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Farriers, Horseshoers, Saddlers 
and Wagoners or Teamsters 








Document No. 486. 








^ -^ War Department, 

tj^ ^/^ Office of the Chief of Staff, 

December 16, 1914. 

^ The following instructions in elementary duties of the farrier, 

7-f^ horseshoer, saddler, and wagoner or teamster, compiled in the 

^ Division of Militia Affairs, under the direction of Brig. Gen. Albert 

^ ^L. Mills, General Staff, Chief, Division of Militia Affairs, is ap- 

V -'■proved and herewith published for the information of the Organized 


It is believed that these instructions are all that need be mas- 
tered to do in a satisfactory manner the work ordinarily required. 
For situations not covered within, the services of a veterinarian or 
those especially skilled in the respective trades of the horseshoer, 
saddler, and wheelwright must be secured. 
By order of the Secretary of War: 

H. L. Scott, 
Brigadier General, Chief of Staff . 

3 56 ^4-^ 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



Preface 7 

General instructions for handling animals Chapter I 

Vices 14 

Training horses 17 

Grooming 20 

Feeding _ 21 

Watering 23 

Shelter 24 

Farrier Chapter II 

General instructions 25 

Detecting disease 25 

Restraining animals 28 

Table of weights and measures 29 

Disinfectants 33 

Equipment 33 

Veterinarians 34 

Pannier 34 

Farrier 38 

Horseshoers' emergency 38 

Medicines 36, 43 

Diseases, internal 46 

Diseases, external 49 

Injuries 53 

Wounds 54 

Bruises 55 

Saddle galls 55 

Wagoner or teamster Chapter III 

General instructions 57 

Feeding and watering 57 

Grooming '. 57 

Classes of transportation 58 

Classes of harness 66 

Harness 68 

Wagon, care of 68 

Routine of teamsters' duties 74 

Saddler Chapter IV 

Harness and mounted equipment 75 



Saddler — Continued. Page. 

Harness fitting 78 

Harness, care of 79 

Harness repairs 80 

Tools, ordnance 83 

Materials 85 

Tools, quartermaster 90, 93 

Packing Chapter V 

Uses of pack mule 96 

Aparejo and accessories 96 

Placing aparejo 99 

Lashing packs 101 

Blacksmiths' kit 103 

Cargador's kit 103 

Horseshoer Chapter VI 

' ' The Army Horseshoer " 104 

Purpose of shoeing 104 

Frequency - 105 

Shoeing outfits 105 

Ordnance 105 

Description of tools 112 


Blacksmith and farrier's kit 114 

Emergency horseshoer's equipment 114 

Shoes, allowance 116 

Kinds 116 

Nails 116 


Preparing hoof 116 

Preparing shoe 116 

NaiHng 119 

Clips 120 

To tighten shoe 120 

To remove shoe 120 



This manual is prepared as a guide for those who may be entrusted 
with Government animals but who may not have an opportunity 
to refer to professionals the many perplexing questions which arise 
in actual service. 

Many authorities have been consulted and the ideas gleaned 
therefrom have been incorporated where applicable to a pamphlet 
of this character. 

The subject of duties of the farrier has been prepared principally 
from notes by Dr. Ingild Hansen, Veterinarian, Quartermaster 

Reference is made in several places within to "Field service" 
and. equipments "A", "B," and "C," and to "Combat train," 
"Field train," "Baggage section," and "Ration section," which 
the following will explain: 

Field service includes service in any of the following cases: In 
campaign, simulated campaign, or on the march. In mobiliza- 
tion, concentration, instruction, or maneuver camps. 

Equipment A, as referred to herein, is the equipment for use in 
campaign, simulated campaign, or on the march, and includes the 
articles then worn on the person, carried on horse or pack mule, 
and transported in the wagons of combat trains and in the baggage 
section of field trains. 

Equipment B, as referred to herein, is the equipment which, in 
addition to equipment A, is prescribed for the use of troops in 
mobilization, concentration, instruction, or maneuver camps, and 
during such pauses in operations against an enemy as permit of the 
better care of troops. Equipment B can accompany or follow troops 
only when other transportation — generally rail or boat — is available. 

Equipment C, as referred to herein, includes every article neces- 
sary for field service, and is therefore the sum of equipment A plus 
equipment B. 

Articles distinctively for winter use do not form a part of the 
field equipment unless specially ordered by proper authority. 




274. Trains. — Transportation attached to organizations is grouped 
under the folloAving heads, i. e.: 

(a) The trains assigned to organizations smaller than a brigade 
designated combat and field trains, respectively. 

(b) The trains assigned to divisions, designated ammunition, 
supply, sanitary, and engineer trains, respectively. 

In addition to the foregoing there are ammunition, supply, sani- 
tary, and engineer columns which are attached to and belong to 
the advance section of the line of communications. (See par. 279), 

275. Combat trains. — Combat trains include all personnel, 
vehicles, and animals attached to organizations for transporting 
ammunition reserve and special equipment required during com- 
bat, including the mule or cart carrying sanitary first aid equip- 
ment. To them also are attached those vehicles required for the 
technical service of engineers and signal troops. Combat trains 
remain at all times with the unit to which attached and follow it 
into action. In the cavalry and field artillery it may be advisable 
to temporarily separate combat trains from the troops. 

276. Field trains. — Field trains include all personnel, vehicles, 
and animals attached to organizations or headquarters for the 
transportation of the authorized allowance of baggage, rations, and 
grain, and include rolling kitchens, if supplied. Wagons of 
sutlers, correspondents, etc., accompanying a field force by proper 
authority are assigned to the field train of the organization to which 
their owners are attached. On the march the headquarters wagons 
of brigades and divisions are generally attached to some regimental 
field train. 

Field trains are assigned to regiments and independent battalions 
and are habitually divided into two sections: (1) A baggage section 
carrying baggage; and (2) a ration section carrying rations and grain 
exclusively, and including rolling kitchen, if supplied. 

For transportation of baggage each organization is assigned its 
proportionate space on the vehicles of the baggage section. 

277. Wlien an organization is operating independently, the field 
trains are under the direct control of the organization commander. 
\Vlien organizations are not operating independently, field trains 
are ordinarily ordered to be grouped by the division commander 
and the senior line officer present with the train assumes command 
and moves it as directed by the superior authority. When the 
field trains are ordered grouped with the divisional train they are, 
for the time being, under the orders of the commander of trains. 

The field trains are not again placed at the disposition of the 
(jrgauization until so ordered by the division commander. During 


combat the division commander holds the grouped trains well to 
the rear, thus relieving the roads of unnecessary vehicles. 

In the late afternoon, or at the end of a march or close of a combat, 
the division commander directs the field trains to move up imme- 
diately in rear of the troops, and informs the commanding officers 
of organizations that their baggage sections and one day's rations 
from their ration sections have been ordered to be at a designated 
place. The organization commander at once sends an orderly to 
the designated place to conduct the vehicles to the organization. 
As soon as practicable after the arrival in camp of the ration vehicles 
they are unloaded, and, without delay, rejoin the grouped portions 
of the ration vehicles. The division commander usually returns 
the baggage sections to the same place early the following morning. 



Never threaten, strike, or otherwise abuse a horse. Never take 
a rapid gait until horse is warmed up by gentle exercise. Never 
put up an animal in heated condition; walk him until cool or 
throw a blanket over him and rub his legs. If wet, rub with straw 
until hair is dry. 

In approaching an animal be sure he sees you. Therefore, go 
up to him from the front if practicable; if necessary to approach 
him from the rear, especially if in a stall, speak to him before 
nearing him. Command him firmly to "stand over," go up to his 
head on the left side, and pat on the neck. 

An animal knows better how to meet an emergency than does a 
man; he does it instinctively; if he gets scared there is, almost 
without exception, a good reason for it. Therefore, do not punish 
a horse for getting scared, and never at all except for well deter- 
mined viciousness, and then only at the very time of commission 
of the offense. Many times fright is due to defective vision, and 
if a horse is punished every time he thinks he sees something 
dangerous, he will grow to believe in his eyes, and will get scared 
at almost everything. If on the other hand he is petted when 
scared, he will see that there is nothing going to hurt him. 

The old rule "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" 
is particularly applicable to the animals and the equipment in the 
field. An army can not afford to carry the pound of cure, but it 
can transport the ounce of prevention mostly in the wits and the 
fingers of the farrier, saddler, horseshoer, rider, and the driver. 

Never feed or water an animal when he is warm unless he is to 
move off again and at once — hay will do no harm. If the journey 
or exercise is ended, sponging out the mouth and nostrils give 
considerable relief. 

Never kick an animal and never strike one except with a whip 
and immediately after he misbehaves. Never strike an animal 
about the head. 

The sheath should be washed at least once a month — ^better once 
a week — with warm water and castile soap. 

The fetlock should never be trimmed; to do so may lead to the 
contraction of a disease known as "scratches," unless the tender 
skin at the back of the pastern can be kept clean and dry, wliich 
generally is not practicable in the field. 


Plate I.— Points of the horse. 


1, Muzzle. 

2, Nostril. 

3, Forehead. 

4, Jaw. 

5, Poll. 


6, 6, Crest. 

7, Throttle or wmdpipe. 

Fore quarter. 

8, 8, Shoulder blade. 

9, Point of shoulder. 
10, Bosom or breast. 
11, 11, True arm. 

12, Elbow. 

13, Forearm (arm). 

14, Knee. 

15, Cannon bone. 

16, Back sinew. 

17, Fetlock or 


18, Coronet. 

19, Hoof or foot. 

20, Heel. 


Body or middle piece. 

21, Withers. 

22, Back. 

23, 23, Ribs (forming to- 

gether the barrel or 

24, 24, The circumference 

of the chest at this 
point, called the 

25, The loins. 

26, The croup. 

27, The hip. 

28, The flank. 

29, Sheath. 

30, The root of the dock or 


Hind quarter. 

31, The hip joint, round, 

or whirlbone. 

32, The stifle joint. 

33, 33, Lower thigh or gas- 


34, The quarters. 

35, The hock. 

36, The point of the hock. 

37, The curb place. 

38, The cannon bone. 

39, The back sinew. 

40, Pastern or letlock 


41, Coronet. 

42, Hoof or foot. 

43, Heel. 

44, Spavin place. 


Aiiiinals are tied either to picket line or wagon, or are tethered 
out with a hiriat. or they may be herded. 

There are two sorts of picket lines used — high and low. The 
low or ground picket line has been almost entirely discarded. The 
high picket line is stretched as tight as practicable at about 4^ 
feet from the ground, at the posts or forks placed about 30 yards 
apart. If wagons are parked on line the picket line may be run 
over every fifth wagon, which is run to the front for that purpose; 
loaded wagons should be used at the ends. 

About 1^ yards of picket line are allowed per animal . The animals 
are tied on both sides of the line with shank just long enough for 
the animal to eat off the ground. If tied with too long a shank, 
animals are liable to get their forelegs over and thus cause rope 
burns, which are very difficult to cure and always leave a blemish. 

Wagons are usually parked (that is, put in line) alongside each 
other and the picket line stretched parallel to the line of wagons 
and about 10 paces in fn^it of the tongues or poles. The wagons 
are ordinarily spaced — if animals are tied to picket line — ^with an 
interval of about a yard between hubs. Wlien animals are tied 
to the wagon tongue (two on each side), the distance between hubs 
should be about 7 yards. 

The feed box should be washed out once a week, care being 
taken to get into the corners. 

Nose bags should be cleaned frequently, care being taken to get 
into the cracks and to expose the inside to rays of the sun. 

If weather is cold, before putting the bridle on, the bit should 
be warmed by holding in the hand or by blowing the breath on it. 

To make a halter of rope: Tie a simple knot at one extreme end; 
draw tight. At about 12 inches from this knot tie another simple 
knot loosely, then bring the long end back through this last knot, 
leaving a loop of about G inches, and draw the knot tight. ^ Now, 
with the long end tie a simple knot around the short end imme- 
diately against the last knot; this should make the loop non- 
slipping. Now, at about 3 feet (depending on the length of the 
horse's head) tie a simple knot loosely, and insert into it the knot 
at the extreme end. Then run the long end through the 6-inch 
loop and make it fast to the loop by a simple knot about 6 inches 
(same distance as the loop is long) fi'om the knot on the extreme 
end. To make the throat latch: Take a length of rope which will 
go around the head at the foretop and throat. Weave the two 
ends, one on each side, into the head rope of the halter at points 
2 inches below the ears. Cut this rope at about 10 inches from the 
end on the left side. 

To make a rope bridle: Double the rope (which should be about 
14 to 16 feet long), make a loop by tying a tight, simple overhand 



Plate II.— Skeleton of tne horse. 

A, Molar teeth. 

B II, Canine or tush. 

C I, Incisors. 

E, Atlas. 

G, Orbit. 

M, Cariniform cartilage. 

N, Ensiform cartilage. 

0, Coracoid. process of 

P, Spine. 
Q, Cartilage. 
R, Trochanter major. 
S, Subtrochanterian crest. 
T, Trochlea. 
U, External condyle. 
V, Patella. 
W, Hock joint. 

1, Cranium. 

2, Lower jaw. 

3, Cervical vertebrae. 

4, 4, Dorsal vertebrae. 

5, 5, Lumbar vertebrae. 

6, G, Sacrum. 

7, 7, Coccygeal vertebrae. 

8, Sternum. 

9, 9, True ribs. 

10, 10, Cartilages of true 

11, 11, False ribs. 
12, 12, Cartilages of false 


13, Scapula. 

14, Humerus. 

15, Radius. 
10, Elbow. 

17, Os pisiforme. 
18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, Carpal 

24, Large metacarpal bone. 

25, Outer small metacar- 

pal bone. 

26, Inner small metacar- 

pal bone. 

27, 28, Sesamoid bones. 

29, Os suffraginis. 

30, Os coronae. 

31, Os pedis. 

32, Wing of the pedal 


33, 34, 35, 36, Os innomi- 


37, Femur. 

38, Tibia. 

39, Os calcis. 

40, Astragalus. 

41, 42, 43, 44, Tarsal bones. 

45, Large metatarsal bone. 

46, Outer small metatarsal 


47, Inner small metatarsal 



knot, including both parts, about 9 inches from the middle point. 
Tie another simple knot about 9 inches above the first knot, but 
leave it loose — to be drawn over the foretop. Place the loop in 
the horse's mouth over the upper jaw, thus bringing the first knot 
on the nose. Carry the rope up to the foretop, placing the foretop 
through the second knot and drawing the knot tight upon it. 
Give "the doubled rope a couple of twists, till the twists reach 
behind the ears; then carry one part down on each side the throat 
and twist t^)gether the two parts under the throat until the twist 
reaches a point about 2 inches above the upper edge of the mouth 
(i. e., where the loop of the rope emerges from the mouth); pass 
one part on each side, from rear to front, between the face and 
the loop in the mouth and carry the parts (the reins) back on the 
neck and tie together evenly. 


\\liile inspection at the time of purchase is supposed to prevent 
the acquisition of unsuitable animals, there will always be found a 
few horses and mules which have bad habits or are defective. 
Every man charged with the duty of working or caring for animals 
should learn to know the peculiarities, both of temperament and of 
physique, of those in his charge. Animals ordinarily meet with 
so little kindness that it is easy to gain their confidence and affec- 
tion, and once these are gained they can be coaxed to do most any- 
thing — certainly everything required in ordinary work. 

If an examination shows the horse to be nervous and excitable, 
the attendant's actions and words should be calm_ and soothing. If, 
on the other hand, the animal is slow and sluggish, his commands 
should be sharp and his actions more severe. 

A man who has a horse with broken wind will not expect the same 
staying qualities as he would of a horse with strong lungs. (A 
broken-winded horse can be detected by the double effort made in 
expiration.) If his horse is a "roarer" (one with one side of the 
larynx throat paralyzed), he will not be surprised when the horse 
goes along wheezing. If a horse is a kicker or biter, the attendant 
will govern himself accordingly. 

Much is gained by learning these individual peculiarities. For 
exami)le, a mare used for racing would often be left at the starting 
point; by study it was found that she always propped her legs stiff 
and turned about half way to the left, so as to face the inside. It 
was sfjon discovered that in holding her (for she was nervous) at the 
start she had invariably been held by an attendant on the left side. 
Thereafter the attendant was made to hold her on the right side 
and she never "got left at the (starting) post." 


Another instance: A mule having been assigned to a new driver, 
the latter found it impossible to get the bridle on— even with the 
assistance of several other men. Kindness and delicacy in handling 
the ears were shown, but to no avail. Finally, one man who had a 
great deal of confidence in himself (it happened that a "bighead" 
turned out all right in this case), said for them all to get away, he'd 
"bet he could bridle him." He took the bridle in his hand and 
with a firm step and knowing expression walked up to the mule's 
head and in a businesslike way proceeded to put the bit in the 
mule's mouth, and, without "whoaing" or coddling or gentle 
rubbing around the ears, simply but firmly took hold of the mule's 
ears and put them through the bridle. That mule saw that the 
others were shy and he thought something was wrong. The other 
man's manner was all business, and the mule knew he was going 
out to work and hence had to have a bridle on . 

These instances show how very necessary it is to study each ani- 
mal carefully. Many animals, however, have been treated badly 
so long that they are confirmed in their bad habits, but these are 
almost always due to bad handling on the part of some man who had 
less brains than muscle and much less sense than the animal — 
because the latter learned how to checkmate by these vices the 
man who would be his master. Nevertheless, a few vices are due 
to temperament. 

Among the vices most frequently encountered are pawing, kick- 
ing, biting, pulling back, balking, rearing, and cribbing, and wind- 

Pawing is caused by nervousness due to pain, thirst, hunger, 
loneliness, or habit. There always is good reason , and if the cause 
is removed early the animal will not acquire the vice. Sorne 
stables are so arranged that by pawing, the animal can make grain 
fall into the feed box. It may be cured by removing the cause. If 
this habit has been formed, the forelegs should be hobbled, thus 
enabling neighboring animals and men sleeping near to get some 

Windsucking and cribbing (which is windsucking combined with 
seizing the manger, fence, or other suitable object with the teeth) 
may be prevented by buckling a strap around the throat snug but 
not tight. 

A kicker may be one of several kinds— those who kick because 
very ticklish or who are quick to defend themselves when fright- 
ened or when approached by a man or animal known to be an 
enemy, or when desirous of ridding themselves of strange or painful 
equipment. The way to prevent kicking of the first three sorts is to 
speak kindly to the animal upon approaching it and handle care- 
fully until it appreciates that no harm will come to it. Can anyone 




BhnTu/ ^-^ ''''^^ ^^'^ "^'^'^^ ^^ ^''^ "^^^^ than twice. 

iiitmg IS a vice caused, as usual with such failin-s bv faulfv 

?pn.l r.f • ^^"^f^ ^'"'^^ '^^^^"^^^^^ biteasaresultof S^me m\e La'^^^^ 
teased them when young. In such cases they expect and u^,anl 

Pnin?.V''°'P "^^ ^^'^P"^^ ^^ t^^^ ^'i^ti^' a^^^l they iTke U £ "^ 
en py play-a joke-better than some men. If a person stnnd? 

n rv ^''^^"^ ''' '^"ention taking just enough action trp?event anv 
mjury such as placing the hand on the nose, the disappoTtmeS 
will oftentimes be such as to cause them to give up tSiabi^ f^^ 

t will no longer be any fun. About the best thing tLt can be done 
to a confirmed biter is to muzzle tlie animal. If t f habit is W 
forming, somecases may be cured by a short but sharp cut o\^Vhp 
nose with a switch at the very moment the animal is g?vhic,\^^^^^^^^^ 
Sand necr"' " '''' ""''' remedy-frequent n.bbSi^^flhe 

T]!^T\^^™f'' "^'^ ^"''^^ t^^^ ^^a^ter shank by pullin- back 
This habit IS due to careless handling of the head , especiaUy abo it 
tie ears, while grooming or when putting on the bridle ^WhVn 

T}Ztrrtl^'''i''?-!^ "^^ ^'^^^ ^^««^' there are many occasions 
when lie finds this ability very convenient-for example when S 
to a hot picket Ime and he is surrounded by a green meadow with 
plenty ot shade and running water. The habit must be c^ed^ first 
by gentle treatment, which should be especially pursuXmtil he 
o Fpf f ^-^ T"'^^ ^-^^^ ^^^^^ *^ b^ ^^bbed about the head Then 

ar S willX bnfTt'''^P'i^l^^^^^^^ ^^""^^ ^^^k, double a rope (the 
lariat will do but it is slightly too large for best effect) cifrv o^p 
end on each side of the back, 'place the bight along the back "^give 
rJv ff *^^f'/^^ put the bight under the tail'like a crup|er 
Urry the ends forward, one along eacli shoulder, and tie the ends 
together evenly to a post or manger and short inough so Lt in 


pulling back the strain will come on this rope before it does on the 
halter shank. 

