Zool. Journ., iii, p. 339. Philine pruinosa 
Forbes & Hanley, Hist. Brit. Moll., iii, p. 549, pi. 114F, f. 1, 2. 
JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch., iv, p. 454 ; v, pi. 96, fig. 6. SARS, Moll. 
Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 301, pi. 18, f. 8a, b, e.B. (Philine} pruinosa 
AD., in Thes.,p. 600, pi. 125, f. 162. P. pruinosa SowB.,in C. Icon, 
f. 10. Laona pruinosa AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xv, p. 324. 
Philine granulosa M. SARS, teste G. O. Sars. 

The latticed sculpture distinguishes this species from others of the 
N. Atlantic. 

Var. dilatata Jeffreys. Nearly smooth, more expanded and some- 
what angular at the sides, and abruptly attenuated towards the 
crown. Alt. '75, diam. '05 inch. (Jeffr.~). 

Section JOHANIA Monterosato. 

Johania MONTS., Nomenclature Generica e Specifica di alcune 
Conchiglie Mediterranee, p. 147, type B. retifera Forbes=.Z?. vestita 
Phil. (1884). 

P. VESTITA Philippi. PI. 4, figs. 66, 67, H8. 

Shell oblong, loosely convoluted, tapering towards the spire; 
lacking transverse striae ; brown, covered with a white net-work ; 
spire truncated, umbilicate. Alt. 10, diam. 6 mill. (Phil.}. 

Palermo and Si. Vito (Monts.) ; JEgean Sea (Forbes). 

Bulla vestita PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 95, pi. 20, f. 4, 
(1844)._ Bulla (Scaphander) vestita A. AD. in Thes. Conch., p. 574, 
pi. 121, f. 48. vestita Sows.. C. Icon., f. 7. Bulla retifer FORBES, 
Rep. JSg. Invert., in Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1843, p. 187, 
(1844). Philine retifera MONTS., Journ. de Conch., 1874, p. 281. 

Peculiar in its netted ornamentation. The name given by Phil- 
ippi was accompanied by figures. The preface of the Enumeratio 
Molluscorum Sicilian bears date " August, 1843," while the title page 



28 COLPODASPIS. 

is dated 1844, so that the volume was probably issued early in the 
latter year. Forbes' very brief diagnosis has never been illustrated, 
and was presented at the August meeting of the British Associa- 
tion, the Report of which bears date of 1844 on the title page. 
While the absolute priority of Philippi's name cannot, perhaps, be 
proven, it is at least probable; and the mere fact that his type was 
well illustrated in a standard work on malacology should give his 
name the preference. The animal is unknown. Monterosato sur- 
mises that it may not be an internal shell, on account of the 
peculiar nature of the outer layer. 

Genus? COLPODASPIS M. Sars, 1870. 

Coipodaspis SARS, Bidrag til Kundskab om Christianiafjordens 
Fauna, II, p. 74. GARSTANG, P. Z. S. 1894, p. 664 (1895). 

" Shell internal or wholly covered by the mantle, bulloid, thin, 
subglobose-ovate, spire a little projecting, depressed, apex truncate, 
nucleus simple, not mamillar " (Sars). For characters of softs parts 
see below. 

The genus was founded upon a small mollusk of problematic 
relationship, which Fischer has suggested may be a young Philine, 
which disposition of it was followed on preceding pages (2, 17) of 
this work. Garstang's work upon a specimen recently captured by 
him shows it to possess features notably different from Philine, and 
indeed from any Cephalaspidia ; and his paper has, therefore, been 
incorporated herein. 

G. PUSILLA Sars. PI. 2.1, figs. 1-5 ; pi. 9, fig. 9. 

Shell rimate, very thin, but rigid, hyaline, becoming whitish when 
dried, subglobose or ovate, smooth ; whorls 3, the last one large ; 
spire very short and obtuse ; aperture large, oval or subpyriform ; 
lip acute, arched, not impressed, produced and rounded in front ; 
columella nearly straight, about half as long as the shell. 

Alt. If, diam. 1 mill. 

Drobak, Norway, 70-80 fms. (M. Sars, Aug., 1864) ; 20 fms. 
(Sars, June, 1865) ; Hortert, 14-20 fms. (G. O. Sars) ; near Ply- 
mouth, England, 15 fms. (Garstang, Feb., 1894). 

Mr. Garstang's description is as follows : 

This Plymouth individual was one-eighth of an inch (3*125 mm.) 
in length. In color it was snow-white, speckled with opaque white 
spots. When the animal^was inverted, a position which it frequently 



COLPODASPIS. 29 

assumed in captivity in order to creep, after the manner of so many 
Nudibranchs, along the surface-film, a large glandular mass of an 
orange color could been seen through the skin in the anterior part 
of the posterior prolongation of the mantle, where this organ lay be- 
neath the foot. This glandular mass of an orange color in all prob- 
ability represents the " rounded brownish-yellow mass " observed by 
Sars in a similar position and termed by him the liver. The ante- 
rior edges of the foot, the dorsal and posterior edges of the tentacles, 
and parts of the ventro-lateral region of the mantle were ciliated. 

The animal consists of a foot, a small tentaculated head, an elev- 
ated globose body, and a posterior tail-like pallial appendage. 

The Foot. Sars states that the foot is well developed and of 
about the same length as the mantle ; that in front it is as broad as 
the mantle, but becomes considerably narrower behind, and termin- 
ates in an obtusely rounded extremity. He further states that its 
anterior edge is divided in the middle by a deep incision into a pair 
of lappets with rounded extremities. These statements are perfectly 
borne out by his figures (pi. xi, figs. 1, 4); but comparison with 
those supplied by myself shows that a somewhat different interpreta- 
tion must be made of the anterior parts of the foot. The two lappets, 
which in Sars' figures are shown to be directed forwards, are not 
really, as he maintains, the divaricated halves of the anterior part 
of the foot, but are rather to be regarded as a pair of expansions of 
the antero-lateral margins of the foot, analogous to the anterior 
horns of the foot in many Aeolids, but differing from the latter in 
their greater size and obtuse extremities (PL 21, fig. 2). Sars' 
figures also indicate that they are capable of being directed forwards ; 
but I never observed them in this position myself, and must regard 
the condition represented in my figures as more normal than the 
former. These antero-lateral processes are so considerable that, in 
view of the affinities indicated by other organs of Colpodaspis, I am 
strongly inclined to regard them as homologous with those pleuro- 
podial expansions so frequently met with among Opisthobranchiate 
mollusks. This view receives strong support from the fact that in 
Haminea hydatis of the Mediterranean (which appears to be a differ- 
ent species from the hydatis of British naturalists) the pleuropodia, 
according to Roule, are scarcely developed except on the sides of 
the anterior region of the body. Here to judge from Roule's figure 
they form elongated obtuse flattened expansions of the foot remark- 
ably like those of Colpodaspis, differing only in their greater size 
and in the power of retro-flexion over the back of the body. 



30 COLPODASPIS. 

The foot, upon this interpretation, must accordingly be described 
as T-square shaped, with gracefully arched anterior wings and 
rounded extremities, and of about the same length as the shell-bear- 
ing portion of the mantle. The median furrow of its plantar surface 
is shown in my drawing (fig. 2) to have the same extent as in Sars' 
specimens. 

The Head. The grooved tentacles in my opinion correspond with 
Sars' description, except that no mention is made in the latter of a 
low curved ridge which can be seen in my figure 1 crossing the ante- 
rior part of the head from side to side and connecting the postero- 
dorsal edges of the two tentacles with one another. The eyes also 
are much closer together in the Plymouth individual than they are 
represented to be in Sars' figures; and the statement of the latter 
that they are situated " close behind and within the base of the 
tentacles" cannot be said to be applicable in the present case. I do 
not, however, think that any great importance should be attached 
to those slight discrepancies. 

When Colpodaspis pusilla is creeping upon a flat surface, the 
antero-lateral horns of the foot are just perceptibly in advance of 
the tentacles (fig. 1) ; but when the creature is swimming inverted 
at the surface of the water the tentacles are then seen to be consider- 
ably in front of the horns of the foot (fig. 2). 

The Body. I have no addition to make to Sars' account of the 
body proper, except that in the Plymouth specimen the edges of the 
pallial siphon were more closely opposed than seems to have been 
the case with Sars' individuals. 

Pallial appendage. When the animal is creeping upon the bottom 
of a vessel, a broad flattened tail-like appendage projects behind the 
mantle and seems at first sight to be the posterior section of the 
foot. Examination of the animal from the ventral aspect, how- 
evers, reveals that this appendage is in reality a posterior prolonga- 
tion of the hinder margin of the mantle to the morphological left of 
the pallial siphon (fig. 2). 

In Philine catena also, according to Roule, the mantle terminates 
posteriorly in a convex margin, a little below which are two fleshy 
prolongations, "which can be mistaken for the posterior border of 
the foot when the animal is contracted." His figures unfortunately 
do not show this point at all well (pi. i, fig. 25), and Forbes and 
Hanley's figure, though clearer, does not seem to represent the 
anatomical relations correctly (1. c., pi. UU, fig. 4.) 



COLPODASPIS. 31 

In Philine aperta the plantar surface also consists both of foot and 
mantle; but this part of the mantle does not correspond with the 
pallial appendage of Colpodaspis, as it contains the viscera and shell. 
If it be examined, however, from the ventral aspect, the pallial 
siphon is seen on the left hand, as in Colpodaspis (fig. 2), and to the 
right of the siphon, the mantle is seen to be prolonged into a short 
free membranous border, which overhangs the siphonal groove and 
even extends slightly behind it. The relations of this slight expan- 
sion are such that I think it may be regarded as the rudimentary, 
or probably vestigial, representative of the pallial appendage of Col- 
podaspis. 

Radula. This organ was not described in Sars' original paper, 
but a figure of it was given (without description) in a later work by 
G. O. Sars (see pi. 9, fig. 9). There is a single admedian series of 
sickle-shaped denticles on either side, and two series of slender later- 
als, the formula thus being 2'1'0'1'2. I was unable to lay open the 
contracted radula of my specimen, owing to its excessive minute- 
ness; but I determined that the rows in the radula were from 25 to 
30, and isolated individual denticles and half-rows by teasing with 
needle. Some of these are drawn as figure 3 of my Plate. The 
admedian denticles of this radula differ from those figured by Sars 
in presenting a sharp distinction between their terminal and prox- 
imal parts. The handle of the sickle shows an angular projection 
from its inner or concave edge, like the corresponding denticle in 
Colobocephalus costellatus as figured on plate 9, fig. 8. The lateral 
denticles also furnish an additional point of resemblance be- 
tween the radulse of these two types in that their points are slightly 
bent in a plane at right angles to that of their general surface, so 
that, when the denticles are mounted flat upon a slide, their points 
are directed upwards towards the observer. 

Shell. Sars has described the shell so accurately that I have noth- 
ing to add to his description ; but my figures being on a larger scale, 
represent its form and wonderful delicacy rather better. 

Summary. On the whole, I think this Plymouth specimen pre- 
sents features which indicate a slight advance on the organization of 
those described and figured by Sars. I may mention its greater size 
(3-125 mm. as compared with 2'5 mm.), the greater differentation 
of the tentacles, pallial siphon, and admedian denticles, and perhaps 
some increased extension of the free margin of the shell. 

Affinities. Sars was not quite certain whether Colpodaspis be- 
longed to the Opisthobranchia at all, and was much impressed by 



32 COLPODASPIS. 

the fact that the foot is attached to the body by a somewhat narrow 
stalk a feature which it shares with most Prosobranchs. Gwyn 
Jeffreys even informed him that he was inclined to consider 
Colpodaspis as the young of Cyprcea europcea a view which now, 
at any rate, can no longer be entertained. 

In spite of our ignorance of the anatomy of Colpodaspis we may, 
however, as a result of the above observations, be certain that 
Colpodaspis is a true Opisthobranch. It resembles various Cephal- 
aspidea in the pleuropodial expansions of its foot (cf. Haminea), in 
the posterior appendage of the mantle (Haminea, Philine), in its 
inflated shell (Haminea, Utriculus), and in its radula (Philine). On 
the other hand it resembles the-Notaspidea, and differs from the 
above types of Cephalaspidea, in the great extent of the mantle and 
in the form of the head and tentacles. In the latter point it again 
resembles the Anaspidea, for in the young Aplysia, as I have often 
observed, there is only one pair of tentacles (the anterior one) for a 
considerable period, and these are grooved just as in Celpodaspis 
and Pleurobranchus. These various points of resemblance are all 
explicable if we regard Colpodaspis as a very primitive type of 
Tectibranchiate mollusk, belonging indeed to the Cephalaspidea, but 
retaining in an unspecialized condition an unusual number of those 
primitive characters which the common ancestors of the Cephalas- 
pidea and Notaspidea alike possessed. It supplies an ind ubitable con- 
necting-link between these two great subdivisions of the Tecti- 
branchia; but it belongs to the group Cephalaspidea, in spite of the 
inappropriateness of the name, owing to its acquisition of pleuropodial 
expansions and a posterior pallial appendage two associated 
features which are especially characteristic of this group. 

The question still remains open whether or not the creature de- 
scribed by Sars and myself has assumed its adult features. Fischer 
has suggested that Colobocephalus costellatus and Colpodaspis pusilla 
are possibly only young stages of Philine or of neighboring genera 
of Tectibranchs, owing to the radula in these two types resembling 
very closely the radula of certain species of Philina (velutinoides, 
lima, angulata). This theory, however, is in my opinion, altogether 
untenable in the case of Colobocephalus, which, beyond the radula, 
presents no particularly cephalaspidean, or even Opisthobranchiate, 
features. The probability, on the other hand, that the Philinidse 
have been derived phylogenetically from a Colpodaspis-like ancestor 
is sufficiently great to render Fischer's view in this case worthy of 




COLOBOCEPHALUS. 33 



consideration. The white color of the body and the early enclosure 
of the shell by the mantle support this view ; but the fact that all 
the specimens so far taken, which have been captured at such differ- 
ent times of the year as June, August, and February, have been 
practically identical in structure, and have shown no special approach 
towards the adult organization of Philine, seems to me to render the 
view improbable. The possession of a similar radula by so different 
a creature as Colobocephalus rather minimizes than supports the 
view which Fischer has expressed. 

Fig. 1, Colpodaspis pusilla, from Plymouth. Dorsal view of the 
animal creeping upon a flat surface ; enlarged. F. Foot ; M. 
Mantle enclosing shell ; P. Pallial appendage ; S. Pallial siphon. 

Fig. 2, Ventral view of same, as creeping inverted on the surface- 
film. PI. Pleuropodial expansion ; T. Tentacles. 

Fig. 3, Half row of radula-denticles. 

Figs. 4, 5, The shell, much enlarged. 

\ 

Genus? COLOBOCEPHALUS Sars, 1870. 

Colobocephalus M. SARS, Bidrag til Kundskab om Christiania- 
fjordens Fauna, II, p. 56. 

Shell subauriform, very thin, submembranous, with inconspicuous 
epidermis or none ; spire small, the suture deep ; aperture very 
large ; ends of peristome disunited ; columella flexuous ; no oper- 
culum. 

Animal not completely retractile into the shell; head with vertical 
revolute tentacular processes ; no tentacles ; eyes sessile on neck ; 
foot with anterior-lateral processes, the sole large and oblong, trun- 
cated behind, having a median lengthwise furrow ; mantle not re- 
flexed over the shell. Radula as in Philine. 

A form of problematic relationships, which Fischer surmises may 
be the young of Philine. 

C. COSTELLATUS M. Sars. PI. 21, figs. 6-12 ; pi. 9, fig. 8. 

Shell pellucid, colorless, somewhat rigid (when dried ashy-whit- 
ish, subpellucid, shining), subglobose, wider than high ; whorls 3, 
the last large, ornamented with low, narrow, longitudinal, somewhat 
sigmoid riblets. Spire very short and obtuse. Aperture longitu- 
dinal, ovate; columellar lamina very thin, revolute over the wholly 
covered umbilicus, then visibly narrowed, produced, and continued 
3 



34 CHELIDONURA. 

in the outer lip which is acute, very thin, arcuate and in the middle 
subimpressed ; posteriorly it is produced in a rounded lobe, separ- 
ated from the body of the shell by a profound sinus. 
Alt. 2, diam. 2 mill. 

Drobak, 70-80 fms. ; Valid 200-230 fms. 

Coloboeephalus costellatus M. SARS, I. c., pi. 11, f. 7-14. 

Pig. 6, animal from above, magnified 10 diameters, showing head- 
processes, anterior lobes of foot (pleuropodia), and truncate tail. 
Fig. 7, animal from below. Fig. 8, lateral view. Figs. -9-11, the 
shell. PI. 9, fig. 8, half row of radula denticles. 

Genus CHELIDONURA A. Adams, 1850. 

Vhelidonura AD., Thes. Conch., ii, pp. 561, 601. Chelinodura 
PISCHER, Manual de Conchyl., p. 564. Hirundella GRAY, Figures 
of Molluscous Anim. iv, p. 95, type' " H. Jiirundinaria" (1850); 
'Guide Syst. Disk Moll. B.M., p. 193. 

Shell concealed in the mantle, small, ear-shaped, thin and fragile, 
subspiral, composed of one whorl; aperture very large, rounded be- 
low, the outer lip produced far above the vertex in a long, acute, 
curved process. 

Animal elongated, the front margin of the head-disk armed with 
bristle-like sense-organs, its posterior lying over the back in a long 
tongue-like lobe. Mantle produced behind in two tail-like pro- 
cesses ; foot truncate and subauriculate in front, rounded behind, 
the mantle-appendages projecting behind it ; parapodial lobes long, 
curving over the head-shield and back. Dentition unknown. Type 
C. hirundinina Q. & G. 

This genus differs from Philine in the more reduced shell, the 
peculiar sense-organs of the head, the long posterior mantle-processes 
and brilliant coloration of the animal. The species are from Mau- 
ritius and east Australia. 

C. HIRUNDININA Quoy & Gaimard. Frontispiece, figs. 15, 10; 

PL 2, figs. 25, 26, 31-35. 

Shell small, fragile, entirely open ; white ; right margin flat, 
winged, acute posteriorly. 

This singular Bulla is an inch long. The head presents three 
little bunches of short bristles in front. The posterior append- 
age, bifurcate in the other species, has no lobes, but ends in a 
simple lanceolate tongue, extending over the back. A transverse 



CHELIDONURA. 35 

groove separates the posterior part of the body, which terminates 
in two long filaments resembling the tail of a swallow. Mantle 
[parapodial lobes] reflexed on each side, embracing head and body. 
Color so dark that the eyes are not visible. The shell, contained in 
the thickness of the mantle, is very small, thin, very open, slightly 
spiral. Gill placed far back on the right side, forming the arc of a 
circle, with its ramifications on the convex side. Ground-color very 
deep blue ; top of the head, back, median line of posterior tails and 
mantle-edge have a line of greenish-blue or emerald. One individ- 
ual out of forty has a whitish cross on the back, and all the blue 
lines are edged with a line of gold. 

Isle of France, (Mauritius) ; Fouquets, at low water. 

Sulla hirundinina Q. & G., Zool. de 1' Astro!, p. 367, pi. 26, f. 20- 
25. B. (Chelidonura) hirundinina A. AD., in Thes., ii, p. 601, pi. 
125, f. 167, 168. Chelidonura hirundinina MARTENS in Mobius' 
Reise nach Mauritius, p. 305, pi. 21, f. 5, 6. Hirundella hirundina- 
ria GRAY, Figs. Moll. Anim., p. 95. 

The specimens collected and drawn by Prof. Mobius are described 
as follows (pi. 2, figs. 31-35) : 

When creeping 25 mill. long. Head with three low lobes, the 
middle one lower than the others, behind prolonged in a tongue- 
shaped lobe which lies over the back as far as the region of the 
heart. The posterior segment of the body is higher and broader 
than the head. It extends in two acute, laterally compressed ap- 
pendages, which are outwardly convex, inwardly concave ; the left 
appendage is larger than the right. The foot has lateral lobes 
which extend up over the back to the median line or lap over a lit- 
tle. One specimen (fig. 31) was brownish-black ; the head brownish- 
red above, with an encircling red marginal line. On the back were 
two long, brown tracts, bounded by red lines. The posterior body 
also has a brown middle tract bounded by red, extending in two 
points upon the terminal appendages, and two lateral tracts. Along 
the red lines run blue-green lines. On the head there is a triangu- 
lar yellow-white spot with fine black dots. A smaller lunate spot 
of the same color is on the hind end of the tongue-like head-lobe, 
and behind this a similar, larger spot on the back. Below and in 
front of the latter the heart was seen to pulsate. 

A second specimen (fig. 32) was bluish-black with yellow spots, 
more numerous on the back than on the ventral side; the reflexed 
foot-margins on the back having a narrow clear green edge. 



36 CHELIDONURA, CRYPTOPHTHALMUS. 

The snail crawls slowly, the posterior appendages usually being 
dragged straight out behind. On the front of the head on each lateral 
lobe and the neighboring sinuses stood numerous peculiar sense 
organs, appearing under the lens like bunches of bristles. They 
consist of flexible conical tubes (fig. 34, x 25, and figs. 33, 35, 
x 300) on the blunt distal ends of which is a bunch of many fine 
hairs. The free end of the tubes can be drawn in. Under the 
base of the bunch of hairs is an egg-shaped ganglion (fig. 35) in 
which a nerve ends. The free end of the tube is exserted appar- 
ently by its circular muscles, or perhaps by ingress of blood. 

C. ADAMSI Angas. Vol. XV, pi. 59, fig. 14. 

Head furnished in front with a short silky fringe ; mantle ter- 
minating behind in two long bifurcate filaments, foot elevated on 
each side, embracing the head and mantle, rounded both in front 
and behind; color velvet-black, with a white crescent on the 
hinder part of the mantle ; the head and the outer edge of the foot 
are bordered with a line of brilliant blue ; a line of the same color, 
bifurcated in front, extends down the back, and the posterior fila- 
ments are ornamented in the middle with a similar line ; parallel 
with these blue lines, and at a short distance from them, are lines 
of a gold color ; and spots of the same appear above the white cres- 
cent on the back, and at the bifurcation of the posterior filaments. 
Shell internal, very small, thin, flat, with the right border termina- 
ting in a point. Length 2 inches. (Aug.). 

Rock-pool at low water at Vancluse Bay, Port Jackson. 

C. adamsi ANG., P. Z. S., 1867, pp. 116, 227, pi. 13, f. 32. 

This species may be identical with the individual alluded to by 
Quoy as having been met with at the Mauritius among numerous 
specimens of his Sulla hirundinina, but which was not described by 
him. I have named it in honor of my friend, Mr. Arthur Adams, 
the founder of the genus Chelidonura. (Angas). 

Genus CRYPTOPHTHALMUS Ehrenberg, 1831. 
Cryptophthalmus EHRENB. Symb. Phys. Evert. 

Shell internal, minute, white, fragile, the left margin incurved in 
the middle, but not enrolled ; body whorl expanded, produced in a 
pointed process above. 

Body elongated ; head shield small, truncate in front, bilobed be- 
hind, bearing minute, sessile eyes on its anterior surface; foot as 



CRYPTOPHTHALMUS. 37 

long as the body, its sides produced in large parapodial lobes which 
fold over the back. Gill small, projecting backward from under 
the shell on the right. Male orifice near the foot edge on the right 
side in front. Female orifice in front of the gill, below the tubu- 
lar anal opening. Dentition unknown. Type, C. smaragdinus 
Leuckart. 

C. SMARAGDINUS Leuckart. PI. 6, figs. 29-36. 

The animal is beautiful emerald green mingled with light green 
marking. The shell is 8 mill, long, covering the gills, and covered 
by a delicate mantle-layer. It is fragile, thin, translucent, white. 
The side margins are only slightly curved toward each other, with- 
out whorls or columella. The two broad, thick, free lateral para- 
podial lobes may be reflexed over the back, entirely closing over 
the gill. The free end of the gill, similar to that of Aplysia, may 
project behind the shell. Tentacles wanting. Head shield distinct, 
raised, two-lobed behind. In front, above the mouth, there is on 
each side a small eye, not visible in the specimens preserved in 
spirit. The body on each side of the head shield and within the 
parapodial lobes, has a series of short oblique folds. Ventral sur- 
face more or less convex. Genital openings and anus as in Aplysia. 
Length of body two inches. In alcohol they measure one inch. 

Red Sea at Tor and Suez ; Mauritius ; Reunion. 

Bidla smaragdina RUEPPEL & LEUCKART, Neue wirbellose 
Thiere des Rothen Meeres (in Atlas zu der Reise im nordlichen Af- 
rika von Eduard Riippell, Erste Abtheil. Zoologie), p. 26, pi. 11, f. 
2 a-d (1828). Cryptophthalmus olivaceus EHRENBERG, Symbol* 
Physicae, seu Icones et Descriptiones Animalium Evertebratorum, 
etc., Decas prima, Mollusca, pi. 1, f. II A G. B. (Crypt.} olivacea 
A. AD. in Thes. ii, p. 598, pi. 121, f. 56. Cryptophthalmus smarag- 
dinus MARTENS, in Mobius' Reise nach Mauritius, p. 305. 

When contracted, the animal assumes a globular shape (pi. 6, 
fig. 31, anterior view ; fig 30, dorsal view). In fig. 36, the lateral 
lobes are separated. 

The nameless species mentioned by von Martens as being near 
the genus Cryptophthalmus, in Beitrage zur Meeresfauna der Insul 
Mauritius u. der Seychellen, p. 343, pi. 21, f. 7, is a Haminea. 

C. CYLINDRICUS Pease. PL 2, figs. 36, 37, 38. 

Shell unknown. Animal elongate, cylindrical, smooth, sides 
nearly parallel. Cephalic disk short, about one-fourth the entire 



38 CRYPTOPHTHALMUS. 

length of the animal, depressed, subcordate, triangular, convexly 
truncate in front, posteriorly separated by a fissure into two lobes, 
eyes deeply immersed in the cephalic disk, inconspicuous from 
above, their position being indicated by small pale spots, they can 
be distinctly seen by turning up the sides of the disk. The lateral 
lobes closely envelope the body, extending from the head to the ex- 
cretory tube, the left one overlapping the right ; excretory tube at 
the posterior end of the body, short convolute. There is no groove 
between the lateral lobes and the locomotive disk. Color dusky 
olive, margins of the cephalic disk paler than centrally, and foot 
paler than above. When disturbed, the animal contracts itself as- 
suming a spherical form. Its motions are languid. Station on sea- 
weed in shallow water. (Pse.). 

Tahiti, on seaweed. 

Crypt, cylindricm PSE., P. Z. S. 1861, p. 245; Amer. Journ. 
Conch, iv, p. 74, pi. 7, fig. 7. 

Section PHANEROPHTHALMUS Adams, 1850. 

Phanerophthalmus A. AD., Thes. Conch, ii, pp. 559, 599. Xan- 
thonella GRAY, Figs. Moll. Anim. iv, p. 95 (1850). 

Shell small, white, wholly buried in the mantle ; entirely open, 
the spire indicated by an incurved hook on the middle of the left 
margin ; lip prolonged in a point above. 

Animal large, elongated, with foot as long as the body. Cephalic 
disk short, bearing distinct sessile eyes, bilobed behind ; parapodial 
processes large, reflexed and meeting over the back. Male orifice 
anterior, female posterior. 

The parapodial lobes are rather smaller than in Cryptophthalmus > 
and the eyes more posterior. 

C. LUTEUS Quoy & Gaimard. PL 2, figs. 27, 28, 29, 30. 

Shell small, fragile, white, oval, open, not spiral ; right margin 
sinuous and acute. 

Body much elongated, rounded ; head shield emarginate in front, 
rounded at the sides, with two short posterior lobes ; foot widened 
in front, then constricted, rounded behind ; parapodial lobes long, 
curved over the back where they meet in a sinuous groove and a 
small hiatus behind. Eyes small, black, widely separated. Gill 
posterior, to the right, not visible externally. A groove joining 
the genital openings is on the same side. Shell contained within 



GASTROPTERON. 3if 

the back above the gill ; it is very small, white ; oval, entirely open, 
without trace of a spire except the hook on the left margin. The 
lip is prolonged in a curved point above. It is entirely sulphur yel- 
len. Copulation always reciprocal. Length (of shell) 6, diam. 4 
mill. 

Port Dorey, New Guinea, on Zostera, at low water mark. 
Bulla lutea Q. & G., Voy. de 1'Astrol. ii, p. 369, pi. 26, f. 40-44. 

Family GASTROPTERID^. 

Shell wholly covered, consisting of a minute nautiloid, calcareous 
spire and a large open last whorl of very delicate membrane or 
cuticle. 

Body elongated, the fore part bearing a head shield, hind part 
nude, short, sack-shaped, the mantle edge conspicuous along the 
right side. Foot long, its borders produced in extremely wide lat- 
eral wings or pleuropodia. Stomach without plates; penis sack not 
grooved, and with a long prostate. 

Radula with the formula S'TO'l'd, the teeth as in Philine. 

This family is characterized by the enormous size of the lateral 
extensions of the foot, which are used as swimming organs, instead 
of being folded over the back as they are in the preceding groups. 
The shell, moreover, is non-calcified, excessively thin and membra- 
nous except the minute spire which is white, calcareous and invo- 
lute. It will be remembered that the young of some other shield 
headed Tectibranchs use the parapodia for swimming. 

Genus GASTROPTERON Kosse, 1813. 

Gastropteron J. F. J. Kosse, De Pteropodum ordine et novo ipsius 
Genera, p. 10 (1813). VAYSSIERE, Rech. Zool. et Anat. sur les 
Moll. Opistobranch. du Golfe de Marseille, i, p. 39. BERGH, BulL 
Mus. Comp. Zool., xxv, p. 201. FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl., 
1890, p. 349. Gasteropteron of some authors. Gasteropteru 
BLAINV., 1825. Parthenopia OKEN, Lehrbuch der Zoologie, 1815, 
i, p. 830. Sarcopterus RAFINESQUE, Specchio delle Sci., ii, p. 11, 
(1814). 

Generic characters those of the family. Type G. rubrum. Gas- 
tropteron swims rapidly by means of its large parapodial lobes which 
are used as wings. 

Three species have been described : G. rubrum Raf. (meclcelii of 
authors), of the Mediterranean and ocean coast of France, in which 



40 GASTROPTERON. 

the head-disk, foot and wings are purple, orange-red or rose, more or 
less maculated with whitish, head-disk and wings white-edged, sole 
paler, and mantle with a posterior filament. 

G. padficum Bergh, of the Aleutian Is., which is pale yellow 
flecked with reddish throughout, the mantle with no filament or 
flagellum behind, and 

G. sinense A. Ad., which has not yet been adequately described, 
but seems nearest to G. rubrum. 

G. RUBRUM Rafinesque. PI. 7, figs. 1-10 ; pi. 8, figs. 11, 12, 13, 16. 

General color varying from red -purple to pale rose, sometimes 
with some spots of bluish-white ; on the periphery of the head-disk 
and the parapodia there is an iridescent blue border. The ventral 
surface of the foot proper is always paler in color than the rest of 
the body. Mantle having a posterior filament. Jaws small. Rad- 
ula with the formula 5'1*0'1'5. Shell nautiloid, microscopic, cal- 
careous and very hyaline. 

Length, 20-24 ; breadth, 25-30 mill., or smaller. 

Mediterranean, JEgean and A driatie Seas ; Archachon basin, Gi- 
ronde, 50-120 meters. 

Gastropteron KOSSE, De pteropodum ordine et novo 

ipsius genera, 1813, p. 10-16, figs. 11-14. Sarcopterusruber RAFIN- 
ESQUE, Quadro dei generi di Moll. Pteropodi, in Specchio delle Sci., 
ii, p. 11, Nov. 1814 ; Pre"cis des decouvertes somiologiques ou Zool- 
ogiques et Botaniques, p. 30 (1814). G. meckeli BLAINVILLE, 
Manual de Mai. et Conch., p. 479 (1825). PHIL., Enum. Moll- 
Sicil., i, p. 124. SOULEYET, Voy. Bonite, Zool., ii, p. 464, pi. 26. 
KROHN, Archiv f. Naturg., 1860, p. 64, pi. 2, f. 2, 3 (larva and 
shell). VAYSSIERE, Ann. Sc. Nat., Zool. (6) ix, p. 1-72, pi. 1-6 ; 
Rech. Moll. Opistobr., Ire Pt., Tectibranches, p. 40, figs. 35-41. 
BERGH, Zool. Jahrb., vii, p. 281-303, pi. 16, f. 1-27, pi. 17, f. 1-10- 
Gastropteron rubrum FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl., 1890, p. 349. 
Gasteropteron cocdneum FERUSSAC, Tabl. Syst. p. 25. Clioamati 
DELLE CHIAJE, Mem. sulla Storia e Notomia degli Anim. senza 
Vert., i, p. 53-59, pi. 2, f. 1-8 (1823). 

The shell-cavity of the mantle is very large, occupied throughout 
its extent by a delicate, very hyaline membrane, at the posterior 
part of which is found the small nautiloid shell (pi. 7, fig. 4). The 
shell is nautiliform, hyaline and translucent, resembling in texture 



GASTROPTERON. 41 

that of Carinaria, with 1$ to 2 whorls, the last one enveloping the 
preceding, showing under a strong lens very fine growth-strise. It 
is situated at the posterior part of the liver, a little process of which 
projects into its cavity, it is a little behind and to the right of the 
anus, its convexity turned toward the foot. The delicate membrane 
mentioned above is adherent to the peristome, and is doubtless a 
non-calcified prolongation of the cuticle of the shell. It covers all 
of the dorsal surface of the viscera, part of the sides, and nearly as 
far forward as the end of the cephalic disk. 

A very general view of the viscera is shown in fig. 10 of pi. 7; 
for detailed description and figures see BERGH, Zool. Jahrb. 
Abtheil. f. Anat. u. Ont., vii,p.281, and VAYSSIERE, Ann. Sc. Nat., 
Zool. (6), ix, p. 1-72, pi. 1-6. In these excellent monographs, the 
entire literary history of Gastropteron also is discussed. 

The jaws are weakly-developed, consisting of two small lamellose 
plates (pi. 8, fig. 16), one on each side of the median line of the 
upper part of the mouth. The plates have a mosaic surface, show- 
ing the ends of the crowded subcylindrical bodies of which they are 
composed (pi. 8, figs. 12, 13). 

The radula lacks median teeth as in Philine. The laterals (pi. 
7, figs. 7, 8, 9, three views of one lateral) have the hooked form with 
a serrate internal crest seen in Philine. The uncini (pi. 7, fig. 5, 
and fig. 6) are also practically as in Philine, narrower than the 
laterals, without serrate crest. 

The penis is elongated, cylindrical (pi. 8, fig. 11), lying as usual on 
the right side of the buccal mass, 6-11 mill, long, usually carmine- 
red outside, sometimes yellowish-white, red at the apex only ; pros- 
tate (fig. 11) 3i to 6 cm. long in the smallest, 8 to 9 in the largest 
individuals when straightened out. 

O. SINENSE A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Animal flesh-colored, dotted and netted all over with carmine ; 
body paler, the viscera showing through the sub pellucid integu- 
ment ; foot lobe large, free, with entire margins, rounded, the sur- 
face dotted and reticulate with red. (Ad.~). 

Hulu-slian Bay (Regent's Sword), 3 fms. 

G. sinense AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), viii, p. 139 (Aug., 1861). 

I obtained three individals of this species in the dredge from 
three fathoms of mud. I placed them in a clear bottle of salt water, 
and observed them some time. Chiaje might well be excused for 

E LlB 

OF THE 

TJNIVERSITT 
CALIFORNIA 



42 GASTROPTERON. 

regarding the genus as a Pteropod, for, at first sight, it has all the 
appearance and action of a Pnetimodermon. My specimens ap- 
peared to want the power of crawling altogether; the animals, 
after taking short flights, usually upside down, through the water, 
by butterfly flappings of the side-lobes of the foot, gently alighted 
and remained stationary on their stomachs, with the swimming- 
lobes folded together over the back, until ready for another little 
excursion. The lower surface of this species, moreover, is colored 
exactly like the fins, and shows no signs of a creeping disk. I be- 
lieve the genus should be placed in the family Lophocercidee, or 
rather, Icaridse; for Prof. E. Forbes had previously described 
Lophocercus under the name of Icarus. The Chinese species seems 
to differ from the Mediterranean Gasteropteron in being covered 
with crimson punctate and reticulate markings. Other points of 
difference are shown in my drawings. (Ad.). 

G. PACIFICUM Bergh. PI. 8, figs. 14, 15, 17-23. 

Living animal yellowish, flecked with red. Margin of mantle 
without a flagellum. General proportions as in G. rubrum, but 
smaller; foot usually distinctly demarked from plenropodial lobes, 
which are smaller and a little shorter. Free margin of the mantle 
narrower, only behind a little wider, but without trace of filament. 
On account of the narrowness of the mantle-skirt, the gill is nearly 
exposed, relatively larger than in G. rubrum, directed more down- 
ward ; leaflets of gill fewer, 16-20, and free ends of the same longer ; 
the black kidney-pore is nearer the anus. Genital openings and 
semen-groove as in rubrum. The shell (pi. 8, fig. 18) is as in rub' 
ram, the calcified portion measuring '6 to '66 mill., chalk-white, 
radially striate, and very fragile, the large cuticular last whorl 
(fig. 19) as in G. rubrum. Dentition (pi. 8, fig. 21) as in G.rubrum, 
formula 5-1-Q-1-5 or 6-l'0'l'6 ; laterals (pi. 8, figs. 20, 22) and uncini 
(pi. 8, figs. 21, 23) offering no especial differential features. 

UnalaschJca, Aleutian Is., 9-15 fms (Dall.). 

G. pacificum BERGH, Zool. Jahrb. vii, p. &03, pi. 16, f. 28 ; pi. 17, 
f. 10-26 (1893) . Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxv, p. 202, pi. xii, f. 1-2. 

Specimens preserved in alcohol still retained part of the original 
coloration, the head-shield, foot and pleuropodia clear yellowish, 
with numerous red dots, more or less grouped and more or less close ; 
on the under side and free apex of head-shield they were closer. 
The posterior body gray, usually, especially in front, strewn with red- 



AGLAJIDvE. 43 

dots, the gills whitish. The individuals were mostly of the same size : 
length of pleuropodia 7'5 mill., breadth of animal across extended 
pleuropodia 12 mill., alt. 5'5 mill. 

Besides its smaller size and different coloring, the lack of a pos- 
terior flagellum on the mantle offers an obvious external difference 
between this form and G. rubrum. For description of anatomy see 
Bergh, I. c. 

Family AGLAJID^. 

=Doridiid(E Bergh et at. 

Body oblong, with two dorsal shields separated by a transverse 
furrow, the head-shield having narrow, free lateral and hind mar- 
gins, posterior shield or mantle produced backward in two lobes or 
wings. Foot wide, truncated in front and behind, the sides contin- 
ued in fleshy parapodial (pleurapodial) lobes which stand erect or 
recurved at each side of body. Shell internal, posterior, consisting 
of a flat, solute spiral whorl and a minute spire, the inner rim of 
whorl calcified, outer part membranous. Gill posterior, on right 
side, large, bipinnate. Buccal mass very large, without jaws or 
teeth. Penis with a superficial sulcus ; prostate gland large. 

This family differs from Philinidce and Gastropteridce in the lack 
of a radula ; from the latter family it is moreover distinguished by 
the more moderate size of the parapodial lobes, which are not used 
as swimming organs. 

The following account is largely abridged from Bergh's two ad- 
mirable papers on Doridiidse. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus AGLAJA Renier. 

Head-shield without rhinophores or frontal processes. 
Genus NAVANAX Pilsbry. 

Head-shield with the front lateral angles produced into rhino- 
phores, as in Pleurobranchus. 

* * * 



44 AGLAJA. 

Genus AGLAJA Kenier, 1804. 

Aglaja RENIER, Prospetto della Classe dei Vermi, p. 16, (1804) ; 
Tav. di Classificazione, 1807, pi. 8 ; Osserv. Postume di Zool. Adri- 
atica, pubblic. per cura del R. Instit. Ven. a Studio del Meneghini, 
Venezia 1847, p. 3-8, pi. 16. Not Aglaja or Aglaia Albers et auct. 
mult. Doridium Meckel, Ueber ein neues Geschlecht der Gastero- 
poden, Beytr. Vergleich. Anat. i, zweites Heft, p. 33, (1809), and 
of authors generally. Acera CUVIER, Mem. sur les Aceres, in Ann. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, xvi, p. 9, (l&lty.Eidothea Risso, Hist. 
Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 46, (1826). Melanochlamys CHEESEMAN, 
Trans. N. Z. Inst., xiii, p. 224, (1881). Posterobranchcea d'ORBiGNY, 
Voy. dans 1'Amer. Merid., p. 201, (18371) Bullidium LEUE, Dis- 
sert de Pleurobranch, p. 10, (1813). Lobaria BLAINVILLE, Manuel 
de Malac., p. 478, (1825).? Philinopsis PEASE, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 21. 

For anatomy see BERGH, Die Gruppe der Doridien in Mittheil. 
Zool. Stat. Neap., xi, p, 107-135, pi. 8, and Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
xxv, p. 205-222. 

See above for characters. 

This genus was first indicated by Renier under the name Aglaja 
in his Prospetto, 1804, but it was not characterized until his Tavolo 
di Classificazione appeared in 1807, in which the group is very well 
defined, with descriptions and figures of the two Mediterranean spe- 
cies. The name has been generally dropped by malacologists in 
favor of Meckel's term Doridium, published in 1809 ; but such a 
course is wholly without justification. There is a genus Aglaea in 
plants (Persoon, 1805), and the name Aglaja (and Aglaia) has been 
several times used in zoology, but clearly subsequent in every case 
to Renier's diagnosis. The other synonyms, Acera Cuv., Eidothea 
Risso, Melanochlamys Cheesem., etc., are later and absolute synonyms. 
Poster obranchcea Orb, was founded upon an error, the dorsal being 
mistaken fol the ventral surface of the body, reversing the positions 
of all asymmetrical organs, and bringing the transverse groove of 
the back below. Philinopsis of Pease seems to be another synonym, 
but in the absence of definite information I have inserted it at the 
end of the genus Aglaja. 

. Geographic Distribution. 

Mediterranean : A. tricolorata and depicta. 

E. coast of Africa : A. cyanea, nigra, guttata. 

Australia and New Zealand : A. marmorea, lineolata, cylindrica. 



AGLAJA. 45 

Japan : A. gigliolii. 

Sandwich Is. : A. nuttalli, " Philinopsis" speciosa and nigra. 
W. coast of the Americas : A. maculata, purpurea, diomedea, ocel- 
ligera, adellce. 

West Indies: A. punctilucens and gemmata. 
The genus is not known fossil. 

A. TRICOLORATA Renier. PL 1, figs. 10, 11 ; pi. 14, f. 81. pi. 13, 
figs. 71, 72, 73, 74, 75. 

Back of the body and outer surface of pleuropodial lobes chest- 
nut-brown or coffee colored, with round snow-white pearl-like dots; 
border of dorsal shield aud pleuropodia marked with a narrow blue 
band, inside of which is an orange band. Posterior body lighter 
than the anterior ; sole velvety-black with a bluish luster, with some 
small white dots in front and behind. Mantle with two deeply sep- 
arated lobes behind, the left one always provided with aflagellum or 
filament (pi. 1, figs. 10, 11). Length 4-5 cm., breadth with spread 
parapodia 2*5-2*8 cm. ; alt. to apex of frontal shield 1*6-1*9 to 1*3- 
1*5 cm. 

Specimens in alcohol retain the coloration remarkably well, but 
contract much, length 3 cm. 

Shell (pi. 14, fig. 81) proportionately smaller than in A. depictum, 
less concave ; milk-white in the middle, more or less translucent 
toward the edges ; nucleus consisting of one whorl, the second whorl 
forming all of the dilated portion of the shell. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Aglaja tricolorata RENIER, Tav. di Classificazione pi. 8, (1807) ; 
Oss. postume di Zool. Adriat., 1847, p. 5, 7, pi. 16, f. 12, 13. Dori- 
dium tricoloratum BERGH, Mittheil. Zool. Sta. zu Neapel, xi, p. Ill, 
pi. 8, f. 1-10 ; Bull. Mus. Cornp. Zool., xxv, p. 208, pi. 12, f. 4.- 
Doridium meckelii DELLE CHIAJE, Mem. i, 1823, p. 117-123, 133, 
135-136, pi. 10, f, 1-7 CUVIER, Regne Anim. 2d edit., iii, p. 64. 
CANTRAINE, Malac. Medit., p. 74. Acera meckelii PHIL., Enum. 
Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 93. Doridium membranaceum Meckel VAYSSIERE, 
Ann. des Sciences Naturelles Zool. (6), ix, p. 73 et seq., pi. 7, f. 56, 
57, 59-67 ; pi. 8, f. 68, 69 ; Rech. Moll. Opistobr., p. 48-49, pi. 2, 
f. 45-47. 

Besides the differences in the shell and coloration, this species dif- 
fers from A. depicta in having two deeply separated lobes on the 



46 AGLAJA. 

hind edge of the mantle, the left one bearing a flagellum. The head 
disk is smaller and more trapezoidal than in the other Mediterranean 
species. The foot occupies the front three-fourths of the entire 
length of the body. 

A. DEPICTA Renier. PI 12, figs. 63-70; pi. 1, fig. 12 (x 7); pi. 13, 
f. 76, 77. 

Back of the body and outside of pleuropodial lobes chestnut, 
brown, blue-gray or violet-black, maculated and marbled with 
white. Head-shield and lateral lobes edged with two narrow stripes, 
one blue, the other yellow. Head-shield with two short stripes of 
buff in front. Sole velvety-black or violet-brown, sometimes orna- 
mented with whitish spots. Gill orange or pale brownish. Posterior 
lobes of mantle joined, the left one with no flagellum. Length 35-60 
mill. 

The shell (pi. 12, f. 63, 64, 68, 70 ; pi. 1, f. 12) is not so different 
from that of A. trieolorata as would be thought from the figures ; 
but the small spire is more solute, and the projecting process is 
smaller ; the large thin outer whorl shows 2 or 3 more or less dis- 
tinctly marked growth-zones; this quite cuticular, pale yellowish 
part is in some individuals, especially the younger ones, more or 
less calcified, excepting always the anterior part; in the large indi- 
viduals it was completely cuticular. Diam. from edge to edge 
across spire, 7-12 mm. In a large individual, length 55 mill., the 
the shell measured in greatest length 16 J mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Aglaja depicta RENIER, Tav. di Class., 1807, pi. 8 ; Oss. Posthume, 
p. 4, 7, pi. 16, f. l-ll Doridium depictum BERGH, Mittheil. Zool. 
Stat. Neap., xi, p. 123, pi. 8, f. 11-13, 17 ; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
xxv, p. 209, pi. 10, f. 9; pi. 12, f. 3. Doridium eoriaeeum and D. 
membranaceum MECKEL, Beytrage zur Vergl. Anat. i, 2te Heft, p. 
33, (1809). Acera carnosa CUVIER, Mem. sur les Acres, Ann. Mus. 
H. N. Paris, xvi, p. 9-12, 14-15, pi. 1, f. 15-20, (1810) Doridium 
carnosum DELLE CHIAJE, Mem. sulla Storia e Notomia, etc., i, pi. 
76, f. 9-11 ; pi. 107, f. 2. VAYSSIERE, Rech. Moll. Opistobr., p. 45, 
pi. 2, f. 42-44. Doridium aplysiaeforme DELLE CHIAJE, Mem. ii, 
p. 185-192, pi. 13 ; t. 80, f. 23, (1825). Acera aplysiaeformis CAN- 
TRAINE, Malac. Medit., p. 74. Eidothea marmorata Risso, Hist. 
Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 46, pi. 1, f. 9. Doridium marmoratum CAN- 
TRAINE, Bull, de 1'Acad. Roy. desSci. de Bruxelles, 1835, ii, p. 386. 
Acera marmorata CANTRAINE, Mai. Medit. et Lit., p. 73, pi. 2, f. 
2. 



AGLAJA. 47 

This species seems to be variable in coloration like the preceding, 
and even to a greater degree. The snow-white pearl-like spots of 
A. tricolorata which are so conspicuous, seem to be represented in 
this form by more irregular white spots. The posterior wings of the 
mantle have an entirely different form from those of tricolorata, and 
pass into each other bow-like at their bases. There is never a flagel- 
lum on the left wing. The shell resembles that of tricolorata, but 
the spire is more free, and the cuticular part of the shell is larger. 
The colors seem to be well retained in alcohol. 

A. CYANEA v. Martens. Unfigured. 

In life uniform blue or with small round yellow spots. Spirit 
examples blackish with pale spots, covered with numerous net-like 
anastomosing wrinkles. 50 mill, long; head-shield 26 mill. long. 
Breadth with parapodia turned up 26, with them spread out 43 
mill. Distinguished from the Mediterranean species by the propor- 
tionally smaller length of the head-shield. (Mart.'). 

Inhambane, E. Africa (Peters). 

D. cyaneum MART., Monatsber. K.-P. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin 
1879, p. 738 (1880). D. cyaneum var. vittatum MART., Beitr. zur 
Meeresfauna Mauritius, etc., p. 305. 

It is called by the natives miguedua, which signifies sleeps not. 
Var. VITTATA Martens. 

Living animal 7 cm. long, '3-4 cm. wide. Back brown with 
brimstone-yellow spots ; on the head two brown-yellow longitudinal 
lines, on the back two brown-yellow spots. Foot-edges, head and 
mantle edged with blue and yellow ; sole bluish-brown. In the 
single spirit specimen the brown-yellow longitudinal bands on both 
sides on head-shield and on foot-margin have been well retained, 
but not the spots on the back. (Mart.). 

Fouquets, Mauritius (Mobius). 

A. NIGRA v. Martens. Unfigured. 

Living animal black with clear yellow and orange-yellow spots 
and bands, and indigo-blue edges, the spots sometimes very sparse. 
Spirit examples 19 mill, long, 8 mill, wide with the parapodia turned 
upward, 15 with them spread out. Head-disk 10 mill, long, granule- 
wrinkled. Internal shell strong, chalky. (Mart.). 

Querimba Is., E. Africa (Peters). 



48 AGLAJA. 

D. nigrum MARTENS, Monatsber. K.-P. Akad. Wissensch., 1879, 
p. 738 (1880). 

The name of this species must be changed if, as I suspect, 
Philinopsis nigra of Pease proves to be an Aglaja. 

A. GUTTATA v. Martens. Unfigured. 

Living animal 4-5 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide. Head and back 
brown, with close isabella-yellow flecks in which are brown dots or 
lines. Sole bluish-brown with yellow flecks, the margins blue and 
yellow. Perhaps only a variety of D. cyaneum v. vittatum* 
(Mobius). 

Spirit examples pretty clear gray-brown, head-shield and back 
with dark-red-brown spots, veins and dots ; foot darker, with num- 
erous isabella-yellow roundish spots. The head-shield is (in spirit 
examples) as long or longer than the posterior body, and is coarsely 
granulated rather than wrinkled, in D. cyaneum v. vittatum it is 
shorter and more wrinkled longitudinally. {Mart.}. 

Fouquets, Mauritius (Mobius). 

D. guttatum MARTENS, Beitr. zur Meeresfauna der Iiisel Mauri- 
tius u. der Seychellen, p. 306 (1880). 

A. MARMORATA Smith, PI. 1, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Animal (in spirit) blackish, copiously mottled with a dirty buff 
color. Cephalic disk longer than wide, rather narrower in front 
than behind, with a thickened two-fold margin anteriorly and at the 
sides, more expanded and simple posteriorly. Hinder dorsal disk 
a little shorter than the front one, lobed posteriorly on each side, 
with an intermediate sinus, with a free margin at the sides, but not 
in front, where it is covered by the hinder free extension of the 
cephalic disk. Viewed posteriorly, the animal is truncate, termina- 
ting in a curved expansion of the dorsal disk on each side which 
conceal the gills beneath them. Foot extending the whole length of 
the animal, with a duplex margin in front below the mouth and for 
a short distance along the sides, and then simple and gradually in- 
creasing in the width of the expansion towards the end, where it is 
very wide beneath the branchia ; it is stained with black on the 
inside of the edge. Branchial plume posterior, concealed beneath 
the foot and the hinder lobes of the dorsal disk. Head presenting 
exteriorly a small lobe on each side the oral opening. 




49 

Shell internal, situated at the hinder extremity above the branchia, 
white, calcareous, uncoiled, consisting of one or two volutions, thick- 
ened at the free " sutural line," convex externally and concave within 
cup-shaped at the commencement, with the outer edge extended by a 
broadish membranous expansion. Total length 33 millim. ; cephalic 
disk 18 long and 16 wide at the broadest part; shell with a greatest 
diameter of 8 millim. ; and about 2 in height. (Smith'). 

Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fathoms, on a sandy bottom. 
(Coppinger). 

Doridium marmoratum SMITH, Zool. Coll. 'Alert,' p. 87, pi. vi, 
f. I-I 4 (1884). 'Not Doridium marmoratum Cantraine, 1835. 

The only species which appears to have been recorded from the 
Australian coasts is Aglaia lineolata, figured by H. & A. Adams in 
the Genera of Recent Mollusca, vol. iii, pi. 58, fig. 4. This differs, 
however, in the form of the anterior dorsal disk and its small size 
in proportion to the hind part of the animal in addition to which 
the color and markings appear to be quite distinct. Aglaia giglio- 
Hi, from Japan, described by Tapparone-Canefri (Voy. Magenta, p. 
110, pi. 1, fig. 18), may be distinguished by the posterior lobation of 
the cephalic disk, different color, and apparent different position of 
the branchial plume. 

Doridium cyane,um, D. nigrum, and D. guttatum, described by 
Dr. Von Martens from the Indian Ocean, have not yet been figured. 
Until all these exotic species have either been compared or much 
more amply described and illustrated, there will remain much un- 
certainty respecting the identification of all or any one of them. 

A. LINEOLATA H. & A. Adams. PI. 1, fig. 7. 

No description of this species has been published, to my knowl- 
edge. As figured by A. Adams, the shields and outside of parapodia 
are transversely lineolate with purplish on a light brown ground ; 
insides of parapodia very dark ; posterior wings of mantle short, 
without a filament. Shell unknown. 

Australia (Gould). 

Aglaia lineolata H. & A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, p. 27, iii, pi. 58, 
f. 4. 

A. CYLINDRICA Cheeseman. Unfigured. 

Body elongated, almost cylindrical, 1-1 i in. long; color a deep 
rich velvety-black. Cephalic disk narrow, oblong, quadrate, slightly 
4 



50 AGLAJA. 

expanded in front, so as to project over the foot and mouth, truncate 
behind. Mantle small, entirely concealing the shell, at its posterior 
end 2 lobed and with a large gaping orifice. Foot large with ample 
side-lobes, which are folded up to the sides of the head-disc and 
mantle, leaving, however, the back exposed. Shell quite internal, 
triangular, spire minute, inner lip with a small spoon-shaped pro- 
jection. Branchiae minute, situated far back on the right side under 
the mantle. Gizzard very large and muscular, without calcareous 
plates. Odontophore apparently wanting. I assume that the 
proper position of this animal is with the Philinidce, with which it 
agrees in most of its characters. It differs, however, in having no 
odontophore, and in the gizzard not being strengthened with calcare, 
ous plates. Aglaia (of Renier), appears to be its nearest ally ; but I am 
unable to place it in that genus, as it differs from the species figured 
in Adams' " Genera " in being much more elongated, in the cephalic 
disc being larger and projecting beyond the foot, in the branchiae 
being smaller and always concealed by the mantle, and in the side- 
lobes of the foot being closely appressed to the side of the animal, 
and not spreading. 

Auckland Harbor and near Dunedin, New Zealand, in tide pools. 

Melanochlamys cylindrica CHEESEMAN, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xiii, p. 
224 (1881). 

A. GIGLIOLII Tapparone-Canefri. PI. 1, fig. 6. 

Body oblong, as much as 32 mill, long, 12 mill, wide; head-shield 
ovate-oblong, large, more or less bilobate behind ; posterior body 
smaller, subquadrate, deeply bilobed behind ; side margins (para- 
podial lobes) free, very narrowly edged with brown. Foot ovate, 
large, wider than dorsal lobes. Color of specimens preserved in 
alcohol buff-white, irregularly reticulated with brown and ashy, the 
head-shield having a median longitudinal pale line. Shell internal, 
delicate, vitreous, very transparent, resembling that of D. carnosum 
in form. 

Japan. 

Aglaia giglioliiT.-C., Zool. Viag. Magenta, p. 110, pi. 1, f. 18 

(1874). 

A. NUTTALLI Pisbry, n. sp. PI. 6, figs. 37, 38. 

Alcoholic specimen uniform black-brown above, sole the same 
color, but with faintly discernable sparse light maculation. Head- 



AGLAJA. 51 

disk (much fore-shortened in figure) oblong, wide, emarginate in 
front, subtruncate behind ; free lateral margins 2-3 mill, wide, pos- 
terior free margin wider. Posterior wings of mantle very large, 
long, thin, the two membranous lobes broadly united by connecting 
web, the left lobe bearing a short, flat flagellum. Gill (pi. 6, fig. 38, 
seen from below) 11 mill, long (curved), with 11-12 branches on 
each of the rhachis, alternately arranged, the branches on the con- 
vex side nearly double as long as those on the concave side of 
rhachis. Total length 40, breadth 20 mill. Length of head-shield 
measured direct from front to back margin, 22 mill. 

Sandwich Is. (Nuttall). 

The great development of the posterior wings and the flat fila- 
ment of the left one are characteristic. It differs from A. tricolorata 
in having the tail-lobes broadly united, and the gill of different 
structure if Vayssieres figure of the gill of that species be correct. 
Description from one specimen ; shell not seen. Color in life un- 
known. Fig. 37 is accidentally inverted. 

A. MACULATA d'Orbiguy. PL 6, figs. 40-43. 

Anterior and posterior disks of body black-brown ; posterior 
mantle-wings greenish-brown with some small yellow spots ; foot 
(fig. 43) greenish-brown with many unequal rounded spots of sul- 
phur-yellow ; outside of parapodia the same color but spotless. 

Body thick, rounded ; back smooth, the anterior shield wide and 
truncate in front ; posterior shield oval, smooth, terminating in 
thick fleshy lobes, the right one wider. Foot fleshy, plicate, striate 
and ridged transversely, smooth in front and distinctly emarginate. 
Gill pyramidal, symmetrical, composed of a great many leaflets 
bilobed at their ends. 

Length 3, width 2 centimeters. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 

Posterobranchcea maculata D'ORB., Voy. dans PAmer. Merid., p. 
203, pi. 17, f. 6-9 (not f. 10). 

The view already expressed by Morch and Fischer in regard to 
d'Orbigny's error in mistaking the back for the foot of this mollusk, 
is undoubtedly correct. When this is righted, we find the charac- 
ters of P. maculata perfectly normal for the genus Aglaia or Dori- 
dium. 



52 AGLAJA. 

A. PURPUREA Bergh. PI. 13, fig. 78. 

Living animal blackish-purple. Much contracted individual in 
alcohol is dark brownish, almost black in color, on the anterior 
shield; the hind body dirty reddish-brown ; both quite finely punc- 
tate with yellow. The sides of the body as well as the lower half of 
the upper side of the foot-wings (parapodia) yellowish-brown, while 
the upper half of the parapodium is paler and vertically striated, as is 
also the hind half of the upper side of the tail. Gills dirty yellow ; 
the hind wings of mantle quite black, finely punctate with yellow 
and with lighter margin. Entire under surface of animal, with the 
outer (under) side of the parapodia black, finely punctured with 
yellow. The length, to base of posterior wings, 3*8 cm., alt., 2*8, 
breadth, 3*2. The length of head-shield is 2 cm., that of posterior 
wings 1'2 cm. Length of the contracted gill 1*5 cm. 

Form most as in A. depicta. Posterior wings bound together con- 
tinuously above, the left one without a flagellum ; their- margins 
were, perhaps, somewhat notched. The peculiar spot in front under 
the margin of the anterior shield could not be discovered. Gill 
yellowish. 

Shell without trace of calcification, horn-yellow, on anterior mar- 
gin quite colorless, thin, only on the back margin a little thickened. 
Form as usual, the spire not solute, its continuation downward and 
forward not large, the extension of the last whorl backward not long,, 
transverse diameter of the shell about 13 mill. 

Catalina Island, California, (Ball, 1874) 

Doridium purpureum BERGH, Mus. Comp. Zool., xxv, p. 209, pi 
12, f. 7. 

The figure represents the penis-sack (dark portion) and its pros- 
tate (light portion). 

A. DIOMEDEA Bergh. PL 1, f. 14 ; pi. 15, fig. 95. 

Largest specimen measures, length, 10, breadth 6 ; alt. 5 mill, 
others measure 7 x 5 x 4. Color dark brownish-black, with sparsely 
strewn whitish and yellowish flecks on the back, foot and outside of 
parapodia ; side margins of posterior shield dirty light yellowish ; 
sides of body and furrow between anterior and posterior shields, 
bluish gray ; upper side of foot- wings and the upper side of tail 
grayish, the gill yellow. Color in life said to be nearly black* 
Form as usual. Back shield somewhat longer than the head-shield ; 
no trace of olfactory organ discoverable. Hind wings of mantle 



AGLAJA. 53 

contracted, seeming to be not much developed, not connected above, 
pretty rigid, with round hind end, the left one lacking a flagellum. 

The shell was of peculiar form, relatively larger and longer than 
in other species, in the largest individual 5 mill, long, 3'4 broad. It 
was entirely calcified, relatively thick, somewhat thinner in front, 
and more yellowish there, otherwise chalk-white. The spire small, 
not free; the process directed forward and downward large, the 
hollow in it adjacent to spire pretty deep. 

Kadiack Is. (St. Paul) Bering Sea ; Yukon Harbor, Shumagin 
Is., 6-10 fms. (Dall, Aug., 1874). 

Doridium diomedeum BGH., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxv, p. 211, 
pi. 11, f. 1. 

Keadily recognizable by its coloring and peculiar shell. 

A. OCELLIGERA Bergh. PI. 14, figs. 82, 83, 84. 

The single individual was rather contracted, 12 mill, long, 9 wide, 
and 9 mill. high. Color of shields and outside of parapodia gray- 
brown with a multitude of whitish round flecks. Remains of a 
lighter border of shields and parapodia could be distinguished, and 
also on margins of the flagellum. The under side of the foot black- 
ish with sparsely strewn whitish flecks. Gill yellowish. Living 
animal said to be black-purple with yellow spots. 

Proportions as usual. The hind margin of anterior shield very 
strongly produced (3i mill.); the posterior wings of mantle quite 
separated, the left lobe prolonged in a flagellum 1 mill, long (pi. 14, 
fig. 84). The shell measures 4 mill, in breadth (across the spire), is 
strongly calcified, alabaster-like, with only a narrow yellowish cuti- 
cular margin anteriorly. Spire somewhat projecting, the process 
running forward and downward pretty strong, deepened at its base ; 
the right part of the shell stronger, especially more behind. Penis 
(pi. 14, fig. 83) dirty yellow, 4-5 mill, long; glans with a strong 
furrow, the apex sticking out of penial opening. Prostate strong, 
a little longer than penis, of the same color, its end forked (f. 83). 

Sitka Harbor, 15 fms. (Dall, May, 1874). 

Doridium ocelligerum BGH., Bull. M. C. Z., xxv, p. 212, pi. 10, f. 
10; pi. 12, f. 5-6. 

A. ADELL^E Dall. PI. 9, figs. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. 

Animal naked, about 16 mm. long, of a dark plum color, mottled 
with fine vermiculate spots of golden yellow ; general form that of 



54 AGLAJA. 

D. carnosum Cuvier, but with a shorter head-shield, half as long as 
the body and transversely truncate behind ; the posterior free por- 
tion of the mantle short, obscurely bilobed, and without a flagellum ; 
front edge of the head-shield slightly excavated ; parapodia wide ; 
the sole slightly longer than the body; shell (figs. 17-20) internal, 
subconical, white, covered with a brownish epidermis ; pillar strong, 
reflected with a deep groove outside of it, the basal end projecting 
spur-like ; nucleus small, depressed. (Dall}. 

Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, 30 fms. (Young Naturalist's So- 
ciety). 

D. adellce DALL, The Nautilus, viii, p. 73 (Nov., 1894). 

The shell is more conical and the cycloid wall of it narrower than 
in D. carnosum, and the excavated pillar much more prominent. 
See Ann. Mus. de Marseilles, Zool.ii, p. 45, pi. 2, figs. 42-44, 1885. 



A. PUNCTILUCENS Bergh. PI. 14, fig. 85. 

Founded upon two individuals in the Copenhagen Museum. In 
color they agree almost completely. The dorsal shields are dirty 
light yellow marbled with black, marked with quite fine brownish 
lines (much finer than those of the ventral surface), and over this 
are strewn emerald-green dots, especially on the head-shield and 
most on its anterior margin. The margins in one individual shine 
through greenish-gray with whitish dots ; in the other darker, quite 
blackish with yellowish dots. The wings or posterior lobes of the 
hinder shield are marbled gray and black, with numerous whitish 
dots and little spots, especially on the posterior side. The marginal 
part, especially above, grayish-green, finely white-dotted or darken 
The sides of the body and the inner surface of the parapodial wings 
are brownish-gray or darker, dotted with yellowish. Gill yellowish. 
The sole as well as the outer surface of the parapodial lobes of 
alternate narrow, light dirty yellowish and brown longitudinal lines, 
the latter in large part showing rows of small spots or still finer 
lines of a yellowish color. The edge of the parapodial wings, es- 
pecially on the inside, are greenish-gray, punctate with whitish, or 
quite blackish, punctate with yellowish. The largest individual 
(from Guadeloupe) measures, length nearly 28 mill, (to posterior 
edge of posterior lobes) breadth 12, alt. 10 mill.; length of head 
shield Hi, of the hind body 12J, and its wing 6 mill. Length of 
the gill 7 mill. 



AGLAJA. 55 

The form is practically the same as in the other species. Head- 
shield somewhat emarginate in front, sides and posterior edge 
strongly projecting. The lateral margins of posterior shield also 
project strongly, especially behind. Surface of the shields quite 
even. The posterior mantle-wings are strongly developed, bound 
together above by a strongly produced middle piece, stronger than 
in A. depicta. The wings are similar to that species, but more pro- 
duced, without flagellum. 

Shell (pi. 14, fig. 85) 3 mill, in diam., width of the calcified part 
of the large whorl 0*8 mill. It has only a quite small and not pro- 
jecting spire, which is prolonged in a pretty long continuation be- 
low, this being excavated on the anterior side. Spire and the wide 
simple whorl chalk-white and hard, the latter with thickened hind 
margin. This hard part of the shell is surrounded by a yellow 
cuticle, and this again by a quite thin colorless cuticle. 

St. Thomas and Guadeloupe (Riise). 

Doridium punetilucens BERGH, Mittheil. Zool. Stat. Neap., xi, p. 
131, pi. 8, f. 16. 

This species is quite distinct from those of the Mediterranean, 
and will be easy to recognize by its color (emerald-green spots of 
the back, the linear striation, especially beneath), and the form of 
the shell also differs. 

A. GEMMATA Morch. Unfigured. 

Subcylindrical, narrower in front, yellow or dull fleshy with close 
longitudinal black lines. Shield dilated in front, with obscure, 
small close longitudinal lines, often bifid or forked, diverging, and 
beautiful green, shining, convex spots, of which there are four ar- 
ranged bead-like on the neck, especially conspicuous. Mantle con- 
vex, with large obscure clouds and very close black lines. Anal 
and respiratory tubes entire and strong; below bilobed, left lobe 
falciform, right lobe tongue-shaped, subtruncate. Gill-plume acute 
and arcuate ; foot lobed on each side, ornamented with black longi- 
tudinal lines often confluent ; thence it is spotted, and reticulated 
in front ; foot lobes narrow, margin arcuate, reflexed, blackish 
above- with spots and dots of yellowish here and there confluent. 
Length 18, diam. 7, alt. 8 mill. Shell not seen, but by the feel it 
seems to be narrow falciform. 

St. Thomas (Riise). 



56 AGLAJA-PHILINOPSIS. 

Doridiam (Posterobranchcea) gemmatum MORCH, Journal de Con- 
chyl, 1863, p. 25; Mai. BL, xxii, p. 175. 

Genus (?) PHILINOPSTS Pease, 1860. 
Philinopsis PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 21. 

Animal. Head-disk large, oblong, oval or triangular, not extend- 
ing in advance of the foot. Posterior to the head-disk the body is 
extended in the shape of a convex fleshy lobe, commencing under 
the head disk (which overlaps it), and reaching to or slightly beyond 
the posterior portion of the foot ; truncated behind, and the trunca- 
tion surrounded by an undulated or crenated crest. Eyes not visi- 
ble. Mouth proboscidiform between cephalic disk and foot, with or 
without one pair of tentacles on sides of the mouth. Foot large, 
rounded and reflected at the sides. Branchial plume near the pos- 
terior end of the body, and curving around between the truncated 
end of the foot. Shell concealed in the truncated end. (Pe.). 

My knowledge of this group is limited to Pease's descriptions here 
reprinted in full. I am disposed to consider it synonymous with 
Aglaja. 

P. SPECIOSA Pease. Unfigured. 

Oblong, smooth. Head-disk about half the length of the animal, 
of an oblong, triangular shape, truncated in front, and corners ob- 
tusely rounded. The mantle lobe is convex, rather narrowed an- 
teriorly and truncated posteriorly, commencing under the head-disk 
and extending slightly beyond the posterior portion of the foot ; the 
truncated end is prolonged behind laterally, and surrounded by an 
elevated undulated crest. No visible eyes or dorsal tentacles. Oral 
tentacles small, dilated, truncated, and placed at the sides of the 
mouth. The foot and the head-disk project in advance of the 
mouth, which can be protruded in the shape of a proboscis. Foot 
broad, oval, smooth, rounded and reflected at the sides. Branchial 
plume single, pinnate, arising from the right posterior end of the 
animal, and curving to the left between the foot and the truncated 
end of the mantle-lobe. Excretory orifice posterior. Shell con- 
cealed in the truncated end, white, thin, fragile, pellucid, subtri- 
angular, with a curved callous apex ; surface with furrows of growth. 
Color above fawn, spotted and speckled with white ; margins more or 
less varied with blackish and yellow ; sides paler. Foot purplish 
fawn, and closely freckled with whitish, and broadly margined on 




NAVANAX. 57 

both sides with the dorsal colors intermixed. Length, 3 inches. 
{Pse.). 

