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I 






OXFORD MUSEUM. 
LIBRARY AND READING-ROOM. 






THIS Book belongs to the "Student's 
Library/' 
It may not be removed from the 
Reading Boom without permiseion 
of the Librarian. 








J 


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"l 


^ ^' '* ^ ^.^tf 






P 




i#^ 


• 




'ft.4 


* 

ft:. 







iUIIHlll 

" 600054960T 





-e^. 2- 




M A N U A L 

or THE 

NATORAL HISTORY, GEOLOGY, ANT) PHYSICS 



OF 

GREENLAND 

AKD THE NEIGHBOURINa REGIONS; 

FRSPAKBD FOR THE USE O? THE ASCTIC EXPEDITION OF 1B75, UNDEtt TEE 
DIRBCnON OF THE ARCTIC COMMITTEE OF THE EOYAl SOCIETY, 

^^^p AMD KDITSB BV 

■ FtofESSOtt T. RUPERT JONES, F.R.S., F.G.S^ &c., Ac, &c^ 

^^^— TOOETHEIl WITH 

^^p INSTRUCTIONS 

^K tmaanKv bt tbk arctic comuittek op the royal suciett 
^B FOR THE USK OF THE EXPEUiTION. 

nrBUSHED 1)1 AUTIIOKITY OF THE LORDS COlCKl^lOirEES OF THE ABMHULLTI. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR UBR MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 

AND BOLD or 

TuititAT, Albemarle Street ; Lo!«jmak«, Queek, & Co., Paternoster Row 
T^I^HttKK & Co., Ludgate IIOI j Edwaiio Stanfojip, Cliaring Cross, S.W. ; 

J. J>. PoTTKit, 31, Poultry^ and II, Kiu^ Street, Tower HiU: 

AIko by GuirriTt & Co., The Hard, Portaea; A. & C. Black, EdiobuiTgh; 

AuOL TiioM. Abbey Street, md E. Powsostby, Grafton Strt-et, Uublia. 

1875. 



Price Thirttcn ShiUivtjn ami SU^mett 



INSTRUCTIONS 



70S THS USB OF 



THE SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION 



TO 



THE ARCTIC EEGIONS^ 
1875. 



SUGGESTED BY THE ARCTIC COMMITTEE OF THE UOTAL 80CIETT. 



P B E P A c a 



The President and Council of the Royal Society wero 
informed by a letter from the Secretary of the Admimlty 
dated 4tU December 1S74, that it was their LordBhips* 
intention to despatch an expedition, in the spring of 1875, 
to endeavour to reach the North Pole, and to explore the 
coast of Greenland and adjacent lands ; and were invited 
io offer any suggestions which " might appear to them de- 
'* sirable in regard to carrying out the scientific conduct 
** of the voyage." 

This letter was referred to a Committee consisting of tho 
President and Officers, Prof. J. C. Adams, Dr. Carpenter^ 
Capfe. Evans, Mr. J. Evans, Mr. F. Galton, Dr. Giiiither, 
Prof Ramsay, Sir H. Kawlinson, and Mr. Scott, with 
power to add to their number. The Committee decided 
that it was deairable to prepare (1) a Manual of Scientific 
Results already obtained in Arctic Expeditions, (2) Instruc- 
tions for future observations. 



To prepare the instructions, the Committee divided tho 
branches of science which were to be represented among 
several sub-committees, consisting partly of its own mem- 
bers, partly of other scientific pei"son& who were .specially 
conversant with the respective branches. It has been 
thought best that the several portions iato which the in- 
utroctions are divided should appear with the names of 
those by whom they were individually drawn up in the first 
instance, and who, after consultation with theii* colleagues, 
arc held responsible for their final form. 

In a few instances it will be found that the same subject 
\m$ been mentioned by more than one of those concerned in 



IV PREFACE. 

the preparation of the instructions. In such cases it has 
been thought best not to incorporate the instructions relating 
to the same subject, but to leave them under the names of 
those who drew them up ; partly to maintain the principle 
of individual responsibility, partly because the observers 
would more readily enter into the spirit of the instructions 
if the different points of view from which the same subject 
was regarded were separately preaented to their minds. 

The preparation of the Manual of Scientific Besults 
was entrusted to the care of Trot Rupert Jones, F.R.S., as 
Editor in chief, who also undertook himself to compile the 
pai*t relating to Zoology, Botany, Geology, and Mineralogy. 
The Committee appointed Pn^ W. G. Adams, F.B.S., Sub- 
editor, to assist Prof. Rupert Jones by compiling the part 
relating to Physics. The Manual will be found at the end 
of the Instructions. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE USE OF THE ARCTIC 
EXPEDITION, 1875. 



CONTENTS. 



FABT Z.—PHTSICAI. OBSSaVATZONS. 



I, — ^Astronomy. 

!• AfltroQomicol Data. (Eclipses of the Sun and OccitltAtionti.} By 
J. U, Hind, F.R.S,, SiiperiiUendeot of tliL^ Nautical Almtinac 

2. Su^^eHtions for Observations of the Tiiiea. By the Kev. i*rof. 
Hniighton, M.D., FJ1.S. - - - . . 

3. TcndoJuro Observations. Bj Prot G. O.Stokes, M.A., Sec. U.S. - 

4. Od the Detection of Meteoric (Cosmicul) Du»t in the Snow of Arctic 
Ik'gious. By Prof. IJ. E. Eoscoc, B.A., F.li.S. 



Pilge 



10 



II. — Terrestrial iLioNETiSM. 

1, On Determination of Elements and use of Mtigntilical lujstruments. 
By Prof. J, C. AdnmB, M.A., J.R.S.j and Capt. F, J. O. Evaub, 
K,N., CB, F.R^a - 



III. — Meteorology. 

1. Meteorological Instruction*. By liobert H. Scoit, F.R.S., Director 
of the Meteorological Office ------ 

a. Note on Aurorul Ohservutions. By Prof. Stokes, M.A., Sw. R.S. 



IV. — ^Atmospheric Elkctuicitv. 

J. fuFtructionM fur the Mbservation of Atmospheric Electricity* By 
Prof. Sir William Thomson, LL.D., F.U.S, - - - - 



20 



V* — Optics. 

I. 8pectrx)foopic Obftervation^H. Obsenations of the Spectrum of the 
"^ 8nn and of the Anrora, By Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A„ Sec. K.S. - S4 

Polar iaation of Ligbu By \V. Spoltijjwoode, M.A., Treus. ll,S. - 26 

9. Inctructtons in the use of the Spcetroscopcs. By J. Norman 
I^kyer, F.R.S. - - - - - - 28 



VL — MiaCKLLAKEOUS OUSERVATIONS. 

I. On Saline Matter in Ice. By Dr. Rae, F.R.G.S. • - - 32 

IliiiU toward* Observations in the Arctic Regbns. By Prof. 
TywUil* D.C.L., F.B.S. .-.•-- 34 



vi CONTENTS. 



FA&T II.— BZOZiOGT. 



I*^ — Zoology. 

1. On collecting Specimens of the Manunalia of Greenland, and making 
Obeervationi thereon. By Dr. Albert Giinther, F3.S. - - 86 

2. On collecting Spedmens of the Cetacea of the Arctic Seas, and 
makiog Observations thereon. By Fro£ W. H. Flower, FJLS. - 39 

8. On collecting and observing the Birds of Greenland. By P. L. 
Sclater,WLA..,F.R.S. 45 

4. On collecting Specimens of the Fishes of Greenland* and making 
Observations thereon. By Dr. Albert Gunther, F.RS. - - 46 

5. On collecting the MoUnsca of the Arctic Regions, and making 
Observations thereon. By J. Gwyn Jeffireys, F.R.S. - - - 48 

6. On the Collection and Preservation of Hydroids and Polysoa. By 

G. J.Anman,M.D.,PX.S.,F.B.S. ----- 51 

7. On the Constmction and Method of Using the Towing Ne^ and Notes 
on the Animals vrbich may be obtained thereby. By G. J. Allman, 
M.D., P.L.S., FJI.S. - - - - - - 58 

8. Supplementary Instmctions. By Prof. Huxley, LI1.D., See. B.S. - 60 

IL — ^Botany. 
1 . Instmctions in Botany. By J. Dalton Hooker, BID., C.B., Pres. RJS. 62 

in. — Geology akd Mineralogy. 

1. General Instmctions for Observations in Geology. By Prof. 
A. C. Ramsay, LLJ)., FJK.S., Director General of the Geological 
Survey, and John Evans, F.B.S., Pres. Geol. Soc. - - - 68 

2. On Collecting Mineralogical Specimens, and making Observations 
thereon: a Minerals and Bocks ; 6. Meteorites. By Prof. N.Story 
Maskelyne,M.A.,F.R.S. 77 

3. On the Observations which should be made in case Volcanoes or 
Evidences of Volcanic Action should be met with. By J. W. Judd, 
F.G.S. 83 



IKSTEUCTIOlfS. 



PART L— PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



I.— ASTRONOMY. 



1. Astronomical Data, (Eclipses of the Sun and 
Occiiltations.) By J. R. Hind. F.RS. 



Eclipse of the Sdn, 1876, Marcli 25. 

In longitude 60*=' West and latitude 82^, this eclipse commences 
Mnrch 25 at 4** 12' 1*^ local mean time, 139° from the Suii*s 
north point towards the west, and ends at G"* 8". Mag^nitiide of 
eclipst^ 0'67. 

For any position not far from the above, the longitude of which 
18 X (taken tiegaiivclt/) and geocentric latitude /, the Greenwich 
time if of corameiicement of the eclipse, may be found from the 
following formulae : — 

Co«««l-ll263-[0'19595].8iii/+ [9*95510]. C09/.c<w(^ + 86' 19*4') 
1^9!^ S" SC-Ca-STOao] .«n « + [3-52333] .sin / 

- [3^ 7G690] .cos / . COS (A-150'* 2't/), 

and applying the longitude e:xpre88ed in time to /, thus found, 
the local mean time of iirst contact is obtained. The quantities 
within square brackets are logarithms. 

The distance of the point of contact on the Sun's limb from hi« 
north point reckoning towards the west=»+29° 45'. 

Eclipse of the Scn, 1877, August 8. 

Ib longitude GOF West^ and latitude 82^, this eclipse commences 
August 8 at 12*' 17 '3*" local mean time, 16"' from the Suu'i? 
north point towardfj the west, and ends at 13*" 21™. Magni- 
tude of eclipse, 0*21. 

For any position not far from the above, the Greenwich time i 
of commencement will be found fiom the formulas : — 

Cp«««=2*52151-[0-22]2u] sin/+ [9-fl37133.coa/,co9(A + 289M7*l0 
t=-l7^ 22'" 57'- [3-49004] siu « — [3*30948] aia/ 

-[3-73517] .cos /.cos (^-26** 24-9'). 

The distance of the point of contact on the Sun's limb from 
his north point reckoning towaitlw the west = &? — 21*^ 36'. 

NalCs — The narth point is here to be distinguished from the 
Sun's upper point or vertex. 

As an example of the application of the above formuliB of 
reduction of time of commencement, the calculation may be made 
for the position a.«^sumcd in the orijjinal calculation upon which 
the equation.^ are founded, viz., longitude liO^ or 4** West, and 
iMitade (geographical) 82°, To reduce the geographical to t[io 
geocentric latitude (/), a correction ia to he applied which may 
bo taken from the Table at p. 57 of " Appendices to various 
** Nautical Almanacs l>etween the yeura 1834 and 1854 ;" witli 
argmnemi 82°, this correction ia 3-1' to be subtracted from the 
geogrmphical latitude, and hence (=81® 56 '9'. 




HIND.— ASTRONOMICAL DATA. 



In the case of the eclipse of 1876, March 
is then as follows : — 



25, the 



Constant -0* 19595 
sin/ +9-99570 



Constant +9*95510 
cos/ +9-14633 



A 

Constant 



computation 

- 60 6*0 
36 19-4 
6 



-019165 
No. -1-55472 


cosA +9-96181 

+ 9*06324 

No. +0-11567 

Constant +1*11253 


A - 23 40- ( 




+ 1*22820 
-1*55472 


\ - 60 00 
Constant -150 2-0 


. 


co8ft» —0-32652 


B -210 2*0 


or 


log.cosci; -9*51391 
» +109° 3-5' 




Constant -3*57030 

sinw +9-975.52 

-3 -.54582 

No. -3514-2* 


Constant +3*52333 

sin/ +9*99570 

+ 3-51903 

No. +3303*9' 


Constant -3-76690 

cos/ +9*14633 

cosB -9-93738 

+ 2-85061 

No. + 708 -g* 

+ 3303-9 


w =109 4 
Constant = 29 45 


+ 4012-8 
- 3514-2 
+ 498-6 

H. M. 8. 

or + 8 19 
Constant 8 3 50 




8 12 9 
Subtract Long. 4 



j/ocal time of commencement 4 12 9 
which agrees with the direct calculation. 

OCCULTATIONS. 

The list appended includes those stars of the Nautical Almanac 
catalogue, which may possibly be occulted in 82° of north lati- 
tude ; but in order to ascertain with certainty whether any star 
is occulted, and the circumstances of the occultation, supposing 
the position of the point where the observation is to be made 
approximately known, the formulse given at p. 134 of Appendiccsy 
Ac, cited above, may be employed. An example of the applica- 
tion of these formula; for Greenwich is given at p. 145 ; but to 
further illustrate the method of computation, the occultation of 
the planet Mars 1876, January 31, is here calculated for longi- 
tude 4" West, latitude 82°. 

The following are the circumstances for this position of the 
principal occultations visible in 1876 and 1877. 





Immersion. 


Emersion. 






n. M. o 


H. M. 


o 


Mars - 1876, Jan. 30-31 


23 36 BQ 


28 


333 


Venus - „ Oct. 13 


4 4 12 


4 40 


294 


Kegnlus „ Dec. 6 


1 57 60 


2 47 


262 


1877, Jan. 2 


9 52 70 


10 46 


240 


„ „ Jan. 29 


21 22 141 


21 35 


169 


„ Feb. 26 


8 10 95 


8 57 


214 



The above are local mean times, and the angles from N. point 
are reckoned as usual in the Nautical Alma?iac, 

Nautical Almanac Office, «^- ^' ^'n^- 

1875, February 10. 



^ H IKD.— ASTRONOMICAL 


DATA. 3 

J 


OccuivTATiONS of Stars to the 5tli magtiitude inclusive that may bo | 


visible in or nc«r 82*' N, Ljit, iini 


1 6{r W. Long. 1 






4 


Loi'iU Mf>art i 


- 


4 Local Mean 


mte. 


fiter'* Xune. 


s 

1 


Time of (j 
tuRvA.of 


Date 


star'* Name. 


1 in B. A, of 

1 (t«Hl^(f. 






Cr "nd *. , 






1875. 






h. m. *s. : 1676. 






h, m. s. 


SeptJl 


156 Tanri - 




11 32 37 Nov. 9 


c Leomn . 


5 


21 9 42 


Oct. 16 


( ArieHa - 


U 


6 34 23 , 29 


17 Tanri - 


4 


23 46 26 


16 


t' Arieiis - 




9 4 30 ao 


23 Tauri - 


5 


20 22 


18 


1.16 Tfturi - 




17 48 23 30 


ri Tauri - 


3 


47 4 


Nov. 12 


C Aned^ - 


4| 


17 7 15 30 


27 Tauri 


4 


1 26 1 


IS 


t' Arieiii - 




19 34 13 1 Dec. 1 


136 Tauri * 


5 


22 39 49 


15 


136 Tanri - 




2 36 23 3 


K Gcminor, 


?1 


14 44 4 


SO 


X Leoiiis - 




12 21 fi9 6 


o Leon is - 


2 8-21 


Dec, 10 


C Arietis ^ 


h 


4 33 39 6 


p Xii'onis - 


4 


13 27 33 


10 


t' Arietis - 




7 1 47 1 27 


J 7 Tiuiri 


4 


10 49 5 


IS 


130 Tauri - 




t3 42 23 


27 


2:j Tauri - 


5 


11 23 23 


15 


7 Caiicri - 


H 


3 29 12, 


27 


TT Tatiri 


3 


11 50 23 


17 


X Leoni» - 




19 33 5 , 


27 


27 Tanri * - 


4 


12 39 45 


1876, 








29 


136 Tauri - 


5 


9 45 32 


Jul 6 


C Arittis - 


^ 


14 31 24 


31 


K Uemiuor. 


H 


1 5 42 


6 


T* ArietTB - 




17 4 27 


1877. 








m u 


136 Tttiiii - 




1 1 58 ; Jan. 2 


a Lconifi - 


u 


10 34 U 


H 


7 Cancri - 


|i 


14 36 32 1 23 


* Arietis - f 4j 


I 26 14 


■ Fcti. 2 


i Arietis - 


31 42 55 


23 


17 Tauri . 4 


20 35 39 


I 


136TBuri - 




10 10 10 


23 


19 Tauri * |5 


20 43 17 


^k ,^^ 8 


y Cancri - 


u 


1 20 48 


23 


20 Tauri - 


5 


20 58 28 




C ArictiH - 


4 


3 11 a 


23 


23 Tauri - 


5 


21 11 6 




23 Ta«ri . 




16 6 30 


23 


v Tauri - 


8 


21 39 1 


^^^^^l 


27 Tfturi - 




17 15 12 


23 


27 Tauri r 


4 


22 19 41 


^^H 


136 Taori - 




16 45 45 


25 


1 86 Tauri - 


5 


20 52 41 


V 


> Cancri - 


H 


9 47 14 


27 


K Geminor. 


H 
l| 


12 41 18 










29 


ft Leon 1 8 - 


21 27 30 


■ Oet 6 


IT Tauri - 




6 7 22 


Feb. 19 


€ Arietit* - 


H 


8 7 24 


■ 


23 Tutiri * 




6 42 48 


20 


17 Tauri • 


4 


3 49 1 


^M— 


tj Touri - 




7 10 40 


20 


19 Tauri - 


5 


3 56 53 


^^ft 


27 Tnnri - 




7 61 21 


20 


20 Tauri - 


5 


4 12 32 


^^V 


136 Tauri - 




7 25 43 


20 


17 Tauri - 


3 


4 54 21 


^^^ 


^ I^-ouJfl - 




1 49 1 


22 


136 Tauri - 


5 


5 49 38 


■ 


c Lcoois - 




15 7 58 


23 


K Geminor. 


H 


S3 2 33 


■ Kor. s 


17 Tiiiiri - 




13 44 18 


26 


a. I^'onis - 


H 


8 50 24 


H 


23 Tuuri - 




14 18 47 


Mur. 18 


• Arietis - 


4 


13 33 48 


H 


n Tauri - 




14 45 54 


I'J 


17 Tauri - 


i 


9 19 26 


H * 


27 Tauri - 




15 25 29 


19 


19 Tauri - 


5 


9 27 23 


^■^ 


136 Tauri • 




13 45 13 


19 


20 Tnnri - 


& 


9 43 8 


^^H 


$c Gemiuor. 


k 


7 7 43 j 19 


IT Tauri 


d 


10 25 15 


^B- * 


^ I^onw - 




7 37 32 21 J 


136 Tauri - 


5 


12 10 35 

i 


^^^^^ Occulta Tiox <J 1876, Jan 


UART 31. 


^^^^B Long. 4>' 


it.N. 82 u 1 


^^^^^H 


ction —3 7 ^H 




/ 81 56 53 ^1 


^^^V p 9'«J<>»GU 


^H 


^^H co«/»-U633 (f'l 


iU.A. 3d 41-1 W^ 


^^H ^(*) 9- 144^3 9' 14493 *** 


i li.A, 39 25*8 ^M 


^^^^^ cot 1 9 M 


crtwt. 9-4I916 


rtitnc- 44-7 ^H 




f<«> ••99431) 




<p^^ 8*5rt40y 


I arc- U' 10- 

s 


5' 


1 



HINB. — ^ASTB^fOMIOAL DA3*A, 





U. M. 8. 




M. 8. 


'^SeSSar^^tlie 40 14-8 


-I 


time 1 51-2 
arc 27' 48-0" 


MarsBJl. 


- 39 25-8 




-7 69 no 


- 7 59 11-0 


o / // 




T 


+ 42 D 


(T'sDec. +5 18 50-8 






+ 39-8 «*'8Dec. +4 10 13»8 




- 8 56 81*2 


D-8 +1 3 87-5 




h 


- 59" 7-8' 


Di +14 56-8 


P 57' 


23-0'/ +3-58694 


+ 3-53694 


+ 8 •68694 




^(») +9-99430 


cosh +9-71019 


sin A -9-93366 




+ 3-53124 


+ 3-24713 


-3-47060 




cos 8 +9-99885 


sin 8 +8-86166 


sin 8 +8-66166 




f +8-58009 
L +56 29-2 


+ 2-10879 


^2-33226 




0(') +9-14493 


4K») +8-56409 




+ 17-9 


+ 1-25372 


r -0-89635 
I- 7-9 




+ 56 11-3 






D-8 +63 87-5 




Di +14 56-8 




X + 7 26-2 




ar, +16 4-7 




fo -11 10'5 
L -2-82640 




foi +27 48-0 
I +3-22220 




15 39-8 




COB 8 +9-99885 


57 17-7 


cos 8 +9-99885 




f -2-82525 
L-11 8-7 




r +3-22105 
1+27 43-6 








PsinA -3-47060 


F 3-53694 


PcosA +8-24713 




^(>) +9-14493 


const. 9-43677 


+ 8-56409 




r -2-61663 


A' 2-97371 


r +1-81122 
1+ 1 4-7 




1-6 52-6 




Jy -4 16-1 
I -2-40841 




fyi +26 38-9 
"l +3-20382 






« 


X +2-64953 




xj +2-95650 




tanS -9-75888 


S -29 51-2 


coti +0-24732 




cobS +9-93817 
W +2-71136 


I +29 30-1 


cost +9-93969 






W +2-71136 


cofi[-(S + 0] 


+ 9-99999 


-(S + 0+0 21-1 


3-65630 




n +2-71185 




+ 6-20735 




A' 2-97371 




H +3-00858 




C08« +9-73764 


w +56 52-1 


C08« +9-73764 




c +8-26589 


a -56 810 


c +3-26589 




sin a -9-92119 


b +57 13-2 


sin 6 +9-92467 




-3-18708 




+ 3- 19056 




ti -0 25-6» 




<• +0 25- 9°' 




4 2 




4 2 




3 36-4 


4 27-9 




Long. 4 00 TV 




4 00 W 


Imm. Jan. dO<^ 23 36-4 (] 


Loc.MeanT.) Em. J 


ran. SI" 27-9 




(-1) -29-5 • 


(-0 -29-5 




« +56-9 




» +56-9 



-86-4 



+ 27-4 



Note. — In this particular example, T (4'* 2™) was taken from a previous 
calculation, but it maj be obtained with a sufficient degree of approximation, 
by the method described at p. 129 of Appendices to the Nautical Almanac. 

If the angles from the Sun's vertex arc required, the parallactic angles 
must be computed and applied to the above. 



2» Suggestions for Obsekvattons of the Tides to he made 
by the NoRTH Pole Expedition, by the Rev. Samuel 
Haughtqj?, M.D., FJI.S. 



I- — SuMXABY OF Arctic Tii>al Observations alreadt mai k. 

The tidal wtivo enters the Arctic Polar Biisiii by three distinct 
ciiaonelfl : — 

1. By Behring'a Stnut. 

2. By Davis' Sti'nit. 

3. By the Greenland Sea und Burontz Sea. 

As to the first two of these tidwJ WBve3, I can offer some useful 
observations^ but I know little of the tbird wave, beyond the fuel, 
recorded by Captain Markham, tliat the tide wave No. 2, eiit^Tinf;; 
Smith Sound and Kennetly Channel, meetti at CajMj Frazer (( Jniuiell 
Land), LuL 80** N, with a tidal wave comiug from \hv iitHtli, 
which I believe to be the wave No. 3» which has travellwl rouinl 
the north coast of Greenland, thus provmg it to be an island. 

1. Behriiig Strait Tidai Wave. 

Observations on this tidal wave have been made at — 

1, Port Clai-ence - - Captain Moore. 

2. Point Barrow - - Captain Rochlbrt Maguii-e, 

3, Walker Bay - - Captain Collinsou. 

4. Cambridge Bay - Ciiptain CoUinsou. 
Ail these observations lead to the result that this tidal ^vave is 

a simple lunar semi-dim-nal tide, without any complication of 
solar or of diurnal tide, which seem, from some imknown eaiise, 
imable to enter the Ai-ctic Basin through Behring*s Strait, althongh 
the ditimal tide ia well developed in many parts of the North 
Pacific Ocean. This tide has been tniced eastwards as fiii^ as 
Victoria Strait, where it meets the Davis' 8tmit tide No. 2, enter- 
ing Victoria 8trait, from the north, through Bellot Strait and 
Franklin Strait. 

[The Franklin expedition jierished at the meeting of these two 

which forms a hne of stiU water and immoveable i>aek ice, 

feet the " Erebuii " and *' Terror,'* having become beset in 

'ptember 1846, were abandoned in April 1848, having moved 

ly 15 miles during the 18 months.] 

It is extremely probable thiit the Behring Strait tidal wa^'e 
enters Banks' or Maclure Stmt and passes ns far eastward as thv 

\y of Mercy, whore Maclure*^ Expedition was abandoned, in 
t853| after two years ineffectual attempts to enter Mvlville Sonntl 
from the West, I am persuaded that this failm*c was due to tht? 
meetlDg of the Behring Strait and Davis* Strait tidal waves at 
tlie western outlet from Melville Sound. Unfortumitely this im- 
portant fact cannot l*c determined with certainty in consequence 
vt the upiwrent loss of the tidid observations miide by Maclure in 
the Bay of Mercy in 1851-52-53; and by Kellelt in Bridport 
Inlet in 1852-53. If these tidal obRei'\'ations could Ik.« discovered 
they would throw much light on the theory of the tidal motion of 
lliii i*irt of the Ameiican Arctic Archipelago. 



HAUGHTON.— TroES. 



2. Davis' Strait Tidal Wave. 



This tidal wave is much better known than that of Behring 
Strait. Observations upon it have been made 



1. Fredericksdal 


- Missionary Asboe. 


2. Godthaab - 


- Dr. Rink. 


3. Holsteinborg 


- Director Elberg. 


4. Pr6ven 


- Assistant Bolbroe. 


5. Frederickshaab 




6. Port Leopold 


- Sir James Ross. 


7. Bellot Strait 


- Sir Leopold McClintock. 


8. Beechey Island 


. " Resolute " and *« Assistance", 




"North Star." 


9. Griffith Island 


- " Resolute " and " Assistance.'' 


.0. Refuge Cove 


- Sir E. Belcher. 


.1. Northumberland 


Sir E. Belcher. 


Sound. 





This tidal wave, in passing Cape Farewell has a luni-tidal 
interval of e** 22", which is increased (Inglefield) to ll'»0^at 
Upemavik, and to 11'' 50*" at Van Rennselaer Harbour (Kane). 
The diurnal element is well developed along the Greenland coast. 
On reaching the head of Baffin's Bay, the tidal wave moves north- 
ward through Smith's Sound, and (according to Captain Mark- 
ham) meets another tide at Cape Frazer.* The tidal wave flows 
also through Lancaster Sound to the westward to Port Leopold, 
where it divides into three branches, through — 

a. Barrow Strait (westward). 

b. Wellington Channel, Queen's Channel, and Penny Strait 

(northward). 

c. Prince Regent Inlet (southward). 

The progress of the tidal waves may be thus estimated by the 
luni-tidal intervals : — 

(a). Port Leopold - - - - 

Griffith Island (Admiralty Tide Tables^ - 

Dealy Island ( „ » ) - 

Bay of Mercy, not given (Admiralty Time 

Tables). 

(The range is given at 2 ft. in the 
Bay of Mercy, and at 4 ft. at Dealy 
Isknd ; this circumstance, and the pre- 
sumed difficulty of fixing the time of 
high water is in favour of the tide at 
Mercy Bay being the Behring Strait 
tide.) 
(b). Port Leopold - - - - 

Penny Strait - - - - 

(r.) Port Leopold - - - - 

Bellot Strait - - - - 



* Captain Markham's rcmnrks show that the diurnal clement is \7ell de- 
veloped in the tidal wave south of Cape Frazer. 



H. 


M. 


11 


44 





15 


1 


48 



11 


44 





15 


11 


44 


11 


48 




HAUOnTON.— TIDES. 

All these tidal waves are complex, nnd con^^ist of four well 
rked waves. 

1. Lunar semidiurnal. 

2. Solar semidiuriml. 

3. Lunar diumal. 

4. Solar diurnal. 

This tidal wave cannot, therefore^ lor a moment be confotiiiiled 
with the liehring Strait wave, which is a simple lunar semi- 
diurnal wave. 

The western brancli moves (as I believe) across Melville Sound, 
and meets the Behring Strait tidal wave in Machire Strait. Tlia 
northern biaricli proceeds regularly ihrcmgh Penny Strait to 
lat* 76^, showing no sign of meeting an opposing tide although it 
would probably meet the Behriug Strait tide somewhere about 
BO". The sotilhern brant-h, as 1 have pro%'€^d meet^s the Pncitic tide 
at the north entrance of Victoria Channel, where the Fi^ankiin 
expedition was abonduned. If the 8t4*tement of the mcL-ting of 
two tidal waves in KermcOy Channel be confirmed, it '^vill dinunish 
the ehnnce of reiicliing the Nortli Pule by that route, even Ihongh 
the northern tidal wave be not ttio liehring Strait wave which is 
ljia;hly improbtible. 

It is not at all unlikely tluit the Ikdiiing Stitut tidal wavu may 
tuuel the united Atlantic waves to the north uf GiceiilanLl, and ut 
Uii* sale of the Pole ; in Avhieh ease it is proljablo that sledges 
will do more work than ships. • 

As it may be of use to dctermiue quickly the elianicter of the 
tidfd wave, I now fjivf u raothnd nf doiug so. 



11. — MKTlIOri OF lUVTEliMIMNG gUK KLY TIIK EXISTENCE OF A 

DiuuNAL Tide. 

Hourly observations of the height of the tide made for 48 
Mucecasive hours, will determine ncenmtely the diuraial title for 
every hour of tlie middle 24 liours. Let Aj, A^, A», be three 
hfiphts of tide sepamled from each other by intervals of 12 hours, 
llM»n the diurnal ti<le, at ihe period corresponding to the mid^Ue 
obfleTTation /ij is given l>y the formula ; — 

4 



(1.) 



The time selected for making the 48 hourn observations shotild 
he when the Moon's ileclination is grcjit (either north or Huulh) 
because Ihe diurnal tide viinishcii with the docliiintinn of the Mmtn 
or Snn respectively. The expression fr^r the dinrnid tide is of the 
form, — 

D=M sin 2^ cos (m ) + S sin 2<r cos (S) (2.) 
Where ;^=Moou*« declination. 
0"= Sun's declinntinn, 
iw^Aii angle ihat goes through all its chfvngcs iti n 

lunar day. 
^=An angle that goes through all it>* changes in a 
s<»lar day. 



3 STOK£S.^rPENt>TJI.tnr OBS&E7ATION8. 

At the time of equinox o-s^O, and hence the 48-hotir observation, 
if made at this time, and also when fi=0, would show the non- 
existence of a diurnal tide, although them might be really a large 
one. The form of equation (2.) ^dws the reason for directing the 
observations to be made when the Moon's declination is great. 

As a rule the diurnal tide is of considerable amount both lunar 
and solar, in all the branches of the Davis' Strait tidal wave ; and 
in some cases the solar diurnal tide is actually greater than the 
lunar diurnal tide. 

in. — General Rules vob Tidal Observations. 

Much valuable time has been oflen misspent on tidal observa- 
tions of little value, and great disappointment felt at the small 
results produced by most laborious and carefully conducted 
observations ; whereas at other stations, a simple month's obser- 
vations properly made have given results of great value, although 
the observations themselves did not cost one-tenth part of ti^e 
labour of other observations which gave but little result. 

I offer the following suggestions ror tidal observations made for 
a lengthened period. 

1. Hourly observations of height should be made for one month 
at the times of solstice and equinox. 

2. At the intervening periods, in order to save the labour of 
the observers as much as possible, it is recommended (instead of 
noting the time and height of high and low water each day) that 
the height of the tide should be registered every four hours 
of mean solar time. This would correspond with the times of 
striking bells, which would ensure punctuality and accuracy as to 
the time of oi>servation, and the observation itself could be made 
in one minute. I should prefer observations made every four 
hours, for this reason among others, that the diurnal and semi- 
diurnal tides could bo at once separated, and discussed indepen- 
dently of each other. 

3. The times of observation must be carefully kept to, but 
whether the exact hours, or a fixed number of minutes after the 
exact hours, may be decided according to the convenience of the 
observers. 

4. Remark carefully that the times of observation must be ac- 
cording to mean solar time, not according to apparent solar time. 



3. Pendulum Observations. By Prop. Stokes, M.A., 
Sec R.S. 



It must be remembered that pendulum observations are of little 
value unless very accurately made. 

The pendulum station will of course be adjacent to the ship's 
winter quarters. It must if possible be on land, chiefly because 
the clock's rate at the time of observation must be determined by 
transits, and we have no guarantee that ice covering the sea, how- 



8TOKK.S, — ^rEKOULUM OBSEUt^ATlONS. 



upparenlly firm, may not be siibjcfct to small motions in 
azimulli, which would vitiute the trausitsi. 

Clonr weather shoiiM he cho&on for the observations, thttt 
traositt) niaj be obs*»rved. 

The observers iire assumed to he already acquainted witli the 
^TOode of milking pendohira observaliorjs, and therefore it will only 
|.be iiece»ftury to mention florae prt^cautions. 

It is recommended that great care be taken n» to the mode of 
nmimiting the l>right patch on the clock-peodulum. Sir George 
iry found a gold-leaf surface of an oblique section of a cylinder 
|»it»je*.'ting from the bob towards the obe<'i'ver to be beat. The 
li«^ht is then to be lateral, and may Ixf distant. 

As even an :iatronomie«d clock cimnot be trnsted to go for 

short intervnlfl of time with a rate equal to its mejin rate for 

24 hour^if it 18 desiiiible to take a neries of conseciitivo swings 

»*xfentling over 24 hours, which would have the further mlvanfage 

' Tiiean temperature of the j>entlulnm would more accurately 

i lid to the mean indicjvtion of tlie thei*momt'ters. The 

iutt^ chosen for commencemeDt should he about the middle of the 

De most favourable for transits. As a awing may t>o expected 

last about four honi'H, and it is suflBeient to observe two or three 

coincidence* at the l>eginning and end of each swing, the observer 

rould liave time enough to take transmits and to rest in the intervals 

^tweeri obser\ing coincidences. The observer roust rememlx»r, 

lowever, tliat he h responsible for tho number of coincidenceg 

lilt have t^kken place, and therefore he would do well to lake at 

t, or in preliminary triHls, one or two intermediate coincidences, 

lerely m counters not intended for reduction, and not le-ave off 

lis practice till he hag convinced himself that it may be safely 

llwcnscd with. 

In oliijer>ing coincidences the observer must, of course, register 
orh the di«ippearance and the reappearance of the mark. But 
it it* somewhat perplexing to observe and register four events 
rhieh succ<;e<l one another at inttn'vals of a few sec'ou<li*, namely, 
two dis^ippea ranees (thoso of the right and left edges of the 
t) and the two reiippearances, the ohser\er ( unless he can 
mghly depend upon himself to i*ecord the four events without 
ision) ij* advified to he careful in tlie adjustment of the nuu'k 
id <liaphrugm, so as lo secure the two disappearances or the 
reappi'iLraneeH taking place on ccmBt^'Utivc seconds even when 
ptiudulum is ^twinging in the smalle^^t arc that will be observed 
b, in which cajH* it will, of courne, suffice to observe one 
liiappearanco and one reappearance for each coincidence. 
The barometer aud the themiometers hung near the pendulum 
hnbouhl be read :it the beginning jind end of each swing. Shouhl 
lie much variation of temperature, the thermometers should 
iC »> ' led times once or uftener during the ^wing. It 

lie I ' d that what we want to know is, not the exact 

a the moment of coincidence, but the mean tempora- 
lis* Hwhig. 
n oiiii tti tbe hwing-*, or, if more convenient, in a preliminary or 
iuli#equent sp<.eiitl swing taken for this sole object, and in wliich 



10 BOSCOa — METEOBIC DUST IN SNOW. 

coincidences need not be attended to, the arc should be carefully 
observed fire or six times distributed over the swing, or, which 
would probably be found more accurate, the clock times should be 
noted when the arc attains definite values, beginning with an arc 
slightly greater than the greatest used for coincidences, and going 
on till it is reduced to about one-third of its initial value. The 
barometer and thermometer should be read at the same time. 
The object of this is to determine the law of decrease of the arc, 
and thereby render it possible, in the subsequent reduction of the 
observations for time, to correct for the arc without assuming that 
it decreases strictly in geometric progression. 

The g(K>graphical position, latitude especially, of the pendulum 
station must be found, and the height above the sea level. The 
geological character of the formation on which the pendulum 
observatory is built should be stated. Should it be found impracti- 
cable to erect the observatory on land, it may be buUt on the ice, 
provided there be no sensible change of level of the ice, and 
no motion of any kind, the alteration of which is not extremely 
gradual, and provided also, that means can be employed for check- 
ing the clock's rate by astronomical observations. Should the 
pendulum be swung on ice, the depth of the sea at the place must 
be measured. 

Twenty-four hours' observation with each pendulum would 
give an excellent result, provided the weather permit of a trust- 
worthy determination of the clock's rate. The days on which the 
two pendulums are swung need not be consecutive. 



4. On the Detection of Meteobic (Cosmical) Dust in the 
Snow of Abctic Regions. By Pbof. H. E. Rosooe, 
F.R.S. 

It has been shown by Nordenskiold* that pure snow collected in 
the northern regions far distant from any source of dust, contains 
small black particles left behind when clean snow is melt-ed. These 
black particles consist mainly of iron, but contain distinct quan- 
tities of cobalt, thus proving their non-terrestrial character. It 
would be very interesting to confirm these observations of the 
wide-spread depositions of fine cosmical dust by a repetition of 
the process adopted by Nordenskiold, which consisted in collecting 
a large quantity of apparently pure snow, and allowing the same 
to melt, pladng it, for this purpose on a clean sheet, spread 
out, and arranged so that the water should drain away, leaving 
the black particles on the sheet. These should then be carefully 
collected, when the greater part of the snow was melted, by placing 
the remaining snow in a bottle or glass, and allowing it to melt 
completely, when the black particles will sink to the bottom and 
the clear water can be poured oflT. Or the black particles can 



* PoggendorflPs Annalen, 161, p. 154. 



ADMM& ANP BVANa— TEBRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 11 



be brushed oflT the sheet by meana of » feather as soon ns all 

•'•-^ soQfW has melted. They must then bo carefully preserved in 

, jbe or fitoppoi-ed bottle and brought home for umilysiH. 

The 6ftme obtierver noticed tlmt the black msignetic particles 

/en? frequently seen in tbo " iirn ■* or granular ol*! snow above 

j^jrhicb geveml layers of recent snow had accumnktod ; it wotild 

tUerefore be well to look out for the black grains below the snow. 



U.— TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. 



. MEMORAin>UM on Determination of Elements and use of 
Maonetical Instruments, by Professor J. C, Adams. 
M,A, r.R,S., and Captain Evans, C.B,, RRS. 

The determination anywhere in the Arctic regions of the 
elements, by means of which the earth's magnetic force is uj^ually 
exprea#»ed [Declination, Inclination fwrl Infertsitt^) will be valu- 
able: — ^if made within the limits of former voyages, by aftbrding 
tiie meani! of determining the approximate amoant of the secular 
ehftnges by comparison with earlier obsen^ations; — if made beyond 
the limit«i of former explorations, by materially adding to our 
knowledge of the distribution of the magnetic force over the earth's 
surface, and thereby contributing towards the perfection of the 
theory of TeiTestrial magnetism. 

The multiplication of the observations to be made in the Arctic 
Expedition being so much dependent on circumstances and 
climate^ no definite suggestions can be ottered on this head ; it 
may, however, be borne in mind that the several elements al>ove 
mentiout'd muet be considered as possessing an equal importance, 
and that the value of each new atation is proportional to its 
diiftaucu from thowe where observntions have already been made. 

The Article on Terrestrial Magnetism in the Admiralty Manual 

of Scientific Enquiry^ by Sir Edward Sabine, K.C.B,, with its 

'■ T-s on the use of the principal instnunents furnished to 

lition, will be found an excellent guide for observers, 

[Kiiid bo carefully consulted. In lieu of the maps therein 

TciTed to, provisional maps of the Magnetic Elements suitable 
"to the requirements of the Expedition are appended to this memor 
modum.* 

^The instruments furniahed comprise — 
K Portable nnifilar magnetometers (in duplicate) for det-crrain- 
tng tlie obtiolute horizontal intensity at a fixed station. 
__2. Barrow's Circles (in duplicate) for determining the inclination. 
^e«o cincles are fvu*ther provided with atlditional needles for the 
• M«^etical instmctions (in duplicate) for the me of portable instrumeata 
lulapted for map:Jictical sorreyft aocl portable obtervatorios, &c. by Lieut. 
' 3. Riddell, li.A., F,Ru% 1844, aw ulso furui^he<J, 

^ 2 



12 ADAMS AND EVAKS. — TEBRE8TBIAL MAGNETISM. 

purpose of determining the total force by Dr. Lloyd's method, 
which is independent of any changes in the magnetic moments 
of the needles employed. It should be observed that the poles of 
the additional needles so furnished are never to be reversed or 
disturbed,* 

3. Azimuth compasses (in duplicate), fitted with Admiralty 
Standard circle, special needles, and levelling foot screws, for 
determining the absolute declination. The declination as determined 
by this instrument at a fixed station is to be considered as the zero 
to which the observations made with the differential declinometer 
(mentioned in the following paragraph) are to be referred. 

4. Portable declination magnetometer, for differential observa- 
tions only at a fixed station. 

6. Mr. Fox's apparatus for observing the inclination and force 
(in triplicate) for use in sledge or travelling parties. [This instru- 
ment is generally known as Fox's Circle]. 

6. Three-inch prismatic compasses (nine in number) for observ- 
ing the declination (variation of the compass), to be used by sledge 
or travelling parties. 

At winter quarters, and in an observatory established at a 
distance from the ship, so as to be free from the disturbance of hei» 
iron, it is assumed that the declination magnetometer will be firmly 
secured on its pedestal ; and pedestals or stands arranged for the 
reception of the unifilar magnetometer and Barrow's circle, at 
suitable distances apart, to avoid inter-disturbance among the 
magnets of the several instruments. The necessary observations 
jshould, if possible, then be made as follows : — 

It may be expedient frequently to determine the absolute declina- 
tion with the azimuth compass specially furnished for the purpose 
before winter darkness sets in, so that a reliable zero may be 
obtained for the differential observations of declination. From 
6 to 9 a.m., and from 4 to 6 p.m., will probably be found the best 
times for observing, on the assumption that the declination is then 
at or near the mean daily value. 

The line of detorsion of the declination magnetometor should 
be carefnlly adjusted at the outset. 

The inclination by Barrow's circle, and also the total (relative) 
force by means of Lloyd's needles to be observed once a week. 
Occasionally, it is desirable that the observations with Lloyd's 
needles should be repeated several times in the day, in order to 
find the approximate amount of the diurnal changes. 

The absolute horizontal intensity to be determined once a month, 
avoiding days of unusual disturbance as. denoted by the declination 
magnetometer. At the same time, or nearly so, observations 
should be made with Lloyd's needles employed as deflectors at 
different distances, in order to obtain absolute results, f 



* See Admiralty Manual, Appendix 2 B., p. 105. 
t See Lloyd's Treatise on Magnetism, Art. 97, p. 99. 



^ AD^IMS AND EVANS. — TETIRESTRIAL MAGNETISM. IS 

Followin«^tlK'Coui*ti*> [jarsued at Point Hiin-ow, in H.M.S. Plover 

in 18o2-4, and at Port Kenni:»dy in tlie Fux, Sir Leojx^ld 

McClint4X!k 1858-9, it m tiuticipat^'d that hourly observations 

ihf decUmuion can he continuoUMly made, and if so, tlic obser- 

ins Hhoald be imule Hi the commouuemout of eadi hour local 

time. 

On all occasions of marktMl di?Jtiirliftiice of the magnet and 
especially doriot^ the occurrence of un aurora, extniordinary obser- 
iratioDd ehoulil b»? made. If the changes are rapid and irregular, 
instead of recording the observations at statetl inter\'al8 of time, 
obwen'o the extreme readingi^ of the scaler and the times at which 
tbc magnet commences ita return movement towards an oppouit© 
extn'me,soa» to determine the extent and duration of the move- 
ments in opposite directions. 

At stations whei^ tlio stay of the ship is only of a few days 
dtimtioD, the swime observations for the absolute declination, in- 
clination, and intensity, should be nuwle, omitting the diflerentiul 
observations of declination. « 

fcOhservafwns (o he made hy Sledge or Travelling Parties. 
The appftrntus devised by Mr. R. W. Fox, F.R.S,, for observing 
nclination and force [Fox's circle] proved of such great value under 
'xceptiouai conditions in the Antarctic Mji<ifnetic Survey, performed 
in IJ.M. f*hip Erebus and Terror (1840-3) under Sir James Hosa, 
that it has been deemed expedient to fcrriish it to the present 
i^rctic Expeilition. The instrument from its coustruction, will, it 
considered, be found invaluable to tni veiling parties mi it can 
carried safely (and manipulated) imder circumstances which 
oiild be fatal to more delicate instruments. 

PiTparatory to tmvelling parties setting out from winter quarters 

or from a lixed station when absolute determinations have been 

ade) comparative observations for inclination and force, fihould 

luade with the Fox circles which accompany them, aiul the 

roe reiK'ated on return. 

Xhe conipamtive observations for inclination .ir*^ retpiisitc to 
termiue the index en-ors of the Fox ueedlcH lu^ they are not 
iniflr. The ob&enationH made with the delk'Ctors and the 
ts shoidd be sufficiently extendeil to embrace the circum- 
iices of tdl pcttjsible obin^rvations whilst travelling, so as to 
insure that no tmvclling observation be lost for want of compara- 
tive observations. Experience will soon determine when travelling 
tbe extent to whicb deflectors and weights may be conveniently 

The small prismatic compasle^ furnished for the iise of travelling 

partieH are eiclasively intended for observing the declination (or 

" ' 01 of the compass). On a^^count of the largo changes in 

1 ion, consequent on a small change of geogi-apbitral position 

la tlic regions of high latitudes which will be explored, tlieac 

observations will, as a matter of necessity, be frequently required,* 

♦ At the magnetic pole, the homontal foice vimiflhes and coafietYicu\l>j 
tbit dSreotioQ of the muguetic meridian is iudet$nuiuat^. At the geogTa.pVi\c^\ 



14 SCOTT. — METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS. 

Reference to the maps of the magnetic elements accompanyii^ 
this memorandum will show that these changes of declination do 
not arise from magnetical causes, as the direction of the neddh 
with reference to the north magnetic pole remains the same mai 
the inclination and force values remain comparatively unaltendt 
These compasses should be preserved with care, to ensure accunrtgl 
in the observations, and in aid thereof, small extra travelling ookar 
passes (fitted so as to be corrected for the declination if necessary)^ 
are furnished to perform the rougher work of the steering compiM 
for sledge parties or travellers. 'f^ 

The. several constants, index and temperature corrections m 
the various instruments have been determined at Kew and thil 
Admiralty compass observatories, and will be furnished to tllij 
Expedition. 



' IIL—METEOROLOGY. 



1. Meteorological Instructions. By Robert H. Scomi 
F,R.S., Director of the Meteorological Office. 



The meteorological observations to be made during the Arcftii 
Expedition will, in the main, be similar to those made on anj 
voyage, and accordingly the instructions for the management m 
the instruments and for taking the readings will in great measofi^ 
be identical with those furnished to observers at sea under ordi* 
nary circumstances. The latest copy of these instructions is coot' 
tained in the Report of the Conference on Maritime Meteondogj 
in 1874, of which copies are furnished to the Expedition. 

There are, however, certain points which require special noticei 
and particularly so as it is hoped that for a considerable perio< 
of time observations will be taken regularly at fixed stations or eviei 
on shore. 

Hours of Observation, — ^In Sir J. C. Ross's expedition to tKi 
Antarctic regions the observations were taken hourly, but iSti 
expedition was always at sea, so that the number of availabtt 
observers was never reduced by sledging expeditions, &c. 

It b certain that observations will be taken as fi*equently U 

practicable on the present occasion, but it must be rememberrf 

that in all cases quality of observations is of much greater impar^ 

tance than quantity^ so that if it be impossible to give corr^ 

■ — , 1- 

pole, the direction of the magnetic meridian is detenninate, but that of W 
ge<^raphical meifdian is indeterminate, erery different meridian^ as del 
by Its longitude fimn Greenwich, baring its corresponding variation cA 
compass. At all points near the geographical pole the statement of v 
variation of the compass shoold be accompanied by a statement of the loitfifc 
tude of the meridian to which the variation is referred. 



FORCJ 




INCLINE 




of Captavt 



Malbyft6on«,Lith. 



5) App 



roxin 




Adinircdfy, i'hr tki 
\ of Captajin Evar 



HsUyvl: Soiu.iitk 




SCOTT. — METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS, 15 



I bai 




I 



hourly observations, two-hourly, or in default of these four*honrly 
readings may be registered. They should always l>e at equidistant 
intervals of time. 

The logs stipplied are ruled for two-hourly observations. 

Barotneiers. — ^Tlie baronietert? *<Tipplied are of two kindi*, marine 
barometers and aneroids. The latter are supplied for use on 

d^e expeditions and for determintttiou of heights. 

The mercurial barometers luo the only barometers to be used 
for the regular obeervntiona. They should be suspended in 
some place where they will be shielded from sudden changes of 
temperature. 

The aneroids must be carefully protected from blows or faDa, 
'hich might seriously affect their action. liYhenever opportunity 
"" especially before and after theu* employment on any ser- 
vice, c. y., an exploring expedition, the aneroids used should 
be most carefully compared with the mercurial barometer*i, giving 
the temperatures nt each comparison, and the results of such com- 
poriftODB most careliilly notod in the log. 

It may, perhaps, not be out of place to remark that the omission 

make such entries in the logs of comparison of bai*ometers, &e., 

d of the distinguishing marks and numbers on the instruments 
actually used* &c., will most seriously depreciate the scientific value 
of the i*egiater8 though otherwise most carefully kept. 

Temperature. — Th<* thermometers should be suspended in some 
position where they will show the true temperature of the open 
air, and will be uflected as little as i>osHible by the warmth of the 
ship. For this rettson, while the Expedition is in winter 
quarleri*, they should if poeiiible be placed in an obsei*vatory at 
some distance from the ship. 

Two thermometer screens are supplied for these observations, 
besides the ordinary small screens for use on board ship. Tliey 
should be erected on posts, so that the bottom of the screen «hoidd 
be at a level of 4 feet above the surlace of the s^now ; but, 
cfjurse, experience will alone show whether a height of 4 feet aboi 
the »uow is sufficient. 

The screens are furnished with doors at the back a« well aa in 
front, si» as to allow of the reception of several '^ (ers, 

which may thus be plact^l back to back. 

If any rime is deposited on the instrumeiil** it shoWd U' care- 
fully removed some time (if feasible about half au btfur ), betore the 
obaervatiou. 

The maximum and minimum ihermometew should be placed in 
tlw «crc<:^n and reiul regularly at the latest d!>8er\ ing hour m the 

eDing, if not at midnight. 

In addition other thermometerB, 1>|J#A ordinary and registering, 
HQpplied for various experiniepfl. 

As regards the [locket tlu rtfomet^^rfl, it will bo found a very 
ffood phm, in order to hs< ertoin sp-e^liiy the true temperature of 
5<P MH ff» pass a etronff f^tiifig through the hole at the top of the 
,j mj swing the fbermometer i-ound the head for about 



16 SCOTT. — METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS. 

By this method, even in full sunshine, a very close approxima- 
tion to the true temperature of the air may be made. 

Radiation. — The radiation thermometers should be placed in the 
clips sent with them, and attached to an upright post at the 
height of 4 feet above the ground. Alongside of the black bulb 
thermometer in vacuo should be placed a bright bulb thermometer 
also in vacuo, which should be read at the same time, so as to 
obtain a measure of the radiation by the difference between the 
simultaneous readings of the two instruments. 

It will further be interesting to erect a black board, say 2 
feet square, at a level of 4 feet from the ground, and to place 
a black bulb in vacuo a few inches above this board, which will 
thus intercept all heat radiated from the ground. 

For terrestrial radiation, a board about 2 feet square should 
be placed upon the ground, its upper surface being fully exposed 
to the sky. A slight groove in the board should mark the place 
where the bulb of the thermometer, a minimum thcimometer, 
should be placed. 

Hygrometry, — Two hair hygrometers are supplied, which 
should be erected in the thermometer screen. They should be 
read at the same hour as the ordinary instruments. 

The principle of these instruments is as follows, the hygrome- 
trical condition of the air is given by the elongation or contraction 
of a hair, according as the air is moist or dry. 

They bear two scales on the same arc. 

The lower scale (Saussure's) divided into equal parts — 100 
gives the so-called scale of absolute humidity ranging from per- 
roct dryness to saturation. The upper scale, divided into unequal 
parts, — 100 gives the relative humidity in per-centages. The 
upper scale is that which is alone to be used. 

The following is the mode of setting the instrument ; inasmuch 
as it easily gets out of adjustment in carriage, the following rules 
are to be observed : On a day of heavy rain or thick fog, when the 
air is perfectly saturated with moisture, the screw at the top is to 
be turned gently until the index comes to stand at 100 on the 
scale. If perfect saturation does not occur, the index should be 
brought by tuming the screw to the point on the scale which gives 
the per-centage of relative humidity shown by careful observation 
of the wet «md dry bulb hygrometer. 

The instruiaent is to be suspended at some little distance, say 
4 inches, in front of the upright to which it is attached. When 
the instrument has teen originally set to be correct at 100 or at any 
definite degree of relative humidity, its indications should be 
carefully checked for & few days, and the position of the index 
corrected by means of th% screw, when it will soon attain the 
requisite degree of consistency in its behaviour. 

The regulations for observinj^ the instrument, as in force at the 
Russian stations, where hair hygrometers are generally in use in 
winter, are as follows : Whenever t^ temperature is above 32°, 
the hygrometrical observations entered in the register, are to be 
reconled by means of the wet and dry bul\» hygrometer exclusively^ 
and the degree of humidity given in the Tables (Glaisher's 5th 



SCOTT. — METEOROLOGICAL IXSTRl'CTIoyi?. 



17 



Edition) for each obscrvatuin is lo be compared witli the rondmg 
of the liair hTgrometcr tuken at the same time wliich should he 

itered in the " Remarks*' spac<». The mean of these observutiojis 
a few weeks wheD the teroj)erature is above 32 ' is to bo taken, 
and thi^rehy the correction for the reiMiinj^s of the hair hygro- 
meter, from time to time, is to be odccrt-uined. 

The following la an inst-ance :— 



He&Q degree of Huroiditj hy Wet 
and Dry Bulb Hygrometer. 
73. 



Me&D Rending of U»ur 

Hygrometer. 

77. 



tOj 

H 



oofTOCtioti to all readings of the hair hygrometer is accordingly' 
-4. 

Erery possible opportunity must be taken at first to determine 
tbo^ corrections far the hair hygrometerj inaemnch as it is not 
to Ix? expected that during the severe weather many such oppor- 
tunities will occur. Whenever the Hair Hygrometer is readjusted, 
» note to that effect should be inserted in the register. It will he 
seen from the above that the object of reading the two different 
eUmcts of instruments above 32^, is to determine a correction for 
the hair hygrometer while the wet and dry bulb themometer is 
acting properly. For readings below 32", the hair hygrometer 
may l>e »uppQS<^d to be a more truj^tworthy instrument than the 
wet and dry bulb hygrometer, but both inatruments sbouhl be read 
together, and their indications entered in the iiegiater, as thereby 
very valuable experience of the comparative utility of the two 
inBtruoients in the Arctic regions may be gained. 

In ftddition a pair uf mercurial thermometers are to be mounted as 
a dry and wet bulb hygrometer. The grciitest aire will be requisite 
ensure that these observations are correct when the tempera- 
re 18 below 32"'. Inasmuch as it is to l>e exi)ectcM! that for a 
long period the moii^tui'e on the wet bull> will be fiozen, it will be 
«lM»oes«iry to )^ee that the muslin covering of the bulb is always 
proridcd with a very (kin coating of ice. This is effected by 
moii^ttining it with pure water nt least once a day, and not less 
tluin half an hour before an obitervatiorj. The moisture on the 
bulb will freeze at once, and the film of ice so formed will 
in moht cases last for 24 hours, inasmuch as at the very low 
tempenUurea which will probably prevail the evaporation from ico 
iM ravj slight. 

Care should be taken that the water employed is always fresh 
water ; no nddition of spirit or of salt, in order to lower itti freeaiing 
tnt, h on any account to be admitted. 

In CAse of severe cold setting in, i.e., of temperatures below 
2CP F., it will be best to tjike in the mercurial thennomotors and 
make all the observations with sf>irit thermometers, but it shotdd 
vtr be forgotten that spirit thermometers are very deceptive, 
itf*^ ^reat care is taken to keep them in order. They should 
r 1 if the spirit column be broken in nny part by bubbles 

oi I* d by coiidenaation of spirit at the top of the tube, 

Hind. — In ruMitiou lo the ordinary observations of the es^timated 
darection nnd foJr« of the wind, un electrical aneiSLOmoter is 



18 SOOTT. — ^METEOBOLOGIOAL INSTBUCTIONS. 

supplied, which should be erected on a high pole, or on the mast- 
head when the ship is in winter quarters. The description of this 
instrument and its management and registration will be supplied 
with it. 

Two small anemometers are also supplied ; these must be read 
at least once daUy. 

Clouds. — The directions for observing clouds are contained 
in the ordinary Instructions for Observers at Sea, but there are 
certain observations of much interest which may be made on clouds 
as indicating the motion of upper currents in the atmosphere. 
■ It is therefore of importance that, whenever possible, the du*ec- 
tion and apparent rate of motion of the different strata of clouds 
should be recorded, whether these agree with the wind at the 
sur&ce of the earth or not 

There is especial interest in the question of the motion of the 
upper clouds near the region of greatest cold, as it is believed by 
most meteorologists that these upper currents flow towards the 
districts of great cold, where the air descends to the surface of the 
earth. 

Hydrometears or Weather Observations^ — These should be re- 
corded as directed in the ''Instructions in the Use of Meteorological 
Instruments," of which copies are supplied to the Expedition. 

As regards the Aurora, Prof. Stokes has tonished certain notes 
which are appended to these instructions. The greatest care 
should be taken to note and register the most striking particulars 
as to its appearance and modifications, especially as to its manifes- 
tations in any quarter as regards the existence of open water, &c., 
in that direction. The subject of magnetic observations or of 
spectroscopic examination of the Aurora does not fail within the 
scope of meteorological observations. 

As regards Halos, Parhelia, and Paraselene, &c., the variety in 
these appearances is so great that no definite rules can be laid 
down for observing them. The phenomena observed should be 
carefully sketched, and wherever possible measurements should bo 
taken by sextant. 

In conclusion, the attention of the observers should be specially 
directed to the fact that many of the storms which pass over the 
extreme north of Europe are connected with areas of barometrical 
depitission which follow tracks lying within the Arctic Circle ; they 
have been traced almost wherever the whaling and sealing ships 
have advanced between Spitzbergen and Greenland, and, there is 
reason to believe that they will be observed at the head of Smith 
Sound also. 

It will therefore be a matter of the greatest interest to notice 
whether or not these areas of barometrical depression appear to 
be formed near the spot where the Expedition is in winter 
quarters. 

At all times of sudden barometrical oscillations the observations 
should be made as frequently as possible, as by this means it may 
be rendered possible to ascertain whether the centre of the disturb- 
uce has passed north or south of the ship. 



STOKES. — AURORAL OBSERVATIONS. 



19 



a copy of Capt. Hofimeyer's weather charts is supplied, and it 
will be evident from an inspection of those charts of what ira- 
liccarate observations in high latitudes will be for the 
it study of the weather. of Europe during the period 
rimhonused by the Mtay oi the Exiiedition in the Arctic seas. 



2. Note on Auroral Observations, 

Sea KB. 



By Prof, Stokes, 



frequency of the Auroni in Arctic regions affords peculiar 

itics for the Htudy of the general features of the pheno- 

as in case the obiter ver thinks he has {jerceived any 

% he will probably soon and repeatedly have opportunities of 

^comfroniing it with observation. The following [joints are worthy 

attention. 

Strecnners. — It is well known that, at least a« a rule, the 
[flts^eamers are parallel to the dipping-needle, as is inferred from the 
observation that they form arcs of great circles passing through 
tlhe magnetic zenith. It has been stated, however, that they have 
pometime^ l>een seen curved. Should anything' of this kind be 
noticed, the observer ought to note the circnmstances most care- 
fully. He yhould notice particularly whether it is one and the 
atme streointir that i» curved, or whether the curvature is apparent 
^only, and ari^eM fit)ni the circumstance that a number of short, 
Btraight stri^amers .start from ba'?e.H eo arranged that the luminosity 
».H a wlitdt" pif sifuls tb(^ form of n cuned band. 

Have the Htreamerd any lateral motion, uud if m, is it from 
right to lefr or left to right, or sometimes one and sometimes the 
other, aceoi'ding to the quarter of the heavens in which the 
btreanier is been, or other circumstances ? Agjiin, if there be 
lateral motion, is it that the individual streamers move sideways, 
or that frciih streameri* arise to one side of the former, or partly 
the one and paitly the other ? Do streamers, or dbes some por- 
tion of a system of sti'eamers, appear to have any uniform relation 
to clouds, Bs if they .^sprang from them ? Can Htars be t*een imme- 
^'dintcly under the basse of streamers ? Do streamers ap|>ear to have 
uny definite relation to mountains ? Arc they over .swn Ix^tween 
tbc observer and a mountain, so as to iippear to be projected 
on it ? This or any other indication of a low origin ought to Ijq 
mo^f ' ' -eribed. 

- form a corona, the character of it should l>e 
ibod. 
^Aurorat (trchts, — Are arches always perpendicular to the 
meridiau ? If incomplete, do tlicy grow laterally, 
iUHl \S m^\n whiit manner, and towards which side ? Do they 
[iJwayK nuive from north (magnelic) to {*outh, and if so, is it 
\hf a soiitherly motion of the Individual siR^imerst, or by new 
plmiiniTs springing op to the south of the old ones? What (by 
tetimation, or by reference to known stars) may be the breadth of 
tbe arch in different positions in its progress ? Do archer appear 
to be nothing but congeriee of streamers, or to have au indepen- 



20 TTHOMSON. — ATMOSPHEBIC ELECTRICITY. 

dent existence ? What relation, if any, have they to clouds ; and 
if related, to what kind of clouds are they related ? 

PulsaHons, — ^Do pulsations travel in any invariable direction ? 
What time do they take to get from one part of the heavens to 
another ? Are they running sheets of continuous light, or fixed 
patches which become luminous, or more luminous, in rapid suc- 
cession ; and if patches, do these appear to be foreshortened 
streamers ? Are the same patches luminous in successive pulsa- 
tions? 

Sounds (?) — ^As some have suspected the Aurora to be accom- 
panied by sound, the observer's attention should be directed to 
this question when an Aurora is seen during a calm. If sound be 
suspected, the observer should endeavour by changing his posi- 
tion, brushing off spicules of ice from the neighbourhood of his 
ears, his whiskers, &c., to ascertain whether it can be referred to 
the action of such wind as there is on some part of his dress or 
person. If it should clearly appear that it is not referable to the 
wind, then the circumstances of its occurrence, its character, its 
relation (if any) to bursts of light, should be most carefully 
noted. 

These questions are proposed merely to lead the observer to 
direct his attention to various features of the phenomenon. 
Answers are ' not demanded, except in such cases as definite 
answers can be given ; and the observer should keep his attention 
alive to observe and regard any other features which may appear 
to be of interest It is desirable that drawings should be made of 
remarkable displays. 

.Observations with Sir William Thomson's electrometer would 
be very interesting in connexion with the Aurora, especially a 
comparison of the readings before, during, and after a passage of 
the Aurora across the zenith. 



IV.— ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY. 



1. Instructions for the Observation of Atmospheric 
Electricity. By Professor Sir William Thomson, 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



The instrument to be used is the portable electrometer described 
in Sir Wm. Thomson's reprint of " Papers on Electrostatics and 
Magnetism," §§ 368-378.* Full directions for keeping the instru- 
ment in order, preparing it for use, and using it to make observa- 
tions of atmospheric electricity, are to be found in sections 372- 
376; these are summarized in the following short practical 
rules: — 

I, The instrument having been received from the maker witli 
the inner surface of the glass, and all the metallic surfaces within, 

* A copy of this book has been sent by the author for the use of the officer 
or officers to whom the observatioiis of atmospheric dectrioity are committed. 



ruOMSON. — ATMOSPITERTO ELECTRICltY.* 



21 



eleim and free from dust or libres, and the pumice dry* To pre* 
pare it for ose : 

(I.) R^ftnove from thu top the cover carrying the pumice. 
Drop upon the pumice a small quantity of the prepared sulphuric 
acid sopplied with the instmment, distributing it as well as may 
be over the whole surface of the stone. There ought not to Ixs 
so much acid as to show almost any visible appearance of moisture 
wheo once it has soaketl into the puraice* Replace the cover 
without delay, and screw it firmly in its proper position, and 
then leave tije instrument for half an Iiour or an hour, or any 
longer time that may be convenient to allow the inner surface of 
the glass to be well driwl through the drying effect of the acidu- 
|M6d pumice on the air within, 

^ (2/j Turn the micrometer screw till the reading is 2,000, 
(There are 100 divisions on the circle which turns with the screw 
OQ the top outside, und the numbers on the vertical scale inside 
show full turns of the screw. Thua eiich division on the vertical 
scale inside corresponds to 100 divisions on the circle ; and 20 
on the vertical scale is read " 2,000.") Introduce the charging rod 
and give a charge of negative electricity by means of the small 
electrophorus which accompanies the instrument. When enongh 
Jttft been given to bring the hair a little below the middle of the 

Sifr-betweon the black dots, give no more charge; but remove 
-dttTiging rod and clone the aperture immediately. If now the 
hair h 8till seen a little below the middle of the space between the 
black dotij, turn the screw head in 8uch a direction as to raise the 
attracting disC} and so diminish the attraction tiO the hair is exactly 
midwuy between the dots. Watch the instrument for a Cew minutes, 
and if the hair is seen to rise, as it generally will (because of the 
electricity which hiis been given* spreading o\er the inner surface 
of the ghiss), turn the micrometer screw in the direction to lower 
tbn attracting plate, ao as to keep the hair midway between the 
dotH. 

(3.) The insulation will generally improve for several hours, and 
8om**times for several days, after the inBtrument is lii*st charged. 
Th«? instruDjent may be consideretl to be in a satisfactury state if 
the earth residing does not tliminish by more than 30 divisions per 
24 bonrn. If the maker has been fortunate nith ix'spect to the 
quality of the substance of the glass jar, the caith rea«ling may not 
ink by more than 30 divisions per week, when the pumice is 
tuificieotly moistened with ^t^ong and pure suljihuric iicid. Re- 
ohftTge with neg:ative electricity occasionally eo us to keep the 
earth rea<ling between 1,000 and 2,tXX), 

IJ. To keep the instrument in order. Watch the pumice cai-e- 
J|0y, Ic»oking at it every day. If it begius to look inoi^it, remove 
Hb cover, take out the screws hoUling the loa<l cn[>, remove thti 
pvnice and «lry it on a shovel over the galley fire. When cotjl put 
|irnpiitMHj sulphuric acid on it, rephice it in the inatrumeut, and re- 
i<l6Ctrtfy accorfling to No. I, 

Krtfr h'firr the pumice unwaiched^ in the instrumefU^ for as 
i^m^ an a week. WiiEX the instrumknt is to bk out of use 

FiHi A WKKK UU M>240KIt TAKK THE PUMICB OUT OP IT. 



22 THOMSON. — ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY. 

m. To use the portable electrometer for observing atmospheric 
electricity : 

(1.) The place of observation, if on board ship, must be as far 
removed from spars and rigging as possible. In a sailing ship or 
rigged steamer the best position for the electrometer generally is 
over the weather quarter when under way, or anywhere a few feet 
above the tafierel when at anchor. On shore or on the ice a 
position not less than 20 yards from any prominent object (such 
as a hut or a rock or mass of ice or ship), standing up to. any 
considerable height above the general level, should be chosen. 
Whether on boaxd ship or in an open boat or on shore or on the 
ice, the electrometer may be held by the observer in his left hand 
while he is making an observation ; but a fixed stand, whoi con- 
veniently to be had, is to be preferred, unless in the case of making 
observations from an open boat. 

(2.) To make an observation in ordinary drcumstances the 
observer stands upright and holds or places the electrometer in a 
position about five feet above the ground (or place on which he 
stands), so as to bring the hair and two black dots about level with 
his eye. The umbrella of the principal electrode being doton to begin 
with (and so keeping metallic connection between the principal 
electrode and the metallic case of the instrument), the observer 
commences by taking an " earth reading." * The steel wire, with 
a match stuck on its point, being in position on the principal elec- 
trode, the match is then lighted, the umbrella lifted, and the 
micrometer screw turned so as to keep the hair in the middle 
between the black dots. After the umbrella has been up and the 
match lighted for 20 seconds or half a minute, a reading may be 
taken and recorded, called an << air reading." A single such read- 
ing constitutes a valuable observation. But a series of readings 
taken at intervals of a quarter of a minute, or half a minute, or at 
moments of maximum or minimum electrification during the course 
of two or three minutes, the match burning all the time, is prefer- 
able. In conclusion, remove the match If it is not all burned 
away, lower the umbrella home, and take an earth reading. 

(3.) The electric potential of the air at the point of the burning 
match is found by subtracting the earth reading fix>m the air read- 
ing at any instant When the air reading is less than the earth 
reading the air potential is negative, and is to be recorded as the 
diiFerence between the earth lading and the air reading with the 
sign » prefixed. The earth reading may be generally taken as 
the mean between the initial and fiboal earth readings. But the 
actual earth readings and air readings ought all to be recorded 
carefiilly, and the full record kept. 

(4.) Note and record the wind at the time of ^each observation, 
also the character of the weather. 

IV. Observations to be made : 

(1.) At the commencement of the Expedition, in the course 
of the northward voyage, observations of atmospheric electricity 



* Electrostatics and Magaetism, § 375. 



THOMSOX. — ATMOSPITERIO ELECTRICITY. 



23 



to be taken regdarly three or four times a dsj* also 
ly during the night to give thn observer some practice in 
use of a lantern for residing the divisions on the circle and of 
[the vertical scale, 

) When stationary in winder quarters observations should be 

three times a day at intervals of six hours ; for example* at 

„ 2 p.m., and 8 p.m., or at 7.30 a,m», 1.30 p,m., and 7.30 p,m, 

Uever times are most convenient may be chosen provided they 

fie|}amted by intervals of six hours. 

(3,y It is very desirable that hourly observatioiiB should be 
if only for a few days, iu winter and in gumnaer. If possible 
;ement6 to do so at least for six consecutive days in winter, 
Uit six consecutive days in summer should be made. The re- 
I will be very interesting as showing whether there is a diurnal 
semi-ditirDal period in either the Arctic winter or summer, 
we know there ia at every time of yeai* in places outside the 
Arctic circle. 

(4.) Make occasionally special observations when there is any- 
ling pecidinr in the weather, especially with reference to wind. 
V. Specifd precautions : 

(1.) In the Arctic climate more care may be necessary than in 

ordinary climates as to earth connections. Therefore put a piece 

of metal on the stand on which the electrometer is placed during 

observation on board ship, and keep this in metallic communi- 

ion with the ship's coppers or lightning conductors. If the 

rometer ia held in the hand with or without a glove, a fine 

ought to be tied round the hmss projection which carries the 

»«, or otherwise attached to the outer case of the electrometer, 

id by this wire sufficient connection maintained with the earth 

•ing an observation. The connection will probably be sufficient 

short length of the wire is laid on the ico and the observer 

on it. Enough, however, is not yet known as to electric 

idnctivity of iee : and to make sure it mat/ be necessary to have 

wire or chain let down to the water through a hole in the ice, 

id metallic connection kept up by a fine wire U^tween this and 

the electrometer case during an observation* 

(2.) The observer's cap (particularly if of fur) and his woollen 
lotbing. and even his hair it" not completely covere<l by his cap, 
nil be apt in the Arctic climate to become electritied by the slightest 
jtion, and so to give false results when the object to be observed 
atmospheric electricity. A tin foil cover for cap and arms, 
in metallic communication by a fine wire with the hand or 
applied to the case of the electrometer or to the micrometer 
head, should therefore bo used by the observer (tind aesis- 
if he has an assistant to carry lanthom, or for any other 
irpoKc), unless he has made sure that there is no sensible dis- 
'hanco from those causes, without the proi-aution. 

Instruments, stores, and appliances for observation of atmo- 
electricity sent with the Expedition : 
IVo portable electrometers, Nos. 35 and 36, each with one 
wire for carrying mateh, one charging rod, and one electro- 
charging the jar. 



24 STOKES. — SPECTROeCOPIC OBSERTATIOyS. 

2. Six spare steel wires (three to go whh eaefa mstrament). 

3. Sapplj of nuoches readj made. (The slower the mmtdi 
bams, the better. If thoee supplied burn too hetj steep them in 
water and dry them again.) 

4. White blotting paper and nitrate of lead to make more matches 
when wanted. (Moisten the paper with weak j^ntioo of nitrate 
of lead, and roll into matches with thin paste made with a rerj 
little nitrate of lead in the water.) 

5. Six spare pumices (three for each electromeCer); India rubber 
bands to secure pumice in lead case. 

6. Eight small stoppered bottles of prepared sulphuric acid 
(four for each electrometer). 

7. Tin foil and fine wire. 



v.— OPTICS. 



1. Spectroscopic Observatioxs. By Prof. G. O. STOKEi, 

SecRS. 



(1.) Observations of the Spectbum of the Srx with a view to 
Terrestrial Absorption. 

It has long been known that when the Sun is near the horizon 
additional lines and bands are seen in its spectrum, which are 
either not observed when the Sun is high, or are found to be 
much narrower. These are referrible to terrestrial absorption, 
and maps have been made of them by Brewster and Gladstone, 

o 

bj Angstrom, and bj Hennessey, which are sent with the Expedi- 
tion. Recent researches appear to show that the greater part at 
any rate of these additional lines are due to water}- vapour, but it 
is still a question whether some of them may not be due to some 
other constituent of the earth's atmosphere, to some substance 
present in the atmosphere in such minute quantity as to elude 
chemical tests. 

In the extreme cold of the Arctic regions the quantity of 
water present in the elastic state iu the atmosphere must be com- 
paratively small, and consequently the absorption due to aqueous 
vapour at a given small altitude of the Sun, might be expected to 
be considerably reduced as compared with what is observed in 
warmer, and especially in tropical countries ; and, as we have no 
reason to nuppoee that the other absorbing constituent or conn 
stitneots of the atmosphere, if such there be, would be similarly . 
affected iiy cold, the comparison of the absorption- spectrum 
obtained in Arctic countries with that observed in more temperate 
climates might afford means of detecting bands of absorption, if 
such there be, of other than aqueous origin, and thereby perhaps, 
by Hubseciuent rescai'chcR at home, of leading to the discovery of 
some other constituent of the atmosphere present in quantity too 
minute to admit of direct detection. Besides, the length of time that 



ftTOKE8. — SPECTROSCOPIC OR8ER%^ATION8, 



25 



the Son remains at a low aUiiiide every day shortly aftei- he makps 
his HirBi appearance in the spring allbnla time for more deliJterate 
ub»crvntion9 than can be made during the few minutes he reniaina 
tU a Unr altitude in places in comparatively low latitudes^. 

The Expedilion will be furnished with a spectroscope of high 
clispcrsioti, and with maps oF the spectrum showing the additional 
blinds seen wlien the Sun is low. 

The bej^t time for observation will be in the spring, shortly 
after the Hrst apjieamnce of tho Sun, or, if circum.Htanees sh<juhl 
hUow^iu the autumn, shortly before be disappears for the winter, 
Inasmuch as in either case the Sun wil! remain for a comparatively 
long time at a very low altitude. 

As the appearjiiico of the sjKsctrum changes a good deal with 
llie degree of detail in which it is seen, the s(H^ctrum should, in a 
pirliminary iriid, Ije compared with the nmpH, uud that map more 
e^jH'dally worked with which best matcbea the object. The 
jMJwer of the spectroscope might evou be reduced by the removal 
of one or two of the prisms, if a better match a?* to degree of 
detail can thus be obtained. 

For the actual observations, days should be chosen when the 
Sun ie clear down to the horizon. The object is to T>e coin- 
pju-f^d with the map or amps selected, going regulnrly tlirough a 
portion of the spectrum each day as time pernuts, and making 
memoranda of the accordance or otherwise of the object with the 
map, Meiisuremenfi* need not in general be taken, except when 
the idetitiHention of a line is doubtful. Should the relative 
strength of any terrestrial line as compared witli its fellowa appear 
diMtinctly ditferent in the object from what it is in the map, such 
line should be marked for re-exam inatiou. 

The lines so marked should subsequently be re-examined at 
vwiouH low aUitud<*8 of the Sun. It is to be remembere<l that 
the various lines or b.inds of a!)sorption as seen uuder otherwise 
gfivcn conditions and at a given place, do not all increase in the 
same proportion it.s the Sun ap[)roaches the horizon ; so that the 
apparent abnormal strength of any particular lino as compared 
with it» ftdlows wliich had been noted iu the fir^t instance mit/ht 
be due to its having been seen at a diflerent altitude of the Suu 
ftxim that to which the map relates. 

TJie probability of the discrepancy between the object and 
th« miip being thus expUwiblc is to be judge<l of by the result of 
the re-examination. Should it appear at all |irobable that the 
nwult is not thus to be exjilained, the line should be noted by 
' <• to the map, or if its identification should hv at all 
U it** ilistaoccH from two neighbouring easily idontKiablc 
luii-A Tight and left of it should I»e measured, and its i.)rea<lth 
t^i^aiiureii or CHtimatcd with reference to some other line, the 
tipp«*arance of which iigrt-es with its representation in the map. 

glwHt ld auy of the lines, even after the re-examinatioit remain 
^^^Hftiy diitei-epant fi-om the map, it would be well, if leisure 
^H^Flo exiuuiue them again further on in the dea^^on under 
^^mnt condition!) of temperature, directton of wind, ^., and 
1Mb wlietht*r any eliango ia olrHtuved. 

3«tf2. c 



26 STOKES. — SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 

(2.) Spbcteum of the Attboba. 

The spectrom of the aurora contains a well-known conspicuooB 
bright line in the yellowish-green, which has been accurately 
observed. There are also other bright lines of greater refirangi- 
bility, the determination of the positions of which is more difficult 
account of their ^intness, and there are also one or more lines in 
the red in red auroras. 

Advantage should be taken of an unusually brieht display to 
determine the position of the fainter lines. That of the brightest 
line, though well known, should be measured at the same time to 
control the observations. The character of the lines (i.e., whether 
they are strictly lines, showing images of the apparent breadth 
of the slit, or narrow bands, sl^rply defined or shaded off) should 
also be stated. 

Sometimes a faint gleam of light is seen at night in the sky, 
the origin of which (supposed from the presence of clouds) is 
doubtful. A spectroscope of the roughest description may in 
such cases be usefully employed to determine wheUier the light 
is auroral or not, as in the former case, the auroral origin is 
detected by the chief bright line. The observer may thus be led 
to be on the look out for a display which otherwise might have 
been missed. 

It has been said, however, that the auroral light does not in all 
cases exhibit bright lines, but sometimes, at least in the eastern 
and western arcn of the aurora, shows a continuous spectrum. 
This statement should be confronted with observation, special 
care being taken that the auroral light be not confounded with 
light which, though seen in the same direction, is of a differiont 
origin, such, for example, as light from a bank of haze illuminated 
by the moon. 

Sir £dward Sabine once observed an aiuroral arch to one side 
(say north) of the ship, which was in darkness. Presently the 
arch could no longer be seen, but there was a general difiuae 
light so that a man at the mast head could be seen. Later still 
the ship was again in darkness, and an auroral arch was seen to 
the south. 

Should anything of the kind be observed, the whole of the 
circumstances ought to be carefully noted, and the spectroscope 
applied to the diffuse light. 



2. Polarisation op Light. By W. Spqttiswoode, M.A., 
LL.D., Treas. R.S. 



The &ct of atmospheric polarisation, and the laws which regulate 
it, are already well known. And it is therefore not probable that 
observations upon it, although made under somewhat unusual 
circumstauces, will odd materially to our knowledge. At the same 
time, as the instruments are extremely portable, and the observa- 



ISWOODE. — POLARISATION OF LTOBT. 



27 



I 
I 



iioiis reidilj made, it appeurd quit^ worth while to rep^itt some of 
tlietu. 

The main features of polnrisation in light from the sky are de- 
scilibed io the book which accompanies the instruments ; and they 
oliseryed with n Nicol's prifjm and biqtiJirtz, with n Savnrt*s 
M«»ofj«*, w ereti better with a Nicol^ or n doiible'image prism, 
it that the polana&tion is due to the scattering 
of ^>hnles of water suspended m thr nrraoj^phere 

in be regsirded | 

ti' I fact ; and un 

dir f eric c<»ii<li^' ! ' [table of i«*in«^ hiKinght to bear 

on ■ ■ ^ I wiJl be vfjiujih'ir. 

It h* known that the light coming from a minbow is pohirtsed. 
It will be worth while to examine whether the same is the case 
with that from Aer/ar, &c. If this be so, observe the positions of 
IheNicoV or double- image prism, in which the light i^ extinguished 
(or most enfeebled) at different part? of the phenomenon. 

' n suggested that the Aurora^ inasmuch as it presents 

- character, nuiy afford traces o(^ poliirisation. Having 

that the stria of the electric discharge in 
1 lis no such feature, the probability of the sug- 
gestion may be doubted. But it will still be wortli while to put 
the qu^tion to an experimental test. 

If traces of pobmsation be detected, it must not nt once be 
condttded that the light of the Aurora is polarised ; for the 
Aurora may be seen on the background of a sky iliumimited by 
the moon, or by the sun, if not too far below the horizon, and 
the light from either of these sources is, in general, more or less 
|Jolari^' ' ' , if the light of the Aurora be suspected to 

Im pol lariseope should be directed to an adjacent 

portion ui cleur sky, free from Aurora, but illuminated by the 
moon or ami na nearly us possible similar, and aimUarly situated, 
to the former portion ; and the observer must then judge whether 
the |joUriftalion lir^t observed be merely due to the iUuminatioii 
of tbe aky. 

The light from tin* fir fJiuk Ahrmlrl Iw iilso ixiimined Ibr traces 
oTpoUrisAtion. 

The prcN^ncc mi inuuri-atjcn i:^ i runucti ; 

(t.) With a Nicol'M priniu by • ^ the light through it, 

by lur&ing tbe prism round on iu axis, and by examining 
wbfiiber the fight appears brightest in some positions and least 



tirig^iit 

•« of 1 
dtlier 
tlkrlHf 
of tbe I 
ptilarisUion. 
«C the Kicol 



BT to line ftboTtcr when it ii^ at its I 




If such be the case, the positions will be found 

•^les to one another. The flirectiou of *• the plane 

It " will be determined by that of the Nicol at 

critical positions. The plane of polarisation of 

1 by a Nicol is pai'alle! to the longer diagonal 

oiiIinv'K. \\u' pjanf of polarisation, or partial 

of < I* parallel to the longer diiimeter 

wiji . ...^ i,.,. ;. 1 li'lt^ I- It it-; gr^ivtest int-euj^ity. 



c 2 



28 SPOmSW<X>DE. — ^POLAKISATIOX OF LIGHT. 

(2.) The observadon with a doable-inuige prism is similar to 
that with a NicoL This instmrneiit, as its name implies gi^ea the 
imagefl which would be seen throng the Nicol in two rectangokr 
position.^ both at once, so that thej can be directij cooipared ; and 
when in observing polarised light the instmment is tamed so 
that one image is at a maximnm. the other i& amnltaneoiulj at 
a minimam. Both these methods of obserratioo, (1 > and (2), are 
eitpeciaDj suitable for faint light ; because in such a case the eye 
is better able to appreciate differenced of intensitj than differences 
of colour. 

(3.) The obserration with a biqoartz differs from (1) onlj by 
holding a biquartz (a right-handed and a l^t-handed quartz 
cemented side by side) at a convenient distance beyond the Nicol, 
and by observing whether colour is or is not produced. If the 
Nicol be so turned that the two parts of the biquartz give the same 
colour (choose the neutral tint, teint de passage, rather than the 
yellow), we can detect a change in the position of the plane of 
polarisation by a change in colour, one half verging towvds red, 
the other towards blue. This observation is obviously applicable 
to a change in the plane, either at different parts of the pheno- 
menon at the same time, or at the same parts at different times. 

(4.) We may use a Savart's polariscope, which shows a series 
of coloured bauds in the field of view. For two positions at 
right angles to one another, corresponding to the two critical 
positions of a Nicol, these bands are most strongly developed ; 
for two positions midway between the former the bands vanish. 
In the instruments here furnished the plane of polarisation of 
the observed light will be parallel to the bands when the central 
one in light, perpendicular to them when the central band is dark. 

The instruments supplied will enable the officer charged with 
them to repeat all the principal experiments in the polarisation of 
light. After a little practice the observer will be able to make 
his own selection of apparatus, and to apply the method of obser- 
vation best suited to the particular circumstances in which he finds 
himself placed. 



3. Instructions in the use of the Spectroscopes supplied 
to the ARcnc Expedition. By J. Norman Lockyer, 
F.R.S. 



The instniments supplied are as follows : — 

A. — An automatic 6-pri8m spectroscope of large dispersion 

for observations of the Sun. 
B.— A direct-vision spectroscope by Merz for observations of 

the sun and of the aurora. 
C. — A direct-vision spectroscope by Browning for observations 

of the aurora. 
D. — A miniature spectroscope for observations of the aurora. 



:YER. -ISK OF THE 8PECTB08COPE. 



20 



Instt 



i€ of Instrument A. 



rh© Btond, \\'ith its tiain ui priams, should he taken out of tbe 
« Aod place*! on a firm support. The prisms ii' iluwty should 
tiien be wiped with a soft brush or h^thfr, cure beiu^ taken, if the 
leather be D^ed, to move it in cue tlirection Jis Htllo as jH.»i^»iblc', 
T nt scratches. The tube funuHhc<l with a focussintj screw 

Iter the ttdjustmeut referred to in the next panijtfraph, be 
vcd into the ring which moves along the arc. The other tub« 
fclioiiid \h^ fixed into the other fixed ring. 

To focus the observing telescope insert the eye-piece to be 
\ And obtain an image of a distant object, using a piece of 
glaaf, of the colour of that part of the spectrum to be ob."*crved, 
ln^twecn the eye-piece and the eje. When this has bet^n done and 
hoih telescop*^ and coHimator fixed in position, the imi^e of the 
slit should be brought into focuj^ by uaing the sliding tiHie of 
the collimator. 

The slit plate and aUpping piece shouid Ije so inserted into the 
collimator tube that the adjusting screw of the slit will be on the 
side neare^it the ottserver. 

The whole train of prisms should be covered with black velvet. 
Till:* may be supported by a piece of thick airdboard {blackened) 
ri'siiog on the two tclescopeF, and trnin of pristns in order to 
prev(>nt it from intercepting any of the light. 

Coloured gla.**«e-H are ssiipplieti in order to prevent the ohserva- 
ijoos of each jwrt of the spectrum being interfered with by the 
pntdeuce of stray light of any other colour than that under ohser- 
%ution ; these should be placed in firtjut of the .slit. 

It will be well to commence all seriey of ob<iervation.s of the 

on B — A at the more refrangible t*ide of B, noting micrometer 

g, iKjth nnmber of revolufions nnd , J,,-lh!*, in each ca.'^e. B 

then (Serve as a zero. It will bt* found that the slit will litjir 

ojiening without much loss of definition i^ the less refrangible 

region lietweeu a and A it* approached. 

The lee** refrauf^'ible line of D and by and F and C themselves, 
may be used in the tjame manner for observations in tho regions 
of the £>pectrum near these lines. 

To render the bght more intense lenses are supplied to throw an 
lEoagG of the sun or an intense parallel beam through the slit: 
llie «wn can be followed by the tangent «crew movement fixed Ir) 
like supports The height of the sun should be recorder! again-^t 
eaicb obK-rvation, and this can be tucilitatcd by keeping the colli- 
QWUir carefidly levellrd. marking degrees on the slit plutc and 
obeerving where the image of tho sun falls. 

It will be obsei ve<l that in Aagstronrs maps the gi'iulatioiH k\[ 
tho effect of absorption from maximtmi (ubove) to minimum 
(lielow) are «»hown, In Mr. Hennessey's maps the»o grailHtions are 
ileeot. It will l>e well to i>ropare a wide spectrumv on a scale 
about equal to that employed by Mr. Hennessey, showing the 
mdatjoois and the variations^ if any» from those observed by 




y/ DXTKTER. C*i: OF THSL «FECTB».VHX>PS. 



Ijutrmeiitnu/cr lue fjf hutrwmemt BL 

TbrfH^ 9P^ *ii i^TRCt'^iaaa prisns are 5izpp&d ir^ lAas spectro- 
aeope. Wh^n all dirpe ^ets are iLsed the iSspersaa wiH be sizffi- 
dent CO enahie it to be used for tbe Son in the :«iiie maimer ms 
aMtnunent A (except foe the leKt refrangible portioa). wben some 
n( the foregomg in.<itnietioo:* will appij. 

It ha(> been, however. proTiilel cfa»:flT for obeerratBons of tbe 
Aurora, and when used for this parpoee onhr one $ec of prtsms (as 
packed in the box two sets are mounted) and the lower power eje- 
piecft ahfloU be employed. 

One method of meadarement which can be enplojed br this 
instrument is a« foDows : — ^The adjosting screw with scale nearest 
the eje, for reference called the ^ reading: screw," ts set tu the cen- 
tral diTision marked 10 on the paper scale. Tbe other similar 
adjoiiting screw forthest from the eye, (or reference called the 
*^ bending screw,'' shonld be adjusted so that the needle point TisiUe 
in the fidd of view is coincident with some definite hne in the 
l^een, »v the green line in the aorora. 

Measures of aororal lines right and left of dds line can then be 
made and recorded, and these measures can be conqMued with 
those of the lines of other spectra, either simnltaneooslj br means 
of the reference prism, or afterwards. 

A variation of this method will be to set the reading 5crew to 
10, and the bending screw so that the solar line b is adjusted to 
the needle point. Solar positions can then be read off befbre the 
aaroral obserrations are made, and a map prepared on which the 
positions of auroral lines can be at once recorded. 

Spectboscopic Work. 

Scales prepared on Mr. Capron's plan, together with forms for 
recording positions, also accompany the instrument. In using 
thei!«? care^lly insert the principal solar lines in their places on 
the forms, as taken with a fine slit, and keep copies of this scale 
for use. If the slit opens oniy on one side, note on scale in which 
direction the . lines widen out, whether towards red or violet 
AJf^ fill up some of these forms with gas and other spectra, as 
taken at leisure leith the same instrument and scale. 

When obr«erving close the slit (after first wide opening it), as 
much ns light will permit, and then with pen or pencil record the 
line's ns seen upon the micrometer scale on the corresponding part 
of the form, and note at once relative intensities with &reek 
lettfTH, a, jS, Ac. (or numbers). 

Reduce at leisure luxe-plguces on scale to wave lengths, and note 
as to each line the probable limits of instrumental error. 

In case the auroral spectrum is so faint that the needle point or 
micrometer scale is invisible, half of the field of view may be 
covered with tinfoil, with a perfectly straight smooth edge running 
along the diameter of the field, in perfect focus, and parallel to 
the lines of the spectra. The reading screw being set to 10^ the 



I 



LOOKYEIL — USK i>F THK SPECTROSOOPEp 31 

bending ecfew sbould then be adjusted so that the grern line of 
the aurora Ljjiist oclipfted behind tho bhickened edge of th^i tin foil. 
A similar eclipse of other linen will give tlieir positions. 

In this instrument the reference prism is brought into action 
br turning the slipping pi(?oo to which is fixed the two terminals. 
CJAre should be taken that t)ie \m»m it?^<?]f is adjusted before com- 
nu*ncing observations, as it may be shaken out of position on the 
voyage. The tubes provided for the reference spectra may be 
cir" " i. ned'to the terminals or armnged in some other manner. 
T ctrnm may also be used as a reference spectrum. To 

p vo wires should be screwed into the insnJators, their 

Ch nt such a distance apart and in Kuch a position that 

thti bpeisintm is well seen. 

fnjttrtmtents C and D. 

Thftsr* being of the well-known forms re^juire no npeoial 
inatrnctionii. 

Gtm/rni Obgervations regarding the Spevlrtfm t>j t/fc Aiaora.* 

Note nppeontnce, colour, &c. of art^ streament^ corv/m^ and 
pcUche* of light. 

Get couipa«s positions of principal feature**, and note aw/ cknnffe 
nf nuignetic intensity. If corona forms, take ite position and 
apparent height. , 

Look out for pkogphorescenee of aurora and adjacent clouds. 
Liftten for reported sounds. Not© any peculiarity of doud scenery 
prior to or pending the aurora. 

Sketch priucipid i nf the display, and indicate on this 

sketch thi* pitris sj^i i tily examined. 

Kxjimiue line in red si^'uiaUy in reference to its assumed con- 
nexion with tcilnrir lines (little a group), aud note a.? to its 
Itrit/hUnintj in .%ijmpathi/ HJith any of the other lints, 

Exuinine line in ynllow-green (Ang8trdm'H) as to hnrfhtntsu^ 
ti'ieUh^ ami sharpiw.fs (w nehulosUy) at the eilges. Notice as 
to tt peculiar Jlickering in thin line sometiruGH seen ; note also 
whether this line is brighter (or the reverse) with a fall of tern- 
perrittite, Not-e ozone papers at the time of aunini, 

Nf»t€ whether the auront can by their .»*poctni Ix? classed into 
di^ttiuct type*!i or foruii$^ and exaiuiue for different tpcctrn as 
tuitkr — 

a. The auroral glow^ pure aud idinple. 
$. The white arc. 
y. The titreainens and corona. 

J. Any pho^^phorescent or other patchen of light or light- 
cloud in or near the aurorae.' 



* In iheie o)M0rv&tionf iome luggettioDi made b^ lir. Cipron have been 
iocorporBted. 



32 LOCKYER. — USE OF THE SPECTROSCOPE. 

The information collected together in the " Manual ** should be 
carefully consulted, and the line of observations suggested by Ang- 
strom's later work followed out. To do this, not only record the 
positions of any features you may observe in the spectrum, but 
endeavour to determine if any, and if so which, of the features 
vary together. Compare, for instance, the two spectra of nitrogen 
in the Geissler tube supplied, by observing first the narrow and 
then the wider parts of the tube. It will be seen that the dif- 
ference in colour and spectrum results simply from an addition 
to the spectrum in the shape of a series of channelled spaces in the 
more refrangible end in the case of the spectrum of the narrow 
portion. 

Try to determine whether the difference between red and green 
auroras may arise from such a cause as this, and which class has 
the simpler spectrum. 

See whether indications of great auroral activity are associated 
with the widening or increased brilliancy of any of the auroral 
lines. 

Remember that if auroral displays are due to gaseous particles 
thrown into vibration by electric disturbance, increased electric 
tension may either (1) dissociate those particles and thus give rise 
to a new spectrum, the one previously observed becoming dimmer; 
or (2) throw the particles into more intense vibration without 
dissociation, and thus give rise to new lines, those previously 
observed becoming brighter. 

Careful records of auroral phenomena from both ships may. 
enable the height of some observed from both to be determined. 
It will be very important that those the heights of which are deter- 
mined by such means should be carefully observed by the spectro- 
scope, in order to observe whether certain characteristics of tlie 
spectrum can be associated with the height of the aurora. 



VI.-MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 



I. On Saline Matter in Ice. By Dr. Rae, F.R.G.S. 



I find in the note-book of my visit to Repulse Bay in 1853-4 ^ 
Bay frozen over for some miles on 22nd September 1853. . 

ft. in. 

4 7 



20ti. December 1853, {«^/^y^/^^} ice thick - 

24th January 1854, 35 days* interval „ - 5 9 

25th February „ 32 „ „ „ 

25th April „ 59 „ 
25th May „ 30 „ 



- 7 Oj 

- 7 111 
. 8 l| 



RAE. — ^feALlNE MATTEK IN ICE. 



9S 



^^i^lli« Hryl tlireu ( Det'embef, Jauu.ary, uod Feljruary) of the 

above exami nations, carefully made by cutting holes in the ice, 

the ice was tough (what Weyprocht calls leather*/)^ opaque, that 

lia inmslucent^ certainly not transparent like fresh- water ice, and 

^buys so salt that the water from it was not fit to drink. 

^ti March I find no examination wiw mnde, my seven men and 
myself tjeing either away or \'ery busy that month, but 4he men who 
mciiAurtil the ice in April and May asgnred me that in cutting 
tlus holes they found the ice in the eame Btate ( tou*;h and opaque) 
as it had been on the three previous occasions. Being nb^ent in 
April and May on a long sledge journey, 1 could not test the ice 
pensoziatiy. 

I am told that the '* rough, old^ wasted ice *' mentioned by me 
I tf almost always giving good drinking water when thawed, has 
I been confounded with what is called " rotten ice." Now tho 
two are quite distinct and diflbrent. Rotten ice, means ice that 
is worn away whilst lying " in sitJi/* generally eai'ly in spring, by 
certain currents of the sea (usually where there is shallower 
water between two deeper places) acting on its under surface, 
whilst the temperature of the air is still much too low to have any 
feffeci on the upper part. 

This *' rotten ice'* becomes spongy and dangerous to travel 
over. It is very common in Smith's Sound, according to Kane 
and Hayes. 

The wa£;t«dold ice 1 spoke of, generally breaks up into detached 
floes when quite solid and several feet thick, and is grmlually 
worn away, sometimes into all sorts of coi-ious j<hapei', by the 
combined action of the sea and atmosphere. 

In the very excellent scientific report of the Austro-Hungariaa 
Arctic Expedition given in '* Natui*e " of the llth March, Wey- 
precht telLn na, ** that in 24 hours ice a fool thick wan formed on 
** the sea by a temperature of minus 37^'5 to 50^ C, and that the 
•* salt of the sea wat-er had not time to be displaced entirely, as 
** the formation of the ice went on too quickly," «fec. 

I found that ice formed on the sea by the gradually lotvering 
temperature of early winter did not eliminate the salt miy more 
than in the case of quick freezing given alwve. 

To quote again from Weyprecht, ** The incited water (trom sea 
•* io>) at the end of summer is therefore almost free from salt, 
"and ha» a specific gravity of 1"(X)5/' 

Thia distinguished officer may be quite right, but I do not go 
»o for as he does. 

idea b that at the end of tiummer the portion of the floe 
IQotttM above water will be found fresh or nearly so in most 
but that the submerged port will be decidedly brinj. I am 
however, certain of tfaisj. 



M BAE. — S-kLT^E. XAITCK IS KIM. 

Tlie inOowiof; m tJie mean fiempencarH of 
whidi the iee was meaenzed. correefied ■» iiwi Ij ae 
error of tfaennoiBeter aseeroiined bj fireesmg 









Befewn 


Mean tempenture of December 1S33 


- 


- 2S-5F. 


f» 


„ Jhu.17 ism 


• 


- »4» 


» 


„ Febnarr . 


- 


. 38^4, 


r> 


„ afarA „ 


- 


- »5 » 


79 


» A,«fl 


■ 


• i-7» 



Ucm towards Obsibt^iioss in the ABcnc BEfiloxs. 
By Pbot. J. Tt^dall, ULD^ F JLS. • 



I beg to r ec o n y end the foUowing subjects lor obverratioci : — 

1. ^Hie formatioii of snow crrstab ; their shapes suesy and 
the asmoflpheiic oondidoDs under which thej occur. In connexion 
with this point it will be osefol to consult Scoresbj^s Aretie 
Regions, VoL L 

2. Id water contained in ressels snrroonded bj oold Mne^ J 
once obserred the formation of small hexagonal, and stellar 
crystals. They were formed at some depth below the sorfiu:e, 
and rose to the surface. Water in the Arctic regions coald be 
rapidly exposed so as to render a Terification and extension 
of tbis observation possible. 

3. By permitting a thermometer to be frozen in water, and 
exposed to a varying temperature, a rough notion of the rapidity 
of the conduction of heat through ice might be obtained. The 
experiment would be more Taluable if a prism <^ ice, at a 
YfiTj low temperature, were warmed at one end, and the flux of 
heat determiDed by the observation of thermometers, sunk in the 
ice at different distances from that end. Only, however, when 
thcrr; is plenty of time at the observer's disposal should this 
oliservation be made. 

4. The rate at which the ends of some of the Arctic glaciers 
arlvance into the sea ought to be determined by a theodolite. 

•5. If possible, it would be desirable to compai-o this terminal 
motion with the motion at some distance from the sea. 

6. The question whether the glaciers break off to form icebergs 
through lieing lifted by the water underneath their snouts, or 
thronph the gravity of their overhanging ends would be worthy 
of flecisioij. In the former case the surface of the glacier would 
be in a state of longitudinal compression, and no crevasses would 
be formed ; in the latter case the surface would be in a state of 
longitudinal strain, and crevasses might be expected. 

7. The height of some of the tallest icebergs ought to be 
accurately determined. 

8. The moraine matter carried down by the glaciers and trans- 
ported by icebergs, would be worthy of observation. 



TTNDAL.L. — OH«ERVATlONi* IN AKOTIC llEOIONS. 35 



9. The condition of the rocks and Mils adjacent to eidsting 
;jer8 ought to be examined, with a view to decide whether the 

glaciers, in" former times, exten<1i?d l:K>jond their present limits. 

10. The veiniug of the ice, at the ends of the glaciers,' ought to 
be sketched and described. 

11. Obeervations might be made on the colour of the ice. It 
would also be interesting to determine the colour of .the sky on 
difierent days by a oyanomoter ; and how the colour varies with 
the xenith distance. Various cyonometerB are described by 
Dr. Hermann Schlagintweit in the Philosophical Magazine for 
1852, vol iii. p. 92. 

12. The polarization of the sky, and the determination of the 
neutral points in the Arctic firmament, might also be made an 
joteretiliug subject cf observation. 

13* The presence or absence of germs in the Arctic air might 
be ascertained by experiments similar to those of Pasteur upon 
the Mer de glace. 

14. The range of a sound of a definite character on different 
and at different hours of the same day, ought to be deter- 

I have myself derived much instruction from experimenta 

I* With a dog-whistiij. 

2. With an open organ-pipe prorlwcing from 300 to 400 
waves a secx>n<l ; a pistol fir^xl with a definite charge would 
also be useful. It would al^ be easy to fit up a bell with 
a hammer to deliver upon it a stroke of cont^tant strength* 
Mr. Tisley would prepme such a bell imme^Jiately. In 
all enees the state of the weather, when cxiieriroents on 
sound arc made, ought to be noted. 

15. The aerial echoes ought to l)e observed ; hero the sound 
of 11 cannon will be necessary. The echoes of a cannon, fired to 
windwar<], ought to be compared with those of tho same, or of a 
similar carmon, fired to leeward. 

16. The range of two sounds differing in pitch, say an o<?tiivo 
•pftrt, onght to bo determined; the experiments ought to be 
W'peated on different days, with the view of determining whether 
ihe sanip Mound has, at nil times, the greate><t range. 

[ ^»eg to enclose with the!»e suggestions: — 

1. A copy of a paper on tho Phyijitud Properties of Ice ;♦ 

2. A copy of a paper on the Atmosphere as a Vehicle of 
Sound ; 

3. A eojiy of a book entitled '* Forms of VV^ater ; " 
from which varintjs bints and stiggestion-s may be derive*!. 





iatt'nijil -^tniciurp of th«' Arctic ie*» oijjrht to lie explored by c«n- 
iiunbciuutt. in the muQiur in^licatod iD thi« ptipcr. 



M 



36 
INSTRUCTIONS 

FOR 

THE NATURALISTS ENGAGED IN THE ARCTIC 
' • EXPEDITION. 



PART II.~BIOLOGY. 



I.— ZOOLOGY. 



1. Instructions for making Observations on, and Col- 
LEcriNQ Specimens of, the Mammalia* of Greenland. 
By Dr. Albert Gunther, F.R.S. 



To obtain infommtion on tbe present state of our knowledge 
of the Mammalian Fauna of Greenland, the Naturalists ought 
to acquaint themselves with, and if possible to take with them 
copies of, the following publications : — 

1. Richardson, " Fauna Boreali-Americana.'' (Part containing 
the Mammals.) 1829. 4io. 

2. Brown, R. " On the Mammalian Fauna of Greenland," in 
the " Proceed. Zool. Soc.*' 1868, pp. 330-362. 

3. Brown, R. '* Notes on the history and Geographical relations 
" of the Pinnipedia frequenting the Spitzbergen and Greenland 
« Seas," in the ** Proceed. Zool. Soc." 1868, pp. 405-440. 

4. Boyd Dawkins, W. " The British Pleistocene Mammalia." 
Part V. Ovibos moschatus. Lend. 1872. 

5. " Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahit in den Jahren 1869 
** und 1870," under Karl Koldewey. Leipzig, 1874. Containing 
numerous observations on Mammals scattered in the body of the 
work, chapter 13 being entirely devoted to zoology. 

The number of Greenland Mammalia is so small that most of 
the desiderata can be specified under the heads of the several 
species ; the following general remarks, however, may be given 
for the guidance of the naturalists : — 

1. One of their most important tasks is to ascertain all facts 
bearing upon the distribution or possibly gradual disappearance of 
Mammalian life in the direction towards the Pole. 

2. For this purpose attention is to be paid not merely to such 
animals as may be met with in a living state, but also to any 
osseous remains or fragments which may be found on the shore ; 
and such remains are to be brought home, if practicable. 



Not including Cetacea. 



OUNTIIET?, — MAMMALIA OP GREENLAND. 37 

3. Specimens of every species met with north of 80° wKoiild 
be preserved, if foimd id iiny way to viwy from more soathern 
mcra, 

4. No opportunity ghotild be neglecteti of examining the uterus 
of female animals, pnrtly to ascertain the period of procreation, 
partly to obtain foetal specimenB for future examination. 

5. To enable future inquirers to institute comparisons ns re« 
_ Is the numerical increase or decrefise of certain ^Limmala, 
within the Arctic circle, registers ought Id be kept in whicli the 

« numbers of individuals of every species seen during the voyage, 
Jire eittere«l from tky to day : this refers more especially to th© 
_bt«r, mutik-o3c, reindeer, and walrus. 

V\'ith regard to the single species the following points deeerre 
ticular attention : — 

L Polar Bear. -^A^cert&m the pmporlion of the luunbci' of 
males to females, noting the age (whether full or not full grown) 
|(te(i the time of the year at which the individuals have bwn obeerved. 
' The accounts of a partial hybernation of this animal appenr *o refer 
to the females only, which probnldy at some time iu the winter 
retire into secluded spots to give bii;th to the young. Gather in- 
formation respecting the condition of the cubs before they are able 
to follow the mother, and prtwerve the skiuH and sknlL of such 
young examples. 

„ 2. ffb/i?tfrj»f.— Occurs, according toFabricius, in »South Green- 
HlHid ; but if Fabric! us was not mistaken iu his determination, it 
must be Hmitetl to parts of the interior where reindeer can subsist* 
Obtnin if possible a skin or other positive t*vidence of the exis- 
tence of this animal by offering a reward to the natives. 

3. Hcasei and Stoai have hitherto not btt^n found in Greenland, 
but if the Lemming, which ha«beeii met with in E.*ist Greenland' 
ouJy, ahotdd reappear further north or on the Crest coast, it is 
poHttibly accompanied by some species of Musteia which feeds on 
the Lemming. Specimens (skins and skeletons) or even mere 
fmgtiients of them should be carefully preserved, 

4. The Arctic Fox, — The blue and white varieties are said to 
*>ccur pi-omiscuounly at certain localities (one or the other being 
predominant, and to be found even in the mmvi litt-er.) Aocu- 
mt*"* ob!*ervationa should be made uiJon this subject. Is the 
colour permanent in the sjime individunl all the year round? Are 
ony cast« known of an individiuil liaving changed the colour of its 
eoiit f* Is the diversity of colour at all in connexion with their 
food and the mode of obtaining it ? It might be surmiseil that 
the whitf»-coiouro<i variety is better able to approach hares or 
ptATDUgan than the blue which woidd obtain its fc»od chiefly from 
the nests of birds, any »mimal oiliil, shells, crustacean!;!, and from tbo 
cacbaa they have b^^n obsen wl to prejMire for the drairth of winter. 
Ia the sense of smelling as well developed as iu its £uro}ie&n 
oon^ener ? 

Skinrt and skeletons f»f iKith varieties to be preserved. 
k The Eskimo Dotj, — If unfortunately opportunity shoidd 
the phenomena connected with the Arctic Dog-madness 





i.hoiiifl '^j^if jk maiUrr for =tiTio(i? cb=n-r-.\iti«:i.. TL-r ^object has 
h^*Ti WfAtfti bj Dr. W. L. Lindjaj in the - Bridih and Foreign 
•* M**i:oo-oh;r'-j'^cai RerirTr" for Jan-iirr 1 STO dL.«i July 1S71. 
Th^ p^iintf r<<|nihnz r^peci^ ARecifoQ are : 1. Thxr probable causes 
{ ftkWiriilr t^Ufr-THi to b^ ci^M and •Lirkn^^sr. Does the diseaae 
^ho-TT ic-^lf fint in dog^ of the pore £skun«>bT«icd. or in cr oas cs 
hfitwfifsD. Datire and European dogs? 2. The grmptonis and 
cfinrv! of the di^ase ( are thej identical in b<>th races ? i. 3. The 
nvftns Vij Tfaich the contagion Ia conveytrd. 

The time of i^tacion of the pmre Moiirt brred i aud to be a 
direirt dfflcendant of the American WoLi'. Of aw occidemtalis) ought 
to \/f: jL^certained ; further information collected as regards the state- 
mffMJty aci;ording to which it readily reirens into the wild state ; 
and a number of skulls and skdetons and some skins obtained. 

6. DomeMtie Cat. — In localities where no recent importation of 
the cat has taken place, it will be of interest to aacertain whether, 
in the coarKe of some generation^ any change in the closeness and 
colour of the for and in the fertility of the species has been ob- 
^*Tved. 

7. Hare. — ^A series of good skins obtained at different seasons 
of the year (with the skulls) as wdl as some skeletons are re- 
f{nirF:rl. 

H. Mvsk Ox. — Every &ct adding to our knowledge of its actual 
geographical range, as well as of the changes that have taken place in 
\Xh distribution in time, is of great interest. It seems that evidences 
of its former existence on the West coast are not scarce ; and the 
skulls and other parts of the skeleton which may be found, ought 
Xf> be preser%-ed, with careful observations on the conditions of the 
locality. As many skins, skulls, and skeletons of animals of both 
sexes and of all ages, as can be conveniently procored, prepared, 
and packed, should be preserved. 

A careful dissection of the soft parts ought to be madei, and 
some of them, such as the brain, a gni\-id uterus (if not too fiur 
advanced in pregnancy), and the intestinal tract preserved, 
the first two in spirits, the last in strong brine. Finally, it would 
U? most desirable to make an attempt to bring young animals to 
Euroi>e ; and as it cannot be expected that the transport could be 
(dfectefl on tioard the exploring vessels, the co-operation of whalers 
or European residents might be secuied by holding out the pro- 
M|K.»ct of a fair pecuniary reward. 

9. lieindeer. — Obtain a series of skulls of adult animals, with 
and without horns, and if possible one or two skeletons, the Green- 
land Keindeer being considered to be a distinct variety. Any 
diflTerences in size and colour, and in the shape of the homa ob- 
served in animals from diiferent localities should be noted. 

10. fValrus. — Although perfect skins and skeletons of adult 
individiuUs are great dcisideratu in our museums, they can be ac- 
({uired from wliuling vessels ; and the nntun^lists of an exploring 
ex|Mtdition will b<> Mitisfied to preserve skulls of extraordinary size 
or the exct'ptionally tuskless skulls of females, and particidaiiy the 
heads of nirwly-boni or foetal animals, which are to be preserved in 




OUNTHEE. — MAMMALIA OF GBEENLAND. 



&mmg spirit* It will be also useful to obtaio fnithful sketches of 
the headfl of adiilt aDimals (in difierent views) and of the uttitiides 
nseomed hy them duriDg life. 

IL Seah. — So mach remains to be done towards <4iicidating 
the life-history of the Seals (of which six species hftve hitherto 
been fomul off the coasts of Greenland), that the naturalists should 
never neglect an opportunity of col halting further materials on any 
point r»*ferrin^ to the occun^ence, habitis, propagation, migration, 
vanatlooy &c,, and note tbeir observations, be they confirmatory 
of, or ftt variance with, the statements of previous observers. 
AJl perfect skins, skeletons, or skulls which can \m spared for 
sdeotiiic purposes, should be pn^serve*! ; and in obtaining these 
apednuMiii tlie collector ought to be particularly imxious (1.) to 
obfalil skin and skeleton (or at least skull) of the same indivitlujil ; 
(2.) lo obtain specimens out of the same flock or family a-n J to mark 
di**tioclly the examples thus relate^l to each other ; (3.) to secure 
ami prepare the mother with the young. 



t Instructions for makirig Observations on and Col- 
lecting Specimens of the Cetacea of the Abctic 
Seas. By Prof. W. H. Flower, F.K.S. 



The study of the habits and structure of the Cetacea is beset by so 
uumy difficulties that every accurately obsen^ed and carefully re- 
corded fact relating to them will be of value to Hcieiice. For- 
lTin(itiT?T the work of the numerous natoraUsta who have devoted 
tlMmBftlTog to thi^ group, during the last few years, ban done 
much to clear away the main sources of confusion and error in all 
tht! earlier accounts of their anatomical characters, habita, and 
geographical distribution, and at length, at least aa regards the 
Northern specie^s we have beeu able to anive at a tolerably satis- 
factory knowleilge of the principal diHtinctive characteristics of all 
common species, and of their relations to each other. The 
►und having been ^o fai' cleared, and a definite framework 
on solid fact having been raised, future olx^^ervem will be 
a far better position, than was j^osaible till very recently, to Jill 
in all the required details for completiog our knowledge of this 
iulereating order af Manmials. 

A U»t \» appended of the si>ecie3 which may be met with in the 
tett to be traversed by the Expedition, with their princi|wd diw- 
tinctire characters, an outline of what is now known of their 
ihical distribution, and notes on the ebicf points in th«ir 
still requiring elucidation. It is probable that many of 
are not tridy Arctic, but in the absence of satisfactory 
ktion flfi to the Uinitfi of tbeir range iu that dirL^ctiun, 
It B|*ema best to include all f^pecie^ known to inhabit the North 
Atlantic. It mHy, however, lie mentioned generally that the 
appearance in the i^a. of every Cetacean should be noted, the 
oorreet specific designation being, if it can poeeibly be made 



•• wfiaii*?, ' •• 'KUtleaostis. • •• -xirroist^ * sc^ beinz iToiae<L If in 
•' !j4*h«>«>ls. ' :he iiumber n .aiuv:a»iat4^ .ks imciv m :faeT lan be 
e<9rimaceti rhe •iireccioa :a Thicu :heT ire T-wmmune, riie eiui- 
rsurter ot' the *• liiowin;::," 'be tveraice -Limcioa •!£ riie iniervab 
iM^twipen «>tftL'h i^xpirnctoB. ;Sh!» will .ilm m -^nbjtHrcs lor «i 

U anj ;uiiiiuii is ai:ttiailT v.-:u7turv*u jr nmnd Jeoiu 
oppommity tor obserratiuEi -•▼ul be udbnieo. :m» ior kzBiwieii|Be of 
moi>c at* tbe -^pecie^ isi -iehTeii oxuedr inyta skeiecoQak OMtirppe- 
:3*Hrvetl piirtion;! ot rhe -^A rmrts^ oaii -iuuwrreec (ifisMxipixanfr ot' 
their extnmmi rbnn. t.^tN)a irawin^ ixuuiero ^vaie andacencaiehr 
(^loiir^i ot' the exterxm :ipp«*iinuace ot 3«ahr jii the apvcieft ve 
4tiU ileriiiienua. Canscoi iiieiiwireiiikMus» ievuid ot the • oAen an- 
i*oiid(*ious 1 t>xag«eRuiun muvii nnase:* h> many ot ctMse airmif 
sriven by voyniser?. :ire ;iLs4> nHiuired. ftfpMaauiy <i£ the lafjev 
•4pe«?ie!ji. The extreme lemcth <aouid .uwat^ tw -jjix^iu it' ptMBbic^ 
ill :k stnu«£ht Hue d\>m. the dp oi rhe aubtt to the nutcn bemcee 
the rfiiki's i>r the raiL .is -jtieiitfnn.'nientst rbdowina: die ':ur'--*» at the 
bixly .live .1 v^^ry v*rroiieoii* idea *»r' rhe Mrtuiii sire. Aay paracati» 
\Thirh lUAv lie djiind uttHL'hed :u he ixrenud ^rrHi.^? or cuatuined 
within the ;mimtd ahonid :)e oun^ituly desHrhbed. ;m%L 's practziaible* 
prF^^rved.** The vX)Uteaii> ot rile ^tunuicii ^uuid alMray» be noted, 
with a view to aiseenida :he mitand tuod 01 tbie :^imd. 

Cidlei?tine vrll prubabiy be limited to ?iiudler or rarer speeixneos^ 
as it vrill aor lie possible to oeeupy v:iiuttbie ?pace by saoh bnikj 
objerr.^ as :ire the <i£eietoQS ot' most ot the Norrhem Cetaceonsw 
It*, howprer. whole skeieroas camuot be pivger^ed, oercain p«Nrtwii;» 
ot* rhem misht be removed and broii^ht home without difficuhr. 
«>8peciaily the pelvic bones and rudiments ot the binder excreniiCT. 
whioh ATP- nearly always wantins: iu the -«ki4etum^ in moiaeaiiw : 
next tn these, the :«kiiIL rhe oerrieal venebrs. the hyoid boness 
tlnpt sternum, and the tore Limb or pikidie!» are the motit cfaArae- 
t4!riHtic panri. Brains of any ot rhe lar^r species are moeh 
want^, it* they can be obtained in a tolerably firei^h condxtioa and 
carM'iiily prpj^erved in spirit. It' any ta*tuse!« are met with in 
diM^ectin^. they i^hoold. if possible, be pre:*er\'ed entire, with the 
ntenm j^nd membrane;), in spirit or ^tron^ brine. 

fJst of Cttatta of the AorrA AiUimtie. 

\. — WnALRBT^Tne Whales. ( -Vyj/ffrocefc". 1 — Easily reco^ised 
Ky the baleen or ** whalebone '' with which the palsie is fur- 
fiifthAfl, jinri V»y the floable opening>^ of the blow-boles on the top 
t^ the head. 

Oenn^ Halamft. The one species inhabiting the Arctic regions 
%% §i, myniirHt/ny Linn., the Greenland Right- Whale, distin- 
^nii(he/l Uiitu the r^her Whalebone Whales of the 9ame seaa by 
fh'f v^ry \hr%t'. %\7jt', t4 t!ie head ^one-third, or even more, of the 
^nfir*' leri((tb K \r^ tbe gr^at length of the baleen, the absence of 
l/ivi^if fi/lfriftl rnrrfywn in the skin of tbe throat, and the absence of 



* hfi fh'iM wnh'^muf^ Vnn JU-nfih-^t **Ja:» Cc-taccs, lenr Commens anx et 
i^m I'HfMUfn/* thtM d* VAfnA. ntjnXp <le B<^lgiqiie, 2"* ?erie. tome XXIS., 



FLOWEB. — ARCTIC CETACEA. 



41 



i]or»al fin. TIub in by far the most important ol' the Northern 
C^tucea to mau, beitig the animal which yields trftin oil and whale- 
boue iu greatest quantity nud finest quality. It appears to have 
arL^gular seasonal migration, wintering iu the southern portions oi 
Diivii Straits, Hudson Strait^ and the coast of Labrador, though 
tit'ver t^OQiing farther south, hut the extent of its northern range 
iu the suniraer yet remains to be uscert^iined. For full accounts of 
lU brtbit^' Hnd geographleal diatribiitiou, xec the works of Martens, 
Z*-*: iiul Scoresby ; K. Brown, *' Notes on the History and 

"' ^ loal Relations of the Cetacea frequenting Davis Strait 

'' ami ikiffin's Bay," Proc. ZooL Soe., 1868, p. 533; and especially 
lh« elaborate monograph by Esclirieht and Reinhardt '* On the 
" Greenland Kight-Whale (Batfpna mysticehis)^'' translated 
fmin the Danish in** Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea," Ray 
Society, 1866. 

A r«*aUy good drawinjr of an adult Greenland Whale ia still a 
ilcsideratuni, also accurate statementH as to the size it attJiins, 
There is no evidence from specimens in any of the Europenn 
timseamg that it exceeds So foet in length (in a straight line), but 
voyagers generally give much larger dimensions. 

A Right VVIiak", with a smaller head and ^shorter whalebone 
( llalitna hiscai/eusis)^ was formerly abundant in the temperate 
|K)rtion6 of the North Atlantic, but is now nearly extinct. Any 
information about lite si)ecies would be extremely valuable. Is it 
ich-ntiaU with the American Black Whale (/?. tinarrtica^ Coi>e) ? 

Sn' Es<:hricht and Reiuhardt, ojj. ctl. Van Beneden and Gervaia, 
" OHteographie dos Cetjict^s." Fischer, ** Doeuments pour servir 
" u Thistoire de la Baleiiio det< Basques {Baimm hisca^evutisy^ 
Annales des Seiences Nat., 1871. 

All the ivmaining VVhalebone Whales of the Northern seas have 
u small dorsal fin, and the skin of the throat and breast marked 
with de<.»p longitudinal t^uTows. 

Mtf/apttra 6ofjp^ {(\ Fabrieius) = J/, tongimuttn (Rudolphi), 
Hamp-baeked Wh>ik\ Keptfrkak or KrcfHtknk i>f the Greenlauders, 
Gerumu Bm-kclwalL Known externally fi'ora the triu- Rorquals by 
iIkj 1«jw Had obtuse- dorHfd tin, and eHpecially by the great size of 
the pectoriil ftns, which are more than out^-fourth of the entire 
Irngtii of the ntiinml (from 45 to 50 feet). Colour black above, 
iind Llaek and white below in streaks and patche:? ; the pectorid 
rin»^ wholly white, baben Vdack. As far as is known at present 
Ibrrts in but t»ne spcciof- uf M«-gn|}t»'ra in the Northern sea?^, whieh 
iiT-* H fur moie cxtent^ive laJi^o th;in the Greenland Right-Whale, 
in the winter us fur south jis Bermuda, and in the 
I u|i to the Greenland etmst (66° North). For the fnlleKt 
account of thiM H|)ecieH, »it D. F. Ehchricht, '* Untersuehungen 
** ul)erdje Nordiscben WaUthiere" (1H49), which extremely valu- 
able work eonlains hu exhaustive bibliogi:aphy of the Northern 
, i4ttft(H.'a tip to dat»' of pubiieulion. 

I Gi^nti** Bitltt^wpttra, The Rorquals, or Fin Whak^, »re known 
t^..... .f,«. j^m by iho pectoi'ul tin not exceeding one-aixth of the 

Mf the animatt and liy the falctite form of the dorsal Uii, 
1^' ir ^ortheiu upecieH aiv now genei-ally reeogni>«ed. 



42 FLOWER. — ARCTIC CETAOEA. 

B, musculus, Companyo = Physalus antiqttorum, Gray. The 
Common Rorqual or Razor-back, Keporkamak of tho Green- 
landers. Black above, white below ; flippers black ; baleen slate- 
colour on the outer edges, streaked longitudinally with yellow, 
and yellowish-white on &e inner fibrous edges. Length of adult 
60 to 70 feet. This is the commonest of the Rorquals of the 
temperate Atlantic and Mediterranean. Its Northern range has 
not been well ascertained, as it has till lately been confounded 
\nth the next species. For external characters and figure, «ee 
W. H. Flower, Proc. ZooL Soc, 1869, p. 604, and pi. xlvii., with 
references to previous figures. 

B. SMaldii, Gray. Sibbald's Rorqual, Tonnolikoithe Green- 
landers, Steypireythr of the Icelanders. Black above, shadinff 
into slate-grey below, more or less varied with dashes or spots of 
white ; flippers black above and whitish below ; baleen uniform 
deep black. Is of larger size (70 to 80 feet) and has a more 
Northern range than the last. See W. Turner, *' An Account of 
'* the Great Finner Whale (Baltsnoptera Sibhaldu) stranded at 
" Longniddry," Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. xxvi. A. W. 
Malm, << Monographe illustr^e du Baleinopt^re," Stockholm, 1867. 
B, laticeps (Gray). Rudolphi's Rorqiusd. 
Only four of five specimens of this species, which is chiefly dis- 
tinguished by its osteological characters, have hitherto been met 
with, and but little is known of its external appearance or 
geographical distribution. It does not appear to exceed 40 feet in 
length. AU the specimens referred with certainty to this species 
have occurred in the North Sea, between the North Cape and 
the Dutch coast. 

BaltBnoptera rostrata (0. Fabricius). The Lesser Rorqual, 
Tikagulik of the Greenlanders, Vaagevhal of the Norwegians. 
Black above, white below ; flippers black, with a broad white 
band across the middle ; baleen yellowish-white. Length not 
exceeding 30 feet. This is the smallest and perhaps the best 
known of all the Rorquals, having an extensive range in the 
North Atlantic. 

The genus Agaphelus (Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila- 
delphia, 1868, p. 221) is founded on the imperfect remains of a 
Whale cast ashore on the coast of New Jersey, indicating the 
existence of a species in the North Atlantic resembling Balrena 
in the absence of pectoral cutaneous furrows and of dorsal fin, but 
having the elongated form of body, tetradactylous hand, and 
general osteological characters of Baltenoptera. Further indi- 
cations of this animal are much needed. 

II. Toothed Whales ( Odontoceti). No baleen. Nostrils (in 
nearly all) united to form a single median crescentic opening or 
« blow-hole." 

Physeter macrocephalus, Linn. The Cachalot or Sperm Whale, 
An inhabitant of the tropical and warmer temperate seas, and 
only met with as an accidental straggler in the North Atlantic. 

Hypcroodov Tostratvs (Chemnitz). The Common Beaked 
Whale or Bottlenose. No teeth in the upper jaw ; one or two pairs 
in the front end of t!ie lower jaw, smsJl and concealed in the 



FLOWER. — ARCTIC CETACKA. 



^pm, Nearlj btack, paler ou tbc belly. Doisal tio srauU uud 
Hkitte. Length 20 to 26 feet. A rather common and well- 
TToowii species, ranging, according to aeaeon, from the mid 
Atlfinftc to Davis Straits. 

-^ of larger feiise and with greatly developed cresrii on 
tlj ry lK)ne are assigned to a second species, H. latifrons^ 

Giiiy, though some zoologi5*ts think these are only very adult 
njaWs of the fonner* This is an important point to determine. 

AlUe<l to Hypemodon wve two very important species, Ziphius 
carirmtrig, Cuv,, and MeHopMon Sowcrbierisis^ Blninv., about 
which there is still much to be learned. They have both been 
found m the North iseas, the former near Shetland, and the latter 
on tJie cuasf B of Scotland and Ireland^ tliongh not at prewenl known 
to range farther north. The Cetaceant* of ihis group ( I he Ziphioida) 
are known by the abaence of teeth in the upper jaw, and their small 
number, (two to four), in the lower jaw, and by the small rounded 
form of the pectoral finn. 

The remaining Northern C^taceanB belong to the family of 
true Dolphins {Delphhtidtr). 

The Narwhal, Monodon monoceros^ Linu., distinguished by the 
abfleiice of dorBul fin and the well-known and peculiar dentition. 
A truly Aictic animal. The function oi' the projecting tusk is not 
aatisfactorily a**ceriained. Every attempted solution of the problem 
mii%t bear reforence to ila toeing [>rei?ent only in the male wex. 

Dviphinap terns A<>t*m^ (Palla8), The Beluga or White Whale, 
KfiU'tluak uf the Greenlanders^, also a genuine Arctic species. It 
clocely reitembles the Narwhal in external characters (absence of 
dorsal fin, &c.), and in its skeleton, but diflers in dentition, having 
8 to 10 teeth aliove and below on each side. Length 12 to 14 feet, 
All the Northern Belugas ore generally considered to belong to 
OD*' -V -•''-- but Cope, from the examination of nkeletons, ha^* die- 
tin nd named four or fi\'T*. The subject requires ttiither 

GenuB Orca^ Gray. The Killer or Grampus, Ardluk of the 
GrMolanders. Easily kjiown from all othci' Cetaceans, even 
wbeit swimming in the water, by the high narrow dorsal fin, and 
00 iAomr inspection by the broad rounded pectoral fin or flipper, 
■nd the large, ^»trong conical pointed teeth, 11 or 12 on e^ch side 
ibove and below. Black above and white below, the colours 
^m^ pbfirytiy defined and arranged in a detinite pattern. Length 
2iJ • Whether all the Killers of the Northern seas belong 

Ip •' i ' !i ( O. ffladiator, Lftt-ep.) or to several, iH still a problem 
jh can only be solved by a large collection of akcletons, accom- 

ii«d by careful <leseription6 or drawiugs of the exteiual cha- 
racler* of the same individuals. Sre D. F. E^chricht, ** On the 
Northern Species of Orca," Recent Memoirs on the Cetaeea, Ray 
Society, 1866 ; J. E. Gray, ** Supplement to the Catalogue of the 
n C.J. ... .1 \y\wies in the British Museum, 1871/' 

/ erassidrns (Owen). Teeth very like those of Orca, 
"HI II iiinhed fonn the true Killer by it^ smaller nize, 

narrow -hortcr dorsal tin, nnil more uniform diirk e»d<>ni- 

HiUicrto only met with in a subfospil state in Lincolnshire, rutd 

d 2 



44 FLOWkR.— ASCnC CEIACEA. 

OD several occasiuns in small herds near the entranoe of the 
Baltic ltd true habitat is still an interesting subject forob- 
senration. Set J. Beinhardt, ^ Recent Memoirs on il^ CeCacea,* 
Baj Soc. 1866. 

Giobieephalus melas (TraU), the Ca Ine Whale or NoC Whale, 
Grindval of the Faroese, characterised br the roond form of the 
head, very long and pointed flipper^ moderate-sized dorsal fin, 
and small and often decidooos teeth, is one of the most nnmeroiu 
and best-knowm of all the Northern Cetaceans, swimming in Teiy 
large herds or ^schools.** It attains the length of 20 feety and 
is black all over with the exception of a whitish stripe along tlie 
belly. 

Grampus griseu* (CiiTier), Risso's Grampus, is a Mediterranean 
and Atlantic species, allied to the last, bat distingoished bj its grej 
or variegated colour, smaller flipper, and fewer teeth. It has 
hitherto not been met with farther north than the entranoe to the 
Baltic. 

The Porpoise, Phoeana commumis, F. Cuvier, Sua of the Green- 
landers, is the smallest of the Northern Cetaceans, not exceeding 
5 feet in length, and the most common on the English coasts. The 
Phoccsna found on the Atlantic coast of America has been 
described as distinct firom the European species. If this be the 
case, to which does the Porpoise found in Davis Straits belong ? 

The remaining species, constituting the true Dolphins, are 
known by the more or less elongated and pointed '* beak," with 
numerous small teeth, rather high falcate dorsal fin and pointed 
pectorals. There are four well-known species in the Northern 
seas, distinctly characterised by their skeleton as well as by their 
external features, which only need be mentioned here. 

Delphinus delphis^ Linn. The common Dolphin, Ardhtarsak 
of the Greenlanders. Teeth 44 to ^>0 on each side above and 
below. Length of adult 7 to 8 feet. Black above, shaded to 
brilliant white below. 

Delphinus tursio, Fabricius. The Bottle-noeed Dolphin. Teeth 
20 to 25 on each side above and below ; truncated in old animals. 
Length 10 to 12 feet. Black above, sides dusky, white below. 

Delphinus acutusy Gray. The White-sided Dolphin. Teeth 28 
to 36 on each side above and below. Length 6 to 8 feet. 
Black above, white below ; a large white stripe on each flank. 

Delphinus allnrostris. Gray. White-benked Dolphin. Teeth 
22 to 27 on each side above and below. Length 7 to 9 feet. Deep 
purple- black above; beak, lips, and belly creamy-white; the 
colours sharply defined. 

Besides the works referred to above, the following may be 
consulted with reference to the Northern Cetacea : — • 

A. J. Malmgren : ^* Beobachtungen und ADzeichnungen uber die 
" Sauffetbier-Fauna Finmarkens und Spitzbergens." Overs. Kong. 
Sveuska Vetensk. Akad. Forhand 1864, II. p. 127. Wiegm. 
Arch. Natursch., 1864, p. 63. 

Lindomann : ** Eine Gesbichte der Arktischen Fischerei der 
« DeutHchen Seestadte, 1620 1868," in Pefermann's Mittheil, 1869, 
No. 26. 



KLUWER. — AKCTIC CETACEA. 



45 



^ 



• W. Lillif^horg ; '* Svoi%e?i oeli Norj^es Ryggnidsjur. I. Dapgd- . 
*• juren,'*contHin>*a full Itibliography of Nortbern CL'tuoen to 1873. 
Bell's " Biitish QiiadrnptMls," 2nd i-dirion (1874), Ilh» portion 
[jiliiting to Cetncea, hy Mr, E. R. Alston. A popular but accurHte 
It of the Bpecie* inhnluting the Britisb SeRi*. 



3. Ikstrtjctions for collecting and onsEUviNo tlie Birds 
of Greenland. By P. L. Sclater, M.A., F.R.a 



The ** Manual " supplied to the scientific observers of the 
Expedition contains n.n article on the Birds of Greenland by 
Profe?5«or Newton, F.R.S., drawn up sjiecially for the work in 
i|ueetion. Thi» will be found to contain a complete summary of 
thv present state of our knowledge of the (Ornithology of Green- 
land, and indications of the pnnci|>al desiderat^i as re^ardB our 
«c(iuaintAnce wiih the Birds known to occur there. 

For the determination of the European specicH, the following 
works should l>e consulted : — I'nrrelPs " History of British Birdtt '* 
(London, 1843), or MftcGilli\Tay*s "British Birds" (London, 
1839): for the American specie**, Baird's *"Birdi4 of North Ame- 
" rica" (Philadelphia, I8e>0), or Coup's »• Key to Nortb American 
« Birds "(Salem, Mass., 1H72). 

The principal objectuof th^ observers who direct their attention 
to Birds sbouhl be — 

1, To supplement the present catalogue of the Birds of Green- 
land by ascertiiininj^ the occurrence of additional s^pecies. 

2. To render our present knowledge of the species that ocimr 
ther»^ more perfect by a<lditionnl obser\'ntion8 on them. 

To this end, specimens should Ix' preserved of all the spiMiics 
uf Bird^ met with during the expedition. In the ease of idl except 
the very comuionest Hjx^cic?, examples of both »exe.^ in thevr 
vftrioMii plumage^*, as also of the cggi?, nestling, and inimalur*' form 
of jtneh m breed in the countiy, should Iw pre^ened. Kvery 
upecirocn cuUecterl should be carefully lalieHed with a Mmall paper 
or pandinient ticket attnched to the loot, un which the exact 
locality, dat^, and collectorV name, as likewise the >*ex tin ascer- 
tained by dipsection, should be rotated. Ai]<lilien«l partienlnrb 
conc4»rning each specimen (^«ucli us the colour of the iri», bill, and 
) may l^>e recorded in the collector's nole-book. 
*he obser%'ations of I hi* liird-colleetor nbould be spocfally di- 
t4>wflrds the following ])oint.H : — 

(I.) The alteration in the general cliaracter of the Avi-fanna as 
lb« Expedition procce<l8 north. 

(2.) A complete record of the species observed and obtjiined in 
the north after Smith's Sound is enlei-€<l, and the extreme northern 
limit of the occum*nce of eAch of 1 hem. 

(3.) The exact times of arrival of the migraDts from the i'outb 
afiir iUii Arctic winter, ns likewise of their departure Bouthwarda 
in the autumn. 



J 



46 SCLATER. — BIRDS OF GREENLAND. 

(4.) The habits of the species that are found nesting, that is, as 
r^ards the date and the mode of their nesting, and its continuance. 
Species specially requiring attention are — 

1. The Rock-ptarmigan (Manual, p. 100), in order to ascertain 
its specific distinctness from Lagoptis mutus, 

2. The Grey Plover (1. c, p. 101), of which the eggs are 
scarcely known to collectors. 

3. The Sanderling (1. c, p. 102), of which " authentic eggs " 
are " very rare." 

4. The Grey Phalarape (1. c, p. 102), of which ** the breeding 
" habits are little known." 

5. The Knot (1. c, p. 103), of which the nidification is *' not 
" known with any certainty.*' 

6. The Sabine's Gull (1. c, p. 105), of which the eggs are 
" extremely rare.*' 

7. The Cuneate or Ross's Gull, of the breeding-habits of which 
" nothing whatever is known," and of which specimens are ex- 
tremely scarce in collections. 

8. The Puffin of Greenland (I. c, p. 108), in order to ascer- 
tain to which form, Fratercula glacialis or K arctica, it really 
belongs. 

For the further information as regards desiderata. Professor 
Newton's concluding observations in his above-mentioned article 
should be attended to. 



4. Instructions for making Observations on, and 
Collecting Specimens of, the Fishes of Greenland. 
By Dr. Albert Gunther, F.R.S. 

The information on the Fishes of Greenland is scattered through- 
out the zoological literature ; and the treatises in which an attempt 
at giving a general account of this fauna has been made, are very 
imperfect and antiquated. Yet the following publications may be 
consulted with advantage : — 

1. Richardson, J." Fauna Boreali- Americana.** Fart containing 
the Fishes. 4to., 1829. 

2. Richardson, J. Account of the Fish, in Belcher's " The Last 
of Arctic Voyages.** Vol. ii. 

3. Reinhardt, J. " Ichthyologiske Bidnig til den Gronlandske 
Fauna,'* in Dansko Videnskabs Selsk. naturvid. og mathem. 
Afhandl." Vol. vii. 

4. Gairanrd, P. " Voyage en Islande et an Gronland, execute 
pendant les ann^es 1835 et 1836 sur hi corvette * La Recherche.' " 
Paris, 1851. 8vo. Atlas in folio. 

5. Gaimard, P. "Voyage en Scandinavie, en Laponie» au 
Spitzberg et aux Faroe, pendant les annees 1838, 1839, and 1840, 
sur la corvette * La Recherche.' " Atlas fol., Paris. 

Thus, the Naturalists cannot feil to add considerably to our 
scanty knowledge of this fauna, and to the still more imperfect 
materials in British collections. 



OITNTftER. — IT!^IIM> 1.1' GRKENL^iNO. 



47 



^yir 



CoUeet specimens of every ?pci'ies, with the exception of the 

imon Wolf-rtsli {Anarrhithns lupttJi^), the spetil*** of the genus 

ratiuj, viz., Cod-tieh, Wliiting, Pollack, Coal-fish, Ling, and 

Torsk, the lijilibut and the Capelin.f Beyond lat. 71" N. collect 

^^ fishes without exception ; jbrt^nerally three or four specimens 

'ti ctuih kind will he sufhcieut. 

2. The smaller kinds, that ia, s^pecimens which can Ije packed 
in tin boxes 2^ feet long, preatrve m spirits 20^ over proof; the 
larger specimeui^ can be skinned and preserved dry j skiuA of 
iibsiiui an? best preserved in very strong brine. 

3. To judge from the eoOpctious brought home by pre\^ous 
rollers there must be, at siuitable localitieK, an abuudance and a 

mi variety of small shore-fish^ such as Father-lashers (Cottoids), 
licklebacks, Blennies, etc.. which may be obtained by tli© anual 
m^%nn nr by emphiying nativoa or residents. 

4, The absence of Fish life at or near the s^urface is no proof 
that lishes are not abundant at a greater depth ; and whenever 
cinrumatances permit, long hand-lines should be tried. These 
hand-lines ehoidd differ from the ordinary cod-line in being much 
longpr, upwards of 80 fathonoi*. and (in the fashion of a pater- 
iioet>er) provided with hooks for about 20 fathoms from the 
einken In oi*der to allow the lines to be in the water for several 
boun<>, the hooks ought to be fastened to the snood by a number of 
open strands of soft twine about three inches long, so that the fish 
cannot bit*? through the line. I have no doubt that in this manner 
those extraonlinary Arctic tbrms which we know from isolated 
examples only, can be obtained ; nearly all of them ai*e evidently 
very voracious fishes. 

5, Although the Sharks are well represented in the Arctic 8eas, 
our knowlcMlge of them is extremely incomplete. Scarcely the 
outlines of their specific characters are known, and absolutely no- 
thmg of thcfir life-hiat'Ory. No instance is on record of a young 
Bo^tking Shark (a species by no means uncommon) having ever 
b(*eo »een, Therelbre, all observations regarding tliem ought to 
be collected ; antl specimens of a nninageable size preserved. 
Should tlm Niituralists have an opportuiiity of examining very 
Ui^e examples, uu exact outliue dt*Hwing of the entiro animal 
ibowiri"." til** i'XfU'i po»^itit»n of llie eyes, uostriJs and blow-holea 
(^1 <' nuide, and the jaws cut out and preserved, 
TIj w ks which tu'e regularly killed for Lho sake of 

uii extract*Hi irom tlieir liver, ought Uy be detemiioed ; and 
U' of the Europfiau residents on the coast be induced to pre- 
{Ant the skiuH of full grown evamples (from 2d to 36 feet 4l| 
length) for sale lo the iluseums in EurujiH'. 

6, We know of but one family of fishes inhabiting fresh waters 
of f},o Arctic region, vir., Saluaonoidd. Trout were caught during 



,1 ««coQd !.peciv^ in Greenland, v^jwrrAicAriJ rfffnto^rtt/d/iM, witii 
mil .'I iBwlh iind no imi»potted blackiwh-browii bo«ty ; thJ* spi^cien »»» 

% dc«»iJcnitum. 
f Grccnlaadii!: Angmiiksak ; Sennervalik (male with riUoos exeres- 
»), Staner^uitaui (mdc without)- Gskimo: Angmaggeook. 



48 GCNTUEK. — FlisHES OF GREENLAND. 

theToyage of the Toz '* io 72° (Bellot Strait), and in Spitz- 
Ijergen they occur several degrees farther north ; so that it iR 
probable that fishes of this family Hto in still higher latitudes. It 
is of the highest interest to ascertain the extreme limits at which 
fresh-water species can exist ; their existence being dependent on 
the presence of food and on the conditions necessary for the de- 
velopment of the spawn. Charr can live in Alpine pools which 
are free from ice for a few weeks only in favourable seasons. 

a. In collecting specimens of this family take large individuals 
in preference to small ones, as young examples of less than 8 
inches long, are but rarely suitable for specific determination. If 
the specimens cannot be brought away, ascertain whether they 
have or have not teeth along the body of the vomer, that is, 
whether they are Charr or Trout. 

b. Has the locality in which they are found, a commnnication 
with the sea ? and is there any reason to believe the fish to be 
migratory ? 

c. K possible ascertain the depth of lakes inhabited by fish, and 
whether the water is likely to freeze to the bottom. As some fish 
of temperate regions ( Cyprinoidd) can endure for a considerable 
period complete enclosure in ice, it would be of interest to prove 
experimentally that certain Arctic fish (marine or freshwater) 
are endowed with a similar tenacity of life, and to see for what 
period they can survive. 

d. Examine the stomachs of all Salmonoids, and note their 
contents, some of which may be worth preserving. 



Instructions for making Observations on, and Col- 
lecting the MoLLuscA of, the Arctic Regions. By 
J. GwYN Jeffreys, F.RS. 



Exactly two centuries ago Frederic Martens, of Hamburg, first 
noticed the MoUusca which he met with in his voyage to Spits- 
bergen and Greenland. These were the Clione papiiionacea of 
Pallas and Limacina arctica of Fabricius ; the former a naked or 
shell-less mollusk, and the latter a smaller shell-bearing species, 
both being of the Pteropod order, which inhabit the surface of 
the Arctic ocean in countless numbers, and are usually (bat 
questionably) supposed to constitute the food of whales. Since 
that time Linne, Miiller, Fabricius, Chemnitz, I^each, Gray, 
Broderip and Sowerby, Moller, Torell, Morch, Lov^n, Forbes, 
Reeve, Albany Hancock, Davidson, and several others, have 
described or noticed species from high northern latitudes ; besides 
Sars and his Scandinavian fellow-workers, who have so carefully 
and laboriously investigated the Mollusca of the Norwegian Coasts 
within the Arctic circle. No nation has done, especially of late, 
so much as Sweden to advance our knowledge of the Arctic Mol- 
Insca. In 1867 and 1868, Professor Torell, aided and enoourage4 



JBFFREVS. — .UlCTIC M<>LLi;.*if'.4. 



49 



■ the setts of Spitzl>er|?eu and Iceland ; the greatest depth reached 
hj him was 2H0 fathoms. In 1861 a second Swedish expedition 
WHS made to 8pitzl»ergen, when a species of Ci/l^ch»n was ro- 
c-orded hy Professor Loven as having been dredged at a depth of 
over 1,000 fathoms. A third Swedish expedition iu the same 
direction wafl made in 1868; smd by the kindness of Professor 
Loven' I wn» favom^d with an opportunity of examining at Stock- 
holm some of the result?. The dredgings and soundings appear 
have extended from 5 to 2,6CK) fathoms ; and, at the last- 
led depth, in N. lat. 78^ a living Crustacean {Cttma), and a 
of a Mollusk {Astarte comjyressd) were obtained. Again, 
1871, the Swedieh frigate ** Eugenia," was dispatched on a 
itific voyage to Greenland ; when Mr. Josna Lindahl, who 
iLssifited U8 in the " Porcupine " expedition of the previous year, 
the naturalist in charge. The results of this last expedition, 
regards the MoJlusca, have not yet been published ; but I was 
biformed by Mr. Lindahl, tliat in Davis'n Straits he dredged a 
species of PeccftioHa (or VeHirorfUa)^ apparently acutecostata ;* 
and Professor Lov^n to\A me that a Marginella (which is a 
Noutbern form) and a Limopsis were dredged also in Davis's 
Straits at a depth of 9(X) fathoms. 

Th© imjKtrtiince of such investigations cannot be too highly 

I, especially in a geological point of view. The palaeon- 

basis of the glacial epoch consists mainly in the identi- 

8ei^tion of certain species of Mollusca, which inhabit the Polar 

seftsand are fossil in Great Britian and even as Far south as Sicily. 

Bol such species may owe their present habitat and position to 

other than cllmatal causes, viz., to the action of marine currents. 

Certain small Spttzbergen six?cies (e.g. Lrgafrigida, and L. nhi/$- 

sicofn}, have been lately found everywhere in thu depths of the 

North Atlantic as well as in the Mediterranean ; and the question 

naturally arises what is the home of these species, or where did 

I hey originate ? That question cannot be answered for want of 

#infficient information. It is likewise quite premature to assume 

that Arctic Moliusca comprise very few species, although they 

mav abound in individuals. We know very little abont them, 

because of the difficulty of investigation. The researches of Pro- 

IfcMOiY Torell and Sars induce us to believe that these Moiluscn 

DOt less varied than mmierous. 

t is hoped that fach of the vessels to Ijo fitted out for th« 
Polar exp*?dition will have a donkey engine, by which the dredges 
can be* lifted { and that a siilTicient wupply of necessary apparatu.*$ 
will \mr provided* regaj'd being of course had to the limited space 
idloivetl for su<*h a secondary <dyect- The great exj>erience of 
Capt. Nares renders any suggestions as to dredging quite supers 
flaouft. 



Thii ipecif* 19 fouiil in the Contllioe dug of SuRblk, and the ZADclean 
' m of fiicijy ; and I drHKiil it at conatdemblc d*?plhi« in tho Bay of 
. It ha« hei'n alwj drcdgrrl by Mr. Arthur Adams in Ihfi nvta of Jupan, 
Count Pcwirlalefl in the Gulf of Me\ico. 



