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MAY 27 1919 





MkY 27 1919 
MANUAL OF '^Hosm^^ 


Setting Forth the 

General Principles of the Plan of Salvation^ 

Explaining the 

Symbolical Meaningf and Practical Use of the Ordi- 
nances Instituted by Christ and His Apostles, 

And Pointing out Specifically some of the 

Restrictions which the New Testament Scriptures 
Enjoin upon Believers. 

— BY — 


**AU Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable 
for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteous- 
ness/' — 2 Tim, 3: Id. 














In sending forth this little volume for the in- 
struction and edification of whoever may choose to 
read it, it is hoped that it will be received in the 
same spirit in which it is given. 

When I started out in the Christian service, I 
tried to secure a book of this kind, and found, af- 
ter diligent research, that it was not to be had. 
Since then I have not ceased to recognize the need 
of a work setting forth the doctrines taught in the 
* 'Book of all books" with which Christians are most 
vitally concerned. It is with the hope of partially 
supplying this want, that this little volume ap- 

Many readers will look for Bible subjects in. 
which they may be very much interested and fail 
to find them. To such I would say that we have 
presented those Bible doctrines only which were 
considered of greatest importance, dwelling more 
particularly upon the doctrines peculiar to non-re- 
sistant Christians. 

I should never have undertaken this work had 
I not felt that the doctrines herein presented are 
founded upon the imperishable Rock, and should 
have the widest possible circulation. What is good 
for ourselves is good for others. Believing that a 
Christian life, shaped according to the lines herein 


presented, would accomplish the jDurpose of our 
creation, and that they are the principles which our 
Savior came to inculcate into the hearts of His peo- 
ple, we should not fail to proclaim them boldly, and 
prove our faith by our works. 

This work was prepared with the hope thai 
abler writers might, at some future time, prepare 
a more extensive treatise on the doctrines herein 

I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness for 
valuable aid, to J. H. Hershey, who contributed 
the greater part of the chapter on Baptism; to 
J. S. Coifman for the thoughts on the Support of 
the Ministry and the chapter on Sanctification; to 
J. P. Funk and A. D. Wenger, who, with the last 
named contributor, carefully examined the manu- 
script, and furnished some of the best thoughts found 
in the volume. 

Grateful to our heavenly Father for His sus- 
taining griice while this little volume was being 
prepared, and trusting that the feeble effort may 
bear its fruit in the field of Christian labor, this 
work is submitted for tlie consideration of whoever 
may be interested in its contents. 

Daniel Kauffman. 



The Plan of Salvation— General Bible Doctrines— Ordi- 
nances and Restrictions — A Few Illustrations. 


fn the Beg-inning-— Glory of the Creation— Creation of 

Lig^ht, the Earth, Heavenly Bodies, Veg-etation and 

Lower Animals, Man — The End of Creation. 


Man in Paradise— The Deception— The Tree of Life- 
Condition of Fallen Man. 


All have Sinned— Necessity of Regeneration— Allure- 
ments of Sin— Results of Sin— Fearless Teaching- 


What Faith is— A Lesson from Childhood— The Secret of 
Perfect Faith— Will Bear the Test— A Living- Faith 
Essential to Christian Life— Faith and Works- 
Faith a Matter of Growth. 


What Repentance is— Necessity for Repentance— Sorrow 
does not Constitute Repentance— Sorrow a Necessary 
Adjunct of Repentance— What Repentance Does 
—Who needs Repentance- Right Teaching- 



Siirnificance of Conversion— Kinds of Conversion— No 

Chanjj^e, no Conversion— False Ideas of Conversion— 

Evang-elical Conversion— Childlike Simplicity of 

Converted Persons— Things to Consider. 


I. The Work of Regeneration — Necessity of Regenera- 
tion—The New Birth — Conditions of Regeneration- 

II. Evidences of Regeneration — Faith — Love — Obedience 

— The Spirit of Christ — Summary. 


What Justification Implies — Justified by Faith — This Doc- 
trine Liable to be Abused — Faith and Works — No Jus- 
tified Person a Sinner — It is God that Justifies — 
The Christian's Duty — Questions Answered. 


Fallen Man — Human Sacrifices of no Avail — The Heav- 
enly Offering — The Coming of the Redeemer. 


Ministers a Necessity — Work of the Ministry — Qualifica- 
tions — Ordination — Support of the Ministry — The 
Gospel is Free — Minister's Self-Support — Support 
by the Church — Charity for Needy Ministers 
—The Minister not a Hireling— Christ 
the Rewarder — Summary. 


Relation of the Members to the Ministry— True Charity- 
Should Members be less Pious than a Minister — Every 
Member should be a Worker— Lines of Christian 
Work — Temperance — Family Worship. 



Discussions on the Subject— Kinds of Baptism— Spirit 
Baptism— Objects of Water Baptism— Baptism to be 
Observed as an Ordinance— Water Baptism not 
Regeneration— Proper Subjects for Baptism- 
Forms of Baptism— Meaning- of tlie Word 
Baptism— Pouring- — Immersion — Testi- 
mony of Historians — A Few More 
Facts Concerning- Baptism — Eight 
Recorded Instances of Baptism 
— Does Washing Signify Im- 
merse — One Action versus 


Importance of the Communion — The Jewish Passover— 
The Passover Observed — A Figure Pointing Both 
Ways— Christ Our Passover— Institution of the 
Lord's Supper or Communion — Frequency and 
Time of holding the Communion — Meaning 
of the Communion — Close Communion — 
Use of Council Meetings — Open Com- 
munion — Personal Responsibility — Is 
the Church Responsible when un- 
worthy Members Commune — The 
Full Meal, or Love Feast-Harmo- 
ny of the Goepels with Regard 
to this Passover Supper— Al- 
leged Irregularities — Three 
Witnesses — Full Meal 


A Command — Various Opinions — Feet-washing in the Old 

Testament — Is Feet-washing an Ordinance — Place 

where this Ceremony was Instituted — Comparing 

Scriptures — Necessity for this Ordinance — 

Objections to Ceremonial Feet-washing — 

The Subject "Spiritualized." 


An Ordinance— Necessity for this Ordinance— What this 
Covering Should Be— ^When this Covering should be 
Worn — A Word to Those who would be Conten- 
tious — Objections Answered. 




All Bible Doctrines Should be Studied— A Portion of God's 

Word— Epistolatory Writin«rs are for All Christians 

— Meaning- of this Ordinance — For Whose Sake — 

When it Should be Observed— Abuses— The 

Command Should be Heeded. 


Why Call this an Ordinance— The Oil of Grace— Divine 
Healing — Purpose of Anointing. 


An Ordinance of God — What Constitutes Marriage — 

Marriage Under the Old Testament Dispensation — 

Marriage Under the New Testament Dispensation 

— Concerning Divorce — Lawful Marriages — 

The Christian Home — Thoughts for Young 



What the Relation Implies — The Transformation — Views 
of Inspired Writers — Teaching of James 1:27 — In- 
temperance — Licentiousness — Business Transac- 
tions — Politics — Unholy Conversation — World- 
ly Amusements — Other Ways — Pride — 
Worldly Adornments. 


The Gosi)el of Christ the Gospel of Peace — The Apostolic 
Church — Effect of the Gospel — Brotherly Love — War 
the Work of Barbarians — Testimony of Warlike 
Men— A Few Contradictions— Old and New Dis- 
pensations—What would Become of a Non- 
resistant Nation — Suppose — We never 
Lose Our Individuality— We should Obey 
God Rather than Man — Defenseless 
Christians Should be Consistent — 
Non-resistance a Principle not a 
Policy— Practical Non-resistance. 



All Oaths Forbidden— Reasons Why Christians Should 

Not Swear— Profanity— "Wooden Oaths"— Swearing 

in Court — No Compromise. 


Christian Forbearance: Not Resentment— How to Get 

Out of a Difficulty— How to Avoid Law-suits— Brother 

Going to Law with Brother — Summary. 


Their Merits Should be Considered— Contrary to the 
Spirit of the Gospel— Applicants Led into Secret Or- 
ders Blindly— Bound Away from Church and Fam- 
ily with an Oath— Christ has No Place in the 
Lodge-room— The Unequal Yoke— False 
Charity— False Religion— Testimony 
of an Ex-Mason— Concluding Re- 


What Sanctification Means— How Men are Sanctified— 
W^hen Sanctification Takes Place— Results of Sanc- 
tification— The Relation of Sanctification to Jus- 
tification—Present Sanctification— Instanta- 
neous Sanctification— Progressive Sancti- 
fication— Not a Second Work of Grace. 


Believing Prayer Secures God's Answer— Our Saviour's 
Teaching on Prayer— The Apostles' Teaching— Ob- 
ject of Prayer— God Answers Prayer— Short 
Pravers— Secret Prayers— God's People a Pray- 
ing People. 



"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, 
and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for 
correction, for instruction in righteousness." 
—2 Tim. 3:16. 


The plan of salvation implies: 

1. A recognition of God as the Creator and 
Preserver of all things. 

2. That man, created perfect and in the image 
of his Maker, through the transgressions of our 
first parents, fell. 

3. That man, in consequence of this fall, be- 
came alienated from God. 

4. That God and man became reconciled 
through the shedding of the blood of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

5. That salvation is now offered as a free gift 
to all them that accept the terms of the Gospel. 

Man cannot save himself. It required a sacri- 
fice which he is unable to make to effect a recon- 
ciliation between God and man. It is idle for us to 
think of saving ourselves by good works. After 
we have done ail that we are commanded to do we 
are still to count ourselves unprofitable servants 
(Luke 17:10). Salvation is obtained by accepting 


the terms of the Gospel when God bestows it upon 
ns as a free gift in consequence of our faith. The 
terms of the Gospel, or the conditions upon which 
we may obtain salvation, are so clearly taught in 
God's word that no sincere seeker of the truth 
needs to err therein. 


Belief in God means believing in His Son, in the 
Spirit, and in His word. Acceptance of the truth 
of God's word makes us obedient followers of our 
Lord Jesus Christ in all things. 

In the work of salvation, there are a number of 
general Bible doctrines or Gospel principles that 
primarily aifect all believers. Among these may 
be named repentance, faith, regeneration, conver- 
sion, justification, sanctification, etc. When we 
accept our Savior, God works such a change in us 
that we will then lead pious, holy lives. We no 
longer w^ork for the interests of self, but for the 
glory of God. 


God, who is infinite in wisdom, knowing the 
proneness of man to wander away from the truth, 
has seen fit to throw about him certain restrictions, 
which, if heeded, will aid in keeping him away 
from the power of temptation. He has also given 
a number of ordinances which are designed as sym- 
bols or memorials of important Christian principles, 
which should ever be kept alive within ourselves, 
and before the eyes of the world. 

Every properly enlightened child of God will 
esteem these ordinances and restrictions as a God- 


send, and consider it a privilege to observe them. 
The ordinances are as follows: 

1. Baptism. 

a. The initiatory rite which inducts into the 

visible church. (Matt. 1^8:19). 

b. A symbol of the baptism of the Spirit. 

(Acts 1:5; 1 Cor. 12:18). 

c. An act of obedience to fulfill all righteous- 

ness. (Matt. 3:15). 

d. The answer of a good conscience toward God. 

(1 Peter 3:21). 

2. The Communion. 

a. The symbols of the broken body and the shed 

blood of Christ. (Luke 22:19, 20; 1 Cor. 

b. The fellowship of the members of the body 

of Christ. (1 Cor. 10:16). 

3. Feet -Washing. 

The symbol of humility, showing the equal- 
ity of believers in Christ. (John 13: 11-7.) 

4. Woman's Prayer-Head-Covering. 

The symbol to show tho r ' '^'on between 
man and woman in the Lord. (1 Cor. 

5. Salutation of the Holy Kiss. 

The symbol of love. (Rom. 16:16; 1 Peter 

6. Anointing with Oil. 

The symbol of grace in the restoration of 
the sick. (Jas. 5:14, 15). 


7. Marriage. 

The formula is a symbol of the real mar- 
riage. The ordinance is for the mainte- 
nance and purity of the human family. 
(Mark 10:2-12). 
The restrictions noticed are as follows: 

1. Not to conform to the world. (Rom. 12:2). 

2. Not to take the life of our fellow-men, or to use 

carnal weapons for defense. (Mark 10:19: 
Matt. 5:44; Eph. 6:11-17; 2 Cor. 10:4). 

3. Not to swear oaths. (Matt. 5:33-37; Jas. 5:12). 

4. Not to hold membership in secret societies. 

(John 18:20; Matt. 5:15, 16; 2 Cor. 6:16.) 

5. Not to go to law. (Matt. 5:40; 1 Cor. 6:1-8). 
Concerning these ordinances and restrictions, 

we can voice the sentiments of the evangelist John 
when he says, "His commandments are not griev- 
ous. " Their use may be brought out by 
A Few Illustrations. 

1. A mother holds up a bottle before her chil- 
dren and says, * 'Children, I want to call your at- 
tention to what there is in this bottle. We are told 
that it has an agreeable taste, but it is poison. 
Now don't you touch this bottle. If you do you 
may all be poisoned from its effects." If those 
children are wise, they will feel grateful to their 
mother for this wholesome advice. Had it not been 
for this advice, they might have been poisoned. 
As it is, they know how to be careful. 

We proceed to draw the comparison. There 
are many things in this world which, if indulged in, 
would be poisonous to the soul. God has graciously 


warned us against these things in His word. In- 
stead of feeling that our liberties are taken away 
from us, or finding fault with a church that insists 
on heeding these restrictions, let us gratefully ac- 
cept them, and praise God for having shown us 
how to keep away from the paths of sin. 

2. A man owns a tract of land which he wishes 
to pasture. He builds a fence around it to keep 
his stock on the place. The stock does not live 
from the fence, but from the pasture; yet the fence 
is just as necessary as the pasture; for, were it not 
for the fence, the stock might stray away. These 
ordinances and restrictions serve as a fence to keep 
us on the green pasture of God's eternal word. 
They are not essential to salvation, yet they are a 
necessary part of the Lord's Gospel, and must be 
faithfully observed. God, in all His ways, has 
shown His superior wisdom. Let us reverently 
heed His teachings 


"In the bej^'hininj'' God created the heavea 
and the earth.'' Gen. 1: 1. 

"In the beginning' was the Word, and the 
Word was with God, and the Word was God. 

The same was in the beginning" with God. 

All things were made by him, and without 
him was not anything made that was made. 

In him was life, and the life was the light of 
men." Jno. 1: 1-4. 


Here, in simple language, is recorded the storv 
of the Creation. W^hile men have written volumes 
and failed, God, through His servants, has written 
a few words and given us the whole story. While 
men have taxed their brains, and given profuse and 
elaborate explanations as to what constitutes God, 
the insx)ired writer gives us an idea of His charac- 
ter in one simple sentence, "In the beginning was 
the Word, and the Word was with God, and the 
Word was God. " 

"In the beginning. " Who can comprehend the 
expression! Withdraw yourself from the things 
of time and sense, and go back to the beginning. 
Imagine, if you can, the great, empty void, in 
wliich was to spring forth into exist^^nce this glori- 
ous Universe of ours, nor time, nor space, nor mat- 
ter, nor laws of Nature — nothing — absolutely noth- 


ing — not even the mass of floating chaos, which 
has given rise to so much speculation — nothing but 
God and His Eternal Word to call into existence the 
things now visiDie and invisible to the human 
eye. Here was the beginning. 


It pleased God, in His own wisdom, to call forth 
matter, out of which all things were formed. So 
admirable was His w^ork, that men have not ceased 
to adore Him and sing His praises. 

More than thirty-four centuries ago, David in 
an exulting mood sang, "The heavens declare the 
glory of God, and the firmament sheweth his hand- 
iwork." What man who has noticed the starry 
heavens, and watched the movements of the heav- 
enly bodies, and who has the least worship in his 
soul, can fail to voice the sentiments thus ex- 
pressed. Astronomers have gazed for hours, 
through their mighty telescopes, and watched with 
ra^Dturous delight the majestic movements of the 
heavenly bodies, as they were sweeping along in 
their orbits through the immeasurable regions of 
space. As the beauties of the starry heavens are 
open to the view of all mankind, let all the children 
of men unite with the psalmist in singing, "The 
heavens declare the glory of God. " 


This Universe was not created without a pur- 
pose. God said, " Let there be light, " and there 
was light. The light was divided from the dark- 


ness, the firmament from the earth, the dry land 
from the waters. God continued to prepare this 
earth for the habitation of man. The earth brought 
forth grass and herbs yielding seed. Trees, fishes, 
fowls of the air, beasts of the field, and all manner 
of creeping things were called into existence. The 
sun, moon, and stars were formed to give us light. 


Now comes the crowning work of God's crea- 
tion. He had made many wonderful things, but 
He had not yet created anything that resembled 
Him in any way, that could worship Him intelli- 
gently, or that was worthy to live with Him through 
eternity. After all things were ready, He said, 
**Let us make man in our own image, after our 
likeness, and let him have dominion over the fish 
of the sea, the fowls of the air, and over the cat- 
tle, and over all the earth, and every creeping thing 
that creepeth on the earth. " 

Man is a compound being. He has many qual- 
ities in common with the lower animals, while in 
spirit, he has the image of his Maker. His phys- 
ical structure is similar to that of the lower ani- 
mals, and, like them, he is subject to pain, sickness, 
and death. When his animal passions have full 
sway, he sinks to a level with the lowest brutes. 
But while he resembles the lower animals in physi- 
cal structure and carnal passions, he is also endowed 
with a mind that enables him to rule the world. A 
mind that has the power, in one single moment, oi 
penetrating the starry heavens, the next, sinking 
deep down into the bowels of mother earth; at one 


moment, interesting itself with the groveling things 
of time and sense; the next, casting itself heaven- 
ward and communing with our Maker. With all, 
he is the possessor of a soul that refuses to go down 
into the dust with the tenement of clay that has 
provided for it a temporary home; but, at the. point 
of dissolution, takes its flight to the great God from 
whom it came. 

Again, let us join with the psalmist in sending 
this confession to the throne of God: "I will 
praise thee; for I am fearfully and wonderfully 
made; marvelous are thy works." 

If the glory of man is transcendent, his respon- 
sibility is wondrously great. Man was placed here 
in dominion over all the earth. As God's steward, 
he is to use his stewardship to the glory of his 
Maker. Increase of power in this life means an in- 
crease of responsibility. Should man shirk his 
duty — should he, instead of using his powers and 
his possessions to glorify his Maker, selfishly use 
them to gratify his own carnal desires — the teach- 
ing of the word is that he will be forever banished 
from the presence of God. 


Thus was man created in the image of his Ma- 
ker. ' ' Thus the heavens and the earth were fin- 
ished, and all the host of them. God saw every- 
thing that he had made, and behold it was very 
good. " The earth had been prepared for the habi- 
tation of man. Our first parents were placed in 
the Garden of Eden, where all necessary provisions 
were made for their comfort, and where they had 


the blessed privilege of enjoying the companion- 
ship of God. It was here in this earthly, blissful 
paradise, that we find them at the beginning of the 
second chapter of human life. 


'*By one man's disobedience, many were 
made sinners. Rom. 5:19. 


If ever there was a time when human beings 
had special reasons to feel grateful to their Maker, 
it was when our first parents were enjoying the 
richness of God's grace in the Garden of Eden. 

The sunshine of God's love was resting upon 
them. They were without spot and without stain; 
without sorrow and without pain. Everything for 
which heart could wish was at their disposal. We 
have reasons to believe that beautiful landscapes, 
picturesque scenery, fine, silvery streams, a pure 
atmosphere, the birds of Paradise, and all manner of 
trees that were beautiful to behold and good for 
food, were there to cheer their gladdened hearts 
and supply their natural wants. Free from the 
plagues of life, there was nothing to vex the soul 
and make the heart sad. To make their glory per- 
fect, the cheering presence of God was with them. 
A heaven on earth! How unbounded must have 
been their joy! 


Among the trees of the garden was the Tree of 
Life, the fruit of which was to insure perpetual 
life (Gen. 3:22); and the Tree of the Knowledge of 


Good and Evil, of which it was said, ''In the day 
that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die." 
They might eat of the fruit of all the other kinds 
of trees; but the fruit of this tree was to remain 
untouched. Things moved well for a time. But 
one day the serpent approached Eve and said, 
' ' Yea, hath God said, ye shall not eat of every tree 
of the garden? " Eve replied, "We may eat of the 
fruit of the trees of the garden. But of the fruit 
of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, 
God hath said. Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall 
ye touch it, lest ye die. " A conversation was all 
the serpent wanted. He had made a start. He saw 
that Eve was inclined to listen to his story, and he 
proceeded with his work of deception. Eve had 
made a mistake; she was soon to commit a trans- 
gression. Her mistake was to listen to his story; 
her transgression was to believe him. God's word 
is yea and amen forever, and we should never lis- 
ten to the idea that there is a possibility of His be- 
ing mistaken in anything. That would throw away 
the idea that He is infallible. Here is where the 
free-thinkers make their mistake. To be a free- 
thinker one must admit that God's word may be 
untrue, and the evidence of the Bible must be 
brought down on a level with that of any other 

Eve took the free-thinker's stand, and brought 
condemnation upon herself and the human race. 
Many persons of to-day, imagining themselves "lib- 
eral, " allow themselves to be drawn away from the 
truth of God's word bv listeninor to the wooings ol 


false doctrine. We should never allow our ' ' liber- 
ality" to compromise the truth of God's words. 

Notice the subtlety with which tlie serpent be- 
guiled Eve. He told her a large amount of truth, 
mixed with just a little falsehood. But this little 
falsehood disconnected the whole story, and put 
the stamp of deception upon every word he said. 
In fact, the serpent's truthful sayings, seasoned 
with a little untruth, led the woman to do exactly 
the opposite of what God wanted her to do. 

He said, "Ye shall not surely die." Just the 
little word " not, " that is all. Besides, it is true 
that they were not to die an immediate physical 
death. ' ' For God doth know that in the day that 
ye eat thereof, your eyes shall be opened, and ye 
shall be as gods, knowing good and evil." Was 
uot this true? Were not their eyes opened? Did 
they not learn to know good and evil? The main 
feature of his argument, however, he kept care- 
fully concealed. He did not come for the purpose of 
enlightening Eve, but to induce her to violate the 
commands of God. He used the truth to pervert 
the truth. He came as an angel of light, and 
brought the miseries of sin upon the human fam- 


The remaining part of the story is soon told. 
Eve was deceived, and partook of the forbidden 
fruit. She gave to Adam and he did eat. Their 
eyes were opened, just as the serpent had said they 
would be. But — may God have mercy on their 
souls — they were opened to the appalling fact that 
now they must be driven from the face of God, and 


suffer the pangs and heartaches of a sinful life! 
They had fallen from their lofty station. From 
pure and spotless lambs in the Paradise of God, 
they had become pilgrims and strangers in an un- 
friendly and sin-cursed world. Now, lest they 
** partake of the Tree of Life, and live forever, '' 
they were driven from the Garden of Eden, to till 
the ground from which they had been formed. 


Thus did Adam and Eve die a spiritual death. 
At the same time physical death set in. They lost 
their sinless character, and, being driven from the 
Tree of Life, they could not live forever in their 
fallen condition. God be praised that this is so; for 
an immortal life in our present condition would 
mean an immortality of sinfulness. So God gra- 
ciously permitted man's corruptible being to go 
back to the dust whence it came. To save our souls 
from eternal death, He planted a new Tree of Life 
— Christ — to which the faithful have access. (Rev. 
2:17; 22:2, 14). 

Our souls being immortal, they may be quick- 
ened with spiritual life by partaking of this Tree of 
Life, and as God gives us celestial bodies, we shall 
reign with Him through all eternity. 


When man fell, the human race became cor- 
rupted. Without entering into a discussion of such 
questions as ' * fatalism, " ' ' natural depravity, " etc. , 
etc. , we know that Christ is the only perfect being 
that ever bore the human form; that all humanity 


is lost in sin and iniquity, and now can be redeemed, 
saved by the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. Know- 
ing tlis, our hearts go out to God in solemn praises 
and lasting gratitude for having sent His only be- 
gotten Son to redeem us from the curse of a broken 



"Whatsoever is not of faith is sin," Rom. 
U: 23. 

"Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into 
the world, and death by sin; and so death 
passed upon all men, for that all have sin- 
ned.'' Rom. 5: 12. 


"Sin is any thought, word, desire, action, or 
omission of action, contrary to the law of God, or 
defective when compared with it. " 

Sin entered into the world in consequence of the 
evil designs of Satan, and the transgression of our 
first parents (Rom. 5:12), and the consequent de- 
pravity has been transmitted from generation to 
generation ever since. Hence, it is not surprising 
that when persons who are properly taught come 
to years of accountability, they find themselves lost. 
* ' All have sinned and come short of the glory of 
God." Rom. 3:23. 


"Ye must be born again" (Jno. 3:7) shows re- 
generation to be absolutely necessary to a divine 
life. The Scriptures teach that persons are ' 'born 
of God" and therefore become "sons of God," and 
"partakers of the divine nature" which gave them 
birth. There can be no other process of regener- 

SIN. 27 

Some teach that as obedient children come to 
the years of accountability they need no new birth. 
This is certainly unscriptnral. In their innocent 
state they are under the blood of Christ and are 
not held responsible for their wrongs. But when 
the ability of the child is sufBcient it is convicted 
by the Spirit of God and led to see its corrupt na- 
ture. It will thus be in an unsaved condition if it 
does not now embrace repentance and receive the 
new birth. If the child refuses this first call its 
wrongs become imputed sins. From this time on 
until it does truly repent it is in a lost condition. 
God does not intend that anyone should be in an 
unsaved condition- at any time in life, hence JJhe 
necessity of being regenerated as soon as the child 
is so prompted by the Spirit of God. Anyone, 
whether old or young, capable of having godly 
sorrow needs a new birth. ' ' If any man be in Christ, 
he is a new creature: old things are passed away; 
behold, all things are become new." 2 Cor. 5:17. 

An aged Spaniard once sought in vain for a per- 
petual fountain of youth into which he might dip 
himself and become young again. The slightest 
application of the rejuvenating blood of Jesus will 
cleanse the soul from every stain, make one a new- 
born heir of heaven, and stamp upon his soul the 
beauty and blessedness of eternal youth. 


Strange as it may seem, sin attracts the natural 
man much more than righteousness does. A little 
investigation will reveal the secret of this. Every- 
thing has a tendency to run down hill, or to drift 


with the tide. To this, man is no exception. To 
stem the tide, or ascend the hill, requires courage 
and exertion. To resist the encroachments of sin 
means self-denial. It means effort on our part. 
Reason would have dictated to our first parents that 
it is much better to listen to the voice of God than 
to yield to the deceptive allurement of the serpent; 
but that would have called for a resistance against 
his persistent persuasions. Their present enjoy- 
ment dictated the course they took; the results 
of their course was another question. Reason 
would dictate to all men that it is best to obey God 
in all things; but that means a conflict with self, 
with the world, and with the detail. The tendency 
therefore is for man to relax his efforts and allow 
matters to drift. The gay, giddy, gaudy, glitter- 
ing, glistening hallucinations of this world allure 
him into the paths of sin, and deeper and deeper 
are the fangs of the destroyer of the soul fastened 
upon his character. He loses sight of the ulti- 
mate results, and thinks only of present pleasure. 

To illustrate farther: A farmer finds himself in 
possession of a valuable farm. There are two 
courses, either of which he may pursue. He may 
apply himself vigorously to the - cultivation of his 
farm, or he may sit down and live at ease. The 
latter course is the more congenial to his nature, 
yet no one doubts that the former would be much the 
wiser and the more profitable course. It is so in 
all cases where righteousness and sin are con- 
trasted. No one doubts that a righteous life is 
much more satisfactory and profitable than a life of 

SIN. 29 

sin; but the fact that sin is so congenial to the nat- 
ural man, leads the great majority down the 
stream. While Christians are invigorated by the 
pure air of God's free grace, and by the exercise of 
noble faculties; while they are buoyed up by hopes 
of a bountiful harvest, and the fact that they are 
engaged in a noble -work, sinners recognize these 
advantages, but prefer to follow the leadings of 
their sinful lusts. It is easier for them to float 
down stream than to go against the current. The 
allurements of sin are such that man will invari- 
ably follow them, unless a higher sense of duty 
calls him to action. Easy-going church members 
are identical with easy-going sinners. They travel 
the same road. 


1. Destroys the Nobilitij of 3Ian. 

As righteousness calls for the exercise of man's 
noblest faculties, so sin calls out the most depraved 
features of his nature. No man can indulge in sins 
without becoming vitiated by them. As those who 
accept the Gospel are transformed into the image 
of Ohrist, and in their outer life become more and 
more like their Maker, so sinners become more and 
more like their master — the devil. The man who at 
first indulges in what are called "innocent games," 
in course of time becomes a confirmed gambler. 
So with other sinful things. Sin indulged in for a 
time becomes "tame" unless indulged in to greater 
excess. There is about sin a progression that 
brings its victims nearer and nearer the lower re- 


gions. Seldom can one long be vitiated by sin with- 
out losing respect for self, respect for God, re- 
spect for all that is good and pure. 

2. Leads to Eternal Punishment. 

The Bible says, ** The wicked shall be turned 
into hell, and all the nations that forget God." 
(Ps. 9:17). 

There is a tendency among some of our modern 
theologians to take away some of the horrors from 
the doom of the lost. It would almost seem as though 
there are two hells: (1) the one of which Christ 
spoke (Matt. 25:41); (2) the high-toned hell pictured 
to us by our modern theologians. It is not our desire 
to dwell on the dark side of things; but we cannot 
afford to close our eyes to facts, neither are we 
justifiable in smoothing them over because they 
happen to be unpalatable to the tastes of those who 
are trying to gratify ''itching ears." The Bible 
commands us to *'cry aloud and spare not." If, 
then, there are certain facts which stand against 
the great majority of mankind, we would consider 
ourselves guilty of the blood of the unsaved if we 
fail to warn them of their dangers. That the eternal 
abode of the lost is a place of most excruciating 
torture, is evident from the following scriptures: 

"And shall cast them into a furnace of fire; there 
shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. " Matt. 

* 'And these shall go away into everlasting pun- 
ishment." Matt. 25:46. 

SIN. 31 

* ' Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting 
fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. " Matt. 

' ' Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not 
quenched." Mark 9:48. Other quotations might 
be given in abundance. 

It is a terrible thing to contemplate the eternal 
agonies of the lost; but it is simply the logical end 
of a sinful life. As heaven, with all its beauty and 
bliss and holiness, is the fitting end of a righteous, 
holy life; so hell, with all its horrors, is a fitting 
end of the career of the wicked. 

The righteous man starts on his journey heaven- 
ward. He is fed by the spiritual manna from 
above, feasting upon the eternal word of God, 
growing in grace and a knowledge of the truth, as- 
cending higher and higher still in the realm of 
spirituality, until finally, when the fetters of his 
imperfect tenement of clay are removed by the 
death of the physical body, his soul springs into 
the beauty and perfection of heavenly splendor in 
a world of eternal joy. Likewise, as the sinner 
proceeds in his downward career, his soul becomes 
more and more vitiated, he is being more and more 
transformed into the image of Satan, and when his 
last opportunities have been wasted, his body crum- 
bles to dust, and his soul goes down in shame 
and disgrace and remorse to suffer the intensest 
agonies amid the pangs and torments of an endless 


It is true that our hearts should feast upon the 
beauty of holiness and the joys, both present and 


eternal, of a Christian life, rather than to be ter- 
rorized by constant thoughts of eternal X3unish- 
ment. It is not true, however, that this phase of 
divine teaching should be entirely ignored. Thous- 
ands of people are being lulled to sleep by preach- 
ing that is "pleasing to ears jjolite," when they 
ought to be awakened to the solemn fact that in 
their present condition the promises of the Bible do 
not apjDly to them in the least. Somebody is re- 
sponsible for this neglect of teaching the whole 
truth. The facts which have just been stated are 
as distinctly a part of divine revelation as any other 
part of the Bible. May we stand up fearlessly, and 
teach the whole word, even if part of it is disa- 
greeable to the carnal mind! What a mighty work 
could be wrought if all Christendom would awake 
to actual conditions and along with the blessed 
promises of God sing this warning to the U'«*av3d: 

''Stop, poor sinner, stop and think 

Before you farther go: 
Will you wait upon the brink 

Of everlasting woe? 
"On the verge of ruin stop. 

Now the friendly warning- take — 
Stay your footsteps, ere you drop 

Into the burning lake. 
"Though your heart were made of steel, 

Your forehead lined with brass; 
God at length will make you feel, 

He will not let you pass 

^'Sinners then in valawill call. 
Those who now despise fiia grace, 

•Rocks and mountains on us fall, 
And hide us from Th}'^ face.'" 


"Faith is the substance of things hoped for, 
the evidence of things not seen." Heb. 11: 1. 

"Without faith it is impossible to please 
him." Heb. 11:6. 


The first of these quotations tells us what faith 
is; the second gives us an idea of its importance. 
Many people imagine themselves the possessors of 
a living faith when in reality they are deceiving 
themselves. They have faith in something; but 
not in the inspiration of the Bible, or the gospel 
plan of salvation. To illustrate: A person refuses 
to believe anything that he can not comprehend. 
He believes in God, for the very existence of the 
Universe proves the existence of a Creator. 
He calls himself a Christian, for he sees in the per- 
sonality of Jesus a man of remarkable genius and 
intelligence. He avows his belief in the Bible, for 
he imagines it the most wonderful of all books. He 
may belong to a church, for he can not fail to see 
in it an organization that is a power for good. 

Here his religion ends. He believes the things 
which have just been enumerated, for his mind can 
comprehend them. They present themselves with 
such force and logic that he is at once impressed 
with them as truth. Further than this he can not 


go. He rejects the story of Jonah because he can 
Dot comprehend how a human being could be swal- 
lowed and preserved alive three days in the body 
of a fish. He rejects the story of Lazarus; for, in 
his estimation, it is impossible to restore one to 
life after having been dead four days. He doubts 
the divinity of Christ and the fact of direct revela- 
tion of God to man; because he can not compre- 
hend the natural laws by which the truth of these 
propositions can be demonstrated. 

Is this man possessed with Christian faith? Not 
if the Bible is true; for faith, we are told, is ''the 
evidence of things not seen. " This man refuses to 
believe anything which his natural senses can not 
grasp; therefore, "the evidence of things not seen' 
is entirely cast aside. Here is the fatal error of our 
modern "higher criticism." Among our "higher 
critics" the element of faith is ignored, and their 
theology reduced to a system of rationalism, and 
that based upon and judged by imperfect man. 

There is a kind of faith which believes in the ex- 
istence of God, accepts the historical statements of 
the Bible as truth, confesses that Christ was born 
into the world, died, rose again, and ascended into 
heaven, and yet is far from being a genuine, saving 
faith. Every one needs such a historical faith to 
begin with. It is a step in the right direction to 
believe the facts of the Bible without being able to 
reason them out according to human understand- 
ing. Many have taken this step, then trusted in 
their own good works and their self-righteousness, 
deceiving themselves with the idea that their faith 

FAITH. 35 

is sufficient because that which they have is true as 
far as facts are concerned. A historical faith, 
though true, is not saving faith. This is the kind 
of faith in which such vast numbers of persons 
trust while they are standing out of covenant 
relation with Christ, and are not even professing 
to keep His commandments. This is not the kind 
of ' 'faith that worketh by love. " 

True evangelical faith consists in taking the 
word of God as it stands, and accepting it as a 
whole. We know that a thing is true, because it is 
in the Bible. We may not be able to comprehend 
all things; but our theology is made perfect in 
faith, in that it gives us ' 'the evidence of things not 
seen, " and makes us perfect in Christ Jesus. 


A little child receives instruction from its par- 
ent. Its mind cannot comprehend why the instruc- 
tion is given, or what is to be gained therefrom; 
but it believes and obeys it all, for it was father or- 
mother that gave the instruction, and, in its esti- 
mation, whatever they say is all right. 

We sustain the same relation toward our heav- 
enly Parent. Our feeble minds are not always 
able to comprehend all the instructions found in 
His Holy Book, but if we have the same faith in 
Him that a little child has in its natural parent, we 
know that in all things He is infallible, and that He 
has ordered all things for the best. 

As a child loses fulth in its parent, only when 
it sees unmistakable evidence, on the part of the 
parent, of wrong-doing, so we lose faith in our 


heavenly Parent, only when we doubt His inlulli- 
bility. To deny that all of God's word is truth, 
whether we can see through it or not, is to deny 
God himself. 


is to assign to both God and man their appropriate 
importance. Recognizing the true relations be- 
tween God and man, our faith can not fail to be un- 

It requires little argument to prove that man, com- 
pared with God, is very small. How often do we find 
ourselves firmly set in certain opinions, only to find 
that we were mistaken. Where is the man who 
has given all his time to one single branch of learn- 
ing; has made it a lifetime study, and who, at the 
close of his career, has not admitted that he made but 
the barest beginning in his chosen field of thought? 
The wisest men that this world has ever produced 
have uniformly acknowledged that their knowledge 
is insignificant when compared with what there is 
to be learned. When we reflect upon how much 
there is in God's creation which human intelligence 
can never hope to fathom, and add to this the fact 
that we know absolutely nothing of the habitations 
of the holy angels save what God has chosen to re- 
veal, we can understand why it was that the wisest 
of all human bemgs passedhis judgment upon hu- 
man efforts by saying, "All is vanity." 

Contrast with this limited sphere in which man 
moves, the infinite wisdom, and power, and domin- 
ion of God I Behold Him as He calls all matter into 
existence! Hear Him as He speaks those simple 

FAITH. 37 

but sublime words, ''Let there be light! " See Him 
as He sits upon His throne in the heavens guiding 
the destiny of a boundless universe, His all-pene- 
trating eye witnessing the innermost thoughts and 
intents of every human heart ! How vain it is for hu- 
man beings, though intellectual giants compared 
with their fellow-creatures, to swell with pride and 
boast of their greatness, merely because, by the grace 
of God, they have been permitted to look upon a little 
more of God's creation than other persons have! 
How foolish it is for them to set up their feeble in- 
telligences and by them judge the universe. Who, 
in the light of this wonderful contrast, would not 
be willing to prostrate himself at the feet of Jesus 
and reverently say "Thy will be done! " 

Such is true Christian faith. In God we have a 
Being whom we can trust. In all His work He has 
proved His perfect wisdom, power, love, compas- 
sion, and all the attributes of an infinite Being. 
Many of His works are unknown to us, not because 
they are absurdities, or impossibilities, but because 
of our lack of wisdom. 


We have nothing to fear, therefore, in placing 
ourselves at the foot of the cross, and leaving our 
fate in the hands of Him who has promised never 
to leave us, nor forsake us. No need of doubt. No 
need of worry for fear that the truth of God's word 
will not bear the light of scientific research. No 
need of being perplexed because we can not com- 
prehend in all respects the ways of God. As we 
grow in grace and a knowledge of the truth, we 


gradually enter into the mysteries of divine truth. 
God's word and His works harmonize in every re- 
spect. So infallible has He proven Himself to be, 
that we trust His word under all circumstances. 
When His word conflicts with human opinion, we 
know that human opinion is wrong. 


"Without faith it is impossible to please him.'' 
The Apostle here expressed a simple but important 
truth. The farmer would never plant a grain of 
corn if he had no faith that there would be a har- 
vest. His faith in this particular may be weak; but 
he must have a little faith, or he would not move. 
The merchant would never start in business, were 
it not for the hope of profit. In fact, no voluntary 
act of any kind would ever be performed without 
faith in our ability to perform it. 