Station, among sea-weed on the coral reefs. They were very 
sluggish in confinement. One specimen, when placed in a glass jar, 
voided about a dozen small Bullse shells perfect. They differ but a 
trifle in color, some being darker than others. The foot always re- 
mains turned over on the sides of the body. (Pse.). 

Sandwich Is., among sea-weed on the coral reefs (Pse.). 



Philinopsis speciosa PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 21. 



P. NIGRA Pease. Unfigured. 

Oblong, slightly rugose above. Head-disk rather more than one- 
third of the length of the animal, oblong oval, acutely rounded in 
front and rounded posteriorly. The mantle lobe rather wider than 
head disk, of an oblong-oval shape, and the lateral ends of the trun- 
cation prolonged posteriorly into compressed crenate lobes, which 
are continued over the truncated portion, forming a slight crest. 
No visible eyes or tentacles. Shell buried in the truncated end. 
Foot elliptically oval, smooth, revolute laterally. Branchial plume 
single, situated on the right posterior end, and curving to the left. 
Color black, with two large white spots on anterior end, also two on 
the head-disk and two on the mantle lobe ; sides white, and foot 
white, with three large black spots on each revolute side. (Pse.}. 
Sandwich Is., on sea-weed in upper laminarian zone (Pse.). 

Philinopsis nigra PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 22. 

Genus NAVANAX Pilsbry, 1895. 

Strategic COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., ii, p. 202, (1862). Not 
Strategus Hope, 1837 (Coleoptera). Navarchus COOPER, Proc. Cal. 
Acad., iii, p. 58, (1863). Not Navarchus de Fil. et Ver., 1857, (Pis- 
ces). Navarchus BERGH, Mitth. Zool. Stat. Neap., 1893, p. 133; 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxv, p. 213. Navanax PILS., Nautilus, 
viii, p. 131 (March 1, 1895). 

Body elongated, similar in general characters to Aglaja, but an- 
terior angles of head-shield produced to form short involute rhino- 
phores. Shell as in Aglaja. Type N. inermis Coop. 

Two species of this genus are known, both from west America. 



58 NAVANAX. 

N. INERMIS Cooper. PI. 15, figs. 89, 90, 91, 92, 93. 

Back of the body, foot and outside of pleuropodia wine-purple, 
ornamented with rounded or oblong spots of yellow ; inner sides of 
pleuropodia flesh colored. Free edges of pleuropodial lobes and 
inner edges of the tail lobes and rhinophores orange colored with 
adjacent band and alternating spots of blue ; lower side of tail-lobes 
purple-blue; eye-patches white with black centers. Length 3, 
breadth of body proper f inch (living animal). 

Shell quite thin and completely flexible, brownish-yellow, without 
trace of calcification. As near as could be ascertained its form is 
as in N. cenigmaticus and Aglaja depicta. Its position is as in Aglaja. 
Penis (pi. 15, f. 89) similar to that of the Aglajas in general char- 
acters. 

San Diego Bay (Cooper) ; Catalina Island (Cooper, Dall). 

Strategas inermis COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad., ii, p. 202. Navar- 
chus inermis COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad., iii, p. 58. BERGH, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., xxv, p. 214, pi. 10, f. 13 ; pi. 11, f. 2-5. 

The alcoholic specimen examined by Bergh was light coffee- 
brown above with many yellowish-white lines, streaks and spots, 
the sole black with a slight brown tinge, spotted throughout with 
large, small and minute rounded yellow spots, coalescing on the 
median line to form a band. 

N. ^NIGMATICUS Bergh. PI. 14, figs. 79, 80 ; pi. 15, figs. 86, 87, 
88 ; pi. 6, fig. 39. 

Length 25, alt. 10, breadth 10 mill. Color dirty light yellowish- 
white, strongly and irregularly marbled and dotted with black and 
gray, most so on sole. Outer half of inner side of pleuropodia uni- 
form white the entire length ; inner half brown-gray. Outer edge 
with numerous black flecks ; gill yellow. Form perhaps narrower 
than in the true Doridiums. The projecting, slightly concave an- 
terior border of head is produced on each side in a tentacular hook 
below the rhinophores (pi. 15, f. 87). Rhinophores rolled as in 
Pleurobranehus. Posterior shield a little longer than the anterior, 
its front edge but little raised. The hind edge of the shield seems 
to have a narrow free edge projecting above the tails (pi. 6, fig. 39, 
dorsal view of animal) ; but this may be a result of contraction. 
The tail-wings are somewhat as in Aglaja depicta, united above, sep- 
arated below. 



APLYSIID^E. 59 

Shell (pi. 14, figs. 79, 80) situated in the posterior part of hinder- 
body at the base of the tails, consisting of a chalky, white portion 
and a thin cuticular part double the width of the former. Penis as 
usual, the prostate gland T-shaped, granulose (pi. 15, fig. 86). 

Bay of Panama. 

Navarchus cenigmaticus BERGH, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxv, p. 
217, pi. 10, f. 11, 12 ; pi. 11, f. 6-9 ; pi. 12, f. 8-10. 



II. TECTIBRANCHIATA ANASPIDEA. 

Tectibranchs without a fleshy head shield, the head bearing two 
or four folded or slit tentacles ; shell spiral or plate-like, usually 
enclosed by the mantle, with posterior terminal nucleus ; rarely ab- 
sent ; pleuropodial lobes developed. Penis near the right anterior 
tentacle, widely separated from the female orifice and vas deferens, 
which open near the gill. 

Two distantly related families compose this division : 

APLYSIID^E with plate-like shell largely or wholly buried, or none ; 
a conspicuous furrow connecting the furrowed penis with the com- 
mon genital orifice ; the radula multiserial. 

OXYNOEID^E with the shell spirally convoluted, Bulla-\ike, not 
buried ; no furrow between genital apertures, and, as far as known, 
a uniserial radula. 

Family APLYSIID^. 

Animal lengthened, not protected by a shell, the neck and head 
narrower than body, mouth a vertical fissure ; anterior angles of 
head produced in two tentacular lobes folded above ; behind them 
the cylindric or conical rhinophores slit above, in front of which are 
the minute eyes. Epipodia or pleuropodia recurved over the back, 
forming two lateral or dorsal lobes enclosing mantle and gill. Gen- 
ital orifice within the dorsal slit, communicating by a long furrow 
with the invertable penis which is near the anterior right tentacle. 
Shell nearly or entirely covered by the mantle, uncoiled, in the 
form of a concave plate, sometimes absent. Mouth with corneous 
jaws and a large multiserial radula composed of similar teeth ; 
stomach armed with cartilaginous nodules ; anus behind the gill. 

Rather large animals of flabby consistency, remarkable for the 
four large ear-like tentacles and high back, which have earned for 



60 APLYSIIDCE. 

them the name of Sea Hares. They are nearly world-wide in dis- 
tribution in tropical and temperate seas, and almost without excep- 
tion inhabit shallow water. Marine plants form their main food. 
Their colors in life are often bright and variegated, but in alcohol 
the green and violet tints are evanescent, fading usually to a dirty 
light olive ; but the black pigment remains unchanged, so that 
markings of black or gray are premanent in specimens preserved in 
the ordinary manner. 

Being without shelly armor, Aplysiidce are largely dependent 
upon imitative coloring for protection ; this being supplemented by 
the ability to expel a large amount of violet or purple fluid darken- 
ing the water around them, and also a milky fluid of nauseous odor. 

Only one species has been known to be utilized by man : 
Dolabella teremidi being esteemed and largely used for food by the 
natives of Borabora. 

The means of locomotion are varied : Tethys not only crawls, but 
swims actively by means of the muscular, wing-like pleuropodia, 
or " swimming lobes ; " Dolabella, Petalifera, Phyllaplysia and other 
genera with largely united pleuropodia, are restricted to creeping 
like ordinary snails; Notarchus, which lives exclusively upon float- 
ing sea-weeds, has a narrow foot adapted to travelling along their 
slender stems, but has also been observed to dart rapidly by a forci- 
ble expulsion of water from the large gill cavity by contraction of 
its enclosing walls. This method, very exceptional in a gastropod, 
is quite analogous to that of the squids. 

Notes on external and infernal anatomy. 

The notes following are mainly restricted to features useful for 
purposes of classification, the limits of this work denying space for 
any thorough discussion and illustration of the anatomy and histol- 
ogy of the group. 

The main external features of Aplysiidce are shown by the figures 
and diagrams on plates 35 and 66. The head and tentacles are 
sufficiently shown in pi. 35, fig. 31 ; to the right of the right rhino- 
phore or posterior tentacle is seen an eye, and the genital groove ; be- 
hind are seen the two pleuropodia or swimming lobes, one folded 
over the back, the other spread ; within these is the oval mantle, 
the smooth inner portion of which encloses the shell, to which a 
median pore, the mantle foramen, opens ; on the right is seen the 
free margin of mantle, which is fleshier, and contains along its inner 






APLYSIID^E. 61 

edge numerous glands secreting the purple fluid. Posteriorly the 
mantle spreads backward in a folded tongue or lobe, the excurrent 
siphon ; at the base of this opens the anus, either as a pore or a 
short tube. Under the right side of mantle lies the gill, a single 
lunate plume. In pi. 35, fig. 32, the margin of the mantle is shown 
by the dotted line m m. Under its anterior right edge is seen the 
genital orifice, continued in the genital groove, gr. ; behind this at 
o is seen the orifice of the opaline gland. 

The Opaline Gland (variously known as the " grape bunch-shaped 
gland," " gland of Bohadsch," etc.) is a rather large body, sometimes 
consisting of numerous oval unicellular glands each with its inde- 
pendent efferent duct (pi. 33, fig. 25), but usually composed of a 
a grape bunch-like mass of cells communicating with a common 
cavity, opening externally by one orifice (pi. 33, fig. 24). Three 
sorts of cells compose it : odoriferous cells, color-secreting or pur- 
purigene cells, and giant mucus cells ; the first two present the 
same histological features, the protoplasm being granulose, the nu- 
clei generally visible ; in the mucus glands the protoplasm is homo- 
genous, nucleus not always visible. The gland secretes three 
liquids : a white and odorous fluid which imparts to Aplysia its dis- 
gusting smell, a violet and a mucous substance. In some species 
the violet secretion is wanting. Morphologically the gland is 
similar to the purple-secreting glands of the mantle. It is ecto- 
dermal in origin, innervated from the pedal ganglion, and its special 
function is apparently the secretion of odorous fluid for defensive 
purposes. It seems to be special to the Aplysiiclce, and probably 
has no homologue in the Cephalaspidea. 

The radula in Aplysiidse is broad, somewhat lance-head shaped 
(pi. 33, fig. 23 ; pi. 9, fig. 13, 14), composed of many rows of nu- 
merous, nearly similar teeth with denticulate cusps, the rachidian 
tooth being wider, with bilobed spreading base. 

In Tethys the teeth have long cusps, closely serrate on both outer 
and inner sides (pi. 9, figs. 11, 12, T. punctata). 

In Dolabella the radula is extremely peculiar, the teeth being all 
unicuspid, very narrow, not serrate. See under sub-family Dola- 
bellince. 

In Dolabrifera the denticles on the cusps are few, laterals 
mostly tridenticulate, with no denticles on the inner margins of 
cusps. 

In Petalifera the radula is considerably like that of Dolabrifera 
(pi. 55, fig. 12, P. virescens). 



62 APLYSIID^:. 

In Phyllaplysia the teeth are tricuspid, denticles broad and ob- 
tuse (pi. 9, fig. 26, P. lafonti). 

In Notarchus the teeth are narrow with long cusps closely serrate 
or barbed on both inner and outer edges. 

The buccal mass (pi. 62, fig. 4, bin) is large and muscular, two 
much lengthened salivary glands (s. <;.) enter it, one on each side of 
the long oesophagus. The stomach (s) consists of three portions : 
an anterior thin-walled sack, a median hard and muscular belt 
armed inside with pyramidal cartilaginous nodules for triturating 
the food, and following this a thin-walled portion containing inter- 
nally smaller nodules or spur-like appendages. This passes into the 
intestine (f), which is coiled about the large liver or digestive gland 
(d. <//.), the ducts of which, several in number, enter it near the 
point marked x. Becoming free from the liver, the intestine crosses 
the ovo-testis in a groove, and terminates externally at the base of 
the excurrent siphon (see pi. 62, fig. 4, Aelesia pleii Rang; pi. 9, 
fig. 15, Tethys punctata ; pi. 40, fig. 2, Notarchus punctatus Phil.). 

The genital system (pi. 62, figs. 1, 2, Aelesia pleii Rang) consists 
of a hermaphrodite gland or ovo-testis (o. .) which communicates 
spermatozoa and ova by a common duct, the small hermaphrodite 
duct (h. d.), to the " annexed genital mass," G. In this mass the 
hermaphrodite duct splits (fig. 3, div.) : by one branch (the Cu- 
vierian duct, CuvJ), communicating with the spermatheca, sp., the 
other branch, oviduct, involved in a complex series of convolutions 
partly concealed in the annexed mass (fig. 3, diagrammatic, show- 
ing convolutions of oviduct [ov.], Cuvierian duct [Cuv.~\ and sper- 
matheca \_spj). The middle of the annexed genital mass is com- 
posed of the albumen gland (alb.), visible only on the lower surface 
of the mass. At the base of this mass is the spermatheca, sp. ; 
downward is the greater hermaphrodite passage (ghd\ bearing be- 
low the globular Swammerdam's vesicle ($. v.), which is functional 
as a reservoir of spermatozoa ; and the female system ends below 
this in the external opening (o). Thence the male system continues 
as a groove or furrow in the integument passing forward to the 
vicinity of the right anterior tentacle, where the penis is situated. 
This organ ^seen retracted in pi. 62, fig. 2, and extended in pi. 37, 
fig. 19) is grooved lengthwise, continuing the furrow just described, 
for the passage of spermatozoa. It is retracted by a muscle at- 
tached distally to the body wall (fig. 2, rm.). 



APLYSIIDCE. 63 

PL 62, figs. 1, 2, represent Aclesia pleii ; fig. 3, is a diagrammatic 
figure representing the internal structure of the annexed genital 
mass of Aplysia. 

Literature of the Aplysiidce. 

(I) After the early work of BOHADSCH on the anatomy, and 
LINNE on the " system," of Aplysia, the group received little atten- 
tion until (II) CUVIER published his Memoire sur le genre Aplysia 
in 1803. This was followed by an anatomical and systematic mon- 
ograph of the Mediterranean forms by DELLE CHIAJE (1823), and 
an illustrated monograph by BLAIMVILLE in Journal de Physique, 
etc.. Vol. 96, 1823. This monograph is the only systematic work 
on the group which the writer has not seen. Its substance seems to 
be repeated by Blainville in his articles, " Lievre marin " and 
" Dolabelle" in the Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, 1819, 
1823. See also his Manuel de Malacologie, 1825. 

The next stage (III) in the history of the group is represented 
by BANG'S monographic Histoire Naturelle des Aplysiens, 1825 ; one 
of the most satisfactory monographs ever written on a mollusk 
group, and, although now nearly seventy years old, still singularly 
useful and complete. Scarcely any descriptions of species by more 
recent writers approach those of Hang in lucidity and comprehen- 
siveness. All of the main genera were understood by Rang, 
although he considered them subdivisions only of Aplysia, using 
that generic term in a rather wider than Lamarckian sense. Sub- 
sequent systematic work on the family has added little to Hang's 
foundation aside from new species. The genera Aplysia, Dolabella 
and Dolabrifera have been monographed by SOWERBY in the Conch- 
ologia Iconica, but as the plan of that work excluded all but purely 
shell features, these treatises are practically useless in the study of 
the Aplysiidce, the shells of which are comparatively uncharacter- 
istic. 

(IV) In quite recent times the Aplysiidce have attracted the at- 
tention of numerous morphologico-systematic zoologists, among 
whom may be mentioned BLOCHMANN, Mittheil. Zool. Sta. Neapel, 
1884 ; VAYSSIERE, Recherches sur les Mollusques Opistobranches, 
1885 , MAZZARELLI, Atti della R. Accademia Scienze, etc., Napoli, 
1890, 1891 ; Zool. Anz., 1889, etc. ; ZUCCARDI, Boll. Soc. Nat. 
Napoli, 1890, and others. Nearly all of these investigations have 
been made on Mediterranean forms. 



64 APLYSIIDJE. 

The Aplysiidce, as a whole, are among the most modified Tecti- 
branchs. None of the existing genera approach the primitive con- 
dition of the family. No fossil forms are known. 

ANALYTICAL KEY TO GENERA OF APLYSIIDCE. 

a. Anterior ends of pleuropodial (dorsal) lobes well separated, the 
lobes mobile and freely separable, at least in front ; shell thin, 
with but little lime ; genital orifice in front of the gill. Ex- 
ternal integument not warty. Lateral teeth with long cusps, 
serrate on both sides, Aplysiince. 

b. Khinophores (posterior tentacles) situated near the middle 
of the space from anterior ends of dorsal lobes to the front 
tentacles ; genital orifice under edge of mantle, I. TETHYS. 
bb. Rhinophores small, situated between anterior ends of dor- 
sal lobes ; mantle posterior, the genital orifice in front of 
and not covered by it, II. PARAPLYSIA. 

aa. Anterior ends of pleuropodial lobes contiguous, separated only 
by the genital groove, the lobes not freely mobile or readily 
spread outward ; external integument usually warty or rough- 
ened. 

b. Genital opening well in front of the main mass of the gill ; 
radula with a wide central tooth, and narrower laterals 
with several denticles, Dolabriferince. 

c. Mantle covering gill, at least in part; dorsal slit 
mainly or wholly behind middle of the animal's 
length ; sole of foot broad. 

d. A small but well-developed shell present ; back 
of animal convex. 

<?. Body widest behind middle ; no opening in 
the mantle exposing the shell ; gill largely 
uncovered by, and projecting beyond, the 
mantle, III. DOLABRIFERA. 

ee. Body widest near the middle ; a large open- 
ing in mantle exposing part of the shell, 

IV. PETALIFERA. 

dd. Shell wanting ; body very flat ; teeth tricuspid,. 

blunt, V. PHYLLAPLYSIA. 

cc. Gill not in the least covered by mantle ; dorsal slit 

subcentral ; sole narrower than the body ; shell a 

minute vestige or absent ; body plump, 

VI. NOTARCHUS. 






TETHYS. 65 

bb. Genital opening under the hind part of the gill ; shell 
mainly calcareous, with deeply cut, curved posterior sin us, 
and subspiral, calloused spire; radula without central 
tooth, the teeth all narrow, of the same form, and with 
long, simple cusps, Dolabellince. VII. DOLABELLA. 

Subfamily APLYSIIN^S Pilsbry. 

Pleuropodial lobes well-developed, their anterior ends separated ; 
genital orifice in front of the gill ; radula with wide, denticulate 
rhachidian teeth, and narrower, serrate and denticulate laterals. 
Shell flexible. 

Genus TETHYS Linne, 1758. 

Tethys LINN., Syst. Nat. (10), p. 653, types limaeina (unidentify- 
able) and leporina (1758). PILSBRY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1895, p. 347. NOT Tethys Linn., 1767, nor Tethys, Tethis, Thethys, 
Thetis, etc., of subsequent authors, to the present day. Aplysia 
LINN., Syst. Nat. (12), p. 1072, and of most subsequent and all mod- 
ern authors. Laplysia LINN., torn, cit., p. 1082, type depilans. 
Siphonotus A. ADAMS & REEVE, Zool. Samarang, Moll., p. 64 (1848), 
type 8. geographicus (preoccupied). Syphonota PEASE, P. Z. S., 
1860, p. 23. Syphonopyge BRONN, Klassen und Ordnungen des 
Thier-Reichs, iii, Malacozoa, pt. 2, p. 799 (1866), type S. geographi- 
cus. Neaplysia COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 57 (1863), 
A. californica Coop. Esmia LEACH, Synopsis Moll. Gt. Brit., p. 33 
(1852), type E. griffithsiana = young Tethys punctata Cuv. Lernea 
BOHADSCH, 1761, (not binomial), and of Linnaeus' 5th and 6th 
editions. Dolabella Risso, 1826, and in part of LAMARCK, 1822. 

Animal swollen behind, narrower in front, with rather lonsj neck 
and head, bearing folded tentacles and slit rhinophores as usual in 
the family, the latter about midway between tentacles and dorsal 
slit. Pleuropodia arising in front of the middle of animal's length, 
ample, freely mobile, free throughout their length or united for a 
distance behind, functional as swimming lobes; anterior ends sep- 
arated. Mantle nearly covering the gill, having a median tube, 
foramen or orifice communicating with shell-cavity, and produced 
behind in a more or less developed lobe or lobes, folded to form an 
excurrent siphon. Genital orifice under front edge of mantle, in 
front of gill ; opaline gland present, a short distance behind genital 

opening. Foot well-developed. 

5 f **~ OF THE 

'UNIVERSITY 

Of 



66 TETHYS. 

Shell very thin, membranous with a thin calcareous inner layer, 
nearly as large as mantle, concave, with pointed, small apex, bearing 
a recurved lamina, and having a concave posterior sinus. 

Distribution : all tropical and warm temperate seas. 

A reference to the table of genera on p. 64, will show the general 
relations this genus bears toward other genera of the family. 

Species of Tethys have been known and noticed in the literature 
of the precocious Mediterranean peoples from very early times. The 
resemblance to a land mammal commemorated in the English com- 
mon name, Sea-Hare, was first noticed by the Greeks, who called it 
Lagoos thalassios. The Romans and mediaeval writers paraphrased 
this in Lepus marinus ; and the French vernacular Lievre de mer, 
the Italian Lepre marina, etc., retain the same idea. Some other 
French names for the slabby beast, more appropriate than polite, 
are given by Rang. The natural history compilers of the Roman 
and Middle Age periods, collected all sorts of absurd popular stories 
about the dangerous and deadly qualities of Aplysia; for the water- 
side folk the world over usually consider any uneatable animal as 
dangerous or poisonous. The memory of one of these tales that 
baldness resulted from handling the animalsurvives in the name 
of one of the species, depilans. The nauseous odor of the living 
animal may have something to do with its ill repute. 

Aplysias not only crawl with facility, but the typical species swim 
freely and rapidly by means of a wing-like motion of the pleuro- 
podia or " swimming lobes." 

The generic name of the genus has been discussed by the writer 
in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1895, pp. 347-350 ; but a brief re- 
statement of the facts there brought forward may be useful in this 
place. 

The genus Tethys was founded by Linne in the tenth edition of 
the Systema Naturae, p. 653 (1858), for two species, both of which 
are unquestionably sea-hares. 

In the twelfth edition (1767) of the Systema, p. 1089, Linne* 
wholly alters the diagnosis of Tethys, applying that generic name to 
the Nudibranch still known as Tethys (see Tryon, Structural and 
Systematic Conchology, ii, p. 381, pi. 90, f. 15 ; Fischer, Manuel, p. 
533, pi. 13, f. 9 ; Woodward, Manual, pi. 13, f. 9). In this edition 
of the Systema, a new name, Aplysia or Laplysia, is proposed for the 
sea-hares. It would seem, therefore, that if we are to adopt the 



TETHYS. 67 

tenth edition of the System a, 1758, as the starting point for binomial 
nomenclature, no option is left us but to restore the earliest name, 
Tethys, to this group, and to reject that term from the nomenclature 
of nudibranchiata. 

The features most depended on for specific characters are (1) the 
size and degree of union posteriorly of the swimming lobes ; (2) the 
nature of the mantle-foramen leading to shell-cavity, which may be 
a large orifice, a minute puncture, or a little tube; (3) the degree 
of development of the free posterior lobes of mantle forming the ex- 
current siphon ; (4) the nature of the opaline gland, grape-bunch- 
like or scattered, the former having a single external opening, the 
latter many ; (5) the consistency and form of shell ; and (6) color- 
pattern (rather than color), and general proportions of animal. 

The structure of the penis will probably be utilized also, in future. 
The dentition presents slight differential characters, but too small to 
be of any practical value in discriminating species, so far as pub- 
lished figures and my own preparations go. Perhaps a wider range 
of observations will show greater divergence. 

A large amount of work remains to be done before the internal 
classification of Tethys can be said to approach the standard of 
present-day zoology. So many species are still imperfectly known, 
or described merely from the least characteristic organ the shell 
that any attempt at a natural arrangement of the species now possi- 
ble will doubtless be subject to much revision in the future. As a 
preliminary sketch is offered the following : 

Synopsis of Sub genera and Sections. 
Subgenus TETHYS Linne. 

Body not prolonged backward in an attenuated tail ; sole of foot 
wide. 

Section Tethys (restricted). 

Swimming lobes ample and free behind as far as their junction 
with the foot ; opaline gland of the " grape-bunch " type, opening 
externally by a single orifice ; mantle having a subcentral minute 
foramen or a little tube communicating with shell cavity; shell 
with no accessory plate arising within the upper margin. Type T. 
leporina Linn. 



68 TETHYS. 

Section Neaplysia Cooper, 1863. 

Swimming lobes short, somewhat united behind ; opaline gland 
opening externally by a single orifice ; mantle having a minute sub- 
central tube communicating with shell cavity ; shell having a mem- 
branous erect accessory plate arising near the apex. Type and only 
species, T. ealifornica Coop. 

Section Aplysia Linne, 1766. 

Swimming lobes ample, united behind the excurrent siphon ; opa- 
line gland multiple, opening externally by numerous independent 
ducts ; mantle having a rather large oval thin-edged opening into 
shell cavity ; shell with no accessory plate, usually convex and cal- 
careous. Type, T. depilans Linne. 

Subgenus PHYCOPHILA Adams, 1861. 

Body compressed with long tail and narrow sole. Type, T. 
euchlora Ad. 

In the following pages the species are arranged geographically, 
this being, perhaps, the best plan for the present, many forms being 
still known by the shell alone, and the characters necessary for the 
natural classification of some others are still unknown. 

The section Neaplysia consists of but one known species, N. cali- 
fornica, p. 89. 

Section Aplysia is widely distributed, and contains the following 
species : 

European Seas : punctata, depilans. 

West Atlantic and Antillean : parvula. 

West America : rangiana, (f nigra, f ined). 

Polynesia : elongata. 

Australian Seas : concava f 

China and Japan : fusca. 

Western Indian Ocean : nigrocincta. 

Habitat unknown . anguilla f 

Section Tethys is the most numerous in species, and occurs on all 
tropical and warm temperate coasts except western North America. 
All species not enumerated above are supposed to belong to this 
group ; and probably nigra and inca of Orbigny also group here, 
although they have the swimming lobes united behind as in the re- 
stricted section Aplysia. 



TETHYS-EUROPEAN. 69 

I. Species of European Seas. 

a. Swimming lobes united behind as far up as the excurrent siphon ; 
mantle having a wide median orifice exposing the shell, its 
edges not thickened. A group of unicellular glands each with 
independent duct in place of the opaline gland 

depilans, punctata. 

act. Swimming lobes free to their union with the foot behind ; man- 
tle having a median minute perforation or a little tube. 
b. Opaline gland with multiple ducts ; green ; length 27 cm. 

lobiancoi 
bb. Opaline gland grape-bunch like, with one duct. 

c. Length 12-20 cm. ; very dark, sometimes flecked with 
light leporina 

cc. Length 6 cm. ; obscure green, marbled with black 

marmorata 
ccc. Pale yellowish with scattered black rings dactylomela 

T. DEPILANS Linne. PI. 23, figs. 26, 27 ; pi. 24 ; pi. 33, fig. 25. 

Length about 20 cm. Shorter and more compressed than T. lep- 
orina. Swimming lobes united behind as far forward as the mantle 
siphon ; foot rounded posteriorly. Mantle or gill-cover with a 
broad round orifice leading into the shell-cavity, and surrounded by 
dark brown rays. On the under side of mantle edge the numerous 
glands secreting a milky fluid (homologous with the purple glands 
of T. leporina) open. Siphon of the mantle shorter than in lepo- 
rina ; genital and anal openings as in leporina. Behind the genital 
opening there are numerous one-celled glands each with its separate 
opening, in place of the grape-bunch like gland of leporina (pi. 33, 
fig. 25). 

Color extremely variable ; generally the ground is light brown, 
often gray-brown, rarely quite dark, always with white or light 
gray spots with irregular outlines. Shell similar to that of leporina 
but with stronger calcareous layer. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; Atlantic: Torbay, S. coast 
Devon, England, and Channel Is. ; W. coast of France, Madeira, 
(? and Cape of Good Hope). 

Laplysia depilans L., Syst. Nat., 12, p. 1082, founded mainly on 
Lernea of Bohadsch, de quibusdam animalius marinis, etc., pi. 1-3. 
BARBUT, The Gen. Vermium, p. 31, pi. 3, f. 5, 6. BRUG., Encycl. 
Meth., pi. 83, 84 (copied from Bohadsch). LAM., An. s. Vert., PEN- 



70 TETHYS-EUROPEAN. 

NANT, B. Zool., iv, p. 35, pi. 21, f. 21. Aplysia depilans GMEL., Syst. 
p. 3103. BANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys, p. 62, pi. 16, 17. VAYSSIERE, 
Eech. Moll. Opistobr., p. 65, f. 51-58 (anatomy). BLOCHMANN, 
Mittheil. Zool. Stat. Neapel, v, p. 32, pi. 3, f. 2, 5, 10 (anat.). 
ZUCCARDI, Boll. Soc. Nat. in Napoli, (1), iv, p. 6, pi. 1, f. 1, 4, 10, 
13, 15 ; pi. 2,f. 25-29 (teeth and jaws). WATSON, Challenger Gas- 
trop., p. 673. MONTS., J. de Conchyl., 1877, p. 46. Tethys lima- 
cina LINNE, Syst. Nat,, 10, p. 653, teste Linne*, S. N., 12, p. 1082. 
? Dolabella fragilis LAM., An. s. Vert., vi, 2me pt., p. 42 (1822). 
? Aplysia "major" LANKESTER, Philos. Trans., clxv, 1875, p. 13 
(embryology). A. petersoni SOWB., Genera of Shells, Aplysia, fig. 
1. ? Dolabella lavis BLAINV., Diet. Sc. Nat., xiii, p. 395. Aplisia 
leporina DELLE CHIAJE, Memorie, pp. 28, 41, 71, pi. 2, 4,5 (1823). 
Aplisia poliana DELLE CHIAJE, t. c., p. 30, 73, pi. 3, f. 1. A. poll 
DELLE CHIAJE, t. c., p. 72. A. vulgaris BLAINV., Man. de Malacol., 
p. 472, referring to Journ. de Phys., Vol. 96, fig. 8 (1825). 

The large orifice in the mantle over the shell, surrounded by 
brown rays, and the posteriorly united swimming lobes are charac- 
teristic. 

T. PUNCTATA Cuvier. Plate 30, figs. 1 to 11. 

Length 7-15 cm. but mostly smaller ; form about as in T. depi- 
lans. Swimming lobes completely united behind as far forward as the 
excurrent siphon, not very ample. Upper surface of mantle irides- 
cent, with a large, oval orifice leading into shell-cavity ; edge with 
purple glands as in T. leporina, and unicellular glands with granu- 
lar contents, probably slime glands. Behind the genital open- 
ing is a group of one-celled glands as in T. depilans. 

Color purplish-black, brownish or greenish- brown, always closely 
spotted with pale rounded dots and small spots, which usually show 
some opaque white specks. 

Alcoholic specimens (well preserved) are gray (produced by 
minute ashy speckling on a clear ground) with pale spots, the lobes 
darker, their inside edges with alternating dark and light bars, man- 
tle brown. Occasionally all pigment is lost. 

Shell quite convex, pale yellow outside, ovate, the outer margin 
hardly angular ; beak well incurved ; calcareous layer nearly coex- 
tensive with the membranous, and moderately strong. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Atlantic from Norway and all 
British coasts, to the Canaries. 



TETHYS-EUROPEAN. 71 

Laplysia punctata CUVIER, Ann. du Mus., ii, p. 295, pi. 1, f. 2-4 
(1803) ; Kegne Anim., ii, p. 398. RANG,|Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 65, 
pi. 18, f. 2-4. PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., p. 124; ii, p. 97, pi. 22, 
f. 1. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch., v, p. 5. pi. 1, f. 1. SARS, Moll. Reg. 
Arct. Norv., pi. xii, f. 18 (anatomy). VAYSSIERE, Rech. Moll. 
Opistobr., p. 68, f. 67-69 (anatomy). So WE., Conch. Icon., f. 41 a, 
b (shell). BLOCHMANN, Mittheil. Z. Stat. Neap., v, p. 34, pi. 3, f. 
3, 6, 11, 13 ZUCCARDI, Boll. Soc. Nat. Nap. (1), iv, p. 5, pi. 1, f. 
3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 30-33 (jaws and teeth). MC!NTOSH, The Marine 
Invert, and Fishes of St. Andrews, p. 84, pi. 3, f. 1. A. hybrida 
SOWB., Brit. Misc., pi. 53 (1806). FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Br. 
Moll., iii, p. 544, pi. 114F, f. 4, and YY, f. 1. L. depilans PENN., 
Brit. Zool., edit. 4, Vol. iv, p. 42, pi. 21, f. 21. A. varians LEACH, 
Syn. Moll. Gt. Brit., p. 33 (1852). f Esmia griffithsiana LEACH, L 
c., p. 34, pi. 7, f. 8-1 Q (young) =griffithsi(B GRAY, Figs. Moll. Anim. 
iii, pi. 268, f. 13. A. mustelina DAVIES, in Penn. Brit. Zool. edit., 
1812, iv, p. 79, pi. 22. A. nexa THOMPSON, Ann. Nat., Hist., xv, p. 
313, pi. 19, f. 8 (1845). Aplisia cuvieri and A. cuvieriana DELLE 
CHIAJE, Memorie, p. 41, 71 (1823). A. guttata SARS, Archiv fur 
Naturg., 1840, p. 213, pi. 7, f. a-g (embryology). ? A. dumortieri 
CANTRAINE, Malac. Medit. et Lit., p. 71, pi. 3, f. 2 (very young). 
A. subquadrata " Gould," SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 9, f. 39a, b. 
Con/. Amer. Journ. Conch., v, p. 222. Aplysia punctata=cuvieri 
DELLE CHIAJE, Mem. An. s. Vert, de Regno di Napoli, pi. 77, f. 
15, 16. A marginata PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 98, pi. 22, f. 2. 
1A. marginata BLAINV., Journ. de Phys., Vol. 96, 1823, p. 285, 
f. 5 ; Diet. Sc. Nat., xxvi, p. 326 ; (described from specimens of un- 
known origin, in coll. of the College of Surgeons, London). Aphy- 
sia albo-pundata DESH., Traite Elem. de Conch., ii, p. 59 (name only) 
pi. 92, figs. 1, 2 (1839-1857, Atlas, 1864). A cimeHDelle Chiaje, 
FISCHER, Faune Conch, mar. Gironde 2e Suppl., in Actes Soc. 
Linn. Bord., xxix, 1874, p. 193. MONTS., J. de Conchyl., 1877, p. 
46. A. longicornis RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 66, pi. 19, f. 1-4 
(1828). Aplysia stellata Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., p. 43; 
Jouru. de Physique, de Chimie et d'Hist. Nat. Ixxxvii, p. 375 (1818). 
? Aplysia rosea RATHKE, Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet, v, 
Iste Hefte, p. 85, 147, pi. 3, f. 12 a, b (1799). 

This is smaller than the preceding species, with the lobes more 
united posteriorly, the orifice over the shell larger (its edge very 



72 TETHYS-EUROPEAN. 

finely radially crenulate), and the system of coloring different. It 
is also more widely diffused. 

The name A. rosea of Kathke, if really belonging to this species, 
has precedence over punctata ; but it was founded on a young speci- 
men, and the coloring described (" roseate, spotted with white and 
brown ") is unlike any specimens known to me. It was from near 
Christiania. 

Jeffreys (Brit. Conch., v, p. 7) refers the A. varians and Esmia 
griffithsiana of Leach to punctata. The descriptions and figures of 
these are very ambiguous. 

T. LEPORINA Linue. PL 33, fig. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. 

Length of adults about 12-30 cm. Form when resting, compar- 
atively high and narrow. Epipodial lobes large, completely free to 
the hind part of the foot. Foward tentacles are mere flat prolonga- 
tions of the integument on each side of the mouth. The small eyes 
are forward from the bases of the true tentacles. Foot rather acute 
posteriorly; mantle or gill-cover with a foramen produced in a 
small tube in the middle above ; the unicellular purple glands open- 
ing on the under side of its edge. Posteriorly the mantle edge 
forms a short siphon, in the depth of which lies the anus. Genital 
opening under the front end of the gill. Behind the genital open- 
ing is the orifice of the grape-like opaline gland (fig. 24). The 
albumen gland is orange-red. 

Color deep velvety blackish-violet, frequently with gray or with 
whitish flecks. Tentacles and edges of epipodial lobes often with a 
more or less intense red border. Sole and inside of lobes lighter. 

Radula with the formula 30'1'30 to 50-1 '50 when adult, 70-80 
transverse rows (pi. 33, fig. 23). 

Shell 70 mill, long, 60 broad, 20 high, subquadrangular, convex, 
thin, subopaque, composed of two layers : the external layer is cor- 
neous, pale amber-yellow, membranous, and readily separated from 
the calcareous, vitreous lighter and shining inner layer. Surface 
with growth lines and obsolete radial folds and grooves. Spire 
covered by an irregular callous deposit. 

Western basin of the ]\fediterranean ; abundant on the coasts of 
Italy (Naples, etc.~), Sicily, Algiers, southern coast of France {Gulf 
of Marseilles, etc.}. 

Tethys leporina LINNE, Syst. Nat., 10, p. 563 (founded on Lepus 
marinus of Rondelet, Lib. de Pise, marinis, p. 520, woodcut). 



SE 

or THE 

VERSITT 



TETHYS-EUROPEAN. 73 

Lapli&ia fasciata Bosc, Hist. Nat. des Vers, i, 1802, p. 63. Laply- 
sia fasciata POIRET, Voy. en Barbarie, ii, p. 2 ; and in German trans- 
lation of same, Reise in die Barbarey, 2ter Theil, p. 67 (1789). 
OMEL., Syst. Nat., 13, p. 3103. CUVIER, Ann. du Mus., iii, p. 295, 
pi. 2-4 (anatomy). RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 54, pi. 6, 7. 
VAYSSIERE, Rech. Moll. Opistobr., p. 60, figs. 59-66 (anatomy). 
BUQ., DAUTZ, & DOLLF., Moll. Rouss., i, p. 546, pi. 65, f. 4, 5 (shell). 

MONTS., Journ. de Conchyl., 1877, p. 45, and of authors generally. 

A. depilans BLAINV., Journ. de Phys., Vol. 96, p. 285 (1823), 
and Diet. Sc. Nat., xxvi, p. 327 ; Man. de Malacol., pi. 43, f. 4. 
? Dolabella lepus Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 44, pi. 1, f. 1, 
2 (1826). Aplysia lepus PHIL, (de novo), Enum. Moll.Sicil., ii, p. 
99 (1844). Aplisia neapolitana and napolitana DELLE CHIAJE, 
Mem. su la storia e Notomia delgi Anim. s. Vert, del Reg. di Nap- 
oli, i,pp. 31, 39, 70, etc., pi. 3,f. 2 (1823). A. camelus CUVIER, 
Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., ii, p. 295, pi. 1, f. 1 (1803),=4. cameli- 
formis LOCARD, Annales de la Soc. d'Agricult., etc. de Lyon, fifth 

ser., viii, p. 66 (1886). A. alba Cuv., 1. c., pi. 1, f. 5, 6 (both 
founded on alcoholic and decolored specimens). A. limacina L., 
BLOCHMANN, Mittheil. Z. Stat. Neapel, v, p. 29, pi. 3, f. 1, 4, 9, 12. 

ZUCCARDI, Boll, della Soc. di Naturalisti in Napoli, iv, p. 5, pi. 
1, f. 2, 5, 7, 8, 11, 14 ; pi. 2, f. 17-24, 34-37 (1890). Probably not 
Tetliys limacina Linne, an absolutely unidentifiable species subse- 
quently referred to A. depilans by Linn. Aplysia radiata CROUCH, 
Illustr. Introd. Lam. Conch., p. 44, pi. 14, f. 10, lOa (1827). 

This is an abundant species, differing from depilans and punctata 
in the free backward extension of the dorsal lobes, and the minute 
foramen in the mantle leading to the shell-cavity, with the edges 
thickened, somewhat tubular. 

I have not seen the original edition of Poiret's travels in which 
A. fasciata was first published, and therefore do not know its date. 
It was apparently after 1786, the last year of the voyage, and be- 
fore 1788, because Gmelin cites it in the Systema. The German 
translation is 1789. I adopt Linnaeus' specific name because Ronde- 
let's figure and description of the coloration agree well with this 
species, and not with any other European Sea Hare. 

T. LOBIANCOI Mazzarelli. Unfigured. 

Length (in alcohol) 27 cm. Green. Swimming-lobes free as far 
as their union with the foot behind, as in leporina. Gill-cover 



74 TETHYS-EUROPEAN. 

ample, and its opening is very small. Siphon as in leporina, long ; 
and over its inner right wall lies a very large anal opening. Gill as 
figured by Blochmann for depilans. Genital opening lies under the 
gill-cover a little in front of the gill, as in other Aplysias. Sperm- 
groove ends a little before the right tentacle, as in leporina and 
chierchiana. The tentacles show nothing characteristic. Theradula 
is lancet-shaped, with 37 rows, the median ones with 41'1*41 teeth. 
Penis similar in shape to that of depilans, but it is not black (in 
alcohol), and its sheath does not show the papillae as in depilans. 
The opaline-gland (or gland behind the genital opening) consists of 
a group of one-celled glands, each with its separate efferent duct, as in 
depilans, lessoni and punctata. 

Shell 75 mill, long, very thin, entirely transparent and almost 
without chalky layer. In general it agrees nearly with that of 
leporina. 

Bay of Posilippo, Gulf of Naples (Lo Bianco). 

Aplysia lobiancoi MASZARELLI, Nachrichtsbl. D. Malak. Gesell- 
sch. xxii, 1890, p. 42. 

This species seems to have been described from one alcoholic spec- 
imen, scarcely to be distinguished from leporina in external anatomy, 
but with the opaline gland and penis more as in depilans. It can 
hardly be regarded as well founded until living specimens are de- 
scribed, and the anatomical features are found to be constant. 

T. MARMORATA Blainville. PI. 33, figs. 26, 27, 28, 29. 

Length about 60 mill. Oval, smooth, the foot acute behind. 
Swimming-lobes large. Mantle broad with a median tube ; the ex- 
current siphon conic and quite long. Color, obscure greenish, mar- 
bled with black spots. 

Shell ovate, elongated, very concave, nearly membranaceous, or 
at least with a slight calcareous layer readily lost in alcohol; buff- 
livid ; apex feebly curved toward the upper sinus of the shell, which 
is far back and little arcuate. Length 20 mill. 

West coast of France ; Bayonne, Roclielle, etc. 

A. marmorata BLAINV., Diet. Sc. Nat. xxvi, p. 326 (1823) ; Journ. 
de Phys., Vol. 96, p. 286, f. 3, 4. RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 58, pi. 
12, f. 6-9. 

I have not seen this species. It will probably group near leporina. 



TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 75 

T. MELANOPUS Crouch. PI. 38, figs. 1, 2. 

This form is described as 4* inches long, very plump, foot of a 
dark brown color ; whole of the body with the exception of the man- 
tle and foot, is marked with tints of red on the brilliant yellow sur- 
face. The shell is two inches wide, half-oval, thin, subcartilaginous 
and marked with faint lines diverging from the straight border ; 
almost, but not exactly in the middle of the upper portion was a 
prominence or projection, but so injured as not to be accurately 
denned. Its surface was slightly tinged with brown. 

East coast of Cornwall. 

Aplysia melanopus CROUCH, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 173, figs. 1, 2. 

Known to me by Crouch's description and figures. The struct- 
ural characters are still unknown. Type is in British Museum. 

II. Species of the West Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. 

a. Mantle with a minute median perforation or a little tube ; opa- 
line gland opening by a single orifice. 
b. Variegated with rings or ocellated spots. 

c. AVith scattered large black rings, dactylomela, cequorea. 

cc. With many small rings, protea, schrammi. 

bb. Maculated or clouded with blackish ; shell with extremely 

thin calcareous layer, livida, willcoxi, cailleti. 

bbb. Uniform black outside, or nearly so. 

c. Mantle with a tube ; swimming lobes arising far back 

unicolored, braziliana. 

cc. Mantle with perforation ; lobes with spots along inner 

margin, floridemis. 

aa. Mantle with a large median orifice. 

b. Animal small ; shell very convex, calcareous, parvula. 

T. DACTYLOMELA Rang. PL 32, figs. 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Length about 17 cm. Always much swollen, with elongated head 
and tail ; rugose. Mantle or gill-cover with a minute central tube y 
and a well developed siphon behind. Swimming lobes not united as 
far forward as the siphon. 

Color pale yellow of various shades, more or less covered in differ- 
ent individuals, with black rings, irregular and of various sizes. 
Inner sides of lobes and the mantle with large black spots of different 
forms. Borders of the swimming lobes tinged with violet. 



76 TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 

Shell large, much dilated, a little diaphanous, amber colored out- 
side, with a visible enamel within ; posterior sinus deeply arcuate ; 
beak recurved, triangular, thick and calloused. Alt. 42 mill. 

Strait of St. lago, Cape Verde Is. (Bang) ; Bermuda /, Bahamas f 
Florida f 

Aplysia dadylomela RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 56, pi. 9 (1828). 
ROCHEBRUNE, Nouv. Arch, du Mus., 1881, p. 264. 

A. ocellata ORB., Hist. Nat. des lies Canaries Moll., p. 44, pi. 5, 
f. 1-4. 

A. cequorea HEILPRIN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1888, p. 325, 
pi. 16, f. 2 ; and The Bermuda Islands, p. 185, pi. 15, f. 2a, 2b (1889). 
Con/. DOBSON, Journ. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 159. 

Like T. leporina, this species has a minute, tubular foramen over 
the shell. 

Several east and west Atlantic forms agreeing in the marking of 
dark rings and the minute, tubular orifice in the mantle, may best 
be included as varieties under dadylomela until they are shown to 
have differential features of value. 

Var. OCELLATA Orbigny. Plate 31, figs. 12, 13, 14, 15. 

Length 33 cm. Elongated, flabby, very fleshy, thick, enlarged 
behind ; neck long ; mouth encircled by rather wide lips and large, 
thick buccal appendages, depressed and convoluted at their ends; 
tentacles stout, short, conic ; eyes small, placed in front of the ten- 
tacles. Swimming lobes large, equal, thick, united behind. Mantle 
large, without orifice above, ending posteriorly in a wide, thin tongue, 
sometimes greatly extended. Gills foliated in regular branches, 
which sometimes are extraordinary prolonged. Foot narrow, folded, 
strongly contracted at neck, and acuminate behind. 

Colors : The sides, neck and head are marked by ocellations of 
blackviolet which surround a yellow spot subdivided by crack-like 
lines. The intervals between ocellse are yellow, subdivided in the 
same way with black-violet lines. On the head, in front of the 
tentacles, are two more regular ocelli. Tentacles and buccal append- 
ages are zebra-striped with the same color on a yellowish ground, 
more or less violet tinged. Parts bordering the foot visibly violet. 
Inside of lobes clear violet, marked with indistinct longitudinal 
lines. Mantle violet, with yellow spots divided by lines; and there is 
one rounded black spot, surrounded by a marginal band of very 
deep violet. The gills are clear rose-violet. Foot rose color. 



TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 77 

Shell of the usual form, very thin, and provided at the beak with 

a strong raised plate above, which is not found in European species. 

Near Santa Cruz, Teneriffe, Canaries (Orb.). 

Var. ^EQUOREA Heilprin. PL 35, figs. 33, 34, 35. 

" Length about 4? inches. Body broadly oval, with a moderately 
elongated neck ; tentacles cylindrical, slit at the extremity ; buccal 
lobes broad, infolded ; opercular cavity on a slightly raised papilla " 
Swimming lobes very ample, free, united behind only at their insertion 
far back on the foot, which seems short posteriorly. Right edge of 
mantle deeply sinused at its posterior third, with a short excurrent 
siphon. Genital orifice slightl} 7 in front of, and below the anterior 
insertion of gill. Opal-gland with a single orifice about 6 mill, 
back of genital orifice. 

Color (in alcohol) light olive-gray, with very sparsely scattered 
irregular and unequal rings, traced in narrow black lines, and rang- 
ing from 3 to 5 mill. diam. There are also a few irregular black 
lines. Insides of swimming lobes and the mantle unicolored brownish- 
drab, free from markings, except for a couple of small black blotches 
within left lobe. 

Shell with a moderately strong layer of lime at the apex, thick- 
ened, calloused, and reflexed backward in an erect plate (somewhat 
like a Pholas valve) ; outer layer yellow, membranous ; posterior 
sinus rather deeply concave, nearly half the shell's length, and form- 
ing an angle with the outer lip. Length about 42 mill. 

Bermuda, in shallow water, south side of Castle Harbor, opposite 
Tucker's Town. 

The above description is from the type collected by Professor 
Heilprin. It is considerably contracted and the shell has been re- 
moved. The original description was also from the alcoholic (not 
the living) animal, the length being supplied from memory. As 
Heilprin remarks, this form differs from dactylomela and ocellata in 
lacking the markings on the mantle and the insides of swimming 
lobes ; moreover in this individual the black circles are very few in 
number and delicately outlined, and the swimming lobes are not 
violet bordered. As it was not described living, no complete com- 
parison can be made with d'Orbigny's circumstantial account of 
ocellata. The identity of the Bermuda Aplysia commented upon by 
Dobson, that collected in the Bahamas by Dr. Dolley, and the A. 
schrammii of Deshayes, with the present form remains problematic 



78 TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 

until series of specimens can be examined. Dobson's Bermuda spec- 
imen had the mantle much variegated. It is likely that the type of 
cequorea is young, hardly over half-grown. 

T. PROTEA Rang. PL 37, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Length 16 cm. Body slabby, extremely swollen, the tentacles 
quite long. Smooth, of variable color, but green and yellow pre- 
dominate, with numerous ring-shaped spots of black, red and green. 

Shell wide, the apex much projecting and triangular. It is quite 
solid, the calcareous layer nacreous, sinus rather deep but quite wide. 
Cuticle yellow. Length 36 mill. 

Bay of Fort Royal, Martinique (Richard, Plee). 

A.protea RANG, Hist. Nat. des Aplysiens, p. 56, pi. 10, f. 1-3 
(1828). ORBIGNY, Moll. Cuba, i,p. 117. MORCH, Malak. Bl. xxii, 
p. 176 ; Journ. de Conchyl. 1863, p. 23. BEAU, Catal. Coq. recueillies 
a la Guadaloupe et ses dependences, p. 20. ARANGO, Fauna Malac. 
Cubana, p. 155. [KREBS] The West Indian Marine Shells, p. 91. 
DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vi, 1883, p. 324 ; Cat. Mar. Moll. S.-E. U. 
S. (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 37) p. 90 ; List of Marine Mollusca, 
etc., p. 24, 25. 

This species has been reported from Key West, Florida (Hemp- 
hill), St. Augustine, Fla. and Bermuda (Dall), Cuba (Arango), St. 
Thomas and Sta. Cruz (Riise, Krebs, Morch et a/.), Ilet a Cochons, 
near Guadaloupe (Beau), Carthagena, Columbia (Krebs); but some 
of these localities may rest upon incorrect identifications. 

This beautiful species, very abundant in the Antilles, says Rang, 
is quite distinct from all its allies. The back is extremely swollen, 
the swimming lobes are large, with usually wavy borders, the neck 
is slender, and the tail pointed. The tentacles are large, the mantle 
flabby, foot large, and operculum much extended. The coloration 
is very changeable. In the water it appears greenish ; and in the 
air has a different aspect. The general color is then yellowish, re- 
flecting a golden tint ; but under all circumstances there are a great 
number of black rings, varied with green and red. The colors, as 
well as the form and arrangement of these spots vary a good' deal, 
but they have a handsome effect, especially when the animal is alive. 
The membrane of the opercle [mantle] as well as the inside of the 
swimming lobes are covered with large and irregular black spots. 
When preserved, the animal assumes a livid color, but the black rings 



TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 79 

always are retained. The shell of A. protea is one of the most beau- 
tiful of the genus. Outside it is a beautiful straw-color, covered 
within by quite a thick calcareous layer, sometimes very nacreous. 
This animal is known to the negro fisherman by the name baril de 
vin, on account of the beautiful fluid it secretes. 

The following seems to be a synonym : 

A. schrammii Deshayes. Uniform yellowish-white, prettily orna- 
mented over the whole surface of the body with small circles of 
black, unequal and very irregularly scattered (Desk., Journ. de Con- 
chyl. [2], ii, [1857], p. 140). Described from an alcoholic spec- 
imen ; no information additional to the above has been published. 
It may prove to be a T. protea which has lost all coloration except 
the black circles by the action of alcohol. 

Gaudeloupe (Schramm). 

T. LIVIDA d'Orbigny. PI. 20, figs. 37, 38, 39. 

Length 13-16 cm. Elongated, quite elevated, flabby, wide in the 
middle, acuminate behind ; neck long. Buccal appendages sepa- 
rated by a deep groove in front, very long, narrow, smooth. Tenta- 
cles short, subconic. Eyes black, in front of tentacles. Mouth 
with thin lips ; foot narrow, plicate in front, lengthened behind. 
Swimming lobes wide and rounded, united behind. Mantle without 
perforation above, but having a depressed line. Siphon long, 
tongue-like ; gill longer than mantle. 

General color yellowish, mixed with green ; upper parts spotted 
with light yellow. Inner borders of swimming lobes with a series of 
equidistant, squarish, yellow spots. Its fluid is pale rose colored ; 
odor musky. 

Shell depressed, very thin, oblong, the posterior sinus shallow ; 
apex somewhat encrusted. 

Bay of Rio Janeiro, Brazil (Orbigny, in October). 

Aplysia livida OEBIGNY, Voy. dans PAmer. Merid., p. 206, refer- 
ring to pi. 18, f. 3-5. Aplysia lurida ORB., t. c. on pi. 18, f. 3-5. 

Compare T. willcoxi, which seems to be nearly allied. I consider 
Sowerby's A.guadaloupensis, known only by a description and figure 
of the shell, as in all probability a synonym. The original descrip- 
tion and figure are here reproduced : 

A. guadaloupensis Sowerby. (PI. 35, fig. 36). Shell talon-shaped, 
subcompressed, pale yellowish ; radiately distantly lightly pitted, 
concentrically elegantly striped ; within testaceous, pale pink. Apex 



80 TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 

acuminated, produced, reflected, incurved; upper margin sloped, 
reflected, excavated, cuneate at the end ; outer lip anteriorly sinu- 
ously produced ; dorsal margin rather short, reflected ; lower mar- 
gin sloped obliquely towards the dorsal margin. (Sowb.'). 

Guadaloupe (Mus. Cuming). 

A. guadaloupensis SOWB., C. Icon., pi. v, f. 19 (August, 1869). 

" This shell is beautifully striped on the back." (Sowb.) 
T. wiLLCOxr Heilprin. PL 35, figs. 30, 31, 32. 

Length about 11-15 cm. General form about as in T. livida. 
Anterior head- pro cesses large, broad and prolonged downward, the 
reflexed portion erectly triangular, the mouth between their lower 
ends. Tentacles long, with a very short slit. Swimming lobes 
ample, united behind only where both join the foot. Mantle with a 
very minute tubular perforation with very short black rays around 
it, or in some specimens the perforation is not to be seen. Mantle 
edge posteriorly notched, and with a long tongue-like siphon lobe* 
Opaline gland long, opening by a single large orifice about 15 mill, 
behind genital orifice, the latter nearly as far forward as anterior 
edge of mantle. 

Color in alcohol greenish-yellow, coarsely cloud-marbled or mac- 
ulated on the swimming lobes, neck and head, with purplish-black j 
mantle light, with a dark cloud at the front edge. Inside of the 
swimming lobes olive-blackish or purple-blackish (rarely pale olive), 
with a wide bordering series of irregular, rounded light spots at the 
edges. 

Penis conic, decidedly enlarged at base, and black-pigmented 
there ; a long filament projecting from the apex. 

Shell very thin, flattened, translucent ; inner layer extremely thin,, 
a mere opalescent film ; outer layer straw colored, with many con- 
centric whitish streaks. Apex a very small curved hook ; poste- 
rior sinus but little concave, nearly half the shell's length, its mem- 
braneous margin thickened and broadly reflexed across the apex. 

Length 56, breadth 40 mill. 

Little Gasparilla Bay and Marco, West Florida (Heilprin and 
Willcox). 

Aplysia willcoxi HEILPR., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1886, p. 
364 ; Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., i, p. 130, pi. 19 (bad). 

This form agrees moderately well with d'Orbigny's A. livida in 
some respects, but it lacks the external light speckling, and the light 



TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 81 

markings along the inner edge of swimming lobes are not nearly so 
regular as in livida. The more important structural characters of 
the latter, however, are still unknown. The whole scheme of color- 
ing is unlike Rang's protea, which differs moreover in characters of 
the shell. That of T. willcoxi is uncommonly flat, with extremely 
slight, iridescent calcareous layer and wide cuticular borders. The 
description is from alcoholic specimens, as was that of Heilprin. 

Var. PERVIRIDIS. PI. 55, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Length 14 cm. when living, 11 contracted in alcohol. Body 
large, much swollen behind. Anterior processes broadly folded 
above ; tentacles conic and slit as usual. Swimming lobes very 
ample, free, united only at their insertion at the tail. Mantle large, 
its perforation extremely minute, with thickened edges but not 
tubular, surrounded by fine radial wrinkles, visible only under a 
lens (fig. 2, enlarged), the papilla being less than 1 mill. diam. 
Posterior right margin of mantle excised and folding into a short 
excurrent channel. Genital opening well forward, about as figured 
for T. willcoxi. Opaline gland 20-22 mill, behind genital pore, 
projecting externally as a pedunculated oval body in the type speci- 
men (fig. 1), but perhaps evaginated, in which case it would have 
one large orifice. 

Colors in life clear green on the head and tentacles, the 
swimming lobes olive-green with a coarse-meshed reticulation of 
black, subdivided by fine veins, irregularly maculated all over with 
light green, these spots having groups of white dots ; the extruded 
mouth parts purple. In alcohol (for 10 months) it is grass green 
with black reticulation on the sides, caused by massing of the black 
veins through contraction ; foot clear green ; mantle green with some 
whitish clouds; inner surface of swimming lobes green and dirty 
whitish, marked with black in the sinus between lobes and body, 
the black extending well on the lobes toward the hind end ; no no- 
ticeable black markings at inside 7 edges of lobes. 

Shell large, depressed, thin, yellowish, with fainter concentric 
growth wrinkles and coarse faint radii. Calcareous layer thin, the 
cuticular layer projecting far beyond it. Apex only moderately 
incurved, the epidermis reflexed across it as in T. willcoxi. Sinus 
shallow and wide. Length 60, breadth 52 mill. 

Cape May, New Jersey (H. Lemon). 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 




82 TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 

This form differs from T. willcoxi in lacking the characterises 
pattern of dark marking, and in the longer excision or sinus of the 
shell. The animal colors the alcohol in which it is preserved green. 
The single specimen was found alive at Cape May in October, 1894. 

T. CAILLETI Deshayes. 

Nearly as large as A. depilans. Irregularly marbled with green- 
ish-brown, very sombre, on a ground of white washed with brown- 
reddish ; the free edges of the mantle [swimming lobes] bordered 
with a wide zone of the same color but paler. (Desk., Journ. de 

Conchy!., 1857, p. 140.) 

Guadeloupe (Schramm). 
No other information has been published on this form. 

T. BRASILIANA Rang. PI. 38, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Length 11 to 13 cm. Very much swollen, elongated in front, 
somewhat shortened behind, carrying the mantle far back. Tube of 
the mantle quite ample and conspicuous. Swimming lobes very 
large. Color deep brown. 

Shell oblong, of a dark yellow color, the apex little developed ; 
posterior sinus almost wanting. 

Bay of Rio Janeiro, abundant (Quoy & Gaimard). 

Aplysia brasiliana RANG, Hist. Nat. de Aplysiens, p. 55, pi. 8, f. 
1-3 (1828). 

Rang's figures and description which I give above are evidently 
from alcoholic specimens. He writes : Two quite remarkable char- 
acters distinguish A. brasiliana from the other species : first, the 
front part, is much lengthened, and the posterior part is rather 
short ; and second, the opercle [mantle] is placed far toward the 
hind end, and consequently obliquely towards the tail. To these 
characters we may add the color of the lobes, which is a dark 
brown, and the form of the posterior tentacles which are perfectly 
conical, while the others are much widened. The lobes are ample 
and long and the opercle quite large. The shell, too, is distinct ; it 
is of an oblong shape, and an obscure-yellow color ; its lower sur- 
face is covered by a quite thick calcareous layer, the apex is little 
formed, and there is almost no sinus. The type is Aplysia No. 11, 
of the anatomical cabinet of the Garden of Plants. 

T. FLORIDENSIS Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 37, figs. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Length about 9 cm. Body rather short, with short tail. Head 
lobes broad and triangular, the mouth parting their lower median 



TETHYS-ANTILLEAN. 83 

ends, distal extremities with the fold short. Tentacles small, conic, 
conspicuously slit. Swimming lobes ample, free, united behind only 
at their union with the foot. Mantle large and convex, smooth, 
with a small central thin-edged perforation. Posteriorly having a 
conspicuous, large excurrent siphon formed by a broad enlargement 
of the free mantle edge. Genital pore under forward right border 
of mantle surmounted by a fleshy prominence. Opening of opaline 
gland large, single, about 12 mill, back of genital pore, and well 
under the gill. Penis, when extended, about 28-30 mill, long, 
swollen at base, then tapering. 

Color deep purple-black, the inside of swimming lobes slightly 
lighter, blotched at the edge with black. Mantle purple-black, 
spotted irregularly and indistinctly with lighter fleshy -purple. 

Shell rounded, very convex, posterior sinus wide, concave ; the 
apex well hooked and calloused, the membraneous layer reflexed 
behind it, cuticular layer sepia-brown ; membranous margin wide 
below ; calcareous layer rather thin. Length 39, breadth 34 mill. 

Key West, Florida (H. C. Machette). 

This form, which, on account of the general color of the body, I 
at first regarded as a probable variety of Bang's A. brasiliana, dif- 
fers from that species in the greater proportional size of shell to 
total length of the animal, the maculated mantle and inside edges of 
the swimming lobes, the simple, thin edged mantle foramen (that of 
brasiliana being figured as tubular), and the wider, rounder shell. 
The types are two well preserved alcoholic specimens collected by 
Mr. Machette in 1893. They stain the liquor a dark smoky yel- 
low. 

T. PARVULA (Guilding) Morch. PI. 37, figs. 23, 24, 25. 

Flaccid specimen : Body soft, slender, fusiform ; epipodial lobes 
short, entire and continuous behind ; eyes sublateral, in front of the 
bases of the tentacles. Tentacles slender, acute. Length 16 mill. 
(Morch.) 

Contracted specimen : Body leathery, toHgh, transversely wrinkled 
and grooved ; orifice in the mantle large, oval, and like the borders 
of the epipodial lobes, margined by a black line. Length 12 mill. 
Shell not seen in this specimen, but feels as in the preceding. 
(Morch.) 

Shell small, rather solid, narrowly ovate or piriform, extremely 
convex ; somewhat translucent white or brown tinted, more deeply 
so toward the lower margin. Apex strongly incurved, involute and 



84 TETHYS-WEST AMERICAN. 

calloused, but with no reflexed margin over the tip. Sinus short 
and very concave, margined. Surface smooth. Calcareous layer 
coextensive with the excessively thin, hardly apparent cuticle. 

Length 8J, breadth 6 mill. 

St. Thomas (A. H. Kiise ; Dr. Hornbeck) ; St. Vincent (Guild- 
ing)- 

Aplysia parvula GUILDING MS. in MORCH, Journal de Conchyli- 
ologie, 1863, p. 22; Mai. Bl. xxii, p. 176. ?J. rosea Rathker 
SOWB., Conch. Icon. f. 23 (1869). 

I have given Morch's very poor descriptions of the soft parts of 
this species, and have diagnosed and figured the shell from part of 
the original specimens received from Morch. It is unquestionably 
a distinct species, not closely allied to any other of the region. The 
shell is convex and solid, somewhat like Crepidula convexa Say in 
contour. The large oval orifice in the mantle is also a valuable 
distinguishing character, other described Antillean forms having 
this foramen minute or tubular. 

Whether the parvula of Morch is really Guilding's mss. species i& 
by no means certain ; but fortunately there is no necessity for rais- 
ing the question. Sowerby has figured a shell from St. Vincent 
under the name A. rosea Rathke, which is the A. parvula of Guild- 
ing, according to him ; but the real A. rosea was a Scandinavian 
species and in all reasonable probability a young punctata Cuv. 

III. Species of the West Coast of the Americas. 

a. Shell normal, with no accessory plate at the apex. 
b. Swimming lobes broadly united behind. 

c. Mantle excised behind, but with no tongue-like lobe. 

d. Mantle with a submedian perforation. Black, nigra* 
dd. Mantle with a large submedian oval orifice. Black- 
ish, rangiana* 
cc. Mantle with a submedian perforation, and a posterior 
long, tongue-like siphonal lobe. Violet, with some white 
spots, blackish in alcohol, inca 
bb. Swimming lobes free to their union with foot behind. 

c. Mantle with a subcentral tube or papilla ; swimming 
lobes very ample. 
d. Maculated ; opaline gland with one orifice, 

chierchiana^ 



TETHYS-WEST AMERICAN. 85 

dd. Grayish-rose, each tentacle with a black line, 

lessoni. 

ddd. Not so marked ; slender, the tail long, robertsi. 

cc. Mantle with subcentral minute pore, posteriorly bilobed ; 

opaline gland with one orifice, panamensis. 

aa. Shell with an accessory plate near apex ; swimming lobes short, 

posterior, somewhat united behind ; excurrent siphon long, with 

a tongue-like lobe ; mantle with subcentral tube ; opaline gland 

with one orifice. Finely netted with brown and spotted with 

black, californica. 

T. NIGRA d'Orbigny. PI. 22, figs. 10, 11. 

Length as much as 25 cm. Body much elevated, leathery, 
strongly wrinkled, very ventricose. Head short and wide, the neck 
very short ; buccal lobes broad, quite short, a little folded at the 
ends. Tentacles large, quite short, very obtuse and slit at the ends. 
Foot very wide, strongly wrinkled, thick, truncated in front, 
widened in the middle, short and subacuminate behind. Swimming 
lobes not very large, united behind for a moiety of their length, and 
forming a large branchial cavity ; in front the lobes are so short 
that their free part can scarcely be of use in swimming. Mantle 
very large, in part concealed by the union of the swimming lobes, 
rounded, with a very small round aperture at the middle, above. 
Posterior edge of mantle not having a tongue-like lobe, but excised 
or sinused, and provided along the semicircle with a membranous 
ridge, perpendicularly elevated, corresponding to the sinus of the 
shell. Gill wholly covered by the mantle and by the bridge formed 
by union of the swimming lobes. 

Color deep black, especially on the sole and lobes ; the latter a 
little roseate inside. 

Shell very open, depressed, with concentric and radial striae; 
sinus wide and shallow ; apex a little oblique and slightly encrusted. 
Amber colored. 

Island of Sa?i Lorenzo, Callao, Peru. 

A. nigra ORB., Voy. dans I'Amer. Merid., p. 209, pi. 18, f. 1. 2. 

This species is remarkable for its large size, the union of the 
swimming lobes behind, and the excised posterior margin of the 
mantle, which is not produced to form an efferent canal as usual in 
the genus. It emits a milky, white or slightly violaceous liquor in 
abundance, and has a very strong odor of musk. 



86 TETHYS-WEST AMERICAN. 

Guppy (in Proc. Sci. Asso. Trinidad, ii, p. 137, and Proc. Vic- 
toria Institute of Trinidad, pt. 2, March, 1895, p. 123) reports this 
species from Trinidad, but there cannot be much doubt that the 
identification was erroneous. 

T. RANGIANA d'Orbigny. PL 19, figs. 34, 35, 36. 

Length of the larger individuals 3 to 4 cm. Body very short 
and elevated, oblong, quite leathery, much swollen ; head wide ; 
buccal tentacles broad and short, obtuse; foot oblong, wrinkled, 
truncate in front, very broad and rounded behind. Swimming 
lobes short, united behind for the greater part of their length, form- 
ing a deep sack. Mantle large, oval, without tongue-like process, 
the posterior margin with a fleshy circle elevated in perpendicular 
crests. A very large oval aperture in the mantle shows the shell. 
Gill partly covered. 

Color in alcohol blackish. 

Shell ovate, swollen, cretaceous, nearly smooth, the apex arcuate ; 
yellowish. 

Payta, Peru, in 6-7 frns., sand bottom (Dupetit-Thouars). 

A. rangiana ORB., Voy. dans PAmer. Merid., p. 210, pi. 17, f. 11- 
13. 

This species, Orbigny writes, has great affinity with A. nigra, and 
may prove to be the young of that ; but the foot is not produced 
behind, and the aperture of the mantle is six times as large, 
although the individuals are not more than one-eighth the size of 
A. nigra. It was described and figured from alcoholic specimens. 