50 JEFFBET8.— ABCTIO MOLLUSOA. 

One difficulty will be the pi'eHervation of any soft or Bheii-iess 
MoUusca in high latitudes, where spirit of wine would frees&e ; bat 
this may be obviated by having accurate drawings of the animalB 
made on the spot. Perhaps one of the medical staff in each 
vessel could do this. In lower latitudes such MoUusca might 
be kept in methylated spirit in thick glass jars, space being 
allowed for expansion by subsequent freezing. 

The larger shell- bearing MoUusca may be wrapped up ill wool 
or paper and placed in wooden covered trays, such as were used in 
the " Porcupine " and " Challenger " expeditions ; and the smaller 
shells could be kept in wooden boxes or stout piU boxes. The 
rest of the dredged material should be carefully kept in canvass 
bags. 

In every case, it is of the greatest consequence that the latitude 
and longitude of the place of capture, as weU as the depth, 
should be recorded by means of linen labels, prepared so as to 
make the print and writing ineffiw^able by sea water. 

Where the ground or sea-bottom is muddy, a fine sieve may be 
used in a large tub of water to get rid of the impalpable mud ; 
or the '* globe sieve " may be worked overboard for the same 
purpose. A descriptive account of these contrivances wiU be 
found in the preliminary report of the" Porcupine" exploration in 
1869, in No. 121 of the proceedings of the Royal Society, p. 416. 
I would strongly recommend also the " scoop-sieve *' (loc, cit.) for 
catching Pteropods, Cuttle-fishes, and other animals on the sur&oe 
of the sea. Towing-nets of muslin or fine gauze may be used 
for the capture of small Pteropods and Oceanic Crustacea ; and 
the stomachs of fishes and star-fishes should be examined for shells. 
See " Hints for CoUecting " in " British Conchology," voL v. The 
crops of sea-birds occasionally contain shells; but these shells 
would be of littoral species and therefore not of much scientific 
value. 

The rocks and seaweeds on the coast should be diligently 
scarclicd for species of Litiorina, Lacuna, Purpura^ Buceinutn, 
and other littoral shells. And it should be borne in mind that 
too many specimens of different ages cannot be coUected. The 
mischievous practice of species-making would not have been 
carried to such an extent if naturalists had before them a suite of 
(specimens to show the range of vanation, instead of being re- 
Htricted to two or three specimens, and sometimes only to what is 
called a " unique " specimen. 

Land and fresh-water shells, when procurable, would be ex- 
tremely interesting, and would serve to elucidate one of the difilicait 
problems of geographical distiibutiou. The former may be looked 
for under loose stones and among mosses ; and the latter in pools 
of water, during the summer and autumn. MoUer described several 
species from Greenland. 

I may add that aU fossU sheUs should be collected, and their 
position accurately noted, especially the height above the pi^esent 
level of the sea. The former conditions and climate of the Polar 
region may be thus ascertained, and a new chapter opened in the 
history of our globe. 



51 



6, Instructions on the Collection and Preservation of 
Htdkoids and PoLYZOA. By G. J. Allman, M.D., 
FX.S., F.R.S. ^____^ 

HiritROiiyA* 

In the not«8 on the towing net reference is made to the 

Hydrciid Medusa as among the objects most frequently captuix^d in 

ihi* net % Awd it is ^nted that tliese almost always originate ad 

bnds fnnD rooted plant-like zoophytes. These hydroid zoophytes 

grow like aea-weeds lieneath the sea ; ihe bods, wliich when ma- 

tiiri; detach themselves and ffpend the i*emttinder of their lives as 

free-8wimmera in the open sea, ttre the sexuul portion of the hydroid 

colony, find are destined to give origin to generative elements, 

Hjfe and feinak'j by which the species is perpetuated, while the 

Hhed plant -like portion con<^iBt{) for the roost part of a innllitude 

|Hktle hydnmthj* or polyp ites dei^tined not for ^nertttion but lor 

^MKion. These are minute flower-like liodie^, eueh with a month 

^Kti " central point in the flower, and snn'onnded by con- 

Wm^ loles which are mostly so disposed as to resemble the 

petalB and other verticils of a rifgular fiower i the whole of the 

hydinntlis are organically united into a compo^^ite rooted colony. 

In mnny cju^c», however, the generative buds do not detach them- 

M-lve-** at any perio<l of theii- existence, and then Ihey fonii, like the 

bydranths, a permani'nt plant of the common colony. The rooted or 

nntritive portion of the colony is the trophostome ; tlie lissemblage 

of generative bude whether permanently fixed or destined to be* 

como free is the gonoeome. When these buds l)ecoino free, as in 

the <fHM^ til tJie medur^£B al)ove referred to, they may be named 

planobhi«tB. A few woitlw oti the mtxles of collecting the tropho- 

ftfmies may here be added to what ha* alrea<ly bwn said regarding 

the planobla^tH. 

, While the phmoblagts must be sought for by the towing net, the 

■jftlfHl trophoeomes are obtained by means of the dredge or by 

^^tntnin;.' rlio rf*ck-^ loft ex^josed by the retiring tide, 'fhei'e is 

idir' U tliPHe b« aiitiful organifims may not \h* 

•OCfi I >ut they are most abundant in moderately 

ili^p wat<^r. They here lix themselves to masses of rock or to 

dd 0bella, or to frea-woeds or other bodies affording a t^ufficienl 

[-•iiHaoc* i'or atlachmenf, and in c*ome rare cafees they mot thcnmelveH 

hn |b'- K-M..K M II Loitorn. The rrgion between tide mark;^ will jiL 

lorv I a rich harvest to the collector. Hero tho 

* • ^. M. .rr. . 1 routed to ihe sides of roek pools or lixe<l in 

s or undei tin ptuiectionij of the rocks, or spreading over 

MM "uriirt^e of fxpdwcd hca-wceds, Lai-ge U)o?e atones lying bi'- 

tweeti tide miirkg ought t>o be turned over, and the an<lor Murfa^e 

^ ' r hydroid tropbasomej* many of which are obirfly found 

I ions, f^peciall^ on ftones which lie neiir the extreme 

r. If any portion of the atones or rocka on which 

broken ofi* and carried away with them no much 

r, they arc to be detached by means of a broad 

i Tindor their point of uttaeluneiit. When growing 

ot to be Bepai'ated from these. If the shelhi 

y be broken and the fragmentij pv^ft©rve^\ wH\\ 



«z}ir>^ v> lix*: JILT lirtj T«rT «««i diT lip aad }c«ie> 510^ of dMir 

IVfc PoItka oftK-o ref^mbie the bjdrotd tropbceooKis so doaritj 
tidtt tb«r iaei^tneDCibA csoSeetor can scarcelj be ei^pertcd to di»* 
tjngiikb tb«Bi,u»4 ind^^d oo this point he laeeA do( trooble hinwrif, 
li&r tJw; deunniitttioD of their disoDgnishing chanden bst wcil 
^A kft Uj fotore carefbl examinatioii. Like the hTdrnds ihej fonn 
for the moit pairt |Jaot«like cc4oiii«^ «oiiietiiDes giving rise to 
bnuMrhimg eoloniee like tofu of s^4'W^eeJL and sometimes spreading 
lik^ lichfswi oyer the rurfsine of ssooes shells^ and algr. The cir- 
cumBUmtxsi aoder which ther ooeur aie ahnost entirely the same as 
in the cajie of the hvdroid tropbosomes, ani tbej are to ^ coUecAed 
and pi>f»erred in the tamt waj. 

7. Instructioxs od the CoxsTRrcnox and Method of 
Using the Towixg Xet, and Notes on the Axixaus 
which may be obtained by its employment. By 
G. J. AI.L1CAX, M-D., P.LS., F.RS. 



COXSTBCCTIOS OF THE ToWlNG XeT. 

The towing net is a smi^l bag made of some material open 
enoogfa in its textore to allow of the water easily passing through 
it, and yet sufficiently close to retain within it such minute bodies 
at it may encounter in its passage through the sea. Its mouth is 
kept open by a strong ring, and it is towed behind the vessel by 
means of a line fastened to the ring. 

The bag may be made of fine straining-linen or of new bunt- 
ing ; and in the size which will be found most generally useful it 
may have a depth of about 18 inches, and a width across its 
mouth of about a foot. The ring which surrounds the mouth 
may be a wooden hoop ; or it may be made of brass rod strong 
enough to resist the tendency to become beut when the net is 
being drawn through the water. 

Three pieces of strong line about two feet ic Jength are to be 
fastened at equal intervals to the ring, and tied together securely 
at their oppof«ite ends. To the point of their union the towing 
line is to be attached. With a net of the size here suggested, a reel 
of Ktrong '^ hake-line " will make the best towing line for all the 
ordinary velocities at which towing may be most advantageously 
practised. 

Mode of Using the Net. 

When thus rigged the net may be used from a row boat, or 
from a sailing vessel or stenraer under moderate way. It may be 
thrown out from the stern ; and in sur£Etce-towing sufficient way 
must Ijo given to keep the mouth of the bog close to the surface 
of the water. Many of the small objects which may be floating 



ALLMAN, — USE OF THE TOWING NET. 



53 



I 



or near the surface of the sea in the way of the net as it is thus 
twed behind the vciiise], will ticcessaril J pass into it; and after 
it has been allowed to remaio OQt for a ptTiml varying with the 
ftbundanee of surface life in the sea at the time, it h to be bauUHl 
in and examlne<l. 

Tliough the richest results are usually obtained by using the 
towing net dose to the surface of the sea, it will frequently be 
found important to employ it at various depths, in order to obtain 
information regarding the organiBms which either liabitunlly or 
ijwrarily inhabit zones other than the most superficial one, 
''or tins purpose the net i» to be weighted ; the weight attached 
depending on the depth to which it is desired to sink it, and 

the velo^iity of tlic sihip. Care should be taken that while the 
net \» out the motion of the vessel be not interrupte<l, and that 
foiScient way \>e given to keep the net constantly distended in it« 
pAsaitge ih rough the water. 

It will generally be advisable to employ two net>s at the same 
lime, one working close to the surface, and the other sunk lo 
mftne deteimined depth below it.* 

In the directions now given, the towing net is supposed to be 
lowed behind the vessel in open water; but the Arctic; explorer 
should be reminded that some of his richest fields will be foujid 
in places where the ice is for short distances discontinuous, and 
where i<mal] portions of unfrozen water will be thus exposed, 
Hrrc oceanic form.s will congregate in rich profujiion attract^ed by 
tlie light and air. In the smaller spfices so exposed we may use 
with moHt advantage a towing net Himilar to that hi-ro descriljed, 
but, implead of being provided with a towing line, it should be 
fijted to the end of a |>ole, and worked with the hand. 

Another mode of using the towing net, 
which is often attended with the best re- 
sults, consists in leaving it suspentled 
from the ahip while at rest in the tideway 
or in the course of currents. It may be so 
left for several hours, and then hauled in 
fbr cxamintttion, A net used in this way, 
however, will be found moat etVective if it 
lio const ructc'd somewhat <litlerentiy from 
llie ctrdinory one. A piece of the same 
matcriiil as that of Avhich the rest of the 
nef is couipose«l i«houhl be isewed withifv 
i\M monib «o as to form a sort of diaphragm 
in ;m' of an inverted eone with au 

, as shown in the annexed 
This serves to retain whatever 
once ma«le its way into the net. The 
fundus of the bag is closed by simply 
tfin^ A eord round it, nud its contents arc 
lo Uc irxiiminetl from the bottom by un< 
tying the cord and washing out the bag 
m |]i9 way to be presently flescribcd. 




I by Captain Nures that thn pinu wftn coouaonly fldoutt-rt 
Mf ir.M.S. •^ClmUenger." ^ 



54 ALLMAN. — ^TTSE OF THE TOWINO NET. 

The chief difficulty which the collector will here have to contend 
against will be found in the presence of floating refuse matter 
which *i8 being constantly discharged from the ship, and which 
when the vessel is under way is generally carried clear of the net 
by the force of the water thrown off from the ship's sides. In 
order to avoid as much as possible this source of annoyance, the 
towiDg line may be attached to the extremity of a long pole fixed 
at right angles to the side of the ship. 

Freeing the Net of its Contents. 

The ordinary towing net immediately on being hauled on board 
is to be carefully tum^ inside out into a vessel containing some 
sea-water in wluch it is to be moved about in order to wash off 
such minute organisms as may i)e adhering to its surface. The 
kind of vessel best suited for this purpose will be found to be 
a white glazed earthenware pan provided with a lip, such as are 
used in dairies for holding milk. 

From the washings of the net the larger objects are now to 
be removed, and quickly transferred to dear glass jars of sea- 
water for ^rther examination ; while the water with the remain- 
ing organisms should be poured from the pan into one or more 
such jars, each capable of holding about half a pint. 

Tliese smaller organisms are frequently so colourless and tran»- 
parent that it is at first difficult to see them in the jars ; a little 
practice, however, will enable the observer to recognise them, 
and he must now transfer to other jars, containing sea- water, 
such as he wishes to keep and observe further in a living state, 
for if left crowded together, even for a few hours, the water will 
become vitiated, and the delicate, frequently gelatinous organisms 
become decomposed and worthless for observation. 

This separation and transference is best effected by glass dip 
tubes. 

Results obtainisd. 

The objects captured in the towing net are very numerous and 
various, and are among the most beautiful and interesting of 
the more simply organised inhabitants of the sea. The towing 
net has been hitherto used almost exclusively in the temperate and 
equatorial latitudes, and we, as yet, know very little of what may 
be obtained by it in the Arctic Seas. The following account of 
its results applies, therefore, directly only to those seas where the 
naturalist has used it, but it will nevertheless serve as a guide 
to tha Arctic explorer, and suggest to hini what he ought to 
keep in view. 

Plants, 

The members of the vegetable kingdom which will find their 
way into the towing net will cliiefly consist of the very low groups 
constituting the orders DiatomacetP and Osci/ifitorifB, the former 
provided with siliceous cases and retaining indefinitely theit external 
form ; the latter destitute of any firm support, and speedily 
decomposing and losing all their important characters. lu some 



Al^LMAl^. — USE OF THE TOWING NET. 



55 



tbeee low forms ol' vegetable life abound to such an extent 
%» to discolour the ^^'at-er over very wide areas, and they not 
unfrequently ^riously interfere with the work of thi* lowing 
nef by rendering the washings of the net 8o turbid as to hide the 
(inimals taken at the same time, while the rapid df^cora- 
litioD of their soft parts speedily vitiates the water and destroyn 
snob animida as have been allowed to remain with them. 

To preserve them the washings of the net shoutd be thrown on 
m filter in order to get rid of the superfluous water, and the matter 
wtlieh ramain^ should while still moist bo traosfeiTed to glass 
mbce coDtaining spirit. 

Protozoa, 

Among this lowest group of the animal kingdom the collector 
sbotdd be on rhe lo«»k-out for Radioiarite and Fo^rammifri'tf, 
Though the hard siliceous eases and fi-amework of the iiadiolai'iw 
and the calcareous shells of the Foraminiforte will usually retaui 
their forms afU.M' the destruction of the soft parts, it i.s far better 
to traiwfer to the spirit the whole organism at once by means 
of the dip tube. Other microscopic Protozoa, guch as Noctiluea 
and Petidiniums aw well as tii<' tnie cilmtr Infusoria^ ought also 
to be watched for. Among these last ai"c the Dictr/oc^stidit, 
a group of pelagic Infusona having a close resemblance to 

'"•'* Railiolari^e by their elegant siliceous bell-shaped Bhellt* 

od in the manner of lattice-work. In most cartes, how- 
• w-i, these microiicopic organisms are no minute as to render 
impracticable the aepamtion and transference to spirit of any 
^ 'Uanlitiea of them. We mnat then be contented with 
U|* such as can be obtained, on microscope slides or in 
etJi-^ a process, however, which takts time and labour, and needs 
30010 practice in the ail of microscopic mouutiug. 

Cfelfifiieraia, 

in in this group tliat some of the most, abundant and im- 
tant re9tilt« follow the use of the towing net. 
Among the most striking and int^*re siting inhabitants of the 
face zone of the sea in all latitude?^ are the Ht/droid Mrdnsne, 
gelatinous, more or less bell-shaped or umbrella-'^liaped 
«gaiiu»mft, which mostly originating as buds from plunt-llke 
hjdrotdfl (or zoophytes) fixed to the sea bottom, free themselves 
jifler a time from their supporting stems, and spend the rest of 
tlieir IJvns in a state of activity at the surface, where they swim 
by %ht expansion and contraction of thi^ir gelatinous bells. When 
pOwiHle, drawings ought to be made of these beautiful animals, 
/broo means have yet been discorercil of presening their forms 
after dimth with anything like siitisfactory result*;. Many, how- 
over^ may be fairly preserved by placing them in methylated 
«p&rlt ; and as this seems to he the best method we possess 
of preserving their zoological characters, it should never h© 
. negi«cled* 

■ Nftriy idlied tn the. Hydroid MeduHa\ and with very similar 
fc Wvil*^ are the Siphonopkom. Ther<i' usually form long garland- 

Ik 



50 ALLMAN. — USE OF THE TOWING NET. 

like series of transparent, gelatinous, vuriously shaped bodies, 
frequently ornamented with spots of bright colour, scarlet or 
omnge. They may be easily detected swimnnng with a rhythmical 
repetition of impulses near the surface of the sea. They require 
great care in their capture, being formed of numerous zooids or 
more or less independent buds, which by rough handling are 
easily sepa]*ated from one another. Though less easily broken to 
pieces than some other groups of tLsstx^iatod zooids, sach aa the 
chains of Salpa;, to be presently referred to, those taken in the 
towing net will often be found injured, and a perforated or brass 
wire gauze ladle slipt under them while swimming will generally 
be found the best way of removing them from the sea. Here 
again dm wings ought to be made when possible, as no known 
method of pi-eservation will satisfactorily retain their characters. 
The best is that above recouimended for the Hydroid Meduse. 
Other forms of Siphonophora, such as Physalia (Portuguese Man 
of War), Velclla and Porpitay obtained abundantly in the more 
equatorial latitudes, have iirm supports of the soft parts, and are 
therefore x^\\q\\ more easily preserved. None of these have yet 
been taken in Arctic seas. They are best preser\^ed by being 
placed in methylated spirit. 

The Discophorous Medu^(p present a general resemblance to 
the Hydroid Medusne iu their gelatinous umbrella-shaped swim- 
ming disc, by the rhythmical contraction of which they impel 
themselves through the sea. They attain, howevt'r, for the most 
jmrt a much larger size. The smaller forms may be treated as 
lias been recommended for the preservation of the Hydroid 
Medusa; and Siphonophora ; but we should scarcely recommend 
any attempt to preserve the larger ones, which fr(H]ucntly attain i 
diameter of one or more feet,* and which would need (to obtain at 
Ix^st veiy unsatisfactory results) more preserving liquid and space 
than could be afforded them. Here again the aid of the draughts- 
man is indispensable. 

Both Hydroid and Discophorous Medusae arc commonly known 
by the name of "jelly fish." The obsin-vations of Scoresby and 
of the naturalists attached to KotZ(»bue's voyages liave proved 
that both forms abound in high latitudes. 

The Ctenophora {Be roe, CydippVy &e.) form a large part of the 
surface lift^ of the sea. They arc often of coiLsiderablc size, are 
constant products of the towing net, and ought to be preserved in 
the way indicated for the Medusie and Siphonophora. 

The other division of the CcelenteraUi, exemplified by Ses 
Anemones and Corals, havt* few free- swi nun ing n*prosentativeft 
One of these, however, Arachnactis, may be exp4»cted to occur in 
the Arctic seas, 

Echwodcrmata. 

The larval forms of most of the Evhinodcrmata (Sen Urchin? 
Star-iishes, &c.) consist of raiinite i'ree-swininiing organisms which 
are among the most frequent captures of the t4>\vinj» n«n. 'lliey 
should be rcmoved by the dip tube from the washings of the net 
and tmiisfenvd to spirit. 



^^^H ALLH.VN. — V^E OF TITK TOWING XET. 67 

^^^^^ Vermes, 

^BLmoug llie Vermes (Sea Wonuft. i&c), wo have some remark- 
aliff* pelagic fre<^-&whuii)ifig forms which frcqueut the uppermost 
xotw of the sea. 

The curious Sit^itta, a little clear crystalliDC stylette-likc hody 
from half ou inch to aniiich in IcugLli with u delicate cjuiulrilutcrul 
trti!-fin, ami nioviiii* hy a succession of rapid jerks, is soraetimes very 
lihiiiidaDt in the Brilinh sens, and would probably he found further 
north. So also the heaiitiful Tomoptaris^ a little auioval of the 
purest ti'anspar«?ncy, attaining u length of ttbout Jin inch and pro- 
vided with a series of transparent double psiddlc-like (ins which 
run down each aide of the body, is another jtelagic form of the 
Worms which ought to he met with in hij^b latitudes. Both these 
animal'^ will be best preserved in spirit. 

A jjreat many of the Sea Worms, however sedentary they may 
\m^ in their adult ?tnges, .*»re in their larval condition free-swimming 
pelagic forms. They are full of interest in the light they throw 
upon the phenomena of dovelojunent, and on the atfinities of din- 
taut :r'''>'^P'^ of tlie animal kingdom. They should, therefore, he 
ahv uUy noted, removed by the aiti of the dip tube from 

th<> ;- of the net, .ind preserved us far as possible by 

tmmt*rsioD in spirit. 

Artkropoda. 

Among tlie itiverteluate life which abounds in Arctic w^a^, and 
wJiii-b from (ho concurrent testimony of Arctic voyagers constitute 
'» ci lie feature of their fauna will be found lb*- Amphipo- 

do*< rra. These are small active animals, must fami I imty 

kijowti tu n» by the " sand hoyipers " of our own shores. In Arctic 
iranons they are often attracted in countless multitudes by frag- 
Hpts of otial thrown into the sea. To such an extx'nt do they 
BRnnd there that the carcass of a seal has been in a few haura 
reduced by them to the condition of a clean skeleton. They frequent 
thHous deptlis from the surface downwards, and may be all well 
[preserved in spirit. 

Among ihe Isopod CntMncra {Idotea^ Jke.), wo also Jlnd active 
free-swimming apecies which frequent the surface zone of the sea 
and are constantly captured in the towing net. They may be pre- 
served like the amphipoda in spirit. 

Minute ^Entomostracons Crtistuvio^ especially thoHC belonging to 
Ui9 group of the Copcpodn^ arc often captured in amazing quanti- 
Kiet :ii the towing net. As Avith other microscopic forma the 
Attcnipi to separate them from the washings of the net with the 
YWW of preserving them is troublesome and difficult. If how- 
,eyer the collector has an abundant stock of patience he may here 
Ida ilip tube and phlrds of spirit with advantage. At all 
1 1» other animals which it may Ije desirable to preserve for 
any length of linie in a living state nhould never be left along 
with thctt** little Cruatttcea when they are contained in the jars in 
»tiy coniiiderablc c|uiiiitity, for the Entomostraca rapidly deeom- 
jiosBS and render the water unfit for other forma of life. 



58 ALLMAN. — USE OF THE TOWINa NET. 

The Crustacea are aJso rich in larval forms which abound in 
the most superficial zone of the sea, where their development ia 
&voured by the more intensified conditions of light and aeration 
to which they are there exposed. Among those larval forms are 
the free-swinmiing young of the higher Crustacea, especially those 
known to the older observers under the name of Zoea, at a time 
when these immature organisms were regarded as completely 
developed and independent forms. Also the larvae of the Bar' 
nacles, a low section of the Crustacea, which, thonsh absolutely 
fixed in their adult state, spend the early period of meir lives aa 
free-swimmers in the open sea. These are all active creatures 
of singular, and often grotesque aspect, and are among the most 
frequent captives of the towing net Many of them are of great 
interest in their bearing on the laws of development and on the 
aflBnities of groups. They admit of being well preserved in spirit 

Mollusca, 

Among the most abundant and striking pelagic forms are the 
Salpte belonging to the low molluscoid group of the Tunie{Ua. 
They are of a somewhat oval or prismatic shape, attaining a length 
of from half an inch to two or even three inches ; they are of crystal- 
line transparency, with usually a large brown, reddish, or purple 
globular body visible within them near one end, and caused by the 
location at this spot of some of their more important viscera^ They 
swim in jerks near the surface of the sea, either singly or united into 
long chain-like groups. Being of considerable consistence notwith- 
standing their clear gelatinous appearance, they can generally be 
very well preserved in spirit ; but great care must be taken not 
to separate the components of the chain-like series which are very 
easily detached from one another. Indeed when taken in the 
towing net these are very often found to be broken up, and the 
safest way of capturing them is by gliding under them as they 
swim past the vessel a perforated ladle, as has been recommended 
in the case of the Siphonophora, and then carefully transferring 
the whole chain to spirit. 

AppemUcularia is another tunicate also frequently taken in the 
towine net. It is a minute clear oviform creature, of about the 
size of a millet seed, and easily recognized by a rapidly vibrating 
transparent ribbon-shaped swimming organ, somewhat resembling 
the tail of a tadpole, and springing from a point near one end of 
the body. It maybe transferred to spirit by means of the dip tube. 

Holding a much higher position among the Mollusca are the 
Pteropoda. These are free-swimming animals provided with a 
pair of wing-like appendages by the aid of which they flit through 
the superficial zone of the sea. They are usually dear-bod i^, 
and either colourless or tinged with some shade of purple, and 

fsnerally attain a length of from half to three quarters of an inch. 
ome of them are said to be diurnal in their habits, sinking into 
the deeper regions during the night, while others are believed to 
be nocturnal and to withdi'aw themselves from observation during 
the day. These statements, however, require confirmation. Some 




AIXMAN. — IT8E OF THE TOT^TNG NET. 



59 



of them are provided with a delicate transparent shell, others are 
quite naked. Some of the naked forms {Clio) have hng been 
?iated in the accounts of Arctic voyage with the iauna of high 
them BCfls, where they occur in immense numl>er«i, and are be- 
Kcved bj the whale tishera to form the principal food of the whale. 
Tbev RTP easily taken in the towing net, are of considerable 
COT . and can be well preserved in spirit. 

i rcpoda { Carinariaf Atlnntay flrola^ &c)> another tVee- 

siN^uimiug form of the higher MoUiisca, are also either naked or 
provided* with an external ?hcll, which may be large enough to 
enclose the entire animal, or be only Bufficieut for the protection 
of the respiiatory ami reproductive organs. They swim by means 
of A rertical tin, which projects from the ventral surface. They 
are abundant in the wanner temperate, and equatorial seas. 
Their habits resemble those of the Pteropoda, and they may be 
captured aud preserved in the same way. 

Some of the Nudibranchiate Oasteropodous Moliftsca also possess 
pelagic habits. It is rare, however, to find among them free- 
ewimmiog epecies, and they are mostly indebted for fheir pelagic life 
to floating sea weed (Gulf weed, &c.) on the fronds of which they 
habitaally Live, and by which they are carried about fifom place to 
place in the open sea. Floating £>ea-weed, indeed, ought always 
to be carefully examined. It frequently affords a rich storehouse 
of nire aoimali^ which are for the most part easily preserved in 
spirit, 

Jkmoag the Mollusca are also many free* swimming larval foims. 
Tlieee are all minute animals, generally furnished with a pair of 
con^picuouB wing-like swimming organs, and with a little nautilus- 
like i»hie]l. Though proceeding from more or loss sedentary 
parent^ their life in this stage is entirely that of the free-swim- 
ming Pteropodfi^ and they become easy captives of the towing net. 
They must be removed by the dip tube, and preserved in spirit. 



m 



Vertebra ta. 

We can hardly expect to meet with vertebrate animals among 
the content* of the towing net- Occasionally, however, small fishes 
(Syn^nathida?, &c.) frequent the most aoperfieial zone, and will 

he • ■ ■ 1 in the net. Small fishes of pelagic habit are not 

nni taken among floating sen weed. All these should 

he pre'terved jn spirit. The oceurrenoe of fioating fish-eggs should 
be noted, and specimens reserved. 



I. 



PHOSPeoBEttCKNCE. 

It ifl now well aiKXTt4uned that the rhosphorescence of the sea 

T,.»i.,}y due tu living animals which frequent by night the more 

lal Korjes ; and no opi)ortunity of carefully observing this 

*/m»inon ought to be neglecteiL It is of importance to know 

Tarious species to which the ligbt-giving function nmst Ije 

id to d<^ternnne the conditions whir^li mny fdd Iht! 

Interfere with it. The collector should uUvay>* uiuke 

a iiol4i ul the possessioD of this property by any animals iu v/hich 

r 2 



i 



60 ALLMAN.— USE OF THE TOWING NET. 

bo may have observed it. On occasions when tbe luminosity oi 
the sea may b<* exceptionally intense, or wben on tbe other luiad 
this phenomenon may be exceptionally feeble, the temperature of 
the sea and the meteorological conditions present should be care- 
fully noted. 

Times of using the Towing Net. 

The hours during which the towing net may be employed with 
the best results are various. In the temperate and equatorial seas 
some of the surface-dwellera remain habitually in the deeper 
regions during the day, and come to the surface only in the 
evening and during the night, while others will be found near the 
BurfiEice only in the daytime. In such latitudes the surface-life of 
the aeA is usually found most abundant about sun rise, and again 
shortly after sunset. In Arctic regions, however, with the very 
different distribution of light and darkness, the habits of marine 
animals may be something quite different. These can be learned 
only by careful observation, and we as yet know little or nothing 
of them. 

Preserving Liquids. 

In the above directions the only preserving liquid mentioned is 
alcohol. This is certainly the most generally useful one, and will 
probably be found the only one practically available in high polar 
latitudes. It may be used in the form of methylated spirit of the 
ordinary commercial strength. 

Schulze recommends for the presentation of very small Medus» 
and other small delicate organisms, that they be placed, while alive, 
in a watch-glass with sea water, and then rapidly killed by drop- 
ping into the water a 1 per cent, solution of osmic acid. After 
lying some minutes in the osmic acid they are to bo immersed in 
pure water, and from this transferred to spirit. 



8. SuppLEMENTAEY Instructions. By Professor Huxlet; 

Sec. R.S. 



The authors of the preceding pages have so fully covered the 
ground of zoological instruction, that I have but few observa- 
tions to offer. 

It is desirable that no opportunity of seeking for Insecta, Arach- 
nida, Myriapoda, and Annelida, on land or in fresh water, should 
be neglected. As in the Swiss glaciers, insects may occur in pools 
on land ice. Considering how few such' specimens are likely to 
be obtained, it will be well to preserve any that may be found in 
spirits. The contents of the crops of birds will be worth exami- 
nation on the chance of finding remains of such animals. Minute 
fresh-water entomostracous Crustacea and Infusoria are particu- 
larly worthy of notice and preservation. • The latter may be pre 
served in spirit if previously treated with osmic acid. 



UXLEY. — ZttniAUi\ : ^IPPLEMENTABY INSTRUCTIONS. Gl 






The extcnjftl aini niK^rriftl parasites of imimmiils, birds, und 
lishes fihotiUl be souj^ht for and prewervod in spirit, tbe organs of 
I he aninml from which thoy nre obtained l>eing carefully noted. 
It would be interesting to know if the Arctic Canidte aic liable to 
be infest^^d with Pentastomutn, n Inrge-sixcd vermiform parasite 
which occurs irj the froutal sinu,scs of the dog. The aWominal 
cavity of fiifhes of the cod trilie nnd other deep-water fishes may 
yield specimens of the worm-like Myxioid fishes, of which only 
veiy few forms are at present known. 

The experience of previous voyagers shows that aniphipod and 
i^opod Cmstacea may bo captured in grejit numbers by letting 
down a piece of meat into an ice-hole ; and the exploration of the 
ci>u(«Tit« of the fitomachs of fishes, and especially of any of the 
whalebone whales, will probably yield a harvest of polagtc Crus- 
tacea and Molluscs. 

It is needless to remark on the importance of dredging when- 
ever opportnnity ofiery, and on the value of alt fjpeciinenH of 
fd Crinoids that may be obtained. The rare and lingular 
ian Cheli/f^oma^ the te«t of which is covered with polygoniil 
plates, may possibly be met with, and, if so, should be carefidly 
preserved in spirit. 

One oi' the most interesting points to Avhich the naturalists can 
direct their attention, jjowever, is thr obtaining of niateriab for 
I Ibc determination of the nature of the microscopic surluce Fannu 
IMid Flora, and the comparison of it with the sea bottom in tln^ 
*«ime localities. The latter will, of course, be obtained by Honnd- 
ing. The former may be secured and preserved in the manner 
adopted by Dr. Houker in the Antarctic expedition. Thi>s method 
consists simply in filtering a certain quantity of Bca-water, taken 
at the surface and free from obvious impurities, through line fiber 
papt*r. After a sufficient filtrate lias been obtained, the scpiarft of 
tillering pa|>er may either be folded up with the filtrate ioaiile, 
iUv latitu<lc and longitude being written with a dark black pencil 
on the otitside, and simplv drieil ; or better si til, it nuty be put* 
wbile wlUl ihimp, into strong spirit. Perhapn even water, strongly 
impregnated with creosote, might sutficc to preserve Huch collec- 
iionn; but it will lie desirable nctt to trust to this without first 
Irying ihe eflcct of maceration in such a fiuid on the- paper. 

Saiifft. arc rxcellent collectors of eurface organisms, and when- 
ever Iney arc met with in ntnnbers it will be worth whili" U\ pre- 
wrve a gcMjd many for the sakr of the micro^cupie organiwma 
eontntn<*d in tlic alimentrtiy canal. In the cuse of the lai^er' 
M^ilptr^ the end, nsnally ct*lonied, which contains the st(on.'*ch m«y 
Iw cut off from a nundwr of specimens, and prenervcd for ths 
pur]K>sc. 

The* xtornachs of I^nnrlliliranclis obtained by the dtH^^Hjgo will 
ipveiximdiy valuable information respecting the- jiiiimle organismaj 
nt the bottom. 



IL—BOTAXY. 



1. Ixarnnjcnoys in Botaxt. Bt Dr. J. Daltqx Hookeb, 
C.R, President of the'Roval Society. 



There are manj obisenrations to be made oa the hftbits mad dis- 
tribation of Arctic pliint5> and importaai collections to be formed 
illastrHtiye of the local conditions of the climate and geological 
character of the regions they inhabit. A reference to the account 
of the GreenlaQil Flora, republished iu the Manual prepared for 
the u?^ of the Expedition, s-hows how complicatevl is the problem 
of the migration of Arctic plautif, and how mach there is still to 
V>e leamrd from mere collections oi^ sjiocimens, provided these be 
complete for each locality, well preserTcd, and carefully ticketed. 
Quit*- iii mnch lUso is to be learned of the life-history of Arctic 
|)br.t- : a field of rescitrcli in which nothing has been observed, and 
om: Mr wide that but a few indications as to what may be done can 
her^ be given. In this particular branch of inquiry the observa- 
tion^ muat for the most part be suggested by the obserrer himself; 
aD«l ail original and inquiring mind may find nckny paths to dis^ 
covery even in the study of the (Kwrest flora under its most un- 
promijiing aspects. 

Flowerixg Plants. 

There is reason to suppose that certain of the s^^ecies of Arctic 
gf-nera freely hybridise, especially those of Dniba, Saxifraga, and 
Salix. 1 can account in no other way for the number of inter- 
mfM'inU: forms that are found in nil extensive collections, and this 
bf;tween plants so distinct in other countries as the white and 
yf>llow-flowered Drabas. Hybridisation may also account in some 
dcgrf-f; for various supposed species rarely fruiting, though this is 
more proljahly due to tho sudden accession of snow or other meteo- 
rologif.-ai caus^-s at the period of fertilization. 

Jn C4^ynnr'xion with the above subj*x?t, the pollen of the various 
•4p«'r;i(;s should \}e carefully examined, and obsenntions made as to 
whether it is (.-arried by the wind or by insects from flower to 
flower ; and whffther the surface of the stigma is viscid, or papil- 
hm:, or clothed with hairs ; and whether the flowers secrete honey 
on the j«tals, disk, or elsewhere. All association of insects with 
plantit should be carefully noted, and their effects watched. It is 
doulitful if any annual flowering plant attains a very high latitude; 
the haunts of land animals, as the musk ox, &c. should be searched 
for Huch. Sfiecimens of flowering plants should be abundantly 
eoIIf'Cted lK)th in flower and fruit, and this in all localities, keeping 
a very earf ful look out to secure all the species of such Families as 



HOOKER. BOTANICAL IXSTRUCriONS. 



CJ3 



and sedges which resemble one anotlier &o miich| and ta 
both sexes of the willows* 
Selected gpecimeos of extreme forms and varieties of spedes 
#houId l^e sedulously collected, ia order to show the limita of 
variation in n given area, and all circumstanceft that seem to 
inflneuce variation should be noted. 

Any modification of the fades of the vegetation in the 
^•rrons localities should be noted, as also the relative abundance 
o£ the ubiquitous as well as of the scarcer *'apeoieS» 
If tnce of growth, <fcc. 

8oil collected on icebergs, or on transported masses of ice, 
^^onh] l,L. KP^trched for seod^, root*, and remaiuK of pUiutf!?, and if 
pread out and kept moist, till any »<eeds it may contain 
.»*> germinated. ITie number of kinds that germinate 
imder such circumstances should be noted. 

Mosses and Hepaticje. 

Thf'de have never been eoUectwl with the care they deetfrve in 
Arctic regions. They are much more numerous* than a casual 
?rvt»r, or one who attends to flowering plants only, would >*up- 
pOHe, iind can only be satisfiictorily collecttnl by cIohc attmtion. 
Not inifro-iuently several speoies grow together in one tufl, and 
th' i: esiH?ciid]y are often found thrf^iiding the tnft,s of 

mo ijiitary individujds. When collected^ the tufts, if they 

have to tje carriwl far, t^hould be wrapped singly in paper, as their 
leaves and organs of fructification are liable to be injured. To 
preservi* them the tuft** «ihoiild be broken up by the hand into 
fiut-«^luii)ed jipeciuieus and presided ; snch epecimens indicate the 
habit of growth j one tuft will thus supply many instructive 
^pei'imi'iiH. In the cuse of mosses in fruity the cjdyptra arul 0]jer- 
culnnj Hihould be carefully sought for, and if fugiicioas [>ut in a 
little fold of white pajifT by the speeimen. The mah» orgaiiH 
are cift<tn lulimte and oliscure, and should be Jiligenily gonght for^ 
u^ing the pocket lens* in the tield if neeenHary. Many s|>ecieH 
have the !<exes in different tufts ; and in the Arctic regions the 
mule plants are probably more frequent than the female. Of i?ome 
s«pcc'ie<< indeed the male inflorcBcence is ooly kno¥m. 



LlCHENS- 

Thet^ have not been collected with any method in the Polar 
Amrrican Inbinds or in the hi^h latitude* of Greenland. Many 
iif tb«^ larger npecies that giow on rock^ or on the eai'th have 
indtnii bei'ti brought home, especially by Lyall and Walker, but of 
the minute kiud^ that inhabit the bark of shrubs, and |X>Shibly the 
k<aivi.««i of various plantn in thoHe regions little is known ; nor of 
the ertisUiceouK kindif tlmt adhere to Htijne«, and which cannot be 
remove^l without pieces of the rock or Blone on which they grow. 
To remove them a hammer and a chisel are necodsiry, and the 
inenB ehould be trimmed ?io ass to take a^ little bulk as possible, 



C4 IIOOKEl^— BOTANICAL INSTRUCTI01I8. 

conaistently with preserving the whole specimen. Besides drying 
betwe(>D papers tlie branched and leafy kinds, bags of them shoold 
be brought home in a rough state for chemical analysis. 

Fungi. 

This family of plants is rare in the Polar regions, and a few 
Agarics and Pezizas are the forms most frcM^uently to be met witb. 
S^ch«hould be made for the minute species which arc parasitic 
on the branches and leaves of woody plants. In the case of 
Agarics the spores should be collected on white paper and their 
colour noted, and the plant itself preserved in spirits. In all 
cases the colours should be noted, or, better still, the plants should 
be drawn. It is well also to note of Agarics, &c. whether the 
stalk is solid or hollow, and the top dry or viscid, 

ALGiE. 

Marine Alga; may be found between tide-marks attached to 
rocks and stones, or rooting in sand, &c. ; those in deeper water 
are got by dredging, and many are cast up after storms ; small 
kinds grow on the larger, and some forming fleshy citiets on 
stones, shells, &c. must be pared off by means of a knife. 

The more delicate kinds, after gentle washing, may be floated in 
a vessel of fresh water, upon thick and smooth writing or drawing 
paper ; then gently lift out paper and plant together ; allow some 
time to drip ; then place on the sea-weed clean linen or cotton 
cloth, and on it a sheet of absorbent paper, and submit to mode- 
rate pressure. Many adhere to paper but not to cloth; then 
change the cloth and absorbent paper till the specimens are dry. 
Large coarser kinds may be dried in the same way as land plants ; 
or are to be spread out in the shade, taking care to prevent con- 
tact of rain or fresh wat^r of any kind ; when sufficiently dry, tie 
them loosely in any kind of wrapping paper. Those preserved in 
this rough way may be expanded and floated out in water at any 
time afterwards. A few specimens of each of the more delicate 
Algffi ought to be dried on mica or glass. A note of date and 
locality ought to be attached to every species. 

Delicate slimy Algae are best prepared by floating out on smooth- 
surfaced pai>er (known as " sketching paper ") ; then allow to 
drip and dry by simple exposure to currents of air without 
pressure. 

Very little information exists regarding the range of depth of 
marine plants. It will be very desirable that observations should 
be made upon this subject, as opportunity from time to time 
presents itself. 

Professor Dickie remarks, and the caution should bo borne in 
mind :— " When the dredge ceases to scrajK) the bottom, it becomes 
'' in its progress to the surface much the same as a towing net, 
" capturing bodies which are being carried along by currents, 
" and therefore great caution is necessary in reference to any 



HOOKKU, — BOTAKICAL INSTUl CTION^, 



f?: 



** niJiriiiL- plants ftMind in it. Seft-wecds mc MJinjug tlio most 
** common of all iKKlies caiTiecl liy currents near tlie surface or 
" At various doptlis bolowj and from their nature are very likely 
** to be enUmgled mid brought up." 

Carefully note and preserve Algae brought up in the dredge at 
moderftte drpths, under 100 fathoms, or deeper. Preserve ppeci- 
mens attaehe<l to shells, comls, &c., which would indicate their 
being actutUly in situ. 

The following observations ia the methods of collecting Diat^- 

ffi are extracted from the Flora AnUrctica, vol. ii., p. 504, 

ipply to Rhizopods and many other minute oceanic orgimiisms : 

'* The variona means employed for fielecting the species varied 

According to circumstances, as the folJowing crjumcration of the pro- 

00096^ pursued will show. I. Scii-water was filtered through closely 

woven bibulous paper (filter paper), which latter was folded, dried, 

wnd carefully pat away. If a certain measure of water he always 

treated, an approximate knowledge of the abuudance and 

nty of the various speciea and genem occurring at diilerent 

pof^itions may be gained. II. The scum of the ocean almost 

invariably contains many species entangled in iL"? mass; it was 

prc«'ned in small phials well secured. 111, A tow-net of fine 

muslin used when the vessel's rate does not exceed two or three 

knots si'Cines many kinds, which may be washed olT the muslin 

jtndcoliectetl on iillfr paper. IV. The stomacliy of Sidpm and other 

:iully of the naked) Mollusca, invariably contain Diatomacem, 

jtiraes several Mpecies. These Salpre were washed up in masses 

*n the pa4!k ice, and lu decay they left the snow covered with 

Animal mattter impregnated, as it were, ^nth Diatomaceac ; the 

\Trliqmai were preserved in spirits. V. The dirt and soil of the 

l^enguiu rix>keries, and especially their guano abound in Diato- 

maceas perhaps originally swallowed by the Salpa^ and Cultle-finh, 

Iwhifih themselves becooie the prey of the Penguins. VI. Ice 

[rnclohee Diatomacese ; they arc deposited oo the already formed 

'by the waves, or fi'ozen into its sub>tani:e iluring cidm weather 

the up[>Gr stratum of wat<*r rapidly cont^eftls. Ictr so formed 

leraliy breaks up by the swell of the seji into thin anj^nlnr masses 

hich l>ecorae orbicular by attrition, whence the name pancake-ice. 

pancake-ire was often seen a few hours after a calm, covering 

m of ocean, and uniformly stained brown from the abmidance 

plants. It was taken in buckets, and when removed from 

appeared perfectly pure and colourless. On melting, 

?er, it deposited a pale red cloudy preci[)itate, excessively 

oonsisting wholly of Diatomaccffi. This precipitate was 

[bottlf^J on the spot, luid proved more rich in s[M?cies than any of 

»r other collections. The spt^cimens were also the best preserved, 

>rProfeefior Ehrenherg observes that some thus obtained appeared 

ulijl alive, though collected three years previous to liis exami* 

I, Aod subjected to many vicissitudes of climate. The snow 

fidht on the surface of the still ocean-water and does 

boi floats a honey-like substance, often called bra«h-ice; 




60 UfjOKER. — BiJTAMCAL IX-TBUCTIOSS. 

trefat^ in the ^&m^ waj as the p&ncake-ioe it yielded an ibiindaBt 
hkrxfrit. '\ n. Tfa<=- mud and other soundings from the boltom of 
ibe fjc^n. when broaghc up on the arming of ihe deep-sea lead, 
or the clil&ni or dredge, generallj contain the siliceous skdetons 
or oohiizi^s of many species, \rith the markings of their sorfiMe 
retaine^l VIII. The fresh an<I suit waters and muddj estnarifli 
of the Falkland Islands, and similar localities present na with 
spieicie:. occurring under c':rcum>tanror> altogether similar to what 
accompany their allies in Europe, and are caiught by the dredge as 
it comes up." 

Note Algx on ships, &c., with the submerged parts in a foal 
condition : alf?o presene "^craping^ ••f coloured crusts or dimy 
matter, gret-n, brown, &c. 

Obirerre Algaa floating, collect specimens, noting latitude aad 
longjtudt', currents, &c. 

Kxamine loose floating objects, drift-wood, &c., for Algn, if 
no prominent species presents itself, preserre ^rapings of waj 
coloured crusts, note aa above. 

It might Ite useful to have a few moderate sized pieces cf 
woofl. oak. 8cc., quite cleiin tit flrst, attached to ^^ome part of the 
ve:?sel undf r water to be examined, say, monthly. The larger «f 
.shorter prominent Alga; should be kept and noted, and crusts fli 
such examined and preserved, with notes of the vessel's course. 

Various instances have been mentioned by travellers of the 
coloration of thn sea by minute Alga>, as in the Straits of Malacca 
by Harvey ; and cases of this kind would be worth special attention. 

The calcareous Algie (Mctol/esia, &c.) are comparative!/ 
little known and are apt to be overlooked, they probably do not 
inhabit the Polar area, but their northern distribution is undeter- 
mined. 

Fresh-water Algie should be collected as occasion presentti. 
Prof. Dickie states that they may be either dried like the marine 
kinds, or preserved in a fluid com(M>sed of three parts alcohol, two 
parts water, one part glycerine, well mixed. 

Cases are recorded of the presence of Algai in hot springs. 
If such are met Avith the temperature should be noted and specimens 
preserved. 

Mr. William ^Vrcher, of Dublin, has supplied the following note) 
on collecting Diatoms, &c. in Ireland, and which probably applj 
equally to various Polar localities where water stagnates. 

" In these lands the nicest Algas arc those found in peaty dis- 
tricts, not in peat-bogs, but in uncultivated spots with a peaty 
bottom, on the edges of springs, and this in spring and summer 
when the s{)ecics arc found in conjugation or in fruit. DesmidiciP 
arc met with far more abundimtly in such spots either mixed with 
confervo or crowded into cloudy masses on dead leaves, or (the 
larger kinds) forming a mucous stratum. The collecting s 
little of such material from many sites offers the best means of 



HOOKER. — BOTANICAL INSTRUCTIONS. 



67 



tinlDg miuiy and liwe species. To obtain fruiting specimens 

choose Inmost cases the least green or attractive lookiog specimons, 

mnd even brown and dead looking patches afford the best cbauce 

of obtaining fruiting specimens of the conjugatie. This follows 

[firom the fact that the cells empty in conjugation, and the patches 

lencc consist for the most part of empty siliceous coats. Scjto- 

iematoU8 and Palraellaceoua Algie grow upon wet rocks ; the 

[former keep well enough folded in pnper and left to dry, after 

rhich they can be re-moistened, but the latter should be bottled/* 

llie Arctic Exi)e*UUon aiibrds excellent opportunities to the 

naturalist for making observations on the power of seeds to resist 

cold whilst retaining their vitality. To this end samplea of 

various seeds vrill be supplied for conducting the experiment, which 

of the simplest description. Certain fixed numlxTs of imj one 

id of 6eed should bo expos^cd to a low temperature, and sown, 

le with as many that have not been so exposed, in pans 

kept moist, and the time required for the germination of 

^eed noted. Such kinds as survive the degree of cold to 

rliic h they have Ix^en exposed ssboidd then be referred to succes- 

longer period;^ of cold and to greater cold till the power of 

lion is lost. Valuations of this experiment will suggest 

to the naturalists ; cqmd numbers of small and light 

ftikd larger and heavy may be compared, which may be 

sWted by weight or by measurement. The germinated plants also 

lay bc5 exposed to successively greater degrees of cold and the 

j^uhs noted. Seeds may be immersed in fresh and bi salt water 

different temperature artilicialiy raised, with a view of testing 

heir power of recasting their influence^ as may also roots of Polar 

tttutH, the hybernacula or buds of such plants as Saxifrat/a 

-fitro. The seeds supphed are mustard, cretis, radish, turnip, 

sweet pea, wheat, barley^ oats, maize. 

rations are wanting of the temperature to which Ai-ctic 
plftnts are (•xposed during the winter when t^overed with snow. 
This ciiu be approximately ascertaine<l by linking a tube of wood 
other uou-t!ondiu'ting material containing a tiicrmnmeter 
ttj»chc*d to the base of a rod of wootl tluough the snow inlu tho 
tl in which the plantn grow. The bus** of the tulxj .should be 
of a condiu-'ting material which would itikv the teni- 
^ure of the soiK and the bulb of thi? thermonieter should be 
*i\ witli*wool, rtf> tfiai it may retain the temperature during 
Irawfil tor reading otF. 



r,8 



III— GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 



General Instructions for Observations in Geoloot. 
By Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.RS., Director-Genenl 
of the Geological Sun-ey, &c., and John Evass; 
F.R.S., President of the Geological Society. 



Tho ingtriimente and other appliances necessary for daily or 
occnt<ional work arc few. 

1. A hammer blunt at one end for breaking rocks, ind 
flattened and sonicwlmt sharp on the edge at the opposite end 
for splitting pur]:)osc's wlien in searcli of fossils, &c. It is wcD 
to be i)rovi<lod with a spare hammer or two in case of losa^ aal 
one or two of smaller size for trimming specimens. The DOil 
convenient way of carrying a hammer is to sling it in • flit 
pie«:c of leather through which the handle is jMissed to a bdt 
buckled round the wai.st. 

2. 'J' wo or thnn* small steel chisels, 

3. A measuring tape is sometimes useful. 

4. A pocket compass, in which there may be a clinometer. 
./. A hii'frcv pendulum cHnomctor, which is also a foot-rulfe 
fj. A <"ominon ivory ju'otractor. 

7. A hfither satchel slung across the shoulder in which tB 
'■arry hprrcimens, fossils, &c. 

H. ^iummc'd labels with printed numbers to stick on rock 
-p<-ciin<riis and fossils collected, 

U. Sr>me crotton to pack delicate specimens in, 

JO. A supply of packing pajKT, and small canvas bags kt 
fi^^eial sp(>cimens. 

J I. Not<;-b(X)k8, which may also serve for sketch-books. 

J 2. A box of ('olours and some drawing paper. 

\'4. An aneroid barometer for the measurement of heights. 

14. For the purpose of refi-eshing the memory in caw it 
hliould bo at fault, a late manual of geology should be providcA . 
such as Juk(\s* Student's ]Manual, aud Lowry's Figures of Fo«ih 
Mnitij^rapliically an-anj;ed. This giva«« an excellent idea in • 
coni{K:ndiouH Ibrni of tlie dilKerent forms of fossils which may Iw 
(rxpi'cted in I he various formations. Also Ramsay's Phyaicil 
(ieology and (Jeogrnpliy oF Great Britain, which explains the 
connexion of CJoolncry with Physical Geogi'aphy in a somewh** 
condensed manner, and is more or less applicable to mwy 
countries besides (Jn^at Britain. 

StKATIFIKD AM) JGNKOUS ROGKS. 

The following are the ehief preliminary points to which the 
attention of the observer should be di-awn, assuming him no* 



BAMSAT AND EVANS.— OBSERVATIONS IN GEOLOGY. 69 



to have had much experieuct^ in jy^cological woi*k in the field, but 
to be already acquainted ^vith tlie elemenUiry principles of the 
stratification of sedimeut** by water ; if not, it will be ncceaaary 
for him lo consult a manml, like thjit of Jukes and Geikie. 

On a voyage such as that conlemphited it is probable that 
sections, whether of solid rooks or of looser superficial detritus, will 
chiefly be seen on lines of coast clifis, or indicated by the out- 
cropping of strata on occasional flat spaces between high and low 
water mark. 

a. Do the rocks lie in horizontal layers or beds, and are they all 

Fig. 1. 




same lithological character, such as of Conglomerate, 
Islone, Limestone, or Shale ; or do they vary, such us I Con- 
glomerate, 2 Shale, 3 Limestone, 4 Sandstone mixed w^ith pebbles, 
5 Shale again, and 6 Sandstone ; or are they of mixed cliaracter 
{larUikiug of two or more kinds of material. If Conglomerate, 
are (ho included stones rounded and water-woru, or an^rular ; of 
what kind or kinds of material do the fragments consist ; of what 
fiixe art* thu largest atones ; and tlie sito of the parent rock from 
which they were derived cdiould be noted when it can be aaoer- 
tained. 

Do all, or any» of the beds contain fossil shells, or other kinds 
of organic remains. If so of what genera, and if pos:«ible try 
hy geiiL-ra »uid H(>ecies to determine to what part uf the scale 
of the geological formations Iht-y belong, such an Silurian, Car- 
Iwoiferous, Oolitic, and so on. The fos^iilii from each separate 
should abo be numbered when col!ecte<l. 

Fig. 2. 




Are the sti-ata inclined (a, &, fig. 2) or vertical (r<, Hg, 2.) 
If inclined, at what anglefl do they dip. This is ascertained by 
u.«e of the clinometer. The point of the compass towards 
Ibe itntta dip ehonld also be accurately regiatered. 

Fig. 3. 



^■^^,*!WW 



70 BAMSAT AND EVANS.-— OBSERVATIONS IN OBOLOOT. 




s" 




c. It may happen that the strAta do not 
dip regularly in any given direction but are 
bent and contorted, and this should be noted. 
In ail cases observations of their fossil and 
other contents should be registered similar to 
those mentioned with regard to the suppoeed 
horizontal strata, that is to say, in serial 
order. 

d. It is of great importance to notice if all 
the strata in a given sectio;i lie conformably 
on each other as they do in the preceding 
diagrams, or if unconformable straHfieaikm 
is obvious, or may,be inferred ; cases of which 
arc shown in the diagrams, Figs. 4, a, 6, e, d. 

If so then it is probable that the strata 
numbered I will be found to belong to a much 
earlier period of geological time than those 
humbered 2, and if the strata are fossiliferooB 
that some of the genera and most or all of the 
species will be distinct in the formations that 
lie unconformably to each other. 

€. Intcrstratified with common sedimentaiy 
strata there are often beds of coal, lignite^ 
gypsum, rock salt or other minerals to be 
found, and they sometimes contain pseodo- 
morphous crystals of rock salt in marly, shaleyy 
or sandy bases, for these often remain where 
no solid beds of salt are found. These cir- 
cumstances are of importance as indicating 
terrestrial surfaces where the plants, the fos- 
silized remains of which form coal and lignitoi 
grew, and in the case of gypsum and salt, to 
the probable existence of inland lagoons and 
salt lakes in which gypsum and salt wen 
deposited. 

Note and collect any other minerals in the 
rocks that seem to be of scientific importance. 

It is also very important to note the cokNir 
of the rocks, grey, green, brown, blue, or red, 
&c., as the case may be, and also the effect 
of weathering on the surface of the rocks. 



Igneous Rocks. 

f Are any of the ordinary stratified formations associated with 
igneous rocks such as bo^4ses of gmnites, syenites, quartz-por- 



lT and EVAN& — OBSERVATIONS IN GEOLOGY. 7l 



diorites, &c. Are .they pierced by trap dykes, passing 
or Um across the pknes of stratification m in Fig, 5, uud 
so of whAt kinds. 

Fig. 5. 




Are eominon sedimentary etratn ever aaaociated wlihinierlfet^ded 

?€u and volamic ftsiies aud tuffas, iq such a way as to show that 

tey were poured and spread out under water at intervala during 

lulatioD of the strata, aud what is the mineral character 

)Uft rocks. In the ca&e of lavas that have been poured 

ancient sea bottoms, it may often he noted that the 

rotary stratum underneath has been altered or baked by 

;erl?ing melted mass of lava, while the sedimentary bed 

M** tlie lava remains unaltered by heat, the underlying 

ring cooled before the deposition of the sediment that 

ts it in the §eetion exposed. This is one way to distinguish 

8ueh lava beds, and shtTtx of melted matter that have 

ibly injected between ordinary sedimentari/ strata, Beda 

coal, or of lignite, underlying sheets of igneous rocks^ should be 

ined to Bee whether any portion has become altered, possibly 

ito grapfaito. 

Fig. 6. 




iffneoua rocks, such as lavas and volcanic ashes, show 
Igns of having accumulated on land in successive layers. If so, 
re there any signs of soils and plant-bearing beds between them, 
of other strata that may have been formed in freah water, 
ing bivalve Crustacea, such aa Cypris, &c., or any other kinds 
^anic remains, such as fish, terrestrial mammalia, (&c. &c. 

strata that have merely been hardened into rocks 
all the signs of ordinary atratification, it ia probable 
of metamorphic rocks may be met with, such as slaty 
merely altered by slaty cleavage, also gneiss of various 
mica schist, chlorite Bcliist, hornblende schist, terpentines, 
For the theory of those alterations of common fonnations 
in the production of metamorphic rocks still show- 
of stratification, the observer must refer to any good 
of geolog^'. It is sufficient now that ho should be able to 
igui^h their leading variotiej^, 
Tt must be un<ler8lood tliat gneiss and other metaroorphic 
[tt)ck« are not necessarily of the greatest geological antiquity* 



72 RAMSAY AXD EVANS.— OBSERVATIONS IN OfiOLOOT. 



In Euro|je, America, and Asia there are metamorphic rocks dt 
all geological ages ranging between the Laurentlan and tlie 
Eocene formations. It is, therefore, important to discover or 
{turmise to what formation or set of formations any metamorphic 
series of rocks may belong, should any data be ayailable Bar that 
purpose. In the absence of this, the observer must be conteat 
to register the cliaracter of the rocks and their modes of 
occurrence. 

MoiiK Special Observations. 

h. With I'egard to ordinary stratified rocks, it is important to 
discover whether the organic remains they contain are marine^ 
(^tnarine, or freshwater moUusca, fishes, reptilia, &c. 

Also whether terrestrial nmmmalia, insects, and land plantB 
occur, and if so to what genera and species they belong ; and, if 
possible, to collect u sufficient quantity of all kinds of foaril 
remains to be examined and described by the best authorities OD 
the return of the voyagers. 

t. In connexion with this they should endeavour to determine 
in any given section, or in sections of rocks more or less apar^ 
whether more than one geological formation or set of formationi 
is present, as, for example, strata that lithologically or palsonto- 
logically can be com|)ared to the European or American Silnriaa 
and Carboniferous rocks, or to the Liassic and Oolitic series^ or 
to the Cretaceous series, or to the Wealden, Eocene, or to the 
Miocene strata, &c. &c. 

Should this be practicable, it is important to endeavour to show 
in drawn sections their order of succession and superposition in 
the manner given in ordinary geological sections, and also the 
way in which they are affected by faults or dislocations, either 
visible, or that may reasonably be inferred, as for example, by later 
deposits. No. 1 in Fig. 7, seeming to dip under older strata 2, 
in what may be called an unnatural manner without tlie visible 




intervention of a fault or faults, or of partial inversion of the 
strata by contortion of the masses as in Fig. 8. 

1, Secondary strata ; 2, Falajozoic strata ; f, Fault. 



Fig. 8. 




Invertetl strata. 






M8AY AND EVANB,— OBSERVATIONS IN OKOLOGY. 73 

D connearion with fractures, fftuHs, nntl wide joint*! in tlie rocks, 
mineral lodes may be looked for, yiich as lead, copper, tin, gol<l, 
Ciyolite, phosphate of linic, and other minerals; nnd, if the 
observer m in doubt h» to their nature, if possihle, let hira bring 
away specimens. 

There are also some special points that ought to be attended to 
which may occur in these northern regions, such as : — 

To gather a^Jditional infoi-mation respecting the Oolitic fauna 
ID any newly discovered area similar to thone alivady known at 
Cook's Itilet in latitude 60" N. (M'Ciintock), and of the Liassic 
fauna found by Sir Edward Belcher, and in another by the 
Sw* *Ii\}. Kxpedition in latitude lif 30'. Al^o to ascertain if the 
Ct* n^ flora occurs in any continentid lands or inlands 

re? liat found in Bear Island, lat. 70'' 30', or possibly in 

Di d, where loose blocks were found confining Sigillaria 

and ^niiiimiitt, or again similar to the Gu'boniferous strata of 
Melville Island. 

Abo sfjecial attention should be paid to new areas containing 
a Miocene Hora, such as has been collected by Nordenskiold, 
Sir R, M'Clintock, Sir U, Maclure* Colomb, luglefield. Dr. Brown, 
and ^V^lymper at AtanakerdJuk in the Waigat, and at other places 
antl in the island of Disco, in Greenland, A similar flora is 
known in the Miocene rocks of Spitzbergen. 

In connexion with this latter subject, the explorers In the late 
Atustrian Expedition mention that many great sheets of basaltic 
Uras were seen, in the new archip^'lago wliich they discovered, to 
overlie, uneonforroably, masses of gneiss, in a manner that conveys 
iho idea that the overlying igneous rocks consist of vast masgen 
of horizontal sheets of lava. The desciiption remindj* tlie writer 
of the manner of occurrence of the Miocene igneouj^ rocks In and 
near Di^co in Iceland, the Faroe l»liinds, and of some of the Inner 
Hebrides. Should these or other islands be visited wliich are 
more or less composed of such like sheets of lava, it is important 
to n<7!i*'o if terrestrial surfaces occasionally occur between them, 
»hr ns of terrestrial soila and the remains of land plants, 

or ; vutcr bi*d8 occur between the igneous rocks beui-ing 

relicfi ut hind plants nnd of freshwater or terrestrial animals, such 
Ai Crustacea of iho genuy Cypris (found in Mull along with h'avcs 
of land plant* l>y the Duke of Argyll), Insects, and Mammalia^ 
omL, if so, sj>ecimea«) should if possible be preserved. Any notes 
of this kind will be of gi*eat value, as throwing much light, not 
only on changes of climate, but also on the Bubject of a great 
oootinentiil extension of land during the Mio4'ene epoch into far 
oorthern regions, as suggested by I)r, Rol>ert Brown, much of 
which utili remains — as is also indicated by Iceland, the Faroe 
IslaiKls, the Inner Hebrides, the North of Ireland, the Madeira 
lalondji, nnd other Atlantic isles — as Mormised by Mr. .hidd. 

Ap, tn jiome places, it may beim|)ossible to obtain access to rocks 

fit titff^ it will be w»dl to examine any i>ebhles on the beach, nnd 

rritne boulders for uiganic remains, noting in each case the 

ii from which the |»ebld«>H or boulders ap}>4?nr to have 

36li« f 



74 RAMSAY AND EVANS. — OBSEBVATION6 IN aBOLOOT. 

travelled. In searching for fossils the rocks should be broken 
along the planes of stratification rather than across them. 

Glacial Obseryations. 

The observer must be supposed to be already acqnainted.with 
the phenomena of ordinary European glaciers such as thoee of 
the Alps, and, by reading, with those of Greenland, and with the 
«ubject, generally, of the ordinary glacial boulder day and occa- 
sional marine deposits holding sheUs, &c., so widely spread over 
the North of Europe and America. In Greenland and any othflr 
land he mav visit it is important to notice : — 

a. Are hnear surface moraines corresponding in direction with 
what may be called the trend of the flow of the existing glacier 
streams common or occasional, and are they similar to those on 
the Alpine glaciers. K so, are any clifl^ or bare slopes observ- 
able firom which the debris could have fallen from which, sncih 
moraines wore derived. If cliffs bordering the glaciers are not 
visible, the existence of such moraines would indicate their ex- 
istence further inland. 

b. Are there any glaciers in high northern latitudes that do 
not descend to the level of the sea, and, if so, what are the forms* 
extent, and height of the terminal monunes that aceonralate at 
their ends. 

c. Observations, if possible, to be made on nu««ine matter 
under the glaciei* ice, that is to say, between the glacier and the 
rocky floor over which it flows {moraines prqfondes) ; the possible 
extent and thickness of such moraine matter, and its coarseness, 
fineness, other general characters, and mode of occorrence. Are 
the ordinary phenomena of scratched stones common under sach 
circumstances, and especially arc large boulders found thero. Are 
they ice-sci*atched. 

d. Can the thickness of the ice of certain glaciers be asoer- 
tained which pass seaward beyond the shore or hues of sea-cliff, and 
which at their ends may be supposed to grate along the sea- 
bottom. This may bo done by soundings at the ends of such 
glaciers, in conjunction with estimates of the height of the sur&oe 
of the glaciers above the level of the sea. 

e. Where glaciers protrude out to sea and there expand after 
the manner of the Rhone glacier, where at its lower end it 
protrudes and expands in a wide valley, is it possible to form an 
idea of the shape of the ground on either side of the valley 
through which the thicker mass of the glacier ice descends to 
the sea. Is it likely to be merely undulating ground somewhat 
higher than the valley, or hilly or even mountainous, the whole 
region being more or less smothered in ice. In connexion with 
this it may be asked, is the so-called continental ice of western 
Greenland to a great extent an ice sheet formed independently of 
mountains that bound deep valleys, the slopes of the* bottoms of 
these valleys being westward or in the far north, is it an exaggera- 
tion of a system of confluent glaciers generated by high mountains 
ou the east side of the continent or elsewhere. 



I 



RAM8AT AKH EVAJfS.— OBaKRVATIONS IN OEOLOGT 7") 

j\ Wlmt is the appenfance t^ ttfe surface of sack gim i* ih. 
Are tliev crevaued in thp interior of the country, that is, traversed 
hy y ■ and amaU, like the Alpine glftciera. Are there 

an} iversing the surface of the ice iii caacs where 

it |Ki ii f;tr sea want 

«r/. !'*• make, if possible, ohservtttions on the temperature of the 
ke at the surface, and at various depths below the surface, for 
pttrj)o#ie of discovering to what depth the ice is affected by the 
temperature of the air. It ii* usually stated that all 
rier ice below a shallow viu-jable depth in just about the 
temperature of 32'^' Fahr., and therefore in part alwaya parsing 
into the state of fluid water. This by some has been doubted 
with regard to the Swiss gbciers io wiuter. It is stated that 
streams of water How all the year round from uudemcuth die t^nds 
of Greenland glaciei'S, which are charged with gluifier mud. and 
so to speak, boil lip with the freshwater from the ends of gkciera 
that pass oat to sea all the year. If so, doey the quantity of 
fwfflbwater and mud seem to decrease in winter. 

h. It hu-^ been istuted by Dr. Sutherland that the surface ice of 
ie id jilaciers of Melville Bay, &c., fof a depth of 8 or 

iiore solidly frozen than the underlying btrata gf ice, 
because of the influence at the suifaco of the cold «ir ; and tliat 
the underlying ice, having the temperature of ordinary deep glacier 
ice (about 32^), flows faster tbm the overlying thoroughly fro/.en 
stratum, tmd that this upper stratum, adhering to and being 
dragged unwillingly onwiu'd by the underlying more rapidly 
moving ice, decrepitate,4i and is shattered because of its aolidity 
and power of resistance to the onward motjon of the underlying 
more rapidly moving body of melting ice. 

Further observations on this point are desirable. 
i. Measuroni^iits actual or approximate of the size of lioulders 
oo glaciers are desirable, and notes of the various kinds of rocks 
thftt form surface moraineB. Bketehes of such boulders would be 
Mtimettniefi of value* 

A. ft has l>een stated tliat the solid Greenland rock^ which form 

flic -"* of the country are not grooved and striated like the 

ioc d by old and modern Alpine glaciers, or like the i*ocks 

^r U the North of England, and Walea,which, like much of 

in< enlimd. are believed to have once been buried under 

univti^^aJ tin ' i " ' Iir ico of what is called the Glacial 

Kfwtch. Tl r thi»i is thai the whole or mo*,t of 

f^ly covered ^ ice, 

I thesmfaceoi ers, 

and thnt tb' dtoiie.'^ and other glacier;* d6bris found its 

way from nf £»lariers and tlirough crevasst^ to the 

bottom t«f f f which their rocky floor?^ eould be 

grocpired an* I - of the great superincumbent pres* 

fore nf the moving ice-flow. The more northern rock surfwces 
of Gri»fmliuid have ihei'eforc been said to be fce-poliMhc*d and 
wmmffunkt^ bat not grooved and scratched, la this the case. 

/2 




70 RAM8AY ANI> BVANS. — OBSERVATIOKS tVt OBOIiOOT. 



/. What 19 the state of tilt? I>are rocky cliffs deseriheil by 
in the far north of Greenland as regards ice-markhigB. 

TO. Should new islands lje dii^overed further to the north, what 
jlffo their physical characters as regards height and form. If 
mountainous ordinary glaciers may he expected. If so, have they 

ly special characteristics, and oC what kiads. 

If low or flat, is true glacier ice formed on them, and If go of 
what tliJcknesa, and what i^ ha general behaviour. If in such 
cases the rocks are sometimes bare of ice, arc they smoothed, 
polished, grooved, and scratched as if by the action of ghu-ier ice 
thttt once was there, and if so in what direction do the striatiouit 
rnn, and if in more than one direction, which appears to have 
been the prevailing one, 

n. Specially to observe the ice-foot or flat fringe of ice thai 
adherer* Xo the ahore for a time after the main mas^s of the ioe- 
floes have become detached from it. Note the quantity of delrit 
that falls on it^ surface from the adjoining cliffs, and itssubsequf 
flotation seaward into *leeper water, and the scatteritag of boul 
thereby over the sea bottom as the ice melts. 

o. Obsene all icebergs of importance. Note if possible th 
length, brciMith, and probable circumference. Observe \h 
shapes, whether tabular, or serrated and peaky. If tnbw 
ondt-ttvour to determine their heights above the level of the 
for this may fierve to indicate the thickness of the gUiciers from 
which they broke, since in tabular masses of ice, the mass above 
the water bears n definite proportion to the mass submerged. 

Note if possible whether or not they are aground, and if so^ in 
what depth of water. 

Observe if any icebergs are hiden with masses of mortti 
rubbish, and if so, try to estimate it.'^ amount after the manner 
gkxjresby. Are Ixtulders ever seen enca«ed in the ice far below 
surface. Is it probable that grounding icebergs are* capable 
attaching submarine boulders, gravel, sand, and mud, and 
ing them on as they float and melt in other area^. Is it Uk 
tijai grounding ieebergs polish, round, groove, and striate 
rucks over which ihry grutt*^ both on the side on which th 
first impinge, and on the opt»osiie side as they are forced over the 
oppti*-ing mass of ixK*k. 

p. In connexion with floating ice generally, endeavour to indi' 
cat*' the direction of the flow of marine currents, Doee Aoatii^ 
coast ice uproot and transport bould4>i*s, 8cc., and does it smootl^' 
and striate ix)cks, and hel[> to produce roches motaouttrrtt, An^** 
grounding icebergs, iind other kinds of floating ice likely lo cno— -^ 
tort tl»e soft straUi of the sea Iwittoms on which they impinge. 

y. It is stated by I>r, Rae that ** in the Arctic regions ice 
*' sometimes by gi'eat pressure forced up on shore many feet aboT^^ 
'* high-water murk, and carries with it or pushes before it sU>o<4 
** and thi^se are left in such varied forms as to caus*^ tho hellef 
'* the work h»^ U-en done by human hiinds. If the shoreti of 
" Arctic t^a art' gnwiually riHing. stones (hiis pue>hed op by tee 
•* be found at a very coOMidcrabh' height above the sea.*' Suck 



KAMSAT AND EVANS. — OBSEBVATIOJfS IN aKOLOGY, 77 

ions are ruluable, and note ought to bo tukeoasto mounds of 
re grnvt*! buvJiig been pushed landwiud hy tht? pressure of sea 
packed ami force<l up above high-v^-ati^r mark. It is [Kiesible 
th*t giich observAtiuns may Ihrow aonie light on tJie ridges known 
;i$ Efikers in Irelnnd and Kiimes in Scotbind, These are long 
rnoands of gravel believed to be intinmteljit connected with tlie 
iUactai Epochs und by some supposed to have been farmed on the 
chores of the icy sea of that )>enoib 

r. In connexion with the subject of sea coasts it is of importance 
toubfiervc if there are traces or lines rvf raised sea-beaches running 
ill • lamico or in line^ of terraces at different heights more or 
lees jMndlel to the present sea-shores. Abo whether or not they 
cot)t4kiu !*i?a-j*hells and other marine remains. Also at what height 
above the present sfja-level each individual beach or terrace lies. 
Noto al#o» if feasible-, the direction from which shore pQbbJes may 
>mc and larger Ixjylders, and if they have any relation to 
It winds and marine cunent^* 

good defd has Ijcen written aliont the occurrence of 
iiiel€»oriias (meteoric iron) tn Greenland. Should such be observed, 
itieir position and vtViG should be noted, and if po8sibie» Bpecimens 
coUeeted. 



IhstuUctionb for MAKJNO Obsebvations od, and 

CoiJ.E(.TING MiNERALOGICAL SPECIMEN' S. By PHOF. 

N. Story Maskelyne, F.R S. 



A. — ^MrNKUALS AND RoCKS. 

In offering a*lvice as to the mode of setting about collecting 
roiDcrals and mincralogicnl fact« in n land that is peculiarly rich 
in rare and curious mineral BpecicF, while it in clad in an iron- 
tDfui of ice, one cannot lose pight of the fact that the special 
experience which the Arctic voyager must soon aojuire will fit 
him better than any instructions for the tai?ks of exploration and 
cotlocting. Nevertheless Bome notice of tlie eort of Ux-aliiio* that 
iniiy I'epuy research, and of the observations that it would IK) 
worth rw^onling, may not be out of place, while a short summary 
of ihti niirierai objects that are to be looked for, and of the m<Kle« 
of determining something about their charactcri arc of tlie lirsfc 
importance. The in^tructioiis on the subject of geology will 
<9rrtaitdv impre«i.'* on the ^^ientific obacrver the great importance 
of carefully noting and laying ilown in profile, and where possible, 
m plan, all inijmrtant lines of mountiiin chain or proiiuding ruck, 
ttod of cnlh^ciing ?.j>ecimens of every dis^tinct kind of rock, and 
fiinlier, ol" fastening to or eareluUy enrolling with all specimens, 
labeU that can hardly err in the fulness with which they Mat^ 
lb« circumstufjces and the position of the spot at which they are 
obtained. To the mineniiogigt rock bpecimen^i have a Bpeclal 



78 MASKELYNK. — MINERALOGICAL SFEOIMENS. 

interest as being aggregates of minerals and often containing 
crystals in cavitie,s or otherwisf; distributed through them, fixmi 
the presence of -wliich the histoiy and associations of the rock 
itirclf may be gathered. Hence a judiciously made collection of 
rocks has the character of an index to the petrology of a whole 
country. 

It is among igneous rocks that the Arctic mineralogist will 
probably find his chief occupation. The important minerals tbal 
occur under other conditions, such as where they are fonnd lining 
tlie fissures which carry mineral lodes, may indeed be accidentally 
met with — perhaps among the weathered masses at the foot of a 
cliff on the section of which the mineral vein may be recognised 
from which they came ; and any minerals so found that from their 
metallic lustre, their weight, or some other striking character may 
appear pwuliar should l)e preser\'e<l in specimens, so that their 
characters may be determined at leisure. But the rocks ftaitftd 
of minerals for the Expedition, north of Upemavik, ^iU in aU 
probability be of a different kind. Tt is among the minerals that 
belong to or are associuted with the occun-once of igneous rocks 
developed on a large scale that the Expedition will be able 
probably most effectively to deal. For the conditions of Arctic 
inivel are lianlly consistent with the close and careful search 
needed for the discovery of the rarer kinds of minerals ; nor are 
the cliaracters of the country and climate such as to expose such 
minerals to view under favoui-able conditions for finding them, as 
for instance in the beds of torrents. However uncertain may be 
the early accounts tliat recorded the existence of an active vol- 
cano and fumerole action in the south of Greenland, it is quite 
possible that volcanic forces may still be in action in the regions 
of a remoter north. Should this be found to be the case there 
will Iks an ample field i)rovided for all that enterprise and obsei"- 
vation can do in collecting msitenals for the description of such 
a district. Some notes drawn up by an experienced observer, 
Mr. J. "VV. Judd, are appended to these instructions, and they deal 
with the more important petrological questions that arise in such 
a neighbourhood. 

In the case of rocks of the plutonic class being met with, it 
is less easy to offer as precise injunctions as in the former case 
in regard to the methods of observation. A collection of well 
selected sixjcimens of the rocks themselves is in all cases the first 
requisite ; and next, it is important to gather illustrations of any 
special peculiarity in mineral associations that these rocks furnish. 
In cases where plutonic rocjcs have intruded into other formations 
it is desirable that specimens of the adjacent i-ock should, where 
practicable, be collected from points at different distances fVom the 
intruding mass. And in the case of rocks of the granitic class it 
may be that irregular cavities may be met with in which the 
crystals of the minerals forming the rock are distinctly developed ; 
and these are sometimes associated with other minerals of interest 
such as beryl, topaz^ tourmaline, &c. 

Among the rocks of the volcanic class' the trachytes will often 
be found rich in interest for the mineralogist, as well from the 



■KBLTIfB. UimiltAItOOIO/U:. KPBOrMBHe. 



79 



I 



varied formH which they twHume, including a fH)rphyritie structure 
on the one hand and ft glassy einictore on the other. h» from the 
Faiioui minerab that they include. And the doleritit- clam on 
tho '»>..." tf^n-i 1'" ^filing basalt, presents a sjM>cial iijt*?rcsi in the 
SIM ^ with which such rocks teem, and which 

Ml- !yn t^iicii i.muu ii» h<» the liome of uiineralg of great variety 
ind iuter^etf well repaying a careftil search. 

While paasing near a toast, as, for instanco, aloii^ the strip of 
ice-footH, the rocky chlik and hhiffM slir»ulil br carefully M-rutiniscd 
where these form the coast- Hue ; whih- the talus that concenU 
their £b(it may yield Hpecimens weathered out from the rc^t of the 

rmg wliich it would be well to search ibr where any peculiarity 
fjrestmted by the fac« of the rock it^ielf. In collectiti^ spci!!- 
mens curryino: crystaln that are at nil delicate, it would bi! well 
place tlioui fii-ftt iu a fold of tiif^ue paper and then to cover 
lu with sump Moft material Uke cotton wool before finally 
ing ihem in an outer paper; and it would l)e better to 
imiert the label next to the ti^ue paper. 

Where delicate cry^tab* pi*esent salient j»oint;* it \» bcf^t to 
secure them by packing them in chip Ijoxch, into which they 
abould be wedged by plugs of cotton, snd, when op|)ort unity 
oftersy by subsequently fastening them to the box by a little «(lue 
on tbrir under eide. 

It would seem to be preferable to an attempt to condense iiiIjO a 
few pttgo dcBcriptions of the more important minerals (which in 
m perion familiar with mineralogy will have little vnJue) that, for 
IIm qm* of collectors not well vended in the science, a very smnll 
i«M «f Rnch mineraia careftilly selected as representing their 



of 

amfKr 
on 
di 
m 



haTacteri^-tic* should form part of the e(|aifimcni 
►n. By reffireTice to -^uch « ffniall cabinet com* 
some 50 sp- for will not only 

vf "With tbf ir "rnpare with them 

»pecitti*-ii«* which he hfts collected 
non. Thus, tfie large number of 
dly to the gfoup of augites or ibofie 
' type, or again tho»e forming the group 
of ganieUs though widely difi'criug in the case of each group In 
of colour awl even of habit, yet present ^icb general 
reeemblaooes that witVi the aid of a treatise on dis- 
Qtlueralogy and a few implement*, the colleetor might 
^ Ht towards identiiying many of the minerals he has coHi?cted, 
lie not be content with merely storing them for inr •'■"■ 
•I ham^. And with fhi^ view, it \viU be well to mei 

handy bookn by the use of which, and by the :ii«i "i n 
t&w mMriments be may find for himself and practically apply aH 
%k» infermstioo which be immediately requires. Such 1»ook& are 
Daitt's totaUer Manual or his larger trpatiiMp! on mineralogy, 

the bctert Fni«er*8 tranabi^ " "^ I" ' " 

tfeiB r>eienniti»lioo of Minerals ( Ph i 
nay be M^vantagiaoiiBly added, for the «lctiiti-^ * 
Moirpipt^ Bnub'i Maatial of Determinative .Ni 
Torky l^^>f ind i Treatise on Bocks, by Cotta^ traosUied by 



L 



80 MASKELYNE. — MIN'ERALOGICAL SrECIXENB. 

LawH'nce (Longman & Co., 1866). And included with the 
tieriea of minerajg above recommended, a few samples of the more 
important igneons rocks should be taken for the purpose of 
oompariflon. 

With regard to tools and Lustrumente reqoLiite for obtainiiig 
mineral specimens and for recognising them when obtained, be- 
sides the personal companionship of a small portable hammer of the 
best steel and of not too hard a temper, at least one more masBive 
hammer, and two or three Urge chisels and wedges should fofrm a 
part of the equipment that accompanies an exploring party ; and 
doubtless means of blasting masses of rock in special castas, hy me- 
thods involving comparatively little labour will not be wanting to 
the Expedition. Tools of large size are requisite in order to obtain 
good pieces even of small magnitude of tough igneous rocks. The 
specimens of rock themselves need not be larger than four inches 
by three, and one inch thick ; but, where many hwe to be carriedy 
in the case of onlinary-looking rocks a size of about 3 in. x 2 in. 
must be deemed sufficient. 

But it is before all important that, where possible, the specimens 
secured should not be merely the weathered outside of a protruding 
rock, but a piece of the rock with fresh fracture from the interior 
of such a mass. 

The instruments of observation requisite for determining the 
direction and inclination of ridges and of the faces of rock- 
masses belong rather to instructions in geology than to those for 
collecting minerals, and will doubtless be provided for the Expe- 
dition. For the actual scrutiny of the minerals themselves the 
following ap|>aratus should be provided for each collector. An 
ordinary pocket lens (and one or two in resene in case of loss), 
with a moderately high and a low power ; a small strong stoppered 
bottle for containing dilute hydrochloric acid ; a not too elaborate 
set of blow-pipe apparatus, including a lamp for colza oil, or a 
supply of large sized stearinc candles ; two or three small fine 
three-cornered steel files ; a small collection of ten mineral sped- 
mens representing the degrees of hardness ; a magnetised needle, 
and a sinall hammer and two or three little steel chisels for trimming 
specimens. 

B. — Meteorites. 

There is no spot in the world around which so much interest 
has gathered in •connexion with the subject of meteorites as that 
to the N.W. of Disco Fjord in the island of Disco, from which 
Prof. Nordenskiold first brought to Europe large masses of iron, 
which he announced as having been embedded in Miocene times 
in the basaltic rocks that there overlie to a vast thickness the 
gnei9soi(l formations of the island. This spot is Ofivak, and from 
it an expedition in 1871, a year after Prof. Nordenskiold's retnm, 
brought to Stockholm a mass of iron weighing nearly 20 tons, and 
othera only inferior to it in size. 

The great interest of the discovery lay, however, not even in 
the acquisition of these masses of apparently meteoric iron, but in 
the fact that they were found in close proximity to a ridge of 



MA«K«LTNE.— MINBRAIXMJIGAI/. SPSOtMBN^. 



l>ii&iJi, etitungled iu which otliti' tspocimen^ of native iron .similiu- 
ID chareet^r and Associated with a kiiidofpTrites (Troilite, Fe, B,)y 
^Bly met v«rith in meteorites, were found. 

Such an ingredient could only have found its way inlo the 

b«ifi«!tic dyke in one of two ways : it might have fallen into the 

basalt in the very remote epoch when that rock was yet in a 

pliBtic condition, or there is the pojrsibility that it might have 

^pn terre^^trial iron borne upwards with thf melted rock mass 

^■bm tlte interior of the globe. 

^Blt ifi, therefore, a matter of much interest tliat this place should 
H^ again thoroughly explored, and the point in question settled. 
Xb* best meanti tW this end will be to ascertain by carcfol inspec- 
tion of the site how far the basaltic ridge from which NauckhofTin 
the Swedish expedition tMi'pamted the specimens of iron and 
troilile extends, and whether iron can be fotiud in it in other 
pUceis than that immediately investigated. 

ExperimeutH M-ith a clip- magnet in the neighbourhood may lead 
to the discovery of snch masBca. 

Uoder any circumstances it is important that portioa.s of tho 
basaltic rock itself and of the »o-called basalt wacke (or deoom- 
pOfled basalt) on either side of it, should be blasted from the mass 
and brought home. 

And it will be of much interest in connexion with tJie subject 
of nieteoritei^, that any ^pecinieus of iron in use by the Esquimaux, 
tndicating rude hammering or workmanship, should be secured 
And ftH poaaible informatiou obtained as to the sources whence the 
metal is obtained. There is gootl reason for believing that meteoric 
iron hofi been habitually used by these people. 

Thus, Sir John Ross records at p. 104 of his narrative that 
the natives in the neighbourhood of t'ape Melville mid Prince 
rent's Bay obtnined their iron for their implements from masses 
iron that tx^^un^ed iu the S<iwalliek or Ii-on Mountains that 
rule at the boek of that bay. And he mentions that they reported 
** I bat one of the iron masses, liarder than the i*est, was a part of 
** ibe mountain ; that the others* were in large pieces above ground 
** nod not of so hard a nature ; that they cut it off with a hard 
•* 0(one and then beat it fii\t into pieceg of the size of a sixpence, 
•* but of an oval shape/' 

Th^ lot^ttlity was stated to l>e some 2o miles distant from the 
place in Prince Regent's Bay where the interview with the natives 
was held. 

The maased of iron from Ofivak have a great tendency to undergo 
a eort of Hpontaueous cor**o5ion, due to the presence of soluble 
chlorides eoclo»ed within them. 

The only available way of arresting or rotai'ding this action 
weexDs to be to keep the meteoric masses either in completely dry 
air, or in a liquid that i^ clostxl as much as ponaiblc from the air. 
Probably putting them in a closed cask filled with fresh water 
would be the be«it means of effecting it. 

There La another ()oint of no gmall interent to which the atten- 
tion of the observer iu snowy latitud<js should be drawn, in 




W MABKELTFE. — KIFHEAl/.^^lCAl. 

Hiibf*. It biM> ':#e*;L Mswrfcec Ujk; sir^ 

ufpniKT rif naiL. itiifc. wb»x mblK-d. rkudM 
SHAhllJu MXic tij«-*:ibrfc- pr»ilBk:»:T. ixH4Minc 
wUwSAjd tit cuKt tLut di«r*-n;^d tiirtmct ^k»v a 

Tilt cij'.-uiifcti'jj. '^liit -wiiidi iji 5 jabs arriw ctikcr 
ixK-Jn-iii;? T'jjfacii? aid desert nzfi<^ io 

Aii^J si<*'TA»c»rir zTfjzi » ik.« Ui*: ocJhr — rx- hi fMt. nasi he 

tliToa<nj lb*: unnoifiherf froit iL*- re^cvs erf 
csolounitios '.^tii«r «k>v ihfci Las- ii-:>i ui eridtsi 
boarlrjv sourr^e? of aoiiTJgiiTTUBBoa c^Kiiild be 
hariug a*i origio ihus frjrfssn : wid anv suftf faMSble «l dw 
fihould be tak»-ii for pre^niiig a^ much tf poaaUe of the &* 
coloaricijE or oibenrise fc^^Meit m&irTiiL Sane catic yards of 
Fuch snow tn]] jield. probabh-. baTvh- eiica^ TTWimii fivr a 
mh^^wntorr exaxnimnon : und Tbe meidng of Uiit qiHBliiy aai 
the coUectinv, dr^iag < ax cot t<o Ligh a i«-mperBiare)» and pre* 
hcrving tbe f^-zmJi amonni of residae mixed wiUi it, vithoot 
contaminmtioD from ntensik emplorcid in the process inTolfV ewe 
and precautioD« that will sDgse<t themeelTes to the 
who maj find hiznself in a position io avail himself of 
opportunity of aiding science. 

Favourable places in which the residue from the melting of 
fruowif during rummer month» might have colleeied without eoo- 
tam J nation from impurities of local origin maj, however, in all 
proliabilitj be found bj the observant traveller, and this rendoaiy 
nutterial maj bo, perhaps^ be secured in appreciable amoimt. 

The icelike snow underlying the more recent or the melted anow 
may lie found in some cases more richly charged by accnmnlatiop 
with the foreign dust in question. The matter is one of such 
great interest that it is well worth some tronble to endeaTonr to 
collect appreciable amounts of this coamlcal dost. 



sa 



3, iNfirFBuarfONS on the Obskrvations which should be 
nuide in case Volcanoes or Evidences of Volcanic 
Action should be met with. By J. W. Judd, F.G.S. 



Should any volcanic rocks be met with^ the following sagges- 
may aid the observer in directing hifi attention to the mot^t 
iporLtiiii [joitjt^i in connexion with them. 

I. JJ the rocks hnve a fresh appearance, and are of aim- 
fMjraiiVfit/ recctti nriffui^ the following circuinHtauceb concerning 
them Khould be pHrticularly noted i — 

A* Lava Streams. Concerning these should he recordcMl,^ 
it. DimeriMtonSt DiHtance irom point of origin ; bt«i<lth til 
parts of course ; thickne«i», so far as it can bo determined, 
rially as atTccted by the accidents which the current 
n its flow. 

im^ wkieh ik^y flaw. This should bo measured at 
'-^r if possible, and, at pointH where 
-*%s, any vamtions in the dimensions 
or other cliuraciers vi' tlie current should be carefully noted. 

r. Surfaces of lavas. Attention should be paid to the features 
prcffnted by these^ whether smooth and "* ropy," or bristling and 
•coriaceous. 

d. Texture. Note enpeeiuUy if the rock of the current bo 
poq>byritic, compact^ globular, concretionary, pumiceous, giassy, 
9pba*nitttiCf or conreely cryt»taHinc. If the rock presents ribboned 
or handed ^tnicturee, observe, if possible, the relations of these to 
tJiv direction of flow of the elreara. When the rock exhibitH 
transitions from otie texture to another* collect series of sp«!imcna, 
ilhistrating the gradation. Not« eBpeeiaily changes between the 
sorface and ioteiior of cuirent, or Uiose taking place at different 
points of its course. 

e. Structure. All peculiarities of jointed, and eBpeeiaily of 
columnar, structures are worthy of being recorded. Noto the 
fe»turef^ presented by the upper and lower part of the currefjt, 
■nd f*T^v changes in iti course; also if colnmns be divided by 
irxi' rint^, and the features presented by the^% &c. 

/ - ,it and mintrralogicfd eonstitniion. If the appesirancc 

©f'^thvi rtR'k does not suggest at onco the claas to which it Ixdongs, 
•od the component minerals cannot he detected with a Iquh, 
rec y sometimes be had to a determination (even roughly) 

of it ,nc gravity. 

ff. Hnmctimes lavas contain large masses of ittctuded minerals, 
Tlw»w are very interesting, and should be carefully collocted. 

A, Carities, qr air bubbles, in comparatively recent lavns, are 
frwjorntly found coated with beautifully crystallised minerals. 
And when tiie rocks are of older date, the sbnilar cavities may 
or filled with crystjils of seolites and other minerals. 



84 J UDD. — VOLCANOES. 

B. Nature of Beds Lying between Lava Ourbknts. 
These are of the. utmost interest and value to the geologist, but 

unfortunately the ordinary mode of weathering of volcanic rocks 
is such as greatly to ohscure the interheddcd deposits by a talus 
of &llon fragments. The best opportunities for their study are 
afforded by sea-cliffs, and deep ravines or river-gorges, which should 
therefore be carefully examined. In such situations we may 
oxpect to find — 

a. Burnt soils (Laterites of Lyell), usually of a brlok-red 
colour, and affording various evidences of their modes of origin. 

b. Coal or Lignite seams. These are very frequently observed. 
Note if they rest upon an " underday " (an old soil with roots), 
and if they contain wood, leaves, or other plant remains, with 
recognisable structure. 

c. Ash-beds, These are sometimes composed of such impal- 
pable dust as to constitute a matiix in which delicate leaves, 
shells, and even insect remains are exquisitely preserved. 

d. Stratified tuffs. Note especially the degrees and nature of 
their stratification ; also whether they are loose or indurated. 
They may contain shells and plants of terrestrial or marine origin. 
Record the elevations at which the latter are found. 

e. Gravels or other deposits. Note their characters and 
materials, and, if possible, define their mode of origin. 

C. Cones, (^raters, &c. Wherever the lavas present a fresh 
appearance, an attempt should be made to trace them up to their 
points of origin. 

a. II any great volcanic mountain be met with, all details 
concerning the lava streams, fragmentary matters, and dykes of 
which it is built up will be of great interest. Failing these, 
however, sketches of the mountain, and of specially interesting 
portions of it, accompanied by such rock sx>ecimens as can be 
obtained, will be of service to geologists. 

b. Cinder-cones on the flanks of a volcano, or scattered around 
it, should be examined and sketched. Note if they originate 
streams of lava. 

c. The crcUerSf both of volcanic mountains and of cinder-cones, 
should be examined. Note if they are breached by lava streams, 
or contain bosses of lava in their interiors, or buttress-like masses 
adhering to their sides. 

d. Note especially the arrangement of the smaller and larger 
cones in respect to one another. Furnish, if possible, plans to 
illiLstiutc this point, or failing these, as many general outline 
sketches as possible. 

e. In and around the craters look for fumarolesj and, if possible, 
record the nature of the gases evolved from them. Collect the 
interesting minerals found in the crusts which are deposited 
round the veuts^ and in the rocks traversed by the vapours and 



/. Hot springs^ geysers, Sfc,, often occur in the vicinity of 
active or recently extinct volcanoes. These the observer should be 




JCDD. — VOLCANOEe, 



OD the look-out for (their viipours ohen render them congpiciioua 
St grent distances), and iheir phenomenti should be cjirefiiUy re- 
corded. Specimens of hot and mineml wtiter should he sealed up 
in bottles, and brought home for examiQatioD and analyms* 

ff. Deposits of siliceous sinter^ travertine, Sfc, These, besidet 
yieldino; interesting varieties of minenda and iUnstrntiona of their 
mode of formation, often contain incrusted or rainemliaed remains 
of phuitd or animals which m&y be of great interest. 

{ih the event of the observer being 80 fortunate us actnallj to 
witoees an eruption of a volomo, eveiy deto'd that he oin supply 
ma^ be of scientific value. E^ipecially should he note the appear- 
tLBCm presented by the ascending column of vapooi* and fmgmen- 
Uay matafrials iaeuing from tlie crater, the height to which this 
Hsee, the nature, sequence, and rate of the explosions to which it 
is due, and the sounds which accompany them. All eiuthquake 
shocks and tremblings of the ground iihould of course 1m? recorded* 
If Iavh streams are seen flowing, their rate of motion nnd attendant 
phenomenM should be carefully noted.) 

n. If the volcanic rocks have cmclenil^ been subjected to great 
fienudation, the following \mnX^ should be more particidiu'ly 
att<»nded to : — 

A. The com[>osition, toxtiirest and variaus structures of the 
diflerent Iava«Hhonld 1^ CArefully observed, and all zeolites or other 
minerals in their included ctivities collected, 

B. If the igti^oiis rocks be found alternating with sedimentar)' 
ones, all fossil remains which c*in be obtained from tlie latter will 
have a double value, as throwing light on tlie age both of the 
aqueous and the volcanic rocks. But it will be especitdly necessary 
to notice whether the igneoim masses be interbedded and coHtcm- 
poraneaus with the aqueouii deposits, or intrusive aud subsequent 
to them. In seeking to tletei-mine this point, it must l>e borne in 
mtod tliaty — 

Lava streams h&ve slaggj or scoriaccong upper and under sur- 

and that they only alter the rocks npon which they rest. 
Jnirusive sfieets^ on the other han<l, are eeldoiu scorraceous, and 
alter the rocks both below jind also above them. They moreover 
occasionally cross the lines of bedding of the Btrata, aud send off 
or veins into them. 

If possible, the hivas of the diatriet should be traced up to 
oassee of intrusive rocks. The forms assumed by these in 
ng should be sketched, and speciraeuH illuHtrating the 

_ ettaracters which they assume and the minerals they con 

bo collected. 

the phenomena of tnetamorphism exhibited by tlie strati- 

in the vicinity of intrusive ma^NCM, whether dykes, sheetis, 

should be looked for, and their nature and extent i*e- 

Iri connexion with this subject, it should be remembered 

that v#*ry many interesting minerals are developed near the junc- 

of igneous rocks with those which they traverse. Series of 




rook Bpooimeaa illuatrativQ of a gradiml change In characters wilt 
be verv v^imble. 

E. If masses of tnjffg and volcanic agglomerates be met with, 
they will frequently be found to contain cryBtals (more or less 
perfect) of various volcanic minerals. Not unfrequently they also 
yield fragments of rock which have been ejected from a volcanic 
vent. These, if of aqueous orio^in, may be searched for fossils ; in 
all cas€s» however, they frecjuently exhibit si^ns of having mider- 
gone changes by the action of heat, acid Vftpours, &c npon them. 
Such masses should be broken up and carefully examined^ for they 
IVf^uoully enclose iu tbeir cuvitiea some of the most benutifuUy 
crystaUised varieties known to the mineralogist. 

The general instructions as to the instruments best adapted 
llie purpose of the geological observer, and of the tools used 
obtaining rock specimens and minends, are of course e4]uaUy »[ip 
cable to the student of vuloinology. But as igneous rocks are in 
many cases esjMicinlly liable to change by weatherings the greatest 
etTort^; should be made to obtain specimens as fresh and little 
altered m poesible. In those cases, however, where the I'ock 
assumes any peculiar features in consequence of meteoric actions 
upon it, specimeDA both of the unaltered and of the altered rock 
ure detiirable. 

The work of reference which will be found most serviceable to 
the traveller who may come across volcanic district* in >Ir. (}. 
Poidett Scrope's ** Volcanoe " (second edition, revised and enljirjred, 
IB72), published by Longman and Co. In this work dctuil«.*d 
descriptions of the interesting phenomena of volcanic action are 
given^ and ample illustrations of most of the points adverted U> la 
these notes will be found. 






MANUAL 



or 



THE NATUBAL HISTORT, GEOLOGY, AND 
PHYSIOS 



OF 



GREENLAND 

AND THE NEIGHBOURING REGIONS. 



The Zoology, Botant, Geologt, and Minebalogt compiled by 

T. Rupert Jones, f.b.s., f.g.s., 
Profesaor of Geology, Royal Military and Staff Colleges, Sandhurst : 

^Iw Phtbics compiled by W. G. Adams, m^ f.b.s., f.g.s., f.cf.s., 
Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy 
in King's College, London. 



EDITED BT 

^**<>^i8soB T. RUPERT JONES, F.R.S., P.G.S., &c., &c., Ac., 

'^^^^^ TBM DIBSOTIOll OF THB AROTIO COMMITOB OV THE BOTAL SOOISTT. 



( ' 



PREFACE. 



The Bubject-roaiier of this " Manual " is arranged under 
the two headings of — Part I, Biology and Zoology, and 
Part IL Physici5. The former is subdivided geograpLically 
into — § I. Davis Strait, Baffin's Bay, and the coasts con- 
tinuing northwards, under the general term of "West 
Greenland.'' § 11. The great Arctic -American Archipelago, 
including the Parry Islands. § III. East Greenland, with 
Spitsbergen and Franz- Joseph Land. 

The short time allowed for preparation limited more 
Especially the treatment of the last section, and has caused 
also an irregularity in the arrangement of some earlier 
articles, such m Nos. X,, LIX., LXXI, LXXVI, and CVIII, 
Part II. (Physics), having had a still shorter time of 
preparation, is without an Index, the Table of Contents 
rving that purpose. Indeed § IIL of Paii; I, is not fully 
l^presented in the Index. 

This " Manual " consists mainly of Reprints and Excerpts 
irom Transactions, Proceedings, Journals, Magazines, and 
I'oreign Books, and from English "Voyages,'' and their 
' Appendices " when the treatment of a subject requii'ed 
irrelative matter to he brought forward. 

Perfect uniformity in the printing of geographical and 
tiatural-history names has not been attempted. Tlie plans 
and systems of different authors, the fashions of their day, 
the inaccuracies of some, the peculiarities of others, and 
the pressure of circumstances, have affected the style of 
reproduction in the several articles. 

It has not been practicable in luany cases to refer direct 
to the authors of the reprinted papers, even of late date, or 
to submit proofs for their inspection ; several, however, 
ht(T^ bad the advantage of revision by theii* authors. 

a 2 



iv PREFACE. 

Thanks are due especially to Dr. Liitken and Dr. Morch, 
of Copenhagen, for revisions of their previously published 
Catalogues of Arctic Animals, and to Dr. Liitken for new 
catalogues of several groups of animals living in Greenland 
and the neighbouring seas. The Editor has received much 
information about Greenland from Dr. E. Brown, of Camp- 
ster, some of whose Greenland Memoirs are reprinted in the 
'* Manual." Among others also, who have aided him with 
information and books, are R. H. Scott, Esq., E. Whymper, 
Esq., C. E. De Eance, Esq., and Count MarschalL laeai 
C. Cooper King, R. M. Art., F.G.S., has materiaUy aided him 
in his work ; and W. S. Dallas, Esq., F.L.S., has kindly re- 
vised a few of the lists. Tlie officei*s of the Royal Geogra- 
phical and other Societies in London have helped him in 
their Libraries ; and the Secretaries of the Royal Dublin, the 
Edinburgh Botanical, and the Glasgow Geological Societies 
have courteously conveyed permission to reprint papers, 
and in some cases have j^rescnted the memoii*s wanted. 

Capt. F. J. Evans, C. B., has also most obligingly aided 
the Editor. 

In the Index, geographical names have not been made 
a prominent feature, but natural -history terms, and the 
names of writers and explorers, have been chosen as the 
most convenient and useful keys to the many subjects rf 
the " Manual." As time and space were limited, the nsiD^ 
or term alone is usually given, and its various relations 
and associations are indicated by the often numer0OS 
references to pages that follow it. 

T.RJ. 
May 7, 1875. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, 



MA>^UAL OF THE NATUKAL HISTORY, &c, OF 
GREENLAXD AND NEIGIIBOURING LANDS. 



TASLT Z.— BIOLOGY AKB GEOIiOGT. 



I 



34 



85 



§ 1. — West Greenl,vnd, ixcLumNG Davis' Stkait, Baffin's 
Bay, Smith Sound, am* Kknnedi Coaknel. 

I. On the Mammalian Fauna of Greenland. By Dr. K. Browu, 

r.L.S., &c, 1868 ..--... 1 
n. Note on Addkioual ]lf amm&ls of GreeQlimd. By Prof. J. Keinhjirdt. 

1875- 
m. On tlic Hisiory »nd Grngraphical MelaHoos of tbe Pinnipedia fre- 

qnenUtig thtt Spitsbergen and Greenland S*«n8. By Dr. R, Bro'wn, 

¥XM., &c. 1868 - 

IV. On the History and C;i'OgraphicaI Relations of the Cctacea fre- 
r)nenting Diiris' Strait and Baffin's Bay. Bv Dr. B . Brown, F.L.6,, &c, 
1868 - - - - - ' - - - - 6D 

V. On »owie Cetacea of Groenland. By Dr. E. D, Cope and Dr. 1. 1. 
Baje«. 1865 - - - - - - - 93 

VJ, Notes on Birds which have been found inGreenlnnd. ByProfewor 

Alfre*! Nc'«ton, F.K.S. 1875 - - - - - 94 

VIL A Rcviftc'd Catrtlognc of the Fii>lies of Greenland- By Dr. Ckr. 

Lfttken, 1875 * - - - - - - 115 

VI J L On the Stralnlnif Appenda/yes, or Branchial Fringes, of the 

BAj>kin(; Hhark. By l*rofe*«or J. Stecustrup. 1873- * - 133 

IX- Frodroinu^ Faun® Molliiseorunj Groenlandiic. With Apncndixr — 

Kotes *m Sheila- By Dr. O. L. A. M.>rd). 1875 - '- - 124 

X. Marine Invertebrate colk'Ct*'d by tbo Arctic Expedition under Dr. 

1- 1. Hayes. By Dr. W. Stirapson. 18C3 - - - - 185 

XI. Shtdl*, Sec. froiu tlie TInnde Isbinds, Davis' ♦Stmit : rlredgred by Dr. 

P. C. Sutherland, and named by Dr. ^. P. Woodward. 1865 - 137 

Xn. A Revised Catalogue of the Tunieata of Oreenland. By Dr, Chr. 

Lntktii. 1875 - - - - - - - 138 

XII L The Folyjsoa of Greenland. By Dr. Chr. Liitken. 1S75 - 139 

XIV. Iniccte and Spiders of Greenland. By J. C. Schiudte. 1867 - 141 

XV. The Crustacea of GreenloDd. By Dr. Chr. Lutken. 1875 - 146 

XVI. OBtnicoda from Greenhind» &c. By G. 8. Brady, Ewi., C.M.Z.8. 
1875 - - - - - - - - - 160 

XVII. A Revised Catalogue of the Annelida and other (not Entozoic) 
Wonna or Greenland. By Dr. Chr, Lutkcn. 1B75 - - - 107 

X VIII . A Reriied Gatalo|n»c of tbe Entoxoa of G recnhuid. By Dr, Chr. 

Llitken. 1875 • - . « - . - 179 

XIX- A Revistwl Catalogne of the Echinodermnta of Greenland, By 

Dr. Chr. Liitken, 1875 - - ^ - - - 184 

XX. A Rcvii^ed Catalogue of the Anthoaoa and Calcycoioa of Greeo* 
land. By Dr. Chr. Lutkeu- 1875 - - • . * 186 

XXI. A Revised List of the Acalephte and Hydroxoa of Grceuland. By 

pT. Chr. Lutkeu. 1875 .....* ib7 



vi CONTENTS. 



XXII. A ReriMd Catalogue of the Spongoxoa of Greenland. Bj Br. 
Chr.Lutkcn. 1875 190 

XXIII. Foraminifera from the Hunde IslandH, Davis' Strait Bjr Fro- 
fenois W. K. Parker, F.R.S., and T. Bapert Jones, F.B.8. 1866 - IM 

XXIV. Foraminifera firom Boflin's Bay. By Professors W. K. Flsifcer, 
F.B.S., and T. Bnpert Jones, F.R.S., F.G.S. 1865 - • - IM 

XXV. Foraminifera, Polycjrstma, &c. from Davis* Strait. ByDr.Ch. 
G.Ehxenberg. 1878 IM 

XX Vt On the Existence of -Marme Animals at varions Depiha la 
Arctic Seas. By Sir C. Lyell and Professor Torell. 186S - - IM 

XXVIL On the Distribation of Arctic Plants. By Dr. J. D. Wtekm, 
C.B.,F.BJ3. 1861 m 

XXVIII. Ciyptogamio Plants firom Baffin's Bay. By Bobert Btown. 
1819 U$ 

XXIX. Flowering Plants and Algn of Greenland, Davis' Strait, tad 
Baffin's Bay, coUected by Dr. P. C. Sutherland, and determined by Sir 

W. J. Hooker and Dr. Dickie. 1853 - - - - Mi 

XXX. Plants from West Greenland and Smith Sonnd, eolleoted bj Dr. 

E. K. Kane, and determined by E. Durant and T. B. James. 1856 - Ml 

XXXI. Notice of Flowering Plants and Ferns, collected on both sidea 

of Davis' Strait and Baffin's Bay. By Mr. James Taylor. 1861 - JMI 

XXXII. Arctic Cryptogamic and other. Plants, coUeeted in the Itlandt 
of Greenland by Dr. R. Brown, and determined by J. Sadler, Bm|. 
166S M» 

XXXIIL Plants firom Smith's Sound, collected by Dr. Hayes, and namad 
by E. Durand, T. P. James, and S. Ashmcad. 1868 - - M4 

XXXIV. Flomla Discoana, by Dr. B. Brown, F.L.S., &c. 1866 - Mi 

XXXV. The Lichen^ora of Greenland. By Dr. W. Lander Iind«gr» 
F.L.S.,&c 1869 SM 

XXXVI. On the Nature of the Discoloration of the Arctic Seal. Bj 

Dr. R. Brown, F.L.Sm &c. 1867 - - - - - ill 

Prof. NordenskiOld'ff Note on the same Subject. 187S - - 816 

XXXVII. Diatomacero from Danish Greenland, collected by Dr. Brown % 
determined by Dr. Dickie. 18C9 - - - • - Slf 

XXXVIII. Note on w>mo Plants from Smith Sound collected by Dr. 
Bessels. By. Dr. J. 1). Hooker, C.B., F.R.S. 1873 - - - iil 

XXXIX. Xotes on the Zoology, Botany, and Geology of tbe Voyage 
of the " Polaris '* to Kennedy and Kol>eson Channels. From ** Natore," 
1873; "Nature," lt»74 ; A. II. Markham's '* Cruise," 1874; and 

CI. K.Markham's" Threshold," 1873 - - - - ill 

XL. Geological Notes on Baffin's Buy. Bv J. Boss and J. Macculloeb. 

1819 iM 

XLI. Notes on Meteoric Iron of the Arctic Highlands. By Sir Ed- 
ward Sabine, F.K.S. 1819 asi 

XLII. The Mincralogical Gcolo^ of South Greenland. By Sir C. I^ 

Giesecke. 1816 ....... ^97 

XLI II. On the Mineralogy of Disko Island. By Sir C. L. Gieseckt. 

1821 iS5 

X LI V. On the Cryolite of W.Greenland. By Sir C. I. Giescck6. 16S1 i41 
XLV. On the Cryolite of Evigtok. Greenland. Bv J. W. Tayler, E^. 

I8S6 ' - . - 644 

XLVI. On the Views of Tin-ore at Kvigtok, near Ark»ut, Greenland. 

By J. W. Tayler, Knq. 185U 646 

XLVI I. Catalogue of a Gtiilogical .ind Goojiraphical Collection of 

Minerals from South Grwnland. Ity Sir C. L. Ciiesecke. 1861 - 649 
XLVI 1 1. On the Geological and Glacial Phenoniona of the Coasts of 

Davis' Strait and Baffin's Bay. By Dr. l\ C. S^ntherland. 1866 - 666 
XLIX. Fossils from tbe West* Coast of Kennedv Channel. By ttoL 

F.&ICaak. 1665 . - . iii 



CONTENTS. 



VII 



Page 



- 368 



- S72 



L Ok ^Wotmt FUxn of Noith GreenUnd* By Prof. Oswald Heer. 
I^tmkted by K,H- Scott, Eaq. 1867 
Willi Appendix : Umi of MemoirB Rod Ikpoi-ts on tlie Fo«bU 
PJahU of Grcenlaad, &o. 
IX Notice of the Flora fossilis arctica : CarboniTerouB. Cretiiceoug, 

and Ttrdtuj Plants. By Prof. Hccr. ConuaunicAted by li. 11. 

ScotC. K«q., F^S- 1872 * - - - - - 374 

UL Tbe Miocene Flom and ITattfui of tlie Arctic Begionc. By Prgf. 

Onrmld Heer, F.M-G.8,, &c. 187fi 378 

UlL The Cretaceous Floia and Fauoa of Greenland. By Prof O. 

Be«, FJtf .Q.S., 4c. 1874 386 

Uf, Ac^^Kuit of an Expedition to Grecnlaod. By Prof. A. E. 

Uwfcnakiaid. 1872 - 389 

iT. On Meteoric Irons found in Qie inland. By Dr. Walter Flight, 

roa, F.C.8., &o. 1675 - - - - - .447 

LTi Geological Notes on Noursoa]; and Disco, GreenJaad. By Dr. 

1. BrowTi» FX,a» &c, 1875 467 

With Appendix on Nordcoakiold and Brown's Maps - - 481 

ITU Un the Gnulual Sinking of S.W. Greeuland. By Dr. PingeL 

1835 - . , - - ... 482 

VfUL Etecent Elevaliona in tho Ciicumpolar Regions. By H. H. 

Hovortlu 1S7JI .-----. 483 
UX. Rocks and Minerals of Greenland. By Dr. H. Hiulc. 1857 - 496 



\ n.— Pajsby Islands and East- Arctic Ameuica, &c. 

tX. Note Ota Aotmal Life in the N.W. Parry Islands. By Capt 

MoCUstodc. 1857 -----.- 498 
Oil, Mammalia of the Parry lalands and neighbouring coasts, from 
Fkfi7't and Boss's Voyages. By Sabine, Kiehardfion, J, C. Rosr, and 

K.O«en. 1844,25,26,35 - 499 

XiXti. Fiahee of the Parry Island, &c. By Sabine, Rosb^ and Riehard- 

^ SOD. 1824, J6, 35 - - - - - - - 500 

^OQII. Inaectfl and Arachnides from Greenland, Tarry Idlandtt, &c. By 

Kirby, J, C. Boss« and J. Cortiit. 1835,26,35 ... 501 

VXIV. Marine InTertebrata of the Parry Islands, &c By Sabine, 
Kirby, J. C. Rom, Fleming, Lcacb, and R. Owen. 1824, 25, 26 ; 
t^i? J 1055 -------- 508 

JOCV. Fishes from Port Kennedy, Boothia. By Dr. Walker. 1860 - 505 
"^^XVI. Aretie MoUujJca, obtained daring the Voyage of the ** Fox." 
.^ By Dr. Walker. I860 .---.. 505 

"VJCVII. Inaecta and Arachnides from Port KenncKly. Bv Dr. Walker. 

lUO - , - - - - . * - .507 

<*XVII!. Arctic Crti<*t;icea and Pycnogonida, collected by the Eogllah 

E«i*dition*. By Dr. Walker. 1860 - . - . 50^ 

tXiX. Ecliioodermata, CHrripcdia, arid Actiniie, of the Voyage of the 

•'Fox." By Dr. Walker. 1860 - - - . - 510 

XXX MoUuacfl of W. Greenland and the Parry lelands. By Dr. P. C. 

Bttbodttid. 18.^2 • . . - 51] 

XZXf. Dredging^ at Qoodhaub, W. GreenLmd, Bv Dr. O. C. WallicL 
laea • - - - - - ■ - - - 518 

LXXIi. Some Arctic Ascidiana and Echinodermji, collected b? Dr. 

SiithcrLind. By Professors E. Forbes and T. U. Uiulcy. 1«52 - 513 
UXIIJ. Some Arctic In»eci«, &c., collect»?d by Dr. Suthcrlaod. By 

Atom White, F.L. 8. 1852- - . - . - fiU 

UDOV. Fknta collcetcd by Dr, Sutherland in Barrow and Daria 
8Mlti. By Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. 1852 . . . 514 



vm 



CONTENTS. 



LXXV. Algoe coUected by Bt.' Sutherland in Daris Strait, Baffin's 
Bay, Barrow Strait, and Wellington Chuonel. By Dr. O, Dickie. ^ 
1852 -.-.,---- 5|d 

LXXVl. AlgsB coUected by J. Taj lor in Cumberiimd Sound. By Dr. ^ 
G. Dickie, 1866 - - - - - - - 51$ 

LXXTU. Lichens collected by Br. SatberlAnd in Barrow and Davis 
Straits. By Rev. Churchill Babingtc*n, M,A. 1852 - - - 523 

LKXVIH. rbnt3 collected by Dr. Walker in Greenland and Arctic 
America. By Dr, J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. 1862 - - - 5tS 

With Appendix by Dr. Walker on the Temperature nt Port Ken- 
nedy ----*_- 535 

LXXIX, On 8ome Arctic Difltomace«. By the Rct. Engene O'Meara. 



¥ 1660 



Bv 



LXXX. Some plants from the Arctic American Archipelago, 

Capt. A. H. Markham. 1874 - - . '. 

LXXXI. Arctic Silurian Foanilg. By J. W, Salter, Esq,, F.G.S. 1853 
LXXXU. On the occurrence of Fir WixkI in the Arctic Archipelago and 

on Rock specinjena from that Re^on. By Sir R. J. Miirchison- 1855 
LXXX I II. Notes on some R^ck-&.pecimens from the Arctic American 

Archipelago. By R. Etheridge, Estj., F.R.S. 1874 
LXXXIV. Geology of the Parry Islands and Neighbouring Lands. By 

the Rev. Prof, Dr. S. Haughton, F.R.8. 18J7 and 1860 
LXXX V. Geology of the Parry Islands. By Belcher, Salter, and Owen, 

1855 .-----.-- 
LXXXVL Notes on Polaris Bay. By Dr. Bessels. 1875 - 
Note.— £. C. De Ranee, Esq., F.G.S., on Arctic Geology, 



551 

1 



551 



1875 



§111.^ — East Greenland, Spitzbergen, Franz-Joseph 

By Dr. W, 



1 



LXXXVIL The Mamm&li and Fishes of East Greenland 

Pctew. 1874 - - - . - 

LXXX VIII. Remarks on Sknlls of Esqnimaax Dogs. By H, toq 

Nathnaiua. 1874 - 
LXXXIX. The Tunicata of E. Greenland. By Dr C, KupJTer. 1874 
XC. The Molln«ea, Worroa, Echiuodcrms^andCoelentenitesof E*Green- 

Innd- B? Dr. K. Mobiua. 1874 • 
XCI. The Crustacea of E, Greenland- By Dr. R, BuchhoU, 1874. - 
XCII, The Arochuides of E. Greenland. By Dr. L. Koch. 1874 
XCIU. The Hymenoptera and Diptern of B. Gretnhind. By Dr. A, 

Gemtiicker; irith Notes by Dr. A PanBch- 1874 - • - 

XCIV. ITie Lepidoptcra of E. Greetdand by Captain A. von Homeyer; 

vrith Note* by llerrich-Schiiffer and Dr. Wocke. 1874 
XCV. The Hydroida laid Polyioa of E. Greenland. By Dr. G. H. 

Kirchenpnuer. 1874 
XCVL The saiooont Spoogea of B. GreenhiDd. By Dr. 0, Sobmidt. 



- 551 

555 

551$ 

5Si 

5ii 

565 
5d< 



1874 



XCVII. The CaJcareooa and Soft Sponges of E. Greenland. 

E, Httckel. 1874 - 
XCVIII. MicKMcopic Orgocisra-^ of the North- Polar Zone, Land and 

Sea. By Prof. Dr. Ch, G. Ehronbcrg. 1874 
XCIX. Phiiita frimi Eaat GreeoJaud, cotlectcd by Captain Gnab. By 
Prof. UoTnemaiiiL 183S .-.-.- 
C. Bolaoy of »h*l^a*t Homi nf Arctic Greenland : — 

1. I iHiehenan and Dr. Focke. 1974 
Jl. L I in S. Greenland by the Crew of the 
♦* llMimJ' Dr. BtKhtium. 1874 , - - - 

3, B«aiarka on the Flora of E«t| Greenland. Dr. 
I«r4 



obniidt. ^M 



570 
S7S 



- «7» 



*:» 



510 



CONTENTS, 



FoM 

CL The Mosses of E. Greenknd, By Dr. Kr. Mullen 1874- - 58t 

CII. The Lichens of E, Greenland, By Dr. G, W. Korber. 1874 - 569 

cm. The AlgjE of E. Greenland. By Dr, Heer G. Zcller. 1874 - 584 

CIV. The Fangi of E, Greenliitid. By Dr. Bononleu. 1874- - 585 

CV. The Parasitic Fuiigi of E. Greenland. By Heer Fuckel 1874 - 585 

CVI. The Drift-wood found in E. Greenland. By Dr, Gr. Kraus. 1874 586 
CVII. The Geology of East Gr<>enland: — 

1. The General Geolo^ry. By Dr. Fr. Toulll, 1872 - - 686 

2. The Mesoiojc Fossil's. By Dr, Fr, Toala. 1874 - - fi89 

3. Analyses. By Hcrr Stingl 1874 - - -589 

4. Miocene Plant*. By Prof. O. Heer. 1874 - - 589 
CVIII. Ou the Nature and Compofiition of Bocks from South Green- 
land. By Dr. K. Vrba. 1874 - - - - - 590 

CIX. Notes on Spitzberp?n : — 

1. P. Gaimard's Voyaga - - - - - 591 

3. Th. Von Heuglin's Voyages - . . 593 

3. Newton j Eaton ; Morch ; Torell - - - , 592 

4. Richardson's ** Pohir Regions '* - - - _ 592 

5. J. Xiamont *-'-•-. 59s 
€. A. E. NordeaaldSld (Geology, 18G7) - - - 398 
7- Cb. Martins - - - • - - 594 
8, X C. Well8^ RefiumI of O. Heer's Account of the Miocene 

Plants, &c. 1873 - - - - - - 594 

Notes on Frans- Joseph Land : — 

1 . juliuj^ Payer J R. Geogr. Soc. Proc. 1874 - . 596 

2. Julius Payer ; Proc. Imp. Acad. Vienna. 1874 • - 598 
CXL On the GLieiul Conditions of the Poles, Post and Present. By 

Henry Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S* 1875 - - . - 600 



PABT II.— FHTSICS. 



ODCcnoji - _ , ... - C06 

SulDLAJlT or TJLRIOU8 EXFEDmONS NOTICED Kf TH1» P.^T - - 610 

I.^ — ^Meteobologt* 

1. McieOTological Records of McClintock's Expedition in the "Fox." 
Fourth r n,,.K^ nf Meteorological Papers of the Board of Trade, 
I860. M Contributions to Knowledge, voL XIII., and 

Voyar i 'x" - - - - - -613 

Reconl uf Dr. Kane's Meteorological OhserTationH. Smithsoniaa 
CoBtnbutions, vol. XL Temperature, Discussion of Winds, and 
Buottietric Obscrratioii^ - - - - - -615 

Meteorotogical Obserrations in the Arctic Seas. By Dr, Hayes. 
SmitlisomftD Contribations, vol. XV. Temperature, Discussion of 
Wta^ and Barometric Observations - - - - 618 

Rdstire range of Tcraperatnre in West Greenland - - 619 

4. Meteorological Obsenations at Boothia Felix. By Sir John Boas, 
lftS9>33. (Sir John Ross' North-west Passage) - - - 620 

5. Meteorological Obscrvnlions. By Sir Edward Beldier (Last ol the 
Arctie Voyages, 185.^) - - - - - - 621 

T u re and Winds. Freezing of Mercury - - - 612 

6. <' ^ of Air and Sea-tempcrntures in Baffin's Bay, By 

Ci*j .«.- »;.^k]uun - - - - - - - 623 

7. McteoivlogMal Reconh of the Second German ExiKsditiou. Die 
sirdta MIMbe Nordpolarfnhrt, vol IL Temperature, Winds, and 
Barotnetrie Obsen ations in East Greenhmd - - - - 624 

9SI22. ^ b 



;:H732r='- 



* Jfi 



«n 



*- Tl»-. •->rri Vn-'r; r -va^vui-r. lA^'-IiixxLtac - - - SS 

111. — ^TZ'.Z'-.sJL ?i;:exi=aj :* Ijl 

J- Vi "t:.* J-.^t:- ■•' l-^- 2-17 Ir Tt-i» - - - • OS 

x.»rtuKrc« "1 ?^:--^^-.rc. rfli-: - - - - - 0& 

I. Vi 'ti* ', ',T.v.- "j'.c -.r ~*a!-Tii-r uii •;' Se^vicf Ijse. 3y Sir 
V>.-i-';' /»a. .<:*-'- - - - - ' - - ••• 

ii j( - ' ',w ,. vj- • .-. ".'. Az^et:^: Li^-j::^-. rr.c- SIct. Soe, 

^*^^. /'t'*lv'-, -------- 

^'v,;, . ' 

IV. — T.-L-E- .vyr» Crssorrs. 

I, ^^>*«T«?kr^* »i MtI-.-:!-: I^I^aL (Pirrr"* Firs Vcy:»^, te.) 

U^.r4^V»; -------- ISi 

3. t fff^rrt^:j,M u W:r.VT I*'juyl aiil Igioollk. ( Parrr** S^icoal VofVgc^ 

*c^. 

%, ' f^f^^iAiouk at I''yrt B'/»«m. rParry'* Ta:ri VoTa^e, xc.) 

4. 0*iMmfai»-//M in Wcilliiyt/zn Trjazji^L' (Brlcber* - - - 

5. T;4*i 0"iVTTa*.i'>m « I'ort Kenae-iy (McCliai-.-ck) - - - 699 

//•v^iMi^fi hy I'rofrHVjr Haa^faujn - - - - - 

«, Ti/UI ';bMTr«i'ifw at Van Hetfis^l^sT. By Dr. Kane 

7. Ti'UJ 0»/wrrr4tior,. at I'ort F'-ilk*:. By Dr. Hayes - - - Ml 

H, T\i^fry *A 7 :'l^. Ifaif-Moothly Inequality - - . . efiS* 

•*. f;»/Mrryati^/frt in J'obri* Bay. By Dr. Bes^N - - - eCS* 

10, C^nrr'ittU on th'^ flat* C'MUit of Grc-enland. By M. Koldewey - 664 

II, OtftM^valionK on Ti<l<:fl and Curreut-« in East Greenland. By IL 
HtA'Urwty • . 664- 

(',tfm\0!ir\%'rti hi:iwt^in Ka*>t and West Greenland Tides - • 66S 

13, Art-r%tf** l>«|'th of liaflirrs Jiay an dediice<l from the Tides - • 666 

H, Voy«i<)r«'of III*: '* I'olari-." Optuin Murkham - - - 668 

J.';, lUmiArkti fin tlu: Tidcn of tli<: Arctic Kfgions ... 671 

An Armnnit of tlie Scientific Work of tlie Austro— Hungsrian Ex- 

p9f\MiM. By LicuU'nant Weyprecht - - . • 674 




CONTENTS. 



XI 



v.— GE0i>E3y AND Pendulum ExpERnrENxs. 
Measuring tue Motion of Glaciers, 

ll. Pendulum Observations in Melville Island. (Ptirry) 
FendDlom Observations in Spitsbergen. (Sabine) 
Pendulam Observations at Port Buwen. (Parry) 
Pendulum ObserrationB at Port Foulke. Bj Dr. Hayes 
Mettsurement of a Base Line^ and System of Triaugulutioo. 
Koldevej .---.-. 
IfoMurement of the Advance of Glacier Iq Fnmz.Joseph<Fiord» East 
Gfeenland. By R- Copeland . _ - . _ 

KeaflUKment of Glacier near Fort FoolJce, By Dr. Hayes - 



ByM, 



661 
682 
682 
663 



- 683 



684 
084 



VL — Observations on Refraction and on Air. 

Observations and Experiments on Sound. 

Ob^ervationii and Remarks ou Extraordiunry Refraction. By Sir Johii 
Bow --------- 

ObsenratioQff at Fort Bowen. By Parry - - - - 

ObMrrations on Fog-bows , &c., near Spttzbergen. By Parry 
Obttrvationft on Refraction. By 8corei*by, (Greenland Voyage) - 
ObcervatiODS on Mock Moons, &e. By Sir Edward Beleher 
ObaerTatiooB of Ualos, and Remiirks on Twilight. (McClintock) • 
Remarks on Twilight at MelvQle IsJand. iPsrrj) - - 

Analyns and Expansion of Air, (Parry) - - - _ 

Remarks on the Distance to which SoimcUi could be heard. (Parry's 
First Voyage) - - 

\0. Observations on the Velocity of Sound. By LicnteiuLDt Kendall on 
Sir John Franklin's Expedition, 1825-27 - - » . 

il. ExpcriTOCutH cm Sound at Winter Island. (Puiry) 
l2. Experiments on Sound at Fort Bowen. (Fiirry) - - - 

\9. Experiments on the Velocity of Bound. (M. Koldewey) ^ 



684 
684 
685 
666 
686 
687 
687 
687 

- 688 
688 
689 

689 
690 



VII. — Terrestral Magnetism. 

'htagatdc Observations in Duvis Strait and Buffiu*ji Bay. By Sir 
James Boss and Captain Sab'mc. (Phil. Trans., 1819, nnd Voyage of 
Sir John Ross in 1818) - - - - - - 691 

Ma^etic Observations at Melville Island. By Captain Sabine. 
(Parry's Fir*t Voyage, 1819-20) - - - - . figj 

:tie Observations at Winter Isilaml and Igloolik. By Parry. 
" Voyage) - - - - _ , _ 593 

lie Observations at Port Bowen. By CapUiin Furry and 

Foater. 1824-25 - - - - - - 694 

Ha^etie Obs«rrations at Felix Harbour. By Sir John Ross. 
piKc-overy of the Magnetic Pole, By Sir Janiof. Ross - - 696 

Magtietic f Jbser^'atiuQS at Van Rent^selaer. By Dr. EaiiQ - . 697 

Magnetic Ob'^ervalions at Port Foulke. By Dr. Hayes - - C98 

Camparison of Dip and Uorizuutul Force ut Points in Wcat Green^ 



ly ObseTTations of Magnetic Declination at Point Barrow. By 
Mapire. (Phil. Trans., 1857) - - - - 

ly Observations of Magnetic Declkation at Port Kennedy. 
(PhiL Traas., 1863) ------- 

I. Uagoettc Observations at Sabine Inland and other East Greenland 

gitotioiii. By Captain Koldewey. 1869-70- - - . 

;S. Mctbods of determining the Magnetic Elements In the Arctic 



- 699 



Si. Ibl^tic ObHerrationa made during the Auhtro-IIiiiigarian Korth 
Polar Expedition to Franz-Joseph-T^and, By Lieut. Wcyprecht 
J4, Hagxtirtic Survey of the North Polar Regions. By Sir Edward 
(Phil. Tram., 1872) - - . . , 



roo 



^02 



703 



•03 



ro9 



711 



xn 



CONTEXTS. 



Vm.^AURORA BOHEAI.18. 

TAg9 

1. ObservatioiiB of Aurora at Melville iHluDd. By Parry. (1819-20) - 7ia 

2, Conclaiiona on the Aurora* Sir John Frftuklin. Fraoklio's Second 
Expedition. 1825-27 ------ 

8. Observations at Port Bowni. (Parry's Third Voyage) 

4, ObterratioDfi of Aurora durinji? Kos»' Second Voyage of Discovery - 

5, Observationji of Aurora at Port Kennedy. By Sir L. McClintock 
id Dr. Walker . - - ' - 
Observation on Aurorn. By W. R. Grovo . - _ 

Obsen'^ationa on Aurora. By Sir Edward Bolcbcr - - - 

7. Observiitions of Auroras, By Dr. Hay^s ^ , - - 

8. Observations at Point Barroiir. By Captain Magiiire 

9. Remarks by Dr. Bc/rgen on Auroras seen in East Greenland 

10. Obficrvations made durinj;r the Austro-Hnngarian Kxpediuoo to tb« 
Ekflt of Spitabcrf^cn. By Ljeut. Wej-precht - - - - 

11. Comparison of Anroras, Magnetic Di>itarbuQcee, and Butt 8pot>. 
(Proibssor Loomis) .,-*-•- 721 

12. Geographical Distribution of Auroras. (M. Petennann*^ Mitth^- 
ungen, VoL20, IX., 1874) -..-,. 

13. On a definite Arrangement, and Order of Appearance^ and Progress 
of the Aurora, and on lti» lieifxbt above the Surface of thti Eiirtli. 
Rev. Jaraea Farquharson. (Phil. Triins., 1829) 

li. On the Origin of Atmospheric Electricity. By M. Becquerel, 
and 4L de la Hive. (Arthiv. Sc. Phys , tScc'., vol. xlL) 

15. Observations on Anrora in Italy. ByM. Denxa. (Archiv. Sc. ^ja,, 
&c,, voL xli.) - - _ « . . . 

Rcmarkt^ on brilliant Auroras of 1870 - - - - 

16. The Spectrum of the Aurora Borealis. By Professor Angetrdm 
(Nature, vol 10, No. 246) ------ 

17. The Spectrum of the Aurora and Review of Angstr^m'f Discoveriet.. 
By Professor A. S. Hersch el, (Phil. Mag., No. 822) 

18. Comparison of other Spectra with the Spectrum of the Atuon. By 
J. R. Capron. (Phil Mag., No. 325, April 1875) - 

19. Observadona on the Spectrum of the Anrora. By M. LemstrOm. 
(First Swedish Expedition). (Archiv. Sc. Phyn,, &c., vol. I.) 

20. On the Electrical State of the Air. By M. Lemstrdm. (Fizst 
Swedish Expedition in 1868), (Archiv. Sc. Phys., ficc, vol. xll) 

21* The Spectrum of the Aurora. By M. Wijkander. (Second Swedish 
Expedition) (Archiv. Sc. Phys,,'&c., vol. IL) - - - 

is. Obsen-fttions on the Electrical State of the Air. By M. Wijkander* 
(Seocmd Swedish Expedition). (Archiv. Sc. Phys., &c., vol. 11.) 



71t 
714 
71S 

7ie 

717 
718 
71$ 
719 
719 

720 



722 



. Tia 



- 721 



- 73: 



- n 



- 74 



APPEininc. The chief modem Works on Greenland, the Fmnklin 
Archipelago, Spltzbergen, &c. - - - - - 7i 



InMUL 



r»^ 



Khrata it Coriuozstda 



- 7BS 



AdJiliomtl Errata, 



Fa^- 



liur -• . (< 



1 1 L J r » ij- 1 1 f. 



'V. 

'id Veins. 
^vnotTlchia- 



MANUAL, &r 



PART L— BIOLOGY AND GEOLOGY. 



§1. 

West Greenland; including Davis Strait, Hafflv*s 
Bay, Smith Sound, and Kennedy Channel. 



X — Oq the Mammalian Fauna of Greenland. By Dr. 

R^>BERT Brown, F.LS., F.R.G.S., Lc. 

'[Eeprinteti by Perrais,sion from the Proceedings of lh<* XoologiaiJ 
S^tciety of Loudon^ 28 May IHOH. With Corn'clionH nnd 
Aonotiitions by the Author, March 1875.] .. 



L IIi«iUiry of the Sabjeet^ p. 1 . 
-. S^Ttcraatic Distribution, p* 4. 
i- GeDgni|ilitciil Distribution, p. 7. 



COJCTKNTS. 

4. Synonymy ami Ilabtt^ of tbo 
Ttrro^tnal Specits, p. 14. 

5. Doubtftil ahd Mj-t)iical SiwiMes, p. 28. 



1. History of the Subject, 

In entering upon a rtiNiew of the Greenlandic !;pccto8 of 

^^iitotualia, it mny be a matter of surprise to some tlmt iiin thiiiw 

[^•maijis to be siiid eoncerning the larger auiinals of a coiiiilry j^irt 

'*^^mpjiratively Dear home, and r^arding which so much bus licea 

'ritbMi, where Egede, Fabriciiis, Vahl, and Rink livc<I, nml 

"^j:nr»ling which we possess the remarks of such excellent nritfi- 

'^X\9\a as the acute authors of the " Fauna Grcenlandica " nrul 

Gronland geograph. og statist, beskr." Between the dates of tlie 

^^MicAlion of these two works an intcrvnl of upwanls of seventy 

"^iK extends, so that one might suppose thtit any errors uf the 

*^l work might liave been fully diaco re rcil in the interval nnd 

'^rn^terl in the ge<.'ontl. All Hurprise vanishes, however, wlnri 

p fuid that the contrm'y holds true, and fhat to-day wo know 

^■niofli as little about the Mammals of Greeidand as we did when 

t Elritiuj* gave us the first Byf^tematic account of them. The faet 

[1** <imt naturalists who have visited Greeidand have been too much 

^tilcteated in other (lepartments of natural hi.story to pay atteii- 

Joii to the larger members of the fauna, or have .supposed tbat 

J^ere was nothing worth adding to, or (what is junt as impitr- 

^•rt) aublracting from it. Accordingly, we find all authors on 

5^ic animals merely contenting themselvei^i with giving n lifet ul' 

jtbricius's species, and at rhe same lime perpetuating the errors 

f^^h he fell into through ignorance or credulity, independently 

^ 'lie fact that he only wrote of that limited portion of the country 

[,,^**^ inhabited by the natives over which his authority as tv 

-*ronlandsko Missionair " extended. Can wc 



30122. 



therefore 



U 



•wy "N TnE MAMMAL? Oi GiIEE3n.A3ni. 



astODi^hed if we niid the xiiiL^ c<: GreenUrid. in the 
malia, baniened with specie^ which hjve no exifience save in the 
vi\-id imagination of the Eskimo •'! the overleanwd acuttnam of 
zoologists, and bereft of otLers wLieh oiizht to take their plaofr— 
their history i^isoried wiiL ii»'l-:* ol'v wonhr of the belief of 
the laet oentonr, and their geographical range in the eouatij over 
which thev are diftribntoT ^^■arcel7 touched on, or wroo^ de- 
scribed. The account? of the oMer writers on Greenland (f^ede, 
Saabve, Cranz, ic; were very unsaii-faciory : but a new en in 
the history of northern zMo^^y Jawi^ed wLenOtho Fabriciiis,iriM> 
had pa:^sed several years in Greei^nd af a misisdonarT, pabGdied 
his <* Fauna GrGenlandica.^* TLis work, far in adnukoe of its age^ 
and which for the Cfjnciseness and accuracy- of its descriptions hiB 
rarely been <urpa<*!cd, hus most deservedly retained its place M 
our standanl authority on th>.- zoc'lo^ of Danish Green]jU!id.t 
Herein are enumeratird thirty-on>: >|vc'i*>= of Mammalia indigenous 
to the countr}', exclusive of man and thoee whidi have beoi 
introduced by man's agency. Four of theae species I haTO shown 
in thi!> memoir 10 have been entered upon impertect groonds, ooe 
was mistaken for another ( ijribos mosthatHS for Bos gnmmem), 
and several are now known to V-e only >]nionym5 of other specieL 
The species \)i Cet;icea are. a-^ miffht be expected, the most 
obscurely described of all, and Lavi- occasioned much eontroTenj: 
and the superabundance of literury acumen which has been qwnt 
on these descriptions i^ more than the natun? of them will allow o£ 
Subsequenily the elder Beiuhanlt gave some notes on the 
Gi-eenlaud Mammalia in the ** Isis *' for ]'>4S, which, in the mtini 
are only a reproduction of the earlier account of Fabiidus ; ind 
in 1857, the present Professor lieinhardt, of Copenhagen, in the 
Appendix to Rink's *' Gronlaud "% fuinished a list of the specieSi 
also following Fabricius. lie hiis, however, entered the only specdes 
then added to the list, viz. Mns yranlaudivus of TraiOyS d^coTcred 
by Scoresby on the east coast in 1S22, under the name of JIj/pud^iK* 
(/rcenlandicus,\ and attempts to disent;U2glc the specific lustorf of 
the amarok ol the older authors, Fabricius'a Gulo luseuSj the 
IVtoca Hrshia, which Fabricius enters as a member of the Green- 
land fauna, the Tnchechus matuitus, (&c., and with some 
though, not having visited Greenland himself, he is not so 
ful as he otherwise might have been. This list, as all the others 
solely relates to Danish Greenlanil, extending firom Cape Farevdl 

* Hafhisc et Lipsis, 1780. 

t In 1667, whilst staying at Clau^liuvn, I occupied as my •tudy a Ettic no* 
in the pastor's old hoosc, now deserted and used to accommodate uj itiiV 
wayfanng men like m}-svlf . This -was said to be the •* daik closet ** wh8« 
Fabricius wrought at lus Fauna, Lexicon, and otlier works. It wasafleivii^ 
the residence of Saabye the grand^ion of Egcde, who also wrote on Greenlffi 

X Gronlaud geographisk og statisti>k beskrevet, &c. Band IL TiUs4 
Nr. i. (Pattedyr, &c.)- Tliis appendix was also published sepantely, " NaW* 
historiskc Bi^ag til en Beskrivelso af Gronland." 

§ Scoresby, •* Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale Fisheiy, fte." 
Appendix, p. 459. 

: Trof. Keinhardt obligingly informs niu (March 1868) that he » no* 
(|uite convinced that this is ':( Mtfodcs, tliough he only knowi it fniB 
de*crijiti<»n. 



' U. BKOWX ON THE MAMMALS OF GREENLAND. 3 

bt. 59" 49' N., loDg. 43'' 54' W,) to Upernavik (lat. 72^ 48' N., 
►ng. 66^ o4' W,), aDil h vaUmbb as oxproeaing the state of 
jbowledge regttrdmg the Mtimiualm of Greenlaud^ in Denmark, 
l|)resenied hj a nsturuUst who has paid much att^jiitiori to the 
rctic fauna, in the elucidation of some of the mariue Mammalia of 
rliieh he ban so highly distinguished himself. Thi^, as far aa I 
ft Aware, ia all that immediately relates to the Mammal^} of Dauish 
iTQexiland. Vai'ious other writings hiive thrown much light on 
mftSffeneral history ; hut it in with their sptcitU hii!tory and 
^^Ephical distribution in Greenland that I have to deal. 
^Bji^ theae memoii-}^, I ought not to omit mentioning the 
^HbdI paper on the Mammalia of the northern eounlries by 
^^■ior Malmgreni* who aecom|ainied the Swedish expedition 
^Bo Torell to Spitzbergen.f He has atlded, incidentidly, not 
rlittle to our knowleilgo ; but liia treatise is mostly a compilation, 
Ki^ not looking upon the arctic fiiana in a comprehensive view, 
■i|AB falleD into matiy errors in zoo*gt>ography. For int^tance) 
HMmot underataud why he has excluded Halfetioptera ffit/aff, 
Mohr., and //« rostrala^ Fab., from the Spitzbergen fauna, nor 
^ less why lialatM mt/siUeius, Linn., it* not elassal among the 
Eammais of the seas around. This last li assuredly found there. 
b Sraeerenberg Bay the Dutch used to catch it in abundance, 
bd even erected boiling-houees on shore to "try '* out its oil; 
lid the two former or© also found there. Indeetl nearly all of 
be Greenland mjirin© Mammalia are also found iu Spitzborgen ; 
bd certainly Dr. Malmgren'a stjiy was much too short to allow 
Em to come to a decision on the matter. J 

* E»chricht ami J. T. Reinhardt's mtmoirfl on tlio Greenland 
HuJ^ § have added directly to our knowledge ; wliilc the numerous 
^Hb and catalogu&s of Gray || and Lilljcborg^ on the HritiHli 
^Hbuidinavian Ctetacea (mont of which are also fotind in Green- 

y^^TMuft iA iiW igea and Anxeichnoiigt^ u1>er die Suugctbierfauaa Fin- 
Lirkens and Spitebergeijs/' in Wieg:iiian]|*fl Archiv fur Naturgeik?hicht« 
Ssrlin), lw64, pp. 63-97, tranalMed £rom Ofverslgt sif Kong. Svensik, Akml.^ 
m. (1863). ii. pp. 127-155. 

Ff STen*lui ExpedJtioncn till Spet*bergen Ar 18G1, under Ledaingaf Otto 
V " tletagarnt's Anteckaingar och andra Uandlingar aktldrad af K. 

It (Stockholm, 1865). See the account of the VValnia in that 

tfy\^ , I ^tA3 (with plftte U)d woodcut) » and excellent figares of £/y> 
^M|C( r\ Laeep., fticing p. 480, &c. 

^^t lilt this Whale has been of late years imkuowa withia many 

me* oi Spiubcrgi'n. The walrus hunters say that the sea h getting too 
^low for it. Sr^ Laroont Qnart Joarn. Geol. Soo., xvi. pp. 153 and 433. 
■Hftiy Society' '\n on the Cetucea, by Professors Kitchricht, 

^^K)t, nnd' [ I by W. IL Fbwrr. 4to, London, 1866, 

^^HbiM. 1 ' md Bight- Wbate {Batctna mysticetui/)» By 

^^^^KiT I ' -liil [ !: : iirdt. 1. Ittc GeogmpUical Uunge uf tbe 
BHIHs Whak'. in I rii.r 'rues and at present 2. Tbe Fittoni:il aud 
uerAa] Charoctm ot the (ireeuLund Whale; Kxternal Coufornmiion : 
b^ity iif tli« Mouth; Skeleton; Appendix (by the Editor). IL On the 
EmIh of Orca inhabitiJiff the Northern Seas. By D. F, Eschricttt, TIL Oa 
ncmlofef; eraMaidens. By J. Hetnhardt. lY. SynopMls of the Cetticeous 
EmiUm of Scandlnam (Sweden and Norway). ' By W, Lilljoborg. 
^^Ktalflfae of 8eali and Whales iu tbe Briti»h Museum, 186€ ; aad Fro- 
PHIlpi of tbe Zoologfoal ^Society, and Annaln of Niit. ilifit., pixjtrm. 
[5«ay Society's Memoirs on the Cetacerv, >u/»rn. 



4 i:. luiowN ox THE mammals of orrrnland. 

l:unl) lifivc liclpcd us lo n rijrlit niidorstandinjg^ of thnt order. 
Nilssun has disc-ntnn^^led the liorthern Pinnipcdui in his Historj 
of ScAiuliuaviun Mummal.^^ ; aud no has Gruy (ii6b. eiit,) aud, mora 
closely i*ehitiiit; to Greenland, Fahricius,j m a sapplementary 
paper to Ins I'aiiiin, and Dr. Wallace in the ghort abstrsict of one 
read before tht; Koyal Physical So<riety of Ediubui-gh^ on those 
killed by the iiorthei-n seal-hunters. But nearly all of tliCHe 
papers are only local, or I'clate merely to questions of specific 
distinctions and synonyms, and touch but lightly upou the Seals 
either as animals of Greenland, or on their migrations from one 
part of the arctic regions to another. Our own arctic expeditions 
halting little, if at all, on the Grecnkmd coast, and many of 
them unprovided with competent naturalists, have added almost 
nothing to our knowledge of the arctic or Greenland Mammals ; 
but tlie American expeditions to Smith's Sound, under Drs. 
Kane § and Hayes,|| have bupplied us with many interesting 
notes on the range and luibits of species. I wish I could s&y 
the same for all the dcscribers of their collections. Professor 
Cope^ has attempted to establish two "new" species of JBeinga 
from Hayes's collection ; but none of them (in my opinion) hare 
the sliglilfst claims to spoeilic disliuclion,** the supposed dif- 
ferences being mi-it^ly such as age or the ordinary variations 
between om; individual and another would produce. Tjistly, in 
the Soientiiie Section of the Man-ativc of the Second German 
Expedition will l)e found some notes by Dr. Petei^s on the Mam- 
mals collected on the East Coiu^t. 

Other contributions to arctic mammalogy I shall Iiave occasion 
to notice as 1 proceed. 

2. St/stemcUic Distribution of the Greenland Mammalian Fatma. 

As might be ex^xjcted, the character of the GiXH^nland mam- 
malian fauna partakes of a sarcophagons type, the phytophagous 
spe<.*ie3 proper being only three, and the marine species far ex- 
ceeding in number the terrestrial species. In the nomenclature 
<>f the ^lammalia, thon<rli only ii secondary matter, in a paper of 
tliis nature, so lonjjc as they aie coirectly named, 1 have followed 
some standard anlhority, without in(|uiring too strictly into the 
soundness or priority of the specilie names .•ii)plied, or the value of 
the tribal or generic divisions under which the writers hiv* 
clashed them. 

This subject I may return to more critically at another time; 
but in this memoir I have allowed convenience of reference to 

* Skandinavi^k Faunsi, fOrsta Delcn, Daggadjuren, pp. 2G8-32G (1847)i 
also transliitCKl in Wieginann's Archiv fiir Xuturgescliichtc', Bd. vii., &c. 

f NaturhistorLsk Sclskabets Skrivtcr, Bd. i. 

i I'rocoediii^'s of the Koyal I'liysical Society of K«linb. ltiG2-63. 

§ Arctic Kxplorations, 2 vols. li*5;>. 

i"; Voyage towards tJie opL-n I'olar ^Jc;i (made in I SCO), 1867. 

% rrociedings of the I'hiladelphia Acadoniv of fcicieuces, 1865, p^ 878; 
1809, pp. 23-31. 

