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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

RARY 

ERSITY OF 
I FORM i A 



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. 












MANUAL 



OF 



ONCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

CONTINUATION BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY, 

CONSERVATOR OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE ACADEMY OF 
NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 




SCAPHOPODA. 

BY 
H. A. IPILSBRY and e. SHARP. 

APLACOPHORA. 
INDEX TO GENERA AND SUBGENERA, VOLUMES II to XVII. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by Concliological Section 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
OF PHILADELPHIA. 

1897-8. 






; 




EARTH 

SCIENCES 
IIBRAKY 



PREFACE. 



The Scaphopoda have hitherto received comparatively little at- 
tention from either conchological or morphological naturalists. No 
other molluscan group of like rank and extent exists upon which 
the anatomical darta are so scanty, or restricted to so small a num- 
ber of species ; and as the Class consists mainly of deep sea dwellers, 
the list of species now known is doubtless a mere fraction of the 
grand total of living forms. 

Consonant with the general plan of the " Manual," this volume 
treats primarily of the " system " of Scaphopods, and the determina- 
tion of genera and species. A classification of the Dentaliidce based 
upon features hitherto untried for this purpose is submitted ; and the 
innovation is made of including a catalogue of fossil species, largely 
with a view to rectify the current nomenclature and prevent future 
complications by the duplication of specific names. The labor of 
collating the references to fossil forms has been, in large measure, 
accomplished by Dr. Benj. Sharp. 

The work is based upon the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, containing a large proportion of known shore species, and 
upon that of the United States National Museum, including the 
types of DALL, JEFFREYS, VERRILL and GOULD. 

This great collection, undoubtedly richer than any other in exist- 
ence in deep sea forms, was, with generosity rarely equalled, placed 
at my disposal by Prof. William H. Dall, Honorary Curator, and 
the authorities of the Museum. My most earnest thanks are due 
to them for this and other courtesies. 

The published works of Dall, Watson and Jeffreys have been 
freely quoted herein ; and it is to the critical acumen and large ex- 
perience of these masters of conchological science, transplanted to 
our pages, that much of their value is due. 

An account of the Aplacophora is also included in this volume, 
partly for the sake of greater completeness, partly to call the atten- 
tion of conchologists to this important group, which has doubtless 
been neglected by many who have opportunities for collecting. 

(iii) 



IV PREFACE. 

And now it remains to announce the completion of the First 
Series of the MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY, with the present volume. 
Twenty years have passed since the first number appeared in 1878; 
my able predecessor conducting the work until 1888, as far as the 
middle of the tenth volume. During the decade of swiftly running 
years since then, the work has fallen to me. And while an author 
cannot but feel regret that what he has done is not better that 
long and pleasant relations must suffer interruption it is still a 
great pleasure to acknowledge gratitude for numberless acts of gen- 
erosity from conchologists, for the kindly appreciation of good work 
and the more kind charity for mistakes, which have rose-bestrewn 
the difficult path of science. H. A. P. 




MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY 



Class SCAPHOPODA. 

Cirrhobranchiata Blainville, Man. de Malacol. et Conchyl., p. 
495 (1825-1832). 

Lateribranchiata CLARK, Ann. Mag. N. H. (2) vii, pp. 471, 476 
(1851). 

"Solenoconches" Lacaze-Duthiers; Solenoconchce and Solenoconchia 
of various authors. 

Prosopocephala BRONJST, Klassen u. Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, 
Malacozoa, p. 523 (1862). 

Scaphopoda BRONN, t. c., p. 524 (1862). 

Bilaterally symmetrical mollusks with the shell (and mantle) a 
long, more or less curved and tapering or fusiform tube, open at 
both ends, the concave side dorsal ; anterior orifice larger, con- 
tracted by a muscular thickening of the mantle, and giving egress 
to the cylindrical head and the long, pointed foot, which is capable 
of being enlarged and variously modified in shape distally ; the 
smaller (posterior) orifice of mantle and shell giving exit to the 
refuse of digestion, respiration and the genital products. Head 
with terminal mouth surrounded by a rosette of lobes; no eyes; 
otocysts present ; no tentacles, but a close cluster of thread-like, dis- 
tally enlarged appendages known as captaeula springs from the 
base of the snout. Jaw and radula present ; liver two-lobed, sym- 
metrical ; gut strongly convoluted, the anus opening rather far for- 
ward in the mantle cavity, kidney openings near it. Gonad simple, 
opening through the right nephridium. No gills, respiration being 
performed by the general integument. Heart rudimentary, with 
only one chamber, auricles and reno-pericardial ducts wanting. 
Nervous system with well-developed ganglia, the cerebral, pleural, 
pedal, visceral and buccal ganglia symmetrical. 

Marine animals, living partially imbedded in sand or mud on the 
sea bottom. 

The tubular shell, open at both ends, is characteristic of the 
group, and occurs nowhere else in the mollusca. Growth takes 

(v) 



VI SCAPHOPODA. 

place at the larger end and on the inside of the tube, and at the 
same time the shell is absorbed at a slower rate from the smaller 
end. The slits and notches in this end are therefore formed by ab- 
sorption, being wholly different in genesis from similar structures of 
the peristome in Gastropods. In some forms (pi. 9, fig. 51 ; pi. 14, 
figs. 20, 21 ; pi. 18, fig. 4, 8) upon the practical cessation of growth 
and absorption upon the attainment of maturity, there is a supple- 
mentary tube built out from the edge of the anal orifice. This 
structure is wholly different from the interrupted " sheath " of very 
frequent occurrence (pi. 18, fig. 16, 17) which is due to the slower 
absorption of the dense inner layer of the shell. 

The shell contains a very slight organic basis, leaving no appre- 
ciable amount when dissolved in acid. It is formed of three distinct 
layers. The inner layer (hypostracum, pi. 38, fig. 3, 7i) is composed 
of long prisms, rounded at the angles and tapering at the ends. 
This layer is thinnest at the aperture, thickest toward the apex. 
-The thick middle layer (ostracum, pi. 38, fig. 3, o) is built up of 
short prisms in bundles lying at right angles with each other. The 
outer layer (periostracum, pi. 38, fig. 3, p) is thin and wholly struc- 
tureless. It covers the sculpture, ribs, etc., of the shell. 

The snout or proboscis shows considerable variation in form, as 
well as in the number and presence of mouth-lobes in the several 
species and genera. At its base, there are two plate-like folds of the 
integument, which bear numerous, long, extensile filaments, each 
terminating in a spoon-shaped expansion. These "captacula" are 
prehensile, catching foraminifera, etc., upon which the Scaphopod 
feeds (pi. 38, fig. 6, one captacle greatly enlarged). 

The foot is inserted immediately adjacent to the head, ventrally. 
In Dentalium the foot is pointed, with a circular "epipodial" ridge, 
interrupted dorsally, some distance from the end, which gives it a 
trifid or fleur-de-lis shape. In the Siphonodentaliidce the "epipo- 
dium " is subterminal, not interrupted dorsally, and forms a disk 
with crenate edge, with or without a central filament representing 
the conic point of the Dentalium foot. It would seem that this ex- 
panded disk (as shown on pi. 24) is capable of contraction to a 
slender conic form (pi. 26, fig. 79) ; burrowing being effected as in 
Solen, etc., by thrusting the conic foot downward, then expanding 
it distally for an anchor, and pulling the shell down by contraction 
of the foot retractor ; the process being then repeated. 

The gut (pi. 38, figs. 4, 5) is short, closely convoluted. Liver (pi. 
38, fig. 1, 2, I) large, lying along the ventral side. 



SCAPHOPODA. Vii 

The radula (pi. 39, figi. 8, 9) is short, nearly rigid and curved, 
and incapable of being used as a rasping organ as in other mollusks. 
Its function is probably largely as a crushing plate, like the " giz- 
zard-plates " of Tectibranchs. 

The dentition of the Scaphopoda, so far as known, does not show 
great diversity. The formula of teeth is 1.1.1.1.1. The median 
tooth is always a nearly flat plate, which in Dentalium is much 
wider than long, in Entalina is but little wider than 'long, and in 
Cadulus and Siphonodentalium is longer than wide. The single 
lateral on each side has an erect, rather shovel-shaped cusp, with 
several denticles. In Dentalium these denticles are short and in- 
conspicuous ; in the other genera Entalina, Siphonodentalium and 
Cadulus there are two or three stout and distinct denticles. The 
uncini, one on each side, are trapezoidal flat plates, thickened to- 
ward their inner edges. 

Dentalium. No species of the typical group or subgenus has been 
examined anatomically. In the subgenus Antalis the dentition of 
vulgare (tarentinum), entails and occidental (" striolata " Sars) is 
known. See pi. 39, fig. 6, D. occidentale Stimp. 

In Fissidentalium the radulae of D. megathyris, plurifissuratum 
and magnificum have been examined, and are said to agree with 
Antalis. In Ehabdus I find some divergence in the laterals, the cusp 
being rather strongly bidentate (pi. 39, fig. 5, D. rectius Cpr.). 

It will be noticed that with the exception of the species last men- 
tioned, the forms yet examined belong to two very closely allied 
subgenera. When some of the more divergent groups, such as 
Bathoxiphus, Episiplion and Fustiaria, are examined, it is likely 
that further modifications will be found. The examination of some 
species of Compressidens is especially to be desired, as that group 
may prove to belong to the Siphonodentaliidce, in which case it will 
probably be ranked as a subgenus of Siphonodentalium. 

Entalina. The teeth of E. quinquangularis have been examined 
by G. O. Sars (pi. 39, fig. 10). The rhachidian teeth are wider than 
in other known Siphonodentaliidce, but narrower than in Dentalium. 
The laterals are strongly dentate. 

Siphonodentalium. G. O. Sars has figured the radulae of S. lo- 
batum (vitreum') and S. lofatense. The rhachidian teeth are as long 
as wide or longer, and somewhat pentagonal. Laterals strongly 
tridentate. PI. 39, figs. 7, 8, 9, S. lobatum. 

Cadulus. The dentition of C. propinquus is figured by G. 0. Sars 
(pi. 39, fig. 11). It is similar to that of Siphonodentalium. For 



Vlll SCAPHOPODA. 

further anatomical details and embryology, the reader is referred to 
the papers of Lacaze-Duthiers, Plate, Kowalevski and others, or to 
the excellent resume by Simroth in Bronn's " Klassen und Ordnun- 
gen." 

CHANGES OF THE SHELL WITH GROWTH AND AGE, ETC. 

The Scaphopods are like Ccecum, Rumina, Cylindrella and many 
other Gastropods in successively truncating the shell posteriorly as 
growth proceeds at the anterior end. The original apex is retained 
only in extremely young individuals. This successive truncation is 
necessitated not only by the excessive fragility of the early portion, 
which would prevent its retention in any case, but by the necessity 
for a larger anal orifice as the amount of water with its load of im- 
purities increases with the size of the animal. 

The loss of shell substance is due occasionally to accidental break- 
age, largely to chemical erosion by the water, but constantly to ab- 
sorption by the mantle of the animal itself, such as occurs internally 
in Neritidce and externally in roughly sculptured gastropods gener- 
ally. These several causes, acting in varying combinations, produce 
an extraordinary variety of forms, even among individuals of a single 
species. The principal modifications are here tabulated : 

I. Apex simple, the orifice without slit, notch or tube (figures on 
plate 22). 

II. Apex with an supplemental tube, built out. No notch or slit 
( P l. 18, figs. 4, 8). 

III. Apex with a V-shaped notch on the convex side, the orifice 
usually surrounded by a short sheath formed of the inner 
layer or lining of the shell left standing after erosion of the 
prismatic layer outside of it (pi. 18, figs. 11,16, 17). 

IV. Apex with a long, narrow slit on the convex side (pi. 6, figs. 
78, 79). 

V. A very long, straight linear slit on the convex side (pi. 19, 
figs. 13, 21). 

VI. Slit on the concave face or on the side of the shell. Hetero- 
schisma (p. 61), and occasional species or even specimens of 
other groups, such as D. sericatum, inversum, alloschismum, 
exdispar, pretiosum, etc., have the slit in an abnormal posi- 
tion. The other characters of these forms show them to be- 
long to various diverse groups. 

VII. Slit divided into a series of fissures (pi. 6, figs. 87, 89). In 
D. (Schizodentalium) plurifissuratum, D. exuberans and D. 




SCAPHOPODA. IX 



eapillosum (pi. 8, fig. 34) this condition occurs either nor- 
mally or in exceptional cases. All of them agree in other 
characters with the subgenus Fissidentalium, and are herein 
referred to that group. 

VIII. Two symmetrical lateral slits (pi. 27, figs. 90-92). 
IX. Four or more slits cutting the apical margin into lobes 
(plates 28, 29, 30). 

These characters have been considered sufficient for the definition 
of genera by Stoliczka and some other authors. Dall, on the other 
hand, (Trans. Wagner Inst., iii, 436), attaches no systematic import- 
ance to the various modifications, which he attributes largely to 
erosion and repair of breakage. Neither of these positions seem to 
us tenable in the radical sense in which they have been advanced. 
The apical characters are subject to much variation in many species, 
but they still have considerable value as specific and group char- 
acters. It is no valid argument against the systematic value of the 
apical teeth in (for instance) Polyschides, to show that they are fre- 
quently broken off, although that argument might be held conclu- 
sive against using the character as absolutely diagnostic in the de- 
termination of species or genera. Again, the accessory tube, de- 
scribed in paragraph II above, is not due to repair of an accidental 
breakage, but is a normal process following absorption of the shell, 
and occurring only in the species of certain subgenera of Dentalium, 
although not developed in every specimen of these species, and oc- 
casionally in but a small proportion of them. The forms possessing 
this structure are not " especially liable to such breakages " more 
than others which never develop the added tube. The theory that 
" from a peculiar fragility or liability to transverse breakage in a 
species, this condition may [become] almost habitual with the adults 
of that species" is not supported by any evidence we have encount- 
ered ; and the supporting statement that " no one has ever recorded 
a specimen with the posterior end entirely unbroken and yet pos- 
sessing the supplementary tubule," loses its weight when it is re- 
membered that no Scaphopod can in the nature of things retain 
41 the posterior end entirely unbroken " beyond the earliest stages of 
growth, the absorption of this end being as essential a process as 
growth at the other. 

While we do not consider the characters of the posterior orifice as 
so unreliable as some authors have thought, it must not be gathered 
that we place great weight upon them. That there is a wide range 
of variation among individuals of the same species is sufficiently 



X SCAPHOPODA. 

shown in the descriptive portion of this work. That apical charac- 
ters usually cannot be held sufficient for generic and subgeneric 
distinctions is recognized by our use of other features, especially 
sculpture, for this purpose. And on the whole, while we cannot en- 
dorse all the arguments advanced by Dall to support the position, 
we thoroughly agree with his conclusion " abnormalities may usu- 
ally be discriminated by comparison with numerous specimens of 
the same species. In cases where the student has only one or two 
specimens, he should refrain from putting reliance on characters 
which may be abnormal as a basis for describing new forms or for 
discriminating old ones." 

In many species, especially the groups of D. entails and D. semi- 
striatum, the young shell is sculptured while the later growth i& 
smooth. Frequently the adult retains some of the sculptured por- 
tion posteriorly ; but in some individuals or species this early sculp- 
ture is entirely lost by posterior truncation. Such forms are prac- 
tically indistinguishable from species which are without sculpture at 
all stages of growth, although belonging to quite different groups. 
Young or half-grown specimens show the true. relationships in these 
cases. 

SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODS. 

Throughout the early period, various Gastropod mollusks such as- 
Ccecum were occasionally described as Dentalium ; and until Berke- 
ley defined the genus Ditrupa in 1834, demonstrating its Vermian 
nature, the calcareous tubes of species of this genus and of Pomato- 
ceras were commonly referred to Dentalium. Palaeontologists, how- 
ever, almost up to the present decade, have described the tubes of 
worms of the family Serpulidce as Scaphopods. So general has been 
this error, and so widely is it spread throughout the literature of 
Scaphopoda, that we have considered the pseudo dentalia in a sepa- 
rate section (page 240) of this volume. 

HABITS, FOOD, AND USE BY MAN. 

According to Lacaze-Duthiers, the Mediterranean Dentalium pre- 
fers to live in clean and rather coarse sand, and avoids mud con- 
taining decomposition products. Many deep sea forms live in mud. 

The animal lives buried at an angle of 45 or less with the sur- 
face, the posterior end only projecting. Their food consists of 
foraminifera, minute bivalves, and, it is said, infusoria. The prin- 
cipal enemies of Scaphopods seem to be molluscan. They have been 
found in the stomachs of Scaphander and other opisthobranchs, and 



LITERATURE OF SCAPHOPODA. XI 

occasionally, though rarely, shells are found bored by rapacious 
gastropods. 

Only in a few places have Scaphopods been utilized by man. The 
aborigines of the Pacific coast used Dentalium pretiosum for currency 
and also for personal adornment. D. lessoni seems to be used for 
ornament by the natives of New Guinea ; and there are probably 
other like instances among primitive peoples. 

LITERATURE OF SCAPHOPODA. 

All that has been written about Scaphopoda from the system- 
atic standpoint may be divided into two parts : First, a period of 
more or less crude and largely unsystematic attempts to define 
species, beginning with ALDROVANDUS, continued by LINNAEUS, 
SCHROETER, CHEMNITZ, GMELiN and LAMARCK, and second, the 
period of more fundamental knowledge of the biologic relations of 
the group, and exact specific definition inaugurated by DESHAYES. 

In like manner, the work of Lacaze-Duthiers upon the anatomy 
and embryology of the Scaphopoda, subdivides the second period 
into an older and a modern division. 

1758. Linnseus, in the Tenth Edition of the Systema Natures, places 
Dentalium between the genera Patella and Serpula. Four species, 
etephantinum, dentalis, entails and minutu [m] are described. In the 
Twelfth Edition, aprinum, corneum, politum and eburneum are 
added. 

In the Thirteenth Edition, Gmelin increase the number to 21, 
mainly by the addition of fossil species described by Schroeter. 
With inconsiderable additions to the roll of species, the genus 
remained without thorough treatment until. 

1818. Lamarck, in vol. V of the Animaux sans Vertebres, pp. 341 
346, monographed it, recognizing 21 species, several being new. He 
places the genus among the " Annelides sedentaires," and includes 
a number of worm-tubes in Dentalium. Part of Gmelin's species 
are omitted, probably as unidentified. A grouping into striated 
and ribbed species is made. 

The next work upon Dentalium, passing over that of DeFrance 
in Dictionaire des Sciences Naturelles, 1819, mainly a complication, 
is: 

1825. Deshayes, Anatomie et Monographic du Genre Dentale, in 
Memoires de la Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, ii, pp. 321- 
378. In this essay the systematic study of these animals was estab- 
lished as a science. While before they had been placed indifferently 



xii LITERATURE OF SCAPHOPODA. 

among either worms or shell fish, Deshayes demonstrated their 
molluscan organization ; where before insufficient specific definitions 
had been the rule, Deshayes gave full and lucid diagnoses and good 
figures. He was cognizant of the variations of the apical orifice, 
and used these features in combination with the sculptural varia- 
tions for a classification of the species, the number of which was 
materially augmented. 

Deshayes' monograph was translated into English by G. B. 
Sowerby, who published it in the ZoologicalJournal, iv, pp. 175-195 
(1828), following the descriptions by judicious critical notes. 

Substantially the same matter appeared in the second edition of 
Lamarck, and of the Encyclopedic Methodique. 

1842. CHENU, Illustrations Conchy liologiques, Vol. I, Dentalium, 
8 pages, 7 plates. 

Both recent and fossil species are treated, 31 of the 91 species 
being living Dentalia. Several of the others are worm tubes, and 
there is one Cadulus. The descriptions are extremely brief, the 
localities often lacking or incorrect, and the figures though good are 
rather stiff. The work is supposed to illustrate the Paris Museum 
and Delessert's collection, but the types of numerous species, such 
as abbreviatum, novemcostatum, semialternans, virginianum, america- 
num, alternans, fasciatum, philippii, ensiforme, cylindricfum, novum, 
dacostianum, sowerbyi, are lacking in these collections, according to 
a MS. note by Deshayes, written about 1870. 

1856-1857. LACAZE-DUTHIERS, Histoire de Vorganisation et du 
developpement du Dentale, in Annales des Sciences Nat u relies (4), 
Zoologie, vi, vii. The first accurate and thorough account of the 
macroscopic anatomy of Dentalium, with extended and valuable 
observations upon the embryology, formation of the primitive 
shell, etc., is given in this paper, which remains to this day the 
chief source of information upon the general anatomy of the genus. 

1861. M. SARS published an excellent paper upon Siphonodenta- 
lium (Om S. vitreum, en ny Slsegt og Art of Dentalidernes Familie), 
first directing attention to the structure of the foot in this group, 
with other valuable observations. 

1860. G. B. SOWERBY, JR., Thesaurus Conchyliorum, Volume 
III, pp. 97 to 104, pis. 223 to 225. A monograph of the recent 
species of the genus Dentalium. Eighty-five specific names ap- 
pear, of which 49 pertain to valid species, 5 are considered 
synonyms, 17 are mentioned as fossil species, and 15 forms uniden- 
tified or excluded from the genus. No subdivision of the genus is 



LITERATURE OF SCAPHOPODA. xili 

attempted, but a general sequence from smooth to ribbed forms is 
followed. This is the first monograph from which non-molluscan 
dentaloid forms are rigidly eliminated. The figures are excellent ; 
and the main criticism we would make upon the text is that there is 
not enough of it. A few species of earlier authors are incorrectly 
identified, and those unknown in English collections are omitted ; 
but these blemishes are traceable to the general condition of con- 
chology and the condensed plan of the Thesaurus, rather than to 
any lack of care on the part of the author, whose work on Dentalivm 
has been of very great value to all subsequent workers. 

1872. Much of the same matter, and copies of the same figures 
were incorporated by Mr. Sowerby in his monograph of the genus 
in the Conchologia Iconica, Volume XVIII, pis. 1-7, with the same 
number of leaves of text. A few additional species are figured, but 
the lithographic plates are poor, doing but scant credit to Mr. 
Sowerby's pencil. 

1880-1895. Numerous contributions to the general morphology, 
histology and embryology of Scaphopoda have appeared since 1880. 
The more extensive and important memoirs being mentioned below. 
During the same period two extensive reports upon deep sea Scaph- 
opods appeared : 

1886. K. BOOG WATSON, Challenger Kep., Vol. xv, pp. 1-24. 28 
new species are described and figured, and a number of those des- 
cribed by Jeffreys and others are further elucidated. 

1889. WM.H. DALL, Blake Rep., pp. 418-432. 22 new forms are 
described, with valuable notes on some of the previously known spe- 
cies. In Trans. Wagner Free Institute of Science, iii, pp. 435-446, 
the American Tertiary species are discussed ; further information is 
given on some living forms, and the value of conchological charac- 
ters in classification is considered at some length. 

1883. A. KOWALEVSKI, Etude sur Tembryog^nie du Den tale. 
Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Marseille, I. 

1885. H. FOL, Sur 1'anatomie microscopique du Dentale, in 
Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener. (2), vii, pp. 91-148. 

1892. L. PLATE, Ueber den Bau und die Verwandtschaftsbezie- 
hungen der Solenoconchen. Zool. Jahr., Abth. fur Anat. 
u. Ontog., v, p. 301-386. 

1892. P. PELSENEER, La Classification generale des Mollusques. 
Bull. Scient. France et Belg., xxiv. 

1891-1894. C. GROBBEN, Verhandl. der d. zool. Ges., 1891, p. 
63 ; also Sitzber. k. Akad. Wiss., Wien, 1894, p. 61. 



XIV LITERATURE OF SCAPHOPODA. 

1895. H. SIMROTH, Scaphopoda, in Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Thier-Reichs, new edition, Vol. iii, pp. 356-467. This 
contains the best recent general account of the anatomy and onto- 
geny of the class, and includes a bibliography of papers upon these 
subjects. 

1896. S. CLESSIN in the Systematisches Conchy lien- Cabinet, IV, 
Abth. 5, Heft x, Lieferungen 422, 424, pp. 1-48, pi. 1-11, gives a 
monograph of Scaphopoda which is not only one of the worst mono- 
graphs in that justly famous series, but perhaps the most ineffective 
example of monographic work to be found in modern conchological 
literature. Purporting to cover the genera Dentalium, Antalis, 
Siphonodentalis (blunder for Siphonoentalis'), Siphonodentalium, Cad- 
ulus, Diwhides and Gadus, it is not only extremely incomplete in 
all of them, but the generic limits are everywhere singularly mis- 
understood. Thus " Dentalium " actually contains species of nearly 
all the other genera admitted, etc., etc. Most of the figures and 
descriptions are copied from the Conchologia Iconica, and credited 
to Reeve instead of Sowerby. The synonymy is often hopelessly 
muddled, and all borrowed. The author does not seem to have 
actually seen more than a half dozen species ; and of the three 
" new species" described, one is a worm tube, another probably not 
distinct from D. rubescens Dh., and the third an absolute synonym 
of D. pretiosum Nutt. Clessin apparently had neither the mono- 
graphs of Deshayes or Chenu before him, and the important works 
of Watson on the ' Challenger,' and Dall on the ' Blake ' Scapho- 
poda were unknown to him. Several specific names are misspelled. 

See table on next page for summary. 

DISTRIBUTION OF SCAPHOPODA. 

The Scaphopods are in no respect remarkable or anomalous in 
distribution, as compared with Gastropod or Pelecypod mollusks. 
So many species belong to the deep sea fauna that the lists of spe- 
cies under the conventional " Provinces " are somewhat misleading, 
comprising a shore element with species haviug the range and 
limitations of the shore fauna generally, and a deep water element 
with more widely distributed species, frequently common to two or 
more of the provinces defined by shore mollusks. It is the pre- 
valence of deep water forms which swells the list of North Atlantic 
and Gulf of Mexico species to large proportions compared to Indo- 
Pacific regions. The latter are as yet almost untouched by the 
dredge. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 



XV 



Table showing number of species included in the principal mono- 
graphic works on Scaphopoda. 

















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& 


a 


C 


1 


a - 


fc 




1 

3 


I 


1 

6 


5 

1 


6 

1 


1 


J 


,* f Recent species. 


10 


18 


30 


47 


52 


48 


158 


s i 
















^ -{ Fossil species. 


8 


19 


48 


17 








303 


Q [New species or new names. 


10 


19 


21 


17 


1 


3 


55 


, 8 f Kecent species. 











'2 


3 


16 


80 


J2 15 i Fossil species. 





1 














51 


m ^o [ New species or new names. 











1 








20 


Worms, etc., described as Scaphopods. 


3 


4 


12 








1 





Total number of specific names, 
















including synonyms. 


23 


55 


93 


85 


62 


100 


1013 



JYbfe. The number of new species in each work is, of course, 
taken at the author's estimate. It is really less in most cases, part 
proving to be synonyms. 

The genera are practically universal in distribution ; but the sub- 
genera Fissidentalium, Heteroschisma, Bathoxiphus, Rhabdus, Epi- 
siphon and Compressidens are almost exclusively deep water forms. 
Typical Dentalium, Antalis and Graptacme are mainly shore groups. 
The subgenera are more or less localized, though not nearly to the 
same extent as groups of like rank in the Gastropoda or Polypla- 
cophora. 

The bathymetric range of Scaphopods is considerable, but as data 
thereon are abundantly given in the text, no examples need be cited 
here. 

Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

Species marked with an asterisk in the list following occur also 
in the Western Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico. With the exception of 
D. entalis, which is a shore form having the northern distribution 



XVI 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 



of so many species, all of the Scaphopods common to East and 
West Atlantic are essentially deep water species. The Antalis 
group is largely special to European seas, having but few West 
Atlantic representatives. The polygonal typical Dentalia, and the 
subgenera Graptacme and Compressidens, are West Atlantic groups 
not represented in the Eastern Atlantic or Mediterranean. The 
Polyschides group of Cadulus, well represented in the earlier Ter- 
tiary, has not yet occurred in the recent northeastern Atlantic 



fauna. 

D. vulgare, p. 41, 0-543 fms. 

*D. entalis, p. 42, 3-1,750 fms. 

*D. agile, p. 46, 400-1,785 fms. 

*D. occidentale, p. 47, 50-1000. 

D. senigmaticum, p. 49,640-1000. 

D. novemcostatum, p. 51. 

D. insequicostatum, p. 52. 

D. dentalis, p. 53. 

D. panormum, p. 54, 0-195 fms. 

D. senegalense, p. 55. 

D. concinnum, p. 250, 150 fms. 

(Fissidentalium) . 
D. milneedwardsi, p. 75, 800. 
D. seraivestitum, p. 75, 500. 
D. exuberans, p. 78, 700-2,062. 



D. scamnatum, p. 79, 700 fms. 
*D. candidum, p. 72/410-1,750. 
*D. capillosum, p. 77, 100-1,785. 
D. rectum, p. 252, deep sea. 
(Lcevidentaliwn, etc.) 
D. caudani, p. 104, 730 fms. 
D. rubescens, p. 105, 2-40 fms. 
D. siculum, p. 107. 
D. tenuifissum, p. 129. 
(Episiphon.) 
*D. filum, p. 118, 

(Bathoxiphus.) 
*D. ensiculus, p. 121. 

(Heteroschisma.) 



*D. subterfissum, p. 61. 
D. ergasticum, p. 74, 226-1,073. 

Entalina quinquangularis, p. 132 

*Siphonodentalium lobatum. 

*S. lofotense, p. 138. 

S. teres, p. 138. 

*S.'affine, p. 140. 

S. pusillum, p. 140. 

Cadulus (Dischides) politus. 

C. ovulum, p. 156. 

C. cyathus, p. 156. 

*C. amphora, p. 161. 

C. subfusiformis, p. 163. 

Western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. 

About 66 species, equally divided between the families Dentaliidce 
and Siphonodentaliidw are known ; 15, or about 23 per cent, are 
common to the East and West Atlantic. The typical Dentalia of 



C- gibbus, p. 159. 
*C. tumidosus, p. 160. 
*C. jeffreysi, p. 164. 
*C. gracilis, p. 165. 
C. propinquus, p. 166. 
C. cylindratus, p. 166. 
C. senegalensis, p. 176. 
C. strangulatus, p. 176. 
C. monterosatoi, p. 177. 
C. artatus, p. 177. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 



XV11 



D. octcmgulatum group, tbe subgenera Graptacme, Compressidens, 
Polijschides, and the Cadidus acus group, are forms which this region 
has in common with the Panamic province, but which are wanting 
in the Eastern Atlantic thus far. The list of species common to 
both sides of the Atlantic will probably be increased ; but still the 
affinity of "West Atlantic and especially the Gulf of Mexico Scapho- 
pod fauna with that of the Panamic region, is upon the whole as 
fundamental as that between the two sides of the Atlantic. 



D. laqueatum, p. 10. 
D. gouldii, p. 20, 247. 
D. picteti, p. 22. 
D. carduus, p. 30. 

(Antalis.) 
D. disparile, p. 56. 
D. ceratum, p. 57. 
D. antillarum, p. 57. 
D. taphrium, p. 58. 
*D. entails, p. 42. 
*D. agile, p. 46. 
*D. occidentale, p. 47. 

( Heteroschisma.) 
*D. subterfissum, p. 61. 
D. callithrix, p. 62. 

( Fiss identa Hum.) 
D. amphialum, p. 71. 
*D. candidum, p. 72. 
*D. capillosum, p. 77- 

( Graptacme.) 
D. sericatum, p. 86. 

Entalina platamodes, p. 133. 
*Siphonodentaliurn lobatum. 
S. tytthum, p. 137. 
*alofotense, p. 138. 
*S. affiue, p. 140. 



D. eboreum, p. 89. 
D. leptum, p. 89. 
D. seniistriatum, p. 90. 
D. circumcinctum, p. 88. 
D. calamus, p. 97. 

(Lcevidentalium.) 
D. callipeplum, p. 100. 
D. ensiforme, p. 101. 
D. perlongum, p. 104. 
D. matara, p. 105. 
D. liodon, p. 107. 

(Episiphon.) 
D. sowerbyi, p. 117. 
*D. filura, p. 118. 

(Bathoxiphus.) 
*D. ensiculus, p. 121. 

( Compressidens.) 
D. pressum, p. 124. 
D. ophiodon, p. 126. 

(Fustiaria.) 
D. stenoschizum, p. 128. 

*C. amphora, p. 161. 
*C. Jeffreys!, p. 164. 
*C. gracilis, p. 165. 
C. minusculus, p. 164. 
C. lunula, p. 167. 



Cadulus(Polyschides) tetraschis- C. watsoni, p. 167. 



tus, 148. 

C. (P.) tetrodon, p. 151. 
C. (P.) carolinensis, p. 152. 
C (P.) bushii, p. 153. 
C. (P.) spectabilis, p. 153. 



C. rushii, p. 168. 
C. agassizi, p. 168. 
C. hatteraseusis, p. 169. 
C. poculum, p. 170. 
C. vulpidens, p. 170. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 

C (P.) grandis, p. 154. C. sauridens, p. 171. 

C. ampullaceus, p. 158. C. amiantis, p. 174. 

C. exiguus, p. 159. C. rastridens, p. 174. 

C. obesus, p. 159. C. curtus, p. 175. 

*C. tumidosus, p. 160. C. acus, p. 191. 

C. curcurbita, p. 161. C. dominguensis, p. 191. 

Panamic province Ecuador to Lower California. 

Fourteen species of Dentalium and six of Cadulus are known, five 
of the former genus, four of the latter having occurred only in depths 
greater than 300 fras. The rest are shore species, all of them prob- 
ably to be found living within the 25 fathom line. D. tesseragonum, 
quadrangulare, semipolitum, sectum, innumerabile and brevicornu, 
and Cadulus perpusillus and panamensis have their nearest allies in 
the Antillean Tertiary and recent faunas ; some of them being at 
most only varietally distinct from their West Indian counterparts. 

D. cequaiorium and dalli and Cadulus albicomatus and striatus are 
essentially West American types, having no near allies in Antillean 
or Oriental seas. In general, the deep water Panamic Scaphopods 
belong mainly to what seem to be endemic West American groups 
of species, while the shore or shallow water species are very inti- 
mately related to Antillean forms. 

Dentalium oerstedi D. inversum. 

D. agassizi, 322-1,020 fms. D. splendidum. 

D. tesseragonum. D. sectum. 

D. quadrangulare. D. sequatorium, 401 fms. 

D. fisheri. D. dalli, 660 fms. 

D. megathyris, 812-2,282 fms. D. innumerabile. 

D. semipolitum. D. brevicornu, 634-995 fms. 

Cadulus striatus, 322 fms. C. californicus, 1,270 fms. 

C. albicomatus, 401-1,672 fms. C. perpusillus, p. 190. 
C. platystoma, 401 fms. C. panamensis, p. 191. 

Key to Panamic species of Dentalium. 

a. Shell square at apex, keeled on dorsal, ventral and lateral faces. 
b. Smooth and rounded toward aperture ; length 20 mill., 
8 times the diarn., tesseragonum, p. 34. 

b'. Interstices striated throughout. 

c. Length 20 mill., 5i times the diarn., 

quadrangulare, p. 35. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. XIX 

c'' Length 14-15 mill., nearly 8 times the diam., fisheri, 

p. 36. 
a'. Shell longitudinally ribbed. 

b. 6-ribbed at apex, increasing to 12, and at aperture with 
17-24 alternating riblets ; length 27 mill., about 9 times 
the diam., oerstedi, p. 24. 

b'. Similar, but glossy with finer sculpture and more nu- 
merous riblets at aperture, var. numerosum, p. 25. 
b". 12 to 20 sharp riblets at apex, 25-48 at aperture, the 
interstices wider than ribs, concave ; length 29-65 
mill., 9 to 15 times the diam., agassizi, p. 26. 
b'". About 50 riblets and threads ; shell very large, strong 
and solid ; aperture oblique ; length 90-99 mill., 5 to 
5? times the diam., megathyris, p. 67. 
a". Shell with fine, evenly engraved longitudinal striae toward the 
apex or throughout ; section circular. 

b. Apex with a straight, narrow slit across an obliquely 
conic, smooth plug ; shell cylindrical ; length 24 mill., 
15 times the diam., sectum, p. 96. 

b f . Apex with slit on concave side ; shell translucent whit- 
ish with opaque rings ; length 30 mill., 16 times the 
diam., inversum, p. 95. 

b". Apex simple ; length 25-30 mill., 10 times the diam. 

semipolitum, p. 91. 

a'". Shell without longitudinal sculpture, rounded or oval in sec- 
tion. 

b. Strongly compressed between convex and concave faces, 
rapidly tapering ; length 9'5 mill., about 4 times the 
diam. brevicornu, p. 125. 

b'. Shell compressed laterally, excessively slender, fragile,, 
salmon tinted ; length 17, greatest diam. 0-8 mill. 

innumerabile, p. 119. 
b": Shell subcircular in section. 

c. Well curved, polished, flesh-tinted toward the apex, 
which is sometimes slit in front and behind ; length 
45 mill., 12 times the diam. splendidulum, p. 96. 
c'. Curvature very slight ; thin, white, smooth. 

d. Almost perfectly straight, fragile, excessively 
slender ; length 31 mill., nearly 20 times the 
diam., cequatorium, p. 112. 



XX GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 

d'. Less straight, decidedly wider ; length 45-69 
mill., 11-14 times the diam., dalli, p. 114. 

Peruvian Province. 

The west coast of South America from Peru southward is not 
known to possess any shore Scaphopods ; the few species known 
from off Chili are deep water forms of the Eastern Pacific, or mem- 
bers of the Magellanic fauna. 

Magellanic Province. 

The few species yet known belong to widely distributed subgen- 
era. D. megathyris extends north to the northern limit of the Pan- 
amic fauna. 

D. majorinum, p. 27, and var: magellanicum. Magellan St., etc. 

D. lebruni, p. 102. Magellan Strait. 

D- megathyris, p. 67, off Chiloe I., 1,050-1,342 fms. 

C. (Polyschides) dalli, p. 155, west coast Patagonia, 122 fms. 

In this connection might also be mentioned D. ceras, p. 68, an 
essentially mid-Pacific species, which has been dredged from 2,160 
fms., west of Valparaiso. It is allied to D. Degathyris. 

California to Alaska. 

Eight species of Dentalium are known from this region, two of 
,them, semipolitum and agassizi being southern forms, reaching the 
neighborhood of San Diego. D. neohexagonum and D. pretiosum 
with its variety indianorum are abundant shore species, the others 
being from deeper water. 

Six species of Cadulus have been described, mostly within the 
past year. 

The following species extend into the Panamic province : D. 
semipolitum, agassizi, dalli, C. californicus. The subgenus Ehabdus 
is almost peculiar to this and the Panamic region ; the affinities of 
the other species are with Panamic forms, with the exception of Z>. 
pretiosum, which belongs to Antalis, a North Atlantic group. 
D. neohexagonum. D. watsoni, 786 fms. 

D. agassizi, 822 fms. D. rectius, 13-786 fms. 

D. pretiosum. D. dalli, 265-786 fms. 

D. semipolitum. D. stearnsii, 786 fms. 

C. (Polyschides) quadrifissatus. C. aberrans. 

C. californicus, 252-822 fms. C. fusiformis. 

C. tolmiei, 60 fms. C. hepburni, 60 fms. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. XXI 

Key to Californian species of Dentalium. 

a. Shell longitudinally strongly ribbed. 

b. Ribs typically 6, decreasing anteriorly, 

neohexagonum, p. 19. 

b f . Ribs 12-20 at apex, 25-48 at aperture, agassizi, p. 26. 
a'. Shell longitudinally striate near apex (or in young specimens, 
throughout). 

b. Thin, closely, finely and evenly engraved toward apex, 

smooth and polished toward aperture; length 25-30 

mill., semipolitum, p. 91. 

b' ' . Rather solid and opaque ; larger ; unequally lirulate 

toward apex, pretiosum var. indianorum, p. 45. 

a". No longitudinal sculpture. 

b. Strong and solid, young striated, pretiosum, p. 44. 

b'. Quite thin ; deep water species ; no apical notch. 

c. Slender, with very slight curvature, and slow in- 
crease. 

d. Very slightly curved, very slender ; length 
30 mill., 16-19 times the diam., 

watsoni, p. 113. 

d'. Almost straight, very glossy ; length 30- 
40 mill., 12-15J times the diam., 

rectius, p. 113. 

d". Curvature regular but slight ; length 45 to 
69 mill., 11 to 14 times the diam., 

dalli, p. 114. 

c'. Short, decidedly curved, very rapidly tapering; 
tube vertically compressed ; length 8*6 mill., 4 
times the greatest diam., stearnsii, p. 253. 

Japan and China. 

Fifteen species of Dentalium, none of them deep water forms, are 
known from this side of the Pacific from Hong Kong northward. 
Five of these are more or less widely distributed in the East Indies 
and Indian Ocean, the others being until now known only from 
Japan and China. The dominant group is that of D. octangulatum. 
There is one Antalis and three Fissidentalium. Dredging in deeper 
water will doubtless reveal a rich fauna. 

One nameless Siphonodentalium (p. 141) is recorded from Corea, 
and Cadulus clavatus (p. 185) occurs in Hong Kong harbor. 



XX11 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 

Key to Japanese and Chinese Dentalium. 

a. Primary ribs 6-13, strong, angulating the aperture ; shell 
white or pale. 

b. Ribs 6 (rarely 7), strong, intervals with some riblets 
generally, length about 55 mill., 12-14 times the diam., 
hexagonwn (p. 18) ; sexcostatum, p. 19- 
b'. Ribs 7-9, some interstitial riblets. 

c. Ribs 7-8 ; length 72 mill., 12 times the diameter, 

japonicum, p. 17. 

c'. Ribs 8-9 ; length 50 mill., 10 times the diameter, 

octangulatum, p. 16. 
c". Ribs 8-9 ; length 30 mill., 8 times the diameter, 

yokohamense, p. 16. 

b". Ribs 11-13, strong and narrow ; an interstitial thread 
or none ; a wide, shallow apical notch ; length 70 mill., 
11-12 times the diam., bisexangulatum, p. 16. 

a'. 16 narrow riblets at apex, increasing to double that number, 
and then vanishing, the large end smooth except for growth- 
lines, length 80 mill., 11 times the diam., weinkauffii, p. 40. 
a". 6-12 riblets at apex, increasing to about double that number. 
b. 6, increasing to 12 ; shell acute, rapidly widening ; 
length 18 mill., 8-9 times the diam., inter calatum, p. 23. 
b'. 8 ribs, increasing in number toward aperture ; cancel- 
lated with growth-striae ; length 25 mill., about 8 times 
the diam., cancellation, p. 30. 

b". 12 delicate sulci, increasing to 30 ; length 20 mill., 8 
times the diam., porcatum, p. 15. 

a"'. 30 sulci, vanishing toward aperture ; length 30 mill., 10 times 
the diam., buccinulum, p 14. 

a"". Smooth, glossy, white ; longitudinally finely striate at apex, 
becoming smooth, aeiculum, p. 93. 

a'"". Riblets very numerous ; shell large and solid. 

b. About 40 subequal riblets becoming alternating toward 

apex, where there is a long slit ; length 90 mill., 8-9 

times the diam., vernedei, p. 80. 

b'. Many unequal riblets ; a series of 2 to 5 holes in place 

of the slit ; length 47 to 64 mill., about 82 times the 

diam., plurifissuratum, p. 82. 

b". Numerous unequal riblets ; tawny, irregularly banded 

with brown ; tube compressed ; length 62 to 72 mill., 

about 6 times the diam., hungerfordi, p. 84. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. XX111 

Indo- Pacific Province East Indies, Philippine Islands, Singapore 
to N. Papua. 

About 20 species of Dentalium and two Cadulus are reported 
from definite localities in the " East Indies," nearly all being shallow 
water species, the deep water forms being still unknown. No doubt 
many other species recorded from China and Japan, Torres Strait, 
and the Indian Ocean, also occur here. The specialty of this tract 
is the group of green colored species. 
D. elephantinum. D. variabile. 

D. formosum. D. belcheri. 

D. aprinum. D. acutissimum, 1,070 fms. 

D. interstriatum. D. bisinuatum. 

D. javanum. D. longitrorsum. 

D. letsonse. D. eburneum. 

D. hexagonum. D. philippinarum. 

D. bisexangulatum. D. subrectum. 

D. pseudosexagonum. Cadulus gadus, p. 186. 

D. dispar. C. singaporensis, p. 195. 

D. quadrapicale. 

Key to species of Dentalium. 

a. Shell ribbed, decidedly colored, generally green. Group of D. 

elephantinum, p. 1 ; and of D. aprinum, p. 3. 
a'. Shell ribbed, white or whitish, not green. 

b. Square, with four right angles or keels at apex, becoming 
rounded at aperture. 

c. The four primary ribs bifid or trifid, dispar, p. 32. 
c r . Primary ribs simple; surface costulate, about 36 
riblets at aperture, which is very oblique, 

quadrapicale, p. 34. 
b'. Hexagonal or 6-ribbed at apex. 

c. 6-ribbed throughout, intervals smooth or with 
several striae toward aperture; length 55 mill., 12- 
14 times the diam. hexagonum, p. 18. 

c. Each interval divided and subdivided by succes- 
sively arising riblets, pseudosexagonum, p. 23. 
b". 10-13 ribs, or more. 

c. 11-13 ribs throughout, the ribs not dotted ; a weak 
thread in intervals or none, bisexangulatum, p. 15. 
c'. Ribs dotted or articulated, gray and white, 

variabile, belcheri, p. 60. 



XXIV GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 

a". No longitudinal sculpture. 

b. Much curved throughout; amber, carnelian or white; 

smooth, glossy, length about 90 mill., about 19 times the 

diam., longitrorsum, p. 111. 

b'. Curvature moderate or slight ; surface with low variceal 

swelling or rings ; length 50-70 mill., 12 to 15 times the 

diam., eburneum, p. 115; philippinarum, p. 116. 

b". Curvature moderate ; surface smoothish ; apex notched 

on both convex and concave sides; length 33 mill., 11 

times the diam., bisinuatum, p. 108. 

b'". Nearly straight, small, fragile and acicular ; length 16, 

diam. of aperture 1 mill., subrectum, p. 119. 

Indo-Pacific Province Middle Indian Ocean, etc. 

D. quadrapicale, p. 34. Travancore, 406 fms. ; Malabar. 

D. usitatum, p. 29. Off Ceylon, etc., 597-675 fms. 

D. filosum, p. 13. Tenasserim. 

D. conspicuum, p. 248. Karachi. 

D. politum, p. 128. " Indian Ocean." 

D. profundorum, p. 79. Off Colombo, Ceylon, 675 fms. 

D. magnificum, p. 251. Offcast coast Ceylon, 637-800 fms. 

D. lacteum, p. 99. " India." 

D. insolitum, p. 109. Bay of Bengal, 597 fms. 

Entalina mirifica, p. 134. Off Ceylon, 200-350 fms. 

Cadulus anguidens, p. 253. Madras. 

Southwestern Indian Ocean. 

D. bisexangulatum, p. 15. Querimba Is. and Mozambique. 
C. gadus, p. 186. 

C. divse, p. 188. Island of St. Paul. 

[D. segeum, p. 69. Kerguelen I., 110 fms.] 

South African. 

D. strigatum, p. 13. " D. lessoni Desh." Sowb. 

Indo-Pacific Province : Persian Gulf and Red Sea. 

Seven species of Dentalium are known from this province, only 
two of which (longitrorsum and aciddumf) extend far beyond its 
limits. As most of the others are still unfigured, it is possible that 
some of them may prove identical with forms described from other 
regions ; but on the other hand there will doubtless prove to be 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. XXV 

other species when these rich basins are more fully investigated. 
See also p. 247. 
a. No longitudinal sculpture. 

b. Raised growth-striae near apex ; slender, length 22 mill., 
11 times the diam., subtorquatum, p. 101. 

b'. Polished, much curved, extremely long and slender ; 
length 90 mill., about 19 times the diam., 

longitrorsum, p. 111. 
a'. Longitudinal strise near apex, elsewhere smooth, 

aciculum, p. 93. 
a". Longitudinally ribbed. 

6. 9 strong ribs and some interstitial riblets ; length 40-48 

mill., about 7 times the diam., lineolatum, p. 11. 

b'. 1 1 indistinct ribs ; shell thick, ungraceful ; length 44 

mill., 8 times the diam., clavus, p. 55. 

b". 11-12 ribs, interstices and ribs strongly longitudinally 

lineated ; length 37 mill., 10 times the diam., 

aratorum, p. 10. 

V". 14 slightly elevated ribs, intervals flat ; length 31 mill., 
20 times the diam., cookei, p. 29. 

b"". 21 subequal ribs, intervals flat; dense, lamellose growth 
strise ; length 75 mill., 7 times the diam., 

shoplandi, p. 28. 
A single Cadulus, C. minutus, p. 188, is described. 

Indo-Pacific Province : Torres Straits, Papua, New 
Caledonia, etc. 

Out of some sixteen species of Dentaliutn recorded from this area, 
six are widely distributed Indo-Pacific forms. Of the others only 
two have been figured, and comparisons with a good series of species 
from other regions would probably develop some synonymy. Still, 
it is evident that this region has a somewhat special Scaphopod 
fauna. None of its species are known to extend southward to New 
South Wales, though they probably follow the Great Barrier Reef 
of Queensland, 
a. Smooth, or with no longitudinal ribs or riblets. 

b. Incised spaced circular lines on smaller end, smooth to- 
wards aperture; length 14 mill., anulosum, p. 101. 
b'. No conspicuous circular lines; glossy, strongly curved, 
very long and slender ; length 90 mill., about 19 times 
the diam., ^^_ lonffffrorffitm, p. 111. 




XXVI GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 

b". Glassy, very thin, with fine obliquely encircling striae, and 
minutely longitudinally scored when young ; very 
slender, acutissimum, p. 94. 

a'. With four angles toward the square apex. 

b. 4 bifid or trifid keels towards apex, with fine riblets 

between them, becoming cylindrical and polished toward 

aperture ; length 30 mill., dispar, p. 32. 

b'. A serrate rib at each angle ; white, straightened ; length 

16 mill., 8 times the diam., quadricostatum, p. 33. 

a". With 6 to 13 primary ribs, at least on the smaller half of shell. 

Section not elliptical. 

b. 6 ribs at apex, 12 from middle to aperture, the intervals 
smooth ; white; length 22 mill., 11 times the diam., 

duodecimcostatum, p. 13. 

b'. 6 ribs at apex, numerous striae soon appearing in each- 
interval ; length 45-50 mill., 11-12 times the diam., 

pseudosexagonum, p. 23. 

b". 7 ribs at apex, with interstitial riblets anteriorly ; white ; 
length 14 mill., katowense and cheverti, p. 9.. 

b f ". 8 to 10 primary ribs. 

c. Ribs 8, prominent, intervals deeply concave, with 

a few riblets in adults; white; length 50 mill., 

about 10 times the diam., octangulatum, p. 16. 

G. Ribs 8, narrower, intervals wide, flat ; tinted ;. 

length 48-77 mill., 11-13 times the diam., 

javanum, p. 4.. 

c". Ribs 8-10, low, rounded, obsolete at aperture; 
length 50 mill., 12 J times the diam., lessoni, p. 8. 
e'". Ribs 9, rounded, distant, intervals flat ; aperture 
angular ; length 20 mill., 8 times the diam., 

robustum, p. 12. 

c"". Ribs 10, rather sharp, intervals nearly flat, trans- 
versely striate ; thin, white, tapering ; length 20 
mill., about 7 times the diam., 

decemcostatum, p. 8. 

b"". 11-13 strong narrow ribs, intervals with a weak thread 
or none; length 70 mill., 11-12 times the diam., 

bisexangulatum, p. ] 5. 

a'". 16 angular ribs, smaller ones sparsely intercalated below ; inter- 
vals clathrate ; tube elliptical in section, clathratum, p. 84. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. XXV11 

The SiphonodentaliidcK are as follows : 
Siphonodentalium eboracense, p. 140. 
Cadulus (Dischides) prionotus, p. 146. 
Cadulus simillimus, p. 182. 
Cadulus ? Isevis, p. 195. 
Cadulus viperidens, p. 184 (Loyalty Is,). 

Pacific species. 

Eastward from the region last treated the known species are few, 
part being shore forms, part deep water species. None of these have 
occurred elsewhere, and no other species are yet known from this 
area. 

D. diarrhox, p. 109. Northeast from New Zealand, 700 fms. 
D. acutissimum, p. 94. North of Papua, 1,070 fms. and mid-Pacific 

east of Japan, 2,050 fms. 
D. tornatum, p. 121. Levuku, Fiji, 12 fms. 
D. complexum, p. 76. Off Honolulu, 295 fms. 
D. phaneum, p, 59. Off Honolulu, 298-357 fms. 
D. ceras, p. 68. Mid-Pacific, east of Japan in 2,050, and west of 

Valparaiso in 2,160 fms. 

Cadulus (Dischides) belcheri, p. 145. North Pacific. 
C. (D.) dichelus, p. 145. Levuku, Fiji, 12 fms. 
C. honoluluensis, p. 185. Off Honolulu, 40 fms. 
C. colubridens, p. 184. Northeast from New Zealand, 700 fms. 

Australian Province : New South Wales to South Australia and 
Tasmania. 

Five species of Dentalium and one Cadulus (C. acuminatus, p. 
183) are known from this coast, to which a sixth may be added, D. 
leptosceles, from lat. 42 42' S., south of Australia, in 2,600 fms. 
The others are from inconsiderable depths. None of them have 
occurred elsewhere. The " D. octagonum " reported by Angas was 
apparently an incorrect identification, and D. novcehollandice has 
not been found by Australian naturalists. 

a. Shell longitudinally ribbed. 

b. Equally 8-ribbed, intervals often subcostate ; length 10'5 
mill., tasmaniense, p. 9. 

b'. Obsoletely equally ribbed ; length 10 mill., 

weldianum, p. 9. 



XXVlll GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. 

V. Seven-ribbed, the ribs lower and splitting toward aperture ; 
length 19 mill., nearly 7 times the greatest diam., 

bednalli, p. 248. 

a'. Minute longitudinal striae on the smaller end, the rest smooth ; 
length 76 mill., about 18 times the diam., novcehollandice, p. 93. 
a." No longitudinal sculpture. 

b. Length 11 mill., about 9 times the greatest diam. ; aper- 
ture very oblique, wider than long; surface obliquely 
wrinkled, platyceras, p. 126. 

b'. Decidedly larger, more slender, polished, 

leptosceles, lubricatum, erectum, p. 110, 111. 

New Zealand. 

Five species of Dentalinm are credited to this province, one of 
which is a doubtful member of the fauna, and two others of uncer- 
tain standing (see synopsis below). All are confined to the prov- 
ince. No Cadulus or Siphonodentalium have yet come to light. 

a. Shell smooth, white, nearly straight; length 15 mill., about 9 
times the diam., ecostatum, p. 102. 

a f . Shell with longitudinal ribs. 
b. Principal ribs about 18. 

c. Eighteen unequal ribs at aperture, fewer at apex ; 
length 15-16 mill., about 6 times the diam., 

huttoni, p. 71. 

c/ Eighteen ribs, with intervening riblets, all becoming 

subobsolete at aperture ; shell nearly straight, rapidly 

tapering; slit short; length 56 mill., about 1\ times 

the diam., opacum, p. 70. 

b'. Thirty or many ribs ; length 57-60 mill., 7 or 8 times the 

diam., zelandicum, pacificum, p. 70. 

Habitat unknown. 

The habitats of the following are unknown : D. curtum, dipsyche, 
aculeatum, dacostianum, translucidum, ambiguum, longum, fistula and 
multistriatum. There are also a few others, of which the assigned 
localities are more or less doubtful. 

Geologically the group is an old one. Dentalium first appears in 
the Lower Silurian ; though it must be noted that part of the Silu- 
rian species, such as some of those described by Eichwald, are very 
doubtful members of the group, presenting bizarre sculptural char- 



CLASSIFICATION. XXIX 

acters and unusual forms. In the Carboniferous numerous very 
large species occur, some of them surpassing any of the recent forms. 
These belong mostly to the subgenus Plagioglypta, a group which 
became extinct before the close of the Mesozoic. 

FAMILIES OF SCAPHOPODA. 

I. Width of the median tooth of the radula double its height. 
Foot with an encircling epipodial sheath which is discontinuous, 
interrupted on the side next to the head. Shell greatest in di- 
ameter at the oral opening, DENTALIIDJC, p. xxix. 
II. Width of median tooth much less than double its length, gener- 
ally less than the length. Foot vermiform, capable of expan- 
sion into a terminal or subterminal rosette-like disk, not inter- 
rupted dorsally. Shell generally smooth, often inflated, 

SIPHONODENTALIID^E, p. 130. 

Family DENTALIID^E. 

Characters given above. A single genus is generally recognized. 
Genus DENTALIUM Linne, 1758. 

Dentalium L., Syst. Nat. (10), p. 785, and of most subsequent au- 
thors. Dentalites SCHLOTHEIM, Die Petrefactenkunde, p. 93 (1820), 
and of BRONGNIART, Diet. Classique d'Hist. Nat., v, p. 419 (1824), 
DEFRANCE, Diet. Sc. Nat., xiii, p. 73 (1819). Entalites WALCH., 
Naturg. Verstein., ii, p. 276 (1768). Dentalis LLWYD., 1698, LANG, 
1722, KLEIN, 1731, and some other pre-Linnean authors. Dentalites 
SCHROETER, Litholog. Lex., i, p. 405 (1779). Syringites, Canalites, 
Tubulus and Tubulites of some early authors (see Hermannsen). 

The genus Dentalium, as herein understood, is co-extensive with 
the family Dentaliidce. The synonyms cited above are all obsolete, 
and none of them available for subgeneric groups. 

Key to subgenera of Dentalium. 

In using the following key, much difficulty will be found in dis- 
tinguishing Dentalium restricted, Antalis and Fissidentalium. These 
groups are closely allied, and while natural assemblies, we would 
scarcely have segregated them as subgenera had they not already 
been named. Moreover, certain species of Antalis and Graptacme, 
when old, have lost the characteristic longitudinal sculpture, and 
become not readily distinguishable from Lcevidentalium. The sub- 
genus Compressidens (which may prove to belong to Siphonodental- 



XXX CLASSIFICATION. 

mwi) sometimes shows longitudinal riblets, and hence has been in- 
cluded in both divisions of the key. The other subgenera are 
strongly characterized, natural groups, easily distinguishable in the 
recent and fossil faunas. 

I. Surface distinctly ribbed or striate longitudinally, at least near the 

apex. 

a. Five-angled, at least apically, Entalina, p. 131. 

a 1 . Not pentagonal. 

b. Apical slit on concave side ; coarsely striate or ribbed, 

Heteroschisma, p. 61. 

b l . Close, fine, even, deeply engraved striae near apex or 

throughout, section circular or nearly so, white or whitish ; 

mainly rather small, Graptacme, p. 85. 

6 2 . Decidedly polygonal or ribbed, at least near apex; slit 

short and on convex side, or wanting, 

Dentalium s. s. t p. 1 ; Antalis, p. 37. 

b 3 . Circular, solid, becoming striate toward apex, which is 
simple, notched, or with a supplemental tube, 

Antalis, p. 37. 

5 4 . Large, with many riblets, the apex simple or with a slit or 
row of holes on the convex side, Fissidentalium, p. 63. 
ft 5 . Small, thin, rapidly tapering, compressed between convex 
and concave sides ; riblets very low and slight ; see Sec- 
tion II, Compressidens, p. 123. 

II. No longitudinal sculpture. (See also Siphonodentalium,ip. 135). 

a. Cavity of shell bicostate, Lobantale, p. xxxi. 

a 1 . Cavity of shell simple. 

b. Apical slit a very long, straight, linear cleft ; shell pol- 
ished, curved, smooth or with spaced ring-like grooves, 

Fustiaria, p. 127. 
b 1 . Slit normal or wanting. 

c. Sculptured with extremely oblique, crowded, encir- 
cling wrinkles, Plagioglypta, p. xxxi. 
c 1 . Smooth, or with normal growth lines only. 

d. Conspicuously compressed laterally ; apex with 
a broad slit on the convex side, 

JBathoxiphus, p. 121. 

d l . Subtriangular in section, the concave side wider; 
apex simple, Gadilina, p. xxxii. 



CLASSIFICATION. XXXI 

d*. Compressed between convex and concave sides ; 
small, thin, rapidly tapering ; no slit, notch or 
supplemental tube, Compressidens, p. 123. 

d 3 . Small, thin, fragile, smooth, very slender, but 
slightly tapering; acicular with simple or 
notched apex, or truncate with a supplemental 
apical tube, Episiphon, p. 117. 

d*. Without any of the foregoing combinations. 
e. Quite arcuate, glassy, with numerous low 
variceal annular svfe\\mgs,Rhabdus,p.l 12. 
e\ Almost straight, glassy, smooth, thin, cir- 
cular in section ; no slit or notch, 

Rhabdus, p. 112. 

e 2 . Arcuate, smooth or with growth-striaB, sec- 
tion circular or oval, apex slit or simple, 

Lcevidentaliwn, p. 97. 

e 3 . Smooth, but with longitudinal striae in the 
young, lost with age in some specimens ; 
see Section I, 

Antalis, p. 37 ; Graptacme, p. 85. 

Of the subgenera defined above, the following are known only as 
fossils : 

Subgenus LOBANTALE Cossmann, 1889. 

Lobantale COSSM., Catal. Illustr. Coq. Foss. Eoc. Paris, in Ann. 
Soc. Roy. Malac. Belg., xxiii, p. 7 (1889). 

Shell slender, compressed, smooth except for growth-lines, the in- 
terior with two longitudinal ribs placed laterally, one on each side, 
giving a transverse section a bilobed shape. Type D. duplex Defr. 
(including the synonymous D. bicarinatum Desh.). PI. 39, figs. 12, 

Eocene, Paris Basin. No recent species known. A supplement- 
ary apical pipe is sometimes developed, as in species of the group of 
D.filum. In some Mesozoic and Palaeozoic forms, not allied to the 
present group, there are also longitudinal ribs on the inside. 

Subgenus PLAGIOGLYPTA Pilsbry. 

Plagioglypta Pils., in Zittel's Text-book of Palaeontology, East- 
man's edit., p. 



XXX11 CLASSIFICATION. 

Shell circular or elliptical in section, without longitudinal sculp- 
ture, with close and fine obliquely encircling wrinkles throughout or 
on the posterior portion. 

Type D. undulatum Miinster. 

Distribution, Carboniferous to Trias. 

An apparently extinct group, differing from Fustiaria Stol. in the 
far closer oblique grooves with convex, rib-like intervals, and, so 
far as known, no apical cleft. It is especially characteristic of the 
early and middle Mesozoic. There are numerous species, such as 
D. undulatum Miinst., spitiense Guembel, tceniolatum Sandb., annu- 
latum Sandb., dunkeri P. & S., tenue Miinst., etc. 

Besides the foregoing subgenera, the following groups have been 
based upon fossil species, but they hardly seem to possess characters 
sufficient for subgeneric rank. 

Subgeuus GADILINA Foresti, 1895. 

Bull, della Soc. Malac. Italiana, xix, p. 259. 

Shell smooth and slender, imperfectly triangular in section, the 
concave side flattened, convex side rounded. Type D. triquetrum 
Brocchi. Lower Miocene (Elvesian) of Piedmont. 

The recent D. insolitum E. A. Smith (see p. 109) probably falls 
into this group, though in it the subgeneric peculiarities are less ac- 
centuated than in the Piedmontese fossil. 

Foresti thus defines the group, which he ranks as a subgenus of 
Siphonodentalium : Shell triangular in section throughout, not 
swollen in the middle ; posteriorly tapering and curved ; smooth ; 
slightly contracted and distinctly oval toward the anterior aperture, 
simple and entire at the posterior orifice. 

Section Coccodentalium Sacco, 1896. 

Boll. Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino, xi, p. 98 ; Moll. 
Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. 110, 

Shell longitudinally costulate, the ribs strongly granose ; apex as 
in the D. novemeostatum group of Antalis. Type D. radula Schroter. 

This group, which we would hardly be disposed to individualize 
by a subgeneric name (see p. 29), comprises besides its type D. rad- 
ula of the Piedmont Upper Miocene (Tortonian), a few recent spe- 
cies such as D. carduus Dall, its probable ancestor D. callioglyptum 
Pils. & Sharp of the San Domingo Oligocene, and D. Tryoni Pils. 
& Sh. of the same beds. 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

ftc ' 




DENTALIUM. 

Subgenus DENTALIUM (restricted). 

Shell prismatic or decidedly ribbed, the ribs often very strong 
toward the apex, where there are generally from 4 to 14, but some- 
times as many as 20. Apex with no notch or slit, or a short one. 
I. Shell decidedly colored, generally green. 

a. Shell large, strong and stout, rapidly enlarging, the length 
5 or 6 times the diameter 

Group of D. elephantinum, p. 1. 
a'. Shell long and slender, length 9-12 times the diameter 

Group of D. aprinum, p. 3. 
II. Shell white or pale. 

a. 6 to about 20 ribs or riblets at apex, which is without 
slit (though' rarely with a slight notch). Circular sculp- 
ture not conspicuously developed 

{Group of D. octangulatum, p. 5. 
Group of D. agassizi, p. 26. 

a'. Shell latticed by circular lamellae or striae crossing lon- 
gitudinal riblets Group of D. carduus, p. 29. 
a". Square at apex, with four right angles 

Group of D. guadrapicale, p. 31. 

GROUP OF D. ELEPHANTINUM. 

Shell strong and stout, rapidly enlarging, the length 5 or 6 times 
the diameter, with strong continuous ribs ; deeply colored. Apical 
slit or notch small. 

The two species of this Oriental group are not very closely allied. 
They differ from the groups of aprinum and octangulatum in being 
notched or slit at the apex. 

a. Shell dark green, pale at apex, with about 10 ribs 

elephantinum. 

b. Shell red, green and white, with 13-15 ribs formosum. 

D. ELEPHANTINUM Linne. PI. 1, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Shell robust, the greatest diameter somewhat less than one-sixth 
the length, solid, strongly curved ; dark green, fading to white at 
the anal opening. Sculpture, about 10 (9-11) strong, projecting 
rounded longitudinal ribs, narrower than their intervals, which are 
concave, with one or several weak, low riblets ; growth striae deli- 
cate, inconspicuous. Aperture sub-circular, scarcely oblique, modi- 
fied by the ribs, especially on the concave side ; anal orifice circular,. 
1 



2 DENTALIUM. 

its edge excavated within and slightly notched excentrically on the 
convex side (fig. 6). Length 70, diam. at aperture ll'SXll mill.; 
height of arch above chord 15*5 mill. 

Amboyna (Rumphius) ; Philippine Islands (Phil. Acad. Coll.). 

D. elepharitinum LINN., Syst. Nat. (10), p. 785 (1758) ; Ibid (12), 
p. 1263 (1766). GMEL., Ibid (13), p. 3736 (1788). LAM., Syst. 
An. s. Vert., p. 326 (1801); Anim. s. Vert, v, p. 343 (1818). 
WOOD, Index Testae., p. 183, No. 2 (1818). Sows., Thes. Conch., 
iii, p. 102, pi. 223, f. 4 (1860) ; and in Reeve, Conch. Icon., xviii, 
pi. 1, f. 5. CHENU, Illustr. Conchyl., pi. 1, f. 4-10. HANLEY, The 
Shells of Linnaeus, p. 435. SOWB., The Genera of Shells, Dentalium, 
f. 1 ; Zool. Jour., iv, p. 196. Not D. elephantinum Brocchi, Conch. 
Foss. Subapp., ii, p. 260 (1814), nor of Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sicil., 
i, p. 245 ; ii, p. 206, nor of Desh., 1825, nor of Risso, 1826, p. 399. 
See D. delessertianum Chenu. 

D. arcuatum GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3738 (1788). ANTON, 
Verzeich., p. 25. D. elephantium BORN, Mus. Cses. Vindob., p. 431. 
? D. reeurvum DH., (by error ?), Monogr. Dent., p. 30. D. striatum 
(in part) BORN, 1. c., p. 431. 

A well known species, well distinguished by its robust form, green 
color and (usually) ten strong ribs. The apical orifice often has a 
slight rim, as in D. entails; and the short notch is situated between 
two of the ribs a little aside from the median line of the convex 
side. 

D. FORMOSUM Adams & Reeve. PI. ], figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Shell arcuate, rather tumid, 13-ribbed, the ribs rounded, inter- 
stices rather wide. Anal end slit, the slit on the convex side, wider 
toward the apex. Very beautifully variegated with rose, olive-green 
and white (A. & jR.). Length 60, greatest diam. 13'5 mill, (from 



Sooloo Archipelago, outside a coral reef near the city of Sooloo, 
in about 16-20 fms., sandy mud (Adams). 

D. formosum A. & R., Zool. H. M. S. Samarang, Moll., p. 71, pi. 
5, f. 1 a, b (1848). SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 102, pi. 223, f. 2 
(I860). SOWB. in Reeve, Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 2, f. 7 (1872). 

Of rather lighter and more tumid growth than D. elephantinum, 
richly variegated with rose, olive-green and a little white. Sow- 
erby figures and describes it as with 15 ribs. 



DENTALIUM. 3 

GROUP OF D. APRINUM. 

Shell slender and long, well curved, green, with few or many 
longitudinal ribs. No apical slit. 

Key to species. 

I. 9 to 12 conspicuous, narrow ribs from apex to aperture. 

a. Interstitial sculpture weak aprinum, p. 3. 

a'. Small interstitial riblets interstriatum, p. 4. 

II. 8 ribs, intervals wide and flat javanum, p. 4. 

III. Numerous riblets, 17 at apex, about 25 at aperture 

letsonce, p. 4. 

D. APRINUM Linne. PI. 1, figs. 8, 12, 14. 

Shell long, slender and well curved, the diameter about one- 
twelfth the length ; solid, glossy, pale green, usually somewhat 
lighter toward the anal end. Sculpture, 9-12 conspicuous but 
narrow rounded longitudinal ribs, separated by much wider, flat, 
polished intervals, often parted by a faint median riblet, and usually 
showing numerous very slight longitudinal striae ; the ribs stronger 
on the concave side ; growth stria? inconspicuous. Aperture circu- 
lar ; anal orifice very small and circular, its edge crenated by the 
ribs ; no slit. Length 70, greatest diameter 6 mill. 

Zebu, Philippine Is. (Cuming). 

D. aprinum LINN., Syst. Nat. (12), p. 1263 (1766). HANLEY, 
The Shells of Linn., p. 436. GMEL., Ibid (13), p. 3736. LAM., 
An. s. Vert., v, p. 343 (1818). DESK., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
vii, p. 351, pi. 16, f. 18 (1825). SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 102, 
pi. 223, f. 5, 6 ; and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 1, f. 2 a, b. CHENU, 
lllustr. Conchyl., p. 2, pi. 1, f. 11, 12. D. eaprinum ANTON, Ver- 
zeich., p. 25, (1839). D. striatulum GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3738 
(1788). WOOD, Index, p. 84, No. 4. D. strialum (in part), BORN, 
Test. Mus. Cses. Vindob.,p.431. 

Not D. aprinum Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Me~rid., iv, p. 399 (1826). 
BROCCHI, Conch. Foss. Subappen., ii, p. 264 (1814). COSTA, 
Fauna Reg. Nap., p. 34 (1850), or of other authors on Italian mol- 
lusks. 

The Japanese multangular tusk shells are nearly allied, but are 
white, while aprinum is pea green in color. 



4 DENTALIUM. 

D. INTERSTRIATUM Sowerby. PI. 1, fig. 15. 

Shell strongly arcuate, green, narrow ; primary ribs about 10, 
with smaller ones in the interstices ; apex entire (Sowb.*). 

Bohol, Philippines, (Cuming) ; Amboina. 

D. interstrialum SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 102, pi. 223, f. 7 
(1860) ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 2, f. 10. 

Resembling D. aprinum, but with numerous interstitial striae 
(Sowb.*). We have seen no authentic specimen of this form, but 
from the description and figures would be disposed to consider it a 
variety of D. aprinum with somewhat stronger interstitial striae than 
usual. 
D. JAVANUM Sowerby. PI. 4, fig. 49. 

Shell strongly arcuate, pale tawny or greenish, angulated by 8 
ribs, the interstices wide and flat ; apical slit small. Differing from 
D. aprinum in having 8 instead of 10 ribs, with broad flat surfaces 
between. (Sowb.'). 

Length 77, greatest diam. 7 mill, (from orig. fig.). 

Length 48, greatest diam. 3'6 mill. 

Java, Malacca (Sowb.) ; Torres Strait, Cape York, 3-11 fms.; 
Wednesday Island, 8 fms. ; and west of Cape York, south of New 
Guinea, 28 fms. (Challenger). 

D. javanum SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 102, pi. 223, f. 12 (1860). 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 3, f. 14, (1872). WATSON, Chal- 
lenger Scaph., p. 12. 

Watson remarks that D. octogonum, which this very much re- 
sembles, has much stronger intercostal striae and the ribs are much 
more sharply prominent. It may be added that in octogonum the 
calibre increases more rapidly, and the shell is more curved. The 
aperture of D. javanum is as wide as long, and distinctly octagonal. 
The single specimen we have seen is nearly white. 

D. LETSON.E Sharp & Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 1, fig. 13 ; pi. 5, figs. 66, 

67, 68. 

Shell long and slender, the length about 12 times greatest diam- 
eter, solid, but rather thin, well and equally curved ; pale green, 
with numerous indistinctly defined darker zones. /Sculpture, 17 
longitudinal riblets at the apex, increasing to about 25 at aperture, 
rather unequal in size and strength, but not conspicuously so, the 
smaller ones being intercalated irregularly ; all the main riblets 



DENTALIUM. 5 

rather wide and rounded, generally wider than the intervals; the 
concave side as a whole with stronger sculpture than the convex 
side ; growth striae faint. Aperture slightly compressed laterally, 
not oblique. Anal orifice shortly ovate, the narrower end toward 
the convex side ; no slit or notch. 

Length 75, length of aperture 6, breadth 5*5 mill. ; diam. of apex 
2 mill. ; height of arch from chord 13 mill. 

Island of Bohol, Philippines. 

With the color and general shape of D. aprinum, this species pre- 
sents less prominent and many more longitudinal riblets, without 
trace of the definite arrangement seen in that species. It is not es- 
pecially related to aprinum except in being of a green color. The 
aperture is noticeably compressed from side to side. The figures on 
pi. 5 represent the sculpture at the apex and aperture, with an out- 
line of the latter. 

GROUP OF D. OCTANGULATUM. 

White shells with 6 to 13 strong ribs at the apex, continuing to 
the aperture or becoming obsolete, the intervals either smooth, with 
several striae, or a median riblet. Apex small ; anal orifice simple, 
without terminal " pipe," slit, or notch (with very few exceptions 
where a short slit occurs). 

An Indo-Pacific, West American and West Indian group, with 
shells somewhat like the group of D. entalis but not colored, and 
without the notch, sheath or other apical peculiarities frequently 
developed in that series. 

Some species possibly belonging to this group have been placed 
in the group of D. disparile, q. v. 

So many of the species are unfigured and insufficiently described 
that a satisfactory "key " to them cannot now be constructed. The 
Australian forms particularly are but little known. In the absence 
of something better, the following synopsis may be found of some 
use. 

Key to Species. 

I. Hexagonal or six ribbed at and near the apex. 

a. No large intercalated riblets toward aperture. 

b. Intervals smooth, with several striae toward aper- 
ture; length 55 mill., 12 to 14 times the diameter. 
Oriental, hexagonum, p. 18. 



6 DENTALIUM. 

V. Smaller shells; length 15 to 35 mill., 10-14 
times the diam. 

c. West American, neohexagonum, p. 19. 
c'. West Indian, gouldii, p. 20. 

b". Apical orifice contracted at the sides, 

picteti, p. 22. 
a'. 12 equal or subequal ribs at aperture, 

intercalatum, p. 23 ; duodecimcostatum, p. 13. 
a". Each interval divided and subdivided by successively 
arising riblets, pseudosexagonum, p. 23 ; oerstedi, p. 24. 
II. Seven ribbed at and near the apex. 

a. 14 ribs from aperture to middle ; length 14 mill., 7 
times the diam., katowense, p. 9. 

a'. Interstitial riblets toward the round aperture; length 
14 mill., 10 times the diam.; a minute apical slit, 

cheverti, p. 9. 

a". 7-8 thick ribs and interstitial threads ; length 72 mill., 
12 times the diam., japonicum, p. 17. 

a"'. 6-7 ribs, interstices smooth or becoming striate toward 
aperture; length 50-55 mill.. 12-14 times the diam., 

hexagonum, p. 18. 
III. Eight ribbed at and near the apex. 

a. Ribs strong and very prominent ; interstices deeply con- 
cave, with some riblets in adult shells. 

b. 7-8 thick ribs; length 72 mill., about 12 times 
the diam., japonicum, p. 17. 

b f . S-9 strong ribs ; length 50 mill., about 10 times 
the diam., octangulatum, p. 16. 

b". 8 strong ribs ; length 10 mill., about 7 times the 
diam., tasmaniensis, p. 9. 

a'. Ribs narrower, less prominent ; interstitial riblets want- 
ing or very weak. 

b. Pale tawny or greenish ; intervals wide, flat ; a 
small apical slit ; length 48-77 mill., 11-13 times 
the diam., javanum, p. 4. 

b f . White, slender, thin, ribs narrow, interstices 
transversely striated ; length 65 mill., 13 times 
the diam., filosum, p. 13. 

b". 8-9 equal rounded ribs, intervals unequal, shal- 
low, with some threads ; length 30 mill., 8 times 
the diam., yokohamense, p. 16. 



DENTALIUM. 7 

IV. Nine ribbed, the ribs sometimes obsolete near aperture. 

a. Ribs rounded, distant, interstices flat ; length 20 mill., 

8 times the diam., robustum, p. 12. 

of. Ribs slender, intervals unequal, shallow, with slight 

threads ; length 30 mill., 8 times the diam. (Japan), 

yokohamense, p. 16. 

a". Ribs strong, equidistant, surface finely lineolate; 
length 40-48 mill., about 7 times the diam. (Suez), 

lineolatum, p. 11. 

a 1 ''. Ribs strong, wide, unequally spaced, surface finely 
striated ; length 45 mill., about 7 times the diam. 
(W. Atlantic), laqueatum, p. 10. 

a!'". Ribs strong, intervals deeply concave with a few rib- 
lets ; length 50 mill., about 10 times the diam. (Ja- 
pan), octangulatum, p. 16. 
a!"". Ribs rounded, obsolete toward aperture; length 50 
mill., about 12? times the diam. (Papua), 

lessoni, p. 8. 

V. Ten to thirteen ribs at and near apex, sometims obsolete near 
aperture. 

a. Surface finely longitudinally striated on interstices and 
ribs. 

b. 9-11 wide ribs, subobsolete toward aperture ; 
length 45 mill., about 7 times the diam., 

laqueatum, p. 10. 

b f . 11-12 distinct ribs, intervals and some ribs lin- 
eated ; length 37 mill., 9 times the diam., 

aratorum, p. 10. 

V. 13 strong, sharp ribs, without interstitial riblets ; 

surface finely striated longitudinally ; length 15- 

18 mill., 6 times the diam., strigalum, p. 13. 

a'. Surface not longitudinally striated, interstitial stria3 few 

or none. 

6. 10 rather sharp ribs, intervals nearly flat, not 
lirate ; length 20 mill., about 7 times the diam., 

decemcostatum, p. 8. 

b'. 8-10 ribs, disappearing toward aperture, length 

50 mill., about 12 times the diam., lessoni, p. 8. 

b". 11-13 strong, narrow ribs, intervals with a weak 

thread or none; length 70 mill., 11-12 times the 

diam., bisexangulatum, p. 15. 



C DENTALIUM. 

VI. Twelve to fourteen ribs at apex, increasing to about double that 
many at aperture. 

a. 12 delicate longitudinal riblets increasing to 20 ; length 
20 mill., 8 times the diam., porcatwn, p. 15. 

a'. 14 narrow ribs, increasing to 28 equal ones at aperture ; 
length 16 mill., about 7 times the diam., 

buccinulum, p. 14. 

D. LE880NI Deshayes. PI. 6, figs. 86, 90. 

Shell rather straight, cylindrical, whitish-gray, with 8 to 10 ribs, 
ribs obtuse, depressed, disappearing at the aperture. 

Allied to D. novemcostatum, but distinguished by form, curvature, 
and disposition of the ribs. It is narrower, longer, less curved, con- 
stantly of a yellowish-white uniform color, without transverse zones. 
The ribs, numbering 8, 9 or 10, are contiguous at their bases, mod- 
erately raised and rounded. They are more elevated toward the 
apex, diminishing gradually and disappearing toward the aperture. 
They are interrupted by some growth lines. The aperture is small 
relative to the length of the shell. 

Length 50, diam. 4 mill. (Desk.). 

New Guinea (Lesson). 

D. lessoni DESK., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 357, pi. 16, f. 
13 (1825). CHENU, Illustr. Conchyl., i, Dent., p. 5, pi. 4, f. 4 (not 
4a). Not D. lessonii Sowerby, 1860, 1872. 

Lesson brought a necklace of four strings, composed entirely of 
this species, from New Guinea, presumably procuring it from the 
natives. The Mediterranean shells identified in the Thes. Conch- 
and Conch. Icon, as D. lessoni are D. panormum Chenu. Whether 
D. lessoni of Sowerby's " Marine Shells of South Africa," p. 48, is 
the true lessoni, or some allied species, we do not know ; but it is 
more likely D. strigatum Gld. 

D. DECEMCOSTATUM Brazier. 

Shell tapering, thin, white, slightly arched, longitudinally 10- 
ribbed, ribs somewhat sharp, interstices nearly flat, transversely 
finely striated, apex with a small perforation ; basal aperture large, 
circular. Length 10 lines, diam. of apex i, diam. of base 1? lines 
(Brazier). 

Kotow, New Guinea, 8 fathoms, sandy mud (Chevert Exped.). 

D. decemcostatum BRAZ., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 55 
(1877). 



DENTALIUM. 9 

D. TASMANIENSIS Tenison-Woods. 

Shell small, solid, white, slender, slowly increasing, slightly 
curved ; equally 8-ribbed, the intervals often subcostate ; apex en- 
tire. Length 10'5, diam. 1-5, diam. of apex O5 mill. (T.-TF.)- 

Northwest coast of Tasmania (W. F. Petterd). 

D. tasmaniensis T.-W., Papers and Proc. and Rep. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, for 1876, p. 140 (1877). 

Evidently a member of the D. octangulatum group. " This is a 
gracefully tapering shell, curved slightly, with valid ribs and often 
smaller ones in the interstices." 

D. aratum Tate and D. nanum Hutton, of the South Australian 
and New Zealand tertiaries respectively, are allied species of this 
group. 

D. WELDIANUM Tenison-Woods. 

Shell small, subcylindrical, shining, whitish, somewhat pellucid ; 
slightly curved ; obsoletely equally ribbed ; apex entire. Length 
(decollated) 10, diam. 1'5, diam. of apex 1 mill. (T.-TT.). 

North coast of Tasmania (W. F. Petterd). 

D. iveldiana T.-W., Papers and Proc. and Rep. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania for 1876, p. 140 (1877). 

An almost cylindrical shell, subpellucid and shining, with obso- 
lete ribs (T.-TT.). 

D. CHEVERTI Sharp & Pilsbry, n. n. 

Shell white, slightly arched, 7-ribbed, ribs somewhat sharp, having 
finer ones between, extending from the base to the center, interstices 
with fine transverse silk-like striae; apex perforated, perforation 
with a minute notch-like fissure on the dorsal margin ; aperture cir- 
cular, entire. Length, 7 lines; diam. apex, J ; base, I lines [14, 
0-5, 1-5 mill.] (Braz.). 

Evans' Bay, Cape York, north Australia, 6 fathoms, sand (Chevert 
Exped.). 

D. septemcostatum BRAZ., P. L. S. N. S. W., ii, p. 57 (1877). Not 
D. septemcostatum Abich, 1859. 
D. KATOWENSE Brazier. 

Shell white, thin, transparent, slightly arched near the apex ; 7- 
ribbed, from the center to the base 14, those above being most con- 
spicuous ; interstices with minute lengthened striae ; apex thickened ; 
perforation small, entire; aperture circular. Length, 7 lines ; diam. 
of apex, ; base, 1 line (Brazier). 



10 DENTALIUM. 

Katow, New Guinea, 8 fathoms, sandy mud and coral (Chevert 
Exped.). 

A white species with 14 ribs on the base, having 7 at the apex 
more defined (Braz.). 

D. katowense BRAZ., P. L. S. N. S. W., ii, p. 56 (1877). 

D. ARATORUM Cooke. Unfigured. 

Shell solid, pale amber-colored, acuminate, arcuate, not very 
strongly but distinctly fluted with 11 or 12 ribs, the interstices and 
some of the ribs themselves longitudinally strongly lineated, im- 
pressed interstitial lines about 4 ; apex entire. 

Length 1'5, width at base O15 inch (Cooke). 

Gulf of Suez, 10-30 fras. (MacAndrew). 

"/). belcheri Sow. [aratorum Cooke] " COOKE, Annals and Mag, 
Nat. Hist. (5), xvi, pp. 274, 275 (Oct. 1885). D. reevii Desh., 
MSS., MACANDREW in coll. Not D. reevei Dh., Fischer ! 

Very distinct from D. lineolatum Cooke, which it nevertheless 
strongly resembles in its sculpture. This shell is more curved, the 
ribs are never less than eleven, and are comparatively obscure, 
while in lineolatum there are always nine, and they are very marked 
and prominent (Cooke). 

MacAndrew perceived that "Beleheri Sow." was wrong, and has 
corrected to "Reevii Desh. MSS/' I have no idea what this refers 
to, so will describe the species, which is a good one (Cooke). 

D. LAQUEATUM Verrill. PL 7, figs. 1, 2 (immature) ; pi. 5, fig. 73. 

Shell rather large, thick and strong, moderately stout, gradually 
tapered, gently curved, chiefly behind the middle. The sculpture 
consists of about eleven [9 to 11] strong, prominent, broad, obtuse* 
longitudinal ribs, separated by deep, concave interspaces, which are 
wider than the ribs in the middle of the shell and of about the same 
breadth posteriorly ; at about the anterior third the ribs decrease in 
prominence, fading out, or becoming flattened into mere obtuse 
angles at the anterior end ; along the middle of the shell a smaller 
rib [or two] intervenes between part of the larger ones; four of the 
ribs on the convex side are closer together and narrower than the 
rest, while those on the concave side are widest apart. Between 
the ribs the whole surface is covered with regular, fine and close, 
microscopic longitudinal lines, which also cover the ribs where they 
are not worn. Distinct and rather close lines of growth cover the 



DENTALIUM. 11 

surface, and, in some places, make with the longitudinal strise a fine 
reticulated structure. Anterior aperture nearly round, but slightly 
angulated in line with the principal ribs ; edges thin, but the shell 
is thickened and the interior is circular farther back. The posterior 
end is rather small, with a very small aperture, the shell being 
thickened, but the tip is so eroded as to render uncertain the exist- 
ence of a slight notch. Color dull grayish-white. Length 45, di- 
ameter of large end 6, of small end 3 mill. ( Verrill). 

D. laqueatum VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 431, pi. 44, f y 
18 (1885J. DALL, Blake Kep., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 426, pi. 27, 
f. 1 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 76, pi. 27, f. 1 (1889). 

Off Martha's Vineyard and Chesapeake Bay in 68 fms. (U. S. Fish 
Commission) ; from near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to the vi- 
cinity of Cape Florida, abundant (Blake Expedition) ; at Station 9, 
Gulf of Mexico, in 127 fms.; off Sombrero, living, in 54 fms.; off 
Havana, in 127 to 177 fms. (Sigsbee) ; off Santa Cruz, in 115 fms. ; 
off Dominica, in 118 fms., sand; near the Grenadines, in 164 fms., 
coral ; off Grenada, in 154 fms., ooze ; near Barbados, in 73-84 fms. 
(Blake Exped.). 

This species is easily distinguished from all others of our coast by 
the very large and strong longitudinal ribs, and the fine longitudi- 
nal strise between them ( Verrill). 

This very fine species reaches the length of 55 mill. The very 
young have generally a very slight wave on the convex side of the 
anal aperture ; in the adults this aperture is somewhat circular and 
unslit; sometimes there is a narrow slit 5 mill. long. The very 
young have the transverse sculpture most prominent (aside from 
the strong ribs which range from 9 to 11), the adolescent part the 
longitudinal strife ; while near the lip of the adult both are obsolete. 
I am disposed to think the species does not reach more than 200 
fms. (DalL). 

It recalls D. octangulatum Don. somewhat, but the secondary 
strise in that species, when present, are generally more numerous, 
the primary ribs fewer, and the taper at the posterior end much 
more abrupt. 

D. LINEOLATUM Cooke. Unfigured. 

Shell solid, pale amber colored, acuminate, curved toward the 
apex, fluted with 9 angulated, very high, equidistant ribs ; inter- 
stices and some of the ribs themselves longitudinally lineated, and 



12 DENTALIUM. 

decussated by very minute transverse striae. Apex entire. Length 
1-75, breadth at base 0'25 inch (Cooke). 

Gulf of Suez (Mac Andrew). 

D. Uneolatum COOKE, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) xvi, p. 274 
(Oct., 1885). 

In fresh specimens the interstitial lines are very marked ; they 
are parallel to the ribs, which are themselves generally bisected by 
a similar line (Cooke). 

D. laugieri Jouss. and D. reevei Desh. seem to be identical with, or 
at least very nearly allied to, this species. Although reevei has pri- 
ority, the absence of a sufficient description would lead us to adopt 
Cooke's name should the specific identity of these forms be confirmed. 
The descriptions here follow : 

D. laugieri Jousseaume. Shell white, solid, cylindrical, slightly 
arcuate, longitudinally costate ; ribs 9, equal, strong, rounded, 
smooth ; the intervals flat, wider, with 3 to 5 delicate striae. Length 
40-48, diam. 7 mill. (Jouss. in Bull. Soc. Philomath, de Paris, 
(8), vi, p. 103, 1894). 

Aden ; Suez. 

This form seems to present no tangible differences from D. Uneo- 
latum Cooke, and from comparison of the diagnoses we believe it a 
synonym. 

D. reevei "Deshayes" Fischer. This species, which will shortly 
be described by M. Deshayes, is white, arcuate, having 9 longitudi- 
nal ribs. The interstices are very finely striated transversely, and 
some longitudinal narrow ribs run along them. (D. reevei De- 
shayes, mss., Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl., xix [(3), xi], p. 212, 
1871). 

Suez. 

The above insufficient descriptive note is all that has been pub- 
lished on this species. Compare D. laugieri Jouss. and Uneolatum 
Cooke, with which reevei is probably identical. 
D. ROBUSTUM Brazier. 

Shell nearly straight, thick, dull white, longitudinally 9-ribbed, 
ribs rounded, wide apart, narrow toward the apex, interstices flat- 
tened, smooth ; apex with small perforation, entire ; aperture thick- 
ened, regular. Length 10 lines, diam. of apex f, base 1 \ line (Bra- 
zier). 

Katow, New Guinea, 8 fathoms, sandy mud and coral (Chevert 
Exped.). 

D. robmtum BRAZ., P. L. S. N. S. W., ii, p. 56 (1877). 



DENTALIUM. 13 

D. DUODECIMCOSTATUM Brazier. 

Shell straight, white, thin, shining, smooth, six-sided, having two 
longitudinal rounded ribs, one on the edge of each square, from the 
center between the interstices one fine rib extending to the base, 
making in all 12 ribs; apex tapering, entire, with minute perfora- 
tion ; aperture large. Length 11 lines, diam. of apex T, base 1 line 
(jra*.>. 

Darnley Island, Torres Straits, 30 fathoms, sandy mud (Chevert 
Exped.). 

D. duodecimcostatam BRAZ., P. L. S.N.S. Wales, ii, p. 56 (1877). 

Only one specimen found. It differs from anything at present 
known. The shell is six-sided, the base with twelve ribs, and from 
the center to the apex six, with the interstices smooth (Brazier). 

D. FILOSUM Broderip & Sowerby. 

Shell slender, thin, white ; with 8 longitudinal threads and very 
close transverse striae. Length 2'6, diam. 0'2 inch (B. & &). 

Tenasserim, on shore. 

D.filosum B. & S., Zoological Journal, v, p. 48 (1830-1832). 

Distinguished from D. octogonum by its much more slender shape 
and its thinner shell. Instead of the eight angles of that species it 
has eight distinct, raised, longitudinal threads. Three specimens of 
this fine species were lately brought to England by Mr. Hay, who 
himself picked them up on the coast of Tennasserim (B. & S.). 

It is somewhat peculiar that this apparently distinct and large 
species has not been noticed by any author since its original descrip- 
tion. Compare D. javanum. 

D. STRIGATUM Gould. PI. 5, figs. 69, 70. 

Shell considerably curved, solid, rapidly tapering ; surface luster- 
less, white with several irregular transverse grayish-translucent 
bands. Sculpture of IS strong and rather sharp ribs continuous from 
end to end, separated by wider deeply concave intervals; no trace of 
interstitial riblets ; intervals and ribs longitudinally very finely stri- 
ated. Aperture hardly oblique, circular, the peristome strongly 
scalloped by the ribs, which are represented by grooves within the 
tube. Anal orifice much smaller than the truncated apex, oblong, 
with a raised ledge at each side. 

Length 15'2, breadth at aperture 2'4, at apex 0'9 mill. 

Length 18, breadth at aperture 3 mill. 

False Bay, Cape of Good Hope (N. Pacif. Expl. Exped.). 



14 DENTALIUM. 

D. strigatum GLI>., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 166 (1859); 
Otia, p. 119. 

Considerably like D. bisexangulatum on a small scale, but the 
concave intervals and sides of the ribs are finely and evenly striated 
longitudinally as in D. lineolatum. Figures and description from 
one of the original specimens, in U. S. Nat. Mus. (no. 24189). 
D. BUCCINULUM Gould. PI. 5, figs. 74, 75, 76 ; pi. 6, fig. 84. 

Shell rather rapidly tapering, solid, the smaller half considerably 
curved, later half straight ; lusterless, white. Sculpture of 14 nar- 
row, rather sharp ribs at the smaller end, separated by wider, deeply 
concave intervals ; at the middle of the shell a thread arises in each 
interval, those on the convex side appearing first, and at the aperture 
there are 28 equal riblets parted by shallow intervals as wide as 
themselves. Aperture oblique, circular. Anal orifice small, ovate, 
with an extremely slight notch on the convex side. Length 16, 
diarn. at aperture 2*2, at apex 0'7 mill. 

Kagosima, Japan (N. Pacif. Expl. Exp.). 

D. buccinulum OLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii, p. 166 (1859) ; 
Otia, p. 119. SOWB., Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 7, f. 50. 

The specimen described above and figured on pi. 5 is not full 
grown. Traces of tertiary threads at the aperture show that a 
larger shell would have more riblets. It is no. 24160 U. S. Nat. 
Mus. Gould's description here follows : 

Shell moderate, milk white, ruddy toward the apex, very arcuate ; 
longitudinally grooved by about 30 sulci, which vanish toward the 
aperture. Length 30, diam. 3 mill. Most nearly allied to D. cur- 
ium, but is more deeply grooved. (Gld.~). 

Sowerby quotes this and Gould's other species, as MSS. names in 
the British Museum ; but they were all diagnosed by Gould many 
years ago in as well-known a work as the Otia Conchologica. The 
locality " Hong Kong " given in the Iconica is incorrect. 

D. CURTUM Sowerby. PI. 10, fig. 65. 

Shell greenish, subcylindrical, delicately striated, short. Apex 
obtuse, slightly fissured. A small, cylindrical, pale-greenish shell, 
with obtuse apex and fine striae. (Sowb.}. Length 20J, diam. 3 
mill, (from fig.). 

Habitat unknown. 



DENTALIUM. 15 

D. curium -? , Sows., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 100, pi. 225, f. 62, under 
figs. 47, 48 (1860) ; Couch. Icon., xviii, pi. 6, f. 42 (1872). 

Short, pale brown, finely striated, strongly arched, rapidly increas- 
ing ; apex attenuated and acuminated ; apical fissure small. (Sowb.). 

D. PORCATUM Gould. PI. 6, fig. 80. 

Shell moderate, chalky, more or less ruddy at the apex, well 
curved, with 12 delicate longitudinal sulci, increasing to 20. Length 
20, diam. 2-5 mill. (Old.). 

Hongkong Harbor, China (N. P. Expl. Exped.). 

D. porcatum OLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 166 (1859) ; 
Otia Conch., p. 119. Sows., C. Icon., xviii, pi. 7, f. 47. 

D. BISEXANGULATUM Sowerby. PI. 2, fig. 25. 

Shell well curved, solid, moderately stout, the length about 11 or 
12 times the greatest diameter; white. Sculpture of about 12 (11 
to 13) strong longitudinal narrow ribs, about a third as wide as the 
concave intervals, which are ribless or show a weak median thread 
on the convex side (or occasionally all the intervals except one or 
several on the concave side have low median threads) ; growth-strise 
fine and superficial. Aperture a trifle compressed laterally, strongly 
angulated by the projecting ribs on the concave margin, but much 
less so in adult shells on the convex margin. Anal orifice rounded, 
with a wide, shallow notch on the convex side. 

Length 68, length of aperture 6'5, breadth 6 mill. ; height of arch 
from chord 10 mill. 

Length 72, length of aperture 6'2, breadth 6 mill. ; height of arch 
from chord 11 '5 mill. 

Java (Sowerby) ; Singapore (Archer) ; Yokohama, Japan (Loo- 
mis) ; Gulf of Suez (MacAndrew) ; Torres Straits and vicinity, 8-30 
fms. (Chevert Exp.). 

D. bisexangulatum SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 102, pi. 223 f. 8 
(1860), and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 3, f. 15 (1872). COOKE, 
Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), xvi, p. 273. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 
S. Wales, ii, p. 57 (1877). 

So far as our material goes, there are oftener 11 than 12 ribs ; and 
the development of an intermediate thread in each space over the 
greater part of the shell is occasional though probably exceptional. 

The specimen from Yokohama which I refer to this species came 
with a series of D. octangulatum. It is 11-ribbed, and measures, length 



16 DENTALIUM. 

47, length of aperture 5, breadth 4'7 mill. ; height of arch from 
chord 9 mill. The apical third is much more curved than in the 
typical form, but this, like the greater ratio of diameter to length, i& 
a character of immaturity. 

D. YOKOHAMENSE Watson. PI. 2, figs. 29, 30, 31. 

Shell much curved when young becoming nearly straight with 
later growth, little conical, rather strong, opaque, yellowish-white, 
quite dull, but not chalky. Sculpture : Irregular, slightly elliptical, 
lines of growth, a little puckered, generally slight, but sometimes 
sharp and even ; towards the mouth faintly imbricated ; occasion- 
ally marked by a deep furrow-like construction of the shell. The 
longitudinal ribs are eight to nine in number, equal, rounded, rather 
strong, but not very prominent. These are parted by furrows, round 
and open, very shallow, and of very unequal breadth. In these 
furrows, one, two, or even three thread-like riblets appear, and in the 
whole texture the lens shows a tendency to a longitudinal or rod 
like structure. At the apex the shell is squarely truncate, and in 
the young shell there is, on the convex slope, a slight ragged fis- 
sure. Length 1*2, breadth at mouth 0*15 ; at apex 0*003 inch. 
[Length 30, diam. 3'75 mill.]. ( Watson). 

Yokohama, Japan, 8 fms. (Challenger). 

D. yokohamense WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 517 
(1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 11, pi. 2, f. 1. 

The ribs here are much less sharp than they are in Dentalium 
dentalis Linn., and there is no trace of the exquisite longitudinal 
fretted striae which cover the furrows in that species. The sharp 
intercostal strise of Dentalium octogonum are quite absent here ; and 
in that species, which is much more bent, the ribs are much wider 
apart and more equally parted. ( Wats.). 

D. OCTANGULATUM Donovan. PI. 2, figs. 16, 17, 18, 22. 

Shell rather slender, the length about 10 times the greatest diam- 
eter, well curved, white or bluish-white ; nearly lusterless or shining. 
Sculpture, 8 (rarely 9) longitudinal rounded ribs, extremely strong 
and prominent toward the smaller end, often lower toward the aper- 
ture, parted by deep concave intervals, smooth in the young, but 
usually with several or many unequal longitudinal stride in adult 
specimens at least toward the larger end ; growth-lines slight. Aper- 
ture somewhat oblique, octagonal, a trifle longer than wide. Anal 



DENTALIUM. 17 

orifice minute, a little channelled on the convex side but without a 
slit. 

Length 50, greatest diam. 5, least 1 mill. 

Length 52, greatest diam. 5*3, least '8 mill. 

China, Sea (authors) ; Japan, Nagasaki, (figs. 17, 18), and Bay of 
Jeddo, f. 16 (Lischke) ; Hakodate (Schrenck) ; Kii coast (Stearns) ; 
Ceylon (Tennent). N. Australia at Cape York, Princess Charlotte 
Bay, Katow, New Guinea, Darnley Island, Torres Strait (Chevert 
Exped.). 

D. octangulatum DONOVAN, Nat. Hist. Brit. Shells, v, pi. 162 
(1803) ; quoted " octangulum " by Turton. D. striatulum (in part) 
TURTON, Conch. Diet. Brit. Is., p. 38 (1819). D. aprinum MAWE, 
Linn. Syst. Conch., pi. 33, f. 1 (not of Linne). D. octogonum LAM., 
An. s. Vert., v, p. 344 (1818). DESK, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
ii, p. 352, pi. 16, f. 5, 6 (1825). DELESSERT, Rec. de Coq., pi. 1, f. 
1 (1841). CHENU, Illustr. Conchyl., i, p. 5, pi. 1, f. 21-23. Sow- 
ERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 102, pi. 223, f. 9 (1860) ; and in Conch. 
Icon., xviii, pi. 2, f. 12 (1872). REEVE, Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 36, f. 8. 
LISCHKE, Jap. Meeres-Conchyl., ii, p. 103 ;. iii, p. 75, pi. 5, f. 1-3 
(1874). DUNKER, Index Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 153. BRAZIER, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1877, ii, p. 55. ? D. octagonum ANGAS, P. 
Z. S., 1878, p. 868 (Henley Beach, South Australia). Not D. octa- 
gonum Costa, Fauna Reg. Nap., Dent., p. 19, pi. 1, f. 6 (1850). 
D. octohedra LEACH, ms. label in Jeffreys coll. 

Out of 32 specimens before us from Japan, 2 have nine equal and 
equidistant ribs, and in another one rib is replaced by two contiguous 
smaller ones. The young are much more curved than adults ; and 
in the latter the larger half of the length is scarcely arcuate. The 
number of ribs is practically the chief character separating this from 
D. sexcostatum. 

In some specimens the primary ribs become much lower toward 
the aperture, which, while still octagonal, has the angles rounded 
off, not projecting as in the typical form. 

Donovan supposed the species to be British ; but there can be no 
doubt whatever of the identity of his types with the Lamarckian D. 
octogonum. After arriving at this conclusion we found that Des- 
hayes, in his MS. card catalogue, had adopted the same view. 
D. JAPONICUM Dunker. PL 2, fig. 19. 

Shell solid, white, becoming yellowish toward the apex, a little 
arcuate ; having 7 or 8 thick ribs, and interstitial riblets ; trans- 
2 



18 DENTALIUM. 

versely striated ; apex rather large, entire, without a slit. Length 
72, diara. 6 mill. (ZMr.). 

Japan (Dkr.). 

D.japonicum DKR., Malak. BL, xxiv, p. 68 (1877); Index Moll. 
Mar. Jap., p. 153, pi. 5, f. 2. 

Not unlike D. javanum Sowb., but easily distinguished by being 
more slender, with stronger interstitial riblets and the whole sculpt- 
ure more prominent. (Dkr.). 

It is evidently near D. oetangulatum, but the diameter increases 
less rapidly, the aperture being contained twelve times in the length. 
Not seen by us. 

D. HEXAGONUM Gould. PI. 2, figs. 20, 21, and var. 23, 24. 

Shell long, slender, bony, arcuate, hexagonal with obtuse, later- 
ally compressed angles, the interspaces unsculptured ; peristome 
six-angled. Length 55, diam. 4 mill. (Gld.}. 

Hongkong (N. Pacif. Expl. Exped.) ; Singapore (Sowb., Archer !) ; 
Bay of Yeddo, Japan (Lischke). 

D. hexagonum GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii, p. 166 (Dec., 
1859); Otia Conch., p. 119. SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 103, pi. 
223, f. 10 (1860) and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 2, f. 6 (1872). 
LISCHKE, Jap. Meeres-Conchyl. iii, p. 74, pi. 5, f. 4, 5 and var., f. 6, 
7 (1874). 

Not " D. hexagonum Sby." of Carpenter and other authors on 
West American mollusks. 

Several specimens of the original lot are before us, with others 
collected by Archer at Singapore. These have sharply cut, high and 
rather narrow ribs, separated by flat or concave intervals showing 
lines of growth only, although in the largest there are faint traces 
of interstitial striae. One out of 5 from China is 7-ribbed (see be- 
low). There is no apical slit. The shell is somewhat more slender 
than D. octangulatum, the diam. of aperture being contained 12 to 
14 times in the length of shell. 

Lischke writes as follows : Gould's diagnosis agrees excellently 
with the 16 examples before me, except that the intervals are plain 
only in the smaller part of the shell to about 20-25 mill, from the 
apex, beyond there having very fine interstitial riblets. These riblets 
become more numerous toward the aperture, but they vary in num- 
ber, not only in different specimens but in the different intervals on 



DENTALIUM. 19 

the same shell ; usually being 1-3, exceptionally 4, or even 6. My 
largest example has a length of 50, breadth 4 mill. With the 16 
six- ribbed specimens, there are 4 with seven primary ribs, the largest 
one 41 mill. long. These were received with the others, and are 
exactly like them except in the number of ribs (pi. 2, figs. 23, 24). 
All the seven ribs run from apex to aperture, and the latter is as 
pronounced a heptagon as that of the typical form is a hexagon. 

Var. SEXCOSTATUM Sowerby. PI. 2, figs. 27, 28. 

Shell slender, its smaller half well curved, larger half nearly 
straight ; white. Sculpture of 6 very strongly projecting rounded 
ribs, about half as wide as their interstices ; the latter on the smaller 
third of the shell concave and plain, beyond that, one or two inter- 
stitial threads appear in each interval on the convex side, and later 
in those on the concave side; these increasing in number until near 
the aperture there are 3-6 unequal threads on the flat ground of 
each interval. Aperture hexagonal, the angles more or less project- 
ing. Anal orifice a minute ovate foramen, excentric in position on 
the star shaped apex ; no slit or notch. Length 62, breadth and 
length of aperture 5 mill. 

Japan, Cape Shima, 18 fms. ; Goza Harbor, 6 fms. (St. John) ; 
China (Sowerby). 

D. sexcostatum SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 103, pi. 223, f. 11 
(1860) and in Conch. Icon., pi. 2, f. 11 (1872). E. A. SMITH, Ann. 
Mag. N. H., xvi, 1875, p. 113. Conf. LISCHKE, Jap. Meeres- 
Conch., iii, pp. 74, 75. 

This differs from typical hexagonum in the more sculptured inter- 
vals, thicker ribs and larger size, but we have little doubt that the 
forms intergrade. 

D. NEOHEXAGONUM Sharp & Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 11, figs. 74-86. 

Shell decidedly curved toward the apex in the young, only moder- 
ately arcuate when adult ; slender (the length 12-14 times the great- 
est diameter, in adults) ; much attenuated toward the apex ; white. 
Sculpture of six strong, rounded, projecting ribs, which on the larger 
half or third of the adult shell become reduced to mere rounded 
angles ; interstitial riblets wanting, or with one or two low cords 
developed in each interval toward the larger end of the shell only ; 
usually with coarse wrinkles of growth on the larger half of the length 
Aperture hexagonal, but with the angles so rounded as to appear 
almost circular ; oblique ; anal orifice rounded-oval, without notch 
or slit. 



20 DENTALIUM. 

Length 30'5, diam. of aperture 2'5 mill. ; height of arch from 
chord 4'8 mill. 

Length 31*5, diam. of aperture 2'3 mill.; height of arch from 
chord 3-7 mill. 

Santa Barbara, San Pedro Bay, San Diego, California (south to 
Acapulco ?). Fossil in southern Californian Pliocene. 

" D. hexagonum Sby.," CPU., Suppl. Rep. Moll. West Coast K A., 
in Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1863, pp. 612, 648 and 668 ("D. 
/ hexagonum, var. B ") ; and in The Mollusks of Western North 
America, Smiths. Misc. Coll., no. 252, pp. 98, 134, 154 (1872). 
GABB, Pataont. of Calif., ii, 1869, p. 86. WILLIAMSON, Proc. U. 
8. Nat. Mus., xv, p. -194 (1892). KEEP, West Coast Shells, p. 114. 

This species has hitherto been confused with the Japanese D. 
hexagonum Gld., a mistake apparently originating with Dr. Car- 
penter. It never grows as large as that form, the six primary ribs 
lose conspicuously in prominence on the larger part of the shell, and 
fewer interstitial riblets develop. The two species are very readily 
separated at all stages of growth, and have only been united because 
no comparison of Oriental and Californian specimens seems hitherto 
to have been made. 

The young shells, as usual, are much more curved and taper more 
rapidly than adults. Specimens from the Pliocene at San Diego are 
larger than any recent shells we have seen. 

There is a form of this species having 7 or even 8 ribs, (pi. 11> 
figs. 81, 82, 83, 86) and another with a short apical slit on both con- 
vex and concave sides of the tube (pi. 11, fig. 84). We have not 
seen specimens enough to be satisfied that these are more than 
variations of D. neo hexagonum. 

D. GOULDII Dall. PI. 7, fig. 14 (var. obscurum). 

Shell elongated, slender, slightly arched, vitreous, anteriorly whit- 
ish, behind with a yellowish or pale greenish tinge , surface polished, 
with fine microscopic longitudinal striae over a large part of the 
surface; in well developed specimens the shell is hexagonal and 
six-sided, with the sides impressed so that the ribs stand out like 
marginating rods ; as the shell grows older, the angles become less 
marked, although generally quite perceptible at the aperture ; the 
lines of growth are visible as extremely fine engraved striae ; in an- 
other mutation of the species (which served the draughtsman for 
fig. 14), there are longitudinal threads between those forming the 



DENTALIUM. 21 

angles, and which obscure the angularity especially in front until 
the shell is examined from behind " end on " when it will be per- 
ceptible ; this form is straighter than the type. The aperture is not 
at all oblique. There is a wide rather short notch, perhaps due to 
erosion, at the convex side of the anal orifice in the shell figured. 
Typical form shows no notch when perfect, and measures 30'0 mill, 
long, height of the arch 3'5 mill., aperture 3'0 and anal end 0'6 
mill, in diameter. The variety obscurum is 28*0 mill, long, aperture 
2'0 and anal end O5 mill, in diameter. (Dall). 

Off Havana, in 127 fms. Variety at Station 299, in 140 fms. coral, 
near Barbados. Also (the typical form) at U. S. Fish Commission 
Station 2145, in 25 fms., mud, near Aspinwall; Galveston and Corpus 
Christi, Texas (Singley). Also in 12 fms., twelve miles east from 
Frying pan shoals, South Carolina, (Dr. W. H. Rush, U. S. N.). 
Also Barbados (fide H. Cuming), East from Rio Janeiro, 59 fms. 
(Albatross). Eocene of Trinidad (Guppy & Dall). 

D. gouldii DALL, Blake Rep., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii,p.424,pl.26, 
f. 4 (1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, p. 76, pi. 26, f. 4 ; Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, 1889, p. 295 (1890). GUPPY & DALL, Proc. 
U. S. N. Mus., xix, p. 325 (1896). D. sexangulare HILGARD & 
HOPKINS, Rep. Borings Miss. R. and L. Borgue, Engineers Dept. 
U. S. A., p. 48, pi. 3, f. 7 (1878), name preoc. D. texasianum 
PHIL, and ? D. americanum CHENU, see below. 

The shell was confounded with D. hexagonum Gould, a large 
Chinese species of similar form, by Sowerby and Reeve. The typical 
form of D. gouldii is longer, more slender, and less curved than the 
figures of Reeve and Sowerby, which represent a young D. hexago- 
num. It is just possible that the supposed variety may prove dis- 
tinct, in which case it may be called D. obscurum; but I inclined 
at present to believe it to be nothing more than a variety. The 
ordinary form is what has been called hexagonum by West Indian 
collectors for many years, but the rounding off of the angles as the 
shell becomes adult is not paralleled in the Chinese species, which 
is much larger, and has a reddish dull surface, like pale terra- cotta. 
(Dall). 

It is probable that this species was described three times before 
the publication of Dall's description, but some doubt attaches to the 
identity in each case. We therefore retain the name gouldii. 

The following is probably a young specimen of D. gouldii Dall, 
which is known to occur at Galvestoii. 



22 DENTALIUM. 

D. texasianum Phil. Shell little curved, slowly increasing in 
diameter, white, six-angular ; interstices of the ribs flat, plain at the 
apex, but toward the base with 1, 2 or 3 elevated striae. Length 10 
lines, diam. of base scarcely 1, of apex I. (Phil.}. 

Galveston, Texas (Roemer). 

D. texasianum PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1848, p. 144 (March, 
1849). 

Readily distinguished from other six-angled species by the size, 
the rate of increase, and the interstices of the ribs becoming flat 
toward the aperture and delicately striate there (Phil}. 

D. amerieanum Chenu. (PL 5, figs. 71, 72). Shell with six prin- 
cipal projecting ribs, with weak intermediate ribs or none ; trans- 
verse striae distant. 

Length 23, diam. 1*8 mill, (from fig.). 

Length 28, diam. 2'8 mill, (from fig.). 

Shores of America ^Chenu). 

D. amerieanum CHENU, Illustr. Conch., i, p. 1, pi. 4, f. 9, 10. 

Chenu's description and figures are here given for what they may 
be worth. We had thought to identify amerieanum with disparile 
Orb., but in view of the strongly 6-angled section of the former, this 
is hardly possible. If the locality is correct we are disposed to con- 
sider it the same as D. gouldii Dall. 

D. PICTETI Deshayes, n. sp. PI. 11, fig. 87. 

Shell narrowly elongate, slightly arcuate ; white, translucid, reg- 
ularly 6-angulate, the angles projecting, equal and equally spaced, 
very narrow ; the interstices smooth, alternately marked with trans- 
lucent and opaque-white. Aperture symmetrical, six-angled ; peri- 
stome thin, transverse. Posterior orifice small, circular, somewhat 
bi-labiate. 

West Indies? (coll. Delessert). 

D. amerieanum var. c, CHENU, Illustr. Conch., pi. 6, f. 35 (not 
pi. 4, f. 9, 10). D.picteti DESHAYES in MS. card catalogue of Den- 
talium. 

Deshayes, from whose MS. the above diagnosis is taken, states 
that Chenu lumps two if not three species under the name D. amer- 
ieanum. The present form seems to be distinct from D. disparile in 
the six continuous prominent ribs with no interstitial riblets, and in 



DENTALIUM. 23 

the apical contraction, reminding one somewhat of D. seetum, cala- 
mus, etc. We have seen no specimens. 

D. INTERCALATUM Gould. PI. 11, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell strongly curved and conspicuously tapering in its earlier 
half, the later half nearly straight and less tapering ; white, luster- 
less. At and near the apex hexagonal in section, the angles rather 
sharp and a little projecting, intervals nearly flat. Not far from 
the apex a secondary riblet arises in each of the two faces on the outer 
curve, and somewhat later the lateral faces and those on the concave 
side are similarly divided; the secondary riblets gaining rapidly in 
strength, and on the latter part of the shell equal to the six primary 
ribs. Toward the aperture there are 12 equal, equidistant ribs, 
rounded but well projecting, and about half as wide as the concave, 
excavated intervals, which are smooth except for light growth stria3. 
Aperture circular, the outer edge of peristome scalloped by the ribs. 
Apical orifice circular, about half as wide as the truncated apex. 
Length 19, diam. at aperture 2'25, at apex 0*9 mill. 

China Seas (North Pacif. Expl. Exped.). 

D. intercalatum GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 166 (1859) ; 
Otia, p. 119. SOWERBY in Conch Icon., xviii, pi. 7, f. 45 (1872). 

In D. hexagonum the secondary riblets when developed do not 
arise so soon, and the six primary angles are stronger. Figure and 
description from the type in U. S. National Museum, No. 24183. 

Sowerby's figure copied on plate 6, fig. 85, is not characteristic, 
from its much greater proportionate diameter. 