This fact is as true in religion as in anything 
else. To believe is the first essential. We must 
have a living faith in a living Redeemer, or our pro- 
fession is vain. We must believe in God, believe 
in His word, and that His word is truth. If we fail 
to believe this, we will certainly not come to the 
throne of grace. It is not impossible for us to join 
the church without faith in God; for our faith in 
the good-will of our fellow-beings, or that joining 
the church would hide some evil deeds of ours, or 
that church- fellowship would be a financial advant- 
age to us, might be sufficient to induce us to take 
this step; but it is faith in God alone that brings 
us to the foot of the cross, and makes us followers 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. 



A living faith will not only bring from us a lip- 
jn-ofession, but also a heart-confession. We are 
always drawn toward the object in which we 
have fa'ith. Thus when a person has faith in 
the power of the world to furnish real profit 
and enjoyment, he invariably becomes worldly 
minded. No matter what form his worldliness may 
assume — avarice, pride, giddiness, profanity, love 
of display — the form denotes the phase of world- 
liness in which he has faith. This accounts for the 
fact that many persons are zealous church workers 
and at the same time are worldly minded. They 
have faith that to belong to a church entitles them 
to some hope of immortal glory, and that, by work- 
ing hard along certain lines, God will overlook 
their inconsistencies; at the same time their faith 
in worldly things draws them to the world. The 
result is worldly-minded church members. For the 
same reason faith in God brings about a godly life. 
They that have faith in God delight in His word. 
They love to read of His works. They spend much 
time in meditation and prayer. They are grieved 
when they see that God's will is trampled under 
foot of man, and are always found fighting the 
hosts of sin. James jDroposed to show his faith by 
his works. Nothing is more natural. No man can 
have faith in God and at the same time lead a faith- 
less life. If church members who wilfully violate 
many of God's plain commands, and yet vehe- 
mently affirm that they are justified by faith, re- 
gardless of their works, could, for a time, forget 


that they are seen of men, and turn their atten- 
tions to the relations between them and their God, 
what a wonderful change would be noticed in their 
works! "Actions speak louder than words." After 
all, our works are an evidence of our justification; 
not for the works' sake, but because a faithful 
heart is productive of good works, while a faith- 
less heart brings forth evil fruit. A tree lives by 
its foliage as well as by its sap. 


While it is true that faith is the first essential to 
a Christian life, it is equally true that our faith be- 
comes strengthened as we grow in Christian exper- 
ience. Peter's faith was stronger when he con- 
fronted the rulers than when he trembled before 
the maiden and said, " I know Him not. " He had 
now had several remarkable religious experiences — 
notably that on the day of Pentecost — which con- 
firmed him in his earlier belief. The remarkable 
examples of faith left us by Abraham, Lot, the 
Apostles, and later reformers, occurred after they 
had spent years in the Christian work, and had be- 
come thoroughly rooted and grounded in the holy 

The lesson we draw from this is a consolation 
to younger Christians. When, at times, they are 
on the verge of giving up their religion for want 
of faith, they know from the experience of them 
that are older and have gone before that with each 
new trial and each new experience they become 
stronger in the faith and in Christian grace. Thus 
they stand at the bottom of the ladder of faith, and 

FAITH. 41 

as each new experience confirms them in the knowl- 
edge that they have builded upon the Rock, they 
ascend the ladder round by round. 

" Hope on, hope on, go bravely forth 

Through trial and temptation, 
Directed by the word of truth, 

So full of consolation; 
There is a calm for every storm, 

A joy for every sorrow, 
A nig-ht from which the soul shall wake 

To hail an endless morrow." 


"And the times of this ignorance God winked 
at, but now cominandeth all men everywhere 
to repent." Acts 17:80. 


''Repentance is the relinquishment of any prac- 
tice from the conviction that it has offended God." 
It is a necessary part of the conversion. When 
sinners come to God they first hear, then believe, 
then repent. This, in connection with the work of 
God's grace upon the heart, is called conversion. 
The quickening of our souls with new life when 
conversion takes place, is called regeneration. 


The Bible, in many places, teaches the necessity 
of repentance. ' ' Repent : for the kingdom of heaven 
is at hand " was the beginning of the preaching of 
John the Baptist and of Christ. When, on the day 
of Pentecost, the people were convicted by the 
power of God, and asked what they should do, Pe- 
ter answered by telling them to repent. Christ 
tells the Galileans (Luke 18:3) that unless they re- 
pent they shall perish. What else is there for sin- 
ners to do but to repent? They cannot be saved 
in their sins, and unless they repent of their sins 
how can they get rid of them? Believe, repent, 
accept God's proffered mercy — this ismans part of 


the work that reconciles him to his God. One sin, 
unrepented of, may shut us out of the eternal king- 


Sorrow is not repentance, although it may be a 
necessary adjunct of it, and cannot be easily sepa- 
rated from it. The young man that came to Christ 
and asked what good thing he should do to inherit 
eternal life, when commanded to sell what he had 
and give to the poor, went away with a sorrowful 
heart; but we have no evidence that he ever re- 
pented. Many a sinner has wept bitterly in con- 
sequence of a deep conviction for sin, but absolutely 
refused, at the time, to give his heart to God. Sor- 
row may or may not be an evidence of repentance: 
but in itself it is not repentance. ' ' Godly sorrow 
worketh repentance. " 


As conversion is something more than a mere 
change of mind, so repentance is more than a mere 
ceasing from sin. We may cease from wrong-doing 
for policy's sake. Confirmed criminals, when in 
danger of arrest, sometimes cease from their wrong- 
doing for months at a time; yet the fact that their 
minds are still bent on crime, proves the absence 
of repentance. Persons who have connected them- 
selves with the church, but w^hose desires run out 
to the world and worldly things, have never truly 
repented, and are therefore not converted. Self- 
satisfied church members who wilfully continue 
in their sins, and bring a bundle of them to their 


God at the close of each day and say, ''Lord, for- 
give my sins, " might as well save their breath. 
This is not repentance. It is cold formality which 
God cannot recognize. Repentance implies more 
than this. 


We cannot present the subject of repentance 
any more clearly than by relating an incident which 
is said to have happened in one of our western 
cities a number of years ago. Two brothers had 
fallen into the disreputable habit of taking strong 
drink. One night, during one of their drunken ca- 
rousals, one of the brothers fired a load of buck- 
shot into the other one and killed him. No sooner 
had it dawned upon him that he had committed a 
heinous crime, than his drunken spell left him, and 
he was filled with the wildest grief. He would 
have given ten thousand worlds, were tliey his to 
give, to restore life to his brother and blot out the 
crime. But the deed was done, and neither cries 
nor lamentations nor good resolutions nor anything 
that he could do could change it. So he contented 
himself in doing what he could under the circum- 
stances. He gave his brother a decent burial, and 
deeply mourned his untimely and tragic death. He 
left off his evil ways, and became an earnest Chris- 

This was true repentance. The knowledge that 
he had committed a grievous crime, brought sor- 
row to his heart. He was deeply convicted for his 
sins, and changed his course of life. 


Our sins are not all of this nature, but the work 
of repentance is the same. It carries with it a sor- 
rowful heart, a burdened soul, an anxious spirit, a 
desire to rectify the wrongs we have committed, 
and a determination to leave off our evil ways. 

A sinner is brought to a point where he realizes 
that he is lost. He sees the goodness and love of 
God, and realizes how ungrateful and shameful his 
own life has been. Whether his sins have been 
profanity, filthy habits, stealing, pride, dishonesty, 
drunkenness, licentiousness, murder, or any other 
crime, he sees that he is guilty before God. His 
soul is filled with remorse. He ' begs for mercy. 
He leaves off his evil w^ays. He seeks for light. 
Finding it, he does the best he can. This is repent- 
ance, pure and simple. Repentance is not conver- 
sion, but it is so closely allied with it, that conver- 
sion follows as a result. "The goodness of God 
leadeth to repentance. " 

What more does repentance do? No person has 
ever sincerely repented without making his wrongs 
right as far as possible. If, before, he tried to 
keep sinners away from the fold of Christ, he now 
tries to undo his mischief by urging them to give 
up their sinful ways. In whatever way he has 
sinned against God, he comes in deep contri- 
tion before Him, and implores forgiveness. If 
in any way he has wronged his fellow-man, he will 
make it right if it lies within his power to do so. 
This he does, not because civil or divine laws or 
public opinion drives him to it; but because his 
wiong-doing grieves him, and he has a desire to 


make things right. Repentance bears its fruits. 
The absence of these fruits suggests the absence 
of repentance. 


1. The sinner needs repentance. Without 
holiness no man shall see the Lord (Heb. 12:14). 
No sinner need ever expect to become holy with- 
out repentance. 

2. The Christian needs repentance. Not, like the 
sinner, who needs to repent for having lived wan- 
tonly in sin, but as a fallible being, he is conscious of 
an endless number of deeds that he should not have 
done, and many things that should have been done 
which were left undone. As these shortcomings 
come up before him, he naturally feels a remorse 
in proportion to the magnitude of the deeds. It is 
like injuring a friend. Though he was ignorant of 
the fact when the injury was inflicted, he is none 
the less sorry when he finds it out. Not only that, 
but he is very careful not to repeat the same thing. 
It is this continual watchfulness, continual repent- 
ance, and continual prayer to be delivered from the 
mistakes of the past that enables him to "grow in 
grace and knowledge of the truth. " 


What we need in connection with this subject is 
right teaching. There are so many people that 
think sorrow for wrong-doing constitutes repent- 
ance, so many that scarcely ever think of repent- 
ance in any phase, and so many that little realize 
that every sin must be repented of. This being 


true, it will take a mighty effort to get people to 
comprehend the full meaning and importance of 
repentance. Let every minister of the Gospel, 
every Sunday school teacher, and all other Chris- 
tian workers, in whatever field they may be labor- 
ing, proceed to fully inform themselves on this im- 
portant subject, and rise to do their duty. 



•'Except ye be converted and become as lit- 
tle children, ye shall not enter into the king- 
dom of heaven." Matt. 18:3. 


Conversion means a change or turning. It may- 
be applied to anything that is capable of being 
changed. Thus, a large forest may be converted 
into lumber; steam into water, or water into steam; 
fertile fields into a barren waste of land; raw prairie 
into beautiful farms; iron ore into a steam engine; 
a reckless criminal into a law-abiding citizen. 


Applying this idea to intelligent beings, we no- 
tice several kinds of conversion. Physically, cir- 
cumstances may convert us from the picture of 
health to the image of death. Intellectually, when- 
ever our minds are changed on any question to the 
opposite from that which they were before the 
change, we call it conversion. Thus, there may 
be conversions on political questions, on ideas of 
morality, from one church to another, etc., etc. 
Evangelical conversion is a change from a sinful 
to a holy life. It is this form of conversion to which 
we now address ourselves. 


As already noticed, in all forms of conversion 
there is a change. To this rule there is no excep- 
tion. When there is no change there is no con- 


version. People that consider themselves so 
nearly perfect before they become Christians that 
they need make no changes, need no conversion, 
according to their own ideas. The teaching of the 
Bible, however, is that the carnal heart is ' 'deceit- 
ful above all things, and desperately wicked," 
and unless this nature can be changed to a true, 
holy, Christ-like disposition, there is no conver- 


1. Joining the church is not conversion. One 
does not become a Christian by virtue of church- 
fellowship, but joins the church in consequence of 
being a Christian. It must not be understood, how- 
ever, that it is not necessary for Christians to belong 
to church. Church organization is plainly taught in 
the Bible. If any person would console himself 
with the thought that possibly he can be a Chris- 
tian without belonging to church, let him read 
Matt. 16:18, 19, also Matt. 18: 18; meditating par- 
ticularly upon the words, ' 'Whatsoever ye shall bind 
on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatso- 
ever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in 
heaven. " 

While we are firm in the belief that the Bible 
makes it obligatory upon every child of God to 
connect himself with the church, we are equally 
firm in the belief that, unless there is a change of 
life from a sinful to a righteous state, joining 
the church is but a vain and empty form. When a 
person is truly penitent for his past sins and re- 
solves to live a life for (lod, the dominion of the 


llesh comes to an end, and God creates within him 
"a new heart and aright spirit." This change con- 
stitutes an evangelical conversion. Impious church 
members often console themselves with the thought 
that God overlooks their sinful ways because they 
^'belong to church." Nothing is farther from the 
truth. The Bible says, "Except ye be converted;" 
not, "Except ye join the church." When a church 
member is more careful concerning his personal 
appearance than about his personal salva- 
tion, concerns himself more about his stand- 
ing in society than his standing with his God, 
slays away from a religious meeting to attend a 
social gathering, spends more time in reading 
novels and other trashy literature than in reading 
the Bible, delights in attending theaters, horse- 
races, circuses, jDrogressive euchre parties, and 
other places of worldly amusement, indulges in 
vain, giddy, foolish talk and filthy habits, mark it 
down, that man is not converted. It is idle for 
him to claim conversion; for where is the differ- 
ence between him and any other sinner? Where 
is the change? How vast the difference between 
him and a converted man, of whom it is written, 
"His delight is in the law of the Lord; and in his 
law doth he meditate day and night. " 

2. Water baptism is not conversion, or any part 
of it. There is a baptism that produces con- 
version; but it is not water baptism. "For by 
one Spirit are ye all baptized into one body." 
(1 Cor. 12: 13). Water baptism is the work of 
man. Conversion is tlie work of God. 



as already stated, consists in a change from a 
sinful state into that of a justified or righteous 
state. This implies that all sinful habits are 
given up. If, before conversion, we were care- 
less in searching for truth, we are now diligent. 
We read the Bible and attend all the religious 
services we can, to the end that we may learn 
more of God's holy will. 

If we were inclined to be quarrelsome, we are 
now peaceable. If we were proud, we are now 
meek. If we were given to foolishness, we are 
now sober and earnest. If we were inclined to 
take revenge on those who had done us an 
injury, or delighted in the misfortunes of others, 
we now desire the well-being of all mankind. If 
our sins consisted in lying, stealing, swearing, 
high-temper, drunkenness, licentiousness, or de- 
frauding our fellow-men, all these sins ar© laid 
aside, and, as far as in us lies, we will make 
restitution for our past w^rong-doing. This is true 
evangelical conversion. This is practically prov- 
ing our faith by our works. 


When people become converted, their nature 
assumes a child-like simplicity. Study the char- 
acteristics of a child that has not been spoiled by 
early mistraining, and its actions will reveal the 
following trails of character: 

1. Purity. 

2. Innocence. 


3. Tenderness. 

4. Earnestness. 

5. Freedom from Guile. 

6. Perfect Trust in Parents. 

7. Perfect Obedience to Parents. 

8. Pleasure in the Happiness of Others. 

it is true that children early give evidence of 
the fact that they have inherited the imperfections 
of their parents. It is also true that the best of 
Christians are not free from imperfections. Our 
Savioi^ did not teach that it is necessary to be 
absolutely perfect in the outer life to inherit the 
kingdom of heaven; but to give up the proud, 
haughty, ambitious spirit, which years of sinful 
life have fastened upon the character, and assume 
the meek, inoffensive, simple, Christlike spirit of 
a child. 


1. Without change there is no conversion. 

2. Without conversion there is no salvation. 
(Matt. 18:3). 

8. Conversion leads into the church. 

4. Joining the church is not conversion. 

5. Baptism is not conversion. 

6. Repentance is not conversion. 

7. Making loud professions is not conversion. 

8. It is one thing to claim conversion, and 
another thing to be converted. 

9. The natural course is down stream. Conver- 
sion moves us to take our oars and go against 
the current. 


10. If a sinner joins the church, and still con- 
tinues in his sinful ways, he adds another sin- 
hypocrisy — to the list. 

11. There is more joy among the devil's angels 
over an unconverted member in the church than 
over the ninety and nine sinners out of the church. 

12. When an unconverted person is found in 
the church, the members should do all possible to 
get him converted; if they fail, then cast him out. 
''A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump." 

13. "The word of God is powerful, and 
sharper than any two-edged sword." Let there 
be some pruning with reference to conversion. 
It does not take much accurate cutting to dis- 
tinguish between real and pretended conversion. 

14. Some persons are like swine in their nests 
on a frosty morning. When they are prodded in 
order to roust them out they squeal and writhe, 
but stay where they are. 

15. Each individual should be thoroughly con- 
vinced that he has a heart- experience which 
assures him that his sins are forgiven and that 
God has accepted him through the merits of 
Christ as His child (1 John 3:1, 2) and a subject 
of His kingdom (John 18:36). To think and to 
hope tliat w^e are converted may be some comfort 
to many souls, but they are living far below the 
privileges that God's promises accord to them. 
Not to know that we are converted is running a 
fearful risk. We should not doubt in the least. 
We surely know when a change takes place in us 
so radical as a true conversion must be. We 
should have the assurance that enables us to say, 
''We knoiv'' (1 John 3:11; Matt. 16:16, 17; 1 
John 4: 1—3). 


"Except a man be born again; he cannot see 
the kingdom of God." Jno. 3: 3. 


Re, again; generare, to beget or create; tion, act 
of. Re-genera-tion, act of begetting again. Such is 
the simple act that transforms us from darkness 
into light. It is the new birth in Christ Jesus. 


That all persons must experience this new 
birth in order that they may obtain everlasting 
life, is evident from the above text. Without it we 
may be converted to man, but we can not be con- 
verted to God; we may have our name upon the 
rolls of some church book, but we can not have 
them enrolled upon the Lamb's Book of Life. For, 
"Except a man be born again, he can not see the 
kingdom of God. " 


What is the new birth? In what does it consist? 
How is it brought about? It is difficult to speak 
from experience and answer these questions, from 
the fact that this is a work of God, and not of man. 
The change is not wrought by anything that we 
can do, nor does it necessarily produce upon us 
any physical sensation. Our experience is similar 
to that of the blind man, "One thing I know; that 


whereas I was blind; now I see." One thing we 
know; after God has accomplished the work of 
salvation, we experience a change of heart, a 
change of feelings, a change of purposes. How 
this change was brought about we do not know. 
It was the work of God and is beyond our power 
to comprehend. 

Hear our Savior's illustration: "The wind blow- 
eth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound 
thereof; but canst not tell whence it cometh and 
whither it goeth; so is every one that is born 
of the Spirit." 


While the work of regeneration is the work of 
God, it must not be inferred that man has nothing 
to do to obtain it. Man can not do the work of 
God, nor has God chosen to perform the work 
which man can do for himself. There is a human 
part and a divine part in every Christian work. 
The first step in the work of regeneration is the 
call from God. Jesus says, * 'Behold I stand at the 
door and knock; if any man hear my voice, and 
open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup 
with him, and he with me. " At some time in our 
sinful career, the conviction is forced upon us that 
we are sinners, and outside of the promises of the 
Gospel. This is the work of God, bringing us the 
call through the instrumentality of some of His 
agents. Whether we heed or spurn this call, sooner 
or later, we must answer. 

Now comes something for us to do. God has 
given us the call, but as "free moral agents" we 


may ignore the call until, when, in the final reck- 
oning, "every knee shall bow, and every tongue 
confess." If we desire to "see the kingdom of 
God, " we can do our first work by exercising faith 
— faith that this call is from God — faith that Jesus 
is the Son of God, and is able to redeem — faith 
that the Bible is truth, and that by following its 
precepts, we may be led from darkness into light. 
Having this faith we begin to reflect. We be- 
gin to realize that we are lost. We are reminded 
of the unbounded love of God, who has given us 
existence, provided for our natural wants, pro- 
vided for us a blissful home where we may enjoy 
the richness of His glory forever; and, above all, 
suffered His only begotten Son to bleed and die 
upon the cross, that we through Him might live. 
How ungrateful for all this we have been! How 
often have we brought reproach upon the name of 
God by our selfish, sensual, sinful practices, and 
how wonderfully God exercises His love in bear- 
ing it all, and still bidding us, "Come!" When we 
remember all this and recognize the exceeding 
folly of our sinful course, we cry to God for mercy. 
With sorrowful hearts, and with penitence for our 
past transgressions, we implore His forgiveness, 
and ask Him to guide us in our future career. God 
responds by pardoning our sins, readopting us 
into His happy family, and the work of regenera- 
tion is comi)lete. Eph. 2:2-7; Tit. 3:3-7. We can 
now move forward, doing the will of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and show to the world that we have b?en 
turned from "darkness unto his marvelous light." 



To recapitulate. The following stejjs are neces- 
sary in the work of regeneration: 

1. Jesus knocking at the door of the heart. 

2. Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3. Consciousness of sin. 

4. Godly sorrow for sin. 

5. Surrender to God, and prayer for pardon. 

6. Pardon of sins and the free gift of salvation. 


We now pass to another phase of the subject. 
The Bible not only teaches regeneration, but it 
also gives evidence vrhereby we may know whether 
or not we have experienced regeneration. There 
are certain principles cf righteousness in the Bible 
which leave their impress upon the character of 
every child of God. Christians should often meas- 
ure themselves by these principles and thus heed 
the admonition of Paul, "Examine yourselves, 
-whether ye be in the faith." It is to the considera- 
tion of these principles that we now address our- 


The first evidence of regeneration is faith. 
(The living faith of the Christian is different from 
the historical faith of the sinner). Living faith 
begins with conversion, or when w^o fxrst begin to 
manifest faith by works. (James 2: 20). Faith is 
the basis of true Christianity. Salvation is prom- 
ised as a condition of faith. (Jno. 3: 16; Acts 16: 
31). Without faith it is impossible to please God. 
(Heb 11:6). 


as an evidence of regeneration, is abundantly 
taught in the Scriptures. Jesus declares (Matt. 22: 
35-40) that upon two commands, ' 'Love the Lord 
thy God with all thy soul, etc." and "Love thy 
neighbor as thyself," "hang all the law and the 
I)rophets. " We have only to believe on the good- 
ness and mercy and power and wisdom of God, 
when our whole soul will be filled with love to 
God; and not to God only, but for all that He has 
commanded us to do. 

John expresses himself clearly and forcibly 
when he says (1 Jno. 3:14), "We know that we 
have passed from death unto life because we love 
the brethren." By this is meant, of course, all 
brethren, regardless of wealth or social position; 
for, he further says, (1 Jno. 4:20) that "if a man 
say, I love God and hateth his brother, he is a 
liar." To exjDress this in modern language, it 
would amount to this: It is an utter impossibility 
to maintain the love of God in our hearts, and, at 
the same time, cherish hatred toward any of our 
brethren. 1 Jno. 3:4 and 4:20, taken together, 
doubtless mean this: If on examining ourselves, 
we find that our love goes out to our brethren, re- 
gardless of their wealth, social position, appear- 
ance, nationality, or habits before conversion, "we 
know that we have jiassed from death unto life. " 


Faith, love, and obedience are inseparably con- 
nected. Salvation was promised the jailor on con- 
dition that he "believe," but his faith was made 


manifest by his obedience in the act of baptism. 
Abraham was commended for his faith, yet it 
was through his obediencd^to God that he made 
his faith manifest. Faith in the Lord Jesus, and 
love for His word, brings us so near to Him that 
disobedience is impossible. John expresses this 
very forcibly when he says, * 'He that saith, I know 
him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, 
and the truth is not in him. " If every Christian 
professor could but take one sober look at this 
verse, it would prove an "eye-opener" to many a 


Another evidence of regeneration, is the Spirit 
of Christ dwelling within us. Paul says, ' 'Now if 
any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none 
of his." How are we to know that we have this 
Spirit? A good way to determine this is by apply- 
ing the text, "By their fruit ye shall know them." 
The tree that produces pears is known to be a 
pear tree. The fruit is the test by which we know 
other kinds of trees. In like manner, we may de- 
termine our standing before God, by the kind of 
fruit we bear. If, in our every day life, we mani- 
fest the fruits of the flesh, we know that we are 
born of the flesh; if we manifest the fruits of the 
Spirit, we know that we are born of the Spirit. 
"Now, the works of the flesh are manifest, which 

are these; Adultery, fornication envying, 

murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like, 
of the which I tell you before, as I have also told 
you in times past, that they which do such things 


shall not inherit the kingdom of God" (Gal. 5: 19- 
21). May we ponder over this striking passage, 
and may God forbid tiiat the terrible sentence pro- 
nounced upon those that do these things should be 
applicable to us. ''But the fruit of the Spirit is 
love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, good- 
ness, faith, meekness, and temperance. Against 
such there is no law" (Gal. 5: 22, 23). 

Let us again make the application. We know 
that we are born of the fiesh, when in our lives we 
show forth the works of the fiesh, and born of the 
Spirit, when we manifest the fruit of the Spirit. 


Other evidences, such as a free conscience, etc. , 
might be enumerated in the list; but we Wve 
given the most important and those that are most 
clearly taught in the word. Let us briefly recon- 
sider the above named 

Evidences of Begeneration. 

1. Faith. — "Without faith it is impossible to 
please him." Heb. 11:6. 

2. Love. — "We know that we have passed from 
death unto life, because we love the brethren." 
1 Jno. 3:14. 

3. Obedience. — Whoso keepeth his word, in him 
verily is the love of God perfected. Hereby know 
we that we are in him." 1 Jno. 2: 5. 

4. Spirit of Christ. — "If any man have not the 
Spirit of Christ, he is none of his." Rom. 8:9. 

5. Witness of a free conscience. — "Beloved, if our 
heart condemn us not, then we have confidence 
toward God." IJno. 3:21. 


In our imperfect way we have tried to show (1) 
that regeneration is the work of God upon the 
hearts of His wayward children, as they return 
from their wandering career to seek His pardoning 
grace; (2) that the evidences of regeneration are 
so plainly marked in the Bible that there is no ex- 
cuse for any one not knowing how he stands with 
his God. The problem of regeneration is not a 
difficult one if rightly applied to the life of the in- 
dividual. Our part is submission; God will do the 


"Therefore we conclude that a man is justified 
by faith." Rom. 3:28. 
"Faith without works is dead." Jas. 2:20. 


Among the most personal questions which con- 
cern all Christians, is justification. The question, 
Are you justified? is equivalent to Are you saved? 
Are you justified? means, Does God claim you as 
His own? 

Justification is that condition of our being in 
which God looks upon us as being saved as surely 
as if we had never sinned. Its conditions are, (1) 
faith on our part, (2) the blood of Jesus as the 
cleansing power, (3) the work of God, who through 
His grace accomplishes the work of salvation. 


Habakkuk 2:4 reads, "The just shall live by 
faith. " The same language is repeated in Rom. 
1:17; Gal. 3:11; Heb. 10:38. John 3:36 reads, "He 
that belie veth on the Son hath everlasting life: and 
he that believeth not the Son shall not see life. '' 
John 3:16, "For God so loved the world, that he 
gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever be- 
lieveth in him should not perish, but have everlast- 
ing life." Acts 16:31, "Believe on the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and thou shalt be saved. " Eph. 2:8, "For 


by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not 
of yourselves; it is the gift of God," Rom. 3:28, 
"Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by 
faith without the deeds of the law. " 

It is evident from the array of testimony that 
whoever believes on the Lord Jesus Christ is just- 
ified in the sight of God. "Therefore being justi- 
fied by faith, we have peace with God through our 
Lord Jesus Christ. " Only "believe and thou shalt 
be saved." It is well that this is so; for had God 
chosen to set a limit to the amount of work done, 
or fijj:ed a standard of righteousness to insure our 
salvation, many might have fallen short of the 
standard. As it is, no one need fail for want of 
ability. "All that believe are justified." (Acts 
13:39). Blessed Bible! The requirements of sal- 
vation may be complied with by every one. Blessed 
Father! May we ever adore the name of Him who 
has made salvation so easy. The question, "Are 
we saved?" may be answered by another question: 
Do we believe? 


"Justification by faith" has been so much 
abused that some have been inclined to doubt the 
wisdom of preaching the doctrine. In imagining 
the conditions of salvation easy, we are liable to 
take them so easy as to be inconsistent. Truly 
we are justified by faith, but faith implies some- 
thing more than a lip-confession. To exercise faith 
in God and at the same time prove faithless to His 
word is out of the question. If we have faith in 


God, we have faith in His word. A failure to ac- 
cejDt this word is undisputed evidence of a lack of 


Our faith is made manifest by our works. James 
says, "Faith without works is dead," and that we 
are justified, not by faith alone, but by faith and 
works. (James 2:24). Faith and works are insep- 
arably connected. "Faith justifies in the sight of 
God; works justifies in the sight of men. " 

A few glimpses from the writings of John and 
of James will convince us of the necessity of prov- 
ing our faith by our works. 

' ' He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not 
his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not 
in him." 1 John 2:4. 

"Therefore, to him that knoweth to do good, 
and doeth it not, to him it is sin." Jas. 4:17. 

' ' He that committeth sin is of the devil. " 1 Johu 

"For whosoever will keep the whole law, and 
yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. " Jas. 2 :10. 

These quotations, though very positive, do not 
in the least contradict the doctrine of justification 
by faith. They simply show that if we are ix)s- 
sessed with a living faith, our works will show it, 
and that if our works are not in accordance with 
God's will, it is proof positive that our faith is want- 
ing. They show that we cannot have faith in God, 
and at the same time willfully or carelessly disre- 
gard His word. Faith makes of us willing follow- 
ers, both of the letter and of the spirit of the Gospel. 



There is a mistaken idea among a great many 
Christian professors that all men remain sinners. 
They boldly proclaim that they themselves do not 
live up to the standard of the Gospel; that they sin 
every day of their lives; that they know of many 
things which they do that should not be done, and 
leave undone many things they should do; that 
they do not try to live up to all the commands of 
the Bible because they feel themselves too weak. 
They justify themselves in their wrong-doing on 
the ground that God is merciful and will save them 
on their petition for forgiveness of their sins. 

This doctrine is born of human w^eakness, if not 
of human depravity. The Bible nowhere sustains 
it. On the other hand, it teaches us that ' 'he that 
committeth sin is of the devil. " Christ was sent 
into the world to "save his people /rom their sins," 
not in their sins. We are further taught that we 
"cannot serve God and mammon," that Christ has 
no concord with Belial, etc. The Bible recognizes 
no half-way ground. We are on one side or the 
other. Why, then, should we set at naught the 
teaching of the Bible, and expect of God what He 
has not only not promised that He would do, but 
positively said that He would not do? 


When we are prompted to justify ourselves in 
wrong-doing, let us remember that it is God, and 
not ourselves, that j ustifies. The comm \nd comes to 
us to work, to be obedient, etc. When W3 have done 


all that we could do, we are still to say we are un- 
profitable servants (Luke 17:10). We may do our 
very best, and still we are unworthy of salvation. 
But God sees our good intentions, and, for Jesus' 
sake, saves us. Let us not, then, make the mis- 
take of justifying ourselves in anything. Let us 
do what we can, and leave the results in the hands 
of God. 

THE christian's DUTY. 

Our duty is plain. We believe in God. We be- 
lieve in His word. We are filled with love for His 
wonderful power, goodness, love, and compassion, 
and the glory of His cause. This does not specify 
any amount of work or self-denial. It means a sur- 
render into His hands. A single reservation for 
ourselves proves a lack of consecration. A lack of 
consecration proves a lack of faith. God can over- 
look the shortcomings of an earnest Christian; but 
He can not overlook the rebellious spirit of a 
proud heart. Every faithful Christian will do 
what he can. He is anxious to comply with his 
Father's wishes in all things. Instead of seeking 
excuses for not complying with those of God's 
commands that happen to be repulsive to the carnal 
mind, he will eagerly grasp every opportunity to 
carry out the whole will and counsel of God. 


1. Who are God's elect? 

They that take Jesus as their Savior, accept 
His blood as their atonement, believe on God, and 
prove their faith by their works. (Hab. 2:4; Jno. 


8:36; Rom. 1:17; Gal. 3:11; Heb. 10:33; Jas. 2; 
Acts 13:39). 

2. Is the fact that a person belongs to a cer- 
tain religious denomination full proof that he is 
justified in the sight of God? 

No; we must be born again. (John 3:3). 

3. Can a person be justified and still live in 
his sins? 

No; "He that committeth sin is of the devil.*' 
IJno. 3:8. 

4. How, then, can a person be justified with- 
out being sanctified? 

In the light of the Gospel, this is impossible. 
(ICor. 1:30; Rom. 8:29). 

5. Is a person justified when he knows he is 
not observing all the commandments of the Bible? 

No; He that knoweth to do good, and doeth it 
not, to him it is sin. (Jas. 4:17). 

6. What is the condition of those who have ac- 
cepted Christ with a sincere heart, who want to do 
everything the Bible commands them to do, but 
who, through wrong teaching and wrong under- 
standing, fail to keep all of God's commands? 

They are justified by faith (Rom. 3:38); but 
they fail to glorify God in all their works. 

7. Is a person responsible for transgressions 
wiien he is ignorant of the fact that they are trans- 

If, by diligent research, he could have informed 
himself on these matters, he is. When we fail to 
improve our time, we are responsible for our ig- 


norance and all its consequences. God does for us 
what we cannot do for ourselves. 

8. Are the heathen lost without the Gospel? 
Yes. Jno. 14:6; Jno. 10:9; Psalms 9:17; Jno. 

10:1; Acts 4:11, 12. 

9. Is the doctrine, "Once in grace, always in 
grace," scrii^tural? 

The Apostles Paul and Peter did not so con- 
sider it. Read Heb. 6:4-6 and 10: 26; 2 Peter 2: 20. 
Yet we must believe that those who are in grace 
seldom fall entirely from it. 



"For God so loved the world, that he gave 
his only begotten Son, that whosoever believ- 
eth in him should not perish, but have ever- 
lasting life." John 3: 16. 


When man fell, the whole human family be- 
came aliens from the commonwealth of God. The 
Lord looked down from heaven to see if there was 
any that did understand and seek God. Thus He 
found man: **They are all gone aside, they are 
altogether become filthy: there is none that doeth 
good, no not one." But God was merciful; and 
when He informed our first parents of the curse 
which they had brought upon themselves, He gra- 
ciously promised them a Redeemer. 


The redemption of man could not have been ef- 
fected by offering to God from ''the finest of the 
flock"; for "The earth is the Lord's and the ful- 
ness thereof. " Man could not have been redeemed 
by offering himself to God; for all human flesh 
was polluted, and therefore not an acceptable sac- 
rificial offering. His case was like that of a bank- 
rupt whose note is no better than his word, for he 
has nothing with which to secure his note. So 
man was powerless, laboring under the curse, an 


enemy of God, and unable to effect a reconcilia- 


The unlimited power and boundless love of our 
heavenly Father was here made manifest when 
He sent His only begotten Son to redeem us from 
the curse of a broken law. Free from sin, His 
blood was all that was now left that could atone 
for our sins. As He was lifted up from the earth, 
uttering His agonizing crj^, "My God, my God, 
why hast thou forsaken me?" God saw '^the 
travail of his soul and was satisfied." The price 
of sin was paid; the vail of the temple was rent in 
twain; man could enter the "holy of holies," and 
receive the priceless gift of salvation. 

' 'For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the 
ashes of a heifer sprinkling the unclean, sancti- 
fieth to the purifying of the flesh; how much 
more shall the blood of Christ, who through the 
eternal Sj^irit offered himself without spot to God, 
purge your conscience from dead works to serve 
the living God?" Heb. 9:13, 14. 

The plan of redemption is so vividly set forth 
in the Mennonite Confession of Faith, which was 
adopted at Dortrecht in 1632, that we quote verba- 
tim. Article IV, entitled, 


We believe and confess further, That 'when 
the fullness of the time was come,' after which 
all the pious patriarchs so ardently longed, and 


which they so anxiously awaited — the previously 
2H'omised Messiah, Redeemer, and Savior pro- 
ceeded from God, being sent by him, and, accord- 
ing to the prediction of the prophets and the testi- 
mony of the evangelists, came into the world, yea, 
into the flesh, so that the Word itself thus be- 
come flesh and man; and that he was conceived by 
the Virgin Mary (who was espoused to a man 
named Joseph, of the house of David), and that 
she bare him as her first-born son at Bethlehem, 
'wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him 
in a manger.' John 4:25; 16:28; 1 Tim. 3:16; 
Matt. 1:21; John 1:14; Luke 2:7. 

Further, we believe and confess, that this is 
the 'same One, 'whose goings forth have been 
from of old, from everlasting;' w^ho has 'neither 
beginning of days, nor end of life. ' Of whom it 
is testified, that he is 'Alpha and Omega, the 
beginning and the end, the first and the last.' 
That this is also he — and none other — who w^as 
chosen, promised, and sent; who came into the 
world; and who is God's only, first, and proper 
Son; who was before John the Baptist, before 
Abraham, before the world; yea, who w^as David's 
Lord, and who is God of the 'whole earth,' 'the 
first-born of every creature;' who was sent into 
the world, and himself delivered up the body 
prepared for him, as 'an offering and a sacrifixce 
to God for a sweet- smelling savor;' yea, for the 
comfort, redemi:)tion, and salvation of all — of the 
human race. Micah 5:2; Heb. 7:3; Rev. 1:8; John 
3:16; Rom. 8:32; Col. 1:15; Heb. 10:5. 


But how, or in what manner, this worthy body 
was prepared, or how the Word became flesh, and 
he himself man, we content ourselves with the 
declaration which the faithful evangelists have 
given and left in their description thereof; accord- 
ing to which we confess with all the saints, that 
he is the Son of the living God, in whom exist all 
our hope, comfort, redemption, and salvation, and 
which we are to seek in no one else. Luke 1 : 31- 
35; John 20:31. 

Further, we believe and confess by authority 
of Scripture, that when he had ended his course, 
and 'finished' the work for which he was sent 
into the world, he was, by the providence of God, 
delivered into the hands of the unrighteous; 
suffered under the governor, Pontius Pilate, 'r^^as 
crucified, died, was buried, rose again from the 
dead on the third day, and ascended into heaven, 
where he now sits at the right hand of the 
Majesty of God on high;' from whence he will 
come again to judge the living and the dead. 
Luke 23:1; 33:53; 24:5, 6, 51. 

Thus we believe the Son of God died — 'tasted 
death for every man,' shed his precious blood, 
and thereby bruised the head of the serpent, 
destroyed the works of the devil, 'blotted out the 
hand- writing, ' and purchased redemption for the 
whole human race; and thus he became the source 
of eternal salvation to all who, from the time of 
Adam to the end of the world, shall have believed 
in him, and obeyed him. Gen. 3:15; 1 John 3:8; 
Col. 2:14; Rom. 5:18." 


The advent of our Savior brought new lighl 
into the world; His teaching showed us the way 
of hfe; His life was an example showing us how 
to follow this way; His death and resurrection 
give us an idea of regeneration; and His ascension 
opened the way to eternal glory. 



"I charge thee therefore before God, and 
the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the 
quick and the dead at his appearing and his 

Preach the word; be instant in season, out 
of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all 
longsuflering and doctriue. 

For the time will come when they will not 
endure sound doctrine; but after their own 
lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, 
having itching ears; 

And they shall turn away their ears from 
the truth, and shall be turned unto fables." — 
2 Tim. 4: 1-4. 


There can be no prosperous flock without a 
shepherd. The tendency of the sheep to stray 
from the fold, and the work of enemies in either 
hiring them away or forcibly scattering them, ren- 
ders it necessary for some one to guard their in- 
terests. No ship can be successfully steered with- 
out some one at the helm. It need not be the head 
captain, but some one must be there. When there 
are a number of ships belonging to the same fleet, 
it is necessary to have some central officer, or the 
strength of unity is gone. 

