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Full text of "A manual of the birds of Australia"

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DiTliion of Bins 






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A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA 



I 

;?> A MAIS^UAL OF THE 
}\ BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA 

GREGORY M. MATHEWS, 't1^- 

I) 
F.R.S.E., M.R.A.O.U., 

AND 

TOM IREDALE, 

Members of the British Ornithohgists' Union afid 
Corresponding Fellows of the American Ornithologists' Union. 

ILLUSTSATFD WITB COLOURED AND MONOCHROME PLATES: 

BY 

LILIAN MEDLAND. 



VOLUME L 

Orders Casuarh to Columb^ 




H. F. & G. WriHERBY 

326 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON 
1921 



This Volume was first published 
on March 9th. 1921. 






TONALj 






L^9¥ 



INTRODUCTION. 



WE have attempted to provide a handy book of reference to the known 
facts concerning Australian birds for the use of students, and to this 
end have given a complete primary synonymy, with reference to the coloured 
plates furnished in Gould's and Mathews's Birds of Australia, the standard 
works on the subject. The present work is entirely based upon Mathews's 
work, in which will be found complete accounts, as far as recorded, of the life- 
histories and economics, with full discussion of all nomenclatural problems, 
dissertations on the phylogeny of the groups and detailed synonymy. Any 
item not fully understood in the present essay will be found elaborately 
explained in that place. We have extracted the detailed descriptions of the 
plumages from the same work, but have supplemented them whenever oppor- 
tunity has been afforded by the receipt of new material, and have made 
reference to literature recently published for additional matter. With regard 
to the description of nests and eggs we have purposely restricted these to 
the smallest items possible, as Australians have already two magnificent 
works on this subject, viz., those of Campbell and North. 

In his List of the Birds of Australia Mathews gave a resume of the workers 
on the subject, and, consequently, we have not referred to that item here. 

We have treated the Ornis under binomial headings, recording the sub- 
species differentiated in one item. This is somewhat different from general 
usage, but we beb'eve it to be the most useful method of displaying subspecies, 
whether these be considered by the professional ornithologist or by the amateur 
field worker, and it is to this latter class we hope this book will appeal. We 
add a few notes under the headings Nomenclature, Classification and Zoogeo- 
graphical Distribution, which should be of assistance to students. 

I.— NOMENCLATURE, 

This subject has long been a controversial one through the absolute 
carelessness of " authoritative " writers, whose action has misled those ignorant 
of the facts into belief of accuracy, whereas superficiality was most obvious 
to the critic. Moreover, such workers, when easy opportunity was afforded, 
made much stir about the changing of a single name, conceiving ostrich-like 
to hide their omissions by the pillorying of such an instance. It is the pride 
of the present writers that the reduction of this subject to its present status 
of comparative insignificance is due to their exertions, and that succeeding 
workers will be able to deal with the scientific side of ornithology without 
much trouble from this factor. The International Laws are now accepted 
by all workers, so that easy determination of the correct name to be used is 



Vi A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTEALLV. 

possible. The older wiiters desired notoriety with the least labour, and their 
ambition was quantity, not quality. Consequently, accuracy in detail was 
not possible, as such would have curtailed production. The aim of the writers 
has ever been to allow of good work to those who, through lack of opportunity 
of access to complete literature, are dependent upon few books. Hence the 
nomenclature in this work is more complete than has ever been offered to any 
students in any previous book. The International Laws and Opinions have 
been followed in detail, save in the one exception of similarly formed words 
of the same origin. At the present time the recommendation regarding 
the acceptance of such names is a dead-letter, and so we have treated it as 
such, especially in view of the preparation of authoritative Hsts by Committees 
of World Ornithologists who have, so far, agreed to our methods of usage. 
There is nothing more to be said on this " contentious " subject, as there 
need be no further discussions, save where a few of the older men stubbornly 
argue non-debatable items. 

Genus sphtting has long been confused in the arguments of careless 
commentators with nomenclature, but it has no connection and should be 
dealt with in the consideration of classification ; we do not agree with the 
famous ornithologist who considered the nommation of a bird-skin in a cabinet 
the highest work achievable, and consequently demurred at name changes. 

II.— CLASSIFICATION. 

In the Austral Avian Record, Vol. IV., pp. 29-48, we have given a sketch 
of the scheme we propose to foUow in tliis book, and we will not detail it 
here, but cite the allied groups as we deal with the Austral orders, etc. It 
is necessaiy, however, to indicate the present state of bird systematics by 
SJ^lopsising the characters hitherto utilised. 

Superficial features were first employed in a superficial manner but 
more recently attention has been given to the growth stages whereby con- 
vergence has been noted and its significance recognised. Thus the tarsal 
covering may show certain features in the adult, and examination of the 
nestling prove the adult formation to be secondary. It was long ago evident 
that assistance could be gained from study of internal features, and a few 
^anatomists wi"ote essays on particular items, such as Nitzsch's on the Carotid 
Arteries. Nitzsch also showed that taxonomic evidence might be gained 
from study of the pterylosis of birds, and his well-known work on Pterylography 
is a standard, but httle work has since been done on the subject. Then came 
the epoch-making study by Huxley of the skulls of birds and Ms revolutionary 
re-classification thereof. Had the superficial characters been thoroughly 
understood liis essay would have caused httle dismay but simply advanced 
our science a httle moi'e rapidly. As it was, the anatomists continued their 
researches and working upon new ground were apt to overrate the differences 
observed. The culmination appeared in a series of articles wliich laid stress 
.on the shape of the nasal openings, the presence or absence of caeca, the presence 



INTEODUCTION. Vll 

of the ambiens muscle and other leg muscles, and other inconstant minor 
internal features. The author of these articles unfortunately died before he 
was able to revise his early guesses as to the value of these items, and for the 
last thirty years these have been accepted at an abnormal valuation. It 
is now time to attempt a reasonable classification, but as previous schemes 
have quoted the above it is important that they should be cited. 

In connection with the skuU the palate was used by Huxley as a distin- 
guisliing character capable of differentiating groups of birds accurately. 
He indicated four styles of fonnation to which he applied the names — • 
dromseognathous, desmognathous, scliizognathous and segithognathous. 
Parker studied the matter more fully and added a fifth, saurognathous, at 
the same time putting on record many facts indicating the spurious nature 
of these divisions. As a matter of fact, all the forms are produced by con- 
vergence and divergence and cannot absolutely be used for the separation of 
groups. It has already been stated that none of the divisions are reaUy 
satisfactory' from the classificatory point of view by a professional anatomist, 
but we consider they are valuable, after the external structure of the bird has 
been well studied, in comiection with other items. 

Garrod's great idea was the usage of the formation of the nasal bones, 
the differences being termed holorhinal or schizorliinal. Here, again, there 
was soon seen to be pseudo-holorhiny present, and consequently the terms 
as originally proposed were proved to be futde. Once more, it wiU be found 
that as a subsidiary item the distinctions may be accepted as confii'matory 
evidence in many cases. 

Again, the presence or absence of basipterygoid processes was supposed 
to be of importance, but the variability of their presence seems to relegate 
these to a subordinate position. Regarded as indicating reptUian ancestry 
they recur in the most specialised avian forms and are absent from admittedly 
older groups, while in some groups they are present in the juvenile and absent 
in the adult, and in very closely aUied species do not occur at all. The absence 
or presence of supraorbital grooves is sometimes quoted, but in a closely 
allied series of species great variation may be seen. The form of the pterygoids 
varies, but not much importance has been given to tliis character though it 
appears just as worthy of usage as some of the other items cited by osteologists. 
The quadrate is sometimes quoted, and it is a little variable so that it may 
be used later in connection with other skeletal features. The lower jaw seems 
so far to have been ignored but, we tlrink, incorrectly. 

Owing to the exaggerated importance given to the palatal features the 
rest of the skeleton has been comparatively neglected. When extraordinary 
features were noted, through lack of knowledge these were unduly emphasised 
or unfairly minimised. The variability of the sternum may prove just as 
valuable as any feature of the skull when carefully studied. We have 
recognised phylogenetic affinity in its variation in a few cases we have recently 
studied ; the features sometimes quoted, the presence of spina externa and 
interna, do not appear to have much significance. The forms of the vertebrae 



via A MANUAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

are four in number, but only two of these are generally utilised, the heterocceloua 
and opisthoccelous, and they vary rather erratically, so that they have little 
primary importance. The shape of the coracoids. clavicles and scapulae 
varies considerably and has been extensively quoted and appears to have 
value in connection with the sternum. When the clavicles join, the combina- 
tion is known as the furcula, and the presence or absence of such an item is 
often important. The wing bones have not been much considered in connection 
with taxonomy, but detailed study should allow good characters from the 
development of these ; but here, as in the leg bones, adaptive features must 
not be misunderstood. Thus, in the latter, the tarso-metatarsus has been 
commonly cited when the development was purely adaptive and not of the 
phylogenetic importance credited to it — ^the study of the birds would have 
explained tliis. 

The first and most commonly utilised item of the soft parts, generally 
so called (not the soft parts external of the taxonomist), has been the formation 
of the syrinx. The Passeriform birds have been divided into primary sections 
by means of tliis organ, and it is certain that degradation has been mistaken 
for lack of development. This is a matter which wiU be settled when the 
new school of anatomists attack bird development from a scientific standpoint. 
We will deal more particularly with tliis feature later on, as the modes of 
syrinx development in the groups now being dealt with are of little importance, 
the variation being inconstant. As above noted the development of the 
carotid arteries was investigated by Nitzsch and elaborated by Garrod, who 
practically proved that the feature was so inconstant as to be useless when 
its confirmation would have been of value. The presence or absence of the 
caeca was also studied with similar results, no satisfactory conclusions as to 
its value being possible. Like conclusions attended similar research in 
connection with the length of the intestines, the presence of the gall blader, 
the size and position of the liver, etc., etc. Gadow considered the position of 
the intestines as they are stowed away in the body, and Chalmers Mitchell 
followed with a criticism of the methods of coihng of the intestinal canal. 
From their results it appears that these foUow definite lines and that, as 
confinnatory e^^dence, they are probabty quite as valuable a feature as any 
other internal character. Garrod also investigated the muscles of the leg, 
and, finding them variable as to their presence, endeavoured to influence 
classification by their means. The mystic formula ABXY + was invented 
by him, and its variations are always cited in connection with bird grouping, 
though its value is of Uttle moment. The meaning of the letters had better 
be explained here. A stands for the femoro-caudal muscle, B for the accessory 
femoro-caudal, X for the semitendinosus, and Y for the accessory semi- 
tendinosus, and the + sign for the presence of the ambiens muscle. The 
— minus is used if the latter be absent. The wing muscles have never been 
given as much prominence, though they have just as much right and also 
show variation, but their variation has not been tabulated as fully as that 
of the leg muscles. Taken individually, as these characters have been, the 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

general results are more or less of little value, but the consideration of them 
taken as a whole is of great value when the superficial characters are well 
understood. 

Pterylosis is not well known at present, so that definite conclusions 
cannot be recorded, the only point to emphasise being the continual examina- 
tion of specimens and that criticism of results will later follow. All we now 
know is that variation is seen when not anticipated and consequently 
commonly misunderstood, and the present facts are not of great significance 
through ignorance of basic data. It is a subject that wUl I'epay continued 
study, but not occasional excursions. 

Another item continually quoted is the presence or absence of the oil 
gland, and whether it be nude, tufted or feathered. The absurdity of the 
usage of such a character should be obvious. However, it has been seriously 
put forward as of value, but its true insignificance is now generally accepted. 
The presence or absence of the aftershaft and its size are also mentioned, but, 
of course, that character has also been minimised through better material 
and more study, as species which have been commonlj^ cited as showing no 
aftershaft prove to possess one. 

A peculiar feature of the wing feathering was noted, and immediately 
investigated as of import, but here again its absolute value camiot yet be 
appreciated. We refer to the loss of the fifth secondary, though its covert 
is present. This state of the wing has two alternative terms, quincubital 
or eutaxic and aquincubital or diastataxic. The comparative value of this 
state is well seen among the Swifts, where both fonns occur. More valuable 
as an absolute character is the coloration of the nestling from the egg onward. 
The state of the nesthng when it emerged from the egg was once utihsed, 
but this seems of less value than the coloration of the first feathering. That 
this is extremely important is at once seen by study of downy nestlings of 
the Scolopacine group. It is always necessaiy to remember that secondary 
results are apt to obscure hasty examination in connection with many of the 
above features, but the only conclusion possible from an unprejudiced viewpoint 
is that there are no internal features of outstanding importance, the exceptions 
being so numerous, and the main items so imperfectly investigated ; wiiile 
external characters show less variation and are better known and their develop- 
ment can be more perfectly studied through the much greater mass of material 
available. Consequently throughout this work we have given fuU details 
of the external features, and also added the internal items as commonly 
given in text books for the benefit of workers — the fonner all being drawn 
up from actual specimens, and therefore accurate ; the latter compiled from, 
various authoritative sources, and only in few instances, as yet, verified by 
ourselves. 

Before we leave this subject we may enter an apology as to the genus 
spUttmg complained of in connection with our work. We have given a 
description of the generic characters observed, and have endorsed these with 
a beautiful painting of the character noted. When we have studied aU the 



X A MANUAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRAUA. 

groups with tbeir plumage changes and growth stages we may suggest genus 
lumping, and we propliesy now that our efforts in that direction will receive 
less encouragement than our present work. We have been accused of 
dogmatism, but never has any work shown so little of that vice ; as a matter 
of fact, niany complaints have been made against our changeableness. Conse- 
quently we feel at hberty to aUow our successors with better facilities and 
more material to judge our conclusions. 

An American reviewer has complained of our neglect of subgenera " so 
commonly used now," but we would point out that in the American Ornitho- 
logists' Union Checklist, out of the first 180 genera (nearly), covering the 
same ground as this volume, only " 13 " are subdi\'ided into subgenera, while 
Ridgway's proportion is apparently the same as ours, when deahng with the 
same groups. 

III.— ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 
It is unfortunate for the study of zoology that political boundaries are 
adhered to in the nomination of localities and areas inhabited by animals. 
As a general rule such limits are never coincident with those imposed by 
nature, and nowhere is this fact seen so clearly as in Australia. Having 
studied the avifauna from the viewpoint of the zoogeographer, we here give 
a shght sketch of the pecuharities of the bird life as an incentive to further 
study. When the limits of the zoological divisions are understood the arrange- 
ment of subspecies is a comparatively easy task and their non-admittance 
in certain cases is worthy of attention. The primary constituents appear 
to be complex, as there can be seen two early sources of endemic forms, with 
two later immigrations from the north. Confusion may arise through the 
earher immigrants being mistaken for the later, and vice versa, while it is 
possible that the two early sources cannot be definitely differentiated. At 
the present time the study of palaeontology in Australia cannot give us much 
help, though later it may be of service. It is probable, moreover, that when 
the study of ecological ornithology is well estabhshed, facts may be derived 
from that source, which, in conjunction with geological data, may assist us 
to valid conclusions. With the above hmitations we may separate the facts 
into groups and use them conservatively in considering the existing avifauna 
with the following results. The Tasmanian fauna shows a little pecuUarity 
in the fact that the majority of tlie birds are separable from the mainland 
ones, but generally only with subspecific rank ; a few are specifically distinct, 
wliile two have been commonly accepted as showing generic differences. 
It is remarkable that these two are purely island degradation forms, whereas 
some of the restricted genera we utilise are more valuable phj'logenetically as 
showing ancestral forms, the mainland representative being more speciaKsed. 
A more pecuhar feature is the absence from Tasmania of certain old forms 
which still persist on the almost adjacent mainland. These, moreover, 
inhabit the southern portion of Victoria which is so closely allied as to be 
almost, zoologically, part of Tasmania. It must be here confirmed that the 



INTRODTJCTION. XI 

Victorian fauna is divisible into three sections — a northern, southern, and 
•western desert one. 

Consequently Victoria is a confusing term when cited as the locality of 
any bird, and this refers to most other State names, though not so well marked 
in so circumscribed an area. The most famed endemic Australian birds, such 
as the Emu and Lyre Bird, are equalled in zoogeograpliic interest by less 
well-known forms which are too numerous even to mention here. Each 
provides an essay in itself as to its distribution, but it may here be asserted 
that all are confined to the southern part of Australia, both east and west. 
At the present time some show discontinuous range through the intervention 
of the great central desert. Some, appai'ently definitely restricted and evolved 
in this southern area, have again spread northwards and repopidated the 
areas from which their ancestors ranged southwards. At the same time 
tlie succeeding fauna has extended its limits and penetrated into Australia 
even to the southernmost limits, but scarcely ever reacliing Tasmania. It is 
this complex which makes the study so interesting, as the facts are so obvious 
that these succeeding migrations can almost be defined with imfailing accuracy. 
However, we wiU suggest these movements, without dealing in great detaU, 
thus : Palseontologically, we have not the data to assert a definite period, 
but we can fix an early migration from the north which overran Australia 
before the severance of the Bassian Isthmus and whose members quickly 
developed in a degenerate manner through lack of inimical opposition. The 
separation of Tasmania took place after degeneration had set in, so that the 
island forms were left as isolated unprogressives. On the mainland, changing 
conditions compelled a certain amount of competition, and we find the con- 
temporaries of the island species a little more advanced on the mainland. 
Some of them even, adapting themselves as the situations demanded, progressed 
so that they could not only defend themselves but take the oSensive, and 
these, being barred from any advance southward, attempted a northward 
dispersal. These constitute the bulk of the Australian Oniis and include 
the majority of the endemic genera and species. From the observed data 
we conclude that after the division of Bass Straits another immigration from 
the north took place and this also succeeded in overrunning Australia, but 
did not cross the Straits into Tasmania. It is probable that the competi- 
tion between these two elements — the invaders and the settlers — resulted in 
the extermination of many of the weaker forms of the latter, a few resisting 
and being now recognised in such a survival as Alrichornis. The stronger 
settlers, of course, continued their progress accumulatively under the stress 
of the stronger newcomers in order to retain their places. The new 
immigrants in their turn soon accustomed themselves to the environment 
and became adapted to the lack of great stress, and a few of these again evolved 
the role of pioneer and perforce had to retrace their ancestors' steps into the 
north. In these attempts probably many more faded than succeeded, and 
we have only record of the successes. This migration can be seen throughout 
Australia in the form of differentiated species of prevailing northern genera. 



A MANUAL OF THE BIKDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



The complex persists in the fact that it is sometimes difficult to judge whether 
a species, as it may show little distinction, should be referred to tliis or the 
earlier migration, and this can only be determined by the relative antiquity 
of the genus considered. This may be gauged to some extent by the distribu- 
tion of the genus and its allies, and it is m connection with tliese studies that 
genus lumping proves so misleading. We conclude that when this second 
migration took place AustraUa was connected by land with New Guinea, 
and Torres Straits had not been evolved. Since the division a tliird irruption 
into AustraUa has taken place, and the procedure is still going on. TMs 
irruption has never overrun the continent, but has either run down the east 
coast or along the north coast into the north-west or both, and comprises 
species still livmg unchanged in New Guinea. It has been suggested that at 
one time a connection of Australia with the Northern Islands existed in the 
north-west, quite distinct and separate from the Torresian connection. There 
exist a few forms which seem to comitenance this suggestion, as instance, 
Eremiornis, isolated in the north-west and living on the Montebello Islands, 
a form almost as peculiar as Atrichornis. To crystaUise the above migrations 
we may cite a concrete example. The ancestral Moorhen arrived in Australia 
and penetrated into Tasmania ; retaining primitive features upon the separa- 
tion of the latter country, the island form degenerated into a huge semi- flightless 
big-footed bird ; the mainland one, through stress of environment, drought, 
etc., was compelled to retain its flying powers and also its smaller size, but 
stiU shows primitive appearance. In the north, alteration through necessity 
proceeded, and then the more highly developed bird with the second immigration 
proceeded to colonise Austraha, and spread over the continent but not into 
Tasmania. At the third immigration a new development, the Rufous-tailed 
Moorhen, crossed Torres Straits and ranged along the north to the Northern 
Territory and into North Queensland. This sequence can be traced in 
cormection with many other birds and is worthy of study. A few words 
must be given in connection with the desert foims ; these are apparently 
referable to the first immigration and have been evolved through enviroimiental 
stresses, sometimes so much that their relationship has become obscure, and 
it is always possible that their ancestral relations have become extinct without 
leaving any obvious descendants. It is possible that complete anatomical 
and osteological examination would assist in tracing such to an acceptable 
ancestry, and as a good example for investigation we suggest Pdtohyas, the 
Australian Dotterel. 

Though the arrangement in this work is Umited to species it must not be 
concluded that we minimise the value of the study of subspecies, but rather 
we have allotted to them their full value, and we appreciate their worth in tlie 
consideration of zoogeographical problems, especially such as are presented 
by the numerous " islands " indicated on tlie AustraUan mainland. These 
have been previously indicated by Mathews, so we will not deal with them 
here, but simply call attention to their presence once again. The study of 
subspecies is now being undertaken by Australian ornithologists, and it is 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

very pleasing to the senior author to see the new school attacking the live 
subject in so thorough a manner, and we hope that the present work wiU 
assist such in the most complete maimer. In this volume we give an 
illustration of the subspecific characters of the Silver Gull, and we propose in 
the succeeding volumes to illustrate further such features when of sufficient 
import. 

GREGORY M. MATHEWS. 

TOM IREDALE. 

12th February, 1921. 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF CONTENTS 
AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PLATE PAGE 

Class Aves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Subclass Dromseornithes . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Order Casiiarii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Suborder Casuariiformes . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Family Dromiceiidse . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Grenus Dromiceius . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Dromiceiiis novaehollandiae . . .. .. .. .. I. 3 

Genus Peronista . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 

Peronista peroni . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 

Family Casuariidae . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 

Genus Casuarius . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 

Casuarius casuarius . . . . . . . . . . II. 6 

Subclass Impennes . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 

Order Sphenisci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 

Suborder Sphenisciformes . . . . . . . . . . 8 

Family Spheniscidse . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 

Genus Eudyptula . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 

Eudyptula minor . . . . . . . . . . . . IX. 9 

Genus Eudyptes . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 

Eudyptes pachyrhynchu.s . . . . . . . . . . III. 10 

serresianus . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 

schlegeli . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 

Family Aptenodytidae . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 

Genus Aptenodytes . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 

Aptenodytes imtagonica . . . . . . . . . . 13 

Subclass Euornithes . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 

Order Procellarise or Tubinares . . . . . . . . 14 

Suborder Procellariiformes . . . . . . . . . . 15 

Superfamily ProceUarioidea . . . . . . . . . . 15 

Family Thalassidromidae .. .. .. .. .. 15 

Genus Oceanites . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 

Oceanites oceanicus . . . . . . . . . . IV., VII. 16 

Genus Garrodia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 

Garrodia nereis . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. 17 

Genus Pelagodroma . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 

Pelagodrorna marina . . . . . . . . . . IV., VII. 18 

Genus Fregetta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 

Fregetta tropica IV., VII. 20 

tubulata . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 

Genus Fregettornis . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 

Fregettornis grallarius . . . . . . . . . . IV. 21 

Family ProcellariidaB . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 

Genus Puffinus 22 

Puffinus assimilis IV., V., VII. 23 



A M.VNUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



Grcuus Calouectris 

Caloiieclris leucomelas 
Genus Reinholdia 

Heinholdia reinholdi 
Genus ThyeUodroma 

Thyellodroma pacifica 
Genus Neouectris 

Necmeclris griseus . . 

lenuirostris 

Genus Hemipuffinus 

Hemipuffnms carneipes 
Genus Procellaria 

Procellaria cBqwinoctialis 
■ conspicillata 

parkinsoni 

Genus Adaraastor 

Adamastor cinereus. . 
Genus Priocella . . 

Priocella antarctim 
Genus Pterodroma 

Pterodroma macroptera 

melanopus 

■ inexpectata 

mollis . . 

Genus ^strelata . . 

JEstrelata lessonii . . 
Genus Gookilaria 

Cookilaria cookii 
Genus Daption . . 

Daption capensis 
Genus Halobaena 

Haloboina cwrulea . . 
Grenus Heteroprion 

Heteroprion bdcheri 

— -^ desolatus 
Genus Pseudoprion 

Pseudoprion turlur 
Grenus Pachyptila 

Pachyptila viltata . . 
Genus Macronectes 

Macronectes giganteus 
Family Pelecanoididse . . 
Grenus Pelecanoides 

Pelecanoide-s urinatrix 
Supcrfamily Diomedeoidea 
Family Diomedeidae 
Genus Phoebetria 

Phosbetria fusca 

— ■ — ■ palpebrata 
Genus Thalassarche 

Thalasmrche mdanoplirys 

chrysostoma . . 

— ■ — • chlororhynchus 



PLATE 


PAGE 




23 




24 




24 




24 




25 




26 




27 




27 




27 




28 


V. 


28 




2!) 


VI., VII. 


29 


VI. 


30 




30 




31 




31 




32 




32 




33 


IV., VII. 


33 




34 




34 




35 




36 


VII. 


36 




37 


v., VII. 


37 




38 




39 




39 


V. 


40 




41 


VI. 


41 


VI. 


41 




42 


VI. 


42 




43 


VI., VII. 


43 




44 


IV. 


45 




45 




46 


VI., VII. 


46 




47 




48 




48 




48 




49 




50 




50 


^^II. 


51 


\iii. 


52 



SYSTEMATIC LIST AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Genus Diomedella 

Diomedella cauta 
Genus Diomedea 

Diomedea exulans 

chionoptera 

— — epomopliora 
Order Fregati 
Family Fregatidse 
Gtenus Fregata . . 

Fregata minor 

— — ■ arid 
Order Pelecani . . 
Superfaraily Phalacrocoracoidea 
Family PhalacrocoracidaB 
Genus Hypoleucus 

Hypoleucus perthi . . 

— •— fuscesc-ens 
Genus Mesocarbo 

Mesocarbo ater 
Genus Microcarbo 

Microcarbo mdanoleucus 
Genus Phalacrocorax 

Phalacrocorax caroo 
Family Anhingidse 
Genus Anhinga . . 

Anhinga novmJiollandicE 
Suj^erfamily Pelecanoidea 
Family Pelecanidae 
Genus Catoptropeiicanus 

Catoptropdicanus conspicillatas 
Superfamily Suloidea 
Family Sulidse . . 
Genus Sula 

Sida leucogaster 
Genus Piscatrix . . 

Pisratrix sula 
Genus Parasula . . 

Parasula daclylatra.. 
Genus Sulita 

Sidita serrator 
Order Lari 

Suborder Phaethonti formes 
FamHy Phaethontidse . . 
Genus Leptophaethon . . 

Leptopha'cthon lepturus 
Genus Scseophaethon . . 

Scmophaethon riibricauda 
Suborder Lari formes 
Family Sternidse . . 
Genus Chlidonias 

Chlidonias leucopareia 

■ leiicoptera 



PLATE 


PAGE 




53 


VIII. 


53 




54 


VII., VIII 


54 


VII. 


55 




56 




57 




58 




58 


IX. 


58 




60 




61 




61 




02 




62 


XI. 


63 


V. 


63 




64 


X. 


64 




65 


X. 


65 




06 


X. 


67 




68 




08 


XI. 


68 




69 




70 




70 


X. 


70 




71 




71 




72 


XI. 


72 




73 




74 




74 


XI. 


75 




76 


X. 


76 




77 




77 




78 




79 




79 




80 


IX. 


80 




81 




82 




82 




83 


XVI. 


84 



A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



Gtenus Sterna 

Sterna striata 

dougallii 

Genus Gygi sterna 

Gygisterna sumatrana 
Genus Stcrnula . . 

Sternula albifrons . . 

nereis . . 

Genus Pelecanopus 

Pelecanopus bergii . . 

bengalensis 

Genus Golochelidon 

Gelochdidon nilotica 
Genus Hydroprogne 

Hydroprogne caspia 
Genus Melanostenia 

Mclanosterna ancethetus 
Genus Onychoprion 

Onychoprion fwscatits 
Genus Megalopterus 

Megalopteriis minutus 

tenuirostris 

Genus Anous 

Anous stolidus 
Genus Procelstema 

Procelsterna cerulea 
Genus Leucanous 

Leucanous albus 
Family Laridse . . 
Genus Bruchigavia 

Bruchigavia novcBhollandice 
Gtenus Gabianus 

Gabianus pacificus . . 
Family Sterc.orariidse 
Genus Catharacta 

Caiharada lonnbergi 
Genus Coprotheres 

Coprothere-s poirMrinus 
Genus Stercorarius 

Stercorarius parasiticus 
Suborder Charadriiformes 
Superfamily Burhinoidea 
Family Burhinidae 
Genus Burhinus 

Burhinus magnirostris 
Genus Orthorhamphus . . 

Orthorhamph us rnagn iroitris 
Superfamily Scolopacoidea 
Familjr Rostratulidse 
Genus Rostratula 

Rostratula aiistralis . . 
Family Scolopacidae 
Genus Ditelmatias 

Ditelmatia,s harduickii 



PLATE 


PAGE 




86 




86 


XII. 


87 




88 


XIV. 


88 




89 




89 


XIV. 


91 




91 


XIV. 


92 




93 




94 


XII. 


94 




96 


XII. 


96 




97 


XX. 


97 




98 


XX. 


99 




100 


XIII. 


100 




101 




102 


XIII. 


102 




103 


XIII. 


103 




104 


XIII. 


105 




106 




106 


XIV., XV. 


106 




108 


XIV. 


108 




109 




110 


XII. 


110 




111 




111 




112 




113 




114 




115 




115 




115 


XVI. 


116 




117 


XVI. 


117 




118 




119 




119 


XVIII. 


119 




120 




121 


XVII. 


121 



SYSTEMATIC LIST AND ILLUSTEATIONS . 



Genus Subspilui'a 

Subsfilura megala . . 
Genus Calidris 

Calidris canutus 
Genus Anteliotringa 

Anteliotringa tenuirostris 
Genus Platyiham2jlius . . 

Platyrhamphus falcinellus 
Genus Erolia 

Erolia ferruginea 
Genus Limnocinclus 

Limnocindus acuminat as 
Genus Pisobia 

Pisobia ruficollis 

subminitta 

Genus Crocethia 

Crocethia alba 
Genus Glottis 

Glottis nebularius . . 
Genus Iliomis 

Iliornis stagnatilis . . 
Genus Rhyacophilus 

Rhyacophilus glareola 
Genus Actitis 

Actitis hypoleucus . . 
Genus Terekia 

Terekia cinerea 
Genus Heteractitis 

Heteractitis incanus 

■ brevipes 

Genus Bartramia 

Bartramia longicaiida 
Grenus Vetola 

Vetola lappmiica 
Genus Limosa 

Limosa limosa 
Genus Mesoscolopax 

Mesoscolopax minutus 
Genus Phaeopus . . 

Phceopus piJioiopus . . 
Genus Numenius 

Numenius cyayiopus 
Family Recurvirostridse 
Genus Himantopus 

Himantopus leucocephalus 
Genus Cladorhynehus . . 

Cladorhynchus leucocephalus 
Genus Recuivirostra 

Eecurvirostra novcehoUandice 
Superfaniily Charadrioidea 
Family Hsematopodidse . . 
Genus Haematopus 

Hoematopus ostralegus 
unicolor 



PLATE 


PAGE 




122 


XVII. 


123 




123 


XIX. 


124 




125 


XXII. 


125 




126 


XXII. 


126 




128 


XIX. 


128 




129 


XVIII. 


129 




130 


XVIII. 


131 


XVIII. 


132 




132 


XIX. 


133 




134 


XXIV. 


135 




136 




136 




137 




138 




139 




139 




140 


XXIV. 


141 




142 


XVIII. 


142 


XVIII. 


143 




144 




144 




145 


XX. 


145 




147 


XX. 


147 




149 


XIX. 


149 




150 


XXIV. 


150 




151 


XIX. 


151 




152 




153 


XXI. 


153 




154 


XXI. 


154 




155 


XXI. 


155 




156 




157 




157 


XVI. 


157 




158 



A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALU. 



Family Arenariidse 
Gienus Arenaria . . 

Arenaria interpres 
Family Charadriidae 
Genus Squatarola 

Squaiarola squatarola 
Grcnus Pluvialis . . 

Pluvialis dominicus 
Genus Cirrepidesmus 

Cirrepide^tmis mcmgolus 
Genus Nesoceryx 

Nesoceryx bicinchts 
Genus Pagoa 

Pagoa leschenauUii 
Genus Leucopolius 

Leucopolius ruficapilh 
Genus Charadrius 

Charadrius cucullatus 
Genus Eupodella 

Eupoddla vereda 
Genus Elseyornis 

Elseyornis mdanops 
Family Vanellidse 
Genus Lobibyx . . 

Lobibyx miles 

novcehollandicE 

Genus Zonifcr 

Zcmifer tricolor 
Genus Erythrogonys 

Erythrogonys cinctxis 
Superfamily Jacanoidea 
Family Jacanidse 
Genus Irediparra 

Irediparra gallinacea 
Superfamily Glareoloidea 
Family Glareolidse 
Genus Glareola . . 

Glareola maldivarnm 
Genus Stiltia 

Stiltia isabella 
Genus Peltohyas . . 

Peltohyas avstralis 
Suborder Otidiformes 
Family Otididse . . 
Genus Austrotis . . 

Austrotis australis 
Order Psophii or Grues 
Suborder Psophiiformes 
Family Balearicidae 
Genus Mathewsena 

Mathewsena rubicunda 
Order Ralli 
Suborder Ralliformes 
Family Rallidae . . 



PLATE 


PAGE 




159 




159 


XIX. 


159 




161 




161 


'. XXII. 


162 




163 


XXII. 


163 




165 


XX. 


165 




166 


". XX., XXIII 


166 




167 


XXII. 


168 




169 


XXIII. 


169 




170 


XXIII. 


170 




171 


XXII. 


172 




172 


XX. 


173 




174 




174 




175 


'. XXIII. 


175 




176 


XXIII. 


177 




177 


'. XXIII. 


178 




179 




179 




179 


XXIII. 


180 




181 




181 




181 


XXIV. 


182 




183 


XXIV. 


183 




184 


XXIV. 


184 




185 




185 




185 


XXV. 


186 




187 




188 




188 




188 


" XXV. 


189 




189 




190 




190 



SYSTEMATIC LIST AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 





PLATE 


PAGE 


Genus Rallus 




190 


Ballus pectoralis 


'.'. '.'. XXVI. 


191 


Genus Tomirdus 


. 


192 


Tomirdm tricolor . . 


XXVI. 


192 


Genus Hypotaenidia 




193 


HypotcBtiidia philip2)ensis . . 


'.'. '.'. XXVI. 


194 


Genus Eulabeornis 




195 


Eulabeornis castaneoventris 


XXVI. 


196 


Genus Crex 




196 


Crex crex 




196 


Genus Porzana . . 




197 


Porzana fluminea . . 


'.'. '.'. v. XXVII. 


198 


Genus Zapornia . . 




199 


Zapornia pusilla 




199 


Genus Porzanoidea 




200 


Porzanoidea plumijea 


XXVII. 


200 


Genus Poliolimnas 




201 


Poliolimruis cinereus 


'. '.'. '.'. '.'. XXVII. 


202 


Family Gallinulidse 




203 


Genus Amaiu-ornis 




203 


Amaurornis moluccanus 


; '.'. '.'. '.'. XXVII. 


203 


Genus Gallinula . . 




204 


Gallinula tenebrosa 


;; '.'. '.'. XXVIII. 


205 


Genus Microtribonyx . . 




205 


Microtribonyx ventralis 


'.'. '.'. '.'. XXVII. 


206 


Genus Tribonyx 




207 


Tribonyx mortierii . . 


'.'. '.'. '.'. XXVII. 


207 


Genus Porphyrio 




208 


Porphyrio mdanohis 


'.'. '.'. '.'. XXVIII. 


208 


bellus . . 




210 


Family Fulicidae 




210 


Genus Fulica 




210 


Fulica atra . . 


'.'. XXVIII. 


211 


Suborder Podicipiformes 




211 


Family Podicipidse 




212 


Genus Podiceps . . 




212 


Podiceps cristatus . . 


XXIX. 


213 


Genus Poliocephalus 




214 


Poliocephalvs ruficollis 


XXIX. 


214 


poliocephalus .. 




215 


Order Galli 




216 


Suborder Galliformes 




217 


Superfamily Megapodioidea 




217 


Family Megapodidse 




218 


Genus Megapodius 




218 


Megapodius reinwardt 


XXX. 


218 


Genus Leipoa 




220 


Leipoa ocellata 


'. '.'. '.'. '.'. XXX. 


220 


Genus Alectura . . 




222 


Alectura lathami 


"' '.'. '.'. XXX. 


222 


Superfamily Phasianoidea 




223 


Family Perdicidae 




223 


Genus Coturnix . . 




223 


Coturnix pi^ctoralis . . 


; '.'. v. '.'. XXXI. 


224 



A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



Genus Ypsilophorus 

Ypsilaphorus ypsilophorus 
Genus Excalfactoria 

Excalfacloria chinensis 
SuboRler Turniciforraes 
Family TurnicidsB 
Genus Turnix 

Turnix maculosa 
Genus Marianomis 

Marianornis larms 
Genus Austroturiiix 

Austrotumix olivii . . 

castanota 

Genus Alphatuniia 

Alphaturnia velox . . 

■ pyrrhothorax . . 

Genus Colcloughia 

Colcloughia melanogaster 
Family PedionomidsB 
Genus Pedionomus 

Pedionomus torqiialus 
Order Columbae . . 
Suborder Columbiformes 
Family Colimibidae 
Genus Leucomeloena 

Leucomeloena norjolciensis 
Genus Macropypia 

Macropygia phasiandla 
Family Turturidas 
Genus Chrysauchoena . . 

Chrysauchwna kumeralis 
Genus Geopelia . . 

Geopdia placida 
Genus Stictopeleia 

Siiclopdeia cunata.. 
Genus Chalcophaps 

CkalcopJiaps chrysochlora 
Genus Phaps 

Phaps chalcoptera . . 
Genus Cosniopelia 

Cosmopdia elegans 
Genus Histriophaps 

Histriophaps histrionica 
Genus Petrophassa 

Petrophassa albipennis 

rufipennis 

Genus Geophaps 

Geophaps scripta 

smithii . . 

Genus Lophophaps 

Lophophaps plumijera 

ferruginea 

Genus Ocyphaps . . 

Ocyphapa lophotes . . 



PLATE 


PAGE 




225 


XXXI. 


226 




227 


XXXI. 


228 




229 




229 




230 


XXXI. 


230 




231 


XXXII. 


231 




233 


XXXII. 


233 


XXXII. 


234 




235 


XXXII. 


235 


XXXII. 


236 




237 


XXXII. 


238 




239 




239 


XXXI. 


239 




240 




241 




242 




242 


XXXIII. 


242 




243 


XXXIV. 


243 




244 




245 


XXXIII. 


245 




246 


XXXIII. 


247 




247 


XXXIV. 


248 




249 


XXXIII. 


249 




251 


XXXIII. 


251 




252 




252 




253 


XXXIII. 


254 




255 


XXXIV. 


255 




256 




256 


XXXV. 


257 


XXXV. 


258 




259 


XXXV. 


259 




260 




261 


XXXIV. 


261 



SYSTEMATIC LIST AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Genus Leucosarcia 

Leucosarcia melanoleuca 
Family Trerouidse 
Genus Ptilinopus 

Ptilinopus regina . . 

— • superb us 

Genus Megaloprepia 

Megaloprepia magnifica 
Genus Leucotreron 

Leucolreron alligator 
Genus M.yristicivora 

Myristicivora bicolor 
Genus Globiceia 

Globicera pacifica . . 

rubricera 

Genus Lopholaimus 

Lopholaimus antarcticus 



PLATE 


PAGE 




262 


XXXIV. 


262 




263 




263 


XXXVI. 


264 




265 




266 


XXXV. 


267 




267 


XXXVI. 


268 




268 


XXXV. 


269 




269 


XXXV. 


270 




270 




271 


XXXVI. 


271 



LIST OF COLOUllED PLATES. 



Plate 1. jEwdi/^ies ^ac%r%»c/i.MS (Big-crested Penguin). 
Eudyptes serresianus (Yellow-crested Penguin). 
Apitenodytes paiagonica (King Penguin). 

„ 2. Bill features of Mollymawks and Albatrosses : — 

1, Tkalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Mollymawk). 2, 
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed IMoUymawk). 3, 
Tkalassarche chloroi'hynchus (Yellow-nosed Mollymawk). 4, 
Diomedella cavta (White-capped Albatross). 5, Phabetria 
fusca (Sooty Albatross). 6, Phabetria palpcbrata (Light- 
mantled Sooty Albatross). 

„ 3. I, Caspian Tern. 2, 3, Wliite Tern. 4, White-capped Noddy. 5, 
Lesser Crested Tern. 6, Roseate Tern. 7, Grey Noddy. 
8, Gull-billed Tern. 9, Noddy. 10, White-faced Ternlet. 
11, 12, Sooty Tern. 13, Bridled Tem. 

,, 4. 1, Winter plumage of Lesser Crested Tem (Pelecanopics bengalensis). 

2, Immature of Wliite-faced Ternlet {Sternula nereis). 3, 
Immature of Whiskered Tern {Chlidonias leucopareia). 4, 
Immature of Gull-billed Tern [Gelochelidon nilotica). 5, 
Immature of White-fronted Tern {Sterna striata). 

,, 5. 1, Nestling of Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias leucopareia). 2, Nestling 
of White-faced Ternlet (Sternvla nereis). 3, Nestling of 
Roseate Tern [Sterna dougallii). 4, Nestling of Pacific Gull 
{Gabianus pacificus). 

,, 6. 1, Nestling of Black-fronted Dotterel [Elseyornis melanops). 2, 
Nestling of Red -capped Dotterel (Levcopolius ruficapillus). 

3, Nestling of Black-breasted Plover {Zonifer tricolor). 4, 
Nestling of Spur-winged Plover (Lobibyx novcehoUandice). 



XXIV 



A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



Plate 7. 1, Nestling of Stouc Plover (Burhinus magnirostris). 2, Nestling of 
Avocct (Recurvirostra avosetta). 3, Nestling of Pied Oj'stcr- 
catcher [Hctmalopiis ostralegus). 4, Immature of Lotus 
Bird {Irediparra gallinacea). 

„ 8. 1, Nestling of Noddy [Anoiis slolidus). 2, Nestling of White-capped 
Noddy (Megalopteriis minutus). 3, Nestling of Tippet Grebe 
{Podiceps cristalus). 4, Nestling of Black-throated Grebe 
(Poliocephalns ruficollis). 

„ 9. 1, Nestling of Bald Coot (Por/)/)»/no me/ano<MS). 2, Nestling of Black 
Moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa). 3, Nestling of Black-tailed 
Water Hen (Microlribonyx venlralis). 4, Nestling of Coot 
(Fulica atra). 

,, 10. 1, 2, Nestling of King Quail (Excalfadoria chinensis). Australian 
and extra-limital forms. 3, Nestling of Stubble Quail 
(Coturnix pectoralis). 4, Nestling of Painted Quail {Mariaii- 
ornis varhts). 



In this Volume the following subspecies have been named as new : 
Eudyptes serresianus moseleyi : Tristan d'Acmiha Group 

interjectus : Kerguelen Island . . 