D. PSEUDOSEXAGONUM Deshayes. PI. 4, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell cylindrical, subulate, somewhat curved, grayish-white, some- 
what transparent. At the apex there are 6 strongly projecting 
equidistant angles ; between each of these ribs a great many striae 
arise, covering the shell, and the primary ribs rapidly decrease and 
disappear at the first fourth or third of the shell's length. Growth 
striae quite fine and often regular. Length 45-50, greatest diame- 
ter 4 mill, (from Desh.). 

Masbate, Philippines; W. Colombia (Sowb.); Cape York, near 
Albany L, N. Australia, 11 fms. ; Darnley I., Torres Straits, 30 fms. 
(Chevert Exp.). 

D. pseudosexagonum DESH., Monogr. Dent., Me*ra. Soc. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, ii, p. 358, pi. 16, f. 14, 15, 16 (1825). SOWB., Thes. Conch., 



24 DENTALIUM. 

iii, p. 103, pi. 224, f. 34 (1860) ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 4, f. 23 
(1872). BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 56 (1877). 

Brazier writes : This species is six-ribbed near the apex, finely 
striated below, as Mr. Sowerby expresses it. The specimens before 
me have very fine, thread-like ribs ; the number of ribs in all are 
from 24 to 25, and at or near the apex 6. Shell thin, white, slightly 
arched. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that " W. Columbia " cited by 
Sowerby as a locality for this species, refers to specimens of D. oer- 
stedii Morch. We have unfortunately no Oriental examples for 
comparison with the West American species, and published descrip- 
tions are insufficient ; but while the forms from opposite sides of the 
Pacific may be identical, it is at least unlikely that they are. Des- 
hayes was ignorant of the locality of his species, but he was 
well supplied with East Indian material and had very little from 
the Panamic Province, so it is somewhat likely that his types were 
from the former region. Fig. 47 is a copy of Deshayes original fig- 
ure. 

D. OERSTEDII Morch. PI. 10, figs. 60, 61, 62, 63, 64. 

Shell not much curved, decidedly tapering, rather solid, white. 
Sculpture : hexagonal at and near the apex, with a narrow, raised 
riblet at each angle, the intervals flat ; a short distance from apex 
each face is divided by a riblet which soon attains the size of the 
six primary ribs, and the tube becomes circular in section. Some- 
what further on, each interval on the convex and lateral faces of the 
shell bears a (tertiary) riblet, and still later these appear in the in- 
tervals on the concave side, so that the number of riblets at the 
middle of the shell is 12 (usually with some small threads also), and 
at the aperture it varies from 21 (or sometimes as few as 17) to 24, 
according to the age, and individual variation in development of 
tertiary riblets on the concave face. Near the aperture the riblets 
become rather low and wide, and are somewhat unequal. Growth 
stria3 fine and inconspicuous, but occasionally there are low, varici- 
form rings on most specimens. 

Aperture slightly oblique, circular ; apex small, with circular ori- 
fice without slit or notch of any kind. 

Length 39'5, diam. of aperture 3'5, of apex 1 mill. 

Length 37, diam. of aperture 3*2, of apex 0'9 mill. 



DENTALIUM. 25 

Bay of Panama, 26 and 30 fms., very abundant ; Galapagos Is., 
in 812 fms.; off Guaymas, 20 fms. (U. S. F. Commission) ; Gulf of 
Nicoya (Oersted) ; also Guaymas (Dall), apparently on the shore. 

D. oerstedii MORCH, Malak. Blatter, vii, p. 177 (1861). 

The hexagonal six-ribbed apex, with interstitial secondary and 
tertiary riblets successively appearing in the intervals, are the more 
obvious features of this form. The specimens from Panama Bay 
and Galapagos Islands are lusterless and somewhat chalky. This 
southern race is evidently the typical D. oerstedi which was de- 
scribed from a rather short specimen. A translation of Morch's 
diagnosis is as follows : 

D. oerstedii Mo'rch. Shell arcuate, rather solid, somewhat shin- 
ing, white or yellowish, hexagonal at apex. Aperture circular, 
having 12 lirse, the interstices smooth posteriorly, but toward the 
middle divided by a riblet, whence to the aperture there are 24 
lirse. Growth lines here and there more raised, nearly variciform. 
Length 27, diam. 3 mill. 

Gulf of Nicoya, west coast of Costa Eica (Dr. A. S. Oersted). 

A specimen in the U. S. National Museum (no. 18,711) from Rio 
Janeiro (U. S. Expl. Exped.) considerably resembles this species. 

Var. NUMEROSUM Dall, n. var. PI. 10, figs. 70, 71, 72, 73. 

This name, which Dall used to cover the entire species, as found 
from Lower California to the Galapagos, may be utilized in a re- 
stricted sense for the northern form. 

The general proportions and curvature are as in typical D. oer- 
stedi, but the sculpture is less coarse ; tertiary riblets soon appear 
on the concave as well as the other sides of tube, and toward the 
middle a varying number of threads of a fourth order are inter- 
posed ; toward the aperture all sculpture becomes flattened, and 
the total number of riblets and threads is decidedly greater than in 
typical oerstedi. The primitive 6 riblets retain their predominance 
longer than in the type. The specimens are glossy. Length 41'5, 
diam. of aperture 3'5, of apex 0'6 mill. 

Types of var. numerosum are no. 87,559, U. S, Nat. Mus. 

Off Lower California, near Cerros Id., lat. 28 12', long. 115 9 f 
in 44 fms., and 24 1#, 110 ', in 26 fms. ; off Todos Santos, lat. 
23 33', long. 110 37', in 66 fms. (U. S. Fish Commission). 



26 DENTALIUM. 

GROUP OF D. AGASSIZI. 

Forms resembling the D. octangulatum group in general appear- 
ance, but with more numerous riblets. 

Key to Species. 

a. 11-20 sharp riblets separated by deeply concave intervals, 
increasing to 24-48 riblets at aperture ; slender, 

agassizi, majorinum* 

a'. About 14 slightly elevated, but well defined riblets ; very 

^ narrow, acuminate ; length 31, diam. 1*6 mill., cookei, p. 29. 

a". 20-25 very delicate, equal lirse ; small, moderately slender ; 

length 31, diam. 2'7 mill. usitatum, p. 29. 

a'". 17-21 narrow, separated riblets, increasing to about 25 at 

aperture ; conspicuously transversely striated ; large and 

stout; length 75-78, diam. 10-11 mill., shoplandi, p. 28. 

D. AGASSIZI Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 12, figs. 90, 91, 92, 93, 94. 
Shell gently curved posteriorly, the later half nearly straight, 
tapering, solid, white and lusterless (often with a black encrustation 
toward the apex, and reddish-brown on the larger end). Sculpture: 
at the apex there are 12-20 rather sharp and well raised riblets 
separated by wider, concave intervals ; at a varying distance from 
the apex an interstitial thread appears in these intervals, so that 
near the middle of the shell's length there are double that number 
of riblets and threads, alternately larger and smaller, and at the 
aperture there are 25-48 unequal riblets and threads, lower and 
blunter in large examples. Aperture somewhat oblique, subcircu- 
lar, but the arc along the concave side is sometimes less curved than 
the remainder of the peristome, and the edge is irregular from 
breakage. Anal orifice small, circular, no slit or notch, but often 
the inner layer projects tube-like from erosion of the softer, more 
chalky outer layer. 

a. Length 65, diam. at aperture, 4*3, at apex 0*7 mill. (type). 

b. Length 31*7, diam. at aperture 3*2, at apex 1 mill. 

c. Length 30'7, diam. at aperture 3, at apex 0*7 mill. 

d. Length 29, diam. at aperture 3*1, at apex 0*7 mill. 

Gulf of Panama, 322 to 1020 fms. ; of Acapulco, 660 fms. ; 
Santa Barbara Is., California, 414 fms. ; off San Diego, California, 
822 fms. (U. S. Fiah Commission). 



DENTALIUM. 27 

D. pretiosum var. indianorum is far less coarsely sculptured than 
this species, and the ribs do not crenulate the peristome. D. occi- 
dentals is very similar, but the sculpture developed between the 
primary ribs is unlike this Pacific form. D. majorinum and its 
variety magellanicum are also much like agassizi, but the latter has 
finer sculpture. The inner layer of shell substance is very dense 
and bluish-white, the outer layer being softer and more chalky, fre- 
quently eroded, often exposing the inside stratum which resists the 
solvent power, at the apex and elsewhere. 

The number of riblets is quite variable ; thus the four specimens 
measured above have : 

(a) At apex 20, at aperture 48 riblets. 
(6) At apex 17, at aperture 40 riblets. 

(c) At apex 14, at aperture 29 riblets. 

(d) At apex 12, at aperture 25 riblets. (Off San Diego). 

The number of interposed riblets varies somewhat, but the num- 
ber of apparently primary ribs at the apex is also subject to a wider 
range of variation than usual. 

D. MAJORINUM Mabille & Kochebrune. PI. 12, figs. 98, 99. 

Shell moderately curved posteriorly, the later two-thirds nearly 
straight, slender, attenuated toward the apex ; white, the young and 
newer growth of adults somewhat translucent; slightly shining. 
Sculpture of about 11 narrow, rather acute ribs near the apex, separ- 
ated by concave intervals ; the number increasing by intercalation 
to about 29 at the aperture, where they are approximately equal, 
with concave, transversely finely striate interstices, in some of which 
a median riblet occurs. Aperture circular, not oblique. Anal 
orifice minute and circular, without slit or notch. Length 38-5, 
diam. of aperture 3*5, of apex 0*7 mill. 

West coast of Patagonia, 122 fms. (U. S. F. C. sta. 2783) ; Orange 
Bay, Patagonia (M. & R.). 

D. majorinum MAB. & ROCH., Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, vi, Zool., 
Moll., p. 100, pi. 4, fig. 10 (1889). 

Something is wrong with Mabille and Rochebrune's measurements 
(their figure measuring, length 50, diam. at aperture 4'3 mill.), and 
their description is not very good. It is here translated. 

Shell long-conic, rather slowly increasing, much attenuated to- 
ward the apex, hardly shining, subpellucid, a little fragile, orna- 
mented with numerous, nearly equidistant, somewhat roughened 



28 DENTALIUM. 

[seabriusculis] ribs; the intervals concave, sculptured with very 
minute transverse ribs. Apex entire, minute, somewhat campan- 
ulate. Length 0'74, diam. 12 mill. (M. & R.}. 

Orange Bay, Patagonia. 

Another form of this species was collected by the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission at Sta. 2777 and 2780 in 77^-369 fms., bottom temp. 36-46 
Straits of Magellan. It has the riblets on the median portion of the 
shell unequal, alternating, becoming subequal toward the aperture 
where they are rounded and parted by narrow grooves, instead of 
acute, with wider concave intervals as in the type. Length 57, diam. 
4'5 mill. This form may be called var. MAGELLANICUM (pi. 12, figs. 
95, 96, 97). In the specimen figured there are 12 or 13 riblets at 
apex, 24 at aperture. Type no. 87561 U. S. Nat. Museum. 

D. SHOPLANDI Jousseaume. PI. 12, fig. 100. 

Shell large, but slightly curved, nearly straight, solid, slowly 
tapering ; cream-white with gray- white ribs. Sculpture : near the 
apex 17 subequal but unequally spaced, narrow, sharply defined riblets 
very much narrower than the interspaces; these continue to the 
aperture, increasing in size ; their number is early increased by the 
intercalation of some interstitial threads, mainly on the concave side, 
so that at the aperture there are 25 unequal, unevenly spaced ribs 
and threads ; the whole surface densely and conspicuously striated 
transversely, the striae unequal, like cords scattered among threads, 
crenulating the riblets. Aperture oblique, subcircular, a trifle wider 
than long, the peristome jagged from fracture. Apex large, the 
orifice simply circular, without notch or slit. 

Length 78'5, diam. at aperture 10, at apex 3'2 mill. 

50 miles off Aden, in 678 fms. 

D. shoplandi Jouss., Bull. Soc. Philomath, de Paris (8), vi, p. 
102 (1894). 

A large species, apparently without near allies. It is remarkable 
for the prominence of the growth-striae, and the clearly carved ribs 
of the surface. 

Figure and description are from a specimen in coll. U. S. National 
Museum. Jousseaume's original diagnosis is as follows : 

Shell large, gray-white, cylindrical, slightly arcuate, longitudi- 
nally costate, transversely densely lamellose-striate ; ribs 21, sub- 
equal, separated by flat grooves. Length 75, diam. 11 mill. 



DENTALIUM. 29 

D. COOKEI Sharp & Pilsbry, n. n. Unfigured. 

Shell thin, very narrow, acuminate, polished, subpellucid, little 
arcuate ; fluted with about 14 ribs, which are not equidistant, only 
slightly elevated, but distinctly defined at their bases ; ribs at the 
apex coalescent and vanishing ; interstices shallow and polished. 
Length 1*25, diam. at base 0'0625 inch. (Cooke). 

Gulf of Suez (Mac Andrew). 

D. acus COOKE, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), xvi, p. 274 (Oct., 1885). 
Not D. acus Eichwald, 1856. 

Probably a young shell, but very distinct from any known species. 
It is a most graceful shell, exquisitively marked and polished. One 
specimen. (Cooke). 

D. USITATUM E. A. Smith. PI. 10, figs. 68, 69. 

Shell small, moderately slender, white, little arcuate; having 
about 20-25 very delicate, equal longitudinal lirse, sculptured with 
oblique lines of growth. Scarcely slit at the apex. Length 31, 
greatest diam. 2'7 mill. (Smith). 

Of Colombo, Ceylon, lat. 6 82' N., long. 79 87' E. in 675 fms. ; 
Bay of Bengal in 597 fms. (Investigator). 

D. usitatum SMITH, Ann. and Mag. N. H. (6), xiv, p. 168, pi. 4, 
f. 16, 16a (Sept., 1894). 

The two specimens examined do not look as if they were young 
shells. The white color is varied here and there with narrow, 
oblique, somewhat pellucid zones. (Smith). 

GROUP OF D. CARDUUS. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed, latticed by circular riblets or fine 
raised lamellae, often rising into minute knots or spines at the inter- 
sections. 

The species following would apparently fall into Sacco's subgenus 
Coccodentalium (Boll. Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. R. Univ. di Tor- 
ino, xi, 1896, p. 98). We have not seen D. radula Schroter, Gmel., 
the type of that group, and Sacco gives no diagnosis, but the descrip- 
tion of that Pliocene species indicates sculpture like carduus. Other 
members of the same section are D. tryoni Pils. & Sharp of the 
Miocene of San Domingo, and possibly the recent D. cancellatum 
Sowb. 



30 DENTALIUM. 

The group Coccodentalium is hardly equivalent in value to the 
subgenera we have recognized, being merely a modification of the 
D. agassizi type. 

D. CARDUUS Ball. PI. 7, fig. 6. 

Shell pure white, sometimes attaining an ashy or rusty tinge from 
extraneous matter, elongated, slightly curved, and with a rasp-like 
surface for about half its adult length ; longitudinal sculpture of 
very numerous fine sharp raised threads with somewhat wider inter- 
spaces, in which intercalary threads from time to time arise ; trans- 
verse sculpture of fine sharp elevated lamella which cross the threads 
and become almost spinulose on the intersections ; these can be felt, 
but are almost too fine to be clearly seen with the naked eye ; in 
the perfectly adult shell, this sculpture becomes, through senility or 
wear, less sharp on the last half of the shell ; though both sorts of 
ridges persist, they are thicker and more rounded ; shell not very 
thick ; aperture circular, very little oblique ; anal orifice small, with 
a short wide slit on the convex side, and no notch or wave on the 
other. Length of completely adult shell, 87*0 ; height of arch from 
chord, 7'0; diameter of aperture, 7*0; of anal orifice 0'7 mill. 
(DalF), 

Near Santa Lucia, in 116 fms. ; in 154 fms., ooze, near Granada 
(Blake). Also by U. S. Fish Commission, in 338 fms., on the Little 
Bahama Bank. 

D. carduus DALL, Blake Rep., Bull. M. 0. Z., xviii, p. 423, pi. 
27, f. 3 (1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, p. 76, pi. 27, f. 3. 

The specimen figured is only 16 mill, long, but shows sufficiently 
the characters of the form and sculpture. Better specimens were 
afterwards found in some of the Fish Commission dredgings, from 
which the above description is drawn. The peculiar sharpness felt 
by drawing the shell gently between the finger and thumb is very 
recognizable and under the glass the sculpture is very beautiful. 
(Dall). 

A closely allied species attains a very large size in the Oligocene 
of San Domingo. 
D. CANCELLATUM Sowerby. PI. 10, fig. 67. 

Shell thin, white, acuminate, strongly curved towards the apex, 
where it is cancellated by about 8 longitudinal ribs and elevated con- 
centric strice, then the shell becoming straighter and the ribs more 
numerous (Sowb.). Length 25, greatest diam. 3 mill, (from fig.). 

China (Sowb.). 



DENTALIUM. 31 

D. cancellation SOWB. Jun., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 101, pi. 224, f. 36 
(I860) ; and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 5, f. 29. 

Cancellated near the apical end by distinctly raised striae crossing 
the longitudinal ribs (Sowb.). 

GROUP OF D. QUADRAPICALE. 

Small or moderate sized shells with the tube square at and near 
the apex, having angles on the convex, concave and two lateral 
sides, becoming subcircular at the aperture. Generally costulate be- 
tween the angles, sometimes smooth ; the apical orifice occupying a 
short pipe, or without this and square or round. 

Distribution, Pacific shores of tropical and subtropical America, 
anjd of the East Indies south to Torres Strait. 

No species of this very distinct group appear in the "Albatross " 
dredgings off west America, so it is likely that the species are shal- 
low water forms, not descending to archibenthal or benthal depths. 

No recent species is yet known with certainty from the Atlantic 
or Gulf of Mexico ; but in the Miocene of Jamaica and San Do- 
mingo D. dissimile Guppy and its probable synonym, D. pondero- 
sum Gabb, species allied to D. dipsyche, but much larger and more 
solid, occur. Dall has described from the Caloosahatchie Pliocene 
a D. caloosaense, also similar in general characters, and doubtless 
the direct descendant of the Miocene species. Another similar form 
has been reported by Harris from the " Galveston deep well " as D. 
quadrangulare f Sby., from strata of upper Miocene age. The 
fragments seen by us are not large enough to be characteristic, but 
it is probably not the recent species. In the same deposit occurs a 
form not separable so far as material we have seen shows, from the 
recent D. tesseragonum (D. tetragonum Sby., Harris, Bull. Amer. 
Paleont., no. 3, p. 13). 

Nothing we have seen from the Eocene belongs to this immediate 
group.. 

Key to Species. 

I. The four primary ribs bifid or trifid ; shell attenuated and stri- 
ated toward apex, smooth toward aperture. Length about 30 
mill., dispar, p. 32. 

II. Primary ribs serrate, intervals ribless ; aperture angular, 

quadricostatum, p. 33. 



32 DENTALIUM. 

III. Primary ribs not split or serrate. 

a. Surface smooth ; length 20 mill., tesseragonum, p. 34. 
a'. Surface costulate, 

b. Decidedly attenuated toward the apex ; aperture 
somewhat compressed vertically, 
32 riblets at aperture, which is hardly oblique ; 
length 45 mill., about 11 times greatest diam., 

dipsycha, p. 33. 

36 riblets at aperture, which is very oblique; 
length 20 mill., about 6 or 7 times greatest diam., 

quadrapicale, p. 34. 

b'. Not much tapering, the apex large ; aperture cir- 
cular. 

Length 14 mill., about 8 times the greatest diam., 

fisheri, p. 36. 

Length 20 mill., about 5 times the greatest diam., 

quadrangulare, p. 35. 

D. quadricostatum Braz., perhaps belonging to this group, is not 
clearly enough described to admit of its inclusion in the above 
analysis without doubt. Whether the keels are serrate (as in the 
fossil D. radula), or divided as in D. dispar, we do not know. 

D. DISPAR Sowerby. PI. 4, figs. 52, 53, 54, 55, 56. 

Shell rather slender, the length about 9 times the greatest diam- 
eter in adults ; earlier third well curved, the rest of the length but 
slightly arcuate ; much attenuated toward the fine apex ; rather 
thin, white or bluish-white, glossy and brilliant. Sculpture : four- 
angled at apex (square in section), the angles dorsal, ventral and 
lateral, continuing as keels which rapidly become obsolete (extend- 
ing two-thirds the length of shell in a specimen 15 mill, long, but 
only about one-third the length in one 30 mill, in length) ; each of 
the four primary ribs bifid or triftd at summit. Between these 
angles, throughout their extent, the surface has very fine longitudi- 
nal riblets ; and not far from the apex a secondary rib arises in each 
of the four faces, and continues as far as the primary ribs. The 
larger moiety of the shell is polished, cylindrical, wholly free from 
longitudinal sculpture. Growth striae fine and inconspicuous. 

Aperture slightly oblique, sub-circular, the peristome thin ; anal 
orifice square with thin walls, and without slit or notch. Length 
30, antero-posterior diam. of aperture 3 mill., lateral 3'2 mill. 



DENTALIUM. 33 

Singapore (Sowerby, S. Archer) ; Samar, Philippines (Sowb.) ; 
China Sea (A. N. S. P.) ; Darnley 2., Torres Straits, 30 fms. (Chev- 
ert Exp.). 

D. dispar Sows., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 103, pi. 224, f. 37 (1860); 
and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 4, f. 25 (1872). BRAZIER, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 58 (1877). 

Young shells taper more rapidly, as usual, and of course a greater 
part of their length is sculptured. The summits of the four primary 
ribs are subdivided by one or two longitudinal grooves in this spe- 
cies, but are simple in D. quadrapicale and D. quadrangulare. 

D. QUADRICOSTATUM Brazier. 

Shell white, very slightly arched, four angled, keel or rib at each 
angle, rounded, finely serrated, interstices flat, marked with trans- 
verse lines ; apex perforated, perforation entire ; aperture angled. 
Length, 8 lines ; diam. of base, 1 line [16, 2 mill.]. (Brazier). 

Princess Charlotte Bay, north-east Australia, 13 fathoms; York 
Island, Torres Straits, 13 fathoms, hard mud ; Katow, New Guinea, 
8 fathoms, sandy mud. (Chevert Exped.). 

D. quadricostatum BRAZ., P. L. S., N. S. W., ii, p. 58 (1877). 

If this species is laid upon its side it forms a true square; when 
resting with the arched part of the apex down, it forms four angles, 
with a serrated rib on each angle. The 11 specimens from Katow, 
16 from Princess Charlotte Bay, and 1 from York Island, all have 
the same character. (Brazier). 

D. DIPSYCHA Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 4, figs. 57, 58, 59, 60. 

Shell slender, the length about 11 times the diam., well curved, 
attenuated toward the apex ; white, nearly lusterless. Sculpture : 
at and near the apex square in section, with four acute, narrow, pro- 
jecting, longitudinal, pinched-up ribs, the spaces between flat ; not 
far from the apex in each face a median thread arises, and soon 
equals the primary four in size ; each interval then bears a tertiary 
thread, and here the section of the tube has become circular. At 
about the middle of the length another set of interstitial threads ap- 
pear ; so that at the aperture there are 32 flat, equal, low, but abruptly 
defined riblets separated by flat interstices of about the same or 
slightly greater width. Interstices everywhere plain except for cir- 
cular growth-lines, which are moderately obvious throughout. 
3 



34 DENTALIUM. 

Aperture rounded, somewhat compressed antero-posteriorly, the 
inner margin less curved; hardly oblique; peristome thin. Anal 
orifice circular, occupying a very short tube. No slit. Length 45, 
antero-posterior diam. of aperture 3*8, lateral diam. 4'1 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This species differs from D. dispar in the simple primary ribs, 
lack of fine, even longitudinal striation, and persistance of the 
sculpture to the aperture. D. quadrapicale is allied, but has a much 
more oblique aperture, more rapidly tapering tube, and though far 
smaller, a greater number of much finer longitudinal riblets. 

D. QUADRAPICALE ' Hanley ' Sowerby. PL 4, fig. 50. 

Shell rather stout, apical third strongly curved, the remainder but 
slightly arcuate ; white, shining. Sculpture, four angles at the apex 
(giving that part an almost square section, the two outer sides of the 
square slightly longer), situated at the outer, inner and lateral sur- 
faces, the faces between them straight and flat ; these angles rapidly 
lose in prominence, and the intervals become convex ; very near the 
apex each interval becomes parted by a secondary riblet ; and the 
interstices between these are again divided by tertiary threads at 
about the end of the first third of the shells length ; and subdivision 
proceeds until at the aperture there are about 36 low, subequal rib- 
lets, with narrow, shallow intervals, and the tube is subcircular, a little 
flattened antero-posteriorly, in section. Growth-striae faint. Aperture 
very oblique. Anal orifice without slit or notch. 

Length 20, length of aperture, measured obliquely 3, breadth 3 
mill. 

Length 31*5 mill (original figure). 

Cochin ; Malabar (Hanley coll.). 

D. quadrapicale Hanley MS., SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 103, 
pi. 225, f. 61 (1860) ; and in Conch. Icon., pi. 7, f. 46. D. quadri- 
picale CLESSIN, Conch. Cab., p. 13. 

The square apex and rounded, oblique aperture are strong points 
of difference from most known species. Sowerby's figure shows the 
anal orifice minute and round ; but in the single specimen we have 
seen it is large and square, the shell walls thin. 

D. TESSERAGONUM Sowerby. PI. 4, fig. 51. 

Shell moderately arcuate, tapering, attenuated toward the apex, 
rather thin, white. At the apex square, with four equal faces, the 



DENTALIUM. 35 

angles pinched up into narrow ribs, which continue to or beyond the 
middle of the shell, gradually decreasing; intervals at first flat or 
somewhat concave, soon becoming convex midway between the ribs, 
and when perfectly preserved showing faint longitudinal striation at 
this place ; the convexity increases until the latter third of the shell 
is cylindrical, and sculptured ivith rather conspicuous, oblique growth- 
lines only. Aperture oblique, circular. Apex minute, with a 
circular orifice ; no slit or notch. Length 30'5, diam. at aperture 
2-9, at apex 0'6 mill. 

Gulf of Nicoya and Puerto Portrero, W. coast Central America ; 
also Xipixapij west coast Colombia (Cuming), 10-16 fms., sandy 
mud. 

D. tesseragonum G. B. SOWERBY, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 29. D. tetra- 
gonum SOWB. JR., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 103, pi. 224, f. 21, 22 (1860) ; 
and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 4, f. 20a, b. ? CARPENTER, Rep. 
Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1863, p. 666; Moll. West Coast N. A., p. 
152. Not D. tetragonum Brocchi, 1814. 

The original description here follows: Shell thin, milk-white, 
smooth, at first tetragonal but becoming cylindrical by the disap- 
pearance of the angles ; very delicate growth-lines forming sub- 
hyaline rings. Length 0*8, diam. O'l inch. (G. B. /S.). 

Var. : angles indistinct ; growth-lines forming rings (G. B. /S.). 

Mr. Sowerby changed the name of his fathers species in 1860 
without assigning any cause, or even mentioning that a change had 
been made. The etymology of the original name is obvious, and we 
do not see that such radical emendation is called for, the more be- 
cause the specific name tetragonum had already been used by Broc- 
chi. 

Carpenter reports tetragonum Sby. from Margarita Bay, Pacific 
coast of Lower California in about N. lat. 24, specimens collected 
by one of Harper Pease's collectors. They may possibly be refer- 
able to D.fisheri, q. v. There are some specimens in the collection 
of the Academy safd to be from Rio Janeiro, collected by the U. S. 
Exploring Expedition. We do not know whether the locality is 
authentic or not, but it seems doubtful. There were, however, 
several species of this type in the Antillean Miocene fauna. 

D. QUADRANGULARE Sowerby. PI. 5, fig. 77. 

Shell small, white, quadrangular, the angles rather acute, inter- 
stices striated. Aperture four-cornered. Length '8, diam. '15 inch. 



36 DENTALIUM. 

[=20, 3'75 mill.]. The color of this shell is variable, being either 
milk-white, yellowish or reddish ; the angles are less acute at the 
larger end ; and at the smaller end there is sometimes formed a tu- 
bular appendage. (6r. B. $.). 

Xipixapi, West coast of Colombia (Cuming) ; Realejo, west coast 
of Nicaragua (Dr. A. S. Oersted). 

D. quadrangulare G. B. SOWERBY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1832, 
p. 29. SOWB. JR., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 103, pi. 224, f. 31 ; and in 
Conch. Icon., pi. 5, f. 27. MORCH, Malak. Blatter, vii, p. 176 
(1861). 

White, small, striated, cylindrical, four-sided at the apical end, 
rounded at the other (Sowb.~). The single specimen collected by Dr. 
Oersted measures, length 6?, diam. H mill. 

D. FISHERI Stearns, n. sp. PI. 5, figs. 61, 62, 63, 64, 65. 

Shell cylindrical becoming square toward the apex, not much taper- 
ing, and nearly as wide at apex as at aperture ; moderately arcuate ; 
comparatively solid and strong. White with the riblets gray ; luster- 
less. Sculpture of four strong angles at and near the apex, where it is 
square; these angles rapidly decreasing in prominence until at the 
first third of the shell's length the section is almost round. Very 
near the apex each of the four faces is parted by a median riblet ; 
and a little further on a tertiary series of riblets, one in each of the 
intervals except the two bounding the keel of the convex side, in 
which intervals small riblets develop later. At the middle of the 
shell's length the section is circular and the 28 to 30 riblets nearly 
equal in size ; a few threads are intercalated toward the aperture, 
where the riblets are slightly unequal, low, narrow and close. Aper- 
ture circular, slightly oblique. Anal orifice circular, with a slightly 
raised rim ; placed in the middle of the square apex. Length 14*1, 
diam. at aperture 1*8, at apex 1*2 mill. 

Los Animas Bay, Lower California (type no. 46204, U. S. Nat. 
Mus.). 

D. fisheri STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1894, p. 157 
("provisional" name only; no description). 

This species is evidently near to D. quadrangulare Sowb. of Col- 
ombia, but it is narrower in proportion to its breadth. We have not, 
however, been able to compare specimens of Sowerby's species. The 
general system of sculpture is the same as in several allied species ; 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 37 

and it must be remembered in dealing with these that an older shell, 
or a younger one, would show corresponding differences in the 
sculpture at and near the apex, owing to the truncation of this part 
with advancing age. 

This species is probably what Carpenter reports as D. tetragonum 
Sby. from Margarita Bay. 

Another specimen (no. 46207, U. S. Nat. Mus.) before us, from 
the Gulf of California (pi. 5, fig. 63, apex enlarged), is probably 
an older stage of this species, in which the apex has been more trun- 
cated, the riblets extending to the extreme end. There is a short 
" pipe " for the anal orifice. Length 14*7, diam. at aperture 1*8, at 
apex 1*3 mill. 

Subgenus ANTALIS H. & A. Adams, 1854. 

Entalis GRAY, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 158, type D. entails. Not Enta- 
lis Sowerby, 1839, Pyrgopolon Montf. 1810. 

Antalis H. &. A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., i, p. 457, examples A. 
semistriolata Gldg. and A. entalis L. (1854) ; from Antale ALDRO- 
VANDUS, De Reliquis Animalibus exanguibus, lib. iii, De Testaceis 
give conchyliis, p. 282 (1642). 

Entaliopsis NEWTON & HARRIS, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 
66 (1894), type D. entalis. 

Shell circular or polygonal in section, sculptured with longitudi- 
nal ribs or striae at least in the young, often without longitudinal 
sculpture in adults, or only so sculptured near the apex; apex gen- 
erally with a v-shaped notch at or near the convex side, or with a 
solid plug and central short tube or orifice. 

Type D. entalis Linn. 

Distribution, Mediterranean, North Atlantic, Arctic and North 
Pacific. Mainly a group of moderate depths. 

These forms differ from the foregoing ribbed species in the pecu- 
liarities of the apex mentioned above, which are probably developed 
in some specimens of all the species, though examples not showing 
them are also abundant in all. 

The group as here constituted may seem heterogeneous, including 
as it does species with or without a v-shaped apical notch, with or 
without a short pipe or tube inserted in an apical plug, and either 
heavily ribbed or smooth ; but apical characters vary within each 
species in limits so wide that they are among the secondary specific 
characters, and they are not correlated with sculptural characters. 



38 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

Thus, were we to divide into (1) species with a tubular apical fora- 
men and (2) those with a v-like notch, such closely allied forms as 
D. vulgare and D. weinkauffii would be separated, and a good many 
specimens of other species would fail to show the differential feat- 
ures ; if we divide by a criterion of sculpture, each section would 
contain forms with various apical characters, and a number of spe- 
cies intermediate in sculpture. 

If the characters of the apex be held of subgeneric importance, 
then the group with an apical tube, such as vulgare, novemcostatum, 
etc., will require a new subgeneric name. 

The names for this division of Dentalium are involved in obscur- 
ity. Aldrovandus, writing in 1642, proposed to call the smooth 
Italian species (probably D. vulgare} Antale ; but as his nomencla- 
ture was not binomial, the name has of course only a historic in- 
terest in the light of subsequent events. Defrance and other early 
French, writers enter "Antale" as a synonym of Dentalium, or 
another name for D. entails (see Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. ii, p. 136, 
1816 ; Encycl. Meth., i, p. 75, 1892, etc.). Schroter, between 1774 
and 1784, is said to mention Antale, but his two works on geology, 
" Lithologisches Real- und Verballexicon," and " Vollstandige Ein- 
leitung in die Kenntniss und Geschichte der Steine und Verstein- 
erungen," are not accessible to us, and it does not appear that he 
adopts Antale as a genus. 

In 1846, Herrmannsen mentions Antalis Aldrov. as a name for 
smooth Dentalia, no type species being given. 

In 1854 H. & A. Adams recognized Antalis Aldrov. as a second 
genus of Dentaliidce, with the following diagnosis : " Shell symme- 
trical, tubular, subcylindrical, recurved ; apex perforated, perfora- 
tion with a notch-like fissure on the dorsal or posterior margin ; 
aperture circular, entire. Of the two examples cited, A. semistrio- 
lata Guild, is evidently introduced merely as an illustration of the 
soft anatomy, but as the shell has no " notch-like fissure," it is ap- 
parent that the second example, A. entails L., of which the shell is 
figured, must be the type. It agrees with the generic definition, 
and with the express statement in regard to the fissure following it. 
So far as we can learn, this was the first formal introduction of the 
term Antalis into post-Linnaean nomenclature, and although the 
name is attributed by Adams brothers to Aldrovandus, it is essen- 
tially a new group, the original "Antale" Aldrov. (D. vulgare= 
tarentinum) being omitted from the list given under Antalis Adams, 
and placed in Dentalium. 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 39 

Stoliczka in 1868 restricts Antalis to the species of the type of 
D. vulgar e, in which there is a supplemental tube at the apex, sep- 
arating it generically from Entalis Gray. Tryon and Fischer fol- 
low Stoliczka's definition of Antalis or Antale and Entalis. 

Finally, Newton and Harris in 1894 finding Entalis Gray pre- 
occupied by Sowerby (but not by Defrance, as they allege) substi- 
tute Entaliopsis for the group. 

It appears, therefore, that Entalis Gray, Entaliopsis Newton & 
Harris and Antalis Ads. are absolutely equivalent, being based 
upon the same species as type. 

There is another chapter of this history, in which the genesis of 
"Entale" (Defrance's Gallic vernacular for Entaliwri) is dealt 
with, the vicissitudes of its career related, with at last its final trans- 
formation into " Entalis." The details of this melancholy tale may 
be found by the curious in the section of this volume treating of 
Pyrgopolon. 

GROUP OF D. ENTALIS. 

Shell moderately or very solid, circular in section ; white or red- 
dish toward the apex ; near the apex always sculptured with longi- 
tudinal riblets or striae, at least in the young, but frequently the 
greater part in adults is smooth, with growth-lines only. Apex 
typically with a slightly projecting " sheath " interrupted by a small 
v-shaped notch on or near the convex side. 

North Atlantic, Mediterranean and North Pacific in distribution, 
from shallow water to the greatest depths reached. 

In many species of this group the inner layer of the shell is of 
more porcellanous, firmer texture than the outer, and by the pro- 
gressive erosion of the smaller end with growth this layer projects 
slightly as a sort of narrow, elevated rim around the apical orifice, 
interrupted on one side by the notch, as shown in fig. 25 of plate 8. 
This condition, while usual in some species and likely to occur in all 
of the group, is by no means invariable in any of them. In some 
forms the inner layer thus exposed by erosion, may form a longer 
tube, as in the young specimen of D. agile which Jeffreys called D. 
vagina. The same structure occurs in D. agassizi and many other 
forms. This tube is not homologous with the apical tube of D. 
vulgare (which is probably more allied to the novemcostatum group), 
or of D. filum, etc. 



40 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

Key to species. 

I. Shell becoming round and nearly smooth toward aperture, 
sharply and finely striate longitudinally toward apex, at least 
in the young. 

a. Very fine longitudinal strise throughout, sharp threads on 
on smaller end. 

b. No apical notch, the orifice simple or tubular, 

vulgare, p. 41. 

b'. An apical notch; more than half the length sharply 
striate, weinkauffii, p. 40. 

a'. Only circular strise on larger part of the shell ; apex with 
a short sheath and v-like notch, or simple, 

entalis, p. 42 ; pretiosum, p. 44 ; agile, p. 46. 

II. Shell with numerous riblets toward apex, persistent or becoming 
obsolete near aperture. 

a. About 12 riblets at apex, becoming lower and double as 
many and sometimes obsolete near aperture, 

oceidentale, p. 47. 

a'. 26-28 narrow ribs throughout, no interstitial riblets or 
strise, cenigmaticum, p. 49. 

D. WEINKAUFFI Dunker. PI. 2, fig. 26. 

Shell large, solid, the smaller third well curved, the remainder 
slightly so ; stout ; the length about 11 times the diam. of aperture ; 
apical end not much attenuated. Flesh-colored, fading to whitish 
toward the mouth ; shining. Sculpture, 16 narrow longitudinal 
threads at apex, indistinctly alternating larger and smaller, and increas- 
ing to about double that number at the end of the first third of the 
shell's length. These threads are most prominent at the smaller 
end, and gradually decrease in size, obsolete on the larger third of 
the shell, where microscopic, superficial longitudinal strise replace 
them. Growth-striw conspicuously developed and irregular on the 
larger half of the tube. Aperture circular, oblique, with thin per- 
istome, the interior white, becoming yellow far within. Anal open- 
ing small, narrowly ovate, passing into a small ^-shaped notch on the 
convex side. 

Length 80, diam. aperture 7'3, diam. apex 2 mill, (specimen). 

Length 86-87, diam. 8 mill. (DJfo-.). 

Bishiu coast, Japan (Stearns). 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 41 

D. weinkauffl DKR., Malak. Bl., xxiv, p. 68 (1877) ; Index Moll. 
Mar. Jap., p. 153, pi. 5, f. 1 (1882). 

Not nearly allied to any other Oriental species, its relationship 
being rather with the Mediterranean D. vulgare DaCosta (tarentinum 
Lam.) and the West American D. pretiosum Nutt. The longitu- 
dinal sculpture does not stop abruptly, as shown in the figure, but 
gradually decreases. 

D. VULGAEE DaCosta. PI. 8, figs. 22, 23, 24 ; pi. 9, figs. 53, 54. 

Shell moderately curved, solid, nearly lusterless, opaque white, 
often with some indistinct dusky zones, and tinted with yellowish- 
brown or rose toward the apex. Sculpture of fine close longitudinal 
striae, about 30 in number at the apex of an adult, half that many 
in a younger shell, increasing by intercalation to double that number 
of much less conspicuous, fine, low strise on the larger part of the 
shell, persisting to the aperture, although weak there. Aperture 
circular, oblique, the peristome thin and j agged from fracture. Apex 
truncated in" adults; anal orifice small, round or ovate, occupying a 
very short tube arising from the middle of the thick apical plug. 
" No notch, groove slit or channel." 

Length 38, diam. of aperture 4'7, of apex 2 mill, (adult). 

Length 36, diam. of aperture 4'6, of apex 0*5 mill, (younger). 

Length 34, diam. of aperture 4*8, of apex 1 mill. 

Length 48, diam. of aperture 5'5 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Atlantic from Spain to Belgium ; 
southern England and Ireland. Low water mark to 543 fms. Mio- 
cene of Belgium; Pliocene of Italy. 

Dentale vulgare DACOSTA, Brit. Conch., p. 24, pi. 2, f. 10 (1778) 
Dentalium vulgare MONTEROSATO, Not. int. alle Conch. Medit., p. 
28 (1872). BUQUOY, DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll. Mar. du Roussillon, 
i, p. 558, pi. 66, f. 1-6. DAUTZ., Mem. Soc. Zool. France, viii, p. 
370; ibid., iv, p. 609. D. entalis of OLIVI, PAYRAUDEAU, VON 
SALIS, PHILIPPI and others, and in part of LINNE. D. tarentinum 
LAMARCK, An. s. Vert., v, p. 345 (1818). FORBES & HANLEY, 
Hist. Brit. Moll., ii, p. 451, pi. 57, f. 12 (1853). SOWB., Illustr. Ind. 
Br. Sh., pi. 10, f. 27 ; Thes. Conch., iii, p. 100, pi. 224, f. 19, 20. JEF- 
FREYS, Brit. Conch., iii, p. 195 ; v, p. 197, pi. 55, f. 2 ; P. Z. S. 
Lond., 1882, p. 657. CLESSIN, Conchyl. Cab., p. 3, pi. 1, f. 1, and 
of many other authors. D. striatum MONTAGU, Test. Brit, ii, p. 492 
(not of Born). D. labiatum TURTON, Conch. Diet. Br. Sh., p. 38. 



42 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

BROWN, Illustr. Conch. G. Brit., p. 117, pi. 56, f. 4, 5. D. politum 
DE BLAINV., Diet. Sci. Nat., xiii, p. 70 (1819). and again TURTON, 
ibid., p. 38 (not of Linn.), changed to D. Iceve TURTON, ibid., p. 256. 
D. striolatum Kisso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, p. 398 (1826). 
D. multistriatum Risso, ibid., p. 398 (not of Desh.). D. affine 
BIONDI, Atti dell'Accad. Gioenia di Sci. Nat. (2), xiv, p. 120, pi., 
f. 7 (1859). D. fasdatum GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3737. ?D. 
nebulosum GMEL., ibid., p. 3738. 

Allied to D. entalis L., but when unworn it is lusterless, finely 
striated throughout, not slit or notched posteriorly, and it is more 
robust. The following forms have received varietal names : elongata 
Monts., attenuata Monts., decurtata Monts., albino, Monts. (uniform 
white), citrina Monts. (lemon yellow throughout), rosea B. D. & D. 
(rose-carmine throughout). Sacco has a fossil " variety " perstri- 
olata. 

D. weinlcauffi, Dkr., of Japan, is a near relative of this species, 
but that has the apical notch of typical Antalis, while vulgare is like 
novemcostatum in apical features. 

According to Jeffreys, " The stomach of this Dentalium is a reper- 
tory of littoral Foraminifera. It is not, like Spatangus or Synapta, 
an indiscriminate swallower of sand, but a fastidious Pig from the 
herd of Epicurus, luxuriously picking out the choicest morsels with 
its extensile and delicate captacula. Adriatic specimens of the shell 
collected by Professor Stossich are 2i inches in length and very 
fine." 

Besides the literature cited above, there are very many references 
in local and faunal works, and a number doubtfully applying to this 
species or confusing it with D. entalis. Martini, Bonanni, d'Ar- 
gentville and other early writers have also noticed and figured it. 

D. ENTALIS Linne. PI. 8, figs. 25. 

Shell tapering, not much curved, often irregularly divided into 
segments by the successive accretions of growth ; it is solid, opaque, 
and glossy ; sculpture, slight concentric lines of growth, and occa- 
sionally a few indistinct and extremely fine longitudinal stria3 to- 
wards the narrower end, these striae, when they occur, are not very 
numerous, and are only visible with the aid of a magnifier ; color 
ivory-white, with sometimes an ochreous stain on the narrower 
part, caused by an admixture of mud with the sand in which this 
species burrows : margin at the anterior or broader end more or less 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 43 

jagged, owing to that part of the shell being nearly formed and con- 
sequently much thinner than other parts; at the posterior or nar- 
rower end it is usually truncated in adult specimens, and furnished 
with a very short sloping and oblique pipe or tubular appendage 
having a pear-shaped orifice ; there is also occasionally at the point 
on the convex side a notch or groove, in a line with the front or 
smaller part of the tubular appendage, and this notch is rarely ex- 
tended into a short and narrow slit or channel. (Jeffreys). 

Length 37-42, diam. of aperture 4'5-5 mill. 

Spitsbergen, Scandinavia, Iceland, and Atlantic coasts of Europe, 
south to Spain, 3-1750 fms. Coasts of Maine and Massachusetts, 
north to Bay of Fundy. 

D. entalis LINN., Syst. Nat. (10), p. 785 ; (12), p. 1263. PENN- 
ANT, Brit. Zool., iv, p. 145, pi. 90, f. 154 (1777). LAMARCK, An.s. 
Vert., v, p. 345 (1818). FORBES & HANLEY, Nat. Hist. Brit. Moll, 
ii, p. 449, pi. 57, f. 11 (1853). HANLEY, Ipsa Linn. Conch., p. 437, 
548 (1855). REEVE, Conch. Syst., ii, p. 6, pi. 130, f. 3 (1842). 
JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch., iii, p. 191, pi. 5, f. 1 ; v, pi. 55, f. 1 (1865) ; 
P. Z. S., 1882, p. 659. WATSON, Challenger Scaph. & Gastr., p. 5 
(1885). D. entale L., and D. antale of some authors. Not D. en- 
talis or D. entale of writers on Mediterranean shells, or of Searles 
Wood and some other palaeontologists. D. entalum DE BLAINV., 
Diet. Sc. Nat., xiii, p. 70. 

D. striolatum STIMPSON, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., iv, p. 114 
(1851); Shells of New England, p. 28 (1851). #nfoJw striolata 
Stimp., GOULD-BINNEY, Invert, of Mass., p. 266, f. 528 (1870). 
Not D. striolatum of Jeffreys, Watson or Sars. Not D. striolatum 
Risso, 1826. 

More glossy and ivory-like than D. vulgare, usually more dis- 
tinctly annulated, and with the longitudinal striae completely want- 
ing except at the smaller end, where their presence is variable. The 
posterior termination has either a labial projection which is rather 
broadly fissured dorsally (i. e. upon the arched side of the tube) or 
if it have not experienced that reparative process is then very taper- 
ing, and has a short shelving notch-like dorsal fissure ; it is always 
entire upon the ventral or incurved side of the shell. In certain 
specimens the close approximation of the concentric lines of growth 
produces a somewhat annulated appearance. (F. & H.). 

D. entalis is an abundant species on the coast of Maine ; and 
William Stimpson, comparing with the European D. vulgare and 
finding differences, distinguished the American shells as D. striolatum, 



44 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

under which name the species is generally known in American col- 
lections. Had he compared with D. entails, the identity of the two 
would no doubt have been recognized. There is no difference, not 
even varietal, between English and Maine specimens. D. striolatum 
or Entails strlolata of Jeffreys, Sars and Watson is D. oeeidentale 
Stimp. D. striolatum of Risso is D. vulgare. 

There is great latitude of opinion regarding the limits of the species 
entails; some conchologists holding oeeidentale, agile and pretiosum 
as merely varieties of the Linnsean species. The following variations 
have been named : 

Var. infundibulum Jeffr. Shorter and less cylindrical, being pro- 
portionally wider toward the mouth. Loch Fyne (Jeffr., Brit. Conch., 
v, p. 197). Var. anulata Jeffr. Narrower and more regularly 
cylindrical, ornamented with white ring-like marks of growth (Jeffr., 
Brit. Conch., iii, p. 192). 

Var. ORTHBUM Watson. 

Rather long and straight, and sharply striate toward the apex, 
thus combining the form of D. agile with the sculpture of D. abys- 
sorum. 

Setubal, 470 fms. ; Fayal, Azores, 450 fms. ; Prince Edward Island, 
140 fms. (Challenger) ; Gulf of Gascony (Hirondelle). 

D. entails var. orthrum WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool., xiv, p. 
512 (1879); Challenger Rep., p. 6. DAUTZENBERG, Mem. Zool. 
Soc. France, iv, p. 609, 617. 

D. PRETIOSUM < Nuttall ' Sowerby. PL 13, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell rather long, moderately curved and solid ; opaque white, 
ivory-like, often with some faint dirty buff rings or tinted with that 
color at the smaller end. Sculpture of fine, irregular growth-striae 
and occasional deeper grooves caused by interrupted growth ; usu- 
ally with no longitudinal sculpture in adults, but sometimes showing 
longitudinal striae toward the apex, the young with numerous small 
riblets (but in southern specimens the longitudinal sculpture is more 
persistent). Aperture circular, oblique, the peristome thin. Apex 
rather broadly truncate, the orifice small, oblong, continued in a 
short notch on the convex side ; often having a narrow raised rim. 

Length 55, diam. of aperture 5, of apex 2 mill. (Washington). 

Length 41, diam. of aperture 5, of apex 2*7 mill. (Brit. Columbia). 

Length 41, diam. of aperture 3'8, of apex T5 mill. (Cerros I.). 

West coast of America from Sltlca, Alaska, to Cerros L, Lower Cali- 
fornia. 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 45 

D. pretiosum CPR., Moll. W. C. North Amer., in Rep. Brit. 

Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1856, pp. 296, 317 (name only ; " Central Amer- 
ica, Dr. Sinclair in Brit. Mus."). D. pretiosum NUTT., SOWB., Thes. 
Conch., iii, p. 95, pi. 225, f. 57 (I860) ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 7, f. 
54 (1872). CPR., Rep. Br. Asso. for 1863, p. 560 ; (Smiths. Misc. 
Coll., No. 252, pp. 31, 46). WILLIAMSON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
xv, 1892, p. 194. KEEP, West Coast Shells, p. 113, f. 101 (1887). 
Entalis pretiosus Nutt', LORD, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 137 (method of 
capture by aborigines"). Dentalium like entalis, Vancouvers Isl., 
CPR., Rep. Br. Asso., 1856, p. 296. 

" Dentalium (var.) Indianorum," " Dentalium (? pretiosum Nutt., 
Sby. var.) Indianorum" and " Dentalium Indianorum " CARPENTER, 
Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1863, pp. 612, 648, 683 (1864) ; Moll. 
Western N. A., Smiths. Misc. Coll., no. 252, pp. 98, 134, 169. D. 
indianorum=pretiosum STEARNS, Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1887, pp. 
315, 316, f. 8, 9, pi. 1, f. 2 (use as money). D. "preciosum " CLES- 
SIN, Conchyl. Cab., p. 15, pi. 4, f. 8 (1896). D. "pretionum" 
JAMES, Journ. Cincinnati Soc. N. H., viii, p. 36 (1885-6). 

D. politum Lamk., MIDDENDORFF, Beitrage Mai. Rossica, ii, p. 
98 (not of Lam.). 

D. columbianum CLESSIN, Conchyl. Cab., vi, Heft x, p. [43], pi. 
10, f. 4 (1896). 

Very similar to D. entalis, of the North Atlantic and perhaps 
better ranked as a subspecies ; but in general the Pacific shell is 
larger, longer in proportion to the diameter, and whiter ; and these 
differences, with the geographic separation, make it undesirable to 
unite the forms. 

Clessin's D. columbianum is merely a short form of typical pretio- 
sum, utterly without specific or varietal characters different from 
pretiosum as ordinarily developed in British Columbian waters. 

Californian examples are decidedly smaller, and frequently lirate 
toward the tip. This form has been called 

Var. INDIANORUM by Dr. Carpenter, who describes it as " like 
entalis, with very fine posterior striae." Specimens from Monterey, 
San Pedro Bay, etc. are so sculptured. In the examples of this form 
before me the apex is unslit, the anal orifice circular with thin walls. 
Should these differences prove constant, indianorum may perhaps be 
elevated to specific rank ; but in entalis the apical features are in- 
constant. PI. 13, figs. 6, 7, 8 are normal indianorum; figs. 4, 5 are 
an older shell. 



46 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

In some specimens of D. pretiosum before us the apical notch is 
excentric, and in one it is directly lateral, as in D. sericatum, although 
having the form usual in pretiosum and entalis. We have observed 
similar inconstancy in the position of the slit in some other species. 

D." AGILE M. Sars. PI. 8, figs. 36. 

Shell very long and narrow, somewhat attenuated toward the apex ; 
very slightly curved, almost straight, not very solid. White, little 
shining, generally smooth, rarely lightly striolate toward the apex. 
Apical fissure rather deep. Length 57 mill. (G. 0. Sars). 

Lofoten Is., etc., Norway (Sars) ; Bay of Biscay (Travailleur) ; 
Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas (Spratt, Stossich) ; Canaries, Azores 
and Ascension J., 420-620 fms. (Challenger, Josephine Exped.) ; 
Between Halifax and La Have Bank (U. S. F. C.) ; Off Morro Light, 
Havana, Cuba, 400 fms. (Blake). 

D. agile M. SARS, Remarkable Forms of Anim. Life, etc., p. 34, 
pi. 3, f. 4, 5 (l&72).Antali8 agilis G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. 
Norv., p. 102, pi. 20, f. 9 (1878). MONTS., Nomencl. Gen e Spec. 
Conch. Medit., p. 32. D. agile DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 37 
(1881); ibid., xviii, Blake Rep., p. 418 (1889); Trans. Wagner 
Inst., iii, p. 44 (1892). STURANY, Ber. Commis. Erforsch. ost. Mit- 
telm, p. 29. JEFFREYS, P. Z. S., 1882, p. 658 ; Ann. Mag. K H. 
(5), x, p. 30 (1882) ; Nature i, p. 166, no description (1869). Z). 
entalis var. agile Sars, WATSON, Challenger Rep., p. 6 (1885). 
SMITH, P. Z. S., 1890, p. 321. Z). incertum PHIL., Enum. Moll. 
Sicil., ii, p. 207, (1844), not D. incertum Desh. D. vagina JEFFREYS, 
see below. D.fusticulus BRUGNONE, Misc. Malac., ii, p. 21, f. 31. 

" I now find that, compared with D. striolatum or abyssorum, the 
present species is more slender and not so strongly ribbed, and that 
the curve is more gradual and not abrupt towards the point or 
base. Perfect specimens of both species have a short terminal pipe 
within the slit and occasionally issuing from a truncated and thick- 
ened base, as in D. dentalls and D. tarentinum. Philippi was the 
first to describe D. agile from the Italian Tertiaries as D. incertum 
of Deshayes; but it is not the last named species. It was dredged 
in the 'Porcupine' and 'Travailleur' expeditions off the Lusitanian 
coasts." (Jeffreys). 

D. vagina Jeffreys. (PI. 9, fig. 52). Narrowly cylindrical, 
rather solid, glossy, smooth. Its peculiarity consists in the posterior 
termination forming a second and narrower cylinder, which issues 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 47 

out of the larger and longer one, as if from a sheath. This process 
has an entire and circular point; so that the shell cannot be a 
species of Siphodentalium. Length 12*5 mill. (7e$r.). 

N. Atlantic, Station 16, 1785 fms. (Valorous Exped.). 

D. vagina JEFFR., Ann. Mag. N. Hist. (4), xix, (1877), p. 155 
(concealed in text relating to D. subterfissum). 

Described from a dead specimen, which Jeffreys was apparently 
ashamed to formally introduce as a new species. It is a wretched 
fragment of a young shell, which owes the projecting tube to loss 
of the outer shell layer, as described under D. agassizi, not to inde- 
pendent growth as in D.filum, innumerabilis, and the vulgare group. 
After examining the type and another specimen, we have no hesita- 
tion in declaring it a young D. agile. At all events, its absolute 
counterpart can be found in the long-dead young of this species. 
The figure is an enlarged drawing of the type. 

D. OCCIDENTALS Stimpson. PI. 13, figs. 9, 10, 11 ; pi. 9, figs. 41, 42, 
43 (young). 

Shell moderately curved, the bend mainly posterior, rather solid, 
lusterless ; whitish, frequently tinted with yellow or fleshy. Sculpt- 
ure of about 12 rather strong ribs toward the apex, gradually be- 
coming lower and wider anteriorly, and increased to double that 
number by the intercalation of as many intermediate riblets, all of 
which become subobsolete toward the aperture, which is oblique and 
circular. Anal orifice circular not notched or slit, or with a short 
slit on the convex side. 

Length 34, diam. of aperture 3*9, of apex 1 mill. 

North Atlantic, from off New England north to Newfoundland; 
Spitzbergen, Norway and Faroe Is. (According to Jeffreys south to 
Bay of Biscay and Azores). 

D. occidentale STIMPSON, Shells of New England, p. 28 (1851) ; 
no description, being based on D. dentale Gould, Invert. Mass., p. 
155, pi. 1, f. 5. D. occidentale VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad., v, pi. 
42, f. 16-18; Rep. Commissioner Fish and Fisheries for 1883, p. 
573, pi. 28, f. 123-125. WHITEAVES, Rep. on a Second Deep-sea 
Dredgiug Exped to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, etc., p. 17 (1873). 
D. dentale GLD. in Invert. Mass.,- edit. W. G. Binney, p. 266. D. 
abyssorum SARS, see below. 

This shell has curiously enough been mistaken for D. striolatum 
Stimpson, by Jeffreys (P. Z. S., 1882, p. 659), Watson (Chall. Gastr., 



48 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

p. 5) and G. O. Sars (Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 101). It is, in our 
opinion, specifically different from striolatum Stimp., but seems to be 
identical with the later D. abyssorum M. Sars. D. attenuatum Say 
is a somewhat similar Miocene species, differing in the characters 
of the apex. The description and synonymy of D. abyssorum here 
follows. 

D. abyssorum M. Sars. (PI. 8, fig. 21 ; pi. 9, fig. 40). Longer 
and more slender than D. entails; lightly arcuate toward the apex ; 
less solid. White or ashen, little shining, longitudinally striolate, 
about 20 (16-24) more distinct striae at the middle, rarely extending 
to the aperture, and sometimes quite raised, sometimes less distinct 
and almost obsolete. Apical fissure moderately deep ; sheath -or 
tube around the anal orifice short. Length 50, diam. of aperture 4i, 
of apex 1 mill. 

D. abyssorum M. SARS, Christ. Vid. Selsk. Forh., 1858, p. 52 ; Om 
de i Norge Forekommende Fossile Dyrelevninger fra Quartser- 
perioden (University Programme for 1864), p. 42, pi. 3, f. 100-106 
(1865), exclusive of the so-called young. SEARLES WOOD, Crag 
Moll. Suppl. i, Pal. Soc. Mem., p. 93 (1871) ; see ibid., i, p. 189, pi. 20, 
f. 2. D. striolatum Stimp., JEFFR., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 659 ; Ann. Mag. 
N. H. (5), x, p. 30. D. brevifissum BRUGNONE, Misc. Malac., ii, p. 
20, fig. 30 (1876). ?D. cinerascens ANTON, Verzeich. Conchyl. 
Samml. Anton, p. 25 (1839). D. entalis var. striolatum WATSON, 
Chall. Rep., p. 5 (1885). Antalis striolata G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. 
Arct. Norv., p. 101, pi. 7, f. 1 ; pi. 20, f. lOa, b, c ; Also folded pi. 
1, f. 1 (radula). Not D. striolatum Stimpson ! D.tarentinumAs'B- 
JORNSEN, Nyt Mag. f. Naturv., 1853, vii, p. 350. MALM, Goteborgs 
Vetensk. o Vitterh. Samhalles Handl., viii, 1863, p. 2, f. 3. Not D. 
tarentinum Lam. 

Var. SULCATUM Verrill. 

Shell of moderate size, thin, translucent white, tinged with very 
pale yellowish or bluish, moderately curved, more decidedly behind 
the middle, tapering regularly and rather rapidly from the anterior 
to the very slender posterior end. The entire surface is covered by 
well marked, nearly regular, narrow raised ribs with nearly perpen- 
dicular sides and rounded summits, separated by well-defined, 
strongly marked, concave grooves which are about twice the width 
of the ribs anteriorly, but posteriorly are of about the same width. 
The ribs and furrows show on the interior of the shell within the 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 49 

aperture, in reverse, the whole thickness of the shell conforming to 
the sculpture as if they were corrugations of its substance. The oval 
aperture is relatively large and circular, very little oblique, and 
usually with the very thin edge more or less broken. Posterior 
aperture very small, usually plain and without any notches, but in 
one of the most perfect specimens it has a slight lateral notch on each 
side ; in others there is a small dorsal notch. 

Length of one of the largest specimens 20, diameter at the ante- 
rior end 3, at the posterior end 0'6 mill. Some specimens are 
slightly more slender than the one measured. (Verrill). 

South of A/ova Scotia, east of Cape Cod, lat. 41 9' 40" to 41 IS', 
long. 66 2' 20" to 66 50', at the following Stations : 2076, in 906 
fathoms, one living specimen; station 2077, in 1255 -fathoms, four 
living, and station 2079 in 75 fathoms, one living specimen (U. S. 
Fish Commission). 

D. occidentale var. sulcatum VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 
217 (June, 1884). 

This variety resembles D. candidum Jeffreys in its form and lon- 
gituflinal sculpture, but lacks the transverse lines between the ribs ; 
the posterior end is also more slender and more curved than shown 
in his figure. It also closely resembles some young specimens of the 
typical D. occidentale but the latter has not so strongly marked and 
regular ribs and grooves, nor does the sculpture extend entirely 
through the thickness of the shell so as to appear on the inside, as 
in the present form. Specimens often occur, however, that are 
evidently intermediate between the two forms, in the character of 
the sculpture and thickness of the shell. ( Verrill). 

We have not seen this form. 

D. ^NIGMATICUM Jordan. PI. 9, figs. 58, 59. 

Shell subcylindrical, very slender, thin, slightly curved, lusterless, 
and opaque. Sculpture, 26-28 longitudinal ribs, which are thin, 
almost sharp, and traverse the entire length of the shell. No lon- 
gitudinal microscopical striae are visible between these ribs, merely 
the usual transverse lines of growth. Color, creamy-white, margin 
at the anterior end jagged, as is usual in other species of this genus. 
No notch or slit is visible at the posterior end, which, however, 
appears when examined by a strong lens to be slightly broken. 
Length 25, diam. 2 mill. (Jordan}. 

Faroe Channel, if cold area," 640 fms. ; off west coast of Ireland, in 
1000 fms. 
4 



50 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

Dentalium cenigmaticum JORDAN, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 
264, pi. 16, f. la, Ib (July, 1895). 

From D. agile this species may be distinguished by the persistent 
ribs which traverse the entire length of the shell, and by its some- 
what more slender form. Herr Herman Friele informs me that Z>. 
agile " is not always so faintly striated as described by Sars." It 
differs from D. striolatum [occidentale~\ in its more slender form and 
stronger sculpture ; from D. candidum in its much more slender 
form, and in not possessing the fine transverse intercostal sculpture 
of that species ; whilst from D. dentalis it is distinguished by its more 
slender form, more numerous ribs (about twice as many), which are 
thin and not well rounded as in D. dentalis, and by not having lon- 
gitudinal microscopical striae between the ribs. 

The learned author of "British Conchology," in vol. iii, p. 197, 
says of D. dentalis, " It has nine longitudinal ribs, besides frequently 
a stria between each rib, but no fine impressed lines as in D. taren- 
tinum ; " but in the specimens of D. dentalis which I have examined 
longitudinal striae are visible ; even in specimens which appeared to 
be destitute of them, I have with a strong lens detected them in some 
places when holding the shell at a certain angle to the light, and in 
many specimens these striae by their intersection with the lines of 
growth, impart a microscopical bead-work appearance to the inter- 
costal spaces. 

Mr. E. A Smith informs me that there are two specimens of this 
new species in the British Museum (Natural History) from off the 
west coast of Ireland in 1000 fms., and that he regards the species as 
being quite recognizable. (Jordan). 

Group of D. novemcostatum. 

Shell stout and strong, moderately curved, with 9 to 13 principal 
ribs at and near apex, and usually interstitial riblets. Apex fre- 
quently truncate, with a small central tube. Shell often ruddy. 

Species of the Mediterranean and immediately adjacent seas, 
mainly living at slight or moderate depths. 

With the inclusion of D. vulgare, this group would constitute the 
genus Antalis of Stoliczka, but not the earlier Antalis Adams ; but 
it is a matter of common observation that the apical tube is by no 
means constantly developed in shells of any stage of growth. In the 
following key some species of the preceding group are included. 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 51 

Key to species. 

I. 9 to 13 strong ribs at and near apex ; an equal number of inter- 
stitial ribs often developed, or intervals longitudinally striated, 
a. Primary ribs strong, intercalated riblets generally smaller 
throughout, shell generally ruddy, novemcostatum, dentalis, 
incequicostatum, panormum. 

a f . About 11 indistinct ribs, intervals longitudinally striated, 
apex wide ; white ; (Gulf of Suez). clavus, p. 55. 

II. 12 or more low ribs at apex, increasing to double that, and be- 
coming lower or obsolete toward aperture, occidental, p. 47. 
III. 11-28 primary ribs or riblets, continuous from end to end; no 
interstitial riblets or longitudinal striae ; white. 
a. 11-13 ribs; length 35 mill., 7 times the diam. 

senegalense, p. 55. 

a. 26-28 narrow ribs ; no apical notch ; length 25 mill., 12 
times the diam., cenigmaticum, p. 49. 

D. NOVEMCOSTATUM Lamarck. PI. 9. figs. 44, 45, 46, 47, 48. 

Shell moderately curved, very stout; grayish-white or delicate 
rose, usually reddish toward the apex and with encircling zones of 
deeper red. Sculpture of 9 rounded ribs, stronger at the apex, weak 
or obsolete at the aperture; longitudinally obeoletely striated. 
Aperture rounded-angular. Apex wide, truncate, the anal orifice 
small, usually occupying a short tube. 

Length 32, diam. of aperture 4*7, of apex 2-3 mill. 

Ocean coast of France. 

D. novemcostatum LAM., An. s. Vert., v, p. 344 (1818); edit. 
DESK., v, p. 592 (1838). DESH., Me"m. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 
356, pi. 16, f. 11, 12 (1826). DELESSERT, Req. de Coq., pi. 1, f. 2a, 
2b (1841). FISCHER, Actes Soc. Linn. Bord., xxvii, 1869, p. 115. 
DANIEL, Journ. de Conchyl., xxxi, 1883, p. 331. BUQ., DAUTZ. 
& DOLLF., Moll, du Roussillon, i, p. 565, pi. 66, f. 12-14. Sows., 
Thes. Conch., iii, p. 102, pi. 224, f. 24-27 ; Conch. Icon., xvii, pi. 3, 
f. 135, c, d. CLESSIN, Conchyl. Cab., p. 5, pi. 1, f. 5. Antale novem- 
costatum SACCO, BoH. Mus. Zool. ed Anat, Comp. Univ. Torino, xi, 
1896, p. 97. 

Stouter, comparatively broader in the adult than the Mediterranean 
D. incequicostatum, and lacking the distinct circular striation of that 
form. 



52 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

Sacco recognizes ' varieties ' pseudaprina, mutabilit, incequicostata 
decemcostata, undecemcostata, duodecemcostata and tredecemcostata in 
the Italian Pliocene. They are probably mere forms, and may be- 
long to the closely allied D. incequicostatum Dautz. 

D. INCEQUICOSTATUM Dautzenberg. PI. 9, figs. 49, 50, 51. 

Shell moderately or slightly arcuate, either decidedly or slightly 
tapering, very solid, nearly lusterless. Whitish, with numerous ill- 
defined orange-red or roseate zones, and suffused with that color to- 
ward the apex. Sculpture of 9-12 strong primary ribs toward the 
apex, narrower than their intervals, which are smooth- except for 
very faint, close longitudinal striation, and rather conspicuous 
growth-striae ; smaller secondary ribs, alternating with the others, 
soon appear, and toward the aperture, where the sculpture becomes 
weaker, some tertiary cords ; so the ribs are rather irregularly alter- 
nating in size ; adults showing some irregular, shallow or deep con- 
strictions around the tube, caused by interrupted growth or break- 
age. Aperture subcircular, slightly polygonal, somewhat oblique. 
Apex wide and truncate in adults, with a small, short central tube. 
No slit or notch. 

Length 50, diam. of aperture 4'5, of apex 2 mill. (Specimen). 

Length 35, diam. of aperture 5 mill. (B. D. & D.). 

Mediterranean, from Greece and Sicily to southern France, Algeria 
and Tunis ; laminarian zone. 

D. dentalis LAM., An. s. Vert., v, p. 344. Kisso, Hist. Nat. Eur. 
Me"rid., iv, p. 398. DESH., Mem. Soc. H. N. Paris, ii, p. 353, pi. 16, 
f. 9^ 10. PHILIPPI, Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 243 ; ii, p. 206. JEF- 
FREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H., 1870, p. 10. MONTEROSATO, Not. int. 
alle Conch. Medit., p. 28; Conch, delle Rada di Civitavecchia, p. 8. 
Not D. dentalis Linne. 

D.fasciatum LAM., 1. c., p. 343. Not D.fasciatum Gmel. 

D. novemcostatum Lam., PAYR., Moll, de Corse, p. 19. JEF- 
FREYS, Moll. Piedm. Coast, p. 26. WEINKAUFF, Conch, des Mit- 
telm., ii. p. 420. MONTEROSATO, Norn. Gen. e Spec., p. 31. Not D. 
novemcostatum Lamarck. 

? D. striatulum DE BLAINV., Diet. Sci. Nat., xiii, p. 70 (1819). 

D. pseudo-antalis SCACCHI, Catal. Conch. Reg. Nap., p. 17 (1836). 
Not D. pseudo-antalis Lamarck. 

D. alternans BUQ., DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll. Mar. du Roussilon, 
i, p. 561, pi. 66, f. 7, 8, 9. Not D. alternans Chenu. 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 53 

D. incequicostatum DAUTZENBERG, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, pour 
1891, p. 53 (footnote) ; Ibid., 1895, p. 370. 

The vicissitudes of nomenclature suffered by this species have been 
ably elucidated by the learned authors of LesMollusques Marinsdu 
Rousillon ; and as their material has been so much more extensive 
than any we have access to, we are content to accept their separation 
of the form from D. novemcostatum Lam. and D. dentalis Linne. 

D. DENTALIS Linne. PI. 9, figs. 55, 56, 57. 

Shell moderately curved, rather slender ; whitish, zoned and suf- 
fused toward the smaller end with rose ; sometimes uniform white. 
Sculpture of about 10 strong rounded ribs near the apex, rapidly in- 
creasing by the intercalation of intermediate rib lets to 18 or 20 at the 
aperture. Aperture rounded, polygonal, slightly oblique. Anal 
orifice small, circular, with very thick walls. No notch or slit. 
Length 24, diam. of aperture 2'8, of apex 0*8 mill, (or somewhat 
larger). 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Sea of Marmora. 

D. dentalis LINNE, Syst. Nat. (12), p. 1263 (1766). HANLEY, 
The Shells of Linnaeus, p. 436. O. G. COSTA, Faun. Beg. Nap., 
Tubibranchi, p. 16, pi. 1, f. 3. MONTS., Norn. Gen. e Spec., p. 31. 
BUQ., DAUTZ. & DOLLF., Moll. Mar. Roussillon, i, p. 564, pi. 66, f. 
10, 11. CLESSIN, Conchyl. Cab., p. 6 (in part). STURANY, Ber- 
ichte der Commiss. fur Erforsch. des Ostlichen Mittelm., p. 120, in 
Denkschr. K. Akad. Wissensch., Ixii, 1895. DAUTZENBERG, M^m. 
Soc. Zool. France, iv, p. 609. CARUS, Prodromus Faun. Medit., p. 
174. D. dentale and D. linnceanum LOCARD, Prodr. Mai. Francaise, 
in Ann. Soc. d'Agricult., etc. de Lyon (5), ix, for 1886, p. 145 (1887) ; 
Coq. Mar. France, in Ann. Soc. Linneenne de Lyon, for 1890, p. 
238 (1891).? D. simile S. BIONDI GIUNTI, Atti Accad. Gioenia de 
Sci. Nat. (2), xiv, p. 120, pi., f. 6 (1859). D. mutabile DODERL. in 
Homes, Foss. Moll. Tertiar-Beckens von Wien, in Abhandl. K.-K. 
Geol. Reichsanst., iii, p. 654, pi. 50, f. 32 (1856). 

Closely allied to D. incequicostatum, with which, indeed, it may 
have been associated by Linnaeus. Sacco has named " varieties " 
astensis, sexdecimcostata, quatuordecimcostata, paucicostulata and mac- 
ulatellata from the Italian Pliocene. It is an interesting collection 
of Latin compounds, but probably without adequate foundation in 
nature. 



54 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

Foresti, in Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., xix, p. 249-252, admits these 
varieties from the Pliocene : (1) alternans B. D. D., (2) obsoleta 
Dod. (=D. obsoletum Doderlein, Cenn. Geol. giacim. terr. Mioc. 
sup. Ital. Centr., p. 15, 1862 ; D. dentalis var. sublcevis Cocconi, 
Enum. sistem. Moll. Mioc. ePlioc. Parma e Piacenza, p. 240, 1873), 
and (3) cequicostata Foresti, 1895. Whether these are really refer- 
able to dentalis or not is uncertain ; the recent forms of this group 
are certainly closely allied though probably specifically distinct, but 
some convergence is to be expected in the tertiaries. 

D. PANORMUM Chenu. PL 9, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell slender and elongated, moderately curved, solid. Flesh- 
tinted, or opaque white and tinted posteriorly, where it is also often 
encrusted with a black deposit. Sculpture of about a dozen unequal 
narrow riblets at the apex, increasing in number but losing in prom- 
inence as the tube enlarges; growth strise scarcely noticeable, but 
there is often a deep jagged encircling constriction where a former 
fractured peristome has been repaired. Aperture circular, hardly 
oblique. Anal orifice small, circular or ovate, with thick walls. 

Length 53, diam. of aperture 4, of apex 1 mill. 

Length 70, diam. of aperture 4, of apex 1*5 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; Bay of Biscay, 30-195 fms. 

D. panormum CHENU, 111. Conch., i, p. 6, pi. 6, f. 13 (1842-1847). 
D. panormitanum JEFFREYS, P. Z. S., 1882, p. 657. STUR- 
ANY, Denkschr. Kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien., Ixiii, Berichte der 
Commis. fiir Erforsch Ostl. Mittelm., p. 29. D. lessoni SOWB., Thes. 
Conch., iii, p. 100, pi. 224, f. 17, 18.? And CLESSIN, Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 7. Not of Deshayes. ? D. arguticosta BRUGNONE. 

D. pseudoantalis O. G. COSTA, Fauna Reg. Nap., Dent., p. 17, 
pi. 1, f. 2, 8 (1850). 

Independently of the much greater length, the ribs are finer and 
far more numerous and regular, (than in dentalis), and they are ex- 
tremely slight or become mere strise on the anterior part or in front. 
The shell is also more tapering and proportionally narrower. It 
attains the length of 3 or 4 inches. Some specimens have the same 
pipe at the posterior extremity as in D. dentalis. (Jeffr.}. 

D. panormum, like the very closely allied dentalis and incequicosta- 
tum, repairs a broken peristome very clumsily, leaving a gaping record 
of the injury, deeper than in most species of the genus ; such breaks 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 55 

being seen in the majority of adult specimens. D. semiclausum Nyst 
has been referred here, but is probably distinct. 

D. CLAVUS Cooke. Unfigured. 

Shell solid, whitish, ungraceful, slightly arcuate, almost equally 
wide from apex to base; fluted with about 11 very indistinct ribs, 
interstices longitudinally lineated, the lines sometimes nearly equal 
to the ribs ; apex entire. Length 1'75, diam. 0*2 inch. (Cooke). 

Gulf of Suez (MacAndrew). 

D. clavus COOKE, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), xvi, p. 275 (Oct., 
1885). 

A remarkably ungraceful shell, reminding one of thick specimens 
of novemeostatum Lam. The breadth is almost the same throughout, 
ribs very indistinct and impossible to count at the base, interstitial 
lines proportionately strong. (Cooke). 

D. SENEGALENSE Dautzenberg. PI. 13, figs. 13, 14, 15, 

Shell 35 mill, long, 5 wide at base; rather thin, elongate, arcuate, 
ornamented by 11-13 longitudinal narrow continuous ribs, narrower 
than their intervals, and very delicate growth-striae between them, 
the interstices without longitudinal sculpture. Apex entire. Aper- 
ture polygonal, the peristome very acute, with 11 to 13 grooves 
within corresponding to the external longitudinal ribs. Color uni- 
form dull, milk white. (Dautz.*). 

Dakar, Senegal, (' Melita ' Exped.). 

D. senegalense DAUTZ., Mem. de la Socie"te Zoologique de France 
pour 1'annee, 1891, iv, p. 53 (p. 38 of separate copy), pi. 3, f. 8a, 
8b, 8c. 

D. senegalense approaches D. dentalis L. of the Mediterranean in 
the equal ribs and white coloring; but it has only 11 to 13 longitu- 
dinal ribs instead of 20, it enlarges more rapidly toward the ante- 
rior end. It is less like the Mediterranean form described by us as 
D. alternans (which name being in use for an earlier species described 
by Chenu, we propose to replace by D. incequicostatum), which has 
alternately larger and smaller ribs. Finally, the shell approaches 
D. lessoni Desh., reported by Lesson from New Guinea. (Dautz.). 

GROUP OF D. DISPARILE. 

Irregularly many-ribbed species of rather small size, often with 
alternating translucent and opaque encircling bands, or dots on the 
ribs ; apex either simple, notched or tubiferous. 



56 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

A few Antillean and Pacific species are grouped here for want of 
a better place. 

D. DISPARILE d'Orbigny. PI. 14, figs. 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. 

Shell small, solid, moderately curved, opaque white, frequently 
with some or all of the ribs articulated with dots and dashes of trans- 
lucent gray. Sculpture, 9 or 10 primary ribs with smooth (or 1- 
ribbed) interstices at and near the smaller end, increasing by inter- 
calation to somewhat over double that at the aperture, the interstitial 
riblets developed earliest and most numerously on the convex side 
of the shell, where they become as prominent as the primary ribs ; 
several of the latter, on the concave side of shell, frequently continu- 
ing prominent to the aperture. Aperture circular, outer margin of 
peristome crenulated by the riblets. Anal orifice small, without slit 
or notch, frequently bearing an inner tube (figs. 20, 21). 

Length 20, diam. of aperture 2'3, of apex 1 mill. (St. Martin). 

Length 19*5, diam. of aperture 2*2, of apex 0*7 mill. ] Marco, 

Length 20, diam of aperture 1*9, of apex 0'7 mill, j Florida. 

Length 25, diam. of aperture 3 mill. (Turks I.). 

Coast of Florida, in 2-10 fms. (Hemphill, Rush, Vodges et a/.); 
Martinique (Orbigny) ; Bahamas (Rawson, Gabb) ; Havana, Cuba 
(Arango) ; Samana Bay, St. Domingo (Couthouy) ; Barbados, 100 
fms., (Blake Expedition) ; St. Martin (Marie) ; Miocene and Pliocene 
of the Carolinas and Florida. 

D. disparile ORB., Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 202, pi. 25, f. 14-17 (1842). 
-DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 37, 1881 (ex parte) ; Ibid, xviii, 
Blake Rep., p. 424 (1889) ; Trans. Wagner Inst., iii, p. 440 ; Bull 
U. S. Nat Mus. no. 37, p. 76. ARANGO, Cont. Faun. Mai. Cub., 
p. 232 (1878). 

" This species has no notch or slit when perfect ; when truncate it 
repairs da mages by projecting a small tube from the broken end (figs. 
20, 21). It recalls D. panormitanum Jeffreys, but is smaller, less uni- 
form in sculpture, and has no notch. At the posterior end it is cir- 
cular, with the exterior crenulated by the ribs ; by this feature it is 
distinguished from some of the allied species whose posterior section 
is polygonal." (Dall). 

D. disparile has the ribs more unequal than in D. antillarum, and 
fewer in number at the aperture. Of course the count of ribs at the 
apex depends upon the age of the individual specimen, the secondary 
riblets being added very early on the convex side. 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 57 

D. disparile is very similar to D. variabile Desh. The Oriental 
locality of the latter rests upon little satisfactory evidence, unless 
Martens' identification of Anderson's shells proves unquestionable. 
We do not know that the gray-dotted pattern of the ribs in this 
species and D. antillarum has been noticed in print hitherto, though 
it is obvious enough in many specimens. 

D. CERATUM Dall. PL 7, figs. 4 (young) and 5. 

Shell of waxen hue becoming whiter toward the mouth, aculeate, 
slightly curved, rather stout, and of glassy texture ; at the anal end 
septangular, the angles passing into riblets at the beginning of the 
middle third, then becoming gradually much more numerous, finer 
fainter, and lastly absent or evanescent on the oral third. Surface 
shining, apertures simple, circular. Length 30, anal diam. O5, oral 
diarn, 2'0 mill. (Dall). 

West Florida, 50 fms. (Pourtales) ; Of Havana, in 119-177 fms. ; 

Off Morro Light, Havana, in 175 to 250 fms. ; Off Virgin Gorda 
dead, in 1097 fms. In 213 fms., off Martinique ; Barbados, 100 fms. ; 

Off St. Vincent, in 424 fms., sand (Blake). Also by the U. S. Fish 
Commission, south of Cuba, in 250 fms., coral. 

D. ceratum DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 38 (1881) ; Ibid, xviii, 
Blake Kep., p. 424, pi. 26, f. 5 ; pi. 27, f. 2 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
no. 37, p. 76, pi. 26, f. 5. 

This species has about the curve and proportions of D. circumeinc- 
tum Watson, but is much smaller, has a wholly different sculpture 
and no anal notch. 

D. ceratam also recalls D. panormitanum, but is always more 
slender, usually shorter, has a yellow waxen instead of an apricot 
tint, and the raised sculpture is finer, and more uniform. D. ceratum 
has a shallow wave above and below at the anal end, while D. pan- 
ormitanum has a true, though short, slit. (Dall). 

D. ANTILLARUM d'Orbigny. PI. 14, figs. 22, 23, 24, 25. 

Shell small, rather stout, solid ; apical third quite strongly curved, 
the remainder but slightly or moderately arcuate. White, or with 
a faint greenish-yellow tint ; all or part of the ribs frequently seen 
to be articulated with dots and dashes of translucent gray. Sculpt- 
ure of numerous (about 37-43 at the aperture) subequal or alter- 
nately smaller longitudinal close riblets, about as wide as the inter- 
stices, rather low and rounded ; towards the apex the riblets become 



58 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

unequal, fewer by loss of those intercalated in the interstices, and the 
remaining ribs, about 20 in number, are alternately large and small 
(and in younger shells there are 10 strong ribs). Aperture circular. 
Anal orifice small, ovate with thick walls, and a wide, shallow tri- 
angular notch on the convex side. 

Length 23*5, diam. of aperture 2*5, of apex 1*3 mill. 

Length 22*5, diam. of aperture 2'3, of apex 0*9 mill. 

Entire West Indies and Gulf of Mexico ; north in deep water to- 
Cape Hatteras. Barbados, Dominica, Martinique, St*. Vincent, Gren- 
ada, Santa Cruz, Arrowsmith Bank, Yucatan, and Yucatan Strait; 
of Cuba; off Cape Fear, N. C. (Blake and Albatross) ; Off Cape 
Hatteras (Rush), 17-1000 frns., Pourtales plateau (Iowa S. U. Bahama 
Exp.) ; St. Martin, Saba and Key West, Florida (Acad. coll.) ; St. 
Thomas (Orbigny). 

D. antillarum ORB., Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 202, pi. 25, f. 10-13 (1842 
or 1846). DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 37 (1881); Ibid, xviii, 
Blake Rep., p. 421 (1889) ; Nat. Hist. Bull. State Univ. Iowa, iv, 
no. 1, p. 20. 

The riblets on the larger portion of the tube are much more equal 
and less coarse than in D. disparile Orb., a species often occurring- 
with this one, and of equally wide distribution. d'Orbigny's descrip- 
tion and figures were from a young specimen. 

Dall writes as follows : This well marked species is uniformly 
finely grooved from the tip to the anterior part, the interspaces being 
rounded, subequal, and thread-like, growing slightly finer anteriorly. 
The section is circular, the notch is on the convex side, shallow and 
wide, often decollate. I believe its range extends north to New Eng- 
land, and possibly to Nova Scotia, in deep water, judging by spec- 
imens so labelled in the National Museum. 

D. TAPHRIUM Dall. 

Shell short, stoutish, slightly curved, pale apple-green, which is so- 
alternated in ill-defined zones of translucency and opacity as to give 
on a fresh specimen the effect of the silk known as moire antique, 
though the sculpture is not modified in these zones ; sculpture of 
very fine sharp slightly elevated incremental lines, visible only in 
the interspaces between the longitudinal threads ; the latter are 
even, squarish, rather flattened threads, with subequal channelled 
interspaces, about six threads to the millimeter of circumference ;. 
close to the aperture they become faint, and posteriorly every alter- 



DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 59 

nate thread is weaker until it disappears. Both orifices are circular, 
the anal one has the upper, and to a less degree the lower edge 
gently concavely waved, but without a .slit. Generally this end is 
decollate and circular. Length of shell, 17'0 ; height of arch from 
chord, 2*4; diameter of aperture, 2*12; of anal orifice, 0*5 mill. 
(Da//). 

Off the Carolina coast, in 22 to 52 fms., sand ; at U. S.Fish Com- 
mission Stations 2598, 2608 and 2612. Station 2405, in the Gulf of 
Mexico between the Mississippi delta and Cedar Keys, Florida, in 30 
fms., sand. 

D. taphrium DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, Blake Rep., p. 422 
(1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, p. 76. 

A couple of specimens were obtained, dead and white, in 182 fms., 
coral sand, off Havana, Cuba, by the U. S. Fish Commission. These 
though decollate behind, were about nine millimeters longer ante- 
riorly than any of the more northern specimens, without gaining 
much in diameter. The added part was almost destitute of sculpt- 
ure. (Dall). 

D. PHANEUM Ball. PI. 20, fig. 24 (enlarged). 

Shell rather thin, pale straw color, glistening, nearly straight, the 
curve chiefly in the earlier third ; the shell originally is smooth or 
with few, feeble elevated lines, which in traversing the distance from 
the apex to the aperture revolve one-fourth of a turn to the right; 
surface marked by delicate annular lines of growth and longitudin- 
ally by about twenty-five very fine, sharp, little elevated threads, 
which are strongest about the middle of the shell and more or less 
obsolete in front and behind ; between these are faint obscure lon- 
gitudinal striae; both orifices of the shell are simply circular, the 
anterior sharp-edged and a little oblique. Length of the shell, 35 ; 
anterior diameter, 2'2 ; apical diameter, 0*5 ; maximum deviation of 
the curve from a chord drawn between the ends, 3*2 mill. (DalF). 
Off Honolulu, Hawaiian Is., 298-351 fms. (Albatross). 

Dentalium phaneum DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1894, p. 
686, pi. 26, f. 1. 

This species is perhaps most nearly allied to D. antillarum Orb- 
igny, of the Antilles, a species which differs in its sharper and more 
numerous ribs, which become more prominent toward the apex in- 
stead of obsolete. 



60 DENTALIUM-ANTALIS. 

Of Pacific species, D. numerosum Dall, a form which occurs in 
very deep water from the Galapagos to California abundantly, has 
the most general resemblance to the present species; but it grows to 
nearly twice the length, and when closely examined is seen to have 
a sharply pentagonal posterior section with a conspicuous ventral 
slit. D. numerosum is a somewhat straighter and longer shell than 
D. phaneum. (Dall). 

D. VARIABILE Deshayes. PI. 14, figs. 26, 27, 28.. 

Shell rather small, moderately arcuate, not much attenuated pos- 
teriorly, solid ; white, with numerous encircling grayish-translucent 
zones, more pronounced on the ribs, which appear articulated with 
grayish and white. " Sculpture of 10 or 11 strong narrow ribs with 
concave interstices, at and near the apex ; a median thread soon 
arising in each interval, and becoming nearly equal to the primary 
ribs, and later other interstitial riblets arise in some intervals, so that 
at the aperture there are about 22, 24 or more riblets. Aper- 
ture round, slightly polygonal. Anal orifice small and circular with 
thick margin. No slit or notch. 

Length 19, diam. aperture 2, diam. apex 1-1 mill. 

Length 18, diam. aperture 2, diam. apex 1 mill. 

Mergui Archipelago at Mergui on mud-flats and Sullivan I. in 7- 
10 fms. (Anderson) ; Philippine Is. (Sowb., Acad. Coll.) found at a 
dealers with mainly small Indian shells (Desh.). 

D. variabile DESH., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 367, pi. 16, 
f. 30 (1825). SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 101, pi. 224, f. 30 
(I860) ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 4, f. 26 (1872). MARTENS, Journ. 
Linn. Soc. Lond., xxi, p. 200. Not D. variabile Costa or Risso. 

Differs from D. belcheri in being narrower and less rapidly en- 
larging. The dotted ribs are characteristic, but their number varies 
considerable. It sometimes reaches 30 mill, length. Compare D. 
disparile Orb. 

D. BELCHERI Sowerby. PI. 14, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell subcylindrical, equally and closely ribbed, lightly curved 
towards the apex ; white or roseate, with pale maculation on the ribs ; 
apex entire and obtuse. (Sowb.\ 

Length 32, greatest diam. 5 mill, (from fig.)- 

Length 26, greatest diam. 4*5 mill, (from fig.). 

East Indian Archipelago (Sowb.). 



DENTALIUM-HETEROSCHISMA. 61 

D. belcheri SOWB. jun., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 101, pi. 224, f. 28,29 
(1860) ; and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 1, f. la, Ib. (1872). 

It is like D. novemcostatum, but with the ribs much more numer- 
ous. There is a slight articulated appearance on the costae. (Sowb.). 

D. ACULEATUM Sowerby. PI. 10, fig. 66. 

Shell white, strongly curved, unequally striated ; apex attenuated, 
acuminate, entire. Not unlike the young of D. tarentinum, but more 
acuminated, and with uneqyal instead of equal striae. (Sowb.). 

Length 21, diam. 3'5 mill, (from fig.). 

Habitat unknown. 

D. aculeatum SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 100, pi. 225, f. 63 (1860). 
D. DACOSTTANUM Chenu. PI. 13, fig. 12. 

Shell small, somewhat arcuate, with very numerous and crowded 
longitudinal striae. (Chenu'). 

Length 7 '5 mill, (from fig.). 

Habitat unknown. 

D. dacostatianum CHENU, Illustr. Conch., i, p. 3. D. dacostianum 
CHENU, pi. 6, f. 33. 

Evidently a young shell and a doubtful species. The figures show 
five strong ribs at apex and 16 fine ones at aperture. 

Subgenus HETEROSCHISMA Simroth, 1895. 

Heteroschisma SIMROTH, in Bronn's Klassen u. Ordnungen des 
Thier-Reichs, iii, Moll., p. 460 (1895). 

Shell coarsely striate or ribbed longitudinally, tapering, and 
with a apical slit on the concave side. 

An abnormal position of the slit occurs in some other species, such 
as D. leonince, D. inversum and D. sericatum, belonging to quite 
different groups. It is no evidence of common origin, so that the 
group established by Simroth for all species with the slit on the con- 
cave side, is to that extent an artificial one. If adopted as a sub- 
generic or sectional name it may be restricted to species of the sub- 
terfissum type. 

D. SUBTERFISSUM Jeffreys. PI. 7, figs. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Shell slender and finely tapering, more curved towards the point, 
rather thin, nearly semitransparent, and glossy; sculpture, from 12 
to 16 delicate and sharp regular longitudinal striae, which are con- 



62 DENTALIUM-HETEROSCHISMA. 

tinued to both ends ; color whitish ; margin at the posterior end bul- 
bous ; slit long and narrow, placed on the lower or ventral side ; its 
length is double that of the greatest diameter of the shell. Length 
0-6, breadth 0'075 inch. (Jeffreys). 

Davis Strait, 1785 fms. ; Off West coast of Ireland, 1180-1476 fms. 
(Porcupine Exped.) ; off Azores Is., 1000 fms., Palma, Canaries 1125 
fms., and off Pernambuco, Brazil, 675 fms. (Challenger). 

D. subterfissum JEFFR., Ann. and Mag. N. H. (4), xix, p. 154 
(Feb., 1877) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 660, pi. 49, f. 3. 
WATSON, Challenger Scaphopoda and Gastrop., p. 10, pi. 1, f. 10 
(1885). 

Peculiar in having the slit on the concave side of the tube. 

D. CALLITHRIX Dall. PI. 7, fig. 3. 

Shell white, moderately curved, laterally slightly compressed; 
sculpture of about nine primary longitudinal ridges, angulating the 
section, with between them toward the middle of the shell three to five 
secondary smaller rounded threads, crossed by moderately strong 
lines of growth ; the primaries are strongest posteriorly, they become 
fainter in front and all the longitudinal sculpture nearly uniform 
near the aperture in the adult ; aperture oblique, rounded oval, the 
lower lip in advance, margin thin ; anal orifice circular, simple in 
the young, without notches or slits ; adults usually show a short 
broadish slit on the concave side, or are irregularly eroded; the 
extreme tip in the young is more curved than the body of the shell, 
and quite acute. Length 25 ; height of arch above chord, 5 ; ver- 
tical diameter of aperture, 375 ; transverse ditto, 2'75 ; diameter of 
anal end in young, 0*25 ; in figured specimen (eroded) 1 mill. The 
shell may attain a length of 43 mill. (Dall). 

Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. ; Gulf of Mexico, Blake Station 20, in 
220 fms. ; Station 41, in 860 fms.; near Guadelupe, in 769 fms., 
sand, off Santa Lucia, in 423 fms., ooze, off Bequia, in 1591 fms., 
ooze-, off Cape Fear, in 161 fms., ooze ; off Grenada] Also at U. S. 
Fish Commission Station 2678, in 731 fms., ooze, off Cape Fear, North 
Carolina, and in the Gulf of Mexico, between the delta of the Mississ- 
ippi and Cedar Keys, Florida, in 1181 fms., mud ; S. of St. Kitts, 687 
fms. ; East from Tobago, 880 fins. (Albatross) ; Rio Janeiro (U. S. 
Expl. Exped.). 

D. callithrix DALL, Blake Rep., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 427, pi. 
27, f. 10 (1889); Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, p. 76, pi. 27, f. 10 ; 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, 1889, p. 294 (1890). 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 63 

This is a very characteristic species, in which the longitudinal 
sculpture, and even the shell, are often somewhat spirally twisted as 
much as one-eighth of the circumference. (Dall). 

There are at first 9 narrow, acute ribs, with smooth, wide concave 
intervals; then 3, 4 or more narrow riblets appear in each interval 
and the section of the tube becomes circular. Toward the aperture, 
which is slightly compressed laterally, there are subequal, fine and 
inconspicuous riblets. The slit is rather long and on the concave 
side. 

Subgenus FISSIDENTALIUM Fischer, 1885. 

Fissidentalium FISCHER, Manuel de Conchyliologie, p. 894 (1885), 
type D. ergastieum Fisch. 

Schizodentalium SOWERBY, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 158 
(1894), type S. plurifissuratum Sowb. 

Shell large and solid, sculptured with many longitudinal riblets, 
the apex typically with a long slit, but often simple, sometimes with 
a slit divided into a series of fissures. 

Mainly deep water species, of all temperate and tropical seas, 
distinguished chiefly by the large size and solidity of the shell with 
numerous longitudinal riblets. The apical slit is a frequent but 
by no means invariable feature, being here an extremely mutable 
character, as in most other groups of the genus. It is this great var- 
iability, not only between different species but among the individ- 
uals of the same species, that has induced us against preconceived 
opinions to merge Mr. Sowerby's group Schizodentalium into 
Fischer's earlier subgenus. The extraordinary character of a slit 
divided into a series of fissures might well induce any conchologist 
to found a new genus ; but the essential agreement of the type species 
with Fissidentalium in sculptural characters and contour, the vari- 
ation in number of the fissures, and the existence of the same char- 
acter to some degree in other species (capillosum and exuberans), all 
seem to us to indicate the minor importance of this modification of 
the slit, in common with the other several types of apical structure. 
In this case, as throughout the Scaphopoda, data upon the soft anat- 
omy are required. 

Wide as is the distribution of species of this group in modern seas, 
the range in time is not less marked. Characteristic fossil forms 
are D. grande Desh. of the Paris Basin Lower Eocene, a species not 
unlike D. capillosum; D. giganteum Sowb. and D. corrugatum Gay 



64 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

of the southern extremity of South America, both probably Miocene 
or later ; D. mantelli Zittel and D. solidum Button of the New Zea- 
land upper Eocene or lower Miocene, and other species. 
The following is a very imperfect analysis of the species. 

Key to species. 

I. Shell circular or nearly circular in section. 

a. 12-14 high, rather acute ribs toward apex, with numer- 
ous riblets developing as the tube enlarges ; shell large, 
nearly straight ; a long often sinuous fissure. Length 63 
-114 mill. rectum, p. 81 ; delessertianum, p. 81. 

a'. Longitudinal riblets or ribs much more numerous. 

b. Slit divided into a series of fissures by bridges of 

shell. 

c. Stout; length 95 mill., about 5 times the great- 

est diam. ; off West Africa, exuberans, p. 78. 
c'. Length 64 mill., about 8-9 times the diam. ; 
many unequal ribs and striae ; fissures 2 to 5 ; 
Hong Kong ?, plurifissuratum, p. 82. 

b f . Slit simple or wanting. 

c. Caliber quite rapidly enlarging, the diameter gen- 
erally contained 4 to 7 times in the length. 
d. 50-80 riblets on larger part of the very 
stout shell. 

e. Very large, yellowish, with about 50 
riblets; aperture oblique, no slit; 
length 90-99 mill., 5-5 times the 
greatest diam. ; E. Pacific, 

megathyris, p. 67. 

e'. 70-80 riblets ; a slit; length 42-45 

mill., 4|-6 times the diam. ; Pacific* 

ceras, p. 68. 

e". Nearly straight, brownish-yellow, 
with a short fissure ; about 50 very 
slightly raised rounded ridges, faint 
toward aperture ; length nearly 50 
mill., about 6J times the diam., 

amphialum,p. 71. 

d'. 30-36 riblets toward larger end, either 
alternately smaller or only half as many 




DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTlCLlUMr 65 



at apex ; length 56-60 mill., 7-8 times 
the diam. ; New Zealand, 
opacum, p. 70 ; zelandicum, p. 70 ; pacifi- 
cum, p. 70. 

d". About 18 ribs at larger end, fewer poste- 

riorly ; white, rapidly tapering, curved ; 

length about 1 6 mill., about 6 times the 

diam. ; New Zealand, huttoni, p. 71. 

c'. Tube less rapidly enlarging, the greatest diame- 

ter contained 8 to 11 times in the length. 

d. 30-35 riblets on larger part of the shell ; 
length about 8 times the diameter. 

e. Long, conic, finely tapering, white ; 
30-35 unequal, rounded, close, 
high ridges, finally obsolete except 
for slight grooves ; a short slit ; 
length 62 mill. ; aegeum, p. 69. 
e'. About 30 unequal grooves near 
large end, fewer posteriorly ; white, 
solid, slightly curved ; length 60 
mill. ; New Zealand, 

pacificum, p. 70. 

d'. 40 or more flattened riblets separated by 
much narrower grooves. 

e. About 40 subequal riblets with 
much narrower intervals ; toward 
apex alternately smaller ; length 
90-133 mill., 8-9 times the diam. ; 
a deep slit or none, vernedei, p. 80. 
ef. Solid, glossy, white or ashy-gray, 
about 44-48 low, rather flattened 
riblets, somewhat fewer posteriorly, 
parted by linear grooves, becoming 
subobsolete toward aperture; length 
74-88 mill., about 9 times the 
diam., slit short, candidum, p. 72. 
e". Similar, but 90 or more riblets, 
continuous to aperture ; length 100 
-110 mill., 8-10 times the diam., 
meridionalis, p. 73. 



66 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

e"" . About 40 narrow riblets at apex, 
becoming flattened and then ob- 
solete ; slit 15 mill, long ; length 
91 mill., 9 times the diam., 

ergasticnm, p 74. 

e"". Light red ; length 82 mill., about 
7 times the diam., 

milneedwardsi, p. 75. 

e"" '. More cylindrical than candidum ; 

length 78 mill., about 9 times the 

diam., complexum, p. 76. 

d". Many thread-like riblets separated by 

deeply cut intervals hardly narrower than 

the riblets. 

e. Solid, about 65 even, sharply and 
deeply cut rounded equal threads, 
with narrow grooves ; a slit ; length 
about 80 mill., 9 times the diam., 

capillosum, p. 77. 

e'. About 40 flat-topped riblets, with 
broad square furrows, 

paiicicostatum, p. 78. 

e". Striation coarser, slit longer; length 

101 mill., about 1\ times the diam., 

magnificum, p. 78. 

e f ". Sculpture much as in capillosum ; 
light reddish-gray; nearly straight; 
length 95 mill., 10? times the 
diam., scamnatum, p. 79. 

e"". About 80 thread-like riblets; a 
notch or short slit; length 90 
mill., about 10 times the diam., 

profundorum, p. 79. 

c". Diam. contained 15 times in length ; 75 mill, 
long; finely ribbed, senivestitum, p. 75. 

II. Shell decidedly compressed, elliptical in section. 

a. Tawny, banded with brown ; very numerous unequal rib- 
lets ; slit long and narrow, aperture oval ; length 72 mill., 
6 times the diam., hungerfordi, p. 84. 

a'. White ; about 16 angular, narrow, equal ribs, smaller ones 
sparsely intercalated toward aperture ; intervals conspic- 
uously transversely striated ; a long slit; length 51 mill., 
12-13 times the diam., clatkratum, p. 84. 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 67 

D. MEGATHYRIS Ball. PI. 15, figs. 29, 30, 31. 

Shell remarkably stout and solid, rapidly enlarging ; the earlier 
third moderately curved, the remainder much straighter. Surface 
where not eroded shining ; texture of shell porcellanous within, with 
an external chalky stratum under the smooth exterior ; the poste- 
rior half generally much eroded even in living specimens. Color 
yellowish-white, generally with some dark extraneous matter lodged 
in the interstices. Sculpture: numerous (about 50} strong longitudi- 
nal riblets and threads, the latter rather sparsely and irregularly 
interposed ; the intervals deep and generally somewhat narrower 
than the riblets ; longitudinals rather abruptly losing in strength 
near the aperture in aged shells. Aperture (fig. 29) decidedly ob- 
lique, somewhat wider than long, the peristome subsinuous, acute. 
Apex with simple, circular, sharp-edged orifice (fig. 31). No slit or 
notch. 

Length 99, greatest diarn. of aperture 18'1 mill. 

Length 97, greatest diam. of aperture 17'9, diam. at apex 2'7 mill. 

Length 95, greatest diam. of aperture 17*5, antero-posterior diam. 
15-5 mill. 

Length 91, greatest diam. of aperture 18, antero-posterior diam. 
16-5 mill. 

Off Chiloe Island and southeast Chili in 1050 and 1342 fins. 
near Galapagos Is. in 812 fms. ; off Ecuador in 1740 fms. ; Gulf of 
Panama ; s.-w. of Tehauntepec, 2282 fms. ; off Mazatlan, 995 fms. ; 
Gulf of California off La Paz, (U. S. Fish Commission). 

Dentalium megathyris DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, p. 293, pi. 
9, f. 1. STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, p. 424 (1893). 

This is one of the finest species of the genus, and the stoutest 
known. Dall writes : " The young recalls D. ceras Watson, but the 
shell changes in rate of increase and form of longitudinal ribs as it 
grows. It is a little straighter near the anal end, and the adult is 
more funnel-shaped, with flatter ribs than in D. ceras. 

" The radula is short, with the formula , . , ... The median 

. ' A A 
tooth is wide, subrectangular, arched a little in front. The laterals 

on each side have a projecting stout cusp; the uncini are flat rhom- 
boidal plates. The whole radula bears a strong resemblance to that 
of Entalis striolata as figured by G. O. Sars. The oesophagus is 
short; the stomach short and cordate, stuffed with foraminifera. 
The soft parts, as preserved in alcohol, seem ridiculously small and 
out of proportion to the massive shell." 



68 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

D. CERAS Watson. PL 3, fig. 41. 

Shell like one of the old drinking-horns, stumpy, short, and a 
good deal bent, rather thin ; the newer growth porcellanous, the 
older chalky and given to break off in flakes, leaving a perfectly 
smooth, brilliant porcellanous core. Sculpture : The surface is 
covered with close-set annular striae, which, especially on the longi- 
tudinal ribs, show like minute, crisp, round threads. The longi- 
tudinal ribs are very much stronger, but still are fine, rounded, 
parted by rounded furrows much like the ribs ; both, but especially 
the furrows, are irregular in size, fresh riblets arising in the hollows. 
There are from 30 to 35 toward the apex, and from 70 to 80 toward 
the mouth. Color, pure white. Edge thin and broken at the 
mouth ; at the apex there is an irregular, ragged fissure in the con- 
vex curve. Length 1*8, breadth at mouth 0'3, at apex 0'07 inch. 
( Watson'). 

Animal, mantle is white, very thin and transparent ; the adductor 
muscles are short and weak. The liver is small, of a light grayish- 
brown. The mouth of the mantle is very strong, of a yellowish 
color, and the animal is rather fawn-colored ( Watson). 

Mid-Pacific, east of Japan, 2050 fms. ; W. of Valparaiso', 2160 fms. 
(Challenger). 

D. ceras WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 510 (1879). 
Not D. ceras BALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 37 (1881) ; Ibid., xviii, p. 
425 (1889) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, p. 294 (1890) ; Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., No/ 37, p. 76 (1884). D. keras WATSON, Chall. Rep., p. 
3, pl.l, f. 4 (1885). 

" One specimen from mid-Pacific east of Japan is much less curved 
than the others. That from W. of Valparaiso (distant more than 
7,500 miles in a straight line, 4,500 miles north and south and 6,000 
miles east and west) is much broader, length 1'7, breadth 0'36 inch, 
and much more bent, but is obviously identical- ( Watson}. 

" The distance by sea from the Pacific, off Valparaiso, to the Gulf 
of Mexico, is so enormous that Mr. Dall's identification of his spe- 
cies with this one seemed to need confirmation, and a specimen was 
accordingly sent to him for comparison. Mr. Dall sent me a sketch 
of his solitary specimen with the following remarks, which his 
sketch confirms: " Yours is older, has lost much tip, and widened at 
the mouth ; the tip is, perhaps, slightly more curved. The sculpture 
in mine, perfectly preserved, is a little more clearly cut than in yours, 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 69 

but otherwise identical. Mine was dead and surface not glossy, 
yours living (though eroded), and in places quite glossy. If the two 
had been dredged together 1 think no question would have arisen as 
to their being the same. From such different localities there is 
always more doubt, though, in these abyssal things without much 
reason for it. Mine has no notch, but I find such differences in this 
character in the same species that I put no value on it unless it is 
uniform in many specimens. There do not seem to be any other 
differences. After a most careful scrutiny, I think there are no 
specific or even definable varietal differences between them." 

" This (Z>. ceras) compared with Dentalium amphialum Wats, is 
more curved ; the longitudinal striae are much narrower, more dis- 
tinct, and more persistent. Than Dentalium grande Desh. this is 
much smaller and especially shorter and stumpier form, without the 
regular circular lirae, and the longitudinal ribs are much weaker 
and are closer set. Compared with Dentalium capillosum Jeffr., 
which it superficially resembles, it differs in texture, form and 
sculpture (Watson). 

The specimens from the Atlantic reported as D. ceras, we refer to 
D. candidum var. meridionalis, young. 

D. ^EGEUM Watson. PI. 20, fig. 27. 

Shell long, conical, finely tapering, much and very equally bent, 
though less, of course, as the shell grows larger ; thin, pure white, 
porcellanous, a little chalky towards the mouth, but higher up bril- 
liant. Sculpture : Longitudinal ridges 30 to 35, unequal, rounded 
above, close, rather high, narrow, and parted by furrows which equal 
the ribs, but lower down these ribs become broader and flatter, and the 
furrows widen, till, towards the mouth, the surface becomes uniform 
and the ridges are only indicated by the faint strise of the furrows. 
Under a lens the whole surface shows a faint longitudinally striated 
texture. On the upper part of the shell the strise of growth are very 
faint, but they become rather strongly marked towards the mouth. 
Toward the apex the outer layers for half an inch are stripped off 
and leave exposed the brilliant, smooth core, presenting many longi- 
tudinal facets corresponding with the ridges of the outer layer. 
There is an irregular short fissure with broken edges at the apex on 
the convex curve. Length 2'5 in., breadth at mouth 0*3, at apex 
0-33 inch ( Watson). 

Off London River, Kerguelen Island, in 110 fms. (Challenger). 



70 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

D. cegeum WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 509 (1879) ; 
Challenger Rep., p. 2, pi. 1, f. 2. 

Than D. capillosum Jeffr. this is more conical, more curved, the 
ridges are fewer, and the furrows between much wider and more 
open ( Watson). 

T>. OPACUM Sowerby. 

Shell nearly straight, attenuated at the apex, its diameter increas- 
ing much more rapidly than in the other species ; with 17 or 18 
rather blunt longitudinal ribs, with a smaller one between each ; 
all the ribs nearly obsolete at the wider extremity ; posterior fissure 
short, dorsal. Length 2'25, diam. 0'3 inch (G.B.S.*). 

From South Sea ships, supposed New Zealand (G. Humphrey's 
coll.). 

D. opacum G. B. S., Zool. Journ., iv, p. 198 (1828). 

A few specimens were preserved in Mr. G. Humphrey's collection 
with the following label : " White striated elephant's teeth, per S. 
Sea ships, supposed New Zealand " ( G. B. S.). 

D. ZELANDICUM Sowerby. PI. 6, fig. 81. 

Shell white, banded with pale gray and tawny ; slightly arcuate, 
pyramidal, wide. Ribs numerous, but little elevated and unequal. 
Apex slightly slit (Sowb.). Length 57, greatest diam. 8 mill, (from 

fig.)- 

New Zealand (B. M.J. 

D. zelandicum SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 101, pi. 223, f. 13 
(1860) ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 2, f. 8 (1872). 

Very similar to D. rectum, but the sculpture is far less bold and 
coarse (Sowb.*). 

The length is about 7 times the diameter. D. pacificum Hutton, 
in which the length is 8 times the diameter, and D. huttoni Kirk, 
with the length about six times the diameter, are somewhat similar 
ribbed species, the former perhaps identical. D. eonicum Hutton, 
of the New Zealand Pliocene, seems also to belong to this immediate 
group. Compare also D. opacum. 

D. PACIFICUM Hutton. 

Shell solid, tapering, slightly curved, longitudinally grooved ; 
grooves unequal, about 30 at the anterior end, but diminishing in 
number toward the apex ; white. Length 2*4 ; breadth, anterior 
end 0'3, posterior end 0'05 inch=60, 7*5 mill. (Hutton). 

New Zealand (Hutton). 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 71 

D. pacifieum HUTTON, Catal. Mar. Moll. N. Z., p. 5 (1873) ; Man- 
ual N. Z. Moll., p. [130] (1880). 

It is very likely the same as D. zelandicum Sowb., as Hutton 
surmises. 

D. HUTTONI Kirk. 

Shell white, lustrous; small, curved, rapidly tapering; ribbed, 
ribs unequal, about 18 at the anterior end but diminishing in num- 
ber towards the apex. Length 0'63, breadth at anterior end O'l inch 

=15-75,2-5 mill. (Kirk). 

Wellington, New Zealand. 

D. huttoni KIRK, Aniials and Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vi,p. 15 (July* 
1880) ; Trans. N. Z. Institute, xii,p. 306 (May, 1880). 

Three specimens from the stomach of a trumpeter (Latris heca- 
teia). 

D. AMPHIALUM Watson. PL 8, fig. 37. 

Shell long, conical, nearly straight, what curve there is very equal 
throughout, of a dirty brownish-yellow, chalky on the surface, por- 
cellanous beneath. Both specimens are very much eroded, especially 
on the convex curve, and show a prodigious number of layers of 
shell, which is, however, thin and slight. There is a short, irregular 
anal fissure on the convex curve. Sculpture: There are about 50 
very slightly raised, rounded, longitudinal ridges, the furrows be- 
tween which are very much like the ridges reversed, being very 
shallow and open. These vary a good deal at different parts of the 
shell, and tend to disappear toward the mouth ; they are crossed by 
fine, close-set, sharp, but very superficial, irregular scratches, which 
run elliptically round the shell, advancing on the concave and re- 
treating on the convex curve. As the shell grows, these lines of 
growth become harsh and broken. Length 2 inches, nearly ; 
breadth -3, nearly; least length O'OSinch. (Watson). 

Animal small for the shell, of a pale, ruddy color, which is deeper 
and browner on the foot and liver, the latter very large : two large 
masses of long, fine, equal captacula fill the mantle cavity ; they 
spring from the front of the pedestal out of which the buccal mass 
and the foot arise, and of these, two large bunches project through 
the mantle orifice ; buccal palps very small ( Watson). 

Of mouth of La Plata River, 1900 fms. (Challenger). 

D. amphialum WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 510 ; 
(1879) ; Challenger Rep., p. 3, pi. 1, f. 3. 



72 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

This species is somewhat like D. zelandicum Sow., from New Zea- 
land, British Museum, but in form is much stumpier, the ridges are 
closer and the shell thinner. Than D. grande Desh., " Japan," 
British Museum, it likewise is stumpier in form ; the ridges are less 
strong, the furrows less marked, the circular striae less sharp ; in D. 
amphialum the longitudinal ridges die out, while in D. grande they 
continue equally strong 



D. CANDIDUM Jeffreys. PL 15, figs. 39, 40 ; pi. 8, figs. 27, 28, 29, 30. 

Shell rather large and solid, the earlier third or half moderately 
curved, the remainder nearly straight : of a drab or ashy-gray color, 
the young sometimes brilliant white ; glossy. Sculpture, of numer- 
ous (44-48) low, rounded and rather flattened riblets parted by im- 
pressed linear grooves ; toward the apex the riblets or striae become 
higher, narrower and parted by intervals as wide as themselves, and 
toward the aperture the riblets become lower and nearly or wholly 
disappear; oblique, irregular, sinuously circular growth-lines replac- 
ing them. Aperture decidedly oblique and nearly circular. Apex 
small, with circular orifice, simple or with a slight encircling ledge 
and a notch or slit on or near the convex side. 

Length 74, diam. at aperture 8, at apex 1 mill. 

Length 76, diam. at aperture 9, at apex 2 mill. 

Length 88, diam. at aperture 10 mill. 

Northern and eastern Atlantic and Bay of Biscay, 410-1750 fms. 
(Valorous Exped.) ; west of Ireland, 664-1476 fms. (Porcupine 
Exped.) ; Western Atlantic from off Nantucket southward to the 
Carolina coast in 843-1309 fms. (U. S. Fish Commission) ; Gulf of 
Mexico near Jamaica, etc. ; southern west Atlantic, 240 miles E. of 
Rio Janeiro, 641 fms.; 90 miles N. of Ceara, Brazil, 1019 fms. 
(Albatross). 

D. candidum JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xix, p. 153 (1877) ; 
P. Z. S., 1882, p. 658, pi. 49, f. 2 ; Proc. Koy. Soc. London, xxv, 
pp. 184, 191, 199, no description (1876). DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., 
xviii, p. 422 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, p. 76 (1889) ; Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., xii, 1889, p. 294 (1890). D. solidum VERRILL, Trans. 
Conn. Acad., vi, pp. 215, 276, 283, pi. 44, f. 16, (1884). Not D. 
solidum Button, 1873. D. ceras DALL (not of Watson), Blake Gas- 
tropoda, in Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 37 (1881) ; xviii, p. 425 (1889) ; 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, p. 294 (1890). 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 73 

Dall has already announced the specific identity of D. candidum 
Jeffr., solidum Verrill and ergasticum Fischer. Jeffreys' specimens 
of D. candidum prove on comparison to be absolutely the same as 
the young D. solidum Verrill, though the snowy whiteness of the 
original specimens, with their rather narrower, sharper riblets as in 
all young shells of the species, give them a different aspect at first 
view from the drab or ashen, obsoletely sculptured adult shells 
dredged in American waters. The glistening white color is proba- 
bly due to local conditions ; Dall remarks : " Under favorable cir- 
cumstances this species may be of a most brilliant milk-white, but 
nearly all the specimens are dull ashy-gray in color, even when liv- 
ing and in perfect order. I suppose the white ones are those which 
happen to live in pure sand, while the ordinary form comes from 
mud or ooze." The young of one lot collected by the " Albatross " 
240 miles E. by S. of Rio Janeiro, are as pure white as Jeffreys' 
types. 