We draw on these natural illustrations to show 
that there must be some one at the head of every 
church organization. While we recognize as oui 


only leader the great "Shepherd and Bishop of 
our souls," we recognize, at the same time, that 
His work on earth is carried on through human 
instrumentalities. As the owner of an extensive 
sheep ranch sends instructions to his shepherds in 
various parts of his possessions, so our great 
Shepherd sends instructions to His stewards in 
various parts of His kingdom. As the commander 
sends messages to those at the helm in various 
parts of his fleet, so the great Ca^Dtain of our sal- 
vation has revealed in His own marvelous Book 
His instructions to those who are at the helm of 
the visible church. We need ministers, then, who, 
as ''faithful watchmen on the walls of Zion," serve 
as instruments in the hands of God in the all im- 
portant work of bringing souls from the power of 
darkness into "the true and the marvelous light.'' 
Our Savior put the stamp of approval upon 
this idea, when in a three years' course of thorough 
training. He prepared His twelve apostles for the 
work. The apostles recognized it, and ordained 
men to oversee the little flocks which they had es- 
tablished. It might be well to notice in this con- 
nection, that there is a difl'erence between an evan- 
gelical ministry and a perverted priesthood, or 


The foremost work of the ministry is to preach 
the Gospel. Our Savior's great command to the 
apostles was to "teach all nations," "to observe all 
things" that He had commanded them. This has 
been handed down from generation to generation 


till the present time. In another place we are 
commanded to "preach the word," to "exhort, re- 
buke, " etc. 

While ministers should endeavor to speak in a 
manner that people will hear them gladly, they 
must be very careful not to speak for applause. 
There are two ways in which they may "preach to 
suit different people. " One is to say a great many 
nice things without saying anything that will seri- 
ously disturb any one present; the other is to give 
such spiritual food as will make the congregation 

What parts of the inspired word should be 
taught from the pulpit? All parts. "All Scrip- 
ture is given by inspiration of God, and is profit- 
able for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and 
for instruction in righteousness. " The ordinances, 
the restrictions, the doctrines concerning faith, re- 
pentance, regeneration, care of children, duty to 
self, to f ellowman and God, and many other things 
should be carefully and fully explained from the 
pulpit. Care should be taken that those things 
should be handled in a way that the ordinary mind 
can comprehend them. "Learned discourses, " in 
ordinary preaching, should be "few and far be- 
tween. " "Grand stand plays" are an abomination. 
Let the Gospel be presented in a plain, straight- 
forward, si)iritual, and spirited manner, and the 
work will be much more effective than anything 
which may be accomplished by display and sen- 
sationalism. Let the spiritual food be rich, whole- 
some, and within the reach of every one. 


Much time is often wasted in giving undue 
prominence to unimportant subjects. For instance, 
we call to mmd a certain minister who startled his 
congregation by announcing that on the following 
Sabbath he would begin a series of twenty-four 
discourses on ''snakes." Snake stories may have 
their place in pulpit-oratory; but we doubt whether 
it is profitable to give them so much prominence. 

Many preachers object to much doctrinal 
preaching on the ground that ' 'people become dis- 
gusted with it. " The cry is, ' 'Less of doctrine and 
more of Christ. " We believe that there is as much 
danger in making a "hobby" of doctrines (espec- 
ially those upon which the church lays very much 
stress) as upon any other phase of the public min- 
istry. For instance, some people are so com- 
pletely wrapped up in the subject of baptism that, 
they cannot talk on any Bible topic without get- 
ting it thoroughly saturated with water. Others 
are so extreme on the doctrine of "holiness" that 
they sometimes make themselves to appear very 
unholy while treating the subject. Others connect 
every Christian doctrine with the Millennium. We 
should be careful not to give undue prominence to 
any part of the Gospel. We need it all, and every 
phase of it should receive proper recognition. But 
the tendency of the present is to ignore church 
doctrine, rather than to emphasize it too much. 

There is no more misleading quotation than 
"Less of doctrine and more of Christ," for you 
cannot preach Christian doctrines without teach- 
ing Christ. It is just as great a mistake to ignore 


church doctrine and preach everything else, as it 
is to ignore everything else and preach church 
doctrine only. If there is any one part of the 
Gospel that needs more attention than others, it is 
that x^art which carnal man is likely to ojDpose. 
Let preachers strive to instruct their congrega- 
tion in the ''all things" of Matt. 28:19, and famil- 
iarize themselves with the "all Scripture'' of 2 
Tim. 3:16, without making a "hobby" of any one 
subject or subjects. 

The minister's work does not stop with his pub- 
lic preaching. He is the spiritual overseer of the 
flock. He should encourage every kind of meeting 
designed to build us up in the most holy faith, and 
himself attend whenever possible. Should he see 
that any of these meetings do not bring about the 
results for which they were intended, he should 
not hesitate to use his influence in having them 
stopped or conducted differently. He should urge 
his members to be diligent in every good word and 
work. He should watch the people of his vicinity 
with a vigilant eye, and whenever he finds an op- 
portunity to point some wandering soul to Christ, 
he should improve it at once. A disposition on 
the part of any of his members to do wrong or get 
out of the way should be quickly detected, and 
righted without delay. If possible, he should never 
allow any difficulty between members to come be- 
fore the church. It is best to have them settled 
before they reach that stage. He should never be 
afraid to labor with his hands when church work 
does not demand all his time. M lazn man sho tl<\ 


never he ordained to the ministry. Many a cougre- 
gation has gone to sleep and even died because of 
the inactivity of its pastor. ' 'Work for everybody 
and everybody to his work" should be the minis- 
ter's motto. Every minister should be a pattern 
of good works. 


The Bible refers to ministers under different 
names. They are called bishops (1 Tim. 3:2), eld- 
ers (Tit. 1:5), ministers (Col. 1:23), preachers 
(Rom. 10:14), and evangelists (2 Tim. 4:5). The 
name doubtless depended somewhat upon the char- 
acter of the work they were called upon to do. 
The qualifications which they should posse:. s are 
clearly stated in 1 Tim. 3:2-7 and Tit. 1:5-9. It 
is to be regretted that these qualifications have 
not been more rigidly insisted upon in recent years. 
Of the many mistakes that have been made in the 
important work of ordaining ministers in many de- 
nominations, it seems to us the most grievous one 
has been to mistake intelligence for spiritual power. 
While, in choosing ministers, there may be a ten- 
dency among our own people in the same direction 
the church has suffered seriously from the fact that 
in many instances intelligence, true Christian piety 
and sound doctrine have been in a large measure 
overlooked. It is very important that ministers 
should be men of more than average intelligence; 
but it is of much more importance that they should 
be men whose lives correspond with their profes- 
sions, whose faith is pure, who are grounded and 
settled upon the imperishable Rock. 



The question as to how men are called to the 
ministry has given rise to considerable discussion. 
The various views connected with this question are 
well known, and need not here be repeated. What- 
ever may be our individual views w^e all agree that 
we make no mistake when we follow the customs 
of the apostles. 

The apostle Paul is the only person that we 
have any record of who received his call direct 
from God. His was a special case, both as to his 
conversion and his apostleship. Even in this case, 
we find that the vision was confirmed to Ananias 
as well as to Saul (Acts 9:15). In a number of 
other instances men of whose ordination we have 
no record preached the Gospel; but while we 
have no record of their ordination, we can read 
nothing that would lead us to believe that they 
were not ordained. We have abundance of evi- 
dence, however, that it was the custom in apostolic 
times to ordain men to the work. Matthias was 
ordained to the apostleship by lot (Acts 1:26). The 
seven deacons were ordained by the apostles after 
they had been chosen by the church (Acts 6:1-6). 
Paul and Barnabas were ordained to go out on 
their missionary journeys (Acts 13:3). Paul di- 
rected Titus to ordain ''elders in every city" (Tit. 
1 : 5). As these elders were to be blameless (v. 7) 
it was necessary, of course, to ascertain the fact 
that they were "blameless." What better way 
could have been taken than the voice of the 


From the evidence that we have before us, we 
conclude that the apostolic custom of choosing men 
to the ministry or deaconship, was to have them 
chosen by voice of the church and ordained by the 
apostles or elders (bishops). The lot was used 
when Matthias was chosen to the apostleship, and 
should be used to-day when the church is unable to 
decide, in an ordinary way, who shall be chosen. 
To dispense with the lot altogether is just as far 
out of the way as is the practice of using the lot 
with every ordination, whether it is needed or not. 

If men are called to preach, through the instru- 
mentality of the church, what must be done with 
those brethren who claim that they have a direct 
call from God? Give them time to prove them- 
selves (1 Tim. 3:10). If they lack the scriptural 
qualifications, we know at once that the call is not 
genuine. If they are men of good report, are apt 
to teach, have always been submissive to the will 
of God and to the will of the church, are no brawl- 
ers, no strikers, of sound mind, industrious, of 
sober habits, etc. , the church has nothing to fear. 
If the Lord wants them to preach He will open a 
way for them. The church will be moved to act 
on the matter sooner or later. There is no excuse for 
men of this kind to go out as strikers, and preach 
in defiance of the will of the church. That is the 
surest kind of evidence that they are mistaken as 
to where the call comes from. What they need to 
do is to wait in patience, and see how faithfully 
the Lord carries out all His plans in His own good 
time. It is necessary that the church exercise ex- 


treme caution and give themselves over to much 
earnest prayer when it comes to dealing with such 
cases; for there are so many unworthy ones that 
claim to have this call, that it frequently is diffi- 
cult for the church to determine when the call is 
genuine. There are a few things, however, which 
on becoming evident, should settle the matter at 
once. If the brother in question threatens to go 
out and preach whether the church wants him to 
do so or not. it proves him to be a striker (Tit. 1 : 7). 
If he, for want of energy, fails to provide for his 
family, ifc makes his case applicable to 1 Tim. 5:8. 
It must not be forgotten that in every case where 
a brother claims to have a call from God to preach, 
it is the duty of the church to investigate, and 
should only be too glad to be able to ordain a man 
full of the Holy Ghost, and abundantly qualified in 
a scriptural sense. 


The church is the Lord's vineyard, and to 
prosper, must have laborers in it. These laborers, 
to whom are consigned the various duties above 
noticed, have bodily wants. These wants must be 
supplied from some source. It is a matter of no 
little importance to know just what provisions the 
Scriptures make for those who labor for the 
Cosi)el by the appointment of the church. Con- 
sidering the subject in the light of the Holy 
Scriptures alone, we come to the following con- 

1. The Gospel, of Christ is Free. 

When Jesus was giving instructions to the 
twelve for their work in tiie ministry. He said, 


* 'Freely ye have received, freely give." This in- 
struction from Jesus Himself, concerning His (Dwn 
Gospel, is in direct connection with the ministerial 
work of the twelve; it follows immediately after the 
command, ' 'Go preach, " ' 'heal the sick, " etc. If the 
instructions of Christ were followed there could 
be no puch thing as a hired minister; no agreement 
would ever be made to preach for a certain amount 
per year. When there is a call for the Gospel by 
any one, no matter whom, that the minister can 
fill, let him go, looking to the Lord, who has 
promised to be with His faithful servants to the 
end of the world. Let him look to the I^ord for 
his reward and his support, not to the church nor 
the people. The Lord will provide in His own way; 
and if He puts into the hearts of the people to help 
the minister in his work, let him receive it thank- 
fully as of the Lord. Paul's work and testimony 
prove to us that the Holy Spirit taught him to 
preach a free gospel. He wrote to his Corinthian 
brethren that he was "chargeable to no man." 
He says further, *'And in all things I have kept 
myself from being burdensome to any of you, and 
so will I keep myself. " To the Thessalonians he 
says, "Ye remember, brethren, our labor and 
travail; for laboring night and day, because we 
would not be chargeable to any of you, we 
preached unto you the gospel of God." The 
language here used indicates that "preaching the 
gospel of God" required that he should not be 
chargeable to any; it must he free. The prophet 
Isaiah, in speaking of the Gospel of Christ, calls 


to the thirsty for the ''water" of life, saying, 
"Come ye, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and 
milk without money and without price." Isaiah 
prophesied a free Gospel, Christ taught a free 
Gospel, Paul preached a free Gospel, and in the 
vision on Patmos we hear the voice of the Great 
I AM proclaiming His universal invitation — ''The 
Spirit and the bride say. Come. And let him that 
heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst 
come. And whosoever will, let him take the 
water of life freely. " 

2. The minister of the Gospel should labor for his own 
support outside of Ms ministerial duties. 
While this is plainly set forth in the apostolic 
writings, and was strictly observed by the apos- 
tles, we are nowhere taught that it is every min- 
ister's duty to support himself exclusive of any 
help from the church. No one, however, can 
studiously and impartially read the writings of 
that most zealous and successful apostle to the 
Gentiles, without being convinced that he made 
the advancement of the Gospel of Christ the sole 
object of his life, and took every precautiorl that 
it might not be hindered in any way. He . never 
permitted his support to interfere with his min- 
istry. He received aid whenever it was offered 
and he was in need, but very frequently he labored 
with his own hands to his necessities. If Paul 
found it expedient to labor for his own support, 
where is the minister at present whose work is so 
important that he has no time to look after his 
own necessities? When Paul came to Corinth he 


joined Aquilla; "and because he was of the same 
craft he abode with them, and wrought, for by 
their occupation they were tent makers" (Acts 
18:3). He further says, '*Ye yourselves know, 
that these hands have ministered unto my neces- 
sities, and to them that were with me. I have 
showed you all things, how that so laboring ye 
ought to support the weak, and to remember the 
words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, It is more 
blessed to give than to receive" (Acts 20:34, 35). 
He wrote to the Thessalonians, that while he had 
been with them, he ate no man's bread for nought, 
but wrought night and day, that he might not be 
chargeable to any of them. He says, too, that he 
had commanded them, that if any would not work, 
neither should he eat; and those busy bodies, who 
seemed to think it their duty to go about ' 'working 
not at all," he exhorted that "with quietness they 
work, and eat their own bread." To the Corin- 
thians he says, "We are buffeted, and have no 
certain dwelling place; and labor, working with 
our hands. " 

Until a minister finds himself engaged in a more 
important field, and laboring more successfully than 
Paul, he need not claim that the importance of his 
work is an excuse for depending entirely ujwn the 
church for his support. If apostolic example is 
worthy of imitation, the minister, whether he be 
an elder in charge of congregations, or an evangel- 
ist sowing the good seed in new fields, or water- 
ing other churches, will find it his duty to labor 
with his own hands. 


3. It is the duty of the Church to administer to the 
necessities of her ministers. 

Whether it be to supply the wants of the body 
or to aid them iu their ministerial labors. Paul 
gave these instructions to Timothy concerning the 
support of ' 'the elders who labor in the word and 
doctrine:" "The Scripture saith, Thou shalt not 
muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn," and, 
the laborer is worthy of his reward (1 Tim. 5:18). 
He wrote to the Corinthians of this same text, and 
said, ' ' For our sakes, no doubt, this was written. '* 
From these arguments of Paul it is clearly to be 
seen that those who "labor in the word and 
doctrine " shall have their actual wants supplied 
while engaged in their labors. The twelve apos- 
tles and the seventy were sent out by Jesus, and 
instructed to provide neither gold, nor silver, nor 
brass in their purses; no scrip for their journey, 
neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves: 
" for the workman is worthy of his meat" (Matt. 
10: 10). All things necessary to their journeys and 
labors should be supplied. They should be in 
want of nothing whereby the Gospel might be 
hindered. The circumstances should still be such 
that the minister could, without the inconvenience 
of making previous provisions, engage in any 
necessary gospel labor and be in want of nothing. 
In 1 Cor. 9, Paul argues very pointedly to con- 
vince his brethren that it was their duty to show 
liberality in supplying the necessities pf those who 
had planted the church there and labored for its 
prosperity. He says, ' 'Do ye not k^iow that they 


which minister about I'oly things live of the 
things of the temple? ai d they which wait at the 
altar are partakers with the altar? Even so hath 
the Lord ordained that they which preach the 
Gospel shall live of the Gospel. " From these and 
other arguments in th(3 same chapter it is estab- 
lished beyond doubt that the inspired apostle 
knew it to be the will of God that the necessities 
of those who labor for the Gospel should be 
supplied by those whom the Lord has blessed 
with this world's goods. 

^. The charities of the Church are for those ivho are 
in actual need. 
Everywhere in the apostolic writings where 
there are accounts of collections, they were held 
for the benefit of the poor. It was the poor that 
the church should care for. Charities w^ere then, 
and are still, for those who are in need, and not 
for those w^ho are in need of nothing. Paul 
received many contributions from the church, 
but they were always for his necessities or for the 
poor saints. Timothy and Erastus ministered 
unto him. When he was under arrest, Felix com- 
inanded the centurion that he should not hinder 
any of Paul's acquaintance to minister or come 
unto him. Epaphroditus from Philix3pi ministered 
to his wants. He afterward acknowledged the 
gift. ' 'I am full, having received of Epaphroditus 
the things which were sent from you. " When Paul 
was at Corinth he was supplied with that which 
was lacking by the brethren who came from 
Macedonia. One of the many Christian duties 


named in Rom. 12, is "distributing to the necessity 
of saints." Paul went to Jerusalem to minister 
to the saints, saying, it had ''pleased them of 
Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribu- 
tion for the poor saints which are at Jerusalem. " 
The apostle did not go among the churches gather- 
ing contributions for future use, to hoard up for 
coming generations, or to consume by extravagant 
living, decorating houses and bodies in a manner 
unbecoming people professing godliness. Neither 
did he require the churches to reward him for his 
services among them. Contributions in apostolic 
times were actual free contributions, not payments 
of contracted debts. They were for immediate 
use among such that were in actual need. 

5. The minister is not a hireling to the congregation, 
hut a servant of Christ. 
When the seventy disciples were sent out two 
and two to labor in the cities w^here Christ Himself 
would come, He said they were w^orthy of their 
hire. They were not hired by those cities whither 
they went to preach, and could not expect their 
reward from them. The Lord Himself made the 
appointment, they went out at His command, they 
were His servants, and to Him they must look for 
their reward. Jesus said to them, ' 'Behold, I send 
you forth as lambs among wolves. " To the twelve, 
when He sent them to preach the Gospel, He said, 
"Ye shall be hated of all men for My name's 
sake." They were His servants, and, far from 
being employed by those to whom they were sent, 
were despised and persecuted by them Jesus 


told them what things they need not provide, 
stating that the ''workman is worthy of his meat." 
By trusting to Him their wants should be supplied. 
' 'One is your Master, even Christ, " is what Jesus 
said to His disciples; and every faithful minister, 
laboring in His vineyard, is governed only by His 
word and Spirit, and never by the wishes, opinions, 
and money of men, 

6, The minister must look to Christ for his reivard. 
When the disciples were sent out they received 
the promise that all their wants should be supplied, 
but now^here was a reward promised in this world 
to the laborer for Christ. The twelve and the 
seventy had the promise of nothing more than to 
have their actual necessities supplied. ' 'The work- 
man is worthy of his meat. " ' 'Remain eating and 
drinking such things as they give: for the laborer 
is worthy of his hire;" these were the instructions 
from their Master. They were promised nothing 
more than what they absolutely needed while- they 
were engaged in the work. Paul admonished 
Timothy in these words: "Having food and raiment, 
let us be therewith content." We do not find a 
single instance in which the apostles ever asked or 
received anything more than what they were in 
actual need of themselves, or was needed to supplj^ 
the wants of the poor saints in some other locality 
whither they were going. The reward of the 
faithful laborer of the Lord is not in this world; 
the promises all show that in this world he shall 
have tribulation, and the reward will be given 
with the blessing promised to those that ' 'die in 


the Lord." He does not look for his reward in 
this life; he knows that Christ is his Master, and 
that His reward to His servants will be given in 
heaven. Neither does he expect to be rewarded 
both here and in the life to come. This life is his 
day of toil, the Lord supports him through it, and 
he receives his reward with the redeemed in 
heaven when his day of labor has ended. 

In conclusion of this subject we append a brief 
summary of the thoughts above mentioned: 

1. The welfare of the church demands that 
every congregation have its leader. 

2. This idea is sanctioned by Christ, who 
chose and instructed His apostles; and by the 
apostles, who organized churches, and ordained 
deacons, elders, bishops, ministers, etc. 

3. The foremost work of the ministry is to 
preach the Gospel. Aside from this they are to 
oversee their congregations, and encourage and be 
a pattern of every good work. 

4. Ministers should be model Christians, 
thoroughly established in the faith, able to drive 
conviction to the hearts of sinners, and to defend 
the doctrine. 

5. The apostolic mode of calling men to the 
ministry was to choose by the church and ordain 
by the elders (bishops). When a brother thinks he 
has a call from God direct, the church should con- 
sider his claims. 

6. A neglected ministry and a hireling min- 
istry are both detrimental to the well-being of the 
church. The congregation should sup]:)ort the 


ministry by seconding their labors for good, by 
prayer, by words of encouragement, and by means 
if necessary. The results arising from the efforts 
of a minister who is filled with the Holy Ghost 
are invaluable, and should never be degraded by 
being measured by dollars and cents. Since the 
minister's services belong to God, he should be 
willing to give them ' 'without money and without 
price " 



"Now ye are the body of Christ, and mem- 
bers in particular." 1 Cor. 12: 27. 


God works through human instrumentalities. 
The Father handed His work here below to our 
Savior, He to the apostles, they to their succes- 
sors, and so on down the line. We stand in direct 
line of the succession. If the cause of true re- 
ligion is not as prosperous as it should be, it is be- 
cause we do not allow ourselves to be used of God 
as we should. Since God always does His part, it 
follows that the prosperity of the church depends 
upon two things: (1) the ministry; (2) the mem- 


Worthy ministers should have the hearty sup- 
port of the church. All ministers that lead peace- 
ful, upright, pious, consecrated lives, and labor 
earnestly for the advancement of the cause, are 
worthy ministers. Ministers may propose, but 
the church must act in order to carry out the things 
proposed to be done. Nor is it necessary for 
everything to originate with the minister. Others 
have minds as well as he. When a member has 
something which he is satisfied would be beneficial 
to the cause, let him not be backward in bringing 


it forward. To secure a concert of action, how- 
ever, and as the minister is to be considered the 
leader in the church, no important matter should 
ever be taken up without first being submitted to 
him for an expression of his judgment. Should 
there be more than one minister in a congregation, 
the one who has been in the ministry longest 
should be looked upon as the leader, unless ex- 
treme old age, or other disability, disqualifies him 
for the place. Though the minister is to be re- 
garded as the shepherd of his flock, he must not 
be regarded as a lord, nor must we look upon him 
as a "boss." He holds his position by the grace 
of God and of the church, and should at all times 
consider himself a co-worker with the rest of the 

As the minister looks over the interests of his 
congregation, so the congregation should look 
over the interests of the minister. If his minis- 
terial duties are such that his family has scanty 
living, the congregation should see that the neces- 
sary things are provided. If the minister is a 
farmer, an occasional day's work, or some other 
assistance, coming from different members of the 
congregation, will not be felt much by any one and 
will be a great help to the minister and his family. 
This is 


But charity does not stop here. Christians 
should be generous with each other and with sin- 
ners. "It is more blessed to give than to receive." 
Let this be our motto in our dealings with friends 


and neighbors, in our help for the poor, or in 
whatever we may be engaged. 


It is commonly expected that a minister should 
be more intensely religious than any member of 
his flock. Thus, a certain minister is known as 
Bro. Jones. His brother goes by the name of Mr. 
Jones. His father or his uncle are commonly re- 
ferred to as old man Jones. Members often do 
things that are not exactly scriptural, but nothing 
is thought of it. But let a minister do the same 
things, and it is ''simply awful." 

This is not as it should be. The Bible teaches 
consecration on the part of everybody. There is 
no one code of morals for preachers and another 
for the members. The word of the Lord is to 
"whosoever." In all moral questions whatever is 
wrong for a preacher is wrong for a member; 
whatever is right for a member is right for a 
preacher. This we say, not that we would have 
the ministry descend to a level with what is now 
considered a standard for common members; but 
that the membership might rise to a level with 
what is now considered 9 standard for ministers. 
When Peter said, "Ye are a chosen generation, a 
royal priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar people, " 
he referred to the whole body of Christians. AU 
Christians stand on a common level, regardless of 
what their position in church may be. The idea 
that a preacher must be so much better than the 
rest of the members, does not elevate the ministry, 


but degrades the congregation. It is priestcraft, 
pure and simple; one of the worst things that 
can happen to a church. Let it be remembered 
that the Bible calls upon all men and women to 
lead pious, holy lives, fully consecrated to God, 
' 'thoroughly furnished unto all good works. " 


The Bible gives us a parable of the Talents to 
teach us that with whatever faculties we are en- 
dowed, we should use them in our Master's ser- 
vice. We cannot all become world-renowned 
preachers, lecturers, or writers, yet if we contrib- 
ute the little mite which the Lord has entrusted 
to our keeping, our reward will be the same as if we 
had accomplished the most wonderful works. The 
servant that earned two talents received the same 
terms of commendation as the one that earned five 
talents. The servant that received one talent was 
rejected, not because he failed to earn five talents 
or two talents, but because he refused to do any- 
thing. How sad it is to find church members of to- 
day absolutely refusing to do anything but belong 
to church. That is hiding the talent in the earth. 
May they not at some future time wake up to 
hear the words, "From him that hath not, from 
him shall be taken away even that which he 
hath''? Our admonition is, dig up the talent and 
go to work. God wants His children to be doing 

Some object to giving themselves over to act- 
ive work, because they are "so awkward. " These 


persons are often among the shrewdest when it 
comes to business affairs, or the most entertaining 
of talkers in social intercourse. We must believe 
that Satan furnishes them excuses for not being at 
work. The question is not, how much can you 
do? but, are you doing what you can? Some earn- 
est Christians who are not doing as much as they 
are capable of doing would really do more if they 
saw their opportunity. For their benefit we enu- 
merate a number of lines of Christian work which 
are open to all believers. We do not mean that 
'they can follow all these lines of work, but in 
them they may find a range wide enough to employ 
their time profitably. 


1. Attend church services regularly and 

2. Assist in singing, prayer, and occasionally 
in exhortation. 

3. Take part in Sunday school, either as 
superintendent, teacher, or scholar. 

4. Attend and take part in other religious 
meetings, such as Bible readings, Sunday school 
conferences, etc. 

5. Establish mission Sunday schools. 

6. Work in home or foreign missions. 

7. Read the Bible, and other religious works, 
especially your own church literature. 

8. Help the poor of the neighborhood. 

9. Distribute tracts, and other religious liter- 


10. Contribute means for charitable and relig- 
ious purposes. 

11. Talk with sinners concerning the salva- 
tion of their souls. 

12. Try to interest careless church members 
in a more zealous life. 

13. Visit the sick and comfort them with 
scripture reading and prayer. 

14. Exercise in frequent prayer, not failing 
to mention those for whom especial interest is 

15. Try to get everybody to attend church, 
Sunday school, or any other meeting designed to 
build up in the most holy faith. 

16. Be a missionary for Christ by leading a 
pious, holy life, in all things striving to be "a 
pattern of good works. " 


What we have to say with reference to this sub- 
ject refers to ministers as well as to members. 
When we speak of ''Temperance," we refer to it in 
its broadest sense, for we recognize that we may be 
intemperate in more ways than one. The word 
says, "Every one that striveth for the mastery is 
tem Iterate in all things." No other sin destroys 
the power of effective Christian work so much as 

Let us see what Alcohol does. It costs the 
United States about $1,000,000,000 annually, or 
nearly as much as the combined cost of our food 
and clothing. There are 600,000 drunkards in the 


United States, of whom nearly 100,000 annually go 
down to a drunkard's grave and a drunkard's hell. 
It is instrumental in filling our jails, penitentiaries, 
lunatic asylums, gambling dens, and houses of ill- 
fame, and brings untold misery upon thousands of 
families that might otherwise have been prosper- 
ous and happy. Now these are facts, and yet good 
men insist u^^on putting the stamp of approval upon 
this infamous liquor traffic by occasionally taking 
a drink. God speed the day when all church mem- 
bers will see this in its proper light. 

Tobacco has not the long catalogue of crime at- 
tached to it that Alcohol has; yet it is known to be 
a filthy habit, to create a progressive appetite for 
something stronger, to bring some form of disease 
upon those that use it, to impair the intellectual 
faculties and moral sensibilities, and make slaves 
of its users. All this does not keep the United 
States from spending more money for tobacco than 
for bread. 

In the line of fast living the American peo^Dle 
are not altogether blameless. Many persons have 
become physical wrecks through intemperate eat- 
ing, and many others have been made to suffer from 
clothing forced upon them as devotees to the god- 
dess of fashion. 

Add to what we have already referred the enor- 
mous sums of money that are annually spent for ex- 
travagant clothing, fine furniture, elegant build- 
ings (including church edifices), fast horses and 
high living in many other lines, and you have some 
idea of the enormous tax which the sin of intem- 


perance is levying upon this boasted Christian land 
of ours. This is all the more appalling when we 
remember that professedly pious church members 
are keeping abreast with the world in nearly all (if 
not quite all) the forms of intemiDerance already 

What does all this mean? It means that Amer- 
ica is spending more money foolishly than for the 
necessaries of life; that the last energies of oui^ 
people are taxed to keep up that hydra- headed 
monster- god, Intemperance, Fashion, Pleasure; tliat 
the money thus foolishly spent by the people of' 
our country would carry the Gospel within the hear- 
ing of every intelligent being on the globe, andl 
that there would then be enough money left to feed 
and clothe the poor of our land; that vice and crime 
flourish, and godliness is brought to naught as a 
consequence of these excesses; and that many peo- 
ple calling themselves Christians are helping to 
bring about these results. 

What, then, is the duty of Christian people? De- 
nounce these follies in unmeasured terms. Re- 
prove them by your personal habits. Avoid 
the use of stimulants and narcotics, except by 
advice of competent medical authority. Lay 
aside all. jew^elry as being a iivseless expense. Let 
the clothing be plain, comfortable, and inexpen- 
sive. Avoid extravagance in all things. Bo "tem- 
perate in all things. " Let the soul enjoy the love 
pf God and the beauty of Nature rather than tlie 
pompous display of the world. Let the energies 
of our people be directed to practical things — 


things that will ennoble the soul of man, alleviate 
the sufferings of the poor, diminish the worry, 
fretting, strife, disappointments, etc., which intem- 
perate living has brought upon us — rather than tc 
feast upon the giddy, gaudy, flashy things of sin- 
ful life that intoxicate the soul and unfit man for 
the service of God. 

It is not difficult to see the results of such a 
course. Lifted above the intoxication of carnal 
pleasure, we would more fully realize the richness 
of God's glory. Christianity, as seen by the world, 
w^ould then stand for all that is pure and ncble and 
true. The Spirit of God w^ould be manifested in 
greater abundance, and the power of the church 
thereby increased. Intemperance, in its various 
forms, would be diminished, and with it, the op- 
position to righteousness. The Lord help us to be 
''temperate in all things." 


In a preceding chapter, we called attention to 
the importance of holding family worshi]). We 
desire to notice this subject at greater length. 
Children may be impressed with the reality of the 
Christian religion by this means as they can by no 
other. It impresses them with the fact that God 
is. not that vague, indefinite Being, who will be very 
serviceable to them when they come to die; but 
that He is an ever-present Being and Helper — a 
prayer-answering as well as a prayer-hearing God 
— upon whom we can rely every moment of our 


The absence of this custom among many Chris- 
tian families is to be deplored. Men who can ' 'btand 
up in meeting, " and with long, sanctimonious faces, 
tell of the personal work of a persoiial Redeemer, 
are as silent as the grave upon this subject in the 
presence of their families. Why this silence? Are 
not their children given to their special charge, 
and are not they esiDecially responsible for the fate 
of their children? Then should they not take es- 
pecial pains to instruct them aright? 

To show what may be gained by holding 
family worship, we relate an incident which re- 
ceived notice in public print a few years ago. A 
Christian woman was unfortunate enough to have 
a drunken, unbelieving husband. She read the 
scripture quotation, ' 'As for me and my house, we 
will serve the Lord. " She murmured, "Can I say 
that?" Her heart sank within her as she thought 
of her brutal, drunken husband. Then she rallied 
her courage and said, ' ' Yes, by God's grace, I can. " 
That night she took her boy, read to him a short 
scripture lesson, explained it to him, and knelt 
down in prayer. This she repeated daily from 
that time forward. Her husband opposed her in 
this, ridiculed her pretentions, and tried in every 
way to get the boy prejudiced against her religion. 
But the prayers of the mother prevailed. The boy 
grew up under the influence of the mother's 
prayers and the mother's tears, and early learned 
to confess his Savior. Together they prayed and 
brought about the conversion of the husband and 
father. After years of heartaches and disappoint- 


ments, that noble womau, restiug on the assurance 
that God hears and answers prayers, could say to 
the world, * 'As for me and my house, we will serve 
the Lord. " Fathers, mothers, do not neglect thr 
interests of your children. Gather them around 
your family altars, and there instill into their 
)iearts those etcu'nal principles that will eventually 
bring them into the fold of Christ, and make them 
valiant soldiers of the cross. 



"Go ye therefore, and teach all nations,bap- 
tizing them in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Matt. 


This subject, like other plain Bible doctrines, 
has been debated ever since the days of John the 
Baptist. The strong opponents to its scriptural 
reality, intention, and obligation as a perpetual 
rite, together with the ultra- extremists concerning 
the manner of its application, are gradually giving 
away, and we indulge the hope that soon all dis- 
cords on this subject will be confined to the history 
of the past. Truth needs no defense. It is eter- 
nal and must therefore remain. Theory not 
founded upon truth is like the arrows of the an- 
cients, that, at displeasure against Jupiter, were 
shot into the air, but fell far short of their mark, 
naturally returning to their original starting place. 
It is along the line of truth that we shall endeavor 
to notice this most important of Christian ordi- 
nances — baptism. 


Among the kinds of baptism mentioned in the 
Bible are the baptism with water (Matt. 3:6; Matt. 
28:19; Acts 1:5), the baptism of the Holy Spirit 
(Acts'l:5; 1 Cor. 12:18), the baptism of fire (Matt. 


3:11; Luke 8:16), and the baptism of suffering 
(Matt. 20:22; Mark 10:38; Luke 12:50). Since it 
is the purpose of this chapter to deal expressly 
with water baptism as a Christian ordinance, we 
shall confine ourselves to this kind of baptism, ])re- 
ceJed by a brief consideration of that baptism of 
which water baptism is a symbol. 


There is a human part and a divine part in every 
Christian work. The human part of this ordinance 
is water baptism, the divine part is the baptism of 
the Spirit. 

Objects of Spirit Baptism. 

1. It is the saving ordinance. The word says: 
''By one Spirit are we all baptized into one body"' 
(1 Cor. 12:13). Lost in his sinful condition, the 
sinner recognizes the same, repents of his deeds 
and cries to God for pardon. Here comes the di- 
vine response, and by the Spirit he is baptized into 
the body of which Jesus Christ is the head. (See 
Rom. 6:3; Eph. 4:30). 

2. It makes us pure in the sight of God. (Ezek. 
36:25-27; Tit. 3:3-7; Heb. 9:14). 

3. It gives us Christian boldness. The Scrij:)- 
tures show that it had this effect upon the apostles 
and their followers whenever administered. The 
same disciple that cowered before the maid tlie 
night of the betrayal, and said 'T know him not," 
stood up after Pentecost before the rulers and 
boldly declared that "we should obey God rather 
than man. " The baptism of the Holy Ghost has 
the same effect everywhere. It enabled Stephen V 


declare the truth when he knew that martyrdom 
would be the result. It enabled Paul to endure 
the hardships of his missionary journeys. It gave 
our forefathers enough Christian fortitude to pre- 
fer the stake to a denial of their faith. It is the 
power to-day that moves the people of God forward 
in the great work of rescuing souls from the powei 
of darkness. 

4. It x)Tepares the heart for the j^'t'oper reception 
of the ivord. Our Savior illustrates this in the par- 
able of the sower. Christ is the sower. The word 
of God is the seed. The human heart is the 
ground. While the Sower does His work well, and 
the seed is faultless, the ground is not always in 
proper condition. It is one mission of the Spirit 
to properly prepare the heart for the reception of 
the word. While Peter was at the house of Cor- 
nelius and saw the miraculous effect which the bap- 
tism of the Holy Ghost had upon the people, he 
said, "Can any man forbid water, that these should 
not fee baptized, which have received the Holy 
Ghost as well as we?" (Acts 10:47). The Spirit 
had begun its work, and they were now ready to 
proceed with their Christian duties, foremost 
among which was the administration of water bap 

Having given the principal objects of the Spiriu 
baptism, we shall next notice the 


1. ]i is the initiatory rite that inducts into tne 
visible church. Our Savior's final ffreat commission 


implies this (Matt. 28: 19, 30). It is so understood 
by almost all religious denominations. 

2. It is a symbol of the baptism of the Spirit. As 
by the Spirit we are baptized into the body of 
Christ (1 Cor. 12:13), so by the application of water 
baptism we are baptized into the visible body of 
the church. Our Savior indicated the proper re- 
lation between the two baptisms when He said, 
*'For John truly baptized with water, but ye shall 
be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days 
hence" (Acts 1:5). The same relation is again 
shown in Acts 11: 15, 16, when Peter explained his 
remarkable experience in the house of Cornelius: 
' 'And as I began to speak the Holy Ghost fell on 
them, as on us at the beginning. Then remem- 
bered I the word of the Lord, how he said, John 
indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be bap- 
tized with the Holy Ghost." As the visible ele- 
ment is employed in the initiation into the visible 
church, so the invisible element is employed in the 
initiation into the invisible church of God. 

3. It is an act of obedience to fulfill all righteous- 
ness. This was the construction placed upon water 
baptism by our Lord and Master. John had been 
baptizing unto repentance (Matt. 3: 11); but with the 
baptism of our Savior another meaning was added 
to the rite. ' 'Suffer it to be so now, for thus it be- 
cometh us to fulfill all righteousness" (Matt. 3: 15). 
Baptism thereafter was to be a rite or ceremony 
looking not only to repentance, but also to the 
righteousness which our Savior came to bring into 
the world. 


4. n is the answer of a good conscience toward 
God. This was a further constraction placed upon 
water baptism by the apostle Peter (1 Pet. 3:21). 
Baptism, he says, is not for the putting away of 
the filth of the flesh, but rather the answer of a 
good conscience toward Cxod. As we journey 
through life amid the rugged rocks of a vain and 
unfriendly world, our baptism stands out in bold 
relief, and in this way it not infrequently happens 
that the recollection of our baptism in connection 
with our profession of faith in Christ "doth also 
now save us. " 

5. It typifies the purification of the heart (Acts 
2:38). Washing with water is the most natural 
and universal mode of cleansing from external im- 
purities, and is therefore the most fitting symbol 
of internal or spiritual purification. Baptism de- 
notes this purity, and is intended to present to us 
the cleansing of the soul by the blood of Christ; 
and still more distinctly by tiie effusion of the Holy 
Spirit. To this interpretation of it we are directe I 
by the prophet Isaiah, ''I will poui* water upon him 
that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground; I 
will pour my Spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing 
upon thine offspring'' (Isa. 44:8). 