Heteroprion desolatus alexanderi : West Australia 
Phcebelria palpebmta murphyi : South Georgia 
SuHta serrator rex : New Zealand . . 
Chlidonias leucopareia sdateri : South Africa 
Pelecanopus bengalensis par : Red Sea 



84 
04 



A MANUAL 
OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Class AVES. 

Three subclasses are admitted in this class, all of which are represented in the 
Australian Ornis ; these are the Dromaeornithes, the huge flightless forms previously 
known as Ratitaa or Palseognathse ; the Impennes or Penguins ; and the Euornithes, 
or normal flying birds. 

All existing birds are clothed with feathers, have two wings, a tail, two legs 
and a horny -covered beak. In a few cases the wings have degenerated and become 
flightless, only remnants being recognisable, in a few others the wings have become 
specialised into swimming paddles — in the majority they are very noticeable and 
capable of flight. In a few instances the tail has become almost obsolete, and in 
these instances the flying power of the birds is generally lessened ; in others, the tail 
has become extremelj' lengthened and generally this is associated with greater powers 
of flight. Though two legs are absolutely constant, the number of toes varies, four 
being the general number, three not uncommon, two in one case only, and no reduction 
to one is yet known, nor are five met with in nature. The legs may be so short as 
to be almost useless for walking purposes, or they may be so extremely long as to 
seem disproportionate. The beak shows many modifications in difierent ways, 
according to the feeding methods of the birds. Birds have been generally classified 
by the variations in these characters, and by means of judicial consideration of all 
these a fair appreciation of the relationships may be attained. When the results 
are checked by means of osteological and anatomical research we may prepare a 
definite system of arrangement with due deference to phylogenetic considerations. 
As all the subclasses are represeiated, we refer to the detailed figures and descriptions 
given throughout the work for amplification of the items above mentioned. 

Subclass DROMMORNITHES. 

This subclass is composed, as to recent birds, of three orders : Struthiones, Rhese 
and Casuarii. The former is confined to Africa and the Syrian Desert, the second 
to South America, and the last named to the Papuasia-Australian Region. The 
differences betweei; the orders are so marked that a very close relationship might be 
justifiably denied. As a matter of fact many more differential features can be cited 
than characters proving alliance, and i t is now being accepted that these may represent 
specialised forms. Superficially they are all very large birds with stout bodies, 
long neclis and long stout legs, but no wings capable of flight, or distinct tail. 
The order Casuarii only interests us, as to discuss its non-affinity with the others 
would occupy too much space in a work like this. 

Order CASUARII. 

This is coequal with the suborder Casuariiformes which covers two families, 
Dromiceiidae and Casuariidse. These are superficially easily distinguished by the 

B 



2 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

latter bearing a more or less strongly developed helmet, peculiar hollow spines as 
the wing feathers and a peculiarly developed inner claw, and also having the head 
bare and fleshy wattles on the neck. The superficial features are described under 
the generic names, so we may just cite the known internal characters. Osteologically 
the skull is dromseognathous, a term introduced by Huxley, for the style of palatal 
formation fomul in connection with these birds, but which has proved to be of less 
value than was anticipated, as a similar state occurs in the Tinamous and Kiwi which 
have no near relationship. It may be noted that Huxley separated the Ratite from 
the Carinate birds, and then divided the latter by means of the palate, jjroviding 
dromaeognathous for the Tinamous on accomit of their perfectly Struthious palate, 
and since then the term has been used in connection with the Struthious birds. The 
nasals are holorhinal and the basipterygoid processes are very large and peculiar, 
articulating with the pterygoids at their extreme end, instead of half-way along, as 
commonly in the higher groups. The lachrymals show a foramen in the descending 
process. There is no furcula, only rudimentary clavicles being present, the coracoids 
fused with the scapula and the sternum has no keel ; there are twenty cervical 
vertebra? in Dromiceius, and eighteen or nineteen in Casuarius. The pelvis is peculiar, 
there being no osseous connection between the pubes and ischia and ilium. There 
are two carotid arteries and the digestive sj'stem is considered to represent the lowest 
avian type of coiling. The syrinx is indistinct, showing no pessulus or intrinsic 
musculature, a peculiar modification being seen in connection with Dromiceius. 
The leg muscle formula is complete, being ABXY+, while the biceps slip is absent. 
The oil gland is missing and the aftershaft is remarkably long, nearly the same length 
as the main feather. The pterylosis is not well known, while the nestlings are striped, 
the down being of a peculiar hair-like texture. Fossil remains in Australia may be 
accredited to ancestral forms of this group, such as Genyomis newtoni suggested as a 
gigantic Emu-like form. 

Suborder CASVABIIFORMES. 

Family DROMICEIID^. 

Characters as of the genus Dromiceius below, save that in size and proportions 
the extinct genus Peronista differed. We have no record of any other details in 
connection with the latter. We should note that there is a singular opening in the 
front of the windpipe, commmiicating with a tracheal pouch, which has a literature 
of its own and varied conjectures as to its usage, but this item has been entirely 
neglected by recent field observers. 

Genus DROMICEIUS. 

Dromiceius Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 54, April 14th, 1816. Type (by monotypy) : 

Casuarius iiovcEhollandicB Latham. Also spelt Dromaius on p. 70. 

Tachea Fleming, Philos. of Zool., Vol. II., p. 257, June 1822. Type (by monotypy) : 

Casuarius novahoUaruHa- Latham. 

Emou Griffith and Pidgeon's ed. Cuvier's Anim. Kingd., Vol. VIIL.p. 443, " 1829 " [? 1830]. 

New name for Dromaius Vieillot. 

Large Dromseonjithes with small heads, long necks, strong bodies, minute 
flightless wings, no tail, verj' stout legs and feet, three toes but no hind-toe. The 
bill is as long as head, the culmen ridge pronounced and narrow, the shape is 
elongately triangular, the sides sloping behind the nostrils, which are placed a little 
in front of the middle, flattened anteriorly. The nostrils are oblique slits. Tlie under 
mandible is very shallow, the rami sloping slightly, the interramal space large and 
sparsely feathered ; there is a narrow strip between the two rami at the tip. The 



head is small and completely feathered. The wing is very small with a long sharp 
claw but few short feathers similar to those on the body with no differentiated quills. 
There are no differentiated tail-feathers. The legs are very long and stout, feathered 
to the tarsal joint ; the tarsus covered with scales of various sizes, those in front 
small hexagonal ones save at lower portion where a few large horizontal scutes occur 
which are separated from the pronounced scutes of the toes by minute hexagonal 
scales, those at the back develop into pointed protuberances. The middle toe is 
much longer than the inner and outer which are subequal, all bearing stout short 
claws. There is no hind-toe or claw. The feathers have the shaft and aftershaft of 
equal length. Adult coloration uniform. The downy young has a peculiar striped 
coloration and in structure shows the general adult features except that the claw of 
the inner toe is disproportionately lengthened, which character does not persist in 
the adult. Confined to Australia and Tasmania. 



I. Dromiceius novaehollandiae. — EMU. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 1. (pt. xxxm.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pis. 1 and 2, 
Oct. 31st, 1910. 

Casuarius novcphollandice Latham, Index Omith., Vol. II., p. 665, (before Dec. 9th) 1790 : 

Sydney, New South Wales. 

Casuarius australis Shaw and Nodder, Nat. Miscell., Vol. III., pi. 99, April 1st, 1792 : Sydney, 

New South Wales. 

Dromaius ater Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. X., p. 212, June 21st, 1817: New 

name for C. novwhollandicB Latham. 

Dromiceus emu Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIV., p. 307, pi. 39, 1826 (late) : Sydney, 

New South Wales. 

Dromccus irroratus Bartlett, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1859, p. 205, Oct. 1st: interior of 

New South Wales. 

Drom<Fus diemenensis Le Souef, BuU. Brit. Omith. Club, Vol. XXL, p. 13, Oct. 29th, 1907 : 

Tasmania. 

Dromiceius novmhollandim woodwardi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 175, Jan. 31st, 

1912 : Strelley River, mid-W^est Australia. 

Dromiceius novcehollandicE rothschildi Mathews, ib. : Gracefield, South-west AustraUa. 

DisTKiBtiTiON. — Australia : Except the scrub country from CardweU to Lloyds Bay, North 
Queensland. [Tasmania. Extinct.] 

Adult. — General colour above blackish, the feathers being brown or ashy-brown, 
the shafts and the ends of the feathers black, giving the general tone to the upper- 
surface ; sides of the body lighter than the back ; the feathers of the lower back 
and rump very long and spine-like, black in the centre and rufescent on the margins ; 
sides of body grey, with black shaft-lines and ends to the feathers, imparting a spotted 
appearance ; crown of head with long hairy crest-plumes, black, like the upper 
hind-neck ; lower hind-neck light ashy-brown, with black shaft-lines and tips to 
the feathers ; lores, eyelid, sides of face and sides of neck bare and of a bluish-white 
colour, wth a few hair-like bristles ; ear -coverts hidden with black bristly plumes, 
which also conceal the cheeks, but in a less degree ; throat smoky-grey, the chin 
bare. The feathers of the neck for about half-way down from the head are short 
and hair-like, joining the other feathers abruptly. This gives the bird the appear- 
ance of having a niS. This ruff is whitish in very old birds. Iris hazel ; legs 
brownish -black ; bill blackish (life). Total length about 183 cm. ; bill from gape 
115 mm., tarsus 355. middle toe and claw 200. 

Adult female. — The general colour above is ashy-grey ; the feathers of the back 
are linear in shape and tipped with black or reddish-brown, which gives a streaked 
appearance to the upper side ; the sides of the body and feathers of the wings are 
grey ; the feathers of the lower back, rump, and tail are more elongated and disin- 
tegrated, being of a pale brown intermixed with a dark shade of the same colour ; 

B 2 



4 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

the head and neck are covered with short, down-like plumes, which are black on 
the crown and hind-neck, somewhat jialer on the sides of face, and ashy-grey or 
whitish Avith minute black, hair-like points on the throat and fore-neck ; the under- 
surface of the body is grey, i^aler than that of the upper-surface, the feathers being 
shorter on the breast and abdomen, but becoming longer on the under tail-coverts, 
which are darker in colour, stifier in texture and more disintegrated, like those of 
the tail. Total length about 167 cm. ; culmen 95 mm., tarsus 355, middle toe 
and claw 145. (Description of type of D. diemenensis Le SouiJf.) 

A second example of this species in the British Museum is similar in colour of 
plumage, but not quite so dark on the sides of face and ear-coverts. It also shows 
some slight variations in the measurements. Culmen 97 mm., tarsus 325, middle 
toe and claw 153. (Paratype with above.) 

Immature (above half grown). — General colour above greyish -brown, all the 
feathers having whitish hair-like ends ; the feathers on the lower hind -neck and down 
the middle of the back are blackish, and impart a more or less streaked appearance ; 
on the lower back, rump and tail the feathers are much more disintegrated, and are 
brown and white in colour ; the head and neck all round (including the lower fore- 
neck) are covered with short black feathers, more thickly on the crown of the head 
and more sparsely on the neck ; a longitudinal line of white feathers on the middle 
of the chin and throat and a few intermingled on the fore-head and sides of head ; 
the remainder of the under -surface silvery -grey, all the feathers more or less inter- 
mixed mth brown. Total length about 92 cm. ; culmen 53 mm., tarsus 228, 
middle toe and claw 95. Mathews examined the supposed " Black Emu " in the 
Liverpool Museum, and finds it is undoubtedly an immature of the eastern form ; 
it has the head and half the neck black, rest of plumage the ordinary grey-brown 
of the immature, the bases of the feathers more silvery -grey ; it is darker towards 
the tail ; there are new black feathers appearing on the mantle ; it is mounted and 
a little dirty. Tliere are eleven large scutes on the front lower tarsus ; fourteen 
on the middle toe, eight on the outer toe and eight on the inner toe. Space round 
the eye and lores bare. Total length 1,120 mm. ; bill from tip to gape 85, culmen 
40, tarsus 220, middle toe without claw 80, height (as mounted) to back 680 mm., 
to top of head 980 mm. Presented by Captain Mathews, S.S. Great Britain, March 
24th,. 1854. 

Chick. — Covered with down of a sooty-black colour, and with longitudinal lines 
of white running from hinder part of the crown to the end of the body and down the 
thighs, giving a broadly striped appearance, with whitish hair-like tips ; head 
similar in colour, but the dark portion blacker, with intensely black hair-like tips, 
the white interspaces tending rather to cross-bars ; sides of face, throat and fore-neck 
similar, but the white increasing in proportion to the black in longitudinal lines 
towards the abdomen, which is entirely white or whitish. Total length about 
30.5 cm. ; culmen 23 mm., tarsus 58, middle toe and claw 35. 

Ne.st. — A flat bed, composed of grass, bark, pieces of sticks, leaves, etc., trampled 
together by the bird, sometimes merely an unlined depression in the ground. 

Eggs. — Clutch, average nine, from seven to eighteen ; elliptical to swollen 
ovals, finely granulated, the granulations dark metallic -green, the hollows paler ; 
axis 125-140 mm., diameter 82-90 mm. 

Breeding-season. — April to November. 

Incubation-period. — About fifty-six days. 

Distribution and forms. — ^ Australia (and Tasmania, now extinct). Three main- 
land forms can be distinguished : D. n. novcehollandice (Latham), from New South 
Wales ; D. n. woodwardi Mathews, from North-west Australia, in its lighter coloration 
and more slender legs ; and D. n. rothschikU Mathews, from South-west Australia, 
in its darker coloration throughout and in having dark bases to the feathers. The 
extinct Tasmanian race, D. n. diemenensis Le Soucf, had apparently white throats. 



DWAKF EMU. 5 

Genus PERONISTA. 

Peronisia Mathews, Austral Av. Kec, Vol. I., pt. 5, p. 107, Dec. 24th, 1912. Type (by 
original designation) : Dromaius peroni Rothschild. 

Dwarf Emus with small bills, stout legs, and long toes. This extinct form, 
apparently confined to Kangaroo Island, had a shorter bill, and shorter legs, though 
apparently the toes were almost the same length, therefore comparatively much 
longer. The tarsus is just three times as long as bill and less than twice as long 
as middle toe and claw, whereas in Dromicehts the tarsus is nearly four times as 
long as the culmen and much more than twice as long as the middle toe and claw. 
In addition, thefeathering is said to diifer in nature, so that the above name should 
be used in order to keep in view the peculiarities present, that they may be 
investigated. 

Coloration uniform. 



2. Peronista peroni. — DWARF EMU. 

Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pis. 3 and 4 ? Oct. 31st, 1910. 

Dromaius peroni Rothschild, Extinct Birds, p. 235, pi. 40, 1907 : Kangaroo Island. 
Dromaius parvidus Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. I., pt. 1, p. 19, Oct. 31st, 1910 ; ex Gould, 
Penny Cyclop., Vol. XXIII., p. 145, 1842. Nom. nud. : Kangaroo Island. 
? Dromiceius spenceri Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 176, Jan. 3Ist, 1912 [King 
Island = ] Kangaroo Island. 

Distribution. — Kangaroo Island, off South Australia. (Extinct. Only one skin known.) 

Adult. — The top of the head is covered with a crest of recurved feathers, which is 
continued on to the occiput and nape, in a band of similar but slightly longer feathers. 
These feathers difEer in their woolly nature and their black colour from the brownish 
hair-like feathers, and the rather short curly feathers which cover the abdomen and 
nape of the Aiistralian Emu. The cheeks are not entirely bare, and from the base of 
the neck springs a kind of moustache, which turns backwards and meets the hair-like 
feathers covering the ears, while in the Australian Emu a naked band extends across 
the lores and cheeks to the temples, where it begins to blend with another naked zone 
surrounding the ear and extending along the sides and the front of the neck. On the 
contrary, in the Emu brought home by the Baudin Expedition, the front of the neck 
is almost entirely covered with hair-like, blackish feathers, and the naked zones are 
narrower and turn towards the side of the nape. All the lower part of the neck is 
covered with a very thick " ruff " of blackish, woolly feathers, very different from 
those which cover the same part of the Australian Emu. The feathers of the body, 
instead of being as in the latter, fulvous and marked with black at the tip and along 
the shaft, are mostly, in the Emu from Kangaroo Island, of a fulvous-b^o^vn at the 
base, and of a %-ery dark brown from the middle to the tip ; finally, the feathers of 
the thighs, instead of being of a yellowish-grej' colour spotted with brown, are a 
mixture of fulvous and blackish -brown. The beak and feet are very dark brown, 
and the naked parts seem to have been blue as in the Common Emu . Total length 
142 cm., height to back 65 cm. ; bill from gaf)e 75 mm., tarsus 230, middle toe 
and claw 130. 

Nest and Eggs. — Unknown. 

Distribvtion and forms.- — Apparently confined to Kangaroo Island. Many 
bones have been discovered of a small Emu on King Island, wliich have been named 
Dromaius minor Spencer, but it is undetermined at present as to the relationship of 
these bones. 



A MANUAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



Family CASUARIID^. 



Only one genus is at present recognised, so that the characters given there- 
under are those of the family, but later certainly more genera will be utilised, as the 
differences in the species known are very great from a systematic jioint of view. 



Genus CASUARIUS. 

Caauarius Brisson, Ornith., Vol. V., p. 10, 1760. Type (by tautonyiiiy) : Caauarius = 

Struthio casuarius Liiine. 

Rhea Lacepdde, Tabl. Ois., p. 20, Dec. 1799. Species added by Daudin, in Hist. Nat. Buffon, 

ed. Didot, Quadr., Vol. XIV., p. 345, [1799 =] Oct. 1802. Type (by monotypy) : Rhea 

caauariua = Struthio caauarius Linn6. 

Casaowara Perry, Arcana, pt. 21 (pi. 82), Sept. 1st, 1811. Type (by monotj'py) : Caasowara 

eximia Perry = Struthio caauariua Linn6. 

Cela Oken, Lehrb. der Naturg., Vol. III., Zool., 2 Abth., p. 646, 1816. Type (by monotypy) : 

Struthio caauarius Linn6. 

Oxyporua " Brookes, Catal. Mus. Joshua Brookes, pt. ii., p. 95, July 1828. New name for 

Caauariua Lin." Cj. Richmond (2), p. 628, Dec. 16th, 1908. 

Hippalectryo Gloger, Hand- u. Hilfsb., pt. vi., p. 452, 1841, p. xxxxiii., 1842 (early). Type 

(by monotypy) : Hippalectryo indicus Gloger = Struthio caauarius Linn6. 

Large Dromseornithes with small heads bearing a more or less developed bony 
helmet, long stout necks, stout bodies, small flightless wings bearing a few strong 
spines, no tail, very stout legs and feet with no hind-toe, but the inner toe much 
lengthened. The bill is as long as the head, with a large gape ; from the base arises 
an elongate triangular bony helmet ; the culmen is narrow with the side slopes 
steep, the tip decurved ; the nostrils are placed forward as elongate ovals in a long 
shallow groove. The under mandible has the rami narrow and grooved and a long 
interramicorn with a narrow interramal space which has a few hair-like feathers 
on it ; the edges of the tip of the under mandible are serrate. The head and neck 
are naked save for a few hair-like feathers and there are pendant wattles on front 
of neck, and wattle-like strips on sides. The wing is very short and shows about 
half a dozen hollow spines with no signs of barbs, succeeding a few degenerate feathers 
after the claw. There are no recognisable tail-feathers. The legs are very stout 
and fairly long, feathered to the tarsal joint and bearing a few very large scutes 
towards the toes which are regularly scuted ; sides of toes as rest of leg covered with 
hexagonal scutes. The middle toe is much longer than the outer and iimer, which 
bears an elongated straight strong claw, the claws on the other toes being short 
and stout. There is no hind-toe and claw. All feathers with aftershaft equal to 
rhachis. Adult coloration black with coloured naked parts of neck. The downy 
young striped like that of i^rcceding genus. Confined to Pajjuasia and North 
Queensland. 

3. Casucirius casuarius. — CASSOWARY. 

[Struthio caauarius Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 155, Jan. 1st, 1758: [Asia, Sumatra, 

Molucca, Banda =] Ceram. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Suppl., pis. 70-71 (pt. v.), Aug. 1st, 1869. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 5, Oct. 31st, 1910. 

Caauarius australia Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1857, p. 270, Jan. 28th, 1858: North 

Queensland. 

Not Shaw, Nat. Miscell, Vol. III., pi. 99, April 1st, 1792. 

Casxiarius johnaonii Mueller, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1867, p. 242, June 1st : Gowrie Creek, 

Rockingham Bay, Queensland. 

Caauarius caauarius hamiltoni Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., No. 7, p. 124, Jan. 28th, 

1915 : Cairns, North Queensland. 

Distribution. — The thick scrubs north of Cardwell, North Queensland. 



CASSOWARY. 7 

Adult. — This species, which is distinguished by its very high casque (thinner 
above), long nail of inner toe, and the very large wattles on the fore-neck, is black 
both above and below with dark brown bases to the feathers — the feathers being 
much elongated, narrow, and disintegrated with black shining shafts which are 
destitute of Webs towards the ends. The wings are rudimentary and furnished with 
porcupine-like black quills without any webs whatever ; head and neck all roimd, 
including the two wattles on the lower fore-neck, bare. For colour of soft parts 
see below. Total length about 60 inches from top of casque to tips of feathers at 
the end of the body ; bill from gape 139 mm., culmen from base of casque 65, 
tarsus 317, middle toe and claw 159. 

Young (quarter grown) .^Head and hind-neck chestnut rufous. Chin, throat 
and fore-neck densely covered with short downy feathers of a brownish-bufE colour. 
Rest of body clayey brownish -yellow mixed with dark rufous. 

Young (two-thirds grown). — Plumage brown. Head and occiput, dull pale 
blue ; lower hind-neck, orange ; fore-neck leaden-blue ; lower naked sides of neck 
blue, mixed with livid purple. 

Chick. — Head and hind-neck pale rufous ; fore-neck yellowish -buff ; rest of 
body yellowish-buff. From base of neck to end of tail along the back run three 
broad longitudinal black bands, variegated with rufous, and each about seven-eightha 
of an inch wide. On the sides are three irregular wavy black bands extending from 
the shoulder-girdle down the sides to the beginning of the metatarsus. 

Nest. — -A bed of sticks, leaves, and such-like vegetable debris, usually placed 
near the base of a large tree in dense scrub. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four to six ; some authorities state three to five ; of a graceful 
elliptical form, and superficially like shagreen or rough American cloth, but not so 
rough or granulated as the Emu's {Dromiceius) egg. General appearance in colour, 
beautiful light pea-green, but if examined vertically the raised rough particles only 
of the shell will be found to be green, while the minute interstices are greenish-white. 
Dimensions 138-141 mm. by 92-97. 

Breeding-season. — July to September. 

Incubation-period. — About eight weeks. 

Distribution and forms. — From Ceram through New Guinea into northern 
Queensland. Many forms have been separated, chiefly by means of coloration of 
head and neck, and as there are no definite conclusions yet possible We will simply 
note those of the two suggested forms living in Australia. In the form named 
C. c. hamiltoni Mathews the front and sides of the neck as well as the whole of the 
sides of the head and nape, pale blue ; the whole of the back of the neck pale orange- 
yellow ; the lobe extending down the lower neck deep purjjle ; appendages bright 
lake ; between gape and ear a triangular spot of lake connected with the appendages 
by a raised rib of skin of the same colour. In descriptions of C. c. johnsonii Mueller 
we read coloration of fore-neck bright purplish-blue, and of nape pale greenish-blue, 
and of the lobe half deep orange and half purple, and a preoral patch is unmentioned. 

Subclass IMPENNES. 

The limits of the subclass are coincident with those of the order and suborder, 
and the extraordinary superficial characters are common to all members. The 
erect stature, the degraded miniature wings, short flat feet are all distinctive. The 
wings have no specialised flight feathers but are covered with small scale-like 
feathers, and are used for swimming only. They are all seabirds living in the 
Antarctic and Sub-antarctic Regions, the largest breeding among perpetual ice, and 
always gregariously. 

We have separated two faraihes, the Spheniscidce or Thick-billed Penguins and 
the Ajdenodytidcc or Thin-billed Penguins, but recent investigation has suggested 



8 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

a further separation of the Austral-Neozelanic forms, Eudyplula, Endyptes and 
Megadyptes from the Afro-Magellanic Sphenisais. The two families here recognised 
are easily distinguished by the bill formation, the thick-billed forms also having a 
more northerr distribution than the thin-billed ones, the largest of which are confined 
to the Antarctic Continent. As evidence of the value of the so-calle<l superficial 
features we associated Pygoscelis with Aptenodyles from a study of these alone, and 
upon consideration of the known anatomical and osteological characters we find 
absolute confirmation of our association. 

Osteologically the skull has the palate schizogiiathous, the nostrils holorhinal 
and basipterygoid processes are absent ; the pterygoids are miique in size and shape, 
being proportionately very large and flattened, and perforated near their junction 
with the palatines ; the lachrymals have their descending iirocess with a large foramen ; 
large suj)raorbital grooves are usually present. The sternum has a well <level oped 
keel, the cervical vertebrae are fifteen in number and the dorsals are opisthoccelous 
in character, the furcula prominent and the scapula unique in shape, being very large 
and posteriorly broadened, anteriorly narrowed. The wing bones are flattened in 
accordance with the usage of that limb, while the tarsal bones are very short and 
not perfectly fused together, as in most other birds, and again the jjelvis shows 
unique features. The carotid arteries are two in number and the sjTinx is tracheo- 
bronchial, tending to the complete bronchial form. The digestive system is very 
specialised, of the orthoccelous style, but quite unlike that of any other group, though 
suggesting those of the Pdecani and Procellarii. The caeca are small. The muscle 
formula of the leg is ABX+, while the biceps muscle is absent, a feature restricted 
entirely to this group. The oil gland is present and tufted, while the aftershaft is 
present, though the feathers are so peculiarly adapted. The pterylosis is considered 
to be continuous though little research has yet been performed in this direction ; 
the nestlings are down covered. The antiquity of the members of this subclass is 
proven by the recovery from the Tertiary deposits of New Zealand of fossil remains 
which show the distinctive features of the recent birds to have been possessed at 
that epoch. The wings were longer but similarly adapted and the tarsal bones were 
imperfectly connected even as now. More recently extensive remains have been 
found in Patagonia and the Antarctic adjacent, many generic forms having been 
named but all obviously Penguins. 

Order SPHENISCI. 

Suborder SPHENISCIFORMES. 

Family SPHENISCIDiE. 

As Australian members of the family we have only Eudyphda and Eudyptes, 
the typical Sphmiscus being confined to South Africa and South America. The 
two former range to New Zealand where also Megadyptes is found. All are gifted 
with short stout bills, the first named without any head ornaments, Megadyptes 
having the crown full and semi-crested, while EvdyjAes has long tufts of flowing 
feathers on the sides of the head, the crown also full. Anatomically the evolution 
is considered to have paralleled the crest growth, and S]}he7iisc-us, which has also 
no crest, is ranked on about the same level as Eiidyptula, though they represent 
divergent types. It may be noted, through the confusion of generic types, Eudijptvla 
was referred to Spheniscus with which it has little direct connection, and is the 
living representative of the immature t-tate of Evdypies. 

Genus EUDYPTULA. 

Eudyptula Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. (Paris), Vol. XLII., p. 775, Maj' 1856. 
Type (by monotj-py) : Aptenodyles minor Forster. 



FAIRY PENGUIN. 9 

Smallest Penguins with short stout bills, small flippers, very short tail and short 
legs and stout feet. The bill is stout and laterally compressed, the tip descending 
and hooked, overlapping the under mandible ; the culmen ridge is semi-keeled, 
the sides almost vertical. The nostrils are recognisable as narrow oval slits situated 
in a distinct irregular groove which runs from the fore-head diagonally across the 
mandible to a point about two-thirds the length of the bill ; the lateral behind this 
groove a little expanded basally. The under mandible deep and consisting of two 
rami only enclosing a very short feathered interramal space. The flipper is small 
and delicate. The tail is composed of sixteen very narrow feathers, forming a 
roimded wedge and very short, being hidden by the upper tail-coverts. The tarsus 
is very short and broad, covered with minute reticulate scaling. There is a small 
hind-toe and claw present. The anterior toes are comparatively long and broad, 
covered with reticulate scales, the middle toe longest, the outer a little longer than 
the inner. The webbing is full and the claws are long, narrow and stout. 

Coloration blue above, white below. 

4. Eudyptula minor.— FAIRY PENGUIN. 

[Ap/enodyles minor Forster, Comm. Getting., Vol. III., p. 147, (after May 15th) 1781 : Dusky 

Sound, New Zealand. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 84 (pt. XVI.). Sept. 1st, 1844: pi. 85 (pt. xxxiii.), Dec. 1st, 1848. 

Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 5, pis. 66 and 67, Oct. 31st, 1911. 

Spheniscus novcEhollandim Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. I., p. 68, Feb. 18th, 

1826, based on Watling painting No. 291 : Port Jackson, New South Wales. 

Aptenodytes ati^tralis " Gray," Griffith and Pidgeon, Anim. Kingd., Cuvier, Vol. VIII., p. 563, 

"1829 " (1830), for same as preceding. 

Aptenodytes tindina Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1844, p. 57, Sept. : Circular Head, 

Tasmania. 

Eudyptula minor woodwardi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 199, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Sandy Hook Island, South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Coasts of extra-tropical Australia and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Upper-surface glossy bluish-grey, the feathers with black shafts 
and grey margins ; flippers darker than the upper-surface, and the lower edge 
margined with white for about two rows of feathers ; tail-feathers white with black 
shafts towards the base ; sides of face and sides of breast ashy ; chin and entire 
under-surface, including the flippers, white ; the feathers of the fore-neck have dusky 
bases with blackish shaft-streaks ; a line of feathers with dusky bases crosses the 
vent from the thighs on either side ; bill brownish-black, lower mandible pinkish- 
white ; iris silvery-white with browar edge ; feet pinkish-white. Total length 
398 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 38, depth of bill 12, flippers 111, tail 28, tarsus 24, 
middle toe and claw 48. Average measurements, culmen 38.5, depth of bill 14.4, 
flipper 118.8, tarsus 26.7, middle toe and claw 49.7 mm. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but a shade smaller. Average measure- 
ments, culmen 36.9, depth of bill 12.3, flipper 114.4, tarsus 25.5, middle toe and 
claw 47.2 mm. 

Immature (about three-quarters grown). — Head, entire back, sides of the body 
and a band across the fore-neck sooty-brown, somewhat darker on the head and 
flippers, and paler on the fore-neck ; the throat ashy-grey, and the remainder of 
the under-surface dull white ; soft parts similar to those of adult. 

Nestling. — Sooty-brown on the back and throat, becoming paler on the 
abdomen ; top of the head and sides of the face black ; soft parts as in adult ; feet 
bluish-white. 

Nest. — A little dry grass or weeds, placed in cavities between rocks, a hollow 
scraped out imderneath tussock grass or other vegetation, or sometimes a deserted 
Petrel's burrow, usually on isolated islands. 



10 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; dull white, surface smooth ; axis 55-57.5, diameter 
42.54-3. 

Breeding -season. — September to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, 
and as far north as the Solitary Islands, New South Wales, in Australia, and westwards 
along the south coast to Cape Leeuwin, West Australia. Five subspecies have been 
distinguished : E. m. minor (Forster) from New Zealand ; E. m. iredalei Mathews 
from the Chatham Islands, by its shorter, thicker bill and darker coloration ; E. m. 
novcehollandice (Stephens) by its larger size, longer bill and greyer coloration ; 
E. m. undina (Gould) by its small size and weaker bill and purer blue-grey coloration ; 
and E. m. ivoodwardi Mathews by its grey-blue coloration and grej' flipper. 
Recently Alexander and Nicholls (Emu, XVIII., p. 50, 1918), following Nicholls 
(Emu, XVII., p. 118, 1918) have concluded that all the Australian birds should be 
referred to one subspecies. From their figures, however, it is indicated that E. m. 
7iovcehollandice (Stephens) will again prove acceptable on accovmt of its larger bill 
(probably also larger size and paler coloration), and also E. m. woodwardi Mathews 
on its greyer coloration and also slightly larger size, as to bill, etc., when longer series 
of these are studied. 

Genus EUDYPTES. 

Eudyptes VieiUot, Analyse nouv. Ornith., p. 67, April 14th, 1816. Endyples, p. 67 = Eudyptes, 

p. 70. Tj-pe (by subsequent designation, Gray, p. 77, 1840) : Catarrhactes chryaocome 

Auct. = Gorfou sauteur BuSon (">.= Eudyptes nigrivestis Gray). 

Catarrhactes Cuvier. Le Regne Anim., Vol. I., p. 513, [1817 = ] Dec. 7th, 1816. Type (by 

monotypy) : Apt. chrysocome Gm.= Gorfou sauteur BuSon. 

Chrysocoma Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 57, Feb. 18th, 1826. Type 

(by subsequent designation) : C. saltator Stephens = Gorfou sauteur Bufion. 

Oeopega Billberg, Synops. Faunfe Scand., Vol. I., pt. ii., tab. A, 1828. New name for {Gorfou 

Cuv. = ) Catarrhactes Cuvier [cf. Austral Av. Rec., Vol. II.,pts. 2 and 3, p. 42, Oct. 23rd, 1913). 

Microdyptes Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris), Ser. VI., Vol. IX., Art. 9, p. 58, (prob. 

after June) 1880. Type (by monot>-py) : Eiidyplula serresiana Oustalet. 

Pengui7ius Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVII., p. 495, Dec. 15th, 1910 (ex Briinnich, Zool. Fund., 

p. 78, 1771). Type (by original designation): Ph. demersus Linn6, i.e., Auet. = Eudyptes 

pachyrhynchus Gray. 

Catarractes Auct., not Calarractes Brisson, which is indeterminable. 

Large crested Penguins with short stout bills, medium flippers, long tail, and 
stout feet. The bill is short and very stout, the latericorn laterally expanded. The 
culmen has the ridge flattened and the tip is hooked, while the nostrils are obsolete, 
but the nasal groove prominent. The lower mandible is very strong and the gape 
is comparatively short ; the interramal space very small and feathered. A long 
crest is formed on each side of the head above the eyes, in some cases the feathers of 
the top of the head also elongated. The flipper is fairly long and narrow. The tail 
is composed of sixteen very narrow feathers in a verj' pointed wedge, the feathers 
flattened with the lower surface of the shaft excavate. The feet are tj7)ical. 

Coloration blue above and white below with a dark throat and j'ellow crest. 

5. Eudyptes pachyrhynchus.— BIG-CRESTED PENGUIN. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 83 (pt. xsxu.), Sept. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 5, pi. 65, Oct. 

31st, 1911. 

Eudyptes pachyrhynchits Gray, Voy. Erebus and Terror, Birds, pt. 2, p. 17, Oct. 1845 : Waiko- 

waiti. South Island, New Zealand. 

Distribution. — Straggler to Tasmania, Victoria (?) and West Australia (?) 

Adult male. — General colour of the upper-surface dark bluish-grey ; a line of 
yellow feathers from the lores over the eye, where it is elongated into a crest on the 



YELLOW-CRESTED PENGUIN. 11 

sides of the crown, mixed with black ; throat and sides of face dusky-black ; remainder 
of under-surface white ; flippers white below, more or less blackish on the outer 
margin and tip ; bill red ; iris hazel ; toes and tarsus white. Total length 497 mm. ; 
culmen (esp.) 43, flipper 147, tarsus 30, middle toe and claw 63. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nestling. — ^Head, throat, hind-neck, and upper-parts — that is to say the surface 
that is coloured in the adult — covered with short sooty-black down, and the under 
parts with short white down ; bill wliitish-horn colour ; feet pale brown. 

Young. — Differs from the adult in being appreciably smaller in size, and in having 
a whitish-grey throat ; the long crests are absent, being represented by a tuft of 
feathers little more than half an inch in length, commencing immediately above the 
eyes and extending back one and half inches towards the occiput, and being pale 
lemon-yellow, with blue tips. Bill black, with reddish-brown tips. 

Immature. — Birds have the throat ashy -white and the superciliary line yellowish- 
white, but no pronovmced crest. 

Ne-st. — No nest is built. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one or two ; ground-colour pale green, covered with a coating 
of lime ; axis 62 mm., diameter 45. 

Breeding-season. — November and December. 

Incubation-'period. — About six weeks. 

Distribution and forrrus. — Sub-antarctic Islands and mainland of New Zealand. 
No subspecies known. 

6. Eudyptes serresianus.— YELLOW-CRESTED PENGUIN. 

[Eudyplula serresiana Oustalet, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. VI., Zool., Vol. VIII., Art. 4, after 

August 1878 : Tierra del Fuego. Extra-limital.] 

Hitherto unfigured in Australian works. 

Eudyptes filholi Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., Vol. III., pt. iv., p. 334, May, 1879 : 

Campbell Island, New Zealand. 

Distribution. — Straggler to Tasmania and South Australia ? See Emu, Vol. XVI., pt. 3, 
p. 184, Jan. 1917. 

Adidt male. — As of general Penguin coloration, but differing from the preceding 
in being a smaller bird, with generally paler coloration above, while the throat and 
cheeks are dark slaty or grey-black, showing a great contrast with the black of the 
top of the head. The crest is different being composed of long flowing black and 
yellow feathers mixed, begiiming as a thin yellow line on the lores, and apparently 
capable of lateral erection. The bill is shorter and more slender. Bill red ; iris 
rich brown ; toes and tarsus pinkish-white. Total length imknown (according to 
stuffing in skins) ; culmen (exp.) 37 mm., flipper 130, tarsus 25, middle toe and 
claw 60. 

Adult female. — Similar. 

Immature and Nestling. — Undescribed from Neozelanic localities. 

Nest. — None made. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; bluish-white ; 75-80 mm. by 45. 

Breeding-season. — October. 

Distribution and forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic Circle. We are accepting the 
Falkland Islands birds as typical, as the name E. serresiana was given to an immature 
specimen, and we now name the following subspecies which have been distinguished 
in literature for many years : E. s. moseleyi subsp. nov., from Inaccessible Island, 
Tristan d'Acunha Group, with a longer bill, and a very long crest, very pale ashy 
throat and generally light upper coloration ; E. s. interjectus subsii. nov., from 
Kerguelen Island, with a shorter bill and darker throat and less developed crest 
and apparently smaller size ; and E. s. filholi Hutton, from Camjibell Island, New 



12 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Zealand, with a larger bill and darker throat, less crest still and darker upper 
coloration, 

7. Eudyptes schlegeli.— MACARONI PENGUIN. 

Not figured in Australian works. 

Eudyptes schlfgeli Finsch, Trans. New Zeal. Inst., Vol. VIII., 1875, p. 204, July 1876 : 
Macquarie Island. 

Eudyptes alhigularis Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris), Ser. VI., Vol. IX., Art 9, p. 55, 
(prob. after June) 1880 : Macquarie Island. 

Distribution. — Straggler to Tasmania (one occurrence near Devonport, Tasmania, Sept. 
1913). 

Adult (?). — " Upper-surface fine dark metallic -blue, upper-surface of wings the 
same, tail somewhat lighter blue ; under-surface silvery-white, except the throat 
and chin, which are ashy-ivhite, with a small dark patch a little below the base of 
beak. Sides of the head below the crest, a darkish grey ; fore-head, bluish-grey. 
The wings above are of the same tint as the back ; beneath, white, with broad patch 
of dark blue at the tips, the same at the base, extending somewhat on to body in 
front of wing ; there is also a border of dark blue on the upper edge, but not extending 
to the tip. IBeak dark red ; feet reddish, webbed, with .strong nails. The tail is 
long for a Penguin, and formed of stiff, narrow feathers. The crest is black, formed 
of fine pointed feathers, the pale yellow appearing only underneath, and beginning 
behind the eye. Total length 24 inches ; wing 6, tail 3, foot (on flat, with tarsus) 
4.5, beak 2, crest 3." (H. Stuart Dove, Ibis, 1915, p. 86 ; Hull, Rec. Austr. Mus., 
Vol. XII., plate XI., fig. 2, 1918.) 

We have reproduced this account under the above name as the items emphasised 

by Dove, and the photo reproduced by Hull, seem to refer the specimen to this species. 

Adult of schlegeli. — General colour of preceding, but darker and larger, and 

with lores, chin, throat, sides of head and neck ashy-white ; crest of j'ellow feathers 

short and the frontal feathers also yellow, but with dark tips. 

Immature. — Paler, crest insignificant, frontal feathers all black. 

Nest. — None. 

Egg. — Clutch, one; chalky -white ; 79 mm. by 45. 

Breeding-season. — September onwards. 

Distribution. — Breeds at Macquarie Island, south of New Zealand. 

Family APTENODYTIDiE. 

The family of thin-billed Penguins is composed of large and small species with 
a more southward distribution than the preceding. Pygoscelis (papna) ranges 
alongside Aptenodi/tes (patagonica) with the southernmost species of Eudyptes 
(schlegeli) in Macquarie Island, but the other large species of Aplenodyies lives with 
a small species referred to Pygoscelis (but properly Dasyramphus) entirely in the 
ice-clad Antarctic and these have a large literature which does not concern us. 
Osteologically there are many differences between the groups, but these have never 
been systematically studied. 

Genus APTENODYTES. 

Aptenodytes Miller, " Var. Subj. Nat. Hist., pt. iv., pi. 23, 1778." Tj-pe (by monotj^iy) : 

Aptenodyten patagnnica Miller. 

Aplerodita Scopoli, Del. Flor. Faun. Insub., Vol. II., pt. 11., p. 91, 1786. New name for 

" A ptcnodyles Miller." 

Pinguinaria Shaw, Mus. Lever., Vol. I., pt. m., p. 144 (pi. dated July 2nd), Nov. 22nd, 1792. 

New name for "Aplenodyies Miller." 

Largest Penguins with long thin bills, long flippers, short tail and stout legs 
and feet. The bill is long and thin, the upper mandible apparently much shorter 




E KiJi/fjIes pachyrhy iich 11.". 

Big-erested Penguin. 

Eudyptes serresianu.'i. 

Yellow-oi'ested Penguin. 



A iilt'iiodiilpf' pa fur/on irii . 
Kins> Penguin. 



KING PENGUIN. 13 

than the lower owing to the encroaching frontal feathers into the nasal groove ; 
the culmen ridge flattened, the latericorns not laterally expanded ; the nostrils 
obsolete ; the tip decurved but not strongly hooked. The under mandibular rarai 
long and divergent, the interramal space feathered. There is no crest. The flipper 
is very long and narrow. The tail consists of twenty narrow feathers, forming a 
romided wedge, not much exceeding the uj^per tail-coverts. The feet are stout and 
typical. 

Coloration blue above and white below with a dark throat and yellow neck 
markings. 

8. Aptenodytes patagonica.— KING PENGUIN. 

[Aplenodytes patagonica Miller, " Var. Subj. Nat. Hist., pt. iv., pi. 23, 1778 " : Falkland 

Islands. Extra-lmaital.] 

Not previously figured in Australian works. 

Aptenodytes patagonica halli Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. I., pt. 5, p. 272, Oct. 31st, 1911 : 
Macquarie Island. 

DISTRIB0TION. — Tasmania (visitor). One occurrence recorded by Hall, Emu, Vol. IX., 
p. 250, 1910, at Maria Island (but specimen not preserved), and is listed on this authority. 

