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War Departmeol Office of (he Chief of Sleff 

[ Manual of 

Interior Guard Duty 



1914 



Wab Department. 

Document No. #6. 

Office of the Chief of Staff. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PBOCUBED FBOM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PBINTINQ OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

25 CENTS PER COPY 



> 






War Department, 
Office of the Chief of Staff, 

Washington, May 21, 1914* 
The following Manual of Interior Guard Duty is approved 
and herewith published for the information and govern- 
ment of the Regular Army and the Organized Militia of the 
United States. 
By order of the Secretary of War: 

W. W. WOTHERSPOON, 

Major General, Chief of Staff. 

3 



CONTENTS. 



Paragraph. 

Introduction 1-5 

Classification of interior guards 6 

Details and rosters 7-25 

Commanding officer 27-28 

The officer of the day : 29-40 

The commander of the guard 41-79 

The sergeant of the guard 80-103 

The corporal of the guard 104-137 

Musicians of the guard 138-139 

Orderlies and color sentinels 140-153 

Privates of the guard 154-208 

Countersigns and paroles 209-217 

Guard patrols 218-220 

Watchmen 221 

Compliments from guards 222-237 

Prisoners 238-298 

Guarding prisoners 299-307 

Stable guards 308-336 

Flags 337-345 

Reveille and retreat gun 346 

/Guard mounting 347-359 

Relieving the old guard 360-367 

5 

rj 

9 ' 



t » 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY* 



INTRODUCTION. 

) 3 

1. Guards may be divided into iew. classes: Exterior 

guards, interior guards, military police^ndproYOstg^iards. 

2/ Exterior guards are used only in time of war./ They 
belong to the domain of tactics and are treated of in the 
Field^ Service Regulations and in the drill regulations of 
thedifferent arms of the service. 

/The purpose of exterior guards is to prevent surprise, to 
delay attack, and otherwise to provide for the security jof 
the main body. 

On the march they take the form of advance guards, rear 
guards, and flank guards. At a halt they consist of out- 
posts^* 

8T Interior guards are used in camp or garrison to pre- 
serve order, protect property, and to enforce police regu- 
lations^/ In time of war such sentinels of an interior guard 
as may be necessary are placed close in or about a camp, 
and normally there is an exterior guard further out con- 
sisting of outposts. In time of peace the interior guard is 
the only guard in a camp or garrison. 

4/ Military police differ somewhat from either of these 
classes. (See Field Service Regulations.) They are used 
in time ox war to guard prisoners, to arrest stragglers and 
deserters, and to maintain order and enforce police regu- 
lations in the rear of armies, along lines of communication, 
and in the vicinity of large campsy 

7 



8 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

5. Provost guards are used in the absence of military 
police, generally in conjunction with the civil authorities 
at or near large posts or encampments, to preserve order 
among soldiers beyond the interior guard. 

INTERIOR GUARD. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

6. The various elements of an interior guard classified 
according to their particular purposes and the manner in 
which they perform their duties are as follows: 



(a) The main guard. 



, , Special guards: Stable guards, park guards, prisoner 
guaras, nerd guards, train guards, boat guards, watchmen, 
etc. 

DETAILS AND ROSTERS. 

7. At every military post, and in every regiment or 
separate command in the field, an interior guard will be 
detailed and duly mounted. 

It will consist of such number of officers and enlisted 
men as the commanding officer may deem necessary, and 
will be commanded by the senior officer or noncommis- 
sioned officer therewith, under the supervision of the officer 
of the day or other officer detailed by the commanding 
officer. 

8. The system of sentinels on fixed posts is of value in 
discipline and training because of the direct individual 
responsibility which is imposed and required to be dis- 
charged in a definite and precise manner. In order, how- 
ever, that guard duty may not be needlessly irksome and 
interfere with tactical instruction, the number of men 
detailed for guard will be the smallest possible. 

Commanding officers are specifically charged with this 
matter, and, without entirely dispensing with the system 



MANUAL OP INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 9 

of sentinels on fixed posts will, as far as practicable, in 
time of peace, replace such sentinels with watchmen. 
(See Par. 221.) 

9* At poets where there are less than three companies 
the main guard and special guards may all be furnished 
by one company or by detail from each company. 

Where there are three or more companies, the main 
guard will, if practicable, be furnished by a single com- 
pany, and, as far as practicable, the same organization will 
supply all details for that day for special guard, overseer, 
ana fatigue duty. In this case the officer of the day, and 
the officers of the guard, if there are any, will, if practicable, 
be from the company furnishing the guard. 

10. At a post or camp where the headquarters of more 
than one regiment are stationed, or in the case of a small 
brigade in the field,* if but one guard be necessary for the 
whole command, the details will be made from the head- 
quarters of the command. 

If formal guard mounting is to be held, the adjutant, 
sergeant major, and band to attend guard mounting will 
be designated by the commanding officer. 

11. When a single organization furnishes the guard, a 
roster of organizations will be kept by the sergeant major 
under the supervision of the adjutant. (See Appendix B . ) 

12. When the guard is detailed from several organiza- 
tions, rosters will be kept by the adjutant, of officers of the 
day and officers of the guard by name; by the sergeant 
major, under the supervision of the adjutant, of sergeants, 
corporals, musicians, and privates of the guard by number 
per organization; and by first sergeants, of sergeants, cor- 

§ orals, musicians, and privates by name. (See Appen- 
ix A.) 

13. When organizations furnish their own stable, or 
stable and park guards, credit will be given each for the 



10 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

number of enlisted men so furnished, as though they had 
been detailed for main guard. 

14. Special guards, other than stable or park guards, 
will be credited the same as for main-guard, credited with 
fatigue duty, carried on special duty, or credited as the 
commanding officer may direct. (Pars. 6, 221, 247, and 
300.) 

15. Captains will supervise the keeping of company 
rosters and see that all duties performed are duly credited. 
(See pars. 355-364, A. R., for rules governing rosters, and 
Form 342, A. G. O., for instructions as to how rosters should 
be kept.) 

16. Tnere will be an officer of the day with each guard, 
unless in the opinion of the commanding; officer the guard 
is so small that his services are not needed. In this case 
an officer will be detailed to supervise the command and 
instruction of the guard for such period as the commanding 
officer may direct. 

17. When more than one guard is required for a com- 
mand, a field officer of the day will be detailed, who will 
receive his orders from the brigade or division commander 
as the latter may direct. When necessary, captains may 
be placed on the roster for field officer of tine day. 

18. The detail of officers of the guard will be limited to 
the necessities of the service and efficient instruction; 
inexperienced officers may be detailed as supernumerary 
officers of the guard for purposes of instruction. 

19. Officers serving in staff departments are, in the 
discretion of the commanding officer, exempt from guard 
duty. 

20. Guard details will, if practicable, be posted or 
published the day preceding the beginning of the tour, 
and officers notified personally by a written order at the 
same time. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 11 

s 21. The strength of guards and the number of consecu- 
tive days for which an organization furnishes the guard 
will be so regulated as to insure privates of the main 
guard an interval of not less than five days between tours. 

When this is not otherwise practicable, extra and special 
duty men will be detailed for night-guard duty, still per- 
forming their daily duties. When so detailed a roster will 
be kept by the adjutant showing the duty performed by 
them. 

22. The members of main guards and stable and park 
guards will habitually be relieved every 24 hours. The 
length of the tour of enlisted men detailed as special 
guards, other than stable or park guards, will be so regu- 
lated as to permit of these men being held accountable for 
a strict performance of their duty. 

23* Should the officer of the day be notified that men are 
required to fill vacancies in the guard, he will cause them 
to be supplied from the organization to which the guard 
belongs. If none are available in that organization, the 
adjutant will be notified and will cause them to be supplied 
from the organization that is next for guard. (Par. 63 . ) 

24. The adjutant will have posted on the bulletin board 
at his office all data needed by company commanders in 
making details from their companies . 

At first sergeant's call, first sergeants will go to head- 
quarters and take from the bulletin board all data neces- 
sary for making the details required from their companies; 
these details will be made from their company rosters. # 

25* In order to give ample notice, first sergeants will, 
when practicable, publish at retreat and post on the com- 

Sany bulletin board all details made from the company for 
uties to be performed. 

26. Where rosters are required to be kept by this man- 
ual, all details will be made by roster. 



12 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 
THE COMMAHDIKG OFFICER. 

27. The commanding officer will exact a faithful, vigi- 
lant, and correct performance of guard duty in all of its 
details, giving his orders to the officer of the day, or caus- 
ing them to be communicated to him with the least prac- 
ticable delay. He will prescribe the strength of the guard, 
and the necessary regulations for guard, police, and fatigue 
duty. 

28. The commanding officer receives the reports of the 
officers of the day immediately after guard mounting, at 
his office, or at some other place previously designated; 
carefully examines the guard report and remarks thereon 
(questioning the old officer of the day, if necessary, con- 
cerning his tour of duty), relieves the old officer of the day 
and eives the new officer of the day such instructions as 
may be necessary. 

THE OFFICER OF THE BAT. 

29. The officer of the day is responsible for the proper 
performance of duty by the guard with which he marches 
on and for the enforcement of al 1 police regulations . He is 
charged with the execution of all orders of the commanding 
officer relating to the safety and good order of the poster 
camp. His actual tour begins when he receives the in- 
structions of the commanding officer after guard mounting, 
and ceases when he has been relieved by the commanding 
officer. In case of emergency during the interval between 
guard mounting and reporting to the commanding officer, 
the senior officer of the day will give the necessary instruc- 
tions for both guards. 

80. In the absence of special instructions from the com- 
manding officer, the officer of the day will inspect the 
guard and sentinels during the day and at night at such 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 13 

times as he may deem necessary. He will visit them at 
least once between 12 o'clock midnight and daylight. 

81. He may prescribe patrols (par. 218) and visits of in- 
spection to be made by officers and noncommissioned offi- 
cers of the guard whenever he deems it necessary. 

82. He will see that the commander of the guard is fur- 
nished with the parole and countersign before retreat in 
case they are to be used, and will inform him of the pres- 
ence in post or camp of any person entitled to the compli- 
ment. 

83. In case of alarm of any kind he will at once take 
such steps as may be necessary to insure the safety of life 
and public property and to preserve order in the command, 
disposing his guard, so as best to accomplish this result. 

84. In the performance of his duties as officer of the day 
he is subject to the orders of the commanding officer only, 
except that in case of an alarm of any kind, and at a time of 
great danger, the senior line officer present is competent 
to give necessary orders to the officer of the day for the 
employment of the guard. 

35, At the inspections and musters prescribed in Army 
Regulations, the officer of the day will be present at the 
post of the guard, but all commands to the guard will be 
given by the commander of the guard. 

86. Both officers of the day together verify the prisoners 
s and inspect the guardhouse and premises. 

37* In the absence of special instructions, the old 
officer of the day will, at guard mounting, release all 
garrison prisoners whose sentences expire that day. If 
there are any prisoners with no record of charges against 
them, theold officer of the day will report that fact to the 
commanding officer who will give the necessary instruc- 
tions. 

88* The old officer of the day signs the report of the 
commander of the guard. He also enters on it such 
remarks as may be necessary. 



14 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

89* The officers of the day then report to the com- 
manding officer. 

On presenting themselves, both salute with the right 
hand, remaining covered. The old officer of the day, 
standing on the right of the new, then says: "Sir, I report 
as old officer of the day/ 9 and presents the guard report. 
As soon as the commanding officer notifies the old officer 
of the day that he is relieved, the old officer of the day 
salutes the commanding officer and retires. The new 
officer of the day again salutes and says: "Sir, I report as 
new officer of the day," and then receives his instruc- 
tions. 

40. The officer of the day will always keep the guard 
informed as to where he may be found at all hours of the 
day and night. 

COMXANDER OF THE GUARD. 

41* The commander of the guard is responsible for the 
instruction and discipline of the guard. He will see that 
all of its members are correctly instructed in their orders 
and duties, and that they understand and properly per- 
form them. He will visit each relief at least once while 
it is on post, and at least one of these visits will be made 
between 12 o'clock midnight and daylight. 

42* He receives and obeys the orders of the command- 
ing officer and the officer of the day, and reports to the 
latter without delay all orders to the guard not received 
from the officer of the day; he transmits to his successor 
all material instructions and information relating to his 
duties. 

48. He is responsible under the officer of the day for 
the general safety of the post or camp as soon as the old 
guard marches away from the guardhouse. In case of 
emergency while both guards are at the guardhouse, 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 15 

the senior commander of the two guards will be responsi- 
ble that the proper action is taken. 

44. Officers of the guard will remain constantly with 
their guards, except while visiting patrols or necessarily 
engaged elsewhere in the performance of their duties. 
The commanding officer will allow a reasonable time for 
meals. 

45. A commander of a guard leaving his post for -any 
purpose will inform the next in command of his destination 
ana probable time of return. 

46*' Except in emergencies, the commander of the 
guard may divide the night with the next in command, 
but retains his responsibility; the one on watch must be 
constantly on the alert. 

47* When any alarm is raised in camp or ganjson. the 
guard will be formed immediately. (Par. 234.) If the 
case be serious, the proper call will be sounded, and the 
commander of the guard will cause the commanding 
officer and the officer of the day to be at once notified. 

48. If a sentinel calls: "The Guard/' the commander 
of the guard will at once send a patrol to the sentinel's 
post. If the danger be great, in which case the sentinel 
will discharge his piece, the patrol will be as strong as 
possible. 

49* When practicable, there should always be an 
officer or noncommissioned officer and two privates of the 
guard at the guardhouse, in addition to the sentinels 
there on post. 

50. Between reveille and retreat, when the guard had 
been turned out for any person entitled to the compliment 
(see pars. 222 and 224}, the commander of the guard, if an 
officer, will receive the report of the serseant, returning 
the salute of the latter with the right hana. s He will then 
draw his saber, and place himself two paces in front of the 
center of the guard. When the person for whom the guard 



16 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DITTY. 

has been turned out approaches, he faces his guard and 
commands: 1. Present, 2. ARMS; faces to the front and 
salutes. When his salute is acknowledged he resumes the 
carry, fac< -i about, and commands: 1. Order, 2. ARMS; 
and faces to the front. 

If it be an officer entitled to inspect the guard, after 
saluting and before bringing his guard to an order, the 
officer of the guard reports: "Sir, all present or ac- 
counted for"; or, "Sir, (so and so) is absent"; or, 
if the roll call has been omitted: "Sir, the guard Is 
formed," except that at guard mounting the commanders 
of the guards present their guards and salute without mak- 
ing any report. 

Between retreat and reveille, the commander of the 
guard salutes and reports, but does not bring the guard to 
a present. 

51. To those entitled to have the guard turned out but 
not entitled to inspect it, no report will be made; nor will 
a report be made to any officer, unlesi he halts in front of 
the guard. 