While the ceremonial wasliings or baptisms to 
the Jew expressed purity, unity, loyalty, i.i.d 
separation from the Gentile worki, they also point 
to the coming Messiah, wlio alone coiUd cleanse 
with the living water of which we may drink and 
never thirst. To become a .lew outwardly the 
law demanded washing (or l)a])tism), while to be- 


come one inwardly required faith in the blood of 
bulls and of .lioats (Heb. 9:13). So with the kingdom 
of God in the Gosi:)el dispensation. Water is the 
means used to denote the visible kingdom (or the 
collection of apparent saints), while to be born of the 
Spirit is the absolute requirement of the invisible 
kingdom (or the collection of real saints). Water 
is a symbol of purity of which the Spirit is the 
real. It is said that our Savior came by water 
and blood (1 Jno. 5:6). The Spirit bore witness to 
this fact at His baptism. He did not come by 
water only, but by blood also. He shed His most 
precious blood to expiate our offenses; and God 
gave, as it were, a sensible intimation of these 
united purposes when there came out of His 
wounded side blood and water, which descended 
in such a manner that each could be distinguished 
from the other, yet agreeing in their mode of 

The fitness of the symbol resides in the nature 
and not in the quantity of water used. A pailful 
is just as emblematic of moral jDurity as an ocean, 
and a pint just as expressive as either. Hence 
the fitness of the emblem has nothing to do with 
the quantity of water used. Water is water, 
whether there is much of it or little. Hence 
we say that a small quantity poured upon the 
head of an hidividual is just as significant of moral 
purity as a quantity sufficiently large to dip the 
1 .)dy in. And in this respect a handful of pure, 
si^arlvling water is more expressive of moral 
purity than the contents of a large, impure iX)ol. 

' ' BAPTISM. lU'J 


Some have questioned whether it was really in- 
tended that water baptism should be observed as 
an ordinance. With us this is no question. Op- 
ponents of water baptism show their w^eakness 
when they hold in reality as a divine institution 
the church composed of male and female members, 
together with officers appointed in the Scriptures 
to superintend its affairs, while at the same time 
they reject the ordinances which the same Scrip- 
tures connect with the church. In the same sen- 
tence are the commands to go "teach all nations,*' 
and to baptize "in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Those who^ 
woukl have us believe that this means Spirit bap- 
tism seem to forget that this command was given 
to men, and that men can not baptize with the 


While baptism is a symbol of the effusion of the 
Spirit and of regeneration, which follows as a con- 
sequence of this effusion, it neither proves nor in- 
sures regeneration. The Church of Rome has long 
taught that regeneration is inseparably connected 
with this ordinance. From that church this 
scheme has sjiread, with some variations, through 
several of our Protestant denominations. A single 
sentence from an article on bajDtism published in a 
religious periodical (Sept. 15, -1891) will serve as a 
sample of this strange doctrine: "Baptism is for 
(in order to) the remission of sins. " To the credit 
of the church of which this paper is the exponent. 


it must be said that there are some within its ranks 
who hold an oj^posite view, as the following letter, 
^vritten by one of its members, will show: 

* 'There is a great deal of self-deception among 
professing Christians. To assert that baptism is 
the crowning work of salvation is a most pitiful 
misconception of the mind of God. Baptism has 
no more to do with making us children of God 
than the natural birth has to do with making us 
liuman beings. We must be perfect in every part 
and member and organ of our being before we are 
born; and equally must we be fully fashioned in 
the image of God before we are baptized. In re- 
mission of sins, what the administration of bap- 
tism does in type, the Holy Spirit does in fact 
The blood of Christ cleanses from all sin" (1 
Jno. 1 : 7). 

It is evident that the question of water- 
I)aptism-regeneration will eventually be settled 
within the ranks of its own advocates. 

A brief notice of the texts which are commonly 
used in support of salvation by w^ater baptism may 
not be out of place. 

1. "He that believeth and is baptized shall be 
saved: but he that believeth not shall be damned." 
Mark 16:16. 

Here the concluding clause refutes what the 
introductory one is employed to support. We in- 
fer from this that there is a possibility of being 
saved without baptism, but an absolute impos- 
sibility of being saved without faith. This does 
not invalidate baptism, but explains the real and 


apparent relation of faith and baptism in the for- 
giveness .of sins. 

2. * 'Except a man be born of water and of the 
Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. " 
John 3: 5. 

Our Savior gives us a thought which renders 
the interpretation of this passage of Scripture 
very easy. "That which is born of the flesh is 
flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is 
Spirit" (John 3:6). In other words, like begets 
like. If we are born of the literal water, we 
become like literal water. If we are born of the 
water of life, we become like the living water, 
which is like a fountain springing from a well of 
eternal life, flowing forever. While others insist 
on interpreting this as literal water, we prefer to 
be born of living water, from which we may drink 
and never thirst. 

3. "The washing of regeneration, ", mentioned 
in Tit. 3:5, has sometimes been used as a text to 
prove water-baptism-regeneration. If this re- 
fers to water at all (which is very doubtful) it is, 
like all other places where water is mentioned in 
connection with a purifying process, only a figure. 
Water never made any real saint, "According to 
His mercy He saved us. " It is the real washing 
by the blood of the Lamb that makes us pure, for 
"the blood of Jesus Chr'st His Son cleanseth us 
from all sin" (1 Jno. 1:7). 

4. ^"And now, why tarriest thou? arise, and 
be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on 
the name of the Lord. " Acts 22: 16. 


If this means a literal washing away of sins, 
what shall we make of the statement that the 
blood of Jesus cleanseth from all sin? (1 Jno. 1:7). 
Why not make the scriptural application and use 
the w^ashing by water as a symbol of the real 
washing by the blood of the Lamb? 

In short, we may state our objections to water- 
baptism-regeneration as follows: 

1. Water baptism is the work of man; salva- 
tion is the work of God. 

2. Thousands of persons have submitted to 
water baptism, whose lives showed that they had 
never been converted. 

3. We have at least two instances recorded in 
the Bible where salvation was effected before the 
administration of water baptism : — 1. The thief on 
the cross, 2. Cornelius and his household. 

4. ' 'The blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleans- 
eth us from all sin. " 1 Jno. 1 : 7. 

The Word the Great Instrument of Regeneration, 

The Scriptures teach us that the Gospel or the 
truth of God is the great instrument of regenera- 
tion. ''The truth shall make you free" (Jno. 
8:32). "Sanctify them through thy truth; thy 
word is truth" (Jno. 17:17). "Of his own will 
begat he us with the word of truth" (Jas. 1:18). 
"Being born again, not of corruptible but of 
incorruptible seed, by the word of God " (1 Peter 
1:23). "The Gospel is the power of God unto 
salvation" (Rom. 1:16). "In Christ Jesus have I 
begotten you through the Gospel" (1 Cor. 4:15).' 


These and. other scriptures prove bey or d the 
shadow of a doubt that baptism is not the great 
instrument of salvation. 


Those who have been properly instructed are 
proper subjects. There is not one single instance 
recorded in the Bible where baptism was admin- 
istered except upon such as gave evidence of 
faith. The Bible confines Christian baptism to 
those who are capable of receiving instruction or 
believing. The command is "repent and be bap- 
tized." Philip's reply to the Ethiopian was, "If 
thou believest with all thine heart, thou may est. " 
Paul was baptized after the scales had fallen from 
his eyes. The jailor was baptized after he 
believed. Cornelius and all they that were in the 
house were baptized after the Holy Ghost had 
fallen upon them. From these facts it is plainly 
to be seen that the scriptural baptism is the 
baptism upon confession of faith. Infant baptism 
is a custom borrowed from the traditionary prac- 
tices of the Eoman Catholic Church. 

We oppose infant baptism for the following 

1. There is nothing in the Scriptures to sub- 
stantiate it. 

2. The Scriptures, in teaching this subject, 
always put repentance before baptism. 

3. The apostles baptized only upon evidence 
of faith. 

4. It leads to false notions of conversion. 


5, Infants that are old enough to notice any- 
thing invariably resist it. 

6. Infant baptism, as a traditionary practice 
of the Roman Catholic Church, had its origin in 
the unscriptural doctrine of infant damnation. 


The three modes most commonly used in the 
administration of water baptism are sprinkling, 
pouring, and immersion. 

By counting the cleansing processes connected 
with the sacrificial offerings of the Old Testament 
as evidences in determining the mode of water 
baptism, there are many scriptural reasons favor- 
ing sprinkling as a Bible mode of baptism. 

Pouring has the especial distinction of being 
the only mode mentioned in the New Testament 
that is called baptism. 

Immersion as a mode of baptism has many 
strong supporters. So strong in their opinion are 
many of the advocates of this mode that they 
refuse to acknowledge any other mode as being 
valid. Some go even farther than that. They 
not only reject sprinkling or pouring, but also 
single immersion. They even refuse to recognize 
trine immersion (which is their own mode) unless 
the persons have been baptized by one of their 
own ministers. All agree that such a course is 
justifiable only wlien the Scripture is so unmis- 
takably plain that no conscientious person can be 
mistaken in it. We shall notice later on how 
much ground there is for this position. 



Did you ever find the definition that God gives 
of baptism? Some think because of the expres- 
sion, "there was much water there" (Jno. 3:23) it 
must mean immersion. The Greek says "many 
^vaters" which also means much or plenty of 
water. The great multitudes needed these springs 
of ^non for man and beast. It does not take a great 
quantity of water to baptize by any mode that 
men use. The Bible is silent as to the quantity 
of water. At places where people became fit 
subjects for baj^tism it was administered. But 
how was it done? What does baptism mean? 

Need we turn to the literature of the ancient 
Greeks or Latin fathers to find the definition of 
baptism? Shall we go to the many histories and 
lexicons of uninspired men where different defini- 
tions are given to correspond with the practices 
of the people? Nay, let us resort to the word of 
God and get it fresh and pure as it comes from 
God Himself. 

In many places the Scriptures teach that the 
Lord Jesus baptizes with the Holy Ghost. Jesus 
says, "For John tr<uly baptized with water; but ye 
shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost" (Acts 1:5). 
Acts 2:17; 10:45 shows that Jesus performed His 
l>aptism as He and Joel and John the Baptist had 
prophesied. By what mode did Jesus apply the 
divine essence to fit subjects for His baptism? The 
Holy Ghost "fell" or "was poured" upon them. 
What John and tlie apostles did with water Jesus 
did with the Holy Ghost — they baptized. The 


W3rd baptize comes from the Greek word hapflzo. 
Some say that all the learned men agree that 
bapfAzo means immerse, and immerse only. In 
connection with the baptism of the believer we 
fail to find any such meaning of baptizo. Jesus 
is better authority than all the learned men and 
He does not even include imersion in His bap- 
tizo, the definition of which He really acts out for 
us. "Ye shall be baptized;" the Spu'it was poured 
upon them. To baptize with the Holy Spirit and 
to pour out the Holy Spirit are one and the same 
thing. - ''Things which are equal to the same 
thing are equal to each other." T^en baptizo or 
baptize means to pour upon. The world itself can 
not give a better definition than God gives. If 
Jesus used the pouring mode why should men 
invent other modes? According to the inspired 
witnesses the very word baptize carries the idea of 
pouring with it. Therefore we take God's defini- 
tion and Jesus' pattern and baptize with water by 
pouring it upon the applicant. 

We have every reason to believe that there was 
not a single case of immersion for baptism in the 
apostolic days, but soon men began to try to 
improve on the ordinance of Christ and made it 
include infant baptism, immei*sion, and other forms 
and meanings. . The earliest immersionist we read 
of was Tertullian. He lived several hundred years 
after Christ and said in his own words that his 
baptism answered more than the Lord laid down 
in the Gospel. Philip SchafP, (Vol. II. page 249) 
writes of baptism by pouring being pictured on 


the rocks of the Roman Catacombs, one iUustra- 
tion of which is assigned to the second century. 
And further, * 'It is remarkable that in almost all 
the earliest representations of baptism that have 
been preserved to us, this the pouring of water 
from a vessel over the body is the special act 
represented." But there are many points in 
history that tend to define baptism other ways, so 
we feel to fall back on Jesus and His word for 
authority. History only tells what people have 
done. The Bible shows what they should do. 


We favor pouring as the Bible mode of bap- 
tism, because — 

1. It is typical of the Spirit baptism (Matthew 
8:11; Acts 1:5) which baptism, whenever spoken 
of, consisted of an outpouring. (Acts 2:14-21; 10: 
44-48; 11:15, 16). 

2. It is the only mode mentioned in the Bible that 
is called a baptism. The miraculous outpouring 
of the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost is called 
a baptism by John the Baptist (Matt. 3:11), by 
Christ (Acts 1:5), and by Peter (Acts 11:15, 16). 
Here are three competent witnesses whose author- 
ity no one disputes. What better evidence do we 
want? Can it be shown any place that immersion 
is called baptism? Is there a distinct case to be 
found in the Bible where a putting under the 
water was called a baptism? The Bible records 
one instance that was an immersion beyond a doubt. 
It was when the Egyptians were drowned in the 
Red Sea. It is worthy of note, however, that this 


event is nowhere called a ba]jtism. It was Israel 
that was baptized unto Moses. (1 Cor. 10:2). 

3. It is the only mode that harmonizes ivith the 
language found in 1 Jno. 5:8. The language is as 
follows: *'And there are three that bear witness 
in earth, the spirit, and the water, and the blood: 
and these three agree in one. " Let us see how they 
agree. The Spirit whenever administered was an 
outpouring. The blood, as it flowed from the 
wounded side of Jesus, was an outpouring. If 
* 'these three agree in one" — the spirit, the water, 
and the blood — it follows that the administration of 
the water must also be an outpouring. 

4. Pouring is a mode of baptism that can be u)ii' 
ver sally practiced. This is not true of immersion. 
Baptism is by command of Christ universally ob- 
ligatory; but cases often occur when it is hazard- 
ous if not impossible to administer this rite by im- 
mersion. It can in no case be administered safely 
to the sick and the dying. We have heard of a per- 
son who fully embraced the Baptist faith lifteenor 
twenty years before death, and in all this lime was 
not able to be hnmersed. She was therefore barred 
from communion here on earth, and died unbaptized. 
Is she also barred from heaven? Baptism by pour- 
ing may be administered at any place, at home or 
abroad, — in the deserts and frozen climes; in any 
condition, w^hether in sickness or in health; in any 
apparel, whether usual or unusual; in any season, 
cold or hot, wet or dry; in any hour, day or night. 

5. The Bible Jigure of baptism points to pouring 
ai the mode. The figure is found in 1 Peter i]:-l, 


where the apostle refers to the ark as a figure of 
baptism. Let us notice this figure. The ark was 
first standing on dry ground, afterwards partly 
submerged in water. In either position, the win- 
dows of heaven were opened and water was pour- 
ing down upon the ark. No figure could be plainer. 
Like the ark, the applicant for baptism may stand 
either on dry ground or in the water. In either 
position, the outpouring of water upon the ark typ- 
ifies the outpouring of water upon the applicant s 

Immersionists are fond of referring to the bur- 
ial and resurrection of Jesus as a figure of baptism; 
but where in God's word is it so stated? While w^e 
are looking for figures, why not take the figure 
which the Bible gives us? 


We have already referred to the fact that the 
advocates of immersion are much more strenuous 
in their view^s than the advocates of other modes. 
In their estimation baptism means immersion 
and immersion means baptism, and that set- 
tles it. All other modes are invalid. To maintain 
a position so radical as this, one would naturally 
suppose that they must have the best of reasons 
for their claims. 

A careful study of the Bible, however, will dis- 
close the following facts: 

1. The Bible nowhere expressly states how the 
water is to be applied. 

2. There is no penalty pronounced for those 
w^ho fail to properly understand this subject, and 


apply the water in a different way from the implied 
mode taught in the word. 

3. The miraculous outpouring of the Spirit on 
the day of Pentecost is called a baptism by John 
the Baptist, Christ our Redeemer, and Peter the 

4. The word immersion is not so much as 
named in the Bible. 

5. In no place between Gen. 1:1 and Rev. 22: 
21 is there a single recorded instance where a clear 
case of putting under the water is called a baptism. 

How any thoughtful and well-informed man can, 
in the face of these undisputed and incontroverti- 
ble facts, continue to denounce all other forms of 
baptism except immersion as invalid is one of the 
things hard to understand. Should not these facts 
convince all immersionists that they are wrong? 


There is a great blowing of trumpets concern- 
ing the alleged testimony of Greek scholars and 
historians. Personally, we do not attach as much 
importance to this testimony as some do. We con- 
sider the testimony of the Bible of infinitely more 
importance than the combined productions of all the 
writers of profane history. You can take history 
and prove anything. We are not surprised that 
trine immersion, and single immersion, and 
sprinkling, and pouring have all been successfully 
proven by historians to be the only true Bible 
mode of baptism. This question must be settled 
by the Bible and not by history. 



A careful study of the Bible will bring to light 
a few facts that are hard to adjust to the theory 
that baptism means immersion. 

1. A number of scripture passages can not he ad- 
justed to this meaning. Take for examjDle Acts 1 : 5, 
"For John truly baptized with water, but ye shall 
be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days 
hence. " Adjust that to the idea that baptism means 
immersion, and it would read, "For John truly 
dipped his subjects into the water; but ye shall be 
dipped into the Holy Ghost not many days hence. " 

2. Take the baptism of John. The word says 
that during his ministry of about eighteen months, 
he baptized "Jerusalem and all Judea and all the 
regions round about Jordan." (Matt. 3:5). Ac- 
cording to the estimates of some Baptists, he bap- 
tized 500,000 persons; according to others, about 
1,000,000. Allow him one minute for the immer- 
sion of each applicant. At that rate, to baptize 500, - 
000 persons, lie must have stood in the ivater at least 
fifteen hours each day during the entire period of his 

3. Rom. 6:3, 4 has been taken as the strong- 
hold of immersion. It is here, and in Col. 2:12, 
that the figure of the burial and resurrection of 
Christ in water baptism is said to exist. "The 
text says, " Therefore we a^^e buried, etc. " Buried 
when? Right now. If this figure is worth any- 
thing, it means that right now we are buried with 
water. In our humble judgment, there is a more 
plausible rendering of these verses. Baptized into 


Jesus Christ by the Sphit (1 Cor. 12:13), we are 
baptized into His death by the baptism of suffering 
(Matt. 20: 22; Luke 12: 50). Being made dead to sin, 
we walk in newness of life. It is then that the 
apostle's words are applicable to us when he 
says, "Ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ 
in God." (Col. 3:3). 

Our position in a body has nothing to do wliat- 
ever with the manner in which we have been in- 
itiated into it. Baptists are initiated into their 
church by single immersion, Dunkards by trine 
immersion, Presbyterians by sprinkling, Menno- 
nites by pouring. Yet the members of these dif- 
ferent denominations are just as deeply buried in 
their respective organizations as if they had been 
initiated by all these modes of baptism. Since the 
language of Rom. 6:4 refers to believers in the 
body, and not to the mode of initiation, and since 
the position in the body has nothing whatever to 
do with the mode of initiation, it follows that the 
force of this striking passage of Scripture would 
be materially weakened by connecting it in any 
way with literal water. 


Whether the ordinance of water baptism should 
be observed in the house or in the water has at 
times received serious attention. This is not es- 
sential, as we have no command concerning the 
same. The command to baptize is explicit and 
God-given, and cannot be ignored. All that we 
have concerning the place is the example of our 
Savior and others. While we would be doing 


wrong to manufacture a command when no com- 
mand exists, and can not therefore authoritatively 
say whether the baptism should take place in the 
house or in the water, it would be at least a safe 
plan to follow the example of our Savior and go to 
the water. That we may have some idea of the 
customs in apostolic times (concerning the place. 
as well as the mode) we enumerate the eight re- 
corded instances of baptism recorded in the Acts 
of the Apostles. 

1. The baptism on the day of Pentecost. (Acts 2.) 
There is nothing in the narrative to lead us to infer 
that they went to the river to baptize. As they were 
twenty miles from the river Jordan and the water 
at Enon, and as they had only a few hours in 
which to repair to the water, provide for a change 
of apparel, and baptize three thousand converts, it 
is reasonable to suj)pose that they were baj^tized 
at the time and place of their conversion. Im- 
mersion in this case was almost, if not quite, an 

2. Baptism of Simon (Acts 8:12, 13). Nothing 
is here said concerning the time and place. 

3. Baptism of the eunuch (Acts 8:36-39). The 
eunuch was baptized in the water. The fact that 
they went down into the w^ater has by some been 
interpreted to mean under the water or immer- 
sion. It requires no close reading to see that 
Philip, as well as the eunuch, "went down into 
the water." If, by the reading, the eunuch was 
immersed, Philip according to the same reasoning 
was also immersed. This passage of Scripture 


absolutely disproves the claim that into the water 
means Immersion. 

4. Baptism of Saul of Tarsus (Acts 9:17-19). 
He seems to have been baptized in the house. 
'Ananias went his way and entered into the 
house; and putting his hands on him, said,- 
Brother Saul, the Lord even Jesus hath sent me, 
that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled 
with the Holy Ghost. And he received his sight 
forthwith, and arose, and was baptized. ' There is 
no intimation that they left the room to repair to 
a stream or bath room, but that he simply ' 'arose 
and was baptized. " 

5. The baptism of Cornelius and kis house- 
hold (Acts 10:44-48). When Peter saw the mirac- 
ulous outpouring of the Holy Ghost, he said, 
"Can any man forbid water that these should not 
be baptized?" And he commanded them to be 
baptized. The literal rendering is, Can any man 
object to the bringing of water? We have every 
reason to believe that they were baptized in the 
house. No hint whatever about leaving the 

6. Baptism of Lydia and her family (Acts 16: 
14, 15). She was converted at the riverside where 
pious people had assembled for worship. There 
is nothing said concerning the mode or place of 
baptism. It is reasonable to suppose that she was 
baptized either on the bank of or in the river. 

7. Baptism of the jailor (Acts 16:33). "He 
took them the same hour of the niizht and washed 
the'r stripes; and he was baptized, h6 and all his, 


straightway. " There is nothing in this narrative 
to warrant the claim that they had left the jail in 
search of a stream or pool. The jailor was there 
to look after the prisoners. To leave on an errand 
of that kind would have put him under censure of 
the law. * ' But, " says some one, ' 'does not the word 
say that he took them into his own house after 
baptism?" Yes; every jailor has a private house 
conveniently located so that he can watch the 
prisoners, and still be at home. After the bap- 
tism in the jail, he took them into his private 
apartments for refreshments. That Paul had not 
left the building is evident from the events which 
followed; for Paul refused the next day to leave 
• the jail except by legal authority. 

8. Baptism of certain disciples at Epliesus 
(Acts 19: 1-5). There is nothing in this narrative 
to indicate the place. As this baptism is closely 
connected with the baptism of the Holy Ghost, 
and since the baptism of the Holy Ghost 
always consisted of an outpouring, it is reasonable 
to suppose that this was also an outpouring. 


Not necessarily. Indeed it is more often 
something else. The washing of the ordinary 
utensils about the house is more often accom- 
plished by an effusion than by dipping. The same 
is true in bathing. The same is true in most 
other things. 


Some scripturians have analyzed the gram- 
matical construction of the sentence found in 


Matt. 28:19, and have construed it to mean three 
actions. Such persons seem to forget that there 
is a similar sentence in Luke 9:26, "For whoso- 
ever shall be ashamed of me and my words, of 
him shall the Son of man be ashamed when he 
shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, 
and of the holy angels. " The construction of this 
sentence does not insure three comings of Christ 
any more than the preceding sentence warrants 
three actions in baptism. 1 Jno. 5 : 7 says that 
these three — the Father, the Word, and the Holy 
Ghost — are one. "What God has joined together 
let not man put asunder. " Let all our actions be 
done in the name of the one triune God — the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost — and not (as is done by 
those who baptize in three actions) in the name of 
each individual of the Trinity. 

Besides, if it were true that we could lawfully 
do some things in the name of only one individual 
of the Trinity, one action would still be sufiicient, 
and three would be superfluous. We can do things 
in the name of a dozen beings, without requiring 
more than one action. When Ethan Allen de- 
manded the sui'render of Ft. Ticonderoga, the 
commander of the fort asked by whose authority 
this was demanded. Allen replied, "In the name 
of the Great Jehovah and of the Continental Con- 
gress." In the name of how many individuals? 
Two. How often w^as the demand made? Once. 
The weakness of the argument for three actions in 
baptism, could be shown by the analysis of one 
sentence after another whose grammatical con- 


struction is similar to that found in Matt. 28:19, 
but we trust that enough has been said to prove 
that baptism, as well as every other Christian 
work, should be administered in the name of the 
one triune God, and that one action only is neces- 
sary. If the energy that has been spent in build- 
ing a mighty baptismal structure on the gram- 
matical construction of one sentence, had been 
used in carrying out the great commission that 
contains this sentence, the results would be far 
more satisfactory to Him who gave this com- 

In the discussion of this subject, we have 
placed more stress upon the mode of baptism than 
our inclination might lead us to do. While we 
are positive that pouring is the mode sustained by 
scriptural evidence, we know equally well that 
the Scriptures emphasize the importance of the 
command to baptize rather than the manner in 
which the water should be applied. In their eager- 
ness to establish a certain mode of baptism as 
being scriptural, men sometimes lose sight of the 
more important phase of this ordinance — its mean- 
ing and use. Foremost among the Christian 
ordinances, the subject of baptism should, in all 
its phases, receive the prayerful study of every 
Christian believer. 


"For as often as ye eat this bread, and 
drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death 
till he come. 1 Cor. 11:26. 


Next to baptism the communion ranks in im- 
portance as an ordinance. It was instituted by 
our Savior at the close of His earthly career, and 
is a memorial by which His suffering and death 
are to be kept vividly before our minds. That we 
may know the full meaning of this ordinance, and 
the place it should occupy, it may be well for us 
to go back and notice the institution, the observ- 
ance, and the fulfillment of the Jewish ceremonial 
which this ordinance has replaced. 

THE JEWISH PASSOVER. (Ex. 11 and 12.) 

Our narrative takes us back to the time when 
the children of Israel were in bondage to king 
Pharaoh. Their liberation was at hand. Their 
cries in consequence of their bitter persecutions 
and galling yoke had reached the ears of God, 
and He had prepared the hand of Moses to deliver 
them. Nine plagues had been sent upon the 
Egyptians. Time and again had the heart of 
Pharaoh relaxed, and he had promised to let the 
children of Israel go, provided the plagues were 
removed; but time and again did Pharaoh repents 


of his promises and harden his heart to their 
entreaties. Now there was to be a plague that 
would completely overawe the Egyptians and 
secure the liberation of their Hebrew slaves. See 
Ex. 11:45. 

''And Moses said, thus saith the Lord: About 
midnight will I go into the midst of Egypt; and all 
the first-born of the land of Egypt shall die, from 
the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his 
throne, even unto the first-born of the maid- 
servant that is behind the mill, and all the first- 
born of beasts." 

For once the children of Israel were to pass 
from a state of bondage to a state of freedom, and 
for this they were now to prepare. The month 
was to be unto them the beginning of months. A 
great feast was to be prepared. Each household 
was to take a lamb or a kid without blemish, a 
male of the first year, and specific directions were 
given as to how it should be prepared, and how it 
should be eaten. If the household was too small, 
two families might unite. This lamb was to be 
eaten the night of the fourteenth day of the month 
of Abib, the same night in which the Lord was to 
pass over Egypt to destroy the first-born. 

That the children of Israel might be spared 
from this plague, they were commanded to take 
a bunch of hyssop, dip it into the lamb's blood that 
had been secured in a basin, and strike it upon the 
lintel and two side-posts of tha door. This was to 
be a sign for the protection of the inmates of the 
house. That night the Lord passed over the land 


of Egypt, and smote the first-born in every house 
from the house of Pharaoh that sat upon his 
throne, to the maid-servant behind the mill; but 
when He came to a house that had the sign of 
blood upon the door post, He passed over and left 
the inmates unharmed. It was the Lord's Pass- 

A great cry went up over all the land of 
Egypt. Pharaoh's hardened heart could bear up 
no longer. All the Egyptians implored the 
Israelites to leave their country immediately, 
"lest we be all dead men.'' Pharaoh no longer 
withstood them, but allowed them to depart. 

Thus was the Passover instituted. Israel was 
now liberated; and in commemoration of this 
event, the people were commanded to keep this 
ordinance from year to year (Ex. 13: 10). 


How the hosts of Pharaoh followed the children 
of Israel and were destroyed in the Red Sea, and 
how the Israelites, after forty years wandering, 
finally reached the promised land is not essential 
to this narrative. It is also not necessary to 
explain the Levitical laws relating to the observ- 
ance of this ordinance. It is enough to know that 
the Israelites were very zealous in keeping this 
memorial. Had they been as zealous in keeping 
the statutes of the law with reference to moral 
purity, idol worship, etc., as they were in the 
observance of this command, history might record 
a different story. When Christ came, instead of 


finding a handful of formalistic Pharisees, and a 
multitude of idolaters, He might have found a 
powerful people, in every way prepared to take 
up His Gospel of peace, and Christianize the 

Throughout the checkered career of the Jewish 
nation, the Passover was observed. An account 
of its observance is recorded in Ex. 12:12; Num. 
9:5; Josh. 5:10; 2 Kings 23:21; 2 Chron. 30:13; 
Ezra 6:19; Matt. 26:19; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7. 


1. The Passover was an ordinance designed 
to keep alive within the minds of the Israelites the 
event which liberated them from the bondage of 
the Egyptians. As a memorial of this event, it 
was to fill their hearts with gratitude to God, and 
make them obedient to His word. Hear the words 
of Moses: ''And thou shalt shew thy son in that 
day, saying. This is done because of that which 
the Lord did unto me when I came forth out of 
Egypt. And it shall be for a sign unto thee 
upon thine head, and for a memorial between 
thine eyes that the Lord's law may be in thy 
mouth; for with a strong hand the Lord brought 
thee out of Egypt. Thou shalt therefore keep 
this ordinance in his season from year to year'' 
(Ex. 13:8-10). 

2. It is a type of Christ's death. **For even 
Christ our passover is sacrificed for us" (1 Cor. 
5:7). As the Paschal Lamb was sacrificed as a 
memorial of the Lord's Passover in Egypt, so our 
great Paschal Lamb, even our Lord Jesus Christ, 


was sacrificed as a memorial of the great Passover 
from the old to the new dispensation. As the 
blood on the door-posts was a sign that pro- 
tected the children of Israel from the plague 
that was sent upon Egypt, so the blood of the 
spotless Lamb of God j^rotects us against the fiery 
wrath of God and the eternal plagues that He has 
promised to send upon the children of dis- 


''Even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us.*' 
This was an event in which the blood of beasts 
counted for naught. "A lamb without blemish'' 
served as a sacrifice, or as a memorial of 
liberation from the bondage of human slavery; 
but it required the blood of the spotless Lamb 
of God to take the human family out of the 
bondage of sin, and restore them into favor 
and friendship with God. With this great 
sacrifice the Old Testament dispensation came 
unto fulfillment, and the New instituted in its 
stead. With the fulfillment of the Old Testament 
dispensation, the necessity for the observance of 
its ceremonials ceased to exist, and it remained for 
our Lord and Savior to institute a new ceremonial, 
which is to us a memorial of the great Passover 
that removed from our race the shackles of sin, 
and gave us the right to the Tree of Life. 


COMMUNION (Matt. 26; Mark 14; Luke 22). 
When Christ and His disciples were assembled 
in that large upper room, where they, for the last 


time, ate the passover supper together, He 
recognized that His time had come. He says, 
"With desire I have desired to eat this passover 
with you before I suifer; fcr I say unto you, I will 
not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the 
kingdom of God." 

Here, at the last legal Jewish Passover, in the 
shades of night, when there was nothing outside 
to break the dead stillness but the dark conspiracy 
that led to the crucifixion of our Redeemer, was 
instituted the memorial of the great Passover 
when Christ was sacrificed for the sins of men. 
Luke gives the following narrative: "And he took 
bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto 
them, saying, This is my body which is given for 
you. This do in remembrance of me. Likewise 
also the cup after supper, saying. This cup is the 
New Testament in my blood which is shed for 

May we ever feel, in deed and in truth, that 
"As often as we eat this bread, and drink this cup, 
we do show the Lord's death until He come. " 


We have no command as to how often this 
ordinance should be obser\ ed. The apostle writes 
to the Corinthians, "as often as ye eat this bread, 
and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death, " 
etc. From this we infer that it should be kept 
often enough to keep the scene fresh before our 
minds. We do not believe, however, as some 


would have us believe, that it should be kept every 
Sunday, for it is a fact that whenever this is done 
the communion is soon looked upon as a common- 
place occurrence. It is idle to argue that this 
should not be the case; we know that it is the case. 
We are not commanded to partake of the commun- 
ion the first day of each week. In the abs^ce of 
any command, we would suggest that the practice 
of some of our churches to hold communion about 
twice a year is as nearly scriptural and practical 
as any custom of which we know. 

Concerning the time of day we are also with- 
out command. It was instituted after night; but 
the time when this ordinance was instituted does 
not convey any obligation to us. It was instituted at 
the Passover, and as a matter of course had to be in- 
stituted at the same time that the Passover was ob- 
served. It is worthy of note that the event for which 
the Passover was a memorial occurred at midnight, 
while the event for which the communion is a 
memorial occurred at mid- day. If the Passover 
Supper was observed near the time that the event 
for which it was a memorial occurred, what rea- 
son is there for saying that the communion should 
not be held near the time that the event for which it 
is a memorial occurred? We w^ish to say, however, 
that in the absence of any command as to when the 
communion should be observed, we should attach 
more importance to the event, and less to the time. 


The communion includes something more than 
the mere act of breaking of bread and drinking of 


the cup. It includes a fellowship of all those that 
partake. The word "communion"' means a common 
union. To show that the ordinance which our Sav- 
ior instituted means a common union of all that 
parta^ke of the sacred emblems, we quote from 1 
Cor. 10:16, 17: 

' ' The cup of blessing w^hich w^e bless, is it not 
the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread 
which we break, is it not the communion of the body 
of Christ? For we being many are one bread, 
and one body; for we are all partakers of that one 

Notice the lesson to be drawn from the ''one 
bread. " It is composed of many individual grains 
of wheat; yet these grains are so thoroughly ground, 
mixed, refined, kneaded, and baked together, that 
it is absolutely impossible to distinguish them. 
Together they constitute "one bread," What more? 
The damaged grains w^ere excluded, for that would 
have defiled the bread. "We," the apostle says, 
"are one bread and one body. " To make this com- 
parison applicable, the unworthy individuals (dam- 
aged grains) must be excluded, and those that do 
partake must present one body in Christ Jesus, 
united in ' 'one Lord, one faith, and one baptism. " 


The idea of "one bread and one body" compels 
regulations with reference to the communion. It 
calls on us to exclude some whose lives are incon- 
sistent, yet whose sincerity we do not call into 
question. The apostle clearly holds out the idea 
of "one common union" in his reference to "one 


bread and one body," The faith jof the individual 
communicants, like the flour of the individual 
grains of wheat, must be indistinguishable, or the 
application to the "one bread" will not hold good. 
He further instructs his Corinthian brethren, and 
says, ' 'I would not that ye should have fellowship 
with devils. " Two classes, then, are to be excluded . 
(1) Those who can not unite with us in one com- 
mon faith. (2) Those of whom the apostle says, 
"They sacrifice to devils. " 

It is easy to see why these regulations were 
made. In the first place, there is no consistency 
in a so-called communion unless there is a real 
union, and then close communion serves as a safe- 
guard against heretical doctrines. 

It is inconsistent for us to ccmmune with mem- 
bers of other churches who are guilty of things for 
which we would excommunicate our own members. 

The question then arises, What regulations can 
be made that the unity and purity of the body par- 
taking of the sacred emblems may be preserved? 


The council meeting is the most practical and 
consistent method that can be used to settle this 
question. Our principles of faith are well known. 
We believe in Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, justi- 
fication by faith, believers' baptism, communion, 
feet- washing, non-resistance, etc. These doctrines 
being based upon the word of God, we hold 
the word as the standard for the basis of our invi- 
tation to the communion. All persons whose faith 
and practice is in accord with our own, and 


who are not in communion with people whose 
faith is radically different from ours, who 
can pass through this council and confess that 
they are at peace with God and with mankind 
(especially they with whom they intend to com- 
mune) and one with the brotherhood in their ad- 
herence to the principles of faith, are in a lit condi- 
tion to commune.* By this means the necessity of 
judgment is done away with. Whatever judging is 
done is by the word, and the invitation is extended 
to whoever will comply with the requirements of a 
real communion. 

*A person that is not a church member cannot be 
one in practice with us, and must therefore not be al- 
lowed to commune. 

It is inconsistent to admit to our communion one 
whose faith is apparently with our own; but who exercises 
the liberty of communion with churches whose faith 
and practices are radically different from ours. By com- 
muning with a cono^reg-ation. we show ourselves to be in 
union with that denomination. How can we be in 
union with two congregations whose faith and practices 
conflict in a number of doctrines'? We have no right to 
belong to any church with whose faith and practices we 
cannot agree. Ever^^ one should seek a religious denom- 
ination whose faith and practices are in harmony with 
his own. 

A refusal to unite with any church is sufficient rea- 
son for debarring said f)erson from the communion of that 
church, unless such person happens to belong to a church of 
similar faith. For example, the faith of the Mennonite and 
Amish Mennonite congregations being the same, mem- 
bers of one should be allowed to commune with the other. 
There is no reason why these two organizations should 
not be merged into one organization. 


Take a body of Christian believers that are in 
peace with God, and united as "one bread and one 
body" in the faith, and you have a body of Chris- 
tians among whom Christ would .srladly take His 
place as the Elder , Brother — the head of the 


The practice of throwing the doors wide open, 
and inviting every one that feels so to commune, 
looks very liberal, to say the least. While we like 
to be charitable, we want, at the same time, to be 
consistent. Even those who are most strenuous in 
their advocacy of open communion, admit that the 
principle of a common fellowship in the commun- 
ion is taught by Paul. Deny that, and you take 
the soul out of the communion. It appears very 
brotherly to invite every one that feels like it to en- 
ter into this common fellowship; but is it consist- 
ent? Let us see. 

A brother becomes disorderly. He does a 
number of things which the church can not 
tolerate, and after eiforts to win him back have 
failed, he is expelled. He goes right over to 
another church which has no restrictions along 
the lines in which he transgressed, and becomes a 
member in full standing. The time for communion 
comes around. The invitation is extended to all 
that feel at peace with their God. A number of 
members from other churches accept the invitation, 
and with them this excommunicated brother. The 
church has decided that he was not in proper 
spiritual condition to belong to their number, and 


yet they now invite him, who had never pretended 
to change his faith or life, to fellowship with them, 
in solemn communion with their God. 

This puts us to thinking. We look around to 
see who else has responded to the invitation. 
Since this is the communion at the Lord's table it 
is expected that Christ, our Elder Brother, is at 
the head. With Him our church members, good 
and bad, among them Methodists, Presbyterians, 
Lutherans, Catholics, Universal! sts, and also some 
non-professors. Imagine the i^^stor standing 
before his congregation, looking down over this 
motley array, and saying in the language of Paul, 
"For we being many are one bread and one body!" 
But some say, ' ' We extend the invitation only to 
those who stand in peace at home, and whose home 
is with some evangelical church." This is some 
better. If these churches had the same faith, had 
practically the same regulations, and were equally 
strict in their discipline, we would say, amen. As 
is generally the case, however, we cannot endorse 
the idea, from the fact that the unity required by 
the Gospel would still be lacking. One communi- 
cant would say, "Immersion is the only true 
baptism. " According to that, half the communi- 
cants would be unbaiDtized. Another communicant 
would say, "We can not tolerate secret societies, " 
while half the communicants might be entangled 
in one or more of them. A great many more 
points of difference might be brought up, but we 
have mentioned enough to show the inconsistency 
of a pretended communion where unity is lacking. 