T. LESSONII Rang. PI. 56, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Length 17 cm. Body much elevated, fleshy ; not as much elon- 
gated in front as in most other species, short and acute behind. 
Smooth and grayish-rose colored, with fine reddish lineolation. 
Foot oblong. Swimming lobes very large. Anterior tentacles 
thick and not very susceptible of extension ; hinder tentacles lanceo- 
late, marked in the middle by a black line extending their entire 
length. Mantle with a small subcentral tube, and terminating be- 
hind in a small, open siphon. 

Shell oval, pointed behind, concave with little-developed apex ; 
sinus long and not much arched. Inside white and covered with a 
calcareous layer ; outer surface amber colored. Length 34 mill. 

Payta, Peru (Lesson). 



TETHYS-WEST AMERICAN. 87 

A. lessonii RANG. Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 60, pi. 14. LESSON, 
Voy. autour du Monde, etc., La Coquille, Zool., ii, pt. 1, p. 295 
(1830). 

T. INCA d'Orbigny. PI. 19, figs. 29, 30,31. 

Extended animal as much as 20 cm. long. Moderately length- 
ened, elevated, flabby, very ventricose. Cephalic portion elongated, 
on a very short neck ; buccal lobes very long and very wide, flat- 
tened and inrolled at the end, which is thin, sharp and strongly 
ridged. Tentacles long, subconic, obtuse and slit at the ends, placed 
slightly behind the middle of the interval between buccal and swim- 
ming lobes. Eyes visible, in front of the tentacles. Mouth placed 
at the lower part of the fissure separating the buccal lobes. Foot 
narrow, strongly wrinkled, acuminate behind. Swimming lobes 
very large, united and much prolonged behind the gill. Mantle 
swollen, oblong, smooth, with a very small round aperture in the 
middle ; posteriorly it is produced in a very long, wide and thin 
tongue. 

Color, a beautiful violet tint, with rounded white spots on the 
sides of the front part of swimming lobes, and several larger, more 
regular oblong and spaced on the neck and head, usually two be- 
hind the tentacles and four in front on each side, on a line with the 
forward insertion of the swimming lobes. Swimming lobes marked 
along the inside edge with a narrow border of clear rose-violet, 
flanked by large rounded and angular white blotches on a purple- 
brown ground. Mantle uniform violet. Gill purple violet. Pre- 
served in alcohol this species retains the entire pattern of spots, 
but the ground tint becomes blackish, dotted with blackish. 

Shell amber colored with corneous edge. 

Callao Bay. 

Aplysia inea ORB., Voy. dans 1'Amer. Merid., p. 207, pi. 14, f. 13. 
A. incus SOWB., Conch. Icon., f. 28. 

This species differs from T. lessoni in pattern of coloring, and the 
non-tubular mantle foramen. 

T. CHIERCHIANA Mazzarelli & Zuccardi. 

This new species is based upon two specimens from the island of 
San Lorenzo, Peru. The principal character of the species consists 
in the presence of a contractile, strongly-developed papilla in the 
center of the mantle, at the point where there is ordinarily an aper- 
ture. This papilla is swollen at base, narrowed toward the sum- 



88 TETHYS-WEST AMERICAN. 

mit, forming a strongly serrate tuft. The opercule or mantle is 
ovoid, rather elongate, and presents a moderately-developed expan- 
sion on the right. Anterior tentacles are quite broad, plate-like, 
with sinuous, lobed margins, and are moderately separated. The 
posterior tentacles are conic and closer together. Swimming lobes 
strongly developed. 

Genital orifice under the opercle in front of the gill. Opaline 
gland of the grape-bunch type, opening by one orifice. 

Color: the body is bestrewn with numerous rather large oval 
dark maculae, and spotted with smaller white spots. 

Shell concave, elongate, rounded at the anterior extremity, the 
beak projecting and ronnded ; sinus notably arcuate. 

Island of San Lorenzo, near Callao, Peru. 

Aplysia chierchiana MAZ. & Zuc., Bollettino della Societa di 
Naturalist! in Napoli, ser. 1, vol. iii, p. 52 (1889). 

T. PANAMENSIS Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 60, figs. 45, 46, 47, 48. 

Length (of alcoholic specimens) 4 to 6 cm. Body soft, of usual 
proportions. Buccal lobes large, triangular-ear-shaped, with the 
usual fold above. Tentacles lance-shaped and slit. Swimming 
lobes thin, rather small, arising at the anterior third or two-fifths 
the total length, uniting behind only at their junction with the foot. 
Mantle transparent, with a very minute, scarcely visible pore; its 
posterior right margin bilobed and sinused to form an excurrent 
siphon. Genital pore and groove as usual. Opaline gland opening 
by a single conspicuous orifice. 

Color grayish, with some ill-defined spots or rings, and marks of 
black posteriorly on the lobes. Mantle immaculate, but there are 
some faint, dark markings on inside of swimming lobes. 

Shell moderately convex, buff outside, having a moderately solid 
calcareous layer within, the cuticle projecting but little beyond it. 
Apex acute, projecting, bearing a callous reflexed crest which forms 
a triangular cavity on the back. Sinus short and deeply arcuate. 
Surface with slight growth-wrinkles and impressed unequal, irregu- 
lar, radial grooves, several on the left slope deeper. Length 16, 
breadth 13 mill. 

Panama (J. A. McNeill). 

The tentacles are comparatively slender and long ; the swimming 
lobes weak, and the shell, with its hood at the summit, is about as 
solid as in T. punctata Cuv. No other West Coast or Antillean 



OF THE 




TETHYS-WEST AMERICAN. 89 

species seems very nearly allied to this, unless it be the Antillean 
form of T. dactylomela. 

T. ROBERTSI Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 55, figs. 4, 5. 

Length (of alcoholic specimen) 11 cm. General form slender and 
lengthened ; the tail unusually long, depressed, and extending far 
beyond posterior insertion of the swimming lobes. Neck and head 
elongated, the mouth in a vertical fissure as usual. Rhinophores 
conical, slit about half-way down, the minute, rudimentary eyes 
situated outward from them, but only a trifle anterior to the front 
of their bases. Swimming lobes wholly free from anterior to posterior 
insertions, moderately ample. Mantle having a minute, subcentral, 
conic tube ; its free right border wide, produced in a folded lobe 
posteriorly, forming a rather long excurrent siphon. Opaline 
gland opening by a single large orifice. Foramen of the penis situ- 
ated far forward, anterior to and below the right anterior tentacle, 
above the front edge of sole. Foot fleshy, the sole wide, emarginate 
in front. 

Color (in alcohol) dirty light olive, very minutely wrinkle-retic- 
ulate with black-brown in places, forming a large cloud on the out- 
side of each swimming lobe, another occupying the face ; sole black- 
ish ; inner surface of swimming lobes blackish below, lightly stained 
in places outwardly. Mantle clear olivaceous over the shell, the 
free border and siphon blackish. 

Shell thin, fragile, with very slight calcareous layer ; buff" outside ; 
apex hardly curved, with a narrow reflexed margin. Sinus long, 
nearly straight, margined. Length 28, width 22 mill. 

West coast of Mexico (Dr. W. H. Jones). 

Notable features of this species are the unusually posterior eyes, 
anterior male genital pore, wholly free swimming lobes, and especi- 
ally the long tail. The shell has a very thin calcareous layer, and 
the sinus is nearly straight. The type was in a bottle with Dolabella 
calif ornica Stearns, which it resembles in color, at least in the 
alcoholic condition. The specific name is in honor of Mr. S. RAY- 
MOND ROBERTS, whose services as an officer of the Conchological 
Section during a long series of years, are well known and appreciated 
by conchologists. 

T. CALIFORNICA Cooper. PI. 56, figs. 13, 14. 

Length 37?, breadth and height 12 cm. (Cooper). Length of 
alcoholic specimen described below 11 cm. Body obese, the ante- 



90 TETHYS-WEST AMERICAN. 

rior portion long, swimming lobes inserted rather far back. Buccal 
lobes flattened and folded as usual, black within the fold. Poste- 
rior tentacles rather near together, conic and slit above, black 
within the slit, situated somewhat nearer buccal lobes than swim- 
ming lobes. Swimming lobes short and not very ample, united for 
a short distance behind. Mantle provided with a central minute 
tube ; concentrically wrinkled ; having an uncommonly long poste- 
rior excurrent siphon, the left lobe tongue-like and long. 

Genital pore in the usual position ; genital groove long. Opaline 
gland opening by a single large orifice. 

Color " pale gray or greenish, becoming purplish on the side, folds 
of mantle with scattered white specks, from which an irregular net- 
work of brown lines extends over the rest of its body, interspersed 
with large brown blotches. Inner surface of [swimming lobes] varied 
with alternating painted bars of white and dark brown interlocking 
together. Sole of foot black. Eyes very minute and black." The 
alcoholic specimen before me is yellowish, finely netted and spotted 
all over the sides and back with black brown, sole blackish ; mantle 
black-brown with large yellowish maculae ; inside of swimming lobes 
black-brown barred boldly with dirty yellowish, the dark bars 
branching at the upper edges of lobes. 

"Shell cartilaginous, translucent, trapezoidal, or hatchet-shaped, 
margins rounded, slightly convex above, the nucleus in old spec- 
imens distant from the posterior end or apex. Faint radiating lines 
diverging from the nucleus, crossed by an irregular net-work of 
darker lines, all ending abruptly at some distance from the margin, 
which has thus a wide, nearly transparent border. An accessory 
plate arises on the inner surface from the nucleus, nearly spatulate 
in form and slightly raised." (Coop.). The shell of the specimen 
figured on my plate shows the essential features mentioned by 
Cooper, but the accessory plate projects squarely above the upper 
margin. The minute, incurved apex is situated some distance with- 
in the margin, being 4 mill, below the upper edge in the specimen 
figured. 

Monterey to San Pedro, California. 

Aplysia (Neaplysia*) californica J. G. COOPER, Proc. Cal. Acad- 
Nat. Sci. iii, 1863, p. 57, fig. 14Neaplysia californica, J. G. 
COOPER, Geographical Catalogue of the Mollusca found west of the 
Kocky Mountains between lat. 33 and 49 N., no. 241, p. 14 (Geol. 
Sunr. of Cal. 18670 



TETHYS-POLYNESIAN. 91 

The specimens before me are from Monterey. This species is well 
characterized by the short, poorly developed, posteriorly placed 
swimming lobes, the nearness of the tentacles to each other, the deep 
pocket-like gill cavity, and the accessory plate on the shell. A 
small specimen before me lacks the leopard-like spotting of the out- 
side, being dirty gray with black maculae around tentacles and to- 
ward the tail. The mantle is uniform grayish, but the inner sur- 
face of swimming lobes has the marking described above. In place of 
a tube, the mantle shows only a minute pore on a very slight papilla, 
surrounded by fine radial striae. Whether these differential features 
are specific or not remains to be decided by the examination of more 
material. 






IV. Polynesian Species. 



A considerable portion of the species from this region are not 
sufficiently known to permit the construction of any useful synopsis 
or key. 

T. BIPES Pease. PI. 20, figs. 43, 44. 

Oblong, smooth, elevately rounded above, compressed towards the 
foot. Neck long. Mantle lobes ample, thin, half the length of the 
animal, and rounded in outline. Dorsal tentacles small, grooved, 
and blunt. Oral tentacles large, strongly dilated, and united in front, 
forming a kind of veil, beneath which is the mouth. Eyes small, 
black, somewhat lateral, a little in advance of dorsal tentacles. 
Head rather flattened in front, convex in profile, with a groove ex- 
tending from the muzzle along its side and over the back of the 
animal. Siphonal tube very large and prominent, and expanding 
outwards. Branchiae exposed when the mantle is thrown on one 
side. Foot narrowed anteriorly, widest posteriorly and rounded ; 
the foot is double ; the posterior portion (of a circular shape) is 
smooth and projects slightly laterally and posteriorly, being quite 
distinct from the anterior portion, which is slightly rugose. Shell 
large, thin, flexible. Color brownish or brownish-olive, veined with 
dusky and clouded with white, or dusky slightly spotted with the 
same. Foot pale ash. (Pse.*). 

Shell compressed, obliquely subovate, concentrically wrinkled, 
within pearly-calcareous; apex elevated, acuminated, very little in- 
curved ; upper margin sloped downwards, rounded at the end ; 



92 TETHYS-POLYNESIAN. 

outer lip anteriorly obliquely produced ; dorsal and inferior mar- 
gins very obliquely sloped forwards. (Sowb.). 

Sandwich Is. (Pse.). 

Syphonota bipes PEASE, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 23. Aplysia bipes SOWB. 
Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 6, f. 26a, b. 

This species contracts itself when handled so as to form a ball. 
The young are subpellucid. The hinder part of the foot is evidently 
used as a sucker, by which the animal suspends itself. (Pse.). 

T. SANDVICHENSIS Sowerby. PI. 20, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell obliquely oblong, arched, ivory, brown towards the edges, 
white within, apex elevated, very little incurved ; upper margin 
sloped downwards, deeply excavated, angular at the end ; outer lip 
roundly produced below ; dorsal margin convex, inclined towards 
the outer lip below, widely excavated. (Sowb.). 

Shores of Sandwich Islands (Cuming). 

Aplysia sandvichensis SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 4, f. 14a, b 
(August, 1869). 

" Much more arched than Aplysia tigrina." But it may be only 
the shell of a fully adult T. bipes Pease. 

T. GRANDIS Pease. PI. 20, figs. 40, 41. 

Body long, smooth, elevately rounded above and rather compressed 
along the sides. Mantle lobes thin, rounded, much dilated and 
strongly undulated along the margins. Dorsal tentacles rather 
large, pointed, dilating outwards and grooved. Oral tentacles 
grooved, about same size as the dorsal, with a furrow extending from 
beneath the right one along the neck and terminating in the back 
between the mantle lobes. Foot elongate, narrow, corrugated, and 
projecting posteriorly, where it is rounded. The siphonal tube is 
on the posterior lateral portion of the back, canaliculated and curved, 
and extending above the back. Shell large, covered by a thin mem- 
brane, ovately rounded, thin, fragile, with rugose lines of growth, a 
deep rounded sinus on the right side near the apex. Apex small 
and callous. Color purplish-brown, pale along the flanks, every- 
where above densely crowded with minute white dots, which on the 
sides are arranged in circular clusters forming spots. Foot pale. 
The young are of a very pale color. (Pse.). 



TETHYS-POLYNESIAN. 93 

Shell somewhat talon-shaped ; oblique, arched, brownish-green, 
subpellucid ; apex very elevated, acuminated, subauriculated ; upper 
margin much sloped, excavated, outer lip rounded ; lower margin 
rounded ; dorsal margin convex, subangulated. (SowbS). 

Sandwich Is. (Pease). 

Syphonota grandis PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 23. Aplysia grandis 
SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 8, f. 34a, b. 

This species was found gregarious on a rocky bottom. They 
generally carry the mantle lobes expanded, spreading open and ex- 
posing the shell and branchiae. When confined in a glass jar, they 
used the posterior portion of the foot as a sucker, suspending them- 
selves from the glass, although there was no division of the foot, as 
in the preceding species. (Pse.). 

\ ELONGATA Pease. PL 59, figs. 35, 36, 37, 38. 

Length (of alcoholic specimens) about 2 cm. Form oblong, 
smooth. Back elevated, so much so as to give it a slightly com- 
pressed appearance. Mantle lobes strongly dilated and undulated, 
and free nearly the whole length of the back. Dorsal tentacles 
rather slender, and ear-shaped ; anterior pair large and dilated. 
Foot narrow and terminating in a point posteriorly, which projects 
beyond the back. Color of a darker or lighter brown, which color 
is most intense on the top of the head and neck, The whole dorsal 
region is clouded and minutely speckled with white. The shell is 
distinctly defined in the living animal being covered with a thin 
translucent membrane. (Pse.). 

Swimming lobes narrow, membranous, united for a short distance 
behind. Mantle having an extremely large oval foramen; excised 
and lobed behind. Genital pore and groove as usual. 

Shell extremely large for size of the animal, moderately solid, buff 
outside ; calcareous layer nearly as extensive as the cuticular. Very 
convex, the apex incurved, bearing a wide, reflexed and adnate callous 
hood. Sinus very deeply concave and short. Length 11 J, breadth 8 

mill. 

Sandwich Islands (Pse. ; Townsend). 

Siphonota elongata PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 24. MART. & LANGK. 
Donum Bismarckianum, p. 54, pi. 3, f. 6. 

This seems to be a species allied to T. punctata and parvula, hav- 
ing the shell of the same convex form, although provided with a 



94 TETHYS-POLYNESIAN. 

much more developed " hood." The mantle foramen is extremely 
large, judging from the rather poor alcoholic specimens before me. 
I see no pore of the opaline gland, and it is probably multiple, as 
in T. punctata. My specimens are yellowish-gray, duskier in front, 
with some blackish on the head. 

T. VIRIDESCENS Pease. PL 25, fig. 3. 

Length 30 cm. Animal elongate, smooth ; dorsal region, moder- 
ately elevated, slightly convex in its outline, terminating abruptly 
posteriorly, beyond which the foot extends but a short distance, 
ending in a rounded point. Head depressed, neck long; labial 
tentacles large, broad, much dilated ; cervical tentacles moderate in 
length, stout, cylindrical, grooved their whole length on the outer 
sides. Eyes immersed, a short distance in advance of the base of 
the cervical tentacles. Siphon large, recumbent, long, corrugate 
transversely near its termination. Ground color pale green mottled 
with white, and dusky, whole surface reticulate with fine black lines, 
arid ornamented with remote, large, diffused dusky rings. Foot 
greenish flesh color, slightly mottled with dusky, upper sides of the 
posterior portion black. (Pse.). 

Shell undescribed. 

Kingsmill Is. (Pse.). 

Syphonota viridescens PSE., Amer. Journ. of Conch, iv, p. 77, pi. 
10, f. 1 (1868). 

A large species " length one foot," which will probably retain in 
alcohol the dusky rings described by Pease. 

T. SOREX Rang. PI. 22, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Length 2*5 cm. Body short, oblong and much swollen ; mantle 
thick and a little rough ; foot large and callous ; lobes narrow. 
Opercle with a median tube. 

Color deep green, marbled with black spots. (Rang}. Dirty 
green, marbled or spotted with black, foot olivaceous. (Less."). 

Shell very thin and not very concave, oval-oblong, yellow outside, 
white within; the sinus rather shallow, and situated far back. 
Length 25 mill. 

Island of Oualan ( Ualari), Caroline group (Lesson). 

Aplysia sorex RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 57, pi. 10, f. 4-8. LES- 
SON, Voy. autour du Monde, La Coquille, Zool., ii, pt. 1, p. 294. 



TETHYS-POLYNESIAN. 95 

This small sized species is especially remarkable for its short form, 
extremely swollen back, acute tail and short anterior portion. The 
foot is very broad and spreading in front, thick and rugose. The 
swimming lobes are narrow and close on the back, and do not cover 
it entirely. The opercle or mantle is quite large and oblong. 

T. PEASEI Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 25, fig. 2. 

Animal oblong, slender, smooth, dorsal region much elevated, 
convex in outline, gradually sloping posteriorly to the termination 
of the foot, anteriorly abrupt ; neck long ; cervical tentacles slender, 
long and cylindrical; labial tentacles large, moderately dilated. 
Siphon large, erect. Color pale fawn, mottled with darker, and 
covered with minute crowded white and very light purple dots; 
under portion of the body, edges of the mantle and labial tentacles 
margined with dark slate color. (Pse.). 

When in confinement it adhered with considerable tenacity to the 
jar by the hinder portion of the foot. (Pse.). 

Huahine, Society Is. (Pse.). 

Syphonota punctata PSE., Amer. Journ Conch., iv, p. 77, pi. 9, f. 2 

(1868). Not Aplysia punctata Cuvier. 

The size is not stated by Pease, but judging from his figure it is a 
small, long-tailed form with long excurrent siphon. The shell is 
undescribed. 

T. KERAUDRENII Rang. PL 39, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Length 15 cm. Oblong, very much swollen, not much elongated 
forward, acute behind ; swimming lobes very large ; opercle [mantle] 
vast, oblong, with a very distinct tube in the middle ; the siphon 
long and open lengthwise. Smooth and greenish-brown with large 
irregular and close black spots. Anterior tentacles wide with wavy 
borders, posterior tentacles conic. 

Shell large, oval, not very concave, elongate, much narrowed be- 
hind, the sinus long and rather shallow ; apex triangular, recurved 
and thick ; calcareous layer quite thick. Color brown-yellow above, 
white below. Length 48 mill. 

Tahiti (Otaheite), Society Is. (Lesson). 

Aplysia Jceraudrenii RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 59, pi. 13. LES- 
SON, Voy. autour du Monde, etc., La Coquille, Zool., ii, pt. 1, p. 294. 
Not Syphonota keraudreni ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 228. 



96 TETHYS-POLYNESIAN. 

A large, handsome species, with ample swimming lobes, large 
mantle provided with a conspicuous central tube and an uncommonly 
long excurrent siphon. Angas reports it from Port Jackson, but 
the identity of his specimens with the type collected at Tahiti by 
Lesson, is open to grave doubt. See under T. angasi Sowb. 

T. PULMONICA Gould. PI. 18, fig. 28. 

Length six inches ; height two inches. Body oblong, posteriorly 
sacciform, with a short, distinct prolongation of the foot backwards. 
Color bronze-green, coarsely reticulate with dark veins ; siphonal 
aperture small ; head obtuse, slightly bilobate ; anterior tentacles 
short, ear-shaped ; cervical tentacles acutely conical, faintly annulate. 
(Old.). 

This animal bears a general resemblance to A. tongana of Quoy 
and Gaimard ; but their figure shows the ruffled posterior disk 
peculiar to the subgenus Dolabella, no traces of which are apparent 
in this species. (Gld.\ 

Tutuilla, Samoa Islands^ 

Aplysia pulmonica GOULD, U. S. Exploring Exped., p. 223, fig. 
268 (1852). 

The more essential structural characters of this species are un- 
fortunately unknown. Compare T. tryoniana and T. keraudrenii. 

Var. TRYONIANA Pilsbry, n. v. PI. 57, figs. 54, 55, 56, 57. 

Length (of an alcoholic specimen) about 13 cm. Body of ample 
width. Buccal lobes and tentacles as usual, the later stout-conic, 
near together. Swimming lobes arising at about the anterior third, 
long, very ample, united behind at their junction with foot; ante- 
rior insertions widely separated. Mantle large, with a minute sub- 
median pore on a very low, hardly noticeable papilla, surrounded 
with short black wrinkle-rays, star-like. Free right border of 
mantle wide, abruptly narrowed toward the posterior end, excised, 
and terminating in a fold forming a well defined excurrent siphon. 

Genital orfice and groove as usual, the latter deep with overlap- 
ping left margin. Orifice of opaline gland a large pit about 11 mill, 
behind genital pore. 

Color (of alcoholic specimen) externally a dirty light olive, much 
and irregularly clouded and mottled with black on the anterior half, 
less so posteriorly ; with a crinkly-reticulation of black throughout. 






TETHYS-AUSTRALASIAN. 97 

Mantle dirty white, with slight gray clouds, its free right margin 
(inflexed and not shown in figure) olive with bold confluent maculae 
of black. Inner surface of swimming lobes olivaceous, boldly marked 
with confluent black macula, the lighter tint prevailing toward edges 
of the lobes. Sole uniform olivaceous. 

Shell moderately convex, ovate, yellow outside, becoming brown- 
ish toward the margins, the epidermal layer projecting well beyond 
the moderately solid, white, calcareous layer. Beak well incurved, 
enveloped by a very ample callous, reflexed "hood" which is not 
adnate dorsally but leaves a large, deep, triangular cavity (fig. 24). 
Sinus rather short and moderately concave, its inflexed cuticular mar- 
gin conspicuous and nodular above. Surface with inconspicuous 
growth striae and many shallow radial grooves. Length 54, breadth 
45 mill. 

Upolu, Samoa Is. (Dr. Graffe). 

Aplysia sp.f Museum Godeffroy, Catalog IV, p. 105, No. 1107a. 
Hamburg, 18(59. 

This form, which I name in honor of the founder of the Manual, 
is allied to T. keraudrenii in size, coloration and ample proportions 
of the swimming lobes. It differs from that in the star-like pore of 
the mantle, in place of a conspicuous tube, and in the greater devel- 
opment of the reflexed callus at the shell's apex. The posterior 
sinus of the shell, too, is shorter ; and the excurrent siphon of mantle 
is rather less developed, although of the same essential structure. T. 
pulmonica Gld. is also a species of similar characters, but it appar- 
ently has a more extensive posterior union of the swimming lobes, 
producing the sack-like structure described by Gould, and it lacks 
black maculation. 

V. Species of New Zealand and Australian Seas. 

These forms are still too imperfectly known to admit of tabula- 
tion in the form of a " key." 

T. BRUNNEA Hutton. PI. 59, fig. 44. 

Animal of a uniform rich dark brown, about 4 inches in length. 
Shell horny, ear-shaped, firm, the whole shell very finely concen- 
trically striated ; epidermis pale brown. Length '9, breadth *7 
inch. The shell somewhat resembles A. excavata Sow., from Port 
Jackson, but it is not square at the end. (Hutton.') 

Wellington and Dunedin, New Zealand, 
7 



98 TETHYS-AUSTRALASIAN. 

Aplysia brunnea HUTT., Trans. N. Z. Inst., vii, p. 279, pi. 21, fig. 
(1875) ; Man. N. Z. Moll., p. 123. 

T. VENOSA Button. PI. 59, fig. 39. 

Animal yellowish-brown, veined with dark brown, about 6 inches 
in length. Shell membranous ; the apex rather coarsely concen- 
trically striated, the rest of the shell smooth and polished ; epi- 
dermis pale straw color. Length 1*25, breadth 1 inch. (Hutton*). 

Wellington, New Zealand. 

Aplysia venosa HUTT., Trans. N. Z. Inst., vii, p. 279, pi. 21, fig. 
(1875). 

T. TRYONII Meinertzhagen. 

Animal a dark brown (kelp color), spotted all over with gray 
pepper colored spots. The edges of the lower lobe of the mantle 
marked evenly with alternate darker brown and gray. The lobe 
covering the shell striped with gray, all of which stripes point to, 
and narrow towards, the apex of the shell. Posterior sides of upper 
tentacles also a peppery gray color. Shell faintly but finely striated 
concentrically, horny and flexible at the edges. 

Length of shell 1'15 inches, breadth 0'65 in. Length of animal 
about 5 inches. 

The above animal appears to me to differ in coloring from A. 
brunnea, described by Capt. F. W. Hutton. The shell also appears 
to me to differ in its measurements from those given by Capt. Hut- 
ton, and in appearance from that figured in his plate, being much 
longer in comparison with its breadth. The coarse striations and 
shape of the shell of A. venosa leave no doubt that my specimens 
differ from, that animal. 

All my specimens discharged the purple fluid (which is character- 
istic of the genus) on being placed in fresh water, or otherwise an- 
noyed. I noticed also that the lower lobes, which some authors say 
are used in swimming by this genus, are only used in that way by 
this species in a very qualified sense. They attach themselves to a 
rock or to sea- weed by their tails, and allow their bodies to drift 
about, simply guiding the direction of their bodies, and maintaining 
their upright position, by the movement of the lobes. 

As in Parmophorus, Bulla and Haliotus, the shells of younger 
individuals were much larger in relation to their bodies than those 
of mature age. (Meinert.*) 

Waimarama, Hawke's Bay, and Napier, New Zealand. 






TETHYS-AUSTRALASIAN. 99 

Aplysia tryonii MEINERTZHAGEN, Trans, and Proc. N. Z. Inst., 
1879, xii, p. 271, 270 (1880). HUTTON, Tr. N. Z. Inst., xv, p. 118, 
pi. 13, fig. A (Dentition). 

The formula of teeth given by Hutton is 13*M3, an unusually 
small number. In form, the teeth offer nothing especially charac- 
teristic. 

T. HAMILTON: Kirk. 

Animal about 7 inches in length, 2? inches high, and weighing 
14 oz. Color umber-brown, with fine irregular dark markings ; 
lighter below. Shell ear-shaped, horny, firm, ribbed on left side, 
irregularly concentrically striated ; epidermis bright straw color, 
highly polished. Inside white, with a pearly luster. Length, 1/6, 
breadth 1'45 inch. (Kirk.) 

Napier, New Zealand. 

Aplysia hamiltoni KIRK, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 1881, xiv, p. 283 
(1882). 

T. TASMANICA Tenison-Woods. 

Shell thin, fragile, translucent, shiny, obliquely subquadrate, 
s lenderly concentrically striate, and transversely minutely sulcate, 
subtestaceous within, slightly concave, enamelled, horny; apex 
scarcely incurved, with the upper margin arcuate and subreflexed, 
lower margin oblique and straight, anteriorly produced and rounded. 
Length 38, breadth 28 mill. (T.-W.) 

Tasmania. 

Aplysia tasmanica T.-W., Papers and Proc. and Rep. Roy. Soc. 
Tasm. for 1875, p. 156 (1876). 

A large form of talcous appearance, the margin becoming insensi- 
bly membranaceous. It is somewhat similar in form to A. gigantea 
of Sydney, but more oval, membranaceous, and smaller. (T.-W.) 

T. NORFOLKENSIS Sowerby. PI. 59, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell horny, brown, arched, ventricose, obliquely subovate, thin, 
smooth ; apex elevated, round, auriculated at the back ; upper mar- 
gin sloped, excavated ; outer lip rather convex ; lower margin 
rounded, dorsal margin arched, rounded, thinly reflected near the 
apex, obliquely inclined towards the lower end. (Sowb.) 

"Norfolk Island, New South Wales" (Sowb.) ; Shark Island, Port 
Jackson (Brazier). 



100 TETHYS-AUSTRALASIAN. 

Aplysia norfolkensis SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 10, f. 42a, b (Aug., 
1869). ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 190. 

The auricle produced by the reflected dorsal margin is more ex- 
panded in Aplysia coneava than in this similarly shaped but differ- 
ently colored shell. (Sowb.~) 

T. CONCAVA Sowerby. PI. 43, fig. 27 (enlarged). 

Shell small, straw-colored, thin, ventricose, transverse, smooth, 
white within ; apex small, rounded, strongly incurved, subauricu- 
lated on both sides, upper side concave, short ; dorsal margin re- 
flected, elevated, oblique, sloped towards the outer lip. (Sowb.~) 

Australia (Sowb.). 

Aplysia coneava SOWB., Genera of Shells, fig. 3. A. coneava 
SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 6, f. 24a, b. 

Aplysia anguilla is more transverse, and Aplysia rosea more tri- 
angular than this species, although they nearly resemble it ; the 
apex is auriculated, and the reflected lateral margins near it 
(Sowb.) 

Much like elongata Pse., norfolkensis Sowb., and parvula Guild. 
I suspect it to be identical with one of the latter species, notwith- 
standing the locality given by Sowerby. The original figure meas- 
ures 9? mill long. 

T. EXCAVATA Sowerby. PI. 58, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell pale, thin, subquadrate, scarcely oblong, concentrically 
striped, ventricose, within thinly testaceous, apex not prominent, 
thin, roundly incurved ; upper margin short, scarcely excavated, 
square at the end, outer lip rather straight ; lower margin square ; 
dorsal margin very thin, convex. (Sowb.~) 

Port Jaekson (Angas), 

Aplysia excavata SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 3, f. 8a, b (Aug., 
1869). ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 190. Aplysia hyalina SOWB., t. 
c., pi. 4, f. 13a, b, ANGAS, I. c. 

Aplysia excavata and hyalina were described from shells only, and 
these are so similar that I believe them to belong to one species. 
The description of hyalina is a follows : 

Aplysia hyalina (pi. 58, figs. 30, 31). Shell round, pellucid, hya- 
line, ventricose, thinly concentrically ridged ; back convex, with a 
sulcus near the margin ; apex depressed, rounded, incurved ; upper 
margin elevated, rounded at the end ; outer lip convex ; dorsal mar- 



TETHYS-AUSTRALASIAN. 101 

gin convex, reflected ; lower margin round. A beautifully trans- 
parent, rounded, ventricose shell, much differing from other known 
species. (Sowb.') 

Port Jackson, at Lane Cove (Brazier). 

T. SYDNEYENSIS Sowerby. PL 57, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell compressed, perpendicularly oblong, chestnut in the middle, 
pale horn near the margins ; apex obtuse, terminal, reflected, in- 
curved ; upper margin straight ; outer lip straight ; lower margin 
subquadrate; dorsal margin convex. ($ow;6.) 

Shark Island, Port Jackson (Brazier). 

Aplysia Sydney ensis SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 7, f. 3 la, b (August, 
1869). ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 190. 

The shell of this species has some resemblance to that of a Pleu~ 
robranchus. (Sowb.*). 

Considerably like T. excavata, but narrower. 

T. ANGASI Sowerby. PI. 57, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell compressed, thin, smooth, subtrigonal, arched, pale brown, 
very slightly testaceous, concentrically striped towards the apex ; 
apex elevated acuminated, cuneate ; outer lip produced below ; dor- 
sal margin convex, sloped towards the ventral margin. (Sowb.) 

" Sow and Pigs " Reef, Port Jackson (Brazier). 

Aplysia angasi Sows., Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 8, f. 35a, b. ANGAS, 
P. Z. S., 1877, p. 190. Aplysia keraudreni SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 
1, f. 2a, b.Syplionota keraudreni ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 228. 
Not A. keraudrenii Rang, 1828. 

Flatter than the shell of Aplysia depilans, which it much resem- 
bles. It is thinner at the edges, and the apex is not at all callous, 
but pointed and incurved. The dorsal margin is more rounded. 
(Sowb) 

With A. angasi I am disposed to unite A. keraudreni of Sow- 
erby's Monograph, which differs markedly from the keraudrenii of 
Rang in the shorter sinus, etc. 

T. SOWERBYI Pilsbry, n. n. PL 57, figs. 20, 21. 

Animal olive, mottled with black. Shell internal, thin, horn 
color, oblong, produced and curved at the apex. Length 1 inch, 
3 lines, breadth 10 lines. (Angasi) 

Shell oblong, thin, subtrigonal, pale, oblique, hatchet-shaped, 
arched, tumid, sinuously striped near the umbones, within thinly tes- 



102 TETHYS-AUSTRALASIAN. 

taceous ; apex elevated, incurved, with a small callus, widely re- 
flected ; upper margin sloped downwards, arched, excavated,, 
rounded at the end ; outer lip anteriorly sinuously produced, dorsal 
margin obliquely arched, excavated. (Sowb.) 

The lower part of the dorsal margin, corresponding with the 
canal in spiral shells is much excavated. This is the species to- 
which was first applied by Pline the name of Lepus marinus or Sea 
Hare. (Sowb.) 

Middle ff arbor and Coodgee Bay, Port Jackson (Angas). 

Aplysia iigrina Rang, ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 228. SOWERBY,. 
Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 2, f. 5 (1869). Not A. tigrina Rang. 

The shell is longer, with shorter sinus than that of the true tigrina* 
Sowerby's acute remark that this species is the Lepus marinus of 
Pliny must be taken for what it is worth. I support it only to the 
extent of agreeing that the animal is at all events a Lepus marinus* 

T. GIGANTEA Sowerby. PI. 58, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell large, expanded, convex, obliquely subquadrate, greenish- 
brown, concentrically undated and minutely striped, within a little 
testaceous, very pale rose ; apex elevated, very little incurved, up- 
per margin wide, lightly arched, excavated ; inferior margin oblique,, 
not excavated, anteriorly obliquely produced. (Sowb.) 

Swan River (Cum ing). 

Aplysia gigantea SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 1, fig. la, b (Aug., 
1869). 
T. DENISONI Smith. 

Body (in spirit) high, exhibiting a distinct pedal disk, produced 
posteriorly into a caudal termination. The entire surface wrinkled,, 
dirty-whitish, black-veined in the wrinkles (? stains only). Mantle- 
lobes moderately large, commencing in front, some distance behind 
the posterior tentacles and terminating a little in advance of the 
cauda. Anterior tentacles large, cylindrical, with the apical slit 
not extending half way down the outer side, placed a little nearer 
the oral tentacles than the beginning of the mantle lobes. Eyes 
minute, situated near the outer anterior base of tentacles. 

Shell very thin, straw color, 30 millim. long and 27 broad. 

Animal about three inches in length in its contracted state 
(Smith.) 

Port Denison, Queensland (Coppinger) 

Aplysia denisoni SMITH, Zool. Coll. H. M. S. Alert, p. 89 (1884). 






TETHYS-ORIENTAL. 103 

This species is remarkable for the large size of the oral tentacles. 
(Sai.) 
T. SPARSINOTATA Smith. 

Animal about 45 mill, in length, of a pale color in spirit, varied 
with a few dark distant dots along the sides, caudate posteriorly. 
Middle of back between the mantle lobes in front of the shell, also 
the inner surface of the anterior portion of the lobes themselves, ex- 
hibiting irregular brownish patches. Lobes commencing a short 
distance behind the dorsal tentacles, and terminating behind at 
about the same distance from the end of the body. Oral tentacles 
moderately large and long ; posterior conical, acuminate, not far 
apart. 

Shell elongate, rather beaked behind, sharply arcuate in front, 15 
millim. long, 10 broad. (Smith.} 

Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fms. (Coppinger). 
Aplysia sparsinotata SMITH, Zool. Coll. H. M. S. Alert, p. 89 (1884). 

VI. Species of the East Indies, China and Japan. 

T. GEOGRAPHICA Adams & Reeve. PI. 25, fig. 1. 

Whitish-brown, covered with minute dark specks, and large, ir- 
regular, green reticulated patches, margined with opaque white; 
under surface of foot of a bright yellow ; left side of foot with a 
projecting lobe [swimming lobe] which overlaps that of the oppo- 
site side ; siphon of the mantle prolonged into a tapering, subcylin- 
drical tube. Shell nearly membranaceous. (A. & #.). 

Java Sea, among floating fuci (Ad.~). 

Siphonotus geographicus A. &R., Zool. Samarang, p. 64, pi. 18, f. 
1 (1848). 

This species is type of the genus Siphonotus Adams & Reeve, 
founded for Aplysias with the mantle produced to form a posterior 
excurrent siphon. The variations from a short to a long tube in 
various species render it impossible to give this character more than 
specific value. 

T. CORNIGERA Sowerby. PI. 20, fig. 45. 

Shell talon-shaped, narrow, ovate, arched, concentrically striped; 
apex much elevated, incurved, acuminated, callous ; upper margin 
depressed, excavated, obtusely angular at the end ; outer lip sinu- 
ously obliquely produced below, lower margin a little acuminated 



104 TETHYS-ORIENTAL. 

in front ; dorsal margin round, reflected, with a radiating groove. 
(Sewb). 

Zebu, Philippines (Cuming). 

Aplysla cornigera SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 9, f. 40 (1869). 

The curved horn-like form and pointed apex distinguish this 
prettily striped shell. (&). 

T. FUSCA Tilesius. PI. 59, fig. 34. 

Length 9 cm., swollen, oblong, brown and spotted ; mantle with 
the foramen radiated ; foot oblong, narrow ; swimming lobes mod- 
erately ample ; tentacles folded as usual. Shell fragile, flexible. 

China, living on sea-weed, etc., along the shore. 

Aplysia fusea TILESIUS, in Krusenstern's Voyage around the 
World in 1804-1806, p. ?, pi. ?. (Russian, 3 Vols. 4to, St. Petersb., 
1809-1812, and Atlas in folio, 1813). RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 
65, pi. 18, f. 1. DESK, in Lam., An. s. Vert., vii, p. 696. 

I have not seen Admiral Krusenstern's Voyage, and have, there- 
fore, given Rang's translation of the description and copied his re- 
production of the original figure. The species resembles T. depilans 
in having a large oval mantle orifice, with radiated borders. 

T. ORIENTALIS Sowerby. PI. 18, fig. 25. 

Shell ovate-subtrigonal, rather solid, chestnut, tumid in the mid- 
dle of the back, calcareous within ; apex elevated, biauriculated ; 
upper margin sloped, scarcely excavated, obtusely angular at the 
end ; outer lip rather straight above, rounded below ; dorsal mar- 
gin straight, elongated ; lower margin round. (Sowb.\ 

% Chinese Seas (Cuming). 

Aplysia orientalis SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 5, f. 18 a, b (1869). 

This shell nearly resembles Aplysia punctata in form, although 
less triangular. It has a slight bluish tint in coloring. 

T. SINENSIS Sowerby. PL 18, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell thin, hyaline, arched, quadrate, concentrically finely ridged ; 
apex nearly terminal, small, biauriculated ; upper margin straight, 
arched, obtusely angular at the end ; outer lip a little convex, dor- 
sal margin reflected, sloped below. (Sowb.). 

Chinese Seas (Cuming). 

Aplysia sinensis SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 7, f. 29a, b (1869). 



TETHYS-ORIENTAL. 105 

The whole shell is laterally much curved. 
T. MARMOREA A. Adams. 

A large species, sometimes 10 inches long. Back elevated ; 
swimming lobes large, ample, marbled with green and white; an- 
terior tentacles very broad, truncate ; posterior tentacles sublinear, 
obtuse. Shell large, thin, fragile, much dilated in front; apex 
scarcely involute, somewhat thickened. (A. Ad.). 

Port Hamilton (Mah-lu Sau), tidal pools and taken in the seine 









Aplysia marmorea A. AD., Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, Series 3, viii, p. 140 (August, 1861). 

T. MARGINATA A. Adams. 

Back elevated ; swimming lobes large, dilated, white edged, and 
then with a brown margination ; reddish-brown, variegated and 
dotted with brown. Anterior tentacles broad, short, truncate ; pos- 
terior small and subacute. Shell fragile, thin, semimembranous, 
subtriangular, dilated and rounded anteriorly ; apex scarcely invo- 
lute. (.1. Ad.'). 

Po ft Hamilton in rock pools at low water (Ad.). 

Aplysia marginata A. AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), viii, p. 141, 

(Aug., 1861). 

T. FIMBRTATA Adams & Reeve. PL 18, figs. 20, 21, 24. 

Anterior tentacles with a sinuous, fringed margin from the outer 
end to the head ; posterior tentacles bent toward the apices, deeply 
slit. Obscure greenish, with very many eye-spots, with minute 
white pupils and brown irides ; ornamented with black anastomos- 
ing lines and minute opaque white dots. (A. & E.). 

Shell oblong-subquadrate, pale, concentrically striped in every 
part, thin, subventricose, very thinly testaceous within, apex a lit- 
tle elevated, incurved, scarcely callous, upper margin slightly exca- 
vated, lineate at the end ; outer lip rather straight, subquadrate at 
the end, dorsal margin convex, lower margin rounded. (Sowb.). 

Miyako-jima Island (Taipinsan or Typinsan of some charts), 
Further Loo Choo group. 

Aplysia fimbriata A. & R., Zool. Samarang, Moll., p. 63, pi. 17, 
fig. 2 (1848). SOWERBY, Conch. Icon., pi. 4, f. 12a b. 

Inner surface of foot, when seen expanded, marbled with black 
and white. This large and handsome species is remarkable for the 



106 TETHYS-INDIAN OCEAN. 

dilated and fringed anterior tentacles and for the peculiar notched 

and inflexed character of the posterior tentacles. It was found 

crawling among the fuci in small pools left by the receding tide on 

the flat coral shores of Typinsan, one of the Meiacoshima group (A* 

Ad.). 

T. I^EVIGATA Stimpson. 

Smooth, convex, oblong, somewhat produced anteriorly ; lobes 
of the mantle rather short ; siphon conical ; foot with a blunt pos- 
terior termination ; dorsal tentacula cylindrical, orals dilated at 
their extremities. Color, brownish above, sides with small dark 
gray spots and a few patches of white punctse ; head and foot green. 
Shell suboblong, very thin and membranaceous, of a pale horn 
color ; arcuated incision short but deep ; summit triangular, small, 
thick and callous. Length 2 inches. (Stimp.*). 

Ousima (U. S. N. P. Exped). 

Aplysia Icevigata STIMP., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1855, p. 
378. 

T. JAPONICA Sowerby. PL 18, fig. 22, 23. 

Shell obliquely ovate, subpellucid, obscure chestnut, within very 
little calcareous, back tumid in the centre, with a slight rib and 
depression near the dorsal margin ; apex elevated, much incurved,, 
biauriculated ; upper margin sloped, deeply excavated, short, 
rounded at the end ; outer lip round, lower margin subquadrate,. 
dorsal margin a little arched. (Sowb.). 

Japan (Cuming). 

Aplysia japonica SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 5, f. 16a, b (1869). 

The biauriculated character of the apex is produced by the curv- 
ing of the lateral margins on each side. (Sowb.). 

VII. Species of the Western Indian Ocean, Red Sea to the Cape. 

The more important external structural characters of several of 
the species of this area are unknown. The synopsis following is 
therefore quite imperfect, and founded largely on the extremely un- 
satisfactory features of coloration. 

a. Small ; mantle with a large submedian orifice ; shell very con- 
vex, nigrocincta. 
aa. Large or moderate sized ; no large mantle-orifice so far as 
known, 



TETHYS-INDIAN OCEAN. 107 

b. Surface marked with ocellated spots, 

lineolata, oculifera, argus. 
bb. Not ocellate. 

, c. Mantle with a subcentral tube ; swimming lobes am- 
pie. 
d. Olive-brown with pale spots ; mantle reddish, 

maculata. 

dd. Dark green, coarsely marbled with dark, and 

with many groups of pale dots, tigrina- 

cc. Characters of mantle unknown, tigrinella, nodifera. 

ccc. Mantle with a subcentral perforation ; lobes ample ; 

uniform dark green, Juliana. 

T. NIGROCINCTA Martens. PI. 17, figs. 14, 15, 16. 

Length, in spirit, 17 mill., alt. 11, breadth 7 mill. Smooth, light 
brown, the free margins of the swimming lobes, the edge of the sole, 
and the margin of the rather large hole in the mantle, black, mostly 
continuous, sometimes rather spotted. 

Shell strongly convex, comparatively large, of a beautiful amber- 
yellow, shining reddish through the mantle ; spoon-shaped, with 
shallow sinus and strongly incurved apex ; 11 mill, long, 8 wide, 
5 high, occupying more than half the total length of the animal. 
(Martens^) 

Fouquets, Mauritius (Mobius). 

Aplysia nigrocincta MARTENS, in Mobius' Beitr. zur Meeresfauna 
der Insul Mauritius u. der Seychellen, p. 307, pi. 21, f. 3 (1880). 

" Reminds one of A. virescens Risso, pi. 19, f. 5, of unknown lo- 
cality, but coloration and form of the shell are different." This 
species is allied to T. parvula, T. elongata, etc., species with large 
mantle foramen and very convex shell. 

T. MACULATA Rang. PI. 60, figs. 49, 50, 51, 52. 

Length 9 cm. Oblong, much swollen, depressed at the base, 
elongated in front and obtuse Behind, smooth. Swimming lobes of 
moderate size, the dorsal cavity very open. Mantle reddish, with a 
long excurrent siphon and a tubular foramen. Gills roseate. 

Color, externally, brown-olivaceous, with some pale spots, the 
dorsal cavity reddish. 

Shell oval, very concave, membranous with very little calcareous- 
substance ; sinus small and nearly posterior ; apex a little recurved 



108 TETHYS-INDIAN OCEAN. 

and thick. Color reddish outside and within. Length 16 mill. 
(Rang.) 

Table Bay and Natal Coast, South Africa, on Fucus (Wahlberg) ; 
Reunion (Maillard). 

Aplysia maeulata BANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 58, pi. 12, f. 6-9- 
KRAUSS, Die Siidafrik. Moll., p. 71. DESK., Moll, de Tile Re- 
union, p. 54. MARTENS, in Mobius, Meeresfauna Maurit., etc., p. 
307. SOWB., Conch. Icon., f. 25 (false locality ; figs, copied).? Ap- 
lysia spuria KRAUSS, I. c. 

The general form is about as usual, the back being swollen, both 
ends lengthened, the tail rounded instead of acute. The eyes are 
quite apparent. The shell is almost entirely corneous. 

T. JULIANA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 17, figs. 9, 10. 

Length 4 to 5 inches. Proportions normal, the foot moderately 
projecting behind, the sole bearing a rounded disk or escutcheon 
posteriorly. Tentacles unusually large, the labial lobes flattened. 
Swimming lobes ample. Mantle with a perforation. 

Smooth, of a uniform dark green color. 

Shell broad, oval, very membranous, the spire small. 

Mauritius. 

Aplysia Juliana Q. & G., Voy. de PAstrol. Zool., ii, p. 309, pi. 24, 
f. 5, 6. MART., in Mobius' Maurit., p. 307. A.julianna SOWB., 
Conch. Icon., f. 20. A.julienna GRAY. 

Described by Quoy & Gaimard from alcoholic specimens. 

T. TIGRINA Rang. PL 16, figs. 3, 4 ; pi. 59, figs. 40, 41. 

Length 15 cm. Much swollen, rather short, acute behind. 
Swimming lobes broad and quite long ; mantle oblong, with a little 
conic tube ; excurrent siphon moderately long. Surface smooth. 

General color dark greenish, varied with markings of two kinds : 
a coarse marbling of a very deep tint over the whole body, the man- 
tle and the inner surfaces of the swimming lobes; assuming on this 
last tract the appearance of a blackish net-work on a quite light 
ground ; besides this there is a marking of very numerous small, 
pale, rounded spots, variously grouped, over the outer surface and 
in front of the mantle. 

Shell ovate-oblong, membranaceous, with no distinct calcareous 
layer, somewhat concave, acute behind ; the sinus quite wide and 
shallow. Color livid yellow outside. Length 33 mill. 

Mauritius. 









TETHYS-INDIAN OCEAN. 109 

Aplysia tigrina RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 57, pi. 11. DESH., 
Moll. Reun., p. 54. MART., in Mobius, p. 307. 

This is not the A. tigrina of Quoy & Gaimard, nor of Angas and 
Sowerby. I do not know whether it is that of Deshayes and von 
Martens or not. 

T. TIGRINELLA Gray. PL 16, figs. 5, 6. 

Body elevated, greenish, very lucid, reticulated with brown, 
with scattered spots and little lines of black. 

Because our individual, the drawing of which was made from the 
living animal, offers some differences from that of Rang, we include 
it here. Its length is six inches; back very much swollen. The 
swimming lobes smooth, always elevated, form a sinus extending 
from behind the tentacles nearly to the tail. The foot is narrow, 
the head short, and the tentacles are not much developed. The 
ground color is a clear, diaphanous green, reticulated with spots of 
bistre, in the midst of which are black dots or little lines. The 
head is more regularly reticulated. 

The shell is broad, oval, a little concave, leathery, very finely 
striated, with the beginning of a spire ; its edges are entirely mem- 
branous. 

Port Louis, Mauritius. 

Aplysia tigrina QUOY & GAIMARD, Voy. de FAstrol. Zool., ii, p. 
308, pi. 24, f. 1, 2 (1832). A tigrinella GRAY, Systematic arrange- 
ment of the Figures, in M. E. Gray's Figures of Molluscous Ani- 
mals, iv, p. 97, No. 27 (1850) ; referring to Vol. i, pi. 61, f. 4, copies 
of Quoy's figures cited above. 

My information and figures, like Gray's, are derived entirely 
from Quoy's account of this form. It differs strikingly from Rang's 
A. tigrina in the shell (compare pi. 16, figs. 4 and 6), and there are 
also differences in the soft parts. Quoy's figure from life shows 
short finger-like processes scattered over the outer surface of the 
swimming lobes, like a Notarchus, although his description men- 
tions no such structure. The species appears, however, to be clearly 
distinct from A. tigrina Rang, and the name proposed by Gray is 
therefore adopted. 

T. NODIFERA Adams & Reeve. PI. 16, fig. 1. 

Dull olivaceous, covered with numerous rather distant elevated 
tubercles ; painted with pale violaceous sparse spots, the foot orna- 



110 TETHYS-INDIAN OCEAN. 

mented with brown spots, the edge surrounded with a series of white 
spots. (A. & .#.). 

Mauritius. 

Aplysia nodifera A. & K., Zool. Voy. Samarang, p. 64, pi. 18, f. 
7 (1848). 

" The row of white spots round the margin and numerous pale 
violet spots on the sides are striking characters of this species." In 
this form, as in the other forms described by Adams, structural 
characters are ignored, although Rang in 1828 had indicated the 
more important features of the external anatomy of Aplysia. 

T. LINEOLATA Adams & Reeve. PL 16, fig. 2. 

Back convex, posteriorly acuminate ; pale green, ornamented 
with blackish anastomosing lines and numerous eye-spots, with the 
pupil black, the iris vivid violaceous. This elegant species is re- 
markable for the acuminated form of its caudal extremity, and for 
the slenderness of the posterior tentacles. (A. & R.}. 

Mauritius. 

Aplysia lineolata A. & R., Zool. Voy. H. M. S. Samarang, Moll., 
p. 63, pi. 17, f. 1 (1848). 

No structural details have been published. 
T. OCULIFERA Adams & Reeve. PL 16, fig. 8. 

Dull green, ornamented with ocelli or eye-spots having the pupil 
buff, iris brown, and with buff and white dots arranged in groups. 
The beautiful eye-like spots render the appearance of this species 
very elegant. The posterior tentacles are subulate and acutely 
pointed. (A. & R.). 

Mauritius. 

Aplysia oculifera A. & R., Zool. Voy. Samarang, p. 64, pi. 17, f. 
3 (1848). 

" The Aplysia punctata of Philippi is marked with congregated 
dots in the same manner, but it wants the ocelli ; the Aplysia argus 
of Riippell has the body covered with numerous ocelli, without the 
clusters of dots." 

T. ARGUS Riippell & Leuckart. PL 60, fig. 53. 

Length of living individuals 1 foot ; an alcoholic specimen meas- 
ures 5 inches. General form as in A. depilans. The forward ten- 
tacles are very broad and trumpet-shaped ; the swimming lobes are 









TETHYS-INDIAN OCEAN. Ill 

wide, folded together over the back, nearly covering the mantle 
avity. Eyes near and in front of the tentacles, small and black, 
with encircling rings of blue. Olive colored, with scattered eye-like 
spots composed of a white center surrounded by a dark brown ring. 
Shell quite thin, transparent, light brown. 

Near Tor, Red Sea, on sea-grass in March. 

Aplysia argus R. & L., Atlas zu der Reise im nordlichen Afrika 
von Eduard Riippell. Neue wirbellose Thiere des Rothen Meeres, 
p. 23, pi. 7, f. 1 (1828). ? Aplysia radiata EHRENBERG, Symb. 
Phys., Evert., Decas 1 (1831), not A. radiata Crouch. ? Aplysia 
scutellata EHRENB., I. c. 

The illustration is drawn and colored from life. I consider A. 
radiata (name preoccupied) and A. scutellata as in all probability 
synonyms, but repeat below the essential characters described by 
Ehrenberg. 

A. radiata Ehrenb. Length 3 inches ; olive-green. Outer sur- 
face of swimming lobes and back with brown ocelli with radiating 
black lines ; inner surface of swimming lobes with dull yellow spots 
surrounded with black-brown ; labial tentacles scarcely auriculate ; 
mantle ovate, lightly convex, emarginate behind, less than a third 
the total length. 

Tor, Red Sea. 

The color of the three specimens observed was the same, but they 
varied in size, the largest being 3 inches long. Body a soft green, 
subreticulated above with black-brown and black lines, which 
usually radiate from the ocelli, and on the neck . are longer and 
longitudinal. Foot brownish-green with sparsely scattered black 
marks ; labial tentacles not produced in hamate ears. This species 
is closely allied to A. argus Leuck., but that species has the labial 
tentacles larger, much dilated and hamate, the eyes encircled by 
blue rings, the inner surfaces of swimming lobes lacking dull yellow 
spots, the radiating lines less distinct, and the mantle proportion- 
ally longer. 

A. scutellata Ehrenberg. Length 1 inches. Dull green, similar 
to A. radiata in the fine striae and black radiated ocelli, but the in- 
ner surface of swimming lobes is pale, clouded with green and 
brown, the tentacles slightly auriculate, and shell ovate, nearly half 



112 TETHYS. 

the length of the animal, in an individual 18 lines long, the shell 
measures 8x6 lines. Penis stouter. 

Differs from A. radiata mainly in the greater size of the shell 
compared to length of body. It is from the southern part of the 
Red Sea. 

VIII. Species of unknown locality. 

T. TRIGONA Sowerby. PI. 20, fig. 42. 

Shell small, horny, brown, subtrigonal, ventricose, apex rather 
straight, acuminately produced, upper margin straight, reflected, 
obtusely angular at the end ; outer lip straight, obliquely produced 
before ; dorsal margin obliquely sloped towards the lower margin,, 
lower margin short. (Sowb.*). 

Habitat unknown. 

A. trigona Sows., Conch. Icon., pi. 4, f. 11 (Aug., 1869). 

This species resembles Aplysia punctata in color, texture, and 
convexity, but differs from them in its triangular form. 

T. ANGUILLA Cuming. PL 43, fig. 28. 

Shell small, tumid, strongly arched, transverse, pale horn ; apex 
rounded, small, incurved ; upper margin very short, deeply excava- 
ted, acuminated at the end ; outer lip obliquely produced ; dorsal 
margin round ; lower margin oblique, widely excavated. (Sowb.). 

Habitat unknown* 

A. anguilla Cuming MS., SOWB., Conch. Icon., pi. 6,f. 22. 
A species with very convex shell. 

Unrecognized and spurious species. 

Laplisia viridis Bosc, 1802, Hist. Nat. Vers, i, p. 64, pi. 2, f. 4 
'(see also Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., pi. 5, f. 23, and Rang, p. 73), de- 
scribed from the harbor of Charleston, S. C., belongs, in my opin- 
ion, to the nudibranch family Elysiidce. 

Aplysia sicula Swainson, Treatise on Malacology, or Shells and 
Shell-fish, p. 247, fig. 45, (1840). This Sicilian species drawn in 
outline from life, is entirely unrecognizable from Swainson's sketch,, 
by which alone it is known. 

Aplysia unicolor Risso, Journ. de Physique, etc., Ixxxvii, p. 374. 




Aplysia nigromarg inata Risso, t. c., p. 375, and Hist. Nat. Eur. 
M6rid., iv, p. 43. 

Aplysia lutea Risso, J. Phys., p. 375, and Hist. Nat., p. 43. 

All described from the vicinity of Nice, and none of them recog- 
nizable with certainty. 

Aplysia unicolor Blainville, Diet. Sc. Nat., xxvi, p. 327 (1823) ; 
Journ. de Phys., Vol. 96, f. 9, 10. Bayonne, Toulon, Ocean coast 
of France. Not recognizably described. 

Aplysia petersonii Gray. Body contracted posteriorly, and 
divided transversely into two portions. Head very large, depressed 
smooth. Foot very broad, deeply emarginate in front, expanded 
beyond the edge of the body ; the part beneath the hinder portion 
of the body divided by deep wrinkles into distinct tubercles. Mouth 
sunk in, large; labial expansions short, triangular, wrinkled. Ten- 
tacula situated half way between the head and the transverse con- 
traction, short, conical. Body subglobular, externally tubercular, 
wrinkled. Lobes of the mantle rounded, united behind, the right 
one rather longer than the left, partly covering the shield. Shield 
partly exposed, ovate; nucleus submedial; columellar edge sub- 
angularly bent. Length 5 inches, breadth 2 inches. (Gray.) 

This species constitutes a peculiar section of the genus, character- 
ized by the transverse contraction of the body. The animal figured 
in Seba, iii, t. 1, f. 8, 9 (Aplysia sebce, n.) appears to belong to the 
same section. It differs from the foregoing species in the form of 
the hinder part of the foot, etc. (Gray Spicilegia Zoologica, pt. I, 
p. 4, pi. 4, f. 4, 4a (one-half nat. size). July 1, 1828.) 

Marseilles (Peterson esq.). 

I am disposed to think this a peculiarly abnormal specimen of 
Tethys leporina. It was evidently described from an alcoholic exam- 
ple. Type said to be in Brit. Mus. Sowerby's later A. petersoni (see- 
p. 70) is not the same. 

Aply.na sebce Gray, Spicil. Zool., p. 5 ; Seba, Locupletissimi Rerum 
Naturalium Thesauri, etc., iii, p. 4, pi. 1, f. 8, 9. Gray's informa- 
tion on this is contained in the last paragraph of his description of 
A. petersoni (see above). On referring to Seba's portly folio I am 
quite ready to endorse his opinion that the creature pictured is a very 
singular marine monster; but my Aplysia lore does not enable me 
to name it. 



114 TETHYS-PHYCOPHILA. 

" Aplysia lessoni L. emend Gm." of Mazzarelli and Zuccardi, Boll. 
Soc. Nat. Napoli iii, 1889, p. 51, from coral reef at Honolulu, 
Hawaiian Is., can scarcely be the A. lessoni of Rang (see p. 86). 
Can the specimen possibly have exchanged locality labels with A. 
chierchiana, also collected by Chierchia, and described in the same 
paper ? 

Subgenus PHYCOPHILA A. Adams, 1861. 

Phycophila AD., Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3), 
viii, p. 141 (August, 1861). Placobranchus M. E. GRAY, Figs. 
Moll. Anim., iv, p. 35, 1850. Aclesia (Pacobranchus) GRAY, t. c., 
p. 98. 

Body compressed, elongated ; sole of foot narrow ; shell elon- 
gated, oblong, thin, flat, membranous, the apex not involute. (Ad.). 
Type A. euchlora. 

This group, as far as known, is mainly distinguished by its very 
much elongated tail, and the narrow sole adapted to creeping on 
floating weed away from the shore. Its true affinities and status 
cannot be determined from the meagre data now extant. Were it 
not for the membranous shell mentioned by Adams I would refer 
this group to Stylocheilus. 

T. EUCHLORA A. Adams. PL 61, fig. 54. 

Green, smooth, compressed ; sole narrow ; forward tentacles 
elongated, backward tentacles narrow, truncate at their apices ; tail 
produced. Shell membranous, oblong, dilated in front, the apex 
not involute. (Ad.). 

Strait of Tsugaru ( Tsugar or Tseuka), Japan, crawling on floating 
Zostera (Ad.). 

Aplysia (Phycophila) euchlora A. AD., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), 
Tiii, August, 1861, p. 141. Placobranchus euchlorus in M. E. 
Gray's Figures of Molluscous Animals, iv, p. 35 (name only) ; ii, 
pi. 179, f. 1, right hand fig. (1850). 

Mrs. Gray's figure was etched from a drawing by Arthur Adams. 
She gives the locality " Borneo." " It is oceanic in its habits, or at 
least found at some distance from the shore." 

T. ADAMSI Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 61, fig. 55. 

No description of this species has been published. It is known 
by a figure drawn from life by Arthur Adams. The very long tail, 









PARAPLYSIA. 115 

variegated and ocellated color-pattern and short swimming lobes, 
indicate a distinct species, however. 

Borneo. 

Plaeobranchus ocellatus (Van Hasselt), M. E. GRAY, Figs. Moll. 
Anim., 1850, iv, p. 35 ; ii, pi. 179, left hand figure (from Adams' 
drawing). Aplysia ocellata A. AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), viii, p. 
141 (August, 1861) ; name only. Not Aplysia ocellata d'Orbigny. 

Genus II. PARAPLYSIA Pilsbry, 1895. 

Paraplysia PiLs.,Man. Conch. XV, pt. 62, p. 64 (Nov. 26, 1895). 

General form oval ; buccal tentacles rather large, widely separated 
and pointed ; rhinophores small, conic, close together, situated be- 
tween the anterior ends of pleuropodial lobes. Pleuropodia arising 
at the anterior third of the animal's length, well separated at their 
origin and throughout, uniting only at their union with the foot very 
near its posterior extremity. Mantle large, posterior^ exposed, with 
a posterior excurrent siphon, and apparently covering the gill ; the 
genital pore slightly in front of its anterior edge, not covered. 

Shell about a third the length of body, concave, subquadrate. 

This very well characterized genus is known by Dr. Gilchrist's 
paper cited and quoted below. Unfortunately the presence and 
nature of the mantle foramen and the opaline gland are not stated ; 
the dentition is unknown, and the shell has not been figured. The 
latter apparently resembles that of Tethys. 

The remarkable features of this type are : the position unique in 
the Anaspidea of the rhinophores between the anterior ends of 
pleuropodial lobes, the latter being completely free ; the posterior 
situation of the mantle, and the short, oval form of the body. The 
posterior end of foot is free from the visceral mass, which overhangs 
it. 

P. PIPERATA Smith. PI. 21, fig. 12. 

Animal (in spirit) olivaceous, minutely and closely dotted every- 
where, with the exception of the foot, with black ; hinder third part 
of the body somewhat paler than the rest, from which it is marked 
off by a blackish band passing right round the animal. Lobes of 
the mantle narrowish in front where they arise quite close to the 
posterior tentacles, considerably dilated behind. Oral tentacles 
large, long, and pointed ; posterior small, close together, conical. 



116 PARAPLYSIA. 

Shell white, concave within, subquadrate. Length 27 millim., width 
22. Animal about 80 long. (Smith). 

Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fms., sandy bottom. 

Aplysia piperata SMITH, Zool. Coll. Alert, p. 89. GILCHRIST, 
Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xv, 1895, p. 403, pi. 18, f. 2, 4. 

Peculiar on account of the position of the posterior tentacles, close 
to the origin of the mantle-lobes. (Smith). The lighter posterior 
end and dark encircling band described by Mr. Smith are perhaps 
due to accidental causes, as another and better preserved specimen 
in the collection shows no traces of these. (Gilchrisi). 

P. MOUHOTI Gilchrist. PI. 21, figs. 13, 14. 

It closely resembles A. piperata in the general structure of the 
body and in coloring. It is, however, well differentiated from it : 
(1) by the absence of the prolongation of the mantle into a long 
excretory siphon posteriorly. (2) The pleuropodia also are some- 
what less developed, lie closer to the body, and evidently do not 
function as swimming-organs compare the plicated edge of the 
pleuropodia of fig. 12, with that of fig. 13. The difference between 
the pleuropodia in the two species is most marked at their anterior 
end. (3) The coloring differs somewhat, in A. piperata there is a 
uniform sprinkling of black dots all over the animal except on the 
sole of the foot and under the mantle, showing an inclination, 
especially on the head and mantle to run into small radiating lines. 
In A. mouhoti this speckling of dark spots is absent, and there is a 
tendency rather to reticulate marking on pleuropodia and linear 
marking on head and mantle. (Gilchrist). 

Siam (Mouhot). 

Aplysia mouhoti GILCHRIST, Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xv, 
May, 1895, p. 404, pi. 18, f. 1, 3, 5. 

The figures are natural size. 

A species of this genus may perhaps be indicated by the etch- 
ing of a Ceylonese Aplysia from a rude drawing by Templeton, in 
M. E. Gray's Figs. Moll. Anim., vol. iii, pi. 270, f. 4. 

Subfamily DOLABRIFERIN^: Pilsbry. 

Aplysiidse in which the pleuropodial lobes are considerably united 
behind, and their forward insertions contiguous, parted only by the 
genital groove. Genital opening in front of the gill; shell calcareous 



DOLABRIFERA. 117 

or absent ; radula with a well-developed median series of teeth, larger 
than the lateral teeth, and bilobed, spreading, at base. 

Four genera compose this subfamily, which is decidedly more 
allied to the AplysiincK than to the Dolabellince. The anterior inser- 
tions of the pleuropodia are contiguous, as in the latter group; but 
the dentition, and the forward situation of the genital orifice agree 
with Aplysiince. 

Genus III. DOLABRIFERA Gray, 1847. 

Dolabrifera GRAY, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 162 ; type Dolabella dolabri- 
fera. Aplysia and Dolabella of some authors. ? ThallepusSwAixs., 
Malacol., p. 250, 359. Dolabrifer FISCHER, Man. Conchyl., p. 568. 

General form ovate-oblong or sack-like, tapering toward the head. 
Tentacles and rhinophores slit and expanded distally, the latter 
nearer to the front margin than to the dorsal slit. Eyes as in 
Tethys. Pleuropodial lobes arising far behind the middle of length, 
contiguous, scarcely mobile, united behind, enclosing a large gill- 
cavity ; dorsal slit short. Mantle small, not perforated over the 
shell, nor covering much of the gill. Foot broad, often expanded 
at the edges. Genital pore in front of the gill, under the mantle- 
edge. 

Shell small, not spiral, solid and calcareous ; subtriangular, trape- 
zoidal or irregularly oblong; the apex projecting and calloused, 
with no spiral tendency. 

Radula with large, subtriangular rhachidian teeth, with several 
denticles on the cusp ; lateral teeth with long, coarsely denticulate 
cusps (see under D. ascifera). 

Type, D. dolabrifera Cuvier. 

Distribution, tropical shores in both hemispheres; one species 
from Greenland. 

This genus is allied to Petalifera in external characters and the 
solid, calcareous shell ; but it differs in having the mantle completely 
closed over the shell, while in Petalifera there is a large orifice ex- 
posing part of the shell. Dolabella resembles Dolabrifera in the 
form of the body, short posterior branchial slit, etc., but it differs 
radically in the dentition, the position of the female genital orifice, 
and the spiral apex of the shell. 

A considerable number of species are known more or less per- 
fectly from the Indo-Pacific area, with a few from tropical America. 



118 DOLABRIFERA. 

The Greenland habitat assigned for D. hollbolli is extraordinary, if 
it be correct ; no other species of Aplysiidce, being known from such 
high latitudes. The list of some eighteen species here following may 
be reduced by future investigation on the range of variation in the 
shells ; but on the other hand the genus is one likely to be over- 
looked by shell hunters, so that the discovery of additional new forma 
may be anticipated. 

Species of the Cape and Indian Ocean. 