52. When a guard commanded by a noncommissioned 
officer is turned out as a compliment or for inspection, the 
noncommissioned officer, standing at a right shoulder on 
the right of the right guide, commands: 1. Present, 
2. ARMS. He then executes the rifle salute. If a report 
be also required, he will, after saluting, and before bringing 
his guard to an order, report as prescribed for the officer of 
the guard. (Par. 50.) 

58. When a guard is in line, not under inspection, and 
commanded by an officer, the commander of the guard 
salutes his regimental, battalion, and company com- 
mander, by bringing the guard to attention and saluting 
in person. 

For all other officers, excepting those entitled to the 
compliment from a guard (par. 224), the commander of the 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 27 

guard salutes in person but does not bring the guard to 
attention. 

When commanded by a noncommissioned officer the 
guard is brought to attention in either case, and the non- 
commissioned officer salutes. 

The commander of a guard exchanges salutes with the 
commanders of all other bodies of troops; the guard is 
brought to attention during the exchange. 

"Present arms^ is executed by a guard only when it 
has turned out for inspection or as a compliment, and at 
the ceremonies of guard mounting and relieving the old 
guard. 

54. In marching a guard or a detachment of a guard the 
principles of paragraph 53 apply. "Eyes right" is exe- 
cuted only in the ceremonies of guard mounting and 
relieving the old guard. 

55* If a person entitled to the compliment,, or the regi- 
mental, battalion, or company commander, passes in rear 
of a guard, neither the compliment nor the salute is given, 
but the guard is brought to attention while such person is 
opposite the post of the commander. 

After any person has received or declined the compli- 
ment, or received the salute from the commander of the 
guard, official recognition of his presence thereafter while 
he remains in the vicinity will be taken by bringing the 
guard to attention. 

56. The commander of the guard will inspect the guard 
at reveille and retreat, and at such other times as may be 
necessary, to assure himself that the men are in proper 
condition to perform their duties and that their arms and 
equipments are in proper condition. For inspection by 
other officers, he prepares the guard in each case as directed 
by the inspecting officer. 

46705°— 14 2 



18 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

57* The guard will not be paraded during ceremonies 
unless directed by the commanding officer. 

58. At all formations members of the guard or reliefs will 
execute inspection arms as prescribed in the drill regula- 
tions of their arm. 

5fr» The commander of the guard will see that all senti- 
nels are habitually relieved every two hours, unless the 
wes,uier or other cause makes it necessary that it be done 
at shorter or longer intervals, as directed by the command- 
ing officer. 

60. He will question his noncommissioned officers and 
sentinels relative to the instructions they may have re- 
ceived from the old guard; he will see that patrols and 
visits of inspection are made as directed by the officer of 
the day. 

61. He will see that the special orders for each post and 
member of .the guard, either written or printed, are posted 
in the guardhouse, and, if practicable, in the sentry box 
or other sheltered place to which the member of the guard 
has constant access. 

62. He will see that the proper calls are sounded at the 
hours appointed by the commanding officer. 

63. Should a member of the guard be taken sick, or be 
arrested, or desert, or leave his guard, he will at once 
notify the officer of the day. (Par. 23.) 

64. He will, when the countersign is used (pars. 210 to 
216), communicate it to the noncommissioned officers of 
the guard and see that it is duly communicatea to the 
sentinels before the hour for challenging; the countersign 
will not be given to sentinels posted at tne guardhouse. 

66. He will have the details for hoisting the flag at 
reveille, and lowering it at retreat, and tor firing the 
reveille and retreat gun, made in time for the proper per- 
formance of these duties. (See pars. 338, 344, 345, and 
346.) He will see that the nags are kept in the best con- 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 19 

dition possible, and that they are never handled except in 
the proper performance of duty. 

66. He may permit members of the guard while at the 
guardhouse to remove their headdress, overcoats, and 
gloves; if they leave the guardhouse for any purpose what- 
ever he will require that they be properly equipped and 
armed according to the character of the service in which 
engaged, or as directed by the commanding officer. # 

§7. He will enter in the guard report a report of his tour 
of duty, and. on the completion of his tour, will present it to 
the officer 01 the day. He will transmit with his report all 
passes turned in at the post of the guard. 

68. Whenever a prisoner is sent to the guardhouse 
or guard tent for confinement, he will cause mm to be 
searched, and will, without unnecessary delay, report the 
case to the officer of the day. 

69. Under war conditions, if any one is to be passed out 
of camp at night, he will be sent to the commander of the 
guard, who will have him passed beyond the sentinels. 

70* The commander of the guard will detain at the 
guardhouse all suspicious characters or parties attempting 
to pass a sentinel s post without authority, reporting his 
action to the officer 01 the day, to whom persons so arrested 
will be sent, if necessary. 

71* He will inspect the guard rooms and cells, and the 
irons of such prisoners as may be ironed, at least once dur- 
ing his tour, and at such other times as he may deem 
necessary. 

72. He will cause the corporals of the old and new reliefs 
to verify together, immediately before each relief goes on 
post, the number of prisoners who should then properly be 
at the guardhouse. 

73. He will see that the sentences of prisoners under his 
charge are executed strictly in accordance with the action 
of the reviewing authority. 



20 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

74. When no special prisoner guard has been detiiled 
(par. 300), he will, as far as practicable, assign as guards 
over working parties of prisoners sentinels from poets 
guarded at night only. 

76. The commander of the guard will inspect all meals 
sent to the guardhouse and see that the quantity and 
quality of food are in accordance with regulations. 

76. At guard mounting he will report to the old officer 
fit the day all cases of prisoners whose terms of sentence 
expire on that day, and also all cases of prisoners concern- 
ing whom no statement of charges has been received. 
(See Par. 241.) 

77. The commander of the guard is responsible for the 
security of the prisoners under the charge of his guard; he 
becomes responsible for them after their number has been 
verified and they have been turned over to the custody of 
his guard by the old guard or by the prisoner guard or 
overseers. 

78. The prisoners will be verified and turned over to 
the new guard without parading them, unless the com- 
manding officer or the officer of the day shall direct other- 
wise. 

79. To receive the prisoners at the guard house when 
they have been paraded and after they have been verified 
by the officers of the day, the commander of the new guard 
directs his sergeant to form his guard with an interval, and 
commands: 1. Prisoners, 2. Bight, 3. FACE, 4. Forward, 
5. MARCH. The prisoners having arrived opposite the 
interval in the new guard, he commands: 1. Prisoners, 
2. HALT, 3. Left, 4. FACE, 5. Bight (or left), 6. DRESS, 
7. FBONT. 

The prisoners dress on the line of the new guard. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 81 

SERGEANT OF THE GUARD. 

80. The senior noncommissioned officer of the guard 
always acts as sergeant of the guard, and if there be no 
officer of the guard, will perform the duties prescribed for 
the commander of the guard. 

81. The sergeant of the guard has general supervision 
over the other noncommissioned officers and the musicians 
and privates of the guard, and must be thoroughly familiar 
with all of their orders and duties. 

82. He is directly responsible for the property under 
charge of the guard, and will see that it is properly cared 
for. He will make lists of articles' taken out by working 

f>arties, and see that all such articles are duly returned, 
f they are not, he will immediately report the fact to the 
commander of the guard. 

83. Immediately after guard mounting he will prepare 
duplicate lists of the names of all noncommissioned officers, 
musicians, and privates of the guard, showing the relief 
and post or duties of each . One list will be handed as soon 
as possible to the commander of the guard; the other will 
be retained by the sergeant. 

84. He will see that all reliefs are turned out at the 
proper time, and that the corporals thoroughly understand, 
ana are prompt and efficient in, the discharge of their 
duties. 

85. During the temporary absence from the guardhouse 
of the sergeant of the guard, the next in rank of the non- 
commissioned officers will perform his duties. 

86. Should the corporal whose relief is on post be called 
away from the guardhouse, the sergeant of the guard will 
designate a noncommissioned officer to take the corporal's 
place until his return. 



22 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

87. The sergeant of the guard is responsible at all times 
for the proper police of the guardhouse or guard tent, in- 
cluding the ground about them and the prison cells. 

88. At "first sergeant's call" he will proceed to the 
adjutant's office and obtain the guard report book. 

89. When the national or regimental colors are taken 
from the stacks of the color line, the color bearer and guard, 
or the sergeant of the guard, unarmed, and two armed pri- 
vates as a guard, will escort the colors to the colonel's 
quarters, as prescribed for the color guard in the drill 
regulations of the arm of the service to which the guard 
belongs. 

90. He will report to the commander of the guard any 
suspicious or unusual occurrence that comes under his 
notice, will warn him of the approach of any armed body, 
and will send to him all persons arrested by the guard. 

91. When the guard is turned out, its formation will be 
as follows: The senior noncommissioned officer, if com- 
mander of the guard, is on the right of the right guide; if 
not commander of the guard, he is in the line of file closers, 
in rear of the right four of the guard; the next in rank is 
right guide; the next left gjuide; the others in the line of 
file closers, usually, each in rear of his relief; the field 
music, with its left three paces to the right of the right 
guide. The reliefs form in the same order as when the 
guard was first divided, except that if the guard consists 
of dismounted cavalry and infantry, the cavalry forms on 
the left. 

92. The sergeant forms the guard, calls the roll, and, if 
not in command of the guard, reports to the commander of 
the guard as prescribed in drill regulations for a first ser- 
geant forming a troop or company ; the guard is not divided 
into platoons or sections, and, except when the whole 
guard isiormed prior to marching off, fours are not counted. 



MAOTJA1 OF INTERIOR GTTABD DUTY. 88 

93. The sergeant reports as follows: "Sir, all present 
or accounted for," or "Sir, (so-and-so) is absent' 9 ; 
or if the roll call has been omitted, "Sir, the guard Is 
formed." Only men absent without proper authority 
are reported absent. He then takes his place, without 
command. 

94. At a night, the roll may be called by reliefs and 
numbers instead of names; thus, the first relief being on 
post: Second relief; No. 1; No. 2, etc.; Third relief, 
Corporal; No. 1, etc. 

95. Calling the roll will be dispensed with in forming the 
guard when it is turned out as a compliment, on the 
approach of an armed body, or in any sudden emergency; 
but in such cases the roll may be called before dismissing 
the guard. If the guard be turned out for an officer entitled 
to inspect it, the roll will, unless he directs otherwise, 
always be called before a report is made. 

90. The sergeant of the guard has direct charge of the 
prisoners, except during such time as they may be under 
the charge of the prisoner guard or overseers, and is 
responsible to the commander of the guard for their 
security. 

97. He will carry the keys of the guardroom and cells, 
and will not suffer them to leave his personal possession 
while he is at the guardhouse, except as hereinafter pro- 
vided. (Par. 99.) m Should he leave the guardhouse for 
any purpose, he will turn the keys over to the noncom- 
missioned officer who takes his place. (Par. 85.) 

98. He will count the knives, forks, etc.. given to the 
prisoners with their food, and see that none of tnese articles 
remain in their possession. He will see that no forbidden 
articles of any kind are conveyed to the prisoners. 

99. Prisoners, when paraded with the guard, are placed 
in line in its center. The sergeant, immediately before 
forming the guard, will turn over nis keys to the non- 



24 MANUAL OP INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

commissioned officer at the guardhouse. Having formed 
the guard, he will divide it into two nearly equal parts. 
Indicating the point of division with his hand! he com- 
mands: 

1. Right (or left), 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH, 
5. Guard, 6. HALT, 7. Left (or right), 8. FACE. 

If the first command be right face, the right half of the 
guard only will execute the movements; if left face, the 
left half only will execute them. The command halt is 
given when sufficient interval is obtained to admit the 
prisoners. The doors of the guardroom and cells are then 
opened by the noncommissioned officer havingthe keys. 
The prisoners will file out under the supervision of the 
sergeant, the noncommissioned officer, and sentinel on 
duty at the guardhouse, and such other sentinels as may 
be necessary; they will formi in line in the interval 
between the two parts of the guard. 

100. To return the prisoners to the guardroom and 
cells, the sergeant commands: 

1. Prisoners, 2. Right (or left), 3. FACE, 4. Column 
right (or left) 5. MARCH. 

The prisoners, under the same supervision as before, 
return to their proper rooms or cells. 

101. To close the guard, the sergeant commands: 

1. Left (or right), 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH, 
5. Guard, 6. HALT, 7. Right (or left), 8. FACE. 

The left or right half only of the guard, as indicated, 
executes the movement. 

102. If there be but few prisoners, the sergeant may 
indicate the point of division as above, and form the nec- 
essary interval by the commands: 

1. Right (or left) step, 2. MARCH, 3. Guard, 
4. HALT, and close the intervals by the commands: 

1. Left (or right) step, 2. MARCH, 3. Guard, 
4. HALT. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 25 

103. If sentinels are numerous, reliefs may, at the 
discretion of the commanding officer, be posted in detach- 
ments, and sergeants, as well as corporals, required to 
relieve and post them. 

CORPORAL OF THE GUARD. < 

104. A corporal of the g[uard receives and obeys orders 
from none but noncommissioned officers of the guard senior -O 
to himself, the officers of the guard, the officer of the day, ^ 
and the commanding officer. 

105. It is the duty of the corporal of the guard to post 
and relieve sentinels, and to instruct the members of his 
relief in their orders and duties. 

106. Immediately after the division of the guard into 
reliefs the corporals will assign the members of their respec- 
tive reliefs to posts by number, and a soldier so assigned to 
his post will not be changed to another during the same 
tour of guard duty, unless by direction of the commander 
of the guard or nigher authority. Usually, experienced 
soldiers are placed over the arms of the guard, and at re- 
mote and responsible posts. 

107. Each corporal will then make a list of the members 
of his relief, including himself. This list will contain the 
number of the relief, tne name, the company, and the regi- 
ment of every member thereof, and the post to which each 
is assigned. The list will be made in duplicate, one copy 
to be given to the sergeant of the guard as soon as com- 
pleted, the other to be retained by the corporal. 

108. When directed by the commander of the guard, 
the corporal of the first relief forms his relief, and then 
commands: CALL OFF. 

Commencing on the right, the men call off alternately 
rear and front rank, "one," "two," "three," "four," 



26 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

and bo on; if in single rank, they call off from right to left. 
The corporal then commands: 
1. Right, 2. FACE, S. Forward, 4. MARCH. 

The corporal marches on the left, and near the rear file, 
in order to observe the march. The corporal of the old 
guard marches on the right of the leading file^ and takes 
command when the last one of the old sentinels is relieved, 
changingplaces with the corporal of the new guard. 

109. When the relief arrives at six paces from a sentinel 
(see par. 168), the corporal halts it and commands, accord- 
ing to the number of the post: No. ( — ). 

Both sentinels execute port arms or saber; the new senti- 
nel approaches the old, halting about one pace from him. 
(See par. 172.) 

110. The corporals advance and place themselves, fac- 
ing each other, a little in advance or the new sentinel, the 
old corporal on his right, the new corporal on his left, both 
at a right shoulder, and observe tnat the old sentinel 
transmits correctly his instructions. 