♦♦ Trof ]{i>inharilt, wlio, a-» Lifipector of thii Zoological ^[usciini of Cop»" 
ha;^cn, has every means of arriving at a detcrininatioii from au examination 
of a large uuiul>er of hkuils, writer to mu that he has arriyed at Ac MB* 
opmion. 




BOWK ON THE MAMMALB OF GREENLAND, 5 

le otber considerations, considering that the eminence of 
logists followed will bo a sufilcieut safegunrd fhat no grent 
r lilts been cnniiuittetl. Accordingly the noiueijdaiurc of 
Jaird'a " General Export on tlie Maranijilia of North America" 
cbielly followe<l, ns fur ns relates to the Groetilnnd (errcsirinl 
gfiecies, and the late Dr. Gruy's Britij^li-Miisciiin CaUtlogiic (186(») 
r the manne *^}Kcitv«, wilh only a few trifling exception*?, 
ving a view ta certain points of the Bynonyiny of Fabricius*s 
lapecii'd of Cetace«, to be fiftoiwards discueried. I have, howoTcr, 
▼entured to difter fioni Dr. Gray as to the relative rank of tlio 
group of Scale, bolievin^'-, yri\h Illigcr/ that tliey Are entitled to 
rdtnal rank, and have accordingly dc^ipiatcd them Pinvipcdia 
(llllg.) — forming Gray's tribes Phocimt, Tricbcchina, and CystO'^ 
mharina^ for the sake of uuiforrnity, into fnmilif.s under the titles 
ipf ritocider^ Trichccfiirlfp, Ct/slophoridfP^ conipcising the same 
nes as the former tribes, withotit, however, committing mywlf 
^ im opinion regarding the advisatjility of fo many generic «n<l 
ther 6uh<livi?ions of fo natnrnl a group, or of the good taste 
bplayed by M. Frederic Cuvier in the formaliou of some of 
is genera. Thn?, with Professor Kilsson,| 1 ciinnot see why, 
1 tlie formation of the genus Callocephale J {Calhcepfutlus), 
Jnnes Phoi'.a vituVmn should Imve lieen ehoeen as the type of 
e gifflus, white Fhocn harbttta^ Fab,, should have been retained 
^bdie tyiKi of tht» genus Phora,\ 

V0r. Grny*s nomenclature and elasfeiiication of the Cetacea 1 
Bftvc followed almost literttUy, though some pf bis species, such 
\ iMgetwrhynchxiii allArostrts^ L, Icuvophttrus^ Delphmns 
\phrosynt (/>, HolhaUii^ P!sehr»), and ihjptroodon (iMgrnovetus) 
iifronSj are only known from skulls or skeletons. The localities 
f cilso very vaguely known ; so tliat in the absence of all details 

reference to their habits and dii-tribution, and from the fact, 
oreover, of their epecitic (aiid still more their generie) claims 

t beiog in every cftj^c universally concetled, the physiical geo- 
raplier or natur/Uist (strictly speaking) can have hille to say 
' theuu I have, however, en I ered them n^^ nieiidjc»rs of 
iiland fauna, in deference to the opinion of their founder, 
Lu, niti:v the death of the lamented Eschricht htomJ alone in 
I* knowledge of the eyj+leraaiic hi^lury of the ninrino RIammalia. 
1k' following table will show Ujc gcncnd arrangement, the tribal 
id rjumerieal xlistribution of the Mammalia of Greenland, ex- 
xmw of all introduced .vpecics and others which have been 
Tonrously ineluded in former lists, and of the firt<t with whom 
'fibrieiiis headrt his fauna, "//<?///« 5(//;iV«* ; sine Deo, 

r DominOy reynnlur tonsueluditii ;" — 




i i.. p. 276. 

' " ' xi. p. 1?^2. 

', thotigli fault k'.sN in nptftudc, \n linblo 

^l^f liid to a gctutfior Alffiv by J. Ajimdh. 

jou, howuver, is eo comiuua tbot it u^ ualy juat to criticii^c 

'■ T.^Ct. 



*# !:. Lcow.v oy the mammals of GRKEn^AMlX 

>LA3iMALIA GBCENLANDICA. 
r.trd^r CamiTorm. 

Family Ur^ids. 

Genv* Ursns « Tbalarcto^). 
£'. maritimM^, Linn. 
Famly Canid^p. 

GtHHs Vulpc*. 

V. lagopus { Lmn.\ Rich. 
GtnMf Cani<. 

C. familiaris, Linn., var. bareaiis. 
Genus Ma«tela. 

Mnstela erminea^ Linn. 
Order Sodeatia* 

Family ArTicolinae. 
Genus Mjode^. 

.V. torquatus (PalL), Keys. & Bias. 
Family Ltporida^. 
Genus Lepus. 

L, glacialisj Leach. 

Order Biomiiuuitia. 
Family BoTidse. 
Genus Ovibos. 

O. moschatus (Gm.), Blainv. 
Family Cenridae. 

Genus Rangifer. 

/?. tarandus (L.), Baird. 
Order Koiiipedia* 

Family Phocidie. 

Genus Calloccphnlus. 

C rifulinus ( L.), F. Cuv. 
Genus Pajromys. 

P.fcetidus (Mull.), Gray. 
Genus Pagophilus. 

P, grcenlandicus (Mull.), Gray. 
Genus Phoca. 

P. barbata, O. Fab. 
Family Tricbcchida;. 
Genus Triehocbus. 

T, rosmarus, Linn. 
Genus Halicboerus. 

H, gryphus (O. Fab.), Nilss. 
Family Cystopborid,T. 
Genus Cystopbora. 

C. cristata (Erxl.), Nilss. 
Order Cetacea« 

Family BalaenidsD. 
Genus Balo^na. 

B. mysticettis, Linn. 
Family BalaenopteridsB. 
Genus PhysaluH. 

l\ antif/uorumj Gray. 



LLS OF OREENLAXD. *4 

Genus Bala&noptera. 

B^ rostrata (MiilL), Gray. 
Genus Me^iptera. 

jV. /miffimanoy Gray. 
Fatmlt/ Cat<xlonti<l53D. 
Genwt Crttodon. 

C maerocephalus (Linn,), Lac^p. 
Family Delphi iiicise. 
Gtmt/t IX'lpbious. 

D, cuphrosynCf Gray, 
Genug La^uorhynciius. 

£,, alhirostris, Gray* 

L* hucoplcurus (EascLJ, Gray. 
G&nujt Orca. 

O. gladiator (BonUp), Sund, 
Genus Phocjena. 

P, commumSf Brookei^, 
Genujf Beluga. 

B. tutodoH (Linn.), Gray. 
Genus JMonodon. 

M. monocems, Linn. 
Genus Globiocepbalus. 

G, svmeval (Lacep.), Gray.f 
Familij Ziphiiilfe. 

Gejius HyperocdJon. 

JL Imt: hop/ (Bonn.)y Lacop. 

//. ItUifrons, Gray. 

3* Geographical DistribtUhn of Greenlandic Mammalin, 

Similarity of physityil contour, and a general uDiformily of 
varyinp no doubt in tlegrcc, but .still sufficiently inhos- 
throughoiit^ wifb an abundance of the food oo which all of 
9ubsist throughout the habitat»Ic track a and in the fioa wiksh- 
the shores of Greenland, have failwl, contrary to what- mi;;:ht 
c lieen ex|>ectod, to produce a geographical distribution of the 
Umtnalia iti a like universal manner, or at all corresponding to 
p phyaical uniformity hinted at. It is only in the sea and on a 
krrow strip of land nkirtinj:^ the shores of Greenland that animal 
fr ♦ Ixvn found. The whole interior of the country aiip^nrs 

I . ly a frozen wai*t<^, overhiin to a depth of many feet by a 

mt^r dr glace, ^ixt/^nding-, so far as yet known, over its entiro 
tout <with the exception of Ihe ?trip named) from north to south 
I of fref^hwnter ice wliereon no creatur*? lives, a deuth-Uke 
with nought to relieve the eye, its silencx* enlivened by t!»o 
lYul orr Hlgbt of no breathing thing. This is the Inlands Us of thn 
colonidts ; the outer strip, with its mossy valleyi* and icf^- 
blUsy ia tins well'reracraliered Ftuiland, Dreary, doubtless 

hweali* (I#Mi.), Gray, Froc. Zool, Soc 1864, p, 223. 
turm9,0. Fab. ( THrtio tnmeahts, Gray) ; Greenl. Nvji^mak. 





JL BROWN ON THE MAMMALS OF OBBSHLAND. 





G«DeimiaiitTilJuU«i. 


^ 




Name of BpecicB. 




I 


f 1 
1 






1 






^ 




E ^ 


K ,-< 






^ 






1 


1 




5 




1 


1 


\ 


1 


L 




* 


1 , 

• 1 * ' 


1 

* ' _ 


. 


1 


* 




VullJCf iBLgOpttl - 


♦ 


■ j * 


• 1 - 


— 


III 






Caob fiimainrii, rai-, boreolia - 


4 


• ^ 


! " 


r ' " ( ~ 


■ 




JfuBtela ennin^ . , - 


• 


* 


m 


* 


• 


^ 1 


■ 




[ FfUs dotnestica] _ _ _ 


— 


— 


— 


■"■ 


~ 




1 ^ 


' 




MjckIi'* torqimtui _ - _ 


- 


* 


- 


* 


- 


- 


^ 


- 


F 




M«« decumanuK] _ - - 


■ — 


*- 


— 


— 


— 


~ 




~ 


— 




[ lUUKCUlus] 


1 ^ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


— 


# 


' — 


^ 1 




jL'puj* glttdalis . - - - 


! * 


• 


• 


• 


- 


— 


A 






Sus pcro&i] ^ - - - 


- 


- 


— 


— 


- 


— 


w 


~ 


g. 




(hihoB mtwcliMtia . _ _ 


• 


♦ 


— 


— 


^ 


~ 


"^ 


^ 






llaiipiftT tJimnduti _ - - 


I * 


* 


• 


• 


- 


^ 


m, 


- 


t 




OviMitrios] - - . - 


— 


— 


" 


— 


— 


" 


• 


■" 


~ 




Bm taunii] - - - - 


- 


- 


- 


— 


— 


- 


• 


- 


" 




'Ca[in Mrcm] - - 


\ - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


* 


-* 


«. 




C!iJt<K;epba]iifi vitiilinua - 


1 : 


li 


!• 


^ 




• 


'- 


*" 


f 




Fitgomyi fostiilus ^ _ , 


' « 


• • W 


- 




♦ 


'- 


— 






Pi^opbiJuB f^tpnlundicus 


t- 


;i* 


— 




* 
4 


— 




"" 




Phwn barbaUi . - - - 


1 * 
1 -. 


• ' ^ 


— 






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NoTB.— This Tabic, inttnife{«tly imperfect, giyrs the tpprozniute oe 



B. BBOWN ON THE MAMMALS OF OBBBNLAND. 





Locftl dktribution in Green Und ncconling 








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Only to luost uortherly ontpost 
of UperDavik. 

Limits of DaoUb Greeolnud ? 

Kot Houtli of IVulittctihuImu 
Sound, Alfu on the East 
C04«<t, N. of SoDKAby'fl Sound. 

Nut mnh of HoUtecuafxirg. 

Foiiiilily Dot north of Mtlvillc 

Han^rc rather doubtful. 
Rare uoflh of TOP, 
Very roTeJy uccn N. of "S** und 
S, of 65< 

Uan^^ii iloulilfiil. 
i^lttuigq uTikoowit. 

"Tliostf ii|njciei of CeUieen luRrked 
j*4 yjctendiug north oxdy to 
Mt'lvlIlE Bfly, probttlily occu- 
?<ionflUy rench a higUer lati- 
tiidiM but Ibiji bny is the 
U!<uil limit, ft&d Bortb of this 

^ the frtwcieii is nrely swn. 

K;*iigc uEkiiQira, but probably 
t!it." waiiic 11 » /f. IfHt^kt'ji/. 



proTuioml limitB of ipccicit. Cants lupuMy var. c//6a, uay be added. 



10 B. BROWN ON THK MAMMALfl OF aRE13RIfAK]>. 

it is to eyes only schooled in the scenery of more Bonthem landf; 
but, with its covies of ptarraij^jins flying up at your feet^ with their 
whir I, the arctic fox 1)nrking its /tur, hucj on the rockB, and the 
reindeer browsing in the glens covere<l with the creeping birdt 
{Bftula liana, L.), the arctic willows (Salix herdacea, L^ S, orefsM 
Pall, S, fflauca, L., &c.), the crow-l^erry (Empeirum), the Yaoct- 
niunis, and the yellow poppies (Papavcr nwHeaulej L.), it is a 
place of life companMl with the che(»rless waste lying beyond. It 
is with it, therefore, and the sea circling around, that we have to 
deal.* 

Many of the animals constituting the mammalian fatuuii infloenoed 
by no apparent physical cause, have but a limited geogiaphioal di»- 
tribntion, not extending south of a certain latitude, or north of 
another, while other spt'cies have a range over the shores of the 
frozen sea skirting three-quarters of the world. Some species of 
Seals are migratory, while others are not ; and the same is tme of 
various si)ecies of Cetacen. All of the terrestrial species proper are 
indigenous all the year round, confined to the country by its 
insnlai'ity. I havo drawn up a table (pp. 8, 9) expressing at 
a glance the degree and nature of their geographical distribntioD, 
local and general. In this table I have divided the distribntion 
under three main heads: — (1) general distribution over the range 
of the species, (2) nature of its <listribution in Greenland, and (3) 
its local distribntion in Greenland. I have, for the sake of con- 
venience, divided the general range of Greenland species into six 
subdivisions, viz. : — (a) Circumpolar, comprehending the regions 
around the most noithern limits yet rc?ached by man, the particnkr 
locality within that itigion for each sjwcics being limited by the 
nature of its habitat ; thus the Bear occupies the shores or frequents 
the ice-fields and ihe sen, the Seals the sea and the shore, or the 
ice-fields, the Dog the vicinity of mnn's dwellings, and the Hare the 
land generally, while the Fox keeps more by the shore, but not in 
the spa, and rarely ventures out on the iw fields; (/9) Cireomarctic 
America and (7) Circnmarclie Europe comprehend all the region 
about Grec'nland and south of the head of Baffin's Bay, down 
Davis's Strait, and other i)laces southof the former limits, Hudson^ 
Bay, Labrador, <&c., on the ono hand, and on the other the Icelandic 
soas and shores, the rogions of Euro|)e generally within or about 
th<> arctic circle. It may be eallc<l also subpolar, and has been 
fc>rme<l to take in th(? distribution of some species of Seals and 
Cetacea. The two regions art? about the same in zoo-geography. 

(8) Circumarctic Asia com])i"ehends similar limits on the Asiatic 
continent^ and is made to take in the range of the Fox, T^mTning, 
and a few other animals, which extend their range so iar east and 
west. T have not thought fit to eroate in this table an Aretie 



* For n further flcscription of the chnmcter of the inland ice, &Cm the 
reader i« referred lo the follow iiifr jiapcrs. by the writer of these notes:— 

*' DaB Inneru aoii Gronlund," Ivteniiaun's Geographischc MitUieiliuu;ai* 
1871 ; "Tlie riiysies of Aictie Ice," Quart, Journ. Geol. Soc., 1871 ; **Geo- 
loffy of the Noursoak Peninpula, etc.," Tnins. Geol. Soc Glasg., vol. ▼. ; 
''Disco Bay," The Gcographicitl Magazine, Feb. 1875, and in my seotioii of 
Tlie Arctic Manual of The Royal Gvogropbical Society, now ux preparation. 



B, BROWN OK TITE MAMMAXS OF GREENLAN0, 



division proprr, limiting it by the Arbitrary divisions of ^ofn^pTi^, 
diviMon.^ which, though necevSSftry enough for the nstronomicfil 
detcriptioD of the earth, yet serve no purpose t^ the physical'' 
gwgrepher in irafing the distribution of plants and aniauil«over it/ 
This division is comprehended under ray circumpnlar range, which - 
end? on the swis ndjoining < ireenland about the hciid of Biiffin's 
Bay. I have given its general limits there, f^ many spixies do not' 
go beyond that harrier, iind others do not come f^outh of it, I urn: 
well nware that thin may tippear a soraewlint loose way of expressio^J 
the limits of regionn; but at the same time the species the range J I 
of which these divisions are made to express are most wonderfulljr 
careless of the degrees, minutcpjand seconds which the geographer ^j 
may erect as their limits, and we can therefore only express their'' 
divisional l)onndarie9 in an equally clastic* manner. 1 trust, how- 
ever, that they are Btifticiently intelligible, 

(«) To give the sonthem ranjjje of certain species of Seals and 
Cetucea, J have erected a division for temperate Europe^ compre- 
hending the British and Scandinavian seas ; and in the range of I 
the same latitudes on the shore? of the British provinces and the 
United States of America a (^) teynperate American dimsion, I 
hare not, as in the cireumarctic range, erected a division for- 
tem|H?mfe Asia, as I do not think there \s a single specie?* of Seal * 
or Cetacea, found in the eeas (and certainly no Mammals on the 
land) of temperate A^ia, fonnd in the corresponding sens of 
Eorope and America, though, as several of the j*jjeciea are common 
to the circomaretic and circumpolar divi^itona of all three, pom© 
may yet be fonnd. In preparing this table I have endcavonreil to 
give the natnrnl range of the species, and have not entered a 
f^pecios in any di virion bccanse it has been, as an evident strufftjler^ 
se^Xi within that division. For instanee, Ralttjia mysticHtts^ Hv" 
hiffa ratodon^ Monodon movrtcerns, and Triehechus roitmnriis liavo, 
all of them more than once found their way to the British se»«!, 
y«ft no zoo-geogrnpher would ever think of reprcficnting the Right 
Whale, the White Whale, the Narwlial, or the Walrus a*; rcgjilar 
inemberfi of the British fauna. On the other hand, I need scarcely 
«uy that when I put an animal into anj' division I do not thereby *| 
tliat it is limited to that divii^ion (for, as shown on the table, * 
\y extend through sevcT-al of these divisions), nor that they are 
fnctnil ovfT all tbnt division or serit^ of divisions or regionn. I 
have alrendy explained that the range of each is limited acconling 
to t and habits. 

i df- th('Vf< explanations bc*cauBe, as all mles are liable td^ 

exy u-ms and sptemalic divisions. Nature abhors 

bc'ii 'H pamllel linen. 

Under the division of '* Nature of it;* Distribution in Greonlaud 
I bave divided tbem into (ce) Inlroduccd species, (j9) Migmloiy 
»|jei:ies, and (y) Sp^'cies indigenous all tlie year round. 

(») In Fabricius*s day the following Mammals had been intro- 
ddced into the country, but chiefly into Sonth Greenland ; — Cams 
fftmtiuifit (Eoropean breeds). Frits domestictty Ofi^ arie.% Cftpra 
idrtU4f Boi tauru*^ Sh^ nrroj'n^ Mus dt'cnmonuff, and Mm musculus^ 
All of these spccicf arc yet at tirues living in the country, but v\ot\<^ 



12 R. RBOWN OX THE BIAMHAL8 OF OBEBNI.An>. 

of thfui can 1j<* said to be 'acclimatized. The Horse {Nersatoak) 
was nitce introtlucifl into Greenland, but only remained for ft short 
time. As far as I can tliscover, its importation was for the purpooe 
of Major Oscean and Capt. JjandoiiV, who in 1728 proposed the 
niad-CHp PchenK' of " riding across Greenland ! " 

( r?) As the winter approaclu^ most of the Birds leave the country 
»nd do not ix'turn again until spring. The terrestrial Manmuils are 
]>rrdii)iit«'d, by the infsularity of the country, from resorting to this 
nu'tliOfl of r-scaping the rigours of the climate, or the scarcitT of 
f(MHl. The liear to Fonie extent hyliernates, though, as I shall 
.'iftci'wards hhow, this hybernation \a not so complete as is usuallj 
»<uppo<ed. The migratory Mammals are therefore limited to the 
niarin<' spH-irs. 

All of the Seals, with the exception of Tnchechus rosmarus, 
Cttllocrphahts t-itulintts, and Pagotnys Jcetitius, leave the coast 
during a jKirtion of th<^ winter, and even of the summer. The 
migration of the Seals is too complicated a subject to be discussed 
in n generul review ; under my note's on each species I shall have 
occasion to ri.<rur to it. In like manner all the Cetacea leave the 
R'ns in the winter, with the exception of Mottodon manoceros and 
Bclitga catMion, which can be s^'cn at o()en places in the ice all the 
winter through. Why these species should be winter denixens in 
preferenw to th«» othei*s it is difii(;ult to decide. Several species 
liave what may be called a local migration, moving from one 
])ortion of the coaj)t to another, north and soutli, daring the summer, 
according to the state of the ice, &c., — all of which will be noticed 
in another plac(>. 

{y) The spt'cies indigenous all the year round arc therefore the 
terrestrial Mamnials and the remainder of the marine species not 
already mentione<l as migratory, viz., Ursus maritimuSj Cants 
J'amiliariSt var. borvalis, Vnlpcs lagopys, Mustela erminea^ J>- 
jms glacialis, Mgodcs torrynattfSj Oi'ihos moschatus, Bangtfcr 
taranditSt Trivhevhus rosmants, CallMvphalus vitulinuSy Pagomyt 
fatidtis, Mofioflo/i monoccros, and Beluga catodou. 

In addition to these well established species there arc others 
frequently entered among the Greenland Mammalia, some of 
which have but scant right to a place, and others are entiri'ly 
mythical, as I will show in a section on these animals. Amorg 
these I class Gulo horcnlis {Ursus luscus), Phoca ursin€i {Catlo- 
rhintis ursitms), and Trichechus manatus {Rhytiiia gigas) as 
animals with little or no claim to be admitted members of the 
arctic £aiuna. 

The columns for the "Local distribution in Greenland" arc 
oi-ranged solely with reference to our present knowle<1ge of the 
range of the si)ecies in the country, and, being only temporary and 
to a great extent ariifieial, are subject to changes as our knowledge 
of the species extends. At the same time I think it only right to 
say that they have b<'en very carefully compiled, after considerable 
study of the mihtral range of the species, and \\\)oii principles 
akin to those for the general distribution of the s^Xicics. 

The colunm headed " Kast coa«t only" 1 have erected for the 
'•cccption of Mu^tela crminca solely, all the 5()ccie8 of the east 



B. BBOWN OK THE MAMHAf^S OP GUKENLAND. 



13 



as 4 

ED 



coast, so fuLT aa we know, heing, with this oxception» also common 
U) ihvt west. The enst coa^^t luis, however, been very litilt* ex- 
plorf*!, and no iloubt something ri'maiKs to be nddcd to our know- 
knige of the rajjge of spocies on thiil coast. 

On a comparison of the Gret^nland fauna with that of other 
portions of the arctic regions, wo can see no reason fur hjokirig 
upon hf in common with the floni and the avi- and tchihy-lhuita<i| 
other than csaontially Arctic-Eiiropt'an, all of llio species of 
m alalia, with tfic exception of Ovi&os moscfutttus^ he'ni^ found 
either Spit/U r<3'cn or Nova ZcmMo, while many of the Arefie- 
merican species fue not fouu<i in GreenhuHh The only true 
American mammal found in Greenland h llie Mu^k-ox, which 
might have crossed from the western whores of SmlthV Sonntl 
(where Eskimo tradition describes il as once abuudiiut) on t\w iee 
to the eastern shore, where alone in West Gi-eenland it .se(Mns to 
be now found, the gi'cat glacierj^j nnd ice-f!ix«s about Melville liny 
8<H'niing to act as a twirrier to tht- southnn and northern migra- 
tions of the unimala on either wide of them, and of >Mun equsilly 
with the lower animals. 

Looking" at the fauna of Spity.lK*rgi'n,* if we take exeept ion (o 
the Y^ry dubious omi.*!sion which Miifm«j^ni has iiia<U», we ftnd that 
th^rt! 18 nospeeii^ ol' mammul found in these islands not found 
ill Greenland ; and the same is tnie of the mannnals of Nova 
Zeiubla, if wi* take Von lJaer'« listf as representing the pn-^ent 
dtJite of our knowltslge, though published more Lhaii thirty ycni's 
In this the exception ih a doubtful one ('*a liitle wliiti^ 
luid, &i>eGieM uncertain^*), bul- probaltly an Ernjiie\ 1 tbore- 
Rn-f think that wo are jut^iified in looking niK>n tlif nunnmuHan 
fauna of Greenland ay Arctic-Eurojwan, and not Arciie-Anteriesin, 
though I am aware tijat opposite views are entertained by 
natiirali^^t? of high eminence. 

lln- mammalian fauna of Iceland has no connexion wtlh that 
of (ireenland, that island |K)8^essing oidy a single species of Mntii* 
nml in<ligi-»nous to it ( J/w*' sifhmticua) ; all others have been intro- 
diic»-»l by man, or, Ukf the Ursus mar'tthnus antl Vulpes layopus^ 
have drifted from Greenland on ice-lioes. 

My friend Mr Antliew Mun*ayJ soem^ to take exception to tho 
Mou4*e which is said to be found in le*'land, and reganling which 
wonderful tales are tohl \\ and, contrary to the opinion of' Povel- 
ficn, who coiusiders it Mtta sj/ivativHK^ L.^ and of the iiaelligent 
Icrlaudcra, who, as represented by Sir VV. d. Hooker, do not 
believe in its existence, thinks that it is Myodes ioirfiiftfrn {hutf-*^ 
umiutt Fov^U-^^ffranfa/nlivHs, Tr.), If such is tho caf-e, it might 
Itove been brought over on ico frtmi the east coast of OTeenhiud ; 
but tbe probability is, according to Stecnstrup, who has carefulty 



■Kk 



• Mnlnigren, /oc, c#<. ,• 8eorc«by, "Ai ni;" Phipps'ii '• Vojage ;*' 
f*«rr^*ft ** AHciniJit ;" [.aitiiB^'s "* Voyygc i 0,** itc , &P. 

♦ *■ '■ "■ iiii*j; Archiv iii> .N.itiirgcicliiohtc' (lN3y), pL \Ii. 

; .... ... ...X >..,.. HI of MimniiaU (tSflti), p. SCr. 

, •*ATciUr Zo>\og\\" Introduetiou, p. i)ix. ; llcK»in?r'» *• Tour In 
Ice li'. :*\,b2. 




14 K. imOWN ON THE MAMMALS Ql* GHEKNLAND. 

examined the qiiijation, that ao Lonimlog exists in IceUndfj 
thiit tho only indigenous Mammal la the Mua sylvatictM^ shoi 
thfit the faunu is e.s>ieutiaJly Kuropean^ and not American 
Mtirniy seemed to suppase** 

From these facts 1 believe that the islmid of Iceland is of 
newer date than any jiortion of Seandinavia or Greenland, and| 
being of u volcanic nature, was formed posterior to the date 
the present distribution of laml and water in the North Sea; 
indeed it, and other detiiched isLinda in the North Sea, are n( 
fragments of a more or lan^ continuouH hmd communicatiottT 
which, when the Miocene flora flourished in tlie Arctic regioD»i 
united Gi-eenland with Kurope.f 



4, Notes on the flahita^ DhtrilfiUion^ and Synonomy of the 
Terrestrial Mammalia of Grerrdafid, 

Tlio following notes on certain of the terrestrial f|>ecie« 
Munmudia are not intended as either a complete or s^ystemtiti 
hiMtniT of the species, but merely as stray notes on some polnl 
in iJjeir hi>^tory hitherto p^issed over, and on (lie speeics n4 
Greetilaml nmmaL I have delayed entering upon tho hiatoi 
of the marine Mammalia until another time, my obnervatiunM oi 
tho.«*e spcrcies being too extensive to be included within tho liiuil 
of one paper ; and, as 1 shall treat of them on a more ccmpn 
hcnsive plan than iuj mere Greenland specie;., they do not pTOporJj 
come within the 6co[k> of a paper on Greenland Mammals. 

These notes eonipieheml my own observations during voyt 
to the Spitxlwr'^en, Icelaodt and Jan Mtiyeu seaM, and along ihd 
eastern and western nhorcs cjf Davis's Strait and Bailia'a Bayi 
to ueiir the mouth of Smith » Sound, in 1861. Diiriu;^ the 
flummer flSCJ?) I have ngw'ui (in company with Me^sirH. 
Whymi)cr and Tegner) visited Danish Greenland for acientil 
purpose.*, but have ailded little or nothing to my former nou 
having seen few Miinmialiu, except «ome of the siK'ciea of Tii 
nipedia and a Cetacean or two in the sea; and, our tr;t 
tending over but a limited portion of the vicinity of 1 i 
wc had but few oppoitunities of (idding to our knowledge oi iheir 
h{dj»its. 

I wa:< fortunate enough, however, to obtain th* 
my friends Dhrr. Knud CJelmeyden Fleischer, * 
and Octaviuti NeiL^-n, whose long act|Wiintance with the li 
•Inngunge eunbled me to di.^cover !<ome of the eriors whici 
rieins fell into in deciphering tho mythical ppeeie*t ; an< 
intelligent' Lruveiling companiou Hr. Anthon P, Xegn^r 




• 8t«lll«tr-;- -T 

&0. Vider. 
tiaU Xat T! 

t ••^ 

JOUH) 

fCQAiMiieiil f i»«B of I 
fvouffiL 



iBlandske Laiidp«n«dyr-fai]nii8 
. FofLOiu^ i Kiotcuii.« I4JG7, p. Al; 

ji, 2.M ; A8» Gray, « 
Nntirnilist nnd G«alogiit«' 

:• tlu' lihyt:>' 

a at prcMAi 




B* BROWN ON THE 3IABiBfAL8 OF GREENLAND. 



15 



P^piTe me the benefit of his experience. These notes I have ia* 
corporated in the body of this paper at the proper place^ 

I have also examined, throii<jjh the kindness of the curators, the 
Greenland Mammals in the Copoiihu^ifen Museums, and those in 
the Museum of Science and Art in Edinhmgli, comprising many 
of the typical specimens of tScorcsby, Richardson, <&c. For this 
latter favour my thanks are especially due to Professors Ai-cher 
and Allmun, and to the late Mr. J, B. Davierf, theu Zoologie/d 

Assistant in the Muz^eum. 

* 

1. Uiisrs Mabttimus, Linn, 
I Greenl, Nennok (o guttural). 

Th6 well-known ** Polar " or ** Ice Bear " la found along the 
whole coast of Greenland from north to south, but not nearly so 
numerous as in former tinier, or aa is |>opuIiu*ly suppoaed. Thero 
are more in the northern timn in the southern portion of tlio 
country ; and it is very seldom seen in mid-Gi'cenland, i,e,y between 
about 69^ and ^G'"" N. hit. There are yearly killed from thirty to 
sixty of them. 'J'he Koyal Board of Tmde in Greenland givo 
the natives abotit five rigsduler (lljr. 3r/.) for a ekin. Oeca' 
sionally there are a number killed near Cape Farewell which 
have come routul on the Si»itzlrergeu ice-stream. Here a curloua 
custom prevails, viz., that whosoever sights the Bear (ii>>t, man, 
woman, or child, is entitle*! to the skin, and the [XM-son who has 
shot it only to the blubber and fl<*ah.* It is of light ci\?amy 
colour, rarely pure white, except when youn*^; hence the ScotcU 
whalers call ii the **brounie" or ** brownie," and aometimea the 
" farmer,'* from itrf very agiicultnral appeai-ance as it stalks 
leisurely over the ftUTowcd fields of ice. Its principal food 
CODsista of Seals, which it persecutes most indefati;jably ; but it 
18 somewhat omnivcrons in ils diet, and will ollen clear an islet 
af Eider-duck eggs in ,the course of a few bourn. I have seen 
it watch u Soal for half a day, the Seal continually escaping just 
90 the lieai' Wits about putting its paw on it, at the ** atluk " (or 
escti{>c hole) iu the ice. Finally, it tried to circumvent ita prey 
in onother manneJ'. It swam ofl* to a di?tanee, and when tb© 
Seal waa again half ik^Ieep at its atlftft, the Bear swam under the 
ice* with a view to cut olf itH retreat. It faded, however* and 
tlic Seal finally etJcupcd, The rage of the animal was boundless; 
it roared htduou»ly, lotsiug the huow in the air, and trotted oil' iu 
a xno"*! iu(Jij?nant ntato of mind ! 

1 4'!5eai3on, both in GteenJiiud and in the Spitz- 

hti^ «i" lb a constimt attendant on the sealer for 

the aakt' of the cai cu&sc:?^ in the pursuit of which it 16 ^omctinie.i 
•' more free than welcome." I have often also seen it feeiling on 
Wluilcii of different dpecicii, which are found floating 4^ad. In 
1851 I Haw upwards of twenty all busily devouring the huga 
inflated carcass of a Jiat^na mystUcttts iu Poud'is Bay, on tho 
we^teni shores of Davi»^:;i StraiL Wo were foolish enough to, 

• T>K' Tle^^, ;iii'T e-pi . lullv tbc liver, ia «aid to often prove poisonnnF \fltcit^ 
Hkoi. ' -tern shore* of Da^isV 80»it carefully pruUlhit* 

^KfUiix . ... , poitionoflt. 



:." i: "._ ■ ':i-"i':v.-- ; ■. . i;.^.' "' r "-ir :■:•'. • "le *'n.'tfetf*ieti in y ting 
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r :oi : T:il : i lj j :•• ' ^" . — : rur r* L . ■ .n x .liiion^i bj Iiasgtf , 

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... '... - -■ . .--.ir". .-. I: ■". ;! L ■. v -ry ::t"ir tkatl ?v»m", 

v.:". •' '.T -- • _• ■ _■!.*:-!. --ir. irn- ial IitecuUj* 

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:-. ■■-•:.;:■■■ : - .: !:. i";r.v::ij-.L 

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H- BBOWX ON THE MAMMALS OF GREEXLAND. 17 

■will not cat it* prey tmtfl it la dead, playing with it like a cat 

\th a mouse. I huvo known sevenil men who, while sitting 

!„' or skinning Seals, hare had its roti<^h hand laid on 

iilder. Their only chance has Iwen then to feij^n being 

dtNid, i^aid manage to shoot it while tho Bear was sitnng nt ji 

ce warching its intended victim. Though Eskirao aro 

seen who hiive heon scarred by it, yet I repeat thul, unless 

iked, or iiendere<l fierce by hunger, it randy attHckn man. 

During our hist trip to Greenland none of our party saw one ; 

indeed tlicy are only k illed in the vicinity of Disco Day during 

the winter or spring, when they have either come or drifted ^outh 

on the icL-floea. SiJC wei**? killed in the Ticinity of Omcnak 

during the winter of 1866-67. 

2, VrLPE^ LAt;orc:S (Linn.) ; Rich, F. B. A. i. 83. 
Greenl. Terienniak, Kaka. 

The Arctic Fox ia very numerous in south- andrnid-Greenland« 
rarer in the northern parts of the Danish possessions^ but quite 
plentiful aguin north of Upemavik to high up in Smith's Sound.^ 

There are two vai-iptiei?, the blue and the white. This colour ia 
not dependent on the season. The white variety is also more 
numerou^s and much lesa valued than the blui'* but agaiu the 
bine and the white varieties interbreed, and ofien, the Ebkimo 
say, there is a white mother with blue youngs and vice verad- 

I The blue Fox ia very valuable, the price for the bc^t kind of skin 
being from six to seven times as much as for that of the wliite* 
SoQie have been sold at the annual auction of the Ctrcenlnnd furs ia 
Copeohagen at over twenty rigsdaler(ninerigsdaler^l/. Bterling). 
There are yearly kille<l from 1,000 to 3,000 of the wliite and^ 
Mue Foxes, two-thirds being blue and one-tliird white. In 
Oreenland the white is traded for three marks (1*. \h^l.\ and 
<^e blu3 for two rigedaler (4#. 6«/.). It is not killed by the 
p/'ecnlanders in summer, ad ita summer coat is not valuable. 
^t ihi^ lime it ia found in the mountains preying on tho young 
ptarmigan {Tttruo rtinkftrtlti. Brehm). In winter it conn/s down 
i? prey on ehellfish or other marine proilucc, at the open 
^**v*8 near the hhore when the tide breakn the ice. About this 
|P^rio<i it can often be »oeu barking most impudently at the 
^^litary hunter. 

3. CaKIS FAMlLIAEIfl, LiJin. 

a. var. bortalis, 

GretnL Kemmek or Kremmek. 

(») The Dog of the Eskimo U the same species all over the 
^^sDierican continent ; at least I have seen Dogs from KamRcbatka, 

• The Fox fs often seen hundreils of miles from hind during the sealing 
Jl^asoa in the Greenland Sen, whi^n it feeds on the dead Beals, In parsnit of 
JJfce wandering Lemming it sometiuaes loises its way, and has been taken fur 
^^m Its natural haunt. Kahu mentionB one btjing taken in West Guthland, 
^l^d Fcnnant (Suppl. Arct EooL, p. 52) one killed near Lund, Sweden, 
^U S^** A^ N., OQ Oct. 27, 178&. See aUo Von Baer on the Diatrihutioii of 
t^ Arctic Fox, BvOI, Acad., SL-Pcter*b., t. ix. p. 89. 

86122. ^ 



18 R. BROWN ON THE MAMMALS OF GREENLAND. ■ 

SitkA, the weBtorn shores of Davia's Strait, and from Greenbuia 
which it was impossible to deny were of one species. 

{,3) Besides thi» there is, in Danish Greenland, another breed of 
DogB of mixed native and European descent, the latter beiog im- 
ported bj the whites. The^^e are called by the native** '* Me^k^.'* 
I have not the alighte&t doubt that the original breed of the Arctic 
Dog was the ViiM{Cams occidtntalis, var. griseo-alba^ Balrd). In 
lU every disposition it agrees with that animal, and there is no 
point which has been supposed to separate the one fixjm the other 
which is not common to both of them, I have seen skins of tb* 
Wolf which have hair for hair agreed with the typical Arctic Do«^ 
The Wolf ia not, however, found in Greenland, unless, as I Bhul 
afterwards discuss, the *' amorok," which Fabricius erroneou^y 
described in bin fouua as Ur&us luscus^ be merely a Dog run wild 
and returned to its original tj'jM?. The Dog is found as far north 
as man lives, but \s not used by the Eskimo south of Holsteens* 
borg, the »ea not being suiUciently frozen over during the winter 
to permit of sledging. The use of the Dog as a sledge-animal has 
been so often described * that I may pass it over here without 
further reference. Being only required during the winter, they 
lead during the summer and autumn montht! an idle life, hanging 
round the settlement's, sleeping on the top of the Hat earth-huts <Jf 
their masters, snarling at eveiy one's heett*, but running at the 
first appearance of a stick or Btono, snatching up every bit of 
edible garbage round a village, and, in fact, becoming such a jx;<t 
to the ^vomcn when dressing a 8eal on the rockn, or when drying 
meat for winter use, that they are often left to look out for them* 
selves on some barren uuiuhabited islet. During the snmmer they 
are never fed ; and often you may pass old Eskimo encampments 
where the only inhabitants are a few hungry dogs howling from 
the rock, disconsolate until their lords return. The appearantt 
of a stone is enough to send them howling far and near. It i9 
rarely that they bark, generally preferring, with their woWall 
insttoct, to ."^it and howl monotonously on some elevated point, anil 
regnlarly ** making night horrible " with their "long cry." The 
ringing of the workmen's morning and evening bell at the Datii^Ii 
settlements used to bo the signal for the commencera' ^ 

hyperborean music. Tim dog can only be kept in i 

by the most unmerciful lashing ; for its savage nature will 
out. When at Clyde River in 1861 I heard of a most horrible 
tragedy which had been enacted there a few years before. A 
man, a boy, and a little girl landed from an oimak (or open skin 
boat) on an bland where, as is usual, some dog8 were confined. 
Before the poor people could escape to their boat, the animals^ 
infiuiated by hunger, sprang upon them. The man and the boy,"" 
though much lacerated, raanaged to regain the omiak ; but the poor 
girl was torn to pieoeB. 

When the Greenland dogs die off, the Greenlander must becocM 
extinct, more certainly even than must the ** Pbin " Indian when 



• VuU ptrticularly Kant, "Atvik EipWrattOMi" aad Haye^ "V* 
toirtrtLi the open Polar Sea,'' 




BROWN 02? THE MAHMAL3 OF GREENLAND. l^ 

the Ust ba^Tmlo is ehoL It is impossible for him to drag home tho 
seals, sharks, white whales, or narwlials which ho may have shot 
in the winter at the " stroDd-hoies '* in tho ice without his doga 
—or for the wild native in the far north to make his long mi- 
gimdoos, with his family and hour^hoKl goods, from one hunting- 
ground to another without these domestic animals of his. Yet 
Unit sad event seems to bo not far distant^ Al^out fittoen years 
igo, A enrious disease^ the nature of which ha^ puzzled veteri* 
narians, appeared among the Arctic dogs, from high up in Smith's 
SoQDd down the whole coiist of Greenland to JakobshavTi (69° 13' 
N. ]4tl.), where the ice<Qord stops it from going further south ; 
the government usea every endeavour to stop its spread 
thai barrier, by preventing the native dogs north and 
from commingling. Kane and Hayes lost most of their 
Ai this disease j* and at every settlement in Danish 
... ihc native are impoverished through the death of their 
It is noticed that whenever a native loses his dogs he 
yery rapidly downhill in tho sliding scale of Arctic re- 
»Oity, becoming a sort of hanger-on of the fortunate poesesaor 
sledge-team. 

Daring the latter portion of our stay in Jakobshavn, scarcely a 
day elapsed during which some of the dogs were not ordered to 
be killed, on account of their having caught this fatal epidemic. 

The dog Ls seized with madness, bites at all other dogs, and even 
at human beings. It is soon unable to swallow its food, and con- 
sdpotion ensues. It howls loudly during the continuance of the 
disease, but generally dies in the coureo of a clay, with its tooth 
firmly transfixing its tongue. It has thus something of the natui'e 
of hydrophobia, but differs from that disease in not being com- 
mOQicable by bite, though otherwise contagious among doga. The 
gOTeniment sent out a veterinary surgeon to investigate tho nature 
of the distemper; but he failed to suggest any remedy, and it is 
now being '• stamped out" by killing the dogs whenever seized — 
an heroic mode of treatment, which will only bo successful when 
the hist dog becomes extinct in Greenland. 

Strange to say, the dogs in Kamschatka are also being decimated 
by a very similar disease ;t and, in n recent communication received 
from that region, it is said that so scarce imve <!ogs become, that 
the natives do not care to sell them, and that 100 roubles have 
been refused for a team of six. Fortunately for thf Kamschatkans, 
they have the reindeer as an ulterior beast of draught and burden. 
Prof. Otto Torell brought several dogs from Greenland for the use 
of his expedition to Spitzbergen in 1 861 ; but finding them usolots 
(on aeeonnt of open water) he set tliein free, 1 was informed, 
on Spitzbergen, where they are now rapidly increasing, and will, 
doubtlessy soon return to the original wolf type. 



♦ Kaoc*i ♦• Arctic Explorations/' vol. L p. 157. 

f For Mil th&t U kuown about the Bojz-discafie ia Gre«nlaad, see Flemlnff, 

Utoffrsph. Mag./' Feb. 1875. [See alao note« by Dr. W, L. Liodsay, in 



I 
•I 



the DnL and Foreigo Medico-Chiftirg. Be view, January 1870, pp. 212, 216} ^^^ 

Land Jalj 1871, pp. 10, 15, 28.— EditOa.] ^^H 
- ■ 



20 R. BBOWN OX THE MAMMALS OF OBESHIiAin>« 

Their use in Greenland is almost wholly as sledge-aninudi^ 
Among the Eskimo on the western shores of Drnvis's Stnat» a 
loose dog usually precedes the sledge, and, by carefully avoid^ 
broken places in the ice, acts as a guide to the sledge-team. 



carefully follows his lead. £n passant I may remark that doc- 
driving is by no means an easily acquired or a light labour. & 
North Greenland and among the wild Arctic higUanden of Gip» 
York and Smith's Sound, dogs are also valuable asBistaatfli bf 
attacking the polar bear while the hunter plants his speara in. the 
animal.* They are also used a little in seal-hunting* Their tab 
■ is also highly appreciated, but rather too valuable for aoythiqg 
except an occasional dainty. The skin is highly valued for ao^% 
and that of the pups for winter clothing ; but so scarce hftTe tlin 
become, that it is now very hard to raise enough for an anarmk 
(jumper), and one of our paity paid 18 rigsdaler (2/.) for enough 
to make an overcoat. No longer, as in Giesecke's day,t is it rejectoA 
as an ai'ticle of trade on account of its disagreeable odour. 

[4. Felis domestic a, Briss. 
GrcenL Kitsungoak. 

The domestic Cat has been kept in Greenland ever funoe fhe 
Danish women came, and it follows them in all their sojoumtqgf 
north and south. In Fubricius's day it was already not nncommon. 
At present there are many in J ulianeshaab district, where mice 
are quite abundant and troublesome.] 

5. Mtodes torquatus (PaU.), Keys. & Bias. 

This Lemming was found by Capt. Scoresby, in the year 182S, 
near Scorcsby*d Sound, on the oast coa<>t of Greenland, lat. 69^ 
and was described by the late Professor Traill, in the appendix 
to Scoresby's " Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale- 
'* fishery, ^^c," p. 417, as a now species under the name of Jfai 
grienlandicus. From a careful examination of tlie original and 
only specimen, now in the Edinburgh Museum of »Science and 
Art, I am inclined to believe, with Middendorff,} that it is 
not distinct from those already described, and that the Myodet 
hudsonius of Forster {Mtis htulsonius, Forster in Phil. Trans. 
Ixii. p. 379 ; Lemmus hudsonius^ Sab., Pan"y*s Voyage, p. clxxxr) 
and the Mus gnenlafulicus, Tr. {Sfyodes grcenlandicus. Wag. 
and J. E. Gray§, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, xvi. 1848, p. 43, 
and Id, in Rae's Narrative, 1850), arc identical 'with the Siberian 
My odes torquatus (Pall.), Keys, & Bias. 

It eon only be classed as a very rare and local ( possibly accidental) 
member of the fauna of Greenhmd, as it has never since been found 



* See an interesting accoant in Kane's *' Arctic Explorations.'* 

t Qiesecke, article ** Greenland,*' in Brewster's " Kdinburgh Enevcbmafis 
(1830)," vol. X., p. 481. 

t Sib. Rcise, II. ii. 1853, p. 87, pis. 4-7 and 10. 

% Arvicola (framlandia. Rich. /. c. 184 ; vide also Schreber, « SftogeUnen," 
111., p. 604; Giebel, "Die Sftugethiere," &c. (1859), p. 605. 



B. SHOWN ON THE JU!tfMALS OF OREENXAXD. 21 

in tlie conn try ; Graah* dkl not eee it in his two years* journey, 
nor even bear of its existence. No doubt the east coast of Green* 
land is almoBt unapproachable for ice, and has never been vieitetl 
alnee Graah's day, except for a little wny round Cape Fart^weU. 
Whalers, however, have been known to have landed near Scoresby*s 
bound J but they saw nothing of it, and it may be safely said not 
to l>e an inhabitant of the west coast^ either within or outside of 
the Danish po-^sessions. 

From L'pernavik ^ontliward, the Danes have been on the coast, 
f?ither setlled or trading, for at legist 120 years, and during that 
time not n few collectors have "^^sit(?U tlie country; but, notwith- 
sljuidtng all their exerrions and those of the stationary officers of 
the government there, no spocimen of this Mouse has as yet been 
obtainedi nor do the Eskimo know of the existence of such. 
Jiiimiy has iherefoi'e taken too wide a generalization, when he 
portraye^ on map Ixxxv. of bis laborious and gencridly accurate 
work the •* Geographical Distribution of Mammals " (1866), p. 267, 
the disti'ibution of the Lemming as extending^ right along the east 
tnd western shores? of Greenland to the head of Baffin's Bay, on 
the supposition that it is a regular member of the Greenland fauna. 
I &m inclined to look upon it as representing the e?ttreme eastern 
of the MtfOflet torrpuitus, as the Myaiks hudwniui is a climatic 
es representing the extreme wcstrrn range of the former 
iipecief. It is almost unnecessary to note, after what I have said, 
that Fabricius makfs no mention of it in his " Fauna Grcenlandica ;" 
and if it had been foimd, he, ever anxious as he was to add anything 
to the Greenland JlammtJs, would have been sure to have heard 
of it from the natives, credence in whose mythical zoology forms 
one of the few disfigurations of his work. Ivcither did Inglefieid, 
.Sutherland. Knne, or Hayes sec anything of it in Smitlfs Sound, 
OTNTtithward to the northern limits of the Danish possessions. j" 

In 1861, the natives at Pond*s Bay, on the western shore of 
Davb's Strait, brought me ninny skins of this species, whieh I 
ascertiiined lo belong to the hitdsomtu form. For the sake of 
reference, the Arctic species may be classed as follows : — 

Myodes (orguatuJSi Pull, 

Vrt. /ttu/somus, Forst* 
Var, ffrantandims^ Tr* 

& [Muil DECU3tANUS, Pall. HTTH), 

Mus narvcgicm^ Erxleben (1776), 
GrccnL Teriak. 
Tb« Brown Hat waa introduced as far back as the days of Fabric 
diii by the Danish ships in tiie jiummer, and aecined likely to 

* Karr-i e:ip«djtiun to th« East Coast of Greenland, Engl. tranBh 

{1897); ' ^ Danish edition is in 4to. UndersOgeUts-Beiw? tU O^t- 

t Hieecrrii' n in IPfiS) now (187&) require considerable modf- 

loillaft. Tb« 1 ^ ^.j^pcdition got it ou the eift eoiMi, on 8abiDe*fi l«lKnd, 

fai 1M^7<K Th» Ajnenoin Expedition ander UrU met with ii in dmitk'^B 




t 



1 



22 B. BROWN ON THE MAMMALS OF OBBBMIuUn). 

prove dangerous in houses ; but ihoy graduall^r and periodically 
died out, as they could not stand the cold of the winter. Sone 
years ago they were again introduced, and still occasionallj one ii 
Been in the summer months in some of the warehouaoB fintti 
Upemavik to near Cape FareweU.] 

7. [Mus MuacuLUS, Linn. 

Grecnl. Teriangoak (" the small rat "). 

Its history as a colonist [animal in Greenland is about the nine 
as the Rat's. At some of the more southern settlementa thej en 
occasionally 6ur\dvo the winter and beget abundantly. Bou the 
Mouse and Rat were introduced as far north as Kane's, Hayei^i^ 
and Hall's ships wintered, but I cannot learn that thej gat 
naturalized.] 

8. Lepus glacialis. Leach. 

L. arcHcus, ibid. 
Greenl. Ukalek. 

The Hare is a common animal over the whole coast, from north 
to south, east and west. It is, however, seen more seldom in the 
north of the Danish trading limits, and there are only a few hun- 
dreds sliot annually. They are said to be rather rare on the eut 
coast. I cannot see why it^ beautiful white skin is not more naad. 
At one time the Danes used to send quantities home, but thej 
could get no market for it. From the Hare the natives ^in ft 
kind of yam which they occasionally knit into caps, for a smnnHr 
head-di'css, for the men and children. It is difficult (indeedi 
almost impossible) to give characters whereby this species can be 
separated from the Lepus varialniis of Europe when the former Ib 
in its summci- dress ; and the skull presents equal difficulties. 

I have, however, preferred to look upon it as nominally distiiicti 
though I really believe that it is only a climatic variety of X* 
vcariabilisy Pallas. 

9. [Sus SCBOFA, Linn. 

Greenl, PoUk^. 

It is kept at some of the southern settlements.] 

10. Ovinos MOSCHATUS (Gmel.), Blainv. 

Greenl. and Eskimo generally, Umimak. 

In the " Fauna Greenland ica," p. 28. No. 17, Fabricins has dass©^ 
Bos grumticnSf L., as one of the animals of Greenland, bccaose b ^ 
thought that he had found (on a piece of drift ice) some remaii^^ 
of it, consisting of the greater portion of the skull of an animi^^ 
« very like an ox." lie was of opinion that this was a portion <^ ' 
the Yak. He did not, however, consider it to be a native o^'^ 
Greenland, but rather to have been diifted from northern Asia oC^ 
the ice, the flesh having been eaten by polar bears. Any one cai^ 
see, by examining the figure which Fabricius aftenvards gave o^ 
this specimen (Bid. Selsk. Skiiv. N. Saml. iii. 82), that it was th^^ 
Musk-ox ; and indeed, ho afterwards acknowledged so himadr 
(Bid. Selsk. Skr. 3. N., vi.). It is therefore^ after this, somewhat^ 



I 



B. BBOWN Oy THE MAMMALS OF OREENLAISD. 28 

Stirn»M*^;Tifr to fliifi ft zoologist so well acquaiuted with the Greenland 
fat elder Reinhardt stating that the Mmk-ox, which, like 

FaL.in.iii.', iiii called Bos grimmens^ rarely oomeg from Melville 
Island to Greenland,* 3Ir. Murray stems to doubt on which side 
of Greenland FabriciuB met with his apccimen ; but there need be 
no doubt 00 that matter, as it must have been on the west side. 
The east was eiren moixj uuknowrj in his day than now, and he 
was certainly never round Cape Farewell. Th*: Musk-ox has, 
therefore, do right to a place in the iauna of Dujii>h Greenland, 
nor do I believe that at any time it was an iohaltitaut of that 
portion of the continent. 

Beoent discoveries have, however, shown it to be^ with the 
sIrODgest probability, on inhabitant of the shorcR of Groeulaud 
north of the glaciers of Melville Bay. Dr. Kane met with 
oitiiwrotta traces of it in 8mith*6 Sound; and his sucoessor, Dr. 
HaT«iy fotuid At Chester valley in the same inlet, among Eskimo 
^olJB^isnddding&, the si^kull of a Musk-ox. Eskimo tradition 
deaenbes the animal as at one time common along the whole coaat^ 
and they affirm that it \s yet occasionally to be met with. No longer 
ago than in the winter of 1859 a hunter of Wobtenholm© Sound, 
a place called OomiaJi, came upon two animals, and killed 

le of them.t 

I think, therefore^ that we may vrith some authority assume that 

e Musk-ox is not yet extinct in Greenland.^ 

11. Ra^v.iter TARANDUii (Linn.), Balrd. 

Var. gritnlandicus^ Kerr (Linn. 1792, p. 297)* 
Gr<?e/j/. Tukto (tootoo) ; ,^»PiLngnek; 9^ Kollauak. 

I 'n'lll not here enter into any disicussion of the vexed question of 
of the European and American Reindeer;*, or whether 
iid Reindeer i* •speciftcally distinct from the American 
\ authcc it to say that the heading of this note sufficiently 
expvBMee my views on the subject, after very excellent oppor- 
Itinitiee) of comparison audetudy^ and that I consider the Gi-eenland 
Reindeer only a climatic variety of the Euiopean species. I have, 
moreoTer, »eco epccimens of reindeer horns from Greenland which 
Qoald not bo distingui^hod from European, and vice rersd. On 
the whole^ liowever. there is a slight variation, which may be 
taqprawod by tbe trivial nume to which I have referred at the 
OomilkeDcemcnt of these reui;Lrkd.§ 

It IB found over the whole country, from north to soutlujl but 
not nenrlv so plentiful as it used to be. Indeed it is fast on the de- 

H48, p. 248; Schmarda'* 'MJeograph. Verbrcitung" G&^^X 
p, : jiimrV **<\fnirr Di^-t of the ManimaJa," p. 140. 

^ I ' • rth Pole (1 866), p. 390. 

I ;:!! I'litir ■», 1869-70, found it in abundance oa the 

«fa Sftbiiie UUud \ mid Hnirs Expedition found it in Qtimbers oa 
of th^ northern r^Rcbes of Smith's Soaod. 

" " ■ V Fbilosopliicai Journsil, Jan. and April, 18fi» i 

Ki . 1864; MuiTftv, Gcog. Distrib, of MummaLi, 

p, i .Mill Am. Mammals; id. U.S. Pat Office Rep. 

CAk' J05. 

!| iUi.i — .- ijadt (ftppareatly). 



24i B. BBOWN ON TIIE MAMMALS Of OREE2ILANDip 

crease, on account of the unmerciful way in which it is slwightend 
by the nativcii for the skin alone, as is the buffalo in Amorioa. 
The skins arc a ^'eat article of commerce ; sometimes they sell in 
Copeuhagi'n at from 3 to 7 rigsdaler {6s, 9d. to loi. 9dL) eacb| 
according to the quality. (The natives get in Greenland only 
72 skillings {Is, 6d,) for them). The yearly production used to 
be in the summer time fi'om 10,000 to 20,000, but it is now on 
the decrease. 

Dr. Hayes fed his party luxuriously on them all winter at Port 
Foulke in Smith's Sound, not many miles from where Kane's 
party starved a few years before. Behind Uolsteensboi^ are 
valleys full of Reindi'er ; and I have heard tales of people climbing 
the hills in that vicinity, and looking down into glens where the 
Reindeer were so immerous that they might be supposed to be the 
herds of a Avcidthy Laplander. Ten thousand skins were shipped 
from tliat post some years ago. They ore slaughtered indiscrimi- 
nately by the natives — these improvident people, in nine cases out 
of ten, leaving the hides and flesh, and only taking. the tongnes. 
They are bad enough shots ; and the Danish traders supply them 
with iK>wder at less than prime cost (viz. 86 skillings^ or M 
per lb.), with a view to increase the produce of the hunt ; bnt this 
ammunition is wastetl in a most reckless manner. 

On the way to and from these hunts up the Qords (<* the in- 
terior country," though ri'iUly the natives know of no place off 
the coast more than the Kuropcans do), with that savage desire 
to kill every living thing, ducks are shot and left lying, or, if 
they feel hungry, they will tear off the titbits ; a ptarmigan will 
be shot sitting on its eggs, and the ball cut out of its body to bo 
again used in this mui-derous sport. There is no necessity for it, 
for at this time they are abundantly supplied with food, even to 
uxcess. Jt [fi, however, the season of sport and fun, looked forwanl 
to by the natives much in the same light as we do to our grouse- 
shooting or decr-stalkiiig, and is about as profitable to all paities 
concerned. In order to ])ui'siie this they leave the nioi*e lucrative 
seal-fishery, and neglect to lay in a winter's supply of food ; so 
that when the "banyan" days come they bitterly regret their 
folly, and weary for the bleached carcases up the frozen fjoitb. 
Notwithstanding this, regularly as the season comes round, they 
are off again to the shooting from far and near, and repeat the 
same improvident coui-so ; nor, if they like it, has anybody a right 
to complain. In all verity, enjoyments few enough fall to the lot 
of these hyi)erborean huntei-s. 

However, the effect of this indiscriminate slaughter is now being 
felt in the decrease of the Reindeer in many jwirts where they 
were once common. They are no longer found on Disco Island, 
as in the days of Cmnz and Fabrieius. Indeed there are now 
very few shot in mid-Greenland, and many of the natives are 
giving^ up the hunt for them altogether. During the summer 
of 1867 only five Reindeers were killed in the district of Riten- 
benk (bt. 69" 45' N.). The yearly avei-age had been about 20 or 
30; but the Governor informs me that in his opinion reindeer* 
hunting days are nearly over in that section of the country 



p 



». BROWK ON THE MAMMALS OF GREENLAND* 25 



I 



I 

I 



In the districts of Jakobshavn, Clavshavn, and Christianahaab 
I did not learn that one hml been killtd. At Ckvehavn a few 
natiree went out hunting, but met with bad weather, nnd re- 
tamed for good, having only seen two animals altogether, and 
shot nothing. 

In the sonthem portion of the conn try more are seen, not so 
much on tlie coast aa up the valleys by the fjords. It is in May 
or June that most of the natives leave tlieir winter houses and go 
reindeer- hunting. When ihey do dry any meat, they cover it up 
in cacheit. Th«^ dogs are not taken along with rhem. In old times, 
even making every allowance for exaggeration, the Reindeer 
aeems to have been very numerous. In the Iceiandlc ** Sagas " 
they are spoken of aa having been very numerous in the (Ester; 
Bygd. 

Four hundred years ago the natives geem by those accounts to 
have hunted the Keindeer much in that section generally sup* 
posed to tie the site of ihe CEwter Bygd (viz., Julianeghaab dis- 
trict). At the preiient day they have left that district and it i^ 
now nearly sixty years since any have been shot there. Latterly 
the hunting has been better in Greenland (south). From 1810 
to 1845 many were got ; and within the last few years ttiey seem 
(if we might judge by the produce of the hunt) to he on the 
ioereade. Thi«*, however, is, doubtless, owing a good deal to the 
nae of the rifle ; but it is very questionable whether this will not 
agji,in decrease their numbertj aa it seems to have done elssewhere, 
Nt^esearily we have no better data to go upon than that so many 
skins have been traded ; but, if this is to be received as evidence, 
more have be#^n traded of late years. 

When the hunting was at its be&t it was at the positions where 
the country was broadest, or where the great mcr tie glace of the 
interior was most dijjtant from the coast viz. Holsteensborg, 
Sukkertopjjen, Godtlmab, and Fiskernaa?sset, Now thei"e are 
very few killed at the last-named place. Godthaab also yields 
few J but the IIok!oen»borg and 8ukkerto])pen natives have taken 
a good many of late. At Hokteensborg (formerly mentioned as 
ft fiivourile lacality) the hunting-ground id behind the large inletg, 
where the ice lies far back, and where laud moat fi*ee from ice had 
been found. The Reindeer, livbg in very large herds, require 
always to l>e on the look*out for an extensive feeding-i-ange ; and 
it has been observed that they are going south, in the direction of 
Juliaueshnab, and individuals have been annually bhot not far 
from Fredrikshaab. In order to hunt the Keindeer, the natives 
go •'very yeai", in the month of June, from tbc southern districts 
W thr two nort)M*rn districts in the Soulliern Inspectorate, and 
rrturu in S» A good number arc also whot in the winter 

tinif I and i. juently, in very snowy winters, they have 

betjn known to come down close to the settleraentH, and the natives 
have shot them standing in their doorways. The story of the 
Reindeer goijig into the interior m the winter is founded on erro- 
neous notions of what the interior is. They no doubt go a little 
way into the valleys ; but as for going into the iuterior, that is a 

Jibe iuterior is 



26 R. BROWN ON THE MAMMAJjS OF GBBaNLiLVDr 

waste, surrounded by a circlet of islands. It is to the viiUra of 
these islands that the Reindeer undoubtedly retire ; but noMf 
travels very far afield in Grreenland during the winter ■coeoB^ M 
that we have no means of arriving at a very accurate ccmfimiatian 
of this supposition. Dr. Hayes's people finding them in sobh 
abundance at their winter-quarters goes furAer to prove -tUi. 
One of his men described to me the party as goinf over a Htiie 
ridge, and finding the deer as if in a preserve, like the oefttib 
in the pastures of his native tTutland ; ** we just shot tiiefli m 
we wanted them." (See also Hayes's <* Open Polar Sek," patdm,) 

Their food in Greenland consists chiefly of variooB speeieB of 
Empetrum, Vaccimum, Betula, &c. ; and I can hardly think tltat 
the traditional *< reindeer-moss " {Cladonia of vanoas apeoii) 
forms any great portion of its subsistence, as that lichen is w^ 
where found in Greenland in such quantity as to affivd food Ibr 
any animal.* 

The Greenlanders have no idea of taming the animal ; iadeed 
its use to them would be trifling, as it cannot travel wdl on iee^ 
and the difficulties of transporting supplies of food for it on ' tluir 
long ice-journeys would be great. The Eskimo's sledge-traydling 
is almost wholly confined to the frozen surface of the na id 
winter; and for this purpose dogs answers much better. T%e 
meat is very good ; and the natives eat the hdf-digested YemtaUe 
contents of the stomach along with blubber as a chdee dSieaefi 
They prefer to eat the fiesh in a putrid state. It ia^ with m 
excoption of the breast, for the most part lean. Clothes sad 
thread are made from the skin and sinews. The latter is mneh 
sought after in districts where there are no reindeer. FVom the 
horn are made all sorts of native implements ; but oounnerciaUf 
it is of no value in Copenhagen. However, I think its importa- 
tion ought to answer, if brought to England, though to Denmark 
it will not pay the freight. 

A calculation has been made that from 1840-45 there woe 
about 2,500 persons living in the principal reindeer distriot 
Every family of five persons, it was calculated, would use two 
■kins, &c., which would make 5,000 for themselves; and thsy 
sent away 11,500; the total hunt was therefore calcalatail to be 
about 16,000 annually. This sum has been taken for a minimom; 
for every hunter, besides using the skins for clothes^ not only 9m 
himself and family, also used them for tents, partitions in hofoam, 
and for socks, &c., go that the number killed was in all likelihood 
much greater. Of late years the skins traded by the natives hare 
decreased one half. Between 1851 and 1855 there were amnial^ 
shot 8,500 deer. It is diiBcult to say how much meat has besa 
consumed in that periotl ; but cveiy deer may be put down at 
80 11>s. of meat alone. This makes the meat, beween 1840 and 
1845, amount to 1,280,000 lbs. annually, and between 1851 sad 
1855 to 680,000 lbs. 



* On the western chores of DaviB'K Strait I have known then to eoflM 
down to feed npon the Fuel exposed at low water, as do the eattls aadred 
deer hi some places in the north of Scotland. 



H. BKOWN ON THE MAMMALS OP OREEKLAND, 27 



The Reindeer is often shot in situations whoi-e it is impossible 
for the hunter to cany the meat down, when it bfc«me« a prey i 
to wiUl beiists and birds. The quantity of mtrat thus lost si 
«oormoas, independently of much more waateftiUy destrojed, as 
de^cribcii in the first portion of these notes. It is so great that' 
dnring the period first referre<l to, fully one half was throTra 
away, and during the hist period a quarter. The tnllow in a 
large deer will weigh from 8 to 12 lbs. The tongues are first cut 
out, afler the reindeer is killed. About 3,000 to 4^000 lbs, of, 
reindeer-horn ma^t he used by the natives in Soutli Grcenhina, 
The tra<ler ht T- horg has (or at least had a few yeaisi, 

ago) more tbau s. of it lying on the ground in u heap.* 

I have gone into ihe history of the Reindeor in Greenlnnd at 
some length, because I found that thou(:5h the Reindeer in Lapland 
IB familiar to many, yet the animal in its wild state is much less 
knowD^ and 1 have seen most erroneous Htateinents regarding its 
distribution in Greenland. 

1^ [Ovis ABIES, Linn. 
GreenL Saua. 

At preeent it is only known in the district of Jnlianoshaab, t6 
the number of between 20 and 30. It was already introduced 
in Fabricius's day. In the summer they feed In the VjdU*yjj, and 
in the winter are kept under shelter. They cannot, th»]Tefore 
{nor, inilced^ can any of the colonist fauna), be said to )>e accli* 
■latised.] 

I3» [Bod XAUEUS, Linn. 
GreenL Umimak. 

- There are 80 or 40 Cattle grazing nbout in the southern 
valleys daring the summer, nnd kej^t nt stall in the winter, Some 
of the more en t keep a few cows* I waa 

by the Dun uirh there w«s quite enough 

' occiisionally found round th<_* t*ettlement3 in tho hummer^ 
'irther north, they could not be kept on account of the dogs, 
he old loeliinilic hHQHM desiTibe the Norsemen »h keeping herds 
of cattle in the \ alleys of Greenland up to the niiildle ages; and 
that the djiiry produce was so higlily value^l fhot it waa sent 
II, v^,.. .1 .V for the u«e of the Royal table. The plnee where 
til I best now ts just on the sit^ of one of tljese ancient 

ewii^uu-^. if any were behind when the colonies were exter- 
minated by the Eskimo, who about this periml make their 
a ^yea rance in South Greerdand, thry must have dieil out, or, 
unam likely, were 8lftu^ht«:'red by tho natives (if a i>eople who, 
ir# all ' ' vvundering hordes who hatl now for 

tbe fir If Bay fmm tho north, can be so 

alyled) i f^^ whiiu Giv^ulutid was ngain vii»ited by tho Europeans 

• Fcir nany of the fotvgroing »tatements I nm indebted to my friend Dr, 

ig]^^ f,,^t ....>Ur l^,i,.1 li,tti.,^,.ti-.r 1,4" S-,ttfh rirr.*-nl-inf1 1 'iT i.i,s.,nr T'l,; ret'tOl 

-Am i. k on 



Bioik 



rector 
k og 



Uji ^v^J^ii;^'' 



28 B. BBOWN OX THE MAKSCALS OF OBEEHLAITD. 

no cattle were found. It is somewhat curioiu that the Green- 
landers apply the Eskimo name of the Musk-ox to the domeatie 
Ozy showing a recollection of the existence of the former in the 
Lind they came from, though it is no longer a native of Greenland 
to the south of Cape York.] 

14. [Capra hircus, Linn. 

Grecnl. Sauarsuk. 

As &r back as the days of Fabricius, the Goat had been intio* 
duced into the southern settlements of Greenland, and was found 
profitable; th(>y fi^d ou the grass which springs abont the old 
Eskimo camping-places iu the summer, and are housed in the 
winter. I am told that they will eat dried Arctic salmon, if 
nothing better is forthcoming. It is not kept north of Hol- 
stcensWg, as it is found impossible to keep it where there are 
troops of savage <logs ; and it is accordingly only found about the 
settlements south of that, to the number of about 100.] 

15. [Addii,'] MusTELA ERMINE A, Linn. The Ermine wm 
found by the Germans on the east coast; see Peters in *<Die 
zweite deutsche Nonlpolarfahrt," vol. ii. p. 157. It is entirely 
unknown in West Greenland. 

5. On some of the doiUftful or mythical Animals of Greenland, 

Otto Fabricius used to spend his summers i earning about with 
the Eskimo, until ho had learned to manage a kayak and strike a 
Seal with a skill which few Europeans can ever acquire. On one 
of these excursions he found in " Sildefjord, north of the colony of 
Fredrikshaal)," a piece of a skull, about which the native told him 
something ; and from what they related to him» and v/hat he 
thought hims<>lf, he entered no less tlian two species in the Gieen- 
land fauna, ** Trichechtts manattis " {Rhytina gigas) and " Phoea 
ursina" {Callorhinus nrsinuSf) being, apimrently, not certain to 
which it beIon^o<l. The Greenlanilers called this animal AuvekO' 
jak<f or Aidhfpjah, and said it was like a Walrus and broke things 
easily to pieces. He was sure that the piece of skull belonged to 
the first of these animals ; and again he repeats the same under the 
head of Phoca ursina ; so that it is now difficolt to arrive at any 
conclusion n*ganling the species of animal to which it belonged. 
However, I think tliere can l>e but one opinion, that neither the 
Sea-bear nor the Ehytinn can be entere<l in the Greenland fanns 
on such fragmentary evidence. The confuse<l stori(?s of the Greoi- 
landers can give the critic no great hohl. 

This piece of cranium is not now to be found in Fabrlcias'fl 
Museum. In a posthumous zoological manuscript, entitled " ZooId- 
gbke Samlinger," written in Copenhagen during the period between 
1808 and 1814, an<l now proservetl in the Koyal Library, he has 
again spoken about the Auvekajak (Bd. ii. p. 298, No. 286), and 
has thus written about the skull he found in Greenland :— 

" The hewl which I found was full of holes, and looked like that 
of a Walrus (No. 82), without tusks." 

There were many long smaU teeth in the head (Reinhardt. op. 
«f.,p.6.); and if such was the case, we cannot be wrong m 



R. BROWX ON THB MAMMALS OF GREENLAXU. 2^ 



sajiog tli.it the animal was not a llaiiimal. \\c have, however^ 
DO rigbt, wlien we remember ibe clear c'omia'ehriisive style in^ 
vhich Frabicius WTOte regarding the Greenland liiuna, Loweyo?^ 
much we raaj be inclined, to say that the whole was <^i roneous. 

It is unfortunate that when Fabricins referred his A/wckf^jak lo-^ 
the Sea-cow of Steller, he was not acqnaintet! witli that animal, 
and did not know of the horn-plates ; for, if he had, it is impOij- 
sible that he coidtl liave found a resemblance to it in the Auve- 
kiejak. His words refjanlincj it nre clear enough, so far as they go— 
"Karissimum animal in mari GroBnlaudico, cujus solum cranium 
ex parte con^rvatum commune cum sequent! specie ab incolift 
dictum nomine Auveksejak^ vidi, inque hoc denies ^purios tales 
confejiim congestos quale^s Stelk-r'* (aid, op. ri/, Adel.* § 189)^ 
Again, inimeiliately nnder the head of " Phoca ursi/nf^'' he says i-^* 
*• Gra*nl. AuveKjEJAk. — Illani esse animal qu<id sub nomine boo 
memorant incoix non est dubitanduni, Dicunt illud in Australiori 
GrccnlaDdia, licet raro, dari quadrupes pilos^um, ferociler omne 
occurrens dilacerure, et si visum consumere : ursi maritimi mor© 
terra marique degere, impetuosissime natare, veualore:* valid© 
infettare, Dente^ ut amuleta contra ulcera, ncc non quotlanmioda 
ad instrumeuta venatoria atlhibentm*." There i;^ an evident un* 
certainty in Fabricius's mind ; and he has listened loo much to 
the idle fables of the natives (who liave, as I J^hall presiently sboWy 
many of that nature) ; whatever it is, there can, I think, b^a 
ecarcely a doubt as to the exclusion of Trichcchus manaius and 
Phoca ursina from the Greenland faumi ; nor can their place aa 
jet be supplier! by any other species. Prof. Steenstnip tldnka that 
it wm0 a portion of the skull of a Sea-wolf (^Anarrhichas). The 
situAtion of the teeth ami the nature of this fish'n eellular skull 
well agree with his descTiptlon of the skull as '* full of hole* " (*♦ for-* 
holret," Reinhardt, op. ek,, p, 8), Hr. liolbroe, who undei-stands 
the Eskimo language intimately, tells me that the word means a 
" little walrus,*' and that in all probability it was only tiie »kull of 
a young walrus, an animal not at all familiar to Fabrieins, as they 
are chiefly confined to one spot, and the natives feai' lo go near 
that locality. Fabricius may have only written t!je ^Icsciiption fi-oni 
ection; and memory, asBisted by preconceived notion.^, may 
e led him into error in the <lescriptioii of the long teeth, which 
all might, without grt-at trouble^ l>c made to refer to the 
deotition of the young walrus as deseril>cd by MHcgillivray f and 
Bfippcll4 

This opinion is strengthened by a passage in Fabricius*8 account 
of the Wttlra«, when he again ' h in doubt whether a certain 
animal w tlie young of the walruj; or the dugong, " De \Tirietate 



uiai I' 



• Adclting: ** G««ebicht€ der Schififahrten and Vi'rauche *or Entdeckung 
^s i. licD Wv^h nach Japau tind China '* (Halle, 17C8) i» th<; l>ook 

yji r» to. There is a wrong refereaec iu the F. G. to Adelun^, 

ri/ 148. 

ii' Library (Mammalift), vol. \ii. (voK xiii. of stric«), p, 220, 
M I I .»;,. J..nni. of Nat. lliht. and rhysicid Sciences, Aug. 18^8^ 

p. it. Lib., vol. viii. p. 102. , 

I . . vol. xrii. p, 280. 



80 B. BROWN ON THE MAMMA Ti8 OF GBKENIiAini. 




dentibus exertis brcvioriboa loquuntnr incolBO, qmm 
(ut videtur) ad Phocas rcferunt, si non pullns rosniBriy 
Dugong" (Buff. 205, 245. tab. Ivi). So that, after all, periupa 
the AuvekiBJak was onlj the young of the WalniB; and tlus 
opinioQ I am on the whole inclined to acquiesce in. 

Fabricius enterd in his ''Fauna Groenlandica,*' under tiie 
name of *' Mustela ffulo, L." ( Gulo boreaUSf Bets.), an 
which the natives talked about under the name of 
It was said to bo found in south Greenland, among high 
tains, particularly beside streams, and was especially fond of 
the hearts of reindeer. He considered it to be the well-known 
Wolverine, the Jerf of Scandanavia (Norse Arv, Erv^ and JSerr; 
Swedish Jcrf, Gerf\ Finnish Kamppi and Kangtpi'Karka), 
If so, it mufiit be exceedingly rare, for since his time no one hM 
been able to obtain or hear of a specimen. We more than bob- 
pect, however, that here, as elsewhere, he was only reprodncing 
m a zoological dress the stories of the natives. So utUe waa then 
known of the zoology of the Arctic regions, that he might well 
be excused for entering such animals in his fiiuna, there existing 
no reason why they should not be found in Greenland. IF Fa- 
bricius could have lived to this day, he would have been the flnt 
to erase these from his list. The reason why I think so is this :— • 
Under the head of '' Ursiis luscus " he has inserted a very doaMU 
and preblematical animal, talked of long before his day, and equally 
so now, under the name of '< Amarok " (*< Ursus luseui, Eg., * De- 
scription of Greenland,' Eng. transl., 33, Or., < History of Ghreen- 
land,' Eng. tranisl., 99, ex dcscriptione pellis ejus. Of. ' Continnatioii,' 
287, ubi dicitur subfusco, forsitan etiam veterum Hynna, Tort, 
* Groenlandia Antiqua, 82 "), This animal seems the same as that 
which he indicated in his fauna under the name of *' MuUda 
gulo*' He de:9cribes it as very fierce, corresponding in Hdi 
respect with the character of the Wolverine. Depending upon 
the natives being in the habit of distinguishing miiTniilif hj 
different names very dearly, he considered that Am^ok and Xe^^ 
pik were different animals. Neither of them he appears to know 
anything about. I found the Greenlanders talking to this day 
about the Amarok all over Greenland ; and wonderful stories 
they tell of its ferocity. It is the terror of the Greenlanders, afl 
Fabricius truly enough remarks ; everybody knew about it ; hot 
I could find nobody who had ever seen it.* Graah {Lib, cU. p. 90.) 
found the natives of the east coast equally familiar with the ii«»nn 
of the Amarok ; the name Kappik, however, was unknown in 
north Greenland. 

Finally, I discovered a man in Claushavn who declared he had 
seen ih^ Amarok ; it hunted in packs, he said ; and this man ny^t ^ qq * 
secret of his belief that it was only native dogs which had escaped 
and returned to their wild state. In proof of this he told me tha^ 
as frequently happens during the annual reindeer-hunting^seaaoD, 

♦ Mr. Tegner mfonns me that one of the natives deolaiee that m JqIt 1M7 
he saw the markfl of the foot of an Amarok at the head of thsT^a^inSL 
an inlet near Clanihavn. *-Trnn™r, 



R. BBOWN ON THE MAMMALS OF OKEENLAND, 31 

ODe of his dogs escaped and could not be captured again. Three 
year* alter, one severe winter, when ** looking " his fox-traps, htf 
found the identical dog captured, much subdued bj hunger, but 
still ver>' fierce after living for so long a period out of the reach^ 
of the merciless lash. It served its master for many a day after in 
harness. This man described the " Amarok " as all grey. It 
has been supposed t^ be the Wolf ( Cams lupnsy var. alha) * and 
to have crossed over the ice in Smith's Sound ; but from what 
lave said about the Eskimo Dog, it will be apparent that to 
iguish between a wild dog and a wolf is n matter of some 
lenity. I think, therefofp, that the Wolverine has no place 
in the Greenland fauna, and tliat the Kappik f and Amtirok must 
be regarded as synonyms of Canis familiarifi, var. horcalis^ tinc- 
tured with a deep hue of fable : Murray portrays the distri- 
botion of the Glutton {Gulo boreaUs) on both the east and west 
co&sta of Greenland up to nearly 67* N. hit. {op. eii. Map xxiv.) ; 
bat if 1 am right in excluding this animal from the Greenland 
finina, this distribution is erroneous. • 

'Here I may remark, what must by this time be self-evident, 
that the Greenlonders cannot be relied upon (independently of' 
the principle in the abstract) for the names of animals. Thoy are 
not the excellent cetologists we have always been led to sup|)03e, 
confounding as they do several animals under one name, as I shall 
have occasion to notice ill a future page when discussing the en'ors 
which Fabricius was led into by trusting too much to their no- 
menclature, and wliicli to tliis time have entangled the history of 
the northern Cetacca in an almost inextricable knot, Fabricius has 
notified in his Fauna many species of supposed Seals, &c. under 
rariouB Ebkimo names, but wliich he was unable to decipher.J 
Ur, Fleischer, Colonibestyrer of Jacobshavn, has aided me ini 
resolving these : — 

1. SiguJUoht "having a long snout and a body similar to Phoca 
^ctnlandka perhaps P. ursimty This is appwently some Eskimo 
perversion, if interpreted properly ; for I am assured that it is 
oaly the name of the Eider Duck {So materia mollusiHui), 

2. Jmab'ukulliaf a Seal with a snow-white coat, " the eye pre- 
seDting a red iris, probably P, leporina,'^ is a rare albino of tbo 
Ketsik {Pagom^K fatUltts). The meaning of the word is tho^ 
Sea-hare. 

3. Ataryiah or aiarpek, " the smallest species of Seal, not ex- 
ceeding the size of the hand, of a whitish colour, and a blackish 



* In lite winter of 1868-9 a true Wolf was killed &t Om«iiak, and 'vrai sap- 
po«ed to have orocied from the wettoru 8hor«s of Davis' Strait, where during 
the laaie winter thej were very abundant. . 

f Jannen in his ** ElemcBtarbog i Eskimoenief Sprog til Brag for Euro- 
paprne Ted Coloniorne i Grunl&nd '' (KjdbetthAVti, 1862), p, &6, truMlaio** 
" Sappsk " M " en Gmnrhng," a badger. 

% am nko G!«Becke in ai5 *' Grcenlftnd,*' in Brewffer't Edinburgh Enc>'- 
«tmidla. Tbi* article, which is the only original on9» uibt ual know, erer 
wntteo ii|K>n GreeDlaad in the EugUih language, is a mo«t trustnorthy 
ae^onal, fcir the time it was writteo. The author, however^ copiuii Fubricias 
ta hit •iron as well ai excellencies. 



■■■ 



32 B. BBOWN OX TUG MAMMALS OF OBKKNLAinO. 

spot of the form of a half-moon on each side of the body." TUb 
description does not corre^jpond to the meaning of the word, which 
is *< the Brown Seal." Hr. Fleischer thinks that it is onljs mythi 
as is — 

4. Kongcsteriak, which lias, ** according to the description given 
by the natives, some resemblance to the Sea-ape described bj 
Mr. Heller." * This is one of the northern myths. The nstiTei 
say it is a Bear which is so covered with an ice-coat that it- never 
comes on laud, but is always in the water, &c. These mjtbfl^ 
both in the pseudo-Mammalia and in other groups^ are endlesB; 
but I have given enough to show that no dependence can be placed 
on their idle superstitious tales. 

I may as well close these notes on supposititious or non-existent 
animals by some remarks on other species, which thoueh not Mam- 
mals, yet come fairly under the headings I have given to tldi 
section of my paper. The Great Auk {Aica impenms^ linn.) 
once so common in Greenland, in the da^-s of Egede, Cnin^ and 
Fabricius, as, indeed, it was in many other parts of the nortlien 
portion of Europe and America, there can be little donbt is now 
quite extinct in Greenland. I made evei^ inquiry regarding it| 
but could learn little or nothing about it. The natives uoni 
Disco Bay do not now even recollect it by name, though wImd 
the old Eskimo name of it (Isarokitsoc) was mentioned thej imme- 
diately repeated it, and said, <'Ah! that means little wings!" 
Though the Royal Museum in Copenhagen has ofiered large re- 
wards for a specimen, hitherto the efforts have been in vain. 
One of the stories I was told at Godhavn, on Disco Island^ if tme^ 
would afford some hope of its yet being found : — Eight yean ago 
(1859), on one of the little islets just outside of the harbour, m 
the winter time, a half-breed named Johannes Propert (a n^hew» 
by the way, of the well-known interpreter Coi'l Petersen) shot a 
bird which he had never seen before, but which, from descriptioii, 
could be no other tlian the Great Auk. He and his companiom 
ate it, and the dogs in his sledge got the refuse ; so that onlyone 
feather coul<l afterwards be found. I know the man welL He is 
rather an intelligent fellow^, and was not likely to destroy a bird of 
such rarity that ho had never seen it before, when he knew that it 
would command a price from the Governor. Moreover Jobannas 
boars the reputation of telling wonderful tales now and then. He 
snys that he saw two, but that one escaped among the roekfli 
Mr. Fi-ederick Hansen, then Colonibestyrer (Governor) of God- 
havn, has offered a reward for it, and is very sanguine that he 
will yet obtain a specimen of the GeirfuffL^ 

Depending on the native stories of a jumping animal fbnnd in 
the southern part of Greenland, on Grassy meadows, and cdled 



* I nippojtc Giesecke means StcUer'a aeconnt of the " Sea-ape,** vid§ Pto- 
nMit,Qnadr.. iL p. 301 (Tric/techw hydropithecu$, Shaw, Zool., I p. 147: 
Manatus nmia, Illig. ; M. f hydropithecua, Fischer. &c). 

t Swedwh Garfbgel, Norse aud Icelandic Gtirfugl and Goifid, It is abo 
caUed in Nome 4A«-0««er. j ** mm. 




BROWN ON THE MAMMALS OF GREENLAND. 

by Ibera Piglertok (*• the springer *'), Frabridus thougbt that ho 
recognized the Common Frog, amX hns iictroiMlingly t-ntercd the 
Rantt iempoTaria as a metuber of the Grocnluml fauna. He, 
liowever, saw no specimens, nor is siieh an aiuimil known io Green- 
luudf where there are no species of Keptiles or Batrachians found* 
Alx>tit the southern portion of Disco Baj, the natives use the namo 
^ a sort of slang Utk' to the Nisa {Phoctrna communis^ Brookes), 
the Martviin of the Danes in Greenlantl,* from its tumbling or 
springing movements while tlisj>ortifig itself. Jansen (/i^. cit, 
p. 59) gives the word in the south Greenland dialect an pVii7^<?r^«^ 
Of pigdlcriut^ and tranelates it "gmsshoppor" {grc€slioj>per), 

I will not stop to inquire into their grosser myths, wdiich, though 
reUting to animals, are yet only remotely connected with zoolo* 
mGftl science, and wander away into the donuiins of mythology, 
lOlcvetting enough, no donbt, but with which we, as zoologists, 
h»ve but little to do. For instance, as far hack as the days of 
Fttbricius, tht^y used to talk about men living away in the glens 
olf fi-om the coast. "They tell tules" (fahuhintnr), he says, " of 
other people living away among the mounfainti, rarely seen by 
them, never by the Europeans, wliom they call Torngit (ning. 
Tun nek) or Tuttufrxott^ and even say that they have the ap- 

f>emrance, jtature, and clothing of Europeans If 

they Eipi'jik tndy, which I itm not in a position to deny, per- 
haps they are the reronantci of the former Icelandic coloniHts, 
who have fled in among the mountains/*! About J,iki>bs- 
_ havn thry atill talk of thci^e people, and I collected matiy such 
I stories. Some of these sufw^rs tit ions describe the Torngit as 
I bit Je men ; and I know a man who says he .<^aw one of these 
I little men **pop out of n hole and in again" moat agilely, 
■ ***! he tells a long story about it. Others <Iescril>e them as tail 
WbtmKk% 80 that these arc undoubtedly only traditions of the old 
Norsemen. During the Norse possession of the cuuntry, the 
population appears to have got nmch amalgamated (as indeed we 
know, because when Hans KgeJe came, there were many traces 
of the white stock; and to this day there come from the east 
ajmal natives with blue eyes, and fairer hair thiiu is usual in 
Grpcnland+J with the Icelandic ail venturers who came with red- 

Innd Fuhseqnently imbilii'tl much of their superstition* 
1 tif tht* l>est K.skimo traditions (as related by Rink in 
hi.i '* J:!lskin3oittke Eventyr og Sagn") are of Scandinavian parent- 
age. Accordingly we find the old Korse tale of that fearful 



I 



• Cftllci) in Sweden Marsrin and Tumtarey in Finmsh Meriaika, nnd in 
KoT*c /*« and Ni*t, from wbicli, a[ipArently, the Kskimo name Nim w 
dcnTed, M are not a few of the Ureeniand words, from their iotercours* with 
\hte old Nonemen prior to the Middle Agei. I auspect Pitjkrtokf now the 
vttlr* *'■"" "^oji originallv the native one, 

f Lnl.. p,4. ' 

j in MiHsioMiinr at Pamiadluk, near Cape Farewell, told Captivln 

Cari W. Nciiscn (who told W) that, in 1850, a party of imlive« came to that 
•ealemi^nt from the east coast, ai»4 declared thn! it was two yt-urB «ince they 
bai left tbeir bomet. They were described 39 tall and fuir-nnfred. AlmoH 
€WVJ jmr mmn oome and pcrmaneatlr set He in the Danish colonies. 



■ 



k 



J 



34 BEIXHASDT ON THE MAMMALS OF OBEENLASD. 

Kraken * which drew stout ships down to the bottom of tihe mi, 
in a Grcenlandic Torsion, still terrifving the squat seal-hnnlaB 
who gather round the bUizing Kotfup during the kmg trinfer 
nights ; but I need say nothing further about it. It is one tf 
the old troh of Scandmavia, familiar enough to all of us. 

Still more would it be an idle task to inquire renrdiiig tint 
*< sea monster *' which good Hans Egede saw, and Ftator Bi^g 
sketched ** off our colony in 64'= north latitude.*^ 

I have said enough to show that, though there is yet mndito 
be done to the legitimate zoology of Greenland proper, tliereii 
still more to be done in what may be called the HlegitioMfe 
zoology — the history of zoological myths and errors. 



IL— Note on additional M.AHMALS of Oreexlakb. Li i 
letter to Prof. A. Newtox, from Prof. J. REQnsABDT, 
University Museum, Copenhagen, dated Feb. 2, 1876. 

(^See list of Mammals in the Appendix to H. Rink'i " GrOnland," bj J-Brfi- 
hardt, 1857. oee oIm the foregoing Article.) 



<* As to what relates to the Mammals there are two TWf Ifr 
teresting additions made by the German Arctic Expeditikniy mi 
the Ocibos tnoschatus and Puiorius ermineus, I belxere, howenTt 
that both are restricted to the east coast. An animal of Ibi 
size of the Otfibosy at least, could scarcely have eeoaped befaf 
----- . --J 



observed during the long period of the Danish coh 
it really lived along the western coast, where the Danish 
ments are. One must also keep in mind that the interior cf 
Greenland is most likely all covered with ioe, in &et^ one £■- 
mense glacier. It would be very strange if any Mammal 
be able to cross it from cast to west. Even the Myodeg 
(Mils grcenlandicui) has never been observed at the 
Settlements. 

" But even the list of the Mammals of West Greenland hi 
received an addition during late years. A magnificent while Wotf 
{Canis lupvSf var. afba) was killed at Omenak during the winlV 
1868-69. The skin is beautifully stuffed in the Mnsenm. Ihsre 
been told that there wore two individuals in company, bat ons of 
them escaped ; and afterwards footmai'ks of ao <dd W<df and of iH 
whelps seem to have been observed." See above^ p. 31. 

* Kraken, Krarcn, Krahben, and Horren, see Fontoj^ddan, Nat Hilt if 
Konrav, vol. ii. p. 21 1 ; Ancker-Trold, Olaos, Wormios, Torfeiii, &e. 
t Lib, cit.y p. 86. 




B. BROWN ON THE SEALS OF G11EENL.AND. 



35 



m*— On the HiSToiiY and Geographical Relations o( 
the PiNNlPEDiA fi^equenting the Spitzbergen and, 
Greenland Seas, By Db. Robeet Browx, F.L.S. 
F.R.O.S. 

[Reprinted by Permission from the Proc. Zool. Soc, 1 868, No. 
XX^rrL, pp. 405-440, with coiTections and aimotatioog hy the 
Author, March 1875.] 



CoJSTZJfTS 

1. Introduction, p. 35. 

S. Pljv ' ' Rfimbrks on the 

li lis, p 36. 

3. H:il ., -; . luKtiacts of Swls in 

g«Qcml, p. 38. I 



4. Kotes on the ^p«ciea of ^nnt- 
pediiiy p. 41. 

5. The Commercial Iniporttioce of 
the •' Seal Fishoriea/' p. 67. 



1, Jntrodtwtion. 

2" In the introduction to the preceding paper I had occasion to 
Tttfer to ihe uncertainty which surrounds the history of many of 
the Arctic Mammalia ; pre-eniirifotly is this true of the Cetacea, 
but scarcely less so of the order Pionipodia. Though the specific 
determination of the species in this group is more easily managed, 
and has to a great extent been accomplished, yet the end to 
nrhlch thef*e determinations are made, — the history of the life 
and geographical distribution and migrations of the animals 
thecnaelvea, are yet almost unknown, or accepted ou the autho- 
rity of the old Greenland naturalist?;, many of whose observations, 
HSftide in a day w*hen the specific characters were less known, and 
l»ut a limited portion of the Arctic Ocean explored, have been 
»ved to be far l>eside the truth. Again, those olit*crvations 
made on the coast of Greenland ivhere none of our sealers 
while in the Spitzbergen and Jim Mayen eeas (the ** Old 
^rL-C'oland"or '* Greenland 8ea" of the whalers) the vast portion 
cf the gealh^sr <^^ commerce is cniried on for a few weeks each 



spnog; 



but 



prey 

,tnn 
Ai 
In 



f th 



LT the history of the Seal?* wliich form the 

-, the extent, commercial importauce of the 

ions of thcM* animala from oue portion of the 

1 we absolutely know nothing. . , . , 

! of 1861, '^^th a view to acquire a knowledge of 

i. ila of commerce, I accompanied a sealer into the 

ween Spilzbergen and Jan JVfaycn ; that yQav, however, 
a partial failure^ and we returned to Knglaml hy the end 
of Afiril, kftving immediately for Baffin's Bay. Dr. John Wallace 
niAdc a similar voyage, and was fortunate enongh to enjoy 
r oppcTtunitiea of obt^ervtng the habits of Sealy thnti I did, 
UifcpeTiod when 1 left for Davl«(*9 Strait he remained Miind, 
the whole summer in the sea between SpitEbergen, 
%jetk^ and the cast coast of Greenland. On my arrival in 
be put into my handa an excellent aerks of notes on 



36 B. BROWN ON THE SEALS OF GBEBNUOn). 

these animals, part of which I communicated to the Boyil 
Physical Society of Edinburgh in 1862 ; and an abstact mi 
published in their <* Proceedings " for that year (p. 812). Hsnw 
Komo intention of preparing a more extensive work, I reflerm 
my own observations and a great portion of Dr. WaUaoe*B uidl 
Fuch time as this might be matured ; besides^ there were innii- 
merablo points in the histoiy of the Seals which I was deaironi of 
investigatiDg before putting any of our observatioiui before tin 
world. However, shortly a^er this I left on a very long acientifc 
journey, far from the scene of our former stndiesy and for mofe 
than four years the whole subject was laid aside. In the aaniaur 
of 1867 I again found myself a sojourner as far north as 70P N. laL, 
in Danish Greenland. During this time I made a very extensile 
collection of the skeletons, skulls, &c. of these and other animab, 
besides adding to and con-ecting some of my former obeerratioDSi 
That osteological collection has not yet been examined; hot iStk 
is the less important, because, so far as I was able to judgB 
during the hasty examination it was possible to give them dnriii| 
the process of preservation, there are no new species among them. 
Moreover the craniological characteristics of the northern Pimd- 
pedin, thanks to the labours of Nilsson, George and FndenA 
Cuvier, Blainville, Gray, Gaimard, LiUjeborg, Steenstrup, MuriQ, 
and others, are now very satisfactorily determined; and witt 
points arc still sitb judice can easily be settled by an appeal to 
the collections already in our museums, and to the one fbnned I7 
me when it is made accessible to science. 

.... In the following notes are combined most of my ova 
observations with selections from those of Dr. Wallace (distiii* 
guished by his name within parentheses when I have been nnafab 

to confirm the observation) The remarks on the specMi 

arc prefaced by some general observations on the group. For 
the reasons already stated, I have purposely omitted giving aBf 
osteological distinctions, except in a few cases, limiting wut 
descriptive remarks I may have to make to some disputed pointo 
regarding the very fallacious distinctive marks derived fixnn liiB 
skin. Gray's *' Catalogue of Seals in the British Museum," or 
Bell*8 << British Quadrupeds" (ed. 2, by Tomes and Alston), viB 
supply all that is necessary on these points. As in the previooi 
paper, I have not attempted a complete history of their habitib 
geographical distribution, &c., chiefly limiting my remarks to 
what has fallen within my own observation or knowledge. .... 
Tlie list of popular names attached to each species is the result 
of not a little work and extensive acquaintance among tiie seal- 
hunters and fishermen of the northern coasts. The scientific 
synonyms are only given when no doubt existed of their appli- 
cability, and are not intended to be a complete list. 

2. Physiological Remarks on the Habits of Seals. 

The Seal is, to a considerable extent, fit led for terrestrial pro- 
gression, which it performs chiefly by the muscles of the trunk, 
aided by those of the extremities. The result is a r^ug, 



R, BHOWN ON THE SEALS OF GREENLAXD. 



S7 



HliDg, or sliuffltn^ kin*! of motion — the animal leaning over 
pBe anleiior extremity, and then rolling back on the other 
inake a similar use of it, uj^ing them thus alternatelj and the 
Biascleg of the spine coutinuoui=ly, chiefly those of the lumbar 
pvgion and creciores spiu^,* In carnivorous animals the iatestinal 
Banal is shorter than in graminivorous speeies, yet there arc 
xceptions, for the Sloth has a veir short intestine, and the Seal 
very long one. I have measured the length of the iutestiae 
js/l Pagophihu ffraeniandicfiSf ond found it to vary between 50 
nl 56 feet in length. 

It is said that the livers of the Seals at Novai Semlaj arid in the 
nthern seas possess poisonous properties ; this is not the ease 
ith the livers of any of the Greenland Seuls, for they are often 
tten, and I never knew of any bad etfect ensuing. The lym- 
phatic glands are well developed, these glands being of great 
, thotjf^h not numerous, it being common to find only one in 
»ch axilla and groin. In the young Seals the lyraphaties of the 
icck are subject to disease, which appears to bo analogous to, if 
Dl Indeed true scroftda : the glands swell, suppurate, and pour 
lut a purulent discharge, and the animals subject to this disease 
m>l increase in size. 

y theories have been adduee<I to aecount for the StjaFs 
tty of remaining with inipimi ty so long below water. That 
on and the phyMoIogists of his time was long celebrated: 
their finding the foramen ovale open in a few instances, 
fwi^ted an exception into a nile, and accounted for it by this 
peculiarity. Dr. Wallace considers that this theory is 
necuA, and from nuraeroius observations he is satisfied that 
c open foramen must be very rare, for In only one of the Seals 
bich he examined did he find the foramen ovale unenclosed to 
Ith in a line of the aorta. That of Blumenbach and Houston 
s been also brought forward, viz., that venous sinuses are to bo 
ond in the liver and surrouruling parts, and that the targe veins 
ve l>een observed to be enlarged and tortuous ; these have been 
pposed to act as reservoira for the returning venous blood while 
e animal is diving under the water. But this theory canies 
osistency in itself. The venous system on the whole, and 
Id any particular part, unless in the vena cava, from the 
ure excited on its walls, is greatly enlarged; but this arij^s 
the great quantity of blood these animals possess. But, even 
ing the existence of these venous sinuses, and that the 
will remain below the surface for twenty or twenty-fivo 
Icotes (though I never saw them remain longer below the 
nrtaca than dfteen minutes, and from five to eight in the common 
kmt)t are tlieso sinuses large enough to contain the full quantity 
btooti that may return in that period from the capillary system ? 
The reply is certainly in the negative. Does the heart's action 
Iminiflb in rapidity, or come to a full st<ip ? lu that case there 
uuld be no need, of these sinuses. What, then, are their uses ? 

• For A fuller account of the mcelmtism of motion in Stttla, see Pettigrew, 
lino, boc, voL xxvL ; and ^lurie, Froc. Zool. Soc., 1870. 



38 B. BBOW37 OX THE SEALS OF OBEEKLAVIK. 

After a veiy careful exainiiiauon, Dr. Wallace informa me tbit 
he could not find them in all the Seals which be ^tmm"*A 
He certainly remarked the dilated condition of the veina, hot 
referred this to a phvsiologioal cause, viz^ the pressure of the 
soperincnmhent column of blood. He believes that their power 
of remaining so long below the surfiue of the water la to bo 
referred to a cause physiological, and not stractoraL llieir 
ezpertness in swinuning is not pos^ssed from birth, bat only 
developeil irom an innate instinct. We hare often watched yoong 
Seals taking the water at first in smooth pods among the kit, 
and then swimming slowly and quietly about in^the still floe-waftr, 
—then gradually taking the water, staying bdow the water it 
first but a short time, gradually lengthening their stay until tfaer 
had acquired the faculty of i^i?maining the usual time beneelh 
the surface. Dr. Wallace, then, thinks that this faculty is 
owing to a cause more physiological than anatomical, and that 
the explanation he has given, coupleil with the enormous qnantilf 
of blood which the Seal contains, will account for their power cl 
remaiuing beneath the water. As I haTO not examined the 
anatomy of the Pinniix>dia with this object in view, I cannot 
pre>ume to give au opiuion on the matter ; in the Narwhal and 
other Cetacea which I examined, the extensive venous plsSiu 
about the vertebral column seemed to explain the po sseooU n of 
this power of temporary suboquatic existence. The flesh of the 
Seal is quite black, from the enormous quantity of venous bh)od 
it is impregnated with ; but if exposed to the air or steeped ia 
water, it acquires the usual arterial rosy hue. The flesh of young 
.Seals which have not yet taken the water ifl, on the contniyi 
quite red. 

3. Habits and Jnstiwis of Seals in general. 

They spend a considerable i)art of their time in feeding, but they 
pass by far the greater part in basking in the sunshine and sleep- 
ing on the ice.* It has been remarked that the Seal sleeps m 
wakes alternately about every 180 seconds. Seals are, howerer* 
often killed in considerable numbers when asleep on the ioe s vA 
this happens most commonly on a day of warm sunshine. Wo 
had a Seal on board about a month old, which I watched atten- 
tively for some time, and it certainly seemed to wake and sle^ 
alternately, with the interval mentioned ( Wailate) : when dis- 
turbed it made attempts to defend itself; and if left alone for a 
few seconds, it drew its flippers close to its sides, and sradnally 
it began to look drowsy, then closed its eyes, and, from the 
long deep breathing, it was evidently asleep for a minute or two 
(the time varied) ; and then, without being disturbed in anv 
way, it would suddenly open its large black glassy eyes, stretch 
out its head, and look about^ and, as if satisfied that all was ri^t^ 
would again relapse to sleep, and so on. When asleep thej 
always leave several sentinels on the watch, which, strange to 



♦ " Bternunt so Bomno diverMB in littore Phocw " (Viigil, Qcorgia, lib. 4). 




B, B&OWN ON rHK $£ALS OF OEEBKLAlfD. 



39 



V fire, for the most part, temtile Seals. These Bentmela, how- 
ever, conduct thimsolves in the sumo manner os I have described 
the mdiviilual Seal we had on shipboard. I have been assured 
by old seal-hunt^rs that Seals can sleep on their back while float- 
Lag in the be« ; and thi« statement corroborateB that of P^abriciua 
and other naturalists. In 1863, in Davis's Strait, the steamei- 
on wliicb I waii aboard of ran against a Seal sleeping in this 
manner. The bhw-lioles^ or escape-holes, of the Seals are evi- 
dently Ibruied by them when the ice Is making, the animal alwaya 
ming to breathe again at the same place, thus preventing the 
hMg^pM^^ <^l ^he icet or breaking it as aoon as forniixl. It has 
Bi^Mttppotied that the Se^il coulii make such an opening by force 
or by keeping its warm nose for a time at one place for the 
purpose of mefiiuf/ t/ic icfi but these conjectures are not founded 
OQ truth, the following reasons being my grounds for tliat state- 
ment; — It could not break the ice by force, and, moreover, it 
could not even dare to run its nose against such an obstacle; for, 
aose of the Seal is a Lender point ; this was kjiown even to 
ancient^^f and is referred to by Oppian,* This is taken 
e of by the senders, who secure as many as possible when 
haistening to the water from the ice, by striking them on 
and then killing them at their leisure wlien the others 
e escaped, Jiven suppose the mu/zlo capable of melting the 
(which it certainly is not), where could the animal rise to 
Ue doling the process ? The preceding expluuution of the 
uf the bieathiug or blotv-hohs was derived from inde- 
observation of the habits of the Seal, but is identical with 
* '11 me by the native:* of the Arctic regions. It in at such 

ft the Eskimo and the Bear wateh patiently for their prey, 

bXiie voiee of the Seal is a peculiar cry, somewliat midway 
.ween that of a young child ami the l>leating of a lamb or kid, 
fhty Are very fond of muj^ic, which was well known to the 
ients ; and this fondness is often token advantage of by the 
liuDters at the present day.f I have often seen them raising their 
tieailH inquiringly out of the water listening txj the seji-songs of 
Ihe sailors as they wrought at the pumps or tracked the ship to 
the ice-Hoe ; thereibre it seems as if the fabled spell of Orpheus, 
ivliich was powerless on the Dolphin, takes eBfect up(»n the Seals* 
Id moving from oue place to another thoy swim rapidly, some- 
times on their bricks and often on their sides, occasionally whirl- 
'^ it OS if to amuse themselves, aud sometimes leaping out of 
altogether. 



♦ *• Kon h*mi penetnitit pbocas, Bflevique trideotes 

In cftput incutiuat, et eircum tempora pulMant. 
Nam subiio jMireunt capitis per vulnera morte-'* 
t It is oft*n B]Uided to by the ancient poets (thu5, ** gaudebsnt carmine 
^hoc*," ApoL Rho(L, lib. 1 ; VaL Flacc, lib. 5, lin. 440, Sec) j and all 
il hutufuiDH especially note that the Seat is " perstndiosa muHicKk'^ The 
p«Ma(^ in Sir Walter Scott's '* Lord of thu I^ies " CP- 1^) oko 
to thii, — 

** Rude HdikaiB teals through ^urgeii dark 
Will long portne the iuiQi»tr«r» bark/* 




2. zi'i'^ry i>y thz ?£als or 



Tli«TLr iut^tiiaI '•r^-e -t s: £-^«z '.'laz ha»*j wisi 9( 
ar-i sbir^ iJ:?* I'lr-r •:!: li-rij iirie» 7^^a^• Their 
tzc'iriHlrr :: LiUfTfr i* T^r-r tt*«i: o^ barv been known to 
sr-lzi :'-i?LT j'liiur TTltj. -Jirir i--c>»r* »a>i carrr them into the 
in:er Trith. i-Kii ■■'bcii *!>: j ^i-w :ie inziw appraodung ! I did 

E»Tt 5€* thi *rr^t» -'% 

S?^ are T£r7 :«=;k::*.*<c5 :c ^. &=!•: £dlnlt to kiU. inifeM hj'ft 
hclrec rhrcisi tie -trtiiz .r bearr. Pser anr ao qnieklr jinna^* 
tbi: Miter LaTizzi cers .lTcr>T*! -zc rbe-lr skin thej have been warn 
to firike o<i: in ±.e w^^Crr : ?:■ :j:a: il<e sTvpatlJes of the wngh 
LintcTS h^-^v berc r*? tx^^tcc I'^siz zhfj wiD pierce the 
f»rv^ral time? wi:"- :Lfir i-iTt:? :*J?:re (hroviii^ fawmx the 

I Uave orten seen & S^ -7'"-? **"^2:i^ c-q the deck for an 
exrosei 'o a i-rsir-irarir* •:: li^ ■;vIov xerofFahr.V and jet the 
x:i3<oI<e< of xzk I->£n.« sn*I ':ftck n^air. dheir ccotncnhtT to neh an 
extent a5 to S^ able ;o rv-cite ibe ivliis on the spine, on thoae on 
each side befcg altrmacf^ij irrltair^L 

With the exv>epi;on or iLe Bl4.licn:«i», the other Seals in the 
Greenland «ra5 appear to bare lirtlo or no combatiTeness in their 
nature, but ax^ a harmless, Fersecute^i. sportivte race of graoefol 
athletes nuLinz merrr the soLftarv waters of polar lands. 

On the c*ch.T hand.' the luale Bladdemoee is« in tmih, the lion of 
the sea, dividing the empire ot the polar waters with its hoge allj 
the Wah7i<i. Instead ot" dving ac the approach of the hnnter, be 
will qaite calmlr await the approach of dai^ry preparing lor de- 
fence bv betaking himself to the centre of the piece of ice he is oo, 
and blowing up the air-bladder on his forehead, while he rears his 
head and snub's the air like an enraged bcdl, and often gires battle 
snccesi^fnllr, making the dabs fly from the hands of his 
ant:? with h!< dippers, his head Wing protected as with a 
bv the air-bladder. He will then in turn act on the ofiensiTe^ 
and pnt his opponents to flight, pursuing them with a shnflUng, 
serpent-like motion over the ice. the result often proving some- 
what dangerous to the panic-stricken hunter it' the boat has left 
that piece of ice, as the Seal will use his tusks rather feroeioiislj 
when thus enraged. However, he is not inclined to give battle nnless 
provoked, and looks a dull stupid-looking sort of epicurean as ho 
lolls on the surface of the ice and gazes about with hif> huge 
black ejes, in an apparently meaningless stare. The *^ Grroond* 
Seal " and " the Floe-Rat ''\Pagomys kispidtts) in the fiur north 
are quite harmless and inoflensive ; they apparently delight to swim 
aljout in the calm smooth floe-^-atcrs, or bask asleep in the san- 
nhine on the surface of the ice. Their greatest enemj is the 
Polar Bear, who is continually on the lUert to take them by 
sorprise, forming, at) they do, his chief prey. 

Nearly all of the Seals live on the same description of food, 
vurying this at diflerent times of the year and ac«x>rding to the 



• A conmient whaler's word {oV Datch origin) to exprev the ^ 

of uking off the blubber and ikin. 'it is generally pronoimced ifmdM br 
the Malm and whalers. « ^ r ^ j 



K 



» 



R, fiROWN ON THE SEALS OF GKEENLAND. 41 

abuDiJance or otherwise of that article in different portions 
of the Arctic seas. The great staple of footl, however, consists of 
various species of Crustacea wliich swarm io tlie nurthero seaa. 
D«rin|^ the sealing-siCJisou in the Spitzbergen sea I have in- 
variably taken out of their ytomachs various species ol* Ganunariis 
{G. sitoinif Leach, G^loricntus^ Sub., G, pinguis, Kr., G, dentatus, 
Kr.> G. mntatuiff Lilljeb*» «tc.), collectively known to the whalers 
under the name of " Mountehank fShrinips,'* deriving' the name 
from I heir i>eculiar Agility in the w»(<*r. This ** seals' food " is 
found more plentiful in some latitudes than io olliers, but in all 
pftrts of the Greenland sea fi'om Icehmd to 8j)itzl>ergcn ; I hare 
seen the sea at some phtces htendly swamiiog with them. Again, 
iti the iummer in Davis'^ Stmit 1 Iiuve found in Uu-ir stomach 
remaiDs of whatever species of small Fi.sh hfipi>ened to be just then 
abundant on the coast, such an the MaHotus arcdcuSj* iSalma 
(various species ), &c. I have even known ihem to draw down 
small Birds swimming' on the Burface^ but their chief fuod ia 
Crustacea and P"'ish* Th-ey al&o feed on Medusae and Cuttlefish 
( Squids), 

■1. Notes OH the Species of Pinmpcflin. 

(L) CALLOCEPifALrs viTCLiNcs (Linn.), F. Cnv, 

Phoca riiulifta, Linn. Phnca varief/afff, Nilss. 

Phoca romtnunist^ Linn. (Miis. Phoca iinn(riy IjChs. 

Ad. Frid., i., 5). Phoca litturea, 'nu'enem. 

Phoca cawi /Iff, Pull, (ad partem). 

Popular names. — Sea-dog, Sea-calJ\ Sea-cal (English sailora 
and iisLcrmen generally) ; Se/hie, Sclach^^ and Tanfi/rsh (north of 
Scotland) ; Raivn (western ihlands of Scotland) ; Spyiihiig Skai 
(Swedish) ; in other fiarts of Scandinavia, and Recording to age, 
tkc.^ it is variously desigtiated IVUkarc Skdl^ KtiblisaifFjordnacke^ 
den sputtcfie Sal (the Spotted S*?id), Algar, Laggary Kuiar, and 
SkdUohar ; Kobbt^ StenkohU (Nor>*e) ; If*/ijv ( Finnish) ; Nttorjo 
(Lapp.) ; Sfchund (Gernmn) ; Vnau Marinimil Phaque (French) ; 
Kasmgiak (Greenland) ; Spragkt Stclhuitd {lyavA^^ in GiTcnfand), 

The Eskimo in Pond's Bay, on being shown a good figure of 
lhi« Seal, culled it Supalo ; but whether thibis their name for the 
Animal and is to be received for a proof that the C vituHnus 
is found there, 1 cannot take u[h)u myself to decide. Tho 
GreeJilanders also call if, according to age, Kaasui'ttcuak and 
Kassigimik : but when it attains the age of three yeart*, it h 
called Kassiarsoak ('* the big Kiussigiak *'). It is also, though 
more rarely, called, according to its age, Ermik, Eniiiimk, -4A«- 
thcepuk^ixu^ Akutnieklok, Prof. Newton ('* Noteij on the Zoology 
of Spitsbergen,*' Proc, Zoul. Soc, 1864, and Ann. Nat. Uist.» 
Vol. XVI., 3rd Scrica, p. 423), says that Pagomys J'tvtidm is 
c^Ied SUcn Kobha (Stone-Seal) by the Spitzbergen huQtori, I 

* For wnmt account of the CapeUu, m<! PenDant'i Arctic ZooL Suppl, 
p. 141. 

^ Tb€ word •* S«al " la from the Aaglo-Saron S^lc, Seoic. 




42 B. BEOWX OX THE SEALS OF QSEaaUOtn. 

suspect that hi? had erred ihroagh hU informuits mistaHng tint 
for Calloctphaiu* vitHlinus, No Joubt Dr. MalmgreD geems to 
think that the l&tter specie* is not got in SpiUbeigeo— «a 
I have veiiture*! to contest in a former paper. 

It is als) K'liietimes called -* the Freshwater Seal," on 
of its fulltwing the Salmon hl^h up riTers** 

Remarks, vyr. — Any laboun^l account of a Seal so loqg and to 
fiuniliarlj known would ubviou?ljr be out of place in thcee ihort 
notes; T question, howewr. it all the accounta we peases VQganl- 
ing the ^^eal undir the dosiijuaiiou of " PAoca n'AiltJta'' resli^ 
refer to this :r]K?ci(s, aud not to Pagomys faiidmt and otlwnbT 
It will, I think, be found that in the western and nwthem iaUndi 
of Scotland several species, not hitherto supposed to be rognlar 
member-4 uf the B^iti^h la una, exist, known under the popular 
names of Selkie, i^elach^ Sea-cat^ ^c* I do not think I can 
saj anything in regard to its habits further than what ii 
already contaim-d in various works on Mammalia^ &c., Tix.:— 
BiDgley, British Quadru]K'ds, p. 57 : Bell, History of British 
QuadrufieN, 2nil i-d.. p. 240: Ilamilton, Amphibious Ganiivori 
(Nat. Li>». », p. 127 : JMnn^s Wilson, in Mag. Zool. and Hot, VoL I^ 
p. 239; Kdmonston. View of Zetlaud. VoL II., p. 293, and Mem. 
Wern. Soc, Vul. VII. ; ^lartin, AVL-sturn Ishmds, p. ($2 ; M*Gil- 
livniy, Briii>h Quadrupeds (Nat. Lib.), Vol. XUL, p. 1^; Nils- 
son, Sk:iiiiliuavi>kL- Fauna, I., p. 276 ; Fabrlcius, Naturhistoriske 
SeLskaUt-i Skrifter, I., Band II., p. 9S ; (Edmann, Vet Aksd. 
Ilandl., 17S4, ]». s4 ; Rosted, Norske Vidensk. Nye Skrivter, IL, 
p. 185 f^rotni di'^rcriptiou ) : Cm-ilT, "Borattelse om SkaUanget i 
CEsterbottcn," in Vet. Akjid. Handl., 1759, p. 179, r. 8 (on tiie 
hunt) ; Hohnors, Antocknin^r om sattet att skjuta och fanga 
Skalar, &(.; (Stockholm, 1828), (hunt, kc, /ide Xilss.); Ball, 
Trau->jiciions of tlie Royal Irish Academy, VIII., and Sketches 
of Britir'h Seals; Bartlett, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 701 (wheic^ 
through an error of identification, it is called Ph. f€BHda)\ 
Gaimard, Voyage en Islande, &c. 

ProrreatioH and Young, — On the coaut of Greenland it ia sud 
to produce its young in the month of June, but the time seems 
to vary ticconling to treason and place. In the Western Isles of 
Scotland at least it is born pure white, with curly hair, like the 
young of Pagomjfs J^etidits, l)ut within throe days of its birth it 
begins to takr; dark colour on the snout aud the tips of theflippen 
(Ji€le Capt. M<-D<>nald). 



• I have knuwn a Seal (probablv Halicyon richardai. Gray) to be killed at 
the Dalles of the Columbia River lo Oregon, upwards of SOO miles txom. the 
Pacific. It wQH doubtless in pursuit of Salmon. Dog River, a tribntary of 
tfac Columbia, takefi itx name from a dog-like animal, probably a Seal, beiiur 
aeen In the lake whence the stream rises. 

t In the Appendix to Parry's " Voyage," is a notice of a Seal nid to be 
" Phoca vUulhta:' It in the young (in second coat) of Fagophilua or««lcM- 
dicuMt which has often been mistaken for this Seal. It can be known by its 
hawuK the Kecond toe of the fore flippers the longest, while, independently of 
other cluiractiTii, C, oituiina has the first toe the longest 

,.l."^? '**" 5'"*^' *»' '*>•* ^"*^' Hebrides," Fergusson, in McQiIUvay*a 
" Jfidin. Jouru. Nat. uud Pbyi. Sc," ii., p. 58. ^»"«i«V ■ 




p. BROWN ON THE SEALS OP GBEENLAJO). 



43 



raphieal Distribution, — This is a Sciil peculiar to the 

the regions which it ntiects, but has also a wide ningo, 

Ml^lbuud over nearly all the uorthern coasts of Europe and 
the colder portions of America. It Is even said to be found in 
the CaepiaQ Sea and Lake Baikal. It docs not seem, from its 
littoral habits, to bo found in the Spitzbergen ^oa, or to form a 
portion of the commerce of the scaler ; it is however found on tho 
COMts of Spitzbergen, tolerably abundant on the eastern shores 
of Greenland, and in Davis's Stmit. It l& to be found all the jear 
round all along the coast of Greenland up iuleta,* but not to any 
such extent as Pagomys foetidus and Payopfulus grtenlandicm. 
In Scandinavia it is sometimes called the Fjui-dskiil on account 
of it» frequenting inlets or fjords. 

EcoHOfnic Value and Hunting. — We have no data to decide oa 
to what extent it is killed in Danish Greenlandf its record being 
anited with that of Pagomt/s fcetidu$. The ekina are highly 
valued as articles of dress, more especially as material for the 
woinen*s breeches ; and no more acceptable present can be given 
to a Greeuland damsel tban a skin of the Kassigutk. . . . , 
Id the Danish Settlcmente they are valued at from three to four riga- 
daler. The priucipid reason wbicb Induced the late Admiral Graah'a 
boat-women to accompany him on hi» memorable voyage along the 
east coast of Greenland wtis the hope of obtaining «K>me Kassigiak 
ftkinti from that region, the natives of which value them at even 
lossi than the more serviceable hides of the other species, which 
^^Lsobi by the west coast natives for a mere trifle. According 
^^^r. CneiiT (7. c) a C. vUulinm will yield about 6| Swedish 
lispunds of blubber, antl according to liolmers, even S llspunds. 
Professor Nils.son says that n, Seal of tbis species killed on the 
near Malmo in Sweden yiekleti over 90 Swedish "potts** 



'Soil, t-och **pott'* being worth 36 skillings, = 67 rigsdalet 
24 skillingrt Rigsmout (Swedish) for the oil of one C vitu- 
Unu4, In Auguijt, when the Seals are iioorcr, another yielded 
75 pottSf e«iual in value to oQ rigsdalor 12 skillings (Swedish). 
In some of the northern and western isluiids of Scotland, and at 
I the eetuary of the Tay, &c,, they are still occasionally hunted 
for their skins and oil. The skin makes excellent leather ; and 
waistcoats made of it are much valued by fishermen, 

>'o separate returns of the catch of this Seal hnve been kept ; 
but It is estimated that of Pagomgs J'cetidtts and Caltocephatus 
ritu/initi the yearly capture in Danish Greeuland must amount 
to 70^000 (Rink, op. cit,) or moi-e. Tho 6csh is looked upon in 
"the most palatable of uU " scol-beef.** 



Ft ^KV^AOOJ'Ys FCETipua (Fab.), Gray, 



I 



Phoc.n ftxiida^ Fab, (MiiUer's 
Prwl. Zool. Dan., p. 8.) 

Phtjcn hispida, O. Fab. Nat. 
Selskab, Skrifter, vol. i. 2., 
p. 74. 



Phoca bothnicu^ Gm, 
Phoca fasciataf Shaw. 
Phoca annellata^ Nilsa, 
Phoca discolor J Gray. 
Phoca fredcncif Less. 



The *' Cok>Die '* of Chrl^tiAdftluuib ia Disco Bay li edJed Ka^mffimi' 
, or the place of the Ka»»iyuik, 




44 2- BSOwy 05" THE f£Al^ 0* G. 

V.'.zLir rjt^^e?. — Singled SisI NIIsbcb> ; JWanoifr (OSdmnB 
r.r. IVxi^L U^il. rSi. r. >4 : /R uya itr ( Mohr, U. Nator- 
i^ccrUk-r. p. o : Jr«»i T^:=su5e$ omt Bnkal); ?JVbpi 

:tM , »I*o ck^Jri iL-r - F :-ri SeaL" beeiBSP moil] 
fjirls or -nlet-s: /7:<-rar »:c Floar rat* <of Noitheni 
.Softc-h «e^er>-. I: L^ S»rrn $•> often coolbiuided with 
S^aIs fhaz, ere:: c-s iLr oi'i??: when? it i« nol vneomnan, H hii 
i>:t r^ccrzvfd =:ai.T p«oc>alAr ijim^ : bow^Ter, in different |wrts of 
tbe ScacilnaviazT <««bo&ni ic :< vanooslr Cftlkd ImskargMkSi «r 
Skarfrim^, ftcd 5r'!7rf modM-PiL or smphr tbe AoHnlp. TIni 
L-. in a!I prolAbLIiij, the Seal kcown in tbe Hebrides M tbe 
bttdaeh or oM ims. 

It is doabtfixl if iliif i« the Pftora ^^wsffrif of BUfas ; bat I 
cacnot thick that there i< any serious room for doabt that itii 
i<!eQiical with Dekaj's Pkoca romcoiar, I do not think tbit 
anrone now entertains anj doibt about its being identiGii witb 
the Phocafatida of Fabricias ( /. c. and in F. GroenL, p. 18; aoi, 8)^ 
or the Phoea kiipida described by the aune satfaor in the ^Natar- 
hietori«ke SeUkabets Skrit^er.** /. r^ thoogb Nilasoa aeemed n 
1^47 to have been doubtful (Skand. Fanna, i^ fk 283). 

Deteriptire Remarks^ 3rc, — ^This is the smallest of the Greenland 
S^^aL; ; it is chieflj Iook*?d upon and taken as a ciirHwitf bj tbe 
whalers, who consider it of Terr little coDUQercial importuieflb 
and call it the *' Floe-rat,"* as it b' always either found on floes or 
quietly swimming about in the smooth floe-waters. 

The young is white, of the yellowish tint of tbe Polar Beir. 
The hair is curly. 

Jlahitf Sfc, — ^They delight to lire in retired bays in tbe neigh- 
bourhood of the ice of the coasts, and seldom frequent the open 
sea. In the Greenland and Spitzbergen seas they chiefly live 
upon the floes in retired situations at a com^iderablo distance from 
the margin of the ice. Dr. Wallace observed them for a consider- 
able time in the months of June and July, between N. lat. 76^ 
and 77^,t in possession of a large floe, port of which was formed 
of bay ice, where they had their << blow-holes " (the atlmk ef 
the Danes); his ship lay ice-bound for nearly three wedu, at 
about three miles from this Lirge floe, and hence he bad oon- 
giderable op^jortuoity of observing them. They passed the 
greater portion of their time apparently asleep beside their 
holes ; and he never saw them all at cue time off the ice, nnleai 
alarmed by imrties from the ship or by the Polar Bear. When 
the ice slackened away and the sheets of open water fonned 
around the ships, the Seals used to swim near them ; and occasion- 
ally at these times a few were killed. In the water they are 
very cautious, swimming near the hunter, gazing on him as if 

* I have beard the English sailors call them 2^m/te«, bnt this tenait 
•lao vied for the Blnebacks (P. greenlandicMs), 
t Parry met with it hi lat. 82*" N. 



B. BKOWN ON THE SEALS OF OREEXUIND. 



45 



i 

I 



wltb feelings of curiosity and wonder; but on tho ice beside their 
blow-hole it is almost impossible for the hunter to approach them, 
so much are they on the alert an<l so easily alarmed. In Daviii'a 
Strait they especially feed about the base of icebergs and up the 
ice-i)ords. The great ice-Qord at Jakobshavn is a favourite 
haunt of theirs ; the rcfiaon for this predilection is apparently 
th*t their food is found in such locidities iu greater abundance. 
The bergs, even when aground, have a slight motion, stiixing 
up from the bottom the Crustacea and other animals on which 
tlie Seals feed ;• the native, knowing this, frequently endangers 
his life by venturing too near the icebergs, which not un£i*equently 
topple over upon the eager Seal-hunter. 

Tl.e old males have a most disgusting smell, which has suggested 
the name fcrtida. Even the callous Eskimo is not insensible to it.f 
,| Ccdgrnphieol Distrihutiotu Sfc. — In the Spitsbergen sea they 
appear to bo conimed to high latitudes, and especially to the 
paralleU of 76"* and 77° N. ; and it is in these Itititudes that the 
whalers chiefly find them. In Davis's Strait they are to be found all . 
the year round, but particularly up the ice-ijords. Their capture 
coQstitutAs the most important feature of the Seal-huot in North 
Greenland ; but many are also killed in South Greenland, the 
Neitgik figuring largely in the trjide-re turns of that Inspectorate. 
In Jakobshavn Bay, I am told, they are quite numfiro us about the 
middle of August, 

Ecofiomic Value, — They are extensively captured for food and 

clothing. Notwithstanding the nauseous smeU of the old one?, 

the flesh of all of them {but e^iiecially the younger individuals) 

is fiufiicientJy j^idatable to an educated taste. During the Ifttter 

CDil of summer and autumn it forms the principal article of food 

in the Danish settlements, and on it the writer of these notes 

*nd his companions diued many a time; we even learned to like 

it and to become quite epicurean connoisseurs in all the qualities, 

titbits, and dishes of the well-beloved Neitsik ! The skin forms 

the chief material of clothing in North Greenland. All of the 

_ «] v«^«i dress in Neitsik breeches and jumpers ; and we sojourners 

■ from a far country soon encased ourselves in the somewhat hhpid 

LhttI most comfortable Neitsik nether garments. It is only high 

Hj^ltitaiies like "Herr Inspektor" that can afford such oxtrava- 

^^£ee aa a Kassigiak ( Callocephaius vituHnus) wardrobe ! The 

Arctic beltes monopolise them al!. 

(8*) PAoopnnxs GB*ENLANDicr9 (Miill.), Gray, 

Pfutca ffrtpnlandicaf Miill. Cattocephalus oeeanictis. Less. 
Pi Qceanieay Lepech* Phoca semilunaTts^ Bodd. 



• Ur. Diatrikts-Lsge Pf:tff, who hus residerl at JakoTiRlwiTti for niony years 
*ft dlltrtcf mediciil oificor of North Greenland, Hugjjrest* this to m^ ; and th« 
iiloa rvconmitfods itftelf as being that of u very intelligent naturulist. 

t '* Maf*« TetcKs foetidiafliiiik ad nauSMm ufli|ue etiam Gnsnlan^liii " (Fab. 
P. QO* Homer refer* to thif in another ipectes (probably MonachuM albi- 
r)i 

" Web-footed sealA forsake the stormy swell, 
Aad sleep io herbs exhaling Datu«ous smell*** 



46 R. BBOVTN ON THE SEALS OF GBEBNI.Ain>. 

P. darsata, Pallas. Callocepkalns iagunUj F. 

P, mwlleri, Less. Cuv. 

Callocephalus granlandictts, Phoea aUdeduda^ Desm^ 

F. Cuv. P. deMmareMm, Less. 

Young. Phoea h^ira, Cuv. P. piltqfiy Less. 

Popular n2a£iQ%, ^Saddleback (EngliBh northern seilen^; 
JVhiteeoats and Bed Lampiers (Newfoundland sealers) (Tonng; ; 
Harp Seal (English authors); Svartsida (Norse); DtBija, Dmwk, 
Aine (Lapp.) ; Svartsiden (Danish, hence Egede, Green.|.p. ^); 
Blaudruselur (Icelandic) ; Karoleeh and Neiike (Emmo si 
Pond's Bay, Davis's Strait) ; Atah (Greenlanders). The same 
people, according to tlio ago of the Seal, call it Atarak^ AffldMt, 
or Uklektokf and Atarsoak (hence Cranz, GreenL, L, p. 168), 
meaning respectively the little Seal (white), the blaesfde, km 
the largo Seal, while Atak means merely the Seal (blackside) 
without reference to age. A variety having the belly dark abo 
is caUed by the Danes in Greenland Soart'Svart-nden, Hie 
Uklektok of the natives is also called by the whites Blaarnioi 
(the blueside). I shall afterwards refer to some of its other 
names. 

There seems little doubt that the Phoea oeeafdeeiy Lepechn 
is identical with this species ; indeed Lepechin's description ii 
one of the best we have of the Pagophilus grcenlandieits, Lopo- 
chin seems to have confounded with this the young of anomr 
species, and to have erred by trusting wholly to the deceptive 
characters of colouring, instead of relying for its distinctiye 
character on the more stable distinction of teeth and skidL 
What he says about the changes of coat in P. oeeemiea exactfy 
agrees with what I have said regarding the present species. 

Remarks, — ^It seems to be almost unknown to most writers on 
this group that the mole and female of the Saddleback are of dif- 
ferent colours ; this, however^ has long been known to the Seal- 
hunters. Male, — Tlic length of the male Saddleback niralf 
reaches 6 feet, and the most common length is 5 feet ; while the 
female in general rarely attains that length. The coloor of the 
male is of a tawuy grey, of a lighter or darker shade in diflferent 
individuals, on a slightly straw-coloured or tawny-yellowish ground, 
having sometimes a tendency to a reddish-brown tint, which 
latter colour is often seen in both moles and females, but espedalty 
in the latter, in oval spots on the dorsal aspect. The pectdnd 
and abdominal regions have a dingy or tarnished silvery hoe^ 
and arc not white, as generally described. But the chief dianc* 
teristic, at least that which has attracted .the most notice^ so much 
as to liavc been the reason for giving it several names, from the 
peculiar appearance it was thought to present {e^g, " Harp Sesl," 
''Saddleback," &c.), Ih the dark marking or band on its' dorsal 
and lateral aspects. This "saddle-shaped" band commenoes at 
the root of the neck posteriorly, and curves downwards and back- 
wards at each side superior to the anterior flippers,* 



<« Ll!^ ?"* "V «»°^«4«°* »f lew' vernacular term to express the •* paws," 
** hands," &c., of systematic authors. v^^mk p»wb. 




R. BROWK ON THE SEALS OF GREENLAND. 



47 



downwards to the abdominal region, whence it curves backwards 
flDtoriorly to the posterior flippers, where it gradually disappears, 
^ling further in some individuals than in others. In some this 
19 broader than in others and more clearly impressed, whOe 
'tnarty the markings only present an approximation, in tlie form 
aggrpgation of epotfl more or leas isolated. The grey colour 
verges into a dark hue, almost a black tint, on the muzzle nnd 
flippers ; but I have never seen it white on the foi^head a3 men- 
tioned by FabriciuB. The muzzle is more prominent than in any 
other northern Seal. 

Female. — The female is very different in appearance from the 
male ; ehe is not nearly so large, rarely reaching 5 feet in length, 
and when fully mature her colour is a dull white or yellowish 
straw-colour, of a tawny hue on the back, but similar to the male 
on the pectoral and alxlominal regions, only perhaps somewhat 
lighter. In Fome females I have seen the colour totally different ; 
it presented a bluish or dark grey appearance on the back, with 
peculiar oval markings of a dai'k colour apparently impressed on 
a yellowish or roddish-brown ground. These spots are more or 
less numerous in different indiviiluals. Some Seal-hontors are 
inclined to think this is a different species of Seal from the Saddle- 
back^ because the appearance of the skin is often so very different 
and BO extremely beautiful when taken out of the water, yet aiS 
the fpraales are alyvays found among the immense flocks of the 
Saddkback, and as hardly two of the latter females are alike, but 
ing in all stages to the mature female, and on accoynt of 
fr being no males to mate with them, I am inch'ned to believe 
ith Dr. Wallace that these are only ffottnyct female Saddle- 
harks. The miiazle and flippers of the female present the same 
dark-chestout appearance aa in the male, 

procreation y and Chanffcg of Coats in the Voiing. — I have already 
apokeu of the yonng as being different from the male \ and in my 
rcxnarkft upon their geographical distribution and migrations 
Kiffreuce will be made generally to their period and place of pro- 
crcration, more theoretically, however, than from actual knowledge 
Qr ob«^rvo(iou. I now supply this from a study of this subject in 
th' ' ,zen sea. The period at which the Saddlebacks take 

U» ( briug forth tlielr young may be stated generally at 

)i middle of March and the middle of April according 

I of the season, &c., the most common time being about 

cud c»t March. At this time they may Ijc seen litc»wUly 
r«ring the frozen waste as far as the eye can rc^ach with the aid 
n tek'scope from the ** crow's nest *' at the main-royal mast' 
head, and have on such occasions been calculated to number 
upwards of half a million uf males and females. After the females 
ivc procured suitable ice on which they may bring forth their 
the males leave them and pursue their course to the 
in of the ice j there the Seal-hunters lose them, and are at a 
M to what couriie they take, the common opinion Ix-ing 
tbi«y leave for feeding-banks ; but where is unknown. They 
'. probiibJy toect their course along the " cant " of the ice, 




48 B. BBOWX ON TUE SEALS OF OBEEHLAHIK 

or among the ice wlierc it is loose and scattered ; for in the 
month of ^Inj scalers fall in with the old Seals (male and 
female) in about from N. lat. 73° to 75% and in the foUowii^ 
month still further north, bj which period the yonng ones hsTS 
also joined them. The females commonly produce one at a Urtlii 
frequently two ; and there is good reason for supposing tliaft Am 
are occasionally three, as most scalers can tell tlist they hm 
oflen seen three young one^ on a piece of ice floating aboot tdueh 
were apparently attended by only one female. Yet it is onlf 
proper to remark that, of the several ships I have beard of finding 
the Seals whpn taking the ice, none of the hunters hsTO been aUe 
to tell me tliat they took more than two from the ntems of the 
mother.* In contradiction to the opinion of some ezpericnoed 
sealers, I think that it is more than probable that they produce 
but once a year. 

(a) The colour after birth is a pnre woolly white, which gra- 
dually assumes a beautiful yellowish tint when contrasted with 
the stainless purity of the Arctic snow ; they are then called hf 
the sealers ** white-coats" or " whitey-coats "f » and ther retaia 
this colour until they are able to take the water (when about 14 
or 20 days old). They sleep most of this time on the snrihoe of 
the snow-covered pack-ico and grow remarkably fast. At this 
stage they can hardly be distinguished among the icy hununods 
and the snow — their colour thus acting as a protection to them; 
for in this staip ^^^7 ^^^ perfectly helpless, and the sealer killi 
them with a blow of the sharp-pointed clnb, or a kick over the 
nose with his heavy boot. The mother will hold by her young 
until the last moment, and will even defend it to her own deetme- 
tion. I have known them seize the hunter when flaying die 
young one, and inflict severe wounds upon him. In 1862, during 
a severe gale of wind many of the young Seals were blown off 
the ice and drowned. Sometimes the sealing^ips have acd* 
dentally fallen among them during the long dark nights of ths 
end of March or beginning of April, and were aware of their 
good luck only from hearing the cries of the young Seals. The 
white-coat changes very quickly. In 1862 the late Capt. GeOfgB 
Dcuchars, to whom science is indebted for so many spedmeniy 
brought me two ^live from near Jan Ililayen ; they were white 
when brou<r1it on board, but they chnnged this coat to a daA 
one completely on the passage of a week or ten days. They St8 
fi*esh beef, and recognised different persons quite readily. The 
young- *' white-coat " represented on the plate of Pkoea barbakt 
by Dr. Hamilton (^" Amphibious Carnivora," Natnndist's Ubiwyt 



* Fahriciufl says that two at a birth in an exceedingly rare occamnoc^ 
Perhaps, after all, Tliny has struck the truth in regaid to the older wlwa he 
Bays, " Parit iiunifuam geminis plures " (Hist. Nat., lib. 9, see. IS). 

t These are rarely seea in Danish Greenland, and then are called "IsUink* 
by the Danes from their colour, at least so Fabricias sayi. He, moraorer. 
informs us that the tliird year they are called Aqlektok (as mentioned above), 
the fourth MiUakto^, and after a winter Kinaqlit, when they are beffimiioff ta 
^ssame Uie harp-shapwl markings of the male (Nat. Sobk. Skrift.. i.. oTli). 
I nerer heard these names in North Greenland. 



B. msowy ON tue seals of greexlakd. 



49 



▼iiif pi. 5), from a specimen in the Ediaburgh Museum* is not 
JcnJOg of that species, but of Pat/op ft if us ffrtrnlandicufi. The 
«>un«r white-coat, however, J^ rnucli pkimpor thnn the Hjjeciiuen 
^ured ; indeed, in jiroix)rtioii to its size, it has much moio blubber 
etween the skin nnd the fle*sh than the mUiIt nnimah 
O) They take the water under the guidance of the old femoleg. 
\ the same time the colour of the skin bet^iiiii to chnnj^e to that 
Pa dark speckletl and then s^wtted htie ; these tiro denomiuated 
h/ires *' by the senlers.* 

(y) This colour graduiiUy changes to a durk blalsli colour on 
e back, while on the brett^t mid belly it is of » dark silvery 
le. Young S^ds ret:iin this apjKJurnnce throughout tlic summer 
|fl are termed " Bluebacks ^* by the sealers of Spitzborgen, 
Agleklok** by the Greenlander^, Bhw-slden by the Dttoes,| 
(3) The next stage is called Millaktek by the Greenlander^. 
^e Seal is then approaching to its mature coat, getting more 
otled &c.» and the saddle-shaficd band bpgins to form. 
(*) The last stjige (in the male to which these change?? refer) \^ 
t assumption of the halfmoon-shaped mark on either side, or the 
e ** a«* it i** cttll<»d by tlie northern sealers. 
Hider that about three years are sufficient to complete theafl 
». Thiii i.H alyo the opinion held in Newfoundland, though 
JreODhind people consider that live years are necessary. I 
ht however, to nay that these changes do not j)roceed so re- 
ly as is usually de^ribed, some of them not Itusling a year, 
longer, while, again, several of the chaugos are gone through 
one year; in fact, the coats are alway;? griwlualty changing, 
ugh some of the more prominent ones may be retainetl a longer 
others a shorter time. It wou]«l retiuire a very careful and 
nded titudy of this animal to decide on this point, which* 
to their migration?, it is imiM>ssible to give. After all, 
langes and their rapidity vary according to the season and 
ridual, and really will not admit of other than a general 
ion* 

U$, — It has few other chamctcristic habits beyond what \i 
oed re^^arding the order generally, or in other sections of 
paper on itij migrations, &c. It is looked upon by the Green- 
as rather a careless, stupid Seal, easily caught by a very 
inary knt/aker* Its food consistvs of any small Fish ( MaUoius 
titu)>, rrt^/^^# tcorptW, &c*), Cnistncea, and even Mullnsca. la 
j-rce with those of other sf^ecies. 
'/ Range and Mitfrations, — The Smhilebnck has a 
»i;c, b«nng found at certain seasons of the year in almost 
of the Arctic Ocean, from the American coast to Nova 
blttf and i>erhaps even further; it appcairs that the Pfioca 
(Lcpcchin, Acta Petroj)olitaun, 1775, t. i., pp. 1, 2o9, 



Ja llui tlAt« it it aot unlike Jltiiichirrui tfri/pkuHt but Cfln he di^tiugafsbed 
thie charact^w giron by NilsHoii, 8kand. FmiDa. i,. p. 3ol. 

ddttal formula of a Beat i a this &tage kiil^ by me in Darin's Strait, 

6 . I— 1 , 5-S 

►r 18<JJ, was,— iacisora ^; ctainei |_p molara ^^. 



50 K. BKOWN ON THE SKALS OF 6SBBIII.Anx 




t. 6» 7) is ifU'inical with it. Stngglei? ervn find 
iemperato re^on^ ; and this is so irpqnentlT the cue tiui tbb 
Seal may now Ije cluesed m tlie fanna c^ neaiij aU of th« jmcAmb 
fhores of KurojiC* and America. The period of die jmut iali- 
ence^ i(» [Xj.-ition in the Spitsbergen gem (the *^ GreeBknd 8»*^ii 
the Dutch, the *" CM Greenlaod " of the EngUdi wlnkn). Uj 
in March it h found by the sealiug-ships in immenee '"■■■W" it 
the proximity of the dreary iz-land of Jan Metbd,* cff the Mt 
cottfrt of Grconhind, not far from the 72nd peimJIel of norA Irth 
tade ; but, of course, the longitude varies with the 
the icr; ^t^etche8 out to the eastward, though the 
i» between 6^ and 8** west of Greenwich. Thej are 
iar inwards on the fixed ice, but on the mai^gin of the IhW 
which extends along the whole of the eastern shores of C>nedvt 
stretching as far as the longitude of Iceland, and nnmn tinnii mm 
for a hundred miles to the eastward of that island and ef Jh 
Mayen island into the ocean. The general direction of ita a^ 
margin is towards the north-east, stretching ni06t oommonlrtf 
far as Spitzbergen, to N. lat. 80% but occasionaD]r oolj to iMil 
75° N. Int., where it joins at an angle another belt of ioevliiehlBi 
in a southern and eastern direction along the coast of 0|aUlwiiwi 
to Cherrie Island. This easterly belt of ice is what the whwi 
call a '< south-east pack ** ; and at the angle where the two bdli 
join, a paRsagc can generally be accomplished thnw^ to Ik 
Spitzbergen waters. The nature of the ice, whicji can OMDrM 
percfiiveil by the experienced sealer, determines whether the osriv 
will tie found far from the margin of the ice. Thns^ if then b 
much new light ice, it is probable that the Seals wiU have ftto 
the ice at a considerable distance from the seaboaid mafgiB ti 
tlie pack, as it is well known that instinctively they seleetk^ 
of a strong consistence for the safety of their young when in M 
helpless condition in which they are unable to take to the wiAv- 
Again, they often take the ice where it stretches out to aea in Ab 
form of a long, broad promontory, with apparently this end h 
view, that their young may easily get to sea when able to do a>| 
this is the great clue which guides the sealer in the choiee of 4^ 
ice where he may find his prey. This was very well exhibit^ ii 
1859. Dr. Wallace tells me that there was very little ios tW 
year, and the island of Jan Mayen was altogether ^oe ficomilt 
indeed the nearest ice ky away nearly 70 imles or moce to iSbt 
north-west of it. The "Victor," the «* Intrepid," and a fleet; rf 
other ships met with indications of Seals in 72° Nb lat, ebbot 
eighty miles in a north-westerly direction from Jan HajVD, !> 
the early part of the month of April ; they had sailed in ■> 
easterly direction through a very loose pack of very heafj iM^ 
TTie prospects were so good that Capt. Martin, Sen., of the "b" 
trepid," |)erhaps the most successful sealer who ever suled in ^ 



* Hence the Norse sealen often call it the Joa MapwKobU (theJtf 
Mayen Seal), but more often the Springer, from its gambolling 
the whale (Newton, /. c). 



I 



Greenland sea, anil Capt. Anderson, of the " Victor " (my old fellow 
voyag^eur both in the North Atlaiitio and North Pacific Ocpans), 
were congratulating each other on the almost certain iw^ospeet of 
^iXUng their ships (for, indeed, tho old Scftb hml taken the ice, 
and some had already brought forth their young), when eud- 
denlj there was a change of wind to the eastward, and before 
nttny hours it blew a hard gale from that directiorh The i*esult.s 
"W^re that the ice was driven together into a firui pack and frozen 
into solid floes, and the ''Victor ** and many of the best shipy of 
tlic fleet got ice-bound. The Seals shifted their position towards 
the edg^ of the ice to be nearer the sea, and for seven weeks th« 
** Victor " was beset among ice and drifted sonthwards as far as 
N. lat, 67'^ lo', having described a course of nearly 400 miles, 
gh I have staterl the parallel of 72° N. lat. as being the 
iar whereabcnts of the Se^ds in Marcli, yet th^y have often 
been found at a considerable disitanct* from it, af* well from Jan 
Mayen. Thus in 1859 they were ftnitid in considerable nnmbers 
not far from Iceland, the most northerly point of which is in N. 
1*1, 66^ 44' ; this leads me to remark that the Sealy are often 
divided into several bodies or docks, and may b© at a considerable 
di&tADce from each other, although it is most common to find 
these smaller flot^ks on the ^skirts or at no great distance from the 
main body. After the young have Ijegiin to take the water in the 
Spitsbergen *^iu they gnwlually direct their course to the outside 
8treftrii», where they are often taken in considerable numbers on 
Wirm sonny days. When able to provide for theni'«elves, the 
tetaaXeA gra<ina]ly li*ave them and join the males in the noith, 
ffliere they are hunted by the sealers in the months of May and 
; and it is es|>ecially during the latter mouth that the females 
to have joiiie<l the males; for at the ** old -seal i ng ^' (a» 
ed) in S^Iay, it has ofien been remarked that few or no 
seen in company with the females. Later in the year. 
In July* there are seen, Ix-twecn the parallela of 76^ and 77° N., 
the«e flocks of Seals, termed by Hcoresby " Seals* weddings**; and 
J luiv« found that they were composed of the old males and 
f«itt&len and the bhtebacksy which must have followed the old ones 
in the north and formed a junction with them some time in June. 
Tb<^re h» another opinion, that the oUl females remain and bring 
their young with them north ; but all our facts are against snch a 
tbeorfrr- ' ). 

Tbes*. !i^ may vary with the temperature of the season, 

ftod aw iiiHueuced by it ; it is possible that in the Spitsbergen 
sett M the winter approaches they keep in advance of it and retreat 
tontfenrmrd to the limit of perpetual ice. off the cnas*t of Greenland, 
jWIMUflim ( I near Iceland, where they spend the winter. We are, 
hofmtmfff at a loss regarding the winter habits of these Seals in 
tli^ t.^.'ion : horn rio oue Winters, and there are no inhabitants to 
one and ways of life. Different is it, however, 
I shores of Davis^s Strait, where in the Danish 
ids form, both with the whites and E^kimo^ the 
.1 Juo<l and commerce, and accordingly their habits 

d2 




no(> 




52 B. BBOWK ON THE SEALS OV OBXDrLAJnX 

and arrival are well known and eagerly watched. Hie Aianoak, 
as it is commonlj called by the iSkiino, the ^ Svartaidede W-^ 
hund " (Black-sided SeaIhouud^ of the Danes, is the meet flA"T»*" 
Seal in all South Greenland, it is equally by this Seal that the 
Eskimo lives, and the^^Eongl. Gronlandske Handel'' makea^te 
commerce. In South Greenland when the Seal generallT ii 
of, or a good or bad year spoken about^ everybody thinJca of 
Seal ; on the other hand, in North Greenland Poffom/fi 
and Callocephalus viiulinui* are the most common* Theae iMt 
two species are the only Seals which can be properly aaid to hsii 
their home in Greenland, affecting ice-fjords and zaray going ftr 
firom the coast. This is not the case with P. ffrtmUmdiemi ^ 
certain times of the year they completely leave the coast ; fhan- 
fore the Seal-hunting in South Greenland is moro dependoit npoa 
contingencies than in North Greenland. This Seal aniTflB re- 
gularly in September in companies travelling firom the aonfli to 
north, keeping among the islands ; occasionally at thia time infr 
viduals detach tliemsclves from the drove and go np the inbla 
The Seal at this period is fatter, and continues so nntil the winttf 
time. In October and November is the great catchin|^ leasening 
in December. Very few are seen in Jannaiy, and in Febmaiy 
almost none ; but regularly towards the end of May they zefeen 
to the south of Greenland, and in June further nortti. The Sed 
is at this time in very poor condition, and remains for the moit 
part in the Qords. For the second time they disappear in Jaly« 
again to return regularly in Septembcr.f It is therefore aeea 
that this Seal regularly comes and goes twice a year. Every oofr 
knows when it commences its migration from the sonth to thB 
north, but nobody knows where the Seal goes to when it dis- 
appears off the coast. Between the time they leave the coast ia 
the spring and leturn in the summer they beget their yoang ; and 
this seems to be accomplished on the pack-ice a great distaaos 
from land,^ viz., in the Spitzbergcn sea. It is at this period tkat 
the seal-ships come after them, as referred to alitiady. Of coonB 
a few stragglers occasionally do not leave the coast, and prodooe 
their young close to the land ; but such exceptions do not at ifl 
affect the rule laid down. It is a very famOiar fiust that ronsd 
the Spitzbergen seas in April the sealers get the best catch. At 
this season the Seals accumulate in immense numbers on the peek 
and con be killed en masse ; but Dr. Rink cannot believe that in 
this time they could migrate from the west coast of Gicenland to 
Spitzbergen, the distance being too great In support of this 
argument, it is pointed out that in the winter the Seal goes in the 

• I was always under the impression that this Seal was rather rare ; bet, ■• 
the return of its capture is not given separately from the fbrmcr. it ii imoi- 
sible to say accurately. ^^ 



j.t "Si" ^" ; ^?* ^^^ latitude. &c. ; e.g., this Seal leaves the vieimty of 
Jakohsharn ice-Qord about the middle of July or beginning of AajnaL SB* 
TJS*^ in October very fat In August and Sq^b^ therain bom 

1 taat part of the coast. 