D. DOLABRIFERA Cuvier. PI. 34, figs. 11, 12, 13, 16. 

Length 90 mill. Elongated, very slender anteriorly, the tentacles 
slim ; dorsal slit small, pleuropodial lobes very close. Greenish, 
spotted with black, especially below, and bristling with very acute 
projections ; foot very wide. 

Shell very solid, very narrow, lengthened, curved ; very calcare- 
ous, the epidermis being excessively thin ; form quadrangular, with 
the apex distinct and a little calloused ; white, enamelled. Length 
9 mill. 

Island of Bourbon, on the slime under submerged stones, and in 
brackish ponds near the shore (Rang!). 

Dolabella dolabrifera CUVIER, Regne Animal, (edit. 1) ii, p. 398, 
(name only!). Aplysia (Dolabella) dolabrifera Cuv., RANG, Hist. 
Nat. Aplys., p. 51, pi. 4, f. 1-6. 

When living the surface is seen to be covered with acute but soft 
spine-like projections. The shell varies considerable with age, yet 
it shows always, and perhaps more than in the other species of this 
section, a quadrangular form. A shell very different in form from 
the great majority of specimens was found in one individual collected 
by Rang (pi. 34, figs. 14, 15), but the soft parts were the same a* 
usual, and it is regarded by Rang as abnormal. 

D. CUVIERI H. & A. Adams. PL 34, fig. 28. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell solid, squarish, impressed with two- 
medial, indistinct, radiating canals ; beak produced, trigonal, with 
thick, back-turned, square apex ; external and terminal margin* 
sinuated, end roundly acuminated. (Sowb.). 

Island of Bourbon* 

Dolabrifera cuvieri H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 33, pi. 59, 
fig. 4a (no description). SOWB., C. Icon., xvi, f. 4, 4a. 



DOLABRIFERA. 119 

D. cuvieri was originally proposed as a substitute for D. dolabri- 
fera Cuv., evidently in order to avoid the duplication of names con- 
sequent upon the recognition of Dolabrifera as a genus. The type 
of D. dolabrifera, however, has a long shell (see pi. 34, figs. 12, 13), 
and the square one figured by Adams apparently is specifically dis- 
tinct. Possibly the shell figured by Rang as a monster of D. dola- 
brifera is the same as H. & A. Adams' species. 

D. MAILLARDI Deshayes. PI. 34, figs. 26, 27. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell small, calcareo-corneous, elongated, 
trigonal, a little arcuate longitudinally, terminating in a small cal- 
lous posteriorly ; left margin straight, right margin rounded, the 
sinus long and straight. Upper surface regularly concentrically 
striated, lower surface with a thin shining callus; color yellowish- 
white, corneous, semitransparent. Length 7, width 3 mill. 

Island of Bourbon (Reunion). 

D. maillardi DESK., Catal. Moll. Reunion, p. 53, pi. 7, f. 20-22 
(1863). 

D. TRIANGULARIS Watson. PI. 65, figs. 7, 8. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell much arched, corrugated, porcella- 
nous, dull, and scored on the upper surface with sharp strong lines 
of growth, on the under surface lustrous and amorphous, with a 
strong but irregular oblique longitudinal furrow and rough radiat- 
ing lines toward the back ; it resembles the blade of a fleam, being 
triangular, with a straight back, the handle (where the nucleus is) 
in front, and the point (a bluntly rounded one) on the left. Round 
the nucleus there is an amorphous expansion and thickening ; 
across the blade obscure and unequal rays diverge from a point be- 
hind the nucleus. The back of the blade is thick and blunt, the 
other two sides are bluntly beveled to a sharp edge. Length 0'43, 
width 0'21 ; height of arch O'l, greatest breadth behind 0'3 inch. 
( Watson]. 

Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope, 15-20 fms. (Challenger). 

D. triangular is WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xvii, p. 346; 
Challenger Gastrop, p. 673, pi. 50, f. 7. 

This species is much more attenuated in front than Dolabrifera 
marmorea Pease from the Sandwich Islands, which otherwise it 
much resembles in form and texture, whilst it is in sculpture much 
more delicate. Dolabrifera maillardi Deshayes from the Island of 



120 DOLABRIFERA. 

Bourbon (see Moll, de Bourbon, p. 53, pi. VII, figs. 20-22), is 
much more regular in shape, more like the seed of our common 
plane (Acer pseudo-platanus), with a regular shaped wing and a 
head or nucleus continuous with the body instead of, as here, a 
fleam-like blade and distinct handle. ( Watson). 

Species of Australia and Polynesia. 

D. BRAZIERI Sowerby. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell straight, rather flat ; apex elevated, 
straight, thick ; rounded and convex within, concave outside ; pos- 
terior margin sloping, concave ; labial margin nearly straight, an- 
teriorly incurved, sinuous ; left margin nearly straight. (Sowb.). 

Length f inch. (Angus'). 

Northhead, Botany Bay, and " Bottle and Glass " rocks, Port Jack- 
son, Australia (Brazier). 

D. brazieri SOWB., P. Z. 8., 1870, p. 250. ANGAS, P. Z. 8., 1871, 
p. 99; P. Z. S., 1877, p. 190. 

Only two specimens of this, the first species of the genus found on 
the southwest coast of Australia, were taken by Mr. John Brazier. 
No note seems to have been taken of the characters of the animal, 
but the shell, which is large, differs from that of other known spe- 
cies. (Sowb.*). 

D. JACKSONIENSIS n. sp. PI. 44, figs. 38, 39, 40, 41. 

Alcoholic specimen, length 28, breadth 16, alt. 6 or 7 mill.; broad 
ovate, the head narrow, foot expanded and depressed toward the 
periphery ; back moderately convex. Dorsal slit short (7 mill, 
long), the pleuropodial lobes contiguous in the middle, gaping button- 
hole like behind, diverging in front, the anterior insertions rather 
separated. Tentacles and rhinophores as usual in the genus, trumpet- 
shaped. Eyes black, distinct. Integument light yellowish, blue- 
tinged over the viscera, wrinkled (from contraction) and bearing 
rather distant warts, some of which behind and at the sides are 
pointed. Mantle not perforated over the shell, not covering the 
gill. Genital pore some distance anterior to the forward end of dorsal 
slit. 

Shell (pi. 44, fig. 40 outside, fig. 39 profile, fig. 38 inside view) 
thin, squarish below, the posterior half tapering ; apex curved toward 
the sinus, very heavily calloused within. Sinus long, concave above, 



DOLABRIFERA. 121 

straight below ; left margin gently convex. Outside gently concave 
along the middle, sculptured with growth-strife, white with some 
concentric bluish bands. Interior white, but slightly convex, 
scarcely calloused. Length 7, breadth 3'2 mill. 

Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia (Dr. J. C. Cox). 
D. brazieri is described as "straight", "apex straight," words 
that in no way apply to the present form. Still, the two examples 
of this species which I possess are much smaller than D. brazieri, 
which has a shell nearly 19 mill. long. Further comparisons are 
necessary to determine fully the relationship existing between the 
two forms. A notable feature of D. jacksoniemis is the anterior 
position of the genital opening. 

D. VITR^A Sowerby. PI. 34, figs. 23, 24. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell small, thin, glassy, pellucid, narrow ; 
rostrum short, rather wide, apex incurved, thick; basal margin 
slightly arched, outer margin a little rounded. (Sowerby). 

" Narai," Fiji Islands. 

D. vitrcea SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvi, pi. 1, f. 1 (1868). 

The smallest of the known species ; it is thin and glassy. 
D. TAHITENSIS Pease. PI. 34, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Animal rather slender, elongate, pyriform, deepest and widest 
posteriorly, rounded behind, margins thin ; back arched and fur- 
nished with scattered, minute, subretractile, simple and branched fil- 
aments ; head rounded above, convex in front ; eyes immersed, a 
little in advance of the dorsal tentacles, the pupil bluish-black and 
iris bluish-slate ; dorsal tentacles strongly dilated outwards, ear- 
shaped, obliquely truncate and grooved ; anterior pair of about the 
same size, rather more dilated. Variegated with different shades of 
white, green, olive-brown and sometimes blotched with rusty-brown ; 
foot pale greenish-gray, closely and finely dotted with opaque white 

and olive. (Pse.). 

Tahiti 

Dolabrifera tahitensis PSE., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 245 ; Amer. Journ. 
Conch., iv, p. 77, pi. 8, f. 5. 

Common under stones in littoral zone. Active in its motions, 
gliding along by the middle and lateral portions of the foot alter- 
nately. The species approaches Z). o/iaigttsr^^.jJELandwich Islands. 
(Pse.). 

XTNIVERSITY 



122 DOLABRIFERA. 

D. FUSCA Pease. PL 34, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Shell elongate, triangular, right side straight, left side slightly 
curved towards the apex, surface decussated with strife, lower half 
grooved longitudinally in the middle; base roundly truncate; apex 
callous ; whole shell slightly bent. 

The shells of all the species I have seen, inhabiting Polynesia, are 
callous at the apex to secure the ligament which holds the shell. 
They also differ from those heretofore described, in being of a more 
triangular shape. The one herewith figured may be taken as the 
type of them all. 

Animal oblong, pyriform, widest posteriorly, and gradually taper- 
ing in front. Surface smooth, margins thin and ruffled, rounded 
behind. Eyes immersed, a little anterior of the dorsal tentacles ; 
tentacles openly convolute, dilated at their extremities and crenate. 
Color above uniform brown, right lobe, which covers the gills, mar- 
gined with white ; beneath pale bluish centrally, passing into pale 
brown, and closely freckled with darker brown and white. (Pse.). 

Tahiti r 

D. fusca PSE., Amer. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 76, 160, pi. 8, f. 4 ; pL 
12, f. 27. (Oct. 1,1868.) 

Station under stones, in the upper region of the laminarian zone. 
The peculiarity of this species is the character of its margin adapted 
for swimming. (Pse.). 

D. PACIFICA Pease. PI. 34, fig. 18. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell thin, straight, oblong ; beak wide, 
apex incurved, slightly thickened ; basal margin elongated, rather 
straight; terminal margin roundly angular; outer margin subsinu- 
ous in the middle. (Sowb.'). 

Islands in the Pacific (Sowb.). 

D. pacifica (Pease) SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvi, October, 1868, f. 3. 

D. OAHOUENSIS Souleyet. PI. 22, figs. 6, 7, 8, 9. 

Length 7-8 cm. Body much swollen, elongated and contracted 
in front, visibly prolonged behind, but not terminating in a point' 
Surface smooth. Green, tinted with rose in some places, and marked 
throughout with small spots of very deep green, almost blackish. 
Pleuropodial lobes close on the back, leaving a very narrow fissure 
between them. 



DOLABRIFERA. 123 

Shell calcareous, white, a little arcuate, wider and flat in front, 
contracted and callous at the posterior part. 

Oahu, Sandwich Is. ( Voy. Bouite). 

Aplysia oahouensis SOUL., Voy. autour du Monde * * la Bonite, 
Zool., ii, p. 461, pi. 25, f. 10-13 (1852). 

The description of this form has been overlooked by subsequent 
writers. Perhaps one or other of Pease's species will prove to be 
synonymous with it. 

D. OLIVACEA Pease. PL 34, fig. 25. 

Elongate pyriform shape, rounded posteriorly, rugose, and orna- 
mented with small filaments. Back convexly rounded. Mantle 
lobes small, rounded and closely enveloping the body, the right over- 
lapping the left, leaving two small orifices; a groove extends from 
the mantle lobes along the back and right side of the head to the 
mouth. Dorsal tentacles grooved laterally and slightly dilating 
outwards, oral tentacles longer than the dorsal, and curved forwards, 
grooved and much dilated. Eyes small, black, distinct, sessile in 
front, laterally to dorsal tentacles. Mouth with a bilobed veil. Foot 
smooth, shape same as body. Color varies; usually of a dark olive- 
green, with sap green margins, and varied with whitish and dusky. 
Filaments pale. Foot pale greenish-slate, dotted with dusky brown 
and white. (Pease). 

Shell narrow, straight, oblong, radiately depressed in the middle. 
Margins straight, square; beak produced, trigonal ; apex callous, 
bilobed. (Sowb.) 

Sandwich Is. (Pse.) 

D. olivacea PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 22. Sows., Conch. Icon..xvi > 
pi. 1, f. 7. Aplysia (Dolabrifera) olivacea MARTENS & LANGKAVEL, 
Donum Bismarckianum, p. 54. 

The eggs are deposited under stones, coiled from right to left. 

D. MARMOREA Pease. PL 34, figs. 21, 22. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell short, subquadrate, thickened, straight ; 
beak rather short, wide, thick, with incurved, callous apex ; basal 
margin straight ; upper margin excavated ; external and terminal 
margins a little contracted. (Sowb.) 

Sandwich Is* 

D. marmorea (Pease) SOWB., C. Icon., xvi,f. 5. 



124 DOLABRIFERA. 

Two specimens of the species here described are labelled as above 
in the late Cumingian collection. The name is probably derived 
from the coloring of the animal. (Sowb.) 

Species of West America, West Indies and Greenland. 
D. NICARAGUANA n. sp. PI. 63, figs. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. 

Alcoholic specimens measure, (a) length 40, breadth 21, alt. 16 
mill.; (b*) length 41, breadth 19, alt. 14 mill. Body plump, grad- 
ually narrowed in front, broadly rounded behind ; sole very broad. 
Surface smooth, or showing few scattered and minute teat-like warts 
on the back. Tentacles and rhinophores very short, funnel-shaped, 
but collapsed. Eyes, distinct black dots about midway between 
rhinophores and tentacles. Dorsal slit far behind the middle of 
body, and to the right, short, about one-fourth the length of body, 
gaping button-hole like at the two ends. Mantle small, imperforate, 
not covering all of the gill ; the anus projecting as a large tube at 
its posterior end. Genital orifice at forward end of gill. Opaline 
.gland opens to the left of the gill. 

Color (in alcohol) a uniform dirty cream or yellowish tint through- 
out. 

Shell solid, narrow, regularly tapering from the rounded anterior 
end to the obtuse apex, curved longitudinally, right margin convex, 
left margin more or less concave. Outside concave, arcuate-striate, 
partly covered with a brownish cuticle ; inside heavily calloused and 
convex along the middle, white. Apex with an irregular callus. 
No sinus. Length 9J, breadth 3 mill. 

San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua (Dr. J. F. Bransford !) 

The shell is shaped somewhat as in D. oahouensis, but differs 
notably from all other known species. In one specimen it is more 
bent laterally (fig. 15). 

This is the only species of the genus known from the west coast of 
the Americas. 

D. ASCIFERA Rang. PI. 34, figs. 19, 20, 29, 17 ; pi. 65, figs. 10, 11. 

Animal 85 mill, long, of the same form as C. dolabrifera, but the 
back more rounded. Dorsal slit very small. Yellowish -brown, 
with small obtuse tubercles. 

Shell more angular than D. dolabrifera, recurved, narrow, the 
apex much calloused, enamelled, thick and callous, especially in the 
middle. Length 9 mill. 



DOLABRIFERA. 125 

Saint Jeanne de Cayenne (type locality; Richard); St. Thomas, 
St. Croix (Riise, Oersted, Krebs). 

Aplysia (Dolabella) ascifera RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 51, pi. 
4, f. 7-9. Dolabrifera ascifera MORCH, Mai. Bl., xxii, p. 176. 
SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvi, pi. 1, f. 6a, 6b. BERGIJ, Verb. k.-k. zool.- 
bot. Gesellsch. in Wien., xxii, 1872, p. 441, pi. 5, f. 25-29 ; pi. 6, f. 
1-10 (anatomy). 

Externally of the same form as D. dolabrifera, but the back is 
more rounded ; but distinguished by the yellowish-brown color of 
the surface which is strewn with numerous obtuse projections, like 
little warts. The dorsal slit is very small, mantle a little larger 
than in D. dolabrifera. The shell also shows sufficiently recogniz- 
able differential characters, being wider in the middle, more angular, 
and especially thicker in the center, which is calloused and enamel- 
led ; the apex is more calloused and quite small. This shell is the 
most calcareous of the genus. It is perfectly white. 

Figures 19, 20, 29 are from the original illustrations of Rang. 
Fig. 17 is a smaller shell copied from Sowerby. My description is 
from Rang. 

The dentition has been worked out by Bergh from specimens col- 
lected by Riise. His figures are here reproduced. PI. 65, figs. 10, 11, 
shell ; pi. 67, fig. 25, median and first lateral teeth ; fig. 21, laterals 
from inner fifth of a row, from the side ; fig. 24, laterals of the fol- 
lowing fifth, from above ; fig. 22, laterals from the third fifth, viewed 
from the side ; fig. 23, the outermost laterals. 

D. SWIFTII n. sp. PI. 67, figs. 19, 20. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell trapezoidal with projecting beak, well 
curved, moderately solid, but not much calloused within ; white 
with thin yellowish cuticle. Sinus long, concave; left margin 
straight ; basal or anterior margin truncated at a right angle withthe 
left margin, and distinctly emarginate; right margin below the sinus 
parallel with the left, but gently convex. Beak obtuse, with a flat, 
callous extension, roughened and thickened on the ventral side. 
Length 11, breadth 5J mill. 

West Indies (R. Swift). 

The shell of this species somewhat resembles that of D. fusca, as 
figured by Pease, but the sinus is more equally concave, and the 
narrow extension of the beak longer. 



126 DOLABRIFERA. 

D. SOWERBYI Guilding. PI. 34, figs. 9, 10. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell tortuous, subtrigonal, beak tortuous, 
thrown backwards, produced, apex small ; basal margin rather 
straight, upper margin concave, external margin sinuated below the 
middle, roundly acuminated at the end ; disk centrally depressed at 
the back. (Sowb.) 

St. Vincent, West Indies. 

Dolabrifera sowerbyi ( u Guilding Zool. Journ." according to Sow- 
erby, but not in the Zoological Journal), Sows., Conch. Icon., xvi, 
pi. 1, f. 2. 

The tortuous depression in the dorsal disk, and the acuminate 
termination of the outer margin distinguish this species. (Sowb.) 

D. (?) ORNATA Swainson. Unfigured. 

Swainson has given an imperfect description from an unpublished 
colored drawing by Guilding, of a species perhaps belonging to this 
genus. The locality is unknown, but probably St. Vincent, West 
Indies. As none of the important structural characters are known, 
the generic name will not stand, if the creature proves to belong to 
some known genus ; but the species, on account of its brilliant col- 
oring, will probably be recognized sooner or later. It is not known 
whether the drawing was enlarged or natural size, so the dimensions 
given may prove incorrect. Swainson's description here follows : 

Thallepus ornatus. Body more slender and fusiform [than 
Aplysia] ; the lobes of the mantle [pleuropodial lobes] short and 
incapable of being used for swimming; tentacula two, large, ear- 
shaped ; eyes not visible ; lower pair of tentacula wanting. A most 
beautiful figure of a species to which I give this name, is among 
Guilding's drawings, but without any description ; it was evidently 
finished from the living animal. The general color is sea-green, 
covered with minute black and white dots. The edges or crests of 
the reflected mantle [pleuropodia] have a broad edging of the 
richest orange, bordered on their outer edge with a line of deep 
black ; the tentacula are also orange, and formed like those of 
Aplysia. Total length about 3 inches. The only memorandum 
on the drawing is " eyes not visible." Whether this had any cover- 
ing over the branchia I have no means of judging (Swains., Treatise 
on Malacology, or Shells and Shell-fish, pp. 250, 359. 1840). 

This form may prove to be the same as one of the West Indian 
species known from the shell only. 



DOLABRIFERA. 127 

D. HOLLBOLLI Bergh. PI. 65, fig. 9 ; pi. 62, figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Dimensions of contracted specimen, length 25, breadth 22, alt. 16 
mill. Body short and stout ; back elevated, smooth above, the sides 
irregularly knotted by contraction. Gill slit weakly curved, gaping 
behind. Mantle of moderate breadth. Anus situated as usual, at 
the posterior end of mantle. Gill (fig. 5) dark gray-brownish, the 
right side most developed, each side having 5-6 larger branches. 
Foot extending somewhat behind body, and projecting in front in 
rounded lobes each side of the head (fig. 8). Sole rather large and 
wide. Color dark olive-brownish, darkest at the lateral margins and 
here and there on the sole ; the sides of the upper surface having here 
and there scattered, dark, more red-brown irregular spots, about 2 
mill, in diameter ; and in a few places the same color occurs more 
diffused and also on the edges of the upper tentacles. The lens 
shows fine (gland-) openings all over the back. Anterior tentacles 
are like the rhinophores, but edges more reflexed, especially below 
where they overlap somewhat. Rhinophores short-pedicelled auri- 
culate, somewhat funnel-shaped above, deeply cleft- down the outer 
sides. Between the tentacles and rhinophores, but more separated, 
are the very distinct black eyes. 

Shell extremely thin, membranous, weakly bent longitudinally 
and laterally, pale yellowish, with fine growth-strije ; long-trape- 
zoidal, with nearly parallel lateral borders, the apex strongly pro- 
jecting, anterior end quite straight. Length 10 J, breadth 4i mill, 
(fig. 9). 

Teeth differing from those of D. ascifera in having the cusps of 
the laterals longer and slenderer (pi. 67, fig. 29, central tooth ; fig. 
28, 1st lateral ; fig. 27, 30, two side teeth in profile). 

Greenland (Hollboll). 

D. hollbolli BERGH, Verb. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. in Wien, 
xxii, 1872, p. 438, pi. 5, f. 1-24. 

It is remarkable that a species of this tropical group should occur 
in Greenland seas. The longer shell with less excised sinus, and 
the longer and slenderer cusps of the lateral teeth are points of 
-difference between this species and D. ascifera. But one specimen 
is known. PI. 62, fig. 7, front view ; fig. 6, side view ; fig. 8, head 
from below. 



128 PETALIFERA. 

Genus IV. PETALIFERA Gray, 1847. 

Petalifera GRAY, A List of the Genera of Recent Mollusca, their 
synonyma and types, in P. Z. S., 1847, p. 162, type Aplysia petali- 
fera. Aplysiella FISCHER, Journ.de Conchyl., 1872, p. 296 (for A. 
petalifera and unguifera). VAYSSIERE, Rech. Zool. et Anat. sur les 
Moll. Opistobr. du Golfe de Marseille, Ire Partie, Tectibranches, 
p. 71 (Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. de Marseille, Zool., ii). 1885. 

Body long-ovate, moderately convex, with the neck and head 
short and ill-defined ; eyes, anterior tentacles and rhinophores of the 
form usual in APLYSIIDJE, the latter nearer to the anterior end than 
to the dorsal slit. Mouth with more or less developed lateral palpi. 
Pleuropodial lobes arising at or behind the middle of the length, 
contiguous, the right often overlapping the left, united behind, leav- 
ing a short gill-slit more or less open at the two ends ; mantle thin, 
with a very large median orifice exposing the shell. Genital orifice 
within the slit, in front of mantle. Anus, genital groove, etc., as 
usual. Integument more or less warty in life. Foot very broad. 

Shell thin, hyaline, slightly concave and squarish, the posterior 
sinus wide and concave. 

Radula with the rhachidian tooth 5-denticulate, inner laterals 
with the cusp long, armed with 3 or 4 denticles on its outer edge ; 
on the outer laterals these denticles increase in length, equalling or 
surpassing the main cusp (pi. 55, fig. 12, rhachidian, 1st and another 
lateral, 25th and 43d laterals). 

Distribution : Mediterranean, Japan. 

This genus differs from Tethys in the shortening and posterior 
union of the pleuropodial lobes, which no longer have the function 
of swimming organs ; in the less covered shell, more anterior genital 
pore, and in the teeth, the cusps of which lack the fine serration seen 
in Tethys, and have no denticles on the inner sides of the laterals. 

The section Aplysia of the genus Tethys, represented by T. 
punctata, depilans, etc., is somewhat allied to Petalifera in having a 
rather large mantle-orifice exposing the shell, and more or less broad 
union of the pleuropodia behind ; but it differs widely in dentition, 
in the degree of development of the swimming-lobes and in numer- 
ous other features. Petalifera differs from Dolabrifera in the pres- 
ence of a large orifice in the mantle exposing part of the shell. 

The species live on Zostera and Algse, to the fronds of which they 
strongly adhere by the broad sole. Locomotion is wholly by creep* 
ing. 




The number of true species is extremely doubtful, most of those 
described being known by the imperfect original descriptions only. 
A. virescens alone, is well known by VayssiSre's excellent work on 
the Tectibranchs of the Gulf of Marseilles. 

The name Petalifera was proposed hy Gray as a subdivision under 
Dolabrifera, in 1847 ; no diagnosis being given. Fischer proposed 
Aplysiella for the same species in 1872, likewise without character- 
ization of the group. 

Subdivisions. 

Petalifera s. sir. Shell squarish, with conspicuous posterior sinus ; 
lateral teeth with long cusps. 

Pseudaplysia Pils. Shell oblong-ovate with the sinus obsolete; 
lateral teeth with broad, blunt cusps. 



P. VIRESCENS Risso. PL 36, figs. 9, 10 ; pi. 55, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

Length 25 to 36 mill. Oval, narrower in front ; surface rough- 
ened by low, tuberculous papillae, and sub-epidermal calcareous- 
granules under the light spots. Mantle less developed than in 
Tethys, consisting of a nearly hyaline membrane which covers only 
the borders of the shell, most of the dorsal surface of which is ex- 
posed through the large mantle-orifice. Pleuropodial lobes united 
behind, with thick edges along the short dorsal slit ; foot broad and 
fleshy. Gill milk-white. Genital pore situated a little back of the 
anterior insertion of the pleuropodial lobes. Genital groove, anus, 
etc. as in Aplysiidce generally. 

General color above reddish-brown, or greenish-brown with large 
light spots ; lower surface pale grayish, with only traces of brown 
spots, but with numerous whitish spots due to calcareous particles 
sunken in the tissues. After death the body is a more or less strong 
tint of greenish-yellow. 

Shell squarish, the beak projecting ; sinus deeply concave and! 
wide. 

Nice (Risso, Robb & v. Beneden) ; Gulf of Marseilles (Vayssiere) ; 
lives on floating fueus throughout the Mediterranean (Monts.). 

Aplysia virescente Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., p. 42 ; A. vires- 
cens t. c., p. 433, pi. 1, f. 10 (1826). Aplysia petalif era RANG, Hist. 
Nat. Aplys., p. 52, pi. 5, f. 1-3 (1828). Aplysia unguifera RANG, 
ibid., pi. 5, f. 4-7. Aplysiella petalifera and unguifera FISCHER, 
9 



130 PETALIFERA. 

Journ. de Conchyl., 1872, -p. 296. Aplysia webbii VAN BENEDEN 
& ROBB, Mag. de Zoologie, 1836, cl. v, p. 3, pi. 77, f. 3a.-5. VAN 
BENEDEN, Ann. Sci. Nat., iv, 1835, p. 251. Aplysiella webbii 
MONTS., Journ. de Conchyl., 1877, p. 47. A. webi LOCARD, Ann. 
de 1'Agric. Lyon, 1885, p. 68. Aplysiella weebbii VAYSSIERE, Rech. 
Moll. Opistobr., p. 71, pi. 3, f. 70-76 (dentition, etc.). Aplysia 
quadrata SOWERBY, Genera of Shells, fig. 4 ; Conch. Icon., f. 37a, 
b. ? A. similis SOWB., C. Icon., f. 38a, b. (1869). 

The relations borne by this species to brugnateMi, ornata, and 
especially depressa, are much in need of elucidation. There cannot 
be much doubt that A. quadrata (pi. 55, figs. 13, 14) is the shell of this 
species, and I am disposed to believe that A. similis (pi. 19, figs. 32, 
33) is the same, though Sowerby says that it is " more obliquely 
oval, more laterally curved, and less quadrate than A. quadrata" 

P. FERUSSACII Rang. PI. 55, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Length 35 mill. Oblong, much swollen and short behind, length- 
ened in front ; swimming lobes elevated, especially behind, narrow. 
Mantle oblong, with a very large orifice ; foot narrow. 

Color livid brown, variegated with large and very irregular black 
spots. 

Shell nearly round, pale and diaphanous, resembling a thin film ; 
the sinus is almost wanting, apex very small. Length 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

A.ferussacii RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 66, pi. 19, f. 6-9 (1828). 

Described from Ferussac's collection. The species has not been 
recognized by later authors. 

P. BRUGNATELLII Vanbeneden & Robb. PI. 36, figs. 11, 12. 

Length 35 mill. Body elongate, widened, swollen in the middle, 
tapering towards the ends. Foot strongly depressed and rounded 
posteriorly ; pleuropodial lobes small, separated, showing the greater 
part of the mantle. The integument around the mouth is prolonged 
in two appendages. Tentacles, genital openings, etc., as in the 
genus. 

Pale, dappled with irregular orange spots, border of mantle pur- 
ple ; rhinoph ores colorless. Sole colorless and diaphanous, showing 
by transparence the viscera, which are a handsome blue. 



PETALIFERA. 131 

Shell thin and transparent, with well-marked but irregular growth 
strise. It is not enclosed by the mantle, and seems to be attached 
by the beak only. 

Nice (collected in September). 

Aplysia brugnatellii VANB. & ROBE, Guerin's Mag. de Zool., 
1836, classe v, pi. 77, f. 1, 2, p. 1 ; Ann. Sci. Nat., 1835, p. 251. 

The species most approaching A. brugnatellii is the A. ferussacii 
of Rang. It is distinguished from that by the depressed, rounded 
tail, and the coloring, dappled with orange dots, ferussacii being 
spotted with black. 

It is notable that this species has buccal appendages such as 
Fischer describes for his Phyllaplysia lafonti. 

P. ORNATA Deshayes. PL 36, fig. 3. 

Length 35 mill. Dark green above, ornamented with numerous 
oval yellow spots ; rhinophores flesh colored, spotless ; anterior ten- 
tacles spotted like the body. 

Algerian coast. 

Dolabella ornata DESH., Traite Elementaire de Conchyl., ii, p. 57, 
atlas, pi. 89, f. 5. FREDOL, Le Monde de la Mer. pi. 11, f. 10. 
Phyllaplysia ornata FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl., 1872, p. 297. 

This form is known by Deshayes figure only, no description hav- 
ing been published. It may prove to be a synonym of A. brugna- 
tellii ; indeed I have very little doubt that they are identical. 

Section PSEUDAPLYSIA Pilsbry, 1896. 

External features as in Petalifera; labial palpi developed. Shell 
ovate claw-shaped, with the sinus obsolete ; rhachidian tooth five- 
denticulate, inner lateral with trilobate, the rest with broad bilobate 
cusps. 

Differs from Phyllaplysia in the five-lobed, instead of three-lobed 
median tooth of the radula, and the presence of a well-developed 
shell. From Petalifera it differs in the form of the lateral teeth 
and the oblong shell without a posterior sinus. 

P. PUNCTULATA Tapparone-Canefri. PL 36, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Length 17-25 mill., width 6-6 mill. Body flattened, narrow, 
much lengthened, somewhat narrowed behind. Head and neck 
short, anterior tentacles hollow, their bases rather distant, apices 



132 PHYLLAPLYSIA. 

truncated ; rhinophores tubular, slightly expanded toward their 
apices, slit below. Foot rather broad, truncated in front, scarcely 
differentiated from the integument of upper surface. Gill cavity 
small, enclosed by two minute lobes ; mouth longitudinal, furnished 
with two transverse, fleshy lateral processes (pi. 36, fig. 4). 

General ground-color not known, markings consisting of minute 
irregular dots most numerous above. 

Shell (pi. 36, fig. 5) small, claw-shaped, long, thin, glassy and 
pellucid, with iridescent reflections, sculptured with concentric 
growth lines, the nucleus apical, sinus obsolete. 

Radula (pi. 36, fig. 6) seems to have teeth according to the form- 
ula 301 "30. See above for description of teeth. 

Yokohama, Japan. 

Phyllaplysia punctulata T.-C., Zool. del Viaggio intorno al Globo 
della R. Fregata Magenta, Malacologia, p. 112, pi. 2, f. 3 a, b, c 

(1874). 

Genus V. PHYLLAPLYSIA Fischer, 1872. 

Phyllaplysia FISCHER, Journ. de Conch., 1872, p. 297. MAZ- 
ZARELLI, Boll. Soc. di Naturalisti in Napoli, vii, 1893, p. 5, pi. I 
(anatomy). 

Body oblong-oval, much depressed and flattened ; eyes, anterior 
tentacles and rhinophores as usual in the family, the latter much 
nearer the anterior end than to the dorsal slit. Mouth with well- 
developed labial palpi. Pleuropodial lobes arising behind the mid- 
dle of the length, contiguous, the right overlying the left, united 
behind, leaving a very short dorsal slit more or less open at the two 
ends. Foot very broad. 

Shell wanting. Opaline gland diffuse. 

Radula (pi. 9, fig. 26) with the rhachidian tooth tricuspid, cusps 
acute ; inner laterals with three broad, obtuse cusps, the middle one 
largest ; passing outward on the radula the inner cusp increases in size, 
and the outer cusp decreases and becomes obsolete. Mazzarelli 
gives a somewhat different form of teeth (pi. 67, fig. 26). 

Distribution : Bassin d'Arcachon, southwestern France. 

Allied to Petalifera and especially to Notarchus, but the body is 
more depressed, the shell wanting, if we may trust Fischer's account, 
and the number of denticles of the teeth is less, the cusps of the 



PHYLLAPLYSIA. 133 

laterals broad and blunt. The position of the genital pore is not 
given by Fischer. 

In habits Phyllaplysia is like Petalifera and Notarchus, living on 
Zostera and other sea-weeds upon which they feed, clinging with 
limpet-like tenacity to the supporting surface, and mating recipro- 
cally like the land snails. 

P. LAFONTI Fischer. PI. 36, figs. 1,2; pi. 9, fig. 26. 

Length 15-35 mill. Body very much flattened, rounded in front, 
obtuse behind ; head and neck short. Anterior tentacles wide, flat- 
tened, confluent at base, hollow, slit in front, truncated at the apices ; 
rhinophores hollow, dilated at the ends, slit; the eyes in front of 
them. Branchial slit small, covered by small lobes ; foot very 
wide, subtruucate in front ; buccal processes conic and transverse. 

Color pale green above, ornamented with concentric zones of a 
darker green, and small scattered spots formed of a rounded white 
dot surrounded by violaceous punctation, these spots appearing also 
on the anterior tentacles and becoming tubercular there ; upper 
tentacles pale green, with 4 or 5 rings of pale violet. Foot very 
light greenish- white; buccal processes white and transparent. 

Shell wanting. 

Basin of Arcachon, s. w. France, on sea- weeds. 

Dolabrifera lafonti Fischer, Ann. Sc. Nat. (5), xiii, 1870, p. 3 (no 
description). Phyllaplysia lafonti FISCHER, Journal de Conchyl., 
1872, p. 297, pi. 15, f. 1-3 ; Actes Soc. Linn. Bord., xxix, 1873, p. 
236. CROSSE, Journ. de Conch., 1875, p. 101. 

This species lives on Zostera, which it resembles in CO!OF. They 
adhere strongly by the large foot, and crawl rapidly like Limaces ; 
sometimes they float foot upward at the surface, in the manner of 
Limnseidse. They cannot, of course, swim like Aplysias. Copula- 
tion is reciprocal, as in the Helices, two individuals placing them- 
selves side by side, the head of one toward the tail of the other. 
They have been found only in the locality named and during the 
month of September. ; 

Crosse collected a specimen 35 mill, long, 9 broad, in which the 
concentric zones and the spots were less conspicuous than in the 
types, the general color being a more vivid green. The animal, as 
observed by him in an aquarium, is habitually longer than shown in 
Fischer's figure, especially when in motion. The dorsal bands are 
more numerous and less distinctly concentric than shown in the 



134 PHYLLAPLYSIA. 

figure, and sometimes they are interrupted. Examined with a glass 
of strong: magnification, they are seen to be composed of a multitude 
of tiny blackish and brown specks. The spots on the front tentacles 
are smaller and more numerous than the illustration shows, and, 
moreover, are projecting, forming little warts. 

P. (?) DEPRESSA Cantraine, PL 36, figs. 13, 14. 

Length 21 lines. Body long-ovate, subdepressed ; green-buff, 
variegated with black ; the sole wide, marginated, green marked 
with numerous oval gray spots. 

This species is distinguished by the depressed form, the wide t 
margined foot, the nearly square head, distinct from the trunk and 
carried on a very short neck. The pleuropodial lobes are very 
small. There are four tentacles, the front pair are larger, depressed 
and truncate at the ends ; the hind pair are nearly cylindrical, slit 
as usual. The sides and back are greenish yellow finely vermiculate 
with black ; buccal region and ends of the anterior tentacles yel- 
low ; posterior tentacles (rhinophores) the color of the body. The 
coloration of the foot is remarkable ; the ground color of clear 
green is varied by numerous oval, gray spots. 

Ragusa Vecchia, Dalmatia. 

Aplysia depressa CANTRAINE, Bull. Soc. Koy. Brux., ii, p. 385, 
Malacologie Mediterraneanne et Littorale, p. 71, pi. 3, f. 1. 

Nothing is said by Cantraine of a shell. The single specimen is 
in the Royal Museum of Leyden. Fischer places this species in his 
genus Phy Haply sia. Compare the Petalifera species. 

P. (?) LIMACINA Blainville. PL 43, figs. 32, 33. 

Length 35 mill. Animal limaciform, oblong, obtuse in front, 
acute behind ; flat and depressed all around the base. Integument 
smooth and of an obscure greenish color. Dorsal opening narrow 
in front, gaping behind. The foot is very wide. 

Coast of Provence. 

Aplysia limacina BLAINVILLE, Journ. de Phys., xcvi, 1823, p. 
287, f. 10 ; Diet. Sc. Nat., xxvi, p. 328 (word Lievre marin) ; Rang, 
Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 72, pi. 22, f. 6, 7. Not Tethys limacina 
Linne, Aplysia limacina auct. 

The tentacles offer no peculiar features ; the integument is very 
smooth, and of a greenish-dusky color. Dorsal opening quite long, 
no appearance of a mantle being visible within it. The broad foot 



NOTARCHUS. 135 

and distinct depression of the peripheral region of the body, to- 
gether with the lack of a shell, seem to indicate that this little- 
known form belongs to Fischer's genus Phyllaplysia. It has not 
been noticed by authors subsequent to Rang. There is no conflict 
between the name of this species and Linne's Tethys limacina ; the 
latter was not referred to Aplysia until long after the date of de 
Blainville's description. 

Genus VI. NOTARCHUS Cuvier, 1817. 

Notarchus Cuv., Regne Animal, ii, p. 398. Bursatella BLAINV. 
(? Brit. Encycl. Suppl.), Fer., Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., ii, p. 588 
(1822). Aclesia RANG, Hist Nat Aplys., p. 68 (1828). Stylo- 
ckeilus GLD., U. S. Expl. Exped., p. 224 (1852). 

General form long ovate or fusiform, plump in the middle. Ten- 
tacles, rhinophores, eyes and genital groove as usual in the family. 
Pleuropodial lobes broadly united behind over a large gill-cavity, 
their anterior ends contiguous, free margins short, contiguous ; the 
dorsal slit subcentral and short. Mantle membranous, small, not 
covering the long, arcuate gill. Genital pore near anterior end of 
dorsal slit. Foot narrower than the body, long, acute behind. 

Shell very minute and orbicular, or wanting. 

Radula wide (pi. 40, f. 6), with well developed triangular rhachi- 
dian teeth with serrate cusp ; the laterals narrower, with the cusp 
long and serrate on both edges (pi. 40, fig. 7). Marginals with 
the basal plates shorter, cusps longer (pi. 40, figs. 5, 8). Jaws wide, 
composed of many minute chitinous elements (pi. 40, fig. 9). 

Type N. indicus Schweigger. 

This genus differs from Phyllaplysia in the plump, elevated body 
and narrow sole ; from all other genera it differs in the minute or 
obsolete shell. 

Subdivisions. 

No subdivisions of much value have yet been defined in this 
genus. The following sections are generally recognized, but their 
differential characters are unimportant. 

a. Plump ; sole a narrow band ; integument tuberculate or 
smooth ; labial processes not developed (?) Notarchus. 

aa. Integument with filaments or fringed appendages; labial pro- 
cesses developed 

b. Fusiform, the two ends attenuated, Stylocheilus. 

bb. Stouter, foot wider, labial processes broad Aclesia. 



136 NOT ARCH US. 

Section Notarchus Cuv., s. sir. 

In the typical species of Notarchus the body is very plump and 
not excessively elongated or slender at the two ends ; there are no 
distinct labial processes ; the sole is extremely narrow ; and the in- 
tegument bears conic warts, often more or less branching, but not 
forming long, finely cut arborescent processes as in Aclesia. The 
typical forms are N. indicus and N. punctatus. Some other small 
species with lengthened extremities and smoother integument, such 
as N. nudatus and N. citrinus probably belong here also ; while N. 
ocellatus and N. polyomma are still very imperfectly known. 

N. INDICUS Schweigger. PI. 40, figs. 14, 15, 16 ; pi. 61, figs. 56, 57, 

58. 

Length 3-4j, breadth 2, alt. 2'3 cm. Head about one-third as 
wide as body. Anterior tentacles stumpy, auriculate ; rhinophores 
somewhat longer, excavated and auriculate ; mouth a longitudinal 
slit ; eyes placed laterally before the rhinophores. Foot obtuse in 
front, with two lobes, generally running out acutely. Sole with a 
median longitudinal furrow. Body as if inflated, having the dor- 
sal opening somewhat in front of the middle, the pleuropodial lobes 
capable of being overlapped across it ; when separated widely they 
raise up like a lid (fig. 14). Through this opening water is drawn 
to the gills, and rhythmically (every 5 seconds) expelled again. 
The conic elevations on the back and sides can be depressed. 
Color transparent yellowish-white, marbled and punctate with 
brownish-yellow or yellowish-brown. Many specimens are green- 
ish-gray with olive-green flecks. Sole bluish, without markings. 
Entire upper surface punctate with white, most densely so on the 
conic protuberances, which are clear yellow in many specimens. 



Mauritius, in about 2 metres. 

Notarchus ...... CUVIER, Regne Anim. ii, 1817, p. 398, 

pi. 11, f. 1. N.indieus SCHWEIGGER, Handbuch derNaturgeschichte 
der skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere, 1820, p. 745 (based solely on 
Cuvier's work cited above). MARTENS in Mobius' Beitr. zur Meeres- 
fauna Maurit., p. 307, pi. 21, f. 4.N. cuvieri BLAINV., Diet. Sc. Nat., 
xxxv, p. 101 ; Man.de Malacol., p. 473, pi. 43, f. 7 (1825). Aplysia 
gelatinosa RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 70, pi. 23, f. 1-5. QUOY & 
GAIM., Zool. Astrol., p. 312, pi. 24, f. 3, 4. DESK., Traite Elem. 
onchyl., pi. 92, f. 8-10. 



NOTARCHUS. 137 

The figures of Cuvier, Rang and Mobius correspond moderately 
well. Hang's (pi. 61, figs. 56, 57, 58,) were drawn from specimens 
which had been in alcohol. The figures given by Quoy and Gaimard 
(pi 17, figs. 12, 13) represent the living animal ; but are so different 
from the others as to excite suspicion that a distinct species may be 
represented. Whether this diversity is wholly due to the fresh or 
alcoholic condition of the specimens figured cannot readily be de- 
cided. 

N. PUNCTATUS Philippi. PI. 40, figs. 1-13. 

Length 8-4'5 cm. or less. Animal oblong, swollen and much 
dilated at the sides, acute behind (figs. 1, 3, 12, 13). Head globose, 
on a rather short neck. Anterior tentacles cylindric-conic, open 
above, the margins rolled together below, continuous with the frontal 
veil (fig. 4, head seen from beneath). Rhinophores shaped like the 
tentacles, but open behind ; the eyes sunken in the integument a 
little in froirt of the bases of the rhinophores. Surface of body 
bearing numerous somewhat dendritic or branching conic tubercles, 
irregularly scattered. Foot forming a smooth, quite narrow band, 
acute behind. Penis having a number of chitinous spurs distributed 
over its surface (fig. 11). 

Color in life a yellow-fawn tint, with irregular spots of deeper 
color and a minute white punctation. Alcoholic specimens retain 
^uite well the general tint, but the tissues lose their transparence. 

Shell (fig. 10, magnified 25 diameters) minute, diam. 2 mill., very 
fragile, hyaline, placed under the mantle behind the anus, of the 
form of that of Coriocella. 

Mediterranean : Gulf of Marseilles, 15-25 metres, on Zostera 
(Vayssiere) ; Palermo (Philippi, Monterosato) ; Nice (Verany). 

Notarchus punctatus PHIL., Enumeratio Molluscorum SiciliaB, 
1836, p. [255], pi. 7, f. 9. VAYSSIERE, Journal de Conchy 1., 1882, 
p. 271, pi. 11, f. 8 ; Recherches Zool. et Anat. sur les Moll. Opisto- 
branches du Golfe de Marseille, p. 77, pi. 3, f. 77-85 ; pi. 4, f. 86- 
95 (shell, anatomy). 

This Mediterranean species is now well known by the work of 
Vayssiere. The larger tubercles of the surface are arranged in a 
median series behind the gill slit, and two irregular rows on each 

side. The presence of a minute vestioifeS|B*ttlK^ &*t demonstrated 

'C 
by Vayssiere. 

NIVERSITY 

CALIFORNIA- 



138 NOTARCHUS. 

N. LEACHII Blainville. PL 61, fig. 59. 

Nearly the size of a fist. Body nearly globular, the foot being 
an oval area with projecting borders. Dorsal opening ovate, with 
thick borders, nearly symmetrical. Tentacles 4, slit ; 2 buccal 
appendages ; a tentacular organ in the middle of the head ; no 
trace of a shell. Color yellowish-white, rather translucent, the 
whole upper surface bearing small tentacular appendages, irregularly 
placed. 

Seas of India (Brit. Mus.). 

Bursatella leachii BLAINV. (? Brit. Encyclop. Suppl., Art. Mol- 
lusca), Manuel de Malacol., p. 473, pi. 43, f. 6. F(ERUSSAC), Diet. 
Classique d'Hist. Nat. ii, p. 588 (1822). RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys, 
p. 78. 

This form seems to be allied to N. indicm, but is larger, and the 
head and tentacles are filamentous as in Aclesia. It is known only 
by Blainville's description and illustration, the latter representing a 
badly preserved specimen with the gill pulled out of the branchial 
cavity. Compare N. gelatinosa Q & G. 

N. OCELLATUS Fe"russac. PI. 41, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

The mollusk for which this name was proposed is known only by 
a very handsome drawing by Van Hasselt, communicated to Ferus- 
sac by Temminck. No description is extant, but its form and the 
general disposition of the external parts indicate that the animal is 
a Notarchus. The general contour is sufficiently shown by the fig- 
ures. Color a beautiful yellow, with a horse-shoe shaped series of 
ocelli on the back, each with a blue center and orange ring. They 
apparently encircle the dorsal slit, which was not seen by Van Has- 
selt, probably on account of the small size of the animal. Length 
41 mill. 

Java (?) 

Aplysia ocellata Fer., RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 74, pi. 24, f. 2-4. 

N. NUDATUS Rang. PL 29, figs. 45, 46. 

Length 36 mill. Animal much dilated and ventricose, length- 
ened and narrowed at the two ends. Integument smooth, dusky- 
greenish, with some scattered pale dots. Dorsal opening quite long, 
narrow, but gaping posteriorly. Foot narrow. (Rang). 

Near the Sandwich Islands, on floating Fucus. (Qu'oy & Gaim- 
ard). 



NOTARCHUS. 139 

Especially marked by the much swollen form, the narrow portions 
front and rear being of about equal length. Head small; tentacles 
as usual. The integument is perfectly smooth, transparent, with 
some white dots around the dorsal aperture. 

N. CITKINUS Rang. PL 29, fig. 40. 

Lenth 25 mill, or smaller. Animal much dilated in the middle of 
the back, narrowed and acute at the two extremities. Integument 
a little translucent, yellow, with small white spots and very minute 
asperities, Dorsal aperture very small, narrow and a little oblique. 
Foot very narrow (Rang). 

Mid-Atlantie, equatorial, on floating masses of Fucus. (Rang). 

Aplysia citrina RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 71, pi. 22, f. 1, 2. 

The partial transparence of the integument allows some of the 
viscera to be seen. A liquor of the same color as the animal is 
produced. 

N. POLYOMMA Morch. Unfigured. 

Length of dead animal 17 mill. Body long-fusiform, pale green, 
ornamented with close obscure longitudinal lines, and numerous 
approximated scarlet ocelli, four forming a necklace ; digitated or 
papillar appendages. Tentacles 4, subequal, slit in front ; eyes be- 
tween them. Sole of the foot contracted in front, the forward mar- 
gin semilunar, acute behind. Mouth cordiforrn (Morch, description 
from a drawing). 

Alcoholic specimens : Length 11 mill. Body warty, the epipodial 
lobes rounded, anal tube distinct, prolonged. Penis arcuate- conic, 
acute, tentacle-like, situated between the right eye and right ante- 
rior tentacle. Oral tentacles very short, obtuse, compressed and 
perpendicular ; posterior tentacles longer, truncate ; anterior shorter, 
somewhat acute. Seminal groove with a cord, passing obliquely 
downward to the base of the penis. Branchial plume falciform. 
Color pale yellowish with close longitudinal dusky lines, often con- 
fluent (MorcJi). 

St. Croix, West Indies (Riise). 

Notarchus polyomma MORCH, Journ. de Conchyl. (3), iii, 1863, p. 
25; Malak.Bl.xxii, p. 176. 

Section Stylocheilus Gould, 1852. 

Stylocheilus OLD., U. S. Expl. Exped., xii, Moll., p. 224. 

Body limaciform, dilated at the sides and delicately attenuated 
posteriorly, cirrigerous; head separated from the body by a dis- 



140 NOTARCHUS. 

tinct neck, and furnished with four elongated, linear, distant tenta- 
cles, more or less ornamented with papillae, mouth beneath, the lip 
dilated laterally into an acutely conical process, like a third pair of 
tentacles. (Old.) 

The papillae on the mantle are capable of beiug individually 
elongated and contracted, as they are in Cypraea. 

Distribution, Indo-Pacific region. These animals live on floating 
sea-weed, away from the shore. The exact status of the group, and 
its relation to Notarchus and Aclesia, can be ascertained only by 
more exact investigation of material. I have seen none of the spe- 
cies. 

Most described forms are decorated with ocelli or eye- spots, and 
all but N. longicauda have simple or branching processes of the in- 
tegument. In alcoholic specimens the lip-processes characteristic of 
the group are sometimes retracted ; but they are never so strongly 
developed as in Aclesia. 

N. LINEOLATUS Gould. PL 29, figs. 37, 38, 39. 

Length three and a half inches. Animal elongated, delicately 
attenuated posteriorly, of a pale grass green color, ornamented with 
longitudinal, parallel, contorted, rusty lines, and scattered ocelli of 
unequal size. The papillae of the mantle are branching. The ante- 
rior tentacles are short, tapering, and destitute of papillae. (G7eZ.). 

Honolulu, Oahu, on a coral reef. 

Stylocheilus lineolatus OLD., U. S. Expl. Exped., Moll., p. 225, pi. 
16, f. 270, a (1852) ; Otia Conch., p. 227. 

Dr. Pickering, who observed this animal, remarks that the creep- 
ing disk is very long, ending in a sharp point. Branchial cavity 
generally kept pretty wide open ; the branchiae are very large, not 
covered by a dorsal plate, and colored above in the same manner 
as the mantle, and they are inflated as though injected with water. 
The heart is seen beating on the left side, immediately under the 
origin of the branchiae. The vent projects much as in Doris. The 
lines on the surface were more or less concentric, like the striae in 
the palms of the hands. Motion quite active. 

Though the two figures differ somewhat in their details, I judge 
them to represent the same species. In the dark green one, the 
tentacles are shorter, and the cephalic pair are destitute of papillae, 
and the papillae are branched. In the pale one (fig. 37), the ten- 



NOTARCHUS. 141 

tacles are longer, more linear, all furnished with papillae which are 
everywhere aculeate. But when we consider the identity of locality, 
the difficulty of delineating these animals while living, and their 
power of contracting and modifying parts, I think we may safely 
and properly regard them as the same. Aplysia striata Quoy, is line- 
ated like this, but has naked truncated tentacles, and very few cirri. 
(Old.). 

N. STRIATUS Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 29, figs. 47, 48, 49 (enlarged). 
Length about 1 inch. Region of the pleuropodial lobes much 
swollen, rounded ; the rest of the body elongated, especially the 
foot, which is very acuminate behind, rounded in front, and well 
separated from the buccal disk. The four appendages are large and 
long. The integument is raised in small simple fleshy cirri, those 
the margins of pleuropodial lobes having several branches, 
rround-color a perceptibly greenish-yellow ; very finely striate with 
;ddish brown parallel lines. These recurve sometimes, forming 
mcentric circles. Besides these, the whole body is covered with 
rery small yellowish lunules, with sky-blue dots in the middle. Two 
)f these spots occupy the base of the labial tentacles and in front of 
the eyes. The foot is striated on the sole, like the rest of the body. 
Near Port Dorey, New Guinea, on floating Fucus (Astrolabe) ; 
Bouquets, Mauritius (Mobius). 

Aplysia striata Q. & G., Zool. Astrolabe, ii,p. 315, pi. 24, f. 9-11. 
-Aclesia striata MARTENS in Mobius' Beitr. zur Meeresfauna 
[auritius, p. 308. 

Mobius thus describes the Mauritius form, which is considered by 
[artens to be this species: Length when crawling 30-50 mill., 
breadth 7-8 mill. Greenish-gray, with white pointed warts. Black 
flecks and separated blue ones surrounded by a brown ring. These 
become distinct only under the microscope. Anus tubular, at back 
irt of the gill orifice. The excrement contained shells of fora- 
linifera. 

. CIRROSUS Stimpson. 

Length 3 inches. Oblong, back rounded ; foot short and pointed 
lind, somewhat acuminate ; body covered with numerous rather 
>ng appendages, much ramified on the back, but mostly simple on 
the head and tentacula ; dorsal tentacula short, tapering, with the 
upper half slit ; orals large. Color bluish -grey, sprinkled with black 



142 NOTARCHUS. 

dots ; the appendages edged with sulphur yellow ; a few clear green 
circular spots in different parts of the body (Stimp., Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, 1855, p. 378). 

China (N. P. Ex. Exp.). 
N. STiMPSONi Pilsbry, n. n. 

Length 2 inches. Oblong-ovate, rather produced before, short 
and pointed behind ; a few small, scattered, ramose appendages on 
the back and sides; color greenish, with minute, crowded, longitu- 
dinal black lines; a few small round nucleated spots on the sides; 
tentacles slender, the dorsal ones very long ; eyes conspicuous, situ- 
ated at a considerable distance in front of the dorsal tentacles. (N. 
Uneolatus Stimp., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, 1 855, p. 378). 

Loo Choo Is. (N. P. Ex. Exp.). 

This species bore the same specific name as one previously defined 
by Gould, and apparently belongs to the same genus. 

N. CIRRHIFER Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 17, fig. 11. 

Quite a large species (length 3 inches), with elevated back and 
long neck, having the lips extended, buccal appendages broad, and 
tentacles very long. The contracted foot is rounded in front, pro- 
longed to a point behind. Entire body and tentacles covered with 
slender ramifying processes. The integument is somewhat diaphan- 
ous, of a grayish tint, with plaques of light brown in the center of 
which are emerald dots, but some are circles of reddish. The pro- 
cesses are generally parchment-white to yellowish. The gill may 
project to the exterior and form a semicircle on the right side. It 
is composed of a dozen main branches, of a greenish color striated 
with brown. The penis is large, very long, marked with white dots 
at the base. (Q. & .) 

Length 10, breadth 3, alt. 3 cm. Gray-green with brown punct- 
ulation ; the back, sides and head with light blue dots, each sur- 
rounded by a yellow ring ; many of these peacock-eye spots are en- 
circled by brown lines. The entire integument is beset with conic 
papillae; the larger papillae of the back bear smaller papillae. 
Tentacles with long papillae. Sole narrow. Gill gray-green with 
brown striae. (Mobius). 

Mauritius (Astrolabe ; Mobius). 

Aplysia cirrhifera Q. & G., Zool. Astrol., ii, p. 311, pi. 24, f. 8. 
Aclesia cirri/era MARTENS, in Mobius' Beitr. zur Meeresfauna 
Mauritius, p. 308. 



NOTARCHUS. 143 

In breathing, the mantle cavity is very forcibly expanded and con- 
tracted. The snail emits an intensely cobalt-blue liquor, part of 
which sinks to the bottom, staining the white coral-sand blue ; the 
rest dispersing in the water. (Mobius). 

N. QUERGINUS Gould. PL 29, fig. 44. 

Length 3 J inches. Body limaciform, elongated, delicately attenu- 
ated ; the ground color slaty, tinted with wood-color, and longitu- 
dinally grained with numerous unequal, rusty lines or folds. Ten- 
tacles very long, linear, truncate at tip, and beset with numerous 
acute papillae. The papillae on the body are long and branching 
but becoming more and more simple towards the margin and tail. 
Eyes distinct, in front of the cervical tentacles. (Gld.). 

Levuka, Fiji Is. 

Stylocheilus querdnus OLD., U. S. Expl. Exped., Moll., p. 226, pi. 
16, f. 271 (1852) ; Otia Conch., p. 227. 

The peculiar coloration and graining of this animal are something 
like that of oak wood. 

N. RUFUS Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 16, fig. 7. 

This very small species has the body and neck elongated, as well 
as the four tentacles ; the foot is quite short. The back appears 
elevated by the dilation of the borders of the pleuropodial lobes. All 
of these parts are villose and of a reddish brown color, with the ap- 
pearance of longitudinal striae. The integument is largely spotted 
with an almost black brown, fading to smoky in front. Genital 
furrow black, and a similar line is on the opposite side. Sole of the 
foot is a very light red-brown. 

Road of Umata, Island of Guam, in 14 fms. (Astrolabe). 

Aplysia rufa Q. & G., Zool. Astrol., ii, p. 314, pi. 24, f. 7. 

The long, filament-like tentacles render it likely that this species 
is a Stylocheilus ; but no labial processes are mentioned by Quoy. 

N. LONGICAUDA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 29, figs. 41, 42, 43. 

Length 63 mill. Animal swollen, full and oval, the anterior por- 
tion elongated, head small; the posterior lengthened and acute. 
Integument green, with spots of varied red and blue. Dorsal open- 
ing small, a little posterior, and oblique. Foot very narrow {Rang). 
Near New Guinea, on free-floating Fucus. 



144 NOTARCHUS. 

A. longicauda Q. & G., Voy. Uranie, ii, p. 421, pi. 66, f. 8. RANG,. 
Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 73, pi. 22, f. 8-10. 

1 Aplysia brongniartii BLAINV., Man. de Malacol., p. 472 (insuffi- 
cient description). 

In this species the neck is quite long, the tentacles pointed ; tail 
extremely long. The general color, in life, is a pleasing green, 
sprinkled with dots of red surrounded with a circle of sky blue, and 
here and there some other whitish and blue spots. Rang could not 
see the labial tentacles in the preserved examples, but the natural- 
ists of the Uranie affirmed their presence in the living animal. 

Section Aclesia Rang, 1828. 

Aclesia RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 68. 

Body plump, long oval, with moderately stout, short neck and 
head and short conic tail. Sole rather broad. Integument of the 
whole upper surface bearing numerous digitate or branched append- 
ages with simple ones among them. Lateral labial processes broad 
and well developed. 

Type A. savignana. 

Allied to the restricted subgenus Notarchus in the plump form, 
but differing in the strongly developed labial processes, wider sole 
and elaborately fringed appendages of the integument. There is a 
certain indistinct arrangement of the larger appendages of the in- 
tegument into about three longitudinal rows on each side of the 
dorsal slit. In Stylocheilus the fore and hind parts of the body are 
more attenuated and longer ; but it is rather doubtful whether 
Gould's group will eventually be held separable from Aclesia. 

The species are illustrated on plates 41, 42, 43 and 44. 

Distribution, tropical and southern temperate seas. 

Indo-Pacific : N. savignanus, laciniatus, Red Sea, Cape. 
N. glaucus, New Zealand. 
N. areola, Sandwich Is. 

West Indian : N. pleii, lacinulatus. 

N. SAVIGNANUS Audouin. PL 42, figs. 23-26. 

Length 13 cm. Very plump, with the tail attenuated and acum- 
inate, neck rather thick. Tentacles and rhinophores very short,, 
tufted by numerous slender processes ; a similar tuft in the middle 
of the head above, and others distributed at somewhat regular in- 




145 

tervals over the whole integument of the body. Smaller simple 
filaments are sparsely scattered among the tufts, and a fringe of 
short processes borders the rather broad sole on each side. Mouth 
longitudinal with wide wrinkled lips. Labial processes well de- 
veloped. Color greenish-gray. 

Egyptian coast of Red Sea (Savigny) ; Natal (Krauss). 

SAVIGNY, Descript. de 1'Egypte, Gasterop., pi. II, 

f. 2. Bursatella savignana AUDOUIN, Explic. somm. des planches de 
moll, de 1'Egypte, p. 16. Ap/ysia savignana Fer., RANG, Hist. Nat. 
Aplys., p. 69. A. (Aclesie) savignana Fer., RANG, pi. 20. Notarchus 
(/) savignyanus Aud., ISSEL, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 165. Aplysia 
(Notarchus') savignana Fer., KRAUSS, Die Siidafrik. Moll., p. 72. 

Natal specimens observed by Krauss are more thickly covered 
with processes and have longer tentacles. Specimens preserved in 
alcohol are brownish-black, very soft, elongated, swollen in the mid- 
dle, slender and truncate in front, ending in a point behind. The 
foot is pretty wide, smooth, and above, like the rest of the upper sur- 
face, beset with long, soft, frequently divided threads, and here and 
again with appendages band-like at base, tattered above. The dor- 
sal orifice lies more anterior than posterior, is long-oval, open, and 
about one-fourth the length of the animal, the margin a little re- 
flexed. The anterior tentacles stand laterally and close behind the 
mouth, and each filamentiferous tentacle has a simple tapering pro- 
cess of half the size before, and united with it only at the base, so 
that it looks as if the anterior pair consisted of four tentacles. The 
posterior tentacles stand upon the neck, are shorter than the ante- 
rior, and filament-bearing. 

N. LACINIATUS Riippell & Leuckart. PI. 41, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Length 4-5 inches ; in alcohol, about 2 inches. Tentacles slit and 
ragged. Similarly ragged are about a score of the processes of the 
back ; among these are simple string-like short compressed filaments. 
The two labial processes are simple, broad and attenuated forwardly 
(fig. 20). Mouth longitudinal, with the lips on each side finely 
wrinkled (fig. 20). Genital orifices and furrow as usual. Gill 
transversely placed, mainly free. To the left and forward in gill 
cavity an elevation caused by the opaline gland is seen, but no- 
opening could be found. It emits a violet liquor. Anus surrounded 
by a ring of several (9) small papillae (fig. 22). Gill slit about 1 
inch long, capable of being entirely closed. Eyes not noticeable. 
10 



146 NOTARCHUS. 

The body-color is gray yellowish ; at the bases of the processes 
there are spots, part simple, part ocellated, the former dark brown ; 
the small ocelli are formed of a white center surrounded by small 
closely placed or confluent dark brown flecks. 

Near Tor, Red Sea, found in April in small families, or thrown on 
the beach. (Riippell). 

Notarchus laciniatus RUPP. & LEUCK., Atlas zu der Reise im 
Nordlichen Afrika von Eduard Riippell, Neue Wirbellose Thiere 
des rothen Meers, p. 24, pi. 7, f.2, a, b,c (1828). ISSEL, Mai. Mar 
Rosso, p. 165. 

This species seems most nearly allied to N. lacinulatus Couthouy. 
Guppy (Proc. Sci. Asso. Trinidad, ii, p. 137 ; Proc. Viet. Inst. Trin., 
1894, p. 123), reports it from the Gulf of Paria ; but in my opinion 
his identification is incorrect. This is, perhaps, the most extrava- 
gantly ragged species of the group. 

N. GLAUCUS Cheeseman. PI. 43, fig. 34. 

Body from 3 to 5 inches long, about ovate when at rest, but capa- 
ble of considerable extension, a little contracted behind the head, 
then elevated, and suddenly sloping to a point posteriorly ; entirely 
covered with numerous simple and branched tentacle-like processes, 
the largest of which are sometimes eight lines long. Color of the 
'sides pale grayish-brown, passing on the back into a dull sea-green ; 
the whole surface with numerous irregularly shaped black blotches 
that are longest on the back. Along the back there is also a double 
row of from 8 to 12 emerald-green specks, each surrounded with a 
zone of umber. Dorsal tentacles f inch long, folded down the outer 
side so as to appear tubular, beset with filiform appendages. Labial 
tentacles similar in shape, but rather larger. Branchial cavity 
large, protected by the folded-in edges of the mantle, branchiae 
quite internal ; foot long and narrowed, pointed behind, without 
side-lobes as in Aplysia, sole pale sea-green ; mouth roundish, placed 
under the head ; odontophore with very numerous rows of simple 
hooked teeth ; gizzard strengthened with large triangular calcareous 
plates; shell none. (Cheesem.) 

Auckland Harbor, New Zealand, rather sandy localities near the 
extreme verge of low-water mark. 

Aclesia glauca CHEESEMAN, P. Z. S., 1878, p. 277, pi. 15, f. 4. 
HUTTON, Man. N. Z. Moll., p. 123. 



NOTARCHUS. 147 

Like many of the species of the allied genus Aplysia, this animal 
possesses the power of emitting a purple fluid from the edges of the 
mantle, but only in small quantity ; and it may often be handled 
without anything of the kind being observed. 

N. AREOLA Pease. Unfigured. 

Length 2 inches. Elongate, smooth, rounded above, rather com- 
pressed on the sides, and everywhere covered with small branchial 
filaments. Mantle lobes elevated, short, rounded, and a groove ex- 
tending from where they unite anteriorly on the back along the 
right side of the head to the mouth. Dorsal tentacles elongate and 
grooved laterally. Oral tentacles similar, but slightly dilated. 
Eyes a little in advance and slightly lateral to the base of the dor- 
sal tentacles. Branchiae large exposed or covered by the lobes of 
the mantle. Siphonal tube posterior and tubular. Foot narrow, 
elongated and projecting far beyond the lobes of the mantle in a 
point. Color cinereous or greenish-ash, densely and minutely 
veined longitudinally, and minutely speckled and clouded with 
white. Remote ocellations with blue centers and brown rings on a 
fawn ground, and scattering simple brown spots. (Pse.). 

Sandwich Is., gregarious among seaweed (Pse.). 

Aclesia areola PSE., P. Z. 8., 1860, p. 24. 

N. LACINULATUS Couthouy. PL 43, figs. 29, 30. 

Length 2i inches. Color pale green, closely covered with black 
dots, which give it a bronze hue, whole body ornamented with little 
green arborescent or frondescent tufts, irregularly disposed, except 
around the upper margin of the foot, where they are smaller and 
form a regular row ; viewed in the water, these tufted appendages 
cause the animal to appear as if covered with a delicate moss. The 
mouth is nearly concealed by its thick fleshy lips, which are pro- 
longed on each side into a slender tentaculiform process. Foot 
large and broad, sole yellow, dotted greenish. Twice as long 
as broad, elevated, abruptly sloping behind, the foot trailing in a 
point behind. ( Couth.). 

Harbor of Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Bursatella ladnulata Couthouy MS., GOULD, U. S. Expl. Exped % 
Moll., p. 223, pi. 16, figs. 269, 269a. Notarchus lacinulatus MORCH, 
Malak. BL, xxii, p. 176. ? Notarchus ladniatus Ru'pp., GuppY t 
First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and 
its neighborhood, in Proc. Sci. Asso. Trinidad, 1877, ii, p. 137 ; 



148 NOTAKCHUS. 

and Proc. Viet. Inst. Trin., 1895, p. 123. Not of Riippell and 
Leuckart. 

A single specimen found among rocks terminating the beach in 
front of the lagoon of Peteninga, one of those brackish lakes com- 
mon along the coast separated from the sea by a strip of sand, per- 
haps fifty yards wide, and six feet above high tide. Resembles A. 
savigniana Fer., but is distinguished by its broader foot and the fil- 
amentous prolongation of the lips, as well as in many of its details. 
It belongs to the genus Notarchus of Cuvier. (GldJ). 

N. PLEII Rang. PL 43, fig. 31 ; pi. 44, figs. 35, 36, 37 ; pi. 62, figs. 

1, 2, 4 (anatomy). 

Description of alcoholic specimens: Length about 11-13 cm. 
Long ovate, plump, very soft and flabby. Tentacles flattened, slit 
in front, bearing long filaments. Rhinophores rather short and 
with a few filaments. Entire dorsal surface having scattered min- 
ute simple filaments, and a number of larger, flattened processes, 
ragged with filaments. Sole broad, acute behind, roundly truncate 
in front, with a second free border behind the anterior margin. 
Mouth longitudinal with radially wrinkled lips ; lateral labial pro- 
cesses large, broad and flat. Color light olive. 

Antilles (Plee) ; St. Crolx and St. Thomas (Riise, Krebs, Ravn) ; 
Little Gasparilla Bay, W. Florida ( Willcox & Heilprin), on floating 
masses of sea-weed. 

Aplysia pleii RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 70, pi. 21 (1828). 
Notarehus pleii MORCH, Journ. de Conch., xi, 1863, p. 25 ; Malak. 
BL, xxii, p. 176. D'ORBIGNY, Moll. Cuba, i, p. 118. ARANGO, 
Fauna Mai. Cubana, p. 156. 

N. pleii is nearly allied to N. lacinulatus, but the latter is smaller, 
with more acuminate labial processes, according to the figures. 