The following diagram will illustrate the positions taken: 

A 

R □ 

□ □□'□□ 

CD HD 

n nan 

a 

B 

R is the relief; A, the new corporal; 2?, the old; C, the 
new sentinel j D, the old. 

111. The instructions relative to the post having been 
communicated, the new corporal commands, POST; both 
sentinels then resume the right shoulder, face toward the 
new corporal, and step back so as to allow the relief to pass 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 27 

in front of them. The new corporal then commands, 
1. Forward, 2. MARCH; the old sentinel takes his place 
in rear of the relief as it passes him, his piece in the same 
position as those of the relief. The new sentinel stands 
fast at a right shoulder until the relief has passed six paces 
beyond him, when he walks his post. The corporals take 
their places as the relief passes them. 

112. Mounted sentinels are posted and relieved in ac- 
cordance with the same principles. 

118. On the return of the old relief, the corporal of the 
new guard falls out when the relief halts; the corporal of 
the old guard forms his relief on the left of the old guard, 
salutes, and reports to the commander of his guard: "Sir, 
the relief is present' 9 ; or "Sir, (so and so) is absent," 
and takes his place in the guard. 

114. To post a relief other than that which is posted 
when the old guard is relieved, its corporal commands: 

1. (Such) relief, 2. FALL IN; and if arms are stacked, 
they are taken at the proper commands. 

The relief is formed facing to the front, with arms at an 
order; the men place themselves according to the num- 
bers of their respective posts, viz, two, four, six, and so 
on, in the front rank, and one, three, five, and so on, in 
the rear rank. The corporal, standing about two paces 
in front of the center of his relief, then commands: CALL 
OtfF. 

The men call off as prescribed. The corporal then com- 
mands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Order, 4. ARMS; 
faces the commander of the guard, executes the rifle sa- 
lute, reports: "Sir, the relief is present," or "Sir (so 
and so), is absent"; he then takes his place on the right 
at order arms. 

115. When the commander of the guard directs the cor- 
poral: "Post your relief," the corporal salutes and posts 
Lis relief as prescribed (pars. 108 to 111); the corporal of 



28 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

the relief on post does not go with the new relief, except 
when necessary to show the way. 

116. To dismiss the old relief, it is halted and faced to 
the front at the guardhouse by the corporal of the new re- 
lief, who then falls out; the corporal of the old relief then 
steps in front of the relief and dismisses it by the proper 
commands. 

117. Should the pieces have been loaded before the 
relief was posted, the corporal will, before dismissing the 
relief, see that no cartridges are left in the chambers or 
magazines. The same rule applies to sentinels over 
prisoners. 

118. Each corporal will thoroughly acquaint himself 
with all the special orders of every sentinel on his relief, 
and see that each understands and correctly transmits 
such orders in detail to his successor. 

119. There should be at least one noncommissioned 
officer constantly on the alert at the guardhouse, usually 
the corporal whose relief is on post. This noncommis- 
sioned officer takes post near the entrance of the guard- 
house, and does not fall in with the guard when it is formed. 
He will have his rifle constantly with him. 

120. Whenever it becomes necessary for the corporal to 
leave his post near the entrance of the guardhouse, he will 
notify the sergeant of the guard, who will at once take his 
place, or designate another noncommissioned officer to 
do so. 

121. He will see that no person enters the guardhouse, 
or guard tent, or crosses the posts of the sentinels there 
posted without proper authority. 

122. Should any sentinel call for the corporal of the 
guard, the corporal will, in every case, at once and quickly 
proceed to such sentinel. He will notify the sergeant of 
the guard before leaving the guardhouse. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 29 

123. He will at once report to the commander of the 
guard any violation of regulations or any unusual occur- 
rence which is reported to him by a sentinel, or which 
comes to his notice in any other way. 

124. Should a sentinel call : "The Guard/ 9 the corporal 
will promptly notify the commander of the guard. 

125. Should a sentinel call: "Relief , 99 the corporal will 
at once proceed to the post of such sentinel, taking with 
him the man next for duty on that post. If the sentinel is 
relieved for a short time only, the corporal will again post 
him as soon as the necessity for his relief ceases. 

126. When the countersign is used, the corporal at 
the posting of the relief during whose tour challenging is 
to begin gives the countersign to the members of the re- 
lief, excepting those posted at the guardhouse. 

127. He will wake the corporal whose relief is next on 
post in time for the latter to verify the prisoners, form his 
relief, and post it at the proper hour. 

128. Should the guard be turned out, each corporal 
will call his own relief, and cause its members to fall in 
promptly. 

129. Tents or bunks in the same vicinity will be des- 
ignated for the reliefs so that all the members of each re- 
lief mavj if necessary, be found and turned out by the 
corporal in the least time and with the least confusion. 

180. When challenged by a sentinel while posting his 
relief, the corporal commands: 1. Belief, 2. HALT; to 
the sentinel's challenge he answers " Relief,' 9 and at the 
order of the sentinel he advances alone to give the counter- 
sign, or to be recognized. When the sentinel says, "Ad- 
vance relief/ 9 the corporal commands: 1. Forward, 2. 
MARCH. 

If to be relieved, the sentinel is then relieved as pre- 
scribed. 



30 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

131. Between retreat and reveille, the corporal of the 
guard will challenge all suspicious looking persons or par- 
ties he majr observe, first halting his patrol or relief, if 
either be with him. He will advance them in the same 
manner that sentinels on post advance like parties (pars. 
191 to 197), but if the route of a patrol is on a continuous 
chain of sentinels, he should not challenge persons coming 
near him unless he has reason to believe that they have 
eluded the vigilance of sentinels. 

182. Between retreat and reveille, whenever so ordered 
by an officer entitled to inspect the guard, the corporal 
will call: " Turn out the guard," announcing the title of 
the officer, and then, if not otherwise ordered he will salute 
and return to his post. 

133. As a general rule he will advance parties ap- 
proaching the guard at night in the same manner that 
sentinels on post advance like parties. Thus, the senti- 
nel at the guardhouse challenges and repeats the answer 
to the corporal, as prescribed hereafter (par. 200); the cor- 
poral, advancing at " port arms," says: "Advance (so and 
so) with the countersign/ 9 or "to be recognized/ 9 if 
there be no countersign used; the countersign being cor- 
rectly given, or the party being duly recognized, the cor- 
poral says: "Advanee (so and so) 9 '; repeating the answer 
to the challenge of the sentinel. 

184. When officers of different rank approach the guard- 
house from different directions at the same time, the sen- 
ior will be advanced first, and will not be made to wait for 
his junior. 

135. Out of ranks and under arms, the corporal salutes 
with the rifle salute. He will salute all officers whether 
by day or night. 

136. The corporal will examine parties halted and de- 
tained by sentinels, and if he has reason to believe the 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 31 

parties have no authority to cross sentinel's posts, will 
conduct them to the commander of the guard. 

137. The corporal of the guard will arrest all suspicious 
looking characters prowling about the post or camp, all 
persons of a disorderly character disturbing the peace, and 
all persons taken in the act of committing crime against 
the Government on a military reservation or post. All 
persons arrested by corporals of the guard, or by sentinels, 
will at once be conducted to the commander of the guard 
by the corporal. 

MUSICIANS OF THE GUARD. 

138. The musicians of the guard will sound call as pre- 
scribed by the commanding officer. 

' 139. Should the guard be turned out for national or 
regimental colors or standards, uncased, the field music of 
the guard will, when the guard present arms, sound, "To 
the color" or "To the standard"; or, if for any person 
entitled thereto, the march, flourishes, or ruffles, pre- 
scribed in paragraphs 375, 376, and 377, A. R. 

ORDERLIES AND COLOR SENTINELS. 

140. When so directed by the commanding officer, the 
officer who inspects the guard at guard mounting will select 
from the members of the new guard an orderly for the 
commanding officer and such number of other orderlies 
and color sentinels as may be required. 

141. For these positions the soldiers will be chosen who 
are most correct in the performance of duty and in mili- 
tary bearing, neatest in person and clothing, and whose 
arms and accouterments are in the best condition. Cloth- 
ing, arms, and equipments must conform to regulations. 
If there is any doubt as to the relative qualifications of 
two or more soldiers, the inspecting officer will cause them 



82 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

to fall out at the guardhouse and to form in line in single 
rank. He will then, by testing them in drill regulations, 
select the most proficient. The commander of the guard 
will be notified of the selection. 

142. When directed by the commander of the guard to 
fall out and report, an orderly will give his name, com- 
pany, and regiment to the sergeant of the guard, and, 
leaving his rifle in the arm rack in his company quarters, 
will proceed at once to the officer to whom ne is assigned, 

reporting: "Sir, Private , Company — , reports 

as orderly." 

143. If the orderly selected be a cavalryman, he will 
leave his rifle in the arm rack of his troop quarters, and 
report with his belt on, but without side arms unless 
specially otherwise ordered. 

144. Orderlies, while on duty as such, are subject only 
to the orders of the commanding officer and of the officers 
to whom they are ordered to report. 

145. When an orderly is ordered to carry a message, he 
will be careful to deliver it exactly as it was given to him. 

146. His tour of duty ends when he is relieved by the 
orderly selected from the guard relieving his own. 

14 7» Orderlies are members of the guard, and their 
name, company, and regiment are entered on the guard 
report and lists of the guard. 

148. If a color line is established, sufficient sentinels 
are placed on the color line to guard the colors and stacks. 

149. Color sentinels are posted only so long as the stacks 
are formed. The commander of the guard will divide the 
time equally among them. 

150* When stacks are broken, the color sentinels may be 
permitted to return to their respective companies. They 
are required to report in person to the commander of the 
guard at reveille and retreat. They will fall in with the 
guard, under arms, at guard mounting. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR. GUARD DUTY. 83 

151. Color sentinels are not placed on the regular reliefs, 
nor are their posts numbered. In calling for the corporal 
of the guard, tney call: "Corporal of the guard. Color 
line/' 

152. Officers or enlisted men passing the uncased colors 
will render the prescribed salute^ If tne colors are on the 
stacks, the salute will be made on crossing the color line 
or on passing the colors. 

158. A sentinel placed over the colors will not permit 
them to be moved, except in the presence of an armed 
escort. Unless otherwise ordered by the commanding offi- 
cer, he will allow no one to touch them but the color bearer. 

He will not permit any soldier to take arms from the 
stacks, or to touch them, except by order of an officer or 
noncommissioned officer of the guard. 

If any person passing the colors or crossing the color line 
fails to salute the colors, the sentinel will caution him to do 
so, and if the caution be not heeded he will call the corporal 
of the guard and report the facts. 

PRIVATES OF THE GUARD. 

154. Privates are assigned to reliefs by the commander 
of the guard, and to posts, usually, by the corporal of their 
relief. They will not change from one relief or post to 
another during the same tour of guard duty unless by 
proper authority. 

ORDERS FOR SEHTHTELS. 

155. Orders for sentinels are of two classes: General 
ordere and special orders. General orders apply to all 
sentinels. Special orders relate to particular posts and 
duties. 

46705 e — 14 3 



84 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

156. Sentinels will be required to memorize the fol- 
lowing: 
My general orders are: 

1. To take charge of this post and all Government 
property in view. 

2. To walk my post in a military manner, keeping 
always on the alert and observing everything that 
takes place within sight or hearing. 

3. To report all violations of orders I am instructed 
to enforce. 

4. To repeat all calls from posts more distant from 
the guardhouse than my own. 

5. To quit my post only when properly relieved. 

6. To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentinel 
who relieves me all orders from the commanding 
officer, officer of the day, and officers and non-com- 
missioned officers of the guard only. 

7. To talk to no one except in line of duty. 

8. In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm. 

9. To allow no one to commit a nuisance on or near 
my post. 

10. In any case not covered by instructions to call 
the corporal of the guard. 

11. To salute all officers, and all colors and stand- 
ards not cased. 

12. To be especially watchful at night, and, during 
the time for challenging, to challenge all persons on 
or near my post, and to allow no one to pass without 
proper authority. 

REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE GENERAL ORDERS 

FOR SENTINELS. 

No. 1: To take charge of this post and all Govern- 
ment property in view. 

157- All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are 
required to observe respect toward sentinels and members 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 35 

of the guard when such are in the performance of then- 
duties. 

158. A sentinel will at once report to the corporal of 
the guard every unusual or suspicious occurrence noted. 

159. He will arrest suspicious persons prowling about 
the post or camp at any time, all parties to a disorder 
occurring on or near his post, and all, except authorized 
persons, who attempt to enter the camp at night, and will 
turn over to the corporal of the guard all persons arrested. 

160. The number, limits, and extent of his post will 
invariably constitute part of the special orders of a sen- 
tinel on post. The limits of his post should be so denned 
as to include every place to which he is required to go in 
the performance oi his duties. 

No. 2: To walk my post In a military manner, 
keeping always on the alert and observing every- 
thing that takes place within sight or hearing. 

161. A sentinel is not required to halt and change the 
position of his rifle on arriving at the end of his post, nor 
to execute to the rear, march, precisely as prescribed 
in the drill regulations, but faces about while walking, in 
the manner most convenient to him, and at any part of 
his post as may be best suited to the proper performance 
of his duties. He carries his rifle on either shoulder, and 
in wet or severe weather, when not in a sentry box, may 
carry it at a secure. 

162. Sentinels when in sentry boxes stand at ease. 
Sentry boxes will be used in wet weather only, or at other 
times when specially authorized by the commanding 
officer. 

163. In very hot weather, sentinels may be authorized 
to stand at ease on their posts, provided they can effect- 
ively discharge their duties in this position, but they 
will take advantage of this privilege only on the express 
authority of the officer of tne day or the commander of 
the guard. 



86 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

164. A mounted sentinel may dismount occasionally 
and lead his horse but will not relax his vigilance. 

No. 3: To report all violations of orders I am 
Instructed to enforce. 

165. A sentinel will ordinarily report a violation of 
orders when he is inspected or relieved, but if the case be 
urgent he will call the corporal of the guard, and also, if 
necessary, will arrest the offender. 

No. 4: To repeat all calls from posts more distant 
from the guardhouse than my own. 

166. To call the corporal, or the guard, for any purpose 
other than relief, fire, or disorder (pars. 167 and 173), a 
sentinel will call, "Corporal of the guard, No. (— )," 
adding the number of his post. In no case will any sen- 
tinel ^call, "Never mind the corporal; 99 nor will the 
corporal heed such call if given. 

No. 5: To quit my post only when properly relieved. 

167. If relief becomes necessary, by reason of sickness 
or other cause, a sentinel will call, "Corporal of the 
guard, No. ( — ), Belief/' giving the number of his post. 

168. Whenever a sentinel is to be relieved, he will halt, 
and with arms at a right shoulder, will face toward the 
relief when it is thirty paces from him. a He will come to a 
port arms with the new sentinel, and in a low tone will 
transmit to him all the special orders relating to the post, 
and any other information which will assist him to better 
perform his duties. 

No. 6: To receive, obey, and pass on to the senti- 
nel who relieves me, all orders from the commanding 
officer, officer of the day, and officers and noncom- 
missioned officers of the guard only. 