Var. MERIDIONALE Pilsbry & Sharp. PI. 15, figs. 32, 33, 34. 

Off Brazil the shell becomes larger and still more solid, the striae 
more numerous (90 or more), and they persist to the aperture, not 
becoming obsolete on the later portion of the tube. The aperture 
is more or less compressed between the convex and the concave 
sides. Specimens measure : 

Length 101, diam. of aperture, transverse, 12*8, longitudinal 12'3 
mill.; length of slit 3 mill, (type, no. 87,557 U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Length 108, diam. of aperture, transverse, 14 mill, (off Rio 
Janeiro). 

Length 110, diam. of aperture, transverse, 11, longitudinal 10 
mill, (near Jamaica). 

The specimens from near Jamaica and from off Cape Fear are to 
some extent intermediate, but nearer to the variety than to typical 
D. candidum (solidum). In our opinion the Atlantic shells referred 
to D. ceras Wats, by Dall are the young of this large southern race 
of D. candidum. Figures 33 (enlarged) and 34 (natural size) show 
the variation in development of the apex. We repeat here the orig- 
inal description of candidum. 

D. candidum Jeffreys. PL 8, fig. 29, 30. 

Shell having the shape of a narrow funnel, tapering, slightly 
curved, rather thin, opaque, more or less glossy. Sculpture, about 
forty fine and regular rounded longitudinal striae, which disappear 



74 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

towards the front margin ; these stride are crossed by extremely 
numerous and close-set circular microscopic lines. Color, glistening 
white. Margin at the anterior or broader end jagged, at the poste- 
rior or narrower end abruptly truncated ; there is no notch, groove, 
slit or channel. Length 1*75, diam. 0'3 inch. 

Body whitish, with a faint tinge of brown ; mantle very thin, 
forming a collar, which encircles the inside of the upper part of 
shell; tentacles very numerous, with pear-shaped tips, issuing be- 
tween the mantle and the shell ; foot, when at rest, conical, having 
a semi-circular lobe or flap on each side, so as to give it a tricuspid 
appearance ; the lobes are fringed or puckered at the edges (Jef- 
frey*)- 

In D. candidum the apical slit varies from a length of several 
millimeters to none at all. In one shell before us it is on the side 
of the tube. An abnormal specimen collected by the Fish Com- 
mission is bent spirally, the torsion amounting to about 80. 

Compared with D. capillosum this species is more glossy, more 
curved, with the grooves between the striae far less impressed, com- 
paratively superficial. 

Figs. 27, 28, of PL 8, are copies of Verrill's illustrations of D. 
solidum. The figures on PL 15 were drawn from northwest Atlan- 
tic specimens dredged by the IT. S. Fish Commission. 

D. ERGASTICUM Fischer. PL 15, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell large, thick, conic, little curved, white usually encrusted 
with ferruginous substance ; posterior end very acute, exteriorly 
costulate striate all around, strise close, about 40 in the region of the 
slit, acute, narrow, prominent; becoming flat in the middle of the 
shell, and at the aperture obsolete ; the growth-strise stronger near 
the aperture. Slit linear, long, on the convex side. Aperture ex- 
actly circular, little oblique, ivory-like and thick inside. Length 
91, diam. of aperture 10, length of slit 15 mill. (Fischer). 

Gulf of Gascony and Atlantic, in 400-1900 meters (Travailleur 
and Caudan Exp.). 

D. ergasticum FISCHER, Journ. de Conchy!., 1882, p. 275. Lo- 
CARD, Kes. Sci. de la Campagne du "Caudan" dans le Golfe de 
Gascogne, fasc. i, p. 170, pi. 6, f. 1, from Ann.de 1'Univ.de Lyon 
(1896). 

According to Locard the riblets in fully adult D. ergasticum are 
visible the entire length of the shell from apex to aperture, and the 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 75 

slit at the apex is longer than in D. capillosum, in which, moreover, 
the sculpture is obsolete toward the aperture. The same author 
recognizes a var. major attaining the length of 113 mill. We have 
seen some hundreds of specimens of D. candidum and a number of 
D. capiilosum, none with so long a slit as is indicated for the D. 
ergasticum, specimens of which we have not seen. Pending full 
comparisons of Fischer's shell with the earlier described forms, it 
may be best to let it stand as a species, although the mere length of 
the slit is generally a variable character and of correspondingly 
minor importance. Fischer's original diagnosis does not agree fully 
with Locard's remarks. The figure of our plate, copied from Lo- 
card, evidently belongs to his var. major, though this is not stated in 
his text. It shows an elliptical section, while ergasticum has the 
aperture " exacte circularise Compare D. capillosum var. pauti- 
costatum. 

D. MILNEEDWARDSI Locard. 

Shell of large size, of conoid, very elongate form, stout, arcuate 
above; base exactly circular, quite oblique, the tube adjacent to it 
nearly cylindrical and straight as far as the middle, then tapering 
and arcuate, the greater part of the concavity in the upper three- 
fourths of the total length. Summit quite thick, very rapidly tap- 
ering ; apical slit small, rather wide. Shell very thick, very solid, 
ornamented throughout its length with quite strong, quite regular, 
flat, compressed longitudinal ribs, separated by simple striae which 
are narrow but deep. Growth-striae sloping, weak, a little more 
marked toward the base. Coloration a nearly lusterlegs light red. 
Length 82, greatest diam. 12, curvature 3 mill. (Locard). 

West coast of Africa, off the Soudan, in 1435 meters. 

D. milne-edwardsi LOCARD, L'Echange, Revue Linneenne, No. 
146, Feb., 1897, p. 10. 

D. SEMIVESTITUM " Fischer " Locard. 

Shell very large, of slender form, very narrowly conoid, very at- 
tenuated, subcyliudrical for the first two-fifths from the base, thence 
slowly tapering to the apex ; nearly straight or very feebly arcuate 
in the cylindrical part, with a stronger curvature along the latter 
moiety of the length, summit slowly and progressively tapering. 
Base obliquely truncate and almost exactly circular; apical slit 
extremely short, formed simply by a notch. Shell somewhat thin, 
solid, a little glossy, ornamented nearly the entire length by very 



76 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

narrow longitudinal ridges, not quite regular nor much projecting, 
with slightly narrower intervals between them, all much attenuated 
at the base, sometimes with the ribs narrower and more separated 
at apex ; concentric growth-strise little marked, visible especially 
toward the base. Coloration, a yellowish-white with narrow brown 
rings, more or less continuous, and a wide band of very deep chest- 
nut at the base. Length 75, greatest diam. 5, curvature 5 mill- 
(Locard). 

The Tropics and the Sahara, in from 830 to 1113 meters. 
D. semivestitum P. Fischer, LOCARD, L'Echange, Revue Linne- 
enne, xiii, No. 146, Feb., 1897, p. 9. 

D. COMPLEXUM Dall. PI. 20, fig. 25. 

Shell large, solid, thick, normally white (?), but discolored by 
sediments after death, so that the specimens received are a pale, 
rusty brown ; surface glossy, sharply grooved ; with wider, flat in- 
terspaces, varying finer or coarser in different specimens; orifices 
circular, one specimen showing indications of a wide, shallow ven- 
tral sinus at the apex ; shell little curved, and the sculpture shows 
no rotary tendency. Length of shell 78, diameter anteriorly 8'5, 
posteriorly T3, maximum divergence from a chord connecting the 
extremities 8'5 mill. (Dall). 

Off Honolulu, Hawaiian Is., 295-298 fms. (Albatross). 

Dentalium complexum DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1895, p. 
686, pi. 26, f. 3. 

This species is most nearly allied to D. candidum, but it has more 
deeply engraved strise, and the tube tapers less. Dall writes : 

This shell differs from D. candidum Jeffreys by being more cylin- 
drical and, so far as my present specimens go, without the long, 
slender, ventral slit of that species. From D. ceras Watson, as fig- 
ured, it is distinguished by being straighter and less sharply sculp- 
tured, besides being much larger, but Watson's specimens were 
young. With a few specimens it is easy to separate species of Den- 
talium, but if one has numerous specimens from various kinds of 
bottom the difficulty increases greatly. D. solidum Verrill, D. ceras 
Watson and D. candidum Jeffreys appear to merge into one another, 
yet individual specimens appear very distinct when one has not a 
connecting series. The present species, by its somewhat more cyl- 
indrical form, seems sufficiently distinct to be named, but, with that 
exception, is very closely related to the group of forms above enu- 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 77 

merated. All the specimens were dead, discolored, and occupied by 

annelid tenants (Dall). 

D. CAPILLOSUM Jeffreys. PL 8, figs. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35. 

Shell very slightly curved, solid and strong, white under a dull 
gray-brown deposit, lusterless. Sculpture of fine, even, rounded lon- 
gitudinal threads, separated by narrow grooves, and roughened by 
close, rather irregular impressed growth- lines ; the threads about 65 
in number toward the aperture, most of them continuing to the anal 
end, varying somewhat in width, but remarkably uniform in appear- 
ance. Aperture circular, somewhat oblique, thin-edged. Anal ori- 
fice nearly round ; slit rather narrow and short, on the convex side. 
Length 81, diam. of aperture 8*6, of apex 1/6 mill. ; length of slit 
3 mill. 

Whole North Atlantic, 208-1785 fms. (Valorous, Porcupine) ; off 
Bahia Honda, 418 fms. ; Bay of Biscay, 882 fms. ; N. of Hebrides, 
542 fms. ; Coast of Portugal, 220-1095 fms. ; W. of Azores and off 
San Miguel, 1000 fms. ; Setubal, 470 fms. ; off Culebra L, W. Indies, 
390 fms. (Challenger) ; off Havana, 119 fms.; off Martinique, 169 
fms. ; near Santa Lucia, 116 fms. (Blake) ; Barbados, 100 fms. 
(Hassler Exped.). 

D. capillosum JEFFR., " Valorous " Kep., Proc. Koy. Soc., xxv, 
1876, pp. 185, 191 (name only); Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xix, 1877, 
p. 153 ; Ibid (5), vi, p. 375, (1880) ; P. Z. S., 1882, p. 658, pi. 49, 
f. 1. WATSON, Challenger Rep., p. 1, pi. 1, f. 1. DALL, Blake 
Moll., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 425 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, 
p. 76 (1889). 

The above diagnosis and fig. 33 are from specimens dredged near 
Graciosa, Azores, in 800 fms. 

Jeffreys described this species from a young specimen as follows : 
D. capillosum Jeffreys, (PL 8, figs. 31, 32). Shell tapering to a 
fine point, slightly curved, rather solid, opaque, and mostly luster- 
less. Sculpture, numerous and sharp (not rounded) longitudinal 
striae, some of which are intermediate and smaller than the rest ; 
they disappear toward the posterior or narrow end, which is quite 
smooth and glossy for one-quarter of an inch ; color whitish ; mar- 
gin at the posterior end having a short and narrow notch; length 
1-4 inch, breadth 0'15 inch. (Jeffreys, 1877). 

Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys has described the ribs as "sharp (not rounded)." 
They rather seem to be sharply cut, but they are rounded on the 



78 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

top. Length 2'1 inch, breadth at mouth 0'22, at apex 0'036 inch. 

The young specimen from off Azores has at the apex on the con- 
vex curve a slit 0*1 inch long, but interrupted by two bridges of the 
shell which have not been removed when the fissure was made (pi. 
8, fig. 34). 

From off the Azores the specimens belong to the typical form ; 
that from Setubal, a remarkably large and fine specimen, belongs 
to a variety : 

D. CAPILLOSUM var. PAUCICOSTATUM Wats., with only about 40 
instead of 65 longitudinal riblets or threads, which are very flat on 
their top and are divided by furrows remarkably broad and square 
in form. These differences strike one very strongly at first, but the 
transverse sculpture is identical, and there are spots on the typical 
specimens which present an exactly similar form of ribbing. Figs. 
35. (Watson). 

11 All the Blake specimens were dead or fragmentary, and most of 
them belong to the variety paucicostatum Watson. In examining 
the specimens named D. capillosum in the Jeffreys collection, I find 
several of them which he regarded as the young to be of a more 
slender and much smaller species, which probably never attains a 
large size, though sculptured like D. capillosum. The specimen fig- 
ured in the P. Z. S. above cited, is only about one-third the size of 
an adult." (Dalt). 

D. MAGNIFICUM E. A. Smith. 

An Indian Ocean species resembling D. capillosum, but with 
decidedly coarser striation and longer slit. Aperture circular. 
Length 101, diam. 13'4, length of slit 6*5 mill. It is known to us from 
a specimen in the U. S. National Museum. So far as we can learn, 
no description has yet been published. 

D. EXUBERANS Locard. 

Shell of relatively large size, very strongly conoid contour, very 
wide at the base, tapering rapidly at first, then more progressively 
to the summit ; profile at first straight, but quite conic for a short 
distance from the base, becoming more curved further up, but 
always quite moderately arcuate. Aperture very oblique, a little 
undulated, visibly oval, contracted toward the dorsal, widened to- 
ward the inner curve. Summit quite slender, rapidly tapering ; 
apical slit elongated, ordinarily constituted of a series of narrow and 
successive orifices, more or less regular. Shell quite thin but solid, 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 79 

ornamented throughout its length with well developed unequal ribs, 
rather narrow and nearly rounded on the dorsal surface, wider and 
perceptibly flattened on the opposite surface, the interspaces a little 
wider than the ribs. Growth striae oblique toward the base and 
quite impressed, spaced and a little irregular, becoming straighter 
and less visible toward the apex. Color dull gray above, passing 
into slightly shining white toward the base. Length 95, greatest 
diam. 17, curvature 10 mill. (Locard). 

West coast of Africa, Senegal, Sahara, Azores between Pico and St. 
George, between 1258 and 3650 fms. 

D. exuberans LOCARD, L'Echange, Revue Linneenne, No. 146, 
Feb., 1847, p. 10. 

The slit seems to be interrupted into a series of orifices as in D. 
plurifissuratum and the young specimen of capillosum figured by 
Watson, and the aperture is oval. 

D. SCAMNATUM ' Fischer ' Locard. 

Shell of relatively very large size, the contour narrowly and pro- 
gressively conoid from base to summit, perceptibly curved through- 
out the length ; base quite wide, with almost exactly circular aper- 
ture, the plane of which is a little oblique. Apex slender, con- 
tracted, slowly tapering ; apical slit narrow and long. Shell some- 
what thin, quite solid, ornamented throughout with very fine longi- 
tudinal costulations, which are regular, a little flattened, closely 
crowded and very vaguely subgranulose, the intercostal intervals 
shallow and very narrow as though linear. Concentric strise of 
growth fine, crowded, scarcely regular, giving the costulse a sub- 
granulose appearance. Color a light reddish-gray, sometimes paler 
at base. Length 95, greatest diameter 9 mill., curvature 4 mill. 
(Locard). 

West coast of Africa, Cape Ghir, the Azores, and Sargasso Sea, 
in 1235-2087 meters. 

D. scamnatum P. Fischer, LOCARD, L'Echange, Revue Linneenne, 
No. 146, Feb., 1847, p. 10. 

D. PROFUNDORUM E. A. Smith. PL 6, fig. 82. 

Shell large, solid, lightly arcuate, longitudinally very finely 
striated and sculptured with oblique growth-lines; dull buff; pos- 
teriorly slit. Aperture nearly circular, white inside, thin at the ob- 
lique margin and acute. Length 90, greatest diam. 10 mill. 
(Smith). 



80 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

Off Colombo, Ceylon, lat. 6 3V N., long. 79 87' E., in 675 
fms. (Investigator Exped.). 

D. profundorum SMITH, Annals and Mag. N. H. (6), xiv, p. 167, 
pi. 4, f. 18 (Sept., 1894). 

This species rather closely resembles the fossil D. grande Deshayes, 
but the style of the striation is not quite the same, and the form is 
not quite so slender. The fine thread-like slightly rounded riblets 
are about eighty in number, and usually rather broader than the 
intervening striae. None of the three specimens examined are per- 
fect posteriorly, so it is impossible to describe the fissure properly. 
In the largest example a mere notch indicates the existence of a slit 
in the normal position. 

In a second specimen there is a distinct lateral fissure 3 mill, in 
length, but whether this is an accidental fracture is not quite certain. 
The surface of this species appears to be subject to erosion, for 
patches are broken away here and there throughout the entire length 
of the shell. 

D. capillosum Jeffreys, is a closely allied species from the Atlan- 
tic, but somewhat more slender in form and not quite similar in 
sculpture. (Smith). 

D. VERNEDEI " Hanley" Sowerby. PL 3, figs. 35, 43. 

Shell gently curved, solid, whitish, with or without some pale yel- 
lowish zones, lusterless. Sculpture, about 40 rounded, longitudinal 
riblets on the larger portion of the shell, most of equal size, and 
parted by interstices narrower than the riblets ; but toward the apex 
the riblets become alternately small and large ; growth-strise close, 
fine and prominent. Aperture circular, at nearly a right angle with 
tube. Anal orifice circular, with a deep and rather wide slit on the 
convex side. 

Length 90, diam. of aperture 11, height of arch above chord 12- 
13 mill, (specimens). 

Length 133, diam. 15 mill. (Dkr.). 

Japan (McAndrew coll. ; Dunker) ; China (Garrett). 

D. vernedei Hanley, SOWERBY, Thes. Conch.,iii,p. 101, pi. 223, f. 
3 (1860) ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 1, f. 3 (1872). DUNKER, Index, 
Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 153 (l&&'2')."Antali8 verendi A. Ad.," CLESSIN, 
Conch. Cab., p. 26. 

This species is more curved and more slowly increasing than D. 
rectum, and has the riblets subequal except toward the apex. 




DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 81 



One specimen before us (fig. 35) has no slit, there being only a 
slight notch on the inner margin of the anal aperture. It measures, 
length 94, diameters of aperture 1O3 mill. In another shell 90 
mill, long the slit has a length of 7*6 mill. 

D. RECTUM Gmelin. PI. 3, figs. 32, 33, 34. 

Shell nearly straight, slightly curved toward the anal end, solid, 
whitish, with faint, wider, grayish zones, lusterless. Sculptured at 
the anal end with about twelve larger alternating with an equal 
number of smaller, rather high, narrow and sharply cut ribs ; this 
number being increased toward the larger end by the intercalation 
of numerous tertiary longitudinal riblets and striae; the whole sur- 
face very densely aud finely microscopically striate in a longitudinal 
direction, and decussated by equally fine incremental striae. Aper- 
ture quite oblique, circular, thin-edged. Anal orifice small, circu- 
lar, with a long, narrow slit on the convex side. Length 632,diam. 
of aperture 12 mill. 

India (Desh.). 

D. rectum GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3738 (1788). WOOD, Index 
Testae, p. 191, pi. 38, f. \d (1818). Sows., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 101, 
pi. 223, f. 1 (1860); Conch. Icon., xviii, pl.l.f. 4 (1872). DELES- 
SERT, Rec. de Coq., pi. l,f. 3 (1841). D. elephantinum DESHAYES, 
Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 347, pi. 17, f. 7 (1825) exclusive of 
fossil forms and var. a. Antalis recta CLESS., Conch. Cab., p. 25. 

The straight form, more rapidly increasing cone and alternating 
ribs readily distinguish this from D. vernedei. 

The locality is very uncertain. Sowerby gives "Adriatic," which 
is certainly wrong, unless, indeed, his figures really represent D. 
delessertianum. We have a specimen said to be from the Gulf of 
California. Compare D. delessertianum Chenu and D. philippii 
Monts. not Chenu. 

The identification of this shell with Gmelin's species rests upon 
his citation of a figure in Gualtier, reproduced with the embellish- 
ment of color, and the omission of some of the sculpture, in Martini, 
and a figure of Schroter's which seems to represent a crinoid stem. 
While there is some doubt of the identity of D. rectum of modern 
authors with that of Gmelin, it seems inadvisable to change. 

D. DELESSERTIANUM Chenu. PI. 6, figs. 78, 79. 

Shell large and solid, the apical third somewhat curved, remain- 
der nearly straight or slightly recurved. Sculpture of 13-14 high, 
6 



82 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

rather acute ribs at the apex, becoming rounded anteriorly, and 
either splitting to form about three minor riblets, or not noticeably 
divided but having several strong longitudinal cords developing in 
each interval ; all longitudinal sculpture subobsolete near the aper- 
ture, where growth-stria? predominate in old individuals. Aperture 
circular, quite oblique. Anal orifice with a slight sheath (as in en- 
talis) and a long, usually crooked slit. 

Length 111, aperture 14x14 mill., slit 12 mill, long (old speci- 
men). 

Length 99, aperture 13 x 13 mill., slit 19 mill, long (hardly ma- 
ture). 

Living, in Eastern Atlantic (Travailleur Exped.) ; Pliocene of 
Monte Pellegrino, Sicily, Rhodes, etc. 

D. delessertianum CHENU, Illustr. Conch., i, Dentalium, p. 3, pi. 6, 
f. 10. FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl., 1882, p. 276. D. delesserti 
CHENU, Manuel de Conch., i, p. 374 (1859) ; also Dentale de Deles- 
sert, Leyons Elem. d'Hist. Nat, p. 141, f. 448 (1847). Of. also 
FOKESTI, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., xix, pp. 240, 242. D. elephantinum 
and D. rectum of many writers on Pliocene fossils of the south of 
Europe. 

Our diagnosis is from Monte Pellegrino Pliocene specimens. 
Chenu's description is as follows : 

Shell very large, multicostate, with several small riblets between 
the ribs. This fossil species is the largest and one of the finest of 
the genus. It has 10 or 12 large and raised ribs, with 3 or 4 
smaller riblets in the intervals ; smaller end obliquely truncate and 
well slit (Chenu). Length 114, greatest diam. 13 mill, (from fig.). 

The aperture is more oblique than in D. rectum. The identity of 
this species with D. philippii Monts. affirmed by DeFranchis and 
Foresti is somewhat doubtful, but we have not material enabling 
us to attempt a rectification of the nomenclature of Italian Pliocene 
and Postpliocene species. The synonymic knots are worse than 
Gordian, and there are several tied to each species. 

D. PLURIFISSURATLTM (Sowerby). PI. 6, figs. 87, 88, 89. 

Shell subulate, rather thick, slightly curved posteriorly and at- 
tenuated ; pale ; longitudinally very delicately striated and having 
many unequal riblets ; irregularly roughened circularly. Fissures 
2 to 5, the first (near the apex) generally long, the rest shorter. 
Length 64, greatest diam. 7*5 mill. (Sowb.'). 

Hong Kong f 



DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 83 

Sehizodentalium plurifissuratum SOWB., Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, 
p. 158, pi. 12, f. 24 (Oct. 1894). SIMROTH in Bronn's Klassen u. 
Ordnungen des Thier-Keichs, iii, p. 375, f. 45A (1894). 

This species is type of the genus Sehizodentalium Sowerby, char- 
acterized by having the shell Dentalium-shaped, the convex side 
with a longitudinal series of slits in place of the usual fissure, or, in 
other words, the fissure is interrupted by several bridges of shell. 

The conjectured mode of formation of the slits given by Sowerby 
seems to us inadmissable. They are, in all cases, so far as present 
knowledge goes, absorbed out of the solid shell-wall, and not left 
open in the progress of growth as in Emarginula or Haliotis. 

In the present lack of knowledge regarding the physiologic role 
of the slit, the uncertainty as to whether any other character is cor- 
related with it, and the variability of its occurrence in some forms, 
it seems to us hardly desirable to base a generic distinction upon 
this one modification. Compare D. exuberans Locard, and Watson's 
remarks quoted under D. capillosum, and alluded to below. 

Mr. Sowerby further writes of this interesting form as follows : 

" The shell is very like an ordinary multicostate Dentalium, but 
distinguished by the following remarkable character. In a line 
with the usual apical notch there are several slits on the convex 
side, extending from the summit to about a quarter of the length of 
the shell. I have three specimens before me, and the dimensions 
given above are taken from the largest ; it has five perforations, the 
first being a narrow slit about 2 mill, in length, the second and 
third rather shorter, and the last two only about *7o mill. The 
second specimen is about 47 mill, long, and has five slits which are 
narrower than in the first, four of them being of nearly equal length. 
The third specimen is a young one 28 mill, long, having only two 
long narrow slits. A fourth specimen has been, for many years, in 
the British Museum unnoticed ; it is nearly as large as my largest, 
and has four slits. 

" It is, at present, uncertain how these perforations are formed. 
It may be conjectured that when young there has been an open slit 
or notch in the anterior margin, as in Emarginula, which has been 
enclosed in the next stage, as in Jtimula, a succession being formed 
and enclosed in subsequent stages. 

" The animal is very like that of Dentalium entalis, and the Rev. 
Prof. Gwatkin has examined the radula, finding it the same as in 
the typical Deutalium. 



84 DENTALIUM-FISSIDENTALIUM. 

" I am not quite certain as to the habitat of this curious mollusk ; 
it was not among those dredged by Dr. Hungerford, but I believe 
the three specimens were found in the neighborhood of Hong-Kong. 

" [Since the reading of this paper our President drew my atten- 
tion to the fact that the Rev. R. Boog Watson, in his Report on the 
Scaphopoda and Gasteropoda of the Challenger, p. 2, pi. 1, fig. Ib, 
noticed something on a very small scale approaching the character 
here described in the case of a very young specimen of Dentalium 
capillosum Jeffreys. He says : " The young specimen from Station 
78 has at the apex on the convex curve a slit O'l in. long, but inter- 
rupted by two bridges of the shell which have not been removed 
when the fissure was made.] " 

D. HUNGERFORDI Pilsbry & Sharp, n. n. PI. 6, fig. 83. 

Shell rather wide, almost straight, acute; unequally compressed; 
toward the apex slightly inclined. Tawny, irregularly banded with 
brown. Sculptured with very numerous plano-convex unequal rib- 
lets, and cancellated by but slightly conspicuous transverse strise. 
Slit long and narrow. Aperture somewhat oval. Length 72, great- 
est diam. 12 mill. (Sowb.'). 

Hong Kong (Hungerford). 

D. compressum Sows., P. Z. S., 1888, p. 569, pi. 28, f. 18. Not D. 
compression Watson, 1879, nor of Meyer, nor of Orbigny. 

A very distinct and remarkable species, more highly colored than 
its congeners ; but it is chiefly distinguished by its curiously com- 
pressed form. A second specimen, brought by Dr. Hungerford, is 
only 62 millimeters in length, and rather wider in proportion. It 
is rather lighter in color, but presents all the same characters, con- 
firming the specific importance of the chief characteristic, which 
might otherwise have been thought accidental (Sowb.~). 

Apparently more tapering and more finely ribbed than the large, 
compressed species of unknown origin described by Chenu as D. 
gignnieum. 

D. CLATHRATUM von Martens. Unfigured. 

Shell rather straight, elliptical in section, white, opaque, with 
about 16 angular, narrow, equal ribs, with smaller ones sparsely in- 
tercalated towards the aperture, the interstices conspicuously trans- 
versely striated. Apical orifice thick-edged ; slit on the convex side, 
narrow, long. Length 51, transverse diam. of aperture 4, dorso- 
ventral diam. 3i mill., diam. of apex i mill. (Mart.'). 

Near Moreton Bay, eastern Australia, 550 fms. (Gazelle Exped.J. 



DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 85 

D. clathratum E. VON MARTENS, Sitzungs-berichte der Gesell- 
schaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, Jabrgang 1881, p. 66, 
(April, 1881). 

Similar to D. compressum Watson of the West Indies. The in- 
terspaces between the ribs are about three times as wide as the ribs 
themselves, where smaller riblets are not interposed. (Martens'). 

Subgenus GRAPTACME Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897. 

Surface sculptured with close, fine, deeply engraved longitudinal 
striae near the apex, the remainder smooth ; or rarely the striae per- 
sist half or all the length. Moderate sized or small species, cylin- 
drical in section, and white or nearly so. 

Distribution : Antillean and Panamic regions ; Indo-Pacific ; 
mainly living in quite moderate depths. 

There is remarkable diversity in the characters of the apices in 
this apparently very natural group. In some species, as D. semi- 
striatum and eboreum, the apical orifice is perfectly simple ; in 
others, such as D. aciculum, a slight notch appears ; in D. leptum 
there is a slit on the convex side. D. sericatwn has the slit lateral, 
and it is on the concave side in D. inversum. D. sectum and calamus 
have the apical aperture reduced to a slit across the summit of a 
convex apical plug, an altogether peculiar structure. 

In old or worn specimens of some species the striation is lost. 

I. Apex with simple orifice or variously slit, not contracted, 

Group of D. semistriatum. 

II. Apical orifice contracted by a callous plug cleft by a slit from 
convex to concave side, Group of D. sectum, p. 96. 

GROUP OF D. SEMISTRIATUM. 

I. No slit at the apex ; apical seventh to two-thirds with fine, 
clear cut incised strise, the remainder smooth and polished. 

a. Length 76 mill., about 18 times the diam. ; posterior 

third striate, novcehollandice, p. 93. 

a'. Length 20-31 mill., 10-12 times the diam., eboreum, 

p. 89 ; semistriatum, p. 90 ; semipolitum, p. 91 ; aciculum, 

p. 93. 

II. An apical slit or notch on the side ; young zig-zag clouded with 
opaque white ; length 33-35 mill., 9-10 times the diam., 

sericatum, p. 86. 



86 DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 

III. An apical slit or notch on convex side only ; not zig-zag 
clouded. 

a. 17-20 fine sharp ribs, increasing in number, but be- 
coming faint toward mouth ; puckered elliptically ; a 
short slit; length 48 mill., 15 times the diarn., 

circumcinctum, p. 88. 

a'. Very fine striae near apex, then smooth; delicate sal- 
mon tinted ; a deep narrow fissure ; length 31 mill., 
15 times diam., leptum, p. 89. 

a". Striae fine, faint in adults; long and slim, rather 
straight; an irregular fissure; length 38 mill., 12-13 
times diam., dcvtissimum, p. 94. 

a m - Fine stria? on posterior seventh only ; a slight apical 
notch; length 29 mill., about 11 times diam.; white, 

aciculum, p. 93. 

IV. A slit across the apex ; length 45 mill., about 12 times the 
diam., splendidum, p. 96. 

V. A slit on the concave side ; striate near apex only ; length 30 
mill., about 16 times the diam., inversum, p. 95. 

D. SERICATUM Dall. PI. 16, figs. 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46 ; pi. 7, fig. 

12. 

Shell considerably curved, rather slender, thin ; very glossy. 
Subtransparent, bluish-white, with numerous finely zig-zag encircling 
bands of opaque white, becoming less jagged but still irregular on 
the larger part of the shell, and generally disappearing toward the 
aperture. Sculpture of deeply engraved and extremely fine, 
close, longitudinal strice near the apex (and therefore all over young 
shells), but soon disappearing, leaving far the greater part of adult 
shells smooth except for faint annular swellings. Aperture some- 
what oblique, circular. Anal orifice small, circular, with (in 
adults) a short slit which is lateral (latero- dorsal to latero-ventral) 
in position, and sometimes represented by an internal channel only. 

Length 35, diam. of aperture 3*3, of apex 1*1 mill. 

Length 33, diam. of aperture 3*8, of apex 1*2 mill. 

Length 38*5, diam. of aperture 4, length of slit 2 mill. 

Length 37, diam. of aperture 4, length of slit 2'5 mill. 

Length 34, diam. of aperture 3, length of slit 1*2 mill, (imma- 
ture). 

St. Thomas (Swift) ; St. Martin (Marie) ; Yucatan Strait in 640 
fms. (Blake). 



DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 87 

D. sericatum DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, 1881, p. 37 ; xviii, Blake 
Moll., p. 423, pi. 26, f. 1 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, Catal. Mar. 
Moll. S.-E. U. S., p. 76, pi. 26, f. l.D. semistriolatum var. B, 
GUILDING, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xvii, p. 34, pi. 3, f. 6 (1834). 
D. nebulosum Lin., DESK., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 369, 
pi. 16, f. 20 (1825). SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, pi. 225, f. 
58 (1860) ; and in Conch. Icon., pi. 7, f. 53 (good). Not D. nebu- 
losum Gmeliu, Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3738. 

Remarkable for the zig-zag white rings of the young, and the 
position of the slit, which is generally more lateral than ventral, 
although intermediate between the convex and lateral sides of the 
shell. D. cocconii Sharp & Pilsbry (D. dispar Mayer in Cocconi, 
not Sowb.), has a similar lateral slit. The young are densely 
striated longitudinally and generally without a slit, and some old 
specimens have swollen rings as in D. eburneum, but slighter. 

We do not follow Deshayes' identification of this with Gmelin's 
nebulosum, because the description of that, as well as the locality, 
indicate a different form. Some authors have referred it to D. vul- 
gare. Gmelin's description, which is not elucidated by citation of 
figures, is as follows : 

" D. testa arcuata,laevissima, alba, fulvo, maculata, uebulosaque. 
Habitat in Mari Siculo, fasciato affine, ac testa magis arcuata, 
longiore et tenuiore." 

Ball's description of the single specimen dredged by the * Blake ' 
is quoted below. We consider it a young shell in which the charac- 
ter of being longitudinally striate throughout would disappear in 
the adult form. The alternation of translucent bluish with opaque 
white bands is but poorly represented by the figure, which shows 
the pattern merely. We have compared the type of sericatum with 
the adult shells described above, and have before us a full series 
connecting the sharply zig-zagged young form with the ring-clouded 
adults. The locality given by Deshayes for his nebulosum is incor- 
rect. 

D. sericatum Dall. (PI. 7, fig. 12). " Shell small, very thin, acute, 
slightly curved, rather rapidly enlarging, covered with fine, sharp, 
close-set longitudinal grooves, with narrow thread-like interspaces 
separating them, to the number of thirty-six on the middle and 
about fifty at the oral end of the shell ; plane of oral aperture at 
right angles to the axis, both apertures circular, simple; color 



88 DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 

translucent white, with opaque white wavy lines (like those on the 
silk goods known as moire antique) encircling the shell with zig-zags, 
whose successive irregular bands (08 mill, apart in the middle of 
the shell) are sub-parallel with one another, and gradually become 
more slender and further apart toward the ends. In a specimen 
13 mill, long, there were about fifteen of these bands, each with 
about ten or twelve angles. Length 13 mill., oral diam. 1*2 mill., 
anal 0'37 mill. (Dall). 

11 This species is more acute than D. taphrium of the same size, and 
the moire antique effect is of a much more prominent and zig-zag 
pattern. In D. taphrium the sculpture is also coarser. A some- 
what similar effect is observable on the younger portion of D. 
aculeatum Sowerby, which is otherwise very different. The Indo- 
Pacific D. nebulosum Deshayes also exhibits it. The sculpture is 
entirely independent of these differences of opacity, which at first 
one finds it difficult to realize." (Dalt). 

D. CIRCUMCINCTUM Watson. PL 8, fig. 26. 

Shell very long and narrow, very slightly bent, and that almost 
entirely above; a very little flattened on the concave curve, so as to 
be slightly trigonal ; white, opaquely porcellanous, a little glossy, 
not thick but strong. Sculpture : closely and regularly girt round, 
elliptically with scratch-like puckerings in the lines of growth, of 
which there are about 55 in the tenth of an inch. Longitudinally 
striped with fine ribs, of which there are from 17 to 20, sharp and 
well defined by still broader furrows toward the apex, but down the 
shell these increase in number and steadily decrease in definiteness 
till they only show as a feeble system of lines on the rounded sur- 
face. At the apex there is on the convex curve a ragged irregular 
fissure about O'l inch long. Length 1'93 [48 mill.], breadth at 
mouth 013 [3-25 mill.], at apex 0'02 inch. ( Watson). 

Setubal 470 fms. ; Sombrero /., W. Indies 450 fms. ; off Bermuda 
1075 fms. ; Pernambuco 350 fms. (Challenger). 

D. circumcinctum WATS., Journ. Lin. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 513 
(1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 7, pi. 1, f. 7. 

As compared with D. semipolitum Sow., this is a longer, straighter, 
more attenuated shell, with striae stronger, blunter, and more per- 
sistent. It is not unlike D. antillarum d'Orb., in texture and in 
size, but is much straighter and narrower, and the early ribs are 
much finer and fewer. It is intermediate in form between D. 



DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 89 

erectum G. B. Sow. and D.splendidum Desh. ; a little stumpier and 
more curved than the first, and less so than the second ; it is much 
more longitudinally ribbed and less polished than either. Than D. 
lessoni Desh., it is much more attenuated, and never so strongly 
ribbed longitudinally ; than D. inversum Desh., it is more strongly 
and persistently striate longitudinally. The young shell is per- 
plexiugly like that of D. entalis var. orthrum Wats., but is a little 
straighter, broadens more slowly, and the ribs project more sharply. 
In maturer specimens this species is obviously much more attenu- 
ated than the former. 



D. EBOREUM Conrad. PI. 16, figs. 47, 48, 49, 55, 56. 

Shell slender, attenuated posteriorly, gently curved, shining, 
white. Sculpture : extremely close, fine, but rather deeply en- 
graved longitudinal striae toward the apex, the larger part of the 
shell smooth and glossy. Aperture slightly oblique, circular; peri- 
stome thin. Anal orifice small and round. No notch or slit. 
Length 20, diam. of aperture 1*8, of apex 0*35 mill. 

West coast of Florida : Tampa (Conrad) ; Marco (Hemphill) ; 
Sanibel Island (Johnson). 

D. eboreum CONEAD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iii, p. 
27 (1846). 

The description and figures are from Conrad's type specimen in 
the collection of the Academy. It is allied to D. semistriatum 
Turt., but is less curved and more slender. 

Specimens collected at Sanibel Island by Mr. C. W. Johnson, 
two of which are illustrated on pi. 16, figs. 55, 56, indicate that the 
species attains a much larger size than the types. As the figures 
show, they vary much in arcuation ; and they have lost the posterior 
striation by truncation in the course of growth. The shells figured 
measure : 

Length 31, diam. at aperture 2'5, at apex 0'8 mill. 

Length 27'4, diam. at aperture 2 '2, at apex 0'75 mill. 

D. LEPTUM Bush. PI. 16, fig. 50. 

Shell of moderate size, very slender, slightly curved posteriorly, 
rather thin, delicate, with a very smooth and glossy surface, destitute 
of sculpture, except at the posterior end, which is covered with numer- 
ous, very fine, raised, longitudinal lines visible only under the lens. 
Anterior aperture round, with a sharp, thin edge ; posterior aper- 
ture somewhat thickened, very small, round, slightly oblique, with 



90 DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 

a deep narrow dorsal notch. Color delicate salmon or yellow, 
gradually shading into white toward the anterior end. Length 
31'5 mill., anterior diam. 2, posterior diam. about 0*5 mill. (Bush}. 

Vicinity of Cape Hatteras, N. C., to Charlotte Harbor, Florida in 
2-50 fms. ; older Miocene of Chipola River, Florida. 

D. leptum BUSH, Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 470, pi. 45, f. 18, 
18a (1885) ; Rep. U. S. Fish Commission for 1883, p. 586 (1885). 
DALL, Blake Rep., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 421 ; Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 76 ; Trans. Wagner Inst., iii, p. 440 (1892). 

This beautiful and distinct species is readily recognized by its 
orange tint and slender form, delicately and closely striated near 
the tip. (Dall). 

Some of the Fish Commission specimens marked leptum from off 
Hatteras proved to be D. matara. 

D. SEMISTRIATUM Turton. PI. 16, figs. 51, 52, 53. 

Shell slender, tapering and attenuated posteriorly, translucent- 
white, milky, sometimes slightly tinted toward the apex, polished. 
Sculpture of fine, regular, clearly cut and close longitudinal grooves 
separating narrow lirulce, which extend over the posterior third (more 
or less) of the shell's length ; the remainder very glossy, without sculp- 
ture other than slight irregularities of growth. Aperture somewhat 
oblique, circular. Anal orifice minute, circular, and normally un- 
slit. 

Length 26, diam. of aperture 2'2-2'6, of apex 0'6 mill. 

Carribean Is. : St. Martins (E. Marie), and Saba (Swift). 

D. semistriatum TURTON, Conchol. Diet. Brit. Is., p. 39, pi. 18, f. 
68 (1819) ; compare Forbes and Hanley, Hist. Brit. Moll., ii, p. 454. 
D. translucidum CHENU, 111. Conch., i, p. 8, pi. 3, f. 12, not of 
Deshayes. D. semistriolatum GUILDING, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 
x vii, pt. 1, p. 34, pi. 3, f. 1-5 (1834). 

Both Turton and Guilding have given good descriptions and fig- 
ures of this species, although later writers have singularly overlooked 
them. We believe the West American form, D. semipolitum B. & 
S., with its synonyms, to be identical, numerous specimens before us 
showing no constant differential characters. The species differs 
from D.sericatum Dall in lacking the conspicuous (though variable) 
zig-zag color-pattern, and the tube does not increase so rapidly. D. 
leptum Bush is more slender, the length fully 15 times the diameter 
of aperture; D. eboreum is also more attenuated and straighter. 



DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 91 

The following specific names are synonymous, in our opinion : D. 
semistriatum Turton (1819), D. semipolitum Brod. & Sowb. (1829), 
D. semistriolatum Guild. (1834), D. hyalinum Phil. (1846), D. lira- 
turn Carp. (1857), and D. lirulatum Morch (1861). The known 
geographic range includes the Gulf of Mexico and west coast of 
Mexico and Lower California. While we have no doubt of the 
correctness of the above synonymy, we give below, under separate 
heading, a description of the west American race. 

Var. SEMIPOLITUM Broderip & Sowerby. PI. 16, fig. 54. 

Shell slender, moderately or decidedly curved, attenuated toward 
the apex; rather thin, milk white and very glossy. Sculpture: 
deeply engraved with very numerous, fine, close, subequal, longitudinal 
striae, extending from the apex downward one-third to two-thirds the 
shell's length (and of course covering the entire length of young 
shells) ; the remaining one- or two-thirds smooth and polished, bril- 
liant, scarcely showing growth-lines. Aperture circular, the peri- 
stome thin. Anal orifice minute and round, no notch or slit. 

Length 26, diam. of aperture 2'6 mill. 

Length 29'5, diam of aperture 2'9 mill. 

La Paz ; Acapulco ; Mazatlan ; north to Mulege Bay, Boca de 
los Pledras and San Ignacio Lagoon, Lower California, and San 
Diego, California. 

D. semipolitum B. & S., Zool. Journ., iv, p. 369 (1829). ?D. semi- 
politum SOWB. Jr., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 100, pi. 224, f. 23 ; Conch. 
Icon., xviii, pi. 4, f. 19. D. semipolitum Sowb. CARPENTER, Suppl. 
Rep. Moll. West Coast N. A., Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1863, pp. 612, 
648, 666 (1864) ; and in Smiths. Misc. Coll., No. 252, pp. 98, 134, 
152. D. semipolitum Cp., STEARNS, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, p. 
158 (1894). D. hyalinum PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Malak., iii, p. 55 
(1846). Not D. hyalinum Ph., CARPENTER, Mazatl. Catal., p. 188. 
D. liratum CARPENTER, [bid., p. 188 (young shell). SOWERBY. 
Thes. Conch., iii, p. 101, pi. 224, f. 32 ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 5, f, 
34. D. lirulatum MOERCH, Malak. Blatter, vii, p. 177 (1861). 

Compared with D. aciculum of the same length, a larger part of 
the surface of D. semipolitum is seen to be striated. It is a very 
beautiful shell, quite constant in the fine sculpture of the smaller 
end, though, as in all species, with diverse ornamentation at the two 
ends, the extent of the sculptured and smooth portions varies regu- 
larly with age, and somewhat among adults. Quite young and half- 



92 DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 

grown shells are striate throughout ; and in some of the old ones 
less than a third of the shell is sculptured. In form there is also 
considerable variation, occasional examples fully justifying Philippi's 
term " subrecta," while others are very markedly arcuate. 

We have noted above the essential identity of this form with the 
Aiitillean D. semistriatum Turton. In the average, a greater por- 
tion of the tube is striated in this than in D. semistriatum; but in 
many individual specimens this does not hold, and they are quite 
indistinguishable. The West Coast form is, at most, only a sub- 
species. 

The original description of this species is as follows : 

" Shell whitish, polished ; posterior end somewhat recurved, very 
finely striated ; no posterior slit. Length 1*4, diam. 0*1 inch. The 
very fine striae continue about half the length of the shell, which is 
rather narrower in proportion than D. nebulosum " (B. & &). 

The habitat of the type was unknown, but as a large number of 
the shells described in Broderip and Sowerby's paper, cited above, 
were from the west coast of Mexico, it is very probable that the 
original semipolitum came from thence, especially as their descrip- 
tion agrees perfectly with specimens from that region. 

It has also been well-described by Philippi as D. hyalinum, and 
young shells, in which the striae extend from end to end, have re- 
ceived the names lirulatum Morch and liratum Carpenter. All 
published information upon the latter two forms is given below. 

D. lirulatum Morch. Shell arcuate, dilated toward the aperture, 
apex attenuated ; thin, white, very closely lirulate with beautiful 
regularity, the interstices deep, milk-white ; growth-striae wanting. 
Length 8, diam. 1'25 mill. (Moerch'). 

Gulf of Nicoya, west coast of Costa Rica (Oersted). 

Has the form of D. acuminatum Deshayes. It is probably a 
young shell of the D. semipolitum group, and nothing in the diag- 
nosis precludes the supposition that it is identical with that species. 

D. liratum Carpenter. Shell solid, white, cylindrical, little 
curved, very closely covered with very delicate longitudinal lirse 
numbering in the young about 12, in the adult about 30 ; they are 
acute and hardly of equal size. Branchial [anal] orifice simple. 
One perfect though rather small specimen was found entangled in 
the byssus of Modiola capax; fragments occurred of a much larger 
size. Length -25, breadth 'Oll-'OS inch [L. 6*25, greatest diam. 
0'75, apical diam. O275 mill.]. 



DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 93 

Mazatlan, off Modiola capax, Chamce and Spondyli, very rare. 
Liverpool Coll. Tablet 879 contains the perfect specimen, a small 
one wedged in the mouth of Trivia sanguinea, and a fragment of a 
large one, '065 [= 1*625 mill.] across (Carpenter'). 

Carpenter, who described a good deal of trash as well as many 
good species in the Mazatlan Catalogue, makes a wrong identifica- 
tion of D. hyalinum Phil., and redescribes its young as above. 

D. ACICULUM Gould. PI. 17, figs. 65, 66, 67. 

Shell slender, considerably tapering, attenuated posteriorly, mod- 
erately curved throughout but more toward the apex ; glossy white, 
nearly opaque. Sculpture of fine, close, deeply engraved longitudi- 
nal strice near the apex (extending over only a seventh the total 
length in the type specimen), the remainder of the shell smooth and 
polished, with faint growth-strise only. Aperture circular, a trifle 
oblique. Anal orifice with a slight notch on the convex side (fig. 
67) and a concave wave on the opposite part. Length 24, diam. at 
aperture 2*55, at apex 0*6 mill. 

Coast of @hina, 23 50' N. lat., in 25 fms. sand (Stimpson). 

D. aciculum GLD., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 165 (1859) ; Otia 
Conch., p. 119. Sows., Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 7, f. 52 (1872). 

? D. semipolitum COOKE, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), xvi, 1885, p. 273. 
SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xvi, 1875, p. 113. 

Compared with D. semipolitum from the Gulf of California the 
type of D. aciculum is striated fora much shorter distance, increases 
slightly less in calibre, and is distinctly notched at apex. Whether 
these differences are specific or merely individual we have not 
enough Oriental material to decide. Probably Cooke's semipolitum 
from the Gulf of Suez (Mac Andrew !) and Smith's from Cape 
Shima and Matoza Harbor, Japan, 6-18 fms. (St. John !) are Gould's 
form, rather than the true semipolitum. 

The description and figures are from the type, No. 14149, U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 

D. NOV^HOLLANDI^E Chenu. PI. 17, fig. 64. 

Shell subarcuate, whitish, smooth anteriorly, with very minute 
striae on the posterior third. A species of large size, white, glossy, 
remarkable for the fine striation of the upper (smaller) end, while 
the larger portion is smooth with faint growth-strise only (Chenu). 
Length 76, diam. of aperture 4'2 mill, (from fig.). 

Australia (Chenu). 



94 DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 

D. novae hollandice CHENLT, 111. Conch., i, p. 5, pi. 6, f. 14. 
Like so many of Chenu's species, this is known by the original 
publication only. It is unusually large for the present group. 

D. ACUTISSIMUM Watson. PI. 20, fig. 26. 

Shell long and much attenuated, rather straight and very regu- 
larly curved, very thin, brilliant and glassy. Sculpture: The sur- 
face is crossed by fine, sharpish, irregular striae, which run very 
elliptically round. In the young shell the surface is regularly and 
finely scratched by a great number of close-set, regular, sharp and 
extremely minute lines, which very gradually become more and 
more faint, but are still traceable even in the full-grown shell. The 
color is pure white, transparent, and almost hyaline in the fresh 
shell, but in the dead shell the interior (not, as usual, the exterior) 
layers of the shell become opaque and chalky. The edge is very 
thin and irregularly broken. At the apex the end is abruptly 
broken off in one specimen, and in the other there is an irregular 
fissure with an internal lining process. In one specimen from Sta- 
tion 246, which is full-grown, but very short, a large, thin, irregu- 
larly shaped process projects, which, being obliquely cut off some- 
what across the shell, supplies the anal orifice. Length 1'52 in., of 
young specimens from Station 218 ; breadth at mouth 0*12, at apex 
0-026 inch. Length 1-14, of old and broken specimen, Station 246 ; 
breadth at mouth 0'23, at apex 014 inch (Watson). 

N. of Papua, 1070 fms.; mid- Pacific, E. of Japan, 2050 fms. 
(Challenger). 

D. acutissimum WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 514 ; 
Chall.Rep.,p.8,pl. l,f.8. 

Compared with Dentalium leptoskeles Wats, this is more curved, 
more conical, and thus not nearly so attenuated. Compared with 
Dentalium agile Sars also, this is more curved, rather more conical, 
and very much more delicate. It is likewise, when full-grown, ap- 
parently larger than either. Than Dentalium lubricatum G. B. 
Sow. this broadens more rapidly, is more brilliant, the circular 
striae are stronger, the longitudinal are finer, closer and sharper. It 
is also straighter than that species. Than Dentalium pretiosum Nut- 
tall this broadens faster and is much more brilliant. Dentalium 
perlongum Dall lacks the faint longitudinal striae, is much straighter 
and is more slender ; thus if one chooses a point where the breadth 
in the two species is equal, then within about an inch Dentalium 



DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 95 

perlongum Dall is not so much as two-thirds of the breadth of Den- 
talium acutissimum. Contrary to Mr. Dall's statement, however, the 
two species agree in having the anal fissure on the convex side. 

In reference to the form of the apex, it may be observed that the 
separation of the Dentalia by the absence (Dentalium) or presence 
(Entalis) of the cleft-process cannot be maintained. In Dentalium 
abyssorum Sars there are some with a fissured process, some with a 
fissure without any process, some with neither fissure nor process. 
There are cases in which the fissure is very regularly formed, in 
others it looks as if it had been gnawed, in others it resembles a 
break ; sometimes it is on the convex curve, as in the general case, 
sometimes on the concave as in Dentalium inversum Desh. and in 
Dentalium subterfissum JeflTr. ; sometimes it is irregularly lateral as 
occasionally in Dentalium agile Sars ( Wats.). 

D. INVERSUM Deshayes. PI. 21, figs. 47, 48, 49. 

Shell rather lightly curved, small, extremely slender, the length 
about 16 times the greatest diameter; translucent white, clouded 
with opaque white, and becoming reddish toward the apex ; very 
glossy. Sculpture, very fine and regular longitudinal striation near 
the apex, the greatest part of the shell smooth, free from sculpture, 
with very slight variceal rings as in D. eburneum but far less marked. 
Aperture circular, the peristome thin. Anal orifice minute, round, 
with a deep, narrow slit or a shorter notch, in the middle or excentric 
on the concave side. Length 30, diam. of aperture 1*9, of apex 0'6 
mill. ; length of slit 1-8 mill. 

Gulf of California (W. Newcomb, in coll. Acad.) ; Habitat un- 
known (Desh., Sowb.). 

D. inversum DESH., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris ii, p. 370, pi. 16, 
f. 21, 22 (1825). SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 99, pi. 225, f. 42 ; 
and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 7, f. 51. E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1871, 
p. 738. 

Kemarkable for having the slit on the concave side. Otherwise 
the species is not very unlike D. semipolitum. D. sectum Desh. 
differs in being less attenuated posteriorly, with differently formed 
apex and slit. 

One specimen from the Gulf of California, which we refer to this 
species, has the apical notch formed as in many D. entails, with a 
slightly projecting rim around the ovate orifice, slit not median, but 
decidedly excentric on the concave side. This specimen occurred 
with D. semipolitum B. & S. 



96 DENTALIUM-GRAPTACME. 

Smith reports D. inversum from Whydah, West Africa (Capt. 
Knocker !). 

D. SPLENDIDUM Sowerby. PI. 15, fig. 38. 

Shell thin, polished, flesh-colored at base, milk-white toward the 
apex ; posterior orifice with two slits, one dorsal, the other ventral. 
Length 1*8, diam. 0'15 inch.=45, 3'75 mill. (G. B. &). 

Xipixapi, west coast of Colombia, 10-16 fms. (Cum ing). 

D. splendidum G. B. SOWERBY, P. Z. 8., 1832, p. 29. SOWB. Jr. 
Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, pi. 225, f. 41 ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 5, f. 
30.? D.fissura Lam., SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, pi. 225, f. 43, 
not D. fissura of Lamarck, Philippi or Costa. 

The apical slit is somewhat as in D. sectum Desh., but not reduced 
to a narrow cut above by an apical plug. " Generally reddish near 
the apex, and white toward the base. In some specimens there are 
two fissures, one dorsal, the other ventral." 

GROUP OF D. SECTUM. 

Shell subcylindrical, the apex obliquely truncate, with an oblique, 
convex plug, perforated by a narrow antero-posterior slit. 
I. Shell longitudinally striated from apex to or nearly to aperture, 

calamus. 
II. Apical half striated, the rest smooth, sectum. 

D. SECTUM Deshayes. PI. 17, figs. 60, 61, 62, 63. 

Shell small, slender, very little tapering, slightly curved, white and 
glossy. Sculpture of very numerous, close, subequal fine riblets ex- 
tending longitudinally from apex about halfway to aperture ; the re- 
maining half with fine growth-strict, but no longitudinal sculpture. 
Aperture circular, not oblique, with acute peristome. Apex with a 
high, obliquely conical, smooth plug , perforated by an antero-posterior 
slit. Length 24, diam. of aperture T7, diam. of apex below plug 
1-2 mill. 

Gulf of California (W. Newcomb, in coll. Acad.) ; Habitat un- 
known (Desh., Sowb.). 

D. sectum DESH., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 367, pi. 18, f. 
12-14 (1825). SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 99, pi. 224, f. 35 
(1860) ; and in Couch. Icon., xviii, pi. 5,f. 28 (1872). Antalissecta 
CLESSIN, Conch. Cab., p. 26. D. diffusum CHENU, 111. Conch., i, p. 
3, pi. 6, f. 11,12. 



DENTALIUM-L^VIDENTALIUM. 97 

Very peculiar in the anal plug and slit which are formed as in 
D. calamus, a species differing only in being striated throughout. 
The sculpture is characteristic of a small group of species comprising 
the above named forms and the D. semistriatum group, which though 
varying greatly in the details of the anal slit, we hold to be closely 
allied. 
D. CALAMUS Dall. PI. 17, figs. 55, 56, 57, 58, 59. 

Shell very slender, slightly arched, white, translucent, the soft 
parts showing through the shell ; finely longitudinally grooved 
[throughout, or for the greater part of the length], the grooves uni- 
form, the interspaces flat and slightly wider anteriorly ; aperture 
hardly oblique, anal end apparently trimmed off obliquely for a short 
distance on the convex side, glandiform, phallic, vertically narrowly slit, 
the slit longer on the convex side, the "glans'Mike portion smooth, 
polished, usually with a little ledge around it. Length of shell, 
19'5 ; height of arch from chord, 2'25 ; diameter of aperture, 1'25 ; 
of anal end behind the "glans," 0*8 mill. Grooves in the middle 
part of the shell about sixteen to the millimeter of circumference. 
(Dall). 

Turtle Harbor, Florida, in 4 fms. ; and Cape Fear (Dr. W. H. 
Rush, U. S. N.) ; Pliocene of the Caloosahatchie, Florida. 

D. calamus DALL, Blake Rep., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 421 (1889) ; 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, p. 76 ; Trans. Wagner Institute, iii, 
p. 440. 

D. calamus differs from the very closely allied D. sectnm in being 
striate for nearly or quite its entire length, while the other is smooth 
toward the aperture. Very young specimens of calamus have the 
slit much more open, and the form tapering. D. calamus attains a 
length of 26, diam. of aperture T7, of apex 1 '3 mill. Figs. 58, 59 are 
drawn from a Florida specimen in which the anterior portion of the 
tube is smooth for a short distance ; figs. 55-57 are from a specimen 
taken off Cape Fear, striate throughout. The name is doubly appro- 
priate. 

Subgenus L^EVIDENTALIUM Cossmann, 1888 (s. lat.}. 

Lcevidentalium COSSM., Ann. de la Soc. Roy. Malacologique de 
Belgique, xxiii, p. 9. Type D. incertum Desh. 

Shell of moderate or large size, smooth, with growth lines only 
circular or slightly oval in section ; apex simple (typically), or with 
a short notch on the convex side as in Antalis. Type D. incertum. 
7 



98 DENTALIUM-L^EVIDENTALIUM. 

M. Cossmann founded this group to include smooth species with 
the shell oval in section, the posterior orifice without a slit. In deal- 
ing with recent species we find it practically impossible to draw the 
line between circular and slightly oval forms ; and the apical char- 
acters seem insufficient ground, in our opinion, for the separation of 
species with no slit from those with an Antalis-like extremity. In 
accepting the distinguished French palaeontologist's group, we there- 
fore enlarge its bounds beyond those originally intended ; and are 
alone responsible if future investigators find that heterogeneous mate- 
rials are included therein. 

I. Apex simple, without notch or slit, Group of D. lacteum, p. 98. 

II. Apex with a slit or notch, Group of D. matara, p. 102. 

Group of D. lacteum. 

Smooth, polished, moderately curved shells with the apical orifice 
simple, not notched or slit. 

Of recent species, these are nearest to the type of Lcevidentalium ; 
but the distinction between a notched and simple anal orifice is in 
actual practice rather delusive. One encounters many apparently 
perfect individuals of species typically notched, in which the apical 
margin is entire ; and yet no fracture other than the normal trunca- 
tion of the apex with increasing age, may appear. It is only when 
numerous specimens of various age are available for study, that the 
systematic position of some species can be ascertained. Occasional 
old specimens of the group of D. semistriatum have the characters of 
the present group; and more frequently specimens of the D. matara 
group may be looked for here. The key given below must therefore 
be used with caution. It is moreover rather unsatisfactory on 
account of the absence of readily describable characters in these 
smooth simple shells. 

Key to Species. 

(Consult also the group following this, p. 102, and that preceding, 
p. 85). 

1. Large and stout, length 75 mill., 7 times the diameter ; rather 
straight, polished, opaque and solid, rapidly increasing. Cape 
Horn, lebruni, p. 102. 

II. Small, white, nearly straight ; length 15 mill., nearly 9 times 
the diameter. New Zealand, ecostatum, p. 102. 

III. Much narrower, the diameter contained over 10 times in the 
length. 



DENTALIUM-L^VIDENTALIUM. 99 

a. Circular striae or rings toward smaller end. 

b. Transparent, with incised circular lines on smaller, 

smooth on larger half of shell; length 14 mill. N. 

E. Australia, anulosum, p. 101. 

b'. White, thin, narrow, circularly striate at apex ; 

length 22 mill., 11 times the diameter. Suez, 

subtorquatum, p. 101. 

a'. Smooth, nowhere conspicuously striate. 
b. Quite arcuate. Antillean. 

c. White, arcuate, very slender; length 24 
mill., 15 times the diameter, ensiforme, p. 101. 
c'. White or pale salmon, rapidly tapering ; 
length 61? mill., about 12 times the diam- 
eter, callipeplum, p. 100. 
b'. But slightly curved ; thin. Habitat unknown, 
c. Greenish-yellow ; length 25 mill., 10 times 
the diameter, translucidum, p. 99. 
c'. Color?; very acute; longer and less curved 
than translucidum; length 37 mill., about 
12 times the diameter, ambiguum, p. 100. 
c". Milky subtranslucent ; length 30 mill., 12 
times the diameter, lacteum, p. 99. 

D. LACTEUM Deshayes. PL 19, fig. 1. 

Shell cylindrical, somewhat curved, very smooth and polished, 
whitish, milky, subtranslucent. 

Smaller than entalis, and proportionally less in diameter, invari- 
ably of a milky, subtransparent color, thinner than entalis and not 
striated at the small end. Length 30, diam. 2? mill, at the base. 

No slit. (Desk.}. 

India (Desh.). 

D. lacteum DESK., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 362, pi. 16, f. 
27 (not 28, as given by Desh.). Sows., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, pi. 
225, f. 48. Not D. lacteum Costa, Faun. Reg. Nap., p. 37. Probably 
not D. lacteum Dh., Tate, Tr., Proc. and Rep. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 
ix, p. 193. 

We have not seen specimens certainly referable to this species. 
D. TRANSLUCIDUM Deshayes. PI. 19, fig. 5. 

Shell cylindrical, rather straight, polished, transparent, greenish- 
yellow ; calcareous and solid, smooth. Length 25, diam. 2'5 mill. 

(Desk.'). 

Habitat unknown. 



100 DENTALIUM-L^EVIDENTALIUM. 

D. translucidum DESH., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 362, pi. 
16, f. 26 (1825). Not of SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, pi. 225 f. 
47 (1860). Not Antalis translucidum CLESS., Conch. Cab., p. 24. 

The form identified as translucidum by Sowerby has a linear, very 
long slit, and belongs to the subgenus Fustiaria Stol. Deshayes 
states that there is no slit in his D. translucidum (see Monogr. Dent., 
p. 345) ; so it is evident that Sowerby's shell is a different thing. 

D. AMBIGUUM Chenu. PJ. 19, fig. 4. 

Shell somewhat straight, smooth ; whitish-gray maculated with 
black or violaceous, the apex very acute. (Chenu). 

Locality unknown. 

D. ambiguum CHENU, Illustr. Conch., i, p. 1, pi. 3, f. 1. 

According to Deshayes' manuscript note, the sole example of this 
species had long lain dead in the mud, and become blackened in 
color in place of the pale corneous or yellow which was probably the 
normal tint. It is allied to D. translucidum, but longer and less 
arcuate. The surface is smooth and glossy. Length 37, diameter 
of aperture 3 mill. 

D. CALLTPEPLUM Dall. PI. 19, fig. 9. 

Shell ivory-white to pale salmon color, glistening, elegantly arched* 
rapidly increasing ; sculpture of faint girdling incremental lines, and 
toward the tip faint longitudinal scratches, hardly discernible ; sec- 
tion circular, the lower edge projecting a little in the adult aperture ; 
tip entire, circular in the youngest, but in the adult with a wide 
very shallow notch on the concave side. Anterior diameter, 5'0 ; 
posterior diameter, 0'5 ; length of shell, 61 '5 ; height of arch above 
the chord, lO'O mill. (Dall). 

Near Santa Cruz, in 180 fms. ooze; off Saba Bank, a fragment, in 
150 fms. ; off Guadelupe, in 175 fms., sand ; off Santa Lucia, in 116 
fms., hard bottom ; off Grenada, in 92 fms., sand (Blake). Also off 
South Carolina, in 159 fms., sand, and in the Gulf of Mexico, in 169 
fms., mud (U. S. Fish Commission). Also Pliocene of Caloosahat- 
chie River, Florida. 

D. callipeplum DALL, Blake Rep., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 419, 
pi. 27, f. 12b. (1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, p. 76, pi. 27, f. 
12b (1889) ; Trans. Wagner Free Institute of Science, iii, p. 442. 

This elegant species has also been received from the coast of Hon- 
duras and from Samana Bay, St. Domingo. Its nearest relative is 



DENTALIUM-L^EVIDENTALIUM. 101 

D. rubescensDeshayes, which is less curved in front and more curved 
near the tip, is smaller, deeper colored, and has a very long narrow 
posterior slit when perfect, quite different from that of callipeplum. 
The specimen figured is young; better specimens, from which the 
description was drawn up, were dredged by the Fish Commission. 
The striation on the tip is so faint as to be very difficult to see, while 
the surface is so brilliant as not easily to be scrutinized. (DalF). 
It has the oily luster of D. longitrorsum. 

D. ENSIFORME Chenu. PI. 15, fig. 37. 

Shell arcuate, smooth, white, the aperture oblique. (Chenu'). 

Antilles. 

D. ensiforme CHENU, Illustr. Conchyl., i, p. 3, pi. 6, f. 18. 

Deshayes remarks : Very near inversum in curvature and size, 
but that differs in the slit ; narrower than lacteum. Length 24, diam. 
at aperture slightly exceeding 1*5 mill. 

D. SUBTORQUATUM Fischer. 

Shell white, thin, narrow, shining, cylindrical, slightly curved. 
Encircled at the apex with minute, close, somewhat raised trans- 
verse striae. Apex entire. No longitudinal striation. Length 22, 
diam. 2 mill. (Fischer). 

Suez (Gaudry). 

D. subtorquatum FISCHER, Journ. de Conch., xix [(3) xi], pp. 218, 
212 (1871). 

D. ANULOSUM Brazier. 

Shell thin, transparent, tapering, slightly curved, marked by in- 
cised circular lines from the apex to the centre, and from that to the 
base quite smooth, apex thickened, perforated, perforation entire, 
aperture circular. Length 7 lines [14 mill.] (jBraz.). 

Princess Charlotte Bay. northeast Australia, 13 fathoms, sandy 
bottom (Che vert Exped.). 

Dentalium anulosum BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 
58 (1877). 

The upper part of this beautiful, thin, transparent shell has a 
ringed appearance like a trachea. Allied to Dentalium politum 
Linn., that species being distinguished by the incised lines that di- 
vide its whole length (Braz.). 



102 DENTALIUM-LuEVIDENTALIUM. 

D. ECOSTATUM Kirk. PI. 18, fig. 13. 

Shell white, nearly straight, smooth, gradually tapering, faintly, 
distantly, transversely striated. Length 0*6, breadth at anterior 
end 0-07 inch = 15, 1-75 mill. (Kirk}. 

Waikanae, New Zealand (Kirk) ; also Pliocene of N. Z. at Wan- 
ganui and Petane (Hutton). 

D. ecostatum KIRK, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vi, p. 15 (July, 
1880) ; Trans. N. Z. Institute, xii, p. 306 (May, 1880). HUTTON, 
Macleay Memorial Volume, p. 80, pi. 8, f. 79. 

Shell small, slightly curved, quite smooth, polished (Hutton). 
The illustration is from Button's figure of a Pliocene specimen. 

D. LEBRUNI Mabille & Rochebrune. 

Shell rather straight, slightly curved toward the apex, white, 
polished, opaque and solid ; at the base rapidly increasing ; apex 
entire, neither slit nor emarginate. Length 75, greatest diam. 10 
mill. (M. & .). 

Santa Cruz, Patagonia (Lebrun). 

D. lebruni. MAB. & ROCH., Miss. Sci. Cap Horn, vi, Zool., Moll., 
p. 99 (1889). 

A nearly straight shell, only toward the apex a little arcuate j 
white, polished, without striae except at the base, where they are 
quite perceptible. This species somewhat resembles D. lubricatum 
Sow. of the coast of Australia, but it is larger, narrower, decidedly 
less curved, and thinner at the summit (M. & R.}. 

Group of D. matara. 

Smooth and polished, elongated species, circular or subcircular in 
section, with the apical characters of typical Antalis or of fissiden- 
talium a V-shaped notch or a slit. 

Those who attach cardinal value to the modifications of the apex 
would place most or all of these forms in Antalis (Entalis or Entali- 
opsis*). They have a more or less projecting rim or sheath around 
the anal orifice, interrupted by a slit or V-shaped notch on the con- 
vex side. In including the group under Lcevidentaliwn, we empha- 
size rather the smooth surface ; but neither course is entirely satis- 
factory to us. 

Key to Species. 

I. Shell much curved throughout, amber, carnelian or white, aper- 
ture circular; length about 90 mill., about 19 times the diam., 

long itr or sum, p. 111. 



DENTALIUM-L^VIDENTALIUM. 103 

II. Shell with slight or moderate curvature, 
a. Aperture circular or nearly so. 

b. Apex slit on the concave side ; bluish-white, polished ; 
length 24-27 mill., 12-13 times the diameter. West 
Indies, alloschismum, p. 108. 

b r . Apex notched on both convex and concave sides. 

c. Moderately curved ; yellow corneous ; length 

33 mill., 11 times the diam., bmnuatum, p. 108. 

c'. Nearly straight ; reddish toward apex ; length 

55 mill., about 14 times the diam. ; Australia, 

erectum, p. 111. 
b." No notch on concave side. 

c. Shell white, with annular swellings ; Mediter- 
ranean, siculum, p. 107. 
c'. No annular swellings. 

d. Very slender; length 50-80 mill., about 
25 times the diam., perlongum, p. 104. 
d'. Less slender ; salmon or carnelian tinted 
toward apex. 

e. Length 41 mill., about 15 times the 
diam. ; Antillean, matara, p. 105. 
e'. Length 33 mill., about 9-10 times 
the diam. ; Mediterranean, etc., 

rubescens, mahani, pp. 105,107. 
d" '. Less slender; white or whitish. 

e. Faintly striated longitudinally ; 
length 15 mill., about 62 times the 
diam. ; quite tapering, 

diarrhox, p. 109. 

e'. No longitudinal striation ; aperture 
slightly compressed vertically ; 
length 37 mill., about 12? times 
the diam., leptosceles, p. 110. 

e". Length 64 mill., 10-11 times the 
diam.; Australia, lubricatum, p. 110. 
e'" . Smooth, subtranslucent, bluish- 
white ; a slit on convex side ; length 
25 mill., 12-13 times the diameter, 
Antilles, liodon, p. 107. 

a'. Aperture and section of the tube oval. 

b. Large; length 105 mill., 11-12 times the diam., 

caudani, p. 104. 



104 DENTALIUM-L^EVIDENTALIUM. 

b f . Smaller ; tube flattened on concave side ; length 36 

mill., about 14 times the diam., insolitum, p. 109. 

b". Smaller; tube slightly compressed vertically ; much 

tapering ; length 37 mill., about 12? times the diam., 

leptosceles, p. 110. 
D. PERLONGUM Dall. PI. 18, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell solid, opaque white, shining, without sculpture, except deli- 
cate irregularities due to incremental lines ; oral aperture simple, 
nearly circular, its plane quite or nearly at right angles to the axis. 
Anal aperture with a shallow notch (in adult specimens) on the con- 
vex side; tube very slightly curved. Length 50 to 80 mill., oral 
diam. 3-5 mill. ; anal diam. 0'5 to 0'7 mill. (Dall). 

Yucatan Strait, 640 fms.; off Guadelupe in 734-769 fms. ; off St. 
Vincent in 424-785 fms. ; off Bequia in 1507-1591 fms. ; off Grenada 
in 792 fms. (Blake). Off Cape Hatteras, N. C, in 683 fms. ; Gulf 
of Mexico, between Mississippi delta and Cedar Keys, Fla., in 227- 
1191 fms. ; Florida Keys; also 90 miles north of Ceara, Brazil, 1019 
fms. (Albatross). 

Dentalium perlongum DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 36 (July, 1881) ; 
Ibid., v, p. 61, 1878 (no description); Ibid., xviii, Blake Moll., p., 
419, pi. 27, f. 6; Bull. 37, U.S. Nat. Mus.,Catal. Mar. Moll. S.-E. U. 
S., p. 76, pi. 27, fig. 6 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, p. 294. DALL in 
Agassiz, Three Cruises of the Blake, ii, p. 67, f. 284 (1888). 

This fine species has been carefully compared with all those from 
deep water in the Jeffreys collection, and seems fully distinct from 
any of them. Mr. Watson observes that the young resembles D. 
longitforsum Reeve in texture and general appearance, but is 
straight. D. acutissimum Watson is stouter and more curved 
(Dall). 

The fissure is Antalis-like ; our figure 11 was drawn from one of 
the types. 
D. CAUDANI Locard. PI. 18, fig, 12. 

Shell relatively very large, of a very narrowly conoidal form, much 
elongated and progressively attenuated, feebly arcuate a little past 
the moiety of the length ; shell quite thin, smooth and glossy 
throughout, showing only fine, crowded, irregularly and slightly ob- 
lique concentric growth lines ; aperture very obviously oval, slightly 
oblique; apical fissure narrow and short; color grayish-white. 
Length 105, diameter of aperture 9, at apex 1 mill.; curvature 9 
mill. (Locard). 

Gulf of Gascony,l3QQ meters (Caudan Exped.). 



DENTALIUM-L^EVIDENTALIUM. 105 

D. caudani LOG., Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon (7), iv, p. 213 (1896) ; 
Res. Sci. Camp, du Caudan, i. p. 171, pi. 6, f. 2. 

Particularly characterized by the great size and the smooth, 
glossy shell. It is much less slender than D. perlongiim Dall, 
straighter below, and oval in section. 

D. MATARA Dall. PI. 18, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. 

Shell slender, salmon-colored, whiter toward the aperture, glisten- 
ing, the lines of growth hardly perceptible in fresh specimens, other 
sculpture none ; very slightly arched ; aperture circular, very little 
oblique ; anal orifice higher than wide, slightly notched below and 
above, with a short, wide notch, but on the convex side this is pro- 
longed by a rather wide slit, about 1*0 mill. long. Length of shell 
41 , diameter of aperture 2*75, of apex 0'6 mill. ; height of arch above 
the chord 3*75 mill. (Dall). 

Off Cape Lookout, N. C., in 22-31 fms., sand ; off Hatteras, sta- 
tion 2276, in 16 fms. ; and in the Gulf of Mexico, in 26 and 111 fms., 
sand and mud (U. S. Fish Commission), also at Samana Bay, Santo 
Domingo in 16 fms., mud (Couthouy, in 1854). 

D. matara DALL, Blake Rep., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 420 (1889) ; 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mas., No. 37, p. 76. 

Belongs to the same group as perlongum; there are no striae 
near the apex as in D. leptum, which, moreover, is smaller and less 
colored. The apex has an unusually high "sheath " (figs. 16, 17, 
18) in typical specimens, but in some there is only a very short one 
(figs. 14, 15). The color varies from a flesh tint to carnelian. Dall 
writes as follows: 

This shell is colored like D. rubescens, but has a shorter and very 
different notch; is slimmer, straighter, and has a proportionally 
larger posterior end when perfect. It is less conical, less arched, 
and smaller than D. callipeplum, which it resembles in brilliancy. 
It entirely wants the fine posterior striation of D. leptum Bush, 
which is still more slender (Dall). 

D. RUBESCENS Deshayes. PI. 19, fig. 2. 

Shell slender, moderately arcuate, but the bend mainly in the 
smaller third of the length, rather thin. Carnelian tinted, paler 
toward the aperture. Surface smooth and glossy, with no longitudi- 
nal sculpture and only faintly-indicated growth-lines. Aperture 
circular, the peristorne thin and acute ; anal orifice circular with 
thin margins, and on the convex side a short slit (or according to 



106 , DENTALIUM-L^VIDENTALIUM. 

Deshayes, an internal groove ending in a slight notch). Length 33, 
diam. 3*5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, coasts of Italy, Sicily and Tunis, 2-40 fms. ; 
Canary Islands ; Pliocene of Sicily. 

D. rubescens DESH., Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 363, pi. 16, f. 
23-25 (1825). PHIL., Enum. Moll.Sicil., i, p. 244 (1836) and ii, p. 
206 (1844). ARADAS, Conch. Mar. della Sicil., p. 117 (1870). 
ORB., Moll. Canaries, Brit. Mus. CataL, p. 28 (1854). DAUTZEN- 
BERG, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, iv, p. 609. SOWB., Thes. Conch., 
iii, pi. 224, f. 39. JEFFREYS, P. Z. S., 1882, p. 660. PHIL., Enum., 
i, p. 244; ii, p. 206. D. fissura PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 244. 
Not of Lamarck. D. rufescens WEINKAUFF, Conchyl. Mittelm., ii, 
p. 420. CLESSIN, Conchyl. Cab., p. 8, pi. 3, fig. 7 (bad). Pseudan- 
talis rubescens MONTS., Nom. Gen. e Spec. Conch. Medit., p. 32. 

The specimen before us has the apical features described above, 
but, according to Jeffreys, there is in perfect specimens " a small ter- 
minal pipe or sheath which is partly enclosed in the shell, but pro- 
trudes from it as in D. entalis and many other species ; it is slightly 
channelled on each side. McAndrew noticed a white variety from 
Goletta near Tunis." 

Varieties pallida and albina are mentioned by Monterosato. 

Weinkauff changed the name to "rufescens," probably inadvert- 
ently ; arid Clessin, who appears to take all his synonymy at second 
hand, perpetuates the blunder, and wrongly quotes Philippi and 
others as using that incorrect name. He likewise places D.filum as 
a synonym of "rufescens" and admits it as a distinct species, on one 
and the same page of his unspeakable monograph. 

Var. ? TENUIFISSUM Monts. PI. 19, figs. 16, 17. 

Monterosato proposes the name tenuifissa for examples with a slit. 
The latter occur in the same localities with the unslit typical forms. 

Deshayes also, in his'ms. card catalogue, distinguishes this varia- 
tion under the new name D. discretum. 

Naples (Phil.) to Sicily (Phil., Monts.). 

D. fissura PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 244 ; ii, p. 206. COSTA, 
Fauna Reg. Nap., Tubibranchi, p. 25, pi. 3,f. 6. Not of Lamarck. 
Pseudantalis tenuifissa MONTS., Nom. Gen. e Spec. Conch. Medit., p. 
33 (1884). D. discretum DESH., Mss. D. splendens COSTA, Cata- 
logo ragionato, p. 125. 



DENTALIUM-L^VIDENTALTUM. 107 

We scarcely endorse the view of Jeffreys, who seems not to have 
considered the slit form distinct. The somewhat meagre series of D. 
rnbsecensseen (Jeffreys and Academy Coll.) is scarcely sufficient for 
definite decision. D. fissura Lamarck, with which Philippi and 
Costa identified this shell, is a Miocene species. D. fissura Sowerby 
may be a large, pale D. splendidum. See under Fustiaria. 

D. MALZANI ' Bunker' Clessin. PI. 19, fig. 3. 

Shell slender, lightly curved, slowing increasing, smooth, some- 
what solid, shining, semipellucid ; white, with rose colored apex. 
Aperture round, margin acute ; apex abruptly truncated. Length 
33, diam. 3*5 mill. (Clessin). 

Goree, West Africa (Malzan). 

D. malzani DKR. in Paetel's Catalog, p. 593 (no description). 
CLESSIN, Conchyl. Cab., p. 42, pi. 11, f. 5 (1896). 

Type in the Stuttgart Museum. Occurred with " D." goreanum, a 
species of Ditrupa or some allied genus, which Clessin (in the year 
1896! ! !) describes as a new Dentalium. How slowly moves this 
old World ! D. malzani may be the same as D. rubescens Desh. 
No distinguishing characters have been brought forward. 

D. SICULUM Deshayes, n. n. PI. 19, fig. 6. 

Shell cylindrical, somewhat curved, continuous, whitish, polished, 
with extremely close and delicate striae. (Costa). 

Adriatic Sea and Ionian Is. (Costa). 

D.politum COSTA, Faun. Keg. Nap., Tubibranchi, p. 23, pi. 1, f. 
4. Not D. politum Linn. D. siculum DESH. in MS. card cata- 
logue. 

Costa describes the shell as smooth and lustrous, of a shining 
milk-white color, somewhat diaphanous, with fine circular striae seen 
only under the lens, and indistinct annular swellings (such as occur 
in D. eburneum) ; and the apex is formed as in many Mediterranean 
tusk-shells, the orifice being small with thick walls and a slight 
notch, as shown in the figure. Length 1 inch, 6 lines. Deshayes 
gives no further information on his card, which is dated 1870, and 
probably had not seen the shell. Costa's species has been referred 
doubtfully to D. rubescens Dh. by some authors, but if the annula- 
tion described be really present, that species apparently is different. 

D. LIODON Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PL 21, figs. 37, 38, 39. 

Shell moderately curved, rather slender, attenuated toward the 
apex, thin but not fragile. Subtransluceut bluish-white, opaque white 



108 DENTALIUM-L^VIDENTALIUM. 

toward the middle, brilliantly polished. Sculpture none, except 
for occasional circular grooves indicating growth periods, Aper- 
ture subcircular, a little compressed between the convex and con- 
cave sides, not oblique. Anal orifice circular, with a narrowly v- 
shaped notch on the convex side (fig. 38). Length 25-3, greatest 
diameter 2, diam. of apex 0'6 mill. 

St. Martin, Wet Indies (E. Marie). 

The general appearance of the shell -is like D. semistriaium 
Turton, but longitudinal striae are wanting, and it is evidently 
allied to D. translucidum and other similar species here grouped. 
It differs from translucidum, ambiguum, subtorquatum and lacteum 
in having a well developed slit, among other less conspicuous feat- 
ures. 

Var. ? alloschismum P. & S. PL 21, figs. 40, 41, 42. 

Like the preceding, but the slit is on the concave side, either sub- 
median (fig. 40) or to the side (fig. 41). 

Length 24*5, diam. at aperture 1/9, at apex 0*6 mill. 

Length 27'5, diam. at aperture 2'2, at apex 0'6 mill. 

St. Martin (figs. 40, 40) ; West Indies, without nearer location 
(figs. 41, 42). 

In view of the considerable variation observed in the position, 
shape and even presence or absence of the slit in other species, we 
hesitate to give this form rank higher than varietal The section 
of the tube is circular in the variety, a little flattened in the type, 
but other characters seem identical. The specimen represented in 
figs. 41, 42 seems to be somewhat worn at the apex at the termina- 
tion of the slit. The latter is decidedly excentric, fig. 41 being 
viewed directly upon the concave side. 

D. BISINUATUM Andre. PL 19, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell conic, perfectly circular in transverse section, little curved, 
thin, translucid, glossy, of a yellowish corneous color ; with oblique, 
regular, fine transverse striae. Aperture circular, a little oblique ; 
peristome sharp, irregular. Apex with two small notches, one ven- 
tral, the other dorsal, a little deeper than the former. Length 33'5, 
diameter of the aperture 3, of apex 0'5 mill. {Andre). 

Amboyna. 

D. bisinuatum ANDRE, Revue Suisse de Zool. et Ann. du Mus. 
d'Hist. Nat. de Geneve, iv, fasc. 2, p. 397, pi. 17, f. 9 (Dec., 1896). 

This species is allied to D. splendidum Sow. ; the size of the lat- 
ter is greater, and the notches of the apex are continued in a slit 



DENTALIUM-LJEVIDENTALIUM. 109 

double the length of the notch. D. bisinuatum also approaches D. 
erectum Sow., Jr., but is smaller, more curved, and the posterior 
notch is not so deep. (Andre). 

D. INSOLITUM E. A. Smith. PL 22, figs. 56, 57. 

Shell slender, conspicuously arcuate, smooth, polished, subpellu- 
cid, white ; with the tube hardly circular, being lightly flattened on 
each side. Striated with very delicate growth lines, hardly slit at 
the apex. Length 36, greatest diam. 2*5 mill. (Smith). 

Bay of Bengal, in 597 fins. (Investigator). 

D. insolitum SMITH, Ann. and Mag. N. H. (6), xiv, p. 168, pi. 4, 
f. 17, 17o (Sept., 1894). 

The peculiarity of this species consists in its being a little com- 
pressed, so that the tube is not circular. It is broadest along the 
concave curve, which is not so round as the opposite side, and al- 
most defined by lateral angles. (Smith). 

D. DIARRHOX Watson. PI. 3, figs. 36, 37, 38. 

Shell white (chalky), but porcellanous beneath the surface, 
rather straight, with a considerable bend near the apex ; of rather 
rapid expansion from a very fine apex. Sculpture : the whole sur- 
face is faintly marked with scarcely impressed longitudinal lines of 
very equal interval (about 0'0055 apart) ; transversely it is very 
faintly scratched all over by very slight lines, which run elliptically 
round the shell. The apex has a very narrow, slightly ragged fis- 
sure, about 0*027 inch long, which lies unsymmetrically on the con- 
vex curve. Length 0'6, breadth 0*09 inch. ( Watson). 

Animal: Mantle white, body pale yellow. Captacula many, fine, 
long and equal, with small ovoid points. Foot and collar those of 
a true Dentalium. 

N.-E. from New Zealand, lat. 37 84' S., long. 179 22' E., in 700 
fms. (Challenger). 

D. diarrhox WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 511 
(1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 4, pi. 1, f. 5. 

This differs from D. leptoskeles Wats., in being more curved and 
more conical. It resembles in form the young of D. lubricatum 
Sowb. " from Australia," but in that the transverse strise are much 
less oblique, and the surface is "lubricate" and polished. (Wat- 
son). 



1 1 DENTALIUM-L^VIDENTALIUM. 

D. LEPTOSCELES Watson. PI. 3, figs. 44, 45, 46. 

Shell very attenuated, thin, brilliant, porcellanous, with longitu- 
dinal flecks of opaque white on the translucency of the shell, chiefly 
toward the apex, where the shell thickens, very little bent, very 
slightly compressed between the convex -and concave curves. Sculp- 
ture : there is some kind of flexuous longitudinal texture in the 
structure of the shell affecting the reflection from the brilliant sur- 
face, which is also closely and regularly scratched transversely by 
very minute, sharp, but superficial lines, which run round the shell 
a little elliptically. Length 1'5, breadth 0'12, at apex 0'04 inch 
[37-5, 3 mill.]. ( Watson'). 

Animal yellow, with a large dark patch in the region of the liver. 
A close little bunch of captacula round the mantle opening. ( Wat- 
son^). 

S. of Australia, lat. 42 4& &, long. 134 10' E., in 2600 fms. 
(Challenger). 

D. leptosceles WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p, 513 
(1879). D. leploskeles WATSON, Challenger Kep., p. 7, pi. 1, f. 6. 

This species in form very much resembles D. erectum G. B. Sow., 
British Museum " from Sydney," for while some specimens of that 
species are more curved than this, others are even less so ; but in 
this species the transverse striae are very much more oblique, and in 
the former there is no trace of the irregular intratextural longitudi- 
nal striaB which exist here. Than D. agile Sars, this is a straighter 
and much more cylindrical, attenuated, brilliant, and delicate shell. 
(Wats.}. 

D. LUBRICATUM Sowerby. PI. 19, fig. 22. 

Shell polished, elongate, white, subpellucid, lightly curved, 
slightly slit, gradually increasing. (Sowb.). Length 64, greatest 
diam. 6 mill, (from fig.). 

Off Port Jackson Heads 45 fms. (Challenger) ; Australia (Sow- 
erby). 

D. lubricatum SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. [95], pi. 225, f. 56 
(1860) ; and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 7, f. 55 (1872). BRAZIER, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 370 (1878). 

Certainly a narrower shell, less solid and of more gradual increase 
than either D. entails or D. pretiosum (Sowb.~). Brazier seems to 
have obtained a specimen dredged by the " Challenger " off" Port 
Jackson. 



DEXTALIUM-L^VIDENTALIUM. Ill 

D. ERECTUM Sowerby. PI. 19, fig. 23. 

Shell polished, narrow, slightly curved, reddish from the middle 
to the apex, white toward the aperture ; slit on each side (Sowb.'). 
Length 55*5, greatest diarn. 3'9 mill, (from fig.). Length 1 inch 

(Any as). 

Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia (Strange ; Augas). 

D. eredum SOWB., Thes. Conch., in, p. 99, pi. 225, f. 55 (1860) ; 
Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 6, f. 41. Antalis erecta ANGAS, P. Z. S., 
1867, p. 220. CLESSIN, Conchyl. Cab., vi, Heft x, p. 29, pi. 9, f. 1 
(1896). 

This tapering shell is very little curved ; the narrow end is 
strongly colored, the larger end white. There is a slit on each side 
of the apex. (Sowb.*). 

An unusually straight species. It was dredged by Angas near 
the " Sow and Pigs " reef. 

D. LONGITRORSUM Reeve. PI. 20, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell much and evenly curved, very long and slender, the length 
(of chord) about 19 times the greatest diameter; thin, but solid, 
polished, amber or carnelian colored or tinted, or pure white. 
Sculpture none, save inconspicuous growth lines. Aperture circu- 
lar, the peristome thin. Anal orifice, circular, entire or ovate, and 
with a slight notch slightly aside from the middle on the convex 
side. Length 89, diam. of aperture 4'7, height of arch from chord 
16 mill. 

Darnley Island, Torres Straits 30 fms., sandy mud (Chevert Ex- 
ped.) ; west of Cape York, south-west of Papua, 25 fms. (Challenger 
Exped.) ; Bombay (Melv. & Abercrombie) ; Gulf of Suez (Mac 
Andrew) ; Philippines (Sowerby ; Phila. Acad. coll.) ; Zanzibar and 
China (Brit. Mus.). 

D. longitrorsum REEVE, P. Z. S., 1842, p. 197 ; Conch. Syst., ii, 
p. 6, pi. 130, f. 6, (1842). SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, pi. 
225, f. 59, 60 (1860) ; and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 2, f. 9a, b 
(1872). WATSON, Journ. Linn.Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 515 (1879) and 
Challenger Scaphopoda, p. 9 (1885). BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N. S. Wales, ii, p. 59 (1877). MELVILL & ABERCROMBIE, Mar. 
Moll. Bombay, Mem. & Proc. Manchester Lit. and Philos.Soc. (4), 
vii, p. 25 (1893). COOKE, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), xvi, p. 271. Z). 
lamarckii CHENU, Illustr. Conchyl., i, Dent., p. 5. pi. 6, f. 15, 15a. 
D. longirostrum PAETEL, Catalog, i, p. 593. 



112 DENTALIUM-RHABDUS. 

Easily recognized by its great length, strong curvature and bril- 
liant polish. 

Subgenus RHABDUS Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897. 

Nearly straight or but slightly curved Dentalia, the shell very 
thin throughout and of somewhat glassy texture when unworn ; 
the surface brilliant, polished, without longitudinal sculpture; both 
orifices simple, the smaller end without notch, slit or supplemental 
tube. Type D. rectius Cpr. 

West coast of North and South America in deep water. A 
group of more curved species from the western Pacific may also 
form a section of this subgenus. 

Key to species. 

I. Shell with numerous annular swellings or low rings. Oriental. 
a. Length 12-13 times the diarn., eburneum, p. 115. 

a'. Length 15 times the diam., philippinarum, p. 116. 
II. Shell with dense, fine concentric striae ; white under a thin, 
fugitive light chestnut cuticle ; length 45-50 mill., about 6 
times the diam., perceptum, p. 115. 

III. Shell unsculptured, smooth, the length over 10 times the diam- 
eter. West American. 

a. Almost perfectly straight, excessively slender, much at- 
tenuated ; length 31'5 mill., about 19 times the diame- 
ter, cequatorium, p. 112. 
a. Very slightly curved, almost straight ; extremely slen- 
der but less attenuated posteriorly ; length 29-31 mill., 
16-19 times the diameter, watsoni, p. 113. 
a". Very slightly curved, almost straight ; length 30-40 
mill., 12-16 times the diameter, rectius, p. 113. 
a'". Slightly curved, less slender; length 45-70 mill., 11- 
14 times the diameter, dalli, p. 114. 

Group of D. rectius. 
D. ^QUATORIUM Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PL 21, fig. 43. 

Shell almost perfectly straight, excessively slender, regularly taper- 
ing and attenuated toward the apex, thin and very fragile, transluc- 
ent and almost colorless except where whitened by erosion. Sculpt- 
ure none, growth-striae being nearly or quite invisible except where 
slight surface erosion has traced them. Aperture hardly oblique, 



DENTALIUM-RHABDUS. 113 

circular. Anal orifice circular, its edge in the type specimen jagged 
from breakage, but apparently without true slit or notch. Length 
31*5, diam. at aperture 1'6, at apex 0'5 mill. 

Off Mania, Ecuador, in 401 fms., bottom temperature 42'9 (U. 
S. Fish Commission, Station 2792). 

No recent species known to us is so nearly straight as this. It is 
smaller at the apex and straighter than D. watsoni, which seems to 
be its nearest ally. D. innumerabile is another almost straight 
species, but it is smaller, colored and compressed, and belongs to an 
appreciably different group of species. D. rectius is like this in 
texture, but is of course very much less slender. The unique type 
is no. 122759, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

D. WATSONI Sharp & Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 21, fig. 44. 

Shell very slightly curved, long, extremely slender, not much taper- 
ing, thin, white; surface shining, wholly free from longitudinal 
sculpture, the growth-lines fine and inconspicuous. Aperture cir- 
cular, hardly oblique. Anal orifice small and circular, simple ; 110 
slit or notch. 

Length 31, diam. at aperture 1'6, at apex 75 mill. 

Length 29'3, diam. at aperture 1'8 at apex 0'75 milL 

Off Tillamook Bay, Oregon, in 786 fms. (U. S. F. C., sta. 3346) ; 
off San Diego, California (U. S. F. C., Sta. 2923). 

As straight as D. rectius Cpr., but very much more slender. It is 
more curved than the closely allied D. cequatorium from off" Ecuador, 
and slightly larger at the aperture. The specimens are but slightly 
translucent, one being quite and the other almost opaque ; but they 
are both dead shells, and may have been more transparent in life. 

Types are nos. 107702 and 107706, U. S. National Museum. It 
is named in honor of the learned author of the ' Challenger' Report 
on Scaphopoda and Gastropoda. 

D. RECTIUS Carpenter. PL 21, fig. 45. 

Shell almost straight, slender and long, attenuated toward the apex, 
thin and fragile, bluish-white, somewhat translucent, .with some 
opaque white flecks or rings, often encrusted near the aperture with 
a reddish deposit. Surface very glossy, polished, growth-marks being 
only faintly seen, and sculpture absent. Aperture not oblique, 
almost circular, but the tube is a little compressed laterally ; per- 
istome thin. Apical orifice small, circular, without notch or slit, 
but from its extreme fragility the end is often nicked or broken. 



114 DENTALIUM-RHABDUS. 

Length 40, diam. at aperture 2'6, at apex 1 mill. 

Length 30, diam. at aperture 2'5, at apex 0'6 mill. 

Near Victoria, Vancouver Id., 60 fms. (Newcombe) ; Puget Sound 
(Kennerley, and U. S. F. C. in 82-135 fms.) ; off TillamooJc Harbor, 
Oregon, 786 fms. ; California, off Point Reyes, 50 fms., off Bodega 
Head, 62 fms., off Cortes Bank, 984 fms., Santa Barbara channel, 
205-233 fms., Monterey Bay, 13 and 37 fms. (U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion). 

D. rectius CPR., Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci., for 1863, pp. 603,648 
(no description) ; Proc. A cad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 59. NEW- 
COMBE, Nautilus x, p. 18. TAYLOR, Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada (2), 
i, p. 56. 

Allied to D. watsoni and D. cequatorium, species decidedly more 
slender, and to D. dalli, a stouter, larger, more curved species. The 
whole series is remarkable for the tenuity of the smooth shell, and 
its unusual straightness. The specimen figured is no. 107707, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., from Monterey Bay, 37 fms. Carpenter's type was from 
Puget Sound, and measured 1*9 inch, in length. 

D. DALLI Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 21, fig. 46. 

Shell regularly but only slightly curved, evenly tapering, thin 
and fragile; opaque, slightly bluish-white. Surface brilliant, glossy 
and polished ; but in all specimens seen, mainly dead or luster less 
whitish, from loss of the greater part of the superficial gloss, which 
remains near the aperture only, or sometimes in patches or irregular 
rings elsewhere. Growth-strice faint ; no other sculpture. Aperture 
circular, not oblique. Apex rather large, with simple, circular, thin- 
edged orifice ; no slit or notch. 

Length 45, diam. at aperture 4, at apex 1*5 mill. (type). 

Length 50, diam. at aperture 3*8, at apex 1*5 mill. (Bering Sea). 

Length 69, diam. at aperture 4'9, at apex 2'5 mill. (Acapulco). 

Bering Sea, N. of Unalashka, 351 fms., ChernoffsJci, Unalashka, 
109 fms., and off Illinlink Harbor, 309 fms. Off Tillamook Bay, 
Oregon, 786 fms. Off Point Conception, California, 278 fms., and 
Sta. Barbara Channel, 265 fms. Off Acapulco, Mexico, 660 fms., 
bottom temp. 39. (U. S. Fish Commission). 

This species is most nearly related to D. rectius Cpr., but it is 
larger, less slender and more curved. The outer varnish or gloss 
seems to be caducious, and is largely lost, leaving a mat white sur- 
face, in the specimens seen. D. pretiosum often occurs with almost 



DENTALIUM-RHABDUS. 115 

exactly the size and figure of D. dalli, but it is a very solid shell, 
while our new form is one of exceptional fragility, and moreover 
lacks the apical striation of young pretiosum. 

The range of Ball's tusk-shell extends in deep water the entire 
length of the North American continent, though apparently more 
numerous in the north. We have distinguished it by a specific name 
which so long as West Coast shells are studied,, will be an honored 
one among naturalists. 

Imperfect specimens, apparently of this species, were obtained by 
the Fish Commission in the Gulf of Panama. Types are no. 107696 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Group of D. perception. 
D. PERCEPTUM Mabille & Rochebrune. 

Shell rather straight, scarcely incurved, densely concentrically 
striated, slowly increasing. White, under a caducious bright chest- 
nut epidermis; diaphanous, fragile, scarcely shining, apex entire, 
nearly tubular. Length 45-50, greatest diam. 8 mill. (M. & R.). 

Cape Horn. 

Dentalium perceptum MAB. & ROCH., Miss. Soi. Cap Horn, vi, 
Zool., Moll., p. 99 (1889). 

An elongated, straight shell, presenting somewhat of a very notice- 
able curvature, delicately ornamented with fine concentric striae, and 
pure white under a fugitive, very light chestnut epidermis ; diaphan- 
ous, fragile, without luster, and of slow increase ; the summit entire, 
a little in the shape of the mouth of a huntsman's horn. (M. & R.~). 

Group of D. eburneum. 

Shell thin, moderately or slightly curved, glossy, with numerous 
unequal coarse annular wrinkles ; anal orifice simple. 

D. EBURNEUM Linne. PI. 20, figs. 33, 34. 

Shell long and slender, moderately arcuate, attenuated posteriorly, 
the length about 12 J times the diam.; rather thin ; white, shining. 
Sculpture of numerous, unequal, irregularly spaced encircling ribs, 
rather low and rounded, with fine growth-lines throughout; some- 
times showing traces of longitudinal striation in places. Aperture 
subcircular or rounded-ovate, narrower toward the concave side ; 
peristome thin. Anal orifice small, rounded-oval, the greatest diam- 
eter antero-posterior ; a slight notch on the convex side or none. 



116 DENTALIUM-RHABDUS. 

Length 59, antero-posterior diam. apert. 4*7, lateral diara. 4'5 ; 
diam. apex 0'9 mill. 

Length 66, diameters of aperture 53, of apex 0*9 mill. 

Singapore (Dr. S. Archer) ; Sullivan Island, Mergui Archipelago, 
in 7 fms. (Anderson) ; Also Siam and Philippine Is. (authors). 

D. eburneum LINN., Syst. Nat. (12), p. 1264 (1767). GMELIN, 
p. 3737. LAM., An. s. Vert., v, p. 346 (1818). HANLEY, Ipsa 
Linnei Conchylia, p. 438 (1855). SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, 
pi. 225, f. 53 (I860) ; and in Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 3, f. 16 (1872). 
MARTENS, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool., xxi, p. 200. Not D. 
eburneum Desh., I825,=politum Linn. D. politum MAWE, The 
Linn. Syst. Conch., p. 191, pi. 33, f. 6 (1823). CROUCH, Illustr. 
Introd. Lam. Conch., p. 1, pi. 1, f . 2 (1827).? DESH., Mem. Soc. 
H. N., Paris, ii, p. 361, pi. 16, f. 17 (1825), and in Lam., An. s. Vert, 
edit. 2, v, p. 597. Not D. politum Linne. D. indicum CHENU, 
Illustr. Conchyl., i, Dentalium, p. 4, pi. 3, f. 11. D. annulare G. B. 
SOWERBY, Zool. Journ., iv, p. 199 (1828). 

D. eburneum of nineteenth century authors before 1855 is D. poli- 
tum Linn, as Hanley has shown. The species is remarkable for its 
irregularly placed, low, swollen rings. All of the specimens before 
me with definite and reliable locality data, are from Singapore. 

D. PHILIPPINARUM Sowerby. PI. 20, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell similiar to D. eburneum, but less curved, less tapering, the 
posterior end being larger and the aperture smaller than in spec- 
imens of eburneum of the same length ; polished, with low, irregular 
variceal rings and some circular impressed lines, and showing dis- 
tinct traces of longitudinal striation in some places. Translucent 
whitish. 

Length 56, diam. of the subcircular aperture 3*7, of the apex 1*3 

mill. 

Island of Samar, Philippines (Cuming). 

D.philippinarum SOWB., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, pi. 225, f. 54 
(1860) ; and in Conch. Icon., pi. 3, f. 18 (1872). 

This tusk-shell is evidently very closely allied to D. eburneum, but 
our material does not permit us to unite the two, although it is not 
improbable that intermediate specimens will be found. Sowerby 
thus describes it: 

Shell elongated, very narrow, rather straight, semipellucid, highly 
polished, somewhat golden brown, banded with numerous elevated 



DENTALIUM-EPISIPHON. 117 

concentric rings. Apex attenuated ; apical fissure very short. 
(Sowb.*). 

Narrower than D. eburneum, more diaphanous, and of a reddish 
color. This is a brightly colored, transparent shell, much narrower 
in proportion than D. eburneum. (Sowb.*). 

Length 52, greatest diam. 4 mill, (from fig.). 

Subgenus EPISIPHON Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897. 

Small, very slender, rather straight shells, needle-shaped or trun- 
cated, slightly tapering, thin and fragile, glossy and smooth, or at 
least without longitudinal sculpture ; apex with a projecting pipe 
or a simple orifice ; no slit, rarely a notch. 

Inhabitants of moderately or very deep water in the Mediterra- 
nean, Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Pacific. 

The small accessory tube or pipe at the apex is frequently devel- 
oped in most, perhaps all, of the species grouped here ; although 
most young and many adult shells lack it. The majority of the 
species are known by but few specimens, but in D. filum and D. in- 
numerabile, of which we have seen a good many hundreds, the spe- 
cific characters though not very conspicuous or strongly marked, 
seem very constant. 

Key to species. 

I. Aperture oval, the tube laterally compressed ; salmon colored, 

innumerabile, p. 119. 
II. Aperture circular. 

a. Shell decidedly curved, white or fulvous; length 18, 
diam. 1-2 mill., longum, p. 120. 

a'. Shell nearly straight. 

b. Decidedly tapering, acicular, subreetum, p. 119. 
b r . Subcylindrical, usually with an accessory apical 
tube in adults, nearly smooth, 

sowerbyi, p. 117 ; filum, p. 118 ; fistula, p. 118. 

b". Upper part of tube encircled by deep, close-set 

grooves ; an apical tube developed ; length about 

13 mill., tornatum, p. 121. 

D. SOWERBYI Guilding. PI. 20, fig. 30. 

Shell small, nearly smooth, transversely indistinctly subplicatu- 
late, the apex bearing a tube. Length 13 mill. (Gldg.'). 

Caribbean Sea. 



118 DENTALIUM-EPISIPHON. 

D. sowerbyi GUILDING, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., xvii, p. 35, pi. 
3, f. 7 (1834). 

Known only by Guilding's description and figure. 

The relation of this form to D. fistula and D.filum requires in- 
vestigation ; but as only the last named of these species is known to 
us by specimens, we deem it best to present the information upon 
all three, unprejudiced by an attempt at synonymy. 

D. FISTULA Sowerby. PL 18, fig. 4. 

Shell subhyaline, narrow, nearly straight, the apex entire. 
(Sowb.). Length 21 mill, (from figure). 

Habitat unknown (Hanley coll.). 

D. fistula Sows., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 99, pi. 225, f. 62, under f. 
45 (1860). 

Mr. Sowerby seems to consider this doubtfully distinct from D. 
duplex Defr., of the Paris Basin Eocene, but in that species the tube 
is compressed and provided with two internal ribs. Deshayes in his 
MS. catalogue places fistula under D. sowerbyi Guilding. We have 
seen no specimen. 

D. FILUM Sowerby. PI. 18, fig. 9. 

Shell extremely narrow and slender, gently curved, thin, nearly 
transparent and glossy. Sculpture : slight concentric lines of 
growth, which are scarcely perceptible ; color clear white. Aper- 
ture circular ; margin at the anterior end more or less jagged, owing 
to its excessive tenuity and fragility ; at the posterior end truncated, 
with an internal pipe (in adult shells) and slightly notched ; in 
the fry this latter part has a pear-shaped and perforated point. 
Length 12?, breadth li mill. 

Mediterranean, from the ^Egean (off Crete 70-250 fms., Spratt), 
and Algeria to Gibraltar (MacAudrew) ; E. Atlantic, Vigo (Mac 
Andrew) ; Bay of Biscay (Travailleur). Off North Carolina coast 
17-124 fms. (U. S. Fish Comm.) ; older Miocene of the Chipola 
Beds, Calhoun Co., Florida (Burns) ; Pliocene of Calabria 
(Seguenza). 

Dentalium sp. ined., very slender, MACANDREW, Rep. Mar. Test. 
Moll. N.-E. Atl., in Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1856, p. 117. 
D. filum SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 89, pi. 225, f. 45, Gibraltar 
specimens only, (1860); Conch. Icon., pi. 5, f. 31 (not fig. 32). 
JEFFREYS, P. Z. S., 1882, p. 660. HIDALGO, Catal.Moll.Espagne, 



DENTALIUM-EPISIPHON. 119 

p. 148-. BALL, Blake Rep. Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 419 (1889); 
Bull. 37, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 76 ; Trans. Wagner Inst., iii, p. 441 
(1892). Z). graeile JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), vi, p. 74 
(July, 1870), and (5), vi, p. 317 (1880). Not of Meek. FISCHER, 
Journ. de Conchyl., 1872, p. 140, pi. 5, f. 5. D. rnfescens (in part) 
WEINKAUFF, Conch, des Mitteim., ii, p. 420. 

Fully mature shells are nearly cylindrical, the truncated and 
often tubiferous apex almost as wide as the larger end ; the young 
are acicular, tapering. Color either white or faintly fulvous. Jef- 
freys writes : "Mr. McAndrew tells me that the animal was of a 
greenish color. Not the young of D. rubeseens. The present spe- 
cies is more regularly cylindrical, narrower and nearly equal in 
breadth throughout. It is curved, which shows that it is adult, the 
very young of all species of Dentalium being almost straight." 

D. INNUMERABLE Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 18, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Shell small, but slightly curved, excessively slender, and in adults 
only slightly tapering ; thin and fragile, glossy, the smoothies* of 
the polished surface scarcely interrupted by delicate faint growth 
strict; no other sculpture. Flesh or salmon colored, fading into 
translucent white near the aperture, and often with some oblique 
white rings at irregular intervals. Aperture oval, the tube being 
compressed laterally. Anal orifice circular, occupying a small and 
short projecting pipe in most adults, but this is very short or want- 
ing in some examples. Length 17, antero-posterior diam. of aper- 
ture 0'8, lateral diam. 0*7 mill. ; diam. at apex 0'6 mill. 

Panama Bay in 26, 29* and 51 frns. ; off Guaymas in 20 fms. ; 
off Lower California near Sta. Margarita Island, lat. 24 32', long. 
111 59' in 12 fms. ; and near Cerros /., lat. 28 12', long. 115 9', 
in 44 fms. (U. S. Fish Commission Str. * Albatross'). 

Like D. sowerbyi, filum and fistula, but the tube is distinctly, 
though not much, compressed from side to side. It occurred in great 
numbers in the Bay of Panama. D. ottoi Sharp & Pilsbry (D. 
compressum O. Meyer, not Orbigny), is evidently a closely allied 
species from the Oligocene of Joachimsthal, Germany. Immature 
shells are more tapering, being smaller toward the apex, as usual. 

D. SUBRECTUM Jeffreys. PI. 18, fig. 5. 

Shell acicular or needle-shaped, thin, extremely slender, tapering 
almost to a point, nearly straight, translucent whitish, with the 
faintest reddish tint from the middle to the apex. Surface very 



120 DENTALIUM-EPISIPHON. 

glossy, smooth, with faint growth -striae only. Aperture not oblique, 
circular. Anal orifice minute, circular, with thin, entire edge. 
Length 16, diam. of aperture 1 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming). 

D. subrectum JEFFREYS, P. Z. S., 1882, p. 661 (artfully concealed 
in the text under D.filum). D.filum in B. M., and, in part, of Sow- 
erby. 

This form was considered by Sowerby the same as that he had 
described from Gibraltar asfilum; but Jeffreys has indicated the 
differences recited below, which we have confirmed. Figured and 
described from the type, a specimen in Jeffreys' collection, now in 
U. S. National Museum. 

Longer and proportionally broader toward the front or anterior 
end than D. filum \_gracile Jeffr.], and consequently less slender and 
thread-like ; also more curved. 

D. LONGUM Sharp & Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 18, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell slender, the length about 15 times the greatest diameter, 
moderately tapering, rather strongly curved, in section circular. 
Surface glossy, whitish, somewhat translucent. Sculpture: faint 
fine growth-stria? throughout, running circularly around the tube; 
no longitudinal striae. Aperture circular, not oblique (fig. 3). Api- 
cal orifice circular, with thin walls and a wide shallow notch on the 
convex side (fig. 1). Length 18*1, diam. at aperture 1'2, at apex 
0-5 mill. 

Habitat unknown (type no. 71080, coll. A. N. S. P.). 

D. longum is decidedly more curved than D. fistula, sowerbyi, 
filum, innumerabile or subrectum; and in place of the apical sup- 
plemental tube generally developed in adult individuals of the for- 
mer four of these, our new species has an open anal orifice with a 
wide, shallow notch or emargination on the convex side. 

D. attenuatum of Sowerby, 1860 (but not D. attenuatum Say, 
1824), is probably the same specifically, although as we have not 
had the advantage of comparing the type of that form, no positive 
statement can be made. The original figures and description are 
here given, together with some additional information obligingly 
furnished by Mr. Sowerby. 

D. attenuatum (pi. 20, fig. 28). Shell thin, tawny, polished, a 
little arcuate, narrower than D. inversum ; apex slightly emargi- 
nate. A shining, pointed, very narrow species, with a very slight 



DENTALIUM-BATHOXIPHUS. 121 

notch at the apex. It is nearly straight. (Sowb., Thes. Conch., iii, 
p. 99, pi. 225, f. 40, 1860; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 5, f. 32 (not f. 
31). 

Length 29, greatest diam. 1-6 mill, (from figure). 

It is fulvous, shining, semipellucid, larger and more curved than 
D. filum. The figures of this species and D. filum were inadvert- 
ently transposed in the Conchologia Iconica. (6r. B. S. in letter). 

D. TORNATUM Watson. PI. 3, figs. 39, 40, 41. 

Shell small, narrow, very finely tapering, slightly, but very 
equably bent, strong, of a quill-like translucency and brilliance. 
Sculpture: the upper part of the shell is encircled by deep, close- 
set, slightly oblique grooves, which look as if they were turned in a 
lathe. Farther down the shell they become shallower, and cease at 
last rather abruptly. The flat bands of the shell-surface which part 
them are of variable widths, and increase with the growth of the 
shell from about 0*011 inch to twice that amount. The front part 
of the shell is closely, minutely, obliquely striated in the line of 
growth, with here and there a very faint depression, just suggestive 
of the grooves above. There is besides these a faint, transverse 
flocculence in the substance of the shell. Mouth edge thin, not con- 
tracted, very slightly oblique. The apex is abruptly broken across, 
and there the edge of the shell is thick, and from the opening there 
projects a minute, round pipe about 0*008 broad and 0*012 long, 
slightly striated obliquely, abruptly broken off at the end. In most 
of the specimens only the mere stump of this delicate tube remains. 
Length 0'55, breadth 0*038, apex 0*018 inch (Watson). 

Levuku, Fiji, 12 fins. (Challenger). 

D. tornatum WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv (1879) ; Chall. 
Kep.,p. 13, pl.2, f.3. 

This species seems to vary a little in breadth ( Watson). 

Subgenus BATHOXIPHUS Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897. 

Shell thin, conspicuously compressed laterally, nearly or quite 
smooth, with a broad slit on the convex side of apex. 

D. ENSICULUS Jeffreys. PI. 7, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

Shell tapering, considerably and regularly curved throughout or 
with the latter half nearly straight. Laterally compressed or flat- 
tened ; thin, nearly transparent, and glossy. Sculpture: a sharp keel 
on both the dorsal and ventral sides (giving the appearance of a 



122 DENTALIUM-BATHOXIPHUS. 

double-edged scimitar), becoming blunter toward the aperture in 
adults, besides occasionally a few slight, irregular, longitudinal 
keels or raised stride and concentric lines of growth. Color, clear 
white. Slit of moderate length and very broad, semicylindrical, 
placed on the convex side. The slit cuts away about half of the 
posterior or narrow end of the shell. Length 27 J, antero-posterior 
diam. of aperture 2, lateral diam. T3 mill. ; Jeffreys' type was 
smaller, length 0*9, breadth Ol inch. 

North Atlantic, 1450-1785 fms.; West of Ireland, 1366 fms. ; 
Bay of Biscay, 862 fms. ; Portugal, 740-1095 fms. (Jeffr.). S.-W of 
Nantucket, 1825 fms. ; off Chesapeake Bay, etc., 1594 fms. (U. S. Fish 
Comrn.). Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. ; near St. Vincent, 464 fms. ; off 
Barbados, 399 fms. (Blake). Yucatan Strait, in 1060 fms., and off 
Eavona, 1024 fms. (Dr. W. H. Rush). Off Cape Florida, 193 fms. ; 
off Sombrero Island, 450 fms. (Challenger). N. of Culebra Island 
(Challenger, for D. didymum Wats.). 

D. ensiculus JEFFR., Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xix, p. 154 (1877) ; P. 
Z. S., 1882, p. 660, pi. 49, fig. 4. WATSON, Challenger Rep., p. 12, 
pi. 2, f. 2. VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 432 (1885). BALL, 
Blake Rep., Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, p. 428, pi. 27, f. 12 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. 37, p. 76 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, p. 294. Dentalium 
sigsbeanum DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 38 (1881). D. didymum 
WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 517 (1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 
10, pi. l.f.ll. 

Easily recognized by the strongly compressed form. Comparison 
of a full series by W. H. Dall rendered the above consolidation 
necessary. 

Mr. Smith has placed on record (Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 60) 
a list of characteristically North Atlantic mollusks, believed to have 
been dredged by the "Challenger" at Station ] 64, off Sydney, N.S. 
Wales, in 410 fms., including the following Scaphopods: Dentalium 
ensiculus, D. panormitanum \_panormum\ Chenu, D. capillosum 
Jeffr., and Cadalus propinquus Sara or C. curtus Jeffr., the first two 
positively identified, the others not absolutely certain, though prob- 
ably correct. Taking into account the association of species of 
other genera, it seems to us quite incredible that these forms actually 
occurred at the Station alleged. It is far more likely that a locality 
label became misplaced. . 



DENTALIUM-COMPRESSIDENS. 123 

Var. DIDYMUM Watson. PI. 7, fig. 20. 

Shell extremely attenuated, very slightly curved, a little flattened 
laterally, and that chiefly towards the convex curve, so that the 
form is slightly trigonal, porcellanous, pure white, brilliant. Sculp- 
ture : very fine, irregular scratches run around the shell, the sur- 
face of which is not perfectly uniform ; there are very faint indica- 
tions of longitudinal texture, and there is in the substance of the 
shell a certain transverse flocculence. Towards the mouth the shell 
is extremely thin as usual ; but towards the apex it becomes thick 
from the smallness of the bore, which lies not in the center, but 
nearer the convex curve of the shell. Length T08, breadth 0'6, at 
apex 0*04 inch. The measurement is taken from the largest of six 
fragments, none of which preserve the apex of the shell ( Watson). 