There is great variation in the degree of development of the ap- 
pendages of the integument, some specimens having them less conspic- 
uous than in Rang's figure (copied on pi. 43, fig. 31), while in others, 
such as the specimen from west Florida drawn in figs. 35, 36, of pi. 
44, the appendages are longer. Rang's figure seems misleading in 
the drawing of the labial processes, according to my specimens, and 
he does not show the doubling of the anterior foot margin, conspic- 
uous in all of the numerous examples I have seen. 

PI. 43, fig. 31 and pi. 44, fig. 37, are copied from Rang. I have 
drawn on pi. 44, fig. 35 (dorsal view) and fig. 36 (under side of 






NOTARCHUS. 149 

head and margin of sole) a specimen from Little Gasparilla Bay. 
Some others from the same locality have less developed appen- 
dages. 

N. INTRAPICTUS Cockerell. Unfigured. 

Length about 4i inches. Body swollen, subglobose ; foot flat- 
tened, posteriorly broad, terminally acute. Neck subcylindrical, 
moderately thick. Anterior pair of tentacles large, branched, 
antler-like, retractile. Posterior pair large, cylindrical, somewhat 
tapering, hollow, with open truncate ends, and with two whorls of 
spine-like, soft, lateral branches ; these and the other tentacle-like 
processes on the body are also retractile. On the middle line of 
the neck, between the pairs of tentacles, is a short but broad 
branched filament. Epipodia contiguous in the middle line, but 
with the anterior and posterior parts separating alternately, form- 
ing wide cavities, in respiration. The anterior of these cavities 
serves for inspiration, the posterior for expiration, and the whole 
respiratory cycle takes about five seconds. Quite a jet of water can 
be thrown from the posterior orifice. Sides of epipodia and body 
with many branched processes, some short, others long, the largest 
resembling the anterior cephalic tentacles. On the sides of the epi- 
podia are three longitudinal series of these processes one dorsal, 
one sub-dorsal, one lateral or sub-pedal. Each row numbers four 
processes, and the rows are so placed that, as a general rule, the 
processes of the dorsal row are more posterior than the equivalent 
ones of the lateral row. Sides of foot with many processes. 

Color, prettily marbled with black and pale gray, dorsal portions 
of epipodia and sides of neck with most black. Most of the tenta- 
cles or processes tinged reddish, the larger ones mottled with white. 
Inside of epipodia gray with white dots. Sole finely speckled all 
over grey and white. ( Ckll.). 

Kingston, Jamaica. 

Aclesia intrapicta CKLL., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xi, March, 
1893, p. 219. 

Described from a living specimen. 

The anatomy, so far as I examined, agrees in all important points 
with that of Aplysia. The narrow white fore-gut enlarges rapidly 
to form the big gizzard, which is pale red in color. In this gizzard 
I found four (and a fifth rudimentary) little bodies, more or less 
triangular in outline, about 5 millim. diam., color pale yellowish- 



150 DOLABELLIN^E. 

brown. These, like those described by Prof. Ray Lankester ID 
Aplysia, are, no doubt, for crushing the food. Posteriorly to the 
gizzard the gut is gray and rather broad, winding around the large 
brown liver. The genitalia are somewhat ordinary, but rather curi- 
ous for their bright color, which suggests the specific name I have 
adopted. The albuminiparous gland and hermaphrodite duct are 
pale ochreous yellow, as is usual, but the gland has on one surface 
a large elongated patch of bright red, which does not remain well 
in alcohol. The ovotestis is large and irregularly globular, yellow- 
green in color, with two blackish broad sulci. A strong ligament 
has its origin on the ovotestis, close to the beginning of the her- 
maphrodite duct. 

Subfamily DOL A BELLING Pilsbry. 

Aplysiidse in which the pleuropodial lobes are scarcely mobile, or 
separable, united behind enclosing a large gill chamber ; their for- 
ward insertions contiguous, parted by the genital groove only ; the 
dorsal slit short. Genital orifice under the posterior part of gill. 
Kadula with the rhachidian tooth reduced to a narrow, cuspless 
vestige, side teeth excessively numerous, narrow, with long simple 
cusps. 

Shell well-developed, calcareous, and posterior area of body de- 
fined by a groove and ridge in Dolabella, the only genus known. 

This subfamily stands conspicuously apart from other Aplysiidce 
in the posterior position of the genital foramen, and the peculiar 
dentition. 

A group of teeth from the median part of the radula of D. cali- 
fornica Stearns is drawn in fig. 17 of pi. 67, showing two rhachidian 
with several adjacent lateral teeth. The cusps of the laterals be- 
come longer further from the middle of the radula, as in fig. 18, 
profile view of a lateral from middle of one side. On the outer 
edges of the membrane the teeth are smaller, but of the same form. 

The place-relations of pleuropodial lobes, gill, genital pore, etc., 
are shown in the diagram, pi. 66, fig. 14 (Z>. calif ornica). 

Genus VII. DOLABELLA Lamarck, 1801. 

Dolabella LAM., Syst. Anim. sans Vert., p. 62 (1801) type /X 
callosa Ija,m.=scapula Mart. Aplysia RANG, et al. 

General form conic, wide behind, narrower in front. Integument 
more or less warty. Head bearing in front a pair of subcylindrie 






DOLABELLA. 151 

buccal tentacles slit above ; rhinophores or tentacles much nearer to 
the anterior margin than to the dorsal slit, similar to those of Tethys. 
Eyes minute, in front of rhinophores ; posterior area of body defined 
by an obliquely transverse groove and ridge. Pleuropodial lobes 
united except for a dorsal slit, more open at the ends, the anterior 
insertions of lobes contiguous, parted only by the genital groove. 
Mantle not nearly covering the gill, produced in a folded siphon be- 
hind. Gill-cavity very large. Genital orifice under the posterior 
part of gill, penis very long, near right buccal-tentacle. Opaline 
gland multiple. 

Shell solid and calcareous, hatchet-shaped, loosely coiled, the free 
spire obliquely decurved, heavily calloused; sinus deep and con- 
cave ; margins reflexed. 

Type D. scapula Martyn. 

Distribution, tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific and Australian 
seas, and west coast of Mexico. 

Dolabella, while resembling Tethys in general appearance, differs 
from that genus in several important respects. The epipodial lobes 
are united behind and shortened in front, and their anterior ends 
are contiguous (see pi. 66, fig. 14, dotted lines) ; the posterior part 
of the body is marked off by a transverse ridge or frill ; the common 
female orifice and vas deferens (pi. 66, fig. 14, g. jo.) is situated far 
backward under the hind part of the gill (fig. 14, G.} ; and corre- 
sponding to this removal of the genital pore, the penis is greatly 
lengthened. The shell is mainly calcareous, and has the spire free 
and heavily calloused. 

The distribution of the genus is restricted compared with Telhys, 
the Atlantic Ocean and communicating seas being without repre- 
sentatives ; but the individual species seem to be more widely diffused 
than in the other genus. Extreme points in the known distribu- 
tion of the group are the Red Sea and Cape on the west, west coast 
of Mexico, Sandwich and Viti Is. on the east ; and southward, New 
South Wales is the limit. 

The species need revision further than that here attempted, as 
there are several named forms of rather doubtful status. The shells, 
with one or two notable exceptions, furnish only differential char- 
acters of indifferent value. 

Synopsis of Species. 

a. Shell large, broad, with a saucer-like appendage above, gigas. 
aa. Shell narrow, arched, the length about twice the width, 

[elongata. 



152 DOLABELLA. 

aaa. Shell wider, irregularly triangular, the spire calloused. 

b. Integument of body bearing conspicuous tubercles or 
foliations ; posterior area with fringed boundary. 

c. Conspicuously spotted or blotched, teremidi, hasseltii. 

cc. Uniform or nearly uniform green, scapula. 

bb. Integument smoothish or somewhat warty ; boundary of 

posterior area simple, ecaudata; californica. 

(D. hemprichii and D. guayaquilensis are omitted from the above 

table). 



D. GIGAS Rang. PL 65, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Length as much as 30 cm. Violet and gray, with conic simple 
warts rounded at their summits. 

Shell large and solid ; convex, but with a wide curved depres- 
sion near each edge outside; very pale buff outside, porcelain-white 
within; shining and sculptured with strong concentric wrinkles on 
both sides ; sinus narrow and deeply curved, its edge broadly flaring 
backward, and with an extremely narrow reflexed margin. Spire 
well curved inward, with a rounded lump of callus at the apex within. 
Upper curve of the spire bearing a very large, thin, erect, saucer- 
shaped accessory callous plate. Cuticle broadly reflexed across the 
back of the spire, and continued in a wide, tapering reflexed border 
down the convex margin of shell. Length 80, breadth 55 mill. 

Reunion (t)esh.) ; Mauritius (Lienard, Mobius) ; Red Sea (Cum- 



Aplysia gigas RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 48, pi. 3, f. 4. Dola- 
bella gigas SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvi, pi. 1, f. la, b. MART, in 
Mobius' Mauritius, p. 306. DESK., Moll. Re"un., p. 53. 

This is the largest species of the genus, and is very readily distin- 
guished from all others by the broad saucer-like accessory plate aris- 
ing from the upper margin. The soft parts are known from spec- 
imens collected by Mobius, and briefly described by von Martens, 
but not yet figured. 

D. SCAPULA Martyn. PL 26, figs. 26, 27, 28 ; pi. 27, figs. 29, 30. 

Length 30 to 38 cm. Much swollen posteriorly, tapering for- 
ward. Dorsal slit rather short, submedian, commencing forward of 









DOLABELLA. 153 

the middle of the animal's length, its borders contiguous, not capable 
of being much separated. Posterior disk round, large, bounded by 
a conspicuously fringed ridge. Entire surface of body bristling with 
acute more or less elongated processes. 

Color, dark or bright-green. 

Shell solid, loosely coiled, covered outside with a strong yellow or 
yellow and brown cuticle; sculptured with irregular, wavy wrinkles 
of growth. Spire very heavily calloused above and at the inside 
edges; sinus very deep and very concave; margin of growth very 
convex, especially below ; back with a broad reflexed border along 
the left margin, a narrow border along the edge of the sinus. Length 
50, breadth 40 mill. 

Amboyna (Martyn) ; Moluccas (Runiph.) ; Timor (Peron) ; Wai- 
giou and Rawak, and Islet of Pangai-Modou, Tongatabu (Qiioy & 
Gaim.) ; Paramatta River (Angas), Port Jackson and Bellenger 
River (Brazier), E. Australia; Dungeness and Darnley Is., Torres 
Straits ; Low /., Trinity Bay and Home Is., N.-E. Australia (Braz- 
ier) ; Mauritius (Peron, Q. & G., Ad., et a/.) ; Reunion (Desh.) ; 
Seychelles and Amirante Is. (Dufo) ; Natal (Krauss). 

Patella scapula MARTYN, Univ. Conch., iii, pi. 99 (17 ) ; Chenu's 
reprint Bibliotheque Conchyliogique (1), ii, p. 26, pi. 34, f. 3. 
Dolabella scapula ANGA^, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 227. ? Doris vcrrucosa 
GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3103 (1788). BARBUT, The Genera 
Vermium, pi. 4, f. 1. Dolabella callosa LAM., Syst. An. s. Vert. 
(1801), p. 62 (founded on Rumphius, Mus., pi. 40, f. 12). Dolabella 

CUVIER, Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., v, p. 437, pi. 29, f. 1-3 

(1804). D. rumphii Cuv., Regne Anim., ii, p. 398, pi. 34, f. 1. 
LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, (2me pt.), p. 41 (1822) ; and edit. DESH., vii, 
p. 699 (183d). ADAMS & REEVE, Zool. Samarang, Moll, p. 65, pi. 
18, f. 4. MARTENS in Mobius' Beitr. zur Meeresfauna Maurit., p. 
306. KRAUSS, Die Sudafrik. Moll., p. 72. SMITH, Zool. coll. H. 
M. S. Alert, p. 8*9. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ii, p. 88. 
Aplysia rumphii RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 46, pi. 1. QUOY 
<fe GAIMARD, Voy. de 1'AstroL, Zool., ii, p. 303, pi. 23, f. 4, 5. 
Dolabella peronii BLAIJNV., Diet. Sci. Nat., xiii, p. 395 (1819) ; 
Manuel de Malacol., p. 473. 

Allied to D. hasseltii, but the dorsal slit is more anterior and the 
color nearly uniform. It seems to be very widely distributed over 
the Indo-Pacific life-area. It is eaten in Ambovna. 




154 DOLABELLA. 

It is extremely doubtful whether Doris verrucosa Gtuel. was based 
on this species ; a reference to Rumphius inclines me to think it was 
a warty rather than filamentous species. The figure in Rumphius 
does not represent it. 

D. TEREMIDI Rang. PL 63, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Length 13'1 cm. Very wide posteriorly, narrowed in front ; 
dorsal slit more anterior than in most species, its margins thin, more 
easily separated ; tentacles arising close to each other. Surface 
bristling with moderately long pointed tubercular processes ; ridge 
bounding the large posterior disk somewhat fringe i; excurrent 
siphon quite long. 

Greenish, spotted with black, fawn and white, the white spots 
forming, circles more or less complete; mantle sky blue; gills a 
delicate rose color. 

Shell resembling that of D. rumphii, but more lengthened and 
narrower, the cuticle thicker and browner. Length 51 mill. 

Tahiti and Borabora, Society Is. ; Ualan, Caroline Is. (Lesson & 
Garnot) ; Reunion (Desh.) ; San Giacinto, Philippines, (Chierchia). 

Aplysia teremidi RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 48, pi. 3, f. 1-3. 
Dolabella teremidi LESSON, Voy. autour du Monde La Coquille, 
ZooL, ii, pt. 1, p. 293. DESH., Moll, de Tile Reunion, p. 53. 
MAZ. & Zucc., Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli, iii, 1889, p. 49. D. temnida 
GRAY, Figs. Moll. Anim., iv, p. 97. Teremidi, Borabora Islanders' 
vernacular. 

This species is evidently most nearly allied to D. hasseltii; but 
apparently is smaller, with more anterior dorsal slit, and compara- 
tively larger shell. It is used for food by the natives of the Society 
Islands. Deshayes' identification of it from Bourbon requires con- 
firmation. 

D. HASSELTII Ferussac. PL 64, fig. 3. 

Length 19 cm. Body much swollen behind, tailless. Dorsal 
slit long, continued much in front of the middle of the animal's 
length. Posterior disk very large, bounded by a conspicuously 
fringed ridge. Entire surface bearing long foliated fleshy processes. 
Green, closely dappled with large brown spots, blackish in the 
middle, and often with some pale and black dots. Shell unknown. 
Java (van Hasselt) ; Philippines (Chierchia). 









DOLABELLA. 155 

Dolabella rumphii VAN HASSELT, Algeru. Konst en Letter-bode, 
1824, p. . Aplysia hasseltii FER. in RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., 
p. 49, pi. 24, f. 1 (1828). Q. & G., Zool. de 1'Astrol., ii, p. 306, pi. 
23, f. 1-3. MAZZARELLI & ZUCCARDI, Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli, iii, 
1889, p. 47. 

This species is known only by a drawing by van Hasselt, copied 
by Rang, and here reproduced. It may prove identical with the 
(prior) D. teremidi, but is larger, with more developed foliated ap- 
pendages on the body and fringing the border of the posterior disk. 

The following form described from the Sandwich Islands, is, per- 
haps, a variety : 

D. variegata Pease. 

Oblong, rugose, covered with small acute tubercles and more or 
less acute ridges ; the tuberculations are scabrous and furnished, as 
well as the different portions of the body, with pale, soft cirrhi, 
which are most conspicuous on the head. The posterior portion is 
obliquely truncated, from which part the body gradually tapers to 
the head ; the surface of the truncation is convex, with the upper 
margin acutely elevated. The lobes of the mantle are closely 
appressed, the left overlapping the right, leaving two openings on 
the back, one a little in advance of the truncation, and the other on 
its center. Dorsal tentacles stout, deeply grooved laterally and 
somewhat swollen. Head convex above ; oral tentacles short, stout, 
grooved laterally and much dilated outwards. Foot rugose, trun- 
cated in front, and acutely rounded behind, widest posteriorly. 
Color greenish-olive, variegated with brown, white and green ; inside 
of the lobes light brown dotted with white ; a stripe of tawny brown 
along sides of the foot. Foot dark orange. Length 10 inches. 
(Pease). 

Quoy and Gaimard collected a form which they refer to this 
species as a variety, at Mauritius. This may or may not prove to 
be the same as the Java species, but the differences between the 
figures demand notice and comparison. For these purposes Quoy 
and Gaimard's description here follows : 

Var. PI. 28, figs. 33, 34, 35, 36. 

Very large, conical, truncate ; roughened by fringes and tuber- 
cles ; dirty dark green, variegated with brown and buff spots. M. 
Rang, in his beautiful monograph of the Aplysias, has figured a 
species drawn by van Hasselt in Java, having much in common 



156 DOLABELLA. 

with one observed by us at the Isle of France, which we do not 
doubt is a variety of it. Our individual is 9-10 inches long, very 
plump, especially behind, the head being small and oval, a little 
swollen and well distinguished from the foot, the mouth large and 
rounded. The entire body is covered with coarse tubercles and 
papillae, some of which are branching; they are most numerous be- 
hind the head. The foot is slightly differentiated from the upper 
surface, and is deep sienna color, with greenish tints in some spec- 
imens ; Flanks and back are dirty green mingled with yellow, with 
blackish plaques in some places, especially on the rather rounded 
hind part. Others have brown and yellowish spots on the sides. 
Shell very large, the spire extremely rugose. This mollusk emits a 
great quantity of violet liquid. It was found in great abundance 
-during October and November in the warm, quiet waters of the ilots 
aux Cerfs, at Mauritius. 

Compared with the original figure of D. hasseltii, this form is more 
sparsely blotched with dark, and the dorsal slit is much shorter and 
does not extend so far forward. The value of these characters can 
only be decided by a comparison of abundant material. 

D. ELONGATA Sowerby. PI. 27, figs. 31, 32. 

Soft parts unknown. Shell oblong, arched, much attenuated, con- 
centrically slightly wrinkled within, radiately subplicated, callus 
spirally plicated, tumid, widely expanded over the back, widely re- 
flected upon the margins as far as the end ; terminal margin angu- 
lar, epidermis brown tending to orange. (Sowerby). 

Seychelles (Brit. Mus.). 

D. elongata SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvi, pi. 1, f. 2a, b (Oct., 1868). 

It is barely possible that this may be a monstrous example of 
Dolabella rumphii. It presents, however, an appearance so ex- 
tremely different, that it would hardly be just to leave it without a 
name. (Sowb.) 

D. HEMPRICHII Ehrenberg. 

Six inches long ; warty ; pale green, the posterior corona and two 
dorsal bands olive-blackish and rugulose. Body elongate conic, 
attenuated forward, obliquely truncate and very thick behind, with 
an exactly circular posterior area. Length 6, breadth 2i inches. 
Surface warty, especially in a circle around the posterior area and 
in two bands along the back, the remaining parts being more 
glabrous. Kound posterior area bounded by a crispate, contractile 






DOLABELLA. 157 

membrane. Dorsal slit 21 lines long, ending in a round orifice 
above the middle of posterior disk. Tentacles over two inches from 
anterior end of slit, 6-9 lines from buccal tentacles. Shell hatchet- 
shaped, 16 lines long, with deflexed rudimentary twisted spire. 

Near to D. rumphii in size of shell and form of body, but without 
cirri, etc. 

Cosseir, Red Sea. 

D. hemprichii EHRENB., Symbols Physics^ etc., Decas prima, 

(1828 or later). 

D. ECAUDATA Rang. PI. 66, figs. 11, 12, 13 (type) ; pi. 25, figs. 4, 
5 (tongana Q. & G.). 

Under the above name may be united several described forms 
agreeing in having the body almost smooth, with low tubercles only, 
which disappear in large part in alcoholic specimens; tentacles aris- 
ing unusually near each other ; posterior area or disk bounded by a 
fleshy ridge which is plain and wavy, not serrate or bearing pro- 
cesses. 

The color in life is green ; preserved specimens varying from 
blackish-olive to dirty buff. 

Shell having the general form of that of D. rumphii but narrower, 
the border of growth straighter, less convex ; shoulder rather less 
produced upward. The cuticle is thin, yellow, fading to whitish 
above ; margins having rather narrow reflexed borders. 

Rawak and Waigiou, Moluccas; Islet of Pangai-Modou, near Ton- 
gatabu (Quoy & Gaimard) ; Upolu (Godeffroy Exp., in coll. A. N. 
S. P.) ; Home Is., N.-E. Australia (Brazier). 

This species is most nearly allied to D. californica Stearns, but the 
shell of that has the internal border of the shoulder thickened and 
rugose and the apical callous heavier and rougher, and the two are 
widely separated geographically. As my synonymy of ecaudata is 
not based upon a study of types, I give below the descriptions of the 
several forms included. 

D. ecaudata Rang. PI. 66, figs. 11, 12, 13. Length 13* cm. 
Smaller thau D. rumphii, and having no trace of a tail. Surface of 
body having above, in front, some flat tubercles. Border of the pos- 
terior disk not fringed, but merely irregularly undulated. Posterior 
tentacles arising very close to each other. Color, greenish. 

Shell more calloused on the lower surface of the summit than in 



158 DOLABELLA. 

D. rumphii, and cuticle of a paler color, very thin and yellow. 
Length 28 mill. 

Waigiou and Rawak (Quoy & Gaimard). 

Aplysia ecaudata RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 47, pi. 2 (1828). 
D. ecaudata BRAZ., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ii, p. 89. 

This species is smaller than D. rumphii, to which it has great re- 
semblance. It is sufficiently distinguished by the absence of a fringe 
around the posterior disk, and the lack of processes roughening 
the whole surface of the body. The tentacles are placed nearer to- 
gether than in other species. The anterior part of the body has 
some but slightly projecting tubercles, and sometimes brownish 
spots. 

D. truncata Rang. Length 10 % cm. Body tail-less, pale, shaped 
as in the preceding species, covered throughout with obtuse tubercles. 
Posterior tentacles close, but less so than in D. ecaudata. 

Shell glassy ; white, the summit thick, without callosities, show- 
ing 1 J whorls below. Length 18 mill. 

Waigiou and Rawak (Quoy & Gaimard). 

A. truncata RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 47 (1828). 

The individual upon which this species was based by Rang is not 
in condition for detailed description or figuring. It was proposed by 
him as a species with doubt, and merely to call the attention of 
naturalists who may handle material from the locality to this form. 

D. tongana Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 25, figs. 4, 5. Body conic, 
cylindrical, tuberculate, glaucous. This species is a little smaller 
than rumphii, of a more lengthened form, a little cylindric. Its 
curs are less wide, and the papillae are replaced by little rounded 
tubercles, only very slightly raised, which disappear upon preserva- 
tion in liquor. The color is generally glaucous. While it inhabits 
with rumphii, it cannot be confounded with it, nor can it be taken 
for the young, the length being 6 or 7 inches. The shell is quite 
small, white, incurved, with a brown spot at the middle of the larger 
curve, a character perhaps accidental. 

Islet of Pangai-Modou, near Tonga (Q. & G.) ; San Giacinto t 
Philippines (Chierchia). 



DOLABELLA. 159 

Aplysia tongana Q. & G., Voy. de 1'Astrol. Zool., ii, p. 305, pi. 23, 
figs. 6, 7 (1832). Dolabella tongensis GRAY, Figs. Moll. Anim., iv, 
p. 97 (1850). D. tongana MAZ. & Zucc., Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli, 
iii, 18S9, p. 50. 

D. CALIFORNIA Stearns. PL 66, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. 

Description of alcoholic specimens: Length 12 to 14 cm. 
Oblong-ovate, broadly rounded behind, Aplysia-like in front. Buc- 
cal tentacles ear-like, short and folded about at the middle, not pro- 
duced toward the mouth ; tentacles conic and slit ; the very minute 
eyes in front of them and more separated. Mouth a vertical slit in 
a papillose disk. Swimming lobes arising at or behind the middle 
of the animal's length, contiguous. Posterior subcircular area de- 
fined by a groove with smooth raised anterior edge, and enclosing a 
cord. Mantle having a large shell-foramen and a long posterior 
siphonal fold (fig. 14, S). Genital foramen under the back part of 
the gill (fig. 14, g.p.). 

Color (in alcohol) dark olive, or dull brown with more or less 
black maculatiou. In life it is said to be " a dark brown and the 
surface covered with warty papillae." 

Shell solid, with a brown cuticle. Apex with a roughened re- 
flexed callus, continuing along the dorsal margins as a reflexed 
border over the cuticle. 

Mulege Bay, Gulf of California, in pools left by the tide (Fisher) ; 
West coast of Mexico (Jones). 

Dolabella californica STEARNS, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1878, 
p. 395, pi. 7, f. 1, 2 (shell), Feb. 11, 1879 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
xvi, pp, 341, 342, 1892 ; xvii, 1894, p. 158. PILSBRY, Nautilus, ix, 
p. 73. 

In external appearance, this species seems nearest to D. ecaudata 
and tongana, but the posterior area is defined by a far less conspic- 
uous frill, which does not extend to the edges of the dorsal slit. 
Dolabella guayaquilensis, a species known by the shell only, is stated 
to have the margins " scarcely reflected, callus small, narrow, not 
continued upon the margins," while in the present species the mar- 
gins are bounded by unusually broad reflexed callous bands. Traces 
of sparsely scattered wart-like papillae are visible on some specimens, 
mainly posteriorly, but these are not very distinct in the alcoholic 



160 DOLABELLA. 

examples. Two of the original lot collected by Fisher are before 
me, the smaller one being drawn in my figure, and another specimen 
of a dark olive color, collected by Dr. W. H. Jones on the " west 
coast of Mexico," has also been examined. 

D. GUAYAQUILENSIS (Petit) Sowerby. PI. 64, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell small, thin, wide, oblong, rather straight, with margin 
scarcely reflected; back striated : callus small, narrower, tumid, not 
continued upon the margins; epidermis pale gray. (Sowb.~) 

Guayaquil (Brit. Mus.) 

D. guayaquilensis Petit, SOWERBY, Conch. Icon., xvi, pi. 2, f. 6a, b 
(Oct., 1868). 

A glance at the figure of the young Dolabella rumphii will be 
sufficient to explain the difference between the two species, and to 
show that the small shells from Guayaquil are not the young of D. 
rumphii. (Sowb.*) 



Spurious and doubtful species of Dolabella. 

Dolabella fragilis Lam., An. s. Vert., vi, (2d pt.), p. 42(1822),. 
figured by Delessert, Recueil, pi. 25, f. 9a-c, is the shell of Tethys 
depilans. 

Leuconyx tyleriana Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xi, p. 18, supposed 
to be allied to Dolabella, is the detached process (myophore) of 
P ho las costata. 

Dolabella rondeletii Cuvier, Regne Anim. (first edition, 1817), ii, 
p. 398, founded on Rondelet's Libri de Piscibus Marinis, p. 520, 
woodcut, is Tethys leporina Linn. 

Dolabella sp. Two figures given in M. E. Gray's Figs. Moll. 
Anim., iii, pi. 270, copied from sketches made by Templeton in 
Ceylon, probably represent (1) D. ecaudata, and (2) D. scapula. 

Dolabella lepus Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Me"rid., p. 44, is Tethys lep- 
orina f 

Dolabella Icevis Blainv. = Tethys depilans Linne. 
Dolabella dolabrifera Cuv. = Dolabrifera dolabrifera Cuvier. 




OXYNOEID^:. 161 



The genus SYMPTERUS Rafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, ou 
Tabl. de 1'Univers et des Corps Organises, 1815, p. 142, is placed by 
Rafinesque between Laplysia and Dolabella. It is an absolutely 
nude name. 

Genus NOTARCHUS (page 135). 

APLYSIA SALTATOR Forbes. A. corpore globoso, griseo albo 
nigroque maculato, tuberculato, tuberculis mucronatis ; sinu branch- 
ali parvo ; pede augustissimo, tentacules brevibus. 

Long. 2 unc. ; Altitude 1 T V Hab. 20-30 fms. Serpho Bay 
[JEgean Sea]. (Forbes, in Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci., 1843, p. 187). 

Family OXYNOEIDJE Fischer. 

Animal elongated, narrow, with rolled tentacles and well-de- 
veloped pleuropodial lobes. Male orifice near the right tentacle ; 
female orifice on the right side at the edge of the mantle cavity ; no 
external groove between the orifices, the vas deferens being internal. 
Gill composed of numerous delicate parallel leaflets, depending from 
the roof of mantle-cavity, not forming a free plume. Radula com- 
posed of a single series of lance-like teeth. Shell Bulliform, ex- 
ternal, involute with concealed spire, thin and fragile, oval, incap- 
able of containing the soft parts. 

The genera composing this group were referred by Pagenstecher 
in 1874 to a new Order which he called Monostichoglossata, includ- 
cluding Limapontia, Elysia, Lophocercus and Lobiger ; the group 
being based mainly on the peculiar radula. Later, Bergh (Malak. 
Untersuch.) forms a group Ascoglossa; and von Ihering, in 1877 
(Vergleich. Anat. Nervensyst, p. 196), names the Order Sacoglossa, 
including Litnapontiidce, Elysiidce, Phyllobranchidce, Piacobranch- 
idw, Hermceidce and Lophocercidce. Mazzarelli, in 1892 (Bull. Soc. 
Nat. Napoli, p. 98, and Mem. Soc. Ital. Sci. (3), ix, p. 1), in- 
vestigated the anatomy of Lobiger, finding the nephridia as in many 
Nudibranchs, nervous system as in Ascoglossa ; generative organs 
fundamentally Ascoglossan, but the ovary and testis are separated. 
He concludes that the Oxynoeidce represent the most primitive 
Ascoglossa, derived phylogenetically from the more primitive Tecti- 
branchs (Bulloidea) near the point of origin of the Pleurobranchs. 

On the other hand, Oxynoeidce differ from the Ascoglossa in hav- 
ing a well-developed shell in the adult, a true gill (although differ- 
ing much from the normal Tectibranch gill), and in the compact 
11 






162 OXYNOE. 

liver, which is, however, composed of closely packed ramifying tubes. 
The group is therefore intermediate between Tectibranchiaia and 
Ascoglossa, but nearer the latter. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

A. Pleuropodial lobes short, not produced in lateral processes ; shell 
globose-ovate, with a deep sutural sinus above (as in Akerci) ; 
the apex concealed, vertex not umbilicated. Genus OXYNOE. 
AA. Pleuropodial lobes produced in spatulate or expanded lateral 
processes ; shell semi-ovate, the lip produced above the vertex 
but not incised, apex concealed, not terminal. 

Genus LOBIGER. 
a. Tentacles two. 

b. Lateral pleuropodial processes four, 

Subgenus Lobiger. 
bb. Lateral pleuropodial processes two, 

Subgenus Dipterophysis. 
aa. Tentacles four; lateral processes four, 

Subgenus Pterygophysis. 

Genus OXYNOE Rafinesque, 1819. 

Oxynoe RAF., Analyse de la Nature, ou Tableau de 1'Univers et 
des Corps Organises, 1815, p. 143 (nude name); Journal de Phy- 
sique, de Chimie, d'Hist. Nat., etc., Ixxxix, 1819, p. 152. Lopho- 
cercus KROHN, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), vii, 1847, p. 55. Icarus FORBES, 
Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci., 1843, p. 187 (1844). 

All of the generic names cited above were based upon the Medi- 
terranean species 0. olivacea. 

Of the six species described, but one is at all fully known ; the 
shells only of the others being figured. 

Geographic distribution of Species. 

Mediterranean : 0. olivacea. 
West Indies : 0. antillarum. 
Indo-Pacific : 0. krohni, 0. viridis, Sandwich Is. 

0. delicatula, Ceylon. 

0. hargravesi, New Hebrides. 

O. OLIVACEA Rafinesque. Frontispiece, fig. 17; PI. 11, figs. 43,44, 
46-50, 58-62 (enlarged). 






OXYNOE. 163 

Shell external, thin, fragile, pellucid and shining, convolute, glo- 
bose ; truncate and slightly contracted at summit, rounded and 
dilated at base. Last whorl very large, completely detached from 
the spire by the deeply incised sutural slit. Aperture very large, 
angled above, rounded below ; lip arcuate, simple and acute; col- 
umellar margin with a very thin film of callus above, concave be- 
low, acute, forming an open spiral through which the interior of the 
whorls may be seen from the base. Color uniform glassy white, with 
a thin transparent and shining, very light yellow cuticle. 

Alt. 12, diam. 9 mill. (B. D. & Z).). 

Body elongated, swollen in front of the middle, with the tail long 
and narrow, pleuropodial lobes partly covering the shell, the line of 
their junction forming a crest or ridge the entire length of the tail. 
Upper side of tentacles and outer surface of pleuropodia and tail 
papillose. Color above clear green, the borders of the foot and 
pleuropodial lobes, and ends of the tentacles margined with alter- 
nating spots of pale red and blue-black. Sole yellowish (Krohn). 

Mediterranean Sea : Syra, Serpho, Grecian Archipelago (Forbes) ; 
Sicily (Raf, Monts.) ; Malta (Soul.) ; southern France, at Canet (B. 
D. & D.) ; Balearic Is. (Pagenstecher) in the laminarian zone. 

Oxynoe olivacea RAFINESQUE, Journ. de Physique Ixxxix, 1819, 
p. 152 ; Binney & Tryon's reprint, p. 33. MORCH, Journ de Conch., 
1863, p. 44. WEINKAUFF, Conch des Mittelmeeres, ii, p. 180. 
JEFFREYS, Rep. Brit. Ass. Adv. Sci., 1873, p. 114. MONTEROSATO, 
Journ. de Conchyl., 1878, p. 158. BUQUOY, DAUTZENB. & DOLL- 
FUS, Moll. Mar. Rouss. i, p. 549, pi. 63, f. 16, 17 (shell). Bulla 
gargottce CALCARA Monogr. dei gen. Glaus, e Bui. ecc., p. 45 (1840). 
Icarus gravesi FORBES, Rep. JEg. Invert., Rep. Brit. Ass. Adv. 
Sci., 1844, pp. 134, 187. Lophocercus sieboldi KROHN, Ann. Sc. 
Nat. (3), vii, p. 55, pi. 2, f. 5-9, 11 (1847). SOULEYET, Journ. de 
Conchyl., i, 1850, p. 235, pi. 10, f. 1-12. H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. 
Moll., ii, p. 30, pi. 59, f. 1, la. CHENU, Manuel de Conch., i, p. 394, 
f. 2989, 2990. PAGENSTECHER, Verh. Naturhist.-Medicinischen 
Vereins zu Heidelberg (n. F.), i, p. 58, 1874 (Anatomy and syste- 
matic position). Bulla (Lophocercus} sieboldi A. ADAMS, in Sowb., 
Thesaurus, pi. 119, f. 19 (copy from Krohn). Oxynoe sieboldi 
WEINKAUFF, Conch, des Mittelm., ii, p. 181. FISCHER, Man. 
Conch., p. 570, f. 333. Oxynoe brachycephalus MORCH, Journ. de 
Conchyl., 1863, p. 45 (based on H.& A. Adams' figure). 






164 OXYNOE. 

0. brachycephalus Morch was based on the figures of H. & A. 
Adams (copied by Chenu, and on my plate 11, figs. 56, 57). Its 
differential characters are : warts on the body remote ; neck very 
short ; shell contracted at summit. 

0. sieboldi Krohn (see pi. 11, figs. 58-62) is considered distinct by 
Morch on account of the presence of a red and dark dotted border 
along foot and pleuropodia. This border is less distinct or perhaps 
lacking in the olivacea, to which he refers Souleyet's figures (see pi. 
11, f. 43, 44, 46-50). Monterosato is doubtless right, however, in 
considering all of these forms identical. 

Pagenstecher thus describes the coloring of his specimens from 
Balearic Is., where they were found in 15-30 feet of water. 

Length 2'5 to 5 cm., including the tentacles. Ground-color is 
clear olive-green with numerous white and light-brown or light-yellow 
flecks, which are frequently raised into granules, or stronger warts, 
or even sub-divided papillae. The two large, non-retractile, laterally 
rolled tentacles and the margin of the narrow foot are marbled with 
yellowish- and gray-brown ; sole pale yellow. Dorsal surface of the 
tail-like posterior part of the body is sharply carinated, and in places 
it is brownish, to the suppression of the green ground-color, with 
dark dots in addition to the light papillae. Enrolled surface of ten- 
tacles pale yellow. Free margin of the reflexed lateral lobes 
marbled with brown ; while the green color is strongest and purest 
on the neck. 

O. ANTILLARUM Mo'rch. PL 53, fig. 90. 

Body green, oval ; tail very long, narrow, with a wide longitudinal 
white dorsal band ; closely dotted with green ; tentacles and sides of 
the head white, with rather remote green dots arranged in series. 
Epipodial lobes with acute, conic, close warts, its edge white with 
irregular green dots. Sole of the foot yellowish, narrow, the mar- 
gin with a row of regular close green dots (Morch, from a drawing 
by (Ersted~). 

Shell involute, ovate, hyaline-white, swollen above, very slightly 
contracted immediately below the vertex, shining, with some irregu- 
lar wrinkles of growth. Spire concealed. Suture a deep lunate in- 
cision. Aperture very large, broadly ovate below, narrow above ; 
outer lip sinuous, produced forward above. 

Alt. 6-6i, diam. 4 mill. 

St. Thomas (CErsted). 



OXYNOE. 165 

Oxynoe antillannn Men., Journal de Conchy]., 1863, p. 27; 
Malak. Bl.,xxii, p. 179. 

The shell here figured was received from Morch. 

O. KROHNII A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell involute, ovate-oblong, gibbous posteriorly, at the apex sub- 
angulate and plicate ; spire concealed ; white, shining, fragile, pellu- 
cid. Aperture oval, acute behind, dilated in front; lip solute be- 
hind, with an inflexed, rounded angle (Ad.*). 

Sandwich Is. (Mus. Cuming). 

Lopkocercus krohnii A. AD., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 94. Lobiger 
krohnii H. & A. AD., Genera, ii, p. 31. Oxynoe krohnii MORCH, 
Journ. de Conch., 1863, p. 46. 

This species is more gibbose posteriorly than L. sieboldii. The 
region of the spire is plicate, and the shell is pellucid, white and 
fragile (Ad.). 

O. VIRIDIS Pease. PI. 11, figs. 51-55. 

Shell thin, pellucid, fragile, white, slightly convolute, obliquely 
finely striate, left side slightly inflated ; aperture large, open widely ; 
outer lip disjoined from the apex, very slightly produced posteriorly 
and truncate ; inner lip slightly callous. 

Body oval or ovate, dorsal region elevated, lateral lobes regular 
in shape, outline of the edges convex, not meeting; tentacles well- 
developed, grooved and truncated ; eyes immersed immediately be- 
hind the tentacles ; foot linear, adapted for clasping sea- weed ; the 
whole upper surface garnished with more or less numerous cirri- 
gerous appendages. Tail long, compressed and lance-pointed. Color 
grass green, mottled with darker, sometimes dotted minutely with 
brown, or a few blue spots margined with black along the edge of 
the lateral lobes and on the neck. (Pse.~). 

Huahine (Pse) ; Tahiti (Mts.) ; on sea-weed in shallow water. 

Lophocercus viridis PEASE, P. Z. S., 1861, p. 246 ; Amer. Journ. 
Conch., iv, p. 74, pi. 8, f. 1, 2; pi. 12, f. 25. MTS. & LANGK., 
Donum Bismarck iauum, p. 54, pi. 3, f. 4a, b. Oxynoe viridis MORCH, 
Journ. de Conchy 1., 1863, p. 46. 

O. DELICATULA G. & H. Nevill. Frontispiece, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell ovate, involute, a little contracted and truncate behind, 
rounded in front, whitish, thin. Aperture subcircular behind, ovate 
in front, elongated, dilated, margins approximating toward the pos- 



166 LOBIGER. 

terior terminations, inner lip smooth and thin, outer lip a little 
inflexed behind, its edge acute. Alt. 6, diam. 3'5 mill. (Nev.). 

Southern province of Ceylon (Nevill) ; " Sow and Pigs " reef, Port 
Jackson, Australia (Brazier). 

Oxynoe delicatula NEV., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., xxxviii, pt. 2, 
67, pi. 13, f. 5Lophocercus delicatulus ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1877, p. 
190. 

The much smaller expansion of the outer lip, etc., at once distin- 
guishes this species from 0. sieboldi, which it most resembles. The 
animal of this species proves it to be a true Oxynoe. It is of a pale 
sea-green color, spotted with round torquoise-blue spots. It is found 
on reefs in very shallow water. (Nev.~). 

O. HARGRAVESI H. Adams. Frontispiece, fig. 4. 

Shell very thin, subpellucid, ovoid, produced behind, involute, 
white, ornamented with longitudinal opaque streaks following the 
lines of growth. Aperture ample, rounded below, narrowed above ; 
inner lip thin, slightly reflexed ; outer lip acute, inflexed above. 
Alt. 7, diam. 4 mill. (Ad.~). 

New Hebrides (coll. Hargraves). 

Oxynoe hargravesi H. AD., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 15, pi. 3, f. 30. 

Genus LOBIGER Krohn, 1847. 

Lobiger KROHN, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), vii, p. 52. Type L. philippii 
=L. serradifalci Calc. 

The species are few, but widely dispersed, coinciding remarkably 
with Oxynoe, in distribution. Only L. serradifalci has been satis- 
factorily investigated. 

Geographic distribution of species. 

Mediterranean : L. serradifalci (p. 167). 

West Indies : L. souverbii (Dipterophysis, p. 168). 
Indo-Pacific: L. viridis, Sandwich Is. (Pterygophysis, p. 169). 
L. nevilli, Ceylon, (p. 168). 
L. wilsoni, S. Australia (p. 168). 

The locality of L. pellucidus Ad. is unknown. 

Lobiger cumingi A. Ad. is a species of Volvatella (see Man. Conch., 
xv, p. 385). 



LOBIGER. 167 

L. SERRADIFALCI Calcara. PI. 10, figs. 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 

36. 

Shell ovate, delicate thin and fragile, subtransparent, and 
corneous ; delicately striated ; involute, the spire umbilicated. 
Aperture as long as the shell, oblong, narrowed above, broadly 
rounded below, produced far above the apex of the shell. Outer 
lip regularly arcuate, basal lip effuse, columella thin, broadly con- 
cave below, with a conspicuous reflexed margin across the preceding 
whorl. Alt. 12*, diam. 8* mill. 

Animal elongated, the posterior part and outer surface of pleuro- 
podial lobes bearing numerous scattered conic papillae. Color 
citron-yellow, with a perceptible greenish tinge, the sole a more 
diluted tint. Pleuropodial lobes broad and rounded, with narrow 
bases ; edged by a white line, within which is a crimson line ; the 
papillae of the surface showing the same distribution of color. 
Length slightly exceeding one inch. 

Mediterranean Sea: Bay of Palermo (Calcara et a/.); Messina 
(Krohn) ; Bay of Naples (Mazzarelli) ; Gulf of Marseilles (Vays- 
siere). 

Lobiger philippii KROHN, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3),vii, 1847, p. 52, pi. 
2, f. 1, 2. SOULEYET, Journ. de Conch., 1850, p. 232, pi. 10, f. 13, 
14 (shell). FISCHER, Journ. de Conch., vii, 1856, p. 274. A. 
ADAMS, in Sowb., Thes., ii, pp. 598, 602, pi. 121, f. 57 ; pi. 119, f. 
18. MORCH, Journ. de Conch., 1863, p. 47. VAYSSIERE, Rech. 
Zool. Moll. Opistobr., Tectibranches, in Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 
Marseille, Zool., ii, pp. 177, 100. Bullea serradifalci CALCARA, 
Monografie dei generi Clausilia e Bulimo, coll ' aggiunta di alcune 
nuove specie di Conchiglie Siciliane, p. 44 (1840). Lobiger serradi- 
falci MONTS., Journ. de Conch., 1878, p. 159. MAZZARELLI, Boll, 
della Societa di Naturalisti in Napoli, vi, 1892, p. 98 (anatomy). 
Lobiger corneus MORCH, Journ. de Conch., 1863, p. 48 (based solely 
upon figure of shell in Thes. Conch., pi. 121, f. 57). 

The first description of this species is that of Calcara in 1840, 
Krohn's being seven years later. Morch's L. corneus is utterly with- 
out distinctive characters. 

L. PELLUCIDUS A. Adams. 

Shell oval, subinvolute, white, fragile, pellucid; longitudinally 
substriate, the spire concealed. Aperture oblong, ample, produced 
and somewhat narrowed behind, dilated in front; inner lip thin, 
subreflexed, outer lip arcuate with the margin acute. (Ad.*). 

Habitat unknown (Cuming coll.). 



168 LOBIGER. 

Lobiger pellucidus A. AD., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 94. Lophocereus 
pellucidus ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 31. FISCHER, Journ. de 
Conchy 1., 1856, p. 274 (copy of original description). Oxynoe pel- 
lucida MORCH, Journ. de Conch., 1863, p. 46. 

This species differs from L. philippii in being white and nearly 
pellucid, and from L. cumingii in the very different form of the 
aperture, this not being produced into a narrow spout-like canal pos- 
teriorly. (Ad.~). 

L. NEVILLI Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 10, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell ovate, involute, thin, greenish, the last whorl much inflated 
behind. Aperture oblong, attenuated and rounded in front, shortly 
produced and somewhat narrowed behind ; inner lip thin, in part 
straight, smooth, slightly elevated ; outer lip arcuately expanded, 
thin at the edge. Alt. 5'5, diam. 3'5 mill. (Nev.). 

Southern province of Ceylon. 

Lobiger viridis G. & H. NEVILL, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., xxxviii, 
pt. 2, p. 68, pi. 13, f. 6 (1869). Not L. viridis Pease, 1863. 

L. nevilli differs from the other species of the same genus in being 
anteriorly much more gradually rounded, as also by its great tumid- 
ity near the spire. (Nevill.'). 

L. WILSONI Tate. Frontispiece, fig. 5. 

Animal with the body produced into a very narrow, pointed, 
smooth tail of a green color, shortly extended beyond the shell. 
Foot with two oblong-rounded and pale-green lobes, which are some- 
what attenuated into a broadish stalk. 

Shell thin, flexible, straw-yellow; spire rudimentary but involute. 
Somewhat pyriform, slightly attenuated in front, and truncated 
apically ; aperture narrow-ovate, truncate behind. Surface finely 
striated. Length 8, width 5 mill. (Tate). 

Lower end of South Channel of Port Phillip, South Australia, 
seven to sixteen fathoms (J. B. Wilson). 

Lobiger wilsoni TATE, Trans, and Proc. and Rep. Roy. Soc. South 
Australia, xi, p. 66, pi. 11, f. 12 (1889). WILSON, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Victoria (n. ser.) ii, p. 66 (1890). 

Subgenus DIPTEROPHYSIS Pilsbry, 1896. 

Like Lobiger, but with a single pleuropodial lobe on each side. 
L. SOUVERBII Fischer. PI. 10, figs. 39, 40, 41, 42. 

Shell ovoid, thin, pellucid, longitudinally striated, dilated in the 
middle, obliquely truncated in front, rounded behind and slightly 



LOBIGER. 169 

produced. Aperture seraioval, obliquely truncated in front, sub- 
angulated behind; columellar lip thin, with a thin, narrow callus 
recurved over the spire ; outer lip thin, arcuate and simple. 

Alt. 7, diam. 5 mill. Swimming lobes two, one anterior, the other 
posterior. (Fischer.') 

Guadeloupe, West Indies. 

L. souverbii FISCH., Journ. de Conchy!., v, 1856, p. 273, pi. 11, f. 
7-10. L. sowerbyi Fisch., MORCH, Malak. Bl., xxii, p. 179. 

Differs from the other forms known in the single pleuropodial 
lobe on each side. 

Subgenus PTERYGOPHYSIS Fischer, 1883. 

Pterygoplnjsis FISCHER, Man. de Conch., p. 571. 

Four tentacles developed on head ; pleuropodial lobes four, very 
long, with scalloped edges. 

L. VIRIDIS Pease. PI. 10, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell ovate, rather thin, longitudinally striated, white, covered 
with a yellowish epidermis ; left margin slightly dilated. Aperture 
oblong-oval, rounded in front, produced, contracted and subangulate 
behind. Spire involute, concealed ; lip slightly arcuate, its margin 
acute. (Pse.). 

Animal elongate ; tail, margins of the foot and centre of natatory 
lobes papillose ; tail long, arched, gradually tapering to a rounded 
point. Tentacles four, auriform, subconyolute, somewhat dilated at 
the ends and truncate. Eyes immersed behind the posterior pair. 
Natatory appendages thin, elongate, anterior pair rather less than 
the whole length of the animal, posterior pair a little shorter than 
the anterior, widest at their outer halves, and their sides deeply in- 
cised, giving them a leaf-like appearance. Locomotive disk like 
Aplysia. Color pale pea-green, tips of the tentacles tinged with yel- 
low, a dusky marginal band along the edge of the body ; the upper 
surfaces of the natatory lobes are greenish centrally, fading into 
yellowish pink towards the margins, which are white ; lower surface 
of same color, but brighter, and margins dusky. 

Tahiti (Mts.); Huahine, among sea-weed on sandy bottoms in 
sheltered places (Pse.). 

Lobiger . . . . f PEASE, P. Z. S., 1861, p. 246; Lobiger 
viridis PEASE, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 510^ L^piota EgE., Amer. Jouru. 




170 

Conch., iv, p. 75, pi. 8, f. 3 ; pi. 12, f. 2Q.L.pictus MARTENS & 
LANGKAVEL, Donum Bism., p. 54, pi. 3, f. 5. 

"When disturbed they cast off all their lobes, which retain their 
vitality for several hours. (Pse.). 

Pease's dealings with this species have been far from straightfor- 
ward. He first described it in 1861 without a specific name ; then 
in 1863 he bestowed the name L- viridis ; and finally, in 1868, he 
repeated the substance of his first description and renamed the 
animal .L. picta. 

III. TECTIBRANCHIATA NOTASPIDEA. 

Tectibranchs in which the dorsal surface is protected by a large 
shield (" notceum ") or mantle, with or without an external or buried 
shell ; no head-shield nor pleuropodial lobes. 

Synopsis of Families. 

I. Radula with the formula 1.1.1 ; rhinophores wanting ; stomach 

armed with four large, denticulate plates ; shell very small or 

wanting ; small animals, Rundnidce. 

II. Radula with very many longitudinal and transverse rows of 

teeth ; rhinophores developed, of the usual slit form. 

a. Shell either wanting or thin, auricular or haliotiform, 

with terminal spiral nucleus, and in part or wholly 

concealed, Pleurobranchidce. 

aa. Shell well-developed, external, patella-like, with the apex 

near the middle, Umbraculidce. 



Family RUNCIN1DJE Gray. 

Ruminadce GRAY, Guide to Syst.Dist.Moll.B.M., p. 204. Pel- 
tidae VAYSSIERE, Recherches Zool. et Anat. Moll. Opistobr., p. 104. 

Shell small and posterior, or obsolete. 

Body limaciform, convex above, the mantle or dorsal shield cov- 
ering the upper surface except the end of foot ; separated from foot 
by a deep groove. Eyes sessile, anterior ; tentacles or rhinophores 
wanting or subobsolete. Foot about as wide as body. Gills pos- 
terior on the right side, pinnate with few laminae. Anus behind the 
gill. Orifice of female reproductive organs in front of gill ; penis 



RUNCINA. 171 

situated further forward, on right side of cephalic region. Stomach 
armed with four denticulate plates. 

Radula with the formula 1.1.1 (pi. 68, f. 36). Jaws present. 

A very distinct family of minute limacoid Tectibranchs, resem- 
bling Pleurobranchidce somewhat in outward aspect, but differing 
widely in the dentition, the stomach-armature and the absence of 
rhinophores. Pelseneer believes HundnidcB to belong to the Cephala- 
spidea (Chall. Rep. Zool. pt. Ixvi, p. 97); I think this likely. 

The original discoverer of the European species, Quatrefages, 
placed it in his supposed degenerate group " Phlebenterata," charac- 
terized by lack of a circulating system, anus, etc. Forbes, who re- 
discovered it on the English coast, placed the group next to Lima- 
pontia, an arrangement in which some other authors concurred. 
Gray, however, in 1857, decided its affinities to be with Pleuro- 
branchidce, Umbrellidce and Tylodinidce, a position retained by 
Vayssiere. The important work on the group by the latter author, 
together with that of Bergh on the genus Ildica, supplies all that is 
yet known of the internal anatomy of Runcinidce. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus RUNCINA Forbes. 

Tentacles or rhinophores none. Teeth of the radula denticulate. 
Shell reduced to a minute vestige buried in the posterior part of the 
integument. 

Genus ILDICA Bergh. 

Small labial tentacles developed. Teeth not denticulate. Shell 
a small non-spiral calcareous plate, external and posterior on the 
back. 



Genus RUNCINA Forbes, 1853. 

Runeina FORBES, Hist. Brit. Moll., iii, p. 611, type R. hancocki. 
Pelta QUATREFAGES, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), i, p. 151 (1844), type P. 
coronata. VAYSSIERE, Ann. Sci. Nat. (6), xv, p. 6 (1883). Not 
Pelta Beck, Index Moll., p. 100 (1837). 

Shell membranous, internal and minute. Body lengthened, lima- 
ciform ; no tentacles at sides of mouth. Teeth of radula denticulate. 
Type R. coronata. 



172 RUNCINA. 

Two very small species are known. They have the general aspect 
of the Limapontias, but are readily distinguished on superficial ex- 
amination, by the gill. 

K. CORONATA Quatrefages. PI. 68, figs. 31-41. 

Animal presenting a smooth body covered with vibratile cilia ; 
mantle quite convex, visibly emarginate in front, extending a little 
on the sides, incompletely covering the foot, rounded behind ; color 
black, with minute brown dots, except in front and at the hind end, 
where it is a more or less light fawn tint. Eyes sunken in the in- 
tegument, rather large, each surrounded by a pale stripe ; behind 
the eyes there is usually on each side a curved line of little white 
spots, forming a sort of continuation of the light colored frontal re- 
gion. 

Foot yellowish (pale ochre), sometimes marked with black spots 
or flames ; its forward margin is perceptibly concave ; sides nearly 
parallel, and towards the head it is slightly wider than the mantle ; 
tail end extending beyond the mantle about a fourth the length of 
body. 

The semipinnate gill is composed of 3 or 4 little plates, and pro- 
jects slightly behind the dorsal integument on the right side (see 
fig. 39). 

Formula of teeth 1.1.1 ; jaws triangular, wide, formed of little 
chitinous pieces of more or less polyhedral form, well separated from 
each other. Gizzard with 4 equal cartilagi no-calcareous pieces (pi. 
68, figs. 33, 34). 

Length of animal, 4 to 5 mill. 

Brehat Island, off N. Brittany (Quatrefages) ; Torbay, England 
(Alder & Hancock) ; Belmont Bay, near Weymouth (Thompson) ; 
Clyde district (Norman) ; Gulf of Marseilles (Vayssiere). 

Pelta eoronata QUATREF., Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), i, 1844, p. 151. 
VAYSSTERE, Ann. Sci. Nat. (6), xv, 1883, p. 6, pi. 1, f. 1-12 ; pi. 2, f. 
13-21 ; Rech. Zool., Moll. Opistobr., Tectibr., p. 104, pi. 5, f. 126- 
129. Pelta ornata QUATREF., t. c., p. 152. Pelta or Limapontia 
ALDER & HANCOCK, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,xviii, November, 1846, 
p. 289, pi. 4, f. 1-7. Runcina hancoeki FORBES, Hist. Brit. Moll., iii, 
p. 612, pi. CCC, f. 2. GRAY, Guide Syst. Dist. Moll. B. M., p. 205, f. 
114 (dentition). H. & A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll.,ii, p. 43, pi. 61, f. 5. 
JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch., v, p. 15, pi. 1, f. 3. Pelta nigra "Alder & 






ILDICA. 173 

Hancock," CHENU, Manuel de Conch., p. 416, f. 3087. Runcina 
viridis F. & H., Hist. Brit. Moll., iii, p. x of index (error). 

The species varies considerable in intensity of color, and some- 
times lacks light rings around the eyes. They are extensile and 
very active. 

Vayssiere found a very minute, delicate, non-calcareous disk be- 
neath the hinder part of the mantle, which may be the vestige of a 
shell. 

R. PRASINA Morch. PI. 68, figs. 42, 43. 

Body linear, elongated with subparallel sides, the anterior margin 
lightly curved inward ; mantle green, with regularly spaced, close, 
minute warts, the posterior margin three-lobed, the median lobe 
smallest ; dorsal part of mantle elevated, convex, of a deeper color ; 
eyes black, very far apart toward the front. Foot slightly wider 
than mantle, somewhat projecting and broadly rounded behind ; 
yellowish-green. Stomach-plates (fig. 43) nearly semi-circular, with 
rather remote, obtuse, strong and arcuate teeth. 

Length about 4 mill. (Morch). 

St. Croix, West Indies, near Christianstad (CErsted). 

Pelta prasina MORCH, Journ. de Conchyl., 1863, p. 42. BERGH, 
Malacol. Unters., iv, 1872, pi. 24, f. 27-29. 

It is narrower than jR. coronata, with the mantle trilobate behind 
and the eyes more anterior. Morch 's description and Bergh's fig. 
ures were from drawings by CErsted. 

Genus ILDICA Bergh, 1889. 
Ildica BGH., Malac. Untersuchungen, iii, Anhang, p. 869. 

Notseum continuous, the mantle-edge projecting somewhat over 
the sides of the body all around. Shell small, posterior, uncovered. 
Branchial plume simple, posterior on the right side of body, pro- 
jecting. Head small, with a small tentacle on each side of the 
mouth. Foot rather broad, tail short. 

Labial armature composed of minute rods. Radula with median 
teeth and hamate laterals. Stomach armed with 4 strong dentic- 
ulate triturating plates. 

Ildica has an external resemblance to Pleurobranchus, on account 
of its extended noteeum. 



174 ILDICA. 

I. NANA Bergh. PI. 69, figs. 50-57. 

Form oval, 2 to 2*5 mill, long, 1/3 to 1/4 mill. high. Color of the 
back blackish or black, strongly contrasted with the chalk-white 
shell. Sides of body slightly lighter, but anteriorly coal-black, like 
the head, the gill grayish ; foot the color of the sides, the viscera 
showing whitish through it anteriorly. Back even, pretty convex, 
with the forward slope longest, posteriorly rounded ; anteriorly little 
narrower with the acute, narrow margins of the body slightly pro- 
jecting. 

On the hind end of the body, lying slightly to the right or median, 
is the chalk-white shell (see figs. 52, 53,) placed parallel with the axis 
of body or inconspicuously oblique, sometimes sunken in a slight 
depression. 

The shell (figs. 50, 51) is chalk-white, somewhat variable in form, 
generally long-oval, with pretty parallel side-margins, in front some- 
what truncate, behind rounded, about '4 mill, long, '16 wide. It is 
thin but not especially fragile, hardly thinner at the edges, strongly 
adhering to the integument, level and without any distinct growth- 
strise. It effervesces violently with acid, and an organic substratum 
of the form of the shell is left. 

Anteriorly on the back there is no trace of eyes or tentacles. 
Sides of the body not very low, gradually rising toward the poste- 
rior. Behind on the right side is the longitudinal gill, which seems 
to be simple, feathery, and projects slightly beyond the tail. Be- 
hind it seems to be the anal opening; and before, on the right side ? 
the minute genital orifice. The head is quite small with perpendic- 
ular mouth, on each side of which is a quite small tentacle, perhaps 
with longitudinal furrows. Sole nearly as wide as the back, 
roundly truncate in front, with fine marginal grooves ; the back end 
(or short tail) somewhat tapering, rounded, somewhat projecting. 

Radula (figs. 54, 55) not very narrow, with, as it appears, 12 to 13 
rows of teeth ; further backward there seem to be 18 to 19 developed, 
and two younger rows ; the entire number, therefore, 32 to 34. The 
tooth-rows seern, as well as could be judged from the poor condition 
of the material, to have a lateral on each side of the median tooth. 
The median tooth (fig. 54) is wide, in the form of a crescent, with 
an indication of a reduced denticle on each side. Laterals (fig. 55) 
shaped as in Philine, with the margin smooth, not denticulate. 

The stomach contained, in two individuals examined, 4 strong, 
erect, yellowish or nearly glassy-clear lunate plates (fig. 57), the 



UMBRACULID^:. 175 

free margins of which have a row, in part doubled, of short, strong, 
irregular denticles. 

Mauritius, in stomach of the nudibranch Trevelyana crocea. 

Ildica nana BGH., Malac. Unters., ii, Auhang, p. 870, pi. 82, f. 

27-38. 

Two individuals with part of another were found in the stomach 
of a nudibranch. 

PI. 69, figs. 52, 53, animal enlarged, view of the right side and 
above ; fig. 50, shells ; fig. 55, lateral tooth, from above ; fig. 54, two 
rows of teeth, showing the lunate centrals in the middle, laterals 
on each side ; fig. 57, stomach plates. 

Family UMBRACULID^E. 

Umbrellidce Auct. 

Shell external, limpet-like, with the nucleus minute and sinistral, 
vertex near the center ; inside with a circular, closed muscle-impres- 
sion. 

Foot oval or oblong, adapted for creeping, without pleuropodial 
processes. Head bearing two laterally-slit tentacles, the eyes sessile 
at their inner-anterior bases. Mantle the size and shape of the shell, 
with thin, serrate edge. Gill a long plume lying between mantle 
and foot on the anterior and right side, adnate and bearing numer- 
ous bipinnate branches for the greater part of its length, posterior 
end free and bipinnate. Anus tubular, projecting behind the gill. 
Mouth with labial tentacular or plate-like processes; radula very 
broad, bearing a great number of similar, very narrow, crowded, 
needle-like teeth, with recurved simple cusps, which are not differ- 
entiated from the body of tooth. 

Distribution, world wide in tropical and subtropical seas, lamina- 
rian zone and deeper. 

This very distinct family is composed of two genera, strongly 
divergent in the relations of the male genitalia and gill. 

Genus UMBRACULUM Schumacher, 1817. 

Foot very fleshy, large, oval, with a deep anterior sinus in which 
the mouth-parts are situated. Gill a long adnate plume, extending 
across the front and along the right side, free and bipinnate behind. 
Penis external, lying in the anterior sinus of the foot, in the median 
line in front of and below the head. Shell depressed, entirely calci- 
fied, with the vertex to the left of the middle. 



176 UMBRACULtfM. 

Subgenus Umbraculum. Shell sinistral, with growth-lines and 
some faint, low, wide-spaced radial ridges (page 117). 

Subgenus Hyalopatina Dall. Shell dextral, the nucleus siuistral ; 
sculptured with very numerous radiating lines of minute elevated 
points (page 184). 

See also, Bertinia Jousseaume (page 189). 

Genus TYLODIXA Kafinesque, 1819. 

Foot long-oval, without anterior sinus. Head large, with prom- 
inent anterior tentacles. Gill a short bipinnate plume on the right 
side posteriorly. Penis retractile, on the right side in front of the 
gill. Shell with the edges not calcified, vertex subcentral (page 185). 

Genus UMBRACULUM Schumacher, 1817. 

Patella sp. of GMELIN, MARTYN and some other early authors. 

Acardo LAM., (in part), Syst. An. s. Vert., p. 130 (1801). 
MEGERLE von MUHLFELD, Gesellsch. Naturforsch. Fr. Berl., Mag. 
fur die Neuesten Entdeckungen, etc., v, p. 63 (1811). Not Acardo 
Commercon MS. in Bruguiere, Encycl. Meth., i, p. 1 (1792),=Epi- 
physis of whale, teste Deshayes, Encycl. Meth., edit. 1830, p. 1. 

Umbraculum SCHTMACHER, Essai Nouv. Syst. Yers Test., pp. 
55, 177 (1817). 

Gastroplax BLALST., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philomathique for 1819, p. 
182. 

Umbrella LAMARCK, Anim. s. Vert., vi, p. 343 (1819). 

Ombrella BLAINVILLE, Diet. Sci. Nat, xxxii, p. 267 (1824). 

Umbella ORB., Moll. Cuba, i, 115 (1841). 

Operculatum H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 41 (1854;, and 
of Linne, Mus. Tess., 1753, not binomial. 

Shell patelliform, depressed, sinistral ; the vertex to the left of and 
somewhat behind the center, usually colored, more or less conically 
elevated, apex curved backward, when perfect forming a minute 
spiral of scarcely over one whorl. 

Soft parts much larger than the shell. Foot very voluminous, 
tuberculate above, with the sole very broad, oval; deeply slit in 
front, the mouth situated at the bottom of the sinus, with plate-like 
labial processes in front of it. Head projecting but little in front of 
mantle, bearing two tentacles slit down their outer sides, the small 
eyes at their inner, anterior bases ; penis in front of head, lying in 



eSE 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 

UMBRACULUM. 



177 



the anterior slit. Mantle with thin edge fringed by numerous flat 
processes. Gill a long plume arising in front under the mantle, and 
continued along the right side, its latter end free and bipinnate. 

Radula extremely wide, composed of an enormous number of per- 
fectly similar, very narrow, needle-like teeth, strongly recurved to- 
ward their apices, the cusps narrowly lanceolate and smooth. 

Type Umbraculum sinicum Gmel. 

The radula of Umbraculttm sinicum which I examined, has more 
numerous teeth than any other mollusk known to me. Among 
Tectibranchs, Dolabella has a somewhat similar type of teeth, but 
they are wider and much larger. The general characters of the 
teeth are as in Pleurobranchidce. 

The name Umbraculum of Schumacher is the earliest tenable de- 
signation for this group, although it had previously been recognized 
as a genus distinct from Patellaby Lamarck and Muhlfeld. There 
are several names anterior to the one commonly known:, Umbrella 
Lam. 

DISTRIBUTION : The genus occurs in tropical and subtropical seas 
of both hemispheres, and is represented in the Eocene of Europe 
and America. The U. planulatum Conrad of Jackson, Mississippi, 
rivals in size the largest recent species. Two Jurassic forms, of 
doubtful pertinence to the genus, have been described. 

There are but few species, either fossil or recent, and the concho- 
logical characters separating them are neither very obvious nor of 
much value. The soft parts of U. mediterraneum and the Sandwich; 
Island form of U. sinicum only are known. 



Species of Umbraculum. 



Pan am ic region 
An til lean region 
Mediterranean region 
Indo-Pacific and 
[Australian regions : 



U. ovalis. 

U. plicatulum, bermudense. 

U. mediterraneum. 

U. sinicum, E. Africa to Hawaiian Is. 

U. cumingi, Reunion Island. 

U. pictum, Lord Hood's Island. 

U. corticalis, South Australia. 



U. OVALIS Carpenter. PI. 70, fig. 61. 

Shell similar to U. indica, but the margin scarcely undulating ; 
regularly oval; apex spiral, somewhat projecting, less in equilateral ; 

12 



178 UMBRACULUM. 

epidermis thin, scarcely shining; orange within in adults. (Qor.). 
Length 1'93, diara. 1'58 inch, (young shell). 

Mouth of the Chiriqui River, Bay of Panama (Bridges). 

Umbrella ovalis CPR., P. Z. S., 1856, p. 161. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., vol. xi, pi. 1, f. 3 (1858). 

Concerning this remarkable shell, hitherto only found in the Old 
World, and, in spite of the bulk of its animal, not observed by either 
Mr. Cuming, Prof. Adams or Mr. Hinds, Mr. Cuming writes : it was 
not only brought by Mr. Bridges, but also by a gentlemen in Paris, 
who collected in exactly the same place. Two specimens are in 
Mr. Cuming's collection, of which one, very much thickened, ap- 
pears to have formed part of a much larger shell. (Opr.). 

U. PLICATULUM Martens. PI. 72, figs. 72, 73, 74. 

Shell a little concave, ovate-elliptical, pretty equally rounded in 
front and behind, with weak wave-like folds, radiating from the apex 
and especially distinct at the margin, where they are separated by 
distinctly marked, narrow furrows ; concentrically striated above. 
Apex projecting wart-like, almost in the middle antero-posteriorly 
(anterior part to posterior as 7 : 6), but rather excentric laterally 
(left side to the right as 2 : 3). Under side, as in other species of 
the genus, with a yellowish colored, radially rib-striated middle 
field, bounded by a double closed line (corresponding to the pallial 
line of the bivalves), the yellow color elsewhere not very strongly 
pronounced, more brownish. Length 62, width 46, alt. 7 mill. 

Matanzas, Cuba (Gundlach). 

Umbrella plicatula MARTENS, Conchologische Mittheilungen, i, p. 
104, pi. 20, f. 1-3. 

This species is distinguished from U. mediterraneum t as well as 
from U. indica Lam. principally by the more lengthened contour 
and plication all around. U. mediterraneum has only in front a few 
generally stronger folds, U. indica none, U. cumingi Desh. from 
Bourbon, weaker ones, not continuing to the edge. 

Description and figures from von Martens. It may prove the 
same as the undescribed Bermudan species. It seems more allied to 
U. ovalis Cpr. than to other forms. 

U. BERMUDENSE Morch. 

This is a species of nearly the size of U. sinicum. It is known solely 
by two figures of the living animal drawn by a " young man " for 



UMBRACULUM. 179 

Dr. George Forbes in 1758, and published in the Philosophical 
Transactions for that year. These figures are so poor that their 
reproduction here would be useless ; it is enough to say that they 
show the generic characters fairly well. The mantle edge and border 
of foot seem to be very ragged. No specimens seem to have occurred 
to later naturalists. It may be the same as the preceding species ; 
and if so, the latter should have priority, being well described and 
figured, while this has never been described and the figures are 
totally inadequate. Morch is in error in stating that Dr. Forbes 
called this animal a " sea-batt." 

Bermuda (Dr. Geo. Forbes). 

Fish . . . of the shell kind, Dr. GEORGE FORBES, in Philos. 
Trans., 1, 1758, p. 859, pi. 35 (1759). Operculatum Bermudense 
MORCH, Malak. Bl., xxii, p. 179 (based wholly on the figures of 
Forbes). 