A balky horse is a proof of some man's ignorance. Some balky 
horses are incurable, but if they are, it is man who is to blame. It 
is very desirable that the horse should see what is going on and 
an "open" bridle (one without blinds) should be used, at least 
until he sees what it is that is touching him, handling him, rattling 
about, and making such unusual noises. If patience is exercised 
in the beginning, much time, labor, and good horseflesh will be 
saved. First put on and take off the harness. The crupper and 
the breeching are the two parts which the green horse can not 
understand. They should be handled considerably, moved about, 
pulled so as to bring pressure on the usually untouched parts of 
the body. The lines should be held from behind and permitted 
to drop down on the legs. Move a large pole about his legs and 
sides and rump. Then walk him about (leading) in the harness. 
Then drive with the harness on, the lines being kept low (passed 
through the shaft tugs or the tug loops at the side of the backhand 
or saddle), so as to give a sidewise pull and thus draw the head in 
the direction in which it is desired that he go. It is well to tie 
some small poles onto the shaft tugs (backhand) and the breeching 
and let them dangle as he walks. Be sure and put them on securely, 
especially at the breeching, so the stick will not slip down or 
up when he kicks. While being driven with the harness on, 
there should be an assistant alongside near the head to guide him 
by pressure of the hand on the side of the head or neck and thus 
explain what is meant when the lines are pulled . Then the green 
horse should be hitched, in harness only, alongside a trained and 
quiet animal and driven about, considerable attention being paid 
to turning to the right and left. Particular care should be taken 
when working a green horse in a double team not to place him 
always on the same side. He should be changed frequently from 
the near (left) side to the off (right) side. The alternating of sides 
should continue until the animal is well ' ' broken . ' ' 

When he understands what to do when driven alongside the 
trained horse, the team should be hitched to a light wagon. An 
assistant should be alongside to quiet the green horse. If the 
driver sees that the horse intends to stop, it is very wise to say 
"Whoa!" before he has a chance to stop. 

If a trained horse be not available for the use as above outlined, 
the green horse must be driven alone, and an assistant should be 
constantly alongside the animal. If available, a light breaking 
cart with long heavy shafts should be used for the first hitching. 
It is well to use a kicking strap, a strap about 2 inches wide, which 
is made fast to one of the shafts and carried over the horse's hips 

76881°— 15 2 


on top of or near the hip straps and made fast to the other shaft. 
The nearer the kickmg strap is to the crupper, the more leverage 
the horse has to work against in kicking up. The whip should 
not be used in teaching a green horse except possibly to touch him 
very lightly, not so as to hurt but only to help the horse to know 
wliich direction it is supposed to move. Few, if any, horses or 
mules have ever been taught anything by severe use of a whip. 
Its use will certainly not cure the average balky horse. 

The secret of curing a balky horse is to divert his attention. 
This may be accomplished in several ways. If hitched double and 
the horse props, the rope crupper referred to above as a cure for 
pulling back may be used, the ends being made fast to the wagon 
tongue. When the trained horse starts and moves the wagon for- 
ward, the rope crupper is thus brought into action. If, being 
driven single, he props, the rope crupper may be pulled by the 
assistant standing in front. A smooth rock placed in the ear, of 
size not too small, but just so it will go in easily, will sometimes 
make the victim think more of this than of his other troubles. A 
string tied around the ear will sometimes do the same thing. 

Sometimes a balker can be cured by making him dizzy. Unhitch 
him (but do not take harness off) and tie his head (bending the neck 
around) to the tail — as close as possible. Then make him move 
around and around — he must follow his tail — until he gets dizzy. 
Hitch him up quickly and the chances are he will go. 

Sometimes an animal will plant his feet deliberately and will 
withstand any amount of swaying in any and all directions, but he 
makes up his mind to "stay put." If he props backward, he can 
sometimes be caught leaning hard backwards and forced back sud- 
denly, thus getting the best of him, which he will appreciate. 
Sometimes he can be moved by picking up his feet one at a time ; or 
light taps of the whip (not a kick) will make him pick up his feet. 
Occasionally an offer of some food (sugar isvery good)or water will 
get him out of a stubborn state. The smell of the "warts," some- 
times called, on the inside of the legs (just above the knees on the 
front legs and below the hocks behind) seems to be peculiarly 
agreeable to tlie horse; some of the softer portion rubbed on the 
glove and held to the horse's nose will make him friendly disposed. 
Oil of cumin has the same effect. 

Rearing is another manifestation of gross mishandling on the part 
of some man. It is due almost invariably to the use of too severe 
a bit, or too severe use of a proper bit, or the use of a proper bit 
improperly adjusted in the mouth. A snaffle bit is the only one 
which should ever be used on a green horse, and on every horse 
which can be controlled with it. In our mounted service this 
rule is not adhered to because a bit for general use is required, 


and a mild curb is adopted. Jerking, especially on a curb bit, 
will cause the horse to yield suddenly to that pressure, conse- 
quently he will go up in the air. Not only jerking but continued 
pulling on a severe bit will cause him to seek the same sort of relief 
and he soon appreciates that he always can get it by that method, 
and he naturally forms the bad habit of rearing. A change of bit 
will sometimes effect a cure. A leather or rubber bit or leather- 
covered bit will often relieve the case. Occasionally the teeth are 
in bad condition, and the mouth generally sore and feverish; if so, 
this condition should be relieved. A martingale which is drawn 
quite short will often cure mild cases; it is better to use the type 
which runs directly from the girth to the bit or the nose band 
instead of the kind which has rings through which the reins are run. 

To make a check rein: Pass a rope (about the size of the little 
finger) through the swivel on the right (throat) of bridle (if the 
bridle is not provided with swivels for check reins, fasten a ring at 
each end of a strap or rope about 8 inches long, then fasten the 
middle point of this rope or strap to the crownpiece at top of the 
head), then down through the right ring of the bit (it should be 
straight and additional to the one to which the lines or reins are 
fastened), then over the nose and through the other ring of the bit 
and up through the swivel (or ring) on the left throat of the bridle 
and make this (running) end fast to the other part of the rope about 
the withers. In case the horse is being driven in harness, the two 
parts of the rope sliould pass through the terrets (loops in the saddle 
or backhand), and the short or running end made fast to the bight 
of the part of the longer end at a point just in rear of the saddle or 
backhand; the longer end is then carried to the rear and held in 
the hand of the driver, ready for instant use. To keep the part over 
the nose from falling down, a strong cord should be tied from it to 
the brow band on the forehead . 

If, when a runaway starts to run, the lines and this check rein 
are pulled at the same time, he will be quickly stopped. A kicker 
can often be cured if, just as he is hicking, he is given a good strong 
haul on this check; the point is — do it quickly. 

Sometimes a horse will kick so quickly and so often that the driver 
will have his hand full managing the lines. In this case the check 
can be rigged so as to always be ready for work. To do this, fasten 
a ring on the back strap (running from the crupper to the saddle 
or backhand) at the top of the rump, and instead of fastening the 
running end to the bight of the longer or ''standing" end, both 
ends are passed through this ring, and both ends tied to the shafts — 
one on each side — or to the crossbar; or, if liitched double, to the 
axle or otlier rigid part in rear. 


It seems hardly credible, but it is stated by authorities that the 
skin excretes as much waste matter as do the bowels; hence, the 
necessity for regular and thorough grooming to keep the skin open 
and healthy. 

The currycomb's principal service is to clean the brush by 
drawing the brush across it every few strokes. 

The brush must be used with force (except about the head), put- 
ting the weight of the body into the stroke; this makes the work 
much easier and gives grooming very much the effect of a delightful 
massage, which the animal soon learns to appreciate, and for which 
he learns to like the giver. 

In grooming, remember that the currycomb is a severe instrument 
when applied to bony or sharp points. Animals with tender skin 
(they are usually the most intelligent) can be easily ruined by 
carelessness or roughness in grooming, while if the spirit of the old 
adage "Scratch me and I'll scratch you" is duly appreciated by 
the man as well as it is by the animals, friendship is sure to result 
from the frequent and careful wielding of the soothing currycomb 
and brush. 

Begin to groom where you naturally pat or caress the animal — 
on his neck on the near (left) side, then gradually work to the tail 
and legs. Don't forget to groom the folds and cracks — between and 
just in rear of the forelegs, and in the flanks — but remember that 
these points are as ticklish as they are important. Go to the head 
last; use the brush or a cloth only, and these very carefully — 
especially about the ears. Many a horse and mule is ruined by 
rough handling of his head. Clean out the feet with a blunt- 
pointed instrument and examine them carefully; this is the most 
important part of the grooming; brush thoroughly the skin just 
above the rear part of tlie hoof. Brush the mane (especially near 
the roots), the foretop, and the tail thoroughly, but never touch 
them with a currycomb. Don't groom when the animal is wet or 
damp — it only mats the hair — but dry by rubbing lightly with a 
cloth or a wisp of hay or straw and, when dry, groom as usual. 

Remember that the feet, stomach, and the shoulders of a draft 
animal or the back of a riding animal are the three most essential 

A wisp of straw is not ordinarily used in our service, though no 
implement will contribute more, if as much, toward keeping the 
coat iji a smooth and healthy condition. It is made by twisting 
hay or straw into a rope, about G feet long, and making of this an 
o})iong, compact mat by forming two loops at the middle and 
weaving the ends through tlie four parts of the loops. 


Transportation facilities for an army will vary greatly due to the 
difference in nature of the theater of operations, character of the 
enemy, resources of the country, and rates of the march required. 
Against a first-class power, large bodies of troops would be assembled 
and maneuvered; in campaigns, such as those in the Philippines, 
the soldier carried on his back everything required except occa- 
sionally when "cargadors" (natives who packed loads on their 
backs) were procured to carry rations. In mountainous countries, 
or in very wet weather and on earth roads, pack mules or pack 
horses (the larger foot makes considerable difference sometimes) 
might be the only practicable means of transport. On winding 
roads two-wheeled carts are suitable. On earth roads in fairly 
good or good condition escort wagons, and on metaled roads the 
automobile truck could be used. 

When the weight of forage (23 pounds for the mule and 26 pounds 
for the horse) and the round trip are considered, we see that a pack 
mule (net carrying capacity 250 pounds) could only go five days 
to the front of his base of supply; if he goes two days to the front he 
can carry 150 pounds in addition to his own forage. 

The capacity of the escort wagon is 2,765 pounds with field trains 
and 2,465 pounds with the combat trains. This is the equivalent 
(for a wagon in the field train) of either 230 horse or 300 mule rations 
of grain, or 175 horse or mule rations of hay, or 565 garrison rations, 
or 675 travel rations, or 920 field rations, or 1,380 reserve rations. In 
other words, a wagon could go about 12 days to the front living 
on the forage in the wagon load; if a trip requiring 3 days' travel 
to the front of the base of supply were contemplated, it could carry 
to that point about 1 ton. 

When it is seen how great a part of the load is taken up with 
forage for the animals, the importance of "living off the country, " 
grazing where possible, and of securing grain at the various stops 
may be appreciated. Moreover ,^ it will be impossible to always 
get oats and hay, and the necessity of teaching the animals to eat 
different kinds of food is apparent. The bulk as well as most weight 
of the forage ration is the hay; therefoie grain only is carried in 
campaign. For each animal there is carried along with the animal 
normally two days' grain ration and a "reserve grain ration, " which 
makes a total of three days. The reserve ration is not to be touched 
except "in case of extreme necessity, when no other supplies are 
available," and not without an express order from the commander. 

Great care should be exercised to see that the grain, hay, and 
straw are of good quality and are sound. If it is impossible to 


secure good quality, every step should be taken to make it as pala- 
table and as wholesome as practicable. There will probably be 
many times when, due to tlie exigencies of the service in campaign, 
many varieties and grades of food must be used. Horses can eat 
most any kind of food and will do so if they are properly coaxed; 
they will readily learn to eat carrots, bread, etc., and have been 
knowni to eat meat even. Musty hay or other grain can be made 
much more edible by shaking, sieving, sprinkling just before feed- 
ing, mixing with other foodstuff such as molasses or cane, green 
corn or other vegetables, or adding a little salt. 

When carrots or similarly shaped vegetables are fed they should 
be cut lengthwise; if cut round, the pieces may become lodged in 
the throat. 

Good bran contains large flakes and considerable proportion of 
flour; the hand thrust into bran should when withdrawn appear 
well powdered. 

Dry bran will constipate while a bran mash (made by stirring 
into boiling water and then covering with a layer of dry for 15 
minutes) is laxative. 

It is generally impracticable — if on the march — to feed hay in 
the morning; most of it is given at night — about two- thirds — and 
one-third at noon or after the march for the day is over. 

Grass should be given at every opportunity; it keeps the bowels 
in good condition. 

The ration of forage is for the horse 12 pounds of oats (or bran), 
and 14 pounds of hay, and for the mule 9 pounds and 14 pounds, 
respectively. Bran when necessary (usually once a week) is made 
into a "mash"; it must be fed when freshly mixed; if more of a 
purgative effect is desired a tablespoonful of common salt should 
be added. Grain only (3 days) is carried in the field; hay or grass 
is secured locally. Barley should always be fed crushed and pre- 
ferably wet. 

An animal is just as much entitled to good forage as a man is to 
good food. Good oats are plump, have the beard on the grain. 
The kernel can be seen through the split in the hull. The grains 
will not break under pressure of the nail. They smell and taste 
sweet. Weight should not be under 36 pounds per bushel, although 
we accept 32-pound oats. If a handful of good oats be taken in the 
hand, it will be impossible to compress them much by hand pres- 
sure. Good hay has the leaves and top on the stem, has a fresh 
appearance, and smells and tastes sweet. Corn is sometimes fed 
but it produces more fat than working tissues; it is best to feed 
it ground or cracked. One hundred pounds of straw per month 
is allowed each animal for bedding; it is not allowed in the field. 


There is some difference of opinion as to whether it is best to 
water before or after feeding; it is generally thought best to water 
before, if practicable. Of course, if it is cold weather and the 
water is cold the animal will not drink anyway early in the morn- 
ing, or if at all he will do so very slowly. Man can best appreciate 
how a horse feels under such circumstances by trying to drink 
down ice water in a hurry. If not watered before feeding it is best 
not to water until a couple of hours afterwards; however, unless 
sure that water will be procurable after this length of time, water 
them sooner. 

An animal can not be given too much water — except, of course, 
when he is hot — ^for he will not drink any more than is good for him. 
Water should be given at least three times per day ; in hot weather, 
as often as practicable. A horse will drink almost a barrel of water 
in tropical countries, for he loses so much by sweating. 

Water from a bucket or from a running stream — never frcm a 
trough, unless specific authority has been given. Take care that 
the oil from the lantern which is carried in the bucket does not 
spill into it. Horses will not drink tainted water. Some horses 
are very particular about food and water. They should be hu- 
mored, for generally such traits indicate a superior type of animal. 

When going to the watering place, go very slowly. If you are 
ever going to humor a horse, do it when going to water. No jerk- 
ing, crowding, or fighting is permissible. 

For a half hour after watering or after feeding, an animal should 
not be required to take up a gait faster than a walk. 

Remember that a horse is entitled to as good water as is the man. 
He is not affected by certain of the germs which attack man but, 
on the other hand, there are many germs which are the horse's 
enemies and which do not attack man. The only difference is 
that the horse can not talk while the man can and does not usually 
lose any opportunity to growl at any slight discomfort. 

The usual allowance of water for the horse is 5 gallons if not 
working and 10 gallons if at labor. In hot weather 20 or even 30 
gallons will be needed. 

The rule as to not watering when animals are warm should not 
be understood to apply if they are to be kept moving for a half 
hour or more after they drink. But never water a warm animal 
and then let him stand, for it will cause founder. 


Shelter should be gfiven the horse if possible, but only to protect 
him from the hot sun, rain, snow, and strong wind, ^^^len very 
cold use the blanket. 

If a horse is very hot and sweating and the weather is cool, put 
a good thick layer of straw or hay under the blanket. In campaign 
about all the shelter that can be given is that to be obtained from 
the blanket, and by placing the animals in a dry place and as pro- 
tected from the wind as possible. Windbreaks made of brush or 
other materials found lying around the vicinity will often be of 
great help toward enabling animals to pass a comfortable night. 
Always stop or tie your horse in the shade if hot, or under the pro- 
tection of a building if cold. 

In camps when it is very hot it is very desirable — and if troops 
remain for any length of time it is almost imperative^ — that some 
sort of shelter be improvised against the hot rays of the sun. It 
does not require a great amount of labor to construct an open shed 
in which the posts are trees having forks about 14 to 16 feet from 
the ground (sunk into the ground about 3 feet) and the rafters and 
covering consist of the branches of the trees and grass, hay, or brush. 
If hay or grass be available, the covering can be made waterproof 

Horses will sleep and receive considerable rest while standing 
up, but they will generally lie down if given suitable surroundings. 

Manure should be burned or otherwise treated so as to prevent 
breeding of flies. The Department of Agriculture recommends 
sprinkling borax on the manure and then sprinkling with water; 
this sterilizes the eggs. Lime, iron sulphate, and potassium cya- 
nide will also sterilize fly eggs, but the two last-mentioned chemicals 
are very costly and the last-named very poisonous. It is estimated 
that, using borax, the cost of treating the manure — where borax 
is bought in 100-pound lots or more — is about 1 cent per horse per 

If fly nets be not available, some protection against flies may be 
given the animals by tying branches of trees or weeds on the harness 
so as to cover the shoulders and the sides and on the throatlatch to 
protect the throat. Stock will stamp and switch a great many 
pounds off fightiiig flies, so save feed and prevent suffering by the 
slight attention mentioned. 

Flies will not attack a horse which has been rubbed with a cloth 
moistened with fish oil, or a decoction of tobacco, walnut or elder 
leaves, or carbolized water. 



Farrier's chevron. 

Look after your horses, first, last, and all times. Treat them with 
kindness; it will not only be humane, but will make your work 
easy. Do not allow any man in your detachment to mistreat an 
animal ; see that his punishment is more severe than that he gave 
the animal. 

Look after your horses' shoes. 

After horses reach quarters or camp look carefully over each one 
and do the same before they leave. 

WTien a horse is reported sick, attend to him at once, no matter 
if it rains or shines, if it is day or night. If two or more horses 
are sick with the same symptoms, call the veterinarian. If a horse 
dies suddenly with no apparent cause, call the veterinarian. 

"Wlienever a new horse comes to the detachment, examine his 
nose for sores and ulcerations, for discharge from one of both nostrils, 
for swellings of the glands on under part of the lower jaw. If any 
of these symptoms are found, keep animal isolated until it can be 
examined by a veterinarian. These symptoms indicate glanders, 
a fatal disease, communicable to man as well as to animals. If 
any animal in the detachment shows such symptoms, isolate it at 
once. Do not permit saddles, harness, or tools used for the sick 
horses to be used for sound animals. 

Temperature. — The normal temperature of horse, taken by ther- 
mometer in the rectum for three or four minutes, is 99° to 100° F. 

A permanent rise of 2° or 3° indicates fever. 

A persistence of high evening temperature lasting into morning 
shows an aggravation of the condition. 



Plate III.— Diseases of the horse. 

1, Caries of the lower jaw, 

2, P'istula of the parotid 


3, Bony excrescence or ex- 

ostosis of the lower 

4, Swelling; by pressure of 

the bridle. 

5, Poll evil. 

fi. Inflamed parotid gland. 

7, Inflamed jugular vein. 

H, Fungus tumor, pro- 
duced by pressure of 
the collar. 
9, Fistulain the withers. 

10, Saddle gall. 

11, Tumor of the elbow. 