Let US draw the lines a little closer. Enumerate 
the principles which you believe the Bible teaches, 
and which the church to which you belong has 
adopted as the tenets of her faith. Make that 
your basis. Then you have complied with the 
Gospel requirements with reference to unity. 


What has been said so far, refers principally to 
churches. When the church has done her duty 
with reference to promotino^ the unity and purity 
of the body partaking of the sacred emblems, the 
responsibility of the church ends, while that of 
the individual begins. If the individual confesses 
falsoly as to his standing with his God and with 
his church, that is a personal aifair of his own. 
This fact is forcibly stated in 1 Cor. 11:27-29, as 
follows: "Whosoever shall eat this bread, and 
drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be 
guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But 
let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of 
that bread, and drink of that cup. For he that 
eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drink- 
eth damnation to himself, not discerning the 
Lord's body. " 

Some have used this language in support of 
open communion; but they forget that there are 
instructions given to the church in the preceding 
chapter. Apply this language to individuals, and 
that found in the previous chapter to those that 
have the Lord's table in charge, and you have the 
Bible teachings as to the regulations that should 
govern this ordinance. 



That depends upon what steps have been taken 
to keep them out. If the church does her duty in 
instructing the communicants in the holy faith, 
has her members to confess to a unity of the faith 
and peace with God and each other, and directs 
those who cannot confess to this not to partake of 
communion, the unworthy communicants, and not 
the church, are responsible for any false confes- 
sion that may be made. If, on the other hand, 
the church extends a general invitation to who- 
ever desires to commune, the church assumes the 
responsibility for any violations in Gospel unity 
and purity, and every member that communes 
shares the responsibility. 


Some contend that as our Savior and His 
disciples ate a full meal at the institution of the 
ordinance, the custom should still be observed. 
Such persons deny that this full meal was the 
Jewish Passover, (1) because they used "the fruit 
of the vine" at the table; {-) because our Savior 
and His disciples went out after supjiier; (3) because 
they claim to have evidence from Jno. 18:28, etc., 
that this supper was eaten the day before the 
Jewish Passover. To allow the a-dherents of this 
idea to use their own references and apply their 
own construction, we must admit that they can 
put up a plausible story; but to take the Bible as 
it reads — to take the four Gospels as they stand, 
without any "doctoring," we are compelled 


to oiDpose the full meal as any part of the cere- 
monies of worship, for the following reasons: 

1. We have the testimony of Matthew, Mark, 
and Luke, that Christ and His disciples called this 
the Passover (Matt. 26:17-^9; Mark 14:12-25; 
Luke 22:7-30). No one should object to calling 
things by the same name that Christ did. 

2. The above Scriptures teach that this Pass- 
over was killed "the first day of unleavened 
bread," the regular time for killing the Jewish 
Passover (Ex. 12:6-18). 

3. In reading these Scrij)tures, we can get no 
other idea than that the disciples understood this 
to be the Jewish Passover. We can nowhere find 
that our Savior ever taught them that it was not 
the Jewish Passover. If the apostles were ever 
so instructed, they never rejDeated it publicly 
enough that it found its way into the Bible. Why 
have WG this silence on the subject on the part of 
the sacred writers? Since Christ never explained 
that this was not the Jewish Passover, why not 
take Him at His word, and call it the Jewish 

4. If this was not the Jewish Passover, but 
another supper, as some would have it, the Bible 
is silent as to where it was instituted, its signifi- 
cance, and how it should be kept. 


Concerning the alleged irregularities, such as 
passing the cup, going out after supper, etc., we 
see no violations of the laws governing Passovers. 


The particulars concerning tlie way tlie Passover 
should be eaten, as recorded in Ex. 12, have 
reference more particularly to the lirst Passover. 
Their circumstances were such that they were 
to keep themselves in readiness to move at a 
moment's warning. Hence, they were not to leave 
their houses, but be ready with staff in hand, etc. 
It is true that they were not commanded to use 
wine at the feast, but where, in God's word, was 
it forbidden? Bible scholars tell us that it was a 
custom among tlu? Jews to pass as many as four 
or five cups on such occasions. Besides, there 
can be no advantage gained by trying to upset the 
testimony of Christ and the apostles, by hunting 
for alleged irregularities. That would be like 
saying thajb a bird is not a bird because it has lost 
a few feathers out of its wings. Let us be con- 


We cannot establish the fact that this was any 
other than the Jewish Passover, without establish- 
ing a conflict in the Bible. As already seen, 
Matthew, Mark, and Luke plainly establish the 
fact that this was the JeAvish Passover. Now 
suppose it could be just as plainly shown by John 
that it was not the Jewish Passover (which is not 
the case) there would be three in favor and one 
against. Whose testimony should we take, the 
three or the one? But why, w^hen this question is 
plainly settled by the first three Gospels, should 
we seek to overthrow their testimony by standing 
on a number of supposed incoherent technicalities 


found in the fourth ? If some critics would try half 
as hard to find harmony as they now try to 
establish a conflict, it would not be hard to find. 


The preparation for the supper was Thursday 
evening, April 6 ; or Nizan 15, beginning at 6 
P. M., 14th. Matthew's account of the prepara- 
tion is found in chapter 26:17-19. "Now the 
first day of the feast of unleavened bread the 
disciples came to Jesus. " This refers doubtless to 
the 14th day in the evening of which began the 
15th day, when the seven days' passover feast 
began. Mark's account is in chapter 14:12-16. 
He says, "And the first day of unleavened 
bread, when they killed the passover, tlie disciples 
said unto him," etc. The lambs were killed 
about two o'clock on the 14th day of Nizan, and 
eaten with the beginning of the 15th soon after 
sunset. Luke's account corresponds with the 
passages already noticed, (22:7-13). He says, 
' ' Then came the day of unleavened bread, when 
the passover must be killed. " The same 14th day, 
when the feast began at or after sunset. The 
same three evangelists notice Christ and the Twelve 
goinr/ to Jerumlem. (Matt. 26:20; Mark 14:17; 
Luke 22:14). Luke alone notices the strife of the 
apostles for the first place (22 : 24). He also is the 
only one that notices directly Christ's rebuke (22: 
24-30). John notices the rebuke indirectly in his 
account of the washing of the disciples' loct (chap- 
ter 13). It would be impossible to harmonize 


these accounts with any other supper or feast 
than the Passover; so we must seek to har- 
monize John's account with those given by the 
other evangelists. When Jesus was led, early the 
next morning, up to the palace of Pilate, the Jews 
proceeded as far as the grounds about it, but no 
farther, lest they become defiled by the act of 
entering the residence of a heathen during the 
Passover week. At six o'clock began the prepa- 
ration day for the Sabbath (not for the beginning 
of the feast) a double day, being also Passover 
Sabbath. The Jews were especially careful not 
to be defiled so as to be prevented from attending 
the feast on this "high day." "This makes the 
account of John (18:28) clear, in which he says 
'that the rulers would not enter the palace, that 
they might not be defiled, but might eat the pass- 
over. ' Some have been led to suppose that the 
Passover was . not yet begun. Furthermore, 
'Upon each of the seven days of the feast was 
offered a sacrifice for the whole people' (Num. 28 : 
19-24), hence John's expression, 'might eat the 
passover', must be taken on general terms, as 
covering the whole seven days' feast, as in 
2 Chron. 30:22, 'They did eat the feast (passover) 
seven days. ' " 


The apostle Paul, in the 11th chapter of 1 Cor- 
inthians, condemns the practice of adding the full 
meal to the communion. He calls their attention 
to a number of irregularities ; among them their 
eating and drinking. After rebuking them 


sharply for this disorder, he tells them what he 
"received of the Lord." He tells about the 
breaking of bread and drinking of the cup, and 
adds, "For as often as ye eat this bread, and 
drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till 
he come." What does he say about having 
received of the Lord concerning the full meal? 
Not a thing. What does he say about the full 
meal? "This is not to eat the Lord's supper"? 
"If any man hunger, let him eat at home." Paul 
condemned not only the disorder of the Corinth- 
ians in eating the full meal supper, but he con- 
demned the full meal itself. What else could he 
have meant when he said, "If any man hunger, 
let him eat at home," and, "What! have ye not 
houses to eat and to drink in?" When the only ref- 
erence found in the Bible concerning the full 
meal is to condemn the practice, why should we 
still favor its observance? 



"If I then, your Lord and Master, have 
washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one 
another's feet. For I have given you an 
example, that ye should do as I have done to 
you." Jno. 13:14, 15. 


There has been much contention concerning 
the real meaning of the thirteenth chapter of 
John; yet no language in the Bible is more plainly 
and forcibly written. All Bible students agree, 
(1) that Jesus washed His disciples' feet; (2) that 
He explained what it meant; (3) that He com- 
manded them to wash one another's feet; (4) that 
He afterwards commanded them (Matt. 28:19) to 
"teach all nations" to ''observe all things" that He 
had commanded them; and (5) that feet- washing is 
one of the "all things" that He commanded His 
disciples to observe. With these facts conceded 
by every one, it is difficult to conceive how there 
can be any difference of opinion as to what our 
real duty is with reference to the subject under 
consideration. Yet we know that there is a differ- 
ence and it is to these differences we now address 


One class of persons disposes of this subject by 
ignoring it entirely. Some contend that while 


tills was a command, with the idea that it should 
be observed, conditions have changed, and its 
observance is no longer necessary. Others say 
that this is a command, but it is not essential to 
salvation; therefore we may do as we wish about 
observing it. Many persons contend that feet- 
washing is to be observed as a good work, not as 
an ordinance; that Christ here taught a lesson of 
humility, giving out the idea that we should never 
be so proud as not to be willing at any time to stoop 
to wash our brethren's feet. Another view is that 
Christ, knowing the disposition of man to exalt 
himself, instituted the ordinance of feet-washing 
as a ceremonial service, to be observed by His 
follow^ers through all coming ages as a symbol of 
a "meek and quiet spirit" and of the equality of 
all Christians. 

Whatever may be the merits of these views, ic 
is evident that some of them must be wrong. 
Human opinion is wrong so long as it contiicts 
with the word of God. It remains for us, there- 
fore, to consider this subject in the light of the 
Scriptures, fling to the winds all testimony con- 
trary thereto, and establish ourselves upon a 
Gospel foundation. 


Turning to the Old Testament, we find this 
subject mentioned both as a service and as a 
ceremony. As a service, it is mentioned in Gen. 
18:4, where Abraham entertained three angels; in 
Gen. 19:2, w^here Lot was serving in a similar 
capacity; in Gen. 4i]:24, wiiere Josej)h entertained 


his brethren; and in several other j^jlaces. From 
these scriptures we learn that the customs of those 
times required the host to set out water that the 
guests might wash their own feet. This was 
similar to our modern custom of setting water 
before our guests that they may wash their hands 
and faces. Like our modern custom, the ancient 
usage was for personal comfort as well as for 
cleanliness. Since their feet were imperfectly 
covered with sandals, it is not difficult to see a 
cause for the origin of this ancient custom. 

As an ordinance it was practiced by Moses, and 
Aaron and his sons. An account of its institution 
is recorded in Ex. 30:17-21. An account of its 
observance is recorded in Ex. 40:/]0-32. 

We notice this difference between feet- washing 
as a custom and feet -washing as an ordinance, as 
the two apioear in the Old Testament. As a 
custom, it was observed, not because it was a 
command (for nowhere in the Bible has a volun- 
tary custom been enjoined upon us as a religious 
duty), but because circumstances dictated and 
human reason acted. As an o:dinance, it was 
instituted by authority of God and a reward 
offered for its observance. 

The very unobservant reader will not fail to 
observe that the washing of feet, as mentioned and 
ex^Dlained in John 13, more nearly resembles the 
ceremonial feet- washing than the service feet- 
washing mentioned in the Old Testament. Com- 
pare the washing of feet as presented in John 
13:1-17, with the washing of feet as presented in 


Ex. 30:17-21, and it will be noticed that they are 
alike in two particulars: (1) both are instituted by- 
divine authority; (2) there was a reward promised 
for its observance. 


To answer this question, we must first deter- 
mine the meaning of the term. Webster defines an 
ordinance as "an established rite or ceremony." 
It has also been defined as ''a command with a 
purely God- ward meaning." From these defini- 
tions and other testimony of Bible scholars, we 
conclude that an ordinance is an act or ceremony 
instituted by some one who has authority to do so. 
An ordinance is not a sacrament in the sense that 
the original meaning of the word sacrament 
implies. Applying the subject under consideration 
to this w^ell-authenticated view, as to what con- 
stitutes an ordinance, we conclude that feet- 
washl'ng is an ordinance, because — 

1. There can be no doubt as to the authority 
of Jesus to institute anything He saw fit. 

2. That He here instituted something new, is 
evident from the expression, ''What I do thou 
knowGst not now. " That He intended His disciples 
to continue the practice, is evident from His com- 
mand to "wash one another's feet." 

3. That He intended this as a church ordi- 
nance, is evident from the fact that He did what 
He did as the head of the church. The reading of 
this chapter impresses us with the thought that no 
one but Christ and His disciples jjarticipated in feet- 


washing. Since this ceremony was instituted in 
church, participated in by the church, and estab- 
lished by the One, who, above all others, had au- 
thority to do so, we call this a church ordinance. 

We have another reason for calling this an or- 
dinance. We have never heard any one dispute 
that the washing of feet, instituted according to 
Ex. 30:17-21, and practiced according to Ex. 40: 
30-32, was an ordinance. Why then should we dis-- 
pute that the washing of feet, as mentioned in Jno. 
13: 1-17, which resembles it in essential particulars, 
is an ordinance? 


It has long been a matter of controversy as to 
where this ceremony took place. As we recognize 
a command as a command, regardless of the 
place where it was given, we do not consider this 
essential to the solution of the question under con- 
sideration. Still it might be well to notice briefly 
this phase of the question to throw some light on 
the relation which this ordinance sustains to an- 
other ordinance instituted by our Lord and Mas- 
ter — the communion. 


By comparing Matt. 26, Mark 10, Luke 22, and 
Jno. 12, we glean the following facts: 

1. Satan put it into the mind of Judas Iscar- 
iot to betray his Lord at or after the Bethany sup- 
per, but before the Passover supper mentioned in 
the first three Gospels, or the supper mentioned in 


John 13, (Matt. 26:14; Mark 14:10; Luke 22:3-6, 
John 13:2). 

2. Jesus informed His disciples of His coming 
betrayal at the Passover supper mentioned in the 
first three gospels and at the supper mentioned in 
Jno. 13, (Matt. 26:21; Mark 14:18; Luke 22:21; Jno. 

3. Judas went our after this supper to inform 
the chief priests of the whereabouts of Jesus (Jno. 
13:27). We believe this to be in accordance with 
a previous agreement. 

4. Matthew, Mark, and John record the fact 
that Judas received the sop at this supper. Luke 
says in the same connection, ' ' The hand of him 
that betray eth me is with me on the table. " (Matt 
26:23; Mark 14:20; Luke 22:21; John 13:20). 

These facts are sufficient to convince us that 
the Passover mentioned in the first three gospels 
and the supper mentioned in John 13 were one and 
the same sujiper. We know that there are technical 
points which may be so construed as to lead to differ- 
ent conclusions, but the weight of Gospel testi- 
mony is on the side which we have just indicated. 
We are led to the conclusion, therefore, that the 
ordinances of the communion and of feet-washing 
were instituted at the same time. No better time 
could have been selected. Our Savior was now at 
the close of His earthly career. His work was about 
completed. His miracles had been wrought. His 
doctrines, which were to send a thrill of joy 
through every Christian heart, had been promul- 
gated. His d'sciples had been indoctrinated, and 


His "hour was come." Here, in the dead of 
night, when Nature's veil had wrapped the 
earth in solemn repose, and His enemies were 
hiding behind the veil of darkness to carry out 
their infamous plot to put an end to His existence. 
He solemnly instituted two ordinances or memorials, 
whereby the principles of His religion and His suf- 
ferings might be kept fresh before the minds of 
the people forever — feet- washing, the symbol of 
humility; that quality of the mind through 
which alone the universal brotherhood of man can 
be maintained : and the bread and the cup, symbols 
of His broken body and shed blood; the memoria) 
through which His sufferings and death are to b& 
remembered forever. 


It is scarcely necessary to argue that an ordi- 
nance like the one under consideration is a help t(> 
the cause of true holiness. Christ knew the dis 
position of man. The sons of Zebedee were not thei 
only ambitious men in the church. Pride, thai 
arch-enemy of godliness, is everywhere to be 
found. But does the washing of feet as a cere- 
mony make Christians humble? No; but it helps 
It impresses them with the humble spirit of our 
Savior, and brings before them the necessity of 
maintaining the universal brotherhood of man- 
There are two facts which should never be lost 
sight of, in considering the necessity of observing?; 
this ordinance: 

1. A thousand years of indoctrination would 
never induce a church whose members are fore- 


most in the vanities of this world to adopt this hu- 
miliating: ordinance. 

2. History has proven that whenever a church 
has set aside this ordinance, that soon all the Bible 
ordinances and restrictions that call for self-denial 
found their way out at the same door. Let this 
sacred ordinance remain in our churches forever, 
to show that as Christians we stand on a common 
level. Let us defend it and practice it, (1) because 
it is a command, (2) because of its influence in keep- 
ing the spirit of true humility in our churches, (3) 
because it is a privilege which we cannot afford 
to fail in exercising. 

1. An old custom. 
It is urged that Jesus here followed an old, 
Jewish custom, and that He Himself washed His 
disciples' feet to give them an example of humility. 
This objection might have weight, were it not for 
the fact that Christ informed Peter that he (Peter) 
knew not what He (Christ) was about to do. 
"What I do, thou knowest not now; but thou 
shalt know hereafter." Certainly Peter was not 
ignorant of this time-honored custom. Besides, 
the Scriptures will hardly sustain us in an asser- 
tion that they had a custom of ' ' rising from sup- 
per" to wash feet. The Levitical law was very 
strict on this. They took their baths and did 
their washings beforehand. Not mentioning the 
fact that the (^.isciples were not the guests of our 
Savior, and that therefore He owed them no 
service of this kind, the Scriptures sustain the 


idea thac it ivas customary for guests to tvash their 
own feet, just as our guests wash their own liands 
and faces. 

2. Chi'ist 'performing a service. 
It could not have been that ; for the Jewish 
law was very strict concerning the cleansing pro- 
cesses before partaking of any feast. Especially 
was this true of the Passover. There being no 
cleansing to do after supper began, there was no 
need for service of this kind. When Peter de- 
manded that his hands and his head be washed, 
Christ informed him that "he that is washed need- 
eth not save to wash his feet;" and, "ye are clean 
but not all." Because they had soiled their feet? 
Oh no! "For he knew who should betray him; 
therefore said he, ye are not all clean." It is 
clear, then, that this was not an act of cleansing ; 
but a ceremony designed as the symbol of humil- 
ity; as He afterward explained. 

3. Not a command; hut a statement telling us tvhat 
ive ought to do. 

Not a command! Then what is a command? 
"J have given you an example, that ye should do as I 
have done to you.'' In other words, "I have washed 
your feet. I have explained the meaning of the 
act. Now I expect you to do just as I have done 
to you." What did He do to them? He washed 
their feet. What did He intend that they should 
do? Wash one another's feet. " Fe should do* 
makes this a positive command. 

But suppose it were simply a duty pointed out. 
Is any one justified in not doing what he ought to 


do? Can we be obedient and not do what our 
Savior plainly says we ought to do? If any one 
cl looses to be contentious, and to quibble because 
the word "ought" is not sufficiently strong to 
compel obedience, let him learn a lesson from the 
unprofitable servant (Matt. 25:30) who was com- 
manded to be cast into outer darkness because he 
had failed to do what he ouglit to have done. 

Jf. Silence of the Scriptures on this Subject. 

It is urged that if this were really intended as 
a ceremonial service, we would find more frequent 
mention of it in the epistolary writings. 

The subject under consideration is more than 
a mere abitrary command. There is nearly half a 
chapter devoted to it. Our Savior first gives the 
example, next explains what it means, then gives 
the command. That should be sufficient to make 
us understand. What more do we need? 

Besides, no church was ever established by 
epistolary writings. The apostles went about from 
p]ace to place, i^reaching the Gospel and estab- 
lishing churches. The doctrines were first de- 
livered to them, not by epistles, but in person. 
Ceremonial worship is mentioned in the epistolary 
writings only when it was found that those doc- 
trines were abused or misunderstood. The sub- 
ject of feet- washing is barely mentioned ; for it 
was so clearly set forth in Jno. 13, that there was 
no necessity for misunderstanding it ; hence there 
was no necessity for frequent mention. There is 
but a faint echo from it in the epistles, which is 
enough, however, to show what importance the 


apostle placed upon it The reference is 1 Tim. 

5. Feet-Washing as mentioned in 1 Tim. 5:10 placed 
in the Category of good Works. 

It is urged by some that since this subject 
is mentioned in connection with a number of good 
works, it must also be classed with these Christian 

In one sense, it is a good work. We perform a 
good work when we suffer ourselves to be bap- 
tized, partake of the communion, or do anything 
else commanded by divine authority. In this 
sense it is a good work; but it can not be taken in 
the sense that it means a deed of charity. The 
Bible does not admit of us confining our deeds of 
charity to "saints" alone. Had this read, "the 
needy 's feet," or "guest's feet," or "stranger's 
feet," or "visitor's feet," there would be more 
ground for argument; but since it expressly states 
"the saints' feet" it puts this passage in line with 
our Savior's admonition to saints, "Ye ought .to 
wash one another's feet. " In this way do we wash 
the saints' feet. 


Some that object to ceremonial feet- washing, 
pretend to draw "a deeper spiritual meaning" out 
of this subject. In their opinion, whenever we 
perform a good deed for any one (such as blacking 
shoes, dusting one's coat, etc.,) we are washing 
one's feet. If this is the proper rendering, it is 
the only instance where our Savior spent much of 


His valuable time, and a great deal of extra pains, 
in commanding His followers to do what man, by 
common consent, would do anyway. 

Granting, for the sake of argument, that feet- 
washing w^as simply a custom, it must have 
started among men, not by divine authority, but 
because man, by common instinct, fell into the 
habit. As such, the custom would have been 
observed so long as the necessity for it existed. 
What need then of our Savior spending so much 
of His time, right at the close of His career, when 
moments were truly golden, and practical instruc- 
tion was much needed, to teach man something 
that would have been done without this emphatic 
example and command? 

The most reckless characters often observe this 
command in the sense that these good- works 
advocates interpret it. When occasion requires, 
they will entertain you, though a stranger, 
accommodate you with the best they have, and 
wash your feet, if necessary, without one thought 
of even respecting the name of Jesus. 

Strange as it may seem, there are many 
Christian professors who say that this is fulfilling 
our Savior's command. It is equally strange that 
our Savior, who knew all things, should spend 
almost His last moments in forcibly admonishing 
His disciples to do what they and everybody else 
would have done without a word from Him 
There is not a parallel case to be found in the 
whole Bibla 


Then, what does this "deeper spiritual meaning" 
lead us to? It leads us to "spiritualize" away this 
important command. "Spiritualizing" away the 
literal meaning of Scriptures that call for self- 
denial, usually "spiritualizes" away their spiritual 

After listening to the advocates of a "deeper 
spiritual meaning" with reference to this subject, 
and watching the actions of many who discard it 
without ceremony, we are satisfied to take our 
Savior at His word, and observe this ordinance as 
a part of our ceremonial worship. There is a 
principle underlying this command which is much 
more far-reaching and important than the mere 
act of performing a service. The same reason 
that now prompts people to discard this holy 
ordinance, caused our Savior to institute it. 
Substitute service feet- washing (which practically 
means no feet-washing at all) for ceremonial 
feet-washing, and you issue a pressing invitation 
for pride and caste to enter the churches. God 
speed the day when all Christendom will stand 
united, not only upon this ordinance, but upon the 
vital Christian principle of w^hich this ordinance is 
a symbol. May our attitude be such that we may 
with gladness hear the words, "If ye know these 
things, happy are ye if ve do them. " 

COVERING.— 1 Cor. 11:1-16. 


The first thought to be considered in connec- 
tion with this chapter is that the apostle is here 
spealdng of * 'ordinances. " He says, "Now I 
praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all 
things, and keep the ordinances as I delivered them 
to you. " He commends them for their apparent 
sincerity in keeping these ordinances. A careful 
reading of the whole chapter show^s that while the 
Corinthians had been trying to keep the ordinances, 
they had become confused on some of them. So 
the apostle again explains the head-covering and 
the communion, and adds, * ' The rest will I set in 
order when I come. " This reference on the part 
of the apostle, to these things as oi-dinances, for- 
ever settles the question as to whether the subject 
under consideration is or is not an ordinance. 


The apostle recognizes the necessity of some- 
thing visible to show the relation between man and 
woman. ''For I w^ould have you know, " he says, 
"that the head of e\'ery man is Christ; and the 
head of the woman is the man; and the head of 
Christ is God. " Of the four beings here mentioned, 
the man and the woman alone are visible; hence 


there should be something visible to show the re- 
lation between them. How^ is this to be shown? 
Let the Bible speak. "Every man praying or 
prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoreth 
his head. But every woman praying or prophesy- 
ing with her head uncovered, dishonoreth her head; 
for that is even all one as if she were shaven. For 
if a woman be not covered, let her also be shorn ; 
but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or 
shaven, let her be covered. " 


That a woman should have her head covered 
while praying or prophesying, no enlightened 
Christian disputes. The language of the Bible is 
too plain to admit of any doubt. There has been 
some dispute, however, as to what constitutes this 

Some say it is her hair; but a careful study of 
the Scriptures will convince us of the error of this 
view. Verses 14 and 15 read as follows: "Doth 
not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man 
have long hair, it is a shame unto him? But if a 
woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: for her 
hair is given her for a covering. " Here the apostle 
refers to nature for a comparison to illustrate the 
truth of what he is teaching. In the discussion of 
this subject, until we reach verse 14, Paul speaks 
of an artificial covering, which the Revised Version 
calls a veil. In verses 14 and 15 an illustration is 
made of what nature teaches, and reference is made 
to the long-hair covering. The original Greek 
word for covering in verse 15 is 2^eribolaioii, and is 


quite different in form andmeanino: from the original 
Greek words, katakalupto and katakalupteta i in vei ses 
5, 6 where the artificial covering or veiling is meant. 
Go where you will, among nations civilized and un- 
civilized, and you will find that the custom of wo- 
man w^earing long hair is almost universal. Nature 
has provided her a covering, and it is a glory to 
her. But that this is not the covering which the 
apostle calls an "ordinance" is evident from the 
language of verses 5 and 6. The word "also" in 
verse 6 settles this matter beyond a doubt. With 
remarkable force, the apostle argues that if the 
woman discards the covering which God, through 
His embassadors, has ordained shall be worn, she 
might as w^ell discard the covering w^hich nature 
gives; "for, if a woman be not covered, let her also 
be shorn. " "If it is a shame for a woman to be shorn 
or shaven, " what shall we say to discarding the 
other covering spoken of in our text? 

Simply any kind of covering worn on the head 
for protection or comfort wilJ not do for the prayer- 
covering unless there is something about its use 
which shows that it is worn as a prayer head- cov- 
ering. Verse 10 reads, "For this cause ought a 
woman to have power on her head because of the 
angels." The marginal reading thus explains the 
word "power" found in this verse: "That is, a cov- 
ering, in sign that she is under the power of her 
husband. " Where is the sign about the ordinary 
head- gear of a woman to show this? 

A careful analysis of our text establishes the 
fact that the covering spoken of means a real 


prayer-head-covering — something that is worn for 
that purpose. What this should be is not posi- 
tively stated. The text, however, is plain enough 
that all must admit that it should be a modest fab- 
ric suitable for indoor use, known for the purpose 
designated by the apostle directed by inspiration. 
It is '*a covering in sign." Its presence means 
that this is a time of prayer or public devotions, 
or that the wearer wishes to indicate a spirit of 
unceasing prayer. 

Most of the churches observing this ordinance 
have chosen the white cap as the covering, which 
is very appropriate. The cap is easily recognized 
as something worn as a prayer-head- covering, is 
the embodiment of- neatness and convenience, and 
its color is the emblem of purity. 


There can be no mistake made in wearing it all 
the time. Then there will be no danger of the 
wearer dishonoring her head by praying or proph- 
esying with her head uncovered. 

We believe, however, that the requirements of 
the Scriptures are complied with when the cover- 
ing is worn during times of public or private wor- 
ship, or active Christian work of any kind. This 
would include private devotions and all manner of 
religious meetings. 


In verse 16, the apostle doubtless gives a 
gentle reproof to those who are disposed to con- 


tend against the Christian custom of the woman 
covering her head in time of prayer and religious 
devotions. A difficulty is here presented that 
cannot be cleared up by a superficial consideration. 
Many even who have given it their best, unpreju- 
diced thoughts, have failed to understand it 
clearly. A number of the most reliable commen- 
tators, however, such as Clarke, Barnes, and 
others, agree as to its meaning. Their ideas 
coincide with the following: 

The apostle has written a pointed essay to 
show that the woman in the Lord should be in 
subjection to the man in the Lord. God is the 
Head in whom all things pertaining to His king- 
dom center. There must not be a division of 
authority. From the woman upward, authority 
must move in a straight, unbroken line to the 
Head — the woman, the man, Christ, God (verse 3). 
The woman, to slioiu her position with regard to 
the authority of the man over her, is here taught 
to put a covering on her head, when she prays or 
prophesies ; and not to appear on such occasions 
like the immodest Greek women who went to 
their sacrifices with their heads uncovered, like 
the men. After teaching this plainly, and draw- 
ing a lesson from nature (verses 14, 15), to 
rivet down the arguments which he has made, he 
gives a warning to those who would still be dis- 
posed to contend against what he has taught. 

^'■We have no such custom'' is what presents the 
difliculty. Some have thought that the apostle 
wishes to say that they had no such custom as 


'*being contentious." This idea is illogical and 
unreasonable, if not absurd. It is next to impos- 
sible to think of a church of Christ as having the 
custom of being contentious. It goes without 
argument that this is not the meaning. Others 
have concluded that the apostle, after all his 
direct teaching on the subject, gives room to the 
contentious person, admitting that neither they as 
apostles nor the churches of God had any such 
custom as the woman wearing the prayer-head- ' 
covering. This is still more illogical, but prob- 
ably more gratifying to the contentious individual. 
There is not a line of teaching in all the apostle's 
writings that allows the reasoning away of his in- 
structions to the churches. The true meaning 
must be: *'We have no such custom, neither the 
churches of God," as the woman piaying or 
prophesying with her head uncovered. It is an 
established fact that the Jewish woman did cover 
her head in a time of devotion, and the churches 
under Jewish influences had rightly adopted the 
custom. It was only necessary that the apostle 
instruct these Corinthians who were converted 
from heathenism and knew not the customs 
adopted by the churches. Let the one who is cc n- 
tentious see by what the apostle has written that 
a prayer-head-covering is necessary for the woman 
in the Lord, and let him know, too, that they have 
adopted the custom in the churches; that they had 
no such custom as the woaian worshiping with 
her head uncovered. 



1. lite Jicad-covermg looks odd. 

All customs upon which the world looks with 
contempt are odd and unbecoming in the eyes of 
worldly-minded people. There is not one of these 
critics that would not wear the cap if it were 
fashionable. It is a lamentable fact that many 
professed Christians do things for fashion's sake 
that they would not begin to do for Christ's sake. 

2. I would he ashamed to luear it. 

''Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me 
and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful gen- 
eration, of him also shall the Son of man be 
ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his 
Father with the holy angels" (Mark 8: 38). 

3. Many of those ivho wear the caj) are ashamed of it. 

Occasionally one of our younger sisters may 
feel somewhat uncomfortable on account of her 
prayer-covering, but the cases are only occasional. 
We have no condemnation for those who feel 
uncomfortable under such circumstances; but 
rather words of encouragement. To all whom 
this may concern we give this advice: Don't look 
to the world for your ideas of right; but rather 
look to your blessed Lord and Master, who is an 
abiding comforter to them that love Him and do 
His holy will. 

Even if everything were true which the world 
says of those who submit to this ordinance (which 
is not the case) it would not change the word. 


It is not for us to reject the word because we are 
able to pick flaws in other's actions. 

Jf. If I can not he satisfied in wearing the cap, 1 had 
hetter not wear it at all. 

Every true child of God is anxious to keep all 
His commands. If you see that this is a command, 
and you can not get the consent of your mind to 
obey it, it shows a lack of consecration on your 

5. This is not a saving ordinance. 

Neither is baptism or communion. The sinner's 
prayer is, "Lord, what must I do to be saved?" 
The true Christian's prayer is, ''Lord, what wilt 
Thou have me to do to glorify God?" 

6. Some people make it a saving ordinance. 

"Abuse of anything is no argument against its 
proper use. " 

7. Some people ivorship the cap. 

This is mostly in the eyes of those who reject 
this ordinance. 

8. Other churches do not observe this ordinance, 

"What is that to thee? Follow thou me." It 
might be well to remark that a number of our now 
fashionable churches have discarded thxS ordinance 
only during this present century. 

9. The hat or bonnet loill do. 

See explanation on ' 'What should the covering 

168 BIBLE I)0("TRIXi:S. 

10. ^^Her hair is given her for a cover inr/.^^ 

Nature gives her this covering. What need 
was there in the apostle wasting his time in 
teaching what nature had already taught, and 
what women, by common consent, would do 
anyway ? 

The word ''also'* in verse 6, establishes the fact 
that there was another covering spoken of besides 
the hair. But su])pose there was not. Let us 
adjust the reading to this meaning, and see how it 
sounds. "If a woman be not covered" — that is, 
"If a woman be shorn or shaven, let her also be 
shorn. " 

11. The Bible mentions this subject but once. 

Once is sufficient. How often was the command 
to bajotize in the name of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost given? 

12. Paid teas a bachelor: and, old-fog ij- like, brought 
this in to oppress the ivomen. 

Paul taught several doctrines that appear "old- 
fogy ish" to those whose personal pride forbids 
them to submit to the self-denying teachings of 
the Gospel. Before any one exercises the preroga- 
tive of criticising Paul too freely in this instance, 
let him carefully read Acts 9:15: "But the Lord 
said unto him, Go thy way; for he (Paul) is a 
chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before 
the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of 


"Greet all the brethren with an holy kiss." 
1 Thess. 5:26. 


The fact that there are so many Christian pro- 
fessors who have never heard of the salutation of 
the holy kiss as a divine ordinance, is one of the 
many proofs of what is now generally admitted, 
that the average student reads his Bible only in 

We are well versed in many parts of the Bible. 
We can meet successfully any who may choose to 
dispute our ideas, and turn the phraseology of 
many puzzling passages of Scripture to our ad- 
vantage. When it comes to other portions of 
God's divine Book, howevc-r, we are almost as 
ignorant of them as if they had never been writ- 
ten. We find that, after all, with all our apparent 
knowledge of the Bible, wo are versed only in 
part of the "all Scripture," which we are told 
"is given by inspiration of God, and is 
profitable for doctrine,*' etc. We have called 
attention to these facts for two reasons: (1) We 
desire to emphasize the importance of learning 
the whole revealed word of God ; (2) we wish to 
turn the light upon a portion of God's word 


which, by the crreat body of Christian profes- 
sors is generally overlooked. An ordinary research 
will bring to light the following passages of 

''Salute another with an holy kiss." Rom. 

''Greet ye one another with a kiss of charity." 
1 Peter 5:14. 

"All the brethren greet you. Greet ye one 
another with an holy kiss." 1 Cor. 16:20. 

"Greet one another with an holy kiss." 2 
Cor. 13:12. 

"Greet all the brethren with an holy kiss." 
1 Thess. 5:26. 

When we find language so positive as this, 
and so easily understood, it presents a subject 
that is at least worth considering. If it is 
intended for us, we want to know it. 


This language was addressed by the apostles 
to their followers, as they were instructing them 
in the "whole counsel of God." That the subject 
is of some importance is evident from the fact that 
the command is so often repeated. The apostles 
aimed to teach their followers the way to attain 
to the highest 4egrree of Christian perfection, and 
hence felt called upon to teach every thing that 
tended to accomplish this result. 

It is scarcely necessary to state that whpn the 
apostles c(mi])()sed their ei)istolary writings, they 
were not intended merelv for the churches to 


which these writings were addressed, but for all 
coming generations. They are so understood by 
almost every Bible student. We read Colossians 
2, for example, or Ephesians 4, or James 1, or any 
other part of these writings as though they had 
been especially prepared for nineteenth century 
Christians. There is not a pious Christian living 
who does not regard these writings as being ad- 
dressed directly to himself. Recognizing this 
fact, we can not fail to recognize that there comes 
to us the command to ''salute one another with an 
holy kiss. *' 


An ordinance has been defined as *'an estab- 
lished rite or ceremony." The salutation of the 
holy kiss was handed down to us by God's chosen 
apostle to the Gentiles, as well as by that fearless 
apostle to whom Jesus said, "Feed my sheep," 
' ' Feed my lambs. " We class this as an ordinance, 
therefore, because it is a ceremony handed down 
to us by those whose authority to do so we ca mot 


Among all classes of people— rich or poor, 
intelligent or ignorant, Christian or Pagan—the 
kiss has been regarded as a symbol of affection. 
The mother thus shows her affection for her child, 
the husband for his wife, the Christian for his 
fellow-christian. It is not our purpose at this 
time to show why this is the case. It is sufficient 
to know that this is the case. What is more nat- 


ural, therefore, than for the apostles to exhort 
then- followers frequently to "greet one another 
with an holy kiss. " 


The most vital Christian principles have their 
representative emblems in the ceremonial worship 
as instituted by Christ and His disciples, in order 
that these iirinciples might be kept alive within 
our hearts and before the people. Thus we have 
water baptism as a symbol of the baptism with 
the Holy Ghost; the bread and the cup as the 
symbols of the broken body and shed blood of 
Jesus Christ; feet-washing as the symbol of 
humility; the anointing of oil as the symbol of 
grace, and the holy kiss as the symbol of love. 


Some say that it looks ridiculous for men to 
greet each other in this way. Why should this 
look more ridiculous than for women to greet each 
other, or for men to greet their near kins- women? 
The kiss does not seem ridiculous when it is used 
for fashion's sake. If this is willingly done for 
fashion's sake, how much more willingly should it 
be done for Christ's sake. A sneering public 
should never keejD us from doing our Christian 


It should be observed often enough to show by 
our actions that we indorse it. The Scriptures do 
not lay down any rules as to the time or place for 


its observance. We suggest that the members use 
prudence and discretion, and be sure that they 
observe it in the true spirit, 


Some have seen fit to point to the way in 
which this ordinance has been abused, and used 
that as an argument against its use. We could 
use this same kind of an argument and argue away 
every command in the Bible; for where is the 
command that has not been in some way abused? 
We admit that some have, in the eyes of others, 
brought reproach upon the observance of this 
ordinance by being immoderate in its observance. 
Ordinances, like any other good things, may be 
carried to extremes; but the danger seems to be 
on the other side. Even if this ordinance is some- 
times abused, why should we discard it, and 
thereby make the word of God of none effect? 
The very abuse emphasizes the necessity for its 

The salutation of the holy kiss should be used 
only where brotherly love exists. A shadow 
without the substance is mockery. The spirit in 
which the apostles give this exhortation shows us 
that it should be used by the brethren among the 
brethren, and the sisters among the sisters. 