Adult male. — General coloiu: of the upper-surface bluish -grey, the feathers dusky 
at the base with black shaft-streaks and greyish-white spots more or less surromided 
with black ; the shaft-streaks more pronounced on the upper tail-coverts ; the 
sides of the neck greyish-white ; head, sides of the face, throat, and a line on each 
side of the breast black, with a greenish gloss on the throat, a patch of orange on the 
hinder part of the head, which is continued in a narrow line and joined to the some- 
what deeper-coloured orange of the fore-neck ; remainder of the imder-surface 
creamy -white, becoming pure white on the lower-abdomen ; flijDpers dark grey 
above, imder-surface white, margined and tiijped with bluish-grey ; maxilla and 
tip of mandible black ; base of mandible sealing-wax red, shading o2 into lead-grey 
towards the tips ; iris brown ; feet black. Total length 38 inches ; culmen 122 mm., 
flipper 280, middle toe and claw 112. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but the colour on the bill not so 
pronounced. 

Immature. — As the adult but less brilliant in coloration and with a weaker, 
whoUy blackish bill. 

Nestling. — Covered with dusky-brown down, shortest about the face. 

Nest. — No nest is made, the egg being placed on the bare gromad. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour pale greenish-white, covered wholly or in 
part with a thin calcareous matter ; tapering suddenly from the diameter to the tip ; 
axis 104 to 108, diameter 75 to 76. 

Breeding -season. — March . 

Distribution aivl forms. — Sub-antarctic regions of the southern hemisphere. 
Three subspecies have been indicated : ^.^j. j)atagonica Miller, from South Georgia, 
Falldand Islands, etc. ; A.f. longiro.stris Scopoli, from Kerguelen Island, and Crozets, 
by its darker blue coloration and the larger amount of blue on the under side of the 
flipper; and A. -p. halli Mathews, from Macquarie Island, by its paler coloration 
above and less blue on the mider side of the flipper, and the feathers on the inside of 
the tarsus being white, not blue as in the typical form, as in the former. 

Subclass EUORNITHES. 

Having eliminated the two preceding subclasses, comprising a few birds, all 
the rest of existing avian forms are referred to the present subclass. Twenty-five 
orders are recognised, of which six do not occur in Australia, viz., Apteryges, Tinami, 



14 A MANUAL or THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

SjTrhaptes, Phcenicopteri, Pici and Trogoni. Most of these are of restricted range 
and of few species, as the Apteryges are confined to New Zealand, and the Tinami 
to South and Central America. These we place in juxtaposition between the 
orders Ralli and Galli, and they are so generalised in structure that both have been 
placed vfith the birds we class as Dromseornithes. The SjTrhaptes constitute 
another generalised group, living in the Southern Palaearctic area, and showing 
general features approximating in one direction to the Galli, in other details closely 
recalling the Columbse, and having peculiar feet. The Phcenicopteri or Amphi- 
morphse similarly show general characters, recalling the Anates and Herodiones, 
but with specialised bills, neck and legs, so that they constitute quite a distinct 
groux), their range being tropical Africa and America. All the preceding have 
few species, but the order Pici is world wide, save the Austral-Maorian Regions, 
and comprises numerous species referable to four superfamilies, all notable and 
well-known birds. The last extra-limital order is another small one, consisting of 
the Trogons, a peculiar series of Coraciine-like birds inhabiting the troj^ics of 
Asia, Africa and America, and admittedly of generalised structure though specially 
modified in superficial appearance. Of the nineteen orders that will be dealt with 
in this work one only, the Menurse, is restricted to Australia, all the others have a 
wider range. 

Order PROCELLARI^ or TUBINARES. 

This order comprises seabirds with webbed feet and hooked bills, the nostrils 
being tubular. Superficially the order is separable into two groups, one of which 
has the nostrils placed on top of the culmen, the other with the nasal openings 
distinct and on the sides. These two groups we propose to rank as superfamilies 
as no gradation is now known. The majority of the species nest in the southern 
hemisphere, breeding generally in holes and always gregariously. They live half 
the year at sea, but apparently do not range far from their breeding haunts. They 
are very slow in development, the time from egg-laying to young-flight varying 
from four to twelve months. 

In size they vary from very small birds to the largest flpng birds, the wing 
varying in formation accordingly, but all have hooked bills and comparatively 
short feet, first toe very small, consisting of one phalanx only or even missing, 
anterior three large and fully webbed. 

The diagnostic feature of the order is the superficial one of the tubular nostrils, 
and there is no peculiar internal character whereby the group can be distinguished. 

The osteological characters of the skull vary somewhat ; the palate is schizog- 
nathous, but this is somewhat obscure in the Diomedeoidea ; the nasals holo- 
rhinal, and basipterygoid processes are sometimes absent as in the Diomedeoidea, 
present and well developed or much reduced in the remainder ; the supraorbita,l 
grooves may be wide and shallow or broad and deep or obscure. In some forms 
the lachrymal is free, in others anchylosed with nasals. The cervical vertebrae 
are always fifteen in number, and heterocoelous in form ; the sternum is keeled and 
sometimes the posterior border is entire, but generally notched, and no collation 
of this variation has been attempted. Both carotids are present and the syrinx 
is variable from the tracheo-bronchial tj'pe to almost complete bronchial form. 
The digestive system belongs to the pericrelous form, but is a very specialised product, 
becoming typically mesogyrous in the smallest forms, a result of great significance 
in connection with their phylogeny. The leg muscles are variable, the ambiens, 
the accessory femoro-caudal, and the accessory semitendinosus being sometimes 
present and sometimes absent in different species. Much stress has been laid upon 
this fact, but in an imperfect manner. The biceps is present but degenerate, while 
the biceps slip is absent. The oil gland is present and tufted, while an aftershaft 



SUBORDER PKOCELLARnFORMES. 15 

is present and the wing is aquincubital. The pterylosis is discontinuous, as is 
usual, and not specialised, the downy nestlings having very close down. 

On account of their great powers of flight not many fossil remains of Petrels 
have yet been recorded. Such a record as Diomedea anglica Lydekker from the 
London Clay can only be regarded with suspicion, as that author did not discriminate 
between the various forms of Diomedeoidea, and the fragment is rather indefinite. 

Suborder PROCELLARIIFORMES. 
The suborder is coequal with the order, being divided into two superfamilies, 
the Procellarioidea and the Diomedeoidea, externally so different that no confusion 
is possible, while internally there is almost as much distinction. Alexander has 
recently given some notes on the Australian species advocating the admission of sight 
records by good observers and the limits of Australian Seas as reaching half-way to 
the next land. He has also lumped some generic forms in his essay. We have since 
had the opportunity of discussing some of the points with him personally, and he 
admitted that the matter was not so easy as he had previously concluded, and that 
sight records of all but the most easily recognisable forms might still be doubted. As 
to the lumping of genera, Garrodia proves to be more closely related to Fregetta than 
to Oceanites, while Fregettornis is the most distinct of the series. Again Halobcena was 
included in Prion because he was not familiar with that form, and consequently he 
might correct that item. 

SuPERFAMiLY PROCELLARIOIDEA. 
We divide this superfamily into three families : the first, of small birds with 
nostrils opening into a single tube, and legs with tarsal covering either reticulated, 
scutellate or booted ; the second, from medium to very large birds with the nostrils 
separated by a septum, and tarsal covering always reticulate ; the third, small birds 
with nostrils separated by a septum but the openings horizontal, and legs with 
reticulate covering and no hind-toe ; in the two previous a hind-toe is present and 
the nasal openings are never horizontal. The technical name of the first family 
is in dispute, but their vernacular equivalent of Storm-Petrels is beyond all con- 
troversy. It is remarkable that such a compact little group superficially should 
have been disintegrated by the researches of anatomists, though had any ornitho- 
logist dared to suggest such a division there would have been more reason. At the 
present time some ornithologists, who have never studied the group carefully, dis- 
allow any separation in the order, which is mere nonsense. If the anatomists were 
correct in the valuation of the characters they deal with even more subdivision than 
we allow would be made by them. As a matter of fact there seems to be reason in 
still further subdividing the group. The Storm-Petrels are found more or less in 
all seas from the Arctic to Antarctic but are more rare in the tropics. Recently an 
Antarctic breeding form has been credited with a northward migration almost to the 
Arctic, though otherwise the species are not given to much wandering. In connection 
with the second subfamily, the Procellariidae, which includes the Fulmars and Shear- 
waters, erratic movements, which can scarcely be termed migrations as that term 
is commonly used, are common but certainly not at all known. The third family, 
the Pelecanoididae, lives only romid the Sub-antarctic Circle and the south-west coast 
of South America, and may not be phylogenetically related at all closely to the 
preceding families, as both superficially and internally it is very different. 

Family THALASSIDROMD^. 

Storm-Petrels are the smallest forms of Procellarise, and all have the tubes 
opening on the top of the bill with superficially a single orifice, the tails square or 



16 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

forked, the legs short or comparatively long, the wings always long and pointed. 
On account of internal differences two families have been separated, the long-legged 
species having the expansor secundariorum, a wing muscle present, and also the 
accessory semitendiaosus, a leg muscle present, these muscles being absent in all 
other Petrels, small or large. In addition, the former are said to possess no caeca, 
while the latter generally have. Superficially the so-called long-legged forms have 
the tarsal covering anteriorly scutellated or booted, all the remainder having a 
comijletely reticulate tarsus. Osteologically there i.s very little distinction between 
these as far as criticism has yet extended but it is quite possible that there may be 
two families separable later, but at the same time many more will certainly be 
demanded for other groups. Geographically the long-legged forms are southern, 
the short-legged ones northern, the former penetrating into the Antarctic Circle to 
breed, also ranging to north of the Equator rarely, the latter never breeding south 
of the Equator but sometimes in the Arctic Circle. Consequently all the Australian 
species are long legged, but even these present quite appreciable difEerences, most 
of the species being regarded as generically separable. The ambiens muscle is 
absent from Fregetta{sensu lato) while in Garrodia it is present but the tendon does 
not cross the knee. These two genera are not distantly related. Basipterygoid 
processes are said to be entirely absent in Pelagodroma and Oceaniles of the long- 
legged group while they appear as minute prickles in the short-legged series. Again, 
in the former group there are ten secondaries only. 

Genus OCEANITES. 

Occom<e« Keyserling und Blasius, Wirbelth. Europa's, p. xciii., (before April) 1840. (Type 
by monotypy) : Thalassidroma wilsoni Bonaparte = Procellaria oceanica Kuhl. 

Small Storm-Petrels with small hooked bills, long wings, medium emarginate 
tail and long legs and feet. The bill has the tubular nostrils semi-erect, about half 
the length of the bill, the tip strongly liooked but weak, the latericorns a little bowed 
and basally widening. Ttie imder mandible has the rami a little bowed and divergent 
similar, the tip also weak. The wing is very long, the first four primaries forming 
the tip, the second being longest, the third longer than the first which is longer than 
the fourth ; the secondaries are very short. The tail is slightly emarginate, a little 
less than half the length of the wing, the feathers broad. The legs are long, the tibia 
exposed for about one-third the length of the metatarsus, which is about half the 
length of the tail with the tarsal covering complete in front, but obscurely scutes 
may be seen indicated, while the back is reticulated. The toes are long, the inner 
shorter than the middle and outer which with their claws are subequal, the claws 
elongate, that of the middle toe longest. The anterior toes are fully webbed between, 
the hind-too reduced to a minute, almost negligible, speck. 

Coloration miiform, save white uj^per and mider tail-coverts. 

9. Oceanites oceanicus.— YELLOW-WEBBED STORM-PETREL. 

[Procellaria oceanica Kuhl, Beitr. Vergl. Anat., p. 136, 1820 (pref. April 9th) : South Atlantic 

Ocean. Estra-Umital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 65 (pt. XXII.), March 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 68, May 

30th, 1912. 

Oceanites oceanicus exasperatus Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. I, p. 11, pi. 68, May 30th, 

1912 : New Zealand Seas. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas as far north as South Queensland. ? Breeding 

at Cape Adare, Antarctic Circle. 

Adult male. — Sooty-black above and below, paler on the greater wing-coverts, 
which are fringed with whitish ; ui>per tail-coverts pure white like the feathers on 



GEEY-BACKED STORM-PETREL. 17 

the sides of the rump ; under tail-coverts whitish at the base, sooty-black at the 
tips ; bill black ; iris dark brown ; feet black ; middle of webs yellow. Total 
length 176 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 13, wing 1.56, tail 72, tarsus 35. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — According to Murphy, recognisable by conspicuous white edgings 
on the feathers of the belly, and by a whitish spot on the lores. In addition they 
have weaker bills, with a less pronounced unguis, shorter wings and tails and smaller 
claws on the toes. 

Nestling. — Covered with greyish-black down. 

Ne.sl. — A chamber at the end of a tunnel, lined with feathers. 

Egg. — Clutch, one; dull white, sometimes sparingly dotted with reddish 
spots ; sometimes these spots form a ring romid the larger end ; axis 33 mm.,, 
diameter 23. 

Breedhuj -season. — January. (Cape Adare.) 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding round the Antarctic Circle, but wandering' 
northwards, as above, in Australian waters ; as far north as the Persian Gulf in the 
Indian Ocean, and in the North Atlantic Ocean common in Nova Scotia and northern 
coasts of the United States. Two forms have been differentiated : 0. o. oceanicus 
Kuhl, South Atlantic Ocean, breeding at South Georgia and common in the North 
Atlantic Ocean in winter ; and 0. o. exasperatus Mathews, on account of larger size 
in all measurements. 

Genus GARRODIA. 

Garrodia Forbes, Coll. Sci. Papers Garrod., p. 521 (footnote), (pref. June 24th) 1881. Type 
(by original designation) : Thalaasidroma nereis Gould. 

Small Storm-Petrels with small hooked bills, long wings, long rounded tail and 
long legs and feet. The bill is similar to that of the preceding genus, but the unguis 
is stronger and more jjowerfully hooked. Tlie wing has the same formula, but the 
feathers are broader. The tail is slightly rounded, the featliei"s broad, the under 
tail-coverts reaching to the tips ; the tail is more than half the length of the wing. 
The legs are long, with the tibia exposed for about half the length of the metatarsus, 
which is less than half the length of the tail. The tarsus is markedly scutellate in 
front and reticulate on the sides and behind. The toes are long and fullj' webbed, 
the webs however more deeply incisetl than in tlie preceding. The hind-toe is 
scarcely recognisable while the outer is longer than the middle ■which exceeds the 
inner toe ; the claws are elongate, that of the middle toe the longest and that of the 
outer toe the least. 

Coloration : head dark, back grey, throat and upper-breast dark, rest of under 
parts white. 

10. Garrodia nereis. — GREY-BACKED STORM-PETREL. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 64 (pt. sx.), Sept. 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 69, May 30th, 
1912. 

Thalassidroma nereis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1840, p. 178, July 1841 : Bass Straits, 

Australia. 

Procellaria saltatrix Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 16, May 30th, 1912 (ex Solander 

MS.) : off Kaikoura, New Zealand. 

Procellaria longipes, Mathews, ib., p. 17 (ex Solander MS.) : ofi Kaikoura, New Zealand. 

Distributions. — Bass Straits, Australia (breeding ?). 

Adult male. — Head and neck all romid, upper back, lesser wing-coverts, bastard- 
wing, and primary-coverts sooty-brown v^'ith a grey tinge ; greater wing-coverts 
and scapulars dark grey, more or less edged with white ; primary and secondary 



18 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

quills blackish, white on the inner webs towards the base ; rump and upper tail- 
coverta grey ; tail grey with a sooty-black band at the tip ; breast, sides of body, 
axillaries, greater under wing-coverts and abdomen white ; sides of breast and outer 
edge of wing below greyish sooty-brown ; under tail-coverts white, the lateral and 
longer ones barred and spotted with ashy-grey ; bill, iris, and feet black. Total 
length 175 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 13, wing 128, tail 65, tarsus 31. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but not quite so dark on the head. 

Nestling. — Unknown . 

Nest. — Situated in burrows about 18 inches deep, and resembling rat holes. 
(Tomahawk Island.) 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour white, the larger end covered with fine dots 
of deep reddish-brown and lavender, and a few reddish ones sparingly distributed 
over the rest of the surface. Dimensions 33 mm. by 23-5. 

Breeding-season. — November. (Guano Island.) January. (Tomahawk Island.) 

Distribution and. forms. — Apparently round the Sub-antarctic Circle. Three 
forms have been distinguished : G. n. nereis (Gould) from Bass Straits, Australia, 
breeding in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands ; G. n. couesi Mathews, from 
Kerguelen Island, on account of their smaller size, av. wing 124 mm. ; and G. n. 
chubbi (Mathews) from the Falkland Islands, by its larger size, wing average 135 mm., 
and darker head and breast and more grey on the back. 

Genus PELAGODROMA. 

Pelagodroma Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. iv., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original designa- 
tion) : Procellaria marina Latham. 

Large Storm-Petrels with long hooked bills, long wings, long emarginate tail 
and long legs and feet. The bill is long with the tubes less than half its length ; 
the tubes are similar in formation to those of the preceding genera, but the unguis 
is much longer and less sharply hooked. The latericorns are less sloping and the 
bill is narrower basally ; the mider mandible has the unguis long and nearly straight, 
the rami little divergent and the interramal space feathered. The wing shows the 
same formula. The tail is ap^jreciably forked, but only to a slight extent ; the 
feathers are very broad, and its length is not quite half that of the wing. The legs 
are long, the exposed tibia long ; the tarsal covering consists of well-marked scutes 
in front and weaker reticulate scaling behind. The hind-toe is still scarcely dis- 
cernible, but the anterior toes are very long, the outer toe the longest, and the inner 
noticeably shorter ; the claws are long and narrow, that of the middle toe the longest, 
and on the outer shorter and broader. The toes are fully webbed. 

Coloration brown and grey above, white below and upper tail-coverts white. 

II. Pelagodroma marina.— WHITE- FACED STORM-PETREL. 

[Procellaria marina Latham, Index Omith., Vol. II., p. 826, (before Dec. 9th) 1790 : South 

Atlantic Ocean. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 61 (pt. xviii.}, March 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 70, May 

30th, 1912. 

Pelagodroma marina dxihice Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 21, May 30th, 1912 : 

Breaksea Island, off Albany, South-west Australia. 

Pelagodroma marina howei Mathews, ib., p. 26 : Mud Island, off Victoria. 

Distribution. — Seas of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, South- 

and mid-West Australia. 

Adult male. — Crown of head and a line below the eye on to the ear-coverts dark 
slate colour ; hind-neck, sides of neck, and mantle and upper back dark ash-grey 
with a brownish shade ; lesser wing-coverts, 2>rimary-coverts, and quills brownish- 



WHITE-FACED STORM-PETREL. 19 

black, the latter more or less white on the inner webs towards the base ; greater 
coverts brown with pale margins ; lower back and scapulars dark brown ; upper 
tail-coverts grey barred with white at the base ; tail brownish-black ; fore-head, 
lores, an irregular line over the eye, and under-surface pure white like the axillaries 
and under wing-coverts ; thighs and lateral under tail-coverts grey, the latter with 
white bases ; bill black, iris hazel, feet black, webs yellow. Total length 209 mm. ; 
culmen (exp.) 17, wing 156, tail 69, tarsus 41. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male, but larger in bill measurements. 

Immature. — -A very small, downy young shows the adult coloration to be taken 
on with the first feathers, the only noticeable difference being white edgings to the 
primary and secondar^r quills, and wavy grey and white undulating marks on 
the upper tail-coverts and rump. 

Fully-feathered young are quite like the adult but cleaner looking, with con- 
spicuous white edgings to the secondaries. The wing measurement is noticeably 
less. 

Nestling. — Covered with ashy-grey down above, white below. 

Nest. — In a burrow. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; variable in size and shape as well as colour markings ; 
sometimes pure white with scarcely any spots, sometimes with the larger end thickly 
speckled mth minute pale rusty spots, and at others speckled sparsely all over with 
such spots, massed at larger end and intermingled with a few larger blackish streaks ; 
elongately oval to subrotundately oval ; axis 35-41 mm., diameter 25-28 mm. 

Breeding-season. — November to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in New Zealand, southern Australia, South 
and North Atlantic Ocean. Five forms have been separated : P. in. marina (Latham) 
breeding on Tristan d'Acimha, Nightingale Island, etc.. South Atlantic Ocean ; P. m. 
hijpoleuca (Webb and Berthelot) with a longer bill and lighter coloration above, 
especially the ashy-grey mantle, breeding on the Great Salvage Islands, Canary 
Islands, Cape Verde Group, etc. ; P. m. dulcice Mathews, the West Australian form, 
with longer bill than the tjrjjical race, also lighter mantle and back, but darker than 
preceding ; P. m. hoivei, the East Australian race, has the mantle and back distinctly 
darker grey with scarcely any fuscous shade ; and P. m. maoriana Mathews, with 
a shorter bill and the mantle, sides of neck, and uj^per back light brown, not grey. 

Genus FREGETTA. 

FregeUa Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLI., p. 1113, (Dec. 31st) 1855. 
Type (by original designation) : Thalassidroma leucogasier Gould. 

Cymodroma Ridgway, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard (Water Birds N. Amer., V^ol. II.), 
Vol. XIII., pp. 363, 418, (introduction dated March 31st) 1884. Type (by original desig- 
nation) : T. tropica Gould. 

Small Storm-Petrels with short hooked bills, long wings, long emarginate tail 
and long legs and short toes. The bill is short, sharply hooked, the tubes as in the 
preceding almost half the length of the culmen ; the unguis short and sharply 
hooked, the side slope fairly steep. The miguis of the lower mandible is correspond- 
ingly short, the interramal space narrow and feathered. The wing has the same 
formation as in the preceding genera. The tail is scarcely forked and is practically 
half the length of the wing, the feathers broad. The legs are long, the exjjosed 
tibia long ; the tarsal covering booted in front, and covered with reticulate scaling 
behind ; the basal phalanges of the toes have also a smooth surface ; the outer toe 
longest, the inner and middle being very little less ; the claws are short and com- 
paratively broad, that of the middle toe being slightly the longest. There is still 
only a minute hind-toe, and the anterior toes are fully webbed. 

Coloration : head and all upper surface sooty ; chest and abdomen white. 

c 2 



20 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

12. Fregetta tropica.— BLACK-BELLIED STORM-PETREL. 

[Thalassidroma tropica Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIII., p. 366, May let, 1844 : 

Atlantic Ocean. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 62 (pt. xsvi.), March 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 71, May 

30th, 1912. 

Fregetta tropica auMralis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 86, Sept. 24th, 1914 : 

New Zealand. 

Distribution. — Australia (visitor). One specimen preserved in Macleay Museum, Sydney. 

Cj. Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 4, p. 95, July 21st, 1917. 

Ad^dt male. — General colour above sooty-black, including the head and neck 
all round, breast, back, wingn, and tail ; the feathers of the back narrowly fringed 
with white like the scapulars and median wing-coverts ; the feathers on the middle 
of the abdomen and imder tail-coverts sooty-black with white bases ; upper tail- 
coverts and feathers on the sides of the rump pure white ; outer tail-feathers whit« 
at the base ; sides of the body and the inner under wing -coverts white, as also the 
axillaries ; small coverts round the margin of the under wing sooty-black ; bill 
and feet black, iris brown. Total length 201 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 14, wing 164, 
tail 76, tarsus 43. 

Adult female. — Description of Australian specimen : " The skin shows slight 
whitish tips to back feathers ; whitish bases to throat feathers show as an obscure 
whitish patch ; the belly mark distinct but ill defined ; lower tail-coverts have 
long black tips with white bases and extend to tip of tail ; there is a whitish jiateh 
on the inner wing-coverts and a brownish outer wing-covert patch. Wing 146, 
tail 69, tarsus 41, middle-toe 27, culmen 15 mm. Nostrils tending upward." 

Nest. — In the crevice of a rock. 

Egg^ — Clut«h, one ; dull white, minutely and sparingly dotted all over with 
small pink dots ; axis 37 mm., diameter 27. (Kerguelen Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Not well known. Apparently Mid and South Atlantic 
Ocean, Indian Ocean and New Zealand Seas. F. t. tropica (Gould) inhabits the 
Atlantic Ocean ; F. t. melanogaster (Gould) from the South Indian Ocean has a 
white spot on the throat and a mesial dark abdominal line ; F. t. australis Mathews, 
from New Zealand seas, like the preceding as to coloration, but larger size and 
longer legs, 

13. Fregetta tubulata.— ALLIED STORM-PETREL. 

Not figured anywhere. 

Fregetta tubulata Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 42, May 30th, 1912, ex Gould MS. ^ 

" Near the coast of Australia " = Locality unknown. 

Distribution. — Not known. One specimen preserved in the British Museum. 
" I have a small Petrel, presented to me by Mr. Denison, who killed it near the 
coast of Australia on his passage to Sydne}', in which the nostril tube is much more 
lengthened than in any other species, and its apical portion turned upwards or 
recurved, instead of being attached to the bill throughout its entire length as in the 
other members of the genus. In the distribution of its colouring it is verj- nearly 
allied to T. trofica and T. lencogaster, and it maj' be a mere variety of one or other 
of those species ; but the bill, in addition to the feature poirited out above, is of a 
more slender and attenuated form than is observable in any other." (Gould.) 

The bird itself is in the British Mui^eum, where we have examined it. It has 
the tube erect as there noted, the feathers of the throat liave light bases, the upper 
tail-coverts are white without black tips, the tail square, the under tail-coverts dark ; 
there are stray dark markings on the belly. It disagrees with the preceding, however, 
in haAnng longer toes, not .';o much flattened, with the claws longer and more spatulate. 



WHITE-BELLIED STORM-PETREL. 21 

It recalls Pealea lineafa Peale, but as the basal phalanx of the middle toe is longer 
than the remaining joints and claw, it must be classed in the genus Fregetta. Its 
measurements are : culmen (exp.) 14, wing (worn) 155, tarsus 37, and middle toe 
without claw 21 mm. 



Genus FREGETTORNIS. 

Fregettornis Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 31, May 30th, 1912. Type (by original 
designation) : Procellaria grallaria Vieillot. 

Small Storm-Petrels with short bills, long wings, long square tail, long legs and 
small feet. The bill has the tubular nostrils semi -erect, the unguis weak but strongly- 
hooked, the laterals not much diverging ; the unguis of the lower mandible is weak, 
the interramal space narrow and feathered. The wing is very long and the wing 
formula as before. The tail is square and about half the length of the wing, the 
feathers broad. The legs are long with tibia exposed, but rather short for this 
series ; the toes are comparatively short with very short broad claws, and although 
the usual proportions obtain, the toes all appear almost subequal. The hind -toe 
is a mere speck, and the anterior toes fully webbed. 

Coloration as in preceding genus, but also unicolour phases occur. 

Fregettornis grallarius.— WHITE-BELLIED STORM-PETREL. 

[Procellaria grallaria VieiUot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XXV., p. 418, Dec. 2Gth, 1818 : 

Australian Seas = South America. Extra-limital.] 

GoiUd, Vol. VII., pi. 63 (pt. XXVI.), March 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 72, May 

30th, 1912. 

Fregettornis innomhiatiis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 124, Jan. 28th, 1915; 

Lord Howe Island. 

Distribution. — Lord Howe Island. 

Adult female (type of F. innominatus Mathews). — Dark blackish-brown on the 
head and neck ; mantle, back and scapulars blackLsh-brown, the feathers narrowly 
margined with white ; median wing-coverts greyish-brown ; lesser wing-coverts, 
bastard-wing, primary -coverts and quills black ; rump and up])er tail-coverts white, 
some of the feathers mth black near the tip ; tail-feathers black, the four outer 
feathers wiiite on inner webs at bases ; breast, abdomen, axillaries, and inner under 
wing-coverts pure white ; smaller coverts round the margin of the under wing black ; 
under tail-coverts black with white bases ; bill and feet black ; iris bro^vn. Total 
length 215 mm. ; culmen 14, wing 164, tail 80, tarsus 37. 

Male and Young.— Yery similar to the female. 

Nest.~A tunnel excavated about eighteen inches in a bank ; the end enlarged 
to a hole about five inches in diameter and lined with a little dead grass on the 
bottom to form a nest. 

£:^^._Clutch, one ; dull white, slightly spotted at the larger end with reddish- 
brown. Dimensions 33.5 by 25 mm. 

Breeding -season. — January. (Lord Howe Island.) 

Note.— Examination of Vieillot's type proves that it is not the Lord Howe 
Island subspecies but the South American. 

Family PROCELLARIIDiE. 

This may be a composite family, including as at present constituted the Shear- 
waters, Fulmars, Prions and the Giant Petrel. The Shearwaters and Fulmars 



22 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

are superficially similar but appear more distantly related when their nestlings are 
examined. The Prions are a peculiar little series, which may be nearlj^ related to 
the Fulmars but M'hich certainly are clearly differentiated now ; while the Giant 
Petrel is a giant relation of the Fulmars showing, in the adult state, the immature 
bill formation of the Fulmar, but of course much exaggerated on account of its huge 
size, and it has added feathers to its tail, these numbering sixteen. Fulmars generally 
having twelve to fourteen, Shearwaters only twelve. The bill of the Shearwaters 
is generally long and narrow, the nasal apertures tending to open upwards, the 
body long and slender, the feet placed far backward ; the bill of the Fulmars is 
shorter and stouter, the nasal apertures facing forward, the body stouter ; the 
internal edges of the upper mandible sometimes producing lamellae. The Prions 
are smaller forms %vith the bill varying from narrow to very broad, slender to very 
stout, lamellae produced on the internal edges of the upper mandible to the greatest 
extent or insignificant, with a distensible interramal pouch or no trace of such, these 
altei-ations taldng place while the size, coloration and other structural features 
remain constant. All these are sub-antarctic in distribution, the Fulmars and 
Shearwaters generally southern, but a few species ranging and breeding in the northern 
temperate regions. Nearly every species of Fulmarine form has been generically 
separated, while those of Puffinine alliance have been lumped. We have shown that 
a constant supergeneric featuie is seen in the parti-coloration of the feet of these 
two groups, the structure of the feet being comparatively similar. The feet of the 
Prions are structurall}' a little different, while those of the Giant Petrel again differ 
in shape, approaching those of the Albatrosses in size but differing in the presence of 
a large hind claw, the toe being obsolete ; this species is also restricted to the Sub- 
antarctic and Antarctic regions. 

Genus PUFFINUS. 

Puffinus Brisson, Ornith., Vol. VI., p. 130, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : Puffinus = Pro- 
cellaria puffinus Briinnich. 

Nectris Kuhl, Beitr. Vergl. Anat., p. 146, 1820 (pref. April 9th). Type (by subsequent desig- 
nation. Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., p. 46, 1912) : Procellaria puffinus Briinnich. 
Thycllas Gloger, in Froriep's Notizen, Vol. XVI., p. 279, 1827 (May). New name for Puffinus 
Brisson. 

Rhipornis Billberg, SjTiops. Faunse Scand., Vol. I., Tab. A, 1828. New name for Puffinus 
Brisson (c/. Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 42, Oct. 23rd, 1913). 
Cymotomus Macgillivray, Man. Brit. Ornith., Vol. II., p. 13, May 28th, 1842. Type (by 
monotypy) : Procellaria puffinus Briinnich. 

Alphapuffinus Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 110, Sept. 24th, 1914. Tj-pe 
(by original designation) : Puffinus assimilis Gould. 

Small Puffinine birds with long slender bills, long wings, short tail and small 
legs and feet. The bill is long and narrow with the miguis hooked ; the nasal tubes 
about one-third the length of the culmen very depressed ; the apertures wide apart, 
separated by a thick septum, and oval in shape, opening nearly horizontally ; the 
latericoras very slightly basally cx-panded ; the rami of the imder mandible com- 
paratively weak and little divergent, the unguis weak and decurved ; the very 
narrow interramal space feathered. The wing is long with the first primarj- longest. 
The tail is short and rounded, a little more than one-third the length of the wing. 
Tlie tarsus is short, not much more than half the length of the tail and less than one 
and a half times the length of the culmen ; it is very laterally compressed, and 
covered with reticulate scaling. The toes are long, the outer longest and the inner 
shortest ; the middle toe, without its claw, exceeds the tarsus in length. The claws 
are long and narrow, that of the middle toe the longest. The hind-toe is present 
only as a small projection. 

Coloration dark above, white below. 



ALLIED SHEARWATER. 23 



14. Puffinus assimilis. ALLIED SHEARWATER. 

[Puifiniis assimilis Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 7, April Ist, 1838: "New 

South Wales " = Norfolk Island. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 59 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 73, May 

30th, 1912. 

Puffiniis assimilis tunneyi Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 71, pi. 73, May 30th, 

1912 : Boxer Island, South-west Australia. 
Distribution. — South-west Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — General colour above bluish-black, including the head, back, 
■wings and tail, the feathers having white or dusky bases ; entire under-surface white, 
including the under wing -coverts and under tail-coverts ; axillaries white, with ash- 
brown subterminal sjiots to some of the feathers ; maxilla black, mandible blue ; 
iris dark brown, feet blue, webs yellow. Total length 304 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 
26, wing 180, tail 68, tarsus 37. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. Total length 294 mm. ; culmeii 
(exp.) 25, wing 175, tail 66, tarsus 36. 

Immature. — As in adult but with white edges to longer wing-coverts and 
secondaries. 

Nestling. — Covered with down, ashy-grey above, paler below. 

Nest. — -Usually at the end of a burrow, the length of which varies from one to 
three feet ; sometimes under a ledge. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; surface smooth, pure white ; axis 48-51 mm., diameter 34-37, 

Breeding-season. — July. 

Distribution and forms. — Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Exact range 
unknown owing to interrelationship with P. Iherminieri Lesson being in disisute. 
Mathews in 1912 indicated eight subspecies, and no emendation of consequence has 
since been made ; thus, P. a. assimilis Gould from Norfolk Island and Kermadec 
Group (Mathews has since named P. a. howensis from Lord Howe Island, as being 
darker above and with a shorter bill) ; P. a. gavia (Forster) from New Zealand, 
as being larger and with the upjier part of the lores blue, wing av. 190 mm. ; 
P. a. kempi Mathews, from the Chatham Islands, in their heavier bills, shorter 
wings, lighter coloration esjiecially on mantle and head, grey splashed axillaries 
and longer tarsi ; P. a. tunneyi Mathews, from West Australia, in being slightly 
smaller and paler than the t\^)ical race, and with more white on the fore-head, and 
much paler yomig ; P. a. munda Salvin (ex Solander MS.) for a South Pacific Ocean 
form with a heavy bill, breeding place unknown ; P. a. subsji. indet. for Reunion 
specimens ; P. a. elegans Giglioli and Salvador! from the South Atlantic Ocean, 
as being very pale birds like P. a. kempi, but with longer wings and tarsi, and P. a. 
baroli Bonajoarte from Madeira, Canaries and Azores ? ; these are darker than the 
preceding with white lores, thinner bills, longer lateral under tail-coverts slate and 
small size. 

[Genus CALONECTRIS. 

Calontctris Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, pp. 590-2, July 2nd. Type (by original desig- 
nation) : Pufjlmts lextcomelas Temminck and Laugier. 

Large Pulfinine birds with long stout bills, long wings, medium rounded tail 
and strong legs and feet. The bill has the imguis strongly hooked of both mandibles, 
the nostrils short and elevated, the apertures facing forwards and only diagonally 
seen from above. Compared with Hemipuffinus, the bill is much longer. The 
wing is long and the first primary is longest, the secondaries fairly long for the 
family. The tail is roundly wedge shaped, not quite half the length of the wing. 
The leg.s and feet are diagnostic, the tarsus showing much less lateral comi^ression 



24 A MANtTAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTR.U>IA. 

and being shorter than the culmen ; the hind -toe insignificant, and the tarsal covering 
reticulate scaling. 

Coloration bicolour, grey -brown above, white below with a white head streaked 
with slate-brown. 

Calonectris leucomelas.— WHITE-FRONTED SHEARWATER. 

ProceUaria leucomelas Temminck, Plnn. Color. d'Ois., Vol. \'., liv. 99", pi. 537, 1835: seas 

of Japan. 

Godman, Mono. Petrels, pi. 21, pfc. 2, March 1908. 

Distribution. — Cape York (?) and seas northward to Japan. 

Adult male. — Mantle, back and scapulars brown, with pale edges and white 
bases to the feathers ; wing-coverts blackish-brown, greater coverts and secondary- 
quills margined with white on the outer webs towards the tips ; bastard-wing, 
primary-coverts, and quills blackish, the latter white on the inner webs at the base ; 
upper tail-coverts ash-brown edged with white ; tail-feathers dark brown ; crown 
of head slate-brown with numerous white feathers intermixed ; hind-neck darker 
and inclining to sooty -brown ; fore-head, sides of face, and sides of throat brown, 
with white margins to the feathers, imparting a streaked appearance ; throat and 
under-surface of body, including the axillaries and under tail-coverts, white ; under 
wing-coverts white, with dark shaft-streaks, some of the outer greater coverts ash- 
grey fringed with white ; bill horn colour ; feet flesh colour, the outer toe a little 
darker (in dried skin). Total length 465 ram. ; culmen (exp.) 53, wing 307, tail 146, 
tarsus 50. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nest and Egg.s. — Undescribed. 

Distribution and forms. — Japanese Seas only, straggling as far south as New 
Guinea.] 

Genus REINHOLDIA. 

Ifeinholdia Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 5, p. 107, Dec. 24th, 1912. Tj-pe (by 

original designation) : Puffinus reinholdi Matliews. 

CinaihUma Hid!, Emu, Vol. XV., p. 205, Jan. 1916 (ex Bull. No. 5 R.A.O.U. 21/12/15. 

Unpublished). Type (by original designation) : C. cycneoleiica Hull = B. reirholdi iyroni 

Mathews. 

Small Puffinine Petrels with long bills, long wings, short tail and long legs and 
feet. The bill is very long and slender, typically Pufiinoid, the wings are long with 
first primary longest, but the tail is very short with a rounded appearance, and less 
than one-third the length of the wing. Tlie bill characters are seen in the nestling 
which has a long bill with a weak nail. Other characters as in Puffinus. 

Coloration bicolour. 

IS. Reinholdia reinholdi.- FLUTTERING SHEARWATER. 

[Pij^^iM rej'nftoWi rem/ioWj" Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 74, May 30t!i, 1912: 
New Zealand. Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 74, May 30th, 1912. Extra-hmital specimen. Vol. VII., pt. 5, 

pi. 367, July 10th, 1919. Australian specimen. 

Reinholdi reinholdi byroni Mathews. Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 8, p. 187, March 20th, 

1913 : (Byron Bay, New South Wales error =) Five Islands, south of WooUongong, New 

South Wales. 

Cinalhisma cyaneoleuca Hull, Emu, Vol. XV., p. 205, Jan. 1916 (ex Bull No. 5 R.A.O.U., 

Dee. 21st, 1915. Unpublished): Murramurang or Brush Island, off Ulladulla, New South 

Wales. 

DisTRiBiTTiox. — Seas of New South Wales and Victoria. 



BROWN AND WHITE PETREL. 25 

Adult. — General colour of the upper-surface including the crown of the head, 
back, wings, and tail, sooty-black with whitish philo tips to the feathers on the hinder 
crown, sides of face and nape ; the margins of the gi-eater upper wing-coverts rather 
paler ; inner webs of flight-quills much paler, especiallj' on the basal portion ; sides 
of face and sides of neck paler than the upper-surface and inclining to smoke-brown ; 
the feathers in front of the eye greyish-white with black hair-like tips ; throat, 
breast, abdomen, under tail-coverts, and under wing-coverts white ; sides of breast, 
lower flanks and thighs dark dusky-bro^vn ; axillaries and inner under wing-coverts 
jiale dusky-brown with dark shaft-lines to the feathers and whitish margins at the 
tips ; mider-suiface of flight-quills greyish-brown ; lower asisect of tail similar but 
the long white mider tail-coverts reaching nearly to the tip of the tail. Bill horn ; 
eyes black ; feet cream ; inner toe and inner side of tarsus brown. Total length 
338 mm. ; culmen 35, wing 206, tail 69, tarsus 40. (The sexes are alike.) 

Nestling. — Wholly brownish -black with a loiig thin weak bill of the true Puffinoid 
nature. 

Nest. — At the end of a burrow, which is about two feet long, and about 4.5 
inches in diameter. The chamber is 1 foot 6 inches long, and about 1 foot 8 inches 
high ; in this there is a deepening with a few leaves. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white ; axis 53 mm., diameter 39. 

Distribution and forms. — East coast of Australia and New Zealand with the 
outlying islands. Four forms have been named : R. r. reinholdi (Mathews) from 
New Zealand (exact locality malmown) ; R. r. huttoni (Mathews) with a longer bill 
and wing, culmen S8, wing 226, against culmen 35 mm., wing 213 mm. ; and more 
brown on sides of chest, the sides of the body smoky-brown and inner wing white 
feathers with darker shaft-lines, from Snares Islands, south of New Zealand ; R. r. 
byrov.i Mathews from New South Wales on accomit of its darker upper coloration 
and smaller size ; wing 191 mm. ; and R. r. melanotis Mathews from the Kaipara 
Beach, North Island, New Zealand, in its blackish upper coloration and smaller 
size ; wing 189 mm., tail 60, tarsus 39, culmen 31 ; this last named may prove 
synonymous vnth the first named. 

Memo. — We have concluded the following refers to this species, though the 
locality has not yet been recorded. 

Puffinus Iherminieri.— BROWN AND WHITE PETREL. 

[Piiffinus Iherminieri Lesson, Revue Zool., 1S39, p. 102: West Indies. Extra-limital.] 

Not figured anywhere. 

Puffimis Iherminieri nugax Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 72, May 30th, 1912, ex 

Solander MS. : off Townsville, Queensland. 

Not Procellaria nugax Bonaparte. 

Distribution. — " Off Townsville, Queensland." No specimen preserved. 

Adult. — Above sooty, imder-surface snow-white, the bill wholly lead-black, 
the nares a fourth of its length. Very like Neclris m'unda, but that the body is much 
less, the bill longer and narrower, etc. ; eyes black, iris grey. Length 1 foot ; 

expanse of wings 2 feet ; bill If inches. 

% 

Genus TH YELLODROMA. 

Thyellodroma Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XI., p. 93, Nov. 8th, 1888. Type (by 
original designation) : Piiffinvs spheniiriis Gould = Pvffimis chlororhynchvs Lesson. 
Zalias Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 362, (pref. Sept.) 1890. Type (by 
subsequent designation, Mathews, List Birds Austr., p. 33, Dec. 1913) : P. chlororhynchiw 
Lesson. 

1 Microzalias Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1915, p. 597, July 2nd. Type (by original designa- 
tion): Puffimis nativilatis Streets. 



26 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Large Puffinine birds with long bills, long wings, long wedge-shaped tail and 
long legs and feet. The bill is tjiiically Pufiinoid, with the nasal tubes depressed 
and the nostrils opening almost horizontally upwards. Tlie long wedge-shaped 
tail is characteristic, being almost half the length of the wing, and about thiee 
times the length of the tarsus. The tarsus is tj'pically Puffinoid and is a little longer 
than the culmen, and the long toes exceed the tarsus in length, the inner with the 
claw, the others without their claws. The webbing between the toes is full but 
narrow, and the hind-toe is minute. 