12, Induration oi the knee. 

13, Clap of the back sin- 


14, Malanders. 

15, Splint. 
76, Ringbone. 

17, A tread upon the cor- 
IS, Quittor. 

19, Sand crack. 

20, Contracted or ring foot 

of a foundered horse. 


Capped hock. 








Swelled sinews. 


Thick teg. 




A crack in front of 

the foot, called cow 



(Quarter crack. 


Ventral hernia. 




A persistence of low morning temperature lasting into the even- 
ing indicates improvement. 

Pulse. — This is felt on lower jaw or inside forelimb inside the 
elbow joint. In the horse it should be 36 to 49 per minute. In 
old age it is less frequent. Young and nervous animals and fe- 
males have a greater rapidity of the pidse. 

Breathing. — The young horse breathes 10 to 12 times per minute, 
the adult animal 9 to 10. Any excitement accelerates. Exercise, 
even walking few hundred yards, increases the respirations to 25 
or 28 per minute; after trotting five minutes, to 52; after galloping 
five minutes, to 62. 

Hurried breathing not caused by exercise, nor heat of atmos- 
phere or not accompanied by distension of the abdomen, is indica- 
tion of fever, especially if associated with rapid pulse and increased 
heat of the body. 

The well horse has a smooth coat (inculding the hair at the root 
of the tail), skin pliable and easily rolled on the flesh, clear, bright, 
open eyes, salmon-pink colored membranes in the nostril, light- 
yellow colored urine, erect ears; he holds his neck at an angle 
considerably above the horizontal, stands on four feet squarely, 
plants his feet in regular cadence in walking or trotting, and has 
no unusual discharges from any part of the body. He has a good 
appetite — this being probably the best means of telling his state 
of health. 

The remarks as to carriage do not apply to a horse at rest when 
sleeping or when drowsing, for then the neck is naturally drooped 
and oftentimes the animal rests his hind quarters by standing on 
one leg or stands on one foreleg and one diagonal hind leg, allow- 
ing the others to bend and thus relax the muscles. However, 
if an animal stands always on one of the legs (front or hind) and 
rests the other, a weakness may be the cause. It is almost invari- 
ably so if he does not stand evenly on both front legs. 

An unusual discharge from any part of the body, distended and 
red nostrils, drooping eyes or ears or neck, shifting about on the 
feet, refusal to stand on one foot, especially if he "points" the toe 
(that is, holds it out to the front, resting lightly on the ground), an 
unsteady or irregular gait, cracked hoofs, sores or irritation of the 
quarters (just above the rear part of the hoof), or lack of appetite 
indicate a diseased condition. 

In treating animals it should be borne in mind that few medicines 
of themselves do the curing. Nature does it. Man helps by 
giving food which is easily digested, by giving extra care to the 
sick, and by guarding, as it were, against the attack of any enemies 
in the shape of germs which are ready to seize the weak or 


A general rule as to the symptom of a discharge from the nose: 
Little fear need be entertained if the discharge runs freely from 
the nose (that is if it is not sticky), or if it is stringy and will not 
mix (break up) with water; these symptoms indicate a cold. If, 
on the other hand, the discharge is creamy, sticky, and it will 
break up into fine particles, and hence will mix with water, the 
symptoms indicate a serious condition, and prompt steps should be 
taken to isolate the animal and to get expert veterinary attention. 


It will be necessary in some cases to restrain the animal while it 
is being treated, but it will be remembered that by a kind handling 
the animal will not be so refractory as when treated in a rough 

Beating, kicking, jerking should be absolutely avoided. It does 
not quiet the animal, but does frighten him and serves to demon- 
strate the lack of sense in the man doing it. 

There are three principal methods of restraint, viz, hobbling, 
putting on a twitch, and throwing. 

Hobbling is the least severe, consisting of simply raising one of 
the forefeet almost to the elbow and tying or strapping the leg in 
the bent position. A loop is passed around the leg at the pastern 
(just above the hoof), and with the leg in the bent position the ends 
of the strap or rope passed around the forearm and made fast. 
If rope is used, the skin should be protected by several layers of 
cloth, such as pieces of oat sack. If a strap be used, it should have 
a keeper at the back near the buckle, or a keeper be improvised 
by a small rope or several strands of a strong cord. 

To prevent kicking or to make the animal stand for very short 
periods only, an assistant may be directed to hold up the foreleg 
opposite the side on which the animal is being treated. If he 
attemps to go down on that leg, follow him down still holding the 
foot and leg in the same relative position; don't try to resist, for 
if y(m do you give him that which you took away from him — 
a point of support for his leg — and he can lunge. 

The twitch is made of a strong stick 1^ feet long, 1^ inches diame- 
ter. Near one end two holes about 3 inches apart are made to 
pass a ^-inch (diameter) rope. A loop about large enough to hold 
the closed fist is made in the rope by passing the ends through 
these holes and tying knots in the ends; or any method may be 
used by which a loop about the size of the fist can be fastened 
near the end of the stick. 

The liand is passed tlirough the loop and the upper lip is gathered 
in the hand and the l(Jop is passed over the hand and onto the lip. 
The stick is given several turns so that the rope twists, thereby 


exerting a pressure on the sensitive upper lip, and this will or- 
dinarily make the animal quiet. The twitch should not be twisted 
too severely. 

To throw an animal (which should be rarely necessary), hobble, 
as before explained, the foreleg on the side on which you wish 
him to lie when down. 

The casting harness, Plate IV, figure 1, should be used if avail- 
able. Wrap the pasterns of the rear legs (between the fetlock 
ankle and the hoof) very carefully with cloth to prevent rope 
burn. If casting hame be not available, double the lariat and tie 
a knot near the middle so as to form a loop large enough to fit like 
a collar over the horse's shoulders. The loop is passed over the 
head and onto the shoulders like a collar, the knot being so adjusted 
that it will come on the horse's breast. Pass the two ends between 
the forelegs under the belly and then between the hind legs. 

Then pass the ends one under the right and one under the left 
hind ankle, previously wrapped, and then along the side and up 
through the loop around the horse's neck. There is an assistant 
on each end, one on each side; another assistant holds the head 
and stands on the side on which the animal is intended to lie. 

The reins are off the neck and passed to the shoulder opposite the 
side on which the animal is to lie, and are grasped by the thrower 
(the man handling the reins) with the hand farthest from the head ; 
the other hand grasps the ear on the opposite side. 

The head is drawn to the side by the reins and the command 
"pull" is given. At this signal the two assistants at the sides 
pull forward on the ends of the lariat, thus drawing the hind feet 
forward; the head is drawn further back toward the girth and the 
animal settles down on its side. The thrower quickly places his 
knee on the neck near the head, and raises the muzzle of the horse 
from the ground. The assistants at the sides carry the ends of 
the rope to the hind legs and make fast near the hoofs — where the 
cloth has been previously placed. The horse thus fettered can 
not get up nor struggle effectively as long as a man has his knee 
on the animal's neck and holds its nose off the ground. 


In order to intelligently handle medicines and other supplies 
used in caring for animals a familiarity with tables of weights and 
measures is necessary. 

It will sometimes be necessary to improvise measures. A bal- 
ance is easily constructed by placing containers of some sort, one 
on each end of a stick, balance on a sharp edge, and mark the 
point of balance. 



The metric system of weights and measures is used in many- 
foreign countries. It is based on the decimal system. There are 
three units; of length, the meter (m); of weight, the gram (g); of 
capacity, the liter (1). There is also a unit of "surface based on tlie 
meter, one "are" being a square 10 meters on a side. The sub- 
divisions or the multiples of these units are indicated by prefixes, 
as follows: 


Deci equals ■^. as decimeter (j^ of a meter). 
Centi equals y^, as centiliter (y^ of a liter), 
Milli equals y^V^, as milligram (y^ of a gram). 


Deka equals 10 times, as dekaliter (10 liters). 

Hecto equals 100 times, as hectometer (100 meters). 

Kilo equals 1.000 times, as kilogram (1.000 grams). 

The meter (39.37 inches) is 40.00^0.000 of the circumference of the 
earth; the grain (15.43 grains) is the weight of 1 cubic centimeter 
(that is, of a cube whose edge is yVo of a meter in length), of water 
at its maximum density; the liter (1.06 quarts) is 1 cubic deci- 
meter (that is, a cube whose edge is ^^o of a meter in length). 

The quantities usually used in business where the metric system 
is established are as follows: 

Meter, 39.37 inches; a centimeter is f of an inch; kilometer, 

I mile (0.62137). 
Hectare, 2.471 acres; or 1 acre ^ of a hectare. 
Liter, 0.9081 quart (dry) or 1 .1 quarts (liquid). 
Kilogram ^2.2046 pounds (avoirdupois). 
Metric ton, 2,204.6 pounds. 
One liter of, water weighs 1 kilo. 

The following are weights per bushel of various foods for animals: 

Wheat, 60 pounds. 

Com, in ear, 70 pounds. 

Com, shelled, 56 pounds. 

Rye, 56 pounds. 

Barley, 48 pounds. 

Bran, 20 pounds. 

Corn meal, 48 pounds. 

Salt (fine), about 60 pounds. 

Oats, 36 pounds (32 pounds is accepted). 

* Usually called kilo (Vee-16). 


Contents of various containers : 

Bucket, G. I. (level), 12 pounds oats. 
Bucket, G.I. (level), 16 pounds cracked corn. 
Bucket, G.I. (level), 7 pounds bran. 
A flake of baled hay weighs about 13 pounds. 


60 minims or drops (m) equal 1 dram (f3) (1 teaspoonful) . 
8 drams equal 1 ounce (fg) (2 tablespoonfuls). 
16 ounces equal 1 pint (0). 

2 pints equal 1 quart. 

4 quarts equal 1 gallon. 

A drop (Gtt.) is a minim. 

1 teaspoonful is a fluid dram (1 drop of water weighs almost 

1 grain). 
1 tablespoon is 4 teaspoonfuls, or one-half a fluid ounce. 
1 pint is about a pound (avoirdupois). 
16 drops are approximately 1 cubic centimeter (c. c). 

The issue (Ordnance Department) spoonful (scant) is a table- 
spoonful containing therefore about 250 grains, or 15 cubic centi- 
meters (c. c). 

The issue cup models of 1904 (old tin cup) contains 60 table- 
spoons or nine-tenths of 1 quart; 1908 and model of 1910 (aluminum 
with handle) holds 50 tablespoonfuls or 24 ounces. 


20 grains (gr) equal 1 scruple (9). 

3 scruples equal Jl. dram (5). 
8 drams equal 1 ounce (§). 

12 ounces equal 1 pound (lb.). 


One drop of water weighs about 1 grain. 

A silver (United States) dollar (new) weighs about 1^ ounces 
apothecaries and }^ ounces avoirdupois. 

A nickel (United States 5-cent piece) weighs about 1^ drams 

Ten pennies (United States 1-cent pieces) weigh (new) exactly 
1 ounce apothecaries. 

One gram is equivalent to 15.22 grains (the weight of a cubic 
centimeter of water) . 


One pound apothecaries is 5,760 grains. One pound avoirdupois 
(scales used in stores for weighing provisions, grain, etc.) weighs 
7,000 grains. The ' 'grain " is the same in all weights — apothecaries, 
troy, and avoirdupois. 


I^ means "take." 

ss means "half." as p ss means "half ounce." 

i means "one," as 5 i means "1 dram" or S iss "1| ounces." 

ij means "two." as 9ij means " 2 scruples." 

"Ad" means "add to"; "Ad lib." means "at pleasure." 

"Aq." means "water;" "D." means "dose;" " Dil." 

means "dilute." 
"Ess" means "essence;" "Filt" means "filter;" "Lot." 

means "wash." 
"M" means "mix"; "Mac" means "macerate" (to steep). 
"Pulv." means "powder;" "Pil." means "Pill;" "Solv." 

means "dissolve." 
"St." means "let stand;" "Sum" means "to be taken." 


8 quarts=l peck. 
4 pecks =1 bushel. 

1 bushel contains 2,150.4 cubic inches. 


4 gills=l pint. 

2 pints=l quart. 

4 quarts=l gallon. 

1 gallon contains 231 cubic inches. 


12 inches=l foot. 

3 feet=l yard. 
5^ yards=l rod. 
1,760 yards =1 mile. 

1 meter=39.37 inches. 

1 kilometer=0.62 (about |) mile. 

A penny (United States 1-cent piece) is | inch in diameter. 



Heat is the best disinfectant. Boiling for not under 15 minutes 
serves very well. Soap and water and then sunlight are, next to 
heat, probably the best germ killers in most practical instances. 
In especially malignant diseases, such as glanders and rinderpest, 
where thorough disinfection is imperative, total destruction by 
fire is the best method. Oil sprinkled on ground and burned is 
very good. 

Chemical disinfectants are effective if they reach the microbes. 
Disinfecting vapors are, next to heat, most effective. Sulphur 
placed in a shovel or other metal container and burned in an in- 
fected building or room which has been thoroughly sealed will 
generate fumes which will thoroughly disinfect in 24 hours. One 
pound of sulphur is required per 1,000 cubic feet. Liquids come 
next in efficacy. Creolin (Pearson) 1 part, water 25 parts; carbolic 
acid 1 part, water 20 parts; corrosive sublimate (mercury chloride) 
1 part, water 1,000 parts, are good. Never use a sponge in cleaning 
wounds — always cotton; then burn or boil or otherwise disinfect 
it. Whitewash or paint simply cover up objectionable matter. 

When it is advisable, either from necessity or from dictates of 
humanity, to dispose of an animal, the easiest method is by shooting 
with either a rifle or a pistol. Care must be taken to see that no 
person or animal is in rear of or within close distance of the animal, 
for even after having passed through a portion of the animal's 
body bullets occasionally still have considerable velocity. The 
barrel of the weapon should be held at right angles to and the 
muzzle not over 2 inches from the center of the forehead, aimed 
at a point above the eyes about half an inch below the lowest 
hairs of the foretop. 


General Orders, No. 115, War Department, 1911, gives a list of 
veterinary medicines and equipment and allowances for organiza- 
tions of the Regular Army which have public animals. The total 
weight of such supplies to be transported in field or store wagons, 
or on store pack mules, will not exceed a quantity based on a rate 
of 18 pounds, including containers and cases, per 100 animals. 
These supplies will be transported in combat trains in all cases 
where organizations have store wagons or store pack mules, and in 
field wagons for other organizations. In mounted organizations 
the work of the farrier is performed under the supervision of the 
veterinarians; therefore the following information regarding the 
veterinarian's equipment is given. 

76881°— 15 3 


Each veterinarian is supplied with a veterinarian's field equip- 
ment weighing about 150 pounds, which consists of a set of "Veter- 
inarian's field chests," veterinarian's saddlebags and their con- 
tents. (See PI. IV, p. 35.) 

Veterinarian's field chests. — Each set consists of 5 chests. Of 
the two large chests, one is supplied with 10 empty bottles, 14 or 
16 ounces, height not to exceed 7^ inches; the other containing 
18 empty round jars with screw tops, 3f inches high by 2| inches 
in diameter. These two chests with the other three chests (to be 
supplied empty) contain the veterinarian's field supplies. 

Instruments and appliances for field chests — 

Figure 1. 1 casting harness. 

Figure 2. 1 catheter. 

Figiu'e 3. 1 clipper, hand. 

Figure 4. 1 drenching bottle, rubber. 

Figtu-e 5. 1 flat, tooth, straight and angular. 

Figure 6. 1 graduate glass. _ 

Figure 7. 1 hoof-knife set, in roll. 

Figure 8. 1 stomach tube, with stylet. 

Figure 9. 1 syringe, metal, 2-ounce. 

Figure 10. 1 tray, enameled, 10-inch. 

A veterinarian's saddlebag should contain the following articles: 

Figure 11. 1 hypodermic syringe and case; 1 tray, tin (to be 
filled with sponge or gauze when packed). 

Figure 12. 1 case, surgical, small, vest-pocket size, to contain the 

1 scalpel. 

1 bistoury, probe pointed. 

1 bistoury, sharp pointed. 

1 tenaculum. 

1 probe, silver, jointed, two sections. 

1 director, grooved. 

2 forceps, artery, with catch. 

G needles, suttu-e, curved and half curved, assorted sizes. 
1 scissors, curved or flat. 

For organizations which have animals but which have no veter- 
inarian, such as Infantry, Engineers, and Signal troops, a "Veter- 
inary pannier" is supplied. (See PI. V.) It weighs approxi- 
mately 70 pounds. 

The contents of a veterinary pannier are not prescribed in detail. 
A pannier should be equipped with such supplies as are appro- 
priate and necessary for any particular march or exjjedition. Pan- 
niers supplied to organizations having no veterinarians are for use 
as containers of veterinary medicines and dressings. Panniers 
may be supplied to Cavahy and Field Artillery regimental head- 




quarters and may also be equipped with instruments and appli- 
ances selected from the veterinarian's field equipment; or one of 
the veterinarian's field chests may be used for this purpose in lieu 
of the pannier supplied regimental headquarters. 

One authority has suggested the following list of veterinary 
supplies. Under ordinary conditions it should suffice for 100 ani- 
mals for 10 days: 
Medicines — 

3 aloes balls. 

{ pound ammonia, aromatic spirits. 

^ pound ammonia liniment. 

I pound charcoal. 

^ pound chloronaphtholeum or kreso. 

^ pound colic mixture. 

^ pound cosmoline. 

^ pound iodine tincture. 

^ pound lime, chloride of. 

3 ounces mercury, bichloride of. 
^ pound oil, linseed. 

^ pound oil, olive. 

I pound ointment, antiseptic. 

I pound tar, pine. 

^ pound three sulphates (copper, iron, and zinc). 
Dressings — 

I pound absorbent cotton. 

1 package antiseptic gauze. 
Bandages — 

1 flannel. 

4 cotton, white. 
1 pound oakum. 

1 pound soaj), Castile. 

The above list: might be amended by omitting the third, fourth, 
ninth, tenth, eleventh, and fifteenth items, increasing quantity of 
olive oil to 1 quart, changing fifth item to ''1 pound of Creolme, 
Pearson," adding 1 pound of turpentine, and increasing amount 
of absorbent cotton to 1 pound. 

In the Organized Militia when continuous service in the field is 
expected the same equipment should be carried as by Regular 
troops. In time of peace such an elaborate outfit is unnecessary; 
the possession by each troop of the prescribed ' ' Farrier's field equip- 
ment" (si)ecified in General Orders, No. 115, War Department, 
1911), and certain additional supplies, will meet the requirements. 



Plate V.— Interior of vcterinarj' pannier; tray removed. 


farrier's field equipment. 

(See Pis. VI and VII, pp. 39 and 40.) 

For the farrier an outfit much simpler than that for the veterina- 
rian is prescribed. Eighteen pounds are allowed for the entire 
equipment required by the farrier in the performance of his special 

1 basin, granite, 1-quart.* 

4 bottles, l-pintf — 

1 for coUc, drench. 

1 for restorative in heat exhaustion and rise in temperature. 

1 for antiseptic wash (creolin, Pearson). 

1 with detachable rubber neck, for drenching bottle. 
1 farrier's instrument pocket case. 
1 graduate glass, 2-ounce.* 
1 dose syringe, metal, 4-ounce.* 

Additional equipment and supplies needed. 

1 funnel, enamel, 1-quart.* 

10 bandages, gauze, about 4 inches wide, and 5 yards long.f 

10 bandages, cotton, same dimensions.! 

5 pounds cotton, absorbent. f 

10 days' supply of medicines. f (See table below.) 

There is also issued to the farrier when he acts as horseshoer a 

horseshoer's emergency equipment, 

(See PL VIII, p. 41.) 
1 shoeing hammer.* 
1 pincers.* 
1 hoof knife.* 

1 jointed horseshoe. No. 2.t 
1 rasp.* 

Horseshoe nails, f as required, 
^-pound oakum. t 
1 4-ounce bottle chloroliu or kreso.f 

Articles marked f are expendable upon certificate of the account- 
able officer that they were used in the public service. 

Articles marked * are expendable on the certificates of the ac- 
countable officer, approved by the commanding officer, that they 
were worn out in the public service and have no salable value, and 
the certificate of a disinterested officer that he witnessed the de- 
struction. If they have any salable value, they must be submitted 
to the action of an inspector (Bulletin No. 3, War Department, 1914). 