X Bink, lib. eit., et 0. Fabrieius in Nat Selsk. Skria, L c. 



E, BROWN ON THE SEiXS OF GBEENliAND. 



53 



opposite* direction to tliJit of Spitsbergen, and cannot be seen in 

the north**rn pirts of Davis's Stmit or liaflin's Buy ; it i^ possible 

therefore, he thinks, that the Seal-* of Baffin's Bay go in the spring 

down the west side of Davis's Stmit to Newfoundland and Ltibra- 

dor, and supply the bulk of thoao killed there at tliat season, that 

in the winter they ci"oss Davis's Sti'ait ami beget their young in 

that region, and after this croMS jigain to the eouthern i>ortiou of 

Greenland. One would thiak that if the Seals eume from Spitz- 

bei^gen there would at this season be great numbers met on the 

passage round Capo Fjircwell. At other seasons of the yeai' it is 

certainly the abundance or otherwise of tlicir food which deter- 

I mines which way the Seal will take. In June the iSeals go to feed 

on Fish up the Ijords ; but wlmt way they go in July, and where 

' they may be in August, is etill a matter of doubL It id often 

argued in Greeulxind thiit in the ** old times " Seals were more 

LBumerouR tlrnn now, and that the great slaughter by the European 

I sealers in Spitzbergcn and Newfoundland ha^ lesy<3ned llieir nuni* 

|l bera on the shores of Greenland. The woithy Director of Green- 

Iliind Commerce therefore rejoices that the recent failui-es of the 
8eal*hunting in the former localities will have a teudpury to again 
increase their numbers in Davis's Strait aud BnlBa's Bay, and 
thereby bring an increase of prosperity to his hypcrboreaa 
Lsubjects. 

£coHomic Value and Hunting, — To the Greenlimder this Seal is 
of vast iniiwrtance for its oil, flesh, and hide. One full-grown 
»nim&I will wei^jh on an average about 230 lbs,, of which the skin 
jmd blubber weigh 100 lbs., and the meat 93 lbs., the remainder 
Ijeing the head, blood, aud cutniiK The edible parts may there- 
fore be said to reach the amount of 100 lbs. ; but this weight also 
includes the bones. The blubber of one at the latter part of the 
year would probably fill about one-third of a cask, but would not 
ield over a fourth poit of that quantify when Ihe animals return 
the spring after procreating. The yearly ciitch in the Danish 
dements ia estiimite<l at 36,000. ( Vide Kink, L c). 

(4.) PnOCA B4RBATA, O. Fab. 

Cailotephalus barbattHj F. Cuv. 
Plwca tcporinay Lepech. ? 
Callocephalns leporinuSy F. Cuv. 
Popuhir names. — Ifajcrt skdl (Swedish)* ; Ajnc (Lapp) ; Urmk 
{m written by Fab., but in North Greenbind always protiounced 
took)^ (Greeidand). It is also called Takamnyukf and the 
ung Terkigluk ; but I never hemd tliese terras aj>plied, so they 
tDast be rarely used. 

What the " great Seals " of Pennant and other authors arc haa 
jet to Ije investigated ; they were oi-iginally all set down to be 
ibis speciet*, but are now generally supx>09«d to belong to the Grey 



* K«irtoii (JLc) iays that thi^ ih the Seiil known to the Norse hunterii abont 
^StoT'iwhbc (Ureal Seal), aod more frequently us BUia-kob'te 
Blii0 8ul> 

f 09-900]^ aUo nieauo blubber. The naiac may pouibly n>fer to the jiixe or 
of liesaiSil, nad uic»a '* the big, fat Seat." 



54 B. BBOWK ON THE SEALS OF GBEXMLAIOX 

Seal {Hatichcerus gryphus). The Tapvmt of the westeni isUnds 
of Scotland appears also to belong to that Bpedea, H, grj/pim 
being a common Heal among the Hebrides. 

Inscriptive Remarks, Sfc, — Next to the Walrus this is the Uogsst 
species of the order found in the northern seas. Perhaps, howenr, 
H, gryphus may occasionally be found to equal it in siie. 

Geographical LHstribtUiofi, Sfc, — ^This species has been bo dftca 
confounded with the Gre^'Seal {H, grypkmt) and the Saddlebulc 
(P. grcenlandicus) in different stages and ooats, that it ii ntJtf 
▼ery difficult to arrive at anything like a true knowledge of m 
distribution. At the end of the notice of this spedee I diiD 
have something to say regarding the probability of itsidentitj 
with the Ground-Seal of the English Seal-hunters of the ^»t»- 
bergen sea. On the coast of Danish Greenland it is prindptDj 
caught in the district of Julianshaab a little time befbre tfte 
Elapmyds. It is not, however, confined to South GreenUuid, but 
is found at the very head of Baffin's Bay, and up the sounds of 
Lancaster, Eclipse, ftc. branching off from the latter sea. The 
Seals seen by the earlier navigators being nearly always l e fer i'efl 
in their accounts to either Fhoca viiuUna or P, gnsnlatuBaiMf 
it is at present almost impossible to trace its western range; 
it is, however, much rarer in the north than in the sooth of 
Davis's Strait. Accordingly the natives of the former region en 
obliged to buy the skin from the natives of the more south of 
settlements, as it is of the utmost value to them. This Seal comes 
with the pAck-icc round Cape Farewell, and is only found on the 
coast in the spring. Unlike the other Seals, it has no eUiuky but 
depends on broken places in the ice ; it is generally found among 
loose broken ice and breakin^-up floes. 

Economic Value, ^-c. — This animal is of great importance to the 
Eskimo ; they cut the skin into long strips for harpoon lines— « jine 
qud nan of every kayak. Out of every hide can be sot four Of 
five lines, and these are cut in a circular form off the anmud befiiA 
it is skinned ; after this the lines are dried. These aUmiutkg tte 
very strong, and are applied to all sorts of purposes in Grreenlend 
travelling. The blubber is more delicate in taste than any otheri 
and is accordingly more prized as a culinary dainty, when sadi 
can be afforded. Tliere are only from 400 to 600 can^t annually 
{Bink, I. c). 

For long 1 was puzzled as to what was the ^ Ground Seal" of 
the Spitzbergen sealers, but skulls brought me from Spitsheigea 
in 1869 by Mr. Chas. Edward Smithy surgeon of Mr. Lamont's 
Expedition, leave no doubt as to their being Phoca b€trbaia. 

(5.) ILVIICHOEBCS GRYPHUS, 0. Fab. 

Phoca gryphus (den knimsnudede sa&l), 0. Fab. 

Halicharui griseus^ Nilss. 

Halichaerus gryphus, Nilss. " " 

Phoca gryphuSf Licht. 

Phoca halichcerus, Thienem. 

Phoca thienemanm, Less, (young). 

Phoca scopuUeok^ Thienem. (young, fide Gray). 



i 



B. BKOWN ON THE SEAlid OF GBISKNLA^IJi, 




opular names. — Gret/ Seal (EogHtih DaturalL^ts) ; Graskal (or 
Grey Senl of the Scantlinnviuu iiatui^sts) ; Statshdl (CEdrn, /, <;,) j 
trrojAa/( Swedish; ; Sjoikdl^ Utskdrsskal, iind Krtimnos (vwioua 
ScaDdttnavian local names } ; Gronfalg} (LoppM) ; Tapvaistl 
(western igliiada of Scotluod) i Haaf-Jiih t^northeru islands of 
Scotland). 

General Remarks. — ^The Grey Seal has no doubt Injen frequently 
confounded with other species, ^jarticularly Phoca barlmta and 
the female of Pagophilas t/rtenlandiciis. 

It does not seem to frequent the high deas, though possibly this 
»Mn maybe confouudod with the ^' Ground Seid" and aome 
PHHBof the " Saddleback." It is said to produce on the coast of 
^tfeSeti in February, and to have one pup at a birth, of a white 
colour, wliich ul tains the dark grey colour of the adult species 
in about fouitei.'n days.* In 1B61, a little south of Disco Island, 
we killed u Sh:i! the skull of wliicli proved it to be of this specios; 
and a^rtiiu il 'r 1 saw a number of skins iu Egcdesminde 

and othi-'r ;^» - about Dit*co Bay which apj>eartd to be of 

f hid 8peci**w. Tliough the natives do not seem to have any nam© 

• for it, the Danish tiuders with whom I talked were of opinion 
.that the Graskulj with which they were acquainted as an inha- 

• bitant of the Cattegut, occai^ionally visited south and the more 

• ^ufcherly nurihern portions of Greenland with the herds oi Atak 
ii,P* ffrfenlawliciis), 

\ The ekuU to which I refer, though cai-efully examined at the 
- time, wa^s ai*terwards accidentally destroyed by a young Polar 
ik-ar which formed one of our ship's company on that uorthern 
voy "' iefore, though perfectly convinced of its being entitled 

to ! 1 afl a member of the Greenland tVmnu, I am not in a 

||lt6< I thiii with more couiideiice than hh being a very 

Hro y. It should be curefully looked for jmiong the 

MWrd^ oi P, ijnt;/ila7idieu$ when ihey arrive ou the coast. Its 
PuM iting forms uowhere an important bruuch of induntry ; it is, 
^■^erer, killed on the Scandanaviau eoastd, at various places, 
Hnr^ it m moMt abundant. A large Grey Seal about eij^ht feet 
Wffltfgftk will yield ( f I s gay) about 12 li^pund^ oi' Idubber, 

Uiujll value to 36 i ^ r bauco (Sweditih); and the hide, 

which U tiA large as an ox-hide, will bring the value of auch a 
jfinl np to the sum of 60 rigsdaler banco ( Swedb^hj.f I have 
^■^ and eicamined thij» Seal in YHriouB collections, and have »een 
IRbve on the coasts of the Cattegat^ &c., and among the norihem 
ri«laud« of Scotland, but can add nothing of value to the excellent 
|^*ooiint of Nilfisoni in hia ** Skandinavis^k Fauna" {Foreta Delen, 
fWggdjuren, 1847), pp. 298^310. 

b * Capl. MeDoDalid hts epecimeas of & beautiful yellowiih-vhite. It begins 
Jbo gH dark on the kuouI u " r rs mthio a day or two of birth. It in lo 
sboadjuit in the Ilehiidef : voyngv ho hii» killed 70. It U rather 

nreroii ihc mamland. ^I ^., ..ourD. Anax. Ik Phys., 1870; Elires, Ibk, 

[|d60, p. 2A, &c,) 

t lo the kjokkcQindddiDg of Denmark, in eompaoy with remahu of 
iC»«lor ^er juid Bom /jrimtf/eniuji are found those of HaUeharu* yryphut^ 
l^owinc it to jiaire b«eu at one limo sutBcieutly abuodunt to form part of the 
■Nid Qitbc prisutiTe iuhabitaata of Scaadiauvia. 




T-vifjf.itj :•>»*-* f tT r. U 'jf . '- wj mi L IiL^lfidir Gnjr). 

Li:i.iL frir AJcui. Lir W^^ isa bl -HL 
Pccolir Bjs:e&. — .vcs-idrw 7.-:-rl2*tt salkrs • : WmtrwMwmikMmm 

t? •y^-'^y zz.*-ixxrL. HiT^-rvr. ^T^^iawn* hi 

Eiir<e?aii" *■■■:■?■': •fjTiz.'r cn':«? Tti-^i iive c«*a 

t.:- :ri* ctictirj :r:: ro:r> 7^7re*«rz.5 ir Walnts E&ito satire] 

to iLe ?k^ : viillr^ izi l3? Lire jcixzail h > l^zIL ud tke 
tcni'L The •=kiji •:< cC i ihjziaIs S» £*MLe;;LlT wiiakbd 
I Lit* ?e7- in v-I-i WslItcs •TTii.c «r«:cr(;i wick 

lairlers luiT.-'l-e*: iLrj iiwane^i :o :« tie <i e Mrfc e g> rf 
is^:«te*i IS 'iifrrecs ri2i!*» by :c«^. die cLt«« c£ tW Polar BcH^ or 
TsuzZ -sitL j:i :L^ we*r &r.'i tear of che rccf ^-azbd-nnbie life a SlA- 
L^.ri^ iaLz.?t I*r^I iz N*. siC. 74\ Tbe verr cirmssttBtial aem^t 
^f tlie E.Gi=.c«rr ct" mj^taeial b-riT-sfe* frnen xb 
cifirsc err»:iifr«:-c* : xhrj vary in iLe c;iznb«r of rovs 
cazLC-trr in eai^h pjw i^. &!&:•>?( e^enr s?e:iic«ii. Tfcfri 
fiB mlnafc t^:':*rrcle?. and «h«r >r«tfe5 b^rv6«a tbew brutles 
«T*Te<i wirh downr wLitisL hair. 1 bare swn sersal 
WalnL-^cti in all ?taze<. :ri:>m birch aa:il appcoaduAg tke 
e^'age, and n^vrr jet «civ them ot* a bUek eoioar, and siMMk 
te«i mcliiK^ to I«»k cpcn the >:atexneiic ihai ther are so as ve 
rc«r:<2#^ Lad it loc been tor the high anthoriir of ita aukor.* jlll 
I Mw wtsre ot the ordlnarT brown coioor, tboa^iu likft moA 
acimar«, ther :r^t II;zhter as thej grov old. Neither m tfe 
icuC<^. palxu, &nd ^-Itr? *" halrr when joung * : in one wUch I 
^xaxnin^ before it was al-Ie to'take the' water 1 saw no difccBoe 
hetw*:ffR it &nd its ixK'ther in this r^pecc. The Wafane appem to 
€B«t it* nail.? ; for in «eTeral which I examined aboat the flaae 
tiiB^ < viz.. in Aagnst i cc^t of the italic which had been 
were gOLe, and joang ones h^gicniog to appear. The dentiliQn 
\^iai ezamin^l fcv MofiilliTrav {op. cit. «f. Rap{v Owen^ Flower, 
P«f^r«,§ and others. In an agvd inale which 1 examined at Scott's 
II]^, DaTis*;^ Strait, August 3, 1S61. the small fifth moiu' on ^ 

• Ctaj, Cat. Seals and Whal«s m Brit. Ma^., lad cd.. pw SC 
t BoIL Se. y»t-, avfi^ p. 2€0. 
X Froe. ZmI. 84c , ]8$3, p. 103. 

I MoHtttbcr. dcr AJumL dcr Wbc. ra Bertia, Dee. 1«M» n. CSS| 
AasaU Xtt. Hist, zr. (3fd Mric«), p. 355. 





y ox THE SEALS OF GREENLAND. 57 

t side of tlie upjnn' jaw still romaiueil, but loose; on tlio 
other side the corresixjndiiig alveolus was uot yet absorbed.^ 

Shaw (Gen. Zoo!,, u, p. 234) has figured two species of this 
animali and inferred their pxistenco principuUytVom the differences 
in the representations given by Johnston and Cook. Curiously 
enough, Pontopiddan tells us that tho Norwt»gi/iri Ilsbemieo in his 
day had an idea that there were two sjiecies. The whalers declare 
thftt the femole Walrus is without lusks ; I hii\o certainly seen 
feui&les without them, bnt again, others with both well developed. 
In this respect it may be similiir to the female Narwhal, which has 
occasxoDdliy no ** horn " develojicd ; t do not think, however^ that 
there is more than one species of Wnlius in the Arctic regions or 
^sewhere. 

Habits and Food, — Ou lh€ floes, lying over sounJings and shoiils, 
the Wahu-^es often accumulate in immense numbers, and He 
Jinddled upon the ice. More frequently, in Davis's Strait and 
Baffin's Bay, they arc funtid floating about on pieces of drift ice, 
in small family parties of six or seven ; and I have even seen only 
one lying asleep on the ice, >Vhellier in large or small parties, 
one ia always on the watch, as was long ago observed by the 
sagacious Cook ; the watcli, on the approach of danger, will rousa 
those next lo them ; and the alarm being spread, presently the 
whole heiil will be on the qui tire. When attacked, unlike the 
other Seals (unless it be the Ci/stopfujra), it will not rclrcat, but 
boldly meet its enemies. I was one of a party in a boat whicli 
harpooned a solitary Widrus a^leep on n piece of ice. It imme- 
diately dived, but presently arose, and, notwithstanding all our 
exertions with lance, axe, and rifle, stove in the bows of the boat; 
indeed, we were only too glad to cut the line adrift and save our- 
selvM on the Hoc which the Walrus had loft, imtil assi.staiicc could 

K^^ — \ us. Luckily for us the enraged Morse was ningnanimous 
gh not to attack its thopfidlen enemies, but made ott' grunting 
jnantly, with a gun-huq>oon and new whulc-linc dangling 
' from it« bleeding flanks. Its eitlitk or brcatliiiig-hole is cleanly 
finished, like timt of the Seals^ but in much thicker ice, and the 
radiating lines of fracture ranch more nuu'keiLt Tlie food of the 
Walrufl has long been a matter of dispute, some writers, such ns 
Schreber, Fisher, and others, going so far as to deny its being 
carnivoi*ous at all, because Fisher saw in the stomach of one 
•* long branches of seaweed, Furtnf digitatus "; and Prof. Bell 
8C«iii8 even to doubt whefher the small number of grinding-teeth, 
' mm] more especially their extreme shortness and rounded form, 
are not rather calculated to bruise the half-pulpy mass of marine 



^ The uDatotnj of the Wnlran has b<>cti defcrili«d in a 1)eautiful mid exhaus- 
tive memoir (Traua. Zool. Soc., UJO) by Dr. Murie, F.L.S., F.G.S.,an emiiitnt 
anotOOiitt lUid soologist, who Lhk added mucti to our knowledge of the uiariDC 
Manmaliii. 

f Tb^re arc many intere*tiag details of the babttB of the Walrus in Kane's 
•• Arctic Explontiotu " and " Fimt (Srioael Exi)etlition," la Ilayes's ** Bout 
Jooniry*' and "Open Polar Sea," and in Belcber'a "Laal of the Arctio 
VoTaga." 






^^ 



B. BBOWN ON TUB SEALS OF GitB£M«AKD. 



retablea thaQ lo hold and pierce the Fish's acaly cuirass. I hare 
generally found in it^ stomach Turion^ species of Crus^tacea, ahelled 
'» Mollueca, chiedy Mya fruncaia aad Sajcicava rugosa, bivmlve^ 
very common in the Arctic regions on banks and shoals, aoda 
quantity of ^reen slimy matter which I took to be decomposed A|§p 
which had accidenliilly found their way into its stomach ihrougft 
being attftehed to the i^hellH of the Molluj^cia of which the food 
of the VV^alrnis chietly cou^ists.^ I cannot say that 1 ever saw 
unj vegetable matter in it8 utomach which could be decided lo 
have been taken in an food, or which could be dL^tingaisfaed 
taa Buch. Ab ibr ita not being carnivorous, if further proof 
*were necesstiry I have only to add that whenever it wuit kiUed 
near where a Whale's carcass had lieen let lulrift its «*^^fTHfV 
,W&s invariably found cramnwd full of the krauff or fleah of 
~ that Cetacean. As for it^ not being able to hold the slippory cni- 
m of a Fish, I fear the distinguished author of " The BnUah 
Quadrupeds" (Ist wl., p. 287) is in error. The Narwhal, whkli 
even less Ktted in its want of dentition for an it-hthyopbaggos 
ixistence, lixe-'S almost entirely upon Fishes und Cepholapoda. 
Finally, the cs-jyerimeutum cruris Itas been performed, in tJie 
'fiftot that Fish have been taken out of its stomach ; and a 
most trustworthy man, the captain of a Norwq^an boaJer, ba« 
assured me tvvitliout possessing any theory on the subjeci) ihal 
he has seen one rise out of the water with a Fish iu its ukoatb. 
In its stomach I have ot\en seen small t^tones or gravel; oaJ 
round ita atiuk considerable quantities are always seen ; ibifi ia 
a habit which it posaes^e^^ in common with Phaca barittUa aad 
even Beluga catodon. Tiiese stones maybe taken in accideutall/t 
hut^till they may serve some purpose iu its digestive economy, 
I Next to mau^ its chief enemy is the Folai* Bear. The K.airimA 
tQsed to tell many tales of their battles ; nud though I have new 
bMD fortunate enougii to see any of these hceues, yet I ban 
heard the whalers give most circumstantial aocounts of the Walniii 
drowning the Bear, I'^c. These accounts may be taken ineri^ 
for what they are worth ; but (»till this shows that they iLro INi 
wholly coutiued to Eskimo fable, aud ought thetxsfore not (O 
bt' hastily thrown aside. There is no doubt, however, tbat tbe 
Bear and the Walrus (like all the Pionepedia) are but iudidhraBt 
friends. Another pest 1 believe I discovered u[x>n ibia BOtiBil 
for the firet time, in 1861, in the shape of two uudeacribed •pacip 
of li^Bmatopinus^ one invariably infesting the bMc of the mnt^ 
chial briatles* and the other its body. I also found the Seals of 
DttTtt's Strait much troubled wtth another impedes {litem^ttcpimm 
phaciEf Lucas ).t I have seen the W^alrus awukhtg loudly on ibc 
ice^ tumbling about, and rushing back from the water to the USb, 
and from the ice to the water, and then swimming off lo 



* In Spitsbergen CreneUa lavigata coD»i{tuU4 a great p4M 
tb« Ulski being uocd to dig it oat of the* cJajey bottom. 1 
TrauiL, xjlU,, p, 629 1 and m " Spitaberg. MoUusL/* I, p. 1^ i 
io Wiegmanu't Arohiv, 1864. 

t Proc. Uojr, Phj's. Soc, Edin., 18M. 






abK) 



J 



B. BROWK ON THE 8BALS OF GBEBKULND. 



5a 



piece, and repeating the same operation as if in pain. A few 
honn iit>erwartis I saw a Hock of Saxicola renanihe (it was on 
a la««i-floet close to the Fni Inlands) alight on the spot. On going 
OTer, T foand the ice speckled with one of these species of Ilftmafo- 
pinws^ on which the hirda hnd been feeding; and the unfor- 
tmiAte Wiilrne seemg to have been io the throes of clearing itself 
of these tToiiblesome friends aft^r the approved ffiwhion. Sub- 
seqnentlj I have seen these and other small birds alight on the 
back of the Walrna to peck at these insects, jupt as crows may 
Bitting on the backs of cattle in onr tiehU. Its tusks it 
itly uses to dig up the molluscous food on which it chiefly 
; and I have seen it also use them to drag up its huge 
on to the ice. In moving on shore it aids its clumsy pro- 
gression by their means. 

The Walrus, being an animal of considerable cerebral develop- 
it, is capable of being readily domesticated. For many years 
the Norwegians have frequently brought specimeos to drf" 
>t Scandinavian porta; and two have reached England, and 
Borrived a short time. More than a century ago one of these 
animald reached England. De Lsipt,* quoting from Edward Worst, 
who saw one of them alive in England which was three months 
oM and had t>ecn brought from Novai Semlaj, says: — ** Everj- day 
it waa put into water for a short time, but it always seemt^d happy 
to return to dry ground. It was about the wze of a calf, Miid 
coald open and j^hut its nostrils at pleasure. It gronted like a 
wild Boar, and sometimes cried with a strong deep voice. It was 
fed with oaU and millet, which it rather sucked in than raftsticaied. 
It WBS not without ditticulty that it iipproncheil iN mn.'^ter ; but it 
attempted to follow him, especially when it had the pro!?pcct of 
receiving nourishment at hh hnnd." Its rmtumlisatioii in our 
[^ical Gardens having therefore become a sulject of con- 
>le interest, I cannot better coticUide these notes on tho 
Its of the Walrus than by describing a young one I saw on 
boaiyi a «hip in Davis's Strait, in 1861, and which, had it sun-ived, 
WM Int^^diVI for the Zoological Society. 

It was caught near the Duck Islands ofi' the coast of Notih 
Gr^^nland, and at the same time its mother was killed ; it was 
tbeo ftncking, and too young to take the water, so that it fell an 
caaj prey to its captors. It could only have been pup])ed n very 
hour*. It was then 8 feet in length, but already the canine 
were Iwginning to cut the gum.-. When I fii-st saw it, it 
grunting about the deck, sucking a piece of its mother's 
iber, or sucking the skin, which lay on dock, at the place where 
teatA were. It was subsequently fed on oatmeal and water 
pea-soup, and seemed to thrive u]K>n this outre nounshment, 
6fth eonld be got for it ; and the only animal food which it 
obtaioed wan a little freshened beef or \ioik, or Bear's flcf^h, which 
ii readily ate. It had its like^ and dislikes, and its favourites on 
board, whom it instantly recognised. It became exceedingly 



* ■■ Deecription des Indes Occident ales/ ^ apud BtdFon. 



60 IL BBOWN OX THE SEALS OF OBEElOiAXJI. 

irritated if a newspaper was shaken in its face, when it would 
run open-mouthed all over the deck after the perpetrator of this 
literary outrage. Wlien a *'fall''* was called it would imme- 
diately run at a clumsy rate (about one and a half or two miles ui 
hour), first into the surgeon's cabin, then into the captain's (beii^ 
on a level with the quarterdeck), apparently to see if they were 
up, and then out again, grunting all about the deck in a moat 
excited manner ** awuk ! awuk I " When the men were ** nUy- 
ing,"t ^^ would imitate the operation, though dnmsUy, raraly 
managing to get more than its own length before it leqnixed to 
turn again. It lay during the day basking in the sun, bueilj 
tossing its flippers in the air, and appeared perfectly at home and 
not at all incrnic<l to cliange its coudition. One day the captadn 
tried it in the water for the first time ; but it was quito awkwaid 
and got under the floe, whence it was unable to extricate itself, 
until, guided by its piteous '* awuking" its master went out on the 
ice and called it by name, when it immctliately came out from 
under the ice, and was, to its great joy, safely assisted on boenl 
again, apparently heartily sick of its mother element. After 
surviving for more than three months, it died, just before the 
vessel left for England. As 1 woh not near at the time, I was 
unable to make a dissection in order to learn the cause of death. 

Regarding the debated subject of the attitude of the Walru^ I 
am not in a position to say more than my own notes taken atUw 
time will allow of; I saw none last summer, and I am afraid to 
trust to a treacherous memory on such a matter. The entries m 
my diary, however, are explicit enough on the point so far » 
relates to this 3'oung individual ; and I presume that its habits are 
to be taken as a criterion of those of the old one. When asleep 
in the cask which served it for a kennel, it lay with both 
fore and hind flippers extended. When walkiTtg it moved like 
any other quadruped, but with its hind flippers heel firsts thojbre 
flippers moving in the ordinary way, toes first, I am aware thit 
this is in contmdiction to the observations of an eminent loologist; 
I, however, merely copy what was expressly noted down at the 
time. It ought also to be mentioned that, in the excellent figures 
of the Walrus taken by the artist of the Swedish Expedition to 
Spitzbergen,§ under the direction of such well-informed naturalists 
as Toreli, Malmgren, Smitt, Goes, Blomstrand, &c., the fore 
flipi)ers are represented wa rather doubled back, and the hind 
flippers extended. 

Geographical Distribution, — The Walrus is an animal essentially 
of the coast, and not of the high seas. Whenever it is found at 

* When a boat gets " fast " to a Whale, all the reft of the crew rui thoutiog 
ahoat the decks, as they get the other boats out, ** a fall I a fall !" It is 
apparently derived from the Dutch word " Val," a Whale. 

t Wiieii a ship gets impeded by loose ice ^thering aroand it, the crew 
rush in a body from side to side so as to loosen it, by swaying the vetsd from 
beam to beam. This is called «* sallying the ship." 

X Gray, Proc Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 1 12. 

§ Lib, cit., fiwing p. 169 (chromo-Uthograph), and head, p. 308, both dawn 
by Heir von Yhlen. 




K. BnOWN ON TOE SEALS OF GREENLAND. 



G\ 



I 



any distonce from laud it is almost always on shoals, where it 
can obtain the Mollusca which form the bulk of its fuod. The 
Seal-hunters never see it, iior is it found Hiuong the flocka of 
Se&l^H on the Spitzbergcn and Jan Mayen paek-ice. It is found 
all ^oog the circumpolar shores of Asin, America, and Europe, 
eometimes extending into the sul^pohir, iiud even stragglers 
find their way into the tenij>erate, regions of America, Asia, 
and Europe. It is not unUkcly that it may even be found 
in Ihe Antartic regions. On the north-wCvHt coast of America I 
bave known it to come as far south as 50"^ N. lat. Tlie Indians 
along the shores of Alaska (lately Russian Americu) carve the 
teeth into many &aciful ornaments ; * but we should be liable to 
fall into an error from seeing these teeth among the natives so 
far eouth, if we did not know that they are bartered from the 
more northern tribes. On the American Atlantic seaboard the 
Walras conies na far south as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and 
stragglers even further. In Lonl Shtilfl ham's day they assembled 
on the Magdalene Islands in that gulf to the number of 7,000 or 
8,000; and Bometimes as many a,^ 1,600 were killed (or rather 
staughtered) at one onset by the hunters who pursued them.f It 
hat been killed several times on the British coast ; and I suspect 
that it ie not an unfrequent visitor to our less- frequented Bhores. 
Perliaps not a few of ihe "Sea-horses" and * Sea-cows*^ which 
every now and again terrify the fishermen on the shores of the 
wild western Scottish lochs, and get embalmed among their 
folklore, may be the Walrus. In adtlition to those already re- 
corded I know of one which was seen in Orkney in 1857, and 
another the Shetland fishermen told me had been seen in tho 
Nor* Isles about the same time. One was killed on East lleiskar, 
Hebrides, by Capt McDonald, R.N., in April 1841 j and 
another in the River Severn in 1839 (" Edin. Journ. Nat, Phys. 
•* Sciences/' 1839-40), There 'n*, however, some ground for 
believing that at one time it was, if not a regular member of 
our fauna, at least a very frequent visitor. Hector Bocco (or 
Boetbias,as his name has been Latini.^'ed), in his quaint^' CVonikles 
** of Scotland," mentions it towards the end of the fifteentli century 
as one of the regular inhabitants of our shores ; and old lioman 
historiaQB describe the horse-gear and arras of the ancient Britons 
as oriuiroented with bright polished ivory. It is diiHculi to 
suppose that this could have been any tiling else but tho carved 
ioaks of the Walrus. It is not, however, without the bounds of 
pQoaibility tluit this might have been some of the Afriwm Ele- 
pbaiita* ivory which the Phcenieian traders bartered fur tin with 
ilie natives of the Cassiteride.'^. Except for its occasional move- 
meiita from one portion of ita feeding-ground to tho other, the 
Walntfl cannot be classed among the migratory auimab. In 



My {rieod Mr. A. G. I>»llas, late GovcrDor-General of the Tludson'a Bay 
CoiDpttfij'0 teiritories, luu abuBt oT himself beau li fully carved out uf ft Walrus- 



I • Myin 

■ CoiDpttflj'« 



Viht try a Tfimp«be&n IndiAQ at Fort Simpson, B.C, 
t PW. 



'na&ft., IxT., pi. 1, p. 349, Ike. Apud rennftat, *♦ Arctic Zoology/ 



L 



62 B. BBOWN ON THE BKAL8 OF GSEULAIID^ 

Greenland it is found all the year round, bat not aoutli of Bifkil, 
in lat. 65°. In an inlet called Irsortok it collects in oonndenUe 
numbers, to the terror of the natives who have to pasB tiiat mf ; 
and not unfrequentlj kajakers who have gone M express " hate 
to return again, being afraid of the threatening aqMot of *^ AMvk/ 
A voyager has well remarked that " Awuk " is the lion of tfas 
Danish Eskimo ; they always speak of him with the moei pio- 
found respect I It has been found as iar north as the EikiBp 
live or explorers have gone. On the western shores of Dftvis^ 
Strait, it is not uncommon about Pond's^ Scotf i^ and Home Baj% 
and is killed in considerable numbers by the natives. It is not 
now found in such numbers as it once was ; and no 
man who sees the slaughter to which it is subject in Spitil 
and elsewhere can doubt that its days are nomberea. It 
already become extinct in several places where it 
common. Its utter extinction is a foregone conclusion. Yon 
Baer has studied its distribution in the Arctic sea; and, so jbrai 
they go, his memoir and map may be relied on ; both^. howeveTfj 
require considerable modifications.* 

Economic Value and Hunting, — The xvorj tasks of the Walrv 
always command a good price in the market; and ihe hito se 
held in high value as an article of commerce ; they are osed'as 
material for defending the yards and rigging of sh^ 
chafing. It is also occasionally used for strong bands in 
machinery, carriage-making, S^. The flesh tastes something 
coarse beef. The whalers rarely or ever use it^ having a 
prejudice against it in common with that of Seals and Whaleii' 
The Walrus-hunters in Spitzbergen almost exist upon it; and 
the Eskimo high up in Smith's Sound look upon it as th^ stapls 
article of food. The American explorers who wintered then 
soon acquired a liking for it. Accordingly the ''Morsk" hiS 
been hunted in northern regions from a very early period. The 
Icelandic Sagas (such as the SpecfUum regale^ ^) speak of it n 
Rostungur ; and there is Haid to be a letter in the library of As 
Vatican proving that the old Icelandic colonists in Greenland 
paid their << Peter's Pence" in the shape of Walms-^nsks and 
hides. However, in 890, as far back as the days of Bji( 
Alfred of England, CEtherc, '< the old seaTcaptain who dweK 
" in Helegolnnd," gave a most circumstantial acoonnt to thsf 
monarch (who wrote it down in his edition of the JBcrmisia d 
Pnulus Orosiusf) of slaying, he and his six -companions, no ktf 
than " three score Horse-whales " in three day8.J At the 
period it is principally captured in Spitzbergen by Bnssian 



* M^moireii de TAcadcmie de St-P^tenboorg, t Iv., p. 97, L 4 (1886). 
t See Dailies Barrington's IVanslation (1775), p. 9 ; and other f^itfopiT 
% ThiB statemeot ne^ not be doubted tvhen we read how, in 1852, 16 bmb 
with lances killed in a few hours 900 out of a herd of S,000 or 4,000 lying on 
an island off Spitzbcigen : Lamont, Quart. Joum. OeoL See., xvL, p. 46S» 
Martens' » Spitzbergen," p. 182, tells ns that in 1608 Wabiues were huddW 
to^^cr in such numbers on Cherry Island, south of S|dtsb«rgeii, that t 
ship's crew killed above 900 in seven hours. 



IL BROWN ON THE 8EALS OP GREENLAND. 



63 



l^orwegi&n bunter?y who visit that island for the purpose^ Id 
ll>a&t6h GreenlRnd, thou^^h it was once so abundant that the 
principal article of trade with Europe, in the daj? of Erik 
Itaode*9 coloQiAtSy was the iusks of this animal, it may be said 
nowiidavs, po far as its hunting or commercial value is con- 
cerned, to be extinct. There are never more than a few killed 
^esxlj, and it frequently happens that a year passes without any 
fell aU being killed within the limits of the Danish trading-posts. 
lit is mort' thnn probable that they never were abundant in South 
iGreenland, but that the old colonists went north in pursuit of 
kiem. From the Runic column found on the island of King- 
Wmoak in 73** N, lat., we know that these enterprising rovers 
H^pul &r north ; and it is more than reasonable to suppose that 
Pfffw on one of these Walrus-hunting expeditions that this 
EiDODtiiiient was ei'ect«?d. Indeed so few are now killed in Daniah 
fOreenland ( wbetlier through degeneracy of the huntet^s or scarcity 
l4)f the Walrus it iM f^carcely worth inquiring too cloi-clj) that aa, 
Botwithstanding all the applianceg of Euroi>ean civili^tion now 
Booecieible to the native^^ ivory cannot be dispensed with in the 
nmuiufacture of Eskimo implements of the chase, it^ tusks have 
t^pgae times to be reimported from Europe into Gieenland. North 

flaciers of Melville Bay, the hardy Arctic highlanders, aided 
^^^_ a^ak or rifle^ but with a manly self-reliance, enfeebled by 
^^BftFtard civilisation engrafted upon their pristine Bavt^edom, 
HIK their harpoon and allunaks still boldly attack the Walrus aa 
nbe lies hoddled njwn the ice-foot ; and thereby thp native supplies 
lio his family the food and Itg^lit which make toltirahle the darkness 
■f the long Arctic night of Smithes Sound. The whalers kill a 
kaL^nually, striking them, hi they do the Whale, with the gun- 
^^HlDon, and killing them with ^teel lances*; but even then it la 
^Pi^erou» work, and not un frequently brings the himter to gnef. 
EliaTe been one of a party who have killed several in this manner*, 
k)d have alao seen them captured by the wild Ei^kimo at Pond^s 
IjBaj, on the western shores of Da\n9'8 Strait, after the aboriginal 
ik^[iDn ; but a^i thi;; ha^ been excellently desoribeil by Kanef aud 
^^He«i in their different narratives, I will not trouble you with 
^^Betails. The Swedish expedition to Spitzhergen,^ and Lord 
l^^prinll and Mr, Lamont,^ have given many particulars of ita 
E^tore by the Spii/.bergen himters* Baron Wrangell** ha$ 
Ktipplipd an nceount of its chase on different portions of tho 
FSiberUn coasts ; and Nils9on,tt Keilhau,JJ and Malragren §§ 

\ • Tbe ordtaary rifle U of comparatJTely little use la htiatiag this monster 
Mifct >Io*kct hilU will Bciircely affect their pachydcrnifttouft sides ; and I 
■HMtyftcn *>ttvt\ leaden halli^ flatieoed on their tkulh. I have more than once 
K|^h KQAp B itei'l htnce in two with its powerful moloTA, 

I J • «," and '• Au Arctic Boat Voja^Z* 

If** heua* from High J^titudet>." 

L % •* Setfio&M with the 8ea-hori«tc«." 

I *« Kordkusto vod Sibirien, ii., pp. 319, 320. 

^ tf Lib. ent., i., pp, 32(»-525. 

;«EeiM i OtM Ve»t'Finomarkeii, &c., pp^ Ue<U9," 
oa's ArohiT, v^ 1664. 



64 R. BROWN ON THE SEALS OF GREEXLAND 

t 



leaiKi 



complete llie list of ihe priiicipftl writers regarding Us bunting 
conimercifil importance general! j, 

(70 CYSTOiniORA cniSTATA (Erxleb,)i Nilsa. 

Phocfi i*rist(tt(i^ Erxlel*. Phoca isiflorei, Jjess, 

PhocH leomtk(t,0. Fab. (non Mirotinga rristata^ Gray, 

Lion.). Cystophora rnstata, Nil 

Pkoea mitraia, Milbert Ct/sfophorti hcrealis, Nilss, 

(Cuv.)* Stemmaiopus cristatuSt 
Phova (ettro^flat Tliienem. Cuv. 

Phova ctwuthiiftf Bn<l<L Stewrnatopus mitratus. 

Photon iiimiduUa, Cretzsch, Gmy. 

{Jifk Rxipp.). 



^ 



r<j*-__| 

I 



Popular immes. — ^* Bfaddemosc ** or, shortly^ ** Blad<lor 
nortbern Bonlt^rs^pit'il^crjTen sea) ; Kiappmt/sta (Swedii*h) ; Kfak* 
hchaJ., Kabhtttshoftfje (Nortbern Korso) ; Kiknvbb (Finnish) ; Avji 
Fatte-Ntiorjo^ and Oaafh (Lapp) ; -Klajmtyds (Danish; bcc 
Kgedc, GreonL,p. 46: the word K/apmj/fisen^ msciI hjhlm on pa< 
G2 of the same work, Kn^I. trans., and supposed by some comm 
tutors to be anolbrr nanin, in»:*ans only thf Kltipmyd.s according to 
tiie Danitib orihoGfraphy) : Khtpmiiize (German ; hence Cran«, 
Greenly i., p. Vl'n I bave also occasionally lii»anl the English 
sealers cull it by this name, npparenlly lenrnt from the Dtitch and 
German sailors). All of these words mean the " Seal with a rajp 
on," and are derivod from the Dnteli, who Etyle the frontal ap 
dage of this Fjteeies n mntz or cap, hence the Seoteb mutch 
prominent cbanieteristtc of the Seal is also cnmmemornted 
variooa ponidnr nsmies certain writers hare applied to it, swch 
Bias- Skat (Bladder-Soal) by Nikson (Sknnd. Fann , i,, p 
Ilooflcd Stat by Ponnrinl < Synopsis, p. 342), Seal ivifh a caul 
YMh (Had.-ion Buy, p. 134), in the French veniaeulnr Phrtq 
capuclimu arul in tlie sealers' name o{ Blftffdernoxey^ \eiirr. 
9 Xesa HKsati ft iGrf*cn\Rni\), and Kdhortak (when two year« old). 

Descriptive Remarks, — This Is one of the largest Seals* in G 
land, and in its adidt state is at once distinguished by the cari 
blailder-like ap}.endage to its forehead^ which is connectiHl wi 
the nostrils and can be blown up at wilL* This has l>een w«?li 
descnbed by Dr, Dekay in the ** Aunali^ of the Lyceum of Natural 
**Hi6tory of Nrw York/' vol. i. ; and with hfs obaervntions I per- 
fectly agree. The eye of this Seal is large, and of a gla*^«;y black 
colour with a dark -brown iris. It ha^, like all the faniily, no 
external auricle ; and the orifice of the ear is yary smalL The 
body 19 long ntid robust ; it^ colour on the np|>er or dorsal aspect 
18 dark eliestnnt or black, with a greater or less numl»er of round 
or oval markings of a still dee[ier hue. The hair i^ lonjr aud 
somewhat eret-t, and the Ibick fur-like coating next the skin w 
ofien tinged with a rctldir^h coppery coloin*. The head and fli|)[ 
are of tho same dark chestnut-colour. The pectoral and Ten 



d 1^ 
-ch as ; 
ai2]Bri 

ul liM 




* It u KAtn ft«»erted by the Mah*?! that this ** hUdfder ^* ii a ftxual 
and !• not foand on the fifiuiile. I do not think there t« any juft uroaad 



Bdtef'^ 




n, BROWN ON THE SEALS OF OREKNLAKD. 



Co 



regions are of the sAme dai'k-grey or taniished-silvery hue which 
has been <lescriberl in the P. grwnluHdirtts, 

IfaMiM, ^c, — The Blnddernosc la not only one of the Iftrgest, bat 
the fiercest of the northern Seals; jind, as itacaipture requires some 
skill, it is oulj the most expert kayakcr tlmt can procure any. 
It will chase a man and bito him, besides making u great com- 
motion in the water. Therefore the hunt is very dangerous to a 
man in such a frail craft as the Greenland kayak ; but an long o» 
the memory of the oldest inhabitant of South Greenland extend?, 
rtnlj cue man in the district of Julianshaiib (where they are chieflv 
Cftplured) hag been killed by the bite of the Klapmyds, tboiij^h 
not nnfreqnently the harpoon and Tmc have been broken. Tlic 
hunting is not so dangerous, however, witijiu bite yeiu?<» as it has 
been effected by the rifle from the ice ; but when the Seal has 
not been killed outright, the hunter goes out in hia kuynk and 
despatches it with the laure. Like all 8eaL*«, during the ruttinj^- 
time, there are grent battles on the ice between the inalo^; and the 
roaring ii? said to be sometimes so loud that it can be heard four 
miles oil*. The skin is often full of scratches from tlic^e %hl&. 

With rogJird to the favourite localities of this species of Seal, 
Cninz und the much more accurate Fabricius dis.igree — the former 
aifirraingthut they are found mostly on great ice islands where they 
'Iwp in nn nngnaidwl manner, while the latter states that they 
delight in the high seas, visiting the land in A])ril, May, and Jun^, 
Thi3 api>ean* contradictory and confusing : but in reality both 
authors are right, though not in uu exclusive sense* The hood 
nppears to be an organ of defence from any stunning blow on tho 
Tio^e, the most vulnerable part in a SeaL It only inlhites this 

*hier when irritated. The sailors look ujion it as a ref^ervoir of 
when under the water.* The story which Fniiricius relalet 
JiSwnt its " shedding tears abundantly *' wlifMi Bui-pri-^ed by I ha 
Hunter i3t I suspect, only an Eskimo tale of wonder. 1 could tind 
Bfi one creduloua enough to l>elieve it; nor during the whole time 
I Jias!*ed among the Seal-hunters of the fur north did 1 find anyone 
esteem my credulity great enough to venture any fiuch story on 
"tt?. 

^ II iH afRnnod, curiously enough, that the Bhtddcrnose and the 
*^ddUhack are rarely or ever found trjgether ; they are said to 
**'sagrce. At all event.-? the latter is generally found on the inside 
^^^ the pack, while the former h on the outside. The latter is also 
'^Uch more common than the Bladdernose^ 

Procreation and Young. — At first the yoting Bladdernose is pure 

I^hite: during the first year, as it grows older and increasea in 
**«ci, a g^y tingo appears, and gradually it assumes a deeper and 
: 



• Mr. J. Walker, then roaster of the screw-atcamer ** Wildfire " (now of 
the ** Erik *'), and one of the most iutelligent of the whaling captains, assured 
me (Jane 1861), from his own obstsrviilkm, that thm Seal lies frequently on 
iIhb lop of elevated pieces of ice, nnd that ihe use of tbia howd, or ** bludder/' 
ftpptf tQ b6 to raue it up with suffickut moincntum to the ^urfuce {by fiUiug 
it with fur) to u to spring again on to the ice. 



66 K. BHOWN ON TUE SEALS OF OSEENLAHD. 

deeper hue of the same colour «.«••• 

The majority of the ^' Bladdernoses " which I have seen were about 
two or three years old, and were appai-ently, by a Blow and gndval 
chauge, becoming similar to the old and mature Seals, by tnrniqg 
darker and darker iu their colours, and assuming the roundisih ovu 
markings, while at the same time they were increasing in aiie. 
This species seems to produce its young earlier than P. grmidaitr 
dicus. 

Geographical Distribution and Migrations, — ^The Bladdenune 
is found all over the Greenland seas, &om Iceland to Greenlmd 
and Spitzbergen, but chiefly in the more southern parts. The 
first Seals which we saw and killed on making the ice earij 
in March 1861, were chiefly young '< Bladders" which had not 
yet got the hood-like appendage. It even finds its way to the 
temperate shores of Europe and America, and rare straggLen now 
and then land on the shores of Britain, though it is by no mem 
a member of our fauna proper. This Seal is not common any- 
where. On the shores of Greenland it is chiefly found besiae 
large fields of ice, and comes to the coast, as was remarked hjr 
Fabricius long ago, at certain times of the year. They are chicA/ 
found in South Greenland, though it is erroneous to say that thef 
are exclusively confined to that section. I have seen them not un- 
commonly about Disco Bay, and have killed them in Melville Bay, 
in the most northerly portion of Baffin's Bay. They are princi* 
pally killed in the district of Julianshaab, and then almost solely 
in the most southern part, on the outermost islands, from abont 
the 20th of May to the last of June ; but in this short time thef 
supply a great portion of the food of the natives and form a thnd 
of the colony*s ycwly production. In the beginning of July tbe 
Klapmyds leaves, but returns in August, when it is much emaciateiL 
Then begins what the Danes in Greenland call the maigre Kkf 
mi/dse fangsty or the '^ leau-Klapmyds-catchhig," which lasts fraB 
tliree to four weeks. Very seldom is a Klapmyds to be got at other 
pLices, and especially at other times. The natives call a EJapmyds 
found single up a fjord by the name of Nerimartont^ the meamqg 
of which is " gone after footl." They regularly frequent somesntfO 
islands not far from Julianshaab, when a good number are cangbt 
After this they go further north, but are lost sight o:^ and it ii 
not known where they go to (Kink, /. c). Those seen in Noith 
Greenland are mere stragglers, wandering from the herd, and m 
not a continuation of the migrating flocks. jQhannes (a voy 
knowing man of Jakobshavn) informed me that generally aboat 
the 12th of July a few are killiKl iu Jakobshavn Bay nat & 
13' N.) It is moro pelagic in its habits than the other Seufl» vritb 
the exception of the Saddleback. 

Economic Value and Hunt.— The Klapmyds yields, on th* 
average, half a cask of blubber, and the dried meat of &nfj 
Seal weighs about 24 Danish lbs.; but this is not the whole 
Seal, which weighs aljout 200 lbs. Tlie yearly catch in Gnes- 
land (Danish) is about 2,000 or 3,000 (Rink, /. r.). 



K- BBOWN ON Tnp4 SSALS OP O KEEN LAND. 



67 



5. Conimereial Importance of the *' Seal Fisheriesr 

The Grecoland {i.e. SpitzhergGu) sofl-ling fleet tVom the British 

via meets about the cud of Feljruaiy in Brcssa Souuil oif Lerwick, 

Zetland ; it Icnvea for tlie north about the first week in ^larcli, 

d generally arrives at the ice in the early part of that month. 

e vessels then begin to make observations for the purpose of 

ding the locus o^ the Seals, and tliis they do by crawliag along 

e edge of the ice, and occasionally penetrating as far as possible 

iween t(f and 73^ N, lat ; then continue sailing about until 

find thcro, which they generally do about the first week of 

\pnU If they do not get access to them^ they remain until 

in May, when, if they intend to pursue the whaling in the 

rgen sea that summer, they go north to about 74^ N. hit. 

e "old sealing," or further still (even to 81° N,) to the 

^biiHng, Most of them however, if not succe&sful by the middle 

" April, leave for home to complete their Bupplies in order to 

utr by the first of May to the Davis's Strait Wiale fisheiy, 

ring the month of March and the early part of April, the 

vtH are subject to all vieis^tudes of weather, calm and storm 

denly alternating, while the thermometer will stand for weeks 

jtero, or even many degrees below it. 

The number of Seals taken yearly by the British and Conti- 
p« (principally Norse, Dutch and German) in the Grfen- 
\?hen they get among them, will average upward.s of 
the great bulk of which are young ** Saddlebucks/' or, 
Ihe language of the scaler^ " white-coata." When they have 
ived at their maximum quality, 80 generally yield a tun of 
cjtht'i-^^ifle the general average is about lOtJ to the tun. In 
ood oil sold for about 33/. per tun ; add to thin the value 
skins at 5#. each, and the whole will amount to 58/. sterling. 
tmi ihiri wimple calculation a veiy good estimate may be formed 
the uunuai commercial value of the Greenland "Seal fishery," 
r, Bup|H>8iiig 2,000 tuns of oil to be about the annual produce, 
a-HSuming 58/. a^ the value per tun, inclusive of the &kiiis, 
whoh^ pr<xluce of the fishing will amount to the j early value 
116,000/. t*terling (Ifaiface), This, of course, does not take 
to cideuUilion the produce the Danish Government derive from 
<?ir colonies on the west coast of Greenland (which I notice 
der the head of e^ch Seal), nor what the Russians derive from 
of Spitz bergen and fi'om the White Sea. The *' fishery," 
, 19 very precarious. Some years little or nothing is got, 
being too thick for the ships to ** get in to them." In 
nmr it may happen tliat the fishery in the Spitzbergen sea 
a &Uurey while the Newfc»undland one is successful. For 
yean past it has proved in the former t^tm almost a failure.* 

Xc bM bc«u rather more sacc^ssful ia Kewfoundlaod. Thin year (1868}| 

f]|« S8th of April, 25,0<K) Seals hud arrived nt St. Jolin and Harbour 

Sit0^ good acconat of ihe sealing by the contitieutal ve^el» in Peter- 

I "OTOgraph. Mittheil./' FeK 1868. lo IPffi the steamer " Campcr- 

* ubtained ihe coormouii number of 22,009 Seals in nine dayi. It ia 

uiieouimoD for a iliip'i crew to club or nhoot ia one day as many ai 

lo aoo old Sealf, with 8,000 youog ones. 



maaiMt v 



68 R. BROWN ON THE SEALS OF OURKKLAHD. 

Theix) scorns indocil little doubt tliat tlio fishery miist fail in 
course of time, ns Imve the Seal and Whole fisheries in Mine 
other parts of tlio world, and if Seal-hunting is pursued with the 
energy it is at present, that day cannot be iar distant. Some of 
the sealers laugh at this idea; but where is the enormous prodoco 
the South Seas used to yield, 8U|)erior to anything over heard of 
in the North ? No doubt the South Sea hunters said the suie 
thing, and doubtless when the inhabitants of Smoerenberg, thit 
strangest of all strange villages, saw the Whales sporting hj 
thousands in their bays, and the oil> boilers steaming above tbe 
peaks of Spitzborgen, they laughed at the idea of their ever 
IxKJoniing scarce ! Yet how true that idea has proved ! For in 
our (lay the waters of those high northern seas are rarely troubled, 
even by a wandering Mysticete, that perchance may have 
its way in making a passage from one secure retreat to 
So will it ultimately be with the Seals. Indeed, some i 
now of opinion that they are diminishing in numbers ; at kis^ 
they have evidently reached tlieir zenith, as shown by statistics ; 
and, taking into (consideration the appearance the yoang Setb 
presented on the ice in 1861, they did not approach the numbers 
reported to have boon seen by sealers in many previous ycBia 
Tli(^ South Sea '^ fislieries " became extinct in 15 years^ audi 
making all allowance for the protection afforded to the Greenbod 
Seals by the ice, and supposing the sealing prosecuted with the 
same vigour as at present, I have little hesitation in stating mj 
opinion that before 30 years shall have passed away the Se»I 
fishery, as a source of commercial revenue, will have come to ft 
close, and the progeny of the immense number of Scab nov 
swimming about in the Greenland watei*s will number but con- 
parativcly few. This event will then form another era in Uie 
northern fisheries.* 



* IlistoT}' of the Dundee sealers : — 



1865 - 


4 vessels 


- 63,000 Seals. 


1866 - 


7 


»» 


- 58,000 „ 


1867 - 


11 


>» 


- 56,000 „ 


1868 - 


12 


>» 


- 16.670 „ 


1S69 - 


11 


M 


- 45,600 „ 


1870 - 


9 


yt 


- 90,450 „ 


1871 - 


9 


n 


- 62,000 „ I 



up to the I lib of ipnL 

The " Arctic " had 15,000, and the " fi;qniniaax " 14,.3S0. The St Jo»T» 

Newfoundland sealers had at about the same time 23l,U(i0 Seal*, awlavO 

average of 21,000 each, the largest for many Reasons. Mim:! of thea b*^ 

two trips. From the fin-it trip the avenige profit of each mail vaa 300/. 

Sve uIho Mr. Yeanian's Notes on the Dundee Seal and Whale Filhefri 
Report Brit. Assoc., 1807, Trans, of Sect., p. 148. 



K. BROWN ON THE CETACKA OF GJIEENLAXD. 69 



ly. — On the History and Geogiuphtcal Rklattons of the 
CetaCEA frequentiiiff Davis Strait and Baffin's Bay. 
By Dr. Robert Bitowx, F.L.S., F.R.G.S. 

f Reprinted, by Permiftsion, from the Proc. Zool, Soc, 1868, 
No. XXXV., pp. 533-556, with corrections and inmoi^itions by 
llie Author, March 1875.] 



I coticiiide these papci-s on the Mammalia of Greenhmd and ad- 
joining seiis by a few notes on the order more intimfitely «/!S<jcinted 
in populnr imjigimition with the Arctic re«^oiis thtm nny other, 
viz. the L'etiiccjv. Though mucli more imperfectly known limn 
tmy other group, yet my observations on thcin will be more brief 
lh«fi ou the oihtr ^^lumnnds, mid for the same reason whiclj has 
conduced to the present «tnte of C*etolo^, viz. the want of oppor- 

■ lunitied of examining iho ppecies. These reumrks will therefore 
M nec<*fi»arily consist of u slutement of the geopiiphicfd ninge and 

■ mtgrationt^, and a description of the habits of the better known, 
V and ft list of the species, and whatever information can be col- 
t lecled on thcj5€ points i-egarding the othei-Js only known by 
^L|lLeletona or remains in nindcums. These 1 have examiueAl care- 
^nblly $ and the synonynij driven is the result of that study, coupleil 
I iritb investigalionH made in Greenland. With the exception of 

a few of the more common, sneli as P/tftecr/ta commnuL^^ Ihiuga 
cttiofhn, Ac., I have not had an oppoitiuiity of examining, other- 
wise than in the manner indicated, most of tlie species. I have, 
however, examined at dilTcrent times above thirty specimens of 
liaiftna Tnt/s/witus, and many of Monodon ^ttonoccros ; and to 
thc.«e deseriptionH I have itppended various observations derived 
from my own examiuatiun and without reference to other puh- 
li{»hed d(»cj jption», wliich have in nearly every case been derived 
from the examination of fcctfil i^pecimens or isolated individualt*, 
couToying; but «n imy>erfect idea of llic species. What 1 eaid 
in auother memoir eipially applies here, viz. that the descriptions 
ai-e not given r« cnniplcte» l>ui. merely as fraf;ments of a wc- 
moirc pour srrmr. Those who have «f tempted the examination 
of any member of the group Cetneen, and slill moi-e those whoso 
lot hk» been to examine with frozen fingers (plunged every now 
and again into the Avarm blood of bi« htthjcci) such an unwieldy 
object on a swiiying ice-floe, will nppreciate the difficulty of 
drawing up 6m;b de&cnplit-ns ; and to them no apology i* neces- 
y for their imijerfeetion. The absolute necessity of recoolini^ 
ry th^Kcription of the members of this order however, apparently 
II, muat be my excuse for presenting these notes in i^iieh 
a .; i MAte. In the original draft 1 had mentioned vnrioua 

fifiitituliiih now omitted — the recent repioduction by the Uay 
h*>cif ty of the ailmirablo ojemoirH of Profeaaora Esehriclu, Rein- 
hjirdty'aud Lilljeborg rendering their publication unnecessary. 



R, BROWK on THE OETAOEA 



OUBENTiAim. 



1. BALiENA MYSnOETUS, Linn. 

(a) Popular names. — Green iand ^Vhaicy Right Ifltale, Com- 
won fVhale {Eng]i&h autliorb) ; filmic^ iVhaU-Jish^ ivnii^* Fish^^ 
(English Avhniertj). The yonng are denominated s^wr^rr*. and luv 
aliK) sonietlmes known hj the following names : — Shorthcads ^as- 
long a'* they continue suckling) ; Stunts (two yeara) ; Skull-j^sh^ 
(after this Htage or until they become Size-Jishy when the lougfst^ 
gpliiit of whalebone readies the length of six foet) ; Toe qvai T 
(Norse) ; Jihetral (Danish) j Arbch^ Argi^eh, Arbavik^ SitkaJik 
(Greenland); Akbch^ Akbceiik pi. (Eskimo of western shores of^ 
Davis Strait) ; I have also heard both the Grecnlandera •nil. 
western Eskimo call it puma^ but I cannot learn what is tho ori^n o t: 
thia word, and susiKJCt it to be wkftier, — a coiTupted jargon o^~ 
Scotch J English, Danish, and Eskimo, joined with some word^^ 
which seem to belong to no language at aii, but to have originat 
in a mi 1^ concept ion on either side, and to have retained 
place under the notion that each party was speaking the other^i 
language, something of the nature of the Lingua Franca of thi 
Mediterranean, the Pigeon English of C-hina, and tho C4ti 
jargon of North-west America. 

O) Descriptive Remarks.— ~The lower 8\irface of the Leftd 
of a cr«ini-colour, with about half a foot of blaeluph or ash-coloi 
at the tip (or what correspond,^ in the higher orders of Mamt 
to the symphy&is) of ihe lower jaw ; further Imck the colour tsbad^ 
into the general dark blue colour of the body. Thii* colour 
generally almost black in adult.**, but in young ones (or ** suckers *'J 
it is lightish blue ; hence the whalers sometimes call thi^se '* \%l\ 
skia**." The wliiskers consist of nine or ten short rows of bri*tl - 
the longest bristle« anteriorly. There are also ri few bristW 
the apices of lioth jaws, and a few hairs stretching all along th 
pide of the head for a few feet backward.^. On the tip of the rn>-i 
«ri» two or three rows of very short white hairs, with fewer hoins^^ 
in the anterior rows, more in the |>OBterior. I have reason t^^^ 
beiit?ve that some of the^e hairs are deciduous, as I have uftex^^ 
found them wanting in old individuals. In oUIit Wh^des the darkecr^" 
colour of the body impinges on the under surface of ll»e hmd^^ 
leavving tho ordinary white of the giickers merely in the form oiC^ 
Bcrveral irregular blotches, but with two (regular ?) s[jot«i, one oi» 
each side of the jaw immediately iKwterior to the eye, comiiO««c*«t 
of n hard cartihiginous material. There i;* jdmo a little win t<* o» 
the eyelids, and some irregular while mju'king^ on the root of lh«?? 
tail. There i:? likewise a white colour all around the vulva anX 
mammse. Some individuals may be ftumd quite white on lh«? 
belly, others piebald, and others with white bpotr* on varioiLH por- 
tion** of the body not mentioned. The presence or abst^nce of 
a partieular white marking on a specimen of a Cetacean undtr 
eximtinafion ought by no means to 1h^ rtx'cived (a» hn- " ne) 

ft proof that the Rpeci»>8 is dlfffient, or that Ik^ ' ■ i* 

tionod in a farmer d'^cription such description i- 
lane this is one of the mo«ii varying characters | 



R. BROWN OX THE CETAOEA OF OREENLAKD, 



the <Jlder.* The insidf* of tlie motith inferiorly, whc^rp thn tonguo 
ill nol attached, is of n pale blno colour. Tlu- tongue is l>roadef 
posteriorly, and nnrrowfHl anteriorly, paler blue thnn tlic rest of 
the nioath, and pale bine nil round the od^es and where not 
carnation, which colour prevails in the form of a streak down the 
moath of a deep sulcus on the middle and aDterior portion of the 
tonj^ie, terminating irregularly about two feet from the root of 
the tonpiic. The contour ot the tongue is entire throtighoiTt, 
The substance of the tongue is a fibrous blubber eontaiuing very 
little oil. There are numeroa** email linear muscles intcrsf^rscnl 
through the lower part. The roof of the mouth, on each side of 
the gimi, is a continuous ciu^^e, broadest tmteriorly, pale blije, 
side* pale blue and carnation mixefl. The upper lip is very much 
amaller than the under. The lips are furrowed immediately behind 
tbc edge and beviUed, and are all deep black and speckled* No 
tracer exist of either eyebrows or eyelashes*. The eye h very small 
nnd hollow, measuring from eanthuft to canthiis 3 J inches (in* 
nnd 1| inch deep, with a deep furrow superiorly and 
; !y immediat^'ly al>ove and below the eye. The inside of 
the eyelid is red. The ai)ertare of the auricuUir canal h difficult 
to find, and is not larger than the diameter of a goose-quilL The 
limitlB or ** splits " of whalebone are longest m the middle, but 
grow much shorter posteriorly to this ** §ize-split»*' The ntmiber 
o( laminoD is about 360 on each side. The whalers have a notion 

there h a lamina for each day in the year ; but this, like the 

that JonahV fnce can be seen on the nose of the Whale, is, 
''km afraid, a rather hasty geneitilization. Ench hmiina cJirls in 
n tuft of hair, tins tuft U'lng contiimons with the hair on the 
itiffide of the bone, this "hair" again being composed of iden- 
iii*ally the same substance an the whalebone itself. The outside 
of the bone i« s^mooth, pale blue-coloure<l, with the edgen over- 
hip|jing, the free edges pointing post«>riorly, lujt ^vith an interval 
(rjirying according to the Age of the animal) between the lauunie 
of so very regular a character that each lamina can be seen and 
tTcii counted from the outride. Wliere the l>oue ia placed in the 
it is of a greyijh-whife colour, and on expcisuro to air 
ime** black : all of the portions of the bone moJit extM>sed aro 

blackish colour. On the outsjide of the buuinas, a few inches 
the end, is a transverse wave or ridge, contiououe iu a 

jtly elevated ridgo across the whole of the laminaB; and io 
oh I Whales there are several of these wavy transverse ridges, 
whieU are apjwrently in fK>mc way connected with its growth. 
Thn best wlmlel>one has several of thcfc ridges. Interiorly in 
fnmt of the plaee where each lamina is inserted into the gum, 
»M*r w»veral row^of j*hort stumps of whidebone terminated by a tuft, 
HDil iK'fore th<'S<« again short whit« hair lamina? graduating intu 



The colour tki*o viric* trith the a^e. the bock of Bome iK'ini;; hluck, of 

H Tikck and wLiltfy and nome nri' all nhite. Some old Whales are suid to 

hA\ * bite itripo ovvT their back tlown to the bolly (LaingV *' Voyage 

II,'* p, 126 ; ISt5). I oaonot coofinu iliis from my oiru obscr- 



d 



72 



E. BROWN OX THE CETACEA OP GEBEXI^ANB. 




a velvet-like substance in tlip mouth. It is said that the liiinmff 
nflcr oneu imn^ piodueed, ilo not increase in number, bat 
the interspaces of thp himinwi incrciiisi! in width. This inter^pac 
in adult Whales is frum about half an inch to one inch in wdl 
Occasionally two splits are found ^owin|T together in the 
but seijarate below. The length of the whalebone depends, it 
said, on the size on the l»ead, and bears no ratio to the lea^^th u 
the body. Occasionally a lon^ Whale ha'< small and short wliide -* 
bone, whilst a short dumpy indi vidua! (fur there are indiv»!Tiniii I 
differences in these ns in all oth'^r aninmls, not referable to sjnr— — 
cifie ditfi.uence) may have mtieh longer. The longest hiniina (i^i^ 
whalebone which I have heard of being obt^iined was 14 feefl^s. 
I have persomdlj known of another 13 feet 3 inches long; bi^a^l 
the averajre length is 12 feet and under. This is the iiitdiil^ki=.e 
spht already spoken of, known to the whalers as the " size-split ; * 
but in the me^usin'emcnl of thi;i the tuft of '* hair," which ecmt^^:^ 

. linics reaches six or seven inches in len^rth, is not inelude«l i 

very imi>ortant matter, as inueh depends upon the sixe of this 5pl 
Tlie brojuhh and thieknetis of the laminoB <le[wnd upon the a^ 
ihc animal. It ia a common liehef that the laminaj of whuKdmj 
in the female Whale are broader hut shorter tluin in tl»e tusk 
The colour of the whalebone likewiije varies; in the young r 
luminaj are froqueullj striped tureen autl black, but in the 
atdtual ihey are frequently idtonether blatsk ; often Bome of t 
huninai are striped in alternate streaks of black and white, whi 
others want this ^ariegjUiou. Wfialeboue is mk\ to be rM;cju*io 
found white, uithont the aninml dilVerin*^ in the sligbtest degr 
That liouglit from the western Eskimo in the sprii»^ ih o 
whitish, Ik^uihc tJn-y have kept it lying alK)ut or stcn^p^'d in 
all the winter. It aL-^o does not lu-cessarily follciw that be 
one wludebouG briii^ n ditTerent price from another, ihc iin: 
tlnil produee them are of ilill'Tcril spiH'ies, For inslancet 
whaUfbone brought by the American whidert* from Keii 
(Cnmbprland Sound, or llogailh's Sound of Pentiy) us^d lo hn 
a less price in t1)e nvu kel !l»;m that of the Kngllsh whnlei> (\ 
Davia Strait, Baffin's Bay, and Spitxberjren, U-eausf? it hatl 
exposed during; the winlcr and was iiceordiii^ly worse ptvpsm?^^*^' 
therefore, without at all undcrnitiiini ihe im|>ortrince of pnM^i^^^ 
every point into our service in discritiiinatin«r the ditterenl tijieeil ^* 
oi' Bill fPiiidfr, fin the whideliono is subject to so much variatk^^-** 
and undergoes so namy artificial ehan;;es before coming into 
Imrnh* of the zoolopsi, 1 think thrit we must proceed witii 
titmost caution in fornnn;( s^H?ciesoii the inci'o di (Terences jii 
by iMtlated Ifimina? of whale1.K)ne.^ 





ac 



• Of UU yenrs w1)alel>onc hfts been Irriogin^ a better price thaa foniMft^' 
Btw oiM'-. ^vitig been cUrcovctwI. A Iiu-gt* amount if nf»w a^fd •^ 

iiiftB»»»'' LI wovm win lli<» fohric. By an old feiidnl Uw (hi* An? •^ 

•n Wllalf^ lyionjToit t<i the Qiie*.'n, nfl n p<Tqfii<«)(o to furnish lU-r Mt>«<y** 
irardntbc with «rh:iU-l>nnc (^lnck^f<.^nc*» Comirnrntnrif*, voL L p. 231, «^ 
I7S9)« lo coBMnerctal parlBncc nhulebooc is chIIihI ** whtUe-fiiw.** 



rThe ptctoral fins (<jr, moi-e [>n)p.*rly, svvirjimtut^«piiw8^) nro of 
a darkish gn?y at tho sixiUa, rumnJeil snpL*riurly and bo%^elled oft' 
iiifei'ioriIy» The upper ed;^tj is arcuate iu fui'm, with a sli^^ht 
angulnri^ medially; the inferior edge with the outhiie in a geutlo 
sigmoid curve, with the greater convexity of ihe curve anteriorly. 
The caudal cxtremittf, if not tho homolo^'ur, is niidoubtedly tli« 
analogue of the posterior extremities \\\ other Mammals. It ia 
alinoat uauecesj»ary to say that the substance of tlie tail is non- 
musculaii, though it has been descrilwid as sut^h iu various publica- 
tionij, the only power which it possessed beiug derived from tho 
attachmeut of some of the huubnr and other muscles iu the 
L extremity of the vertebral coluuin. A tnnsvorso section of tho 
B root of the tail showi?: — 1, the epidermis; 2j the soft ektu ; 3, tlie 
n blubber, or a cellular suljstauce containing fat-celh ; 4, cartilage 
enveloping tho tendinous cells; o, Htron<^ muscular fasei^T-, through 
wiiioh the tendons play ; G, spinal canal nnd vessels ; 7, spinal 
cariilage:^; 8, blood-vcsselB ; and, 9, synovial glands. A traus- 
v^.Tue flection of tlw tail show.-i skin, blublK.'r, tendinous envelope, 
blood- vesacis, ond a central cartilagiiiotia massf . Though, per se^ 
tL*T tail has no power, yet as the inj^trumcnt through which the 
luiubar muscles (the tendinous attachments of which seem to bo 
prolonged into the cartilaginouH substance of the tail) work it 
excrtd enormotia force. Tho figure usuzdly engi'aved in boys* 
IkxiUbi of sea adventiu'cs, and copied from Scoresl*y'8 *' Account of 
the Arctic Regions,'' of a Whale tosiing a boat and its crew np 
into the uir, is genenUly looked upon by all the whalers to whom 
I liavc shown it m an artistic exaggei*ation* Accidenta of Lhia 
nature are very rare, and never jiroceed to auch au extent ; tmd 
1 have no doubt that Dr. S<.'oresby's artist lias taken liberties 
with his dcjicription, that worthy navigator being himself above 
any Kiupicion of exaggeration for ihe sake of etl'ect. Capt. Alex- 
ander Deucharji, wlio has now made ui>wardsi of lifty voyugcfl into 
tho Arctic regions, infonued me that he had known a Whale tos« a 
\toi^i ncjuly 3 ft-et into the air, luid itself rise so high out of tho 
vraicr that you eunld boc benvuth it, but that, if Scoresby'a tiguro 
Wtts cwTei't, the Whale rniHt have Lus.sid the boat very many feet 
into the air — a feat which he did not think was within the bomida 
oi, U not puiwibly, yet of [)iobal)iHty» 

The it'ais are hardily the size of a cow's, are placed about tho 
middle, and one inch Iroui the edge of the sulcus, but in the dead 
atutnal an- ahno-it uuiverHally ri-tt acted within the wliitc-colotircd 
or !i|jolt**d Ruleui, in the middte of whirh they are situated. Tho 
milk 13 thick, rich, and ratlier swecl t-Rsted. The faecal evacua- 
liouH of the Whale are red-eolouretl, mo.st probably due to the red 
Ortochili and Other animalp which fi>rm the hulk of its food. The 
skin (iticludiDg the cuticle) is about IJ inch in thtckneaa all over 



K. BROWN ON THE CETACEA OF G BEEN LAND, 



73 



♦ Kktnii^g^, *• rhilostiphy of Zoology/' 

I A tolt-TAbly prcxiJ'i necoum of ihenc ntid other poiota in the cionoiny of die 
' with a hctcrogt-ueouj uiJWft of errors, is to bt* found in lUei 
'Ctcd ** Natural Ili^orjr of the CcUctV' &c., Iiy II. W. 



74 B. BBOWN OV THE GETAOEA OF GHEElVLAim. 

the body, hut is rather thicker on the tail, on which organ, howerw, 
it is of ft nnifoiin thickness. The blubber varies from about a foot 
to eighteen inches in thickness, tolerably uniformly througfaout^ 
except on the head, &<r. ; the colour is like lard or pork fat in 
youn<; animals, but in the older ones rosy-coloured, from the 
quantity of nutrient blood-vessels in it. The flesh is dark and 
coarse-fibred, but when properly cooked tastes not unlike tough beef. 
When the French liad whalers in Davis Strait, the sailors, with 
the usual aptitude of their nation for cmsine, made dainty dishes 
of it; but our seamen, imbued with the >'irulent dietetic con- 
servatism of the Saxon, pi-efer to grow scurvy-riddled rather than 
partake of this coarse though perfectly wholesome food. 

The best figure of the Right Whale is that of Scoresby ; but in 
Harris's " Collection of Voyages " there is a very good figure of 
the animal (almost as good as Seoresby's), accompanied by a very 
tolerable <lescription. I think Seoresby's figure is erroneous, in so 
far as 1 have never been able to see the prominence behind the 
head which he figiu*es ; and the notch shown in the outline figure 
of the genus in the first edition of the '* British Museum Catalogue 
of Whales " does not exist in natiut» ; but as Dr. Gray does not 
mention it in his description, I presume that it is placed thero 
through an error of the draughtsman or lithographer. 

The size of the Greenland Whale has, 1 think, been a little 
under-rated. The late Dr. Scoresby, from abundant data, con- 
sidered that we have no record of the "Whale to be relied upon 
which gives a greater length than 60 feet. While agreeing with 
him so mr that I bcliove that to be generally the extreme, I am 
very doubtful whether they did not at one time, before they 
were so ruthlessly slaughtered, attain a greater size, or that 
individuals arc not even now found of a greater size. The position 
in which a Whale is nioasured alongside the ship, when slightly 
doubled, is apt to introduce an error into the measurement and 
make it smaller than it really is. The late Chevalier Charles 
Louis Gicseckc mentions one which was killetl at Godhavn in 
Greenland in 1813 which measured 67 feet, and I shall presently 
give the racusuremeuts of one equally large. The largest one, 
however, which is known to have been killed in the Arctic seas 
was one which the late Cnpt. Alexander Douchars (whom T have 
already hml occasion to mention as a most tnistworthy and ex- 
perienced whaler, and personally acquainted with the killing of 
upwards of 500 Whales) obtained in Davis Strait in the year 1849. 
It measured 80 feet in length : the breadth of the tail, from tip 
to tip, was 29 feet; the longest lamina of whalebone measured 
14 feet; the amount of whalebone in its mouth was large; but 
the blubber was only about 6 inches in thickness, and only yielded 
27 tuns of oil.* The A\niales killed in the Spitzbergen sea are 
said, as a rule, to 1k» gonorally los?» and " lighter-l)oned " (t.c. with 
less whalebone) than tho.'re of Davis Sirnit, which may possibly 



• The tun of oil ih 252 gallons wine- measure ; at n tcrapcratnrc of 60* Fahr. 
it weijfhs 1,933 lbs. I^ oz. 14 dr. nvoirdupois. 



R, BROWN ON THE CETACEA OF OREENXAXD. 75 




iieoount for the less size of those seen by Scoresby, whoso 
whaling-expencnce wafi almost wholly confined to the former 
region. The females are larger and fatter than the males. I 
append the measurements of one of the largest Whales recently' 
kiUed in Davis Strait, foi' which we are indebted to Dr. Robert 
Goodsir. 

MeantrrmentM of a specimen of BoJaBna mysticetns kilied in Pond's 
Bat/, Davi$ Strmi ( ? ), 

ft, hi. 
Leoglii from the fork of the tjdl, along the abdomen, to 

tip of lower jaw - - - - • 6.5 

Girth behind s<wimming-pawB - - - - 30 

Breidth of tml^ from tip to tip - - - - 24 

Greatest breadth between lower jaws - - - 10 

Length of head, measured in a line from articnlation of 

lower jaw - - • • - - 21 O 

Length of vulva - - - - - -12 

From poaterior end of vulva to anus - • - 6 

From anterior end of vuh'a to umbilicus - - - g q 

Mummce placed opposite the anteiior third of vulva, and 

6 inches from tip of it. 
Length of sidcus of mammaj • - ♦ -03 

Breadth of sulcus, on each side of it * - - 2 

From tuberusity of humerus to i>oLnt of pectoral 6 n - 8 

Grettteet breadth of fin - - - - - 3 1 1 

Depth of lip (interior of lower) - - - _ 4 -;■ 

From the inner canthna of eye to extreme angle of fold of ' 

«umth* - - - - - -1/j 

From inner to outer cjmthus - - - - 6 

Length of block of laniinoo of baleen, measyring rouml the 

eurve of the gum, after being removed from the head - 16 6 
Length of longest lamina on each side - - - 10 6 ' 

Distance between the lamina at the *rmn . , - OJ 

Bnsadth of pulp-cavity of largest lamina - - -10' 

Average length of pulp when extract*]^! from Home of the 

largMt lamins - - * • * - ~> 

Nnnber of laminiD on either side, nlmut 3f>0. 

rh nlon^ the cur\'e of the Inick and other measure- 
in-:- rnblc to have been taken could not he mttde out, owing' 
to tlie popitioiJ of the Whale, as it was susiMjaded in the water, 
Aloxigmde« 

(>) IfaiHtii ^c* — The Right Whale is a gregarious animal, being^^ 

•niHy found in small ** schools " of three and four, but when 
LV»dling from one part of dieoceiin to another thoy will sometiinosi^ 
collect in large parlies. 1 am iu formed by Dr. James M'Daiu, 
U.N*» that about thirty years ago \w, witnessed an extraordiniiry 
migrntion of this nature a little to the south of Pond's Bay. Tli'o, 
Whdnu fr. the number of several hundreds paased north in tu] 
ctr (loeU, antl a few days afierwaidA were succeeded by iiii 

fji^.. ".1.1 iiiure numerou8 herd of Walruses. The numbers oC Uv^ 



76 R. BROWN ON THE CETACEA OF OREENLAMD. 

InttcT -wore lieyoiid nil computtition ; hour after hour did thej 
travel to the northward, never pausing to feed, but all seemiiigly 
intent on ri'acliiug the opening of Lancaster Sound. A few days 
Mib&cc|iiently not one was to l>e seen, as previously there had been 
no si^ns of their pret-enco. This was undoubtedly a very rare 
hccne ; and the question which roust t«u^gest itself iif, where could 
«iiich a number of these huge animals have come from ? The 
Whale is capable of travelling at n very fast rate when irritated 
by wounds or impelled by fear of its enemies. I was told by the 
liite Cnpt. Gravillc, of the screw whaler "Diana," a proverbiaUy 
exiMM'ieneed and truthful man, that a Wlialc was struck near the 
f utrMnce of Seoresby*s Sonnil, on the east coast of Greenland, by 
the father of the late Dr. Scoresby (with whom Mr. GrayiUe was 
:i iVlIow apprentice) ; but, being lost, it was killed next day near 
the entrance of Onienak Fjord, on the west coaat, wiUi the 
harpoons freshly imbedded in its body. This was adduced in 
proof of the existence of an inlet in former times (as, indeed, 
represented on the old maps) across Greenland between these two 
))oints. Unless the whole story was founded on a misconception 
(an event less likely from the searching investigation which 
took place at the time), wo can scarcely believe that the Whale 
could have reached the west coast by any other means; for, even 
allowing the great(!st credible 8i)eed, it comes scarcely within the 
limits of i>ossil)ility that it could have doubled Cape Farewell aud 
reaelied 70'^ N. latitude within the interval mentioned. The rate 
at which a Whale travels from place to place whilst feeding, or 
under other ordinary cii'cumstances, may be stated as being about 
four miles an hour. Like most of the Cetacea,it generally travels 
in a course contrary to that of the wind. Its food consists, for 
the most part, of Entoniostraca aud Pteropoda, but chiefly of the 
former, and especially of Cctochihis arcticus, Baird,and Cetoekiiut 
septenirionaiis, H. (ioodsir, Arpacticus hronii^ Kroy., &c, which arc 
chiefly found in those portions of the sea of the olive-green 
colour described by Scoresby. I'his appearance had seen shown* 
to he produced by vast quantities of DiatomacetB^ chiefly Mciosira 
a rctica, on which the "Whales' focnl" subsists. It is not, I am 
oi' opinion, compaiiblc with facts to snppose that the Right 
Whale's food is composed in any part of Fishes proper, except, 
l)erhaps, a minute individual which may now and then accidentally 
find its way into its stomach with the mass of maidre (as the 
WJiale's food is called). Many of the old whalers contend other- 
wise, and will adduce measurements of the diameter of the gullet 
in proof that much larger animals than AcalephsB, Pteropoda, or 
Entomostraca could he received in the stomach. I have never 
measured the orifice of any oesophagus which exceeded 2^ iuches 
in diameter, though as these observations were generally made on 



* On the Nature of tbe Diiiculomtion of the Arctic Seav, tee Seemann** 
Joiini. Botany, Feb. 18C8 ; Trans, liot Soc. Edinburgh, vol. ix. ; Quart Jonrn. 
Micr. Sci., Oct. 18G8; Das Ausland, Feb. 27th, 1868; Fetermann's G«ogr. 
Mittheil., 1869 ; ami a rcpriut in this <* Manual." 



R. BROWN OS TOE CETACEA OF GREEVLAVD. 



77 



HAing Whales, it is not improhnblo that tliis size may hr excpoded 
ill some individnald. Most of the srimj-lookiniT siibstanco.^ found 
|ilo<iting in the Ai'ctic sens are gencnilly masses of Dintomaccn? 
^combined with Protozfin, &c. ; but in mmc casc^ it is the mucous 
lining of the bronchial pji-sa;;c^ which has been discharnjpd wlicn 
te animal was *' blowing." This *• blowing," so f:imiliar a feature 
►f the Cetttcoa, but especially of the Mysticetejs quiic analogous 
o Ihti breathing of the higbor ManimaU, ami the *' blow-boles'* 
[«i*o the perfect homologiies of the iiostiil>4. It is most erroneously 
Inted that the Whale ejects water from the '* blow hoi o*<»" I Imvo 
'ji many times only a few feet from the Whale when '* blowin;^,;* 
hii, thongh purposely observing it^ eould never ^ec that it t'jectrd 
'om its nostrils anything but the ordinary breath^ — a fact which 
light almost have been deduced from analogy. In the cold 
j*rtic air this breath is generally condensed, and falln upoi^ tfioj^e 
'cloiM* at band in the form of a dense spray, which mny have led 
pcamen to suppose that this vapour was originally ejected in the 
form of water. Occasionally when ibe Whale Idows just ns it is 
ri5iog out of or sinking in the sea^ a litlle of the Htrperincunihent 
vraU-r may be ejected upward l»y the eolmnn of breatfi. When 
the Whale is wounded in the lungs, or in any of the blood-vrssefs 
immediately supplying thcm^ blood, as nn;^lit be exfiected, is 
qected in the dearh-throe? along with the brcHih. Wjicn the 
wlialeman sees bin prey *' ?pi.>iiling red/' he concbnlos thtit it'^ rm[ 
iH not far distant ; it is then mortally wounded, The Wh/jfe 
carries it»i young nine or ten montlis, and produces in March or 
April. In the latter month a Ilnil ship obtained a »uckcr with 
the nmbilical cord still attached. It rarely produces more than 
one at a birth, though it is said thnt in a few ini^tance? two have 
Won eeen following the female. It conplea during the months of 
June, July, or Anguj*t, and, as in most, if not all of the Cetncea, 
thift operation is performed in an u|>right and not in a recumbent 
p^iaition, as stated in some workH, the authors of whieli nviglit be 
jinpposed to speak fi*om pcrnonal observation.* Ecpially t'rronpous, 
a*? far as I can learn, is the iilea tb,«t it only produces once in two 
years : but on this subject, as on many others concerning the 
CetJicwi, it would be diflicult to pronounce an opinion founded on 
any decided knowledge. In the month of Augu.Kt I have seen 
them in the position dot-cribed, with the pectoral fins udpresj^e<l 
agtiin^t each other's body, and the nude bshing the water with 
hiJ* Iftil. The young suekleH to a considt^nibln age (probably one 
year), and in oitler to allow of its getting convenient uccchh to the 
jnAmwas the mother lies on it* side for a time. Their love of 
iheir ofTipring is so strong, that though the cnb^ are of very little 
value, yet the whalers often make a point of killing them in order 
to render the molher more accessible. During the period of pro- 
crfutiun the motlier is much fiercer and more dangerous to 
■|inrOfu-b than at other seasons, when it is a timid, harndt ss 
jUutiuiL I onco WW a Whale, when the boats wore appronching 



* Dcwhurst, ^* Natural Uiatpry of the C*?tat«i," p. 20. 



78 R. BROWN ON TnE CETAOEA OF GREENLAND. 

it, take tho young under one pectoral and swim off bj aid of the 
other. When the mother was kUled, the cub could not be made 
to leave the dead body of its mother, though lances were con- 
tinually run into it by the seamen who were flensing the animal. 
When the carcass was let go, the young one instantly dived down 
after it, nor did we see it again. Tho sight, hearing, and smell 
of the Whale are all very acute in the ATOter, but are very dull 
out of it. The power of the Cetacca for remaining beneaUi the 
surface of the sea seems to bear a direct ratio to their size. Under 
ordinary cii-cumstAuces, the Kight Whale will generally remain 
no longer than Imlf an hour without rising again to. breathe ; the 
cubs are, however, more stubborn, and will often remaia more 
than three-quarters of an hour. Whalers and Eskimo have many 
stories of Whales lying torpid at the bottom of shallow inlets and 
bays for several days at a tiiuo ; though I have heard these tales 
repeated by most credible men, yet I am inclined to liesitate at 
receiving as facts anything so contrary to physiological lairs, and 
so incapable of receiving any explanation of a reasonable nature.* 
I have frequently known Whales dive and not como up for hours ; 
but, unfortunately for tho acceptance of these wonderful tales of 
subaquatic being, these universally came up dead ! In nearly 
every case it appeal's that, diving with ti'cmondous impetus under 
tho tortures of the harpoon, they hail struck their heads on the 
bottom with such ibrce as to stun them for the time bein^ and 
before they recovered were drowned ; tho Whale's nose was in 
nearly every insttmce covered with the mud of the bottom. This 
diving to the bottom is a favourite feat of young Whales ; and 
accordingly these frisky individuals are more difficult to capture 
than the adult ones of a more staid temperament All species of 
Cetacea seem to pass a considerable portion of their time asleep 
on the surface of the water, and in this position they are often 
struck. Tho Right Whale always keeps near the land-floes of 
ice ; and its migi-ations north and west seem to bo due to this 
habit.t 

After man, the chief enemy of the Whale is Orca gkuHaior, 
the most savage of all the Cet^icen, and the only one which feeds 
upon other animals belonging to tlie order. The Thresher Shark 
( Carcharias vufpes), the very existence of which Scoresby seemed 
to doubt, but which is now so comparatively well-known to 
naturalists and seamen, is also an enemy of the Whale. It is 
doubtful, however, whether it attacks it in life, or only preys upon 
it after deatli. The " Advice " (Capt. A. Deuchars) once took a 
dead Whale alongside which this Shark was attacking in docens, 
the belly being perfectly riddled by theni.J 



♦ Vuk also DewUiiirtt, /. c, p. 36. 

t Capt. WcUb, in tlic Dundee wlmling steamer " Arctic," is reporttHl to 
liavc run, in the puinmer of 1867, up into Smith's Sound in search of Whales. 
He found open water and no Whaies — a case of caose and effect (Sheniid 
Oflborn, Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc, vol. xii., p. 103, Feb. iOth 1868). 

X The sailors have a notion that the Shark does not bite out the pieces, but 
cuts thfm by means of its curved dorsal fin, and seizes them as they drop into 
the water. This belief is widely and firmly received. 




BBOWK ON THE OETACEil OP OREENLAKD. 



79 



The GReDland Shark {Sct/mnuM \^L^marffits] borcalU, FL), 
Choygb it gorges itself with the deiul Whalf, does not uppear to 
trouble it during life. Martins' most circiiiastantial account of the 
fight between the Whalo and SvvordtwU beenid tu have originated in 
a misconception, thi^s name being appliud bj seoineu not only to the 
Scombroid flah {Xiphias)^ but aL^o to the Orvtty which, as is well 
known, fights furiously with tlie Right AVhale. The Whak* must 
attain » gi-<?at age, nor doe.s it iseem to be tioubled with mauy 
diseoees. Whalet* which are foimd iloaling dead are almost 
always found to have Ijcen wounded. They are uften killed with 
hlu^KK>n-blade5 imbedded deep iu the blubber ; and Bome of tho 
marks on them have been proved to be the remiiiua of lights of 
a very ancient date in which tlio Whale Uua come olf victor. 

(&) Geoffrapkical distributioH and niitfrations, — The geo- 
graphical distnbution and mignuton of the Whitle on tlio coast of 
Greeuland has been fully di^5cussed by Eschricht aud 
It,* and in the Spitzbergen sea by Scoresby ;f so that I 
le what few remarks I have to make on th\^ subject to its 
rango atoog the northern shores of Greenland and the western 
shores of Da^ns Strait and Baffin's Bay, where the whalers chase 
it^ They appear on the coast of Danish Greenland early in May, 
arc not nearly ?o plentiful as formerly, when the Diivis-Strait 
laJer generally pm-gued his business on this portion of tho 
\i ; but they are now so few that they have generally gone 
th before the arrival of those ships which have iirst proeeetled 
(o the Spitzbergen ?*ealing. It is rarely found on the Greenland 
coast Bouth of 65', or north of 73° : indeed I have only heard of 
one iuataiice in v;hich it has been seen as far north as the Duck 
Islands ntur the entrance of Melville Bay, and even for a consider- 
di«stanc6 south of that it can only bo looked upon as an ncca- 
lal straggler. ITowever, after crossing to the western shores 
of D»vi»5 Stniit. it ocnx^^ionally wande»*s ns far north as the upper 
reaches of Baffin^a Boy. The great hmly, lio%vevor, leave the 
coast of Greenland in June, crossing by the ** middle ice,*' in the 
latitude of Svai'tc ITuk (Black Hook), in about lat. 7r 30' N. 
The whaler prej«ea with all speed nortli through Melville Bay to 
upf*er watei-H of Baflin's Bay, and acrofls to the vicinity of 
icaster Sound. If there is land-ice in BafRn's Bay at tho time 
arrive f about the end of July), there are generally some 
up that Sound and Barrow'a Inlet ; but they accumulate 
greatest numbers in the ncighbourboot] of Pond's Bay, and 
up EclipBC Sound, the continuation of the ao-called Pond's 
BftJ, which is in reality an exten>ive unex|)Iorcd sound opening 
away into the intncacles of the Arctic archi^jclugo. The Whalea 
continue ** running ** here until tlie end of June, and remain until 
about the end of August or beginuiug of September. Tho 
wbaU*rs think Ihat if they can ivach Fomrs Bay by the beginning 



• I! ay Snr ^frm. f'ct, 



I»4 



* Vityiigo u» Greeitlaiid," and *' M«moirf of the Wct- 
irgh'*(l8U), vol. i. p. 5:a, 



80 R. BROWN' OX THE CETACRA OF GREENLAKD. 

of Aujnist tiny :iro suro of a "full" ship. The Whales 
ooirmenco j^oing south, nml the whnlers continue to 
them on their austral migration, halting for that parpoae in 
Home liay, Scott's Inlet, Clyde River, &c. As the season geti 
moi'c tcmi)estuoiis au«l the nights dark, most of them towards the 
end of September, to avoid the ieebergs dashing about in this 
region at that time of the year, anchor in a snug cove^ or nrf A 
sac, lying off an e\tenf«ive unexplored sound, not laid down en 
any map, in the vicinity of Caix* Hooper ; others go into a plaoe 
known by the euphonious name of ^'Hangman's Cove;*^ whibt 
others go south to Kemisoak (Hogarth's Sound of Fennj), 
Noiihmnberland Inlet, or other places in the vicinity of Cumber' 
land Sound and the Metii Incognita of Frobisher, — localities inti- 
mately known to many oi these hardy seamen, but by name only 
to geographers. Whilst the good ship lies secure in theae un- 
survcyed and unauthorised harboiu-s (each master mariner aocoid- 
ing to his preiUlection ), tbo l>oats go outside to watch for WhaleSi 
If they succwd in capturing one, freqnently, if possible^ the 
vessel goes out and assists in securing it. Though they are sup- 
posed to return to the ship every night, yet at this time the men 
are often subject eil to great hnnlsliip and danger. This is kttofm 
as the *' autumn '' or " fall fishing," and this method of pursuing 
it as " rock-nosing." 

^r. Gucriii, the surgeon of a whaler, luis describedf what he 
consideis a marked variety of the Right \Vhale under the name 
of th(; " Rofk-ni)sed Whale.'* The elianictem which he gives 
(such as the lu-tul bi'ing considerably more than one-third thesise 
of thc> animal, or as IG to ol ) vary in almost every iiidividuaJ. 
The size of the head, for instance, differs a little in almost all 
individuals; and Scores! )y merely gave one-third the size of the 
body as the average, not as the unvarying proportiou. Whales of 
different ages keep a good dttil together ; hence young Whales 
fniqnent the bays; the old ones roam in the vicinity of the 
** middle ice *' of Davis Sti-ait, and afr»*rwards come into the hays; 
and those killed early in the year at Pond's Bay are chiefly young 
animals. Hence the whaler uses the terms " middle-icerss'"' rock- 
nosers," and '* Pond's-Bay fish,'* to designate not a separate spedcs 
or even variety, but to cxpres.^ a geographical fact and a zoological 
luibit. According to the state of their cargo, the industry of the 
captain, or the state of the weather, the whalers leave for. home 
from the 1st to the 20tli of October, but rarely delay their 
departure beyond the latter ilate. 

Where the Whale goes to in the winter is still unknown. It is 
said that it leaves Davis Strait about the month of November, nod 
produces young in the St. Lawrence River, between Quebec and 
Camaroa, returning again in the spring to Davis Strait. At nil 
events, early in the year they arc found on the coast of Labrador, 
where the English whalers occasionally attack them ; but the 



* From an Eskimo being font)d here hang by nn allmmk over a cUff. 
t Edinb. New. Phil. Journ., 1845, p. 267. 






Pw BKOWX OX TnE CETACEA OF GREEXLAXD. 



ai 



I 



ships arrive ^Dendly too late, and the weather at that seftson is 
too tempestuous to rentier the " South - west Fishing '* very 
attractive. Later in the year the ships enter Cumberlond Sound 
in ^reat numbers ; and miiny of thcra (especially Auiericnn and 
PeterheaJ ve&i^lri) now make u r^^ular practice of wintering there 
in order to attjtck the Whales in early spring. It la said that 
early in September they enter Cumberland (no«c«rth's) Sound in 
gre«t numbers and remain until it is compl^jtely frozen up, which, 
accordin«: to Eskimo account, is not tiutil the month of January. 
It ia also affirmed by the natives thrit when (hey undertake long 
journeys over the ice in spring, when hunting for young Seals, 
tbey see Whjdea in great numbers at tlie edge of the ice-floe. 
They enter the Sound again in the spring and remain until the 
keat of summer has entirely melted off the land-floea in these 
parativcly southern latitudes. It thus uppetird that they winter 
produce their young) all along the broken water oif the 
coast of the southern portions of Davis Strait, Hudson's Strait, 
and Labrador, The ice remaining longer on the western than oo 
tlic eaetern shore of Davis Strait, and thus impeding their northern 
progresi*, they cross to the Greenland coa:st ; but, as at that season 
there is little land-ice south of Go"*^ they are randy found south of 
that latitude. They then remain here until the land-Hoes have 
broken op, when they cross to the western shores of the Strait, 
where we find them in July. I am strongly of belief that the 
Whales of the Spitzbergen sea never, as a l>o<ly, vit>it Djivis Strait, 
but winter somewhere in the open water at the southern edge of 
tlie Dorthem ice-fields. The Whales are being gradually driven 
further north, and are now rarely found, even by their traces,* eo 
far soath as the Ij^hvnd of Jan Mayen (71^ N. lat.), round which 
they were so numrroua in the pj^my da}s of the Dutch whaling 
trade. I am not quite sure, after all tluit hm be^n said on this 
subject, that the Whale is getting extinct, and am beginning to 
entertain convictions that its supposed scarcity in recent times is 
a great deal owing to its escaping to remote, less known, and lees 
visited localities. It is said to be coming back again to the coast 
of Greenland, now that the hot pursuit of it has slackened in that 
oil of Davis Strait, The varying success of ihc trade is 
g not so much to the want of Whales as to the ill luck of the 
in coming across their haunts. Every now and again 
equal to anything that was obtainod in the best days of 

^ tlie trade are obtained. Fourteen years ago I came home to 

■ Eugl 



I 




> 



England ** shipmates " (as the phrase goea) with no less than 
■y Uight W^hules, in addition to a miscellaneous menagerie of 
ic animals dead and alive, and a motley human crew — a 

eompany so outre that I question if ever naturaUsf , or even whaler. 

Bailed with the like before. 



• The reccot ir»*it of Whalei to a particiilar locality can frequently be 
known by » pcculinr otlitie^ floating oo the water* and (tho whstcrs lay, 
llKmali 1 confeM 1 was never lentible of it) an UDmistakeable odour ebarac- 
luiiitr of thti Ctftftcean. 



k 



M 



82 B. BB0W5 ON THE C£TAC£A. OF OBSHSLASSu 



(ff) Economic value, — After the veiy excfflffnt 
Scoregbj, it would be mere pleonasm on mj part to fKf one irwi 
r^i^ing the commercial importance of the Whale. The intah 
ducion of 4team, the almoet universal use of the gim-harpooiip and 
the discoveries of Ross and Parry on the western ahoiea of Dttrii 
Strait have greatly altered the nature of the "Strait fiabeijr* 
since Scoresby'tt time. For this reasoo I have given the oa4Bi 
of a whaler's summer craisey more especially aa it iUartntei^ 
according to my observation, the range and migiBtiona of tbi 
Bight Whale.* 

({) Varieties o^Babena mysticetns. — The whalers do not 
nize any varieties of the Right Whale by spedfie name 
do I of my own knowledge know of any entitled to thai 
Professors E5>chricht and Reinhardt| consider that there ia a 
species of Right Whale found in the Greenland and northern 
the ''Nordcaper" {Baiatta nordcaper, Bonnat; Baltena 
Briss., Ac), the " Sletbag " of the Icelanders, and that the 
facts have been ascertained regarding it : — 1st, that it is mi 
more active than the Greenland Whale, much qnicker and 
violent in its movements, and accordingly both more difficult and 
dangerous to capture ; 2nd, that it is smaller (it being, however, 
impossible to give an exact statement of its length) ana has mndt 
less blubber ; 3rdy that its head is shorter, andtb^t its whalebone il 
comparatively small and scarcely more than half the length of that of 
the B, mysHcetus; 4th, that it is regularly infested wiUi a Cinipedi 
belonging to the genus Corontila ; audi (5th) that it belongs to 
the Temperate North Atlantic as exclusively as the B, mytHttm 
belongs to the icy sea, so that it must be considered exoeptionil 
when either of them strays into the range of the other. MoreoTBT 
they consider that in its native seas it is to be fonnd ftarther 
towards the south in the winter {y\z, in the Bay of Biscay, anl 
near the coast of North America down to Cape Cod), while m tho 
summer it roves about in the sea around Iceland and between tliifl 
island and the most northerly part of Norway. Dr. Esdiriebt 
considers that this was the Whale captured by the Basque 
whalers in the seventeenth century ; hence he has called it Baiind 
hiscayentis, A considerable portion of this description eorTe* 
spends wiih what I have said regarding the Spitsbergen Whales 
as a race. I have heard that " barnacles " have b^n got <n 
Whales ; but these were looked upon as a sign of age in the Whak^ 

It is now a question to what species the Right Whales now and 
then stranded on the European coasts are to be referred. What the 
" Scrag Whale" of Dudley^ {Baltena gibbosa, Erxl.) is I cazinot 

* For an elaborate analysis of the German Arctic whale-fiahexy see JAnit- 
mann in the Appendix to Petermann's " (}eograph. Mittheil.", 1867 ; sad 
for that by the Dundee fleet see Yeatman, Bep. Brit. Assoc, 1867. I hart 
f(iTea a fuller outline of a Baffin's Bay Whaler's Cruise in ** Ocean Hi^wayni" 
187t. A still better aoconnt iriil be found in Capt. A. H. Maddiim^ 
«« WbaUng Cruise/' 1872. 

t Loc. ciU 

% Phil. Trans, vol xxxiii.| p. 259. 



B. BROWN ON THE CETACEA OF GKEENLAN1>. 




83 



It is not now known to the whalers ; and &» neither of the 
ies referred to have as yet been found in Davis Strait or 
I • Bay,* they do not come within the limits which I hare 
led to mjseU, 

2, Phtsjllus ANTiQUORtTM, Gray. 

BaUtnopttra musculus, Flem« Brit, An, p. 30, 
JXorquaim musculus^ F. Cnv. Cetaces, p. 334. 
Bai^»a pk^saluSf Fab. Fauim. GrcenK p. 35, 

Pcpolar Domes^Big JFirmer, liaz^^rlKick, (KngU&h whalers); 
§fUlk9ai (Swedish) ; Sildror, Roren (Nofde) ; Sildreki (Icelandic) ; 
TumnoHkf Tekkinok (Greenlanders)* 

J This species, in common with most of the family Batrpnopteridie^ 

1068 not go far north as a rule, but keeps aboat the Cod-banks 

^Rifkol, HoUteensborg, and other localities in South Greenland.f 

■|ta^ feed upon Cod ftnd other fish, which they devour in immense 

^^Btitie5. DedmouHn<«^ mentions GOO being taken out of the 

^^Kpoh of one ; I koow an instance in which 800 were found. 

^^K often, in common with Bal<moptera Sibbaldii and B. rosiraiet^ 

^^Ber into the European seas in pnrsuit of Cod and Herrings, 

^^lire quite abnndnnt in the vicinity of Rocknl. A few years 

go much excitement wag got up about the number of *' Whales " 

}tind tn that locality, nod companies were started to kill them, 

apposing them to be the Right Whale of commerce. As might 

ure been expected, they proved only to be **Fiuners," which 

irer on the immense quantities of Cod which are found there. 

^is Whale Is accounted almost worthless by the whalers ; and, 

n account of the small quantity of oil which it yields and the 

Ifficulty of capture, it is never attacked unless by mistake or 

irough ignoranco. I remember seeing one floating dead in Davis 

itnut, to which the men rowed, taking it for a Right Whale; 

«t on discovering their mistake they immediately abandoned it, 

liey had not been the first ; for on its sides were cut the names 

r M^erft! vessels which had paid it a visit and did not consider 

, wotth the carriage and fire to try out the oil. The blubber 

i hart! and enrt>lfl^nou^, not unlike soft glue. Its ** blowing '* 

Pbi ' fi distance, by being wliiter and lower than 

( rfUS. 

^ BALJBMapTEEA HisBALDU, Gray. 
^ SiAbaldim horeatif, Gray, Cat. Seals and WTiales, p. 175. 

Popular names, — This is popularly confounded with the last, and 
lie same namea are applied to it by the whalers and Kakimo. It 



♦ CnBx's description of the KuoUitJi»chy or Knohbelfiich (Qreeoland, 
L i* p. U6), i» not derived from hi* own knovledge, bot, like most of his 
incrfptiDiLB, \a copied iVooi previous authors. 
t I «i» »w»re ihAt this •tatement is ftonwwhat at variiaco with 0r, 
ifchricht*!, a« contained in hii paper on the *' Gtogniphical Distribntion <rf 
me fli the Northern Whalea " (Forh. Skaud. Natnrf. KjfiK, 1«47, p, 103) ; 
fVMtbalMi I think that it wilt be found to be substantially correct. 
X Basilton 00 Whaf«« CJ^i'dhie's Naturalist*! Library). 

f2 



84 B. BROAVX OX THE CETACEA OF GREEKIiA2n>b 

18 probubly aUo the Kepokarnak of the Greenlanden, and tbe 
Sieypireyihr of the Icelanders.* 

It yisits the coast of Greenknd onlj in the samnier mntithiy 
from March to November ; and its range may be giyenas the amft 
as the last. Like the former, it is rarely killed by the natives. 

4. BaLjEXOptera. ROSTBATJt, O. Fab. 

Popular names. — Little Finner, Pike Whale (English ^diakn 
and authors) ; fVaagehval (Norse) ; Tikagulik (G^nlanden) ; 
Tschikaglcuch (Kamschatkdales) ; Seigtal or Seivai (Finna). 

This Whale only comes in the summer months to Davis Strail 
and Baffin's Bay, or very seldom during the winter to the sootben 
portion of Greenland. It is not killed by the natives ; and lis 
range is tliat of its congeners. The natives of the western shofes 
of Davis Strait seldom recognize the figure of this and allied 
species of Whales, though the Greenlanders instantly did m>j\ 

6. Meoafteoa longimana, Gray. 

Balanoptera boops, 0. Fab. Faun. Groenl. p. 36 (non Linn.?). 

Populai' names. — Humpback (English whalers) ; B&rqwti^ 8^ 
Rorkval (Norse); Puekelhval (Swedes); Keporkak (Grass- 
landers and Danes in Greenland). 

This Whale is only found on the Greenland coast in the summer 
months. For many years it has been regularly caught at ^ 
Settlement of Frederikshaab, in South Greenland. In North 
Greenland it is not much troubled. Wliilst dredging in the har-. 
bour of Egedesminde one snowy June day, I saw a large Keporkak 
swim into the bay ; but though there were plenty of boats at the 
Settlement, and the natives were very short of food» yet they stood 
on the shore staring at it without attempting to kill it. TIm 
natives of this Settlement are no doubt the poorest hunters and 
fishers in all North Greenland (if we except Godhavn, the next 
most civilized place) ; but there were at that time at the Settle- 
ment natives from outlying places. Capt. John Walker, in the 
*•* Jane " of Bo'ness, one year in default of better game, kiOed 
fifteen Humpbacks in Disco Bay. He got blubber fixMn then 
sufficient, according to ordinary calculation, to yield seventy tans 
of oil ; but on coming home it only yielded eighteen. The '^bone' 
is short and of little value. Though one of the most oommoo 
Whales on the Greenland coast, yet, on this account and being 
difficult to capture, it is rarely troubled. 

6. Catodon hacrockphalus, Lacep, 

Physeter macrocephaltis, Linn. Syst. N. i. p. 107; O. Fahi 
Fauna Grocnl. p. 41. 

* Flower, Proc. ZooL See, 1804 ; Turner, Trans. Boy. Soc Edin., voL 
xxri. 

t In a Greenland skeleton at Copenhagen, the lateral processes of the flftk 
ana sixth cerrical vertebne are united, which is not tiie case with one firom 
Norway. We canngt be too cautions in separating species on sadi distiactioaa 



rPopalnr namps. — Sperm- ffJmle (Enrjlisli) ; KegittUik or Kigitte- 
lirksoak { Greenlanders). It is proUaljly iilso the Potvisch (Norse), 
and Tweld'Hval (Icelandic). 

Thongh currently reported in nil compilations as one of the 

most common animab of the Arctic seas, and especially of Davis 

dt and Baffin*a Bay, it can only be ranked as a very rare, and 

Ibly accidental, 8tra«:gler, Whatever it was formerly, it is 

only known to Davis y trait whalers by name ; many will eren 

ridicule the notion of its being an inhabitant of those seas. I 

found very few Eskimo who knew it even by tradition ; and I 

could only hear of one recent instance of its being killed on tho 

eottst of Greenland, vi^. near Proven (72^ N, kt.) in 1857. Ac- 

•cording to Fabricius, however, it is generally fouiul in the moro 

fiouthern pitrts of Daris Sti*ait. 

7. Delpiuxcs euphkostne, Gray. 
Delphinus holbcelliij Eschricht, Skand, Naturf, Mode I Kjoben- 

haTD, 1847, p. 611. 

This Bijecies is only known as a member of the Greenland fauna 
by a skeleton from South Greenland* It is apparently nnknown 
to the natives, for they have no popuhu* names for it. 

8. LAOENoiinT;^cnus albibostris. Gray. 
Delphinus il/senii, Eschricht, Unders, over Hvald, 5** Afh, i 

Vid. Selsk. Nat. Math. Afh. xii. 297. 

Thin is only known as a Cetacean of Davis Strait by a skeleton 
from Greenland in the Copenhagen Museum. It is found also in 
the Faroe Islands, and in various portions of the North Sea. 

9. LAGENOitHTNCiiua LEUCOPLBUBU3 (Rasch), Gray. 

Dr. Gray* has referred a skeleton from Greenland in Mr. 
BiBDdt'e collection to this species, and on his authority solely I 
dflim it as a member of the Greenland fauna. We possess no 
particulars of its history as an Arctic ammab The Norwegians 
know it as the Qwitskjceving, 

10. OftCA GLADIATOR (Bojm.)i Sund. 
DetphintAS orca (L.) ; 0. Fab. Fauna Gropnl. p. 46 ; Reinhai-dt, 

Naturh. Tillapg til Rink's geog. og Btnt. Bi-e»kicv, af Gronl. p. 12. 
PhyMcter micropSf Fab. F. G. no. 27. 

Popular nnnies,^ — Grampus^ Killer ^ Swordfish (English sea* 

men)? Spfickhufftfare^ Svard/isk, (Hyfinles) ; Sionrvagn, Siaur* 

h^inff (Norse) ; Ardlnih or Ardiuk ^, Ardlurksoak (J, (Green- 

linders). In lUl probability the *♦ Pernak" or Pamak {Phi/siicr 

w, O. Fab.), is also to be referred to Orca gladiator* Ilr. 

bcr aii!*urred me that it was an Onvj, but only known to him 

niuite. Curiously enough, the Kiunschatdales and AleutiacA 



R. BROWN ON THE CETACEA OF OHEENLAND. 



85 



linderi 

'^ hf niM 



» ZooL Ervbui aod Terror, p. ^4, t. 3i Cat. Seals and Whales (18G6), 
fT3. 



86 B. BROWN OX THE CETACEA OF gtCTEWfTUTiP. 

have very siinilar names (Agluek, fide Fallaa, ZooL BoMo-Aiiat 
p. 305 ; and Agulucky fide Chamisso* Not. Act. Acad. NaL Cor. 
Tol. xii. p. 262) for animals cloBclj allied to, if not identical mtiiy 
this species. 

The Ardluk is onlj seen in the sommer time along the hWb 
coast of Greenland. Wherever the White Whale, die Bi^ 
Whale, or the Seals are fonnd, there is also their rnddesB anaqr 
the KiUer. The Wiiite Whale and Seals ofUn ran adwre in 
terror of this Cetacean ; and I have seen Seals spring oat of tiie 
water when pursued bj it. The whalers hate to see. it, ftr-lto 
arrival is the signal for everj Whale to leave that por ti o n of de 
•ea. It is said that it will not go among ice, and ttiat the W^ 
Whale, when attacked by it* keeps among ice to escape ltd pena- 
cntion. Occasionally the ends of the lamins^ of wfaaleiboiie or 
found bitten off, apparently by the Killer ; and probably this is 
the origin of the story that it preys on the tongue of the while. 
Jjjnn^* very happily styles it '* Bahenarum phocammque tgnaiiAv&t 
'< quas turmutim uggreditur." Though subsisting chiefcron lar|^ 
fishes, they will not hesitate to attack the largest Whalebone 
Whales, and are able to swallow whole large Porpoises and Sealu 
Dr. Eschricht took out of the stomach of one thirteen ForpQiflei 
and fourteen Seals, the voracious animal having been choked hf 
the skin of a fifteenth. It has been known to swallow four Sesb 
at least immediately one after the other, and in the course of ^ lew 
days as many as twenty-seven individuals.} I know of a eaaais 
which they attacked a white-painted herring boat in the WiaslRii 
Islands, probably mistaking it for a Bduga I Holboll onee wit- 
nessed a herd of White Whales, driven into a bay near QodlMT^ 
literally torn to pieces by these voracious sea-wolvea. 

1 1. Phogsna oomvunis, Brookes. 

Popular names. — Purpess, Sea-pig (English seamen); Mgr- 
«titii,§ Herring-hogs, Pelhch, Bueker^ Puffy^unieti iVSwsocftf 
(fishermen of Northern Islands and coasts of Scotland) ; Ntta or 
NUa and, more rarely, Piglertok (Greenlanders). 

The Porpoise arrives in the spring in Davis Strait, and stops 
there until November, but does not go further north tlian-fifoiD 



* Mant. Plant., vol. ii., p. 528. 

t Gimnenis (Trondh. SeUk.'Skriv. iv. p. 99) styles it Kobbehene^iM 
of the seals. ^ 

X Kilsson, Skand. Fauoa (DiLgg4iu'^°)f P* ^7. 
. §. Thfi old Norsemexi as they poured forth from ScandinaTia oaibnrpi*' 
datoiy or colonizing expeditions leavened not oiUy the habits bat the lagpf 



of the conouered. Marsvin is the Swedish word for the Porpoise, 

French Marwuin and the same Shetland word. Ni»€ (meaning qdt« tf 
ffoblia) is the Norse term for it, hence we have Niwa in GreexUand u^ 
fftuock m Shetland (the ock bemg used there, as in many other wotds,* 
a diminutiTe). Porpoise is only a corruption of the French jHtrc pmMffh 
which wc have ahuost literally translated into Sea-pig. So is the GenDis 
Meerachwein identical in origin with the Norse Mormmim. alao 
"Sea-pig." 



9' BfiCWN ON THE OETAOEA OF 0REENLA2«n>. 87 

jfi. 67° to Jat, 69° N. They are now and tben caucflit off tbe 
i§Of^t during this peri«xl. Through the kindness of Hr. Bolbroe, 
Colanibe&tyrer of Egedesminde, we obtained the skeletoa of a.| 
AuOf which bad been procured in this vicinity some years ago by 
hi^ predecessor Hr. Ziramer ; but I could see no ditference in it, so 
far OS it couJd be cxarained in the roughly prepared state, from 
the ooe osnally found on the British coast. That the Phoa^na 
tuhfrcMiifera, Gray,* is different from the ordioaiy Porpoise, I am 
inclined to donbt. I hare examined seyeral PorpoiHes caught on 
the British cocLst, and have invariably found these tabcrclcs on the 
?rior edge of the dorsal fin more or less developed. Indepen- 
lily of this, it is questionable whether such variable charactera 
(and we know that there are many such chnracters in Cetaceft 
which give no stpocific distinction) warrant the separation of 
Phoeeena tuberculifera from P. communis. The Eeab of the 
Foi*poide is far from contemptible aa an article of food, and is much 
reltahed by sailors. t 

Nowhere in the Arctic regions is it hnnted, bnt in Pennant's 
d*y, at leai?t, vast numbers were taken in the River St. Lawrence^ 
near Petite Reviere, from the end of September to the beginning 
of November, when they were io quest of eels. Pennant, Snpph 
Ardie ZaoL, p. 62. 

7i 

12, Belug4 catqemdn (L.), Gray, t 

Btluga rfUnifdon^ Cope^ Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci., 1866, p. 278 j 
1869, p. 23, • 

B. dettiviM, Cope, op. cie., 1865, p. 278 ; 1869, p. 27. 

Popular names. — ff''hiie IVhak (Engh'sh whalers) j HvUfisk^ 
HrUtfish (white fish) (Scandinavian seamen, and Danish colonists 
in Greenland) ; KeUlttmk (Greenlanden? and Enkimo generally). 
To distinguish it from the Narwhal, it is called also Kclelluitk^ 
Kakortah^ or simply K&kortak. The young is known as Uiak 

i »oyond alt comparison, so far as its importance to tha 

G: J rs and Eskimo is concerned, the Whale of Greenland, 

Lilv r.M X'arwhal it is indigenous, but is only seen on the coast 
s I'Mii ;i Greenland during the winter months, leaving the 
t . I itli of 72^ N, Iftt, in June, and roaming about at the head 
of li';/ Bay and the western shoi-es of Davis Stiait during 
lh> Miitiiu* r. In October it i^ seen to go west, not south, but in 
wtntor ciui bo ^f^en, in company with the Narwhal, at the broken 



' • Ptw, ZooL 8oc.» 186^ p. 820. 

f The flc»h of tfiP Pofwi«e and Grempiu was eaten in the Ulh century 
li Lent tiioc m H&h { and it is lameotable to think how much sin was com- 
AitDtd uniiti they were discovered to be Mammals. I have heard of the loookt 
of A CarthavSAD convent roaatlng an Otter under a ^imiliu- jcoologieo-lheological 
«fnir. A MS, In the Britiih Mugeum (Uarl. MSB., No. 279) ccrataiiM a 
iiG<ipi for iQiikiag '* puddyn^ of poipoiec ;" and w«i find it served at table at 
Ute u the time of lienry VI H., and in Scotland even Btill Itiiitt. In tho 
aummli of Itolyrood Palace we find freiiuent entrici of munejt paid for 
*^ lNMy<tt "^ f or lae rojral Uhlc 



88 £. BBOWX ox THE CETACEA OF GBXXSUJKiK 

places in the ice. It= range mar be said to be the Mrme w the 
Narvrhal*>, and during the «ummer nxmihs eoTresponds irith Ikit 
of the Ri^ht Whale, of which it is looked upon as the prec Mi or . 
It wanders however, further «oath than the Nanrfaal, being 
found ha a reg'dar denizen as far south as 63' X. lat^ thoagh on 
the opposite coast it reaches much farther southy being qvits 
common in the St. Lawrence River. The Greenlanders dnriag 
the summer kill great numbers of them, and preserre their oili 
and dry their flesh for winter use. Of this animal and tbe Nar- 
whal, about .!jOO are vcarly caaght ; but the majority of this nniii- 
ber consists of the White Whale. It feeds on Crnstaeei^ F!^ 
and Cephalopoda ; but in the stomach is generally fomid aoae 
sand. The Greeuianders often jocularly remark, in reference to 
this, that tlie KeleUuak takes in ballast. Great nnmben an 
caught by means of nets at the entrance of fjords and inleli^ or 
in the sounds between islands. The young are darker-eoloiirad 
than the adult, and can at once be distinguished among the herds 
of the ordinary waxy white colour. It is said to be nyrely aeea 
far from land. The males and females are together in the droffl^ 
and not separate, as has been stated. Their blast is not unmna- 
cal ; and when under the water they emit a peculiar whiBtUng 
sound which might be mistaken for the whistle of a biidy and on 
this account the seamen often call them sea-canaries ! It is rardj 
that the whalers kill a White Whale, their swiftness and actiTitf 
giving them more trouble than the oil is worth.* They axe some- 
times also called " Sea-pigs,'* from their resemblance to thit 
animal when tumbling about in the water. 

13. MoNODON't MONOCEBOs, Liun. 

(a) Popular names. — Narv)h<d, Unieorny Unie (English 
whalers) ; Narhval (Scandinavians) ; Tugalik^ KeUUmah^Kgr* 
nektok, OT Kernektak (Greenlanders) ; KcleUuah-tuak (Eekimoit 
Pond's Bay). The word Nnr^vhul is derived from the GrOthic, and 
means the ** beaked whnle," the prefix nar signifying beak or snout 

(j9) Descriptive remarks, — The female Narwhal is more spotted 
than the male. The young is again much darker ; and I have 
ecen individuals which were almost white, like the one Anderson 
describes as having come ashore at the mouth of the Elbe. In • 
female killed in Pond's Bay, in August 1861, the stomach wis 
corrugated in complicated folds, as were also the small intestines. 
It contained Crustace.'ins, bones of Fish, and an immense qnantitf 
of the homy mandibles of some species of Cephalopod (probabl^ 
Sepia loligo) firmly packed one within the other. Li its stomach 
was a long Lumoricus'WVQ worm ; and the cavities behind ths 
palate were filled with froth and an innumerable number of little 
worms, such as Scorcsby descnbes in his account of the animal. 



* One of the whalers, a few summers ago, killed seveml hmidreds, bat this 
is an almost isolated case. 

f Lamarok lubsequcntly asarped this name for a genus of Peetlnohnnicluate 
Mollusca. 



IL BROWX OK THE CETACEA OP GHEENX41TD, 



ftnimals which I examined the bone was quite eaten 
* hj them, and that portion of the lining membrane which 
ined was red or inflamed. There ia a curious anastomosis of 
odating renous blood-ve.s3cIa inside the lining membrane of 
iiorax and abdomen and around the spinal curd, wliick has 
tless a relation to its amphibious life. Tho blovsr-holes are 
d directly on the top of tho head, larn^e, semilunar, opening 
tber side into two sacs lined with a dark mucous raombrane ; 
opemog^^, again, leading to the bronchia} and the lungs. The 
■hole has but one opening externally, but about an inch 

trdiTided into two by a cartilaginous septum, continuous a 
kher down with the bony partition seen in the skull. Tho 
ottidis is exactly described by the late Prof* Fleming, in 
*Wemerian Trans.*' (vol. i. p. 146). The female (except 
ry exceptional cases) hsis no ** horns ",• but inside the inter- 
liwy bone are two undeveloped tusks, each about 10 inehea 

Kb, and with no inclination to a spiral On the other 
undeveloped tusk (the right) in the male is smooth 
tapering, and "wrinkled" longitudinally, Double-tuakcd 

are not uncommon; I have seen them swimming about 
g tho herd, and several such skulls have been preserved, 
3g others, there is a specimen presented by Copt Graville, in 
rrinity House, Hull,* another in the University Museum, 
iridge ; and, according to Mr. Clarke, nine others in Conti- 
I' museums* Of course there is no whalebone in its jaw j 
I iii iotereeting to notice the laws of homology of structure 
think) kept up. On the sides of each gum are transversa 
iDgt, either corresfponding to the alveoli of the teeth or to 
koeatlon of the laminse of the whalebone in the Baiirnidf^, 
imder jaws are very light and quite hollow posteriorly for 
lh«r length, as in most species of Cetacea ; this cavity is tilled 
» very fine blubber. The tongue is regularly concentrically 
ed and attached its whole lengthy so as saircely to be recog- 

aa It lies Hat on tho base of the mouth ; the roof of tho 
1 is correspondingly marked. The lunffs are each about 1^ 
Tag J the kidney 9 inches long and about 4^ inches broad ; 
\HeaU wore veiy distinct and distended ; tlie largo intestine 
DftdesI about 4 inches in diameter, at thinnest about l\ inch, 
botit 60 feet in length. 

bpedcral fin is not notched l>elow (as would seem from tho 
JB Hamilton's book on Whales), but smooth and entire; 
ftetow, the greatest curve pointing posteriorly, but with the 
Wmm% e£ lAm fkm anterinrlv. The anhnal was flTev^ or 




90 S. BROVS 02r THE CKtAOUt OP 



throngboot, iirprakrir Boi:<JMd «i the wp^ like dM 
of a canle-wftIL asd i< fo>r»€>2 cc bhiMKr eovcred vith the 
ioteenmeni ci ifae Kocv, of which i: is ■ewly a mited lold^ ^.n . 

(71 /foAtfs, 4r.— The Narr^ml s gKgviimscenenllj tBMid^ 
in gmt herdfw I h«T« aeR » hfsd of bmij thfl«Mdn tnwtfJM 
north on their mmmer n]igmioi& twk to tnak and tmk ftt^lpft 
Uke a regiment oc caTsIn-, V> ivsohrij did thej 8MB to ii|fl.wi 
nnk into the «at«r in their nadcluiMn' MOveaeBta in awiiBJui^ 
It h Toy active and vili often dire vith the leyMilj «( the 
J9.ayj«M«ricff,takingaot30cr40&thoaKofliiie. Then^^edMati' 
■re not all of one sex. a? Rated br Scowd by , hot aelee aid 
females mixed. It eoaples in an up iiy hi poatieii ; end eoHril 19 
prodaoe at aboat the same time a» the Kght Whale. Uaai^F 
odIt one joang one i< prodnccd. bat cases ia whidi a ftanle eoe? 
lained or prodnced tiro are known. The dm ot tha Cnah hM 
long been a matter of dispate : it has been tp powd to Mil to 
itir ap its food from the bottom : but in aa^ a em Ihe iaatk 
would be sadlr at a loss. Thej seem to fight with them; kt 
h is rarelj that an nnbrokcn one is got, and oeoHiflaallj OM 
may be fonnd with the point of another jamaied into the 
plaee wbcre the tnsk i< joong enongh to be hoUow or k 
near enongh to the sknlL Fabridos thought that it wae to Ibi9 
the holes open in the ice during the winter ; and tlm M law i ^g 
occurrence seems to snpport Siis riew. In April ISOOt * 
Greenknder was trardHng akmg the ice in the vieini^ of 
Christiaasfaaab^ and dlscovned one of these open upaeee in Ae 
ioe, which, eren in the most severe winters remain iipoi. b 
thi^ hole hundreds of Narwhals and White White were pmtradnqg 
dieir heads to breathe, no other place presenting ifeeuftrmihl 
around. It was described tome as akin to an ** Aietic Blaek Hois 
* of Calcutta," in the eagerness of the animals to keep at the plMfli 
Hundreds of Eskimo and Danes resorted thither whh their 4q0i 
and sledges, and while one shot the animalt another hvpooood 
it to prevent its being pushed aside by the anziooe croud of 
breather*. Dozens of both Narwhals and White Whales wen 
killed, but manj were lost before thej were got homc^ tfaeitt 
breaking up soon after. In the ensuing summer the nativeB ftond 
many wBshed up in the bays and inlets around. FabrienadoieritMl 
a similar scene. Neither the Narwhal nor the White Whale ire 
timid animals, but will approach close to, and gambol for iMiBf 
in the immediate vicinity of the ship. 

(I) Geographical dUtrihution, — The range and migration «f 
the Narwhal is much the same as that of the White Wlialob It ■ 
only found on the coast of Danish Greenland during the spring 
ana winter, migrating northward and westward in the-Bumniflb 
It is rarelj seen south of 65" N. lat. 

(cj Economic value, —'hi. early times the tusk of the Narwiill 
was hiffhiy valued as a medicine; and Master Pomet, in his 
^' CompToat Historic of Dniggcs," gives special directions r^gardmg 
the Bcloctinn of them. The scrapines were esteemed aleae- 
pharmic, and used of old in malignant fovers, and against the bite 



■ 1L BBOWK ON THE GETACEA OF GBEEKLAND. 91 

rf serpents. Cup? made of it were believed to possess the power 
of detecting nnd ncntralizing any poison contained io them. 
From this ** horn " also was distilled a strong *♦ sal volatile.** 
To thifi daj the Chinese esteem them for their medicinal pro- 
fiertiea. In old tmiee it wa^ imposed npon the world aa the 
bofii of the " unicorn," and sold at a verj high price. The 
hein of the Chancellor to Christian Frisias of Denmiuk valued 
oo«at 8,000 imperials. (Mus. Reg. Hafnuf,) In 1861 the price 
ofNarwhaVs ivorv wan Xs.Sd. per lb., hot of late years it hai 
liflen prodigiously in yiilue owing to the repair of the Chinese 
p«]aee% but is a^in falling. In the Palace of Rosenborg is ■ 
throne of the kings of Denmark manufactured of this ivory j and 
0»pi. Scoresby (the father of the Doctor) hud a bedstead made of 
it. The oil is highly esteemed » and the fle^h ia very palatable.* 
Tbe skin of the Narwhal boiled to a jelly is looked upon, and 
justly so, as one of the prime dainties of a Greenlander, Th« 
hospitable Danish ladies resident in that country always maksj 
a poiiit of presenting a dish of mattak to their foreign visitors, 
who soon begin to like it. See also Penmint, Supplement to Arctic 
Zool. p. 100. 

14, Gi-oBiocfcPiiA.i.us sviXEVAL (Lacep.), Gray, 

I^fiphinus meiaSf Traill, Nicholson's Journal, vol. xsii. (1809)1 
p. 21. J 

Drtpkinas deductor^ Tmill, MS. and Scor©sby*8 Arctic Regionaj J 
-r- Xj, tl3. fig, 1. 

J J ut ghlncepgf Cuv, Ann. Mus, xix* t, L fig. 2, 

jMdpkiniis tursiOf O. Fabr. Faun. GrcrnL p. 49. no. 31. 

Popular names. — Botth^nose, Caaing Hltafe (fishermen and 
) ; Grindaqnealur (Faroe Islands) ; Grinder ffval (Swedish. 
md Daniab); Nesernak or Nisarnak (Greenland). l*he tero^j 
Bottle-Dose is applied by gailors to several species of Whales. LAJ 
fiftCtany Whale which is not a "Eight Whale," "finner," **paiMJ 
XOarfty" (spermaceti), " puri>es3," "unicorn" (Narwhal) or] 
^' ^ v|iale'*ia with them included under 1 lie vague term ojfj 
** 1 se." The common and most oharaolenstic name for ' 

thia Whale is that used in the north of Scotland, viz, caaing or 
(Iriring Whale — a term translated into dedtwtor.^ 

There seems little doubt that this is the Delphinns turxio of i 
f^Uhfidtti, B» the Eskimo name NcserHok is applied to the present 
^ftimit^ If go, Fabricius's name has the priority ; but, as it haki 
beea confounded with another species, it is better to keep Lac^p^de'^ 1 
OkOtft^ barbarous trivial name. Gray and other authors look upon] 
^ihriciue*8 Neittrnak «& the type of a distinct species, and havo j 
Hpcribed it us Tursio tntncatus. The Delpfdnus truncatus of] 
VfWlBgn (Wernerian Society^ Tran?. vol. iii. t. 6. fig. 8) ij* m 
totally different auimid. Fabricius's description (** Froujf rotnnd^l 

• Though indeed the learned Womiius warni us that it i» a deadly poisoo.* 

f It hM DO conuexioo vith caUdttf/, as it haa wymt^imea been tiwMlate^j 

•veB Is works wrttten by Scotchmen. It in derived from the Sootch vofal 

«««, f&gntfyiog to dfiTe, rtlanog to tb«ir ordinary method of captnre, ^f^X^fe^ 

driiiBig thcna aahore. ^-^I^H 



92 



R. BBOWN OX THE CETACEA OF OREEXLANl>. 



declivis s. Biirsum rcpandn, deslnens rostra attenujitiore ; sic 
fronti anatis mollissimm non absimilisi/'), though seemingly coq^H 
trftdictory of the identity of the Glohiocephalus ttvinecat aii<^| 
Delphinus tnrsh of 0. Fubr,, must in reality be recei\-ed ft* 
no more than it is worth* Cctobgiciil critics have received the 
desciiptions of Fabricin.'j as if they were infallible, or superior to 
those of any other author who Ims succeeded him. We know 
that Kiany of his descriptions of other animals, which are well 
known, were erroneous, and that few of those regarding which 
there could bo no mistake were altogether irce from error ; ther^ 
fore I cannot see why we should receive the others otherwide 
than as approximately correct. Fabricius enjoyed during the 
few years he passed in (ireenloTid no better opportunities tbjia 
any other naturalist in that country at the present day. Maay 
of the animals which ho describes are \'ery rarely killed or aeea 
by the natives ; and many of his descriptions bear on the face of 
them the marks of having been derived from the natives' narration, 
and not from actual apeciinens. Any one who has examined sncli 
unwieldy animals as the Cetacea must know how difficult it 
even under the most favourable circumstances, to arrive at anythii 
like an accurate idea of the animal the external appearance 
which we may be desirous of describing. Therefore, as tl 
Greenlanders call this animal Nesernak^ as the description 
not widely differ from the appearance of the Caaing "WTiale, ai 
as Montagu's Delphiniis truncattis, with which it had been 
supposed to be synonymous, has never be^u found in Davis Stnut, 
while the present epecies bas, we are warranted in concladisg, 
with Dr« Reiuhardt, that the synonymy given under this S|)6cie9 
is correct. 

This Whale ie not a regular visitor of Dftvia Strait or Baffin'j 
Bay, but is occasionally to be seen in droves in the summer 
along the whole coast of Danish Greenland. An excdlei 
account of this s[)ecie8 is given by Turner and M*Bain, derive 
from the examination of some individuals of a drove which 
into the Friih of Forth in the spring of 1867 (Journ. Anat. and 
Phyg. 1867, and Proc Eoy. Phys. Soc Ediu. 1866-67 iLed.)^ 

15. HrPEROoDON I5UT2KOP, Lnc<5p, 

Monodon spurius^ O. Fab. Faun, Grcenl. p. 31. no, 19. 

Cksnocetus rostratus (MiilL), Eschr. Uudorsog, over Hti 
4J» Afh. 184.J : lleinhardt. Tiling til en Bcskrev* of Gj 
(Rink), p. II. 




tifuH 



I 



For the anatomy of this specien, tee Murie, Trans. Zoob 8k>e. toU 
V 2S5- In the Zoological Societj'ff "Proceedings** fer 1853, p. lOS, 
I a notice of a papi-r " On the capture of Delphinu* orca in South Greeal _^ 
hjf M. BehuUer, in which it is 5aid that the number taken at We«liiiiz»havt' 
nnee 1845 was 2,200, whereas between 1819 and 1843 thcT* were only IftO, 
Thia additionid capture, unoanting in the ag^c§r«te to the value of 4,000^ 
flterlinf. waa dcAcrilwd at being due to the iutrodacdon of nets. Now thtft 
if no inch place aa " WMtmrnnahavn *' in GreenUnd, and I qoealion if t,fOO 
CV««a have erer been killed in Greentaod since the beginninf of tiaic* 
jLpplMuUy the noiiee refers to the capture of Giobioeepkaiut in the Fan* 



^^^Pl^Wl 



COPE ON CETACEA FROM GREENLAND 



93 



lar names. — Bottle-nose or BottUe (Ennrlish wbalers) ; 
Nabhhmi (Scandioavians) ; Andarnefia (Icelauders) ; Doglina 
(Faroe-islanders); Anarnak (Greenlanders). 



TWs b undoubtedly the Monodon spurius of Fatricius, that 
axithor having maJc the not uuoommoa mistake of describing tho 
upper for the lower jaw. As it is a rare animal on the Greenlatid 
coast, ITabricius could have been but little acquainttHi with it. This 
Whale Is only seen about the mouth of Davis Strait, t^wimming 
Id threes or fours j it is occai?ionalIy captured, as one will yield as 
much oil as a Narwhal. One ship's crew some years ago killed 
fifteen, and the oil was represented to me aa mixing well with 
Bpermaceti^ and selling for the tjame price, viz. \0s. 6d. per gallon^ 

16. Hypeboodok LATiFRoifP, Gray, 

Laffenocetus laiifronSt Gray, Proc. Zooi Soc. 1864, p. 241. 

This Fpecies is known from skulls and skeletons in various 
mn«eums ; and a^ an Arctic animal from a skull brought from 
** Greenland '* by Capt. Wareham, and now in the Newcastle 
Museum, and by a skeleton from the same region in the Copen- 
hagen University Museum. Greenland, however, is n loose term ; 
but from what I have said as to the range and habits of H, 
luizhof^ we may safely conclude that this has been obtained ia 
Daris Strait. I am not aware that we have any external charac- 
ters to separate it from tlie preceding, but yot the apparently 
COQslatit distinction presented by the skull would lead us to 
believe iu its distinctness. Therefore, tliough we may not go so 
hx as Eschricht in believing it to be the male of //. btitrkof^ 
yet we must hesitate before joining in tlie opinion of even sucli 
an experienced zoologist as Dr. Gray as to its claim to generic 
rank. 



V, — On some Cetacea of Greenland. By Dk. E. D. Cope 
and Bb. 1. I. Hayes. (From the Proceedings Acad. 
Nat Sci. Philadelphia, Dec. 18G5, p. 274.) 



** He also allude<l to the existence of several species of White 
Wbate«v probably confounded hitherto, owing to thfir uniform 
coionition. Simihir uniformity exists in various genera, as Corvui^ 
Ckasnuirhi/nchfi3, etc. A species brought by Dr. I. I. Hayea^ 
£roin Upernavik, was* called Bcitiga rhinodoUf antl a large one 
preM»Dtc'd by Dr. E. K. Kane was characterized under the name 
B, tofictetaJ'' 

** Dr. I. I. Hayes elated that the two !<ku]l5| mentioned . by 
Prof. Cope as belonging to the genus Beluga ^ brought by him 
|f««il Greenland, were obtained from the Governor of Upernavik, 
of the * White Whale.' He also obsened, that duiing his 
he had wen the White Whale abundantly as far north oa 
78«» K. lat." 




94 NEWTON ON BISDS IN aWRKNTiANP, 



yi. — ^NoTES on Birds which have been fotmd in. GbvbI 
LAND. By Alfhed Newton, M.A., F.R.S., ProfiBsor of 
Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in the TJnxvBrAij 
of Cambridge. 



Though many anthoritieB have been comnilted in ^i^i^^^^g the 
following compilation, it is founded munly oh the exoeUent ^ Liit 
of the Birds hitherto obeerred in Greenland**, by V r dk aati 
Beinhardt, which was printed in «The Ibis' for 1861 (pp. 1-19) 
md gives the most complete catalogue of the species of Hull 
oountiy as yet published. Some addhions to it have ainoe beoi 
communicated by him to the Natural-History Union of Copen- 
hagen*, and these I have here incorporated. I hsve farther to 
acknowledge, with sincere thanks, his great kindneM in Mndi]^ 
me the proof-sheets of his latest contribution to the subject made 
during the present year and as vet unpublished (op, cU, 1875, 
p. 127), that I might avail myself of its valuable contents. On 
the other hand, it must be confessed that Prof. Beinhanlfs ** IJat "i 
though all one could desire as regards the stray viaitorB to GreefiT 
land, gives few or no particulars of the habitat of some of the 
inyecies which regularly frequent that countiy, and this infbnnik 
tu)n I have had to supply from the work of the ill-fated HoIbAl)', 
whose long residence there as an officer of the Danish Govemmenti 
and taste for Ornithology rendered him a most trustworthy aaiho- 
rity on this head. The works of the naturalists of the last c e ntuiyi 
Bruennich| and Otho Fabricius§, have not been Delected by 
me, and as evidence of the completeness of the latter I may repeit 
Brof. Reinhardt's remark, that since its publication the number «f 
birds known to breed in Greenland has been only increased hy 
eleven. I have of course examined also the 'Memoir od tfad 
Birds of Greenland '||, published in 1819, by the venerable Sr 
Edward Sabine, and tlie far too meagre Natural-History Sup- 
plements to the several * Voyages ' of Parry and of Ross— 'Wim 
which excite regret at the glorious opportunities so in^orioaflly 
missed through the absence of special naturalists, and only redeemed 
from utter opprobrium by the zeal of volunteers.^ The long 
series of expeditions in search of Franklin's ships j&om the — "»• 
cause was still more barren of results in respect to Arctic Omi* 
thology, so that a single discovery of Sir Leopold McClintock's,** 

• Videnskabelige Meddelelser, 1864, p. 246; 1865, p. 241 ; 187S,p. 131. 
t < Ornithologiske Bidrag til deu grOnlandske Fanoa.* ITatiii&torids 



Tldsskrift, 1843, pp. 361-457. A German translation of this memoir hj Db 
Paulsen was published at Lcipiig in 1846, and again reissued in 1854. 

I Omithologia Borealis. Hafoise: 1764. 8to. 80 pp. 

§ Fauna Groenlandica. HafoisB et LipsisB: 1780, Svo. pp. 53-114. 

|| Transactions of the Linnean Society, xii. pp. 527-559. 

1* The lesnlt of neariy all that was then ascertained aboat Biidaii embodM 
hn the second Tolnme of the well-known 'Fuina Boreali-AjiMricaBa' bf 
Swainson and Richardson. (London: 1831, 4to., 523 pp.) 

*♦ Journal of the Boyal Dublin Society, 1856, pp. 57-60. 




NBWTON ON BIBDS IN eB££KI.AJiD: 



»S 



mod tbe notes of Dr, David Walker*^ who did not possess any 
sp^ai proficiency iu the atudy, furnish almost the only iucruase 
to our knowledge of the subjt'ct gained during that period»f 
Th© <Ulfereat American expeditions, judging from what has been 
published about them, added absolutely nothing — a fact particularly 
to he regretted when we regard the high latitudes they successively 
reached. More in this respect was achieved by the Grermana, and 
to the observations of Dr. Panach, contained in the elaborate 
work of Dr. FinschJ, we owe information of some value. To 
various works not especially treating of Arctic Ornithology, or 
of the Ornithology of Davis Strait at least, there is no n^Jd for 
ine here to refer more in detail. 

It is now beginning to be recognized by ornithologitjts that to 
draw any sound conclusions from the avifauna of a country we 
must strictly limit our basis to the species of Birds whieh either 
breed in or annually, for a longer or shorter period, fra^uent it, 
and consequently to obtain a true notion of its peculiarities all 
accidental stragglers should be dismissed from consideration. 
I They are indeed eminently worthy of regard from another point 
of view, throwing hght as they do on the general question of the 
wanderings of Birds, but they are of little account in the aid they 

five to elucidating the great subject of Geographical DiBtributioa, 
t has, therefore, seemed to mc expe<lient to distinguish between 
theiie two categories by using a different series of numbers to indicate 
tlifinit and also by iudenting the paragraphs in which the strugglers 
noticed. Without some such precaution the inters|)ersal of 
among true denizens only leads to confusion, and espe- 
wotdd it do so in the present case when the two categories 
most equal in number, wliiie most of the stragglers have 
ed outside of the Arctic Circle, and in places lying many 
s of latitude to the southwmd of the tracts which the new 
Expedition is to explore. Still further to direct attention to the^s© 
JL la^t tracts, the names of those species which, so far as one con judge, 
I may be not unreasonably looked for in Smith Sound, and some 
f of them thence to the northward, are printed in thick type, while 
the names of those which are known to breed in Greenland 
yet may not be expected to occur beyond the Danish Jiettle- 
are in small capitals, Tlie native (E**quimaux) names when 
by Fabric! ua or others are marked by inverted commas. 
have further to premise that the Danish Settlements arc* divided 
into two Inspectorates, roughly 8p<.^aking, separated by the 68th 
, aa well aa to obiter vo that when a speciea is said to l>e 



I860, pp. 16&-1<»8 1 Jaanml o£ the Eoyat Dablm Society, 1860 

Ba*5ority of gucli ornithological si>eeiraen8 as were collected during 
laklin »earcb piuifled into tho possosaioa of Mr. Barrcrw, who subae* 
^ hiB collectioa to the Museum of tho University of Uxfurdf and 
of it h&n been pabliihed bj Mr. Harting (Proeeedingf of the 
8ocl«ly,i871,pp. nO-123)- 
cwctte dettt»eh« NordpoIar£ahrt. Laipiig; 167^ S voli. 6r<K vol. ii. 
na-239. 



96 KEWTON ON BIBDS IN aVEEKLAXD. 

found generally or throaghout Ghreenland the words *< in BuitaUe 
" localities" must be understood to follow, eveo though not 
inserted. 

1. HiJjAETus ALBiciLLi. White-tailod Eagle. <*NektoraIik," 

" Tertersoak." 
Inhabits generally and breeds in the whole of Daiush Gneii- 
land, including the eastern coast. Its northern range ndt as jH 
determined. Being the only Eagle found in the ooontiy, there 
seems no need to give here its diagnostic characters. 

(/.) Pandum haUaeitu. Osprey. «» 

A single specimen obtained (25 Sept.) at Godhftyn, hf 
Mr. E. Whymper, and sent to the Museum of Copenhsgen. 
Must be regarded as a straggler (most likely from Amerioa)^ 
since it is not found in Iceland, and has only once been known 
to occur in the Faeroes (1848). 

2. Talco caadicans. Greenland Falcon. " Eirkaoviannk- 

kakortuinak." 
The white form of Great Northern Falcon. In snmmer mora 
common in the Northern Inspectorate than in the Sonthera, bat 
occurring, according to Dr. Finsch, also on the Eastern Coast 
The limits of its breeding-range in either direction have not been 
determined. 

3. Falco iblandus. Iceland Falcon. *< EorksoviarBuk-keniek- 

tok.** 
The darker form of Great Northern Falcon, by some lield to 
be distinct both from F, candicans and F. gyrfalco. The northen 
limits of its breeding-range have not yet been determined. A 
young male Falcon, killed 24th Septemlier 1872, on the Fiskenaaa^ 
referred by Dr. Finsch to F, gyrfalco, probably belonged to this 
form. MM 

4. Falco pebegrinus. Peregrine Falcon. '' Krksoviarsnk- 

millekulartok." 
Said to breed generally throughout Greenland, certainly up to 
lat. 69° N., and in many of the lands to the westward of Baffin'0 
Sea. Examples obtained by Dr. Walker, of the « Fox,' R.Y.S., 
at Port Kennedy (lat. 72^ N.), are specifically indistinguishable 
from European specimens. 

(?.) Falco asai<m. Merlin. 

A specimen caught at sea (kt. 57^ 41' N., long. 86'' 2B' W.> 
in May 1867, by Mr. E. Whymper, and by hun presented t9 
the Norfolk and Norwich Museum, seems to have reached the 
most western limit of the species known. A common specieff 
in Iceland ; in North America replaced by the nearly aJUeJ 
F. columbarius, 

(3.) Tinnunculus alaudarius, Kestrel. 

One said to have flown on-board ship off Cape Fkrewel], 
on Parry's first return voyage and killed* (Sabine, SuppL 
App. p. ccz.) 




I 



XeWTOX ox BIRDS IS ORKKXLAXD, 



5. Vjrctea tcandiaca, Soowy Owl. ** Opik;' ** Opirksoak." 
Vef J eommoT) ; iu summer more mimoruuB in ihc Northern 

Tas|:iectarate llian in the S^ouilieiD. Found aJfrO on tlic Eiistern 
Coas>tf and extends westward to Liddon Lsland nml Mclvillo 
Island (75' N.). A thorougblj circurnpolur species, migrating in 
winter to lower latitudes, and, from it,s white colour and large size, 
incapable of being confounded with any other species. 

6. Ado acdpitrinm. Short-eared Owl. ** Siutitok." 

A •carce species in Greenlnnd, but jHThaps breeds there, though 
not further to the southward than So"". Itn northern range 
altogether unknown, but it has b^icn shot on the Green Ishuitls in 
DtMO Bay, Ut. 68^ 50' N. 

(4») Sph^opicus varitis. Yellow-bellied Woo«lpecker. 

One found dead near Julianehaab, July 1845 ; iinother sent 
from Greenland about 1858. 

(5.) Cdaptes auratua. Flicker or Grolden-winged Wood- 
pecker. 
Herr Mo«chler has recoi'deil tbo receipt of a speeimeu 
from Greenland in 1852 (.Toiirn, fiir Orn. 1856, p, 335).* 

(d.) Ch^tura pelaa^ia, Chimney-Swift. 

One shot in 1863 near the Sukkertop (Reinhanlt, Vid, 
M«ld. 1865, p. 241). 

[7.) IHrundo horrcorum. Harn- Swallow. 