169. During this tour of duty a soldier is subject to the 
orders of the commanding officer, officer of the day, and 
officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only; 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 37 

but any officer is competent to investigate apparent 
violations of regulations by members of the guard. 

170. A sentinel will quit bis piece on an explicit order 
from any person from whom he lawfully receives orders 
while on poet; under no circumstances will he yield it to 
any other person. Unless necessity therefor exists, no 
person will require a sentinel to quit his piece, even to 
allow it to be inspected. 

- 171. A sentinel will not divulge the countersign (pars. 
209 to 217) to any one except the sentinel who relieves 
him, or to a person from whom he properly receives orders, 
on such person's verbal order given personally. Privates 
of the guard will not use the countersign except in the 
performance of their duties while posted as sentinels. 

No. 7: To talk to no one except in line of duty. 

172. When calling for any purpose, challenging, or 
holding communication with any person, a dismounted 
sentinel, armed with a rifle or saber, will take the position 
of * ' port ' ' arms or saber. At night a dismounted sentinel, 
armed with a pistol, takes the position of raise pistol in 
challenging or nolding communication. A mounted sen- 
tinel does not ordinarily draw his weapon in the daytime 
when challenging or holding conversation' but if drawn, 
he holds it at advance rifle, raise pistol, or port saber, ac- 
cording as he is armed with a rifle, pistol, or saber. At 
night, in challenging and holding conversation, his weapon 
is drawn and held as just prescribed, depending on whether 
be is armed with a rifle, pistol, or saber. 

No. 8: In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm. 

178. In case of fire, a sentinel will call, "Fire No. ( — )," 
adding the number of his post; if possible, he will extin- 
guish th« fire himself. In case of disorder, he will call: 
"The Guard, No. ( — )," adding the number of his post. 
If the danger be great, he will, in either case, discharge his 
piece before calling. 



38 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

No. 11: To salute all officers and all colors and 
standards not cased. 

174. When not engaged in the performance of a specific 
duty, the proper execution of which would prevent it, a 
member of the guard will salute all officers who pass him. 
This rule applies at all hours of the day or night, except in 
the case of mounted sentinels armed with a rifle or pistol, 
or dismounted sentinels armed with a pistol, after chal- 
lenging. (See par. 181.) 

175. Sentinels will salute as follows: A dismounted sen- 
tinel armed with a rifle or saber, salutes by presenting 
arms; if otherwise armed, he salutes with the right hand. 

A mounted sentinel, if armed with a saber and the saber 
be drawn, salutes by presenting saber; otherwise he salutes 
in all cases with the right hand. 

176. To salute, a dismounted sentinel, with piece at a 
right shoulder or saber at a carry, halts and faces toward 
the person to be saluted when the latter arrives within 
thirty paces. 

The limit within which individuals and insignia of rank 
can be readily recognized is assumed to be about 30 paces, 
and therefore at this distance cognizance is taken of the 
person or party to be saluted. 

177. The salute is rendered at 6 paces; if the person to 
be saluted does not arrive within that distance, then when 
he is nearest. 

178. A sentinel in a sentry box, armed with a rifle, 
stands at attention in the doorway on the approach of a 
person or party entitled to salute, and salutes by present- 
ing arms according to the foregoing rules. 

If armed with a saber, he stands at a carry and salutes as 
before. 

179. A mounted sentinel on a regular post halts, faces, 
and salutes in accordance with the foregoing rules. If do- 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 30 

ing patrol duty, he salutes, but does not halt unless 
spoken to. 

180. Sentinels salute, in accordance with the foregoing 
rules, all persons and parties entitled to compliments from 
the guard (pars. 224, 227, and 228): officers of the Army, 
Navy, and Marine Corps: military and naval officers of 
foreign powers; officers of volunteers, and militia officers 
when in uniform. 

181. A sentinel salutes as just prescribed when an officer 
comes on his post; if the officer holds communication with 
the sentinel, the sentinel again salutes when the officer 
leaves him. 

During the hours when challenging is prescribed, the 
first salute is given as soon as the officer has been duly rec- 
ognized and advanced. A mounted sentinel armed with 
a rifle or pistol, or a dismounted sentinel armed with a 
pistol, does not salute after challenging. 

He stands at advance rifle or raise pistol until the officer 
passes. 

182. In case of the approach of an armed party of the 
guard, the sentinel will halt when it is about 30 paces 
from him, facing toward the party with his piece at the 
right shoulder. If not himself relieved, he will, as the 

Sarty passes, place himself so that the party will pass in 
ont of him; he resumes walking his post wnen the party 
has reached 6 paces beyond him. 

188. An officer is entitled to the compliments pre- 
scribed, whether in uniform or not. 

184. A sentinel in communication with an officer will 
not interrupt the conversation to salute. In the case of 
seniors the officer will salute, whereupon the sentinel will 
salute. 

185. When the flag is being lowered at retreat, a sen- 
tinel on post and in view of the flag will face the flag, and, 
at the first note of the "Star Spangled Banner" or to th* 



40 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

color will come to a present arms. At the sounding of the 
last note he will resume walking his post. 

No. 12: To be especially watchful at night and 
during the time for challenging, to challenge all 
persons on or near my post, and to allow no one to 
pass without proper authority. 

186. During challenging hours, if a sentinel sees any 
person or party on or near his post, he will advance rapidly 
along his post toward such person or party and when 
within about 30 yards will challenge sharply, "HALT. 
Who is there?" He will place himself in the best pos- 
sible position to receive or, if necessary, to arrest the 
person or party. 

187. In case a mounted party be challenged, the sen- 
tinel will call, "HALT. DISMOUNT. Who is there?" 

188. The sentinel will permit only one of any party to 
approach him for the purpose of giving the countersign 
(pars. 209 to 217), or if no countersign be used, of being 
duly recognized. When this is done the whole party is 
advanced, i. e., allowed to pass. 

189. In all cases the sentinel must satisfy himself 
beyond a reasonable doubt that the parties are what they 
represent themselves to be and have a right to pass. If 
he is not satisfied, he must cause them to stand and call the 
corporal of the guard . So, likewise, if he have no authority 
to pass persons with the countersign, or when the party 
has not the countersign, or gives an incorrect one. 

190. A sentinel will not permit any person to approach 
so close as to prevent the proper use of his own weapon 
before recognizing the person or receiving the countersign. 

191. When two or more persons approach in one party, 
the sentinel on receiving an answer that indicates that some 
one in the party has the countersign, will say, "Advance 
one with the countersign," and, if the countersign is 
given correctly, will then say, "Advance (So and so)," 



99 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 41 

repeating the answer to his challenge. Thus, if the answer 
be, "Belief (friends with the countersign, patrol, 
etc.)," the sentinel will say, "Advance one with the 
countersign"; then, "Advance relief (friends, patrol, 

etc.)." 

192. If a person having the countersign approach alone, 
he is advanced to give the countersign. Thus, if the 
answer be, "Friend with the countersign (or officer 
of the day, or etc.)," the sentinel will say, "Advance, 
friend (or officer of the day, or etc.) with the coun- 
tersign"; then, "Advance, friend (or officer of the 
day, or etc.)." 

193. If two or more persons approach a sentinel's post 
from different directions at the same time, all such per- 
sons are challenged in turn and required to halt ana to 
remain halted until advanced. 

The senior is first advanced, in accordance with the 
foregoing rules. 

194. If a party is already advanced and in communi- 
cation with a sentinel, the latter will challenge any other 
party that may approach; if the party challenged be 
senior to the one already on his post, the sentinel will 
advance the new party at once. The senior may allow 
him to advance any or all of the other parties* otherwise, 
the sentinel will not advance any of them until the senior 
leaves him. He will then advance the senior only of the 
remaining parties, and so on. 

195. Tne following order of rank will govern a sentinel 
in advancing different persons or parties approaching his 
post: Commanding officer, officer of the day, officer of the 
guard, officers, patrols, reliefs, noncommissioned officers 
of the guard in order of rank, friends. 

196. A sentinel will never allow himself to be surprised, 
nor permit two parties to advance upon him at the same 
time. 



42 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

197. If no countersign be used, the rules for challenging 
are the same. The rules for advancing parties are modi- 
fied only as follows: Instead of saying "Advance (so and 
so) with the countersign," the sentinel will say, 
"Advance (so and so) to be recognized." Upon 
recognition he will say, "Advance (so and so)." 

198. Answers to a sentinel's challenge intended to con- 
fuse or mislead him are prohibited, but the use of such an 
answer as "Friends with the countersign," is not to 
be understood as misleading, but as the usual answer made 
by officers, patrols, etc., when the purpose of their visit 
makes it desirable that their official capacity should not 
be announced. 

SPECIAL ORDERS FOR SENTINELS AT THE POST OF TEE 

GUARD. 

199. Sentinels posted at the guard will be required to 
memorize the following: 

Between reveille and retreat to turn out the guard 
for all persons designated by the commanding 
officer, for all colors or standards not cased, and in 
time of war for all armed parties approaching my 
post, except troops at drill and reliefs and detach- 
ments of the guard. 

At night, after challenging any person or party, 
to advance no one but call the corporal of the 
guard, repeating the answer to the challenge. 

200. After receiving an answer to his challenge, the 
sentinel calls, "Corporal of the guard (So and so)," 
repeating the answer to the challenge. 

He does not in such cases repeat the number of his post. 

201. He remains in the position assumed in challenging 
until the corporal has recognized or advanced the person 
or party challenged, when he resumes walking his post, 
or, if the person or party be entitled thereto, he salutes 



HAOTAL OF INTEBIOB, GITAED DUTY. 43 

and, as soon as the salute has been acknowledged, resumes 
walking his post. 

202. The sentinel at the post of the guard will be noti- 
fied by direction of the commanding officer of the presence 
in camp or garrison of persons entitled to the compliment. 
(Par. 224.) 

203. The following examples illustrate the manner in 
which the sentinel at the post of the guard will turn out 
the guard upon the approach of persons or parties entitled 
to the compliment (pars. 224, 227, and 228): "Turn out 
the guard, Commanding Officer"; "Turn out the 
guard, Governor of a Territory"; "Turn out the 
guard, national colors"; "Turn out the guard, 
armed party"; etc. 

At the approach of the new guard at guard mounting 
the sentinel will call "Turn out the guard, armed 
party." 

204. Should the person named by the sentinel not 
desire the guard formed, he will salute, whereupon the 
sentinel will call "Never mind the guard." 

205. After having called "Turn out the guard," the 
sentinel will never call "Never mind the guard," on 
the approach of an armed party. 

206. Though the guard be already formed he will not 
fail to call "Turn out the guard," as required in his 
special orders, except that the guard will not be turned 
out for any person while his senior is at or coming to the 
post of the guard. 

207. The sentinels at the post of the guard will warn the 
commander of the approach of any armed body and of the 
presence in the vicinity of all suspicious or disorderly 
persons. 

208. In case of fire or disorder in sight or hearing, the 
sentinel at the guardhouse will call the corporal of the 
guard and report the facts to him. 



44 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

COUNTERSIGNS A2TD PABOLES. 

209- Forty-fourth Article of War. Any person be- 
longing to the armies of the United States who makes 
known the watchword to any person not entitled to receive 
it, according to the rules ana discipline of war, or presumes 
to give a parole or watchword different from that which he 
received, shall suffer death or such other punishment as a 
court-martial may direct. (See par. 171.) 

210. The countersign is a word given daily from the 
principal headquarters of a command to aid guards and 
sentinels in identifying persons who may be authorized to 
pass at night. 

It is given to such persons as may be authorized to pass 
and repass sentinels' poets during the night, and to officers, 
noncommissioned officers, and sentinels of the guard. 

211. The parole is a word used as a check on the coun- 
tersign in order to obtain more accurate identification of 
persons. It is imparted only to those who are entitled to 
inspect guards and to commanders of guards. 

The parole or countersign, or both, are sent sealed in the 
form of an order to those entitled to them. 

212. When the commander of the guard demands the 
parole, he will advance and receive it as the corporal, re- 
ceives the countersign. (See par. 133.) 

213. As the communications containing the parole and 
countersign must at times be distributed oy many order- 
lies, the parole intrusted to many officers, and the counter- 
sign and parole to many officers and sentinels, and as both 
the countersign and parole must, for large commands, be 
prepared several days in advance, there is always danger 
of their being lost or becoming known to persons who would 
make improper use of them; moreover, a sentinel is too 
apt to take it for granted that any person who gives the 
right countersign is what he represents himself to be; 



XAOTTAI OF IHTEKIOB, GUARD DUTY. 46 

hence for outpost duty there is greater security in omitting 
the use of the countersign and parole, or in using them 
with great caution. The chief reliance should be upon 
personal recognition or identification of all persons churn- 
ing authority to pass. 

Persons whose sole means of identification is the counter- 
sign, or concerning whose authority to pass there is a rea- 
sonable doubt, should not be allowed to pass without the 
authority of the corporal of the guard after proper investi- 
gation; the corporal will take to his next superior any per- 
son about whom he is not competent to decide. 

214. The countersign is usually the name of a battle; 
the parole, that of a general or other distinguished person. 

215* When they can not be communicated daily, a se- 
ries of words for some days in advance may be sent to posts 
or detachments that are to use the same parole or counter- 
sign as the main body. 

216. If the countersign be lost, or if a member of the 
guard desert with it, the commander on the spot will sub- 
stitute another for it and report the case at once to head- 
quarters. 

217. In addition to the countersign, use may be made 
of preconcerted signals, such as striking the rifle with the 
hand or striking the hands together a certain number of 
times, as agreed upon. Such signals may be used only by 
guards that occupy exposed points. 

They are used hef ore the countersign is given, and must 
not be communicated to anyone not entitled to know the 
countersign. Their use is intended to prevent the sur- 
prise of a sentinel. s 

In the daytime signals such as raising a cap or a handker- 
chief in a prearranged manner may be used b y sentinels to 
communicate with the guard or with each other. 



46 MANUAL OF INTEBIOB GUARD DUTY. 

GUARD PATROLS. 

218. A guard patrol consists of one or more men detailed 
for the performance of some special service connected with 
guard duty. 

219. If the patrol b3 required to go beyond the chain of 
sentinels, the officer or noncommissioned officer in charge 
will be furnished with the countersign, and the outposts 
and sentinels warned. 

220. If challenged by a sentinel, the patrol is halted by 
its commander, and the noncommissioned officer accom- 
panying it advances alone and gives the countersign. 

WATCHMEN. 

221. Enlisted men may be detailed as watchmen or as 
overseers over prisoners, and as such will receive their 
orders and perform their duties as the commanding officer 
may direct. 

COKPXJMEOTS FROM GUARDS. 

222. The compliment from a guard consists in the guard 
turning out and presenting arms. (See par. 50.) No com- 
pliments will be paid between retreat and reveille except 
as provided in paragraphs 361 and 362, nor will any person 
other than those named in paragraph 224 receive the com- 
pliment. 