^^R: ^ * ^ 1 ' 








farrier's instrument rocKET CASE (in canvas roll). 

(See n. VII, p. 40.) 

Contents: ^k- 

1 bistoury, curved, blunt 1 

1 director 2 

1 scissors, curved 3 

1 forceps, artery 4 

1 probe 5 

1 clinical thermometer 6 

1 scalpel 7 

1 hoof knife 8 

1 forceps, dressing 9 

6 needles, curved. 
1 silk, skein. 

Uses — 
(a) Bistoury, curved, blunt, for opening of absces es; use scalpel, 
making small opening at lowest point of abscess, and when 
pus (matter) shows enlarge opening with probe-pointed 
bistoury. Do not make opening larger than necessary to 
give pus easy flow. Wash and disinfect before and after 
opening and keep area clean. 
(6) Curved scissors for clipping the hair off parts when knife is 

to be used, and for trimming ragged edges off. Keep instrument 

clean, use an antiseptic solution (noncorrosive), such as creolin and 


(c) Artery forceps, for picking up a cut arterj^ for ligation. Arte- 
rial bleeding is recognized by the blood coming in spurts corre- 
sponding to the pulse. When the artery is picked up, tie silk 
around it and remove forceps. Also used for removing foreign sub- 
stance from wound. 

(d) Needles, for sewing up fresh-cut wounds. Start sewing from 
top of wound ; tie each stitch and do not close wound entirely at its 
lowest point but leave outlet for pus that may form. Take stitches 
out if suppuration is detected down in the wound (the wound has in 
that case become infected before being dressed or not been properly 
cleansed). If no suppuration occurs, remove stitches when wound 
appears to have healed — 3 to 5 days. Few wounds will heal without 
suppuration in ahorse or mule unless dressed when wound is quite 
fresh and absolutely clean. 

(e) Suture silk, for sewing up wounds. It must be clean and be 
well soaked in pure Creolin before used. After the wound is sewed 
up, dust iodoform on it or apply a little vaseline. 

(/) Probe, used to find out if any foreign substance is in the 
wound — for example the bullet in a shot wound. 
(g) Tenaculum is used to pick up ends of arteries and tissues. 


(h) Director: Little used, except as a probe._ For deep cutting 
(very rarely done) it is sometimes used as a guide for the bistoury 
or scalpel. 

Clinical thermometer: Insert in rectum for three or four min- 

After using the thermometer the mercury should be shaken 
down. Before using, it should be examined to see that it reg- 
isters under 95°. 

The farrier should always have with him — 

1. Instrument pocket case. 

2. CoUc mixture — 5 doses (see "Medicine" below). 

3. Antipyretic (antifever) mixture — 5 doses (see "Medi- 

cine" below). 

4. Antiseptic (Creolin), | pint (see "Medicine" below). 

5. 1 dose syringe, 2 ounces. 

6. Clinical thermometer. 

7. Bandages, cotton (4). 

8. Bandages, gauze (4). 

9. Cotton, absorbent, 2 pounds. 

10. 3 feet rubber tubing with funnel to fit, or drenching 

Conditions of service should determine what other articles of the 
field equipment, if any, ought to be so carried. For example, in 
very hot weather a bottle of heat-exhaustion restorative should be 
taken; if horses are soft or have just had a change of diet, a pint of 
colic drench might be useful; if the wagons do not closely follow 
the column, some antiseptic wash might be carried. All articles 
of the field equipment not carried by the farrier personally should 
be packed in a box of convenient size, which should be left in the 
field wagon. 

Every mounted command liable to go into the field unaccom- 
panied by a veterinarian should keep on hand 10 days' field-service 
supply of such necessary and simple medicines as can be properly 
prescribed and administered by the farrier. Such medicines, for 
a command numbering about 70 horses and mules, would be about 
as shown in the table below under " Medicines. "_ The financial 
allowance is 25 cents at home or 30 cents in tropical stations per 
quarter per animal. In case the strength is materially above or 
below 70, quantities should be varied accordingly. 


Medicines are of assistance in healing, but their principal pur- 
pose is to keep away outside interference, mostly microbes, from 
the animal while nature does the healing. When necessary to give 
medicine, this may he accomplished by (1)_ introducing it through 
the mouth into the intestinal tract, (2) by inhalation (through the 
nostrils or mouth and the lungs), (3) by absorption through the 


skin, (4) by injection under the skin, (5) by injection into and 
absorption through the rectum. 

Through the mouth medicine may be given in various ways, vizj 
in the shape of poivder either dry or dissolved in water and then 
sprinkled on the food; an electuary made by mixing the medicine 
with honey or sirup together with enough dope (some sort of food) 
to make it into a puttylike mass, and this placed on the back of 
the tongue with a paddle, or formed into a cylindrical form usually 
called a "ball," about 2 inches long and three-fourths of an inch 
in diameter, wrapped with tissue paper and placed on the back of 
the tongue; a drench, made by adding the medicines to water or 
some other liquid and pouring slowly from the mouth of a bottle 
placed between the cheek and the elevated lower jaw; syringe, 
the contents of which are squirted onto the back of the tongue (this 
is the best method; see below). 

Giving liquid medicines : Fill a syringe with the medicine. Face 
the horse, take hold of its tongue with left hand (do not pull the 
tongue out, but simply hold it)j insert nozzle of syringe oyer 
tongue and squirt the medicine in; turn loose tongue and with 
left hand hold horse's head high until the sound of swallowing is 

If a dose syringe be not available, "drenching" may be resorted 
to, although as usually performed this method is most.y a waste of 
medicine, the horse usually swallowing little. The liquid medi- 
cine should be placed in a bottle, preferably one having no shoul- 
ders. The muzzle of the horse is elevated until the lower jaw is 
slightly above horizontal; this may be done by hand with some 
animals, but others require the head to be drawn up_ by a strap or 
rope thrown over a limb of a tree or other elevated point of support; 
ordinarily the shank attached to the halter may be used, but it is 
better to use, in addition to the halter, a nonslipping loop placed 
over the nose and in the mouth, so as to come against the roof of the 
mouth in rear of front teeth. With head in the elevated position, 
the month of the bottle is placed between the molars and the 
incisors (back and front teeth) and the contents very slowly poured 
onto the tongue. If the animal chokes, let his head down. Do 
not strike or rub the throat or windpipe "to make him swallow.'' 

Inhalation is used usually to relieve a stof>page of the breathing 
apparatus, such as occurs in case of a cold; it is given by causing 
a vapor or steam to be breathed into the lungs. Several arrange- 
ments can be made for accomplishing this; ingenuity will enable 
any farrier to devise some means; the simplest is to pour the steam- 
ing liquid onto clean hay in a sack which has been fastened over 
the animal's head. 

Absorption through the skin is accomplished by applying the 
medicine to the skin, sometimes b)^ standing the animal in a tub, 
and sometimes by soaking cloths in the medicine and applying 
with bandages. 



Injections under the skin are administered by the hypodermic 
syringe, but are rarely resorted to, and are given by a veterinarian 
only and usually for the purpose of relieving an animal's suffering. 

Injections into the rectum are resorted to for the purpose of clean- 
ing it out, or as a means of administering moderate heat in order to 
increase the circulation in adjacent parts, or to provide nourish- 
ment when the animal is prevented by weakness, injury, or other 
incapacity (such as in lockjaw) from taking food into the mouth, 
or to reduce the temperature (cold water) in case of fever. 

Ten days' field- 



service supply 
for 70 animals. 


1. Creolin, Pearson.. 


1 1-pound bottle. 

For external use, 1 
tablespoonful to 1 
pint of water; for 
internal use, ^ to 1 ta- 
blespoonful mixed 
with 6 to 8 table- 
spoonfuls of oliveoil. 

2. Glauber salts 


2 1-pound cans . . 

2 to 4 handfuls; in 

feed or dissolved in 

water as a drench. 

3. Acetanilide in al- 

Fever reducer 

4 ounces dis- 

Mix on receipt of in- 


solved in 1 

gredients; keeps 

pint of alco- 

indefinitely. (See 


under "Colds," p. 
46.) Dose, 2 
ounces; do not re- 
peat within 12 

4. Fluid extract of 

Pain deadener 

2 ounces 

1 teaspoonful (in 


colic mixture). 

5. Olive oil 


1 quart 

2 ounces (in various 


6. Cosmoline 

Scab softener 


^ pound 

7. Castile soap 

8. Lugol's solution: 

5 pounds 

As required. 

Mix on receipt of in- 

Saddle sores, 

1 fluid ounce io- 

Iodine, 5 parts; 

scratches, and 

dine, 4 ounces 

gredients; apply 

potassium io- 



externally; time, 

dide, 10; water, 
9. Iodoform 



Disinfectant for 
drying up open 

1 ounce 



10. Iodine solution. . 

Disinfect fresh 

1 pint 

Pouring onto or coat- 
ing of the exposed 

See "Diseases, in- 

open wounds. 

11. Colic mixture 

Abdominal pain.. 

Fluid extract 


ternal colic,"(p. 4C). 

Americana, 1 

part; creolin. 

(Pearson) 1 

part; olive oil, 
2 parts. 




The appetite is generally a very good index of Aie state of health 
of the animal. If a horse refuses, to eat his food or eats part only or 
eats laboriously, it is important to ascertain the cause as soon as 
possible. The mouth should be carefully examined to see whether 
the sharp edges of the back teeth have cut the tongue or the cheeks. 
Examine the front teeth to determine whether food has become 
lodged between the gums and the teeth. It should be remembered 
that except in old horses the upper gum is almost level with the 
lower edge of the upper teeth. 


Abdominal pain without inflammation. 

Cause. — Faulty feeding. 

/Symptoms.— Sudden attack; paws, looks anxiously at flank, goes 
do\\Ti, sits, rises, shakes himself. These symptoms more or less 

Treatment. — Take feed away from reach of animal. Give a dose 
of "colic mixture" — fluid extract cannabis Americana, 1 teaspoon- 
ful; creolin (Pearson), 1 tablespoonful; olive oil to fill 2-ounce 

Rub animal's abdomen with straw and cover with blanket. 
Walk animal slowly until it is relieved. Inject lukewarm soap 
water in rectum, 1 gallon or more. Don't repeat dose of medicine 
before three hours, even if animal still suffers. DonH feed animal 
until six hours after pain disappears. Don't offer water before 
attack is over and then only in small quantity — half a bucket full. 
If animal's temperature rises it is indicative of intestinal inflamma- 
tion and chances for recovery are not good. Bo not in such cases 
give "fever mixture," but give only creolin (Pearson), 1 table- 
spoonful with 8 tablespoonfuls of olive oil, and repeat every fourth 


Inflammation of mucous membranes, with or without rise of tem- 

iSymptoms. — Dullness, discharge from nostrils, cough, heavy 

Causes. — Exposure and infection. 

Treatment. — If cold, put blanket on. Take temperature in the 
animal's rectum; if over 102° F., put animal under shelter, but be 
careful to keep it in well-aired place. Give fever mixture: Acet- 
anilide, 1 tablespoonful dissolved in 8 tablespoonfuls alcohol, and 


half an hour later give creolin (Pearson), half tablespoonful with 
8 tablespoonfuls olive oil. 

Dont't again give acetanilide until 12 hours, even if temperature 
is still above 102° F. Give 2 ounces of olive oil four times daily. 
If swelling shows around throat, heat a small quantity of olive oil 
and rub in on swellling twice a day; don't heat the oil more than 
can be borne by finger kept continuously in it. If lumps appear 
under lower jaw and break open, they do not indicate glanders. 

If temperature rises to 104° F. or above, indications are that 
animal has pneumonia. The animal will then not lie down and 
breathes quicker than normal. 

Let animal have the feed it wants and give a bran mash once a 
day — not over 1 quart of wheat bran and only sufficient hot water 
to make it damp. 


Cause. — Change of water or food, bad water or food, diseased 
teeth, exposure, exhaustion, or too much physic. 

Symptoms. — Passing frequentlj^ liquid feces. 

Treatment. — Correct the fault if practicable. Rest the animal. 
Give creolin, 1 teaspoonful in 4 tablespoonfuls of water or olive oil. 
If the looseness of the bowels continues, give wheat flour stirred in 
water. The animal should be kept quiet and made comfortable; 
especially if the weather is cold keep it warm. Give less water 
to drink. 

Disposing cause. — Failure to give salt as often as should be, poor 

Symptoms. — Itching of upper lip, licking the hide or stalls, rub- 
bing the tail, rough coat, bowels irregular. Occasionally worms 
may be seen in the feces. There are many kinds — tapeworms and 
roundworms. Those ordinarily encountered are round, reddish or 
white and are about 6 to 12 inches long and | to f of an inch in 
diameter. Tapeworms are flat, thin, jointed, white in color, and 
vary in length, sometimes being 30 feet long. 

Treatment. — If possible, keep food from animal one day before 
beginning treatment and while giving it; or give gruel and water 
only. Give twice daily for three days creolin 1 ounce, olive oil 3 
ounces, and the next day a physic. The bot which lodges in the 
rectum may be removed by enema of tobacco water or weak 
creolin (disinfectant) twice per day for two days and followed by a 
physic the next day. The animal should receive careful attention 
afterwards to insure his building up in strength. See that the 
horses get the proper amount of salt at regular intervals. 



Cause. — This is caused by a contraction of the mouth of the 
bladder which occurs when the bladder is irritated or when a foreign 
body gets into the canal or — most frequently — when the fecal 
matter in the rectum accumulates and gets hard and presses on the 
canal from above. The bladder lies just under the rectum; it is 
gourd-shaped with the handle or neck immediately under the anus; 
the outlet is immediately under the anus in the mare and in the 
horse through the urethra which runs down between the hind legs 
just beneath the skin to the male organ. 

Symptoms. — The animal may be in great pain, in which case he 
acts quite the same as when affected with the colic. He spraddles 
his hind legs, strains, and tries to pass water. 

Treatment. — The hand and fore arm, well oiled or soap-lathered, 
should be inserted in the rectum when it will be easy to feel if the 
bladder is distended. The rectum should first be thoroughly 
cleaned by an enema (about a gallon of warm and soapy water 
injection), after which it should be thoroughly examined to see 
that all matter is removed. Then a very gentle massaging of the 
mouth of the bladder by the hand in the rectum — using plenty of 
oil — may relieve the irritation. Do not give sweet spirits of niter 
(which is usually prescribed), for it only further irritates the 
urinary system. Wash the sheath and the outlet thoroughly. If 
the patient be a mare, the fingers may be oiled and inserted in the 
urethra, and possibly the opening thus enlarged sufficiently to 
permit the water to flow. In the male the only way, if those sug- 
gested fail after several hours' trial, to relieve the pressure of the 
water in the bladder is by passing a catheter — but this requires the 
skilled veterinarian. Often the throwing and shaking of a little 
straw under the horse will induce the discharge of urine. A little 
soap on the point of the penis will frequently produce the same 


Cause. — Feeding of moldy grain and hay. 

Treatment. — Remove cause. Give animal a pint of olive oil 
twice a day for two days. If no sound feed can be obtained, have 
the moldy grain or hay spread in open air, but protected against 


Symptoms. — Muscular weakness. Heart's action feeble, pulse 
rapid, general depression, collapse. 

Cause. — Prolonged exertion in hot atmosphere. 

Treatment. — Rest animal. If no rise of temperature, give stimu- 
lants such as alcohol in small often-repeated doses— ^ ounce every 


half hour. Rub the body and limbs; give warm bath. If tempera- 
ture is high (over 104° F.), give cold water bath, place ice on head, 
rub body and legs. Give internally double dose of "fever mix- 
ture" (see p. 45). Cold-water enema (injection of water into the 


(See Pis. I, II, and III.) 

Most of the external diseases coming to the attention consist 
either of lameness, local irritation, skin diseases or abscesses. In 
some cases (such as founder) the disease is really internal, but the 
treatment is taken up under this heading for convenience. 


Find leg that animal favors. Trot him off; he will step lightly on 
the lame leg, raising the head and lame leg together if lame in 
front, and plant the other foot harder. 

The degree of lameness varies from being hardly perceptible, to 
one where the animal does not put the foot to the ground. Some 
forms of lameness will show less after the animal has been exer- 
cised awhile; in other cases the animal will show more lameness. 
The former generally indicates something wrong with tendons, the 
latter of the joints. Never forget to examine the hoof for punctures 
by picked-up nails, pieces of glass, or small, sharp rocks wedged 
between shoe and frog. Examine shoe and shoe nails. Tap with 
hammer on heads of nails and if the animal shows pain, have shoe 
removed. If pulsation can be noticed by putting hand on space 
between canon bone and tendons about half distance from the knee 
to fetlock (ankle) joint, it is likely that the cause for lameness is to 
be found in the hoof. After the thorough examination of the hoof 
has shown no cause for the lameness, proceed with the examination 
to the joints, tendons, bones, and muscles. Notice any swelling, 
soreness, enlargement, or wounds. If the cause is then not ap- 
parent, pull the shoe and examine the nails. If damp the indi- 
cations are that the nail has penetrated the sensitive hoof. If so, 
the nail hole should be thoroughly disinfected, openings packed, 
and re-dressed from day to day until animal recovers. 

Don't forget to find out how long animal has been lame. 


Treatment. — Thin the horn around the injured place so that pus 
can have outlet; then cleanse hoof with creolin solution, pack 
hoof with cotton or oakum well saturated with pvre, undiluted 

76881°— 15 4 


creolin and lield in place by doubled sack wrapped around hoof 
and tied between ankle and hoof. Be careful not to tie so tight as 
to cut off circulation in the leg. Dress once a day until animal 
shows no lameness; then put on shoe, but have leather sole put 
between hoof and shoe. 


Congestion and inflammation in the hoofs. Usual in front hoofs, 
but sometimes in all hoofs. 

Symptoms. — Stiff walk, hind feet put forward under body. 
Pulsation marked above affected feet. 

Causes. — Overfeeding, change of feed from one kind of gram 
to another; exhaustion on long marches, especially when horses 
are unaccustomed to it. 

Treatment. — Give a laxative, as Glauber salts, 4 to 8 handfuls 
dissolved in water, or 1 to 2 quarts of olive oil. Don't give any 
gi'ain feed; if animal is hungry, give bran mash. Place animal 
"wdth feet in cold water and give slow exercise every hour for 
from 5 to 10 minutes. DonH remove shoes on horse. 


Sprains of joints and tendons are treated with cold water at 
first; this must be continued as long as part feels hot by touch. 
Then bathe with warm water or, better, use a hot-water poultice. 

Hot-water poultice is made by taking a piece of a clean oat 
sack large enough, when folded, to go twice around the Joint. 
Soak sack cloth in as hot water as the hands can bear, wring and 
place it around the affected part, hold it in position by a 4-incli 
vnde cotton bandage. Bandages must be changed at least once 
a day; hot-water bandage should be taken off before it gets cool. 
It is useless to try to bandage at places on the legs aboAe knee 
or hock. Warm oil can be used with advantage in case a sprain 
has existed for several days. The use of either liniment, blister, 
or firing is inadvisable. 

Massage is useful and advisable when the skin is unbroken. 
Massage consists of rubbing with tt ^ hands, and it should be done 
in a direction toward the heart, but it must not be continued 
after the skin gets irritated. 


Under ordinary stable conditions the hoofs will become dry 
and will crack. The animal should be stood in water for several, 
hours each day or hoofs packed with well-moistened clay. 



Caused by bad shoeing. (See under "Shoeing.") 


Cause. — This disease is generally due to dampness accompanied 
by filth. 

Symptoms. — The seat of the disease is in the center crack or 
cleft of the frog, which at first shows dampness and has an offensive 
smell. This dampness develops into a discharge which is water> 
at first, but soon changes to a thicker and heavier colored con- 
sistency. Lameness does not result at first, but if not attended to 
the crack gets very deep, the frog becomes.more and more affected 
and withers away, the heel becomes contracted, and lameness 
finally results. 

Treatment. — Bathe thoroughly with creolin wash; remove the 
affected portions carefully; pack with creolin-soaked oakum or 
cotton and bandage this on well. Renew the treatment daily 
until cured. 