U. MEDITERRANEUM Lamarck. PL 69, figs. 44, 45, 4ti, 47, 48, 49. 

Mantle whitish, becoming orange-tinted at the edges, which bear 
flat, triangular filaments. Foot orange colored above and below, 
the upper surface densely tubercular, tubercles unequal, each whit- 
ish at the summit ; tubercular upper surface covered with a brown, 
mucilaginous epidermis. Length 12-13, width 9-10 cm. ; some- 
times as large as 19 by 14cm. 

Shell oblong, extremely depressed, whitish under a thin yellowish 
cuticle ; apex considerably posterior and to the left, conically pro- 
jecting and recurved like a Capulus, toward the posterior and left 
margins. Margins conspicuously undulated; disk with distinct 
though low and wide radial waves, and some linear grooves ; and 
with concentric growth-strise or wrinkles. Interior pale yellow or 
white toward the periphery and on muscle-scar, with the space within 
the muscle-impression and a ring outside of it rich brown. 

Length 5'2 ; breadth 3*7, alt. '5 cm. 

Length 7-2-7-5, breadth 61-6-3 cm. 

Entire Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas; from the ^Egean to 
Spain, but rather local ; Atlantic at Cape Verde Is. (' Talisman ' and 
* Challenger '); ? St. Helena (Smith). Laminarian zone and deeper. 
Pliocene of Italy ; pleistocene of Sicily and Rhodes. 

Umbrella mediterranea LAM., An. s. Vert., vi, p. 343 ; edit. DESH., 
vii, p. 574. PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 113, pi. 7, f. 11. 
DELESSERT, Rec. de Coq., pi. 23, f. 12. FORBES, Rep. JSg. In- 



180 UMBRACULUM. 

vert., B. Asso., 1844, p. 134. REEVE, Conch. Icon., xi, pi. 1, f. 2. 
CHENU, Manuel, i, p, 398, f. 3018, 3020. KUSTER, Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 3, pi. 1, f. 1-4. (TRAY, P. Z. 8., 1856, p. 46 ; Figs. Moll. Anim., 
iv, p. 33; ii, pi. 164, from DESHAYES in Cuvier's Regne Anim. 
Moll., pi. 37. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch., 1867, p. 423. WEIN- 
KAUFF, Conch, des Mittelm., ii, p. 179. MOQUIN-TANDON, Ann. 
Sci. Nat. (5), xiv, 1870, p. 121, pi. 21-28 (anatomy). FISCHER, 
Journ. de Conch., 1883, p. 3. GRANGER, Moll, de France, p. 240, 
pi. 18, f. 1. BUQ., DAUTZ. and DOLLF., Moll, du Rouss., i, p. 554, 
pi. 65, f. 1, 2. VAYSSIERE, Rech. Zool., Opistobr., p. 134, pi. 6, f. 
137-150 (anatomy). SMITH, P. Z. 8., 1890, p. 299. WATSON, 
Chall. Rep. Gastrop., p. 674. HEYMONS, Zeitschr. fur Wissensch. 
Zool., Ivi, p. 244, pll. 14-16 (Embryology). Umbella mediterranea 
DELLE CHIAJE, Memoria, iv, pp. 200, 187, pi. 69, f. 5, 19, 20. 
Patella umbellate DELLE CHIAGE, pi. 106, f. 26. 

Umbrella lamarckiana RECLUZ, Revue Zoologique, April., 1843, 
p. 109. KUSTER, Conch. Cab., p. 4, pi. 1, f. 5, 6. 

7 Par mop hor us patelloideus CANTRAINE (see under Tylodina cit- 
rina). 

The shell is more depressed than that of U. sinicum, with more 
undulating edges and more conspicuously recurved apex. A small 
individual is figured. 

U. SINICUM Gmelin. PI. 70, figs. 58, 59, 60; pi. 71, figs. 63, 64, 

65 ; pi. 72, figs. 70, 71. 

Shell large, oval, inequilateral, depressed. White under a thin 
straw-colored cuticle, which is lamellose and brownish toward the 
periphery. Vertex a small conical yellow boss, behind the middle 
and decidedly nearer the left side, apex recurved. Disk with 
growth-lines and numerous very low, unequal radial waves the mar- 
gin but slightly undulating. Interior brown and conspicuously 
radially striate inside the muscle-scar (or in the form from Sandwich 
Is., orange-brown within muscle-scar, with a yellow halo) ; white 
toward the edge. 

Length 8'8, breadth 7, alt. 1-1 cm. 

Length 10, breadth 8-5, alt. 1-15 cm. 

Length 9, breadth 7'1, alt. 1'65 cm. (" aurantium "). 

Length 9, breadth 7*3, alt. 1-2 cm. (" aurantium"). 

Patella siniea GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3705 (referring to very 
characteristic figures in Davila and Martini). 

Patella umbellate GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3720. 



UMBRACULUM. 181 

Patella umbrella MARTYN, Universal Conch., ii, pi. 102, and in 
Chenu's reprint, Bibliotheque Conchyliologique, ii, p. 26, pi. 36, f. 1. 
" U. umbrella Gmel.," DALL, Rep. ' Blake ' Gastrop., p. 60. 

Acardo umbella LAM., Syst. Anim. s. Vert., p. 130 (1801). 

Acardo orbicularis MEG. VON MUHLFELD, Der Gesellschaft Nat- 
urforsch. Freunde zu Berlin, Magazin fiir die neuesten Entdeckun- 
gen in der gesaramten Naturkuude, v, p. 63 (1811). 

Umbracalum chinense SCHUM., Essai d'un Nouv. Syst. Vers Test., 
p. 178 (1817). 

Umbrella indica LAM., Anim. s. Vert., vi, p. 343 (1819). 
BLAINVILLE, Malacol., pi. 44, f. 1. SOWB:, Genera of Shells, f. 1, 
2. KRAUSS, Die Siidafrik. Moll., p. 62. REEVE, Conch. Syst., ii, 
p. 52, pi. 155, f. 1, 2 ; Conch. Icon., xi, pi. f. 1. KUSTER, Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 5, pi. 1, fig. 7 (1862). EYDOUX & SOULEYET, Voy. de'la 
Bonite, Zool., ii, p. 471, pi. 27, f. 1-12. MARTENS, in Mobius' 
Meeresfauna Mauritius, p. 309 ; Conchol. Mittheil, i, p. 104, pi. 20, 
f. 4-7 (monstrous specimen figured). GOULD, U. S. Expl. Exped. 
Moll., p. 311, pi. 26, f. 408. Operculatum indicum ANGAS, P. Z 
S., 1867, p. 228, cf. PSE., Amer. Journ. Conch., vii, p. 22. 

Ombrella indica BLAINV., Man. de Malacol., p. 475, pi. 44, f. 1, 
la, Ib (Gastroplax Blainv., Bull, des Sci. par la Soc. Philoma- 
thique de Paris, for 1819, p. 178-182. Gastroplax tubereulosusBLV., 
Diet. Sci. Nat. xviii, p. 177). Umbrella chinensis GRAY, in M. E. 
Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., iv, p. 33, and ii, pi. 163, f. 1, 2 (copies 
from Blainv. Malacol., pi. 44, f. 1). Umbrella indica GRAY, Figs. 
Moll. Anim., iv, p. 33, and ii, pi. 163. f. 4, type specimen in B. M. 
of Blainville's Gastroplax, the shell removed. (This specimen also 
the original of Blainville's figures, Malacologie, pi. 44, f. 1). 

Operculatum aurantium PEASE, Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 287, 
eonf. GLD., Expl. Exped., p. 312. 

The shell of U. sinicum is less depressed than that of U. mediter- 
raneum, with more numerous, narrower radial waves, less undulat- 
ing periphery and less strongly hooked apex. It is also larger. 

This is the species ordinarily known as Umbrella indica Lamarck. 
There are, however, no less than seven properly proposed specific 
names by strictly binomial authors, anterior to the date of indica; 
and since the well known name must fall, there seems no reasonable 
objection to the use of the prior of Gmelin's two specifics. Lam- 
arck's name has held its tenure chiefly because no exposition at all 
complete of the synonymy of this species has hitherto been pub- 
lished. 



182 UMBRACULUM. 

The soft parts have been figured by Blainville, Gray, Eydoux 
and Souleyet, and Gould. The locality of the single alcoholic spec- 
imen figured by the first two authors is not known. The figures of 
the Bonite voyage and the U. S. Exploring Expedition were drawn 
from Sandwich Island examples ; and this form Pease proposes to 
separate specifically from the " U. indica " under the name auran- 
tium. The characters of the soft parts cited by him are useless, as 
no adequate information on those of U. sinicum is extant, his com- 
parison with the Bonite figures being fallacious on account of the 
fact that those figures were drawn from Sandwich Island specimens. 
He distinguishes the shells by the less marked radiating ribs and 
color of the inside, which is " in the center dark chestnut-brown, 
muscular impression yellowish, bordered by a concentric band of 
chestnut-brown, outer edge yellowish. Length 5J, diam. 4 inches." 
The animal " attains the size of 8 inches in length," and when liv- 
ing is orange yellow. 

Hawaiian specimens before me differ slightly from typical U. sin- 
icum in the obsolescence of the radial ridges externally. The body 
is more depressed than in specimens of U. mediterraneum (judging 
both by alcoholic examples), the tubercles of the surface are higher, 
and the mantle edge has fewer, slenderer processes. 

Gould describes the Sandwich Island form as covered with prom- 
inent tubercles of different sizes, growing smaller toward the mar- 
gin, cream-colored, with olive shadings in the fissures, increasing 
toward the margin, branchia? orange colored. 

U. CUMINGI Deshayes. PI. 73, figs. 86, 87. 

Shell large, irregularly patelliform, ovate, the vertex ex central, 
bent toward the back and left side. White under a corneous, yel- 
lowish epidermis, with radiating obtuse angles. Lower surface 
with the central area subradiated with orange or chestnut, muscle 
impression narrow, continuous, irregular. Length 120, width 90, 
alt. 23 mill., or smaller. (Desk.). 

Island of Bourbon (Mail lard). 

Umbrella cumingi DH., Moll, de File Reunion, p. 52, pi. 8, f. 4, 
5. 

Readily distinguished from U. indica by the form and the rela- 
tive size of the colored middle area within. It is oval, quite regu- 
larly obtuse at the ends. Outside covered by a yellowish corneous 
epidermis, nearly identical with that of U. indica. This epidermis 



UMBRACULUM. 183- 

is radiated, the rays being thickened and coarsely scaly. When 
the epidermis is removed the shell is a beautiful white, and shows 
ten obtuse angles which radiate from the center toward the periph- 
ery, but which are placed at unequal intervals and completely dis- 
appear before they reach the circumference. The edges of the 
shell are thin and sharp. Below in the middle there is a large dis- 
coidal area, sometimes of a brownish fawn, sometimes of a paler tint, 
verging toward orange. This spot is proportionally smaller than 
in the U. indica, and moreover, is nearly smooth, not showing the 
deep radial incisions which characterize that species. In U. cum- 
in <l I this area is definitely bounded by a narrow white zone with 
irregular contours, representing the muscle impression. Below 
this impression may be remarked a rather narrow zone, washed 
with pale fawn ; and finally, the rest of the shell is a very pure 
milk-white. In the smaller and younger individual figured, the 
shell is transparent enough to show through some of the epi- 
dermal rays. 

Description and figures from Deshayes. The smooth central 
area seems to be its most prominent feature. 

U. PICTUM A. Adams. 

Shell orbiculate-oval, flat, the apex produced, brown, incurved ; 
covered with a thin corneous epidermis, concentrically striated, 
whitish, radially painted with orange ; interior shining, orange at 
the margin. (Ad.). 

.Lord Hood's Island (Mus. Hasler). 

Operculatum pictum A. AD., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 137. 

This species is richly painted with reddish-orange, disposed in a 
radiated manner around the outer margin, the rays extending 
towards the center ; the apex is hooked and more elevated than in 
the other species. (Ad.). 

U. CORTICALIS Tate. PI. 70, fig. 62. 

Shell orbicular in outline, moderately elevated, with the apex 
prominent, somewhat incurved, and a little excentric ; covered 
except apex, with a well developed epidermis, which extends about 
half as far again as the shell. The epidermis is raised into about 20 
broad rays, diverging from the apex, and is concentrically lamellose. 
It is pellucid white, but encircled with a band of maroon color, 
corresponding with the edge of the shell ; it is very tough, and can 
be readily removed in one piece. 



184 HYALOPATINA. 

The shell is of a primrose yellow color, thin, concentrically striated, 
and with a few obscure radial ridges. The animal is of a deep port- 
wine colour ; the foot is circular in outline, with an extended mar- 
gin ; the under side of the mantle is covered with small white car- 
unculse. 

Dimensions. Transverse diameters, 19 and 15 ; height, 4 mill. 
(Tote). 

Lower end of the South Channel of Port Phillip, seven to sixteen 
fathoms, sand and weed (J. B. Wilson); St. Vincent Gulf, S. Aus- 
tralia. 

Umbrella corticalis TATE, Trans., Proc. and Rep. Roy. Soc. S. 
Australia, xi, p. 65, pi. 11, f. 11 (April, 1889); Rep. Austr. Asso. 
Adv. Sc., i, p. 336; and in WILSON, Proc. Roy. Soc. Viet, (new 
series), ii, p. 66 (1890). 

Subgenus HYALOPATINA Dall, 1889. 
Hyalopatina DALL, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xviii, p. 61. 
Shell dextral, flattened, sculptured, ovate, nucleus sinistral, im- 
mersed. Soft parts unknown. 

H. RUSHII Dall. PL 51, fig. 58 (enlarged). 

Shell oval, translucent bluish-white, almost perfectly flat, ex- 
tremely thin. Nucleus of less than one whorl, half immersed, the 
remainder rising above the surface, smooth, not polished. Upper 
surface nearly flat, except near the nucleus which is situated nearly 
in the median line and close to the posterior margin ; concentrically 
faintly undulated ; with faint concentric growth lines, and with very 
numerous radiating lines of extremely minute slightly elevated 
points, recalling the granules of Poromya on a much finer and more 
minute scale. They are so small as to hardly appear elevated, but 
more like radiating lines of opaque dots on the generally translucent 
surface. Margin regularly ovate, entire, extremely thin. Under 
surface of shell mostly polished, a little domed under the part in 
front of the nucleus ; there are faint markings (interrupted on the 
right side about the middle) which appear as if they might repre- 
sent the area of muscular insertions, but the polish of the shell is 
such that this is not definitely ascertained. The sides of the shell 
are a little elevated, as if it had grown on a slightly con cave surface, 
but the ends are depressed about to the same extent (Dall). 

Length 9'3, width 7*5; posterior margin to nucleus, 1'8 mill. 
Of Great Isaac Light, Bahamas, in 30 fms. (Dr. W. H. Rush). 



TYLODINA. 185 

Hyalopatina rushii DALL, Blake Gastrop., p. 61 (1889). 

This remarkable shell has been some time in the National Mu- 
seum, and has been submitted to several conchologists, and studied 
with much care. In the absence of any further information, I have 
come to the conclusion that it may be related to Umbraculum, from 
which, conchologically, it is separated by its oval form, posterior 
nucleus, and granulated surface. The discovery of a living speci- 
men, however, may show the true relations of the creature to be 
elsewhere. It has a little the general appearance of an extremely 
thin, flat Crepidula unguiformis without a deck, and with the nucleus 
within the margin (Dalfy. 

The figure is from a drawing kindly lent by Ball. 

Genus TYLODINA Kafinesque, 1819. 

Tylodina RAF., Analyse de la Nature, ou Tabl. de TUuivers et 
des Corps Organises, 1815, p. 143 (nude name) ; Journal de Physique, 
de Chimie, d'Hist. Nat., etc., Ixxxix, p. 152 (1819). Joannisia 
MONTEROSATO, Nomencl. Gen. e Spec. Conch. Medit., p. 149 (1884), 
type T. citrina. 

Animal almost completely retractile under the shell ; foot flat, 
broadly truncate in front, pointed behind; head distinct, elongated 
and sub-bifid in front, with a buccal veil terminating in labial ten- 
tacles, the mouth between buccal veil and foot ; dorsal tentacles 
long, cylindrical, slit on the outer sides almost their entire length, 
with olfactory lamellae within the slit. Eyes sessile at their interno- 
anterior bases ; mantle completely covered by shell, its edge den- 
ticulate. Branchial plume bipinnate, free for the greater part of its 
length, lying between mantle and foot on the right side, the end 
projecting backward. Anus behind the gill ; genital pore in front 
of gill. 

Radula armed with many similar narrow teeth ; jaws rudimen. 
tary ; gizzard with numerous corneous denticles. 

Shell external, conical and limpet-like, calcareous except at the 
borders which are membranous ; apex recurved, when perfect com- 
posed of two glossy, vitreous whorls, coiled spirally to the left and 
backward. 

Distribution : Mediterranean, Gulf of Mexico, California. 

This genus differs notably from Umbraculum in having the shell 
larger in proportion to the body, in the projecting head, not included 
in an anterior sinus of the foot, and in the external genitalia. 



186 TYLODINA. 

T. CITRINA Joannis. PI. 73, figs. 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83. 

Shell short-oval, low-conic, rather thin ; apex subcentral, directed 
slightly backward and to the left ; surface smooth, showing slight 
growth lines under the lens, a peripheral zone 3 or 4 mill, wide is 
membranaceous and squamose. Color pale yellowish, deeper toward 
the apex, with a variable number (6 to 22) of red-brown radial 
bands, coloring the cuticle, unevenly spaced, sometimes part of them 
disposed in pairs ; apex whitish. The dark rays do not reach the 
apex, and are entirely epidermal, worn shells not showing them. 

Length 20, breadth 15, alt. 4 mill. 

Soft parts citron-yellow throughout, with slightly paler bands on 
upper surface of the foot ; gill pale yellow. Gizzard armed with a 
multitude of corneous, lamellose denticles. Jaws represented by 
fleshy prominences on each side of the mouth, covered with a trans 
parent chitinous cuticle. Kadula with the formula 80 to 130.1.80 to 
130 ; usually about 90.1.90. 

Bay of Athens (Joannis) ; Palermo and Catania, Sicily (Arad. & 
Ben.) ; Sardinia (Cantraine) ; St. Helena (Smith) ; Lancerotte, Ca- 
naries (McAndrew). 

Tylodina citrina JOANNIS, Mag. de Zool., 1834, pi. 36, f. 1-5. 
WEINKAUFF, Conch, des Mittelm. p. 178. ARAD. & BEN., Conch, 
viv. Mar. Si cilia, p. 123. MONTS., Nuova Kivista Conch. Medit., p. 
49. KOBELT, Prod. Faun. Moll. Eur., p. 273. Tylodina (Joannisia) 
citrina MONTS., Nomencl. Gen. e Spec. Conch. Med., p. 149. VAYS- 
SIERE, Ann. Sci. Nat. (6), xv, 1883, p. 28, pi. 2, 3, f. 22-35; Re- 
cherches Zool., Opistobr., p. 152, pi. 5, f. 130-136. SMITH, P.Z.S., 
1890, p. 299. T. punctulata Raf., GRAY, P. Z. 8., 1856, p. 46. 

? Parmophorus patelloideus CANTRAINE, Bull. Acad. Brux., ii, p. 
395._ Umbrella patelloidea CANTR., Malac. Medit. et. Lit., p. 93 [pi. 
8, f. 19?]. 

? Tylodina punctulata RAFINESQUE, Journ. de Physique, de Chimie, 
d'Hist. Nat., etc., Ixxxix, 1819, p. 153. 

?T. atlantica GRAY, P. Z. S., 1856, p. 46=" Umbrella (small)," MC- 
ANDREW, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2), x, p. 104. 

The shell is larger and more depressed than in T. rafinesquii 
Phil. 

It is uncertain which species of Tylodina was known to Rafines- 
que. His description is as follows : 

"Genre 5. TYLODINA. (Mollusque). Corps rampant, a petite 
coquille dorsale exterieure membraneuse, sans spire, oval, a pointe 



TYLODINA. 187 

calleuse, patelliforme, 4 tentacules, les 2 posterieurs eloignes et plus 
grands, branch ies dorsales sous la coquille a droit, anus a la droitdu 
cou. T. punctulata poiutille de brun, tentacules obtus; coquille 
lisse." 

Gray's T. atlantica, collected by Me Andrew at Canary Is. (erro- 
neously said by Gray to be from Madeira), is thus described : "Shell 
solid, bright yellow ; periostraca ? " 

Parmophorus patelloideus C&ntr&iuQ has also been referred to Urn- 
braculiun mediterraneum, young ; but I do not know that Can- 
traine's type has been compared with either that species or the 
present one. 

T. RAFINESQUII Philippi. PL 73, figs. 84, 85. 

Shell elevated-conical, rounded-ovate, white, but covered by a 
yellowish cuticle ; smooth, showing but slight growth-lines. 

Length 10, breadth 81, alt. 6 mill. 

Catania and Palermo, Sicily (Phil., Arad. & Ben.) ; Adria-Zara, 
(Brusina) ; Algeria (Weinkauff), in laminarian and coralline 
zones. 

Tylodina rafinesquii PHIL., Enum.\ Moll. Sicil., i, p. 114, pi. 7, f. 
8a, b (1836) ; ii, p. 89. ARADAS & BENOIT, Conchigliologia viv. 
mar. della Sicilia, p. 122. MONTEROSATO, Nuova Rivista Conch. 
Medit., p. 49. T. raffinesquei Phil., WEINKAUFF, Conch. Mittelm., 
ii. p. 178. T. titrina LOCARD, Coq. Mar. des Cotes de France, 
1892, p. 18, f. 4. 

The shell of this species is rounder and more elevated than that of 
T. citrina. 

T. DEUBENII Loven. 

Shell ovate, depressed-conic, obsoletely angulate-radiate, with 
nearly two sinistral nuclear whorls at the recurved apex. Animal 
oblong, the head without a rostrum, deeply slit in front into lanceo- 
late lobes; with ear-shaped vibracula; gill on the right side, the 
subtubular anus behind it ; foot strong, thick, the sole ovate. Color 
of animal and epidermis purple, 10'7 by 8'5 mill. 

Coast of Norway. 

T. duebenii LOVEN, Ind. Moll. lit. Scand. occ., p. 19. 

This unfigured species is mentioned by Sars (Moll. Reg. Arct. 
Norv. p. 363), but no additional information has been published so 
so far as I can find. 



1 88 TYLODINA. 

T. AMERICANA Ball. PI. 50, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell rounded in front, subtruucate behind ; thin, translucent 
yellowish, with a tint of orange near its apex; surface polished but 
irregularly malleated as if from irregularities of station ; apex dis- 
proportionately pointed compared with the rest of the shell, erect, 
dwindling rapidly to a blunted point with a slight posterior tendency ; 
on the back of this is apparently an obscure scar as of a dehiscent 
embryonal tip or nucleus ; apex about the beginning of the posterior 
third ; interior polished, anterior horns of the pedal muscles reach- 
ing about the anterior third united by a delicate arched line mark- 
ing the attachment of the mantle. Length 10, width 8, alt. 4 mill. 
(Dall). 

In my Report on the " Blake" Gasteropods I have described and 
figured a shell, which, in the absence of the soft parts, I was obliged 
to refer doubtfully to the young of Umbraculum or Tylodina, under 
the head of" Umbraculum bermudense Morch?" 

This shell now proves to be a genuine Tylodina, different from the 
species of the Mediterranean or of California, and which may take 
the name of T. amerieana. The shell, which was well figured as 
above, in life has a membranous extension 3-5 mill, wide around the 
margin, continuous with the epidermis. The latter is smooth and 
pale with radiating broad purplish rays of color. The animal 
is much smaller than that of T. Rafinesquim proportion to the shell, 
which abundantly covers it, and it emits a dark purple dye. It 
does not seem to differ essentially in the superficial characters of its 
soft parts from the species of the Mediterranean, which, however, has 
not been very well figured. The gill is attached to the edge of 
mantle on the right side. The other characters are much as stated 
in H. & A. Adams' generic description. (Dall). 

Off Havana, dead, in 80 fathoms (' Blake') ; northern border of the 
Gulf of Mexico (U. S. Fish Commission at Station 2406), in 26 
fathoms, coarse sand and broken coral, on the line between the 
mouth of the Mississippi River and Cedar Keys, Florida ; living. 

Umbraculum bermudense (Morch ?), DALL, ' Blake ' Gastropoda, 
Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 60, pi. 14, f. 9, 10 (1889). Tylodina amer- 
ieana DALL, Nautilus, iii, p. 121 (March, 1890). 

T. FUNGINA Gabb. 

Shell subelliptical, elevated, the apex subcentral, blunt ; cuticle 
reddish-brown, yellowish on and near the apex, projecting beyond 



BERTINIA. 189 

the margins of the shell. Interior straw yellow, shading toward the 
margin into a bluish-white. Length 1'3, width I'l, alt. '5 inch. 
(Qabb.}. 

Santa Barbara Island, California, on the shore (Dr. Cooper). 

Tylodina (7) fungina GABB, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., iii, p. 188 

(1865). 

Soft parts unknown. The above measurements are approximate, 
making allowance for the epidermis which in the dry specimen is 
contracted and incurved around the margins to a width of about a 
tenth of an inch. A single specimen, fresh, though without the 
animal, was found by Dr. Cooper. (Gabb~). 

Tylodina excentrica Ijocard=Gadinia. 

Insufficiently known or spurious species. 
Genus Bertinia Jousseaume, 1883. 

Bertinia Jouss., Bull. Soc. Zool. France for 1883, 3d. pt., p. 194 
(type B. bertinia Jouss., 1. c., pi. 10, f. 6, 8). 

Shell calcareous, limpet-like, oval, with thin edges and subcentral 
summit inclined toward the shorter end of shell, which is nail- 
shaped, with muscular impression within. Soft part unknown. 
(Jouss.'). 

This shell must have much resemblance to a worn Helcioniscus 
toreuma or nigrolineatus (see MANUAL, vol. xiii, p. 135), with the 
periphery broken down to the muscle impression, and with the out- 
side worn. Can the learned Doctor have been deceived ? 

B. bertinia Jouss. (PI. 71, figs. 68, 69). Shell ovate-oblong, 
patelliform, convex outside, the vertex excentric, bent toward the 
anterior side ; white and nail-shaped in front, with an impressed 
muscle scar ; the anterior surface, as well as the lateral notches, 
smooth and shining, colored yellowish-brown toward the summit, 
nacreous white toward the borders, as if the anterior part had been 
buried in the tissues of the animal nearly to the apex, while behind 
it was joined at the edges only. Posteriorly rounded and smooth, 
with fine lamellose growth-lines toward the summit, a little swollen 
and shining; its color of a yellow-orange white, is masked toward 
the summit by a wide spot of deep brown, which emits rays nearly 
to the periphery of the same color, more or less long, and quite 
widely spaced. The interior, which is concave, smooth, shining 



190 PLEUROBRANCHID^E. 

and of a faience white in front, is marbled behind by irregularly 
disposed interrupted and entangled orange bands. In certain in- 
dividuals some of these bands are a more or less deep brown. The 
edges of the shell, very thin, sharp and lamellose, are of such 
fragility that none of the specimens have it completely intact. 

Japan. 

The substance of Jousseaume's description is given above. He 
examined four specimens. 

Family PLEUROBKANCHID^. 

Tectibranchiata Notaspidea in which the gill-plume arises about 
the middle of the right side and extends backward, the dorsal shield 
is fleshy, stiffened by spicules, and either shell-less, or concealing 
wholly or mainly a delicate Haliotiform shell, the radula is multi- 
serial, without rachidian teeth, and the jaws are well developed, com- 
posed of many oblong plates arranged in tessellated pattern ; rhino- 
phores present. 

The group is allied to the Umbraeulidce, but differs externally in 
the want of a patelliform shell, the posterior gill, etc. It is not 
closely allied to Runcinidce, which may be considered a specialized 
and ancient branch of the Notaspidia, divergent in its reduction of 
the radula to a triserial arrangement, and the loss of rhinophores 
by degeneration. 

Pleurobranchidce are world-wide in distribution in tropical and 
temperate (rarely in cold) seas. There are many species, especially 
of the genus Pleurobranchus ; and the really diagnostic characters 
of a large number of them are not yet known. 

Attention should be directed especially to certain characters, 
which have been very generally neglected, but are essential to any 
thorough systematic knowledge of species of the group. These 
features are the following : (1) Positions and space-relations of the 
genital orifices. (2) Number of leaflets or plumules of gill, length 
of its adnate and free portions, and smooth or tuberculate nature of 
the rachis. (3) Shape and denticulation of the individual plates 
of the jaws. (4) Denticulation of the teeth of the radula. 

Characters (3) and (4) are readily observed with low powers of 
the microscope ; no delicate manipulation being called for. With 
adequate knowledge of the above-mentioned points, and with what 
is already known of the animals, there would be but little difficulty 
in constructing " keys " or tables for the easy identification of spec- 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. 191 

iraens either living or alcoholic. Without these data, which are 
supplied in very few except the European species, nothing can be 
done toward this end. No monograph of the family has hitherto 
been published. The shells of a few species have been figured in 
the Conchologia Iconica ; and Vayssiere and Bergh have supplied 
admirable anatomical details of the structure of the European 
species. 

Synopsis of Genera andSubgenera. 

I. Mantle with the edge free and overhanging on all sides ; rhin- 
ophores close together, inserted below anterior edge of mantle 
on a frontal veil (Pleurobranchince). 
a. Shell wholly immersed in the closed mantle. 

b. Penis or its foramen close to female orifice, 

PLEUROBRANCHUS, p. 191. 

bb. Penis or penial foramen some distance in front of 
female orifice, mantle generally notched in front or 
behind, OSCANIUS, p. 212. 

aa. Shell partly exposed by an orifice in the mantle, 

GYMNOTOPLAX, p. 210. 

II. Mantle passing without boundary into the broad anterior veil, 
the rhinophores far apart, inserted on the surface of united 
mantle and veil ; no shell, (Pleurobranchceince). 
a. Right, left and posterior borders of mantle freely project- 
ing, separated from the foot by a groove, KOONSIA, 

p. 221. 

aa. Posterior and left borders of mantle passing directly into 
the integument of the foot, not free or projecting, 

PLEUROBRANCH^A, p. 223. 

b. Buccal rostrum when projected very large ; veil of 

moderate size Pleurobranchcea. 

bb. Buccal rostrum slender; body orbicular, the veil 

very large, crescentic Euselenops. 

III. Genus HALIOTINELLA (p. 209) is not included in the above 

synopsis, as its characters are unknown. The shell is similar 

to that of Pleurobranchus. 

Genus PLEUROBRANCHUS Cuvier, 1804. 

Pleurobranchus Cuv., Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., v, p. 275. 
Bertliella BLAINVILLE, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxxxi, p. 370, 1826, for 
B. porosa=plumula. Cleantus LEACH, Synops. Moll. Gt. Brit., p. 



192 PLEUROBRAKCUUS. 

28, 1 852, for C. montagui=plumula. Cleanthus Leach, 1819, GRAY, 
P. Z. S., 1847, p. 163.? Westernia &nd Gervisia Quoy & Gaim., 
Ms. according to de Blainville, Man. de Malac., Addit. et Correct., 
p. 654, 1827. t Discoides RENIERI, (?Tav. Class., 1807) according 
to Agassiz, Nomencl. Zool. 

Body oval, the mantle about the size of the foot, free and pro- 
jecting at the edges all around ; the rhinophores contiguous, in- 
serted below it, above an expansion of the integument or " veil." 
Gill bipinnate ; male and female generative orifices contiguous or 
almost united. Shell present, auriculate. Type P- peronii, 
Cuvier. 

In this genus, which comprises a majority of the species of the 
family, the mantle is smooth or at least not conspicuously tubercular, 
the rhinophores are inserted below the front edge of the mantle, and 
the genital orifices are closer together than in other Tectibranehiata. 
The internal classification of the group is still unsettled, awaiting 
more light ; but the following arrangement may be suggested : 
I. Shell completely buried in the closed mantle. 

a. Male and female genital orifices contiguous but distinct, 

Section Pleurobranchus. 

aa. Male and female orifices united in a single elongated 
papilla or pit Section Berthella. 

It is at present impossible to make any more logical arrangement 
than a geographic one of the species of this group. So many spe- 
cies are still known only in the most superficial way, that there is no 
basis upon which to build a synoptical table or " key " for their de- 
termination. It is known that all European species belong to Ber- 
thella; most Indo-Pacific forms upon which data are extant, belong 
to the restricted group Pleurobranchus. 

Geographic distribution of species. 

European Seas : P. plumula, Atlantic. 

P. stellatus, aurantiacus, monterosatoi, perforatus, 

brevifrons, Mediterranean. 

American : P. areolatus, quadridens, circularis, West Indies. 
P. patagonicus, S.-E. coast Argentina. 
P. digueti, Lower California. 

Polynesian : P. delicatus, ovalis,pellucidus,tessellatus, marginatus, 
rufus, varians. 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. , 193 

Australo-Zealandic : P. pundatus, angasi, Australia. 

P. ornatus, New Zealand. 
East Indian : P. cornutus, Amboyna. 
Indian Ocean : P. peronii, Mauritius. 

P. granulatus, Cape of Good Hope. 

P. oblongus, citritius, Red Sea. 

P. zeylanicus, Ceylon. 

(Species of European Seas'). 

P. PLUMULA Montagu. PI. 52, figs. 60, 61, 64, 65 ; pi. 74, figs. 1-3. 

Body semioval, gelatinous, lemon color, or whitish with a slight 
tinge of yellow, marked with flake-white spots, minutely tessellated 
all over with faint lines, and covered with a few scattered pustules ; 
mantle extending on every side beyond the foot, of a reticulated and 
apparently porous texture, and occasionally puckered or raised in 
folds ; it is rather thin on the back and thickened at its edges, which 
are often wavy and wrinkled ; and it has a small notch on the right 
hand side, as in Lamellaria ; the edges of the mantle are irregularly 
studded with microscopic tubercles ; head-veil or hood semicircular, 
forming a bluntly pointed flap at each side, it is carried in advance 
of the foot; head short, mouth round and open; tentacles propor- 
tionally large, but rather short, diverging at an angle of about 45 
and projecting outwards, they are half open down the middle; tips 
obliquely truncated, eyes black, partly imbedded in the outer integ- 
ument and not always visible, placed close together on the neck 
between the tentacles at their base ; foot oblong, expanded towards 
the sides, and sinuous or wavy at the edges, occupying about half 
the space of the mouth ; it is squarish or gently curved and double- 
edged in front, and tapers to a rounded point behind ; gill plume 
placed in the divisional groove between the mantle and foot, not 
always protruded, and never beyond the edge of the mantle, com- 
posed of about 20 sloping strands or pectinations ; it is in some indi- 
viduals reddish-brown, and in others of the same color as the rest of 
the body ; liver brown ; ovary cream color. Length 1 inch. 

Shell oval with a squarish outline, sometimes oblong, more solid 
and compact than P. membranaceus, glossy and partially iridescent ; 
sculpture, microscopic and close set longitudinal strise, which are 
more conspicuous near the spire, and are interrupted by the lines of 
growth, so as to form a series of short rows ; the lines of growth are 
irregular and rather numerous, and many specimens have also a 
13 




194 PLEUROBRANCHUS. 

-slight furrow which runs obliquely from back to front ; color pale 
reddish-brown or tawny, rarely milk-white ; spire extremely small 
but distinct, twisted sideways, and placed at a short distance from 
the inner margin at the posterior or smaller end ; it consists of two 
whorls, the first of which is tubercular and somewhat prominent ; 
mouth open throughout; dorsal margin gently curved, flat, slightly 
reflected and thickened ; inner margin short ; ventral margin long 
and nearly straight. Length "6, breadth *325 inch. (Jeffreys). 

English and Irish Coasts, under stones at low water, sometimes 
deeper ; Norway ; the Channel, and Ocean Coast of France. 

Bulla plumula MONT., Test. Brit., i, p. 214, pi. 15, f. 9, and vign. 
2, f. 5 (1803). Pleurobranchus plumula FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. 
Br. Moll., iii, p. 559, pi. 114F, f. 6, 7 ; pi. xx, f. 1, 2. JEFFREYS, 
Brit. Conch., v, p. 11, pi. 1, f. 2. SOWERBY, Conch. Icon., xvii, f. 1. 
SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 363, pi. xiii, f. 1 (jaws and den- 
tition). P. sideralis LOVEN, teste Jeffreys. Berthella porosa Leach, 
BLAINVILLE, Diet. Sci. Nat, xxxxi, p. 370 (1826); Man. de 
Malac., p. 470, pi. 43, f. 1. Pleurobranchus plumulatus Mont., 
LOCARD, Prodr. Mai. Fr., in Ann. Soc. d'Agric. Lyon (5), viii, 
1885, p. 69 (1886). PL fieuriausi D'ORBIGNY, Voy. dans 1'Amer. 
Merid., p. 205, foot-note. Cleantus montagui LEACH, Synops. Moll. 
Ot. Brit., 1852, p. 28. 

This species is type of Berthella Blainv. It differs from the 
Mediterranean form (stellatus] in having the plates of the jaws 
;finely denticulate (pi. 74, fig. 1), and the lateral teeth smooth (pi. 
74, figs. 2, 3). There are also more branches on the gill, and the 
shell is apparently more quadrate. 

A variety alba Marshall (Journ. of Conch., Leeds, vii, p. 265) 
Tias been proposed for specimens from Jersey with the shell pure 
white. Fifty per cent, from that locality are stated to be white. 

P. STELLATUS Risso. PI. 52, figs. 62, 63 ; pi. 74, figs. 95, 96. 

Body oblong, ovoid, the teguments of very delicate consistence, 
general color transparent yellow. Mantle thick, very large, more 
vividly colored than the rest of the animal, and very slightly emar- 
ginate in front ; under a strong lens showing a multitude of dots of 
deeper color. Foot small, oval, and wholly covered by the mantle. 
Gill pinnate, folded longitudinally, composed of 15 pinnules on 
each side of the rachis. Orifices of gem'talia united in a sort of 
cloaca, and placed in front of the insertion of the gill. Anus behind 
gill-insertion. Length 29, width 20 mill. 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. 195 

Jaws composed of lozenge-shaped pieces, each terminating in a 
single denticle (pi. 74, fig. 96). Radula with the formula 150.0.150, 
the lateral teeth bearing 8 to 10 small denticles immediately below 
the terminal hook (pi. 74, fig. 95). 

Shell haliotiform, quite strong, translucent and iridescent; spire 
little projecting ; color amber yellow ; under the microscope a close 
pattern of longitudinal wrinkles is visible (fig. 63) ; these giving the 
iridescent effect. 

Alt. 8, diam. 5 mill. ; alt. 7, diam. 4 mill. ( Vayssiere). 

Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas, laminarian and coralline zones ; 
St. Lucie, Cape Verde Is. (Bouvier) ; Strait between Pico and Fayal, 
Azores, 130 meters (Hirondelle). 

Pleurobranchus stellatus Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 41 
(1826). ROCHEBR., Nouv. Arch, du Mus., 1881, p. 264. 

Pleurobranchus ocellatus DELLE CHIAJE, Memorie, Atlas, pi. 104, 
f. 9, 16 (1828). 

P. plumula VAYSSIERE, Journ. de Conch., 1880, p. 208, pi. 7,f. 2 
(shell); Rech. Moll. Opistobr., Tectibranches, p. 113, f. 105-107 
(teeth and jaws). MONTEROSATO, Journ. de Conch., 1874, p. 281. 
BERGH, Camp. Sci. Albert I, fasc. iv, p. 19, pi. 2, f. 43-50 ; pi. 3, f. 
51-67 ; and ? ? Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xxv, no. 10, p. 197, pi. 9, f. 
12-14 ; pi. 10, f. 1-8 (from Lower California! ). Not P. plumula 
Mont. 

Lamellaria kleciachi BRUSINA, Contr. Faun. Dalm., p. 35 (1866). 

I retain the Mediterranean form separate from that of northern 
Europe mainly on account of the great differences in jaws and den- 
tition. In this species the elements of the jaw have a median point 
but no lateral denticles, and the lateral teeth have numerous short 
denticles below the terminal booklet. In P. plumula, as figured by 
Sars, the plates of the jaw are multidenticulate, and the lateral teeth 
apparently lack denticulation. There are also some differences in the 
shells and gills between the two forms. 

The synonymy given is merely tentative. 

P. AURANTIACUS Risso. PL 52, figs. 76, 77, 78, 79, 80. 

Body ovoid ; general color transparent orange, sometimes bright 
orange; tissues very delicate. Mantle small, not covering either 
buccal veil, rhinophores or end of the foot. Foot nearly twice as 
long and as wide as the mantle. Gill pinnate, folded longitudin- 
ally, quite long and with 16 or 17 pinnules on each side. Genital 
orifices and anus as usual in the subgenus. 

Length 31, breadth 17 mill. 



196 PLEUROBRANCHUS. 

Jaws composed of pieces having five denticles on each side of the 
terminal point (pi. 74, fig. 99). Radula with formula 70.0.70, the 
lateral teeth with terminal booklet but no denticles below it (fig. 97, 
group of median teeth ; fig. 98, a large lateral). 

Shell auriculate, the spire a little projecting ; solid, thick but 
transparent, of a dull amber-yellow color. 

Alt. 11, diam. 7 mill. (Vays.*). 

Nice (Risso), Gulf of Marseilles (Vayssiere) ; Strait between Pico 
and Fayal, Azores, in 130 meters (Hirondelle). 

Pleurobranchus aurantiacus Risso (Cuvier, Regne Anim., ii, p. 
396, name only), Journ. de Phys. China., Hist. Nat., Ixxxvii, p. 374 
(1818); Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 40, pl.l,f. 8. PniL.,Enum. 
Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 85, pi. 20, f. 7. GUERIN, Mag. de Zool., 1830, p. 18, 
pi. 18. VAYSSIERE, Journ. de Conch., 1880, p. 206, pi. 7, f. 1 (shell) ; 
Recherches, etc., p. 135, f. 102-104 (jaws and teeth).- BERGH, Res. 
Camp. Sci. Albert I, fasc. iv, p. 26, pi. 3, f. 68-70, 75 ; pi. 4, f. 76- 
79. MONTS., Nuova Rivista, p. 48. LACAZE-DUTHIERS, Ann. Sci. 
Nat., xi, 1859, p. 199, pll. 6-12 (anatomy). CANTRAINE, Malac. 
Medit. et Litt., p. 90, pi. 4, f. 7. P. elongatus CANTRAINE, Bull. 
Roy. Soc. Brux., ii, p. 385. 

The foot is larger than in P. plumula ; there are fewer denticles 
on the plates of the jaws. The shell is solid, calcareous, and pro- 
portionally larger than in any other species except P. membrana- 
ceus, compared to the size of the animal. It is also distinguished 
by the deep orange color of the soft parts. 

P. MONTEROSATOI Vayssiere. PI. 52, figs. 66, 67, 68 ; pi. 74, fig. 6. 

Body elliptical, oval, swollen ; general color rosy ochre-yellow. 
Mantle covering the whole body and emarginate in front, of a deeper 
ochre tint, with large light spots and numerous ochre-brown or 
grayish dots. Buccal veil triangular, the two tubular dorsal tenta- 
cles carried at its base. Foot occupying the entire length of the 
mantle, but a little narrower than the latter. Gill pinnate, folded 
longitudinally, quite long and bearing 24 to 25 pinnules on each 
side. Genital cloaca in front of gill insertion, anus behind. 

Length 55, width 40 mill. 

Jaws composed of chitinous pieces, each with a strong angular 
denticle, without lateral denticles (fig. 6). Radula with the for- 
mula 80.0.80 ; lateral teeth all alike in form, with a terminal hook 
but no denticles below it, as in P. aurantiacus. 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. 197 

Shell elongated, but little convex, the spire projecting; growth- 
stride quite apparent; color white (sometimes slightly amber), iri- 
descent, translucent, calcareous and quite solid. 

Alt. 12, diam. 5 mill. (Vayssiere). 

Gulf of Marseilles ( Vayssiere). 

Pleurobranchus monterosatoi VAYSSIERE, Journ. de Conch., 1880, 
p. 212, pi. 7, f. 5; Recherches, etc., p. 118, pi. 4, f. 108-112. 
BERGH, Re's. Camp. Sci. Albert I, fasc. iv, pi. 3, f. 71-74. 

The colors are due to tiny pale ochreous or whitish grains in the 
integument near the surface, massed together to form the markings. 
The spire of the shell is longer than in other Mediterranean species. 
Smaller specimens of the shell measure 5 mill, long, slightly over 2 
wide ; and the length of the whole animal varies from 30 to 55 
mill. 

P. PERFORATUS Philippi. PI. 52, figs. 73, 74, 75. 

Body ovate-elliptical, convex ; mantle retuse in front, convex be- 
hind, obsoletely warty at the sides, and as if perforated all over with 
numerous deeply impressed points ; foot equalling the mantle ; 
gill arising at the middle of body, extending nearly to the tip of 
tail, and adnate for f of its length. Shell large, f the length of 
body. Length 13, width 8, alt. 6i lines. 

Catania, Sicily. 

P. perforates PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 87, pi. 21, f. 2, (1844). 

Described from an alcoholic specimen which had lost every trace 
of color. The comparatively large and very thin shell (broken in 
the type), the adnate gill and punctate mantle, should render it iden- 
tifiable, although it has not been recognized by later authors. 

P. BREVIFRONS Philippi. PI. 52, figs. 69, 70, 71, 72. 

Mantle ovate, 7 lines long, 5? wide, rounded in front and behind, 
semiglobose, very smooth. Foot much narrower, but longer than 
mantle; shell large, thin, oblong, 5? lines long, scarcely over 3 
wide; gill small. Foot violaceous, verging toward reddish; mantle 
margin and tentacles sprinkled with violaceous. (Phil.). 

Sicily. 

P. brevifrons PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 87, pi. 20, f. 5, 
(1844). 

Described from an alcoholic specimen. 



198 PLEUROBRANCHUS. 

Insufficiently described Mediterranean species of Pleurobranchus. 

P. savii Verany. Body oval, compressed, " color nankino." 
Mantle a little smaller than the foot, marbled with white and choc- 
olate. Tentacles and shell covered with ferruginous points ; mar- 
gin of the foot tending to orange ; gill a little longer than mantle, 
of a clear azure color. Length 45, width 32 lines. Riviera di 
Ponente. 

(Verany, Catal. Anim. Invert. Mar. del Golfo Geneva e Nizza, 
1846, pp. 16, 19). 

P. limacoides Forbes. P. corpore (repente) oblongo, Ia3vi auran- 
tiaco ; pallio ovato, piano, contra-subemarginato ; cauda exserta lan- 
ceolata ; tentaculis elongatis, linearibus. Lorig. 2f inch. Under 
stones near water-mark among the Cyclades. Allied to P. oblongus 
of Cantraine (Forbes, Rep. .ZEgean Invert., Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. 
Bci., 1843, p. 187 (1844). 

P. calyptrceoides Forbes. P. corpore, ovato, Isevi, citrino, pallio 
orbiculari convexo, cauda exserta lata obtusa, tentaculis linearibus. 
Long. H inch. On sponges, 20 fms., Cervi Bay, Morea (Forbes, L 
c.). 

P. scutatus Forbes. P. corpore rotundato, rubro-aurantiaco ; pal- 
lio lato scabro, convexo, antice producto ; cauda pallio occulta ; ten- 
taculis linearibus. Long. 1 inch. On Codium tomentosum, in 20 
fms., Cyclades (Forbes, I. c.). 

P. sordidus Forbes. P. corpore rotundato, convexo ; pallio 
rugoso, sordide brunneo, antice producto ; pede quadrato, albo ; 
cauda brevissima ; tentaculis albis linearibus; ore aurantiaco. Long. 
f inch. 40 fms., off Paros (Forbes, L c.). 

(American species*). 

P. QUADRIDENS M6rch. 

Body with the mantle inflated, soft, oval ; veil transverse, pro- 
duced laterally, slit in angles at each side ; foot angulate, without 
an anterior sulcus. Tentacles flattened, deeply slit, intorted ; gill 
plume rather short, with about 20 somewhat remote pinnae on each 
side. Living animal bright orange, the young cinnabar colored. 

Lingual teeth long, slender, lightly arcuate, apex uncinate, in- 
curved, with 3 approximated teeth, of which the two smaller inferior 
ones are equal. 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. 199 

Shell subopaque, pellucid, elongated, straight-sided, lightly 
rounded in front, the dorsal margin suddenly reflexed and winged! 
behind ; right back margin obtusely angled ; whorls 2, spire mamil- 
late, prominent ; suture impressed toward the aperture, margin in- 
cised ; submembranous growth-striae regular, growth-sulci remote, 
interstices iridescent with frequent splendid dots; radial striae very 
obsolete, radial impression sublateral ; length 5, width 3 mill. 

St. Thomas, West Indies on corals in 3-4 ft. (Riise) ; also Guade- 
loupe. 

Pleurobranchus voisin du Pleurobranche orangeDESH., Journ. de 
Conch., 1857, p. 142. ? Pleurobranchus sp., RANG, Manuel, pi. iii r 
f. 4. Berthella quadridens MORCH, Journ. de Conch., 1863, p. 29. 

The number of leaflets on gill is more numerous than in PL 
aurantiacus Risso, and the two species are readily distinguished by 
the lingual teeth. In P. quadridens there are three denticulations 
on the recurved cusp, the two lower being smaller and equal, while 
in P. aurantiacus there are ten little and nearly equal digitations at 
the point. 

Morch's reference to Rang for an illustration, is only one of hi& 
jests. See also Haliotinella patinaria Guppy. 

P. AREOLATUS Morch. 

Body soft, nearly prismatic, suboval, gibbous from contraction ; 
mantle suboval, rectangularly emarginate in front, back areolate, 
the areas oblong-hexagons, central ones rather smooth, those at 
sides smaller with a median wart, anterior marginal areas small, ob- 
solete, but with very distinct papillae. Foot oval, the margin thin, 
undulated, anterior sulcus of foot gaping, laterally much reduced, 
sole narrowed behind, with a longitudinal sulcus glandulose on each 
side nearly one-third the length of foot. Veil above the mouth 
transverse, narrow, with subacute, slit lateral angles, the bases of 
the sides reticulated with small confluent purple spots. Tentacles 
with circular sulci, approximate, cylindrical, rolled, slit down the 
side and perforate at apices. Eyes large and black, midway be- 
tween bases of tentacles and the mantle. Gill plume long, triangu- 
lar, the sides subparallel, with about 16 alternating secondary 
plumes on each side, becoming smaller toward the apex, each with 
a strong wart at the base. Length 21, width 16, alt. 15 mill, in the 
contracted condition. 



200 PLEUROBRANCHUS. 

Lingual teeth simple, not denticulate, the shape of a horse's jaw, 
rather acute at apices, lightly bent. Shell small, elongated, nearly 
flat, with a linear, radial, submedian impression ; lirse of growth 
strong and remote, the interstices a little concave, lirulse of growth 
solitary, small. Color chestnut, whitish toward the periphery ; 
length 6 mill. (MoreK). 

St. Thomas, West Indies (Riise). 

Pleurobranchus areolatus MORCH, Journ. de Conchy]., 1863, p. 
28; Malak. BL, xxii, p. 178. 

This may, perhaps, be an Oscanius. 
P. CIRCULARIS Morch. 

Mantle circular, gelatinous, white or pale isabelline, subpellucid ; 
periphery thick, semiterete, margin prone, inflexed, acute, the edge 
submembranous-circular ; foot elongate-oval, margin undulating, 
with very short, transverse remote sulci ; anteriorly broadly 
rounded, sinuous in the middle, destitute of the transverse sulci of 
the fore part, rather acute behind, with an oblique, funnel-shaped 
sulcus, slightly glandular. Veil lunar-reniform, slit at sides. Ten- 
tacles approximate at bases, diverging, acute, incurved, conic, slit 
along the sides ; eyes situated below their external bases, incon- 
spicuous, deeply sunken. Gill plume adherent for its entire length, 
the rachis smooth with 16 alternating plumules on each side. 
Anus in front of end of plume. Shell small, median, white, seen 
through the transparent mantle. 

Diam. mantle 31 mill. ; length of foot 25, width 12* ; width of 
veil 10, length in middle 3 mill. 

St. Thomas, West Indies (Riise). 

Berthella circularis MORCH, Journ. de Conch., 1863, p. 31. 

This species and the preceding are known only by Morch's de- 
scriptions. 

P. PATAGONICUS d'Orbigny. PI. 74, figs. 92, 93. 

Body quadrilateral, depressed, amber colored, of a deeper tint in 
the middle of the mantle, paler on gills and soles. Mantle oblong, 
rounded at the ends, narrower than the foot, entirely smooth, the 
edges thin and sharp, not covering the gill. Foot squarish, very 
wide, extending beyond mantle all around, its edges thin. Head 
moderate, rounded, without buccal appendages. Tentacles 2, flat 
and somewhat channelled. Gill conic. Genital orifice forming a 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. 201 

large pad in front of the gill, the male organ projecting from the 
front of the orifice. Length 20, width 15 mill. 

Shell noticeably chalky, with thin corneous edges, contained in 
the interior of the mantle, depressed, nearly smooth, reddish-yellow, 
oval, growing obliquely as in other species ; length 8 mill. (Orb.). 

Coast of Ensenada de Ros, 41 S. Lat., east coast of Argentina, 
under large stones at low water (Orb.~). 

P. patagonicus ORBIGNY, Voy. dans 1'Amer. Merid., p. 204, pi. 
17, f. 4, 5. 

Differs from other described species in the large size and quad- 
rangular shape of the foot, and small extent of the mantle. 

P. DIGUETI Rochebrune. PL 54, figs. 98, 99, 1, 2. 

Body rounded, ovate, swollen ; mantle ovate, subtruncate in 
front, the margins waved, wide ; foot rather narrow, circularly 
crenulated , buccal region proboscis-like ; tentacles 2, round and 
channelled ; gills somewhat concealed ; scarlet above, buff-white be- 
low. Length 22, width 16, alt. 12 mill. (Rochebr.). 

Mogote, Bay of La Paz, Lower California (Diguet). 

Pleurobranchus digueti ROCHEBR., Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1895, 
p. 240. 

Differs from P. patagonicus d'Orb. by its oval, rounded and not 
quadrilateral body ; narrow foot, not extending beyond the other 
parts of body ; by the proboscis-like, not rounded head, round in- 
stead of flattened tentacles, the partly covered gill not passing 
beyond the edge of the mantle, and by its coloration. (Rochebrune). 

A specimen collected at La Paz by Mr. W. K. Fisher, and pre- 
sented to the Academy by W. N. Lockington, seems to belong to 
this species. It is illustrated on pi. 54, figs. 98, 99, 1, 2, and may 
be described as follows : 

Color, after long immersion in alcohol, dirty light gray, bluish 
over the viscera. Dorsal integument warty, the warts small, sepa- 
rated, appearing as if planted in little pits. Mantle wider than 
foot, amply projecting on all sides. Eyes behind bases of rhino- 
phores, under the mantle. Rhinophores close together, short, 
blunt, cylindric and slit as usual ; below them a trilobed anterior 
disk around the mouth. Foot longer than body, with the forward 
margin duplicated. Gill folded, adnate, except for a short free tip, 
with about 20 bipinnate plumules on each side, alternating on the 
rachis which bears a tubercle at the insertion of each plumule. 



202 PLEUROBRANCHUS. 

Anus behind posterior insertion of gill. Genitalia in front of ante- 
rior insertion, male and female organs contiguous. Total length of 
body 26, width 18 or more, alt. 11 mill. 

Shell small, situated entirely in front of the middle of body, 
nearly flat, calcareous and moderately strong, purplish-white. 
Earlier portion convex, terminating in a minute spiral, later portion 
becoming flattened, with flaring margins. Surface closely wrinkle- 
striate. Interior concave above, with deep, coarse, concentric 
wrinkles. Alt. 5*2, width 4 mill. 

Jaws large, component plates of the tessellation without trace of 
lateral denticulation. Teeth of the radula simply hooked, with no 
denticles. 

(Polynesian species). 

P. DELICATUS Pease. PI. 45, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell small, rather solid, subpyriform, elongate, narrow posteriorly, 
rounded in front, slightly flexuous ; surface rough and marked 
with prominent lines of growth ; nucleus spiral ; anterior portion 
stained with violet, posteriorly white or light horn color. 

Animal delicate, subpellucid, mantle smooth, oblong-oval, rounded 
at both extremities, convex along the dorsal region. Foot elongate- 
oval, rounded at both ends, entirely concealed by the mantle. Ten- 
tacles slightly tapering to truncate tips. Oral veil somewhat con- 
cave in front, produced laterally in tentacular form. Branchial 
plume small, short. 

Color uniform orange-yellow throughout, the viscera imparting a 
dark shade to the dorsal region. (Pse.). 

Huahine, under stones at low water mark (Pse.). 

P. delicatus PSE., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 245 ; Amer. Journ. Conch., 
iv, p. 79, pi. 9, f. 1. 

The shell of this species (and of a few others to be hereafter de- 
scribed) differs considerably from the usual form in being very nar- 
row posteriorly, approaching that of genus Syphonota. (Pse.). 

P. OVALIS Pease. PL 46, figs. 16, 11, 17. 

Animal oblong- oval, smooth, subpellucid, convexly rounded 
above, thin at the margins, rounded behind, slightly concave in 
front. Foot oblong, nearly as wide as the mantle, and projecting 
far posterior to the body. Tentacles well developed, smooth, 
scarcely tapering, cylindrical, truncate and involute. Eyes black 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. 203 

and immersed just behind the tentacles. Oral veil large, notched in 
front, and extended laterally in tentacular shape. Branchial plume 
free, on the posterior half of right side, plumules tripiunate. 
Length two inches. 

Cream color, irregularly spotted, both as to shape and size, with 
purple-red. A few similar spots on the head, veil and gill. Mantle 
and foot narrowly edged, and extremities of the tentacles tinted 
with the same color. (Pse.). 

Tahiti, under stones, in upper region of laminarian zone (Pse.). 

P. ovalis PSE., Amer. Journ. Conch., iv, 79, pi. 9, f. 3 (1868). 

The shell is very fragile. We have but an imperfect specimen, 
which is of the usual shape and size. (Pse.). 

P. TESSELLATUS Pease. PI. 47, figs. 20, 21. 

Animal oval, subpellucid, smooth, white reticulations on upper 
surface of the mantle, slightly raised. Mantle rounded behind, 
slightly concave in front. Foot thin, oblong, projecting a short dis- 
tance behind the mantle when the animal is in motion. Oral veil 
subtriangular, somewhat produced laterally. Cream color, mantle 
reticulated with opaque white, and irregularly spotted with reddish- 
brown, the larger spots more or less dotted with white, under edges 
of the mantle and margin of foot dotted with reddish-brown, and a 
larger spot of same color on the upper posterior end of the foot. 
Shell ? (Pse.). 

Polynesia. 

P.- f PSE., P. Z. S., 1861, p. 245. P. tessellatus PSE., 
P. Z. S., 1863, p. 510 ; Amer. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 80, pi. 9, f. 4. 
No locality is given by Pease for this species. 

P. PELLUCIDUS Pease. 

Mantle oval, smooth, convex above, not covering the foot behind, 
and the margins slightly undulated. Tentacles short, stout, smooth, 
truncated and grooved. Oral veil large, broad, emarginated in the 
front, which part is much prolonged laterally, so as to give it a 
triangular form. Eyes sessile, immersed at the posterior inner bases 
of the tentacles. Foot large. Branchiae on the right side, tripin- 
nate, elongate and exposed. Color whitish translucent, and the 
whole upper surface of the mantle, with the exception of that por- 
tion covering the shell, minutely reticulated. Shell rather large, 
oblong-ovate, whitish horn color, thin, fragile, pellucid, and rather 



204 PLEUROBRANCHUS. 

more obtusely rounded before than behind. Surface above convex, 
and coarsely marked with concentric wrinkles ; nucleus posterior 
and lateral, forming a small cavity at that portion of the shell. 
Length 5 lines (Pse.*). 

Sandwich Is. (Pse.) 

Pleurobranchus pellucidus PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 24. 

P. MARGINATUS Pease. 

Form oval, smooth, convex above and subpellucid. Mantle 
widest at the middle, rounded behind and truncately rounded in 
front, and concealing the foot. Tentacles rather long, stout, grooved, 
truncated, and cylindrical. Oral veil triangular. Foot oblong 
oval. Color pale lemon yellow, freckled with white and mar- 
gined with light red. Shell ovate, thin, fragile, pellucid, whitish 
horn-color, with a dull red tinge near the nucleus. Nucleus sub- 
spiral. Striae of growth coarse. (Pse.). 

Sandwich Is. Under stones in the lower region of the littoral 
zone (Pse.'). 

P. marginatus PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 25, No. 18. 
P. RUFUS Pease. 

Form oval, smooth and convex above. Mantle concealing the 
foot, widest at the middle, rounded behind, and somewhat concave in 
front. Tentacles stout, truncated, grooved and cylindrically taper- 
ing. Oral veil subtriangular. Branchiae tripinnate, with the 
pinnae arranged alternately. Foot oblong oval, rounded at both 
ends. Color uniform vermilion. Length 1 inch. (Pse.'). 

Sandwich Is. Under stones in the lower region of littoral zone. 

P. rufus PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 25, No. 19. 

P. VARIANS Pease. 

Oval, rather rugose, convex above. Mantle rounded behind, 
deeply sinuose in front, and margins slightly undulated. Tentacles 
arising from the head, curving laterally, deeply grooved below, 
truncated, cylindrically tapering, transversely lamellated. Eyes at 
their posterior bases. Oral veil large, convex in front, and much 
dilating laterally, where it is deeply grooved. Mouth proboscidi- 
form. Branchial plume simple, pinnate on the middle of the right 
side. Foot large, reaching the edge of the mantle laterally and 
behind. Color varying ; some bright red, others lemon-yellow, or 
purplish brown, others again variegated with whitish ; beneath 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. 205 

paler than above. Shell on the anterior half of the body, concealed, 
small, fragile, pellucid, oblong ovate, convex and ornamented with 
wrinkles of growth. Nucleus posterior, more or less brownish. 

(Pse). 

Sandwich Is. (Pse.) 
P. varians PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 25, No. 20. 

(Australo-Zealandic Species?) 
P. PUNCTATUS Quoy & Gaimard. PL 45, figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Body elongated ordinarily flat above, rounded at the two ends, 
wider behind. Mantle covering the foot to the edges, but the foot 
projects behind. Entire body smooth, of a beautiful orange, with 
two lateral series of white dots above ; tentacles and produced angles 
of veil have a deeper orange longitudinal line ; foot with a groove 
of lighter tint in front. The viscera are visible through the integu- 
ment both above and below, as a brown spot. Veil wide, arcuate, 
terminating in two obtuse points ; tentacles proportionally very long. 
Length 1 to 2 inches. The figures represent it in various positions. 

Port Jervis, Australia, 9-10 fms. 

Pleurobranchus punctatus QUOY & GAIMARD, Zool. Astrolabe, ii, 
p. 299, pi. 22, f. 15-19 (1832). 

P. ANGASI Smith. PL 46, figs. 12, 13. 

Animal (in spirit) uniformly pale buffj elongate ovate. Mantle 
probably smooth in life, wrinkled by contraction, not very widely 
produced at the free margin. Foot broad, tapering behind, roundly 
subtruncate in front, where there is a thickening forming a double 
margin beneath the proboscis. The frontal veil is straight in front, 
angular at the sides, which are grooved. Tentacles shortish, slit at 
the outer side, with the minute eye-specks at their base behind. 
Branchial plume consisting of about sixteen leaflets. Penis spine- 
like, very acute, and slightly curved at the tip. 

Shell placed well forward, the pale apex being posterior. It is 
brown in front, glossy, and beautifully iridescent on the exterior. 
It consists of about a whorl and a half, the nucleus being spiral and 
hollow within. The last whorl is much prolonged by additional 
strongly defined concentric layers, and also ornamented with fine, 
yet distinct transverse striae. The columella is arcuate, and has an 
umbilical groove parallel with it. 

Length of animal IT^milL, diam. 7 ; length of shell, from nucleus 
to opposite end, 4. (Smith). 

Port Jackson (Coppinger). 



206 PLEUROBRANCHUS. 

Pleurobranehus angasi E. A. SMITH, Zool. Coll. "Alert," p. 88, pi. 
6, f. K (1884). 

This may be the P. delicatus of Pease, but there appear to be 
certain differences in the shells of the two forms which may be of 
specific value. ($m.). 

P. ORNATUS Cheeseman. PI. 47, figs. 22, 23. 

Body 3-4 inches long, broadly elliptical, depressed, nearly equally 
rounded at both ends, color varying from pale buff to a clear red- 
dish brown, with irregularly disposed blotches of a rich, dark red- 
brown ; mantle large, extending over and concealing both head and 
foot, quite smooth, margin thin, entire; dorsal tentacles short, stout, 
abruptly truncate, finely transversely wrinkled, approximate at 
their origin, but gradually diverging at their apices ; color reddish- 
brown tipped with white ; eye-specks black, placed a little distance 
behind the tentacles, embedded in the integument, but appearing 
through it; oral tentacles united in front by a thin semicircular ex- 
pansion which forms a veil concealing the mouth, and which is car- 
ried in advance of the foot ; mouth roundish, with fleshy lips ; buc- 
cal plates two, regularly reticulated ; odontophore with numerous 
rows of similar unciform teeth. Branchial plume placed in the 
groove between the foot and the mantle, very large, composed of 
about 22-24 pectinations ; foot oblong, thin and flexible, pale waxy 
white. 

Shell internal to f inch long, squarish oblong, thin and mem- 
branous, semitransparent, slightly iridescent, closely marked with 
somewhat irregular concentric striae or folds ; color varying from 
nearly white to pale pinkish or tawny brown. Spire minute, ob- 
scure, mouth occupying the whole of the under surface (Cheesem.'). 

Auckland Harbor, New Zealand, under stones between tide marks ; 
also near Waiwera and in Hauraki Gulf (Cheeseman). 

Pleurobranehus ornatus CHEESEM., P. Z. S., 1878, p. 275, pi. 15, f. 
1, 2. HUTTON, Man. N. Z. Moll., p. 124. 

(East Indian and Indian Ocean Species). 

P. CORNUTUS Quoy & Gaimard. PL 23, figs. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32. 

A very small, ovate species, remarkable for the strong anterior 
sinus of the dorsal shield, out of which the two tentacles pass. The 
left tentacle is longer, but this seems to be accidental. The veil 
forms two diverging horn-like processes ; mouth projecting, foot sur- 



PLEUROBRANCHUS. 207 

passing the mantle behind, somewhat pointed. The mantle is a lit- 
tle raised behind to form a gutter below. Entire body reddish, 
covered with violaceous tubercles which are slightly yellowish ; a 
brown band borders the upper surface of the foot. Labial tentacles 
long. Length not over 10 lines. 

Amboyna. 

P. cornutus Q. & G., Zool. Astrol., ii, p. 298, pi. 22, f. 20-24. 

Quoy & Gaimard remark that the individual described seems to 
be young. 

P. PERONII Cuvier. PI. 48, figs. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 ; pi. 74. figs. 

88, 89, 90. 

Living animal oval, convex, the mantle notched in front, shorter 
than the foot behind ; closely covered with round, low tubercles, 
each on a red ground is bounded by a ring of deep crimson lake, 
with a dot in the middle (see fig. 28, enlarged). The sides of the 
foot are also dotted with this color. Veil slightly bilobed ; eyes 
distinct. Shell very delicate and thin. Length 2 to 3 inches. 

In alcohol the red color changes to a yellowish tint, and the re- 
lative proportions of foot and mantle are different, the foot becom- 
ing smaller ; tuberculation of mantle obsolete. 

Port Louis, Mauritius. 

Pleurobranchus peronii CUVIER, Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 
v, pp. 275, 266, pi. 18, f. 1-6 (1804). QUOY & GAIMARD, Voy. de 
1' Astrol. Zool., ii, p. 296, pi. 22, f. 7-10. DESH. in Cuvier's Regne 
Animal, Moll., p. 88, pi. 32, f. 1, a-i. MARTENS in Mobius' Meeres- 
fauna Mauritius, p. 309. SOWERBY in Conch. Icon., xvii, f. 2. 

Quoy & Gaimard declare the species described from life by them 
(see above) to be undoubtedly the same as that upon which Cuvier 
established the genus. The latter was much contracted in alcohol 
and had changed in color and form. An alcoholic specimen is 
shown in figs. 88, 89, 90 of plate 74, the figures being copies of 
Cuvier's original illustration of P. peronii. . 

The figures of Deshayes, cited above, are perhaps not referable to 
this species. 

Mobius thus describes the specimens found by him in Fouquets 
Bay, Mauritius : Dark purple-red, the back lighter in the middle, 
the mantle with low rounded warts throughout ; sole also dark pur- 
ple-red, but somewhat bluish. Shell likewise of a beautiful purple- 



208 PLEUROBRANCHUS. 

red color, very small, 4 mill, long, 3 wide in an example, the man- 
tle of which, in spirits, measures 25 mill, long, 16 wide; in life 50 
long, 30 wide. In the spirit examples the warts of the mantle are 
more intense red than their interstices. 

P. GRANULATUS Krauss. 

Alcoholic specimen : Body small, ovate-oblong, convex, soft, 
granulate above ; mantle entire, the ends rounded ; head-shield 
dilated, truncate, slightly horned at the sides, tentacles shorter. 
Foot emarginate behind, extending backward about as far as the 
mantle ; color ? Gill delicate, 3 lines long. Length of animal 8 
lines. 

Shell situated in the middle of the mantle, calcareous, elongated 
and narrow, with distinct growth-striae and a little spire at the sum- 
mit. Length 1*7, breadth 0*5 lines. (Krauss). 

False Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Wahlberg). 

Pleurobranchus granulatus KRAUSS, Die Siidafrik. Moll., p. 61, 
(1848). 