Coloration imiformly sooty, or dark above and white below. 

i6. Thyellodroma pacifica.— WEDGE- TAILED SHEARWATER. 

[Procellaria pacifica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. ii., p. 560, (April 20th) 1789 : Pacific 

Ocean = Kermadec Islands. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 58 (pt. XXXIV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 75, May 

30th, 1912. 

Pvffinus chlororhynchus Lesson, Traits d'Orn., 8'= livr., p. 613, June 11th, 1831 : No loc. = 

Slope Island, Shark Bay, West Australia. 

Puffinus sphcnurus Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIII., p. 365, May 1st, 1844 : Houtman'e 

Abrollios, West Australia. 

Puffinus pacificus royanus Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 85, May 30th, 1912: 

Sydney, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — East and Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — General colour above sooty-brown, with pale margins of lighter 
brown to the feathers of the mantle, back, scapulars and wings ; imder-surface 
dusky-brown, with hoary-grey on the chin, throat, and fore-neck ; imder wing- 
coverts and axillaries similar to the vmder-surface of body ; bill dark horn or 
bone-brown, tarsus and feet (living specimens) fleshy-white or yellowish -flesh colour, 
with black mottliiigs down the whole of the outer side of the tarsus and outer toe to 
the base of the last phalanx ; toes whitish. Total length 420 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 
37, wing 285, tail 135, tarsus 46. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nestling.— AhoMt two weeks old : covered with down, the upper- and most 
of the under-surface ashy-grey, throat and upper-breast greyish-white ; bill black, 
with horn-coloured tip ; feet yellowish-white. Total length 6 inches. Broughton 
Island, 30th January, 1911. 

About ten weeks old. — True feathers on back and wings sooty-black, ashy-grey 
on the breast, throat darker ; bill black, feet and toes yellowish-white. Total length 
10 inches. Broughton Island, 13th March, 1911. 

Nest. — At the end of a burrow. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; white ; axis 63 to 64 mm., diameter 41-42. 

Breeding -season. — November. (Lord Howe Island.) September to December. 
(Solitary Islands.) 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Exact 
distribution and status undetermined. Mathews discussed the relationship of the 
present species and P. cuneatus Salvin and later the jjresent ^^Titers reviewed it again. 
The most recent investigator, Oberholser, acknowledges the same puzzling features, 
but suggests acquiescence in the separation of the two as we concluded, not without 
doubt. Four named subspecies were admitted as follows : T. p. pacifica (Gmehn) 
from the Kermadec Islands, of large size with a very long poM"erful bill (=P. c. 
iredali Mathews) ; T. p. royana Mathews, from East Australia, with horn-coloured 
bill of smaller size, and shorter wings, tail, etc. ; T. j). chlororhyncha (Lesson) from 
West Australia, of a paler coloration and paler bill, and 2\ p. hatnilloni Mathews, 
from the Seychelles, which are darker above and below, with bill "rose." 



SHOET-TAJXED SHEARWATER. 2T 

Genus NEONECTRIS. 

Neonectris Mathews, Austral Av. Eec, Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 12, Aug. 2nd, 1913. Type (by 
original designation) : Puffinus brevicaudus Gould. 

Large Puffinine birds with long bills, long wings, short tails and long legs and 
feet. Agreeing with the preceding save in the weaker bill, shorter tail and com- 
paratively longer legs. The bill is not so strong, while the tail is less than one-third 
the length of the wing and only one and a half times the length of the tarsus. The 
tarsus is about one and a half times the length of the culmen. 

Coloration miicolour dusky. 

Two species, with difficulty separable by means of the shorter bill and shorter 
legs of the latter which lacks the white inner wing coloration of the former. 

17. Neonectris griseus.— SOMBRE SHEARWATER. 
Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 77, May 30th, 1912. 

Procellaria grisea GmelLn, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. n., p. 564, April 20th, 1789 : New Zealand 

Seas. Estra-limital. 

A'eonec<)-t«grwc«sn!(<c7icr« Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 54, April 7th, 1916: 

Sydney, New South Wales. 

DisTBiBUTiON. — East Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — General colour above sooty-black, with darker shaft-lines ; some 
of the feathers of the wings show a tendency to hoary-grey, sides of face and throat 
also hoary -grey, which colour pervades the entire mider-surface ; mider wing- 
coverts mottled with white and brown, the shaft-streaks strongly pronounced. 
Bill wholly black, but with a narrow thread-like white line at the base of the upper 
bill. Iris very dark brown. Legs and toes black on the outer surface, but lilac or 
purple on the inner surface. Webs blackish. Claws black. Total length 345 mm. ; 
culmen (exp.) 39, wing 299, tail 85, tarsus 60. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nestling. — Covered with thick slaty-grey down. 

Nest.- — At the end of a burrow. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; colour white ; axis 80 mm., diameter 49. 

Breeding-season.— ll^oYexabex. (Snares Island.) December to January. (Moko- 
hinou Islands.) As late as March. (Island of Kapiti.) 

Distribution andform^. — In the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Exact range and 
forms not settled. Mathews in 1912 admitted three subspecies: N. g. griseus 
(Gmelin) from New Zealand ; N . g. chilensis Bonaparte, from West American coasts ; 
and N . g. stricUandi Ridgway from Atlantic seas. Since then two forms from the 
North Pacific Ocean have been added h\ Mathews and Iredale, N . g. pescadoresi, 
from the Pescadores Islands, with longer, stouter bills and shorter legs and N. g. 
missus, from the Kurile Islands, Avith still longer bills and a purer ashy-brown 
coloration throughout. 

18. Neonectris tenuirostris.— SHORT- TAILED SHEARWATER. 

[Procellaria tenuirostris Temminck et Laugier, Plan. Color. d'Ois., 99« livr. (Vol. V., pi. 587), 
1835 : Japan. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII,, pi. 56 (pt. xxvm.), Sept. 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 78, May 
30th, 1912. 

Puffinus brevicaudus Gould, Birds Austr., pt. sxviii. (Vol. VII., pi. 56), Sept. 1st, 1847 : 

Green Island, Bass Straits. 

Puffinus intermedius Hull, Emu, Vol. XI., pt. 11., p. 98, Oct. 2n d .911 : Cabbage Tree Island,. 

Port Stephens, New South Wales. 

Neonectris tenuirostris grantianus Hull, Emu, Vol. XV., p. 206, Jan. 1st, 1916 (ex Bull. No. 5, 

KA.O.U., 21/12/15. Unpublished) : Ulladulla, New South Wales. 



28 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Neonectris tenuirostria hulU Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, Vol. XXXVI., p. 82, May 25th, 

1910 : Barrier Reef, Queensland. 

Distribution. — Eastern and Southern Australian Seas. 

Ad%dt male. — Upper-surface sooty-black, including the head, entire back, 
wings, and tail, with pale margins to some of the feathers ; primary-quills pale 
brown on the inner webs ; secondaries inclining to hoary-grey, the whole of the 
under-surface sooty-brown, somewhat paler on the throat, and darker on the under 
tail-coverts ; under wing-coverts sooty-brown, becoming ash-brown on the greater 
series ; bill dark slate, tarsus slate, eyes brown. Total length 390 ; culmen (exp.) 
32, wing 280, tail 82, tarsus 52 mm. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Coloration similar ; bill dark horn colour, tip light horn ; iris 
dark brown ; legs and feet slate and flesh in usual pattern. 

Nestling. — Covered with brown down, paler on the under-surface. 

Nest. — At the end of a burrow, which is sometimes 4 feet long. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white, minutely pitted ; axis 67-71 mm., diameter 
45-46. 

Breeding-season. — The end of November and December. 

Incubation-period. — Eight weeks. 

Distribution and forms. — Australian and Japanese seas as far as yet known, 
but one specimen examined from Persian Gulf. Five subspecies named, but 
probably only two valid, as N. t. tenuirostris (Temm. and Laug.) from Japanese seas, 
and N. t. brevicaudu3 (Gould) from East Australian seas with a differently coloured 
bill, dark slate, the former having a horn bill ; and the inner wing coloration, sooty 
instead of ashy. The other named forms, given in the synonymy above, require 
confirmation by study of large series. 

Genus HEMIPUFFINUS. 

Hemipuffinus Iredale, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 20, Aug. 2nd, 1913. Type (by 
monotypy) : Puffinus carneipea Gould. 

Large Puffinine Petrels with long, stout bill, long wings, medium tail and large 
legs and feet. 

The bill is long, strongly hooked, with somewhat prominent r asal tubes, the 
laterals basally expanded. The nostrils are separated by a thick septum, and have 
their openings semi -vertical. The under mandible has the rami strong and little 
divergent, the unguis powerful. The wings are long with the first primarj' longest, 
and the secondaries comparatively long. The tail is weakly wedge shajjed, about 
one-third the length of the wing and twice the length of the tarsus ; the under tail- 
coverts reach to its end. The legs are long, the tarsus laterally compressed and 
covered with reticulate scales. The toes are very long, the outer longest, but little 
exceeding the middle toe which is longer than the inner which is a little shorter 
than the tarsus. The anterior toes are fully webbed with long narrow acute claws. 
The hind-toe is minute. 

Coloration wholly dark. 

19. Hemipuffinus carneipes.- FLESHY-FOOTED SHEARWATER. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 57 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 76, May 30th, 

1912. 

Puffinus carneipes Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIII., p. 365, May 1st, 1844 : near 

Cape Leeuwin, West Australia. 

Distribution. — West and South Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — General colour above sooty-black, somewhat darker on the head ; 
the feathers of the back, scajjulars, and wings with pale brown margins ; quills 



WHITE-CHINKED PETREL. 29 

black, inner webs pale brown, the shafts paler at the base ; under-surface brown ; 
sides of the face and throat tinged with hoary -grey ; bill flesh colour ; culmen 
and tips of both mandibles brown ; iris brown ; feet flesh colour. Total length 
455 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 40, TOng 310, tail 104, tarsus 54. 

Adult female.— iiim.ila,T to the adult male but with shorter bill and shorter tarsus. 

Immature. — Similar to the adult. 

Nestling. — Covered with brownish-grey down, much paler below ; bill shor 
and stout ; feet small. 

Nest. — At the end of a long burrow. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white ; axis 66-72 mm., diameter 47-48. 

Breeding-season. — November to January. 

Distribution and forms. — West Australia, New Zealand, Lord Howe Island 
and Japanese seas. Four forms have bean indicated from these diverse localities, 
as follows : H. c. carneipes (Gould) from West Australia ; H. c. ImUianus (Mathews) 
from Lord Howe Island (the specimens were labelled Norfolk Island, where it does 
not occur, but collected on Lord Howe Island) on account of its larger size, and 
especially its stouter bill ; H. c. hakodate (Mathews) from Japanese seas by its still 
larger size, paler coloration, weaker bill, and inner wing coloration ; and H. c. 
carbonarius (jMathews) from Ne^^ Zealand with its weaker bill than H. c. hullianus, 
and shorter wing, agreeing better with typical form, but with stouter bill than that. 

This species has been procured off the coast of California, and Loomis's 
measurements suggest that this is a larger race still. 

Genus PROCELLARIA. 

Procellaria Linn^, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 131, Jan. 1st, 1758. Type (by subsequent desig- 
nation Gray, p. 78, 1840) : P. cequinoclialis Linn6. 

Priofinus Hombron et Jacquinot, Comptes Rendus Sci. (Paris), Vol. XVIII., p. 355, March 
1844. Type ; ProceUaria mquinoctialis " Edw." = LinnS. (P. cinerea Graelin is not included.) 
Majaqueus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. IV., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original designa- 
tion) : P. ccqui}wctialis Linne. 

Cymatoholus Heine und Reiehenow, Mus. Hein., p. 363, (pref. Sept.) 1890. New name for 
" Majaqueus Reich." 

Largest Pufiinine birds with long stout bills, long wings, long rounded tails 
and strong legs and feet. 

The bill is strong with a well-developed miguis, about half the length of the 
bill, powerfully hooked ; the nasal tubes are short and are separated by a distinct 
septmn, and open forwards with apparently a vertical aperture. The laterals are 
strongly developed somewhat laterally. The under mandible has the rami strong 
and moderately close together, the unguis stout, the interramal space feathered. 
The wings are long with the first primary longest. The tail is long and romided, 
a little less than one-third the length of the wing. The legs are long and stout, 
not so compressed as in the previous genera and covered with reticulate scales 
similarly. The toes are longer than the tarsus, the outer longer than the middle 
which exceeds the inner, all the claws long and sharp. The hind-toe minute, and 
the anterior toes fully webbed. 

Coloration wholly sooty, sometimes with white markings about the head. 

Procellaria aequinoctialis.— WHITE-CHINNED PETREL. 

[Procellaria cequinoclialis Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 131, Jan. 1st, 1758: Gape Seas. 
Extra-IimJtal.J 

Mathews. Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 112, May 30th, 1912. 

Procellaria ccquinociialis steadi Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 1, pp. 110-112, May 30th, 
1912 : Antipodes Islands, New Zealand. 

Distribution. — ? East and South Australian Seas. 



30 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTEALIA. 

AduU male. — General colour above sooty-black with brown edges ; iuterramal 
space only more or less white ; bill with sides of the upper mandible and the 
tubes blue, the culnien and unguis black, the lower edge of the lower mandible flesli 
colour ; legs and feet black. Total length 510 mm. ; culmen 56, wing 388, tail 122, 
tarsus 67. 

Adult female. — Agrees in coloration and size. 
Nestling. — Unknown . 

Young. — According to Hutton, identical in coloration. 

Nesl. — -Breeds in holes made in the side of a sloj^e, these holes being hollowed 
out into a circular chamber at the end. 
fig-^.— White. 

Breeding -season. — December. 

Distribution and forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic Circle. Four subspecies have 
been discriminated by means of the white chin spot and size : P. a. cequinoctialis 
Linne from the Cape Seas, probably breeding at the Falkland Islands or South 
Georgia, with a very small chin spot ; P. a. mi.rta Mathews from eastern Cape Seas, 
probably breeding at Kerguelen Island with a larger amount of wliite oil chin and 
sides of face ; wing average 37-4 mm. ; P. a. steadi IVIathews, from New Zealand 
seas, breeding on Antipodes and Auckland Islands with a minute white interramal 
spot, average wing 385 mm. ; and P. a. brahournei Mathews, from west coast of 
South America, breeding place unknown, a larger bird with a small white chin spot ; 
average wing 399 mm. 

Procellaria conspicillata.— SPECTACLED PETREL. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 46 (pt. XXXV.). Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 79, May 

30th, 1912. 

Procellaria conspicillata Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIII., p. 363, May 1st, 1844 : 

Australian Seas ? = Cape Seas. 

Procellaria larvaia Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant, 12th year. No. 31, col. 971, June Ist, 

1845 : Cape Seas. 

DisTMBUTiON. — Australian Satis ? ? No authentic specimens known, though commonly 

so recorded. 

Adult male. — General colour above and below soot}', the feathers margined 
with brown ; a band of white commences on the chin and extends backward along 
the cheeks to the sides of the head, but is not joined on the occiput ; another band 
extends from the chin, in front of the eyes, across the crown of the head. Nostrils 
and sides of the mandibles yellowish -horn colour ; culmen, tips of both mandibles, 
and a groove running along the lower mandible black ; feet black. Total length 
476 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 53, wing 368, tail 105, tarsus 66. 

Adult female and Young. — Unknown. 

Nest, Egg, and Breeding-season. — Unknown. 

Distribution and forms. — Unkiaown. " Very abundant in the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans." (Gould.) Nearly all skins available labelled "Australian seas," 
and nearly all records referring to Atlantic Ocean onlj'. Li the Avstral Avian Record, 
Vol. II., p. 21, August 2, 1913, Iredale has recorded details of authentic Atlantic 
specimen in Vienna Museum, but no further information on the subject has since 
been received. 

20. Procellaria parkinsoni. — BLACK PETREL. 

Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 80, May 30th, 1912. 

Procellaria parkinsoni Gray, Ibis, July 1862, p. 245 : New Zealand. 

DiSTRiBUTio.N'. — AustraUa (visitor). One specimen preserved in Macleay Museum, Sydney. 



BBOWN PETREL. 31 

Adult male. — -Entire plumage, both above and below, sooty-black, with no 
white on the head ; bill yellow, culmen and tip black, iris hazel, feet black. Total 
length 545 mm. ; culmen 42, wing 348, tail 110, tarsus 54. 

Adult female. — Sim,ilar to the adult male. Total length 530 mm. ; culmen 40, 
wing 337, tail 101, tarsus 52. 

Nestling. — Covered with dark grey down. 

Nest. — A few leaves placed at the end of a burrow. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white ; axis 72 mm., diameter 51. 

Breeding-season. — November and December. 

Distribution and forms. — New Zealand Seas, breeding on the mainland and 
islands. No subspecies differentiated, but Loom,is has recently (Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., Vol. II., pt. II., p. 108, April 22nd, 1916) recorded the species killed at sea 
near the Galapagos Islands. 

Genus ADAMASTOR. 

Adamastor Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIII., p. 595, Sept. 185G. 
Typo (by original designation) : Pr. h(vsitata Forster = Procellaiia cinerea Gmelin. 
Priofmus Auct., not of Hombron and Jacquinot, 18-14. 

Large Pufftnine birds agreeing with Procellaria with bill features, but with 
shorter wings, comparatively longer tail and shorter legs. The different coloration 
of the feet suggest a more close alliance with Puffinus (sensulatissimo) and Ardenna 
{s. str.). The culmen is less than the tarsus which is half the length of the rounded 
tail, which is one-third the length of the wing ; in the preceding genus (Procellaria) 
the tarsus is more than half the length of the tail, which is less than one-third the 
wing-length. 

Coloration brown-grey above, white below. 

21. Adamastor cinereus.— BROWN PETREL. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 47 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st. 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 1, pi. 81, May 

30th, 1912. 

Procellaria cinerea Gmehn, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. II., p. 563, April 20th, 1789 : Antarctic 

Circle = Seas south of New Zealand. 

Procellaria gelida Gmehn, ib., p. 564 : " inter 35° and 50° South." 

Procellaria mclanura Bonnaterre, Tabl. Encycl. Meth. Ornith., Vol. I., p. 79, \ 

1791 ) All these 

Procellaria hccsitata Forster, Desc. Anim., ed. Licht., p. 208, (Jan. 1st) 1844 I based on 

Not of Kuhl, Beitr. Vergl. Zool. Anat., p. 142, (pref. April 9th) 1820 / same source 

Adamastor typiis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., Vol. II., p. 187, Oct. 1st, 1857 j as Gmelin's 

Procellaria adama.slor Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Vol. VI., Procell., p. 23, July I species. 

1863 / 

Procellaria pallipes Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, p. 123, July 31st, 1912 : New 

Zealand. Ex Solander MS. 

Priofinus cinereus dydimus iiathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 54, April 7th, 1916 ; 

New Zealand. 

Distribution. — Australia. Gould says that he got specimens between Hobart and Sydney. 

But none preserved now. 

Adult male. — General colour above ash-grey, including the feathers of the back, 
scapulars, and upper tail-coverts ; the long scapulars and wing-coverts a little darker 
than the back, and show the shaft-streaks ; bastard-wing and primary -coverts 
ash-brown ; jJrimary-quills, hoary-grey, paler on the inner webs, outer web of the 
first primary blackish ; shafts white towards the base ; secondaries hoary-grey, 
more or less wliite on the basal portion ; tail for the most part browii with hoary- 
grey on the outer webs of the feathers and becoming whitish towards the base ; 
head and sides of the face darker than the back, and inclining to black or slate- 



32 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

grey ; throat and under-surface of the body white ; the long under tail-coverts 
ash-brown with pale edges ; axillaries and under wing-coverts also ash-brown, some 
of the latter have pale edges ; bill perfectly black on the ridge, changing to horn 
colour on the hook and having a black line down the middle of the lower mandible, 
widening out on meeting the unguis, which is dull horn colour, remainder of bill 
yellow ; legs and feet greyish-flesh colour, shaded with dark on the heel and on the 
outer sides of the tarsus and toes ; interdigital webs yellowish with grey edges, 
iris dark brown. Total length 425 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 4.5, wing 335, tail 112, 
tarsus 55. 

Adult female. — Similar to adult male. 

Nest. — Cup-shaped structure, in a large chamber at the end of a burrow. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white ; axis 70 mm., diameter 60. 

Breeding -season. — October to December. (Macquarie Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Round the Antarctic Circle, and at jiresent no well- 
defined subspecies can be determined. 

Genus PRIOCELLA. 

Priocella Hombron et Jacquinot, Comptes Rendus Aoad. Sci. Pai-is, Vol. XVIII.. p. 357, 
March ith, 1844. Type (by monotypy) : P. garnotii Hombron et Jacquinot = Fulmarus 
aiitarclicus Stephens. 

Accurately this genus would rank as a subgenus of Fulmarus, with which genus 
it agrees in detail .save in the bill formation. The bill has long nasal tubes, lying on 
top of the culmen and developed in that position, thus differing from the preceding 
in a character probably of family value. The wing is long and the first primary 
longest. The tail consists of fourteen feathers, and is romided and more than one- 
third the length of the wing and nearly three times the length of the tarsus. The 
tarsus is v.'eak and not strongly laterally compressed, and much longer than the 
culmen. 

Coloration blue-grey above, white below. 

22. Priocella antarctica. —SILVER-GREY PETREL. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 48 (pt. sxxv.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 82, July 

31st, 1912. 

Fulmarus antarcticus Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 236, Feb. ISth, 

1826 : Cape Seas. 

Procellaria glacialoides Smith, Illus. Zool. S. Africa, pi. 51, July, 1840 : Cape Seas. 

Priocella garnotii Hombron et Jacquinot, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. (Paris), Vol. XVIII., 

p. 357, March 4th, 1844 : Nomen nudum. 

Thalassoica polaris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., Vol. II., p. 192, 1857 (after Oct. 1st) : Nom. 

nud. 

Procellaria smilhi Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Vol. VI., Procell., p. 22, July 1863. New name 

for P. glacialoides Smith. 

Priocella antarclica addenda Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 125, Jan. 28th, 

1915: New Zealand Seas. 

Distribution. — East Australian Seas. Two specimens in Melbourne Museum, collected 

at QueenscliH in December 1882. 

Adult male. — Upper-surface, including the mantle, back, wings, and tail blue- 
grey, becoming paler and inclining to white on the hind-neck ; bastard -mng dark 
grey, some of the feathers white on the inner webs ; primary-coverts dark grey 
with pale tips ; primary-quills dark grey with wliitish tips, the greater portion cf 
the inner webs white, inner primaries i^aler grey towards the base ; secondaries grey 
on the outer webs and white on the inner ones, the innermost secondaries like the 
back ; middle tail-feathers like the back ; the outer ones white on the inner webs. 



GREY-FACED PETREL. 33 

the outermost entirely •white ; fore-part of head, sides of face, throat, and luader- 
surface of body pure white ; maxilla and mandible tipped with black, the middle 
portion of the bill flesh-coloured, and the base and nares cobalt-blue. The feet are 
pale flesh colour, the webs washed with yellow, and the claws black. The iris dark 
brown, and the pupil black. Total length 482 mm. ; culmen 45, wing 340, tail 132, 
tarsus 49. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nest. — At the end of a burrow in the sand. (Kerguelen Island.) 

Egg. — Unknown. 

Distribution and forms. — Romid the Antarctic Circle. No definite subspecies 
at present recognisable. 

Genus PTERODROMA. 

Pterodroma Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLII., p. 768, May, 1856. 
Type (by subsequent designation, Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., p. 137, May 1866) : 
Procellaria macroplera Smith. 

Large Petrels for this series with short stout black bills, long wings, long tail 
and stout legs of peculiar coloration. The bill has a short nasal tube, which is less 
than half the length of the culmen, and almost reaches the base of the miguis, which 
is very romid and sharj^ly hooked ; viewed from in front the nasal aperture appears 
circular with a thin septum visible inside, separating the nostrils. The development 
of this tube is quite unlike that of Puffinus, though the result is similar and is a 
good example of convergence. The latericorns are little expanded and the inside 
shows no lamellae. The rami of the lower mandible are strong, but little divergent, 
the interramal space feathered, the powerful miguis not deflected downward as in 
Puffinus. The wings are long with the first primary longest. The tail is long, 
somewhat wedge shaped of twelve broad feathers and about two-fifths the length 
of the wing. The legs are stout, much less compressed than in Puffinus, and the 
toes are comparatively shorter, the hind-toe being only present as a straight claw. 
The anterior toes are fully webbed. 

All the birds of the genus are stoutly built and coloration dark above and 
sometimes also dark below. 

23. Pterodroma macroptera. —GREY-FACED PETREL. 

[Procellaria macroptera Smith, lUus. Zool. S. Africa, pt. xi., pi. 52, July 1840; Cape Seas. 
Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 83, July 31st, 1912. 

Pterodroma macroptera albani Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 30, April 2nd, 
1912 : Rabbit Island, Albany, West Australia. 

Distribution. — ^West and South Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — Sooty-black above and below ; fore-head, lores, chin, and throat 
greyish ; bill and feet black ; iris Lazel. Total length 392 mm. ; culmen 36, wing 
320, tail 135, tarsus 4L ^ 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Similar to adult. 

Nestling. — Covered with greyish-black do%vn. 

Nest. — In large chamber at end of a bun-ow, lined with a few leaves and grass. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white ; axis 68 mm., diameter 50. 

Breeding-season. — Jmie, September. 

Distribution and forms. — South Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and South-west 
Pacific Ocean. Three forms have been indicated : P. m. macroptera (Smith) from 



34 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA, 

the Cape Seas ; P. m. gouldi (Hutlon) from New Zealand (^vhich may occur in East 
Australian seas) with longer wings and a grej-er face ; and P. m. albani Mathews, 
from West Australia, smaller than preceding but with similar grey faces. 

24. Pterodroma melanopus. — BROWN-HEADED PETREL. 

Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 84, July 31st, 1912. 

Procellaria melanopus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. II., p. 562, April 20th, 1789 : North 

America = Norfolk Island. 

Procellaria aolatidri Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIII., p. 363, May 1st, 1844 : Bass 

Straits. 

Procellaria phillipii Gray, Ibis, July 1862, p. 246 : Norfolk Island. 

(Estrelata montana Hull, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1910, Vol. XXXV., p. 785, March 1st, 

1911 : Lord Howe Island. 

Distribution. — Australia (visitor). Breeding on Lord Howe Island, formerly on Norfolk 

Island. One occurrence in Bass Straits. Specimen preserved in British Museum. 

Adult (type of P. solandri Gould). — Back, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts 
slate-grey with dark edgings to the feathers ; lesser wing-coverts, bastard-wing, 
and primary-coverts dark brown. ; primary-quills also dark brown on the outer 
webs and at the tips, paler on the inner webs, and becoming white at the base ; 
median and greater coverts slate-grey, the secondaries similar but pale brown on 
the inner webs and wliitish at the base ; tail dark brown witli hoary -grey on some 
of the outer webs of the feathers, pale on the inner webs and also at the base ; head 
and neck all round sooty-broTOi, the feathers having white bases give a scalloped 
appearance on the fore-head and sides of face ; breast pale sooty-brown, becoming 
dull slate-grey on the abdomen, under tail-coverts, and sides of the body ; the feathers 
on the sides of the body slightly edged with white at the tips like the axillarics ; 
under wing-eoverts dark brown, the greater under wing-coverts dull white like the 
base of the primaries ; bill black ; eyes dark brown ; feet black, web greyish-black. 
Total length 450 mm. ; culmen, from base of feathers on forehead, 40, wing 296, 
tail 128, tarsus 41. 

Adult male and female. — Alike. 

Immature. — We have examined many birds which still retained the grey down 
on the abdomen. These show the characteristic mottling of the face, and agree 
entirely in coloration wth the adult, save that the shades appear lighter or darker 
than they do in the adult, owing to the wearing ; thus the secondary wing-coverts 
are lighter, while the median coverts show darker, the lesser again appearing lighter, 
etc. The dark tips to the feathers of the under-surface are somewhat paler. 

Nestling. — Covered with dark ashy-grey do^vn, concolour. 

Nest. — A large accmnulation of grass in burrows, some as much as six feet in 
length, in which the egg is almost concealed. 

Egg. — Clutch, one; dull white; 63 mm. by 44. 

" They lay but one egg, and that is full as large as a duck's egg." (Hunter, 
Norfolk Island.) 

Breeding-season. — June, July and August. 

" Most of the females taken in May were with egg." (Hunter, Norfolk Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding at Lord Howe Island only ; only other record 
as above and consequently no subspecies. 

25. Pterodroma inexpectata.— MOTTLED PETREL. 

[Procellaria inexpectata Forster, Descr. Anim., ed. Licht., p 204, (pref. Jan. 1st) 1844 : Seas 

south of New Zealand. Estra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. VIL, pt. .5, pi. 368, July 10th, 1919. 



SOFT-PLUMAQED PETREL. 35 

Pterodroma inexpectata thompsoni Mathews, Austral Av. Reo., Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 125, Jan. 

28th, 1915 : East Australia = Tasmania. 

Distribution. — Tasmania (visitor). One specimen preserved in Mathews's collection. 

Adult male. — General colour of the upper-surface hoary-grey, with white bases 
to the feathers, which show through the grey in many places ; the tips of the feathers 
on the head, back, scapulars, and short ujjper tail-coverts dark brown or blackish ; 
lesser and marginal upjjer wing-coverts, bastard-wing, primarj^-coverts, and outer 
webs of flight-quills blackish-brown ; the inner webs of the last for the greater part 
white ; median and greater upper wing-coverts and secondary -quills hoary-grey 
with narrow white edgings on the outer webs, the inner webs for the most part white, 
except the innermost where both webs are grey ; long upper tail-coverts and tail- 
feathers pale slate-grey, except the two outer ones on each of the latter which are 
mottled with white ; fore-head and sides of face, including the feathers surrounding 
the eyes, white with minute dark tips to the feathers ; chin and throat pure white ; 
breast, abdomen, and sides of body dusky-brown with white bases to the feathers 
which show through and impart a mixture of brown and white, some of the feathers 
on the sides of the body and lower flanks are barred with white and dusky-brown ; 
mider tail-coverts cream-white and reach the tip of the tail ; axillaries white, mottled 
and barred with dusky-brown ; under wing-coverts blackish-brown, more or less 
mottled and blotched with white ; under-surface of flight-quills for the greater 
part white with pale brown along the shafts and at the tips of the primaries and 
grey tips to the secondaries ; lower aspect of tail grey, the two outer feathers on 
each sides mottled with white, almost the whole of the tail below is obscured by 
the under tail-coverts, wliich are cream-white ; bill black, tarsus fleshy, feet black 
with base of inner web whitish. Total length 283 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 251, 
tail 93, tarsus 35. 

Adult female and Immature. — Similar to adult. 

Nestling. — Sooty -grey down above and below. 

Nest, Egg and Breeding -season. — Unknown. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in south New Zealand and the islands south 
of New Zealand. A specimen was described as a new species as QiJstrelata fischeri 
by Ridgvvay from St. Paul, Kodiak Island, Alaska ; another of the same form from 
the North Atlantic as JEstrelata scalaris by Brewster, but breeding places unknown. 

26. Pterodroma mollis. —SOFT-PLUMAGED PETREL. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 50 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 86, July 
31st, 1912. 

Procellaria mollis Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIII., p. 363, May 1st, 1844 ; South 

Atlantic Ocean. 

DiSTBiBUTiON. — West Australian Seas. (One occurrence, West Australia.) 

Adult male. — Head, hind-neck, sides of neck, back, and short scapulars ash- 
grey, becoming much paler on the upper tail-coverts and tail ; some of the outer 
tail-feathers whitish ; the long scapulars and entire wing black with pale brown 
on the inner Webs of the primaries ; mader-surface white, sides of body dusted and 
barred with grey ; under wing -coverts sooty-brown ; the feathers on the fore-head 
and sides of the face have more or less white fringes ; bill black, tarsus and basal 
third part of the feet flesh colour, the remainder black ; iris brown. Total length 
395 mm. ; culmen 29, wing 259, tail 112, tarsus 35. 

Adidt female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nest, Egg and Breeding-season. — Unknown. 

Distribution and forms. — Atlantic Ocean only, and the North Atlantic form has 
been named QU.fece by Salvador!, yet the specimen recorded from Australia shows no 
appreciable difference from typical birds. 



36 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Genus iESTRELATA. 

yEstrelala Bonaparte, Comptes Renilus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLII., p. 768, May 1856. Type 
(by subsequent designation, Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliilad., p. 137, May 1866) : Pro- 
ccllaria hasitata Kuhl. 

Tliere is a series of these Pterodiomoid Petrels which do not show any very 
appreciable difference in structure, but which have probably followed a different 
route of development. We are keeping the present name in view in order to incite 
investigation into this matter. 

Large Pterodromine birds with short stout black bills, long wings, long tail 
and stout legs and feet. 

The bill is comparatively short and stout, only about three-fourths the length 
of the tarsus. The details are tj-pically Pterodromine. 

The wing is long with the first primary longest. The tail is long and wedge 
shaped, nearly half the length of the wing, but less than three times the length of 
the tarsus. The legs are stout, not so much lateral compression, and covered as 
usual, with reticulate scaling ; the hind-toe exists onl}' as a projecting point and the 
long toes are fully webbed. 

Coloration mainly white, wings and back dark coloured. 

27. iEstrelata lessonii.— WHITE-HEADED PETREL. 

[Procellaria lessonii Gamot, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Vol. VII., p. 54, 1826: Falkland Islands 

Seas. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 49 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 85, July 

31st, 1912. 

Procellaria lencocephala Foreter, Descr. Anim., ed. Lieht., p. 206, (pref. Jan. 1st) 1844 : 

Australian Seas. 

Not of Kuhl, Beitr. Vergl. Anat., p. 142, 1820, nor Griffith " 1829." 

Procellaria i-agahunda Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, p. 155, July 31st, 1912 (ex 

Solander MS.) : Bass Straits, Australia, 

Not of Gray, Genera Birds, Vol. III., p. 048, 1844, as synonym of lessonii. 

.■Estrelata lessonii auetralis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 54, April 7th, 

1916 : Sydney, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. 

Adnlt male. — General colour above pale grey, including the hind-neck, sides of 
neck, back, scapulars, and tail, darker on the wings and long scapulars ; lesser and 
median wing-coverts blackish like those romid the margin of the wing- and primary- 
coverts ; primary-quills blackish, jjaler on the inner webs ; secondaries slate-grej% 
white at the base ; feathers of the back and short scapulars grey with paler grey 
margins ; upper tail-covert« paler grej' than the back, margined with •white ; middle 
tail-feathers grey, the outer ones white-mottled or dusted with grej' ; feathers romid 
the eye blackish ; fore-head, lores, and cliin white, mottled with grey ; throat and 
remainder of under-surface white ; axillaries ash-grey, white at base and fringed 
wth white at the tips ; under wing-coverts pale browai with whitish margins ; 
bill black, iris black ; tarsi and base of feet fleshy-wliite, toes and outer portion 
of webs black. Total length 413 mm. ; culmen 36, wing 314, tail 130, tarsus 48. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male ; wing 308. 

Immature. — Similar. 

Nestling.- — Undescri bed . 

Nest. — A large chamber at the eiid of a burrow. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white ; axis 72 mm., diameter 51. 

Distribution and forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic Circle. Two forms have been 
suggested: A. I. lessonii (Gamot), from the Falkland Islands seas ; A. I. australi& 



WHITE-WINGED PETREL. 37 

Mathews, from East Australian seas (probably breeding on the New Zealand Sub- 
antarctic Islands) in their slighter bill, and more uniform grey tail and shafts of 
tail-feathers yellowish, not white. 

Genus COOKILARIA. 

Cookilaria Bonaparte, Comptes Rcndus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIII., p. 994, Nov. 185G. 
Substitute name for " Rhatitistes Reiehenbach." Type (by original designation) : Pro- 
cellaria cookii Gray. 

Rhantisles Reiehenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, pt. iv., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original designa- 
tion) : P. cookii Gray. 
NotKaup, Sldzz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 105, 1829. 

Medium delicately-built Petrels with short bills, long wings, medium tail and 
medium legs and feet. 

The bill is comparatively short and generally stout, as in Pterodroma, usually 
a little less than the length of the tarsus ; the variation in bill formation in this 
genus is noteworthy, one form having quite an elongate bill almost equalling the 
tarsus, and with the unguis less strong and hooked than in the other forms. 

The wing is long with the first primary longest, and the tail is wedge shaped, 
much more than one-third the length of the wing and in some cases nearly half the 
length. The legs are slender, not laterally compressed and covered with reticulate 
scaling, the toes fully webbed anteriorly, the hind -toe a simple straight claw. The 
tarsus is about one-third the length of the tail and the legs are tyi>ically coloured. 

Coloration bluish-black above, white below. 

This genus is an example of the fatuity of depending upon " structural " 
characters alone, as these, calculated from the skin, do not take into review the 
trunk features, which are significant. These birds are very different in form, habits, 
cry and colour pattern of downy young from the large Pterodromine species, but in 
structure they differ but little as to proportions of wing, bill, etc. 

28. Cookilaria cookii.— WHITE-WINGED PETREL. 

[Procellaria cookii Gray, in DieSenbach's Travels in New Zeal., Vol. II., p. 199, 1843, middle 

Jan. : New Zealand. Extra-hmital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 51 (pt. XXV.), Dec. 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pis. (87) and 88, 

July 31st, 1912. 

Procellaria leiicoptera Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIII., p. 364, May 1st, 1844 : Cabbage 

Tree Island, Port Stephens, New South Wales. 

Rhantistes velox Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLII., p. 768, May 1856: 

New name for P. leucoptera Gould. 

Cookilaria cookii byroni Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, Vol. XXXVI., p. 48, Feb. 3rd, 1916 : 

" Byron Bay, N.S.W." errore = Cabbage Tree Island, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — New South Wales. 

Adult male. — Head, hind-neck, sides of neck and mantle black, like the lesser 
wing-coverts, bastard-wing, primary-coverts, outer webs and tips of primaries and 
the long scapulars ; inner webs of primaries brown near the shafts, white on the 
remaining portion of the inner webs ; median and greater wing-coverts ash-grey 
as also the back and short scapulars ; innermo.st primaries and secondaries ashy- 
grey, basal portion of inner webs white ; axillaries white ; uj)per tail -coverts and 
tail pale ash-grey, some of the outer feathers minutel3' mottled with white and grey 
on the inner webs ; feathers of the fore-head black, fringed with white ; lores, chin, 
throat, and entire under-surface white, including the long under tail-coverts, sides 
of body and mader wing-coverts ; the small coverts round the margin of the wing 
slate-grey narrowly edged with white ; sides of breast dark slate-grej-. Total length 
307 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 215, tail 95, tarsus 30. (Taken from the co-type of 



38 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

seventy years ago.) Freshly moulted specimens have head, hind -neck, sides of 
neck and mantle dark bluish-grey ; median and greater wing-coverts and back 
ashy-grey with noticeable white fringes to the feathers ; lower back lighter ; rump 
dark, like head ; upper tail-coverts and tail like lower back, but tips of tail-feathers 
darker. All the feathers of the upper-surface with lighter bases ; from the back to 
the tail pure white bases. 

Adult female. — Not so dark above as the male and slightly smaller in all the 
measurements. 

Nestling. — About four weeks old. Head and the whole upper-surface covered 
with bluish-grey down, extending on to the flanks ; chin, throat, and upper-breast, 
white ; centre of breast, abdomen, and under -tail, white. Bill, black, interdigital 
membrane fleshy-white and basal half, black. Total length 8 inches. 

Younger birds, about 5 inches in length, show more of the white on the under- 
surface. 

Nest. — A depres.sion in the groimd, or a crevice among loose stones, lined 
with a small quantity of broken pieces of dead fronds of the cabbage palm. 

Egg. — One ; soft chalky -white, rounded oval ; dimensions 50 mm. by 37. 

Breeding-season. — November and December. 

Distribution and forms. — Pacific Ocean only. Seven forms are known, but 
whether these should be considered subspecies or specifically distinct i.s problematical. 
These forms are C. c. cookii (Gray) from New Zealand mainland ; C. c. leucoptera 
(Gould) from Eastern Australia, in its darker coloration above and smaller size ; 
C. c. nigripennis (Rothschild) from the Kermadec Group, in its dark inner webs to 
the primaries ; C. c. axillaris (Salvin) from the Chatham Islands, on account of its 
black axillaries (all the other forms have white axillaries) ; C. c. dejiUjqnana (Giglioli 
and Salvadori) from western South America, paler than the typical form with 
shorter legs and tail ; C. c. longirostris (Stcjnegcr) from the Japanese Isles with a 
longer, thinner bill and dark upper coloration with white inner webs to primaries ; 
and C. c. Jiypolenca (Salvin) from the Marshall and Bonin Group with a dark upper 
coloration and dark inner webs to primaries and also a decidedly longer tail than 
any of the others. And Dr. Einar Lonnberg has described C. c. masafnerce from 
Juan Fernandez. 



Genus DAPTION. 

Daption Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. I., p. 239, Feb. 18th, 1826. Type 

(by original designation) : Proccllaria capensis Linne. 

Calopetes Sundevall, Meth. Kat. Av. Disp. Tent., p. 142, (before June 12th) 1873. New name 

for Daption. 

Pelrella Mathews, Auk, Vol. XXXI., p. 91, Jan. 1st, 1914, ex Zimmermann. Type (by 

monotypy) : P. capensis Linii6. (Discarded as of a binary, but not binomial writer.) 

Medium Fulmarine Petrels with long broad bills, long wings, long tail, and 
strong legs and feet. The bill is long with long nasal tubes hnng along the culmen 
about half its length and the unguis comparativelj'- weak ; the laterals are expanded 
and inside have obsolete pectinations. The lower mandible has a curved unguis, 
while the mandibular rami are curved and wide apart enclosing an mifeathered skin, 
which can be puffed out like a pouch. The wing has the first primarj' longest. The 
tail is rounded, vnth fourteen feathers, more than one-third the length of the wing. 
The legs are comiiaratively stout and of less lateral compression than on the Puffinine 
forms, and the tarsus is a little longerthan the culmen ; the middle toe is exceeded 
by the outer, and the hind-toe is a mere spur. 

Coloration unique, brown spots above, brown head, back and wings and white 
below. 



SPOTTED PETREL. 39 

29. Daption capensis.— SPOTTED PETREL. 

[ProceUaria capensis Linn(?, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 132, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Cape of GoodHope. 

Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 53 (pt. XXIX.), Dec. 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 90, JiJy 

31st, 1912. 

£>apfio« capeiise aiwrraZt's Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 8, p. 187, March 20th, 

1913: New Zealand. 

Distribution. — Southern AustraUan Seas. 