After people have tried ever so hard to reason 
away the kiss of charity and ignore its observance, 
this fact remains: five times in the New Testament 
Scriptures we are commanded to greet each other 


with a holy kiss. As followers of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, let us heed the command. Let us observe 
this ordinance, (1) because it is our duty; (2). be- 
cause it is our privilege in this way to express ou** 
love for the brethren. 



"Is any sick among- you? Let him call for 
the elders of the church; and let them pray • 
o- er him, anointing him with oil in the name 
c : the Lord: and the prayer of faith shall save 
the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and 
if he have committed sins, they shall be for- 
given him." Jas. 5: 14, 15. 


The above quotation is the Bible reason for call 
ing this an ordinance. Whether it should have the 
dignity of an ordinance is at least questionable. In 
those days the oil was applied both as a medicine 
and as a ceremony. It depends upon the use which 
the apostle had in mind as to how we should class 

We incline to the belief, however, that the 
apostle intended that the oil should be applied as 
a religious rite; because: 

1. The sick were commanded to send for the 
elders of the church. Had this been strictly a 
sanitary affair, he would have commanded them to 
send for a physician. 

2. The apostle says: ''The prayer of faith shall 
save the sick. " This leads us to the belief that he 
intended the oil (the natural use of which is to heal) 
to be used as a symbol of the grace of God, which, 
in answer to the prayer of the righteous, He applies 


as a soothing balm to the natural and the spiritual 
infirmities of suffering man. 

From the reasons just stated, and from the fact 
that this was handed down to us by one of God's 
inspired writers, we conclude that the anointing 
with oil should be called an ordinance. 


Many able scripturians oppose ' 'anointing with 
oil" as an ordinance on the ground that the apos- 
tle's reference to oil should be taken spiritually and 
not literally. That he did not mean the natural 
olive oil, which is sometimes used for healing pur- 
poses, but rather the "oil of grace." That the 
healing to be effected was not to be attributed to 
effects of the natural oil, but rather to the ' 'oil of 
grace," we readily admit; but we object to the idea 
that man has ever been called upon to administer 
the "oil of grace." That is God's work, and not 
man's. As well might we argue that man has been 
called upon to administer spiritual baptism. Man's 
part of the ceremonial work is to deal with the 
natural elements. God's part is to accomplish the 
work of which the natural elements are but sym- 


The question of anointing with oil, and the 
purpose for which it is done, brings up the ques- 
tion of divine healing. It is a sad fact that a ques- 
tion of so much importance should be so much 
abused. That the Bible teaches that God heals 
temporal as well as spiritual diseases in answer to 


prayer there can be no doubt; but it is equally true 
that many of our modern "divine healers" are im- 

Because the doctrine of divine healing has been 
abused, let us not therefore say that it is not scrip- 
tural. Christ taught and practiced it, the apostles 
taught and practiced it, recent facts substantiate 
the doctrine, and why should we doubt? It must 
not be understood that God answers all our prayers 
exactly as we would have them answered. God 
answers according to His abundant wisdom. He 
does, however, answer every truly believing 


In our opinion, the anointing with oil should 
take place in cases of serious sickness. It should 
not be administered as a ceremony preparatory for 
death, but with the full confidence that ' 'the prayer 
of faith shall save the sick." It is for the healing 
of the body, and not an unction for the soul. 



"Wherefore they are no more twain, but 
one flesh. What therefore God hath joined 
together, let not man put asunder." Matt. 


Marriage is an institution ordained of God. 
God saw that it was not good for man to bo alone; 
so He created for him an help-meet, and provided 
that man should "leave his father and mother, 
and cleave to his wife. " 

While marriage is a heaven-ordained institu- 
tion, our goveri.ments have also passed laws 
regulating the same. The minister that performs 
the ceremony that unites a man and woman in the 
bonds of wedlock has a double office to fill: (1) as 
the servant of God, he performs a visible part of a 
divine ordinance; (2) as a servant of his country, 
he performs the functions of a magistrate. 


Matrimony is the bond that unites a man and 
his wife so long as they both shall live. There 
are several conditions of marriage: (1) there must 
be a mutual consent between the contracting 
parties; (2) this compact must be publicly solem- 
nized according to the laws of the country in 
which the marriage takes place. With either of 


these conditions lacking there can be no marriaga 
Whoever assumes the privileges of wedlock with- 
out first complying with the laws, both of his God 
and his country, commits a crime against nature 
and a sin against God. 

Some good people have held the mistaken idea 
that the mutual consent of the contracting parties 
alone constitutes marriage; and, in support of this 
view, have pointed to the Old Testament, where 
marriages have been known to take place without 
any legal ceremony. It must be understood that 
in those times the civil government required no 
legal ceremony to solemnize marriages; and, 
further, that it was required, even in those times, 
to make the fact that a union as man and wife 
existed between two persons, publicly known. 
Then, as now, a legal marriage had to meet the 
demands both of God and of the civil government. 
In our day, our government requires more than a 
public announcement. It requires a ceremony, 
and, in most states, a license previous to the 

Marriage, then, is the act that binds man and 
wife together during their natural lives. This 's 
done by complying with the laws of God and of 
the country. 


An account of the institution of marriage is 
recorded in Gen. 2:21-25. There are no recorded 
restrictions until we come to the Levitical law. 
Lev. 18:6-18 forbids marriage with near relatives, 


iiicludino: father, mother, brother, sister, brother's 
wife, uncle, aunt, dau^rhter-in-law, etc. Marriage 
with strange women is forbidden in a number of 
places. Parents usually made the selections for 
their children. It w^as common to solemnize 
marriages by extensive feasts. Plural marriages 
were permitted, but not authorized by the Levitical 
law. Moses, on account of the hardness of the 
hearts of the people, permitted them to give writ- 
ings of divorcement. 


When Christ came, these customs were re- 
formed. To marry one that was divorced was 
forbidden (Matt. 5:;n,32; 19:9; Luke 16:18; Mark 
10:11), and no man w^as to put aw^ay his wife save 
for the cause of fornication (Matt. 5:32; 19:9). 
Stricter codes of morals were laid down (Matt. 
5:28), and plural marriages forbidden (Matt. 19:9; 
Mark 10:11; Luke 16:18; Rom. 7:3; 1 Cor. 7:10, 
11, 39; 1 Tim. 3:2). 

It would be a waste of time to dwell upon the 
necessity for these restrictions. They are appar- 
ent to all observing persons. All history has 
proven that the looser the marriage laws, the 
looser the morals of the people. 


The evils of divorce are becoming more appar- 
ent every year. Our court-dockets are filled with 
divorce cases. In some states it is so easy to 
obtain a divorce that marriage among many people 
has become almost a farce. Knowing the ease 


with which a separation may be brought about, 
many people become reckless. They gratify their 
passions in hasty and inconsiderate marriages. 
Becoming tired of married life, they groAv careless, 
and one does something that gives the other a 
legal cause for divorce. The case is taken into 
court, and a writing given that separates them. 
Thus is the holy institution, that was designed to 
maintain the purity of the human family, trodden 
under foot of man. Lives of those that might 
otherwise have become useful men and ^^omen, 
are completely wrecked. Children are born into 
this world who are deprived of proper parental 
care, and many of them are thus educated to fill 
our jails, penitentiaries, lunatic asylums, gam- 
bling dens, and other disreputable places. How 
much of this misfortune might be avoided if 
people would marry ''only in the Lord,'' and if the 
institution of marriage itself were considered for- 
ever binding upon those who take the vow. Take 
away the possiblity of a legal divorce; let it be 
understood that a marriage means a union for life; 
and many of these ill-advised marriages would 
never occur. True, it would work a hardship on 
some people; but people ought to bear the burdens 
which they themselves have shouldered. An 
unfortunate marriage is a blessing in so far as it 
serves as a standing rebuke to those who regard 
marriage as an unimportant and trifling affair. 


As a civil institution, marriage is lawful when 
the laws of the country are complied with. As a 


religious institution, another condition must be 
complied with. Christians are to marry ' 'only in 
the Lord," and to ''be not unequally yoked 
together with unbelievers." From this we under- 
stand that Christian believers should unite with 
believers only. "They twain shall be one flesh." 
This i-estriction has reference solely to the fact 
that a union between Christians and sinners is not 
sanctioned; yet it should be the aim of every one 
to select a companion of like faith and sympathies 
with 'himself or herself. There are so many 
things depending upon a perfect union that it 
would be unwise to have the heads of the house- 
hold divided upon any important question. They 
could hardly be ex| ected to agree in their religious 
instructions, and if they are church-workers as 
they ought to be, they might feel called upon to 
be regular attendants at separate places of wor- 
ship, which would make it very inconvenient, to 
say the least. 


should be as nearly a paradise as Christian 
people can make it. It should not be regarded as 
a place simply to cook and eat and sleep; but 
rather as a place to live, where husband and wife 
may abide in each other's love, and where the 
chiklron are reared "in the nurture and admoni- 
tion of the Lord. " 

Our home is what we make it. It may be a 
paradise or a very unlovely place. Husband and 
wife must remember that while they are united by 


law, they should be much more closely united by 
love. Take away the union by love, and the union 
by law becomes a galling yoke. 

Let it be remembered that life has its thorns as 
well as its roses, its trials as well as its pleasures, 
its crosses as well as its crowns. Let the wife 
remember that she was created as an help-meet 
for man, and when at night he comes to the home, 
wearied by his toils and burdened with unusual 
cares, she can do no greater work than to provide 
for his comfort, and to sup23ly that which alone 
can lift the burdens of life from his shoulders — a 
woman's love. Let the husband remember that 
while he is out in the open air, enjoying the 
blessings of sunshine, and a healthy atmosphere, 
his wife is at home, taxing her last energies to 
provide for his comfort and for all that are in her 
care. He can do no greater work than to bring 
some of his "sunshine"' into the home; to show by 
words and by actions that he appreciates her 
companionship; and to do what he can to make 
life easy and pleasant for her. Together, they 
can give their children such instruction as will 
make them useful citizens and noble Christians. 
The time that is usually spent in gossiping about 
street corners, village groceries, and j)ossibly in 
club-rooms should be spent at home. One of the 
features of the model Christian home is the family 
worship in which the members unite to send daily 
offerings to the great God, who has made it 
possible for Christian families to exist. 



Do not treat the subject of marriage lightly. Next 
to regeneration, it is the most important event of 
your lives. 

The history of woman is the history of her af- 
fections. Betray her affections and you betray her 
whole being. 

It is better to enjoy the society of the opposite 
sex than to be confined exclusively to your own, 
even if you are not yet seriously concerned in the 
choice of a life- companion; but it is unwise to mo- 
nopolize the time of any one of the ojiposite sex for 
any great length of time, unless you are at the 
same time seriously considering your adaptability 
for life- companionship. 

The following attributes should be considered 
of primary importance: virtue, intelligence, mor- 
ality, integrity, amiability, piety, vigorous health, 
cheerfulness, ability to provide for the sustenance 
of life. Beauty, wealth, and "blood" should be con- 
sidered of secondary importance. 

Let reason, not passion, dictate the result. Are 
your religious views the same? Has your bring- 
ing up been similar? Do you seem to enjoy the 
same things? Were your first impressions of each 
other favorable or unfavorable? How about your 
ages? How much do wealth and beauty figure in 
this? Is this really your choice or your "last 

If you are looking for some one that is perfect, 
you will have to try some other world. Study the 
imperfections of the one whose availability you are 


considerino^, and be sure that you have fully de- 
cided that those imperfections are such as you can 
overlook, before love blinds your eyes to them. 
Sometime after your "honey-moon" these imper- 
fections will again become visible. 

If your ' intended" needs reformation in any- 
thing, such as swearing, drinking, smoking, chew- 
ing, etc. , be sure that the reformation takes place 
before marriage. If he will not give them up for 
you when he knows there is danger of losing you, 
it is idle to expect him to give them up when he 
knows he has you secure. The man that thinks 
more of a bad habit than of a woman is unworthy 
of a woman's love. 

While we believe that God intended that all 
able-bodied persons, should, after proper develop- 
ment, seek the married state, yet this should de- 
pend largely upon the privileges for selection. It 
is no disgrace for any one to remain unmarried as 
long as there is no opportunity for a suitable union. 
It is a positive disgrace for you to allow your- 
selves to be united to a person who has the form 
of a man but the instincts of a brute, simply be- 
cause it appears to be your only chance. *' Choose 
wisely, or not at all. " 


"Be not conformed to this world: but be ye 
transformed by the renewing- of your mind."' 
Rom. 12:2. 


In taking up the consideration of this question, 
we are conscious of the fact that truth compels us 
to cross the cherished notions of two classes of in- 
dividuals: (1) those that would confine this ques- 
tion to personal appearance; (2) those that deny- 
that the question has anything to do with our per- 
sonal appearance. 

Of all the restrictions which God has enjoined 
upon His people, this is by far the most important. 
It is based on the fact that the human family is 
divided into two great classes: (1) those that follow 
the ''lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the 
pride of life" — the world; (2) those that take Christ 
as their foundation, and allow their lives to be 
governed by principles of right — the body of 
Christ. The simple admonition of our text to those 
that constitute the body of Christ is, "Do not 
allow yourselves to become like the world. 


The first question to present itself is, What is 
the "transformation" spoken of in the text? It is 


a change or a "renewing" of the mind. Whenever 
there is a change of mind, there is a change in all 
things subject to the mind. Godliness and ungod- 
liness, righteousness and sin, spirituality and car- 
nality, Christianity and worldliness, are all oppo- 
sites of each other. Whenever the mind changes 
from one to the other, the forms of the one are dis- 
carded and those of the other substituted. 

To explain further: A sinner is subject to the 
impulses of a carnal mind. He lives for self. He 
is guided by motives which spring from a proud, 
ambitious, sinful heart, and the gratification of 
carnal lusts. His mind is bent on what he imagines 
to be pleasure, regardless as to what conscience 
might dictate to him as to his real duties. Bring 
that sinner under the influence of the Gospel; get 
him to realize the sinfulness and folly of his course, 
and you will notice a change. He no longer lives 
for self, but for God. Before, he worked for the 
gratification of self; now, he works for the glory of 
God. Before, he was proud, revengeful, careless, 
disobedient, irreverent; now, he is meek, forbear- 
ing, scrupulous, obedient, reverent. He recog- 
nizes that there are two great classes of people: 
the world and the body of Christ. His mind being 
transformed from a sinful to a righteous state, he 
leaves the first of these and identifies himself with 
the second. This is the transformation spoken of 
in Rom. 12:2. 


To show how thorough this transformation 
should be, and what should be the attitude of the 


Christian toward the world, we quote a few verses 
from the Bible. 

"Ye are a chosen generation, a royal priest- 
hood, a holy nation, a peculiar people. " 1 Peter 

"If any man love the world, the love of the 
Father is not in him. " 1 John 2: 15. 

"Know ye not that the friendship of the world is 
enmity against God? Whosoever therefore would 
be a friend of the world is the enemy of God." 
Jas. 4:4. 

"That which is highly esteemed among men is 
abomination in the sight of God." Luke 16: 15. 

' ' Pure religion and undefiled before God and 
the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and wid- 
ows in their afiliction, and to keep himself un- 
spotted from the world. " Jas. 1 : 27. 

No words of ours could more clearly demon- 
strate what should be the attitude of Christian peo- 
ple toward the world. Our Savior and His disci- 
ples spoke with a clearness and forcefulness which 
is unknown, even in this enlightened era of the 
world's history. The whole Gospel teaches us that 
there should be a sharp dividing line between the 
church and the world, and that those who profess 
tobelorg to the body of Christ should not be con- 
formed in any way to this world, even avoiding 
every "appearance of evil. " 


James gives us an idea of what constitutes pure 
religion. To be "unspotted from the world" does 
not simply mean to keep from being all over black- 


ened with sin. It means purity from all sin. If 
we conform to the world in unholy conversation, 
that is one spot. If we conform to the world in 
seeking worldly amusements, that is another spot. 
If we conform to the world in foUowing worldly 
fashions, that is another spot. Other spots might 
be mentioned. We are not ''unspotted from the 
world" until we have completely severed our con- 
nection with the world. The Bible teaches purity 
from all these spots. While our limited space will 
not allow us to notice at length all the ways in 
which it is possible to conforni to or pattern after 
the world, w^e shall endeavor briefly to notice a 
few of the most important things, which, if in- 
dulged in, will become "spots" on our characters. 


As the subject of intemperance is treated of at 
greater length in another chapter, we shall not en- 
deavor to portray its evils here. We desire to no- 
tice, however, that indulging in the use of alco- 
holic drinks in an excessive or even a moderate 
way is nothing more nor less than giving way to 
the lust of the flesh, and must therefore be classed 
as a worldly habit. Christians should jDlant them- 
selves firmly upon the ground of total abstinence; 
for by taking a drink once in a while, they put the 
stamp of approval upon one of the most infamous 
monsters that ever afflicted mankind. 

While we are saying this about King Alcohol, 
may we not gently and timidly bring in a short 
notice of his little brother — Tobacco — and venture • 
tD ask if the use of tobacco is a Christian habit? 


Brethren, beware! ''Whether therefore ye eat, 
or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory 
of God." (1 Cor. 10:31). 


This monster evil has no supporters amone^ 
respectable people. It is pleasing to note that the 
better classes of worldly people stand with the 
church in denouncing it. This subject is here 
noticed in order to class it where it belongs. 
Among the worldly habits it stands as one of the 
most degrading, abominable, and sinful. 

It might be well, while we are on this subject, 
to remark that many people who abhor licentious- 
ness, tolerate practices that lead to it. Parents 
should give their children proper instruction on 
habits of personal purity. They should throw 
proper restraints around their daughters, and 
under no circumstances permit them to associate 
with young men of questionable morals. It is not 
necessary to argue this point. The many heart- 
rending stories that come to us on account of 
criminal carelessness on the part of parents and 
those who ought to know better, are enough to 
c6nvince any one. No respectable young woman 
will allow an acquaintance of the opposite sex to 
encircle her waist with his arm, or practice undue 
familiarity in other respects. 

Immorality on the part of man is just as bad as 
that on the part of w^oman, and should be con- 
sidered as much a disgrace. At all times and 
under all circumstances, we should insist upon 
moral purity as being both scriptural and decent. 


Man without chastity is steeped in vileness that 
has lowered him beneath the brutes. 


To say that questionable methods are some- 
times resorted to in business transactions, is put- 
ting it mildly. To say that Christian professors 
have shared in these questionable methods, is 
admitting a painful truth. Christians should 
remember that they are " to be as distinctly a 
"peculiar people" in business affairs as in any 
other position. It is here, in the practical affairs 
of life, where the integrity of man is brought to 
the severe test, that Christians have an oppor- 
tunity of showing to their unconverted neighbors 
that there is a reality in true religion. No Chris- 
tian will engage in any business in which chance 
is the predominating feature. The proper name 
for that kind of business is gambling. No Chris- 
tian should accept a dollar unless it is given to 
him as a gift or is honestly earned, or engage in 
any business in which he can not conscientiously 
ask God to prosper him. In all their dealings 
with their fellow- man, let Christians be generous, 
upright, truthful, conscientious, open-hearted, and 
strict observers of the Golden Rule. 


To be a successful politician, a man must lay 
his conscience aside; or else keep it securely hid- 
den away to be used only on "state occasions." A 
certain politician of national reputation expressed 
the truth when he said that according to present 


customs, purity in politics is an ''iridescent 
dream." He spoke from experience; and every 
man that has evei* had anything to do with politics, 
if he were to give voice to the conviction that lies 
deei^ down in the bottom of his heart, could sound 
a hearty "amen" to this sentiment. To place our 
political organization on a Christian basis is about 
as possible as it was for Mohammed to move the 
mountain by word of command. How a devout, 
praying Christian can conscientiously indentify 
himself with an organization that is composed of 
good men and bad men and " wheelhorses " and 
"vote- getters" and spoilsmen and deadbeats, each 
having a specific w^ork to accomplish, there being 
a common understanding as to the methods that 
are to be pursued, all working in harmony to 
bring about a common result, is hard to undor- 


Our conversation is either ennobling or degrad- 
ing. What we say will either make our hearers 
better or worse. If we keep alive within us the 
Christian principles of love and good will to all 
men, ever remembering that w^e are the servants 
of God, we need not fear the results of our con- 
versation. But how often is this lost sight of! 
How much time that might be used in the service 
of God is spent in vain, foolish, idle talk. 

Listen! There comes John Churchman. He is 
considered an orthodox Christian. When he comos 
we may expect to hear some talk that will do our 
.souls good; something that will produce in us 


sober thoughts and make us bet er in more ways 
than one. He comes. To our surprise, his talk 
consists in telling some stale yarns or questionable 
jokes — something that will make the ungodly roar 
with laughter. What is the result of this ? Does 
it make us purer? Does it make us better? Does it 
impress us with the thought that he is a noble 
Christian? Does it increase our veneration for 
Christianity? If Christians could but realize how 
much they could do by making their converstion 
pure and chaste and holy and edifying, what a 
wonderful change there would be in this world- 
Let our conversation, then, be pure, chaste, 
instructive, and elevating. Let us ever strive to 
shun all mention of vulgar talk, idle gossip, 
"white lies," and everything else which is degrad- 
ing in character. The tongue is a powerful 
weapon which may be used for good or for eviL 
Let us strive to use it for God's glory. 


Whenever we are called upon to engage in 
amusement " of any kind, let us ask ourselves the 
question, Will God be thereby glorified? Long 
ago the apostle Paul gave us this admonition, 
"Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatso- 
ever ye do, do all to the glory of God. " 

We put this test to theaters, show^s, balls, 
picnics, parties, etc. , and question whether or not 
they are conducted to God's glory. It is not 
enough that we should call them "harmless amuse- 
ments" and patronize them. As followers of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who are to "watch and be 


sober," and who are to "do all to the f?lory of 
God/* we cannot afford to s:o through this world 
in a giddy, careless way, without weighing our 
actions in the light of God's word. It stands us 
in hand to "watch lest we enter into temptation." 
Now, to return to the kinds of amusement to 
which we have already referred, let us ask: 

1. Do they really make us stronger Christians? 

2. Are they conducted to the "glory of God"? 

3. Do they make us more prayerful? 

4. Do they make us more zealous in the Chris- 
tian work? 

5. Do they make us feel like imploring sinners 
to give their hearts to God? 

6. Do they make us love the Bible more? 

7. Do they make us more pious? 

8. Do they cause us to meditate on heavenly 
things, or is their general tendency to make us 
forget, for the time being, that we are Christians? 

Now, Christians, be honest. Take any gather- 
ing the object of which is "to have a good time," 
even including church- festivals, "box socials," 
etc., and if you were asked the above questions 
with reference to them, would not your answer to 
every one of them have to be "no"? Then why 
should they be called "harmless amusements"? 
Is it not true that church members who attend 
such places are of least service to the church? Do 
you not know that these things are very gratify- 
ing to the carnal mind? But you say, we are not 
carnal? Can you not understand that the tendency 
of foolish nonsense is to lead away from God? 


Christians, we plead with you. Do not indulge in 
things that will contirm the carnally minded in 
their sinful ways. Be sober. Be earnest. Be 
c(jnsistent. Never allow yourselves to be placed in 
any position upon which you could not conscien- 
tiously ask God's blessing. "Be not conformed to 
this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing 
of your mind. " 

There are a few things about these gatherings 
designed to furnish amusement, which we must 
confess are somewhat inconsistent. A church 
festival is presumably designed to promote the 
cause of Christ; yet after the opening prayer 
(which is often omitted) you could not tell the dif- 
ference between it and a regular worldly party 
conducted by confessed sinners. The ordinary 
Fourth of July celebration is a mixture of prayer, 
patriotism, foot races, horse races, slow mule 
races, wheelbarrow races, egg races, sack races, 
climbing a greasy pole, catching a greased hog, 
**calithumpian" parades, fire works, and a grand 
dance at night. What Christian would want part 
in such a medley of amusements! 

Christians can afford to make this the rule : If 
a meeting is not held for the purpose of honoring 
and glorifying God, either by praises direct, or by 
moral or intellectual improvements, it should be 
avoided. Our time is too short to be wasted in 
serving the god of pleasure. Any meeting in 
which amusement is the leading feature, and 
which is especially gratifying to carnally minded 
people, is unsafe for Christian people to attend. 



in which we may allow ourselves to be conformed 
to the world, is to become entangled in law- suits, 
secret societies, carnal warfare, swearing of oaths, 
etc. As these subjects are treated at some length 
in other chapters, we pass them by for the present. 


The Bible says, "God resisteth the proud, but 
giveth grace unto the humble. " Meekness is 
enumerated as one of the fruits of the Spirit. 
Humility is one of the essential principles of a 
true Christian life. It is said that man's greatest 
enemy is himself. The Bible says, "Crucify the 
old man." Pride says, "The old man is good 
enough for practical purposes. " If you would en- 
joy spiritual growth, purge yourself of all pride. 
How is this done? Stop worshiping yourself. 
Think of yourself as you are, and not as the great, 
important man that you have imagined yourse.f to 
be. See how vain has been your life, and how 
gracious God has been in giving you life etei nal. 
If this does not humble you at the foot of the 
cross, and put you in a condition to receive God's 
spiritual blessings, your case is hopeless. 

Closely, though not inseparably, connected 
with pride is the question of 


When we reach the subject of dress, as a factor 
In worldly conformity, w^e instantly meet a chorus 
of objections. The very fact that the idea that 
following the fashions of the world is coafoi-mincr 


to the world is so stoutly resisted by a large num- 
ber of Christian professors, makes it necessary to 
notice this question at greater length than we 
would otherwise. Should this come to the notice 
of one whose views on this subject are at variance 
with our own, we ask him kindly to compare what 
we in our weakness have to say, with the will of 
God as revealed in His word, and form his con- 
clusions as God gives him light. 

It is admitted by all that the fashions of the 
world have their origin among people who are 
anything but Christians; that the love of display 
and mania for bodily adornment (to say nothing of 
the questionable motives which we often hear 
mentioned in this connection) give rise to the ever- 
changing fashions of society. We have never 
heard any apologist for fashionable attire contend 
that fashions were a Christian institution or of 
Christian origin. The frequent reference to lead- 
ers of society, on the part of journals, both, re- 
ligious and secular, as men and women "of the 
world" is another evidence of the correctness of 
our position that fashions belong to the world. 
How can we as Christians conform to the fashions 
of the world without conforming to the world? 

What is there in clothing? Let this be an- 
swered by a natural illustration. We have already 
referred to two great bodies that all Christians 
recognize do exist: (1) the body of this world, (2) 
the body of Christ. By way of comparison we 
call attention to two other great bodies — bodies of 
soldiers, that existed during our late Civil War, 


the Federals and the Confederates. Each had its 
nniform. One wore the gray, the other the blue. 
Why these uniforms? To make them stronger 
physically? No. To make them better? No. To 
increase their zeal? Partly. To make them fight 
harder? Perhaps. But principally to enable them 
to ''show their colors,'" to show "which side they 
were on." As men rose up to defend either side, 
they adopted the uniform of the side they es- 
poused. They did not philosophize because there 
is neither strength nor virtue in garments; but 
true to the motive which prompt(Hl them to act, 
they arrayed themselves in the uniform of those 
whose hearts beat in unison with their own. It 
needed no pliilosophizing because they w^ere con- 
sistent in what they did. A Union soldier would 
have felt uncomfortable in gray, because that 
would have represented him to be on a side which 
he did not care to espouse. For the same reason, 
a Confederate soldier would have felt uncomfort- 
able in blue. 

Is there any more consistency in a Christian 
wearing the garb of the world, than a soldier 
wearing the garb of the enemy? The dividing line 
between two opposing armies is not, cannot be, 
any more distinct than that which the Bible draws 
between the church and the world. Our hearts 
beat in unison, either with the church or with the 
world. Is it unnatural for us to assume that if we 
are in sympathy with the world we will O(mform 
ourselves to the customs of the world, and that if 
we are in sympathy wi^h the church we will con- 


form ourselves to the customs of the church? 
Right here the fashionable church member begins 
to twist. His uniform shows him to be on the 
wrong side. He knows that either his attire or his 
profession is inconsistent, and it takes some philos- 
ophizing to explain his position. We call on all 
who have the love of God in their hearts to stand 
out boldly and show their colors. Let us be sure 
that our appearance proves us to be in the right 
column, * 'Actions speak louder than words. " The 
uniform of the church is plainness; that of the 
world is the fashion of the day. 

Some say that they buy their clothing ready- 
made and have little thought as to their appear- 
ance. How easy it is for those persons to present 
a fashionable appearance. Is it the spirit that 
leads that way? If so, what spirit is it? Try those 
persons a little farther. Buy them ready-made 
plain clothing. See how many of them would be 
willing to wear them. 

Some say they want their religion in the heart, 
and not in the clothing. The same reasoning 
would justify dancing, on the ground that there is 
no religion in the feet; it would justify gambling, 
on the ground that there is no religion in cards 
or money; it would justify stealing, on the ground 
that there is no religion in the hands or in the 
stolen goods. Fix it the way you will, the desires 
of the heart rule the actions of the body. The 
body wears what the heart dictates. Let our ac 
tions, our a2:)pearances, our whole being show tv 


the world that we have been transformed from Wm 
world by the renewing of our minds. 

There is another phase to this question. In 
1 Tim. 2:9, 10 and 1 Peter 3:3, 4, the wearmg 
"of gold, or pearls, or costly array" is forbidden in 
so many words. This command is just as em- 
phatic, and much more specific than anything we 
have thus far mentioned. Since the fashions of 
the world are designed to gratify the whims of 
the worldly or carnally- minded people, it is not 
surprising that the apostles would have some 
specific restrictions to make. A careful study of 
these passages will reveal to us the fact that the 
apostles, Peter and Paul, here taught the im- 
portant truth that as spiritually-minded beings we 
should seek to adorn *'the hidden man of the 
heart," rather than our corruptible tenements of 
clay — our physical bodies. 

But some say we must not take this language 
literally, but spiritually. Well, suppose we-siDirit- 
ualize. Can we get any other meaning out of it 
from what the language teaches? We must re- 
member, however, that spiritualizing does not 
necessarily mean a throwing away. Literally, 
this means. Do not adorn yourselves with ' 'gold, or 
pearls, or costly array;" because (to spiritualize) 
it is wrong to wear anything for adornment's sake. 
(Readlsa. 3:16-25.) 

In the light of the Scripture passages already 
alluded to, it is evident that the Bible ])]aces two 
great barriers between us and worldly attire: 

(1) We must not be "conformed to this woi'ld. " 


(2) We must not adorn ourselves with "gold, 
or pearls, or costly array. " These should not be 
regarded as mere church restrictions, or (as some 
seem to regard them) as church impositions ; but 
as Heaven- ordained principles designed to assist 
in maintaining the purity of God's people, and 
their entire separation from the v^orld. They are 
the teaching of the Bible, and why should we 
ignore them? 

We are told that we may go to extremes on 
this question, and so we may. The cause of plain 
attire has been made to suffer, because it has had 
to carry too much of the principle of non-con- 
formity. When we speak of a transformation, we 
speak of an entire separation from the world — a 
total abstinence from all things that corrupt the 
mind and defile the soul. This includes our con- 
versation, our business methods, our personal 
habits, our devotion to God, worldly amusements, 
etc. Along with this comes the uniform in cloth- 
ing. Our attire should show that we have en- 
tirely cast aside the longings after a sinful world, 
and the vanities of a proud heart. We sometimes 
see our brethren clothed in the latest styles in 
everything except the coat collar. This is laying 
a terrible stress upon the coat collar. Sometimes 
we see them decked in the very latest styles, includ- 
ing their broad- cloth coats, chin- scraping collars, 
toothpick shoes, and other garments to suit ; but 
are very scrupulous about the mustache. This is 
laying a terrible stress on the mustache. It is 
just such formalism as this that brings the Bible 


dccmns of simplicity ef attire mic disrspnr*:. 
Such persons lack the first principles of true non- 
conformity. Let them be transformed from this 
world by the renewing of their minds ; let them be 
entirely separated from the world and worldly 
things ; let them loathe the things that are dis- 
pleasing in the sight of God, and these inconsist- 
encies will disappear. They will conform them- 
selves to the customs of spiritually minded people, 
rather than to the customs of the world. Their 
clothing will indicate that they are not devotees 
of fashion. 

Concerning woman's attire we do not know so 
much; but from reports we understand that she 
wears ruf&es, tuckings, laces, ribbons, ornamental 
buttons and pins, whalebones, belts, feathers, friz- 
zes, powders, paints, tight corsets, gold, ] earls, 
rings, diamonds, bows, bouquets, bracelets, hats, 
paddings, bustles, big sleeves, and other things in 
abundance. If this is simplicity in attire, will some 
one please define extravagance? 

In selecting attire, our first concern should be 
to wear nothing which the Bible forbids. Our 
clothing should be plain and inexpensive. Those 
who excuse themselves for wearing jewelry be- 
cause they "never think of what they have on" con- 
fess themselves to be painfully indifferent to the 
light of God's word. The Scriptures tell us to 
"watch." There is a "thus saith the Lord" on the 
question of wearing jewelry (1 Pet. 3:3, 4;1 Tim. 2: 
d, 10), and why should we be so indifferent as not to 
•••'♦'Cf» it? Let our adornment be "the hidden man 


of the heart. " Our second concern should be to 
conform to the customs of the church, and not 
to the customs of the world. As one people, 
we should walk as one body. Our purposes, 
our desires, our hopes, our faith, our appearance, 
our all should be one. Let us stand for a complete 
separation. Let us stand for an entire transform- 
ation. Let us stand as a "peculiar people," show- 
ing by our appearance that we are workers for 

But let us be consistent in these matters. Let 
our loyalty to the principles of plainness and sim- 
plicity of attire be measured, not by the decrees of 
the church, but by the word of God. If we have 
any jewelry about us, let us get rid of it. If the 
texture and cut of our clothes are not in accordance 
with our professions; or, if our clothing does not 
show us to belong to a "peculiar people, " let us 
take the first opportunity to change. Let us not 
dwell on the border. Let us be on one side or the 
other, for in this way only can we be consistent. 

We do not have to confine ourselves to mem- 
bers of churches who have always stood for the 
principle of plain clothing, for testimony concern- 
ing the evils of fashion. The tyranny of the god- 
dess of fashion is lamented by earnest Christian 
workers of all denominations, and well may they 
lament it. Fashion to-day is taxing the last ener- 
gies of our American people to "keep up appear- 
ances. " It is absorbing hundreds of millions of 
dollars that might be devoted to a better cause. It 
is driving the poor away from the churches be- 


cause it is considered a disgrace not to be able to 
appear in fashion. It is sajjping the life-blood 
away from true Christianity and reducing religious 
worship to a form of godliness without its quick- 
ening power. At its shrine are hundreds of thou- 
sands of worshipers who ought to be worshiping 
at the feet of Jesus. 

What is the remedy? Take the Bible. Sepa- 
rate yourselves from the world. Follow the cus- 
toms of godly people. Cut loose from fashion 
plates. Rise up to the Gospel standard, and 
avoid wearing anything for adornment's sake. Let 
the members of all our churches rise up in one 
solid phalanx, transfer their affections from the 
goddess of fashion to the God of heaven, practice 
simplicity and uniformity of attire, and in all other 
respects prove that they are transformed from the 
world by the renewing of their minds. 



" Ye have heard that it hath been said, An 
eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. 

But I say unto you. That ye resist not evil: 
but whosoever shall smite thee on thy rig-ht 
cheek, turn to him the other also. 

.... Love your enemies, bless them that 
curse you, do good to them that hate you, and 
pray for them which despitefuUy use you, and 
persecute you; 

That ye may be the children of your Father 
which is in heaven." Matt. 5: 38, 39, 44, 45. 


Non-resistance means, as the term implies, an 
abstinence from resistance. Why there should be 
any difference among Christian professors as to 
the meaning of the term, or the construction that 
should be placed upon the language just quoted, is 
difficult to understand. The doctrine of peace is 
so inseparably connected with the religion of Jesus, 
that it is difficult to conceive how any professing 
Christian can get the idea that it is right for any 
one under any circumstances to harm his fellow- 
man. How is it possible that a devout follower of 
Him who said, "Love your enemies," should grasp 
carnal weapons with which to shed human blood! 

It is an undisputed fact that Christianity is the 
religion of peace. The prophet Isaiah refers to 
the coming Redeemer as the "Prince of Peace" 


(Isa. 9:6). In Luke 2: 14, the advent of our wSavior 
is thus heralded by the anselic hosts, "Glory to 
God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will 
toward men." Matt. 5:22 gives the judgment of our 
Savior upon the disposition that leads to murder, 
and in Matt. 5:40 He plainly tells us to "resist not 
evil; " that if our enemy smites us on the one cheek 
we should "turn the other also." Add to this the 
testimony found in Matt. 6:15; Jno. 18:36; Rom. 12: 
17; IThess. 5:15; 1 Peter 2:20-24; etc., and you 
have some of the scriptural reasons for believing 
that the whole Gospel is a gospel of peace — peace 
with God, peace with the brotherhood, peace with 
all men. In the light of this array of testimony 
we cannot escape the fact that it is sinful Iv wvou^ 
to harm our fellow-men, either as a private citizen 
or on the field of battle. 


had the reputation of being non-resistant in faith 
and practice. Some historians tell us that at first 
the early Christians adhered to the non-resistant 
doctrines literally; but that they afterward found 
this interpretation to be impractica 1, and later en- 
gaged in carnal warfare when their cause was 
pronounced a "holy" one. The immediate followers 
of our Savior understood His teacliings largely as 
He intended them to be understood. They applied 
them practically. 

As further evidence that our Savior's doctrine 
forbade carnal warfare, we quote from Jno. 11- 
-iT, 4b. 



"What do we? for this man doeth many mir- 
acles. If we let him thus alone, all men will believe 
on him; and the Romans shall come and take away 
both our place and nation. " 

Why come and take away both place and na- 
tion ? It could not have been because the new re- 
ligion would have been more obnoxious to the Ro- 
mans than the Jewish religion was. The fact is 
the Romans paid very little attention to either at 
this time. But the point at issue was this: if aU 
the common people would espouse this plain, inof- 
fensive, defenseless religion, there would be none 
left to resist Roman aggression. Do we not hear 
men reason the same way to-day? 


All through the Bible, the doctrine of brotherly 
love is taught. Christians are to be peaceable, 
meek, kind, charitable. When the soldiers came to 
John the Baptist and asked him what they should 
do, he replied, *' Do violence to no man. " How dif- 
ferent from this advice were the actions of soldiers 
in our late Civil War, when thousands of men came 
to a violent death at the hands of their fellow Chris- 
tian professors, oftentimes members of the same 
church with themselves! 


We oppose war, because it is a barbarous prac- 
tice. Show us a nation that is devoid of civiliza- 
tion, and you will point to a nation that appeals to 
carnal weapons for the settlement of all disputes. 


Murder and anarchy thrive most among savages. 
Here the passions of hatred and vengeance have the 
greatest latitude. Banish these from the human 
heart, and murder and war will cease. The cases 
are very rare where persons, as private citizens or 
as soldiers on the field of battle, have deliberately 
taken the life of their fellow- man, without having 
been stirred by one or both of these passions. 
When men have risen above hatred and vengeance, 
they have uniformly denounced war as cruel, mon- 
strous, unchristian. Who can go upon the field of 
battle, and there behold the mangled, bleeding, 
writhing forms of thousands and say that it was a 
Christian act that caused the carnage! The mod- 
ern move in favor of arbitration is but a general 
concession to the conviction that w.a- is the work 
of savages and not of Christians. 