P. OBLONGUS Audouin. PI. 49, figs. 39, 40, 41. 

Body oblong, the length slightly exceeding twice the width, 
rounded at the two ends, very convex above. Length 29, alt. 12 
mill. Shell elongated, somewhat triangular. 

Bed Sea f 

SAVIGNY, Descr. de FEgypte Gastrop., pi. Ill, f. 1. Pleuro- 
branchus oblongus AUD., Expliq. des planches de Savigny, Descr. 
de 1'Egypte, ed. 2, Vol. xxii, p. 140 (1827). ISSEL, Malac. Mar 
Rosso, p. 163. 

This species is based on Savigny's figures copied on my plate. It 
is presumably from the Red Sea, but this is not positively known ; 
it may possibly be Mediterranean. Vayssiere places it as a doubt- 
ful synonym under his PL monterosatoi. Cantraine (Malac. Medit. 
et Lit., p. 90) identifies with oblongus an Adriatic form found by 
him, but states that he doubts their identity because his species has 
the back absolutely smooth, while Savigny's figures seem to show it 
warty. Moreover, the genital apertures are different from known 
Mediterranean species. 

P. CITRINUS Riippell & Leuckart. PI. 48, figs. 29, 30, 31. 

Alcoholic specimens : Pale citron-yellow, marbled with irregular 
whitish spots on the back of the mantle. Mantle entire and rounded 






PLEUROBRANCHUS, HALIOTINELLA. 209 

behind like the foot, borders of mantle and foot not projecting be- 
yond each other. Penis not visible externally. Small black eyes 
at bases of the tentacles ; tentacles blunt in front. Gill with 23-25 
branches. Length one inch. 

Shell lying in about the middle of the back under the mantle/ 
but a little toward the right over the gill ; very small but relatively 
thick, calcareous, narrow and white behind, wider and reddish- 
brown in front, resembling the shell of Pinna in respect to contour. 
Consists of united layers. Length 2 lines. (jR. & A). 

Gulf of Suez, on the shore ; collected in February. 

Pleurobranchus citrinus R. & L., Atlas zu der Reise im Nord- 
lichen Afrika von Eduard Riippell, Neue Wirbellose Thiere des 
Rothen Meeres, p. 20, pi. 5,f. 1 (1828). EHRENBERG, Symb.Phys. 
Decas 1, No. 1. ISSEL, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 162. ?SowERBYin 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 1, f. 7. Probably not P. citrinus? 
KELAART, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), iii, p. 495. 

Sowerby gives a figure of the shell, said to be copied ; but he mis- 
quotes Riippell's page and figure, and there is no illustration of the 
shell in Ru'ppelPs work. 

P. ZEYLANIC T JS Kelaart. Unfigured. 

Pale yellow, splashed with darker yellow and brown, and minutely 
spotted with rusty brown. About 2 inches long. (Kel.}. 

Back Bay, Ceylon (Kel.). 

Pleurobranchus zeylanicus KEL., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), iii, p. 
495 (1859) ; Journ. Ceylon Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc., iii, pt. 1, p. 
Ill (1883). 

? Genus HALIOTINELLA Souverbie, 1875. 

Shell umbilicated, auriform, with an epidermis, thin, much de- 
pressed ; spire posterior, very short, many whorled ; whorls few, the 
last very ample, forming the greater part of the shell ; aperture 
very large, the margins not joined, left margin inflexed below, re- 
flexed at the columellar insertion ; soft parts unknown. (Souv.). 

The genus was provisionally placed by Souverbie in the vicinity 
of Sigaretus. Morch declares it to be based on a Pleurobranchus 
shell ; and Fisher locates it with doubt in Pleurobranchidce. I am 
disposed to agree with the view expressed by Morch. 

14 



210 HALIOTINELLA, GYMNOTOPLAX. 

H. MONTROUZIERI Souverbie. PI. 71, figs. 66, 67. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate-oblong, testacella-shaped, very thin, fra- 
gile, much depressed ; apex flat, subsinistral ; white, pellucid, cov- 
ered by a thin straw-colored epidermis. Whorls 4, separated by a 
depressed suture, rapidly increasing, the earlier 3 rounded, last very 
ample, planulate, forming nearly the whole shell, concentrically 
subplicate-striate. Aperture elongate-oval, very large, shining 
within, the margins separated ; right margin acute, left margin ar- 
cuate, incurved toward the right, channelled outside above, vault- 
ingly reflexed over the small umbilicus at the insertion, and con- 
nected with right margin by a callus. Length 14, width 7, alt. 2J 
mill. Aperture 13 mill, long, 5 wide. (Souv.~). 

Island of Art, New Caledonia (Montrouzier). 

Haliotinella montrouzieri Souv., Journ. de Conchy 1., 1875, p. 33, 
pi. 4, f. 1. Cf. Morch, J. de C., 1876, p. 374. 

H. PATINARIA Guppy. PI. 72, figs. 75, 76. 

Shell lengthened-auriform, flat, subtranslucent, rather thin, con- 
centrically striated, whitish ; spire very short. Whorls 4, the ear- 
lier 3 forming the spire, last whorl very ample. Aperture long- 
ovate, the margins separated, righf margin somewhat incurved, 
flexuous, left margin prominent, acute, grooved outside above at 
the umbilical fissure. (Guppy). 

St. Christopher (St. Kitts}, West Indies. 

Haliotinella patinaria GUPPY, Journal de Conch., 1876, p. 163; 
Journ. de Conch., 1878, p. 322, pi. 10, f. 1. Compare Morch, J. de 
C., 1876, p. 374. 

Morch considers this the shell of Pleurobranchus quadridens. 
Genus GYMNOTOPLAX Pilsbry, 1896. 

Similar, so far as known, to Pleurobranchus, but the mantle is 
partly open or perforate above, exposing part of the shell. This 
condition occurs in no other Pleurobranchidce. 

G. AMERICANUS Verrill. PL 74, fig. 91. 

In alcohol the body is oblong, higher than wide, with the mantle 
extending over the greater part of the shell. The foot is large, 
thick, with short, rounded, grooved auricles in front, its lateral sur- 
faces, like those of the mantle, covered with small projecting spicules. 
Head bluntly rounded, with two broad, leaf-like oral tentacles and 



GYMNOTOPLAX. 211 

two smaller and narrower posterior tentacles, which are flattened 
and folded ; on the left side there is a conspicuous dark blue eye 
behind the base of the dorsal tentacle, but on the right side the eye 
is concealed or wanting in our specimen. The gill occupies the 
groove below the mantle on the right side, and is nearly one-third 
the length of the shell; just in front of the gill there is a low 
rounded prominence with a central orifice. The shell is thin, trans- 
lucent, pale yellowish-white, oblong, with the sides nearly parallel 
and the anterior end bluntly rounded. The spire is a little promi- 
nent, terminal and strongly curved to the left, with the nucleus 
smooth, glassy and incurved, situated at some distance from the 
margin. The surface of the shell is covered with numerous strong, 
irregular, concentric undulations, and by much smaller and finer 
lines of growth, which are crossed by microscopic, interrupted, 
radiating lines, giving a very finely reticulated appearance. Length 
of the shell 13'5, breadth 8'5 mill. (Verrill). 

Off Martha's Vineyard, 250 fms. (U. S. Fish Comm.). 

Pleurobranchus americanus V., Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 429, 
pi. 44, f. 13 (April, 1885). 

G. MARTENSI Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 48, figs. 34, 35. 

Mantle deeply incised in front, projecting beyond the foot all 
around, the margin thickened and somewhat ragged, evenly and 
finely granose all over, yellowish-brown, with round spots of dark 
purple-brown, much scattered, more numerous near the periphery 
and at the circumference of the part of the mantle covering the shell. 
Tentacles and angles of the head dark purple-brown. Gill extend- 
ing along nearly the entire hind half of the right side. Length of 
living animal 18 mill.; of alcoholic specimen 10; breadth 71 mill., 
the foot 6 long, 3 wide ; gill 2 long. 

Shell comparatively very large, elongated, oval, flat, thin and 
pale reddish, with the apex curved toward the right, and growth- 
striae strong. Length of shell 6, breadth 2? mill. (Mart.). 

Fouquets, Mauritius (Mobius). 

Pleurobranchus scutatus MTS., in Mobius' Meeresfauna Mauritius, 
p. 309, pi. 21, f. 8 (1880). Not P. scutatus Forbes, 1844. 

This apparently new species resembles Berthella porosa Blainv. 
(see Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., pi. 43, f. 1) in aspect, but is distin- 
guished by the deep anterior cleft in the mantle. It is remarkable 
that the smaller species of Pleurobranchus have, as a rule, relatively 






212 OSCANIUS. 

larger shells than the larger species. May it not be that the young 
animals have the shell relatively or perhaps absolutely larger than 
the adults, so that the young, especially when they differ also in 
coloration, have been hitherto considered separate species? The 
degeneration of the shell during the life of the individual is well 
known to occur in the Nudibranchs, to a still greater extent. 
(Martens). 

Genus OSCANIUS Leach, 1847. 

Oscanius LEACH (in GRAY, P. Z. S M 1847, p. 163, L. membrana- 
cea Mont.) Synopsis Moll. Gt. Brit., pp. 28, 29 (1852), type 0. argen- 
tatus = tuberculatus Meckel. VAYSSIERE, Rech. Moll. Opistobr., 
Tectibranches, p. 121 (Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Marseille, Zool., 
ii, 1885). Susania GRAY, Guide Syst. Dist. Moll. B. M., pt. 1, 1857, 
p. 202 (based on 0. testudinarius and 0. reticulatus). 

Pleurobranchidce with the body oval, convex, the mantle of the 
same shape, covering all or a considerable part of the upper surface, 
projecting and overhanging on all sides, more or less distinctly 
notched in front or behind or both ; gill bipinnate, the rachis tuber- 
culate. Female generative orifice in front of the gill-insertion, the 
male orifice or penis more anterior, separated from it by some dis- 
tance. Shell as in Pleurobranchus, wholly concealed in the closed 
mantle, sometimes wanting. Type 0. tuberculatus Meckel. 

Oscanius includes a few large species, in which the mantle is gen- 
erally tuberculate and sinused in front and at the rear, the gill-stem 
is nodose, and the penis separated from the female orifice by a con- 
siderable space; the latter being the most important character of 
the group. 

The anatomy of the European species has been ably worked out 
by Vayssiere. A number of Indo-Pacific species are herein referred 
to this genus, and the synonymy of the Mediterranean forms is now 
for the first time elucidated. 

Geographic Distribution of Oscanius. 

European : 0. tuberculatus, 0. testudinarius. 
Indo-Pacific : 0. marinus, Red Sea. 

0. mamillatus, Mauritius. 

0. grandis, Huahiue. 

0. blainvillii, Tahiti. 

0. violaceus, Sandwich Is. 
Australian : 0. hilli, New South Wales. 



OSCANIUS. 213 

The above species are apparently distinct and well-characterized ; 
a number of others, 0. purpureus, 0. dilatipes and 0. reticulatus are 
of doubtful status. 



O. TESTUDINARIUS Cantraine. PL 50, figs. 43, 44, 45, 46. 

Body elliptical, globulose, of an ochre red color. Mantle very 
large, thick, elliptical, with a sinus in front ; its whole surface bear- 
ing large polygonal tubercles, which, in the middle region of the 
back, each occupy a mesh of a rose-carmine network ; mantle of 
deeper color than the rest of the body. Foot of the same form as 
mantle, but smaller, having a gland on the posterior-median part of 
sole. Gill free its entire length, very long, bipinnate, with a score 
of pinnules on each side of the nodose rachis. Anus behind the in- 
sertion of gill. Genital orifices distinct, situated in front of the gill, 
the penis a little anterior to the female orifice, and protected by 
two triangular membranes ; renal pore near the female orifice. 
Large individuals measure, length 19 cm., breadth 14 cm. Jaws 
lamellose, slightly reniform, composed of little pieces each with 9-11 
denticles in front. Radula having the formula 180 to 200.0.180 to 
200 ; teeth hooked, without denticulation. 

Shell auriculiform, very small, convex, with a slightly projecting 
spire and well-marked striae of growth, quite solid in consistence, 
pale amber colored. Length 6, width 3 mill. 

Gulf of Naples (Delle Chiaje, Cantraine, Philippi) ; Messina 
(Cantraine) ; Palermo (Monts.) ; Gulf of Marseilles, in 25 to 40 
meters (Vayssiere). 

Pleurobranchus tuberculatus DELLE CHIAJE, Memorie su laStoria 
Notomia degli Animali senza Vertebre del Regno di Napoli, 
iii, 1828, p. 154, pi. 40, figs. 1-10. Pleurobranchus tubereulatus 
Meek., CANTRAINE, Malac. Med. et Litt., p. 89 (not of Meckel, 
1808). R. forskahli DELLE CHIAJE, t. c., p. 154, pi. 41, fig. 11 
{not of Riippell & Leuckart, 1828). Pleurobranchus mammilla- 
tus Schultz, PHILIPPI, Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, 1836, p. 112 (not 
of Quoy and Gaimard, 1834). Pleurobranchus testudinarius 
CANTRAINE, Bull, de 1'Acad. Roy. des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de 
Bruxelles, No. 11, December, 1835, p. 385 (1836); Malacol. Med. 
t Litt., p. 88. PHILIPPI, Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 86, pi. 20, f. 1 ; 
pi. 21, f. 1. FISCHER, Man. de Conchy!., p. 571, fig. 335 (copied from 
Philippi). VAYSSIERE, Journ. de Conchyl., 1880, p. 209, pi. 7, f. 



214 OSCANIUS. 

3, 3a (shell). MONTEROSATO, Nuova Kivista Conch. Med., p. 48. 
Susania testudinaria Cantr., MONTEROSATO, Nom. Gen. e Spec. 
Conch. Med., p. 149. Oscanius tuberculatus Delle Chiaje, VAYS- 
SIERE, Rech. Moll. Opistobr., Tectibranches, p. 125, pi. 5, figs. 113- 
121 (anatomy). 

This is the largest species of the genus, attaining a length of 16 to 
19 centimeters. The shell is more oblong and more swollen than in 
other species of Pleurobranchus, and is, in proportion to the size of 
the animal, much smaller. 

The specific nomenclature is unusually involved, but the name 
proposed by Cantraine seems to be the earliest having a clear title 
to acceptation. 

O. TUBERCULATUS Meckel. PI. 51, figs. 50 to 57. 

Body oblong, the general tint ochrey red. Mantle not very 
thick, with irregularly scattered, unequal tubercles, which are never 
nearly so large as in 0. testudinarius ; mantle rounded, emargiuate 
in front, dark red with light spots, not as large as the foot. Foot 
voluminous, projecting all around the mantle, with a deep sinus in 
front, and a gland on the posterior median part of the sole. Gill 
covered by the mantle, folded longitudinally, quite long, with 23-34 
alternating pinnules on each side of the tuberculate rachis. Anus 
behind the insertion of gill. Genital orifices and renal pore in 
front of it ; penis provided with two large triangular membranes. 

Length 12, width 11 centimeters. 

Jaws with the appearance of being carved, composed of small 
chitinous pieces, each terminating in a denticle, on each side of 
which there is one, sometimes two, smaller denticles. Radula with 
the formula 80.0.80, the inner 25 teeth having an external denticle 
below the terminal hook, which disappears on the outer teeth. 

Shell very large, occupying the greater part of the length of the 
mantle, quite convex, membranous, with growth lines, and of an 
iridescent vinous-red color ; length of large shells 43, width 29 mill.,, 
or, in ordinary specimens, 25 to 30 by 13 to 15 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea : Gulf of Marseilles, in 30 to 70 meters (Vays- 
siere) ; Algiers (Joly & Monts.) ; Naples (Tiberi) ; Adriatic Sea at 
Trieste (Stossich) ; Atlantic Coast of France; Southern England and 
Ireland. Laminarian and Coralline zones. 

Pleurobranchus tuberculatus MECKEL, Beytriige zur vergleichen- 
den Anatomic, i, pp. 33, 26, pi. 38, f. 33-37, 40 (1808). PHILIPPI, 



OSCANIU8. 215 

Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 87 (1844). Not P. tuberculatus of delle 
Chiaje, Cantraine, Vayssiere, and some other writers, which is 0. 
testudinarius. 

Lamellaria membranacea MONT., Trans. Linn. Soc., xi, 1811, p. 
184, pi. 12, f. 4. Pleurobranchus membranaceus FLEMING, Brit. 
Anim., 1828, p. 291. FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll., iii, p. 
558, pi. 114 F, f. 5 ; pi. xx, f. 3. SOWERBY, Genera of Shells, figs. ; 
Illustr. Index Brit. Sh., pi. 20, f. 29. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch., v, 
p. 10, pi. 97, f. 3. GRANGER, Moll, de France, 1885, p. 239, pi. 17, 
f. 34. BUQ., DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll, du Rouss., i, p. 551, pi. 65, 
f. 3. SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvii, f. 4. VAYSSIERE, Journal de 
Conch., 1880, p. 211, pi. 7, f. 4, 4a (shell). MONTEROSATO, Journ. 
de Conch., 1878, p. 320. Oscanius membranaceus Mont., ADAMS, 
Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 39, pi. 60, f. 56. CHENU, Manuel de Conch., 
i, p. 397, f. 3012. VAYSSIERE, Rech. Moll. Opistobr., Tecti- 
branches, p. 122, pi. 4, figs. 96-101 (anatomy). 

Pleurobranchus Lesueur [sic] BLAINVILLE, Manuel de Malacol- 
ogie, p. 470, pi. 43, f. 2, 2a (1825-1827) ; cited as P. Lesueurii by 
Philippi. P. Lesuerii BLAINVILLE, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxxxi, p. 371 
(1826). 

Pleurobranchus de Haanii CANTRAINE, Malac. Med. et Litt., 
Mem. de 1'Acad. Roy. Bruxelles, xiii, p. 89, pi. 4, figs. 6, 6a (1840). 
Cor?/. MONTS., Journ. de Conchyl., 1878, p. 320, p. 160 ("deshaanii "). 
P. haanii LOCARD, Prodr. Mai. France, in Ann. Soe. Agric. Lyon, 
1885, p. 70. 

Oscanius argentatus LEACH, Synops. Moll. Gt. Brit., p. 29. 
Pleurobranchus denotarisii VERANY, Catalogo degli Anim. Invert. 
Marini del Golfo di Genova e Nizza (estratta dalla Guida di Ge- 
nova), pp. 16, 19 (1846). P. contarinii VERANY, /. c. 

The mantle bears much smaller tubercles than in O.testudinarius, 
and is of less extent than the foot ; and the membranous shell, 
which is well known in collections, is much larger in proportion to 
the size of the mantle than in the other species. 

The specific name proposed by Meckel must stand for this species, 
although it has been dropped for over half a century. His descrip- 
tion and figures are unmistakable. 

Var. dehaanii Cantraine. See pi. 51, figs. 54, 55. 

According to Monterosato, the P. dehaani of Cantraine is distinct 
in the shell, which is more solid, more convex, and of a more 



216 OSCANIUS. 

bronzed color. These may perhaps be features of immaturity. It 
occurs commonly at Palermo. 

O. DILATIPES H. & A. Adams. PL 54, figs. 4, 5. 

Pale red, with deep red-brown depressed lines, and light pink 
tubercles surrounded by dark red-brown zones; the foot is flesh- 
colored, with faint concentric striae (H. & A. Ad.~). 

Habitat unknown. 

Oscanius dilatipes ADS., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 39, pi. 60, f. 5, 5a. 

Described without locality from a spirit specimen in Cuming's 
collection. Seems near 0. tuberculatus Meckel. 

O. RETICULATUS Rang. PL 49, figs. 36, 37, 38. 

Body oval-oblong, convex, smooth, obtuse in front, subacute be- 
hind. Flesh colored, the shade deeper on the mantle, where there 
are, especially toward the borders, numerous rounded, slightly 
nebulous black spots of varying sizes, and a reticulation of fine white 
irregular lines. Mantle with a median sinus in front; eyes at the 
posterior bases of the tentacles, which are brown, long, swollen at 
the distal third, and regularly striated transversely. Foot large, 
oval, pale. Gill transparent yellow. Length 7i cm. 

Shell small, oblong quadrangular, concave below, convex above ; 
right and anterior borders thin, left border thickened and terminat- 
ing in a small, distinct spiral of H whorls (fig. 37) ; regularly stri- 
ated, of corneous texture, reddish below, bluish above. Length 7 
mill. 

" He du Prieur, dans la bale de Saint- Antoine" (Rang). 

Pleurobranchus reticulatus RANG, Mag. de ZooL, 1832, Classe v, 
pl.l. 

I do not known the locality given by Rang. Perhaps it is San 
Antonio Bay, Prince's Island, W. Africa, or San Antonio de Praia, 
Annobom Island. 

Kelaart has very briefly described a "P. reticulatus?, Gmel." 
from Trincomalee. See Ann. Mag. N. H., (3), iii, p. 495. 

O. MARINUS Forskal. PL 48, figs. 32, 33. 

Color dark violet, with two (or three) interrupted longitudinal 
series of entirely white, lunate curved, narrow lines on each side of 
the back, each series consisting of 4 or 5 such lines. The mouth 
can be protruded trunk or snout like, the snout being yellowish. 
Over the mouth there is an expansion of the integument, or labial 




UNIVERSITY 

\^^ORNlA^ x 

O8CANIUS. 217 

tentacle on each side. The gill consists of 22-24 leaflets; in front 
of it is the genital opening, forward of which lies the aperture of the 
penis, which projects, having a peculiar wing-like expansion on its 
posterior projecting part. Foot in front and at the sides at least as 
wide as the mantle, and behind it projects in a blunt angle. Ten- 
tacles slit down the outer side, cylindrical and hollow. Eyes lying 
at the base of tentacles, in the slit, so that they may be covered by 
its free edges. There is a deep incision in the back border of the 
mantle. 

Shell small, rounded, membranous and transparent, thin, simple 
and smooth, not composed of layers. 

Living animal, length 5 to 6 inches. In alcohol contracting to 
3 to 3? inches, 2 to 2J inches broad. 

Massaua W. side of the Red Sea, collected on corals in January 
(Riippell.). 

Lepus man'nw-s FORSKAL, Icones rerum naturalium quas in Itinere 
Orientali depingi curavit Petrus Forskal, p. 9 (name only, referring 
to) plate 28, fig. A (1776). Pleurobranchusforskalii RUPPELL & 
LEUCKART, Atlas zu der Reise in N. Afrika, Neue wirbellose Thiere, 
p. 18, pi. 5. f. 2 (1828). Pleurobranchus ruppellii ISSEL, Malac. 
Mar Rosso, p. 162 (1869). Not Pleurobranehus forskahli DELLE 
CHIAGE, Memoire, iii, p. 154 (November, lS2S~)=Oscanius tnber- 
culatus var. 

Forskal has given a characteristic illustration of this large and 
peculiar species, although in his posthumous work no description is 
given. Moreover, he uses the old pre-Linnsean formula ''Lepus mar- 
inus" for the animal, in his explanation of plates. There is an 
objection, however, to the use of Ruppell and Leuckart's name P. 
forskali, on account of the fact that it bears even date with Delle 
Chiaje's similar name for another species. Under these circum- 
stances I consider that stability of the name will be best conserved 
by reverting to the earliest, rather than by adopting Issel's proposed 
change. 

The following form is evidently nearly allied, probably identical. 

O. PURPUREUS Kelaart. Unfigured. 

Deep reddish-purple. Mantle very dark purple, and spotted with 
still darker purple. There is a bright-white zigzag line on each side 
of the back of some large specimens. Length nearly 6 inches; 4 



218 OSCANIUS. 

inches broad. The young is of a lighter purple, and may be mis- 
taken for another species. (Kel.~). 

Trincomalee, Ceylon, in deep water (Kelaart). 

Pleurobranchus purpureus KEL., Ann. Mag. N. H., (3), iii, p. 
495; Journ. Ceyl. Branch Roy. Asiatic Soc., iii, p. Ill, for 1856- 
1858. 

O. VIOLACEUS Pease. 

Oval, convex above, and covered with crowded depressed gran- 
ules, with multiangular bases. Mantle rounded behind and deeply 
sinuated in front, and repand, rather thin and undulated along the 
lateral margins. Tentacles arising from the lateral anterior portion 
of the head, approximating at their bases, stout, large, truncated, 
slightly swollen, transversely laminated, grooved in front. Eyes 
sessile, conspicuous at their posterior bases. Mouth proboscidifornu 
Veil large, granose above, triangular, and grooved laterally. Bran- 
chial plume single, simple, pinnate, on the middle of the right side, 
free half of its length, along the middle of the plume two rows of 
alternate granules. Foot large, oval, reaching the margins of the 
mantle laterally and projecting a little posteriorly. Color above 
pale purplish, with much darker granules, which gives it a beauti- 
fully reticulated appearance; beneath paler than above ; disk of the 
foot light purplish grey. (Pse.). 

Sandwich Is. 

Pleurobranchus reticulatus PSE., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 25 (not of 
Rang.). P. violaceus PSE., P. Z. S., 1863, p. 510. 

O. GRANDIS Pease. PI. 45, fig. 1. 

Shell none. Animal oblong-oval, subpellucid, flaccid, depressly 
convex, covered with a network of impressed lines, the interspaces 
finely tuberculated. Mantle covering the head, deeply notched in 
front. Head small and narrow; oral veil moderately developed, 
subtriangular, sides biplicate. Tentacles smooth, stout, truncate, 
involute. Eyes very minute, scarcely visible without the aid of a 
lens, deeply immersed at the base of the tentacles. Foot large, thin, 
elongate oblong, convexly truncate and duplicate in front, rounded 
behind, when creeping projects far behind the mantle, generally 
much exposed from above, as well as the gill. Gill very large, the 
two rows of plumules folded against each other, each one consisting 
of twenty-six tripinnate plumules, disposed alternately, and tuber- 



OSCANIUS. 219 

culated at their bases. The gill is attached two-thirds of its length 
by a lax thin membrane. Anal duct at the posterior end of the 
membrane, it is cylindrical, truncate and deeply crenulate at the tip. 
Generative organs very large, immediately anterior to the gill, con- 
nected by a prominent grooved ridge. Whole upper surface of the 
mantle covered with a reticulation of pale bluish ash lines, inter- 
spaces fawn color, becoming obsolete toward the margin and more or 
less dotted with whitish. Also ornamented with a large oblong 
dorsal spot of deep purple-brown, and a series of irregular shaped 
spots surrounding it, of same color, all of which are dotted with pale- 
blue. Head pale, mottled with purple-brown. Tentacles pale at 
their tips andlineated transversely with darker. The inner portion 
of the under side of the mantle and upper side of the foot deep 
purple-brown. Locomotive disk bluish-ash, tinged anteriorly with 
cream-yellow, and marked posteriorly with a purple-brown stripe. 
Veil same color as foot. Gill deep purple-brown, generative organs 
purple-black. Length six inches. (Pse.*). 

ffuahine. 

Pleurobranchus grandis PSE., Amer. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 78, pi. 

10, f. 2 (1868). 

This large and delicate species differs from others of the genus, in 
the mantle being extended over the head and notched for the accom- 
modation of the tentacles ; also in the attachment of the branchial 
plume to the body and the plumules being tuberculated at their 
base, for reason probably of the large size of the gill. After close 
examination of several specimens no shell was found. (Pse.). 

Closely allied to the next species. 

O. BLAINVILLII Lesson. PI. 49, fig. 42. 

Length nearly 3? inches, alt. 2} inches. Dorsal disk thin, flat, 
fleshy and oval, rounded behind, having a sinus in front ; of the 
bluish-white color of porcelain, with white striae and some purplish 
rays in the middle ; ochrey red toward the anterior border ; buccal 
tentacles and generative organs'purple-black. Gill an elegant, bi- 
pinnate plume of purplish color. Violet rose tints the body and is 
grooved by ramifying bluish striae. The foot is flat, smooth, bluish- 
white, thicker and colored with carmine at the edge ; it is rounded 
in front and terminates in an obtuse point posteriorly. 

Point Venus, Bay of Matavai, Tahiti (Lesson). 



220 OSCANIUS. 

Pleurobranchus blainvillii LESS., Centurie Zoologique, p. 143, pi. 
51, f. 1 (1830) ; Voy autour du Monde, etc., La Coquille, Zool., ii, 
pt. 1, p. 291. 

O. MAMILLATUS Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 46, figs. 10, 14,15. 

Large, sometimes over 5 inches long, very soft, remarkable for 
the brilliance and pattern of colors, the long tubercles and the want 
of a shell. Mantle much undulating at the edges, notched in front, 
with a projection in the middle ; surface bearing large conic tuber- 
cles, variegated with brown and yellow, the intervals colored with 
shades of reddish-brown and yellow, with spots of a beautiful brown ; 
and here and there are crescents of crimson lake, shaded with red- 
dish ; tentacles and head shield dark reddish-brown, the rest of the 
animal yellowish. Tentacles slit, united at the bases, where the eyes 
are situated, these being generally concealed by the front edge of 
dorsal shield. Below the tentacles is the wide, rounded veil, under 
which the short, large rostrum lies, at its termination the mouth, 
surrounded by rounded tubercles, bearing two membranous tessel- 
lated plates ; a short lingual ribbon in the angle formed by them. 
Foot wide, rounded, with a marginal groove in front, extending 
beyond the mantle behind. Gill free at the apex only, formed of 
alternating, very closely pinnate branches (fig. 14). Penis sur- 
rounded by palmate and jagged foliations. 

Port Louis, Mauritius. 

Pleurobranchus mamillatus Q. & G., Zool. Astrolabe, ii, p. 294, pi. 
22, f. 1-6. 

O. HILLI Hedley. PI. 47, figs. 18, 19. 

Animal elliptical, thick, subglobose ; in life, as well as I can re- 
collect, dark plum color; as contracted in alcohol measuring 140 
mill, in length by 120 mill, in width and 50 in height ; without a 
shell. Mantle very large, thick and muscular, overlapping the body 
so as almost to envelope it ; irregularly covered outside by numer- 
ous large, warty protuberances ; deeply, squarely notched in front, 
entire throughout the rest of its circumference. Rhinophores 
appressed to each other, externally split to the base, thick and sub- 
cylindrical. Eye not observed. Foot large, somewhat cordate in 
outline, bearing at the tail, on the sole and in the median line, a 
gland 30 mill, by 10 mill., distinguished from the rest of the sole by 
its thick transverse rugosities and black color. Gill-plume tucked 
in between the mantle and the foot, a third as long as the animal, 



KOONSIA. 221 

bipinnate, folded down the center so as to expose one side only, the 
stalk without the pinnae within, attached to the body as far as the 
16th filament; pinnse 24, rapidly increasing in length from the ante- 
rior to the 6th, thence gradually decreasing to the posterior end, 
each filament attached beneath for more than half its length ; mid- 
rib beaded at the junction of each plumelet. Anus just within the 
tip of the gill and behind the membrane upon which it is hung. 
External genitalia located immediately before the branchia, wrapped 
within two oblong flaps. (Hedley). 

Off Stokes Point, Broken Bay, N. S. W. (Hill); a mile south of 
Sow and Pigs Reef, Port Jackson, N. S. W., Australia, in 8 fms. 
(Field Nat. Soc. N. S. W.) ; Port Stephens, N. S. W. (Brazier). 

Oscanius hilli HEDLEY, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., (2), ix, p. 127, 
pi. 7,f. 1,2 (April 25, 1894). 

The figures are copied from Hedley's, drawn from spirit spec- 
imens. Fig. 18, ventral view, the free edge of foot bent over to ex- 
pose the anus, gill-plume and genitalia ; on the sole is seen the tail 
gland. Fig. 19, dorsal aspect. 

Genus KOONSIA Verrill, 1882. 

Koonsia VER., Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, v, p. 545. 
Pleurobranchillus BERGH, Res. Camp. Sci. Albert I, fasc. iv, 
1893, p. 27. 

Like Pleurobranchcea in characters of the head, tentacles, pro- 
boscis, gill, tail-gland and tail-papilla ; differing from Pleurobranchcea 
in having the mantle-edge projecting and overhanging both on the 
sides and behind, with a wide groove between it and the foot poste- 
riorly as well as laterally, but in front the mantle passes directly 
into the veil. Genital openings as in Pleurobranchus. Gill free 
for the greater part of its length. No shell. Type K. obesa. 

Dentition like that of Pleurobranchcea. 

Distribution : temperate Atlantic in deep water. 

Koonsia is very closely allied to Pleurobranchcea, but it is a less 
specialized type, in having the mantle edges developed and free, as 
in the more normal genus Pleurobranchus. Bergh's genus Pleuro- 
branchillus seems to be absolutely synonymous with the group defined 
by Verrill ten years earlier. 



222 KOONSIA. 

K. OBESA Verrill. PI. 74, fig. 94. 

Body large, stout, broad, with a large, swollen back, smooth and 
white in the preserved specimens, and defined by the mantle-edge, 
which forms a rim along the lateral and posterior borders. Head 
large and broad, with two short, flat, posteriorly grooved, anterior 
tentacles, one at each corner ; the anterior mantle-border runs be- 
tween them, and supports a row of small papilla?. Posterior tentacles 
short, stout, flattened, ear-like, with the outer edges incurved, form- 
ing a large groove. Proboscis very large, retractile, purple at the 
end, showing when extended, the very broad radula covered with 
very numerous sharp, hooked teeth, in many long curved rows. 
Foot broad and rounded anteriorly, with small auricles ; long 
tapered, and acute posteriorly, extending some distance beyond the 
mantle; a conical papilla near the tip above; under side, near the 
end, with a narrow, elongated, depressed, glandular area, surrounded 
by a raised border ; this is sometimes tinged with bright-red, in 
alcohol ; the rest of the foot is usually tinged with chocolate-brown. 
Gill large, bipinnate, deep purple. (Verrill.'). 

This species grows to a great size. One from station 939, was 
over 5 inches (128 mill.) long ; 4 inches (102 mill.) wide ; and about 
2 inches (50 mill.) high, even after preservation in alcohol. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, in 216-258 fathoms; Off Delaware Bay 
in 312 fathoms. 

Koonsia obesa VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 545, (July, 
1882) ; Rep. Commissioner Fish and Fisheries for 1883, Appendix 
D, p, 571, pi. 28, f. 107. 

The figure represents the dorsal aspect, two-thirds natural size. 

K. MOROSA Bergh. PL 54, figs. 90, 91, 92, 93, 94. 

Described from a single, very flaccid specimen, measuring 15 mill, 
long, 10 wide, 5*5 high. In form and dimensions it resembles P. 
aurantiacus. Margin of the mantle equal in width to that of the 
foot, 1 mill. ; tail 2 mill, long ; gill 4*5 long, free for over half its 
length, with 15 pinnules. Anus below the posterior extremity of 
the gill-insertion; renal and genital pores as in Pleurobranchus ; at 
the end of the tail is an elongated gland. Color of the animal pre- 
served in alcohol is grayish, with a quantity of violaceous dots, 
scattered principally toward the edges of mantle and on the rhachi- 
dian part of the gill. 



PLEUROBRANCH^EA. 223 

Jaws tessellated as usual, the component plates short, with about 
7 subequal denticles (figs. 93, 94). Radula with 37 rows of teeth, 
68 to 70 lateral teeth in each half row ; teeth long and slightly 
curved, with a shorter cusp accessory to the main one (figs. 90, 91, 
92). This accessory cusp is lacking on the outer most teeth. 

No shell. 

Western Atlantic (Hirondelle). 

Pleurobranchillus morosus BERGH, in Resultats des Campagnes 
Sci. Albert I, fasc. iv, p. 28, pi. 4, f. 80-93. 

K. BROCKII Bergh. Amboyna. 

This species of Pleurobranchillus is mentioned but not described 
in Bergh's paper cited above, p. 28. 

Genus PLEUROBRANCH^EA Leue, 1813. 

Pleurobranchcea LEUE, de Pleurobranchsea novo Molluscorum 
Oenere, Diss. Inaug., etc., Halle, 1813, title-page, and pp. 1-13, 
plate. (Con/., p. 11 "cum animal nostrum * * * Pleuro- 
branchcece vel Pleurobranchidii nomine insigniendum videtur."). 
Pleurobranchcea or Pleurobranchidium of Blainville and subsequent 
authors. Cyanogaster RUDOLPHI (where?), see Blainville, Man. de 
Malac., p. 471. Pleurobranchcena Meckel, SWAINSON, Malacol., 
p. 361. 

Body oblong, the united mantle and veil smaller than the foot. 
Serrate in front and produced at the lateral angles, its edge slightly 
overhanging on the right side, but not on the left, posteriorly, or in 
front. Rhinophores inserted far apart, apparently on the mantle. 
Genital apertures as in Pleurobranchus. Mouth proboscidiform. 
Foot with a gland (more or less visible) on posterior part of sole, 
and a spur or horn on the tail. Shell wanting. 

Radula without rachidian teeth, the laterals slender, with a single 
long accessory denticle on the main cusp (pi. 53, fig. 84, P. meckelii 
Blv.). 

The union of mantle and veil, widely separated rhinophores, 
enormous size of the proboscis in dead specimens, and the lack of 
overhanging eaves to the mantle except on the right side, render 
this group very distinct from other Pleurobranchidce in appearance. 
There is a posterior siphon, like that of Aplysiidce formed by folding 
of the mantle over the rear end of the gill. 

The species are few and widely scattered. 



224 PLEUROBRANCH^EA. 

P. MECKELII Blainville. PI. 53, figs. 81, 82, 83, 84, 85. 

Body oblong, very convex, pale brownish-gray with numerous 
spots or marbling of blackish-brown over the whole upper surface, 
the sole almost black, the posterior pedal gland whitish gray. In 
alcohol the color fades to a very pale gray, dark spots indistinct, sole 
vermiculate with blackish. Mantle covering only the median part 
of body, not projecting or sharply defined on the left side and be- 
hind, narrowly overhanging on right side ; in front produced forward 
in a crescentic head-piece with laterally projecting processes, fore 
margin serrate ; folded into a permanent excurrent siphon on the 
right side behind. Rhinophores situated on mantle, wide apart, 
truncate, slit and rolled; gill small, inserted behind middle of 
mantle, mainly adnate, bipinnate. Female genital pore on a papilla 
at anterior insertion of gill ; male orifice or penis in front of it. 
Rostrum, in alcoholic specimens, extremely large and protruding 
far in front. Foot oblong, subtruncate in front, tapering and 
rounded behind, having a gland on the sole behind, which excretes 
through a duct opening on a horn-like papilla on the upper surface 
of the tail. Shell none, but a large shell-cavity present. 

Length of alcoholic specimen with protruded rostrum 55, breadth 
21 mill. 

Palermo, Sidly (Phil.) ; Naples (Phil., Cantraine) ; Gulf of Mar- 
seilles (Vayssiere). 

Pleurobranchcea LEUE, De Pleurobranchsea novo Molluscorum 
Genere, 1813, pp. 1-12, plate. 

? Pleur. balearieus Laroche, CUVIER, Regne Aniin., ii, (1817), p* 
396, footnote (nude name, the identity of which with P. meckelii is 
surmised by de Blainville). 

Pleurobranchidium meckelii Meckel, BLAINVILLE, Diet. Sci. Nat., 
xxxxi, p. 376 (1826) ; Man. de Malac., p. 471, pi. 43, f. 3 (false 
reference to MeckePs Beytrage vergleich. Anat.). 

Pleurobranchidium meckelii DELLE CHIAJE Memorie, iii, p. 159, 
pi. 40, f. 11-17(1828). 

Pleurobranchcea meckelii Lewe, PHILIPPI, Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, 
p. 88. 

Pleurobranchcea meckelii Leue, DESHAYES, in Cuvier's Regne, 
Anirn., Moll., p. 89, pi. 32, f. 2, 2a. BERGH, Res. Camp. Sci. 
Albert I, fasc. iv, pi. 4, f. 96-99. 

Pleurobranchidium meckelii Blainv., DESH., Trait. Elem. de Con- 
chyl., pi. 91, f. 1, 2. 



PLEUROBRANCH^EA. 225 

? Aplysia minor LANKASTER, Philos. Trans., 1875, p. 13 (embryo- 
logy)- 

Pleurobranchcea meckelii Leve, CANTRAINE, Malac. Med. et 
Litt., p. 87, pi. 3, f. 3. VAYSSIERE, Rech. Moll. Opistobr., Tecti- 
branches, p. 130, pi. 5, f. 122-125. 

Pleurobranchidium delle chiaii VERANY, Catal. Anim. Invert. 
Mar. del Golfo di Geneva e Nizza, pp. 16, 19 (1846). 

The mouth parts are always protruded in dead specimens. The 
species is very distinct from other Pleurobranehidce of the Mediter- 
ranean. 

In establishing the genus Pleurobranchcea, Leue gave no name to 
the species ; a fact which has been overlooked, probably on account 
of the rarity of the original paper. De Blainville was the first to 
use to use the specific name meckelii, which he ascribes to Meckel. 
It was never published by that author, however, Blainville's refer- 
ence in Man. de Malac. being a false one ; and while it is possible 
that Meckel transmitted the specimens to Blainville under that 
name, no proof thereof is forthcoming, and propriety forbids the 
citation of Meckel as authority. 

Lankaster, with the embryologist's disdain for exactness in small 
matters of species and genera, calls it Aplysia minor ! 

P. TARDA Verrill. PI. 53, fig. 86. 

Body subovate, stout, thick, often nearly half as broad as long 
usually less, tapering backward and blunt posteriorly ; front broad, 
convex or subtruncate ; back more or less convex or swollen in the 
middle, with the surface wrinkled or irregularly reticulated, with 
the sunken lines brown, the reticulations smaller posteriorly. Dorsal 
tentacles short, stout, wide apart, ear-like, subtubular, having a slit 
on the outer side, with the edges often rolled in. Gill rather large, 
well exposed in a dorsal view, situated on the right side, behind the 
middle, and equal in length to nearly one-fourth the body, plumose 
bipinnate, with 15 or 16 pinnse on the upper side. Foot broad, often 
nearly as wide as the mantle, subtruncate or rounded in front, nar- 
rowed and obtuse posteriorly, ordinarily not extending beyond the 
mantle. The mantle edge is but little prominent, except along the 
right side. Proboscis protruded in most of the specimens, large, 
thick, obtusely tapered close to the end, which is emarginate, show- 
ing the large odontophore in a broad vertical notch. Reproductive 
organs large and prominent ; the two orifices are situated on a large 
tubercle in front of the gill. The male organ, in extension, is long, 
15 



226 PLEUROBRANCH^A. 

slender, usually curled, truncate, about equal in length to half the 
breadth of the body ; it is a tubular organ, with a slit along the 
lower side, formed by the rolling up of a long, thin, membranous 
process. At the posterior edge of the tubercle there is a shorter, 
flat pointed process, connected with the female organs. Color of 
dorsal surface yellowish-brown, lighter or darker and reticulated with 
dark brown, often specked with flake-white ; gill and proboscis dark 
purplish-brown ; the proboscis with a darker dorsal patch ; tentacles 
sometimes crossed by dark brown bands. Foot salmon -color. 
Odontophore very large and broad, with 150 to 170 rows of teeth ; 
no median teeth ; all the teeth are similar in structure, and show 
only a gradual change in form and size from the inner to the outer 
ones. The inner ones are elongated, slightly curved, narrow-lanceo- 
late, with a very acute point and with a smaller, narrow, sharp den- 
ticle on the inner edge, parallel to but shorter than the main poiiit ; 
the outer teeth gradually become shorter, blunter, with a smaller 
denticle, which finally nearly disappears. Length, usually 30 to 
40 ; breadth, 10 to 14 mill. ( F.). 

In the best preserved specimens the reproductive organs are often 
protruded, the forms of the different organs varying with the state 
of extension. The verge or most anterior organ, when fully 
extended, is long, cylindrical or a little clavate, with rows of minute 
recurved hooks near the end, and terminated by a slender curved 
spicule. The most posterior opening (urinal) is just at the anterior 
base of the gill, in the form of a small papilla, with a central open- 
ing. Between these there are two organs, on a more or less swollen 
common base ; the more anterior is a large opening with raised mar- 
gin ; a little behind and below this is a long, exsert, flat, usually 
tapered and acute, copulatory organ, varying much in size and form 
according to the state of extension. All these organs can be so re- 
tracted as not to be noticeable, but this seldom happens in alcoholic 
specimens, most of which show the organs more or less extended. 
The anal orifice is behind the base of the gill. ( Verrill.'). 

20 miles south of Block Island, in 38 fathoms ; about 70 to 100 
miles south and southwest from Martha's Vineyard, in 28 to 310 
fathoms, both on bottoms of mud and of fine, compact sand, very 
abundant ; Off Chesapeake Bay, in 31 to 300 fathoms ; Off Delaware 
Bay, in 130 and 156 fathoms. 

With this species, and probably belonging to it, we often took 
gelatinous, but rather firm, cylindrical egg-clusters, about 20 mill. 



PLEUROBRANCH^A. 227 

long and 4 in diameter, with the eggs in several rows. The species 
is not common below 200 fathoms. (Verrill). 

Closely resembles Pleurobranchcea Novce Zealandice in form and 
color. The latter is a littoral species. 

Pleurobranchcea tarda V., Amer. Journ. Sci., (3), xx, p. 398, 392 
(Nov., 1880) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 384 (Dec. 21, 1880) ; 
Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 546, pi. 58, f. 26 ; U. S. Commission of 
Fish and Fisheries, pt. xi, Rep. of Commissioner for 1883, appendix 
D, p. 571 [69], pi. 28, f. 105. 

The figure represents the dorsal aspect, two-thirds natural size, 
genitalia protruding. 

P. MACULATA Quoy & Gaimard. PI. 53, figs. 88, 89. 

Body thick, a little swollen above, covered with low wrinkles. 
Color dirty white, with light brown spots; sole yellowish ; foot wide, 
rounded at the two ends, and projecting beyond the mantle behind. 
Veil continuous with mantle, wide, arcuate, crenulated and terminat- 
ing in two points ; surmounted behind by the two short, auriform 
tentacles. Gill fusiform, free at the end, formed of parallel and 
oblique foliations, generally uncovered. Penis almost always pro- 
jecting, large and 4 or 5 lines long. Anus opens above and past the 
middle of the gill. Mouth at the end of a small rostrum. 

Port Western, Jervis Bay, and all this southern part of Australia, 
in 9-10 fms. 

Pleurobranchidium maculatum Q. & G., Zool. Astrolabe, ii, p. 301, 
pi. 22, f. 11-14. 

P. NOV^EZEALANDI^: Cheeseman. PL 53, fig. 87. 

Body oval, convex, thick and fleshy, smooth and lubricous to the 
touch, but the whole surface nevertheless covered with minute 
puckers and folds. Color light-grey, copiously streaked with irre- 
gular anastomosing lines of dark greyish-brown, and sprinkled with 
numerous minute and almost microscopic white dots. Mantle 
smooth, not nearly so long as the foot, and not concealing the bran- 
chiae, rather broader on the right side ; oral veil broad, extending 
over and concealing the mouth, in front semicircular, and with a 
delicate fringed margin ; but at each side produced into a short ten- 
tacle-like lobe ; mouth large, round, in a state of rest concealed in 
the sulcus between the oral veil and the foot, but capable of being 
greatly protruded in a proboscidiform manner ; buccal plates two, 
large, finely and regularly reticulated or faceted ; odontophore broad, 
with numerous rows of similar unciform teeth ; tentacles dorsal, wide 



228 PLEUROBRANCH^EA. 

apart, short and stout, projecting outwards, folded down the outer 
side, tips obliquely truncate; eyes minute, black, placed within the 
integument at the inner bases of the tentacles, quite internal, and 
not to be seen without dissection ; foot long, extremely flexible, sole 
pale ashy-grey ; branchial plume often over an inch in length, and 
free for half that distance ; pectinations about 17, finely ciliated; 
shell none; length 2'5 to 3'25 inches. (Cheesem.). 

New Zealand: Auckland Harbor, in sandy or muddy localities 
(Cheesem.) ; Port Nicholson (Hutton). 

Pleurobranchcea novce-zealandice CHEESEM., P. Z. S., 1878, p. 276, 
pi. 15, f. 3 ; Trans. N. Z. Inst., xi, 1879, p. 378, pi. 16, f. 3 (re- 
printed from P. Z. S.). HUTTON, Man. N. Z. Moll., p. 124. 

Subgenus EUSELENOPS Pilsbry, 1896. 

Neda H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 40, type Pleuro- 
branchus luniceps Cuv. (October, 1854). Not Neda Mulsant, Spec. 
Col. Trim. Secur., p. 274 (1851), a genus of Coleoptera. 

Animal short, depressed, with very broad sole, slender rostrum, 
and large, crescentic head-shield with produced angles ; other known 
characters as in Pleurobranchcea. 

P. LUNICEPS Cuvier. PL 54, figs. 95, 96, 97. 

Body very short, broad and much depressed, the foot extending 
broadly beyond the mantle on sides and behind. Upper surface 
pale fleshy purple, sparcely spotted with purple-black angular 
blotches ; lower surface of head-shield densely mottled with purple, 
the sole deep purple, lighter forward and toward the median line. 

Tentacles short, truncate, inserted on mantle as in P. meckelii. 
Veil very broad, crescentic, produced in long processes at the sides 
Rostrum slender, capable of great extension. Mantle folded into a 
permanent excurrent siphon behind, as in P. meckelii. Foot broad, 
emarginate or broadly rounded in front and behind, the sole with a 
median impressed line. Genitalia unknown. 

Habitat unknown. 

Pleurobranchus luniceps CUVIER, Regne Animal, ii, p. 396, foot- 
note (name only) ; iv, pi. 11, fig. 2 (1817). BLAINVILLE, Diet. Sci. 
Nat. xxxxi, p. 371 (1826). ADAMS & REEVE, Zool. Samarang, 
Moll,, p. 66, pi. 18, f. 6a, b.Neda luniceps Cuv., H. & A. AD., 
Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 40, pi. 61, f. 1, la (copied from Voy. Samar- 
ang). 

Cuvier's figure was evidently reversed in engraving, as de Blain- 
ville has remarked, bringing the gill on the left side. The above 
description is based on the published figures. 



ACT^EONID^E. 229 

SUPPLEMENT TO MONOGRAPHS OF TECTIBRANCHIATA CEPHAL- 

ASPIDEA. 

Family ACT&ONID^ (Vol. XV, p. 135). 

Genus ACTION (p. 147). 

A. EXILIS Jeffreys (Vol. xv, p. 156) has also been dredged off 
Ireland to the southeast of Rockall, in 1215 fms. (Norman, Ann. 
Mag. N. H. [6], vi, 1890, p. 63). Another figure is given in Proc. 
Mai. Soc. i, pi. 16, f. 8. 

Cossmann refers this species to Crenilabium, asubgenus of Actceon- 
idea. The latter group is in reality a synonym of Rictaxis Dall, 
1871 (not 1891 as Cossmann states). The references to Crenila- 
bium are as follows : 

Crenilabium COSSM., Catal. Illustr. des Coq. Foss. de 1'eocene des 
Environs de Paris, in Annales de la Soc. Roy. Malac. de Belgique, 
xxiv, 1889, p. 302 (type A. aciculatus Cossm.) ; Ess. Pal. Comp., i, 
p. 53. Lissactoeon MONTEROSATO, II Naturalista Siciliano, p. 188, 
1890 (type A. exilis Jeffr.). 

A. BROWNI Jordan. PI. 61, fig. 60. 

Shell spindle-shaped, opaque and somewhat glossy. Sculpture 
numerous spiral incised lines, those on the base being much stronger 
and visible to a sharp eye without the aid of a lens ; the spaces be- 
tween these lines vary in width. Color ivory white ; spire moder- 
ately elongated and gradually tapering to the apex. Whorls 5, but 
possibly 6, the apex being broken off, moderately rounded, the last 
forming about two-thirds of the shell. Suture slightly chanelled 
when examined by looking down the spire ; mouth about two-thirds 
of the length of the shell, acute angled above. Outer lip thin and 
unfortunately broken. Inner lip inconspicuous; pillar short and 
flexuous. Fold or plait winding obliquely down the pillar, and not 
tooth-like as in A. tornatilis. Operculum ear-shaped and marked 
with transverse lines of growth. Long. 8'12, diam. 3'15 mill. (Jor- 
dan). 

" Warm area, Faroe Channel," about 80-90 miles N. of the Butt 
of Lewis, 570 fms. 

Actceon browni JORDAN, Proc. Malac. Soc. i, p. 267, pi. 16, f. 7. 
One specimen collected. 



230 ACT^ONID^E, AKERATID^. 

ADELACT^ON Cossmann, 1895. 

Ess. Pal. Comp., p. 54, type A. papyraceus Bast., Miocene. 

Proposed as a substitute for Myonia A. Ad. non Dana, see Vol. 
xv, p. 1 67. Includes several Miocene species, the recent A. concinna 
Ad. (Vol. xv, p. 172) of Australia, and several Japanese forms (see 
Vol. xv, p. 169, 170). 



Genus KLEINELLA A. Adams (Vol. xv, p. 179). 

Cossmann, in his excellent Essais de Paleoconchologie Comparee, 
pt. 1, p. 44 (1895), has been able, by the assistance of Messrs. R. 
B. Newton and E. A. Smith, to figure the type of this genus, K. can- 
cellaris Ad., and to determine the fact that it does not belong to the 
Actceonidce, but is allied to Menestho. His figure of K. cancellaris is 
reproduced in figure 6 of Frontispiece. For description see Vol. xv, 
p. 180. 

Actceon aplisiformis Fer., Tab. Syst., p. xxx=Elysia viridis Bosc. 

Aetceon viridis Fer. 1. c. (Laplysia viridis Mont.) Y?/sia, a nudi- 
branch. 

Family AKERA TIDJE Pilsbry, (Vol. xv, p. 350). 
Genus AKERA (Vol. xv, p. 376). 

A. BULLATA Mu'ller (Vol. xv, p. 377). 

Var. nana Jeffreys. Length ^ inch. 

Var. farrani Norman. Length If inch. (==A. bullata var. 
gigantea Norman, Mus. Normanianum, iv, Moll. 1888, No. 101). 

The variation in size in this species is most extraordinary, and 
perhaps the forms here treated as varieties should rather be regarded 
as entitled to rank as species. The full size of ordinary specimens 
may be taken as an inch ; but no specimens of var. nana which were 
dredged by Jeffreys and myself in shallow water at Balta Sound, 
Shetland, exceed three-twentieths of an inch. On the other hand, 
Dr. Farran found many years ago (see Nat. Hist. Review, Vol. iv, 
[1857] p. 74) the gigantic variety which I here name after him. 
The specimens were dredged near Birterbuy Bay, Ireland; the 
animal measured 3 inches long and 2 wide, and weighed 2J ounces. 
The shell of one of these giants now in my collection measures If 
inches long and an inch wide ; hundreds of specimens of var. nana 



AKERATID^E. 231 

might be placed in it as in a box! In 1876 in company with my 
friend Mr. David Robertson, I dredged diligently the spot carefully 
described by Farran, but without again meeting with this form ; but 
Mr. A. G. More informed me that the year before that just men- 
tioned he had found a similar sized specimen in a lough near Gal- 
way. (Norman, Ann. Mag. N. H., 1890). 

Genus VOLVATELLA Pse. (Vol. xv, p. 382). 

V. LAGUNCULA Sowerby. 

Shell ovate-cylindric, membranaceous, involute, abruptly con- 
tracted behind, shortly produced, rounded in front. Aperture 
widely ovate in front, sinuous behind, very narrow, the right lip 
truncate at both ends, inflexed in the middle, left lip lightly re- 
flexed. Length 6, diam. 3* mill. (Soivb.'). 

Port Elizabeth, S. Africa. 

Volvatella laguncida SOWB., Journ. of Conch., vii, p. 373. 

Compared with V. cumingi it is much smaller, less abruptly trun- 
cated and produced posteriorly, and proportionately wider ante- 
riorly ; it is also less cylindrical in form than V. cincta of Nevill, 
and shows no sign of the transverse bands characteristic of that spe- 
cies. (SowbS). 

CYLINDKOBULLA SCULPTA Nevill (Vol. xv, p. 381) is reported 
from South Africa by Sowerby, I. c. 

Genus HAMINEA Leach, (Vol. xv, p. 352). 

H. BINOTATA Pilsbry. 

Shell cylindric-oval, hardly wider below, truncated above, rounded 
beneath, thin, but rather solid, ruddy-corneous, with a small opaque- 
white spot at each end, that at apex bounded below, that at colu- 
mella, above, by an opaque orange or reddish tract, appearing only 
on the latter part of the whorl. Surface polished, with excessively 
fine and close spiral stride, and rather coarse growth wrinkles. 
Aperture rather narrow, moderately enlarged below. Outer lip 
rising slightly above the vertex, but by no means high-arched. Col- 
umella concave, short, with a lunate, reflexed,but free, not adherent, 
flange, but no fold. Apex closed or subperforate. Alt. 11, diam. 
7 mill. 

Yaeyama ( Okinawa), Loo Choo Is. (Stearns). 



232 AKERATIDvE, BULLID^E, TORNATINID^E. 

H. binotata PILS., Catal. Mar. Moll. Jap., p. 185 (1895). H. 
binotata var. japonica PILS. I. c. 

Var. japonica Pilsbry. 

Shell like the above in coloration and sculpture, but smaller, thin 
and fragile, more swollen, the reflexed columellar callus thinner and 
adnate to body. Alt. 9, diam. 6'2 mill. 

Nemoto, Boshiu, Japan (Stearns). 

Family BULLID^E Pilsbry, (Vol. xv, p. 326). 

BULLA SEMILEVIS Seguenza (Vol. xv, p. 339). 

Canon Norman, in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), vi, 1890, p. 67, 
states that this is the same as the later Bulla guernei Dautz. (see 
Manual xv, p, 336), and further " it is clear also, I think, that 
B. eburnea Dall [Manual xv, p. 339] is the same thing." The local- 
ities quoted in Vol. xv for these synonyms, should be added to the 
range of B. semilevis, with the following : off the south of Ireland, 
1000 fins. (' Flying Fox ' 1889, E. A. Smith). 

Bulla diaphana Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 225, is said by Jeffreys 
to be the young of Cyprcea europcea (Ann. Mag. N. H. [4], vii, p. 
245, 1871). 

Bulla j ever ensisSchroeter, Archiv fiir Zool. u. Zootomie, iv, p. 16. 
An undetermined small form, perhaps Retusa, from the North Sea. 

Family TORNATINWJE Fischer, (Vol. xv, p. 180). 

TORNATINA PARVIPLICA Dall. Frontispiece, fig. 7. 

This species resembles T. recta Orb. in a general way, especially 
when young, and is distinguished from it by its more rounded sur- 
face between the sutures of the spire, and by the obsolete plait on 
the pillar ; the adult is a much thinner yet wider shell than T. recta, 
and reaches a length of 6*5 and a width of 3*25 mill., with five 
whorls, beside the projecting sinistral nucleus. The spire is moder- 
ately elevated, the top of the last whorl flattish, but without canali- 
culation ; the surface is faintly marked with lines of growth, not 
polished and entirely without spiral sculpture. The umbilicus is 
not perforate, and the plait is formed by the twisting of the thick- 
ened pillar, not superimposed upon the pillar. It is only known 
from the lagoons. (Dall). 

Wailing Island Lagoon, Bahamas. 



TORNATINID^E, RINGICULID^E. 233 

Tornatina parviplica DALL, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxv, no. 9, 
p. 115, fig. 8 (Oct., 1894). 

KETUSA [Coleophysis'] EFFTTSA Monts. (II Naturaliste Siciliano, 
ix, p. 188, 1890) is an insufficiently described form from Villa- 
franca. 

RETUSA OVATA Jeffreys (Vol. xv, p. 232). See Norman, Ann. 
Mag. N. H. (6), vi, p. 64, for a discussion of the synonymy and 
range. 

BULLA CRETICA Forbes. B. testa globosa, alba, hevigata, spira 
manifesta, umbilicata, margine rotundata ; apertura superne con- 
tracta, inferne dilatata ; columella perforata. Long *1 unc. Crete, 
in 119 fms. (Capt. Graves, 1843). (Forbes, in Rep. ^Egean Invert., 
Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1843, p. 188, 1844. 

An unrecognized form, perhaps belonging to Retusa or Cylichna. 

Acrostemma Cossmann, 1895. 

Ess. Pal. Comp., p. 101. Type Sulla coronata Lam., Eocene. 
The recent B. striatula Forbes (Vol. xv, p. 212) is placed in this 
group, which is ranged as a subgenus under Roxania by Cossmann. 



Family 

Genus RINGICULA (Vol. xv, p. 394). 

Cossmann substitutes Ringieulella Sacco, 1892, type R. auriculata 
for Ringiculina Monts., 1884, but the latter should, I believe, be re- 
tained, if the group is worth a name. 

Genus PUGNUS Hedley, 1896. 

Piignus HEDLEY, Records of the Australian Museum, ii, no. 7, p. 
106. 

By its thrice folded columella, anterior canal, thickened outer lip, 
and sculpture of spiral grooves crossed by transverse strise, this very 
distinct genus takes a place in the family Ringiculidse. From the 
only other surviving genus, Ringicula, Piignus is separated by its 
involute shell and buried spire. In the shortness of the spire the 
Cretaceous fossil Avellana occupies a position intermediate between 
these two. Its contour is, however, more globose, and those subor- 
dinate groups which agree with Piignus in possessing a smooth lip, 
appear to differ by having one columella plication only. (Hedley']. 



234 KINGICULID^, SCAPHANDRID^E. 

The form of the lip and plicate columella suggest Cyprceadceon 
White (Contr. Paleont. Brazil, p. 176, in Archives do Mus. Nac. do 
Kio de Janeiro, vii), but that Cretaceous fossil is a large form, with 
inflexed, crenulated outer lip and apical umbilicus. The Brazilian 
species, being an internal cast, no information is available on the 
sculpture of the shell. It is doubtful whether Cyprceadceon is really 
a Tectibranch. Ovuladceon Dall (Vol. xv, p. 178) has no columel- 
lar folds. 

P. PARVUS Hedley. PI. 74, fig. 7. 

Shell minute, white, solid, oblong, involute, spire buried, imperr 
forate at either extremity, the posterior of the inner portion of the 
last whorl obliquely sloped. Sculptured by about thirty spiral 
grooves, whose interstices are three times their breadth, and are cut 
by longitudinal stride into squarish facets. Aperture as long as the 
shell, vertical, contracted in the middle, expanded anteriorly and 
posteriorly, inner lip overlaid with callus ; outer lip smooth, greatly 
thickened externally and internally, springing from a false umbili- 
cus in the vertex, arched higher than it, arcuate peripherally, curv- 
ing below the whorl up to the columella and chanelled at the junc- 
tion ; anteriorly the columella bears a strong entering fold, posterior 
and parallel to which is a weaker one, and posterior to this again a 
small deeply-seated third fold is just distinguishable. Length H, 
breadth 1 mill. Animal unknown. (Hedley). 

Manly, near Sydney, alive, at low tide on rocks, and dead in shell 
sand from Middle Harbor, Port Jackson, Australia. (A. U. Henn), 

P. parvus HEDLEY, 1. c., p. 106, pi. 23, f. 1. 

Family SCAPHANDRID^E (Vol. xv, p. 242). 
Genus SCAPHANDER (Vol. xv, p. 244). 

S. ALATUS Dall. PI. 74, Fig. 4. 

Shell pure white, with a pale straw-colored epidermis, polished,, 
punctate, with a pervious axis ; sculpture of faint lines of growth 
crossed by numerous fine rows of punctures, with wider, pretty regu- 
lar, interspaces ; behind the pillar-lip a few of these rows are so im- 
pressed as to form grooves ; form of the shell ovate, attenuated in 
the posterior third ; aperture as long as the shell, narrow behind, 
rounded in front ; outer lip sharp, produced behind the immersed 
spire in an alate manner ; body with a thin wash of smooth pure 



SCAPHANL>RID^E. 



235 



white callus ; pillar lip twisted about a pervious axis, stout, thick, 
with a narrow groove behind its anterior part, but no umbilical 
chink. Extreme length of shell 35, maximum diameter 20 mill. 
(Dalf). 

This species belongs to the section Bmconia Dall. It is nearest 
allied to the type of that section, S. nobilis Verrill, from which it 
may be at once discriminated by its more attenuated posterior third 
and generally thicker shell and less inflated form, and by its alate 
outer lip. The gizzard plates are somewhat less distinctly quadrate 
than in S. nobilis. The Challenger obtained west of Papua a spe- 
cies of this group, S. mundus Watson, which is very like S. nobilis, 
but cannot be confounded with the present species (Dalf). 

Near the Hawaiian Is., in 298 fms. (Albatross). 

Scaphander alatus DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1894, p. 676, 
pi. 27, f. 2. 
S. ANDAMANICUS E. A. Smith. Frontispiece, fig. 18. 

Shell ovate, thin, white, here and there ferruginous stained, trans- 
versely punctate-striate, above and around the base encircled with 
few, hardly punctate stride ; spire immersed, concave. Aperture 
large, wide below, narrow above; lip slightly arcuate, very thin, 
above white calloused at the thickened insertion ; columella 
strongly arched, convolute, and visible to the apex within, white 
and thick. Alt. 18, greater diam. 12, lesser 9 mill. ; aperture 18 
mill, long, 9 wide below (SmitJi). 

Andaman Sea, in 250 fms. 

8. andamanicus SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xiv, p. 167, pi. 4, f. 
15 (Sept., 1894). 

The punctured grooves, about 40 in number, are not always equi- 
distant, and the punctures are also variable in size ($.). 

Subgenus SABATIA Bellardi (Vol. xv, p. 255). 

S. PUSTULOSA Dall. PI. 74, fig. 5. 

Shell solid, large, subpyriform, with wholly immersed spire and 
granular callous body lip ; surface polished, sculptured by deep, 
rather wide, channeled grooves ; punctate, but with the punctures 
overlapping one another so that the line presents an annulate 
aspect. There are a few intercalary, fine impunctate lines also. The 
form of the shell is rather rounded, smaller posteriorly, with an ob- 
scure constriction about the middle of the shell ; apex dimpled, but 



236 SCAPHANDRID^E. 

imperforate ; aperture narrow behind, wide and rounded in front 
outer lip thin, raised above the apex, but hardly alate ; inner lip 
thick, callous, with numerous pustules, the axis barely pervious ; 
pillar thick, pustular, its outer edge high, with a groove behind it, 
but no umbilical chink. Extreme length of shell 33, maximum 
diameter 20 mill. (DalF). 

This species recalls the more inflated Scaphander niveus Watson, 
from near the Philippines, but is readily distinguished by its more 
attenuated Bulla-like form. It may, when older, exhibit a more 
prominent body callus than is shown by our specimen, the granula- 
tion of the pillar being much like that of adolescent specimens of 
Sabatia bathymophila Dall, from the deeper waters of the Antilles. 
(DaU). 

Near the Hawaiian Is., in 295 fms. (Albatross). 

Sabatia pusiulosa DALL, Proc. IT. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1894, p. 677, 
pi. 26, f. 10. 

Genus ATYS Montfort (Vol. xv, p. 261). 

It is evident from the very meager data at hand regarding the 
soft parts of the species grouped under Atys, that at least two or 
three genera will be formed by its disintegration. The dentition of 
typical Atys and of Alicula is still unknown. The dentition and ex- 
ternal anatomy of Roxania (see Vol. xv, pi. 61, f. 32, and pi. 59, f. 13) 
and of Weinkauffia (this vol. frontispiece, figs. 10, 11, 12) show that 
these belong to two distinct though allied genera. 

Roxania will probably include Roxaniella as a subordinate group. 
Whether Weinkauffia is generically distinct from Atys or Dinia re- 
mains to be seen, the latter being still unknown anatomically. 

Vayssiere has recently (Journ. de Conchy 1., 1893, p. 90, pi. 4) ex- 
amined Atys (Weinkauffia) diaphana Arad. & Mag. Part of his 
text and figures are given below. The systematic position of Wein- 
kauffia which he suggests (between Bulla and Haminea) seems to 
me to be wholly untenable. 

ATYS DIAPHANA Arad. & Mag. Frontispiece, figs. 8-14. 

Animal with numerous spots of a beautiful brown-red color of 
very diverse forms and irregularly scattered, disposed in three series 
across the shell through which (by its transparence) they are seen. 
Head-shield squarish, with two posterior conic processes, the eyes 
contiguous, near posterior part of head shield ; pleuropodial lobes 



SCAPHANDRID.E. 237 

little developed, anterior, reflexed only over the anterior edges of 
shell (see fig. 10, dorsal, and fig. 11, external view). 

Jaws (fig. 8) composed of little compressed, imbricating pieces. 
Radula with the formula 3.1.3; rachidian tooth somewhat rudi- 
mentary, quadrangular, the cusp small, a little recurved and bi- 
lobed. Inner two laterals on each side of about the same form ; 
the curved cusp bearing very fine denticles along the concave side ; 
third lateral on each side subobsolete, without denticles (fig. 12). 

The gizzard contains three large, brown-blackish, corneous pieces 
(figs. 14, 13). 

Shell white, rather corneous, very hyaline, of an oval-elongated 
form ; on the back of the shell there are five transverse parallel and 
slightly oblique strise in front, and behind there are three similar 
striae. 

See Vol. xiv, p. 278. The species also inhabits the Gulf of Mar- 
seilles, but sparingly. The specific name is preoccupied by Mon- 
tagu, so one of the later names will be substituted. 

Subgenus ALICULASTRUM Pilsbry, 1896. 

=Alimlu EHRENBERG, 1831 (see Vol. xv, pp. 261, 262, 265), not 
Alicula Eichwald, Naturhistorischer Skizze von Lithauen, Volhy- 
nien u. Podolien (Vilna, 1830) p. 214, proposed for A. okenii (I. c. 
p. 214, footnote), A. lichtensteinii and A. volhynica (1. c. p. 215). 