This may be a variety, distinguished by the slightly trigonal or 
ovate section, typical ensiculus being regularly, symmetrically ellip- 
tical at the aperture, as shown in fig. 7. 

Subgenus COMPRESSIDENS Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897. 

Shell small, decidedly tapering, conspicuously compressed between 
the convex and concave sides; weakly sculptured, nearly smooth; 
anal orifice simple, without slit or notch. Type D. pressum Sharp 
& Pilsbry. 

The few species of this well-defined group inhabit widely separ- 
ated areas. D. pressum and ophiodon are Antillean, D. brevicornu 
west American, and D. platyceras Australian. The occidental forms 
live in deep water. Specimens of all of them have been examined 
in the preparation of the following pages. The figures on plate 22 
are from camera lucida drawings, representing concave and lateral 
aspects of each species. 

An Oligocene member of the group is D. precursor Pilsbry & 
Sharp from San Domingo. It was probably an ancestor of the re- 
cent American species. 

Key to Species. 

I. Shell but slightly curved, strongly compressed. 

a. Length about 9*5 mill., about 4 times the greatest diam- 
eter; Panamic, brevicornu, p. 125. 
a'. Length 11-13 mill., about 6 to 1\ times the greatest 
diameter; Antillean, pressum, p. 124. 



124 DENTALIUM-COMPRESSIDENS. 

II. Shell strongly curved, but little compressed, densely obliquely 
striated, the length 8'5 mill., about 4 times the greatest diam- 
eter, West American, simplex, p. 125. 
III. Shell decidedly curved, length 9 to 9s times the greatest diam., 
a. Length 12-16 mill., faintly finely striate longitudinally ; 
Antillean. ophiodon, p. 126. 
of. Length 11 mill., circularly wrinkled; Australian, 

platyceras, p. 126. 

D. PRESSUM Sharp & Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 22, figs. 50, 51, 52 ; pi. 7, 

fig. 11. 

Shell small, slightly and evenly curved, thin, considerably taper- 
ing, the tube strongly compressed between its convex and concave 
sides, almost subangular on the lateral sides. White, somewhat 
shining. Sculpture : faint, low, regular, longitudinal riblets with 
very shallow intervals, crossed at right angles by close, "sharp, 
irregular scratches in the line of growth," bent forward on the con- 
cave side of the tube, which is also faintly wrinkled in the same 
direction toward the larger end. Aperture decidedly oblique, oval, 
the arc along the concave side generally less curved than the rest of 
the peristome. Apical orifice oval, without slit or notch. 

Length 12, greatest diam. of aperture 2, least 1*75 mill., diam. at 
apex 0-75 mill. (S. & P. type). 

Length 0'45, greatest diam. at aperture 0'06, least 0'05 inch., 
diam. at apex 0'019 inch = 11-25, 1'5, 1-25, 0'475 mill. (Watson's 
type). 

N. of Culebra Island, West Indies, 390 fms. (Challenger). Off 
Cape San Antonio, in 413 fms. ; near St. Vincent, in 424 fms. 
(Blake). Gulf of Mexico between Mississippi River delta and Cedar 
Keys, Fla., Ill fms. (Albatross). Thirty-three and one-half miles 
S. of Rebecca Shoal, lat. 24 02' N., long. 82 81' 30", 430 fms. (Dr. 
W. H. Rush). 

D. compressum WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. London., xiv, p. 516 

(1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 9, pi. 1, f. 9. DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 38 

(1880) ; Ibid., Blake Rep., p. 426 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 
76. Not D. compressum ORB., Prodr. Paleont. Strat., i, p. 233, no. 
135 (1850). 

As Dall remarks, the posterior half of well-preserved specimens is 
coarsely obscurely striated. This is variable, however, in specimens 
of the same age and condition, and sometimes almost imperceptible. 



DENTALIUM-COMPRESSIDENS. 125 

The strong compression from concave to convex sides is a very con- 
spicuous feature of the species. In a section of the tube the arc 
along the concave side is much less curved than the other. The pe- 
culiar "texture of the shell which thus seems to be built up of 
minute, square-faced rods laid side by side," as Watson describes it, 
is not noticeable in the specimens before us. 

The calibre of the tube increases more rapidly than in the closely 
allied D. ophiodon Dall, and it is more compressed. 

D. BREVICORNU Sharp & Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 22, figs. 53, 54, 55. 

Shell small, moderately curved, strongly compressed between the 
convex and concave faces, rapidly tapering, thin, buff-white. Sculp- 
ture: rather inconspicuous growth-lines and wrinkles, and exces- 
sively shallow, hardly noticeable traces of longitudinal depressions 
scarcely to be called sulci. Aperture not oblique, irregularly ovate, 
the outer margin rounded, inner much flattened. Apex not very 
small, its orifice rounded-oval. Length 9'5, transverse diam. of 
aperture 2*2, diam. from convex to concave sides 1*7 mill., greatest 
diam. at apex 0'7 mill. 

Near Galapagos Is., 634 and 812 fms., bottom temp. 40 ; off 
Mazatlan, 995 fms. (U. S. Fish Commission). 

Very closely allied to the Antillean D. pressum Sharp & Pils., 
but the tube increases more rapidly in calibre and is decidedly less 
compressed on the outer curve. Type is No. 122809, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., from the locality first mentioned above. 
D. SIMPLEX Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 27, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell short, decidedly curved, the bend mainly in the posterior 
half, very rapidly enlarging, tapering regularly from the large apert- 
ure to the apex; thin, bluish-white, a little translucent, more or less 
flecked with opaque white (by incipient surface decay), or with 
eroded spots. Glossy, with close, fine, distinct growth-striae, very 
obliquely passing around the tube, bending backward on the convex, 
forward on the concave side ; in most specimens also showing faint, 
low traces of longitudinal cords on the convex side. Aperture some- 
what wider than long, quite oblique, the peristome thin. Anal 
orifice circular, simple when perfect, but often with irregular, broken 
edge. Length 8*6, diam. at aperture antero-posteriorly 1 *75, laterally 
1*9 mill.; diam at apex 0'7 mill. 

Off Tillamook Harbor, Oregon, in 786 fras. (U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion). 



126 DENTALIUM-COMPRESSIDENS. 

Less compressed and much more arcuate than D. brevieornu, and 
more distinctly striated circularly. It tapers more rapidly than D. 
pressum and is less compressed. D. ophiodon and D. platyceras are 
conspicuously slenderer. The longitudinal cords are variable in 
prominence, sometimes hardly noticeable. When well developed 
they are rather coarse, and of the same character as in D. pressum. 
Type no. 107700 U. S. Nat. Mus. 

D. OPHIODON Dall. PL 7, fig. 13 ; pi. 22, figs. 61, 62. 

Shell considerably curved, thin, slowly tapering, strongly com- 
pressed between the convex and concave sides. Grayish-white, some- 
what glossy. Sculpture : faint, fine irregular longitudinal striae with 
very superficial interstices, crossed by fine irregular growth striae and 
wrinkles, which bend forward on the concave side. Aperture irreg- 
ularly oval, oblique, the peristome less curved along the concave 
side. Apex oval, anal orifice simple, unslit. 

Length 15'5, greatest diam. at aperture T75, least 1-5 mill. 

Length 12'5, greatest diam. at aperture 1/3, least 1/1, diam. at 
apex 0-27 mill. 

Barbados in 100 fms. (Hassler Exped.) ; Slake stations 19-21, in 
220-310 fms ; 10 miles off Cuba, lat. 22 38' 40", Ion. 82 28' in 
780 fms. (Dr. Wm. H. Kush). 

D. ophiodon DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 427 (1881) ; Ibid.,xviii, 
Blake Rep., p. 427, pi. 26, f. 9 (1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 
37, p. 76, pi. 26, f. 9. 

The tube increases less rapidly in width than in D. pressum, it is 
decidedly more curved, and the longitudinal sculpture is finer and 
fainter. Dall writes as follows : 

" About the same length as the last species (D. pressum), more 
slender, more acute, more translucent, more curved, and without the 
evanescent indications of longitudinal striation ; the compression 
results in less tendency to angulation, and there is an evident tend- 
ency, in adult specimens, for the diameter at the mouth to be some- 
what less than at a short distance behind it, a very marked dis- 
tinction as between the two. The shell is quite translucent, and very 
thin ; there is very little variation between the specimens. 

" The flattening is most prominent a little way behind the mouth 
in the adult, and is best seen in an adolescent specimen." 
D. PLATYCERAS Sharp & Pilsbry, n. sp. PL 22, figs. 58, 59, 60. 

Shell small, slightly curved, strongly tapering, dull, glossy toward 
the aperture, white. Sculpture of rather irregular and decidedly 



DENTALIUM-FUSTIARIA. 127 

oblique encircling wrinkles (sometimes indistinct from superficial 
erosion), obsolete toward the aperture where there are fine growth 
striae only ; no longitudinal sculpture. Aperture very oblique, oval, 
ivider than long ; the peristome thin and fragile. Anal orifice cir- 
cular and simple. 

Length 11, antero-posterior diam. of aperture 1*1, right to left 
diam. 1*25 mill. 

Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia (John Brazier). 

Allied to D. pressum and D. brevicornu Pils. & Sharp. It is 
smaller and less compressed on the inner curve than the former, with 
no trace of longitudinal sculpture and more oblique growth strise. 

Subgenus FUSTIARIA Stoliczka, 1868. 

Fustiaria STOL., Mem. Geol. Surv. India, Cretaceous Fauna of 
Southern India, ii, p. 439 ; types D. eburneum Lam. and circinatum 
Sowb. (1868). Pseudantalis MONTEROSATO, Nomencl. Gen. e. Spec. 
Conch. Medit., p. 32, for fissura Lam., inversum Dh., rubescens Dh., 
tenuifissa Monts. and filum Sby. (1884). 

Shell regularly tapering, arcuate, polished ; either smooth or 
sculptured with regular encircling grooves, dividing the surface of 
the tube into short oblique segments. Aperture circular. Anal 
orifice round or ovate. Slit a very long, straight, linear cleft on the 
convex side. Type D. circinatum Sowb. 

Soft anatomy unknown. Species Eocene to recent. 

Some recent authors have treated this group as of generic value; 
but unless we dismember Dentalium and recognize a dozen or more 
genera in its stead, we are obliged to rank Fustiaria as a subgenus. 
The more conservative course has been chosen because the anatom- 
ical characters of Scaphopods are still but little known ; the study 
of the class is in its infancy. Those who come after, when scalpel 
and microtome have given their testimony, will be better able to 
decide upon the true generic groups of the Seaphopoda, than we are 
now, when the soft anatomy of but a handful of species belonging 
to two or three of the groups has been worked out. 

But one or two living species of Fustiaria are known ; but there 
are numerous Tertiary forms, and perhaps some from the Cretace- 
ous. 

I. Shell aim ulated, D.politum. 

II. Shell smooth, D. stenoschizum, D. tenuifissum. 



128 DENTALIUM-FUSTIARIA. 

D. POLITUM Linne. PI. 19, figs. 18, 19, 20, 21. 

Shell slender, long, slowly tapering and regularly arcuate, polished. 
Sculptured with many narrow encircling grooves, parallel with the 
peristome, and dividing the surface into narrow, oblique segments. 
Aperture somewhat oblique, circular, the peristome acute. Anal 
orifice rounded-ovate, somewhat channelled within at the position of 
the slit. Slit an extremely narrow and long cleft on the convex 
side. 

Length 58, diam. aperture 4'9 mill. 

Length 39, diam. aperture 3*3 mill. 

Paris Basin Eocene at Grignon, etc. ; recent in Indian Seas (Desh., 
Hanley). 

Dentalium politwn LINNE, Syst. Nat. (12), p. 1264 (1766). HAN- 
LEY, Ipsa Linn. Conch., p. 438 (1855) ; SOWERBY, Thes, Conch., iii, 
p. 99, pi. 225, f. 46 ; Conch. Icon., pi. 6, f. 38 (1872). D. eburneum 
SOWB., Genera of Shells, Dentalium, f. 6. DESH., Mem. Soc. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, ii, p. 368, pi. 17, f. 8, 9 (1825) ; An. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, ii, p. 215, pi. 2, f. 11-13 (1864). Not D. eburneum L. D. 
subeburneum ORB., Prodr. de Paleont., ii, p. 372 (1850). 

This species is closely allied to D. circinatum Sowb., but is less 
slender. The two were formerly united by Deshayes, and Newton 
(Brit. Oligocene and Eocene Moll., 1891) still includes both under 
circinata. Whether the Eocene and living specimens referred to D. 
politum are identical is a question we have no means of answering, 
as we have seen no recent specimens. It is admitted to the modern 
fauna on the authority of Deshayes and Sowerby who state that they 
have examined oriental recent shells, although the former in his Paris 
Basin Invertebrates (p. 216) thinks that Linnseus' shell may have 
been a fossil one. 

D. STENOSCHIZUM Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 19, figs. 10, 11, 12, 

13, 14, 15. 

Shell rather strongly arcuate toward the smaller end, rapidly 
tapering, the earlier portion slender and delicate, the length about 10 
times the diameter of aperture. Milk-white, somewhat translucent. 
Very glossy and polished throughout, and entirely without sculpture 
except for slight, inconspicuous annular irregularities of growth. 
Aperture slightly oblique, nearly circular, being a trifle compressed 
laterally ; peristome thin. Anal orifice circular, with thin edges. 
Slit extremely narrow, linear, and long, its length contained about 
3 times in length of shell, situated on the convex side. 



DENT ALIUM-FUSTI ARIA. 129 

Length 35, antero-posterior diam. aperture 3'4, lat. diam. 3'2 ; 
diam. of apex 0*6 mill. 

Length 34'5, antero-posterior diam. aperture 3'5, lat. diam. 3*4 ;. 
diam. of apex O5 mill. 

West Indies. 

D. translucidum Desh., SOWERBY, Thes. Conch., iii, p. 98, pi. 225, 
f. 47 (1860) ; Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 6, f. 39 (1872). Not D.trans- 
lucidwn Desh., 1825. 

Distinguished by its rapidly tapering form, the smoothness of its- 
glittering surface, with no trace of strise even at the apex, and the 
long linear slit of a Fustiaria. D. translucidum Desh. is an unslit 
species and less attenuated toward the apex. Types in Coll. A. N. 
S. P., no. 71081. 

Fig. 13 shows the actual length of the slit. Figs. 10, 11 are en- 
larged ventral and dorsal views of the apex. Fig. 15 is an old shell. 

D. TENUIFISSUM Monterosato. PL 19, figs. 16, 17. 

This form is much like D. rubescens except that there is a very 
long, linear slit on the convex side. We have followed Jeffreys in 
treating it as a variety of D. rubescens (see p. 106) ; but the form is, 
more likely to prove a distinct species of Fastiaria. 



130 SIPHONODENTALIIDCE. 

Family SIPHONODENTALIHLE. 

=Siphonopoda Sars, Gadilince Stoliczka, Siphonodentaliince Tryon, 
Siphonodentaliidce or Siphonopodidce Siraroth. 

Scaphopoda having the foot either expanded distally in a sym- 
metrical disk with crenate continuous edge with or without a 
median finger-like projection, or simple and vermiform, without de- 
veloped lateral processes. The shell is small and generally smooth, 
often contracted towards the mouth. Other characters essentially as 
in Dentaliidce. 

Distribution, all seas, almost exclusively in deep water. 

The essential character of this family is in the structure of the 
foot. In the Dentaliidce there is an " epipodial " sheath, which is 
discontinuous or interrupted on the side toward the head, and emar- 
ginate or deeply notched on the opposite side, being most expanded 
laterally ; the foot itself projecting as a well developed conic mass 
beyond the sheath, and with the subtriangular lateral expansions of 
the latter, having a more or less trifid or fleur-de-lis appearance. 
In the Siphonodentaliidce the " epipodium " forms a continuous disk, 
apparently terminal upon the foot in some forms, like a daisy on its 
stem ; in others, with a small finger-like median process homologous 
with the large conic central body of the foot in Dentalium. In Cadu- 
lus (Helonyx) clavatus (GUI.), as figured by Stimpson, no epipodium 
of any sort is developed. 

There cannot be much doubt that the shape of the epipodial disk 
is subject to considerable change during the process of burrowing, 
as its hollow or channelled structure is to some extent comparable 
with that of the foot of Solen and other digging Pelecypods; but so 
far as now known, there is no Siphonodentaloid form having the 
epipodium interrupted dorsally and the foot itself well developed 
beyond it, as in the Dentaliidce. 

We know of no family of like extent so imperfectly known ana- 
tomically as this one. With the exception of some excellent work 
by the Sars, father and son, a few descriptions by Jeffreys and others, 
and an outline drawing by Stimpson, no data have been published. 
What little is known of the soft parts indicates that important re- 
sults may be expected from observations on a larger number of 
species, especially in the genus Cadulus. At present it is only possi- 
ble to base the genera and subgenera upon characters of the shell. 
For further anatomical details see the introductory portion of this 
work, where the distribution of the species is also discussed. 



ENTALINA. 131 

There has been no monograph of Siphonodentaliidce published, or, 
at least, none of any value ; but a very large amount of information 
is contained in the works of M. and G. O. Sars, Jeffreys, Watson, 
Dall and Verrill. Dr. Simroth gives a very valuable general account 
of the group in the new edition of Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen 
des Thier-Reichs, iii, 1895. 

Key to genera of Siphonodentaliidce. 

I. Shell largest at aperture, thence tapering to apex. 

a. Longitudinally ribbed, angular in section at least near the 
apex, ENTALINA, p. 131. 

a'. Smooth ; circular or subcircular in section throughout, 

SIPHONODENTALIUM, p. 135. 

b. Apex cut into lobes or teeth, Section Siphonodentalium. 
b'. Apex simple, unslit, Section Pulsellum. 

II. Shell more or less swollen near the middle or anteriorly, con- 
tracting toward the aperture as well as tapering posteriorly, 

CADULUS,p. 142. 
a. Apex with slits or notches. 

6. Apex with two lateral slits, Section Dischides. 
b'. Apex with four or more slits, Section Polyschides. 
a'. Apex entire, unslit. 

b. Obese ; both ventral and dorsal outlines convex and 
projecting beyond a chord connecting the adjacent 
lip edges, Section Cadulus s. s. 

b f . More slender or attenuated ; ventral outline convex; 
dorsal outline as a whole concave, not projecting 
beyond a chord connecting the ends of shell. 

Section Gadila. 

Genus ENTALINA Monterosato, 1872. 

Entnlina MONTS., Notizieintorno alle Conchiglie Fossile di Monte 
Pellegrino e Ficarazzi, p. 27, for D. quinquangulare Forbes. Pul- 
sellum STOLICZKA and Siphonentalis G. O. SARS, in part. Dentalium 
sp. of some authors. 

Shell Dentalium-like, largest at the aperture, thence tapering to 
the apex ; strongly ribbed, and angular in section near the apex. 
Foot expanding distally into a disk with digitate periphery, and 
having a median process or filament. Type E. quinquangularis 
(Forbes). 



132 ENTALINA. 

With the shell of Dentaliwn, this group combines the form of foot 
of Pulsellum. It differs from all other Siphonodentaliidce in the 
strong sculpture of the shell ; and in a group otherwise so constantly 
characterized by smooth, rounded shells, this strongly angular ex- 
terior is apparently as important as anything. Even though Cadu- 
lus, Siphonodentalium and their satellite groups be merged into one 
genus, we would still segregate Entalina. . 

E. QUINQUANGULARIS (Forbes). PI. 24, figs. 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 

38. 

Shell small, slender, evenly and considerably tapering from base 
to apex, the apical half strongly curved, larger half of the tube 
nearly straight. Very faintly buff tinted, bluish-white in places; 
lusterless. Sculpture : at and near the apex five-sided and five- 
angled, the angle along the incurved side obtuse, the others nearly 
right angles ; spaces between the angles flat, gradually becoming 
convex as the tube enlarges, the angles at the same time becoming 
weaker and then obsolete, so that the later third of the shell is cylin- 
drical; between the angles several cord- like riblets appear a short 
distance from the apex, and continue to the aperture, where they 
number about 28 or 30. Aperture quite oblique, circular in adult 
shells ; apex minute, the orifice with simple edge or variously irreg- 
ularly chipped or nicked by breakage. Length 12-13, diam. at 
aperture 1*5 mill. 

Lofoten, Norway to Spain ; Mediterranean, east to the jEgean, 5 to 
650 fms. ; Pliocene of S. Italy and Sicily. 

Dentalium quinquangulare FORBES, Rep. ^Egean Invert., in Rep. 
Brit. Asso. Adv. Science for 1843, p. 188 (1844). So WERE Y, Thes. 
Conch., iii, p. 103, pi. 224, f. 33 (I860). Siphonodentalium quin- 
quangulare Forbes, JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), xx, p. 
251 (1867); (Series 4), v, p. 442, and vi, p. 74 (1870). WEIN- 
KAUFF, Conch, des Mittelm., ii,p.421 (1868). ARADAS &BENOIT, 
Conch. Viv. Mar. Sicil., p. 118 (1870). LOCARD, Prodr. Mai. Fr., 
in Ann. Soc. d'Agricult. Lyon, (5), ix, 1886, p. 149. DAUTZEN- 
BERG, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, iv, p. 609. Siphodentalium quin- 
quangulare Forbes, JEFFREYS, P. Z. S.. 1882, p. 663. Siphonentalis 
quinquangularis Jeffr. CARUS, Prodr. Faun. Medit., p. 176. Enta- 
lina quinquangulare Forbes, MONTS., Nomencl. Gen. e Spec. Conch. 
Medit., p. 33 (1884). 



ENTALINA. 133 

Dentalium f (Entalina) tetragonum Brocc. MONTEROSATO, Notiz. 
Conch. Foss M. Pellegr. e Ficarazzi, p. 27 (1872). Siphonentalis 
tetragona G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 105, pi. 20, f. 13 
a-c, shell ; and pi. I, f. 4, dentition (1878). Siphodentalium tetra- 
gonum Brocchi, JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi, p. 317 (1880). 
Entalina tetragona Brocc., MONTS., Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., vi, p. 
64 (1880). Not Dentalium tetragonum Brocchi. 

" Dentalium dentalis or quadrangulare " MACANDREW, Rep. Brit. 
Asso. Adv. Sci. for 1850, p. 267 (1851). 

Dentalium abyssorum, juv., M. SARS, Om de i Norge forekom- 
mende fossile Dyrelevninger fra Qvartserperioden, University Pro- 
gramme for 1864, p. 43, f. 107-109. 

Siphonodentalium pentagonum M. SARS, Forh. Vidensk.-Selska- 
bet i Christiania, for 1864, p. 307, pi. 7, f. 45-51 (1865). 

The strongly pentagonal posterior part of the shell, with rather 
coarse riblets between the angles, and an oblique, circular aperture, 
readily distinguish this from any Dentalium. 

The soft parts, as figured by M. Sars (see pi. 14, figs. 30, 37, 38) 
have the characters of Siphonodentalium. The very young have a 
bulbous, pear-shaped nucleus, as in Dentalium. Jeffreys states that 
" the terminal notches, usually one on each side, agree with those in 
most species of Siphodentalium. Some Norwegian specimens have 
five notches, and are jagged like S. vitreum" The specimens we 
have seen are either even- edged or irregularly jagged at the apex. 

We have compared specimens of E. platamodes Watson, and 
consider it sufficiently distinct. 

E. PLATAMODES (Watson). PL 23, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell small, solid, finely tapered, curved, especially toward the 
apex, five-sided, with four sharp corners, which are nearly right 
angles, and one very obtuse angle along the concave curve ; these 
all tend to disappear toward the apex, the young shell being rounded. 
Sculpture : the angles of the shell project more or less in a sharp 
rounded rib, which is sometimes double ; there are a few longitudi- 
nal striae, regular, O'Ol inch apart, strongest near the angles, more 
or less obsolete as they recede from these. Neither end is fresh 
enough for description. Length 0*47 inch, breadth 0'049 inch. 
( Watson). 

North of Culebra Island, West Indies, lat. 18 38 f 30" N. t long. 
65 5' 30" w., 390 fms. (Challenger) ; Florida Strait, 8S\ miles S. of 



134 ENTALINA. 

Rebecca Shoal, fat. 24 02', long. 82 SI' 30" in 430 fms. (Wm. H. 
Kush). 

Siphodentalium platamodes WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, 
p. 519 (1879) ; Chall. Rep. Scaph. and Gastr., p. 13, pi. 2, f. 4. 
Dentalium platamodes DALL, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 37, p. 76 
(1889). 

I have hesitated a good deal in separating this from Siphodental- 
ium tetragonum Hroc.=quinquangulare E. For., with which it 
agrees more closely than with Siphodentalium pentagonum Sars. 
Here, however, the longitudinal ribs are much closer, as well as 
much more obsolete ; the shell is more curved throughout its whole 
length, is more attenuated, and retains its square form and sharp 
angles instead of becoming rounded as in S. tetragonum Brocchi. 
Amidst all the variations of that very variable form I have not seen 
any that connect it with this species ( Watson). It may be added 
that the specimens dredged by Dr. Rush confirm the distinctions 
between this species and the preceding. 

E. MIRIFICA (Smith). PL 20, fig. 29. 

Shell small, strongly curved and acuminate toward the apex, 
quadrate tubular, wider along the inner curve than along the outer ; 
longitudinally delicately striate, very delicately sculptured with 
growth-lines ; subconcave between the angles. Length 19, greatest 
diam. 2 mill. (Smith). 

Of Trincomalee, Ceylon, 200-350 fms. 

Dentalium miriftcum E. A. SMITH, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xvi, 
p.9,pl.2,f.l (July, 1895). 

This little species is remarkable for the sharply curved end and 
the subquadrate form. The four angles are acute at the tip, but 
gradually become obtuse as the shell increases. The incurved side 
is the broadest of all, and up the middle of it, especially towards the 
apex, there is a raised striation more conspicuous than the rest. 
This is so prominent at the end that, when viewed with the opening 
towards the eye, five angles are visible. The two angles on the ex- 
curved side, which is the narrowest of all, become almost obsolete 
near the aperture. The form of the aperture, owing to the greater 
width and flatness of the incurved side, is very like the letter D. 

Siphodentalium quinquangulare Forbes is a much more slender 
species, and more circular in section near the aperture. 



SIPHONODENTALIUM. 135 

I have placed this species temporarily in Dentalium, as the tips 
of the four specimens examined are all damaged. Possibly more 
perfect examples may exhibit slits as in Siphodentalium (Smith). 

The single specimen we have seen (in Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.) is so 
similar to E. quinquangularis that we adopt Mr. Smith's suggestion 
that it may belong near that species. The apical slitting is a vari- 
able character, and rarely developed in Entalina. 

Genus SIPHONODENTALIUM M. Sars, 1859. 

Siphonodentalium M. SARS, Forh. Videnskabs-Selskabet i Chris- 
tiania, Aar 1858, p. 52 (1859). Om Siphonodentalium vitreum, etc., 
Univ. Programme for 1861. G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 
103, restricted to S. vitreum. 

Siphodentalium MONTEROSATO, Journ. de Conchyl., 1874, p. 258, 
and in subsequent papers. JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 
xix, p. 155 (1877), and in later papers. WATSON, Challenger Report 
on Scaphopoda (1886). 

Si 'phono dontum or Tubidentalium LOCARD, Prodr. Mai. Fr. in 
Ann. Soc. d'Agricult. Lyon, 1886, p. 149, footnote ; emendations of 
Siphonodentalium. 

Shell an arcuate, slightly tapering tube, largest at the aperture, 
circular or nearly so in section, and smooth externally. Apex 
rather large, typically slit into lobes, but sometimes simple. Foot 
capable of expanding into a terminal disk. Type S. lobatum. 

A widely distributed genus of few species, confined to deep water 
except in high latitudes. 

G. O. Sars divides Siphonodentalium into two groups : Siphono* 
dentalium (restricted), in which the apex of the shell is cut into 
lobes (pi. 23, fig. 12), and the terminal pedal disk is concave in 
the middle, without a central process (pi. 23, figs. 9, 18). 

Siphonentalis Sars, having the apex of the shell entire (pi. 24, fig. 
42), and the terminal disk of the foot convex in the middle, with a 
long central process (pi. 24, fig. 40). 

This division is based upon too few species to warrant the adop- 
tion of two genera ; the more as we have found the development of 
slits to be a feature of minor importance in other groups of Scapho- 
poda. 

Key to Species of Siphonodentalium. 

I. Apex with slits. 

a. Slowly tapering ; apex 6-lobed ; length 10 mill., lobatum. 



136 SIPHONODENTALIUM. 

a'. Rapidly tapering ; apex with at least two slits ; length 5'5 

mill., tytthum. 

a". Apex 2-slit, the clefts dorsal and ventral ; length 8-9 mill., 

teres. 
II. Apex simple, unslit. 

a. Atlantic and Mediterranean species. 

b. White, but slightly pellucid ; aperture 3 times as 

wide as apex ; length 6 mill or less, lofotense. 

b'. Very pellucid, smooth ; aperture twice the width of 

apex ; length 4*5 mill., affine. 

b". Transparent, obliquely banded with opaque white ; 

sharply scratched with minute transverse strife ; 

length 3 mill., jmsillum. 

a' From Torres Strait. Very gradually tapering, translucent 

and transparent in alternate bands ; excessively minute 

longitudinal stride ; length about 3*5 mill., eboracense. 

Section SIPHONODENTALIUM (restricted). 
S. LOBATUM (Sowerby). PI. 23, figs. 8 to 21. 

Shell cylindric, very smooth and glossy, thin, pellucid, glassy ; 
arcuate ; slowly tapering from the aperture to a rather large apex, 
which is cut into six lobes or teeth : a subtriangular one on each 
side, two contiguous lobes on the convex side (figs. 14, 19), and two 
very short lobes on the concave side (fig. 13). Aperture circular, 
oblique. Length 10 mill. 

Arctic Ocean from Spitzbergen and Novaia Zemblia to Finmark 
(Sars and others) ; North Atlantic between Faroes and Orkney Is., 
560 fms. ; off coast of Portugal, 740-1095 fms. (Lightning and Por- 
cupine Expeditions); Gulf of St. Lawrence, 150-200 fms. (White- 
aves) ; Gulf of Maine and off Martha's Vineyard (U. S. Fish Com- 
mission). 

Dentalium vitreum M. SARS, Nyt Mag. f. Naturvidenskaberne,vi, 
p. 178 (1851). Not Dentalium vitreum Gmel. Syst. Nat. (13), p. 
4739. 

Siphonodentalium vitreum M. SARS, Forh. Videnskabs-Selskabet i 
Christ., Aar 1858, p. 52 (1859) ; Om Siph. vit.,en ny Slsegt og Art 
af Dentalidernes Familie, Universitets-Program for forste Halvaar, 
1861, pp. 29, pi. 1-3 (except figs. 78-81) ; Om de i Norge Forekom- 
mende Fossile Dyrelevninger fra Qvartserperioden, Univ. Progr., 
for 1864, p. 42, pi. 3, f. 99 (1865). G. O. SARS, Moll. Keg. Arct. 



SIPHONODENTALIUM. 137 

Norv., p. 103, pi. 7, f. 2 a-c, and pi. I, f. 2 (radula). VERRILL, 
Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., v, p. 557, pi. 42, f. 19 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
iii,p.394. 

Siphodentalium vitreum M. SARS, JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(4), xix, p. 155 (1877) ; P. Z. S., 1882, p. 662. 

Dentalium lobatum G. B. SOWERBY, JR., Thes. Conch., iii, p. 100, 
f. 44(1860); Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 5, f. 36 (1872). CLESSIN, 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 15, pi. 4, f. 6 (1896). " D. labiatum Sow." in 
Zoological Kecord for 1877, Moll., p. 79. 

The well-known name vitreum being preoccupied, we have been 
compelled to substitute lobatum Sowerby, which applies to exactly 
the same form, as Jeffreys and others have recognized. 

Jeffreys describes the soft parts as follows: " Body whitish, gela- 
tinous, and nearly transparent ; mantle rather thick, forming a collar 
round the foot ; tentacles thread-like, very slender, and having 
obloug tips or bulbs ; they are not numerous, but extensile and irre- 
gular in length, issuing from underneath the edge of the mantle : 
foot cylindrical, extensile, and attaining a length equal to that of the 
shell ; when at rest it is conical ; but the point fully stretched out 
expands into a round and somewhat concave disk with serrated or 
notched edges; excretal fold or tail at the narrowest end of the shell, 
tubular, and having the front split open and exposed diagonally ; 
edges jagged; externally covered with very fine and close set cilia; 
liver dark-brown ; ovary lemon color." 

S. TYTTHUM Watson. PI. 23, fig. 2. 

Shell minute, very conical, i. e., broadening rapidly, much bent> 
very thin, but not hyaline, apparently horny when living, and be- 
coming opaque when dead, and then also glossy but not brilliant. 
Sculpture : some very faint traces of circular strise on the lines of 
growth. Mouth-edge very thin and chipped. Apex broken, but in 
one specimen showing the two lateral clefts common in the genus. 

Length 0'22 inch., breadth at mouth 0'049 ; at apex 0'013 inch. 
(Watson). 

North of Culebra Island, West Indies, 390 fms. (Challenger). 

Siphodentalium tytthum WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc., xiv, p. 520 
(1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 14, pi. 2, f. 5. 

In texture and general form this is like S. vitreum Sars, but it 
broadens much faster and is more curved. (Watson). 

There is apparently no contraction toward the aperture. 



138 SIPHONODENTALIUM. 

Group of S. teres. 
S. TERES Jeffreys. PI. 26, fig. 72. 

Shell cylindrical, gradually tapering to the basal point or poste- 
rior extremity, gently curved, thin, glossy, and semi transparent. 
Sculpture, none except fine and numerous lines of growth; color 
whitish ; mouth circular ; apex slightly but distinctly notched above 
and below. Length 0'35, breadth 0'05 inch. (Jeffreys'). 

North Atlantic, (' Porcupine' Stations 16, 17, I7a). 

Siphodentalium teres JEFFR., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 661, pi. 49, f. 5. 

The position of the terminal notches in this species differs from 
that of the slits in Dischides, being placed one on the convex and 
the other on the concave end of the shell in S. teres, instead of being 
bilateral as in that shell. (Jeffreys). 

Section PULSELLUM Stoliczka, 1868. 

Pulsellum STOL., Cret. Fauna of S. India, ii, p. 441, for S. lofo- 
tense, affine and pentagonum=quinquangulare. FISCHER, Manuel 
de Conchyl., p. 894. 

Siphonentalis G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 104 (1878), 
for S. lofotensis, S. affinis and S. tetragona=quinquangulare. 

Siphonodentalis [sic] CLESSIN, in Systemat. Conchylien-Cabinet, 
vi, Heft xi, 424te Lieferung, p. 30 (1896). 

Similar to Siphonodentalium except that the shell has no apical 
slits and the foot-disk bears a terminal filament. Type S. lofotense 
Sars. 

The name Pulsellum was proposed for the same three species upon 
which Siphonentalis was founded a decade later. Meantime, Mon- 
terosato had removed S. quinquangulare to his new genus Entalina, 
leaving S. lofotense and affine to bear the earlier name. The addi- 
tional species now placed here are of uncertain affinities; and the 
posterior simplicity may in some cases be the result of loss of teeth 
by breakage, which is frequent enough in Siphonodentaliidce with 
lobed apices to pretty thoroughly vitiate any attempt to draw hard 
and fast lines using the slits as a basis. 

S. LOFOTENSE M. Sars. PI. 24, figs. 40, 41, 42, 43, 44. 

Shell rather solid, white, but little pellucid, cylindrical, smooth ; 
growth-striae somewhat oblique, moderately conspicuous ; form nar- 
rowly subarcuate, moderately attenuated toward the apex. Aper- 



SIPHONODENTALIUM. 139 

ture nearly three times the width of apical orifice. Length as much 
as 6 mill. (G. 0. Sars}. 

Lofoten Is. and other places from Christiania fjord to Haswig in 
Finmark, 30-300 fms. (Sars and others) ; Hebrides and Shetland, 
40-140 fms. (Jeffreys) ; Clyde district and Lismore (Chaster and 
Heathcote) ; West of Ireland in 90-1630 fms. ; Bay of Biscay, 227- 
1095 fms. ; Vigo Bay, 20 fms. (Porcupine Exped.) ; Gulf of Gas- 
cony, 60-80 fms. (Folin) ; Mediterranean and ^Egean Seas, 50-1456 
fms. (Porcupine, Acton, Spratt, Monts.) ; Off New England, 500 
fms. (Verrill) ; Pliocene of Calabria and Sicily. 

Siphonodentalium lofotense M. SARS, Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christiauia, 
1864, p. 29, pi. 6, f. 29-33 (1865). JEFFREYS, Nature, i, p. 135; 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), xx, p. 250 (1867) ; (4), ii, pp. 299, 301 
(1868) ; v, p. 442 (1870) ; vi, p. 74 (1870) ; Brit. Conch., v, 195, 
pi. 101, f. 2 ; Proc. Koy. Soc. Lond., xxv, p. 199. 

Siphodentalium lofotense Sars, JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), 
xix, p. 156 (1877) ; (5), vi, p. 317 (1880) ; xi, p. 395 (1883) ; P. Z. 
S., 1882, p. 662. Siphonodentalium lofotensis Sars, ARADAS & BEN- 
OIT, Conch. Viv. Mar. Sicilia, p. 118 (1870). Siphonentalis lofo- 
tensis M. Sars, G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 104, pi. 20, f. 
lla-b; pi. I, f. 3, (1878). VERRILL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 
395 ; Arner. Journ. Sci., xx, 1880, p. 392 ; Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., 
v, p. 558. Pulsellum lofotense Sars, CHASTER & HEATHCOTE, 
Journ. of Conch., vii, p. 304. 

Specimens from the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean are 
usually much smaller than those from more northern seas. (Jef- 
freys}. 

Jeffreys remarks : " The shell may easily be passed (as it was by 
me) for the young Dentalium entails; but it is more curved and 
cylindrical, the mouth and corresponding lines of growth slope back- 
wards, and the margin of the posterior orifice is regularly jagged 
(having two slight notches on each side), and this extremity does 
not form a bulbous point in the fry. One of the characters given by 
Sars (" margine aperturse posterioris integro") should be amended. 
My observation of the animal agreed with his, except that the foot 
is vermiform and has a fine point, the disk being expanded and 
assuming the shape of a flower only when the Siphonodentalium 
wishes to obtain a fulcrum and keep its place in the sand. The foot 
of Nucula and Leda is somewhat similar, its disk when expanded 
resembling the leaf of a palm." 



140 SIPHONODENTALIUM. 

S. AFFINE M. Bars. PI. 24, figs. 45, 46, 47. 

Shell thin, very pellucid, shining, very smooth, the growth strise 
but slightly visible; cylindric, slightly subarcuate, a little tapering 
toward the apex ; aperture about twice the width of the apex, which 
is circular with entire margin. Length 4 mill. ((?. 0. Bars'). 

Finmark and Lofoten Is., 100-300 fms. (Sars) ; West of Ireland, 
1215-1380 fms., and Channel slope, 690 fms. (Porcupine) ; Bedford 
Basin, near Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 35 fms. (Verrill). 

Siphonodentalium affine M. SARS, Forh. Videns. Selskabet Christ- 
iania for 1864, p. 300, pi. 6, f. 34, 35 (I8Q5).Siphodentalium affine 
M. Sars, JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xix, p. 156 (1877) ; 
P. Z. S., 1882, p. QQl.Siphonentalis affinis M. Sars, G. O. SARS, 
Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 104, pi. 20, f. 12 (1878). VERRILL, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 395; Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 558, 
pi. 42, f. 20rt, b. 

Not the young of S. vitreum \lobatum~], which in all stages of 
growth is more conical and not so cylindrical as S. affine; and the 
point is also different. The present species is not half the size of S. 
teres, and is much less slender and tapering. (Jeffreys). 

S. PUSILLUM Watson. PI. 23, fig. 6. 

Shell minute, attenuated, slightly bent, thin, transparent, irregu- 
larly banded with opaque white, which runs elliptically round the 
shell. Sculpture : there is no trace of longitudinal strise, but the 
whole surface is sharply scratched with minute transverse strise, 
which run (as usual) not directly round the shell, but advance on 
the concave and retreat on the convex curve. Length 0'12 inch., 
breadth at small end O'Ol ; at broad end 0'02. ( Watson). 

Palma, Canaries, 1125 fms. (Challenger). 

Siphodentalium pusillum WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, 
p. 520 (1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 14, pi. 2, f. 6. 

The specimens are young, and both ends are chipped. It is 
straighter and more tumid than Dentalium filum Sow. (in part),= 
Dentalium gracile Jeffr., but more curved and broader than the 
young of D. capillosum Jeffr. It is much larger, more tumid, and 
straighter for the same length than Siphodentalium lofotense Sars. 
( Watson). 
S. EBORACENSE Watson. PI. 26, fig. 75. 

Shell small, narrow, tapering very gradually throughout, toward 
the apex bent, thin, brilliant, translucent, and transparent in alter- 



SIPHONODENTALIUM. 141 

nate bands. Sculpture : there are a few remote, irregular oblique, 
transverse striae ; in the young shell the whole surface is covered 
with longitudinal strise, excessively minute (0-0005 in. apart), sharp 
and regular, but which seem very easily rubbed off (on two specimens 
they are barely traceable), and which disappear towards the mouth. 
The mouth is round, very oblique, sharp, and thin. The apex is 
minute, and is broken straight across, and somewhat chipped. 
Length 0'185 inch., breadth 0*024 ; at apex, O'OOS inch. ( Watson). 
Torres Strait, Cape York, N.E.Australia, 3-11 fms. (Challenger). 

Siphodentalium eboracense WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, 
p. 523 (1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 17, pi. 2, f. JO. 

Than Siphodentalium prionotwn Wats., this is smaller, straighter, 
but toward the apex more bent, not narrowed at the mouth ; smaller 
at the apex, and the whole texture of the shell is different. Than 
Siphodentalium vitreum Sars, this is less cylindrical, is not con- 
tracted toward the mouth, and is much smaller toward the apex. 
(Watson). 

SIPHONODENTALIUM (?) N. SP. PI. 28. figs. 6, 7, 8, 9. 

A species of Siphonodentalium, or an immature Cadulus allied to 
C. dalli, is represented in the Jeffreys collection, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
by two individuals, the smaller of which is figured on pi. 28, figs. 6, 
7, lateral and convex aspects, figs. 8, 9 representing the larger shell. 
The surface is smoothish and polished, with perceptible growth-striae ; 
hyaline, with some obliquely encircling white lines ; section subcir- 
cular, a mere trifle compressed vertically. Apex with two lobes or 
teeth on the convex side, but apparently broken along the line of 
growth on the concave side from one lateral slit to the other, so that 
the number of teeth upon this margin is unknown ; both specimens 
being alike in this particular. 

Length 3'3, mill. ; diam. at aperture 0'6 x 0'64, at apex 0'26 mill. 
(figs. 6, 7). 

Length 4'4 mill. ; diam. at aperture 0'6 x 0'62, at apex 0'26 x 0'28 
mill, (apical teeth broken ; figs. 8, 9). 

Korea, in 54 fms. (St. John). U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 107705. 

The material is too imperfect for generic determination, although 
taking locality into consideration, the specific form should be recog- 
nized from the above details when again encountered. 



142 CADULUS. 

Genus CADULUS Philippi, 1844. 

Includes Cadulus Phil., Gadila Gray, Gadus auct., Helonyx 
Stimp., Dischides Jeffr., Loxoporus Jeffr., Polyschides P. & S. 

Tubular, circular or oval in section ; somewhat arcuate ; varying 
from cask-shaped to acicular ; more or less bulging or swollen near 
the middle or above, contracting toward the aperture. Surface 
smooth or delicately striated. 

The genus Cadulus, as we use that term, contains species of a 
great variety of shapes, and with various apical modifications, but 
having in common an inflated bulging shell which contracts more or 
less in caliber near the aperture as well as posteriorly. It is this 
anterior constriction which separates Cadulus from Siphonodental- 
ium. 

In some species of all the sections of the genus, a circular rib is 
developed within the apical orifice, while others lack it. This struc- 
ture is not, therefore, characteristic of the typical division only, as 
some authors have claimed. 

The subdivision of Cadulus by conchological characters (and 
there are as yet no adequate data upon the soft anatomy), is attended 
with difficulties; but as the size of the genus and the heterogeneous 
nature of its contents render some subdivision a convenience, the 
following scheme is offered. 

The recognition of Gadila is an expedient of doubtful utility, for 
there are no very definite features separating it from the typical 
forms of Cadulus. The other sections are probably natural groups, 
although when the teeth are broken off, not an unusual accident, 
their differential characters are no longer apparent. It is hardly 
necessary to warn the investigator against this pitfall ; but we may 
perhaps be allowed to beg indulgence lest we may not in every case 
have avoided it ourselves. 

Key to sections of Cadulus. 

I. Apex with slits or notches. 

a. Apex with two lateral slits only, Section Dischides, p. 143. 
a'. Apex with four or more slits, Section Polyschides, p. 146. 
II. Apex entire, unslit. 

a. Obese ; both ventral and dorsal outlines convex and project- 
ing beyond a chord connecting the adjacent lip edges, 

Section Cadulus s. s., p. 



CADULUS-DISCHIDES. 143 

a'. More slender or attenuated ; ventral outline convex ; dorsal 
outline as a whole concave, not projecting beyond a chord 
connecting the ends of shell, Section Gadila, p. 

Section DISCHIDES Jeffreys, 1867. 

Dischides JEFFR., Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist. (3), xx, p. 
251 (in text). 

Oadus " Rang," DESHAYES, Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin de Paris, 
ii, p. 217, 1864, (in part) for G. parisiensis [=0. dentieulatus Dh.], 
G. bilabiatus [ C. bifissuratus Dh.], and G. brevis Dh. 

Shell rather slender, not much bulging ; apex cut into an anterior 
and a posterior lobe by two deep lateral slits, one on each side. 
Type C. (Dischides} politus S. V. Wood. 

Distribution : Recent in both the Atlantic and Pacific ; Paris 
Basin Eocene to Pliocene of Europe. 

Jeffreys describes the soft parts of C. politus as follows : 

Body whitish, gelatinous ; mantle rather thick, forming a collar 
round the front opening of the shell ; 'captacula issuing from within 
the mantle, numerous, capable of so great an extension as to exceed 
the shell in length ; stalks very slender ; terminal bulbs oval ; foot 
cylindrical and narrow, protruded from the middle of the mouth as 
from a sheath ; it is occasionally thrust out in a darting manner and 
suddenly withdrawn, and so swiftly that the point of the foot could 
not be observed ; the foot is usually curved towards the point ; 
anal tube protruded beyond the narrower end or extremity of the 
shell ; it consists of an outer and inner part, the latter being folded 
to suit the slit on each side ; gills rather short, of a brownish color. 

Key to species of Dischides. 

I. Slender, but little contracted anteriorly, the length of shell 8 or 
9 times its greatest diameter. 

a. Slits at apex narrow and deep; tube contracting quite 
noticeably and suddenly near aperture ; length 7'6 mill., 
about 9? times the greatest diam., politus. 

a'. Slits wide and triangular ; tube very little contracted to- 
ward the aperture; length 9'2 mill, about 8J times the 
greatest diam., belcheri. 

a". A shallow, rounded hollow on each side of apex ; tube 
gently contracted at mouth ; length 8'2 mill., about 8 
times the greatest diam., prionotus. 



144 CADULUS-DISCHIDES. 

II. Considerably contracted anteriorly ; slits deep and narrow ; 
length 9 mill., about 6? times the greatest diam., dichelus. 

C. POLITUS (Searles Wood). PI. 27, figs. 90, 91, 92, 93, 94. 

Shell small and slender, thin, arcuate, considerably tapering; 
translucent bluish-white, with many unequal obliquely transverse 
lines and bands of opaque-white. Sculpture of fine, inconspicuous 
growth-striae, running obliquely around the tube. Near the aperture 
the tube contracts quite noticeably. Aperture oblique, round-oval, 
a trifle wider than long ; peristome thin and simple. Apex bilabi- 
ate, narrowly and deeply slit on each side, edges of the apical lobes 
bevelled. 

Length 7'6, greatest diam. antero-posteriorly 0*81, laterally O81 
mill. ; aperture, greatest diam. 0'67, least 0'63 mill. ; diam. at apex 
0-31 mill. 

Mediterranean, from Sicily to Gibraltar. Atlantic : Morocco ; Can- 
aries ; Portugal at Setubal Bay ; Gulf of Gascony ; Benzert Road, 
Adventure Bank. Pliocene, Coralline Crag, England; Italy. 

Ditrupa polita S. V. WOOD, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ix, p. 459, pi. 
5, f. 14 (August, 1842). 

?? Dentalium pusillum PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 245 (1836), 
ii, p. 206 (1844). 

Dentalium coarctatum PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 208 (1844), 
not of Lam. 

Dentalium Icsvigatum DE RAYNEVAL, v. D. HECKE & PONZI, 
Catal. foss. du Mont Mario, Versailles, 1854 (not seen by us). Not 

D. IcKvigatum Schlotheim, 1830. 

Dentalium bifissum S. V. WOOD, Crag Moll., i, p. 190, pi. 20, f. 3, 
a-b (1848). 

Dischides bifissum [its'] Wood, JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), 
xx, p. 251 (1867) ; P. Z. S., 1882, p. 663. ARAD. & BEN., Conch. 
Mar. Sicil., p. 117 (1870). WEINKAUFF, Conch, des Mittelm., ii, 
p. 421 (1868). MONTS., Norn. Gen. e Spec. Conch. Med., p. 34 
(1884). 

Dischides olivi Sc., JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vi, July, 
1870, p. 73. 

The anterior contraction is much more abrupt than in Dischides 
belcheri or D. brevis. C. bifissuratus is a stouter, larger shell. The 
present species was first well defined as Ditupa polita, but this name 
has since been forgotten, and olivi, coarctatum and bifissum have been 



CADULUS-DISCEflDEsT 145 

used. There is a good deal of doubt about Philippi's D. pusillum ; 
so much that in the absence of a sufficient diagnosis it need not pre- 
judice the use of Searles Wood's name polita, unmistakably fixed 
as it is by a sufficient diagnosis and good figures. 

C. BELCHERI Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 26, figs. 84, 85, 86, 87. 

Shell small, moderately arcuate but the bend mainly posterior, 
tapering, slightly swollen above the middle, an.d thence a very little 
contracted to the aperture. Thin, translucent whitish, slightly 
flecked with opaque posteriorly. Smooth and glossy, growth-striae 
being hardly apparent under the lens, Aperture nearly circular, 
but a trifle shorter than wide, the peristome oblique, thin. Anal 
end bilabiate, with a wide triangular fissure on each side. 

Length 9'2, diam. at aperture *95 x 1*0 ; at greatest girth T05 x 
1-08 ; at apex 0'4 x 0'4 mill. 

North Pacific (Sir E. Belcher!). 

Less abruptly contracted anteriorly and with more open lateral 
slits than 0. politus Wood. This is the form mentioned by Jeffreys 
in P. Z. S., 1882, p. 663. Type is no. 107703 U. S. Nat. Mus., 
formerly in Jeffreys' collection. C. dichelus is a stouter species. 

C. DICHELUS (Watson). PI. 26, fig. 73. 

Shell long, slightly swollen at about three-fifths of its length ; the 
swelling bulges on the concave curve, but the convex curve is un- 
interrupted ; between these two curves it is compressed by one-sixth 
of its breadth, a little contracted in front, bent and attenuated to- 
ward the apex ; thin, brilliant, white, almost hyaline, with a few 
minute, transverse, curdy streaks, but weathering to opaque. There 
is an opaque band round the apex. Sculpture : most faint and 
delicate microscopic scratches on the lines of growth, with a minute 
transverse flocculence and some vague indication of longitudinal 
texture in the substance of shell. The mouth is large, very oblique, 
with a smoothly rounded edge, which is sharp on the inner margin ; 
both it and the posterior opening are oval. The apex, ^vhich is 
small, is split on either side by a deep, narrow, slightly widening, 
smooth, clean-cut, but not perfectly regular cleft, which is evidently 
carried down the shell as the growth of the animal demands, for it 
cuts across the transverse striae, as Mr. Searles Wood remarks is the 
case with Siphodentalium (Dischides') bifissum. Within the opening 
a short, minute, longitudinal, rib-like process projects along the 
10 



146 CADULUS-POLYSCHIDES. 

middle of the posterior (i. e. convex curve) wall ; a little farther in, 
a thin, narrow, circular callus runs round the opening. 

Length 0'35 in. breadth at mouth O032 ; broadest 0'055 ; apex 
0-022. (Watson). 

Levuka, Fiji, 12 fms. (Challenger). 

Siphodentalium dichelum WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 
521 (1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 15, pi. 2, f. 7. 

This is much larger than S. tetraschistum Wats., and much less 
cylindrical, being much more contracted towards the mouth. The 
posterior internal rib is a curious feature. It shows through the 
shell like a crack or depression, but is a true internal rib ( Watson). 

C. PRIONOTUS (Watson). PI. 26, fig. 74. 

Shell long, narrow, tapering, gently contracted at the mouth, 
slightly bent throughout ; rather strong, polished, but hardly bril- 
liant, translucent white. Sculpture : very faintly transversely stri- 
ated on the surface, and a very minute flocculence in the same direc- 
tion in the texture. For the breadth of the shell the mouth is large, 
perfectly round, oblique, with a smoothly rounded edge, which is 
sharp on its inner margin. The apex is small, much chipped, but 
that in such a way as in all the specimens to produce a shallow 
rounded hollow on either side, with a sharp, projecting point before 
and behind. Within the opening a short excessively minute riblet 
runs out along the middle of the posterior wall ; it shines through 
the shell like a depression, being a little more transparent than the 
shell-wall. 

Length 0'328 in. breadth at mouth 0'028 ; greatest 0'039 ; at apex 
0-013 inch. (Watson). 

Raine Island, Cape York, N. E. Australia, 155 fms. (Challenger). 

Siphodentalium prionotum WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, 
p. 522 (1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 16, pi. 2, f. 9. 

This species differs from the previous \_dichelus] in being much 
narrower and having no swelling. From Siphodentalium tetraschis- 
tum Wats, it differs in being more elongated, more attenuated be- 
hind, and in the character of the posterior opening. ( Watson). 

Section POLYSCHIDES Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897. 

Shell inflated above the middle or not much bulging ; apex cut 
into a number of lobes, generally four, by as many slits. Type C. 
(Polyschides) tetraschistus Wats. 



CADULUS-POLYSCHIDES. 147 

This group differs from Siphonodentalium in having the tube con- 
tracted toward the aperture; from Dischides in the greater number 
of terminal lobes, and from Cadulus in the presence of slits at the 
apex. The typical forms have four teeth, dorsal and ventral, and 
on each side; in a few species the apex is differently incised, hav- 
ing two symmetrically placed side-slits as in Dischides, deeper than 
those above and below. C. dalli Pilsbry & Sharp from off western 
Patagonia, and C. parisiensis (Deshayes) from the Parisian Eocene 
represent this type, which is about intermediate between Polyschides 
and Dischides, if not actually nearer the latter group. 

Immature specimens have the characters of Siphonodentalium; and 
when the apical lobes are broken off the shell is like the Gadila or 
Helonyx manifestations of Cadulus. 

Polyschides species of the typical quadridentate form appear 
numerously in the Eocene, together with species of the type of 
<?. dalli and of Dischides. 

Key to Species. 

I. Shell slowly tapering, hardly inflated, the apertural contrac- 
tion slight and short ; apex large, cut into 4 bevelled teeth by 
4 subequal slits; length Gs-lO mill., about 7 times the greatest 
diameter, 
a. West Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico species, 

tetraschistus, quadridentatus, incisus t p. 148. 
a'. Californian species, quadriftssatusj p. 150. 

II. Shell quite noticeably or strongly inflated, with marked con- 
traction toward aperture ; apex 4-slit or notched ; known spe- 
cies West Atlantic. 

a. Small, moderately swollen, fusiform, with a long, gentle 
taper toward each end ; teeth large ; length 5 to 5.6 
mill., 5 times greatest diam., tetrodon, p. 151. 

a'. Larger, moderately swollen anteriorly, attenuated poste- 
riorly, circular in section throughout; length 7i-10 
mill., 6 times greatest diam., more or less ; 4 short teeth, 

carolinensis, p. 152. 

a". Large and stout, the greatest inflation at the anterior 
third ; aperture broad-elliptical ; 4 rounded apical teeth ; 
length 15 mill., about 4 times the greatest diam., 

grandis, p. 154. 



148 CADULUS-POLYSCHIDES. 

a'". Large, strongly swollen close to the oblique, markedly 
contracted and oval aperture ; a moderately deep apical 
notch on each side and smaller ones above and below ; 
length 22 mill., 5? times the greatest diameter, 

spectabilis, p. 153. 

III. Moderately inflated anteriorly ; apex with a deeper notch on 
each side, tfye margin along convex side subdivided into 2, that 
along concave side into 3 rounded teeth; length 11-14 mill., 
about 5? times the greatest diam. Off west coast Patagonia, 

dalli, p. 155. 

G. TETRASCHISTUS (Watson). PI. 23, fig. 1. 

Shell cylindrical, tapering, bent and attenuated from about the 
middle to the apex ; toward the mouth very slightly contracted, ft 
is rather strong, and has the dull gloss and white translucency of a 
quill. There are two opaque bands round the apex. 

Sculpture : There are traces, exceedingly faint, of fine close-set 
striae, which run elliptically round the shell on the lines of growth, 
and in some lights there is just a reflection as of some sort of remote 
longitudinal texture (very like that in Siphodentalium (Dischides) 
bifissum Wood). The edge of the mouth slopes backward very 
obliquely from the concave to the convex side of the shell; it is 
thick, and all round it is smoothly rounded off. The apex projects 
on the convex side of the shell, and is split by four opposite, shal- 
low, unequal, irregular, rough-edged, gaping clefts, so arranged as to 
leave the teeth at the convex and concave curves and at the two 
sides. The bands round the apex are two narrow, callus-like inter- 
nal ribs. Length, 0'298 inch ; breadth at mouth, 0'03 ; at broadest, 
0-035 ; at apex, O'OIT inch (Watson'). 

Anchorage off Fernando Noronha, 25 fms. (Challenger). 

Siphodentalium tetraschistum WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., 
xiv, p. 521 (1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 15, pi. 2, f. 8. 

Siphonodentalium quadridentatum DALL, Bull. Mus. Comp.Zool., 
ix, p. 36 (July, 1881). Cadulus quadridentatus DALL, Blake Gas- 
tropoda, p. 428, pi. 27, f. 5 (1889) ; Trans. Wagner Inst. Sci., iii, p. 
445 (1892) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 76, pi. 41, f. 20 (1889); 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, p. 295. C. incisus BUSH, Trans. Conn. 
Acad. Sci., vi, p. 471, pi. 45, f. 20 (June, 1885). 

C. tetraschistus is the senior or earliest-described member of a 
group of closely allied forms having similar 4-cleft apices, from the 



CADULUS-POLYSCHIDF.S. 149 

western Atlantic, extending off the east coast of the United States 
to the island Fernando Noronha off Brazil, and with one representa- 
tive in the Pacific (California). The Atlantic forms differ from one 
another only in size and length of the teeth ; and seem to us to be 
merely local races or subspecies rather than of specific rank. As 
others may prefer to retain the several forms as species, we give be- 
low full information upon them with the original diagnoses. 

Var. QUADRIDENTATUS (Dall). PI. 23, fig. 7 ; pi. 28, figs. 1-5. 

Shell moderately arcuate, the bend greater posteriorly, not much 
tapering ; milky-bluish, glassy, smooth, the growth striso very slight ; 
gradually increasing to a point quite near the aperture, thence 
slightly contracted. Greatest diameter contained about 7 times in 
the length of shell. Tube nearly circular in section, slightly com- 
pressed vertically. Aperture very oblique, transversely oval. Apex 
cut into four rather conic teeth, which toward their points are 
bevelled at the outside edges, by four deep slits ; the tooth on con- 
vex side longest, the other three subequal in length, that on the con- 
cave side widest and obtuse. 

Length 975, diam. at aperture I'O xl'l ; diam. at largest l'32x 
1*38; diam. at apex 0'75 x 0*76 mill, (specimen from Florida 
Strait). 

Largest specimen of a series from off Cape Fear, 9 mill, long ; 
smallest adult 6 - 6 mill. 

Bermuda (Heilprin) ; Cape Hatteras (U. S. F. C., Rush) south to 
west coast of Florida, 30 fins. (Pourtals) ; Fernando Noronha; and 
mouth of the Rio la Plata, in 10\ fms. (U. S. Fish Commission) ; 
Pliocene of Caloosahatchie River, Florida. 

The differences between C. tetraschistus, C. quadridentatus and C. 
incisus seem to be pretty well covered by the variations observed 
among individuals dredged off the southeastern U. S. We do not 
see that there is any considerable or sufficient difference, when the 
measurements of all are compared. C. quadridentatus may be con- 
sidered a large race or subspecies, and C. incisus a form intermedi- 
ate between the two extremes. As to contour, they are all prac- 
tically alike. The specimen figured by Dall has the teeth abnor- 
mally obtuse, probably from old age and wear. Watson's figure of 
tetraschistum does not show the tooth on convex side as long as it is 
in perfect North American specimens. We repeat here Dall's 
original description, and give a copy of his figure, pi. 23, fig. 7. 



150 CADULUS-POLYSCHIDES. 

" This species is best described by comparing it with S. tetraschis- 
turn Watson, to which it is Dearly allied. The present form, which 
may prove eventually to be a large race of Watson's species, seems 
to differ from it in its proportionally greater stoutness and actually 
larger size, in the want of any sculpture on its polished surface, and 
in the proportionally smaller and narrower slits at the anal end of 
the tube. The dimensions of quadridentatum are: Lon. lO'O, max. 
diam. 1*3, oral diam. 0'8, anal diam. 0'4 mill. The same in Mr. 
Watson's species are 7'7, 0*81, 0'75 and 0'4 mill, respectively. His 
specimens came from Fernando Noronha, 25-fms. ; ours is from 
Pourtales' dredgings on the west coast of Florida in 30 fms. 

"In other respects than those mentioned, Watson's description 
and figure agree almost exactly with our specimen" (Dall, 1881). 

The original description here follows of 

Var. incisus Bush. PL 25, fig. 65. 

"Shell rather small, slender, somewhat cylindrical, slightly con- 
tracted dorsally, just back of the anterior aperture, tapering and 
curving gradually from about the middle toward the posterior end. 
It is thin, semitransparent and very lustrous. Anterior aperture 
is oval and a little oblique ; the posterior aperture is very ob- 
lique with four narrow very deep notches, two on each side, form- 
ing four conspicuous points on the end of the shell. Length of 
largest specimen 8, diam. anterior aperture 1, posterior aperture 0*5 
mill. The other specimen is smaller and more slender, measuring, 
length 7, diam. anterior aperture 0'8, posterior less than 0'5 mill." 
(Bush*). 

This form is from the Hatteras region. 

C. QUADRIFISSATUS (Carpenter), n. sp. PI. 29, figs. 10, 1 1, 12, 13. 

Shell arcuate, the bend greater posteriorly, slender, but slightly 
tapering, not swollen, subtransparent bluish, with a milky band near 
the larger end ; smooth and rather glossy, the growth lines hardly 
visible; posterior third slowly tapering, the tube then nearly cylin- 
drical almost to the aperture; quite near the latter it is contracted, 
the contraction greatest on the convex side. Greatest diameter 
contained about 7 times in the length of the shell. Aperture ob- 
lique, transversely oval; apex cut into four conic teeth by the same 
number of short slits ; the tooth on convex side slightly longest,, 
the other three subequal in length, that on concave side wider and 
obtuse ; edges of the teeth somewhat bevelled distally. 



CADULUS-POLYSCHIDES. 151 

Length 8'6 mill., diam. at aperture 0'85 x 1*0, at largest T12 x 
1-22, at apex 0'65 x O7 mill. 

San Diego, California, 10 fms. (Henry Hemphill, in Acad. coll.) ; 
San Pedro (Smithsonian Institution). 

Siphonodentdlium 4'fi ssa ^ um CARPENTER, mss. label in Smithso- 
nian Institution collection. 

Extremely similar to C. quadridentatus of the Antillean fauna ; 
but in the Californian species the aperture is somewhat less oblique, 
the apical slits are shorter, the teeth all more conspicuously bevelled 
and the tooth on the convex side less elongated. These differences 
we would hardly hold of specific value were it not for the geographic 
separation of the two species ; still they seem constant so far as our 
material goes. 

The figures and measurements are from a San Diego specimen in 
coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. The Smithsonian Institution example, 
which bore the above name, is somewhat smaller, not fully adult, 
length 7-2 mill. 

C. TETRODON Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 29, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. 

Shell small, slender, slightly arcuate,translucent and slightly bluish 
with a white line or band near the apex ; but little inflated, the great- 
est girth at the anterior two-fifths of the length, from this point quite 
perceptibly tapering toward each end. Outline of concave side a trifle 
convex in the region of inflation ; greatest diameter contained about 
5? times in the length of the shell. Surface glossy, without percep- 
tible growth striae. Aperture oblique, nearly circular, the blunt 
peristome a little contracted along the convex margin. Anal orifice 
rounded-oval, slit into four blunt lobes or teeth, one on the convex 
side slightly longer, rounded ; one on concave side truncated, the 
two lateral lobes slightly narrower; each more or less bevelled to 
an edge. 

Length 5'6 mill., diam. at aperture 0'57 x 0*6, at greatest inflation 
0-95 x 1-0, at apex 0'35 x (M3 mill. 

Length 5 mill., antero-posterior diam. at aperture 0*6, at greatest 
0'88, at apex 0'4 mill. 

Five miles of Cape Florida, in 8 fms. (Dr. W. H. Rush, U. S. 
N.). 

This species is smaller than C. tetrasehistus, quadridentatus and 
incisus, and is decidedly more swollen and fusiform, the difference 
in this respect being particularly conspicuous. In general outline 



352 CADULUS-POLYSCH1DES. 

it is very near Ball's C. amiantus, but that species is stated to have 
"" both orifices circular and not notched," and with a length of 5'75 
it has a greatest diameter of 1/4 mill., while in a specimen of our 
species 5*6 in length, the greatest diameter is only 1*0 mill. In 
other words, the greatest diameter of amiantus is contained 4*1 
times in the length of the shell, and that of tetrodon 5'6 times. The 
slender specimens of amiantus reported from off Cape Florida by 
Dall may be individuals of our species with the teeth broken off. 
Types are No. 71,070 coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

C. CAROLINENSIS Bush. PI. 25, fig. 64 ; pi. 30, figs. 24, 25, 26, 27. 

Shell of medium size, semitransparent (perfectly fresh specimens 
are almost transparent and glassy, showing the animal quite dis- 
tinctly), very glossy, bluish-white, nearly circular throughout its 
entire length. Greatest diameter at about the anterior third, 
diminishing moderately to the round, very oblique anterior aper- 
ture, and backward to the posterior end, at first very gradually and 
further back more rapidly. Curvature well marked in some speci- 
mens, slightly in others, nearly uniform along the convex side ; the 
outline of concave side somewhat, though but slightly, convex along 
the swollen half or more of the length, concave posteriorly. Great- 
est diameter contained 51 to 6'6 times in the length of the shell. 
Aperture oblique, subcircular, the peristome inflexed along the con- 
vex margin. Posterior aperture very small, round and with four 
small distinct notches, two on each side ; teeth very short. 

Length 9'8, diam. at aperture 1 x 1, at greatest inflation 1*6 x 
1.6, at apex 0*52 x 0'6 mill. 

Length 9'7, antero-posterior diam. at aperture 1*0, at greatest in- 
flation 1*45, at apex 0'5 mill, (specimens). 

Length 9*5, greatest diameter about 2*0 ; anterior aperture 1*0, 
and posterior aperture 0'4 mill. (Bush). 

Cape Hatteras, very abundant in 7-48 fms. (U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion, Rush) ; Old Providence in 382 fms. (Dall) ; Vera Cruz, Mex- 
ico (Heilprin & Baker). 

C. carolinensis BUSH, in Verrill, Res. Expl. Albatross, 1883, Ann. 
Rep. Commissioner Fish and Fisheries for 1883, art. xvi, p. 587, 
(1885) ; Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 471, pi. 45, f. 19 (June, 1885). 
DALL, Rep. Blake Gastr. & Scaph., p. 430 (1889) ; Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 78. 



CADULUS-POLYSCHIDES. 153 

This species does not attain the dimensions of C. spectabilis, and 
it differs from the tetrasehistus group in being decidedly inflated. 
The aperture is formed as in tetrasehistus. 

Specimens in rather poor condition from Vera Cruz, Mexico, are 
small, length 7*5 mill., but we do not doubt their specific identity 
with the Carolinian examples, some of which are under 8 mill. long. 

Var. BUSHII Dall. PI. 33, figs. 58, 59. 

Shell resembling C. earolinensis, but somewhat smaller, more 
abruptly constricted behind the swollen portion, and with the 
posterior orifice a little smaller. Length 6'5 ; max. diain., 1'25 
mill. 

Barbados, in 100 fms. (Blake.) 

Cadulus (carolinensis var. ?) Bushii DALL, ' Blake ' Gastr. and 
Scaph., p. 430, 1889. 

In the present uncertainty as to what constitutes a species in this 
group, or what is the range of specific variation, it is impossible to 
say whether this form should be regarded as a species, or as a 
variety of C. earolinensis Bush. (Dall.) 

The figures are from camera lucida sketches kindly furnished by 
Dall. 

. SPECTABILIS Verrill. PI. 25, fig. 64. 

Shell very large for the genus, rather strongly curved, especially 
behind the middle, swollen and somewhat angular and gibbous a 
short distance back of the aperture. The gibbosity or swelling 
affects most the dorsal side, but is distinct also on the sides and 
ventrally ; in advance of this swollen part the shell narrows rapidly 
to the aperture, the decrease being much the greatest on the dorsal 
side. The aperture is oblique and elliptical in outline, the dorsal 
margin being distinctly flattened. From the anterior swelling the 
shell tapers regularly and gradually backward, with an increasing 
curvature. The posterior opening is not very large, a little flat- 
tened, and its margin, when perfect, has a moderately deep notch 
on each side and a shallower one both above and below. The shell 
is translucent and the surface is everywhere smooth and polished, 
but shows irregular alternating bands of lighter and darker shade, 
due to greater or less transparency of the substance, and there are 
also faint longitudinal whitish lines visible in the substance of the 
shell, but not affecting the surface (Verrill}. 



154 CADULUS-POLYSCHIDES. 

Length, 22 mill. ; greatest diameter, 4 ; breadth of the oral aper- 
ture 2 ; diameter of posterior aperture, 1 mill. 

Atlantic, east of New Jersey and Maryland, from "Albatross."" 
Station 2,043 in 1,467 fathoms (lat. 39 49', Ion. 68 28' 30" to sta- 
tions 2,174, 2,221, 2,222 and 2, 228 (the latter in lat. 37 25', Ion. 
73 06'), in 1,525 to 1,594 fathoms (U. S. F. C.). Near St. Vincent, 
West Indies, in 464 fms. (Blake Exp.), 

Cadulus speetabilis VERRILL, Trans. Conn.Acad., vi, p. 432, pi. 
44, f. 19, (1885). DALL, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xviii, p. 429 
(1889) : Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 76, pi. 46, f. 19. 

" The specimen from St. Vincent is of a more even ivory white, 
and rather less attenuated posteriorly than the specimens from New 
England ; otherwise it seems to agree fairly with them (Ball). 

*' The species is remarkable for its great size, exceeding even C. 
grandis ; for its gibbous swelling close to the anterior end ; and for 
the rapid and strongly marked contraction of the oral aperture. 
By the last named feature it is readily distinguished from C. grandis. 
Taken in the largest numbers at Station 2,221, lat. 39 05' 30", Ion. 
70 44' 30", where about twenty-five specimens occurred, part of 
them living" (Verrill). 

C. GRANDIS Verrill. PI. 25, fig. 66. 

General appearance of the shell much like that of C. pandionis,. 
but more than twice as large, without the abrupt bulging at the 
largest part, which is a characteristic feature of the latter, and with 
a relatively larger posterior aperture. 

The shell is, for the genus, large and strong, translucent bluish- 
white when living, milk-white when dead, with a highly polished 
surface, only faintly marked by the lines of growth when perfect. 
The shell is moderately curved, the greater part of the curvature 
being behind the middle, and is largest at about the anterior third, 
the decrease being very gentle and regular in both directions, but a 
little more rapid towards the anterior end. The dorsal side is a lit- 
tle flattened towards the aperture, which is decidedly oblique and 
very broad-elliptical. The posterior aperture is relatively rather 
large, circular, with the edge a little thickened and divided inta 
four rounded notches, the two upper ones being usually a little 
deeper and farther apart than the two ventral ones. 

Length of one of the largest examples, 15 mill.; greatest diam- 
eter, 3*5 ; transverse diameter of the oral end, 3 ; vertical diameter, 



CADULU8-POLYSCHIDES. 155 

2*5; diameter of the posterior end, 1*3 mill. Some specimens exceed 
these dimensions ( Verrill). 

Off eastern coast of the United States, from " Albatross " Station 
2,052, south of La Have Bank, east from Nantucket, lat. 39 40' 05", 
Ion. 69 21' 25", in 1,098 fins., to Station 2,115 near Cape Hatteras, 
in 843 fms. ; at several intermediate stations in 906-1,290 fms. At 
Station 2,043 in 1,467 fms., one large malformed specimen occurred 
(U. S. Fish Commission). 

Cadulus grandis VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 219, pi. 44, 
f. 20 (1884). 

This species might readily be mistaken for a large form of C. 
pandionis, but it differs from the latter in having a larger posterior 
aperture, a more nearly circular oral aperture, and especially in the 
absence of the abrupt bulging at the largest part. The form is 
usually less curved, although in this respect both species are some- 
what variable. This shell is, however, much thicker and in every 
way more robust ( Verrill). 

C. DALLI Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 30, figs. 19, 20, 2 1, 22, 23. 

Shell rather large, but little curved, smooth and glossy, but upon 
revolving the shell a sort of excessively shallow, irregular, longi- 
tudinal sulcation may be seen by the play of light on the larger 
third of the shell, at least in some specimens; bluish-white and 
slightly translucent, sometimes more opaque upon the dilated por- 
tion. Moderately swollen posteriorly, the greatest diam. contained 
about 5? times in the length of the shell, equator not defined, at 
about the anterior third to fourth of the length, in front of that 
point moderately contracted, behind it rather rapidly tapering. 
Outline of concave side slightly or not perceptibly convex in the 
neighborhood of the inflation ; otherwise nearly straight along the 
larger half or two-thirds of the length, concave posteriorly. Tube a 
trifle compressed vertically in the inflated part, elsewhere nearly 
circular in section. Aperture slightly oblique, circular or nearly 
so, the peristome thin and acute. Anal orifice subcircular, the edge 
with a rather deep incision on each side, the dorsal (concave side) 
margin cut into three, the ventral (convex) into two rounded lobes 
or teeth by shallower incisions ; a short distance within a slight cal- 
lous ring may be seen. 

Length 137 mill. ; diam. at aperture 2'0x2'l, at greatest infla- 
tion 2*45 x 2'56, at apex 09 x 0*9 mill (the antero-posterior dimen- 
sions in each case preceding). 



156 CADULTJS. 

Another specimen, figs. 21,22, 23, measures, length 11*2, diam at 
aperture 1*66 x 1 -66, at greatest 2*22 x2'22, at apex 0'72 x 0'8 mill. 

West Coast of Patagonia at Fish Commission Station 2,783, S. lat. 
51 2', Ion. 74 8', in 122 fms. mud, bottom temp. 47: Sta. 2,784, 
S. lat. 48 41', Ion. 74 24' in 194 fms., temp. 51 ; and at other 
stations in 258 and 449 fms. ; Magellan Strait in 369 fms., bottom 
temp. 46. 

Comparatively few specimens show the terminal teeth ; they are 
usually broken off, leaving only the two deeper lateral slits visible. 

The apical slitting, when preserved, is on the plan of C. parisien- 
sis (Desh.) in having two deeper lateral slits, but the lobes of the 
anterior and posterior segments are fewer. None of the Atlantic 
species with denticulate apices are like this, so far as we can judge 
by what we have seen and the published figures. The specimen 
drawn in figs. 21-23 is more contracted towards the mouth than 
the larger one figured, and is quite circular in section, the other 
being a mere trifle flattened. C. dalli is more inflated than C. quad- 
ridentatus or quadrifissatus. 

Types are No. 123,746, U. S. Nat. Mus., from Station 2,783 ; the 
smaller specimen figured is one of No. 122,736. The specimens 
from Magellan Strait are not so large, two measuring, a, length 9, 
greatest diam. V8 mill. ; b, length 10'7, greatest diam. 1-8 mill. 

Section CADULUS Philippi, 1844. 

Cadulus PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 209. Type Dentalium 
ovulum Phil. , 

Shell somewhat cask-shaped, short and obese, conspicuously swol- 
len in the middle, tapering rapidly toward both ends : convex on 
all sides, though less so dorsally. Aperture with simple, thin peri- 
stome; anal orifice comparatively large, with simple edge, con- 
tracted by a wide circular callus or ledge just within the opening. 

Cadulus in the restricted sense comprises the short, obese forms, 
in which no side of the shell is really concave, although the dorsal 
is less convex than the other contours, and the apical orifice is con- 
tracted by a conspicuous callous ring just within the edge. This cal- 
lus is also developed in many species of Polyschides, Gadila, etc., but 
in these it is situated further within and is a comparatively feeble 
structure. 

The species now known are all Mediterranean and North Atlan- 
tic, and are all quite small. This is, geologically, the latest in ap- 
pearance of the several subordinate groups of the genus. 



CADULTIS. 157 

C. OVULUM (Philippi). PL 32, fig. 40, 41. 

Shell egg-shaped, inflated in the middle, more convex on one side, 
very smooth ; apertures circular and subequal. Length 3, diam. 2 
mill. (Phil.} 

Bay of Naples (Acton) ; Bay of Biscay (Travailleur Exped., 
1880) ; Pliocene of Calabria and Sicily ; Miocene, Piedmont. 

Dentalium ovulum PHIL., Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 208, pi. 27, f. 
21 (1844) ; Handbuch der Conch, u. Malac., p. 222 (1853). O. G. 
COSTA, Fauna di Napoli, p. 56, pi. 4, f. 3. C. ovulum JEFFREYS, 
Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), vi, p. 375 (1880) ; P. Z. S., 1882, p. 666.-- 
MONTS., Nuova Rivista Conch. Med., p. 21. C. ovulusSACCO, Moll. 
Terr. Terz. Piedm. e Ligur., xxii, p. 115, pi. 10, f. 59-63. 

This species is the type of the genus Cadulus. Philippi remarks 
substantially as follows : Shell cask shaped, narrow at both ends, 
almost circular in transverse section. Greatest thickness not in the 
middle, but a little nearer the anterior end, which is obliquely 
truncated and with a circular aperture y 5 ? of a line wide and sur- 
rounded by a simple peristome. The orifice at the posterior end is 
T\ wide, contracted, with a margin within, the peristome incised 
and crenate. The affinity to D. coarctatum is evident, but the much 
shortened form and large posterior aperture indicate a new genus 
which may be called Cadulus. 

A var. gibba from the Calabrian Pliocene is described by Segu- 
enza, Form. Terz. Prov. Reggio (Calabria), p. 276, 1880. 

C. CYATHUS (Cristofori & Jan.). PL 32, figs. 36, 37, 38, 39. 

Shell small, thin, but rather solid, short, very much inflated in 
the middle or slightly nearer the aperture, the inflation less on .the 
dorsal side (fig. 37) ; rapidly tapering toward each end. Surface 
glossy, without visible growth striation. Aperture (fig. 36) rounded 
oval, slightly wider than long, somewhat oblique, its diameter about 
half that of the widest part of the shell ; peristome simple, thin. 
Anal orifice not much smaller than the aperture, round-oval, not 
oblique, with a wide callous ring or shelf just within the edge, con- 
tracting the orifice (fig. 38). 

Length 2'2, antero-posterior diameters, aperture 0'58, greatest 
1*21, apex 0'5 mill. ; lateral diameters, aperture 0'63, greatest 1'21, 
apex 0*66 mill. 

Italy and Sicily ; Pliocene of Sicily and Calabria. 



158 CADULUS. 

Creseis cyathus DE CRISTOFORI & JAN, Catal. rer. Nat., p. 1. 
Cadulus ovulum var. attenuata MONTERSATO, Notizie Conch, foss. 
Monte Pellegrino e Ficarazzi,p. 27 (no description). Cadulus cya- 
thus C. & J., MONTS., Nuova Rivista, p. 21. C. " alternates " 
Monts., JEFFREYS in coll. 

Fossil at various points in the Pliocene. Smaller than C. ovulum, 
not so swollen in the middle of the dorsal part. This is the form 
found living in the Mediterranean. It is apparently quite distinct 
from C. ovulum. We have not seen Cristofori & Jan's catalogue, 
and adopt the name cyathus from Monterosato, who identifies his 
C. ovulum var. attenuata with that species. 

The figures represent lateral, ventral and apical views, and out- 
lines of aperture and " equator." 

C. AMPULLACEUS Watson. PL 25, fig. 58. 

Shell small, rounded, but not symmetrical in its two curves, con- 
tracted in front, pinched in behind so as to form a short tube, swol- 
len, the fullest bulge lying behind the middle. Pretty strong, 
polished and translucent white, with an opaque band close to the 
apex ; sculpture none ; mouth large, very slightly oblique ; edge 
thin and chipped. Apical opening slightly oval, small, straight, 
roughened, narrowed inside by a flat, concentrically puckered and 
margined ring, which occupies nearly half its diameter (0*014 and 
0*006 inch). The margin (about 0*001 thick) of this ring is formed 
by the projecting end of a short pipe (about 0*005 long) which 
passes up into the interior of the shell. Length 0*08 inch, breadth 
at mouth 0*02, at broadest 0*047, at apex O'OIG inch. (Watson). 

Culebra Island, West Indies, 390 fms. (Challenger). 

Cadulus ampullaceus WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 
529 (1879) ; Chall. Scaph.,p. 23, pi. 3, f. 11 (1885). 

This species is not only much smaller than C. ovulum Phil., from 
the Mediterranean, but is obviously very different in form and pro- 
portions. It differs from C. exiguus Wats, in being much rounder, 
has no tube anteriorly, is not nearly so elongated posteriorly, and 
is provided with a distinct posterior pipe. ( Wats.~). 

I think it not impossible that C. gibbus, which I know only from 
description and figures, may turn out to be my C. ampullaceus. 
( Wats.). 



CADULUS. 159 

O. GIBBUS Jeffreys. PL 24, fig. 24. 

Shell barrel shaped, gibbous in the middle, whence there is an 
abrupt slope towards each end ; these are equal in breadth ; it is 
rather solid, glossy and semitransparent ; sculpture none; color 
white. Mouth obliquely truncated ; base slightly notched, but not 
quite perfect. Length 0*1, breadth 0'05 inch. (Jeffreys). 

Bay of Biscay (Travailleur Exp.) and North Atlantic (Porcupine 
Exp., 1870, Sta. 13). 

Cadulus gibbus JEFFR., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 666, pi. 49, f. 10; Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vi, p. 375 (no description). 

Allied to C. ovulum of Philippi, but much smaller and not so 
oval, and the ends are equal in size. (Jeffr.~). 

C. EXIGUUS Watson. PI. 25, fig. 6. 

Shell very small, short, broad, pinched in and projecting at both 
ends, very slightly bent, and that almost entirely in front ; very 
much swollen in the middle, bulging on the concave curve, a little 
more attenuated behind ; pretty strong, polished, translucent and 
white, with an opaque white band round the apex. Sculpture none ; 
mouth large, straight; edge thin and chipped. Apical opening 
small, straight, chipped, narrowed inside by a minute shelf-like pro- 
jecting ring. Length 0*076 inch, breadth at mouth 0'016, at broad- 
est 0-035, at apex O'Ol inch. (Watson). 

Lat. 18 38 f 30" N., Long. 65 5' 30" W. Culebra Island, West 
Indies, 390 fathoms (Challenger). 

C. exiguus WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, xiv, p. 528 (1879) ; 
Chall. Report, Scaphopoda, p. 23, pi. iii, fig. 10 (1885). 

It differs from Cadulus ovulum Phil, in being very much smaller, 
rounder, and contracted into a tube at either end. (Watson). 

C. OBESUS Watson. PI. 25, fig. 53. 

Shell short, very broad, narrowed at both ends, little bent, and 
that almost entirely toward the mouth, very much swollen in the 
middle, and bulging a good deal on the concave curve, a little more 
attenuated behind, and very slightly laterally compressed (in the 
proportion of 14 to a little less than 15). It is pretty strong, 
polished, translucent white, with one, sometimes two, opaque rings 
near the apex. Sculpture : a few very vague and faint, distant, 
transverse lines ; mouth rather large, straight ; edge thin and much 



160 CADULUS. 

chipped. Apical opening small and straight, chipped, narrowed 
inside by a minute shelf-like projecting ring. Length 0*109 inch, 
breadth at mouth 0'02, greatest 0'04 ; at apex O'Ol inch. ( Watson). 

Lat. 18 38' 30" N., Long. 65 5' 30" W. Culebra Island, West 
Indies, 390 fathoms (Challenger). 

C. obesus WATSON, Journ. Linn. Sqc. Lond., xiv, p. 527, 528 
(1879); Chall. Report, Scaphopoda, p. 22, pi. 3, fig. 8. DALL, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 36 ; " Blake : ' Scaphopoda, BulL 
Mus. Comp. Zool., xviii, p. 431. 

This is nearly of the same proportions as Cadulus curtus except 
being very much broader ; like that too, it is narrowed laterally. I 
have hesitated very much in making it more than a variety, but on 
the whole, think it safer to reckon it as distinct. One specimen haa 
its width exaggerated by a gibbous pad of enamel. ( Watson). 

C. TUMIDOSUS Jeffreys. PI. 25, figs. 67, 68, 69. 

Shell forming a short spindle, slightly bulging in the middle on 
the lower or more concave part, arid very gibbous on the back or 
outside, somewhat curved, contracted towards both ends, but much 
narrower at the base, rather solid, glossy and semitransparent. 
Sculpture none, except microscopic and close set lines; color whit- 
ish ; mouth roundish-oval, obliquely truncated or sloping to the 
back ; the inner margin is furnished with a slight circular rib or 
thickening like that in many species of Helix ; base notched on each 
side, as in C. subfusiformis. Length 0'2, breadth 0'075 inches. (Jef- 
freys). 

Channel Slope, 557 fms. (Porcupine Exped.) ; Bay of Biscay^ 
292-1095 fms. (Josephine Exped.) ; Azores, 1000 fms., and Cana- 
ries, 1125 fms. (Challenger) ; 90 miles N. of Ceara, Brazil, in 1019 
fms. (Albatross) ; Fossil in Pliocene at Messina (Seguenza). 

Cadulus tumidosus JEFFR., Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xix, p. 156 
(1877); P. Z. S.,,1882, p. 665, pi. 49, f. 8; Ann, Mag. N. H. (5), 
vi, p. 317 (1880). WATSON, Chall. Rep., p. 22, pi. 3, f. 9 (1885). 
DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, p. 295 (1890). 

This is much larger and more gibbous than C. subfusiformis, and 
like that species, it varies in shape and size. It has the character 
on which Monterosato lays stress in generically separating C. sub- 
fusiformis from C. ovulum, viz., in the mouth or anterior opening 
being more or less thickened inside by a circular rib. Some speci- 
mens are faintly or indistinctly striated lengthwise. (Jeffr.~). 



CADULUS. 161 

I have failed to see the callus-rib in the mouth to which Jeffreys 
refers ; but there is within the posterior opening a circular rib or 
narrow sharp ledge, which, from the outside, is seen as an opaque 
band, but with some difficulty may be seen within as a narrow pro- 
jecting shelf. The edge of the apex seems to me rather chipped 
than regularly notched ( Watson). 

This species, known to me by specimens in Jeffrey's collection, is 
rather more slender than C. eyathus. 

C. CURCURBITA Dall. PI. 25, fig. 54. 

This little shell is perhaps best described by saying that in form 
it is about midway between C. obesus Watson and C. tumidosus 
Jeffr. ; being larger than the former and more evenly tapered from 
the middle than either. It wants the ledge within the aperture at 
both ends, is polished, translucent, and without perceptible sculp- 
ture ; neither of the apertures appear to be oblique ; both are circu- 
lar. 

Length 4'0, oral diameter 0'62, anal diameter 0'37 mill. ; maxi- 
mum diameter 1'25 mill. (Dall). 

Fernandina to Florida Strait, 294-310 fms. 

Cadulus curcurbitus DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 35 (1881). 
Cadulus curcurbita DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, Blake Rep., p. 431, 
pi. 27, f. 12d ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 78. 

The single specimen obtained [by the Blake] recalls C. gibbus 
Jeffreys, but is very much larger and differently proportioned 
(Dall). 

C. AMPHORA Jeffreys. PL 24, fig. 25. 

Shell resembling in shape an ancient wine-vessel without handles, 
bulging towards the middle, gently curved, narrowing towards each 
end, but more contracted at the base or point, rather solid, glossy 
and opaque ; sculpture consisting of a slight but distinct keel which 
encircles the shell on the upper two-fifths of its length ; that part is 
somewhat excavated or flattened ; no striae of growth are percepti- 
ble. Color white. Mouth circular, not oblique or sloping; base 
notched on each side. Length 01, breadth 0'35 inch (Jeffreys}. 

Atlantic Station 16, Porcupine Exp. 1870. 

Cadulus amphora JEFFR., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 665, pi. 49, f. 9. 

UNIVERSITY 



162 CADULUS-GADILA. 

Section GADILA Gray, 1847. 

Gadila GRAY, P. Z. S., 1847, p. 159, for Dent, gadus Mont. 

Helonyx STIMPSON, Amer. Jour. Conch., i, p. 63 (1865), for Dent, 
clavatum Gld. 

Gadus " Montagu? Rang, 1829," CONRAD, Amer. Jour. Conch., 
ii, p. 75, for pusillum Gabb, subcoarctata Gabb, thallus Conr. ; also of 
GABB and some others. Not Gadus Linn. (Pisces). Ditrupa of 
Gabb, Guppy and some other authors. Not Ditrupa Berkeley 
(Vermes). Dentalium sp., of some early authors. 

? Loxoporus JEFFREYS, apparently undescribed, and type un- 
known (said by Sacco to be C. subfusiformis Sars.) 

Shell decidedly curved, the general contour convex ventrally, 
concave dorsaHy; more or less swollen near the middle or toward 
the aperture, more tapering toward the apex ; apical orifice not con- 
tracted by a callous ring, or with the callus far within and weak ; 
edges not slit. Type C. gadus Mont. 

The synonym Gadus, used by some authors for this genus, seems 
to have originated in a series of errors. The name Gadus was used 
by Montagu for a species of Dentalium as he understood that genus. 
It was never used by him for a genus. Rang, in his Manuel de 
1'Hist. Nat. Moll., p. 116, 1829, seems to think that Montagu made 
a genus Gadus. It is mentioned by him in the text under "Cresis," 
a new genus of Pteropods. He merely says : " Nous reunissons, par 
analogic, les genres Vaginelle de Daudin et Gadus de Montagu, 
connus a Tetat fossile." Deshayes adopts Gadus Rang for three 
species of Dischides and Polyschides, but from his remarks it may 
be gathered that he would also include the species of Cadulus proper. 

It need only be added that Gadus was preoccupied when Rang 
wrote, by Linnaeus, for a genus of fishes of which the common cod is 
the type. 

Loxoporus JefFr. seems never to have been recognized by its author 
in print. The genus loving Italians have adopted it for C. subfusi- 
formis, though the etymology suggests rather its pertinence to typi- 
cal Cadulus. 

This group, which includes a great majority of the species of the 
genus, is more attenuated and more bent than typical Cadulus, and 
lacks the apical slits and teeth of Dischides and Polyschides. 

There are several quite strongly marked groups of species, and 
one, the group of C. dentalinus, will probably form a separate section 
eventually. Meantime, a geographic, grouping of the forms, accord- 



CADULUS-GADILA. 163 

ing to the scheme given below, will probably be the most generally 
useful. 
I. Species of moderately stout figure. 

1. Species of the Atlantic, Mediterranean and Gulf of Mex- 

ico. 

2. Species of west America, Cape Horn to Alaska, p. 177. 

3. Indo-Pacific and Australasian species, p. 182. 

II. Needle-shaped species, with the swelling very near the aperture. 

Group of C. dentalinus, p. 188. 



1. Atlantic, Mediterranean and Antillean species. 
Group of C. subfusiformis. 

Small forms, but little swollen, with the greatest diameter situated 
near the middle of the length. 

C. SUBFUSIFORMIS (M. Sars.) PI. 24, figs. 29, 31, 32. 

Shell cylindric, long, subfusiform, only a very little swollen in the 
middle, a little arcuate, almost equally tapering at each end, thin, 
pellucid, very smooth, shining, the apical orifice a little narrower 
than the mouth. Length 2'6, diam. O5 mill. (G. 0. gars'). 

Scandinavia, from Finmark to Christiana Fjord, in 40-650 fms. 
(Sars). Shetland (Jeffreys). Bay of Biscay (Travailleur). Pal- 
ermo (Monterosato). 

Siphonodentalium subfusiforme M. SARS, Forh. Videns. Selskabet, 
1865, p. 301-307, pi. 6, f. 36-40; pi. 7,f. 41-44. Cadulus subfusi- 
formis Sars, JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), xx, p. 251 (1867) ; 
(4),ii, p. 299,301 (1868); (4), v,,p. 274 ; vi,p. 74 (1870) ; (5), vi, 
p. 375 (1880) ; P. Z. S., 1882, p. 664. ARAD. & BEN., Conch. Mar. 
Sicil., p. 118 (1870). G. O. SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 106, pi. 
20, f. 14a-6, 

Helonyx subfusiformis and var. abyssicola MONTS., Nuovo Rivista 
Conch. Med., p. 20, 21 (1875). Not C. subfusiformis Jeffreys, Brit. 
Conch., v, p. 196, pi. 101, f. 3=C.je/reysi Monts. 

In C. subfusiformis the mouth is circular and abruptly truncated ; 
in C. jeffreysi the mouth is rounded-oval and obliquely truncated. 
Both species occur on the western coast of Norway as well as in 
Shetland (,/e/r,). 
Var. abyssicola Montersato. Very small, although adult. 

Palermo, in 210 meters. 



164 CADULUS-GADILA. 

C. MINUSCULU8 Dall. PL 32, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell minute, fusiform, moderately swollen in the middle, the 
greatest diameter contained nearly four times in the length of the 
shell. Convex outline regularly and strongly arcuate ; opposite out- 
line nearly straight, very slightly convex near the middle and as 
slightly concave toward each end ; lateral outlines as seen in a dor- 
sal or ventral view, strongly arcuate, much tapering toward each 
end. Greatest girth about median, or a little nearer the aperture. 
Tube a little compressed between the concave and convex sides in the 
middle, subcircular in section toward the ends. Surface smooth, 
glossy, whitish. Aperture hardly oblique (broken in the specimen 
seen), circular. Anal orifice nearly as large as the aperture, sub- 
circular, unslit. 

Length 2'33 mill. ; antero-posterior diameter of aperture 0*342, of 
greatest girth 0*58, of apex 0'29 mill. ; lateral diameter, aperture 
0-342, equator 0'616, apex 0'3 mill. 

Off Hatteras in 63 fms. (U. S. Fish Commission). 

Cadulus minusculus DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, Blake Rep., p. 432 
(1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 78. 

Very similar to C. subfusiformis in form and size, but minusculus 
is somewhat stouter, with the aperture less oblique. C.jeffreysi is 
larger with oval apertures, and is more attenuated toward the apex. 
Our figures and description are from the type, No. 93,122, U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 

C. JEFFREYS: (Monterosato). PI. 24, fig. 39 ; pi. 32, figs. 44, 45, 46. 

Shell small, thin, quite arcuate, moderately swollen, the greatest 
diameter contained slightly over 4 times in the length of the shell. 
Convex side with strongly, regularly arched outline, concave side 
with gently but distinctly convex swell in the middle, concave toward 
each end. Greatest girth nearly median, but slightly nearer the 
oral end, the swelling everywhere gentle, "equator" indistinct. 
Tube circular in section at the middle, laterally compressed toward the 
aperture, vertically compressed toward the apex. Surface glossy, 
smooth ; of a bluish-milky color, a little translucent, becoming more 
translucent near the aperture. Aperture oval, being compressed from 
side to side, somewhat oblique, the peristome thin. Anal orifice 
strongly compressed between the convex and concave sides, with unslit 
edges. 



CADULUS-GADILA. 165 

Length 3'16 mill. ; antero-posterior diameter of aperture 0'37, of 
greatest swelling 0*766, of apex 0'25 mill. ; lateral diarn. of aperture 
0-45, greatest 0'766, apex 0'342 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, from the JEgean, 130-250 fms., to Palermo and 
St. Vito, 90-200 meters (Monterosato) ; Naples (Acton, et at.} ; off 
Bayonne (De Folin) and Marseilles; north and east Atlantic from 
the Canaries (Challenger), Josephine Bank and Azores (Josephine 
Exp.), Bay of Biscay (for var. tumidula Jeffr.), north to Valentia, 
west of Ireland, Shetland and Norway (Jeffreys) ; west Atlantic, off 
Martha's Vineyard in 115 fms. (U. S. Fish Commission), off Barba- 
dos (Blake); south Atlantic, St. Helena (Smith); Pliocene of Calabria 
and Sicily. 

Cadulus subfusiformis Sars, JEFFREYS, British Conchology, v, p. 
196, pi. 101, f. 3. Not of Sars.Helonyx jeffreysii MONTS., Poche 
note sulla Conch. Medit., in Atti Accad. Palerm. Sci. (Ser. 2), v, 
p. 20; Nuova Rivista Conch. Medit., p. 20 (1875) ; Enum. eSiiion., 
p. 17 ; Nomencl. Gen. e Spec. Conch. Medit., p. 34 (1884). Cadu- 
lus jeffreysi Monts., JEFFREYS, P. Z. S., 1882, p. 665. VERRILL, 
Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., v, p. 559 (1882) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
iii, p. 395 (1880). D ALL, Bull. M. C. Z., xviii; Blake Rep., p. 
430 (1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 76. SMITH, P. Z. S., 
1890, pp. 253, 300. MARSHALL, Journ. of Conch., vii, p. 248. (7. 
propinquus VERRILL, Tr. Conn. Acad., v, p. 558, pi. 58, f. 31, 32. 
Not of G. O. Sars. C. dipfociwws SEGUENZA, according to Jeffreys. 

Although it varies in size, the shell is always much larger and 
more swollen than C. subfusiformis ( Jeffreys). 

Our figures and description are from a Palermo specimen from 
the Jeffreys collection, U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 107,704. The var. 
tumidula mentioned by Jeffreys, has not, so far as we know, been 
described. 

C. GRACILIS Jeffreys. PI. 24, fig. 23. 

Shell more curved and cylindrical than C. subfusiformis (to 
which it is evidently allied), not swollen in the middle, but through- 
out nearly equal in breadth ; the mouth slopes more, and has a 
slight circular rib or thickening within ; base broader. Oblique 
marks of growth are conspicuous. Length 0'2, breadth 0'04 inches 
(Jeffreys). 

Bay of Biscay (Travailleur Exped.) and north Atlantic (Porcupine 
Exped.j, 652-1,450 fms. Off San Miguel, Azores, 1,000 fms., and 



166 CADULUS-GADILA. 

Canaries, 1,125 fms. (Challenger). Off Cape Hatteras in 843 fms. 
(U. S. Fish Commission). 

Cadulus gracilis JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xix, p. 157 (Feb. 
1877), and (5), vi, p. 375 (1880) ; P. Z. S., 1882, p. 664, pi. 49, f. 7. 
WATSON, Challenger Rep., p. 20, pi. 3, f. 5 (1885). DALL, Bull. M. 
C. Z., xviii, Blake Rep., p. 432 (1889). . 

It is very like C. jeffreysi Monts., but is larger and a little more 
compressed (in the proportion of yV) between the convex and con- 
cave curves as compared with its breadth, which is not the case in 
C. jeffreysi. It is not so swollen, and the posterior opening is larger 
than in that species ( Watson}. 

C. PROPINQUUS G. O. Sars. PI. 24, figs. 27, 28. 

Shell rather solid, pellucid, glassy, slightly curved, conspicuously 
fusiform, the middle moderately swollen, ventral [convex] side 
equably arcuate, dorsal side slightly rising in the middle : anteriorly 
tapering. Aperture little oblique, suddenly contracted behind ; 
apical orifice much narrower than the mouth, circular, with entire 
margin. Surface very smooth and shining, generally with a sub- 
opaque zone anteriorly ; there is a readily observable internal, sub- 
apical annular fold. Length 3'2, diam. 1 mill. (G. 0. Sars). 

Finmarlc and west coast of Norway, 100-450 fms. (Sars) ; Bay of 
Biscay (Travailleur Exped.). 

Cadulus propinquus G. O. S., Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 106, pi. 
20, f. 15 a-b, and pi. I, f. 5, dentition (1878). JEFFREYS, Ann. 
Mag. N. H. (5), vi, p. 375 (1880) ; P. Z. S., 1882, p. 664. Not C. 
propinquus Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 558, pi. 58, f. 31, 32. 

C. CYLINDRATUS Jeffreys. PI. 24, fig. 26. 

Shell forming a narrow cylinder, slightly contracted at each 
end, gently curved, thin, transparent and glossy ; sculpture none, 
except a few microscopic and faint lines of growth. Mouth some- 
what obliquely truncated, but not thickened ; base circular, with 
numerous minute notches, which are not perceptible to the naked 
eye. Length 0'325, breadth 0'075 inch. (Jeffreys}. 

Off west coast of Ireland, 1,215-1,475 fms. (Porcupine Exped.); 
Bay of Biscay, 652-1,450 fms. (Travailleur Exp.). 

Cadulus cylindratus JEFFR., Ann. Mag. N. H. (4), xix, p. 158 
(1877) ; P. Z. S., 1882, p. 664, pi. 49, f. 6 ; Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), 



CADULUS-GADILA. 167 

vi, p. 375, name only (1880). VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

220 (1884). 

Verrill reports this species from Fish Commission Station 2,041, in 
1,608 fms. 

C. LUNULA Ball. PL 25, fig. 55. 

Shell translucent white, smooth, destitute of sculpture ; dorsum 
nearly straight, slightly inflated near the middle; oral end con- 
tracted, not flattened, and more slender at the mouth than the pos- 
terior end ; the shell largest in the middle, and tapering nearly 
equally to both ends ; apertures simple^ circular, the oral one ob- 
lique and quite contracted in proportion to the rather stout form of 
the shell, which, but for the curve of the convex side and extreme 
ends, would be nearly evenly fusiform ; there is no gibbosity, and, 
though the anal aperture is the larger, it seems unbroken. Length 
6'0 mill., oral diam. 0*75, anal 0*87 mill.; maximum diam. 1/5 mill. 
(Dall). 

Off Cape Lookout, N. C., 18 fms. (Albatross) ; Barbados, in 100 
.fms. (Blake); Florida Keys, in deep water. 

C. lunulus DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 35 (1881). C. lunula 
BALL, Ibid, xviii, p. 431, pi. 27, f. 8 (1889) ; Bull. IT. S.Nat.Mus., 
No. 37, p. 78, pi. 27, f. 8. 

Most like C. simillimus Watson, from which it differs in its more 
even half-moon shape and proportions. (Dall). 

Group of C. olivi. 

Species in which the greatest diameter is at the anterior third or 
fourth of the length, the shell tapering considerably posteriorly. 

C. WATSONI Dall. PL 25, fig. 50. 

Shell translucent white, polished, showing faintly the annular 
lines of growth ; slightly curved, with the greater portion of the 
curve in the anal third ; tapering rapidly from the oral third to the 
posterior end ; the oral third flattened on the convex side toward 
the mouth ; this portion also tapered laterally in the same direction ; 
oral aperture perceptibly oblique in the most perfect specimen, 
slightly so in another; the transverse diameter of the mouth very 
slightly longer than the vertical diameter. Length 13'0, oral diam. 
1*5, anal 0*6 mill ; maximum diam.2'25 mill, (measured from front 
to back) ; maximum transverse diameter 2'9 mill. 



168 CADULUS-GADILA. 

Yucatan Strait, near Cape San Antonio, in 413 and 1,002 fms. 
(Blake) ; also of Old Providence, in 382 fms. (U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion). 

Cadulus watsoni DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 34 (1881) ; xviii, 
Blake Rep., p. 429, pi. 27, f. 12a (1889) ; Bull. U.S. Nat. Mas., No. 
37, p. 76. VERRILL, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., vi, p. 219 (1884). 

It is reported from off Cape Hatteras by Verrill, who compares 
the species to C. pandionis. The greatest diameter is contained 4 
times in the length in C. watsoni. In C. rushii it is decidedly less, 
being contained nearly 6 times in the length, and the tube is less 
compressed at the equator. ' 

C. RUSHII Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PL 27, figs. 94, 95, 96, 97. 

Shell moderately solid, large, moderately arcuate, the bend mainly 
posterior ; outline of convex side almost evenly arched, but more 
convex near the larger end ; outline of opposite side nearly straight 
along the anterior half, the posterior half decidedly concave ; great- 
est diameter contained 5?-6 times in the length of shell. Swelling 
quite moderate, greatest at about the anterior fourth of the length, 
thence tapering gently to the aperture, and decidedly toward the 
apex, the posterior half of the shell being conspicuously attenuated. 
Tube compressed between the concave and convex sides throughout. 
Surface glossy and smooth ; opaque white. Aperture quite oblique, 
subcircular, but viewed in line with the axis of the latter portion of 
the tube it is oval. Apex small, rounded-oval, its margin even. 

Length 11*6 ; antero-posterior diameter at aperture 1*4, at great- 
est swelling 1*8, at apex 0'53 mill.; lateral diameter at aperture 1*6, 
at greatest 2*0, at apex 0'6 mill. 

Off Cape Hatteras, lat. 35 1$ 30", long. 75 IJf 12", in 293 fms. 
(Dr. W. H. Rush). 

The equator is more anterior than in C. pandionis, and the swell- 
ing decidedly less in proportion to the length of the shell. The 
tube is less flattened vertically than in C. ivatsoni Dall, the aperture 
a shorter, rounder oval, and the whole shell more slender. 

There is generally no noticeable callous ring within the anal 
opening, but in some specimens a very slight one, far within, seems 
to be developed. 

C. AGASSIZII Dall. PL 25, fig. 57. 

Shell translucent white, with more opaque annulations, shining, 
destitute of sculpture, excepting nearly imperceptible lines of growth, 



CADULUS-GADILA. 169 

very slightly curved, the dorsum being nearly straight except at the 
posterior fourth, oral end very slightly tapered, not flattened ; pos- 
terior part gently tapering from the anterior third ; anal end rather 
stout, opening simple, circular ; oral end thin, mouth forming an 
angle of 45 with the axis, simple, quite circular; the tube with no 
pronounced gibbosity. Length 9, max. lat. 2, oral diameter 1'5 
mill. ; anal diam. 0*75, maximum diam. 2 mill. (Dall}. 

' Blake ' Station 5, in 229 fms. (Blake). 

Cadulus agassizii DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, 1881, p. 35 ; Ibid, xviii, 
p. 430, pi. 27, f. 12c ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, p. 78, pi. 27, f. 1 2c. 

No more specimens of this species have come to hand. It is very 
like C. pandionis Verrill, but has the anterior aperture less oblique, 
the equator more marked, the posterior part proportionally shorter 
and less attenuated. It is also smaller than C. pandionis. The 
latter has about the same range as C. carolinensis, but has not been 
found yet south of Fowey Rock, Straits of Florida, where it was 
collected by Dr. W. H. Rush, U. S. N. (Dall). 

Var. HATTERASENSTS Sharp & Pilsbry, n. v. PI. 33, figs. 50, 51, 52, 

53, 54. 

Shell moderately strong, not much curved, the convex curve 
more arcuate toward the larger end, opposite outline slightly con- 
vex at the anterior third, concave behind and slightly so in front of 
the convexity. Swelling moderate, greatest near the anterior third 
of the length, thence tapering considerably toward each end ; great- 
est breadth contained about 4? times in the length of the shell. 
Circular in section from the middle to the aperture, decidedly com- 
pressed vertically at the apex. Surface smooth and glossy ; opaque 
white, irregularly banded obliquely with translucent. Aperture 
quite oblique, circular, the peristome inflexed along the convex 
margin. Anal orifice transversely oval, with a stout callous ring a 
short distance within. 

Length 7*8 mill. ; diam. at aperture I'l x I/O ; at greatest inflation 
1-67 x 1-76 ; at apex 0'8 x 85 mill. 

Length 7'9 mill.; diam. at aperture 1-2x1/25; at greatest I'l 
x 1-87, at apex 0'8 xO'9 mill. 

Off Cape Hatteras, lat. 35 19' 30", Ion. 75 U' 12", in 293 fms. 
(Dr. W. H. Rush, U. S. N.). 

Probably referable to C. agassizii Dall as a variety, but showing 
some rather prominent features not mentioned in Dall's description. 



170 CADULUS-GADILA. 

It is also somewhat allied to C. watsoni in shape and proportions^ 
but our form is not " flattened on the convex side toward the mouth/*' 
and the equator is subcircular, but little greater in transverse than 
in vertical diameter. The callous ring within the vertically com- 
pressed apical orifice is a conspicuous feature in hatterasensis. 

C. ^QUALIS Dall. PI. 25, fig. 48. 

Shell opaque white, polished, without sculpture except a rare line 
due to growth or some irregularity ; very slightly curved with 
hardly any gibbosity perceptible, such as there is being in the ante- 
rior fifth of the shell ; anal opening circular, simple, thin-edged, not 
oblique ; anterior opening somewhat oblique, slightly contracted, 
nearly circular ; the shell on the whole tapering regularly toward 
the posterior end, which is stouter than usual in the genus. Length 
15 mill., oral diam. 2 mill., anal 1 mill. ; maximum diameter 2'5 
mill. (Dall). 

Near Tortugas, in 339 fms. (Blake). 

C. cequalis DALL, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 34 (1881) ; Ibid., 
xviii, p. 429, pi. 27, fig. 9 (1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Museum, No. 
37, p. 76, pi. 27, f. 9. 

This fine species is the least swollen of any of the forms from this 
region, and only C. cylindratus Jeffreys exceeds it in this particular. 
Its nearest relative is C. spectabilis Verrill, which is larger, less 
cylindrical, more curved and more attenuated behind (Da//). 

C. OLIVI (Scacchi). PI. 31, figs. 33, 34, 35. 

Shell rather thin, moderately curved, the bend mainly posterior ; 
moderately swollen, the " equator" indistinctly angular, at the ante- 
rior third of the length, slightly oblique; thence tapering moder- 
ately to the mouth, and more rapidly posteriorly, becoming attenu- 
ated toward the apex. Outline of concave side slightly modified, 
becoming a trifle convex in the region of greatest inflation. Great- 
est diameter contained 5 times in length of the shell. Tube very 
slightly compressed between front and back curves. Surface polished^ 
without perceptible growth-striation. Aperture oblique, rounded 
oval ; anal orifice subcircular, its edge even, unslit. 

Length 11-7 mill.; diam. at aperture l'24x T37, at greatest infla- 
tion 2-06x2-33, at apex 0-48x0-55 mill, (the antero-posterior di- 
mensions given first in each case). 

Pliocene of southern Italy and Sieily* 



CADULUS-GADILA. 171 

Dentalium olivi SCACCHI, Not. foss. Gravnia (Ann. Civ., 1835), p. 
56, pi. 2, f. 6, a, b (so quoted by Jeffreys ; we have not seen the pub- 
lication). 

? Siphodentalium hyalinum BRUGNONE, Misc. Malac., pt. 2, p. 21, 
fig. 32 (1876), according to Jeffreys. 

Cadulus olivi Scacchi, JEFFREYS, P. Z. S., 1882, p. 663; Ann. Mag. 
N. H. (4), xix, p. 157 ; also (5), vi, p. 317. 

The specimen drawn and described is a Jeffrey sian example from 
the Sicilian Pliocene. The type locality is Gravnia, in southeastern 
Italy. It is still somewhat doubtful whether the species has been 
found living. Jeffreys certainly confused at least three species 
under the name C. olivi at various times. We are disposed to be- 
lieve that his " olivi " with apical slits and a thickened rim around 
the mouth belonged to some other species. He refers C.pandionis 
to olivi as a synonym, but we do not think them identical. His 
localities for recent specimens are : Fiord, Norway (Norman) ; Bay 
of Biscay ; Palermo (Monts.) west of Ireland, 1 ,230 fms. ; south of the 
English Channel, 862 fras. (Porcupine Exped.). 

Siphodentalium hyalinum Brugnone, which Jeffreys refers to C. 
olivi as a synonym, is thus described : Shell short, rather broad, 
cylindric; arcuate, thin, very smooth and very shining ; anterior 
part obscurely attenuated ; aperture round, oblique ; apex broken. 
Length 8 mill. Ficarazzi. This was described from one specimen 
and seems a rather doubtful form. Brugnone's figure is reproduced 
on pi. 33, fig. 61. 

C. PANDIONIS Verrill & Smith. PI. 25, fig. 63. 

Shell very large for the genus, white, transparent, very smooth 
and polished, shining, strongly curved, largest in front of the mid- 
dle, with the aperture oblique ; sculpture none, the shell is somewhat 
transversely elliptical in section, slightly gibbose and most swollen 
at about the anterior third, on the convex side ; from this point 
gradually tapering to the slender posterior end and to the mouth, 
which is slightly broader than high, and recedes considerably on the 
convex side of the shell, with a thin, smooth margin. Posterior 
opening small, with a semicircular notch above and below. Length 
10, breadth 2*25, breadth of aperture 1'75, of anal aperture 0*40 mm. 
(V.&S.} 

South of Nantucket, east of New Jersey, at numerous stations near 
40 N. lat., 85-500 fms. (Albatross). 



172 CADULUS-GADILA. 

Cadulus pandionis V. & S., VERRILL, Amer. Journ. Science, xx, 
pp. 392, 399 (Nov. 1880) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 395 (1880) ; 
Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 558, pi. 58, f. 30, 30a ; Rep. Commissioner 
Fish and Fisheries, for 1883, appendix D, Nat. Hist, p. 573 (71), 
pi. 28, f. 126 (1885). 

C. POCULUM Dall. PI. 33, figs. 56, 57. 

Shell solid, opaque white, strongly arcuate, the bend mainly in 
the posterior half. Equator at the anterior fifth, the swelling being 
short and high, subangular on the convex side, in front of it the tube 
is conspicuously compressed between the convex and concave sides, 
and behind it regularly tapering to the apex; outline of the concave 
side slightly convex in the region of the equator, elsewhere concave ; 
lateral outlines much contracted above. Surface polished, smooth. 
Aperture extremely oblique, subcircular, but if viewed from above in 
the line of the axis of the latter part of the shell, appearing trans- 
versely elliptical. Anal orifice small, subcircular, with thick, slitless 
walls. 

Length 12'2, antero-posterior diameter at aperture 1'2, at equa- 
tor 2'11, at apex 0'8 mill.; lateral diam. at aperture 1*65, equator 
2-45, apex 0'83 mill. 

Off Cape San Antonio, Cuba, in 640 fms. ; near St. Vincent, West 
Indies, in 464 fms. (Blake). 

Cadulus poculum DALL, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xviii, Blake Rep., 
p. 429 (1889). 

The figures represent the lateral and convex aspects. " This spe- 
cies is remarkable for the obliquity of the equator and of the slope 
on the convex side from the summit to the anterior margin. In 
these particulars it is more strongly marked than any other species 
I have seen." C. platystoma is stouter and. not angularly hump- 
backed like C. poculum. Figures and description from a specimen 
in National Museum. 

C. VULPIDENS Watson. PI. 25, fig. 51. 

Shell like the canine tooth of a small Carnivore, long, sharp, bent, 
swollen (a little obliquely) toward the mouth. The swelling is 
greatest on the convex curve, and lies there a little nearer the end 
(about one-fourth of the length) than it does on the concave, where 
it is at about one-third of the length. The obliquity makes the form 
a little unsymmetrical. From the swelling the shell contracts more 
rapidly towards the mouth. Toward the apex the bend increases, 



CADULUS-GADILA. 173 

and the end of the shell is a very little contracted. The shell is 
pretty strong, brilliant, opaquish white. Sculpture: Very minute, 
but sharp, microscopic scratches on the lines of growth. Mouth 
small, round, obliquely truncated backward toward the convex 
curve. Edge thin and sharp. Posterior opening round ; the edge 
thick, flat, slightly gnawed and broken, projecting a little on the 
convex curved side. Length 0'35 inch, breadth at mouth 0'039 : at 
swelling O069 ; at apex 0'03 inch ( Watson). 