Twa known to hiwe been obtiiiiK^l, one at the Fiskenms 
about 1830, the other at Nenortalik.f 

(J^.) llreosyhia olivacca. Rcd-f^yed Flyentcher, 

One received from Greenland in 1844, and most likely 
from the Southern InspectorRte, Sir Oswald Monley has 
recorded the occurrence of this American speciei* in Etightnd 
(Nat. Hist. Tutbnry, p. 385. pL 6). 

(9.) Empidomnx puMUus, Little Fly ctilcher. 
Two received from Godtbuiib in 1853, 

(10.) Conlftpus borvalh. Olive-sided Flyejitchtn*. 

One shot at Nenortalik, 29 August, 1840, and sent to tho 
Royal Mat»eum at Copenhagen. 

(//,) DcHdt(Kra vircns, lilack-throated Gn-en Warbler. 
One Hcnt from Jidianeluuib iu 1853. 

(/^.) Dcndrteca coronata, YeUow-rtimpod Warbler* 
Thre<j examples prior to I860* 

(#A) Dtndnxca ttriatrt, Blaek-poUeil Warbler, 
.One aeat from Godthaab in 1850. 



* Ch»rdtdiU$ iwpetMe. American NigbtrHawk. Oae found dead on 
M^lTilk IiUod. 
f CufyU njntntt, Hjnu1.\!artir>. A pair said to haYC b^n wen oa Melville 

m 



t 



98 XEWTOK OX BIRDS IN OREENLAKD. 

{tJ^) DendroBca biackbuTHia? Orange-throated Warbler. 

A young bird shot at Frederiksfaaab, 16 October 1846, lias 
been refeired to this species with hesitation owing to the bad 
state of the specimen. 

(^15,) Parula amcricana. Particoloured Warbler. 

One sent from the Southern Inspectorate in 1857y in a very 
bad state, but quite recognizable. 

(/6.) Helndnihophaga ruficapiila, Nashville Warbler. 

Obtained twice :^nce at Godthaab about 1835, and again 
at the Fiskeuass, 31 August, 1840. 

(/7.) Gcothly pis Philadelphia. Mounung Warbler. 

One obtained at the Fiskentes in 1846, another at Jnliane- 
haab in 1853. 

( /^.) Troglodytes palustris. Long-billed Marsh-Wren. 
One procured at Godthaab in May 1823. 

( /p.) Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Wren, 
One sent from Nenortalik in 1859. 

7. Saxicola (ENANTnE. Wheutuai'. " Kyssektak." 

EInown to breed in Greenland from the time of Otho FabridaSi 
and, according to Holboll, extending its range to lat. 73° N. tad 
even further. Strays also to the westward, and observed by 
James Ross, 2 May, 1830, in Felix Harbour (lat. 70** N., long. 
9^ 53' W.). Obtained on Shannon Island by the German 
Expedition (Finsch). The peculiar distribution of this species in 
the northern part of the Nearctic Region has yet to be explained 
(cf. Yarrell, Br. B. ed. 4, i. pp. 352, 353). 

{20.) Turdus migratorius. Ameiican Robin. 

An adult male shot near Kornuk in the Godthaab IJoid 
(Reinhardt, Vid. Medd. 1865, p. 241). 

(i?/.) " Turdus minor.** 

One specimen, so named by Prof. Reinhardt, obtained in 
June 1845, at Amaroglik, near Godthaab. Prof. Baird sajs 
it is difficult to say which of the three North-Americin 
species is thereby meant (Am. Jouru. Sc., ser. 2, xU. p. 339). 

(2£.) Turdus iliacus. Redwing. 

One sent to Dr. Paulsen in 1845, another shot at Frederib* 
haab, 20 October, 1845. 

(S3.) Motacilla alba. White Wagtail. 

One sent from the Southern Inspectorate in 1849, anotber, 
obtained by Dr. Walker, at Godhavn, in August 1867. 

8. Anthus ludovicianus. Pennsylvanian Pipit. 

Supposed to breed in Greenland not further south *h^ lit 
67^ N., but unquestionably does so in the northern parts of the 
North-American continent. 



KBWTON ON BIKDS IN GRRK>fL.VNr>» 

[«4.) Anihus pratensis, Meadow-Pipit. 

Beoeived by Dr. Paulseu from Grecnlaud in 1845, 

1^5.) Ot^ocort/s aipestris, Shore-Lark. 

One shot at Godthaab in OctobeF 1835, but known before 
to occur on the otlier side of Davis Strait: f.^., at Cape 
WUson, 10 July, 1822. 

FlectropliaBes nivalis* Snow-Bunting. «* Kopanaufirsuk." 

Brt^eds generally throughout the country, and said to be the 

CominoueTit land-bii'd on the Eastern Coast (Pansch). Breeds also 

on Melville Peninsula, and is very minierous on the Pan-y Islands. 

Seen by Kane at Rensaelaor Harbour in June 1854, 

10. PLKcrTROPHAKES LAPPomcus. Laplaud Bunting. "Nark- 

sarmiutak," 
Ali*o breeds {generally throughout the country, as well as on 
Melville Peninsula and other lands to the westward of Davis 
Strait. 

11. ZoNOTttiCHiA LEtJCOPHBTS. White-crowned Bunting. 
Seems to be confined to Southern Greenland : not numerous, 

but certainly a l>reeding bird, though its nest hm not ati yet been 
found in the country, 

12. LiJioTA LiXiJUA. Mealy Bedpoll. *' Orpin gmiutak/' 

**Ananik." 
Said to breed generally throughout Greenland, suitable localities 
being, f*f course, understood, but is mujrntorij there. Seems to be 
indistinguishable from the FmigUia linana of LinuiEuS; the F. 
borcatxjt o£ most English authors, but not their F, iinaria, whieli 
is a much smaller and more rufescent form* 

13. LiKOTA CANESCEN:^. Greenland Redpoll 

Said to l>e cx»nstautly r/'.¥fV/<'rtf, and a regular breeder, but not 
furtlier south than lat^TQ^ N. Occurred ;d9o in Kaiser Franz- Josef's 
Fjord, 1 August, 1870(Finsch). The Lhiota /wnte/ttanm ot Ho\- 
LSu, and possibly the J^giotkus rogtratus of Dr. C'oues. 

(20.) Ijoxia letteoftiera. American White- winged Crossbill. 
An adult specimen procured about 1831 from the eAst 
coast by an Es*iuimaux. Subsequently another julult and tliree 
youi}g were obtained iu Soutb Greenland. 
(#7.} Xanthoctrfthuiiu icteroccphalus. Yellow-headed Maize- 
bird. 
One obtained, 2 September 1820, at Nenortalik, 

(^.) Sttfrnus vulyariu. Starling. 

\ specimen N'tit by IlolIxtU. (Qu, S* ftero^nsis^ 

Vt:- i'iui be M di-^tinct species?) 

14. Cormm coram. Raven. " Tullugak,** « Keruektok,*' 
Iire<Nlr< mor»' in Soutb tbjin in North Gri'Oidmid, anil also observeil 

f»n lb** Kiks* Cou'^t. S*'vcra! pairs ?*j»eti on Mrlville Islands A 

a 2 




100 



NKWTOX {)X Bnti>s IX (jim':I':nl.vnik 



j?|>ocitin^n iVoni IJpcchcy I:<luinl in the Barrow Collection, 
fipveriJ times on Parry's Second Voyage. 

lij. lM$^Qpi[iM ru|iestris* Ilock-Ptarmigan. ** AjLeikjek*** 

« Kayio," 
The only species of t\w i^ciius whicli iiibabits Groeolaud, whett 
it occurs equally on the East an on the West Cr>awt. Found by ttra 
German Expedition ou Siiliine ami Claverin^ Istands. In gretl 
ahnnt lance on the Parry Ishuids, atid ihenec southward throughout 
MelvxHe Peninsula, but its southern range west nrDavU StrjiirtiU 
iitidetermiiied. Its speeiilt: dwtinetness from /,. mulus isquti's^tiaarti 
by several finthorilies, but the male^ of L, rupcstris (inchiding 
under that name A, rvinhardti and L. islandorum) seem nov*»r ta 
.•Require entirely hbck feathers on the hreiist as do the inal 
mttlus^^t\w Ptarmigan of Scotland and the Europeiiii tv.. 
The females and the mtdes in wiuter of the different fonuo ca^i 
hardly be distinguished. 

{2p.) Crex prate ns is. Corncrake, 

One obtain(?<l U Godthaab and sent to the Alusoum^ 
Copenhagen in Ibol. 

(30,) Ctex porzana. Spotted Rail. 

One obtained at Go<lthaab, 28 September, 1841 : n s. 
taken at Nenortalik wits sent to Copenhagen in 1856. 

{St,) Crex carfiiifia, Carolina Rail. 

One killeil at the Siikkertop, 3 October, 1822« 

{3£,) Fuiica americana. American Coot. 

Twice obtained in Greenlaudj and in the same year (11 
-^-once at Godthaab, and once in Disco Bay. The 
example is in the Barrow Collection. 

(.SJ.) Ardea eijierca. Heron, 

Sai<l by Craidz to have beijn seen in South Givci 
27 August, 1765, A young bird found dead near NcsnofUft 

in 185(S, and sent to Copeulnigen. 

(.i4») Boiaurus ieHtiffittasug, Amencan Bittern. 

One ernight by ilog^ during a storm at Egedesmifidtj 
1869, and iJenlifiiHl by iti? remains,* 

(S5,y iliFmaiopus ostralcgn^. Oysterctitcher, 

One sent from Julianehaab in 1847, another in 1871 ftiii" 

Godthaab, iiud a third from Nenortalik in iHoD, 

IG. Strep silas interpres. Turnstone. '' TrNigvak.** 

Not eominon aewrding to Ifolboll, hui breed.s generally ak>nj*j 
cnniit. Found t>y the Gorman Kx|K'dition in Saldino laland: 
CaiM* liruer-Ruy*. Recortlwl from Winter Island in Juutsajul 



iiriu tanadrmuM. filO«n.Cniic. Ooc obUiiUfd il««r Ig'liMn. 



KEWTOW ON BIROS IN OKEENLANR 



101 



n the Parry Tslnnds. Iti^qruiiiitly marked bla*"k and wliitehoail, 
deep bkck breat^t, chestout and black bauk, iiiid white belly, 
nder this one of tlic most easily recognized of wh ore- birds. 

(36») Vanellns cristahis. Lapwing. 

One obtained, 7 Jaiiuar}-, 1820, near the Fiakences ; u second 
reoeivod from Jiillanehaab in 18474 

'. Sqaatarola helvetica. Grey Plover. 

Rare, but found in both Inspectorates, and, nccordinp to Ilulholl, 
icreo^in;^ in numbers — an apsertion which Prol. Rt:iidinrdt douliis. 

lid to breed on Melvilh»Ponin<yhi, where, aecordinj^ to Hii:l»ard- 
>n, it« v*ggs were obtained. Specimens oF these, however, t^xist In 
►ry few collections, nnd np|wirently only from Siberia and Ahiskn. 
binl is to bo distinpiished from the GoUleii Plo\er by its 

rjfpr size, it** deep blaek axillary fpatbers (which nre very apparent 

flight) and its rndimentnry hind-toes. 

8. Charadrins Tirginicus. American Golden Plover. 
♦* Knjorrovek," ** Ivjijordlek." 
Somewhat rare in Giverdaod, l)ut possible breeds there, an it 
in coDfiiderable abundance on swampy places in the Parry 
Seen in plenty on Parry 'js Se<'oiid Voyage. Not distin- 
by the older writers (includinf^ Richardson) from the 
ing species, but is always recognizable by its smoky-jt^roy 
illary feathers, and more slender form. 

(J7.) Charadrius pluvialis. Golden Plover. 

One, in summer j damage, i*hot in the spriii*; of 1871 on the 
Koui^onk Peninjstila. Believed by Dr. Finseh to breed in 
Kai^t GreenUmd. To be distinguij^hed from the foregoing 
HpcMiiea by its pure while axillarles and somewhat stouter build. 

». JEgialitis hiatlctda* Ringed Plover, ** Tukagvajok." 

Breeds generally in t ireenland and found on Sabine and Clavering 

IntidK Said to l>e abtnidant on tht; chores of Pofssession Bay nnd 

egent*a Inlet, but was perhaps mi?<t«ken for a nearly-allied 

*C#. Wa.<* found by Profei^Hoi-H Tori'll and Nordenskjofd on 

von I^laud.H (hit. tKf 45' N,), and theiiditrc has possibly the 

t northern runge of any known ^hori'-bird. 

The " Chnradritut htuttvula " of Uichardson (App. Parry's 

eond Voyajre. p. Sol )» apparently bruught from Mount iSal>ine, 

an snbsequenlJy idenitJied by him with tin? Xcirtb Anuriean 

'tjia!iii» »( fnipalmnta (Faun. Bor,-Am. it. p. 367) — a ^species Ik*- 

vc-*! to have beeri obtjoned iJi lyoothia Pelix on Kohis'j* Secoini 

Vovftge, but not bilbeito recognized from Greenland, where it may 

W€'V<*r not unreationably Ix* expected to occur. This <liflcrs 

in A^* hiuHcula, in 1»eing smaller and slenderer, in wanting the 

hitc pnt<!h above and iK-bind the cm*, itnd in having a mueh 

TowiT |ieetoral band. On closer examinatinn also I he middio 

4 otiitr lo*^ of yfc', semipnimftta will b^.' t^een to be unilcd at 

by a very distinct web. 



102 NEWTOX ox BIRD< IX OSEEKItASni 

^?%.) Tfttnnns fiaripts, Yellowshank. 

One r^^'fit from Givenland iq 1 854 to Herr Moschler ( J< 
f. Orn. 1856, p. 335;.» 

^. Calidrii arenaiia. Sanderling. 

Soarcf, and said not to lirced farther south than lat. 68^, bat 
\\\i- yoiinjr have b<-en obtained at Godthaah. Found on the East 
('oH<it by Onuih, and l>y the German Expedition on Sabine Island 
where it was hnfcdin*^. Said to have been fonnd breeding in oon- 
«>idenible numbers on the Parry Islands ; but mnthentic e^j^ kave 
been only recently made known to naturalists (Proc ZooL Sofr 
1871, pp. o6, 546, pi. iv., fig. 2. ; Zweite dentsche NoxdpolarJUut, 
ii. p. 240^, and are very rare in collections. Abont the siie of a 
Skylark. May be distinguished from other Sandpipers bj wantiiig 
the hin<l toe, and from the small Plovers, which have only three 
toes, by the mottled colouring (grey, rufous and black) of its 
iipfH.T plumage. The abundance of this bird during manj months 
of the year on the coasts of the British Islands, and many other 
countries both of the Old and New World, together with theabeo- 
lute want of any positive and trustworthy information as to the 
peculiarities which .would seem to accompany its habits daring 
the breeding-season, and the selection of its places of nidifieatioo, 
render thc»e matters deserving of close attention. 

21. Phalaropns fiilicaiiiui. Grey [or Bed] Fhalarope: 

"Knjok?" 
Said to be the latest summer-bird to arrive, to be very rare in 
ihc south and not to breed below lat. 68° N., but thence north* 
ward to 1>c common. Its common English name of ''Gre/' 
Phalnropc is exceedingly inapplicable when in its summtf - 
plumage, for then the whole of the lower parts are of a bright 
orange-red colour, the upper parts Iwing diversified with dik 
brown and tawny-yellow. Tlie breediug-habits of this bird tf* 
little known, and ii would seem to be often mistaken for thene^ 
species, which is fiir more common, and readily distingaished bf 
tlic white plumage of its lower parts — even in summer, and '^ 
more slender bill. 

22. Fhalaropos hyperboreiu. Red-necked Phalarope. "Kel- 
loumii*sortok." 

Seems to bo the commonest species of Phalarope throughon* 
th(5 c»ountry, and possibly occurs veiy far to the northmrt 
though iu the Arctic Regions of the Old World it does not go wr 
thing like 80 far as the preceding. The difierence between the 
two birds has l>een given above.'f 



* Catoptrophorus semipalmatus. Willct. A bird seen by the late f^ 
Qood^ir in Exeter Sonnd was ascribed by him to this species (Arctic Vopf<i 
p. 145) ; hut the matter mnst be regarded as doubtful in iJie falghett degree 

t Phalaroput wiltoni, though never yet met with fiir to the northward, WtJ 
be not unreasonably expected to occur, if only as a straggler, withibi the 
Arctic (Circle. It can be readily distinguished from either orthe foicgoisg^ 
its longer and nioro slender bill and legs. 



NEWTON ON BIRDS IN GHKENT-AXD. 



103 



[Sf^ Trinffa minittiUa, American Stint. 

One shot in the spring of 1867 on Noureoak Peninstik.* 

,) Trin^a macula4a. Pectoral Sandpiper. 
One wrts received from Greenland in 1851 by the Oopen- 
hjigen Museum, jind two raor© examples were sent tliitlier 
from Nenortulik in 1859. 

23. T&ISOA BONArARTii. Bonaparte'a Sandpiper, 

Believed by Holljoli (according lo Dr. Paulsen) to breed near 
Julianehiiab^ where sinuU flocks of both old and young birds have 
been obaerve<l in August. A very young bird was obtiiined 
td, Kefiortalik in 1835, one undergoing the change to winter- 
plomage in 1840, and three were procured there in 1841. 

24. Tringn tdpina. Dunlin. " Tojuk." 

Dr. Pfttilaen hjis more than once received this species from 
Greenland both in young and autumn plumage. It probably 
breeds there, as it cert^iinly doe^^ on Melville Peninsula, and else- 
where on the coast of Davis Strait. The Dunlin of the American 
continent seems to be constantly larger than that of Europe, and 
hsA h€>en described a.s distinct by the name of Tringa amcrir.ana, 
Ko appreciable difference in plumage ia, however, perceptible. f 



2^ 



Ptirple Sandpiper. " Siubnrsuk," ** Sirk' 



strUta. 

aariarsangoak.*' 
^ Ooca rs in winter even m fai* as the sea is open, and is of 
^^^^^B dislribntion. Though not mentioned Ky Grnah aa met 
^^^^B^ tbe Yam^X CooatfSome twenty or thirty were Been on Sabine 
W fitod by Dr. Pansclu 

I 26. »riii|:a canutiw. Knot. *' Kajok ? % " '* Kajordlik ? " 
" Bare ill the South, but often met .with in the North: believed 
not Co breed l>elow lat. G8' N. Is thought to have its n€Bt In the 
bay* of Greenland, but authentic eggs seem never to have been 
obtnined in that country, nor are such known to exist in collec- 
tions. After tbe breeding-season resorts to the outer islauda. Is 
reported to have been found breeding on Melville Peninnula, ftnd 
in great abundance on the Parry Islands^. The Wge docks of 
UitM bird wblch in autumn and spring throng our own ooattai HA 
weH iw those of Enropo and temperate North America, to say 



^ '^T* iKtmrnta.** A »ingle specimea brought home b^r Mr. Edwardj 
(lUdufdiOS. App, Parry** 8«?cond Voyage, p. 354), The " T. minuta '* of 
iir. Walker waa T, itnata, 

f Tben' A« ievcml other Rpeciis of Sbore-Sandpip^Ts which may be ii6t 
tnyaiaoDAbijr looked far (perhApe as gtra^gler*) b high btltodtsM, Litlle» 
if atrTthlnp-. U knirnrtj of thi ir hrecdfnfrhabiw, and then-fore the occurrence of 
■ic^ ' ' ■ ■ ' '^n. 

; iropiu/Mlicuriiu,dtmht]eat from the 

^iaiiAniy m "it* cojour ot tii. siiMjriKr.i>iiioiisige of the twotpodaa. The Knot, 
kwavtr. it at Uaai twice m lar^u a» the FhalarojMi. la loelaad, whare both 
bMa oeoor, ihej are uquall/ coafoimdcd hj the aativet. 



104 NEWTON ON BIRDS IN QBEENLANIX 

nothing of countries lying much further to the southwird, while 
its br^ing-habits ai-e not known with any certaintjr, render it 
especially an object of interest ; and any light that can be thrown 
on it& place and mode of nidification wiU be most valuable, for 
there IS no common bird respecting the summer-haunts of which 
ornithologists are at present more ignorant. About the sice of a 
large Snipe, but with much shorter bill and legs, it is in snmmv 
of a bright orange-red on all the lower parts, and above mottled 
with bluck, reddish-brown and white, the rump being white or 
white tinged with red. In its chief breeding-quarters, wherever 
they may be situated, it must bo numerous, judging from its 
abundance at other times of the year. Large flocks are known to 
occur in Iceland, but these do not stay there many days and pass 
on — obviously to the northward. It has not been met with on the 
east coast of Greenland nor in Spitsbergen ; the presumption, there- 
fore, is that the countries to the west or north of Greenliind are 
the goal of its vernal migration. 

(4f .) Macrorhamphus griseus. Brown Snipe. 
One sent from the Fiskens&s in 1824. 

27. Gailinago media. Common Snipe. 

One received by Dr. Paulsen in 1845, but the species has been 
so often observed in Greenland, that it may very likely breed 
there, though positive information as to the fiict is not forth- 
coming.* 

{/,2,) Limosa (pgocephala. Black-tailed Godwit, " Saig^ 
varsurksoak." 
Fabricius seems to have seen a single specimen, and one is 
said to have been obtained at Godthaab prior to 1820. 

(43.) Numc7iim borealis, Esquimaux Curlew. 

Two specimens supposed to have been of Greenland origin 
have been received at Copenhagen ; one was brought in 1 w 
and was said to have been shot at Julianehaab ; about the 
other Prof. Reinhardt knows nothing. f 

(44.) Numenius hudsotiicus, Hudsonian Curlew. 

One sent from Godthaab many years since by HolboU, 
who says ho had seen two others from Julianehaab and the 
FiskencBs respectively. 

28. Numenius phteopus, Whimbrcl. 

Nearly a dozen examples, sent fi-om all parts of the ooantr/f 
have been received, and, though Holboll doubts its doing ffh 
Prof. Reinhardt thinks that this species may breed in GreenSmd. 



♦ The American- Snipe (Gallinago wilsoni) ythich very closely 1 
oar own bird, but differs in possessing sixteen instead of fotirtcen tail-fe«tbeiSi 
may perhaps be looked for to occur in Greenland. 

t lliree individuals of a species of Numeniiu flew past the ships' boats il 
Hegent Inlet. (Sabine, Snppl. App. p. cox.) 



I 



I 



NEWTON OX lURDS IX UltEEXLAXD. 105 

20. Btema liinmdo* Ai*clic Tern, ** Imerkoteilnk." 

Bree^^ in various suitnbk> lowilities oti bntlt counts of Greon- 
i, as well na on the western ahore.s of Baffin's Sen, 

30. Xema sabinii«. Salihie's OulL 

S;iiiLl uol U» l»iveil furllu'r south than hit. 7o' N. ami appeari* 
Dot U> W cowimm iii Daiiiah (Treeiilajuj, hui wjij* Umiiil hy Sir 
E. Sstbific breeding in j^ri^iil uuiiil>er.s on thriH* small islaitKls in 
liil. 7o° 30' [on. Subiuc islands in ^lelville Uixy f] M.s.sodsitrd with 
ihi" Arctic Tom. Many specimens were oLi4iined in Jnue and 
Jdly at Wijiter Island and Auliliwiek, whc^re s*uhscquenfly flocki* 
were seen flying high, as if migrating to the sontliward. llii^i 
been found bree*Uug in North-vvestorn America, hut nothing has 
yet heen recorded of it^ habits in that cjnartor. Sir E. Sabine 
informed Bichard&on that Itc killed two in SpiMier^en, atid tho 
latter sajs that the specimen brongiit (lience was in full summer- 
phimn^*, but it 1ms not since been ob^ervt^ by others in ihnt 
inti*^. L>r. von Middendorff foiiiid it i>reeding^ abundantly at 
mouth of the Taimyr, again in company with the Arctie Tom. 
The feet of these two species resorting to llio sitmo spot in 
locsiJitit*? BO far apart should put ol 'servers on their guard ngjiinst 
possibility of confounding the nests and e^-gs of each. The 
of this Gull are extremely rare in collections, and such as 
hnve been seen do not *io much <liffer from those of the Tern 
(which nre common enough) as to obrintc the need of the most 
itificjition. This Gull is of small size and may Ihj 
d from others by its grey head, black collar and forked 
tAi!. Jrrom the Arctic Tern it may be known by its stouttT 
KttUd, lesjs point4?d M*ings and ttul, and black bill and feet, the 
fcwmcr having a yellow tip — ^the Tern having the bill and fts,a 
rt*d» while in it the dark colour of the head is confined to a cap 
anil doe** not extend below the ©yes. 

31. KhodostetMa rosea. Cuncate-tailed or Rofs's Gull 
One of tlie rarest of birds, to be distingubhed from other Gulls 

hy its femail (almost Dove-like) black Idll, white hea<I and neck, 
with ft blax^k ring round the latter, and wedg**-shapoil tail — the 
plumage, cftpeoiHlly of the lower parts, dee|dy tinged with rose- 
voloor. Four fipecimeua bave been received from Greenland by 
th«f Museum of Copenhagen, of w hich three were shot in Disco 
M«y, mid the fourth nciir the Sukkcrtop, while a liflh is believed 
to have been obtained by II«db6l!. Originally discoveretl at 
AJignaki ill Melville Peninsula, where two exnmpkvs were killed. 
Nothing whatever h known fd" the breedingdiabits of thia species, 
aod only three examples nre believed to exist in this country, one 
of which is* fraid to have !>een kilh-d in Yorkshire. It has oceurreil 
once iu IU*lipolan<l, and once in ihe Fau-m"^. The only specimen 
known on the continent of J'lurupe is in the Museum of Mainz, 
and there api>ear to be none in Anmricn. 

32. Fa|;oplulli ebumea- Ivory-Gull. ** Nayauai-suk/' 

I he well-known circinnpolar " Ice-bird " needs no ilc.scription, 
but long ail Arctic navigatoi'« hnve been ncipuiinlcd with it, its 



106 NEWTON ON BTHDfi IN GSEENLAXD. 

ne(>t f^^ms to havo boen vndiscovered nntil 1858^ when Sir L. 
M'Clintock found one on CapeErabb^ (^lat. T?"* 25' N^, ocmtainiiig 
a singlo egg (Jonrn. R. Dubl. Soc., i. p. 57, pi. I), ^fasequenily 
two ejz«rs wpre obtained by one of the Swedish Expeditions in 
Spitsb^Tgen, and these Feem to be the only authenticated speci- 
mens that have been brought to the notice of natnrallsts. The 
bird itself is far from being uneommon in collections, and in some 
parts of the Arctic Regions is pretty plentiful. It is subject to 
fioroc variation in size, and especially in the relative dimensions of 
fiomc of its parts, but there is no good reason to suppose that there 
is more than one species of the genus. 

33. Bissa tridactyla. Eittiwake. << Tattarak." 

Breeds in both Inspectorates, but more commonly in tlie 
Southern. Recorded by Graali from the Eastern Coast of Green- 
land, though not obsened there by the German Expedition. Its 
limits to the northward have not been laid down. The black 
quill-fr^therA of its wings are an unfailing distinction between 
this Gull and any other of its size likely to be met with fitf 
north. 

(4,5.) Lanu argcntatvs. Herring Gull. 

An aecideutal and extremely rare bird in Greenland, where 
it can only be a straggler, and is not known to have occurred 
further north than Godthaab. Dr. Walker says he saw it it 
Frederikshaiib. A pair observed at Winter Island, 29 June, 
1822. Larger than the preceding species, but like it htf 
black ])rimary quills. A doubtful species (X. affinis^ Bein- 
hardt), with a darker back, is said to have been obtained in 
Greenland, while on the other hand a form, with a piler 
back (7^. chnlcoptfrtts^ Lieht.) — of which only three specioiens 
have l)eon procured, — seems to indicate a transition to the 
next. 

34. Lams leucoptenui. Iceland or Lesser White-winged CihU' 

" Nayangoak." 
Breeds in both Inspectorates, but more commonly in the 
Southern. Also observed on the East Coast, and said to breed on 
the PaiTy Islands. In Greenland it is reported to be the iw** 
common Gull after the Kittiwakc. Its comparatively small si^ 
pale blue mantle (which, however, is subject to some variation 
of shade), and white primaries distinguish this species from ^1 
other. Immature birds vary greatly in the intensity of the brown 
clouding of the plumage. 

3o. Lanu glaiunui. Glaucous Gull or Burgomaster. ** Naja." 
" Nayavek," " Nayainak." 
The most common large Gull in Greenland. At Najartut, south 
of Godthaab, said to bnvd by itsc.'lf, but most generally in coiO' 
pany witli liissa trhiactyla and L. lcHco])terits. Subject to the 
same variation of shad(? as the latter, but the existence of speeies 
callc^d L. nrcticus nnd L. glaeialis has not been confirmed. 
Found also on the west side of Dnvis Strait and the East Coast of 




i^yrro^ on birds tw oreenland. 



107 



Qroenland, and said to be as numerous in the Polar Sea ue it ia in 
DftTiB Strait, 






Nayardluk," 



36. Larus iffABiKUS. Great Black-backed Gull. 
** IS'avardlurksoak." 

BreftLs geru-r»llj throughout Damsh Greenland, but most com- 
monly lietwecn lat. 63' »nd lat, (jH"", As large as tho preceding 
pp<»cies, or larger, but eabily tUstinguished tberyfrom by ita black 
back and primaries. 

(4<?.) Stcrcorarius catarrhmtes. Great Skua, 
Seen twi(!p on the sontb coast by IIoIlKill. 

37. Stercorarixia pomatorhinnji* Pomatorbine Skua. 
Said to be the commonest species of Skoa in the north. Breeds 

in Fodeties from Bj(»rnfUiPs, north of Egedesminde, to the north- 
ward. Several were killeil in Rr<rrnt Inlet, and it wnsaLso seen on 
the Parr)' Islands, but more rarely than the nejrt specie.^. Autlien* 
lieat«d eg<^5 of this bird an^ rare in eollcetions. It is easily dig- 
tingnishcd id flight by the peculiar formation of the two middle tail- 
feathers, which are twinted near the tip, so as to lake a vertical 
direction, and give the appeanmeeof a disc or ball attached to tho 
bijrd*8 tail. 

88. Stercorarins parasiticus. Common Skua. <* Isingak,** 
** Meriarsairsok." ' 

Breeds in both Inspectorates, but most commonly in the 
SoQthern. Found on the East Coast by Grwih, but not by tlie 
German Expedition. Obtained also on the west const of* Da\i5 
Strait. Equally abundant in the Polar Sea ^ in the latter. To be 
di6tinguiabt*d from the preceding ppeeies by its Puialler &izc and 
perfectly straight tail. Thin and the next species appear to \y& 
" dimorphic,*' a wholecoloured * and a particoloured bird being 
often found paired, and the difference in phimage seems to be 
irrCBpective of rtCK or arje ; but on tin's point further int'ormaliou 
is desirM. 

d9. Stercorarins longicandatos* Buffon's Skua. 

Said not to breed further soudi than lat. 70^ N. One exampio 
obtained by the Germans. To be distinguished from the last 
specir*^ by its fimnller size, more blender bill, and, even on the 
wing, by its exceedingly lung tail. Would seem to be rather less 
^ 4illkor[)hic *' than S. paraHticait. 

40. Frocellaria glaclalis. Fulmar or Mallemoke. '' Kakor- 

dliik," " Kakordluvek ;" diirk variety, ** Igan^ok." 

Soid not to breed further to the south than lat. 69^ N. Occurs 

»l»o in Ea^t Greenland (Pansch). A very unmistakeable bird, 

but worthy of attention since individuals vary a good deal in the 



* It ia to Chi* wholecoloured form that the Q»ine S, nchardttmi pro|>erlf 



lOS NEWTON ON BIRDS IN OREENLAKD. 

shade of colouring. 'Ilic joun^ are supposed to be darkest in 
hue, but some seem to keep this sign of immaturit/ mil their 
life, 

41. Pi FFiNUS MAJOK. Greater ShenrwatOF. ** Kakordlungnok." 
IVIarkcd by Prof. Keinhanlt as breeding in Greenland, and said 

by II ol boll to he found in great numbers iVom the boo them point 
of the countiy to bit. 65° 30' N. ; the eggs of this bird are utterly 
unknown. Shearwaters of some species have many times been 
notifcd in iibunduneo otFCaiK) Farewell. 

('//.) Piifjiiius hihli. Grey Shearwater. 

Oidy known from Greenland by a specimen received thcnoo 
by llerr Mosehlor and now in the Leyden Museum (Schtogel, 
^Iu3. Tnys-Bajf, ProcellarifPy p. 24), 

(//6.) FSiffinus anffhrum. Manks Shearwater. 

Once received from Greenland. The changes of plumage 
undergone by Shearwaters seem to be somewhat analogous 
to those of the Skuas, and no ornithologist at present has 
been able to give a rational explanation of them. 

42. TiiALASSiDROMA LEACHT. Fork-tailcil Petrel. 
Constantly observed near the coast to lat. 64° or 65° N., and 

nio.st frequently about the entrance of Godthaab Fjonl, on tlio 
islands in which it is said to breed.* 

( //9.) Thalasmlroma buiwerL Bulwer*8 Petrel. 

Only known from Greenland by a speciraou received 
thence at the Museum of Leyden (Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bois 
J*roceliari(P, p. 9), from the Moravian missionaries. 

43. Fratercula arctica(?) Puffin. << Eillangak." 

Puffins seem to be nowhere commou iu Greenland, and are said 
by Ilolboll not to breed further south than lat'. 63° 30' N., which 
seems a questionable asseition. Whether two species are found 
thiMc is also a doubtful matter.f I'ho Puffin of Spitsbeigcn 
a])pears to the comi)iler to be justifiably separable from tha* 
which inhabits more southern stations in EurojKS on account of 
its much larger size, and to it should proltfibly be assigned tlic 
name of F. glacialis (Leach), but the type of that supposed 
species is said to have been received from Greenland, whence 
Cassin also says he has seen it. On the other hand Prof. Beiu- 
hardt says that all the Puffins he has examined from Greenland 
belong to the common species F. arvtica, I'he ditrerciice between 
the two is admitleilly only one of size, though that diifci'cnco \^ 



* Two exuraplcs of Procdhria pclatjicay the common Stormy Petrel, with 
tlic locttlity " GrocDland " arc contained in the Museum of Leyden, having bcca 
rci'viveil direct from Ilolboll, who doubtless ol)taim>d them on one of his voyages 
])ut wljcthcr in the Greenland seas is another matter. 

t Fratrrcula rirrhata, the Tufteil Puffin, a bird of the north-west const of 
North Amcricii, is said to have been received from Greenland (Mdschler, 
Joum. f. Om. I85G, p. 33 j> ; but there is most likely some mistake about it. 




XEWTtHT OS EtKOS IK GHXBSfLAKH. 



JL serifs flf 
is MMBethmg to be desired. 



Up lo dear up iltid^, 



Kei> 



4-L Una g^Ue* Black GaiUemoi or Greeftkni Dtn-e. 
bak," "JSergTrak"; ( in fuinner) ** Kemefan^iik,* 
Bektarsuk *" ; (in winter) ** KakcittiiiigDJiik.^ 
y&j mmieroits on both ccmst» of GreeBiaod^ and said to reawtitj 
tban aojr otber bird, Pleatifiil also oo Meivilla Peninmla^ 
rare!/ seen in the Polar Sea, Tba distribetioii of the 
species of Black Gtiillemot ( vbich it maj be obeerred 
exoepi in tbe breeding piomage, anrthing but ^ black") i^ 
Iter deserring of tbe ftiUest atteoiiau. 'ibe ordinaiy fc»rni 
m Spttebergen is of slender build« aad bas the wing-apo( in tbe 
»dttU pnrelj and cctirelj white. That of the Norwegiaa and 
Bntisb eoAsta ( L\ ^rtflle^ vera) is stouter, and has the a*hito 
feoAen of tbe \s la.^ <ii(»t with black at tbe baae, but this colour 
doea not shew v. That of tbe Xonli Pacific (l\ m- 

ANM^ia) has a i.. ..^.. black bar across the wing-spot, while 
anotber form {U, carho) is altogether black, Now a f peclmen 
not to be distinguished from the typical U. caiftm^ wa^ obtained 
in tfa^ Spitsbei^n seas by Dr« von Hen^ljn, and UoIbi'JlI says he 
iuGreeidand an entirely black example, which, therefore, 
f perhaps be regarded nn L', earbtK Whether the^e were ^xee[j' 
lai varieties of the normal funu, or examples which had aceiilen- 
tally wantlereil from their proper habitats is a question which can- 
not be decided — but in the latter case the question has an important 
iprogn^bical a<rpect, a.^ tending to «how the occasooal means of 
water comnranication between c»ppceite parts of the circumpobir 

rrgJOtt. 

45. Mergnlna alle. Rotge or Little Auk. ** Akpalliarsnk/' 
*' Kaprmk." 
Said not to bree«i further south than lat, 6K^ N^, but^ though 
great statious are in thu northern parts of Baffin's Sea, not to be 
in the Polar Sea, Found also in East Greenland, 



44!. Ai,CJt TBOI1.K. Willock or Common Guilleaot, 

Two examples eeot by Holboll from Godlliaab, wh**re, nnd 
pefliapa in other places on the coast, it breed!;, but filill, to all 
a p p c aimace, very rarely. Its variety, A. lacrtfmofu^ eoems to lie 
im nors raie in Greenland. 



Bruenuich's GnUlemoU " Akpa." 
the commonest bird on the Greenland cotist^, but 
iiaid ikOA to breed south of !at. 64'' N. Occun-ed ou Parry 'h 
Seeood Voyage. null>oll met with thret- ^ppciraonsmtiri'ly black, 
two near Gfodthaab and one at the Sukkertop, but all iti witU4*r t 
Some reeent writfni have most unreasonably quest ion<*d or even 
defiled tbe apeciiic distinction of this and the fQreg*>iiig. 

4». A\.CX TOHDA. Rn/or-bill. **Akpariiak,""Ak|iftilluk." 
iKot rappeithtr in ihf Xorthorn or Southern Int«pectorrite, but 
observtHl on (he Kj\!.t Coai^t. 



110 XEWTON ON BIBDS IN OREKNLAKD. 

(30.) Alca impennit, Grare-fowl or Great Ank. '< Lnio- 
kitsok.'* 
The earliest discovery of this remarkable and interesting 
species in Greenland was in or abont the year 1674, when an 
Icelander, by name Clemens, visited certain ialanda on the 
east coast, then called Gunnbjamare^ar, and ainoe iden- 
tified with Daneli's or Graah's Mands, lying in]At.66''2(y N^ 
whereon ho found it so plentiful that he loaded his 
boat with the bu-ds. It has not since been known to 
occur on that coast. Bruenuich, in 1764, did not mention 
Greenland as a locality for it. Fabricius, in 1780, while 
giving its Esquimaux name, says that it was rarely seen od 
the outer islands, and that in winter; he had, however, exa- 
mined a young bird, only a few days old, taken in Angnst 
Old birds, he adds, were very rare. The Mosemn of OSpen* 
liagcn possesses a specimen, said to have been killed on Disco 
in 1821, but this is very possibly that which is known to have 
been procured by Ileilmann at the Fiskenns in 1815. The 
last examples with certainty known to have existed were 
killed on Eldey, off the south-west point of Iceland in 1844. 

(5/.) Poiliceps auritus, Uorned Grebe. 

A few immature specimens have been obtained in tbe 
southern pai-t of Greenland. 

(32.) Podiceps holbceUi, American Red-necked Grebe. 

This New-World representative of the Old-World /*. 
griseigenay was first described as a distinct species firom 
specimens obtained in Greenland, but its specific validity is 
questioned by many ornithologists. It seems to have occurred 
three times in tliat countiy. 

49. Colsrmbus septentrionalis. Ked-tliroated Diver. " Kark- 

sank.'' 
Found on the East Coast and breeds in both Inspectorates, 9& 
also on the western coast of Davis Strait. 

50. CoLYMBus GLACiALis. Great Northern Diver. " Tudhk." 
Observed by Graali on the East Coast, on the West breeds 

generally, but more in the South than the North, where indeed it 
seems to be rare. Examples of this bird from the Fur Countries 
and west of North America, with a pale-coloured bill have bedo 
described as forming a distinct species, under the name of C* 
adamsiy but the like are to be met with in Europe.* 

{33,) Sula bassana. Gannet. ** Kuksuk,**| 
Accidental and rare. 

51. PuALACKOCOiiAX CAiiBo. Cormorunt. "Okaitsok." 

Said by Holboll to breed from the Godthaub Fjord northward ^ 
far as he had been. Observed also on the East Coast. 

* Colymbua arcticus^ the Black-throatcd Diver, was found iu coiisideril)te 
iiuraliors in Varry'g Second Voyage, 
t This uumc svciuh to be also applied to the >SH-an, 



»K ON BIRDS IN GREENLAND. 



Ill 



Mergiui serrfttor. 

* Nyaliksak," 



Bed-breasted Merganser, *'Pajk,' 



53* ChAXQVUL iSLANDicA. Barrow*8 ^Goldeueye. <* Kfertlutor- 
piarsuk^" more properly " Niakortok." 
Breads in South Greenland only, and uppareatly not further 
north than Godthaub. 

(54) Ciunt/nia albtola, Boflel-bwMled Duck. 

One obtained at Godtbaab about tbe year 1830. 

HiSTBiONicus TOKQ0ATU8, Harlequiu-Duck. "Tomauiar- 

red on the East Coast: most comuiou between lat 62° and 
rarer to the northward. The iniiln of* this species, from 
its tfingulfla'iy marked plumage, winuot be coul'oanded with any 
oib«*r species ; the female id known by iU dusky head and the 
white f^pot on either side. 

55, Barelda glaciaUs. Loug-udled Duck. *' Aglek/' 
lou un Ihc whole coast, and breeds also on the Parry Islands 
the land wcstwanl of Davis Stinit, The long lail of the 

miffieienny di.Htinguishes it from that of any other Duck; 
the female has » white or dirty-white head with dusky apota. 

(Jo.) Futigtihi marita, Scaup-Duck. 

Dr. Wulkcr, of the *' Fox/' K.Y.S., obtained one at God- 
havn, in Aujj;uHt 1857. Three specimeua were sent from 
Nenortalik in 1859.* 

(J6.) Fuligida affiuis. American Saiup-Dtick. 

A pair was shot in June on Innusulik, iiu islet some ten 
milijs from Egcdcsminde. It may pobsibiy breed in 
Gr«3enh&nd. 

56. (Eflemia pcrspiciltata. Surf- Scoter, 

A few specimens have been obtained from the Danish setile- 
metite. It ww observed by Groah on the East Coast. 

^7 



^^e 



Somateria mollissima (?}. Elder. $ ''Amaulik," % 

*^ Aiuauiak," •' Mittck." 
Conmiou along all the coasts, northern limit unknown. In tho 
er of thu Kew World ( *V. drejfsvri)^ rcgai'ded by Mr. Sharpc as 
diathaci from that of the Old, tho bill is more gibbouM, tuid the 
Uuv 6pace behind thu nuhtril more extended than iu the European 
bird- The Eider of I)uvi-> Strait, and thence northward, will pro- 
bably be found to beloug to the Aniericau form, but the Eider of 
the eait coaet of Greenland h very likely to be the Emopean. The 
Eider of Spitsbergen haa also been aepai ated from S, maUissima 
by Dr. Malmgren under the name of S, thuicnsia, but the asseite*! 
dUEereooe between them, if it ean be maintained at aU^ is but 



llit Tufted Duck, Fulitjula crUtuta, in fwiid to have bccQ obuined^nt 
,by ^t, Walker, but this ytw probably » mistake. 



112 ^^EWTOX OX niKDS IN QUEEXfl^AXD, 

Blight. In Western Arctic America occnrs a veiy good specin, 
the iS*. v-jiif/rttm, larofor than S. moUissima or & drewMeri^ and 
tlic male having a bLick chevi*on under ihc chin, as in that of the 

following. 

08. Somateria spectabilis. King-Duck. ^* Siorakitaok," 

i "Kingalik," $ " Kaiortok," « Amauiartak." 
Said not to breed furtlier soutli than laL 67*^ N., bat io 
Bome numbers at lat. 73*^. Also on the East Coast of Greenland 
and on the western shores of Davis Strait. Breeds abundantly on 
the Parry Islands. The male eatdiy distinguished from other 
species of the genus by its grey head and protuberant naaal disc. 
The female much I'esembles that of S. moUissima or S, dresseri, 
but is smaller and more ruddy, and the sides of the bill are not 
feathered up to the nostrils, while the central nasal ridge eztondu 
as far as the nasal openings. Identified eggs of the King^Duck 
are scarce. 

59. Anas boschas. Wild Duck. " Kaertlutok." 
Breeds in both Inspectorates, and is not rare. 

(57.) Anas acuta. Pintail. " Kajrtlutorpiarsuk." 
Of accidental but not very rare occurrence. 

(3fs,) Anas rrccca. Teal. " Kajrtlutorpiai*8uk." 

A few examples hove been killed at different places among 

the Danish settlement**. 

(.>^.) Anas carolinensis, American Teal, 

Four specimens are known to have been obtained in Soutli 
Greenlaml prior to 18G0. 

{OO,) Anas penclope. Widgeon. 

A young drake sent hy HolboU in 1851. Prof. Beinhtfdt 
has seen two others also killed in South Greenland. 

60. Bemicla brenta. Brent-Goose. "Nerdlek." 

Said not to breed in Grcjenlaiid lower than lat. 70** N., but does 
so in great numbei-s in the Polar Sea. Is the smallest species of 
Goose found in the Arctic Kegions, and easily distinguished bf 
its black head and neck, each side of the latter having onljT * 
small semilunar patch of white. In the form called J5. nigrie€»h 
which, though most common on the Pacific coast of North Americ»» 
also occurs on the Atlantic, the black of the throat extends lower 
down and over part of the? breast, and the white patches of the neci 
almost or quite meet in front. 

61. Bernicfa Icmopsis. Bernacle-Goose. 

A regular autumnal visitor at Julianehaab, and may perhaj* 
breed in Greenland. Recorded also by Graah from the East CoWt« 
The breeding of this species in a wild state seems only to have 
been observc<l by Dr. von Middendorff in Siberia, though e«g9 
laid by tame birds are common enough. Two or more forma 
intermediate b<;twcen this and the next species have been de- 



XEWTON ON BinDS IN GREENL.iND. 



lU 



embed. It may possibly happen that the Bernaclc-GooBe of 
the New World hitherto altributcMl to B. kttcojtsis is distinct. 

{61.) Bemicla canad^niiis ? Cnnada Goose. 

A specimen, gupposed to he from Greenhtnd, in the Mtjseum 
of Copenliagen, has been doubtfully assigned to this specie?, 
which is jjorhaps tlie Li«xgest Gooso known. It may possibly, 
however, be the /?, hutchinsi, which is daid to be distinguish- 
»bie from the true B, camidcnsis by the possesssion of sixteen 
instead of eighteen tail-featliers. But llie Ameriean Geege 
of this form have not as yet been clearly ditferentioted, and it 
seems imposj^ible to furnii^b a true diagnosis of the supposed 
species which have received the name of i/. leucopareia and 
B, leucoliEma, 

62. CHen hyperborean. Snow-Goose. 

A few young Itirds only have been seen, and these more fre- 
queiitly in the Northern In^phCtorato llian in the Southern. Ib 
KNiDd also on the west coast of Davis Strait. Probably breeds in 
Uie fiar nortli, but a doubt may perhaps be entertained whether the 
ezjunples kUled in Greenland bebng to the true C hyperb&reus 
or to C albatus (if these be really diBtinct), which is aaid to have 
occurred in Ireland. 



63. Aksee gambeli. American White-fronted Goose. ** Nerd- 

lemak.*; 
a^^ot rare in fresh water between lat. 66' an<l 68'^ 30', and also 
merved by the German Expetlition on the cast coast. Though the 
Wbiie- fronted Goose of Grei-nland lias been gencndly assigned 
to the European form^ A, al6i/rofu, it would eeern to belong 
rather to the larger American ^^1. ffamhcli\ but the diflerence 
between the two apj^ears to be that of size only. The true A. 
ullAJrmis is a regular visitant to Iceland, and thercfoi-e the Bpeci- 
meo obtained by Dr. Copeknd on the East CoaBt may well 
belong to that form, though it does not follow that the birds which 
frequent the west coast are of the sume form. 

{6t>) Cygnus ferns ? Wild Swan. ** Ivuksuk.'* 

The .Swan which occurs occiisionally in Greenland has 
been generally referred to the European species {C.ferut), 
but that which waa obsen*ed at Igloolik, on Parry's Second 
Voyage, and is said to breed on the Parry Islands (though not 
numerously), seems more likely to be one of the American 
•pecies, C. buecinattrr or C. americanus. Hence a i-easonable 
doubt may exist tis to which of the three the Greenland 
ewunples are. 

From the foregoing list it will be seen that, while sixij^two of 
the birde therein enumerated are nothing but stragglers to Green- 
land, the number of those which may lie called denizens of the 
country cannot be raiee<l above sixty threCf to reach which we 
maet even, in some cases, 8tretch u point. That Greenbind, so 
far a« ita birdti are coucerne«l| beU>ngH to the Xearctic Kegion ^ms 



1i 



114 



NEWTON ON BIRDS IN OREENLAND. 



loDg been known, and the fact ib respect of tbe species 

most conveniently Bhown thus : — 



Spooies belongs 

fnf^totiuOld 

World. 



inff to the K^w 
World. 



Species eom- 

mon to botk 

Worldfc 



DMblltaL 



^tMgglen 

Ichnbit&DtS 



19 



34 



II 



45 




' The result with regard to the genera ander which the 
^Ere named is not yerj different : — 



Genera l>elou^ng to 
tbe Old Worl£ 



Genera balonxinf to 
the New Worll. 



Gfltien 

b9ibW«rUi. 



J9tr«ggten 

luhftbitauts 



45 



i 




Turning to the range of the species in Greenland itself 
that of the 62 stmgg^lerft only 9 are known to hare penetimtad W 
North Greenland, while the localitiefi whence 13 were procured 
are not named. Snppoaing that the Btane proportion of northcfftl 
stragglers exists among the 13 of which no particulars hare b80i 
given 09 among the 49 of which we know the locality, the 
of stmgglere to North Greenland may be raised to 1 2, all 
'^BAj reasonably be supposed to have passed through the 
"South Greenland. Four-fifths of the stragglers named in 
list may accordingly be safely dismissed from our mind, when 
ilidering even the casual visitors to that part of Greenland wtpf^ 
lies nearest to the scene of tbe new Expedition's labours. Th» 
'remainder arc not Arctic Birds in any sense, since they have not 
crossed the Polar Circle, and indeed many of them have hard^ 
been within 400 miles of it. 

Then of the r^ular deoizens, which^ taking the highest esti]DSl«> 
-cannot be put at more than 63» we find that 16 — or nearly oor 
fourth — do not occur within the Polar Circle, and are therefore do* 
^entitled to the name of Arctic Birds. The remaining 47 are re- 
corded as inhabiting North Greenland, but their northward txte^ 
^on is uncertain. Considering, however, what is known of themift 
'other part^ of the world, and various facts which seem to bear ott 
their geographical range^ we may arrive at something like lO 
approximation of the number which may not unreasonably be 
looked for in Smith Sound. Yet, making the moet Imenl 
iyiowance, this number cannot be raised abo¥e 3(S|* and lo ite^ 



* I am quite awftre that tbis allowance La too great, Uit I thinJi it 
OQ the aaib side. If the ExpeditioD meets wii^ i«» to 

tt will 8iLrp«a» exp«et«dou> The omnbcr of lodiof 

•ipfCM&t IcDoirD to havt oecarred in Spitsbergm ^yv, uut « 

n 







NEWTOK ON BIED8 IN GREENLANP. 



115 



36 species should attention be pnrticularlj directed — ^how muob 
fbrther in the direction of the Pole any of them may go it is of 
course impossible to forecast. The [jrincipid features by which 
each may be distinguished have been briefly noticed by me, and, 
I trust, in a way that may lead to an easy and correct determina- 
daa even by those observers who are not professed naturalists. 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
20 March, 1875. 



L 



Vn, — A Revised Cat^llooue of the Fishes of Greenland. 
By Dr. Chb. Lutken, University Museum, Cop^ahagen. 
1875* 




.—The only general aceoout of the Fishes of Greenland 
tinea the time of Fabricius is that of the late Pro- 

J. Reinhardt (K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr. YIU 1838) ; and the 
(bllcmiilg list ma^t still be regarded as provisioual and open 
to correctiona. Several specieB have only been indicated, not 
dflBCiibecU and must be regarded as doubtful uuttl the revision of 
tlie Ichthyology of Greenland, in preparation by the ivritcr, is 
j|^^iu>iL For further particulars the papei-s uf the late Professor 
KfOfer in ** Naturhistorisk Tidsskrifl," Series I. and IT,, and 
Ser* m., VoL I., and the Altasea of the " Voyage en Islande et 
an Gfoenland,** and the ** Voyage en Scandinavie, eu Luponie, 
Ac^" par Gaimard, cshould es[)ecially tje consulted. 

rXhe species marked with an asterisk (*) are well represented 
iQ British coUeetiona, or can be obtained from dealers. With 
mpect to them see the " Instructions for collecting Fishes," issued 
mtfi thia ** Maonal " for the Expedition. — Editor.] 

Oasteroitei. 

•!. Gasteroitetts acnieatus, L. (GreeoL Kakilimh*) 
B (Var. trachurus*) 

^^^^_^.. P. Gr. 122; G. lorieatus, Rhdt. (Tftf. dimidiatofl et 
^^^^^B gymnnnis, Rhdt.). 

^^^^ G, noveboracensiH, C. V, (pp) ; Gthr. Cat., !♦, p. 2, Ac. 

fconberoldeL 

2. Lampiit guiiatiit (Hetz/). 

C. v., t. X,, p 39, t. 282 J Gthr. Cat., IL, p. 41f>. 
Gatniard^ Voyage en Islande et uu Greenland, t* 10, 
(The skeleton of a Hpecimen caught at Arsuk is in the 
MaaBm n of Copenhagen, ) 



Eeiahatdt*s Catalogufi of Fiithet ia Btuk'i Naturbtft. Bldrag 
riTeUe «f Grdolaod, af J. Reikiiarl>x, J. C Scuxodtb, O. A. L. 
(X F. hvTKES, J. Lasoe, H. Rink. Tilkeggene til "GrOnUnd, 
Of ftattft. bftkrev.*' af H. Rixk, 8vo. Copeahagea, 1837. 

H 1 



11€ 1Z7TES CTS THZ njZIIS CT 



CjbicV»M3:. kk Face. Xac BBo. Sdbk. Sfcr. IT^ S; 
r/21, t. 10. L 1. 

CV.t.TIIL.p. -tor.s.241: Gthr. GtfL, nL, PL Sii. 



F. Gr. Hi 

C. gngr ^aiN^ffg M>i C iwccevsC. T., IT^ p. 185; 
VnL. pc 4&S; Gfl&r. C^. lUp. 16L 159L ; Tofife 
en Isbade, c. 9. f . ^ 
C. ooeIhnt«aE»i]silm3*?nn£«.Sier.; C.glBeUi^BidL; 

Acaathoe. TariabCis. Gir. 
H^. qiSfiiyxtaii^ Bas« i boo Stth.'*. 
o. C. Korpir^Us. Fair. . Gr. Pokudlek, lifonoi, AkmOikkwk), 

F. Gr. 114: C V., IV« pc IK". ' 
6.PA<?^/ir'rr<f«/ra£f;VaL;t. i Grei^nl TSkimA^ JCmOaCMi^ 

F. Gr. 115 rC gobio); C V, IV, p. 191^ 1 79| f. 1 J 

Gthr. Cmt^ lU p. 168. 
CoCins trieaspis Khdt. : GTmnacanlhvs trie, GOL 
Aoantbocottns patriae Stor. 
Fhobetor tricaspis. Vox. en SeandinaTie, t. 4y fl I ; 

Xat. Titbskr., II. 1, p. 263. 

7. CentruirrmirJktk^s Hmeimaims (KMuy 

K. D. Vid. Sebk. Skr., VI., p. liii. 
Gthr. Cat., II., p. 172. 

8. CetUridermichikys bitorms (Bhdu). 

K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr., VIII, p. Ixxv. 
Gthr.Cat, II, p. 172. 

9. Icelus hamaiuSf Kr. 

Nat. Tidsskr., II, 2, p. 253 ; Voy. en Scandin, X.l^th 

Gthr. Cat, 11, p. 172. 
? Cottas polmis^ Sab. 

10. Triglops PingeHi (Rhdt.). 

Nat. Tidsskr, 11. 2, p. 260 ; Voy. en Scand, t. 1, f. 1- 
? T. pleurostictus. Cope. 
Gthr. Cat, II., p. 173. 

11. Aspidophorus decaff onus (Schn.). (GreenL KamorUA 

Kaniornak.) 
F. Gr. 112 ; C. V,IV, p. 223; Gthr. Cat, IL, p.26L 
Nat. Tidsskr, II, I, p. 243 ; Voyage en Scand, t. 5| 
f. 1. Archagonus decagonus, Gilt 
— ___— . . , I ^ 

t The true C. quadricomit, L. (hexacortiis. Rich.), (Oncocvrffn giis^' 
rt,rnii. Gill), according to Sabine and Richardson an inhabitaiit of Anfk 
America, haa never been »ent from the Dam»h Settlements in Greenlaiid. FcMt* 
fletrrmincd a Coltu$ from the East Coast of Greenland as C. kexaeorntB, Bi^ 
Imt ifl inclined to regard it as identical with C. sconrivs, Eab. (ZCe " " 
Kordpolarfahrt, IL, p. I6f). 



zBrmt^ 0] 



»BEENLANT>. 



iir 



Yoim^ : A. spinosii(sim?ts, Kr. 

NaL Titl£«kr., I. c.» p. 250 j Voyage en Scand., t. 5, f. 2 ; 
Gthr. Cat., II., p. 214. 
12» Aspidophoroideif nionoptcrygius (Bl.).- 

C. v., IV., p. 224 J Vt, p. 554, t. 169 ; Gtlir. Cat., 
XL, p. 216. 
13. A. ip. 

(An andescribed species in the Museun] at Copenlmgen.) 
14* Sebastes norvegicus (Miil!,), (GrceiiL Sidiupaugak.) 

F. Gr. 121 ; C. v., IV., p, 327, t. 87 j Giinth. Cut., 
II., p. 95 ; Nftt, Tidsskr., II. I, p. 270 ; Vojage 
en Islande, &c., t. 9, f.*l. 
{S, vivipanijt, Kr. Nnt. Tidsskr., IL 1, p. 275, Voy, 
en Sciuad,, t. 6, Gtbr., p* 96, is now commonly re- 
garded only a8 a variety of 5. norveg.) 

15. Himantolophus grfefifafifiieu^y Blidr. 
K. D. Vid. Sebk. Skr., VIL, p. 132, t. 4. 
(Only a siDgle mutilated spcHmcn, which conld not 

be presented, with the exception of the frontal taft, 
has been received.) 

16. Ceratias Holbcelli, Kr, 
Nat. Tidsskr,, IL I, p. 639 j Voyage en Scand,, t. 9. 
Gthr. Cat., Ill,, p. 205. 
(Only a few specimens have been received ; one only 

could be prc^rved.) 
17« Oneirodei Eschriehtii, Ltk. 

Overs, K. D. Vid. Selsk. Forh., 1871, p. ^S, t. 2; 

Ann. Nat. Hist., 1872, Vol, IX., p. 329, t. 9. 
(Only one specimen, not quite complete, is known.) 

obolL 

18. Cyclopterui lumpux, L. 
( cJ ), Arnardiok ( 9 ). 
F. Gr. 92 & 94 (C. minntus, the young). 
Gthr. Cat., IIL, p. 155. 
Voyage en iHlundc, &c., t. 8. 

19. C, spin&xtu, Miill. (Greenh Nejmardluk.) 
K Gr. 93 ; Nat. Tidsskr,, II. 2, p. 262 ; Voy. en 

Scand-, t, 4., f. 2 ; Gthr. Cat., UI., p. 157. 
Enmicrotremus spinos^us Gill. 
lUpcnis Fabriciif Kr, 

Nat. Tidflskr., IL 2, p. 274 ; IIL 1, p. 235. 
Voy. en Scandin,, t, 8, f. 2. 

? L. communis, Sab. (ace. Gthr.)j Gthr. Cat, IIL, 
p. 161. 
21. L, arrHca, GiO. 

Proc. Acad. Phil. 1864, p. 191 (Port Foulke). 
21 CI. Zr. Montaguit Don. 

Nat. Tideakr., HI. 1, p. 243 ; Voy. en Scand., t, 13, 
f<l. 



Greenl. Kepisa, Angusedfok, 




113 1.77X27 09 T3X Fl^SZS OF OMKEMMjaaK 



>'*=. r^i=-ir, i:. 2. J, r>4: m. L PL 2M. 

F. r^r. >=: >i^ ; Xk. X>isfr, IIL 1, pL 2Kl 

I. -jurAZZA. f.f*=:r. !*£*t. MA Laci ci^ 

>'«- Pid^kr^ UL L p. 252. 
L. g*^::L>:Ci PaZI. *. Ri-r. 
fAi^^fnit P^ri> Z:« decccbr Nor.ip«fa»^i2kn, p. 172) refen 
i^renJ of tLene u^ ol^ speciee, bet U eriidaafy hoc aeqaMiited 
Willi Krdj'rr'i 1*^ P*P^ <» t>^ sih}^in, 

Bltfwloidcl ^et Lfcod iai > 

25. StuhoMM fTOfijnu'ir.K 

Sht. Tidiekr., I. u p. 2o et p. 372, ; m. 1, p. S95; 

Vov. en ScADO., t. 20^ £. 1. 
CUiiq'? ( Sticb.; amnMcnUin% Bhdt ; Gdir. Cat., UL, 

p.2S3. 
£aiii«M>graiDmii5 piscisiu, GilL 

26. Si. punctatuM r Fabr. ). (Greenl. AkMlUaUUok.) 

F. Or. 110; >at. Hist. Selfik. Skr^ IL 2,_pw H 
t. 10, £3; Nat. Tidsfikr., DI. I, p. 308; Yoj.eD 
Scandinavie, t. 20, f. 2 ; Gthr. Cat., III., p. 283. 

27. Lumpenus aeuieaius, Rhdt. 

Nat. Tulsskr., IIL 1, p. 268 ; Toy. en Scandinavie, 

t. 14, f. 2 ; Gthr. Cat., IIL, p. 282. 
LeptocUnus aculeatus. Gill. ? Lamp, maculatus, Fries. 

28. L, Fabridi, Rhdt. (Greenl. Tefamak) 

F. Gr. 109; Nat. Tidsskr., UL 1, p. 274 ; Voy. eD 

Scand., t. 14, f. I. 
Sticha'Ud lumpenus, Gthr. Cat., III., p. 280. 

29. L. mediHSy Rhdt. 

Nat. Tidsskr., III. 1, p. 280 ; Sticheus mediae, Gtbr. 
Cat., III., p. 281. AnijBarchus medius, GilL 

30. L, gracilis, Rhdt. 

Nat. Tidsskr., IIL 1, p. 282. 

? Leptoblennias gracilis, Gill. 
^ Obs.'^L. nulnlus, Rich. (Centroblennius nabiluB, Gill), frw» 
Northumberland Sound, is not known from Greenland. 

31. Ccntronotus fasciatus, Schn. (Greenl. KMrkiawraL) 

F. Gr. 108 (Bl. gunellus) ; Gthr. Cat., III., p. 287. 
GunelluB grceniandicuB, Rhdt. ; C. V., XI., p. 441-42) 

t. 340. Murffinoides faaciatas, Grill. 
? Asterropteryx gunelliformis, Rupp. (Gthr. Cat, 111^ 

p. 288.) 
82. C. affinis, Rhdt. 

K. D. Vid. Seifik. Skr,, VIL, p. 128. 
38. Lycodes Vahlii, Rhdt. (GreenL MUarkormak) 

K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr. VU., p. 163, t. 6 ; Gthr. Crt, 

IV., p. 319. 



{.UTE£N ON Tm: FIBHES OF QB£SNLAND. 



11> 



94, Z. reiieulatuSj Kbdt. (Greeul. Akalliakitsok, Kussaanak.) 
K. D. Vid, Selsk. Skr., VU., p, 167, t. 6 ; Gtbr. Cat., 
r\\, p. 320. 
35. X. geminuduSf Bhdt. 

K. D- Vid. Selsk. Skr., VII., p. 223 ; Gtbr. Cat, IV^ 
p. 320. 
BS* L, perspicUtum^ Kr. 

Nat, Tidaskr., III. 1, p. 289 j Voy. m Scandin., t. 7 
Gthr. Cat., IV., p. 820. 
37. /.. nrhuhsKSj Kr. 

Nat, Tidsskr. UI., 1, p. 293. 

Obs, — L, polaris (Sab.) (Melville Island)^ and L, mucosH9 
(Rick) (Northumberland Souud), Lave not been I'eceived from the 
banm iSettkmentB. 

♦38. Anarrtchas iupus^ L, (Greenl. Kiffutilik.) 

F. Gr. 97 i C. V., XI., p. 349 ; Gtbr. Cat, lO^ p. 208; 
Voj. en Scaiid,, 1. 12, f. 2 ; Voy. en Islande, &c,j t. 4, 
A- YomerinuS) Gill. 
89. A. denticnlatits, Kr, 

K. D. Vid. Selflk. Oyers., 1844, p. H0| Voy. en 

Scand., t. 12, t 1. 
(A single specimen in the Museum at Copenhagen.) 
•40. At panthcrinus^ Zouiew ? (Greenl. Kcerrak,) 
F. Gr, 97, b (A. minor). 
A. Steenstrupii, Gill, 

(Giinther, 1. c, regards it only ae a variety of A, 
lupus.) 
4L B^ikitea fuscuSy Rhdt, (Greenl. Amersuiak.) 

K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr,, VII., 175, t. 7 ; Gthr., IV„ 

p. 375. 
(Only known from a single Bpeciraen.) 
42, Gymnelis viridia (Fabr.), (Greenl, Unemah,^ 

F, Gr. 99; Nat. Tidsskr., III. 1, p. 258; Voy. en 
Scand.) t. 15. 

G. punctu1atu8 et lineolatus, Rhdt.; G. pictiis, Gthr. 
Cat., IV., p. 323 and 324. 

Cepolopbis viridia, Kaup. Gphidiuia etigma, Rich. 

Ohi. — Uronectes Parrpi (Ross), Gthr. Cat., IV., p. 326, found 
m B«ffiQ*ei F V '^ . r ry's Thrrd Voyage, has not yet been sent 

'^e Da iitfl in Greenland. 



Oadold«i* 

•43, GaduJt morrhua^h. (Greonl. Saraudlik, Sarandlirkaoak.) 
F. Gr, 101 et 102 (G. calluriaf*) ; Gthr. Cat., IV,,p.328t 

Voy. en lalande, Ac,, t. 16. 
Morrbua americana, 8 tor. 
*4Af G. avakf Rhdt. (Greenl. Ogak or OvaA.) 
F. Gr, 103 (G. baibatus) ; G. ojac, Rich, 
Voy. en Scandinavie, &c., 1. 19. (According to Gunther 
A Tariety of No. 43.) 



120 LUTKEN ON THE FISHES OF OBEEMLAKD. 

*45. G. agilisy Rhdt. (Greenl. MUarkornak,) 

F. Gr., No. 100 (G. aeglefinus); G. saida, Lep, 
Gthr., IV., p. 337. 

Merlangus polaris, Sab., Ross, Richardaoii, 

G. Fabricii, Richards. Gthr. Cat , IV., p. 336. 
Boreogadus polaris, Gill. 

Obs, — ^Prof. Peters has established a new species, G, gkufialiSf 
on a specimen of Cod from Sabine Island (Zto deotsche Nordpolar- 
fahrt, IL, p. 172). 

*46. Merlangus carbonarius (L.). (Greenl. OrdiiL) 

F. Gr. 104. (G. virens); Gthr. Cat, IV., p. SS9.i 

Voyage en Islande, &c., t. 6, f. 2. 
Follachius carb., Gill. 
*47. Meriticcius vulgaris^ Cuv. (GreenL AhdUakittok,) 

F. Gr. 105 } Gthr. Cat., IV., p. 344. 
*48. Lota molva (L.). (Greenl. Ivirksoak,) 

F. Gr. 106 ; Gthr. Cat., IV., p. 461 (Molva Tolgaris, FL). 
*49. Brotmius vulgtnis, Cuv. (Greenl Neicrpattugak), 
F. Gr. 107 ; Gthr. Oat, IV., p. 369 (B. brosme). 
VoY. en Islande, &c., t. 5. 

50. Motella Reinhardti, Kr. 

K. D. Vld. Selsk. Skr., VIL, p. 115 (IL mnsiela). 
Ones Reinhardti, Gill. 

51. if. entis^ Rhdt 

K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr., VII., p. 128 ; Gthr. Cat, IV^ 

p. 366. Onos ensis, Gill. 
•52. M. argentaia, Rhdt. 

K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr., VIL, p. 128 ; Coachia aigentata, 

Gthr. Cat, IV., p. 363. Ciliata argentata. Gill. 
(A young form ?) 

Xacniridse. 

53. CoryphtBnoidea Stramii (Rhdt.). 

Macrurus Stroemii, Rhdt., Sandev.; Voy. en Scandin*, 

til. 
Lepidolepnis norvegicus, Nilss.; Gthr. Cat, IV., p. 396. 

54. Macrurus rupestris (Fabr.). (Greenl. Ingmingoak,) 

F. Gr. 111.; M. Fabricii, Sundev.; Gthr. Cat, IV., 

p. 390. 
65» M, trachyrhynchus (Risso). 

Lepidoleprus trachyrh., R. ; Gthr. Cat, IV., p. 895. 
(A head alone was found on the ice at Kangek (Gcdt- 

haabsQord.) 

Plenronectidse. 

•56. Hippoglossus vulgaris, Fl. (Greenl. Netamak.) 

F. Gr. 117 ; H. maximus, Mind. ; Gthr. Cat, IV, 

p. 403 ; Voy. en Islande, Ac., t 14. 
? H. americanus, Gill. 
57. H, pinguis {F&hr.). (GreeiA, Netamaraky KeUleraglek,) 
F. Gr. 118 (Pleur. cynoglossus) ; K. D. Vid. Selsk. 
Skr., I., p. 43, t 2, f. 1 ; Voy. en Scandinayie, t 22. 
H. groenlandicus, Gthr., IV., p. 404 (cfr. p. 450). 



1.CTKEN ON TIIE FISIIES OF OKBENLAND* 121 



^^^1 SO* Drepanopseita {Hippoglossoides) plaiessoides (Fabr.). 
^^ F. Gn 119; K. D. V. Selsk. Skn, I., p. 50, t. 2, f. 2 ; 

^^y Yojage eu ScandiDAVie, t. 2l(Grectil. Okoiak^ Kol- 

^^^ iePiak). Cilbarus platcssoides, Rhdt. sen. 

I 59. 



Aounodytidae. 

69. Ammoiiytes duhittSy KhdL (Greenl. Pttisroioh,) 
F. Gr. 98 (A. tobiamis). 
K. B, Via.Selsk. Skr., VIL, p 131 ; Gthr., IV,, p. 381. 

Ohs, — ^The name will perlmps be dropperi Kroyer distinguished 
two Greenland t^pccies which ho regarded ne new. 




Aaf^nilliiu. 

60. Angmlla^ sp. (Greenl. Ximeriak,) 
F. Gr. 96, 

Chipeacei* 

•61. Clupea harengm^ L. (GrcenL KapUeliL) 

F. Gr. 129; Gtlir. Cat., VIL, p. 415.; Cut. & Val. 
XX., p* 30, t. 591-93. 

62-66. Salmo^ sp- 

The Salmons of Greenland (F. Gr. 123-27), "Kapi- 
sarliksoak" {S, salar, Fabr.), «* Ekallnk ** (5. carpio 
et alphiuSf Fabr.), ** Ekallukak ** (S. stagnalis)^ and 
" Aunardlek " (*S\ riralig) are doubtful species, which 
have received no revision since tbe time of Fabricius. 
Cfr. Giinther Cut., VI., p. 124. Peters (Zte deutscbe 
Kordpolarfahrtj IL, p. 174) dftermined two fresh- 
water specimens from Sabine Isl. (East Greenland) 
as .V. l/ondii, Rich. .' 
67* Microstoma (?) ffrfcutundiea, Ehdt. 

K. D. Vid. .Sclsk. Skr., VIIL, p. Ixxiv. ; Gthr. Cat., 
VL, p. 205. 
^68w Mailottts riliosus (Miill). (Greenl. Angmaksak.) 

F. Gr. 128 {S. arctku^) ; S. c^rceulandicus, Bl., Eich. 9 
Giinth. Cat., VI., p. 170 ; Gov. & Val. xxi., p. 392, 
t. 620-23 ; Voy. en Scand*, t. 16, f. 1 ; V07. en 
Isiaiide, &c. t. 18, f. 1. 

Bcopeliiii. 

©9, SeojH^Ifis glarmlity Rhdt. (Greenl. Keblernak.) 

F. Gr. 120 (LabriiH exolcius) ; Gthr. Cat., V., p. 407. 
Nat. Tidsskr., II. 2, p, 230 ; Voy. en Scandin., 1. 16» 
f, 2. 
70, Siomiat fcrojr, Rhdt. 

Nat. tidsskr., II. 2, p. 253 ; Voj. en Scandin., t. 16 B., 
f. 2 J Gthr. Cat, V., p. 426. 
71- ParaiepU Uorealii^ Rhdt. (Greenl. SaviliursakJ) 
F. Gr. 130 (Clupea encraswicholus). 
Nat. Tidsskr., II. 2, p. 241 ; Voy. en Scandinavie, 

i. 16 B., f. I ; Gthr. Cat., V., p. 419. 
Arctozenus borealin, Gill, 



122 LUTKHN ON THE FX8HB6 OF GBBEIII<AK]>, 

Sqtiali. 

72. Selackut maximum (Gunn.). (GreenL KakaibkaiRmotL') 

F. G. 90 ; Sq. peregrinus, Bly. ; Sq. eldphas, Lea. 
CetorLinas maximus, Gill. 
Gthr. Cat., Vm., p. 394. 

73. CeniratcylUum Fabricii,Wiiiit. (GreenL JgtOtlU ty 

F. G. 88 (Squalas acanthiae) ; Gthr. Cat, YlIL| 
p. 425. 

74. iSSomntonM jmcroc^^/w (Schn.). (GreeoLJ^iallifrAinaJL) 

F. Gr. 89 (Squalus carcharias) ; SinDuioBUsbreTipiiinai 

Les. 
Squal. borealis, Scor. ; Squ. glacialis, Faber ; SqjnBHUt 

micropteras, Val. ; 8c. Ganneri, Ric h. 
Lsemargos borealis, M. H.f ; Gthr, Cat., YHI., p. 42$. 
Voyage en Islande, &c., t. 22 & t. 1. 

Bajn. 

75. Raja ratKata, Don. (GreenL Taralihisak,) 

F. G. 87 (R. fuUonica) ; Gthr. Cat., VIIL, p. 460. 

76. R.sp, "■ ^ "^ 

The eggs of a larger species have been recSefved from 
Greenland. 

77. PetromyxonfluviaiiliSy L. 

Gthr. Cat., VIII., p. 502. 

Two specimens have been sent from the southern pari 
of Greenland. 

*78. Myxine glutinosa, L. (Greenl. Ivik.) 

F. Gr. 334 ; Gthr. Cat., Vm., p. 510. 

Ohs, — ^The Fishes of Greenland which are of economical im- 
portance arc especially Cottus scorpiuSf Sebastes twrvegient, 
Cyclopterus lumpusy Hippoglossus vulgaris^ Gadut OffUU and 
avaky Salmo carpiof Malloius arcticus, and Somnionu nUerih 

Many of the rarer Fishes of Greenland are inhabitants of great 
depths, and owe their rarity in collections to this circumstance. 

The short time allowed for the compilation of this list has pro- 
hibited every attempt to solve the doubts of identity, &o. irith 
which the history of certain species is perplexed. 



t The name Ltemargus (M. H.) is preoccupied by Krdyer for a 
parasitic Crustacea. 



araBNSTRUP ON THE BASKING SHAEK. 



123 



Tin. — On the Straining Appendages or Branch ul 
Fringes of the Basking Shark (Sdachus viaxhnvs, 
Qunn.). By Prof. Dr. Japztus Steenstrup. 

[Abetraet of the Memoir in tbe Overs, over d. K. D. Vidensk. 
Selsk. Forhandl., 1873,] 



Dr. Steenstrup offers an explanatiou of certain appendages 
maDj feet in length, consisting of long, hornlike rays resembling 
beard or comb-like fringes, which have long been the object of 
research* 

Professor Hannover showed, in Lis work on the dertnal spines 
of Bajs and Sharks, that theso rays have the same Btructure as the 
spine^ being formed of bonj matter and identical with true teeth. 
Not admitting with Hannover that those rajs are aituated on 
the outer skin, like the spines of certaiu Rays, Steenstrup has 
always supposed, from their form and disposition, that they filled 
an office similar to that of tbe beard-like gums of the Whale, 

Sttch straining appendages, composed of a eerie? of distinct 
teeth set upon the branchial arches, occar in a great number of 
fishes,* notably those living on ammalcules only. Having been led 
to suppose that such appendages belong to certain great Sharks, Dr. 
Steenstrup has been fortunate enough to find a remark made by 
Gunneras relative to the Pelerin, dialed more than a century ago, 
and so exactly descriptive of tlus organ that there can be no 
doubt of its identity. Thus he has been able to show that other 
authors also have observed that the^o was such an apparatus in 
the Pelerin, although the indications are so incomplete that 
without Gunnerua' description it would be impossible to under- 
•tead them. 

With this description by Gunnerua, and corresponding indica- 
taouis by other authors — for example Low, Pennant, Mitchell, and 
B- Foulis— Steenstrup has arrived at the following coiicluBious : — . 

L The Pelerin (Sefae/ius nuiximiis^ Gunn.) or Basking Shiirk 
has the interior of the mouth furnished with a fringe or brimchiftl 
str&txier of a special character, as a little beard-like apparatus, 
with rays 5 or 6 inches long, and resembling that of Bai(tna, 
This strainer i8 situated along the enormous branchial openings 
of the animal, and takes the part of a sieve to strain the food. 

2. From this branchial fringe come (as Gynnerus* description 
hi* euikbled mi to see) the beard -like apparatuses which hav&i 
loDg preserved in the Museums of Copenhagen, Ktel,i 
jtianiB, and Frondhjem, and whicli Professor Hannover has 

idied and described in this above-mentioned memoir, in ih©' 
JL D. y. 6dBk« Bkrifter, 6 mt*, voL tiL, 1867. 



* Dr. AoAxtm Btattb found the branchial opeoiags is the mouth of Rkino* 
dtm tjfpitu» ffnarded with a cartihiginoup, fcii've-like apparatus for Atmining 
IMImmm^ mmi «ai«r ej|««it«d through j,\i^ bruuchial eanak.-^/^/iMf^ ZuuL 
9. AJHea, Pi§tfu, Londuii, 184d. 4 to. 



124 STEENSTBrP OK THE BA6KIKG flHABK. 

3. The exutencc of such a fringe places bejond a doabt thai 
the manoer of liriog of the Felerin is similar to that of the 
** whalebone " Whales ; so that this colossal Shark obtains its food 
from the small animals that it sifts from the mass of water 
ejected through the fringe. 

4. The rajs of the branchial fringe or the elements of the 
branchial *' beanl," as the microscopic researches of HaiuiOYer go 
to prove, must be considered as vtry long and aitenuaied ieetk^ 
an arrangement which gives to the genus Selaektu a generic 
character at present unique. 

5. Characterised by these branchial appendages, Selaciiians 
existed in the seas of Europe during the Tertiaiy period^ being 
represented bj Hannovera aurata of P. J. Van Beneden^f foond 
in the Belgian Crag near Antwerp. 



IX. — PbODROMDS FAUN^ MOLLUBCORTJM GfiCENLAKDIJB 
(in Rink's "Gronland," &C., 1857, pp. 75-100). Bj 
Dr. 0. A. L. MObch. Revised and augpaented by 
Dr. 0. A. L. MOacH, University Museum, Copenhagen. 
April 1875. 

[The Bpeci«B marked with an ^ are doabtfbl InhaUtanti of Grscnland.] 



MOLLUSCA GRCENLANDICA. 

Classis I. — ^Andkooyna, Morch. 

Ordo I.— Oeophila, Per. 

•1. Arion fuscus, Miill. Probably introduced. 
L. agrcstis, L. According to Wormskiold. 

2. Vitrlna angelicas, Bk. & Moll. Pfr. 

" The neat little Snail," Olaf. & Fanlsen's Beiae i Uaod. Helis 
pellacida, Fabr^ Faun. Gnenl. Eonnd alire all the winter, 
chiefly at the hot springs "where Angdica grows. 

3. ConuluH Fabricii (Helix), Bk. & Moll. Pfr. 
*4. Helix alliaria, Miller. 

Helicella Steenstmpii, MOroh. HeHeella ap., 8tp., Coneli. too 
Island. Helix nitida, Fabr., F. G., n. 886. H. alliaria, 
Forbes, Brit Assoc, 1889, p. 143. 
*5. Helicogena (Tachea) hortensis, MGU. (Igaliko ; Worm- 
Bkiold.) 

6. Pupa (Vertigo) Hoppii, Moll. Pfr. 

7. Succinea grcenlandica, Bk. & Moll. Pfr. (Gr. Kuksuk) 

Ordo II.— Hygrophila, F^r. 

8. Planorbis (Nautilina) areticus, Bk. ft M61L Dkr, 

9. LimnaDa (Limnophysa, subg.) Vahlii, Bk. h Moll. 

(10.) var. a. nitens. L. Pingelii, Bk. h Moll. (In a pond at 
Nepisetsundet.) 

t Bullet. Acad. K. Belg., ler. 2, toL xxxL, 1871, p. 504. 



MOBCH OX THE MOLLUSC A OF GREENLAND. 



125 



(11.) var. 5* leacostoma. L. ilccllGri, Bk., 1847. L, groea- 

Uudica^ Jay, Cut, (Bk» oliin.) 
(12.) Tftr. y. malleata, 
(18.) var, ^ parira: peristomate sa*.pe soluto, linea elevaU 

parietali. 

14, I-, Wormskioldii, Bk., 1847, Species iiitermedia. Testa 
umbilicata, soluUsiima; spira doii<[Tnta, Acuminata; 
sutura profunda ; npertura tiemilunari, iiiterdum solwta. 
Taken with the dredge near Arsut, outside a river, by 
L. Barrett afld C. 1*. Mollcr. 

15, L. Holboelli, Bk. & MdJl. 

Ordo Hr. — Ptenoglossata^ Tros^choL 

16. Meiic.stbo nihiila, (Turlru) Fabr. Moll. Stimps, 
PyranuB fttnalula, Couthuoy^Bost. Joum. 

17. Scalaria groenhwidica, Perry, Conch., 1811. 
Turbo cUibnu grceuluudJcus, Ch.» XL, f. 1878-79. Scadtfia 

communis, var., Lam. 8. planicostata, Kiener. 
IS, Scalaria (Acirsii, siibr,^) boreali«, Bk, Proc. GeoL Soc.» 
1841 i Broun, Index PaL 

Scalaria, Lvcll *^0n the Risking of Swetlon," t. 2, f. U, IS. 
6. E*chrichlii, Holb. & M5ll. 8. undttta, Sow., Thea. 

19. Fhiline quadrata, S, Wood. Bnlliea g:ranulosa, ** Sars,'' 
MoU. ? 

20. Ph. punclatA, (BuHnea) Moll, non Adams. 

21. CyUchna alba, (Bullaja) Brown. Loven. 
Bulla corticata, Bk„ MblL B. tritict'a. Couthonv. 

22. C. Reinhardti, Holb. & MolK (Riilla oryza', Totten ?) 

23. C. (Roxania, snbg.) int5culpta, Totteo. Gould. (Bulla 
Reinhardti, Moll., p.j).) 

24. Utriculua turriius, (Bulla) MuU. Bulla obstricta, 
GoQid ? 

25* Di&phana debilis, Gould. Phil. 

Bulla Hubaugulata, M^U. Ampbi^phyra gigbo&aj Lov^a ? 

26. D. expausa, JefFr. 

27. Physema hiernalis. Couth. 

28. Dolabrifr/ra IluibocUii, Bergb. (BeloiigiiTg to a genus 
of Apli/siadt^ not found of'arcr than the West Indies* 
It is about 2 inches long, with an internal shell.) 

Ordo IV. — Gynmobranchlay Cuvior. 

29. Dendronotus Rfynoldsii, Couthouy, Boston Journ. 

Doris nrborcBceiiK, Fabr* TritoTiia, Mali* 
(30.) junior ? Tntouia Ascanii, Moll. 
81. LameUidoris Hturata, Bk. MoIL 

Doris inuriciita (Mull.), Sors. D. bilainelUta, AJd, et Hanc. 

32. D. acutiuscula, Stp. Moll. 

33. Doris ( Acanthochila) repanda. Aid, et Hanc. 

34. Polycera Holboellii, (Euplocamus) Mdlh 

35. P., another species, drawn by Iloibolb 
•36. Proctaporia fusca^ (Doris) Fabr., F. Gr., fig. 10. 

37. -^ioHs salraonacea, Couthouyj Boston Journ. 

Dorift papillosa. Fab. JEolia piipllligCTfi,, Bk., 1847. ^ 
bodocnno, Moll, aon Gun. 
38« J£», boston iensiw, Couth, (Omcnak ; Olrik.) 



126 MOBCH ON THE MOLLUSCA OF GBKENLAinX . 

39. M, Olrikii, Morch. AS, JS. 'gymnotm, Conihoaj, 

sed utrinque &8ciciilis c. xii uucienlomm papillis 
confertis, in linea recta transversa digestis ; dorso Budo. 

40. GaMna rupium, Moll. 

41. Campaspe pusillo, Bergh. 

42. Cratena hirsuta^ Bergh. t 

43. Limapontia ? caudata> MolL According to Fabridus. 
Ordo V. — Pteropoda, Cuvier. 

44. Clione limacina) Phipps. (Gr. Augursakt AiaurmL) 

Clione papilionacea, Fbllas. CHo retiua, IfftlL, Fabr. 
borealis, Brug. 

45. Limacina helicina, Phipps. (Gr. TuUukawsakJ) 

L. helicialia, Lain. Argonauta argo?, MtUL, Fted. Arf~_ 
arctica, Fabr. 

46. Heterofdsus balea, (Limacina) Moll. 

Spinalis Oonldii, Stimpson, Shells of New Engl., p. 17. 

47. Clio pyramidata, L. (Mouth of DaviB^ Strait; Hoi^ 

boll & Rink.) 

Classis n. — DioiGAy Latr. 

Ordo L-^Taenioslossata, Troschel. 

48. Onchidiopsis groenlandica, Bergh. 

49. Mai'senina groenlandica, (Sigaretus^ Moll. 

Marsenia grcealaudica, Bergh. (Bk.), t ▼., f. ISf Ogyn •r^ *^ 
glabxa, Coath., probably. 

50. M. (Oithonella, subgen.) micromphala, Bergh. (] 
bably the same as No. 49.) 

51. Velutina (Velutella, subg.) flexilis, MonU Lask. 

v. plicalUis, Lov^n, non MiilL quie Akera InJlaia Chbr.') 

52. V, (Velutina, Flem., subgen) lanigera, MolL Sars. 

Helix baliotoides, Fabr., teste MS, auctoris. 

53. V. haliotoides, (Helix) Miill. MolL Lov^d. 
(54.) var. grandis. Nerita bullata,Ch., X., p. 307, f. 1598—^- 

Bulla neritoidea, Cb., L c, lin. 20. (Juliuiehaab). 
55. V. (Morvillia, subg.) zonata, Gould. (Godthaah, Holl7« J 

Galericulam undatum, Brown, tette Qonld. 
(56.) var. grandis. Velutina canaliculata, Bk., 1847. (Ars*^^ 
Ban-ett.) 

57. Lacuna (Epheria, subg.) vincfa, Mont. 

Turbo diyaricatOR, Fabr. non L. Laoona, MOU. Lofte. 

58. L. glacialis, Moll. Middendorf. 

59. L. (Temana, subg.) pallidula. Da Costa. MolL 

60. Littoiina groenlandica, Ch. Mke. 

Nerita liuorea, Fabr. T. Davidii, Bolt. L. oastanea, Deih. 
(61.) var. Isevior. Nerita littoralis, MulL, Prod., 295^* 
Fabr. 

Lit. palliata, Sars. Lit. aretioa, Mdll. 
*62. L. obtusata, L. An. monstrum prsBcedentis ? 

63. Natica affinis, (Nerita) Gm. 

Natica clausa, Sow. N. septentrionalii, Bk. M0U. N. cob* 
solidata, Conthouy. 

64. Mamma (Lunatia, subg.) groenkndicay Bk. MoU. 
Loven. 

Natica pallida, Brod. & Sow. ? 



I 



MOBCH ON THE MOLLUSC A OF GREENLAND. 



127 



70. 

71. 
72. 

7S, 
74. 



65. M. (Mamma, subg., Kl. ?) l>oreali3. Gray, 1839, Beecliy*8 
Voy., t 37, f* 2. 

' N. Dana, M6H. 

66. M. (Amauropsis, aubg.» Morch) islnndicii, (Nerita) Gm. 

Natica helicoides, Johnat. 
(67.) var. fragilis. Natica cornea, Moll. 
* 68. Amaura Candida, MolL H. & A. Adams, Gen. 

69. Aclis Wallfri, Jeffr, (Hamilton Inlet, Labrador; Wal- 

klich.) 
70. Rissoa (Ooolia, subgen.) saxatilis, M5U. 
Trochoa striatellus, Fab. noo L. Rissoa aroticaj LotIq. 
71. R. (Paludinella) globulus, Moll. 
*f^ Bissoa (Onoba, subg.) castanea, Moll. 

B. examta, Stimps. SIi. New EngL, p. 34, 1. 1, f. 3, probablj. 
R scrobiculata, Moll, 

I II. Riaaoella cbumea, (Risaoa) Stimpson. 

^K Bo«ton Journ., Proc, IV., !4. Shelb of New EngL, p. »4, t. 1, 

^^B f. 1, sed »pm. gnsnlaDdica dMerunt : labro medio coarc- 

^V tato et colomeila torta. MdUer, Index, Addende, No, 4, 

^H Oasteropas. (Godtliaab, 60 fatboms, Holb.) 

^^'75. Skcnca planorbis, (Turbo) Fabr. MolL Loven. 

76. Homulogyra rota, Forbes & Hauley. (1,622 fathg,, 
^ Wollich.) 

^P 77. Mcelleria costulata, (Margarita) Moli F. ik H. (Godt- 
^ haab, 60 fathoms, Ilolb,) 

t^ 78* Torritella (Tachyrhynchus, eubg.) erosa, CoutlL, Bost. 
^K Joarn. 

^r T. polans, Bk. St MdU. 

K TQ f. (Tachyrhynchus, subg.) reticulata, Mighels & Adams, 
Bost. Journ., iv., 50, 
T. lactea, MdlL 
L ovr Cerithium (Bittium, subg.) arcticum, Morch. (Sukker- 
^^^ loppen, 65 fathomSf Holb.) 
^H Tmritella ? coatulata, MOU. (Nee Lam. nee Riaso.) 

^Kdl. Trichotopis borealia, Brod. & Sow. 
^y Tr. atlantica, Bk. 

^ 82. Tr. conica, Moll. (Near Fladoerne, 30 fathoms j Sondi-e 
I Strom tjord, 60 fathoms.) 

83, Aporrbab occidentaliH, Bk. (A fi^gmeat from Dr. 
|t Vahl.) 

84. Caocellaria (Admete, subg.) viridula^ (Tritonium) Fabr. 
>^ Adam!4, Gen., t. 29, f. 5. 

^r Jay- 

^rdo IL — Toxo^lotsata, TroAohel. 

»86. PJeurotoma (Ischnula, Clark ; Pleiirotomina, Bk., subg.) 
tnrricula, Mont., var. 
Sabep. 1. Murex angulatu^, Dou. 
DefimDOta uobtlii, MolK Pleurotoma McBlleri^ Beeve, f. 324. 
Defr. lactea, M5l)., tetU Reeve. 

86. Subsp. 2. Defrancia scalaris, Moll. 
i FniuB tnrricuJafl, Gotild. 

87. Sabsp. 3. Defrancia exarata, Moil. 
Pleurotoma ra^otata, '* UiUl.** B«QTe, f. $4$. 



79. 



80. 



IIOECH QN THE M.QULU\ 



88. Fl. Woodiana, MolL 
Pleurutouia leucostotim, Rceve^ f. 278. D. rctictilata, Vahl., 

teste KcHL'VL'. D. harpuluria, Couth.» tetle Loveo. Tritonium 
ro^euiQ. *7»nrs. Lov^n, No. 89. 

89. PI. elegit n.s MolL, iion Scscbi, 

90. PL pjTitmuiali!^^, Strcim. 
Subip. K FusuH pkntrotoio^us, C<?uth. DefrnncU Vahlii, 

Bk. MOll. Heive. 

91. PLcancellata, (Fiisus) Miglicis & Ailams*, 1841, 
Dt^frimcia ciDcreu, M^^llcr. Tritonium Ptngelii, Sars. 

(92.) v&i. [iurj»ureii. D, Pingelii, Uk, Moll. 
93. PL violiiceii, JI. & Adams. 

Derniiictii cvlindracea, Mull. Pleurotoma groEinUndica, Beere 
t 343, f>. suturalia, Mi>ll., teMte Reere. 

(94.) vftr. spira brevibri. PL liviiltt, Keeve, f* 316, non Moll 

(95.) var. ventricosa. Defraoeia Ueckii, MolL i 

96. PL boreulitf, Reisve, f. 2T7 (Errata). ' 

Defi-aucia walaris, '* VahL,** BeeTe otim, D, Imda, MSll* 
non L. 
(97.) var. Tenl^ico^^a, pallida. 

D. vlridula, MuUer, nun Fabr. PL decoftsatai Cottthouj, immi 
BrowD. 

Ordo ni,— BJiacMglossata, TioscbeL 

98. Tritonium {»^laciak\ L. Ch. Lam. 
Bucciiniuj carinatum, Phtpps, Voyage. 
•99. Tr. Hancot*kii, Miirch. B. groenlandicum, Hancock 
Reeve, non Ch. 
100. Tr. sciilari forme, Bk. & Moll. 

Buccinimi tortuasam, Reeve, f. U. B. teoue, Graj; Beevc, 
f 2T ? 
lOL Tr.'undalum, L., MiUd., Beitr., p. 482, pL 4, f. 3. (Olrik, 
Holb.) 

102. Tr. terrfB-novjp, Beck. B. Donovaui, ** Graj-," Reeve, 
f. 2. (Oiiik.) 

103. Tr. grtrnlandicum, Ch., X., p. 177. 

Tr. itndatum, Fabr. BucciDum ryaneam, Brug. Bk. Mdll. 
Lovfeo. Sars* B . boreale, Leach » Eoe^'s Voyage, ii., 1 81 9, p. 173. 

(104.) var, B. k'nebi-osum, Hanc. An., voL xviiL, t. 5, f, 12. 
(105,) var. B. Humphreysianum, MolL non BeuDett. 

106. Tr, Iiydi'oplmniim, (Euccinuin) Hancock (Olrik, 200- 
300 fathoms.) 

107. Tr, undulalum, MolL 

Bucointim glaciale. Don. B. labradorcnve, Reeve. B. un- 
datum, Midd., Bcitr., 482 ; non L. 

108. Tr. Humphreysianum, Bennet ? 

BucciDutn eUiatura, lieeve, fig. 1 ?, odd Fabr. 

109. Tr. ciliatum, Fabr. MoU. 

B. Mffilleri, Kccve, (.29. B. ivDebroaimii rar. bofealis^ 
Bcitr., t. 3» f. 7, 8. 
(110.) var, lorvior. 

111. Fusus (Neptunea, subg.) despectus, L. Fabr, 
(112.) mr. Tritonium foinicoium,'Fabr. Voy. de la Heche 

t. 2, FabiiL-ius' onglnai specimen, 
(113.) vax. Fnsu-i carioatus, Pennant. Lam, 




afOBCR 01* THE MOLLUSC I OF GRKKNLAXr. 



12!) 



114. F. toroatus, Gould, var. (IIolb<ill collected one spoci- 
men.) 

Fti^DS lio real 15, Phil., Abliild. 
|115. F. (Tritonofui^us* t^uhp.) Krceyeri, MqH. (Arstit, 
Lucas B&rrett & Uolljull.) 
FuiiU8 arcticuK, I'ljil., Abbild. 

116. F. latericcup, Mail. 

Tiitonimn inearaatum, Sars, *' Heise til Lofoten." 

117. F. <SipLo, siibjL'.) islnndifiis Ch., 4, f. 1312-13. (Dr. 
Pingel.) Dr. TlUff, 1 spcm. 

Tritonium antiqiitmi, Fabr, iiou L, 

118. F, Ilolba'llii, Mull. 

119. F. propinquui*, Alder. 

F. Sahini), Hanck., Ad., XYiii., pL 5, f, lu. 

120. F. ebur, Moreh. 

121. F. togatu?, Morch. 

122. F, liicbcsii?, Morcb. I 1114111. H incli loiig, wuli tor- 
retted spire. 

i23. F. < VolutopHiu>% subg.) norvcfjicus Cb., vnr. (Col- 
lect€tl by Pa>tor »lorgcnscn.) 

F. LaTgi1li«rti, ftfii, Jonra. do Concb. 
124. Murex (Tiophon, sub;:;.) clatbratus, L. 

Tritonium Rossii, f^ach. Found In aifi&li'fi *?lomaeli. 
(125.) var. Tr. Baniffii, Don. 

126. Tr. Guniieri, LoveJi. Tropboii TSamftu, ^Icl!. pp. 

127. Tr. craticulatus, (Tritonium) Fabr. 

Trcpbon Fabricii, Uk, Ibmcock. Miirtx burcitUs, Eceve. 

128. Purpura lapjlbis, L. Fabr, (N(.^ritikiiukijnrdpit.) 

vttf. V. irobricoto, Lam.» No. 3L 
129» C'Olumbella (Astyris, siibg.) rosacen, Gould. Moll. 
Mangel in Holbadlii, Beck. 

Flearotoma riridula, " Molb" Reere, 

130» Mitra (Volutoniitra, Gray, stibg.) grcunlaadica, Bk. 
M6U. 



Cl.A8St8 111. — EXOCKI'HALA, Lfltr. 

lo L—Bhipidoglossata, TrosehcL 

131. Trochuj* occidcntiilit*, Migbels & Adams, Slimpson. 

Trocho^H foruiosuB. FofIk's, Ann. & Mug. Mtirgariu alubttjunim, 
lik. Lov^D. h\ & U. 

132. Margarita ^o-a-ulaiKlicii, Ch., V., f. 1781, p. 108. Gm. 
Wood. 

-41. iJinbiUc«li«j Bro<L & Sow. M. undulata, vnr. lajvior, Mull. 
(133.) var. a, M. sulcatis Sow. Mid<l., t. 8, L 45, 46. 
<[134.) var. j9. M. coslt41ala, Sow. A Brod. 
(135.) var. y. M. uiiduJata, S. h B. 

TrochuH ciaeretiH, Fabr. p,p. Margarita itfiata, Lcacb, Uute 
Forb. & Htial. 

136, M. cinfcroa, Cntitfi.. Bo8t. Journ, 

Trochun var, Fabr, F. Gr. Margarita <itmta. var, 

gTUBnl;i 11. M. tordida, riancock, Anu. /<t Mag. M. 

grtMiUndicu: (Ch.) fortxiu dcfipectn, MOrch. 

(137.) var. grandia. M. striata, B. & S. (Olrik,) 
^•«1S2. I 



130 XOBTH Oir THE XOLLUSCA OP 

13S. M. faelicinB, Fhipp^. Fabr. 
Trochns acnioide^, Gm. Hc&c 
aredca. Leach. 

139. H. argeotata, Gould. Middeod. 

^ ^aca, MOII^ Index. 1£.~ ' 

140. M. Vahlii, MOUer. 

M. po^iUa, J«&. F. &H. 

141. Cemoria noachina, (Patella) L., Ifantiiti. plant. 

Patella fis»iinUa. MnlL, Pnd. S865. Gm. 

142. Sci=«arellaorUpata, Fleming, Tar. MoIL, Append. No. S. 

Ordo II^—SeterogloMalm, Trosch. 

143. PiUdiomnibeUiim, (Patella) Fabr. Gm. MolL Lot^si. 
Sara. 

144. Lepeta caca, (Patella; MulL Lot^. 

rar. FateUa Candida, Coathoaj. P. earn, M5IL 

145. Tectura testudinalie, (Patella) MnlL Moll. Lor^. 

Patella testndinaria granlandica, Ch., X., £. 1814-15. 

146. CliitoD ( Tonic ia, ^bg.) marmoreas. Fab. 

junior? Ch. einerens, ^L." Fabr. 

147. Cli.(Leptochiton,sabg.) albas, L. Fabr. M511. Loven. 

148. Chiton ruber, L. 

149. Ch. cinereus, L. 

Ch. asellos, Ch. 

100. Siphouodentalium, sp. According to O. TorelL 

Classis rV. — Cephalopoda, Cnv. 

101. Octopus groDnlandicus, (Sepia) Dewbarat, 1834. {Or- 
Imab-puirsa,) 

Sepia octopodia, Fabr. Octopus granolatos, MOIl. non laiv* 
O. arcticos, Prosch. 

152. Cirroteuthis Muelleri, Each. Sciadephoms, Beinh. & 
Prosch. (Jocobshavn.) 

153. Rossia palpebrosa, Owen, Hoss's Second Voyage. 

154. R. Moelleri, Stp., 1856, Act. Hafii. 

155. Leacliia hyperborea, Stp., 1856, Act. Hafn. 

156. Gonatus Fubricii, (Onjchoteuthis) Idchflost. (6^* 
Amikok.) 

Sepia loligo, Fabr., F. O. Onychoteuthis Samsehatiea, Mid^ 
(157.) junior {teste Stp.), Onychoteuthis ? amoana^ Moll (6^' 
Amikungoak,) 
*158. Sepioln atlantica, d'Orb. ? teste Stp. (Holb.) 

Classis V. — Agephala, Cuv. 

159. Teredo denticulata, Gray, Ann., 1850, YUL Dififert* 
T. nafuiy Turt. ( T. megotara^ F. & H.) al» parte dortffi 
autice rotundata, nee acuminata. 

Fholas teredo, Fabr. (Gr. Kerkmk^Kwna,') Teredo navalisi 
M&Il. non L. T. dilatata, Stimps. Boat Plroceed., Get 1851. 
probably. 

160. Mya truucata, L. Fabr. Moll. 

var. M. Uddcvalensis, Forb., Geol. Sorv., L, p. 407. junior M< 
arenaria, Fabr. tette MS. auctorit, 

161. M. nrcnoritt, L. Moll. Fabr. MS. 



w 



MORCH ON THE MOLLUSOA OF GREENLAND, 



131 



(FoesiJ, Dr, Rink.) 



163. 



164. 



Cyrtodaria ailiqua, Sp^l. 
Glycimeris incm^aata, Lam. 

C, Kurriana, Dkr* About 2 inches long ; pale-brown 
in coloor. (Found at low wat«r near Jacobehavn j Dr, 
Pfaff.) 

Saxieava ai-cticu, (Myn) L. Fabi% (Gr. Jmennek,) 
Mya bywifera, Fabr. SiLxicava gTCBnlmidica, Pot. & Mioh. S. 
pboladw, L. Gray, Parry's Voy. 

P'anomyftQorvegica, (Mja)S|>gl, Woodward. (Fossil, 
Dr. Rink.) 

Panopca Spengteri, Valeiie. 
Lroosia arenosa, (Pandorina) Moll. 

Xjyonei& gibhowi, Haooook^ Ann., XVIII, t, 5. f» 11, 12. 

Thracia myopsis, Bk. Moll. 
Tbmcia Couthouyt, StimpMn. 

Til, jjeptentrionalis, Jeffr.Tb. tnmcata, Mighele & Adams, 
Boston Joum,, 1842, t. 4, f. 1 (sed raargine dorsali 
magis declivi,) Long, 27 mm,; height 19 mm. (Eight 
Danish miles off laud outside the 8ondre Stromijord, at 
60 ftithoma, MoUer.) 

169. Neaera cuaptdata^ Olivi. (Wallich.) 

170. Tellina (Macoma, t*uhg.) calcansa, Ch. 
Tellina proximA, Smith. 

I. T* mcData, Desh. Perhnpfl only a vaiiety of T. calcarea, 

influenced by fresh water. (Artiut, L. Barrett.) 
2* T. cradsula, Desh, Small, triangular. Known from 
Greenland by a few specimens only. 
173- T. tenera (Macoma, Leach), Rot^s'n Voyage, ii., 1819, 
p. 175 ; ThomsonV Annals Fhilos., xiv., 1819, p, 2(M. 
^^ T, groenlandica, Bk, Goultl, p. 66. Ix>v&n, No. 299. T, 

^^B Fubridi, Hanley. Sow. Thes.» f. 112. Veuua fhigUtfi, Fnbr., 

^H No. 414. 

^■74. Venu8 finctuosa, Gouid, p. 67j f. 50. (Nnrsalik; llolb.) 
^^75. Piaidium Steenbuohii, (Cyclas) Moil, (In a [x»ud uoar 
f Baals River.) 

I 176. Thyasira Gouldii, Phih, M. Z., 1845» p. 74, 
CryptodoD llexuoBum, Mult. Goiild, f. 52. 

Montacutji elevata, Stinipson. 

M. bideutata, Gould » p. 59, aon Meet. 
M. Mcelleri, Ilolb. 

M. Davvsoni, Jeffr., Brit, Conch., ii., 216. 
180. Kellia pianulata, Stimi}i^on. 

K. rubra, Gould, p. 60, f. aa, uon Mont. 
Turtonia miuuta, (Venus) Fabr. (Gr. Ijtikmunatak*) 

Chioac miautat De&h., Cat. Veu., No. 121. 

A.«tArt« compressa, ( Venu^) L., Mantis, plant non Mtg. 
Veauiborealii, Ch., VIL, f. 4U, 414. Aniarlc uUipticft, Browa. 
A, waiinulcatu, Gmy. MOlL PhiL. AbbiUl , tion Lt^iich. 

83. A-d'ebricostata, M c Andre w & Forbes, Ann., IH47,X1X,, 
p. 98, t. 9, f. 4. 

A. crvnata, Oruy (?), Parry** Vay., 1?24 

I 2 



i 



177* 

78. 
179. 



181. 



182. 



132 



MOKCH ON THE MOLLUSGA OF OBEBNL 







184. A. (Tridoiiti, subg.) somiculcata, Leach, R 
Apj)., 175 ; noil Moll. 

Crassina arctica, Gray, Parrj-'s Voy. MOll. Ve 
Ch., VII., f. 412. Crassina corrugata. Brown. 
18u. A. (Nioania, subg.) striata, Lench, 1819, H 
App., 170. Gray, Beechy^s Voy., t. 44, f. 9, 
A. multicoBtata, Macgill. Phil. 
(186.) var. A. globosa, Moll. 
187. A. Banksii, T-*each. Moll. Beechy's Voy., 1 
♦188. A. pulchella, Jonas. Phil., Abbild., X., p. 6i 
A. Warhami. Hancock ? 

1 89. Cyprina isLindica, (Venus) L. non Fabr. (Dr 

190. Cunlium ci I latum, Fabr. 

C. islandicum, CIi. C. arctiouin, Soir., 111., f. 36. 

191. C. elegantulum, Bwk. MoUer. Sars. 

192. C. (Serriixjs, subg.) gi'osnlandicum, Ch. 

Venus Ulandica, Fabr. non I/. (Gr. Ipiktaimak.y 
(193.) var. liorenlis, Kcevo; striated anteriorly and 

1 94. Area pectuuculoides, Stticchi. (Wallicli.) 

195. Nucula inflata, Hancock, Ann. 

N. tennis, Gray. Mull. 

196. N. nitidn, Sow., Ilhust. Ilanley. 

197. N. dclphinodont:!, Mighcls & Adorns, Bofl 
iv., 40. Gould. 

N. corticata, llolh. & Mull. 

198. Nuculana buccata, Stp. & Moll. Sars. 

N. Jacksonii (Gould) dififert umbonum scalptora. 

199. N. i)eruuln, Miill. 

Area Martini), Bolt., Mus. Bolt. 
Leda macilenta, Stp. & MOll. 
Nncula rostrata, Mart. . Laui. 
N. fluviatilis. Sow., Gen. 

200. N. minuta, (Area) Miill. Fabr. Ch. Moll. 
ningoak.) 

N. parva. Sow., lllustr. 

(201.) var. gi-andiy. Leda complanata, Moll. 

202. N. (Porthindia, subg.) arctica, Gray, Pai 
Wood, Suppl. t. 6., 

Yoldia portlandica. Woodward, non Hitch. 
Nucula truncata, Brown, 111., 3cxv.,f. 19. 

203. N. i)ygm.Ta, Miinstor. Loven. Forbes & H 

var. Kucnla lenticula, Moll. 

204. Yoldia linmtula, Say. Torell. 
20.1. Y. hyporboren, Loven. 

206. Y. thmciajformis, Storcr. (Fiskemopsset an 
topiMjn, at 60 to 70 fatlionis.) 

Yoldia angnlaris, Moll. 

207. Modiolnria nigni. Gray, Parry's Voy., 182^ 
Ch., f. 767. 

Mytilus discors, var. sucvica, Fabr., Vid. SeUk, 17 
M. discrepaiis, Mont., Suppl. Ix*ach. MOller. 
^lodiola comprcssa, Menkc. 

Modiolaria striatula, Beck, Voy. do la Recherci 
Mantias. 



MOHCH ON THE MOLLUSCA OP GREENLAND. 133 

208. M. larigiitii, Grnj% Parry's Yoy, Wood. (Gr. Bibidi^ 
itr§vk.) 

Mjtiitu discors, Fabr. (Modiolaria) Bk, non L. 
►209* M. corrugata, Stimpj?OD, Couch. N.Engl., 1851. (GoJt- 
luvib, 50 to 60 far bonis., Holb.) 

ModioU discors, Gould, p. 130, £. 184, uoa L. 
210. M. (Dacrydiiim) vitmi, Holb. & Moll. (Sukkertop- 

pen, lit 100 futhojns, Holboll.) 
,211. Crenella decusjyitji, Mont., var. 
Modiola? cictrcula, M«Ml. 

212. Mytilus ediilis, L. 1^'abr., vor. {Gr. Uitok,) 

Mytilas cduliB eKomattiBj Ch., XI., f. 2024. 
if. borealis, Lara., No. 25 ? 
M. ©xornatiift, Pfr, Register. 

213. Ltmatula sulculus, Leach. Lovt'ti. 

Lima nileats, MdU. 

L. condiua, M6I1. Beck, 1347. 

214. Pect<^Q i^ndicus, Moll. Ch. (Or, Kirhsoaurtak,) 

junior P. Fabricu, Phil, 
(215.) var. costis devatis latisi. 

216. P. (Pseu(lamussiuai,Hybgeu.) gr<Bnkiidicus, Sow., Tlies. 
Loven. 

P. Titreust, Graj^ Parry's Voy., dob Cli. 



The AcALEPtLS and IIydrozoa, which follow here hi the 
Iftpendix No. 4 of Rink's "■ Groiiland/* &c., 1857, pp. 95-98, 

were then enumerated by Dit. Morch, witli ihcir synonymy 
lostly after O. Fabric! us* MSS. : they are now y^Ycn in u Ke- 

ri»ed Catalogtie by T)k, LilTKEN further on, pp. 187-190. 



BRAcnroN0POi>A* 

217. Ehfnehonolla psittaciai. Ch, Gni, Tcrobrfttula, Moll. 
21 S. Tcrobmtt'lhi SpitzbtTgicnsis^ Davidson, (Insida dead 

IVitftichonelUB and BalunL) 
21d. Terebratnlina septentrionali5, Couthouy. T. capiit-ser- 

pt'ntis ? 
220. Terebratula cranium, Miill, ( 108-228 fatboms, Wallich.) 



Greenland Names for Mollusca^ ha, 

Ajuuursah ; from Ajuck, a blain or l>oil ; Crntoria^ Ttctnra^ &c. 
Akff/tcrursak, from Aktipiut^ on animal which gits on its back ; 

Vehuina. 
AmikoMf from Ameh, a skin or Indo ; Gonatus Fabricii, LichL 
AmikttTBoah^ iIil' Hunic, 
Amikounf/ouk ; Gonaitis amicnus^ Moll. 
AiauTMiik ; Clm lijnaeiua, 
Auam'iak. ihe same. (A mra.) 
Hibihiartuk ; Mt>di(}laria l*pvigata> 
iktUtimriit, ma Ttsxrrmctut. 
Imab Imaia j, hcfut of the i^ea ; C/irj^saora pontamrdia. 



134 MOBGH ON THE MOLLU80A OF OBBENL4MI>. 

imab-puirsa o, who shoot themselves out of the sea ; OdcpuM 

green landicus, 
Imeningoah; Saxicava arctica?, L. 
Imennek^ because they squirt so much water (/meil). mUma 

tencra^ Leach. Saxicava arcHca. 
Imennigoak, the little Imenneky because they resemble Saxicava 

arctica; NucuUinu mintUa, 
Ipiksaunakj like a grindstone ; Cardium ffrcBnlandieum* 
Ipiksaunatak, the young of Ipiksannak ; Ttfrionia minuttiu 
Jpiarsiirsak, like a tent-bag ; the BcroldtB, 
Kallaliassuty because they seem to jump in the water. The 

Sepioid kind of Molluscs, found in North Greenland according 

to Mdm. Lytzen. Undetermined Cuttle-fish^ MolL 
Kemiarsursak, like a dog's pup ; JEoUdia^ Tritonia. 
Kerkstik-Kuma o, Wood-worm ; Teredo dentieulata, 
Killiortouty from Killiorpoky scraping tool ; MjfHiut eduiis. 
Kirksoaursakf because they jump out of the pots in which the^ 

are to be cooked {Kirkserpoky to jump down) ; or a likeness 

to Kirksoah ; Pecten Jslandicus. 
Korotungoak ; the little crenulated ; Trophon. 
KoTsoak ; see Amihorsoak, 
Nakkarmrsaky a bladder ; Boltenia Boiteni, L. 
Nuertleky from Nuak, thick spittle ; Meduste* 
Nuertleksoak ; Medusa capillatay Fabr., Fn. Gr. No. 203. 
Nyaurs€Bt o, hair-like ; Sertularia, 
Puirsarsoakasik a, the big bad ones which jump up ; an OdP- 

pus, Moll. 
SarpangaursiBt ; Sertularia. 
Siuterursak ; J^trina angelicip, Margarita helicina^ Menestko^ 

Skeneay TJttorina groenlandica, &c. 
J^Siuierok, fi'om siut, ear ; all Snails ; Margarita^ Liitorinay &c 
Siuterungoaky a little Snail ; Lacuna, Trophon, &c. 
Siuterursoak, the big Snails ; Tyitonium, Fusus. 
Terkeingaky like a shade for the eyes ; CkUon marmoreus. 
Terkungoaky in common with Oniscus ; a declivity or slope on a 

rock ; Chiton, 
Tessermetut o {Daisimetit), which live in freshwater lakss 

( T'esseK) ; Limncca, 
Tullukaurtahy from T\illuk, sea-raven, like a raven ; LinutciM 

arctica. 
Tupileky having a tent over it ; Cirroteutkis. 
ZJiloky from Uivok(?), to increase or swell out> or rather from 

UiungCy nymphae muliebres ; MyHlus edulis, L. 
Umataursak; Chrysaora pontocardia ; Julianehaab. 
Usursaky from ITsuhy penis ; Mya trunccUa, 



APPENDIX. 
Notes on Shells, by Dk. Moboh. 
1. The stomach of the Shark {Sqtiolus) often contains very 
rare animals; ofteu uninjured Cephalopods, Buecinum hfdrft- 



r 



MOROH ON THE M0LLU8CA OF GREENLAND. 136 



I 



phanum^ &r., also a large Antkipaihes {a black sponge-like 
CoraXy 

The Sburks are fighed for by the Greenlanders iu the winter, 
throngli a hole in the i^^e by a fine lioe of at least 100 faths., 
formerly mode of whalebone fibre. The Shark gently follows the 
hook to the surface, wbere \i is killed. 

2. Id the stomach of Anas moiUssinWy and especially of Ana» 
speetaMJUf rare shells are often found. Large specimens from 
Grcenliuid are nearly all found in tbia way. 

3. The shell of Limacina is always broken by the animal when 
captured^ In the stomach of a species of CottiiSy found in North 
GrBealaod, these shells, however, are found entire and empty, 

4. The Whelks (Buccinum and Fusus} are t^iken in sunken 
boflketa^ baited with dead QaIi, but the baaket must not lie too 
long aa the bait is eaten away by Ga,n7narus, Ac., in an incredibly 
abort time, 

5. The land and freshwater shells are particidarly interesting. 
Oa the west cfwM of Greenland are found one Vitrina^ two small 
Helitet (ffeHi-fvha jind If. ttHiaria of England), one Pupa^ and 
one Smecinea, 

Of freshwater sheila there ure one .small Planorbisy several 
Limntsa, and one Bivalve {Pindium), 

None have yet been found in Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla. 

In a memoir ** On the Ljind and Freshwater MoUusca of Green- 
** land/' ( ** American Journal of Conchology,") Dr. Morch oflferg 
the following remarks (p. 27 ) : — 

" The land shells of Greenland are nearly allied to those of 
leelaiid. The Vitrina^ the Succiuefi, and Htfalinu altiaria accord 
better with the species of Iceland than with Americftn species. 
The freshwater species of Greenland, however, are entirely 
different from those of Iceland, The Llmmrtr ol* Iceland belong 
to BadijCy while those of Greenland all belong to TJmnopktfsa ; 
both genera common to Europe and America. The Platwrbis 
of Greenland is perhaps PL parfius^ Say, of America, or PI, 
tpirarinSf Rm. f, 63, (PL Dazurif nob.). Pisidium Stfcnbuchii 
of Greenland is most nearly allied to P, pttMteilfim, found in 
Iceland and Europe, but it is nuich larger. They have been all 
found in Labrador by Packard. Although iho Arciic species are 
email, tliey are the largest in the group of i^i)ecies to which they 
belong. Thus Sucrinea Grfsntandica is larger than S, arenaria ; 
I'ttrina Urger than any European species, except^ perhaps, Vm 
major ; the Pupa is the largest of the Vortigos/^ 




X — Marine Invehtebrata collected by the AncTrc Ex- 
pedition under Dr. I. L Hayes, By W, Stimpson, 
BLB. (Maj- 1862). From the Proceed. Acad. Nat 
Philadelphia, 1862-3, p. 138-142. 1863. 



[Iti the following list those ppecics are enumerated which were 
ticoiigbt home from Port Foulhe and LitikioH Island^ on the 



136 STIMPSON ON ARCTIC INVERTBBRATA. 

Kastcrn or Greenland shore of Smith Sound, lat. 784°, from Cape 
Faraday on the opposite shore, Lit. 79° 45', and Gale Point {}BX,t\ 
Others arc mentioned as coming from Godhavn and from the W. 
and N.W. Coast of Greenland, which are included, by name or 
synonym, in the Catalogues given elsewhere in this " Manual*"] 

1. MolluBCa. 

Clione liraacina, Phipps. Port Foulke. 

Buccinum cyaneum. Beck. Port Foulke. 

Mya truncata, Lin. Mostly var. Uddevallensis. The siphons 

were found in great numbers in the stomach of a Walrus. 

Port Foulke. 
Saxicava arctica, Desh. Do. Dp. 
Astarte plana, J. Sow. Port Foulke. 
Cardium Hayesii, n. sp. Disco Island. Also found in NoTa 

Scotia. 
Crenella faba (0. Fab.), Stimp. N.W. Coast of Greenland. 

2. Cnutacea. 

Crangon boreas, J. C. Fabr. Godhavn ; Fort Fonlko i Lit- 
tleton Isl. 

Uippolyte Gaimardii, M.-£dw. Port Foulke. 

H. gibba, Kroyer. Port Foulke. 

H. turgida, Kr. Godhavn ; Port Foulke. 

H. Phippsii, Kr. Port Foulke. 

H. polaris, Owen. Port Foulke ; Littleton IsL 

H. borealis, Owen. Littleton Isl. 

MyMs oculato, Kr. Port Foulke. 

Anonyx ampulla, Kr. (var. ?). Gale Point. 

Pherusa tricuspis, n. sp. Littleton Isl. 

Gamniarus locustii, J. C. Fab. Port Foulke. 

Thcmit<to arctica, Kr. In the stomach of a Seal at Cape 
Faraday. 

Bopyrus hippolytos, Kr. Port Foulko. 

Iweruaeopoda elongate, Grant. Port Foulke. 

Htemobnthes cyclopterina, Steenstrup & Lutken. On the 
gills of Gi/m?ielis viridLs at Littleton Isl. 

Balauus balanoides, Darwin. Port Foulke. 

3. Annelida. 

Lepidonote cirrata, CErst. Port Foulke. 
L. punctata, CErst. Port Foulke and Littleton Isl. 
Phyllodoce groenlandica, CErst. Port Foulke. 
Cin-ntulus borealis, Lftmk. Godhavn ; Littleton IsL 
Siphonostomum plumosum, Uathkc. Port Foulke. 
Tecturella flaccida, Stirapson. Port Foulke. 
Brada iuhabilis, Stimpson. Gale Point. 
Pectinaria Eschrichtii, Uathkc. Godhavn ; Port Foulke. 
Spirorbis nautiloides, I^m. Port Foulke. 
Priapulus caudatus, Lam. From the stomach of a Walrus 
Port Foulke. 

4. Ediinodennata. 

Myriotrochus Rinkii, Steenstr. Port Foulke. 




WOODWARD, ARCTIC SHELLS, ETC. 



137 



AMerms griBulandica, Stimps. Port Fontke, 
A. alboln, SUrapii. Gotlliavn ; Port Foiilke, 
Opliioglypha 8ciuamosft» StinipH. GodhavD ; Port Foulkc. 



X^ — Sheli^, &a, from the Hunde Islands, Davis' 
Strait ; dretlged by Dr. P. C. Sutherland, October 
1852; named by Dr. 8. P. Woodward, 1805. (Phil. 
Trans, civ. 1865, p. 328.) 



No* L— 28-30 fathoms. (Soe page 192, for the material of 
these dredgings.) 

S<ixicnvfl nrctica. 



BaUmmporcAtus, DC? Water- 

woni fragments. 
Ik eraDfttu^ Brug. ? Wnter- 

worn fragments. 
Mya truoaita. Fragment. 



hcdjk mmuta. 



Siimll valve* 
Tel li nil calciirea (=.pruximn= 

lata). Fragment. 
Echinus, 9]). Fiagmcnts of 

plates and spines. 

No. XL— 30-40 fathoms. 
Odd valve R. sci-obh-'ulata. 



Stuall. 



(large) and fry. 
Creoeii* decussaUi. 
Ltmatala sulcata. 

A. iia. Young 

Swticava. Fry. 
castftnea. 



Young. 



Scis^urella crirtpata. 
Turritella lactua. Young, 
Margarita unduluta. 
M. eiiierea. Young. 
EchiniiH, Small spino. 
Spirorliia. Whorls furrowed. 



y Ljonai 



Ko. IIL— 2o-oO fathoms. 



I 
I 



xicava arctica. Adult, 
Ljonaia striata. Fry. 
AatATic striata. Adult 

fty. 
Leda tmncata. Fragments, 
L. pygnina. Fry. 
Crenella decussata. 



and 



No. IV.— 50^ 



PiUdium fuhiim. 
Acm»a* Frugraent. 
Chiton alhue ? Two valves. 



Nocula tenuis. Fry. 

Cardiura cleguntulum. 

Natica pusilla (grcDQlandtca). 

Fry. 
CyliL-hna Gouldii. Young, 
liitisoa serobieulata. 
Splrorbis. 
EcbtJius. Spine, 

■70 fathoms. 

Astiirto striata. Fry. 
JSpirorlii.s nautilus ? 
S. sulcata. 



Pi>cten i«landicu^. 
\ljm truncatji. 
Aatarl« torealia, 
catA. Young. 
A, siriata. 
Saxiccva. Fry. 




No. V*— 60*70 fathoms. 

Fragraenti^. Cronella dccuasata< 
Linmttila .nulrata. 
var» eemiaul- Turritella hictea. Fragment, 
Uissoa cuHt^ineii. 
K. dcruliiL-iitnta. 
iMargnrita heiicina. 



188 S. P, WOODWABD ON BSSLLBf BTa 



Margarita undulata. 


Fragment 


Pilidium fulvmn. 


.and fry. 




Serpola. 


M. cinerea. Fry. 




Spirorbis. 


Scissarella crispata. 




Balanus porcatus. Tergum and 


lattorina obtusata. 


Fry. 


fragmt^nts of parietes. 


Cemoria noachlna. 


Fry. 


Echinus. Fragments of spines. 



XII. — ^A Revised Catalogue of the Tunicata of Obekk- 
LAND. By Dr. Chr Lutken, University Museum, 
Copenhagen. 1875. 



TUNICATA. 



AsddisB simplices (Greenl. Nakasursak). 

1. BoUenia Bolteni^ L. 

F. Gr. 323 (A. davata, Fabr.). 

B. reniformis et ciliata, Moller, Ind. MolL Or., p. 95. 

2. Cynthia chrystallina (Moll.). 

Clayellina cbryst., Moll. L c, p. 95. 

3. C, rusHca (L.). 

F. Gr. 316 and 317 (?). (Jan.?) ( A. quadridentata, 

Fabr.) 
A. monoceros, Moll. 1. c, p. 95. 

4. C pyriformis (Rthk.). 

Jun. ? F. Gr. 322 (A. villosa). 
Obs, — A species from East Greenland is described by Knpfitr 
as C. villosa^ Fabr. (Z:^ deutsche Nordpolarfahrt, IL, p. 244). 

5. C, echinata (L.). 

F. Gr. 318. 

6. C, conchilega (Moll.). 

Moller, I. c. 

7. C, (Molgula) gluHnans, Moll. 

Moller, 1. c, p. 94. 

8. C. tuberculum (Fabr.). 

F. Gr. 321. 

9. C, Adolphi, Kupt 

Zte deutsche Nordpolarfahrt, II., p. 245. 

10. Phallusia lurida (Moll.). 

Moller, 1. c, p. 95. 

1 1. Ph. complanata (Fabr.). 

F. Gr. n. 320. 

12. Chelyosoma Macleayanum, Sow. Brod. 

Cp. Eachricht'a paper in K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr. V. 
(1841). 

13. Pelonaia, sp. 

(An undetermined specimen from Jacobshavn in the Mnseom 
of Copenhagen.) 

Obs, — The AseiditB of Greenland require revision, with exami- 
nation of fresh specunens ; several of the above-named specifli 



LIJTKFIN ON TUB TUNIOATA OP GREENLAND. 139 



are only imperfectly known, and others remain nntloscribed 
in collections. The Compound AscUUte are rather numerous, 
bat no attempt has been made to identify them. ^^ Alvtfonium 
rubntm and diffitatum^'* F* Gr. 462 and 463, probably belong to 
thi* division. ** Si/noicum tureens" owes ita introduction into the 
** Fauna of Greenland" to a mistake. 



XIIL — The PoLYZOA of Greenland. By Dr. Chjl Lutken, 
University Museum, Copeahagen. 1875, 



This List 19 an abstract from Dr* Smitt's Monograph of the 
Scandinavian and Arctic Polyzoa in the ** Proceedings of the 
Swedish Academy *' for 1B64-8, to which work the reader is 
refeiTpd for further particuLirs, References to Kircheopauer's 
list of Polyzoa from East Greenland, in •* Die zweite dentsche 
Nordpolajfahrt," are added.* 

X. CjclQstomata, 

1, Crista ebumea (L, ). 

2. ZHastopora simplest (Busk). 
Z* Diattopora hyalina (Flemg.)* 

Kirchp., p. 426. 

4. Mesenlerijiora mceandrina (Wood). 

5. Tubulipora atlantica (Forb.), 

Idmotiea atL (Forb,), Kirchp., p. 427. 

6. T.^m^Ha (Lmk.). 

T, terpens, Fabr. F, Gr, 428, 

7. T.flaheUaris {Faht,). 

Fabr. F. Gr. 431. 
Phalangellafl,^ Kiichp., p. 427. 

8. r. ineragsata (D'Orb.). 

9. T.Jnnffia (Couch). 

10. T. pemci/iafa (Fsi)r,)» 

Fabr. F. Gr. 430. 
IL Homera lichenoides (F'abr,). 

Fabr. F. Gr. 436 j Kirchp., p. 425. 

12. Discoporella verrucaria (L.)- 

Fabr. F. Gr. 432 ; Kirchp., p. 427. 
12a. X>. hispida, (Fl.), 
Kirch p. > p, 427. 

13. Defrancia tucemnrm (8ars), 

2. Ctenoitomata. 

14. Alc^onidiuM fiirnuium (Flemg.). 

Kirchp., p. 428. 
1^, A. gehttinosum (L.). 
Kirchp., p. 428. 



* *t^'*l»U^*^Tuhiporar**MaAnjMriirm^ *' Afi//<7wrfl" of Fubridwi 
■r« ipfiarestlj all I'olyxoa, with ibc luceptfon of No«. 438 (NiUlipftm,9^,y 
Md 4tl4 {Coraliifia ttfficiualit /). 



Ik 




140 LUTKEN ON TnE POLTZOA OJT OBBENL13ID. 

16. A, hispidum (Fabr.). 

Fabr. F. Gr. 448. 

3. CSftiloBtomata. 

17. Cellularia (emata (SoL). 

Scrtnlaria replant, Fabr. F. Gr. 469. 
Menipca arctica (Busk) and M, Smiitiij Nordxn., 
Kirclip., 1. c, p. 417-8. 

18. C. sca/rra (v. Ben.). 

Sertularia haleeina, Fabr. F. Gr. 455. 
Scrupocellaria inerfnis (Norm.), Ktrch« L Cy p. 418. 

19. Gemellaria loricata (L.). 

Fistulana ramosa, Fabr. F. Gr. 451. 

20. Caberca EUisii (Flemg.). 

21. Bugvla Murray ana (Bean). 

Flustra foliacea, Fabr. F. Gr. 445. 

22. Flustra chartacca (Gm.). 

23. Fl, f»cjnbranacca (L.). 

24. FL papyracca (Pall.) 

25. FLfoliacea (L.). 

26. Ceilaria articulata (Fabr.). 

Isis hippurisy Fabr. F. Gr. 427. 

27. Memhranipora lincata (L.). 

? Flustra membranacea, F. Gr. 446. 
Kirchenpauer, 1. c, p. 419. 

28. M. spinifera ( Johnst.). 

29. M, Flemingii, Busk. 

M, FUmingii, B., and M, minax^ B., Kirchp., p. 419. 

30. i^f.jDi7o*a(Lmn.). 

31. Eicharipora annulata (Fabr.), 

Fabr. F. Gr. 444. 

32. Porina Malum (And.). 

33. P. ciliata. Pall. 

34. Anarthropora monodon (Busk). 
Z5, Escharella porifcra {^miti), 

? Ilemcschara (?) contorta^ Kirchp., 1. c, p. 422. 

36. Esch, palmata ( Sars). 

37. E, Legentilii (Aud.). 

Ixpralia Smittii, Kirchp., p. 420. 

38. E, Jacotini (Aud.). 

39. E, auriculata (Hass.). 

40. E, Landsborovii (Johrist.). 

L€j}ralia iMiidsfporovH, Kirchp., p. 421, 

41. -E. linearis (Ilass.). 

42. Mollia hyalifia (L.). 

Ccllcpora vUida, Fabr. F. Gr. 443, 
Lcpralia fiitida, Kirchp., p. 420. 

43. Myriozoon crustaccjtm (Sm). 

44. M. sid)gracilc (D'Orb.). 

Millepora truncata, Fabr, F. Gr. 435 (p.p.). - 

45. M, coarctcUum (Sars). 

Mill, truncata^ F. Gr. (p,p.). 



^46 



LUTKRX ON THE FOJUT^O^ OF-aBEiaNLAND. 



14 L 



46. I^prtiuu spathutiferfi (Sm.). 

47. L, hippoptn (Sm.). 

48. PorcUa acutiro$i rU {'iym,). 
149. P. IftvU (Flemg/). 

^, Efckura verrucosa (Bask). 

61, E, cervieontis (Pall). 
Kircbp., p, 424. 

62. E, elegmUula (D'Orb.). 
53. Escharoidcs SarsH (Sm.). 

? Cdkpora spongites^ Fabr. F. Gr. 439. 
E. rosacea (Busk). 
Diqcopora coccinea (Abdg.). 

Lepralia I'vachii and /-. shmosa (Busk), Ivircbp., 
p. 421. 
Z). appensa (Hass.), 

57. D. sincera (8m.). 

58. D. Shcnei (Sol.). 
Celtepota Skenei, Kirdip., p. 4^4. 

Celh'pora scabrn, Fobr, 

yiiUepora reticulata, FaUr. F. Gr. 4.37. 
Kircl»p., p. 423, 
60. C ramulom (L.). 

C, verrucosa, Fabr. F. Gr. 440, 
■^1. Celleporarift incrassata (Lam.), 
■ ^ Kirchp.. p. 423. 

^n2. Hetepora celftelosa (Liun.). 
^HS3. Loxosoma^ i^p.* 

tlV. — Insects and Spiders of Greenland : an Abatract 

^L of tLe Sketcli <if the Insect-fanna, Arachnidn. etc., of 
^POreenJand (Freshwater, Land, and Litt*u7d Arthropoda), 
l*y J. C. ScaiODTE, ia the '• Naturb. Bitlrag til Riuk'a 
Beskrivelse af Gronland,'' 1857, pp. oO-T^, 



I 

tfO. 

I- 



II 



L— INSECrrA. 



dentherata (Coleoptera). CarabL 

I^ebriu lavali.H, Pa^k., Moii. Car. 52, xxxi* 
^iitrt)bus by]»erboreivs Dej., ^[u Col. III. 30, 3 ; O, Fab., F. 
[ Gr. 190, 'l39. Gr. Siiitisurtuk. 
bindyi-^llus cogn«tLi»» Gyll.^ Thh. Suec IV., App, 455. 
Bembidium Grapei, Gylh, Utid, IV., App. 403, 

lydroporus, sp. 

dvinbc'tes dolabratufi, Payk.,Fii< I. 204, 13 1 O. FnU,,F. Gr. 
189, 138. 



(IrcbeDpauerf L c, add* tr# ihe li^l of <:ri><!; aland Folyxoa, CtUtpoteUa 
*^ ' i«» (Norm.) and Lepralia pertuita. Hunk, 



142 J. o. schiOdte on inj^kcts, isra of OBmii^ifB. 

Gyrini. Gyrinus, sp. 
St€mhylini, 

Quedius fulgidus, Fabr., Mant. Ins. I. 220, 14. 

Quedius, sp. 

Micraljmma brevilingua, Schiodte, Naturii. Tldskr., sen 2, L 
337, 2, t. 4, f. 2. 

Antliobium Sorbi, Gyll. op. c. U. 206, 8. 

Staphylinus maxillosus, L., O. Fab., F. Gr. 140. 

S. fuscipes, O. Fab., F. Gr. 141. 

S. liporum, O. Fab., F. Gr. 142. 
Byrrhi, 

Cistela (Byrrhns) stoica, O. Fab., F. Gr. 181, var« of B^kut 
fasciatuSf F. 

Simplocaria metallica, Sturm, DeutecLl. Ins. IL 111, 18, 1 34, 
f. B. 
CurcuUones. 

BhytidosomuB scobina, Schiodte. 

Phytonomus, sp. 

Otiorhyncbus maurus, GylL, op* c, UL 298, 24; O. Fab., F. 
Gr. 136. 

O. arcticufl, Fab., F. Gr. 137. 
Coccinella, Coccinella trifSisciata, O. Fab., F. Or, 183. 

Ulonata (Venropteray parte). 

Ephemera culiciformis, linn.. Faun. Snec. 1475. 

Synistata (Henroptera, parte, et Tiichoptoni)* 

HemerobiiLS obscurus, Zett., Ins. Lapp. 1049, 7. 
Phryganea grisea, Lin., Faun. Suec. 1484. 
P. interrogntionis, Zett., Ins. Lapp. 1063, 12. 

Pieiata (Hymenoptera). 

Neraatus vcntralis, Dahlb., Consp. Tenthred. 9, 91. 

Bombus byperboreus, Schonli., Vet. Ak. Handl. 1809, 1. 57, 
t. 3, f. 2 (focni.) ; Apis alpina, 0. Fab., F. Gr. 155 j Bombut 
arcticuSy Kirby, Suppl. App. Parry's Voy. ccxvi. (foeni^.* 

B. balteatus, Dahlb. Bombi Scand. 36, 8 (/(Bm.) ; Bom, Kir- 
biclluSf Curtis, App. Ross's Second Voy. Ixii. (masc.) ; an 
etiam fcero. ?) ; Bomb, arcticus, Kirby, L c, (masc.).f 

Cryptus arcticus, Schiodte. 

C. Fabricii, Schiodte. O. Fab., F. Gr. 198, 154. 
Olouata (Lepidoptera). FapUiones. 

Arg}'nnis chariclea, Herbst., Pap. 10, 125, 47, t. 272, £ 5, 6; 

Papilio Tullia, 0. Fab., F. Gr. 143. 
Chionobas Balder, Boisd., Icon. Lep. 19, L89, 4, U 39, f. 1-3. 
C. Bore, niibn., Pap. t. 29, f. 134-136. 
Colias Boothii, Curtis, App. &c. Ixv. 10, t. A., f. 3-;5. 
Noctua:. 

Agrotis quodi-augula, Zett., Ins. Lapp. 935, 4. 



* See Curtis'8 List of InsectB from the Parry Islands, &o., further oo. 

t See Eirbr'fl List of Insects from the Fany Islands, &c., farther on. Hie 
Insects and Arachnids of the Kast Coast of Greenland are also enomerated 
farther on. 



J, c schiOdti^. on insects, etc. of gbeen^land. 143 

Agrotis rava, Herr. 

A. iakndica, Staudinger. 

A. Drewsenii, Staudinger. 

Nocttia Westermanni, Staudinger. 

HadenaexidiB, Lefeb.« Add. Soc. Entom. FVaDce, Y. 392^ t, 10, 

f. 2. 
H. Sommeri, Lefeb., op. cit., 391, f. 1, 
H. groenlandica, Zett., Ins. Lapp., 939, 9. 
IL picticoUis, Z«tt,, Ins, Lapp., 939, 8. 
Aplecta occulta, Rossi, var. implicatfi, (Hadena) LefeK, op, 

dt,, 394, t 10, f. 5. 
Plnsia gamma, L., ¥u, Suec,, 1171« 
P« interrogationifl, L., Fn, Suec, 1172, 
P. parilia, Hiibn., Noct^ t. 90, t\ 422. 
P, diaeema, Dalm., Bobd., Index, 93. 
AnartA algida, Li?feb., op. n'^, 395, f. 5, proliuhly Phal^ma 

Myrtm, O. Fab., Fn/Gr., 147. 
'' A. amissa, Lefeb., op* eii., 897, f. 6, 7. 

A. leucocyda, Staudinger, 

A, vidua, Hubu., var. iapponica, Tliunb., Diaa, Ins. Sv,, 2, 42. 
Phaltenee, 
PhjBsyle polaria, Boisd., Duponch., var. Brudei, Lefeb*, /, ir., 

399, f. 8. 
Cidaria brumata, Lin., Fd. Sv.» 1293* 

Botys hybridalis, Hiibn,, Pyral., t. I7t f. 114, 

^H Terad iodecoraua, Zett., op, eit,, 989, 3. 

I Eudorea centurieilo, iSchlfferai., Syst* Vera. 

I Pempelia carbonarieUa, Fischer von RtwHlei-st. Abb. 30. 

I Plutella senilelJa, Zetterstedt, op,ri/.. lOUl, 2. 

[ <^tUata (Diptera). 

ChiroDOtnus poUiri?!, Kirby, SuppJ. App. Parry*.s Voy,, ccxviii,, 

Curtis, App„ he. Ixxvii., 27, t. A., t', 14. 
C. lurpiin, Zett,, op, cit,, Hll, 82. 
C. frigidus, ZetU lAiV/., 812, 14. 
C. variabilii*, Staiger, Naturb. Tidssk., ser. 2, 1., 351, 4 ; XL, 571, 

44. 
C. baaaUi>, Stieg., iifid., 351, 6. 
C. bynnnoa, Meigen, Zwcifl. Ins., L, 46, 5G. 
C. at«*rTiniU8, Mt'ig., I., 47, 59. 
C. picipet*, Meig., 1,, 52, 74. 
Diiinu-y* Waltlii, Aleig., Sticg., 353, 10. 
TauypTii (TfivsineniH, Zett., Ifis, Lap., 817, 1. 
T. U , Zatt.y ibid., 815, 5. 

T. til' t'g., op. cii., 354, 13, 

C^raiotjogon Bordidellus, Zett., op, rit., 820, 6. Culex puHcans 

{pukfiaris), O. Fabr,, F. Gr., 211, 173. 
Tipiila arctica, Curtis, op, cit^ lxxviii,29, t. A. f. 15. T^rivoia, 

O. Fabi ., F. Gr., 156. 



144 J. C. SCHlOl>TE OX INSECT^ ETC OF OBBBKUkXlX 

Eriopt«*ra fascip*imi*, Zott.. op. eit^ 831, 9l 

TricLocera maeuliprnni^. Mi'ig., I^ 214, 4? Tipmla regelo' 

tioHiiy Fabr„ F. Gr., 202, 157. 
Boletina groenUnilic:), Staeg^ 366, 18. 
^jcia^l Lridipennis, Zett., 827, 9. 
Simulia vitmtsi, Zott., ^3, 3. Cttiejt repia/u, O. Fahr., F. Gr., 

210, 172. 
RhamphomTia uigrita, Zett., Ins. Lapp., 667. Empis bareaKSf 

O. Fabr.,'F. Gr., 211, 174. 
Dolichopus gncDlaihlicu^ Zett., Dipt. Scao«L, IL, ^8; D. 

tibialis, var. b., Zett., Ins. Lapp., 711. 
HelophUus grccnbiidicus (Tabanns), O. Fab., Fn. Gr^ 208^ 170; 

H. bilineaUUj Curtb, op. cit^ Ixxviii.. 30. 
Svrphus topuirius, Meig. Ill,, 305, 47. 
Sphaerophoria strigata, Stseg., 362, 31. 
Sarcophaga mortuorum, Lin., Fn. Suec^ 1830 ; Volueeila wutH^ 

Fabr., F. Gr., 206, 166. 
Musca emhroceplKiia, Meig. V. 62, 22 ; Volmeella vomiioria, 

Fabr., F. Gr., 207, 167? 
M. gnsulanilica, ZetL, Ins. Lapp., 6d7, 16 ; Voi, c^tar, O. Fab., 

F. Gr. 207, 16S ? 
Anthomyia dontipes, Fabr., Svst. Antliat, 393, 95. 
A. irritans. Fallen, Mii5c., 62, 58. 
A. frontata, Zett., Ins. Lapp., 669, 35. 
A. trigonifera, Zc'tt., ibid., 669, 36. 
A. arcticji, Zett., ibid., 669, 34. 
A. triangiilil*era, Zett., ibid., 680, 83. 
A iicatophagiiia, Zett., ibid., 677, 69 ? 
A. striolata. Fall., Muse., 71, 77. 
A. nificeps, Meig. V., 177, 62? 
A. ciliata, Fabr., Ent. Svst. IV., 333, 87. 
Scatophaga squalida, Meig. V., 252, 10. 
S. littorea, Fall. Soatom., 4, 4. 
S. fiicorum, Fall, ibid., 5, 5. 
Cordylura hxmon-hoiilalis, Meig. V., 237, 17. 
Helomyza tibialis, Zett., Ins. Lap., 767) 12. 
H. geniciilata, Zett. ibid., 767, 13. 
Fiophila casei, Lin., F. Siiee., 1850. 
P. pilofia, Stsegl, op, cit., 368, 52. 
Ephjdra stagnalis, Fall., Hydrorayz., 5, 5. 
Notiphila vittipennis, Zett., Ins. Lap, 718, 6? 
Phytoniyza obscurella, Fall., Phytoniyz., 4, 8. 

Sactoria. 

Pulex irritans [?], L., (). Fabr., F. Gr., 221, 193 ; on the Hare 
only. Gr. Ubilib-Konia. Piki^iksak. 

Bhyncota. 

Ilfttcrogaster gnnilandlcus, Zett., Ins. Lap., 262, 3. 
Cicada lividella, Zett., ibid., 290, 5. 
Aphis piinetipenniis, Zett., ibid., 311, 7. 
Dorthesia chiton, Zett., ibid., 314, 1. 



F 



CHIODTE ON INSECTS, ETC. OF OEEENLA.ND. 145 



lictJaa humanua, L,, O. Fab., Fn. Greenly 215, 182. Or* 
Ifimsk. (Egg) Erkek. 

t following Bird'lice are enumerate*! by O, Fabricius in 
x»n." under '•Pediculus" (No. 184-192) :— . 
184. Btrigis. Gr, Opib-Koma, 
185. corvi. Gr, TuUukab-Koma, 
» 186. dangalBB. Gr. Kicrtliitorpiabsab-Komii. 

187. gryl&B. Gr. Sprbiib-Koma. 

188. bassani. Gr. Kiibsab-Koma. 

189. lari. Gr, Najab-Koma. 

190. tringie. Gr. Sargvarsub-Komn. 

191. hiaticulffl. Gr, Tiikagvaj ub-Koma, 

192. lagopi. Gr, Akeisib-Koma.] 

Aodectes (?) canis, De Gecr, M^m., VII., t. 4, f. 16 ; Fn. Gr., 
15y 183* Gr. Kemmik'Kanaa. 



upp. 



r 

■. U.— ARACHNID A. 

osa aaccata (Fabr.), and Attua, spp.,' Fn» Gr., 204-208, 



kngium opUio }, L. O. F,, Fn. Gr., p. 225, No. 203. Gr, 
[lutdk. 



Ub, Ac, »pp^ Fn. Gr^ 194-202. 

r^ '^Acaras" O. Fabricius enumerates (No, 194-202) ; — 
194. giro. Itch-mite. Gr, Okok. Killib-Innua. 
IS>5. cadavenim. In dried Fish es[)eciallj. Crr. Okok. 
196- holoftericeus. Gr. Okok. 
197* aquaticus. Gr, Iinak-Komo. 

198. muacorum. Gr. Merknb-Koma, 

199. gymnopterorum. Gr, Anarirsab-Koma. 

200. ooleoptmtorimi. Gr, Egyptsab-Koma. 

201. longicoruta* Gr. Ujarkab-Koma. 

202. littoralis. Gr. SirkstU-Koma]. 

(p. 71). 
Lutkeo's Catalogue at p. 1(53.) 




A^mphlpoda, EntomoBtraea (pp. 72, 73). 
r. Lutken'5 Reviaed Catalogue of the Crustacea, p. 146.) 



146 l^tlKES 05 THE CSUsTACSA OF GBKBBLAXDL 



XT. — The CBrsTACxi of Gree5laxiil By Dr. Gbb. 
LxTTKES, UniTierstT Maaaun, GopcnhageB. IWfi. 



This lisi ii chied j a rerxsed copy of that gmn Iqr Fr£ 
hardi in Rink'* ** Greenhnd.'' coirtainiiig the csrtdiQM and 

addition published of laie 



1. CAUmceceteM pkaiamgiMM (FahrA, Gr, 

Camter pkaloK^uumj Fabr. Faona Gnenl, a. S14. 
CdMcer cpilia, Fabr^ Vid. Selsk. Skr^ K. a, III, 

p. 180. 
ChkmoectUs opUm^ Krojer, Natorii. TUIiifcr., IL, 

p. 249. 
Erojer, V^i^ en ScandinaTiev Ae^ Cmlae^ t L 

2. Hjyas aranea (Linn.). GrtenL Arksegiak, &e. 

Cancer arameutj Linn., Faona SoeCf TL^ 2030. 
Canter aranemB^ Fabr., F. Gr. 213. 

3. Hyas coareiaia (Leach). 

Leach, Malac. podof^thahn. britt, t. 21, Cf 

4. Pagurus pubeaeenSf Kr. 

Erdjer, Natorfa. Tid88kr.y II., p. 251 ; VoTBge, te, 

t. 2, f. 1. 
EigMgnrus jmbeteentj StimpKUi, Fioe. Philad. Acid.t 

1858, p. 75. 

5. Crangan bcrtas (Phippa). Greenl. Umiktak. 

Cancer hamaroides, Fabr., F. Gr., p. 218; Mohr, In- 
lands Natnrh., n. 245, t. 5. 