223. Though a guard does not turn out between retreat 
and reveille as a matter of compliment, it may be turned 
out for inspection at any time by a person entitled to in- 
spect it. 

224. Between reveille and retreat the following persons 
are entitled to the compliment: The President, sovereign 
or chief magistrate of a foreign country, and members of a 
royal family; Vice President; President and President 



MANUAL OF INTEBIOB, GTTAB,b DUTY. 47 

pro tempore of the Senate; American and foreign ambas- 
sadors; members of the Cabinet; Chief Justice; Speaker 
of the House of Representatives; committees of Congress 
officially visiting a military post; governors within their 
respective States and Territories; governors general; As- 
sistant Secretary of War officially visiting a military post; 
all general officers of the Army; general officers of foreign 
services visiting a post; naval, marine, volunteer, and 
militia officers in the service of the United States and 
holding the rank of general officer; American or foreign 
envoys or ministers; ministers accredited to the United 
States; charge's d'affaires accredited to the United States; 
consuls general accredited to the United States; com- 
niandirig officer of the post or camp; officer of the day. 

225. The relative rank between officers of the Army 
and Navy is as follows: General with admiral, lieutenant 
general with vice admiral, major general with rear admiral, 
brigadier general with commodore, & colonel with captain, 
lieutenant colonel with commander, major with lieuten- 
ant commander, captain with lieutenant, first lieutenant 
with lieutenant (junior grade), second lieutenant with 
ensign. (A. R. 12.) 

226. Sentinels will not be required to memorize para- 
graph 224, and except in the cases of general officers of the 
Army, the commanding officer, and the officer of the day, 
they will be advised in each case of the presence in camp 
or garrison of persons entitled to the compliment. 

227. Guardswill turn out and present arms when the 
national or regimental colors or standards, not cased, are 

a The term "governors general" shall be taken to mean administra- 
tive officers under whom officers with the title of governor are acting. 

ft The grade of commodore ceased to exist as a grade on the active list 
of the Navy of the United States on Mar. 3, 1899. By section 7 of the 
act of Mar. 3, 1899, the nine junior rear admirals are authorized to 
receive the pay and allowances of a brigadier general of the Army. 



48 XAVTMfL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

earned past by a guard or an armed party. This rule also 
applies when the party carrying the colors is at drill. If 
the drill is conducted in the vicinity of the guardhouse, the 
guard will be turned out when the colors first pass, ana not 
thereafter. 

228. In case the remains of a deceased officer or soldier 
are carried past, the guard will turn out and present arms. 

229. In time of war all guards will turn out under arms 
when armed parties, except troops at drill and reliefs or 
detachments of the guard, approach their post. (See 
par. 53.) 

280. The commander of the guard will be notified of 
the presence in camp or garrison of all persons entitled to 
the compliment, except general officers of the Army, the 
commanding officer, and the officer of the day. Members 
of the guard will salute all persons entitled to the compli- 
ment and all officers in the military or naval service of 
foreign powers, officers of the Army, Navy, and Marine 
Corps, officers of volunteers, and officers of militia when in 
uniform. 

GENERAL RULES CONCERNING GUARD DUTY. 

281. Thirty-sixth Article of War. No soldier shall 
hire another to do his duty for him. 

282. Thlrt v-eigh th Article of War. Any soldier who 
is found drunk on his guard, party, or other duty shall 
suffer such punishment as a court-martial may direct. 

288. All material instructions given to a member of the 
guard by an officer having authority will be promptly 
communicated to the commander of the guard by the offi- 
cer giving them. 

284. Should the guard be formed, soldiers will fall in 
ranks under arms. At roll call, each man, as his name or 
number and relief are called, will answer "Here," and 
come to an order arms. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 49 

» 

235. Whenever the guard or a relief is dismissed, each 
member not at once required for duty will place his rifle 
in the arms racks, if they be provided, and will not remove 
it therefrom unless he requires it in the performance of 
some duty. 

286. Without permission from the commander of the 
guard, members of the main guard, except orderlies, will 
not leave the immediate vicinity of the guard house. Per- 
mission to leave will not be granted except in cases of 
necessity. 

237. Members of the main guard, except orderlies, will 
not remove their accouterments or clothing without per- 
mission from the commander of the guard. (Par. 66.) 

PRISONERS. 

238. Articles of war 66, 67, 68, 69, and 70 have special 
reference to the confinement of prisoners and should be 
carefully borne in mind. 

239. The commander of the guard will place a civilian 
in confinement on an order from higher authority only, 
unless such civilian is arrested while in the act of commit- 
ting some crime within the limits of the military jurisdic • 
tion; in which case the commanding officer will be im- 
mediately notified. 

240. Except as provided in the twenty-fourth article of 
war, or when restraint is necessary, no soldier will be con- 
fined without the order of an officer, who shall previously 
inquire into his offense. (A. R. 930.) 

241. An officer ordering a soldier into confinement will 
send, as soon as practicable, a written statement, signed by 
himself, to the commander of the guard, setting forth the 
name, company and regiment of such soldier, and a brief 
statement of the alleged offense. It is a sufficient state- 

46705°— 14 4 



50 MANUAL OP INTEBIOB GUARD DUTY. 

ment of the offense to give the number and article of war 
under which the soldier is charged. 

242. A prisoner, after his first day of confinement, and 
until his sentence has been duly promulgated, is considered 
as held in confinement by the commanding officer. After 
due promulgation of his sentence, the prisoner is held in 
confinement by authority of the officer who reviews the 
proceedings of the court awarding sentence. The com- 
mander of the guard will state in his report, in the proper 
place, the name of the officer by whom the prisoner was 
originally confined. 

243. Enlisted men against whom charges have been pre- 
ferred will be designated as "awaiting trial "; enlisted men 
who have been tried will, prior to the promulgation of the 
result, be designated as "awaiting result of trial"; en- 
listed men serving sentence of confinement, not involving 
dishonorable discharge, will be designated as "garrison 
prisoners." Persons sentenced to dismissal or dishonor- 
able discharge and to terms of confinement at military posts 
or elsewhere will be designated as "general prisoners. ,, 
(A. R. 928.) 

244. The sentences of prisoners will be read to them 
when the order promulgating the same is received. The 
officer of the guard, or the officer of the day if there be no 
officer of the guard, will read them unless the commanding 
officer shall direct otherwise. 

245. When the date for the commencement of a term 
of confinement imposed by sentence of a court-martial is 
not expressly fixed by sentence, the term of confinement 
begins on the date of uie order promulgating it. The sen- 
tence is continuous until the term expires, except when the 
person sentenced is absent without authority. (A. R. 969.) 

246. When soldiers awaiting trial or the result of trial, 
or undergoing sentence, commit offenses for which they 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 51 

are tried, the second sentence will be executed upon the 
expiration of the first. 

247. Prisoners awaiting trial by, or undergoing sentence 
oi a general court-martial, and those confined for serious 
offenses, will be kept apart, when practicable, from those 
confined by sentence of an inferior court, or for minor of- 
fenses. Enlisted men in confinement for minor offenses, or 
awaiting trial or the result of trial for the same, will ordi- 
narily be sent to work under charge of unarmed overseers 
instead of armed sentinels, and will be required to attend 
drills unless the commanding officer shall direct otherwise. 

248. Prisoners, other than general prisoners, will be fur- 
nished with food from their respective companies or from 
the organizations to which they may be temporarily 
attached. 

The food of prisoners will, when practicable, be sent to 
their places of confinement, but post commanders may 
arrange to send the prisoners, under proper guard, to their 
messes for meals. 

When there is no special mess for general prisoners, they 
will be attached for rations to companies. 

Enlisted men bringing meals for the prisoners will not be 
allowed to enter the prison room. (See par. 289.) 

249. With the exception of those specially designated 
by the commanding officer, no prisoners will be allowed to 
leave the guard house unless under charge of a sentinel and 
passed by an officer or noncommissioned officer of the guard. 
The commanding officer may authorize certain garrison 

Erisoners and paroled general prisoners to leave the guard 
ouse, not under the charge of a sentinel, for the purpose of 
working outside under such surveillance and restrictions 
as he may impose. 

250. Prisoners reporting themselves sick at sick call, or 
at the time designated by the commanding officer, will be 
sent to the hospital under charge of proper guard, with a 



52 XAOTAL OF INTERIOR GUARD' DUTY. 

sick report kept for the purpose. The recommendation of 
the surgeon will be entered in the guard report. 

251. The security of sick prisoners in tne hospital de- 
volves upon the post surgeon, who will, if necessary, apply 
to the post commander for a guard. 

2 62 . Prisoners will be paraded with the guard only when 
directed by the commanaing officer or the officer of 'the day. 

253. A prisoner under charge of a sentinel will not salute 
an officer. 

254. All serviceable clothing which belongs to a pris- 
oner, and his blankets, will accompany him to the post 
designated for his confinement, and will be fully itemized on 
the clothing list sent to that post. The guard in charge of 
the prisoner during transfer will be furnished with a dupli- 
cate of this list and will be held responsible for the delivery 
of all articles itemized therein, with the prisoner. At least 
one serviceable woolen blanket will be sent with every 
such prisoner so transferred. (A. R. 939.) 

255. When mattresses are not supplied, each prisoner in 
the guard house will be allowed a bed sack and 30 pounds of 
straw per month for bedding. So far as practicable, iron 
bunks will be furnished to all prisoners in post guard 
houses and prison rooms. (A. R. 1084.) 

256. If the number of prisoners, including general pris- 
oners, confined at a post justifies it, the commanding officer 
will detail a commissioned officer as "officer in charge of 
prisoners." At posts where the average number of pris- 
oners continually in confinement is less than 12, the detail 
of an officer in charge of prisoners will not be made. 

BT7LES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF 
GENERAL PRISONERS AT POSTS. 

257. The officer in charge of prisoners, when one is de- 
tailed, will make a daily inspection of the cells and prison 
rooms and will inspect the food and submit to the com- 
manding officer any complaints about the same. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUABD DUTY. 58 

258. He will have charge of the property, money, and 
valuables belonging to general prisoners, which the v are 
not permitted to keep in their possession, and will dis- 
burse said money, when desired by the owner, for pur- 
poses approved by the commanding officer. If there be no 
officer in charge of prisoners, this duty will be intrusted 
to the adjutant. 

259. No general prisoner will be released from confine- 
ment except on an order communicated by the command- 
ing officer, who, before giving such order, will verify the 
date of expiration of the prisoner's sentence by examining 
all orders fixing or modifying the term of confinement. 

260. The following records and reports will be kept: 
Record of general prisoner, on blank supplied by the 
Adjutant General's Department; morning report, and cloth- 
ing book (ordinary blank book without specail ruling fur- 
nished by the Quartermaster's Department). 

261. Paragraphs 262 to 295 of this manual will be read 
to or by every general prisoner as soon as practicable 
after his confinement, ana a copy of these rules and regu- 
lations, which will be furnished by the Adjutant General's 
Department, will be kept posted in each cell and room. 

262. After a general prisoner, who is serving sentence 
at a post, has served one-half of nis sentence, he may sub- 
mit to the commanding officer of the post an application 
to be placed upon parole during working hours for the 
remainder of the term of confinement. Such application 
will contain a pledge on the part of the applicant to comply 
with all general conditions under which general prisoners 
may be paroled, and also with any special requirements 
that may from time to time be made of aim. Upon receipt 
of such an application, the post commander may, in tne 
exercise of his discretion, parole the prisoner during work- 
ing hours for work in the Quartermaster Corps upon con- 
dition that if the prisoner's conduct is not good the parole 



04 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

status will be forfeited. The granting of the qualified 
parole here authorized does not constitute a release of the 
prisoner from military custody or control, but merely 
authorizes a relaxation of the strict rule which would other- 
wise require the presence of a guard whenever the prisoner 
is outside of the guardhouse. In determining what con- 
stitutes one-half of a sentence the calculation will be 
based upon the prisoner's term without deduction for 
good conduct. The authorized abatement for good con- 
duct will continue to accrue during the good conduct of a 
general prisoner on parole. (A. R. 943). No paroled 
general prisoner will be employed about the post exchange 
or the quarters of any officer except as a mechanic or 
laborer under the direction of the quartermaster. 

263. Every general prisoner on admission will be mi- 
nutely eearcned and will be permitted to retain in his pos- 
session only proper clothing and necessary toilet articles. 
He will then be required to bathe, his nair will be cut 
close, and his beard, whiskers, and mustache trimmed. 

264. General prisoners will bathe at least once a week 
and will wear their hair short. The hair and beard of a 
general prisoner may be allowed to grow during the last 
month of his confinement. 

265. All articles of personal property taken from a 
general prisoner will be marked with nis name and stored 
until he is released, when they will be returned to him. 

266. The prison rooms will be properly policed, good 
order and quiet demeanor maintained, and necessary 
measures taken for security. The names of occupants of 
cells will be posted on the doors. Each cell ana prison 
room will be inspected at least once a day for the purpose 
of detecting contraband articles and of seeing whether 
any alterations have been made or attempted which might 
facilitate escape. 



MANUAL OF INTEEIOE GUARD DUTY. 55 

267. The diet of general prisoners shall be determined 
by the commanding officer. A general prisoner confined 
on bread-and-water diet will receive an allowance of 18 
ounces of bread each day and as much water as he may 
desire. 

268. Meals will be served in prison rooms or cells when 
no separate mess is provided . Ample time and a sufficient 
quantity of food will be allowed for each meal. 

269. Each general prisoner will be furnished with and 
will have at all times one complete suit of outer clothing, 
two complete suits of underclothing, one pair of shoes, one 
hat, and one or two blankets, depending on the tempera- 
ture. The outer clothing of general prisoners will be con- 
spicuously marked "P'^ana divested of all ornament. 
When released such prisoner will have in his possession a 
serviceable suit of clothing, the outer garments bearing no 
prison mark. 

270. At the weekly inspection each general prisoner 
will stand by his bed or bunk, and the inspecting officer 
will see that the rules for cleanliness have been observed. 
The bedding and clothing will be folded, clothing on top 
of the bedding. General prisoners will be held to a strict 
accountability for clothing in their possession, and they 
are forbidden to alter it without authority. 

271. General prisoners will be kept at hard labor daily 
except Sunday, January 1, February 22, May 30, July 4, 
Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day, but in 
case of pressing necessity they may be employed on these 
days. So far as practicable, they will perform all scaven- 
ger duties at the. post. They will not be employed in cul- 
tivating company or private gardens, nor upon ordinary 
police about 6tables or barracks. 

272. General prisoners who desire an interview with the 
commanding officer will make application to the officer in 
charge, stating the purpose. The officer in charge will 



66 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY, 

receive oral complaints which may be made by them, and 
will notify them of his action. Complaints in writing will 
also be addressed to him, and will be laid before the com- 
manding officer with such information as he may possess 
bearing on the case. If there be no officer detailed in 
charge of prisoners, the officer of the day will receive appli- 
cation for interviews, complaints, etc., under this para- 
graph. 