Culebra Island, West Indies, 390 fms. (Chall.). 

Cadulus vulpidens WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 524 
(1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 18, pi. 3, f. 2. 

This is smaller and less symmetrical than Cadulus colubridens, 
and the mouth is much smaller. Than Dentalium clavatum Gould, 
which it much resembles, this is more contracted in front and less 
so behind, and has more of angulation in its tumidity. Than Cadu- 
lus gadus Mont., this is a much less stumpy shell, being less swollen 
in the middle and more drawn out before and behind ; it is also 
straighter. Cadulus ventricosus Bronn has the swelling nearer the 
mouth (Wats.). 

C. SAURIDENS Watson. PI. 25, fig. 56. 

Shell long, narrow, scarcely bent, swollen very slightly near the 
middle of the convex curve, just perceptibly and a little more ante- 
riorly on the concave ; both the bend and the contraction are greater 
towards the apex than towards the mouth. There is a very slight 
compression between the back and the belly of the shell ; it is thin, 
brilliant, scarcely opaque, white. Sculpture: There is none, except 
perhaps some very faint microscopic traces of longitudinal texture. 
Mouth rather small, very oblique ; edge thin, but not chipped. 
Apical opening small, straight across the shell, thin, chipped. Length 
0-12 inch, breadth at mouth 0*01, at swelling 0'02, at apex 0.009 
inch. (Watson). 

Culebra Island, West Indies, 390 fms. (Challenger). 

Cadulus sauridens WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 525 
(1879) ; Chall. Rep., p. 19, pi. 3, f. 4 (1885). 

This differs from Cadulus rastridens Wats., in being less bent, less 
swollen, the swelling more central, more apparent on the convex 
curve; the shell is less attenuated posteriorly and more so ante- 
riorly ; there is no transverse sculpture ; the mouth here is oblique, 



174 CADULUS-GADILA. 

the shell at the anal opening is not thickened, and both ends are 
narrower. Than Cadulus gracilis Jeffr., this is much smaller, more 
attenuated, has a gibbous swelling, and not a mere equable enlarge- 
ment, and has both openings much smaller. 

From Cadulus jeffreysi Monter., it differs still more strongly in 
these very respects, except that in size it is nearer. 

C. AMIANTUS Dall. PL 25, fig. 52. 

This species, first identified by me with C. sauridens Watson, was 
submitted to Mr. Watson for examination. He writes : " Compared 
with C. sauridens it is three times as long, mouth not oblique nor 
regular; form much more bent, swelling much more pronounced 
and nearer the anterior end. The transverse contour line is more 
circular, there being little if any flattening between the convex and 
concave slopes. It is more like C. vulpidens Watson, but is only 
half the length of that species, and less conical behind the ' equa- 
tor,' and more conical in front of it. The equator is less angulated 
than in C. vulpidens, and not so near the mouth." The length of 
C. amiantus is 5*75, its maximum diameter 1*4 mill. Both orifices 
are circular and not notched, and the swelling evenly shades off 
toward the extremities. The specimens obtained off Cape Florida 
are more slender than the typical form. (Da//). 

Off Cape San Antonio, Cuba, in 1,002 fms. (Blake); off Cape 
Florida, in 8 fms. (Dr. W. H. Rush). 

Cadulus sauridens DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., ix, p. 36 (1881) ; not of 
Watson, 1879. Cadulus amiantus DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, 
Blake Rep., p. 431, pi. 27, f. 7. 

C. EASTRIDENS Watson. PL 25, fig. 62. 

Shell like the tooth of a rake, small, narrow, bent, swollen, and 
on the convex curve very faintly angulated at about five-eighths of 
its length, from which point both the bend and the narrowing of 
the shell is greater (proportionally) toward the mouth than it is 
toward the apex. Between the back and the belly there is a very 
slight compression of the shell. It is pretty strong, brilliant, more 
or less obscurely banded transversely with alternate equal threads 
of opaque and transparent white. Sculpture : Very faint, superfi- 
cial, transverse scratches. Mouth pretty large, not at all oblique, 
thin, sharp and chipped ; posterior opening round, straight ; edge 
thickened, and less chipped than the mouth. Length 0*119 inch, 



CADULUS-GADILA. 175 

breadth at mouth 0'015, at swelling 0'023, at apex O'Ol inch. 



Lot. 18 38' 30" iV., long. 65 5 f 30" W., Culebra Island, West 
Indies, 390 fms. (Challenger). 

C. rastridens WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., Vol. xiv, p. 525 
(1879) ; Chall. Report, Scaphopoda, p. 19, pi. 3, fig. 3 (1885). 

C. CURTUS Watson. PI. 25, fig. 60. 

Shell short, broad, narrowed at both ends, scarcely bent, and that 
almost wholly near the mouth : swollen in the middle, so as to bulge 
a little on the concave curve. Though the mouth is larger than the 
apex, the whole shell is a little more pinched in front than behind, 
and is very slightly laterally compressed (in the proportion of about 
14 to 15). It is thin, polished, translucent white, with one, some- 
times two opaque rings near the apex. Sculpture: Only under a 
high power of the microscope can some very close transverse strise 
be seen in the texture of the shell. Mouth rather large, very 
slightly oblique ; edge thin and generally much chipped ; apical 
opening small, straight, chipped. The opaque rings result from 
thickening, caused by a thin projection which narrows the opening. 
Length O'l inch, breadth at mouth 0*019, greatest 0'03, apex 0.012 
inch. (Watson). 

Lat. 18 38' 30" N., long. 65 5 f 30" W., Culebra Island, West 
Indies, 390 fms. (Challenger). 

C. curtus WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xiv, p. 527 (1879) ; 
dhall. Report, Scaphopoda, p. 21, pi. iii, fig. 7. 

Than C. curtus var. congruens AVats., this is not only very much 
smaller, but here the mouth is oblique, and the shell is straighter 
behind and more bent in front, where, too, it is much more pinched 
in. It is nearly of the same length as C. obesus Wats., but is very 
much narrower. ( Wats.). 

Var. CONGRUENS Watson. PI. 25, fig. 59. 

This differs from Cadulus curtus Wats., in being one-third larger, 
the mouth is, perhaps, less oblique, but being in both specimens 
much chipped, this may be accidental. The most remarkable feat- 
ure of difference is that it is perfectly round, and not like the other, 
laterally compressed ; I attribute this difference to age. At all 



176 CADULUS-GADILA. 

events, in the absence of a larger series of specimens, I believe it 
safer to include both under one species. (Watson). 

Station 24, lot. 18 38 f 30" N., long. 65 5' 30" W., Culebra 
Island, West Indies, 390 fathoms. 

C. curtus var. congruens WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., VoL 
xiv, p. 527 (1879) ; Chall. Kept., Scaphopoda, p. 21, 22, pi. 3, fig. 
7a. 

C. SENEGA LENSIS Locard. 

Shell of relatively large size, of strongly conoid form, rather 
short and stout, quite arcuate throughout, a little contracted at 
base, tapering slowly and progressively toward the apex ; inferior 
region terminating in a transversely oval section in a quite oblique 
plane, contracted for a distance apparently equal to one-tenth the 
total length, in such a manner that the maximum inflation of the 
shell is well downward and at the same time but little prominent ; 
anterior and posterior profiles subsymmetrical ; shell rather thin, 
solid, subopaque, of a dirty ivory white tint after death of the 
animal, very glossy, appearing completely smooth. Length 20, 
maximum diam. 3'5, curvature 1'5 mill. (Locard'). 

Senegal, 3200 meters depth. 

Cadulus senegalensis Loc., L'Echange Revue Linne'enne, Jan., 
1897, p. 3. 

C. STRANGULATUS Locard. 

Shell of small size and narrowly elongated subcylindroid form, 
little inflated, feebly arcuate, conspicuously more contracted in the 
superior region than in the inferior; superior region very short, 
terminating above by a slightly oval section in a noticeably oblique 
plane; inferior region delimited, quite high, terminating in a feebly 
oval section in a decidedly oblique plane. Anterior profile nearly 
straight, very feebly arcuate above, a little salient below the median 
region ; outer profile very plainly arched, continuous above, with 
the edge of the superior region, the maximum bulging a little 
below the middle, shell thin, quite solid, subtransparent, becoming 
opaque white after death, smooth and glossy. Length 4*5, greatest 
diarn. 1, least 0*5 mill. (Loc.') 

Gulf of Gascony and off Marseilles, between 555 and 2018 meters 
depth. 

Cadulus strangulatus Loc., L'Echange, 1897, p. 4. 



CADULUS-GADILA. 177 

C. MONTEROSATOI Locard. 

Shell of subtruncate conoid (" su btronco noide ") form, but little 
arched altogether, strongly swollen in the region above the middle. 
Superior region very short, a little more constricted than the 
inferior, terminating in a circular section in a horizontal plane ; 
inferior region short, but a little longer than the superior, terminat- 
ing in a noticeably oval section in a slightly oblique plane. 

Anterior profile undulating, feebly projecting above the middle ; 
posterior profile notably more arched, with the greatest convexity 
a little above the middle, more abruptly tapering upward than 
downward, Shell somewhat thin, quite solid, subtransparent, 
smooth, very glossy, becoming a porcelain white after death. 

Alt. 6, greatest diam. 2, least 1 mill, (ioc.) 

West of Cape Finisiere, 2018 meters depth. 

Cadulus monterosatoi LOG., L'Echange, 1897, p. 4. 
C. ARTATUS * Jeffreys ' Locard. 

Shell of narrowly subconoid shape, well curved, and inflated 
throughout the median region ; superior region more constricted 
than the inferior and more lengthened, terminating in a perceptibly 
circular section, in a slightly oblique plane; inferior region a little 
greater in diameter, a little shorter, terminating in a distinctly oval 
section, in a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the shell. 
Anterior outline regularly arched, with a slight swelling a little 
below the middle; posterior outline well arched, with a very 
regular, very long swelling, making a nearly continuous curvature 
of the superior and inferior regions, the greatest convexity a little 
below the middle. Shell rather thim, fragile, subtransparent, 
diaphanous, becoming opaque with death of the animal, smooth 
and glossy. Alt. 4, greatest diam. 0'75, least 0'5 mill. (Loc.) 

Gulf of Gascony, 1019 to 2651 meters depth. 

Cadulus artatus Jeffreys, LOCARD, L'Echange 1897, p. 4. 

CADULTTS SEMISTRIATUS and C. ARTATUS Jeffreys, Ann. Mag. N. 
H. (5), vi, p. 317, are merely list names, which Jeffreys did not make 
good by descriptions. Locard has lately given a diagnosis of the 
latter, translated above. 

Species of the West Coast of North and South America. 

I. Shell large (about 24 mill, long), longitudinally striated. 

a. Striae close, even, deeply engraved ; length 7 times the 
greatest diameter, albicomatus, p. 178. 

12 



178 CADULUS-GADILA. 

a'. Striae slight, shallow, less evenly developed ; length 8 
times the greatest diameter. striatus, p. 179. 

II. Shell smaller, not striated longitudinally. 

a. Species of stout or rather stout figure, the inflation mod- 
erate or conspicuous, greatest diameter at the anterior 
third or fourth of the length. 

b. Tube approaching circular in section at aperture 

and equator, calif ornicus, p. 180 ; tolmiei, p. 181. 

b f . Tube markedly flattened at aperture and equator, 

platystoma, p. 180. 

a'. Very slender species, with the slight inflation anterior, 
contraction toward the mouth very short ; diameter con- 
tained 7-10 times in the length. 

b. Shell smooth throughout; anterior contraction 
slight. 

c. Length 13*5 mill., 10 times the diam., 

aberrans, p. 193. 
c'. Length 10*3 mill., about 9 times the diam., 

fusiformis, p. 193. 
c". Length 10 mill., about 7 times the diam., 

hepburni, p. 194. 

b '. Shell circularly corrugated near the apex, 
perpusillus,p. 190 ; panamensis, p. 191; major, p. 192. 

C. ALBICOMATUS Dall. PL 35, fig. 15. 

Shell resembling C. spectabilis Verrill, but larger, with a less 
prominent equator, more compressed in an antero-posterior direc- 
tion, and with the anal opening produced at the sides and roundly 
excavated in front and behind instead of notched laterally and pro- 
duced medianly. Color milk-white; incremental sculpture indi- 
cated only by more or less translucent rings in the shell substance ; 
longitudinally sculptured by extremely fine sharp grooves with equal 
interspaces, which cover the whole of the shell ; curvature moderate, 
nearly uniform, slightly more marked near the anal end ; the whole 
shell distinctly compressed, though not flattened, except below the 
oval aperture, where the shell is impressed, making a shallow sul- 
cus extending backward nearly two millimeters, and in front arch- 
ing the margin so that the perfect aperture is distinctly uniform 
with sharp, thin edges. There is no swollen equatorial girdle ; the 
greatest diameter is near the posterior end of the above-mentioned 



CADULUS-GADILA. 179 

sulcus, whence the shell tapers evenly backward ; aperture slightly 
oblique ; anal aperture nearly circular, concavely arched, but not 
notched in front and behind ; longitude of shell on its dorsal chord, 
24 ; perpendicular to the chord, 2 ; diameter of oval aperture, 3 ; 
antero-posterior diameter, 1*5; diameter of anal aperture 1 ; maxi- 
mum diameter of shell, 3'4 ; antero-posterior diameter of shell, 3 
mill. (Dall}. 

Off Mania, Ecuador, about JfD miles south of the equator, in Ion. 
81 W., 401 fms.; Gulf of Panama, 1,672 fms. (Albatross). 

Cadulus albicomatus DALL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, p. 259, pi. 9, 
f. 8. 

This species was obtained about 40 miles south of the equator in 
west longitude 81. It is one of the largest and finest species of the 
genus, and the only one known to me which is distinctly longitudi- 
nally sculptured (Dall}. 

The longitudinal striation is similar to that of Dentalium calamus, 
but rather finer. The grooves are very regularly and rather deeply 
engraved. 

C. STRIATUS Dall, n. sp. PI. 35, figs. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. 

Shell very large, rather slender, moderately bent ; bluish-white, 
more opaque white near the apex and upon the most inflated por- 
tion ; surface glossy, seen under a lens to be densely and finely stri- 
ated longitudinally, the striation subobsolete near apex and aperture. 
Tube without any pronounced inflation, somewhat compressed be- 
tween the convex and concave sides, gradually increasing from the 
apex nearly to the aperture, then then abruptly depressed or con- 
tracted on the convex side, with a small, flattened, slightly concave 
area just behind the lip ; slightly contracted laterally but not on 
the concave side. Aperture oblique, oval, somewhat flattened on 
the convex side ; peristome acute, excised on the convex side. Anal 
orifice simple, subcircular, the edge excavated in front and behind 
(fig. 12). 

Length 24'8 mill. ; diam. at aperture 2'0 x 2'5, at largest 2'7 x 2'9. 
at apex 1 x 1-2 mill. 

Gulf of Panama, in 322 fms. (Albatross). 

Very similar to C. albicomatus Dall, but the longitudinal striae 
which in that species are close, even and deeply engraved, are here 
more slight, shallow, less regularly and evenly developed. It is also 
a more slender species. Numerous specimens were taken at Fish 



180 CADULUS-GADILA. 

Commission Station 3,354, in the Gulf of Panama. Types are No. 
122,992, U.S. Nat. Mus. 

C. PLATYSTOMA Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PL 35, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell rather large, much bent ; bluish-white, somewhat translu- 
cent posteriorly ; smooth and glossy, growth-stride being scarcely 
discernable. Strongly swollen posteriorly, the greatest diameter 
contained about 4'4 times in the length of the shell ; equator between 
the anterior third and fourth of the shell's length, the tube rapidly 
tapering posteriorly, less rapidly anteriorly, where it is decidedly de- 
pressed or flattened on the convex face, the flattening increasing to- 
ward the aperture, just behind which there is a slight concavity on 
the middle of the convex side (fig. 18). Outline of convex side de- 
cidedly more arcuate toward the aperture ; concave outline modified 
and slightly convex in the region of the inflation. Posterior end 
attenuated. Tube compressed between the concave and convex 
sides at and anterior to the inflation, subcircular in section at the 
apex. Aperture irregularly elliptical, much flattened along the con- 
vex side, the peristome thin, jagged from fracture. Anal orifice sub- 
circular, with simple edge. 

Length 12'7 ; diam. at aperture, 1'3 x 2.0, at greatest inflation 2'52 
x 2*92, at apex 0.8 x 0'8 mill, (the antero-posterior dimensions pre- 
ceding). 

Off Mania, Ecuador, U. S.Fish Commission Station, 2792 in 401 
fms. mud, bottom temp. 42.9 F. (Albatross). 

Somewhat like C. poculum in being much bent, with the tube 
markedly compressed anteriorly, but in the Pacific species the infla- 
tion is much more extensive and not angular, the posterior attenua- 
tion less great, etc. It differs from C. dalli in being more bent, 
without apical nicks, and conspicuously in the shape of the aperture. 
In the form of the aperture it is somewhat similar to C. albicomatus r 
but that is a sculptured species. 

The unique type is No. 107,699, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

C. CALIFORNICUS Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI. 34, figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Shell large and solid, well curved ; smooth and glossy, growth- 
lines being very faintly indicated ; opaque white, the posterior half 
bluish, subtranslucent, with a similarly colored rim at the mouth, or 
sometimes slightly bluish throughout. Stout, decidedly swollen an- 
teriorly, the greatest diameter contained 4i to 4| times in the length 
of shell ; the equator about at the anterior fourth, either oblique, 



CADULUS-GADILA. 181 

well-marked and slightly subangular or less distinct and gently 
rounded, tapering rapidly toward both ends ; outline of concave side 
noticeably convex in the region of greatest swelling. Section of 
tube a trifle flattened between the convex and concave sides at the 
equator or throughout. Aperture subcircular, somewhat oblique. 
Anal orifice rather large, slightly oval, with no noticeable callus 
within, its edge irregular from breakage, but possibly two lateral 
nicks (see fig. 7) may be normally present. 

Length 14'3 mill.; antero-posterior diam. at aperture 2*25, at 
largest 3*33, at apex I'O mill.; lateral diam. at aperture 2'3, at 
largest, 3*4, at apex 1*1 mill. 

A more slender specimen measures : length 14'6, diam. at aperture 
2'3 x 2-5, at largest 2'9 x 3'1, at apex 1'2 x 1-4 mill. 

Off Tillamook Bay, Oregon, in 786 fms., bottom temp., 37.3 ; off 
Cape St. Martin, California, in 218 fms., temp., 43.2 ; off San Luis 
Obispo Bay, 252 fms. ; off Santa Barbara Is., 414 fins. ; off San 
Diego, in 822 fms., temp., 39 ; also Gulf of Panama, in 1,270 fms., 
temp., 36.4 (U. S. Fish Commission). 

A large stout species, much exceeding C. tolmiei, C. clavatus and 
C. dalli in size, and more swollen and robust than either. The 
equator is nearer the aperture and more pronounced than in C. tol- 
miei Dall. The Atlantic forms C. grandis and C. spectabilis Verrill 
are somewhat similar, but the former is stouter, the latter longer 
than C. calif ornicus. It varies considerable in inflation, some speci- 
mens (figs. 7, 8) being decidedly less swollen than that selected as 
type (figs. 5, 6). 

The type specimens are No. 107,698, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

. TOLMIEI Dall. PI. 34, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell thin, polished, slightly bluish-white, a trifle translucent, 
rather arcuate ; moderately swollen, the greatest diameter contained 
about 5 times in the length, situated about at the anterior third, 
thence tapering at flrst gradually and then rapidly to the apex, 
only slightly contracting toward the aperture; convex side strongly 
and evenly arched, opposite outline straight along the anterior half, 
concave posteriorly. Tube a trifle compressed vertically in the 
middle and anteriorly ; sculpture none, or only of obscure, incre- 
mental lines. Aperture oblique, nearly circular ; anal orifice sub- 
circular, simple. 

Length 10*7, antero-posterior diameter at aperture 1*65, at greatest 
bulging 2-0, at apex 0'77 mill.; lateral diam. at aperture 1'72, at 
greatest 2'1, at apex 0*72 mill. 



182 CADULUS-GADILA. 

Type measures : length of shell, 12'0 ; max. diam., 2'0 ; min. diam., 
0-7 mill. 

Near Victoria, Vancouver Island, in 60 fms., with C. hepburni 
(Nat. Hist. Soc. Brit. Columbia). 

Cadulus tolmiei DALL, Nat. Hist. Soc. Brit. Columbia, Bull. No. 2 > 
p. 13, pi. l,f. 8 (1897). 

" This species is markedly different, both in arcuation and the in- 
flation of the anterior part, from either C. aberrans or C. hepburni. 
I have named it in honor of the late Dr. William Tolmie, of Vic- 
toria, sometime officer of the Hudson Bay Co., who for many year* 
contributed valuable material to the students of the ethnology and 
natural history of British Columbia, both in America and England. '* 
(Dall). 

C. tolmiei is smaller and less inflated than C. californicus Pils. & 
Sharp, and the equator is less distinct. It is very similar to C. 
rushii from the Hatteras region in the Atlantic, but that is more 
attenuated posteriorly. With the type a specimen occurred differ- 
ing in several respects, and probably at least varietally distinct. 

C. (tolmiei var. ?) NEWCOMBEI P. & S., n. var. PJ. 34, figs. 1 , 2. 

About the length of tolmiei, but decidedly more slender, greatest 
diameter contained nearly 6 times in length, section of the tube 
markedly oval, compressed vertically throughout; aperture ovaL 
Length ll'O; antero-posterior diam. at aperture 1 '45, at greatest 
bulging, 1-66, at apex 0'66 mill. ; lateral diam. at aperture 1*55, at 
largest T9, at apex 0'75 mill. 

Indo-Pacific and Australian Species. 
C. SIMILLIMUS Watson. PI. 26, fig. 77. 

Shell very like Cadulus gracilis Jeffn, rather broad, narrowed at 
both ends, very slightly and symmetrically bent, but a little more 
towards the mouth, with a very slight bulge, which just shows on 
the concave curve. It is thin, polished, translucent (weathering 
opaque), with an opaque ring near the apex. Sculpture : Very 
minute and faint and superficial oblique striae, with a faint floccu- 
lence in the substance of the shell. Mouth rather large, oblique * 
edge thin, but rounded ; apical opening small, thin, and chipped. 
Length 0'16 inch, breadth at mouth O02, greatest O036, at apex 
0-014 inch. (Watson). 

Raine Island, Cape York, N.E. Australia, 155 fms. (Challenger). 



CADULUS-GADILA. 183 

Cadulus simillimus WATS., Jotirn. Linn. Soc.,xiv., p. 526 (1879) ; 
Chall. Rep., p. 20, pi. 3, f. 6 (1885). 

This differs from C. graeilis Jeffreys in being broader, with a 
slight bulge on the concave curve, in being a little more bent, and 
in not being compressed ; it is also larger. It is extremely like C. 
jeffreysi Monter., but is a little more bent, especially in front, is 
larger, and seems a thinner shell. ( Watson). 

C. ACUMINATUS Tate. PI. 32, figs. 47, 48, 49. 

Shell quite thin, moderately arcuate and not much swollen, fusi- 
form, the greatest girth about median, thence very gradually taper- 
ing toward the ends, which are rather large ; the median bulging 
being about as obvious in a dorsal or ventral (fig. 48) as in a lateral 
view of the shell. Tube somewhat flattened antero-posteriorly through- 
out, the compression slightly greater at the ends. Surface appear- 
ing perfectly smooth and glossy; translucent- whitish throughout, 
except for an opaque white ring around the tube a short distance from 
the smaller end, produced by a narrow internal callous ledge. Both 
openings oval, their outlines more flattened on the convex than on 
the other side, and both cut the tube nearly at right angles ; and 
the peristomes are simple. Greatest diameter of apex about two- 
thirds that of the aperture. 

Length 6*4; tube measuring I'll by 1/25 mill, at point of great- 
est diameter ; aperture 0'705 by-0'9 mill. ; apex 0'564 by 0'66 mill- 
(figs. 48, 49). 

Another specimen (fig. 47) measures: Length 5'2 mill.; antero- 
posterior diam. at greatest amplitude 0'9, at aperture 0'6, at apex 
0-47 mill. 

St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia (Tate, Bednall) ; Port Stephens, 
New South Wales (Dr. J. C. Cox). 

Cadulus acnminatus TATE, Proc. and Rep. Roy. Soc. S. Australia, 
ix, p. 193 (1887). C. acuminatus Desh. MS. in Coll. Cuming, 
ANGAS, P. Z. S., 1878, p. 868. 

The specific name is singularly inappropriate. Professor Tate de- 
scribed it from the oyster beds of the Upper Aldinga series (Plio- 
cene). 

Numerous specimens vary between the more obese and the slen- 
der specimens figured. The white girdle near the smaller end is 
constantly conspicuous on the milky translucent color of the rest of 
the shell. This girdle is removed from the apex a distance about 



184 CADULUS-GADILA. 

equal to the diameter of the latter. There is no thickening of the 
shell wall toward the aperture, and no appearance of striae under 
considerable magnification. 

The greatest diameter of the tube is contained about 5 times in 
the length of the shell ; that of the aperture is contained about 7 
times. 

This species is considerably like the North Atlantic C. subfusifor- 
mis in contour. C. simillimus Wats., is a more swollen species. 

C. COLUBRIDENS Watson. PI. 26, fig. 71. 

Shell like an adder's fang, long, sharp, bent, very slightly flat- 
tened, swollen near the broader end. The swell, which is faintly 
angulated and is at one-fourth of the length, is chiefly on the con- 
vex curve, but is visible on the concave curve too. From the angu- 
lation the curve is very equable in either direction till about two- 
thirds along toward the apex, where it bends a little more. The 
shell is thin, brilliant, semi opaque, white. Sculpture: Very faint 
and fine scratches on the lines of growth. Mouth large, oval, very 
slightly flattened on the ventral side, from which the thin, sharp 
edge is obliquely cut off upwards towards the convex curve. The 
posterior opening is much smaller, nearly round, and the edge is 
thin and chipped. Length 0'58 inch, breadth at mouth 0'067, 
greatest (H, at apex 0'033 inch. (Watson). 

Lat. 37 34' &, long. 179 22' E., N. E. point of New Zealand, 
in 700 fms. (Challenger). 

C. colubridens WATSON, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, xiv, p. 523 
(1879) ; Chall. Rep., Scaphopoda, p. 18, pi. iii, f. 1 (1886). 

This is twice the size of C. gadus Montagu, but it resembles that 
in the angulation, which, however, is here more marked at the sum- 
mit of the swelling ; its expansion from the smaller end is more 
gradual, and its contraction from the angulation to the mouth is 
more rapid. (Wats.}. 

C. VIPERIDENS Melvill & Standen. PI. 33, fig. 55. 

Shell of medium proportions, somewhat curved, very smooth, a 
little tapering towards the apex as well as at the aperture ; delicate, 
pellucid, milk white. Aperture rounded, the margin thin ; poste- 
rior orifice very small, the margin acutely cut into two lobes, thin. 
Length 6*5, diam. of aperture 1, of apex 0'5 mill. 

Lifu, Loyalty Is. (Mr. & Mrs. Hatfield). 



CADULUS-GADILA. 185 

Cadulus viperidens MELV. & STANDEN, The Journal of Conchol- 
ogy, viii, p. 274, pi. 11, f. 79 (Oct., 1896). 

Several specimens of a somewhat incurved, perfectly smooth 
translucent, milky-tinged Cadulus, precisely corresponding with 
unnamed specimens in the British Museum from the shore of North 
Australia. In form it slightly recalls C. colubridens Wats, from 
New Zealand, but is more uniform in width and less ventricosa 
towards the base. It is likewise smaller than either that species, 
the common tropical C. gadus Montagu, or C. Jeffrey n Monts. The 
mouth is simple, round, the posterior or apical orifice also rounded 
in diameter, has its edges labially bisected by a sharply cut channel. 
(Meh. & Stand.'}. 

C. CLAVATUS (Gould). PI. 26, figs. 80, 81, 79. 

Shell rather slender, moderately solid, considerably curved ; 
maximum diameter situated near the larger end, gradually taper- 
ing posteriorly, anteriorly rather rapidly contracting at the sides 
and especially on the convex face, and very slightly on the concave 
face. Tube slightly flattened between the convex and concave sides 
throughout, least so at the apex. Bluish-white, becoming opaque- 
white near the ends from the greater thickness of the shell there. 
Surface smooth, glossy, showing no striation ; aperture (fig. 80) 
slightly oblique, rounded-oval, a little more flattened on the convex 
than on the concave side. Apex small, rounded oval, with perfectly 
simple, sharp edge. Length 11, diameter at aperture 1'2 x 1'4, at 
greatest girth 1-76 x 1'85, at apex *55 x 0.6 mill. 

Hong Kong Harbor, China, 6-20 fms. (Wm. Stimpson). 

Dentalium clavatum GOULD, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 166 
(1859). Helonyx clavatus STIMPSON, Amer. Journ. Conch., i, p. 63, 
pi. 9, f. 14 (1865). 

Stimpson has figured and described the living animal (fig. 79) : 
" Foot greatly elongated, cylindrical, and obtuse at the extremity ; 
collar apparently entire; anal siphon longer than in Dentalium, not 
fissured." 

Mr. A. H. Cooke reports C. clavatus from the Gulf of Suez, 
-dredged by MacAndrew (Ann. Mag. N. H. [5], xvi, p. 275). 

Our figures and description are from the type, U. S. Nat. Mus. 
C. HONOLULUENSIS (Watson). PI. 26, fig. 76. 

Shell cylindrical, bent, and attenuated from about the middle to 
the apex, toward the mouth very slightly contracted, of a dull white 



186 CADULUS-GADILA. 

transluceucy, and not glossy. Sculpture : The surface, especially 
toward the apex, is faintly marked by microscopic, remote, oblique,, 
raised, encircling rings, parallel to which there are fine scratches in 
the intervals. Edge of the mouth very oblique, blunt; apex not 
small, broken. Length 0*21, breadth, greatest 0'031, at mouth 
0-028, at apex 0*016 inch. ( Watson). 

Reefs off Honolulu, 40 fms. (Challenger). 

Siphodentalium honoluluense WATS., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond.,xv, 
p. 89 (1880) ; Chall. Kep.. p. 17, pi. 2, f. 10. 

This species closely resembles Siphodentalium tetraschistum Wats.,, 
but, besides the obvious difference in size, that species is a little more 
cylindrical and is much more strongly and uniformly sculptured. I 
say nothing of the peculiar feature of the apex of that species, be- 
cause the point being broken in the solitary specimen of the present 
species, comparison is impossible. ( Watson). 

C. GADUS (Montagu). PI. 31, figs. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32. 

Shell small, rather thin, but little curved and that mainly poste- 
riorly ; anterior half considerably and very regularly swollen, the 
greatest diameter slightly behind the anterior third of the length ; 
tapering toward the aperture on all sides, a little more rapidly 
tapering posteriorly, decidedly attenuated toward the small apex. 
Outline of concave side decidedly modified and quite convex in the 
region of the inflation. Greatest diameter contained 4i to 4i times 
in the length of the shell. Surface smooth, with a glimmer some- 
what like that of C. incisus ; no perceptible growth-striae ; color 
whitish, imperfectly translucent. Tube slightly compressed from 
front to back, throughout. Aperture quite oblique when unbroken, 
and rounded-oval. Anal orifice very small, of the same shape, its 
edge apparently free from slits when uninjured. 

Length 7*6 mill. ; diarn. at aperture 0'95 x 1*26; at largest 1*6& 
x 1*79 ; at apex 0*47x0*48 mill.; the autero-posterior diameter 
given first in each case. 

Length 6*53 mill. ; diam. at aperture 0'82 x 0*9 ; at largest 1*37 
x 1-58, at apex 0*33 x 0*42 mill. 

Habitat uncertain* 

Denlalium gadus MONT., Testacea Britanica, p. 476, pi. 14, f. 7 
(1803). Cadulusgadus Mont., JEFFREYS, Ann. Mag.N.H.(4),xix > 
p. 157 (1877). ? Cadulus gadus COOKE, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), xvi, 
p. 275. ? C. gadus Sowb., MELVILL & ABERCROMBIE, Mem. &, 
Proc. Manchester Lit. and Philos. Soc. (4), vii, p. 25. 



CADULUS-GADILA. 187 

Our figures and description are from specimens in the Jeffreys 
collection (U. S. Nat. Mus.) which agree thoroughly with Montagu's 
figures, and which perhaps came originally from Humphrey's stock 
of shells. The species is quite distinct in its flask-like form, being 
conspicuously and evenly swollen but not in the least angulated 
anteriorly, and a good deal attenuated posteriorly. This peculiar 
and characteristic shape is for some reason more conspicuous in the 
shells themselves or in a natural size figure, than it is in the much 
enlarged camera drawings, although the latter are faithful in pro- 
portions. Jeffreys writes as follows : " C. gadus of Montagu resem- 
bles C. olivi; but it is not only very much smaller, but is proportion- 
ally shorter and less slender, and the anterior end is more con- 
tracted. The locality given by Montagu (' many parts of the Brit- 
ish Channel '), with the mariner's name * Hake's- tooth,' is at least 
very doubtful as regards this species ; and it is not unlikely that he 
may have mistaken for the ' Hake's-tooth ' Ditrypa arietina (a testa- 
ceous annelid), which is frequently found adhering to the grease or 
* arming' of the deep-sea lead in soundings. But his description 
and figure evidently apply to a species of Cadulus from the noted 
collection of old George Humphreys, the shell-dealer, of which I 
possess specimens. This species was dredged by the late Professor 
Barrett at Jamaica; and it is a fossil of the Sicilian tertiaries. I 
received specimens of the latter from the Marquis di Monterosato as 
' Cadulus subfusiformis Sars,' and from Dr. Tiberi as ' Siphonoden- 
talium olivi var. minor Scacc.' " 

The typical shells figured are without habitat. Whether the 
localities "Jamaica" and "Sicilian Tertiaries" really refer to the 
same specific form is open to question. Mr. A. H. Cooke reports 
C. gadus from the Gulf of Suez, dredged by Mac Andrew ; and 
Melvill and Abercrombie include it in their Bombay list. It is 
evident that some of these localities are questionable ; and the true 
habitat remains to be ascertained. 

C. gadus has been identified by Sacco (Moll. Terr. Terz. Piern. e 
Ligur., xxii, 116) from the northern Italian Miocene; but his fig- 
ure proves the identification incorrect. 

Montagu gives the following description ; and his figures are 
copied on my plate (fig. 27) ; the latter are characteristic, though 
the enlarged view is somewhat exaggerated. 

" Dentalium with a subpellucid, subarcuated shell, tapering to a 
small point, pervious contracting a little towards the larger end ; is 



188 CADULUS-GADILA. 

white, glossy, and perfectly smooth, without the smallest appearance 
of wrinkles or striae. Length scarce three-eighths of an inch ; diam- 
eter of the largest part, about one-sixteenth." (Mont.}. 

C. DIV.E (Velain). PL 26, figs. 82, 83. 

Shell thin, white, transparent, elongated, moderately arcuated ; 
obviously swollen at the upper third.; surface smooth and glossy, 
showing some unequally spaced growth-striae when sufficiently 
magnified. Anterior aperture perfectly circular, not oblique, con- 
tracted, with simple and sharp peristome ; posterior orifice quite 
large, simple, oblique, entire, without lobes or lateral slits. Length 
4, diameter above f , below J mill. ( Velain). 

Island of St. Paul, in the crater, 90 meters (French Transit of 
Venus Exped., 1874). 

Gadus divce [sic] CH. VELAIN, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gene>., vi, 
p. 128, pi. 5, f. 1, 2 (1877). 

Apparently resembles C. gadus. We have not seen specimens. 
C. MINUTUS H. Adams. PJ. 26, fig. 78. 

Shell smooth, thin, arcuate, a little contracted anteriorly, whit- 
ish. Aperture circular, slightly oblique. Length 4, diam. f mill. 
(H. Ad.). 

Red Sea (Mac Andrew). 

Cadulus minutus H. AD., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 10, pi. 3, f. 9. Den- 
talium minutum SOWERBY, Conch. Icon., xviii, pi. 7, f. 48 (1872). 
COOKE, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), xvi, p. 273 (1885). CLESSIN, Con- 
chyl. Cab., p. 18 (1896). 

This may be a Disehides, but the apex has not been described. 
Group of C. dentalinus. 

Slender forms with the greatest girth situated very near the aper- 
ture, the constriction short and rather abrupt ; both apertures sub- 
circular and simple ; surface smooth or circularly finely ribbed. 

This group contains the most slender members of the genus Cad- 
ulus. The shell is considerably like that of Ditrupa, but less earthy 
and of more regular growth. The species are of two kinds : eircu' 
larly wrinkled and smooth. 

The sculptured series probably begins with C. perpusillus (Sowb.), 
imperfectly described in 1832, but this is not positively known, as 
the minute features of the surface of that species are still undescribed ; 
the next species in point of seniority is C. dentalinus (Guppy) of the 



CA DULUS-G A DILA . 189 

Jamaican Oligocene. This has modern descendants in C. acus of 
the Gulf of Mexico, and C. panamensis and var. major of the Pan- 
amic region. It is extremely probable that all the above mentioned 
forms fall within the limits of one single species. A smaller but 
allied species, C. singaporensis, occurs in the East Indian fauna. 

The series of smooth species is also represented in the Antillean 
Oligocene. C. elegantissimus Pils. & Sharp and C. phenax P. & S. 
belong here. Recent, it has occurred only in the Californian fauna, 
where C. aberrans Whiteaves and the very closely allied C.fusifor- 
mis S. & P., and C. hepburni Dall, also similar, are found. 

As to C. dominguensis (Orb.), its characters have been too inde- 
finitely described to permit a positive location ; and it is likewise 
doubtful whether C. Icevis belongs to this group or some other; 
and it may even be non-molluscan. Dentalium corrugatum Cpr. is 
a young shell of the aunulated C. dentalinus group. 

Key to species. 

I. Shell circularly corrugated toward the apex. 

a. More or less of a short inflation near the larger end ; length 
7-1 1 mill. ; American forms. 
b. West American. 

c. Length 7'5 mill., 9 times the diarn. (sculpture 

unknown), West Columbia, perpusillus, p. 190. 

c'. Length 7 mill., 7 -9 times the diam., Panama 

to L. Cal.. panamensis, p. 191. 

c". Length 8-10 mill., 6-7 i times the diam., 

major, p. 192. 
b. Antillean forms. 

c. Length 7-7'5 mill., 7|-10 J times diam., Oligo- 
cene of Jamaica, dentalinus, p. 190. 
c'. Length 8 mill., lOi-11 times the diam.; 
recent, acus, p. 191. 
a'. Not inflated near larger end ; less annulated ; length 5*6 
mill., 7i times the greatest diam. ; Singapore, 

singaporensis, p. 195. 
II. Shell smooth, not circularly corrugated. 

a. Length 28 mill., 14 times the diam. A doubtful member 
of the genus. N.-E., Australia, Icevis p. 195. 

a'. Smaller and not nearly so slender ; anterior constriction 
slight ; West American. 



190 CADULUS-GADILA. 

b. Length 13'5 mill., 10 times the diam., 

aberrans, p. 193. 
b'. Length 10*3 mill., about 9 times the diam., 

fusiformis, p. 193. 
V. Length 10 mill., about 7 times the diam., 

hepburni, p. 194. 
C. dominguensis (p. 191) is not included in the above table. 

C. PERPUSILLUS (G. B. Sowerby). ( Unfigured). 

Shell small, thin, narrow, curved, polished and white. Apex 
acute ; aperture contracted, oblique. Length three-tenths, diam. 
one-thirtieth inch. ( G. B. &). 

Puerto Salango, west coast of Colombia (Cuming). 

Dentalium perpusillum G. B. SOWERBY, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 29. 

" This is related to D. gadus, but is much more slender, and the 
aperture is obliquely truncated from the dorsal to the ventral mar- 
gin." (G. B. &) 

In the Thes. Conch., iii, p. 104, this is referred to Ditrupa, not an 
unnatural conclusion. The shape and small size, length 7*5, diam. 
0*83 mill., indicate, however, that it is a member of the C. denta- 
linus group of Cadulus, and perhaps identical with C. panamensis. 
Should this surmise prove correct, the name perpusillus will take 
precedence ; and it is not unlikely that C. dentalinus, acus and pana- 
mensis may be ranked as mere varieties. 

C. DENTALINUS (Guppy). PI. 36, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell acicular, very slender, abruptly swollen near the larger end ; 
smaller half closely, circularly costulate. 

Length 7, greatest diameter 0'9 mill. 

Length 7'5, greatest diameter 0'71 mill. 

Jamaica, an Oligocene fossil. 

Ditrupa dentalina GUPPY, Geological Magazine, (n. ser.) decade 
II, Vol. 1, 1874, p. 445, pi. 16, f. 11 (bad, no description). Ditrupa 
dentalinum GUPPY, Geol. Mag., 1875, p. 42. 

Outline figures drawn from author's examples of this Jamaican 
Oligocene species are here given for comparison with the following 
recent forms, which we hesitate to separate as species. There is 
considerable variation in proportions, a slender and a stouter shell 
being figured. The annulation is similar to that of C. panamensis 
and C. acus, q. v. 



CADULUS-GADILA. 191 

. ACUS Dall. PL 36, fig. 27. 

Shell small, very slender, slightly curved, variegated with trans- 
lucent and opaque white rings and encircling bands, which become 
broader toward the anterior extreme ; aperture circular, slightly ob- 
lique, the shell behind it rapidly increasing to its point of maximum 
diameter, from which it very gradually tapers toward the almost 
acute posterior extremity. Surface smooth, with extremely fine 
circular grooves or lines, which under a strong magnifier are visi- 
ble over most of the posterior third ,of the shell, with their inter- 
spaces, recalling the rings of Ccecum trachea on a much more minute 
scale ; the rings of opaque color sometimes coincide with the sculp- 
ture, but not constantly. Length of shell 8*0, diameter of aperture 
0'5, greatest diam. 0'75, posterior diam. 0*12 mill. (Dall}. 

Samana Bay, S. Domingo, in 30 fms. (Capt. Couthouy, U. S. N.). 

Cadulus acus DALL, Bull. M. C. Z., xviii, Blake Rep., p. 432, pi. 
27, f. 11 (1889) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, p. 78, pi. 27, f. 11. 

Very closely allied to C. dentalinus Guppy of the Jamaican Oli- 
gocene or Miocene, and possibly also to C. dominguensis d'Orb. 

. DOMINGUENSIS (Orbigny). PL 36, fig. 26. 

Shell lengthened, narrow, arcuate, smooth and shining; apex 
acuminate. Length 7 mill. (Orb.). 

San Domingo t Martinique and Cuba, on the sand (Orb.). 

Dentalium dominguense D'ORB., (" 1846 "), Hist, etc., d'lle de 
uba (de la Sagra), Moll., ii, p. 201 (1853) ; Atlas, pi. 25, f. 7, 8, 9. 

This little species is easily recognized by the contraction of the 
aperture, which is oblique and oval. (Orb.). 

It is known only by d'Orbigny's description and figures. Type 
was deposited in British Museum (Catal., p. 34). 

O. PANAMENSIS Sharp & Pilsbry, n. sp. or var. PL 36, figs. 23, 24 

25. 

Shell very slender, aeicular, quite arcuate, the bend mainly poster- 
ior ; encircled quite near the aperture by a convexity or swollen band, 
from which it contracts rapidly to the aperture, and posteriorly 
tapers gradually to the small apex ; circular in section. Bluish- 
white, a little translucent, the anterior swelling opaque white. Sur- 
face closely and finely sculptured with encircling wrinkles or riblets 
from the apex nearly to the middle, the remainder smooth except 
for light growth-lines, shining. Aperture circular, somewhat ob- 
lique ; apical orifice circular with unslit edges. 



192 CADULUS-GADILA. 

Length 7, diam. at aperture 0*625, at greatest bulging 0*934, at 

apex 0*25 mill. 

Length 7, diam. at aperture 0'5, at greatest '75, at apex 0'2 milL 
Panama Bay, in 26 and 51 fms., mud ; off Guaymas, Mexico, in 

20 fms. ; in the Pacific off Lower California, 'Albatross' Sta. 2,830 % 

lat. 23 33', long. 110 37', in 66 fms. ; near Cerros Id., 26 fms. (IL 

S. Fish Commission) ; Mazatlan (Cpr.)/ 

Dentalium corrugatum Cm., Cat. Mazatlan Shells, p. 189 (1857),. 
a very young shell. Not D. corrugatum Gay, 1854. 

This species is extremely similar to C. dentalinus (Guppy) from 
the Jamaican Oligocene, but the concentric wrinkles are perceptibly 
more crowded and less oblique in the living than in the fossil form. 
Compared with the Antillean C. acus Dall, our species or variety is 
decidedly stouter and more curved, with stronger constriction at 
the mouth. 

Types, No. 122,795 U. S. Nat. Mus. 

The shells from off Guaymas and Cerros Island are the size of 
the types, but more annulated. 

Var. major P. & S. PI. 36, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

A larger form of this species occurs off Lower California at Station 
2,830 of the Fish Commission, in 66 fms. sand. The larger speci- 
mens are annulated for a shorter distance from the apex than in the 
Bay of Panama types. Three specimens (illustrated) measure: 

Fig. 28, length 10'37, diam. at aperture 1'12, at greatest 1*72, at 
apex 0*75 mill. 

Fig. 29, length 8'62, diam. at aperture I'O, at greatest 1*37, at 
apex 0*37 mill. 

Fig. 30, length 8'12, diam. at aperture G'87, at greatest 1*12, at 
apex 0'44 mill. 

The specimens of this form are No. 96,570, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

The dimensions of Carpenter's Dentalium corrugatum, length 
1*25, greatest diam. 0'25 ? apical diam. 0'125 mill., indicate, as Car- 
penter says, a very young specimen. One only was found ; th& 
concentrically wrinkled surface being its most remarkable character. 
We have little doubt that it is the very young of Cadulus panamen- 
sis, which is also annulated ; but in any case the name is preoccu- 
pied for a Chilian Tertiary species of the group of D. ceras, and will, 
therefore, be dropped. Carpenter's description here follows : 

" D. corrugatum. Shell whitish-corneous, subdiaphanous, little 
arcuate, slender. Surface concentrically, irregularly corrugated. 



CADULUS-GADILA. 193 

the wrinkles small and very close. Branchial aperture simple.' 
Length 0'05, breath O'005-O'Ol inch." (Qw.). 

Mazatlan, on Spondylus calcifer. 
C. ABERRANS Whiteavcs. PL 35, fig. 16. 

Shell slender, moderately but distinctly curved, large and much 
elongated for the genus, increasing very slowly but regularly in 
diameter, not distinctly (if at all) swollen in advance of the middle, 
and very slightly and scarcely perceptibly constricted immediately 
behind the aperture. Test extremely thin, surface polished, very 
glossy and shining, smooth to the naked eye, but under a lens it is 
seen to be marked with minute and transverse but somewhat oblique 
lines of growth ( Whiteaves). 

Length of an average full-sized example 13*5 mill., greatest 
breadth of the same near the anterior end 1*3 mill. (Whiteaves). 

Quatsino Sound, British Columbia, abundant (Whiteaves). 

Cadulus aberrans WHITEAVES, Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, iv, Sect. 
4, p. 124, f. 2 (1887). TAYLOR, Ibid. (ser. 2), i, Sect. 4, p. 56. 

This little shell, which is, nevertheless, of large size for the genus, 
looks not unlike an immature Dentalium, and, at first sight, speci- 
mens of it might be easily mistaken for half-grown examples of D. 
pretiosum Nuttall, which the Indians say occurs at the same local- 
ity. It may, however, be distinguished from any Dentalium by its 
thin test and highly polished outer surface, though the swelling of 
the shell in advance of the middle and the constriction behind the 
aperture which are usually marked characters in the genus Cadulus, 
are reduced to a minimum in this species, and in most specimens are 
quite imperceptible ( Whiteaves}. 

C. FUSIFORMIS Pilsbry & Sharp, n.sp. PL 35, fig. 14. 

Shell but little curved, long and slender, the greatest diameter 
contained about 9 times in the length of the shell ; swelling hardly 
perceptible, the tube very gradually enlarging from the small apex 
to the beginning of the last third of the length, thence an equal size 
is maintained almost to the aperture, just before which it is gently 
but quite perceptibly contracted on all sides. Surface smooth and 
glossy, bluish-white, scarcely translucent, with oblique rings of more 
opaque white, and near the apex some longitudinal white lines ; a 
pellucid ring bordering the lip-edge, behind which there is a short, 
opaque white tract, passing gradually into the bluish and banded 
general color. Tube a mere trifle compressed vertically at the 
13 



194 CADULUS-GADILA. 

widest part. Aperture oblique, and (measured obliquely) a trifle 
longer than wide (in the ratio of 35 : 33) ; lip thin, sharp. Anal 
orifice circular and simple. 

Length 10*37 mill.; antero-posterior diameter at aperture I'O, at 
widest 1*14, at apex 0'37 mill.; greatest transverse diameter 1*17 
mill. 

San Pedro, California ( J. G. Cooper) ; fossil in well at San Diego, 
Cal, at 150 ft. depth (Hemphill). 

C. fusiformis " Phil.," COOPER in U. S. National Museum, and 
HEMPHILL in collection Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

Closely allied to C. hepburni Dall and C. aberrans Whiteaves ; 
but it is decidedly slenderer than the first, and less curved than the 
other of these species. The type is a specimen collected alive, No. 
133,809, U. S. Nat. Mus. ; other and fossil specimens from a San 
Diego well (Pliocene) have been collected by Henry Hemphill. 
The specific name " fusiformis Phil." seems to have obtained cur- 
rency on the West Coast, but we have been unable to find it in 
Philippi's writings, or, in fact, in any printed work. There is also 
a dead shell, perhaps Pliocene, in the U. S. Nat. Mus., with the name 
*' C. intentior Cpr.," identical with this species. 

C. HEPBURNI Dall. PL 35, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell slightly arcuate, the latter half nearly straight, narrow, the 
greatest diameter contained about 7 times in the length of the shell ; 
calibre gradually increasing from the apex to within about a milli- 
meter of the aperture, then quite perceptibly contracting. A trifle 
compressed between the concave and convex sides. Surface polished, 
smooth, white. Apertures subcircular, their margins simple. 

Length 10 mill. ; antero-posterior diam. at aperture I'll, at great- 
est 1*33, at apex 0'45 mill. ; lateral diam. at aperture T23, at great- 
est 1-4, at apex 0'5 mill. 

Type measures : length of shell, 11 ; diameter at anterior end, 
1*25 ; at posterior end. 0'75 mill. 

Near Victoria, Vancouver Island, in 60 fms. (Nat. Hist. Soc. of 
British Columbia). 

Cadulus hepburni DALL, Nat. Hist. Soc. Brit. Columbia, Bull. No. 
2, p. 12, pi. l,f. 13 (1897). 

The contraction toward the aperture is very slight, and mainly 
confined to the covex side. The surface is eroded near the apex in 
all the specimens collected, so the measurements of apex are approxi- 



CADULUS-GADILA. 195 

mate. While quite slender, it is still somewhat stouter than C. aber- 
rans; and C. fusiformis is less curved and less constricted at the aper- 
ture. Our description and figures of this species and C. tolmiei are 
from part of the original specimens, kindly transmitted by Dr. C. F. 
Newcombe. Ball writes : 

" This shell, in some lights, appears to have longitudinal streaks 
of more or less opaque white, but there is no development of longi- 
tudinal sculpture. 

" The only other species described from this region is Cadulus 
aberrans Whiteaves, which is larger and more arcuate. An appar- 
ently undescribed species from the east coast of North America, 
near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is very close to C. hepburni, 
though the slight differences observable may be thought sufficient, 
taking the habitat into consideration, to separate it specifically. I 
have named the Columbian species in honor of the late James Hep- 
burn, Esq., one of the earliest collectors of British Columbian mol- 
lusks, and who is well known for his contributions to the herbaria 
of European botanists." 

C. SINGAPORENSIS Sharp & Pilsbry, n. sp. PI. 36, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell small, very slender, closely striated obliquely with alternate 
white and translucent bands, smooth and glossy on the larger part, 
encircled by low, close wrinkles near the apex. Gradually increasing 
from the apex to quite near the aperture, then contracting moder- 
ately on all sides ; equator or point of greatest diameter, at about the 
anterior ninth of the shell's length, the diameter there contained 
about 7i times in the length. Tube faintly compressed vertically 
throughout. Aperture not oblique, subcircular; anal orifice simple. 

Length 5'6 mill. ; diam. at aperture 0'56 x 0*6, at greatest 0'75 x 
0*77, at apex 0'29 x 0'34 mill, (the antero-posterior dimensions in 
each case given first). 

Singapore (Dr. S. Archer). 

Allied to C. dentalinus and its recent varieties panamensis and 
acus, but smaller, less distinctly and for a shorter distance annulated, 
not swollen near the larger end, etc. It is a very much smaller 
shell than either C. hepburni, C. aberrans or C. fusiformis. 

C.(??) L^VIS (Brazier). 

Shell light amber-color, sometimes white, smooth, glossy, strongly 
arched, half-moon shaped, basal margin pinched in about two lines 
long, forming somewhat like a shoulder, then slightly ventricose, 



196 CADULUS-GADILA. 

from that to the apex regularly tapering, apex with a minute pei> 
foration entire. Length, 14 lines; diam. of base at shoulder, 1 ; be- 
low, J line [28,2, 1 mill.] (Brazier}. 

Princess Charlotte Bay, northeast Australia, 13 fathoms, sandy 
mud ; Cape Grenville, northeast Australia, 20 fathoms, mud ; York 
Island, Torres Straits, IS fathoms, hard mud bottom; Darnley Is- 
land, Torres Straits, 5, 15, 20, 30 fathoms (Chevert Exped.). 

Dentalium Iceve BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 50 
(1877). Not D. Iceve Schlotheim. 

The lower part of this species resembles the spines of the sea- 
urchins (Echinidse). The greater part of the specimens are en- 
crusted over with a fine coating of coral-like substance (Braz.). 

Described as a Dentalium, the specific name being preoccupied. 
It seems to be a Cadulus or a Ditrupa. We have not seen speci- 
mens, but the last clause of Brazier's observations suggests the latter 
genus. 



DENTALIUM. 197 



Appendix A, Fossil Scaphopoda. 



The references given below comprise the original description of 
ach species, usually with some of the most useful subsequent refer- 
ences. It has not been considered advisable to cite the full litera- 
ture of each species. The synonymy, while partly original, has been, 
in large measure, adopted from various specialists upon molluscan 
fossils of the several formations. 

Genus DENTALIUM L. 

I. CENOZOIC OR TERTIARY SPECIES. 

(Recent species extending into the Pliocene are generally dmitted 
from the following list). 

D. ABSCONDITUM Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, Vol. ii, p. 212-213, pi. l,figs. 15-17. 

Eocene, Paris Basin. 

D. ACRE Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for D. acicula 
Deshayes 1864, not Gld. 1859. 

Z>. acicula DESHAYES, 1864 (not of Gould, 1859), Descr. Anim. s. 
Vert. Bassin Paris, Vol. ii, p. 202-203, pi. 1, figs. 31-32. 

Eocene, Paris Basin. 
D. ACRICULUM (Tate), 1887. 

Entalis acriculum TATE, 1887. Trans. & Proc. R. Soc. S. Aus- 
tralia, Vol. ix, p. 192, pi. xx, fig. 11. 

Eocene, Lower beds of Muddy Creek, Victoria, Australia. 
D. ACUTICOSTA Deshayes, 1825. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, 
p. 357, pi. xviii, fig. 3. 

Eocene, Paris Basin. 

D. ACUTUM Hebert, 1849. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 2, Vol. vi, 
p. 469. Not of Deshayes, Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, Vol. 
ji, p. 205, pi. 20, figs. 1-3. 

D. grande NYST, 1836, not of Deshayes. Rech. Coq. foss. de 
Hoesselt et KL, p. 39, No. 103. 

D. nystii D'ORBIGNY, 1852 (proposed for D. grande Nyst, 1843, 
not of Deshayes, 1825) ; Prodr. Paleont. Strat., Vol. iii, p. 18, No. 
277. 



TERTIARY-DENTALIUM. 

Entalis cf. acutaf He*b. var. apenninica SACCO. Moll. Terr. 
Terz. Piem., xxii, p. 106. (Probably belongs elsewhere). 

Eocene, Mayence Basin, etc. 

D. AEQUALE Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, Vol. ii, p, 204, pi. 20, figs. 5-7. 

Eocene, Paris Basin. 

D. AGILE var. OLEACINUM Dall, 1892. Trans. Wagner Free 
Inst. Sci., Vol. iii, p. 441. 

Pliocene of the Caloosahatchie, Florida. 

D. ALTERNANS Chenu, 1842, (" Museum de Paris "). Illustr. 
Conch., Vol. i, p. 1, pi. 4, fig. 17. 

Probably Tertiary ; locality unknown (Dentalium s. sir. group of 
D. octangulatum). 

D. ANCEPS Sowerby, 1837. Trans. Geol. Soc. London (2d Ser.), 
Vol. v, p. 136, pi. viii, fig. 19. 

Fustiaria anceps R. B. NEWTON, Syst. List Edwards Coll., p. 284. 

Entaliopsis anceps NEWTON & HARRIS, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., 
i, p. 66. 

Eocene, London Clay. 

D. ANGUSTUM Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, Vol. ii, p. 210-211, pi. 1, figs. 1-3. 

D. striatum J. Sowerby, 1814. Min. Conch., i, p. 160, pi. 70, 
f. 4. 

D. (Entalis) striatum COSSMANN, Ann. Soc. R. Malac. Belg., Vol. 
xxiii, p. 8. 

Fustiaria striata NEWTON, 1891. Brit. Oligocene & Eocene 
Moll., p. 286. 

Entaliopsis striata NEWTON & HARRIS, 1894. Proc. Malac. Soc. 
London, Vol. i, p. 68. 

D. costatum J. de C. Sowb., 1850, in Dixon, Geol. of Sussex, p. 
96, pi. vii, fig. 2. Not D. costatum J. Sowb., 1814. 

D. striatum Brander, 1775. Foss. Hantoniensia coll. et Mus. 
Brit, depos., pi. 1, fig. 10. So quoted by Deshayes in Descr. Anim. 
s. Vert. Paris Bassin, Vol. ii, p. 206. In Brander's work of this 
title, published in 1766, the same figure is called D. elephantinum. 
Deshayes may quote from another edition which we have not seen. 
See also Sowerby, Min. Conch. (1814), Vol. i, p. 160, pi. 70, f. 4. 

Eocene, Paris Basin and the Barton Beds of England. 

D. ANNULATUM Meyer, 1886. Geol. Surv. Alabama, Bull. No. 
1 (2), p. 64, pi. 1, f. 1. (Not D. annulatum Grnelin). 

Eocene: Claiborne, Alabama. 



TERTIARY-DENTALIUM. 199 

Considered by Dall a form of D. minutistriatum Gabb. 

D. ANNULATUM Gmelin, 1788. Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3,738, No. 15. 
We have not access to Guettards work in which this is figured, and 
are, therefore, ignorant of its characters and geological horizon. 
Sacco refers it with doubt to D. jani Homes, q v. 

D. ARATUM Tate, 1887. Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Australia, 
Vol. ix, p. 192, pi. xx, fig. 8. 

Eocene, Victoria, Australia. 

D. ARAUCANUM Philippi, 1887. Tertiar. und Quartar. Verstein. 
Chiles, p. 107, pi. xii, fig. 17. 

Tertiary of Chili. 

D. ARCIFORME Conrad, 1846. 

D. arciformis CONRAD, Amer. Jour. Sci. (2 Ser.), Vol. i, p. 212, 
pi. 1, fig. 3. 

D. leai MEYER, 1885. Amer. Jour. Sci., Vol. 29, p. 462 ; fig- 
ured in Geol. Surv. of Alabama, Bull. No. 1, (2), pi. 1, figs. 2, 2a. 

Eocene, Alabama. 

D. ATTENUATUM Say, 1824. Journal Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
Vol. iv, p. 154, pi. 8, fig. 3. 

D. dentale CONRAD, 1840. Fossils of the Medial Tertiary of the 
U. S., No. 2, p. 78, pi. 44, fig. 9. 

D. duodecenaria CONRAD, 1862. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 
570. 

Chesapeake Miocene, from Maryland to South Carolina; Alum 
Bluff, Fla. 

D. AUSTRALIS Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for Entalis 
annulatum Tate, 1887, preoc. by Gmelin and by Meyer. 

Entalis annulatum TATE, 1887. Trans. & Proc. R. Soc. S. Aus- 
tralia, Vol. ix, p. 191-2, pi. xx, fig. 6a, b. 

Earlier Tertiary, Muddy Creek, S. Australia. 

D. BADENSE Partsch, 1856, in Hoernes, Abhandl. K. K. Geol. 
Reichs. Anst. Wien, p. 652, pi. 50, fig. 30. Entalis badensis SACCO, 
Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemoute e Liguria, xxii, p. 107, pi. 9, f. 17-20, 
with var. pliocenica, laticostata, pseudobouei, paucicostata, planicos- 
tata of Sacco. 

D. rectum Gmel. var., of BONELLI, SISMONDA and some others. 

Lower Miocene : Aquitanian, Elvezian, etc., of South Germany 
and Austria and northern Italy. 



200 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. BIFRONS Tate, 1887. Trans. & Proc. Hoy. Soc. South Aus- 
tralia, Vol. ix, p. 192-3, pi. xx, fig. 5. 

Miocene, upper beds at Muddy Creek, Victoria, Australia. 
FUSTIARIA BISIPHONATA " Edwards " in NEWTON, 1891. Brit. 
Oligocene & Eocene Moll., p. 284. 

Lower Eocene. London Clay, at Haverstock Hill, England. 
Not described, and as the species is not mentioned by Newton & 
Harris in their later revision of British Eocene Scaphopods, it is 
probably either not valid or based on material unsuitable for char- 
acterization. 

D. BITUBATUM Meyer, 1886. Alabama Geol. Surv., Bull. No. 1 
(2), p. 64, pi. 3, fig. 1. 

Eocene, Jackson, Mississippi. 

~D. BLANDUM De Gregorio, 1890. Ann. Geol. et Palaeont, 8 
livr., p. 172, pi. 17, figs. 26-31. 

Eocene, Claiborne, Alabama. 

D. BOUEI Deshayes, 1825. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 
355, pi. 18, fig. 8.Antale bouei SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte 
e Liguria, xxii, p. 98, pi. 8, f. 6-12, with var. tauraspera, perlcevis 
and taurogracilis Sacco. 

D. intermedium HOERNES, Fauna Schliers v. Ottnang, p. 32 
(part). 

D. borcei MICHELOTTI, Etudes Mioc. Inf. Ital., p. 136, 1861. 

Oligocene, northern Italy and Austria. 

D. BREVE Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, 
Vol. ii, p. 201-202, pi. 1, figs. 7-8. 

Entaliopsis brevis NEWTON & HARRIS, Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond., i, 
p. 67. 

Fustiaria brevis NEWTON, 1891. Brit. Oligocene & Eocene 
Moll., p. 284. 

Eocene, Paris Basin ; Thanet Sands, England. 
D. BREVIFISSUM Deshayes, 1825. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
Vol. ii, p. 366, pi. xvii, figs. 13-14. 

D. brevissimum ANTON, 1839. A misspelling for D. brevifissum 
Deshayes, 1825. Anton, Verzeich. Conch., p. 25. 

Near Anger, France. 

D. BRONGNIARTI Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, Vol. ii, p. 212, pi. 2," figs. 20-21. 

Eocene, Paris Basin. 




TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 201 

D. BURDIGALINUM Mayer, 1864. Journ. de Conch. (3), Vol. 
iv, p. 357, pi. xiv, fig. 4. 

Miocene, Bordeaux. 

D. BUTINI Nyst, 1854. Encycl. Pop. Geol., p. 382. New name 
for D. brevifissum Galeotti, 1837, not of Deshayes, 1825. 

This is taken from the MS. card catalogue of Deshayes ; we have 
not seen the work. 

D. brevifissum GALEOTTI, 1837. Mem. Const. Geol. de Brabant, 
p. 150. 

Tertiary of Belgium. 

D. CADULOIDE Dall, 1892. Trans. Wagner Free Inst., Vol. in, 
j>. 442, pi. 23, fig. 25. 

Miocene of Maryland. 

D. CALABRUM Costa, 1851. Fauna Keg. Napoli, Dent., p. 35, 
pi. iii, fig. 4. 

/ Pliocene, Calabria. 

D. CALLIOGLYPTUM Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1897, p. 468, pi. 10, f. 10, 12 ; pi. 11, f. 21. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

D. CALOOSAENSE Dall, 1892. Trans. Wagner Free Inst., Vol. 
iii, p. 441, pi. 23, fig. 24. 

Pliocene of the Caloosahatchie, Florida. 

D. CANALICULATUM KHpstcin, 1843. Beitr. Geol. Kennt. Oestl. 
Alpen., p. 206, pi. 14, fig. 28. 

We have not seen this publication, and the exact locality and 
geological horizon of the species ie unknown to us. 

D. CAKOLINENSE Conrad, 1862. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., pp. 
288 and 570 (1863). 

Chesapeake Miocene of North Carolina, James River t Va. t Alum 
Bluff, Fla. 

D. CASTELLANENSE d'Orbigny, 1850. 

D. castellanensis D'ORBIGNY, 1850, Prodr. Paleont. Strat., Vol.ii, 
p. 320, No. 430. 

Tertiary at Le Vit, Basses Alpes, France. 

D. CIRCINATUM Sowerby, 1823. Genera of Shells, Dentalium, fig. 
5. DESHAYES, Descr. An. s. Vert., ii, p. 216, pi. 2, f. 8-10. Coss- 
MANN, Ann. Soc. R. Mai. Belg., xxiii, p. 10. 

Eocene of the Paris Basin. 



202 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. COCENTUM Hoeninghaus, 1831. Jahrb. Min. Geol., p. 155,. 
nomen nudum. 

Tertiary, Tabbiano. 

D. CONICUM Button, 1873. Cat. Tertiary Moll. New Zealand, p. 
1 ; figured in the Macleay Mem. Volume, 1893, p. 73, pi. viii, fig. 77. 

Pliocene of New Zealand. 

D. CONSTRICTUM Newton & Harris, 1894. Proc. Malac. Soc. 
London, Vol. i, pt. 2, p. 64, fig. in text. 

Eocene : London Clay, Fareham and Portsmouth, England. 
D. COSSMANNIANUM Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1897, p. 467, pi. 10, f. 11 ; pi. 11, f. 10, 11. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

D. COST^: Deshayes, 1898. New name for D. lacteum Costa, 
1850, not of Deshayes. 

D. lacteum COSTA, 1850. Faun. Reg. Napoli, Tubibranchi, p. 37,. 
pi. 3, fig. 7. 

Italian Pliocene, Amato, Gravina, etc. 

D. COSTATUM Sowerby, 1814. Mineral Conchology, Vol. i, 1814,. 
pi. 70, fig. 8. See also NYST, Ann. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. Belg., iii, 
pt.i,p.!21,pl. 7,f. 15 (1881). 

Pliocene : Coralline and Red Crag, Button, etc., England ; Yellow 
Scaldisien, Antwerp, Belgium. 

D. DANAI Meyer, 1885. Am. Journ. Sci., Vol. xxix, p. 462 ; fig- 
ured in Alabama Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 1 (2), 1886, pi. 3, figs. 2-2a. 

Eocene : Jackson, Mississippi. 

D. DEFRANCII Deshayes, 186*4. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, Vol. ii, p. 211, pi. 2, figs. 14-16. 

Eocene of the Paris Basin. 

D. DELPHINENSE Font. Cf. Sacco, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e 
Ligur., xxii, p. 95. 

D. DENSMURIS Mayer, 1858. Journ. de Conch. (2), Vol. iii, p. 79 r 
pi. iv, fig. 3. 

Miocene, St.-Jean-de-Marsacq, near Dax. 

D. DESHAYESI Risso, 1826. Hist. Nat. Europ. Merid., Vol. iv, p^ 
400. 

A Pliocene or Miocene species described from " la Trinite et 
Saint- Jean." Has not been recognized by later paleontologists. 

D. DISCREPANS Risso, 1826. Hist. Nat. Europ. Merid., Vol. i,p^ 
125. Nomen nudum. 



TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 203 

D. DISSIMILE Guppy, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., xxii, p. 292, pi. 17, 
f. 4 (1866). PILSBRY & SHARP, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1897, 
p. 469, pi. 11, f. 3-5. 

Oligocene, Bowden, Jamaica. 

D. DISSIMILE var. PONDEROSUM Gabb, 1873. PILSBRY & SHARP, 
t. c. p. 470, pi. x, figs. 1, 2, 3 ; pi. xi, figs. 15, 16. 

D.ponderosum GABB, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (N. Ser.), xv, p. 
244. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

D. DOLLFUSI Koenen, 1 883. Neues Jahrb. Min. & Geol., Beilage- 
Band, ii, p. 326. 

Miocene of North Germany, etc. 

Proposed as a new name for D. costatum Nyst in Dewalque, Pro- 
drome d'une Descript. Geol. Belgique, p. 425 ; 2d edition, 1880, p. 
483, 

Koenen states that this is not the costatum of Sowerby ; but it is 
doubtful whether he had the real costatum of Nyst. The species 
dollfusi rests therefore upon Koenen's description only. 

D. DUFRESNII Deshayes, 1825, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, Vol. ii, 
p. 361,pl.xvii,fig. 18. 

Pliocene f "Marcigny en Borgogne," France. 

D. DUPLEX Defrance, 1819. Diet. Sci. Nat., Vol. xiii, p. 71. Fig- 
ured in Deshayes, Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, Vol. ii, pi. 1, 
figs. 36-39. 

D. bicarinatum DESHAYES, 1826. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
Vol. ii, p. 364, pi. xviii, figs. 16-17. 

Eocene oj Paris Basin. 

Type of the section Lobantale Cossmann. 

D. ENTALIOPSIS Sharp & Pilsbry, n. n. 

Entaliopsls annulata NEWTON & HARRIS, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., 
i, p. 67, pi. 6, f. 1. Not D. annulatum Gmel., or Meyer, nor Entails 
annulata Tate. 

Eocene, London Clay, Portsmouth, etc. 

D. ENTALOIDES Fleming, 1825. Edinburgh Phil. Jnl., Vol. xii, 
p. 240. New name for D. entails f Sowb., Min. Conch., i, pi. 70, f. 3. 
Hordwetl Cliffs and Stubbington, England. 

See Searles Wood, Crag Moll., i, p. 189, who considers the speci- 
mens of doubtful identity, probably having lost the outer coat. 

D. EUGENII Dall, 1892. Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Vol. iii, 
p. 438, 442. 

Eocene, Prairie Creek, Ala. 



204 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. EXLAMARCKI (Sacco), 1897. v ',': r : 

Entalis exlamarcki SACC., new Dame for D. lamarcki Mayer, 1864, 
not of Chenu. 

D. lamarcki MAYER, 1864, Journ. de Conch. (3), IV, p. 357, pi. 
xiv, fig. 5, No. 102. 

Piacenzian Pliocene of Castelnuovo-d' Asti. 

D. FISSURA Lamarck, 1818. Ani-m* s. Vert., Vol. v, p. 346 ; fig- 
ured in Desh., Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, ii, pi. i, figs. 24- 
25,26. 

D. nitens J. DE C. SOWERBY, Dixon's '* Sussex," 1850, p. 95, pi. 
7, f. 3 (not of J. Sowerby, 1814). 

Fmtiaria fissura NEWTON & HARRIS, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, 
p. 64. 

Eocene, Paris Basin and Bracklesham Beds, England. 

D. FOSSILE Gmelin, 1788. Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3,738. Antale fos- 
sile SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte e Liguria, xxii, p. 99, pi. 8, f. 
22-30, with var. raricostata Sacc. 

D. catenulatum CHENU, 1842. lllustr. Conch., Vol. i, p. 2, pi. 4, 
fig. 11. A discolored D.fossile Gmelin. 

Tortonian Upper Miocene, to Astian Upper Pliocene, Piedmont. 
D. FRITSCHI v. Koenen. 

A European Oligocene species, of which we have not seen the 
description. It is considered by Sacco a probable ancestor of D. 
rubescens. 

D. FUNICULUS Brugnone, 1877. Bull, della Societa Malacolo- 
gica Italiana, iii, p. 44, pi. 1, f.5. 

Pliocene, Ficarazzi, Italy. 

Probably a synonym of D. filum Sowerby, notwithstanding the 
slight differences indicated by Brugnone. 

D. GABBI Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1897, p. 470, pi. 10, f. 6, 7,13; pi. 11, f. 1,2. 

D. affine GABB, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (N. Ser.), xv, p. 244 
(1873). Not D. affine Deshayes, 1864, nor of Biondi, 1859. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

D. GAYI Philippi, 1887. Tertiar. und Quartar. Verstein. Chiles, 

p. 107, pi. xii, fig. 19. 

Tertiary of Chili. 

D. GEMINATUM Goldt'uss, 1844. Petref. Germ. pt. 3, p. 4, pi. 166, 
f. 13. SPEYER, Paleontographica, xvi, p. 29, pi. 2, f. 9-11. 

Upper Oligocene, Gottentrup ; Doberges *bei Bunde. 



TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 205 

D. GERMANICUM Chenu, 1842. Illustr. Conchyliologiques, i, pi. 
5, f. 15a, b. No description. Evidently a European Tertiary spe- 
cies. 

D. GNIZUM De Gregorio, 1890. Ann. Geol. et Palaeont, 8 livr., 
p. 173, pi. 17, figs. 42-43. 

Eocene, Claiborne, Alabama. 

Probably a young Cadulus. Unrecognizable. 

D. GRANDE Deshayes, 1825. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, Vol. 
ii, p. 365, pi. xvii, figs. 1, 2, 3 ; Descr. An. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, ii, 
p. 205, pi. 2, f. 1-4, 23-26. 

Fustiaria grandis NEWTON, 1891. Brit. Oligocene & Eocene 
Moll., p. 285. 

Entaliopsis grandis NEWTON & HARRIS, 1894. Proc. Malacol. 
Soc. London, Vol. i, p. 67-68. 

Eocene, Paris Basin ; England. 

D. GUIDOTTII Sacco, 1897. Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte e Liguria, 
xxii, p. 95. New name for D. deshayesii Quid., 1873 ; not of Risso, 
1826. 

D. deshayesii GUIDOTTI in Cocconi, Mem. Acad. Sci. Bologna (3), 
Vol. iii, p. 644-645, pi. vi, fig. 17-17'. 

Piacenzian Pliocene of Rivalta nel Piacentina, Italy. 

D. HAERINGEMSE Dreger, 1892. Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmu- 

seums Wien, Vol. vii, p. 12, pi. i, figs. 2 a-b. 

Pliocene f Bavaria. 

D. HANNONICUM Briart & Cornet, 1889. Mem. Acad. Roy de 
Belgique,Vol.67,p.81. 

Upper Eocene of Mons. 

D. HAYTENSE Gabb, 1873. PILSBRY & SHARP, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1897, p. 471, pi. xi, figs. 8-9. 

D. haytensis GABB, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (N. Ser.), XV, p. 

244. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

D. iNvEQUALE Bronn, 1831. Italien's Tertiar. Gebild., p. 84. 
SACCO Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte, pt. 22, p. 95, f. 70-73, with var. 
rotundatior Sacco. 

D. orsum Bonelli, in SISMONDA, Syn. Meth.,edit. l,p. 25. 

Upper Miocene ( Tortonian) of Piedmont and Liguria, Italy. 
D. IN^EQUICOSTA Seguenza, 1880. Real. Acad. Lincei, An. 1879- 
80, Form. Terz. Prov. Reggio (Calabria), p. 117, pi. xi, fig. 48, 48a. 

Miocene, Tortonian stage, Italy. 



206 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. INGERTULUM (Sacco), 1897. 

Fustiaria incertula SACC., Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, 
p. 113, pi. 10, f. 34. 

D. intermedium COPPI, Framm. di Paleont. Modense, p. 16, Boll. 
R. Comitato Geol. Ital.. vii, p. 203, 1876, not of Gay, 1854. 

Upper Miocene, Tortonian and Piacenzian, S. Agata and Monte- 
gibbio, N. Italy. 

D. INCERTUM Deshayes, 1826. Me"m. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
Vol. ii, p. 362-363, pi. xvii, fig. 17 ; Descr. An. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, ii, p. 202, pi. 1, f. 26, 27. " 

Eocene of the Paris Basin. 

D. INCISISSIMUM Meyer & Aldrich, 1886. Journ. Cincinnati Soc. 
Nat. Hist, Vol. ix, p. 40, pi. 2, fig. 1. 

Eocene (Oligocene') Wautubbee, Mississippi. 

D. INCISUM Chenu, 1842. Illustr. Conch., Vol. i, p. 4, pi. 6, figs. 
8-9. 

Described from Italy, without more exact locality. It is prob- 
ably pliocene, and is not unlike D. agile. 

D. INOPINATUM Mayer. 

A European Eocene species allied to D. sexangulum, of which we 
have seen no description. 

^ D. INTERMEDIUM Hupe", in Gay, 1854. Hist. Chile, viii, p. 276, 
Atlas, Zool., pi. 2, fig. 9. 

Tertiary, coast of Topocaima, Chili. 

D. INTERRUPTUM Gmelin, 1789. Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3,739. 
Entalis interrupta SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. 
108, pi. 9, f. 36-46. 

Tortonian upper Miocene, S. Agata, Stozzano, Montegibbio, north- 
ern Italy. 

D. IRREGULARIS Risso, 1826. Hist. Nat. Europ. Merid., Vol. iv, 
p. 400. 

Probably Pliocene or Miocene, at " Trinite." Not recognized 
thus far by other authors. 

D. JANI Homes, 1856. Foss. Moll. Tertiar Beckens Wien, p. 
657, pi. 50, f. 37. QUENSTEDT, Petrefactenkunde, vii, p. 807, pi. 
217, f. 84, 85. Fustiaria jani SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e 
Ligur., xxii, p. 112, pi. 10, f. 25-33 with var. striatellulata Sacc. 

Miocene and Pliocene, Tortonian to Astian, Northern Italy and 
Austria. 



TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 207 

D. KICKXII Nyst, 1843. Bull. Geol. Soc. France, Vol. xiv, p. 
454 ; figured in Descr. Coq. et Polyp, foss. Tert. Belgique, pi. xxxvi, 
%. 1. 

D. acuticosta KONINCK, 1837. Not of Deshayes. Mem. Roy. 
Acad. Belg., Vol. xi, p. 29, No. 50. We have not seen this work 
and take the quotation from Nyst (below). 

D. acuticosta NYST, 1835. Not of Deshayes, 1825. Recher. Coq. 
foss. prov. Anvers, p. 36. 

D.fossile PHILIPPI, 1846, not of Gmel. Verz. Gegend Magde- 
burg. Tert. Verstein., Palseontograph, Vol. i, p. 80. 

Eocene of Belgium, Magdeburg, Paris Basin. 

D. KCENIGIANUM Risso, 1826. Hist. Nat. Europ. Merid., Vol. i, 
p. 125. Nomen nudum. 

D. L^VE Hilgard & Hopkins, 1878 (not of Schlotheim, 1820). 
Report Borings, Mississippi River and Lake Borgne (Engineer 
Depart. U. S. Army), p. 48, pi. iii, fig. 6. 

Post Pliocene, borings for the Lake Borgne outlet, Lousiana. 

Based upon young shells and fragments, probably referable to D. 
filum Sowerby (p. 118) of the recent and Pliocene faunas. 

D. I^EVIGATUM Eichwald,1830. Nat. Hist. Skizze von Lithuanen, 
p. 199; Lethsea Rossica, Vol. iii, 1853, p. 136, pi. iii, fig. 18. 

Pliocene f Zukowce, Russia. 

D. L^EVIGATUM Ponzi, 1858, not of Eichwald, 1830. Bull. Soc. 
Geol. France (2), Vol. xv, p. 558. Nomen nudum. 

Pliocene, Rome. 

D. LANDINENSE Vincent, 1877. Ann. & Bull. Soc. Malac. Belg., 
Vol. xi, p. 158-159, pl.ix, figs. 12a-b-c. 

Lower Eocene of Belgium, v 

D. LEBUENSE Philippi, 1887. Tertiar. und Quartar. Verstein. 
Chiles, p. 106, pi. xii, fig. 18. 

Tertiary of Chili. 

D. LEONID Meunier, 1878. Compt.. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. 
86, p. 122. 

Eocene of Paris Basin, Sables-moyens, at Jaignes (Seine-et-Marne). 

D. leonince SIMROTH, in Bronn, Klassen u. Ordn. des Thier- 
Reichs, new edit., iii, p. 375. 

D. LINNEI Foresti, 1895. Bull. Soc. Malac. Italiana, Vol.xix, p. 
.246. 

Pliocene, Ponticello, val di Savena, Italy. 



208 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. LUCIDUM Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris,. 
Vol. ii, p. 214, pi. i, figs. 18-20. 

D. incertum D'ORBIGNY, 1850, not of Deshayes, 1825. Prodr. 
Paleont. Strat., Vol. ii, p. 393. 

D. nitens DIXON, 1850. Geology of Sussex, p. 95, pi. vii, figs. 
3-3a. 

Fustiaria lucida NEWTON, 1891. Brit. Oligocene & Eocene 
Moll., p. 285. 

Fustiaria lucida NEWTON & HARRIS, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, 
p. 65. 

Eocene, Paris Basin, Bracklesham Beds, England. 

" D. MAGNISTRIATUM Deshayes " quoted by Anton, Verz. Conch. 
Anton, p. 25, 1839. 

We do not know where it was described ; probably nowhere. 
< t=multistriatum. 

D. MAGNUM Briart & Cornet, 1889. Mem. Acad. Roy. de Belg- 
ique, Vol. 67, p. 81, pi. 24, fig. 6. 

Upper Eocene of Mons, Belgium. 

k D. MA jus Sowerby, 1846, in Darwin's Geol. Obs. on S. America, 
p. 263, pi. ii, fig. 3. 

Tertiary of Chili, Huefo Island* 

D. MANTELLI Zittel, 1865. Novara Exped., Palaeont. N. See- 
and, p. 45, pi. 13, fig. 7. 

Entalis mantelli TATE, Trans. & Proc. R. Soc. S. Australia, 
1887, p. 190. 

D. kicksii TENISON- WOODS, Roy. Soc. Tasm. 1875, p. 15. 
D. kickii ETHER., Cat. Austr. Foss. p. 162. 

Miocene, Pareora, Neiv Zealand ; also Victoria, Australia* 
D. irregularis HUTTON 1873, (not of Risso, 1826.) Cat. Tertiary 
Moll. New Zealand, p. 1. 

D. tenuis HUTTON, 1873. Cat. Tertiary Moll. New Zealand, p. 1. 

Omaru, New Zealand. 

D. MAYERI Guembel, 1861. Geognos. Beschreib. Bayerisch. 
Alpengebirg., p. 745. 

Oligocene, Lohergraben, Bavaria* 

D. MECHELINII Rouault, 1850. Mem. Soc. Geol. France (2), Vol. 
iii, pt. 2, p. 473, pi. xv, fig. 6a, b, c. 

Eocene, Bos d'Arros (Basses-Pyrenees}* 



TERTIARY DENTAL1UM. 209 

D. MEDIAVIENSE Harris, 1896. Bull. Amer. Palaeont., Vol. i, p. 
187, pi. 17, fig. 1 (No. 4, p. 73, pi. 7, fig. 1). 

Eocene, Midway stage, Alabama and Mississippi. 

D. MICHELOTTII Hoenies, 1856. Foss. Moll. Tertiiir Beckens von 
Wien, p. 654-655, pi. 50, fig. 33. SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Pie- 
monte e Liguria, xxii, p. 96, pi. 7, f. 84-86, with "varieties" inter- 
cosicillata, rotundulinct, rotundosimplex, costulatior, costiilatissima 
Sacco. 

The involved synonymy includes D. pseudosexagonum Bonelli, 
not Dh , pseudoentalis Sisinonda not Lam., lamarcki Mayer (in 
part), 

Miocene of the Vienna Basin and Piedmont. 

D. MICROSTRFA Heilprin, 1880. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1880, p. 375, pi. 20, fig. 3. 

Eocene, Lignitic, Woods Bluff, Alabama. 

D. MINUTISTRIATUM Gabh, 1860. Journal Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 4 
(2d Ser.), Vol. iv, p. 386, pi. 67, fig. 46. 

Lower Claiborne Eocene of Texas* 

D. MIOCENICUM Michelotti, 1847. Descr. Foss. Terr. Mioc. ItaL 
Septrion, p. 144-145, pi. 16, fig. 12. Entalis miocenica SACCO, MolK 
Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. 108, pi. 9, f. 31-35. 

Lower Miocene of Piedmont. 
D. MIOPSEUDOENTALIS (Sacco), 1897. 

Entalis miopseudoentalis SACC., Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte e 
Liguria, xxii, p. 106, pi. 9, f. 7-11, with var. costatior Sacc. 

Miocene of Piedmont. 
B. MISSISSIPPIENSE Conrad, 1847. 

D. mississippensis CONRAD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1846- 
7, p. 282 ; figured in the Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (2), Vol. i, 
pi. xi, fig. 1. 

D. denmtum CONRAD, Amer. Journ. of Conch, i, p. 212, pi. 20, 
f. 15. 

Oligocene, Vicksburg, Mississippi. 

D. virginianum CHENU, 111. Conch., i, pi. 4, f. 8, 8a, 8b, unde- 
scribed, may possibly be this species. D. densatum Conr. (from 
type) is a fragment of an old individual of Mississippiense. 

D. MONTENSE Briart & Cornet, 1889. Mem. Acad. Roy. de Bel- 
gique, Vol. Ixvii, p. 60, pi. 24, figs. 12 a-b. 

Ujjper Eocene ofMons. 
14 



210 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. MULTANNULATUM Aldrich, 1895. Bull. Amer. Pal., Vol.i, p. 
55, pi. 1, f. 3 (No. 2, p. 3, pi. 1, fig. 3). 

Eocene, Lignitic, Gregg' 's Landing, Ala. 

D. NANUM Hutton, 1873. Cat. Tertiary Moll. New Zealand, p. 
1 ; figured in the Macleay Memorial Volume, 1893, pJ. viii, fig. 78. 

Pliocene, New Zealand. 

) D. NAVIDADENSE Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for D. 
gracile Philippi, 1887, preoc. 

D. gracile PHILIPPI 1887, (not of Hall and Meek.) Tertiar. und 
Quartar. Verstein. Chiles, p. 107, pl.xii, fig. 15. 

Tertiary of Chili. 

D. NICEENSE Bellardi, 1850. Liste foss. Form. Nummulit. de 
Nice, Bull. Soc. Geol. France (2), Vol. vii, p. 681. (No descrip- 
tion, but probably described in Mem. Geol. Soc. de France, Vol. 
iv, p. 229, which we have not seen). 

D. nitense GUEMBEL, 1861. Error for D.niceense Bellardi, 1850, 
Guembel, Geogn. Beschr. Bayer. Alpengeb., 1861, p. 604. 

Oligocene, Nice, etc. 

D. NITENS J. Sowerby, 1814. Mineral Conchology, Vol. i, p. 159, 
pi. 70, fig. 1-2. 

Fustiaria nitens (J. Sowerby) NEWTON, Syst. List Edwards Coll. 
B. M., 1891, p. 285. 

London clay, Lower Eocene, England. 

D. NITIDUM Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, 
Vol. ii, p. 203, pi. 1, figs. 29-30. 

Eocene, Paris Basin. 
D. NOBILE Mayer, 1863. Journ. de Conch. (3), Vol. iii, p. 97. 

Lower Tertiary of Hoering. 

D. NOVAKI von Koenen, Norddeutsch. Unteroligoc., iv, p. 978, 
pi. 59, f. 78 ; Journ. de Conch., 1892, 330. 

D. acutum DH., Descr. An. S. V. B. Paris, ii, p. 205, pi. 20, f. 
1-4 ( not of Hebert). 

Morigny, France. 

D. NOVUM Chenu, 1842. Illustr. Conch., Vol. i, p. 5, pi. 6, fig. 23. 
Tertiary ; locality and horizon unknown. 

D. NOVEMCINCTUM Sacco, 1897. Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte, etc., 
xxii, p. 97, pi. 7, f. 97. 

Oligocene, Tongrian stage, Sasselo, Italy. 



TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 211 

D. NOVEMCOSTATUM Lamarck (p. 51). 

D. mutabile Doderlein 1856, in Hoernes, Moll. Tertiar. Beckens 
von Wien, p. 654, pi. 50, fig. 32. 

Miocene of the Vienna Basin and Italy. 

. Varieties pseudaprina Sacc., mutabilis Doderlein, incequicostata 
Dautzenb., decemcostulata Sacc., undecimcostata Sacc., duodecimcos- 
tata Sacc. and tredecimcostata Sacc. are described and figured by 
Sacco, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte e Liguria, xxii, pp. 103, 104, from 
the Italian Miocene and Pliocene. 

D. OBSOLETUM Doderlein 1862 (not of Schlotheim, 1832). Cenni 
geologici intorno la giacitura dei terreni miocenici superiore dell' 
Italia centrale, p. 15, in Atti de x Congr. d. Scienz. ital. ten. in 
Sienna, 1862 (not seen by us). 

Upper Miocene, Piedmont. 

Said to D. dentalis var. sublcevis Cocconi, 1873. 

D. OCTOCOSTELLATUM Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for 
D. octocostatum Ihering, 1398, not of Frass, 1867. 

D. octocostatum Ihering, 1898. Revista do Museu Paulista, ii, 
p. 266, pi. 4,f. 16. 

Santa Cruz Formation, Patagonia. 

D. OTTOI Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for D. compressum 
Meyer, 1883, not of Orbigny, 1850. 

D. compressum MEYER, 1883. Bericht. Senckenb. Naturforsch. 
Gesellsch., 1883, p. 258, figs. 4 a-c. 

Oligocene, Germany. 

D. PAREORENSIS Sharp & Pilsbry. New name for D. laevis Hut- 
ton, 1873. 

D. laevis Button, 1873 (not of Schlotheim, 1820), Cat. Tertiary 
Moll. New Zealand, p. 2. 

Tertiary (Pareora), New Zealand. 

D. PARISIENSE D'Orbigny, 1850. Prodr. Paleont. Strat., Vol. ii, 
p. 372, No. 701 ; figured in Deshayes Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, Vol. ii, pi. 2, figs. 17-19. 

D. semistriatum DESHAYES, 1825 (not of Turton, 1819). Me"m. 
Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, Vol. ii, p. 367, pi. xvii, fig. 15-16. 

Fustiaria parisiensis B. B. NEWTON, Brit. Oligocene & Eocene 
Moll., p. 286, 1891 ; Entaliopsis parisiensis NEWTON & HARRIS, 
Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., i, p. 68. 

Eocene of Paris Basin and BracJclesham Beds, England. 



212 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. PARVUM Mayer, 1864. Journ. de Conch. (3), Vol. iv, p. 358, 
pi. xiv, fig. 6. 

Upper Tertiary, Leo g nan, France* 

D. PASSERINIANUM Cocconi, 1873. Mem. Accad. Sci. Bologna 
(3), Vol. iii, p. 646, pi. vi, figs. 18-19. SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. 
Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. 96, pi. 7, f. 76-79, with var. striatissima. 

D. striatissimum DODERLEIN, 1862. Giac. Terr. Mioc. Italia 
Centr., p. 15 (in part), and of some other authors. 

Piacenzian, at Castelnuovo d'Asti, Majatico, JBordighera, etc., 
Italy. 

D. PELLUCENS Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, Vol. ii, p. 214, pi. 1, figs. 21-23. 

Fustiaria pellucens NEWTON, 1891. Brit. Oligocene & Eocene 
Moll., p. 286. 

Upper & Middle Eocene of England ; Paris Basin* 
\ D. PHILIPPIANUM Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for 
D. parvulum Phil, not Stoliczka. 

D. parvulum Philippi, 1887. Tertiar. und Quartar. Verstein. 
Chiles, p. 107, pi. xii, fig. 16. 

Navidad and Lebu, Chili. 

D. PHILIPPII Chenu, 1842. Illustr. Conch., Vol. i, p. 6, pi. 6, fig. 
17. 

Miocene or Pliocene of Italy. 

Doubtless identical with some of the well known ribbed species 
of Antalis from this region. 

D. PLANATUM Bronn, 1831. Ital. Tert. Gebild. (Heidelberg), p. 
84. 

Tertiary, Italy. 

D. PLEIOCENUM Tuomey & Holmes, 1857. Pliocene Fossils of 
South Carolina, etc., p. 105-106, pi. xxv, fig. 2. 

Pliocene, Pee-dee, South Carolina* 

D. POLYEDRUM Seguenza, 1879. Form. Terz. Prov. Reggio 
(Calabria), p. 275. 

Pliocene, Astian Stage, Italy. 

D. PRECURSOR Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1897, p. 472, pi. 11, f. 12-14. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

D. PRTSMA Dall, 1892. Trans. Wagner Inst., iii, p. 442, pi. 15, f. 5. 
Pliocene of the Caloosaliatchie River, Florida. 



TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 213 

D. PRISMATICUM Seguenza, 1880. Form. Terz. Prov. Reggio 
(Calabria), Real. Accad. Lincei, An. 1878-80, p. 117, pi. xi, figs. 
49, 49a. 

Miocene, Tortonian Stage, Italy. 

D. PROLIFERUM Chenu, 1842. 111. Conch., Vol. i, p. 6, pi. 4, fig. 
5. 

Pliocene or Miocene, Italy. 

D. PSEUDOANTALIS Lamarck, 1818. Anim. s. Vert., Vol. v, p. 
345 ; figured in Deshayes as D. pseudo-entails, Descr. Anim. s. 
Vert. Bassin Paris, Vol. ii, pi. 1, figs. 4-6. 

D. pseudo-entalis DEFRANCE, Diet. Sci. Nat., Vol. xiii, p. 72. 

Eocene of the Pur is Basin. 

D. PSEUDONYMA Pilsbry & Sharp. New name for Teredo sub- 
striata Conr., 1850, not D. substriatum Desh., 1825. 

Teredo substriata CONRAD in Dana's Geology of the U. S. Expl. 
Exped. (Wilkes) Appendix, p. 728, pi. 20, f. 7, 7a, 7b. 

Miocene, Astoria, Oregon. 

D. PYRTJM Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1897, p. 472, pi. 11, f. 12-14. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

D. QuiNDECiESSTRiATunEichwald, 1853. Lethsea Rossica, Vol. 
iii, p. 137 ; Atlas.pl. iii, fig. 19. 

D. striatum EICHWALD, 1830 (not of Lamarck, 1818). Nat. 
Hist. Skizze von Lithuanen, etc., p. 199. 

Pliocene, Zukowce, Russia. 

D. RADULA Schroeter, 1784. Einleitung in die Conchylien 
Kenntuiss, Vol. ii, p. 530. GMEL., Syst. Nat., (xiii), p. 3,738. 

D. aspersum MICHELOTTI, 1847. Descr. foss. Terr. Miocenes 
Italic Septeutrion, p. 144, No. 6, pi. 5, figs. 20-21. Coccodentalium 
radula SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. Ill, pi. 10, 
f. 7-21, with varieties gracillima and raricostata Sacc. 

* Dentalites radularis SCHLOTHEIM, Die Petrefactenkunde, p. 95, 
(1820). 

Upper Miocene, Tortonian stage, Stazzano, S. Agate and Montegib- 
biOj Piedmont. 

D. RECTUM Gmeliu, 1788. Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3,738. D. deles- 
sertianum CHENU, Illustr. Conch., i, p. 3, pi. 6, f. 10. D. elephanti- 
num of various authors upon Italian Tertiary fossils, not of Linne"., 
Entalis recta SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. 



214 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

110, pi. 10, f. 1-6, with varieties pliocenica, dertonensis and elati- 
eosta of Sacco. D. sulcatum SCACCHI, not. Lam. See also Searles 
V. Wood, Crag Moll. Suppl., 1872, pi. 5, f. 19. 

Var. MONTEROSATOI Pils. & Sharp, 1898. New Dame for D. 
Philippii Monts. not Chenu. 

D. striatum PHILIPPI, 1844. Enum. Moll. Sicilise, Vol. ii, p. 
208 ? (1844). Not of Born. 

D. philippii MONTEROSATO, 1872. Notiz. Conch, foss. Monte 
Pellegrino e Ficarazzi, p. 27, for D. striatum Philippi, not of 
Lamarck ; see also DE FRANCHIS, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., xix, p. 202, 
pi. 2, f. 11; pi. 3, f. 2. 

D. delessertii DE STEFANI, Excurs. Scient. Calab., pp. 236, 241 
(1883-4) ; Osservaz. Stratigr. sul Plioc. e sul Postplioc. di Sciacca, 
pp. 14, 17, 18, 22 (1889). 

This form is distinct from D. badense Partsch (Homes Abh. K.- 
K. Geol. Reichsaust, iii, p. 652, 1856), which Homes identifies with 
striatum Lam, and Phil. De Franchis claims D. delessertianum to 
be identical with philippii, but his figures do not bear out the state- 
ment, in our opinion. We think it a recognizable variety. 

Pliocene, Southern Italy. 

See also this Vol., pp. 81, 82, D. rectum and D. delessertianum, 
with the figures and references there given. 

D. REX Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for D. giganteum 
Chenu, 1842, not Phillips, 1836. 

D. giganteum CHENU, 1842 (not of Phillips, 1836), 111. Conch., 
Vol. i, p. 4, pi. 1, fig. 3. 

Locality and horizon unknown. 

D. RUBESCENS Deshayes. (See p. 105). 

D. fissura of BONELLI, BRONN, SISMONDA and some other 
writers on Italian Miocene fossils. Pseudantalis rubescens SACCO, 
Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. Ill, pi. 10, f. 21-23. 

Miocene and Pliocene of Italy. Recent. 

D. RUBESCENS var. EXDISPAR (Sacco), March, 1897. L. c., p. 
112. New name for D. dispar Mayer, not Sowerby. 

D. dispar C. Mayer in Cocconi Mem. Accad. Sci. Istit. Bologne, 
(series 3), Vol. iii, p. 650, pi. 6, f. 20-22 (1873). 

D. cocconii Sharp & Pilsbry, 1897. This Vol., p. 87 (Oct., 
1897V New name for D. dispar C. Mayer in Cocconi, not of Sow- 
erby. 

Miocene, Majatico, Italy. 



TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 215 

D SANDBERGERI Bosquet, 1859. Neerland. Verb. Kon. Akad. 
Wetensch.. Vol. vii, p. 20, pi. ii, fig. 7. 

D. entalis BRAUN (not of Linn.) Walchn. Geognos., II Aufl., p. 
1,121 (quoted by Pictet &Campiche, Paleont. Suisse). 

D. fissura NYST, 1843 (not of Lamarck, 1818). Mem. Courron. 
Sav. Etrang. Brussels, Vol. xvii, p. 346. 

Eocene, Paris Basin, etc. 

D. SEMIALTERNANS Chenu, 1842. Illustr. Conch., Vol. i, p. 7, pi. 

4, fig. 7. 

Horizon and Habitat unknown. Probably Tertiary. 

D. SEMICLAUSUM Nyst, 1835. Kecherches Coq. foss. prov. An- 
vers, p. 36, pi. 5, fig. 53. See also Nyst, Ann. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. 
Nat. Belg., iii, pt. 1, p. 120, pi. 7, f. 14. 

Pliocene, Scaldisien stage, near Antwerp, Belgium. 
D. SEMINUDUM Deshayes, 1864. Descr. Anirn. s. Vert. Bassin 
Paris, Vol. ii, p. 200, pi. 3, figs. 11-14. 

Eocene of the Paris Basin. 

D. SEXANGULUM Gmelin, 1788. Syst. Nat, (13), p. 3,739, no. 
21. BROCCHI, Conch, foss. Subapp., ii, pi. 15, f. 25. SACCO, Moll. 
Terr. Terz. Piemonte e Liguria, pt. 22, p. 92, pi. 7, f. 48, to 54. 

D. elephantinum BROCCHI, t. c., p. 260 (in part). DESHAYES, 
Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, p. 347, 348. Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. 
Merid., iv, p. 399, and of some other authors. 

D. sexangulare LAMARCK, 1818. Anirn. s. Vert., Vol. v, p. 344, 
and of most other authors. 

D. sexangulare var. acutangularis Cocconi, 1873. Mem. Accad. 
Sci. Bologna, 3, Vol. iii, p. 645. 

D. sexangulare var. subrecta Cocconi, 1873. Mem. Accad. Sci. 
Bologna, 3, Vol. iii, p. 645. 

f D. noe Bonelli in SISMONDA, Osserv. Miner, e Geol. Piemonte, 
p. 35. D'Orbigny, Prodr. Paleont, Strat, Vol. iii, p. 178. No. 255. 
This may be referable to D. subsexangulare Orb., q. v. 

D. SIMPLEX Micbelotti, 1861. Et. Mioc. Inf., in Natuurkundige 
Verhandl. Hollandsche Maatschappij Wetenschappen te Haarlem 
(2), xv, p. 136, pi. 13, f. 12, 13. 

Oligocene of Italy, at Carcare, Dego, Mioglia, Pareto, Cassinelle, 
etc. 

D. SOLIDUM Hutton, 1873. Cat. Tertiary Moll. New Zealand, 
p. 2. 

Tertiary (Pareora), New Zealand. 

Referred to D. giganteum Sowb. as a synonym by some authors. 



216 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. SOWERBYI Chenu, 1842 (not of Guilding, 1834). Illustr. 
Conch., Vol. i, p. 7, pi. 6, fig. 2. Locality and horizon unknown ; 
but it is probably a Pliocene specimen of D. entalis L. or some 
closely allied species. 

D. SOWERBYI Michelotti, 1847 (not of Guilding, 1834, nor of 
Chenu). Descr. foss. terr. mioc. Italic Septentr., p. 145. 

Miocene, Turin. 

D. SPECIOSUM Guembel, 1861. Geognos. Beschreib. Bayerisch. 
Alpengebirg., p. 668. 

Eocene, Bavarian Alps. 

D. SPIRALS Risso, 1826. Hist. Nat. Europ. Merid., Vol. iv, p. 
401. 

Pliocene f " Trinite." 

D. SUBCOMPRESSUM Meyer, 1885. Amer. Journ. Sci., Vol. 29, p. 
462, figured in Alabama Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 1 (2), 1886, pi. 3, 
fig. 3, 3a; also Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1887, p. 54, pi. iii, fig. 13 
(Vicksburg). 

Eocene and Oligocene : Jackson Red Bluff and Vicksburg, Miss. 

The figured type-specimen is from Jackson (Meyer). 

D. SUBEBURNEUM d'Orbigny, 1850. Prodr. Pal. Strat., ii, p. 372. 

D. eburneum G. B. SOWERBY, Genera Rec. & Foss. Shells, 1825, 
no. 15, f. 6 ; Desh., Descr. Annirn. S. Vert. Bassin Paris, 1861, ii, 
pp. 215, 216, pi. 2, f. 8-13. Not of Linnseus. 

Fustiaria circinata R. B. NEWTON, Syst. List Edwards Coll., B. 
M., 1891, p. 284. Not D. circinatum Sowb. 

Fustiaria subeburnea Orb., NEWTON & HARRIS, Proc. Mai. Soc. 
Lond., i, p. 65. 

Eocene, Paris Basin and England. 

The last-quoted authors distinguish this as a species distinct from 
the recent eburneum Linn, (from type), and the Eocene circinatum 
Sowb. 

D. SUBENTALIS d'Orbigny, 1850. New name for D. entalis Lam- 
arck and Deshayes, Prodr. Paleont. Strat., Vol. II, p. 320, No. 431. 
Lower Eocene, Suessonien, Guise- Lam otte, etc., France. 

Probably a synonym of D. entale. 

D. SUBFISSURA (Tate) 1887. 

Entalis subfissura Tate. Trans. & Proc. R. Soc. S. Austral., 
Vol. ix, p. 191, pi. xx, figs. 4a-4b. 

Earlier Tertiary, south Australia. 



TERTIARY DENTALTUM. 217 

D. SUBGIGANTEUM d'Orbigny, 1852 (new name for D. giganteum 
Sowerhy, 1846, not of Phillips, 1836). Prodr. Paleout Strat., Vol. 
in, p. 94, No. 1,7 64. 

D. giganteum SOWERBY, 1846 (not of Phillips, 1836). Darwin's 
Geol. Observations on S. America, p. 263, pi. ii, f. 1. 

D. corrugatum Hupe in GAY, 1854. Hist. Chili, p. 276, Atlas 
Zool., pi. 2, fig. 8. 

Earlier Tertiary, coast of lopocaima, Chili; also New Zealand 
Miocene. 

D. SUBIRREGULARE Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for 
D. ir regular e Seguenza not Risso. 

D. irregulare SEGUENZA 1879, Form. Terz. Prov. Reggio (Cal- 
abria), p. 275, pi. 10, f. 33, 33a. 

Pliocene, Astian Stage, Italy. 

D. SUBSEXANGULARE d'Orbigny, 1852. New name for D.sexan- 
gulare Deshayes, 1825. Prodr. Paleont Strat., Vol. iii, p. 94, No. 
1,755. 

D. subsexangulatum D'ORBIGNY, 1852. A mistake for D. subsex- 
angulare d'Orb. Prodr. Paleont. Strat, 1852, Index, p. 59. 

D. sexangulare DESHAYES, 1825. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, 
p. 350, pi. xvii, figs. 4-6. Not of Lamarck. 

Sacco (1. c.) recognizes and figures varieties striolatissima Sacco, 
noe Bon. (=aprinum Brocchi and others), magnocostata Sacc.,joera- 
vuta Sacc., acut angular is Cocc. (=colligens Sacc.). 

Tortonian stage, Upper Miocene, to the Astian, Upper Pliocene, 
Piedmont. 

D. SUBSTRIATUM Deshayes, 1825. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
Vol. ii, p. 366, pi. xviii, figs. 1-2. 

Fusttaria subdriata NEWTON, 1891. Brit. Oliogocene & Eocene 
Moll., p. 286. 

Entaliopsis substriata NEWTON & HARRIS, 1894. Proc. Malacol. 
Soc. London, Vol. i, p. 68. 

D. acuticostum var., J. DE C. Sow., in Dixon's Sussex, 1850, p. 96, 
pi. 7, f. 16. 

Eocene, Barton and Bracklesham beds, England; Paris Basin. 

D. RULCATUM Lamarck, 1818. Anim. s. Vert, Vol. v, p. 343; 
figured in Deshayes, Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, Vol. ii, pi. 
1, figs. 33-35, 1864. 

Eocene of the Paris Basin. 



218 TERTIARY DENTALIUM. 

D. SULCOSUM Sowerby, 1846. Darwin's Geol. Obs. on S. America,, 
p. 263, pi. ii, fig. 2. 

Tertiary, Navidad Chili. 

D. TATEI Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for D. triquetrum 
Tate, 1887, preoccupied. 

D. (?) triquetrum TATE (not of Brocchi, 1814). Trans. & Proc. 
Koy. Soc. S. Australia, Vol. ix, p. 193, pKxx,fig. 3 (1887). 

Tertiary, South Australia* 
D. TAUROCOSTATUM (Sacco), 1897. 

Antalef taurocostatwn SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte e Lig- 
uria, xxii, p. 101, pi. 8, f. 50-54, with varieties costulatior, atava, 
octogonalis and septemcostata Sacc. 

Oligocene, Elvezian stage, Monte dei Cappueeini, N. Italy. 

D. TAUROSTRIATUM (Sacco), 1897. 

Entalis taurostriata SACC., Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, 
p. 109, pi. 9, f. 47-57, with varieties simplieior, subjuvenis, decem- 
costata, anomalocostata of Sacco. 

Oligocene, Baldissero, northern Italy. 

D. TENUISTRIATUM Rouault, 1850. Mem. Soc. Geol. France (2), 
Vol. iii, pt.ii, p. 473, No. 50, pl.xv, fig. 5. 

Eocene of Bos d'Arros (Basses-Pyrenees)* 

D. THALLOIDE Conrad, 1833. 

D. thalloides CONRAD, 1833. Fossil Shells of Tertiary, p. 34; 
2d ed., p. 39, pi. 15, fig. 10; figured in Amer. Journ. Sci. (Ser. 2), 
Vol. i, pi. 1, fig. 2. 

D. alternatum LEA, 1833. Contrib. to Geol., p. 34, pi. 1, fig. 2. 

D. asgum DE GREGORIO, 1890. Ann. Geol. et Palaeont., 8 Livr., 
1890, p. 171, pi. 17, fig. 22, 23 a-b, 24. 

D. (asgwn) var. tirpum DE GREGORIO 1890. Ann. Geol. et 
Palaeont., 8 Livr., p. 172. 

D. bimixtum DE GREGORIO, 1890. Ann. Geol. et Palaeont., 8 
Livr., p. 172, pi. 17, figs. 32-34. 

Eocene, Claiborne, Alabama. 

D. TRAUTSCHOLDI v. Koencn, 1868. Bull. Soc. Imper. Natural- 
istes de Moscou, xli, pt. i, p. 160. New name for D. badense Trautsch., 
not Partsch. 

D. badense TRAUTSCHOLD, 1859. Bull. Soc. Imper. Nat. Mos- 
cou, xxxii, p. 313, pi. 6, f. 4 a, b, c. Not of Partsch. 

Lower Oligocene, Aral Sea. 



DENTALIUM, MESOZOIC. 219 

D. TRIGONUM Hoeninghaus, 1831. Jahrb. Min. Geol., p. 155. 
Nomen nudum. 

Tertiary, Tabbiano. 

D. TRIQUETRUM Brocchi, 1814. Coq. foss. Subapp., ii, p. 628. 
Gadilina triquetra SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. 
113, pi. 10, f. 35-46, with var. taurograeilis Sacc. 

Elvezian, Tortonian and Piacenzian stages, Montegibbio, Bordig- 
hera, Monte del Cappuccini, etc., N. Italy. 

D. TRYONI Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1897, p. 468, pi. 10, f. 5, 9 ; pi. 11, f. 22. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

D. VITREUM Gmelin, 1788. Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3,739, No. 20. 
Antale vitreum SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piemonte e Liguria, 
xxii, p. 100, pi. 8, f. 42-49. 

Lower Miocene to Upper Pliocene, Elvezian to Astian stages, north- 
ern Italy. 

D. VULGARE (Da Costa). 

Sacco describes a Pliocene variety perstriolata in Moll. Terr. Terz. 
Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. 98, pi. 8, f. 1-5. 

D. XIPHIAS Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for D. affine De- 
shayes, 1864, not of Biondi, 1859. 

D. affine Deshayes, Descr. Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, Vol. ii, 

p. 201, pi. 1, figs. 12-14. 

Eocene, Paris Basin. 

MESOZOIC SPECIES. 

D. ALATUM Gardner, 1878. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., 
Vol. 34, p. 60, 61, pi. iii, figs. 16-20. 

Cretaceous, Gualt at Folkstone, England. 

D. ANDLERI Oppel, 1856. Jahresh. Ver. fur Vaterl. Naturkunde 
in Wuerttemberg, Jahrg. xii, p. 213. 

Lower Lias, zone of Ammonites angulatus, near Vaihingen. 
D. ANGULATI Quenstedt, 1852. Handb. Petrefaktenktinde, p. 
443. Nomen nudum. 

Lias of Europe. 

D. ARCOTINUM Forbes, 1846. Trans. Geol. Soc. London (Ser. 2), 
Vol. vii, p. 138, pi. 12, fig. 16. 

Cretaceous of India. (Pondicherry). 

Antale arcotinwn STOLICZKA, 1868. Cret. Faun. Southern India, 
Vol. ii, p. 445, pi. xxvii, fig. 23. 



220 DENTALIUM, ME8OZOIC. 

D. ARCTUM Pichler, 1857. Jahrb. Min. & Geol., p. 695 ; Giimbel, 
Geognostische Beschreib. des Bayerischen Alpengebirges, p. 274 
(1861). 

Trias, Tyrol. 

D. BICOSTALE Ryckholt, 1852. Mem. Couronn. Acad. Roy. Sci. 
Belg., Vol. xxiv, p. 71, pi. ii, figs. 43, 44. 

Cretaceous, Tournay, Belgium. 

This is considered by Gardner a synonym of D. decussatum Sowb. 

D. BINKHORSTI Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for D. nysti 

Binkhorst, 1861, not of d'Orb. 1852. See Binkhorst, Monogr. 

Gasterop. et Cephalop. Craie Super, du Limbourg, p. 61, pi. 6, f. 2 

a, b, c. 

Cretaceous of Belgium. 

"D. CALIFORNICUM Stanton, 1895. Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. No. 
123, p. 62, 63, pi. xii, fig. 3. 

Cretaceous (Knoxville beds') California. 

D. CHILENSE D'Orbigny, 1847. Voy. Pole Sud, (Astrolabe and 
Zelee) Geology, pi. iv, fig. 37, 38. 

Cretaceous, Chili. 

D. CIDARIS Geinitz, 1849. Quadersandsteingebirge, p. 144. New 
name for D. striatum Geinitz, 1839, not of Sowerby. 

D. striatum GEINITZ, 1839 (not of Sowerby). Charac. Schicht. 
u. Petrifac. Saechs. Kreidegebirg., p. 74, pi. 18, fig. 27. 

D. striatum " Sowerby," MANTELL, Geol. of Sussex, etc., p. 87, 
pi. 19, f. 28; Reuss, Verstein. Bohm. Kreideform., p. 41, pi. 11, f. 
18. (Not of Sowerby, 1812, nor of Born, 1780). 

D. reussianum RYCKHOLT, 1852. Mem. Couronn. Acad. Roy. 
Sci. Belg., Vol. xxiv, p. 70. 

Cretaceous, Belgium, Saxony and England. 

D. CCELATULUM Baily (in Salter), 1857. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 
Lond., Vol. xiii, p. 87, pi. ii, fig. 8. 

Cretaceous, Upper Greensand, Aberdeenshire. 
D. COMPRESSUM D'Orbigny, 1850. Prodr. Paleont. Strat., Vol. 
i, p. 233, No. 135. 

Jurassic, France. 

D. CONFUSUM Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for D. alter- 
nans, Ryckholt, Mem. Couronnes et Mem. des Savants Etrangers, 
pub. par 1'Acad. Roy. Sci. de Belgique, 4to, xxiv, 1850, 1851, p. 
71, pi. 2, f. 45, 46 (1852). Not D. alternans Chenu, 1842. 

Turonien, at Vise, Belgium. 



DENTALIUM, MESOZOIC. 221 

D. COOPERII Gabb, 1864. Geol. Surv. California, Paleontology, 
i, p. 139, pi. 21, fig. 100. 

Cretaceous, San Diego, etc., California. 

D. CORALLINUM D'Orbigny, 1850. Prodr. Paleont. Strat., Vol. 
ii, p. 12, No. 201. 

Jurassic, La Rochelle, France. 

D. CRASSULUM Stoliczka, 1868. Cret. fossils of Southern India, 
Vol. ii, p. 444, pi. 27, fig. 21. 

Cretaceous, India. 

D. CRETACEUM Conrad, 1852. U. S. Exped. Dead Sea & Kiver 
Jordan (Lynch), p. 228, pi. 1, (Appendix), fig. 1. 

Cretaceous, Safed, Syria. 

"D. syriacum Conrad (Off. Rep. App. 1. 1)," so quoted by Frass, 
1867. The species there figured is D. cretaccum Conrad, 1852. See 
Frass, Jahrb. Vaterl. Naturkunde, Wiirtemberg, p. 239. 

D. DECORATUM Muenster, 1844. Goldfuss, Petrifac. German., 
Vol. iii,p. 3, pi. 166, fig. 9. 

Trias, St. Cassian. 
Angular, somewhat as in Entalina. 

D. DECUSSATUM Sowerby, 1814. Mineral Conch. Gt. Brit., Vol. 
i, p. 161, pi. 70, fig. 5. GARDNER, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., 
xxxiv, 1878, p. 58, pi. 3, f. 1-12. 

Cretaceous, Gualt, Cambridge, England. 

D. nutans KNER, 1852. See ALTH, Naturwiss. Abhandl. (Hai- 
dinger), iii, p. 226, pi. 4, f. 10. 

Cretaceous, Nag or zany, East Galizia. 

D. ellipticum SOWERBY, 1814. Mineral Conch. Gt. Brit., Vol. i, 
p. 161, 162, pi. 70, figs. 6, l. Conf. GARDNER, 1. c., p. 59. 

Cretaceous, Folkstone, Kent. 