Cancer boreaSf Fhipps, Yojage, p. 190^ i. 12, f. 1. 

Sabine, SnppL App., p. 235 ; Beeches V07. ZooL, 
p. 87 ; Zool. Dan., t 132, f. ]. 

Kroyer, Naturh. TIdsskr., IV., p. 218, t. 4^ f. 1-14. 

Bell, Belcher*8 Voy., p. 402. 

Budiholz, Zte dentsche Nordpolart, p. 271. 

6. Sahinea septemcarinaia (Sab.). 

Crangon sepiemcarinaiaf Sabine, App. Voy. F^njy 

p. 58, t. II., f. 11-18. 
Owen, App. Yoj. Boss, p. 82 ; KrGyer, Natorii. T^, 

IV., p. 244, t. 4-5, f. 34-44. 

7. ArgU lar (Owen). 

Crangon lar^ Owen, ZooL Beechej's Voyage^ p. 88. 
Kroyer, Natarh. Tidsskr., IV., p. 255, t. 5, f. 45-62. 



* Th« Bynonyms given are principally taken from antton on Axctfe or 
BeaadintTian Zoology. 

t The occurrence of Lithodet maja and Nephrop* norveffictu m Gieea- 
la&d needi confirmation. Cancer gammarus, F. Or. 815 {Hcmanu ralfoni), 
arait be omitted ; also, 220 ^Cancer archu ; Gr, Tillektoatelik), *a 




LUTKEN ON THE CBU3TACEA OF OREEtTLAlTD, 147 

8. Hippolyie FahricU^ Kr. 

Kroyer, Naturh. Tidsekr., Ill, p. 571; Vid. Selik, 
Skr., IX., p. 277, t I, f. 12-20. 
Hippoli^lc Gaitmirdiij M, Edw. 

Milne Edwards, Hist. Natur. d. Oast., II., p. 378. 
Krojer, Nat. T., IV., p. 572] Vid. Selsk. Skr., 1. c, 
p. 282. t. L. f. 21-29. 
'^k' ffipjwlt/te ffilfba, Kr» 

Kro^rer, Nat, T., III., p, 572 j Vid. Selsk* Skr., I c, 
p. 288, t. l.-n., f. 30-37. 
Od#.— Auct* cl. Goosii (Ofvere. Veterisk, Aknd, Fdrhandl., 
Stokhoim, 1863) a pnecedente sexu (oiaseulo) modo diversA; hue 
qooqae accedit /Up. Belcheri, Bell (Belcher's Voy,> p. 402, t. 24, 

10. 0, incertoy Biichh. Zte deut^he Nordpokrfahrt, p. 272. 

11, Hippolyte spinui (Sow,), 
Cancer sptnui, Sowerby, Brit. Miacell., t. 21. 
Alpheus spinus. Leach, Trans. linn. Soc., XI., p. 247; 

Owen, Append. Ro^, p. 83, t. B., f. 2. 
Hippolyte Sowcrtei, Leaoh, Make, podophthalm. hritt.| 

t. 30, 
Sippolyie Sowerbei, Kr. N. T., IlL, p. 573 ; Vid. S. 

Skr. 1. c, p. 298, t. II., f, 45-54. 
Bell, Brit. Crust., p. 284. 
12» Hippolyte macikniay Kr. 

Kroyer, N. T., TIL, p. 574; Vidensk. SeUk. Skr., 
IX., p. 305, t. II., f. 55-56. 
ISfl. Hijrpolyte Pkippsii^ Kr, 

Kroyer, N. T., III., p. 575; Vid. S, Skr. L c, p. 314, 
t. ill., f, 64-68. 
b, Hippolyte turyxda^ Kr. 

Kroyer, N. T., III., p. 575 Vid, 8. Skr., 1. c, p, 308, 
t. IL, III., f. 57-63. 
06«.— Auctorit. cl Goesti (1. c, ) fcemina pneceden tis. According 
to Buchhobj (I, c, p. 274) the difference is not of a sexual cha- 
iseter» but still he regards them only as varietiei of the eame 



I4fl. Hippolyte potaris (Sixh.), Gr. Pikkutak. 

Cancer squilla^ Falir., var, j9., Fauna Or,, n, 216, 



ft 14tf 

H Alpheus polarisy Sabine, Suppl. App. Parry, p, 238, 

^^^^ t. 2, f. 5-8. 

^^^^^1 Owen, App. Voy. Eo9.s, p. 85. 

^^^^ Kroyer, N. T., IV„ p. 577 ; Videnek. Sekk. Skr., 

^V I c, p. 324, t. III., IV., f. 78-82. 

^^^ Bt*!!. Belcber*8 Last Arctic Voy., p. 407. 

^L b, Hippolyte borealis, Owen. 

^^^L Owen, App. Voy. Ross, p. 89. 

^^L_ Kroyer, N. T., IV., p. 577 ; Vid. S. Skr., I. c, p. 330, 

^^^^ 

^^^V Bell, 1. c, p. 400. 

/»»,— Auci. cl. Gocsii (1. c.) a H poiari hand distincta. Also 
Bacbbolz ( 1. c, p. 275) is inclined to regurd them m one species* 



148 LUXKEN OSr TB£ CRUSTACEA. OT GKEEHUlBD. 

15. Hippolyie aeuleaia (Fabr.). GreenL Nanlamak. 

Astacus granlandicuSf J. C. Fabricioa^ SjBtema En- 

tomoU p. 416. 
Cancer aculeatus, O. Fabr., F. Gr., n. 217. 
Alpheus aeuleatwtj Sabine, Soppl. App. PaRT'sYcj., 

p. 237, 1. 11^ f. 9-10. 
Hippolyte aculecUOj comuiOj armaia^ Owm, ZooL 

Beeche/s Voy., p. 86-89. 
Krojer, Nat. Tidaskr., III., p. 578; Vid. Sdak. Sior., 

p. 334, t. 4-5, f. 83-104. 
Bell, 1. c, p. 401 ; Bnchholz, 1. c, p. 276. 

16. Hippolyte microeerasj Kr. 

Krojer, Nat. T., III., p. 578; YidL S. Skr., p. Ml* 
t. 5, f. 105-9. 

17. H. Pajuehii, Bnchh., 1. c, p. 277, 1. 1, f. 1. 

18. Pandalus horealisy Er. 

Kroyer, N. T., IL, p. 254 ; IL B., I., p. 461 ; Voyage, 
Ac, t. 6, f. 2. 

19. Pandalus annulieorms (Leach). 

Leach, Malac. podophth. britt., f. 40. 

Kroyer, N. T., U. R., I., p. 469 ; Voyage, t. 6, fl 8. 

20. Pasiphae tarda^ Kr. 

Kroyer, N. T., 11. B., I., p. 453 ; Voyage, t. 6, f. L 

21. P. glacialis, Buch. 

Bucliholz, 1. c, p. 279, 1 1, f. 2 (70' lat N.). 

22. Sergestes arcticuSf Kr. 

Kroyer, Vid. Selsk. Ski-., V. K., IV., p. 24, t. 3, f. 7, 
et t. 5, f. 16.* 

23. Thysanopoda inermis, Kr.f 

Kroyer, Voy., t. 7, f. 2. 

24. Th, narvegica^ Sars. 

Buehholz, 1. c, p. 285. 

25. Thysanopoda longicaudata, Kr.f 

Kroyer, Voy., t. 8,- f. 1. 

26. Th. RascJdiy Sara. 

Buehholz, 1. c, p. 285. 

27. My sis oeulata, Fabr. GreenL Irsitugak. 

Cancer oculatus, Fabr., F. Groenl., n. 222, f. 1 ; Vid. 

Selsk. Skr., N. S., I., 563. 
C. pedaiusj Fabr. F. Gr. 221 ? 
Mysis Fabriciif Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc., XI., 350. 
Kroyer, Voyage, &c., t. 8, f. 23 ; Nat. Tidsskr., lit 

1 R. I., p. 13. 
Buehholz, 1. c, p. 284. 

28. Mysis latitans, Kr. 

Kroyer, N. T., III. R., L, p. 30, t. L, f. 4. 

* I have omitted Sergettet liinkii, becaase this fpecies was not tdi* 
«zaetly in Greenland, but in the Northern Atlantic, between Greenlaad td 
Bootland. 

t The exact habitat of these two species is nnknown ; they are ioNrtii 
Ltrt on the authority of Prof. Reinhardt, who, I believe, consolted Prof. KrtJ« 
on the rabjeet. 






Oy THE CRUSTACEA OF GREBNIAIOX 149 



29» MjfsU arcticay TCr. 

Kivyer, N, T., HI. R,, L, p. 34, U 1, f. 5.* 

30ci. Dkutylis Edwardsii (Kr.). 

Cuma Kdicardsii, Kr, N. T., III., p. 504, t. 5 f, 1- 
^ 16 J 11. R., II., p. 128, t. L, f. 1-3, 5, 9, 14; 

^f Voyage, t. 4. 

', h, Diaitlylis brevirostris (Kr.). 

Cuma hrevirostris, K. N. T., II. E., II., p. 174, t. 2, 
£ 6 ; Voyage, t. 5 A., f. 1. 
Ob$4 — Auct. cl. Sarsii a D, Edicardsii sexu (masculo) modo 
Itincte. 

^Jla, DioitylU Rathkii (K.). 

H Giwct ^uM^tii, Kr. N. T., III., p. 513, t. 5-6, f. 17- 

H 30; IL R., IL, p, 144, t, 1, f, 4-6 J Voyage, t 5, 

^BL DiastylU angnlaia (Kr.) 

^P Oma anffutata^ Kr. N. T., IL R., IL, p. 156, t L, 

^ f. 2, t. 2, f. 1 J Voy., t. 5, f. 2. 

Oi**— Accord! ug to Sarsi, the male of 31rt (Christiania Vidensk. 
elsk. Forh., 1864). 

82. DicLstylis resima (Kr,). 
^ Cuma resima, Kr. N. T., II. R>, IL, p, 165, t. 2, f. 2 ; 

■» Voy., t, 3, L I. 

' ««»• Leucon itaslca^ Kr. 

I C«/?*a 7i«jftco, Kr. N. Tn LU.p p. 524, t- 6, f, 31-38. 

H Kroyer, N. T., IL R., H., p. 189, t. 2, f. 6 ; Voyage, 

■ t. 3, f. 2. 

' 84. Eudorella deformh (Kr.). 

^^ Leucon deformis^ Kr, 1. c,, p. 194, t. 2, f. 4 ; Voyage, 

■ t. 5A., f. 3,t 

, 35. Arcturus Bajfini (Sab.).t 

Ildothca Baffi/Uj Sabime, App. Parry*8 Voy., ^ 59, 
I. 1, f. 4-6. 
Miloe Edwards, Hist, d. Crust, IL, p. 123, t. 31, 1 1. 
Bell, Belcher's Arct. Voy., p. 408. 
o6, Idoihea Salnni, Kr. 

fcIdoUlea efitomon, Sabine, Siippl. App. Parry's Voy.| 
p. 227; Bell, Belcher's Arct. Voy., p. 408. 
Kroyer, Naturh, Tidsskr., 11. R., IL, p. 395 ; Voyage, 
t. 27, f. l. 

* BfrnoM t^iau (Kr. Naturh. TidMkr., lU. H.. I., p. 64) w omitted, 
If believe it to be, with Mt^lo GaimaJ-dii of the sivme author, ooly a 
of Home topical long-taik-d Decapodoa* Cnutuceau. 
Qmidtirit Bell, L c, p. 408, t. 34, f. %^ nhouid be compared with 
€^mma69a enumerated above. 
^fj^ctenw Ba£imi, Sab.^ has not, as far as 1 know, been found m Greei»-^& 
1 1 bot of lata ^ean the Mitaeutn at CopenhageQ ha* received •ever«r 
fnm tlM firO Iftlandn, and from North'«flstem Iceland. ' 



150 LUTKEN ON THE GBUSTAOEA OF OBEBNLAIIK 

87. Idothea nodulose^ Ej*. . .. 

Kroyer, Naturh. Tidsskr^ IL B.» IJ.» p. 100 ; Ycjtig^ 
t. 26, f.2.» 

88. OnUcus, sp. ? Or, Kerksub-Koma. 

OnUcus asellusy Fabr., F. Gr. 228. 
'89. Asellus yranlandicu*, Kr. GreenL Teitaib-Terkeingi. 
Oniscus (tgunticus, Fabr., F. Gr. 227. - 

40. Henopomus tricomiSf Er. 

Erojer, Naturh. Tid8skr.,^n. B., IL^p. 872; Yoyagi^ 
t. 30, f. 2. 

41. Jeera nivalis, Kr. Cfreenl, Sirksab-Koina. 

Oniscus marinuSf Fabr., F. Gr., n. 229. 
Krojer, Vid. Selsk. Skr., YIL, p. 808^ t 4» £ 21 

42. Munna Fabricii, Kr. 

Kcojet, Nat. T., II. B., IL B^ p. 880 ; Yojagei 1 31i 
£.1. 
48a. Anceus elongatus, Er. 

Kroyer, Nat. T., 11. R., 11. B., p. 888 j Yqyuge, 1 80, 
£3. 
b. Pramza ReinhardH, Er. 

Kroyer, Vid. Selsk. Skr., VU., p. 801, U 4, f.2af ■ 

44. .^^a />«oro (L.). Green/. Saraullb-Eoma, &G. ^■ 

Oniscus psora, Lixm., Syst. Nat. (X.), I^ p. 686; Fil** 

F. G., n. 226. 
JSJ^a margincUa, Leach ; Milxie-Edwards ; CuTiff 

Regn. An., t. 67, f. 1. 
Lutkeu, Vidensk. Medd. N. For., 1858, p. 66, t. L A^ 

f. 9-11. 

45. Mga arctica, Ltk. 

Liitken, I. c, p. 71, 1. 1. A., f. 1-^. 

46. ^aa crenulaia, Ltk. 

Liitken, 1. c., p. 70, 1. 1. A., f. 4-6. 
0&J.— The Greenland JSff€B are especially found on the Slptr 
Somniosus microcephalus ; also probably on the large ODdtfiahes. 

47. Bopyrus hippolytes, Er. 

Eroyer^ Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., VIL, p. .806, t. 4, £ 2S. 
Gyge Mppolytesy Spence Bate, Brit Gr., IL, p 230; 
Buchholz, 1. c., p. 286. (On Hip. polans.) 

48. Bopyrus ahdominaUs, Er. -. 

:&oyer,Natarh. Tidsskr., m., p. 102 end289, t. Mi 

Voyage, t. 29, f.l. 
.0. . Phryxus Mppolytes, Bathke^ Not. Act Ac Kit 

Cur., XX., p. 40. (On Hip..Gmmardii, turgidih 
Er.). 

49. Dajus mysitUs, Er. 

Kroyer, Voyage, t. 28, f. I. 



* /. roimta, Er., ia omitted, because I am not avars tluik tUi iM[ 
iiOaM^ptlaffic Cnutacean reaUy inhabits the shores of Greealaiid. IMpn 
sptofaMOs were captured between Iceland snd Qnenknd, in 60^ Itt H. 

t OonsUsriag the known relttions between Aneeut and Pfanbn,Hni(t^ 
be preiuned thst th«se (4da and 6) are but ths two ssoms of om i 



LUTESN ON THE OBUSTAOEA OF GREENLAND. 151 

Leptopkryjtus myddis^ Buchholz, 1, c, p, 288, t. 2» 
f. 2. (On Mysis oculata^ Buchliolg.) 

Aapfcipada (et Lsemidopoda),* 

60. Pont&poreia fvmorata^ Kr, 

Kroyer, Naturh. Tidaakr., IV., p. 153; II. B., L, 

p, 530 ; Voyage, t. 23, f. 2. 
B6eck, CnisL Amphip., p, 123. 
51. Opis iypicOf Kr. 

Kroyer, Not T., U. R*, IL, p. 46 ; Voyage, t. 17, 

f. 1. 
Boeck. Cnitrt. Amphip., p. 120. 
CJpt* Escknchtii, Kr., N. T., IV., p. 149. 
62, lAfdana$9a gryllus (Mandt). 

Gammants gryllm, Mandt, Observ. iu itinere ad 

Greenland, facto, p, 34. 
Lysiuna^sti mugetlanica^ Milne-Edwards, Ann, Sc. 

Nat., 3 »., t. 9, p. 398 ; Voyage de Castelnau, 
Euryicnes mngeUanicug^ Lil]jeborg, Acta Upsal., 3 e.) 

1865, p, 11," t 1-3, f, 1-22. 
Lynkinas^a maff€lhmt:a,Sp.BtLiey Cat. Amp., t.lO,£ 5* 
Go^^e, OfV. Vot. Ak, Fdrh., 1865, p. 1 (sep.), 1 36, f. 1 j 

BcNBck, Ctmi. Amphip., p. 105; Skand, Arkt. 

Amphip., p. 144. 
5Z, Socamen FaA/« (Rhdt.). ..^ 

Kroyer, Vid. Selek. 8kr.. VII., p. 2^ J 
Ammyx Vahlii, Kr., N, T,, IL, p. 236 ; II. R, I, 

p. 699 J Voyage, 1. 14, f, 1. 
Aiumyx Vahlii, Bruzelius, Skand. Amphipod,, Vet. 

Akad. Hand!., d.h,, UL, p. 43. 
Gammant4s nupax^ Owen, App. Ross. Voy., p. 87. 
Socarnei Vti/tlii, Boeck, Crust, AjDpUip., p* 100; 

Skand. Arkfc. Aiaph., p. 129, t. 6, f. 8. 
"Mk Awmsfx la^ma (Ebdt.)* 

Kroyer, Vid. Selak. Skr^ VIL, p. 237, t 1, f. 1 ; Bell, 

I.e., p. 406. . .;> 

Cancer nugax^ Pbipps, Voy., t. 12, f. 2, p. 192. 
Lysiafiaxm nf^pendiculom^ Kr. 1, c, p. 240, t, 1, f. 2 

Nat, T„ IL, p. 257. 
Anont/x lagena^ Kr., N. T., II., p. 26^ ; Sp. Bat^, 

Cat. Amplu, p. 17, t. 12. f. 7. 
Ananyx ampulla^ Kr., L c, II* R., L, p. 578 ; Voyage, 

L 13, f. 2 ; Bruzelius, 1. c, p. 39 ; Stimpson, Proc. 

Philad-, 1863 ; non Sp. Bate, Cat., p. 79, 1. 13,' f. 5. 
Lysianasta appeftdiculata^ Sp. Bate, 1. c, p. 67, t. 10| 

f. 8. 
Anrntysr lagena^ Boock, CruBt. Amphip., p. 108 ; 

Skand. Arkt. Aniph., p. 152; Buchholz, L o.« 

p. 300. 



* 8fi«dM dn^ta: Omgou* armariut, F. Gr. 334; O. Slr«intanu#, f. Of. 
Uh iQr, KiagQpek) ; ft O. abyuinus^ F, Qf.M^^ , 



12 J mSZXJS ZJS ties, dTTi 

.•HKW rvtaat^ ?iar. F. ^^^ 
j^wiuM^s pmtntuL. '£: ^ L^ mI^^^ I. ]k. 6*1 ; Til 

3^ : . : SfckTi.. ArJErL Ajm«». t» ;^. L ^ £. 4. 
fc *-M«i - ■ ■■ ffi r JlI- . 



Arassasi naucu. I>mc«. Cz«& Ai^Upia (k. 1(C; 
tumei^im MOk Bc^aeL CnxB. AsfL^ p^ lOS ; 



Scw B« Cau |L r<ft» t. 12. C S; 
;. :^£ : SSrin- Ark^ Asf ^ f .. IJS^ L ^ C €i» <c 

t'TtiL^mat s&MML Bc^ck. Crss&i AaykipL. p^ 116; 
^4.Az•L Ari^ Az^c. s. ^ L JL 
fiCv. <I'nattj £k'iinff«fai Kr. . 

Am^^fx ££»:r;cm. Kr« 1 c^ II. K^II,p^ : Tojige^ 

OaifUiKJ ZfTincrdiu. B«:«K:k« Cz«tt. -^"^p^ , pL 113; 
:^kAZid. Ark:. Asl; o^ t. (x £. 4. 

.4»M^ piamnu. Kr. L .% IL BL» L, fc 6S9; Voj^ 

t. 15. fl 2. 
Sp. Biue C&;- p. 7S. t. 13^ t 1 : BMcfcboIr, L Cn 

p. 303. 
Oain'jmu pioKtuSy B<«v-k. Cross. Awph , pL 112; 

Skand. Arfct. Amplu t. <^ f. 2. 
62L Omuianu lUtonK* r Kr.\ 

At¥>m^r littcraiis. Kr« !. c. II. R.. I., pc 681 ; To^t 

t. 13, f. 1 : BmxefiTs. L e^ p. 46 ; Boclilioli, L c^ 

p. 302. 
Ahhcirus tUt&rtiiu. Sp. Bate. C&L, p. 96. 
Onihmui littoraHs^ Boeck, Cmst. Ampli., pL llSi 

Skand. Arkt. Axnph., t. o, t 7. 
61. Cypkcearit amcn^y Ltk. 

Bocck, Cnut. Amphip., pL KM ; Skuid. Aiku Aa^k^ 

p. 141, t. 6^ £ 1. 



IkUtXSN ON THE CBUSTAGSA OF QHEKKLAKD. ISZ 



i} 



64- Siegoecphalag amptdUt (Phipps)* 

Cnncer (tmpulla^ Phipps, Voy., p. 191, t« 12, f, 9 ; 

Herbst^ N»targ. Kr., p. 1 17, t. aS, f. 2. 
Gnmmarus ampulla, K068, App. Purrj^B Vo)'., p. 20, 
Stegocephalm injiaim, Kv,, N. T., IV., p. 150; 11. 

K, I., p. 522, L 7, f. 3 ; Voyago, t. 20, f, 2 ; Bruzclius, 

p. 88. 
Bell, Belch^rV Vo> .. p, 406, t. 35, f . I ; Sp. Bate, Cat, 

t. 10, f. 2 ; Goiis, 1. c^ I. a8, f. 8-a 
Stcf^occphalus mfipHliujUo^V, Crust. Amphip., p. 128. 
65. Mcttifia BruteJii (Goes). 

Ltttcothoe c/ypeata, BntzeL L c, p, 96. 

MonUtffua clypetita et Bruzelii^ Goes, 1. c, p. 6, t, 38, 

f. 16 ; Boeck, Crast. Ampb,, p. 192. 
66* Mei€fpa clyj^eata (Kr.). 

Leucot/ioi clypcalOy Kr., N. T., IV., p. 157 ; II. R., I., 

p. 545, t, 6, f, 2 ; Voy., t. 22, f. 2 ; Boeck, Crust, 

Aniphip., p. 140. 

67, Meiopa glacialis (Kr.). 

Leitcothoe glaciaJis, Kr., N, T., IV., p. 159 ; II. R., I., 

p. 539, t. 6, f. S ; Voy.^ t. 22, f. 3. 
Mctopa (jlncitilig^ Bo«;k, Crust. Amphip., p. 141, 

68. Syrrhoi erenviaiu, Gcws. 

Goe«, Cmst. Ampli., p. 1 1, f. 25 ; Boeck, Cnist. Ampli*, 
p. 147 ; Bucbbok, 1. c, p. 304. 
69* Odiu^ carinaltts^ (Sp* Bato)* 

Olujte.^ Sp. Bate, C*t. Amphip, p. 126, t. 23, f. 2; 
GoeB, L c, p. 6. 
70* Vertumnus crhtatut (Owen). 

Aamilwiwtus crUtatus, Owen, App, Boss 2ii(i \oy.p 

p. 90, t. B, f. 8, 
Boeck, Crust, Amphip., p. 179. 
71* Vertumnuf scrratits (^Fubr.). Green/. Kioguiigoak-KAp* 
pinaztoUk. 

OhUcus tcrrainx, Fabr., F. Gr. 237. 
AmphUhoe serra, Kr., Vid, Selak. bkr,, VII., p. 266, 

t, 2, f. 8; Kttt. T., IL, p. 260. 
Aeanthotiottis scrra^ Bnizeliii&, I. c, p* 78. C*^ 

VeH.nerta, Boeck, Crust. Ampb., p. 180; Boehbolz, 
1. c, p. 342. 
72. Vcrtumnyt injiaim (Kr.). 

Acanlhoftotus injiatu^, Kr., N. T., IV,, p. 161. 
Goes, 1. c, p. 7, t. 38, f . 11 ; Boeck, (;rust. Ampb., 
p. 180. 
'73, Porati^hUhoe glaltra, Boeck. 

P, exigua^ Got-s, 1. c., p. 7., t, 38, f. 12; Boeck, Crust. 

Amph,, p. 175. 
? Paraptetutes glacialis^ Bucbbolz, 1. c, p. 337, t. 7, 
f, 1. 
74. Pttramphithoi pantfpln (Kr.). 

Amphithae pam>ptn, Kr., Vid. S. Skf., VII., p. 270, 
W», «. 9j Voytge, t. II, f, 2. 



164 LUTXEN ON THE GSUflTACBA OV OBBEHIfUIQiir. 

Brozelias, L o^ p. 69; Parampk. p^ Boeek^.CJnift. 

AmplL, p. 176. 
PleusUs tubereulatM, Sp. Bala, Cat, p. 62, t. 9, 1 8| 
PL panopitis, BachJiQlz, 1. c., p. 334, t. 7. 

76. Paramphithoe bieutpis (Rhdk). 

Amphiihoebieuspis, Kr., Vid. Sebk, Skr^ YIL| p. 273, 

t. 2, f. 10. 
Paramphithoe bievspis, BnueL, L e., p^ 73. 
Pherusa hieuipis, Sp. Bate, Brit. Crqst, p. 263 } Cat, 

p. 144, t. 27, f. 7. 
Ph, cirrus, Sp. Bate, Cat, p. 143, t 27, £ 6b 
76. Paramphithoe pulehella (ErA 

^m/7iUMoe>M^Ae//a, Kr., Voyage, 1 10^ A 2 $ BroMtniflb 

L c., p. 70. 
Pherusa p., Sp. Bate, Cat, p. 143, 1 20-7, £ 6j JBl^ed, 

Crust. AxnplL, p. 177. 
. 77. AUflus carinatus (Fahr.). 

Gammarus earinatus, Fabr., £nt Syst^ IL, p. 616. 
Atylus carinatus, Leach, linn. TraoA., XI^ '33»7. T ZooL 

Miflc, III., p. 22, t 69. 
Amphiihoe' carin^ Kr., Vid. & Skr., YIL, p. 266, t 2, 

f. 6 ; N. T., II., p. 259 ; Voy., t 11, f. 1. 
Buchholz, 1. c., p. 857, t 40; boeok. Groat Axvghi^ 

p. 190. 

78. Atylus Smiiti (Goes). 

Goes, 1. c, p. 8, t 38, f. 14 ; Boeek, Crnat Amphip., 
p. 191 ; Buchholz, 1. c, p. 861. 

79. Pontogeneia crenulata, (Rhdt). ^^ 

Amphithoe crenulata, Kr., Vid. S. Skr., VII., 1^278, 

t 3, f. 12 ; N. T., IV., p. 166. 
Amph. inermis, Kr., 1. c, p. 276, t 3,f. 11; Pant. 

inermis, Boeck, Crust Amphip., p. 194 ; Bnchhols, 

L c, p. 366. 

80. Tritropis fragilis (Goes). 

Paramphithoe fragUis, Goes, L c, p^ 8^ t 39, f. 16i 
TrOropisJr., Boeck, Crust Amph., p. 160 ; Buchhds, 
1. c, p. 320. 

81. Tritropis aeuieata (Lepechin). 

Oniscus aeuieatus, Lepech., Acta Petrop., 1778, L, 

p. 247, t. 8, f. 1. 
TaUtrus EdwardsU, Sabine, Suppl., .Altp. . Any, 

p. 283, 1 2, f. 1-4 ; Rogs, App. Parly's Yoy., p. 205. 
Amphithoe Ed^arcUii, Owen, App. B.OM Voy., p. 90; 
• Kroyer, N. T., II., p. 76 ; Voyage, 1 10, £ 1. 
Tritropis aculeaia, Boeck, Crust Amph.,'. p; ';i58s 

Buchholz, 1. c, p. 316, t 4. 

82. Calliopius laviusculus (Kn). *. 

Amphithoe keviuscula, Kt^ Vid. 8. Skri, VIL, p. 281, 

t. 3, f. 13 ; Bell, 1. c, p. 406. 
Amph, serraticomis, Sars, Christiania Vid. (Msk. 

Forh.,.1868,p.l40. 
Paramphithoif /<fvtti#ciifo, Bruzd^ p. 76. 



tJ^TKJSJSl ON TH£ OBUBTAQEA Of OBEEKLAKD. 155 

Calliope Iteviuscuh ct ffrandoculis, 8p* Bi^to, Cat- 

Amph., p. 148-9, t. 28, I 2 et 4. 
Boeck, Crusl. Amph., p. 197, 

83. AmphUhopMii longimana^ Bk. 
Boeck, Crust* Ampb^ p» 199. 

84. Cl^ppides tricuspid (Kr.). 
Acanihotwtta tricuspU^ Kr,, N. T., 11. E., II., p. 116 ; 

Voyage, t, 18, f- 1. 
Boeck^ Cmst. Amphip., p, 201. 
86* HcUiraget fulvocinctus (Sars). 
' ' Amphithoe fulvoctHcta, Sara, L c, p. 141. 

Pherusa tricmpu^ Stimpfion, Proc Ac, Fliil., 1863, 

p. 138. 
Paramphithoif Jiilvoc, Goes., I. c, t. 38, f. 15 ; Boeck, 
Crust. Amph,, p. 116 {HaliragcM fuivoc,)\ Buch« 
: ,- holz, I. c, p. 867. 

86* Paramphitiioe I meyalops (Buchh.). 

Bachhoiz, ajt. ciL, p. 369^ t. 12, '^^^ 

87. Atanthozone cu»pidata ( Lep, ). ,^ • ^a., > T^ 

Oniseus ctispidaius, Lep., AcU Petr,, i778, i, S, T. 3. 
Aranihosotna liystrix, Owen» App, BoflB. Voy., p. 91, 

t. B., f. 4 ; Bell, 1. c, p. 406. 
Amphithot hystrix^ Ki., Vid. S. Skn, VII., p. 269, 

t. 2,f:7; Nat. T., II., p. 259» 
BruzeLius, 1. c, p. 71 ; Acantfi, cuspid,^ Boeck, Cruat* 

Ain[>hip,, p. 184. 
A. ht/strir^ BuchholK, L c, p, 362, til. 
06f.— " Amphiiho'c Jurinii ?, Kroj.,'* Bell* 1. c, p. 406. I am 
^•t aw»re tliai Prof. Krojer ever deacribed a 9i>ecie8 of that name. 
^ ^ 88- (Bdiccrvt $affinaiw, Kroyer, Nat. T., IV., p. 156 j Bruzo- 
liu8, I c, p.,94 ; Goes, I. c, t. 39, f. 18 ; Boeck, Crust. 
• Amphip., p. 162. 
89» (Edkerti^ lynccits^ Sars. 
^ Sars, 1. c, p. 144; Boeck, Crust, Amphip,, p. 162. 

€Bdkeni4 proprnquvs, Goes, I. Ct, p, 10, t, 89, f, 19. 
Buchholz, 1. c, p. 331, t, 7, i\ 2. 
90. (E, borealis, Bk. 

Crust. Amphip., p. 162. 
' Buchhob, I. c, 
Monoculodef affinis (Bruz.). 

(Edir, aff., Brnzelius, L c, p. 98, f. 18 \ Goes, L c*, 
p. ll,t. 39, f. 21. 
Monocfthdet norvegicus^ Boeck. 
CrosL Amphip,, p, 164. 
93. Mtmnmlodex laiimann^ (Goes), 

(Edic. /., Goi'8. L c, p. 11, t. 39, f. 23 1 Boeck, CtubU 
Amph., p. 168. 
94r. M. ifortalis, Bk. 

€Ed. offinU, Goes, L c, p. 1 1, f. 21. 
Boeck, Cra*»t. Arnplu, p. 168. 
Buchholz, L c, P* 326, t. 6. 





XTKES ON THE CKUHTACEJL 



Tiron acanthurus, LlUj. 

Tessarops katiata^ Korman^ AnnalB, 1868, p, 412, 

t. 22, f. 4, 7. 
Si/rrho€ 6icHspisj Goes, L c, t. 40, f. 26. 

96, Ifarjjina piuTfiosa (Kt.)» 

P/ioxiis plumosus^ Krojer, Nat. T,, IV., p. 152, 11. 

R., I., p. 563 ; Bruz^iius, 1. e, p. 66 1 Sp. Bate, Br. 

Cn, p. 146. 
Ilarpina plumom^ Boec^, Crnst. Ampb*, p. 135. 

97. Phoxus Uotbailu Kr. 

Kroyer, L c^ IV., p. 151 ; XL tt., L, p. 551 ; Bime- 

liu.s 1. c*, p. 68 ; 8p. Bate, I. c, p. 143. 
Boeck, Crust. Amphip., p. 135 ; Skand. ArkU Amph., 

t. 7, f. 5. 
96. IfttpioSps fttlncoiet (Lilljeborg) (var.). 

Lilljeborg, Ofvcrs. Vet. Ak. Forhnndh, 1855, p. 135; 

Bruzelius, 1. c, p. 88 ; Goes, 1. c, p. 12. 
Bo€ck, Crust. Ainphip., p. 226. 
99t Ampelisca Eschrichtii, Kr. 

Kroyer, Nat. T, IV., p. 155; Boeck, Crust, Ampli., 

p. 224. 
Buchholz, 1. c, p. 375, t. 13, f. 1. 
100. ByhlU Gaimardi (Kr.). 

Ampelisca Gaimardi, Kroyor, Voyage, &c.. Crust, 

t. 23, f. 1. 
Bn)7x4iy3, L c, p, 86 ; Sp, Bate, 1. c, p, 127 ; iPyWu 

C, Boeck, Crust. Amphip., p. 228. 
lOL Pardalisca ctispidataf Kr. 

Kroyer, Nat. T., IV., p. 153 ; Bruzelius, 1. c, p, 101 ; 

Boeck, Crust. Auiphip., p. 151. 
Buchhok, I c, p. 306, t. 1, f. 3, et t 2, C 1. 

102. Etmrus euspidatiuiy Kr. 

r, Kniyer, Nut, T., II. R„ II., p. 501, t, 7, f . 1 ; Voyage, 

r t. 19, f. 2 ; Brfizelius, 1. c, p. 63. 

Boeck, Crust. Amphip., p. 156. 

Buchholx, I c, p. 313, t. 3, f. 2. 

103. Meliia dentata (Kr.). 

Gammarus deni.^ Kroyer, Nat. T., IV-, p, 159 { Bru- 
zelius, L c, p. 61. ' , '• 

Gammarus Krivyeri, Boll, Belcher *s Arcdc Voy., 
p. 405, t. 34, e 4. 

Mer/(nnfrra denlata^ Sp. Bute, Cat., p. 225, t, 39| f. ^• 

Bofck, Crust. Amph., p. 211, 

104. Gammartis locustay (Linn.). GrccnL Kingak, 
Oniscfis pulejTj Fribr., F, Gr. 231. 
Cancer locusidy Linn.. Faun. 8uec., II., p. 497. 
Gammaras locusta, Mont., Lion. Soc. Trana^ IX. 

p. 92, t. 4, f. 1, 
Gammaru4 boreus, Sabine, Ho8#, Owen, Bell (Parry' 
Rose's, and Bekber's Voyages], 



IN ON THE CRUSTACEA OF GREENLAND. 157 



Gammarus arcticuSj Sowerby, Account Arct, B^.» 

p, 641, t, 16, f. 14. 
Gammarus loctMiaj Kr., Vid. Sebk. Skr., VII*, p, 255 ; 

BruzeliuA, I. c, p. 52; Lilljeborg, 1. c*, 1853, p, 448. 
Gammarut mutatus e£ Duebenii^ Ltlljeb., t. C.| 1853, 

p. 448; 1851, p, 22. 
Gammarus pulex J Stimps., Mar. Invert. Gr. Man.,p»55. 
Boeck, Crust, Amphip., p. 204 ; Bachholz, L c, p. 343. 
X05. Gammaracanthus Imcattu (Sabme). 

Gammarus loric, Sabine, SuppL App. Parry's Voy.^ 

p. 231, t L, f. 7 ; Bell, L c, p. 405. 
Krojer, Vid. S. Skr., VII., p. 250, t. I., f. 4 ; Kat. T., 

11., p. 258. 
Loven, Ofv, Vetensk, Akiid. Forlmndl., 1861, p. 287. 
Gammaracanthus laricatus, 8p. Bate» Cat. Amph., 

p. 202, t. 36, f. 2. 
Boieck, Crust. Amph., p. 135. 

106. Amathilla Sttbini (Leacb). 

Gam. S^ Siibine, Sup. Parry's Voy., p. 232, t. 1, 

f. 8-11, 
Ros«*, App. Ptirry's Voy., p. 204 ; Owen, App. Ross's 

Voy., p. 89 ; BeJl, 1. c, p. 404. 
Kroyer, Vid. Sels^k, Skr., VII., p. 244, t, I., f. 3 ; Kst. 

Tidsskr., II., p. 257. 
Bruzelius, 1. c, p. 50. 

Amaihia Sabini, Sp. Bate, 1. c„ p. 197, t. 85, f. 9. 
Boeck, Crust. Amphip., p. 217 ; Bucbholz, 1. c.» p. 346, 

t. 8, f, 1-2, ett. 9, f. 1. 

107. A. pinguis (Ki-.)* 

Gam, p., Kroyer, Vid. Selsk. Skr., VII., p. 252, t. 1, 

f.5; Nat. Tidsskr., II., p. 258. 
Boeck, Crust, Aniph., p. 218; Buchbolz, L c, p. 353, 

t. 9, f. 2. 

108. Autonot maeront/x (Lilljeb.). 

Gammam^ wacro/t^x, LiUjeb., 1. c, 1863, p. 458; 

1855, p. 125. 
Bruzelius, 1. c, p. 29, t. I, f. 6 ; Goes, 1. c, p. 15, t. 40, 
f. 31. 

109. Protamedeia fasciata, Kr. 

Kroyer, Nat. Tidsskr., IV., p. IM; Boeck, CmBt. 

Amph., p. 239, 
Gam. matroHi/x, LiUjeb., K. V. A. H., 1854, p. 458. 

Ua /%o/M RvinhardtU Kr. 

Photis ReinhttrdH, Kr., Nat. T., IV., p. 155. 
AmphUhoi' pygmaa^ Lilljeb., 1. c, 1852, p. 9 ; Bni* 
zeltuj^, I. c, p. 32 (A, lieinhardti) j Boeck, Crust. 
Amph., p. 233. 
iX* Podocertts nitgrnpes (Kr,). 

Isch^rocerUM angtdpe*, Kr,, Vid. Sebk., VIL, p. 283, 
t.^f. 14; Nat. T., IV., p. 162. 



168 LUTKEH OK THE CBUSTACEA OF OBXnXJUBI. 

GtMmmanu zebrOf Batbke, Not. Acta A. C-L., t. XX, 

p. 74, t. 3, f. 4. 
Bnuelios^ L c^ p. 21 ; Boeck, Cnist Anphip., p. 167; 

Bucbhob, L c, p. 378, 1. 18. f: 2»et 1. 14. 

112. Podoeerus latipes (Kr.). 

hehtfrocerus latipes, Kr^ TStA, T^ JV^ p. 162 ; Boeek, 
(>a8t Amphip., p. 167. 

113. !^phtmo€0€ieM tj/pleuSylSx. 

Kroyer, Nat. T., 11. R., I., p. 481, t 7, f. 4 ; Yixp^ 

t. 20, f. 1. 
Boeck, Crnst. Amphip., p. 177. 

114. Glaueonome ieueapu, Er. 

Kroyer, Nat. T., II. R., I., p. 491, t. 7, £ 2 ; Vojige, 

t. 19, f. 1. 
Vnciola gl^ Sp. Bote, Cat., p. 279 Boeck, Gnut 

Amph^., p. 259. 
Bachholz, 1. c, p. 385. 

115. Themisto libelhtla (ftfandt). 

Themisto GautUehaudU^ Bofls, App. (non GiiMn). 

Gammarui UbeUula, Maadt, Oba. itin. Gr., p. 32. 

Themisto areticoj Kr., \id. Selak. 1^., YIl!, p. 291, 
t. 4, f. 16 ; StimpaoD, Fhilad. Fkoc, 1863. 

Themisto crassioomis, Kr., 1. c, p. 295. t. 4, f. 17. 

Goee, L c, p. 17, t. 41, f. 33 ; Boeck, GroBi. Amphip., 
p. 88; Skaod.Arkt.Amph.,p.88, ti 1, f. 5; Bach- 
holz, I. c, p. 385, t. 15, £ 1. 

116. 7^ 5iM>tM0Mr, Boeck. 

Boeck, Crust. Amphip., p. 88 ; Skand. Aikt. Amph^ 
p. 87, t. 1, f. 4. 

117. Parathemisto compressa (Goes). 

Themisto compr,, Goes^ 1. c, p. 17, t. 41, £ 34. 
Boeck, Crust. Amphip., p. 87 ; Skand. Arkt. Amphip., 
p. 86. 

118. Hyperia medusarum (Mull.). 

Lestrigonus extdans et Hgperia obiiwia, Kr., Vid. 

Selsk. Skr., p. 298, t. 4. f. 18^ 
Lestrigonus exulans et KtHnahanif Sp. Bate, Brit. 

Sess. Cr., p. 5 et 8. 
Hgperia medmarum, Sp. Bate, Cat. Amph., p. 295, 

t. 49, f. 1 ; Boeck, Crust. Amph., p. 85 ; l^umd. 

Arkt. Amph., p. 79, t. 1, f. 1. 
Byperia galba (Mont.), Sp. Bate, Brit. Crust., p. 12.* 

119. Tauria medusarum (Fabr.). Greenl. UrksursiiiL. 

Otiiscus medusarum^ Fabr., F. Gr. 232. 

Metoccus medusarum^ Kr., 1. c, p. 288, t 3, f. 15; 



* Ai HyperoHdon roatratiu and Globiocephtdtu melat are occamonallj feca 
in Baffin's Bay, their parasites {Platycyamui Thompaonx, Penndla crassieerms, 
Xenobaianusgi.t and Cyamiu globie^tit) might also be enmnaated among thi 
Cnutaoca of Greenland; but they are omitted here beeanse they hate not 
aeiaaHlj been aent down from Greenland. 



MTKEN ON THE CRUSTACEA OP GBEENLAND. 

Bo6ck^ Cnist. Amphip., p. 86 ; Skand. Arkt. Amph., 
p. 82, t. 2, f. 2. 
120. Dulichia ^ptnosissima, Kr, 

Krojer, Nat. T., II. R., I., p. 512, t. 6, f. 1 ; Voyage, 
t. 22. f. 1 i Boeck, Crust. Amph., p. 262. 
Wl, Caprella aeptentrUmalis^ Kr* GreenL Napparsari&k* 
Sguilla hbata, Fabr., F. Gr. 225 (uon MM,)* 
Kroyer, Nat. T,, IV., p. 690, t. 8, f. 10-19 ; Voyage, 

t. 2b, f. 2. 
Caprella cercopoideSf White, App, Sutherland's Journ., 
f^'*'^ p. 203, f. 1 et 207. 

Boeck, Crust. Amphip., p. 276. 
1S2« Cercaps HolbcElli^ Kr. 

Kroyer, Nut. Tklsskr., IV., p. 604, t, 6, f. 1-13 j Boeck, 
Crust. Amph., p. 269. 
I2d. jSgina longicomU^ Kr. 

Kroyer, Niit. Tidsskr., IV., p. 509, 1 7, f. 1-12 ; Boeck, 
Crust. Amph., p. 270. 
124 \& eehinata, ^oixk, 

? Caprella spinifera. Bell, Belcher's Last Arctic Voy.| 
p. 407, t. 35, f, 2 ; Buchholz, L c, p. 388. 

125. Cyamm mysticetiy Ltk. GreenL Arberub-Komft, 
M&rtens, Spitzberg. Beise., p. 85, t. Q., £, D. 
Onisctis ceti, PalLas, Spicil. ZooL, f. IS,, p^ 76, t« 4^ 

f. 14- 
Sguilla haltma^ de Ge6r, Mtooir. Vil., p. 540, t. 42, 

16-10. 
Ctfamus cetif Kroyer, Nat. Tidsskr., IV., p. 476, t. 5, 

f. 63-70; Sp. Bate, Brit. CniBt., p. 86. 
C. mystifeti, Lutkec, K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr,, 3 R., X., 

p. 261, t. 1, f. 1. 
Oi&«^— On Baletna myitketus, 

126. Cyamus boopis, Ltk. 
Oftiscut eeii, Fabr., F. Gr. 280. 
Liitken, I. c, p. 262, t. 8, f. 6. 

05#. — On Megaptera loops, 

127. Cyamus monodontis^ Ltk. 
• - Lutken, 1. c, p. 256, t. 1, f. 2. 

Ob$, — On Motwdon monoceros, 

128. Cyamus nodo^ut^ Ltk.* 

Oniscus ceCi, Zoologia Danica, t. 119, f. 113-117. 
Liitken, !. c, p. 274, t. 4, f. 8. 
05fw— With the preceding. 

Myllopodft et Cladocera* 

129. Apus glacialiSf Kr. 

Kroyer, Nat. T„ D. R., IL, p. 431 ; Voy., t. 40, f. 1. 
180. Branik^tupatudosHi{^i\i^,), Green/. Taitsim-ill»rkei. 
Cancer stagnalis, Fabr., F. Gr. 224 ; Zool. Dan,, t. 48, 



.!(• 



• Qoidcit Taiitms tyanea, Sabine, Sappl. App. Parry'i Voy., t. L, t IS-ld ? 



199 iJrnas ot tbz cxcttaoejl or "«— ^^^^ 



C^aarr ip^.M, Fihr. F- Gr. SS3L £. £i 

Cjmair fnmB^amM i^oL Hert»c XaM^ KtaUt «. 

Kr»o>e. 

Crwc 
KiOTET, Xac T^ n. &, IL, PL 436; Toj^|ib t. 40^ 

BocLhok. L e^ PL 3$«. 

132. Z>3pAaia rerfupoMy Kr. CreffdL T ailMia 3 hw^go% fa, 

IMpJkme p^iex^ F. Gr. 238. 

133. LymttMt, sp. 

Lymtnu iam^eiiabu^i Krofcr, Tid. Scfak. Skr, YIL, 
p. 320. 



134. Cjrpriifiita, «p, ? 

? Cypridima exeutt, Stimps. Mtfine Lit. Or. M^ p>39^ 
t. 2; f. 28 [^itMljFnji«fw fcviidbyBaiid]. 



136. PiMilia Patierumu (TonpLVt 

^jMOToloefra PottermM; Tempktoiiy TkvHL Ent Socb 

n., p. 34, t. 6. 
Krojer, Nat. Tidsskr., H. B., IL, p. Ml, t. 6^ 1 1-7; 

Vojsge, L 42» f. 1. 

136. Diapiomut easiar. Jar. ? 

BachhoLz, L c, p. 392. 

137. ITmjKutiau ekeii/er {Uuihy 

C^eiops eMifer, MuU. Z. D. Prod. 2413. 
Harp, ehel^ UUjeboig, CladocefB, t. 22, f. 2-11. 
Bnchholz, 1. c, p. 393. 

138. Ttf^/tfTco/a (Baird). 

Canihocampitu/,y Bd., Brit. Entam., p. 210. 
Tube/,, Cfaus, Copepoden, t. 15, f. 1-12. 
Bachholz, 1. c, p. 393. 

139. Cieia minuticamis (MalL). 

Cyclops in., Mailer, Entom., p. 117, t 19, H 14-15. 
Canihoeamptus m., Baird, 1. c. 
Bacbholz, 1. c, p. 393, t 15, f. 3. 

140. Zaus spinotusj Claos. 

Buchholz, ]. c, p. 394. 

141. Zaus ovaUt (Goodsir). 

Sterope oralis et armaius. Goods. 
Claos Copepoden, p. 146, t 13, f. 11-18. 
. Buchholz, 1. c, p. 394. 

142. Thcrellia brunnea, Boeck. 

Vid. Selsk. Forb. Christ., 1864, p. 26. 
Buchholz, 1. c, p. 395. 



* See further on, page 166, for the Oatracods from the Huode Talandib ^ 
t tfhoold, pcrhapt, be omitted for similar reasons as Idotkea rahtuta. 




146. 



147, 



LUTKEIT ON THE CRUSTACEA OP OBEENLAKD. 161 

lAZa* Caianus hi/pcrborcHS^ Kr. 

Kro/er, Vid. SeLnk. 8kr., VIL, p. 310 ; Nftt. T., II. R, 

U., p. 542; Voyage, t. 11, f. 2. 
Cetochihis $cptentrionaH8^ Gooilsir. 
Bochholz, 1. c, p. 392, t. 15, I 2, 
According to B., the two following species are probably 
a.i 143a. 
143^. Cafamts qninqttcinnulaius^ Kr. 

KKiyer, N. T., If. R., II., p. 545 : Voy., t. 41, f. 3. 
143^4 C^J(mti4 spitzffcrgensiSf Kr. 

Krojcr, J. c, p. 531 ; Voy., t. 41, f. 1. 

144, Caianns cnudaiNs^ Kr,* 

Ki'oycr, 1. c, p, 550 j Voy., t. 42, f. 2. 

145. Canthttcamptm ? liip/jolytea^ Kr. 

Kroyer, Nat. TkUskr., III. R., XL B., t. 17, f. 10, 
p. 334- Oil the gills of Hipp* acnleata^ 
Ther sites f/asterosfei (Kr.). 
Pagenstecher, Archiv f. Natnrg,, 1851, p« 126, t. 6, 

f; 1-9. 

Ergtisilti^ gastcraatci, Kr., 1. c, p. 233, t. 12^ f. 2. 
On G(tst. andeaiui, 
Lernitojmda elotigata (Grant). 
Scoret^hy, Account Arc*. Reg,, I., 53R, t 15. 
Lerncpci elonguta^ Grant, Ediiib. Journ. Science, 1827. 
Kroycr, Nat. Tidfiskr., I., p. 259, t. 2, f. 12, et t. 3, 
f. 3 ; Steensrrop et Lutken, Vid. S. Skr., V. R, V., 
p. 422, t. 15, f. 37. 
On the eye of Somnioxu^ mirrocfphafrts. 
Lttntfopodu cfirpiojiiftf Kp. Gr. Kkiillub-massimioo. 
t^nitva salnwnea, Fabr., F, Gr. 327. 
Krover, Nut. T., I., p. 2<>W, t. 11, f. 6 ; III. R., II., 

p.'27o, t. 14, f. 4. 
On SaltHO carjfio ; on GasterosL aculeatus ? 
1.49. Ijcrtujcopodji scbtutis^ Kr. 

Kruyer, Nat. T., III. R., II., p. 279, t. 17, f. 7, 
On Selttistes norvefftcHS, 
l50, BracfMla rostraia,Kr. 

Kroyer, I. c, I., p. 207, t, 2, f. 1 ; III. B., 11^ p* 290, 

t. 17,f.8. 
On Hippoglossus maximus and pinguis* 
Anchorelia unclnata (Miill.). Gi\ Saraulib-masaimioa, 
Lerna^a unc, Fabr., F. Gr. 328 ; Zool. Dao., t. 33, f. 2. 
Kroyer, Nut. T-, I., p. 290, t. 3, f. 8. 
On Gadus morrhin^ 
152. AncluireUa agilis, Kr. 

Krdyer, N. T„ IIL R., IL, p. 300, L 16, L 2. 
On Gadus agiiis, 
163* Anclurrviia utivhtti^ Kr. 

Kroyer, N. T., III. E., 11., p. 298, t. 16, f. 1. 
Oij b'tickftus punctatus. 



151, 



Oht^Quid C^clvfii brevicomUt Fabr., F. Gr. SiO {Or. logneroUiiok) Y 
Milt. L 




164, Letteira lumpi, Kr. 

Ki-oyer, Nat, T., HI. R, IL, p 
On Cycloftterus lumptu. 

155. DiocuM goinntu (MiiU.). Gr. Itekiudlib-massiiiLioa. 
Lemtea ffMna, Fabr., F. Gr. 329 ; ZooL Dwi., t. 33, 

f.3. 
Chondracantkm ffobinus, Kr. N. T., L» p. 280^ U % 

L 8, et t, 3, f. 12. 
Stp* et Ltk., Vid. Sebk. Skr, V. R^ V„ p. 423, t. 15, 

f. 39 ; Kroyer, I. c„ HI. R., U^ p. 259. 
On Phobetor ventraiU, 

156. Ckondracantfiiu radiaius (Miill.). GreenL IngmiQ* 
gu rsab-massini ioa. 

LerniEa rad,, Fabr., F. Gr. 330 ; ZooL D., t. 38, f. 4 
Kioyer, 1. c, IIL R., IL, p. 251, t. 19, f. L 
On Macrurwt rupestrit. 

157« Chnndracanthm twdosuM (Mull.), Greenl, Sulla* 
paukttk-m&ssitnioa, 

Lerntea nod., Fubr., F. Gr. 331 ; Zool. D., t. 33» f. 5, 
Kroyer, 1, c, 11., p. 133, t. 3, f. 2. 
On Sebastes norvefficus. 

158. Chondracanthus cornutus (Miill.). 
Lernaa corjiuta^ ZooL Dan., t. 33, f. 6. 
On Pleuronectidis. 

159. T^nypleuruM alcimrnisy Stp. et Ltk, 
St«eo8tnip et Lutkeo, Vid. St;Uk, Skr., 1. c, p. 42V 

t. 15, f. 38. On Cydopieru^ spina^us. 

160. Hcrpyliobius arvticwty Stp. et Ltk, 
Steenstrup et Liilken, 1. c, p. 426, L 15, f. 40. 
Silenium polytwes, Kr.,1. c. 111. R*, II., p. 329, u 18- 

f. 6. On Lepidonoti and other CluDtopodous An^ 
uulata. 

161. Caligu* (Lepeophiheirus) hippoglosxiy Kr. Green^ 
Netarn ab-Koma. 

Bittovtiiv4i piscinus, Fabr., F. Gr. 239. 
Krdytr, N. T., I., p. 625 ; IIL R., II., p. 131, t, 

f. 5. On Htppoglossus moj^imus^ 
-UCL162. Caliym {Lepeopktheinis) robustus, Kr, 

Kroyer, N. T., IIL R„ IL, p. 185, t. 6, f. 6. 
On ^aia radiata, 
•B<J' 163. Dinematura feroXy Kr. 

J8 .-J Kroyer, N. T., IL, p. 40. t. I, f. 5 j Stp. et Ltk., 1. (=■ 

t. 7, f. 14. On Somtiiosiis microvephalux. 

164. Peniculm ctmuUus (Mull,), 
Lerntta clavatUy MiilL, ZooL Dan,, p. 38, t. 33. 
Kroyer, Nat. T., 111. R,, IL B., p. 266, t. 14, f. 8. 
On Sebastes norvegicus, 

165. H^nmbaphes cyclopterina (Mull.). Greenl, Neprsar^ 
ltib-ma**^imioa. 
Lerntta eyclopterina^ Fabr., F. Gr. 326 ; Kroyer, N^^ 

T., L, p. 502, t, 6^ f. 4. 




LtTKEN ON THE CRUSTACEA OF GREENLAND. 163 

Ste^DRtrup ct Liitken, 1. c, p. 706, 1. 13, f. 30 ; Stimpson, 

Proc. Philad., p. 139. 
On Ci/chpterm s/n'nosus, CoUus scorpius^ CendrotvotUi 

faAciatm^ and Sebastes norvefficus. 
Lemma branchialU^ L.* Gr> Oknb-massimioa. 
Ltrnetn gadinn^ Fn^^^,, F. Gr. 325. 
Kroyer, Nut, T,, I., p. 293, t. 3, £ 10 j Stp. et Ltk., 

I c, p. 403. t. 13, f, 28-29, 
On Gains morrhna^ {^vak, and dgilh* 
V^ceH^ Sedis,) 

167. Psiiamailus kippoliftes^ Kr. 

Kroyer, N. T., CL R., IL, p. 336, t, 17, f. 10. 
On Hippvlt/te aniteatcL 

168. Peltogtiater paguri, Raihke. 
Rathke, N. A. Acad. C. L.-C. N. C, XX., p. 245, 

t. 12, f. 17. 
On Pagttrui pubescens, 

169. Sylon, sp. 
Kroyer, Vid. Selsk. Overs., 1855 p. 128. 
On H^polyte^ sp. 

170. Balanujf norratiLs (Da Costa). Greenl. Katungiak. 
Lep(^ ialattm^ Fabr., F. Gr. 423. 
Bachholz, 1, c, p. ^96. 

171. Baianu^ balatioideit (Linn,). Greenl. Kattmgiak* 
Fabr., F. Gr. 424. 

172. Balanm vrenatus^ Briig. 
Enc. M^tliod. Ven». 
Lepas folia^ea^ var. A., Naturh. Selsk. Skr., I,^ 1, 174. 

173. Coronuia (Badetna (Linn.). Gr. Keporkab-Katun* 
giarsoa. 

Lepus bal€enaruy Fabr*, F. Gr, 425. 
On Megaptera boops, 

174. Conchoderma avritum (Linn.). 
Lepas aurita, Syst. Nat. (XIL), p. 1110. 
Videnak. Selflk. Skr., 1809^10, p. 94. 
Lepas balepnarut/jnn.j Fabr., F. Gr. 425.t 



APPENDIX. 
^caof^onidA- 

17o, Nt/mpkon grmsipet (Linn,), GrcenL Niotok. 

? Phalnnginm grossiprs^ Linn., S. N. (XIL), p. 1027* 
Pjgrnogonum grosstpes^ Fiibr., F. Gr, 210 (p.p.), 
Sabine, Supi>l. App,, p. 225 ; Kroyer, N. T., II. B,, 

I., p. 108 ; Voyage, t. .36, f. 1. 
Bucbholz, I. c, p. 336. 



Od Piawaffi CTAuicomiM from Hsptroiid<m ro&tratM^ and XenoManm* 
from GlobioenphaJmB mdoM^ oft. the note to p. 158. 
imaitu* tpirmiU, Kr. (N. T., D!. R., U*, p. 336, t, 18, f. 7), 
to ih« Cnittacea, bat to the Hydroxoa (8tphoQophor&). 

L 2 



164 LUTKEX OS T£rE CRZSTACTJL OF GBEESOJkJID. 

176. yympkom auxtttm^ Kr. 

Kr>er. N. T., L c^ p. 110; ToyBge, t. 85, f. 2. 

Bachholz, L c^ p. 397. 
ITT. Sympkom tomg^tarte^ Kr. 

Knipyer, N. T^ L c, pc 112; Voy^ t. 26, f. 2. 
ITS. Xympktm kirtMm^ YmSut. 

Fa&r^ EntomoU IV., p. 417. 

Aymphcm hirwrntum^ S«bine, 1. c, p. 226. 

Krojer, 1. c, pc 113; Tor., L 36, f. 3; Biidilioli» 
L'c^ p. 397. 
1T9. yymphom brerUarte^ Kr. 

KroTer, 1. c, p. 1 15 ; Tot., t. 36^ f. 4. 

180. Eutyeifde ki^fnda (Kr.), 

Zeies hUpidtis, Kr., L c^ pL 1 17 ; Vojage, t. 88, fL L 
JETf/ryr. hup,, Sdiiodte, Rink's Grdnland, Nat. TO., 
p. 71. 

181. Pallene spinipes (Fabr.). 

PycnogoRum spimipes, Fabr. F. Gr., p. 211. 
Kroyer, 1. c, p. 118; Voy., t. 37, t 1. 

182. Pallene intermedm, Kr. 

Kroyer, L c, pt 119; Voy., t. 37, f. 3. 

183. Pallene diseoideOj Kr. 

Kroyer 1. c, p. 120 ; Voy., t 37, f. 3. 

184. Pharichilidium femaratum (BBXhke).* 

Pyenogonum grossipesy var., Fabr., F. Gr. 210L 
S^ymphonfemaratum, Rathke, Nat. Selak. Skr., V. X^ 

p. 201. 
Phoxiehilus proboseidetu, Kr., Vid. Selak. Skr., YIL^ 

p. 321. 
Orithyia coccineoy Johnst.; PkoxwkilkL eoeememt^ 

Milne-Edw. 
Kroyer, Not. Tidaskr., 1. c, p. 122 ; Voy., t. 38, £ 2. 



Prinx'Ipal Works and Memoirs on the Cbttstacea or 
Greenland. 

Boech: Crastacea amphipoda borealia et aretica (Vid. Selsk. Forb* 

Christiania, 1870). 
' De Skandinaviske og arktiske Amphipoder. Iste Hef^ 

1872. 
Buchholz: Crustaceen ; Die zweito deutsche KordpoUrfiiJirtr 

1874. 

• I am not aware that Pycnogonum UUoraU, StrOm (Falir.,F. Gr. J1S)|1* 
actually been found on the shores of Greenland. Here aUo ahoold be X** 
tioned Phoxiehilus proboacideus. Sab. (Suppl. App. Parry), from Nort^ 
Georgia, and Nymphon hirtipes and Nymphon robushtm. Bell (Bdehei'tl<^ 
of Arctic Voyages, p. 408-9, t 85, f. 8-4), from NorthnmberfaBid ftw"*- 
These two should especiallv be compared with the species firom Chwenlnif ^ 
deecrfptioos and figures of which were apparently unknown to the "^ff^ 
anthor. 



W OBUBTACBA OF*OREE!rL4in>. 



G^t: CmBtacea ftmphipoda maria Spitzl>ergiam alluentis cnm 

speciebusaliis nrcticis enumerat . . . (Ofvera. Vetensk. 

Akatl. Forh. Stokbolm, 1865). 
KtQ^er: Om Snyltekrebsene issaer raed Honsyn til den dangke 

Fauna (Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, I., p. 172, 252, 475, 

650; 11^ p-'^i 131- 1837-38). 
*^ Conspectus Crustaceorum Grceulandire {ihid,^ 11., p. 249, 

1838), 
^— Gr6nland5 Amphipoder (the Ampbipods of Greenlandj 

with descriptions of otber Greenknd Crustacea, and 

an enumeration of tlic known species, remarks on the 

geogmpkicftl disitribution, &c.)» (Kongl, Donske Vi- 

dcnskaberues 8eliikubs naturvid.-mathemat. Afh., VIL, 

1839.) 
^'^ Bopyru$ ahdominalis (Natiuli, Tidsskr., Ill,, pp. 102 and 

289. 1840). 
— Fire nye Arter af Slaegten Cuma (ibid.. III., p. 508, 1841). 
*-^ Udsigt over de nordiske Arter af Slaegten Hippolt/te (lAjV/., 

IV., p. 570, 1841), 
***• MoDOgraphisk Fremstilling af Sltegten Hippolyies nordiske 

Alter (Kongl. D. Vid. Selak. Nat. Math. Afb., IX., 

1842). 
*-^ Nye nordiske 81aDgteraf Amphipodemea Orden (Nat.Tids3kr., 

IV., p. 141. 1842). 
"*^ Beakrivebe af nordiske Cmntjon Arter (iftirf., IV., p. 217). 

Cm Cyamm Ceii, Linn, {ibid.^ p. 474, 1843). 

*-*^ Be«kriveke af nogle nje Arter og Slregter af Capreltina 

(iWd., pp. 490 and 585, 1843). 
*■"** Bidrag til Kundskab om Pycnogoniderne {ibid.^ H. R., I,, 

p. 90, 1844). 
"■^^ Carcinologiske Bidrng (ibid,, II. R., I.E., p. 453, 1845; 

II., p. 113, 1846 J p. 366, 1847; p, 527, 1848j p. 561, 

1849). 
-^ Om Cumaemes Familie {ibid., II. E., II., p. 123, 1846). 
^*^ Porsog til en monographisk Frctn stilling af Krfpb»dyrsln}gten 

Serges tes (with an ap|iendix on the audi tonr organs of 

Crustacea) (Kongl. Danske VidcJisk. Selsk. Skr., V. R., 

naturv.-raatb. Afli. IV., 1856). 
***^ Et Bidrag til KunJ-skab om Krobsdyrfamilien Mtfsidm (Nat, 

Tidsskr., in. R., L, 1861). 
"^^ Bidrag til Kundskab om .Snyltekrebsene (on Parasitic Crus- 
tacea) (Nat. TIdaskr., HI, R„ II. Bd., 1863). 
""*** The Carcinological jiortion of Gaimard's ** Voyage en Scan- 

dinavie, en Laponie,'* Ac. (Plates only.) 
*^UkeH: Nogle Bemierkninger om de nordiske ^^<7a-Arter (Viden- 

akabeligti Meddelleser fra den naturb. For., 1858, p. 65), 
•**-• Bidrag lil Kundska!) ora Artenie af Sliegtrn Cyamus Latr. 

dler Hvalluscnc (K. D. Vid. Selv^k. Skr., X„ 1873). 
and Liitkcn : Bidrag til Kimdeknb om det aabne Havs 

Snyltekrebs og Lernicer (on Parasitic Crastacea and 

Lenueidaj), Vid. Sebkabs Skr., A^ R., V, Bd., 1861), 




W6 a 8, BRADY ON THE OSTRA0OI>A OF GKEENIAKD. 



XVI.— OsTRAcoDA ft^m Greenland, &a 
Brady, Esq., OvM.Z.S, 



By G. S. 



[i^^OsTRAOODA from the Ht'NDE Islands, Disco Bay, dredged 

by Dr. P, C. Suthehland, and determincnl bv G. S. BBADifa 
Esq., C.M.Z.S. (Pliil, Tians. 1862, civ., p. 327 ; TranB. ZooL^ 
Soc, 1865, v., p. 360, &c. ; Anoala Nat, Hist. 1868, ser. 4^^ 
vol. ii., p. 30, and Revision, February 1876). 



itt 



1, Cy there limicols (Norman). 


2.5-30 fathoms. 


2. C. an^lata ? (G. 0. 8ors). 


60-70 


»f 


3, C tuSerculata (Sars). 


60^70 


»> 


4, C, abjasicob (Sars). 


? 




5. C. eeptentrioTialis, Brady, 


60-70 


»i 


6. 0, costata, Brady. 


60-70 


»i 


7. C. lutea, Miiller. 


? 




8, C. praargiunta, Sars, 


60-70 


V 


9. C. Finnmrt'hicii, Sars. 


60-70 


ii 


10. Cj^-tha-idea j>apillo?a, Boequet. 


25-30 


« 


11, C. pulchra, Brady. 


28^0 


n 


12. C oryza, Brady.' 


?. 




13. C. piinctilJata, Brady. 


60-70 


9* 


14. Cytheropteron latissimiim. 






(Norman). 


25-30 


»» 


15* Bythocythere simplex (Norman) 


? 





2,— OsTRAcoDA from Cl'mberland Inlkt, 15 J fetboma, lat. 
66" 10' N., long. 67^ 15' W. Collected by a ^lialer. Bj 
G, S. Brady, Esq., C.M.Z.S. (Amials Nat. HUt, 1868, 
eer. 4, vol. ii., p. 31). 
in., 1. Cythere Dunplmensis (NormAR). 
^ ' 2. Cytheropteron Moiitrosiense, C B.& R. (PL V.,f. W) 

3. C. arcuatiim, Brady, non veirperiilio^ lisa, (PL V,,/. 6»4.) 
B., 4. a inflatuni, C. B. & R (PL V., f- 8-10.) 
5. Cytberura, imduta, G. 0. Sars, 



from DA\^s'3 Strait, lat. 67** 17' N., Icmg- 
,6 feet below low -water mark. Collected by* 



8g— OSTRACODA 

- 62^ 21' W 
•' WMer. By G. S. Bradv, Esq., C.M.Z.S. (Annals 
Hiflt, SOT, 4, vol. ii., 1868, p, 31.) 
Cythere lutea, Miiller. 
C, vilbsa (G. 0. Sars). 
C. Fiumarchica (G. O. S.). 
C. boreftli^s Brady. (PL IV,, f. 1-4, 6» 7.) 
Ck emarginata (Sars). 
C. aQgukta (SarH). 
C. pulchella, Brady. 
C. tubereulata (Sars) 
C. concinna, Jones. 
Cytheridea papillosa, Bosq. 
C^M^benira rudis, Brady. (PL V., f. 15-17.) " 



(PL v., f. 18-20.) 



OW TRE kl^TSWLTDA, VfC, Of OW^SEfttiAHTD, 

4. — Supplement. From Iceland {ts Shell-Sand). 

CTthem lutca, Mailer. 
C. borealis, Bradj. 
C. emarginata (Sars). 



[. — A Revised Catalogue of tlie Annelida and other, 
not Entozoic, Worms of Greenland. By Dr. Chb, 
LijTKEN, University Museum, CopenU»gen. 1875. 



I 



ANNULATA CII^TOPODA et DISCOPHORA, 
GEPHYREA, etc. 

As far as the mftrinc ChfEtopoda aro concerned, this List i» 
hiefly bused tipon Br. Malmgren-s memoirs on the Arctic Anuu* 
kt&. To the Greenland Bpecies enumerated hy this author 
pe added a few from the Museum of the Universitj' in Copen- 
Igen, for instance, the HirudinidcPy identified by Mr, Mainly of 
r.,t^,_^. ^|jg Sipunculid€B^ by the late Prof. Keferstdn, in 

i, ^ 
1 nc lollowing memoirs should especially l>e consulted \ — 
A, S. (Ersied : Gronlonds Annulatn dorsibrancKiata (KiD» 

Vidensk. Selsk. mathem.-nfttur. Alli., X. Deel). 
Maimgren : NordiskaHafs-Annulater (Ofvers, K, Vet. Ak&d* 
Forh., 1865), 1-3. 

*— — Annulata polychaita SpitzbergisB, Grcenlnndiffi, 

Ac, 1867. 
»— #^. Keftrsteim Beitrage «nr anatomischen tmd aystema- 
^B tischen Kenntniss der Sipunculiden (Zeitschr. f. wiss, 
■ Zool., XV., 1866). 

^n>. A. L. Morch : Reviriio critica Serpulidm*am (Naturhiat, 
Mf Tidsskr., 8 R., 1 B,, 1868), 

In thQ Catalogue of Entozoa (Art. XVI 1 1. , p. 172) the spedee 
•e ftdded which have been identified from Greenland epeciefi by 
^. Krabbe in the Museum at Copenhagen. 



^r Euphrasyne horttdis, (Ereted, GronlAnd'fl Aonul. 

dorsibr., p. 170, f. 23-27- 

2. Lefjidotiotfu aquamattts (L.). 

Aphrodita iqtttimata^ Linn., S. N., Ed. X., p. 655* 
Pall, MiBoel Z<:»ol,, p. 91 (pp.), t, 7, f. H a-^. 

punctata, MuU. Pi. Z. D. 2642; v. Wiirmorn, 
no, I. 18; Abildgd. Zool. Dan., UL, p. 25, t. 96, 
1-4; Fabr. F. Gr. 291. 
^•. Fidt^ioH squaumta^ Aud. ot M.-Edw. Roch. Annel, 
" p. 80, t. 1, f. 1-16. .^-j»v'l- 




168 LUTKEN ON THE ANNELIDA, ETC. OF OBEBNXiAim. 

Lepidonote punctata, CElrsted, Annul. Dao. Cknnm 

p. 12, f. 2, 5, 39, 41, 47, 48. 
Lepidonottu squamatugy Einberg, Engenies Besa, IL, 

p. 13, t. 4, f. 15. 
Malmgren, Nord. Haf8.-Annul., p. 56. 
(A single specimen in the Maeeum at Copenhagen, labelled 
«* Greenland.") 

3. Nychia cirrosa (Pall.). 

Aphrodita cirrosa. Pall., MiscelL ^ool., p. 95, t 8, ,^ 

f. 3-6. 
Aphrodita scabrOf Fabr., Fauna GrcDnl. 292. 
Nychia cirrosa^ Malmgren, Nordiska Hafe-Annulater^^^ 

p. 58, t. 8, f. 1. 

4. Nychia Amondseniy Mlgr. 

Malmgren, Annulata polychieta, p. 5, t. 1, f. 4. 

5. Eunoa (Erstedii, Mlgr. 

Lepidonote scabra, (Erstd. (non Fabr.), L c, pw IG^^B, 

I 2, 7, 10, 12, 13, 17, 18. 
Eunoe (ErsUdii, Mlgr., Nordiska Hafa-Aimiilate^^i 

p. 61, t. 8, t 3. 

6. Eunoa nodosa (Sars). 

Polynoe nodosa, Sars, Christiania Vld. Selsk. Forlfe — ^ 

1860, p. 59. 
Eunoe nodosa, Malmgren, 1. c., p. 64, t. 8, f. 4. 

7. Lagisca rarispina (Sars). 

Polynoe rarispina, Sars, Christiania Vid. Selsk. Forte- "i 

1860, p. 60. 
Lagisca rarispina, Mlgr., L c, p. 65, t. 8, f. 2. 

8. Hamiotftoe imhricata (L.).* 

Aphrodita imbricata, Linn., Syst. Nat (ed. XIL'-^ 

p. 1804. 
Aphrodita cirrata, Fabr., Faun. GroenL 290, X, ^> 

f. 7. 
Lepidonote cirrata, CErsted, I. c, p. 166, f. 1, 5, 6, ■- ^t 

14, 15. 
HarmotJioe imbricata, Mlgr. I. c, p. 66^ t. 9, £ 8. 

9. Antinoe Sarsii (Einbg., graniandica, Mlmgr.). 

Antinoe {Sarsii) grosnlandica, Malmgren, Ania^ 
polych., p. 13, et Nordiska Hafs-AnnoL, p. 75, t« 4 
f. 6. 

Sigalionidse. 

10. Pholoe minuta (Fabr.). 

Aphrodita minuta et A, longa, Fabr., Faun. 6r. ^ 

et294. 
Pholoe (?) minuta, (Ersted, 1. c, p. 169, f. 8^ i * 

9,16. 
Pholoe minuta, Malmgren, Nord. Ha&- Annul, p* ^ 

t. 11, f. 13. 



e m^^^ ^ MObius, HarmothoB imbricata and Aittmoi S»m «• W 



onespedes. 



IKl^KEN 



ON THE AKNELIDAf ETC. OF GBEEITLAKD. 16^ 



BTephtliydidse. 

»li. yephthys dliata (MiilL). 
Nereis ciliata, Miill., Zoo!. Dan., t. 89, f. 1-4. 
Nepkthys ciliata, Malragr., 1. c, p. 104, t. 12, f. 17. 
12« Nephihys lacteay Malmgr. 

tMalmgr., Annul, poljch., p. 18 (name only). Un- 
descnbed specimens, perhnps of this species, are in 
the Coi)enliagen Museum. 
3. Nephtht/s ccEca (Fubr.). (GreenL Senffiarsoak.) 
Nereis creca, Fabn, F, Gr. 287; Naturh. Selsk. 
Skr, v., p. 1«5. t, 4, t 24-29. 
Nephthfs cteca, (Er^tcd, L c, p. 193, f, 73, 74, 77-86. 
Nephthi/s cceca, Malmgr., Nord. Hafk- Annul., p. 104^ 
t. 12, f. 18. .a 

14, NepfUhj/s longosetosa, CErstd* 

»<Erstd. L c, p. 195, r. 75-76. 
Malmgi-en, 1. c, p. 106, t. 13, f. 24. 

lijllodocidee. 

(15* Pfu/llodoce citrina, Mlgr, 
Phyllodoce maculata^ CEratd, (oon Fabr.), 1. c, p« 191, 
f. 46, 48. 
Pk, citrina, Malmgr., 1, c, p. 95, t 13, f. 24, 
16. Phyllodoce grtjcnlandica^ CErstd. 

CErsted, L c, p. 192, f. 19, 21, 22, 29-32. 
Malmgren, 1. c, p. i&\ Annul, poly cb., t. 2, f. 9. 

»n. Phyllodace Rmki, Ml^r. 
AunuL poljch., p. 23, t. 2, f. 11. 
18. Phyllodoce Lueikeni^ Malragr, 

Aunal. polych., p. 24, t. 2, t 10. 

119. PhyUodoce incUa^ CErsted. 
} Nereis maculata^ Fnbr. (non Mill!.), F. Gr. 281. 
PhyUodoce ? ineisa, CErsted, Gronl. Ann. dors., p. 189, 
f. 44, (Perhftps a doubtful sjKjcies.) 
K). Eulalia viridis (ilull.). (Greed. Scngiarak,) 
Die grUne Nereide, iliilL, Wiirm., p. 162, t. 11. 
Nereis vindis, Fabr. F. Gr. 279. 
' CErsted, 1. c., p. 188. 

Eulatin viritHs, Malmgr., Nord. Hafa-Ann., p. 98, t. 15, 
f.39. 

21. Eulalia prnhlema^ Malmgr. 

Nord. Httfe-Aon„ p. 99, t. 14, f. 29. 

22. Etcant Umqa (Fnbr.). (Gr. Scnqiuk.^ 

Nereis (anga, Fabr,, F. Gr. 289 ; Naturh. Selsk. Skr., 
K v., p. 171, t, 4, f. 11-13. 

B_ Eteone longa, CErsted, 1. c, p. 185, f. 20, 28. 
^B8« Eteone cylindrical CErsted. 
^ CErsted, 1. c, p. 187, f. 42, 49, 57. 

24, Etrofie flfiva (Fabr.).* (Greenl. Sengiarak,) 



• Nertis earulea, Fabr. F. Gr., 2S0, perh&Mt a FhjrUodooean, not deter- 
babW C" 8«Dg«Andi ** m Greenland, as many other speciei). 



170 LUTKEN ON THE AKNBLIDA, ETa OF OBBBMASIK 

Nerasflava,V9\yr., F. Gr. 282; Nat. Selsk. Skr^ V^ 

p. 168, t. 4, f. 8-10. 
EteonejflafHi, OBrsted, 1. c, p. 186, f. 47. 
Malmgren, Nord. Hafs-Ann., p. 102, t. 15, t 86. 

HesloBidn. 

25. Casialia aphrodiioides (Fabr.). (GreenL Sengiarak.) 

Nereis aphrodUoides, Fabr., F. 6. 278; Nat. SefsL 

Skr., v., p. 164, t. 4, f. 4-6. 
Castalia F<AricU, Malmgr., Ann. poljch., p. 32. 

26. Casiaiia rosea (Fabr.). (Greenl. Senffiarak,) 

Nereis rosea, Fabr. F. Gr. 284 ; Nat. Sebk. Skr., T., 
p. 175, t. 4, f. 14-16. 

SyllidjB. 

27. Autolytus longisetosus^ CErstd. (Greenl. Semgiarakfl^o-' 

luaiik.) 
? Nereis prismatica, Fabr., F. Gr. 285 ; Nat S. Skr., V., 

p. 177, t. 4, f. 17-20. 
? Nereis bifronsy Fabr., F. Gr. 303 ; ■ L o., p.. I8I9 

£21-23. 
Poiybostrichus lonyisetosus, CErstd,, L e., p. 182, £ 62, 

67, 71. 
Auioif/tus Umgisetosus, Malmgr., Ann. poljcL, p. 34^ 

t. 7, f. 38. 

28. Autolytus Alexandri (Malmgr.).* 

Malmgr., Ann. polych., p. 37, t. 7, f. 39. 

29. Autolytus incertus, Mlgr. 

MfiJmgr. op, cit., p. 35, t. 6, f. 40. 

30. Syllis incisa (Fabr.). (Greenl. Sengiah) 

Nereis incisa, Fabr., F. Gr. 277 ; Nat. Selsk. Skr., V, 
p. 160, t. 4, f. 1-3. 

31. SyUis FainicU, Malmgr. (Greenl. SengiaraJL) 

Nerds armillaris, Fabr. F. Gr. 276 (non Mull.). 

32. Chatosyllis (Erstedi, Malmgr. ? 

Joida sp., CErsted, 1. c, p. 182. 
Malmgren, Annul, poljch., p. 45, t. 8, f. 51. 

83. Nereis zonatct, Malmgr. (Greenl. Senffiak.) 

? Nereis diversicolor, Fabr., F. Gr. 274. (non MulL).t 
Malmgren, Anniil..poljc]i., p. 46, t. 5, f. 84« 

34. Eunereis paradoxa (CErsted). 

Heteronereis paradoxa, CErsted, 1. c., p. 177, f. JSO, 68, 
64, 66. (Known from a single specimen.) 

35. Nereis pelagica, Linn. (Gi'eenl. Senyiaraoak^) 

. Linn. Syst. Nat. (X.), p. 654. 
Nereis verrucosa^ Fabr., F. Gr. 275. 



* Nereia noctiluca, Fabr. F. Gr. 273 (Greenl. "Ingnerolak")* isadoubtW, 
nadetenmned species. 

t ^' dhertieolor is cited from East Greenland by Mdbiiu, ZCe 
^ot^larfthrt, U., p. 954. 




"AITNELTDA, ETC. Of aKKENtANU 171 

Nereis pelagica, (Ersted, 1. c, p. 175, f. 52, S3, 55, 
68, 59. 
J . Malmgren^ Annul, poljeh., p. 47, t. 5, f. 85. 
(06w) Heteronereis (jrandifoUa (Rtithke). 

Nereis ptandifolia^ Rathke, Boiti'age z. Faana Nor- 
wegeDs (Nova Acta C. L.-C. N. C, XX.), p. 155, 
t 7, f. IS-H. 
Heterotierds arrtica et a^similiSf CErstetl, L c, p* 179- 

180, f. 50, 51, 54, 60, 61, BS, 68, 70, 72. 
Heter. grafuUfolia, Malmgr., Nord. Hafs-Ann., p. 108, 
t. U; f. 15-16. 
."^Eunereis and Heteronereia are now known to be the 
K^statoxy, seioally mature state of Nereis ; H, grandifoUa of. 
--Nereis pehtgiea. ^^ ^^^ '' ^ 

lu&bruie r eidsB* 

37. Lumbrinereis fragitis (Miill.), 

Lumhricusfragilis^'hilu\LV\'0^\T,Zoo\, Dan. 26 11 ; Zool. 

Dim., p. 22, t. 22, f. 1-3. 
Mahngren, Annul, polych., p. 63, t. 14, f. 83, 

Xtmicid«e. 

38. Noikria concftt/lega (Sai"^). 

■ Onuphis conchy lega^ bare, Beskr. og Jagttag, p. 61, 
I t. 10, f. 28. 

■ Onuphis Eschrichtiiy (Ereted, L c, p. 1 72, f. 33-41, 45. 
CHyeeridae. 

39. Gli/cera capitata, CErstd. "(Greenl. PullatcriaL) 

■ Nereis alba, Mull, Prodr. Z, D. 2634 ; Zool. Dan,, II., 
^^ p. 29, t. 62, f. 6-7, 

^H Gl^cera capitala, (Erstd. 1. c, p. 196, f. 87, 88, 90-94, 

^^ 96, 99. 

I 40r Glycera seiosa, CErd. 

' CErsted, 1. c, p, 198, f. 89, 95, 97. 

▲rididjB. 

L 41. SLolof}lo» urmiger (MiilL). (Greenl. PtiiUtieriah.) 
^-1^ ' * Lumhrieu* armiger^ Miill. Zool. Dan., I., p. 22, t. 22. 

■k Scoloplos armiger, CErsted, I. c, p. 201, f. 113, 117, 

V 42. Nmdofiereiji quadricuspida (Fabr.), 

I Nnis quadricuspida, Fabr., F. Gr. 296. ^ 

■ Staioplon quadricuapida, (Ersted, 1. c, p* 200, f. 106 
I -10. 

OphelUd»^ 

- 43. Ammotrvpant nulog aster ^ Ratlikc. 

A Rathke, Beitr. z. F. Norw.. 1. c, p. 188, t. 10, f. 1-3, 

^^^ Ojdietina acumimita, (Erstd. Archiv f. Naturg., X., 

L^^ 111, t. 3, f. 24-26. 

/jffMvmitf (Ratbke). 
H Ammoirt/patfe limacimij Ratliko, L c, p. 190, t. 10, 

^^^ Ophelia bicornisy CElrntcd, Gt^nl. Ann., p. 204, f. 104 

^B -5, 115, 116, 121. — 



172 LUTKEN ON THE ANNBLIDA> ETC. OF OBBSVLArau 

45. Travisia Forbesi^ Johnst. 

Johnston, Ann. Nat Hist., IV., p. 373, t 11, f. 11-18. 
Ammotrypane oestroides^ Rathke, 1. c, p. 192, t. 10^ 

f. 9-12. 
Ophelia mamillata^ CSrsted, Groul. Ann., p. 205, 

f. 103, 112, 114, 119, 120; Archiv f. Naturg., X., 

p. 110, t. 3, f. 21-23. 

Bcalibregmidse. 

46. SccUibregma inflatum^ Kathke. 

Rathke, 1. c, p. 184, t. 9, f. 15-21. 
Oligobrajichus roseus et granlantUcuSj Sars, Fauna 
littor. Norvegia), I., p. 91, 92, t. 10, f. 20-27. 

TelethoMe. 

47. Aremcola marina (Linn^. (Greenl. Inelluaiuak) 

Lumbricus marinus, Linn., Syst. Nat. (XIL), p. 1077. 
Lumbricus marinus^ Fabr., F. Gr. 262, et L.p€miUi>tu$^ 

ibid. 267. 
Aremcola piscaiorum, CErstd., Gronl. Ann., p. 207. 

Sphsorodoridae. 

48. Ephesia gracilis^ Rathke. 

Rathke, 1. c, p. 176, t. 7, f. 5-8. 

Sphisrodorum fiavum^ CErsted, AnnuL Dan. Comp., 

p. 43, f. 7, 92, 101. 
Pollicita peripatuSf Johnst, Ann. Nat. Hist, XVL, 

p. 5, t 2, f. 1-6. 
Sphcerodorum peripatus, ClaporMe, Beob. Anat Entw. 

wirbellos. Thiere, p. 50, t 11, £ 8-18. 
Ephesia gracilis^ Malingr., Annul, poljch., p. 79. 

ChlonemidsB. 

49. Trophonia plttmosa (Miill.). (Greenl. MerkolualiL) 

Amphitrite plumosa, Milll., Prodr. Z. D. 2621 (Abild- 
gaard Zool. Dan., III., t 90, f. 1-2). 

Amphitrite plumosa, Fabr., F. Gr. 271. 

Siphonostoma plumosa, Rathke, 1. c, p. 208, t 11, 
f. 1-2. 

Trophonia Goodsiri, Johnston, Ann. Nat Hist, IV., 
p. 371, t 11, f. 1-10. 

50. Flabelligera affinis, Sars. 

Sars, Bidrag til Sodyrenes Naturh., p. 31, t 3, £ 16. 
Siphonostoma vagininiferum, Rathke, 1. c, p." 2 11, 

1 11, f. 3-10. 
Tecturella Jlaccida, Stimpson, Marine Invert Gr. 

Manan, p. 32, t 3, f. 21. 

51. Brada villosa (Rthk.) ? 

Siphonostoma viltosum, Rathke, N. Act Acad. C. 
L.-C. N. C, XX., p. 215, t 14, f. 11, 12. 

52. Brada granulata, Maimer* 

Annul, polychffita, p. 85, t 12, f. 71. 
Brada in/Mbilis (Rathke ?) ; Stimpson, Proc Acad. 
Philad., 1863. 



X,UTKEl ON THE AXKELIDA* ETC. OF GREENXANB. 173 



itemaspidse* 

^3, SlcriutspU foisor^ Stimps. 

■ Stimpson, Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan) p* 29, 

t. 2, f, la 

Cliietopteridae. 

54. Spinth^H€pt€rua iypicHS, Sars. 

Sars Fauna littor. Norv., IT., p. 1, t. 1, f. 8-21. 
Malmgren, Annul, poljch., p. 98. 

B|iioBid«« 

55. Scotecoiepis ( Laofdce) drrata (Sars). 

PNtrine. drrata, Sar^, Njt. Mag. f. Natar., VI., p, 207. 
Scot. (Lfjom) drr.j Malmgr., Annul. poL, p, 91, t, 9, 
f. 54, 

56. Spiojilicormg (Fabr.). (Green 1, Igtahtalik,) 

(Nereis JiUcfynds, Fabr. F. Gr. 289; Spio filicomis, 
Fabr., Schr. Naturf. Frcundc, VI., p. 264, t. 5, f. 8- 
12. 
SpUyJiUc^ Malmgren, 1. c, p. 92, t, 1, f. 1. 

57. Spio seHcornis, Fabr. ^ 
Nereis seticornis, Fabr., F, Gr. 288. 
Spio seticornis, Fabr., Schr. Naturf. Freunde, VI., 

p. 260, t. 5., f. 1-7, 

58. Spiophmies Kr^eyeri, Grube. 

Grube, Archiv f, Naturg., 1860, p. 88, t. 5, f. 1. 
Mabnogren, Annul, polycb., p. 94, t. 9, f. 56. 

t59. Leipocerag uviferum. Mob. 
Zte deutsche Nordpolarf., II., p. 254, U 1, fl 10. 
Rtxdid«* 

60. Cirratuitis cirratus (MiilL). (Greonl. Nyaurselik,) 
^ Lumhricus cirratus, »Iul!., Frodr. Z. D. 2608. 
H^ Lumhricus cirratus^ Fabr,, F. Gr. 2^6, 

V Cirraiulus Itorcalis, CErsted, L c, p. 206. f. 98, 102. 

W Cirr. dor,, Ratbke, 1. c, p. 180, t. 8, f. 16, 17. 

^elmintliidae. 

61. Notomastus latericeus^ Sar» } 

Sars, Nyt. Mag., VI., p. 199 ; Fauna litt. Norv., 11., 

^p. 12, t. 2, f. 8-17. 
Malmgren, Annul, polyeh., p. 97. 
. Capiietia capitata (Fabr.). (Greenl, Puiiateriak,) 
Lumbricus capiiatus^ Fabr., F. Gr. 262, 
Lumltriconais marina^ CErsted, Katurh, Tidsakr., IV., 
p. 128, t. 3., f, 6, 11, 12. 

63. Nicomache lumhricaUs (Fabr.). 

Sabetla lumbricalis, Fabr., F. Gr, 369, 

Clymene lumhricaUs, Sara, F, litt. Norv., IL, p. 16, 

t. 2, f. 23-26. 
Malmgren, Nord. Hafs-Ann., p. 190; Ann* polych., 

t. 10, f. 60. 




LtJTKEN ON THE AKKELtDA, £T< 



T'?.- 



68. 




64. Axiothea catenataf Mlgr. 
Malmg., N. HafsAnD.« p. 190; Atiti, poUt. 10^ f. o9^ 

I Amnoehari dae. 

65. AmmtH'hftres asdmiUs, SatD* 

Sfirs, Nyt, Mag. f. Natur., VI., p. 201. 
Malrrjgren, Annul, polycb., t. U, f. 65, 
66w Myr'toehele Ifeeri^ Mlgr. 

Annul, polycb., p. 101, t. 7, f. 37, 

AmpMctenidse. 

67. Cistenides ^ranulala (L.). (GreenL Imalf-poii/i.) 

Sabella tfranulata, L., Syt^t. Nat. (XIL), p, 1^68. 
Amphitritc auricoma^ Fabr., F. Gr. 272. 
Amphitiite Escfirichfii, Ratbke, 1. c, p. 219. 
Pectinaria ^rrosnlandica, Grube, Arcb. f. Natnrg. 
Cistcmdes ffratntlfUa^ Mabngr., Nord. Hafe-Ann *^ 
p. 359, 
dstenides hyperborea^ Mulmgr. 

Malmgr. Nord. Hafs-Ann., p. 360, t 18, t 40. 

Ampharetidse* 

69. Ampharete Grubeiy MIgr. 

^ . ? Amphichif ucHtifri>n4i^ Grube, Arcbi?^ f. Naturg.^ 

XXVI., p. 109/t. 5, f. 6. 
Amphar, Grubcif Malmg., N, Hiifo-Aiin.» I, 19, f . 44, 
69i», Ampharete Goesif Mgr, 

Nora. Htifij-Aou., p, 364» t, 19, f. 45. 

70. Ampbicieis Gunneri (^Sars), 

•Ui Amphitrite Gunnerit S«ir9, Beskr. Jngtt., t, 1 1, f^ 30. 
Crossoitoma midaSi Gossc, Ann. Nat. Hiat^ IW^ 
XVI., p. 310, t. 8, f. 7-12. 
^ Amp fact eit gratrUandica^ Grube, ArcbiT t N^ 
XXVI.. p. 106, t. 5» f. 3. 
tt#^.f Ampkicteit Gunneri^ Malmgr., Nord. Hafji-Ann., 

p. 366, t. 19, f. 46. 

71. Sctbeilides boreaih^ Sars. 

Sara, Fauna litt. Norv., II., p. 22. 28. 
Mttlnigren, Nord. Hafs-Ann., p. 36^, I, 2CK f. 47. 
,.!l 7^< Melinfia cristata (Sars), 

SabeUides cristata, Sajw, \. c, p. 19 et 24, t 2, f. J -7. 
Melinna eriUata, Malmg., N. Uafs-Aim., t, 20. f. 50, 
72a, Ltftippe labiata^ Mgr. 

Nord. Haft-Ann., p. 367, t. 26, f. 78. 

Tereb^Udie* 

78. Amphttrite cirrata^ Mull. (Greenl. Lfiuiuaiik.) 
O. F. Miiller, Prodr. Zool. Dan. 2617. 
O. FftbriciuB, Fauna Grc^nl 269. 
M«lngr«n, Nord. Hafs-Ann, p. 376, L 21, T. 53. 
> : 74. AmpkUrite gtvtnlandica^ Mlgr, 

Malrogren, 1. c, p. 376, t. 21, f. 62. 
76, Nk'o/ctt nrctica^ Malmgreu. I/. 

Nurdifika Hafs-Annul.. p. 381, t. 24, f. 65» 67. 



'J 



^^aKBM OK THE ANNELIDA, ETC. OF GR££NLAKD. 17fi 



76, Sdfme Maia, Mlgr. 
1. a, p. 383, t. 2^, f. 62, 

77, Axumicejiczuo&a (Grube). 
Terebella flexHom^ Gmbe, Archiv f. Naturg, XXVI., 

p. 102, t. 5, f. 2. 
Axionice Jlcjcvosa^ Malmgren, L c, p. 384, t, 24, f. 68. 

78, Leiena ahranc/tiala, Malmgi'. 
I c, p. 385, t. 24, f. 64. 

79, Thelepus eincinnatus (Fabr.). (GrQenl. IglulualiJu) 
Amphitrite cinciiincUa^ Fabr., F. Gr. 270. 
Terebe/ia pit.*ttuU>sa, Grube, L c, p. iOO. 
Tht'lfpits Btrffmanni, Leuck., Archiv f, N,, XV», 

p, 160, t, 3, f. 4. 
Lumara Jictva^ Stimp8on, Marine InverL Gr. M., p, 30, 
TlteUpm circinnatus, Malmgr., 1. c, p. 387, t. 22, 

f. 58. 

80, Leucarisle albicans ^ Malmgr. 
Nord, Hafs-Ann., p. 390, t. 23, f. 61. 
Polycirrus arcticu^^ Sars, Christiania Vid, Selsk. Forh.| 

1864, p. 14. 
81.. Ereutfio Smitti^ Maimgr. 

Nord. Hafs-AnnuL, p. 391, t. 23, f. 63* 
82. Artacama proboscidea, Malmgr. 

I c, p, 394, t. 23, r. 60. 
$3, Trichobrunchus glaciaUsy Malmgr, 

I. c, p. 396, t. 24, f. 65. 
84* Terebeltides StrcBmitf Sara. 

Sars, Bt-skrv. og Jagttag,, p. 48, t. 13, f. 31. 

Mabngi-en, 1. c, p, 396, t. 19, t 43, 

85. Lamtome} Fnbricu (Kr.)* 
Sabella Fabricii^ Kr., Bidragttl Sobellerne, Vid. Selak. 

Overs., 1856, p. 20. 

86, Poiamilla reniformu (Miill.). 
Die niertnfdrmige Amphitrite^ Miiller, v. WiirmerD, 

p. 194, L 16. 
'^rSohdla remfnrmis, Leuckart, 1. c, p. 188, t. 3, f. 8. 
Sabelfa aspersft et ocuhia, Krojer, Lc, p, 19 et 22. 
Pofatmiln retU/onnis, Malmgren, Annul, polyoli., 
p, 114, t. 13, f. 77. 
%7. Euehane mialis, (Kr.). 

Sft/n^f ' . Kr. Lc, p. 17. 

Main. d. Hafa-Ann., p. 406, t. 28, f. 88. 

%8. Euehone tuUnu/osett Kr* 

SabeUa luberculosn €i »$. rigida^ Kr., L c, p, 18. 
Euchone (ubcrctilosay Malmgr., 1. <?,, p. 401, t. 29, f. 92. 

89. Datychofie in/arcta^ Kr- 
SadMi infanta^ Krojer, I c, p. 21. 
Malmgren, Nord. Hafs-Annd., p. 403, t. 28, f. 86. 

90. Chme infundibuUformis, Kr. (Greenl* IgimaUk,) 



1 -A;:;:;)<H^'''rr;.^'-\'„i 










{ 



^ Spi'*^'*'. ^orr«««» '' "^ Test- »*'^ ^^ ^1 art**"**^ 
.Zbii vitrev* K'* Q 378. ^ 



irTKSJr OH THE AKKELIDA^ ETCL OW QaMM3LAMD, 277 

l^pk^Mt (S^iiriitftm) rUffmt^ Marck, L cl, pv 9<. 
JOa £^£^rto tametitaim (Fabr.). 

Serpmia eameeiiata H §rmmla^ l^i^-» F. Gr. ITS 

101, PrMmia media^ Step9. 

MdbioB, Zte deut£cke Niwilgwiirfihrry IL* ^jHfc 
t. In f. 21-24. 

102. TamtmieriMteptemirunmiUfBtp^ 

*ia3. LumSrums, tp, (6r. i>MilaCfndL> 

Z.. ierr€SiriM, FbIit^ F. Gr. tS8. 
*'0^ Lmnbncus (?) nnvl^ Flfar. 

Fauna Grcml 260* 
MOo. £iK^V^'>^ r<niiJ€«l(m (M«!L)? (Cifil. JT-m.* 

XiMiMcttf ftfmicAlmi^ Fmbr. F* Gr* 299. 

*la6. .S^mvml^MiaOiJlIL)? (Gfecri, J T— I .) 

Lumhritnu H m i a bu ^ Fftbr. Faiiii. Gr. SSK 
^07. C/i7r//ib <ir«iMrte (MvIL). (GmttL iWl^i^riot) 
. LumbricUM attnmrins^ Fal»r. F. Gr* 261. 

^08. r/»^//iV> intmiliM (MillL). (GiwdL ^Im^ JTm— 

iMmbricn* mmuims, Fmbr. F. Gr. 265. 

109. 0/>A>*«d> (?) mflTiJM*, (Fibr.)- (GrtcnL J^wmI.) ^ -^ 

iVOT> mar., FattM Gr«L 295. " * 

Optonait manrna, Gerrtb, Bullet. FAcid. ^ Be%., 

1 10. Platybdella verstpfiiu (Die«ing> (GrwoL I Tgigi i f ^ 

Nintdo pudum, Fftbr., F. Gr. 301, 

IchthtfoideUa vertiptUis^ I>ie*inj:, 

Plattfbdella icorpa (F&br. MS,), MaIhi., G^Af^rr 
Kon^l. Vet. och Yitt. SMnh. HandL. VIU^ l*Ji53, 
p. 253- 

(From Coitus scnrpiug aod JoovTitoiiin.) 
ilL Phtybdclla Fabricu, Malm. 

Millm. h c^ p. 248, 
112. Piaii/bdella O/riAt, ^Ifllm. 

ForhandL Skimd. Natarfl Stokbofan, t86a, pu 414. 

(From Hyas aranea), 
lia. HaiybdeUa affims. Malm. 

L c, p. 413 (from Fhobeicr rentraJiM}, 



^ T%e fpee4«< narked * are doubtful, and bav« not Iwcsi tt H t d «&aee Hip 

f K -e^t LMmbnnUui variegaluM, Mull,, and fiMAyftfai 

trt, K , it"m ui«nUa&d (OfT. Vet. Akad- FSrh., I87l>- 



178; ];^.KBK ON THE ANNELIDA, BTO. OV 

0&,r^— Other Bpecies of Fiah-leeches^ not yet detennined, ham 
been found on Anarrichas, ep. {PL anarrieh^B^ Malm. ? L c^ 
p. 122), Ldparis tunicatuSy Hippogh$sus vulgarii {PL k^>p(h 
glossif Malm. ? 1. c, p. 257), and Macrurus rvpestrU, 
.114. Udanella^ tp, (an hvjns loci ?). 
{On CaUgus hippoglotii,) 

115. Echiurusfordpatus (Fabr.). (Greeol. lUulmaKk.) 

Lumbncus echiurus, Fabr., F. Gr. 268» et Mo h ihtK k 
forcipataj cjasdem 849. 

PriapvlidiB* 

116. Priapulus caudatus (Lmk.). (Greenl. Tmrkik0mtik!)::zZ 

Holothwriapfu^u$, Linn., Syst. Nat. (Xn.),.pL 1091.1^ 
Holothuriapriapusy O. Fabr., F. Gr. 847- 
Holothuria pri^pus, Zool. Dan., III., p. 27, t. 96 

f. 1 ; rV., p. 18, t. 135, f. 2. 
Priapulus eaudaiuB^ fibJers, Zeitachr. L . wjaoMBCI^ 

Zool., XL, p. 205, t. 20-21. 

117. Priapulus glandifer (Ehlers). 

Ehlers, 1. c, p. 209, t. 21, f. 24. 

Biptmcalidae. 

118. Pkaseolosoma CSrsiedO, Kefent 

Eeferstein, Zeitschr. f. wisBenscb. Zool., XV., p. 4$^^ 
t. 31, f. 8, et 38, f. 89. 

119. Pkaseolosoma borealCf Keferst. 

Eeferstein, 1. c., p. 437, t. 81, f. 7, et t. 38, f. 88. 

Mysostomldte (incertsBedis). 

120. Myzostoma gigas^ Ltk. (MS.). 

On Aniedan Eschrichtii^ M. Tr. ; Copenbagen MoaeiUB' 

Ohvtognatha (ad Nematodas ?). 

121. Sagitta, sp. 

Not uncommon in the Arctic seas in the yieim^o^ 
Greenland. 



TURBELLABLA., 



Obs, — ^The Planariee and Nemertea of Greenland have not 
been studied since the time of Fabricius. The following list does 
little more than show in what manner his speoiea hftve been ptftlT 
interpreted, and does no justice to the richness of tfiiiy branch of 
the Arctic Fauna. 

1. Monocelis subulata (Fabr.). (Gr. KehkursaB-Kuma.) 

F. Gr. 308. 

2. Planaria lactea, MiilL (Gr. KumaL) 

F. Gr. 309.* 

♦Doubtful species: — PI. operculata, Fabr. (F. Gh:. BlOj, and PL 
""""'" " ~Iekkiinab^ 



MiiU., F. Gr. 310 (both by the Greenlanders termed ** Kekkursab-EnBi,' ii 
are other flat Worms). The latter is perhaps a naked Snail (CBnted. HflV^ 
Tidsskr., IV., p. 546). 



iL^pA 



S 



il f ■!, 



(Mat). Or* 




OI3L| (Gr. 

F. Gr. 305. 

F. Gr.a06L 
K F. Gn 




I USD. By Dr. Cflm. Lttcet Ummalj 
L CbpeDlMigeiu 1875. 



^^oii 






da.* 



0&f._7: camU-ioffopodu will prolidblr 
A^ic Fox in Greenluid. 

4. T. anm/£dri«. Bad. (GfwnL 



!, F. Gr, 296 (T. toni«^ FdbrA 

I Kr«bbe, K. D. YiA, Seb^ Skr^ ht. Sp VIIL. 

(Uiift Bmauiiciuu) 
JBb 71 nermina, Kr. 
I Er&bK L c^ p. 2^. C 1. 1 7-0. 

(Sterna macmn.) 
6w T. ibfiiia, Kr. 
I Rrabbe, L cu, pi 261, t. 1, 1 16, 17. 
P (Lama glaocns, tiidiictjlnji.) 

P» 71 miCTWiXfi/Aa, Kr. 
I Krmbbe, L c, p, 262, t, 1, t lH-2h 

I *~ 

r* 06».— For the Tnpewoniu of BirtU in Greenluid Dr. Knbbe^i 

til Eoadakab om Fnglencs Bs^ndeloraie,'^ should be 

I the Seftls the same author's ''HelnuntbologidBe \Tw\fTififfhn i 

^ tou t^Hid,'* io the ** Trmnsaetioiis of thelLDv^ih AtmdSmfdt 



f^ssd. 



-Bi^Mg 



•od VIIL (1868 and 1870). 



M 2 



180 LUTKEN ON THE ENTOZOA OF QBEBMUlKD. 

8« T. campylacantha, Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 263, t. 1, f. 22-24. 
(UriagryUe.) • 

9. T, microrhynchay Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 206, t 2, f. 38-40. 
(CharadriuB hiaticola.) 

10. T. elavigeroy Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 267, t. 2, f. 41-48. 
(Strepsilas interpres.) 

11. r. retirosiris, Cr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 282, t. /S, f. 97-99. 
(Strepsilas interpres.) 

12. T. megahrhyncka^ Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 284, t. 5, f. 104-105. 
(Tringa maritima.) 

13. T. teres, Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 284, t. 5, f. 106-108. 
(Somateria mollifisima, spectabUis, Lams giaucuB.) 
(14.) T. << malleus/* Goeze (formae monstrosee). 
T. fasciolaris, Fall. 
Krabbe, 1. c, p. 288. 
(Somateria moUissima, Mergus serrator.) 

15. T, mintUa, Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 292, t. 6., f. 127-129. ^ 
(Fhalaropus fulicarius, hjperboreus.) 

16. T. microsotna, Cr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 296, t. 6, f. 146-150. 
(Somateria mollissima, spectafailis. Lams gUiicus.) 

17. T.fusm, Kt. 

Krabbe, 1. c., p. 307, t. 7, f. 180, 181. 
(Larus giaucus, L. marinns.) 

18. r. brachyphallos, Kr. 

Krabbe, L c., p. 310, t. 8, f. 198, 194. 
(Tringa maritima.) 

19. T. grcenlandica, Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 316, t. 8, f. 210, 211. 
(Harelda glacialis.) 

20. T.fallax,Kt. 

Krabbe, 1. c., p. 319, t. 8, f. 221, 222. 
(Somateria mollissima.) 

21. r. horealU, Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c., p. 338, t. 10, f. 282, 283. 
(Emberiza nivalis.) 

22. T, trigonocephala, &. 

Krabbe, 1. c., 339, t. 10, f. 284-286. 
(Saxicola oenanthe.) 

23. Bothriocephalus cordatus, Leuckart. 

Krabbe, K. D. Vid. Selsk. Skr., VII., p. 877, t7, 

f. 114-116. 
(Homo groenlandicus, Canis fam. groenl., Phooa bnfN^ 

CEdobasnus rosmarus.") 



BtPTKBN ON THE BNT020A OP OREBKLAND. 



181 



IdS, 



.'£ 



^, Krabbe, I e„ p. 378. 

^B <: (Phoca vituUna.) 
^H|5. &« ianceolaiuSi Kr. 
^P Krabbe, 1. c, p, 378. 

" (Phoca barbato.) 

26. B* nhocarum (Fahw). (Grecnl. Urksub-Kuma*) 
^* F. Gr, 296, b.; Nftt, Hist. Selsk. Skr., L, 2, p 

■ U 10, 

^K Tetrabotbrium anthocepbalum, Rud. 

^P Krabbe, 1. c., p, 379, t. 7, f. 101-105, 117, 

^^ (PhocA bai^,, vitnl., Cystophora cristnta.) 

i 27. B.jfasdaius, Kr, 

^V (Phoca hispida.) 

^^ 28. B. ekgansy Kr. 

Krabbe, 1. c, p. 378. 

(Cystophora cristata.) 
B, ntniUs^ Kr. 

Krabbe, I. c, p. 379. 

(Canie lagopU8.) 
B, diiremu$y Cr. ? 

(Col}'mbiiB Heptentrionalis.) 
31, ^. ruffofut^ Kud ? 

(Gadus ognk.) 
, 32, B, punetatus J Utid, 

(Cottue Bcorpiua.) 
^ ^8. B, crassicepSf Rud* ? 

1^ (Coitus scoqjius, Gadus ovak, morrhua, Delpliinflptoms 

^B leucaa.) 

^B|ft. B» praboscideiis^ Hud. 
^H* (Salmo carpio.) 

B6. B. ( Tetrah,) macrocepkalus^ Rud. (et pp. aff.) 

F. Gr. 297, b. (T. ulca?). (Greenl. Akpah- Kuma.) 
^^ (LaruBglaucu?, mnrinii^, tndftctj!us,ProcoUaria glaci&lis, 

^V Uria Bmennichiiy grytle, Mcrgus serrator, Coljmbos 

r septentrionaliB, Corvus corax, Falco iskndictiB.) 

^^6. Ociohoikrium roitellatum, Dies. (Grccnl. SuUukpauka^ 
^b Kuma,) 

^" F. Gr. 297 (T. erytlirini). (Seboutes norvegicus.) 

B7. Fasciola intestinalis^ L. (Greenl. KakUluab- Kum€U) 

tF. Gr. 300 (T. g:aM€rostei). 
Hchbtoceph&lus solidus (Miill.) ; S. dimorpbus, Or. 
(GaateroBteus ncolealus, Mcrgua serrator, Laras 
glaticus.) 
, AfUhobothrium perfcctum^ Rud. 
j (SomniosuR microcepbaUm.) 

39. Diplocotyle Olrikii, Kr. 

KrabhK% Vid. Mcdd. Nat. For., 1874, p. 22, t. 3. 
(Sfllmo carpio.) 
Obi. — The Nob. 299, of the "Fauna Groenlatidica " (2. scorpii, 
^K$imsvM£amA*')f(rQm Coitus scorpim^ Gadus waky and Salmo 



29. 



ao. 




I8£ XiUTKBV ON THE EKTOZOA OV <miniWtATfP. 

carpio (probably two different species, cfr. Bndolplii) ; tlid 81 
(JFasdola barbaia, " Amikorsub-Eoma '*), from Ganaius FaMei 
have not been identified by modem hefaninthologists* It has bee 
suggested that the last-named (313) is only the spmuXo^^te c 
the Squid. 

Several Tapeworms have been found hi Anser brenta^ BtduOu 
alhidlloy Lotus Sabini^ Colymbus glaeiaUs^ FHrngiUa' k^afMee 
Hippogiosws vulgaris, Ac, but not in such a state that they ooul 
be determined satisfactorily. 

Trematoda. 

1. Distomum hepaHcum^ L. (Gr. Sasiab'Kumii,) 

F. Gr. 312. ■ ^: .:Z 

In Sheep (imported ?). : " 

2. D. seriate (Kud.). (Greenl. /vtaorJbf^JLi^ma.) 

F. Gr. 314 (Fasciola umblae). .i 

(Salmo alpinus.) 
Obs, — Undetermined species of Flukes have been found 
Pkoca barbatOf Lumpenus actUeatus, and Mergui nrrjstofi^:^:, 

3. Ojichocotyle torealisy van Ben. 

^Somniosus microcephalus, on the gills.) - 

4. Phylline Mppoglossi (Fabr.). (GreenL Ntfatmab-M^m^k 

F. Gr. 302. 

(HippogloBSus vulgaris.) . ; ; 

Nematoda. 

Obs. — The Nematoda of Greenland have not beept workjeld o* 
The following species, with a few exceptions, are ehomerated 
the "Fauna Grceulandica,'' and have been interpreted by ]»^ 
authors in the manner indicated : — 
1. Ascaris mgstax, Zed. 

(Canis lagopus; Mobius in Zte deotsche Nordpol^ 
fahrt, p. 257). 
, 2. A, vermicularis, L. (Greenl. KoartaL) 
•.:.. ;F. Gr.248. 
' '. . . (Homo groenlandicus.) 

' i, A. lumbrieoidcs, L. (Greenl. KumarksoaJL) 

F. Gr. 249. . 

(Homo groenlandicus.) 
4. A, osculata, Bud. 

(Phoca groenlandica.) 
6, A, gasterosteiy Rnd. (Greenl. Kakaiisab-Kumui,) 
F. Gr. 242 (Gordius lacustris). 
(Gasterosteus aculeatus.) 
6. A. rai€By Fabr. (Greenl. Taralikkiiab-Kuma.) 
F. Gr. 253. 
(Raja radiata.) 
7* Eustrongylus gigasy Rud. 

(Canis familiaris groenlandicus.) 
8. Liorynchus gracikscensy Rud. (GreenL UrJuub-KumO* 
. F. Gr. 251 (A. tubifera). 
(Phoca barlmta.) 



LtTKBN ON TIIB BWTOZOA OP OBBBKLAND* 168 

9. Opkiostomum dUpar, Rud, (Greenl. Aiab-Kumc^ Neksihm 

Kuma,) 
F* Gr. 250 et 252 (A. plioc4», ? , et A* biBda, rf>, 
(Phoca grGBalandicA, Ph. hispida.) 

10. Agotnotitma commune (Desl,). (Greenl. Kurnak,) 

F. Or. (241). 

11. ** Nematoidefwi AtctE-pict$" Ra<l» (Gr. Akpab^Kuma,) 

F. Gr* 257 (Adcaria ale©). 

(UrU Bruennlclili,) 
I2p ** Dubium gtiiterostei acttieati^ Rod/' -t 

F. Gr. 243 (Gordius globicok). 

(Ga8terost«us aculentus.) 
0&s*^Fa6HciuM describes four species of Gardius (F. Gr. 244- 
247 : <F. intestinaiiSf cmetus^ capUlaris^ lactcolu^^^*'*' Kumak, Ku- 
mangoak '*) which appareatly have not been inteipreted by later 
authors ; the firsts at Ititist, most probably be referrod to tho 
TmrMiaria (Nemeriea). 

Aeaathocephala. 

1, Echinorhtfnchus stnimo9HSy Rud. 

(Phoca hiApida, vitullna, grxenlandicii, CysU>pbofil 
cristatA, Canis familiari^ j^rcenl&Ddioud), 

2, E. €ictUf Rud. (Gr. Okab-Kuma.) ' 

F. Gr. 255-56 (Asoaris versipollis, A. gftdi), 
(Gadug ovak, morrhuaj ? Hippoglosfius vulgariSi) 

3, E, polymorphfu, Br- 
(Somateria mollksinia ; ? Hareldft glacialifi.) 

4, E, porriffensy Rud. 
{Balf&noptera gigii£(.) 

5, E, fytiTM, Br, 
(Gmculus carbo, Mergua seirator,) 

6, E. infiatmy Ci*. ;J 
(Charadnus hhiticula.) 

7* E. micracanthuSf Rud» 

(Saxicola o^otuithe.) 
8. E, pleuronectis'platessoides^ Rud. (Gr. Okoiab'Kwna.) 
F. Gr. 254 (Ascarb plearonectia). 
(Drepanopsetta pbt^ftgoideH.) 
^h9, — An undetermined species of Echinorhynchua has been 
id in Salmo carpio ; another in SqudUarola helvetica : un- 
ibed species of Ascaris in Liparis iunicatus and Reinkardiit 
modifies^ ap., and Motella Reinhardti, 



6i 



.t^* 






i 



***** Tt lg*«^^^^ 




xSrSSf ON TU£ ECU1N0D£&MATA OF GREENLAND. 185 

15, A, {Stichaster) rosea, M. Tr. 

CriMJii ros€a, Foib. Brit* Siarf. 

TWith No. 13.) 
16* Crwetlu sattguinolenta (MiilL). (GreenL Nerpik»out) 
~ F. Gr. 363 (Aat, spoujrioya) ; Ltk, Gi'onl, Ecb., p. 31. 

Cr. oculata, Fabr, ; Ecluuast^r es^briclitii, M, Tr. 

17. Soloiter pappostis (L.). (Greenl. Nerpiksout.) 
F. G. 364; Ltk^Lc, p. 40. 

18. S* endeca, L. 
Ltk. I. c, p, 35. 

19. Pieraster militant (Mull.). 
Ltk. I c, p. 73. 

20. Cienodiscui crisptitus (Relz.). 
Ch. pygma^us et poluris, M. Tr. 
Ltk. GrouL Ei:hin.» p. 4S, 

21. Ar chaster tenuispimts (D. K.), 
Vid. Medd. Nat. For., 1871, p. 240. 
(With Nos. 13, 15, and 22.) 

Ophiurida. 

22. Ophioatoiex giatialis, M, Tr. 
(With Nob. 13, 15, and 21.) 

23. Opkioglypha SarsU (Llk.). ■_^ 
Additam. ad hist. Ophiurid., I., p. 42, t. 1, f. 3-4» 

24. O. robusta^ Ajr. 
Ophiura aquamoaa, Ltk. 1. c, p. ^6^ *.> 1, f. 7. 

25. O, nodma (Ltk,). 
Addit., L, p. 48, t. 2, f. 9. 

26. O, StuwUzii (Ltk.), 
Addit., L, p. 51, t. I, f.8. 

27. Ophiocten sericeum (Forb.). 
Ophi. Kroeyeri, Ltk. 1. c, p. 51, t. 1» f. 5, 

28. Ophiopus arcticuSf Lgo. 
Of. Vet. Akad. Forh., 1866, p. 309. 

29* OphiophoUs aculeata (Miill.). (Grecol. NcrpiksourBak.) 

EF. Gr. 36(1 ; Ltk. Addit., L, p, 59, t. 2, f. 15^16. 
Opbiolepis acoIoj)eDdricji, M. Tr. j Opbioconm beMis, 
Forb. 
30. Amphiura Sundevalli, M. Tr. 
A. Uolba-Ui, Ltk. 1. c, p. 55, t. 2, f. 13. 
. 31. Ophiacautfia npiftu/osa, M. Tr. 
;^ Ltk. Addit, L, p. 65, t. 2, f. 14. 

Olibi«.>coinu arctita and Ophiacantha gicenlandico, M, 
Tr. 
Ast. bidentata, Hetz. ; Ophiocoma echlnulata, Forb. 

32. A$ierophi/tQn cucneniis^ M. Tr. 
F. Gr., p. 367 (Ast. caput-medusiE). ,. , 
Ltk., Addit., 1., p. 70, t. 2, f. 17-19. 

33. A, Agassizii^ Stmps. 
Ltk. Addit., IIL, p. m. 

CriaoidA* 

34. Autedou Eechrichlii (M. Tr.). 
Ltk.f Gronl. Echtnod., p. ^^> 



186 LUTKEN ON THB ANTHOZOA, ETC. OF GKEEKLAKD. 



1 



XX. — A Retised Catalogue of the AjrrHozoA and 

Calycozoa of Greenland. By Dr. Chr. Lutkxs, 

, University Museum, Copeiiha^;eiL 1875, 



AKTHOZOA. 




2. 



3. 



FoljacMmia (Actimda)* 

I. AcH?da (Urticina) crassicornis^ Fabr. (Greenly Kdtta* 

perakO F. Gn 340; U. Davigii, Ag.? 
A, spectabilisy Fabr, (GreeiiL Kettuper&rftoek.) 

F. Gr. 342, b. 
A, {Chrondractinia) nodosa f Fabr, (GreenL Aitalb-p*.) 
F. Gr. 341. 

4. A,{Acihelma)hU€siinaliitFBhr, (GroenLKettuperaBgOftL) 
5-6, Edwardsiat spp. 2. 
7-8. PeacMa^ sp. and P. (?) ap* 
5-^ are preserved in the Museum at Copenhageii| but 
be iden tilled oiore accurately from apecimena in alcohol, 

Antipatbaria* 

9. AnHpaihes arctica^ Ltk. 

Overs. K, D. Vid. Selsk, 1871, p. 18 ; Am 

Nat HiBt. 4., X., p. 77. 
A single specimen, found in the stomftch of Sommmu 

mieroetphalus (the Greenland Shark). (Rodebftj*) 
Octactinia (Alcyonaiia), 

10, Ammothea nrctica^ Ltk, (MS.) 
f Briaretim grandijiorum, Moblus, Zte deut€che Noffd^ 

polarfahrt, II., p. 260* 
(Not uncommon.) 

II. Aic^omum^ sp. 
An undetermined epecimeii in the Museum at 

hagen* 
la. Umbeltula TJnddahUiy Koll. 

Utttb, miniQcea et pallida^ Liiidd., K, Vet. AkaiL 

HandL, XIU., 3, t. 1-3. 
(Balfin*6 Bay and entrance to Onienak Bay, 400 aoi 
122 faths.). The identity with the] type deatriW 
by My li us and Ellis, 1753, **/m encrinus^** L, k 
left undecided. 

O^*.—- The Aciinida; want revision, with examination of Eving 
tpedmens. The ^* Ahyonia'* of the "Fauna Gra^ulaiidica " aw 
i»par6Dtly either Compound Aicidia (462 and 463) or Sponaot^ 
(464 and 465). 



I 



•4 

biy.) 
sNoffd- 

OopJ 



.M 



CALYCOZOA ' 
!• Itucernaria {Manama) auncuia^ Fabr. 

F. G. 332; Stoenstrup Vid. Medd. Nat, For- 
p. 108. 



^££in>. 187 

9. Z. quadrieomis^ Mull. 

L. fMcienlaris, Flmg. 
3. L. {HaUcj^lus) octoradiaia (Lmk). 

L» ftQiictila, BaUike. '» 

Steenstnip, L. c>, p. 108. 
4^ L, {Crattralophus) convoivuluM, Johust. 

L, campanalata, Lmx. 

A siogle specimen, collected by the late Governor 
OlrCk ; the other species are not uncommon. (GreenL 
Aknilisaursakj Unnerarsuk, Omigarsuk.) 



I 



'^^— A Revised List of the Acaleph^ and Hydbozoa of 
Greenland, By Dr. Chr. Lutken, University 
Mtiseiun, Copenhagen. 1S75. 

The MedftstB and Hydraida of Greenland haTe not been 
jtorily worked out. The following list must be regiirded 
^^IjIj as prelimionry, being limited to those specJefi whoa« ^ccur- 
*%ttecTn Greenland can be stated on tolerably good authority. 

^tenophora (Beroid«). (Greenl. Ikpiarsursak,) 
1. Merle nna ovnm (Fnbr,), 

F. Gr. 355 {Bcroe ovum), 

Berot piletUf »Scor©8by, Arct. Reg, IL t* 16, f. 4. 

Cydippe ovum ei C, cucuUhs^ Each., Syst. d. Akal«i 

p. 25. 
AL AgBBsiz, UlaBt. Cat. North Amer. Aiud., p. 26, 
f. 29-37. 
2» PUurohrachia rhododarii/la^ Ag. 
F. Gr. 3o4 {Beroe pileus). 
L. Agaasiz, Mem. Am. Ac, IV., p» 3H, t. J-5; Contr. 

Nat. Hiat. Uu. St., III., p. 203-248, t. 2<i. 
Al. AgHJifliz, Cat. N. Am. Acal., p. 30, f. 88-61. 
Idya ctuumis (Fabr.). * 

F. Gr. 363 {Bcroe cncumif) j Each., Syst. J. Ak., 

p. 36. 
? /. hortalis^ Leae., Zooph. Acal., p. 184. 
Oftt. — Qttid Beroe infrindiltuium, Fnbr. ( F. Or. 352) ? 

Uaeophora (Greenl. Xuertlck) ; Hydrosoa. r 

4. Aureliafinvidula^ Per. Loh. , . 

F, Gr. 356 {Medusa aurita). ' ' 

L. Agas^z, Coritrib. Nat. Hist. U. St., III., pi 6-0. 
Al. AgasBiz, CaU N. Am, Ac., p. 42, f. 63^6. 
6. Cyanaa arcHca^ Per. Lob. (Gr. !^uerthr$(mk,) 

F. Gr. 358 (Jtf. capiUata), ^ •'' 

Ifc Agtasia, Contrib., TTL, pi. 3-6rt., 10, lOa, 
AL Agaasiz, Cat., p. 44, f. 67. ' .*>f 

aft#.^The diflTerence of Kos. 4 and 5 from their £uropeaa ro- 
pfMOfttfttives may still bo questioned. - .j 



.f**.^^' 






l^tEEX OK 



llt£pflii^' IM^ OF 0n89i»A2m. 180 



p. 289l» k 6; 



B^m^nmr, MfperdlL, I*. A^, ContriK, IV^ p. 289, 
^^ t. 27, 1 1-7, 

^B AL Ag,, Ot^ p. 153, f. 232-240, 

PV AlliiiUy TuboL Hjdr^ p. 515. 

^^ F. Gr. 3d9 (Medtua iimerpkay, 

^^ ?ALAgM9z,Gil.p.d8Lf. 14Q-142. 

I L. Agmb, Mem. Am. Acad.^ IT^ 

^H CootnX IT^ p. 906, t. 31, t, 9-14. 

1^ AL Ag^ OL p. 69, t 91-93. 

^p Hiock«, Brii. Hjdr. Zooph., p. I67» t, 32, C 1. 

L Hi]M^Le.,p.32,t.4Uf.2. 

^^ KurbenpAoer, Zt» devttsc^ Nordpolarfkhrt, IL, p. 416L 

^B i3* Cuqtidtiiaj sp. In the Musewii, Copenhageo. 
84. Sdlsoa aiieiitut. Smb. 

HiiLckA, Brit. Hjdr. Zooph., p. 212, t 41, f. 3. 

Grammaria rohmsiay Stmps. 
25. Euiape ( 7^<iwfMiji/ia«) diaphana^ Ag. 

Lw AgMsiz4 Mem, Am. Ac, IV^ p. 300, t 1, 2. 
^ AL Ag^ CaL, p. 83, r. 1 1 5-125. 

^H-S6L Zmdactyla ^attiandita (Per. Led.). 
^H F. Gr. 357 {Medusa aquorra), 

^p AL Ag., Cut., p. 103, f. 153-1 56. 

^^ 57. ffaUcium mHricatmn^ Ell. SoL 

Hiocks, Brii, Hydr. Zooph,, p. 223, t. 43, f. 1. 
^^^^.^Seriulariu halccina^ Fabr., belongs to the Poljzoa I 

S8. Sertularia pumiiot L. ' 

F. Gr. 456 {S. thuja). 

rL. Agassis, Contrib., IV., p. 326, t, 32 {Dynamfna 
pumila), 
Al. Ag., Cat, p. 141, f. 225-226. 
Hincka, Brit. Hydr. Zooph., p. 260, t. 53, f. 1. 
29. Sertularia abietina^ L. 
F. Gr. 453. 
Hincka, Brit. Hydr. Zooph., p. 266, t. 55. 
"'" Sertniaria fastigiataj Fftbr. 
F. Gr, 458 {S.ftutifjiata). 

(Vix S, argeniea, L., liinckfv Brit. Hydr. Zooph., 
p. 268, t. 56.) 
SertularcUa rtigosa^ L. 

F, Gr. 454 (Sertuiaria rugosn), 
Htncks, Brit. Hydr. Zooph., t, 47, f. 2. 
Ampkitrocha mgasa, Ag. 
Sertularella polyzonias, L. (Greeal. Xyaursfpt,) 

F. Gr. 46C) {Sertularia tiitata) ; K. D. Vid, Selsk, 
8kr., 1824, p. 37. 



30, 



81. 



100 LiJXKJSN ON TEE ACALEPH^i ETC. OF OHEBKLAM)^^ 

Cotulina polyzonias, Ag. 
Hincks, Brit. Hydr. Zooph^ p. 286, t. 46, f. U 
B3» 5. tricnspidaia (Alder). 

HinckH, Brit. Hydr. Zooph., p. 289, t, 47, f. h 
Kirchenpuuer, Zte deuteche Nordpalarfahi% IL, p. 41 ^3", 

OAff.— Several boreal Siphonophora (DipbTefi, Phyaophor*, &o-^ 
are also, at least occasionally, found m tbe neighbourhood of Soii^tli 
Greenland. 



XXII.— A Revised Catalogue of th^ Skjnoozoa of 
Greenland. By Dr, Chr. Lutkek, TTniversitj Mu- 
seum^ Qpjpenbagen. 1875« 



.n?4-,fr,.TT ,r SPONaOZOA. 

Oh$. — The Sponges from Greenland in the Museum of Oopeo' 
hagen, and those hroiight home by the German Expedition lo Ewt 
Greenland, were determined by O^car Schmidt m ^ Gmodifigw 
eiuer Spongien-Fauna de« atlantisohen Gebietes ** ( 1870)i ^T 
E* Hdckel in hig monograph^ ** Die KalkKihwamme " (1873), »D<i 
by both authors in " Die zweite deutsche Nordpolarfiihrt,' 
Abth. (1874), The following species are enumerated : — 

1. FiUfera^ ep. {Hircinia variabilis), 

0. Schmidt, Grundz., p. 31. 

2. Cucospongia, gp. 

Nordpolarf., 11., p. 430. 

3. ChaUnula ovulum, O, S. 

Gnindz., p. 38, t. 6, f. 1. 

4. Eemera^ wp. 

Noi-dpolarf., p. 430. 

5. Anwrphina gemtrix^ O. S. 

Grundz.» p. 41, t. 5, f. 9. 

6. Eummtia sitienSf O. S. 

1. c, p. 42, t. 5, f. 12. 

7. Suberites Luetkenii^ O. S. 
L c, p. 47, t, 5, f. 7. 

8. S, ardger, 0. S. 
L c, p. 47, t, 5, f. 6. 

9. Thecophora sennmtberites^ O. S. 
1, c, p. 50, t. 6, f. 2. 

10. Isodici^ajimbriatay Bbnk, 
L c, p. 66. 

11. /. infundihulifanms^ Bbok. 
Nordpolari;, IL, p. 450. 

12. Desinacidon anceps, O. S. 
I c, p. 430. 

13. Esperia ifUermedia, O. S* 
I. c., p. 433. 



r 



LUTKBK ON THE SPONQOZOA OF GREENLAND. 



14. E. fahricam, 0. S, 

16, Geodia simple j; O. S. 
Grundziige, p. 70. 



191 



!, ffalisarca Dujardiniij Johnst* 
NordpolarfT, II., p, 435. 



k 

^^mf^ Ascaltis Lamarckii, H. 

■■* Kalkschw, p. 60, t. 9, f. 5, t. 10, f. 4. 

IS. Ascarti* FabHcii (O. S/). 
^^- Leacoflolenia Fabricii, O. S., Grnndz,, p. 78; KaUtschw.. 

^H ^ p. 71, t. 11, f. 3, t 12, f. 3. 
^^P9* A, coral lor hiza, U, 
^M Kalkscbw., p, 73» t. 11, f. 4, t. 12, f. 4. 

^K Nardoft retic., O. S., Griindz., p. 73 ; Kalkschw., p. 87^ 

W^ t. 14, f. 4, t. 20. 

21* Leucandra Egtdii {O, B.)^ i 

^Sjcinuk £g., O.S«, Grondz., p. 74 i Kalksc)iw.9 p. 17 3^ 
1.82, f. I. 
L, ananas (Mont.). 
Sycinulft penicillafft, O. S,, Grund*,, p. 73, t. 2, t 25 ; 
Kalkschw., p. 200, %» 32, f. 5» t. 40, f. 1-8. 
lr^23. L, sHlifera (O. S.). 

^K; Leucandra stilif., 0. S., Grundz., p. 73, L 2, f. 24 ; 

K- KalkBchw., p. 225, t 33, f. 4, t. 40, f. IL 

24. Sycaitis ^lacialiiy H. 

Kalkschw., p. 269, t 46,1. 4-7. 
2^, Sycandra citiata (Fabr.), ,j 

F. Gr. 466 ; O. Schm., Grundz^ p. 74 ; Kalk§ch^*i 
p. 296, t. 51, f. 1, t. 58, f. 9. 
& arctictL, H. 

Sycon raplnaiius, O. S<, 1. c, pw 74 ; Eolkschw., p. 353, 
U 55, f. I, L 60, f. 15. 
27# 5. C(mipr€4sa (Fabr.). 

F. Gr. 464 ; Sycinulft clavigera, 0. Schm., L c, p. 74, 

t. 2, f, 26, 
KftUwchw., p. 360, t, 66, f. 2, U 57. 
n, S. utriciilm (0. $.). 

Ute utric. O. Sm L c, p. 74, t. 2, f. 27. ; 

Kalkschw., p. 370^ t. 55, f. 3, L 58, f, 3. \ 



r 




PARKEU AND JONES ON FORAMINIFERA. 



193 



«OMi^"(lo-oO fathoms) ami the ** ConJ zone " (50-100 fatltoms) 
W Davis* Strait. iMgence. abauiid in tliose divdrrint^s at from 
wO to 1 fathoms ; PoUfniorphina \^ small here and rathm' com- 
'Ji^i; Uvigtrina common iit from 30 to 70 futhoms, but ymnll. 
(^tobi^erhuB are not rare at \hr same depths, but are very 
snail. TmnccUulina {J*ianorbuUn(t) flourishes at all the depths 
(25-70 fathoms). J^ulvinuliua is freely represented by the bmall 
°. Karftrm, Discorbimt gets more abimdiud with the greater 
'Vii. Tlie simple ibrms of Poh/stomtfla, inehidiu^ the feebhi 
Aoxtiontniz', have their home evidently in t!ds region. Cus&idulitm 
iiuls, but is not lar/jfe. A Kmull Nnmmtilimi^ the feeble reprc- 
ilire of a once highly potent speeies, still alioumling in some 
^'wm scjis, is not wanting in the " Condhne zone." The essen- 
]/*lJj Arctic form of Ihiihmna (B, vlegtmehaimft) flourishes at 
"^Di 30 to 70 fathoms at the llunde Islands, nnd other varieties 
^ not wonting, though not fduiudunt. The Te^Huhtrixe are re- 
pfw>DttHj hy some small specimens of the type, and by three of 
||*ti»f»»lifieutiona in small but nnmeroiui individnald, Spinil'ma 
■^rymreiind smtdl. PtUeltinn h small and ccHmnon from ilO 
'^ 70 fill horns. Trcnhammina is common, thongh small, in the 
'"'ptvl soundings. Contuspira is eonnnon at the lejLst and the 
IftAte^t depths, Quiufjueloculiua is common, but not lai'gp^ 
yJrijiighout. TrilmtdiNd oceurs freely at 25 to 30 fiithoms, 
^**mla abounds from 25 to 70 fitlhomy. 



XXlV.— FoiustiNiFEiiA from Baffin's Bay. Bv Prof. 
\\\ K. Paiikek, F.K.8. ; an.l Prof T. Rufert Jones, 
F.R.S. From a Memoir on some Foraminifera from 
the North Atlantic Oceans, incliuling Davis Strait and 
Baffin B Bay : Phil Trans, civ. 1JSG5, pp. 325, &:c. 



l^j^«naiiigs from BaflBn's Bay, between 76=^ 30' and 74° 45' N. 
- ."» 'I**rived from t<even deep-sea soimdings and some iceberg mud 
j, *^tt during one of the Arctic Kxpeditions imder Sir Kdward 



"mt 



^t» tnaterial from the **Arctie Province** of iiaturaliHts * is 



^^ ^aty. None of the Forajiiioifera here obtained are numerous 
^M*p| Pni^stomeUu stnalopitnctuta, Xonionina acapha^ Truii' 
.. ^ina tofiutula^ and CassiduUnu Ucvignta^ the first two t>f 
I 'H fffQ ftt home iu Aretie waters ; and none have aitiiineil 
^^ A large si/.o except IJtuolfr. Tim material from 150 
^^^\x\% vieldt"*! these relatively huge and numerous speelmens* 

1.— Kmm lat.75° lO'Jong. 60'^ 12' ; ? fathoms; fine grey syeidtic 

^!^i3 I litic fragments: Dcutafiuii, Lftgcnn^TruncaHifina^ 

*'*(-, ;4nd SonioniHOt CctSMduiitui, Qmnfjucfoi'ttfirta, 



• .*r« K. Forb** und U. tic«l»ii»-Au»ti'n'B ♦* Notural History of the European 
W" 8f0. Loadon, Vua Voorst, lt^5J, 

30122. N 



te^ 



l>il PAR&Ki: AND JONES OS FORAMiaiPKEA. 

LI.— Lat. 7*y 30 . lon^ 77- 52' : 150 &ihoiiis; grejiflh i 
micaceous sanii. with *yetiitie fragmeats : GMiperimOj Trm 
Una, PHicinHliHti, Pf-iystoiuella and Aomomjmi, Cmuk 
TJttwia. 

III. — ^Lat. 74' 45, long. 59 IT' : 250 fiuhomsy grejaMod) 
quartzo^ saml. an^riilar and rounded : no Fonminifeim. 

IV. — Lat. 75' 25'. long. 60-' : 314 fathoms ; syenitic maii 
fragments of <vou ite : Tnlt^Hiina. LitMoia. 

V. — Lftt. 16' 20. lon^. 7t»' 27' : no Foraminifen. 

VI.— Li\t. 75\ long. 59= 40^: 230 &thoiii5; Dmmem 
PoltfttowieUa anil XoMiomtuu QuiMquelocMliMUit LUmoku 

VII. — Lflt. 76" 10', long, 7(J^ : sand firom an icebei^ : gren 
micaceou< svenitio, with frarrmoats of srenite : no Fonunini 



XXV. — FoiujiiMFEiLv, PoLYCYSTiXA, &c, from I 
Strait. Extracted froai Dr. Ch. G. EaBENl 
•* Mici-ogeoloorical Studies on the Microscopic I 
*•■ the Sea-bottom of all Zones, and its Geol 
" Influences," in the - Abhandlungen k. Akad. 
' zii Berlin/' for 1S72, pp. 131-399, with 12 ; 
and a nia|\ 4to. 1S73. 



Souiulings in Davis' Strait from 6,CXK) to 10,998 feet, a 
nno instance 12.540 feet, are noticed by Ehrenberg i 
« Monatf?bericht k. Akad. \Vi^^. Berlin " for 1861, p. 275 
and several Fornminifern. containing their animal mattei 
figuretl in the " Abhnndl. fiir 1872,*' PL I., and partly in ] 
Thus in PI. I. :— 

Fig. 1. Aristorospira Lioptmtas, CjOOO*. 

„ 2. A. Microtrctas, 6,000'. 

„ 3. A. porosa, 6,000'. 

„ 4. A. Pacliyilerma, 6,000'. 

„ 5. A. glonierata, 6,000'. 

„ 6. MilioJa Dactylus, 10,998'. 

„ 7. Quinqueloculiua oblonga, 10,998'. 

y, 8. Grammostomum ? enryleptum, 6,00(y. 

„ 9. Phaneroptomum microporum, 6,000*. 

„ 10. Planulina Iffivigata, 6,000*. 

„ 11. Phanerostomum Micromega, 6,000', 

„ 12. P. Alloderma, 10,988'. 

„ 13. P. scutellatum, 6,000'. 

„ 14. P. Globulus, 12,540'. 

„ 15. Planulina abyssicola, 9,240*. 

„ 16. P. Globigorina, 6,000'. 

„ 17. P. grflcnlandica, 10,988'. 

„ 18. Nonionina boroalis, 6,000. 

„ 19. Uosalina Ilexas, 6,000*. 

„ 20. Planulina dei)ressa, 6,000 





1^ 



IQ398r. 

1, imzi, Hkm Mmif mi Dr. fTii nil n^,^% 

et GMimimm IvlMb^ D^Ml, viA 

nd %k 9i fliid 2S of fLIL Mv 
tWto of GL hmHmdft, tal f» 
(DtML). F%. e » Ltftmm jl iliii , w, ; 7 

8. ZkrtdbrM JVfiUMiiU F%8. 17 and IS-2U are 
aad i iwi< €i e » of PL tmlymiM pft>» 
; mA lig. 18, Jhmmuc Looked ai m dm icht, iUb 
Oi xoraBwneiB, CMJP|Hi iig iwi ih^ gj^revi rKaQe9& m t««0Bi^ 
ti lo A grettt extim fivii m h^ Inm dwgc rih cd froM 
Unitaad B«liD*5 B^ lij Fkrkcrnd Joaw a Hm-FIuL 
* TisHuT «lv., 1B65. .%v««OT«,piiw 192,19s. 
iMaw Umnti S«nd^ Un^BtaB Baj* Gtwikad, hm alao 

^A AUof tbe fanfoo^ ta^editrwilh iIm aatmib fas^b- 
'■•Iked firtNn tbe Firrt sad ^ooood* GfnuB Norlb Fo^ Expcdi* 
^ ^^MoiMlsli^'' 1865^ pu 25a, Ac^ and 1873, p. 28E2, &e.> iwid 
««• KNniduig fi«B BehH^A Stntt ("« AhbandL,** 1872* p. IfkS), 
^•Ehnmbc^ hM grouped m tiie *' AWmijHI ** for 1872 (TjOde, 
^S!2(M29), with the IbOonra^ nesoltB for the <* North-PoUr 

PQ{jrlh*Umk ( Foruiiiiifecm), SS. 
*N»lfgMlrm (DUtooMMen^ Iteu), 92. 

^fkilitlMrai (dl>, CkoHtye (3)« and ZoouittMrtv ^i|, t^spicuira 



Di>V 



^VL — On the ExisTEKCB of Maeixb Aximals at Tan'onB 
Detths in Seas aboimdii^ in Floating Jc% in 
Aactic Begiuhs dmu- Gk£Exijlxd and Spitz uRH<iKN. 
Frtim the Appendix B. of Sir C, Ly kill's '* Antii|uitj 
*« of Iktan." p. 508, 1863. 



** Dr. Torell, afu*r he had examined, between llu* yotirs 1856 
J*^ !*^^). tlir L'liiciers of SwilxerUnd, Korway, Iceltuul, GnMui- 
^} ^v^u, waei appotiiti.'d to coumjaiid iu IS61 u 

J^'" L„„ :,, i.aon fitt*Ml out nt ibe joiot expeiiise of the SwiHlish 
^'^VwTiroiMit and Prince Oscar uf Sweden* It cooaifiiod of two 



* For ac4e» 

rtL«f oa. 



oo tbc ForazoinUeni o( lb* N«B. (r<»it«4 uf UfeunUuMl, 

N 2 



liH* lYELL AXP TOEELL OX LITE IX ABCTIC SEAS. 

s'l-i's, :.:; 1 .-. s.:r. • t -:r.,^ msle of ibe co*a of Spiubergen and the 
:i*ljoi:.i:;i: s-:;!-. 

- S? i.ir lV*:.-n SL^li-j^ :in_v ^^-arcIiT of Moilofca. these explorers 
«.x-»lltvit\l i.o li:->s than loO I'viiLi: ^^^wie^ ohiedr on the west mod 
Donh t-oiaMS of Spiizl^rger.. i:i Ux 79-" *ad 54>^ X-, and the number 
of irAlividr^dLs a^ ^«vll a>^ t^v varirtx of species, was often great, 
t^pecuillv where the boiioa <»n:^ed of fine mod derived firom 
mor»:cc-s> of glaciex^ and frv>si the giixhling action of the hmd-ke 
on the rxxk? Mow. 

"• B^-twe^-n SpiizU^rgea aaJ iii<t» Donh of Xonray, bnt nearer the 
former tM'unrry. Dr. Torv.'Il and h::> fellow>laboarer Mr. ChTdenias 
i:*l>i;i:!:i>\i. :*: the enormous depths o( 1,000 axid 1,500 JaikomM 
iS-pituiWr 1>61 . Mollu'^.-a a DtntaiivmvDABmiia w.Cyiiekna\ 
a C:Ti?:;i^>ar.. Pol_v:haIain::ui Shrll*^ a C'orU thiw inches long, 
witli '^-.vcrul n-vl Ao{:Il:.i^ atiaoheii tJ is. and a few Anndids. 
Thtr-.^ oov -irr^^I t> il:o wv>: of IV-ervn's bland, in latitude* 
7r?' IT N.. r.nil lorpiihl- 13- 5o E., in a s«ti when? floating ice is* 
i oai!::.:.:. t". -r ion mor.ih> in ;hr y^-:ir. The lemperatuie of the mu& 
:i: i:.-- l-r.:.:.ni w:i< K.:\rc-:n oL'- and oo" Fahrenheit, and that o^ 
v:.r w..: r i.: :::.■ sunaoo 41". ai:d of the air 33- Fahrenheit. 

- In Grvvnlanil ncnh of l>!?co Islani!, between latitude 70^ and 
71' N.. ill a -vrp eh:\ncvl of the fea, separating the peninsula <»^ 
Noiir>.:-ak f:\m ihe :>Iar..l o: CMnenak. a region when? the large^^ 
iovr-er^-j com-.- d.^wn :::io Baffin's Bay. Dr. Ton?U dredged up, 
U.--:-i.< ir.ore tiiiii: iwimy oih- r Molluiks. TerxhratrUa SpU^'^ 
Unit.t.*i:i. IL'.ir^ :»: a dvpth oi* 2-50 taihoms. This shell I foun«^ 
lo-sil in l>3o, a: IMdevalhi, in the ancient glacial beds, fiir sontb 
f 'f ir 5 p:- ■?*::■.: zinvz--. Th..» b«.n com of the sea in the Omenak chann^l- 
f-i:'!>:>:»J ot :::.p:\;p:ir!'.- u:nd. and on the surf:ioe of some of tla^ 
rfoat::.-.: l-enr-i ^^m- -::ii:lar mi;d, *.»n which they who trod saial^ 
kiiv"-d».vp : :kUo nu ::■.-. TO i> hlo«.ks of gninitic and other'rocks of aH- 
-iz*;-. uii's: oi ili-.m >:ri:itt\l o:i one. two or more sides. HeE"«£^» 
th».-rfr-l'or»'. a JrpiKii iiiiisi bo jroing on of mud containing mariYia.^ 
^hell?. w::!' iiitfrniing'.T-d ghiciatt^i pn'bbles and boulders. 

-A r'j'K'i—i of yiu-nii {Loia truHcatu or Voidia truH€a'£^*^ 
Brown .. now living in tlie ?eas of Spitzbergen. North Greenlai'm«]« 
:i:.d Wcllicjrton Channel, Parry Islands, ii-as found by Dr. Tor^eH 
to !>• one ot the most characteristic ^jvcies in the mud of tho==^ 
i,»y is-sriiiri-j. Of oM, i:i the Glacial Period, the same shell rangr*^' 
much fartlicr south than at pivsent, l»eiiig fonnd eml>edded in li*'' 
Bouldt-r-olay in the south of Norway and Sweden as well as ^^ 
S'wtLmd. It has btvii observed by the Rer. Thomas Bto^«T> 
tog»'ther with several other exclusively Arctic sp<H?ies, at Elie. 'D 
tlic <ouih of Fife, in glacial clay, at the level of highwater-mar^> 
I hav.' myself c<MWtc<I it in a fossil state in the gUicial clay ^ 
Portland and other lix»alities in Maine in North America. It i«thc 
shell well known as JaiIh Portia miica of Hitchcock. 

*' In ponds a::.l lakes in • ihe outskirts * of North Greenlandf W 
Di-ico l>laiul for example, no fre-hwaier Mollusi.*:! were met vith 
by Dr. Ton-ll, though some species uf Crustiicea of the genera 
Apu8 and Branchipus inhabit such waters. This may help us to 



LTELL AND TORELL OS LIFE I!r ABCTIC -EA«. 197 

cxplun the want of foesQs in all ^Isici^ defyncit^ cf f oviatCe <.*r 
l&custrine origui. The discoTeries above referred to «-bov tlaax 
Ae oiriiie i^ial beds of the Cljde and those of £Ue in Fift-. 
with their Arctic shells, are preciselv such fonnaticMi^ af mighi f^- 
looked for as belonging to a period when SoocUnd wa^ cnder^oini' 
ghdatioD as intense as that to which Spitzbergen axi*i NonL 
Greenlind are now subjected.'^ 



nvIL— The First Pabt of the ** Octllver of the Di'y- 
" TRiBunoir of Aficnc Plants." By J. D. Ucxje.kr. 
M.D., F.R.S., &C. kc Trans. Linn. Soc., voL 25, 
1861, pa^ 251-348. Bead June 21, 1 SCO. Beprinte^i 
hj permissioiL 






to want of time, this Memoir is reprinted as it appeared io 1%4J, 
Rfecenee to sligfat mndificatioos in the cakulatioos vhieh Mdise^iKii* 
^'^^fttiei aeoeasitate. The most important of these di«ooTeric>, hover^r. 
*^ |ino in foot-notes, &c.— ^. D. Hookek, April 1 b73. j 



C05TE5TS. 

1.— Introdoction, p. 197. I V. — On the Arctic Prcfiortioo* <.<f 

^H)n the Local Distribution of I Speci» to Genera. Cjrd^o, 

Pbnts within the Arctic and ClaM<«, p. 222. 