273. Wrongs will be righted, if possible, but those who 
make frivolous or untruthful complaints will be punished. 
General prisoners will be permitted to submit explanations 
for offenses for which reported. No general prisoner will 
sign any protest or petition in conjunction with other pris- 
oners: each will make his own complaints or requests. 

274. A record will be kept of all reports against general 
prisoners, with the disciplinary punishment awarded in 
each case. 

275. Except as otherwise ordered by the commanding 
officer, general prisoners will be constantly under charge of 
the guard, and in the event of mutiny, attempted outbreak 
or escape, or any disorder immediate action will be taken 
by the guard and enough force used to restore order. The 
force used in any case will be limited to that necessary to 
the enforcement of these rules, the preservation of order, 
and the proper control of prisoners. 

276. No disciplinary punishment will be inflicted upon 
general prisoners unless by direction of the commanding 
officer, and then only after a full investigation of each case. 

277.. A general prisoner who violates any of these rules, 
who is insolent, insubordinate, disrespectful, or disorderly, 
or who uses indecent or profane language may be disci- 
plined by — 



(a) Being deprived of a meal. 



Being locked in his cell when not at work. 



MANUAL 07 INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 57 

( c) Performing extra hard or disagreeable labor. 

la) Solitary confinement on bread-and-water diet. 

tV) Forfeiture of good-conduct time. 

In addition to being disciplined as indicated he may also 
be tried by court-martial if the gravity of the offense so 
demands. 

Solitary confinement on bread and water will not exceed 
14 consecutive days at any one period, and will not be 
repeated until an interval of 14 days shall have elapsed and 
shall not exceed 84 days in one year. 

278. No good-conduct time can be forfeited in advance. 
When it is necessary to discipline a general prisoner who 
has none to his credit, the punishment must take some 
other form. F 

279. Any general prisoner who attempts to escape will 
forfeit all good-conduct time previously earned. A recap- 
tured prisoner will suffer the same forfeiture. In either 
case, tne prisoner may, in addition, be tried by court- 
martial. 

280. A general prisoner who refuses to work may, for the 
first offense, be closely confined and deprived of his next 
meal, but food will be allowed him as soon as he consents 
to resume work; and he may be further punished for his 
offense by loss of not more than 20 days' good-conduct 
time, or by being locked in his cell for not more than 30 
days, except when at work. 

281. Letters will be sent out by general prisoners 
through the officer in charge or officer of the day. Each 
prisoner will be permitted to write to his family or friends 
once in each month, all letters to be submitted unsealed 
{without stamp or envelope) for inspection. Paper will be 
furnished to prisoners for official as well as private com- 
munications. 

282. Prison authorities without the consent of a general 
prisoner will not open and inspect letters addressed to 



58 HAOTAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

him. Such letters may, however, be retained unopened 
until the prisoner is released, or his letters otherwise dis- 
posed of under judicial process. 

283. General prisoners will be permitted to make appli- 
cation for clemency as soon after their arrival at a post for 
confinement as they may desire, but thereafter not until 
six months shall have elapsed since the date of final action 
upon the last application. Applications should be ad- 
dressed to the officer in charge (or the officer of the day), 
but applicants may state to what authority they wish to 
appeal. 

284. Applications for clemency should be based on 
reasonable grounds. Good conduct is rewarded by an 
allowance of good-conduct time, but does not of itself fur- 
nish any claim to clemency or further mitigation of sen- 
tence. ^ It will aid, however, in obtaining favorable con- 
sideration for applications based upon other grounds. 

285. General prisoners, other than those confined in 
penitentiaries, will be allowed in abatement of their terms 
of confinement, when serving sentences of over 3 months 
and not over 12 months, 5 days for each complete period 
of 25 days during the whole of which their conduct has 
been good * but the abatement of 5 days so authorized shall 
not have the effect in any case of reducing the confinement 
below 3 months. On sentences exceeding 1 year there 
will be allowed the foregoing abatement for the first year 
of the sentence, including abatement, and thereafter 10 
days for each complete period of 20 days during the whole 
of which the conduct of the prisoners has been good. 
Abatements thus authorized may be forfeited wholly or in 

Sart by subsequent misconduct, such forfeiture to be 
eterrmned by the commanding officer of the post where 
the prisoner is confined. A general prisoner serving sen- 
tence in a penitentiary will receive the abatement author- 
ized for convicts in that penitentiary. (A. R. 942.) 



HAOTAL 07 INTERIOR GUARD DITTY. 59 

286* In order to secure uniformity in computing abate- 
ment of terms of confinement, the following method of 
computation will be used : 

A general prisoner will be credited at the beginning of 
his confinement with all the good-conduct time that can 
be earned in his case during the entire period of his sen- 
tence. All months will be assumed to consist of 30 days. 
"When forfeitures of good-conduct time are imposed they 
will be deducted from the amount of the prisoner's credit, 
but care will be taken not to impose or deduct a forfeiture 
in excess of the amount of good-conduct time that has 
actually been earned at date of forfeiture. (A. R. 942.) 
Except when the loss of good-conduct time is prescribed 
for specific offenses, the other minor penalties enumerated 
in paragraph 275 will ordinarily be inflicted before resort 
is had to loss of good-conduct time. 

287. Talking, gazing about, or laughing in ranks is pro- 
hibited. # General prisoners who are not at work will stand 
at attention when addressed by an officer or noncommis- 
sioned officer. Those at work will, under no circum- 
stances, leave their places of employment without the per- 
mission of the noncommissioned officer or sentinel in charge 
of the party. 

288. A general prisoner desiring to speak to a sentinel 
will hold up his hand as a signal for the desired permission. 

289* No persons will be permitted to enter the prison 
rooms without authority from the commanding officer, the 
officer of the day, or the officer in charge. 

290* The beds will be neatly made up as soon as the 
cells are unlocked. The night buckets will be emptied, 
cleaned, and put in the place provided for them during the 
day. A small quantity of disinfecting fluid will be placed 
in each bucket, and the buckets will be taken into the cells 
immediately after supper. 



60 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

291. Spitting on the walla or floors of cells and prison 
rooms, or defacing them, is forbidden. Any general pris- 
oner who makes unnecessary litter or dirt in the prison will 
be reported to the officer in chargeor officer of the day. 

29a. Trafficking with general prisoners is forbidden. 

293. General prisoners will be in bed at taps. Loud 
talking or loud noises of any kind will not be permitted at 
any time. Strict silence is enjoined after tattoo. 

294* General prisoners will be respectful in their treat- 
ment of one another. They are forbidden to hold any con- 
versation with soldiers or citizens, except on a matter of 
duty, without authority from the commanding officer, 
officer of the day, or officer in charge. 

295. A record of all violations of these rules will be kept 
by the provost sergeant or commander of the guard, and 
report oi the same will be made to the officer in charge of 
prisoners or the officer of the day, in time to accompany 
the morning report of general prisoners. 

296. The foregoing rules will be enforced with reference 
to garrison prisoners so far as applicable. 

297. Garrison prisoners will be allowed in abatement 
of their terms of confinement when serving sentences of 
1 month, 5 days for good conduct. On sentences ex- 
ceeding 1 month they will be allowed the foreeoing 
abatement for the first month of the sentence, and there- 
after 10 days for each complete period of 20 days during 
the whole of which their conduct has been good. Abate- 
ments thus authorized may be forfeited, wholly or in part, 
bv subsequent misconduct, such forfeiture to be deter- 
mined by the commanding officer of the post where the 
prisoner is confined. (A. R. 942.) 

298* After a garrison prisoner has served one-half of his 
sentence he may, if his enlistment has not expired, sub- 
mit to the commander of the post where the sentence is 
being executed a request to be put on probation for the 



MANUAL 07 INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 61 

remainder of the term of confinement adjudged, and upon 
the request being granted the soldier will be restored to 
duty upon condition that if his conduct is not good while 
on probation he will be required to serve the remainder of 
his sentence. In determining what constituted one-half 
of a sentence the calculation will be based upon the 
prisoner's term without deduction for eood conduct. 
The authorized abatement for good conduct will con- 
tinue to accrue during the good conduct of a garrison 
prisoner on probation. (A. R. 943^) 

GUARDING PRISONERS. 

299. The sentinel at the post of the guard has charge 
of the prisoners except when they have been turned over 
to the prisoner guard or overseers. (Par. 247 and 300 
to 304.) 



(a) He will allow none to escape. 

(b) 



He will allow none to cross his post leaving 
the guardhouse except when passed by an officer or 
noncommissioned officer of the guard. 

(c) He will allow no one to communicate with 

{prisoners without permission from proper author- 
ty. 

(d) He will promptly report to the corporal of the 
guard any suspicious noise made by the prisoners. 

(e) He will be prepared to tell whenever asked 
how many prisoners are In the guardhouse and 
how many are out at work or elsewhere. 

Whenever prisonere are brought to his post returning 
from work or elsewhere, be will halt them and call the 
corporal of the guard, notifying him of the number of 
prisoners returning. Thus: "Corporal of the guard, 
(so many) prisoners." 



62 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

He will not allow prisoners to pass into the guardhouse 
until the corporal of the guard has responded to the call 
and ordered him to do so. 

300. Whenever practicable special guards will be de- 
tailed for the particular duty of guarding working parties 
composed of such prisoners as can not be placed under 
overseers. (Par. 247.) 

801. The prisoner guard and overseers will be com- 
manded by the police officer; if there be no police officer, 
then by the officer of the day. 

802 # The provost sergeant is sergeant of the prisoner 
guard and overseers, and as such receives orders from the 
commanding officer and the commander of the prisoner 
guard only. 

808. Details for prisoner guard are marched to the 
guardhouse and mounted by being inspected by the com- 
mander of the main guard, who determines whether all 
of the men are in proper condition to perform their duties 
and whether their arms and equipments are in proper 
condition, and rejects any men found unfit. 

804 # When prisoners have been turned over to the pris- 
oner guard or overseers, such guards or overseers are 
responsible for them under their commander, and all 
responsibility and control of the main guard ceases until 
they are returned to the main guard, (rar. 306.) 

805. If a prisoner attempts to escape, the eentinal will 
call "Halt" If he fails to halt when the sentinel has 
once repeated his call, and if there be no other possible 
means of preventing his escape, the sentinel will fire upon 
him. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 63 

The following will more fully explain the important 
duties of a sentinel in this connection: 

(Circular.) War Department, 

Adjutant General's Office, 

Washington, November 1, 1887. 

By direction of the Secretary of War the following is published for the 
information of the Army: 

United States Circuit Court, Eastern District of Michigan, August 1, 1887. 

The United States v. James Clark. 

The circuit court has Jurisdiction of a homicide committed by one soldier 
upon another within a military reservation of the United States. 

If a homicide be committed by a military guard without malice and in 
the performance of his supposed duty as a soldier, such homicide is 
excusable, unless it was manifestly beyond the scope of his author- 
ity or was such that a man of ordinary sense and understanding 
would know that it was illegal. 

It seems that the sergeant of the guard has a right to shoot a military 
convict if there be ho other possible means of preventing his escape. 

The common-law distinction between felonies and misdemeanors has 
no application to military offenses. 

While the finding of a court of inquiry acquitting the prisoner of all 
blame is not a legal bar to a prosecution, it is entitled to weight as 
an expression of the views of the military court of the necessity of 
using a musket to prevent the escape of the deceased. 

* * * * * 

By order of the Secretary of War: 

R. C. Drum, 
Adjutant General. 

The following is taken from Circular No. 3 of 1883, from 
Headquarters Department of the Columbia: 

Vancouver Barracks, W. t., 

April £0,1883. 
To the Assistant Adjutant General, 

Department or the Columbia. 

Sir: 

* * * * * 

A sentinel is placed as guard over prisoners to prevent their escape, 
and for this purpose he is furnished a musket, with ammunition. To 
prevent escape is his first and most important duty. 

* * * * * 



64 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

I suppose the law to be this: That a sentinel shall not use more force 
or violence to prevent the escape of a prisoner than is necessary to effect 
that object, but if the prisoner, after being ordered to halt, continues 
his flight, the sentinel may maim or even kill him, and it is his duty to 
do so. 

A sentinel who allows a prisoner to escape without firing upon him 
and firing to hit him, is, in my judgment, guilty of a most serious military 
offense, for which he should and would be severely punished by a general 
court-martial. 

***** 

(Signed) Henry A. Morrow, 

Colonel 21st Infantry, Commanding Post. 

[Third indorsement.] 

Office Judge Advocate, 
Military Division of the Pacific, 

May 11, 1888. 

Respectfully returned to the Assistant Adjutant General, Military 
Division of the Pacific, concurring fully in the views expressed by Colonel 
Morrow. I was not aware that such a view had ever been questioned. 
That the period is a time of peace does not affect the authority and duty 
of the sentinel or guard to fire upon the escaping prisoner, if this escape 
can not otherwise be prevented. He should, of course, attempt to stop 
the prisoner before firing, by ordering him to halt, and will properly 
warn him by the words, "Halt, or I fire/' or words to such effect. 

W. Winthrop, 



Judge Advocate. 



[Fourth indorsement.] 



Headquarters Military Division of the Pacific, 

May 11, 188S. 

Respectfully returned to the Commanding General, Department of 
the Columbia, approving the opinion of the commanding officer, Twenty- 
first Infantry, and of the Judge Advocate of the Division, in respect to 
the duty of and method to be adopted by sentinels in preventing prisoners 
from escaping. 

***** 

By command of Major General Schofield: 

J. C. Kelton, 
Assistant Adjutant General. 

See also Circular No. 53, A. G. O., December 22, 1900. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 65 

806. On approaching the post of the sentinel at the 
guardhouse, a sentinel of the prisoner guard or an overseer 
in charge 01 prisoners will halt them and call, "No. 1, (so 
many prisoners." He will not allow them to cross the 
post of the sentinel until so directed by the corporal of the 
guard. 

807. Members of the prisoner guard and overseers 
placed over prisoners for work will receive specific and 
explicit instructions covering the required work; they will 
be held strictly responsible that the prisoners under their 
charge properly and satisfactorily perform the designated 
work. 

STABLE GUARDS. 

808. Under the head of stable guards will be included 
guards for cavalry stables, artillery stables and parks, 
mounted infantry stables, machine-gun organization sta- 
bles and parks and quartermaster stables and parks. 
Where the words "troop" and "cavalry" are used they 
will be held to include all of these organizations. 

809. When troop stable guards are mounted they will 
guard the stables of the cavalry (see par. 13). When no 
stable guards are mounted, the stables will be guarded by 
sentinels posted from the main guard, under the control 
of the officer of the day. 

The instructions given for troop stable guard will be 
observed as far as applicable by the noncommissioned offi- 
cers and sentinels of the main guard when in charge of the 
stables. 

TROOP STABLE GUARDS. 

810. Troop stable guards will not be used except in the 
field, or when it is impracticable to guard the stables by 
sentinels from the main guard. 