Adult male. — General colour above dark lead-grey, chequered with white on 
the back, wings, and tail ; lesser wing-coverts dark lead-grey with white bases ; 
median coverts grey with white on the inner webs like the outer greater coverts ; 
inner greater coverts white with a wedge-shaped sjaot of grey at the tips ; marginal 
coverts and bastard-wing dark hoary -grey with pale bases ; primary-coverts dark 
grey, white at the base of the inner webs ; primary-quills blackish along the outer 
webs and at the tips, inner webs white, which colour extends on to both webs at the 
basal portion of the inner primaries ; secondaries white, tipped with slate-grey ; 
feathers of the back and scapulars, as well as those of the upper tail-coverts, white 
tipped with grey ; tail white with the apical portion blackish ; head and neck all 
round dark plumbeous-grey inclining to blackish on tlie occiput and becoming white 
on the lower throat ; a short white line immediately under the lower eyelid ; under- 
surface of body white with a few scattered spots of grey, particularly on the under 
tail-coverts and sides of body ; axillaries and under wing-coverts white, the marginal 
coverts plumbeous-grey ; bill and feet black ; iris dark brown, eyelids black ; the 
bare skin beneath the" mandible, dusky-red. Total length 375 mm.; culmen 41, 
wing 177, tail 128, tarsus 44. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Of three birds obtainetl at the same time the one described has the throat the 
same colour as the head, while the other two have the white of the under-surface 
encroaching up to the chin. Another adult example in Mathews's collection has 
the terminal band on the tail-feathers, and many of the feathers of the wing brown 
instead of slate-black, due to wearing. 

Young in down. — Generally greyish above, greyish-white below. 

Nestling. — Slate-grey above, and paler and sooty on the under-surface. 

Nest. — Composed of a few small angular fragments of rock and a little earth, 
placed on open exposed ledges of cliifs. (Laurie Island.) 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white ; axis 65 mm., diameter 42, 

Breeding-season. — December and January. (South Orkneys.) 

I ncubation-period. — About forty -two days. 

Distribution aiid forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic and Antarctic Circles. Two 
forms have been named : D. c. capensis (Linne) from Cape Seas, and D. c. anstralis 
Mathews, from New Zealand Seas in its darker coloration above. 

Genus HALOB^NA. 

Halobatia Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLII., p. 768, May 1856. Type 
(by monotypy) : ProceUaria cmrulea Gmelin. 

Zaprium Coues, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 2, p. 34, Nov. 1875. Type (by monotypy) : P. 
coerulea Gmehn. 

Small Prionitic (?) birds with long narrow bills, long wings, long tail and short 
legs and feet. The bill has a long hooked unguis about half the length of the culmen, 
the nasal tubes short ; these are placed on top of the culmen and open outwards as 
a single tube with a thin septum internally ; the latericoms are a little basally 
expanded. The under mandible has the rami divergent, the inten-amal space narrow 



40 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTR.VLIA. 

and fully feathered, the unguis fairly strong and decurveil. The wing is long with 
the first primary longest. The tail is faintly wedge shaped, the two middle feathers 
absolutely the longest, and the two outside shortest ; the upper-tail coverts extend 
to about two-thirds its length, the under fully as long. The legs are short, fairly 
compressed laterally, the toes fully Webbed, the webs narrow, the outer and middle 
subequal, the inner shorter ; claws long and narrow, that of the middle toe the 
longest. 

Coloration bluish-grey above, white below with the fore-head mottled and side 
of face white ; the tips of the tail white. 

30. Halobsena cjerulea. — BLUE PETREL. 

Goukl. Vol. VII., pi. 52 (pt. XXIX.), Dec. 1st. 1847. Mathews, Vol. II, pt. 2, pi. 91, July 
31st, 1912. 

Procellaria ccerulea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. 11., p. 560, April 20th, 1789 : Southern 

Ocean 47° to 58°. 

Procellaria /orsteri Smith, 111. Zool. South Africa, pi. Lin., .July 1840 : Cape Seas. 

Not Latham, Index Ornith., Vol. II., p. 827, 1790. 

Procellaria similis Forster, Descr. Anira., ed. Licht., p. 59, (pref. Jan. 1st) 1844 : Antarctic 

Ocean. 

Halobtena cceridea victorice Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 54, April 7th, 1916 : 

Victoria. 

Hahhcena nuirphyi Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv., Vol. 61, p. 146, June 1917 : South 

Georgia. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — General colour above pale blue-grey ; lesser and median wing- 
coverts darker than the back, like the bastard-wing and primary -coverts ; greater 
wing-coverts like the back ; the four outer primaries dark brown on the outer 
webs, white on the inner ones, with black shafts ; inner primaries blue-grey like the 
back ; secondaries mostly white with grey on the outer webs, innermost secondaries 
like the back ; the long scapulars tipped with white ; tail blue-grey broadly tipped 
with white, more narrowly on the outer feathers, the outermost jiair are white, dusted 
with grey at the tips ; crown of head and feathers surrounding the eyes blackish, 
more or less mixed with white on the latter ; fore-head variegated with brown and 
white, imparting a scalloped appearance ; lores, chin, sides and upper neck as also 
the under-surface of body white, including the axillaries and under wing-coverts ; 
sides of lower neck blue-grey like the back ; bill bluish-black, the latericorn of the 
maxilla distinctly bluish. Legs and toes pale cobalt-blue ; webs pink in the centre, 
grey borders at the free edges. Total length 275 mm. ; culmen 25, -ning 209, tail 
85, tarsus 29. 

Adult female. — Very similar to the adult male but the upper -surface not so dark 

Nestling. — Covered with slate-coloured do^vn. The newly-hatched young have 
bill and toes slaty-blue, with apparently pale-yellowish webs and brownish-black 
claws. The horny speck upon the bill is whitish, and situated high above the tip 
of the bill. The region about the base of the bill is largely denuded. They begin to 
hatch out about November 12th. 

Nest. — A burrow (excavated beneath the momids of the umbelliferous plant 
Azorella selago) running straight inwards for a foot or more, then turning sliarjjly 
to the right or left, jjarallel with the hill-side, thence downwards, often doubling 
once or twice upon themselves, and commmiicating with other entrances. At the 
bottom is an enlarged cavity, lined with fine root-fibres, twigs, ferns, or leaves of 
the " Kerguelen tea," and quite dry. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; white and glossless ; axis 44 mm., diameter 32. 

Breeding-season. — October and November. 

Distribution and forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic Circle, but a rare bird in 



DOVE PRION. 41 

collections. Forms ill defined ; three have been named : H. c. ccerulea (Gmelin) 
probably Kerguelen Land breeding bird ; H. c. victorice Mathews from Victoria as 
being smaller ; Brooks has named as a species Halobcena murphyi from South Georgia 
as ha%nng the bill much smaller, less slender and wider at the base ; wing 212, 
tarsus 31, bill 25 mm. 

Genus HETEROPRION. 

Heteroprion Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, p. 222, July 31st, 1912. Type (by original 
designation) : Heteroprion belclieri Mathews. 

Small Petrels agreeing in general characters with species of the genus Pachyptila, 
but differing in the shape of the bill ; whereas in that genus the lateral jjlates are 
widely horizontally developed, and the under mandible rami enclose a broad 
distensible sac, in this the lateral plates are not abnormally laterally extended, and 
the rami of the under mandible are normal and no sac is present, the interramal 
space being narrow and feathered. The general nature of the bill is, however, 
similar, the nasal tubes being short, the nail weak and small, and the space between 
the nasal tubes and the nail longer than the former. 

31. Heteroprion belcheri.— THIN-BILLED PRION. 

Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, figs, in text, p. 215, July 31st, 1912. 

Heteroprion belcheri Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, p. 224, figs, in test. p. 215, July 

31st, 1912: Geelong, Victoria. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult. — Like the H. desolatus group in general coloration, but easily seimrated 
by its verj' thin bill, whose width is less than a third of its length ; bill blue with 
yellow tip, nasal tube black. Feet blue with yellow webs. Wing 183 mm. ; culmen 
(exp.) 25 mm. long, 8 wide at base, tarsus 33. 

Immature, Nestling, Nest and Eggs. — Unkno^vn. 

Distribution and forms. — Since this species was differentiated as above, we ha\e 
seen single specimens from New Zealand, West Australia and the Falkland Islands, 
indicating a Sub-antarctic Circle range. The Neozelanic form has a longer, slightly 
wider bill, and a series from the Cottesloe Beach, West Australia, show yomig birds 
with a bill 24 mm. long bj' 8.5 broad, and adult male and female with bills 25 mm. 
long by 10 mm. wide ; an immature and adult from the Falkland Islands have bills 
23 by 8 mm. and 25 by 10 mm. resi^ectively. 

32. Heteroprion desolatus. — DOVE PRION. 

[Proccllaria desolata Gmelin, Syat. Nat., Vol. I., pt. II., p. 562, April 20th, 1789 : Kerguelen 

Island. Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, figs, in text, p. 231, July Slat, 1912. 

Heteroprion desolatus mattinglcyi Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, p. 226, July 31st, 

1912 : Geelong, Victoria. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — Blue-grey above, including the head, hind-neck, back, wings, 
and tail ; the head and rump darker than the hack ; lesser wing-coverts and long 
scapulars blackish, as also the tips of the middle tail-feathers ; bastard-wing and 
primary-coverts black, the latter narrowly margined with white at the ends ; the 
four outer primaries black, inclining to wliite on the inner webs ; inner primaries 
and secondaries grey, with more or less wliite on the inner webs ; lores, cheeks, a 
line over the eye and under-surface pure white (no blue wash on flanks) including 



42 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

the axillaries and under -wing-coverts. Bill blue; iris black; feet all blue. Total 
length 275 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 26, width of bill 12, wing 189, tail 95, tarsus 32. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature.— An adult in coloration but with a much weaker, narrower bill, 
which is paler, and the wings and feet are smaller. 

Nestling. — Covered with slaty-grey down. 

Nest. — In a burrow, about two feet long. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; white ; 43-45 mm. by 33. 

Breeding-season. — October to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic Circle. Many subspecies 
will bo later differentiated, six at present being defined on bill characters alone, thus : 
H. d. desolatvs (Gmelin) from Kerguelen Island ; //. d. banksi (Smith) from Cape 
Seas, with a broader bill, breeding place unknown, probably in the Antarctic as 
P. rossi Bonaparte, from Antarctic seas, is at present inseparable ; H. d. peringveyi 
Mathews, from tlie Pondoland coast. South Africa, with a narrower bill, like the 
typical race, but longer, breeding place unknown ; H. d. matlingleyi Mathews, from 
East Australian seas, with the narrowest bill in the species ; H. d. macquariensis 
Mathews, from Macquarie Island, New Zealand, broader bill than former and near 
the typical race ; and H. d. alter Mathews from the Auckland Islands, with a broader 
bill again, very near that of //. d. banksi. WTiile these differences are apparent to 
the eye it is very difficult to give measurements showing the details clearly. 

A series from Cottesloe Beach, West Australia, show two skins with bills 27 by 
12 mm., thus agreeing with H. d. vmttingleyi, the Eastern form, and many others with 
broader bills, an immature bill measuring 29 by 13.5 and many adults, male and 
female, averaging the bill 29 by 15 mm. which seem to indicate a distinct western 
form which may be called H. d. alexanderi subsp. nov. 

Genus PSEUDOPRION. 

Pseudoprlon Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1866, p. 164, May. Tj'pe (by original 
designation) : Procellaria turtur Kuhl. 

Fulmariprion Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, p. 215, July 31st, 1912. Tj-pe (by 
original designation) : Psettdoprion turtur crassirosiris Mathews. 

A very distinct Prionitic genus, agreeing with the other Prionitic genera in 
general, but with a noticeably different style of bill. 

The nail is strong and almost half the length of the chord of the culmen, while 
there is very little space between it and the nasal tube. The under mandible is 
strong, and the strong rami diverge at an acute angle enclosing a triangular fully- 
feathered interramal space. The whole bill recalls that of Fidmarus. 

33. Pseudoprion turtur. — FAIRY PRION. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 54 (pt. XVI.), Sept. 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 93, July 

31st, 1912. 

Procellaria turtvr Kuhl, Beitr. Vergl. Zool. Anat., p. 143, (pref. April 9th) 1820 : Bass Straits. 

Procellaria velox " Banks," Kuhl, ib. In synonymy. 

Halobcana typica Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., Vol. II., p. 194, (Oct.) 1857 : Bass Straits 

(Waigiou Island is an error). 

Prion arid Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIII., p. 366, May 1st, 1844 : Nam. mid. 

Prion ariel Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Vol. VI., Procell., p. 18, July 1863 : Bass Straits. 

Pseudoprion turtnr nova Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 55, April 7th, 1916 : 

Sydney, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — Eastern and Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult. — Smaller in general measurements than members of the genera Prion 
and Heteroprion, paler in colour ■with the head unicolour with the back and rimip. 



BROAD-BILLED PRION. 43 

with a large amount of black tipping to the tail, and a strong blue wash on sides 
of body and vnth a distinctly smaller and more compressed bill. Culmen (exp.) 
22 mm., width of bill 10, wing 180, tail 82, tarsus 30. 

Immature. — Similar, but smaller, especially wth a much weaker bill. 

Nestling. — Unknown . 

Nest. — In crevices of rock or under the densely matted stems and roots of pig- 
face weed. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; pure white, surface dull ; axis 41-43, diameter 30-33. 

Breeding-season. — October, November, and December. 

Distribution and forms. — Apparently round the Sub-antarctic Circle. Six 
subspecies have been named, thus : P. t. turtur (Kuhl) from East Australian Seas ;. 
P. t. brevirostris (Gould) from " Madeira " (?) i:)robably breeding in the South Atlantic, 
smaller than preceding with a shorter, more robust bill ; P. t. eatoni Mathews 
from Kerguelen Island, with a longer, heavier bill ; P. t. solanderi Mathews, from 
west coast of South America, with the same wing measurement but with a longer 
bill than in the typical form ; P. t. huttoni Mathews from the Chatham Islands 
and (?) the mainland of New Zealand, with a stronger bill and longer wing than the 
East Australian form ; and P. t. crassirostris Mathews, from the Bomity Islands, 
larger still and with an extreme!}' powerful bill as compared with other races. 

Genus PACHYPTILA. 

Pachyptila lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 274, (pref. April) 1811. Type (by subsequent 

designation, Salvadori, Omit. Pap. e Mol., Vol. III., p. 467, Deo. 1882) : Proccllaria vittaia 

Gmelin. 

? Prion Lacepede, Tabl. Oiseaux, p. 15, 1799 (Dee.). Indeterminable. 

? Priamphus Rafinesque, Analyse Nat., p. 72, 1815. New name for "Prion Lac." c/. Auk, 

Vol. XXVI., p. 50, Jan. 1909. 

Prion Lesson, Manuel d'Orn., Vol. II., p. 399, June 28th, 1828. Type (by monotypy) : 

P. vittata Gmelin. 

Small Petrels with a very broad bill, with short nasal tube ; the rami of the 
under mandible divergent and enclosing a distensible pouch which is mifeathered ; 
the nail of the upper mandible is small and weak, and separated from the short 
nasal tube by a long flattened space ; the lateral plates are extended and flattened 
so that they present a horizontal surface rather than a vertical one ; its breadth 
at the widest part more than half the length of the chord of the culmen ; as a matter 
of fact, verj' nearly two-thirds ; inside the upper mandible on each side is a row of 
comb-like lamellae which extend the whole length of the lateral plates. 

The wing has the first primary the longest and the tail, consisting of twelve 
feathers, is long and wedge shaped. The feet are of medium length, and slender. 

34. Pachyptila vittata.— BROAD-BILLED PRION. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 55 (pt. XVI.), Sept. 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 92, July 

31st, 1912. 

Procellaria vittata Gmelin, Syet. Nat., Vol. I., pt. 11., p. 560, April 20th, 1789 : New Zealand. 

Procellaria forsteri Latham, Index Ornith., Vol. II., p. 827, before Dec. 9th, 1790. New 

name for Proccllaria vittata Gmelin. 

Procellaria latirostris Bonnaterre, Tabl. Encycl. Mi^th. Ornith., Vol. I., p. 81, 1791 : New 

Zealand. 

Prion magnirostris Gould, Proe. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1862, p. 125, August 1st : New Zealand. 

Prion australis Potts, Ibis, 1873, Jan., p. 85 : New Zealand. 

Prion vittatus goiddi Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 2, p. 211, July 31st, 1912: Bass 

Straits, Victoria. 

Prion vittatus missus Mathews, ib., p. 212 : near Perth, South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. (The New Zealand subspecies has occurred 
off New South Wales.) 



44 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult male. — General colour above dark blue-grej', including the head, hind- 
neck, sides of breast, back, scapulars, and tail, the head and rump darker than the 
back ; lesser wing-coverts dusk3'-brown becoming darker and inclining to black on 
the bastard-wing and primary-coverts, the latter edged with white at the tips ; 
the four outer primary-quills black on the outer webs, white on the inner ones, 
with black shafts ; inner primaries and secondaries pale blue-grey with a certain 
amount of white on the inner webs and dark shaft-streaks ; the long scapulars 
blackish tipped with white ; middle tail-feathers blue-grej' like the back, with broad 
black tips which become obsolete on the outer feathers, the colour of which is paler ; the 
feathers of the crown are black subterminally ; base of fore-head and lores whitish 
like the superciliary streak ; throat, breast, abdomen and sides of body white like 
the axillaries and under wng-coverts ; under tail-coverts white at base, the long 
ones blackish at the tips, the short coverts blue-grey like the lower flanks ; upper 
bill, pale bluish-grey, shading into black at the base and on the nostrils, the central 
part of the culmen also black and the terminal part or point of the upper bill yellow. 
Mandible pale blue, with a black line along the centre of each side, and the tip black ; 
iris dark brown, legs and toes pale blue ; webs, flesh pink, with the free borders 
grey. Total length 300 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 33, wing 209, tail 104, tarsus 33, width 
of bill 20. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

ImTTiature. — Coloration as in adult, but wings shorter and bill much weaker, 
shorter and narrower and paler coloured. 

Nestling. — The young taken out of the nest on the 20th November are clothed 
entirely with a dense covering ot dark smoky -grey, lightest on the neck and under- 
surface ; pectinations of the upper mandilile undeveloped ; the bill measures from 
gape to point 1 inch, greatest width only 4 lines. 

Nest. — At the end of a straight burrow, which dips slightly for eighteen to 
twenty-four inches. Or in the cavities of the cliffs on the sea-shore. 

^99- — Clutch, one ; pure white, glossless and minutely pitted ; axis 48.5, 
diameter 35. (Chatham Islands.) 

Breeding -season. — September. (Chatham Islands.) 

Distribution and forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic Circle. Six forms are recog- 
nised : P. V. vittata (Gmelin) from New Zealand, with the broadest bill ; P. v. g&uldi 
Mathews, from Bass Straits, with a much smaller bill, culmen 31.5 long bj' 17 mm. 
wide ; the former, 33 by 20 mm. ; P. v. missa Mathews from West Australian waters, 
with a longer, narrower bill, length 36 mm. by 17.5 wide ; P. v. macgillivrayi Mathews, 
from St. Paul's Island, with a bill like that of P. v. govldi, but slightlj' shorter and 
wider ; P. v. salvini Mathews from the Crozets (t^^ie) and Marion Island with the 
bill like that of P. v. missa, but slightly shorter and narrower ; and P. v. lieyteli 
Mathews, from Tristan d'Acmiha, with a bill like that of P. v. vittata, but of paler 
coloration above. It may be noted that the three first-named subspecies occur in 
Australian seas. 



Genus MACRONECTES. 

Macronectes Richraonri, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., Vol. XVIII., p. 76, 1905, Feb. 21at. Tj'pe 

(by original designation) : Procellaria gigantea Gmelin. 

Ossiiraga Hombron et Jacquinot, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris., Vol. XVIII., p. 356, 

March 1844. Tj-pe (by monotypy) : P. gigantea Gmelin. 

Not Wood, Analyst, Vol. II., p." 305, June 1835. 

An immistakable generic type of Procellarian bird, being of large size, sur- 
passing some of the smaller Albatrosses. The bill is very stout, longer than the 
head, and also longer than the tarsus. The nasal tube is more than half the length 
of the chord of the culmen, and reaches to the unguis ; it is flattened and broad 



GIANT PETKEL. 45 

at the base, and showing a median keel, and narrowing to a small circular aperture, 
apparently single, the septum being far within. A specimen measured gave breadth 
at base 28.5 mm., at aperture 14 mm., diameter of aperture 9 mm. The interramal 
space is feathered. 

La the wing the first primary is longest, and the general shape is romided. 
The tail is also romided, and the rectrices number sixteen, a feature shared With 
no other member of this family, and is about one-third the length of the wing. The 
legs are very strong and the tarsus is nearly as long as the culmen ; the toes very 
long and fully-webbed and a distinct hind-toe present, of only one phalanx. 

Coloration uniform brown to uniform white. 

35. Macronectes giganteus.— GIANT PETREL. 

[Procellaria gigantea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. Ii., p. 563, April 20th, 1789 : Staten 
Island, off Tierra del Fuego. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 45 (pt. xxxvi.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. IT., pt. 2, pi. 89, July 
31st, 1912. 

Macronectes gigantetw dovei Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, V^ol. III., pt. 3, p. 54, April 7th, 
1916: Sydney, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — East Australian Seas. Occurrence in West Australian Seas recorded, but 
no specimens seen. 

Adult : dark phase. — Sooty-black above and below ; wing 513 mm., culmen 
101, tail 177, tarsus 88 ; bill, pale yellowish hom ; feet and legs grey. 

Adult : ivhite phase. — Entire upper- and imder -surface white, with a few dark- 
tipped feathers sparsely scattered over the whole plumage. The dark feathers vary 
in pattern ; some are entirely dark grey, while others are only tipped, or the grey 
restricted to the outer web ; there are also some with black shafts, the black increas- 
ing in width at the tips. Total length 865 mm. ; culmen 104, wing 483, tail 165, 
tarsus 94. 

Immature. — Darker, and almost pure black in the Sub-antarctic forms, but 
brownish in the Antarctic races, and, of course, showing smaller measurements, 
and generally paler bills and feet. 

Nestling. — Covered with grey dowii. 

Nest. — A depression in the gromid. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one ; white ; 100 mm. by 63. 

Breeding-season. — November. 

Distribution and forms. — Romid the Antarctic and Sub-antarctic Circles. Six 
subspecies have been proposed : M. g. giganteiis (Gmelin) may breed on Graham's 
Land and the South Orkneys ; M. g. solanderi Mathews, for the Falkland Islands 
bird, of uniform dark coloration, small size and pale yellow bill ; If. g. halli Mathews, 
from Kerguelen Island, miiform dark brown with a white face, long and massive 
bill, but less than the Antarctic forms ; M. g. albus Potts, an albino, the New Zealand 
race is uniformly dark coloured, darker than the preceding, with a much smaller 
bill and shorter tarsus (M. g. dovei Mathews was named from Sydney, as being 
smaller) ; M. g. wilsoni Mathews, from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, of very large 
size and n_otably paler coloration, a majority being almost white, and to which has 
been attached the Macquarie Island birds ; and M. g. forsteri Mathews, from the 
west coast of South America the smallest and darkest subspecies with small bill, 
wings, and feet. It may be observed that the Antarctic breeding birds are larger 
and paler than the Sub-antarctic breeding series. 

Family PELECANOIDIDiE. 

At present only two genera are recognised in this family and, as the differential 
characters are only seen in the bill formation, the features of the family may be 



46 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

given as follows : Very small Petrels, with small bills having tubular nostrils opening 
horizontally and a more or less distensible sac between the rami of the lower 
mandible. The body is short and compact, the neck short and thick ; the wings 
are short and the tail square and very small ; the legs have a short compressed 
tarsus and the anterior toes are long with long claws, but there is no hind-toe. The 
plumage is thick and glossy. 

Superficially these birds are so like members of the genus Alle, referable to a 
different order, that close examination of the head is necessary to distinguish them. 
The coincidence is regarded as a good instance of convergence through similar 
habits of life, viz., swimming and diving. 

The distribution is circumpolar, Antarctic and Sub-antarctic, the later evolved 
genus living up the west coast of South America almost into the tropics, this range 
agreeing with the cold current which is supposed to wash the Galapagos Archipelago 
and allow of the presence oi Penguins in that locality. 

Osteologically, the skull is peculiar in the great width of the basi-temporal region, 
the development of the sternum with its entire posterior edge being quite different 
from that of any other of the order, while the pelvis is also peculiar, agreeing in 
many features with that of the Auks, and there is reason to believe that later research 
\wll reconsider the classification of this group. In almost every osteological feature 
this group differs from other Procellarians, but all the differences have been minimised 
on account of the tubular nostrils, which however are quite unlike those of any other 
form of Petrel or Albatross. 

Genus PELECANOIDES. 

Peleconoidea Lacepede, Tabl. Ois., p. 13, 1799 (Dec). Type {by monotypy) : Procellaria 

urinatrix Gmelin. 

Hatodroma lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 274, (pref. April) 1811. Tj^pe (by monotypy) : 

P. urinatrix Gmelin. 

Onocralus Rafinesque, Analyse Nature, p. 72, 1815. New name for " Pekcanoides Lac." 

(c/. Auk, Vol. XXVI., p. 50. Jan. 1909). 

Smaller Pelecanoidine Petrels with short bills, short wings, very short tail and 
short legs and long toes, but no hind-toe. 

The bill is short, the unguis long and hooked, the sides basally widening, but 
rather flattened above, supporting the almost horizontally open tubular nostrils. 
These are characteristic and are almost kidney shaped, elongate and adjacent, 
separated by a noticeable septum. Liternally from the imier edge of each a minute 
projection can be seen. The unguis is comjjressed and almost keeled. The lower 
mandible has the rami curved, meeting the sei^arated unguis, but not each other, 
and enclosing a distensible sac, whence the genus name. The wings are short and 
rounded, though the fii-st primary is longest, the secondaries short but the tertials 
longer. The tail is very short and square, the feathers not very broad. The legs 
are short, the tarsus compressed and covered with reticulate scaling ; the anterior 
toes very long, the outer and middle subequal, the inner much less ; the claws are 
very long and narrow, that of the middle toe the longest. There is no hind-toe. 
The webbing is full. 

Plumage thick, coloration black above, white below. 

36. Pelecanoides urinatrix.— DIVING PETREL. 

[Procellaria urinatrix Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. 11., p. 560, April 20th, 1789: Queen 

Charlotte's Pound, South Island, New Zealand. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 60 (pt. XV.), June 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 2, pi. 94, July 31st, 

1912. 

Pelecanoides urinatrix lelcheri Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. I., pt. 4, p. 84, Sept. 18th, 

1912: Victoria. 

Distribution. — South-eastern Australian Seas. 



DIVING PETKEL. 47 

Adult male. — Upper surface glossy blue-black, including the head, back, wings, 
and middle tail-feathers ; some of the scai^ulars grey with white tips, the small 
coverts round the bend of the wing edged with giey ; primary-quills pale brown on 
the inner webs ; some of the innermost secondaries fringed with white at the tips ; 
outer tail-feathers pale brown, narrowly edged with white at the tips ; fore-head 
sooty-black without any gloss ; sides of face dark slate-grey ; sides of neck and 
fore-neck paler slate-grey with white tips to the feathers, which a give minutely 
barred appearance, this is also shown on the sides of the body ; throat, breast, 
abdomen, and under tail-coverts white ; axillaries ash-brown, slightly fringed with 
white ; under wing-coverts ashy -grey, margined with white and liaving black 
shaft-lines ; bill black, the base of the cutting edge of the upper mandible, and 
line along the lower edge of the lower, blue-grey ; iris very dark greyish-brown ; 
tarsi and toes beautifully light blue. Total length 230 mm. ; culmen 15, wing 113, 
tail 40, tarsus 22. 

Adult female. — -Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — As adult, but weaker bill and feet and shorter wing, and with 
whitish tips to back feathers, wing-coverts and secondaries. 

Nestling. — Covered vnth dark ashy -grey down, paler on the under-surface ; 
bill black ; feet and legs blue. 

Nest. — At the end of a crooked burrow. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; white, surface dull ; axis 38^5 mm., diameter 32-33. 

Breeding-season. — July and August. (Mokohinou Islands.) November. (North- 
east Island, Bass Strait.) October and November. (Macquarie Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic Circle. Forms at jiresent 
under review bj^ Miu-phy and Harper, but results not yet iJublished. Seven sub- 
species up to now named : P. u. urinatrix (Gmelin) from Queen Charlotte's Somid, 
South Island of New Zealand ; P. u. chathamensis Murphy and Harper from the 
Chatham Islands as being larger and throat more sjolashed ; P. u. belcheri Mathew.s 
in being smaller, the under-surface of the wings white, the grey of the chest separate 
and the nostrils larger ; P. u. exsul Salvin from Kerguelen Island, larger, with grey 
feathering on side of chest extensive, and flanks mottled with grey as mider wing- 
coverts ; P. u. dacunhce Nicoll, from Tristan d'Acmiha and (?) Gough Island, smaller 
and with much less grey on flanks and sides of throat ; P. u. berard Quoy and Gaimard, 
from the Falkland Islands, with less grey on throat than jjreceding, but larger, 
though less than P. u. cxsul ; and P. u. coppingeri Mathews from Straits of Magellan, 
smaller still and with very little splashing on throat. 

SuPEEFAMiLY DIOMEDEOIDEA. 

Only one family is at j^resent recognised, consisting of very large birds with 
the nasal openings separated into two distinct tubular orifices opening on each side 
of the bill, very long wings with very numerous secondaries and strong webbed feet 
with no hind-toe. Their distribution is a little curious and worthy of consideration, 
as, mainly Antarctic and Sub-antarctic, a series live in the North Pacific. The groups 
are easily separated by the bill formation, but more detailed research will probably 
allow of still better segregation as we find the following facts ; all the North Pacific 
forms are referable to the genus Phoebastria, characterised by the descent of the 
culminicorn basally behind the nasal apertures to overlap the latericorns. The 
species of similar size allotted to Thalassarche are sub-antarctic circumpolar and 
have the culminicorn basally more or less separated from the latericorns by a naked 
strip of skin which also sometimes separates the culminicorn from the frontal feather- 
ing. The largest forms have the same distribution, Diamedea (sensu slricto), and 
have no naked skin between the culminicorn, and latericom while the base of the 
lovfev mandible shows no basal bar. An intermediate form, Diomedella, has a 



48 A IVIANUAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

large amount of bare skin between the frontal feathering and the culmiuicom as 
well as between the culiuinicorn and the latcricoms, while the basal bar shows the 
method of disapj)ea.rance of the lower mandible stripe seen in the next group. This 
is Phoebelria, the dark plumaged Antarctic forms with long wedge-shajied tails and 
with the bill showing the culminicom entering the frontal feathering at an acute 
angle, and with a naked strip of skin along the sides of the lower mandible. We 
considered this showed the most primitive features, and that independent!}^ the 
other genera have evolved from the same source, the Thalassarche group showing 
the loss of the lower mandibular ramal streak, a basal bar remaining to indicate 
its presence, while Diomedella has the basal bar still retaining marks of its reduction 
while in size it is less than Diomedea which has no trace of the bar but shows the 
feathering of the face entering at an angle the base of the lower mandible. We 
would therefore conclude that this largest series was the furthest developed, and 
we find that a professional anatomist ignorant of these items also concluded : 
" Phcebetria is probably the most primitive." 

Osteologically, the lack of basipterygoid processes, the tendency to fusion by 
the conjunction of the vomer and maxillo-palatines and the peculiarity of the former, 
the characteristic pterygoids all characterise the skull in this group. The wing 
muscles are complicated as would be anticipated by the extreme development 
of the wing. The thoracic vertebrae also difier in the absence of hyimpophyses and 
the pelvis is more specialised than in the preceding superfamily. 

Between the anterior ends of the mandibular rami there is a narrow strip of 
horn, known as the interramicorn, which is not found in other Petrels outside this 
superfamily. 

Family DIOMEDEID^. 

Genus PHCEBETRIA. 

PTicrlc^rio Reichenbach, Nat. Sy6t. Vogel, p. v., 1802 (?1853). Tjrpe (by original designation): 
Diomedea jvliginona Gmelin. 

Medium Albatrosses of dark coloration, with long bills, long wings, long wedge- 
shaped tail and medium legs and feet. 

The bill is characterised by the presence of a deep groove along the sides of the 
lower mandible filled v.ith a loose, coloured skin. Tlie culminicom slopes backward, 
meeting the frontal feathers at a sharp angle but descending behind the nasal 
openings to meet the latericom ; the nostrils are placed near to the base of the culmen, 
opening as semicircular tubes, sometimes termed " naricoms " ; the unguis is com- 
paratively weak, the latericoms not much expanded laterally, consequently the bill 
is somewhat compressed laterally. The lower mandible has a deep groove absent 
in other Albatrosses, feathering of the face approaching far forward. The wing is 
long, the feathers somewhat pointed and secondaries fewer than in Diomedea. The 
tail is composed of long narrow feathers forming a strong wedge and is almost half 
the length of the wing and about twice the length of the culmen. The legs are stout, 
the tarsus only about three-fourths the length of the culmen and about four-fifths the 
length of the middle toe. There is no hiijd-toe, and the anterior toes are fully webbed . 

CJoloration entirely dusky. 

37. Phcebetria fusca.— SOOTY ALBATROSS. 

{Diomedea fttsca Hilsenberg, in Frorjep's Notizen, Vol. III., No. 5 (40), p. 74. Sept. 1822: 
Mozambique Channel. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 44 (pt. XXXVI.), Dec. 1st, 1848. 




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LIGHT-MANTLED SOOTY ALBATROSS. 49 

Phcebetria fiisca campbelli Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. in., p. 304, Sept. 20th, 1912: 
Australian Seas. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. One specimen from Hobson's Bay preserved 
in Melbourne Museum. 

Adult. — General colour above and below sooty-brown, slightly darker on the top 
of the head ; blackish on the lores and above and behind the eyes ; wings and tail 
blackish-b^o^vn ; shafts of the tail-feathers and primaries straw coloured. Short 
feathers round the eye, interrupted in front, white ; bill black, the groove on the 
lower mandible long and deep, and filled with a yellow skin. Total length 790 mm. ; 
culmen (exp.) 115, wing 482 , tail 250, tarsus 73. 

Immature, Nest, Egg, and Breeding-season. — Unknown. 

Distribution and forms. — Not at all well knoAvn, found at sea in the southern 
Atlantic and Lidian Oceans, and about southern Australian seas. Two forms named : 
P.f.fusca (Hilsenberg) from the former and P.f. campbelli Mathews from the latter, 
differing notably in its smaller size throughout. Nichols and Murphy contra.sted 
Mathews's measurements with their own ; but we would point out that their 
method of measuring is unknown to us and we cannot reconcile any of their figures 
with our own data. 

Phcebetria palpebrata.— LIGHT-MANTLED SOOTY ALBATROSS. 

Diomedea palpebrata Forster, Mem. Math. Phys. (Paris), Vol. X., p. 571, 1785 : ' 47° South 
Lat." = 64°S. 38°E., i.e., due south of Prince Edward and Marion Islands. 

Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 101, Sept. 20th, 1912. 

Phcebetria palpebrata huitoni Mathews, Birds Austr.. Vol. II.. pt. 3, p 297, Sept. 20th, 1912 : 
New Zealand Seas. 

Distribution. — ?? South Australian Seas. Records by sight, but no skins. 

Adult male. — Mantle pale ash-grey, with lighter edges to some of the feathers ; 
wings, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts dark greyish -brown ; primary-quills 
blackish-brown on the outer webs and at the tips, with white shafts for the greater 
part of their length, becoming black at the tips, the inner webs somewhat paler ; 
tail blackish-brown, the shafts white ; head, sides of face and throat sooty-black ; 
under-surface ashy-brown, somewhat darker on the lower throat and mider tail- 
coverts ; axillaries slightly darker than the under-surface of the body ; under 
wing-coverts ]}aXe. brown with dark shaft-lines ; the short feathers encircling the 
eye have the frontal portion black, and the hinder part white ; bill black, groove 
on mandible blue ; iris hazel ; tarsi and feet pink. Total length 820 mm. ; culmen 
114, wing 525, tail 228, tarsus 78. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nestling. — -Covered entirely vnth pale ashy-grey down. 

Nest. — Placed in crevices in the rock. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; whitish, round the larger end covered with very tiny spots 
of reddish which merge together at the apex ; axis 103 mm., diameter 66. (Collected 
November 4th, 1894.) 

Breeding-season. — November to February. (Macquai-ie and Campbell Islands.) 

Distribution aiul forms. — Round the Sub-antarctic Circle. Nichols and Murphy 
(Auh, Vol. XXXI., p. 526, Oct. 1914) have recently reviewed these birds, admitting 
four forms : P. p. paljKbrata (Forster) from Kerguelen Island, and probably also 
Crozets, Prince Edward Island, etc. ; P. p. huitoni Mathews, from Australian seas 
and New Zealand, breeding on the New Zealand Sub-antarctic Islands, paler than 
preceding, and smaller in all measurements than next ; P. p. anlarctica Mathews 
from South Georgia, with larger heavier bill, and paler than last named ; and 
P. p auduboni Nichols and Murphj' from west coast of America, on account of 



50 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

more slender and more strong]}' hooked bill, and much darker coloration. We find 
that Solander's name of D. anfarcHca had been cited as a sjaionym of the typical 
form and is therefore untenable for a subspecies, so we rename the South Georgian 
form P. p. murphyi name new. 

Genus THALASSARCHE. 

Thalassarche Reiehenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. v., 1852 (?1853). Tj-pe (by original designa- 
tion) : Diomcdea melaTiophris Temminck. 

Tbalassogeron Kidgway (in Baird, Brewer and Ridgway's Water Birds of North America, 
Vol.11.), Mem.Mus. Comp.Zool. Harvard. Vol. XIII., pp. 345, 357, (Introd. March 31st) 1884. 
Type (by original designation) : Diomedca culminata Gould. 

Nealbatrvs Mathews, Birds Austr.. Vol. II., pt. 3, p. 274, Sept. 20th, 1912. Type (by 
original designation) : Diornedea chlororkynchtis Gmelin. 

Medium Albatrosses of white coloration %vith dark wings, long bills, long wings, 
long tails and very strong legs and feet with no hind-toe. 

The bill differs from the preceding in the formation of the base of the culminicorn 
and the absence of groove in lower mandible, at the base of wliich there is a short 
bar suggesting reduction of groove. The forms above named differ in minor details 
and as the connecting links are existent are here amalgamated again. Tliey are 
all of the same size and coloration, but the last named has a much more delicate 
bill than the two preceding it, in it a sulcus filled with loose skin separates the base 
of the culminicorn from the frontal feathers, and also from the latericoms posterior 
to the nostrils. In Thalassogcron the basal sulcus is reduced though the lateral 
sulci are still very pronounced ; as the width varies in the subspecies we find the 
distinctions decreasing ; and in " D. bulleri " it is difficult to decide whether it 
should be considered a degraded relation of Thalassogeron or a true Thalassarche, 
which has no sulci, either at the base or sides. 

The wing is long as usual with numerous secondaries, the first primary 
longest. 

The tail is long and rounded, about two-fifths of the wing's length. 

The legs are very stout, covered with reticulate scaling ; the tarsus less than 
three-fourths the length of the middle toe, wliich is equal to the culmen. The 
anterior toes are very long, the outer longest, and fullj^ webbed. There is no hind- 
toe, but under the skin a rudiment has been foimd. 

Coloration white with black wings and back. 

38. Thalassarche melanophrys.— BLACK-BROWED MOLLYMAWK. 

[Diomedea melanophris Temminck et Laiigier, Planch. Color. d'Ois. (? 77') 76" livr. (Vol. IV.), 

pi. 456, 1828, April 23rd (? March) : Cape of Good Hope. Extralimital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 43 (pt. XIV.), March 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 96, Sept. 

20th, 1912. 

Thalassarche melanophris impavida Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 3, p. 267, Sept. 

20th, 1912, ex Solander MS. : Tasmania. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — General apj^earance of the upper-parts dark brov.-n and white ; 
scapulars, wings and tail dark brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts white, back 
slaty-black ; quills black, with white shafts towards the base, inner webs whitish at 
the base ; secondaries blackish, innei webs white at the basal portion ; feathers of 
the olecranal patch blackish, becoming wliite at the base ; humeral feathers white, 
shaded with giey ; tail-feathers blackish, with consiiicuous white shafts ; lores, 
and a streak through and behind the eye black, more intense in front of the eye ; 
head and neck all round, throat and entire under-surface Mhite ; axillaries and xmder 



GKEY-HEADED MOLLYMAWK. 51 

•wing-coverts white, more or less shaded with grey, the smaller coverts romid the 
margin black, like the ujjper wing-coverts ; quills below brown with white shafts, 
which are blackish towards the tips ; bill miiform, gamboge-yellow, shaded with 
orange on the hook and with a very tine line of black romad the base of the mandibles ; 
iris light brown ; feet delicate blue-grey, darker on the joints and interdigital 
webs ; claws white-horn colom'. Culmen (exp.) 115 mm., depth at base 45, wing 
510, tail 200, tarsus 78.5, middle toe 115. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Young. — Differs from the adult in having the head and neck ash-grey, and 
the ui)per-surface of wings and interscajiular region brownish-black, the smaller 
wing-coverts with paler margins, the bill blue-black, and the legs and feet 
bluish -grey. 

Nestling. — Covered with long, thick woolly down, of a pale grey colour ; bill 
brownish-black with yellowish-horn coloured tip ; legs and feet yellowi.sh-white. 

Nest. — A conical mound from 8 in. to 18 in. in height constructed of mud mixed 
with vegetable substances, the cup-shaped depression is lined with finer materials. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one ; surface dull, and having a ring round the larger end of 
reddish-brown specks and blotches ; axis 97 to 114 mm., diameter 54 to 69. 

Incubaiion-period. — Sixty daj s. 

Breeding -season. — November to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Romid the Sub-antarctic Circle. Fom- forms have been 
separated : T. m. melanophrys (Temm. and Laugier) from the Cape Seas, probably 
breeding at Gough Island, Tristan d'Acunha and the Falkland Islands ; T. m. 
belcheri Mathews, with longer bills of paler coloration, from Kerguelen Island ; 
T. m. impavida Mathews, with shorter bills, grey lores, and more black in front and 
above the eyes ; and T. m. richmondi Mathews from the west coast of South 
America with long bills, deeper than that those of the Kerguelen form, no grey 
on the lores and the black about tlie eye reduced to a very faint marking. 

39. Thalassarche chrysostoma.— GREY-HEADED MOLLYMAWK. 

[Diomtdea chrysostoma Forster, Mem. Math. Phys. (Paris), Vol. X., p. 571, 1785 : Cape Seas. 

Extra-limital.] 

GoiUd, Vol. VII., pi. 41 (pt. xxxn.), Sept. 1st, 1848. Mathewa, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 97, Sept. 

20th, 1912. 

Diomedca culminata Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1843, p. 107, Dec. : " Southern, Indiau 

and South Pacific Oceans " = Cape Seas. 

Thalassogeron chrysostoma alexanderi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 55, 

April 7th, 1916 : West Australia. 

DiSTKiBUTiON. — Southern Australian Seas. One specimen preserved in Mathews's collection 

and another in Perth Museum. C/. Alexander, Emu, Vol. XIX., pt. i., p. 59, July 1st, 1919. 