Cause. — Tliis is a malignant growth which begins between the 
bar and the frog and spreads to the sole between the horny and 
the fleshy part. Dampness does not cause it, but it does jKovide 
the conditions which are almost essential to the commencement 
and which favor the continuation of the disease. Filthy stand- 
ing places — especially stables which are not cleaned — and bruises 
of the frog or th9 sole are favorable conditions for the disease to 
get a foothold. 

Symptoms. — It differs from thrush in that thrush attacks the 
frog and is accompanied by a discharge from the cleft or the center 
crack of the frog, while the former begins where the frog joins 
onto the sole and spreads rapidly to the entire foot. It is prac- 
tically a rotting away of the sole accompanied by a watery dis- 
charge. Small cheeselike growths of new — apparently healthy — 
horn grow out but they soon break out and decay. The discharge 
is very offensive to the smell. 

Treatment. — This is a very serious disease which is puzzling 
to even those most skilled in veterinary science. Some think it 
is a parasite, others believe it to be very similar to cancer. A 
veterinarian should be called at the first opportunity. Until 
one can be secured the foot should be cleaned, diseased parts 
removed, and the foot packed Avith full-strength creolin and the 


foot encased in sack. The animal slionld be iilaced on a footinc^ of 
dr>- sand. ^ 

This disease is contagious, and great care should be taken to 
see that other animals are protected against standing in the place 
formerly occupied by a diseased horse, and the diseased animal 
should have the unaffected feet kept from contamination (See 
"Disinfectants," p. — .) 


Is a swelling, at first hard and firm, painful on pressure; gradu- 
ally the center bulges and a softening is felt. This may occur in 
many places— such as on the poll, called "poll evil"— but the 
treatment is essentially the same. 

_ Treatment.— AY)ply w^rm olive oil twice a day until fluctuation 
IS detected; after the area has been washed with warm water and 
castile soap and rinsed mth pure water or an antiseptic solution, 
open with curved bistoury. Don't make too large an opening 
but one sufficiently large that the pus may flow. Then syringe 
out ca\ity with antiseptic solution and apply oil around opening. 
Keep area clean. 


Swelling of eyelids caused by injury is best treated with a weak 
solution of creolin (Pearson), 10 drops in J pint of lukewarm water. 
Repeat wash every hour. If eyeball is clouded, see to it that the 
solution gets on the eyeball. 



A cracking of the skin between the fetlock and the heels. Some 
horses are predisposed to tliis disease, especially horses with long- 
haired fetlocks. Moisture and mud are causative agents. Clean- 
liness is the most important part of the treatment and it should 
be remembered that cold water should not be used for washing 
of the affected parts. Use lukewarm soap water, rinse off with 
pure boiled and cooled water, and wdpe very dry with cotton or 
clean linen rag. Apply a tliin cover of vaseline, lanolin, or grease, 
to wliich has been added a little creolin or iodine. During winter 
campaigns in country where the soil becomes deep mud, do not 
clip the hairs on fetlocks as they are a protection for the delicate 
skin, and it is far better to let the mud dry and brush it off than to 



These are affections of the skin, and they attack all parts of the 
body. They are manifested by itching and the hair falling out. 
Mange is caused by a small mite that lives in the skin, and the 
irritation set up causes a secretion that dries and forms scabs. 
Eczema, caused by fungi, is detected in shape of small or large 
pimples causing itch and falling out of hair. Lice are parasites 
that live on the skin and can be seen best when the horse is taken 
in sunshine. 

Treatment. — Attention must first be directed to destroying the 
parasites without injuring the skin. A soap wash to which is added 
coal oil (1 to 10) is very good. It must be left on the animal for 
one day, and during this time the animal should not be exposed 
to the sun. Then wash with plain soap water, rinse with pure 
water, and dry the horse with straw or clean rags. 

Ticks are often encountered, being usually picked up from 
bushes, and if a horse is in poor flesh they will be found very 
troublesome to get rid of. They should not be pulled off, for the 
head will generally remain fast and will, if left, cause irritation 
and sores; turpentine or carbolic water or a heated knife or nail 
will cause them to let go. 


For bites of poisonous reptiles or insects apply ammonia water. 
It may also be given internally, but very diluted when the bite is 
that of a snake. Strong solution of creolin may be used. 


^ Injuries may be grouped into two classes — wounds and contu- 

A wound is a separating of organic tissue caused by mechanic 
action that pierces the external covering (skin, mucous membrane). 
Wounds may be considered according to the cause, form, and the 
danger of the injury. 

A cut tvound is caused by a sharp instrument or the like, and is 
marked by its smooth edges and extension lengthwise. 

A stab wound has the greatest extension in depth and is caused 
by a pointed instrument. 

A contused wound is a wound where the separating of the tissue 
is caused by an instrument that acted by pressure and crushing or 
tearing, and where there is more or less blood infiltration (swelling) 
in adjacent tissue. The contused wound has not the smooth 
bleeding surface of the cut wound, often no bleeding at all, and 
has irregular form with ragged edges. 



In a wound, the tissue that was protected by the skin comes in 
contact with the air or with external bodies, and is liable to be 
contaminated or infected by pathogenic (disease producing) germs 
which influence the process of repair which the animal system 
starts almost immediately the injury is inflicted. 

Treatment. — The first step in the treatment of a wound is the 
cleansing by which foreign bodies in the wound are removed. 
Stopping the hemorrhage (bleeding) must be considered also. 

The cleansing is done by applying an antiseptic solution, as 
creoline (1 part to 25 parts water), or carbolic (phenol) acid, 1 part 
to 20 parts water, or corrosive sublimate (mercuric chloride), 1 to 
1,000, or tincture of iodine, or simply sterilized (boiled) and cooled 
water. A syringe can be used for this purpose with advantage. 
Do not use a sponge, but instead use a plug of absorbent cotton, 
and this should be thrown away after use. Foreign bodies, as 
splinters, straw, hair, etc., must be carefully removed; an artery 
forceps is very handy. In a shot wound a bullet extractor is useful. 

Hemorrhage (bleeding) is either from very small blood vessels 
(capillary) or from larger blood vessels. The capillary bleeding 
will soon cease and will rather assist in the cleansing of the wound. 
When larger vessels have been cut, a stopping will be necessary 
and can be effected by torsion (twisting) of the blood vessel with 
the artery forceps or by ligation (tying a string around the bleeding 

After the wound has been cleansed it must be decided whether 
healing by first intention (that is, an immediate union of the parts 
without suppuration) is possible or healing by granulation, is to 
take place. The question must be considered as to whether an 
open treatment of the wound or a covering by bandages is prefer- 

The healing by first intention can rarely be expected in horse or 
mule, and therefore suturing (sewing up) should only be resorted 
to in cut wounds where no loss of tissue has occurred. The inten- 
tion with the suture is to bring the edges of the wound in contact 
and hold them so, firmly. Sutures must therefore be put rather 
deep and each stitch tied in a knot. At certain parts of the body 
this healing seems to take place easier than on others, for example, 
the eyelids and lips. The most common way of wound healing is 
by granulation; that is, by formation of new organized growth of 
tissue. The healing should take place with least possible suppera- 
tion (pus discharge), and to obtain this the disease-producing germs 
already in the wound should be destroyed bv the use of antiseptic 
wash . Do not use too strong antiseptics, as they will destroy sound 
tissue and create a favorable soil for the disease-producing germs. 


Keep the wound well protected from further contamination and 
have the wound well drained, so that no pus or secretion from the 
wound is retained. This is done by placing a thoroughly sterilized 
(boiled) strip of cloth in the wound letting the end stick out of the 
wound. The protection of the wound can be accomplished either 
by a bandage or by an antiseptic dusting powder that will form a 
scab. Sometimes the granulations will grow too freely and will 
have to be checked so they do not protrude in the wound (form 
proud flesh). This can be done by caustics as bluestone or by a 
hot iron. 

CONTUSION (bruises). 

By this is understood a disease process caused by undue com- 
press of organic tissue, and generally without the skin's being 
broken. As a rule the force is from outside (kick and pressure). 

The extent of the contusion depends on the force, the direction 
from which it is inflicted, and the duration of the time in which 
the cause acts. 

By a slight contusion we only notice the swelling caused by blood 
that comes in the tissue from the broken smaller or larger blood 
vessels, and this will, if notexj^osed to new cause, soon be absorbed. 
Bathing with cold water or a cold-water compress will assist the 

The two forms of contusion that are of most importance in the 
Army Service are those caused by pressure of saddle and harness 
(saddle and harness galls), or the aparejo, and by kicks from other 

Prevention is better than cure. No mounted man must ever be 
negligent in saddl ing nor driver in harnessing his horses or mules. 
Therefore great care should be taken to examine animals when the 
saddle or harness is taken off. Give attention to any swelling or 
skin abrasion. When found, wash the part at once with soap and 
water, and rinse with cold water and then bathe with cool creolin 
water. Repeat this treatment every hour and the swelling will 
ordinarily soon disappear. See that next time the saddle or harness 
is put on the horse that no 'pressure comes to the injured part. 

If the swelling do^^s not disappear by this treatment, use bathing 
with warm water or hot water poultice. If part of the skin is so 
badly injured as to show signs of mortification (partial death), 
and a poultice will not remove it, this mortified part must be cut 
away by a knife. Turj^entine mixed with flour, equal parts, 
made to a paste and applied to the mortified part will usually 
remove it. After the dead tissue is removed, treat as a wound. 

Contusions caused by kick should be treated by bathing with 
cold or warm creolin solution and, if complicated with wound, as 
already advised. 


Contusions arc sometimes caused by man's abuse of forks, sticks, 
whips, and spurs. To prevent this we can only remind those tliat 
can not control their bad temper that they are unfit for handling 
animals and are deserving of severe punishment. 

Rope burns and injuries from interfering are contused wounds 
and should be treated as such. The first mentioned is due to care- 
less hitching — too long. 

Interfering — the striking of one foot against the other in travel- 
ing — is due mostly to careless shoeing but sometimes to faulty 
conformation and action or to weakness. Young horses in poor 
condition will of ten interfere as soon as they get tired. The shoeing 
should be observed, to see that no part of the shoe protrudes on the 
inside of the hoof and that the clinches of the nails are made level 
with the wall of the hoof. In an emergency — on the march — a 
twisted hay or straw band wrapped around the fetlock below 
the joint on the injured leg will prevent fiu-ther injury. 

Shot wounds are essentially contused wounds, and they are 
treated accordingly. Tincture of iodine is especially effective in 
such cases. 



Wagoner's Chevron. 

The wagoner or teamster is responsible for his team, harness, and 
wagon, with tools and repair parts. The condition in which he 
keeps them is a measure of his efficiency. Keep your animals in 
good flesh, clean, and free from lameness and bunches or boils, 
and get your load to the destination and you will be a successful 
driver. Excuses do not go. If anything happens which you think 
might excuse you for not getting your load to the desired point, 
remember that it only makes hungry men madder if you t3ll them 
you ' ' broke the harness " or " lost the axle nut " or your ' ' mule lost a 
shoe" or "shoulders got sore." Unless j-ou "get there" someway, 
they will brand you "no good," and you can not always get there 
unless you keep your outfit always in first-class shape. 

Feed and water your mules before you do yourself. Look over 
their feet every morning the first thing and every evening after you 
unhitch; clean them out and see if the shoes are loose. It is a good 
idea to tap the shoes lightly with a knife handle or hammer; if the 
animal flinches there is something wrong. 

Great care should be taken in making crossings such as bridges 
(especially ponton), fords, and ditches. A swift-moving load 
causes about twice the strain on a bridge as does a stationary or 
slow-moving one. 

Before passing a swollen stream with a team it should be exam- 
ined by wading or by riding an animal across. If the team should 
happen to get beyond its depth, release the animals by cutting the 
top hame straps and the check lines; if practicable the bellybands 
also should be cut. 

In pulling heavy loads or in heavy ground if there is any liability 
of the team's stopping, stop the animals yourself before they get 
stalled. Many animals will not pull again on a load in the same 
place where they have met with a resistance which has impressed 



them as insurmountable. If the team sliould get stuck, it may be 
induced to try again by turning the tongue slightly to the right or 
left and then getting ail off together. 

In starting a team with a heavy load or in any situation where it 
is necessary to get the united power of the animals, the reins should 
be held fairly tight so that the animals may be made to feel tlie aid 
and guidance of tli9 driver. 

Draft animals should never be driven out of a walk. Those used 
on backboards, spring wagons, and other light vehicles, and which 
are usually specially chosen for the purj^ose, may be driven at a 
trot when necessary. 

Army transportation by animals consists of pack mule (see p. 
96), spring wagon, ambulance, escort wagon (see PI. IX to XV) 
and "Army six" (see PL XII). 

The complete equipment of spare parts and accessories for the 
escort wagons and teams is as follows: 


1 wagon, escort, includes running gear, wagon body, 1 tongue, 1 
doubletree, 1 lead bar, 4 singletrees, 6 bows, 2 chains lock, 1 wagon 
cover, 1 jockey box, and 1 tool box, each with padlock and key; 
1 driver's seat and 1 axle wrench (total weight 2,000 pounds). 

Wagon equipment: 

Wagon pa.-ts, extra (total weight 106 pounds) — 

2 blocks, brake. ^ 

1 bolt, king.i 
Bolts, tire — 

1 4 by 2f inches.^ 
5 ^ by 3 inches.^ 

Bolts, wagon — 

2 ^ by 1^ inches.' 
2 T6 by if inches.' 

1 T^ by 2 inches.' 

2 ^ by 2^ inches.' 
2 f by 3 inches.' 

1 i by 11 inches.' 
4 § by 4 inches.' 

3 links, open.' 

2 nuts, axle.' 
1 reac;h.2 

6 rivets, iron, yg by 1.} inches.' 

4 rivets, iron, | by 1^ inches.' 
1 tongue.^ 

1 tree, double (carried bolted to coupling pole). 
] tree, single.' 

1 Carried in oscillating tool box. ^ Carried on left side of wagon body. 

















Wagon equipment — Continued . 

Wagon accessories (total weight 83 pounds): 
1 ax and helve. ^ 
4 bags, nose.^ 
1 brush, horse. ^ 
1 bucket, galvanized iron.^ 
1 comb, curry. ^ 

1 globe, lantern (cariied in lantern).^ 
4 grease, axle, pounds.^ 
4 halters, and straps.^ 
1 lantern, combination. ^ 
1 pickax and helve. ^ 
150 rope, f-inch, feet.^ 
1 spade. ^ 

1 whip, carried in socket. 
1 wick, lantern (carried in lantern).^ 
1 wrench, monkey.^ 
1 twine, ball.^ 

(For winter use, when authorized, 1 blanket-lined cover 
for each mule.) 

2 lead, s. s. (72 pounds), carried on mules. 
2 wheel, s. s. (90 pounds), carried on mules. 
Harness equipment — 

Harness parts, extra (total weight 8^ pounds) — 
1 buckle |-inch.2 
1 buckle, |-inch.^ 
1 buckle, 1-inch. 2 

1 buckle, 2-inch. 2 

2 clips, trace. ^ 

2 hames.^ 

1 ring, |-inch.^ 
1 ring, 1-inch.^ 
1 ring, l^-inch.2 
1 ring, 2-inch.^ 
1 snap, 1- inch. 2 
1 snap, l|-inch.2 
1 snap, 2-inch. 2 

3 straps, hame.^ 

Harness accessories (total weight 6 pounds) — 
^ gallon oil, neat's foot.' 
1 pound soap, harness.' 
1 sponge.^ 
1 wire, stove, spool. ^ 

1 Carried in oscillating tool box. 2 Carried in jockey box. 



Harness — Continued, 

Additional supplies to be carried in wagon, which are not in- 
cluded in the " complete set." These supplies are provided and 
maintained by organizations: 

128 nails, horseshoe, number (1-pound).' 
16 shoes, mule, fitted, number (16 pounds). ^ 
In campaign (F. S. R. 302): 
36 grain, reserve, pounds.^ 
2 rations, reserve, number.^ 

The foregoing list of articles is prescribed for each escort wagon 
and team wherever used. The oscillating tool box may be fitted 
on the escort wagon of any model. 

Wheels, extra: One wagon of each regimental field train — prefer- 
ably the most lightly laden grain wagon — will be equipped with 
one extra hind wheel in addition to the usual wagon equipment. 

For each mule-drawn vehicle of. the combat trains of engineers 
and signal troops, two single sets of wheel harness and as many 
single sets of lead harness as there are lead mules (see Tables of 
Organization, 1914), are provided; the extra parts of the harness 
and the harness accessories are, for 4-mule teams, as prescribed 
under escort wagons; for 6-mule teams, multiply by 1^. The extra 
parts of the wagons are not supplied by the Quartermaster Corps. 
The remaining wagon accessories supplied are limited to the fol- 
lowing : 


Bags, nose 

Brushes, horse 

Combs, curry 

Grease, axle, pounds 
Halters and straps. . . 

For 4-mule 

For 6-mule 









(For winter use, when especially authorized, 1 blanket-lined 
cover for each mule.) 

1 Carried in jockey box. 

2 Carried in oscillating tool box. 



The subjects of description, methods of cleaning, caring for, and 
repairing of harness are covered under the heading of the duties 
of the saddler. 


The principal effort required to keep a wagon in order is the 
daily examination of all nuts to see that they are tight, and greasing 
the wheels about every 30 miles. Even if the wagon is used 
but little, the axles should be examined twice a week at least. 
The 4 pounds of axle grease furnished with the escort wagon 
should last about a month. In greasing, remove the old grease, 
because, if not, the dirt and sand will accumulate and cause a 
"hot box," and completely disable the wagon, make you late 
getting in, and cause a lot of trouble. 

To grease a wagon without using a wagon jack: Remove the axle 
nut (remember that the nuts on the right side are right handed and 
those on the left are left handed). Get a board or a stick slightly 
longer than the distance from the axle to the ground . Place one end 
on the ground and inside the wheel, the other end leaning toward 
the wheel; place this upper end under a spoke which is about 
horizontal (level). Then raise the wheel slightly by lifting care- 
fully on the spoke on the opposite side of the wheel, when, if it has 
been greased often enough, the weight of the wagon will cause the 
wheel to slide down the spindle. Be careful the wheel doesn't 
get more than three-fourths of the way off; however, the wheel 
should be taken off far enough to get the old grease off. This 
method vnW not work if the axles have not been kept properly 
greased . 

To put on the wheel, reverse the process, placing the stick on the 
outside. Needless to say, though, the wheel will not run on (like 
it does off), but, with the inclination of the stick and slight pres- 
sure on the wheel (toward the wagon), it will go on. 

It is also unnecessary to remark that the nearer the upper end 
of the stick is placed to the hub, the less power it will take to lift 
the wheel off the ground. 



For each regiment, wagon company, ambulance company, 
engineer train, engineer battalion, and signal corps battalion 
(those organizations having a large number of wagons) is issued, by 
the Quartermaster Corps, a set of carpenters' and wheelwrights' 
tools, as follows (PI. XVI): 



Axe, hand * 

Auger, hollow, adjustable, i-inch to IJ-inch 

Bits, auger, ^s, i,* i, h,* s, f,* 1, 1 inch 

Bit, screw driver * 

Brace, ratchet, 12- inch * 

Calipers, x^air 

Chisels, socket, firmer, ] , §-, *, g, f ,* 1, U, 2 inch 

Files, saw, taper, 5-inch (* 3 in kit) 

Gauge, thumb, mortise 

Hammer, claw, handled '-^ 

Knife, drawing 

O ilcr * 

Plane, smooth, 8-iuch 

Plane, jack, 15-inch 

Plane, jo iiitcr, 24-inch 

Rasp, wood, 12-inch 

Rule, 2-foot * 

Saw, hand, crosscut * 

Saw , hand , rip 

Nest of saws, compass, with 1 handle, 3 blades 

Screw driver, hand 

Set, saw * 

Spoke pointer 

Square, try, 7 J-mch 

Square, steel, 2-foot 

Stone, oil * 

Vise, 4-inch jaw 

Wrench, monkey, 10-inch * 


The articles marked * when extracted from the set form the 
carpenters' and wheelwrights' tool kit and form part of equip- 
ment "A" (see preface). Remaining articles are in equipment 

There is issued by the Ordnance Department to the Field Ar- 
tillery, to be carried in the battery and forge wagon, a set of car- 
penter tools, shown on Plates XVII and XVIII as follows. 