46706°— 14 5 



66 MANUAL OP INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

811. Troop stable guards will be under the immediate 
control of their respective troop commanders; they will be 
posted in each cavalry stable, or near the picket line, and 
will consist of not less than one noncommissioned officer 
and three privates. 

Stable guards are for the protection of the horses, stables, 
forage, equipments, and public property generally. They 
will in addition enforce tne special regulations in regard to 
stables, horses, and parks. 

812. Sentinels of stable guards will be posted at the sta- 
bles or at the picket lines when the horses are kept outside. 
The troop staple guard may be used as a herd guard during 
the day time or when grazing is practicable. 

818. The troop stable guard, when authorized by the 
post commander, will be mounted under the supervision 
of the troop commander. It will be armed ; at the discre- 
tion of the troop commander, with either rifle or pistol. 

814. The tour continues for 24 hours, or until the guard 
is relieved by a new guard. 

816. The employment of stable guards for police and 
fatigue duties at the stables is forbidden; but this will not 
prohibit them from being required to assist in feeding 
grain before reveille. 

816. The troop stable guard will attend stables with the 
rest of the troop and groom their own horses, the sentinels 
being taken off post for the purpose. 

817. Neither the noncommissioned officer nor the mem- 
bers of the stable guard will absent themselves from the im- 
mediate vicinity of the stables except in case of urgent 
cessity, and then for no longer time than is absolutely 
necessary . No member of the guard will leave for any pur- 
pose without the authority of tide noncommissioned officer 
of the guard. 

818. The noncommissioned officer and one member of 
the stable guard will go for meals at the proper hour; upon 



ULAJSTUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 07 

their return the other members of the guard will be directed 
to .go by the noncommissioned officer. 

319. When the horses are herded each troop will furnish 
its own herd guard. (Par. 14.) 

320. Smoking in the stables or their immediate vicinity 
is prohibited /No fire or light, other than electric light or 
stable lanterns, will be permitted in the stables. A special 

C* ce will be designated for trimming, filling, and lighting 
terns. 

NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER OF THE TROOP STABLE 

GUARD. 

321. The noncommissioned officer receives his orders 
from his troop commander, to whom he will report im- 
mediately after posting his first relief, and when relieved 
will turn over all his orders to his successor. He instructs 
his sentinels in their general and special duties; exercises 
general supervision over his entire guard; exacts order 
and cleanliness about the guardroom; prevents the intro- 
duction of intoxicants into the guardhouse and stables; 
receives, by count, from his predecessor, the animals, horse 
equipments, and all property (both private and public) 
pertaining thereto; examines, before relieving his prede- 
cessor, all locks, windows, and doors, and should any be 
found insecure he will report the fact to his troop com- 
mander when he reports for orders. He will personally 
post and relieveeacn sentinel, taking care to verify the 
property responsibility of the sentinel who comes off post, 
ana see that the sentinel who goes on post is aware of the 
property responsibility that he assumes. 

822. That the noncommissioned officer may be more 
thoroughly informed of his responsibility, all horses return- 
ing, except those from a regular formation, will be reported 
to him. He will then notify the sentinel on post, and, 



68 MANUAL 0* INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

in the absence of the stable sergeant, will see that the 
horses are promptly cared for. 

In case of abuse, he will promptly report to the troop 
commander. Should the horse be the private property of 
an officer, he will report such abuse to the owner. 

323. The noncommissioned officer will report any 
unusual occurrence during his tour direct to nis troop 
commander. 

324. Horses and other property for which the noncom- 
missioned officer is responsible will not be taken from the 
stables without the authority of the post or troop com- 
mander. 

a 825. The noncommissioned officer must answer the sen- 
tinel's calls promptly. 

826. In case of fire, the noncommissioned officer will see 
that the requirements of paragraph 334 are promptly car- 
ried out. 

827. "Whenever it becomes necessary for the noncom- 
missioned officer to leave his guard, he will designate a 
member of it to take charge and assume his responsibility 
during his absence. 

SENTINELS OF THE TROOP STABLE GUARD. 

328. The sentinel in the discharge of his duties will be 
governed by the regulations for sentinels of the main guard 
whenever they are applicable — such as courtesies to officers, 
walking post in a soldierly manner, challenging, etc.; he 
will not turn out the guara except when ordered by proper 
authority. 

829. The sentinel will receive orders from the com- 
manding officer, the troop commander, and the noncom- 
missioned officers of the stable guard only, except when the 
commanding officer directs the officer of the day to inspect 
the stable guard. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 69 

880. In the field and elsewhere when directed by the 
commanding officer the sentinel when posted will verify 
the number of horses for which he is responsible, and when 
relieved will give the number to his successor. 

831. The sentinel will not permit any horse or equip- 
ments to be taken from the stables, except in the presence 
of the noncommissioned officer. 

832. Should a horse get loose, the sentinel will catch 
him and tie him up. If he be unable to catch the horse, 
the noncommissioned officer will at once be notified. In 
case a horse be cast, or in any way entangled, he will 
relieve him, if possible; if unable to relieve him, he will 
call the noncommissioned officer. Sentinels are forbidden 
to punish or maltreat a horse. 

833. When a horse is taken sick, the sentinel will notify 
the noncommissioned officer, who in turn will call the 
farrier, and see that the horse is properly attended to. 

834. In case of fire the sentinel will give the alarm by 
stepping outside the stable and firing his pistol or piece 
repeatedly, and calling out at the same time, "Fire, 
stables, Troop ( )." 

As soon as the guard is alarmed , he will take the necessary 
precautions in opening or closing the doors so as to prevent 
the spreading of the fire and make it possible to remove the 
horses; he will drop the chains ana bars, and, with the 
other members of the guard, proceed to lead out the horses 
and secure them at the picket line or such other place as 
may have been previously designated. 

835. Sentinels over horses, or in charge of prisoners, 
receive orders from the stable sergeant, so far as the care of 
the horses and the labor of prisoners are concerned. 

836. In field artillery and machine-gun organizations, 
the guard for the stables has charge of the guns, caissons, 
etc., with their ammunition and stores, as well as the 
horses, harness, and forage. 



70 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DITTY. 

FLAGS. 

837. The garrison, post, and storm flags are national 
flags and shall be of bunting. The union of each is as 
described in paragraph 216, Army Regulations, and shall 
be of the following proportions: Width, seven- thirteenths 
of the hoist of the nag; length, seventy-six one-hundred ths 
of the hoist of the flag. 

The garrison flag will have 38 feet fly and 20 feet hoist. 
It will be furnished only to posts designated in orders from 
time to time from the War Department, and will be hoisted 
onlv on holidays and important occasions. 

Tfhe post flag will have 19 feet fly and 10. feet hoist. It 
will be furnished for all garrison posts and will be hoisted 
in pleasant weather. 

The storm flag will have 9 feet 6 inches fly and 5 feet 
hoist. It will be furnished for all occupied posts for use 
in stormy and windy weather. It will also be furnished 
to national cemeteries. (A. R. 223.) 

888. At every military post or station the flag will be 
hoisted at the sounding of the first note of the reveille, or of 
the first note of the march, if a march be played before the 
reveille. The flag will be lowered at the sounding of the 
last note of the retreat, and while the flag is being lowered 
the band will play "The Star Spangled Banner," or, if 
there be no band present, the field music will sound "to 
the color." When "to the color" is sounded by the field 
music while the flag is being lowered the same respect will 
be observed as when "The Star Spangled Banner" is 
played by the band, and in either case officers and enlisted 
men out of ranks will face toward the flag, stand at atten- 
tion, and render the prescribed salute at the last note of 
the music. (A. R. 437.) 

The lowering of the flag will be regulated as to be com- 
pleted at the last note of^'The Star Spangled Banner" or 
*'to the color." 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DITTY. 71 

339. The national flag will be displayed at a seacoast 
or lake fort at the beginning of and during an action in 
which a fort may be engaged, whether by day or by night. 
(A. R. 437.) 

340. The national flag will always be displayed at the 
time of firing a salute. (A. R. 397.) 

341. The flag of a military post will not be dipped by 
way of salute or compliment. (A . R. 405 . ) 

342. On the death of an officer at a military post the 
flag is displayed at half-staff and so remains; between 
reveille and retreat 2 until the last salvo or volley is fired 
over the grave; or if the remains are not interred at the 
post, until they are removed therefrom. (A. R. 422.) 

343. During the funeral of an enlisted man at a military 
post the flag is displayed at half-staff. It is hoisted to the 
top after the final volley or gun is fired or after the remains 
are taken from the post. The same honors are paid on the 
occasion of the funeral of a retired enlisted man. (A. R. 
423.) 

844. When practicable, a detail consisting of a non- 
commissioned officer and two privates of the guard will 
raise or lower the flag. This detail wears side arms or, if 
the special equipments do not include side arms, then 
belts only. 

The noncommissioned officer, carrying the flag, forms 
the detail in line, takes his post in the center, and marches 
it to the staff. The flag is then securely attached to the 
halyards and rapidly hoisted. The halyards are then 
securely fastened to the cleat on the staff and the detail 
marched to the guardhouse. 

845, When the flag is to be lowered, the halyards are 
loosened from the staff and made perfectly free. At retreat 
the flag is lowered at the last note of retreat. It is then 
neatly folded and the halyards made fast. The detail is 
then reformed and marched to the guardhouse, where the 
flag is turned over to the commander of the guard. 



72 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground 
and should always be hoisted or lowered from the leeward 
side of the staff, the halyards being held by two persons. 

REVEILLE AND RETREAT GUN. 

846. The morning and evening gun will be fired by a 
detachment of the guard, consisting, when practicable, of 
a corporal and two privates. The morning gun is fired at 
the first note of reveille, or, if marches be played before the 
reveille, it is fired at the beginning of the first march. The 
retreat gun is fired at the last note of retreat. 

The corporal marches the detachment to and from the 

Sieee, which is fired, sponged out, and secured under his 
irection. 

GUARD MOUNTING. 

847* Guard mounting will be formal or informal as the 
commanding officer may direct. It will be held as pre- 
scribed in the drill regulations of the arm of the service to 
which the guard belongs; if none is prescribed, then as for 
infantry. In case the guard is composed wholly of 
mounted organizations, guard mounting may be held 
mounted. 

848. When infantry and mounted troops dismounted 
are united for guard mounting, all details form as pre- 
scribed for infantry. 

FORMAL GUARD MOUNTING FOR INFANTRY. 

849. Formal guard mounting will ordinarily be held 
only in posts or camps where a band is present. 

850. At the assembly, the men designated for the 
guard fall in on their company parade grounds as pre- 
scribed in paragraph 106, 1. D. K. The first sergeant then 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 78 

verifies the detail, inspects it, replaces any man unfit to go 
on guard, turns the detail over to the senior noncommis- 
sioned officer, and retires. The band takes its place on the 
parade ground so that the left of its front rank shall be 
12 paces to the right of the front rank of the guard when the 
latter is formed. 

851. At adjutant's call, the adjutant, dismounted, 
and the sergeant major on his left, marches to the parade 
ground. The adjutant halts and takes post so as to be 
12 paces in front of and facing the center of the guard 
when formed; the sergeant major continues on, moves by 
the left flank, and takes post, facing to the left, 12 paces 
to the left of the front rank of the band; the band plays in 
quick or double time; the details are marched to the 
parade ground bjr the senior noncommissioned officers; 
the detail that arrives first is marched to the line so that, 
upon halting, the breast of the front-rank man shall be 
near to and opposite the left arm of the sergeant major; the 
commander of the detail halts his detail, places himself in 
front of and facing the sergeant major, at a distance equal 
to or a little greater than the front of his detail, and com- 
mands: 1. Bight, 2. DRESS. The detail dresses up to 
the line of the sergeant major and its commander, the right 
front-rank man placing his breast against the left arm of 
the sergeant major; the noncommissioned officers take post 
two paces in rear of the rear rank of the detail. The detail 
aligned, the commander of the detail commands: FRONT, 
salutes, and then reports: "The detail is correct;" or 
"(So many) sergeants, corporals, or privates are 
absent;" the sergeant major returns the salute with the 
right hand after the report is made; the commander then 
passes by the right of the guard and takes post in the line 
of noncommissioned officers in rear of the right file or his 
detail. 



74 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

Should there be more than one detail, it is formed in 
like manner on the left of the one preceding; the privates, 
noncommissioned officers, and commander of each detail 
dress on those of the preceding details in the same rank 
or line; each detail commander closes the rear rank to the 
right and fills blank files, as far as practicable, with the 
men from his front rank. 

Should the guard from a company not include a non- 
commissioned officer, one will be detailed to perform the 
duties of commander of the detail. In this case the com- 
mander of the detail, after reporting to the sergeant major, 
E asses around the right flank between the guard and the 
and and retires. 

352. When the last detail has formed, the sergeant major 
takes a side step to the right, draws sword, verifies the 
detail, takes post two paces to the right and two paces to 
the front of the guard, facing to the left, causes the guard 
to count off, completes the left squad, if necessary, as in 
the school of the company, and if tnere be more than three 
squads, divides the guard into two platoons, again takes 

rst as described above and commands: 1. Open ranks. 
MARCH. 

At the command march, the rear rank and file closers 
march backward four steps, halt, and dress to the right. 
The sergeant major aligns the ranks and file closers and 
again, taking post as described above, commands : FRONT, 
moves parallel to the front rank until opposite the center, 
turns to the right, halts midway to the adjutant, salutes, 
and reports: "Sir, the details are correct;" or, "Sir, 
(so many) sergeants, corporals, or privates are 
absent;" the adjutant returns the salute, directs the 
sergeant major: Take your post, and then draws saber; 
the sergeant major faces about, approaches to within two 
paces of the center of the front rank, turns to the right, 
moves three paces beyond the left of the front rank, turns 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 7ff 

to the left, halts on the line of the front rank, faces about, 
and brings his sword to the order. When the sergeant 
major has reported, the officer of the guard takes post, 
facing to the front, three paces in front of the center ox the 
guard, and draws saber. 

The adjutant then commands: 1. Officer (or officers) 
and noncommissioned officers, 2. Front and center, 
3. MARCH. 

At the command center, the officers carry saber. At 
the command march, the officer advances and halts three 
paces from the adjutant, remaining at the carry; the non- 
commissioned officers pass by the flanks, along the front, 
and form in order of rank from right to left, three paces in 
rear of the officer, remaining at the right shoulder; if there 
is no officer of the guard the noncommissioned officers halt 
on a line three paces from the adjutant; the adjutant then 
assigns the officers and noncommissioned officers according 
to rank, as follows: Commander of the guard, leader 
of first platoon, leader of second platoon, right guide 
of first platoon', left guide of second platoon, left 
guide of first platoon, right guide of second platoon, 
and file closers, or, if the guard is not divided into pla- 
toons: Commander of the guard, right guide, left 
guide, and file closers. 

The adjutant then commands: 1. Officer (or officers) 
and noncommissioned officers, 2. POSTS, 3. MARCH. 