Adult male. — Head, hind -neck and mantle grey with white base to the feathers, 
becoming dark brown or black on the middle of the back, scapulars and wing-coverts ; 
lesser, median, and greater wing-coverts dark brown, with whitish bases like the 
bastard-wing, primary -co verts and quiUs, the latter with white shafts and pale brown 
inner webs ; secondaries dark brown with wliite on the basal portion ; olecranal 
feathers dark brown with pale inner webs which become white at the base ; rump 
and upper tail-coverts pure white ; tail dark hoary -grey with white shafts ; feathers 
above and in front of the eye black ; sides of throat, face, and fore-neck white, 
more or less washed with grey ; remainder of the xmder-surface wliite ; axillaries 
pale grey mth whitish tips ; feathers round the margin of the mider-wing blackish ; 
bill black, the culrnen yellow, divided from the tif), which is horn colour, by a black 
I^atch, base and lower edges of mandible yellow ; feet and legs grey, webs flesh3^-pink. 
Total length 910 mm. ; culmen HI, wing 518, tail 213, tarsus 86. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

E 2 



52 A MANUAL OF THE BIKDS OF AUSTRALIA, 

Immature. — When the j'oung flies it has a dark grey head which extends on 
to the throat ; the ocular jiatch distinctly blackish ; the grey is a dirty-brown grey, 
while the bill is practically all black, but the lower edges of the under mandible 
show pale brownish. The grey head and neck lose their brownish tinge while the 
culmen takes on a light yellowish-browi shade, the strip on the lower edges of the 
lower mandible becoming paler. The fully-adult has a beautiful pearl-grey head, 
neck and throat, wliile the culmen is pale clear yellow and the lower edge of the 
lower mandible is also clear light horn or yellowish. Some birds, however, in the 
change, as shown by the coloration of the bill, have the head white and the back 
of the neck inclining to wliite. 

Nest, Egg, and Breeding -season. — Unknown. 

Distribution and forms. — Sub-antarctic as far as is luiown. Four forms can be 
recorded, but more material is necessary before finality can be suggested. These 
are : T. c. chrysostoma Forster, from Cape Seas (of which D. cidminata Gould may 
be a synonym) ; T. c. mathewsi (Rothschild) from Campbell Island, New Zealand, 
as having the cheeks and throat pure white, and top of head white, not grey ; back 
browner ; T. c. harterti Mathews, from South Lidian Ocean (Kerguelen Island 
breeding) in its deeper, heavier bill, coloration as in preceding ; T. c. alexanderi 
Mathews, from West Australian seas, with smaller and paler bill. 

40, Thalassarche chlororhynchus.— YELLOW- NOSED MOLLYMAWK. 

[Diomedea chlororhynchos Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. 11., p. 568, April 20th, 1789 : Cape 

Seas. Extra-Iimital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 42 (pt. XV.), June 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pis. 98 and 99, 

Sept. 20th, 1912. 

Thalassogeron carteri Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Ornith. Qub, Vol. XIV., p. 0, Oct. 30th, 1903 : 

Point Cloates, mid-West Australia. 

Diomedea bassi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 206, .Jan. 31st, 1912: " New South 

Wales." 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — Back, scapulars and wings slaty-brown, tail-feathers hoary -grey, 
lesser, median, and greater wing-coverts dark brown with wliite bases, like the 
bastard-wing and primary-coverts ; primary-quills black on the outer webs, hoar}-- 
grey on the inner ones, with white shafts at the basal portion ; secondaries dark 
bro'CTTi, white on the inner webs ; some of the feathers of the olccranal region dark 
brown while others are white with brown tips ; humeral feathers also dark brown ; 
rump and upper tail -coverts white ; a patch on each side of the breast grey, like the 
back ; a pale grey line in front and over the eye ; head and neck all round, mantle 
and entire under-surface white, as also the axillarics ; under wng-eoverts white, 
those around the margin dark bro'vvn ; bill black, culmen yellow, passing into orange 
at the tip ; a line at the base of the mandible yellow ; legs flesh colour. Total 
length 710 mm, ; culmen 118, vnng 464, tail 190, tarsus 75. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Agrees in general coloration with the adult, but differs from that 
in the colour of the bill, wliich is in this wholly black (due to immaturity) ; irides 
black ; feet and legs yellowish-white. Culmen (exp.) 114 mm. long, depth at ba&e 36, 
wing 462, tail 165, tarsus 75. (T. carteri Rothsch.) 

Nestling, Eggs, and Nesting -place. — Unknown. 

Distribution and forms. — Apparently Sub-antarctic but not well known. Races 
not 3'et determined. Thus the West Australian bird was named fiom an immature 
specimen and the Tristan d'Acimha bird described as D. eximia Verrill, owing to a 
misunderstanding of the species. When breeding places are discovered forms may 
be accurately circumscribed. 



WHITE-CAPPED ALBATROSS. 63 

Genus DIOMEDELLA. 

Diomedella Mathews. Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 3, p. 275, Sept. 20th, 1912. Type (by 
original designation) : Diomedea caiita Gould. 

Larger Molljmiawks with long bills, long wings, medium tails and stout legs 
and feet. 

The bill shows a space between the culminicorn and the latericorns posterior 
to the nostrils, and also between the culminicorn and the frontal feathers ; these 
spaces are diminished in extent in some of the forms but the culminicorn never 
broadens out, or conversely, narrows as in forms of Thalassarche. In the lower 
mandible the bar at the base shows an entry into the edge, not bounding it as in that 
genus. The wing is longer, but the tail is practically the same length. The feet 
are larger but of same nature. 

Coloration similar to that of Thalassarche. 

This genus approximates in some items to Diomedea. 

41. Diomedella cauta.— WHITE-CAPPED ALBATROSS. 

Gould. Vol. VII., pi. 40 (pt. XV,), June 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 100, Sept. 

20th, 1912. 

Diomedea cauta Gould, Proc. Zool. See. (Lond.), 1840, p. 177, July 1841 : Bass Straits. 

Diomedella cauta rohui Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 55, April 7th, 1916 : 

Sydney, New South Wales. 

Diomedella cauta wallaca Mathews, ib., pt. 6, p. 160, June 25th, 1918. Now name for 

preceding. 

DiSTKiBUTioN. — Eastern and Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — Upper back slate-grey, with white bases and pale margins to the 
feathers ; scapulars ash-brown, white only at the extreme base ; wing-coverts 
dark brown with white bases ; the smaller coverts showing pale edges ; primary- 
coverts and primary-quills dark brown, the latter with white shafts and white on the 
inner webs ; secondaries also dark brown, with the basal portion of the inner webs 
white ; tail-feathers hoary -grey with white shafts ; a narrow eyebrow and a spot in 
front of the eye black, becoming pale towards the base of the bill, a patch beliind the 
ej^e including the ear-coverts washed with plumbeous-grey ; head and neck all 
round white, as also the under-surface of body, including the axillaries, under wing- 
coverts white, the marginal ones blacldsh ; bill bluish horn, lower manchble darker, 
upper mandible with a narrow belt of black and on each side of the nostrils ; base 
of lower mandible with a belt of orange reaching to the corner of the gape ; iris 
brown ; feet bluish-wliite. Total length 987 mm. ; culmen 137, wing 590, tail 204, 
tarsus 86. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male (? smaller) but with the grey on the 
sides of the neck paler, and the yellow markings on the bill duller. 

Immature. — Undescribed . 

Nestling. — Covered with white down ; bill black. 

Nest. — Composed of chocolate-coloured soil, largely mixed, when in a wet 
state, with rootlets and other vegetation, wliieh gives it the appearance of peaty 
substance. It is smoothed over and holds together fairly well, varying in height 
externally from 3 to 7 inches. The measurements of an average nest are as follows : 
internal diameter II. V inches, external diameter 14, basal diameter 16J ; external 
height 5^, internal deirth 3J. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; creamy-white, freckled more or less with reddish-brown 
surface-markings on the larger end. In some cases these markings were minute, 
numerous, and almost continuous, while in others they were much larger and darker, 
on a slightly reddish ground, but there were various gradations between the two 



54 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF ATTSTRALIA. 

types. The colour could be washed off, by a little friction. Dimensions 104- 
112 mm. by 66-69. 

Breeding-season. — October to November. 

Distribution and forms. — Roimd the Sub-antarctic Circle. Four good races 
have been separated : D. c. cauta (Gould), from East Australian seas, breeding in 
Bass Straits ; D. c. salvini (Rothschild) from New Zealand, breeding at Bounty 
Island, with a smaller bill, darker coloured and with shorter legs and feet ; D. c. 
layardi (Salvin) from Cape Seas with still smaller and narrower bill, shorter tarsus 
and toes and whiter head and neck ; and D. c. platei (Reichenow), from ^^est coast 
of South America, with the culroinicom almost touching the feathers of the head, 
and of tliis last named Salvadori's T. desolationis is a synonj'm, as the bill coloration 
with ]>ale culminicom and pale basal portion of lower mandible recalls that of " T. 
cidminata " as noted by Salvadori. 

Genus DIOMEDEA. 

Diomedea Liim^, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 132, Jan. 1st, 1758. Tj^pe (by subsequent designa- 
tion. Gray, p. 78, 1840) : Diomedea exulans Linn6. 

Albatrue Brisson, Omith., Vol. I., p. 54, Vol. \1., p. 126, 1760. Type (by monotypy) : 
D. exulans Linn^. 

Albatrossa Briinnich, Zool. Fund., p. 80, 1771. No species added. Type (by monotypy) : 
D. exulans Linne. 

Alhalroa Lesson, Manuel d'Orn., Vol. II., p. 389, June 28th, 1828. Substitute name for 
Diomedea L. 

Rholhonia Murphy, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXXVII.. p. 861, Dec. 10th, 1917. 
Type (by monotypy) : D. sanfordi Murphy. 

Largest Albatrosses with long bills, very long wings, very numerous secondaries, 
long tails and strong legs and feet. 

The bill is very long and hooked of the usual Albatross character, with the 
nostrils of two forms as shown by Murphy (loc. oil.). At the base of the lower 
mandible the feathers run forward, quite unlike those in Thalassarche and recalling 
that of Phccbetria. 

The wing is notable for its extreme length and extraordinary number of 
secondaries. The tail is rounded, and though long, is comparatively short, being 
one-third the length of the wing. 

The legs are very stout, the tarsus about three-fourths the length of the culmen 
and much less than the toes, the outer of which is longest, the anterior toes being 
fully webbed and the hind-toe missing altogether. 

Coloration white in the adult, but generally brown in the immature. 

42. Diomedea exulans.— V/ANDERING ALBATROSS. 

[Diomedea extdans Linnd, Syst. Nat,, 10th ed., p. 132, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Cape of Good Hope. 

Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 38 (pt. XIV.), March 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 95, Sept. 

20th, 1912. 

Diomedea exulans rothschildi Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 3, p. 246, Sept. 20th, 1912 : 

off Now South Wales coast. 

Diomedea exulans westralis Mathews, Bull. B.O.C., Vol. XXXIX., p. 29, Nov. 30th, 1918 : 

Albany, West Australia. 

Distribution. — Australian Seas. 

Adidt male. — General colour above white with wavy cross-bars of ash-brown, 
more narrowly and faintly on the hind-neck, broader and more pronounced on the 
back and upper tail-coverts ; the scapulars white, vermiculated and broadlj' tipped 
Math brown, more especially on the outer webs ; short feathers of the hmuerals 



SNOWY ALBATROSS. 55 

black on the outer webs, and vermiculated on the inner ones with ash-brown, the 
longer ones black with wliite on the basal portion ; olecranal feathers white, some 
of the longer ones tipped with black ; lesser, median, and greater wing-coverts 
black with white bases like the marginal coverts romid the bend of the wing ; 
primaiy -coverts and quills black, the latter with flattened straw-coloured shafts 
and pale brown on the inner webs towards the base, this portion of the web being 
white on the inner primaries ; tail white at the base, dark brown at the tip, the 
white approaches much nearer the tip on the inner web than on the outer one ; 
inner web of outer tail-feathers white with the exception of a little mottling at the 
tip, middle feathers dark broNvn with wliite bases ; crown of head mottled with the 
remains of brown feathers ; fore-head, sides of face, throat and under -surface white, 
with the exception of the fore-neck and sides of body, which are crossed by wavy 
bars of ash-brown ; mider v/ing-coverts and axillaries white, like the under-surface 
of the body ; some of the latter are dark browii on the outer webs, and vermiculated 
with ash-brown on the inner ones; irides ridi dark brown; bare eyelids prqilisli- 
green; bill white, with a jjinky tinge, yellowish -brown colomed at the tip ; legs and 
feet flesh-white, sometimes wth a pinky tinge. Total length 1,368 mm. ; culmen 
(exp.) 165, wing 633, tail 204, tarsus 121. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature male. — Upper-parts brown, paler on the head, neck and mantle, 
darker on the back, scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts and tail ; the feathers of the 
head and hind-neck are white tipped with brown, while those of the mantle, though 
similar in colour, are everywhere intermixed with white feathers finely vermiculated 
with bro^vn ; the wing-feathers are similar to the adult male described, but the white 
olecranal patch is absent ; tail very dark brown, white only at the extreme base ; 
fore-head, sides of face, and throat white ; remainder of under-surface brown and 
white, many of the feathers are brown with white bases, more particularly on the 
sides of the body and lower-abdomen, while others are white vermiculated with 
brown at the tips, more especially on the fore-neck and breast ; the under wing- 
coverts are white, and the axillaries are similar to those of the adult. 

Nestling. — Covered with light or slate-grey down lighter on the head. 

Ne-st. — A cone-shaped structure composed of earth and grass cemented together. 
Usually about 2 feet in diameter, and about 18 inches high. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; surface rough and glossless ; white, but mostly nest-stained ; 
axis 122 mm., diameter 78. 

Breeditig -season. — January, February. (Auckland Island.) February. (Anti- 
podes Island.) 

Incubation-period. — Nine weeks . 

Distribution and forms. — At present unknown exactly through confusion with 
D. chionoptera. Apparently breeding on the Sub-antarctic Islands of New Zealand, 
and in the South Atlantic probably in the Tristan d'Acmiha Group and Gough 
Island, but Indian Ocean breeding place unlmown. The Atlantic typical D. e. 
exulans Linne has the eyelids scarlet, while the West Australian D. e. ivestralis 
Mathews has blue eyelids, and the East Australian and Neozelanic D. e. rothscMldi 
Mathews has piu^lish -green eyelids. The latter appears to be smaller than the 
preceding. 

43. Diomedea chionoptera.— SNOWY ALBATROSS. 

Diomedea chionoptera Salvjn, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., Vol. XXV., p. 443, (pref. Dec. 16th, 1895) 
1896 ? : Kerguelen Island. 

Mathews, Vol. VII., pt. 5, pi. 369, July 10th, 1919. 

Diomedea exulans rohui Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 125, Jan. 28th, 1915 : 
Sydney, New South Wales. 
Distribution. — Australia (visitor). One specimen preserved in Mathews's collection. 



56 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

AduU female. — Entire head and neck all round, back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts, breast, sides of body, abdomen, under tail-coverts, axillaries and under 
wing-coverts pure wliite ; scapulars white mottled with greyish-brown subterminallj', 
chiefly on the outer webs ; upper wing-coverts also white mottled and externally 
marked with greyish-brown ; bastard-wing dark brown, the imier webs for the most 
part white ; primary-coverts and primary-quills wliite at the base, dark brown on 
the terminal half, the white encroaching farthest towards the tijjs on the inner webs, 
shafts of outer primary-quills .straw colour and nuich flattened ; secondary-quills 
similar, but the dark pattern almost restricted to the outer webs, the white reaching 
to the tips on the inner webs and sometimes encroacliing along the margins of the 
outer webs ; under -surface of quills similar to that of above but many of the second- 
aries pure white ; tail white both above and below with the outer feathers on each 
side marked and mottled with greyish -brown. Bill pinki.'h-cream ; eyes black, 
feet cream. Total length 1,050 mm. ; culmen 165, wing 6()0, tail 195, tarsus 123. 

Adult male. — Differs from adult D. e. exnlans in its larger size and whiter 
coloration, only the primaries, outer webs of the outer secondaries, and the lesser 
wing-coverts and inner secondaries, with the tips of the scapulars, being black ; the 
rest of the plumage is white. The soft parts do not appear to have been described 
from life. Wing 660 mm. Breeding birds always in wliite coloration. 

Immature. — The young of the year are quite black, or very dark brown, 
excepting the under parts of wings, throat, and cheeks, which are wliite, more or 
less mottled with black. 

Nestling. — Covered with f)ure white silky down. 

Nest. — Made uji of peaty grass intervvoven with fibrous earth. A typical nest 
measured 37 inches, diameter of bowl 18 inches, depth of bowl 5 inches. The floor 
of this bowl would be about 2 inches deej), as all M'as simply matted with the natural 
short grass, and appeared as if merely placed uj^ou it. Many nests are raised 
\\ feet. Some have well-trimmed sides of earth, and are conical, but they are in 
the minority. 

Egg. — Chalky -white ; coarse to the touch. Dimensions 127-132 mm. by 
81-84. 

Breedhi^ -season. — January (fresh eggs) ; February (half-incubated eggs). 

Distribution and forms. — Apparently round the Sub-antarctic Circle, but owing 
to ignorance of breeding places no certainty can be expressed. Only definitely 
knowli from Kerguelen Island, but conflicting accounts even from that localit3'. 
May breed on one of the Neozelanic Sub-antarctic Islands, or even in the South 
Atlantic. 

Diomedea epomophora. — ROYAL ALBATROSS. 

Diomedea epomophora Lesson, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, 1st ser., Vol. VI., p. 95, 1825 : Campbell 
Island (breeding). 

Distribution. — Australian Seas (Campbell Island, New Zealand breeding). 

Adult.- — Snow-white on the head, neck, back, tail and all under-surface, including 
the under wing-coverts and axillaries ; on the lower back and rump a few narrow 
cross-bars may be seen, but it is probable these disappear with age ; a few dark 
speckles are sometimes seen towards tips of outer tail-feathers : scapulars u-hite at 
the bases, the ends being solid black ; wing coloration generally black, an indi.stinct 
olecranal patch of white being noticeable on the oldest specimen, the feathers along 
the bend of the wing showing white tips ; primaries black, the imier webs white 
towards their bases ; secondaries mostly white on the imier web ; ej-es very dark 
brown, almost black ; bare eyelids jet-black ; bill white, vith a roseate or pinkj' 
tinge in life, yellowish-horn coloured on the terminal hook ; legs and feet flesh-wliite. 
Culmen (exp.) 170 mm., wing 660, tarsus 117, tail 206. 



ROYAL ALBATROSS. 



57 



Immature, ivith down still adhering. — Agrees iu detail with the preceding ; it 
has fewer white markings on the wing, and the cross-bars on rump and lower back 
are more pronounced, with longer, black ends to the scapulars ; these seem the 
only noticeable differences ; the tail is just as white, and the bill is more dully 
coloured. 

Nestling, just commencing to lose down. — Coloration exactly the same ; bill dark 
coloured, but tail pure wliite. 

Nestling. — Covered with pure white down, thick and woolly in appearance. 

Nest. — Api^arently like that of D. e. rothschildi. 

Egg. — White. Dimensions 126 by 79.5 mm. 

Breeding -season. — Commence to lay at the end of December. 

Distribution and forms. — East Australian and New Zealand seas ; single speci- 
mens also known from east and west coasts of South America. From the former 
localities two subspecies have been separated : D. e. epomophora Lesson, breeding 
at Campbell Island ; and D. e. mccormicki Mathews, from Enderby Island, Auckland 
Group, with the scapulars cross-barred, only the longer ones having black tips ; the 
olecranal patch larger, and wing coloration lighter. Murphy (Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. XXXVII., p. 861, Dec. 10th, 1917) has fomided a new subgenus 
Ehothonia, on a new species Diomedea sanfordi, killed at sea, forty miles off Corral, 
Chile. This is obviously a form of the present species, agreeing in all details of 
structm-e. We do not understand Murphy's measurements, otherwise we should 
conclude his bird was less than the typical form, but he does state that " sanfordi 
shows no trace of the white olecranal patch." 

Order FREGATI. 

The order covers only one family with a few species of large seabirds with long 
hooked bills, nostrils not obvious, very long wings, very long forked tails and small 
webbed feet. They have comparatively very slight bodies and the male has a 
gular pouch which is capable of large distension in the breeding-season . The peculiar 
feet are diagnostic, the tarsus being unique in character. The distribution is 
purely tropical throughout all oceans, the birds breeding gregariously on isolated 
islands. 

This peculiarly well-defined order has been merged by anatomists with the 
Steganoi^odes on account of the absurdly trivial superficial feature of the inter- 
webbing of all four toes. 

Osteologically, the palate is termed desmognathous but it is a pseudo-desmog- 
nathism which has puzzled osteologists, really only a simple development from 
the schizognathous form, and the vomer is fused posteriorly with the palatines only 
in the adult. The nasals are holorhinal and there are no basipterygoid processes ; 
the lachrymal is large with a large descending j^rocess which reaches the jugal bar 
and an uncinate bone which reaches the palatine. The quadrate is also peculiar. 
The cervical vertebrae are twelve or thirteen and opisthocoelous ; the sternum 
differs from that of the succeeding in its greater depth posteriorly and the furcula 
is anchylosed with the acrocoracoid and the carina stemi while the pelvis differs 
and is similar to that of some Procellarise, as is also the skull. The tarsal bones 
are more or less sej^arated, in this respect recalling those of the Inipennes alone. 
Both carotids are present and the syrinx is tracheo-bronchial but flattened from 
before backwards. The digestive sj'stem is periccelous and orthoca?lous and shows 
little peculiarity, the cseca being small. The leg muscles are restricted to the 
femoro-caudal and the ambiens, the others missing ; the biceps slip is also absent 
from the wing muscles and, as would be anticipated, the biceps itself is peculiarly 
formed. The oil gland is present and tufted, a minute aftershaft is present and the 
wing is aquincubital. The pterylosis is very uniform and the down is very thick. 



58 a manual of the birds of australia. 

Family FREGATID^. 
Genus FREGATA. 

Fregata Lacepede, Tabl. Ois., p. 15, Dec. 1799. Species added by Daudin, in Hist. Nat 

(Ru'ffon), ed. Didot, Quadr., Vol. XIV., p. 317 [1799 =] Oct. 1802. Type (by monot>-py): 

PeUcanus aquilvs = P. minor Gmelin. 

Tachypelcs Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 63, April 14th, 181G. Tj-pe (by monotypy) : 

"Frigate Buff." = Pelecaniis mitwr Gmelin. 

Aguilus Bronn, Zur angewandten Naturg. u. Phys., p. 159, 1824. Nomen nudum, based on 

" Fregatt-vogel." 

Atagen Gray, List Genera Birds, 2nd ed., p. 101, Sept. 1841. Tj-pe (by original designation) : 

"A. aquilla (L.) G. R. Gray " = P. miiior Gmelin. 

Not.4«a5renKaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 170, (pref. April) 1829. 

Parvijregata Mathews, Birds Austr., Suppl. No. 1, Check List, p. 64, Feb. 16th, 1920. Tj'pe 

(by original designation) : Atagen artel Gray. 

Large birds with long hooked bills, very long wings, very long forked tails, 
slender bodies, and very small legs and feet, the toes semipalmate, but the hind-toe 
connected wth a web. The bill is very long, nauch longer than the head ; it is 
very strongly hooked, both mandible tips being downward bent ; the upper mandible 
is composed of separate pieces recalling that of a Procellarian bird ; the culmini- 
corn is broad and flattened, a groove extending its length separating it from the 
laterals, which are also broad and flattened ; the edges of the mandible are complete, 
no serration being present. The rami of the lower mandible are straight and deep 
and enclose an mafeathered tract which develops in the male into a huge gular 
pouch . The length of the chord of the culmen is about twice the length of the midde 
toe. The nostrils are linear slits j)laced near the base of the culmen. The wings are 
very long and pointetl, the first primary much the longest. The tail is very long 
and very deeply forked ; it is more than half the length of the wing. The metatarsus 
is very short and feathered. The toes are comparatively long and thin, and are 
totipalmate, but the webs are so deeply incised that semipalmate would better 
describe them ; the toes are obfcurely scutellate, the middle toe about twice the 
length of the metatarsus and half the length of the chord of the culmen ; the hind-toe 
is long, not much shorter than the imier, the middle toe being longest, the outer 
longer than the inner ; the claw of the middle toe is very long and serrated. 

44. Fregata minor.— FRIGATE BIRD. 

[Pehcanxis minor Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. u., p. 572, April 20th, 1789 : [West Indian 

Seas =] Jamaica. Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 229, June 23rd, 1915. 

Fregata minor listeri Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 6, p. 119, Dec. 19th, 1914: 

Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. 

Distribution.- — Australia (visitor). One specimen preserved in Perth Museum, West 

Australia. Cf. Alexander, Emu, Vol. XVII., pt. IV., p. 238, April 1st, 1918. Probably 

common in North Queensland. 

Adult male. — General coloration throughout black ; a brownish tinge observed 
on the under parts ; the feathers of the head long and narrow and showing a dull 
blue-green sheen ; the feathers of the back lanceolate and elongate, showing a shiny 
oil-green gloss ; the primaries and rectrices are tinged with a bluish bloom ; inner- 
most secondaries brownish ; the median wing-coverts dark brown ; bill slatj--grey ; 
feet pale flesh ; eyelids bright pink. Culmen 96 mm., wing 558, tail 365, middle 
toe 50. 

Two birds in the British Museum supposed to have been procured in Queensland 
agree fairly well and measure — 

Culmen 100 Wing 550 Tail 420 Middle toe 55 mm. 

105 „ 565 „ 370 „ 50 



FKIGATE BIED. 59" 

Adult female. — Head and neck all round and all upper-parts dark ; throat ashy r 
lower neck, breast, and sides of body pure white ; middle of lower-breast, abdomen, 
and flanks black ; the feathers of the head are shorter than in the male and are 
comparatively dull ; brown collar on back of neck ; the feathers of the back are 
not conspicuously elongated and lack the brilliant sheen of the lanceolate plumes 
of the male ; innermost secondaries brownish ; the lesser and median coverts are 
brownish with paler margins, forming a somewhat conspicuous bar parallel to the 
shoulder. Culmen 107 mm., ^ring 590, tail 410, middle toe 54. 

Immature male. — Head and neck all round white, pouch showing ; breast with 
rusty patch ; lower-breast black as are sides of body ; centre of abdomen, lower 
flanks, and vent white ; under tail-coverts black with small white tips ; rest of 
upper -imrts dusky-bro-mi and black according to wear ; median wing-coverts brown- 
ish forming a naiTow bar. Coloration of iris, bill, and feet imrecorded. Culmen 
92 mm., wing 570, tail 350, middle toe 49. (New Zealand.) (Another collected by 
J. MacgilIi\Tay at Oomaga Island, Torres Straits, agrees but is slightly larger.) 

Nestling. — Pure wliite do%vn. 

Neoct stage. — Scapulars and mantle of brown feathers with subterminal bars ; 
round the eyes, over fore-head and chin naked. 

Next. — Red down comes on the naked part of the head but not on the chin ; 
secondaries commence as black feathers. 

Next. — Larger, and tail-feathers begin black. 

Next. — The red extends over the top of the head and on to the face ; the 
scapulars are fully developed and the feathers of the back growing : these are dark 
brown with lighter tips. The tail has rapidly lengthened, being 150 mm. long and 
showing slight but decided fork, their feathers being black with a blue sheen ; the 
wing-coverts are niore or less greyish -white throughout, the primaries and secondaries 
long and black with a metallic sheen ; the breast feathers just beginning to show. 

Next. — Larger and similar to preceding ; the tail, more forked, measures 214 mm.; 
the head is darker and the dark breast-feathers show more prominently, but 
otherwise the mider parts are still covered with down. 

Flyitvg young. — Head nearly all white, with a few red feathers remaining ; 
upper-breast dark rusty-red ; brcttia on sides of body ; abdomen white ; vent black. 

Immature. — The patch of dark rusty-red on the upper chest vanishes and 
the dark colour goes from sides, but immediately black feathers begin to be seen 
on the abdomen. 

These notes are taken from a series in the Rothschild Museum collected by 
Schauinsland at Laysan. From other localities intervening stages can be seen. 
The adult male is wholly black, with lanceolate breeding plumes on the back showing^ 
strong metallic gloss. The adult female has the breast white, the throat not fully 
black and no breeding plumes, thougli a metallic sheen is noticeable on some of the 
back feathers ; she is larger and has no gular pouch. Immature males show this 
coloration, but are distinguishable by the possession of an orange gular pouch and 
the presence of lanceolate metallic breeding plumes. It is also certain that the 
immature of both sexes breed when in the white-headed stage noted above, but 
then the male has only a partially developed pouch and scarcely differs from the 
female save in size. 

Nest. — Placed in trees or on the gromid ; rather bulky, composed of sticks. 

Eggs. — Clutch oiie, white ; covered with creamy lime ; axis 66 to 68 mm., 
diameter 45 to 46. 

Distribution aiid forms. — Throughout the tropical oceans, and the criticism of 
Rothscliild, Oberholser, etc., tends to accept the novel arrangement proposed by 
Mathews in 1915 whereby four species were discriminated from the previously 
accepted one only, and of the present species many subspecies, as follows : F. m. minor 
Gmelinfrom the West Indies ; F. m. nicolli Mathews, from the South Atlantic Ocean 



€0 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

■with larger bills though smaller wing measurement with a very broad pale wing 
band ; F. m. aldabrensis Mathews from the Seji-chelles, Aldabra, etc., in the West 
Lidian Ocean, with dark oil-green sheen, dark wing-coverts, larger size than typical, 
about equal to last named form ; F. m. listen Mathews, type from Christmas Island, 
East Indian Ocean, a very small form which has occurred in Western Australia ; 
F. m. palmerstoni (Gmelin) from the Pacific Ocean, with wliich has been included 
F. m. strumosa Hartert from Laysan, and to which the Torres Straits birds are at 
present tentatively referred, with a narrow dark brown wing band and larger than 
the preceding ; and F. m. ridgwayi ^iAthews from the Culpepper and Wenman Islands, 
Galapagos Group, with brownish wing-bar and oily -green male breeding plumes, 
short bill and same size as last. 

The only point at issue is the type locality of Gmelin's P. minor, which must be 
Jamaica as selected by Mathews. 

45. Fregata ariel.— LESSER FRIGATE BIRD. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 72 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 184S. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 230, .June 

23rd, 1915. 

Atagen arid Gray, Genera Birds, Vol. III., p. 669, pi. 183 (often 185), Jan. 1845 : Raine 

Island, North Queensland. 

Fregata ariel tiinnyi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. II., pt. 6, p. 121, Dec. 19th. 1914: 

Bedout Island, mid-West Australia. 

Distribution. — Tropical Northern Australia. 

Adult male. — General coloration black, the under parts with a brownish tinge ; 
the head with long narrow feathers showing a deep blue sheen, as do also the lanceo- 
late breeding plumes on the back ; wing-coverts uniformly black ; a wliite patch on 
each side of the body ; legs and feet black ; bill grey ; skin of throat red ; eyes and 
eyelids black. Culmen 80 mm., wing 535, tail 270, middle toe 45. (Raine Island.) 

Adult female. — Differs from the adult male in having the breast and sides of 
breast buffy -wliite ; a chestnut collar on the lower hind -neck ; lesser and median 
ujiiDcr wing-coverts brown with whitish edges and blackish shaft-streaks, the long 
scapulars brown at the ends ; bill bluish-hom ; iris brown ; ej'e rim and gular sac 
red ; feet fleshy-red. Total length 800 mm. ; culmen 92, wing 565, tail 335, tarsus 
23. (Bedout Island.) 

Immature ivith down adhering on under jmrls. — Head, neck and throat deep rusty- 
red ; back brown with lighter tips ; scapulars long, brownish-black ; primaries and 
primary-coverts, bend of wing inside and out black ; secondary-coverts brown with 
pale whitish tips ; breast downy, showing black feathers in the form of a band 
across the lower-breast ; abdomen white ; mider tail-coverts black ; tail black, 
long and slightly forked ; bill and feet of a white colour with a shade of blue ; eyes 
black. (Raine Island.) 

Nestling. — Pure white down throughout save round eyes and fore-head, where 
it is rusty -red ; gullet naked ; patch of brown feathers on back ; iris black ; legs 
white. Born naked like young Gannets. 

Older birds are covered with white down, with a saddle-shaped band of dark grey 
feathers across the back and scajiular region. 

Nest. — Of stalks of grass and Ipomcva. small twigs, etc. The average dimensions 
of each nest were about one foot in height by a little more in diameter. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one; pure white; very thin-shelled, with only a very slight 
limy coating. Measurements 59.7-70.6 by 41-47.7 mm. 

Breeding -season . — Apri 1 , May . 

Distribution and forms. — Principally Northern Australian seas, but also East 
Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean as a very rare breeder. F. ariel ariel Gra}', 
from East Australia, breeding on Raine Island ; F. a. tunnyi Mathews, from West 



ORDER PELECANI. 61 

Australia, breeding on Betlout Island, a larger form ; and F. a. iredalei Mathews, 
from Aldabra, Western Lidian Ocean, a smaller form with a very smal bill. The 
species has also been recorded from the South Atlantic Ocean, but series are not 
available to determine the subspecies. 

Order PELECANI. 

This order, consisting of large seabirds, with long moie or less hooked bills 
with obsolete nostrils, long wings, stiff wedge-shaped tails and webbed feet, all 
four toes being connected with large webs, the first large and the fourth longest, 
is separable into three suj)erfamilies. These are the Phalacrocoracoidea, including 
the Cormorants and Darters, the Pelecanoidea for the Pelicans, and the Suloidea 
for the Gannets. The feet formation in all these agree fairly closely, though the 
bill has varied somewhat considerably while the size of the birds has altered also. 
The first named contains the smallest species (but still large birds), with long necks 
and slender elongate bodies, long wings and long wedge-shajied tail and short legs 
and feet. The Pelicans are the largest forms, with extraordinarily long bills wth huge 
characteristic gular pouch, short necks, very heavy stout bodies, long wings, short 
roimded tail and large stout legs and feet. The Gannets are intermediate in size, 
with long thick necks, stout bodies, long wedge-shajjed tail, strong legs and feet. 

The diagnostic feature of the grouj) is the superficial one of the webbing of the 
feet ; there is no characteristic internal feature that will define the group succinctly. 
The superficial differences of the bill are so great that similar differences are easily 
observed in the skull. The palate is desmogiiathous, and the nasals holorhinal, 
while there are no basipterygoid processes (rudiments are recorded in Pelecanus 
only as yet). The lachrymals vary in size and form. The sternum is somewhat 
peculiar in the formation of the carina which is produced forward, decreasing rapidly 
backward and disappearing about the middle of the corpus stemi. The furcula is 
connected by ligaments with the keel of the sternum, being even anchj'losed in 
Pelecanus. The cervical vertebrfe vary in number in the three groups, also showing 
little peculiarities in each. Both carotids are i^resent, the syiinx tracheo-bronchial 
but variable, intrinsic muscles being present or absent in the different grou2)s. The 
digestive system does not seem to have been studied in detail, being peiicoelous and 
orthocoelous in general, and cfeca small. The leg muscle formula is variable in the 
different groups as is the presence or absence of the biceps slip, and the arrangement 
of the biceps itself. The oil gland is present and tufted but the number of orifices 
is variable, the aftershaft superficially absent and the vring aquincubital. The 
pterylosis is very uniform and the down very close, the yomig born naked. JIany 
fossils from Tertiary strata have been recorded as Steganopodes, using that term 
in the broad sense. Lydeldier has referred Argillornis Owen from the London Clay 
to the neighbourhood of this group, but Purbringer would class it with the Ichthj'- 
onaithes. Similarly Furbringer would include Bemiornis (which Gadow considered 
Struthious) and Chenornis which was supposed to be Anserine. Such divergence 
of opinion suggests the misuitability of depending on osteological characters alone. 
Marsh recorded Oraculavus from the Cretaceous, concluding it could be determined 
as not only Steganopodous but even referable to the Phalacrocoracine branch. 
Odontopteryx Owen has been regarded as a SteganoiJod, but Andrews showed that 
there were important Anserine-like features, though Steganopod-like items were 
still recogiiisable. Prophaithon shrubsolei Andrews from the London Clay, con.sidered 
as ancestral to Pliaelhon, seems to show more ancestral Suline features and would 
be better classed here. 

SuPERFAMiLY PHALACROCORACOIDEA. 
Only two families are recogiaised, one with hooked bills, long wings, short stoutish 
necks, wedge-shajjed tail of very stiff feathers and typically Steganopod feet ; the 



■62 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

other with shaq) pointed bill and long thin neck with a " kink " in it, but exactly 
similarly formed feet. The former, the Phalacrocoracidae or Cormorants, is composed 
of seabirds with a world-wide distribution, some .species now living on inland lakes 
and marshes ; the latter, the Anhingidae or Darters, has become restricted to 
the rivers of the tropics and subtropical portions of America, Asia, Africa and 
Australia. 

The skull of the.se two varies in the latter lacking the nasal hinge and less 
modifications purely adaptive. The desmognathism of the palate is similar as are 
the holorhinal nostrils, though reduced to mere chinks in the latter. There are no 
basipterygoid processes and the descending process of the lachrymal fuses with the 
«ctethmoid, while there is a small bonelet resting upon the jugal bar in front of the 
laclirj'mal ; a peculiar style-like bone is i>resent, attached to the occipital, and also 
the quadrate is peculiar in form. The cervical vertebrae are twenty in number, the 
dorsal vertebrae opisthocoelous with very large hypapophyses, the sternum with the 
keel as described for the order and the furculum articulating with the keel but not 
anchylosed. The carotids are one or two and the syrinx with a single pair of intrinsic 
muscles and a complete bronchidesmus in the first family, incomplete in the second. 
The accessory semitendinosus is always missing in the leg muscles and generallj^ 
the accessory femoro-caudal, but the latter sometimes met with in the first-named 
family, while the biceps slip may be missing also in that group, though generally 
present. The oil gland is always i^resent and tufted with two or four orifices, the 
aftershaft apparently absent, and the wing aquincubital. The jiterylosis has not 
been criticised carefully, being cited as uniform vrith narrow &i)aces. The young 
^re hatched naked, but are covered with thick down later. 



Family PHALACROCORACID^. 

This family comprises the Cormorants and Shags, and the generic distinctions 
tenable in this group are unsettled. In connection with Australian species we admit 
four genera, Hypoleucus, Me-socarbo, Microcarbo and Phalacrocorax . These are well 
differentiated forms and their geographical range confirms their distinction. Some 
worlcers are so peculiar in their generic values that they deny generic distinction to 
Nannopterum, a flightless form of large size. As it is still a Steganopod, whatever 
its evolution may have been, it must belong to the genus Phalacrocorax which 
includes, to them, every Cormorant-like bird, large or small. Good osteological 
differences exist but these are minimised as being due to disuse, etc., as if every altera- 
tion in structure were not due to disuse or the opposite. In. the genera above 
mentioned similar structural differences exist, much more striking ones than are 
accepted as valid in the Procellariae. Osteological features of distinction have been 
recorded as also anatomical items, thus the biceps slii> is present or absent, while the 
sjTinx varies, etc., etc. 

Genus KYPOLEUCUS. 

HypoUucua Rcichenbacb, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. vii, 1852 (?1853). Tj-pe {by original designa- 
tion) : Pclecnniis varius Gmelin. 

Leiicocarbo Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., Vol. II., p. 176, 1856. Type (by subsequent designa- 
tion, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., Vol. XXVI., p. 331, 1898) : Carbo bougainvillii 
Lesson. 

Medium to large Phalacrocoracine birds with long slender bills, long wings, 
short tails composed of twelve feathers. 

These birds approach species of Phalacrocorax closely, from which they differ 
"in the number of the tail-feathers. 



WHITE-BREASTED CORMORANT. 63 

The tail is less than half the wing length and more than twice the length ot the 
metatarsus, which is generally exceeded by the culmen chord. 

This genus is Antarctic in distribution and is composed of birds of bright 
coloration, usually white underneath and often with facial ornaments of fleshy 
caruncles. 

46. Hypoleucus perthi.— PIED CORMORANT. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 68 (pt. XI.), June 1st. 1843. Mathews. Vol. IV., pt. 2, pi. 222, Feb. 

17th, 1915. 

Carbo varius perthi yiathews, Anstral Av.Rec, Vol. l.,pt. 4, p. 88, Sept. 18th, 1912: Perth, 

West Australia. 

Hypoleucus varhts whitei Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. IV., pt. 2, p. 187, Feb. 17th, 1915 : 

Lake Albert, South Australia. 

Distribution. — Extra-tropical Australia and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Sides of the upper back, scapulars, ujiper- and under-surface of 
the wings dark oil-green with very narrow edgings to the feathers ; head, hind -neck, 
a narrow line on the middle of the upper back and entire lower back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts blue-black like the flanks and outer aspect of the thighs ; quills 
and tail-feathers uniform black ; sides of the face, sides of neck, throat, fore-neck, 
and entire surface pure white. Bill dark horn ; bare space in front of the eye bright 
orange, eyelid and rim round the eye rich indigo-blue ; throat and cheeks light 
bluish-ash ; iris jJale green ; feet black. Total length 800 mm. ; culmen 70, wing 
324, tail 150, tarsus 60. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — This individual, wliich has nearly attained its full plumage, is 
consi^icuous by having some brown feathers scattered among the white on the fore- 
neck and sides of the neck. 

Nestling. — Naked . 

Nest. — Similar to that of H. fuscescens, sometimes placed on the gromid, at 
others in trees. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two : similar to those of other members of the family ; axis 
55 to 58, diameter 35 to 37. 

Breeding-season. — Sej^tember to November ; March to May. 

Distribution and forms. — Apparently confined to Southern Australia outside 
the tropics and 7iot ranging to New Zealand, where a different species has been 
confused ^vith this. VVe are not recognising any subspecies at present, as the 
characters hitherto used for diSerentiating " species " in connection with this group 
in New Zealand have proved mistable. 

47. Hypoleucus fuscescens.— WHITE-BREASTED CORMORANT. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 69 (pt. SI.), June 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 2, pi. 221, Feb. 

17th, 1915. 

Hydrocora.x jutccscens VieUlot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. VIII., p. 80, March 15th, 1817 : 

" Australasie " = Tasmania. 

Carho hypoleiicos Brandt, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., Vol. III., p. 55, Nov. lOtli, 

1837 : South Australia. 

Fhalacrocorax Icucogaster Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 7, April 1st, 1838 : 

" New South Wales " = Tasmania. 

Not Hydrocorax leucogaster Vieillot as above, p. 90, 1817. 

Hypoleucus gov.ldi Salvadori, Ami. Mus. Civ. Gen., Vol. XVIII., p. 404, 1882. New name for 

P. leucogaster Gould. 

Carbo gouldi tunneyi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 4, p. 88, Sept. 18th, 1912 : 

Peak Islands, South-west Australia. 

DiSTRiEUTio:. — Extra-troijical Australia and Tasmania 



64 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult male. — Head, Iiind-neck, entire back, outer sides of the thighs and under 
wing-coverts glossy blue-black with white plumes intermixed on the sides of the 
nape, upper hind-neck, and sides of the rump ; scapulars and wings oil-green with 
very narrow black margins to the feathers ; quills uniform dark brown ; tail greenish- 
black ; sides of the face, throat, fore-neck and entire under-surfacc of the body 
pure white. Bill dark horn, base and bare space purple ; iris green ; feet black. 
Total length 700 mm. ; culmen 54, wing 273, tail 107, tarsus GO. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but slightly smaller. Culmen 50 mm., 
wing 270, tail 107, tarsus 54. 

Immature. — Distinguished chiefly by the brown on the upper -surface, sides of 
the body, and the outer thighs ; gular pouch grey. 

Youn^. — Similar to the above but darker brown, and the head and hind-neck 
narrowly streaked with white. 