D. DILATATUM Philippi, 1887. Tertiar. und Quartar. Verstein. 
Chiles, p. 105, pi. xii, fig. 13. 

Cretaceous, Chili. 

D. DIVISIENSE Gardner, 1878. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 
Vol. 31, p. dO, pi. iii, fig. 15. 

Cretaceous, Upper Greensand, Devizes. 

D. DUNKERI Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for D. rugosum 
Duuker, 1848, not of Eiclnvald, 1846. 



222 DENTALIUM, ME8OZOIC. 

D. rugosum DUNKER, 1848, (not of Eichwald, 1846). Kasseler 
Muschelkalk Mollusken, Programm in der Hoheren Gewerbschule 
in Cassel, p. 16, 17. 

Cretaceous, Cassel. 

D. ELONGATUM Muenster, 1844. Goldfuss, Petrifac. German., 
Vol. iii,p. 2, pi. 166,% 5. 

D. cylindricum ROEMER, (not of Sowerby, 1814). Verstein. 
Nord. Deutsch. Oolithen. Gebirg., (1836-1838), p. 134. 

Lias, Bauz, Bavaria. 

D. FILICATJDA Quenstedt, 1852. Handb. Petrifactenkunde, p. 443. 
pi. 35, fig. 18. 

Upper Lias, Doerbach. 

D. filicauda opalina QUENSTEDT, 1858. Der Jura, p. 328, pi. 44, 
fig. 16. 

D. FRAGILE (Meek & Hayden), 1856. 

D. fragilis MEEK & HAYDEN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 
p. 69. 

Cretaceous, Montana,. 

D. GARDNERI Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. 

D. acuminatum GARDNER, 1878, (nut of Deshayes, 1825). Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., 1878, Vol. 34, p. 62, pi. iii, figs. 34-39. 

Cretaceous, Great Britian. 

D. GEINITZIANUM Ryckholt, 1852. Mem. Couronn. Acad. Roy. 
Sci. Belg., Vol. xxiv, p. 70. 

D. medium GEINITZ, Charakteristik der Schichten und Petre- 
facten des sachsischbohmischen Kreidegebirges, p. 74, pi. 18, f. 25, 
26. REUSS, Verstein. Bohm. Kreideform., pi. 11, f. 4. Not of J. 
Sowerby. 

Turonien, Tournay, Belgium. 

D. GIGANTEUM Phillips, 1836. Illustr. Geol. Yorkshire, Vol. i, 
p. 136, 170, pi. 14, fig. 8. 

Lias, .Robin Hood's Bay. 

D. GLABELLUM Bean, 1839. Magazine of Nat. Hist, Vol. iii, p. 
62. Nomen nudum. 

" Cornbrash Limestone," Scarborough, England. 
D. GLABRATUM (Stoliczka), 1868. 

Antale glabratum STOLICZKA, Cret. Faun. South. India, Vol. ii, 
p. 445, pi. xxvii, figs. 24-25. 

Cretaceous, India. 



DENTALIUM, MESOZOIC. 223 

D. GLADIOLUS Eichwald, 1846. Geogn. de Russie, p. 447 ; Leth- 
?ea Rossica, 1868, Vol. ii, p. 799. 

D. cylindricum G. FISCHER, 1843, (riot of Sowerby, 1812). Bull. 
Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, Vol. 16, pt. 1, p. 139. 

D. subanceps TRAUTSCHOLD, 1860. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 
Vol. 33, pt. 2, p. 350-352, pi. viii, figs. 16-17. 

Jurassic, Oxfordian stage, Goliowo and other localities near Mos- 
cow, etc., Russia. 

D. GRACILE (Hall & Meek,) 1854. 

D. gracilis HALL & MEEK, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci., 
Vol. v, (new series), p. 393, pi. 3, fig. 11 a-c. 

Cretaceous, Montana and Wyoming. 

D. JEFFREYSI Gardner, 1878. Quart. Jour. Geol, Soc. London, 
Vol. 34, p. 61, pi. iii, figs. 26-33. 

Cretaceous, Gault at Folkstone, England. 

D. LJEVE (Schlotheim), 1820. 
Denialites Icevis SCHLOTHEIM, Die Petrifactenkunde, 1820, p. 93. 

Trias, Germany, Denmark. 

D. LATICOSTATUM Reuss, 1844. Geognos. Skizz. Boehm., Vol. ii, 
p. 201. We have not seen this work. Reuss, Verstein. Boehm. 
Kreideformation, 1845-6, Abth. i,p. 41, pi. xi, fig. 3. 

Cretaceous, Bohemia. 

D. LINEATUM Gueranger, 1853. Essai d'un Repert. Paleont. de 
la Sarthe, p. 33. Quoted by Pictet & Campeche, Pal. Suisse (3), 
2d pt., p. 726. We have not seen the work. 

Cenomanian, Mans, France. 

D. MAJOR Gardner, 1877. Geol. Mag. (Dec. ii), Vol. iv, p. 556, 
pi. xvi, fig. 2. 

D. majas GARDNER, 1878. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 
Vol. 34, p. 56, 61. 

Cretaceous, Folkstone ; Grey Chalk, Dover. 

D. MEDIUM Sowerby, 1814. Mineral Conchology, Vol. i, p. 181, 
pi. 79, fig. 5. GARDNER, Q. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., xxxiv, 1878, 
p. 59, pi. 3, f. 13, 14. 

Cretaceous, Blackdown, England. 

D. MEYERI (Gardner), 1878. 

Entalis meyeri GARDNER, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, Vol. 

34, p. 62, pi. 3, fig. 40. 

Cretaceous, Great Britain. 



224 DENTALTUM, MESOZOIC. 

D. MICHAUXIANUM Ryckholt, 1852. Mem. Couronn. Acad. Roy. 
Sci. Belg., Vol. xxiv, p. 72-73, pi. ii, figs. 47-48. 

D. ellipticum " Sowerby," REUSS, Verstein. Bohm. Kreideform., 
p. 41, pi. 11, f. 20. Not of Sowerby, 1812. 

Turonien, near Liege, Belgium. 

D. MINIMUM Strickland, 1845. GeoJ. of Cheltenham, p. 101. 
TATE, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. L->nd. xx, 1864, p. 111. 

"Z>. tenue PORTLOCK, Rep. Geol., Londonderry, 1843," p. ? . 
Not of Goldfuss. 

Lias, Cracombe ; Island Magee, Antrim Co., Ireland. 

D. MOOREI Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for D. lineatum 
Moore, 1870, not Gueranger, 1853. 

D. lineatum MOORE, 1870, (not of Gueranger, 1853). Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc. London, Vol xxvi, p. 256. 

" Queensland Series" Wollumbilla, Queensland, Australia. 

The description is nearly worthless, but it will doubtless be iden- 
tified by the locality and horizon. 

D. MOREANUM " D'Orbigny, 1 8 15 " in Murchison, Verneuil et 
Keyserling, Geol. Russ. d'Eur et de 1'Oural, Vol. ii, p. 454, pi. 38, 

fig." 10. 

Jurassic, Lower Oxfordian stage, France and Russia. 

D. moreauanum BRONN, NomencL Pal., 415. EICHWALD, Lethsea 
Rossica, ii, p. 797. 

D. MUELLEKIANUM Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for D. 
alternans Muller, 1849, (q. v), not of Chenu, 1842. 

D. alternans Muller, 1849. Programm Koen. Gymnasiums 
Aachen, p. 5, pi. iii, fig. 1. Reprinted in the Monograph. Petrifac. 
Aachener Kreideform ation, ii Abth., which was published by the 
Ver. Preus?. Reinl. & Westphal., Bonn, 1851, p. 5, pi. iii, fig. 1. 
(Not D. alternans Chenu, 1842). 

Cretaceous, " Konigsthore" near A ix la Ghapelle* 

D. MITENSTERI Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for D. cine- 
tarn Minister in Goldfuss, not of de Konick. 

D. cinctum Muenster, 1844 in Goldfuss, Petrifact. German., Vol. 
iii, p. 3, pi. 166, fig. 7. 

Jurassic, Derneburg, Germany. 

D. MULTICANALICULATUM Guembel, 1861. Geogn. Beschreibung 
d. bayr. Alpengeb., p. 572 ; figured in Boehm, Palaeontographica,. 
Vol. 38, 1891, p. 69,pl. 3, fig. 1 a-b. 

Cretaceous, Bavaria* 




DF.NTALIUM, MESOZOIC. 225 

See also KEIS, Geognost. Jahreshefte, 1896, p. 79, pi. 9, f. 5. 

D. NANAIMOENSE (Meek), 1858. 

D. nanaimoensis Meek, 1858. Trans. Albany Inst., Vol. iv, p. 
44-45. 

D. komooksense MEEK, 1876. Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey Terr., 
Vol. ii, No. 4, p. 364, pi. 3, f. 6. The description of both of these 
species is from the same specimen. 

Cretaceous, Vancouver's Island. 

D. NODULOSUM (Schlotheim), 1820. 

Detitalites nodulosus SCHLOTHEIM, Die Petrifactenkunke, p. 94. 

Cretaceous, Island of Moen, Denmark. 

D. NORMANIANUM D'Orbigny, 1850. (New name for D. nitens 
Deslongchamps, 1842, not of Sowerby, 1814). Prodr. Paleont. Strat. 
Vol. ii, p. 46, No. 52. 

D. nitens DELONGCHAMPS, 1842 (not of Sowerby, 1814). Mem. 
Soc. Linn, de Normandie, Vol. vii, p. 129. 

Kimmeridge Clay, Villerville. 

D. NUDUM Zekeli, 1852. Abhand. K. K. Geol. Reichs-Anstalt 
Wien, Vol. i, p. 118, pi. xxiv, figs. 11-12. 

Senonian, " Gosaugebilde" Edelbachgraben, Gosau Valley. 

D. OBSOLETUM Schlotheim, 1832. Syst. Verzeich. Petrifac. 
Samml., p. 67. Nomen nudum. 

" Lohberg, bei Tonna." 

D. OOLITHICUM Piette, 1856. Bull. Soc. Geol. France (2), Vol. 
xiii, p. 598, pi. xv, figs. 28, 29. 

D. entaloides DESLONGCHAMPS, 1842 (not of Fleming, 1825). 
Mem. Soc. Linn. Normandie, Vol. vii, p. 128, pi. 7, figs. 36-38. 

D. nitens TERQUEM ET JOURDY, Bath, de la Mos., p. 69. (Not 
of Sowerby). 

Jurassic, Bathonian stage, Rumigny, Hedrequent, Domfront-en- 
Champagne, etc., France ; Nemitz, Baltic region. 

D. ORTHOCERAS Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for Entalisf 
filosa Koninck, 1883, not D. filosum Brod. & Sowb., 1830-'32. 

Entalisf filosa Koninck, 1883. Ann. Mus. Koy. d'Hist. Nat. 
Belgique, viii, pt. 5, p. 219, pi. 49, f. 23, 24. (Not D. filosum Brod. 
& Sowb., 1830-1832, see p. 13). 

Carboniferous, Vise, Belgium. 

D. OVALE Malm. (Description not seen by us). 

Jurassic, Dogger : Germany. 
15 



226 DENTALIUM, MESOZOIC. 

D. OVOSECTUM Sharp & Pilsbry. New name for D. glabrum 
Geinitz, 1839, not of Montagu, 1804. 

D. glabrum GEINITZ, 1839, not of Montagu, 1803. Charac. d. 
Schichten and Petrefac. Sachisch.-bohm. Kreidegebirg. Heft i, p. 
74, pi. 18, fig. 28; and Heft, ii, p. 11, pi. i, fig. 27. 

Cenomanien, Tyssa, Limburg, Gorlitz, etc. 

D. PARKINSONI Quenstedt, 1852. Handb. d. Petrefactenkunde, 
Tuebingen, p. 443, pi. 35, fig. 19. 2d edit., p. 531. Der Jura, pi. 
65, f. 5, 6. 

Middle Jurassic, Popielany, etc. 

Dunker considers this identical with D. entaloides Desl. ; see 
Palseontographica, xiii, p. 137. 

D. PARVULUM (Stoliczka), 1868. 

Fustiaria parvula STOLICZKA, Cretac. Faun, south. India, Vol. ii, 
p. 445, pi. xxvii, fig. 22. 

Cretaceous, India. 

D. PAUPERGULUM Meek & Hayden, 1860. Proceed. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., p. 178. 

Cretaceous, Nebraska and S. Dakota. 

D. PENTAGONALE Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for D. 
quinquangulare Guembel, 1861, not Forbes, 1844. 

D. quinquangulare GUEMBEL, 1861. Geognos. Beschreib. Bayer- 

isch. Alpengebirg., p. 409. 

Trias of the Bavarian Alps. 

May be an Entalina. 

D. PLANICOSTATUM Hubert, 1855. Mem. Geol. Soc. France, 2 
Ser., Vol. v, p. 374, pi. 29, fig. 11. 

Cretaceous, Mendon, France. 

D. POLYGONUM Reuss, 1844. Geogn. Skizz. aus Bohmen, Vol. 
ii, p. 201-202. We have not seen this work. The reference is 
taken from Reuss, Verstein. Bohra. Kreideform., 1845-6, Abth., I, 

p. 41, pi. xi, f. 5. 

Cretaceous, Bohemia. 

D. PUNCTATOSTRIATUM Guembel, 1861. (Nomen nudum), Geo- 
gnos. Beschreib. bayerisch. Alpengebirg., p. 274. 

Trias, Lodensee. 

T>. QUENSTEDTI Blake, 1875. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, 
Vol. xxxi, p. 226 ; figured in Quenstedt Der Jura, p. 98 (no name). 

Kimmeridge Clay, England. 



DENTALIUM, MESOZOIC. 227 

D. KHODANI Pictet & Roux, 1849. Me*m. Soc. Phys., Nat. Hist,, 
Geneva, Vol. xii, p. 150, pi. 27, fig. 13. 

Cretaceous, Gualt, Mouths of the Rhone; Saxonet, France. 

D. RHOTOMAGENSE D'Orbigny, 1850. Prodr. Paleont. Strat., 
Vol. ii, p. 156, no. 226. 

D. rothomagense D'Orbigny, 1852. Misspelling for D. rhotoma- 
gense D'Orbigny, 1850. Prodr. Paleont. Strat., Vol. iii, index, 
p. 59. 

Cretaceous, Rouen, France. 

D. RIPLEYANUM Gabb, 1860. Journal Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
(2 Ser.). Vol. iv, p. 393, pi. 69, fig. 48. See also, WHITFIELD, 
Paleont. N. J. Gastr. and Ceph., p. 167, pi. 69, f. 48. 

Cretaceous, Ripley Group, Eufaula, Alabama. 

D. RUGOSUM Mueller 1849 (not of Eichwald, 1846 nor of Dunker, 
1848). Ueber die Gastrop. der Aachener Kreide, in Programm 
Koen. Gymnas. Aachen, p. 6, pi. iii, fig. 2 ; also reprinted in Mon- 
ogr. Petrifac. Aachener Kreideform. which was published by the 
Ver. Preuss. Rhein. & Westphal. Bonn, p. 6, pi. iii, fig. 2. 

Cretaceous, Lusberg. 

This may prove to belong to the Serpulidce, or possibly Teredidce. 
The name is preoccupied. 

D. RUGOSUM Spillman, 1860 (not of Dunker, 1848). Geol. Report 
of Mississippi, p. 389. Nomen nudum. 

Cretaceous , Green Sand, Tombigbee. 

D. SACHERI Alth, 1850. Geogn. Pala3ont. Beschreib. von Lem- 
berg, in Haidinger's Naturw. Abhandl. (Wien) Vol. iii, pi. 226, pi. 
12, fig. 2. Bohm, Die Kreidebildungen des Fiirbergs u. Sulzbergs- 
bei Siegsdorf, Palseontographica, xxxviii, p. 70. 

Cretaceous, Lemberg, Bavaria. 

D. SATURNI Goldfuss, 1844. Petrifac. German., Vol. iii, p. 1, pi. 
166, fig. 1. 

Mont Eifel. 

D. SIMILE Wissman, 1 841 . Beitrage Geognos. u. Petrefactenkunde 
s. 6. Tyrols. (Muenster), p. 91, pi. ix, fig. 8. 

Lias. 

D. SOLITICUM Piette, 1855. Bull. Soc. Geol. France (2), Vol. 
xii, p. 1122. 

Jurassic, Rumigny, France. 



228 DENTALIUM, MESOZOIC. 

D. SPITIENSE Guembel, 1866. Sitzungsber. K. bayer. Akad. Wis- 
sensch. Miinchen, Jahrg. 1865, Vol. ii, p. 360, plate, fig. 7. 

Trias, Thibet. 

D. STRAMINEUM Gabb, 1864. Geol. Surv. California, Paleont., 
i, p. 139, pi. 21, fig. 101. 

Cretaceous: Northeast of Martinez, San Diego, etc., California. 

D. SUBARCUATUM Conrad, 1853. Journal Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

(2 Ser.), Vol. ii, p. 276, pi. 24, fig. 13. WHITFIELD, Paleontology 

of New Jersey, Gastrop. and Ceph. Raritan Clays and Green Sand 

Marls, p. 166, pi. 20, f. 19-24. 

Cretaceous : Lower Green Marls, Mullica Hill, and underlying 
clays at Crosswicks and Haddonfield, N. J. 

D. SUBCYLINDRICUM Philippi, 1887. Tertiar. und Quartar. 
Verstein. Chiles, p. 105, pi. 12, f. 14. 

Cretaceous, Algarroba and S. Vicente, Chili. 
D. SUBPLANUM Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898, n. n. 

D. cylindricum GARDNER, 1878. Quart. Jnl. Geol.Soc. London, 
1878, Vol. 34, p. 61, pi. iii, figs. 21-25. 

Cretaceous, Blackdown, England. 

This is not D. cylindricum of Sowerby, according to Gardner, /. c. 
It may possibly be a Ditrupa, but in any case requires a new name. 
D. SUBQUADRATUM Meek, 1860. Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
p. 311. 

Jurassic, North Platte River. 

D. TENUE Muenster, 1844. Goldfuss, Petrifac. German., Vol. iii, 
p. 2, pi. 166, fig. 6. 

Jurassic, Pappenheim, Bavaria. 

D. TENUICOSTATUM Boehm, 1891. PalaBontographica, Vol. 38, 
p. 69, pi. ii, fig. 34a. 

Cretaceous, Gerhardtsreiter Graben, Bavaria. 
D. TORQUATUM (Schlotheim), 1820. GUEMBEL, Geol. von. Bay- 
ern. (3 Lief.), p. 669, 670, f. 19. 

Dentalites torquatus SCHL., Die Petrefactenkunde, p. 94. 
D. tonosum ZENKER, 1837, in Geinitz, Beitr. Kennt. Thueringer 
Musch. Gebr., pi. i, fig. 2. 

Triassic Muschelkalk, Germany. 

D. TURONIENSE Woods, 1896. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., 
Vol. 52, p. 96, pi. iv, figs. 16-17. 

Cretaceous, Winchester, etc., England. 



DENTALIUM, PALAEOZOIC. 229 

D. UNDULATUM Muenster, 1844, Goldfuss, Petrifac. Germ., vol. 
iii, p. 3, pi. 166, fig. 8. 

Trias, St. Cassian, Tyrol. 

D. VALANGIENSE Pictet & Carapiche, 1864. Paleont. Suisse, (3), 
pt. 2, Foss. Terr. Cretac. Sainte Croix, p. 723, pi. 98, f. 16-18. 

Valangian stage of the Neocomian, at Villers-le-Lac, near le Lode, 
Switzerland. 

PALEOZOIC SPECIES. 

There may possibly be some accessions to the roll of Palaeozoic 
scaphopods from the genus Coleolus of Hall, supposed to belong to 
the Pteropoda. The species are mainly thinner and straighter than 
the shells of Dentalium ; but there are also thin and nearly straight 
Dentalia, as in the subgenus Ehabdus. 

D. ACUMEN (Koninck), 1883. 

Entalis acumen KON., Ann. Mus. Hoy. d'Hist. Nat. Belgique, viii, 
pt. 4, p. 216, pi. 49, f. 22 (1883). 

Carboniferous, Vise, Belgium. 

D. ACUS Eichwald, 1856. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, Vol. 
xxix, pt. 22, p. 584 ; Lethsea Kossica, i, p. 1062, Atlas, pi. 40, fig. 
10. 

Silurian, Orthoceratites limestone near Poulkovo, government of St. 
Petersburg, Russia. 

D. ACUTISULCATUM Gurley, 1883. New Garb. Foss., p. 7. (" Pub- 
lication not valid ", see Miller, North American Geology and 
Paleontology, 1889, p. 402). 

Carboniferous, U. S. 

D. ANNULIFERUM Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. New name for D. 
annulatum Sandb. not Gmel. 

D. annulatum SANDBERGER, 1842. Neues Jahrb. Min., Geogn., 
Geol., etc., p. 399, (no description) ; Versteinerungen des Khein- 
ischen Schichtensystems in Nassau, 1850-1856, p. 241, pi. 26, f. 20, 
20a. 

" Stringocephaluskalk" Villmar, Prussia. 

D. ANNULOSTRIATUM Meek & Wortheu, 1870. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philada., p. 45 ; Paleontology of Illinois (Geol. Surv. 111., v), 
p. 589, pi. 29, f. 7. 

Carboniferous, Danville, Illinois. 



230 DENTALIUM, PALEOZOIC. 

D. ANTIQUUM Goldfuss, 1844. Petrifac. German., Vol. iii, p. 2,. 
pi. 166, fig. 2. 

D. priscum "Muenster" in SANDBERGER, Jahrb. Min. Geol.,. 
1842, p. 399. 

Of. WHITEAVES, Contrib. to Canadian Palseont. I, pt. iv, p. 311, 
pi. 45, f. 1, 2. 

Devonian, at Mont Eifel, Vise, etc.. 

D. ARENARIUM Romer, 1855. Geol. Kennt. n.-w. Hartzebirges. 
Palseontographica, Vol. v, p. 13, pi. iii, fig. 16. 

Spirifer-sandstone, Hartz Mountains. 
May prove to be a Pteropod, Coleolus. 

D. BARQUENSE Winchell, 1862. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
p. 425. 

Subcarboniferous ; Marshall Group, Michigan. 

D. CANNA White, 1874. Rep. Invert. Foss., p. 23 ; Rep. U. S. 
Geograph. Surv. West of 100th Merid., Vol. iv, pt. 1, p. 156, pi. 
12, f. 6 (1877). 

Carboniferous, Utah and Arizona. 

D. CORNU Koninck, 1877. Foss. Pal. Nouv.-Galles du Sud, pt. 
3, p. 315, pi. 23, fig. 4. 

Karu, N. S. Wales. 

D. CYRTOCERATOIDES (Koninck), 1883. 

Entails cyrtoceratoides KONINCK, Ann. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. 
Belgique, viii, pt. 4, p. 216, pi. 49, f. 13-15. 

Carboniferous, Vise, Belgium. 
It is allied to D. priscum. 

D. (?) DENTALOIDEUM (Phillips). (Orthoceras dentaloideum 
Phillips, 1836). Illustr. Geol. of Yorkshire, pt. ii, p. 239, pi. xxi, 
fig. 12. 

Carboniferous, England. 

A doubtful Dentalium. L.-G. De Koninck considers it equally 
likely to be a Cyrtoceras. 

D. GRAND.EVUM Winchell, 1863. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
p. 18. 

Subcarboniferous, " Marshall Group," Burlington, Iowa* 

D. GRANOSUM Eichwald, 1856. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 
Vol. xxix, pt. 2, p. 584; Lethaea Rossica, i, p. 1061, Atlas, pi. 40, 
fig. 7. 



DENTALIUM, PALEOZOIC. 231 

D. granosum var. Icevigatum EICHWALD, 1860. Lethsea Rossica, 
Vol. i, pi. 40, fig. 11, no text. 

Orthoeeratites limestone, Poulkova, Russia. 

D. HERCULEUM Koninck, 1863. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
London, Vol. xix, p 8, pi. iv, figs. 10-12. 

Entails herculea WAAGEN, Mem. Geol. Surv. India, Productus 
Limestone fossil?, p. 181-182, pi. xvi, figs. 1, 2, 3 (1887). 

Carboniferous " Productus Limestone" Salt Range, India. 

D. IBERGENSE Roemer, 1855. Geol. Kennt. n.-w. Hartzgebirges. 
Palseontographica, Vol. v, p. 36, pi. vii, fig. 7. 

Upper Devonian, Iberg White Chalk, Hartz Mountains. 

D. ILLINOIENSE Wortheu, 1883. Geol. Surv. of Illinois, Vol. 7, 
p. 325. 

Subcarboniferous ; Lowest beds of the Chester limestone (Kaskaskia 
Group), Chester, Illinois. 

D. INGENS Koninck, 1841. Descr. Anim. foss. terrain Carbon- 
ifere Belgique, p. 317, pi. 22, fig. 2. Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat.Belg., 
viii, pt. 4, p. 217, pi. 49, f. 10-12, 18, 19 (1883). 

Carboniferous, Vise, Belgium. 

A large species, sbaped like D. ceras, but smooth with circular 
instead of longitudinal wrinkles. It attains a length of 200 mill. 

D. incequale RYCKHOLT, 1852, not of Bronn, 1831. Mem. Cou- 
ronn. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg., Vol. xxiv, p. 67-68, pi. ii, figs. 41-42. 
(Carboniferous at Vise)=ZX ingens de Kon., internal cast. 

D. INORNATUM M'Coy, 1844. Synops. Garb. Foss. Ireland, p. 47, 
pi. 5, f. 30. R. ETHERIDGE, Geol. Mag. (dec. ii), iv, p. 248, pi. 
13. f. 1. 

Carboniferous, Ireland; and " Ardross limestone" near Elie, Fife, 
Scotland. 

D. MARTINI Whitfield, 1882. Ann. X. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. ii, p, 
203 ; Rep. Geol. Surv. Ohio, vii, p. 423, pi. 3, f. 10. 

Devonian, Upper Helderberg limetone, near Dublin, Ohio. 

D. MEEKIANUM Geinitz, 1866. Garb, und Dyas in Nebraska, 13, 
pi. 1, f. 20 ; Geol. Surv. Illinois, Vol. v, p. 590, pi. 29, f. 8. 

Carboniferous, Danville, Illinois. 

D. MISSOURIENSE Swallow, 1863. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 
Vol. ii, p. 99. 

Subcarboniferous, Kaskaskia Group, Chester, Illinois, and St. 
Mary's, Mo. 



232 DENTALIUM, PALEOZOIC. 

D. NAVICANUM Ryckholt, 1852. Mem. Couronn. Acad.. Roy. 
Sci. Belg., Vol. xxiv, p. 169, (no description), pi. x, f. 11. 

Devonian, near Vise. 

D. NOTABILE Eichwald, 1856. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 
Vol. xxix, pt. 2, p. 583; Lethsea Rossica, i, p. 1061, Atlas, pi. 40, 
fig. 9. 

" Orthoceratites limestone" of Poulkova, Popovo and Poutilivo, 
Government of St. Petersburg, Russia. 

D. ORNATUM Koninck, 1841. Descr. Anim. Foss. Carbonif. 
Belgique, p. 318, pi. 22, fig. 3 ; Ann. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. Bel- 
gique, viii, pt. 4, p. 218, pi. 49, f. 4-9, (1883). 

Carboniferous, Vise, Belgium. 

D. dentaloideum " Phillips " RYCKHOLT, Melanges Paleont., pt. 
1, p. 68, (not Orthoceras dentaloideum Phill.). 

D.? PERARMATUM Ryckholt, 1852. Mem. Couronn. Acad. Roy. 
Sci. Belg., Vol. xxiv, p. 67, pi. ii, figs. 39-40. 

Carboniferous, Vise. 

With deKoninck, we doubt if this be a Dentalium. It bears 
spines toward the smaller end, being elsewhere smooth ; circular in 
section. 

D. PRIMARIUM Hall 1858. Rep. Geol. Surv. Iowa, i, pt. 2, p. 
666, pi. 23, f. 16. 

Subcarboniferous, Warsaw Group, Hancock Co., Illinois. 

D. PRISCUM Munster, 1844. Goldfuss, Petrifac. German., Vol. 
iii, p. 2, pi. 166, fig. 3 ; Ann. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. Belg., viii, pt. 
4, p. 215, pi. 49, f. 1-3, 20, 21. 

Carboniferous, Tournay, Belgium. 

Reported, but probably incorrectly, from Scotland. 

D. RECTIUSCULUM Eichwald, 1846. Geogn. de Russie, p. 425; 
Lethsea Rossica, i, p. 1062, Atlas, pi. 40, fig. 12. 

Upper Carboniferous, Goniatites beds of Kasalschy-datschy, Oural 
Mts., and near Serpoukhow, government of Moscow, Russia. 

D. RUGOSUM Eichwald, 1846. Geogn. de Russie, p. 425 ; Lethsea 
Rossica, i, p. 1063, Atlas, pi. 40, fig. 8. 

Upper Carboniferous : Sloboda, 'government of Toula, Russia. 

D. SCOTICUM Young, MMS. in Kirby, 1880. Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. xxxvi, p. 563 and 589. Nomen nudum. 

Calciferous series of the Carboniferous, Great Britian. 



DENTALIUM, PALAEOZOIC. 233 

D. SORBII King, 1850. Monogr. Permian Foss., p. 218. 
D. sorbyi of some authors. 

D. speyeri GEINITZ, 1852. Jahresber. der Wetterauer Gesellsch., 
1850-'51. p, 198. 

Permian : Ireland, Germany. 

D. SUBCANALICULATUM Sandberger, 1842. Jahrb. Min. u. Geol., 
1842, p. 399 (no description); Verstein. Kheinischen Schichtensys- 
tems Nassau, 1850-1856, p. 240, pi. 26, f. 19, 19a. 

" String ocephaluskalk" Villmar, Prussia. 

D. SUBL^VE Hall, 1877. New name for D. obsoletum Hall, 
1858, in Miller, 1st edition Amer. Palaeozoic Foss., p. 244. 

D. obsoletum HALL, 1858. Eep. Geol. Surv. of Iowa, i, pt. 2, p. 
724, pi. 29, f. 16, 17. (Not of Schlotheim, 1832). 

Coal measures of Iowa. 

D. TAENIOLATUM Saiidberger, 1856. Verstein. Rhein. Schicht. 
Nassau, 1850-56, p. 241, pi. 26, figs. 21-21a. 

Carboniferous, " Stringocephaluskalk" Nassau, Germany. 

D. TENUISSIMUM Koninck, 1876. Palseont. Nouv.rGalles du 
Sud, pt. 2, p. 117, pi. 4,%. 3. 

Devonian, Yass, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

D. VENUSTUM Meek & Worth en, 1861. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., p. 145. 

Subcarboniferous, St. Louis limestone, Waterloo, Monroe Co., Illi- 
nois. 

D. VERRUCOSUM Eichwald, 1856. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 
Vol. xxix, pt. 2, p. 584 ; Lethsea Rossica, i, p. 1063, Atlas, pi. 40, 
fig. 6. 

Carboniferous: Artiuskian stage of the Permian, Artiusk, Oural 
Mts. 

D. WALCIODORENSE (Koninck), 1883. 

Entails waleiodorensis KONINCK, Ann. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Bel- 
gique, viii, pt. 4, p. 215, pi. 49, f. 16, 17 (1883). 

Carboniferous, Belgium. 

Family SIPHONODENTALIILXE. 

The earliest forms referable to this family appear in the middle 
Cretaceous, the number of species rapidly increasing to the present 
time, as shown in the following table : 



234 FOSSIL SIPHONODENTALIIDJE. 

Cadulus Siphonodentalium Entalina* 
Cretaceous 4 2 

Eocene and Oligocene 26 3 

Miocene and Pliocene 20 3 2 

Recent 65 8 3 

Genus ENTALINA Monterosato. 

See p. 131. This genus first appears at the base of the Ceno- 
manien, continuing to the present time. 

E. CURVA (Gardner), 1878. 

Siphonodentalium curvum GARDNER, 1878. Quart. Jnl. GeoL 
Soc. London, Vol. 34, p. 63, pi. iii, figs. 45-47. 

Cretaceous, Gault at Folkestone, England* 

This may be serpulid and allied to Hamulus. 

E. GARDNERI Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for S. affine 
Gardner, 1878, not Sars, 1864. 

Siphonodentalium affine GARDNER, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
London, Vol. 34, p. 62, 63, pi. iii, figs. 41-44. 

Cretaceous, Gault at Folkestone, England* 

E. TETRAGONA (Brocchi), 1814. 

Dentalium tetragonum BROCC., Conch. Foss. Subapp., ii, p. 627,. 
pi. 15, f. 26. Entalina tetragona MONTEROSATO, and of SACCO,. 
Moll. Terr. Terz. Piern. e Liguria, xxii, p. 114, pi. 10, f. 47-55, 
with var. paucistriata Sacc. 

Dentalium karreri R Homes, 

Miocene, Northern Italy and Vienna Basin* 

Genus SIPHONODENTALIUM M. Sars. 

S. DILATATUM (Cossmann), 1888. 

Pulsellum dilatatum COSSM., Ann. Soc. Roy. Malac. Belg., xxiii, 

p. 11, pi. 1, f. 21. 

Parisian Eocene, near Soissons. 

S. HYALINUM Brugnone. Misc. Malac., pt. 2, p. 21, f. 32 (1876). 

Pliocene, Ficarazzi, Italy. 

Referred by Jeffreys to Cadulus olivi, but probably incorrectly. 
Seep. 171. 

S. MICROCERAS Bttg. MEYER, Bericht. Senck. Naturforsch Ges., 
1882, 1883, p. 259 ^no description). 

Oligocene of Germany, Joachimsthal, Offenbach* 



FOSSIL SIPHONODENTALIID^E. 235 

S. NEGLECTUM (Cossmann), 1888. 

Pulsellum neglectum COSSM., Ann. Soc. Roy. Malac. Belg., xxiii,. 
p. 11, pi. l,f-2, 3. 

Parisian Eocene, Le Guepelle, Marines, Chaussy. 

Genus CADULUS Philippi. 

This genus first appears in the middle Cretaceous. The early 
forms are typical examples of the group Gadila, showing no feat- 
ures unlike the recent species of that section. The species are #cmft- 
ianus Gardner, obrutus Conr. and gabbi Pils. & Sh. 

In the Eocene there are numerous forms ; and species of Dischide* 
and Polyschides also make their advent ; and in the Oligocene the 
number of species is further augmented, all of the modern types 
except the short, obese forms being represented, the latter appear- 
ing in the Miocene. Nearly all of the known Pliocene species are 
also recent, and hence are to be found in the text of this work 
rather than in the following list. 

CADULUS ABRUPTUS Meyer & Aldrich, Journ. Cincinnati Soc. N. 
H.,ix,1887,p.40,pl.2,f.2. 

Oligocene, Newton and Wautubbee, Mississippi* 

Considered by Dall and Aldrich a probable synonym of C. 
subcoarcuatus Gabb. 

C. ANNULATUS Pilsbry, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

Oligocene, Bowden, Jamaica* 

C. BELLULUS Clark, 1895. Johns Hopkins Univ. Circular, xv r 
p. 5; Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 141, p. 72, pi. 14, f. 6. 

Eocene, Woodstock beds, Matthias' Point, King George Co., Vir- 
ginia. 

C. (DlSCHIDES) BILABIATUS (Desh.). 

Dentalium bifissuratum DESH., Traite Elena, de Conchyl., Atlas^ 
pi. 61, f. 11, 12, 14 (1864). 

Gadus bilabiatus DH., Descr. An. s. V. Bassin Paris, ii, p. 219,. 
pi. 3, f. 22-24. Siphonodentalium bilabiatum COSSMANN, 1888. 

Eocene, Paris Basin. 

C. (DISCHIDES) BOURYI (Cossmann), 1888. 

Siphonodentalium bouryi COSSMANN, Ann. Soc. Roy. Malac. 
Belg., Vol. xxiii, p. 13, pi. 1, figs. 6, 7. 

Parisian Eocene, Pajrnes, Montainville. 



236 FOSSIL SIPHONODENTALIID^E. 

C. (DISCHIDES) BREVIS (Deshayes). 

Gadus brevis DR., Descr. An. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, ii, p. 219, 
pi. 3, f. 25-28. Siphonodentalium breve COSSM., 1888. 

Paris Basin, Eocene. 

C. COLOBUS Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1897, p. 474, pi. 11," f. 17-20. 

* Oligocene of San Domingo. 

C. CORPULENTUS O. Meyer. Bull. No. 1, Geol. Survey of Ala., 
p. 66, pi. 3, f. 5 (1886). 

Oligocene, Red Bluff, Mississippi. 

C. CUCUMIS v. Koenen. A European Oligocene species of which 
we have seen no description. 

C. DENTALINUS (Guppy). PILSBRY, in this Vol., p. 190, pi. 36, 
f. 21, 22. 

Ditrupa dentalina GUPPY, Geol. Mag. n. ser., dec. ii, vol. I, 
1874, p. 445. 

Oligocene, Jamaica. 

C. DEPRESSICOLLIS Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila,, 1897, p. 473, pi. 11, f. 25-27. 

Oligocene of San Domingo and Jamaica. 

C. DEPRESSUS Meyer. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1884, p. Ill, 
fig. in text. 

C. compressus MEYER, Aruer. Journ. Science (3), xxix, p. 463. 
(Nude name). 

Eocene, Claiborne, Alabama. 

C. DIPLOCONUS Seguenza, 1880. Form. Terz. Prov. Reggio 
(Calabria), p. 276. 

Pliocene, Astian Stage, Italy. 

C. ELEGANTTSSIMUS Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1897, p. 473, pi. 11, f. 28-30. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

C. FLORIDANUS Dall. Trans. Wagner Inst. Sci., iii, p. 446, pi. 
23, f. 26 (with var. burnsii Dall). 

Miocene, Chipola beds, Appalachicola River, Florida. 

C. GABBI Sharp & Pilsbry, 1898. New name for Dentalium 
pusillum Gabb, not Philippi. 

D. (Ditrupa f) pusillum GABB, 1864. Palseont. of California, i, 
p. 139, pi. 21, fig. 99. Gadus pusillus GABB, olim. 

Cretaceous, northeast of Martinez, Alizos Creek, near Fort Tejon 
and Tuscan Springs, California. 



FOSSIL SIPHONODENTALIID^:. 237 

C. GADULUS (Doderlein), 1862. 

Gadus gadulus DOD., Giac. Terr. M. PI. Ital. Centr., p. 16. 
Dentalium gadulus Montg., ARDUINI, Conch. PI. Bac. Albenga, p. 
41, 1895. Gadila gadus var. gadula SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. 
Piem.,p. 118, pi. 10, f. 88,89. 

Tortonian Miocene, Montegibbio, Albenga, etc., northern Italy. 

C. GAULTIANUS Gardner, 1878. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lon- 
don, xxxiv, p. 63, pi. 3, f. 48. 

Gault, Folkestone, England. 

C. JUVENIS O. Meyer. Bull. No. 1, Geol. Survey of Ala., p. 66, 
pi. 3, f. 4 (1886). 

Oligocene, Jackson, Mississippi. 

C. MEDIUS Deshayes, MMS., 1898. New name for D. coarctatum 
Costa not of Lamarck. 

D. coarctatum COSTA, 1850, Faun. Reg. Napoli, p. 38, pi. 3, fig. 11, 
not of Lamarck, 1818. 

We know nothing of the validity of this species except what may 
be gathered from Costa's work. 

C. MEYERI (Cossmann), 1888. 

Siphonodentalium meyeri COSSMANN, Ann. Soc. Roy. Mai. Belg., 
Vol. xxiii, p. 12, pi. i, figs. 4-5. 

Parisian Eocene, Chaussy, Houdan. 

C. MUCRONATUS Tate. Trans., Proc., Rep., Roy. Soc. South Aus- 
tralia, ix, 1887, p. 193, pi. 20, f. 10. 

Muddy Creek Beds, South Australia. 

C. (POLYSCHIDES) NEWTONENSis Meyer & Aldrich. Journ. Cin- 
cinnati Soc. N. H., ix, p. 41, pi. 2, f. 3 (1886). 

C. jacksonensis O. MEYER, Amer. Journ. Sci., xxix, 1885, p. 
462 ; Geol. Surv. Ala., Bull. No. 1, p. 65, pi. 3, f. 8 a-b. 

Oligocene of Newton and Jackson, Mississippi. Miocene of Chipola 
R, Fla. and Patuxent E., Md. (Dall). 

C. NUTANS Bohm, 1891. Die Kreidebildungen des Fiirbergs u. 
Sulzberg bei Siegsdorf in Oberbayern, in Palseontographica, xxxviii, 
p. 70, pi. 4, f. 26a. 

Cretaceous, Hopfling, Bavaria. 

C. OBLIQUATUS v. Koenen. A European Oligocene species, of 
which we have not seen a description. 



238 FOSSIL SIPHONODENTALIID^E. 

C. OBRUTUS (Conrad), 1869. 

Gadus obnutus CONRAD, Amer. Journ. Conch., v, p. 101, pi. 9, 
f. 18. See t. c. p. 227, errata. Gadus obrutus. 

Gadus obrutus Conr., BOYLE, Bibl. N. A. Mesozoic Invert. Bull. 
102, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 131. 

Cretaceous, Haddonfield, New Jersey. 
C. OLIVI (Scacchi), 1835. See p. 17'0, pi. 31, f. 33-35. 

Pliocene of Southern Italy and Sicily. 

This species has repeatedly been reported as recent, but its actual 
occurrence living is doubtful. See text, p. 170. 

C. PARIANUS Guppy, 1896. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xix, p. 325, 
pi. 30, f. 7. 

Oligocene, Trinidad. 

C. (POLYSCHIDES) PARisiENsis (Deshayes). 
Dentalium denticulatum DESH., Traite Element, de Conchyl., 
Atlas, pi. 61, f. 13, 15, 16 (1864). 

Gadus parisiensis DH., Descr. An. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, ii, p. 
218, pi. 3, f. 18-21. Siphonodentalium parisiense COSSMANN. 

Parisian Eocene. 

C. PHENAX Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
1897, p. 472, pi. 11, f. 23, 24. 

Oligocene of San Domingo. 

C. (POLYSCHIDES) QUADRITURRITUS O. Meyer. Geol. Survey of 
Alabama, Bull. No. 1, p. 65, pi. 3, f. 7, 7a (1886). 

Oligocene, Red Bluff, Mississippi. 

C. SALICENSIS Seguenza, 1880. Form. Terz. Prov. Reggio (Cala- 
bria), p. 276. 

Pliocene (Astian stage), Italy. 
A variety of C. ovulum f 
C. SIMROTHI Pilsbry, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

Oligocene, Bowden, Jamaica. 
C. SUBCOARCUATUS (Gabb), 1860. 

Ditrupa subcoarcuata GABB, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. (2), 
iv, p. 386, pi. 67, f. 47 (1860). 

Gadus subcoarctatus Gabb, of Conrad. Cadulus subcoarctatus of 
Ball, Aldrich et al. 

Eocene: Wheelock, Texas. 

The etymology of this name has been emended by various writers ; 
but Gabb's intention is shown by his use of the name as here printed 



FOSSIL SIPHONODENTALIID^:. 239 

in the explanation of plates as well as in the text of his paper, and 
upon his autograph label still preserved with the types in the collec- 
tion of the Acad. Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia. 

C. suBFUsiFORMisMeffr., var. TAUROMINIMA (Sacco), 1897. 

Loxoporus subfus. v. taur. SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., 
xxii, p. 116, pi. 10 f. 78. 

Lower Miocene of northern Italy. 

C. TAUROTUMIDOSUS Sacco, 1897. Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e 
Ligur., xxii, p. 115, pi. 10, f. 68-73. 

Lower Miocene, Sciolze northern Italy. 

C. TAUROVULUS Sacco, 1897. Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Ligur., 
xxii, p. 115, pi. 10, f. 64-67. 

Loiver Miocene, Monte del Cappuccini, Italy. 
C. TENUIS (Seguenza), 1880. 

Helonyx ienuis SEG., Formazioni Terziarie nella Prov. di Reggio 
(Calabria), Real Accad. dei Lincei an. 1879-80, p. 118, pi. 1], f. 50. 

Upper Miocene ( Tortonian), Italy. 

C. THALLUS (Conrad). DALL, Trans. Wagner Inst. Sci., iii, p. 
445. 

Dentalium thallus CONR., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vii, p. 
142, 1834. 

Miocene : Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina and Florida. 

C. TRANSSILVANICUS (Boettger), 1897. 

Siphonodentalium transsilvanicum BOETTGER, Verh. u. Mittheil., 

Siebenb. Vereins fur Naturwissensch. zu Hermannstadt, xlvi, p. 55. 

Middle Miocene, Kostej, Banat, Hungary. 

C. TUMIDOSUS Jeffr., var. PARVULINA Sacco, 1897. Moll. Terr. 
Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, p. 116, pi. 10, f. 74-76. Also var. PER- 
INFLATA Sacco, I. c., pi. 10, f. 77. 

Tortorian Miocene, S. Agata, northern Italy. 

C. TURGTDUS O. Meyer, Bull. No. 1, Geol. Survey of Ala, p. 65, 
pi. 1, f. 10. HARRIS, Bull. Amer. Paleont., i, No. 4, p. 187 (73), 
pi. 7, f. 2. 

Midway stage of Eocene, Matthew's Landing, Alabama. 

C. (POLYSCHIDES) TURRITUS (Lea), 1833. 

Dentalium turritum LEA, Contributions to Geol., p. 35, pi. 1, 
fig. 3. 

Eocene, Claiborne, Alabama. 



240 CADULUS, SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODA. 

C. VENTRICOSUS (Bronn), 1827. 

Dentalium ventricosum BRONN, Verz. im Heidelb. Compt. befindl. 
Conchylien Jahrb., ii, p. 539. Gadila gadus var. ventricosa and 
gracilina SACCO, Moll. Terr. Terz. Piem. e Liguria, xxii, p. 117, pi. 
10, f. 80-85. Creseis gadus BRONN, Lethsea Geogn., ii, p. 984, pi. 
40, f. 3. Dentalium coarctatum LAM., An. s. Vert., v, p. 346. 
Loxoporus ligustieus RAZZORE, Ale. Scafop. Plioc. Ligur., p. 17, 
1896. 

Miocene of Northern Italy. 

C. VICKSBURGENSIS O. Meyer. (Amer. Journ. Sci., xxix, 1885, 
p. 463), Geol. Survey, Alabama, Bull. No. 1, p. 65, pi. 3, f. 6 
(1886). 

Oligocene, Red Bluff t Vicksburg, Mississippi; Older Miocene, 
Florida. 

APPENDIX II. SPECIES DESCRIBED AS SCAPHOPODA BUT 

BELONGING TO OTHER GROUPS. 

The false-Dentalium species may conveniently be discussed under 
the following arrangement : 

1. Molluscan, but non-Scaphopod species. 

Non-molluscan I 2 ' Worm-tubes, Serpulidcz (p. 241). 
1 3. Sundry other organisms (p. 247). 

Most of the following species are here for the first time removed 
from the Scaphopoda ; but a part of them, such as the common 
European Ditrupa, have long been known to be npn-molluscan, and 
various rectifications of the position of sundry species may be found 
scattered through the literature. Locard (Ann. d'Agricult. Lyon, 
1896, p. 253) has discussed the topic at some length. 

1. Various other mollusca described as Scaphopods. 

Dentalium aciculatum Hall, 1860. 13th Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 
Nat. Hist., p. 107. 

Palaeozoic ; Marcellus Shale and Portage Groups. 

Coleolus aciculatus, referred by Hall to Pteropoda, but it may 
as likely be a Scaphopod. 

Dentalium annulatum Mighels, Jay's Catalogue, edit. 4, p. 96, 
from Maine, may be a Ccecum. It is not D. annulatum Gmel. 

Siphonodentalium breve R. B. Newton. Syst. List Edwards Coll. 
B. M., 1891, p. 2S7=Euchilotheca elegans Harris, Proc. Malac. Soc. 
Lond., i, p. 61. An Eocene Pteropod. 



SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODA : SERPULID^E. 241 

Dentalium corniculum Costa, Fauna Reg. Nap., Tubibranchi, 
Appendix, p. 55, pi. 4, f. 2. Belongs to Ccecidce. 

Dentalium cinctum Koninck, 1843. Descr. Anirn. Foss. Terrain. 
Belgique, p. 318, pi. 23, fig. 3.= 0rthoceras subcentrale Koninck, p. 
514, pi. 44, fig. 3. Carboniferous, Belgium. 

Coleolus crenatocinctus Hall, 1879. Pal. N. Y. v, pt. 2, p. 188, 
pi. 32, f. 1-3 ; pi. 32a, f. 3, 4. Considered a Dentalium by Whit- 
field. 

Dentalium glabrum Montagu, 1803. Test. Brit., p. 497.= Ccecum 
glabrum (Montagu). 

Dentalium imperforatum Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 496. Ccecttrn. 

Dentalium imperforatum Turton, Conch. Diet. Brit. Is., p. 39, 1819 
(Walker Test, minuta rariora, etc., p. 4, pi. 1, f. 15).= Cceeum. 

Dentalium intestiniforme ~Linn. Thylacodes polyphragma Sassi 
(Morch, P. Z. S., 1862, p. 66). 

Dentalium jungii d'Orbigny, 1852. Prodr. Paleont. Strat., Vol. 
iii, index, p. 59.Fusus jungii, a mistake in indexing. 

Dentalium pygmceus Defrance, 1819. Diet. Sci. Nat., Vol. xiii, 
p. ll.= Ccecum. 

Dentalium spinulosum Miller, MSS.=Hamites spinulosus Sowb., 
Min. Conch., iii, p. 29, pi. 246, f. 1 (1821). 

Dentalium trachea Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 497, pi. 14, f. 10.= 
Ccecum. 

2. Vermes of the Family Serpulidce. 
Genus DITRUPA Berkeley, 1834. 

Zoological Journal, v, p. 426. 

Worms of this genus form a calcareous shell shaped like a Den- 
talium or a narrow Cadulus (such as C. acus or panamensis), gener- 
ally constricted anteriorly or with swollen rings or constrictions at 
irregular intervals along the tube, which is very earthy and brittle. 

Various species have been described as Dentalium, such as D. 
strangulatum Desh., D. subulatum Dh. (pi. 37, fig. 16), D. arietinum 
Miiller (pi. 37, fig. 19), and D. goreensis Clessin (pi. 37, fig. 17). 
Forms a good deal like D. subulatum occur in the West Indies, and 
there is a multi-annulate East Indian species. They probably occur 
in most seas. The irregularity and earthy texture of the tube are 
generally sufficiently conspicuous to prevent any confusion with 
Scaphopod shells. Some related genera of Serpulidce have more or 
less similar shells ; but the generic and specific characters of these 
16 



242 SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODA: SERPULID^;. 

organisms are to be found in the opercula, gills, etc., rather than in 
the tubes, which give characters of but little value to the modern 
helminthologist. 

In early Tertiary and Cretaceous deposits there are several species 
with solid, thick, heavily ribbed shells, such as Serpula heptagona 
Sowb., ' D." rudis Gabb, etc. Their exact generic relations are not 
known to me, but they are obviously members of the family Serpul- 
idce, (see pi. 37, fig. 20, " D." abbreviatum Dh.). 

The species are arranged alphabetically without regard to geologi- 
cal horizon, and no attempt at synonymy, even when obvious, has 
been made. 

Dentalium abbreviatum Deshayes, 1825. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, Vol. ii, p. 352, pi. xviii, figs. 21-22 ; see also Descr. Anim. s. 
Vert. Bassin Paris, Vol. ii, 1864, p. 199, pi. 3, figs. 5-7 ; Eocene of 
the Paris Basin(=" Serpula " hepiagona Sow.). 

Dentalium arietinum Mu'ller, Zool. Danicse Prodromus, p. 236, 
1776. 

Dentalium bulbosum Bronn, 1831. Ital. Tert. Gebild., p. 85 
("=/). entalis Brocchi in part "). See also EICHWALD, Lethsea 
Rossica, iii, p. 136. STEFANI & PANTANELLI, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 
iv, p. 67. " Unbekannte Versteinerungen " HOERNES, Foss. Moll. 
Tert. Beckens Wien, in Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-koniglichen 
Geologischen Keichsanstalt, 1856, p. 664, pi. 50, f. 41. Pliocene, 
Italy, Russia, etc. 

Dentalites cingulatus Schlotheim, Die Petrefactenkunde, p. 94. 

Dentalium car inatum O. G.Costa, Faun. Reg. Nap., Tubibranchi, 
pp. 24, 52 (1851). 

Dentalium coarctatum Brocchi, 1814. Conch. Foss. Subapp., ii, 
p. 264, pi. i, fig. 4. A Calabrian Pliocene Ditrupa ! 

Dentalium corneum Linn., Syst. Nat. (12), p. 1263 (=Ditrupa 
arietind). 

Dentalium cylindraceum Costa, 1850. Faun. Reg. Napoli, Dent., 
p. 39, pi. 3, fig. 10= Ditrupa. Italian Pliocene? near Caramanico. 

Dentalium cylindricum Sowerby, 1814. Mineral Conchology, 
Vol. i, p. 179, pi. 79, fig. 2. Ems worth, England. According to 
Gardner, this Ditrupa is a synonym of Dentalium planum Sowerby, 
described on the same page. 

Dentalium deshayesianum Galeotti, 1837. Mem. Couron. Acad. 
Roy. Bruxelles, Vol. xii, p. 62, pi. 4, f. 7. Plateau D'Assche of 
Brabant. 



SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODA: SERPULIDJE. 243 

Dentalium deforme Lamarck. Anim. s. Vert., v, p. 344, 1818. 

Dentalium dijfforme J. de C. Sowerby, in Dixon, 1850. Geology 
of Sussex, p. 348, pi. xxix, fig. 10. 

Dentalium falcatum Conrad, 1869. Amer. Journ. Conch., v, 
1869-70, p. 44, pi. 1, figs. 12-16. See under Hamulus. 

Dentalium goreeanum Clessin, Concbyl. Cab., p. 42, pi. 10, f. 9, 10. 

Dentalium hamatum Forbes, 1846. Trans. Oeol. Soc. Lond. (2). 
Vol. vii, p. 138, pi. xv, fig. 8. Cretaceous of India. An imperfect 
cast of a longitudinally ribbed worm tube. 

Dentalium inerassatum SOWERBY, 1814. Mineral Conchology, i, 
p. ]8(), pi. 79, fig. 3, 4. 

Dentalium incurvum RENIER, 1804. Tavola Alfabet. Conch. 
Adriat. Not seen by us. 

Dentalium indistinctum FLEMING. Edinburgh Phil. Journ., xii, 
p. 241, pi. ix, fig. 2 (1825). Carboniferous, England. 

Dentalium minutu LINN., Syst. Nat. (10), p. 786 = D. minutum 
L., Syst. Nat. (12), p. 1264, and of Gmelin, p. 3737, is not identifi- 
able, but Hanley surmises that it may be Cadulus gadus. 

Dentalium nigrofasciatum EICHWALD. Naturhist. Skizze Lithu- 
anen, Volhyn., etc., p. 199. Dentalium incrassatum Sow. EICH- 
WALD, Letha3a Rossica, iii, p. 136, pi. 3, f. 20 a, b. Pliocene, Zu- 
kowce, Volhynia, Russia. 

Dentalium nigrum LAM., 1818. An. s. Vert., p. 345 ; see also 
Chenu, Illustr. Conchyl., i, pi. 3, f. 9. Tube of Ditrupa or some 
allied genus of worms. 

Dentalium pellucidum GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3738 (Schroe- 
ter, Einleitung in Conch. 2, p. 529, pi. 6, f. 17). 

Dentalium pusillum PHILIPPI, 1836. Enum. Moll. Sicilia3, Vol. 
i, p. 245 (Palermo), has been referred to Dischides politus, but it 
may be a Ditrupa. 

Dentalium planum SOWERBY, 1814. Mineral Conchology, i, p. 
179, pi. 79, fig. 1. 

Dentalium radicula LAMARCK, 1818. Anim. s. Vert., Vol. v, p. 
345. 

/ Dentalium rudis GABB, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n. ser.), xv, 
p. 244 (1873). See also Pilsbry & Sharp, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 
1897, p. 474, pi. 10, f. 4, 8. Oligocene, San Domingo. 

Dentalium septangulare Fleming, Edinb. Philos. Journ., xii, 1825, 
p. 240. Probably = the following. 



244 SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODA : SERPULIDJE. 

Dentalium septemcostatum Abich in Trautschold, 1859. Bull. 
Soc. Nat. Moscou, xxxii, pt. i, p. 314, pi. 6, fig. 5. Eocene and 
Oligocene, Armenia. Probably = " Serpula " heptagona Sowerby, 
with which Trautschold, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc., 1868, pt. 1, p. 168, 
identifies it. 

D. serratum Pictet et Roux, 1849. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. de 
Geneve, 1849, Vol. 12, p. 150, pi. 27, f. 12 a-b. Cretaceous, Mouths 
of the Rhone, France. Probably belongs to Hamulus. 

Dentalium sexcarinatum Goldfuss, 1844. Petrifac. German., Vol. 
Hi, p. 4, pi. 166, fig. 12. 

Dentalium sexradiatum Goldfuss. " Craie super. Maestricht." We 
have seen no work in which this species is described. It may be 
an error for sexcarinatum. 

Dentalium sowerbyi Michelotti, 1847. Terr. Mioc. de Ital. Sep- 
tentr., p. 145, 1847. 

Dentalium strangulatum Deshayes, Mem. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de 
Paris, ii, p. 382, pi. 16, f. 28 (1825). 

Dentalium strangulosum " Deshayes," Gumbel, 1861 (misspelling 
for D. strangulatum Deshayes). Giimbel, Geognos. Beschreib. 
Bauerisch. Alpengebirg., p. 604. 

Dentalium subearinatum MUNSTER in Goldfuss. Quoted by 
Ryckholt, Mem. Couron. Belg., 1850-51, Vol. xxiv. This may be 
a misspelling for D. sexcarinatum Miinster in Goldfuss, 1844. 

Dentalium subulatum Desh., Mem. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 
373, pi. 16, f. 29 (1825). 

Dentalium undatum Defrance, 1819. Diet. Sci. Nat., Vol. xiii, p. 
72. Near Angers (=Ditrupa). 

Genus HAMULUS Morton, 1834. 

Hamulus MORT., Synopsis Organic Remains of the Cretaceous 
Group of the U. S., p. 73, type H. onyx Mort. Falcula CONRAD, 
Amer. Journ. Conch., vi, July, 1870, p. 77, type Z>. hamatus Con., 
1870, error for D. falcatum Con., 1869. 

Shell tubular as in Dentalium, but very much and progressively 
more curved toward the smaller end ; exterior coarsely and rudely 
ribbed longitudinally ; aperture contracted, circular, smaller orifice 
simple, without an accessory tube. Type H. onyx Mort. 

Cretaceous of the United States, Europe and India. 

This genus is like Pyrgopolon in the contracted aperture and 
rude, irregular growth, but it is more curved and apparently with- 



SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODA : SERPULIDvE. 245 

out an inserted apical tube. We do not hesitate to refer it to the 
Serpulidce. See pi. 37, fig. 12, H. onyx Mort., Alabama. 

The genus Falcula of Conrad was based upon internal casts of 
Hamuhis. Type F. falcata Conr., pi. 37, figs. 10, 11, from the 
Lower Green Marls at Crosswicks, N. J. 

Hamulus onyx MORTON, I. c., pi. 2, f. 8 (Lynch 's Creek, S. C.) ; pi. 
16, f. 5 (Erie, Ala.), is the type of the genus. 

Hamulus squamosus GABB, Journ. A. N. S. P. (2), iv, p. 398, 
pi. 68, f. 45. 

Hamulus major GABB, t. c., p. 399, pi. 68, f. 46, Ripley Group, 
Euf'aula, Alabama. 

Hamulus faleatus CONRAD, Amer. Journ. Conch., v, p. 44, pi. 
1, f. 12, 16 (as Dentalium falcatum\ including Z). f hamatus Conr., 
Amer. Journ. Conch., vi, p. 77, from the New Jersey Cretaceous, 
described from internal casts, by which it is still solely known. 

It scarcely falls within the province of this work to enumerate 
the European and Indian species of similar forms, except when 
described as Dentalium. 

Dentalium oetocostatum FRASS, 1867. Jahresh. Nat. Kund. 
Wuerttemberg, Vol. 23, p. 239, pi. iv, fig. 13. 

Cretaceous at Marsdba, Palestine. 

Genus PYRGOPOLON Montfort, 1810. 

Pygopolon MONTF., Conch. Syst., i, p. 394 (1810), type P. mosce 
Montf.Entalium DEFRANCE, Diet. Sci. Nat., xiv, p. 517 (1819), 
type E. rugosum Defr. " Entale Defrance " BLAINY., Man. de 
Malac., p. 628 (1825), type D. duplicatum. " Entails Defr.," 
SOWERBY, A Conchol. Man., p. 42 (1839), type D. duplicatum 
Blainv. Pharetrium KOENIG, IconesFossilium Seciles, p. 4 (1825). 

Shell club-shaped, straight, or curved toward the apex, the out- 
side bevelled (as though constricted, but the lumen does not con- 
tract) at the oral aperture ; dull, chalky, with irregular encircling 
undulations ; the inner layer generally projecting as a tube at the 
apex. 

Type P. mosce Montf., pi. 37, fig. 13 ; see also P. clava Lam., pi. 
37, figs. 14, 15. 

Upper Cretaceous, especially at Maestricht in the Netherlands. 

Blamville, as was his custom, used Defrance's French vernacular 
name " Entale " instead of his Latin form, and for some occult rea- 
son he changes the name of the species. Sowerby's variation was 



246 SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODA: SERPULID^:. 

obviously due to a desire for pure Latinity, his information being 
from Blainville. Subsequent developments ensued, further compli- 
cating the question. Gray (P. Z. S., 1847, p. 159) evidently thought 
that the apical tube was due to repair of injuries, and he establishes 
a genus Entails with Dentalium entalis as type. This of course is 
totally different from Sowerby's " Entalis" which was a Latiniza- 
tion of " Entale," and based ultimately upon the type of Entalium 
Defrance. 

In short, Entalium Defrance, Entale Blainville and Entalis Sow- 
erby pertain to Pyrgopolon, a worm ; Entalis Gray and later authors 
is a form of Dentalium. See also page 37 of this volume. 

The irregular growth and two-layered structure of these shells is 
conclusive evidence that they belong to the Serpulid worms. A num- 
ber of species have been described under various generic names 
P. mosce Montf., Dentalium clava Lam., D. crassum Desh., Phare- 
trium fragile Konig but they are probably variations of one or two 
Protean species. D. tricostatum Goldf. is apparently a Pyrgopolon. 

Dentalium browni HISINGER, 1837. Lethsea Suecica seu Petrifak. 
Sueicise, p. 21, pi. iv, fig. 9 (not seen by us). 

Dentalium clava LAMARCK, 1818. Anim. s. Vert, v, p. 346. 

Dentalium crassum DESHAYES, 1825- Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, ii, p. 373, pi. 18, fig. 20. 

D. duplicatum BLAINVILLE, Man. de Mai., p. 628 (1825) ; a 
nude name. 

Pyrgopolon mosce MONTFORT, 1810- Conch. Syst., i, p. 394-396. 

Dentalium tricostatum GOLDFUSS, 1844. Petrifac. German., iii, 
p. 3, pi. 166, fig. 11. Cretaceous, Westphalia. 

Dentalium wilsoni FRASS, 1867. Jahresh. Nat. Kund. Wurttem- 
berg, Jahrg. xxiii, p. 239, pi. iv, fig. 12. 

Cretaceous, Marsaba, Palestine. 

SPIRODENTALIUM Walcott, 1890. 

Spirodentalium WALOOTT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, p. 271. 

" Shell tubular, curved, opened at both (?) ends, attenuated pos- 
teriorly ; aperture circular, surface spirally striated." 

Type S. osceola Walcott, (I. c., pi. 20, f. 12) from the upper por- 
tion of Cambrian (Potsdam terrane), Osceola Mills, Wisconsin. 
PL 37, fig. 18. 

Described from one specimen occurring " in a friable, brown 
sandstone as cast and the matrix." " Longitudinally marked by 



SPURIOUS SCAPHOPODA, ADDITIONS, ETC. 247 

several narrow grooves." " Surface ornamented by spiral striae 
that, from the portion of the surface preserved, passed around the 
tube three or four times in a length of 6 centimeters, the tube hav- 
ing a diameter of 7 mill, at aperture and 2'5 mill, at the posterior 
end." 

The character of the sculpture longitudinal grooves and spiral 
striae is radically unlike any form known to belong to the Scapho- 
poda, and the genus can scarcely be admitted to be molluscan with- 
out more evidence than the wretchedly preserved specimen yet 
known affords. It may belong to the Vermes, or to the ancient 
group of so-calkd Pteropoda. 

3. Sundry other non-molluscan organisms. 

Dentalium clausum TUKTON, Conch. Diet. Brit. Is., p. 39 (1819). 
Quill of a sea-bird's wing feather, teste Forbes & Han ley, and Jef- 
freys. 

Dentalium cornicula d'ORBiGNY, 1852. Prodr. Paleont. Strat., 
Vol. iii, index, p. 59, = Dentalina eornicula (Foraminifera). A 
mistake in indexing. 

APPENDIX III. 

Additional data upon Recent and Fossil Scaphopoda. 
(Recent species). 

D. ELEPHANTINUM L. (p. 1). 

Reported from the Red Sea by Issel, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 235. 

D. BISEXANGULATUM Sowb., (p. 15). 

Reported from the Querimba Islands and Mozambique (Peters 
coll.) by von Martens, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1879, 
p. 739. 

D. OCTANGULATUM Donovan (p. 16). 

Under the name D. octogonum, von Martens (Vorderasiatische 
Conchylien, p. 102) records this from Bender- Abbas, Persian Gulf 
(G. Doria !). See also Issel, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 302. 

D. TEXASIANUM Philippi. PI. 37, figs. 1-9. 

See pp. 20-22, as D. gouldii. Two specimens are illustrated on 
plate 37, collected at Sanibel Island, west coast of Florida, by Chas. 
W. Johnson. They show considerable variation, but correspond 



248 ADDITIONS-RECENT SPECIES. 

well with Philippi's description of D. texasianum. We are, there- 
fore, disposed to rank D. gouldii as a form of texasianwn, which has 
many years of priority of description. To the references should be 
added D. texasianum Ph., ROEMER, Texas, p. 454 (1849). 

Possibly the " D. pseudosexagonum Dh." reported from Tucacas, 
Venezuela, by Higgins & Marratt, Moll. Voy. ' Argo,' Proc. Lit. 
and Philos. Soc. Liverpool, xxxi, 1877, p. 416, is this species. There 
are many errors in the ' Argo ' identifications. 

D. BEDNALLI Pilsbry & Sharp, n. sp. PI.' 39, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell soiled or Isabella- whitish, moderately arcuate, the curvature 
mainly posterior. Sculpture : at and near the apex with 7 strong, 
rounded ribs separated by deeply concave and decidedly wider in- 
tervals ; passing anteriorly the ribs become lower and wider, and 
tend to split by the appearance of progressively deepening sulci on 
their side slopes, so that at the aperture there are about 10 very low 
ribs of unequal prominence, besides some incipient ones ; the inter- 
vals shallow and narrower than the ribs. Growth stride fine and 
rather inconspicuous throughout, no longitudinal striation. Aper- 
ture subcircular, retaining a slightly hexagonal form, as long as 
wide ; apex rather large, the orifice small, oval, longer than wide, 
with thick walls ; no slit or notch. Length 19, diam. at aperture 
2'8, at apex 1-3 mill. 

St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia (W. T. Bednall). 

f D. octogonum of Adcock's Hand List of the Aquatic Mollusca 
inhabiting S. Australia, p. 10 (1893). 

The fundamental form may prove to be six-ribbed rather than 
seven-ribbed. The two costate species of this region, D. tasmanien- 
se and D. weldianum, are not known to me by specimens, and 
neither of them have been figured, but from the brief descriptions 
published (see p. 9) this species seems distinct from either of them. 

D. CONSPICUUM Melvill. PI. 33, fig. 60. 

Shell shining, subulate, arcuate, milk-white, longitudinally deli- 
cately striated, the striae unequal, here thin and there thicker, 
spirally irregularly concentrically encircled by lirse; at the apex 
octagonal, toward base vanishing, the baseitself very smooth, rotund. 
Length If, diam. j 3 <r inch (Melv.). 

Karachi. 




ADDITIONS-RECENT SPECIES. 249 

D. conspicuum MELV., Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. and 
Philos. Soc., xli, pt. 3, 1896-97, p. 21, pi. 7, f. 28 (1897). 

A milk-white, conspicuous species, slightly arcuate, eight-angled 
at the apex, the longitudinal strise very unequal down the body of 
the shell, and entirely vanishing before the base, which is very 
smooth and round at the orifice. It is concentrically unequally 
lirate ; two specimens (Melv.*). 

D. CONCINNUM von Martens. 

Shell weakly curved, with distinctly denned but not sharp longi- 
tudinal ribs, at the apical end 12 in number, increasing anteriorly 
by intercalation to more than double that number, separated from 
-each other by about double the breadth of the ribs ; becoming weaker 
anteriorly, and with fine, crowded circular lines equally developed 
upon ribs and interstices ; white, somewhat shining. Apex without 
slit, thick-margined, with 12 small notches outside. Aperture some- 
what elliptical and oblique to the axis. Length of chord 44, of arc 
46 mill. ; longer diameter of aperture 4, shorter 3 mill. ; diameter 
of the apex 1 mill. (Martens). 

West Coast of Africa, N. lat. 10' 6' 9", W. Ion. 17 16' in 150 fms. 
{Gazelle Exped.). 

D. concinnum MARTENS, Sitzungs-Bericht Ges. Naturforschender 
Freunde zu Berlin, meeting of June 18, 1878, p. 134. 

Evidently a member of the group of D. agassizi (p. 26), and to 
be placed near D. shoplandi. 

D. QUADRAPICALE Sowerby (p. 34). 

Reported by Mr. E. A. Smith from off the coast of Tra van core, 
South India, in 406 fms., dredged by the ' Investigator ' (Ann. Mag. 
N. H., xviii, p. 371, November, 1897). The specimens are some- 
what larger than that figured by Sowerby, the largest having a 
length of 40 mill. 

A section of Dentalium, TESSERACME, may advantageously be 
erected for the forms included in the " group of D. quadrapicale," 
p. 31. 

D. PRETIOSUM ' Nutt.,' Sowerby (p. 44). 

Carpenter says somewhat enigmatically that the D. pretiosum of 
the Mazatlan Catalogue is probably D. lactewn Phil. We know of 
no such species. See Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci., 1863, pp. 545, 
<666, and Moll. Western N. A., pp. 31, 152. 



250 ADDITIONS-RECENT SPECIES. 

There is also a museum name afloat " Antalis denseliratum Cpr."" 
for young indianorum with a distinct slit on the convex side. One 
such in U. S. Nat. Mus. from San Pedro (No. 19,463), is 19 milL 
long, 2*9 wide at aperture. 

D. AGILE Sars (p. 46). 

Off C. Spartel, Marocco, Sahara and Azores, 337-650 fins., 
' Talisman ' Exp. (Jeffreys, P. Z. S., 1884, p. 147). 

D. ENTALIS L. (p. 42). 

Mr. J. T. Marshall records new British localities for the varieties 
anulata and infundibulum in Journ. of Conch., ix, p. 61. The for- 
mer " lives in fine sand in deep water, while the var. infundibulum 
occurs on rough ground ; the latter is really a stunted form, caused 
by the action of a rough bottom wearing away and successively 
breaking off the point." 

D. OCCIDENTALS Stimp. (p. 47). 

Verrill (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 394) called attention in 
1880 to the singular error of Jeffreys, Sars and others in regard to 
this species, which I have noticed at the foot of p. 47. He gives 
the range as all along the coast of New England and Nova Scotia,, 
abundant on muddy bottoms in 50 to 300 fathoms. Jeffreys adds 
the locality Bay of Biscay, 1,062 fins., ' Travailleur ' Exp. (Jeff- 
reys, P. Z. S., 1884, p. 147, as " D. striolatum "). 

D. DENTALIS Linne (p. 53). 

Var. crocea Monts., of a beautiful saffron yellow, with the apex 
rose tinted, and var. rosea Monts., entirely rose colored, are reported 
from the Gulf of Gabes by Ph. Dautzenberg, Journ. de Conchy 1.,. 
1883, p. 302. 

D. PANORMUM Chenu (p. 54). 

Second paragraph of references should read D. pseudo-entails O* 
G.Costa; not " pseudo-antalis" 

Jeffreys (P. Z. S., 1884, p. 147) records it from Cape St. Vincent 
and off Senegal, in 32* to 1,723 fins. (Talisman Exped.). 

D. DISPARILE Orb. (p. 56). 

D. eburneum Turton, Conchol. Diet. Brit. Is., p. 37 (1819) = D. 
album Turton, t. c., p. 256, is evidently either D. disparile or varia- 
bile, but which is uncertain. The doubt causes us to reject the 
name album, which is prior to those of both species mentioned. 



ADDITIONS-RECENT SPECIES. 251 

D. MULTISTRIATUM Deshayes. PI. 39, fig. 5. 

Small, narrow, generally but little curved, white, yellowish or 
grayish ; entirely covered with fine, crowded striae, continuous from 
base to apex. In some individuals these strise area little wider, less 
crowded, with a fine thread interposed ; but in the majority of shells 
they are equal, rounded, sometimes quite regularly spotted with 
gray or translucent white on an opaque white ground. Apex ordi- 
narily worn, the strise often deeper than at the base ; aperture per- 
ceptibly oblique, with very sharp peristome. Length 20, greatest 
diam. 3 mill. (Desk.'). 

Found with D. variabilis, and presumably from India. (Desh.). 

D. multistriatum DESHAYES, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, ii, p. 
358, pi. 18, fig. 11. 

Apparently resembles some forms of D. antillarum. It is known 
to us only from the above description and figure. 

D. CANDIDUM Jeffreys (p. 72). 

Off" Marocco, Sahara and Canaries, 629-1,429 fms., 'Talisman* 
Exp. (Jeffreys, P. Z. S., 1884, p. 147). 

D. CAPILLOSUM Jeffreys (p. 77). 

Off west coast of Africa and Azores, 681 to 2,711 fms., ' Talis- 
man ' Exp. (Jeffreys, P. Z. S., 1884, p. 147). 

D. MAGNIFICUM E. A. Smith, (p. 78). 

Shell large, thick, moderately curved, perceptibly tapering pos- 
teriorly, obliquely truncated anteriorly ; sculptured everywhere with 
many delicate ribs crenulated by transverse strise ; slit narrow, of 
varying length. Length 115, greatest diam. 15 mill. (Smith). 

Lat. 8 40' N., long. 81 27' 85" E., in 637-800 fms. ; off Trin- 
comalee, east coast of Ceylon. 

Dentalium magnificum SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), xviii, p. 371, 
Nov., 1896. PILSBRY, this vol., p. 78. 

The description of this species was overlooked by me when the 
MS. for part 65 of this volume was in preparation. Mr. Smith 
writes : 

" This fine species is as large as the Japanese D. vernedei or the 
fossil D. grande Desh. The form, however, is more rapidly taper- 
ing than that of either, and the sculpture is not precisely similar ; 
the aperture is larger than in either of the species quoted and almost 



252 ADDITIONS-RECENT SPECIES. 

circular. The longitudinal ridges are fine and numerous, number- 
ing about twenty-five to thirty at an inch from the apex. Towards 
the anterior end intervening riblets appear, go that the interstices, 
which above are broader than the lirse, become narrower. The 
lines of growth are distinct, and on crossing the riblets towards the 
posterior end produce a granulated appearance ; the ridges are much 
smoother anteriorly and less elevated. The length of the fissure is 
variable, but this is probably chiefly due to damage. In the most 
perfect specimen it is 13 millimetres in length and rather more than 
half a millimetre in width. All three specimens exhibit reparation 
of injuries at the anterior end, and in two the posterior extremity 
has been broken off; these injuries are probably done by fishes or 
crustaceans. The shells are whitish, but coated with a dark brown 
earthy deposit. The Rev. Professor H. M. Gwatkin informs me 
that the radula is quite normal, and that the figure given by Sars of 
Antalis striolata closely represents it, except that in the present 
species ' the central tooth is a little wider and the inner edge of the 
lateral makes a smoother muzzle.' " 

D. EXUBERANS LoC. (p. 79). 

By oversight, the date " 1847 " instead of 1897, appears in the 
reference line below this species and D. scamnatum, on the same 
page. 

D. RECTUM Gmel. (p. 81). 

The locality " India" is incorrect, the species being an Italian 
Pliocene fossil which also occurs living in deep water in the eastern 
Atlantic, 'according to Fischer. D. delessertianum is a synonym. 
See p. 213. 

D. SEMIPOLITUM B. & S. (p. 91). 

Additional localities are : San Pedro, California ; Margarita Bay 
on the Pacific coast of Lower California. A specimen from Boca 
de los Pedras, in the Gulf of California, measures: length 34, diam. 
3-2 mill., and is lemon-tinted toward the apex (No. 46,203 U. S. 
Nat. Mus.). Another from San Ignacio Lagoon, on the ocean 
coast of the Peninsula, measures length 34, diam. 2'7 mill. 

D. EBURNEUM Linn. (p. 115). 

Reported under the name " politum Lam.," from the Gulf of 
Suez at 10 meters depth by Issel, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 236. We do 
not vouch for the correct identification of the specimens. 



ADDITIONS-RECENT SPECIES. 253 

D. FILUM Sowerby (p. 118). 

To the synonymy of this species should be added : D. funiculus 
Brugnone, 1877 (see p. 204) of the Italian Pliocene, and D. Iceve 
Hilgard & Hopkins, 1878 (p. 217) from the Pleistocene of Louis- 
iana. 

Jeffreys (P. Z. S., 1884, p. 147) adds the locality: off Sahara, 
1,261 fms. (Talisman Exp.). 

D. STEARNSII Pilsbry & Sharp. 

New name for D. simplex P. &. S., 1897, not D. simplex Miche- 
lotti, 1861 ; see p. 125. This little species now has the honor of 
bearing the name of a life-long student of West American mollusks. 

D. hyalinum " Leach MS. in Brit. Mus.," Sowerby in Conch. 
Icon., pi. 7, f. 49 (Antalis hyalina Clessin) is a smooth species with 
the apex and slit much as in D. splendidum; locality unknown. 
As the name is preoccupied by Philippi, and the specific value of 
the form is doubtful, it had better be dropped. 

" D. erectum Verkrz., Jam." of Paetel's Catalogue, i, p. 593, is 
unknown to us. There is an erectum of Sowerby, but it is from 
Australia, not Jamaica. 

" D. zonatum Orb., Jam." Paetel's Catalogue, i, p. 594 is un- 
known to us. 

DENTALIUM MODICELLUM Kurtz. 

Catalogue of Recent Marine Shells found on the coasts of North 
and South Carolina p. 6, (Portland, 1860). South Carolina. Name 
only. 

SlPHONODENTALIUM LOBATUM Sowb. (p. 136). 

Add the synonym Siphonodentalium exvitreum SACCO, Moll. Terr. 
Terz. Piem. e Ligur., xxii, 1897, new name for D. vitreum Sars not 
Gmel. 

New British localities for S. lofotense and S. affine are recorded by 
Marshall, Journ. of Conch., ix, p. 61, 62. 

Section DISCHIDES Jeffr. (p. 143). 
Add synonym Divides SACCO, t. c., p. 115. 
Section GADILA Cray. 
CADULUS ANGUIDENS Melvill & Standen. PI. 39, fig. 4. 

Shell a little arcuate, tapering toward the apex, pellucid white. 
Aperture rounded-ovate, the margin oblique; posterior orifice 



254 ADDITIONS-FOSSIL SPECIES. 

small, round, simple and thin. Length 8, diam. at mouth 1, at apex 
0-5 mill. (M. & &) 

Madras (Henderson). 

Cadulus anguidens M. & S., Journ. of Conch., ix, p. 32, pi. 1, f. 
6 (January 1, 1898). 

" A graceful, attenuate, slightly arcuate Cadulus, gradually in- 
creasing in diameter till the oblique aperture is reached. The shell 
is subpellucid, white, quite smooth ; posterior or apical orifice 
minute, simple, round, thin, the mouth being roundly-ovate, with 
very oblique margin. Two specimens, differing from any in the 
national collection" (M. & $.). 

(Fossil species of Dentalium). 

D. ANGULAKE Kaunhowen, Die Gastropoden der Maestrichter 
Kreide, in Palseontologische Abhandlungen (n. F.) iv, Heft 1, p. 
13, pi. l,f. l,la (1897). 

Cretaceous, Maestricht. 

D. CATULLOI Vinassa, 1896. Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., xv, p. 

Lower Miocene, Italy. 

D. COSTARICENSE Pilsbry, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
D. dentale GABB, Journ. A. N. S. Phila. n. ser., viii, p. 369 (in 
part). 

Pliocene: Costa Rica. 

D. HEXAPLEURON Kaunhowen, Die Gastr. der Maestr. Kreide, 
Paljeont. Abhand. (n. F.) iv, Heft 1, p. 13, pi. 1, f. 2, 2a (1897). 

Cretaceous, Maestricht. 

D. MACILENTUM Pilsbry, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

Oligocene: Bowden, Jamaica. 

D. SCHUMOI Pilsbry, 1898. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

Oligocene : Bowden, Jamaica. 
D. GEINITZII (J. Bohm) 1885. 

Fustiaria geinitzii J. BOHM, Der Griinsand von Aachen und seine 
Molluskenfauna, p. 34, pi. 1, f. 7 (1885). 
D. glabrum MULL., Monographic, ii, p. 5. 

Entails geinitzii Bohm, HOLZAPFEL, Moll. Aachener Kreide, 
Pal^ontographica, xxxiv, p. 177, pi. 20, f. 11 (1887). 

Cretaceous, Vaals and Aix-la-Chapelle. 



ADDITIONS-FOSSIL SPECIES. 255 

D. GARDNER: (Holzapfel) 1887. 

Entails gardneri HOLZAPFEL, Moll. Aachener Kreide, in Palseon- 
tographica, xxxiv, p. 178, pi. 20, f. 10. 

A smooth species of Fustiaria. 

Cretaceous : Greensand at Vaals. 

D. INFORTUNATUM Pils. & Sh., 1898. This name will replace D. 
gardneri S. & P. = D. acuminatum Gard., (p. 222), not of Holzap- 
fel. 

" Miiller described from the Cretaceous of Aix-la-Chapelle, D. 
cidaris, D. ellipticum and D. rugosum. The last species is certainly 
not a Dentalium, but the internal cast of a Gastrochcena (?), of which 
the shell has not yet been observed, though the fossil is very abund- 
ant. What Miiller understood to be D. ellipticum I cannot say, 
nor what he identified as D. cidaris. In Miiller's collection there 
is a piece of chert containing the impression of the anterior end of 
a Cidaris spine with the label Dentalium cidaris Gein." (Holzapfel, 
Palseontographica, xxxiv, p. 179). 

CADULUS AQUENSIS (Holzapfel), 1887. 

Gadila aquensis HOLZ., Palseontographica, xxxiv, p. 179, pi. 20, 
f. 8. 

Cretaceous : Greensand of Vaals. 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



[Names of genera and other groups are in SMALL CAPITALS ; 
those of valid species of Scaphopoda in Roman type ; all synonyms 
and non-Scaphopod names are in Italic type]. 



AbbreviatumT)h. (Dentalium) 
Aberrans Whit. (Cadulus) 
Abruptus M. & A. (Cadulus) . 
Absconditum Dh. (Deutalium) 
Abyssicola Monts. (Cadulus) . 
Abyssorum Sars (Dentalium) . 
Acicula Dh. (Dentalium) 
Aciculatum Hall (Dentalium) . 
Aciculatus Hall (Coleolus) 
Aciculum Gld. (Dentalium) . 
Acre S. & P. (Dentalium) 
Acriculum Tate (Dentalium) . 
Aculeatum Sby. (Dentalium) . 
Acumen Kon. (Dentalium) 
Acumen Kon. (Entalis) 
Acuminatum Gardn. (Dentalium) 
Acuminatus Tate (Cadulus) 
Acus Cooke (Dentalium) 
Acus Eichw. (Dentalium) 
Acus Dall (Cadulus) . 
Acutangularis Cocc. (Dentalium) 
Acuticosta Dh. (Dentalium) . 
Acuticosta Kon. (Dentalium) . 
Acuticostum J. de C. Sow. (Dentalium) 
Acutissimum Wats. (Dentalium) 
Acutisulcatum Gurl. (Dentalium) 
Acutum Desh. (Dentalium) 
Acutum Heb. (Dentalium) 
.2Egeum Wats (Dentalium) 
JEnigmaticum Jord. (Dentalium) 
^Equale Dh. (Dentalium) 
.EqualisDall (Cadulus) 
^Equatorium P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Affine Biondi (Dentalium) 

(256) 



222 



215 



PAGE. 

242 
193 
235 
197 
163 

48 
197 
240 
240 

93 
197 
197 

61 
229 
229 
255 
183 

29 
229 
191 
217 
197 
207 
217 

94 
229 
210 
197 

69 

49 
198 
170 
112 

42 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



257 



Affine Desh. (Dentalium) 

Affine Gabb. (Dentaliuni) 

Affine Gard. (Siphonodentalium) 

Affine Sars (Siphonodentalium) 

Agassizii Dall (Cadulus) 

Agassizi P. & S. (Dentalium) . 

Agile Sars (Dentaliuni) 

Agilis Sars (Antalis) . 

Alatum Gard. (Dentalium) 

Albicomatus Dall (Cadulus) . 

Album Turt. (Dentalium) 

Alloschismum P. & S. (Dentalium) 

Alternans B. D. & D. (Dentalium) 

Alternans Chenu (Dentalium) 

Alternans Mull. (Dentalium) . 

Alternans Ryck. (Dentalium) . 

Alternation Lea (Dentalium) . 

Alter natus Jeffr. (Cadulus) 

Ambiguum Chenu (Dentalium) 

Americanum Chenu (Dentalium) 

Amiantus Dall (Cadulus) 

Amphialum Wats. (Dentalium) 

Amphora Jeffr. (Cadulus) 

Ampullaceus Wats. (Cadulus) 

Anceps Sowb. (Dentalium) 

Andleri Opp. (Dentalium) 

Anguidens M. & S. (Cadulus) . 

Angulare Kaun. (Dentalium) . 

Angulati Quen. (Dentalium) . 

Augustum Dh. (Dentaliuni) . 

Annulare Sow. (Dentalium) . 

Annulate N. & H. (Entaliopsis) 

Annulatum Gm. (Dentalium) . 

Annulatum Mey. (Dentalium) 

Annulatum Migh. (Dentalium) 

Annulatum Sandb. (Dentalium) 

Annulatam Tate (Entalis) 

Annulatus Pils. (Cadulus) 

Annuliferum P. & S. (Dentalium) 

Annulostriatum M. & W. (Dentalium) 

Anomalocostata Sacc. (D. taurostriatum var.) 

Antale Aldr. 

Antale Auct. (Dentalium) 

ANTALIS H. & A. Ad. 

Antillarum Orb. (Dentalium) 

Antiquum Goldf. (Dentalium) 

Anulata Jeffr. (D. entalis var.) 

17 



140, 



46, 



57, 



44, 



PAGE. 

219 
204 
234 
253 
168 

26 
250 

46 
219 
178 
250 
108 

52 
198 
224 
220 
218 
158 
100 

22 
174 

71 
161 
158 
198 
219 
253 
254 
219 
198 
116 
203 
199 
198 
240 
229 
199 
235 
229 
229 
218 

37 

43 

37 
251 
230 
250 



258 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Anulosum Braz. (Dentalium) . 
Apenninica Sacc. (Dentalium) 
Aprinum Brocc. (Dentalium) . 
Aprinum L. (Dentalium) 
Aprinum Mawe (Dentalium) . 
Aquensis Holz. (Cadulus) 
Aquensis Holz. (Gadila) 
Aratorum Cooke (Dentalium) . 
Aratum Tate (Dentalium) 
Araucanum Phil. (Dentalium) 
Arciforme Conr. (Dentalium) . 
Areiformis Conr. (Dentalium) . 
Arcotinum Forbes (Dentalium). 
Arctum Pich. (Dentalium) 
Arcuatum Gm. (Dentalium) . 
Arenarium Rom. (Dentalium) 
Arguticosta Brugn. (Dentalium) 
Arietinum Mull. (Dentalium) 
Artatus Jeffr. (Cadulus) 
Asgum Greg. (Dentalium) 
Asperum Mich. (Dentalium) . 
Atava Sacc. (D. taurocostatum var.) 
Attenuata Monts. (Cadulus) 
Attenuatum Say (Dentalium) . 
Attenuatum Sow. (Dentalium) . 
Australis (australe) Sh. & P. (Dentalium) 

Badense Partsch (Dentalium) . 
Badense Trauts. (Dentalium) . 
Badensis Sacc. (Entalis) 
Barquense Winch. (Dentalium) 
BATHOXIPHUS Pils. & Sh. 
Bednalli P. & S. (Dentalium) . 
Belcheri P. & S. (Cadulus) 
Belcheri Sowb. (Dentalium) . 
Bellulus Clark (Cadulus) ^ 
Biearinatum Dh. (Dentalium) 
Bicostale Ryck. (Dentalium) . 
Bifissum Wood (Dentalium) . 
Bifissuratum Dh. (Dentalium) 
Bifissus Jeffr. (Dischides) 
Bifrons Tate (Dentalium) 
Bilabiatum Dh. (Siphonodentalium 
Bilabiatus Dh. (Cadulus) 
Bilabiatus Dh. (Dischides) 
Bilabiatus Dh. (Gadus) 
Bimixtum Greg. (Dentalium) . 



PAGE. 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



259 



Binkhorsti P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Bisexangulatum Sow. (Dentalium) 
Bisinuatum Andre (Dentalium) 
Bisiphonata Edw. (Fustiaria) . 
Bitubatum Meyer (Dentalium) 
Blandum Greg. (Dentalium) 
Borcei Mich. (Dentalium) 
Bouei Dh. (Dentalium) 
Bouryi Coss. (Cadulus) 
Bouryi Coss. (Dischides) 
Bouryi Coss. (Siphonodentalium) 
Breve Desh. (Dentalium) 
Breve Dh. (Siphonodentalium) 
Breve Newt. (Siphonodentalium) 
Brevifissum Brugn. (Dentalium) 
Brevifissum Dh. (Dentalium) . 
Brevifissum Gal. (Dentalium) . 
Brevicornu S. & P. (Dentalium) 
Brevis Dh. (Cadulus) . 
Brevis Dh. (Gadus) . 
Brevis N. & H. (Entaliopsis) . 
Brevis Newton (Fustiaria) 
Brevissimum Ant. (Dentalium) 
Brongniarti Dh. (Dentalium) . 
Browni His. (Dentalium) 
Buccinulum Gld. (Dentalium) 
Bulbosum Bronn (Dentalium) 
Burdigalinum Mayer (Dentalium) 
Bushii Dall (Cadulus) . 
Butini Nyst. (Dentalium) 

Caduloide Dall (Dentalium) . 
CADULUS Phil. . 
CAECUM 

Calabrum Costa (Dentalium) . 
Calamus Dall (Dentalium) 
Californicum Stanton (Dentalium) 
Californicus P. & S. (Cadulus) 
Callioglyptum P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Callipeplum Dall (Dentalium) 
Callithrix Dall (Dentalium) . 
Caloosaense Dall (Dentalium) 
Canaliculatum Klip. (Dentalium) 
Canalites Auct. 

Cancellatum Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Candidum Jeffr. (Dentalium) . 
Canna White (Dentalium) 



15 



131, 142 



72 



260 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Capillosum Jeffr. (Dentalium) 
Caprinum Ant. (Dentalium) . 
Carduus Dall (Dentalium) 
Carinatum Costa (Dentalium) 
Carolinense Conr. (Dentalium) 
Carolinensis Bush (Cadulus) . 
Castellanense Orb. (Dentalium) 
Castellanensis Orb. (Dentalium) 
Catenulatum Chenu (Dentalium) 
Catulloi Vin. (Deutalium) 
Caudani Loc. (Dentalium) 
Ceras Dall (Dentalium) 
Ceras Wats. (Dentalium) 
Ceratum Dall (Dentalium) 
Cheverti S. & P. (Dentalium) 
Chilense Orb. (Dentalium) 
Cidaris Gein. (Dentalium) 
Oinctum Kon. (Dentalium) . -. 
Cinctum Miinst. (Dentalium) . 
Cinerascens Ant. (Dentalium) 
Cingulatus Schloth (Deutalites) 
Circinatum Sow. (Dentalium) . 
Circumcinctum Wats. (Dentalium) 
Cirrhobranchiata Blainv. 
Clathratum Marts. (Dentalium) 
Clausum Turt. (Dentalium) 
Clava Lam. (Dentalium) 
Clavatum Gld. (Dentalium) 
Clavatus Gld. (Cadulus) 
Clavatus Stimps. (Helonyx) 
Clavus Cooke (Dentalium) 
Coaretatum Brocc. (Dentalium) 
Coarctatum Costa (Dentalium) 
Coaretatum Lam. (Dentalium) 
Coarctatum Phil. (Dentalium) 

COCCODENTALTUM SaCCO 

Coceonii S. & P. (Dentalium) . 
Cocentum Hoen. (Dentalium) 
Coelatulum Baily (Dentalium) 
Colligens Sacc. (Dentalium) . 
Colobus P. & S. (Cadulus) 
Colubridens Wats. (Cadulus) . 
Columbianum Cless. (Dentalium) 
Complexum Dall (Dentalium) 

COMPRESSIDENS Pils. & Sh. . 

Compressum Meyer (Dentalium) 
Compressum Orb. (Dentalium) 





PAGE. 


77, 


251 




3 




30 




242 




201 




152 




201 




201 




204 




254 




104 




72 




68 




57 




9 




220 




220 




241 




224 




48 




242 




201 




88 




V 




84 




247 




246 




185 




185 




185 




55 




242 




237 




240 




144 


xxxii 


29 




214 




202 




220 




217 




236 




184 




45 




76 


XXX 


123 




211 




220 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



261 



PAGE. 



Compressum Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Compressum Wats. (Dentalium) 
Compressus Meyer (Cadulus) . 
Concinnum Marts (Dentalium) 
Confusum P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Congruens Wats. (Cadulus) 
Conicum Hutt. (Dentalium) . 
Conspicuum Melv. (Dentalium) 
Constrictura N. & H. (Dentalium) 
Cookei S. & P. (Dentalium) . 
Cooperi Gabb (Dentalium) 
Corallinum Orb. (Dentalium). 
Corneum L. (Dentalium) 
Cornicula Orb. (Dentalium) . 
Corniculum Costa (Dentalium) 
Cornu Kon. (Dentalium) 
Corpulentus Mey. (Cadulus) . 
Corrugatum Cpr. (Dentalium) 
Corrugatum Hupe (Dentalium) 
Cossmannianum P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Costse Desh. (Dentalium) 
Costaricense Pils. (Dentalium) 
Costatum Nyst. (Dentalium) . 
Costatum Sowb. (Dentalium) . 
Costatum J. de C. Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Costulatior Sacc. (D. taurocostatum var.) 
Crassulum Stol. (Dentalium) . 
Crasswn Dh. (Dentalium) 
Crenatocinctus Hall (Coleolus) 
CRESEIS 

Cretaceum Conr. (Dentalium) 
Crocea Monts. (D. dentalis var.) 
Cucumis Koen. (Cadulus) 
Curcurbita Dall (Cadulus) 
Curcurbitus Dall (Cadulus) 
Curtum Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Curtus Wats. (Cadulus) 
Curva Gard. (Entalina) 
Curvum Gard. (Siphonodentalium) 
Cyathus C. & J. (Cadulus) 
Cylindraceum Costa (Dentalium) 
Cylindratus Jeffr. (Cadulus) . 
Cylindricum Fisch. (Dentalium) 
Cylindricum Gard. (Dentalium) 
Cylindrieum Rom. (Dentalium) 
Cylindricum Sow. (Dentalium) 
Cyrtoceratoides Kon. (Dentalium) 



262 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Dacostatianum Cbenu (Dentalium) 

Dacostianum Chenu (Dentalium) 

Dalli Pils. & Sh. (Cadulus) . 

Dalli P. & S. (Dentalium) 

Danai Mey. (Dentalium) 

Decemcostata Sacc. (D. taurostriatum var.) 

Decemcostatum Braz. (Dentalium) * 

Decemcostulata Sacc. (D. 9-cinctum var.) 

Decoratum Miinst. (Dentalium) 

Decussatum Sow. (Dentalium) 

Deforme Lam. (Dentalium) 

Defrancii Dh. (Dentalium) 

Delessertianum Chenu (Dentalium) . 

Delesserti Chenu (Dentalium) 

Delessertii Stef. (Dentalium) . 

Delphinense Font. (Dentalium) 

Densatum Conrad (Dentalium) 

Demeliratum Cpr. (Antalis) . 

Densmuris Meyer (Dentalium) 

Dentale Conr. (Dentalium) 

Dentale Gabb (Dentalium) 

Dentale Gld. (Dentalium) 

Dentale Loc. (Dentalium) 

DENTALIID.E . 

Dentalina cornicula 

Dentalina Guppy (Ditrupa) 

Dentalinus Guppy (Cadulus) 

Dentalis Lam. (Dentalium) 

Dentalis L. (Dentalium) 

Dentalis Llwyd. 

Dentalites Schlotheim . 

Dentalites Schroter 

DENTALIUM L. 

Dentaloideum Phill. (Dentalium?) 

Dentaloideum Phill. (Orthoceras) 

Dentaloideum Ryck. (Dentalium) 

Denticulatum Dh. (Dentalium) . 

Depressicollis P. & S. (Cadulus) 

Depressus Meyer (Cadulus) 

Deshayesianum Gal. (Dentalium) 

Deshayesii Guid. (Dentalium) 

Deshayesi Risso (Dentalium) . 

Diarrhox Wats. (Dentalium) . 

Dichelum Wats. (Siphodentalium) 

Dichelus Wats. (Cadulus) 

Dieides Sacco . 

Didymum Wats. (D. ensiculus var.) 



81 



190 
190 

53 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



263 



Difforme Sow. (Dentalium) 

Diffusum CheDu (Dentalium) . 

Dilatatum Coss. (Pulsellum) . 

Dilatatum Coss. (Siphonodentalium) 

Dilatatum Phil. (Dentalium) . 

Diploconus Seg. (Cadulus) 

Dipsyche P. & S. (Dentalium) 

DISCHIDES Jeffr. 

Discrepans Eisso (Dentalium). 

Discretum Dh. (Dentalium) 

Disparile Orb. (Dentalium) . 

Dispar May. (Dentalium) 

Dispar Sowb. (Dentalium) 

Dissimile Guppy (Dentalium) 

DITRUPA Berk. 

Diva? Vel. (Cadulus) . 

Divisiense Gard. (Dentalium) 

Diva Vel. (Gadus) 

Dollfusi Koen. (Dentalium) . 

Dominguense Orb. (Dentalium) 

Dominguensis Orb. (Cadulus) . 

Dufresnii Dh. (Dentalium) 

Dunkeri S. & P. (Dentalium) 

Duodecenaria Con. (Dentalium) 

Duodecimcostata Sacc. (D. 9-cinctum var.) 

Duodecimcostatum Braz. (Dentalium) 

Duplex Defr. (Dentalium) 

Duplicatum Blainv. (Dentalium) 



Eboracense Wats. (Siphonodentalium) 
Eboreum Con. (Deutalium) . 
Eburneum L. (Dentalium) 
Eburneum Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Eburneum Turt. (Dentalium) . 
Ecostatum Kirk (Dentalium) 
Elegans Newton (Euchilotheca) 
Elegantissimus P. & S. (Cadulus) 
Elephantinum Auct. (Dentalium) 
Elephantinum Born (Dentalium) 
Elephatinum Brand. (Dentalium) 
Elephantinum L. (Dentalium) 
Ellipticum Reuss. (Dentalium) 
Ellipticum Sow. (Dentalium) . 
Elougatum Miinst. (Dentalium) 
Ensiculus Jeffr. (Dentalium) . 
Eusiforme Chenu (Dentalium) 
Entale Auct. (Dentalium) 



PAGE. 

. 243 

. 96 

. 234 

. 234 

. 221 

. 236 

. 33 

142, 143, 253 
.202 

. 106 

56, 250 

. 214 

. 32 

. 203 

. 241 

. 188 

. 221 

. 188 

. 203 
.191 

. 191 

. 203 

. 221 

. 199 
.211 

. 13 

. 203 

. 246 

140 

. 89 

. 115, 252 

. 128, 216 

. 250 

. 102 

'. 240 

. 236 

81, 213, 215 
2 

. 198 

1, 247 

. 224 

. 221 

. 222 

. 121 

. 101 

43 



264 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Entale Defr., Blainv. . 
ENTALINA Monts. , 
Entaliopsis N. & H. . 
Entaliopsis S. & P. (Dentalium) 
Entalis Braun (Dentalium) 
Entails Defr., Sowb. . 
Entalis Gray . 
Entalis Linn. (Dentalium) 
Entalites Walch. . ' 

Entalium Defr. 
Entaloides Desl. (Dentalium) 
Entaloides Flem. (Dentalium) 
Entalum Blv. (Dentalium) 
EPISIPHON Pils. & Sh. . 
Erectum Sow. (Dentalium) 
Erectum Verkrz. (Dentalium) 
Ergasticum Fisch. (Dentalium) 
Eugenii Dall (Dentalium) 
Exdispar Sacc. (Dentalium) 
Exiguus Wats. (Cadulus) 
Exlamarcki Sacc. (Entalis) 
Exuberans Loc. (Dentalium) 
Exvitreum Sacc. (Siphonodentalium) 

Falcata Con. (Falcula) 
Falcatum Con. (Dentalium) . 
Falcatus Con. (Hamulus) 
Falcula Con. . 
Fasciatum Gm. (Dentalium) . 
Fasciatum Lam. (Dentalium)' . 
Filicauda Quen. (Dentalium) 
Filosa Kon. (Entalis) . 
Filosum B. & S. (Dentalium) 
Filum Sow. (Dentalium) 
Fisheri Stearns (Dentalium) . 
FISSIDENTALIUM Fischer 
Fissura auct. Ital. (Dentalium) 
Fissura Lam. (Dentalium) 
Fissura Phil. (Dentalium) 
Fissura Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Fistula Sow. (Dentalium) 
Floridanus Dall (Cadulus) 
Formosum A. & R. (Dentalium) 
Fossile Gm. (Dentalium) 
Fossile Phil. (Dentalium) 
Fragile Konig (Pharetrium) . 



PAGE. 

. 245 

. 131, 234 

. 37 

. . 203 

. 215 

. 245 

. 37 

142,216, 250 

v : ~ . xxix 

. 245 

. 225, 226 

. 203 

. 43 

. xxxi, 117 

. Ill 

. 253 

. . 74 

. 203 

. 214 

. 159 

i; 204 

78, 252 

253 



. 245 

243, 245 
. 245 

244, 245 
. 42 
. 52 
: 222 
. 225 
. 13 

118, 253 
. 36 
63 
214 
204 
106 
96 
118 
236 
2 

204 
207 
246 



XXX, 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 265 

PAGE. 

Fragile M. & H. (Dentalium) . . . .222 

Fritschi Koen. (Dentalium) ..... 204 

Funiculus Brug. (Dentalium) . . . 204, 253 

Fusiformis P. & S. (Cadulus) . . , .193 

FUSTIARIA Stol. . . . . . .127 

Fusticulus Brugn. (Dentalium) . . . .46 

Oabbi S. & P. (Cadulus) . .236 

Oabbi P. &. S. (Dentalium) . . . . .204 

GADILA Gray . . . . . .162 

GadilincB Stol. . . . . . . 130 

GADILINA Foresti . . . . . . xxxii 

Gadula Sacc. (Gadila) . . . . . 237 

Gadulus Ard. (Dentalium) . . . . - . 237 

Gadulus Dod. (Cadulus)j . . . . .237 

Gadus Auct. . . . . . . 143, 162 

Gadus Bronn (Creseis) . . . . . 240 

Gadus Mont. (Cadulus) . . . . .186 

Gadus Mont. (Dentalium) . . . . 186 

Gardneri Holz. (Dentalium) . . . . , . 255 

Gardneri Holz. (Entalis) . . . . 255 

Gardneri S. & P. (Dentalium) . . . 222, 255 

Gardneri S. & P. (Entalina) . . . . . .234 

Gaultianus Gard. (Cadulus) . . . . . .237 

Gayi Phil. (Dentalium) . . . . -204 

Geinitzianurn Ryck. (Dentalium) . . - . . 222 

Geinitzii Bohm (Dentalium) . . . . ' . 254 

Geminatum Goldf. (Dentalium) . . > . . . 204 

Germanicum Chenu (Dentalium) . . -.*.. . 205 

Gibbus Jeffr. (Cadulus) . . . . 159 

Giganteum Chenu (Dentalium) . . -r-*^ . 214 

Giganteum Phill. (Dentalium) . . . .222 

Giganteum Sowb. (Dentalium) . . " . .217 

Glabellum Bean (Dentalium) . . . .222 

Glabratum Stol. (Antale) . . . . . 222 

Glabratum Stol. (Dentalium) . . ... 222 

Glabrum Gein. (Dentalium) . . . .. . 226 

Glabrum Mont. (Dentalium) ..... 241 

Gladiolus Eich. (Dentalium) . . . : .. . 223 

Gnizum Greg. (Dentalium) . . . . 205 

Goreeanum Cless. (Dentalium) . . . . 243 

Gouldii Dall (Dentalium) . . . . . ' 20, 247 

Gracile Jeffr. (Dentalium) . . . . .119 

Gracile H. & M. (Dentalium) . . . .223 

Oracle Phil. (Dentalium) . . . .210 

Gracilina Sacc. (C. ventricosus var.) .... 240 

Gracilis Jeffr. (Cadulus) . . . . .165 



266 INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 

PAGE, 

Gracilis H. & M. (Dentalium) . . . .223 

Grandsevum Winch. (Dentalium) .... 230 
Grande Dh. (Dentalium) ..... 205 
Grande Nyst. (Dentalium) . . . . .197 

Grandis Verr. (Cadulus) . . . . . 154 

Granosum Eichw. (" Dentalium " ; not a Scaphopod !) . 230 

GRAPTACME P. & S. . . .- . . xxx, 85 

Guidottii Sacc. (Dentalium) . . . . .205 

Hseringense Dreg. (Dentalium) .... 205 

Hamatum Fbs. (Dentalium) ..... 243 

Hamatus Con. (Dentalium) ..... 245 

Hamites spinulosus Sowb. ..... 241 

HAMULUS Mort. ...... 244 

Hannonicum Br. & Cor. (Dentalium) . . . 205 

Hatterasensis S. & P. (Cadulus) . . . .169 

Haytense Gabb. (Dentalium) . 205 

Haytensis Gabb. (Dentalium) .... 205 

Helonyx Stimps. . . . . . .162" 

Hepburni Dall (Cadulus) . . . . .194 

Heptagona Sow. (Serpula) .... 242, 244 

Herculea Waag. (Entalis) . . . . .231 

Herculeum Kon. (Dentalium) . . . . 231 

Hexagonum Cpr. (Dentalium) . . . .20 

Hexagonum Gld. (Dentalium) . . . .18 

Hexapleuron Kaun. (Dentalium) .... 254 

Honoluluensis Wats. (Cadulus) . . . .185 

Honoluluensis Wats. (Siphodentalium) . . .186 

Hungerfordi P. & S. (Dentalium) . . . .84 

Huttoni Kirk (Dentalium) . . . . .71 

Hyalinum Brugn. (Siphodentalium) . . .171, 234 

Hyalinum Leach. (Dentalium) .... 253 

Hyalinum Phil. (Dentalium) . . . . .91 

Ibergense Rom. (Dentalium) . . . . .231 

Illinoiense Worthen (Dentalium) . . . .231 

Imperforatum Mont. (Dentalium) .... 241 
Insequale Bronn (Dentalium) ..... 205 
Incequale Ryck. (Dentalium) ..... 231 
Insequicosta Seg. (Dentalium) . . . . 205 

Insequicostatum Dautz (Dentalium) . . . .52 

Incertula Sacc. (Fustiaria) ..... 20& 
Incertulum Sacc. (Dentalium) .... 205 

Incertum Desh. (Dentalium) . . . . .97 

Incertura Dh. (Dentalium) . . . . .206 

Incertum Dh. (Dentalium) ..... 208 
Incertum Phil. (Dentalium) . . . . .46- 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 267 

PAGE. 

Incisissimum Meyer & Aldr. (Dentalium) . . . 206 

Incisum Chenu (Dentaliura) . . . . . 206 

Incisus Bush. (Cadulus) ..... 150 

Inerassatum Sow. (Dentalium) .... 243 

Ineurvum Ren. (Dentalium) ..... 243 
Indianorum Cpr. (D. pretiosum var.) . . .45 

Indicum Chenu (Dentalium) . . . . .116 

Indistinctum Flem. (Dentalium) .... 243 
Infortuuatum P. & S. (Dentalium) .... 255 
Infundibulum Jeffr. (D. entalis var.) . . .44, 250 

Ingens Kon. (Dentalium) ..... 231 
Innumerable P. & S. (Dentalium) . . . .119 

Inopinatum Mayer (Dentalium) .... 206 
Inornatum M'Coy (Dentalium) .... 231 

Insolitum Smith (Dentalium) . . . . 109 

Intercalatum Gld. (Dentalium) . . . .23 

Intermedium Cop. (Dentalium) .... 206 

Intermedium Hoernes (Dentalium) .... 200 
Intermedium Hupe" (Dentalium) .... 206 
Interruptum Gmel. (Dentalium) .... 206 
Interstriatum Sow. (Dentalium) . ... 4 

Intestiniforme L. (Dentalium) .... 241 

Inversum Desh. (Dentalium) . . . . .95 

Irregulars Seg. (Dentalium) ..... 217 
Irregularis Hutt. (Dentalium) . . . . 208 

Irregularis Risso (Dentalium) .... 206 

Jacksonensis Meyer (Cadulus) .... 237 

Jani Homes (Dentalium) ..... 206 
Japonicum Dkr. (Dentalium) . . . .17 

Javanum Sowb. (Dentalium) . . . . .4 

Jeffreysi Gardn. (Dentalium) . . . . .223 

Jeffreys! Monts. (Cadulus) . . . . .164 

Jeffreysi Monts. (Helonyx) . . . . .165 

Jungii Orb. (Dentalium) ..... 241 
Juvenis Meyer (Cadulus) ..... 237 

Karreri Horn. (Dentalium) . . . *. . 234 

Katowense Braz. (Dentalium) .... 9 

Keras Wats. (Dentalium) . . . .68 

Kickii Ether. (Dentalium) . . . . .208 

Kicksii T.-W. (Dentalium) . . . . .208 
Kickxii Nyst (Dentalium) ..... 207 

Koenigianum Risso (Dentalium) .... 207 

Komooksense Meek (Dentalium) .... 225 

Labiatum in Zool. Rec. (Dentalium) . . . .137 



268 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Labiatum Turt. (Dentalium) 

Lacteum Costa (Dentalium) 

Lacteum Desh. (Dentalium) 

Lceve Braz. (Dentalium) 

Lceve H. & H. (Dentalium) 

Lseve Schl. (Dentalium) 

Lceve Turt. (Dentalium) 

L^FIVIDENTALIUM Cossm. 

Lcevigatum de Rayn. (Dentalium) 

Lsevigatum Eichw. (Dentalium) 

Lcevigatum Eichw. (Dentalium granosum, var 

Lsevigatum Ponzi (Dentalium) 

Lsevis Braz. (Cadulus ?) 

Lcevis Hutt. (Dentalium) 

Lcevis Schl. (Dentalites) 

Lamarckii Chenu (Dentalium) 

Lamarcki May. (Dentalium) . 

Landinense Vine. (Dentalium) 

Laqueatum Yerrill (Dentalium) 

Laterobranchiata Clark. 

Laticostata Sacc. (D. badense var.) 

Laticostatum Reuss. (Deutalium) 

Laugieri Jouss. (Dentalium) . 

Leai Meyer (Dentalium) 

Lebruni M. & R. (Dentalium) 

Lebuense Phil. (Dentalium) . 

Leonise Meunier (Dentalium) 

Leonince Simr. (Dentalium) 

Leptosceles Wats. (Dentalium) 

Leptoskeles Wats. (Dentalium) 

Leptum Bush (Dentalium) 

Lessoni Dh. (Dentalium) 

Lessoni Sowb. (Dentalium) 

Letsonse S. & P. (Dentalium) 

Ligusticus Raz. (Loxoporus) . 

Lineatum Guer. (Dentalium) 

Lineatum Moore (Dentalium) 

Lineolatum Copke (Dentalium) 

Linnceanum Loc. (Dentalium) 

Linnei Foresti (Dentalium) 

Liodon P. & S. CDentalium) . 

Liratum Cpr. (Dentalium) 

Lirulatum Morch (Dentalium) 

LOBANTALE Cossm. 

Lobatum Sow. (Siphonodentalium) 
Lofotense Sars (Siphonodentalium) 
Longirostrum Paetel (Dentalium) 



207 



91 
91 

136 

138 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Longitrorsum Rve. (Dentalium) 
Longum S. & P. (Dentalium) 
Loxoporus Jeffr. 
Lubricatum Sow. (Dentalium) 
Lucidum Dh. (Dentalium) 
Lunula Dall (Cadulus) 
Lunulus Dall (Cadulus) 

Macilentum Pils. (Dentalium) 

Magellanicum P. & S. (Dentalium) . 

Magnificum Smith (Dentalium) 

Magnistriatum Dh., Ant. (Dentalium) 

Magnocostata Sacc. (D. subsexangulare var.) 

Magnum B. & C. (Dentalium) 

Major Gabb (Hamulus) 

Major Gardn. (Dentalium) 

Major P. & S. (Cadulus) 

Majorinum M. & R. (Dentalium) 

Majus Gardn. (Dentalium) 

Majus Sowb. (Dentalium) 

Malzani Dkr. (Dentalium) 

Mantelli Zitt. (Dentalium) 

Martini Whitf. (Dentalium) . 

Matara Dall (Dentalium) 

Mayeri Gurnb. (Dentalium) 

Mechelinii Rouault (Dentalium) 

Mediaviense Har. (Dentalium) 

Medium Geiri. (Dentalium) 

Medium Sow. (Dentalium) 

Medius Dh. (Cadulus) 

Meekianum Gein. (Dentalium) 

Megathyris Dall (Dentalium) 

Meridionale P. & S. (D. candidum var.) 

Meyeri Coss. (Cadulus) 

Meyeri Coss. (Siphonodentalium) 

Meyeri Gardn. (Dentalium) 

Michauxianum Ryck. (Dentalium) 

Michelottii Hoer. (Dentalium) 

Microceras Bttg. (Siphonodentalium) 

Microstria Heilpr. (Dentalium) 

Milneedwardsi Loc. (Dentalium) 

Minimum Strick. (Dentalium) 

Minusculus Dall (Cadulus) 

Minutistriatum Gabb. (Dentalium) 

Minutu L. (Dentalium) 

Minutum L. (Dentalium) 

Minutum Sowb. (Dentalium) . 



269 



PAGE. 



270 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Minutus Ad. (Cadulus) 
Miocenicum Mich. (Dentalium) 
Miopseudoentalis Sacc. (Dentalium) . 
Mirifica Smith (Entalina) 
Mirificum Smith (Dentalium) . 
Mississippiensis Conr. (Dentalium) 
Missouriense Swal. (Dentalium) 
Modieellum Kurtz (Dentalium) 
Montense B. & C. (Dentalium) 
Mouterosatoi Loc. (Cadulus) . 
Monterosatoi P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Moorei P. & S. (Dentalium) . 
Moreanum " Orb." (Dentalium) 
Moreauanum Bronn (Dentalium) 
Mosce Montf. (Pyrgopolon) 
Mucronatus Tate (Cadulus) 
Muellerianum P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Muensteri S. & P. (Dentalium) 
Multannulatum Aid. (Dentalium) 
Multicanaliculatum Giimb. (Dentalium) 
Multistriatum Dh. (Dentalium) 
Multistriatum Risso (Dentalium) 
Mutabile Dod, C Dentalium) 

Nanaimoense Meek (Dentalium) 
Nanaimoensis Meek (Dentalium) 
Nanum Hutt. (Dentalium) 
Navicanum Ryck. (Dentalium) 
Navidadense P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Nebulosum Desh. (Dentalium) 
Nebulosum Gmel. (Dentalium) 
Nebulosum Gm. (Dentalium) . 
Neglectum Coss. (Pulsellum) . 
Neglectum Coss. (Siphonodentalium) . 
Keohexagonum S. & P. (Dentalium) . 
Newcombei P. & S. (Cadulus) 
Newtonensis M. & A. (Cadulus) 
Niceense Bell. (Dentalium) 
Nigrofasciatum Eich. (Dentalium) 
Nigrum Lam. (Dentalium) 
Nitens Desl. (Dentalium) 
Niiens Dix. (Dentalium) 
Nitense Guemb. (Dentalium) . 
Nitens J. de C. Sow. (Dentalium) 
Nitens Sow. (Dentalium) 
Nitens Terq. & Jourd. (Dentalium) . 
Nitidum Dh. (Dentalium) 



53 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



271 



Nobile Mayer (Dentalium) 

Nodulosum Schl. (Dentalium) 

Nodulosus Schl. (Dentalites) . 