At the command posts, all, except the officer com- 
manding the guard, face about. At the command march, 
they take the posts prescribed in the school of the com- 
pany with open ranks. The adjutant directs: Inspect 
your euard, sir; at which the officer commanding the 
guard faces about, commands: Prepare for inspection, 
returns saber, and inspects the guard. 

During the inspection, the band plays; the adjutant 
returns saber, observes the general condition of the guard, 



76 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

and falls out any man who is unfit for guard duty or does 
not present a creditable appearance. Substitutes will 
report to the commander of the guard at the guardhouse. 

853* The adjutant, when so directed, selects orderlies 
and color sentinels, as prescribed in paragraphs 140 and 
141, and notifies the commander of the guard of his 
selection. 

354. If there be a junior officer of the guard he takes 
post at the same time as the senior, facing to the front, 
3 paces in front of the center of the first platoon; in going 
to the front and center he follows and takes position on the 
left of the senior and is assigned as leader of the first pla- 
toon; he may be directed by the commander of the guard 
to assist in inspecting the guard. 

If there be no officer of the guard, the adjutant inspects 
the guard. A noncommissioned officer commanding the 
guard takes post on the right of the right guide, when the 
guard is in line; and takes the post of the officer of the 
guard, when in column or passing in review. 

855. The inspection ended, the adjutant places himself 
about 30 paces in front of and facing the center of the guard, 
and draws saber; the new officer of the day takes post in 
front of and facing the guard, about 30 paces from the ad- 
jutant; the old officer of the day takes post 3 paces to the 
right of and 1 pace to the rear of the new officer of the day; 
the officer of the guard takes post 3 paces in front of its 
center, draws saber with the adjutant and comes to the 
order; thereafter he takes the same relative positions as a 
captain of a company. 

The adjutant then commands: 1. Parade, 2. REST, 
3. SOUND OFF, and comes to the order and parade 
rest. 

The band, playing, passes in front of the officer of the 
guard to the left of the line, and back to its post on the 
right, when it ceases playing. 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 77 

The adjutant then comes to attention, carries saber, and 
commands: 1. Guard, 2. ATTENTION, 3. Close ranks, 
4. MARCH. 

The ranks are opened and closed as in paragraph 745, 

1. D. R. 

The adjutant then commands: 1. Present, 2 ARMS, 
faces toward the new officer of the day, salutes, and then 
reports: Sir, the guard is formed. The new officer of 
the day, after the adjutant has reported, returns the salute 
with the hand and directs the adjutant: March the guard 
In review, sir. 

The adjutant carries saber, faces about, brings the guard 
to an order, and commands: 1. At trail, platoons (or 
guard) right, 2. MARCH, 3. Guard, 4. HALT. 

The platoons execute the movement; the band turns to 
the right and places itself 12 paces in front of the first 
platoon. 

The adjutant places himself 6 paces from the flank and 
abreast of the commander of the guard; the sergeant 
major, 6 paces from the left flank of the second platoon. 

The adjutant then commands: 1. Pass in review, 

2. FORWARD, 3. MARCH. 

The guard marches in quick time past the officer of the 
day, according to the principles of review, and is brought 
to eyes right at the proper time by the commander of the 
guard; the adjutant, commander of the guard, leaders of 
platoons, sergeant major, and drum major salute. 

The band, having passed the officer of the day, turns to 
the left out of the column, places itself opposite and facing 
him, and continues to play until the guard leaves the 
parade ground. The field music detaches itself from the 
band when the latter turns out of the column, and, remain- 
ing in front of the guard, commences to play when the 
band ceases. 



78 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

Having passed 12 paces beyond the officer of the day, 
the adjutant halts; the sergeant major halts abreast of the 
adjutant and 1 pace to his lefts they then return saber, 
salute, and retire; the commander of the guard then com- 
mands: 1. Platoons, right by squads, 2. MARCH, and 
marches the guard to its post. 

The officers of the day face toward each other and salute; 
the old officer of the day turns over the orders to the new 
officer of the day. 

While the band is sounding off, and while the guard is 
inarching in review, the officers of the day stand at parade 
rest with arms folded. They take this position when the 
adjutant comes to parade rest, resume the attention with 
him, again take the parade rest at the first note of the 
march in review, and resume attention as the head of the 
column approaches. 

The new officer of the day returns the salute of the com- 
mander of the guard and the adjutant, making one salute 
with the hand. 

856. If the guard be not divided into platoons, the adju- 
tant commands: 1. At trail, guard right, 2. MARCH, 
3. Guard, 4. HALT, and it passes in review as above; the 
commander of the guard is 3 paces in front of its center: 
the adjutant places himself 6 paces from the left flank and 
abreast of the commander of the guard; the sergeant covers 
the adjutant on a line with the front rank. 

INFORMAL GUARD MOUNTING TOR INFANTRY. 

857. Informal guard mounting will be held on the 

Sarade ground of the organization from which the guard is 
etailed. If it is detailed from more than one organiza- 
tion, then at such place as the commanding officer may 
direct. 

358. At assembly, the detail for guard falls in on the 
company parade ground. The first sergeant verifies the 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 79 

detail, inspects their dress and general appearance, and 
replaces any man unfit to march on guard. He then turns 
the detail over to the commander of the guard and retires. 

359. At adjutant's call, the officer of the day takes 
his place 15 paces in front of the center of the guard and 
commands: 1. Officer (or officers) and noncommis- 
sioned officers, 2. Front and center, 3. MARCH; 
whereupon the officers and noncommissioned officers take 
their positions, are assigned and sent to their posts as pre- 
scribed in formal guard mounting. ^ (Par. 352.) 

The officer of the day will then inspect the guard with 
especial reference for its fitness for the duty for which it is 
detailed, and will select as prescribed in paragraphs 140 
and 141, the necessary orderlies and color sentinels. The 
men found unfit for guard will be returned to quarters and 
will be replaced by others found to be suitable, if available 
in the company. If none are available in the company, 
the fact will be reported to the adjutant immediately after 
guard mounting. 

When the inspection shall have been completed, the 
officer of the day resumes his position and directs the com- 
marider of the guard to march the guard to its post. 

BELIEVING THE OLD GT7AB.D. 

360. As the new guard approaches the guardhouse, the 
old guard is formed in line, with its field music 3 paces to 
its neht; and when the field music at the head of the new 
guard arrives opposite its left, the commander of the new 
guard commands: 1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT; the commander of 
the old guard commands: 1. Present, 2. ARMS; com- 
manders of both guards salute. The new guard marches 
in quick time past the old guard. 

When the commander of the new guard is opposite the 
field music of the old guard, he commands: FRONT; the 



80 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DITTY. 

commander of the old guard commands: 1. Order, 2. 
ARMS, as soon as the new guard shall have cleared the 
old guard. 

The field music having marched 3 paces beyond the 
field music of the old guard, changes direction to the right, 
and, followed by the guard, changes direction to the left 
when on a line with the old guard ; the changes of direction 
are without command . The commander of the guard halts 
on the line of the front rank of the old guard, allows his 
guard to march past him, and when its rear approaches 
forms it in line to the left, establishes the left guide 3 paces 
to the right of the field music of the old guard, and on a 
line with the front rank, and then dresses his guard to the 
left; the field music of the new guard is 3 paces to the right 
of its front rank. 

861. The new guard being dressed, the commander of 
each guard, in front of and facing its center, commands: 
1. Present, 2. ARMS, resumes his front, salutes, carries 
saber, faces his guard and commands: 1. Order, 2. ARMS. 

Should a guard be commanded by a noncommissioned 
officer, he stands on the right or left of the front rank, ac- 
cording as he commands the old or new guard, and* exe- 
cutes the rifle salute. 

862. After the new guard arrives at its post, and has 
saluted the old guard, each guard is presented by its com- 
mander to its officer of the day; if there be but one officer 
of the day present, or if one officer acts in the capacity of 
old and new officer of the day, each guard is presented to 
him by its commander. 

863* If other persons entitled to a salute approach, each 
commander of the guard will bring his own guard to atten- 
tion if not already at attention. The senior commander 
of the two guards will then command "1. Old and new 
guards, 2. Present, 3. ARMS." 



MANUAL OP INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 81 

The junior will salute at the command "Present Arms" 
given by the senior. Alter the salute has been acknowl- 
edged, the senior brings both guards to the order. 

364. After the salutes have been acknowledged by the 
officers of the day, each guard is brought to an order by ita 
commander; the commander of the new guard then directs 
the orderly or orderlies to fall out and report, and causes 
bayonets to be fixed if so ordered by the commanding 
officer; bayonets will not then be unfixed during the tour 
except in route marches while the guard is actually march- 
ing, or when specially directed by the commanding officer. 

The commander of the new guard then falls out members 
of the guard for detached posts, placing them under charge 
of the proper noncommissioned officers, divides the guora 
into three reliefs, first, second, and third, from right to 
left, and directs a list of the guard to be made by reliefs. 
When the guard consists of troops of different arms com- 
bined, the men are assigned to reliefs so as to insure a fair 
division of duty, under rules prescribed by the command- 
ing officer. 

365. The sentinels and detachments of the old guard 
are at once relieved by members of the new guard; the two 
guards standing at ease or at rest while these changes are 
being made. The commander of the old transmits to the 
commander of the new guard all his orders, instructions, 
and information concerning the guard and its duties. The 
commander of the new guard then takes possession of the 
guardhouse and verifies the articles in charge of the guard. 

366. If considerable time is required to bring in that 
portion of the old guard still on post, the commanding 
officer may direct that as soon as the orders and property 
are turned over to the new guard, the portion of the old 
guard at the guardhouse may be marched off and dis- 
missed. In such a case, the remaining detachment or 

46705°— l 



82 MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

detachments of the old guard will be inspected by the 
commander of the new guard when they reach the guard- 
house. He will direct the senior noncommissioned officer 
present to march these detachments off and dismiss them 
in the prescribed manner. 

367. In bad weather, at night, after long marches, or 
when the guard is very small, the field music may be dis- 
pensed with. 



Appendix A. 

When the guard for the day is supplied by more than one 
organization, the details due from the several companies 
will be determined as follows: Take the number of pri- 
vates for duty in each company from its morning report 
for the day next preceding tnat on which the tour of duty 
is to commence, deducting details for detached service of 
over 24 hours, made after the morning report has been re- 
ceived ; the total of these gives the total number of privates 
available. Then: The total strength is to the strength of 
a company as the total detail is to the detail from the com* 
pany. Multiply' the total detail by the strength of the 
company, and divide the result by total strength; carry 
out to two places of decimals, disregarding all smaller 
fractions. This rule is applied for each company. 

The whole numbers in the results thus obtained are 
added together, and if the total is less than the total detail 
required add one to the whole number in the result that 
has the largest fraction, and so on for each company till the 
required total is obtained. 

There will thus be a difference between the exact pro- 
portion and the number detailed from each company; this 
difference is entered in the credit column ana the next 
day is carried forward and added or subtracted from the 
first proportion. 

83 



84 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 

FIRST DAY. 




* Troop F furnishes 3 stable and no other guard. 

Note.— The proportion due from a company is always given a minus 
sign and the detail furnished given a plus sign. 



MANUAL OP INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 85 

SECOND DAY. 




A 27 X 14 + 160 - -2.36 -.18 -2.64 + 2 -.54 

B 23 X 14 -i- 160 - -2.01 -.10 -2.11 + 2 -.11 

C 28 X 14 -*- 160 - -2.45 +.38 -2.07 + 2 -.07 

D 23 X 14 -*- 160 - -2.01 +.08 -1.93 + 2 +.07 

E 21 X 14 -*- 160 - -1.83 +.08 -1.75 + 2 +.25 

F (Cav.) 38 X 14 -i- 160 - -3.32 -.23 -3.55 +*4 +.45 

160 11 14 



* Troop F furnishes 3 stable and 1 main guard. 

The number of sergeants, corporals, and musicians will 
be determined in like manner. 
A convenient form for the roster is as follows. 



86 



MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 



Roster L— Privates. 
Enlisted strength of guard, 14 privates. 



A Company: 

Strength 

First proportion. . 

Final proportion . 

Detail 

Credits 

B Company: 

Strength 

First proportion . 

Final proportion . 

Detail 

Credits 

C Company: 

Strength 

First proportion. . 

Final proportion . 

Detail 

Credits 

D Company: 

Strength 

First proportion . 

Final proportion . 

Detail 

Credits 

E Company: 

Strength ■ 

First proportion . 

Final proportion . 

Detail 

Credits 

F Troop: 

Strength 

First proportion . 

Final proportion 

Detail 

Credits 



Guard required. 



Jan. 1, 
14. 



25 
-2.18 



+2 
- .18 

24 

-2.10 



+2 
- .10 

30 
-2.62 



+3 
+ .38 

22 
-1.92 



+2 
+ .08 

22 
-1.92 



+2 
+ .08 

37 
-3.23 



+3 
- .23 



Jan. 2, 
14. 



27 
-2.36 
-2.54 
+2 

- .54 

23 
-2.01 
-2.11 
+2 

- .11 

28 
-2.45 
-2.07 
+2 

- .07 

23 
-2.01 
-1.93 

+2 
+ .07 

21 
-1.84 
-1.76 
+2 
+ .24 

38 
-3.32 
-3.55 

+4 
+ .45 



Jan. 3, 
14. 



27 
-2.36 
-2.90 
+3 
+ .10 

23 
-2.01 
-2.12 

+2 

- .12 

28 
-2.45 
-2.52 
+3 
+ .48 

23 
-2.01 
-1.94 

+2 
+ .08 

21 
-1.84 
-1.59 
+1 

- .59 

38 
-3.32 
-2.87 
+3 
+ .13 



MANUAL 07 INTERIOR GUARD DUTY. 87 

Appendix B. 

When details for guaid and fatigue are made as prescribed 
in paragraph 11, no account will be taken of very small dis- 
proportions in the strength of companies. 

When the disproportion is considerable a roster will be 
kept by the sergeant major under the supervision of the 
adjutant as follows: In accordance with the method ex- ^ 
plained in Appen<Jix A, determine the proportion of pri- 
vates each company would be required to furnish. 

In the credit column, charge each company, except the 
one furnishing the guard, with this proportion, i. e., with 
the number of men it was due to furnish but did not 
furnish. Enter this number or proportion with a minus 
sign. 

Then credit the company furnishing the guard with the 
number of men furnished, less the proportion it was due 
to furnish. The difference is the number of men it fur- 
nished in excess, and is entered in the credit column with 
a plus sign. 

Whether the same or different companies furnish the 
guard on consecutive days, the debits and credits will be 
determined for each day and added algebraically to the 
credit or debit brought forward from the preceding day. 
The result will then be entered in the credit column for 
the day. 

When a new company is to relieve the one furnishing the 
guard, that one will ordinarily be detailed which has the 
largest minus number in the credit column. 

The following table indicates the form of the roster. 

The order in which companies are shown in this table as 
furnishing the guard has no especial significance, as many 
reasons may enter into the determination of this matter.