Nest. — Placed on a reef or on rocks and composed of seaweed, saltbush, etc. ; 
outside dimensions 18 by 4 inches, egg cavity about 9 inches by 2. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two or three ; similar to those of other members of the family ; 
aids 57 to 60 mm., diameter 36 to 38. 

Breeding-seasvn. — November, December and January. 

Distribution and fonns. — Apparently confined to Southern Australia, outside 
the tropics. No subspecies are admitted at present as only unstable characters 
have been used for separating forms in this genus, and long series are not at hand ; 
while Carter states it may not occur west of Albany, so that it has a very limited 
range. 

Genus MESOCARBO. 

Mesocarbo Mathews and Iredale, Ibis, 1913, p. 415, July 1st. Type (by original designation) : 
Carlo siikirostris Brandt = C. ater Lesson. 

Small Phalacrocoracine birds with comijarativ^ely short, slender bills, rather 
short necks, long wings, and medium tail composed of twelve feathers. 

The bill is more delicately formed than in the preceding genus, but on exactly 
the same pattern ; the culmen engraved with parallel shallow grooves and ridges. 

The tail is about three times the length of the culmen or metatarsus, which 
are subequal, and more than half the wing length. 

When we separated this form {loc. cit.) we wrote : '" The species of Mesocarbo 
differ from those of Hypoleucus in their shorter and more slender bills, their longer 
tails and more slender build ; from those of Microcarbo in their longer and pro- 
portionately more slender bills as well as their proportionately shorter tails," and 
apparently there is no crest in the breeding-season. 

48. Mesocarbo ater.— LITTLE BLACK CORMORANT. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 67 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 2, pi. 220, Feb. 

17th, 1915. 

Carboafcr Lesson, Traited'Orn., 8"^ livr., p. 604, June Ilth, 1831: Shark Bay, West Australia. 

Carho stdcirostris Brandt, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., Vol. III., p. 56, 1837 : New 

South Wales. 

Microcarbo stictocc phalus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., Vol. II., p. 178, 1856 : New South 

Wales. 

Carbo sguamaius Pelzoln, Ibis, 1873, p. 124, Jan. 1st. Nomcn nudum. 

Mesocarbo ater territori Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. IV., pt. 2, p. 176, Feb. 17th, 1915 : 

Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Upper-back, sides of breast, scapulars and wings hoary-grey, 
with black margins and black shaft-lines to the feathers, all of which are very glossy ; 



LITTLE CORMORANT. 65 

lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts uniform blue-black glossed with green ; 
bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills imiform dark brown, the quills paler on 
the inner webs and hoary -grey on the outer webs of some of the secondaries ; tail 
dark brown ; head and neck all round, dark brown with an oily-green reflection, 
darker on the cro^vn of the head and hind-neck, paler and inclining to brown on 
the throat and sides of the face ; sides of the face, ear-coverts, and sides of crown 
covered with white-tipped plumes ; remainder and entire under-sm-face blue-black 
glossed with green. Bill : culmen black, remainder of bill and bare skin leaden- 
grey ; iris green ; tarsi and feet black. Total length 610 mm. ; culmen 48, wing 
253, tail 131, tarsus 52. 

Adtilt female . — Very similar to the adult male but smaller and with a few white- 
plumed feathers scattered down the hind-neck. Culmen 42 mm., wing 238, tail 120, 
tarsus 44. 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in being more or less brown on the head, 
sides of the face, fore-neck and chest, and the white-tipped plumes on the head 
much less numerous. 

Nestling. — Bom naked. 

Nest. — Constructed of sticks, leaves, etc., and placed in a tree ; in rookeries. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three to four ; ground-colour pale green covered with white 
lime ; axis 50 to 56 mm., diameter 33-37. (Victoria.) Clutch, four ; axis 49 to 
50 mm., diameter 31. (Port Darwin.) 

Breeding-season. — August to December ; May and June. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia and the islands to the north and New Zealand. 
The Neozelanic form M. a. purpuragida Peale appears to differ in its larger wing, 
shorter bill and tarsus, but no big series is available Tlie soft parts also seem to 
differ in coloration. 

Genus MICROCARBO. 

Microcarho Bonaparte, Comptes Rondus Acad. Sci. Pari.s, Vol. XLIII., p. 577, Sept 1856. 
Type (by original designation) : Pelecaniis pyr/meus Pallas. 

Halietor Heine, Journ. fiir Orn., May 1800, p. 202. New name for Microcarho Bp. 
Melanocarbo Bernstein, Bijdr. Taal- Land- en Volkenk. Ned. -Indie, Ser. IV., Vol. VII., p. 119, 
1883. Type (by monotypy) : Hydrocorax melanoleucos VieiUot. 

Smallest Phalacrocoracine birds with very short bills, long necks, long wings, 
very long tails and short legs and feet. The bill is very short, being less than one- 
sixth the length of the wing and shorter than the metatarsus. The wing has the 
primary formula different from any of the preceding genera, having the second and 
third 2>rimaries subequal, the tliird sometimes the longest, while the first is exceeded 
by the fourth. TJie tail, composed of twelve feathers, is very long, about two-thirds 
the length of the wing, and four times the length of the culmen or metatarsus. 

The feet are delicately formed when contrasted with those of the preceding 
genera, though comparatively they agree in their proportions. 

There appears to be no crest in the breeding-season, at least, in the Australian 
species. 

49. Microcarbo melanoleucus.— LITTLE CORMORANT. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 70 (pt. XII.), Sept. 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 2, pi. 223, Feb. 

17th, 1915. 

Hydrocorax melanoleucos VieiUot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. VIII., p. 88, March 15th, 

1817 : " Australasie " = New South Wales. 

Carlo dimidiatus Lesson, Trait6 d'Orn., 8= livr., p. 604, Jvuie 11th, 1831 : New South Wales. 

Phalacrocorax flavirhynchtia Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 8, April 1st, 1838 : 

New South Wales. 

Graucalus flavirostris Gray, in Dieffenbaeh's Travels in New Zeal., Vol. II., p. 201, (middle 

Jan.) 1843. Emendation of Gould's name. 



66 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Halieus leiicomclas Gloger, Joum. fiir Omith., Jan. 1857, p. 14. Emendation of Vieillot's 

name. 

Carbo melanoleiicua melvillensis Mathews, Austral Av. Bee, Vol. I., pt. 3, p. 74, June 28tli, 

1912 : Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult 7wa/e.— General colour of the upper -surface glossy black ; wing-coverts 
hoary-grey wdth black marginal or submarginal edgings ; quills and tail-feathers 
uniform glossy black ; the feathers on the fore-head, narrow and stiffened, are black ; 
sides of the fore-head, sides of face, throat, fore-neck, and entire under -surface pure 
white except the axillaries, imder wing-coverts, and under tail-coverts, which are 
black. Bill and gular pouch yellow, culmen black ; bare skin on face brownish- 
yellow ; iris greyish-white ; feet black ; second scale on middle toe plum colour. 
Total length 610 mm. ; culmen 34, wing 238, tail 165, tarsus 38. 

Adult female. — Similar in every respect to the adult male but smaller. Wing 
232 mm. ; culmen 32, tail 155. 

Nestling. — With tail and wing-feathers partiallj' developed ; is dense black 
with white feathers interspersed over the entire abdomen, more thickly on the tliighs 
and vent ; the head is quite naked as far as the ear -coverts, which have white tufts. 
Bill black, basal jDortion and a patch near the tip of the lower mandible j'ellowish- 
white ; fore-head and crown of head dirty white ; throat piuTjlish-fle.'ih colour ; 
interramal space pale greenish-white ; iris, outer ring dirty white, inner one brown ; 
feet black. 

Immature. — In this species, as in the majority of others, is chiefly distinguished 
by its brown upper-surface. 

Nest. — Composed of sticks and lined with leaves, and placed in low trees. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three to five ; similar to those of other members of the family ; 
axis 43 to 46 mm., diameter 30 to 32. 

Breeding-season. — September to January. (Queensland and New South Wales.) 
May. (Darwin, Northern Territory.) 

Distribntion and forms. — Australia generally and recorded from the islands 
to the north, but not New Zealand, as we now consider the Neozelanic species of 
Microcarbo distinct. Australian forms not well known owing to lack of specimens. 

Genus PHALACROCORAX. 

Phalacrocorax Brisson, Omith., Vol. I., p. 60, Vol. VI., p. 511, 1760. Tj-pe (by tautonymy) : 

Phalacrocorax = Pelecanus carbo Linne. 

Carbo Lacepede, Tabl. Ois., p. 15, Dee. 1799. Species added by Daudin in Hist. Nat. BuSon, 

ed. Didot, Quadr., Vol. XIV., p. 318 [1799] = Oct. 1802. Type (by tautonymy) : Carbo 

vulgarit) = P. carbo Linn6. 

Halieus lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 279, (pref. April) 1811. New name for preceding. 

Carbonarius Ra6nesque, Analyse de la Nature, p. 72, 1815. New name for " Carbo Lac." = 

Lacepdde, c/. Auk, Vol. XXVI., p. 50, Jan. 1909. 

Eydrocorax Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Ornith., p. 63, April 14th, 1816. Tj-pe (by monotypy) : 

Cormoran = P. carbo Linne. 

Not Hydrocorax Brisson, Ornith., Vol. TV., p. 566, 1760. 

Cormoranus Baillon, Mem. Soc. Roy. Abbeville, p. 76, 1833 [1834]. Tj-pe (by subsequent 

designation, Mathews, List Birds Austr., p. 95, 1913) : P. carbo Linn^. 

Graucalus Gray, List Genera Birds, 2nd ed., p. 101, Sept. 1841. Type (by original designa- 
tion) : P. carbo Liim^. 

Not Graucalus Cuvier, Le Rfegne Anim., Vol. I., p. 341, Dec. 7th, 1816. 

Ecmeles Gistel,Naturg. Thierr. Schul.,p. ex., (pref. Easter 1847) 1848. Newname iorHydro- 

corax Vieillot. 

Large Phalacrocoracine birds with long hooked bills, long neck, long wings, 
medium tail, short legs and long toes, all the toes, including the hind one, coimected 
with a web. 

The bill is long and slender, with culmen depressed, and a very sharp, prominent 
hook. The culmen is separated from the lateral portions by a narrow groove in 



BLACK CORMORANT. 67 

which the nostrils, obsolete and scarcely apparent in the adult, are placed at about 
a quarter the bill's length from the frontal feathering. The bill is longer than the 
head and about equal to the metatarsus in length. The under mandible is narrow, 
the rami enclosing a very narrow unfeathered tract, which develops into a more 
or less distensible gular pouch. The head is crested and the lores are bare. The 
wings are long with the second primary longest, the third a little shorter, almost 
subequal, while the first is longer than the fourth though shorter than the third ; 
all the primaries show scalloping. The tail is comparatively short, less than half 
the length of the wing and about twice the length of the culmen or metatarsus. It 
is wedge shaped, composed of fourteen very stiff feathers with short, insignificant 
upper tail-coverts. The legs are short, the toes long. The metatarsus is very stout, 
laterally compressed, reticulated throughout, the scales on the front and sides small 
but those on the hind jDortion very minute. The metatarsus is about half the length 
of the tail and two-thirds the length of the outer toe. 

The toes are all fully connected mth a web, the outer toe longest, the middle 
longer thar the imier, the inner exceeding the hind-toe. The claws are long, hooked, 
the middle one bearing pectinations. 

50. Phalacrocorax carbo.— BLACK CORMORANT. 

[Pelecanus carbo Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed.. p. 133, Jan. 1st, 1758: Europe. Extra-liraital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. G6 (pt. XXXIV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 2, pi. 219, 

Feb. 17th, 1915. 

Phalacrocorax novmhollandicB Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zoo!., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 93, Feb. 

18th, 1826 : Tasmania. 

Phalacrocorax carboides Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. rv., App., p. 7, April 1838 : Tasmania. 

Carbo carho joe«/raZ(» Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 33, April 2nd, 1912: Swan 

River, South-west Australia. 

PAafacrocorax car&o^racenier!' Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. IV., pt. 2, p. 167, Feb. 17th, 1915 : 

Gracemere, Queensland. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male (in winter). — Upper back, scapulars, and wings greyish-brown with 
black margins to the feathers ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts imiform 
blue-black ; quills and tail-feathers dull black with very glossy shafts ; head and 
neck all round and the entire under-surface glossy black wth green reflections in 
certain lights ; chin and sides of the face, including the eye, white ; a few white 
feathers on the lower flanks Bill yellow, culmen purplish, naked skin gamboge- 
yellow ; iris emerald -green ; feet black. Total length 780 mm. ; culmen 67, wing 
357, tail 155, tarsus m. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but smaller. In summer the adults 
have a white patch on the flanks and white lanceolate feathers on the neck. 

Immature. — Distinguished by its browner ajipearance, especially on the head, 
neck, and under parts, the absence of the white flank plumes, and in being whitish 
in the middle of the belly. 

Nest. — Composed of twigs, etc., saucer-shaped, about three inches deep and 
16 to 18 inches wide, placed (often in colonies) in low bushes or rocky ground. 

Eggs. — Four (sometimes three) ; ground-colour greenish and dull, covered 
with a white coating of lime ; axis 59-60 mm., diameter 35-6. 

Breeding-season. — August to November. 

Distribution and forms. — World-wide and forms not yet detailed. Li 1915 
Mathews suggested six subspecies : P. c. carbo Limie, Em-oi^e, with large size, deep 
purplish gloss and heavy nuptial ornamentation (since, following Mathews's sugges- 
tion, separated into two by Hartert, P. c. carbo Linne from Northern Europe, and 
P. c. subcormoranus Brehm, from Southern Europe) ; P. c. americanus Reichenbach 
from North America ; P. c. indicus Mathews, from India, by small size and purplish- 

F 2 



6S A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

green coloration ; P. c. sinensis Shaw and Nodder, from China and Japan, in its 
small size and generally oily-green coloration ; P. c. novahollandice Stephens from 
Australia in its deep oily-green coloration and sparse nuptial ornaments, rarely 
observed due to their evanescent nature ; and P. c. steadi Mathews and Iredale, from 
New Zealand, like the preceding generally, but of smaller size. 

Family ANHINGID^. 

Only one genus was admitted in this family, but it is possible that the four 
species may prove to represent different genera as the internal characters differ 
somewhat appreciably according to good workers. The peculiar mechanism of the 
neck is common to all, but " Dunitz's bridge," as it is called, is fibrous in the tyi>e, 
ossified in the others. There is said to be no expans-or secundariorum in the wing, 
while rudiments exist in the members of the preceding family. Again, only one, 
the left, carotid is recorded in this group, while both are always found in the 
Phalacrocoracidae. Here it may be noted that some of these records refer to only 
one species, while the absence of an independent tongue must be noted, and also 
the peculiarities of the syrinx. 

Genus ANHINGA. 

Anhiiu/a Brisson, Ornith., Vol. I., p. 60, Vol. VI., p. 476, 1760. Type (by tautonj-my) : 

Anhinga = Plotvs anhinga Linn6. 

Plotus Liim6, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 218, (pref. May 24th) 1766. Type (by monotj-py): 

P. anhim/a Linne. 

Ploltus Scopoli, Introd. Hist. Nat., p. 474, 1777. Type (by monotypy): A. anhinga. 

Nolophttts, Mathews, Birds Austr., Suppl. No. 1, Chock List, p. 62, Feb. 16th, 1920. Tj-pe 

(by original designation) : Plotus novcehollandice Gould. 

Large slender birds with very small heads and veiy long necks, long thin pointed 
bills, long wings, long stiff tail, short legs and long toes, totipalmate. 

The bill is very long and thin, straight and pointed, longer than the head and 
more than one and a half times the length of the metatarsus, compressed laterally 
and the edges of both mandibles are finely serrated. The loral space is naked 
and there is a small gular pouch ; the no.strils obsolete in an ill-tlefined groove. The 
neck is very long and the body slender. The wings are long, the second and third 
primaries subequal and longest, the first shorter than the fourth. The tail is very 
long, composed of twelve broad stiff feathers, fairly evenly rounded, the outside 
feather rather short. The legs are very stout and short ; the metatarsus is less 
than one-fourth the length of the tail, coarsely reticulate on the front and sides but 
minutely reticulate on the back. The toes are long, the middle almost as long as 
the outer one, hind-toe connected with others by a web ; all the toes therefore are 
fully webbed. The outer toe is little longer than the middle one, and is about one 
and a half times the length of the metatarsus ; the middle claw is finely pectinate. 

An extraordinary feature is the wrinkling of the two centre tail-feathers and 
the longest secondaries. 

The Darters, though superficially unlike, have been shown to be specialised 
Cormorants, and show the closest relationship of any of the totipalmate group. 

51. Anhinga novaehollandiae. — DARTER. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 75 (pt. xxvni.), Sept. 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 224, 

June 23rd, 1915. 

Plotus novcehollaiidim Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1847, p. 34, April 27th: New South 

Wales. 

Plotus novcehollatvlim dcrbyi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 3, p. 74, June 28th, 

1912: Derby, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Not Ta-smania. 



DABTER. 69 

Adult nude. — General colour above and below glossy blue-black ; a broad white 
band on each side of the head enclosing the eye and extending on to the sides of the 
upper neck ; naked part of throat edged with wliite ; a large patch of chestnut 
on the fore-neck ; the feathers on the lower liind-neck and upper mantle more or 
less chestnut at the base ; scapulars and wing-coverts centred with white ; quills 
and tail-feathers uniform black, the two central tail-feathers being transversely 
waved ; innermost secondaries and tail-feathers ribbed. Bill olive-green, base of 
upper mandible brown, base of lower mandible and bare skin yellow ; iris pale 
yellow ; feet whitish-brown, toes darker. Total length 890 mm. ; culmen 79, wing 
347, tail 217, tarsus 48. 

Adult female. — Head and hind-neck dark brown, becoming paler on the latter 
and everywhere mixed with white, a white line from the cheeks extending down the 
sides of the neck ; middle of back rust-brown ; scapulars dark browii centred with 
white ; wing-coverts brown, or black, also centred wth white, major coveits black 
and white ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills uniform slaty-black, the 
innermost secondaries white on the outer webs ; tail, centre feathers silvery-grey, 
the outer ones darker and more slate-grey ; chin, throat, and entire under -surface 
buffy-white, a black patch on each side of the breast ; outer edge of wing bully- 
white. Bill blui.sh-grey, yellowish-grey below ; iris pale yellow ; feet creamy- 
yellow. Culmen 67 mm., wing 357, tail 230, tarsus 44. 

Immature male {bird of the first year). — Similar to the adult female, but differs in 
being darker on the back, the throat and fore-neck buff, the crown of head and hind- 
neck much darker brown, and the white streak on the cheeks distinctly outlined, as 
also the white edges to the feathers of the throat. 

Immature male (second year). — This bird shows an advance of plumage by being 
darker on the head, hind-neck, and entire back ; the lower fore-neck is black, dark 
feathers are distributed over the under-surface, and the under tail-coverts are mixed 
with rufous. 

Immature male {third year). — This individual is very nearly in the adult plumage, 
but still retains the brown of the immature on the top of the head and hind -neck ; 
the rufous on the fore-neck is more extensive and is intermixed with the black of the 
throat, and the white on the chin and sides of the head is well developed. 

Nestling. — Covered with white down below and rusty-red on the neck and wing- 
coverts The head and throat bare ; on the sides of the neck the white streak is just 
noticeable. Wings and tail black, tipped with buff. 

Nest. — A platform composed of twigs and lined with leaves, about 16 in. across ; 
usually placed in low trees. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three or four ; ground-colour greenish, covered with a coating 
of whitish lime ; axis 54-58 mm., diameter 33-36. 

Breeding-season. — October to January. (East Australia.) February and 
March. (North-west Australia.) May and June. (Northern Territory.) 

Distribution and forms. — Australia and the islands north. Forms at present 
accurately indefinable owing to scarcity of material. 

SuPEEFAMiLY PELECANOIDEA. 

Only one family of very large birds is included in the superfamily, the distinc- 
tion, obvious at sight, being the extraordinary development of the bill with the huge 
gular pouch ; the birds have large stout bodies, being heavily built, with strong 
large feet to support them. The tail is evenly rounded of many stiff feathers. They 
are distributed through the tropical and temperate regions of both Worlds. 

The osteological features of the skull agree somewhat with the superficial 
characteristics ; thus the palate is desmognathous, in fact, doubly so, for the palatines 
are anchylosed behind the posterior nares, while the nostrils are holorhinal, and there 



70 A MANUAL OF THE BIKDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

are generally no basipterygoid processes, but rudiments have been recorded ; the 
nasal hinge is present but imperfect ; the lachrymal is large and fused with frontal. 
The cervical vertebrae are seventeen in number, the dorsal heterocoelous ; the sternum 
is similarly shaped, but the furcula is anchyloscd to the keel. There is only one carotid 
artery, the syrinx is tracheo-bronchial and there are no intrinsic muscles, the bronchi - 
desmus complete. The leg muscle formula is AX - , and the biceps slip is absent. 
The oil gland is tufted with twelve orifices, the aftershaft apparently lacking and 
the wing aquincubital. The pterylosis is not known to offer any peculiarity, the 
young hatched naked and soon covered with thick down. 

Family PELECANID^E. 

Not many genera have been separated and practically only one has been 
commonly recognised, but the Australian species should be generically differentiated, 
as it alone out of all the species in the world has the lores feathered. Other features 
of importance are mentioned in the generic definition below. 

Genus CATOPTROPELICANUS. 

Catopiropelicanua Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. vii., 1852 (?1853). Type (by original 
designation) : C perspicillatus = P. conspicillatus Temminck et Laugier. 

Large Pelecanine birds, characterised by their feathered lores. All other members 
of the family have the lores naked. 

The family is diagnosed by the huge bill with broad flattened upper mandible 
and immense gular pouch ; the birds are very large, heavily built, with long wings, 
medium neck, short tail, and short stout legs and feet. The bill is very long, broad 
and flattened ; the culminicom consists of a flattened portion, continuous with the 
small sharply-hooked nail ; the laterals are cleanly divided by a narrow groove, at 
the base of the culmen almost concealing the linear nostrils ; the laterals broaden 
and flatten past the middle ; the rami of the lower mandible are vertical, thick and 
strong at the base, where they extend beyond the upper mandible edges, but becoming 
slender about the middle, where they are overlapped bj' the upper edges ; the nail 
is short and hooked ; the interramal region develops a huge distensible naked 
pouch. The culmen is about two-thirds the length of the wing. The lores are 
feathered, but the eyes are surrounded by a bare patch : a breeding crest is assumed. 
The wings are long, the third primary longest, the fourth longer than the second, 
the first about equal to the fifth ; the wing-coverts long and lanceolate. The tail is 
short, wedge shaped, composed of twenty-two feathers, and is less than half the 
length of the culmen. The legs are short and stout, reticulate throughout, but the 
scales smaller on the back ; the metatarsus is more than half the length of the tail 
but less than one-third the length of the culmen. The toes are long, scutellate, the 
hind-toe long, the middle toe longest, all connected by webs. 

52. Catoptropelicanus conspicillatus. — PELICAN. 

Gould, Vol. VII., p. 74 (pt. XXIX.), Dec. 1st. 1847. Mathews. Vol. IV., pt. 3. pi. 233, June 

23rd, 1915. 

Pelecanus coTispicillatus Temminck et Laugier, Planch. Color. d'Ois., 47' livr. (Vol. III., pi. 

276), (Vol. v., pi. 118), June 26th, 1824 : New South Wales. 

Pelecanus austraUs Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 113, Feb. 18th, 1826 : 

New South Wales. 

Catoptropelicanus perspicillatus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. vii., 1852 (? 1853): New 

South Wales. 

Pelecanus conspicillatus icestrali-s Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 244, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Perth, West Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Not Tasmania. 



PELICAN. 71 

Adult male (in breeding -plumage). — Head and neck all round, entire under- 
surface, middle of back, upper and under wing-coverts white ; the small coverts 
along the inner margin of the wing black, median and greater upper wing-coverts 
also black with white on the outer webs of the greater series ; bastard-wing, primary- 
coverts and quills black, some of the secondaries white at the base ; scapulars 
black, extreme basal portion white ; sides of the rump and some of the upper tail- 
coverts black ; tail-feathers black, white only at the extreme base ; nuchal crest 
more or less greyish-brown ; a few of the under wing-coverts black, others partially 
black and white ; ornamental feathers on the fore-neck well develoj)ed. Bill, 
culmen flesh colour, grooves and tip and sides of upper and lower mandible 
slate-blue, nail of upper mandible greenish-horn colour, pouch pale flesh colour ; 
eyes dark brown, eyelids deep indigo-blue ; feet light slate colour. Total length 
1,620 mm. ; culmen 464, wing 653, tail 180, tarsus 126. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in having the dark portions of the upper- 
surface brown instead of black. 

Nestling. — Naked, sldn fleshy-pink. 

Nest. — A slight depression in the ground ; placed in colonies. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; white and chalky ; surface luieven and glossless ; axis 
87-94 mm., diameter 56-58. 

Breeding-season. — July to November. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia generally, but not extra-limital. Two sub- 
species have been named : G. c. conspicillatus Temminck and Laugier, from East 
Australia and C. c. westralis Mathews, from West Australia, on account of its smaller 
size throughout, but no long series are available. 

SUPEEFAMILY SULOIDEA. 

The limits of this superfamily are coequal with those of the familj', which 
consists of large seabirds with powerful conical bills in which in the adult no nasal 
openings are visible ; a small gular pouch is present, the neck short and stout, the 
tail long and regularly wedge shaped, the legs short but the toes long. Thej' are 
all stoutly built birds, generally breeding in colonies on isolated rocks and islands 
throughout the tropics, a few species ranging into the temperate zones, both north 
and south. 

In the skull the palate is desmognathous, the nasals holorhinal and basipterygoid 
processes absent ; the lachrymal differs from those of the preceding, the nasal hinge 
pronoimced . The cervical vertebrte are eighteen in number, the dorsals opisthocoelous, 
hypapophyses present according to one authority, ateent according to another. 
The sternum and furcula are similar to those of the preceding. The carotids are 
one or two, and the syrinx is different from those of the foregoing ; the leg muscle 
formula is AX+ while the biceps slip is sometimes present and sometimes absent. 
The oil gland is tufted with two orifices, the aftershaft apparently absent, and the 
wing aquincubital. The pterylosis has not been critically studied, and the nestling 
is born naked and later covered with thick down. 

Family SULID^. 

All the forms of Gannet were referred to one genus until recently, and the exact 
number of genera recognisable is at present in suspense. The four we here admit 
are definitely separable and easily defined as will be seen by the descriptions given. 
Their relationships and suggested phylogeny have been fully discussed by Mathews 
and are simply indicated below in connection with the genera. 



72 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Genus SULA. 

Sula Brisson, Omith., Vol. I., p. 60, Vol. VI., p. 494, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : Sula = 

Siila Icucogaster Liime. 

Dyeporus lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 279, (pref. April) 1811. New name for Sulo Briaaon. 

Stdarius Ra&iesque, Analyse de la Nature, p. 72, 1815. New name for " Sula Lac." = Sula 

Brisson. cf. Auk, Vol. XXVI., p. 50, Jan. 1909. 

Abellera Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hoin., p. 351. (pref. Sept.) 1890. Newjiame 

for "Sula Reichb. 1853" = Sula Brisson. 

Hemisula Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 55, Oct. 23rd, 1913. Type 

{by original designation) : Sula leucogaster rogerai Mathews. 

Small Suline birds of dark coloration above, with general characterr as in 
Piscatrix, but with different proportions. 

The bill is a little longei, but the tail is much shorter, while the metatarsus 
and toes are notably long. The bill is typically Suline, more than half the length 
of the tail, but less than twice the metatarsus. The wing is long, more than twice 
the length of the tail. The metatarsus is coarsely reticulate with small scales, the 
scales being smaller on the hinder aspect. The toes have the posterior joints clearly 
reticulate, the anterior ones covered with scutes more or less broken up. This 
genus is defined by the coloration of the adult, a character differentiating it at 
once from the rest of the Suline birds. 

The immature plumage of this bird and Piscatrix show great similarity, while 
the adults show just as great a dissimilarity. The evolution of Piscatrix from its 
immature whole broivn plumage passes through the stage when the brown is lost 
on the belly first. The present genus seems to show a peculiar stoppage in this 
course, this bird showing a brown coloration throughout, save the breast and 
abdomen, which are pme white. Though practically the same wing length is 
developed, the tail in Piscatrix has grown much lotger, the metatarsus lengthening 
in Sula. 

53. Sula leucogaster.— BROWN GANNET (BOOBY). 

[Pelecanus leucogaster Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enlum., p. 57, (pref. Dec. lat) 1783: Cayenne. 

Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 78 (pt. xxni.), June 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 228, June 

23id, 1915. 

Pelecanus plvtus Forster, Descr. Anim., ed. Licht., p. 278, (pref. Jan. 1st) 1844 : near New 

Caledonia. 

Sula Uucogasler rogersi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., p. 189, March 20th, 1913 : Bedout 

Island, mid-West Australia. 

Distribution. — Tropical Northern Australia. 

Adult male. — Entire upper-parts, throat, fore-neck, and sides of breast chocolate- 
brown, somewhat darker and more blackish on the primary-quills ; secondaries 
white at the base of the inner webs ; under wng-coverts chocolate-brown, except 
the median series which are white ; breast, abdomen, sides of body, axillaries, and 
under tail-coverts pure white. Bill and skin yellow, spot in front of the cj^e blue ; 
iris silver-grey ; feet pale j'ellow. Total length 710 mm. ; culmen 84, wing 374, 
tail 200, tarsus 43. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but larger. 

Immature and young. — Described by Dr. Macgilli\Tay : The young birds are 
hatched with eyes closed, with onlj an indication of down on head, back, humeral, 
femoral, and each pectoral region. The eyes open very soon, and the birds become 
covered with whitish down at an early stage, the beak and legs being of a pale slaty- 
grey, much the same colour as the naked skin ; the gape also a pale slate colour. 
They grow almost to full size before acquiring any feathers, the first to appear being 



BROWN OANNET (BOOBY). 73 

the primaries, then the scapulars and feathers of head, and secondaries, with the 
tail-feathers, this first feathering being a brownish-grey. This colour- is general 
on head, back and wings, with dirty-greyish breast, abdomen, and under -surface 
of wings when they fly. The young birds hatched out often show great disparity 
in size, one being hatched some days later than the other. This usually results 
in only one surviving, as, in proportion to the number of nests containing a pair 
of eggs, very few seem to rear more than a single young one. The naked skin on 
the face of the adult Brown Gannet shows a good deal of variation in colour, some 
being of a greenish-yellow, others of quite a blue colour. 

Nest. — A small hole scratched in sand, sometimes a few j)ieces of sponge, etc., 
strewn round. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; bluish-white, covered with lime ; axis 53-63 mm., 
diameter 36-46. 

Breeding -season. — July onwards to October (?). 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the tropics, breeding on isolated islands ; 
forms insufficiently studied and the only fact certain is that two subspecies can be 
admitted : S. I. lejicogaster Boddaert, the Atlantic Ocean form, and S. I. plotus 
(Forster) from New Caledonia, for Australian birds which are larger than typical 
birds, and deeper brown coloration above. 

Genus PISCATRIX. 

Piscalrix Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. vi., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original designation) : 
Piscatrix Candida Reich. = Pelecaniis sula Linne. 

Large SuUne birds, comparatively small for this family, with long straight 
bills not hooked but bent at the tip, long thick neck, long wings, short legs and 
long toes, all the toes, including the hind-toe, being connected with a web. 

The bill is longer than the head, rather broad at the base, laterally compressed 
anteriorly ; culmen ridge flattened and separated from laterals by a linear groove 
extending the whole length of the bill and showing no nostrils. The edges of the 
mandibles coarsely serrated, the serrations obsolete towards the base, the rami of 
lower mandible strong and deep enclosing a very narrow mofeathered pouch, the 
featherless tract extending round the base of the mandibles and round the eyes, 
the chin being naked. The culmen is less than half the length of the tail and more 
than twice the length of the metatarsus. The wing is long, but not twice the length 
of the tail ; the first primary is longest. The tail is very long and wedge shaped ; 
it is composed of fourteen or sixteen feathers : probably the latter is the full number, 
the former due to age or moult. It is more than twice the length of the culmen and 
more than half the length of the wing. The legs are short and stout ; the metatarsus 
is coarsely reticulate throughout, the scales smaller on the back ; in length the 
metatarsus is less than half the culmen. The toes are long, the outer one slightly 
exceeding the middle one, which has the claw pectinated ; the outer toe is about one 
and a half times the length of the metatarsus ; all the toes are fully webbed, the 
hind-toe connected to the inner with a web. The toes are reticulate ; this is peculiar, 
as generally in birds even having different metatarsal covering the toes bear regular 
scutes, apparently for ease in bending. This would seem to be the oldei-_t toe-covering, 
but examination of the downy young of this genus shows the toe-covering to be more 
or less reticulate at that stage, the anterior joints showing irregular scutes broken 
up, the posterior joints regular reticulation. The downy young also shows no 
pectination on the middle claw ; in the bill in the same stage a rather distinct hooked 
tip is seen and the nostrils are distinctly shown as linear slits in a broad groove 
between the culmen and lateral edge, while serrations are not yet in evidence on 
the edges of the mandibles. 



74 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



54. Piscatrix sula.— RED-LEGGED GANNET. 

[Pekcanus sula Linnd, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 218, (pref. May 24th) 1766: Ascension Island. 

Extra-liraital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 79 (pt. XXIV.), Sept. 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 225, June 

23rd, 1915. 

Sula rubripes Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 7, April 1st, 1838 : [New South 

Wales =] Raine Island, North Queensland. 

DisTBlBtJTlON. — Queensland, New South Wales {?). 

Adult female. — General colour above and below white tinged -with buff ; greater 
upper wing-coverts, bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills hoary-grey, irjier 
webs of quills paler and becoming wliite towards the base on the secondaries ; under 
wing-coverts white with the exception of the median and greater series which are 
for the most part grey. Bill light horn colour shading to pink at base ; naked 
skin round the eye blue ; gular pouch black, bordered with bright pink ; line across 
the fore-head and rimning along the line of the upper mandible to the gajie pink ; 
eye grey and white ; feet rose colour. Total length 710 mm. ; cuJmen 83, wing 
392, tail 230, tarsus 40. 

Adult male. — Similar to the adult female. 

Immature and Nestling. — "The young are hatched out bUnd, with pale leaden- 
coloured skin, and wth only an indication of do^^'n, distributed in the same waj' as 
in the other species, but with a very dark and shorter bill and dark mask, and this, 
instead of getting lighter as the bird grows older, gets darker, the bill and face of the 
fully-feathered young being almost black. The down on the nestling is also darker 
than in the other two kinds, and the fully-feathered young bird is of a dirty grey 
general colour, especially on the head, back, breast and abdomen, which is white 
in the adult. The bill and mask in the adult is creamy -white, with red border above 
the eyes and under the chin, and red legs. The legs of the mature young are leaden, 
with a tinge of pink. We find two adults, sitting on small young, with the bill and 
mask as in a mature adult, but with the general feathering of immaturity, leading 
us to believe that these birds do not attain to their mature plumage mitil two years 
at least have elapsed, and that they breed during the stage of immaturity." 
(Macgillivray,) 

Nest. — A platform of sticks about 8 to 12 inches across, with the depression 
in the centre about one inch. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one ; gi-ound -colour bluish-white, covered with lime , axis 
56-58 m7n., diameter 38-40. 

Breeding -season. — May and July to September. 

Distribution and forms. — Tropical oceans breeding on isolated islets. Two 
subspecies have been suggested : P. s. sula Linne, from the Atlantic Ocean, breeding 
on Ascension Island ; and P. s. rubripes (Gould) from the Pacific Ocean, breeding 
on Raine Island, North-east Australia, larger in every dimension and probably 
differently coloiu-ed soft parts. 

Genus PARASULA. 

Parasula Mathews, Au.stral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 55, Oct. 23rd, 1913. Type 
(by original designation) : Sula dactylatra bcduuii Mathews. 

Large Suline birds with long bill, medium thick neck, long wings, long tail, 
stout short legs and long toes, totipalmate ; the base of the jaws and chin naked, 
but no naked strip do^vn centre of throat. 

In general structural characters this genus agrees with the succeeding, differing 



MASKED GANNET. 75^ 

in the naked bases of the jaws and chin, different proportions of wings, tail, culmen, 
etc., different number of tail-feathers and the metatarsal and toe-covering. The 
culmen is longer than the head, more than half the length of the wing, but less than 
twice the length of the metatarsus. The tail is wedge shaped, consisting of sixteen 
feathers, the central feathers broader, the outside ones not so short as in Sulita, 
and the length less than half that of the wing. The legs are short and stout and 
more than half the length of the culmen ; the metatarsus coarsely reticulate on the 
front and sides, smaller scales behind but the scales not so fine as in the preceding 
genus ; the toe-covering consists of reticulations which can be traced in the juveniles 
as scutes irregularly broken up, but even in the downy yomig no regular scutes 
are preserved. The toes aje long, the middle claw strongly pectinated. 

This genus has a tropfcal distribution and would probably claim nearer relation- 
ship to Sulita than either Piscatrix or Sula. This should demand the attention of 
future investigators. 

55. Parasula dactylatra.— MASKED GANNET. 

[Siila dactylatra Lesson, Traite d'Om., 8' livr., p. 601, Jime 11th, 1831 (ex Voy Coqu., Vol. I., 
p. 494, April 1828) : Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 77 (pt. xxiii.), June 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 227, June 
23rd, 1915. 

Sula personala Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1846, p. 21, May: Raine Island, North- 
Queensland. 

Sula dactylatra bedoittiM&the-ws. Austral Av.Ree., Vol. I., pt. 8, p. 189, March 20th, 1913: 
Bedout Island, mid-West Australia. 

Distribution.- — Tropical Northern Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour above and below pure white ; bastard-wing, 
primary -coverts and quills chocolate-brown, somewhat paler on the secondaries ; 
inner webs of primaries hoary or silvery-grey, becoming white on the inner webs 
of the secondaries towards the base ; tail-feathers also chocolate-brown with white 
shafts. Bill light yellowish-honi ; base and skin dull purplish-blue ; iris yellow ; 
feet blue. Total length 840 mm. ; culmen 99, wing 417, tail 177, tarsus 56. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but larger. Total length 860 mm. ; 
culmen 105, wing 429, tarsus 59. 

Immature. — Head, neck and breast white, mottled with brown, and the wings 
brown. 

Downy young. — Pm'e white in colour. 

Nest. — None made. 

Eggs. — Almost invariably two in number ; bluish-white, covered with lime ; 
axis 64-69 mm., diameter 44-46. 

Breeding-season. — July onwards to December and later according to season 
and locality. 

Distribution and forms. — Atlantic, Lidian and Pacific Oceans, throughout the 
tropics only. Rothschild in 1915 proposed five subspecies, as follows : P. d. dactylatra 
(Lesson) from Ascension Island and South Atlantic Coasts with bill homy blue-grey, 
very slender, feet and legs yeUow ; P. d. melanops Hartlaub, from Western Indian 
Ocean, with bill greenish-yellow, slender, feet and legs slaty-blue to dull black ; 
P. d. personata (Gould) from .Western Pacific, wdth bill yellow, very stout and lai^e, 
feet and legs greenish-blue ; P. d. californica Rothschild, from Coasts of California 
and Central America, vnth bill bright yellow, very thick, feet and legs orange ; and 
P. d. granti Rothschild, with bill red and feet bluish-green, from Galapagos Islands. 
To which should be added : P. d. bedouti Mathews from Eedout Island, mid-West 
Australia, with a much smaller bill than P. d. j^ersonata C4ould. 



76 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Genus SULITA. 

Sulila Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 123, Jan. 28th. 1915. Type (by- 
original designation) : Pelecamw bassanus Linne. 

JlforHs Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Oraith., p. 63, April 14th, 1816. Type (by monotypy) : 
"Fon dc Bn-ixan " = P. bassanus Linn^. 
Not Mfirum Bolten, Mus. Bolten, p. 53, 1798. 

Moris Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, p. 59, Dec. 1817. Type (by monotj'py) : P. bassaniM 
Linn(^. Mis-spelling only. 

PiajMJtw Reiclienbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. VI., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original designation): 
Planctie major — Pelecaniis bassanus Linn6. 
Not Curtis, Entora. Mag., Ser. I., Vol. II., p. 188, Jan. 1833. 

Largest Suline birds with long Suline bill, medium thick neck, long wings, 
stout body, long tail, short legs and long toes, totipalmate. 

The bill is long, longer than the head, straight not hooked, but slightly bent 
at the tip which is sharp ; bill rather broad at the base, but laterally compressed 
anteriorly, the culmen ridge flattened and separated from the laterals by a deep 
linear groove extending the whole length of the bill and showing no nostrils in the 
adult stage. The edges of the mandibles are finely serrated ; the rami of the lower 
mandible strong and deep, enclosing a very narrow triangular unfeathered tract, 
which extends linearly a short way down the throat. In front of the eyes and below, 
bordering the gape, bare skin is present, but the cheeks and chin, save for the narrow 
strip above mentioned, are feathered. The neck is of mediimi length and thick. 
The wing is long, with pointed feathers scalloped towards their tips, the first primary 
longest, the remainder rather rapidly shortening. The tail is long, about half the 
length of the wing and more than twice the length of the culmen ; it is composed 
of twelve feathers, being wedge shaped, the two middle feathers very pointed. 
The legs are short, but comparatively long and slender ; the metatarsus is more 
than half the length of the culmen. The metatarsal covering is very peculiar, as 
figured. It should be noted that the hind-toe is very short in comparison with the 
hind-toe of Sula and the covering is exactly the opposite. Thus, whereas the three 
front toes are very regularly covered with scutes, the hind-toe shows a reticulate face. 
In the genus Sula the three front toes are reticulately covered, whereas the hind -toe 
shows fairly regular scutes. The nestling with egg-tooth still present on the culmen 
has the leg-covering as seen in the adult. 

56. Sulita serrator.— GANNET. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 76 (pt. XXIV.), Sept. 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 226, June 

23rd, 1915. 

Sula serrator Gray, Dieffenbach's Travels New Zeal., Vol. II., App., p. 20, (middle Jan.) 

1843, as sjTionym of S. australis Gould : Tasmanian Seas. 

Sula australis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond. ), 1840, p. 177, July 1841 : Tasmanian Seas. 

Not of Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 104, Feb. I8th, 1826. 

Sula serrator dyotti Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 63, Oct. 23rd, 

1913: Tasmania. 

Distribution. — Extra-tropical Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour above and below pure white ; crown of head, sides 
of face, and upper hind-neck golden-buff ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills 
dark greyish -brown, jialer and more hoary-grey on the inner webs of the quiUs : the 
latter have white shafts towards the base ; the four middle tail-feathers greyish- 
brown with white shafts, remainder of tail wliite. Bill slate, bare skin on the face 
slate-blue ; iris silver-grey, feet dull greenish-black with the toes light green. Total 
length 980 mm. ; culmen 89, wing 470, tail 240, tarsus 60. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — General colour above greyish-brown, all the feathers tipped with 



GANNET. 77 

white, wedge shaped oti the back, scai^ulars, -wing-coverts, head, and hind-neck, 
and edged with white at the tips of the primary -quills ; under -surface for the most 
part white, with some brown feathers on the throat, fore-neck, and tliighs. 