It-tt^Di^Vation of the , '"-^" ^'/-rou^U., »' ?«»': 

Arctic ^oweri^r^ ia \ v^cl^l^'fi^'XI.J- 

'^-&t^\^ Dtatricuwithinthe >*" rei,ru,t«Lj 

Arctic Circle;— VII.— Tabulated View of Arctic 

1. Arctic Europe, p. 209. . i-loweriu^rianU, and Ferns, 

2. Arctic Asia, p. 211. I with their Distribution. 

3. Arctic West America, , [An Abt^tract of the Orcen- 

p. 212. I land and Ea«t> Arctic- Ameri- 

4. Arctic East America, can Plants, printed, p, 224. j 

« A?l*:« n— «i««,i « ' VIII.— DbwTvationi* on the Spfrcies. 

^^ Greenland, p. , j-^-^^ reprinted.] 



216. 



I. — ^IXTRODUCTIOX. 

^ shall endeavour in the following pages to comply, as far an 
_^^^n, with a desire expressed by several distinguished Arctic 
I Vagers, that I should draw up an account of the affinities aud 
N^tribution of the flowering plants of the North-PoUr regions. 
^^e method I have followed has been, firsts to ascertain the names 
^U localities of all Plants which appear on good evidence to have 

^ See also the notes on the Continental Ice of Greenland, former Climate 
^ Greenland, and range of fossil Sequoia over Arctic Regions, on Mackenzie 
^>er, and in Icehmd, " Antiquity of Man," 4th edit., 1878, pp. 274-281. 





:*:#> «f'/>jLEii '/▼ Aiirnc rum 

Jf»i..-.^^ uK.-kv: :>-«:%*: '-i*ji. I Lav* 
it,' ••^',: ;;--:.: . -:r . •>,* mij I* 

7;.^ A.-'--.': f '.T* f'.-rri- a '.>'.-iiLp<>^ btli of 10^ to 1-^1 
,v>r:;- ';? ::-•; Ai'fi'.': (,'.:':.*-, TL«* » do ibnipt break cr 
t:. *.:^ \*^ji*^jei'i'ju hT.j'wii*::^ ^-'-'^z t^t ht^if except ia Aea 
oi B*5Itj'* li»v, wh'j^ opp^>::« Jicves prefient a 
Ir'/Ki a/j a^m'At purel v p^rmj^^n flora on its cait 
with h ]arg<: adjzjJztare of Am^rrican {Jams on ita 

'lli^ »aEb>.^«rr of floTfrin? plaaif whidi bare 
»>hJrj th«r Arct:'; Cirri*: j- 762 ' MoDOCOt. 21-1, KeoC 541 
tL" pr^i^JA -tat': of rTTpv^mic bc'tanv it if iopoadble 
mhU: a/y^-uniUrJv the Lumber of flowerle«« plaata found witl 
jsamf: area, 'jr to define tbeir geograpbical Bmits; bot I 
lowing figure- giro the be«^t approximate idea I bare obtaii 

Filices - - 2S Cltanu%K - 2 Fongi 

L/copo^liacea - 7 Ma-<i - 250 Alg» 

£qiuiietac&c - S Hepatics - fSO licbenes 

Total Crrptogamf - 925 
„ Fhxuo^hxas - 762 

1,687 

Regariled an a whole, the Arctic flora is decidedly t 
uavian, for Arctic ScaDdina^ia. or Lapland, thongh a vev} 
tract of I&imL c-rmtaio^ bv fai* the ricbest Arctic flora, amc 
to three-founho of the whole : moreover, upwards of tbre 
of the species, and a]mo>t all the genera of Arctic As 
America, arc likewise Lapponian, leaving far too small 
centage of other forms to admit of the Arctic, Asiati 
American florai* being ranked a!« anything more thai 
divisions, which I shall here call ^ Districts," of one general 
flora. 

IhtHsooding eastwards from BafSn's Bay, there is, fir 
Givoiihmd District, whose flora is almost exclnfflyely Lap] 
having an extremely slight admixture of American or . 
U |H'8 : this fonns the western lK>undary of the purely En 
flora. StxH^ndly, the Arctic-European District, extendiD| 
ward to the Obi Rivor, beyond the Ural range, indadini 
/onibla and Spitzl>ergen ; Greenland would also be indu 
il, won* il not for it* large area and geographical p 
Thinlly, tho transition from the comparativelj rich Eu 
DiMrici U\ tlir cxtn'moly poor Asiatic one is very gradual 
that iVom the A^inlic' to the richer fourth or West- An 
DiHirici, which oxtonds from Bebring*8 Straits to tbe Mm 
River. FiflJdy, Uio transition (h»m the West to the East-An 



OK ABCnC rLAKT5» 



district Im em Itti muked, for tlie lApfe of finrofittui and West 
wcieB is trifling, and the appearwoe of EuuAmcncam 
is equallj so ; the tranFiiioa in yegelaliiMi Awn tki* disttid 
to thai of Gfeenland is, as I have 
tlveljr ▼wy abrupt. 

The general imifonnity of the Arctic flor% and tht iqiecial dif^ 
ference li«^ireeii iCa iobdivijiotis may he tbiai eaiimated: the 
Arctic FfMBoogamic flon oonflisU of 762 vyeam ; of theaev 616 
ue Arctic^European^ many of which prerail throii^hoat the pohu* 
ira, bein^ distnbal^ iu the foUowing prcpportioiu throagb its 
kngitudes : — 



Scoodiiiaviaa 






fonnis. 


AjrmcAU- 




ctie Europe - 616 


- 586 


- 30=1 : 19o7 


„ A^a - 233 


- 189 


- 44 = 1:4-2 


., W. America 364 


- 254 


- llOssl :2'3 


^ E. America 379 


- 269 


- 110=1 :2'4 


,, Greenland - 207 


- 195 


- 12=1 ; 16-2 



This table pUces In a mo^t atriiing point of Wew the aaoma- 
Wcocidition of GreenlaDd, wbich.tboueh so favourably :?itu*ted 



torbjirl. ij Arctic- A 

lor IB J. iropettu <" 

ui' tbti great cont i 
ahoost absolute M 
HoreoTcr, the peculiariii*- 



u, and BQ unfiiTourably 
ii-ace ft( the botanical 
' tdly fjelonga. 



ut' ibc Grei'iiiaiiU Hum ore not con- 
to the^*; fur a dL'tiuIcd examinaiioD ^how^ tbat it differs 
aO oiher parU of tbc Arctic regions in wanting mnuy ex- 
ly common Scandinavian plants, whicb advance far north iu 
tho other polur «lL}trict«, and that tbe general poverty of it& 
5nr»j*n siM'Hes v* mon.* due to an abtjiractiou of Arctic type^ than 
y of lemperttture. This Is proved by an examinatioa 
i. ..ijicmte portion of the Greenland peninsula, which adds 
Hty ff «y^ planb» to the entire flora aa compared with a similar 
^^Qiyjutii of uny otber -f\rctic region, mid ibese few are chiefly 
*^m\v pianLs and abnof^t without rxceptioo Arctic-Scandinarian 

^We is nothing in the phyeicit features of the Arctic regiooa, 
"i«r oci-anic or uc-rial currents, tfi * utpbictd reUtionts nor 



.1 all accounts for the 



^ ieropcraturts which, in my - j 
'^dptioiial character of the Greonlaiul ^ora.; nor do I ^e how it 
^ be explained except by aasomin^r thai eacfen^ivt- ebnnges of 
^ttii^ and of land and sea, It tedj^ieat r , first in 

^'if^og mtgratiou of the Si : a a spede- u: whole 

Wir seney and attcrvrmtd^ in i 1 1 1 n i ueiog the Asiatic and American 
ith which the Scaii'li":' ^ lui are tio birgi*ly a^ksuciated in all 
tArf ' ta ejicopt those oi Em^pe aud Greenland. It 

,,....: to mt^ tbat »o many Scaudinavitui plants should, 
existing condiLiun.H of weft, land, and temperature, have not 
foQiKl their way wentward to Greenland, by uiigrutiou across 
the Atlantic, but i^hould have jjtop|HMl short on the ea^it shore of 
Hay, and not croHKetl to America ; or tbat so many 



200 



HOOKER ON ARCTIC PLANTS. 



Auiericnu typ^s should tcrDiinnte so abruptly on lli<* wi 
of Baffin's liay, nnd not nosH to Grceiilftrid antl Euix*pc; or 
Greenland .-should contni a actniilly murh fowcr species of Ecroj 
pliiuts thim have found their wny eiistw»rds from Jjiplund 1»)- 
into Western nnd Eiislcrn Aretic America; or thiit the Scam 
vian vegetation t*hould in evui y longitude lijivc mijrruied uerotAl 
tropica of Asia and Ainentra, whilst those typical plmi^ of ll 
coDtinents which have Ibiiud Iheir way into the Arciie itt 
have there remained restricted to their own meridinng. 

It appears to me difficult to account for these r»«*f'« iiii!.-*i 
admit Mr» Darwin^s hypothe>ies,* first, that the exi- 
navian flora is of great antiquity, and that previous U* ,... , . 
Epoch it vfwi more uniformly distribute*! over the polur xoiie 
it is now ; secondly, that dtiriug the ailvent of the Gliiei*il Penndi 
Scaudina\ ian ve<^etAtion way driven r-outhvvard iu evcrjr longit 
and even across the Tropics into the South Temperate zone; 
that on the succeeding warmth of the present epoch, tliose speck* 
that survived both ascended the niouu tains of the warmer k 
and also returned northwards, accompanied by alwrtgines of 
coitntrics they had invaded during their gouthern migration. 
Darwin shows liow aptly such an i-xplanation met^tis thf ditBcuU] 
accountin;; for the restriction of so many American- and ^Viii 
Arctic types to tlieir own peculiar longitudinal zon**:^, amr 
what is a &r greater difficulty, the representation of the 
Arctic f^onera by most closely allied species in differcDt lon^l 

To tlii.s representation and the complexity of its chai*aci 
ishall have to alluile when indicating the sourcen of ditJici 
I have encountered, whether in limiting the polar &|>«-cie»s 
determining to what sonthern forms many are mo?*t dii 
referable. Mr. Darwin's hypothesis accounts for many vari< 
of one plant being found in varion.s Aljiine an«l Arctic regi< 
the globe, bj the competition into whii'h their common anccsW 
was brought with the aborigines of the cotmtri*^ it iiiriiWl 
dilferenl races survi\ed the struggle for life in diflercnl Vn^" 
tudfs ; !ind the:^e races ugaiti afterwards converging on lh« 
fron> which their ancestor stiirted, present there n plcxu« of doS^J 
allied but mere or less distinct varieties or even speci< 
geographical llniits overlap, nud whoso members very 
occasionally breed together. 

Nor i^ the application of this hypothesis limited to this 
for it otJers a possible explauation of agenenilconchisionat whidi^ 
had previously anived,f and which I shall have again iu di>rii.<3bcflv 
viz., that the Scandinavian flora is present i;* ev«*ry latilud»j ofs 
globe, and in the only one that is si> ; and it ali^wi heJp?« ti» til 
another clafis of most interesting and anomalous facliib in Atcbe^ 



^ofcMj 

n 

nt trhirfTT 



♦ Tbl* tJieory of a southern migrntioo of northern typo* Iwin^ 
cuUI i'P<K-h« pri*ceding and during th(' Gliicitl oiigiimtrd, I betivrc,^ 
hue Kilvianl KorlH*8 ; the eitended oae *if llu'Jr tnitiMtrnpic») m'jj 
Mr. Djiririij'*, aD<l is (li«cufiBud by hiin in bi'« '" Uri;^n of Specie^/' €iitf» 

f lutioil. cMny to fhu *' Flora of Tusmania/' f>. ciit. ^_ 



HOOKBB OS ABCnC TLXST*. tffl 

tiibation, at idiich I liaT^ now imred fr'-a li ^zA£:..'aaCir.>i -^ 
the federal pobr district^ an-i e^^p^^u.ir fAizai *x iyr^^^ahiLx'.. 

A glance at tbe appended chart 'z^.'. irimiif^iM. zrfc*\ •oi'^ti 
how this theorj bears upon 'he (^re^ciLlaci f-:«. ^-Lz^jiizJn*: v^t 
identity of its exi^tiii^ ve<r*ria:ion -mI-^ \z^' -ic" Lum/jiZji. ar. i v.- 
counting for itn paucity of -pecitrs. f.r '..-^ :ir,'j -.i .Lsir?-..'*-. 
species, of peculiar *peci*^, j»n-l o: raarx-ei tl.-!-t' "- ^ji >J:r'-,:»^i 
species. If it be grante«i that the f^/^r *.-rr% m.* •-. -y* '.#v.r;-.ii'»i 
by the Scandinavian flora, an«I ihac tL* '-^.y. r: -;.*: */jt^^u kyrx 
did drive this vegetation «omh«-ani«. :: > r-i i,,-^- •jia* -x*^ f ,--.u,-^ 
land individuals, from bein? C'jnn:^i if, x :-^-!r.- ...». -wv. : ..^ 
exposed to very different oondii:«"^2.* to :h.-- -,:' :■■.•: ^«*n:. '.r.-.- 
nents. 

In Greenland many species wo:ild. a* :: "«r»T-;, V^ -irli -r. ;.-.v^ 
the sea, that is, exterminated, and the nr*',' :r- v--,^/, • ■■.•- 'tr, •--':.. ■ 
to the sonthern portion of the J^sI^:^^I» ; ar. : -.5 -^.irrj 'cj^--, 
Vnm^t into competition with other tjpf:-. :rv:r'- 'Xili y- rx, 
fttra^e for life amongst th^-ir progrr.y, ar.^, c'.rj^;r:<!:T.*;r. .->-, 
election of better adapte>i varieties. ()^ ifcr: t'-'-t:, o^ ,t/-*: '-Iv-^^t 
wnrivors would simply travel northw&ri*. -ri.ic'if rr.jsir..'.'^ '.7 ::.-. 
pbits of any other conntrr. 

In Arctic America arid A-iia, on iLe o:h^r L^r.i. x?>:7^ ".Jvir-: 
^Mafiree southern extenMon and dllatatlor. or* Ia;.-: frT •;.-": -a.-.-.e 
Scandinavian plants to o<:cnpy, ihe«»: woa^ : rr.'..::jjiT frr.:-,rrrx'.' » 
^ individuals, branching off into var>-t:-ir- a.i ^ .ril*^.%>#, ;t .."; 
*^py a larger area the farther -^-vitr. i:.-:t Tr<-re 'irl-.-r. ; 4:..i 
*|^Benee<lbe altogether lost in the v^f-ch-rr. r:.',r^.\f.ri r.T'iT pjt.n*, 
«oogh many would in th*.- -tniggletKi: «:r> > :. c-.^^r. tuj s-^:':,-A 
^cinountain-s of thos*- eor:t:r.vnt- ari-I v. -7^ 'jr'^,- ;;.'!.♦ ;:.♦/, /;/. fr;c^ -*..'- 
!j^n with the Alpine plant's whi',Ii ;;. -.jr.'.-: ry^.d \^[ f:9t.,*4:f\ v, 
"^'cend to the plain*. Ilencr-, r,n t..- r-.: irr. '.* -Aarrr.fh, rr*^;,-/ 
y^ Scandinavian si^ecie-- wouM rotriri. X', Ar^rtlo Ar/i'rri^A ;:,'.*'; 
A'ctie Asia than <nr\'ived in Ore^-nUr.-i : rorr;e would U: f-hnu-jt *■ 
Jj form, because only the favoure*! ^iirie:!*:- f^/uld have -urvii'-d 
•«|c strogglc ; some of the Alpii;*-. SiViOir;, and iC/^'rky-Mo'j;.- 
^^'J specie** would accompany ili'-nn to ih'r Ar':i:': Zone, whil*- 
jjj*njr Arctic species wonM arc<-!id tiiO=».- mo'in'ain-, aeeorn [Any in/ 
^Alpine ppecies in th*'ir r*'-ji-c»r.t. 

J Again, as the same ••f>eeit-3 mny L»ve bfc*rn d'-rtroyed in njo-t 
^flgitudes, or at mo^^t ele\ations hut not ;tt all, we i*lioiild ix\t*i'X 
^ find some of thosf? Arctic Sinr.diiiavi/in jilant-i of t^fn-'-nliind 
^hich have not return'r^l to Arctic Ain<-nca -till lurking in remote 
Alpine corners of that great contin^riit ; and we may w-i-/,\iui for 
fhala aurea being confine*! to (jieen!;tnd and the litfcky Moun- 
Uins, Poteniilla iridentatn to Gn:<'nliind xind Jjibrador, and 
Arenaria Greenlamlica to Greenland :ind the Whit'- Mountainn 
of Xew IIam[»shire, by supfK^.-in;,' il.ut th<-*. were oiijrinttlly 
fjcandinavian plunt>f, which, on the i<-;urn of wainith, were <:a- 
terminated on the plains of tlK: AiiiMif.;in rontin^nf, hut found 
a refuge on its mountains, where th«-y now «'xint. 
It appears, therefore, to \m no ftlighi c4jti(iin)ation of Uie 



202 



HOOKER ON ARCTIC PLAI 



general truth of Mr. Dai-win*s hypotbesis, ihaty besides 
Dizing with the di-strilmtioii of Arctic pliint-s within and 
the Polar Zone, it can nho he made, without straining, to acccnof ' 
for that distribution aud for mnny anomalii»s of the Gi 
flora, viz., 1, its identity with tht^ LHpf>o:iiau ; 2, it^ 
specdes ; 3, tho fewue>*s of temperate phuilii in temj 
landj aud the still fewer plants that area adds to the entire 
Greenland; 4, the nirity of both Asiatic and American 
or types in Greenland ; and 5, the presence of a few of the 
Greenland and Scandinavian species in enormously remoto^ 
localitiefi of West Auierien and the United States, 



in 



n.— On the LfKAL Distribution of Plants withdc 
Arctic Cihcle. 

The ^eatest number of planta occurring in any given Arctic 
D it? trie t is found in the European, where 616 flowering plaBl0 
have been collected from the verge of the Circle to Spitzberg^ 
From this region vegetation rapidly diminishes in proceeding 
eastwards and westwards, e^I|x•cia!ly the latter. Thus, in 
Asia only 233 flowering planin have been eollt'ete<l ; in 
Grticuland, 207 species; in the American continent cast 
Maokenxie River, 379 species ; and in the area wesjtwnrda 
that river to Behring's Straits, 364 species, 

A glance at the annual and monthly Isothermal Lineii shfl*» 
that there is Httle relation between the temperainro and «>ff<* 
tfttion of the areas they intersect beyond the genera! fcatoiv of 
tlie scantiness of the Siberian flora InMng accompanied by agrMt 
southern bend of the annual iHOtherm of 32* in Asiia, oud li* 
greatest northern bend of the isame isotherm occurring 
longitude of West Lapland, which contains the riche5.t 
On the other hand, the same isotherm bends northwi 
passing from Eiistero America to Greenlantl, the vegetatic 
which is the scantier of the two, aud parses to the norths 
of Iceland, which is much |K>orer in species tlian those 
Ijipland to the southward of which it pa*!i€s. The Jnoc 
lliermals, as indicating the most eflective temperature^ in 
Arctic regions (wlure all v^'getatiou is torpid for nine moi 
and excessively sliniuhited during llie three others), miglil 
been expected lo indicate better the jKi^itions of the 
luxuriant vegetation ; but neither is this the vnm% for lliOj 
i!^olhermid of 41", which lies within the Arctic nonr 
where the vegetation is scanty in the extreme, d< 
54^ N. lat, in the meridian of Bchring'a Straits^ wh<f>' tb^' 
hi oomporatively luxunant, and tlie *lune isothermal of 32°, 
Iraver^^es GrecMiland north of Disco, piuitsci* to the north IhicIi ^ 
SpitzlH'rgeii and the Parry Islands. In fact, it \s neither ^ 
mean aiuuml» nor the summer (flowering), nor the aoton* 
(fruiting) temperature that determines the abundance or icai^iy 
of the vegetation in each district^ but these combined witfc tW 
oce^n-temperaturc and consequent prcvalcDce of humidity. 



partij 



HOOKBB ON ABCTIC- FLAVTB. 203 

ed position, and its former coDditioDB» both elimstiJ 
n^^cal. The relations between the iK/thermalft and 
«di longitude being, therefore, qtedal and not g«ii«nl, 
nsider them further when defining the dlStfnni Arvjtir 

rthem limits to which vegetation extends rari<i:^ in <>T«rrT 
t and its extreme limits are still onkiiown ; it mar, 
ftdi to the pole itself. Phsnogamic plaLts bowfrr^r, 
bly nowhere found far north of lat. SI'. 70 fitjwHnu*/ 
fonnd in Spitzbergen ; and Sabine and B^>^ ^y^lWt^ 
Valden Island, towards it« northern extreme, t/ut wm*'. 
Islet, 15 miles further to the north. Sotherlaod, a Terj 
ad intelligent coUector, found 23 at 3fe]TiUe Bar ari«i 
olme and Whale Sounds, in the extreme nonfa <A Haftn's 
76P 77® N. Parry, James Boss, Sal#ine, Be^j-iiffr, and 
gether found GO species on MeMlle Inland, and Lrall 
I islands north of Barrow Straits and Lanca^(t«r Sound. 
80 have been detected on the west «boniA of Baffin^ Har 
1^8 Straits, between Ponds Bar snd Home Baj. To x\tfi 
Eastern Asia, again, Seemann collect^ onlj 4 spiwi^ tm 
dand, lat 71^*^ N., the northemmo!>t point attained in 
itode. On the east coast of Grr:0:uhaiti^ Scffr*:^\fy aiyl 
land only 50 between the parallels of 70' arjd 7*7' N. ; 

inhabit the west coast between the isanie paraJlelx. 
ifierences between the vegetations of the v»rion«! |y>!ar 
m to be to a considerable extent c^n-tant up Up ti,t: 
limits of vegetation in each. Thvi« fOinu^rHlwJt efUtrinlU 
yraga flagettaris, which are all but n}f^tTA \n W«t>t 
d,* advance to the extreme north in East frr'nHttlnnd afid 
;en. Caltha palugtris^ AMtrntjalu* alpimtM^ Oxifirf/juM 
t and nigresceHSf Parrya arciita, SierenUt Ilo$$Uf jVar- 
vrymboia^ Senecio /taiuitris, //tschawpMia c/^,»yU//»/if 
a hkraciifolia and J/irculut, all of which am uimtfui in 
eenland, advance to Lancasttf^r Sf^und and tlv; |M^lar 

1 islands, a verj' few miles to th** we-tward of ( 'tifrtiuhirt*K 
» other hand Lychnis alpina, AruhU aljnm/, Stetlarm 
lei, Potentilla tridentatft, CasMto/t^in fn/j/oou/eMf Phyllo' 
ifolia, Veronica alpina, Thymtnf Sttpylhim^ Lutftla 
md Phleum alpinnm, all iu\\'nn<u: north of 70' in W<*t 
d, but are wholly unknown in any part of An-tic 
America or the polar island-f. 

loat Arctic plants of g»Ti<Tal 'lirtribution tliat are found 
in all the Arctic areas an- the following ; all inhabit tiic/ 
lands, or Spitzbergen, or lx»th : — 

lu8 nivalis. liraya alpina. 

mm», C'anlamirie lj«;llidifo]ia. 

asus. ^*- pratcri«is. 

nadicaule. Dntba alpina. 



iCh wer« found by Kaae'f Eipedhion, but by no pr«nriou« on«. 



204 



UOOKER OX ARCTIC PLANTS. 



I)ni1>a auJi-osacca. 

D. liirt;i. 

V. iniiricella. 

1). iiuiina. 

1). rup-j>tri3. 

C\>i*lil«'aria an^lit-a. 

C. uificiiiali.*. 

SilkMio ucsuili-. 

Lvchni< apetala. 

Aronanu vt-nia. 

A. an! ion. 

Su'llaria lonj:ripos. 

Cl.'nl^tillm alpiiium. 

Potontilla iiivea. 

l\ fVijriila. 

Drvas ixrtopotaLi. 

K]>ilobium iaiitbliuiii. 

SciIuDi Ubixlioln. 

C'hn:<osploiiium alternifuliun). 

Saxitrapi opi>ositifo1iu. 

S. cjrspitos;i. 

S, corinia. 

S. rivnlaris. 

S. nivnlis. 

S. stfllaris. 

S. tiagelluris. 

S.IIirciiIus (K.GiXH-iilaiKl oiilv). 

Anton uaria alpiua. 

Krigoron alpiini:«. 



Tarazacam Dens-leonia. 

Cai«siopeia tetragona. 

Pedicularis hirsuta. 

P. sudetica. 

Oxyria reniformis. 

Polygonum vhipamm. 

Empctruni nigrum. 

Salix herbacea. 

S. reticulata. 

Luzubi arcuata. 

Juncns biglumis. 

Carex fuliginosa (not yet fbnnd 

in Arctic Asia, but no doubt 

there). 
C. aquatilis (not yet found ia 

Arctic Asia, but no doabt 

there). 
Kriophorum capitatum. 
K. polystacbyum. 
Alo|iecui*us fdpiuus. 
]>eyeuxia Lapponica. 
Dfschampsia csespitosa (Eut 

Greenhmd only). 
Phippsm algida. 
Colpodinm latifolium. 
Poa flexuosa. 
P. pratensis. 
P. nemorali:*. 
Fci^tuca ocina. 



Of the alwve, Sari/ntt/a oppositifolia is probably the B»f^ 
ubiquitous and may K- considered the commonest and most Arctic 
llowciin;; plant. 

The fbllowinjr aio also inhabiUints of all the five Arctic aret^ 
but do not usually attain such high latitudes as the foregoing:" 

Polemonium caeruleum, andvtf* 



Kanunculus Lnpponiciis. 
Draba rupcstris. 
Viola palustris. 
I lonkeiieya peploidi's. 
Kpilobium august ifolium 
E. alpiinim. 
Ilippuns vulgaris. 
Artemisia boreal is. 
Voccinium uliginosum. 
V. Vitis-ida»a. 
Lodimi palustre. 
I'yrola rotundit'olia. 



(East Greenland only). 
Pedicuhiris Lapponica. 
Armeria vulgaris. 
BetiUa nana. 
Salix lanata. 
S. glauca. 
S. alpestris. 
Luzula campestris. 
Carex vesicjiria. 
Eriophorum vaginatum. 
Atropis maritima. 



The absence of Gculiana and Pi imula in these lists is verj 
unaecountjd.»Ie, scein<i^ how abundant and very Alpine they are on 
Miu Alps and Himalaya, and Geniiana on the iSouth-Ainericin 
Cordilleras also. The few remaining plantSi which are all ra^ 



HCKIKF.R OX ARCTIC PLANTS. 



205 



Mul almost or wholly oonfiiieil to the Arctic zane, are 
iDg. t uidicates tho:ie spedeft absolotclj {joculiar ; ft ^^^ 



Clirysatitht!ULiuui arcticum, 

Pjrreibrum bipinQatnm. 
f SiiLssurea i^ubsiniiata. 

Camponnla unldora. 

Geutiaua arctopbila. 

G. atirtnt. 

Eutoca Frauklinii. 

Pedicular is flozumpa. 
t Douglasia arclicfl, 
f MonolepLs A:!«iaticft. 

Bet q la Iruticosa. 

Salix speciosii, 
t S. gUcialis. 

8. phlebophjllii. 

8. arctica. 

Orehi* cruentA. 

PlantaDtheru hvjx^rborea. 

Carex nardinn. 

C\ glareosa. 

C. I'ui-i flora. 

Hierochloe paucidora* 

Deschampsia atroptirpuren, 

Fhippsia algiila. 

Dupontia Fisheri. 

Colpo<liiini [K-'udulinvim. 

C. fulviim. 

C. Intifolium. 
If Pleuropo^on Sabini. 
t Festuca Hicbardsorii. 



PaUaali. 

n» AslaticuflL 
lA glauca, 
iue purpurea* 
moUiiii. 

ia si^ynibrioides. 
fallat^ii* 
I* 

IwarJeii. 
iJU*Glica. 

*hena Fiscberiarm. 
niralis. 
djcranoidcs. 
nigrusceus. 

licuM. 

lotzcbuii. 
^bscholt^ii. 
^nifiilia. 
iar<l*oni. 
ibium Fi^cheri. 
tia glaciali-H. 

Schard^niana. 
»nita, 

ron corapositus. 



rlSTHIBrTIOX OF THE AllCTIC FLOirKRINO PuUTTa JN 
VAlUOl 3 KeOIONS OF THE GlOBE. 

> \n but one distlort genua coniiiied to the Arctic regions, 
lot^'pio and local Plcttropoyon S<tbini ; and there arc but 
ihfT |io<^ulrarly Arctic species, together with oue with 

am wholly imacr|uninted^ viz., Monolepis Asiniica, ^J'hi' 
jg TG2 *»piX'ic8 arc all found south of tho Cirdr'» and ui' 

but ir>0 advance MXith of ihe paiallc! of 4U° N. bit., 
n tbt» Meditcrrauoaii basin, Northern India* the Untt<*d 
>^gon, or California ; about oO are natives of the nioiui' 
regions of the Tropics, and just 10*5 inherit the Soiiib 
%Ui zone, 
proportion of species whicli have migrated snuthwartU in 

and the New World aliio bear a fair relation to the 



JAI'.-IZ 




lr"CT3cruitac. . 







_ .--r ; — T." - :. : -:r^ <7-k:2^ ptfinc at* Tiev Ae ftct d^ 

.. Si.:...:. j" rx 'T !:^ -::-- ::<jsc -irueLv outxibiited over tke 

^: - 7:. i .: — •..>-.i:. S. iid- Az-t.-an* Xa^jaa^ AofititlvB' 

-. ^ : -\=- . Uc >'--.r 'V.irla ba^ie lamm mq^ cob* 

.; - : .J.- .:• r *.i: :::fTii Aui "iitiir own; bos tbe ScMifi" 
:..-..: :. - ^ril' * -jv j:*:'cv 13 zae Azctie Gzde^ ■•^ 

: izi-::.. - r >] ;;:vr*- ii n«r y.^rfL-canperue zone ii^ 

: r :. " :: ."..r^lt-> • cs:ic if. :ii~ "ntu ■evyrj other Tenpefi*' 

*.. V :--_:.-:■ : ::■ ;. i-u-cri .f >. .:ru»rri aismisphere^ or OD ifc* 
-L..> : r- ;.:■ ii •-■■inn-t:^ 

Ij. — :r-— ' - -T ^-i-'i i2.> . i:a«rr^4dca coaki be pat 15 tltf^ 

:: ^^tr-.: " Z': A-.-. .■:->.^^i;:::a "TiiJ i:ni£% 3W rhriT bek)iigtO*k* 

•"...--- '-:-.- .:. S.-^^'iiz:!— az ir«sk iai sbouM of 3pl«** 

- ..•: zi' -- ^.:.i -;•-: :c :.. auftriW. vimu ud Ctopioftl diii** 

Tl". ;' u :t-j:;^ t 11. liyiyciijiar-L-. ixjrsss the res^nh : — 

I: -:■ ._: ---a* A2iifr.c» ----- 40 
I^ TrsiTti-iri >:.izi \ii*^r.tfi - - - 70 
Ii a: 7 -j' : : >r. :• Ll^i cI ir-;c«!. Ptt:vgims.'£c. - 490 
.7>^ a:^s. jr^. - -" -T . • . .480 
Lt:::! S \-1 Afr.ot ..... 20 

K^^:i"rf.±.:, aoo 

Jt:- :i. A>:;i 20 

A--T7-:. . A- 60 

Li ::.-: r->7r-:: :^> zi:^r^::vr: i? =1vt« din?ci in the AmeiM* 
meri-ii?..-- sFZ^ry^ ::..:-:^ Anrcw swcSiPs retch the h^hest soothem 
i*5i:->£-- Th> I liv. i •.:-"-/' 4 ?V-r .-'Pom Antircticai,'* p. 330) 



HOOKER ON ARCTIC PLAXT&. 



207 



ttho contmtioits chain of the Andes having favoured their 
Ihern di!^pen*ion. 

But the greatest number of Arctic pbints are located in Centnil 
Europe^ no fewer tbin 530 out of 762 inhabitioji^ the Alps and 
CfliitraJ and Southern Europe, of which 4H0 cross the Alps to thu 
Mediiennoeiin basin. Here, however, their further spread ih 
»ppttrmtly suddenly arretted ; foi% tliough nuinj doubtless are to 
W found in the Alps of Abjsfeinia and the Western A this, there 
»r* fpw corapjired with wliat we foirad fiulhcr eaat in Asin. 
•ad fi'wrT still hnve found their way to South Africa. 

TW most con tin nous extension of Scandinavian forms la in the 

^rcuon of the gronteat continental extension, numely, that from 

Ik* Xorth Ciipe in Ljipkud to Tasmaniii,* for no less thnn 350 

SoHKhiuiviiin plftnt« hnve been found in the Himalayas, and 53 in 

^DNtialia and New Zei\lniul, wlifreai? there ai*e .scarcely any Hima- 

KT*n find no An.Htralinu or Antarctic forms in Arctic Europe. 

^ow dial Mr* Darwin*8 hy|>otheses are «> far accepted by many 

kts, in that rht*se concede many species of each ^enu^ to have 

in mo^t CA«>e9 a common origin, it may l)e well fa tabulate the 

ihution of the Arctic plants as I have done the 

^^' 1 thij* places the prcvjdence of the Scaudinnvian types 

"^ vci^tetion in a much stronger Uerht : — 

Scandinavian Arctic Gentra in Enropc - - - 2W 

Foil rid in North-United-Stutes - - (approximately) 270 

,, Tropical American mountains ^ 

„ Temperate South America - 

Alps 

Crow AJps - - . , - 
Fimtid in fioulh Africn 

„ Himnlayn, kv. - - - 

„ Tropirjil Asia 
„ Australia, &c, 

IV m06t remarkable jitionialy ia the absence of Primula in 
'f'<T>ic»l AmeJ*Jca, thai gcntis being^found in Extrs^-tropical South 
"^'•^Hca^ and it^ absence in th<'*wholo Suutheiu TemjHnati' zone of" 
^"?01d World, except the Alps of Java, 

Th(i/ictrtfnf, DclphiHtum, ImpatienSn PrunuSy Circtta^ Chri/so* 
*^''«jMf//, Pftfttasxia^ Buplfurunt^ ffieracintm^ Vihurnum^ Vate- 
^«a^ Attetitiiin^ Varcinium, lifuKloiUndrou^ Prdiadnriji, and 
»wA 1 1 Arctic Gencni found on the Tropicjd mountains of 

^* i i, Cc^^lon, Javii, &c.), but not yet in thi- South-tem- 



9t 


100 


Jf 


120 


ff 


280 


J> 


260 


17 


110 


J» 


270 


»♦ 


80 


>J 


100 



^ C^ebcfl It! 



Ut lIlO gl: 



lii* bdf ht« of tht 



' " ria, Koftem Cliiua, 

lion lias been dn<? 

..„♦„..,. ' i;ritnde« toihe 

m andNortb- 

^ ^ I ;iii(l $(^attiTcd 

[id iiiL'nc« to ti^ouUi vVuntrnUii, Tttamnuia, und 

«tuU of our knowU>4g*?. to me quite unjic- 

■.M'% for ihi"* ptrr|»OM.» n coolcil cMmtitinti of the 

.u\ to all sucli purely tropical vcgvtAtioa at we 



208 nOOKEU 0\ AUCTTC PLAXTA 

porato zoiio of Asia, and very few of tbem in Temperate South 
Africa. 

There arc, liowcvcr, u considerable number of Scandinavian 
plants which are not found in the Alps of Middle Europe, thoogli 
found in tbo Caucasus, Uimalayo, &c., and conversely there ara 
sovcnil Arctic- Asiatic and -American plants found in the Alps of 
Central Europe, but nowhere in Arctic Europe. In other wordii, 
certain species extend from Arctic America westward to Arctic 
Europe, and there are certain other species which extend from 
Arctic Europe to the Caucasus and Central Asia, which neither 
exist on the Alps of Central Europe nor extend eastward to 
Arctic America : — 

[Here follows a list of 103 species of plants common to Arctic 
Europe and Temperate Asia, &c., but not to the Alps of Europe, 
pp. 2(10-1.] 

It is ciu'ious to remark how many of these Boreal Enropein 
plants, which are absentees in the Alps, lia\'e a very wide ninge^ 
not only (>xtrndin^ to the Himalaya and North China, but many 
of tlicni all over Temi^emte North China ; only one is found in tbe 
South-ti'miK'rate zone. In the present staite of our knowledge we 
cannot account fur tlie absence of these in the Alps ; either they 
were not nativi's of Arctic Euroix* immediately previous to the 
Glacial Poriod, or, if so, and they were then driven soutli to the 
Alps, they weix- afterwards there exterminated; or, lastly, ther 
still inhabit the Alps under dis«ruised forius, which pass lor dif- 
ferent species. Probably some beloncj; to each of these categories. 
I need hardly remark that none inhabit Europe south of the Alp^ 
or any part of tlie African eontinc;nt. 

The list of Arctic- American and -Asiatic species which inhabit the 
Alps of Europe, but not Arctic Europe, is much smaller. Tho* 
marked t i^rc Scandinavian, l>ut do not enter the Arctic Circle:— 

Anemone patens. Galium rubioides. 

A. alpina. f G. saxatile. 

A. narcissiflora. Ptarmica alpina. 

"f Ranunculus sceleratus. Aster alpinus. 

t Aconitum Napellus. Gentiana prostrata. 

t Arabis petra»a. Polygonum polymorpham. 

f Cardamine hirsuta. Corispennum li'yssopifolini"* 

Draba stellata. Alnus viridis. 

Thlaspi montanum. Pinus combra. 

Lepidiuni ruderale. "f Sparganium simplex. 

Sagina notlosa. f Typha latifolia. 

Linum perenne. C-arex ferrugiuea. 

Phaca alpina. C. supina. 

t Astragalus bypoglottis. C'. stricta. 

f Spiriea saiicifolia. j C. pilulifera. 

f Potentillji frutieosa. Scirpus triquotcr. 

P. sericea. Deyeuxia varia. 

I Ceratophyllum demer.^um. Spartina cynosuroidcs. 

Bupleurum ranunculoides. f Glyceria iluitans. 

t Viburnum Opulus. lioi-deum jubatum. 



. OOOKXB OX ABCnC FL4XTS. 



S09 



1 



icxL, DuTRicTs wrrms the Abctic Circle. 

mg Are the prominent feAtores, botanical, geogra- 
eliraatiil, of the five Districts of the Arctic zone : — 
c Sarope*. — ^The njojority of its plant.s are included 
'I and Finland Floras ; and, owing to t\u^ temperature 
►tri-;mi, winch washes its ooast«, Lapland is hj Ikr the 
Wnct* in the Arctic regions. The mean annoal tern- 
il the Puldr Ciix'le, where it cuts the ooast-lioe, m about 
pe June aud S<*ptember temperatures tbroughout Lap* 
|40' and 57^ respectively; thus rendering the cjimate 
kbolh to dowering and fruiting. Spitzbergen belongs to 
As do Nova Zcmbla and the Arctic countriea we«t of 
^bi, which forms its eastern boundary; for the Ural 
I do not limit the vegetation any more than do the 
pantains in America. Gmelin observed, more than a 
go, that the River Obi in lower latitudes indicates the 
poogitude from the European to the Asiatic flora. 
b this small aresi, however, there are two flora«i> cori^ 
j,^to the Arctic-Norwegian and Arctic-Russian. The 
Ikmencing at the White Sea, though com|ic»rutively ex- 

Eur !o speeic-s, contains nearly 20 tiiat are not Lappo- 
ling Rrai/a rosea^ Dianihus alpinus^ U. Segtiltri^ 
meFdrifolin^ Sfixifraga hieracifolia^ Ifieradeum Si^ 
%iguria .S'i^iruvt, Piarmica alpina, GeuHana eermif 
We raiattif and /Mrix Sibiriea, 

Ir^, further, scrveral Scandinavian plants which cro^<t the 
licle or the east shores ef tlie White Sea, but do not do 
land, as Athamonia rjbrinotii, Chryianikemum Lemctu^ 
Bidens trip*irtita^ and others. 
and Greenland also botaaitcally belong to the Arctic- 
viuce, but I have here excluded both : the former 
lies to the vouth of the Arctic Circle ; the Utter 
tb ita magnitude, [x^eition, and other citcumstaQoet 
i it should be treated of separately. 
»s I can ascertaiu, 616 species (Monocotyledons 183» 
433,= 1 : 2- 3) enter the Arctic Circle in this region, 
advance into Spitsbergen ; but no phienogamic plant 
Roasts Islet beyood its northern extremity. The 
rof genera to species is 266:616 (1 :2'3>. Of these 
ropean plants^ 4o3 eross the Alps or Pyrenees to the 
lU'an basin : a few occur on the mountains of Tropical 
iduding Luzula campestru and Dc$champ*ia cmtpi" 
^ 23 are fo«n«l in South Africa. 

^ than 2G4 species do not enter the Arctic Circle ill 
'longitude; and 184 are almost exclusively natives of 
Forld, or of tbiy and of GrecnlaDd, not being found in 
ii North America; 24 are confined to Arctic Europe 
llaad. 



210 BOOKEB ON ABCTIO FULHSf. 

The following Arctic-European plants are of sporadic oocur- 
rence in North America : — 

Ranunculus acris, Rocky Moun- Phyllodoce taxifolia, Greenland, 

tains. United States MonntaiDS 

Arabia alpinn, Greenland and and Labrador. 

Labrador. G^ntiana nivalis, Greenland and 

Lychnis alpina, Greenland and Labrador. 

Labrador. - Veronica alpina, Greenland and 

Arenaria arctica, Greenland United States Mountaina. . 

and Rocky Mountains. Barteiaalpina, Greenland and 

A. vema, Greenland, Arctic ■pJit.«i««\r'««i„«+«« T^v*...t^ 
Wands, and Rocky Moun- SS"^Sffi,SS?*' 

Air^v„.g»riB, Greenland » ^ S£[°"^ ^'"^^ "'^'^ 

and Labrador. g ^^.^g^u^ Greenland aiil 

Gnaphaliumsylvnticum, Green- United States Mountains, 

land and Labrador. Juncus trifidus, Greenland and 

G. supinum, Greenland, Labra- United States Mountains., 

dor, and United States Moun- Carex capitata, Greenland anl 
tains. United States Moontaina. '' 

Vaccinium myrtillus, Rocky ' Phleum alpinum, Greenland, 
Mountains only. United States Mountains, and 

Cassiopeia hypnoides, Green- Labrador, 

land, United States Moun- Calamagrostis lanoeolata, Li- 
tains, and Labrador. brador. 

There are, besides, a considerable number of Arctic-EuiopsiD 
plants which, in the New World, are confined to Greenland, MJg 
nowhere found in East America ; Uieee will be enumerated ^en 
treating of the Greenland Flora. [The plants (29 species), whiih 
are widely distributed in temperate America and Ana, but alnuMt 
exclusively Arctic in Europe, are enumerated, p. 263.] 

The works upon which I have mainly depended for the habitstf 
of the Arctic-European plants are Wahlenberg's '< flora iMf^ 
ponica," Ledebour*s "Flora Rossica,'* Fries' *« Summa Vegstf- 
bilium Scaudinaviae" and " Mantissas," and various adminbb 
treatises by Audorsson, Nylander, Hartmann, Lindblom, Waidbeigy 
Blytt, C. Martins, Ruprecht, and Schrenk* 

For Spitzbergen plants I have depended on Hooker's 
tion of the Spitzbergen collections made during Parry's at 
to reach the North Pole, Captain Sabine's collection nude in thB 
same island, and on Lindblom and Beilsclimied's " Flora yon Spitt" 
bergen " (Regensburg, Flora, 1842). 

For the southern ^stribution of the Arctic-European plantifl 
have further consulted Nyman's excellent " Sylloge,*' Ledebos'J 
** Flora Rossica," Grisobach*s " Flora Rumeuca," Grenier »n^ 
Godron's ** Flore de France," Parlatore's <* Flora Italiana," Kod»'« 
" Synopsis Flora; Germanise," Munby's " Catalogue of Algeria 
Plants," A. Richard's of those of Abyssinia, Visiani's *«Flol» 
Dalmatica," Delile's « Flora -Slgyptiaca," Boissier's noWe « Vojjj 
age botanique dans TEspagne," and TchihatchefTs ** Asia MiWr 



HOOKER ON ABOTIO PLANTS. 



211 



besides nuineroiis local floras of the Mediteiranean regionSy Madeira, 
the Azores, and Canaries. 

- 2, Arctic Asia* — This District, which, for its extent, oontaina 

• bj far the [>oorest flora of any on the globe, reaches from the Gulf 
of Obi oastw&rd to Behi^in^'s Stniiu, where it merges into the 
West' American. The climntc is murked by excessive moan cold ; 
at the Obi the isotherm of 18*^ cuts the Arctic Circles in itd SJS. 
course, and at the eiistern extremity of the province tho isotherm 
of 20^ cuts the same circle j while the central pai-t of the diatrict 
is rU north of the isotherm of 9^. The whole of the district is 

1 henee ijir north of the isotherm of 32% which descends to 52° 
KX. in its middle longitude. The extremes of temperature are 
uho very orreat ; the June isotherm of 41° ascending eastwiird 
tJiroagb its western half to the Polar Sea, whiUt the September 
isotherm of 41^ dcdoends nearly to 60° N.L., whence the low 
Auiomn temperature must present an almost insuperable obstacle 
to the ripening of seeds within this segment of the Pobir Circle- 

The warming influence of the Athmtic cun*ents being felt no 
further east than the Obi, and the summer desicaition of the vast 
Asiatic continent, combine to render the climate of this region 

■one of excej^sive drought as well as cold, whence it is in every 

.way most imfuvourable to vegetation of all kinds. 

The total number of species hitherto recorded £rom this area 

^is 2a3 :— 

Monocotyledons - - 42 ^ _ , . , 

Dicotyledons - - -191J~ •^^' 

"The proportion of geuem to species is 1 : 2. Of the 233 species, 
|217 inhabit Siberia, as £ar Routh as the Altai or Jnpan, <fec. ; 104 
t ^ ■'Wfinls to the Himalaya or mount^uns of Persia; none 

t the mountains of the two Indian peninsulas, and 85 

tho.-NC oi Australia and New Zealand. All but 37 are European, 
and nine <>f thcj^e are almost exclupivcly Arctic. [The bible fol- 
low '>4.] 

1 of 37 non-Ettropean si>ecie9 only 12 are confined to 

Asm, tbe remiiining 25 being American, On tho other hand, 
ere are only 22 European species in Arctic Asia which nre not 
sUo American, which scarcely cstjiblishes a nearer relationship 
liptween Arctic Asia with Europe than with America. [The 
table follow*, |Kige 264.] 

In other wonln, of the 233 Asiatic species 196 are common to 
and Eurnpo, 22 are confine to A^ia and Europe, 25 aro 
flni'd to Asia and Americ^i only, and 12 are conliaed to AaIji, 
which three are peculiar to tho Arctic Circle. 

e rarity of GraniiDo», and especially of Cypernceae, in this 

bt its most exceptional feature, only 21 of the 138 Arctic 

of tbeee orders having hitherto been detecto^l in it. Crypto- 

planta Beem to he even more rare ; IFoodsia Hven^h and 

JragraH4 being the only Filices hitherto enumerated. 

reeearches along the edge of the Arctic Circle would 

tXipAB add more Siberian ^ipecies to this flora, as tho examiua* 

oi the oorUi-enfit extreme would add American sp«cie% and 

O t 




212 



HOOKER ON ARCTIC PULNTB, 



.possibly lejid to the flora of the country of tlie Tchiit<;liis 

ranked with thiit of West Americe. 

The works which hare }^olded me the moat informfitioQ ns- 
'•garding this floiu are Ledebour'a ** Flora Rossica," and tbt 

valuiible memoirs of Bonwe, C, A. Meyer, and Trautvetter on IW 

i; vegetation of the Tnimyr and Boganida Rivera, and on the {^luiti 

' ©F Jenissei Kiver, in Von Middcndorff*s Sil^erian ** TravTeU.'' 

.For their southern extension, Trautvetter and Meyer'a "Flom 

. Ochotensis/' also in Mitldentjorrs "Travclti"; BimgeV eon* 

ineration of North-China nnd Mongolian plants ; Maxinio%icc*» 

** Fiora Amurensis "; Asa Gray's paper on the botany of JttfMD 
! (Mem. Amen Acad. N-S,, vi.) ; Karelin and KirilofTg enumeivdov 
■*of Soongarian plants ; Regel^ Bach, and Herder on the £asl^4JilMriB 

jind Jakut.sk colleetions of Faullowsky and Von Stubendorff. For 

^hc Persian and Indian dii^tribntionf I have almost entirely di^' 
cpended on the herbarium at Kew, and on Boiasier's and BimgiV 

numerous works. 

3. Arctic West Ameiica^—The Dtsirict thus df*sio^«tcd if 

Tinalogoii^ in poi^ition, and to a considerable extent in cdimntewto 
•the Arctic- European, hut is much colder, as is indicated both Ijr 
ih© menn temi>eniture and by the position of the June isothrnn m 
41°, which nmkes an extraordinary bend to the south, nearly Id 
52° NX., in the longitude of Behnng's Straits. 

It extends from Capo Prince-of- Wales, on the cast ftbor» tt 
Behring's Strait?, to the estnary of the Mackenzie Ri%'er ; sadiM 
a whole, it dJfll^rs from the flora of the province to the ca&twari 
«f it by its far greater nnraher both of European aod Aiiiiie 
iBpecies, by containing various Altai and Siberian plmits vrhkh d* 
.not reach so high a latitude in more western meridians, unA hf 
«ome Temperate plant** peculiar to West America. Thbeailtfi 

' ^boundary in, however, quite an arti&cijil one; for a goodoMf 
jeastern pknts cross the Mackenzie and advance weatwiLrds toMlA 
Barrow, but which do not extend to Kotzebue^s Sound ; audAiodl 
^^olony of Kocky-Moant^n plants al&o spreads ea<>tward mul fVf#* 
wards along the shores of the Arctic Sea, which furtlier Iflii 

, to connect the floras; such are Aquikgia brcviM^iU^ .s:;*#>.*7-^«« 

( ^umihf Jluichinsia caf^cina^ Hctuchera Richnrd** ^ 

.fmntif Getitiaua urctopkila^ Saiix speciosa^ none oi " lij.-j» -'v 
generally dirt used Arctic plants, or natives of any other parti cC 
.Temperate America but the Rocky Mouutaitis. 

The Arctic Circle at Kot^ebue's Sound is efosiedby UiewnllMV 

' cf 2'^°, and at the longitude of the Mackenzie by Ihiit of IIP IT} 
"whiliit the June itiothcrm of 41° ascends obliquuly from SwW.li 
K.E., from tJie Aleutian Inlands to the month of the 
«nd passes south of this province; (he June and the 

' isotherms of 41'^ and 32° both traverse it obliqueiy, m^frnViHt 
iheN.E* 

N The VB8t extent of the Pacific Ocean and ita wurtn 

Barron Is greatly modify tlio climate of West Arctic 
catjstDg dense fogs to prevail, especially tbroughotit tl)«> ^umtm€ 
laoiiths, whilst the currents keep the ice to the north of fi^hrtaf^ 




nOOKEB ON ARCTIC PLANT?. 



213 



The shallowiiess of the ocean betitreen America and Aaifr 
aoithof Uu 60^, together with the ide&titjr of the vegetntloo in 
Ihe li%ber Utitudes of the«*e continents, tmgge&U the probahilltT 



cfthekad hftving be< 
Tie Dumlier ol' ph. 

Wm America is 364 : — 
Monocotyledons 
Dieoijledons - 



lows at no remote epoch. 
pUuts hitherto found in Arctic 



The proportion of ^neni to species is 1 : 1'7. Of thcae 3$4 
t, almost all bat the littoml and purely Arctic species are 
in Weet-temperate North America or in the Ro<>lty Moun- 
26 in the Andes of Tropical or Sub-tropical jimerica, and 
87 in TenoptTate or Antarctic South America, Comparing tJtda 
flora witla that of Tempei*ate and Arctic Asia, I find that no leas 
thtti S20 speciea are found on the north-western shores and 
idandaof that continent, or in Siberia, many extending to the 
Ahta. and the Himalaya. A comparison with Eastern Arctic 
ahows that 281 are common to it, and 38 are found in 
but not Arctic £a8t America. [The Ibt follows, 
_ W.} 

Thmtf It will be seeo, are for the most part North'temporato 
plants, eommon in many parts of the globe, and which are only 
excluded from Eastern Arctic America by the gi^oater ri^ur of 
itfi climate. 

The best marked £iiro|iean and Asiatic species that arc not 
I found ^rtber east in Temperate or Arctic America are 18 iii 
wsuDher, [The list follows, page 267.] 

Honoe it appears tliat of the 364 species found in Arctic West 
Antrkaty 319 iulmbit East America (Arctic or Temperate, or 
both\ and 320 nre natives of the Old World — a difference hartUy 
fc^fljcient to esJtablish a closer affinity of this flora with one con- 
taeotratlier than with the other. 

Tkeapecies {)eculiar to this tract of land (Arctic West Ame- 
rica) arc : — 

Br»|i pilosa. Saassurea subsmuata* 

Jiicbardsonii. Salix glacialis» 

androsacea. 



The rarity of Monocotyledons, and especially of the gluraaceons 
Mers, \a almost as marke<l a feature of this as of the Asiatic 
^; of the 138 Arctic fepecies of GiHrnacCfP, only 54 are natives 
of West Arctic America. 

The materials for this flora are principally the plants of 
^Tiiuiusso, collected during Kotzebue's voyage, find described by 
^iiiMclf and Schlechtenduhl ; Lay and Collie's collections, de- 
wribed iu Beecher*s voyage; the "Flora Boreali-Americana ** ; 
wid Seemanii's plants, described in the " Botany of the Herald.^ 
^Obt of the above collections arc from Behring'B Stmitii. For the 
Aiciic coast flora I am mainly indebted to Richnrdsou's researches, 
to Pullen*8 and other collet^tions enumerated by Seemann in 

account of the flora of Western Eskimo Land. For the 
•oatbem eztenaioD of the flora I have had recourse to the '* Flora 



214- HOOKER OK ARCTIC PLANTS* ^^^^B 

L**«BWiii*ATnei'icona," Ledobour's ** Flora Rcaaica," whichtt? 
lelOdtfB^^e SitchA plaDts j the Araerican florfts* cf Nuttftll, Vnrtk, 
I Torrey, Gray, &<!., ntid to the collections of D- rfl 

[.formed in Vancou^'er's Island nod British < n* 

I Califomian, Mexican, and 0>rdiUcra flonuj geDoralij, to tJw 
I Herbarium at Kew, the works above mentionodi and the Tirioiif 
I memoirs of Torrej and of Gray oq the plants of the Amerieifl 
[ Surveying Expedition. 

I 4, Arctic Bast America (ezcliurive of Greenlmadj.^ 

I Hiifi tract of land is uoalogous to the Arctics Asiatic io nmny 

I respects, of poeition and climate, bnl is very raueb richer ia 

I 9peoies. It extonds from tln> estuary of the MAckenzio River •• 

I Ba^'s Bay, and its flora differs from that of the we^iern fMit of 

\ the continent, both in the characters mentioned in the w/Htb rf 

I that province, and in possessing more East* American SfMcietL 

I The we8teni boundary of thia province k an Artifidal ottej tbft 

I eastern is yf3ry natural, both botjmicAlly and scN'><rrai>hicftDy, for 

[ Baffin's Buy and Davis' Strait (unlike Behri: have^M^ 

[deep water and dilferent floras on their oppi .res, Tlii 

I Arctic Circle is crossed in the Jougitude of the Ahiekeoiue 

I by the isothenn of 1 2°, which thence ti-onds i^outh^castWAni fa 

I middle of Hudson's Bay ; and in longitnde of Davis* Strait 

crossed by the isotherm of 18.4°, The June isotherm of 

descends obliquely fiom the shores of the Arctic S«a, D«a 

mouths of the Mackenzie, to the northern parts of Hud«on*9 

south of the Arctic Circle, and the September isotherm of 41* 

is everywhere south of the circle. Hence tb m parted 

1 thia province are very much warmer than the ,1 modi tm, 

that the whole west coast and islands of Badiii :» iiav lie oat^i 

a Bouthem iniection of the June isotherm of 32~, which fMtm 

north of all the other polar islands. The Parry lalanda ha^ 10 

analogous temperature of 40°, The wannth of the n^eatem portki'' 

of this tract is no doubt mainly due to the influence of the 

Ocean being felt across the continent of West America, 

poaaibly alio to the preseriee of a comparatively wam 

ocean, or to Atlantic currents crosk^iing tlie Pole betwaeo 

Zembla and vSpitzbergen, of which nothing certain u kaowB.* §1 

^lia aa it may, the comparative luxuriance of the flora oiMdfBk 

IftlatidiB a well-known fact, and one inexplicable by coositeltiiM* 

of temperature, if unaocompaokd by ahumi<I * *■— -1 tv^ 

whole region is of coui'se far north of the isot I 

in the longitude of it^ middle district, de«ceiidi^ to i^j^o Wiimi{<T£ 

inlat. ^2^ 

That |>ortiou of this province whii - ' ' hi;^ in plantt* ii t^ 
tract which intervened between the < une and MackaM 

Biverj ear^t of this vegetation rapiJiy Uiuuui^c^ aa aliol^tfci 
northwards. The flora of the Boothian Peniusulai PUiiuouM 
ae ii is with glacial straits, aud placed centricaJily JUMmg tli 



11 




* It U 8 wdl-known f^ct that the tompcratani nhrtiy* rise* f«|iUI}j vM lAt ' 
north («• well as other) wfods over tdl thii Aretie-AaMricaii 




HOOSBB ON ABCTIC FLAITTS, 



Ui 



t 



Arctic islands, is perhaps the poorest of any part of the area, thosd* 
of Banks' Land and Melville Island to the N.W. being consider- 
ftbly richer, aa are those of the shores of Lancaster's Sound and 
Barrow's Htrait, and the shores of Baffin's Bay to the north and 



I ;3 1. 



The phaBDOgamic flora of Arctic East America contains 379 
Bpeciea. 

Monocotyledons - - ^2 T _ 
♦4_i: » Dicotyledons - - - 287 J ^ 

The proportion of genera to epecies is 1:2*0; of these 37d 
Bpecies, 323 inhabit temperate North America, east of the Bodkj 
Mounlains ; 35 the Cordillera j and 49 Temperate or Antarctic 
South America. Compuring this flora with that of Europe, T 
find that 239 species (or two thirds) are commoti to the Ai*ctic 
regions of both continents, whilst hut little more than one third 
of the Arctic Eviropean species are Arctic-East- American j of 
105 non -European species in Arctic East America, 32 are 
: leading 73 species confined t6 America, of which the 
g arc furthermore confined to the eastward of the Rocky 
iQiains and Mackenzie River ; — 




I 



lis glauco. 
jnia purpurea, 
caculiata. 
I^ne Pennsylranica. 
Arenaria Michnuxii. 
Polygjila Senega. 
Lofhyrus ochrolcncas. 
Bubtis tritloms. 

<lsomi. 



V-'Ji U ^-4- 



Grindclia sqnarrosa. 



Vftccininm Canadense. 
DracocephaJum parvifloram. 
Bouglaaia aiTtica. 
Eliejigtins argentea, 
Urtica dioica. 
Salix cordata. 
Populus tremuloides. 
Picea nij^ra. 
Spiranthes gmcilis. 
Ch*ypripedinm acJiule. 
Carex oligospermn, 
Plenropogon Sabini. 



Of these, Dottffiasia and Pkurapot/on are the only ones abso* 
IttleJy peculiai' to Arctic East America. It is a noticeable fact 
UmI apt one of them is fouud in any part of Greenland. Com- 
^Ktvd with Greenland, the Arctic-East- Amcricaii flora is rich, 
toatju&l: '*s those just enumerntecl, no less than 165 other 

spedes n l iu Greenland, The following are found on the 

Arctic inland;?, and many on the west const of Baffin's Bay, but 
io West Greenland : — 

palustris. Oxytropis nigresoens, 

A'"'^'^' Sievtirsia Roflijii. 

Saxifragn hieracifolia. 
;. i. S. Virginleneis. 
AMndmg s^. S. Hircuhis (East Greenland 
Okjtrpvi^ Lauipcstris. only). 
0. iJraleniiis. Valeriana capitata. ^^ 




^ P«l»Uii of ihtw florulas will be found in the 5th Toliime of tlie " lianeaa 
^ Jottnal,*' under ilie notice of Dr. Walker's C7ollectioD>$ mode daring the 



216 HOOKER ON ABCTIC PLAXTS. 

Nardosmia corjmbosa. Cutflleja pallida. 

Ftarmica vulgaris. Fedicularis capitata. 

CryBauthcmum arcticum. P. yersioolor. 

Artemisia vulgaris. Androsace septentrionalit. 

Senecio frigidus. A. Cliamiejaame. 

8. palastris. Saliz pUebof^ylla. 

S. pulchellus. Llojdia serotina. 

Solidago Virga-aurea. Hierochloe paaciflora. 

Aster salsuginosus. Deschampeia ctssfHoM (Eiit 

Crepis nana. Greenland only). 

Saossnrca alpina. Gljceria flaitans. 

Andromeda polifolia. Pleuropo{(on Sabini. 

ArctOBtaphylos alpina. Bromus pai^ns. 

Kalmia glauca. Eljmus molUa. 

Phlox Sibirica. 

There are thus no fewer than 184 of the 379 Arcftic-EMt* 
American species (fully half) which are absent in West Green- 
land, whilst only 105 (much less that one third^ are absent in 
Europe. This alone would make the limitation oi species in the 
meridian of Baffin's Bay more dedded than in any other Azfltie 
longitude ; and I shall show that it is rendered still more dedsiTe 
by the number of Arctic-Greenland plants that do not cro0 to 
Arctic East America. 

Of the 379 Arctic-East-American species, only 56 are not fiwnd 
in Temperate East America, of which two are absolutely oonfined 
to this nrca ; two others {Parrya arenicola and Fesiuca Riehari' 
sont) to Arctic East and West America ; 25 are found in Tempe- 
rate West America, and about 20 are Rocky-Mountain spedeii 
and not found elsewhere in Temperate America. 

For our knowledge of this flora I am principally indebted to 
the ** Flora Boreali-Americana," and to Richardson's * botaniol 
ap})endix to Franklin's First Voyage and his '^Boat Jonniej 
•* through Rupert's Land." 

I have also examined the materials upon which the above workf 
were founded, and the collections of almost every subsequent 
journey and voyage, up to those of Dr. Walker in the **Fox.* 
To enumerate the numerous botanical appendices to Voyages, sod 
separate opuscules to which these have given rise, from Bob^ 
First Voyage to the present time, would be out of place here. ^ 
have endeavoured to embody in the essay the information glesaed 
from all of them. For the southern distribution of these pton^ 
in the United States, &c., I have had recourse primarily to i* 
Gray's excellent '^ Manual of the Botany of the iNorthem United 
«* States,'* to Chapman's «* Flora of the S. E. Stotes," and to ti* 
Reports on the Botany of various Exploring Expeditions. 
I 5. Arctic Oreenland. — In area Arctic Greenland exceeds tof 
other Arctic District except the Asiatic, but ranks lowest of ■* 
^^_^^ 

* I am indebted to Sir John Richardson for gome correctiona to ibii BA 
mhlfih. account for a few dinorepancies between hia list! of Arctie-AnaKiB . 

K' nts and mv own ; these refer chiefly to genera and speoies hrtrftdim* io^ 
lists, but here excluded. 




HOOKEK ON ABCTIC PLA.NT3* 



217 



Sn mimber of contained species. In many respects it is the most 
remarkable of all the provincea^ containing no peculiar species 
m^aj^rer^ scarcely anj peculiarly American ones, and but a 
^BBkj sdiectiun of European* 

r7 A further peculiarity is that the flora of its Temperate regions 
'i& extremely poor, and adds very few species to the whole flora, 
And with few exceptions, only such as are Arctic in Europe also. 
B«tDg the only Arctic land that contracts to the southward, form- 
ing a peninsula, which terminates io the ocean in a high northern 
latitude, Greenland offers the key to the explanation of most of 
[the phenomena of Arctic vegetation ; and as 1 have ahxmdy made 
'use of it for this purpose, I shall be more full in my description 
I of its flora than of any other. 

Hie east and west coasts of Greenland differ in many important 
[features; the eastern is the largest in extent, the least indented , 
%j deep bays, is perennially encumbered throughout its entire 
length by ice-fields and icebergs, which are carried south by s 
i^ranch of the Arctic current that sets between Iceland and 
jGreenland, and is hence excessively cold, barren, and almost 

iaaible. The west coast again is generally more or less free 

pack-ice from Cape Farewell {Int. 6(f) to north of Uper- 
in latt 73"^, It is washed by a southerly current, which 

d to carry drift timber from the Siberian rivers into its 
and enjoys a far milder climate, and consequently has a 

luxuriant vegetation, 
A somewhat simiUr contrast is exhibited between West Green- 
Jnnd afid the opposite shores of Baffin's Bay and Davis' Strait, 
becaose they may in some degree explain their differences of 
jn^tatJon. There is also another difference between the polar 
^Hidii and Greenland, inasmuch as the former are for the most 
WK low, without mountains or extensive glaciers ; while the 
I^Uef is exceedingly mountainous, with valleys along the shore 
terminating in glacier-headed fionia, and the coast is bound by 
[gUciers of prodigious extent from Melville Bay to Smith^ 

Od. 

The iflothermal lines in Greenland all follow one course, from 

to X.E., running more parallel to one another in this 

ian than in any other. The isotherm of 32^ passes through 

uthem extremity of the peninsula, and that of 5*^ through 

rtb extreme at Smith's Sound. The June isotherm of 41" 

iltirts it« eist coast, and that of 32^ passes north of Disco. The 

Tone tcmDcrature of Disco is hence as low as that of the north 

of '^ on, of middle Nova Zemhla, and of tlie extremo 

ngru - "i ; and yet Disco contains quadruple their number of 

{>i#nto. The autumn cold is very great, the Sejitembcr isotherm 
ci,^ crossing the Arctic Circle on the west coast; and to this 
! scantiness of the flora may to some extent be attributed. 
I Tbft Arctic Greenland flora contains 206 species according to 
I Xm|^ catalogue (in Uink^s *' Grouhind ^') ; or 207, according 
la wty molerials (Monocot. 67, Dicot, 140, = 1 : 2*1), the pro^i 




b 



nOOSEK ON ABC130 FLAHTfl* 



21B 



portion of genera to ppedee being I ! 2. Of theee 207 

the following 1 1 alone are not European >^ 




AflcmoRe Ricliardsonii (Asiatic). 
TuiTitis mollis (Asiatic). 
Vesioaria arctica (American 

only), 
DraUa aiirea (Rocky Mountains 

and Labrador only). 
Arenaria Grcenlandlca (Monn* 

taine of U,S,). 



Poteiitilla tridentafji (I^bn- 
dor only). 

Saxifraga triscttspidatA (Labra- 
dor only). 

Erigeron composittjs (Ameriotz^; 
oniyV 

Pedicniaris enphresioides ( Asift)« 



On the otlier hand, no less than 57 Arctic-Greenland spMaep 
are ahijent in Arctic Eai*t America, and the following 36 
Europe and Greenland spcciee are either absent in all ptLttM' 
Dastdrn Temperate America^ or are extremely local there 3— 



Arabis alpiua (Labrador only), 
Lycjinis alpina (Labrador onlj). 
L, daoica (absent), 
Spergula uivaiis (absent). 
Arenaria uli^uosa (absent). 
A. ciliata (absent). 
Stellaria cera<>tioides (absent). 
Alcbemilla alpiiia (absent). 
A. vulgaris (Labrador only). 
Sibbaldia procumbeus (United 

Htiites onlv). 
Balms saxatilia (absent), 
Potentilla veraa (Labrador 

only). 
Sedum villosum (absent). 
Saxifraga Cotyledon (Labrador 

and Kooky Mountains only), 
Galium saxatile (absent). 
Guaphalium sylvatlcum (Labra- 
dor only). 
Q. puin'pum L, (Labrador and 

Wliite Mountains only). 
Odaeiopeia hypnotdes (ijabra- 

dor only). 
PhyUodoce taxi folia (Labrador 

and V^liite Mountains). 



Gentiana nivalis (j 

only)- 
Thymus scrpyUum (abMOi). 
Veronica alpina (White MfiiS^ 

tains only). 
V, saxatiliB (absent)* 
Euphrasia oi&cinAU^ 

StfUes), 
Bartfiia alpina (Iiabnidor onij] 
Enmex acetosella (absent). 
Salix Arbusculu (abst-nt). 
Feristylus albidus (absent) 
Carex capitata (Wliite 

tains only). 
C. microglochin (absent). 
C- microstachya (abeent). 
C. pedata (absent). 
Elyna caricina (Rocky M«m* 

tains only). 
Phleiim al pin vim (Labrador aai 

Wliite MoTintatnfl only). * 
Ca]smagro!«tr5 lanceolau (Ll* 

brador only). 
Descharopsia alpina (aboeot). 



iboeot). H 
1 EatfWi 




When it is considered how extremely common mo8t 
phmtet are throughout Europe and Nortbern A^ia, aad 
of tbem inhabit also N.W. America, their absenee in 
America iB even more rotnarkable than their prese&oe in Gmt- 
knd. 

A90lb«r eiogular feature of both Arctic and Tenpermie Om0* 
land 13 ita wanting a vast nnmber of Arctic plaota iHM«k tfl 
Eoropeaiii and are found also in J^Bnciu The fott9ivi^ li • 




HOOKER ON 


AKOTIC PULSTTS. 219 1 


liat of most of these, excluding 


alxvut 15, which at^e water-planta, ^^H 


or fpecies whose range is limited. TLe letter *• L" placed before ^^H 


a speciee signifiee that it is 


Icelandic, sjid I have introduced ^1 


it to fthow how numy are absent from thia islmid also, but how ^| 


Dumj are present. The letter 


** S" indicates that the specioa is ^^1 


foaod in the South Temperate < 


Dr Antarctic Circle. The asterisk ^^H 


(•) indicates that the species u 


1 Arctic both in Etist America and ^^H 


Earope. 


■ 


Anemone alploa. 


L SanguiaorU officinalis. ^^M 


A* nemorosa* 


B.o$i\ cinnamomea, ^^H 


A. narcisaiflora. 


Q. blanda. ^H 


• Ritniiiiculua Purshii. 


* CireoMi alpina. ^^H 


^L Caltbu j*ftlu3tri8. 


*I.S. Epilobium tetn»goiiimL ^^| 


• Aconituia Napellus. 


*I.S* jG> alsinteiblium. ^^^| 


Acia^ gpicata. 


S. Lythrum sidicaria. ^^H 


Nuphar luteum. 


f RibeB rubrum* ^^H 


Kttiitnrtium ampbibiam. 


* E. alpinum. ^^H 


S. Barbareo prepcox* 


*I. Parnassia palustriB* ^^H 


8. Turritie glabra. 


Saxifraga Sibirica. ^^H 


Thla«pi montaDum. 


^ S> hieraciifolia, ^^^| 


Sisymbrium Sophia. 


8. brouchiuUs. ^^H 


•I. Er^'simum kiiceolatam, 


* Bupletirum raauneo* ^^H 


ArabiB hii^uta. 


loides. ^ 


LS« CardAmiDO hirsuta. 


CoDioselinum Fisoheri. | 


' • Parrya artica* 


Cicuta viroaa. 


L Draba mundis. 


•I. Car urn carui. 


L Subnlaria aqiuitica. 


Adoxa moschatelUoa. 


1 •!. Drosera rotundif^)tia. 


yiburnura Opulus, 


I, D. loogifoliti. 


Lonicera casrulea* 


I. Viola tricolor. 


•I* Linnsoa borealis. 


•I» Arenariii laterifolia. 


»L Galium boroale. 


• Stellaria longifolia. 


G. rubioidee. 


1. S. cru^tfifoliii. 


I. G. tritidum. 


1^ Lin u ill percune. 


j& G. ap&rijie. 


Geranium Robertianqm. 


• Valeriana capitata. 


Hypericum 4-angulura. 


• Nardostnia frigida, 


Ojcatia aoetoHelk. 


* Cryfi.iiithvmumai*cticum. 


* Fbftca IHgida. 


I. Pyrethrum nodosum. 


• AttnifpaluB alplnufl. 


P* bipioiiaium. 


• A. hypoglottis. 


* Artemisia vulgaria. 


• Oxytropia campeatris. 


S. Bideus bipartita. 


0. UmleoBis* 


Taiiact^tum vulgare. 


[ Lftthyruij |>aluatriB. 


Aniounarift Carpalksa. 


^^U Spinea Kalicif'olui. 


• Scoecio reeediBfoliuB. 


^■L Gi»t]m urbiUiaiQ, 


• 8. frigidua. 


' L O, riv»le. 


• S. palustrifl. 


• Rubuii 11 n:" lie US. 


• i>. cawpeatria* 


Potent oosa. 


S. aurautiacus. 


P. Pen „ ^. 


* Solidago Viiga-cnrea. 


P. argentcii. 


t Aster Sibiricufl, 


•L8. Fnigaria \ eaca. 


* A< alpinuit. 




\ 



no 



HOO] 



OV ABCnC FLAHTS. 



S. £rigeroii acris. 
< 8. Souchos airensis. 
I. Hieradum boreale. 

* Saossarea alpina. 

' L Yaocinimn myrtilliis. 
.. * Andromeda polifolia. 
Ciaaandra caljcolata. 
*I. Arctostaphjlos alpina. 
*I. Pyrola secnnda. 
•* Gkntiana amardla. 
L G. tenella. 

* Mjosotis sylvatica. 
M. palnstris. 

I. M. arvensis. 

* Sentdlaria galericnlate. 
LS. Pronella valgaris. 

Glechoma hederaoeam. 
S. Stachjs palostrifl. 

* Gjmnandra Pallasii. 

* Caatilleja pallida. 
I.S. Veronica officinalis. 

S. y. Bcutellata. 
•1.8. V. Berpyllifolia. 

MelampTram pratense. 
M. sylyaticum. 
*I. Pedicularis palnstris. 

* P. versicolor. 

. Berophularia nodosa. 
Utriculaiia Tulgaris. 

* Pinguicula villosa. 
Glanx maritima. 
Trientalis Europeea. 

* Androsace septentrionalis, 

* A. Ohamaejasme. 
Naumbergia thjrsiflora. 

I.S. Primnla farinosa. 
I. Plantago major. 

P. lancedata. 
S. Chenopodium album. 
LS. Atriplex patula. 

Corispermum hjssopifo- 
lium. 

* Pologonium Bistorta. 
L P. amphibium. 

* Mjrica Gale. 
I. Betula alba. 
I. B. pumila. 

I. Aluus incana. 
I. Salix pentandra. 
L 6. mrrtilloides. 
I. Triglochin maritimum. 
Scheuzeria palustris. 



Vcratnmi album. 

* Llojdia serodoa. 

* AUiom 8cl 

* Sniladna bifolia. 

* Platantheni obtnnta. ' 

* CaljpM borealit. 
Grodyera repena. 
Cjpripediom gattelm; li 
Calla palnstris. 

Typba latifolia. 

Kartheeiam oonfinngiun. 

Luzula maTima. 
S. Jancus communis. 
I. J. aiticulatiis. 
I. J. bnlbosuB. 

J. Btjgius. 

Cares pauciflon. 

C tenuiflora. 
S. C. fitellulata. 
I. C. chordoirfaica. 

C. teretiuscnla. 

C. paradoxa. 
S. C. Buxbanmii. 
I. C. liraoaa. 
S. C. Magellanica. 

C. ustuJata. 

C. livida. 
I. C. pallescens. 

C. maritima. 
I. C. csespitosa. 
L C. acuta. 

C. stricta. 

C. filiibrmis. 
I.S. Eleocharis palustris. - 
S. £. acicularis. 
8. Scirpus triqueter. 
S. S. lacustris. 

Eriophomm alfnnani. 

Rhynchosp<M-a alba. 

Alopecurus pratensis. 
I. Milium effusum. 
8. Phalaris arundinaoea* 
I.S. Phragmites communis 
*I. Hierochloe borealis. 

* H. pauciflora. 

*I. Catabrosa aquatica. 
*I.S. Glyceria fluitans. 
*I. Atropis distans. 
I. Festuca elatior. 
S. Bromus ciliaris. 
I.S. Triticum caninum. 
S. Hordeum jubatum. 



HOOKEB OK AKCTIC PLANTS. 221 

Altagelher tliere are absent in Greenland upwards of 230 Arctic- 
HlviTopcan sjjecies, which are all of them American plants. The 
SM&ost curious feature of thk list is the absence throughout Green- 
fa ■.id of the genera Spima^ Senecio^ Astragalu^^ Tri/olium, Phaca, 
GtKjftropiSf Androsacej Aster ^ Mf/asoliSj J^osa, Ribes^ Thlaspi, 
St^morium, Geraniuftiy &c., and of such ubiquitoua Arctic 
st>«de8 as Frngaria vesca^ Caltha palnsirU^* Barburea precox. 
^^10 reinarkabl6 that Astragaiin€<s are also abi^-nt i'rom Spita- 
^^^cgeo and loeland. 

loeland possesses 432 species (Monocot. 157, Dicot. 275), 

^HMQgst which I find about 120 Arctic-European plants that do not 

^tef Greenland ; whereas only 50 of the Europc4in plants that 

^plttbit Greeuland are absent in Icxiland, The more rpmarkable do- 

^^demtft of Iceland are AsiragalinefB^ Aac money Aconkumy Braya^ 

^^fiti$^ Artemisia^ tiud Androsace ; Alop€Curus alpinus, Luzida 

**^^i<a/o, Hierochloe alpina^ Rubus c/iamceomonts, Cassiopeia iC' 

'^mu Arnica montana^ Antcnnaria dioica^ and Chrysoplemum 

*^^^irniJoiium. On the other hand Iceland contains of Arctic 

^®Qerft absent in Greenland, Cait/m (one of the most common 

W^nts about Iceliindic ilwclllnga), Caktle, Geranium, Trijhlium, 

^*t»-tfa, tSenecio, and Orchis, 

^ Biit perhaps the most remarkable fact of all connected with the 
^'^enland flora is that its Southern and Temperate di:^triots, which 
^^•ent a co&st of 400 miles extending 80uth to laU 60^ N., do not 
*5*d more than 74 species to its flora, and these are almost unexcep- 
^*^*iallj Arctie-Eurupean plants ; and, inasmuch as these additional 
^^cies increafiC the proportion of MonocotjU-dons Ui Dicotyledons 
J * the whole 6om, Greonland as a whole is botnnically more Arctic 
^ Vegetation than Arctic Greenland olone is ! 

-. *lrhe only American forms which Temperate Greenland adds to its 
5^*?*^ are, Ranunvuhts Cymbaktrite^ Pi/rus Americana, a very 
r^ing variety of the European Aucuparia, Vivla Muhlenbergii 
^* mere variety of V, canina\ Arcnaria Gnenlandica (a plant 
^^whei-e fuund only on the Whito Mountains of New Hamp- 
Sl*^*^), and Paruasiia Kolzehuei (a species which is scarcely 
**^ert^nt from palusiris), 

The only plants which are not members of the Arctic flora else- 
J^ere, and v/hich are confined in Greenland to the Temperate zone, 
^■ide* (he above American plants, arc BUtum glaucum, Pola' 
^^^etoH marinus, Sparganium minimum^ and Sirepiopus am-^ 
^^/oiius ; the rest will all be found in the column of tho Arctic 
"'^nt Catalogue devoted to Greenland, where S. signifies that tho 
?P*CHS8 18 found south only of the Arctic Circle in that country. 
2^ Ibe other hand. Temperate Greenland adds very uHiterially to 
('S* number of European-Arctic species that do not enter 
r^*«rn America (Arctic or Temperate), amongst whieh the most 
J^^irkable are— 

^^tium viscofium. Sedum annuum. 

i}^^ cracca. Galium uliginosum. 

^^btiB Mixatillis. G. palustre. 

. * Tfm it the more remarknble because {t fbrmi a ecmspieaoai featora in 
'^ttland.aad it a £reqa«ai aative of all the Ar^tic^Amcricaii coiwti and 



4 

« 



I 



222 . HOOKES ON AfiOTIC VLAXTB. 

Lecmtodon autumnale. Janciu trifidiu. 

Jffieraciom murorum. J. Bquarrosos. 

H. alpinam. Anthoxanthum odoratmn. -~ 

Gendana aurea. Nardns strictak ■ i 

Betala alpcstris. ' 

Another anomalous feature in Greenland fiora is the m wca^ Hbf 
on the East- Arctic coast, of some species not fonnd on uie We^ 
nor in the Temperate southern end of the peninsohL These tie 
Lychnis dioica (Arctic Europe), Saxifraga Htretthis (iiibiindenl& 
all extreme Arctic latitudes but West Greenkind), Pedemotiimm 
eamleum (ail Arctic longitudes but West Greenland), DutAamp' 
na emtpiiosa (all Arctic longitudes, but also absent in Sf^^ 
bergen). 

For data connected with the Greenland flora, I am ' mairiv 
indebted lo the collections of the varioas polar Toyagers in edttrao 
of a North-west P&ssage, especially to Ihv. Lyail's and StfOiMv 
land's ; to Lange's catalogue in Rink's '^ Gronland " ; and to itia 
notices of Valil, Greville, Sir William Hooker, &c ; to Snlliei^ 
land's Appendix to Penny's Voyage, and Dunnd's to KanA 
Voyage. 

There is a curious affinity between Greenland and eertiAi 
localities in America, which concerns chiefly a few of the l^drp- 
pean plantfi common to these countries. First, there are in Liibni* 
dor, or on the Rocky Mountains, or White Mountidns of New 
Hampshire, a certain number of European plants found nowhon 
else in the American continent. They 



Rammculns acris (Rocky Fhyllodoce taxifolia (Lfthrador 
Mountains). and White Mountains). 

Arabis alpina (Labrador). Grentiana nivalis rLAbrador). 

Lychnis alpina (Labrador). Veronica alpina (White Mts.). 

Sibbaldia procumbens (Rocky Bartsia alpina (Labrador). 
Mountains). Saliz Arbuscula (White Mts.)* 

Potentilla vorna (Labrador). Luzula spicata ^White Mts.)* 

Montia fonfana (Labrador). Juncus trifidus ^White Mt8.)< 

Gnaphaliura sylvaticum (La- Carex capitata (White Mts.)! 
brador) . Kobresia scirpina (Rocky Mts-)* 

G. snpinum (Labrador and Phleum alphium (White Moan- 
White Mountains). tains and Labrador). 

Cassiopeia hypnoides (Labrador Calamagrostis lanceolata (t*' 
and White Mountains). brador). 

There arc also three plants, peculiar to Greenland and Labndoif 

or the White or Rocky Mountains, which have not hitherto 1)MD 

found elsewhere in America. They are — 
Draba aurea (Rocky Mountains). 

Arenaria Groenlandica (White Mountains and Labrador). 
Potentilla tridentata (Labrador). 



V. — On the Arctic Proportions op Species to GenikAi 
Orders, and Classes. 

: The observations which have hitherto been made on this nb" 
ieot $re simost exdiudveiy based on data collected, on axeastoo 



QOOKEB ON AKOTIC PLANTS. 



as» 



flmftQ to jield general rosulte. Especially in deterimniDg tho 
inflaence of temper&ture in regulating the proportious of the 
groit gtt>ap of dowering plants, it Ib of tbe highest iuiportanco to 
lake comprehensive areas, both because of the wider lougiiudinal 
^pemion of some orders, especially the Mouoeotylecions, and the 
efleeto of tocfd condition^), such as bog land^ which determine tlio 
overwhelming preponderance of Cjperacece in some Arctic pro- 
vinces compared with others. The proportion of genera to 
species in the whole Arctic phsenoganuc flora ia 323 : 762 or 



1 t2-3 



/Monocot. 1 : 2*8^ 



I 



VDicot. 1:2'2/'^'^^"' 

in the «evernl provinces as follow : 








1 


G«n. 


Gen. to 8p. 


Orders. 


Ord to Sp. 


1 


Annie Europe 

All- - - 

We«t AmericA 

Kkirt America 


277 

117 
172 

19a 

104 


1:2-3 
1:2-0 
r;2-l 
l:2i 
1;2*0 


64 
38 
48 

5e 

38 


li9-6 
1:«-1 
l!T-«' ' 
l:6-i 
1:5-5 



Thii? Europe presents the moat continental character in its 
Arctic Hora and West America the most insular s which may be 
Btttibntable to the same cause in both, namely, the nniformity of 
^vriety of type. In West America we have, as in an oceanic 
lilMid, a great mixture of types (Asiatic, European, East and 
We«t American) and pfincity of species ; in Europe the contrary. 
The proportions of ppecics to orders are still more v^irlous ; but 
here, again, Europe takes the lead decidedly. The proportions of 
genera and orders to species of all Greenland differ bat little from 
tbote of its Arctic regions ; whereas the contrast between Arctic 
Europe and this, together with Norway as fiir south as GO*' N. lat., 
is very much greater. This is in accordance with the observation 
r have elsewhere made, that the whole of Greenland is compara- 
liveljr poorer in species than Arctic Greenland i* : — 

Geji. Sp. Ord. S\>. 



Arctic Scandinavia 
All .Scandinavia • 
Arctic Greenland 
All Greenland - 



- 1 

- 1 
■ 1 

- I 



2-3 
28 
2*0 
2*3 



9 6 

11-6 

5-6 

«-6 



'The proportjona of Monocotyledons to Picotyledons are-* 

Arelic Flora - - .1:2-6 

„ Europe • 



^, West America 
„ Eftsi Amcricji 
^ Greenland 
All Groenhinil 



1 : 
1 : 
I : 
1 ' 
1 ! 
1 : 



23 

3*8 
3*1 



f A Table of the proportion of the largest Orders to the whole 
Flm (p. 276) Le here omitted.] ; 



324 nOOKBB ON ABOTIC PI-AHTS. 

The great differences between the proportions of largest Qrden 
to the whole Flora show how little confidence can be placed in 
conclusions drawn from local fioras. Ericete is the onlj oeckr 
which is more numerous proportionally to other plants in emry 
province than in the entire Arctic flora, and Cruci/erte is the oaiij 
one that approaches it in this respect ; and Le^uminoMtB is the 
only one which is less numerous proportionally in them alL 
East and West America agree most closely of any two proyinoes ; 
then (excluding Lcguminosa) all GreenlEind and Eun^ ; next 
Arctic Greenland and all Greenland. The greatest differeooeB 
are between Ai'ctic Europe and Asia, and Arctic Asia and Wett 
America; they are less between Arctic Greenland and Asia 
(excluding Leguminosa:) ; tliey are great between Arctic Green- 
Und and East America ; and as great between all Greenland and 
Arctic America. 

The proportion formerly deducted by Brown, and others fat 
the hjgh Arctic regions was a much smaller one ; the Monocotyle* 
dons being in comparison with the Dicotyledons I i 5; and this 
etill holds for some isolated, very Arctic localities, as North-caat 
Greenland; whereas Spitsbergen presents the same proportioii 
as all the Arctic regions, 1:2*7; the Parry Islands 1 : 2*3.; 
the west coast of Baffin's Bay, from Pond's Bay to Home Bay, 
1 : 3*3 ; and the extreme Arctic plants mentioned at p. 20^^! : 8. 
Of the prevalent Arctic plants mentioned at p. 203-4 the proportion 
is 1 : 3*4. I have dwelt more at length on these numerical pro- 
portions than their slight importance seems to require ; my olject 
being to show how little mutual dependence there is amongst the 
Arctic florulas. Each has profited but little through contiguity 
with its co-tcrminous districts, though all bear the impress of 
being members of one northern fiora. 



VI. — On the Grouping of Fobxs, Varieties, ahd Spbciw 
OF Arctic Plants for the Purposes of Cojcparativi 
Study. Pages 276-281. [Not reprinted.] 



VII. — Tabulated View op Arctic Flowbrino Plants, and 
Ferns, with their Distribution. Pages 281-309. [Ab- 
stract of two columns here given, with some additions.] 

[Two columns only of the original table are here abstracted ; ob8 for 
" Arctic-Eastern America," and another for '* Greenland." A few additiotf *> 
these have been made b^ the Author from various Expeditions and odie' 
soarccs of information nnc4 I860.] 

The Arctic Flowering Plants and Ferns indicated by ihe follow- 
ing table are— 1. Those from East Arctic America (« BAor !!")» 
from Mackenzie River to Baffin's Bay : the ** H ^ signifies thi« 
the plant extends to the islands north of Lancaster Sound, and to 
the Parry Islands including Melville Island, the best explored of 
^^!^'tri'»\ ?u.^^.&'^'' Greenland {''G» **»," "bT^-'H^" 

. « HB ): the «8" indicates tM the species has ^n fotnd 




HOOKEU ON AilCTTC PLANTS. 



I 



22S 



south only of the Arctic Circle in Greenland ; the *< !■ " refers to 
those fouDii on the east coast on!y» the explored portions of which 
lie to the north of lat. 70^ ; the* *' Ss '* sUmds £ot Smith's Souml ; 
mm! the phints marked ^*NE/' together with four of the ci^ht 
murked ** B,'* have been noted on the ea?t coast by the *' Second 
** Gerxoaa Pokr Expedition*" • Alp. means ** Alpine in Europe." 



I 



DICOTYLEDONES, 
Ran^ncnlaceae. 

Thalictrum dioienni, L. £A. 

alpinum, L. Aip, 0, 
Anemone patens, L. EA. 

Richardsoni, Hk, EA. G-« 
parvi flora, Mich, EA. 
decapetalii, L. EA# 
Pennsylvanicft, L. EA. 
Rannnculus aquatilis, L. EA* G* 

confervoides, Fr. O* 
glacifilin, L, AijK G. NE. 
Flammula, L. EA* S. 

reptana, L, 6, 
Cymbalaria, Vsh. Alp, EA. S. 
aurieomus, L. M. 6. 17E. 
sceleratuSf L. EA, 
Ptirshii, Rich. EA. 
nivalis. L. Alp. SC, G. Si. NE« 

sulphureu3, Sol, 0, 
acris, L* 8. 

Lapponicus, L. Alp, EA. G. 
Iijrperboreus, Rottb. Aip, EA. G. 
pygnUBus, Wahl. M. G. IfE. 
hispidus, Mich. EA. 
Peonsylvanicus, L. EA. 
Itha palu5trif(, L. M* 
rtis Irifolia, 8aL Alp^ S. 
AqoUegia CanadeoBis, L. EA. 

breviBtylis. Hook. EA* 

^paTeracese. 

Pjipaver alpinum, L. M. G, 

nudicaule, auct. Sa« I?E. 



• Floweriag PlunU oecumog on the £A«(t CoMi only. Eniunenited in Dr. 
^ Hooker's H«t: — 

I Lyehatii dioica. Polcmonlum cicruleiUD. 

I SAxifrij^B nircnlm. Dcschampf^iii cfl;^ito«a. 

I Mmtioned in the Appendix to the ''Zweite deuts^chc Nordpolarfahit "; — 
^^^_ CochteftriA fene«trata, PokmoDiuro humile. 

^^^^ 8axifkiiK« UirculiiM, var. Alpina. Deschanip«ia brevifolitt. 

^^^^H llic pUoCH }ittidc4l hy the more hitely i^xploreil portion of the coast from 
?$• to ■»* N. lat. arc cuamcrutcd, tfith locaULit'*«, further on, — EniTOK. 



226 HOOKEB ON ARCnO PLANTS. 

CoTjdalis glauca, Psh. EA« 

paaciflora, Pers. SA« 

Saracenlaceio. 

Saraeenia purpurea, L. SA* 

CvncifcnB* 

Nasturtium palustre, DC. SA« 8. 
Barbarea vulgaris, Br. SA. 
Turritis moll^, Hook. EA« O* 

(Arabie) Holboellii, Horn. O. 
Arabis hirsuta, L. EA* 

alpina, L. Alp, EA« O. 

petrsea, Lamk. Alp. EA« O. HZ« 
CardamiDe bellidifolia, L. Alp. IC* G. HS« 
hirsuta, L. ZA. 
pratensis, L. EA« O* 
Parrja arctica, Br. Alp. IC. 

arenicola. EA. 
Vesicaria arctica, Rich. EA. G* 88.* VE« 
Draba alpina, L. Alp. EA. G. 8s. BE. 
var. glabra and hupida, 8ft« 
androsacea, WahL Alp. IE. G> 
Wahlenbergii, Hartra. G* VE« 

. corjmboaii, Br. G. 8. 

muricella, WahL Alp. EA. G. VE. 

nivalis, Lilj. non DC. G. 
stellata, Jacq. non. DC. 
hirta, L. AJp. EA. G. 
arctica, Vahl. G. ~ 
incana, L. EA. G. 
rupestris, Br. Alp. EA. G. 
aurea, Yahl. G. 
Cochlearia Danica, L. EA. G. 
Anglica, L. EA. G. 

fenestrata, Br. B« 
officinalis, L. X. G. 8s. 
Hesperis Pallasii, T. & G. Alp. EA. Ow 8s. 
Sisymbrium Sophia, L. EA. 

canescens, Nutt. EA. 
humile, C. A. M. Alp. EA. 
salsugineum, Pall. SA. 
Erysimum hieraciifolium, L. BA« 
cheiranthoides, L. EA. 
Braya alpina, Sternb. Alp. EA. G. 

(Platypetalum) purpuraacens, Br. O* 
Eutrema Edwardsii, Br. M. G. 
Thlaspi montanura, L. EA. 
Capsdla bursa-pastoris, L. 8. 
Lepidium ruderaie, L. EA. 

♦ Vetiearia arctica and Hesperis Pailasii were found also in Wiltoij*" 
Lend, beyond Smith's Sound. 



HOOKEB OK ARCTIC FI^ANTS. 227 



Drosera rotimdifolifly L. 

Viola palustxis, L. 

caninA, L. S. 
CQCullata, Ait. SA« 

Silene acauli^, L. ^(p. EA. O. Ss. KB, 

Pennsylvanicft, Mich. EA* 
LjdmU apetala, L. Alp. IE. Ck. Ss. IfE. 
affiDis, Vnhl. G. ITS* 
triflora, Br. O, HE, 
dioica, L. B, 
ftlpina, L. Alp, O* 
Sagina procumbcns, L. 8* 

nodosa, £. M. £A« S. 
nivalis, Fr. O, 
Llnnffiiy Prcsl. EA« G. 
sazatilisi Wimm. Gl 
Areniuia lateriflora, DC. BA* 

formosa, Fhch. Alp, BA* 

|nligln(»s% Sohl. G. 
f Alfline) etricta, WahL G. 
Ro88ii, Br. BA« G. 
Michauzi), Fenzl. EA, 
vema^ L. M, G# 
rubella, Br. G. VE. 
arctica, Stev. Alp. EA* G. 
biflorm Wahl. G*INE, 
ciliata, L. Alp. G. VB» 
Grosnlandica, Spr. G. 
onkeneja pcploide^ Ehr. EA. G* 
Merkia phjsodej?, Fisch, SA. 
Lepigonium ealinum, Fr. £A« G. 
Stdluia borealis, Big. A/p. EA. G« 

hnmifoda, RoUb. Alp. EA« G. Si 
^^ longipes, Goldie. Alp. M* 0« 

^K Edwardftii, Br. G. Sb. 

^H altginosa, Murr. EA. G. 

^H media, L. EA, G. 

^H longifolia, Fries, .i/;/. EA. 

^H enisfiifolia, £hr, BA. 

^^B oorastioides, L. yl//^ G. 

^Butstiam alpmum, L. Alp. M. G. KB. 
^H yifloofltim, L. 8 



▼nlgattmi, L. 8* 
Fi» 



ischerianum, 8er. 8l« 

WMmlBeK. 

Impatiens fulva, DC. EA. 

U 



228 HOOKEB ON ARCTIC FLAlTrS. 

Iiineio. 

Linum perenne, L. EA. 

Polygalese* 

Polygala Senega, Willd. EA. 

Phaca frigida, L. Alp, EA. 
Afitralagus alpinuB, L. Alp, IS. 

hypoglottis, L. EA. 
Ozjtropis campestrisy DC. Alp, EA. 
UralensiB, DC. Alp, X. 
nigrescens, Fisch. Alp, EA. 
deflexa,DC. Alp. EA. 
Hedysarum boreale, Nutt EA. 

Mackenziei, Rich. EA. 
Lathynis maritimus, L. EA. 8. 

ochroleucus, Hook. EA. 
Yicia Americaua, Milhl 

Cracca^ L. 8. 
Lupinus perennis, L. 

SoiacesB. 

Alchemilla alpina, L. Alp, O. 

vulgaris, L. O. Ss. VB. 
Drjas octopetala, L. Alp, X. O. 8s. VEi 
integrifoliB, YahL O. 8j|. 
Drummondii, Rich. Alp, EA. 
Geum urbanum, L. EA. 
Sieversia Rossii, Br. X. 
Sibbaldia procumbens, L. Alp, O. 
Rubus arcticus, L. Alp. EA. 

Chamaemorus, L. Alp. EA. 8* 
saxatilis, L. Alp, 8. 
Potentilla fruticosa, L. Alp. G. 

anserina, L. EA. O. 

nivea, L. Alp, X. O. VS. 
Yahliana, L. G. 
pulcholla, Br. O. 8j|. VB« 
hirsuta, Yahl. 8i. 
biflora, Lehm. EA. 
frigida, YiU. Alp, X. O. 
emarginata, Psh. G. 
vema, L. Alp. G. 

maculata, Lehm. G. 
tridentata, L. EA. G. 
Comaram palustre, L. 8. 
Fragaria vesca, L. EA. 
Sanguisorba officinalis, L. EA. 
Rosa cinnamomea, L. EA. 

blanda, Ait. EA. 
Pyrus aucuparia, L. 8. 
Prunus Yirginiana, DC. EA. 
Amelancbeir Canadensis, Torr. k Gray. 



ilobium angiistifolium, L. EA. O. 

I Ifttifoliam, L, AI/k M. G. ir£« 

L alpinnm, L. EA* Q. 

I orjgnntlblium. Lam. &m 

r palastre, L. £A. S» 

ilitriche verna, L. EA« S* 

rbjllam spicatum^ L. £A« 
altera) Horuin, DC< ISA* S* 
{jpnris vnlgarid^ L. £A« G-. 

ratophjlluni demeraura, L. £A. 



ntia fanUrm, L. 

lum Khodiola, DC. Alp. EA. O, 
villosuiD, L. Afj), Q* 

Lonnnum, L. 8. 

es lacustre^ Farsh* £A« 
I rabriim, L. £A. 
' Hmlsonianutn, Rich, 

«lla nyda, L. EA. 
j^flosplGQiiim alt^rDifotium, L. 

Cpalustris, L, £A* 
Kotzebuei, C, & S. EA. S» 
, cotyledoD, L, .-I//?. O* 
Aizooii, J acq* O* 

oppositifolia, L. Alp, 2S« d. Si. ITE* 
cieopitosa, L. .1//). M. 0. HE. 
aniflora, Br. Ss. 
cernua, L. Aip, M. O. Sft. HE. 
rivulariBj L. M. G. Ss. NE. 
Diralis, L. Aip, X« 0* Ss. 2fE« 
Virginiensis, Mich, EA* 
hieraciifoUa, W. & li. Aip, EA, ITE* 
stellariB, L. Aip. M. O. 
Uirculus, L, U. E. 
alpma, Eogler. E. 

^^P tricuspidata, Retz. M. 0. Sa, 
^^^ ajzoidea, L. .^i//^. EA. 0. VE. 
r puDctata, Lb Aip. EA. 

lebera RichardAODiif Br. Alp. EA* 
i^ 

)leurum ranuoculoides, L. Aip» EA* 
mm Fischer!, Wimm. Alp, EA* 




10 



: s! 'J- 



Com«Sueei».^- 






noome 03r Asenc 




TirgiHHireA, L. 
MPirifCttSy X*> 



w ^ mohiflonifi. Ait* £A 



Alg,, SA.Q^ 



_ VftkL 

gjpiiitta, Lb ^p« £A. O* 

^rindelia sqcvniM, DovmL £JL. 
Xuixacum Dens-leoois, Dest M. G. 
K ceffacopbanim, DC. G. 

V pAlmtre^ DC. BAp 

pbjmatocsrpiDn, J. FahL G. 
TroziiDOEi gUuemn, Nutt, EA« 
CrefHs nana, Blch, ^//». SA. 
Soncbuf BFrensis, Lt. EA. 
Leontodon aatnniiialiCf I^ 8. 
Mulgediam pulcbellBm^ Kntt. BA. 
Hieracimn maranun, L, O. 
hi aJptDQiKit L. Aip. 8. 

1^ nmbelktiiiii, L. EA^ S. 

^Sanssnr^alpinat, L, .4tp. EA. 

CampaDola roUmdilblia, L. EA. G. 
arclica, L^ngx^ VS. 

Plinifolk, Hedu Sfl, 
miiflcri, L. Alp. X. G. 

VACcimam iiligiiioOTioi« L. EA- G* fli 



m;» 



T'-^rrrt 



^w«. 



OZJOOOO09, JU --1//^. 

▼itifr-Idsi^ L. .4 (p. 
fijdnL 



EA.8. 
EA.G. 



EA. G. Su. VE. 



C&anopem lijpooidei* L. Alp. G 

tetng^ni, L» ^^^, EA. G 

Aitdromeda polm^ia, L. XA. G. 

Arctoataphjlos ITra'arsi. Spr. EA. G« 

alpiiiB, Spr. .^///, EA. G« 

Diapensia Lapponlca^ L, Alj). EA. G, 

LoUekmia procumbexiat L. Aip, EA« G.^ 

Ehododendron Lappoiucom, L. j4(p. EA* G< 

Kalmia glaaca, L. EA* 

Ledam palustre, L. EA. G« 

Grceolaxidiciim^ Bets. G. 

Phyllodoce taxifolia, Sol. Alp. EA* G. 
^vFjrrola miDor, L. EA* G, 
^m sectmdji, L. EA^ G« 

^H ffrtimdifolia, L. EA* G. ITS* 

^L^ nrandiflora. Bad. G. Ss. 

^^^^ GroeQlandica, Horn. G. 



2^ HOOJEKS OK ABCHG 



Gentuum amarellay L. SA. 
aorea, L. 8* 

propinqua. Rich. ] 

detonsA, Fr. Alp^ EA. 8« 
niTaliB, L. Alp. 
Plearogyne rotate, Gr. Alp, 
Menyanthes trifoliate, L. O* 

XydropliyllMB* 

Eotoca Franklinli, Br. SA. 

Polemoiiiaees. 

Polemoniam caeruleom, L. SA. S« 

bamiie, Willd. E. 
Phlox Sibirica, L. Alp, 



Sorasineie* 

Myosotis sylvatica, Hoffin. SA. 
Mcrtensia maritima, Don. EA. O* 

denticulata, Don. SA. 

Yirginica, DC. ^ 



ZAbUtse. 

Thymus serpyllum, L. O. 
Dracocephalom parTiflonim, Nutt. 
Stachys palustris, L. EA. 

Orobancheio. 

Boschniakia glabra, C. A. M. EA. 

Bcrophularineio. 

Limosella aquatica, 1 . 8. 
Gymnandra borealis, Pall. Alp, 
Castilleja pallida, Kth. Alp. EA. 
Veronica alpina, L. Alp, O. 
scrpyllifolia, L. EA. 
saxatilis, L. Alp, O. 
Euphrasia officinaJis, L. EA. 0« 
Rhinanthus Crista-galli, L. EA. 8. 
Bartsia alpina^ L. Alp, O. 8s. 
Pcdiculnris capitata. Ad. EA. 

Lapponica, L. Alp, EA. O. 

euphrasioidesy Ster. Alp, SA* O. 

hirsuta, L. Alp, SA. G. 8s. VB. 

Sudetica, L. Alp, M. O. 
Langsdorffii, Fisch. O. 

flammea, L. Alp, EA. O. 

versicolor, Wahl. Alp, 

LentibiilarinesB. 

Utricularia vulgaris, L. EA. 

minor, L. EA. O. 
Pinguicula vulgaris, L. SA. O. 

villosa, L. EA. 



HOOKSB OH ABcnc njunc& S3S 



5<*^ecatheon Mendia, L. _ 

^ Cbamsjanney L. Alp, 

^'^gUsia arctics, Hk. Aip. 
^^^Ula Btricta, Horn. Alp. 



Sibirica, Jacq. Alp, EA. 8« 

'^^ejia viigaris, WiUd. BA. O. 

Labradorica, Wallr. 8s« 
Sibiricay Tare. G* 

^^•go major, L. SA« 
lanceolata, L. ] 
maritimay L. 0« 

^5^^giaIalandica,L. Alp. BA. O. 
^^^^ reniformis, Hk. Alp. X. O. 8s. 

^^^x acetosa, L. 8« 

Acetosella, L. 0« 
aqoaticas, L, SA. 8* 
p ^ salicifolina, Weinin. EA. 

^^gonum Bistorta, L. EA. 

yiviparum, L. Alp, X. G« 8s« 
avicolare, L. 8« 

^henopodium album, L. EA. 

maritimum, L. EA. 



^heagnus ai*gentea, L. EA. 
Shepherd ia Canadensis, Nutt. EA. 

Comandra livida, Rich. EA. 



Empetrum nigrum, L. EA* G. 8s« 
rubrum, L. 

Urtica dioica, L. EA. 

Betola papyracea. Ait EA. 

nana, L. EA. O. 8j|. VS. 



pumila, L. 
frul 



iticosa, Pall. 81 
Alnos viridis, DC. Alp. BA. Gb 
incADay Willd. ^ " 



'2M HOOKEB ON ABOnO PXiAlRS. 

Salix lanata, L. Alp, EA. O. 

speciosa, H. & A. Alp, EA« 
, mjrtilloidesy L. SA. 

cordata, MuhL EA. 

Arbuscula, L. Alp, 0» 

glauca, L. Alp, BA« 0« 

arctica, Br. Alp, X. G. 8a. VE. 

alpestris, And. EA* O* 

mjrjsinites, L. Alp, EA. 8. 

phlebophylla, And. EA. 

reticulata, L. Alp, EA. O. 

herbacea, L. Alp, EA. G*. 8s. 

polarisy L. Alp. X. 
Populus tremuloides, Mich. EA. 
balsaraifera, L. EA. 

Coniferce. 

Pinus Banksiana, Lamb. EA. 
Abies alba, L. EA. 
Picea nigra, L. EAl 
Larix Americana, Mich. EA. 
Juniperus communis, L. 

Yirginiana, L. EAt 

FluTiales. 

Triglochin maritimum, L. EA. 

paluBtre, L. 8. 
Potamogeton rufescens, Schr. 8* 
pusillus, L. 8. 
gramineus, L. 8. 
Zostera marina, L. 8. 

XelaathacesB. 

Tofieldia palustris, L. Alp, EA. O. 8s. 

bOrealis, Wahl. O. 

coccinea, Richards. EA. 
Zigadenus chloranthus. Rich. EA. 

Idliacete. 

Lloydia serotina, L. Alp, EA. 
Allium Schoenoprasum, L. EA. 

8iiiilace». 

Smilacina bifolia, Desf. EA. 

OrcliidesB. 

Peristylus albidus, L. O. 
Platanthera hjperborea, Lindl. EA. Q. 
Eoenigii, Lindl. G*. 
obtusata, L. 
Calypso borealis, L. EA. 
Listera cordata, Br. 8. 
Corallorrhiza innata, L. Ob 
Spiianthes gradlisi Br. 



HOOKEE OF ABCTIC ^LAXTS. 

iripedium guttotmn, Sws EA, 
humile, Salisb. EA. 
Xride». 

SisTrinchium Bermudianum, L. BA, S. 

Aroidese. 

Spargaoium nfttans, L. EA. 8. 
simplex, Sm. EA. 
Typhii lalifolia, L. EA, 

Jiuceie. 

Luzuia fipmlicen^ DC. O. 

pan-iflora, Desv. O* 
campetttris, Sm. EA. O-. 

cong|e8ta. 8s. 

multidora, Ehr. O. 
Bpicata, Deav. ^/y;. EA* a. 
arcuata, Hook. Alp, M. a. 

hyperborea, Br. O, ITE* 
piloso, Willd. G. 
Jimcus biglumis, L. Aip, K. Q. WE, 
triglumia, L. .4//;. EA. G. KE. 
castaneus, L. Alp. EA. 0, ITE. 
arcticus, Willd. Afp. EA. G. 
filUbrmig, L* £A« 8. 
trifidu5, L. y]/p. 8. 
squarrosus, L. 8. 
bofoDuts, L. EA. 8. 
pol)'Ce])halu.s, Mich. EA* 
articulatuf^, L. EA. 8. 

Carex dioica, L. EA* G, 

gynocratos, Wimm. EA, 
rupestris. All. Alp, G. JTE. 
nardina, Fr, EA. G. IVE. 
capitata, L. G. 
mi<!ro8tachya, Ehr. G. 
Bcirpoidca, Mx. EA. G. 

Wormskioldiana, Horn, 
canescens, L. EA. G. 

carta, GockI ; vitili.s, Fr, 
glareosa, WahL EA. G. 

ursina, Dewey, G. 
Heleooaates, Ebr. EA. G« 
lagopioa, WaM. Alp, G. 
festioa, Dew. Aip. EA. G. 
leporina^ L, EA. 
incurTa, Light. EA. G. 
stenopbyila, Light. 8, 
alpina, Sw. Alp, EA. G. 

bolofltoma, Drej. G. 
atrata, L. Alp. EA. 8. 



'2^5 



G. 



G. 



.Atfr^ 



iv^un 



b 




.236 HOOKEB OK ABOTIC PUUITS. 

Carex fuliginosa, St. E. Hpe. Alp, IC* G. HB« 
misandra, Br. G* 
rariflora, Sm. ^^. EA. G« 
Magellanicay Lam. BA« 
ustulata, Wahl. Alp. IRJL 
podocarpo, Br. EA. 
livida, Wahl. EA. 
panicea, L. EA* 8. 
Bupina, Wahl. EA. O. 
flava, L. 8. 
pedata, Warl. Alp, O. 
capillaris L. SA« O* 
salina, Wahl. O. 

aubspathacea, Wormsk. VE» 
Yulgarisy Fr. EA. 8* 
caBBpitosa, L. EA* 
rigida, Good. Alp. EA. 0« 8s. 

hjperborea, Drej. O. 
aquatilis, Wahl. M. G. 
pUulifera, L. EA. 8. 
vesicaria» L. EA. G. 
pulla, Good. O. 
ampullacea^ Good. EA. O. 
oligosperma, Mich. EA. 
Kobresia scirpina, Willd. Alp, EA. O. 

(Elyne) spicata, Schrad. EE. 
caricina, Willd. Alp. EA. G« VE« 
EUeocharis palustris, Br. EA. 8. 
Scu'pus triqueter, L. EA. 

cdBspitosus, L. M. G. 
Eriophorum capitatum, Host. Alp, M. O* 
Schenchzeri, Hpe. G*. EE. 
yaginatum, L. EA. G. 
polystachyum, L. M. G. ES» 
angustifolium, Rth. G. 

GramineM. 

Alopecurus alpinus, L. Alp. M. G. 

geniculatusy L. EA. G. 
Phleum alpinum, L. Alp, G. 
Fhalaris arundinacea, L. EA. 
Agrostis rubra, L. Alp, G. 
vulgaris, L. EA. 8. 
canina, L. G. 
Dejeuzia Canadensis, P.B. EA. 

lapponica, Yahl. EA. G. 

neglecta, Rupr. EA. 

varia, P.B. EA. G. 

strigosa, Wahl. G. 

Calamogrostis lanceolata, Rotii. G. 

porpurascens, Br. G. 

phragmitoides, Hartm. 



HOOKER OX AKCTIC PLANTS. 



^_Spartina cjnosuroitles, W, EA. 
^H^nthoxantliDm odoratum, L. S. 
^^HierocWoe borealis, L, Ss. 

alpioa, L. M. G. IfS* 
paueiOora, Br. M. 
Deechampsia cie^pito^a, P. B. U. E. 
^^r breWfolk, Br. E* 

^^M atropurpiirea, WabL EA. S. 

^^^^^ alpiaa, L. A/p, G- 

I^HB flexuosa, L. S, 

^^roSetum iubspicatura, P. B. Aip. M. G* HE, 
Phippsia algida, Br. M. G. IfE. 
Catabrosa aquatica, P. B, EA, S* 

Tilfoidea, Aii*l, G> 
Colpodium lattfoUuin, Br. M. G, If E. 

pendiilinum, Lcof^d. 8. 
Dupontia Fisheri, Br. M. G. 
Glyceria fluitans, Br. EA. G» 
arctica, IBc. Ss* 
Vabliiina, Th. Fr. O. 
Pletiropogon Sabini, Br. KC. 
Atropis mantima, L. EA« G* 

(Poa) angiistata, Bi\ G. 

!^oa anDua, L. S. N E, 
I alpina, L. A/p, EA. G. 
I prateDBis, L. EA. G. 
I nemoralid, L. M. G. 
I cassia. Bra. G. ITE. 

I flexiiosa, WaliK ^/^. M« G. 
K Cenism, All. G. 

P arctica, Br, Ss. !!'£« 

abbreviata, Bn G. WE. 
Festuca Hicbardsoni. Hlc. EA, 
L ovina, L. 2S. G* 

IT rubra, L. G. 

brevifolia, Br. G. WE. 
BromuB ciliatus^ L. EA. 8. 
Tnticmn repcns, L. EA. G. 

violaceum, Horn, G« 
Eljmus arenariu8, L. EA* G. 
: mollis Trin. EA. 

fleam jubatnm, EA. 
at stricta, L. 8. 

I ACOTYLEDONES. 

I Polypodium Dryopteris, L. S. 
[ Pbegopteria, L. 8. 



237 



BOOCEB CKT ASCTTIC PUUniL 



Br. Aip. T5A. 6. VS. 
i iiu e iUuM , Br. ^/7. SA. G. 
dUbdKBr. Alp, EA. G. 
"^^^^^ Bemh. SA. 6. VS. 
Sw. SA*0. 

P<]lTBtidiiim looc&ituiy L. ^(p. SA. G. 

limanA^ Sws G* 

Ljcopodium fidago, L. SA* G. 

ftnootiouiB, L. £A» G« 

clATatmn, L. 8. 

sdBgntoides, L.. 8« 

•IptDom^ L. BA* G* 
Ifloetes Uctistn% L. 8* 

Eqnisetacese* 

Eqaisetum palnstre, L, £A* 

Tniegttujii, L, £A. G* 
snr€iiee, L. BA. G. WE. 
lylTaticazn, L. G. 
odrpoide^S Mtcb, £A« G. VE* 



Vni. — OfiSERVATiosa ow THE Sf<glb&. Pago* 3 10-348. [Not 
reprinted,] 



XXVin.— Cryptooamic Plaxts from BiJTJ^'*s Bat (Xat 
70° 31' to 76** 12' on the Ea^t Side, and at Poosessioii 
Bay, Lat. 73' on the West Side), By Robekt Bbow!J. 
1819. 

[From Captain Johst Ross's " Voyage of Discovery," ^c, 2nd 
edit., 2 vols. 8to. London, 1819. Vol. ii„ Appendix, pp. 
194-5.] 



Lycopodmm Selago^ L. 
Poiytrichum juniperinum. 

Hooker & Taylor. 
Orthotrichum cupulatnm, H. 

&T. 
Trichogtomum lanuginosum, 

H. & T. 
Dicranum scopiiriimi, H. & T. 
Mniom tiir^dnni, Wabl. 
Bryuni, f^p, 
Hypnum ndiinciim, L. 
Jungfrmannia, ap. 

[St-r further on, Dr. W, L. 
Licheufci,] 



Gyrophora hirsuta^ Achtir. 
G- erosa, Ach. 
Cetraria Islaadica^ Ach. 
C nivalis^ Ach. 
CeDoinjce rangiferina, AcJi. 
C. finibriata, Ach. 
Dufurea ? nigosa, n. sp, 
Cornicularia bicolor, Ach. 
Usnca ? sp. nov. 
Ulva crispa, Lightf. 
" Red Snow/* N. lat. 76^ 25' 
W. long. 65°, 
Lindsay's Catalogue of Greenlanc 



*KS 



DICKIE ON ALO^ FROM GREENLAND, ETC 



239 



[X, — Flowering Plants and Alg^ of Greenxand, 
Davis' Strait, and Baffin's Bay, collected by Dh, 
P* C. Sutherland, and determined by Sir W. J. 
Hooker and O. Dickie, M.D., Profeasor of Natuml 
History, Queen's College. Belfast. 1853, 

[From CommaDder E. A* Inglefield's '* Summer Search (in 1852) 
** for Sir Jolin Franklin," &c. Bvo. London, 1853. Ap- 
pendix, pp. 133-144.] 



L— The Flowerikg Px^akts and a Pehn, named by Sir W. J. 
Hooker, have been incoqwrated in the foregoing List of 
Arctic Plants by Dr. J. D. Hooker, C.B., Pres. R»S., &c. 
(^See pages 225-238.) 

IL— The ALGiE, named by Dr. Dickie. 
1. XelanoBpermeie. 

Fiicaceep, 

Fucua Tesiculosufl, L. Hunde Iglands, 40-60 fathoms ; 

floating near Beechy Isbind (Barrow Strnit) ; on the beach, 

Whale Sound. The specimens neai'ly all destitute of 

T€«icle8. 
F. nodosus, L. Fiskemaes and Whale [Whale-fish ?] Island ; 

and floating in 70° 50' N, 

Deemareatia riridis, Lam. Hunde Isl., 60-100 fathoma. 
D. aculeata, Lam. FiBkernaets ; Hunde Isl, iK)-100 fathoms ; 
Whale Isl. j floating in 73'' 20' N. 



Alaria cacolenta, Grev. [Pykii ?j. On the beach, Whale 
Sound. Large ; some of the fronds upwards of 6 inches 
broad. 

Laminaria fascia, Ag. Ilinide I^l., 40-50 fHthoms. 

L. saccharina, Lam. Unnde Lsl., 50-100 fatboms. 

L. longicruris, De la Pyl. Melville Bay ; Whale Sound ; Cape 
gaiimarez; floating off Dark Head, Greenhmd (lat. 72*^ 15' 
N.), upwards of 10 feet in kmgth, and their roots abounding 
with animal forma peculiar to deep water. 

lu digitata, Lam. Whale Sound. 

Agarum Turneri, Post. ^ Rupr. Hunde Isl., 10-100 fathoms ; 
¥rhalc lah, 40-50 hithoms ; Melville Bay. 

DictyotJi fascioltt, I^m. Uunde 1^1., 40-50 fathoms j Whale 

Is4., 20-40 fathoms. 
Dictyosiphon fa?niciilaceu8, Grev. Himde lal., 50-70 fathoms ; 

and floating in Lit. 73° 20' N. 
Asprrococcus Turneri| Hook. Fidkemaes. 

rift flagielliformis, Ag. FiBkeninea; Hunde Is,, 40- 
ItX) fiitbom* ; Whale M. ; Melville Buy. 
Ebchista fucicohi. Fries. Fiskemaea j Whal© Isl. 



240 DICKIE ON ALGJE FROM GRBBNLAND, ^Ta 

Elachista flaccida, Arescli (?). On Desmarestia aeuUeUa, 

Whale Isl. 
Mjrionema stnmgulans, Grev. A minute plant, probabl/ 

identical with this species, was found infesting CalliiJkam- 

nion Rothii, at low-water-mark, Hunde Isl. 
EctocarpacexB. 

ChiBtoptcris plumosa, Kutz. Hunde IsL, 25-30 fiithoms ; on 

the beach, Whale Sound. 
Ectocarpus littoralis, Lyngb. Fiskeraaes ; Hunde U., 50- 

100 fathoms ; and floating iu lat. 73"^ 20' N. 
E. Durkeei, Ilarv. (?). Fragments apparently of this species, 

mixed with the following. 
E. Landsburgii, Harv. Hunde Isl., 70-80 fiithoms. 

2. Bhodospermese. 

Rhodomelaceo!, 
Folysiphonia nigrescens, Grev. Fragments apparently of this 
variable species were found at Hnnde IsL, 40-50 nthoms ; 
and cast up in Whale Sound. 
CorallinacecB. 
Melobesia polymorpha, Linn. Erebus-and-Terror Bay, in 15 

fathoms. 
M. fasciculata, Harv. Erebus-and-Terror Bay, 8-10 fothoms. 
M. lichenoides, Borl. At low- water-mark, Fiskemaes ; Hunde 
Isl., 7 fathoms ; Cape Adair, 12-] 8 fathoms. 
Spheerococcoidece, 

Delesscria sinuosa. Lam. Dark Head. 
D. angnstissime, Griff. Whale Isl. 
Calliblepharis ciliata, Kutz. On the beach, Whale IsL 
SquamarietB. 
Peyssonnelia Dubyi, Crouan. Cape Adair, 12-15 fathooiS: 
on stones. 
Rhodymeniaceat, 

Euthora cristata, J. Ag. Hunde Isl., 90-100 fathoms. 
Crj/ptonemiacetf, 
Callophyllis laciniata, Kutz. Whale Isl., floating and on 

beach. 
Halosaccion ramentaceum, J. Ag. Whale Isl., cast np, 
CeramiacetB. 
Ptilota scrratn, Kutz. Whale IsL, 30-40 fitthoms ; Wbftl^ 

Sound, floating. 
CaUithamnion Rothii, Lyngb. Hunde IsL, low-water-nitf^' 
Cape Adair, on stones dredged in 12-18 &thoni8. 

3. ChlorospermeM. ^ 

Confervacea. 
Cladophora Inglefieldii, n. s. Low-water-mark, PisfcemaC* 
C. rupestris, Kg. Low-water-mark, Fiskernaes. 
C. arcta, Kg. Low-water-mark, Fiskernaes. 
C. uncialis, Harv. Omenak, and Whale Sound. 
Conferva melagonium, Web. & Mohr. Cape Bowen ; Wtf^ 

Sound ; and Beechy Island (Barrow Strait). 
C. sp., probably near C. youngana ; fVagments. Cape Boveoj 

Hun'de IsL, 25-30 fathoms. 



f 



DICKIE ON ALO^ FROM GREENLAl^D, ETC. 241 



Conferva capillaii?, L, Freshwater pooln, HuiidelsL 
C- bombjeina, A^'. Fooly, Hundc Isl. 

EutfTomorpha intcstiiialis, Liiik» Iliiuile Isl. ; Cape Bowen, 

E. p€*rcur«i. Hook. Himdo IsL, bciicli, 

Ulvii lalieeinm, Linn. Low-waler-nuirk, Omeiiiik. 

U. crispo, Lightf. [? Prasiola fluriatiii^^ Souun,] • Whale Isl. 

Porphyni vulgaris, Ag. Wlialo Sound, 

No!*toc RphsEricuiii, Vuuclu In freshwater pooli^, Iluude Isl. 
JXatomacttP, 

j FragineDt4i of & minute species of ScMzo^icma, too imperfect 
I for recognition, wtire found on Drift Wood In lat. 62° N., 

long. 51° W. ; aUo on stones at Cnpi' Bowen and Whale 

Sound. 

tX — Plants from West GBEE^XAND ami Smith Souxd, 
collected by Da E. K. Ka^ne, TJ.S.N., and deterDiined 
by EuAs DuKAKD and T. B. Jamp:s, (From E. K. 
Kane s ** Arctic Explonitions in the Yeai's 1853-1855/* 
vol. ii., Appendix XVIIL, pp. 442-4G7; 1856.) 

Tar the Phjcnogamous Plants and Equii^eta, see Dr. Joseph D. 
bkers List, above, p, 225,] 

FiLTCES (p. 464), 
Ijpodium phegopteris ? lat. Cystoptoris fragilisj Bernh. As 
SB5^ N. lat. high up as N. lat. 76^. 

bodeiA n^'ensls, R, Br. 64° C» fragilia, var, den lata, Hooker 
•nd 72^ N. kt. (?). N. hit. 80^ 

LicoroDLiCK^. 

L. alpinum, L, 

(T. B James.) 

Dicranum elongaturo, Schw. 

D, virens, Hcdw. 

D. virens, ^9. Waldcnbergii, B. 8c 

Sell., and onolhtr van 
D. Ktcliardsoni, Hook. 
D. Middcnbeckii, B. & Sch, 
I). 2 spp. 

Racomitrurn lannginosura, Bird. 
Wcissia crij^pyla, Hedw- 
Hyprrum ripariiiin, L. 
H. aneinatum, Hedw. 
II. eordifolium, Hedw. and var, 
H. j^tramitiPiim, Diek.son. 
H. &annenlftsiim, Vahl. 
II. Schreberi, Willd. 



roopodiuin selago, L, 
> ftEutotiotji]}, L. 



llusct. 
^liAgDom equaiTOBum, Per«, 
"fulinin, Ehrt, 

lira, Brid. 
lodou mnioides, Brucli 
8phtm[»er. 

■ulosum, L. 
:i, Horn. 
fi>iiiii luridtiiij, James, n, s. 
f ifuhlenbeckii, B. & Sell. 
blAcoinuion lurgidunif 

^5chwa?g, 

rtjrtriehuin juiiipennum, 
licdw, 

isrtQani &ropai*ium, jS. ortho* 
phjlinm, B. & Sch. 



I 



e Trsiu. liot 8oc Kdiob,, vok tx., p. 426 j nM further m^ p. SSL 



2i2 DXTRAyT AXV JJJEE5 03k CRTfTOGJJIS. 

Hepattczje. ( T. p. Jibm.) 
Ptilidinm cili&re. Nees. Jnngennannia dmricttt^ £. B. 

Sarcocyphos Ehrh&rti. Cord. J. squuron. Hook. 



ThaixophttkSw (T. p. JameE.) 

Cetrkria Islandica, Ach. Cladonia imngiferinay Hoffin. 

Peltigera canina, Hoffin. C. fiircau» floerk. 

Cladonia pyxid&ta, Fries. C. sp>. 



XXXI. — Notice of Flowerko Pulxts aad Febhs cd- 
Ic-cted on bjth Sides of Davis' Strait and Bapfin's 
Bay. By Mb. Ja3ce5 Taylob, Aberdeen. 

[Reprinted, by Permission, from the Transactioiia of tfaa Bo- 
tanical Society of Edinburgh, vol. vii., 1862; pp. 323^-^8i 
Read 13 March 1862.] 

The Plants named in the following list were collected by me 
in the course of five voyages made to Davis Strait, Ac^ is 
surgeon on lx>ard whalmg vessels in the years 1856-^1. Sw 
of thesff years were more favourable for making sudi coUectioDi 
than otherii. My time was often very limited, and the groimd I 
could explore much circumscribed by the short stay of the veaadi 
at particular localities. The vessels usually remained longest in 
Cumberland Gulf, and accordingly the districts round aboat it 
have Ijeen the most completely investigated. But with longer tinv 
and more means at my disposal for making protracted ezcorBions 
iiiU) the interior, I have no doubt that the subjoined list conldhaTe 
been very greatly increased. I have here given only the FIoweno§ 
Plants and Ferns. I collected a great many Mosses and licheiib 
but they have not yet been thoroughly examined. On tfaeeiit 
side of Davis Strait and Baffin's Bay, I have had opportunitT of 
exploring parts of the country from Disco Islaiid to WikoK 
X'oint ; and on the west side my observations have extended witb 
mmn intervals, from Cumberland Inlet to Cape Adidr, a Iitti0 
nortli of Scott^H Bay. It may be explained, that in the IH 
E., or E. HuU^, means Danish Greenland, and W., or W. side^ ^ 
islands lying to the west of Davis Strait and BafBin'sBaj, foiniog 
])art of the Arctic islands of North America ; alsOy when 0f 
particular place is named, it is to be understood as inclading ^ 
district suiroundiug it. To obviate the necessity of giving Is^ 
tudes and longitudes in the list, it seems advisable to gtn htf* 
the latitude and longitude of the prmcipal places named i^ 

W.Loifr 
- 64Mfi' 



EoHt side. 


N.Lat. 


Disco island, 


- egMcy 


Hasen or Hare Island, - 


- 70^30' 


Dark Head or Svarthuk, 


- 71^40' 


Upernavik, - « - 
Wilcox Point, 


- 78° 26' 


- 74M8' 



J. TATLOR ON FLOW£RLXa PLANTS AND TEJiNS, 243 

West side. N, Lat, W, Long. 

Cape Enderby, - - - 63^ 45' - 64^* 3Cy 
Cape Mercy (of Davis), - 65' ICf - 64'* 40' 

According to the maps, the latitude and longitudo of these two 

kces ure—Cape Enderbj, kt. 63'' 45', long. 67° ; Capo Mercy, 
66% long. 63^ 2<y. 

*NiAtolik(Nawaktolik), - 65^50' - 65^(68'?) 

CapeSearle. - - - f>r 2(y - 62*30' 

Scott's InJet, - - - 7lM0' - 71'' C 

Cape Adair, - - - 71° 20^ - 72'' O' 

The Kickcrtino Islands, and the islaudg called Midliattwack, 
are in the middle of Cumberland Gulf* They are composed of 
iiietiunor])hic rocks, which rise in Midliattwack to the height of 
6S7 Stet, and in the Kickertines to that of 450 feet. These 
mfaimrtm^"'°i as well aa those given in the list, were all made by 
miMtIt of the aneroid. To give an idea of the temperature of an 
^riilMttj fine day in these latitudes, and show the cooditionti under 
wlucb Arctic vegetation makes so rapid a ^'owth^ 1 subjoin the 
t^nperature of one of the Kickertine Islands at various altitude^j 
on the 20th August 1861, when there was a clear sky, a bright 
SOD, and little wind : — At 50 feet, exposed thermometer 69° Fahr* ; 
la alMwley 48"*' 5 ; gunk 1^ foot in soil, 45*^ ; water of a small lakOi 
5fif. At 100 f«et in a valley, expoee»l thermometer, 70° i in uhade 
(* Utile more wind), 46^ ; sunk 1 J foot, in somewhat moiet soil, 
44'* At 200 feet, exposed thermometer, 58"^; in shade, 51°-5; 
«iicik 1| foot in Bandy soil, 45*^. At 450 feet, exposed thermo^ 

ter, 62^; in shade, 41°; sunk 9 iBchea in sandy soil, 48". 

Lidy ml one of those isilande a thermometer was ^^uuk 22 inches 
Itt a graTelly soil, and examined every t^vo hours for twenty-four 
liouni. The mean of all the obt^ervatlons was 42^'* 38. 

Tbe folloiring h a \\&t of the Flowering Plants and Ferns col- 
lected >- 

Hanu n ctdacets, 

Ranu$iculu» nffiithf Br, — Flowers in August. Coast to 500 
§&&U Soil granitic. W. side, at Kingnite, Cumberlaud Gulf, 
Gfows to ttlK>ut the height of 18 iuchee, 

R, nirnhg^ L. — Fl. in June. Sea to snow-line. Perennial ; on 
uaj soil, but mtiHt luxuriant on volcanic. E. and W. 

/f. kt/ptrbortfii, Hotib. — Fl. June and August. Alt. 200 feet, 
Ew, Diiieo, Dark Heatl, and Wilcox Point. W., Ciimberkod Gulf, 
Ctpe Semrle. Soil's Bay, Cape Adair. Grows in Hniull poolg of 
WttC^r, ihe df pth of which modifie« it« appearance. 

R* p^gmtttu^ Wahl. — Fl. June to August, Rango same on 
boftli sidM. Alt., Sea to 1000 feet. Any f«oil* and grows in email 
lalll of Ihmi 6 to 12 plante. E., Disco and HaHincn Ijulands, Dark 
He^ Dumiah Head, and Wilcox Point. W., Cumberland Gulf, 
Cape SoiHe, Scott'^ Bay, <^c. 

J?, rutphureux^ DC. — Fl. June to Sept. Ranfjeas in l&stepeciea. 
AJL'i Sea to 200 feet. Any aoil. Flower oflc^n white, and the 
whole plant ta often under the snow, except the 6owpr Btalk ; 
pafiala very deciduous, and the seeds are often not shed till next 

q4 



Banc 



244 J. TAYLOR ON FLOAflSBING PLAKT8 AISTD FERNS. 

spring. £., Dark Head and Danish Head. W., Kingnite^ 
Cumberland Gulf, Cape SoRrle, Scott's B&j, Cape Adair. 

Papaveraee4P, 

Papaver nudicaule, L. — Fl. June to Sept Alt, Sea to l^SOO 
feet. Any soil, but chiefly on glacicr-dnft of a clayey nature; 
and amongst animal refuse, where Esquimaux huts have been. 
Flower sometimes of an inky blue colour, with yellow flowers 
often on the same plant. The natives appear to make no use of 
this species. Common on both sides. 

CrucifertBm 

Arabis alpinay L. — Fl. June to Sept. Alt., Sea to 600 feet 
Kange limited to the following localities; on trap in looee Boil, 
and associated with few other plants. E., Disco, Dark Head. 
W., Cape Scarle. 

Cardamine beUidifoHa, L.— Fl. June to Aug. Kange, 64® to 74®. 
Alt, Sea to 1,500 feet. Mossy soil, amongst Sphagna, C^fperaeete, 
&c. E., Disco and Husscn Islands, Dark Head, Horse Head, 
Wilcox Point. W., Cumberland Gulf, Capo Searle, Scott* s Bay, 
Ac. 

C pratensis, L. — Fl. June and July. Alt., 200 feet. E., Disco. 

Draba gfacialis, Adams. — Fl. June. Alt., 500 to snow-line. 
Ou trap soil, growing singly, with long filiform roots running deq» 
into the soil ; appearance much modified by elevation and ezposore. 
E., Dark Head. W., Cape Searle. 

Z>. hirta, L.— Fl. June to Aug. Alt., Sea to 2,000 feet la 
common with some other Drabas, it sends up two sets of flowering 
stems, in the earlier and later parta of the season respectively; 
the siliculic of the latter generally retaining their seed during the 
winter. E., Dark Head, Upernavik, Horse Head, Wilcox Point 
W., Cumberland Gulf, Capes Searle and Adair. 

£>, rupestrisj Br. — Fl. June to Aug. Alt., Sea to 1,000 feet. 
On any rocky and granitoid soil. E., Dark Head, Danish Head, 
Wilcox Point. W., Kingnite, Cumberland Gulf, Capes Searle mi 
Adair. 

D, muriccUn, Walil. — Fl. June and July. Alt., Sea to 500 
feet. Soil granitoid. Perennial. E., Wilcox Point W., Cnjie 
Searle, Scott's Bay. 

D. stellaia, Jacq. — Fl. June and July. Soil granitic. R» 
Wilcox Point. 

1>, lapponica, DC—Fl. June, July. Alt, 1,000 feet SoA 
granitoid. Very variable. E., Wilcox Point, Dark Head, ^t 
Cape Searle, Scott's Bay. 

Vesicaria arctica. Rich.— June. Alt, 500 feet Soil gnai^ 
Roots sinking deep. E., Wilcox Point 

Cochlear ia officinal is^ L. — Fl. June to Aug. Alt, Sea to^ 
feet. Grows "\'ery profusely. The varieties /encstrata, ardfit^ 
and anglica are not so common. E., Hassen Island, Dark 116*4 
Upernavik, Horse Head, Duck Islands, Wilcox Point ^ 
Cumberknd Gulf, Cape Searle, Scott's Bay. 



I 4* TAYLOR ON FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS* 

^^L Caryophyllacea, 

^Bsilnie aeaulia^ L» — May to Julj. Alt., Sen to snow-line. 
[ Common on both E. and W. side. 

Lj^hnis nprtnla, L., and varieties. — FL June and July. Alt., 

I Sea to 1,000 feet. Any moist soil. Some specimeua are but an 

' inch in height, and covered with long hairs ; others nine inches, 

braochiDg freely, and glabrous ; flowers pink or white, the former 

ooloor most frequent on trap soils, where al^o the whole plant 

I Jiid % reddish appearance ; the latter on granitic soils, the plant 

' being of a dark green. E., Wiloox Point. W., Capo Searte, 

Midliattwack, and Niatoling.* 

L. aipimt^ L. — Jnne and July. E., Disco, 
Honkt/u'ja peptviiles^ Elir.— -July, Aug. Alt, Sea to 60 feet. 
Oo tlio coaut^ but was aUo collected al>out three miles up a river, 
At the Winter Harbour, Kingnite, on an ohl sea beiich, now raised 
•bout twenty feet above spring tides; whiin it also grew on the 
present beach, ju5t below, in plenty. W., Kingnite, Cumberland 
Gulf, Kiekcrtine Island, Cape Searle. 

Arenaria verna^ L., var. r^theUa^ Br,-*F1. June to Aug. Alt., 
500 feet (?). Soil granitic. In crevicea of rocks, W., Winter 
HArlx>or, Kingnite, Cumberknd Gulf. 

A. Bom, Br.— .July, Aug. Alt., 200 to 1,000 feet. Most 
frequent in trap t»oil, moistened by melting snow. £., Ha-^sca 
Uftod, Dark Head. W., Kickertine L^land, Cnmbertand Gulf, 
ItDd Cape Scai'le. 

A.arcticaf Stev. — July, Aug. Alt., Sea to 1,000 £eet On any 
mJ. £., Dark Head, Upernavik, Horse Head, Wilcox Point. 
W^ Cumberland Guli; Cape Searlo, Scott's Bay, &c* 

Hieilaria Edmardm, Br, — July, Aug. Sea to 500 feet. Soil 
'tic, W,, Winter Harbour, Kingnite, Kickertine Island^ 
uicoltk^ Cumberland Gulf. 

5, ttricta, Br. — June to Aug. Sea to 500 feet. Found in 

profuaion about the ruins of Essquimaux settlements, E., 

omen's Inland, Duck Island, and Wilcox Point. W., Cape 

's Bay« and along the coast. 



V, Goldie.— July, 



Aug. 



W., Niatolik, Cumberland 



Plentiful in sandy beachef. 
W,, Capea Adair» Scarle, 

NiatolJk, Cumberland Gulf, 



LS'. humifuta^ Rottb. — July, Aug. 
Dork He*Ml, Women's Isknd. 
[Ir*-Hi«c Inland, Cumberland Gulf. 

fa. Rich .July, Aug. W., 

>varK'. 
^TUitiHtn atpinum^ L. — May to Aug. Sea to snow-line. 
- not unfrcquently occur. Very common on both sides, 
yy/rwr*, Friew, — July. Alt., 1,000 feet. E., Dieco. 

^/ffj ociopetfiifi, L. (inteffrifh/ia, Vahl). — June, July. Alt., 
ti<jt. E., Disco, Ac. W., Cape Searle, Cuml^erlaud Gulf, 



Ibf " U the uame applied to the thttrict round tbib tUlkm tal 



246 J. TAYLOR ON FLOWEHIT^O PLANTS AND FEBN#. 

PotentiUa tridentata, L. — July, Aug. Alt., 300 feet. In 
crevices of granite rocks. W., Niatolik, MidliAttwack Islands^ 
Cumberland Gulf. 

P.emarginata,Vsh July, Aug. Alt., 500 feet. W., Niatolik, 

Kickertine Island, and Kingnite, CnmberUmd Golf. 

P, rtivea, L. — June to Aug. Sea to snow-line. The spedmens 
sent to Professor Balfour did not appear to him to be the tme 
nivea. Arc tbey nearer var. pulchella of Br. ? £., Dark Heady 
Women's Island, Horse Head, Wilcox Point. W., Kickertine, 
Midliattwack, Niatolik Islands, Cumberland Gulf, Cape Searie, 
Scott's Bay, Cape Adair. 

P. Vahliana, L. — July, Aug. Coast to snow-line. A Tety 
variable plant, giving rise to many of tbe varieties of authors. 
Thus, P. sericea seems a two-flowered form, while P. khnuia, 
YahL, and P. Jamesoniana, Grcv., arc also varieties of it. £., 
Hassen Island, Dark Head, Horse Head, Wiloox Point. W.^ 
Cumberland Gulf, Cape Searie, Scott's Bay. 

Onagrace€E. 

EpiJobium alpinum, L. — July. E., Disco. 

E, latifoliuniy L. — June to Aug. Alt., 1,000 feet. Any aoQ ; 
spreads much, but in some places seldom flowers. In warm valleTS, 
in a southern exposure, it grows luxuriantly ; in such plaeei^ I 
have several times found the exposed thermometer to indicate 80^ 
to 90°. The highest temperature I ever observed in these reffiona 
was 106° Fahr. E., Hassen Island, Dark Head, Women'a Isumd, 
Wilcox Point. W., Cumberland Gulf, Cape Searie, Scott's Biiy, 
&c. 

E, angustifolium, L.— Aug., Sept. Alt., 1,000 feet. Onlf 
found in the locality indicated^ where it occupied a large apaee or 
ground amongst Salix arctica. W., North side of Winter Htr- 
hour, Kingnite, Cumberland Gulf. 

HaloragracetB, 
Hijjpuris vulgaris, L. — Fl. Aug. Range limited. AlL, 100 
feet. In small pools, to a temperature of 56° Fahr. W., Iycke^ 
tine Islands, Cumberland Gulf. 

Sa^ifragacciB, 

Saxifraga oppositi/olia, L. — Fl. May to July. Alt., 1,500 ftet 
E., Disco, Hassen Islands, Diuk Head, Wilcox Point W, GoB- 
berlaud Gulf, Cape Searie, Scott's Bjiy, &c. 

S. tricuspidatay Rotz. — Fl. June to Sept. Alt., Snow-lii^ 
Any soil, and may reucli a foot in height. £., Disco, Hm0^ 
Islands, Dark Head, Women's Isltuids, Horse Head, Wileox 
Point. W., Cumberland Gulf, Capes Searie and Adair. 

S. Aizoon, Jacq. — Aug., Sept. Alt., 300 feet. In clefts of 
granitic rocks. W., Kingnite, Middliattwack Islands, and NiAto* 
ling in Cumberland Gulf. 

S, nivalis, L.— Fl, July, Aug. Alt., Coast to 1,000 feet W 
in damp soil, mossy. E., Dark Head and Wilcox Point Wt 
Oamberland Gulf, Scott's Bay, Cape Searie. 

S, cernua, L.--Aug. Ooa«.\. V> ^t^ feet By the ndflfl ' 



r 



J, TAIXOB ON FLOWERING PLANTS AND FEHN8. 2i7 



I 



rivaletSt amongst mosees, &c. W,, Kickertine Islands, Kiiigmte, 
Cumberland Gulf, Scott's Buy. 

S, rkuUxrh, In— July* Sppt. Co«st to 2,0C»0 feet. Any soil, 
but Turies in height from 1 to 6 incbea, nnd often flowers twice a 
year. E., Haesen Isltind, Dark He^d, Women's Island, Wilcox 
Point. W,, Cumberland Gulf, Cftpe Sciirle, Scott's Bay, Cape 
Adair. 

S, rttfpiioia^ L. — June to Aug, Coast to snow-line. 

The foUowing varieties occur : — 
* I. Leaves variable, the cauline ones entire, 

2* Leaves tripartite and cuneate. 

3. Leaver of both forms, and ia 2 or 8 flowers on the same 



Oomiiion on both sides. 

S, /lirculiu^ L. — Aug. Alt., 100 feetj on clay soilj it grows 
dngly. W., Scott's Bay. 

& Helluris^ L, — Aug. Alt., 200 feet. On granite^ and oft«ii 
viviparous. W., Kickertine Island, Cumberland Gulf. 'i*-! 

S. foliokua, Br July. E., Disco. 

S, kierntiifolia. W. & K, — Aug, Alt., 100 feet; on mcutft 
gnuAoid aoila. W., Bnnks of a river soutli of Scott's Bay. 

Chrymtplenium aUernifoiium^ L. — Aug«, on the beach amongst 
W,, MiddJiattwack Islftuds, Cumberknd Gulf. 



CittnposiltE, 

Gnaphalinm sifhaiicum, \j, — Jntie to Aug, Alt.» 1,000 feet. 
Any soil : very variable. E,j Dark Head, Women's Islands, 
Wilcox Point. W,, Cumberland Gulf, Cape Searle, Scott's Bay, 
OMpeAdidr. 

AnieHnaria a/piita^ L.* — June to Aug. Alt., 1,000 feet. Pro- 
lefloor Balfour ha? doubts whether this bo aiphta. W., Kingnite, 
Kkicertine, Middliattwack Islands, Cumberlnnd Gulf. 

Artdcamon-tand^ L. {anguMifolifti Vahl), — June to Aug. Alt., 
500 feed. Varies much ; height, 1 inch to 14 foot; 18 smaller in 
trap than in granitic soils. E., Dark Ht«d, Horse Head, WiJcox 
Poffit, W., Cumberland Gulf, Cap© Smrle. 

AHmnisia borealU, Pallas. — June to July. Alt,, 500 feet. In 
OPOvieea of rocks. W., Kingnite, Cumberland Gulf. 

r ' itni/ioruSf L. — July to Aug. Alt., 700 feet. Varies 

■11' - Largest specimens, 18 inches. E., Hasseu Ldond, 

Ikrk lieswi, Wilcox Point. W., Cumberland Gulf, Cnpea Searle 
and Aduir, Scott's Bay. 

Toraxacitm pnhtstrc^ DC, — »Jidy, Aug, Sea to 500 feet, E., 
Diaoo^ Dark Ilea*!, Wilcux Point.' W., Cumberland Golf, Cape 

Campanulace*^^ 

inula Unijhtia^ Hffnk.^— Aug., Sept, Alt., 500 feet on 

ui N. W., Cumberbind Gulf, Ca^»e Senrle, Scott's Bay. 

/ f(^ L. — .Tune to Aug. Alt., 500 feet. There seem 

to bt: uvw varieti* ['lant. E,, Dj,hcc», liar*5^*i», Dark Heatl^ 

WiLfiox Point. ' ' eiland Gulf, CaiJOs Seaile and Adair. 





M 



248 J. TATLOB ON FLOWEBIX6 PLANTS AND FEBNB. 

VacciniaceiP, 

. Vaccinium uHginosum, L. — Fl., May, June. Sea to snow-line; 
often corers largo spaces, singly or associated with Cladonia 
rangiferina. The largo and juicy fruit was abundant wherever I 
saw the plant. Common on both sides. 

K VitiS'Idrsa, L.— May, Juno. Alt., 500 feet. E., Vnicor 
Point. 

Eneacea, 

Cassiopeia tctragona, Don. — July, Aug. Alt., Snow*line. 
Occurs everywhere, like the CaUuna of Scotland, and made a fire 
for us at night when travelliug, besides an excellent couch under 
the shelter of a boulder — no unnecessary luxuries in my longer 
journeys inland to the West of Cumberland Gulf, ^. Common 
on both sides. 

C hypnoides, Don. — Juno, July. Alt., 50 feet. In aandj flats 
on the coast, in dense masses. W., Kingnite, Kickertine Islands, 
Niatoling, and Cape Searle, Scott's Bay. 

Azalea procumbens, L. — June, July. Alt., 500 feet. E., 
WUcox Point. 

Ledum palustre, L. — ^Aug. Mossy soiL Has a powerful odour, 
and is hence used by the natives in packing and preparing their 
Seal skins ; also used as tea. £., Dark Hei^, Women's Islands^ 
Horse Head, Wilcox Point. W., Cumberland Gulf, Capes Searle 
and Adair, Scott's Bay. 

Andromeda poliJoHOf L. — July. Mossj sotL E., Disco^ 
Wilcox Pomt. 

Menziesia (Phy/lodoce) asrulea, L«— July, Aug. Alt, 800 
feet. In granitic and mossy soils, with Ledum. E., Dark Head, 
Horse Head, Wilcox Point. W., Cumberland Guli^ Cape Searle. 

Rhododendron Lapponicum, L. — June, July. Alt., 1,000 feet. 
Often covers large spaces, flowering in great profusion; more 
frequent on the E. side. E., Disco, Hassen and Women's Lilands, 
Dark Head, Horse Head, Wilcox Point W., Cumberland Guli; 
Cape Searle, Scott's Bay. 

Pyrola rotundifolia, L. (chlorantJia^ Sw.). — Aug. Very commoii 
on any soil ; specimens occur with only one flower. Cotuuod on 
both sides. 

JXapensia Lapponica, L. — July, Aug. Sea to 500 feet The 
withered leaves of former years remain on the stem, closely packed 
below the living ones. Often grows on exposed plains, and oo 
dry soil. Common on both sides. 

Boragiftaceo', 

Meriensia maritima, Don. — July, Aug. Beach, amongst Mod. 
W., Cape Searle. 

ScrophulariacetE, 

Pedicularis arctica, Br, — July, Aug. Sea to 500 feet Ri 
Dark Head, Wilcox Point W., Cape Searie. 

P. Kanei, Durand.— July, Aug. Sea to 1,000 feet Tnp aofl. 
E., Basaen Island, Dark Head, Horse Head. W., Cape Seiile. 



» 



I 



J. TAYLOR OK FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS. 24^ 




JK. hirsuta^ L.^ — Jane, July. Alt, 800 feet. The most common 
of tbegenua. E., Disco and Hasscn, Women's Islands* Dark Ucad, 
Wilcox Poiat. W., Cumberland Gulf, Cape Searle, Scott's Baj. 