The conviction that war is the work of barbar- 
ians is not confined to Christians. The testimony 
of the Bible is re-enforced by the testimony of 
thousands of earnest Christian workers, who feel 
that war is incompatible with genuine religion — 
the religion of peace — and this is again re-enforced 
by the testimony of men who have been the very 
authors or instigators of war. 

Napoleon, to whose ambition hundreds of thou- 
sands of lives were sacrificed, knew whereof he 
spake when he said that "war is the business of 
barbarians. " 

Shakespeare reveals the true character of war 
in the lines of Henry V., who in addressing h.s 


troops before the battle says: *'When the blasts 
of war blow in our ears, imitate the action (df the 

Gen. Joseph Hooker once said to a friend who re- 
ferred to many good generals who had felt it to be 
their duiy to engage in war: "The truth is, good 
men cannot be good men and be fighting men. They 
must have the devil in them. To kill one another 
men must have their blood up, and then they are 
just like devils." 


In comparing the Scriptures with the logic of 
apologists for carnal warfare, a few contradictions 
which we cannot fail to notice present themselves. 

1. The Bible says, "Love your enemies;" ad- 
vocates of war say, "Kill your enemies." 

2. The Bible says, *'If thine enemy hunger, 
feed him;" advocates of war say, "To give comfort 
to the enemy is treason." 

3. In our Savior's prayer we read, "Forgive 
us our debts, as we forgive our debtors;" in war we 
forgive the debts of our enemies by shooting them 

4. The Bible says, "Preach the Gospel to 
every creature;" soldiers, on the field of battle, 
send many unsaved souls to eternity without 
even giving them a chance for rei^entance. 

5. The Bible says, "Resist not evil;" the world 
says, "Fight the devil with his own fire. " 

6. The Bible says, *'Thou shalt not kill; killing 
is the principal business of war. 


7. The Bible says, "Lovo your br<'tliren;" it 
often happens that members of the same church 
are engaged in the desperate effort of taking one 
another's lives on the field of battle. 

Notwithstanding these glaring contradictions, 
men continue to advocate war as a heaven-ordained 


The question has been asked, If war is wrong, 
why did God permit the patriarchs of old to 
engage in it? We answer, they were under the 
Old Testament dispensation; we are under the 
New. God used those people as literal examples 
from which we may draw spiritual lessons. But 
for them, we would have no visible evidences that 
God would punish the children of disobedienca 
It was from these visible examples of God's divine 
pleasure, or His divine wrath, that we may know 
how He will deal with us for obedience or dis- 

It must not be inferred, however, that God ever 
took pleasure in these things. 'As I live, saith 
the Lord God, 1 Ir ve no pleasure in the death of 
the wicked" (Ezek. 33:11). God j)ermitted many 
things in those days, not because He found pleas- 
ure in them, not because they were right, but 
because of the wickedness of the peo])le. It was a 
chastisement for them; it is a lesson for us. 

"When Christ came. He restored things to their 
primitive purity. He was sent for this purpose. 
His blood was to be shed as a ransom for our sins; 
His life and His teaching were to i repare for us 


"that narrow way" that leads to everlasting glory. 

"He spoke as one having authority." Hear what 
He says- 

* 'Ye have heard that it was said by them of old 
time, Thou shall not kill; and whosoever shall kiU 
shall be in danger of the judgment. But I say unto 
you, That whosoever is angry with his brother 
without a causp shall be in danger of the judg- 
ment." Matt. 5:21, 22. 

**Ye have heard that it hath been said, An 
eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. But I say 
unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever 
shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him 
the other also. " Matt. 5:38, 39. 

' 'Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou 
shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine enemy. 
But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless 
them that curse you, do good to them that hate 
you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, 
and persecute you; that ye may be the children 
of your Father which is in heaven." Matt. 

"My kingdom is not of this world: if my king- 
dom were of this world, then would my servants 
fight." Jno. 18:36. 

Who can read these words of our Savior, and 
still say that He did not put an end to carnal war- 
fare on the part of God's people? Let our Savior's 
words be heard when we consider a question of 
divine authority. We look to the Old Testament 
as the background of the New, from which we 
draw much valuable instruction and many lessons 


especially applicable to us. We look to the New 
TestameDt as the embodiment of all the teachings 
of the Old which are applicable to us. The correct 
way to get right on the question of non-resistance 
is to ask ourselves the question, "What does 
Christ say about itV" 


The question has often been asked, What would 
become of us if we as a nation -would espouse the 
non-resistant faith? We ask, What became of 
Pennsylvania while the non-resistant policy of 
William Penn w^as in force? By some mysterious 
providence, which human wisdom cannot explain, 
the conscienceless king of England dealt justly 
with the peaceful Penn; the Indians were capti- 
vated by his rigid honesty, his open-heartedness, 
and his practical Chi-istianity; and the colony 
remained prosperous and happy, while the neigh- 
boring colonies were suffering from civil strife 
and Indian wars. 

What God did for Pennsylvania, He can do for 
any state or nation. If He was powerful enough 
to call us into existence. He is powerful enough to 
care for us when we obey His teachings. 

Here we desire to call attention to the lack of 
faith on the part of many persons. They recog- 
nize that war is contrary to the teachings of the 
Gospel; but they are afraid of the consequences, 
should their faith be put into practice. What has 
God done or neglected to do that they should thus 
lose faith in His ])ower to sustain His word? Has 


not His superiority over man been shown time and 
again? Why should we then doubt His willingness 
and His power to make good His promise that He 
would care for His own? To all who believe in the 
non-resistant principle as taught by our Savior 
and His disciples, we would recommend this text, 
''Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his right- 
eousness; and all these things shall be added unto 
you. " 


a thief were to enter your house for the purpose 
of robbing you, or a number of them were to ' 'hold 
you up" some dark night for the same purpose, 
what would you do? We do not know. Different 
people would act differently under such circum- 
stances. Some would scream, some would beg, 
some would try to run away, some would take it 
coolly, while some would offer resistance. What- 
ever people might do under such circumstances 
does not affect John the Baptist's advice, "Do 
violence to no man, " our Savior's advice, "Resist 
not evil,'" or the apostle Paul's advice, "Overcome 
evil with good. " If we were to act according to 
divine command, we would take these advices. 
Just w^hat people would do, is another question. 
We know of tw^o cases like this, which we shall 
relate, and let the reader judge which cjurse was 

1. Some forty or fifty years ago there lived in 
the state of Pennsylvania, county of Juniata, a 
prosperous farmer. One night, three robbers en- 
tered his house. Though he had espoused the non- 


resisiant faith, he so far forgot iiimself as to reacii 
for his gun. That proved to be liis fatal mistake. 
In less than ten minutes he was a corpse. 

2. A minister in one of the Eastern States was 
on his way one night to fill an appointment, when 
he was halted by some robbers. The first thing 
they demanded was his money. He spoke very 
kindly to them, reached down in his pocket, 
and gave them a few bills, telling them this 
was all he had. During all this time, he was 
sending to the throne of grace a fervent but silent 
prayer. So gentle, so Christ- like was his conduct, 
that the robbers soon began to treat him more 
gently, and when they were convinced that he 
had no more money, they let him go. He had not 
proceeded far, however, when he remembered that 
he had some money in another pocket. He turned 
around, called the robbers to him, and informed 
them that he had made a mistake; that he had 
some money in another pocket, and asked their 
forgiveness for telling them a falsehood. The rob- 
bers were so struck with this Christ-like ^ction, 
that they not only refused to take the money, but 
handed back the money they had taken away from 
him. He then told them of his appointment, and 
invited them to attend. After some reluctance 
they promised him that they would. They kept 
this promise, and their conversion followed. The 
fi rst of these stories we know to be correct. The 
si'cond, we have on good authority. 

What should we do under such circumstances? 
Take Jesus at His word, and let our "light shine. " 


Whatever may be our circumstances, let us trust 
our heavenly Father when He says, **I will never 
leave thee nor forsake thee. " 


Some have tried to justify carnal warfare by 
saying that the teachings of our Savior on this 
subject refer to individuals, and not to nations. 
CJorrect; but are not nations composed of individ- 
uals? We are personally responsible for our own 
actions, whether we are working as individuals 
or in the employ of our country. When we are en- 
gaged in the unscriptural work of taking the lives 
of our fellow-beings, it matters not whether we 
are working alone, or whether there are ten 
thousand other men engaged in the same work. 
Deliberately taking the lives of our fellow-men is 
murder, even if it is done on an extensive and 
systematic scale. As free moral agents, we have 
the choice between right and wrong. Those who 
pretend to believe that in war it is the nation and 
not the individual that does the killing, never fail 
to assert themselves as individuals when it comes 
to drawing their pay. We never lose our in- 


Some people, while admitting that the Gospel 
is a gospel of peace, justify themselves in grasp- 
ing carnal weapons on the ground that the apos- 
tles command us to be subject to principalities 
and powers, to obey magistrates, etc. It is clear 
that we should be subject to the government 
under which we live. But while we should "ren- 


der imto Caesar the things which be Cassar's, "' we 
should also "render unto God the things which be 
God's." When a law of God and a law of our 
country conflict, we should not hesitate in our 
loyalty to God. It was the failure to violate the 
commands of God by adhering to certain laws of 
state that brought our Savior to the cross, the 
apostles to prison and to death, and thousands of 
holy martyrs to the stake. In all such cases we 
should heed the advice of the apostles: ''We should 
obey God rather than man. " 


Those who profess to espouse the non-resist- 
ant doctrine should be consistent in their pro- 
fessions. It is very inconsistent for such persons 
to assume the role of "calamity howler.". It is 
sometimes the case that professed defenseless 
Christians stir up the minds of people by chronic 
grumbling, and ill-advised criticisms on the gov- 
ernment, corporations, etc. Such agitations have 
a tendency to create a feeling of discontent. A 
constant feeling of discontent, in course of time, 
breeds war. When war comes such persons put 
on a long, sanctimonious face, and say, "Oh no! I 
never fight. I believe in non-resistance." Vile 
hypocrites! They helped to create the sentiment 
that brought on the war, and now refuse to help 
those out whom they got into trouble. Let it be 
remembered that non-resistance is much more far- 
reaching than a refusal to go to war. 



Non-resistance is not a mere policy upon which 
church doctrine is founded. It is a living, Chris- 
tian principle that shapes our lives, public and 
private. It makes the Christian peaceable in his 
home, in church, in society, in business circles. 
It restrains him from abusing his family, being 
overbearing in his dealings with his fellow-man, 
indulging in ill-natured criticisms of any kind, 
engaging in violent political discussions, murmur- 
ing against his government, and resisting by car- 
nal means evil of any kind. Let no one use this 
subject as a topic for partisan purposes. But let 
it be considered .as a deep underlying Christian 
principle that transforms us into meek, peaceable, 
unassuming followers of the meek and lowly man 
of Nazareth. 


Christians should 

1. Love their enemies. (Matt. 5:44). 

2. Resist not evil. (Matt. 5:39). 

3. Never be overbearing. (Eph. 4:32). 

4. Return good for evil. (Rom. 12:21). 

5. Avoid disputes of all kinds. (Titus 3 : 9). 

6. Never take part in machine politics. (2 Cor. 
6:14, 17). 

7. Be peaceable at all times. (Rom. 12 : 18). 

8. Have kind feelings toward all men. (Matt. 
5:44; Luke 10:27). 

9. Apply the Golden Rule at all times. (Mcitt. 


10. Never resent an insult by tryins: to "get 
even." (Rom. 12:19). 

11. Hide themselves when they cannot control 
their temper. (Eph. 4:31). 

12. Be satisfied with their lot, and not agonize 
too much over ''hard times." (Phil. 4: 11). 

13. Never grasp carital weapons for offensive 
or defensive warfare. (Matt. 5:39; Matt. 26:52). 

14. Be in subjection to their government so 
long as they are not called upon to do anything 
contrary to the Bible. (Rom. 13:1; Acts 5:29). 



"Again, ye have heard tTiat it hath been 
said by them of old time, Thou shalt not for 
swear thyself, but shalt perfoim unto the 
Lord thine oaths: 

But I say unto you, Swear not at all; 
neither by heaven ; for it is Ciod's throne : 

Nor by the earth; -for it is his footstool: 
neither by Jerusalem ; for it is the city of the 
great King". 

Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, be- 
cause thou canst not make one hair white or 

But let your communication be. Yea, yea; 
Nay, nay : for whatsoever is more than these 
Cometh of evil." Matt. 5:33-37. 


Thus spoke our Savior in His memorable 
Sermon on the Mount. He was instructing His 
followers in the doctrines of the kingdom of 
heaven. In olden times it had been the custom 
of the people to bind their promises or covenants 
with an oath. These oaths were performed "unto 
the Lord," and generally in good faith. But now 
comes our Savior and says, "Swear not at all." 
What does this mean? It means what it says. It 
is one of the things which our Savior came to rec- 
tify. It means that under the New Testament 
dispensation we are not to use the oath under any 
circumstances. The language "Swear not at all " 


could not have been more emphatic ; and the 
enumeration of things by which we are not to 
swear, forever banishes the idea that we are justi- 
fied, under certain circumstances, to use the oath. 

To make this still more emphatic, James fol- 
lows in the same line. He says: "But above all 
things, my brethren, swear not, neither by 
heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any 
other oath: but let your yea be yea ; and your nay, 
nay; lest ye fall into condemnation." Jas. 5:12. 

"Neither by any other oath." Swearing, then, 
is absolutely forbidden. The two passages of 
Scripture already quoted make this matter so very 
plain as not to admit of any doubt. 


1. Obedience to the Gospel requires it. Our 
Savior says, "Swear not at all." That should be 
enough for every obedient child of God. Men may 
evolve what may appear to them good reasons for 
taking the oath ; but ' 'great men are not always 
wise." A "thus saith the Lord" should settle all 
questions for all time to come. God knows best. 

2. The reason implied in our Savior's lan- 
guage, when He forbade the oath, seems to be 
that we have no dominion over the things by which 
we would swear. Heaven is the throne of God, 
the earth is His footstool, Jerusalem is His great 
city, and we have not even the power to change 
the color of a single hair on our heads. It is out 
of place, therefore, for us to arrogate to ourselves 
the authority of invoking the power of Al- 
mighty God, or heaven, or earth, or any other 


thing*, to bind us to the truth of what we are say- 
ing, when we know that all this is beyond our 
power. We should stay within our sphere. Let 
our communication be simple. It is the evidence 
of the Christian's trust. 

3. Even if we had this power, it is not pleas- 
ing in the sight of God to have us bound by 
solemn oaths. Christ came to make us free. As 
free men in Christ Jesus, our communications 
should be "Yea, yea; Nay, nay; for whatsoever is 
more than these cometh of evil." When Chris- 
tians speak, we hear the truth. Bondage belongs 
to the world. 


The most uncalled-for and unnatural form of 
swearing is profanity. To be made a by- word by 
our fellow-beings is humiliating to us. Especially 
Is this the case when we have befriended those 
who hold us in contempt. What shall we say, 
then, of the sin of those who profane the name of 
God, the great Heavenly Friend, who has done 
ten thousand times more for them than any earthly 
friend they have? It is a contemptible thing for 
a boy to show disrespect to his father. It is ten 
thousand times more contemptible for any one to 
show irreverence to our heavenly Father. There 
is nothing too low for a profane man. The com- 
mon pride of man may restrain him from Suoaling, 
murdering, etc. ; but fear of being found out is all 
that restrains the vicious. Profanity is the ebul- 
lition of a shell filled with corruption. May God 
be merciful to every one in this condition. 


Closely allied with profanity is the habit, more 
common among respectable people, of usin^ 
** wooden oaths." As examples of this form of 
swearing we may mention such expressions as 
*'dog-gone," "by jingoes," "plague-on," "by 
gosh," "gee whiz," etc. The difference between 
this and profanity is simply a matter of degree. 
It is profanity with a little of the wickedness left 
out. It is swearing by something fictitious instead 
of something real, which distinguishes it from 
real swearing. God pity the man that falls into 
the habit of using "by- words." Their use is 
unscriptural for two reasons: (1) it is a form of 
swearing ; (2) they are idle words without force or 
good sense. 


Should Christians swear in court? No ; for our 
Savior's command is, "Swear not at all. " 

Some say that there is no difference between 
the oath and the affirmation. Such persons are 
either insincere or honestly mistaken. In the 
affirmation there is no appeal to God to bind us to 
the truth ; nor is there any "I do solemnly swear" 
at the beginning. The affirmation is a simple 
statement without lifting the hand or making any 
appeal to God, with the understanding that we 
know the consequences in case we fail to tell the 
truth. The oath is appealing to or swearing by a 
higher power. Strip the oath of the raising of 
the hand and of the expressions, "I do solemnly 
swear, "and "so help me God," and you have an 


It is claimed by some apparently devout men that 
a solemn oath before God will produce impressions 
upon us that nothing else will. That may be so, 
but it does not change the fact that God-fearing 
people need no oath to bind them to the truth, 
while godless men seldom have enough veneration 
for God to respect an oath after they have taken it ; 
nor do we consider the thought weighty enough 
to justify us in violating our Savior's command, 
' 'Swear not at all. " The judgment of man crumbles 
when it conflicts with the will of God. It is claimed 
by some that our Savior did not forbid swearing 
before magistrates. Where do they get their 
authority for making this claim? Is it possible 
to swear in courts or any other place and at the 
same time "swear not at all"? This claim may 
seem very wise ; but it does not bear the light of 
God's word. 

It is gratifying to know that the laws of our 
country contain provisions for those who cannot 
conscientiously take the oath. Our right to go 
before magistrates and tell what we know without 
binding ourselves over to something we have no 
right to, is guaranteed by both state and national 
laws. It is not necessarry to raise our hands 
before God, and swear by Him that we will tell 
the truth, but we have the privilege, without 
uplifted hands, simply to afSrm that we will teU 
what we know. Of course, if we fail to tell the 
truth, we are held liable to the same penalties as if 
we had violated an oath. This is as it should be. A 
person who professes to be possessed with so 

224 BIHLK DOCTlliNivS. 

much piety that ho cannot conscientiously take 
the oatli, and then wilfully tells what he knows to 
be false, is certainly not worthy of any special 


It has often been asked why we are so stren- 
uous on this subject. We answer, we are not any 
more strenuous than Christ. When the Bible 
absolutely forbids the oath under any circum- 
stances, why should we seek to compromise? No; 
let us stand for Gospel truth — not boastingly, 
not arrogantly, but meekly. God speed the day 
when all the professed followers of our Lord Jesus 
Christ will heed His command on this subject, and 
"swear not at all," showing forth such holy lives 
that their *'yea" and *'nay" will be known as the 
truth without the addition of the forbidden oath I 


"And if any man will sue thee at the law, 
and take away thy coat, let him have thy 
cloak also." Matt. 5:40. 


The non-resistant principles which Christians 
are enjoined to live up to are nowhere more clearly 
and forcibly taught than in the Sermon on the 
Mount. Among other things, our Savior uses 
this language: "And if any man will sue thee at 
the law, and take away thy coat, let him have 
thy cloak also. " 

This is in marked contrast with the actions 
of carnal man. He teaches resentment; Christ 
teaches forbearance. The carnal man says, "Pay 
a man back in his own coin; Christ says, "Do good 
to them that hate you." The carnal man says, 
"Do not let a man run over you. Give an inch 
and he will take an ell;" Paul says, "Be not 
overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good." 

The true character of a Christian never shines 
more brightly than in times of oppression. It is not 
difficult to act Christ- like when all runs smoothly; 
but when our patience is tried by indignities and 
injustices heaped upon us by our fellow-man, and 
we still bear up with the calm, cheerful heart of the 
Christian, it is then that we exert a power that 


can be exercised at no other time. The world 
refuses to acknowledt^e Christians as bein^ better 
than themselves, until they aru forced to reco*^nize 
in Christians superior traits of character. 

Bein^ born into the world, we are compelled to 
use the world, and to deal with worldly-minded 
people. It is reasonable to expect that at times 
there may be misunderstandings. When the per- 
son with whom we have the misunderstanding is 
dishonest, and bent on taking advantage of our 
non-resistant faith, the situation becomes very 
unpleasant. What is to be done? Stand the 
o})poser a suit; or let him have his way, and then 
go home and say mean things about him? Neither. 


Above all things, be fair and generous. Perhaps 
you yourself are partly to blame. You may have 
asked too much for yourself; or, perhaps, you may 
have said harsh things to or about your adversary, 
that aroused his meanness. So far as it lies within , 
your power, remove the cause of the difficulty. 
Make it evident that you are sorry for any wrong 
you may have done him. Show that you are will- 
ing to do your full share and much more besides. 
Do this, not only because, for policy's sake, you 
want to get out of the difficulty; bui because you 
want to heed your Savior's admonition, ''Love 
your enemy." If you have not this spirit within 
you, get down on your knees until you have it 
Make him propositions that he cannot fail to s^>e 
are fair in every respect, and appeal to his man- 
hcxKl to accept them. Make him feel that in his 


efforts to crush you, he is endeavoring to crush his 
friend. The cases are rare in which an adversary, 
under such circumstances, cannot be overcome. 
It is the Christian way of overcoming evil with 
good. If it is impossible for you to comply 
with his requirements — if good will and personal 
pleadings and self-sacrifices and offers to arbitrate 
and all other means at your disposal avail nothing 
— throw yourself upon the mercy of the courts 
and abide by their decision. 

As before stated, the cases are very rare in 
which Christians need have anything to do with 
lawsuits. We believe that we may safely say that 
out of one hundred lawsuits in which Christian 
professors engage, either as defendant or plaintiff, 
they are at least partly to blame in ninety-nine of 

Now do not say that the course which we have 
just suggested is impractical. It is scriptural, 
and nothing that is scri[;tural is impractical. Let 
Christians adhere to the gospel principle of 
returning good for evil, and ever remember that 
God will steer them safely over the fitful waters 
of life's surging sea, if they will only ask His 
guidance and trust Him in all things. Even from 
a natural standpoint the course herein advised is a 
Avise one. A certain man within our knowledge, 
who had no conscientious scruples about going to 
law, once said that he would always rather give 
up a hundred dollars than to stand a lawsuit. In 
the great majority of legal proceedings to settle 
financial differences both sides are losers. It 


frequently happens that men rusli into law ov(n- 
trifles, and spend large fortunes before they give 
up the conflict. Why should we waste these large 
sums of money, and stir up feuds that will embitter 
the remainder of our lives (to say nothing of 
eternity) when Christ-like actions on our part 
might i^revent it all? 


Be fair in all your dealings. Apply the Golden 
Rule to yourself as well as to ethers. Be willing 
to take an injury, and never resent an insult. 
Be honest, courteous, gentlemanly, neighborly. 
When your neighbor has harmed you in any way, 
do not go off and pout about it; but if the offense 
is great enough, go to him and see if a reconcilia- 
tion cannot be effected. If your efforts in 'this 
direction fail, quietly withdraw yourself from him, 
and let him have his way. But will not this 
course encourage others to impose upon you? Not 
often. The effect is generally the reverse. People 
admire Christian virtues, even when they them- 
selves do not possess them. Defenseless and in- 
offensive Christians are sometimes mistreated; but 
it is seldom that they are without friends. Their 
Christian love enables them to glory in tribulation, 
and the unpleasant feelings brought about by a 
revengeful spirit are entirely wanting. God cares 
for His own. 

If, at any time, it is impossible to agree in your 
dealings with some fellow-man, submit your case 
to arbitration. A number of disinterested and 
intelligent men are more liable to come to a just 


conclusion after the facts have been stated by both 
sides, than a jury can after the facts have been 
twisted by a small army of lawyers. 

The great secret in keeping out of lawsuits is 
to exercise a Christian spirit toward all men, and 
to be thoroughly conscientious in all your dealings 
with them. One-sided quarrels are very rare. 


The most inexcusable lawsuits are those in 
which both parties are professing Christians. 
There is no excuse whatever for any suit of this 
kind. The glaring inconsistencies of such an 
action are nowhere more vehemently exposed than 
in Paul's writings to the Corinthians. We quote 
from 1 Cor. 6:5-8. 

''I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is 
not a wise man among you? no, not one that shall 
be able to judge between his brethren? But brother 
goeth to law with brother, and that before the 
unbelievers. Now therefore there is utterly a 
fault among you, because ye go to law one with 
another. Why do ye not rather take wrong? Why 
do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be defrauded? 
Nay, ye do wrong, and defraud, and that your 
brethren. " 


Christians should not go to law, because 

1. It is contrary to Matt. 5: 40 and 1 Cor. 6: 1-8. 

2. It is contrary to the Bible doctrine of re- 
turning good for evil. 

3. It is unnecessary. 

4. It always produces bad feelings. 

5. As a rule, both sides are losers. 


"Men lovefl darkness rather than li^ht, be- 
cause their deeds were evil." Jno. 3: 19. 


The professed object of secret societies is to 
serve some benevolent or reformatory purpose. 
The good that has professedly been accomplished 
by these organizations has been heralded far and 
wide. The membership in these orders includes 
some of the most honored citizens of our country, 
among them ministers of the Gospel. Yet, in the 
presence of all these facts, it may still be possible 
that these societies are not for the best. Indeed, 
so pronounced and so numerous are the reasons 
why Christian people should hold aloof from 
them, that we feel constrained to discuss some of 


Let us notice, in the first place, that the 
fundamental principle of these societies — secrecy 
— is contrary to the spirit of the Gospel. Our 
Savior's first admonition to His disciples is for 
them to let their light shine (Matt. 5:17). That 
He Himself worked openly in all things is evident 
from His testimony, "In secret have I said noth- 
ing" (Jno. 18:20). Eph. 5:11 commands us to 
"have no fellowship with the unfruitful work.s of 


darkness; for it is a shame even to speak of 
those things which are done of them in secret" 
(v. 12). Again, in Jno. 8:19, oui' Savior puts the 
stamp of disapproval upbn secrecy when He says, 
''Men loved darkness rather than light, because 
their deeds were evil. " All these references are in 
harmony with the doctrine which our Savior 
teaches, when He says, "Men do not light a can- 
dle and ])ut it under a bushel" (Matt. 5: 15). There 
is no logic in hiding any worthy cause from pub- 
lic gaze. Public inspection can not hurt it. Our 
Savior wants His disciples to be just like Himself 
— free and open, ready at any time to "give a 
reason for the hope that is within. " 

Apologists for secret organizations say that 
the fact that an organization is founded on secrecy 
is not proof positive that its design is evil. Per- 
haps not; but we know that evil designs are al- 
most always concocted in secret, and the Bible 
commands us to avoid even "the appearance of 
evil. " There is no weight in the argument, that 
because all organizations at times feel called upon 
to deal with certain matters secretly, secret or- 
ganizations are therefore justifiable; for it is one 
thing to keep an occasional secret for a limited 
time, and quite another thing to make secrecy 
the fundamental principle of the organization. 
In tead of imitating evil-doers by hiding our deeds 
under the cloak of secrecy, we should imitate our 
Savior's example, and follow His advice in letting 
our "lights shine.'' 



We cannot consent to become members of any 
secret order, because the first pledge is eternal 
secrecy concerning thin^^s that may be revealed. 
A])plicants liave no choice in the matter. They 
cannot examine the inner workings of the order, 
and then make a deliberate choice of their own. 
They must go into it blindly, and trust to later de- 
velopments as to whether the society is worth 
joining or not. 

They become accomplices to all that is good oi 
bad before they know a thing about it. Organizers 
pretend to explain the workings of the orders: 
but not a single secret is revealed. Masons pre- 
tend to prepare their applicants for the ' 'sublime 
fellowship" of Masons; but how much of the inner 
workings of the society do they reveal? Notwith- 
standing all the assertions to the contrary, it is a 
fact that the only thing that applicants can do is 
to close their eyes and blindly accept anything 
and everything that may be revealed to or im- 
posed upon them. 


We object to secret societies because theii 
members are bound away from their families and 
their churches (if they belong to any) in oath- 
bound organizations. This is objectionable for 
several rea.sons. 

1. The oath is strk'thj . forbidden in the Bible 
(Matt. 5:33-37; Jas. 5:12). It is claimed that 
some of these organizations do not require an 


f)ath, but simiDly a solemn promise. Let us ex- 
amine this "solemn in^omise." The latter part of 
it, as in the regular oath, is an appeal to Almighty 
God to hold them to their promise. What is that 
but an oath? "Let your communication be Yea, 
yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these 
Cometh of evil. " 

'2. Christians have no right to allow themselves to 
he bound away from their church by any other or- 
<jani':ation. They owe their first allegiance to God, 
and have no right to make the institution which 
He has instituted of secondary importance. 

3. Destruction of home life is one of the most 
baneful influences of these societies. How many 
of our homes are deprived of the head of the 
family in this way! The men are out on their 
farms or in their places of business in day-time, 
and spend their evenings in lodges or club rooms. 
Thus the husband and father, who might other- 
wise make home cheerful and impress its attrac- 
tiveness upon his growing children by conversa- 
tion, or reading, or useful instruction, wastes his 
opportunities and neglects the interests of his 
wife and children, by associating with men as self- 
ish as himself. Weaken the ties of home, and you 
weaken the life blood of our race. A truly great 
and prosperous nation is composed of people who 
enjoy the advantages of well regulated homes. A 
sure w^ay to destroy the morality and integrity of 
our people is to destroy the influence of home. A 
sure way to destroy the influence of home is to 
fill the husband's mind with secrets which he dare 

234 BIBLE D<3( TPwlXES. 

not reveal even to his wife, who should be his 
contidant iu all things. Upon the subject of w^otii- 
en's secret societies, we forbear. They are simply 


We object to secret societies, because Christ 
has no place in the lodge-room. They are per- 
fectly consistent in this, since their membership 
consists of Christians, Jews, Mormons, Moham- 
medans, heathens, and worldlings of every de- 
scription. It would be rather monotonous not to 
have some form of worship; so they unite on 
some being whom they can all consistently recog- 
nize as God; something like *'Mah-hah-bone. "' 
But will this do? No; for Christ says, 'T and the 
Father are one. " There is no God save God the 
Father of Jesus Christ. Free Masons pretend to 
claim that Christ was an eminent Mason; but if He 
was it is evident that the organization has woefully 
degenerated since His time. It could not have 
been a secret organization, for Christ Himself tes- 
tified that "In secret have I said nothing." Nor is 
it reasonable to presume that Christ would have 
given His adherence to an organization that re- 
fused to recognize Him as the Son of God. Since 
Christ is ignored in the lodge-room, it follows 
that those lodges are non-christian organizations. 
How Christians can satisfy themselves to feel at 
home in an oath-bound, non-christian organiza- 
tion is difficult to understand. 


Another serious objection to Christians belong- 
ing to secret societies is the fact that there Ihey 


must of necessity be '^yoked together with unbe- 
lievers." It is the boast of members of secret or- 
ders that there is a much closer union among them 
than there is among members of the same church. 
On examining an ordinary lodge, it is found to con- 
sist of Christians, infidels, Jews, Buddhists, and 
what not, all bound together in one fraternity, all 
having common desires and common aspirations. 
That their worship is a farce is evident from the 
fact that infidels sometimes act as chaplain. The 
minister of the Gospel on Sunday denounces the 
ways of certain sinners, and the next week fel- 
lowships them in the lodges as "brethren." 
How can he do otherwise? for being yoked together 
with them, he has his choice between being satis- 
fied with them or himself leaving the lodge. How 
can Christians be a light to sinners and point them 
to a higher life, when as "brethren" they are 
bound together with them on a common level? We 
call on all Christians who are contaminated with 
these lodges to "come out from among them" and 
be separate; to "have no fellowship with the un- 
fruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove 
them; " to "be not unequally yoked together with 
unbelievers;" but to become "unspotted from the 


There is a great blowing of trumpets concern- 
ing the charitable deeds of these organizations. 
We would not rob them of one single laurel. We 
admit that many a person, through their agency, 
has been relieved of temporal want. But even this, 


tlieir most coniinondable feature, is open to seri- 
ous criticisms. 

Tlie tirst objection we have to offer asrainst 
this kind of charity is that it favors the rich 
and strong against the poor and weak. To 
illustrate: A and B are neighbors. A owns a 
line home, is out of debt, has a small family, 
is well educated, and in every way able to take 
care of himself. B is a renter, is very poor, him- 
self and family sickly, and hardly able to keep out 
of the poor house. Thoy both apply for admission 
into the lodge. There is no doubt as to the result. 
A is accepted while B is rejected. How vastly dif- 
ferent is this kind of charity from that which the 
Bible teaches! Besides, there are countless in- 
stances on record where deserving persons have 
been discriminated against because they did not 
happen to belong to some secret order. If these 
secret orders are really charitable institutions let 
these objectionable features be removed. 

Let us consider this question a little farther. 
Under the sruise of charity, many fraternal orders 
attach an insurance policy to each membership. 
When we remember how many widows have thus 
been relieved from want, we feel inclined to ap- 
lu'ove the plan; but a closer examination relieves 
it of its bright side. 

If there are any agencies at work that tend to 
place our country upon a pauper basis, this is one 
of them. Take the average farmer, for example. 
He has his taxes to pay, his farm to keej) up, his 
stock to feed, his family to sup]iort, aiid oftentimes 


an overhanging debt and doctor bill. Add to this 
his expenses in keeping np his lodge membership, 
and insurance polic}^, and he must exert all his en- 
ergies to make his income equal his expenses. 
When crops are light, or prices low, his poverty 
increases. Is there any wonder why so many people 
are getting poorer? And then to think of the money 
that is uselessly si)ent in keeping up lodge-rooms, 
high- salaried officers, organizers, lecturers, books, 
papers, agents, etc., and we are fully convinced 
that this charity is not what is claimed for it. After 
all, the best charity is that in which the sacrifice is 
made direct, and not in a round-about way. 

Just another illustration to siiow up the • 'char- 
ity" of secret orders, and its results. A is a prom- 
inent minister in some popular church. B is a poor 
neighbor belonging to his congregation. C is an- 
other poor neighbor who is a brother- member in 
his lodge. Now it happens that both B and C be- 
come penniless, and must have outside help or 
go to the j)oor house. According to the obligations 
brother A has taken upon himself, he helps his 
brother in the lodge, but lets his brother in the 
church go to the poor house. 

"Just what we have contended for," says a 
member of the lodge; "it shows that the lodge is 
ahead of the church. " Just where you are wrong, 
friend Lodgeman; it shows what a miserable plight 
the secret orders have brought the popular churches 
into. Churches that stand out against secret so- 
cieties, take care of their own members. They 
recognize that the body of Christ is broad enough 


for all purposes. While the Bible tells us "to do 
good to all men, especially they that are of the 
household of faith, " the lodges bind their church- 
member members to forsake the interests of those 
•'that are of the household of faith, " that they may 
see to the interests of their "brothers in the lodge. " 
We readily admit that secret orders are ahead of 
the churches under the charge of such ministers as 
the "brother A" of our illustration, but we fail to 
see in this a reason why Christians should suffer 
themselves to be bound to an organization which 
encourages them to neglect the interests of their 
own members for the sake of oth^^rs. How can a 
minister consistently advise his hearers to seek 
"first the kingdom of God, and his righteous- 
ness" when he himself makes the earthly home of 
this kingdom secondary to a non-chi-istian organ- 
ization? ''O consistency, thou art a jewel!" 


"We object to secret societies because they are the 
promoters of many false notions of religion. We 
have already referred to the fact that infidels some- 
times act as chaplain. A Mason says that a good 
Mason is a good enough Christian. Thousands of 
Masons risk their chances of salvation on Masonry. 
Who has not heard ministers who were also 
Masons eulogize some departed and unconverted 
Masonic brother as one who now enjoys existence 
in the "grand lodge above" ? 

But what is there in Masonry thai makes it so 
grand? Let us consider the testimony of one who 
should know. The following is taken from a ser- 


mon recently delivered in a western city, and given 
as the 


"Brother Senior Deacon, you will retire and as- 
certain what work there is in waiting." 

He finds the Rev. John Smith in waiting, a 
preacher, a minister of the Gospel. 

The Senior Deacon comes in. He finds John Smith 
in waiting, and of course the Rev. John Smith 
needs not pay any fee. Ministers are initiated for 
nothing in order to get their influence. Jesus said: 
"The children of this world are, in their genera- 
tion, wiser than the children of light." 

He goes in and makes his report: 

"Worshipful Master, I find in waiting the Rev. 
John Smith, to receive the first degree of Ma- 
sonry. " 

"Brother Junior Deacon, you will take with 
you the Stewards, retire, prepare and present the 
Rev., John Smith for the first degree in Masonry. 
Brother Senior Deacon, you will cross the hall, 
take charge of the door and attend to all alarms. " 

John Smith is out in the anteroom, and these 
three go out to prepare him. 

' ' Where were you first prepared to be made a 

"In my heart." 

Now, who prepared him to be a Mason in his 
heart? I believe it was the devil. 

"Where next?" 

"In a room adjacent to a regularly constituted 
Lodge of Masons. " 


''How were you prepared?" etc. 

These questions you must learn, if you are to 
be a Mason, in order to pass through the first to 
the second degree. 

The Junior D«!acon goes out. 

He says : "Will you please take off your coat?" 

"Will you i)lease take off your shoes and stock- 

"Will you please take off your vest and neck- 

"Please take off your pantaloons." 

Oh, men of America! You are ruled by Ma- 
sonry. Away back in the days of Jeremiah God 
made use of these wonderful words: 

"A wonderful and horrible thing is committed 
in the land ; the prophets prophesy falsely, and 
the priests bear rule by their means ; and my 
people love to have it so; and what will ye do in 
the end thereof?" Jer. 5:30, ;]1. 

Is it not as true of the United States to-day as it 
was in the days of Jeremiah? 

They take off his clothes. 

His wife is at home. His mother is at hom(\ 
The poor old woman that nursed him on her 
knees, and encircled him at her bosom ; the mother 
that loves him, and the wife that adores him ; there 
is John Smith up in the cock-loft in the highest 
story of the building with his clothes off, standing 
there before the infidels of Masonry, and you tell me 
the church is asleep. You tell me that spirituality 
has left the church of the Lord Jesus Christ. Is 
it anv wonder? 


The wonder to me is that it is not worse, and 
but for the mercy of God alone, it would be worse 
and swamped by this thins^ called Freemasonry. 

Mr. Smith puts on a pair of drawers, on which 
there must be no iron buttons. 

They bring out a hoodwink and fasten it over 
his eyes. They get a rope called a cable- tow and 
put it once around his neck ; they put a slipper on 
his right foot with the heel slipshod ; they roll the 
left leg of his drawers up above his knee ; roll the 
left sleeve of his shirt up above the elbow. The 
left breast is exposed. 

Look at John Smith, and then mark what is 
said concerning him. 

"There he stands Avithout our portals on the 
threshold of his new Masonic life, in darkness, 
helplessness, and ignorance. Having been wan- 
dering amid the errors and covered over with the 
pollutions of the outward and profane world, he 
comes inquiringly to our doors seeking the new 
birth, and asking a withdrawal of the veil which 
conceals Divine Truth from the uninitiated sight. " 
— Manual of the Lodge, by Mackay, p. 20. 

What errors has he been wandering in? Is he 
not a minister? 

These infidels say he has been wandering amid 
the errors and covered over with the pollutions of 
the outer and profane world, and that he. is now 
coming inquiringly to the doors of Masonry seek- 


We remember what is said in the third chapter 
of John. Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews, came 


at niprht and spoke to the Lord Jesus. The Lord 
replied: "Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except 
a man bo born again, he cannot see the kmgdom 
of God." 