Noe Bon. (Dentalium) 

Normanianum Orb. (Dentalium) 

Notabile Eich. (Dentalium) . 

Novsehollandise Chenu (Dentalium) . 

Novaki Koen. (Dentalium) 

Novemcinctum Sacc. (Dentalium) 

Novemcostatum Lam. (Dentalium) 

Novum Chenu (Dentalium) 

Nudum Zeck. (Dentalium) 

Numerosum Dall (Dentalium oerstedi var.) 

Nutans Bohm. (Cadulus) 

Nutans Kner (Dentalium) 

Nysti Binkh. (Dentalium) 

Nystii Orb. (Dentalium) 

Obesus Wats. (Cadulus) 
Obliquatus Koen. (Cadulus) 
Obnutus Con. (Gad us) 
Obrutus Con. (Cadulus) 
Obrutus Con. (Gad us) 
Obsoletum Dod. (Dentalium) 
Obsoletum Hall (Dentalium) . 
Obsoletum Schl. (Dentalium) . 
Occidentale Stimp. (Dentalium) 
Octangulatum Don. (Dentalium) 
Octangulum Turt. (Dentalium) 
Octocostatwn Frass (Dentalium) 
Octocostatum Iher. (Dentalium) 
Octocostellatum P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Octogonalis Sacc. (D. taurocostatum var.) 
Octogonum Lam. (Dentalium) 
Oetohedra Leach (Dentalium) 
Oerstedii Morch.. (Dentalium) 
Oleacinum Dall (Dentalium) 
Olivi Jeffr. (Dischides) 
Olivi Scac. (Cadulus) . 
Olivi Scac. (Dentalium) 
Onyx Mort. (Hamulus) 
Oolithicum Piet. (Dentalium) 
Opacum Sowerby (Dentalium) 
Opalina Quen. (Dentalium) . 
Ophiodon Dall (Dentalium) . 
Ornatum Kon. (Dentalium) . 
Orthoceras Pils. & Sh. (Dentalium) 



PAGE. 

. 210 

. 225 

. 225 

215, 217 

. 225 

. 232 

. 93 

. 210 

. 210 

51, 211 

. 210 

. 225 

. 25 

. 237 

. 221 

. 220 

. 197 

. 159 

. 237 

. 238 

. 238 

. 238 

54, 211 

. 233 

. 225 

47, 250 

16, 247 
. 17 
. 245 
. 211 
. 211 
. 218 

17, 248 
. 17 
. 24 
. 198 
. 144 

170, 238 

. 171 

. 245 

. 225 

. 70 

. 222 

. 126 

. 232 
225 



272 INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 

PAGE. 

Orthrum Wats. (D. entails var.) . . . . . 44 

Orsum Bon. (Dentalium) . . , ~> . . 205 

Osceola Wale. (Spirodentalium) . . . ' .- 24d 

Ottoi S. & P. (Dentaliuru) . . . . - 211 

Ovale Malm (Dentalium) . /; '< . . 225 

Ovosectum Sh. & Pils. (Dentalium) . . . 226 

Ovulum Phil. fCadulus) . : . . . 157, 238 

Ovulum Phil. (Dentalium) , . . . ' -.: ; ;, . 157 

Ovulus Sacc. (Cadulus) . ". - . ;' . 157 

Pacificum Hutt. (Dentalium) . . . . 70 

Panamensis S. & P. (Cadulus) . . . -. 191 

Pandionis V. & S. (Cadulus) . ! . . .. . 171 

Panormitanum JefFr. (Dentalium) <. y . . 54 

Panormum Chenu (Dentalium) . v . . 54, 250 

Pareorensis S. & P. (Dentalium) ". . .211 

Parianus Guppy (Cadulus) . , . '. 238 

Parisiense Orb. (Dentalium) . ... . . .211 

Parisiensis Dh. (Cadulus) . . \. . . 238 

Parisiensis Dh. (Gadus) . . . . . 238 

Parkinsoni Quenst. (Dentalium) . , . . 226 

Parvula Stol. (Fustiaria) .- .- > 226 

Parvulina Sacc. (C, tumidosus var.) . . . , 239 

Parvulum Phil. (Dentalium) . . .212 

Parvulum Stol. (Dentalium) . . . . . 226 

Parvum May. (Dentalium) . . . . . 212 

Passerinianum Cocc. (Dentalium) . . . . 212 

Paucicostata Sacc. (D. badense var.) . . . . 199 

Paucicostatum Wats. (D. capillosum var.) .' . 78 

Pauperculum M. & H. (Dentalium) . . ., .226 

Pellucens Dh. (Dentalium) . . . . ,212 

Pellucidum Gm. (Dentalium) . . .-- . . 243 

Peutagonale P. & S. (Dentalium) . ." . . . 226 

Pentagonum Sars (Siphonodentalium) . . . 133 

Peracuta Sacc. (D. subsexangulare var.) . . . 217 

Perarmatum Ryck. (Dentalium) . . . . 232 

Perceptum M. & R. (Dentalium) . , . . .115 

Perlsevis Sacc. (D. bouei var.) . . . 200 

Perlongum Dall (Dentalium) . . . . . 104 

Perpusillum So wb. (Dentalium) . . ,_. , 190 

Perpusillus Sowb. (Cadulus) . ,, .- V . 190 

Phaneum Dall (Dentalium) . . .. I ." . 59 

Pharetrium Konig . . . . .- . . 245 

Phenax P. & S. (Cadulus) . . . . . 238 

Philippianum P. & S. (Dentalium) ... V 212 

Philippii Chenu (Dentalium) ,. ,, . 212 

Philippii Monts. (Dentalium) . . . . -, .. 214 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 273 

PAGE. 

Philippinarum Sow. (Dentalium) .... 116 

Picteti Db. (Dentalium) . . . . .22 

PLAGIOGLYPTA Pils. ...... xxxi 

Planatum Bronn (Dentalium) . . . .212 

Planicostata Sacc. (D. badense var.) . . . .199 

Planicostatum Heb. (Dentalium) .... 226 

Planum Sow. (Dentalium) ..... 243 

Platamodes Wats. (Entalina) . . . . .133 

Platamodes Wats. (Siphodentalium) . . . .134 

Platyceras S. & P. (Dentalium) .... 126 

Platystoma P. & S. (Cadulus) . . . .180 

Pleioceuum T. & H. (Dentalium) . . . .212 

Pliocenica Sacc. (D. badense var.) . . . .199 

Plurifissuratum Sow. (Deutalium) . . . .82 

Poculum Dall (Cadulus) . . . . .172 

Polita Wood (Ditrupa) . . . 144 

Politum Blainv. (Dentalium) . . . . .42 

Politum Costa (Dentalium) . . . . .107 

Politum L. (Dentalium) . . . . 128 

Politum Mawe (Dentalium) . . . . .116 

Politum Midd. (Dentalium) . . . . .45 

Politus Wood (Cadulus) . . . . .144 

Polyedrum Seg. (Dentalium) . . . . . 212 

Polygonum Reuss. (Dentalium) . . . . 226 

POLYSCHIDES Pils. & Sb. . . . . .146 

Pouderosum Gabb. (Dentalium) . . . . 203 

Porcatum Gld. (Dentalium) . . . . .15 

Precursor P. & S. (Dentalium) . . .. . 212 

Preciosum Cless. (Dentalium) . . . .45 

Pressum S. & P. (Dentalium) . . . .124 

Pretionum James (Dentalium) . . ; * . 45 

Pretiosus Lord (Entalis) . . . . .45 

Pretiosum Nutt. (Dentalium) . . . .44, 249 

Primarium Hall (Dentalium) . . '. . 232 

Prionotum Wats. (Sipbodentalium) .... 146 

Prionotus Wats. (Cadulus) ..... 146 

Priscum Munst. (Dentalium) ..... 232 

Priseum Mst., Sandb. (Dentalium) .... 230 

Prisma Dall (Dentalium) . . . ; ;. . 212 

Prismaticum Seg. (Dentalium) .... 213 

Profundorum Smith (Dentalium) . . . .79 

Proliferum Chenu (Dentalium) . . . .213 

Propinquus Sars (Cadulus) ..... 166 

Prosopocephala Bronn . . . . . v 

Pseudantalis Monts. . . . . . .127 

Pseudaprina Sacc. (D. 9-cinctum var.) . . .211 

Pseudoantalis Lam. (Dentalium) . . . 213 

18 



274 INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 

PAGE. 

Pseudoantalis Scac. (Dentalium) . . . .52 

Pseudobouei Sacc. (D. badense var.) . . . . 199 

Pseudoentalis Costa (Dentalium) .... 250 

Pseudoentalis Defr. (Dentalium) . . . .213 

Pseudoentalis Sism. (Dentalium) . . . . 209 

Pseudosexagonum Bon. (Dentalium) .... 209 

Pseudosexagonum Dh. (Dentalium) '. . . .23 

Pseud onyma P. & S. (Dentalium) . . . .213 

PULSELLUM Stol. . . . . . .138 

Punctatostriatum Gurnb. (Dentalium) . . . 226 

Pusillum Gabb. (Dentalium) ..... 236 
Pusillum Gabb. (Ditrupa) . . . . .236 

Pusillum Ph. (Dentalium) .... 144, 243 
Pusillum Wats. (Siphonodentalium) .... 140 
Pygmceus Defr. (Dentalium) ..... 241 
PYRGOPOLON Montf. . . ! , . . . . 245 

Pyrum P. & S. (Dentalium) . . . . .213 

Quadrangulare Sowb. (Dentalium) . . . .35 

Quadrapicale Hani. (Dentalium) . , . . 34, 249 

Quadricostatum Braz. (Dentalium) . . . .33 

Quadridentatum Dall (Siphonodentalium) . . .148 

Quadridentatus Dall (Cadulus) . . . . 149 

<J>uadrifissatus Cpr. (Cadulus) .... 150 

Quadriturritus Mey. (Cadulus) .... 238 

Quenstedti Blake (Dentalium) .... 226 

Quindeciesstriatum Eich. (Dentalium) . . . 213 

Quinquangulare Forbes (Dentalium) . . . .132 

Quinquangulare Giimb. (Dentalium) .... 226 
Quinquangularis Fbs. (Entalina) . . . .132 

Eadicula Lam. (Dentalium) ..... 243 

Radula Schroter (Dentalium) . . . . 213 

Radularis Schl. (Dentalites) . . . . .213 

Raricostata Sacc. (D. fossile var.) .... 204 

Rastridens Wats. (Cadulus) . . . . .174 

Rectius Cpr. (Dentalium) . . .113 

Rectiusculum Eich. (Dentalium) .... 232 

Rectum auct. Ital. (Dentalium) .... 199 

Rectum Gmel. (Dentalium) ... 81, 213, 252 

Eecurvum Dh. (Deutalium) . . . . .2 

Keevei Dh. (Dentalium) 

Reevii Dh. (Dentalium) . . . . .10 

Reussianum Ryck. (Dentalium) .... 220 

Rex P. & S. (Dentalium) . . . . .214 

RHABDUS Pils. & Sh. . . . . . xxxi, 112 

Rhodani P. & R. (Dentalium) . . . .227 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



275 



Khotomagense Orb. (Dentalium) 
RipleyaDum Gabb. (Dentalium) 
Robustum Braz. (Dentalium) . 
Rothomagense Orb. (Dentalium) 
Rotundatior Sacc. (D. insequale var.) 
Rubescens Dh. (Dentalium) . 
Eudis Gabb (Dentalium) 
Rufescens Weink. (Dentalium) 
Rugosum Defr. (Entalium) 
Rugosum Dkr. (Dentalium) . 
Rugosum Eich. (Dentalium) . 
Rugosum Mull. (Dentalium) . 
Rugosum Spill. (Dentalium) . 
Rushii P. & S. (Cadulus) 

Sacheri Alth (Dentalium) 
Salicensis Seg. (Cadulus) 
Sandbergeri Bosq. (Dentalium) 
Saturni Goldf. (Dentalium) . 
Sauridens Wats. (Cadulus) 
Scamnatum Fisch. (Dentalium) 
SCAPHOPODA Bronn . 
Sehizodentalium Sowb. 
Schumoi Pils. (Dentalium) 
Scoticum Young (Dentalium) 
Sectum Desh. (Dentalium) 
Semialternans Chenu (Dentalium) 
Semiclausum Nyst. (Dentalium) 
Seminudum Dh. (Dentalium) 
Semipolitum B. & S. (Dentalium) 
Semistriatum Dh. (Dentalium) 
Semistriatum Turton (Dentalium) 
Semistriatus Jeffr. (Cadulus) . 
Semistriolatum Gldg. (Dentalium) 
Semivestitum Fisch. (Dentalium) 
Senegalense Dautz. (Dentalium) 
Senegalensis Loc. (Cadulus) . 
Septangulare Flem. (Dentalium) 
Septemcostata Sacc. (D. taurocostatum var.) 
Septemcostatum Abich. (Dentalium) . 
Septemcostatum Braz. (Dentalium) 
Sericatum Dall (Dentalium) . 
SERPULID^E 

Serratum P. & R. (Dentalium) 
Sexangulare Dh. (Dentalium) 
Sexangulare H. & H. (Dentalium) 
Sexangulare Lam. (Dentalium) 



105, 



63, 



91, 



276 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Sexangulum Grael. (Dentalium) 
Sexcarinatum Goldf. (Dentalium) 
Sexcostatum Sow. (Dentalium) 
Sexradiatum Goldf. (Dentalium) 
Shoplandi Jouss. (Dentalium) . 
Siculum Dh. (Dentalium) 
Sigsbeanum Dall (Dentalium) 
Simile Biond. (Dentalium) 
Simile Wiss. (Dentalium) 
Simillimus Wats. (Cadulus) . 
Simplex Mich. (Dentalium) 
Simplex P. & S. (Dentalium) . 
Simplicior Sacc. (D. taurostriatum va .) 
Simrothi Pils. (Cadulus) 
Singaporensis S. & P. (Cadulus) 
Siphodentalium Auct. 
Siphonentalis Sars, 

SlPHONODENTALIID^ 
SlPHONODENTALIUM SaFS, 

Siphonodentalis Cless. 
Siphonodontum Loc. . 
Siphonopoda Sars. 
SiphonopodidceSimr. . 
Solenoeonches Lacaze-Duthiers. 
Solenoconchia Auct. 
Solidum Hutt. (Dentalium) 
Solidum Verr. (Dentalium) 
Soliticum Piet. (Dentalium) . 
Sorbii King (Dentalium) 
Sorbyi Auct. (Dentalium) 
Sowerbyi Chen u (Dentalium) . 
Sowerbyi Gldg. (Dentalium) . 
Sowerbyi Mich. (Dentalium) . 
Speciosum Giimb. (Dentalium) 
Spectabilis Verr. (Cadulus) 
Speyeri Gein. (Dentalium) 
Spinulosum Mill. (Dentalium) 
Spirale Risso (Dentalium) 
SPIRODENTALIUM Walcott. 
Spitiense Giimb. (Dentalium) 
Slendidum Sow. (Dentalium) . 
Splendem Costa (Dentalium) . 
Squamosus Gabb (Hamulus) . 
Stearnsii Pils. & Sh. (Dentalium) 
Stenoschizum P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Stramineum Gabb. (Dentalium) 
Strangulatum Dh. (Dentalium) 



xxix, 130 
131, 135 



216 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



277 



Strangulatus Loc. (Cadulus) . 
Strangulosum Gumb. (Dentalium) 
Striatellulata Sacc. (D. jani var.) 
JStriatissimum Dod. (Dentalium) 
Striatulum Blv. (Dentalium) 
Striatulum Gm. (Dentalium) 
Striatulum Turt. (Dentalium) 
Striatum Born (Dentalium) 
Striatum Eich. (Dentalium) 
Striatum Gein. (Dentalium) 
Striatum Mont. (Dentalium) 
Striatum Phil. (Dentalium) 
Striatmn Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Striatus Dall (Cadulus) 
Strigatum Gld. (Deutalium) 
Striolatissima Sacc. (D. subsexangulare, var.) 
Striolatum Jeffr., Wats., Sars (Dentalium) 
Striolatum Risso (Dentalium) 
Striolatum Stimp. (Dentalium) 
Subaneeps Traut. (Dentalium) 
Subarcuatum Con. (Dentalium) 
Subcarinatum Ryck. (Dentalium) 
Subcanaliculatum Sandb. (Dentalium) 
Subcentrale Kon. (Orthoceras) 
Subcoarctatus Conr. (Gadus) . 
Subcoarctatus auct. (Cadulus) . 
Subcoarcuata Gabb (Ditrupa) 
Subcoarcuatus Gabb (Cadulus) 
Subcompressum Mey. (Dentalium) 
Subcylindricum Phil. (Dentalium) 
Subeburnea N. & H. (Fustiaria) 
Subeburneum Orb. (Dentalium) 
Subentalis Orb. (Dentalium) . 
Subfissura Tate (Entalis) 
Subfusiforme Sars. (Siphonodentalium) 
Subfusiformis Jeffr. (Cadulus) . 
Subfusiformis Sacc. (Loxoporus) 
Subfusiformis Sars. (Cadulus) 
Subgiganteum Orb. (Dentalium) 
Subirregulare P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Subjuvenis Sacc. (D. taurostriatum var.) 
Sublseve Hall. (Dentalium) . 
Sublcsvis Cocc. (Dentalium) 
Subplanum P. & S. (Dentalium) 
Subquadratum Meek (Dentalium) 
Subrecta Cocc. (Dentalium) 
Subrectum Jeffr. (Dentalium) 



278 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 



Subsexangulare Orb. (Dentalium) . 
Subsexangulatum Orb. (Dentalium) 
Substriata Conr. (Teredo) 
Substriatum Dh. (Dentalium) 
Subtern'ssum Jeffr. (Dentalium) 
Subtorquatum Fisch. (Dentalium) 
Subulatum Dh. (Dentalium) . 
Sulcatum Lam. (Dentalium) . 
Sulcatum Scac. (Dentalium) . 
Sulcatum Verr. (D. occidentale var.) 
Sulcosum Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Syriacum Frass (Dentalium) . 
Syringites auct. 

Taeniolatum Sandb. (Dentalium) 
Taphrium Dall (Dentalium) . 
Tarentinum Lam. (Dentalium) 
Tasmaniensis T.-W. (Dentalium) 
Tatei S. & P. (Dentalium) 
Tauraspera Sacc. (D. bouei var.) 
Taurocostatum Sacc. (Antale) 
Taurogracilis Sacc. (D. bouei var.) 
Taurogracilis Sacc. (D. triquetrum var.) 
Taurominima Sacc. (C. subfusiformis var.) 
Taurostriata Sacc. (Entalis) . 
Taurostriatum Sacc. (Dentalium) 
Taurotumidosus Sacc. (Cadulus) 
Taurovulus Sacc. (Cadulus) 
Tenue Mu'nst. (Dentalium) 
Tenue Portl. (Dentalium) 
Tenuicostatum Bohm. (Dentalium) 
Tenuifissum Monts. (Dentalium) 
Tennis Hutt. (Dentalium) 
Tenuis Seg. (Cadulus) 
Tennis Seg. (Helonyx) 
Tenuissimum Kon. (Dentalium) 
Tenuistriatum Rouault (Dentalium) 
TEREDO 

Teres Jeffr. (Siphonodentalium) 
TESSERACME Pils. 
Tesseragonum Sowb. (Dentalium) 
Tetraschistum Wats. (Siphonodentalium) 
Tetraschistus Wats. (Cadulus) 
Tetragona Brocc. (Entalina) . 
Tetragona Sars (Siphonentalis) 
Tetragonum Brocc. (Dentalium) 
Tetragonum Monts. (Dentalium) 



INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 279 

PAGE. 

Tetragonum Sowb. (Dentalium) . . . .35 

Tetrodon P. & S. (Cadulus) . . . . .151 

Texasianum Phil. (Dentalium) . . . .22, 247 

Thalloide Conr. (Dentalium) . . . . .218 

Thalloides Conr. (Dentalium) . . . .218 

Thallus Con. (Cadulus) . . . .239 



Thallus Con. (Dentalium) 
Thylacodes polyphragma 
Tirpum Greg. (Deutalium) 
Tolmiei Dall (Cadulus) 
Tonosum Zenk. (Dentalium) 



239 
241 
218 
181 
228 



Tornatum Wats. (Dentalium) . . . . 121 

Torquatum Schloth (Dentalium) . . . . 228 

Torquatus Schl. (Dentalites) . . . . . 228 

Trachea Mont. (Dentalium) . . . . .241 

Transluddum Chenu (Dentalium) . ' . . . 90 

Translucidum Desh. (Dentalium) . . . .99 

Transluddum Sow. (Dentalium) . . . . 129 

Transsilvanicum Bttg. (Siphouodentalium) . ... . 239 

Transsilvanicus Bttg. (Cadulus) . . -. . 239 

Trautscholdi Koen. (Dentalium) . . . . 218 

Tredecimcostata Sacc. (D. 9-cinctum var.) . . .211 

Tricostatum Goldf. (Dentalium) . . . .246 

Trigonum Hoen. (Dentalium) . . . .. 219 

Triquetrum Broc. (Dentalium) . . . . 219 

Triquetrum Tate (Dentalium) . . . . 218 

Tryoni P. & S. (Dentalium) . . . . . 219 

Tubidentalium Loc. . . . . . .135 

Tubulites auct. . . . ... . . . xxix 

Tubulusauct. . . . . . . xxix 

Tumidosus Jeffr. (Cadulus) . . . ^~ 160, 239 

Tumidula Jeffr. (Cadulus) . . . . .165 

Turgidus Mey. (Cadulus) . . . . . 239 

Turoniense Woods (Dentalium) 

Turritum Lea (Dentalium) . . . . . 239 

Turritus Lea (Cadulus) . . ;. .239 

Tytthum Wats. (Siphonodentalium) . . 137 

Undatum Defr. (Dentalium) . . , . . 244 

Undecimcostata Sacc. (D. 9-cinctum var.) . . .211 

Undulatum Miinst (Dentalium) . . . . 229 

Usitatum Smith (Dentalium) . . 29 

Vagina Jeffr. (Dentalium) . . . . .46- 

Valangiense P. & C. (Dentalium) . . . .229 

Variabile Dh. (Dentalium) . ... . 60, 250 

Venustum M. & W. (Dentalium) . . . .233 



280 INDEX TO SCAPHOPODA. 

PAGE. 

Ventricosum Bronn (Dentalium) . . . . 240 

Ventricosus Bronn (Cadulus) ' . . 240 

Verendi Cless. (Antalis) . . . . .80 

Vernedei Hani. (Dentalium) . . . .80 

Verrucosum Eichw. (Dentalium) . . . . 233 

Vicksburgensis Meyer (Cadulus) . . . 240 

Viperidens M. & S. (Cadulus) ' . . .184 

Virginianum Chenu (Dentalium) .... 209 

Vitreurn Gmel. (Dentalium) . . . .. .219 

Vitreum Sars. (Dentalium) . . . . .136 

Vitreum Sars (Siphonodentalium) . . . . 136 

Vulgare DaC. (Dentalium) . . .41, 219 

Vulpidens Wats. (Cadulus) . . 172 

Walciodorense Kon. (Dentalium) .... 233 

Walciodorensis Kon. (Entalis) .... 233 

Watsoni Dall (Cadulus) . . . 167 

Watsoni P. & S. (Dentalium) . . 113 

Weinkauffi Dkr. (Dentalium) . . 40 

Weldiana T.-W. (Dentalium) . . . 9 

Weldianum T.-W. (Dentalium) . 9 
Wilsoni Frass (Dentalium) ..... 246 

Xiphias S. & P. (Dentalium) . 219 

Yokohamense Wats. (Dentalium) . . . .16 

Zelandicum Sby. (Dentalium) . . . .70 

Zonatum " Orb." (Dentalium) .... 253 



APLACOPHORA. 281 

Order APLACOPHORA v. Ihering. 

Aplacophora IHERING, Jahrb. d. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1S76, p. 
136 (as a Class of the Phylum Amphineura, of the Vermes) ; Ver- 
gleich. Anat. Nervensyst. n. Phylog. Moll., p. 31. 

Telobranehiata KOREN & DANIELSSEN, Arch. Math, og Natur- 
vid., ii, 1877, p. 123 (as an Order of Opisthobranchiata). See for 
translation, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), iii, p. 323. 

" Grade Lipoglossa, Class Solecocmorpha " [Sc-olecomorpha] LAN- 
KESTER, Quart. Journ. Mic. Sci. (n. ser.) xvii, p. 448 (1877). 

Solenogastres GEGENBAUR, Grundriss der Vergleich. Anat., (2d 
edit.), 1878. English trans, by Jeffrey Bell, p. 127 (Division of 
Vermes). 

Orders Neomenice and Chcetoderma LANKESTER, Encyclop. Brit. 
(Edit. 9), xvi, art. Mollusca, p. 641 (1883). 

Vermiform Amphineura without calcareous plates along the 
back ; covered with a spiculose integument, continuous around the 
body or interrupted by a longitudinal furrow beneath, in which lies 
the foot, which is much reduced or wanting ; gills when present 
lying in a posterior cavity or cloaca, in which the anus opens. Gut 
not convoluted, with a blind sack or numerous lateral pouches ap- 
parently with the function of a liver. Pharynx with or without a 
radula, or with it represented by one conical tooth. Nervous sys- 
tem composed of four ganglion-bearing longitudinal trunks, two 
pedal and two lateral, the latter uniting posteriorly above the gut, 
and all uniting anteriorly in a circumcesophageal ganglionic ring. 

The Aplacophora or Solenogastres escaped the notice of naturalists 
until about 1845, when Loven described specimens collected by him 
under the name Chcetoderma nitidulwn. Subsequently M. Sars 
found but did not describe, another form which he called Solenopus, 
locating it in the Mollusca. It was not until 1875 that this animal 
was described and figured as Neomenia carinata by Hubrecht, who 
at first hesitated whether to place it with the Gephyrian worms or 
the mollusks. After this time the publications upon Chcetoderma, 
Neomenia and related forms rapidly multiplied. The discovery of 
a radula in some of the genera influenced most investigators to con- 
sider the group molluscan ; and the investigation of the nervous 
system which proved to show remarkable agreement with Chiton, 
soon caused the group to be located near the Polyplacophora. In 
1890, Pruvot, at the Banyuls laboratory, studied the embryology of 
an Aplacophore, and ascertained that at one stage of development 
19 



282 APLACOPHOEA. 



it has a dorsal armor ot seven slightly imbricating plates, exactly 
comparable with the seven-valved stage in the development of 
Chiton. This observation definitely fixes the position of the Apla- 
cophores, as a degraded group of Ampliineura, which had its incep- 
tion in a Chiton-like ancestor, and has undergone reduction of the 
foot and dorsal armor by living in mud at depths below wave dis- 
turbance. 

The simplification of the digestive tract in Aplacophores has 
doubtless been a secondary modification, due, as Simroth holds, to 
the adoption of a carnivorous diet ; but the posterior gills, reduced 
to a single pair (for the numerous gill folds of Neomenia, etc., are 
not true ctenidia), the spiculose integument and the nervous system, 
are doubtless primitive structures inherited from polyp] acophorous 
ancestors. 

There is considerable diversity in habits and mode of life among 
the forms now known. Chcetoderma, Neomenia, Proneomenia and 
Ichthyomenia are free-living forms, lying imbedded in mud, head 
downward, like a Dentalium, selecting their food of organic parti- 
cles from the surrounding ooze. Rhopalomenia, Nematomenia, Lepi- 
domenia, etc., are parasitic upon Hydroids, Gorgonians and Corals, 
upon the branches of which they crawl and coil themselves. 

It is likely that future search will reveal Aplacophores in all 
seas, those at present known being a mere fragment of the existing 
fauna. 

I am informed by Prof. A. E. Verrill that no less than six species 
of three or four genera, including Neomenia, occur in the Fish 
Commission collections off the eastern U. S. They are still un- 
published. 

The best general account of the anatomy of the group is that of 
Simroth in Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, Vol. 
III. The memoirs of Wiren, Pruvot, Thiele, Kowalevski and 
Marion and Hubrecht, are the most important special treatises upon 
the subject. 

Development. 

Pruvot (Comptes Rendus cxi, p. 689-692, 1890) has observed the 
development of Myzomenia banyulensis. A brief summary of his 
observations is as follows : 

The eggs are globular, and laid singly, few at a time. Segmenta- 
tion begins an hour after they are laid, proceeding rapidly, and 



APLACOPHORA. 283 

Is unequal from the first. The mode of segmentation resembles that 
of Dentalium and many Lamellibranchs. After 24 hours there 
appears a median corona of vibratile cilia, while two ciliated areas 
appear at the cephalic pole and the point of invagination respect- 
ively. The embryo elongates and becomes divided by two annular 
constrictions into three segments. The cephalic segment is formed 
of two rows of ciliated cells; some of the cilia become longer than 
the rest, and one finally becomes much larger, and forms the term- 
inal flagellum. The second segment or velum is formed of a single 
layer of cells, which have a single row of cilia ; these grow and 
form the ciliated corona, the chief organ of locomotion. The third 
or pallial segment is formed of two rows of cells which are entirely 
covered by fine cilia (pi. 48, fig. 5, larva of 36 hours). In a larva 
of 100 hours (pi. 48, fig. 6) three imbricated spicules are to be seen 
on either side of the ventral line, still enclosed in their mother- 
cells. The spicules increase in number. The conical body elongates 
rapidly and becomes curved on its ventral surface, while the mantle 
is gradually reduced, and the embryo falls to the bottom, as the 
ciliated corona is unable longer to support it in the fluid. 

Only one of the embryos passed safely through the critical period 
of metamorphosis, which is on the seventh day. This change 
consists in the casting off of almost the whole of the external envel- 
ope of the larva, that is to say, of the cells of the velum and the two 
rows that form the pallial lobes. Seven dorsal calcareous and 
slightly imbricated plates were observed in the surviving embryo 
(pi. 48, fig. 7, plates seen along the right margin). 

Classification. 

The Aplacophora present two divisions of unquestionably higher 
rank than families. 

Suborder I. Chcetodermatina Simroth ( Ord. Chcetoderma Lank.). 

Spiculose integument continuous all around the body. 

Family Chcetodermatidce, p. 284. 

Suborder II. Neomeniina Simroth (=Ord. Neomenice Lank.). Spic- 
ulose integument interrupted beneath by a longitudi- 
nal ventral furrow. Family Neomeniidce, p. 288. 
In the present condition of knowledge it would seem inadvisable 
to recognize more than one family in each of the suborders ; but it 
should be mentioned that Simroth (in Bronn, p. 225) suggests, but 
does not adopt, a division of the Neomeniidce into four families, thus : 



284 CH^ETODERMATID^E. 

NEOMENIID^, Neomenia] PRONEOMENIID^E, Proneomenia, Solen- 
opus, Rhopalomenia, Macellomenia ; DONDERSIID^E, Dondersia, My- 
zomenia, Nematomenia ; PARAMENIID.E, Paramenia, Ismenia, Lepi- 
domenia, Echinomenia. 

Thiele (Zeitsch. wiss. Zool., Iviii, 278) suggests splitting the Neo- 
meniidse into two families: NEOMENIID^E to contain the genera 
Proneomenia, Rhopalomenia, Pruvotia, Neomenia and Paramenia, 
and MYZOMENIIDJE for Macellomenia, Dondersia, Myzomenia, Nema- 
tomenia, Ismenia, Lepidomenia, and Echinomenia. The distinction 
is based largely upon features of the cuticular layer. 

Family CHJETODERMATID^. 

Body elongated, vermiform, the mouth and cloaca terminal ; 
head defined by a constriction ; body cylindrical, clothed with 
spiculose cuticle all around, without a foot-groove ventrally. Two 
well developed feather-like gills; genital openings separated, the 
genital ducts also functioning as nephridia. Sexes separated; no 
copulating organ. Radula reduced to a conical peg of conchiolin. 
Mid-gut with a posteriorly lying blind sack acting as a liver. 

Genus CHCETODERMA Loven, 1845. 

Chcetoderma LOVEN, Ofversigt of Kungl. Vet. Akad. Forh., i, p. 
116. Crystallophrysson MOBIUS, 1875. 

Characters those of the family. Spicules alike all around the 
body, of needle-shaped and flat forms. 

Chcetoderma lives upon mud bottom, mainly at a depth of 20 to 
40 meters. It burrows in the mud, so that the dredge must be 
weighted to secure them. Wiren writes as follows of specimens 
kept by him in an aquarium, the bottom of which was covered by 
a layer of mud : 

"When they were not disturbed they remained throughout the 
day almost motionless in a perpendicularly descending burrow, the 
anterior end directed downwards, the posterior upwards. The upper 
mouth of the burrow was completely closed by the wider bell-shaped 
posterior end, so that from the surface one noticed only the up- 
wardly directed points of the two red gills. 

" When the animal was disturbed by the approach of any object 
to the gills, it instantly contracted and bored down several inches 
with extraordinary swiftness. It effected this progress by alterna- 
tive lengthening and contraction of its body. In this the ante- 



CH^TODERMA. 285 

rior, most movable part of the body, as well as the great spines of 
the posterior end, played the leading part. These spines are so 
placed that in the contracted animal they converge backward, but 
in the expanded condition they diverge, pointing obliquely back- 
ward and laterally. When the animal expands these prickles must 
accordingly grip into the side walls of the burrow and thus lend 
support to the posterior end, preventing any movement upward of 
this end. Consequently, with each elongation the anterior end is 
pushed forward a distance equal to the difference in length between 
the extended and the contracted animal. In a great contraction 
the anterior part of the prothorax is swollen to a thick bulb, 
whereby the anterior part of the animal is apparently wedged in the 
burrow, the small spines of that end, which are directed obliquely 
to the side, affording insufficient support. The great spines of the 
hinder end at the same time become loosened from the walls of the 
burrow. "With each contraction the hinder end draws itself forward 
without change in the position of the anterior end. 

" I have never observed an animal which had burrowed deeply 
in this manner, come up in the same burrow in which it had de- 
scended. In order again to reach the resting position the animal 
must first bore upward and on reaching the surface, again bore 
downward. It describes, therefore, during its wanderings from the 
first resting position to the second, the curve represented in pi. 41, 
fig. 26. The animal proceeds a short distance on the surface, in- 
deed, it sometimes crawls several inches, before it again bores down- 
ward. This is a very slow procedure and attended with considerable 
difficulty, the hinder part of the body swinging now to right, now 
to left, by means of alternating expansion and contraction. Gen- 
erally, particularly on a slightly uneven surface, Chsetoderma makes 
wholly irregular tracks ; on even surfaces, however, and when the 
animal crawls straight forward, we obtain that peculiar regular 
appearance which the subjoined drawing (pi. 41, fig. 27) presents, 
which might easily convey to the paleontologist the idea of a plant 
impression. 

" I have never seen Chcetoderma performing swimming move- 
ments, nor has it seemed able to crawl up the walls of the aquarium. 
It is wholly adapted to life in the slime bottom, and the knowledge of 
this circumstance is of importance for the proper understanding of 
the organization of the animal in reference to its relationships with 
allied forms. Chcetoderma does not devour sand or slime as many 



286 CH^ETODERMA. 

worms which creep about in mud do. Its intestine is usually almost 
empty, its contents always consist of minute animal or plant organ- 
isms, principally of diatoms, sometimes also of foraminifera or other 
protozoans. 

" When the animal remains undisturbed in its burrow, the upper 
mouth of the burrow, as has been mentioned above, is entirely filled 
up. Since Chcetoderma lacks the abdominal groove present in all 
other Solenogastres, naturally none of the surface water finds its 
way to the mouth opening. Accordingly the animal cannot, as for 
example, is the case with the Siphoniata living in mud, feed upon 
organisms swimming about in the sea water, but must be limited 
exclusively to those found in the slime bottom. These are obtained, 
naturally, by means of the anterior end. Not only the strong and 
manifold movements of the prothorax, but also the occurrence of a 
peculiar sense organ, the mouth shield, has this function. This 
organ, for discussion of which we will have greater opportunity 
later, is not only an organ for digging and grubbing, but is cer- 
tainly a sense organ also. It is not present in other known Soleno- 
gastres." 

Synopsis of species. 

a. Length of the body often exceeding 100 times the breadth (of 
the narrowest part). Mouth-shield convex. Dorsal sense-organ 
not covered by large spicules, surrounded on each side by a 
tract covered with numerous small spicules. Tongue posteriorly 
circularly closed, with large, lens-shaped thickenings of the cuti- 
cle at the sides. Each gill with three free lamella 

C. production. 

a'. Length of the body usually only 40-50 times the breadth 
Mouth-shield flat. Dorsal sense-organ surrounded by a few 
rows of small spicules, and almost entirely covered with large 
spicules. Tongue open behind, no lens-shaped cuticular thick- 
enings at the sides of the tongue. No free lamella? on the gills 

C. nitidulum. 

a". Shorter and thicker. Spicules flat and elliptical anteriorly, 
further back becoming broad keeled spear-like points, and 
toward the posterior end long stout prickles C. militare. 

C. PRODUCTTJM Wiren. PI. 41, figs. 16-26. 

Length of largest specimens 130-140 mill., breadth of the pro- 
thorax 2, of the metathorax 1-J, of the abdomen 3-2 mill. Much 



CH^ETODERMA. 287 

attenuated, especially the metathorax, which forms about two-thirds 
the entire length. Smaller individuals with more the proportions 
of C. nitidulum ; in one about 70 mill, long, the prothorax measures 
1?, metathorax nearly 1, abdomen 3 mill, in diameter. Mouth- 
shield (fig. 16) more convex than in C. nitidulum. Dorsal sense- 
organ (figs. 25, 26) longer, extending to margin of cloaca, having a 
wide area of short spicules on each side. Gills like those of nitidu- 
lum, but with not quite so many lateral lamellae, scarcely 20 on each 
side. Tongue covered with a thick cuticle, which on each side of 
the tooth and a little backwards is strongly thickened, which is not 
the case in C. nitidulum. The tooth is almost wholly sunken in the 
radula sack. Internal structure not differing greatly from C. niti- 
dulum. 

Kara Sea (Djimnfa Exped.). 

Chcetoderma productum WIREN, Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps- 
Akademiens Handlingar, xxv, art. No. 6, p. 8, pi. 1, f. 1-5, 8-16 
(1892). SIMROTH, Thier-Reich, p. 226, and p. 133, fig. 1. 

C. NITIDULUM Loven. PI. 40, figs. 1-11, 13-15. 

Large individuals 80 mill, long, 3 mill, wide in the middle; aver- 
age length 30-50 mill. Body cylindrical, of a gray satin-like luster 
and color, the gills light blood-red or yellowish-red. Dorsal sense- 
organ (pi. 40, fig. 8), covered with long spicules. 

West coast of Sweden ; Norway ; North Sea at Silverpit ; Spitz- 
her gen; Kara Sea, east coast of Nova Zemblia; Omenak, northern 
Greenland, 10 to 250 fathoms; Casco Bay, Maine, 48-64 fms. 
(Verrill). 

Cha3toderma nitidulum LOVEN, Ofversigt af Kungl. Vet. Akad. 
Forh., 1844, i, p. 116, pi. 2 (1845) ; Reprinted in Archiv Skandi- 
navischer Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte, 1845, p. 169, pi. 2, and in 
Froriep's Neuen Notizen, xxxiv, 1845, figs. 4^-43e. KEFERSTEIN, 
Beitragen zur anatomischen und systematischen Kenutniss der 
Sipunculiden, Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., xv, 1865, p. 442. HANSEN, 
Anatomisk Beskrivelse af Chastoderma nitidulum Loven, in Nyt 
Mag. for Naturvidensk. Christiania, xxii, pp. 354-377, pi. 1-5 
(1877) ; Neomenia, Proneomenia und Chatoderma, Bergens Mu- 
seums Aarsberetning for 1888, art. No. vi, p. 6 (1889). GRAFF, 
Anatomic des Chsetoderma nitidulum Loven, in Zeitschr. fur wiss. 
Zoologie, xx vi, pp. 166-192, pi. 11-13 ; Neomenia und Chsetoderma, 



288 CH^ETODERMA-NEOMENIID^;. 

Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xxxiii, p. 568, f. 2 (1877). WIREN, Histolo- 
giska meddelanden om Chsetoderma nitidulum Loven, in Biologiska 
Foreningens Forhandlinger, Stockholm, iii, pp. 37-49 (1890); 
Mittheilungen iiber den Bau des Chajtoderma nitidulura Loven, 1. 
c. ii, No. 7, pp. 68-73 ; Monographic des Chsetoderma nitidulum 
Loven, in Kongl. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl., xxiv, No. 12, pp. 
1-66, pi. 1-7 (1892). SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 226, pi. 1, f. 1-13. 
VERRILL, Explorations of Casco Bay, in Proc. Amer. Asso. Adv. 
Sci. xxii, 1873, p. 347, pi. 6, f. 6. Crystallophrysson nitens MOBIUS, 
Jahresber. der Commission zur wissensch. Unters. der deutschen 
Meere in Kiel, ii, iii, Zool. Ergebnisse 5, Vermes, p. 157, pi. 3, f. 
6-12(1875). 

Verrill reports this species as common in 10 to 100 fathoms, 
muddy bottom, off northern New England and Nova Scotia. 

C. MILITARE Selenka. PI. 40, figs. 12, 16, 17, 18. 

The calcareous spicules of the proboscis are in the neighborhood 
of the mouth (fig. 16) fiat and elliptical; further back they are 
larger and have the form of shovel-like or tongue-like plates (figs. 
17,), and finally they gradually become smaller again and take 
the form of keeled spear-like points. The body proper bears only a 
few thinly scattered rounded calcareous plates, but at the posterior 
end there are again large plates, which towards the anus become 
long stout prickles, with a cross-section between circular and ellip- 
tical. Round about the anus are numerous small prickle like or 
awl-shaped calcareous needles (fig. 12). 

East of Panay, Philippines, Lat. 9, 26' N. t Long. 123 45' E., 
375 fms. in blue mud. 

Chcetoderma militare SELENKA, Chall. Rep., Vol. xiii, Report on 
the Gephyrea, p. 23, pi. 4, f. 28-32. SIMROTH in Bronn, pi. 1, f. 
14, 15. 

Fig. 18 shows the animal natural size. Description and figures 
from Seleuka. 

Family NEOMENIIDJS. 

Body bilaterally symmetrical. Head and cloaca not defined from 
the body, or but slightly so. Mouth subterminal on the ventral 
side when the animal is at rest, the cloaca-opening similarly situated 
or terminal. Ventral groove provided with a foot-ridge, or at least 
a longitudinal strip desitute of cuticle ; foot-gland present. Gills 



NEOMENIA. 289 

developed as simple folds of the circum-anal border, never feathery. 
Hermaphroditic. Genital ducts uniting into one median opening 
below the anus. As nephridia act apparently certain pre-anal 
glands which open into the cloaca. Radula of the usual kind, or 
-entirely wanting. Mid gut without blind sac, with numerous lateral 
pouches. Animal living free or parasitic. 

[NoTE. The "preliminary notice" reigns supreme among the "mor- 
phologists," nearly every paper upon Solenogastres having been pre- 
ceded by one or more of these troublesome notes. No species mon- 
ger ever carried the struggle for priority to the extreme ordinarily 
met with in the literature of this group. The genera Rhopalomenia, 
Macellomenia, Nematomenia, Myzomenia and Echinomenia, and the 
species Proneomenia langi, were proposed in the new edition of 
Bronn's Thier-Reich and in Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoolo- 
gie, Ivi, pp. 322-325, 1893, nearly simultaneously. In the text I 
have cited Bronn only, as that has probable priority of publication, 
though the other paper may have been prepared first. 

Pruvot's genera and species were briefly diagnosed in Arch. Zool. 
Exper. et Gener. (2), viii, p. xxii, xxiii, prior to the publication of 
his elaborate and excellent work of the following year]. 

Genus NEOMENIA Tullberg, 1875. 

Neomenia TULLB., Bihang k. Sv. Akad. Handl., iii, No. 13 
(1875). WIREN, K. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl., xxv, p. 15. Solenopm 
M. SARS, Forh. Videns. Selsk. Christiania, 1868, p. 257 (name only, 
no description). KOREN & DANIELSSEN, Archiv for Math. og. 
Naturvid. Christiania, 1877, p. 6. 

Body short, plump, similarly shaped at the two ends, cloaca sub- 
terminal, the foot-groove continued to it (except in JV. grandis) with 
7-13 longitudinal folds within; a rudimentary sole present. In- 
tegument with a simple layer of spicules, part of them grooved, 
part needle-shaped, projecting well from the cuticle between large, 
several celled papillae. A circle of short branchial folds around the 
anus. Mouth terminal, with numerous thread-like cirri ; no radula 
or salivary glands ; pharynx protrusible. A copulating organ gen- 
erally developed. Type, N. carinata. 

The most extensive and elaborate work upon this genus is that of 
Axel Wiren, cited above. Simroth has given a good synopsis in 
the new edition of Bronn. Wiren gives the following observations 
upon the habits of N. carinata : 



UNIVERSITY 



290 NEOMENIA. 

" The Neomenise inhabit preferably rather deep water ; apparently 
they generally live on muddy bottom. They differ widely as well 
in habits as in station from the more elongated Neomeniens of the 
Mediterranean, \\hich live upon narrow fixed objects, Hydroids, 
Gorgonians, roots of Algse, etc. 

" Koren and Danielsseu who have observed Neomenia carinata (7) 
in the living state, assert that, by throwing the margin of the mantle 
to one side so that the foot becomes visible, it is able to creep up the 
sides of the aquarium ' like other mollusks ; ' indeed, that it is able 
to swim on the surface of the water with the curved foot upward 
and the back down. As has been already indicated, it may be 
doubted whether the animal observed by Koren & Danielssen was 
in reality Neomenia carinata. The facts cited above appear highly 
improbable, and may prove to be erroneous. What is one to un- 
derstand by the statement that Neomenia creeps with great rapidity 
like other mollusks, considering that mollusks as a rule cannot 
boast of great speed the snail's pace having always served as the 
type of the slowest progress it appears improbable that Neomenia 
should be distinguished by this characteristic Neomenia, in whose 
so-called foot there is no muscular fiber and in whose body walls 
but a weakly developed musculature, and which never possesses an 
abdominal disk suitable for creeping. Moreover no other Neomenia; 
has been observed to move at other than an unusually slow pace. 

" I myself observed not many years ago a Neomenia carinata which 
was kept for some days in a vessel of water. I observed no other 
movements than an opening and closing of the- mantle opening, an 
alternating extension and retraction of the proboscis, and a con- 
traction of the body into an arched form with subsequent extension 
so that it became almost entirely straight. During th.e entire time 
the animal remained quietly in the same spot. 

" Prof. Tullberg similarly kept for some days living Neomenia 
carinata in a vessel of water, and during this time observed no other 
movement than the opening of the cloaca. 

"Prof. Theel, who observed during a longer period, a living indi- 
vidual in an aquarium, the bottom of which was covered with sand, 
informed me that the animal when undisturbed remained motionless, 
buried in the sand in a vertical position, so that only the mouth of 
the cloaca and gills were visible. If the animal was removed it 
bored directly down again until the old position was reached. No- 
voluntary change of position was observed. From these observa- 



NEOMENIA. 291 

tions I gather that Neomenia carinata resembles Chcetoderma in 
habit. The latter lives in the soft bottoms, in which it rests with 
posterior end up and anterior down, so that the mantle opening is 
at the same level as the surface of the ground. Apparently Neo- 
menia bores into the above described position by help of its protru- 
sible proboscis, the only part of the body provided with a powerful 
musculature. 

" In all the Neomenics which I examined, the intestine was almost 
empty. In no case did it contain sand or mud, and identifiable parti- 
cles were never found. The Neomenias feed, as does Chcetoderma, 
not upon mud, but upon organic particles, which alone are taken 
into the alimentary canal. It is impossible for Neomenia to find and 
seize these particles separately by means of its large and unwieldy 
proboscis, although it is extensible. The food is obtained by the 
action of the cirri in the mouth, which remind one in a great meas- 
ure of the cirri of the Scaphopoda, although the corresponding organ 
in Neomenia, in case that my animal has not been injured, is ap- 
parently shorter in the extended condition. 

" Observations on habits have been made on Neomenia carinata 
only. The other species are entirely unknown in this respect. Neo- 
menia ajffinis and microsolen are very similar to N. carinata, and 
similarity in habits may, therefore, be inferred. Neomenia Dalyelli 
may show greater variation in regard to habit, since it lacks the 
penis and as it appears, the protrusible proboscis." 
* Body keeled dor sally. 

N. CARINATA Tullberg. PL 42, figs. 1-9. 

Length (in contracted state) 8-30 mill. Body curved into a half 
moon shape when contracted, compressed above into a dorsal keel, 
which is scarcely one-fifth the height of the body. Light gray, with 
a shade of rosy red around the anus. Spicules small, O'l mill- 
long, simple and needle-like on tbe sides, but channelled and with 
arrow-like points on the back, stomach folds 9, branchial folds 40- 
45. Copulating organ present. 

West coast of Sweden, 60-200 fms. ; Shetland Islands. 

Solenopus nitidulus M. SARS, Forh. i Videnskabs-Selskabet i 
Christiania, 1868, p. 257 (name only, no description). KOREN & 
DANIELSSEN, Arcbiv for Mathern. og Naturvidenskab. Christiania,. 
1877, p. 6 (trans, in Ann. Mag. N. H. [5], iii, p. 324). Neomenia 
carinata TULLBERG, Neomenia, a new genus of Invertebrate Ani- 



292 NEOMENIA. 

rnals, Bihang till K. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl., iii, No. 13, pp. 
1-12, pi. 1, 2 (1875). HANSEN, Neornenia, Proneomenia und Cha- 
toderma, Bergens Museums Aarsberetning for 1888, art. vi, pi. 1, f. 
1-7. NORMAN, Ann. Mag.N. H. (5), iv, p. 165 (1879). SIMROTH 
in Bronn, p. 227, pi. 2, f. 1-13. WIREN, Studien iiber die Soleno- 
gastren II, Chsetoderma productum, Neomenia, Proneomenia acum- 
inata, in Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl., xxv, art. 6, p. 15, etc., pi. 
1, f. 17-20 ; pi. 2, f. 3, 7-9 ; pi. 3, f. 1-8, 11-14 ; pi. 4 ; pi. 5, f. 7 ; 
pi. 6, f. 2, 3, 5-9, 12, 14, 15, 17 ; pi. 7 ; pi. 8 ; pi. 9, f. 1-4, 11-13 ; 
pi. 10, f. 30, 31. PRUVOT, Organization de quelques Neomeniens, 
in Arch. Zool. Expe>. et Gener. (2), ix, p. 728. GRAFF, Neomeuia 
u. Chsetoderma, in Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., xxviii, p. 557, f. 1 (1877). 
GARSTANG, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., ii, p. 124, f. 2. 

N. AFFINIS (Koren & Danielssen). PI. 42, figs, below 6 and 7. 

Dorsal keel distinctly defined at base, high, fully one-third the 
height of the body ; spicules as in N. carinata ; anatomy unknown. 
Length 16, width 6, height 6 mill. 

Messina 20-30 fms. ; Genoa. 

Solenopus affinis KOR. & DAN., Beskrivelse over nye arter, hen- 
horende til slsegten Solenopus, samt nogle oplysninger om dens or- 
ganization in Archiv for Mathem og. Naturvidenskab, ii, 1877, p. 
127. Neomenia affinis WIREN, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl., xxv, 
No. 6, p. 15, pi. 1, f. 21 ; pi. 2,f.4, 10. SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 227. 
PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exp. et Gen. (2), ix, p. 728. 

Internal anatomy not yet investigated. Differs from N. carinata 
in the much greater height of the dorsal keel. 

N. GRANDIS Thiele. PI. 42, figs. 10-16. 

Back keeled, the keel reaching to the mouth, where it is widened. 
Ventral surface somewhat flattened, the ventral groove commencing 
just back of the anterior end, with a furrow along each side of it, 
defining two lips, the furrows meeting just in front of the cloaca, 
folds of the ventral groove 13, decreasing to 5 behind. Gill folds 
42. Cloaca situated ventrally behind, appearing as a longitudinal 
crevice. Spicules (figs. 13, 14) long or short, needle-like or gut- 
tered, those upon the cuticle inflected, in the anterior part of the 
mouth small, lancet-shaped (fig. 11). 

Length about 40, breadth 10, height 8 mill. 

Naples. 

Neomenia grandis THIELE, Zeitschr. fur Wissensch. Zool., Vol. 
58, p. 223, pi. 12, f. 1-50 (1894). 



NEOMENIA-PRONEOMENIA. 293 

* * Body rounded, not keeled dorsally. 

N. DALYELLI (Koren & Danielssen). PI. 41, figs. 28-31. 

Body circular in section, not keeled, spicules (fig. 28) large, 0*2 
mill, long, those of needle-shape as long as the guttered ones. A 
large spicule on each side of the cloaca. No digitiform glands ; 
stomach folds 9 ; gill folds about 40. No organ of copulation. 
Length 20, width in the middle 7 mill. 

Coast of Norway, 2-300 fms. ; North Atlantic, lat. 64 & N., long. 
6 6' E., 157 fms. ; Scotland? 

Solenopus dalyelli KOR. & DAN., Archiv for Math, og Natur- 
vidensk., ii, p. 127 (1877), trans, in Ann. Mag. N.H. (5),iii, p. 327. 
Neomenia dalyelli NORMAN, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), iv, p. 165. 
WIREN, Kongl. Sv. Yet. Akad. Handl., xxv, p. 1 6, pi. 1, f. 22 ; pi. 2, 
f. 6, 11-15; pl.3,f.9; pi. 5, f. 1-6,8-11 ; pi. 6, f. 4, 10,11, 16; pi. 9, 
f. 5-10. PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener. (2), ix, p. 728. 
SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 227. GARSTANG, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., ii, 
p. 124. 

IVermiculus crassus DALYELL, Powers of the Creator, ii, p. 88, pi. 
J0,f. 11. 

N. MICROSOLEN Wiren. PI. 41, figs. 32-35. 

Body laterally compressed, higher than broad (?) ; spicules small, 
the gutter-shaped and part of the needle-shaped ones 0'075 mill, 
long, part of the needle-shaped only half that length. No large 
cloaca spicules. Ventral furrow smaller than in the above species, 
with 7 ventral folds. Gills 35. 

Santa Lucia, West Indies, 160 fms. 

Neomenia microsolen WIREN, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl., xxv, 
no. 6, p. 16, pi. 1, f. 23; pi. 2, f.5,16; pi. 3, f. 10; pi. 6, f. 1. SIM- 
ROTH, in Bronn, p. 227. 

Genus PKONEOMENIA Hubrecht, 1880. 

Proneomenia HUBRECHT, Zool. Anzeiger, iii, no. 70, p. 589. 

Body elongated, vermiform, the length 9-14 times the diameter, 
tapering behind. Cloaca opening ventral. Foot present, the foot 
groove passing into the cloaca. Cuticle thick with crossed spicules. 
No gills. Kadula multidentate. Two salivary glands. Penis want- 
ing, numerous calcareous spicules functional as excitation organs. 
Type P. sluiteri. 



294 PRONEOMENIA. 

P. SLUITERI Hubrecht. PI. 43, figs. 17-22. 

Body, in the preserved condition, stiff and light brown, cylindri- 
cal, thicker toward the anterior extremity ; integument densely beset 
with spicules (fig. 21) placed at right angles to each other, and about 
0'2 mill, long, shaped like elongated cones, pointed at one end, 
truncated at the other. Radula (fig. 22) multiserial. Length 105 
-148 mill., about 14 times the breadth. 

Barents Sea, 110-160 fms. 

Proneomenia sluiteri HUBR., Zool. Anzeiger, iii, no. 70, p. 589 
(1880) ; Niederlandisches Archiv fur Zoologie, Supplementband, i, 
pp. 1-75, pi. 1-4. PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener., (2),ix, p. 
731. SIMROTH, in Bronn, p. 228, pi. 3,f. 1-16. 

Var. LANGI Simroth. PI. 43, figs. 23, 24. 

Animal having a neck-like constriction behind the anterior end; 
breadth somewhat greater compared with the length. Length 98, 
greatest height and breadth 10 mill. ; least height 8, least breadth 
6 mill., mouth 4 mill, long, the ventral groove beginning 1 mill, be- 
hind it ; cloaca 6 mill, from hind end of ventral groove and 2 mill, 
long. A smaller specimen had a length of 75, greatest height 10, 
greatest breadth 9? mill. 

Northern part of Olga Strait, between Konig Karls Islands, Nortli- 
eastland and Barentsland, 70-80 fms. 

P. sluiteri HEUSCHER,Vierteljahrisch. Naturforsch. Gesell. Zurich, 
xxxvii, 1892, pp. 148-161, figs. 1-4 ; Jenaische Zeitschr. fur Natur- 
wisseusch., xxvii, p. 476 to 512, figs. 1-4 and pi. 20-23 (Quart. 
Journ. Roy. Mic. Soc., 1893, p. 313; 1892, p. 771). LANG, Lehr- 
buch der Vergleich. Anat., p. 569, fig. 386 ; and H. M. & M.Ber- 
nard's translation, Text-book of Comp. Anat., pt. 2, p. 3, f. 2. P. 
langi SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 228. 

Doubtfully distinct from P. sluiteri. 
P. AUSTRALIS Thiele. 

Similar to P. sluiteri. Cuticle 0'33 mill, thick, beset with spicu- 
les of the usual form, mostly hollow ; those near the cloacal opening 
with the points bent toward the middle ; in immediate proximity to 
the cloaca are very numerous smaller spicules, which are also fre- 
quently bent hook-like ; to the right and left is a flat excavation, 
clothed with cuticle and these spicules. The dorsal posterior sense 
organ is also surrounded with small spicules. Ventrally runs the 



PRONEOMENTA. 295 

ciliated longitudinal groove, anteriorly expanded, containing 5 longi- 
tudinal folds in front, then three, of which the two lateral ones unite 
posteriorly with the median. Radula small, with two rows of teeth, 
each tooth rather straight, long-conic, somewhat over 0'2 mill* long. 
There are 13 rounded receptacula seminis on each side. Length 
90, diameter anteriorly 5 mill. 

Northwest coast of Australia, 60 fms. (Gazelle Exped.). 

Proneomenia australis THIELE, Zool. Anzeiger, xx, p. 399 (1897). 
Differs from P. sluiteri mainly in the biserial radula and numer- 
ous receptacula seminis. 

P. INCRUSTATA (Koren & Danielssen). 

Body cylindrical, 30 mill, long, 3 broad, pointed towards the an- 
terior, truncate at the posterior extremity ; strongly incrusted with 
particles of sand, so that it has a rugged appearance. Mantle desti- 
tute of the spear-shaped calcareous spieules along the back. 

ffasvig, Finmark, 200-300 fms. 

Solenopus inerustatus K. & D., Beskrivelse over nye arter hen- 
horende til Slsegten Solenopus, samt nogle oplysminger om dens 
organisation, in Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab, ii, p. 
128 (1877). Trans, in Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), iii, p. 328. Proneo- 
menia incrustata HANSEN, Bergens Mus. Aar., 1888, p. 4, and of 
PRUVOT and SIMROTH. 

Known only by the above insufficient description. 

P. BOREALIS (Koren & Danielssen). 

Body cylindrical, 25 mill, long, 3 broad, rounded and rather nar- 
rower at the anterior end, truncate at the hinder extremity, and in- 
crusted with sand. Along the whole of the back runs a rather fine 
but sharp line, which is but slightly elevated and richly beset with 
short, thick, needle-shaped calcareous spieules. 

Lofoten, etc., Norway, 40-400 fms. 

Solenopus borcalis K. & D., L c. } p. 128 ; Ann. Mag. t. c., p. 328. 
Proneomenia borealis HANSEN, L c., p. 4. 

Known only by the original description, translated above. 

P. FILIFORMIS Hansen. 

Animal 61 mill, long, 0'75 mill, thick ; anterior end rounded ; 
posterior end obliquely truncated (Hansen\ 

Sweden. 



296 PRONEOMENIA. 

Proneomenia filiformis HANSEN, Bergens Mus. Aarsberetning, 
1888, no. 6, p. 10. 

Simroth and Pruvot simply repeat Hansen's brief diagnosis. The 
specimen is unique in the Bergen Museum, and has not been cut, so 
that the internal features are still unknown. 

Subgenus Amphimenid Thiele, 1894. 

Amphimenia THIELE, Zeitschr. f. Wissensch. Zool., Iviii, p. 273, 
244. 

Radulauniserial ; having gullet glands and lobed salivary glands; 
spicules of two forms; cloaca simple. Type P. neapolitana. 

P. NEAPOLITANA Thiele. PI. 43, figs. 25, 26, 27, 28. 

Body elongated, round, with very strong integument, bearing two 
kinds of spicules : some small, hollowed, tapering to a point at each 
end, usually somewhat curved, and others considerably larger, 
pointed at one end only, being rounded at the other or running out 
in a sharp margin (fig. 26, 27). The smaller spicules lie tangential 
or obliquely in the cuticular layer, the larger ones perpendicular, with 
projecting points (fig. 25). Ventrally the latter sort fails, and the 
smaller ones become perpendicular. Ventral groove with a rather 
narrow median fold, a smaller one on each side of it, bordering the 
spiculose cuticle ; wholly disappearing before it reaches the cloaca ; 
in the space between them lies a preanal gland, below the hypodermis. 
Radula with one row of teeth, each tooth rounded in the middle in 
front, tapering at the sides, narrowed behind and running out in two 
rather long and acute points, which overlie the following tooth (fig. 
28). Cloaca small. No copulating organ or penis spicules. Length 
about 30, diam. 1'5 mill. 

Naples. 

Proneomenia neapolitana THIELE, Zeitschr. f. AViss. Zool., 1889, 
xlix, p. 429 (footnote) ; 1. c., p. 392 (no name) ; Biol. Centralbl., xi, 
p. 725. F. (Amphimenia) neapolitana THIELE, Zeitsch. Wiss. Zool., 
Iviii, p. 244, pi. 14, 1 5, f. 51-94. 

Subgenus SIMROTHIELLA Pilsbry, 1898. 

Solenopus (in part) KOREN & DANIELLSEN, Arch. Math, og 
Naturvid., ii, p. 120. SIMROTH, in Bronn's Klassen u. Ordnungen 
des Thier-Reichs, p. 228. Not Solenopus Schonherr, Curcul. Disp. 
Meth., p. 268, 1826. 



PRONEOMENIA-RHOPALOMENIA. 297 

Body elongated, vermiform. Length 8-23 times the breadth. 
Gills present in the form of longitudinal folds. Radula and two 
salivary glands present. Having single tube-shaped penes (?). Type 
S. sarsii. 

This subgenus differs from Proneomenia in the development of 
gills. 

P. MARGARITACEA (Koren & Danielssen). 

Body round, thick, strongly glistening, pointed at the anterior end, 
truncated transversely posteriorly ; 12 mill, long, 1 mill, thick at the 
broader posterior end. Mantle covered with needle- and lancet- 
shaped spicules. Two tubular penes. 

Hvidingsoerne, Stavanger, Norway, 40-60 fms. 

Solenopus margaritaeeus KOR. & DAN. I.e., p. 128 (trans, in Ann. 
Mag. N. H. (5), iii, p. 328). SIMROTH, 1. c., p. 228. Neomenia mar- 
garitacea PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), ix, p. 729. Proneomenia 
margaritacea HANSEN, Bergens Mus. Aarsberetning for 1888, p. 4. 

P. SARSII (Koren & Danielssen). PI. 43, fig. 29. 

Body cylindrical, 70 mill, long, 3 mill. diam. , the posterior [an- 
terior] end transversely truncated, the anterior [posterior] end 
snout-shaped, extended. 

Christianafjord, 100-200 fms. 

Solenopus sarsii KOR. & DAN., 1. c., p. 128 (Ann. Mag. N. H. (5), 
iii, p. 328). SIMROTH, /. c., p. 228. Proneomenia sarsii HANSEN, 
Bergens Mus. Aarsberetning for 1888, no. 6, p. 1-11, pi. 1, f. 8-10. 
Neomenia sarsii PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), ix, p. 729. 
Fig. 29, one gill containing blood corpuscles. According to Hansen 
(I. c., p. 10) the descriptions of the two ends of this species given 
by Koren and Danielsseu should be transposed. 

Genus RHOPALOMENIA Simroth, 1893. 

Ehopalomenia SIMROTH, Klassen u. Ordn. des Thier-Reichs, p. 
229. 

Body vermiform, pointed in front and behind. Cloaca opening 
a ventral longitudinal slit, passing into the foot-groove. Foot pres- 
ent. Cuticle thick, enclosing obliquely crossed, needle-shaped spic- 
ules, pointed at each end, free from the epithelium ; with club- 
shaped, narrow pedicled papillae, projecting in the cuticle near to 
the surface. Gills wanting. Radula many pointed or wanting. 
20 



298 RHOPALOMENIA. 

Salivary glands 2 ; penial exciting organs two or none. Length 6- 
60 mill., 6 to 25 times the breadth. 

This genus is evidently composed of somewhat heterogeneous 
elements, which, however, share the peculiar shape and arrangement 
of spicules described above, and the same mode of existence, differ- 
ing in both from the northern genus Proneomenia. 

Thiele (Archiv Wiss. Zool., Iviii, p. 273) proposes to restrict Rho- 
palomenia to the species aglaophenim and eisigi, and relegate vagans, 
desiderata, gorgonophila and acuminata to Proneomenia. I have, 
however, considered it advisable to leave the group within the lim- 
its fixed by Simroth, except that sopita is removed, as it obviously 
differs sufficiently to form another genus. 

Key to Species of Rhopalomenia. 

Cuticle Exciting Salivary Rfldnla G : lls Length 
papillae organs glands index 

one-celled 2 present none 25 gorgonophila. 

n j f 2 2 present 6 vaqans. 

many-celled | Q g r*^ none 6 d / siderata . 

( none none 13 aglaophenice. 

Of these species, the first is separated widely from the others by 
its peculiar cuticle-papillae. The West Indian R. acuminata is still 
too little known to be included in the table. 

R. GORGONOPHILA (Kowalevski). PI. 44, figs. 30, 31, 32. 

Elongated, cylindrical, winding around Gorgonia stems, upon 
which it is parasitic. Length 60 mill. 

Algeria and Provence. 

Neomenia gorgonophila KOWAL., Bull. Roy. Soc. Friends of Nat. 
Science, etc., 1881 (Russian) ; Zool. Auzeiger, iii, p. 190. Proneo- 
menia gorgonophila KOWAL. & MARION, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Mar- 
seilles, III, p. 75, pi. 7, f. 18-21. Rhopalomenia gorgonophila SIM- 
ROTH, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, p. 230, pi. 4. figs. 2-4. 

Fig. 30 represents the animal in its natural position. Fig. 32 
section showing foot-groove and foot. Fig. 31 section through the 
skin, showing epithelium above, below it the peculiar club-shaped 
inter-cuticular papillae, and lower the horizontal spicules, with a 
layer of circular muscle beneath. 



RHOPALOMENIA. 299 

R. VAGANS (Kowalewski & Marion). PL 44, figs. 37, 38, 39. 

Cylindrical, both ends similarly roundly-pointed. Cuticle homo- 
geneous. Free living upon Zostera ; 6 mill, long, 6 or 7 times the 
diameter. 

Gulf of Marseilles. 

Proneomenia vagans Kow. & MAK., Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Mar- 
seilles, iii, p. 29, pi. 3, 4, 5, 1887. THIELE, Zeitsch. Wissensch. Zool., 
Iviii, p. 258, pi. 15, f. 95-107. RJwpalomenia vagans SIMROTH, I. c., 
p. 230, pi. 5, figs. 1-7. 

Fig. 38 shows the animal magnified 30 diameters, with the dorsal 
integument removed by the microtome, showing the intestinal coeca 
and (by transparence) the longitudinal salivary glands lying under 
them. Fig 39, ventral view of the hind end. Fig. 37, a spicule, 
x510. 

E. DESIDERATA (Kowalewski & Marion). 

Body cylindrical, rounded at the two ends, 10 mill, long ; cuti- 
cular layer relatively not very thick, formed of distinct layers, ir- 
regularly superimposed ; cutaneous papillae small, several-celled, for 
the most part not extending near the outer surface. Spicules all 
acicular, perceptibly curved. Radula well developed. 

Marseilles, on Posidonia. 

Proneomenia desiderata Kow. & MAR., 1. c., p. 59, pi. 5, f. 28-34. 
PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener. (2), ix, p. 732. Rhopalo- 
menia desiderata SIMROTH, /. c., p. 230, pi. 4, fig. 5, 6. 

R. AGLAOPHENI^E (Kowalewski & Marion). PI. 45, figs. 46-56. 

Elongated, somewhat narrowed behind. Cuticle homogeneous. 
Frontal sense-tubercle retracted into the mouth cavity. Length 32 
mill. Although the radula may be lacking, its supporting mem- 
brane and sheath remain. Parasitic. 

Marseilles, Banyuls, Naples and Plymouth on Aglaophenia. 

Proneomenia aglaophenice Kow. & MAR., Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 
Marseille, iii, p. 65, pi. 6, 7. PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), ix, 
pp. 720, 732, 760 ; Comptes Rendus, cxiv, p. 1211 (embryology). 
Rhopalomenia aglaophenice SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 230, pi. 4, f. 7-16. 
THIELE, Zeitsch. Wiss. Zool., Iviii, p. 265, pi. 15, f. 108-114 ; pi. 
16, f. 115-122. GARSTANG, Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond., ii, p. 124, pi. 10, 
f. 3. 



300 RHOPALOMENIA. 

Fig. 50 shows the animal upon a branch of Aglaophenia myrio- 
phyllum. Fig. 53 shows one of the cuticular papillae in section. 

The specimens from Banyuls (pi. 45, figs. 46, 47, 53) examined 
by Pruvot may possibly belong to a distinct species, differing from 
typical aglaophenice in wanting the radula. They measure 30 mill, 
long, 2i wide ; color cream-white ; form strictly cylindrical with no- 
trace of a dorsal ridge or line. The caudal sensory knob is retract- 
ile, without a corona of spicules different from those of the general 
integument ; it is the same with the cephalic knob (fig. 46). Always 
occurs coiled around Aglaophenia myriophyllum, in 60-80 meters 
depth. 

R. EISIGI Thiele. PI. 44, figs. 40-45. 

Closely allied to E. aglaophenice. Length 25, diam. somewhat over 
1 mill. A strong hump above the somewhat attenuated anterior 
end. Spicules similar to those of aglaophenice, but the largest seem 
to be more strongly curved, and the smallest have no hollow (figs. 
40-42). A rudimentary radula sheath present. Salivary glands 
and genitalia as in aglaophenice. 

Naples* 

Ehopalomenia eisigi THIELE, Zeitsch. Wiss. Zool., Iviii, p. 269, pi. 
16, figs. 123-129 (1894). 

Distinguished from E. aglaophenice by the hump on the head, etc. 
The ventral fold is sharper, and the epithelium of the mid-gut more 
strongly developed than in that species. 

R. ACUMINATA (Wiren). PL 44, figs. 33-36. 

Body 9 or 10 times as long as wide, rounded in front, pointed be- 
hind, in section triangular with rounded angles. Spicules lying 
-mainly within the cuticle, 0*5 mill, long ; those along each side of 
the ventral furrow standing radially, 0*25 mill. long. Radula very 
.small, not occupying a cavity of the pharynx wall, composed of a 
basal membrane and transverse rows of rudimentary teeth (or low, 
transverse threads ?). Dorsal sense-organ oval, cleft-shaped, situ- 
ated about 2 mill, from the posterior end. Length 28? mill. r 
breadth about 3 mill. 

Proneomenia acuminata WIREN, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl., 
xxv, p. 68, pi. 10, f. 1-29 (1892). Ehopalomenia acuminata SIM- 
ROTH in Bronn, p. 231. 



NOTOMENIA-PRUVOTIA. 301 

Genus NOTOMENIA Thiele, 1897. 

Notomenia THIELE, Zool. Anzeiger, xx,p. 399 (see also Q. J. Roy. 
Mic.Soc.,1897,p.527). 

Small Solenogastres with moderately strong cuticle, club-shaped 
calcareous spicules and ventral ciliated foot-groove; fore-gut with- 
out a radula, with lobed salivary glands ; mid-gut with lateral con- 
strictions ; efferent ducts of the gonads wholly separated and inde- 
pendent, with the receptacula seminis opening directly outward. 

N. CLAVIGERA Thiele. 

Animal about 4 mill, long, oval in section, rounded in front, blunt 
behind. Body-covering of moderately strong cuticle, from which 
project club-shaped, somewhat curved, transversely annulated spic- 
ules, which are about 60-100 micro-millimeters long and 12-15 
thick ; the annulation being produced by ring-shaped folds upon the 
inside of the hollow calcareous bodies. Ventrally a ciliated longi- 
tudinal furrow runs with one bluntly projecting fold ; large glands, 
which lie in the neighborhood of the upper oesophageal ganglion, 
opening into the expanded anterior end. 

The so-called mouth cavity is capacious, filled with numerous 
sensitive cirri. As well as can be seen, the fore-gut is separated off, 
as described for Rhopalomenia, and it seems to be formed as in this 
genus ; without a radula, its sheath being perhaps represented by a 
ventral blind sack ; two large, lobed, salivary glands ; further back- 
ward the midgut has strong, regular lateral constrictions ; behind, the 
gut contracts, and opens into the cloaca. No copulating organ. 

Torres Strait, 20 fms. (Haddon). 

Notomenia clavigera THIELE, Zool. Anzeiger, xx, p. 398 (1897). 

Genus PRUVOTIA Thiele, 1894. 

Pruvotia THIELE, Zeitsch. f. Wissensch. Zool., Iviii, p. 272 (in text), 
type Proneomenia sopita Pruvot. 

Similar to Rhopalomenia, but with no trace of a radula or sali- 
vary glands, and with a highly developed pre-anal gland. 

P. SOPITA (Pruvot). PL 46, figs. 57, 58, 59. 

Similar in size, arrangement of spicules and color to R. aglaophe- 
nice, but never living coiled around Hydroids, but always on Sertu- 
lariella polyzonias. In rest it is always at length along a branch, 
the head a little raised and the cloaca half open. The cloacal re- 



302 PRUVOTIA-MACELLOMENIA. 

gion is globose and separated from the rest of the body by a slightly 
marked groove, which disappears when the animal moves. Move- 
ment is very slow. There is no caudal sensitive knob ; on the other 
hand, the cephalic knob shows good differences between this species 
and P. aglaophenice. Fig. 59 shows the ventral face, with the cir- 
cumbuccal ridge, against which the fine tactile bristles stand, with, 
in the middle, the sensitive knob bearing four short, parallel rows of 
little foliated spicules, one on each side of the base and two on the 
summit, limiting three little clear spaces. Length of largest speci- 
mens 22 mill. 

JBanyuls, on Sertulariella polyzonias, in 45-70 meters depth. 

Proneomenia sopita PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener. (2), ix, 
pp. 721, 732, 764, pi. 30, f. 50 ; pi. 31, f. 84.Rhopalomenia sopita 
SIMROTH, in Bronn, p. 230, pi. 5, f. 8-12. Pruvotia sopita THIELE, 
Zeitsch. Wiss. Zool., Iviii, p. 273. 

Very similar to Rhopalomenia aglaophenice, differing in the ab- 
sence of a caudal sense-papilla or knob, the supra-buccal papilla 
with four series of small lanceolate spicules, and the radula absent. 

Genus MACELLOMENIA Simroth, 1893. 

Macellomenia SiMR.,in Bronn's Thier. Reich., p. 231. Paramenia, 
Pruvot in part. 

Body cylindrical, short, somewhat smaller in front, transversely 
truncated behind. Cloaca terminal. Foot-groove subobsolete, curv- 
ing into the cloaca. Cuticle lacking papillae, bearing shield-like 
scales narrowing into spines (pi. 46, fig. 62). A circle of gills pres- 
ent. Radula with many-pointed teeth (pi. 46, fig. 63, denticle shown 
at d). Two salivary glands. Two stimulation glands, without 
stimulating organs. Length four times the breadth. Type M. pal- 
ifera. 

M. PALIFERA (Pruvot). PI. 46, figs. 60-63. 

Body yellowish-white, very stout, curving in a crescent shape, 8 
mill, long when extended, and about 1 mill, wide, without real keel 
but with a median dorsal line formed by the converging spicules ; 
the cloacal orifice large and transverse, broadly notched in the mid- 
dle by the termination of the pedal groove, and with 18 yellowish, 
ciliated branchial folds (fig. 60). No projecting foot, the foot-groove 
subobsolete, rather shallow, and marked only by the difference of 
the spicules : there being on each side a band of long and flattened 



DONDERSIA-MYZOMENIA. 303 

spicules (fig. 61). Over the remainder of the body the extremely 
thin cuticle is beset with little spicules of a very characteristic form 
(fig. 61) like a round-bladed shovel, very densely placed, having 
the flattened end against the cuticle, the narrowed portion lying 
free. Radula multidentate, very small. 

North of Port Vendres, on tube of Myxicola infundibulum, in 80 
meters. 

Paramenia palifera PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener., (2), 
ix, pp. 727, 790, pi. 31, f. 74-78 ; pi. 25, f. 4. Qf. WIREN, K. Sv.Vet. 
Akad. Handl., xxv, p. 17. Macellomenia palifera SIMROTH in 
Bronn, p. 231, pi. 6, f. 1-4. 

Genus BONDERS! A Hubrecht, 1888. 

Dondersia HUBRECHT, Bonders Feestbundel, etc., p. 324. 

Body elongated, vermiform, cylindrical. Anterior end thickened, 
club-like. Cloaca opening ventral, the tail projecting above and 
beyond it finger-like. Foot-groove curving into the cloaca. Foot 
present. Spicules needle- and shovel-shaped. No gills. Radula 
present. Ventral and dorsal salivary glands. Length 10 times the 
breadth. 

D. FESTIVA Hubrecht. PI. 46, figs. 64-68. 

Body narrow, pointed posteriorly, 10 mill, long, 1 mill, wide ; 
violet colored. Spicules of two kinds : some acicular, others like a 
shovel or ladle. No caudal sensory organ. Radula much reduced. 

One pair of short salivary glands. 

Gulf of Naples. 

D. festiva HUBRECHT, Donders-Feestbundel Nederl. Tijdschr. 
Geneesk., 1888, p. 324-339. PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener. 
(2), ix, p. 730. SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 231, pi. 9, f. 1-6. 

Genus MYZOMENIA Simroth, 1893. 

Myzomenia SIMR., Bronn's Thier-Reichs., p. 231. Dondersia 
PRUVOT, in part. 

Elongated, vermiform, cylindrical. Extremities as in Dondersia. 
No foot. Foot-groove smoothed out, reduced to a ventral longi- 
tudinal streak (pi. 47, fig. 75). Spicules shield-shaped or leaf-shaped, 
shaped. No gills. No radula or radula sheath. Oesophagus long. 
Two salivary glands. A globular organ above the oesophagus. 
Length 30 times the breadth. 



304 MYZOMENIA-NEMATOMENIA. 

M. BANYULENSIS (PfUVOt). PI. 47, figS. 74-77. 

Body much attenuated, 30 mill, long, 1 wide ; brilliant reddish- 
purple, with silvery reflections due to the colorless layer of spicules, 
the young paler, somewhat orange, there being less red pigment, 
allowing the yellow color of the intestine to show through by trans- 
parence. Spicules of two kinds: wide and flattened (fig. 77) 
applied to the cuticle by the notched base, and imbricating regularly 
from below upward, over the entire surface ; between them are ir- 
regularly placed club-shaped spicules (fig. 76), less numerous and 
on the ventral surface passing into a third type (76), which are 
winged, and form a row projecting on each side of the pedal groove, 
which is protected by their depression when the animal is contracted. 
There is a dorsal keel, formed solely by the converging spicules at 
the median line. 

Coiled around stems of Lafoea dumosa, Banyuls and Roscoff, in 45 
300 meters depth ; also Naples (Thiele) and Plymouth ^Garstang). 

Dondersia banyulensis PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), viii, p. 22 ; 
ix, p. 715, 777, pi. 25, f. 1 ; pi. 26, f. 8, 9 ; pi. 28, f. 20-33a; Comptes 
Rendus, cxiv, p. 1214 Myzomenia banyulensis SIMROTH in Bronn, 
p. 231, pi. 8, f. 1-13. THIELE, Zeitsch. Wiss.Zool., lviii,p.273,pl. 
16, f. 132-143. GARSTANG, Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., ii, p. 124, pi. 10, 
f.4. 

Genus NEMATOMENIA Simroth, 1893. 

Nematomenia SIMR., Klassen u. Ordn. des Thier-Reichs, p. 232. 

Body proportioned like Myzomenia. Spicules leaf shaped. Rad- 
ula wanting, its sheath present. Oesophagus short. Four salivary 
glands. Length 40 times the breadth. 

N. FLAVENS (Pruvot). PI. 47, figs. 78-82. 

Externally similar in form to Myzomenia banyulensis, having the 
same cephalic " bib " of erect spicules (fig. 79), with fine tactile 
bristles along the whole buccal margin (fig. 79) ; the same dorsal 
carina formed entirely by the converging spicules, and the same more 
projecting border of spicules along the pedal groove. But the body is 
a beautiful citron-yellow from the shining through of the intestine. 
The tissues appear more delicate, the body less rigid, susceptible of 
being more closely coiled than the Myzomenia. The spicular cov- 
ering resembles in general that of M. banyulensis, being composed 
of fla.t, upwardly imbricated spicules, very readily detachable from 



NEMATOMENIA-ICHTHYOMENIA. 305 

the cuticle, on which they rest only by the bases ; but these spicules 
are narrower, lanceolate (fig. 81, below), always notched at the base, 
with some sparsely scattered among them (fig. 81, above) of a club- 
shape ; there are also all transition forms between these. The tail 
end (fig. 80) instead of being slightly narrowed as in M. banyulensis, 
is transversely truncated ventrally, prolonged dorsally in a short 
finger-shaped appendage. The sensitive organ, situated on the 
median dorsal ridge some distance from the lower end of the body 
{fig. 82) consists of a small hyaline prominence bristling with a 
great number of extremely fine tactile bristles, and encircled by a 
crown of very small lanceolate spicules. Length 40 mill., width 1 
mill. 

On Lafoea dumosa, at Banyuls, in 45-90 meters. 

Dondersia flavens PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), ix, p. 718, 
781 ; pi. 25, f. 2; pi. 31, f. 81. Nematomenia flavens SIMROTH in 
Bronn, p. 232, pi. 6, f. 5-1 1 . 

Genus ICHTHYOMENIA Pilsbry, 1898, n. n. 

Ismenia PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), ix, p. 719, 784, 1891. 
Not Ismenia King, 1850 (Brachiopoda) nor Ismenia Desv., 1863 
(Diptera). 

Body cylindrical-conic, broader behind, narrowed in front. 
Cloaca opening a terminal transverse slit, a prominence in front of 
it. Foot-groove and foot present, disappearing posteriorly. Cuticle 
not papillose, the ventral spicules leaf-shaped, the rest scale-like, 
imbricating. No gills. Radula well developed, apparently with 
two rows of teeth. Length 5 to 6 times the breadth. 

I. ICHTHYODES (Pruvot). PI. 46, figs. 69-73. 

Body pale yellowish roseate, 12 mill, long, without a keel, but 
with a median dorsal line formed by the convergent spicules ; pedal 
groove large (fig. 70) ; cuticle smooth, with leaf-shaped spicules (fig. 
71) near the ventral sulcus, 0*06 mill, long and a third that 
breadth, outside of which is a wide band of strong spicules shaped 
like a paper-knife, O'l mill, long, covering and protecting the 
former; then follow spicules (fig. 73) of nearly the same form but 
smaller and striated ; the rest of the surface with smaller discoidal 
spicules (fig. 72), which are very thin, with pectinated edge and a 
smooth, thick semicircular ridge. Their form and imbrication re- 
call the ctenoid scales of fishes. The conspicuous peculiarity of the 



306 ICHTHYOMENIA-PARAMENIA. 

animal is the large and strongly two-lipped cloaca, which looks like 
the mouth of a reptile or fish. 

Off the mouth of the Tech, in 80 meters depth, among Bryozoa 
and Hydroids. 

Ismenia ichthyodes PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), ix, p. 719,. 
784, pi. 25, f. 3; pi. 31, f. 79, 80 (1891). SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 
232, pi. 9, f. 7-11. 

Genus PARAMENIA Pruvot, 1890. 

Paramenia PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), ix, p. 786. SIM- 
ROTH in Bronn, p. 232. 

Body short, cylindrical, obliquely truncated behind. Cloaca ter- 
minal. Spicules partly needle-shaped, partly fishhook-shaped 
(PI. 47, figs. 87). Foot and foot-groove present, curving into the 
cloaca. Radula with two longitudinal rows of teeth. Length 5 to 
6 times the breadth. 

Two subgenera are recognized by Simroth, Paramenia and Par- 
arrhopalia. 

Subgenus PARAMENIA (restricted). 

Cuticle thin, without sense-tubercles. Cloaca with a circle of 
gills. No excitation-bodies. Length six times the breadth. 

P. IMPEXA Pruvot. PI. 47, figs. 83-87, 90. 

Body cream-white, cylindrical, 12 mill, long, 2 mill, wide, trans- 
versely truncated, with 12-20 branchiae around the cloaca; supra- 
buccal tubercle with two concentric coronse of lanceolate spicules. 
Radula biserial. 

P. impexa is a stout form, incapable of coiling itself, with cream- 
white, regularly cylindrical body, not keeled dorsally, rounded at 
the head end but truncated transversely by the cloaca (fig. 86). The 
pedal groove is well developed, as well as the foot, and is continued- 
to the cloaca as a ventral sinus. The spicules of the general sur- 
face (fig. 87) are like those of P. pruvoti, but project a little less 
from the integument. The two sensory knobs of head and tail are 
very distinct, especially the latter (fig. 83), which is nearly cylin- 
drical, very elevated, and bears, besides the usual corona of small 
lanceolate spicules a complete covering of little acicular spicules, 
very much crowded. The sensory knob of the head is distinguished 



PARAMENJA. 307 

from that of other forms by its two concentric circles of foliated 
spicules (figs. 90). 

Banyuls, among Hydroids and Bryozoa. 

Paramenia impexa PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener. (2), ix, p. 
724, 729, 786, pi. 30, f. 5; pi. 31, f. 64-73a, 82, 83. SIMROTH in 
Bronn, p. 233, pi. 7, figs. 1-9. 

P. SIERRA Pruvot. PI. 48, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Body somewhat yellowish-white, 12 mill, long, truncated trans- 
versely by the cloaca, which shows 28 roseate branchial folds ; back 
with a many-lobed keel ; spicules needle-shaped or hooked ; cuticle- 
rather thick, almost destitute of cutaneous papillae. Radula bi- 
serial. 

Known by one adult individual. Easily distinguished from the 
preceding by the very strong dorsal keel, which has about 20 some- 
what irregular, laterally compressed lobes (fig. 8). The spicules 
resemble those of P. impexa, some being acicular (fig. 10) others 
hook-shaped (fig. 11), but they are larger. All around the pedal 
fossa they are radiating (fig. 9). 

Off the Island of Pultelo, Spain, in 80 meters depth, on Aglao- 
phenia, in company with Proneomenia aglaophenice. 

Paramenia aierra PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener. (2), ix,. 
pp. 725-788, pi. 25, f. 6 ; pi. 30, f. 61-63, 83. SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 
233, pi. 7, f. 10-14. 

"Solenopus " affinis Kor. & Dan. resembles this in the high dorsal 
keel, but it is shorter, with the keel continuous. 

Subgenus PARARRHOPALIA Simroth, 1893. 

Pararrhopalia SIMR., t. c., p. 232. Proneomenia (in part) PRU- 
VOT. 

Cuticle thick, with club-shaped papillae as in Rhopalomenia ; no- 
gills. Excitation body large. Length five times the breadth. 

P. PRUVOTI Simroth. PI. 47, figs. 88, 89, 91-93. 

Body small, hardly 5 mill, long, generally compressed, bristling 
with spicules, mostly of the needle-shaped form, but some are fish- 
hook shaped. Supra-buccal sense tubercle small, with a tuft and a 
basal palisade of lanceolate spicules, caudal tubercle terminal, with 
many tactile bristles and a basal circle of lanceolate spicules. Penes 
exsertile, two. Radula produced, biserial (figs. 91, 93). 



308 PARAMENIA-ECHINOMENIA. 

It is the most agile of the Neomenians, travelling about among 
the contents of the dredge, hydroids and bryozoans, without fixing 
upon any special host. The body is slightly yellowish-white, stout, 
and squarely truncated at the two extremities (fig. 92). The 
mouth relatively very large, the foot groove and foot well marked. 
At the cloaca end, in fully adult individuals, there are two long, 
slender bunches of straight penial spicules (fig. 92). The general 
covering of the body is characterized by the great number and large 
size of the spicules, which give it a particularly bristling appear- 
ance. Mainly acicular, and of the type represented by fig. 87, 
there are scattered, especially toward the tail, spicules of a barbed 
hook shape. The dorsal sensory knob is terminal, bristling with 
very numerous tactile hairs, and encircled by a regular, circular 
palisade of little lanceolate spicules (fig. 89). At the oral extrem- 
ity there is another sensory knob in the middle of the buccal bor- 
der, also showing a complete basal corona of little lanceolate spic- 
ules and an apical tuft of similar ones (fig. 88). 

Banyuls, on sandy bottom with hydroids, 80 meters. 

Proneomenia vagans PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2), ix, p. 723, 
pi. 25, f. 7, and pi. 31, f. 86, 87. Not of Kow. & Mar. Paramenia 
(Pararrhopalia) pruvoti SIMROTH, L c., p. 232, pi. 6, figs. 12-17. 

Genus ECHINOMENIA Simroth, 1893. 
Eehinomenia SIMROTH, Bronn's Thier- Reich, iii, p. 233. 

Body elongated, vermiform, equal in breadth throughout its 
length, laterally compressed. Cloaca opening ventral. Foot and 
foot-groove present, curving into the cloaca ; spicules are curved 
needles, truncated below, erectile ; no gills. Radula biserial (?). 
Length 18 times the greatest diameter; height 3 times the width. 

Differs from Lepidomenia in its compressed, elongated form, and 
the erectile spicules. 

E. CORALLIOPHILA (Kowalevski). PI. 48, figs. 94-98. 

Animal 14-18 mill, long, living on red coral (Coralliumrubrwn) 
among the polyp bearing branches of which it crawls rapidly ; sides 
and back covered with movable scales, which cause the color of the 
animal to change by their erection or depression, so that it may ap- 
pear either whitish as the tentacles of the expanded polyp, or red 
like the stem. The naked ventral surface forms a creeping sole. 
Besides the scales, there is a bunch of straight spicules on the pos- 



ECHINOMENIA-LEPIDOMENIA. 

terior end in front of the anus. Of the internal organs, only the 
intestinal tract, a dorsal gonad and the four longitudinal nerve 
trunks typical of the Amphineura, were distinguished, the specimen 
being in bad condition (fig. 94). A second specimen of the same 
species was found at Marseilles by Kowalevski and Marion in 1882 
and more exactly studied. The scales of this animal were not so 
moveable as those of N. coralliophila, but fast in the integument. 
Intestine and genital glands showed no constrictions, but formed two 
straight canals lying over one another. On the floor of the reso- 
phagus a small radula was found, consisting of six pairs of booklets ; 
those of the forward three pairs were small and curved, the hind 
three pairs much larger and branching. Heart, uterus and oviduct 
resembled the corresponding organs in Proneomenia. In reference 
to the characteristic scaly integument, the generic name Lepidome- 
nia was proposed for this species. (Kow.). ^ 

LaCalle, Algeria on red coral; (Marseilles ?). 

Neomenia coralliophila Kow., Bull. Roy. Soc. Friends of Natural 
Science, etc., 1881, vol. 43, p. 5, pi. 1, 2 (Russian) ; Zool. Jahres- 
bericht for 1882, p. 28 (abstract by Kowalevski). Lepidomenia 
coralliophila Kow. & MARION, Contributions a 1'histoire des Solen- 
ogastres ou Aplacophores, in Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Marseille, iii, p. 
7 ? 1887. Echinomenia coralliophila SIMROTH in Bronn, p. 233, pi. 
10, f. 11-15. 

The notes on the Marseilles specimen given above apparently 
apply to L. hystrix, subsequently defined. Simroth has restricted 
the name Lepidomenia to the latter species, although from the pub- 
lished record, the propriety of such a course is open to question. 

Genus LEPIDOMENIA Kowalevski & Marion, 1887. 

Lepidomenia KOWALEVSKI, Zool. Jahresbericht fur 1882, Mol- 
lusca, p. 29 (1883) ; referring to article on Neomenia coralliophila 
and Cceloplana metschnikowii in Bull. Soc. of Friends of Natural 
Science, etc., Moscow, xliii, 1881 (Russian). Lepidomenia K. & 
M., Comptes Rend., ciii, p. 757 ; Ann. Mus. Marseille, iii, 1887, 
PRUVOT, Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gener. (2), ix, p. 730. SIMROTH 
in Bronn, p. 233. 

Body short, vermiform, tapering behind ; cloacae opening ventral. 
Foot groove passing into the cloaca posteriorly ; foot flattened 
behind. Spicules part scale-like, part needle-shaped, part pyra- 
midal, immobile ; radula well developed, biserial. No gills. 



310 LEPIDOMENIA-DENTALIUM. 

The name Lepidomenia was first used by Kowalevski in 1881 
-or 1883 in connection with Neomenia coralliophila and a Marseilles 
form supposed to be specifically the same as coralliophila, but ap- 
parently identical with what was subsequently described as L. hys~ 
trix. Simroth has chosen to restrict Lepidomenia to the later de- 
scribed species, although the record would incline one to choose N. 
coralliophila as the type. 

L. HYSTRIX Kowalevski & Marion. PI. 48, figs. 99, 1-4. 

Body yellowish ; length a little over 2 mill. ; section circular, 
tapering toward the posterior end ; apparently covered with scales, 
but they are hyaline spicules, broad, and in juxtaposition at the base, 
with long projecting points (fig. 4). Salivary glands voluminous ; 
radula biserial. A caudal sense-pit, surrounded by finer spicules. 

Gulf of Marseilles, in calyx of the coral Balanophylla italica, in 
30 fms. 

Lepidomenia hystrix K. & M., Organisation du Lepidomenia hys- 
trix, nouveau type de Solenogastre, Coraptes Rendus, ciii, pp. 757- 
759 (1887). See also Q. Journ. Roy. Micros. Soc., 1887, p. 218; 
Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Marseille, iii, p. 7-25, pi. 1, 2. PRUVOT, 
L c., p. 730. SIMROTH, /. c., p. 233, pi. 10, f. 1-10. 

The " second specimen " from Marseilles commented on iu the 
description of Echinomenia coralliophila seems to be L. hystrix, so 
far as I can see from the decidedly confused literature. 



DENTALIUM ATRAMENTUM Schliiter, Kurzgefasstes Systematisches 
Verzeichniss meiner Conchylien-Sammlung, 1838, p. 39. Name 
only; fossil. 

DENTALIUM MINIMUM Eth. & Bell, Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn- 
wall, 1897, XII, p. 156 (1898). 

Pliocene ; St. Erth, Cornwall. 

The name is preoccupied ; but as this is probably not a valid 
species, it need not be renamed. 

DENTALIUM GRANOSUM Eichw. (p. 230). This Lower Silurian 
species is probably to be removed from the Scaphopoda. Koken 
writes : the structure of these tubes is wholly diverse from that of a 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



311 



Dentalium (Bull. 1'Acad. Imp. Sci., St. Petersb. [5], vii, 1897, p. 
214). 

DENTALIUM ALTERNANS Mull. (p. 224) is probably the same as 
D. alternans Ryck. (p. 220). See Holzapfel, Palseontographica, 
xxxiv, p. 178. As the name is preoccupied, D. confusum S. & P. 
will replace it, D. muellerianum becoming a synonym. 

CADULUS OBRUTUS Conrad (p. 238). Add reference : Gadus 
obrutus Conr., Amer. Journ. Conch., V, p. 227. 



Index to Families, Genera and Sub- 
genera, Volumes II to XVII. 



[NOTE. The names of genera are printed in Roman type ; of 
groups higher in rank in SMALL CAPITALS ; of synonyms in Italic.'] 



Abretia Ads., vii, 
Acanthina Fisch., ii, 
Acanthochcetes Auct., xv, 
Acanthochetes Leach, xv, 
Acanthochistes Costa, xv, 
Acanthochites Risso, xv, 

ACANTHOCHITID^E Pils., XV, 

Aeanthochiton Herrm., xv, 
Acanthopleura Gray, xiv, 
A car do Lam., xvi, 
Acera Auct., xv, 
Acera Cuv., xvi, 
Aceras Locard, xv, 
Achates Gistel, ix, 
Acicularia Monts., viii, 
Aciculina Ads., iv, 
Acieulina Dh., viii, . 
Acinopsis Monts., ix, 
Acinus Monts., ix, 
Aciona Leach, ix, 
Acirsa Morch, ix, 
Aclesia Gray, xvi, 
Aclesia Rari, xvi, 
Aclisina de Kon., ix, . 





5 


Aclis Loven,ix, . 52, 


86 


. 


219 


Acma3a Esch., xiii, . 7, 


166 


v , 


7 


ACM^EID^E, xiii, 


5 


V, . 


8 


Acme H. & A. Ad., ix, 


316 


v, . 


8 


Acrilla Ads., ix, .51, 


83 


V, . 


7 


Acroculia Phill., viii, 


107 


.,xv, 


6 


Acrostemma Cossm., xvi, . 


233 


XV,. 


8 


Acrybia Ads., viii, 


8 


dv, . 


213 


Actaeonema Conr., ix, 


53 


. 


176 


ACT^ONID^E Fisch., xv, 


135 


. 


376 


Actceonidea Gabb, xv, 


166 




44 


Acta3onina Orb., xv, 136, 


172 


, 


376 


Actaon Montf., xv, 136, 




. 


34 


147, xvi, 


229 


> 


259 


ActaBopyramis Fisch., viii, 




. 6, 


38 


297, 


312 




319 


Acteon Montf., xv, 


147 


319, 


365 


Actita F. de Waldh., viii, . 


105 


, 


319 


Actonia Monts., ix, . 319, 


368 


. 


50 


Acus Humph., vii, ,' s 


6 


50, 


80 


Adamsia Dkr., ii, v . 


156 


, 


114 


Addisonia Dall, xii, . 


138 


135, 


144 


ADDISONIID^E, xii, 


138 


. 


53 


Adelact&on Cossm., xvi, . 