Alicula Eichw. has been given precedence over Alicula Ehren- 
berg by Cossmaun, who considers it to indicate the same group. 
This, however, is an error. Eichwald's Alicula has a projecting spire, 
and is certainly a totally different thing. Eichwald calls it a transi- 
tion from Oliva to Voluta. For Ehrenberg's group the new name 
given above may be used. 

CLISTAXIS Cossmann, 1895. 

Ess. Pal. Comp., p. 90. New name for Cryptaxis Jeffreys non 
Lowe, type Cylichna parvula Jeffr. (Vol. xv, p. 293). 

While possibly distinct, the shell-characters alone are not suffi- 
cient for the generic elevation of this form, which probably belongs 
to either Cylichna or Eetusa. 

Genus DIAPHANA Brown (Vol. xv, p. 280). 
D. (?) FRAGILIS Velain. Vol. xv, pi. 23, fig. 50. 

Shell short and subcylindric, truncate at base, thin, translucent 
and gray ; surface ornamented with little longitudinal striae, very 



238 SCAPHANDRID^, PHILINIDJE. 

closely placed. Aperture largely embracing, lengthened, narrow 
and subangular at base, which is longer than spire, more dilated 
and rounded above ; columella narrow, elevated, a little twisted, the 
lower columellar margin strongly convex toward its middle ; umbil- 
icus small, circular, narrow and profound. 

Alt.2i, diam. 1 mill. (F&)- 

Island of St. Paul, inside the crater, under stones at low water. 

Bulla fragilis VELAIN, Comptes Kend., 1876; Archiv. Zool. Ex- 
pe*r. et Gener., vi, 1877, p. 128, pi. 4, f. 31 . B. divce Velain, t. c., p. 
144. 

Looks like a young shell. 

Family PHILINIDJE (Vol. xvi, p. 1). 
Genus PHILINE Asc. (Vol. xvi, p. 2). 

The references to Colobocephalus and Colpodaspis should be 
omitted from the generic and specific descriptions and references, as 
it was deemed best to admit both as genera, pending definite infor- 
mation on those forms. Add the following : 

P. TINCTA Verrill. 

Shell broad, oblong, rather large for the genus, widest in the 
middle, very thin, tinged with smoky brown, not polished and with- 
out distinct spiral lines, but with very distinct, fine, close, sinuous, 
slightly raised, minutely wavy lines of growth. The apex is rounded 
and shows neither spiral whorls, nor a depression. The outer lip 
rises slightly above the body- whorl from which it is separated by a 
broad and deep notch ; from the posterior shoulder to the anterior 
end it is broadly flaring and convex, with a slight-rounded angle 
about the middle; anteriorly it is a little narrower and evenly 
rounded ; the columella margin is slightly excurved, with a thin 
edge in front of the middle, and is reflected against the body-whorl, 
where it joins it leaving a slight groove behind it, and winding into 
the shell it forms a distinct, raised spiral fold, separated from the 
more prominent inner surface of the body-whorl by a concave 
groove. 

Length, 1075 ; breadth in middle, 8 ; breadth of aperture, 7 mill. 

(Fcmtf)-' 

O/ Martha's Vineyard, in 65 fms. ("Albatross "). 

P. tincta V., tr. Conn. Acad., v, p. 544 (July, 1882). 



AGLAJID^E, GASTROPTERID.E, RUNCINID^E. 239 

Family AGLAJID^E. 
Genus AGLAJA Renieri (page 44). 

The following forms were overlooked in the preparation of this 
monograph : 

A. ORBIGNYANA Rochebrune. PI. 54, fig. 3. 

Body thick, ovoid ; foot short, sub-bipartite below, blackish stri- 
ated with radiating stride ; posterior lobes visibly elevated, of a black- 
violet, ornamented longitudinally with irregular interrupted yellow- 
ish lines ; margins of mantle undulated, quite thick, greenish gray. 

Length 14, width 11 mill. (RochebrJ. 

Road of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago (Cessac). 

Posterobranehus orbignyanus ROCHEBR., Bull. Soc. Philomath., 
1881, p. 28 ; Nouv. Arch, du Mus., 1881, p. 265, pi. 18, f. 5. 

A. TRICOLORATA Ren. (p. 45). 

Add the synonym : Doridium achates DESH., Traite Elem. de 
Conch., Expl. des Planches, p. 58 ; Atlas de Conchyliologie, pi. 91, 
f. 3-5. 

Family GASTR OPTERIDJE (Vol. xvi, p. 39). 

GASTROPTERON MECKELII (?) is reported by Dall from east Flor- 
ida and Guadalupe, in Catal. Mar. Moll. S.-E. U. S., Bull. 37 U. S. 
Mus., p. 88. 

Family R UNCINIDJE (Vol. xvi, p. 171). 

PELTA CAPREENSIS Mazzarelli, Atti Ace. Napoli, vi, No. 4, p. 3, 
from the Gulf of Naples, is a new species of Runcina, of which the 
description is inaccessible to me. 

ERRATA. 

P. 89. After T. Robertsi, read pi. 55, figs. 5, 6. 

P. 96. After T. Tryoniana, read pi. 57, figs. 24-27. 

P. 155. Omit f. 35 from references in fifth line from bottom. 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



FRONTISPIECE. 

FIGURE. PAGE, 

1-3. Oxynoe delicatula Nev. J. A. S. B., 165 

4. Oxynoe hargravesi. P. Z. S., 166 

5. Lobiger wilsoni Tate. Tr. R. Soc. S. Austr., 168 

6. Kleinella cancellaris Ad. After Cossmann 230 

7. Tornatina parviplica. After Dall, 232 

8-14. Weinkauffia diaphana Arad. After Vayssire, . . . 236 

15, 10. Chelidonura hirundiDea Q. & G. Voy. Astro!., ... 34 

17. Oxynoe olivacea Rafs. Journ. de Conch., 162 

18. Scaphander andamanicus Smith. Ann. Mag., . . . . . 235 

19-22. Philine ossiansarsi Friele. Nyt. Mag., 14 

23. Philine sinuata Stimp. Sh. of New Engl., 18 



PLATE 1. 

1-5. Aglaja marmorata Smith. Zool. Alert., 48 

6. Aglaja gigliolii Tapp. Can. Zool. Magenta 50 

7. Aglaja lineolata Ad. Gen. Rec. Moll., 49 

8. Aglaja depicta Ren. Gen. Rec. Moll., 46 

9. Philine aperta Linne. After Vayssiere, 10 

10. Aglaja tricolorata Ren. After Vayssi&re, .45 

12. Aglaja depicta Ren. After Vayssiere, 46 

14. Aglaja diomedea Bergh. (shell). After Vayssiere, ... 52 

PLATE 2. 

15. Philine coreanica A. Adams. C. Icon., 7 

16. Philine orientalis A. Adams. C. Icon., 8 

17. 18. Philinestriatella T. C. (=japonica). Zool. Magenta . 5 

19,20. Philine truncatissima So wb. C. Icon., 5 

21,22. Philine scalpta A. Adams. After Lischke, 6 

23, 24, Philine japouica Lischke. After Lischke, 5 

25, 26. Chelidonura hirudinea Q. & G. Thes. Conch., ... 34 

27-30. Cryptophthalmus luteus Q. & G. Zool. Astrolabe, . 38 

31-35. Chelidonura hirudinea Q. & G. After Mobius, ... 34 

36-38. Cryptophthalmus cylindricus Pse. Am. Journ. Conch. 37 

PLATE 3. 

39, 40. Philine polaris Auriv. Vega Exp., 22 

41, 42. Philine angulata Jeffreys. C.Icon., 17 

(240) 






KEFERENCE TO PLATES. 241 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

43. Philine scutulum (=quadrata Wood). C. Icon., .... 19 
44-46. " Utriculopsis vitrsea " Sars (=Diaphana globosa, see 

Vol. xv, p. 286). Compare page 16 

47, 48. Philine planciana (^aperta L.). Enum. Moll. Sicil., . 10 

49. Philine planciana (=aperta L.). C. Icon 10 

50. Philine schroeteri Phil. (=aperta L.). Enum., 10 

51. Philine aperta L. After Hidalgo, 10 

52. 53, 54. Philine aperta L. After Mobius, 10 

55, 56. Philine aperta L. C. Icon., 10 

57, 58. Philine angasi Crosse. C. Icon., . 8 

59. Philine angasi Crosse. Journ. de Conch., 8 

60. Philine erythnea H. Ad. P. Z. S., 9 

PLATE 4. 

61. Philine sagra Orb. Tr. Conn. Acad., 25 

62. 63. Philine sagra Orb. Moll. Cuba, 25 

64. Philine catena Mont. Moll. Rouss., 13 

65. Philine monterosatoi Jeffr. Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr., .... 20 

66-68. Philine vestita Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., 27 

69. Philine punctata Clark. Thes. Conch., M 

70-72. Philine candeana Orb. Moll. Cuba, 25 

73. Philine pruinosa Clark. Conch. Icon., 26 

74-78. Philine pruinosa Clark. After Sars, 26 

79, 80. Philine nitida Jeffreys. After Sars, 18 

81, 82. Philine nitida Jeffreys. C. Icon., 18 

83-85. Philine loveuii Malm. After Sars, 14 

86-89. Philine flexuosa M. Sars. After Sars, 21 

PLATE 5. 

1-3. Philine scabra Mull. After Sars 12 

4-6. Philine cingulata Sars. After Sars, 15 

7-11. Philine lima Brown. After Sars 20 

12, 13. Philine infortunata Pils. After Sars, 16 

14-16. Philine finmarchica Sars. After Sars, 14 

17-19. Philine quadrata Wood. After Sars, 19 

20-22. Philine fragilis Sars. After Sars, 15 

23-25. Philine catena Mont. After Sars 13 

26-28. Philine velutinoides Sars. After Sars, 21 

PLATE 6. 

29-32. CryptophthalmussmaragdinusLeuck. Symb. Phys., . 37 
33-36. Cryptophthalmus smaragdinus Leuck. After Riippell, 37 

37, 38. Aglaja nuttalli Pils. Pilsbry, del., 50 

39. Navanax senigmaticus Bgh. After Bergh, 58 

40-43. Aglaja maculata Orb. After d'Orbigny, 51 

16 




242 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 7. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1,10. Gastropteron rubrura Raf. Zool. Bonite, 40 

2-4. Gastropteron rubruru Raf. After Vayssiere, 40 

5-9. Gastropteron rubrum Raf. After Bergh, 40 

PLATE 8. 

11. Gastropteron rubrum Raf., penis. After Bergh, .... 40 
12, 13, 16. Gastropteron rubrum Raf., jaw. After Bergh, . . 40 
14, 15, 17-23. Gastropteron pacificum Bgh. After Bergh, . 42 

PLATE 9. 

1-3. Philine aperta Linn., stomach plates. After Sars, . . 10 

4, 5. Philine aperta Linn., teeth. After Sars, 10 

6, 7. Philine aperta Linn., fore and mid gut. After Sars, . 10 

8. Colobocephalus costellatus M. Sars, row teeth After Sars, 33 

9. Colpodaspis pusilla Sars, row teeth. After Sars, ... 28 

10. Philine pruinosa Clark, teeth. After Sars, 26 

11-13. Tethys punctata Cuv., radula. After Sars, 65 

14, 15. Tethys punctata Cuv., part of digestive tract. After 

Sars, 65 

16. Tethys punctata Cuv., jaws. After Sars, 65 

17-22. Aglaja adellse Dall. W. H. Dall, del., 53 

23. Gastropteron rubrum Raf., radula. After Vayssiere, . . 39 

24, 25. LobigerserradifalciCalc., teeth. After Vayssiere, . .167 

26. PhyllaplysialafontiFisch. After Fischer, . . .133 

PLATE 10. 

27, 28, Lobiger serradifalci Calcara. After Vayssiere, . . .167 

29, 32, 33. Lobiger serradifalci Calcara. Ann.Sci. Nat., . . 167 

30, 31. Lobiger serradifalci Calcara. Journ. de Conchyl., . .167 
34, 35. Lobiger viridis (=nevillii Pils.). J. A. S. B., . . . 168 

36. Lobiger corneus (serradifalci). Thes. Conch., . . . .167 

37. Lobiger pictus (=viridisPse.). Don. Bism., 169 

38. Lobiger viridis Pse. Am. Journ. Conch., 169 

39-42. Lobiger souverbiei Fisch. Journ. de Conchyl., . . . 168 

PLATE 11. 

43, 44, 46, 47-50. Oxynoe olivacea Raf. Journ. de Conch., . 162 

51,52. Oxynoe viridis Pse. Donum Bism 165 

53-55. Oxynoe viridis Pse. Am. Journ. Conch., 165 

56, 57. Oxynoe brachycephalus (olivacea). Gen. Rec. Moll. 164 
58-62. Oxynoe sieboldi (=olivacea). Am. Sci. Nat., .... 164 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 243 

PLATE 12. 

FIGURE. PAGE 

63, 64, 65. Aglaja depicta Renieri. After Vayssiere, .... 46 

66, 67. Aglaja depicta Renieri. After Cantraine, 46 

68-70. Aglaja depicta Renieri. After Bergh, 46 

PLATE 13. 

71, 72, 73, 75 and fig. in lower left corner, Aglaja tricolorata 

Ren. After Bergh, 45 

76, 77. Aglaja depicta Ren. After Bergh, 46 

78. Aglaja purpurea Bgh., (penis). After Bergh, 52 

PLATE 14. 

79, 80. Navanax renigmaticus Bgh. After Bergh, 58 

81. Aglaja tricolorata Ren. After Bergh, 45 

82, 83, 84. Aglaja ocelligera Bgh. After Bergh, ..... 53 
85. Aglaja punctilucens Bgh. After Bergh 54 

PLATE 15. 

86-88. Navanax senigmaticus Bgh. After Bergh, 58 

89-93. Navanax inermis Coop. After Bergh, 58 

94, 95. Aglaja dioraedea Bgh. After Bergh, 52 

PLATE 16. 

1. Tethys nodiferus A. & R. Zool. Samarang, 109 

2. Tethys lineolata A. & R. Zool. Samaraug, 110 

3,4. Tethys tigrina Rang. After Rang, 108 

5, 6. Tethys tigrinella Gray. Zool. Astrol-., 109 

7. Notarchus rufus Q. & G. Zool. Astrol., 143 

8. Tethys oculifera A. & R. Zool. Samarang, 110 

PLATE 17. 

9. 10. Tethys Juliana Q. &G, Zool. Astrolabe, 108 

11. Notarchus cirrhifer Q. & G. Zool. Astrolabe, 142 

12,13. Notarchus gelatinosus (=indicus). Zool. Astrolabe, . 136 

. 14-16. Tethys nigrocincta Mart. After Mobius, 107 

17-19. Tethys maculata Rang. After Rang, 107 

PLATE 18. 

20, 21. Tethys fimbriata A. & R. C. Icon 105 

22, 23. Tethys japonica Sowb. C. Icon., . 106 

24. Tethys fimbriata A. & R. Zool. Samarang, 105 



244 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

25. Tethys orientalis Sowb. C. Icon., 104 

26, 27. Tethys sinensis Sowb. C. Icon 104 

28. Tethys pulmonica Old. U. S. Expl. Exped., 96 

PLATE 19. 

29, 30 31. Tethys inca Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 87 

32,33. Petalifera similis Sowb. (=virescens). C. Icon., . . .130 
34-36. Tethys ran gian a Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., .... 86 

PLATE 20. 

37-39. Tethys livida Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 79 

40, 41. Tethys grandis Pse. Conch. Icon., 92 

42. Tethys trigona Sowb. Conch. Icon., . . .112 

43, 44. Tethys bipes Pse. Conch. Icon., .91 

45. Tethys cornigera Sowb. Conch. Icon., 103 

46, 47. Tethys sandwicensis Sowb. Conch. Icon., 92 

PLATE 21. 

1-5. Colpodaspis pusiUa Sars. After Garstang 28 

6-11. Colobocephalus costellatus Sars. After iSars 33 

12. Paraplysia piperata Smith. After Gilchrist, 115 

13, 14. Paraplysia monhoti Gilchrist. After Gilchri&t, . . .115 

PLATE 22. 

1-5. Tethys sorex Rang. After Rang, 94 

6-9. Dolabrifera oahouensis Souleyet. Voy. Bonite, . . .122 
10, 11. Tethys nigra Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 85 

PLATE 23. 

26, 27. Tethys depilans Linne. After Rang, 69 

28-32. Pleurobranchus cornutus Q. &. G. Voy. Astrolabe, . 206 

PLATE 24. 

33, 34. Tethys depilans Linne. After Rang, 69 

35, 36. Tethys depilans Linne. After Jeffrey*, 69 

PLATE 25. 

1. Tethys geographicus A. & R. Voy. Samarang, .... 103 

2. Tethys peasei Pils. Am. Journ. Conch., 95 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 245 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

3. Tethys viridescens Pse. (much reduced). Am. Journ. 

Conch., 94 

4,5. Dolabella tongana Q. & G. (=ecaudata). Zool.Astrol. 158 

PLATE 26. 

26, 27. Dolabella scapula Martyn. After Rang 152 

28. Dolabella scapula Martyn. Zool. Samarang, 152 

PLATE 27. 

29, 30. Dolabella scapula Mart. Zool. Astrolabe, 152 

31, 32. Dolabella elongata Sowb. C. Icon., 156 

PLATE 28. 

33, 34, 36. Dolabella hasselti, var. Zool. Astrolabe, .... 155 
35. Dolabella scapula Mart. C. Icon., J52 

PLATE 29. 

37-39. Notarchus lineolatus Old. U. S. Expl. Exped., . . .140 

40. Notarchus citrinus Rang. After Rang, . ... ... 139 

41. Notarchus longicauda Q. & G. Voy. Uranie, 143 

42. 43. Notarchus longicauda Q. & G. After Rang, . . . .143 

44. Notarchus quercinus Gld. U. S. Expl. Exped., . . . .144 

45, 46. Notarchus nudatus Rang. After Rang, 138 

47-49. Notarchus striatus Q. & G. Voy. Astrolabe, . . . .141 

PLATE 30. 

1,5,6. Tethys punctata Cuv. After Rang, 70 

2. Tethys punctata Cuv. After Cuvier, 70 

3. Tethys punctata Cuv. After Philippi, 70 

4. Tethys punctata Cuv. After Vayssiere 70 

7, 8. Tethys punctata Cuv. After Jeffreys, 70 

9-11. Aplysia marginata Phil. ( T. punctata Cuv.). After 

Philippi, 70 

PLATE 31. 
12-15. Tethys ocellata Orbigny. Hist. Nat. Canaries, . ... 76 

PLATE 32. 
16-19. Tethys dactylomela Rang. After Rang, 75 



246 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 33. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

20-22. Tethys leporina Linne. After Rang, 72 

2*3. Tethys leporina Linne, radula. After Mazzarelli, . ... 72 

24. Tethys leporina Linne, opaline glaud. After Blochmann, 72 

25. Tethys depilans L., opaline gland. After Blochmann, . . 69 
26-29. Tethys marmorata Blainv. After Rang, 74 

PLATE 34. 

1-5. Dolabrifera fusca Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., .... 122 
6-8. Dolabrifera tahitensis Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch , . . .121 

9, 10. Dolabrifera so werbyi Guild. C. Icon , 126 

11-16. Dolabrifera dolabrifera Cuv. After Rang, 118 

17. Dolabrifera ascifera Rang. C. Icon., 124 

18. Dolabrifera pacifica Pse. C. Icon , 122 

19. 20. Dolabrifera ascifera Rang. After Rang, 124 

21, 22. Dolabrifera marmorea Pse. C. Icon., 123 

23, 24. Dolabrifera vitrsea Sowb. C. Icon., 121 

25. Dolabrifera olivacea Pse. C.Icon., 123 

26, 27. Dolabrifera maillardi Dh. Moll. Reunion, 119 

28. Dolabrifera cuvieri Ads. Gen. Rec. Moll., 118 

29. Dolabrifera ascifera Rang. After Rang, 124 

PLATE 35. 

30. 31, 32. Tethys willcoxi Heilprin. Pilsbry, del., 80 

33, 35. Tethys sequorea Heilprin. Pilsbry, del., 77 

34. Tethys sequorea Heilprin. After Heilprin, .77 

36. Tethys guadaloupensis Sowb. C. Icon., 79 

PLATE 36. 

1, 2. Phyllaplysia lafonti Fisch. Journ. de Conch., . . . .133 

3. Petalifera ornata Desh. Tr. Elem. Conch., 130 

4-7. Petalifera punctulata T. C. Voy. Magenta, 131 

9, 10. Petalifera webbii (=virescens Risso). Mag. Zool., . 129 
11, 12. Petalifera brugnatellii B. & R. Mag. Zool., .... 130 
13, 14. Phyllaplysia depressa Cantr. Mai. Medit, 134 

PLATE 37. 

15-19. Tethys floridensis Pils. Pilsbry, del., 82 

20-22. Tethys protea Rang. After Rang, 78 

23-25. Tethys parvula (Guild) Morch. Pilsbry, del., ... 83 

PLATE 38. 

1,2. Tethys melanopus Crouch. P. Z. S., 75 

3-5. Tethys braziliana Rang. After Rang, 82 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 247 

PLATE 39. 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

1-4. Tethys keraudreni Rang. After Rang, 95 

PLATE 40. 

1-11. Notarchus punctatus Phil. After Vayssiere, . . . .137 

12, 13. Notarchus punctatus Phil. After Philippi, 137 

14-16. Notarchus indicus Schw. After Mobi us, 136 

PLATE 41. 

17-19. Notarchus ocellatus Fer. After Rang, 138 

20-22. Notarchus laciniatus R. & L. After Riippell, ... 145 

PLATE 42. 

23-26. Notarchus savignanus Audouin. After Savigny, . . 144 

PLATE 43. 

27. Tethys concava gowb. C. Icon., 100 

28. Tethys anguillaCuming. C. Icon., 112 

29. 30. Notarchus lacinulatus Couth. U. S. Expl. Exped., . 147 

31. Notarchus plei Rang. After Rang, 148 

32, 33. Phy Haply sia limacina Rang. After Rang, . . . . . 134 

34. Notarchus glaucus Cheese m. P. Z. S., 146 

PLATE 44. 

35, 36. Notarchus plei Rang. ' Pilsbry, del., 148 

37. Notarchus plei Rang. After Rang, 148 

38-41. Dolabrifera jacksoniensis Pils. Pilsbry, del., .... 120 

PLATE 45. 



1. Oscanius grandis Pse. Am. Journ. Conch., 218 

2-6. Pleurobranchus punctatus Q. & G. Voy. Astrolabe, . 205 
7-9. Pleurobranchus delicatus Pse. Am. Journ. Conch., . . 202 

PLATE 46. 

10, 14, 15. Oscanius mamillatus Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., ... 220 

11, 16, 17. Pleurobranchus ovalis Pse. Am. Jouru. Conch., . 202 

12, 13. Pleurobrauchus angasi Smith. Zool. Alert, .... 205 



248 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 47. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

18, 19. Oscanius hilli Hedley. P. L. S. K S. W., 220 

20, 21. Pleurobranchus tessellatus Pse. Am. Journ. Concb., . 203 
22, 23. PleurobranchusornatusCheesem. P. Z.S., 206 

PLATE 48. 

24-28. Pleurobranchus peronii Cuv. Voy. Astrol., .... 207 
29-31. Pleurobranchus citrinus Riipp. After Riippell, . .208 
32, 33. Oscanius forskali (=marinus). After Riippell, . . .216 
34, 35. Gymnotoplax scutatus( martensi). After Mobius, . 211 

PLATE 49. 

36-38. Oscanius reticulatus Rang. Mag. de Zool., 216 

39-41. Pleurobranchus oblongus Aud. After Savigny, . . . 208 

42. Oscanius blainvillei Less. Cent. Zool., 219 

PLATE 50. 

43, 46. Oscanius testudinarius Cantr. After Philippi, . . .213 
44,45. Oscanius testudinarius Cantr. After Vayssiere, . . . 213 
47, 48. Tylodina americana Dall. Blake Rep.," 188 

PLATE 51. 

50, 51. Oscanius tuberculatus Meckel. After Vayssiere, . .214 
52, 53. Oscanius tuberculatus Meckel. After Forbes & Han- 
ley, . . . ; 214 

54, 55. Oscanius tuberculatus var. dehaani Cantraiue. After 

Cantraine, .' 215 

56, 57. Oscanius tuberculatus Meckel 

58. Hyalopatina rushii Dall, from drawing of type, .... 184 

PLATE 52. 

60, 61, 64, 65. Pleurobranchus plumula Mont. Forbes & 

Hanley, 193 

62, 63. Pleurobranchus stellatus Risso. After Vayssiere, . . 194 
66-68. Pleurobranchus mouterosatoi Vayssiere. After Vays- 
siere, 196 

69-72. Pleurobranchus brevifrons Phil. After Philippi, . .197 
73-75. Pleurobranchus perforatus Phil. After Philippi, . . 197 
76, 77. Pleurobranchus aurantiacus Risso. After Cantraine, 195 

78. Pleurobranchus aurantiacus Risso. After Philippi, . . .195 

79, 80. Pleurobranchus aurantiacus Risso. After Vayssiere, . 195 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 249 

PLATE 53. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

81-83. Pleurobranchrea rneckelii Blv. Pilsbry, del., .... 224 

84. Pleurobranchrea meckelii Blv. After Bergh, 224 

85. Pleurobranchaea meckelii Blv. AJler Cantraine, .... 224 

86. Pleurobranchrea tarda Verrill. After Verrill, 225 

87. Pleurobranchnea novrezealandise Cheesem. P. Z. S., . . . 227 

88. 89. Pleurobrauchrea maculata Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . . 227 
90. Oxynoe antillarum Morch. Pilsbry, del., 164 

PLATE 54. 

90-94. Koonsia morosa Bgh. After Bergh, 222 

95. Pleurobranchsea luniceps Cuv. After Cuvier, 228 

96, 97. Pleurobranch&a luniceps Cuv. After Adams, . . . 228 
98, 99, 1, 2. Pleurobranchus digued Roch. Pilsbry, del., . . 201 

3, Aglaja orbignyana Roch. Nouv. Archiv., 239 

4, 5. Oscanius dilatipes Ads. Gen. Rec. Moll., 216 

PLATE 55. 

1-4. Tethys willcoxi var. perviridis Pils. Pilsbry, del., . . 81 

5, 6. Tethys robertsi Pils. Pilsbry, del., . 89 

7-9. Petalifera ferussaci Rang. After Rang, 130 

10-12. Petalifera virescens Risso. After Vayssiere 129 

13, 14. Petalifera quadrata (virescens). After Sowb., . . 130 

PLATE 56. 

13, 14. Tethys californica Coop. Pilsbry, del., 89 

15-17. Tethys lessoni Rang. After Rang, 86 

PLATE 57. 

18, 19. Tethys angasi Sowb. Conch. Icon., 101 

20, 21. Tethys tigrina Sowb. (=sowerbyi). Conch. Icon., . .101 

22,23. Tethys sydneyensis Sowb. Conch. Icon., 101 

24-27. Tethys tryoniana Pils. Pilsbry, del., 96 

PLATE 58. 

28, 29. Tethys gigantea Sowb. Conch. Icon., 102 

30, 31. Tethys hyalina Sowb. (=excavata). Conch. Icon., . 100 
32, 33. Tethys excavata Sowb. Conch. Icon., 100 

PLATE 59. 

34. Tethys fusca Tiles. After Rang, 104 

35, 36. Tethys elongata Pse. Don. Bism., 93 



250 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

37, 38. Tethys elongata Pse. Pilsbry, del., 93 

39. Tethys venosa Hutt. Tr. N. Z. Inst., 98 

40, 41. Tethys tigrina Rang. After Rang 108 

42, 43. Tethys norfolkensisSowb. Conch. Icon., 99 

44. Tethys brunnea Hutt. Tr. N. Z. Inst., 97 

PLATE 60. 

45-48. Tethys pan amensisPils. Pilsbry, del., 88- 

49-52. Tethys maculata Rang. After Rang, 107 

53. Tethys argus Riipp. & Leuck. After Riippell, HO 

PLATE 61. 

54. Tethys euchlora Ads. Figs. Moll. Anira., 114 

55. Tethys ocellatus (=adamsi). Figs. Moll. Anim., . . . .114 
56-58. Notarchus gelatinosa=indicus Schw. After Rang, . 136 

59. Notarchus (Bursatella) leachii Blv. After Blainv., . . .138 

60. Actseon browni Jordan. Proc. Mai. Soc. i, 229- 

PLATE 62. 

1. Notarchus plei Rang, genitalia. E. G. Vanatta, del., . . 62 

2. Notarchus plei Rang, penis. E. G. Vanatta, del., . . . 62 

3. Tethys, " annexed genital mass." After Mazzarelli, ... 63 

4. Notarchus plei Rang, digestive tract. E. G. Vanatta, del. 62 
5-8. Dolabrifera hollbolli Bergh. After Bergh, 127 

PLATE 63. 

9-11. Dolabella teremidi Rang. After Rang, 154 

12-16. Dolabrifera nicaraguana Pils. Pilsbry, del., .... 124 

PLATE 64. 

1,2. Dolabella guayaquilensis Sowb. Conch. Icon., .... 160 
3. Dolabella hasselfi (type) Fer. After Rang, 154 

PLATE 65. 

4-6. Dolabella gigas Rang. Ross, del., 152 

7, 8. Dolabrifera triangularis Wats. Chall. Rep., 119 

9. Dolabrifera hollbolli Bgh. After Bergh, 127 

10, 11. Dolabrifera ascifera Rang. After Bergh, 124 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 251 

PLATE 66. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

11-13. Dolabella ecaudata Rang. After Rang, 157 

14. Dolabella californica Stearns, diagram of the mantle cav- 
ity, the dorsal slit indicated by dotted lines. Pilsbrv, 

del., ".150 

15-18. Dolabella californica Stearns. Pilsbry, del., .... 159 

PLATE 67. 

17, 18. Dolabella californica Stearns, teeth. Pilsbry, del., . .150 
19,20. Dolabrifera swiftii (? =ascifera Rang). Pilsbry, del. 125 
21-25. Dolabrifera ascifera Rang, teeth. After Bergh, . . .117 
26. Phyllaplysia lafonti Fisch., teeth. After Mazzarelli, . . 132 
27-30. Dolabrifera hollbolli Bgh., teeth. After Bergh, . . .127 

PLATE 68. 

31-34, 36. Runcina coronata Quatref. After Vayssiere, . . 172 

35. Runcina coronata Quatref. After Quatrefage? 172 

37-41. Runcina coronota Quatref. After Alder & Hancock, 172 
42, 43. Runcina prasina Morch. After Bergh, 173 

PLATE 69. 

44. Umbraculum mediterraneum Lam. After Vayssiere. . .179 

45. Umbraculum mediterraneum Lam., (head). After Vays- 

siere, . 179 

46. Umbraculum mediterraneum Lam. After Philippi, . . 179 
47-49. Umbraculum mediterraneum Lam. Ross, del., . . . 179 

50, 51. Ildica nana Bergh, shell. After Bergh, 174 

52, 53. Ildica nana Bergh, from right side and above. After 

Bergh, 174 

54, 55. Ildica nana Bergh, dentition. After Bergh, .... 174 

56. Ildica nana Bergh, penis. After Bergh, 174 

57. Ildica nana Bergh, stomach plates. After Bergh, . . .174 

PLATE 70. 

58-60. Umbraculum sinicum Gmel. Zool. Bonite, 180 

61. Umbraculum ovalis Cpr. Conch. Icon., 177 

62. Umbraculum corticalis Tate. After Tate, 183 

PLATE 71. 

63-65. Umbraculum sinicum Gmel. Ross, del., 180 

66, 67. Haliotinella montrouzieri Souv. Journ. Conch., . . .210 
68, 69. Bertinia bertinia Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 1883, t. 

10, f. 6,8, 189 



252 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 72. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

70, 71. Umbraculum sinicum Gmel. U. S. Expl. Exped., . . 180 

72-74. Umbraculum plicatulum Mts. C. Mittheil, 178 

75, 76. Haliotinella patinaria Guppy. Journ. de Conch., . .210 

PLATE 73. 

77-82. Tylodina citrina Joannis. After Vayssiere, . . . . 1 86 

83. Tylodina citrina Joannis. After Joannis, 186 

84, 85. Tylodina rafinesquii Phil. After Philippi, 187 

86, 87. Umbraculum cumingi Desh. Moll. Reun., 182 

PLATE 74. 

88-90. Pleurobranchus peronii Cuv. After Cuvier, .... 207 

91. Gymnotoplax americanus Verrill. After Yerrill, . . . . 210 

92, 93. Pleurobranchus patagonicus Orb. After d'Orbigny, . 200 

94. Koonsia obesa Verrill. After Verrill, 222 

95. Pleurobranchus stellatus Risso, teeth. After Bergh, . . 194 

96. Pleurobranchus stellatus Risso, a plate of the jaw. After 

Vayssiere, 194 

97. 98, Pleurobranchus aurantiacus Risso, teeth. After 

Bergh, ^ 195 

99. Pleurobranchus aurantiacus Risso, jaw plate. After 

Bergh, 195 

1. Pleurobranchus plumula Mont., jaw plates. After Sars, . 193 

2, 3. Pleurobranchus plumula Mont., teeth. After Sars, . .193 

4. Scaphander alatus Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus., .... 234 

5. Scaphander pustulosus Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., . . 235 

6. Pleurobranchus monterosatoi Vayssiere, jaw plate. After 

Bergh, 196 

7. Pugnus parvus Hedley. After Hedley, 234 



INDEX TO TECTIBRANCHS. 



NOTE The names of valid species and varieties are printed in 
Roman type ; of genera and other groups in SMALL CAPITALS ; of 
synonyms in Italic. 



Acardo Lam., . . .176 

AceraAuct., . . . 230 

Achates Dh. (Dorid.), . 239 

ACLESIA Rang, . . 135, 144 

ACROSTEMMA Cossm., . 233 

ACTvEONIDJE, . . . 229 

ACTION Montf., . . 229 
Acutangula (Philine) Ad., . 4 
Adamsi Ang. (Chelidonura), 36 
Adamsi Pils. (Tethys), . 114 
ADEL ACTION Cossm., . 230 
Adeline Dall (Aglaja), . 53 
Adella Dall (Dorid. j, . 54 
^Enigmaticus Bgh. (Navar- 

chus), ... 58 

^Equorea Heilpr. (Aplysia), 77 
AGLAJID^:, . . vi, 43 
AGLAJA Ren., . 43, 44, 239 
AKERA, . . . .230 
Alata Forbes (Bull^a), . 17 
Alatus Dall (Scaph.), . 234 
Alba Cuv. (Aplysia), . 73 
Alba Marsh. (Pleurobr.), . 194 
AlbopunctataDh. (Aphysia), 71 
ALICULA Eichwald, . . 237 
Alicula Ehrenb., . . 237 
ALICULASTRUM Pils., . 237 
Amabilis Verr. (Philine), . 25 
Amati (Clio) Delle Chiaje, . 40 
Americana Dall (Tylodina), 188 
Americanus V e r. (Gym- 

notoplax), . . .210 
Americanus Ver. (Pleuro- 

branchus), . . .210 
Amygdala marina Plane., . 11 



ANASPIDEA, . . .59 
Andamanicus Sm. (Scaph.), 235 
Angasi Crosse (Philine), . 8 
Angasi Sm. (Pleurobr.), . 205 
Angasi Sowb. (Aplysia), . 101 
Angulata Jeffr. (Philine), . 17 
Anguilla Cum. (Aplysia), . 112 
Angustata Biv. (Bulla), 13, 14 
Antillarum Mch. (Oxynoe), 164 
Aperta L. (Philine), . . 10 
Aplisiformis Fer. (Action.), 230 
Aplysia Liune, . . 65 

Aplysiceforme Chiaje (Dorid- 

iwii), . . 46 

Aplysiella Fisch., . . 12S 
APLYSIID^H, . . .59 
APLYSIIN^E Pils., . . 65 
Areola Pse. (Aclesia), . 147 
Areolatus Mch. (Pleurobr.), 199 
Argentata (Philine) Old., . 4 
Argentatus Lch. (Oscan.), . 215 
Argus Riipp. (Aplysia), .110 
Ascifera Rang. (Dolabri- 

fera), ... 124 

ASCOGLOSSA Bgh. . .161 
Atlantica Gray (Tylo.), . 186 
ATYS Montf., . . .236 
Aurantiacus Risso (Pleuro- 
br.), . . . .195 
Aurantium Pse. (Operc.), .181 

Bakaricus Lar. (Pleurobr.), 224 
Bermudense Mch. (Um- 
brella), . 100, 178, 180 
BEJ ,-TVLLA Blv., . . 192 



(253) 



254 



INDEX. 



Bertinia Jouss., . .189 

Binotata Pils. (Haminea), . 231 
Bipes Pse. (Aplysia), . 91 

Bipes Pse. (Syphonota), . 92 
Blainvillii Less. (Pleurobr.), 219 
Brachycephalus Mch. (Oxy- 

noe), . . . .164 
Brasilian a Rang. (Aplysia), 82 
Brazieri Sowb. (D o 1 a b r i - 

fera), . . .120 

Brevifrons Ph. (Pleurobr.), 197 
Brongniartii Blv. (Aplysia), 144 
Browni Jord. (Actseon), . 229 
Brugnatellii Vanbened. 

(Aplysia), . .131 

Brunnea Hutt. (Aplysia), . 97 
BUCCONIA Ball, * . . 236 
Bulla Dacost. (Bulla), . 11 
Bullvea Lara., ... 2 
Bullata Miill., . . . .230 
Ballidium Leue, . . 44 
Bursatella Blainv., . 135, 138 

CailletiVh. (Aplysia), . 82 
Californica Coop. (Aplysia), 89 
Californica Stearns (Dola- 

bella), . . .159 
Callosa Lam. (Dolabella), 153 
Calyptrseoides Fbs. (Pleuro- 
br.), . . . .198 
Catneliformis Loc. (Aplysia), 73 
Camelus Cuv. (Aplysia), . 73 
Candeana Orb. (Philine), . 25 
Candida Miill. (Bulla), . il 
Capemis Pfr. (Bulltea), . 11 
Capreensis Maz. (Pelta), . 239 
Carnosa Cuv. (Accra), . 46 
Catena Mont. (Philine), . 13 
Catenata Thorp. (Bulhea), 14 
Catenatus Leach (S c a - 

phander), . . .13 
CateJiuliferalhlsicg. (Bullsea), 13 
Cativa Brown (Bultaa), . 13 
Caurina Bens. (Philine), . 9 
CEPHALASPIDEA, . . 229 
CHELIDONURA Ad., . 1, 34 
Chelinodura Fischer, . 34 

Chierchiana Maz. & Zucc. 



(Aplysia), ... 87 
ChinenseSchum. (Umbrae.), 181 
Chinensis Gray (Umbr.), . 181 
Cingulata Sars (Philine), . 15 
Circularis Mch. (Berthella), 200 
Circular-is Mch. (Pleurobr.), 200 
Cirrhifera Q. & G. (Aply- 
sia), . . . \ 142 
Cirrhifer Q. & G. (Notar- 

chus), . . .142 
Cirrifera Q. &G. (Aclesia), 142 
Cirrosus Stimp. (Notar- 

chus), . . .141 

Citrina Joan, (Tylo.), . 186 
Citrina Rang (Aplysia), . 139 
Citrinus Rang (Notarchus), 139 
Citrinus R. & L. (Pleuro- 
br.), . . .208 
Cleanthus Leach, . .192 
Cleantus Leach, . . .191 
CLISTAXIS Cossm., . . 237 
Coccineum Fer. (Gastrop- 

teron), . . 40 

COLOBOCEPHALUS Bars, . 33 
COLPODASPIS Sars, . . 28 
Concava Sowb. (Aplysia), . 100 
Contarinii Ver. (Pleurobr.), 215 
Coreanica Ad. (Philine), . 7 
Coriaceum Meckel (Dorid- 

ium), . . . .46 
Corneus Mch. (Lobiger), . 167 
Cornigera Sowb. (Aplysia), 1 03 
Cornutus Q. & G. (Pleuro- 
br.), . . ^ . .206 
Coronata Quatref. (Pelta), 172 
Corticalis Tate (Umbr.), . 183 
Costellatus Sars (Colobo- 

cephalus), . . .33 
Crenata Ad. (Philine), . 7 
CRENILABIUM Cossm., . 229 
Cretica Fbs. (Bulla), . 233 

Cryptaxis Jeffr., . . 237 

CRYPTOPHTHALMUS E h r - 

enb., . . 1, 36 
Cumingi Ad. (Lobiger), . 166 
Cumingi Desh. (Umbr.), . 182 
Cuvieri Ad. (Dolabrifera), 118 
Cuvieriana Chiaje (Aplisia), 71 



INDEX. 



255 



Cuvieri Blv. (Notarchus), 136 
Cdvieri Chiaje (Aplisia), . 71 
Cyanea Mts. (Aglaja), . 47 
Cyaneum Mts. (Doridium), 47 
Cyanogaster Rud., . . 223 
Cylindrica Cheesem. (Ag- 
laja), .... 49 
Cylindrica Cheesem. (Mel- 

anochlamys), . . 50 
Cylindricus Pse. (Crypt- 

ophtbalmus), . . 37 
CYLINDROBULLA Fisch., . 231 
CYPR^EACT^EON White, . 234 

Dactylomela Rang (Aply- 

sia), . . . .75 
Dehaanii Cantr. ( P 1 e u - 

robr.), . ' , .215 
Delicatula Nev. (Oxynoe), 165 
Delicatus Pse. (Pleurobr.), 202 
DellechiaiiVer. (Pleurobr.), 225 
Denisoni Smith (Aplysia), 102 
Denotarisii Ver. (Pleurobr.), 215 
Denticulata Ad. (Bulla), . 12 
Depicta Ren. (Aglaja), . 46 
Depilans L. (Aplysia), . 69 
Depressa Cantr. (Aplysia), 134 
Deshaanii (Pleurobr.), . 215 
Deubenii Lov. (Tylo.), . 187 
Diaphana Arad. (Weink.), 236 
DIAPHANA Brown, . . 237 
Diaphana Mont. (Bulla), . 232 
Digueti Roch. (Pleurobr.), 201 
Dilatata Jeffr. (Philine), . 27 
Dilatata S. Wood (Bullsea), 1 3 
Dilatipes Ad. (Oscan.), . 216 
Diomedea Bgh. (Aglaja) . 52 
Diomedeum Bgh. (Dorid.), 53 
DIPTEROPHYSIS Pils., 162, 168 
Dixcoides Ren. . . .192 
Diva Vel. (Bulla). . . 238 
DOLABELLA Lam., . .150 
DOLABELLIN.E Pils., . . 150 
Dolabrifera Cuv. (Dolab.), 118 
DOLABRTFERA Gray, .117 

Doldbrifer Fischer, . .117 

DOLABRIFERIN^E Pils., . 116 

Doridiiche, . . 43 



Doridium Meckel, . . 44 
DumortieriC&utT. (Aplysia), 71 

Eburnea Dall (Bulla), . 232 
EcaudataRang(Dolabella), 157 
Effusa Monts. (Coleoph.), . 233 
Eidothea Risso, . . .44 
Elongata Pse. (Aplysia), . 93 
Elongata Pse. (Syphonota), 93 
Elongata Pse, (Tethys), . 93 
Elongata Sby. (Dolabella), 156 
Elongatus Cantr. ( P 1 e u - 

robr.), . ' . .196 
ELYSIA, .... 230 
Emarginata Ad. (Bulla), . 11 
Erythrsea Ad. (Philine), . 9 
Erythrcensis Cooke ( P h i - 

line), .... 9 
Esmia Leach, . . .65 
Euchlora Ad. (Aplysia), .114 
EUSELENOPS Pils., . 191,228 
Excavata Sowb. (Aplysia), 100 
Exilis Jeffr., . . 229 

Farrani Norm. (Akera), . 230 
Faseiata Poir. (Aplysia), . 73 
Ferussacii Rang (Aplysia), 130 
Fimbriata A. & R. (Aply- 
sia), . . . .105 
Finmarchica Sars (Philine), 14 
Fleuriansi Orb. (Pleurobr.), 194 
Flexuosa Monts. (Philine), 22 
Flexuosa Sars (Philine), . 2 1 
Floridensis Pils. (Tethys), . 82 
Formosa Stimp. (Philine), . 20 
Forskahli Chiaje ( P 1 e u - 

robr.), . . .213 
Forskalii Riipp. (Pleurobr.), 2 1 7 
Fragilis Lam. (Dolabella), 

. 70, 160 

Fragilis Sars (Philine), . 15 
Fragilis Vel. (Bulla), . 237 
Fungina Gabb. (Tylo.), . 188 
Fusca Pse. (Dolabrifera), . 122 
Fusca Tiles. (Aplyeia), . 104 

GargottcB Calc. (Bulla), . 163 
Gastroplax Blv., . .176 



256 



INDEX. 



GASTROPTERIDvE. . V\, 39 

GASTROPTERON Kosse, 39, 239 
Gelatinosa Rang (Notar- 

chus), . . .136 

Gelatinosus Rang (Aplysia), 136 
GemmataMch. (Aglaja), . 55 
Gemmatum Mch. (Dorid.), 56 
Geographica A. & R. (Si- 

phonotus), . .103 

Gervisia Q. & G., . 192 

Gigantea Sowb. (Aplysia), 102 
Gigas Rang (Dolabella), . 152 
Gigliolii T. C. (Aglaja)^ . 50 
Glauca Cheesem. (Aclesia), 146 
Glaucus Cbeesem. (Notar- 

cbus), . . , .146 
Globosa Lov. (Diapbana), 16 
Grandis Lecbe (Philine), . 20 
Grandis Pse. (Aplysia), . 93 
Grandis Pse. (Pleurobr.), . 218 
Grandis Pse. (Sypbonota), 93 
Granulatus Kr. (Pleurobr.), 208 
Granulosa Sars. (Bullsea), 13 
Granulosa Sars. (Philine), . 27 
Graved Fbs. (Icarus), . 163 
Griffithsice Gray, . .71 
Griffithsiana Lch. (Esmia), 71 
Gu ad aloupen sis Sowb. 

(Aplysia), . . .79 
Guayaquilensis Pet. (Dola- 
bella), . . .160 
Guernei Dautz. (Bulla), . 232 
Guttata Mts. (Aglaja), . 48 
Guttata Sars. (Aplysia), . 71 
Guttatum Mts. (Doridium), 48 
GYMNOTOPLAX Pils., 191, 210 

Haanii Loc. (Pleurobr.), .215 
HALIOTINELLA Souv., . 209 
Hamiltoni Kirk (Aplysia), 99 
HAMINEA, . . 231 

Hancocki Fbs. (Runcina), . 172 
Hargravesi Ad. (Oxynoe), 166 
Hasseltii Fer. (Dolabella), 154 
Hempricbii Ebr. (Dola- 
bella), . . .156 
Her mania Monts., . . 2 
Hillii Hedl. (Oscanius), . 220 



Hirundella Gray, . . 34 
Hirundinaria Gray (Hir- 
undella), . . .35 
Hirundinina Q. (Chelidon- 

ura), . . . 34 
Hollbolli Bgh. (Dolabri- 

fera), . . . 127 

Hyalina Sowb. (Aplysia), . 100 

Hyalopatina Dall, 176, 184 

Hybrida Sowb. (Aplysia), 71 

Icarus Forbes, . . .162 
ILDICA Bergh., . . 171, 173 
Inca Orb. (Aplysia), . . 87 
Incus Sowb. (Aplysia), . 87 
Indica Lam. (Umbr.), . 181 
Indicus Schweig. (Notar- 

chus), . . . 136 

Inermis Coop. (Navanax), . 58 
Inertnis Coop. (Navarchus), 58 
Inermis Coop. (Strategus), 58 
Infortunata Pils. (Pbiline), 16 
Infundibulum Dall (Pbi- 
line), .... 23 
Intrapicta Ckll. (Aclesia) . 149 
Intrapictus Ckll. (Notar- 

chus), . . 149 

Jacksoniensis Pils. (Dolabri- 

fera) 120 

Japonica Lisch. (Philine), . 5 
Japonica Pils. (Hamiuea), 232 
Japonica Sowb. (Aplysia), 10H 
JerverensisSchr. (Bulla), . 232 
Joannisia Monts., , .185 
JOHANIA Monts., . 3, 27 
Juliana Q. & G. (Aplysia), 108 
Julienna Gray (Aplysia), . 108 

Keraudreni Ang. (Syphon- 

ota), . . . .101 
Keraudreni Rang(Aplysia), 95 
Kleciachi Brus. ( L a m e 1 - 

laria), . . .195 
KLEINELLA Ad., . . 230 
KooNSiAVer., . 191, 221 
Krohnii Ad. (Lobiger), . 165 
.Kro/wnAd.(Lopho.), . 165 




Of THE 

TJNIV-ERSlTY 



INDEX. 



257 



Krohnii A. Ad. (Oxynoe), 165 

Laciniatus R. & L. (Notar- 

chus), . . . 145 

Lacinnlata Couth. (Bursa- 

^tella), . . .147 

Lacinulatus Couth. (Notar- 

chus), . . .147 

Lsevigata Stimp. (Aplysia), 106 
Lafonti Fisch. (Phyllaply- 

sia), . . . .133 
Laguncula Sow. (Volv.), . 231 
LAOXA Ad., . . 3, 26 
Laplysia Linne, . . 65 

Lavis Blv. (Dolabella), . 70 
Leachii Blv. (Bursatella), . 138 
Leachii Blv. (Notarchus), . 138 
Leporina Delle Chiaje 

(Aplisia), ... 70 
Leporina Linn. (Tethys), . 72 
Lepus Phil. (Aplysia), . 73 
iepwRisso (Dolabella), 73, 160 
Lernea Bohadsch, . . 65 
Lessoni Mazz. (Aplysia), .114 
Lessoni Rang. (Aplysia), . 86 
Lesueurii Blv. (Pleurobr.), 215 
Leuconyx Ad., . . .160 
Lima Brown (Philine), . 20 
Limacina Blv. (Aplysia), . 134 
Limacina L. (Tethys.), . 70 
Limacina Blochm. (Aply- 
sia), . . . .73 
Limacoides Ver. (Pleu- 
robr.), . ' . .198 
Lineolata A. & R. (Aply- 
sia), . . . .110 
Lineolata Ad. (Aglaja), . 49 
Lineolata Couth. (Bulla), . 21 
Lineolatus Old. (Notar- 
chus), . . 140 
Lineolatus Old (Stylo 

cheilus), . . 140 

Lineolatus Stimp. (Notar 

chus), . . 142 

Lisxactceon Monts., . 229 

Livida Orb. (Aplysia), . 79 
Lobaria Blainv., . . 44 
Lobaria Mu'll., . . 2 



Lobiancoi Maz. (Aplysia), 73 
LOBIGER Krohn, . 162, 166 
Longicauda Q. & G. (Notar- 
chus), . , .143 
Longicornis Rang (Aply- 
sia), . . . .71 
Lophocercus Krohn, . .162 
Loveni Malm. (Philine), . 14 
Luniceps Cuv. (Pleurobr.), 228 
Lurida Orb. (Aplysia), . 79 
Lutea Q. & G. (Bulla) . 39 
Lutea Risso (Aplysia), .113 
Luteus Q. & G. (Cryptoph- 

thalmus), . . . 38 

Maculata Orb. (Aglaja), . 51 
Maculata Orb. (Postero- 

branchsea), . . 51 

Maculata Q. & G. (Pleu- 
robr.), . . . 227 
Maculata Rang (Aplysia), 107 
MaillardiDh. (Dolabri- 

fera), . . . .119 
Major Lank. (Aplysia), . 70 
Mammillatus Q. G. (Pleu- 
robr.), . . .220 
Mammillatus Sch. (Pleu- 
robr.), . . t .213 
Marginata Ad. (Aplysia), . 105 
Marginata Ph. (Aplysia), . 71 
Marginatus Pse. ( P 1 e u - 

robr.), . . . 204 
Marinus Forsk. (Lepus), . 217 
Marinus Forsk. (Oscan.), . 216 
Marmorata Blv. (Aplysia), 74 
Marmorata Risso ( E i d o - 

thea), . . 46 

Marmorata Smith (Aglaja), 48 
Marmoratum Cantr. (Dorid- 

ium), ... 46 

Marmoratum Sm. (Dorid.), 49 
Marmorea Ad. (Aplysia), . 105 
Marmorea Pse. (Dolabri- 

fera) 123 

Martensi Pils. (Gymnot.), . 211 
Meckelii Blv. (Pleurohr.), . 224 
Meckeli Chiaje (Doridium), 45 
Meckelii :'Opstrop.), . . 23J) 






17 



258 



INDEX. 



Mediterranean! Lam. 

(Umbr.), . . .179 
Melanochlamys Cheesem., . 44 
Melanopus Crouch (Aply- 

sia), ... 75 

Membranacea Mont. (Lam- 

ellaria), . . .215 
Membranacea Monts. (Phi- 

line), . . . .22 
Mem branacewn M e c k e 1 

(Doridium), . 45, 46 
Membranaeeus Mont. (Pleu- 

robr.), . . .215 
MENESTHO, . . . 230 
Minor Lank. (Aplysia), . 225 

MONOSTICHOGLOSSATA, . 161 

Montagui Lch. (Cleantus), 194 
Monterosatoi Jeffr. (Phi- 

line), .... 20 
Monterosatoi Vayss. (Pleu- 

robr.), . . . 196 
Montrouzieri Souv. (Hal- 

iotinella.), . . .210 
Morosa Bgh. (Koonsia), . 222 
Morosus Bgh. (Pleuro- 

branchillus), . . 223 
Mouhoti Gilch. (Aplysia), 116 
Mustelina Dav. (Aplysia), 71 
Myonia A. Ad., . " . . 230 



Nana Bgh. (Ildica), 

Napolitana Chiaje (Aply 

sia), . . 

NAVANAX Pils., . 43 

Navarchus Coop., . 

NEAPLYSIA Coop., . 65 

Neapolitana Chiaje (Aply 

sia), 



Nevilli Pils. (Lobiger), 
Nexa Thomp. (Aplysia), 
Nicaraguana Pits. (Dola 

brifera), . . 
Nigra Chenu (Pelta), 
Nigra Mts. (Aglaja), 
Nigra Orb. (Aplysia), 
Nigra Pse. (Philinopsis), 
Nigrocincta Mts. (Aplysia), 



174 

73 
57 
57 

68 

73 

228 

168 

71 

124 

172 

47 

85 

57 

107 



Ni gromarginata Risso 

(Aplysia), . . .113 
Nigrum Mts. (Doridium), . 48 
Nitida Jeffr. (Philine), ' . 18 
Nodifera A. & R. (Aplysia), 109 
Norfolkensis Sowb. (Aply- 
sia), .... 99 
NOTARCHUS Cuv., . 135, 161 

NOTASPIDEA, . . .170 

Novsezealandise Ch. (Pleu- 

robr.), . . .227 
Nudatus Rang (Notarchus), 138 
Nuttalli Pils. (Aglaja), . 50 

Oahouensis Soul. (Dolabri- 

fera), . . . .122 
Obesa Ver. (Koonsia), . 222 
Oblongus Aud. (Pleurobr.), 208 
Ocellaia Ad. (Aplysia), .115 
Ocellata Fer. (Aplysia), . 138 
Ocellata Orb. (Aplysia), . 76 
Ocellaius Chiaje ( P 1 e u - 

robr.), . " . .195 
Ocellatus Fer. (Notarchus), 138 
Ocellatus Hasselt (Placobr.), 1 1 5 
Ocelligera Bgh. (Aglaja), . 53 
Ocelligerum Bgh. (Dorid.), 53 
Oculifera A. & R. (Aply- 
sia), . . . .110 
Olivacea Pse. (Dolabrifera), 123 
Olivacea Raf. (Oxynoe), . 162 
Olivaceus Ehrenb. (Crypto- 

phthalmus), . .37 

Ombrella Blv 176 

Operculatum Ads., . .176 
Orbicular is M\i\il.(A.cardo), 181 
Orbignyana Roch. (Aglaja), 239 
Orbignyanus Roch. (Pos- 

tero.), . . .239 

Ornata Dh. (Dolabella), . 131 
Oruata Dh. (Petalifera), . 131 
Ornata Dh. (Phyllaplysia), 131 
Ornata Quatref. (Pelta), . 172 
Ornatus Ch. (Pleurobr.), . 206 
Ornatus Swains. (Thal- 

lepus), . . .126 
Orientalis Ad. (Philine), . 8 
Orientalis Sowb. (Aplysia), 104 



INDEX. 



259 






OSCANIUS Leach. . 191, 212 
Ossiania Moots., . . 2 
0xiani Kob., (Philine), . 15 
Ossiansarsi Friele (Philine), 1 4 
Ovalis Cpr. (Urabr.), . 177 

Ovalis Pse. (Pleurobr.), . 202 
Ovata Jeffr. (Retusa), . 233 

OXYNOEIDJE, . . . 161 

OxYNOERaf., . . .162 

Pacifica Pse. (Dolabrifera), 122 
PacificLira Bgh. (Gastro- 

pteron), . . .42 
Panamensis Pils. (Tethys), . 88 
PARAPLYSIA Pils., . . 115 
Parthenopia Oken., . . 39 
Parviplica Dall (Torn.), . 232 
Parvula Mch. (Aplysia), . 83 
Parvus Hedl. (Pugnus), . 234 
Patagonicus Orb.(Pleurobr.) 200 
Patelloidea Cantr. (Parrao.), 187 
Patinaria Guppy (Haliot.), 210 
Patula Jeffr. (Philine), . 11 
Patulus Risso (Scaphander), 13 
Peasei Pils. (Tethys), . . 95 
Pectinata Dillw. (Bulla), . 12 
Pelta Quatref., . .171, 239 

Peltidce 170 

Pellucidus Ad. (Lobiger), . 167 
Pellucidus Pse. (Pleurobr.), 203 
Perforates Ph. (Pleurobr.), 197 
Peronii Blv. (Dolabella), . 153 
Peronii Cuv. (Pleurobr.), . 207 
Perviridis Pils. (Aplysia), . 81 
PETALIFERA Gray, . .128 
Petalifera Rang (Aplysia), . 129 
Petersonii Gray (Aplysia), . 113 
Petersoni Sowb. (Aplysia), . 70 
PHANEROPHTHALMUS Ad., 38 
Philippi Krohn (Lobiger), . 167 
PHILINE Asc. . . 1,2, 238 
Phyline, .... 2 
PHILINID^E, . . vi, 1 
Philinopsis Pse., 44, 56, 1 
PHYCOPHILA Ad., . 68, 114 
PHYLL APLYSIA Fisch., . 132 
Picta Pse. (Lobiger), . 169 

Pictum Ad. (Opera), . 183 



Pictum Ad. (Umbr.), . 183 

Pictus Pse. (Lobiger), . 170 
Piperata Smith (Aplysia) . 115 
Planata Dall (Philine), . 24 
Planciana Lara. (Bullaea) . 11 
Pleii Rang (Aplysia), . 148 
PleiiRang(Notarchus), . 148 
PLEUROBRANCHID.E, 170, 190 
PLEUROBRANCHJEA Leue, 

191, 223 

Pleurobranchidium Blv., . 223 
Pleurobranchillus Bergh, . 221 
PLEUROBRANCHUS Cuv., . 191 
Placobranchus Gray, . .114 
Plicatulum Mts. (Umbr.) .178 
Plumula Mont. (Bulla), . 194 
Plumula Mont. (Pleurobr.), 193 
Plumula Vayss. & Bergh. 

(Pleurobr.), . . .195 
Plumulatusluoc. (Pleurobr.), 194 
Polaris Auriv. (Philine), . 22 
Poliana Chiaje (Aplisia), . 70 
Polyomma Mch.(Notarchus) 139 
Porosa Leach (Berthella) . 194 
Poster 'obranchcea Orb., . 44 
Posterobranchus Roch., . 239 
Prasina Mch. (Pelta), . 173 
Protea Rang (Aplysia), . 78 
Pruinosa Clark (Philine), . 26 

PSEUDAPLYSIA Pils., . .131 

PTERYGOPHYSIS Fisch. ,162, 169 
PUGNUS Hedley, . . 233 
Pulmonica Gld. (Aplysia), . 96 
Punctata Ad. (Bulla), . 14 
Punctata Clark (Philine), . 17 
Punctata Cuv. (Aplysia) . 70 
Punctata Phil. (Bulla) 13, 14 
Punctata Pse. (Syphon ota), 95 
Punctatus Ph. (Notarchus), 137 
Punctatus Q. & G. (Pleu- 
robr.), . . . .205 
Punctilucens Bgh. (Aglaja), 54 
Punctilucens Bgh. (Dorid.), 55 
Punctulata Raf. (Tylo.), . 186 
Punctulata T.-C. (Phyll- 

aplysia), . . . .131 
Purourea Bgh. (Aglaja), . 52 
PL 3gh. (Dorid.) . 52 



200 



INDEX. 



PurpureusKel. (Pleurobr.), 217 
Pusilla Sars (Colpodaspis), 28 
Pustulosa Dall (Scaph.), . 235 

Quadrata Sowb. (Aplysia) . 130 
Quadrata S. Wood (Philine), 19 
Qnadridens Mch. (Berthel- 

la), . . . 199, 210 

QuadridensMch.(Pleurobr.) 198 
Quadrilobata Gm. (Lobaria), 11 
tyuadriloba Mull. (Lobaria), 11 
Quadripartite Asc. (Philine), 11 
Quercinus Old. (Notarchus), 143 

Radiata Crouch. (Aplysia), 73 
Radiata~E.hr. (Aplysia), .111 
RafinesquiiPh. (Tylo.), . 187 
Rangiana Orb. (Aplysia), . 86 
Reticulatus Pse. (Pleurobr.), 218 
KeticulatusRang(Pleurobr.) 216 
Retifer Forbes (Bulla), . 27 
RINGICULA, . . . 233 
Ringiculella Sacco, . . 233 
Robertsi Pils. (Tethys), 89, 239 
RondeletiiCuv. (Dolabella), 160 
Rosea Rath ka (Aplysia), . 71 
Rosea Sowb. (Aplysia), . 84 
Raber Raf. (Sarcopterus), . 40 
Rubrum Raf. (Gastropteron), 40 
Rufa Q. & G. (Aplysia), . 143 
Rufus Pse. (Pleurobr.), . 204 
Rufus Q. & G. (Notarchus), 143 
Rumphii Cuv. (Dolabella), 153 
RUNCINA Forbes, . 171, 239 
RUNCINID.E, . . .170 
Ruppellii Iss. (Pleurobr.), . 217 
Rushii Dall (Hyalopatina), 184 

SABATIA Bell. . . .235 
SACOGLOSSA Iher., . .161 
Sagra Orb. (Philine), . . 25 
Saltator Fbs. (Aplysia), . 161 
Sandwichensi^ Sowb. (Aply- 
sia), . . . . 92 
Sareopterus Raf., . . 89 
Savignana Aud.(Bursatella), 145 
SavignanusAud. (Notarchus) 144 
Savignyanus Iss. (Notarchus) 145 



SaviiVerany (Pleurobr.), .198 
ScaforMullCPhiline), . 12 
Scahra Mull. (Philine), . 12 

Scalpta Ad. (Philine), . 6 
SCAPHANDER, . . . 234 
Scapula Mart. (Dolabella), 152 
Schroeteri Phil. (Bullsea), . 11 
Sculpta S. Wood (Bullsea), . 1 4 
SculptaT.-C. (Philine), . 6 
Scutatus Fbs. (Pleurobr.), . 198 
Scutatus Mts. (Pleurobr.), . 211 
Scutellata Ehr. (Aplysia), . Ill 
Sentulum Lov. (Philine), . 20 
SebcB Gray (Aplysia), . 113 
Semilevis Seg. (Bulla), . 232 
Serradifalei Gale. (Bullea), 167 
SerradifalciCalc. (Lobiger), 167 
Sicula Swains. (Aplysia), . 112 
Sideralis Lov. (Pleurobr.), . 194 
fe6oM;Krohn(Lopho.),163, 164 
Similis Sowb. (Aplysia), . 130 
Sinense A. Ad. (Gastro- 
pteron), . . 41 
Sinensis !Sowb. (Aplvsia), . 104 
Sinica Gmel. (Patella), . 180 
Sinicum Gmel. (Umbr.), . 180 
Sinuata Sars. (Philine), . 18 
Sinuata Stimp. (Philiue), . 19 
Siphonotus A. & R., . . 65 
Smaragdiuus Leuck. (Crypt- 

ophthalmus), . . 37 

Sordidus Fbs. (Pleurobr.), . 198 
Sorex Rang (Aplysia), . 94 
Sormetus Fer., ... 2 
Souverbii Fisch. (Lobiger), 168 
Sowerbyi Fisch. (Lobiger), . 169 
Sowerbyi Gldg.(Dolabrifera) 126 
Sowerbyi Pils. (Tethys), . 101 
Sparsinotata Sm. (Aplysia), 103 
Speciosa Pse. (Philinopsis), 56 
Spurea Krauss (Aplysia), . 108 
Stellata Risso (Aplysia), . 71 
Stellatus Risso (Pleurobr.), 194 
Stimpsoni Pils. (Notarchus), 142 
Strategus Coop., . . .57 
Striata Q. & G. (Aplysia), . 141 
StriatulaFbs. (Bulla), . 233 
Striatula Jeffr. ( Philine), . 22 



INDEX 



261 



Striatella T.-C. (Philine), . 5 
Striatulus JefFr. (Utriculus), 23 
Striatus Q. & G.(Notarchus) 141 
Striolata Ad. (Philine), . 7 
STYLOCHEILUS Old., . 135, 139 
Subquadrata Old., S o w b. 

(Aplysia), . . .71 
Suxania Gray, . . .212 
Swiftii Pils. (Dolabrifera), . 125 
Sydneyensis Sowb. (Aply- 
sia), . . . .101 
Sympterus Rafin., . .161 
Syphonopyge Bronn, . . 65 
Syphonota Pse., . . .65 

Tahitensis Pse. (Dolabri- 
fera), . . . .121 
Tarda Ver. (Pleurobr.), . 225 
T a s m a n i c a T.- Woods 

(Aplysia), . . .1)9 
TeremidiRang(Dolabella), 154 
Tessellatus Pse. (Pleurobr.), 202 
Testudinarius Cantr. (Os- 

canius). . . . 213 

TETHYS Linn 6, . . . 65 
Thallepus Swains., . . 126 
Tigrina Angas (Aplysia), . 102 
Tigrina Q. & G. (Aplysia), 109 
Tigrina Rang (Aplysia), . 108 
Tigriuella Gray (Aplysia), . 109 
Tincta Ver. (Philine), . 238 
Tongana Q. & G.(Dolabella) 158 
Tongensis Gray (Dolabella), 159 

TORNATINA, . . .232 

Triangularis Wats. (Dola- 
brifera), . . .119 
Tricolorata Ren. (Aglaja), 

45, 239 

Trigona Sowb. (Aplysia), . 112 
Truncata Rang (Dolabella), 158 
Truncatissima (Philine), 

Sowb., .... 5 
Tryoniana Pils. (Tethys), 96, 239 
Tryonii Mein. (Aplysia), . 98 
Tuberculatus Chiaje (Pleuro- 
br.), . . . .213 
Tuberculatus Meck.(Oscan.) 214 



Tuberculatus Meek. (Pleuro- 
br.), . . . .214 

Tuber 'culosns Blv. (Gastro- 
plax), . . . .181 

Tyleriana Ad. (Leuconyx) . 160 

TYLODINA Rafin., . 176, 185 

Umbella Lara. (Acardo), . 181 
Umbella Orb., . . . 176 
Umbellata Chiaje (Umbr.), 180 
Umbellata Gm. (Patella), . 180 
UMBRACULID^E, . 170, 175 
UMBRACULUM Schum., 175, 176 
Umbrella Lam., . . .176 
Umbrella Mart. (Patella), . 181 
Umbrellidce, . . . 175 
Unguifera Rang. (Aplysia), 129 
Unicolor Blv. (Aplysia), .113 
Unicolor Risso (Aplysia), . 112 
Utriculopsis Sars, . . 2 

Vaillanti Iss. (Philine), . 10 
Varians Leach (Aplysia), . 71 
Varians Pse. (PJeurobr.), .204 
Variegata Pse. (Dolabella), 155 
Velutinoides Sars (Philine), 21 
Venosa Hutt. (Aplysia), . 98 
Ventricosa Jeffr. (Diaphana), 22 
Ventrosus Jeffr. (Utriculus), 22 
Vestita Phil. (Philine), . 27 
Violaceus Pse. (Pleurobr.), . 218 
Virescens Risso (Aplysia), . 129 
Viridesceus Pse. (Syphon- 
ota), .... 94 
Viridis Bosc. (Laplisia), . 112 
Viridis Fer. (Actseon), . 230 
Viridis F. & H. (Runcina), 173 
Viridis Nev. (Lobiger), . 168 
Viridis Pse. (Lopho.), . 165 
Viridis Pse. (Lobiger), . 169 
Viridis Pse. (Oxynoe), . 165 
Vitrea Gld. (Philine), . 7 
Vitrea Monts. (Philine), . 23 
Vitrea Sars (Philine), . 1 6 
Vitrea Sars (Utriculopsis), 16 
Vitrsea Sowb. (Dolabrifera), 121 
Vitt; ^^" f Aglaja), . 47 






262 



INDEX. 



Vittatum Mts. (Doridium), . 47 

VOLVATELLA Pse., . .231 

Vulgaris Blv. (Aplysia), . 70 



Westernia Q.&G., . . 192 
Willcoxi Heilpr. (Aplysia), 80 
Wilsoni Tate (Lobiger), . 16& 



Webbii Bened. (Aplysia), . 130 Xanthonella Gray, . . 38- 
Webi Loc. (Aplysiella), . 130 

Weebbii Vayss. (Aplysiella), 130 Zeylanicus Kel. (Pleurobr.), 209 

WEINKAUFFIA Ad., . . 236 Zonata Ad. (Laona), . . 26- 



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