P. Lanpstlorjiif Fischei*. — June, July. Alt,, 500 feet. E., 
Dark Hea^l, Wilcox Point, W,^ Kiugtjite, Cape Searle, Scotfi* 
Bay. 

P, XcLoni, Br.— June, July. Alt., 300 feet. W., KickertinO' 
Ifliauds, MidJliAttwiick, Cumberland Gulf. 

P> Lapponica^ L, — June, July. E., Disco. 

Euphrasia ojficiftaih, L.— July, Au^^. Sea to 50 feet. Tho 
pUkOtii were very small. W., Kingnite, Cumberland Gulf. 



Plumhagin aeett, 

Armeria vulgaris^ Willd. — July, Aug, Sea to 500 feet. 
at Cape Searle, on trap soil, W., Cape Searle, 



Onlj 



Coast to 500 feet. 

Sea to snow. Very 
cure^ for scurvy, for 
' " Common 



Pol^gonaceo!, 

Polygonum vivipartim^ L. — »Tuno to Aug. 
Cummoti on both sitles. 

Oxyria rcniJ'ormiSf Hook. — June to Aug. 
common, but not usetl by the natives as a 
^hich they use the etotuacli of a recently killed Deer 
oti both Bides. 

. Kctnigia Islandica^ L.— July, Ang. 50 to 500 feet. On the 
grotind moistened with water from melted snow, and in moist 
crevices of rocks. W., Cape Searle, Mlddliattwack Island, and 
Kingnite, Cumberland Gulf. Auoual. 

EmpetracetCm > 

trum nigrum^ L. — May, June. Reaches snow line. Very 
in some places, and with line fruit, which often survives 
ihe Winter. In autumn its berrie?, with those of Vaccinittm 
utiginmum^ are collected and eaten by the Natives. These are 
tAfO eaten by Corrus cor ax, var. Amertcanus^ and Plectropkanes 
»fealU and P. lapponica / while the Grouse are fond of the young 

Common on both sides. 



Not seen north of Disco, nor on the 




twig» 

IBetulacerp 
wn 
I 



I 



hftula HanOf L, — June. 
weei aide. £., Disco. 

SalicacctE, 

.Sb/tJr flfrc^tca, Br.— May, June. Alt., 1,500 feet. The Udlest 
pbmt seen was 4 feet in height ; it often grows to a considerable 
ling over the sontheru face of some boulder. 

V//rt, L. — May, June, 
W. it. W., Scot fa liay. 

S, k(j6(irea, L. — May, June. Coast to anow-line. Covers 
exteiuttve tracts, and tlint too where most other plants cease to 
mp^OBTp except Junci and Lnsultr, The Grouse feed on tlie leavet* iOi 



Common 



Alt., 500 feet. E., Dark Head, 



250 J. TATLOB ON FLOWEBING PLANTS AND VEBN6. 

spring. In dry fine weather in September, I have often seen its 
downj seeds wafted in (douds over land and sea. Common on both 
sides. 

S. vestita, Pursh.— May, June. Alt, 200 feet, W., Niatolik, 
Cumberland Gulf. 

S, desertomm, Rich. — ^May, June. Alt., 100 feet. W., B[iii§^ 
nite and Scott's Day. 

S. arbtitifolia, Sm.— May, June. Alt., 200 feet. Detected by 
Professor Balfour. W., Kickertine and Middliattwack Tslands, 
Cumberland Gulf. Frequent. 

Melanthacete, 

Tqfieldiapalustrisy I,,-~June, Alt, 500 feet. Mossy soil. £., 
Wilcox Point. W., Kingnite, Cumberland Gulf, Cape Seark^ 
Scott's Bay. 

Juncac€(B. 

Luzula spicata, Desv. ^—June, July. Alt, 100 feet W^ 
Niatolik, Kickertine Islands, Kingnite, all in Cumberland Gkilf. 

L. spadicea, DC. — June, July. Alt, 100 feet. In marshes 
amongst Sphagna, W., Kickertine, Kingnite. 

L, arcuata. Hook. — Julj, Aug. Coast to snow-line. The seeds 
of this and otiier Luzula often surviye the winter, being suddenly 
covered with snow, and thus afford a supply of food in spring to 
many Birds in their noilhward migration, while they are equally 
serviceable in autumn on their return. Frequent on both odsiL 

L. hyperborea, Br. — July, Aug. Reaches snow-line. The 
leaves and stems of succeeding seasons often remain on the ssma 
plant, and from their size, &c. in a measure indicate the character 
of each season. Common on both sides. 

L. campestris, Br., v. congesta. — July, Aug. Alt, 200 feet 
W., Cumberland Gulf, in various places. 

Juncus biglumisj L. — June, July. Coast to snow-line. Com- 
mon on both sides. 

J, castaneus, Sm. — June, July. Alt., 150 feet Grows where 
water has stood in the early part of the year. W., Cumberland 
Gulf, in various places. 

J. arcticus, Willd.— Aug. Alt, 100 to 150 feet. Mossy soil 
W., Middliattwack Islands, Cumberland Gulf, Scott's Bay. 

Cyperacete. 

Eriophorum capitatum, Host. — June, July. W., Cuinberlan^^ 
Gulf, Cape Searle, Scott's Bay, Cape Adair. 

E.angustifolium, Uotlu — June, July. Coast to 300 feet Com — " 
mon on both sides. 

Carex rigida^ Good. — June, July. Coast to snow-line. 1&- — -» 
Wilcox Point. W., Cape Searle and Scott's Bay. 

C, tiardina, Fries. — 'luly, Aug. In dry, stony places, like ^ 
dead tuft of grass. W., Cumberland Gulf, var. loc.. Cape Sesrl^ 

C. mtsandra, Br. — July, Aug. W., Kinenite, Cumberland Gul^ 

C. saxatUigj L. — July, Aug. Alt., 500 ieet. Grows in marshes' 
E,, Wiloox Point. W., Scott's Bay. 




J. TAVLOR ON FLOWERIXO PLANTS AND FERNS. 251 

C rulgarisf L. — June> Joly. Coaut to 300 feet. W., Cam* 
berland Galf. 

C ffiareosaf Wabl, — June, Joly. At the sea-lcvcl on the mndy 
befell, in birge circular tufu, W., Cumberland Gulf, var. loo. 
C ^ians, Drej. — June, July. Sea to 1,500 feet. On the sftndj^j 
this plant is so stunted as to seem very different from 
iens at higher elevations and more favourahle eituations**] 
Dark Hesul, Wilcox Point. W,, Cumberland Crnlf, Capo 
le, Scott's Bay. 
C>fuliginosa^ Hoppe. — July, Auoj. Coo8t to 500 feet. On ex- 
posed plains. E., Wilcox Point. W., Cumberland Gulf. , 
C compocia, Br. — June, July. Coast to 200 feet. Very com*' | 
mon» and grows amongst mosses in marshes. Specimens nearly 
2 feet high seen. E., Dark Head, Wilcox Point. W., Cumber-^ 
liuid Golf, Cape Searle, Scott's Bay. 

C- aquatiHs, Wahl — Jnly, Aug. In bogs. E., Disco. ^ 

C. l^wrina^ L. — June, July, Alt., 200 feet. In marshes amongs^^ 
W., Kickertine Islands, Cumberland Gulf. 
tajnllaris, L. — July, Aug. AH., 1,000 feet. On granit^ 
W ., Cumberhind Gulf, var. loc. 
C* terpoides, Mich. — June, July. On granite diflfe. E;fl 
Women's Islands, Wilcox Point W., Cumberland Gulf, Capo' 
Searle, Scott's Bay. » 

C Fa^/«, Schkh. — Jane, July. Coast, 500 feet. In mossy soil^ 
id about the edges of bogs. W., Cumberland Gulf, var. loc. 
'C» rarifhra^ Smith. — June, July. Coast to 500 feet. In 
W., Cumberland Gulf, various localities. 

Gramineee* 

AUf^fiunt* aipinus, Sm. — June to Aug. Most plentiiiil abou^ 
old Esqoimaux settlements ; greatest height, 2 feet. Common ai) 
|»Otb sides. 

Colamaprostis canfulefms, Nutt.^ — Aug. W«, Cape Searle. 

Agrosiii vttJgarh^ L. — Aug. Alt,, 200 feet. On both dry aa^ 
moist cliffs. W,, Cumberland Gulf. 

A^ rupfitfrivt Willd. — June, July. Alt., 50 feet. Un dry rockjf 
aoiL W., Middliattwack Isknda, Cumlx-rlaud Golf, 

Hierochhe atpina^ Br,— July, Aug. Reaches the snow-line, 

rery common Arctic grass ; greatest height, 2 feet. Gommgn 

both eiden. 

/f» pnumfhra^ Br. — June, July. Sea to 100 feet. On saudj 
aoil by rivers, &c,, and on the ct»ttst, W., Cumberland Golf, var, 
loe. I 

Pou alpina, L,— -Aug. Alt., 1,000 feet. W., Cumberlaud GuUJf 
var* loc, Cap<* Searle, Scoff's Buy, 

P. arctica, L.— «Tu1y» Aug, Const to snowline. Perhaps th0f| 
MMUttonest Aictic grn^s, and would often form fine pasture Coio*; 
mon on both sides. 
^ P. cenisia. All— July. Alt., 500 feet. W., Kickertine and 
•MiddUattwack Istandt^^ Cumberland Gulf. 

P. Bftl/aurii, Parn.— .July. Alt., 500 feet. On cliffs of granltat] 
W.^ Kirtgnite, Cumljerlaud Gulf, Cape Searle. 



252 J TAYLOR OK FLOWERIirG PLAHTS AXD 

P. anffustata, Br. — Jal j. Alt., 50 feet. Confined to the coMt, 
on sandj soiL W. Comberland Gulf, var. loc. 

FestMca orina, — June, July. W., Kiognite, Cumberland Gtilf. 

F. brevi/olioj Br. — Julj. Coast to 1,500 feet. Very common 
on any soiL Common on both sides. 

F. Riekardsoni, Hud^ — July. Coast to 500 feet On granitic 
soils. W., Middliattwack Islands, in Cumberland Gul£ 

Eiymtu arenariiu, L. — Julv, Aug. £., Disoo^ 

E. mollisj Br. — ^Atig., Sept, Sci-Ievel, on sandjr soiL W., 
North side of Winter Uarbour, Kingnite. 

Caipodium laiifoiium, Br.— -July, Aug. Coast to 500 ieet. In 
marshes and in sandy soil. Common on both sides. 

Pkippsia algida^ Br. — June, July. Coast to 100 feeL In 
marshes. A very common grass. Common on both sides. 

Trisetum subspicatum^ Bcauv. — July, Aug. Coast to mow- 
line ; very common, growing sometimes 2\ feet high. Common 
on both sides. 

Dupontia Fischeri, Br. — July. Sea to 50 feet ; soil, sandy. 
W., Cumberland Gulf, var. loc. 

Pleuropogon Sabhieiy Br. — July, Aug. Coast to 200 feet. 
Grows in pools of water, on any kind of soil. It is,- perhaps, the 
finest of Arctic grasses ; its leaves float on the surface^ the culm 
rising from 9 inches to 1 foot above the water, bearing its beanti- 
ful purple florets. W., Cumberland Gulf, Cape Searle^ Scott's 
Bay, Cape Adair. 

Filices, 

Woodsia live fists, Br. — July, Aug. Bango limited. AlL, 100 
to 500 feet, on granilic rock?. I have not found this nor any other 
of the Ferns descend below 100 feet. W., Niatolik, Kingnite, 
Cumberland Gulf, Cape Searle. 

fV. hyperborca, Br. — July, Aug. E., Dark Head, WomeniB 
Islands, Wilcox Point. W., Niatolik, Kingnite (very abundant). 
Cape Searle, Scott's Bay, Ac* 

W, glabella, Br July, Aug. Range more limited than the 

last, not abundant in some localities. £., Horse Head, Wilcox 
Point. W., Cumberland Gulf, Cope Searle, Scott's Bay, 

Cystopteris /ragiliSf Bcmh. — July, Aug. A Fern of great 
beauty and of rapid growth ; ascends 100 feet higher than the 
other species. The most characteristic specimens of the var. 
dentata were found growing among the dead roots of SaUx itretiea, 
on the N. side of Winter Harbour, Kingnite, in Cumberland Gul£ 
E., Disco, Women's Islands, Wilcox Point. W., Kickertine Is- 
lands, Kingnite, Cumberland Gulf, Scott's Bay. 

C. alpina, Desv. (?) — I have generally brought home with ne 
in a living state the roots of such plants as seemed most eligible 
for cultivation ; and with a little care and experience in pacung, 



* None of tlio roots brought home have developed into W. kpperhorm. 
They have all tamed out to be either W. Therms or TF. glabdla, though the 
fronds brought home corresponded with W. hyperborea. 



i 



j; TAYLOR ON FLOWEIUNG PLANTS AND FERNS, 25S 

this practice aftbrtls very sntlsfaetury results, as in the hfliids of 
Mr. John Roy, sen., nurseryman, ami tlie Rev. Mr. Beverly.* 

Eguisefate<e, 

Equuetum arvensc, L. — Only seen barren. Alt., Coast to 500 
feet, E^ Disco, Bark llc4ul, Wilcox Point. \V., Cumiierlnnil 
Gnlf, Scotfa Bay. 

E. tarUfjaium^ Schleich.— Only seen barren, Alt., 100 feet. 
Soil, granitic* W., Inland frora Cape Searle, 

Ljfcopodium annotifium, L. — Aug. Only seen oner, and at an 
elevation of 200 ft. \V., North side of Winter Harbonr, Kingnite, 
in Cnmberland Gnlf. 

JL alpinufft, L. — Coast to snow-line; seen in all parts of these 
regions viuiled by me. Common on both sides. 



XXXIL — Mr. John Sadler's List of Arctic Cryptogamic 
and other Plants, collected by Robert Brow^, Esq., 
during the Summer of ISfJl, on the Islands of 
Greenland, in Baffin's Bay and Davis' Strait, and 
presented to the Hkrbaricm of the Botanical So- 
ciety. 

[Reprinted, by Permission, from the Tn\ns. Rot. Soc, Edin- 
burgh, vol. vii., 1862, pp» 37 4-0.] 

Na 1. Collecte«l on the Big Dnck Island and Diick Islands, 
Baffin's Bay, June H-U, 18*31. 

Stereocanlon pnschale. Lecanorn tartni*ea« 

Cladonia uncinlis. L. ventosa. 

Ci INipillariii. Gyrophoru hirfnta. 

Ce^nria I^landica. Coriticnkria ochrulcuca. 

C. nivalis- C, bicolor. 

Parmciifi imrietina vjir. Pogonatura alpintim. 

P. saxatilis. Bryum eiespitieium. 

P. omphalodcs. Hypnum adoncum. 
P. consperaa. 

* ABKmgthti' Arctic Ferns brought home by me, ami reared by Xtr. Beverly, 
vct« foand but jcar Bewnd plauts of one ubich be, and «eYcni] others who 
ftaaitined il, iiu»[>eete<l U* belong to thiit •pecie«. They ircro led to thiB 
ttiifMcUffi hy ob^'Tving the fonii and liabit of the froock, and especially the 
of the rhixome. wliich spreads more widely, and ihrowg up its muiU 



tufts of a prig hi frojidj* ut ^rrwiter interrnlf* than C. frafjiii*. Just now (June 
^M8) tite plftutu are ia ^oorl conrlition, but the fronds teem not quite %o like 
' C alpiaa bb thty were l^st year. Though this Feni ift erideatly 
froto the common forms of t\Jrugili$, aud in ocverni recpoctf^ 
vnmdies the no-called C. tenuity in others iL atpina, it may |»erhiip» prore 
hbm Oal3 «n extreme form of C.fra^lU, But it shall he cjin fully watched 
M it pow*, in order to fix its identity. At &11 event*, in itj prttrnt form, if 
is not C. aipina, it i» intermediate between that ftpteies aud C./raffHis, and 
.^ortliy of being rdJsed to the rank of a sepamte apedeA, as mony other 
thai have been to treated* 



254 SAX>LER's list of BBOWN'S OKrFTOQAMS. 



Pogonatuna alpinam. 
Hjpnum uncinatuin, var, 
H. Bp. 
Urceolarifl dcruposa* 



No. 2, Collected on Browne Island, one of the Wome&^s 

Baffin's Btij, off Nortk Gi-ecnknd, kt, 74^ 7% long. ; pi 

rocks and boggy wet soil almost wholly composing the 
June o, 1861. 

Several species of Stereocaulon 
and Cladonia* 

Dicmntim Richardson!? 

Aulacomuion turgidtim. 

No. 3. From Hare Island, west coast of Greenland ; laL 
N. ; long. 55° 42' W, j greenstone, gneiss, and other rocks 
out above the snow* 27th May 1861. 

Bryutn nutims, Gyrophoni proboecidefti 

Cornicularia bi color. G. proboscidt^ var. 

C. piibescenf*. Cetraria mvalis, 

Lecidea rupeatris, Lee idea geogmphica. 

L. petrica. L, geo., var, apicula. 

Gyrophnra arctica, Purmelia caperata. 

G. hyperborea. P. oUvacea. 

No. 4. The following were the only Flowering Pliuits 
• brought home intermixed with the Mo8»eA. 

Salix Lapponum. On all the Papavor nudicaule. Oo«Illli 



* 



islands. 
SteUaria humifusa. 

land. 
Saxifraga i-i\^dari8. 

lands. 



ifilandjj. 
Duck Is- Sileni.' acuiilis. Duck 

Empelrum nigniin. Daek III 
Duck Is- Poa alpina. Browne Iilaod. 

P. dauica. Browne Island. 



Dr. Brown discovered in addition to several Mottses and Licb««tj 
rare to the Arctic Flora, Laminaria hnffwruris of De la Pylai«l( 
"Flora of Newfoundland " occurring plentjfidly witijin the Ardk 
Circle ; iind 3hlobesia calcarea^ hitherto only recorded frOB 
Spitzbergeii, for the first time in Davis' Strait (Haaen 
four fathoms). 



I 



XXXIII— Plants from Smith's Sound. (From 
" Enunaeration of the Arctic Plants collected 
" Dr. I. I. Hayes in his Exploration of Smith's 
'* between parallels 78th an»:l 82iid, during the 
" of July, August, and beginniiig of Septejnber IML 
" By E. DuRAKD. Thos. P, James, and Saml. IflB* 
" mead" Proceed, Acad. Nat, Sciences of PhlljiM» 
phia, March 1863; vol. for 1863-1804). 




L — Pa^jfocJAMOug Plants (52; the localities snendi 
Gale Point, Netiik, Port Foulke, Cape I«ib<^11a, 
soissak). By E. Duuand. 

[Theve ikre included in Dr. Hooker'a Li^i of An n. 
see a^avff page 225. — Editob..^ 



DUBAia)| JAM£9, AND ASUMEAD ON ARCTIC PLANTS. 255 



II. — C'rtptogamocs Pljlnts* 

1. LycopodiacecB. 

LjcO{M>dium annotiDum, L. Tesstiissak. 



2. Mmci (36). 
petropbila, Ehrh. ? 
Bftrbula ruraliB, liedw. 
Orthotncum affine, Schr. 
Grimmia spiralis^ Hook. & 

Tayl. 
Racotnitritim lanugmosum, 

Brid. 
Polytrieliam juniperinum, 

Aulacumium turgidum, Schw, 

Bryum Duvallii, Voit. 

B, purpurascens. 

B. AFCticum, Brid. & Sell. 

B. rotiUus^ Br. & Sell. 

B. cyclopbyllum, Br. & Sch* 

B. crudum, Sch. 

B. nDlana, Schr, 

B. paluBtre, L. 

B. flsoeum, Btytt 

Mniam affijie, var. 

3. Lichenet{\6y 

Alectcm bicolor (Ebrh.), Ny- 

lander. 
A. sulcata ? (Lev.), NyL 
A* ochroleuca (Ehrb.), Nyl. 
Lecanora ventosa, Ach. 
Nenroiwgon Taylori, Hook., 

NyL 
Plalysma eucuUata, Hoff, 
P. nival i», Acb. 



By T. P. James, 
Muium ru^cum, Blaiid» 
M. rostratimi, Schw. 
Meeiain Albrotinii. 
Bartramia (aff. calcaresB). 
CoDostomuiiii boreale, Swartz, 
Spiucbuuiu Wormskioldii, BrJd# 
S* vftsculowiiiii, L. 
Hypnum michjatum, Hedw. 
H., aduuL'um, L. 
n, oligorliizon, Br. & Sch. 
H., n. i^p. ? 

Cladouia pyxidata (L.), Fries. 
C. furcata, var, racemosa, HofR 
C. ignota ? 

Lecidea geograpbica ? Hoff. 
Umbilioai-ia byperborea I Hoff. 
U. ignota ? 

Vemicaria pnpularia, Floerk. 
V. maum, vnr. striatula, Hoff, 



By T, P. Jaaies. 

Plocadium eiegan8 (Ach.), NyL 

Parm<?lia saxatibs (L.), Acb. 

P. Borreri, Turner. 

P. Stygia {h\ Acb. 

P. conspersa? (Ebrb.), Acb. 

Dactylina arctic* (Ricb), Nyl. 

Stereocaulon deQudatutn, 

Floerk. 
S, condeasatum, Hoff. 

4. Algts (16). By S. Ashmkad. 

ttlosus, L. EiiteroniorpbacoDopreasa, Grev, 

Solieria cbordaU?*, Ag. 
Cladopbora ai'cta, BiU. 
Bryopais plumos?a, Ag. 
De^mare^tia aculeata, Lam. 
Cbflctomorpbii littorea, Haw. 
Ectocarpus ? 
Sp. ignota ? 

new J?p€cie8 were determined ; living roois brought home 
to live in the spring at Pbiladeljdiia j and the aeeda col- 
or found in the &oil brought homCf failed to germinate^ 
the Arctic boU was apparently very rich, and though 

care wait taken. 



lenta. Grev. 
Iva tatiasftma, L. 
Laminaria phyllitiB, Lam. 
L. longicruriii, Pylaie. 
L. fiuela, Ag. 

Mcchiuiua ? Lara, 
tymenia interraptftf Grev 



3. ^JiZ'ryy TL*jWCiJL DBCQiAXA. 



jLiAl~ — 7i:it1j. Zii*:'AS^: dsTXiEmoss to die 
?:="y7:-<!7i.n:-i.*j?^T ;f Z-iZZSijjrai. wi^ia the FumDeb 

r ->' 1Z.1 7:" y r:_ Li:I-w-L=. Bj Db. Robskt 



Z'-rj-.-^L -J ?-r3...'--i. c. -r-.m. -ii*? "Triz^KOoos of eke! 

"S .--J :c Z.Li:',7-ri-* -:u Li^ pirt 2. I'sfS*, pp. 430-465.] 
E*ui-r'jT .% I-^':*. <c:rL-l~ x^rAs»ii aai revised by the 



r. B''Tw!-c f 'Jv?/.:.*.! B-tii^i^zi Uteratmre. — ^Tlie floim of 
G.-'it=LJL-..i Li-j ■-►r^c. a: viri.:c^ rljie* par:Li!> examiiMd by 
dir-rrfrTi: •.•i-jjiisii- Tii5 eorij aiL<^>:'<ttrieSk. Egede, Fabrieiiu^ 
Si-ibj-- tr.'i ■•-'.l-Tri ziii-r o:ij«d:cs ■:■:' ie p-Iants of the distrieto 
c 7rr "wiloi :iieir nlilrtrriiL : i=.'rd«>ctf exteaJ^eiL aod some of thei6 
&r<=: T-rt Ii. :I-.-r H-=r'<irli=i is. :Ii<r K-ujiic Gtirden in CupeolHigCBu 
I- iriKi :ne ClrVill-rr C':uLrle* Led* Giestscke (better kiio>wn af 
Sir L'lLirmj^ 0:r=.r»:i-r , P.-»D:'r:SS.:r of MlnerjJo^ to the Bognl 
DtJ>IIn .Sx:-r:T. wL j h^-I [oseeii several jetfr^ in Greenland as a 
rLir.-^-ral oi:lletr:or. r.::bl:=-lr=:-i ;i list of the pUnts of that cotmtrj.t 
II i- lL*t cccnpr»rh^r.<U ;^ Iar:z-* c!xmb»?r of species, bat he is mani- 
f^rstlj '•c::l^ ia regard to mdnr of them. Some^ which maj 
yj^y\h\j t.^ mru.':.-irs of tae Greenland dora» liare neTcr been 
fofiL'l siri'-rr lil* 'iiy. TL-r varioof explorers in ^eireh of Franklin, 
and th«r S'jrgnjns of Wiialers, have at different times added to our 
knowltd^r of th>: dliiribation of the plants, bj collecting on 
Tariou.^ f«on:on> of tL-^ coost.^ Bnt by far the most important 
collect lori-f which ever came from GreenLind were those c^ YaU, 
who iK/tanU^nl with the utmost a^aidaltr over the whole extent of 
Daoifth Gieeolaad, and has published various papers on the phmti. 
The moat valuable literary contribution, however, to the histoiy 
of the Greenland flora, is the list in the Appendix to Rink's 
"Gronland gc-o^niphLsk og statistisk," by my friend Professor 



* R«:piiat«ril materially as in tb* original publication, withoat 
from tli«: iat4:r researches of Berggivn, Th. Fries, and others, this paper trill 
serve as a specimen of a Botanist's sammer-work in Greenland. 

t Article '* Greenland/* Brewster*» Edinburgh Encrclopftdia. 

I Lyairs cr>lIection.s by Hooker, in Joom. Linn. Soc Bot. toL i ]^ 114- 
1 24 ; Notes on Arctic Plants, Dickie, Joum. Unn. Soc. BoC toL & 
(165'J) pp. 100-112 (plants collected by Clarke, Clark, Maitland, TUUm 
Craig, aiul Sutherland); Dickie (Sutherland's Plants) in Appendix tol^p^* 
field's *' Suuiuu-r Search for Sir John Franklin," (1853); Dickie on Fhilpm 
Plants from I^Ancaster Sound, Linn. Soc. Joum. Bot. voLzi. p. 9S; Sv W. X 
Hooker and Dickie in Appendix to Sutherland's Narrative of Peony*! Ks- 
|xMliti(»n ; Account of the Botany of M<Clintock*B Expedition (Walltti^ 
J'lanis), H<Hjker and others, Joum. Linn. Soc. Bot. voL t. p. 85; TsyW 
on Davis* Strait Plants, Traos. Bot. Soc. vol. viL p. 323, or Edin. PML Joiiiii< 
1HG2; Sadlirr*s Notice of Crjptogamia collected by R. Brown <» islands cf 
Baffin*!! Bay, TrnnN. Pot. Soc. vol. v-ii. p. 374 ; Satherland on CysCoplerii 
aijtina, Tranx. Bot. Soc. toL vii. p. 398 ; and generally Hooker, Iau. Soe. 
Trans. 18CI. 




R. BROWN, FLOllULA DISCUANA. 257 

Joliaun Martin Lange of Copenhagen, forminf; a sumiumy of ilie 
Iftbotmi of all former Daiii!<$h bntanLot^, and u det<?rnii nation of tlio 
oollection^ of Egede, Valil, Uink, Holboll, and others contained iii 
the Herhariimi of the University of Copenhttgeii.* Drs, Kanej 
Haye^f have added to our knowk^dge of the phmtef of tho 
northern shores of Greenland. Profei*sor Lange^s list, 
ng oidy with the Danish po^^seasions in that country, does 
not touch upon these. It is to be hoped, however, that he will 
yet iindertiike an ext4;*ntled flora of Greenland, a task for which he 
is so well qualified, both from bis knowledge of the subject and 
the opportunity which lie possesses of consulting Ilcrbiiria. 

II. The present Colkctions. — During the summer of 1867, from 
June until September, I passed the season in Danish Greenland, 
collecting apecimena in all departments of natural history, and 
pursuing scientific investigations. The summer wftn very favour- 
ablfi for botanical re^areh. Accordingly, though my time waa 
very limited, and gix^atly oeeupied with other |ua'^uit^, I made a 
lar^e collection of the plants, of all ordertij found in the country 
between Egedesmintlc imd Kytllcs;el. As the country was eliicily 
in the \ieiuity of Dii^eo Bay, I have ilenoniiuated tlie accaunt 
of these collections the Florula Dhroana. These plajiln are 
here enumerated by the assistance of various bManiral friends, 
whose reputation la a sutReient guarantee for the wccuraey of the 
)i»t3 under theii- names. Though contaifring few pbuit:3 really 
new to science, the list i:s interesting ns btnug the most c6niplet(> 
one of the plants of that section of country, and as a<lding to our 
knowledge of the pbyto-geogiu[»hy of the coast, — the eitrlirr 
collections being to a great extent useless for that purpofie, us the 
Ubehi merely afforded the informaliuii that they were collected in 
** Greenland;* 

IIL C/i«<a/f. ^Dining the winter the cDuntry is coveretl with 
dDOW, and the plants protected under its warm eoveiing. Dark- 
ness then covers the whole face of the country for al»out four 
months. About May and the T>eginning of June, according to the 
utaie of the season, the earth again begins to appeal", liy Jidy 
the mow has genendly cleared off all the lower grounds, and only 
lies in hollows, on the hills, or in places shadeil from the sun, 

• Ovi^rwi^t ov*!T Gr5nliUidH Planter a f Job. Lan^^e (B)t>liothekarog ABsistoot 
vttd dt^ iKtlMuiflke Htive) Tillsg Nr. 6 til Kink in Hb. cit. ; Vahl oni h«telLartJi 
GfORllaodicu ojf Drrus iiite^ifoUa (Nat. Set«k, Skriv, -I Bmnd. 18 H. Se, ItJS- 
I7S) ; t^*! >iUw> Rink, '* Om den jroogniptuBke Bcskaffeiilied af do dniisko 
** |IjadeU'di«trikti'r i Konlgri:pnluiidf &c." (iJet Kongl. duuskt.' Vidrnik. 
Stfldub. SJk. 6 UsBkke, 3 Biud, 1«53, p. 71). Drejcr'a Rtrvisio crilica Curiciim 
bownUmn (KrCtyer's Tid«*Hkr. lii, p, 423). Ilornemunn in Gmah's Journey 
Ui Km* Cooftt of Grceuhiud (Tritn!«l.) Appendix ; Greville ou Jntncson'M 
Wewr-OtvcnUkod PUnt-x, Mem. Wcrn, Soc. vol. iii. p. 426 ; Hooker on Sabinij','* 
I*ltii* '" :. IJim. Soc. vol. xiv,, and ou Score^by Plants in App. to Scoreby'si 
*'ji' ; Flora Duoicu; KeUius' Flora; Scjindjniivi«« Prodmrau*. &o, 

t ii,.,-*..r^. ill Appendix to Kune'n "Arctic Expl«»ratiou»," vol. li. Altoitef 

J II iv«-%' open F(d»r S»ni ; and DnrAod in Proc. riill. Acud. Not Scieneoji, 
||u iiinl piirtiiilly tu *'Uit» nnrdlichste l.:iiid der Erde,'* Peter- 

iiphUJif MilthclU (1867), p. 170 et «rti, Ahove, p. 254. 
36122, \\ 



k 



J 



258 R. BROWK, FLORULA DI80OAKA. 

From this period until the middle of September, very little 
ever falls, and the climate is mild, and even warm and siinnj, as 
dnring the summer of 1867. A little rain also fiJla during moat 
seasons. Vegetation springs up apace, and dnring the long 
summer day, of four months, soon comes to matoritj. Bj the 
beginning of August the flowers are on the wane, and bj the end 
of that month have wholly disappeared. The weather in Septem- 
ber is uncertain, showers of snow falling, and the nights being 
dark and cold. By October " bay ice *' begins to form in qniet 
harbours or inlets, and the ground gets its winter mantle of snow. 
The soil freezes liard to the depth of several feet (where it is so 
thick), and all nature slumbers. Meteorological observations have 
been taken at various royal trading posts throughout Greenland.* 
At Jakobshavii, one of these settlements. Dr. Rudoiphy now 
Governor of Ui>Gmavik, kept for upwards of three years a care- 
ful register of the therinometer. Jakobshavn was our head- 
quarters, and the locality for the chief portion of the species here 
enumerated, and it may be taken as typical of the climate of 
Disco Bay. I therefore present the means of temperature there, 
as a mean of the climate over the region embraced in the title of 
this paper. 

Thermometkical Means of the Climate or Jakobshavn. 

LaL69°13'26"N. 

July, 45-4 Fahi^ 

Aogiut, 4S-4 

September, 84*6 
October, S5-1 
Kovember, 12'6 
December - 7*5 
Summer, -i- 43-1 
Autumn, 14-1 

IV. Character of the Country in which the Plants were 
collected. — The country in which the specimens were collected 
consists chiefly of bare rounded gneissose hills, planed br (M 
ice-action, and covered with boulders and traveled blocks of 
stone. In the hollows, where the melting of the snow collect^ 
ai'e peaty bogs, and in other places dry heath-looking trscts» 
covered with Empetrum. nigrum, Cassiopeia (Anelromeda) ieir*- 
ffona, Betula nana, and such like plants. The eastern aide of 
these glens is richest in plants, and the vicinity of streinu 
and dripping springs yields a considerable variety. In ^ 
Waigat Strait, about Kudlesa)t, Ouuartok, and Atanakerdlak, tbe 
geology changes, and bold trap cliffs and dykes burst tlin>agi> 
sedimentary rocks of Miocene age. ' Here is the limited district 
containing the now celebrated fossil beds of Greenland. 

I may shortly describe each individual district^ taking the 

* Ciilectanea Meteorologica, Fuse. iv. Haunis, 1856. Rink, TilliBg Nr.B, 
" Meteorologie " til GrOnland </eot/raphuk og ttatiitisk betkreoet, Andet Kni 
1857. 



January', - 


. 2-4 Fuhr, 


• 




February, 


0-3 






March, 


8-2 






April, + 


18-8 






May, 


32*5 






June 


41-5 






Winter (Mean Temp.) — 


3-4 




Spring, 


tf 


19-9 






Whole 


year, 


22-5. 



R, BUOWX, rUiUULA DISCOAN'A. 



2.VJ 



DaniA IVttdiiig Diraions us guides, and looking upon the chief 
post in Meh district as the centre and tjpe of the division. It 
waa nho in the immediate vicinity of these posts that the greater 
number of the plimts here enumerated were collected. 

(1.) Effederminde.—^L&X, 68^ 42' 39" N., long. .52^ 43' 48" W.* 
The island on which the settlement ia built U low-lyiut,% bare, 
and bleak. The vegetation i& very etunted, and b affected by 
the cold wind, — no high mountains being in that vicinity to 
shield the low-lying ground, and few cliffs which can radiate the 
sun on the soil. The climate here is more foggy than in other 
plac^fl further to the east and nearer the mainland. The Cran- 
berries and Whortleberries on the small hills in general Ixsar no 
ripe fruit ; the Arctic Willows and the Birch do not grow in any 
great luxuriance; and the greater pait of the country is covered 
witk swampy Moss, only allowing a little green to appear now 

and then. Wann springs ai-e found on the island of 

Sokartloek, lying at the head of Tessiursak Bay, about eight 

miles from Egedesmindo, and near the month of a Uttlo river 

flowing over a level trtict scattered with boulders. One of these 

springs issuer in a large stream out of a very solid granite wall 

and over a smooth mosiiy ground, out of which other two or 

thre« springs run between the stones and moss with about the 

atme foi-ce. The temperature, according to Dr. Rink, is 42^*1 

FsJir., or 20^*2 Fahr, higher than the mean temperature of the 

LslADd. A little basin, a ^gw hundred feet in length, which the 

spring forni0y is never I'rozeu ; and at tlie bottom of the hay, 

where the stream delKJUchee, no ice lies in the winter. Large 

baakfl of BaHnimia fontaHa, &c., form round the springs, which 

keep these Mobs banks always in a tremulous motion. Ou the 

ialaiid of Aito, ami the surrouu<liug i^^hiudH, the same chai'ac- 

m» ttsrislics prevail as in the vicinity of Egedesmindc. The vegeta- 

Klion is encecdirigly scanty, and but little can be seen but brown 

Bmst-cotoured rocks^ iind citunted vegeUition. Here is found Svdum 

^mMkadio/a, DC. — found nowhere farther north than South-East 

Bay. It is ^lid to be here \ery abundant on tlie top of the small 

ftenic islands, tip}>ed by turf and the excrement of birds. We 

ed at Egedesminde on the 6th of June, and left on the 14th 

tNune mouth. During most of this time the weather was 

, and little or nothing except a few Lichens and Mosses 

dvd ray search. I «m, however, under obligations to 

JuUe Levenen for most kindly presenting to us a small 

OoUectian of Egedecimiude plants, made by her in the pi-ecediug 



.«.„.# ^n^.M ..n-i iti r..f».rettc« to the latitadeH invnriahly, I follow my 
inrn the past sunuuer. Iji reference to thu lonjfi- 

toilr. fi l:>emg all yet (owin^ to tht arrangumentN of 

tht! ) acooMible» 1 have fallowed either Grtiali** ob»t'Xviiiioim (in 

'I .ulskillegr^ Piinklcm ohiwrveri^k' RreHJi" o^r Ijnetij^e pnn Vrtt- 

*• Ir|i4ca a£ GnSalantl," in *• Be«krivcUf til dct \ i 1 1 nutioiui Kiuut over 

•* dfli TMtifigc Ky«t af Gr<>ulii&>d," &c., &c. i, 1825), or otlittrj» 

iprvfs to me ibrougli th«* pfjliti-nctw of Preimi.i'jiJviM< tKnit U. L. M. ilohn 
of fbe Kciiigt Kiiart-ArcUiv Jb Copt-olmgeo. Tb** jwi-^ition U tlmt uf the cUii-f 
^^^doAMr** or tnidui|s-i»o«U 



260 E. BROWN, FLORULA DISCOANA. 

y^'Af, wliich lias enabled us to add some localities to the Disto 
Horn, and a few ailditions to the scanty list. The general cha- 
racter ot* the country at this season of the year may be gaUiered 
from tho following jotting in my journal : and as it ia equallj 
characteristic of other portions of Disco Bay, I may be ezcnsed 
quoting it : — 

** June 6. — To-day we took an excursion over the idand oo 
which the settlement of Egedesminde ('the memory of I^ede') 
is built. The Eskimo name of it is Arsiat, and means the sniniiier 
place ; and they remark, not inaptly, that it lies in its little 
archiiH'lago of islands, like a spider iu its web. Nothing was to 
1)0 ?tH?n but bai-e granite rocks, worn by ice, or covered with poor 
Fiiuiklin's iripc de roche — the tHtUuak of the natives — ^wiih 
snowy drifts in every shady place, and bogs in the hollows, or 
lakes' with the surface ice yet unmelted. Few Jiving things were 
out : a Bee, a Spider or two, and a Dtfticus in the pools, with t 
Snow-bunting ( Emheriza nivalis) looking.out for a nesting-pbiee^ 
were the only specimens of animal life wc came across in cor 
rambles. No llowcrs were us yet above the ground to any extent 
The Willo\Y8 were shooting up, and the Enipetrum was green 
above the lialt-thtiwed soil. Eriophorums were coming into 
flower, but the only phuit in bloom was Cassiopeia tetragoM, 
Mosses of woolly-looking matter, apparently bleached CWer- 
vat^eae, mantled some of the stagnant pools near the village, which 
were half choke<I up with rotting fragments of Seals and other 
animals. Xenr the top of tho island were found lorve and cocooitf 
of Lcpidoptcra, pieces of the shell of Echinus drobaMeiMh 
Mill!., and the shell of a Decnpodous Crustacean, apparently 
cnrriiil up there by soa-binls, or perhaps by the wind. If we era 
to criHlit the Eskimo talcs of Asuminak, the south-east wind, it 
has force enough to civrry for some distance much heavier bodiei 
than shells. In some of the little valleys we met Greenland 
women Inden with the Dwarf Birch, Empetmm, and Willowi 
— collectively tho BrfPttdscl of the Danes — ^for fuel in th«r 
houses." 

(2.) ainstianshaa6.—Lht. 68° 49^ 19" N., long. 51® S'M" 
(Nordenskiold) W. — I visite<l this locality in the first week of 
August, and adde<l several plants to my collection. My notei 
describe it as possessing " more varied scenery than any of lh« 
** other settlements I have yet seen, lying in a long * hope' witk 
" green slc>pes to the wator*s edge, and fells of syenite 1,600 fefi< 
*' in height in front of tho 'colonic,* and beyond, — the wy 
" leading through a green gi-nssy valley, — ^a lake alive with wifi 
" ( Jeeso (Anas brenta^ Pall.). Behind and all around are ennny 
" * braes,* green with the moisture of rushing rivulets, and fflwy 
" flowers as yet strangers to my collection/* The coaet betwcea 
Christianshaab and Claushavn is low and easily landed on, witk 
green sh)pes, and streams running down from the hills andhnrMin? 
through the boulder-elay. On one of the islands (particidarlj 
Krikcrtasasuk, " the long big island '*) about six miles fiw» 
Christianshaab, I addeil several plants to my collection, particB' 



U. DKOWN^ FLORULA DISCOAXA. 



S61 



\y Poiattilla anserina, L., which, tliough found further north, 
yet tiidy vnlercd in Ljingrrs lint on Vahl*3 authoriry, and was 
ot found by me elBcwhere in the Yicinity of Disco Bay. 

3.) C/nfWiaivr— Lat. 69"^ 7' 31" N., long. 50^ 55' 30" W,— 
commercial establishment U built on a flat, hnckod by hills 
n^idendde height. On this flat is a smnll hike, round the 
Bjar^hy Insiders of which phints grow luxuriantly. This flat is 
dividfd o(I in|j) Hitle glens by rochcs ninutonnees like knolJa of 
cks, each glen ending in a terminal moraine at the lower 
»dgc, nnd exhibiting the Fame evidences of ancient glaeiers. 
ilaoy plants are found here on this sunny flat whieh I did not 
ibs<^rvr at Jakobshavn, only seven miles north of it uero!*:^ the 
ccfjord* For Greenland, Claushavn is a sunny .spot, and not 
onplensiint* Here Epilobium iatifolium^ L,, luxuriates, anri 
i^yrhni* apelala, L., is found jrrowinf; in considerable quantity 
long the rocks behind the Colonibestyrers house. Armcrin 
pnlf/nris^ WiJld., Trisetum subspicahtm^ 1*. B., and Juncus 
friffhitnis, L., were found by me only in (hia loeality. From 
Il-ul-ia-mln-£r-suak (*• the big mountain overlooking the Ice* 
jortl "), rising to the hei«:ht of 1,400 feet, can be setni the IcefjonJ, 
Hid little hik€*8 lying in rugged valleys, with the commeoecmrriL 
>f the TesBiugak just peering out, and away beyond to the east- 
rani tlie dreary streteh of the inland ice. Hhofiodenrirou lap- 
}0mi€mm^ Six'llarins, antl Drabas were the plants most prominent, 
^%ipOver nndicnnte^ the hardiest of all Arelie planis, wns found lierc 
bug after It, tnppvnieum hud dit«appearcd. I visited Clauhhavii 
rj»t on iX\Q 24th June, and subsequently at various timers in July, 
d jiftcrwurtls while travelling to Christ ianshaah in the beginning 
August, 

(4.) Jakobshavn— U\U 69° 13' 26" N„ long. 50° 55' W.— 
Ilia wo» our heml-quarters for the whole of our ref^ideueo 
the cooniry, and tlie fjK^ater number of the plants wei-e 
Ilecleil htre. The netllement is built on rounde«l kuollH of 
ockg, with bo|^y little valleys between, where the ve*r,-tHhrm 
further back are various boulder-clay valleys, where 
iernble vegetation nppeni*?, though very little exposed to the 
The flora is not nearly so profuse as nt Claushavn. The 
r country in this region ih conijjosed of rounded syenitic 
of various hci;.dtt» yp to 1^200 feet, bare or polishetl with 
tion, or covered vriHi blaek, horny Liehens, and with seat- 
bouldcrs and angular bloeks of stone lying in all kind» of 
ions over tlioir summits and faces wherever it is poBHible fop 
to lie. Between these fells and rocks lie flat \ alleys, com- 
fiMl of bonlder-rhiy benenth, but capped with a bo;;gy covering 
lorfy Peat, which the native?* cut nnd dry in stacks for winter 
L jKarly in the "summer these are mL^m boga of murshcs, into 
biria you giuk over the knees. Here the meltings of the wintcr'ft 
cumulate, foiTning miniature hikes in the hfdlow (daces, 
I :it all the year round, borderiHl by a thicket of Cypcmccaj 

tiJ!lgbt with the yellow Konuneukrs and other Arctic niafsh* 
and the overflow g*K's otf by slrenms which pour in 






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i - L. . ■ - li-i.- ■ -Lv iu:- -Ji:- '7riii£uk of the Btfle 

■^i." •■ ■ : .. z:z: ^:- - xiL :jt v^'-mL^uL, rriaSmg fi kt- 

--,- f -- ■•- -:*--- iJ. ^--£ 'C utsr ^n*l^■zi^ Hoverer, 

. ■ - I. V J- - i .'i - ' -V :-*r V- ^-r:. mt ritsi* jic^ded B0Ka 

., V - .'.■i'- _: . -J- •^.'IirL it' 'lit.ir- -lin-=il»rl «aiIM' JOBEEO'CiiilBg 

'••-■.•■ t.>.' ■;--..— N.r-i c -"■»*»: -'ifiiLTT. iitt eomsL is my 
...... I," — V' u: "^"^ <?-■— *^ ^ -i^r;^-- lilt Mzije& of fbcncr 

117 .t ii:o:*t .1 1 iiTo^u::;^ pains of vinr. Ot 

■i .-' ^^zrTXTjTXL ^»~M* XT : »»£ kare I 

/' ^r — ^__r -^r: rzajt? lif ^oKt in Itf. 68^ 
. - - : .1 f :.*1? :? .-_^^. r: i? lie S2t of aa aneicBt 
T-v r-i ifc-i -^- :-:ii.*-:- ^it eLiruace of h ii is 

.r ZLkTE-ri T; &=. iTSbsZSit SclBBBal BlOnU^ 

-i-:- rr-T 1 - x it-aitIt.* I bare alvvis nolieed 
B- :::>- lzx::rAi.:lT -iar .Ar£«f rcck« or booUtf^ 
..--i- ^ iT-A:rr i=,:^i.; :: r-£*s u the aoO. TkoAU 
. :i.' -r ti A:z^-:-a;: prvirA<. vboe stones lie 
■r. -ill;. iijA-^::: i-re. ;Lc-g^ on • U 



i: .^A.^1 --e o 



.- 'A* 



iLe beids) m mnddj 
i-z ::!• :hr l&xz of the inlec for sertnl 
a bi'.i 11-= c: boolder ^^lader ?)-ebj 
:•::..:. onr. a- ;»'.! r-;r. irr. rt :h^ former aphesTal» 
:. :^' p:e-^LT. ill iL- v:c;n::v </ Disco Baj at least» 
■r*:T r:V!v s:nk:!:2. Pnii oUv wu veir sandy, ind 
wsi- k'-j.r ?'//«:thtr v.- a tirf of ErLf«einim^ Betala, and Grasses; 
h'it f/!t Th^- w!r:'Iw£.i'i -M--, wher-j :i meets the blast fipom the 
'ii\n.':J:\, it •*■;-.- ? hi.: of ^ irgetaxion, and the fine powdeiy dsT 
v/ar blown into hill^^k- arouml a few Willow fufts. On theleffl 
t-xi^/r'A lAnrf:' n ftw stuiiieJ plants grtw, particoIarlT Le^t» 
paiifAlrfrj lj'rr»* at lea.-t J^Ijing it3 trivial name, for it grows mostly 
on t\ry ;; round, hfiwfcn the glacier and this place ia a flatraUey, 
tii'u-v ti'.f.ttsiiWwj tliir fir^t sloptr, coveretl with a spongy turf •■'1 
jif:niHMt4'f\ \ty -iroam.v, and ornamented with a little lake where the 
wild ij*:<:r.*' brfrftd. On the slope, just before crossing over a Uttto 
rid;:(f to tin; gbu'irrr, I found the rare Lichen Dactylima ardket 
Nvl., in cffU'^'uhrrMo profui^ion, but nowhere else. This vaDay|> 
pl^-niil'iiUy riifN.'d M'ith the fragrant Hierochloe a(ptiiii, whidi i> 
ijHf'd Utr htnfn/i;( tho native fioois. Crossing the ridge mentioosd^ 
w«: d«-,-i!«^nd a lilti« wlope and face the glacier, the overflow of ih"* 
grf-at. mrr th. f/Zrwr which ovei>pr«id.s the whole interior of Gweo- 
land wiili nn icy covering. The slope facing the glacier and the 



♦ III thin cntulof^n " JIlHrtlck " refers to this locality; 
to t\w Imiiicflifite vicinity of the glacier and inland iee, fte. 



IDartkkgiiaer,' 



I 



K, BHOWSj riiORULA DISCOANA, 263 

cliff* arooml 4ire Imre of vegetation^ and the whole vicinity U 
chilly and dnmiy. The C4>ld blasts have even nipped the 
profasion ot Arctic vegetation, nnd we have to go far afield to 
gmtbrf the Dw»rf Birch for our cooking fire, **On the ^tope* 
** liawm^r, survive n«irly all tJie species of Saxifraga, and on 
** the aonny spots Vturinium uliglRt^sum is bearing its pleAsnnt- 
** tested berries, all of which tell us that autumn (after which 
** conietb the winter, when uo man can work) is travelling on 
•* ApAor. Htelliirirts and Ox^Tia show themselves frequently, as 
•♦ do also Eyiiohium iahfolittm, and the Eriophorttm with its 
** laaiNiUad heod of cottony down, in the boggy places here 
*• and therCy while Slritaria Rdwftrfisii is occasionally seen quite 
** abnndaot at the he^l of the inlet. Fapaver nufiic(t»lt is 
•* eoaning into seed, as well ii« the specien of Fediculnrig, which» 
** wJlh L^^eopodium aitnoiinum, &c., maintain their ground in 
** appropriate situations.** The glacier face wa.« in lat 69° 24' 
12" N. We entered the inlet on the 20th of July, and left on 
tlia 29tb of the same month* 

(6.) Skenl^enh—LAi, 69= 45' 34" N., long 51° T W^The 
' on which this ^ '*' -nt is situated is called Akpaei^ and 
pre a oD iB nothing pby :illy remarkable. There is a con- 

aidflnble amonnt of Duiu-i >Vl11ow and turf on it. By the time 
Wie arrivied here (August 20) the Arctic flora wtis nearly gone, 
aa that Ritenbenk does not figure much in this catalogue. The 
abore afibrded, however, a few Sea-weeds. 

(7.) Sahhnk^hfiX, W 0' 28" N., long. 52= W. (approx.)^At 
thii; little outpost there is a broad sunny flat, with the "inland 
ioe " appearing as mintatnre glaciers down l>etween the clifiTs 
lM^hind* Here I found Festuca ovina^ L., in great luxuriaucet 
but ejEoept a few Alga? from the shallow muddy ice-choked harbour 
1 did not add greatly to my collection. 

ia) Ainnakerdluh—hni, 70^ 02' 30" N., long. 52° W, (approx,) 
\y the time we arrived here Phanertij^amic vegetation was 
Beftrlj ovcj- ; and except a few Cr) ptoganiic plants I have little 
to add from tldn locality. Here, a.s 1 have remarked, the geology 
I'Otirely clumgeB from the primitive to sedimentary formations ; 
and the few days we Kpcnt here (2linil to 24th August) were 
occupied by me almost entirely iu collecting the Miocene plants, 
and describing and making sections of the strata, the arid &lope 
nreaenting no recent plants to collect. Though, of coutse, the 
Uliiiied niaicriaU possessed will scarcely admit of deciding what 
inHtieoce the change of soil, consccjuent on the altered geological 
eoodilioD!*, may Imve in giving an altered character to the flora; 
so far as 1 was able to judge from the decayed phiiils which 
kimHl alwve ground, it seems that they were, to a great extent, 
;nt from those gathercMl on the granitic soil. 
{^) Oumtrtnk^lMi, 71>^ 2' N., long. 52° 24' W. (both approx,) 
^Tbe locality known under this name seems to have been at 
anai time a native ** houae-plaoCf'* and traces can yet be seen of 
§Oina&r bakvitatione at the mouth of u gurgling creek whicit flows 
fitim fhe mounrain^y and it is yet a lavourite camping pJaoe &ff 



264 



.H, BROWK, FLOTIUT.A T>ISCOANA, 






the rare visitors and wayliiring-nion nloDg ihia draary 
Much debris luiw been brought down by this crw?k Oft It 
frijra tbe mountJiiii and the inknd ice of Di»co I'lUitid (for 
sttun(t»d on the opposite shore of the Wtugatz Strait, a.H are 
the two next locidities mentioned), nnd bursts though the MiT?^ 
inentary strntA which lie in i\^ wjiy. 

(10.) Kttdksfet—LaU 70^ 5' 35" N„ long. 52^ 32' W. (uppi 
— This was the most [^northern locality reached by os io 1 
Here are green mossy slopes, but us the snn does not roBch ihi» 
Fpot for several hours in the rlay, tlie vegetation, evrn on the 2Ttfc 
<jf August, was buckwarth Here several streams Bow down ntti 
form a marshy flat at one pla*;e before reaching the i«a. On 
wet ground, and on the sandy 'Minks " which skirt the co«^t 
a few yards in breadth at tliis pbw^e, I found one or two \> 
such aa tlnncus tri^/ttrnis, L,, Eqttueium raritf/nfufn, L., 
whieh, tliough not peeuliai' to the locality, are yet mttcr 
conimon in thiis region* 

(H.) Godhfwn or Liepclt/ ~^I.kU 69^ 14' 6W* N^« Ion?. 
63' 24' 40'' W.-*This little post, situated at the aauth-westrtfi 
point of Di.«?co Island^ is perhaps the best kliowti l)0tan:cal I 
in all Greenland, having been a regular halting place for w 
an<l tbe numerous Aj-ctic Expeditions. Hence we fuid pUiii- 
from this bctJity figuring in all the listA hitherto pubii^^hed. miil 
eont4iining some not in this eatJilogue, as by the time we urriutl 
(4th Sept.) vegetation had almost entirely di^ppe«red. Tbr 
t»eltiemcut itself is built on au oiT-lyiug islet of syeaiie; lull un 

the other ^ide of the harbour on Disco Island, where tb»* *^ ' 

meets with tliat great trap dyke which, either in its oia. 
or in ita oftshoofs, tmverses the whole breadth of the i^ioixj •" 
Disco and the Nonrsoak peninsula, there is a ** warm " stream of il>* 
same eliaractcr as that on the island near Egedeeimindc, nln»ii» 
deseribed* This stream falU into the haibour, flowing iLrwipl 
a little gi-tH?n vidley called Lyngemarken (or the ^MuiUb ft«:U' 
bifccked by huge fellsi of trap. This Lyugemiirken 15 iJio 
botiinicid locality wliich 1 have yet seen in GrrenUnd. Tbi 
hiost of the plants had faded down in this vnlley. vft. froiB ' 
1 was able to identify, or from other small « ,. it ap|«^ 

to V>o very rich in s^peries. Tbe most cbm plant* t- 

Satit fflanca^ lietula /i«ii/i (seldom over on r :. > 
dfHfiron lapponimm^ Cassiojtria triragoHO^ /\ , ' 
Saxifraga trimspidata, S, Aizoon^ S* ctrspiti**a, X. nimhfo. 
Azalea procutHbenit^ Gnitphatium norrrgicnm^, leranua alpM 
Arnica aiptna, Bartsin a/pitta^ VampanHla rtftifiora^ KpUimt' 
aHffiisHfoiiuM, E. iatifatium, Dryas octnpetnln var* ittUyrifiS^ 
Papawrr HudicauU', Prdiculttria Jiammra^ Siirae acnttltM^Armmt 
maritimoy AUhemUia vulgar is^ hci and among CkyptogiM 

• anuh giv«t the 1st an m'' U^ IJ,'* wM 
grencnl « wry good ob*crrer)» aecordUii! to a 1 

th« Royal Chart once of Denmark, itateii h a.<* «•> 10 oi' .> ; ihit at i«^ 
UniAh's potitioa and niitifi ^ree to olotely, J belivre that w^cnraionrOi 
truth. 



R. BROWN, FLOnULA DISCOANA. 



265 



Cciraria islandiru^ C. nivalis^ Chidonia graciiis^ Peliidea 
aphikojia, Poli/trickum jitnipennum^ Uacomitrinm canescens, 
Sp/utrojthorum coralhidvst^ &o< (riV/f Dr, Kink, i^c.) The vallcj 
graduates by a gentle ek^pft to a dark lK?etling prmpice. At 
Jplween one or two Ihousaml fetjt ,lruiii the sUure the ve;^t"tatiou 
ilems to be loHt^ niul tliere is only seen inoniitain cHtls or dt-liris 
of rocks roUt*<l iWnn ahove» tlirough whtcli ihe stream runs 
gurgling jilorig. The most rcniurkabk of all tliR plants, huw- 
ever^ which 1 saw in this vnlloy were remains uf the* ** Qvan " 
\AnyeUva officinalU^ ITotfn.), ncll known by its nativo and Norse 
es (apparently one of tliu wortlji of tlic ol<l Norsemen wldck 
iVe got incorporated in the Kskinm lfingiia*;e), which ^rew io 
by the &ide of the stream, mid oceii.'^jonally in the moist 
groutid. It is one of the most inlcre.Htin;^ phintrf <d' Greenland, 

Ifusd is only found on the islnnd of Disco, io North Cireenland. 
It i«, however, ubundant in the vieinity of Honib Greenland fjord.^, 
and purticuljii'ly in the district of Jnliiiiushmib, »o mneh so, \ha,i 
the natives «iy that Disco was once a portion of Juliimslmab 
district, and that a great angekok or wizard txjwed it north. Ho 
would have towed it still further hud not a rival cut the ro|H) ! 
Tlut ia what may be called a ** mytli of observation/' The Dunes 
uud Gre«iilander!$ use the leaves much as an antiscorbutic. On 
tUe looveb is occaisloQally found lltrtna mtycUetE. By the borders 
of the stream, anrl at the northern head of the valley, I i'omid 
Achcmiila culg<inst L., ;^rowiug, I heard much of a phiee, 
about twelve miles from Godhavu, called Qvannersoit, *• the plaeo 
" of the Qvjui," wdiieh, if aU Btories nvc true, Bcems to bo tho 
osofft agreeable >«f>ot in the district. It is situated between high 
falls and ** jokulls," with numerous waterfalls from tbeni, and 
gr !i covered willi the most luxuriant vegetation in nil 

N« idand. Angcliea has been found at varioun phtce.-j on 

llio island of Disco, but nowhere ao abundantly a.M here, aa the 
nnioi! indicate.^. The Willow is here eiglit feet high* when raised 
np from the ground. NuuiLrouri flowers grow here. Il/tmlo- 
titndron iappomi-um, I'cd'ictiiariif jlammca, Tj-dnm gnttttttttduum 
(putusire\ &c., are Been in profusion. (Jodlmvn was the laiJt 
locality we vi«ited in Greenland, and on the 12th of September 
we lefl in the royal trailer *' Hvalfisk," Capt. Hans Seiftrup, for 
Demnurk, just as the snow was beginning to cover the hill», and 
tllO Dighta were getting cold, dark, and dreary. My time was 
Boch occupied in zoological, geological, and astronomical work, 
; l9e)9idc« having a full share of the varic^l <lutie8 of t!ie party, ho 
limt my leisure for botany was limited ; and when we take into 
aociotiQt the time occupied in going from place to place, the 
pri ■ which the collecting extended did not nmeh exceed 

ti* , Uie whole extent of our residence in the country being 

only thr(5^ monibB.! 

- — — — — — '^i^im 

• J hart •ren a wtetn of BettiU stnntt frow UpemaTik (72* 48' N,) two 

la diometiTt unci uiiuthi^r from Soiirti-Kuwi l^^l\ i'<pially thick. 
f It has t>*trn ncc*-ssiirv to lmvv Xhn^n thitcf, in cirdtT to thow the tiin«« of 
, tttitl to nvtiitl . though the object of this paper ifl aot to 




266 



R, BROWN, FLORULA DISCOA.NX 



Mr 

i 




V. Economic Botany of Disco Bay. — ^(1,) Gardens, — hrtfloA 

moBt of the little trading posts the Danish officers hav« 
tempted to cultivate a few garden ve^^etables, and hy brin#i 
soil from old Eskimo houses, and taking the pjreatpst care, a fi? 
of tlie hardier vegetables are niised in Hrwall (|oantitie3. Potar 
never get bigf^er than marbles ; but spinaclj, radishe^s, lettnce**, &<?J 
prosper, and are reiuly for use about the middle or beginning of 
August. Of Dr. Pfaff 's and llr. Aiider»en*8 gardens at Jakol 
liavn and liitenbi-nk we have most pleasant remembraDces. 
garden at the latk*r plaee de«ervetj hououi-able meutioD, and 
was, perhaps, one of the most favouro*! and favourable 
of f^uelij the description will suffice for atl. It ia sitaated on 
sunny Blope, with a southern exposure, and eompooed of earth 
brought from old Greenland houses (and tlierefore richly manun^d ), 
heaped up to the depth of two feet. Tlie vegetables were mont 
luxuriant— lettuce, cabbage, turnip? (white), carrotw, parsley, 
onions. This garden parallelogram of IS by 1 2 ynr<ls, with i 
luxuriant vegetation, the gravel walk, the miniature suinmcr-h 
in the centre, the green wateriug-i>ot, and the bird nets over f 
lettuce, had quite a home aspect amid the baiTen grey ssyenil 
Hud granite, with hundreds of icebergs in sight at any hour, 'fi 
Danish ladies cultivate in their houses most of our garden dowers 
— geraniums, fuchaitifi, roses, nasturtiums (a great favourite), tvj, 
ifec. ; but they are apt to be iJef»troyed if plac^ out of door?. 

(2.) FneL'—li is a great mistake to suppose that the 
htini nothing but blubh'r fra' fuel. Their principal fuel 
(he Birch, Empetrum, Willow, Andromedii, Ledum, VaccS 
ttc, whieh they eolleei and store for wiiirer Uf^e, or nse imni' 
In the ^nmme^. We uped this in nil our travels, though, itt 
an armful t^oou bhizes up like a bunch of straw. The collectklt, 
titoriug, and cutting of the various descriptions of ftiel is lAt^reaCbft 
but I must pass ir over with Ibis notice. 

(3.) Food Ptants,'--1^(\nyMy erroueouH is the notion that they vm 
no vcgotabie food. Berries form their principal article of 
table diet, and comprehend Blaeberries ( Vacciniutu ulitfi 
Cranberries, ICmprtnim^ Vaerinium llHs-itittn, &c. Th* 
latter is used by the Danish residents &» a preserve^ yet 
eaten generally by the naiives; and even the Blaeberries are 
rautiously by them, on account of ?tome supposed noxious quali 

(4,) P/ftirfti n.H'tI /fyyirftir/tify, — Tliere ai^o somv pliutiiy 
which th*! liowcrt., Iouvrp, or roots are eaten raw oj- boiliaid* *udi tH 
Stdtiw HhiKiiola^ the Howeri? of EpHobinm^ Pe«iicuiaru 
of which the flower lops are boiled and eaten a^ a sort of 
the Sorrel ( Oryria)^ and the well-known SiMirvy-^ftait 
/earia), which is used in ecurvy by the native^ who 
ati'ccted by tluit di.-eti**e, though never touching Mlt. I 
ahvatly si>oken of the use of the Angelica by the l>aim 
Oreenlander**. Icehind-moifa (Crlraria istandira) ii» found 
variou.4 places i but is rarely, if ever, used by the 
Variou«( Hpecica of A\%m are uaed a« food^ but only 
when hard pressed by hanger. The pptjcies elitcfly rx 





w 



R, BROWN, FLOKULA DI8COANA* 



267 



AaV|>adlurtok {Chorda Fifum^ Ag,). Fticm vesicrtlosta, L., Alaria 
Pifimi, Grev. (Sutluitsok), (tlic alty of which, Ataria esculmta, 
is eaten on our own shores), Rhodt^menia palmnta^ Grev., are ttlso 
usetl- Lj/coperdon HatrUfa is eaitl to he appliftl to bleeding 
woandB. 

VI, lidroduced Plants, — In iitiother memoir I propose fliacusfting 
the origin and nature of the Greenland rtoni, it4* geogrnphicai 
nmge in Greenland, and tlie bypsometnciil distribution of the 
ipecios; but 1 believe it will not. U> out of phice to conclude the^ 
introductory remarLs on the Diiseo Hon*, by cidtinij th<* att4^nt2oii of 
future collectors to the »ul>iect of intro<lueed or colonist spee^ies. 
Species at all tender, if accidentally iutrodiicotl into Greenland, 
tt>(Migh they may survive the summer, yet can scarcely bo expected 
to live over the winter. Tbore me, however, some plants found in 
Greenland, the indigenous clmraetcr of which is-i doubtful. On 
the sides of the fjords, up to 61% is found, in the form of small 
shrubs, the well-known Sorhus Aueiiparia, L., and fi-om its 
position there seems to be same good reason for supposing it was 
brought to Greenland by the old Norse and Icelandic colonists* 
Agaln^ Xanthium stntmnrivm, L., was found by Giesecke in tho 
garden of the Moravian Brethren at Licht<*nau in the Frith of 
Agluitaok, near Cape Farewell, in 6(f N. lat, ; but was probably 

from Euroiic in seed, Tlie^e subjects, as well m the means by 
?h plants may be transported from i)Iace tr> jdaco, the hyhri- 
of some of the more variable species, especiaOy the Drabus, 
are all eminently worthy of bemg attended to ; and as several 
Arctic erpeditions will be in the field next Hummer, we may hope 
Id obtain some more enlightenment on these matters. 

VII. In addition to tlie gentlemen who have so minute) v 
examined the collections, and regarding whose work I will not Riiy 
a single word, as it speaks for itFclf, I have specially to thank 
I>r. Hooker, Professor Oliver, and Mn J. G. Bnker, of the 
Herbarium at Kew, for much aBsistance, and a rartr blanche in 
the way of whatever aid the magnificent collections under their 
charge couhl allbrd to me while studying and assorting my 
coUoclions. These eoUections comprehend all the species actually 

home B^ far as flowering plants and ftrns are concerned, 
other specicH. however, were identified* but too far gone in 
he pretftrrod. It is possible that n further exunii nation of some of 
th^ fnarine Algie and Licbeiis may show ■M:»me of them to be 
distinct, and during the examination of the zoological collections^ a 
few minute species of Alga? tnny be found. The Diatomaceous and 
Dr^nnidtous collections are so extensive that it was found impossible 
to pre*<*lit the result of their examination in this place, and a largo 
portion of them is not yet accesailile to science.* Though a large 
number of the sj>ocies recorded in this Florula were identified by 
me at the time of collection, yet for the nomenclature as it now 



* For ibo spvoWt eaiuung the ditcoloration of the lea, »ee Tram. Bot. 
Kdm, hft Drt.f. Quart, Jtturu. Snence^ und S€^tman*J^ Jvurn. Bot.^ 1868, 
Tnui«UtioDi in IJum Amlnml, Feb, 27 : lt»A(t, Gevgr. MitL, Ittljti, &c 



2i$% E. MEfjIWy. IXOCriA PBCOLftXi. 



•tAd^. ;iu: r4-xani!-L'> V3^«<» lUBKs are phreit 

iz*, r<^f<r*r. '.•«-. For rtmmrks rvfvdzn^ faealirr, I ■■ tokif 



KK>, F-L.S-. Profesfior o^ Bcooj, UBHastT- College^ 



h TktdictrHm alpimmm, L. (In leaf CMily.j 
I^'-:o I. 

2. ho^m^cMiwt k;fp€rifcremsj Roctb. JakolichsTB, Akaiont. 

3. i7. p^fjm^wk, WahL Akatoat JakolielttTB, ClirietiuihaBls 

lli^rtlek, Clau.4iani. 

4. 77. iajfposiitm*^ L. Jacn^riiaTP. 

.>. Papartr mmdieamie, L. GreenL* ATuooC ChnslHiTa^ Jakols- 

La^Ti, A«. 
6. CoehUaria officimaliMj L^ xvr. fcmegirata, (E. Br.) JaJkobs- 

havn, EgedeemiiMie. 
7^ C officimalu^ L. Illartiek Inlet. 
>^. AraU* alpima^ I^ Claaahmvii, Ounaitok. 
9. Cnrdamine bellidifoiia^ L. JakobshnTS. 

10. JJrtibfi ineaHOy L. JakobshaTo. 

11. /A incanoy var. ClausbavDy JakobehAvn. 

12. JJ. hirta, J>. ClausluiYn, Jakobshavn, Oanartok, Egedea- 

toinde. 
D. hiria, rar. OuDartok, lUartlek. 

13. D, hirla, vur. (?; Siliqua ovato-elliptica v. OTftto-oUoDga 

(Icmiim fiarcp pubenila valvis reticulata pedicello »qiii- 
longa V. cod. loiigioi-e. Godiiavn. 

14. /A muricella, Wiilil. (D. fiiralu, Li^JO JakobshaTiu 

1 ,'}, I), rujH'StriSy W, Br. Jnkobsbavn, EgedcBminde, lUartlek. 

1(5. 1), ajf\ ]), rHjHxfriyiliffurt : glnlirillima, |)ediccllis inferioribu&.^ 

longioribu.s ^iliquis late ovato-elliptids v. fere rotundatis.^ .^ 

JakobsbavD. 
17. Siltae arm/ 1 is, L. Egedcsminde, Claushovn. 

15. Lychnis ajH'talftjlj. Clausbavn. 

L, ajHtala, var. triflora, (R. Br.) CbiusbavD. 
1J>. L. alpiiuif L. Clausbavn, Jnkobsbavn. 

20. Orantivm alpitmm, L. Jakobsbavn, ClauBhavn, Egedet ^i^ 

niind(>. 

21. ('. (ilpinum, vnr. From tlic same localities. 

22. SteUaria httmifusa, Kotib. Jakobsbavn, Akatout, Godbav^^^vr 

Island nortb of Christ iansbaab (Kritertasabuk). 

23. 6'. lojigipcsy Goblie. Christian sbaab. 

24. S. lonyipes^ var. ( S. Edwardsiif R. Br.) Clausbavn, lUa* ^=:rt- 

Ick, Akatout, •Jakobsbavn, Cbristiansbaab. 

25. S, mcdiuy L. (Near houses only.) Cbristiansbaab. 

2(). S, rtTastiouIcs, L. (Ciraslimn trigynurn,) Clausliavn, Go<^ 
bavn, Ounartok, Lyngemarkcn. 

* ** (Sreeiil." — Orecnlandcrs. The name SQCceediog h the natiTe one ia tbe 
Acirtb-UrcenlMid dialect. 



I 




OLIVER, OUEENLAND PLANT8. 



200 



28. 
31. 



32. 

Sd. 
34. 
35. 

36. 
37. 

38, 
39. 

40. 

41. 

42. 

43. 



44. 

4.5. 
4(i. 

47. 



48. 



renarin arcHea, Stev, {A. hiftara^ Wahi.) Lyngemarkcn, 

Claushftvii, 
A, vermt, L, Jakobshavn, &c. 
Montia foniana^ L. Akatout, Ckushavii. 
Alchemilia vutgarix^ h, Lyno^eraarken. 
Uryos ociopcialaf var, inicgrifoiia (V,) (/?. integrifotia^ 

V.) — foliis ppeciQiinibus noniiuUiA basiu versus cii-'i»ato- 

dcnUtii}. Egedesmindo (Miss Levesen, 1866), lllartlok, 

Christiau^haiib, CluushavD, Jakobshavn. 
Patentilla nivca, L. /5. (P. grtsniundka^ H. Er.) Cliius- 

havn. 
P, mwa^ L. lUdrtkk» Clatishavn, Jnkobshaviu 
P» tridcfUatay L. C'hristiftnsbaab, Lyntreamrken. 
/*. anserina^ L. Kiikertasiisuk Island, six miles north of 

Cbmtianshaab, 
Sibbaldia proittmhus, L. Jakobshavn. 
Saxifraifn oppositi folia ^ L. (ireoiiL Kakcik/aufflet. Jiikobs- 

havn, Ilturtlck, Chnstiaashajib, Ef^edesminde. 
.S'. (Aizoon, Jaeq.) Cotyktlou^ L, Chridtiatisluiab, 
S, crcspUasfi, L, lllartlck, Clirietiausbaab, Jakobshayn, 

Egedti^miiidts ClauHhav!i. 
S, stellaru, L, Jakobshavn. 
S. rivulartjit D, Jakobyhavn, lUartlek, Egedesmiode (Miss 

Levesen). 
S, eenmn^ L. Greenl. AkudkiooL Illartlek, Chri^tiansbaab, 

Egwk»^iinnde (Mij?s Leveseu), Clausbavn, Jukobf^bavii. 
*S. tricuspidata^ KeLz. Greenl. Nooneci, Proven* lat. 72*^ 

(Miss Levesen), Egetlcsmindc (Mias Levesen), Clauehavn, 

jakobahavn, 
S, nivaihy L. JakobshavUj Sakkak, Egedesrainde (Miss 

Levesen)., 
JlippurU vulffarU, L. Jakob^bavn. 
EpiMium latifoUum^ L. Chri:<tittUi*biiab, Claushavn, Jakobs- 

havn, Egpdesniinde (MW Levesen), 
E. anffutttifotiumf L. Varielas fobia obloufjo-lanoptibitis 

busi ubhjHU aessJlibiiM v. eubsessiilibuM mterdiim ternatim 

approximatis, raceniis brcvibus foliosis, stylo fttaminibua 

breviore. Lyngcmarken. 
Campanula rolmidi/olia, L., var. linifoUa (Haenk). Clans- 

bavn, Jakobnliavn, lllartlek Inlet. 
C unijhtru^ L. *Iuknbshavn. 
I'arauium tt/iffinosiim^ L, GreeiiL Ped/ooL Egcdearaiiide, 

lUnrtb'k, Christ iansbnab, Jakob^ihuvii. 
pf/raifi rot It ndi folia J L., var. (fvunriifiora^ DL*,, (ireenl, 

iMpuMirt. .Tidcohnhavn, lllartlek, Proven, and Egcdes- 

minde, IBG6 (Mi^ss Levesen). 
P. rofunJi/olia, var. Clirlntiarishaidj, Claiisbavn. 
IHapentift iappOHirii, L. Jakobsliavn, Clau.shavu, Kgodes- 

ninide (MU» Ivevest-n). 
Cnsfiopr hi/pttoidts^ l>.AL Kgt'di«smuitlf» (Mis!* Levesen). 
C\ tctr/if/nnn^ [),M. Groonh /v///avy7. Egedesniindc (Mias 

LeTCJien), Jukoljiihavn, Clauitbavn. 



270 



R* 



56. 

57. 

58, 

59. 

60. 
61. 
62, 
63. 
64. 

65. 

66. 
67. 

68. 

69, 

70. 

71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 

75. 

76. 



78. 

79. 

80. 
81. 

82. 
88. 
84. 
85. 

86. 

87. 






Phi/iiodoce iaxijolia^ Salisb. Egedesminde and Proveo (' 

Levesen), Clausbavn, Christ ianshaab. 
Ledum pahutre^ h. Greenl. Karasatch, ClaushaTHy Jak< 

havn^ GodhavD, Eo:ede9minde (Miss LeveeeD). 
Ij)iscletitria procumbetts, Desf. EgedesnuDde (Mies 

sen), Jakobshavn, Clnushavn. 
Riwdodendron lappGnicuvi^ Wohl. Egedesminde^ Jak< 

havn, Godhavn, Claushavn, Cbristjaushaab. 
Erigeroti alpinus^ L. Jakobsbavn, ClaoahaTii. 
E, compositus, Pursb. Atanakerdluk. 
Artemisia borcalis^ Pall. Ckriadansbaab, 
GnaphaMum nfjrvegicum, Gunn. LyugemarkeiL. 
Artcmistn alpina, L. Atanakerdluk, Lyiigcmflrkcii, JakolM^ 

havn, Claufibavn. 
Arnica nwiUuna^ L.> vai% angxisH/olia, ClAoebavni 

Jakobshavu. 
Taraxacum Dens-leonh, Dest, vt^r, palustrU, CIsushAfl 
Pedicularis iapponica, L. Greenl. Udenaroosci,* Claitf- 

haviij Cbritftiansbaab. Jakobshavn. 
P. Jiammeat L. Jakobshavn, Clausbavo, Egedesmindf 

(Misii Levesen). 
P> hirsutaf L. Jakobabavn, Ulartlek, Egedesminde (ICim 

Levesen). 
Veronica afpinaf L. Ljogemarkeu. 
Bartsia alpina^ L. Christianshaab. 
Piiiffuitula ; sint'flort'y verisim, P. vulffnri* Chriflt 
Armeria vitiyarin^ Willd, Clausliavn. 
Plantttgo maritimu^ L. C'laushavn, Illartlek. 
P. burcaliSy Lrnige. Flora Dauirji, t. 2707, Suppl. 

hftvn. (liocks near Dr. Plttff*s house, very Hparin 
Poifigonum avicuiare, L. CliristianKbaab (C^loDtst?)^ 

Jakubshnvn, Clausbavn^ Obri^tiauBhaab, Provcni and ^g^ 

desminde (Miss LevcRen). 
Ojrr/ria refiijbrmis, Hk. Green). Somnit* JakobtihsTii^ 

lilartlek. 
Betttla nnrtiif L. Gi^eenl. Modikoftic, Jakobshavn, Egedii— ^ 

minde (Miss Leve.sen), Godharn. 
Empctrum nigrtim^ L. Greenl P&MuMtyfri, Egedesmindi^. 

&c* (univerwdly distributed). 
Saiix glauca^ L. Jakobshavn, Claushavn, Egedostnind*'. 
S* arcticoj R. Br. ? Greenl. Sett. Egedesmindes Jak(rf>» — " 

havn* 
S. herbavea^ L. Jakobsliavn. 
.S., ap. ( 9 fl.)Egede8ininde. 

X, an var* S, arcticte f Egeilesminde (Miss Lc^^aeo] 
S. glaucUy L,, var. foliis latioribus apicc rotundatii' 

at'Utatisve (i>olh latis). Jakobsbuvn. 
Tqfieldia palmtris^ L. Claushuvn, Jakobshftvti^ Chj 

btiub. 
Jun4fut biglttmiSf L. Kudlesiet* 




Jakol* — 

1 

itiihH 



* FrobnUy n\\ tbe f^t^ \xaA the 9tiiii« uatue. 




OLIVER, (GREENLAND PLANTS. 



271 



90. 
91. 
92. 

93, 
94. 

95. 
96. 
97. 
98. 
99. 

100. 
101. 
102. 

103. 
\(H. 
105, 

106. 
107. 

108. 
109. 
110. 

111. 

112. 
113. 

114, 

xie. 

:ii7. 
:ii8. 

20. 
21, 




Juncus trifflumufy L. Claushavn. 

J, casinnetiSy Sm. Clausliavn, Jakobshavn. 

Luznia spadicea^ DC. Lyngemarken. 

Z« ht/perborea, R, Br. Jakobshavn, Lyngemarken. 

L. rampesiri^^ Sm., var. coHffesta. ClAU3havD, tJakobshavu, 

lUarUek. 
Scirptis ciEspUosiis^ L. C-laushavTi. 
Eriophoruni capita turn, Hist. Greonl. Okalious&k.* Jliart- 

lek, Egedesmincle. 
E, vagin a turn / L, .T ak obsha v n . 
E^ angustifoUum, Hoppe. clakobshavn. 
Qirfx rupestris^ All. Claii.-ihavn, Jakobsbavn. 
C lagopina^ Wabl. Godhuvn. 
C. riffida^ Good, {d van*.). Jakobtilmvn, Ljngemarken, 

Egedesminde (Misb Levesen). 
C. atpwii/iit^ Walil. Jakobabsivii. 
C rarijiora, Sm. Akatout, liUirtlek, Jakobshavn. 
CI a//itna, 8m. (C K«/*/i», iSch.) Single specimen, Jakobs- 

bayn. 
C, uff, C slenophylltB, Jakobshavn. 
Ahi^cuTfis alpinus^ L. Jakobshavn^ Efjedosminde. 
Hicrochloe nipinn^ L. Greeul, Ecweck* Claushavn, Jakobs- 
havn, IllartJek, &e. 
Phippfin alffidut R. ]Jr. Jakobshavn. 
CalamatfTostis lanceoiata, liohh,(vu,r.€\jthraffmUoUleift Hart, J 

LyngemiU'ken, Jakobshavn. 
^ritctum subspivalumy P. B, CUiuslmvn. 
Elf/mus arcitartnSf L. lllaitlek, Akatout, CUiyshavn. 
Aymsiis rubnt^ L. (A, alpina^ Wahl.) Jakul^shavu, Chm- 

tiandhaab. 
Pirn an nun, L. Jakobshavn. 

P, alpina, L. Claushavn, Lyngemarkeu, Jakobshavn. 
P. alpina^ foi'ma claiior, AkatoiiL 
/*. c'fFjTfV/, Sm. Cluur^havn, ChriHtianHhaiib, Jukobjihavn. 
P, Ttrmoralia^ L. CluUhbavn, Jakubahnvn. 
P, prattnxiit^ L. Frovuu (Mi^a Lovestn)^ Cluubhavn, 

Jakob^hiivn, Cbil^jtianshtuib, 
P.jU-jrimgn^ Wahl. lUartkk. Jakolvshavn. 
P. nemoralis, L., var. Jakobshavn, Akatoui, lllaitlek. 
P,Jie.moHn^ Walil., vur. {P, cvuma^ All) llkaikk. 
Gi^vcria morHima^ M. & K. llhiitlck. 
G* (Pott) ttuyHAtata (Br.) Akatout, ChrisUanfihaab. 
EtHucn. arina, L. Sakkak, Chmshavn, Ilbirlb'k, Jwkobs- 

liavn. 
i^^tttpodiuNt Srinr/a, L. (ire«nb Totemrim', Jakobshavn, 

E»jcde!^minde, &c. 
f^ anuotinum^ L. Jakobijhiivn^ Ilhirllfk. 
EquUetum arcense^ L. Jakobsliavn, Kinlhvsa^t, Lynge- 

marken, ClauHhavn. 



* A gcoeric iMnie. 



272 R. BBOWK, FLORULA DISGOANA. 

126. Equiseium variegatum^ L. Lyngemarken, Kudleset. 

127. Cystopteris fragUiSy Bernh. Claushavn, Jakobshaviiy lUart- 

lek Inlet. 

128. Woodsia Hvensis, B. Br. Claushavn, Jakobshavn, Cbrift- 

tianshaab. 

129. fF, Ilvensisj Yta; ? Too youug to determine^ but possibly 

this may be fV, glabelUi, B. Br. Jakobahavn. 



(II.) Mosses. By M. A. Lawson, M.Al., Professor of Botany ia 
the University of Oxford. 

1. Andretea rupestris, Hedw. Jakobsliavn. 

2. Sphagnum squarrosum, Persoon. Egedesmiade. 

3. Splachnum sphrpricum^ Hedw., var. luHdum, Jakobshavn. 

4. Sp. JVormshjoldiif Asch. Jakobshavn. 

5. Aulacomnium pahistre, Schw. Jakobshavn. 

6. Polj/trichum juniperinum, lann.y \!\r, alpestre, Jakobshavn 

7. P. sexangulare, Hoppe. Jakobshavn. 

8. Brt/um pallens, Sw. Jakobshavn. 

9. B. JVahlenbergii^ Br. Lyngcmarken, Disco. I. 

10. B, cnidunif Schreb. Jakobsliavn. 

11. B. inefiitatum, Dicks. Jakobshavn. 

12. B. cfpspiticlum^ Schw. Jakobshavn. 

13. B, Zicrii (? no fruit), Dicks. Jakobshavn. 

14. B. carncnm (?) B. Jakobsliavn. 

15. B, capUiarc, 11. & W. Jakobshavn. 

16. Leptof}n/?im pgriformc, WiU. Jakobshavn. 

17. Psilop'dum arcticniHj Brid. Jakobshavn. 

18. Dicranum virens, Hedw. Jakobshavn. 

19. J), cerviculatumy Hedw. Jakobsliavn. 

20. D, squarrosum, Starke. Lyngcmarken and Egedesminde. 

21. D. pafustrc, Brid. Jakobshavn. 

22. D, polycarpuniy H. & T. Jakobshavn. 

23. Grimmia pulvinata, Hook, et Tayl. Godhavn. 

24. Orthotrichum rupestre, Schlech. Jakobshavn. 

25. Conostamum horeale, Sw. Jakobshavn. 

26. Bartramia ithyphyllay Bred. Jakobshavn. 

27. B.fontana^ Schw. Jakobshavn. 

28. Tortula falUiXy Hdw. Jakobshavn. 

29. Ceratodon purptireuSf Bred. Jakobshavn. 

30. Didynodon ruhellus, Br. Jakobshavn. 

31. fVcissia cirrhata, Hdw. Godhavn. 

32. Distichium eapillaccmn, Br. ct Sell. Jakobshavn. 

33. Hypnum Schreberi, Willd. Jakobshavn. 

34. //. uncifiatum, Hdw. Jakobshavn. 

35. If, riparium, L. Jakobshavn. 

36. Jf.Jiiiit:/ns, L. Jakobshavn. 

37. //. pnfchellum, Dicks. Jakobshavn. 

38. If. j/w/frj Dicks. Jakob.shavn. 

39. If. rutabuintfif Linn. Jakobshavn. 

40. //. strnmineitm, Dicks. Jakobshavn. 




I 



CAaRINOTON, HEPATIC^ : LINDSAY, MOSSES. 273 



^n ftddiiion to the above, Mr, Alex, Croall detected among 
Algae gathered on the shore, or washed up from the harbour of 
Godhavn, several species of Mosses, which had been swept dowo 
by the mouiitflin-torrents from Lyngemarkeu FeU, and other of 
the bold mountains surrounding the "good hBrbour.** They may 
hftve possibly some geological interest in reference to the imbed- 
ding of land species in marine fonnations in company with amrine 
plants They are as followg : — 

Dicranum acoparium. Polyti-ichum umigerum, sexangulare, et 
pflifenim* Bryum albicans, nutans, et Walilenbergii. Hypnum 
fluitans et stnimineum. 

Some are additions to the muscological flora of Greenland. Mr. 
J. SA0LB1I, R. Bot. Gardens, Edinburgh, has made some correc- 
tiOD0 id this Ust. 



I 



(HI.) Hepaticit, By Benjamin Caurington, M.D., F.L.S., 
Eccles. 

[The Uepatieos here enumerated were almost solely collected 
at Jakobshavn along with the Mosses alreaily described- As 
Done of them are of any gieat rarity, it has wot been thought 
Deo^aaty to ailix in this summary the exact localities in every 
Me.^R B.] 

1- Jungermannia barbata, var, attenuata^ Mart, 

2. J, barbata^ var. Floerhii, N, ab E, 

3. J. barbalay var. h/capodiodes, 

4. J, catenulata, Hiibner, 

5. J. divaricaiGy E, B, 

6. J. acuta, Lindbg. 

7. J, minuta, Swz. 

8. J. aipeMtris, Schleich. A few stems among J. minuta, 

9. J, Metiformis, Ehrh, 

10. Piilidium ciliarct N. ab K. 

1 1 . Marcha ntia polymorphn^ Li » n. 
Dr. Carrington (in letter, Aug. 7, 1868) remarkB.— " 1 liavc also 

<ft^ Greenland) J. ffneniandiva, N, ab iC. ; J,vordiJhlia, Hook. ; 
*^ ^Ibtscens, Hook, ; J, aaxicoln, Sehradr. ; J. biempidaia^ L. ; 
'^J*tl4W€(U Lightf. ; J. laxifolith Hook/' The following specitis 
™»e alao been recorded from Greenhmd :^ S^rteosri/phus spfiace- 
*'*'^, N. ab E. ; GtfmnomUrum concinnatum, Corda ; Alienhtria 
^^/>rejija, Hook,; Scapania compacta^ Liiulbg. ; S. uliginom^ 
Zr: *b E. J Marpanihus Fhbovianus, N. ab E. ; and Fmtbriaria 
'^^•cTayl. 

(tV.) Lichent* By W. Laltber Lindbat, M.D.» F.R.S.E., 

F.L.S,, Perth. 
^ • Akctoria jubata^ L., var. chah/beiformiSy L. Jakobehavn, ^o. 
^ A, oekroteuca, Ehrh. Jakobshavn and Go dhavn. ^ 

* 2b« d!iD Pr. W. L. Lifldiay'i " Lichwi-flora of Greenland," /wthtr am, 
\j^ MNnpriiiag the later detenniMtiood of thete »pecie« and varieties.— 



^4 tL WjW%, rLOWCLJk DiSOOAXA. 



^, /!', armUaia, Ebrh. JakMcfasm. Sec 

f#. hoiAylima areHea, XjL* New IQtftfek zianer. 

JO. \ejfkrfyrHn artiieum. L. G<>ihitTD. 

J J . PtAtuj^n apkihom^ Ach. Eecdeaniiide. 

1 2. F. rtn^otifi. L. ? JftkobshaTD, Ac. 

J.';. /'. rMHina, IfolTni. 

14. var. rtf/<^4c«/tji, Anctt. pr. p. Egedesminde, Ljiigemftrken, 

1 o, Sftlm-ina crocea, L. Ljngenurkeii, ULutlek glacier. 
\*'}. I'ltrmalin uixaiilU, L. Jakobsham, Ilkrtiek glacier. 
J 7. /'. MfUMiiiu, rtjr. /HtMniJhrmUj Ach, Ukrtlek, Ac* 
18. /^ M/ixaiUiM, %'ar. tpluerapkoroidea, Linda. Egedefimindey Ac 
If^. P. »fixfUUiM,\aT.omphalodtSj'L. Jakobshaviiy Egedesninde^ 
Ulartlek j^bcier, &c. 

20. /'. olivacra, L. Egedesminde. The collection t««>*^m 

w;v(;nU vurictitfi of thu. 

21. /^ Fahlunenns, L. Jakobshftvn, &C. 

22. /^ laiiata, L. Jakobshavn, Illartlek glacier. 
2'). /^ fncauMta, Sm. Jakobshavn, &c. 

24. /'. ntygia^ L. T Several varieties.) Jakobshayn, Illartlek 

gliu:if;r. 
2/>. PhyKcia pulveruUnta^ Pers. Jakobshavn. 
2f>. P, cfpMifi, llfTm. Kudlesaet. 
27. P, Htdlarig, L. Jakobshavn. 
2H. Plfirodium eleganjt, Link. Jakobshavn, &c. 
29. /'. chryaoleucum, Sm. 1 g- ji-g-.^ 

80. /'. chrynoleucum, var, opacum, Ach, j 
.11. />a«««rta ^runn^a, Sw. / Ounartok, Godhsra, 

.T2. /'. fn-unnea, var. coro«fl/a, Hffin. i nfif u 1 °' 
' ' l^ Illartlek glacier. 

.'i<S. Stfuamaria gaxicola^ Poll. Jakobshavn, Godhavo. 

•M. Lecfwora ventosa^ L. Jakobshavn. 

.'J/i. A. tartarcdy L, '\ Jakobshavn, LjBK^"^ 

.'J(). A. tartareuy \n,r,friffif/u, Sw. > marken, Godh»vi»» 

37. A. tartarvay var. gonatodes, Ach. J Illartlek glacier. 

.'JK. A. parvlla, L. Kudlesaet. 

lUi. var. Upsalienii, L. Jakobshavn, &c. ^ 

40. A. f>rw////r/, Dicks. (Various varieties.) Jakobshavn «i^ 

Illurtlok p^Iacior. 

• 'rhiH iiiro fimp)id-lookin|? Lichen wati fband by me in coniMen^^ 
nliiinilniici* on n tlry nioMy alope before reachin;^ the Dlartlek glacier. It «•* 
iU'ti«ct«l l>y Mr. W. O. Smith, having been aooidentallv packed in tiie f^ 
imrcvU. - K. H. 



LllfMAT, LICHENS OF 6nBlSNZ.AKD. 



275 



4i Lecanora polyiropOf £hrh. Jakobshavn, Ounartok, Ege- 

desminde, &c. 
*2. L polylropa^ var, inirtcata, SchrfttL Ounartok. 
43* £, Ixitlw^ Ehrh. Jakobshavn, Ouuartok* 
^^- L subftisca^ L. Jjiko))&hayo« &c. 
*5. X. smfusca^ y^-epibrya^ Ach. JakobshaTn, &c. 
^. £. hryonthoy Ach. JakobshaTrn, &c. 
'*''• X. turfaceat Whlb. Jakobahavn, Ac. 
^« /». iophodeSy Ach. (Many varietiGB.) JakobBharn^ &c. 
^^' L calcarea, L. Kadlesset and Jakabshavn. 
^^' L cinerca^ L. Kudlesset (various foims). 
^^" L, tmaragclula^ Whlb. Jakobshavn. 
**• Siereacauhn paschale^ L. 
^^' '5, tomentosumy var. atpinum^ Laiir. 
*j' ?ar, deundatuit^ Aucti. Egedesmiode, &€. 
^•i. Cladonia pyxidata, L, (Various vara.) Jakobshavn and 

niortlek glacier, 
^* C, vertieillaiaf Hflrn., var. cervicomis, Ach. Jakobshavn, 

^'' C. graeiUs^ L, (Various vars.) Jakobshavn, Illartlek 

gUcier, .fee. 
^'^^ C ajfMuracrcta, Flk, Egedesminde and Godhavn. 
^' C fur cat CL, Schreb, Godhavn (various forms). 
^* C eoraucopioideSy L. (Various vara.) JnkobshnvTi, &c. 
il* ^'Jt'fibriafa, L. Jakobshavn, &c. 
^* C de/ormis, L, Jakot»sha\Ti, Egedesmintio, ^c. 
?^* C raftffi/erina^ L. Egedesminde. 
^' C degeneransy Flk. Jakobshavn, Stc. 
??• ^* ufwuilu, L. Godhavn. 
?^' 77mmnolia i^ermicularis, Sw. Jakobshavn. 
*• ^mbilicaria hyperborea^ Ach, (Various vars.) Jakoba- 
6g bavn, &c. 
^' ^-^. arctica, Ach. Illartlek glacier. 

■ ^^ eyiindricfi, L. (Various vars.) Jakobshavn and 
*.Q Xlgedeaminde. 
ij" ^^, velteat L. Jakobshavn. 

-a' '^^cidea Grvanlandica^ Linda.* JakobshavD. (Kudlesoet.) 
^A* '^^ vemalu, L. Jakobshavn, &c. 

^.' ^^. parasema, Ach. (Vara.) Godhavii| Atanakerdluk. 
^,* '^. tapicidoy Ach. Jakobshavn. &c. 
-.g' ^^^ fusco-atra^ L. Jakobshavn. 
ij-' '^. ca^atiea^ Hepp. ? Illartlek glacier, 
i* ^^, sabulelarumf Schreb. Jakobghavn, Ike. 
I* -t. obscuratay Smrf. ? Jakobshavn , &c. 
^fij -t. dUcifc^rmisy Fr. (Various vara.) Illartlek gUwjier, &c. 
^* ^tv atrcMdba^ Ach. ( Vwious vars.) Jakobshavn, &c. 
^' -t. pe#r#Fa, Wulf. (Var.) Atanakerdluk, Jakobahavn, Ac. 



-. Hiin ispecic^T with nt'u? forms (species iind varielic*") not here entimeruted, 
^.?^ described Sit a *oparute Meuioir in preparation. [TVaus, Linn, Soc. 
'^' pp. 305-a68, with five 4to. coloured plates.] 

& 2 



Vi. A. tlfm/iiU, Sinr. JaiciaaflEva. lUE 




rv\^ MarmtAl^m. By Am. C»>aix. A^wrSrtf RSl, 
laa Joins Author of ''ne Xitare-Fristod Bril 

[I <iI4 nriC make tii« colketioa of AI^ a ^Mckl objeet* aad 
tbi^ er«tipifftdT«i J krire nimibcr of spedes hen r t cBi i l e d is dae 
mr;K to tfa« f kill and {Mcnt indiBCnr cf Mr. CraaB, thm to nj 
fffA^m] a/mnnen or diligence on the pwt of theeofledflr. ffittoto^ 
ezdosiTe of freshwfticr fonnsy diere here been Immd faejaad 
6^f' north ktitode orer the iriii^ Arcck regkn 63 
Marine Algie.* The weD-kno'im algologists who hATe 
thiA coIlectioD hare been able to deteet, bj critieallj c 
erery pwrap, 41 speciefl of marine and 11 frediwater forms in or 
arouod Difloo Baj alone. — ^R. B.] 

MELANOSP£BM£iE. 

1 . Fueut vesiculasusy L. Bitenbenk shore, with Eetoeanms eritutMS, 
&c. 30th Angnst, t.c. Egedesminde, off Rifko^ Ac 
Most of the specimens are rather dwarfish, some of them eras 
less than an inch in length, jet even some of these bear buH, v^ 
among them are specimens both with and without 



2. Fucui nodoiut, L. 

liathcr more slender than nsoal, and the leceptacleB more ^ 
Ikmc ; but Mimilar forms maybe seen on our own shores. Hoatiiig 
in sea out of sight of hmd, in Davis's Strait^ off lachtenaD. Jdd^ 

3. Deamarettia acvleata, L. 

Scarcely differing from ordinary specimens, and barren as itfov* 
Jakobshavn harbour, in 4 to 5 fathoms, muddy bottom; TCf^ 
plentiful. 

4. Alaria Pylaii, Grev. 

Common just within low-water mark at Jakobshami Ac. W^ 
by the natives. 

* Oickis, Joom. Lion. 8oo. Botany, vol iz. pp. t86-M8. 



^^z 



I 



CBOAXL, MARINE AJ.QM OF GttUEKLAlfD. 



277 



Laminaria sacckaTina^ Lam. 
ETerprhere in the Lammarian zone ; called kak-wSk hj the 
nrntiTOB. 

6» Chorda JUum^ Ag. 

Rockj>oolBy ftnd dmilar to such on our own shores, also m 2 
fiuhoms ; abondADtly. Sakkak, Wuigatz Strait August. 

7, Afforum TVimm, P. & R. 

Very abundant in Egedesminde harbour, in from 5 to 6 fathoms ; 
substance of frond very brittle whea freah. 

[In both 1861 and 1867 I identified as common along the Arctic 
shores, iMminaria hngicruru^ De la FyL, and L, fascia, Ag, 
Among a small collection made at Godbavii by Frue Smith, 
w'tCe of the Royal Inspector of North Greenland, I detected L* 
digiiaia^ JU, in addition. — H. B.j 

DlCTYOTACE-K, 

8. Dicii/osiphofifcBniculaceuSt Grev. 

The gpecimeoB exhibits both the solid and listulofie state of the 
plant, but no spores were observed. Most of the specimens had 
been found floating* Jakobshavn, 3 fathoms, July 5, with many 
Diatomaceae ; Egedesminde, June 10th, h igh water-mark ; poob 
on ahore, with Schiezonemu o&tusum ; Claui*havn, 30t!i *Tune, 
floating near shore ; Disco Bay generally ; Ritenbcnk, on shore, 
AogUBt ; Sakkak, in 2 fathoms, August ; everywhei'e common, 



r 



Chordariaceje. 



9, Chardarmfla^ellifornm, Lam. 
Parasitic on L, lofifficnfris, floating in Davis's Strait, May 29th ; 

tock-pools at highwater-mark, Egedesminde, 10th June. 

10. Etachista fucicoli. Fries. 

PaTMutic on Ftieug vesicutoaus^ in company with E, crinitag ; m 
fock-pools within highwater-mark, where strcftms of fresh water 
flow OTcr it during a portion of the day. Jakobshavn, June, 

EctocabpacejK. 

^ 1* SphaceUaria plumota^ Ag* 

Is. A eirrhata, Ag. 

The first fpecies appears to be the most common, as small frag- 
^UDti of it were continually occurring entangled with almost 
^^my vpecimen .... No separate specimens were observed ; 
^Hii rerj satisfactory fragments were found among a mtu^d of 
^hbisb washed up at highwater-nuirk, at Godhavn harl>our, with 
^ther Alge and freshwater plants. 

J^w Eetocarpus silicuhsus, Lyngb, 

V«7 dwarfleh, scarcely an inch in height, and barren ; floatmg 
h ibe sea off HotstceDsborg^ &c, V^ay, 




278 a 

c:-ir.i^j Lri^-tT*::!*. ":■-: Tr:i.:«-: fr:±:: if n-x idenitcil with this 
•pi^leS. il=7 ir= «rLiinl7 r^rj *:l-jaeiT allied, at lemsc ia Hiy c tm g, 
. . . . I: c&zz'.: l^ & T?r7'i=:CCiniBtjafpece% afifin^Deots of it 
wrrs: -x-r-^rrlzz -arri alz:-:*": eray speci=:ec <^ten mnch decooi- 

RHODOSPERMiLS. 

Rfi*>DOXIXAC£J£. 

15. Pol'itipKoiKia yre^i<ita^ GreT. 

Mcei of the sccti'Xis eichiMt 5ve nphona^ oeeasooBUj fbnr, 
while P. arctitn i« aadd to have seven. The speciiiiens were pu»- 
sicic&l on the stems of Laminarxx. from a depth of S fatfc*»-*« 

^ JakotRbavn . ; alio in rockj poob at Egedesminde, &c 

16. MfUfhenapolymorpha^l^ 

A very characteristic specimen of this species, amoofth, roonded; 
the upper surface covered with the dot-like ponctnreB of the 
Cemmidia ; the margin free, and somewhat carved upwards. A 
fract'ire shows that onir the npper snr&ce, forming a narrow 
zone of aboQt Jth of an inch in depth is alive, being still filled 
with the colonring matter of the cells, the rest being pure wbit& 

17. Delesseria an^ttstissimaj Griff. 

A small fragment only of thLs was detected entan^ed amoof 
the filaments of Con/erra ^lelagonium^ without froit, bat sofB- 
ciently characteriirtic of the species. Jakobshavn, 5 fiithomSf 
plentiful. July. 

18. Ifypnea purjmrascenSjHstTY, 

Small fragments only of this species were observed, mixed op 
with others, also without fruit. £gedesminde« June. 

19. Euthora cristaUi, J. Ag. 

A email but very distinct specimen of this was foond grotHfl? . 
on a fragment of Tulndaria indicisa, L. 

20. Rhodophyllis vepreculaj J. Ag. 

A single small specimen of this was dredged from 12 &^^ 

Egedesminde. June, with Ftustra avkuUuu ^ 

Callithamnion americanum, 

21. Dumontiajiliformis^ Grev. 

Just below high-water mark at the <«Eirko" of Jakobflb*^ 
June, plentiful ; Riteul>enk shore, August. 

22. Kallifmenia reniformis, Turn. . ' 
Wo have some hesitation in referring the specimens to ^ 

spocioH, not from any doubts entertained as to their identity,!"'* 
from the circumstance of the specimens of previous ooUectioDj 
having been refeiTcd to a different species, or at least de8ign»t» 
by A diferent name (Kallymenia Pennyiy Uar.) «... 



CBOAIX, HABIKE AI.QX OP GREENLAND. 



279 



I 



23. Hoioioceion ramentaceum, J. Ag, 

There are numeroufl examples of this, many of them quite 
simple, iind others abundantly branched, and from 3 to 7 inches 
in leogth* Jakobshavn, Snkkak (2 ffithoinji), Stc, v.c. 

34. RftodtjfHenia pabnuia, L. Jukobshayn, in 3 fttfcbonis, July, 

Ceiujieace^. 
Ctramium rubrttm, J, Ag, 
A rather slender form, the mtun stems opaque, the branches 
enb-diAphAnous. It miiy prove a distinct species whew tht» 
pQZzling genua is better understood. Wt^shed up on the beach at 
Godhnvn. September. 

fG, PtUota stfraia, Kutz. 

Another intermediate form, and equiilly puxzling. Only n fewl 
fragmentary specimens were observed, mixed with otlier species v 
lhi6 anatlefit of these, howevej-, exhibit the doubtful chanicter of ^ 
tke sped&a. Jakobt^havn, 3 fathoms ; just below highwater* 
mtfk at CUoshavn, covered with Cclhdaria rrptans, 

27, Cailiihamnion amcncanum^ Harv. 

Only B few fragmeut^ of whivt f^eeras refemblo to thU species; 
were detected among Rhodophyllis vcprccula. It is remarkable 
for the length of the joints, and tho patent and attenuated 
bnmchee. 

28. a liothii, Lyngb. 
Scarcely diJTering even in luxuriance from well-gi*own specimens 
our own aliores. 

CHLOROSPER:vrEiE. 

SlPHONACJi^. 

Brp&psis pluftwsa^ Ag. 

'^^ ■ r n small, but characteristic of the Hpecies. Tho size 
mo^, i portly upon the season (June), and partly on tho 

locality (in rock-pools). 

CoNFERVACEjE. 

Ctadophara arcta^ Knts. 

tho collection there are numerous epecimena exhibiting the 
both in the spring and summer form, some of them in a 
luti fully sporiferoQS condition. Pools on shore, [ Jakobshavn, 
June ; Egedefsminde, simdy ahoru close to high-watei* mark, Juno 
10 1 Snkkak^ 2 fathoms, August. Grodhavn^ washed on beach, 
September. 



Conferva arenosa, Carm. 

inis in Htructuro, but tlui lilamentB finer than u^ual in 
ten. Jakobslmvn, rocks on shore, July. 



this 



C, melagomum^ Web. et Mohr. 
Tba itp«cime&s agree well ju structure, but thoii' luxuriance is 
rmiMlcable { fnm 18 to 24 inches being the average siz^. They 



B. BBOWN, FLOBULA DISCOANA. 



280 



are thus much less rigid than if they were more dwarfish 
stunted in their growth. Jakobahavn harbour, 5 f&thoms, July." 
plentiful ; and outside of the harbouFj in 3 fathoms, not so coiusxtosi^ 




33, Conferva Youngeana^ Diilw. 

To this apecies wo refer a few filamenta apparently aitikch< 
slice from the stem of fMminaria longicvHris^ being utiftblc 
foctorily to refer them to any other. Found floating in D&Tia 
Stmit, off Rifkol, mixed with Schizonema obtusum, June. 



Ulvace^. 



I 



34, Enteromorpha compressa, Grev 
As plentiful and as polymorphous apparently as on our o 

flhoros. All the foruis, however, seem easily referable to tlae 
present species. Jakobshavn, 3 fothoms, July ; Sakk&k, Atigatu 

35. Ulva latissimaf L, 
Equally abundant with the last. 

August, &c. 

36* Porph^ra vulgaris, Ag. 
Sakkak, 2 fathoms. August, 

37. Bangia ftutco-purpurea^ Lyngb, 

..... Floating in the sea, Davis' Strait. May. 



Jakobahavn, 3 fiitlioiA«. 



8 CILL AIORlACEiE . 

38. Lynghya Carmickfielii^ Harv. 
Filaments of this species are frequently entangled among 

specimens, bo that the species deed not appear to be 
but they are very variable in thickness, and several species 
be included. Floating in the sea, parasitic on the stem of 
narin hngicruris, in Davis* Strait, off Hokteensborg. Ikfaj, 

39. L,fiacca, Harv. 

Only a few fibments of this were observed mixed with the Ii>( 

and others. 

40. L, speciosa, Carm. 
A Une 6{>ecimen of this beautiful species was picked up flotliof 
Davis' Strait, north of Hobteonsborg, May. 



m 



(VI.) Freshwater AlgiB. By G. DiCKiK, M. A., M.D, FX^ 

Professor of Botany in the University of Aberdeen. 

UlVACBjB. 

I. PrasiolaJluviaiiUs^ Sommerfeldt. 

This Avas first described as a native of Norway by Sommcd^ 
in 1828. Mouegldni has morerooently published it as P. Sawle% 
and Grunow ha8 couijtituted var. ^, Ilauitnanni ; it ia^ bowvn^* 
right to retain the name lirst given it. Both fomu are in Uu* 




r 
I 



I 



DICKIE^ PRB9H WATER ALG^. 281 



ooUectioo» gathered " closo to highwater-mark m freshwater 
<» pools, visited by the spraj^ at Christianshaab, August; und 
<' dried-Dp pools near the sea, JakobshaTzif June. The large 
** form, var. )3^ in freshwater pools, Egedesmiiide, &c.* The 
plant varies cooaiderably in aiae. In places only partially moist, 
H Is email; and when superficially examined in the dry state, it 
might be mistaken for the large forms of P, crispa, TbiB error 
I eooiinitted in a list of species collected by Dr. P. C. Sutherland 
in the summer of 1852.t It is reported, on the anthority of Vahl, 
as a native of Spitzbergen, Mr. Brown's specimens comprehend 
various stages. At first it is linear with narrow stripps, snbsc- 
quently oblong-ovate with undulate and urenate margin, and finally 
very broad and irr<^ular in outline. 

2. Enieromcrpha compressa, Linn, 

The specimens might be referred to the smaller and simpler 
forms of this variable species. " Jakobshavn (June), in a rock 
** pool within highwater-mark ; but the same poob <lunng slack 
•* water fill by influx of freshwater str«?ama, so that the plants grow 
*• half the time in fresh, and the other half among salt water." — ^R.B. 

3. E, pereurtaf J. Ag. 

** Lyngemarken, Disco Island (September) ; and a few specimens 
TOLXied with Prasiola^uviaiUiSf iil Jakuhshavtif in slightly brackish 
poobf ont of reach of the tide, but visited by sea spray, Juno 
1867/'— B- B. 

CONFERyACEiE, 

4- Qmfirva bombydna, Ag. 

^ Stagnant pools of fi'esh water, among the rocks near the sea, 
Jakobshavn, Egedesmindef and Lyngcmurken (July, June, and 
^cptoittber).'*— E. B. 

^, C.fi>eeo9a^ Ag. (Microsporajloccosa, Kut/,.) 

Tlie tpecimena are not in very good condition, but c^mnot bo 
ireferred to in any other genus or species. " Pools of fresh water 
^ near the sea, Jakobshavn (July), and Egedesmtude (June)/* — 
B.B. 

ULOTHniCACEA. 

^ Uioikrix mueom, Thunb. 

There are only two small specimens, which, however, may bo 
referred to this species. '^ Mol^t places nonr running water, 
** £g«de«minde (June), and in streams, Jakobshavn (June)." 

7. '" ''//«, Kut2. ? 

1 , distinct from the former, judging from the diameter 

* Kanyof the marine Al^ were cacnutcd with vtHoofl Fommmifhn, 
^tyaoa, and oilier Z^xipbjtes. Among the Utt*? were obiierved CeUejxu-a 
pmmie^^^ C. ramtUosa, CeUttiaria reptanSf Crista ^itmea^ Fiu$tra apictt- 
lurif, Tulntlinnrti paltna^ Tubularia indivUa^ 8cC, 

t App«>i(ilji to Inglditild's *' Summer Settt^h ht Sir John Fraoklia," 1953. 



S8S B. BBOWN^ FLOBXTLA DISOOAHA. 

of the filaments ; but in a genus where the length o( the joints 
and the diameter vary so much, it is not easj to name from dried 
specimens. Very much entangled and mixed with Confirva 
. bombycina, '* as a floating scum on freshwater pools close to the 
" sea and within reach of the spray. June 1867."-^^ B. 

PALHELLACEiE. 

8. Hydrurm penicillatus^ Ag., var., partndua, 

<* In filaments (attached to small stones) in the current flowing 
<* from the spring at Lyngemarken ; Sept. This spring maintains a 
'* uniform temperatui'e all the year round, and remains unfirpxen 
" during the winter." — ^R. B. The specimens, in the dry state, were 
not in a condition to show general outline ; but there can be no 
doubt about the genus, a comparison with an authentic specimen 
having been made. The cells (" gonidia," Kutz.) are in lineal series, 
ovate or oblong-ovate, and with one end, usually the narrower,* 
colourl^s. I have little doubt that it is a small variety of the 
above species, which is vridely difiiised, and varies much in size 
and branching. In " Nereis Americana," by the late Professor 
Harvey, it is reported as attaining a length of one or two feet at 
Santa Fe, New Mexico ; in Northern Europe its size is very much 
less, and in every respect liable to great variation. In Fries* 
** Summa Vegetabilium Scandinaviae," it is reported as fonnd in 
Norway and Lapland. Mr, Brown*8 discovery of it in Greenland| 
in nearly lat. 70° N^, is of some interest, when the circumstances 
are so peculiar. 

OsCILLABIACEiB. 

9. Lynghya cincinnata, Kutz. 

Abundant in "Lyngemarken Spring. Sept." — ^R.B. After 
careful examination, I am constrained to refer this to the above 
species, which appears to be widely diffused in North Europe. 

10. OscUlaria. 

There are two species (mere fragments), and mixed up with tbe 
last, but they are too imperfect for specific recognition. 

Chroobsccaoks. 

11. Microcystis, sp. 

Mr. Brown found this on the petrous borie of a Seal lying on 
damp giound at Egedesmindo, in the form of a faint green cnat 
It may be referred to the above genus, but further I cannot venture 
to decide. 

During examination of portions of the species already enumerate* 
the following Desmidieae and DiatomacesB were incidentally 
noted : — 

Desmidib^. 

Cosmarium undulatum, Corda. Penium truncatumy Bretk 
C connatuMy Breb. ? Closterium ComH, Ehr. 

^aurastrum pygmcBum^ Breb. ? 



DICKIE, FKE8HWATEB : SMITH, FUNGI, 



283 



DlATOKACKfi. 

J^ptfeHeviM ncetlatit, Kutz. Cocconerna lanceolaiun^ Ekr. 

£mnoiia mnnodon^ Ehr, MvriUion circularv^ Ag, 

Syncdra utna^ ELr. Odontid'tum mesodon^ Kutz, 

Niitirula dicjcphala^ Kutz. Tahdlaria Jiocculoia^ Kntz, 

Stauronris nnccpn^ Ehr. Himantidium majus^ W, 8m. 
*y. grariiisj Ehr. 

In coDcIueion, it amy bo remarked, that while grenter special 
atleutioD to the fre»hw»t€r forma wonld probftblj have produced 
a fiew more epeciei^, novertheleys that departmeut of th«> Horn uf 
Daoi^U Greenltiod cannot be otherwise than limited, on Hccoimt 
o£ the pecuUur conditions of the region — the interior being at all 
Mtaooa A frozen waste, and merely u miiTow line along the t^hores 
proo tnting gXrcums and pools of freeh water^ with here and there 
» few springSL 



(VII.) F)*nrfi, Br WoHTflmorow GEOROii Smith, FX.S., 
London, 



m Rfewspnngs 

^^ (vn.) F 

^^^^^^^Hlcles of Fungi fonud in nn Arctic country like Creen- 
^^^HHHm but few, and it being jdmoBt impossible to prenerve 
tbem in a condition fit for after study and determinntion cnuj^d 
me to be le«e anxious than otherwise 1 might have been to pay 
much attention to their cone4!tion. The extraordinary heat and 
dryness of the summer of 1867 were not favourable for the 
growth of this order of plants. Mr. Smith has, however, been 
tbfe to identily with some certainty nearly all of the f^pecies 
which I brought home. — R. B,] 

L Affaricus (Amrtniia) v^tginaUt^^ Bull. Mo8»y bank opposite 
the Settlement of Godhavn. Not uncommon* Sept. 

2. A, (Clitovyftt) inftindibuliformUi ScliivelF. Grodhavn, &Ai, 
Sept. 

3w A, {Cliiacyhc) brmnalist Fr* Jakobshavu, &c. 

•i, UyijTophorus virt/inius^ Fr. Thifl cojumon caculout apecies 
I found at Jukobahavn, &c, 

5. Bohtti^ scabtr^ Fr, Jakobshavn. July. 

6. Cromyvt'H intrmat Lev. Parafiitic on leaves of Aichcmdia 
viiii/arit, L., at Lyugemarkoui Disco Island* Sept. 



jjgk , -s. ^ ri>j*.r s ^sz, ~~fTing ^nwi 



^■' ^." .--£. — .^1.-J.^ 





if-' iS2r-r.:.rr. •'ta* -:r»^»-i vi n^ — .lscs— iora 

:'.>'.t<^i<i V i-m .. V-i£ >f*?-r.>rii a sue ^rnr^ ir ixe 

' ',-.-«..»...! .-^wM-r.i^ £-£:>=..rujR. " :r ,mT. .a 

;.xKt :.*-r- 1 v.r a •-•j-.^a fcc.7 «:r*«r-r.- tea 

Lnnii. ,r •v'.'-iwi »*» '*ii—.ur ".•sfca TiJinii. Ji ■jr*>'n ami, ■mnmii^ 
/.vrfn ill Sit- f.'irv^ .!' ./ir'iimar.i.n utrafcrihu* "o 3iit- 

'r^*H '.(k*<>.-« ;i' ::ip: Mid i."!' >t 1 *araAi.tf~irS j: "ae " .I'inMm .sailecaBd 

** /-n.-'^r^. 'Vr-iW.Ji.-.iijpj.iiK- ' • X!u ▼'-.re innl-vinA % regoti o^ 
*:x,f^.t -TjfM . .'V .\.r.\ V, •>. luiihiTQ-d'.ra o-i"^ b^oi szai^. Tbe 



''A^u*, ***. o»^ iL.-y* i^r. r;.'. ••:/*. M.ii.r ':«:L>rt!:iGfa wwe made by 
If..'./' *v: vr',---.-<.^..;. 

'{:.(■ j/^..\.-:* '.f f/r. H.-o-r.-.'r "-r. ^I-ror: : rL-? Tr-ir^ cLiedr OD, or in 

'Ari/ ';^j\'.t>AA Ti.H, ifi-llii-orjSL* V>;:ill:ie5 mentioned by Fries 
ir.r,=«'j/: r.r.M ih\[tiw\ti%, which, haTis? no means of mficertainiDg 
l\,f.r t-.xhd-t ^*-/^fiL\i\i\(A\ f^j^ition, I arrange In alphabetical order .' — 

AUrik, Arnaralik, AmiuoAnuk. OkiTiaekan. 

f/vUj«Af;. Pakiuok (JakobehaTn dii- 

\ltA9.u\u\0r,ry^ and dlitrict — trict). 

indu'lin^ ikkat/jk. Sarmalik, Serkonsiik, Sjd- 

iMffV/k. ostbagten (district). 

AuViMii'\ititi\f, Tiksulik, Toimadliarbik, 

KifkiArKiik. Tessarmiut. 

NiiiiK-Mi', NjfiraMiirkfioit, Nc- Umanak, Upernavik. 
noMiilik. Wajgattet [Waigat]. 

I liiivc iiIm) iiirlurlfd in my Enumeration all Greenland localitiesi 
III MiImuih, ri'VAt\u\vi\ ill tlin following works or papers: — 

I. (1,11.1/, : «« IliHloi-y oFGreonlund" (1820). His list of 
I.Ii-Ikiiii f|i. aiH) Ih nnim]M)rtant and very meagre, not amoanting 

* '/Viifia \{ny\\\ HiH'irty of Hciviiccfl, UpKala, scrici iii. vol iii. 18f»0. 

/ "OfMnivnitoiifi 1)11 Urvci^ndlAcYi^M:'— Tnai,LiD. Soe. xxril (1869). 



DB. LINDSAY ON TUB LIOHEN-PLORA OF OREENLAKD. 285 



to tlnrij epecies, named according to the nomencltiture and classi- 
ficmtion of Dillenius and Hudson. Several names it is impossible 
now lo identify with moctero species. 

2. Th. M. Fries : *' Lichenes Spitsbergenses," 1867 f published 
ia ihd ** KoDgL Svenske Vetensksps-Akademienn Handlingan" 

8« Kyljmder : *' Lichenes Scandinavifle," 1861. 

4. Walker and Mitten ; Lichens collected by Dr, Walker of tho 
« Fox" Expedition, under iSir Leopold M'Clintock, on the const at 
Frederikshaab, Godhaab, Fiskcrnaea, Uppemavik, and on Di§co 
(GodhaTo). Determinations by Mitten* Journal of Linuean 
Society, Botany, vol. v., p. 87. TbiB list containfl some that aro 
noi mentioned by Fries. Extra-Greenland localities were — Port 
Kennedy, 72^ N. lat., on the Boothian peninsula, which occupies 
a central position among the Arctic- American islands ; Pond^s Bay 
and Lancaster Sound, on the west side of BalEn*s Bay ; and Cape 
Osborne, with whose geographical position I am unacquainted. 

5. Hayes and James : Lichens collected by Dr. Hayes ; deter- 
by Professor Thomas P. Jrtmes ; Proceedings of the 

of Natural Sciences of PhiMelphia, 1863, p. 96. These 
►ns were made much more to the north than any of the 
fl/Uten, viz., in Smith's Sound, between parallels 78'^ and 82^. It 
is DOty however, always or clearly stated on which shore they 
wen collected,^ though it would appear to have been the eastern 
or Greenland side. 

Professor James remarks, ** Not a single fruited specimen was 
*• to be found in the entire collection," a circumstance of interest 
ill coanexion with a fact I have pointed out ebewhero f — the 
fineqneoicy of barrenness (in apothccia) of the Lichens of Arctic 
ooantriee. It would almost appear that this sterility, or its fre- 
qoeocy, bears a proportion to the northernness of the latitude. 

James enumerates the following, which were not found, or are 
not recorded, by other collectors or lichenologista : — 

Alectoria sulcata, Lev.t Stereocaulon condensatum, 

Neuropogon Taylori, Hook,^ Hffm.^ 

Ftumelia Borreri, 7Wn.|| Cladonia furcata, Hffm.^ var^ 

racemopa, Flk,*^ 



* Sncii as omiisioo becomes of more importance where the Strait i» much 
broader. Thof, in the Keir imd other Herbaria, 1 bare found specimeat 
bkbelkd ^'BvAa's Ba^ *' or "DavtB Straits." Now. Grf^ealaad o«ciip}c« »o 
decidedly an intermediate position between Europe and America in rugurd to 
tU gf nera) flora, that it is always desirable to kaow on what side of tho bay 
and ftmita in quettiou given plant-collcctionti have been made. In tbo 
Ke« Herb.,1ioweirer, 1 have f^qoently met with labels of a mach vaguer kind, 
*^,, * North Pole,** ** Arctic regions," " Franklin's 6rst journey," or Parry'i 
** int Tojagc," witbont ipecifying any preeise locality J Vide <U*o p. 800. 

f •* Obsf rrattoni on Greenland Lichene," 

X Kylander (Syn., p. 281) gives it only aa an Indian fipecli-s. 

I Nylasdcr (Syn., p. 278) gives it only as an Antarctic species. Probably 



bc«a eonfioutided with ita Arctic repreufntative A^. nulasantkut, 
Vrhiider (Syn., p. 38S) gives its northern limit aa Central Norway. 
Kylindcr, (Syn^ p. 250) give* Iti northern limit as Central Sweden and 
B«w Endbikd, U.S. 
** Fyundcr (Syn., p. 306) record* it as a oeatral-Enropean form, and 
ibi type aa becoming rare northwards* iZaeemoia ia a not xmiboisoac 



A 



286 DR. LINDSAY ON THE LIOHEN-FLORA OF OBXENLASB. 

Verrucaria popularis, Flk.* 
maura, Whlnh, 

var, striatula, Hffm.^ 

But these determinations appear to me so little trustworthy, for 
the reasoDB assigned in the foot-notes, that I have Dot indaded 
the Lichens in question in my Enumeration. 

6. Ross and Brown: Lichens of the East Side of Baffin's 
Bay, hit. 70°. to 76°, and West Side of Posfiession Bay, lat. 78' ; 
determined by the late Robert Brown, F.B.S., of tiie British 
Museum ; published in the " Voyage of Discovery " by Sir John 
Ross (London, 1819, 2nd. ed., vol. ii,p. 195). The same LichenB 
are probably what are enumerated as Baffin's Bay Lichens in the 
collected works of the said Robert Brown (vol. i, 1866, p. 178). 
This list contains, however, no Lichens not euomerated in my 
Catalogue on other authority. 

There are, probably, other minor papers on Greenland Lichens 
which I have not seen,^ e.g,^ one by Nylander, "Ad licheno- 
grnphiam Gra>nlandiie qntednm Addenda " (Rcgensbnrg, " Flora," 
1827), describing certain collections of J. Vahl, iuclnding, accord- 
ing to Krerapelhuber (" Gcschichte," p. 361), a record of three 
new species. 

In general terms, Lichen-collections in Greenland may be said 
to liave been made between lat. 60°, the extreme sonih, and about 
75^, the latitude of XTpcrnavik. Certain exceptional collections 
have been made as high as lat. 82°, while the majority have come 
from about the latitude of Disco, 70°. 

Geologically Greenland appears to consist, for the most part 
of — (1), grnnites ; (2), metamorphic schists, especially gneias and 
mica-slate; (3), various traps — ^porphyritic or amygdaloidal ; and 
(4), various superficial Tertiaiy strata, exhibiting at some points 
a rich fossil flora. 

Thorc is in Greenland a great scarcity of arboreal vegetation^ 
a circumstance that, more than any other perhaps, determines tho 

British form. I collected it both in Norway and Faroe Q* Northern Cla- 
doDi{c/' pp. 420-1 » Journal of Linncan Society, vol. iz. Botany). It wodU 
nppenr to be a mncb more northern Lichen than Nylander lupposes. I lavn 
given its northern distribution in a paper on the '* Arctic Cladonie " Qk 179, 
TmuHactions of Botanical Society of Edinburgh, vol. ix. 1867). 

* This is probably a synonym, but I do not find it in any of the lieheio- 
logical works in my library. 

t If this be V. striatula, WhUib., it is recorded by Pries (Arct, p. S67)ii 
occurring in Finmark. 

It thn8 appears, that, while in the case of certain of these Lichens (e.9.»tlie 
Atecioria and Neuropegon) it is most unlikely they can occur in Oreenlaod, is 
no case is the determination su«h tliat it can be relied npon I 

X Thus Krempelhuber refers ('* Geschichte," p. 361) to— 

I. Collections by Breutel. 2. A list of Lichens, determined by Mr. Joho 
Sadler, collected by Robert Brown, F.R.G.S., in North Greenland (Brown* 
and Women's Islands), and on its west coast (Hare Island). — ^Tnms. Bot Soe. 
of Edin., vol. vii, 1862, p. 374. In a letter to me, Dr. Brown describes A* 
said Lichens as " only a few " collected, in 1860, " on the Duck lBlindi»fl» 
<* tho north (?) coast of Greenland. . . . There was only a short list. • • • 
" When I lauded that summer, which was rarely, the ground was eoroaA 
" with snow, and the only things which peeped oat were a few Lidiens oa tbs 
" rock-summits, all of whloV 1 . . . . collected." QStt aboTe» p. m^r 
Editor,) 



I 



DB. Un>SAT CM THE LICHEN-FLOBA OF Q'KBXKLAXD. 

pecttKiritiei of its Licben-flof^ Tliere is m total abfience of fbrastat 
aod, eoBicqoaiUj, of the shade and moisttire which thej |>rofide 
mod cooMiTA. Hence there is » compftnitiTe absence of the Grapki- 
tie^^* Stiet4B^ CoUemat^ Caiieia^ Utnter^ RamaUHtt^ PertM^urict^ 
EmdocanOf soil gwienUlf of the coriicoUmM Lichens ao oommoD in 
Cttilrml Empe kdA America. The want of forests can scaroeljr* 
howerer^ accoimt for the paucity of Vermcarue, mmnj at leaat of 
wbkli aie aazicoloos. Though, ai^ a geoeral rule, trees are abaeiit, 
tbejooetBr,«flther do in Iceland, Faroe, Shetland, Orknej, and the 
Qebridafl — eotcepuonallj, of stanted growth ; while there seems to 
he no ACarcitj, at Umsi at certain points on the we«teni coikst, of 
woody biiahes or ahmb& Thus the following treee or shnilj^a are 
repTTtedf aa occurring in Greenland : — SerTice-tree, Birch, Alder, 
WillpWt Juniper, Crowberrj, VVhortieberrj, and Black Cndte- 
hwiy. 

While there is absence or scarcity of corticolous, fruticulose, 
and fotiaoeous Lichens, there ia an abundance of saicicoloas forms» 
rrfisimblc mostly to the genera Lecidea, fA'canora^ Sqwimaria^ 
Pormeiiay and Umbiiicaria ; of terricolous species, referable to the 
gsoera Ctad^nia^ Alectoria^ Cetraria ; and of muscicoloud specieij 
ii»d varieties, belonging to the gcneru Lecidea and Lecanora» 
But the only prominent feature of the Lichen -flora of Greenland 
recorded by travellers ijs the abundance of the CmhilicaritE^ 
in mtuiy localities give o character to the colouring of the 
Thutji the author of the ** Edinburgh Cabinet Library " 

[time ou Greenlttnd writes of the interior: — "The mountains 

ajie either enlirelt/ bure^ or covered with a mourning veil of 
« black Lichens " (p. 226), . , . " The dark rocks are clothed 
•* with titniieroiia »<oinl»re*eolonred Lichens, which ^^rotu %citk ffreai 
** rapifi til. the 8now**t (p. 380), Near Capo Lister, on 

the ea^^! nc describes a *• pavement of loose quartz or horn* 

** blende stones, either naked or covered with blaok Liohens* 
** These, with a few tuftn of hnrdy plants, were aif the vegetatioA 
•* Tiaible'fp, 247.) 

Same parts of the conntry are described as absolutei^ barren, 
**Even the Greenlander, accustomed as he is to the hon-orn of 
■• nature* calls these spots places of desolation *' (p. 226 j. Of 
certain partM of the coast, Graah says (1837), ** No siyn of vegc- 
** lotion wai^ obf»ervable on these walls of rock ... at many 
** places noi rreri a bit of moss " (pp. 47, 48 ) — ** moss *' being a com- 
prehenmvc and vagae tcnn genendly iiiH'd by travellers to include 
Lfiehcnft, especially of the fruticulose kinds {e,g*<, Ci^uhma, linma' 
Una^ Alrt'toria^ Vsnea^ Cetraria), In woiks of travel I not unfre* 
qucntly find rocky or desert districts of country deACribetl as 
barren of vegetation. For instance, Lord Haddo, speaking of the 




* AHlumia traUinflla im the Sole iMjprcticntative of this large fmnit)'. 

♦ Kdti ' Libmry Tt^Iuiuc ou " Icclaiul, Ocwnbnd, und th« 
**¥miK»t i i' ^77, cbiiptor oil DoUiny 

t Thtj»«v.-' •■ '■••* •■" '"--v '•' ■■*' '- ".'..— ;.. lion 

tft«i«J ihonJv ,t 

matv IbQj in ** llie Farmer " of October ^, idfi7. 



*5*ft 32. irra-Ar '/s rHE ircHH2r-?T.aR.i of cssdhasd. 

r-.rx- -ank-i /i *iu» ^iIk .n iiJTpr uui ^ibui. «7« xbey were 

J' ▼rill I'll I p.uririt- -.t -^-j«rTac:"n "^ 7. n . Thi:? iii» ooc 

-::::r*>?L7 *s.':a'ie llrhear. is 'iie :4.*rai - ■:^j»iacan ■* is izL inch. 

?a*r?! L'itr't .a 7:rt;r=nce Tl; la^ao^rimic ':^5«aciaa anij. Bat 

:-i»*M»:n-, ''../.. Th.*?!^ Jtr ieaorib»« - pr*#?i3iee* and cibfe widLom 
" the !eaet larritiie if -e!r*r;ic:on, or *pe.»i r Uekei^ oadie «izr£Me* 

— ai» if Lir.iwns Trer^ ui inrerii.T ^m^¥-± 3) T»?a»;tadaii ! 

.^1 ^nrh piixiT"^ ;ir» imatdnanvt? cr poeciai: diej ire mot 
acitrr.ndi: — art riie iswrriijn 01 ^atnralLsB ▼ita spiwiallT trained* 
aIl-<;h««»rTant -iv-r;*. Tliej '.tintradiirt tie observiuioiLi both of 
sr^^LOfr-iU ind Vjuni^u. «f./^.. Sir Churii» Ljeil's obnervuons oa 
the T^*rtiitinn :f :he joiing jis-ib of Vesuv-Tis aaii Etna, ani my 
otm on rbac '.f rhe oider lavu of Ii^eiuziiL'^ AH obeemiioa and 
'.ziqi'.rj \*iSLi me :o -:cE:i:LTide that Ln :io pan of cfae votid are rocks 
of »nT asr^! — diAi !:?. of more dian -s few morich^ old — ahsolotelj 
'i'lvoid of l:ohrE>:^ vej*? cation. I have macie oarefnl obeerratioDS 
t.n zha npidirj ijf LicheiL-*rrowLh iind developmenc. and have 
ahfi^n i^Uewhere ^ tha£ a verj tew mocchd or Tears, in dzfletent 
kicallcie^. -xi^oe for the ippeannce oq £re«h sur&ceiS whether of 
rook or w>»I. of a loxuriant iiohenoiie T€gecation.| BeaomoBt 
therefijre ■•insT:^, with ciore truth than the tniTellers qnoied-* 
" Thr bleakest rcick apon the loneliest heath 
Fev-Ii in iti barrenness K>me toaoh of spring: 
And. In the April dew or beam of Maj. 
It-r moi3 and lichen freshen and reTiTe." 

Hren in the dK**:Ti of loo^e sand, or eqnallj loocse volcanic dostr 
where there is not 4affioient cohesion of particles to permit of 
higher reget-^ble growth. Lichens are developed both on the sud 
saml or du«t itself, and on all foreign substances of sufficient denatf 
to permit of the adhesion of their tludlos, or their apothecia; for 
thf^y are much more frequently athalline than is generally sop- 
po»e«l. Thu<> they coat the bleached bones of the men and aoiouib 

* <* Memoir of Lord Haddo," by Elliott. London, 1867. 

t " Siorthem Lichen-Flora," p. 403, Journal of JJiuieaii Society, toL ixi 
IkHany. 

X " To what Extent i8 Lichen-Growth a Tost of Age ?'*— Report of Brit 
AftHOCiHtion, 1867, p. 88 ; "Farmer," October 23, 1867, p. 528. 

§ An extract from " M*Clintock's Reminiscences of Arctic Ice-travel,*' io 
the •' Journal of the Royal Dublin Society," vol. ii., p. 235, bears en tbe 
subject. 

Kir F. L. M'Clintock, searching for Parry's encampment at Point NiA 
rccof^iiscd it " by tbe stones arranged for keeping down the tides of bi> teoti 
and othiTH used as seats or pillows, and he found also that " the nairof' 
" rimmed wheels of Sir. E. Parry's cart had left tracks, still wonderfhlly d* 
" tirict, in tlie soft, wet earth, thinly coated with mon ! In one place tb^c 
*' curt-tracks were continuous for 30 yards. . . . Ko Lichens bad gro** 
'* u|KHi the upturned stones, and even their deep beds in the soil, ^^ 
" parry's men rcm(>vo<l them, were generally distinct. . . . Hiis astonish^ 
" fresh ncsH of traces, after a lapse of 33 years, compels us to assign a veiy ^ 
*' sidrrnble antiquity to the circles of stones and other Esquimaux traces, ^"^ 
" ire /Ind sparingly strewed along the southern shore of the Pury Orovpr 
" fljfioe they are always inoBft-co^«T^, uAo^n indistinct"— Editob. 



DR. LINDSLVT ON TIIR LICHEX-FLORA OF GREENLAXDv 289 

thai have fallen victims to the inhospitality of nature ; uu*] ali 
maiiDor of article^* of metal, leather, or wuo<l left bj prisising 
traveUers* Tcnajsoo sings, with perfect trullit'ulne*s of deseri[)- 
tion — 

** And tJiere they ky till jdl their bones were bleached 
And lichened into colour with the crags." 

Some deserts on the Pacific coast of South Amcricji appear to 
be as barren as any in Africa or Asia, if not so extensive. One 
of them is described by Darwin, who was nil day riding iicrosa it, 
fta ''ft complete and utter desert." But he goes on to say that 
" the loose sand was strewed over with a Lichen^ which lien on 
" the surfACO quite wwnttached.* This plant belongs to the 
** genus Cladonia^ and somewhat resemhlt^s the Reindeer Lichen. f 
" In some parts it was iu sufTtcient quantity to tingii the s^iml^ aa 
•• seen from a distance, of n pale yellowish colour. Further iidund, 
** daring the whole ride of fonrietm loaguo!^, L s,iw only one other 
ve^etjible production, and that was a mont niiuute yellow Litfien \ 
rowing on the bones of tlie deiul MuIoh." § 
le " (Jld Biishmnn," writing of Efist Finmark, describes ** long 
the* of shingle imd gravel without the least signs of vege- 
tation— «/j^ even LUfiCfis" ([}, il7.i).|] Von Baer f says that 
lee of vegetation la chai^acteri^tie of the deserts of Nova 
ibla. Nevertheless, ho goes on to ivmark, that while foliaccous 
Llcheos are scarce, eveiT^ block of angitic fiorphyry is clothed with 
crostaceous species, which occur also, though leys frc»quently or 
emonsly, on rocks or stouea of other inineralogical character. 
He specialises Leddea ffeographh'd and Stcrcovaulon pasckate 
promioent forms. 



My Catalogne enuniorates 268 species and varieties (that is, 
those separately named by systematiHts) of Lichens in Gfeunland, 
In 1840 the Greenland Lichens on record amounted only to o9, 
atwi the difference between these iigurea shows the extent of the 
contributions that have been matle in the intenal to its Lichen- 
^orjL I liave elsewhere estimated the Lichens of Iceland at about 
15().»» Unt it must bo l>orne in mind that Icehiud is a very mufh 
jNler country than Greenland — occupying only about 3 or 3J 
"^Ktieei of latitude (from 63^^ to tJtiJ'^)— while its Lichens havo 
Jjjiiijil/ Dot been collected nrid studied to the same extent. 1 
^^Wb that the Lichens both of Greenland and Iceland are at 
''^'^nt uoder-eetimated. I have iio doubt that considerable 



p, A type of an «ijwitmchcd de»€rt or steppe Licheti i< Lfraaora isculcHla, 
^t , itMrihed hi my " Hist, lirit Lidiea**/* pp. n», 211,51. 

t P|rob»hly m fomi of f V - • • ' '-»ri«, which is known to occur in Rra«iK 

* ^obably B forni of J ' > >jan* or Fi. murorum, 

t ** X:iturull-l** Voyngr, , -i^ 

'' *\ Siimimr in Lapland." 

^^ T<t Novri ZciubU :*' Uiitletln Sci<mtifiquc de I' Acad. Imp^r. d<9 

*• lorn.*' pp. 392-4. 



290 DB. LINDSAY ON THE LICHEN-FLORA OF OBEEVLAKD. 

additions romain to be miide to the Lichen-flora of both countries. 
That of Greenland cannot be set down at less than 300, and it will 
probably considerably exceed this. There are few special cdl« 
lections of Lichens made in Greenland that do not contain new 
forms. Thus, Th. Fries, Nylander, and myself have detected 
novelties in the collections respectively submitted to our examina- 
tion — a circumst;uice that sliows what might be achieved by the 
visit of an experienced Lichen-collector even to Greenland. Ab 
regards the geographical distribution of Greenland LichenS| it is 
sufficient heie to refer to those — 

1. That ai'c confined to Greenland. 

2. „ „ the Arctic regions. 

3. „ common to Britain. 

4. „ „ the European Alps. 

Those that are confined to Gi'eenland, or that may meanwhile be 
held as so restricted in their distribution, are the new species or 
varieties described by Fries, Nylander, or myself.* I have little 
doubt, hoAvi'ver, that the majority at least of these Lichens will 
sooner or later be found in other countries — Arctic or more 
southern. 

The purely or generally Arctic species are very few, viz. ^— 

Dactylina arcfica. Lecidea spilota, var. polaris. 

Uauca mchutuUha, L, auriculata, 

J^i/i-enopsis ha>matopis, L, armeniaca, var. meltikvca. 

Afcrforia juhat a, yar, nitidula, L, pallida, 

Pelf idea snahrosa. L, insignis, var, geophila, 

Umbilicaria Pe7msi/lva7iica, L, scabrosa^ var. cinerascens, 

l^annaria Icpidiotaj var. tristis, L. urceolata, and var. demi- 

P, Ilookcri, var. tnacrior, ttuta, 

Sfjuamaria chrysoleuca, var. L, corofiata. 

feracissima, L, cumulata, 

S. M('la?iaspis, var. alphoplaca* L, castanea. 

S. geophila. L, Tomceensis, 

T^eanora tartarea^ vars. gran- L. siUtfuscula. 

dinosa and thelephoroides. Arthonia trabineUa. 

L, vanuy var. Icw'ococca, Verrttcaria maurOf var. oroC' 

L, atro-sulphurea, tina, 

L. ferruginca, vars. cinnmno* V. ceuthocarpa, 

mea and hypnophila. 

But some of these Lichens occur in countries or districts 800^ 
of the Arctic Circle. Thus U, fnelaxantha occurs in lo^ 
(according to Th. Fries, Arct., p. 26^ and Carroll in Seeman"'! 
" Journal of Botany," vol. v, p. 109). It occurs also venr fi** 
quenlly in the southern hemisphere ; m Patagonia and its iuan^ 
on tlie Andes, in New ZeaLind and Tasmania, and on the Antin^ 
islands. In the Arctic regions it is invariably sterile, while in ^ 
Antarctic it is often fertile. P, heematopis I have foun^ ^ 

* The tuw spocies or varieties found by myeelf in Dr. Brown's CoUeetioi' 
are described iu my " Observations on Grccmaiid lichens." 






r 



n. ATNDSAY ON THR LTCREN-FLOU A OF fUtEEXLVND 5^1 




I 



IceUuid • Deftrly as £Eir as south aa lat. 64^. C Pefutsj/Zranica 
occurt in the United States as fur sotitli. at lea>*t, as lut. 40^. L. 
Yomattm* descends below the Arctic Circle, but appaientlj not 
maojr miJi^^. L* mbfitscula appears w be what N} lander iiiinied 
in my flerbnrium L, bariltifera, var, subjmcula. It occurs in 
Icelivnd,t L, cofonata {Rhc^oplnaft' of Tb. Fries, Arct., p. 70<5) 
appeiirn to bt) the Lecidea rhexobtephim, Nyl. ( Scand., 240, 
Carroll, 290), If j»o, it occurs in Scotland, on Ben Lawers, 
ding to Jones, 
uctiog the species that are mainly or entirely confined hi 
their di^tributioa either to Greenland or to Arctic countries, the 
loajority nt least of the remainder occur on the Scandinavian Alp.«, 
and maoj of them on the AlpH of Scothind and SwitZL-rland, or 
generally on those of continental Europe ; while a considemblo 
number are common British forms. Some Lichens, which are 
mIjT alpine in Britain (Scotland), occur, as might lie expected, at 
"" elevations, and even on or ne^r thfl sea-level, in Greeu- 
{e.g.^ Thamnolin vermicnlaris, which is abundant in the 
Jakobshavn district, on or flbout the coast). 
The nan- British species are the following : — 




Alactoria diverge us. 
CHliiioiiiA cameola. 



Lcjampcfi. 
Getnuia odontelta. 
Kepliroma arc lieu m. 
papyi^accum. 
Parroelia ccntrifuga. 
Umbilicaria anthracina. 
hirsuta. 
fipodochroa, 
buamaria chrysoleuca. 
straminea, 
Lecaoora cblorophoniu 
epanora. 
oreiua. 
pelibcypha. 
molybdina. 



Lecanora Jnngermannia*. 
turfacea. 
mmbosa. 
mniurjea. 
Lecidea alpestris. 
aghwi. 
elata. 
geminata. 
obscurata. 
fuBoesceuB. 
cuprea. 
cinnabar iua» 
leiicorseat 
squalida, 
Endocarpon daedaleuin. 
Verrucaria mucosa, 
clopima. 



A comparison of the Greenland Lichen-flora with that of Arctic 
"•^inerica (assuming Leighton*s Catalogue of Sir John Richard- 
•^'i colicotions in 182GJ to ]>c representative of the Arctic- 
^liericttn Lichen-floru), nhows that there exists a conaiderable 
^cpcnce in thti elemcntH of which they arc respectively made 
^P* There m"c certain genera and spcciee in Arctic America 
^W do not occur in Greonhmd, while there are iu Grcenhind 
*t least iDJSLiiy Hpecies that do not occur in Arctic Amcricn. The 



'0. f rbi«l., |n 372. 

oond Land Exposition, 1825-Ci. — Journal 

, p. 184, " 

T 2 




"3 



■ ••• .ir-:rr=^ii'A RiiradrddOBi. 

. . . : ' ^ l: L : .■ 'li: -■ rz -:ir^ :: ilia; ot' Scauuii- 
...r-v :" m- r".:-: ii Z.'-.-r::'^ C>:-Lev-don. the toUov- 



•■'■■. 1 : ■■.!:. -7^:1: "'dr'r!-!: Pvr^rzopsis— all. 



.Ill ; 



A r: !:•; c :a trabindla. 
P:-.i.naria lepidzota ; Hookeri- 

-.'...'irriv • ,i . : v-rrr-iO'^-ii. CVrnirin acnleata ; odontdUfc 

]';:: ...'rii-i — r,il s.iVtr pLjs. *]»:*; L l:id«>iiia helHdiflon; digiun: 

-,:.\;ar:i:- ; oi:v;ici;u; iari:iiu ; cacneoh ; cjanipes; Tert»- 

-rv^/j.:. cilia to; cerricomi*. 

f .'rrif'iii'jiiri.t — ail txcvpt vi.-llea; Colloma dftccidnm ; melfiWD** 

fjUhflrion ; eiTj-ji. lace rum. 

Sf|rj;ii/iarirt — all save c-legan? ; U^nea melaxantha. 

r-iiiy-r.lffuca ; .s'lxicola. Alectoria Thulensis. 

.St<;n:ocaijloii — all save tomcn- Solorina crooea. 

rosurn. Peltidea scabrosa. 

Vfinifurhi — all except epider- Nephroma orcticom. 

iiii'liy. 



* So In I jis we rnay venture to jiulpe from the pre w»nt imperfect ditt» " 
w*Hi|i| jij»p»>!ir that ilic iiffinities of the (irecDland Lichen-floFa are P**^ 
|iiwtii<l> lliiit oj Scjiinliimvia, and geucrally of Europe, than to Uiat w 
Ann lira. 

\ 'I'lii** may Im? iin-IuiKd in lists of Greenland ^/yce. BerkclcT (^ 
"I'niiwiiry <»f Uotuny ") places Nostoc, and "Falling stars," among A/^- 



DR. LTXDSAY OX THE LICHEX-FLOUA OF GREENLAND. 203 



I 



I 



I 



The difference between the GnxMilunrl and ArcHc-Amerjcan 
Lichen-florns is obvious from a comparison of the summRiy 
apiM?nded to my Catalogue of the former with Leigh ton's similar 
^utntnury of the latter (p. 185), Bui comparisons based on such 
tables iilone ai'o most ftiJ]aciou.s, iuasniueh as they are drawn up 
on very difterent principles. Lei<ihton, for instance, gives 35 
genera, while I give only 28 ; (ho number of species and varieties 
in Greenland being 268, and in Arctic America 203. My genera 
nre fewer, however, mainly because I do not split up such genera 
as Collentat Cladonia^ UsjiCa, Alettoria, Cetrariay Nephromtt, 
PartittHOf Phy&cia^ Sf/iiamarm^ Lecanora, Lcridea^ Endoiarpoifi 
ami Verrucftria into the host of sub-genera into which they have 
lieen divided of late years by ContineutaJ Liehenologists. Another 
cliMof diflcrepancies necessarily arises from the different posilion 
given to certain anomalous speciqp!, such ua Lecanora or Prrtic 
Mftria (frycmtha^ Thamvolta or Ctadonm vermiculnris^ Endoenrpon 
riride or Kormandinn viridis. KiehiirdFon's Lichens, according 
to LeightoD, amount to 163 (p. 184)— a nnmber which does not 
correspond with the total given iu his table or summaiy (p. 185). 
But he names or numbers a series of trivial or inconstant forma 
or conditions, which in (he hands of some other lichenologists — 
certainly in mine — would not receive separate nomenclature or 
enomeration,* Treated in a similnr wnj, the number of ppocies 
ami varieties given in the following Catalogue of Grj'cnland 
Liclien«i would be largely increased, for 1 have neither named nor 
Dumliored the ** various forms " or " several forms " of many 
variable epecies (f .<7.) of the genera Cladonhy Parmelia, P/ii/mcitt^ 
Jstcafwra^ and Lecidea. 

Leighton's euuraeration, however, is veiy fnr from giving an 
ItiiqiiAle idea of the Lichen-flora of the v:i.«r area known as Arctic 
America, lU deliciencie» may be judged of by the number of 
•pcciea mentioned in other