Plate XVIII, 


Carpenter's tools. 


Bench ax. 

Bags, canvas, for small stores. 


Bits, auger, sizes J, i, f , 1, Ij, I5 inches 

Bit, wood, countersink, |-inch diameter, rose head 

Bit, expansive, 2 cutters, | to 3 inches 

Bits, screw-driver, sizes |, f , and f inch 

Brace, ratchet, 10- inch sweep 

Chisels, socket, framing, sizes f , 1, and li inches 

Divider, wing, 10-inch, forged steel 

Drills, twist, sizes 3%, -i^, /j, and ^ inch 

File, 10-inch, flat, bastard 

Files, saw, sizes 4 and 6 inches 

Gage, marking, brass, thumb-screw, shoe and face 

Gouges, socket firmer, sizes § and 1 inch 

Hammer, claw, adze eye, bell face, 1 poimd 4 ounces 

Handle, tool, containing 10 tools 

Handles, file, aluminum alloy 

Knife, drawing, folding and adjustable handle 

Knife, drawingj 9-uach blade 

Mallet, 2 J by 5 inches, maple, hickory handle 

Nail sets 


Oil stone, unmounted, 1 by 2 by 8 inches, Arkansas soft. 

Pincers, small, 8-inch, solid steel 

Plane, jack, wood, 16-inch, 2Hnch double bit 

Pfane, smoothing, wood, 8-inch, 2-inch double bit . . . 

Plate, auger handle 

Rasp, wood, 10-rnch, half rovmd 

Reamer, half round , for wood or soft metal 

Rule, boxwood, 2-foot, 4-fold 

Saw, crosscut, 24-inch, 7-point 

Saw, crosscut, 20-inch, 8-point 

Saw, rip, 24-inch, 5-point 

Saw set 

Screw driver, 5-inch blade, 10 inches over 1 11 

Spoke shave, adjustable, raised handle, 2J-inch cutter. . . 

Square, steel, 12-inch body, 8-inch tongue 

Tape line, linen, metallic warp, 100-foot, marked 12ths. . 

Tool kit 

Vise, table, 2§-inch jaw, 3-pound 

Wrench, screw, 12-ineh, solid bar 


2 6-inch. 



It is a good plan to have a fixed time for every routine duty, 
for then there will be no chance of overlooking anything. Cer- 
tain duties should be attended to daily and some weekly. The 
following is suggested daily: Immediately after rising, water your 
animals; when taking to water note carefully if they walk lame; 
then feed grain to animals, wash yourself, and get breakfast; 
give animals a very hasty cleaning, clean and inspect feet and 
shoes carefully, clean the ground where animals have stood during 
night; hitch up and report where ordered; water at every oppor- 
tunity either from running stream or from bucket — never from 
public trough unless pronounced healthy by proper authority. 
When work is finished in evening, park the wagon in place desig- 
nated, remove harness and hang up, rub off collars, belly bands, 
and cruppers; water; tie animals to picket line; clean out and 
examine the feet carefully, make a note of loose or lost shoes; 
feed grain and hay; report animals requiring shoeing or veterinary 
attention, especially examine carefully for any abrasion or enlarge- 
ment; wash and get dinner; glance over harness and the nuts on 
wagon, making any minor repairs and reporting those which 
require attention of a specialist; grease the wagon, if required; 
groom, wash animals' shoulders, and fix the harness so as to remove 
the pressure the next day from any swollen parts. 

Don't ever try to pad a bunch — it only makes things worse. If 
the felt collar pads are not obtainable, i)ieces of sheepskin with 
thongs attached are very handy for use in case of sore shoulder 
or collar boils; they are tied one on each side of affected part; 
they should be large enough to cover (except the affected part) 
the entire half of the collar. Small pieces would only cause undue 
pressure on the spots covered by these pieces. Especial care 
should be exercised in fitting of the collar. If too large, it will 
move about and will make the shoulders sore; if it is too small 
it will choke the animal. The collar is the right size if the hand 
(flat) can be put between the bottom (the inside) of the collar 
and the windpipe. (See "Fitting harness," p. 78.) 



Saddler's chevron. 

The saddler is charged with the repair of individual leather horse 
equipment of the personnel in mounted organizations and with the 
harness pertaining to the trains. 

The individual horse equipment is described in the Cavalry Drill 
Regulations. The two principal types of harness issued by the 
Quartermaster Department are known as the "Four-mule Ambu- 
lance or Wagon Harness" and the "Six-mule U. S. Army Wagon 

The escort wagon is drawn by four mules, which are equipped 
with one double set of lead harness and one double set of wheel 
harness, of the "four-mule ambulance or wagon harness" type. 
This type is distinguished by the traces, which consist of leather 
from hames to the breeching, the remainder of the length being of 
chain with hook at the end. This harness is illustrated in Plates 
XIX to XXI, pages , with list of parts as follows:^ 

The assembled double set of lead harness is shown in Plate XX 
and of wheel harness in Plate XXI. The entire set (two single, 
lead, and two single, wheel, sets) for a four-mule team, with team 
hitched to escort wagon, is shown in Plates IX, X, and XI. 

The Six-mule United States Army Wagon Harness (used on reserve 
ponton, and on heavy "Army six" wagons no longer issued) has 
no harness saddles, has breeching of a single fiat leather strap, and 
traces are all chain covered with leather. The six-mule team is 
ordinarily managed by a driver, mounted on a riding saddle on the 
near (left) wheel horse or wheel mule, who uses a jerk line and a 
blacksnake. A riding saddle, check rein, and jockey stick are 
part of the equipment. 

Plate XIX.— Ambulance or waeon harness. 



Crownpiece (lead and wheel). 

Straps, throat. 

Bands, brow. 

Check pieces. 


Winker stays. 

Face pieces. 

Straps, bit. 

Bits, bridle, ambulance, No. 47-A. 

Reins, bridle, long. 

Reins, bridle, short. 

Straps, rein. 


Straps, hame, upper and lower. 

Straps, breast. 

No. 17. Straps, choke. 

No. 18. Traces, single. 

No. 19. Bands, back (straps, back). 

No. 20. Bands, belly. 

No. 21. Breechings, complete. 

No. 22. Straps, breeching. 

No. 23. Straps, turnback, complete. 

No. 24. Straps, hip. 

No. 25. Lines, 2-hofse. 

No. 27. Lines, 4-horse. 

No. 34. Crupper, lead. 

No. 35. Straps, carrying. 

No. 36. Martingales. 

No, 37. Tugs, back-strap (with No. 18). 

No. 38. Straps, side (21-38). 







The chief difficulty of the driver is in fitting the collar, and too 
much pains can not be taken to understand the cause and the 
prevention of collar sores. Nearly all shoulder sores are due to 
large collars. If the collar is too long, the pressure is applied too 
low on the shoulder and sores will occur at the lower part. If the 
collar is too wide, the pressure is applied on the outer parts of the 
shoulder, the flesh will be rubbed by the slipping of the collar and 
sores will form at the upper part of the shoulder. The collar should 
conform exactly to the shape of the shoulder and shcnild fit so 
snugly that only the thickness of the fingers can be forced between 
the collar and the neck. This clearance should be exactly the 
same from the top of the collar to the throat. Great care should 
be taken to select the proper size of collar and to work it to the shape 
of the shoulder by light use before field service is required. The 
collar should be moist when first used on an animal so that it will 
be shaped to the neck by the pressure of the draft. This moisture 
is most effectively given by wrapping the collar in wet sacks and 
leaving them on for one night before the collar is used. On account 
of the difficulty of securing proper size collars, pads of cotton or 
felt should be secured. If not with the harness when issued, every 
effort should be made to secure them — one for each collar. These 
pads fill in the irregular space between ill-fitting collars and the 
neck, and thus partially compensate for the evil. 

When sores form, the filling should be removed from the part of 
the cotton or felt pad over the sore, but the covering of the pad 
should not be cut. The filling can be removed by ripping the 
edge and carefully pulling out the required amount without dis- 
turbing the surrounding portion. 

When suitable sizes of collars can not be obtained, a large collar 
may be reduced in size by cutting off the top ends and reattaching 
the buckles and straps. The collar may then be buckled so as to 
make it shorter and narrower. 

Sores on top of the neck result from the pressure of the harsh 
edges of the upper ends of the collar; from the effort to hold back 
the wagon by the breast chain; from the rolling effect of a large 
collar, and from the downward pull of the traces. All these evils 
may be remedied by proper care. To prevent the upper edges of 
the collar from rubbing, a steel collar pad should always be used 
next to the mane; every effort should be made to secure these 
pads, as they will save much annoyance. These pads are attached 
to the collar by leatlier straps and protect the flesh from the harsh 
ends of the collar and from the roughness of the cotton or felt pad. 
Breast chains should be lengthened to the last ring and should never 


be tight; they guide the pole and are not intended to hold back the 
load. A close-fitting collar will not roll over the neck as the ani- 
mal walks, and thus'it chafes the flesh. The trace should be held 
by the back strap at such a height that its clirection at the hames 
is about perpendicular to the shoulder. This avoids the downward 
pressure on the neck. 

The hames should be adjusted in length by shifting the upper 
strap to the proper holes. The length should be such that the point 
of attachment of the trace will be opposite the middle of the surface 
of the shoulder over which the collar rests. This is for the purpose 
of distributing the pressure evenly over the shoulder and thus 
reduce it to the minimum at all points. If the attachment of the 
trace is too low, or too high, the pressure is localized at one place 
and produces sores. In adjusting hames, the straps should not be 
so tight as to squeeze the collar; the upper hame straps should be 
just long enough to be taut when the lower straps are buckled snug. 

In fitting the bridle, the bit should be adjusted so as to be up in 
the corner of the mouth, but not so far up as to wrinkle it. 


Never throw the harness on the ground; hang it somewhere; place 
the shoulder side of the collars outside, so they will dry; this will 
save trouble of cleaning and of caring for animals injured by hard 
or muddy leather; such animals are useless but must be attended 
to anyway. 

It is better to wipe off the harness immediately after coming in — ■ 
before the dirt has gotten hard . 

Leather should be kept soft and pliable, and the only way to do 
this is to keep it cleaned and oiled. Never put leather in, or wash 
it with, hot water — such treatment ruins it. 

In cleaning be sure to get into the cracks, especially about the 
keepers; take the ends of straps out of the keepers for this purpose. 

Do not wear a buckle in the same hole all the time; shift the 
buckle a hole or so occasionally, and the leather will not rot out at 
that one place. 

Clean harness whenever it gets muddy or dirty; clean and oil it 
at least twice a month if in use. Think of the uncomfortable feel- 
ing on your own foot of a shoe wliich has gotten wet and has dried 
rather quickly, and you can reaUze how a mule feels wearing har- 
ness which has not been properly cared for after having gotten wet. 
Especially should the collars, cruppers, backhands, or saddles, 
and belly bands or girths be kept soft and pliable. The collar 
requires particular attention; it should be rubbed clean— not 
76881°— 15— 6 


scraped — every day after use, and again just before putting on. The 
collar should be kept buckled when off — it keeps its shape better. 

To clean the harness: First rig up a rack of some sort to hang it 
on, for it makes the work so much easier. Use the wagon tongue 
or put the extra coupling pole between the spokes of hind wheel 
above the hub and strap the other end to the axle. Get a bucket- 
ful of water (warm but not hot), sponge, harness soap, neats-foot 
oil (and some lampblack, if you can). Soften the mud and dirt by 
using plenty of water, but do not put the leather in the water to 
soak — ^it spoils it. 

^^^len all the dirt has been removed which is possible with 
water alone, make a thin lather of the soap on the sponge and com- 
plete the cleaning. In cleaning, rub as little as practicable — do 
it mostly by soaking the du't off. 

Let it dry gradually ; never by a fire nor in the hot sun. 

If lampblack be available, stir some into the neats-foot oil until 
it has a glossy appearance. Apply this on a small sponge or piece 
of cloth and rub this thoroughly into the leather. Then let it dry in. 

Cleaning and preserving materials for mounted equipment and 
artillery harness are furnished by the Ordnance Department; for 
wagon harness and other quartermaster equipment by the Quar- 
termaster Corps. 


The repair work required in caring for leather equipment will 
vary from the hasty patching of a broken trace on the march to 
actual making of certain parts in camps of considerable duration. 
There is a set of saddler's tools issued by the Ordnance Department 
and one issued by the Quartermaster Department. To organiza- 
tions having trains of quartermaster transportation, a quartermaster 
set of saddler's tools is issued, i. e. , to each regimental headquarters, 
wagon company, ambulance company, engineer train, engineer 
battalion, and Signal Corj^s battalion. IVIounted organizations are 
furnished suitable sets of such tools by the Ordnance Department. 
Of the quartermaster sets, portions only are taken into the field, 
called the "field kits." 



' '■ -22 

»!"' W 


19 20 20 


Plate XXII. 



Tlate XXIII. 


The ordnance set is as follows (see Pis. XXII and XXIII), viz: 
Saddled s tools. 

Number issued to one— 

























n a> 














Awl blades, harness, assorted, Nos. 43 






A^\l blades, harness, assorted, Nos. 43, 

45, and 48 










Awl seat handled 










Carriage, pricking, 3 wheels, Nos. 7, 8, 



















Edo'e tool No 1 





Edge tool, No. 2 










Extra blades with followers for draw 

gauge .. 










Gauge, draw, brass 










Hammer, No. 3, riveting 










Handle, peg (leather top), with wrench . 
Handles, awl, flat, imitation ebonv, 










Handles, awl, flat, imitation ebony, 

assorted, 3 sizes 






Knife, round 










Knife splitting, 6-inch 







Needle case, leather 













fNeedles, harness. No. 4, papers 








Needles harness No 5 papers 
















Needles, sacking, assorted, sizes 4 and 

4i inches 



' ' 



Saddler's tools — Continued. 

Number issued to one — 














'" '^ 








3 "C 












M bU 







3 s 




















Nippers, cuttins;, 10-inch 










Pliers, 6-inch. . . 




Punches, hand, Nos. 5, 7, 8, and 10, 






Punch, revolving, 4 tubes, Nos. 4, 5, 6, 






Rivet set. 


Rule, boxwood, 2-foot, 4-fold 


Screw driver, 3-inch blade, coml., 8 in- 

ches over all 





Shears lO-inch bent trimmers 




Shoe knife square point 





Shoe knife broad point 












Thimbles, best aluminum, lined steel, 

2 sizes 






2 1 

2 1 


Tool, claw 


Tnnl bnf <?ndfllpr's 


Tool kit, cotton duck 



Tool kit sheepskin 

1 Issued to converted 3-inch battery only. 

2 Larger size issued. 




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|-inch, No. 12 pounds, belt. . 

.Wnch, No. 10 do 

|-inch. No. 10 do 

?-inch. No. 10, oval head. 






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Tlie Quartermaster Corps set is as follows: 
Saddler''s tools, set. 
(See PI. XXIV.) 



Awl, collar, with handle i 

Awl, round, with handle i 

Blades, awl, 3 each, 6 sizes i 


Can, oil 

Chest, tool, saddler's combination 

Chisel, cold, hand 

Clamp, stitching 

Creaser, iron 

Cup, tin, pint 

Dividers, pair 

File, round (taper, 6-inch) 

Hammer, riveting, handled i 

Hammer, shoe, handled 

Hammer, tack, handled 

Handles, awl 

Knife, gauge, 5-inch slide i 

Knife, head 

Knife, round 

Knife, shoe 

Nippers, cutting 

Pliers, 6-inch, flat nose 

Punch, revolving, 6-tube i 

Punches, round, Nos. 2 and 9 

Rule, 36-inch 

Screw driver, 6-inch 

Set, rivet i 

Shears, bent, pair 

Slicker, glass 

Stone, oil 



Tool, claw 

Tool, edge, common i 

Vise, small 


1 These articles, when extracted from the set, form the Saddler's Tool Kit and 
form a part of Equipment "A" (see preface). The remaining articles are in 
Equipment "B." 

To each battalion of infantry or squadron of cavalry there is also 
issued, by the Quartermaster Department, a harness mender, illus- 
trated in Plate XXV, page 92. 







The contents of a harness mender are as follows: 






Beeswax piece 





Handle, awl . 





Punch, I'iv^et, No. 5 




Rivets and burrs, copper, No. 8 

Set, rivet 




Thi'ead , shoe 






W^flv "?hnp 


Certain repair parts for harness are carried in the escort wagons 
and ambulances to which the harness pertains. (See list of wagon 
parts and accessories, p. 66.) In addition to these, the following 
allowances of materials for the repair and preservation of harness 
are prescribed: 

For each double set of quartermaster harness — 

1 leather, harness, black, pound, 
•j^ rivets and burrs, copper, pound. 

2 thread, saddler's, ounces. 
2 wax, saddler's, ounces. 

The above amounts are prescribed as Equipment ''A" (see 
Preface). The same amounts are prescribed as Equipment "B." 
For every 20 double sets of quartermaster harness — 

1 needle, glover, paper. 

2 needles, harness. No. 2, papers. 
2 needles, harness. No. 3, papers. 
2 needles, harness. No. 4, papers. 

The above quantities of needles are prescribed as Equipment 
*' A. " No additional quantities are prescribed as Equipment " B. " 
The following sizes of rivets and thread are required: 
Rivets and burrs, copper — 

No. 8, liinches.1 

No. 9, ^ inch. I The rate of consumption by weight of each 

No. 9, 1 inch. j of these sizes is ordinarily the same. 

No. 12, 1 inch. J 

Thread, saddler's — Nos. 3 and 10, the same amount of eacli. 

In repairing broken parts the methods for single thickness and 
double thickness are different. If of single thickness, the two ends 
to be joined are shaved down so that when lapped the joint will be 
about the same thickness as the strap itself; then sew parallel to 


the edges — not across, for if yon do it will make a weak place in the 
leather along the line of stitches. However, a conple of stitches 
shonld be placed at the ends. 

If the broken parts consist of two or more thicknesses, such as 
traces, shave one end down to a sharp-pointed wedge and the other 
end from the center so as to receive the wedge-shaped end, then 
sew parallel to the edges and one or two lines of stitches crosswise. 

If the part to be repaired is a trace, care must be taken to see that 
the distance from buckle holes in the trace, at the hame end, to 
the singletree holes is the same as in the good trace. Another 
point, do not place the joint so that the singletree hole must be 
made through the splice. 

In splicing very thick traces it is better to shave down the ends 
of the break so as to make the joint about the same thickness as the 
trace and simply tack them together and then cover the joint on 
each side with a piece of leather of the same width. The ends of 
these pieces should be shaved down to a thin edge. 

Loops or keepers (for holding the ends of straps) of tentimes come 
unsewed. If ripped considerably, it is better to repair them by 
removing entirely, then sew one end in along the edge on its own 
side, after which tuck the other end in and sew it by using sewing 
needles as far as practicable and then a brass wire doubled, with 
eye at the middle and suitably curved. 

To repair a surcingle or girth, tack the edges together and make a 
loop just large enough to go around singly. Pin this over the end 
of the surcingle and over the joint — lap of the loop outside — and 
sew fairly near the edges (so as to make it smooth) and twice down 
the middle. 

In using a side or part of a side of leather care should be taken to 
cut from the proper part of the side. Remember that tlie back is 
generally the best and the belly and flanks the least desirable, 
being looser grained. 

In working leather into shapes it will be necessary to soak it (if 
black; not if russet, unless it is hard) for about an hour; it should 
not be soaked so long that the stuffing (grease) comes out. 

If you need a piece of leather of a certain width and length, cut 
that much out and no more ; it may leave an odd shape remaining, 
but that odd shape may turn out later to be exactly what you need. 
In other words, save your leather. 

Every harness maker or repairer will find a grained leather finger 
stall a necessity, ('onstant sewing with waxed thread soon wears 
the skin from the fingers and makes them very sore. 

If a spot does become thin and tender, it can be relieved by taking 
a single strand of waxed thread and wrapping close together around 
the finger over the spot; tliis method is much better than court- 
plaster and will last much longer. 