You may be members of the church ; you may 
have youi' name on the church roll ; but if you are 
not born again, you might as well be in a Masonic 
Lodge so far as your salvation is concerned, be- 
cause you must be born again. 

The devil knows that, and he says: "I am 
going to establish a system of religion that will 
cause men to be born again;" so he starts up 

John Smith is now prepared for the ''New 
Birth. " But he is actually not prepared for any- 
thing. He is not prepared to tell the truth. He 
would not go home and tell his wife that he was in 
the Masonic Lodge m the condition I have de- 
scribed if she would ask him ; he would deny all 
the details. If she would ask if the exposure that 
Ucmayne gave twenty years ago is true, he would 
say, *'No." 

No man can be an honest Mason and' tell the 

John Smith now goes into the Masonic Lodge, 
stands in the door- way; goes first to the door, 

"Who comes here?" 

Tl;e Junior Deacon answers: 

"The Kev. John Smith, who has long been in, 
darkness and now seeks to be brought to tb.e 


This is a serious matter. Christian people 
ought to go with bowed heads, and bowed hearts, 
and downcast eyes on their knees and pray: 

* 'Oh Father, blessed God, we come to Thee in 
the name of the Lord Jesus Christ to ask Thee in 
Thy infinite mercy to open the eyes of these de- 
luded men that they may see the truth; that the 
Holy Spirit's power may carry the truth to their 
hearts, and that instead of seeing Hiram murdered 
they may see the Lord Jesus Christ lifted up. " 

"Who comes here?" 

"The Rev. John Smith, who has long been in 
darkness and who now seeks to be brought to 
light, and to receive a part in the rights and bene- 
fits of this Worshipful Lodge, erected to God, and 

dedicated to the Saints , as all brothers and 

fellows have done before. " 

"Mr. Smith, is this of your own free will and 

"It is." 

"Brother Junior Deacon, is the candidate 
worthy and well qualified?" 

"He is." 

"Is he duly and truly prepared?" 

"He is." 

"By what further rights and benefits does he 
expect to gain admission?" 

"By that of being a man, freeborn." 

Freeborn! Freeborn! I am really ashamed 
that colored men who were in slavery in the South 
would show themselves in the streets of our cities 
connected witli the slavery system of Freemasonry. 


"Mr. Smith, As no man shall ever enter upon 
any great or important undertaking, witliont tirst 
imploring the blessings of Deity, you will there- 
fore kneel where you now stand, and attend to 
l)rayer. " 

The candidate kneels in the lodge-room. 

This is the j^rayer: 

"Vouchsafe Thine aid, Almighty Father of the 
Universe, to this, our j^resent Convention, and 
grant that this candidate for Masonry may so 
dedicate and devote his life to Thy service that he 
may become a true and faithful brother among us. 
Endue him with the competency of Thy Divine 
Wisdom, that by the aid of the pure principles of 
our order he may be better enabled to display the 
beauties of holiness, to the honor of Thy Holy 
Name. Amen." Brethren respond, "So mote 
it be." 

Here is the preacher; there is the intidel over 
there praying for him in the secret lodge. What 
influence can that minister have in that Masonic 
Lodged None whatever. His influence is gone: 
religion, Christianity, as it is represented by him, 
becomes a farce. 

"Mr. Smith, in all cases of danger and difficulty, 
in whom do you put your trust?" 

"In God." 

"In what god?" 

"Mah-hah-bone." That is the god. What is 
the god of Masonry? Is it the God of the manger? 
Is it the God of Bethany? Is it the God of Geth- 
semane? Is it the God of Calvary? Is it the God 


and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ? No. It is 
tlie god of Brahminism. It is the god of Coiif i^eian- 
isin. It is the god of the Indian. It is tlie god of 
nature. It is the sun-god. 

You notice that the candidate is blindfolded ; 
you notice that there is a rope around his neck. 
Now, we have him in the lodge-room. He comes 
in by the north-west corner of the lodge. Now he 
walks; and he is made to walk with the course of 
the sun. 

There are in Masonry two kinds of mysteries. 
The greater mystery and the lesser mystery. 
There w^ere two kinds of mysteries in Paganism. 
Masonry is simply the pagan mysteries revived. 
It is Paganism jiure and simple, revived in 1717. 
You know the mysteries were a worship of the 
sun- god, the secret worship of Osiris, Baal, or 
Tammuz, and all those other names that were 
used in various pagan nations to signify the sun- 
god, or the fecundating and fertilizing power of 
the sun. The action of the heat of the sun upon 
the earth caused the earth to bring forth, as it 
were, so Horus was produced, the god of time as 
we have it in Masonry, only under another name. 

All the good that is found in secret societies 
fihould be found in our churches. Finally, we object 
to secret societies, because if there is any good in 
them, it should be found in our churches. When 
Christ established the church, He intended that it 
should be broad enough to supply all the wants of 
man. ''Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his 
righteousness; and all these things shall be added 


unto you." It is the sliaine of this enlightened age 
that Christians are ignoring their churches that 
they may do good in some Christ less organization. 
They seem to regard the churcli as a kind of 
hobby-horse to carry them to heaven, while they 
must do their good deeds in some other fraternity. 
Is this the way to convince the world that the 
church of God has something that far outshines 
. ny thing that the world may have to offer? 
Wlience comes the theory that a good Mason is 
also a good Christian, whether he belongs to the 
church or not? Whence come t le harsh criticisms 
concerning the formality of churches, and the 
superior usefulness of secret orders? They are 
born of the conviction, espoused by the world and 
confirmed by all Christian professors that turn 
aside from their churches and cling to outside or- 
ganizations, that the churches are not doing what 
tliey ought to do. Let Christians gather round the 
standard of their respective churches. Let them 
do their good deeds in the organization which 
Christ has established, for in this way only can 
they do all that they do in the name of the Lord 


In our consideration of this important question, 
we have presumed not to know anything concern- 
ing the secret workings of secret societies. We 
have said nothing concerning the disgraceful con- 
s])iracies that are said to exist in some of them, 
nor of the ludicrous performances, said to be 
practiced in initiating members. All that we have 


done in this line was to submit the testimony of 
an ex- Mason, which testimony may be taken for 
what it is worth. We have said nothing concern- 
ing the startling revelations concerning their 
secret work, on the part of those who once be- 
longed to them, and afterwards deserted them. 
We have said nothing concerning the scandals as- 
sociated with some of these orders. We have said 
nothing concerning the testimony of Morgan, 
Finney, Blanchard, and other reliable men. We 
have not even mentioned the fact that the most 
pious members of nearly all denominations op- 
pose them on the ground that they are antagonis- 
tic to true Gospel holiness. We have opposed 
them on general principles and shown them to be 
contrary to the Gospel and detrimental to the wel- 
fare of humanity in more ways than one. All 
these other facts stand out against them, however, 
and whatever importance may be attached to 
them, must be counted in strengthening the posi- 
tion we have taken — -that secret societies are a 
hindrance to the cause of true Christianity, and that 
therefore Christians have no right to hold mem- 
bership in them. God grant that all Christians 
may learn to see this matter in its proper light; 
and that all professing Christians now in the 
lodges may "come out from among them" and be, 
indeed and in truth, a separate people. God grant 
that all believing children might, at the close of 
their earthly career, be able to testify with our 
Lord and Master, "In secret have I said nothing. '' 


This important Christian doctrine, one of the 
grandest blessings of grace, has been so variously 
treated and so imperfectly understood, that few 
writers on the subject can succeed in keeping the 
minds of their readers from becoming more con- 
fused than edified. The only way we see of treat- 
ing it is to hold closely to the Scriptures for the 
truth we wish to present, and by them also point 
out some of the errors that have been frequently 
presented and by many accepted as the teachings 
of the Scriptures. 


1. The first meaning we notice is that of 
separation or setting apart for God. This idea is 
clearly set forth in the following passages: 

"Say ye of him, whom the Father hath sancti- 
fied, and sent into the world. Thou blasphemest " 
(John 10:36). "And when a man shall sanctify 
his house to be holy unto the Lord, then the priest 
shall estimate it, whether it be good or bad. And 
if a man shall sanctify unto the Lord some part 
of a field of his possession, then thy estimation 
shall be according to the seed thereof " (Lev. 
27:14, lb). ,Our Lord in reproving the bigoted 
Pharisees said, "Ye fools, and blind! for whether 


is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth. 
the gold" (Matt. 23:17). (See also Jer. 1:5 and 
2Chron. 7:16). 

2. Besides setting apart to sanctification means 
also separation from. The two meanings, however, 
are closely allied, as one cannot be truly separated 
or set apart unto God without being separated 
from sin. It is the process or state of being 
separated or cleansed from ceremonial or moral 
defilement. ''Yo shall therefore sanctify your- 
selves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither 
shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of 
creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" 
(Lev. 11:44). "So the priests and the Levite • 
sanctified themselves to bring up the ark of the 
Lord God of Israel" (1 Chron. 15:14). (See also 
Lev. 20: 7; Ex. 19:22, 23; 2 Chron. 29:5, 16, IS; 
1 Thess. 5:22, 23; Heb. 9: 13; 1 Thess. 4: 7). We 
should bear in mind that the ceremonial cleansings 
commanded in some of the above texts are also 
figures of the actual cleansings from all sinful 
defilement, which is required of us as Christians. 

3. Paul speaks of Christ as "being found in 
fashion as a man, " and a high priest that can be 
"touched with the feeling of our hifirmities . . . . 
in all poin s tempted like as we are, yet without 
sin" (Heb. 4:15). He was holy; He was sanctified 
unto God; He was God. God Himself is holy. A 
number of i:)assages in the Old Testament Script- 
ures represent Him as being sanctified. "I will 
be sanctified in you before the heathen" (Ezek. 
(20:41). "The heathen shall know that I am the 


Lord, saith the Lord God, when 1 shall be sancti- 
fied in you before their eyes" (Ezek. 86:28). (See 
also Ezelv. lib: 22; 38:16; 29:27. 


1. Sanctification is God's work. As it was 
God who in the old disi^ensation set apart the 
first born for Himself, so it is God who in the new 
dispensation sets apart the believer for Himself 
and separates him from sin. This thought is 
sustained by 1 Thess. 5:23, ''And the very God of 
peace sanctify you wholly;" and John 17: 19, *'And 
for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also 
might be sanctified through the truth. " 

2. Sanctification is Christ's work. * 'Husbands, 
love your wives, even as Christ also loved the 
church, and gave himself for it; that he might 
sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water 
by the word." The sacrifice of Christ sets the 
church apart for God; it puts a difference 
between the church and the world just as the 
blood of the Paschal Lamb set a difference be- 
tween Israel and the Egyptians (Ex. 11:7; 12:12, 
13). This is made clear by the following pass- 
age. "By the which will we are sanctified, 
through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ 
once for all" (Heb. 10:10). The cross stands be- 
tW'Cen the believer and the world. He belongs to 
God because he is separated unto Him. There is 
uo contradiction in the statements that it is God's 
work, and, it is Christ's work. God works througli 
Christ. Christ works by means and instrument- 
alities as we shall show further on. 


3. Sanctification is the work of the Holy Spirit. 
**God hath from the beginning chosen you to 
salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and 
belief of the truth" (2 Thess. 2:13). "Elect 
according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, 
through sanctification of the Spirit" (1 Peter 1:2). 
Just as the tabernacle, altar, and priest in the Old 
Testament type were set apart for God by the 
anointing oil (Lev. 8:10-12), so in the New Testa- 
ment anti-type the believer who is both temple 
and priest is set apart for God by the anointing of 
the Holy Spirit. It is also the Holy Spirit's 
operation in the heart that overcomes the defiling 
workings of the flesh and clothes him with divine 
graces of character (Gal. 5:16-23). 

4. Sanctification is by the blood. ''Wherefore 
Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with 
his own blood, suffered without the gate" (Heb. 
13:12). The blood cleanses us from all the guilt 
of sin and thus sets us apart for God. (See 1 John 
1:7, 9; also the Old Testament sacrifices and the 
word "cleanse" in connection with blood). 

5. Sanctification is through (or in) the word of 
God. "Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word 
is truth " (John 17:17). ' 'Now ye are clean through 
the word which I have spoken unto you" (John 
15:3). As men bring their lives into daily contact 
with the word, the sins and imperfections of their 
lives are disclosed and put away. 

C\ Christ is of God made sanctification to men. 
' 'But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is 
made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and 


sanctification, and redemption " (1 Cor. 1:30). By 
the appropriation of Jesus to ourselves we are 
sanctified. Through the indwelling Christ, pre- 
sented to us by the Spirit in the word, we are 
made like Christ and will bear the fruits of the 
Spirit. This relation is forcibly presented in the 
b(niutiful figure contained in John 15:1-7. Christ 
takes constantly more and more complete posses- 
sion of every corner of our being. 

7. Sanctification is affected by the ministry of 
divinely sent chastisement or suffering. "Now 
no chastening for the prcisent seemeth to be joy- 
ous, but grievous; nevertheless, afterward it yield- 
eth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them 
which are exercised thereby" (Heb. 12:11). In 
the preceding verse we have the expression, ' 'That 
we might be partakers of his holiness." Holiness 
is from the same root as the word which is else- 
where translated santification. 

8. Sanctification is attained (or more of it is 
attained) by following after it (pursuing it). ''Pol- 
low peace with all men, and holiness, without 
which no man shall see the Lord" (Heb. 12:14). 

9. Sanctification is attained through yielding 
our members as servants (slaves) to righteousness 
and ourselves servants (slaves) to God. "As ye 
have yielded your members servants to unclean- 
ness and to iniquity unto iniquity; even so now 
yield your members servants to righteousness 
unto holiness." "But now being made free from 
sin, and become servants to God, ye have your 


fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life" 
(Rom. 6:19, 22). 

10. Sanctification or holiness is perfected in us 
by separatino- ourselves from sin and cleansing our- 
solv(>s from all defilement of the flesh and the 
spirit. ' ' Wherefore come out from among them, 
and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not 
the unclean thing ; and I will receive you" (2 Cor. 
6:17). " Having therefore these promises, dearly 
beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness 
of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the 
fear of God" (2 Cor. 7:1). 

11. Sanctification is completed in us, and we 
shall be presented before God holy, unblamable, 
and unreprovable in his sight ; without blemish 
if we continue in the faith, grounded and stead- 
fast (Col. 1:21-23). "But we are not of them who 
draw back unto perdition, but of them that believe 
to the saving of their souls" (Heb. 10:39). True 
faith is the secret of continuance. 

12. Sanctification is by faith in Jesus Christ. 
The closing words of Paul's call to preach the 
Gospel, were, ' ' that they may receive forgiveness 
of sins, and inheritance among them Vv^hich are 
sanctified by faith that is in me" (Acts 26:18). 
Like justification, regeneration, and adoption, 
sanctification is conditioned upon faith. Faith is 
the hand put out to receive the grace of this and 
all other blessings. 


1. Believers are already sanctified. They are 
saints. "Unto the church of God which is at 


Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Josiis, 

calh'd to be saints grace be unto you" (1 Cor. 1 : 

1, 2). It is scriptural for a believer to say he is 
sanctified. In one sense this present sanctifica- 
tion is on the side of God ; in another, it is on the 
side of man. (1) God's side. *'He (God) taketh 
away the first, that ?ie may establish the second. 
By the which will we are sanctified, through the 
offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all " 
(Heb. 10:9, 10). "By the offering of the body of 
Jesus Christ once for all, we are cleansed from all 
the guilt of sin ; we are perfected forever as far as 
our standing before God is concerned, and we are 
set apart for God as His peculiar and eternal pos- 
session." (2) Man's side. There is another sense 
in which the believer may be already sanctified. 
' I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mer- 
cies of God, that ye present your bodies a living 
sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your 
reasonable service" (Rom. 12:1). "It is the believ- 
er's privilege to yield himself wholly to God as a 
whole burnt offering, keeping nothing back. Such 
an offering is 'acceptable to God.' God accepts it, 
sends down the fire of the Holy Spirit. He is 
then, as far as the will is concerned, the govern- 
ing purpose of the life, wholly God's. He may 
and will discover daily, as he studies the word, 
acts of life, habits of life, forms of feeling, speech, 
and action, that are not in conformity with this 
central pur])ose, and these will have to be con- 
fessed, put away, and this department of his being 
and life brought by Gcd's Spirit and the indwell 


in^ Christ into conformity with God's will as 
revealed in His word. The victory in this new, 
unclaimed territory can be instantaneous. Take 
notice: I discover in myself an irritability of tem- 
per that is manifestly displeasing to God. I can 
go to God and confess it, renounce it, and then 
instantly, not by my own strength, but by looking 
to Jesus and claiming His patience and gentle- 
ness, overcome it. " 

2. The whole sanctification of body, soul, and 
spirit, complete in every part and absolutely blame- 
h ss or free from fault is something to be prayed 
for and so is not yet realized. ' 'And the very God 
of peace sanctify you wholly ; and I pray God 
your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved 
blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus 
Christ" (1 Thess. 5:23). This perfect state will be 
realized by the sanctified "at the coming of our 
Lford Jesus Christ." "Beloved, now are we the 
sons of God ; and it doth not yet appear what we 
shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, 
we shall be like him ; for we shall see him as he 
is'' (1 John 3:2). By this text we see that it is not 
in this life, nor at death, but at the coming of the 
Lord That absolute, sinless perfection is attained. 

3. Sanctification is a progressive work continu- 
ing through life— growth in grace. ' 'And the Lord 
make you to increase and abound in love one toward 
another, and toward all men, even as we do toward 
you: to the end he may stablish your hearts un- 
blamable in holiness before God" (1 Thess. 3:12, 
13). "But grow in grace, and in the knowledge 


of onr Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" (2 Peter 3: 
IH). (See also 1 Thess. 4: 1-10 ; 2 Cor. 3: 18). This 
progressive work in sanctitication implies an 
increasing in love, an abounding more and more in a 
godly walk and in pleasing God, a growth in the 
grace and knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ, a 
being transformed from glory to glory into the 
image of our Lord through beholding Him — each 
new gaze at Him as revealed in the word by the 
Spirit making us more like Him — a growing up into 
Christ in all things until we attain unto a full 
grown man, unto the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ. 


1. Those who are sanctified are perfected for- 
ever. That is, their standing befoi-e God is as 
secure as if they had never sinned. In His eyes 
their guilt is put away forever. The soul is not 
only justified but it is cleansed. "For by one offer- 
ing he hath perfected forever them that are sanc- 
tified" (a better translation is, are being sanctified) 
(Heb. 10: 14). The sanctification here spoken of is 
the separation from the guilt of sin and unto God 
secured by the shed blood. 

2. The sanctified are one with Christ. '-For 
both he that sanctifi^th and they who are sancti 
fied, are all of one ; for which cause he is no 
ashamed to call them brethren" (Heb. 2:11). (See 
alsoKom. 12:5; John 17:21-23). 

3. The believer is saved through or in sanctifi- 
cation. ''Because God hath from the beerinnino' 
cliosen you to salvation through sanctification of 


1ho Spirit and belief of the truth" (2 Thess. 2:13). 
Salvation does not result in sanctilication, but 
sanctification results in salvation. The sanctifica- 
tion here spoken of is that wrought by the Spirit ; 
it is not salvation in the sense of forgiveness of 
sin, but the larger salvation from sin's dominion 
and presence. 

4. The sanctified are assured of the blessed- 
ness of inheritance. *'And now, brethren, I com- 
mend you to God, and to the word of his grace, 
which is able to build you up, and to give you an in- 
heritance among all them which are sanctified" 
(Acts 20:32). (See also Acts 26:18). Sanctifica- 
tion prepares for and brings the inheritance. 

5. Sanctification results in the blessedness of 
seeing God. "Follow ])eace with all men, and 
holiness, without which no man shall see the 
Lord" (Heb. 12:14). "Blessed are the pure in heart: 
for they shall see God" (Matt. 5:8). The sanctifi- 
cation here noticed is manifestly that which re- 
lates to the cleansing or separation from the defile- 
ment of sin. Without this cleansing from sin the 
blessed vision of God is impossible. [This ar- 
rangement is largely c pied from the notes of ^. 
A. Torrey.] 


These two blessings of grace are not identical, 
and should not be confounded with one another. 
Faith justifies the believer because by it a personal 
union is established between Christ and himself. 
This union of the Christ-life cannot exist in an un- 


sanctified or unholy person. So the two are very 
closely related. But sanctification is more than 
simply a f?race to restrict one from sinning and 
thus maintain the state of j ustification which he has 
acquired, it is also more than simply a conse- 
quence to be drawn from justification. Holiness is 
not an obligation which the believer deduces from 
his faith. Justification implies holiness, and is 
one of the objects of justifying faith. The be- 
liever appropriates Christ as his righteous- 
ness first, and then His holiness. **But of him are 
ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us 
wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and 
n^demption. " (1 Cor. 1:30). 

Christ's holiness, while serving to justify us, 
is at the same time the principle of our sanctifica- 
tion. ''From the apostle's point of view, we have 
not to say to the Christian: 'Thou shalt sin no 
more;' but we must rather say: 'The Christian 
sins no more. ' " — Beuss. 

Neither must we understand sanctification as 
the cause of pardon and justification. If Paul had 
understood the relation between the two in this way 
he would not have commenced the part of his 
Epistle to the Romans, relating to sanctification, 
in the way he has. (See cha])ter H). In the first 
part of the epistle he treats justification, laying the 
foundation for sanctification. When he begins his 
reasoning on the duty and privilege of a sinless 
life, he says, "What shall we say then/' He goes 
on to describe another state, not necessarily another 
time. Since, however, the apostle shows that jus 


tification is by faith and not by works, (that is, it 
takes place before any good work necessarily is 
done), we must not conclude that sanctification re- 
mains as a work for man to accomplish. The apostle 
Knew the human heart too well to think of founding 
faith in reconciliation on the moral labors of man. 
We need to be set free from ourselves, not to be 
thrown back on ourselves. If we had to rest the 
assurance of our justification, little or much, on 
our own sanctification, since this is always imper- 
fect, our heart would never be wholly made free 
God ward. Our position is this: first rest in God 
through justification; thereafter, toork with Him in 
His fellowship, or sanctification. 

Sanctification, therefore, is neither a condition 
of nor a crowning of justification. It is not its 
causCf much less a denial of its existence. The real 
connection between justification and Christian holi- 
ness is that justification is the means, and sanctifica- 
tion is the end. The more precisely we distinguish 
these two divine gifts, the better we apprehend 
the real bond that unites them. God is tJie only 
good; the creature, therefore, cannot do good except 
in Him. Consequently, for man to be sanctified it 
is necessary to begin by reconciling him to God, 
and replacing him in Him. The wall which 
separates him from God must first be broken down 
by justification, and here the divine favor rests on 
him. Then the Holy Spirit, whom God could not 
bestow on a being at war with Him, comes to seal 
on his heart the new relation established on justi- 
fication, and to do the work of a real and free in- 


ward sanctification. Holiness, therefore, is salva- 
tion in its very essence. Justification is the strait 
gate, throu^fh which we enter on the narrow way of 
sanctification, which leads to glory. 


Justification by faith sets the .soul at rest before 
God so far as guilt for sin is concerned. This takes 
place only in the soul that reiients, turns from his 
evil ways and prays for cleansing. Along with justi- 
fication the soul is cleansed, made holy, sanctified. 
This is present sanctification. But it implies more. 
The life of the justified believer is not the same as 
it was in his unjustified state. His life is sanctified 
as well as his soul. But is his life, in all his thoughts, 
words, acts, perfect in the eyes of God as is his be- 
lieving, sanctified soul':' Surely not. Why not? 
Because, with all his good intentions and holy pur- 
poses, the believer has not the knowledge how to 
conform all his being to the perfect life presented 
by the word and by the perfect Christ which 
dwells in him. He is then sanctified only so 
far as he has knowledge. He cannot go be- 
yond the light he has received. Having found 
Christ he has also found light; for **He is the light 
of men. " This is perfect light as far as the believ- 
er's eyes are opened. His environments, his pre- 
vious teaching, his human weaknesses prevent him 
from seeing the fulness of the Light; yet he 
walks in the light as He is in the light, has fellow- 
ship with Uu) saints, and the blood of Christ cleans- 
eth him from all sin. (1 John 1 : 7). His inward life 
may be perfect, but his outward life is not; yet he 
is enjoying present sanctification. 



The soul in the natural, unregenerate life is 
at enmity with God, disobedient to His will, hostile 
to His righteousness. Through repentance, faith, 
and acceptance of Christ a moment comes when all 
this is changed. He is no more at enmity against 
God, is no longer disobedient, has entirely lost his 
hostility. The turning was instantaneous. In the 
mind of God the change may have taken place be- 
fore it was understood or realized by the indi- 
vidual, yet if the soul has come to assurance of 
salvation it was instantaneous. Sin is in the soul 
till the moment arrives in which it is washed, is 
cleansed, is made holy, is sanctified. In the sanc- 
tification of the life the victories over sinful 
thought, evil words, wicked works, moral weak- 
nesses may be instantaneous. When the believer 
discovers anything in his life that he is assured is 
a hindrance to his spiritual prosperity and is dis- 
pleasing to God he longs to be sanctified from the 
existing evil. The circumstances that led to the 
discovery, and the effort to break the chains of 
slavery may have been gradual, but the victory is 
instantaneous. Wrestling with God in prayer the 
moment comes when there is a blessed assurance 
of an answer accompanied with power to over- 


''Brethren, I count not myself to have ap- 
prehended: but this one thing I do, forgetting 
those things which are behind, and reaching forth 


unto those thinors which are before, I ]iress to- 
ward the mark for the prize of the higli calliu<^ of 
God in Christ Jesus. Let us therefore, as many as 
b(' perfect, be thus minded: and if in anything ye 
be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even this 
unto you" (Phil. 3:13-15). The apostle appears 
very anxious to avoid a misapprehension, which 
mit^ht naturally arise in the minds of his Philip- 
pian brethren, therefore he says, ''Not as though 
I had already attained, either were already per- 
fect.'* The description which he had given of 
his perfection in Christ Jesus might have led 
tliem to suppose that the apostle had no other 
language but that of thanksgiving and joy; that 
in his present experience there was nothing but 
victory and triumiDh; and that in the fight of faith 
he did not feel the burden of his human weak- 
nesses. It is to anticipate such a false idea that 
he assures them that he had not already attained, 
although Christ was unto him perfect righteous- 
ness, and he was therefore able to joy in hope of 
the glory of God. 

Those who, like I^aul, had received Christ 
were perfected in Him; hence he said, ''Let us 
thei'efore, as many as be perfect, be thus m nded." 
Christ was their perfection and was made to thom 
sanctification. But they were merely perfect 
babes. They were expected to grow. There is no 
way to come to Christ but by making a full sur- 
render accoi-ding to all tlu^ light of sin and right- 
etmsness that the individual has. No conscious 
sin remains. The sanctification is entire. By one 


^ ffering He has perfected for ever them that are 
set a, art in Him. But as time ^oes on the believer 
finds that as he knows more of God and His wori, 
lie discovers motives, thoughts, desires, of which 
former y he was unconscious. His eye is o; en to 
errors ani omissions of duty which are as hatef .4I 
to God as transgressions of commandments. If he 
is in ti e true spirit he is sure to seek deliverance. 
Let him now go to God in blessed assurance that 
he shall have the victoiy over all he has discov- 
ered as completely as the victory he gained at 
conversion. God will surely give him sanctifica- 
tion if he expects it. But is this all of sanctifica- 
tion? Surely not. His knowledge is not yet per- 
fect. As he growls in grace his spiritual sense 
will be quickened, his discernment will become 
more acute, and again the sanctified soul will long 
and plead for more sanctification still. God will 
surely give it. This is progressive sanctification. 
But how long must this process continue? As long 
as life lasts. The perfection for which we long 
and pray will be realized \vhen the Lord comes 
and changes us in the twinkling of an eye, or we 
risefiom our sleep (grave) in the glorious body 
He shall give us. 


We never find in any of the eijistles that Chris- 
tians are exhorted, as first they have believed in 
Jesus for justification, so by a second and subse- 
queiit act of faith, to make a new start for sanctifi- 
cation. We are always exhorted to cleave to the 
.'.TMce of Gc:d in Ch»ist Jesus; t > hold fast the I o- 


ginning of our confidenco steadfast unto the end: 
to remember that we were ba])tized into the deatli 
of Christ. We stand in grace, and into that grace 
we entered when we were justified by faith. "As 
ye have received the Lord Jesus, so walk ye in 
him. " 

Sanctification belongs to the first work of grace; 
and it is a great mistake when teaching fails i/^ 
urge the repentant sinner to look for it and ex- 
l)ect it as well as justification. It is an experience 
that bears the fruits of a holy life from the time 
of conversion. It should be expected; conversion 
should not be chiimed without it. It is received as 
a work of God in the soul by simple faith, not as 
the work of man. Then, standing in this grace, 
the beliiwer enjoys its conscious presence and 
shows the fruits of it by a holy life. The work of 
grace goes on, the believer growing in sanctifica- 
tion, not into it. The perfect work wi'ought in the 
soul is perfected in the life, the believer receiving 
"grace after grace, " and realizing that "we all with 
oyjen face beholding as in a glass the glory of the 
Lord, are changed into the same image from glory 
to glory, even as by the Si)irit of the Lord" 
(2 Cor. '6: 1«). 


"The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous 
man availeth much." Jas. 5:16. 


Of the many admonitions found in (lod's Holy 
Book, none are more important than those pertain- 
ing to prayer. It is the connecting link that holds 
us in touch with our Maker — the power that moves 
the Hand that supplies our every need. 

When we speak of prayer, we do not mean sim- 
ply a combination of words designed for the inter- 
est, delight, or instruction of man; but rather 
that praise, adoration, and supplication which as- 
cends from the believing heart to the throne of God 
and expects His answer. 

Much that is called prayer is not real prayer. 
Especially is this the case with public prayers. It 
is sometimes the case that persons who profess to 
lead congregations in prayer, instead or sending 
their petitions to a throne of grace, strive to edify 
their congregations by elegant and eloquent lan- 
guage. Our Savior condemns this kind of prayer 
when He says, "When thou pray est, thou shalt not 
be as the hypocrites are : for they love to pray stand- 
ing in the synagogue and in the corners of the 
streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I 
say unto you. They have their reward. " 

It is not necessary for us to try to convince our 
Father by an abundance of information or by irre- 
futable argument, or to overawe our congrega- 


tions with superabundant noise in order to have our 
prayers answered. All that we need to do is to 
come before our heavenly Father with V>elieving 
hearts and make our wishes known, and God will 
do the rest. Our heavenly Father, which seeth in 
secret, shall reward us openly. (Matt. 6:0). 
OUR savior's teaching on prayer. 

The thou«:hts just presented are gleaned from 
our Savior's matchless presentation of tlie subject 
in Matt. 6. Along with His disapproval of pre- 
tended prayer with a view to be heard of men, 
comes His admonition against "vain repetitions." 
Vain repetitions are not necessary. They are in- 
tended, not for God, but for man. Prayer, to be 
answered, must be intended for the ear of God. 
Vain repetitions, intended for the ear of man, as- 
cend no higher than the sound caused by the vibra- 
tions of the vocal cords. 

Our Savior taught by example as well as by 
precept. His prayer recorded in Matt. 6:9-13 has 
never been equaled in purity, sublimity, nobility, 
or forcefulness. It shows submission, obedience, 
absence of selfishness, and entire confidence that 
God is able to do all things. It teaches us the 
])eaceful spirit of our Redeemer, and the useless- 
ness of a multi])licity of words to make our wants 
and wishes k ncjwn. The more we study this prayer, 
the more we see in it. May we ever adore our 
blessed Lord and Master for this example of pure 
and fervent prayer. 

THE apostles' TEACHING. 

The apostles also empliasized the necessity of 
frequent and earnest prayer, by their many admo- 

PRAYER. 267 

nitions on this subject. In line with our Savior's 
admonition, "Watch ye, therefore, and pray al- 
ways, " we notice a number of striking scriptui'al 
passages, among which are the following: 

''Pray without ceasing." 1 Thess. 5:17. 

**In everything give thanks, for this is the will 
of God in Christ Jesus concerning you. " 1 Thess. 

"And take the helmet of salvation, and the 
sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God: 
praying always, with all prayer and supplica- 
tion in the Spirit, etc." Eph. 6: 17, 18. 

"Continue in prayer, and watch in the same 
with thanksgiving. " Col. 4:2. 

"Rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation; con- 
tinuing instant in prayer." Rom. 12:12. 

* ' The effectual fervent prayer of the righteous 
man availeth much." Jas. 5:16. 

These and other passages that might be quoted, 
show the importance the apostles placed upon this 


We once heard a pious deacon advise his young 
eo-laborers to pray much in secret that they might 
get sufficient practice to enable them to lead in 
public prayer whenever called upon. On another 
occasion we heard a professing Christian say that 
all he saw in prayer was that it directed our minds 
heavenward and thereby ennobled our thou£:hts. 
Either of these views concerning the objects of 
prayer is un scriptural. The first is positively con- 
demned (Matt. 6:5), while the second shows either 


lack of faith in the revealed word of God, or lorno- 
ranceof its contents. James drives this cidvice: "If 
any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that 
giveth to all men liberally, and uphr.iideth not." 
(Jas. 1:5). Our Savior's admoniti(m is. "Ask, and 
it shall be «riven you. " (Matt. 7:7). The idea that 
our prayfrs are answered by a Higher Power 
than ourselves is further sustained in Matt. 21:2-; 
Mark 11: 24; Luke 11:9; John 14: 13; ir):7; 16:23, etc. 
The object of i)rayer, as set forth in the word, 
is this: We are dependent creatures, having no 
strength in ourselves; but God, who is rich in 
mercy, love, and power, is a "rewarder of them 
that diligently seek Him, " and is ever ready to help 
those that put their trust and contidence in 
Him. "Let us therefore come boldly unto the 
throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and 
find grace to help in time of need. " 


The Bible says so, and we know that the Bible 
is true. Our prayers are not always answered the 
way that we think they ought to be. If all prayers 
were answered direct, just as they are delivered, 
there would be some remarkable providential (x> 
currences now and then. It is not unreasonable to 
presume that God exercises the right to accei)t, 
modify, or reject the petitions which imperfect 
man sends up to His throne of grace, just as earthly 
parents use discretion in answering the requests of 
their natural children. 

In taking the position that God, even in this 
day, sometimes answo s ])rayers direct, we shall 

PRAYER, 269 

no' stand sponsor for all the many remarkable 
reputed answers to prayer that are said to have oc- 
curred during the last few years. We believe that 
Satan has his "divine healers'" in every nook and 
corner of the globe where there is any danger of 
the heaven -ordained doctrine of divine answer to 
]iuman prayer gaining a foothold, and that thereby 
the cause of Christianity has been made to suffer 
much; yet, notwithstanding the many bogus 
claims of divine healing which are now and al- 
ways have been in existence, we have seen and 
heard and experienced enough to convince us that 
God does answer prayer— that He heals our 
bodies, supplies our spiritual and temporal wants, 
and creates within us "a new heart and a right 
spirit, "in answer to fervent prayer. 

It is not within the sphere of this chapter to 
prove these assertions with actual occurrences. 
We know that things that appear most real some- 
times afterw^ard prove to be deceptions. But we 
wish to present the Bible teaching on the subject, 
and let the reader draw his own conclusions. 

' 'And I say unto you. Ask, and it shall be given 
you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall 
be opened unto you." Luke 11-9. 

"And all things, wdiatsoever ye shall ask in 
prayer, believing, ye shall receive. " Matt. '21:22. 

"Therefore, I say unto you, What things 
soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye 
receive them, and ye shall have them." Marie 


"If ye abide in me and my words abide in you, 
ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done 
unto you."' Jno. 15:7. 

''But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering: 
for he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea 
driven with tlie wind and tossed." Jas. 1: 6. 

**The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous 
tnan availeth much." Jas. 5: 16. 

' 'Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne 
of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find 
grace to help in time of need. " Heb 4:16. 


It is not necessaiy to couch our wants in a 
multiplicity of words. Let us ask for what we 
want, pour out our tributes of ])raise and thanks- 
giving, and then stop. When we ask a favor of 
our fellow-beiuirs, we simply tell them what we 
want. We do not proceed with a ten-minute dis- 
course simply because there happen to be some 
bystanders present. It is just as unreasonable to 
make a long speech to our heavenly Father simply 
because there happens to be an audience present. 

It must not be inferred from this, however, 
that long prayers are to be condemned. Our 
Savior was noted for His short prayers; yet we also 
have an account of His long prayer recorded in 
Jno. 17, and of His agonizing prayer in the Gar- 
den of Gethsemane. 

There are times when the burdens of life seem 
to rest unusually heavy upon us. We feel our 
weakness, and are conscious of the immensity of 
the work left for human hands to do. What then 

PRAYER. 271 

is more natural than to prostrate ourselves before 
God in fervent, agonizing prayer. The nearer we 
get to God, the more prayerful we become, the 
richer will be the spiritual grace of our prayers, 
and the longer it will take us to get through with 
our adorations of praise and prayer and thanks- 


The value of secret prayer cannot be over- 
estimated. In secret prayer the temptation of 
' 'praying for effect" is entirely removed. There, 
in our private sanctuary, unheard by human ears 
uncriticised by human intelligence, we spend our 
time in sweet communion with our Maker. God 
answers our prayers and sanctifies our hearts. 
Here is the secret of Christian life. Our spiritual 
food comes in direct answer to our prayers. Stop 
your prayers, and you stop the supply of spiritual 
food. Stop the supply of spiritual food, and the 
spiritual body languishes and dies. Such is the 
experience of all backsliders. ' 'The effectual fer- 
vent prayer of a righteous man availeth much. " 


All history, sacred and profane, proves that 
God's people have ever been a praying people, and 
that a lack of frequent fervent prayer always opened 
up the avenues of the heart to sin. Tender ties are 
formed by frequent communication. We commune 
with our God in three ways: (1) with His great 
Book of Nature, (2) with His wonderful word — 
the Bible, (3) with God direct in prayer. The 
oftener we commune, the more tender and power- 

272 BlliLK DO( "rill XHS. 

ful the ties. Let us praise the Author of our beino^, 
the Kuler of heaveu and earth. Lot us praise Him 
as individuals. Let us praise Him around the 
hearth stone in family worship. Let us praise 
Him in the solemn assemblies consecrated to His 
worship. "Let all the nations of the earth rejoice, 
and praise His holy name. " 


In concluding this chapter, we conclude this 
little volume. The reader will observe that many 
of the doctrines herein presented are treated some- 
what briefly; but we trust that enough has been 
said to lead some persons to think along the lines 
suggested by these articles. 

Doubtless what we have herein stated will fail 
to meet with the approval of eveiy one. We recog- 
nize the possibility (even probabilit}^) of error in 
our writings. We give the thoughts herein pre- 
sented for what they are worth, and ask the reader 
to carefully compare them with the woi'd of God. 

Christ says, "Search the Scriptures." Paul 
says, "Give attclidance to reading." We desire at 
this time faintly to echo these sentiments. God 
has given us His word that we may study it and 
j)rotit by its teachings. Not only does it lead us in 
the way everlasting, but it also shapes our Chris- 
tian lives so that we may be in the highest degree 
useful in our Master s service. 

That the Bible doctrines herein presented, and 
feebly defended, may live in the hearts of all men 
IS our earnest <lesire.