230 



312 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



ADEORBIID^E, x, .13, 83 
Adeorbis 8. Wood, x, 13, 83 
Adinus H. & A. Ads., iv, 6, 16 
Admete Kroy., vii, . 66, 84 
Admetopsis Meek, vii, . 66 
Adriella Thiele, xv, . . 62 
Adusta Jouss., vii, . .161 
Aesopus Gid., v, . 102, 188 
Afer (Jonr., iii, . . 47, 69 
AGAMA Latr., ii, ..,.- . 65 
Agaronia Gray, v, . 60, 88 
Agasoma Gabb, ii1, . .104 
Agatha A. Ad., viii, . 296, 309 
Agathirses Montf, viii, 168, 189 
Aglaja Ken., xvi, 43, 44, 239 
AGLAJ-ID^, xvi, . . 43 
Agnewia T.-W., ii, . . 157 
Aidone H. & A. Ad., iv, . 129 
Akera Mull., xv, 351, 376, 

xvi, 230 

AKERID^:, xv, . . 350 

Alaba A. Ad., ix, . 238, 281 
Alaria Mor. & Lye., vii, . 105 
Alcira Ads., v, . . 103, 188 
Alcithoe Ads.,iv, '.,. . 94 
Alcyna Ad.,x, . . 164, 181 
Alectrion Montf., iv, . 6, 27 
Aletes Carp., viii, . 165, 174 
Alia Ads., v, . . 102, 116 
Alicula Ehrenb., xv, 265, 

xvi, 237 

Alicula Eichw., xvi, . . 237 
Alieulastrum Pils., xvi, . 237 
Alina Reel., x, . . 8, 75 
Alora Ads., ix, . . . 40 
Alvania Risso, ix, . 319, 359 
Alvinia Monts., ix, . 319, 366 
Amsea Ads., ix, . . 50, 78 
Amalda Ads., v, . 200 

Amalthea Schum., viii, . 108 
Amathina Gray, viii, 106, 133 
Amathis A. Ad., viii, 296, 309 
Amaura Moll., viii, . 8, 42 
Araaurella A. Ad., viii, 8, 

53, 260, 286 

Amaurellina Bayle, viii, . 7 
Amaurochiton Thiele, xv, . 88 
Amauropsis Morch, viii, 8, 53 



Amblychilepas Pils., xii, . 184 
Amethistina Schinz, ix, . 34 
Ametrogephyrus Midd., xv, 

52, xiv, p. xvii 

Amicula Gray, xv, . . 42 
Ammonicerina Costa, ix, . 324 
Amoria Gray, iv, . . 92 
Amoura Folin, viii, . 295, 304 
Amphimenia Thiele, xvii, . 296 
Amphinerita Marts., x, . 18 
Amphiperas Gronov., vii, . 243 
Amphisphyra Loven, xv, . 280 
Amphissa Ads., v, . 103,197 
Araphithalamus Cpr.,ix, 31 7, 339 
Amphitomura Pils., xiv, , 230 
Amplostoma Stol., viii, . 11 
Arapullina Lam., viii, 7, 52 
Ampullinopsis Conr., viii, . 7 
Amycla Ads., v, . . , .117 
Amyxa Trosch., x, . .219 
Anabathron Ffld., ix, 317, 341 
Anachis Ads., v, . 102, 152 
Anadema Ads., x, . . 245 
Anandria Stiraps., . ii, 62 
ANASPIDEA, xv, . . 134 
Anatomus Ads., xii, . . 49 
Auaulax Roissy, v, . . 201 
Anazola Gray, v, ." .201 
Anchura Conr., vii,, . . 105 
Ancilla Lam., v, . . . 201 
Ancillaria Lam., v, . 61, 92 
ANCILLARIIN^E, v, . 59, 91 
Ancillopsis Conr., v, . .61 
Ancistrobasis Dall, xi, . 426 
Ancistromesus Dall, xiii, . 107 
Ancistrosyrinx, Dall, vi, 155, 176 
Anellum Cpr., viii, . .214 
Angaria Bolt., x, . . 266 
Angarina Bayle, x, . 266, 269 
Angasia Cpr., xiv, . . 286 
Anisochiton Fisch., xiv, . xxi 
Anisocycla Monts., viii, .319 
Anolacia Gray, v, .96 

Anolax Borson, v, . . 201 
Ansates Sowb., xiii, . .109 
Antale Aldrov., xvii, . . 37 
Antalis H. & A. Ad., xvii, 37 
Anthochiton Thiele, xv, . 88 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



31S 



Anthora Gray, xi, . 8, 43 
Anticalyptrcea Quenst., viii, 158 
Anura Bellardi, iii, . . 226 
Aphera Ads., vii, . . 65 
Aphanistylus Fisch.,ix,117, 164 
Aphanitoma Bell., vi, . 161 
Aphanotrochus Mts., xi, 12, 257 
Apicalia A. Ad., viii, 260, 283 
Apicularia Monts., ix, 315, 327 
Apiotropis Meek, iii, . . 233 
APLACOPHORA, xvii, . . 281 
Aplustra Swains., xv, . . 389 
Aplustridce Fischer, xv, . 385 
Aplustrum Schum., xv, 386, 389 
Aplysiella Fisch., xvi, . 128 
APLYSIID^, xvi, . . 59 
APLYSIIN^E Pils., xvi, . 65 
Apollon Montf., iii, . . 234 
Aporrhais Dillw., vii, 103, 131 
Aptyxiella Fisch., viii, . 299 
Aptyxis Trosch., iii, . . 46 
Aptyxis Zitt., viii, . . 299 
Aquillus Montf., iii, . . 234 
Aquilonaria Dall, ix, 230, 255 
Arabiea Jouss., vii, . .160 
Aradasia Gray, xi, . . 429 
Aranea Perry, ii, . . 221 
Arckitectoma Gray, ix, . 3 
Architectonica Bolt., ix, . 5 
Archytsea Costa, x, . 13, 87 
Arcotia Stol., viii, . . 194 
Arcuella Nev., viii, . . 259 
Arcularia Link., iv, . 6, 24 
Arena Ads., x, . . 17, 111 
Argobuccinum Klein, iii, 37, 42 
Ariadna Fisch., ix, . . 40 
Aricia Gray, vii, . . 162 
Arrhoges Gabb, vii, . 104, 133 
Arthuria Cpr., xiv, . . 258 
Ascoglossa Bgh., xvi, . 161 
Aspa H. & A. Ad., iii, 37, 42 
Assula Schura., xv, . . 244 
Astralium Link, x, 190, 220 
Astyris Ads., v, . . . 117 
Athleta Conr., iv, . . 77 
Atilia Ads., v, . . 102, 142 
Atoma Bell., vi, . . .160 
Atractus Ag., Sow., iii, . 234 

21 



Atresius Gabb, ix, . . 237 
Atys Montf., xv, 243, 261 ; 

xvi, 236 

Aulaeochiton Shutt., xiv, . 236 
Aulica H. & A. Ads., iv, . 87 
Auriculina Gray, viii, . 321 
Aurinia Ads., iv, . . 101 
A uristomia Monts., viii, 321 , 352 
Ausoba Ads., iv, . . 99 
Austrocochlea Fisch., xi, 9, 90 
Austrodiaphana Pils., xv, . 287 
Austrofusus Kob., iii, 99, 137 
Autodetus Linds., viii, . 158 

Bacula Ads., viii, . 259, 283 
Balanetta Jouss., v, . 15, 16 
Balds Leach, viii, . . 259 
Bankivia Beck, xi, . 10, 138 
Barleeia Clark, ix, . 321, 392 
Basilissa Wats., xi, . 15, 419 
Basterotia Bayle, vii, . .161 
Bathoxiphus Pils. & Sh., 

xvii, 121 

Bathymophila Dall, xi, . 14 
Batillaria Cantor, ix, . . 118 
Batillus Schum., x, . 191, 210 
Baudohia Bayan, viii, . 319 
Bayania Mun.-Chal., viii, . 266 
Beanella Dall, xiv, . . 282 
Beanella Thiele, xv, . . 75 
Beania Cpr., xiv, . . 282 
Bela Leach, vi, . . 156, 213 
Belangeria Fisch., xi, 8, 44 
Bellardia B., D. & D., vi, . 160 
Bellardia Mayer, ix, . .114 
Bellardiella Fisch., vi, 160, 312 
Belomitra Fisch., vi, . 156, 224 
Bembix Wats. ( = Bathy- 

berabix Crse.) xi, . 11,162 
Benthodolium V. & S., vii, 267 
Bernaya Jouss., vii, . . 160 
Berthella Blainv., xvi, . 192 
Bertinia Jouss., xvi, . .189 
Bezanconia Bayle, ix, . 114 
Bezoardica Schum., vii, 269, 276 
Bicatillus Swains., viii, 102, 119 
Biforina B., D. & D., ix, . 122 
Bifrontia Desh., ix, . .7 



314 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Biplex Perry, iii, . . 236 
Birostra Swains., vii, . . 244 
Bittium Leach, ix, . 115, 150 
Bivonia Gray, viii, . 166, 176 
Bolina Risso, x, . . . 229 
Bolma Risso, x, . . 190, 229 
Bonellia Dh., viii, . . 261 
Boreochiton Sars, xv, . 63 
Boreofusus Sars, iii, . . 48 
Borsonia Bell., vi, . 157, 227 
Bourguetia Dh., viii, . . 263 
Brachystoma GardD., vii, . 104 
Brachystomia Moots., viii, . 320 
Brachytoma Swn., vi, 155, 176 
Brachytrema Mor. & Lye., 

ix, . . 113, 231 

Brachysphingus Gabb, iii, 106 
Brocchia Bronn, viii, . 106 

Brochina Gray, viii, . . 213 
Brochus Brown, viii, . .213 
Broderipia Gray, xii, . 7, 46 
Brontes Montf., ii, . . 224 
BrotiaH. Ad., ix, . .116 
Brownia, viii, ... 5 
Buccinanops Orb., iv, 5, 13 
Buccinatorium Pet., iii, . 237 
BUCCINIDJE, iii, . . 97 

Buccinofusus Conr., iii, 47, 70 
Buccinopsis Jeffr., iii, . 100, 195 
Buccinorbis Cour., ii, . . 224 
Buceinulus H. & A. Ad., xv, 1 36 
Buccinum L., iii, . 100, 167 
Buceitriton Conr., iii, . 106 
Bufo Montf., iii, . . . 36 
Bulbifusus Conr., iii, . .102 
Bulbus Brown, viii, . . 8 
Bulbus Humph., ii, . . 224 
Bulimella Hall, viii, . . 265 
Bulimorpha Whitf., viii, . 265 
Bullcea Lam., xvi, . . 2 
Bulla Linne, xv, 327 ; xvi, 232 
Bullata Jouss., v, . .15 
Bullea Blainv., xv, . . 327 
Bullia Gray, iv, . . 5, 9 
BULLION, xv, . . 326 

Bullidium, Leue, xvi, .44 
Bulliopsis Conr., iii, . . 238 
Bulliopsis Cour., iv, 8 ; v, . 16 



Bullina Fer., xv, 136, 175, 391 

Bullina Risso, xv, . . 287 

Bullinella Newton, xv, . 287 

Bullinulla Gray, xv, . . 391 

Bullinula Swains, xv, . 175 

Bullus Montf., xv, . . 327 

Burgersteinia Bgt., x, . 7 

Bursa Bolt., iii, . . . 238 

Bursatella Blainv., xvi, . 135 

Burtinella Morch, viii, . ] 67 

Busycon Bolt., iii, . .140 

Cabestana Bolt., iii, . -15 
Cadium Link, vii, . . 258 
Cadulus Phil.,xvii, 131 , 142, 

235, 253 

Ccecalium Macg., viii, .213 
CIECIVIE, viii, . . .212 
Caecum Flem., viii, 213, 215; 

xvii, 240, 241 

Ccelatura Conr., ix, . . 53 
Ccesia H. & A. Ad., iv, . 55 
Calana Gray, x, . . 9 
Calcar Montf., x, . 220 

Calcarella Souleyet, viii, . 5 
Calceolina A. Ad., x, . 15, 105 
Caledoniella Souv., viii, 12, 65 
Callianax Ads., v, . 60, 87 
Calliostoma Sw., xi, . 14, 332 
Calliotrochus Fisch., xi, . 197 
Callipara Gray, iv, . .100 
Callistochiton Cpr., xiv,260, 

xv, .. . 87 

Callithea Swains., iv, . . 164 
Callistoplax Cpr., xiv, . 288 
Callochiton Gray, xiv, 48 ; 

xv, 67 

Callogaza Ball, xi, .11, 158 
Callomphala Ad.& Ang.,iii, 238 
Callonema Hall, ix, . .53 
Callopoma Gray, x, . 190, 210 
Calpurnus Montf., vii, 245, 256 
Calvertia Bgt., x, . . 7 
Calypeopsis Less., viii, . 102 
Calyptrsea Lam., viii, 103, 119 
CALYPTR^EID^E, viii, . .101 
Calyptrophorus Conr., vii, 103 
Camitia Gray, xi, . 16, 464 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



315 



Campanile Bayle, ix, . 114, 149 
Campulotus Guett., ii, . 225 
Canalispira Jouss., v, . 15, 49 
Canalites Auct., xvii, . xxix 
Canarium Schum., vii, 101, 118 
CANCELLARIID^E, vii/ . 65 
Cauidea H. Ad., iii, . 101, 208 
Cancilla Swains., iv, . . 138 
CantharidellaPils.,xi, . 197 
Cantharidus Montf, xi, 10, 120 
Cantharulus Meek, iii, . 104 
Canthams Bolt., iii, . 100, 153 
Canthorbis Swains., x, . 227 
Cantrainea Fisch., x, . . 245 
Capulacmsea Sars, viii, 105, 132 
Capulus Montf., viii, . 105, 131 
Caragolus Monts., xi, . . 92 
Cardinalia Gray, xi, . 7, 19 
Careliopsis Morch, viii, 297, 315 
Caricella Conr., iv, . . 67 
Carinea Swains., vii, . . 244 
Carinidea Sw., x, . . 231, 241 
Carmione Gray, v, . . 206 
Casmaria Ads., vii, . 269, 277 
Cassidaria Lam., vii, . 269, 279 
Cassidea Swains., vii, . . 269 
CASSIDID.E, vii, . . . 268 
Cassidulus Ads., iii, . . 107 
Cassiope Coq., viii, . .194 
Cassis Lam., vii, . 268, 270 
Catillina Gray, viii, . .102 
Catillus Swains., x, . .10 
Catinella Stache, viii, . 13 
Catinus Klein, viii, . . 10 
Cellana H. Adams, xiii, . 123 
Cemoria Leach, xii, . .228 
Cemoria Risso, viii, . .108 
Centronotus Swains., ii, . 226 
Cepatia Gray, viii, . . 6 
CEPHALASPIDEA, xv, . 134 
CEPHALOPODA, vol. I. 
Ceratia Ads., ix, . 318, 351 
Ceratophorus Cpr., xiv, . 290 
Ceratosiphon Gill, vii, . 104 
Ceratozona Ball, xiv, . 290 
Ceritella Morr. & Lye., ix, 120 
Cerithidea Swains, ix, 117, 161 
Cerithidium Monts., ix, 115, 157 



CerithiellaVerr.,ix, . .119 
CERITHIID^E, ix, . .112 
Cerithioderma Conr., ix, .113 
Cerithiolum Tib., ix, . . 115 
Centhinella Gemm., ix, . 114 
Cerithiopsis F. & H., ix, 

119, 168 

Cerithium Brug., ix, 112, 122 
Cernina Gray, viii, . . 7 
Cerostoma Conr., ii, . 73, 112 
Chsetoderma Loven, xvii, 283 
CHJETODERMATID^E, xvii, . 283 
Chsetopleura Shuttlw., xv, 

69, xiv, 27 

Charonia Gist., iii, . . 240 
Chascax Wats., iii, . . 89 
Cheletropis Forbes, ii, . 168 
Chelidonura A. Ad., xvi, 1, 34 
Chelinodura Fisch., xvi, . 34 
Chelinotus Swains., viii, 11, 62 
Chelyconus Mch., vi, . . 63 
Chemnitzia Orb., viii, 265, 317 
Chicoreus Montf., ii, . 73, 88 
Chilotygma Ads., v, . .91 
Chitonellus Lam., xv, . 52 
CHITONID^E Pils., xiv, xxvi 
Chitoniscus Cpr., xiv, xx, 

xv, 59 

Chiton L., xiv, 149, xv, . 88 
Chlamydo concha Dall, xv, . 43 
Chlamydoglyphis Pils., xii, 198 
Chlanidota Mart., iii, 101, 201 
Chlorodiloma Pils., xi, 10,110 
Chlorostoma Sw., xi, 11, 163 
Chondroplax Thiele, xv, . 88 
Chouechiton Cpr., xiv, . xix 
Choneplax Cpr., xv, 51, 59 
Choristes Cpr.. ix, 324, 398 
CHORISTID^E, ix, . 323, 398 
Chorus Gray, ii, . 75, 197 

Chromotis A. Ad., x, 164, 176 
Chrysallida Cpr., viii, 297, 311 
Chrysame Ads., iv, . . 143 
Chrysodomus Swains., iii, . 240 
Chrysostoma Sw., xi, 16, 466 
Oidaris Swains., x, . . 218 
Cimber Montf., x, . 10, 77 
Cinctella Monts., ix, . .119 



316 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Cingilla Monts., ix, . .318 
Cingula Flem., ix, . 318, 342 
Cingulina A. Ad., viii, 318, 338 
Cingulina Monts., ix, 318, 356 
Cioniscus Jeffr., ix, . . 52 
Circulus Jeffr., xi, . 13, 274 
Cirrhobranchiata Blainv., xvii, v 
Cirsonella Ang., x, . 16, 107 
Cirsotrema Morch, ix, 50, 81 
Citharopsis Pse., v, . . 207 
Cithna A. Ad., ix, . 234, 268 
Cittarium Ph., xi, . . 277 
Cladopoda Gray, viii, . 166 
Clancalopsis Monts., xi, . 47 
Clanculus Montf., xi, 8, 47 
Claneophila Gray, v, . . 208 
Clathrella Keel., ix, . . 235 
Clathurella Cpr., vi, . 159, 274 
Clathropleura Tiberi, x v, 67, 88 
Clathrus Oken, ix, . . 50 
Clavatula Lam., vi, . 157, 228 
Clavella Swains., iii, . 47, 70 
Clavellithes Swains., iii, . 240 
Clavifusus Conr., iii, . .104 
Clavus Montf., vi, . 155, 185 
Clea A. Ad., iii, . . 101, 207 
Cleanthus Leach, xvi, . 192 
Cleantus Leach, xvi, . .191 
Cliraacina Gemm., viii, . 264 
Climacopoma Fisch., ix, . 7 
Clinura Brocc., vi, . .158 
Clionella Gray, vi, . 157, 233 
Clisospira Bill., viii, . .158 
Clistaxis Cossm., xvi, . 237 

Clithon Montf., x, . 7, 63 
Closia Gray, v, . . 15, 47 
Closteriscus Meek, iii, . 103 
Clypeola Gray, viii, . . 103 
Clypeolura Reel., x, . 7, 56 
Clypidella Swains., xii, . 175 
Clypidina Gray, xii, . . 278 
Coccodentalium Sacco, xvii, xxxii 
Coccopygia Dall, xii, . .131 
COCCULINID^E Dall, xii, . 131 
Cocculina Dall, xii, . . 131 
Cochlolepas Klein, viii, . 108 
Cochlidium Gray, iii, . . 241 
Ccelotrochus Fisch., xi, 8, 42 



Coleolus Hall, xvii, . . 240 
Coleophysis Fisch., xv, . 203 
Colina Ads., ix, . . 113, 141 
Colliculus Monts., xi, . .195 
Collisella Dall, xiii, . . 7 
Collisellina Dall, xiii, . 7 
Collonia Gray, x, . . 246 
Colobocephalus Sars, viii, . 12 
Colobocephalus Sars, xvi, . 33 
Colpodaspis Sars, xvi, . 28 
Colubraria Schum., iii, . 241 
Columbarium Mts., vi, 154, 175 
Columbella Lam., v, . 102, 103 
ColumbellariaRolle,v, . 103 
Columbellina Orb., v, 103, 196 

COLUMBELLID^E, V, . 100, 198 

Colwnbellopsis B., D. & D., 

v, 208 

Columbus Montf., v, . . 208 
Coins Bolt., iii, . . . 241 
Coins Humph., iii, . . 241 
Cominella Gray, iii, . 101, 201 
Compressidens Pils. & Sh., 

xvii, 123 

Compsopleura Conr., ix, . 50 
Coucholepas Lam., ii, 75,198 
Conchopatella Chemn, ii, . 227 
Conchulus Raf., ii, . . 227 
Conella Ads., v, . . . 208 
Conella Swains., v, 101, 208, 

vi, 84 

CONID^E vi, ... 3 
Conidea Swains., v, . 102, 180 
Conomitra Conr., iv, . . 109 
Conomurex Bayle, vii, 101, 122 
Conopleura Hinds, vi, 155, 211 
Conorbis Swains., vi, . .5 
Conotrochus Pils., xi, . 197 

Conradia A. Ad., ix, . 236, 273 
Constantia A. Ad., ix, 51, 84 
Conus Linn., vi, . . .7 
Cookia Less., x, . 190, 242 

Coralliophila H. & A. Ad., 

ii, 206 
Cordieria Rouault, iii, 50, 

vi, 157 

Corena A. Ad., ix, . 317, 339 
Corephium Gray, xiv, .218 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



317 



Coriocella Blainv., viii, . 11 

Cornieiilina Mu'nst., viii, . 213 

Cornulina Conr., iii, . . 102 
Cornuoides Brown, viii, .213 

Coronaxis Swains., vi, 7, 19 

Costellaria Swains, iv, . 164 
Costellifer Meek, ix, . .120 

Couthouyia A. Ad., ix, 236, 273 

Cranopsis A. Ad., xii, . 240 

Craspedochiton Shutt., xiv, 285 
Craspedochilus Sars, xiv, 

67, xv, 62 

Craspedostoma Linds., x, . 17 

Craspedotus Ph., xi, . . 449 

Crassispira Swn., vi, . 155, 191 
Cremides Ads., xii, . .158 

Cremnobates Blanf., ix, . 231 
Cremnoconchus Blanf., ix, 

231, 256 

Crenilabiwn Cossm., xvi, . 229 

Crepidula Lam., viii, 103, 123 

Crepiemarginula Seg., xii, . 246 

Crepipatella Less., viii, . 104 

Cribraria Jouss., vii, . . 161 

Crithe Gould, vii, . 244, 255 

Cronia H. & A. Ad., ii, 159, 179 

Crosseia A. Ad., ix, . 51, 84 
Crossostorna Morr. & Lye., 

x, 17 
Crucibulum Schum., viii, 

102, 117 

Crypta Gray, viii, . . 1 04 

Crypto Humph., viii, . 104, 129 
Cryptaxis Jeffr., xv, 287, 

xvi, 237 

Cryptobia Desh., viii, 169, 191 
Cryptobranchia Midd., xiii, 

67, 68 

Cryptocella Ads., viii, . .11 

Cryptochiton Midd., xv, . 48 

Cryptochorda Mch., iv, . 78 
Oyptoconchus, Blv. & 

Guild., xv, . . 35 

Cryptoconus Koen., vi, . 154 
Crystallophrysson Mob., xvii, 288 
Cryptophthalmus Ehr., xvi, 

1, 36 

CRYPTOPLACID^ Dall, xv, 51 



Cryptoplax Blainv., xv, 51, 52 
Cryptoplocus Pict. & Camp., 

viii, 299 

Cryptorhytis Meek, iii, . 50 
Cryptospira Hinds, v, . 15, 30 
Cryptostoma Blv., viii, . 10 
Cryptothyra Mke., viii, . 11 
Cueumis Klein, v, . .210 
Cuma Humph. (=Cymia 

Mch.), ii, . . 76, 199 
Cumia Biv., iii, , . 25, 243 
Cyanogaster Rud., xvi, . 223 
Cyanoplax Pils., xiv, 44, xv, 63 
Cyclidea Rolle, x, . .12 
CyclocanthaSw., x, . 190, 230 
Cyclocheila Conr., ix, . 233 
Cycloeyrtia Agas., iv, . .211 
Cyclomolops Gabb, vii, . 103 
Cyclonassa Swains., iv, .211 
Cyclops Risso, iv, . . 64 
Cyclora Hall, ix, . . 35 
Cyclostoma Lam., ix, . . 50 
Cyclostrema Marr., x, 14, 88 
CYCLOSTREMATID,E, x, 14, 88 
Cylichna Loven, xv, 243, 287 
Cylichnella Gabb, xv, . 325 
Cylichnina Monts., xv, . 204 
Cylinder Moutf., vi, . . 88 
Cylindrella Swn., vi, . . 71 
Cylindrella Swains., xv, . 287 
Cylindra Schum., iv, . 109, 196 
Cylindrobulla Fisch., xv, 

351, 379 

C'ylindrus Breyn., v, . .210 
Cyllene Gray, iii, . 102, 223 
Cymatium Bolt., iii, 9, 18, 244 
Cymatium Link., iii, . . 244 
Cymatochiton Dall, xiv, . xix 
Cymbancilla Fisch., v, . 210 
Cymbiola Gray, iv, . . 97 
Cymbium Klein, iv, . 75, 78 
Cymbula H. & A. Ad., xiii, 81 
Cymostyla Mts., x, .18 

Cynisca Ads., x, . . 16, 107 
Cynodonta Schum., iv, . 212 
Cyphoma Bolt., vii, . 44, 250 
Cyphosolenus Piette, vii, . 104 
Cyphotifer Piette, vii, . 105 



318 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Cyprsea Linn., vii, . 162, 164 
Cyprsecassis Stutch., vii, 

268, 272 

Cyprcedia Swains,, vii, . 161 
CYPR^EIDJE, vii, . . .153 
Cyprseorbis Conr., vii, . 162 
Cyprseovula Gray, vii, 163, 196 
Cyrtulus Hinds, iii, . 70, 244 
Cystiscus Stimps., v, . .46 
Cythara Schum., vi, . 159, 261 
Cytharella Monts., vi, . 159 
Cytharopsis A. Ad., vi, 159, 274 
Cytharopsis Pse., vi, . .159 
Cythnia Cpr., viii, . 262, 293 

DactylidiaAda.,v, . .211 
Dactylus Humph., v, . .211 
Dactylus Klein, v, . . 211 
Dactylus Schum., xv, . . 136 
Dallia Jeffr., xii, . .137 
Danilia Brus., xi, . . 448 
Daphnella Hinds, vi, 160, 300 
Dardania Hutt. [ Eaton- 

iella], ix, . . 323, 397 
Daronia A. Ad., x, . 14, 99 
Dawsonia Cpr., xiv, . . 282 
Defrancia Mill., vi, . .159 
Dejanira Stol., x, . . 9 
Delphinoidea Brown, ix, 

323, x, 14 

Delphinula Lam., x, . . 266 
Delphinulopsis Wright, x, . 266 
Dendroconus Swn., vi, . 16 
DENTALIID^E, xvii, . xxix 
Dentaliopsis Clarke, viii, . 213 
Dentalis Llwyd, xvii, . xxix 
Dentalites Schl., xvii, . xxix 
Dentalium, xvii, xxix, 247, 

197, 310 

Dentiora Pse., vii, . 241, 242 
Dentistyla Dall, xi, . .411 
Deshayesia Raul., x, . .5 
Deshayesiella Cpr., xiv, 1, 16 
Desmoulea Gray, iv, . 7, 65 
Diadora Blainv., xii, . . 228 
Diala A. Ad., ix, . 239, 282 
Diameza Desh., vii, . . 245 
Diaphana Brown, xv, 243, 

280, xvi, 237 



Diaphorostoma Fisch., viii, 107 
Diartema Piette, vii, . .104 
Diarthrochiton Fisch., xiv, xxi 
Diastoma Desh., ix . .118 
Dibaphus Phil., iv, . 109, 163 
Dichachiton Midd., xiv, .xvii 
Dicroloma Gabb, vii, . 105 

Diempterus Piette, vii, . 105 
Diloma Phil., xi, . 9, 96 
Dinoplax Cpr., xiv, . . 254 
Dimorphosoma Gardn., vii, 104 
Dinia H. & A. Ads., xv, 

276, 263 

Diochiton Thiele, xv, . 88 

Diodora Gray, xii, . . 228 
Diotocardia Mch., ii, . . 65 
Dipsaccus Klein, v, . 61, 91 
Dipterophysis Pils., xvi, . 168 
Dischides Jeffr., xvii, 131, 143 
Discoides Heir., xvi, . .192 
Discopsis Folin, x, . 15, 105 
Disculus Desh., ix, .5 

Dispotcea Say, viii, . .102 
Distorsio Bolt., iii, . 5, 35 
Distorta Perry, iii, . . 244 
Distortrix Link., iii, . . 244 
Ditoma Bell, vi, . . 160 
Ditretus Piette, ix, . .117 
Ditrupa Berk., xvii, . . 241 
Dofanio Gray, viii, . .166 
Dolabella Lam., xvi, 65, 150 

DOLABELLINJE Pils., Xvi, . 150 

Dolabrifera Gray, xvi, 64, 117 
Dolabrifer Fisch., xvi, .117 

DOLABRIFERIN^E Pils., XVi, 116 

Dolichotoma Bell, vi. . 154 
Doliella Monts., viii,' . 321, 351 
DOLIID.E, vii, . . . 257 
Doliopsis Conr., vii, . . 258 
Doliopsis Monts., vii, . . 258 
Dolium Lam., vii, . 258, 261 
Dolophanes Gabb, vii, . 105 
Dondersia Hubr., xvii, . 303 
Donovania B., D. & D., vi, 157 
Doridiidce, xvi, . .43 

Doridium Meek., xvi, . 44 
Dorsanum Gray, iv, . .213 
Dostia Gray, x, . .8, 77 
Drillia Gray, vi, . 155, 200 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



319 



Drupa Bolt., ii, . . 231 

Duncania Bayle, viii, . 263 
Dunkeria Cpr., viii, . 318, 337 

Eatonia Smith, ix, . . 321 
Eatoniella Dall, ix, . 321, 391 
Ebala Leach, ix, . .52 
Eburna Lam., iii, . 101, 209 
Eccyliomphalus Portl., ix, . 8 
Echinella Swains., ix, . 281 
Echinomenia Simr., xvii, . 308 
Echinora Schum., vii, . 269 
Ectracheliza Gabb,iii, . 105 
Echinospira Krohn, viii, . 5 
Ecphora Conr., ii, . . 202 
Eglisia Gray, ix, . 51, 86 
Egonena Jouss., v, . ' -15 
Eidothea Risso, xvi, . . 44 
Eione Risso, iv, . .213 

Elana Gray, x, . . . 10 
Elara Ads., x, . . 10, 81 
Elasmonema Fisch., ix, . 53 
Elea Ziegl., x, . .7 

Elenchus Ads., xi, . .131 
ElenchusSvf.,x\, . 120 

Elephantulum Cpr., viii, . 214 
Elodia Folin, viii, . 321, 355 
Elusa A. Ad., viii, . 296, 310 
Emarginella Pils., xii, 249, 269 
Emarginula Lam., xii, .248 
EMARGINULIN^:, xii, . . 201 
Eochiton Fisch., xiv, . . xxi 
EOPLACOPHORA Pils., xiv, xxiv 
Epheria Leach, ix, . 233, 266 
Epidromus Klein, iii, 9, 25 
Episiphon Pils. & Sh., xvii, 117 
Episcynia Morcb, ix, 7, 24 
Epona Ads., vii, . 163, 197 
Enseta Ads., iv, . . . 104 
Endoptygma Gabb, viii, . 157 
Engina Gray, iii, 220, v, 103, 188 
Enida A.Ad.,xi, . 13, 245 
Enoplochiton Gray, xiv, . 252 
Entalina Monts., xvii, 131, 234 
Entaliopsis Newton & Har., 

xvii, 37 

Entails " Defr.", xvii, . 245 
Entails Gray, xvii, . . 37 



Entalites Walch, xvii, xxix 
Entalium Defr., xvii, . 245 

Entemnotrochus Fisch., xii, 70 
Entoconcha Mull., viii, . 263 
Eratoidea Weink., v, . 15, 213 
Eratopsis Hoernes & Auinger, 

v,7, 11 

Erato Risso, v, . .7, 197 
Ergcea Ads., viii, . . 104 
Erginus Jeffr., xiii, . . 7 
Eripachya Gabb, iii, . . 105 
Ermcea Gray, viii, . .11 
Erosaria Trosch., vii, .160 

Erronea Trosch., vii, . .160 
Ersina Gray, vii, . . 270 
Eruca Tornefort, xiii, . 80 t 
Escoffieria Font, ix, . 11& 

Esmia Leach, xvi, . . 65 
Etallonia Dh., vi, . . 15fr 
EthaliaAds.,xi, . 15, 457 
Eucampe Leach, xv, . . 376 
Eucasta Dall, xi, . . 332 
Euchelus Ph., xi, . 15, 429 
Euchrysalis Laube, viii, . 263 
Eucithara Fisch., vi, . .159 
Euclia Ads., vii, . 65, 73 
Eucosmia Cpr. preoc.=Eu- 

lithidium Pils., x, . 164, 177 
Eudora Leach, x, . .167 
Eudoxochiton Shutt., xiv, . 192 
Eulima Risso, viii, . 258, 266 
Eulimella Forbes, viii, 319, 339 
viii, 



Eulimopsis Brugn., viii, . 260 
Eumargarita Fisch., xi, . 285 
Eumeta Morch, ix, . 120, 176 
Eunaticina Fisch., viii, 10, 58 

EUOMPHALIN^E, ix, . .5 

Euomphalus Sowb., ix, . 8 
Euplaciphora Cpr., xiv, .311 
Euplaxiphora Shutt., xiv, . 311 
Eupleura H. & A. Ad., ii, 

74, 157 

Euprotomus Gill, vii, 100, 110 
Euryta Ad., vii, . . 5, 8 
Eurytrochus Fisch., xi, . 197 
Euselenops Pils., xvi, . 191, 228 
Euspira Agas., viii, . . 7 



320 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Eustoma Piette, ix, . .120 
Euthria Gray, iii, . 100, 149 
Euthymia Jouss., ix, . . 122 
Eutrochus Ad. (=Astele 

Sw.), xi, . . 14, 402 
Eutrochus Whitf., viii, . 158 
Eutropia Leach, x, . .164 
Evalea A. Ad., viii, . 321, 359 
Evarne H. & A. Ad., iii, . 246 
Exelissa Piette, ix, . ,119 
Exilia Conr., iii, . . 49 
Exilifusus Conr., iii, . . 246 
Exilifusus Gabb, iii, . . 49 
Exogyroceras M. & W., viii, 107 

Fairbankia Blanf., ix, 321,393 
Falcula Conr., xvii, . . 244 
Fannettia Ball, xiv, . . 212 
Fannia Cpr., xiv, . .212 
Fannyia Gray, xiv, . .212 
Fartulum Cpr., viii, . .214 
Fasciolaria Lam., iii, . 48, 73 
Fasciolina Conr., iii, . . 50 
Fastigiella Rve., ix, . 115, 149 
Fenella A. Ad., ix, . 322, 394 
Fibula Piette, ix, . .120 
Ficula Swains., vii, . . 259 
Ficulopsis Stol, iv, 78, vii, 260 
Ficus Klein., vii, . . 259 
Fissidentalium Fisch., xvii, 63 
Fissilabra Brown, ix, . 238 
Fissurella Brug., xii, . .142 
FISSURELLID^: xii, . .140 
Fissurellidea Orb., xii, . 179 
FISSURELLIDINJE, xii, . 178 

FlSSURELLIN^E, xii, . .141 

Fissuridea Swains., xii, . 175 
Fissurisepta Seg., xii, . 244 
Flemingia Jeffr., ix, . .316 
Fluxina Dall, ix, . 6, 16 
Folinia Crosse, ix, . 316, 338 
Forskdlia Ads., xi, . .195 
FOSSARID^;, ix, . . 235 

Fossarina Ad. & Ang., ix, 

236, 275 

Fossariopsis Laube,ix, . 236 
Fossarus Phil., ix, . 235, 271 
Fragella Sw., xi, . . 47 



Francisia Cpr., xiv, . . 219 
Frembleya H. Ad., xiv, . 330 
Fremblya Ad., xiv, . . 330 
Fulgoraria Schum.,iv, . 85 
Fulgur Montf., iii, . 99, 139 
Funis Seeley, ix, . .51 
FUSID^:, iii, . . .46 
Fus-imitra Conr., iv, 109; 217 
Fusinus Raf., iii, . . 248 
Fusispira Hall, iii, 102; 

viii, 265 

Fustiaria Stol., xvii, . . 127 
Fusus Lam.,iii, . 47, 51, 227 



319, 



Gadila Gray, xvii, 
Gadilina Foresti, xvii, 
Gadus Conr., xvii, 
Gadus Desh., xvii, 
Gaillardotia Bgt., x, . 
Galeodaria Conr., vii, 
Galeodea Link, vii, . 
Galeodes Bolt., iii, 
Galeodina Monts., ix, 
Galeola Gray, v, 
Galericulus Seeley, viii, 
Galeropsis Conr., viii, 
Galeropsis Hupe, ii, . 
Galerus Humph., viii, 
Gallinula Klein, vii, 
Ganesa Jeffr., x, 
Gargania Guise., x, 
Garnotia Gray, viii, 
Gaskoinia Roberts, vii, 163, 
GASTEROPODA, ii, . . 
Gasteropteron Auct., xvi, . 
Gastridia Gray, ii, 
Gastridium Sowb., ii, 
Gastroplax Blv., xvi, 
GASTROPTERID.E, xvi, 
Gastropteron Kosse, xvi, . 
Gaza Wats., xi, . 11, 

Gegania Jeffr., viii, . 
Gemmula Weink., vi, 
Gena Gray, xii, 
Genea, Bell, iii, 
Genotia Ads., vi, 
Georgus Thiele, xv, . 
Gervisia Q. & G., xvi, 



131, 162 
xxxii 
. 162 
. 143 
. 7 
. 269 
. 269 
. 249 
366 
216 
105 
103 
. 211 
. 103 
101, 
14, 



103, 



114 
100 
11 
129 
196 
72 
39 
235 
235 
176 
39 
39 
154 

195, 211 
154, 173 
7, 36 
. 227 
154, 174 
. 88 
. 192 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



321 



GibberulaS wains., v, 15, 41, 216 
Gibbula Risso, xi, . 12, 195 
Gibbulastra Monts., xi. . 195 
Gicenia Brug., xv, . . 244 
Omni Giceni, xv, . . 244 
Giraudia Bgt., ix, . 239, 285 
GIRAUDID.E, ix, . . 239 
Gisortia Jou.ss., vii, . 160, 245 
Glabella Swains., v, . 15, 19 
Glauconella Gray, xv, . 257 
Glaucoma Geib., viii, . 194 

Globularia Swains., viii, . 7 
Globulus Schum., xi, . . 450 
Glomulus Monts., xi, . 195 

Glyphis Cpr. (preoc.=Fis- 

suridea Swains.), xii, . 203 
Glyphostoma Gabb, vi 159, 271 
Goniochila Gabb, vii, . 104 
Gosavia Stol., vi, 5, iv, . 78 
Gottoina A. Ad., ix, . 236, 274 
Gourmya Bayle, ix, . .117 
Granula Jouss., v, . .15 
GraphisJeffr.,ix, . 52, 88 
Graptacme Pils. &Sh., xvii, 85 
Gryphochiton Grav, xiv, xix 
GuildfordiaGray,x, . 190, 228 
Guildingia Cpr., xiv, . . 329 
Gutturnium Klein, iii, 9, 19 
Gymnarus Gabb, vii, . . 101 
Gymnoplax Gray, xiv. . 150 
Gymnoplax Rochebr., xv, . 93 
Gymuotoplax Pils., xvi, 

191, 210 

Gyrina Schum., iii, . . 250 
Gyrineum Link, iii, 250, . 36 
Gyriscus Tib., ix, . 7, 23 
Gyrodes Conr., viii, . . 9 
Gyrotropis Gabb, ix, . 41 

Hsedropleura Monts., vi, 

-156, 223 

Halia Macgil., iii, . .251 
Halia Risso, vi, . 161, 318 

Haliella Monts., viii, . 259, 282 
HALIOTID^:, xii, . . 72 
Haliotoidea Swains., viii, . 103 
Haliotinella Souv., xvi, 191, 209 
Haliotis L., xii, . . .75 



Haliphcebus Fisch., viii, . 157 
Halloysia Briart & Corn., 

viii, 298 

Haloconcha Ball, ix, . 234, 267 
Hamachiton Midd., xiv, xvii 
Haminea Leacb, xv, 351, 

352; xvi, 231 

Hamulus Mort., xvii, . 244 

Hanleia,xi\ r , . . .17 
Hanleya Gray, xiv, . 1, 17 
Hanleyia, -si? , . . .17 
Haplocochlias Cpr., x, 16,107 
Harpagodes Gill, vii, . 102 

Harpago Klein, vii, . 102, 126 
Harpa Lam., v, . 61, 97 

Harpalis Link, v, . .218 
Harparia Raf., v, . .218 
HARPING, v, . .59 

Harpula Swains., iv, . . 84 
Harttia Wale., viii, . .109 
Hastula Ads., vii, . . 5 
Hatina Gray, viii, . .167 
Haustator Montf., viii, 193, 198 
Haydenia Gabb, iii, . .106 
Hebra Ads., iv, . 7, 43 

Hela Jeffr., ix, . . . 234 
Helciouiscus Dall, xiii, 123, 

172; xvi, 189 

Helcion Montf., xiii, . 108, 172 
Heliacus Orb., ix, .7 

Helicaulax Gabb, vii, . 104 
Heliotropis Dall, Hi, . 99, 122 
Helioradsia Thiele, xv, . 70 
Helminthochiton S a 1 1 e r , 

xiv, xix 

Helonyx Stimp., xvii, . 162 
Hemiaclis Sars, ix, . 52, 87 
Hemiarthrum Cpr., xiv, 1, 19 
Hemifusus Swains., iii, 98, 111 
Heminerita Mts., x, . .18 
Hemistomia Crosse, ix, 317, 342 
Hemitoma Swn., xii, . . 273 
Hemphillia Cpr., xiv, . 256 

Heptadactylus Klein, vii, 

101, 124 

Hercoles Montf. ? x, . . 231 
Hercorhyncus Conr., iii, . 103 
Hermania Monts., xvi, . 2 



322 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Hermes Montf , vi, . . 79 
Herpetopoma Pils., xi, 430, 445 
Hersilia Monts., ix, . . 233 
Heteroschisma Simr., xvii, 61 
Heterozona Cpr., xiv, . 65 
Hiatula Swains., v, . .218 
Hima Leach, iv, . 7, 45 
Hinea Gray, ix, . . 238, 279 
Hindsia H. & A. Ad., iii, . 251 
Hippochrenes Montf., vii, . 103 
Hipponyx Defr., viii, . 108, 134 
Hirundella Gray, xvi, . 34 
Holcostoma Ads., ix, . 238, 280 
Holochiton Fisch., xiv, . xxi 
Holopea Hall, ix, . . 35 
Holopella M'Coy, ix, . . 53 
Holopella Sandb., viii, . 264 
Homalaxis Fischer, ix, . 7 
Homalocantha Mch., ii, 73, 98 
Homalogyra Jeffr., ix, 324, 399 
HOMALOGYRID^:, ix, . 324, 399 
Homalopoma Cpr., x, . . 245 
Homotoma Bell, vi, . .160 
HoplopteronFisch.,viii,261, 289 
Huttonia Kirk., xi, . . 429 
Hyala Ads., ix, . . 318, 351 
Hyalina Schum., v, . .219 
Hyalopatina Dall, xvi, . 184 
Hybochelus Pils., xi, 430, 443 
Hydatina Schum., xv, . 386 
HYDATINID^E, xv, . . 385 
Hypodema Kon., x, . .12 

lanacus Morch, viii, . 104, 130 
IANTHINID^E, ix, . . 33 
lanthina Lam., ix, . 33, 36 
Icarus Forbes, xvi, . .162 
Ichthyomenia Pils., . xvii, 305 
Icoplax Thiele, xv, . . 62 
Igoceras Hall, viii, . .107 
Ildica Bergh., xvi, . 171, 173 
Ilyanassa Stimps., iv, . 7, 60 
Ilynerita Mts., x, . .18 
Imbricaria Schum., iv, 109, 199 
ImpagesSim., vii, . . 6 
Imperator Montf., x, . 190, 227 
Inella Bayle, ix, . . 122 



Infundibulops Pils., xi, 8, 40 
Infundibulum, Auct., viii, 

103, 121 

Infundibulum Montf., xi, 7, 24 
Iniforis Jouss., ix, . .122 
Ino Hinds., ix, . . . 122 
lodes Leach, ix, . . .34 
lodifia Morch, ix. . . 34 
loeranea Raf., iii, . . 253 
lohea A. Ad., ix, . 53, 89 
lopas H. & A. Ad., ii, 75, 180 
lopsis Gabb, viii, . . 260 
lothia Gray, xiii, . .70 
Iphinoe Ads., ix, . . 40 
Iphitus Jeffr., ix, . 236, 274 
Ipsa Jouss., vii, . . .161 
Iravadia Blanf., ix, . 322, 393 
Isanda Ads., xi, . . 16, 463 
Isapis Ads., ix, . . 235, 272 
Isara H. & A. Ad., iv, . 221 
Ischnochiton Gray, xiv, 53 ; 
xv,. .... 74 

ISCHNOCHITONID^E P i 1 S . , 

xiv, xxiv 

Ischnoplax Cpr., xiv, . . 64 
Ischnoradsia Shutt.,xiv, 144, 

xv, . . . . 86 
Isonema Meek, viii, . . 8 
Isopleura Meek, vii, . .102 
Ispidula Gray, v, . . 220 
Isseliella Nev., ix, . . 321 
Isselia Semp., ix, . . 321 

Jacintliinus Monts., xi, . 332 

Janella Grat., viii, . .261 

Jania Bellardi, iii, . . 226 

Janthina, ix, . . .36 

Janthoscala Morch., ix, . 50- 

Jasonilla Mac D., viii, . 5 
Jeffreysia Aid., ix, . 323, 396 
JEFFREYSIID.E, ix, . 322, 396 

Jenneria Jouss., vii, . . 161 

Jeranea Raf., iii, . . 253 

Joannisia Monts., xvi, . 185' 

Johania Monts., xvi, . 3, 27 

Jopas, H. & A. Ad., ii, . 180 

Josepha Ten. -Woods, iii, . 207 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



323 



Jujubinus Monts., xi, . . 332 
Katharina Gray, xv, . . 41 
Keilostoma Desh., ix, . 321 
Kilvertia Lycett, ix, . .119 
Kleinella A. Ad., xv, 179 ; 

xvi, . . . .230 
Koonsia Verr., xvi, . 191, 221 
Korenia Friele., xi, . .195 
Krebsia Morch, viii, . .108 

Labio Oken, xi, . . . 86 
Lachesis Risso, vi, . 156, 224 
Lacinia Conr., iii, . . 106 
Lacuna Turt., ix, . 233, 265 
Lacunaria Cour., viii 10 ; ix, 234 
Lacunaria Dall, ix, . . 234 
Lacunella Dall, ix, . . 234 
Lacunella Desh., ix, . . 234 
Lseocochlis Dkr. & Mtz., ix, 

120, 177 

Lsevidentalium Cossm.,xvii, 97 
Lajvilitorina Pfr., ix, 230, 254 
Lagena Bolt., iii, . . 254 
Lagena Schum., iii, . . 96 
Lambertia Souv., viii, 260, 286 
Lambidium Link, vii, . 270 
Lamellaria Mont., viii, 11, 60 
Lamellilitorina Tryon, ix, 

230, 253 

Lampanella Morch, ix, 118, 167 
Lampania Gray, ix, . 118, 166 
Lampas Schum., iii, . 37, 38 
Lamprodoma Swains., v, 60, 72 
Lamprostoma Swains., x, . 6 
Larnprostoma Sw., xi, 7, 24 
Lampusia Schum., iii, . 254 
Lancea Pse., viii, . . 297 
Laodia Gray, x, . .10 
Laona A. Ad., xvi, . 3, 26 
Laplysia L., xvi, . . 65 
Lapparia Conr., iv, . . 109 
Later ibranchiata Clk., xvii, v 
Latiaxis Swains., ii, . . 203 
Latirus Montf., iii, 48, 87, 225 
Latona Hutt., xi, . .110 
Latrunculus Gray, iii, . 254 
Lecania Cpr., xiii, . . 65 
Legrandia Bedd., xii, . 294 



Leiodomus Gray, vii, . . 6 
Leiodomus Swains., iv, . 14 
Leioderma Conr., iv, . . 77 
Leiopyrga Ads., xi, . 10, 139 
Leiostoma Swains., iii, . 102 
Leiostraca Ads., viii, . 259, 278 
Leiorrhinus Gabb, vii, . 103 
Lementina Risso, viii, . 167 
Leucorhynchia Crse., x, 15, 106 
Leucostoma Swains., ix, . 238 
Leucotina A. Ad., xv, 136, 166 
Leucostis Swains., viii, . 13 
Leucozonia Gray, iii, 48, 94, 226 
Lepeta Gray, xiii, . 67, 68 
LEPETID^E, xiii, . . 66 
Lepetella Verrill, xiii, 67, 75 
Lepidomenia Kow. & Mar., 

xvii, 309 

LEPIDOPLEURIDuEPils.,xiv, 

xxiv, 1 
Lepidopleurus Risso, xiv, 

1, 2 ; xv, , . . 62 
Lepidoradsia Cpr., xiv, . 144 
Lepidozona Pils., xiv, 125 ; 

xv, .... 82 
Leptoconus Mch., vi, . 25, 29 
Leptochiton Gray, xiv, . 2 
Leptoplax Cpr., xiv, 25 ; xv, 7 
Leptonotus Conr., viii, . 13 
Leptonyx Cpr., x, . . 245 
Leptothyra Cpr., x, . 190, 245 
Lepyrolobus Schliiter (=Ama- 

thina Gray). 

Lernea Bohad., xvi, . . 65 
Levenia Gray, vii, ( . 268, 272 
Levibuccinum Conr., iii, . 104 
Levifusus Conr., iii, . .104 
Leymeria M. Chal., x, . & 
Lia Folin (preoc. ; = Lio- 

morpha Pils.) viii, 318, 339 
Lienardia Jouss., vi, . .271 
Limneria Ads., viii, . 13, 66 
LimnotrochusSmith,ix,232, 264 
Linatella Gray, iii, . 255 

Linatella Morch, iii, . .14 
Linteria A. Ad., xv, . 
Lintricula Ads., v, . . 223 
Liomesus Stimp., iii, . . 256 



324 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Liostomia Sars, viii, . 319, 344 
'Liotia Gray, x, . . 17, 108 
LIOTIID^:, x, . . 17, 108 
Liotina Mun.-Ch., x, . 17, 112 
Liocerithium Try., ix, 113, 142 
Liolophura Pils., xiv, . 239 
Liopyrga Fisch., xi, . .139 
Liotrochus Fisch., xi, . . 457 
Lippistes Montf., ii, . . 241 
Lipoglossa Lank., xvii, . 281 
Lirofusus Conr., iii, . . 103 
Lirosoma Conr., iii, . . 50 
Lischkeia Fisch., xi, . . 332 
Lispodesthes White, vii, . 104 
Lissactceon Monts., xvi, .229 
Lissochilus Petho, x, . .5 
Lithedaphus Owen, viii, . 108 
Lithoconus Morch, vi, 10, 43 
Lithopoma Gray, x, . 190, 223 
Lithotrochus Conr., viii, . 194 
Litiopa Rang, ix, . 238, 280 
LITIOPIN^E, ix, . . . 237 
Littorina Fer., ix, . 229, 240 
LITTORINID^E, ix, . . 229 
Littorinopsis Morch, ix, . 230 
Livona Gray, xi, . 13, 277 
Lobantale Cossm., xvii, xxxi 
Lobaria Blainv., xvi, . . 44 
Lobaria Mull., xvi, . . 2 
Lobiger Krohn, xvi, . 162, 166 
Loboplax Pils., xv, . . 38 
Lonchseus Morch, viii, 295, 301 
Lophocercus Krohn, xvi, . 162 
Lophyriscus Thiele, xv, . 75 
Lophyrus Auct., xiv, . .149 
Lorica Ads., xiv, . . 236 
Loricella Pils., xiv, . . 238 
Loricites Cpr., xiv, . . xix 
Lotorium Montf., iii, . . 256 
Lotor Montf., iii, . . 256 
Lottiadce Gray, xiii, . . 5 
Lottia Gray, xiii, . . 65 
Lovenella Sars, ix, . 119, 175 
Loxonema Phill., viii, . 264 
Loxoporus Jeffr., xvii, . 162 
Loxotrema Gabb, vii, . 105 
Lucapina Ads., xii, . . 203 



Lucapina Gray, xii, 181, 198 
Lucapinella Pils., xii, . 195 
Luuatia Gray, viii, . 6, 35 
Lupia Conr,, viii, . . 10 
Luponia Gray, vii, . .163 
Luria Jouss., vii, . .161 
Lyncina Trosch., vii, . . 160 
Lyosoma White, viii, 13 ; x, 5 
Lyra Griff., v, . 223 

Lyria Gray, iv, . . 76, 101 
Lyroscapha Conr., viii, . 104 
Lysis Gabb, ii, 75, 180 ; viii, 11 

Macandrellus Cpr., xv, . 7 
Macellomenia Sirur., . xvii, 302 
Machceroplax Friele., xi, . 307 
Maclurea Les., x, . .11 
MACLUREIDJS, x, . .11 
Macrocheilus Phill., viii, . 263 
Macrochilina Bayle, viii, . 263 
Macron H. & A. Ad.,iii,101, 214 
Macrophagma Carp., viii, 

165, 173 

Macroehisma Sw., xii, . 189 

Macroschisma Sw., xii, . 189 
Mada Jeffr., iii, . . .257 
Magilina Velain, ii, . 76,218 
Magilus Montf., ii, . 76, 214 
Magulus Monts., xi, . .195 
Malea VaL, vii, . . 258, 265 
Mamillana Crosse, iv, . 101 
Mamillaria Schum, viii, . 6 
Mamilla Schum., viii, 7, 50 
Mamma Klein, viii, . 6, 42 
Mancinella Link, ii, . . 242 
Mandolina Bayle, vii, . 160 
Mangelia Auct., vi, . .158 
Mangilia Risso, vi, . 158, 243 
Manotrochus Fisch., xi, . 332 
Maraviqnia Arad. & Mag., 

ix, . . . . . 235 
Margarita Lch., xi, . 13,285 
Margarites Lch., xi, . . 285 
Marginella Lam., v, . 7, 12 
MARGINELLID^E, v, . .5 
Marmorostoma Sw., x, 190, 215 
Marsenia Leach, viii, . .11 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



325 



Marsenina Gray, viii, 12, 64 
Massotia B., D. & D., ix, 

319, 365 

Massyla Ads., vii, . .65 
Mastoniceforis Jouss., ix, . 122 
Mastonia Hinds, ix, .122,182 
Mathilda Semp., viii, . 195, 210 
Maugerella Cpr., xiv, . .61 
Maugeria Gray, xiv, . . 226 
Mauritia A. Ad., iv, . .162 
Mauritia Trosch., vii, . 160 
Mauryna Greg., vii, . . 103 
Mauxiena Jouss., vii, . .160 
Mauzonia Brus., ix, . 316, 336 
Mayeria Bell., iii, . . 226 
Mazza Klein, iv, . . 67 
Mazzalina Conr., iii, 225; 

iv, 67 

Mecynoplax Thiele, xv, .92 
Medoria Leach, ix, . 233, 267 
Megalomphalus Brus., ix, 

234, 267 

Meganema Conr., iii, . .258 
Megaptygma Conr., iv, . 225 
Megastomia Monts.,viii,320, 349 
Megatebennus Pils., xii, . 182 
Megatylotus Fisch.,viii, . 7 
Megistostoma Gabb, xvi, . 3 
Meioceras Cpr., viii, 214, 222 
Melanochlamys Cheesem., 

xvi, 44 
Melapium H. & A. Ad., ii, 

76, 213 

Melaraphe Miihl, ix, 230, 243 
Meleagris Montf., xi, . . 277 
Melo Humph., iv, . 75, 80 
Melougena Schum., iii, 98, 

107, 229 

Menestho Moll., viii, 320, 344 
Menippe Jeffr., ix, . . 53 
Merica Ads., vii, . 65, 74 
Merria Gray, viii, . .13 
Mesalia Gray, viii, . 193, 209 
Mesomotomura Pils., xiv, . 218 
MESOPLACOPHORA Pils., 

xiv, xxiv 

Mesorhytis Meek, iii, . . 50 
Mesostoma Desh., ix, .118 



Metalepis Jouss , ix, . .122 
Meta Rve., v, . . 102, 183 
Metaxia Monts., ix, .119, 173 
Metoptoma Phill., viii, . 106 
Metula H. & A. Ad., iii, 

100, 152 

Metulella Gabb, iii, . .104 
Meyeria Dkr. & Mtz., iii, 48, 73 
Metzgeria Norm., iii, . . 73 
Micana Gray, v, . . 225 
Microbeliscus Sandb., viii . 319 
Microgaza Dall, xi, . 11,160 
Micromelo Pils., xv, . 386, 391 
Microplax A. & A. (preoc. 

Choriplax Pils.), xiv, 1 
Microschiza Gemm., viii, . 265 
Microsetia Monts., ix, 318, 353 
Microspira Conr., v, . .16 
MicrostelmaA.Ad.,ix,320, 379 
Microtheca A. Ad., x, 16, 106 
Microtina Ads., xii, . . 35 
Microtis Ads., xii, . 7, 35 
Microtoma Swains., ii, . 243 
Microvoluta Ang., iv, 76, 1-05 
Middendorffia Cpr., xiv, . 282 
Millipes Klein, vii, . 101, 125 
Minolia A. Ad., xi, . 13, 259 
Minosia Dkr., xi, . . 259 
Miralda A. Ad., viii, 321, 355 
Mitella Leach, viii, . .103 
Mitchelia Rom., viii, . . 264 
Mitchellia Kon., viii, . 263 

Mitratfusus Bell., iii, 226 ; vii, 102 
Mitra Lam., iv, . . 108, 109 
Jtf8rartaRaf.,iv, . . 226 
Mitrella Gray, viii, . .108 
Mitrella Risso, v, . 102, 117 
Mitrella Swains., iv, . . 226 
Mitreola Swains., iv, . 226, 153 
MITRID^E, iv, . . 106 

Mitroidea Pse., iv, . 109, 162 
Mitrolites Krug, iv, . ^. 226 
Mitromorpha A. Ad., vi, 

161, 317 
Mitropsis Pse., iv, 227; v, 

102, 180 
Mitrularia Schum., viii, 

108, 137 



326 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Mnestia H. & A. Ad., xv, . 323 
Modelia Gray, x, . 190, 213 
Modulus Gray, ix, . 232, 260 
Mohnia Friele, iii, . . 133 
Mohrensternia Stol., ix, . 316 
Molopophorus Gabb., iv, . 7 
Molpalia Gray, xiv, . . 294 
Monetaria Trosch., vii, . 160 
Monilea Sw., xi, . 12, 246 
Monoceros Flem., iv, . . 227 
Monoceros Lam., ii, . 75, 193 
Monocyphus Piette, vii, . 104 
Monodactylus Klein, vii, 

101, 112 

Monodon Schweig., xi, . 86 
Monodonta Lam., xi, 8, 86 
Monodontes Montf., xi, . 86 
Monophorus Grille, ix, . 122 
Monoplex Perry, iii, . . 259 
Monoptygma A. Ad., xv, . 166 
Monoptygma Gray, viii, . 297 
Monoptygma Lea, v, 61, 91 
Monostichoglossata Pag., xvi, 161 
Monotocardia Mch., ii, . 63 
Mopalia Gray, xiv, . . 294 
MOPALILD^E Pils., xiv, . 2^3 
Morchia A. Ad., xi, . 16, 106 
Morchiella Nev., ix, . 320, 387 
Morelita Folin, viii, i . . 214 
Morio Montf., vii, . . 269 
Mormula A. Ad., viii, 297, 312 
Morula Schum., ii, . . 244 
Morum Bolt., vii, . . 270 
Morvillici Gray, viii, . .13 
Mucronalia A. Ad., viii, 

260, 284 

Mumiola A. Ad., viii, 297, 315 
Murchisoniella Morch, viii, 

318, 339 

Murex Linn., ii, . 73, 77 
Muricanthus Sw., ii, . . 244 
MURICID^E, ii, . . . 72 
Muricidea Swains., ii, 116, 244 
MURICIN^E, ii, . . . 73 
Murula Dh., ii, . . . 245 
Musica Humph., iv, . . 227 
Mutyca Ads., iv, . .162 

Myonia A. Ad., xv, . .166 



Myristica Swains., iii, . 107 
Myurella Hinds, vii, - . ; 8' 
Myzornenia Simr., xvii, . 303 

Nacella Schum., xiii, .114, 172 
Nana Schum., iv, . . 228 
Nanina Risso, iv, . . 228 
Naria Gray, vii, . .159 

Narica Reel., viii, . . 13 
Narona Ads., vii, . 65, 75 
Nassa Lam., iv, . , J17 

Nassaria Link, iii . 102, 220 
Nassodonta Ads., iv, . 6, 37 
Natere Gray, x, . 4,18 

Natica Adans., viii, . 5, 14 
Naticaria Swains., viii, . 7 
Naticella Guild., viii, . 6 

NATICID^E, viii, . . 3 

Naticina Gray, viii, . .10 
Naticina Guild., viii, .6 

Naticodon Ryckh., viii, . 14 
Naticopsis M'Coy, viii, 8 ; x, 12 
Natiria Kon., viii, ; 14 
Naucum Schum., xv, . . 261 
Navanax Pils., xvi, . 43, 57 
Navarchus Coop., xvi, . 57 
Navicella Lam., x, . 9, 77 
Naytia H. & A. Ads., iv, 6, 27 
Neaplysia Coop., xvi, . 68 

Nebularia Swains., iv, . 228 
Neda Ads., xvi, . . 228 

Neleta Gray, viii, . .102 
Nematomenia Simr., xvii, . 304 
Neobuccinum Sm., iii, 100, 197 
Neodiloma Fisch., xi, 9, 98 
Neomenia Tullb., xvii, . 289 
NEOMENIID^E, xvii, . . 288 
Neomphalius Fisch., xi, .163 
Neosimnia Fisch., vii, 244, 253 
Neptunea Bolt., iii, 98, 113, 230 
Neptunella Meek, iii, . 260 

Neptunella Verrill, iii, . 260 
Neridomus Morr. & Lye., x, 9 
Nerinsea Defr., viii, . . 298 
Nerinella Sharpe, viii, . 298 
Neritcea Roth, x, 6 

Nerita Lam., x, . . 4, 18 
Neritella Humph., x, . .6 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



327 



NERITID^E, x, . .3 

Neritilia Mts., x, . 7, 54 
Neritina Lam., x, . 5, 35 
Neritoconus Kob., x, . .7 
Neritodonta Brus., x, . 7 
Neritodryas Mts., x, . 6, 44 
Neritoglobus Kob., x, . 7 

Neritoides Brown, ix, 230, 252 
Neritoma Morr., x, . .9 
Neritomopsis Waagen, viii, 

8, x, 12 

Neritona Mts., x, . 7, 62 
NERITOPSID^E, x, .12, 82 
Neritopsis Grat., x, . 12, 82 
Neritrema Reel., ix, . . 230 
Neritula Plane., iv, . 7, 64 
Neripteron Less., x, . 8, 73 
Nescea Risso, vi, . .156 
Nesta H. Ad., xii, . 249, 269 
Neverita Risso, viii, . 6, 32 
Nevillia A. Ad., ix, . 319, 366 
Newcombia Cpr., xiv, . 290 
Nina Gray, ix, . . .231 
Ninella Gray, x, . 190, 212 
Niotha Ads., iv, . 7, 51 
Niphonia A. Ad., xii, 6, 29 
Nisea M. de Serr., ii, . 76, 218 
Niso Risso, viii, . . 261, 287 
Nitidella Swains., v, . 102, 113 
Niveria Jonas, vii, . .161 
Nodulus Monts., ix, . 317, 340 
Ncemia Folin, viii, . . 321 
Alicia Gray, viii, . .104 
Nona H.&. A. Ad., xv, 243, 261 
Northia Gray, iv, . 5, 8 
Norrisia Bayle, xi, . . 275 
Notarchus Cuv., xvi, 64, 

135, 161 

NOTASPIDEA, xvi, 170. xv, 134 
Notomenia Thiele, xvii, . 301 
Notoplax H. Ad., xv, . 31 
Nubecula Klein, vi, . . 85 
Nuclearia Jouss., vii, . . 161 
Nuttallina Cpr., xiv, 277, 

xv, 88 
Nux DaCosta, xv, . . 327 

Obeliscus Morch, viii, . 295 



Ocana Ads., x, . . 190, 214 
Oceanida Folin, viii, . 319, 343 
Ocellaria Weink., vii, . 160 
Ociuebra Leach, ii, . 74, 116 
Odetta Folin, viii, . . 321 
Odontidium Phil., viii, . 213 
Odontina Zborz., viii, .213 
Odontis Sby., xi, . . 86 
Odontobasis Meek, iii, . 105 
Odontopolys Gabb, ii, . 136 
Odontostomia Jeffr., viii, . 320 
Odontostoma Mch., x, 5, 30 
Odontostoma Turt., viii, .320 
Odoutotrochus Fisch., xi,l 1,148 
Odostomia Flera., viii, 320, 346 
Odostomiella B., D. & D., 

viii, 321, 355 

Olana H. & A. Ad., xiii, . 94 
Olearia Klein, x, . .191 
Oligotoma Bell., vi, . . 154 
Oliva Brug., v, . . 60, 73 
Olivancillaria Orb., v, 60, 90 
Olivaria Raf, v, . . 230 
Olivella Swains., v, 59,63, 198 
Olivia Cantr., xi, . 15,448 
OLIVID.E, v, . .59 

Olivina Orb., v, . . .230 
OLIVIN.E, v, . . 59, 62 
Olivula Conr., v, . 61 

Omalalaxis Dh., ix, 7, . 24 
Omalaxis Desh.,ix, . 7, 24 
Omalogyra Jeffr., ix, . .324 
Ombrella Blv., xvi, . .176 
Omphalia Zek., viii, . .194 
Ompfta/iu* Ph., xi, . .163 
Oncidiopsis Bk., Bergh, viii, 

12, 64 

Oncochilus Petho, x, . .9 
Oncoma May., vii, . .101 
Ondina Folin, viii, . 320, 350 
Onithochiton Gray, xiv, . 244 
Oniscia Sowb., vii, . 269, 280 
Oniscidia Swains., vii, 270, 282 
Onoba Ads., ix, . .318, 346 
Onustus Ads., viii, . 157, 162 
Onythochiton Gray, xiv, . 244 
Oocorys Fisch., vii, . . 267 
OOCORYTHID^E, vii, . . 267 



328 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Oonia Gemm., viii, . . 265 
Opalia Ads., ix, . . . 50 
Operculatum Ads., xvi, . 176 
Ophileta Vanux., ix, . .7 
OPISTHOBRANCHIATA, xv, . 134 
Orina A. Ad., viii, . 296, 310 
Oriostoma Mun.-Chal , viii, 9 
Ornithochiton Cpr., xiv, . 244 
Orthaulax Gabb, vii, . 103 
Orthomesus Pils., x, . 164, 179 
Orthonema Meek & Worth. 

viii, 264 

Orthonychia Hall, viii, . 107 
Orthopoma Gray, x, . .10 
Orthostelis Arad., viii, . 317 
Oscanius Leach, xvi, . 191, 212 
Oscilla A. Ad., viii, . 296, 309 
Osilinus Phil., xi, . 9, 92 
Ossiania Monts., xvi, . 2 
Osteochiton Dall, xiv, . 294 
Otavia Risso, xi, . . 47 
Otocheilus Conr., iv, 78, vi, 159 
Otopleura Fisch., viii, 295, 304 
Otostoma d'Arch., x, . .5 
Ovula Brug., vii, . 243, 246 
Ovulactseon Dall, xv,. 136, 178 
OVULID^;, vii, . . . 243 
OXYNOEID.E, xvi, . * . 161 
Oxynoe Raf., xvi, . .162 
Oxystele Phil., xi, . 10, 112 

Pachybathron Gask., vii, 

270, 283 

Pachypoma Gray, x, . 190, 244 
Pachystylus Gemm., viii, . 299 
Pacobranchus Gray, xvi, . 114 
PadollusMontf.,xii, . 75, 120 
Pagodella Swains., ix, . 231 
Pagodus Gray, ix, . .231 
Palseatractus Gabb, iii, . 103 
Palseoniso Gemm., viii, . 261 
Pallochiton Dall, xiv, . 256 
Papillina Conr., iii, . .103 
Paramenia Pruv., xvii, . 306 
Paranassa Conr., iv, . . 8 
Paraplysia Pils., xvi, . 64, 115 
Pararrhopalia Simr., xvii, 307 
ParastrophiaFolin, viii,214, 223 



Paria Gray, x, . . 10, 80 
Parkeria Gabb, x, . .15 
Parmophorus Cantr., xvv . 186 
Parmophorus Blainv., xii, . 287 
PartheninaB.,D. &D.,viii, 321 
Parthenia Lowe, viii, . . 321 
Parthenopia Oken, xvi, . 39 
Paryphostoma Bay an., ix, . 321 
Parvisetia Mouts., ix, 319, 358 
Pasithea Lea, viii, . 259, 263 
Patella Linn., xiii, . 80, 172 
Patellastra Monts., xiii, . 171 
PATELLID^E, xiii, . 76, 172 
Patellidea Thiele, xiii, .171 
Patellites Walch, xiii, . 80 
Patelloidea Q. & G., xiii, . 7 
Patellona Thiele, xiii, .171 
Patellopsis Thiele, xiii, .171 
Patellus Montf., xiii, . . 80 
Patina Leach, xiii, . .109 
Patinastra Thiele, xiii, . 171 
Patinella Dall, xiii, . . 116 
Payraudeautia B., D. & D., 

viii, 6, 42 

Peasiella Nev., ix, . 232, 263 
Pectinodonta Dall, xiii, . 6 
Pedicularia Swains., vii, . 241 
PEDICULARIID^E, vii, . . 241 
Pelecydium Fisch., ix, 317, 341 
Pelicaria Gray, vii, . 105, 134 
Pellilitorina Pffr., ix, 230, 255 
Peloronta Oken, x, 4, 18, 24 
PeftaQuatr.,xvi. . 171, 239 
Peltarion Desl., x, . .12 
Peltidce, xvi, . . .170 
Pentadactylus Klein, ii, . 248 
Perdix Montf., vii, . . 258 
Pereirsea Crosse, vii, . .101 
Peribohis Adans., v, . . 232 
Peringiella Monts., ix, . 317 
Perissolax Gabb, iii, . .104 
Peristera Raf., v, . . 232 
Peristernia Morch, iii, 48, 79 
Perotrochus Fisch., xii, . 70 
Perrinia Ads., xi, . 15, 416 
Perrona Schum., vi, . 157, 231 
Persephona Leach, ix, 316, 330 
Persicula Gray, v, .15, 36 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



329 



Personella Conr., iii, . 6, 264 
Petalifera Gray, xvi, . 64, 128 
PetaloconchusLea,viii, 165, 172 
Petrettinia Bgt., x, . 7 

Phacellopleura Cpr., xv, . 38 
Phoenochiton Midd., xiv, . xvii 
Phakellopleura Guild., xv, . 31 
Phalium Link, vii, . . 269 
PHANEROGAMA Latr., ii, . 63 
Phanerophthalmus Ad., xvi, 38 
Phaneta H. Ad., xii, . 6, 30 
Pharetriwn Konig, xvii, . 245 
Phasianella Lam., x, . .164 
PHASIANELLID^E, x, . .162 
Phasianema S. Wood, ix, 

235, 272 
Phasianotrochus Fiscli., xi, 

10, 131 

Phasmoconus Mch., vi, . 52 
Pherusa Jeffr., ix, . 52, 89 
Pbiline Asc., xv 255; xvi, 

1, 2, 238 

PHILINID.E, xvi, . . 1 
Philinopsis Pse., xvi, . . 56 
Philippia Gray, ix, . 5, 14 
Phcenospira Hinds, v, . 232 
Phorculus Monts., xi, . . 195 
Phorcus Ads., xi, . .163 
Phorcus Risso, xi, . .195 
Phorus Montf., viii, . .157 
Phosinella Morch, ix, 320, 381 
Phos Montf., iii, . 101, 215 
Photinula Ads., xi, . 13, 278 
PhrontisAds.,iv, . 6, 39 
Phycophila Ad., xvi, 68, 114 
Phyllaplysia Fisch., xvi, 

64, 132 

Phylloeheilus Gabb, vii, . 102 
Phyllonotus Sw., ii, . 73, 99 
Physema H. & A. Ad., xv, 280 
Pila Klein, x, . .4, 18, 27 
Pileolus Cooks., Sow., x, .11 
Pileopsis Lam., viii, . .105 
Pilidium Forbes, xiii, 67, 70 
Pilidium Midd., viii, . .105 
Piliscus Lov., viii, . .105 
Pinaxia A. Ad., ii, . 75, 198 
Pionoconus Mch., vi, . . 52 

22 



Pirenella Gray, ix, . 117, 165 
Pisania Biv., iii, . 100, 145 
Pisinna Monts., ix, . .317 
Pitonellus Montf., xi, . . 450 
Placiphora Cpr., xiv, . .311 
Placiphorella Cpr., xiv, . 305 
Placobranchus Gray, xvi, . 114 
Placophora Dall, xiv, .311 

Placophora Iher., xiv, . vi 
Placophoropsis Pils., xiv, . 313 
Plagioglypta Pils., xvii, xxxi 
Plagiorhytis Fisch., xii, . 28$ 
Plagiostyla Fisch., ix, 318, 352 
PLANAXID^E, ix, . . 237 
PLANAXIN^], ix, . . 237 
Planaxis Lam., ix, . 237, 276 
Planaxis Risso, iv, . . 233 
Platyceras Conr., viii} . 106 
Platygyra Morch, ix, . .115 
Platyostoma Conr., viii, 9, 107 
Platyschisma M'Coy, ix, . 5 
Platysemus Midd., xiv, . xvii 
Plaxiphora Gray, xiv, . 31 1 
Plectostylus Conr., viii, . 263 
Pleioptygma Conr., iv, . 78 
Plesiotrochus Fisch., ix, 232, 264 
Pleistocheilus Meek, iii, . 47 
Pleurobranchsea Leue, xvi, 

191, 223 
Pleurobranchcena Swains., 

xvi, 223 

PLEUROBRANCHID^:, xvi, . 190 
Pleurobranchidium B 1 v., 

xvi, 223 

Pleurobranchillus Bgh., xvi, 221 
PleurotomaLam., vi, 154,162 
Pleurobranchus Cuv., xvi, . 191 
Pleurotomaria Sowb., xii, . 69 
PLEUROTOMARIII^E, xii, . 69 
Pleurotomella Ver., vi, 161, 316 
PLEUROTOMID.E, vi, . . 151 
Plicatella Swains., iii, . 87 
Plicifer H. Ad., viii, . 262, 293 
Plocamobranchia Gray, viii, 101 
Plocamotis Fisch., xii, 37, 40 
Plochela3a Gabb, v, . .60 
Poculina Gray, viii, . . 108 
Poeciloplax Thiele, xv, . 88 ; 



330 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Polinices Montf., viii, . . 6 

Pollia Gray, iii, . . .265 

Polydonta Schum., xi, . 24 

Polygona Schura., iii, . . 265 

Polyphemopsis Portl., viii, . 263 

POLYPLACOPHORA, xiv, XV. 

Polyschides Pils. & Sh., xvii, 

131, 146 

Polyspirella Cpr., viii, . 321 
Polytropa Swains., ii, 159, 170 
Pomatobranchia ii, . . 63 
Pomaulax Gray, x, . 190, 243 
Ponda Jouss., vii, . .161 
Porcellana Klein, vii, .161 
Porcellanella Conr., v, .16 
Porochiton Fisch., xvi, . xxi 
Porphyria Bolt., v, . . 234 
Portlockia deKon., ix, . 231 
Posterobranchcea Orb., xvi, 44 
Posterobranehus Rochebr., 

xvi, 239 

Potamides Brong., ix, 115, 158 
Prsecia Gray, xi, . 8, 44 
Priamus Beck, vi, . .161 
Priene H. & A. Ad., iii, 9, 33 
Priotrochus Fisch., xi, . 257 
Priscochiton Bill., xiv, . xix 
Priscofusus Conr., iii, . . 49 
Prisogaster Mch., x, . 190, 219 
Probolo3um Cpr., xiv, . xix 
Proneomenia Hubr., xvii, . 293 
Propilidium Fbs. & Han., 

xiii, 67, 72 

Proscenula Perry, viii, . 104 
PROSOBRANCHIATA, ii, . 5 
Prosopocephala Bronn, xvii, v 
Proto Auct., viii, . .194 
Protoma Baird, viii, . 194, 210 
Protopoda Gray, viii, . . 163 
Prunum Ads., v, . 14, 28 
Pruvotia Thiele, xvii, . 301 
Psephsea Crosse, iv, . . 98 
Pseudoraaura Fisch., viii, . 8 
Pseudantalis Monts., xvii, 127 
Pseudaplysia Pils., xvi,. 129 131 
Pseudobuccinum, iii, . .105 
Pseudocassis Pict., vii, . 162 
Pseudocerithium Cossm., ix, 114 



Pseudodactylus Herrm., ii, . 249 
Pseudoliva Swains., ii, 75, 196 
Pseudomalaxis Fisch., ix, . 7 
Pseudomarginella Maltz., v, 234 
Pseudomelania Pict. & 

Camp., viii, . . . 265 
Pseudomurex Monts., ii, . 210 
Pse'udophorus Meek, viii, . 157 
Pseud orbis Monts., x, 13, 87 
Pseudorotella Fisch., x, 15, 105 
Pseudosetia Monts., ix, . 318 
Pseudostrombus Klein, iv, 5, 14 
Pseudotorna Bell., vi, . .154 
Psychrosoma Caneb., ix, . 50 
Pterocera Lam., vii, .101, 123 
Pterocerella Meek, vii, . 104 
Pterochiton Cpr. y xiv, . xix 
Pterodonta Orb., vii, . . 103 
Pteronotus Swains., ii, 73, 84 
Pterorhytis Conr., ii, . .136 
Pterostoma Desh., ix, .119 
Pterygia Link, v, . . 234 
Pterygophysis Fisch., xvi, . 169 
Pteryonotus Swains., ii, . 249 
Ptychatractus Stimp., iii, 48, 72 
PtychomphalusA.g.,xl, . 450 
Ptychoris Gabb, iv, . . 77 
Ptychosalpiux Gill, iv, . 7 
Ptychostoma Laube, viii, . 8 
Ptyehostylis Gabb, xi, . .414 
Ptychosyca Gabb, vii, . 260 
Ptygmatis Sharpe, viii, . 298 
Pugilina Schum., iii, . 107, 266 
Pugnellus Conr., vii, . . 101 
Pugnus Hedley, xvi, . . 233 
Pulsellum Stol., xvii, 131, 138 
Puncticulus Swn., vi, . . 18 
Puncturella Lowe, xii, . 228 
Puperita Gray, x, . 6, 42 
Pupill^a Gray, xii, . .180 
Pupillia Gray, xii, . .180 
Purpura Brug., ii, . 75, 158 
Purpurella Ball, ii, . 158, 161 
PURPURIN^E ii, . . . 74 
Purpurina Orb., ii, 250; ix, 232 
Purpuroidea Lycett, ii, 75, 180 
Pusia Swains., iv, . . 182 
Pusillina Monts., ix, . .316 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



331 



PusioDella Gray, vi, . 158, 234 
Pusiostoma Swains., v, 103, 196 
Pustula Jouss., vii, . .161 
Pustularia Swains., vii, 163, 196 
Puteolus Monts., xi, . . 1 95 
Putilla A. Ad., ix, . 322, 396 
Putzeysia Sull., xi, . . 413 
Pygmcea Humph., v, . . 101 
Pyraraidella Lam., viii, 295, 299 
PYRAMIDELJJD^:, viii, . 294 
Pyramidelloides Nev., ix, 

320, 391 

Pyramis Couth., viii, . . 320 
Pyrazisinus Heilpr., ix, .116 
Pyrazus Montf., ix, . 116, 158 
Pyrella Swains., iii, . . 266 
Pyrene Bolt., v, . . . 101 
PyrgisculusMonts.,viii318, 325 
Pyrgiscus Phil., viii, . . 317 
Pyrgolidium Monts., viii, 

318, 326 

Pyrgopolon Montf., xvii, . 245 
PyrgostelisMonts,,viii,318, 326 
Pyrgostylus Monts., viii, 

318, 327 

Pyrgulina A. Ad., viii, 321, 359 
Pyrifusus Conr., iii, . . 103 
Pyropsis Conr., iii, . .104 
Pyrula Lam., vii, . 258, 265 
Pyrulofusus Mch., iii, . .266 
Pyrunculus Pils., xv, . . 229 
Pyxipoma Morch, viii, 168, 191 

Quadrasia Crosse, ix, . 238, 279 
Quoyia Desh., ix, . 238, 280 

Radius Montf., vii, . . 244 

Radsia Gray, xiv, . . 189 

Radsiella Pils., xiv, . . 139 

Radsiella Thiele, xv, . . 74 

Ramola Gray, v, . . 236 

Rana Humph., iii, . . 36 

Ranella Lam., iii, 6, 36, 225 

Ranellina Conr., iii, . . 6 

Ranularia Schum., iii, . 268 

Rapa Klein, ii, . . 76, 214 

Rapana Schum., ii, . 76, 202 

Rapella Swains., ii, . .251 



Raphistoma Hall, ix, . 35 
Raphitoma Bell., vi, . 160, 307 
Raphium Bay an, viii, . 319 
Rapum Humph., iv, . . 236 
Raulinia Mayer, ix, . 236, 274 
Raynevallia Ponzi, viii, . 10 
Reclusia Petit, ix, . 35, 38 
Retusa Brown, xv,181, 203 ; 

xvi, . . . .233 
Reymondia Bgt., ix, . 239, 285 
Rhabdoconcha Gernm., viii, 265 
Rhabdopleura Kon., ix, . 231 
Rhabdus Pils. & Sh., xvii, . 112 
Rhinacantha H. & A. Ad., 

ii, 73, 98 

Rhinoelavis Swains., ix, . 114 
Rhinodomus Swains., iii, . 268 
Rhizochilus Steenstr., ii, 76, 205 
Rhizoconus Morch, vi, 29, 39 
Rhizorus Montf., xv, . . 233 
Rhodoplax Thiele, xv, . 74 
Rhombus Montf., vi, . .7 
Rhopalomenia Simr., xvii, . 297 
Rhopalopleura Thiele, xv, . 91 
Rhyssoplax Thiele, xv, . 69 
Rictaxis Ball, xv, . .166 
Ricinula Lam., ii, . 75, 182 
Rigauxia Cossm., viii, . 264 
Rimella Agas., vii, . 102, 129 
Rimula Defr., xii, V . 269 
Ringicula Desh., xv, 394; 

xvi, . . " . .233 
Ringiculella Sacco, xvi, . 233 
RINGICULID^, xv, . . 393 
Ringiculina Monts., xv, . 394 
Risella Gray, ix, . 232, 262 
Rissoa Frem., ix, . 314, 325 
Rissoella Gray, ix, . . 323 
Rissoia Auct., ix, . .314 
RISSOID^E, ix, . .314, 325 
Rissoina Orb., ix, . 319, 369 
Rissolina Old., ix, . 320, 374 
Rissopsis Garr., ix, . 319, 359 
Rissostomia Sars, ix, . 315, 329 
Ritena Gray, x, . . .4 
Rostellaria Lam., vii, 102, 127 
Rostellites Conr., iv, . .77 
Rostrisepta Seg., xiii, . . 72 



332 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Rotella Lam., xi, . . 450 
Rouaultia Bell., vi, . .154 
Roxania Leach, xv, . 262, 279 
Roxaniella Monts., xv, . 263 
Rudolplia Schum., ii, . 252 
Ruma Chemn., Ads., viii, . 7 
Rumella Bgt., viii, . 10, 54 
Runcina Forbes, xvi, . 171, 239 
RUNCINID^E, xvi, . . 170 
Sabansea Leach, ix, . 316, 339 
Sabatia Bell., xv, 255 ; xvi, 235 
Sacoglossa Iher., xvi, . . 161 
Sagenella Conr., iii, . . 106 
Saginella Conr., iii, . . 270 
Saintsimonia Bgt., x, . .7 
Sandalium Schum., viii, . 104 
Sandbergeria Bosq., ix, .118 
Sandella Gray, v, . . 238 
Sao H. & A. Ad., xv, . 229 
Sarcopterus Raf., xvi, . . 39 
Sarmaticus Gray, x, . 190, 218 
Scabriola Swains., iv, . . 132 
Scsevola Gernm., x, . . 17 
Scsevogyra Whitf., viii, . 13 
Scala Klein, ix, . . . 50 
Scalaria Lam., ix, . . 49 

SCALARIID^E, ix, . . 49 

Scalaspira Conr., ii, 152 ; iii, 49 
Scalenostoma Dh., viii, 260, 287 
Scalina Conr., ix, . . 50 
Scaliola A. Ad., ix, . 51, 85 
Scalites Conr., ix, . . 35 
Scapha Gray, iv, . 239 

Scaphanidea Rolle, x, . 12 
Scaphander Montf., xv, 243, 

244; xvi, . . .234 
SCAPHANDRID^F; Fisch., xv, 242 
Scaphella Swains., iv, . 239 
SCAPHOPODA, xvii, . . v 
Scaphula Gray, v, . . 238 
Scaphula Swains., v, . . 238 
Schismope Jeffr., xii, . . 49 
Schisomope, error for Schis- 
mope, xii, . . .49 
Schizodentalium Sowb., xvii, 63 
Schizoplax Dall, xiv, . 46 
Schizopyga Conr., iv, . 55, 239 
Schizochiton Gray, xiv, . 234 



Schizostorna Bronn, ix, . 8 
Schizotroehus Monts., xii, . 49 
Schwartzia B., D. & D., ix, 

316, 330 

Schwartziella Nev., ix, 320, 379 
Scissurella Orb., xii, . . 49 
SCISSURELLID^E, xii, . . 49 
ScleVochiton Cpr., xiv, . 188 
Scobinella Conr., vi, . . 157 
Scolecomorpha Lank, xvii, . 281 
Scolymus Swains., iv, . . 239 
Sconsia Gray, vii, . 269, 280 
Scrobs Wats"., ix, . .317 
Scurria Gray, xiii, . . 61 
Scutella Brod,, xii, . . 127 
Scutellastra H. & A. Ad., 

xiii, . . . .94 
Scuteliina Auct., xiii, . . 70 
Scutellina Gray (preoc. = 

Phenacolepas Pils.) xii, . 127 

SCUTELLINID^E xii, . . 127 

Scutum Auct., xii, . .287 

Scutus Montf., xii, . . 287 

Seguenzia Jeffr., ix, . 41, 46 

Seila A. Ad., ix, . 119, 174 

Selma A. Ad., viii, . 260, 285 

Semicassis Morch, vii, 268, 274 
Semifusus Fisch. = Hemifu- 

sus. 

Seminella Pse., v, 102, 165 ; 

vi, 160 

Semperia Crosse, xii, . . 248 

Senectus Swains., x, . . 191 
Separatista Gray, ii,76, 213, 

ix, . . . . 41, 45 

Septaria Fer., x, . .10 

Seraphs Montf., vii, . . 103 

Serpula, xvii, . . . 241 

Serpulorbis Sassi, viii, . 166 

Serpulus Montf, viii, . .166 

Serrata Jouss., v, . 15, 239 
Serrifusus Meek, iii, . . 49 

Setia Ads., ix, . . 318, 352 

Sigapatella Less., viii, 103, 122 

Sigaretus Lam., viii, . 10, 55 

Siliquaria Brug., viii, . 168, 188 

Simnia Risso, vii, . .244 

Simpulum Klein, iii, . 9, 11 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



333 



Simrothiella Pils., xdi, . 296 
Sinistralia H. & A. Ad., iii, 

47, 66 

Sinusigera Orb., ii, . . 168 
Sipho Brown, xii, . . 228 
Sipho Klein, iii, . 99, 123 
Siphonalia A. Ad., iii, 99, 133 
Siphonella Iss., xii, . . 273 
Siphonentalis Sars, xvii, . 138 
Siphonium Morch, viii, 167, 183 
Siphonodentalium Sars, 
xvii, 131, 135, 234, . 253 

SlPHONODENTALIID^S, XVH, 

xxix, . . . .130 
Siphonodentalis Cless., xvii, 138 
Siphonopoda Sars, xvii, . 130 
Siphonotus Ads. & Rve., 

xvi, . . . .65 
Siphonorbis Mch., iii, . 272 
Siphopatella Less., viii, 104, 130 
Sistrum Montf., ii, . . 185 
Skenea Flem., ix, . 323, 398 
SKENEID^E, ix, . . 323, 398 
Skenella Pffr., ix, . 322, 396 
Smaragdia Iss., x, . 7, 54 
Smaragdinella Ad., xv, 243, 257 
Smithia Malz., ix, . . 52 
Solanderia Fisch. ( Rossi- 

teriaBraz.), xi, . 12, 256 
Solariella Wood, xi, . 14, 307 
SOLARIID^:, ix, . . .3 
Solariorbis Conr., ix, . . 5 
Solarium Lam., ix, . 5, 8 
Soleniscus Meek & Worth., 

viii, . . . .299 
Solenoconchia Auct., xvii, . v 
Solenogastres Gegenb., xvii, 281 
Solenopus Sars, xvii, . . 289 
Solenopus Simr., xvii, . 296 
Solidula F. deWald, xv, 

136, 413 

Sormetus Fer., xvi, . . 2 
Sparella Gray, v, . . 240 
Speo Risso, xv, . . .147 
Spinigera Orb., vii, . . 105 
Spiricella Rang, viii, . . 106 
Spirilla Humph., iii, . . 273 
Spirobranchus Blainv., ii, . 255 



Spiroclirnax Morch, viii, . 321 
Spirocrypta Gabb, viii, . 104 
Spirodentalium Wale., xvii, 246 
SpiroglyphusDaud.,viii,166, 177 
Spirolidium Costa, viii, 213, 214 
Spironema Meek, ix, . . 235 
Spirotropis Sars, vi, . 155, 213 
Spongiochiton Cpr., xv, 7 ; 

xiv, . . . .26 
Spongioradsia Pils., xv, . 65 
Stanleya Bgt., x, . 7, 56 
Staphylcea Jouss., vii, . 161 

Stectoplax Cpr., xv, . . 7 
Stella Klein, x, . . .231 
Stenochiton A. & A., xiv, . 55 
Stenoplax Cpr., xiv, . . 56 
Stenopoma Gray, x, . .10 
Steuoradsia Cpr., xiv, . 61 
Stenosemus Midd., xiv, . xvii 
Stenotis A. Ad., ix, . 234, 268 
Stephanocouus Mch., vi, . 25 
Stephopoma Morch, viii, 167, 185 
Stereochiton Cpr., xv, 68 ; 

xiv, .52 

Stereoplax Thiele, xv, . 74 
Steromphala Gray, xi, . 195 
Sthenorytis Conr., ix, . 50 
Stigmaulax Morch, viii, 6, 32 
Stilbe Jeffr., ix, . . 53, 90 
Stilus Jeffr., ix, . . 113, 144 
Stimpsoniella Cpr., xv, . 92 
Stoa Serres, viii, . 166, 167 
Stolida Jouss., vii, . . 161 
Stomatella Lam., xii, 6, 7 
STOMATELLID^E, xii, . . 5 
Stomatia Helbl., xii, . 6, 30 
Stomatia Hill, viii, . . 10 
Stomatiidce; xii, . . . 5 
Stomax Montf., xii, . . 30 
Stossichia Brus., ix, . 320, 391 
Stramonita Swain?., ii, 159, 166 
Strategus Coop., xvi, . . 57 
Strebloceras Cpr., viii, 214, 223 
Strephona Browne, v, . . 241 
Strepsidura Swains., iii, . 103 
Streptockiton Cpr., xiv, . 330 
Streptosiphon Gill, iii, 99, 143 
Strigatella Swains., iv, 108, 153 



334 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Strobeus Kon., viii, . . 264 
Strombella Gray, iii, . . 273 
STROMBID^E, vii, . . 99 
StrombiDa Morch, v, . 102, 183 
Strombolaria Greg., vii, . 102 
Strorabus L., vii, . 100, 106 
Strongylocera Mch., iii, . 215 
Strophostylus Hall, viii, . 9 
Struthiolaria Lam., vii, 105, 133 
Stylia Jouss., ix, . . 122 
Stylifer Brod., viii, . 262, 289 
Styliferina A. Ad., viii, 260, 

286 ; ix, . . . 239, 284 
Stylina Flem., viii, . . 262 
Stylocheilus Gld., xvi, 135, 139 
Stylopsis A. Ad., viii, 319, 344 
Styloptygma A. Ad., viii, 

297, 312 

Subernarginula Blv., xii, . 273 
Subeulima Sow., viii, . 260, 287 
Subulites Conr., viii, . . 264 
Subularia Monts., viii, . 259 
Sulcobuceinum Orb., ii, . 256 
Sulcocyprsea Conr., vii, . 162 
Sulculus Ads., xii, . . 75 
Surcula Ads., vi, _ . 158, 236 
Sureulites Conr., vi, . . 158 
Susania Gray, xvi, . . 212 
Swainsonia Ads., iv, . . 130 
Sychar Hinds, ix, . 122, 188 
Sycopsis Conr., iii, . . 103 
Sycotypus Ads., vii, . . 259 
Sycotypus Gill, iii, . 99, 142 
Sycum Bayle, iii, . . 102 
Symmetrogephyrus M i d d ., 

xiv, xvii ; xv, . . 43 
Sympterus Raf., xvi, . .161 
Synaptocochlea Pils., xii, 6, 25 
Sypharochiton Thiele, xv, . 88 
Syphonopyge Bronn, xvi, . 65 
Syphonota Pse., xvi, . . 65 
Syringites Auct., xvii, xxix 

Syrinx Bolt., iii, . . . 274 
Syrnola A. Ad., viii, . 296, 306 
Syrnolopsis Smith, viii, 298, 315 



Tallorbis Nev., xi, 
Talopia Gray, xi, 



446 
246 



Talparia Trosch., vii, . . 160 
Taphon H. & A. Ad., iii, 99, 143 
Taranis Jeffr., vi, .160,315 
Tatea T.-W., ix, . 323, 397 
Tectura Auct., xiii, . . 7 
Tecturina Cpr., xiii, . . 65 
Tectarius Val., ix, . 231, 256 
TECTIBRANOHIATA. xvi, . 1 
Tecturella Cpr., xiii, . . 65 
TeeturidcK, xiii, ... 5 
Tectus Montf., xi, . 7, 19 
Tegula Less , xi, . . 163 
Teinostoma Ads., x, . 15, 103 
Teinotis Ads., xii, . 75, 126 
Telasco H. & A. Ad., iv, . 30 
TELEOPLACOPHORA, xiv, . xxvi 
Telescopium Montf., ix, 117, 161 
Telobranchiata Kor. & Dan. 

xvii, 281 

Temana Leach, ix, . . 233 
Tenagodes Guett., viii, . 168 
Tenare Gray, x, . 4, 18 

Terebellopsis Leym., vii, . 103' 
Terebellum Klein [^Ser- 
aphs Montf.], vii, .103,130 
Terebra Adans., xii, . . 8 
Terebralis Swains., ix, 116, 160 
TEREBRID^E, vii, . . 3 
Terebrispira Conr., iii, 50, 275 
Teres B., D. & D., vi, 160, 313 
Teretopoma Rochebr., ix, . 7 
Tessarolax Gabb, vii, . 104 
Tessellata Jouss., vii, . .161 
Tetfiys Auct., xvi, . 65, 66 
TethysL., xvi, . . 64, 65 
Tetranemia Morch, viii, . 166- 
Textilia Swn., vi, . .' 88 
Thala H. & A. Ad., iv, 108, 159 
Thalessa H. & A. Ad., ii, 

159, 162 

Thallepus Swains., xvi, 117, 126- 
Thalotia Gray, xi, . 10, 141 
Thapsia Monts., ix, . . 31& 
ThapsiellaFisch.,ix, . 319, 366 
Tharsis Jeffr., x, . 14, 100 
Thatcheria Ang., iii, . 98, 112 
Thecaphorus Nutt., xv, . 258 
Theliostyla Mch., x, . 4, 18- 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



335 



Theodoxus Montf., x, 6, 45 
Thesbia Jeffr.,vi, . 160, 315 
Thethys Auct., xvi, . . 65 
Thiarella Swains., iv, . 243 

Thyca Ads., viii, . 106, 133 
Thyreus Phil., vii, . . 241 
Thylacodes Guett, viii, 166, 179 
Tiara Swains., iv, . . 243 
Tiberia Jeffr., viii, . 295, 304 
Tigris Trosch., vii, . . 160 
Tinostoma Fisch. Teinos- 
toma .... 
Tin otis Fisch., xii, . . 126 
Titiscaoia Bergh, xiii, . 164 
TITISCANIID^, xiii, . .164 
Tomella Swn., vi, . 157, 231 
Tomochilus Gemra., ix, . 114 
Tomochiton Fisch., xiv, . xxi 
Tomostoma Dh., x, . .9 
Tonicella Cpr., xiv, 40, xv, 66 
Tonichia Gray, xiv, . .194 
Tonicia Gray, xiv, 194, xv, 89 
Toniciella Thiele, xv, . 66 
Toniciopsis Thiele, xv, . 89 
Torcula Gray, viii, . 193, 205 
TorelliaLoven,ix, . 41, 46 
Torinia Gray, ix, . 6, 16 
TORINIIN^:, ix, . . .4 
Tornatella Lam., xv, . . 147 
Tornatina A. Ad., xv, 181, 

xvi, 232 

TORNATINID^E, XV, . .180 

Tortifusus Conr., iii, . .104 
Tortoliva Conr., v, 60 ; v, 243 
Trabecula Monts., viii, .317 
Trachydermon Cpr., xiv, 67; 

xv, 62 
Trachydomia Meek & 

Worth., viii, 8 ; x, . .12 
Trachyoma Seg., ix, . . 41 
Trachyradsia Cpr., xv, . 68 
Trachysma Jeffr., x, . .13 
Trachytriton Meek, iii, . 6 
Tragula Monts., viii, 317,325 
Transovula Greg., vii, . 245 
Trelania Gray, viii, 102, 108 
Tribulus Klein, ii, . 159, 161 
Trichophora Desh., ix, . 40 



TRICHOTROPID^E, ix, . . 40 
Trichotropis B. & S., ix, 40, 42 
Tricla Philippson xv, . 244 
Tricolia Risso, x, . 164, 167 
Tricoliella Monts., x, . .167 
TriforisDesh.,ix, . 120, 177 
Trigonostoma Blainv., vii, . 77 
Tripaloia Let., x, . . 7 
Triptychus Morch, viii, 295, 304 
Tristoma Blainv., ix, . .121 
Tritiaria Conr., iv, . . 8 
Tritia Risso, iv, . . 7, 55 
Triionella Ads., iv, . . 244 
TRITONID^E, iii, . . 5, 225 
Tritonium Cuv., iii, . . 7 
Tritonium Fabr., iii, . . 277 
Tritonium Mull., iii, . .167 
Triton Montf., iii, . 5, 6, 225 
Tritonofusus Beck., iii, . 277 
Tritonopsis Conr., iii, . . 6 
Trituba Jouss., ix, . . 122 
Triumphis Gray, iii, . . 277 
Trivia Gray, vii, . 163, 198 
Triviella Jouss., vii, . .161 
Trivirostra Jouss., vii, . 161 
Trochalia Sharpe, viii, . 298 
Trochatetla Less., viii, . 103 
Trochella Gray, viii, . . 103 
Trochia Swains., ii, . 159, 169 
TROCHID^E, xi, . . .1 
Trochilina Gray, viii, . 108 
Trochiodon Sw., xi, . .86 
Trochiscus Sby. (=Norrisia 

Bayle), xi, . .13, 275 
Trochita Schum., viii, . 103 
Trochius Lch., xi, . . 92 
Trochocoehlea Ads., xi, . 92 
Trochulus Humph. ,xi, . 86 
Trochus L., xi, . 6, 16 

Trona Jouss., vii, . . 160 
Trophon Montf., ii, . 74, 138 
Truncaria Ads. <fe Rve., iv, 

5, 9 

Tryblidium Linds., viii, . 106 
Tuba Lea, ix, . . . 236 
Tubieanthus Swains., x, . 229 
Tubifer Piette, ix, . . 120 
Tubiola A. Ad., x, . 14, 95 



336 



INDEX, VOLUMES II TO XVII. 



Tubulites Auct., xvii, xxix 

Tubulites Davila, ii, . . 259 
Tubulibranchiata Cuv., viii, 163 

TubulostiumStol.,viii, . 167 

Tubulus Auct., xvii, . xxix 

TudiclaBolt.,m, . 99, 144 

Tudicula Ads., iii, , .144 

Tugalia Gray, xii, . . 284 

Tuguriura Fisch., viii, 157, 161 

Tumulus Monts., xi, . .195 

Turbella Leach, ix, . 316, 332 

Turbinella Lam., iv, . . 67 

TURBINELLID,E, iv, . . 66 

X, . .161 

X,. . .184 

Turbinopsis Conr., vii, . 65 
Tubispira Desh., viii, . 163 

Turbo L., x, . . 190, 191 
Turbo Morch, ix, . . 50 
Turbonilla Risso, viii, 317, 322 
TURBONILLHXE, viii, . 317 

Turcica Ads., xi, . 14, 414 
Turcicula Dall, xi, . 14, 330 
Turricula Klein, iv, . 109, 164 
Tunis Montf., iv, . . 244 
Turrispira Conr., iii, . . 49 
Turritella Lam., viii, . 192, 195 
TURRITELLID.E, viii, . .192 
Turritellopsis Sars, viii, 

193, 207 

Tychonia Kon., viii, . . 9 
'Tylacus Conr., viii, . . 104 
Tyiodina Baf., xvi, . 176, 185 
Tylostoma Sharpe, viii, . 9 
Tympanotonus Klein, ix, 

116, 159 

Typhis Montf., ii, . 74, 136 
Typblomangilia Sars, v i , 

156, 223 

Ultimus Montf., vii, . . 244 

Umbella Orb., xvi, . .176 

Umbilia Jouss., vii, . .160 

Umbonella Ad., xi, . 16, 464 

Umbonium Link, xi, 15,450 

UMBRACULID^:, xvi, . -175 
Umbraculum Schum., xvi, . 175 

Umbrella Lam., xvi, . .176 



Urosalpinx Stimp., ii, 74, 151 

Usilla H. Ad., ii, . . 181 

Utriculina Gray, v, . . . 245 

Utriculopsis Sars, xvi, . 2 

Utriculus Brown, xv, . 203 

Uvanilla Gray, x, . 190, 240 

Vzita H. & A. Ad., iv, . 7 

Valvatella Gray, xi, . . 285 

Vanesia A. Ad., viii, . 319, 339 

Vanikoropsis Meek, viii, . 13 

Vanikoro Q. & G., viii, 13, 67 

Vasum Bolt., iv, . 67, 71 

Velainia Mun.-Chal., viii, . 7 

Velatella Meek. y x, . . 8 

Velates Montf., x, . . 8 

Velutella Gray, viii, . 13, 67 

Velutina Flem., viii, . 12, 65 

Verena Gray, ix, . . 40 

VERMETID^G, viii, . . 163 

Vermetus Adans., viii, 165, 169 
Vermicularia Lam., viii, 

168, 186 

Vermiculus List., viii, . 168 

Vertagus Klein, ix, . 114, 145 

Vesica Swains., xv, . . 327 

Vespertilio Klein, iv, . . 86 

Vexilla Swains., ii, . 75, 181 
Vexillum Bolt., iv, .... .246 
Vicaria d'Arch., ix, . .117 

Viriola Jouss., ix, . 122, 189 

Vitreolina Monts., viii, . 259 

Vitrinella C. B. Ad., x, 15, 100 

Vitularia Swains., ii, . 74, 133 

Volema Bolt., iii, . 102, 107 

Volusia A. Ad., viii, . 261, 289 

Voluta L., iv, . . 75, 82 

Volutella Ads., v, . 15, 35 

VolutellaOrb.,iv, . . 98 

Volutella Perry, iv, . . 246 

Volutella Swains., v, . . 247 

Volutharpa Fisch., iii, 100, 197 
VoLUTnxE, iv, . . .73 

Volutifusus Conr., iv, . 77 

Volutilithes Swains., iv, . 100 

Volutoconus Crosse, iv, . 100 

Volutoderma Gabb, iv, . 77 

Volutolyria Crosse, iv, . 75 



INDEX-EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 



337 



Volutopsis Morch, iii, 99, 118 
Volutomitra Gray, iv, . 108 
Volutomorpha Gabb, iv, . 77 
Volva Bolt, vii, . 244, 253 
Volvaria Lam., v, . 7, 47 
Volvarina Ads., v, .15 

Volvatella Pease, xv, 351, 

382 ; xvi, 231 

VolvulaA. Ad., xv, . 181, 233 
Volvulella Newton, xv, . 233 
Vulgusella Jouss., vii, . 160 
Vulpecula Blainv., iv, . 246 

Watsonia Folin, viii, 214, -223 
Weinkauffia Adams, xv, 263 ; 

xvi, 236 

Westernia Q. & G., xvi, . 192 
Whitneya Gabb, ii, 76, 214 ; 

iii, 50 
WoodwardiaC.&F.,xu, . 60 

Xanius Bolt, iv, . . 247 
Xanthonella Gray, xvi, . 38 



Xenophora F. de Waldh., 

viii, 157, 159 
XENOPHOKID^E, viii, . 156 



Yetina Gray, iv, 
Yetus Adans., iv, 



247 
247 



Zafra A. Ad., vi, . 160, 313 
Zaphon H. & A. Ad., iv, . 30 
Zaria Gray, viii, . 193, 207 
Zebina Ads., ix, . 320, 389 

Zebinella Morch, ix, . 320, 385 
Zeidora A. Ad., xii, . . 246 
Zemira H. & A. Ad., iii, 

101, 213 

Zeuxis Ads., iv, . . 6. 30 
Ziba H, & A. Ads., iv, . 247 
Zidona Ads., iv, . . 247 

Zidora Fisch., xii, . 246 

Zierliana Gray, iv, . 109, 157 
Zippora Leach, ix, .316, 331 
Ziziphinus Gray, xi, . . 332 
Zoila Jouss., vii, . .160 
Zonaria Jouss., vii, . . 161 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES, 
YOU XVII. 



PLATE 1 (Dentalium). 

FIGURE PAGE 

1. D. elephantinum L. From Thes. Conch., .... 1 

2, 3, 6, 7. D. elephantinum L. From Chenu, ... 1 
4, 5. D. elephantinum L. Specimen, 1 

8. D. aprinum L. Specimen, ...... 3 

9. D. formosum A. & R. From Thes. Conch., ... 2 
10, 11. D. formosum A. & R. From Zool. Samarang, . . 2 

12. D. aprinum L. From Thes. Conch., .... 3 

13. D. letsonse n. sp. Specimen, ...... 4 

14. D. aprinum L. From Chenu, ...... 3 

15. D. interstriatum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., ... 4 



338 EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 

PLATE 2. 

FIGURE PAGE 

16-18. D. octangulatum Don. FromLischke, . / , . 16 

19. D. japonicum Dkr. From Dunker, . . 1 . .17 

20, 21, 23, 24. D. hexagonum Gld. From Lischke, ' , . 1& 
22. D. octangulatum Don. Specimen, . . . . . 16 

25. D. bisexangulatum Sowb. Thes. Conch., . . ^ . 15 

26. D. weinkauffi Dkr. From Dunker, . . . ., . 40 

27. D. sexcostatum Sowb. Specimen, . ; . . ^ ,. . 19 

28. D. sexcostatum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . *%.' . 19 
29-31. D. yokohamense Wats. From Challenger Zool., . . 16 

PLATE 3. 

32. D. rectum Gmel. From Conch. Icon., . . . .252 

33. D. rectum Gmel. Specimen, . . . . ..,,.- . 252 

34. D. rectum Gmel. From Thes. Conch., ... . , . 252 

35. D. vernedei Hani. Specimen, . . r , . . .80 

36. 37, 38. D. diarrhox Wats. From Chall. Zool., . . 109 
39-41. D. tornatum Wats. From Chall. Zool., . . . 121 

41. D. ceras Wats. From Chall. Zool., . . . . . 68 

42, 43. D. vernedei Hani. From Thes. Conch., . , . 80 
44-46. D. leptoskeles Wats. From Chall. Zool., . . 110 

PLATE 4. 

47. D. pseudosexagonum Dh. From Deshayes, . . . 23 

48. D. pseudosexagonum Dh. From Thes. Conch., . .23 

49. D. javanum Sowb. From Thes Conch., . . .4 

50. D. quadrapicale Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . .34 

51. D. tesseragonum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . . 34 

52. D. dispar Sowb. From Thes. Conch., ... .32 
53-56. D. dispar Sowb. Specimen, . . . . . 32 
57-60. D. di psyche n. sp. Specimen, . .. . .33 

PLATE 5. 

61-65. D. fisheri Stearns. Type specimens, . . . . 36 

66-68. D. letsonse n. sp. Type specimen, . . . . 4 

69, 70. D. strigatum Gld. Type specimen, . . . . 13 

71, 72. D. americanum Ch. From Chenu, .' . 22 

73. D. laqueatum Verr. Specimen, . . . * . . 10 

74-76. D. buccinulum Gld. Type specimen, . . . .14 

77. D. quadrangulare Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . . 35 

PLATE 6. 

78, 79. D. delessertianum (^rectum). From Chenu, . .252 
80. D. porcatum Gld. From Thes. Conch., . . . .15 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 339" 

FIGURE PAGE 

81. D. zelandicum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . .70 

82. D. profundorum Smith. From Ann. Mag., . . .79 

83. D. compressum [=hungerfordi]. From P. Z. S., . . 84 

84. D. buccinulum Gld. From C. Icon., . . . .14 

85. D. intercalatum Gld. From C. Icon., . . . . 2& 

86. D. lessoni Dh. From Deshayes, 8 

87-89. D. plurifissuratum Sowb. From P. Mai. Soc., . . 82 

90. D. lessoni Dh. From Cheriu, . ., . . . . & 

PLATE 7. 

1. D. laqueatum Verr. From Tr. Conn. Acad., . . . 10 

2. D. laqueatum Verr. From Blake Rep., . . . .10 

3. D. callithrix Dall. From Blake Rep., . . . .62 

4. D. ceratum Dall (young). From Blake Rep., . . 57 

5. D. ceratum Dall. From Blake Rep., . . , .57 

6. D. carduus Dall. From Blake Rep., v> . - . -V. . 30 

7. D. ensiculus Jeffr. From Blake Rep., . . . < . 121 

8. 9. D. ensiculus Jeffr. From P. Z. S., . . , . 121 

10. D. ensiculus Jeffr. From Chall. Rep., . . . .121 

11. D. compressum Wats. (=pressum). From Chall. Rep., . 124 

12. D. sericatum Dall. From Blake Rep., .... 86 

13. D. ophiodon Dall. From Blake Rep., . . ..126 

14. D. gouldii var. obsoletum Dall. From Blake Rep., . 20 

15. 16. D. subterfissum Jeffr. From P. Z. S., . . . 61 
17-19. D. subterfissum Jeffr. From Chall. Rep., . . . 61 

20. D. didymum Wats. From Chall. Rep., . .. . .123 

PLATE 8. 

21. D. abyssorum Sars (A. striolata Sars). From Sars, . . 48 

22. 23. D. vulgare DaCosta. From Moll. Rouss., . 

24. D. vulgare DaCosta. From Forbes & Hanley, . . 41 

25. D. entalis L. From Forbes & Hanley, . . . ' . 42 

26. D. circumcinctum Wats. From Chall. Rep., . . .88 

27. 28. D. solidum Verr. (^candidum). From Tr. Cpjin. 

Acad., . 72 

29, 30. D. candidum Jeffr. From P. Z. S., . . . . 72 

31, 32. D. capillosum Jeffr. From P. Z. S., . . , . . 77 

33. D. capillosum Jeffr. Specimen, . v . . . 77 

34, 35. D. capillosum Jeffr. From Chall. Rep., . , .77 

36. D. agile Sars. From Sars, 46 

37. D. amphialum Wats. From Chall. Rep., ... 71 

PLATE 9. 

38. D. panormum Chenu. Specimen, . . . . .54 

39. D. panormum Chenu. From Thes. Conch., . . .54 



340 EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 

FIGURE PAGE 

40. D. abyssorum Sars. From Sars, . . . . .48 
41-43. D. occidentale Stimp., young. From Verrill, . . 47 

51 
51 
52 
52 
46 
41 
41 
53 
53 
49 



44-46. D. novemcostatum Lam. From Moll. Rouss., 
47, 48. D. novemcostatum Lam. From Thes. Conch., . 

49. D. alternans (=insequicostatum Dtz). From Moll. Rouss 

50, 51. D. insequicostatum Dautz. Specimen, 

52. D. vagina Jeffr. Jeffreys' type, . . . : * 

53. D. vulgare DaCosta. From Thes. Conch., 

54. D. vulgare DaCosta. Specimen, . . . . 

55. D. dentalis L. From Costa, 

56. 57. D. dentalis L. From Moll. Rouss., . 

58, 59. D. senigmaticum Jord. From Proc. Mai. Soc., . 

PLATE 10. 



60-64. D. oerstedi Morch. Pilsbry, del., . . . .24 

65. D. curtum. From Thes. Conch., 14 

66. D. aculeatum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . .61 

67. D. cancellatum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . .30 

68. 69. D. usitatum Smith. From Ann. Mag., . . .29 
70-73. D. oerstedi var. numerosum Dall. Pilsbry, del., . .25 

PLATE 11. 

75-80. D. neohexagonum P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . .19 
1-86. D. neohexagonum P. & S. var. Pilsbry, del, . .19 

S7. D. picteti Desh. From Chenu, 22 

88, 89. D. intercalatum Gld. Type specimen, Pilsbry, del., . 23 

PLATE 12. 

90-94. D. agassizi P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . . . 26 
95-97. D. magellanicum P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . , .28 
98, 99. D. majorinum M. & R. Moll. Cap Horn, ... 27 
100. D. shoplandi Jouss. Pilsbry, del., 28 

PLATE 13. 

1, 2, 3. D. pretiosum Nutt. Pilsbry, del., . . . .44 

4-8. D. pretiosum var. indianorum Cpr. Pilsbry, del., . 45 

9-11. D. occidentale Stimps. Pilsbry, del., . . . .47 

12. D. dacostianum Chenu. From 111. Conch., . . . 61 

13-15. D. senegalense Dautz. Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr., . . 55 

PLATE 14. 

16-18. D. disparile Orb. Pilsbry, del., . . . . .56 
19. D. disparile Orb. Moll. Cuba, . . . . . ,. . 56 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 341 

FIGURE PAGE 

20, 21. D. disparile Orb., apices of two specimens. Pilsbry, 

del., 56 

22. D. antillarum Orb. Moll. Cuba, 57 

23-25. D. antillarum Orb. Pilsbry, del., . . . .57 

26. D. variabile Dh. From Thes. Conch., . . . .60 

27, 28. D. variabile Dh. Pilsbry, del., 60 

29, 30. D. belcheri Sowb. Thes. Conch., .... 60 

PLATE 15. 

29-31. D. megathyris Dall. Pilsbry, del., . . . .67 
32, 33. D. candidum var. meridionale P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . 73 

34. D. candidum var. meridionale P. & S. Apex of another 

specimen. Pilsbry, del., . . . ... 73 

35, 36. D. ergasticum Fisch. From Locard, . . .74 

37. D. ensiforme Chenu. From Chenu, . . . . .101 

38. D. splendidum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . .96 

39. 40. D. candidum Jeffr. Specimens. . . 72 

PLATE 16. 

41-44, 45, 46. D. sericatum Dall. Pilsbry, del., ... 86 
47-49. D. eboreum Conr. Type specimen. Pilsbry del., . 89 
50. D. leptum Bush. From Tr. Conn. Acad., 
51-53. D. semistriatum Gldg. From Tr. Linn. Soc., . . 90 

54. D. semipolitum B. & S. From Thes. Conch., . 

55, 56. D. eboreum Conr. Specimens, . , .89 

PLATE 17. 

55-57. D. calamus Dall. Frying Pan Shoal. Pilsbry, del., . 97 
58, 58 and 59, 59. D. calamus Dall. Off Cape Fear. Pilsbry, 

del., 97 

60-63. D. sectum Desh. Pilsbry, del., . . . .,.. . 96 
64. D. novsehollandise Chenu. From Chenu, . . .93 

65-67. D. aciculum Gld. Type specimen. Pilsbry, del., . 93 

PLATE 18. 

1-3. D. longum S. & P. Pilsbry, del., 120 

4. D. fistula Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . 118 

5. D. subrectum Jeffr. Type specimen. Pilsbry, del., . 1 
6-8. D. innumerabile P. & S. Pilsbry, del., 

9. D. filum Sowb. From Journ. de Conch., . . . 118 

10. D. perlongum Dall. From Blake Rep., . . . .104 

11. D. perlongum Dall, apex. Pilsbry, del., . 

12. D. caudani Loc. From Locard, 104 



342 EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 

FIGURE PAGE 

13. D. ecostatum Hutt. From Macleay Mem. Vol., . .102 

14-18. D. matara Dall. Pilsbry, del.," 105 

PLATE 19. 

1. D. lacteum Dh. From Deshayes, . . . . . .99 

2. D. rubescens Dh. From Deshayes, . . . . .105 

3. D. malzani Dkr. From Clessiu, . . . . .107 

4. D. ambiguum Chenu. From Chenu, . . . . 100 

5. D. translucidum Dh. From Deshayes, . . . .99 

6. D. siculum Dh. From Costa, 107 

7. 8. D. bisinuatum Andre. From Rev. Suisse Zool., . .108 
9. D. callipeplum Dall. From Blake Rep., . . . .100 

10-15. D. stenoschizum P. & S. Pilsbry, del. . . .128 



16, 17. D. tenuifissum Moots. From Costa, 
18, 19. D. politum L. From Thes. Conch., 
20, 21. D. politum L. From Deshayes, . 

22. D. lubricatum Sowb. From Thes. Conch. 

23. D. erectum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., 



PLATE 20. 



129 
128 
128 
110 
111 



24. D. phaneum Dall. From Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., . . 59 

25. D. complexum Dall. From Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., . . 76 

26. D. acutissimum Wats. From Chall. Rep., . . .94 

27. D. segeum Wats. From Chall. Rep., . . . .69 

28. D. attenuatum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . . 120 

29. Entalina mirifica Smith. From Ann. Mag., . . . 134 

30. D. sowerbyi Guild. From Tr. Linn. Soc., . . .117 

31. D. philippinarum Sowb. From Thes. Conch., . . . 116 

32. D. philippinarum Sowb. Specimen, 116 

33. D. eburneum L. Specimen, . . . . . .115 

34. D. eburneum L. From Thes. Conch., . . . .115 

35. 36. D. longitrorsum Rve. From Thes. Conch., . .111 

PLATE 21. 

37-39. D. liodon P. & S. Pilsbry, del., 107 

40,40. D. liodon v. alloschismum. Pilsbry, del., . . . 108 
41, 42. D. liodon v. alloschismum. Pilsbry, del., . . .108 

43. D. aequatorium P. & S. Specimen, ..... 112 

44. D. watsoni P. & S. Specimen, . . . . . .113 

45. D. rectius Cpr. Specimen, . . . . . .113 

46. 46. D. dalli P. & S. Specimen, 114 

47. 48. D. inversum Dh. Pilsbry, del., 95 

49. D. inversum Dh. From Thes. Conch., . . . .95 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 343 

PLATE 22. 

FIGURE PAGE 

0-52. D. pressum Sh. & P. Pilsbry, del., ' . . . 124 

53-55. D. brevicornu P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . .125 

6,57. D. insolitum Smith. From Ann. Mag. . . . 109 

58-60. D. platyceras P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . . 126 

61,62. D. ophiodon Ball. Pilsbry, del., . , . 126 

PLATE 23. 

1. Cadulus quadrischistus Wats. From Chall. Rep., . .148 

2. Siphonodentalium tytthum Wats. From Chall. Rep., . 137 
3-5. Entalina platamodes Wats. From Chall. Rep., . . 133 

6. Siphonodentalium pusillum Wats. From Chall. Rep., . 140 

7. Cadulus quadridentatus Dall. From Blake Rep., . . 149 
8-21. S. vitreum (= lobatum). From Sars, . . . 136 

PLATE 24. 

22. Cadulus gracilis Jeffr. From Chall. Rep., . . .165 

23. Cadulus gracilis Jeffr. From P. Z. S., . . . .165 

24. Cadulus gibbus Jeffr. From P. Z. S., . . . . 159 

25. Cadulus amphora Jeffr. From P. Z. S , . . . .161 

26. Cadulus cylindratus Jeffr. From P. Z S., . . .166 
27,28. Cadulus propinquus Sars. From Sars, .. . . 166 

29, 31, 32. Cadulus subfusiformis Sars. From Sars, . . 163 

30, 33-38. Entalina quinquangularis Forbes. From Sars, . 132 
39. Cadulus jeffreysi Monts. From Brit. Conch., . . .164 
40-44. Siphonodentalium lofotense Sars. From Sars, ". .138 
45-47. Siphonodentalium affine Sars. From Sars, . . . 140 

PLATE 25. 

48. Cadulus sequalis Dall. From Blake Rep., * . 170 

49. Cadulus acus Dall. From Blake Rep., . - .191 

50. Cadulus watsoni Dall. From Blake Rep., : .167 

51. Cadulus vulpidens Wats. From Chall. Rep., .172 

52. Cadulus amiantus Dall. From Blake Rep., .174 

53. Cadulus obesus Wats. From Chall. Rep., .159 

54. Cadulus curcurbita Dall. From Blake Rep., .161 

55. Cadulus lunula Dall. From Blake Rep., .167 

56. Cadulus sauridens Wats. From Chall. Rep., . 173 

57. Cadulus agassizi Dall. From Blake Rep., .168 

58. Cadulus ampullaceus Wats. From Chall. Rep. .158 

59. Cadulus congruens Wats. From Chall. Rep., . 175 

60. Cadulus curtus Wats. From Chall. Rep., ';, .175 

61. Cadulus exiguus Wats. From Chall. Rep., . 159 

62. Cadulus rastridens Wats. From Chall. Rep., .174 

63. Cadulus pandionis Verr. From Tr. Conn. Acad., . 171 



344 EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 

FIGURE PAGE 

64. Cadulus spectabilis Verr. From Tr. Conn. Acad., . . 153 

65. Cadulus incisus Bush. From Tr. Conn. Acad., . . 151 

66. Cadulus grandis Verr. From Tr. Conn. Acad., . . 154 

67. Cadulus tumidosus Jeffr. From Chall. Rep., . . .160 

68. 69. Cadulus tumidosus Jeffr. From P. Z. S., . *_ .160 

70. Cadulus carolinensis Verr. From Tr. Conn. Acad., . 152 

PLATE 26. 

71. Cadulus colubridens Wats. From Chall. Rep., '. 184 

72. Cadulus teres Jeffr. From P. Z. S., ", . . 138 

73. Cadulus dichelus Wats. From Chall. Rep., ., { .... 145 

74. Cadulus prionotus Wats. From Chall. Rep., . . 146 

75. Siphonodentalium eborasense Wats. From Chall. Rep., 140 

76. Siphonodentalium honoluluense Wats. From Chall. Rep 185 

77. Cadulus simillimus Wats. From Chall. Rep., . . 182 

78. Cadulus minutus H. Ad. From P. Z. S., . . 188 

79. Cadulus clavatus Stimp. From Am. Jour. Conch., . 185 

80. 81. Cadulus clavatus Stimp. Type specimen, Pilsbry, del. 185 
82, 83. Cadulus divse V61ain. From Arch. Zool. Exp., . 188 
84-87. Cadulus belcheri P. &. S. Pilsbry, del., ", 145 

PLATE 27. 

88, 89. Dentalium simplex (=stearnsii P. & S.). Pilsbry, del., 

125, 253 

90-93. Cadulus politus Wood. Pilsbry, del., . . . .144 

94-97. Cadulus rushii P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . ...... .168 

PLATE 28. 

1-5. Cadulus tetraschistus var. Pilsbry, del., . . . 149 

6-9. Siphonodentalium sp. Korea. Pilsbry, del., . . 141 

PLATE 29. 

10-13. Cadulus quadrifissatus Cpr. Pilsbry, del., . . 150 

14-18. Cadulus tetrodon P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . .151 

PLATE 30. 

19, 20. Cadulus dalli P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . , .155 

21-23. Cadulus dalli P. & S. var. Pilsbry, del., . . . 155 

24-27. Cadulus carolinensis Bush. Pilsbry, del., ... . 152 

PLATE 31 

27. Cadulus gadus Mont. From Test. Brit, - . \ * . 186 

28-32. Cadulus gadus Mont. Pilsbry, del., . . . . 186 

33-35. Cadulus olivi Scac. Pilsbry, del., . . ' . > . 170 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 345 

PLATE 32. 

FIGURE PAGE 

36-39. Cadulus cyathus C. & J. Pilsbry, del., . . .157 
40, 41. Cadulus ovulum Ph. From Phil, and Costa, . .157 
42, 43. Cadulus rainusculus Dall. Type specimen. Pilsbry, 

del., 164 

44-46. Cadulus jefFreysi Monts. Pilsbry, del., . . .164 
47-49. Cadulus acuminatus Tate. Pilsbry, del., . . . 183 

PLATE 33. 

50-54. Cadulus hatterasensis P. & S. Pilsbry, del, . .169 

55. Cadulus viperidens Melv. & Stand. From J. of Conch., . 184 

56, 57. Cadulus poculum Dall. Type specimen, Pilsbry, del., 172 

59. 59. Cadulus bushii Dall. Type specimen, Dall, del., . 153 

60. Dentalium conspicuum Melv. From Lit. & Philos. Soc. 

Manch., . . .248 

61. Siphonodentalium hyalinum Brugn. From Misc. Mai., .171 

PLATE 34. 

1, 2. Cadulus tolmiei Dall. Pilsbry, del., . \ . .181 
3, 4. Cadulus tolmiei Dall, var. Pilsbry, del., , . . 182 
5-8. Cadulus californicus P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . : .180 

PLATE 35. 

9-13. Cadulus striatus Dall. Pilsbry, del., Y , : . .179 

14. Cadulus fusiformis P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . .193 

15. Cadulus albicomatus Dall. From Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 178 

16. Cadulus aberrans Whiteaves. From Tr. Roy. Soc. Can., . 193 

17. 18. Cadulus platystoma P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . .180 
19, 20. Cadulus hepburni Dall. Pilsbry, del., . ^v .194 

PLATE 36. 

21, 22. Cadulus dentalinus Guppy. Pilsbry, del., . . .190 

23-25. Cadulus panamensis P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . .191 

26. Cadulus dominguensis Orb. From Moll. Cuba, . .191 

27. Cadulus acus Dall. From Blake Rep., . . . .191 
28-30. Cadulus panamensis v. major P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . 192 
31,32. Cadulus singaporensis P. &S. Pilsbry, del., . . 195 

PLATE 37. 

1-4, 5-9. Dentalium texasianum Phil, detail and natural size 

views of two specimens. Pilsbry, del., . . . 247 

10, 11. Hamulus falcatus Conr. From Whitfield, . . 245 

12. Hamulus onyx Mort. Specimen, 245 

13. Pyrgopolon mosse Montf. From Zittel. 245 

23 



346 EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 

FIGURE PAGE 

14,15. Pyrgopolon clava Lam. From Chenu, . . . 245 

16. Ditrupa subulata Dh. From Deshayes, .... 241 

17. Ditrupa goreensis Cless. From Conch. Cab., . . . 241 

18. Spirodentalium oceola Walcott. From P. U. S. N. M., . 246 

19. Ditrupa arietina Mull., much enlarged. From Cliall. Rep., 241 

20. Ditrupa (?) abbreviata Dh. From Deshayes, . . .242 

PLATE 38 (^Dentalium vulgare). 

1, 2. Ventral and lateral views of animal with the shell re- 
moved, ......... vi 

3. Section of the shell, ........ vi 

4. Gut, viewed ventrally, ....... vi 

5. Alimentary tract, dorsal view, . . . . vi 

6. One of the captacula, much enlarged, . . . . vi 

7. Animal in feeding position, ...... vi 

(All figures of this plate from Lacaze-Duthiers). 

PLATE 39. 

1, 2, 3. Dentalium bednalli P. & S. Pilsbry, del., . . 248 

4. Cadulus anguidens M. & S. J. of C., ix, .... 253 

5. Dentalium multistriatum Dh. From Deshayes, . . 251 

5. Dentalium rectius Cpr., teeth. Pilsbry, del., . . . vii 

6. Dentalium occidentale Stimps. Teeth. From Sars, . vii 
7,8,9. Siphonodentalium lobatum Sowb. Teeth. From Sars. vii 

10. Entaliua quinquangularis Fbs. Teeth. From Sars, . vii 

11. Cadulus propinquus Sars, teeth. From Sars, ... . vii 

12. Dentalium (Lobantale) duplex Defr. From Deshayes, xxxi 

PLATE 40 (Chcetoderma'). 

1_4. (J. nitidulum, nat. size; fig. 5, head end, enlarged; fig. 
7, oral shield from in front ; fig. 8, posterior end from 
above ; fig. 9, the same from the side ; fig. 10, diagram- 
matic section of radula in its sack and tongue; fig. 11, 
the tooth ; figs. 13-15, spicules, those on the left from the 
anterior, on the right from the middle and posterior parts 
of the body. After Wiren and others, . . . 287 

12, 16, 17. Chsetoderma militare, spicules ; fig. 18, animal, nat- 
ural size. After Selenka, .... 

PLATE 41 (After Wiren). 

16. Cha3toderma productum, head ; figs. 17-19, Animal, natu- 
ral size ; figs. 20-24, spicules ; fig. 25, fig. 26, caudal 
sense organ, ....... 286 

27. Track of Ch. iiitidulnm. From Wiren, . . 285 

28. Burrowing of Ch. nitidulum. From Wiren, . . . 285 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 347 

FIGURE PAGE 

29-31. Neomenia dalyelli K. & D., 293 

32-35. Neomenia microsolen Wire"n, 293 

PLATE 42 (Neomenia), 

1, 2. Neomenia carinata, longitudinal and vertical sections, . 291 
3-5. Neomenia carinata, side, ventral and dorsal views, natu- 
ral size ; after Tullberg. Fig. 9, N. carinata, ventral view 
of a living specimen ; after Hansen. Fig. 6, spine from 
the ridge of the back, viewed from the grooved side, and 
the same from the side (Tullberg) ; fig. 7, grooved spine 
from side of the animal ; fig. 8, curved spine (Tullberg), . 291 
Figs, below 6 and 7, Neomenia affinis. From Wire*n, . . 292 
10. Neomenia grandis, natural size; figs. 11-14, spicules; figs. 

15, 16, anterior and posterior ends from below (Thiele), . 292 

PLATE 43 (Proneomenia). 

16, 20. P. sluiteri, natural size; figs. 18, 19, anterior and poste- 
rior ends ; fig. 21, spicules; fig. 22, radula (from Hu- 

brecht), . .294 

23, 24. P. sluiteri var. langi, natural size (after Lang), . . 294 
25-28. P. neapolitana (after Thiele). . . . 2: 6 
29. P. sarsi (after Hansen), . . 297 

PLATE 44 (Rhopalomenia). 

30-32. R. gorgonophila (after Kow.), . .. . ... 298 

33-36. R. acuminata (after Wiren), ... , . 300 
37-39. R. vagans (after Kow. & Mar.), . . . . . 299 

40-45. R. eisigi (after Thiele), . . . . . .300 

PLATE 45 (Rhopalomenia). 

46, 47, 53. R. aglaophenise (after Pruvot), . . . . 299 
48-56. R. aglaophenise (after K. & M.), . . . . .299 

PLATE 46. 

57-59. Pruvotia sopita (after Pruvot), . , . . . 301 

60-63. Macellomenia palifera (after Pruvot), . < . . 302 

64-68. Dondersia festiva (after Hubrecht), . . . . 303 

69-73. Ichthyomenia ichthyodes (after Pruvot), . . . 305 

PLATE 47. 

74-77. Myzomenia banyulensis (after Pruvot), . .- . 304 

78-82. Nematomenia flavens (after Pruvot), . . ' . . 304 

83-87, 90. Paramenia impexa (after Pruvot), . . . 306 

88,89, 91-93. Paramenia pruvoti (after Pruvot), . . 307 



348 EXPLANATION OF PLATES, XVII. 

PLATE 48. 

FIGURE PAGE 

1)4-98. Echinomenia coralliophila (after Simroth), . . . 308 

99, 1-4. Lepidomenia hystrix (after K. & M.), . 310 

5-7. Myzomenia banyuleusis, embryos (after Pruvot), . . 283 

8-11. Paramenia sierra (after Pruvot), . .,... . -. . . 307 

DATES OF ISSUE OF THE PARTS OF VOL. XVII. 

Part 65, pp. 1-80, pis. 1-9, May 11, 1897. 
66, " 81-144, " 10-26, Oct. 15, 1897. 
." 67, " 145-224, " 27-37, May 3, 1898. 
" 68, " 225-348, Qotobor, 1898. 
" 65a, " i-xxxii, pis. 38-48, Qtlubci, 1898. 




DENTALIID-dE. 



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