For work around loops and other inaccessible places it will be 
found very convenient to use an improvised needle consisting of a 
fine brass or copper wire, doubled and slightly twisted, with an eye 
left at the middle. This can be bent into almost any shape. The 
awl holes should be made large in such cases — it will save time and 

In stitching be careful that knots are not left where the harness 
rubs the animals. A knot is not necessary if a couple of back 
stitches are used at the beginning and end of the seam. 

It is better to sew than to use rivets, for the rivets make an un- 
sightly job and the hole punched for the rivet takes away consider- 
able of the leather. For hasty work, however, rivets must be used, 
and to rivet well is an art. The proper length rivet should be 
chosen; with the leather held firmly together and the rivet in place 
ready to be hammered, the end should not extend more than one- 
eighth of an inch above the burr. If longer than this, the end 
should be cut off, for, if not, it will be impossible to properly upset 
the end, and consequently the rivet shank will bend and make a 
very poor joint. 

76881°— 15 7 



The pack mule is used in our service where rail or wagon transpor- 
tation is impracticable, or where peculiar conditions render his use 
particularly suitable, such as in mountain field artillery, demolition 
packs for cavalry, tool packs for engineers, medical equipment for 
sanitary troops attached to organizations, machine guns for infantry 
and cavalry, radio outfits of signal corps company, supply trains, and 
sanitary trains. The numbers for each for the above purposes are 
shown in the Tables of Organization of the Regular Army and in Ta- 
bles of Organization of the Organized Militia. The ordnance equip- 
ment for each is shown in the several Unit Accountability Manuals 
(Ordnance Department). The quartermaster equipment will be 
shown in tables of allowances which are expected to be published 
shortly (1915). 

The following remarks are taken mostly from Engineer Field 
Manual, 1907, Part VI (Transportation): 

Pack saddles. — The adopted pack saddle is of the Spanish type, 
and is commonly called by its Spanish name, "aparejo," I^late 
XXVI. Its principal parts are the body, the cover, the cincha, 
and the crupper. These parts have subdivisions, which are less 
important. The accessories added to the above to make the 
aparejo complete are the corona, the blanket, the lash rope (50 feet 
long, ^ inch diameter) with its cincha, the sling rope (about 30 feet 
long, I inch diameter), the two lair ropes (about 30 feet long, | inch 
diameter with loop or eye at one end), and the two mantas or pack 

Aparejo, proper: 

I. Body of aparejo. 
II. Aparejo cover (permanently attached to the body). 

III. Cincha. 

IV. Crupper. 
V. Corona. 


VI. Lash rope with cincha. 
VII. Sling rope. 
VIII. Lair ropes (two). 
IX. Mantas (pack covers), two. 
X. Blanket. 
Carried by packer: 

XI. Blind (one every 10 pack mules, or fraction). 




The body of the aparejo consists of 2 pieces of heavy leather 24 
inches wide by 58, 60, or 62 inches long, sewed together at the edges 
and across the middle of the length, forming 2 pouches, into which 
moss or hay is stuffed to form pads fitting the contour of the animal 
on either side of the backbone. 

In the American form the pads are given a peculiar elastic stiff- 
ness by means of ribs of wood or metal extending from a saddle 
piece at the top of each pouch to a boot piece at the bottom. These 
ribs are stiffer at the front and more flexible at the back, varying 
uniformly between. They convert each pad into an elastic lever, 
by which the pull of thfe cincha on the bottom acts to raise the 
aparejo and its load from the backbone, while the stuffing distri- 
butes the load uniformly over a large space on the ribs. The 
stuffing is introduced through a hanclhole in the middle of the 
underside of each pad, through which it is always accessible, and 
the finest art of the packer consists in fitting the pads to the shape 
of the particular animal which is to carry the aparejo, and keeping 
them so regardless of changes in the animal's condition by shifting, 
removing, or renewing the stuffing. If a bunch rises on the animal 
it can be worked down by taking out stuffing immediately over it 
so as to take off the pressure at that point. Determine the proper 
point by wetting the top of the bunch and laying the aparejo on 
the mule. Aparejos and mules are numbered and the same pack 
is always on the same mule. 

The function of the crupper is not what would naturally be 
expected. If the aparejo is properly set up and fitted there will 
be no tendency to move back or forward. The crupper is, in 
reality, a steadying lever to keep the aparejo from rocking fore and 
aft as the mule travels. For this purpose the dock piece is large, 
smooth,, and soft, and the crupper is wide, stiff, and firmly laced 
to the body. The crupper is adjustable in length, and must be 
accurately fitted, so that when the aparejo is in its proper place 
the dock piece will ride between tail and dock without pressing 
on either. 

The cincha is of heavy canvas, doubled, and 10 inches wide. 
It is long enough to reach from the near boot under the mule and 
around the aparejo to a little beyond the middle. The ends are 
connected by the latigo, or cincha strap. 

The corona is a pad usually of several thicknesses of blanket, 
with a number or design which identifies the pack. It is important 
that the corona shall not be separated from its aparejo. 

Off the mules the aparejos are placed in a row on the ground or 
on skids, standing on their boots. The cincha, folded with the 
" latigo " or cinch strap (n, PI. XXVI) inside, rests on the aparejo. 
The crupper is turned so that the dock piece rests on the cincha. 
The corona is placed on top of all. Canvas covers are stretched 



Plate XXVII. 

Plate XX Vila. 

Plate XXVlIb. 



Plate XXVIIc. 


A__\\ /\-_A 

Plate XXVIId. 

Plate XXV lie. 


over the line of aparejos and tied down. The line of aparejos so 
arranged is usually referred to as the rigging. 

Each packer is provided with a blind — one for every 10 pack 
mules or fraction of 10. The mules are trained to stand perfectly 
still when blinded, and if it is necessary to move a mule even by 
a step the blind should be lifted. 

To place the aparejo on the mule the corona is first put smoothly 
on, followed by the blanket folded to six thicknesses. The aparejo 
is then put on slightly in rear of its place. The crupper is turned, 
the dock piece adjusted, the aparejo settled to its place, and the 
cincha unfolded, placed, and tightened. Never put on or adjust 
a pack with the mule's head uphill. 

Loads are divided into side packs and top packs. Side packs 
should be of approximately equal weight and size. A keg of paint 
on one side and an equal weight of oakum on the other do not 
make a proper load. Side packs should not be longer than 30 
inches, wider than 20 inches, nor deeper than 12 inches. If the 
side packs do not fill out a load the rest is placed between them 
as a top pack. Articles which by their size or shape are not suit- 
able for side packs are carried on top. The center of gravity of 
the entire load should be below the top of the saddle, and the lower 
the better. For miscellaneous cargoes the freight is made up into 
side and top packs, each wrapped in a manta, or canvas cover, 
and tied, or laired up with lair ropes. If a pack contains articles 
of different weights, place the heaviest at the bottom. The side 
packs are slung across the aparejo by the sling ropes and lashed on 
with the lash rope and cincha in the form of the diamond hitch. 
Such a load must remain unbroken until the end of the march. 

The load is lashed on with the lash rope and cincha by what is 
known as the "diamond hitch;" the method is explained in 
Cavalry Drill Regulations. (See PI. XXVII.) 

Care and 'preservation. — All parts of the rigging should be kept 
clean and the leather parts soft and pliable. The materials and 
methods given for harness may be adapted. 

In taking off lashed packs, the lash rope is removed; its cincha 
laid on the ground at the middle of the line to be occupied. The 
lash rope is coiled down on the cincha and its end stretched out 10 
feet to one side. The sling rope is then unfastened, the packs 
dropped from the aparejo and laid on the lash rope lengthwise with 
the cincha. The sling rope is coiled on the packs, and the end of 
the lash rope brought up on top. The cincha of the second pack is 
laid down on one side of the first and parallel to it at 2 feet distance, 
but with the end of the lash rope on the opposite side. The packs, 
etc., are placed on it as described. The third pack is placed on- 
the other side of the middle one, and so on until all are down in a 
line. After all cargoes are off the aparejos are removed. Cargoes 



are also covered with pieces of canvas called cargo covers. Mantaa 
may be used if there are spare ones. 

For details as to pack transportation, see "Pack Transportation," 
by Daly, 1910, a Government publication (War Department, Doc- 
ument No. 360). For explanation of the knots and hitches see 
"Cavalry Drill Regulations," paragraphs 1010 to 1017. 

For repairing packs and shoeing pack animals of an organization 
the ordnance outfits issued to organizations are used; for pack 
trains (part of the supply quartermaster service) this type of equip- 
ment consists of the blacksmith's kit and cargador's kit. 

i? I « 


The blacksmith's kit consists of the following articles: 
1 anvil, field, packer's. 
1 cutter, clinch. 
1 hammer, hand. 
1 hammer, shoeing. 

1 iron, clinch. 

2 knives, horseshoe, SJ-inch blades. • 
1 pinchers. 

1 pritchel. 

2 rasps, 16-inch. 

To make the field anvil, take a piece of flat iron about 18 inches 
long, 3 inches wide, and ^ inch thick; shape this into a triangle 
about 5 inches on the side and weld together. 

A pack train cargador's.kit consists of the following articles: 
12 blades, awl, assorted sizes. 
1 cutter, rivet. 
1 hammer, riveting. 

3 handles, awl. 
1 knife, gauge. 

1 knife, half-round. 

2 needles, Nos. 2 and 4, papers. 

6 needles, sailmaker's assorted sizes. 
1 oilstone, small. 
1 palm, sailmaker's. 

3 punches, hand, size |, I, and I inch. 
1 punch, spring. 

1 set, rivet. 

1 shears, tailor's, 6-inch blade. 

1 tool, edge. 
Ten days' supply of materials, as listed below, required for re- 
pairs of the complete equipment of 50 pack animals, forms a part 
of the cargador's kit, viz: 

6 buckles, halter, 1| inch. 

4 canvas, 28 inch, No. 10, yards. 

6 leather, bridle (or harness), fair, pounds. 

6 leather, latigo, fair, pounds. 

1 pack cover. 

6 rings, halter. If inch. 

^ rivets and burrs, size f , No. 8, pounds. 

250 rope, |-inch, feet. 

200 rope, |-inch, feet. 

6 snaps, halter, trigger, size H. 

3 thread, harness. No. 10, ounces. 

1 twine, sailmaker's, ball. 

3 wax saddler's, ounces. 



Horseshoer's chevron. 

Those whose primar}^ duty is the shoeing of animals should fa- 
miliarize themselves with the manual "The Army Horseshoer," 
Erepared at the Mounted Service School, Fort Kiley, Kans. (War 
'epartment Document No. 356), which treats the subject thor- 
oughly. However, the trooper, teamster, or the packer may be 
called upon to tighten, remove, or to replace shoes or even to 
adopt temporary expedients for shoes when shoes themselves are 
not to be gotten. 

As long as an animal has energy (which he accumulates by the 
fuel taken into his stomach in the shape of forage), he can render 
service if his feet are in condition to carry him; even though he 
has a sore back (if a mount) or sore shoulders (if a draft animal), 
he can still — though with pain — do his work. But with lameness 
in his feet, he can neither carry himself nor his load — on the other 
hand, he is a burden because he must be cared for. 

A driver or mounted man should see that any shoe lost or worn 
out is replaced, or, if a shoe be loose, that it is tightened at the 
earliest practicable opportunity. 

If the use of the horse and the mule were confined to the soft 
fields, there would be no necessity for protecting the hoof, but on 
improved roads, which are a necessity due to the heavy volume 
of traffic, the hoof will wear away much more than nature can 
replace. Rough ground also causes the horn to break away. 
Horseshoes and mule shoes are therefore a necessity in the military 

The idea of the shoe is to protect the wall of the hoof, but this 
must be done without interference with the growth of any part of 
the foot or with the proper functioning of the various parts of the 



foot. When the animal puts his foot on the ground there is a down- 
ward movement of all the inside portion of the foot with reference 
to the ouside covering or wall and the hard sole or bottom of the 
foot. The frog in the horse corresponds to the heel of the man 
and it is just as important. Any shoeing which does not permit 
of the frog's touching the ground is defective; however, this is 
not to be construed as meaning that horses which have been shod 
otherwise so long as to dry up the frog or whose feet are otherwise de- 
fective should have the horn and sole cut down so much as to bring 
pressure on the sensitive parts of the foot. The frog can be built 
up again by putting it to use again; that is, by using a leather pad 
of sufficient thickness to bring pressure on the frog when the 
foot is planted. If at any time the sole will give under heavy 
pressure of the thumbs, the sole is too thin. 

Tools for shoeing animals are issued by both the Ordnance De- 
partment and the Quartermaster's Department. 

For winter use or when necessary and when calked shoes are not 
issued, toe calks are supplied at the rate of one (^ pound) per shoe. 

The allowance of smithing coal is, for each 100 animals, 30 pounds 
in Equipment A, 60 pounds in Equipment B. (See Preface.) 

Animals should be shod at least once a month. The animals' 
feet should be inspected carefully and cleaned out at least twice 
a day. If an animal goes lame suddenly on the march, look over 
his feet and see whether he has gotten a stone wedged somewhere 
about the hoof. It is remarkable how careless the average man is 
with reference to this — probably the most important — part of the 

The Ordnance Department tools and issues (see PI. XXIX, 
XXIXa, XXIXb, and XXX) are as follows. 






Plate XXIXa. 



Plate XXIXb. 



Plate XXX. 



Blacksmith^ s tools. 


Number issued to 1— 



si >. 




« w c 







a . 









("Anvil, 17.5 pounds 







Apron, blacksmith's 


Bag, canvas, for nails 


Anvil, 100 pounds 

Box, shoeing, leather . 






Chisel, cold, 8-inch 


Chisel, handled, for cold iron, 2 pounds 

Chisel, handled, for hot iron, 1.5 pounds. . . 
Clinch cutter 








Clinching iron. . .. 



Creaser, st?el handled 


Chest for tools 



Drills, flat 



1 G 

File, flat, 12-inch bastard 


File, 12-inch, flat, second cut 






Fire rake 



Flatter, handled, 1.5-inch square face 

Fore punch and creaser. double headed . . . 





Hammer, hand, 2 pounds 



Hammer, riveting, 1 pound 2 ounces 

Hammer, rounding, 14-inch handle,2pounds 








Handle spare for cold chisel 


[Hardie, .75 square shank, 1.25 bit 

■\Hardie 5 square shank 1 5 bit 




[Hardie 502 (A) square shank 1 bit 







Oiler .' 


For use in garrisen only. 


Blacksmith's tools — Continued. 



Number issued to 1— 












,d o 





<1> 03 4) 

fPritf^hel 75 flats, 9-inch 










Punch round 312 (^) inch 


Punch, nail 

[ Punch, square 

Ratchet drill for square-shank drills 

Rivet sets, sizes .187 (^), .25, .375, .5, and 





' i 





Screw plate, taps and dies, with tap wrench, 
in chest 








Shoeing pincers 12 inches 


Shoeing rasp, IG-inch 

2 1 



Sledge, 11 pounds 



Schaller forge 




Toe knife 



jTongs, horseshoer's, 1.5 pounds, 12-inch. . . 





/Tongs for 25 iron 





Tool kit, small 




Tool kit, for Schaller forge 




* 1 


J Vise, modiiied to fit battery wagon 

[Vise, 2 5 jaws 






Whetstone, farrier's, 10-inch 




Wrench forge 


i W^rench screw 8-inch 




1 For use in garrison only. 

2 Ordered with pack outfit. 

3 Ordered with battery wagon for light or horse l^attery only. 
* Ordered with battery wagon for heavy battery only. 

^6881°— 15 8 


The field outfit issued to the Cavalry by the Ordnance Depart- 
ment is designed especially for portability, and is packed in two 

Chest No. 1 (22 by 18 by 13 inches) contains a small knockdown 
forge with fan and drivewheel and a complete set of forge and 
shoeing tools. Weight of chest, packed, 122 pounds. 

Chest No. 2 (21 by 17 by 10 inches) contains a small anvil and 
block, water bucket, leather shoeing box, and apron. Weight of 
chest, packed, 68 pounds. 

The field anvil weighs 17 pounds. 

Description and uses of the tools (from ''Army Horseshoer") are 
as follows (see PI. XXIX to XXX, pp. 106-109): 

The clinch cutter (fig. 8) consists of two parts — the blade and 
the point. The blade is used to cut or to raise the clinches, being 
placed under the edge of the clinch and struck with the driving 
hammer. The point is used to punch nails and stubs out of the 
hoof. It is often placed in the crease of the shoe, under the head 
of the nail to be withdrawn, and struck smartly with the hammer. 
The blow raises the nail sufficiently to enable the pincers to grasp 
the nail head. 

The pincers (fig. 35) are used to remove shoes and to draw nail 
stubs and improperly driven nails. 

The driving hammer (shoeing hammer) (fig. 21) should be used 
only to drive horseshoe nails, to wring off nails after they have been 
properly driven, and to make clinches. 

The nippers (fig. 25) are used to remove the surplus growth of 

The shoeing knife (fig. 34) is used to pare away the dead horn 
near the white line; to remove loose particles from the hoof; to 
relieve pressure on corns and cracks; and to open the sole and wall 
for the escape of pus or for the removal of foreign bodies. 

The horseshoers' rasp (fig. 36) is used to prepare a level bearing 
surface of the foot, to remove extra length of toe, to smooth the 
edges of the wall, to even clinches, to make a slight groove under 
each clinch, and to run lightly over the clincers in order to smooth 
them . 

The hammers, hand and rounding (figs. 18 and 20) are used in fit- 
ting and in turning shoes. 

The clinching iron (fig. 9) is used to turn the clinches. 

The tongs (fig. 4L) are used in handling hot metals. 

The pritchel (fig. 28) is made by hand from round or octagonal 
steel, and is used for opening the nail holes in horseshoes. The 
point is shaped the same as the shank of a nail near the head, so 
that the hole punched in the shoe will fit the nail snugly and not 
allow muc;h motion. Examine the nail carefully and learn the exact 
size for the pritchel. To draw out the point of the pritchel, heat 
it to a cherry red and, placing the pointed end flat on the face of 


the anvil near the far edg^e, strike with the hammer held at an 
angle to properly change the upper face, turning it as necessary 
so that the finished point will be of the shape desired. Never heat 
the pritchel beyond a cherry red; cool it gradually by placing it 
in the coal at the edge of the forge and never in the water. The 
face of the horseshoers' anvil should have a round edge near the 
base of the horn on the far side. This edge is used for sharpening 

Hardies (fig. 24) are used to cut hot metals. Their principal use 
for horseshoers is in cutting off the heels of shoes, and for this 
purpose a sharp cutting edge is required. When the hardy becomes 
dull, the edge is drawn out on the face of the anvil in the same 
manner as the pritchel. A sharp edge is then put on by hot 
rasping, using the smooth side of the rasp. After sharpening, the 
cutting edge should be tempered as follows: Heat the whole hardy 
slowly to a cherry red; hold the cutting edge under water so that 
about one-half inch of the blade is immersed, and, when there is 
no longer any sizzling, plunge the whole hardy under water and 
remove it at once; now carefully observe the change in color as the 
remaining heat in the body extends back to the edge; the color 
will be first straw, then copper, and finally blue; as soon as the 
blue color has reached the cutting edge, place the whole hardy 
under water and leave it there until thoroughly cooled. 

The creaser (fig. 10) is used to crease the shoes and to repair dam- 
aged creases. 

Horseshoe nails retain the shoe on the foot. These nails (fur- 
nished in several sizes) are machine made and pointed; they are 
slightly concave on one side and flat on the other. In driving the 
nail into the hoof the flat side is held faced outward. 

The anvil. — The working parts of the anvil are the horn, the face, 
and the heel. 

The face, or the upper plane surface, is of steel, and is welded to 
the iron body. The anvil is firmly fastened to a wooden block, 
which is sunk into the ground to a depth that will bring the surface 
of the face at a convenient working height above the ground — from 
30 to 36 inches. 

The horn is used to open and to shape shoes, the face to level the 
web and for welding, and the heel to straighten heels of shoes and 
to turn calks. Clips are ordinarily drawn on the edge of the face, 
but in the anvil shown there is an attachment near the base of the 
horn which is used for this purpose. The square hole in the face 
(hardy hole) is a socket for hardies; the round hole (pritchel hole) 
permits the passage of the pritchel through the nail hole of the 

Plate XXX shows a section of a portable forge. In every forge 
air is forced through the fire by a bellows or a fan (F); the latter is 



made to revolve by a drive wheel or by a handle (H). The twyer 
ball (T) corresponds to the grate of a stove. Firmly attached to it 
and extending toward the worker is an iron rod by which the ball 
may be rocked. The end of this rod is shown by the small circle 
ill the center of the twyer ball. A crater (C) shonld be made aronnd 
the twyer ball in order to confine the fire. Clay may be used for 
this purpose, but cement is better. 

The quartermaster set of farrier's and blacksmith's tools issued 
to each regiment, wagon company, ambulance company, engineer 
train, engineer battalion, and signal corps battalion (organizations 
having a large number of wagons) consists of the following articles 
(contained in a substantial wooden chest) (see PI. XXXI): 



Anvil, small i 

Apron, leather i 

Chisels, cold handled 

Chisel, hot, handled i 

Chisel, cold, hand i 

Clinch cutter (buffer)i 

Clinch iron i 

Dividers, wing 

File, flat, bastard, 12-inch , 

Hammer, ball pein, with handle > 

Hammer, riveting, handled 

Hammer, shoeing i 

Hammer, sledge, handled 

Hardie i 

Knife, farrier i 

Nippers, cutting i 

Nippers, hoof-paring 

Pinchers, farrier i 

Pritchel i 

Punches, hand, round i (2 in kit) 

Rasps, 16-inch i 

Set stocks and dies, i to 1^ inches 

Tong, shoeing i 

Tongs, large > 

Vise, small 

Wrenches, monkey, 18-inch and 12-inch 
Wrench, "S" 


' These articles, when extracted from the set, form the Kit of Farrier's and 
Blacksmith's Tools and form a part of Equipment "A." The remaining articles 
are in Equipment " B." 

To each infantry regiment there are issued two Ilorseshoer's Emer- 
gency Equipments (see PI. VIII, p. 41), one for shoeing animals 
with the column on the march and one for shoeing animals with 
the field trains. The outfits are carried by the horseshoer or acting 
horseshoer. (Seep. 38.) 




Two sets of shoes, one set on the feet and the other already fitted 
(and 8 horseshoe nails per shoe), for each animal are a part of the 
equipment of an escort wagon. Each mounted man carries one 
fitted fore shoe and one fitted hind shoe and 16 horseshoe nails as 
part of his equipment. All shoeing materials (coal, fitted shoes, 
extra nails, etc.) for animals provided with store wagons or store 
pack mules are carried in the combat train. 

It is difficult to keep the horseshoer or blacksmith from using the 
fitted shoes carried on the mount or in the vehicle. These should 
be used only on the march. The teamster or the mounted man 
should resist any attempt to use these shoes at any other time, and 
if it is necessary to use them he should replace them at the very 
earliest opportunity. 

Horseshoes for the ordinary mount run about No. 3 or No. 4; they 
require No. 6 horseshoe nails, or, for horses hard on shoes. No. 7. 
Draft horses use as high as No. 7 shoes and require No. 8 nails. 
Mules ordinarily use No. 2 or No. 3 (mostly the latter) mule shoes. 
They require No. 6 horseshoe nails. There are 100 pounds of shoes 
in a keg and a keg contains 85 No. 3 mule shoes or 100 No. 2 mule 
shoes. Horseshoe nails run about 120 to the pound. 

There are four nail holes on each side of the shoe, but ordinarily 
only the three front ones are driven on the outside and the two front 
ones on the inside for riding horses, and four and three, respectively, 
on draft horses. The number depends, however, on how severe the 
animal is on shoes. Horseshoe nails are curved on one side and 
are straight on the other; the nail is driven with the straight side 
toward the outer edge of the hoof. 

In preparing the hoof for shoeing and in nailing the shoe on, the 
structure of the foot should be borne in mind. Attention is drawn 
to the accompanying cuts of the foot (PI. XXXII) and of the hoof 
(PI. XXXIII). The membranes and tissuesof the footare probably 
more tender, or, being so closely confined, require more delicate 
treatment than those of any other part of the body. On the other 
hand, they are subjected to the most pounding and often they re- 
ceive the least care. Men who would be very careful of the founda- 
tion of a house are most neglectful when it comes to the foundation 
of the horse. The hoofs of the horse and mule ct)rresp(md closely 
to the nails on the fingers or the toes; think of how very painful 
any injury to the nail is and it can be appreciated how tenderly 
the hoofs should be treated. 

Firstshapethe hoof so that when viewed from the front and from 
the side, the axis of the pastern (that is, between the ankle and the 
hoof) and the center line of the hoof are parallel. In removing the 
wall, begin at the toe. When the proper position has been obtained, 
the edge of the hoof should be rasped off very slightly — just enough to 
take (;ff the sharp edge. Then the shoe should be fitted to this 



. .a 
^ a . 

<B o aj s .a 

i . 

"o p^ 2 fi '-^ >> p< 

<s c 6 <»■ +-.• 





shape — tlo not ever shape the hoof to the shoe; if in circumstances 
where reshaping of the shoe is impossible, it is better to tack the 
shoe on as nearly symmetrical as practicable and have the work 
properly done at the first opportunity. 

In preparing the feet for the shoe, no cutting whatever, with a 
knife, is permitted except slightly at the toe to make a seat for the 
toe clip, when such is used. 

It is safer never to apply a hot shoe to the hoof, but, if at all, then 
only for an instant to see whether the hoof is level. 

Plate XXXIII.— Horse's hoof. 

1. Frog. 3. Cleft of frog. .5. AVhileline. 

2. Bar. 4. Sole. G. Wall. 

In removing surplus growth of the wall (the only ]-)art which 
should be touched at all with a cutting tool), use the cutting 
pincers or the rasp. It is dangerous to use a knife, because the 
pressure required to cut is so great that the shoer may cut into the 
sensitive parts before he knows it. 

A large percentage of animals have dry hoofs and, as a result, 
contracted heels. Contracted heels are caused also by faulty 
shoeing, by putting nails in the hoof back of the middle half, by 
cutting away tbe ])ars, l)y "()])ening the heels," or by giving an 
inclination inward to the up])er surface of the heels of tlie shoes. 


Tlie hoofs should be softened (see Dry II oofs, p. 50), sht)es be nailed 
on properly, and shoes so shaped as to spread the hoof at the heels 
by giving the upper surface of the heels of the shoe a slight inclina- 
tion downward toward the outer edges. 

Interfering may be either the striking of the inside of the fetlocks 
by the hoof of the foot alongside or by striking the fore shoe, hoof, or 
quarter (just above the hoof), by the hoofs of the hind feet (called 
"forging ') . The faidt is caused principally by faulty shoeing or by 
weakness or fatigue of the animal. If due to weakness, of course the 
animal should be built up. If the fault is detected shortly after 
shoeing, an inspection should be made to ascertain whether the 
shoe protrudes beyond the hoof, and the clinches smoothed off. 
The striking portion may be detected by chalking the part which 
is struck, trotting the horse off; when the hoof strikes, the chalk 
will rul) off onto the hoof. 

Sometimes the outer bar of the shoe is weighted (by making it 
broader) and this causes the foot to be carried wide in planting. 
Fvirging can sometimes be remedied by rolling the toe, that is 
shaping it much the same as it becomes after considerable wear; 
this causes the back of the hoof to tu.rn up quicker than it would 
ordinarily, and thus clears the hind hoof as it moves forward. 

Ankle boots, of leather, for interfering at the fetlocks and quarter 
boots for forging are the last resorts if strengthening physically and 
shoeing properly do not remedy the faults. 

The heels of the shoe shoidd not extend beyond the heels of the 
hoof. At the heels the shoe is allowed to extend outside the outer 
edge of the wall about J of an inch. The shoes as issued have nail 
holes too small; these should be opened to receive the nail heads. 

With the foot shaped and the slioe fitted to the proper shape, the 
nails are next driven. Be very careful in driving the first nail. 
It is a fine piece of work to place the shoe exactly in its proper 
position. When in position, drive the first nail (second from the 
front — exactly in the middle of the hole) just far enough so it will 
hold ; then look again to see if the shoe sits right, and if so, drive the 
nail home. After a nail lias been driven, the shoe should not be ham- 
mered sidewise because that will only loosen the nails by enlarging 
the nail holes and the shoe will always be loose, and before long the 
job must be done again. After the tacking on into proper position 
has been accomplished, the nail on the opposite side is then driven. 
The others are then driven in order — usually alternating sides. 
Each nail as it is driven is bent back at right angles to the hoof and 
the point is twisted off with the claw of the hammer. 

When all the nails have been driven, the foot is raised and a piece 
of iron (usually the pinchers) with a right-angled shoulder is held 
against the wall and against the end of each nail, and the nail ham- 
mered on the head. Then the foot is carried forward and rested on 


the knee; a slight groove is rasped under the ends of the nails and 
they are clinched'in succession, the pinchers or iron being held 
on the head of the nail as it is being clinched. When clinched, 
the en<ls are rasjied slightly to make them smooth. 

No nails slioiUd be driven back of the line where the hoof starts to 
curve in; that is, where the "quarter'' begins, or, in other words, 
in the back half of the hoof. To do so prevents the natural ex- 
pansion and growth of the foot. 

Nails should not be driven inside the "white line, "' because this 
marks the boundary^ of sensitive portion of the foot. The shoe 
should not press against the sole at any point; this will not occur 
if the top surface of the shoe is made level. _ In driving horseshoe 
nails be sure, by the time they have gone into the hoof f of an 
inch, that they are going with considerable resistance, which shows 
that they are penetrating horn and not the ''quick" or an old nail 

Horses or mules wpon which it is difficult to keep shoes, are com- 
monly shod with a clip on the toe of the shoe. In order to prevent 
the shoe's sticking out in front, due to the clip, a seat is cut in the 
wall at the toe just large enough to contain the clip. To do this, 
the foot is raised and the shoe held in its proper position, clip 
resting against the toe of the hoof, and the pcjsition of the clip is 
marked (m the wall with the knife. The wall is then very carefully 
whittled away, little by little, to make a proper seat. If too much 
be cut away, the value of the clip is lost. 

If a shoe becomes loose slightly, it can be tightened by reclinch- 
ing the ends of the nails, as explained al)ove. If the shoe becomes 
very loose, such clinching will pr()bal)ly do little good, for the holes 
are worn large. In this case the shoe should be reset, but if this 
be not practicable for the time, two (one ou each side) or more nails 
may be removed and new nails driven at slightly different angle. 
In removing a nail, the clinched end should be cut off before the 
nail is pulled through the hoof. The clinch cutter in the black- 
smith outfit is ordinarily used for this puipose, but a cold chisel or 
any blunt sharpened edge will do. After the clinch is cut off 
the nail may be driven part or all Ihe way out by using another 
nail, but very carefully. 

\i necessary to remove a shoo which is almost off— hanging by one 
or two nails at one side only— care must be taken not to bend it 
off over the edge of the hoo'f, for that will almost certainly break 
away all the wall between the clinched end and the bottom. 
Instead, raise the shoe as far as practicable without forcing the 
nails and place a piece of iron or wood between bottom of the hoof 
and the shoe and pry the tight part of the shoe up. It should not 
be necessary 1o do this, however, if the clinc-hed end be straight- 
ened or removed before attempting to remove the shoe. 



Abscess 52 

"A" equipment 7 


Accessories, escort wagon 66, 67 

Coal, smithing 105 

Forage 22 

Grain 22 

Grease, axle 67, 68 

Hay 22 

Medicines 33, 36, 43, 45 

Nails, horseshoe 67, 116 

Picket line 12 

Saddlers, materials, ordnance 85 

Saddlers, materials, quartermaster 93, 103 

Shoes, horse and mule 67 

Soap, harness 66, 67 

Water 23 

Weight on escort wagon 21, 58 

Aparejo 96 

Apothecaries measure 31 

' 'Army six' ' wagon 58 

Baggage section 8 

Bags, saddle, veterinarians 34 

Balking 17, 18 

Barley 22 

"B " equipment 7 

Bites 53 

Biting 16 

Bitting 19 

Blacksmith tools. 106, 114 

Blacksmith and farrier's kit 103, 114 

Bleeding 54 

Boils, collar 55 

' 'Breaking' ' horses 17 

Bridle, rope 12 

Bruises 55 

Bushel, weights, grain, per 30 

Calk, toe, shoe 105, 120 

Canker 51 

CarboUc acid 33 


122 INDEX. 

Care of— ^'■^^^^ 

Animals 10 

Aparejo 101 

Harness 79 

Wai^ons 68 

Carc^acUir s kit 103 

Catarrh 46 

' "C" equipment 7 

Checkrein 19 

Chests, veterinary 's field - 34 

Chevrons : 

Farrier 's 25 

Horseshoer 1 04 

Saddler - 75 

Wagoner 57 

Cincha 98 

Cleanliness 10, 12, 74, 79, 101 

Cleaning — 

Aparejo 101 

Harness 74, 79 

Wounds 54 

Clips, shoe - 120 

Coal, smithing 105 

Colds - 46 

Colic mixture - 45 

Collar boils 74 

Collar pads necessary 74, 78 

Combat train - - 8 

Containers, amounts in 31 

Contracted heels 51 

Corn, ration 22 

Corona 96 

Corrosive sublimate 24, 33 

Cribbing 15 

Decimal system - - 30 

Destroying animals 33 

Detection of disease 26 

Diarrhea - - 47 

Diseases, external 49 

Diseases, internal 45,46 

Disinfectants - - 33 

Distanoe, table of 32 

Drowning, rescuing from ... 57 

Dry hoofs 50 

Dry measure 32 

Duties of teamster 57, 74 

INDEX. 123 


Eczema 53 

Equipment "A" 7 

Equipment " B " 7 

Equipment " C " 7 

Equipment, escort wagon 58 

Equipment, farrier's 33, 38, 114 

Equipment, harness 75 

Equipment, horseshoer's emergency 38 

Equipment, moun ted 75 

Equipment, veterinarian's 34 

Excessive urinating 48 

Eyes, sore 52 

Farrier Chapter II 

Chevrons 25 

Duties. . - - 25-56 

Fiekl equipment 38 

General instructions 25 

Medicines, list of, for 33, 43 

Feed, kinds 22 

Feed, weights 30 

Feed , to tell good 22 

Fever mixture 45 

Field equipment, farrier's 38 

Field equipment, veterinarian's 34 

Field service 7 

Field training 7 

Fitting harness 78 

Forage 21 

Fording 57 

Founder 24, 50 

Four-mule harness 76, 77 

Four-mule team 59 

Frequency of shoeing 105 

Fright, to cure 10 

Galls, saddle or collar 55 

General instruction: 

Farrier 25 

Horseshoer 104 

Regarding animals 10 

Saddler 75 

Teamster or wagoner 74 

Giving medicines 43 

Glanders 25 

Grain, feeding 22 

Grain, ration 22 

124 INDEX. 


Grain, to tell good 22 

Grain, weights 30 

Grease, axle 66, 68 

Grooming 20 

Halter, rope 12 


Fitting 78 

Four-mule 66 

Lead 75 

Mender 93 

Repairing 80 

Six-mule 62, 75 

Wheel 75 

Healing, first intention 54 

Healing, granulation 54 

Heat, as disinfectant 33 

Heat, exhaustion 48 

Hobbling 16 

Hoof, dry 50 

Hoof, puncture 49 

Horseshoeing Chapter VI 

Horseshoer, the Army 104 

Horseshoer, chevron 104 

Horseshoer, emergency equipment 38 

Horseshoer's allowances 105 

Horseshoes, kinds 116 

Horseshoe nails 116 

Influenza 46 

Injuries 53 

Inspection, animals 25 

Inspection, feed 21 

Inspection, harness 74 

Inspection, wagons 74 

Instructions, general 10 

Instructions, farrier 25 

Instructions, teamster 57, 74 

Instruments, farrier's 42 

Instruments, veterinary 34 

Instruments, uses 42 

Interfering 56, 119 

Iodine 45, 56 

Jack, wagon 68 

Kicking animals 15, 16, 1 7, 19 

Kicks, treatment 55 

Killing animals 33 

INDEX. 125 


Kindness 10, 14, 25, 28 

Kit, blacksmith's 103, 114 

Kit, cargador's 103 

Kit, carpenter's and wheelwright's 69 

Kit, saddler's 90 

Lameness - - - - 49 

Lashing, rope 96 

Lashing packs 101 

Lead bars 58 

Lead harness 

Length, tables of 32 

Lice. 53 

Lime 24 

Line, picket 12 

Mange 53 

Manure, disposal of 24 

Materials, repair, ordnance 85 

Materials, repair, quartermaster 93 

Measures, tables of 32 

Medicines, allowances 36, 45 

Medicines for farrier's use 33, 43 

Medicines for veterinarian's use 33 

Medicines, table of 32, 45 

Mercury bichloride 33, 36 

Nails, horseshoe, allowance 67, 116 

Nails, horseshoe, kinds 116 

''Near" and "Off," definition 17, 20 

Neat's-foot oil 66 

Oats 30, 22 

Oil, neat's-foot 66,80 

Ordnance, blacksmith's tools 105 

Ordnance, carpenter's tools 69 

Ordnance, farrier's tools 105 

Ordnance, repair materials 85 

Ordnance, saddler's tools 83 

Outfit, packing 96 

Packing Chapter V 


Pannier - 34 

Pawing 15 

Picket line 12 

Pneumonia 46 

Pocket case, farrier's instrument - 38, 40, 42 

Pocket case, veterinarian's instrument 34, 35 

Pullins: back 16 

126 INDEX. 

Punctures, hoof 49 

Quartermaster Department: 

Carpenter and wheelwright tools 69 

Carpenter and wheelwright kits 69 

Farrier's tools. 114 

Harness mender 93 

Horseshoer tools. . . - 38, 105, 114 

Saddler's kit 90 

Saddler's tools 83, 90 

Table of allowances - - ^^ 

Transportation, kinds 8, 21, 58 

Ration, forage 22 

Ration section o 

Rearing j^ 

Rein check 19 

Removing shoes 1^0 

Repairs, harness 80, 93, 103 

Repairs, materials 80, 93, 103 

Restraining animals 28 

Retention of urine 48 

Rivets, allowance 93 

Riveting 95 

Rope bridle 1^ 

Rope burns ' ^ 9 

Rope halter 12 

Rope, lair 9b 

Rope, lash ^^ 

Rope, lashing -j^ 

Routine duties of teamster 74 

Runaways 19 

Saddle bags, veterinarian's ^4 

Saddlegalls -,---■-- '^'^'/^ 

Saddler Chapter IV 

Saddler, materials for °^ 

Saddler tools, ordnance o^ 

Saddler tools, quartermaster oO 

Scratches 10, to 

Section, baggage ° 

Section, ration ° 

Sot, "wheel' ' and "lead " harness 7& 

Shelter - - - - - - 24 

Shoeing Chapter VI 

Shoeing outfit, ordnance oq T V 4 

Shoeing outfit, quartermaster T ni 

Shoer, The Army Horse ^^4 

INDEX. 127 


Shoer, horse, emergency equipment 38, 41 

Shoes, horse, allowances 116 

Shoes, horse, nails 116 

Shoes, horse, removing 120 

Shoes, horse, sizes 116 

Shoes, horse, tightening 120 

Shooting animals 33 

Single set harness 66 

Sore eyes 52 

Sprains 50 

Stalled or stuck 57 

Strangles 46 

Sublimate, corrosive 24 

Sulphur 33 

Sunstroke 48 

Teamster Chapter III 

Throwing horses 29 

Thrush 51 

Ticks. , 53 

Training, horse 17 

Train, combat 8 

Train, field. 8 

Transportation, classes. . .' 8, 21, 58 

Urine, excessive 48 

Urine, retention of 48 

Wagon, ' 'Army-six " 58 

Wagoner Chapter IV 

Wagon, escort 58 

Wagon, escort, accessories 66 

Wagon, escort, capacity 21 

Wagon, escort, care of 68 

Wagon, escort, greasing 68 

Wagon, escort, parts 58 

Water, amount required 23 

Watering 23 

Watering, prohibited when warm 10 

Wheel, extra 67 

Wheel, harness, definition 75 

Worms 47 

Wounds, classes 53 

Wounds, treatment 54 


76881°— 15 9