Nestling. — Covered with white down. 

Nest. — -Composed on the ground, shaped like a flat cone from 4 to 6 inches high. 
Egg cavity from 6 to 8 inches by one to two deep. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one ; lime covered ; axis 78 to 82 mm., diameter 49-50. 

Breeding-season. — October to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Extra-tropical Australia and New Zealand. The 
Australian birds have the colom-ing of the head and neck of a much lighter shade 
than the Neozelanic birds and consequently we must admit two subspecies : S. s. 
serrator Gray, from Tasmanian seas, and »S'. s. rex subsp. nov. from New Zealand. 
This alteration is necessary through the fact that Gray quoted S. serrator as a 
synonym of S. australis Gould, and when the latter name proved to be preoccupied 
the former comes into service in the same connection and with the same type 
locality. 

Order LARI. 

This order is a complex of sea and wading birds of different aspects and not 
easily circumscribed owing to their development in different directions, some having 
become almost entirely seabirds, others partly seabirds, and others purely land 
birds. 

We subdivide the order into seven suborders, of which three have no repre- 
sentatives in the Australian fauna These are the Alciformes, Colymbiformes and 
Chionidiformes, the former two being confined to the Arctic and North Temperate 
zones, the latter including two families— one, the Chionididse, of sub-antarctic distri- 
bution ; the other, the Dromadidse, of tropical range, and probably with little real 
affinity. As to the Alciformes and Colymbiformes, both of which are restricted to 
the Arctic and North Temperate Regions, we may quote Ridgway, who concluded : 
" Undoubtedly these are closely related ; but the evidence seems to point to a closer 
relationship of the former to the Gulls than to the latter." We suggest that their 
development has been from a Larine ancestor on somewhat similar lines, the differ- 
ences observed being such as would be satisfied by such an hj^othesis. Probably 
the Skuas are almost as far away, but their line of descent has somewhat approxi- 
mated to that of their Laiine relations, with which they are associated. The litera- 
ture of the anatomy and osteology of the Chionidiformes is vast and the results appear 
to be that both are somewhat generalised forms agreeing in items with the suggested 
ancestral Limicoline form. They are as peculiar in anatomical details as they are 
superficially, and the external items appear just as suggestive as any internal ones. 

The whole group shows so much variation in the deeper -seated features that 
no diagnosis can be drawn up covering the series, every character showing exceptions. 
Thus the basic position has been denied the Larine forms, as basipterygoid processes 
are absent in the adult, though present in the juvenile, while they persist in the adult 
in the Charadriine group ; such an argument seems futile in view of its variation in 
this order. 

Suborder PHAETHONTIFORMES. 

This suborder consists of seabirds with straight heavy bills, long wings, wedge- 
shaped tails with two very elongated and attenuated central feathers and short legs 
with the four toes webbed, the middle toe longest, and the hind-toe small. The 
suborder covers the only family of few species, formerly referred to a single genus, 
but now this is aclaiowledged as incorrect. These are all tropical in habitat, ranging 



78 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

through all the oceans, breeding on few rocky and desolate islands, and never in 
great numbers though somewhat gregariously. 

Three distinct genera can be recognised : typical Phaethon with barred plumage 
in the adult as in the juvenile and the tail with fourteen feathers ; Scceophaethon, 
birds as large with similar juvenile plumage but in the adult a uniform silky-white 
to pink, with sixteen tail-feathers, the central ones being very elongated and 
attenuated ; and Leptophaiihon , smaller birds, also barred as immature but uniform 
white or even orange in the adult with only twelve tail-feathers, the tail proper 
being longer proportionately than in the former genera, the long elongated central 
feathers broader. 

Osteologically, the palate has commonly been recorded as desmognathous, but 
as the young shows it to be schizognathous, the desmognathism is spurious ; similarly 
the nasals are superficially holorhinal, but again it is pseudo-holorhiny, the juvenile 
showing its development from a schizorliinal form. They have no basipterygoid 
processes, but there is an imperfect nasal hinge present in the adult, which is absent 
in the nestling. The lachrymals are free and there are apparently rudiments of an 
uncinate. The cervical vertebrae are given as twelve or thirteen by some writers, 
fifteen by others, while the dorsals are heteroccelous. The sternum has the carina 
produced forwards but it terminates at the posterior extremity as is usual in this 
group, and unlike that of the Steganopods ; the posterior border of the sternum is 
doubly notched and the furculum does not articulate with the acrocoracoid and the 
clavicles are attached to the keel behind the extremity; the pelvis is also quite 
unlike that of a Steganopod while the humerus, ulna and manus are quite Limicoline 
and different from those of the Steganopods ; the leg bones are also distinctive 
when compared with those of the Steganopods and show generalised structure 
comparable with that of Limicoline forms. The vomer is divided posteriorly, a 
fact of which the importance is unknown but which should be noted here. There 
are two carotids present, while the digestive system does not appear to have been 
specially studied, being orthoccelous and pericoelous, caeca being present. The 
leg muscle formula is AXY — or +. as good observers have had different results, 
probably working with different species which are here referred to distinct genera ; 
a peculiar item is the lack of the tendinous loop for the biceps to pass through. In 
the wing there is no expansor secundariorum. The oil gland is present and tufted 
with six orifices, while the aftershaftis apparently lacking, and the wing aquincubital. 
The pterylosis is fairly uniform and the nestling is covered with thick down soon 
after its birth. 

As noted previously we would refer Prophaethon shrubsolei Andrews from the 
London Clay to the Steganopod series and would not consider it a direct ancestral 
form of the present forms. 



Family PHAETHONTIDiE. 

Wo have allowed three genera as differentiated above in this family M'hose 
limits are equivalent to those of the suborder. The diverse results recorded by 
anatomists and osteologists are very probably due to the fact that such workers 
simply use any species as " typical " of the group \vithout investigation as to the 
accuracy of their actions. Thus Phaethon flavirostris has been commonly used and 
difierences have been noted in P. rubricanda, and these two we refer to different 
genera. We have tabulated the general osteology and anatomy of the species 
and have been compelled to refer them to the basic position in the order Lari, and 
separate them from the Steganopodous birds, from which they differ in everj' detail, 
externally and internally, as has been admitted by every anatomist and osteologist 
who has studied the group. 



WHITE-TAILED TROPIC BIRD. 79 



Genus LEPTOPHAETHON. 

Leptophaethon Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 56, Oct.. 23rd, 1913. 
Tj-]3e (by original designation) : Phaethon lepturus dorothecB Mathews. 

Lepturus Beichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. vii.. 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original designa- 
tion) : L. edwardsii Reichenbach = Phaethon lepturus Daudin. 
Not Brisson, Ornith., Vol. VI., p. 479, 1760, nor Swainson 1838. 

Small Phaethons witli strong bills, long wings, long tail, small legs and feet. 
In general features the species of this genus agree with Scwophaethon, but they 
differ appreciably in size. Pi'oportionately the wing and tail are much longer, the 
tail being differently formed. 

In Scceophmlhon the culmen is more than half the length of the tail without the 
central pair of tail-feathers, which is less than one-third the length of the wing. Li 
Leptophaethon the culmen is less than half the length of the tail as above, which is 
more than one-third the length of the wing. The central tail-feathers in Lepto- 
phaethon are very long with the webs normal and fairly wide, and the pair next to 
the central pair are long and are twice the length of the oustide pair, the tail being 
thus strongly wedge shaped. Li Scceophaethon the central pair are very long, but 
the webs are degenerate and are scarcely broader than the shaft, while the tail 
otherwise is wedge shaped but without much gradation. The metatarsus is less 
than a quarter of the length of the tail in Leptophaethon, while in Scctophaethon it is 
more than one-third. The middle toe is never pectinate in this family. 

57. Leptophaethon lepturus.— WHITE-TAILED TROPIC BIRD. 

[Phaeton lepturus Daudin, in Hist. Nat. Buffon, ed. Didot, Quadr., Vol. XIV., p. 319 (1799 =] 

Oct. 1802: He de France = Mauritius. Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 232, June 23rd, 1915. 

Phaethon lepturtis dorothew Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 7, Aug. 2nd, 1913: 

Queensland. 

Distribution. — Queensland, breeding on Fiji Islands (?) 

Adult male. — General colour above and below pearl-white ; a circular black line 
in front and over the eye which broadens out behind the latter ; the feathers of the 
hinder crown and nape have dark bases ; median upper wing -coverts black ; primary- 
quills black on the outer web and, including the shafts, white at the tips, the black 
decreasing on the inner ones which have only a black shaft ; outer secondaries white, 
inner ones black and white ; scapulars white, subterminally black with white edges ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts white with black bases and black shafts ; tail-feathers 
white mth black shafts ; feathers on the sides of the rmnp black with white margins. 
Bill red ; eyes white ; feet black ; tibia j^ellowish. Total length 400 mm. ; culmen 
44, wing 281, tail 115, midcUe feathers 380, tarsus 24. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature and Nestling. — Not described. 

Nest. — A hole or hollow of a rock or tree stump. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour buff ; freckled all over with purplish -brown ; 
axis 57 mm., diameter 44. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the oceans within the tropics, breeding 
on isolated islets. Three forms were recognised by Mathews in 1913, and no amend- 
ment of consequence has since been provided, thus : L. I. lepturus (Daudin) from the 
Indian Ocean breeding at Mauritius and Roclriguez ; L. I. dorothece (Mathews) from 
the East Australian Seas and the Pacific Ocean, in its smaller size throughout ; 
average : culmen 45, wing 258, tail 105 mm. ; average of typical birds : culmen 50, 



80 A MANUAL OF THE BIBDS OF AUSTBALIA. 

wing 275, tail 120 mm. ; and L. I. ascensionis Mathews, from the Atlantic Ocean, 
brewling at Ascension Island and Fernando Noronha, also smaller than the typical ; 
average measurements : culmen 51, wing 260-265, tail 110 mm. 

Genus SC.<EOPHAETHON. 

ScfCop/iaeCion Mathews, Austral Av. Rpc, Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 56, Oct. 23icl, 1913. 

Type (by original designation) : Pha'elhon rubricamla wcstralis Mathews. 

Phcenicurus Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLI., p. 1115, (end Dec.) 1855. 

Type (by monotypy) : P. riibricauda Boddaert. 

Not Forster, SjTiopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, p. 16, (Dec.) 1817. 

Large Phaethontid birds, with short deep, laterally compressed, not hooked, 
bills, long wings, short tails with extraordinary elongated central pair of tail-feathers, 
short legs and feet, the four toes connected with a web. 

The bill is longer than the head, not hooked, but the culmen arched, deep, 
much laterally compressed, the edges of both mandibles coarsely serrated. The 
nostrils arc open linear slits placed high up near the base of the culmen, the feathering 
running back from the nostrils to the gape at a very acute angle ; the gape is wide ; 
the rami of the lower mandible are thick, placed close together, enclosing a very 
narrow feathered tract, and fusing at two-thirds the length of the mandible ; the 
culmen chord is twice the length of the metatarsus. The wing is long with the first 
primary longest. The tail is short, slightly wedge shaped, composed of sixteen 
feathers, the central pair very much elongated, the webs very much diminished : 
this pair are about six times the length of the culmen, while the second pair are less 
than twice its length. The legs are short and thick, the toes short and rough. The 
metatarsus is less than half the length of the culmen and is covered with hexagonal 
roughened scutes, the scutes much smaller at the back. The toes are all connected 
with webs, but are nothing like the feet of any Steganopod. That is, the 
middle toe is longest, the outer toe longer than the inner, while the hind-toe is very 
small and placed posteriorly. The scaling of the toes consists of regular scutes. 

58. Scceophaethon rubricauda.— RED-TAILED TROPIC BIRD. 

[Phaeton rubricauda Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enluin., p. 57, (pref. Dec. 1st) 1783: Mauritius. 

Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 73 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. IV., pt. 3, pi. 231, June 

23rd, 1915. 

Phaethon iwvmhollandice Brandt, Mem. I'Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., Ser. VI., Vol. V., pt. 11., 

p. 272, 1840 : Lord Howe Island. 

Phaethon rubricauda erubeacens Rothschild, Avifauna Laysan, pt. in., p. 296, Dec. 1900 : 

Kermadec Islands. 

Phaethon rubricauda weslralis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 4, p. 88, Sept. 18th, 

1912 : [Rottnest Island] = Houtman's Abrolhos, West Australia. 

Distribution. — Queensland, South and West Australia. 

Adult male. — General coloiu- both above and below silky-white with a pinky 
hue ; the feathers on the crown and nape have dark bases ; a black patch in front 
and behind the eye ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, greater coverts and quills 
white tinged with pink, all the feathers having conspicuously black shafts ; some 
of the innermost secondaries black broadly margined with white ; the long flank 
feathers white, lead-grey on the inner portion of the outer webs, and those on the 
sides of the rump grey, broadly margined with white ; tail-feathers pinkj--white with 
black shafts becoming red on the elongated middle feathers. Bill orange-red, 
nostrils brown ; feet and upper part of legs faint blue, lest black. Total length 
520 mm. ; culmen 67, wing 343, tail 92, middle feathers 442, tarsus 32. 



RED-TAILED TROPIC BIRD. 81 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Tlie feathers of the head black with broad white tips, giving a 
scalloped appearance ; the fore-head wliite, a square black spot in front and romid 
the eye ; the feathers of the back of the head, neck, sides of neck, mantle, rump 
and uj)per tail-coverts barred brownish -black and white, a white tip and three bars, 
shorter feathers wth two bars only ; axillaries similarly barred ; and lesser wing- 
coverts with bars as also scapulars ; primaries white with black shaft and black line 
alongside, developing into an elongate spot on second and third primaries and 
decreasing on fourth and fifth so that spot alone is seen ; the primary -co verts are 
similarly marked ; secondaries and secondary coverts pure pinkish-white as are 
the major coverts ; the tertials almost all black with a white border, the outermost 
two showing semi-barring indicating method of evolution of white feathers ; all the 
inside of the wing pure pinkish-white as all the under -smiace including the under -tail 
coverts, but a few flank feathers are obsoletely barred ; the tail is wedge shaped with 
a slight attenuation of the central feathers which show black tips ; the other tail- 
feathers have three spots on outer webs, remnants of bars, otherwise all white with 
black shafts. Bill black; eyes brown; feet yellowish -wliite and black. 

A bird a little older has the tail white and the axillaries white and the markings 
less pronomiced, the bill showing pale brownish. 

Nestling. — Covered with whitish or greyish down. 

Nest. — A depression in the sand, jilaced under a shelving rock. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one ; reddish-white covered more at the top end with i^urplish- 
black streaks and brownish-red spots and blotches ; or covered similarlj' all over ; 
axis 68-70 mm., diameter 48^9. 

Breeding-season. — July. (Raine Island.) November, December and January. 
(Kermadec, Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands.) 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to the Lidian and Pacific Oceans, breeding 
on isolated islets. Six subspecies were recogixised by Mathews in 1915, as follows : 
iS. r. rubricauda (Boddaert) from Mauritius ; 8. r. westralis Mathews, from West 
Australia and Christmas Island, Ladian Ocean, with a rosier coloration, smaller bill 
and longer ^ving, bill 68 against 76-80 mm. and wing 347 versus 320-336 mm. ; S. r. 
novcehollandice Brandt from the Kermadecs, Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, and 
Raine Island with a deep rose coloration with a heavier bill and longer wing than 
typical form ; S. r. melanorhynchus (Gmelin) from Turtle, Palmerston and Society 
Islands, differing in lacking the rose colouring ; S. r. rothschildi Mathews from Laysan 
and Niihau with a shorter, weaker bill, shorter wing and pure white coloration ; and 
S. r. brevirostris Mathews from the Bonin Islands, with a very short bill 56-59 mm. 
only, and whiter coloration. 

Suborder LARIFORMES. ' 
Four families of web-footed seabirds constitute this suborder, of which the 
most peculiar, the Rynchopidse, does not occur in Australia, being represented in 
Tropical America, Africa and India by distinct but very closely related species. 
The other three have somewhat peculiar distribution each in a different mamier ; 
thus, the Stemidse include two groups which will probably later claim family rank, 
viz., the Terns and the Noddies. Externally they differ, but from the recorded 
anatomical items they show even more marked internal differences but as yet little 
research has been done in this direction. Together they have somewhat delicate 
pointed bills, delicate bodies, very long wings, generally very long forked tails and 
small legs and webbed feet, the webbing varying in degree. The Noddies are 
separable by their heavier bills, stouter build, shorter wings, though still long, 
broader double-forked tails and stouter legs with fully webbed toes. The Laridae 
are distinguished by their differently formed heavier, somewhat hooked, bills, much 
heavier build, shorter wings, shorter square (a couple of species have semi-forked) 

G 



82 A MANUAL OF THE BIBDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

tails and stouter legs and always fully webbed feet. They vary in size, from 
species as small as a Tern to very large birds, the majority being larger than the 
majority of Tems and Noddies. The Stercorariidae is a family consisting of few 
species of different facies but absolutely close relationship. The bill is somewhat 
Gull-like but easily distinguished by havnng a cere-like covering over the nostrils ; 
the largest species are heavily built, but strong flj-ers, and have long A\ings and long 
square tail and powerful legs and fully webbed toes, while the least species is delicately 
built with long wings and long tail with very elongated central feathers and compara- 
tively delicate legs and feet similar in formation to the others, as is also the bill 
but more gracefully formed. 

Osteologicall}', in the skull the palate is schizognathous and the nasals .schizorhina! , 
but in the Stercorariidce there is a distinct tendency towards pseudo-holorhiny, 
while there are no basipterygoid iJroceiises or occipital fontanelles (which are, however, 
l^resent in juveniles) and well-marked supraorbital grooves. The lachrjanals are 
firmly united with prefrontals while the furcula shows a hj-pocleidium. The cervical 
vertebrae number fifteen, the dorsals opisthocoelous, and the sternum is strongly 
keeled, the posterior border generally doubly notched. Both carotid arteries are 
present and the syrinx is typically tracheo-bronchial with one pair of intrinsic muscles, 
while the digestive system is periccelous and orthoca?lous, ca^ca present and variable 
in size. The leg muscle formula is also variable, the biceps slip present but the 
expansor secundariorum present or absent. The oil gland is alwaj-s i^resent and 
tufted, an aftershaft present and the wing aquincubital. The pterylosis of a few 
species has been studied. The young are hatched covered with do^^^l, and we suggest 
there is more of value in the study of the do^vnj' nestlings than has been allowed, 
and that they provide good clues to the phylogeny of the groups. The Terns have 
do^nly young showing colour patterns of more than one distinct style, and this indi- 
cates the heterogeneous nature of the commonly admitted groupings. Thus the 
nestlings of some of the Tenis recall those of the Gulls very clearly and we find 
that these species show internal items of resemblance. 

Fossils have been described as referable to the present suborder, but little of 
real value has yet been discovered, the characters used for identification being 
variable ones. 

Family STERNID^. 

We have included here, the Tems and Noddies, but are doubtful as to the 
association of these two groups. We have noted above the superficial distinctions 
and may here add a few of the internal characters. The leg nuu cle formula of the 
Tems is always ABXY-(- (an instance of the loss of the accessorj' femoro-caudal 
has been recorded in connection with a temlet), while in the Noddies some species 
agree, while Leiicanousha,s lost the accessory femoro-caudal. The exiiansor secund- 
ariorum is absent in the Tems, but it is i^resent in some of the Noddies. The cseca 
are rudimentaiy but in Leucanous the caeca are long. The digestive system is 
periccelous in the Tems but not definitely stated in detail for the Noddies. 

Genus CHLIDONIAS. 

Cklidonias Rafinesque, Kentucky Gazette, Vol. 36 (new ser., Vol. I.), No. 8, Feb. 21st, 1822 

[3]. Type (by monotj-py) : Sterna mclanops Rfsque. = Sterna surinamemis Gmelin (cf. 

Rhoads, Auk, Vol. XXIX., p. 197, April 1912). 

Hydrochelidon Boie, Isis, heft 5, col. 563, May 1822. Tj-pe (by subsequent designation. 

Gray, p. 100, 1841) : Sterna nigra Linn^. 

Viralia Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. Xlll., pt. I., p. 166, Feb. 18th, 1826 (ex Leach 

MS.). T>-pe (by subsequent designation, Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., p. 554, 1862) : 

Sterna nigra Linn^. 

Pelodes Kaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch, Nat. Syst., p. 107, (pref. April) 1829. Type (by 

nionotypy) : Sterna leucopareia Temminck. 



WHISKERED TEEN. 83 

Small Tems with .slender, short bills, long wings, small legs and feet, and short 
tails. The diagnostic features of this genus are the short tail and deeply-incised 
webs of the feet. The metatarsus is a little less than the middle toe alone, and is 
onlj' about two-thirds the length of the culmen. The tail is less than half the length 
of the wing, and is slightly forked, the lateral feathers not developed into streamers 
but still the longest. The legs and feet are small, the tarsus shorter than the middle 
toe ; the tarsal covering consists of horizontal scutes in front, rest of leg reticulately 
scutella.ted ; the webs deeply incised, the outer less than the inner ; the inner toe 
shorter than outer, which is less than the middle one ; hind-toe fairly long. The 
species C. leucopareia has a more powerful bill and the webs of the feet more deeply 
incised, and for it the genus Pelodes was provided. 

Coloration black above and below. 

59. Chlidonias leucopareia.— WHISKERED TERN. 

[Sterna leucopareia Temminck, Manuel d'Om., 2nd ed.. Vol. II., p. 746, before Oct. 2Ist, 1820 : 

Hungary, Europe. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 31 (pt. XXXIII.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3,j3l. 103, Sept. 

20th, 1912. 

HydrocheUdon fluvtatilis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1842, p. 140, Feb. 1843 : Interior 

of New South Wales. 

HydrocheUdon, leucopareia rogersi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 207, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution.— Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour pale grey including the back, wings and tail ; 
outer web of fir.st primary dark brown, and showing scarcely any grey, the remainder 
silvery-grey on the outer webs, darker at the tijjs, and on the inner webs near the 
shafts as also the inner margins ; basal portion of inner webs white, which extends 
in a narrow line towards the tips of the feathers ; inner jirimaries and secondaries 
pale giey with white on the inner webs ; tail pale grey, the outer feathers margined 
and tipped with white ; head and hind-neck black ; sides of face, throat, under 
tail-coverts white, like the axillaries and under wing-coverts ; fore-neck pale grey ; 
breast and abdomen dark slate colour, more intense on the latter ; bill dusky-red, 
base of upper mandible black, tinged wth red ; iris blackish -brown ; feet and legs 
red. Total length 274 mm. ; culmen 31, wing 231, tail 90, tarsus 23. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but paler on the upper -parts and the 
dark slate-grey of the mider parts restricted to the abdomen, the breast being similar 
to the fore-neck. Total length, " in the flesh, 250 mm." ; culmen 28, wing 213, tail 
70, tarsus 22. 

Adult male in winter. — Differs from the adult male in breeding-plumage, in 
having the cro^vn of the head white with minute pear-shaped black spots, which 
increase in size on the nape ; the ear-coverts dusky-black, and the entire under- 
surface pure wliite. A male example, which we do not consider to be quite adult, 
appears to be just assuming the breeding-plumage, and has the head black with 
the remains of white feathers intermixed, and the dark lead-grey of the breast 
approaching. 

Young. — Differs from the adult in having the feathers of the back white, tipped 
with dark brown and edged with ochreous-buff ; scapulars and innermost secondaries 
dark brown edged and barred with ochreous-buff like the inner greater wing-coverts ; 
tips of tail-feathers brown, edged with white ; head dark brown wth ochreous-buff 
tips to the feathers ; fore-head white, tinged with buff ; lores white, tipped with 
dark brown ; an indicated band of buff on the middle of the abdomen, which appears 
to be the remains of a younger plumage. 

Immature. — Almost pure white below with only a tinge of grey on the abdomen ; 

G 2 



84 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

more or less streaked with dusky on the lesser wing-coverts ; head black with a 
mixture of white on the fore-head ; feathers of the nape black, with a bro%\iiish tinge. 

Immature. — With remnants of down on head, back, throat, flanks, etc. All 
under-surface jjure white, rusty down on throat and blackish dovm on sides of neck, 
and rusty down on flanks. Fore-head black down, top of head rufous-brown down 
with black blotches ; upper back black with minute rufous tips, scapulars blackish - 
brown with broad rufous edges, back feathers coming grey with rufous do^vn still 
adhering ; wing-coverts grey with scant rufous tips ; ijrimaries dark grey with faint 
browiish tipping ; tail-feathers grey with huffish tips. Bill brownish -dusky, fleshy 
at base of lower mandible ; iris brown ; legs dusky-red. 

ls!estling in down. — Rufous-bufE above with black blotches on back of neck 
and on back, smaller black spots on toji of head ; blotches appear to be ranged in 
series of three ; one of which at base of winglet tip is rufous ; fore-head deeper 
rufous with black s])ot at base of bill, chin wliite, throat and sides of neck black, 
breast white, rest of under parts ta\vny, centre of abdomen paler. 

Nest. — Built of aquatic vegetation of large size and well shajjed, floating in 
swamps. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three ; ground-colour greyish-olive to brownish -olive, sometimes 
dark stone, blotched and spotted with dark brown, often massing at the larger end, 
with underlying spots of grey ; axis 35-39, diameter 26-28 nmi. 

Breeding -season. — October to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the Old World. Mathews has separated 
eight subspecies, as follows : Chlidonias leucopareia leucopareia (Temminck) from 
South and Central Europe and North Africa (this may be further subdivided when 
a fair amomit of material is studied) ; C. I. iyidica (Stephens) from Lidia, differing 
in the obviously darker mider coloration, especially of the upper-breast, in breeding- 
plumage and smaller size (here also there may be more than one subspecies later 
admitted) ; G. I. leggei (Mathews) from Ceylon, small as the preceding but notably- 
paler underneath ; C. I. delalandii (Mathews) ex Bonaparte MS., from South Africa, 
easily separable from the tj-pical form in their darker coloration above, ill-defined 
black cap. dark throat, pronounced white " moustache " and dark grey axillaries, 
they are larger than the darkest Iiidian birds ; according to the Rules as now 
rendered the name delalandii may be considered invalid, so we propose for this race 
C. I. sclateri nom. nov. ; C. I. swinhoei (Mathews) from Foochow district, China, agree- 
ing with C. I. indica in under coloration but with a lighter, almost white, throat and 
smaller in size ; C. I. javanica (Horsfield) from Java, for Siamese and Pegu birds, 
paler than Indian ones, but features not well differentiated yet ; C I. fluviatilis 
(Gould) from East Australia, in its very light upper coloration and notably paler 
mider-surface with ill-defined moustache ; and C. I. rogersi (Mathews) from North- 
west and North Australia in its paler coloration, above and below, weaker bill and 
white axillaries. Nothing has since been WTitten about this species. 

6o. Chlidonias leucoptera.— WHITE-WINGED MARSH-TERN. 

[Sterna leucoptera Temminck, Manuel d'Orn., p. 483, 1815 (pref. 1814) : Mediterranean Sea. 

Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 102, Sept. 20th, 1912. 

Sterna grisea Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lend.), Vol. XIII., pt. I., p. 199, 1821 : Java. 

Hydrochelidon leucoptera belli Mathews, Austral. Av. Rec., Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 55, April 7th, 

1916 : Lord Howe Island. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia. Extra-limital. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Head and neck all round glossy-black like 
the breast, abdomen, sides of body, axiUaries, and mider wing-coverts ; spot below 
the eye white ; back and scajjulars dull slatj'-black ; lesser wing-coverts white ; 




1. Caspian Tern. 2, 3, White Tern. 4, Wliite-capped Nmldy. .5, Lesser Crested Tern. 

6, Roseate Tern. 7, CJrey Noddy. S, GiiU-billed Tern. 9, Noddy. 10, White-faced Temlet. 

11. 12, Snotv Tern. 13, Rridled Tern. 



WHITE-WINGBD MARSH-TERN. 85 

bastard-wiig and primary-coverts pale silvery-grey, becoming darker grey on the 
median and greater coverts, the innermost greater series dark slate-grey ; primary- 
quills silvery -gi-ey along the outer webs, imier webs dark brown near the shafts with 
the remainder white ; inner primaries almost entirely silvery-grey ; secondaries 
slate-grey, becoming much darker on the innermost feathers ; upper and under 
tail-coverts, as also the tail, wliite ; bill red ; iris brown ; feet red. Total length 
221 mm. ; culmen 24, wing 217, tail 73, tarsus 21. 

Adult female in breeding -'plumage. — Similar to the adult male, but duller black 
on the back, breast, abodmen, sides of body, and imder wing-coverts, the latter 
inclining to white on the greater series ; the tail shows a distinct grey wash, while 
the measuremeiits are distinctly smaller. 

Adult in vinter-q:)lumage. — The fore-head, back of the neck, all the imder -surface 
and under wing-coverts wliite ; back of the head and nape dark brown with wliitish 
tips ; the feathers of the upjier back are dark brownish-grey ; the tips lighter, and 
their bases white ; the back lighter ; the rump and ujiper tail-coverts light grej' ; 
the tail-feathers are grey, the outer whitish on the inner webs ; there is a distinctly 
defined black spot in front of the ej'e, and the ear -coverts form a dark brown patch ; 
the primaries are all worn dull brown, while the scapulars and median wing-coverts 
retain their grey colour. 

This description is drawn up from one of Gould's Cape York specimens, and 
agrees very closely Avith the type of Sterna grisea Horsfield from Java. Another 
bird collected on the voyage of the Baitlesnake, " Female, Cape York, Nov. 9th, 
1849," agrees, but it is not so worn ; there are fewer white tips to the back of the 
head feathers, and the two outer tail-feathers are pure white, the rest whitish on 
the inner web. 

Another bird collected by Elsey, " Victoria River, March '56, Male," is in the 
same plumage, and has the additional information on the label, " Iris blue-black." 

Adult in change. — The feathers on the lower back are coming blackish ; the 
rump, upper tail-coverts, and the tail are all white, save the fifth pair from the 
outside which are still grey ; the second outside pair and the centre pair are only 
half grown ; about half the scapulars and secondaiies are new black-grey feathers ; 
all the primaries are new grej^ feathers while the outside half of the inner wing- 
coverts are new black feathers ; the inside half and the whole of the under-surface 
are still pure white, while the head and neck coloration is still as in the winter- 
plumage. This description is drav.-n up from another of Gould's Cape York specimens. 

Another bird collected by Elsej', " Victoria River, March 1856, Female," is in 
much the same plumage, but the tail contains fewer white feathers ; the head is 
missing, and on the label is noted, " Stomach contained grasshoppers." 

The preceding descriptions taken from specimens procured in Australia may be 
supplemented by accounts of fiu-thcr plumage changes as these may occur. 

A bird from the Andamans, April 16th, 1879, shows a further change than the 
preceding ; the whole of the tail is white ; the whole of the imier wing-coverts are 
black ; the primaries, upper wing-coverts, and secondaries are all completely new 
ones ; the black feathers are beginning to come on the back and under-surface, 
commencing on the belly and lower-breast. 

Immature. — " Pegu $ 13/10/78, very young and small, E. W. Gates," is much 
like that which we have described as the winter-plumage, but the head featliers 
are deep bro'wai, while the feathers of the upper back as well as the scapulars have 
dark brown tips ; the upper tail-coverts are white ; the tail-feathers bro\\aiish-grey, 
the outer ones lighter. 

Nestling. — Like that of preceding species, but generally duller brownish-red ; 
the black markings on the head bolder and larger, the lores white which extends 
round the eye ; there is no black on the fore-head ; throat dusky-brown, white chin 
spot much smaller, no wliite breast patch, all mider -surface dusky pale bufi. 



86 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Nest. — Made of reeds and rushes, floating on marshes. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three, rarely four ; vannng from pale stone to buff-brown in 
ground-colour, boldly blotched with dark browii, with paler brown spots and grej' 
underlying markings ; axis 32-34 mm., diameter 24-25 mm. 

Breeding-season. — May and June in northern hemisphere. 

Distribution and forms. — Southern Palaearctic Region, wandering in winter to 
Africa, India, Java, Celebes and Australia. Mathews in 1912 recorded that the 
birds which breci in China had more powerful bills and longer wings, and therefore 
admitted two subspecies : Chlidonias leucojJtera leucoptera (Temminck) from Europe ; 
and C. I. grisea (Horsfield) for the Chinese race. Only three occurrences from North 
Australia were then on record, but in 1917 thousands appeared in Western Australia ; 
as recorded by Alexander (Emu. Vol. XVII., p. 95, Oct. 1917), who has given fmther 
details of the plumages, stating that the females had white tails and a fullj- coloured 
bird had a black bill. 

Genus STERNA. 

Sterna Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 137, Jan. 1st, 1758. Type (by tautonyray) : Sterna 

hir%m4o Linne. 

Chelido Billberg, Synops, Faunse Scand., Vol. I., pt. ii., p. 193, 1828. New name for Sterna 

Lin. (c/. Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2, 3, p. 42. Oct. 23rd, 1913). 

Thalasscsa Kaup, Skizz. Entwick. -Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 97, (pref. April) 1829. Type (by 

monotypy) : Sterna dougaUii Montagu. 

Hydrocecropis Boie, Isis, 1844, heft 3, col. 178, March. New name for Sterna Auct. 

Medium-sized Terns with slender bills, short legs, long wings and very long 
tails. The bill is longer than the head and twice the length of the tarsus, which is 
shorter than the middle toe and claw. The tail is long and forked, the length of 
the streamers more than half the length of the wng. Toes completely webbe<t 
the tarsus very short and regularly scutellate in front, reticulate behind, the hind- 
toe small. 

Coloration : black cap, grey back and wings, and whitish below. 

6i. Sterna striata.— WHITE-FRONTED TERN. 

[Sterna striata Gnielin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. II., p. 6U9, April 20th, 1789 : New Zealand, 

based on Ellis's drawing No. 57. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 26 (pt. XXXVI.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 109, Nov. 

1st, 1912. 

Sterna relax Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1842, p. 139, Feb. 1843 : Bass Straits. 

Not Riippell, Atlas Reise nord. Africa, p. 21, pi. 13, Cretzschmar [1826 = ] 1827. 

Sterna mclanorhyncha Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xxxvi. (Vol. All., pi. 26), Dec. 1st, 1848 : 

Tasmania. 

Not Slermda melanorhyncha Lesson, Descr. Mamm. etOis. rec. decouv., p. 256, 1847. 

Sterna striata incerta Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 208, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Tasmania. 

Sterna striata yorki Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 86, Sept. 24th, 1914 : Cape 

York, North Queensland. 

Distribution. — Queensland south to Tasmania. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Head and nape deep black, wings, scapulars, 
back and tail very pale grey ; the outer web of the first primary blackish, paler 
towards the tip, inner webs chiefly white, with a shade of grey near the shafts ; 
secondaries for the most jjart white, with grey on the outer webs ; tail-feathers 
white on the iimer webs towards the base ; fore-head, lores, sides of the face, sides 
of the neck, and the entire under-surface silky -white, including the mider tail-coverts, 
axillaries, and under wing-coverts. Bill black ; iris bro'mi ; feet and legs bro'miish- 
red. Total length 451 mm. ; culmen 40, wing 272, tail 185, tarsus 21. 

Adtilt female. — Similar to the adult male. 



KOSEATE TERN. 87 

Adult in winter-plumage. — Differs from the adult in breeding-plumage, in having 
the fore-part, and entire crown of the head white, the feathers being slightly tipped 
with black. 

Immature. — Head, lores, under eyes and nape, speckled througli feathers having 
white bases, black bar and pale brownish-white tips, the latter shorter on the nape ; 
on the back of the neck the tips almost disappear and the black bar decreases ; the 
back has similar feathering, but bolder, showing a somewhat scalloped appearance ; 
the rump and upper tail-coverts jjure grey wth blackish tips, often absent ; bend of 
wing pure wliite, lesser and median coverts dark grey with obsolete tipping, greater 
coverts paler with more pronounced black and bro\vnish-white tipping ; scapulars 
and tertials boldly barred and broadly tipped with buffisli ; secondaries and primary- 
coverts grey with wliite edges ; primaries grey with white tips and inner webs, outer 
ones much darker grey, outermost black on outer web ; tail-feathers pale grey, 
tips scalloped with black and buffish, less pronounced on outer ones ; all under- 
surface including wing lining, pure wliite. 

Nestling in down. — Mottled with grey to almost brown spots on a buffy-white 
ground-colour above, tinged with fulvous on the head, and pure white below. 

Nest. — A depression in the sand or gravel. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour stone, blotchetl with dark brown and light 
grey ; axis 47-48 mm., diameter 33-34. (Tasmania.) 

Breeding -season. — November and December. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout New Zealand and its sub-antarctic islands 
and East Australia. Four subspecies may be admitted at present : S. s. striata 
(Gmelin) from New Zealand ; S. s. bethunei Buller, from the Auckland Islands 
and probably the Chatham Islands, a larger form with longer bill and larger feet ; 
S. s. melanorhyncha Gould, from Tasmania, a smaller and darker race ; and S. s. 
yorki Mathews from North Queensland, still smaller and paler. 

62. Sterna dougallii.— ROSEATE TERN. 

[Sterna dougallii Montagu, Omith. Diet. Suppl., 1813, pref. June, no pag. : Scotland. Extra- 
limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 27 (pt. XXXI.), June 1st, 18-18. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 108 Nov. 
1st, 1912. 

Sterna gracilis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1845, p. 76, Oct. : Houtman's Abrolhos, 

West Australia ; and again in 1847, p. 222, March 29th, 1848. Samelocahty. 

Sterna nigrifrons Masters, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. I., p. 62, Feb. 1876 : Warrior Reef, 

North Queensland. 

Sterna striata christopheri Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 209, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Point 

Cloates, mid- West Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — General colour of the upper-parts pale grey, 
including the back, wings, and tail ; outer primary black on the greater part of the 
outer web, the remainders silvery-grey with white on the inner webs and grey 
adjoining the shafts ; inner primaries and secondaries pale grey with white on the 
inner webs ; crown of head, nape and hind-neck black ; cheeks, throat, and mider- 
surface of body white, as also the axillaries and under wng-coverts ; bill black, 
base red ; iris grey ; feet red, claws black. Total length 400 mm. ; culmen 40, 
wing 212, tail 152, tarsus 21. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult male in ivinter-plumage. — Differs from the adult in breeding-plumage 
by its white fore-head and black and white head and nape ; iris sometimes black ; 
bill black with yellow base. 

Immature. — Similar to the adult in winter -plumage, but having the primaries 



88 A MANUAL OF THE BmDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

greyish-brown, the bill black, iris brown, feet dark reddish-black. The nape and 
head blacki.sh -brown, and a grey band along the upper wing-coverts. 

Nestling. — " Channel Rock, Torres Straits, June 1881 : Iris black, bill black, 
legs and feet grey." Tlie bill is black ; the whole of the top of head, taking in the 
eyes, nape and back of neck black with white tips, the black in front of the eye and 
the ear-coverts more distinctly marked. Back of the neck pure white ; upper back 
black or dark bro'mi and wiiite spottings, lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
pale grey mth indistinct wliite tips ; tail-feathers grey, with bro-wii triangular spots 
near the apex, which is white-tipped ; greater wing-coverts dark grej', median and 
lesser pale grey with lighter tips, primary-quills dark ashy-grey, the outer ones 
almost black, iimer half of inner webs pure white, inner secondaries and long 
scapulars browiiish spotted with white, and with grey base and white tips ; all the 
mider-surface pure white. 

Young in down. — Brown and buffish-white mixed above and throat ; breast 
and belly whitish ; feet and bill pink ; ej'es dark. 

Nest. — A slight depression (about 5 inches across by 1 inch deep) in the sand 
or ridge of dead coral, sometimes partially lined with fine pieces of coral shells, etc. 
Nests in colonies. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour buff or stone, boldly marked with reddish- 
brown, to very light grey, blotches ; axis 40^1 mm., diameter 29. 

Breeding season. — April, Jmae, November, December. 

Distribution and forms. — Described from Great Britain, breeds in Eastern North 
America, through Europe, North Africa, Asia, Australia, New Caledonia, etc., etc. 
The Palaearctic and Nearctic forms are classed together as S. d. dougallii Montagu, 
but probably there is a confusion of distinct subspecies in this case ; all the Eastern 
birds used to be also classed as one subspecies, but Mathews has separated four 
which are easily recognisable, thus : S. d. bangsi Mathews from Foochow, China, 
and the Liu Kiu Islands with a short stout bill, culmen 36-37 mm. ; S. d. korxtstes 
(Hume) from the Andamans, with a small weak bill, culmen not exceeding 36 mm. ; 
S. d. arideensis Mathews, from the Seychelles Group with short slender bills, shorter 
wings and darker upper coloration than preceding ; and S. d. gracilis Gould from 
Australia and New Caledonia with longer slender bills reaching 42.5 mm. and paler 
coloration. 

Genus GYGISTERNA. 

Gygisterna Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 4, p. 365, Nov. 1st, 1912. Type (by original 
designation) : Sterna stimatrana kempi Mathews. 

Medium Terns with long bills, long wings, very long tails and small legs and 
feet. The bill is long and slender, twice the length of the tarsus. There is no crest, 
but a black nape band which may be erectile. The wings are long and the tail has 
very lengthened streamers. The legs are stronger, the tarsus scutellate in front, and 
reticulate behind, the toes long, the webs strongly incised. Hind-toe short. 

Coloration pale grej- above with a black line through the ej'e and romid the 
heatl ; below white. 

63. Gygisterna sumatrana.— BLACK- NAPED TERN. 

[Sterna sumatrana Kaifics, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XIII., pt. ir., p. 329, 1822: Sumatra, 

Extra-Umital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 28 (pt. xxm.), Jvme 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 110, Nov. 

1st, 1912. 

Sterna sumatrana kempi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 210, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Torres 

Straits, Queensland. 

DisTKlBTJTiOK. — Northern Australia. 



■WHITE-SHAFTED TEBNLET. 89 

Adult male in breeding-plumcu/e. — Back, wings, and tail silvery-grey ; crown of 
head, hind-neck, and the entire under-surface of body silky-wliite, including the 
axillaries and uiader wing-coverts ; a line from behind the ej'e which widens out on 
the najie and forms a broad black collar ; an elongated black spot in front of the 
eye ; outer web of first primary black. Total length 300 mm. ; culmen 38, wing 
197, tail 120, tarsus 19. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. Iris dark brown ; feet dark brown ; 
bill black ; extreme tip white. 

Adult in winter-plumage. — Differs from the adult in breeding-plumage, in having 
less extensive black on the nape and in front of the eye. 

Immature. — The fully-ficclged yoimg of the j'ear differs from the adult in having 
the black on the head dark brown mottled with white, and the whole of the upper- 
surface and wings variegated with dark brownish-grey. 

Nestling. — Pale grey spotted all over above with black fairly thickly ; uniform 
greyish-white below. 

Nest. — A depression in the sand. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour buff, marked all over with irregular shaped 
markings of chestnut, light grey and lavender ; axis 39^1 mm., diameter 29. 

Breeding-season. — November. 

Distribution and forms. — From the Andamans through the Moluccas as far north 
as Foochow, China, and east to Fiji, and south to Northern Australia. Only two 
subspecies at present recognised : G. s. sumatrana (Raffles) from Andamans to Celebes ; 
and G. s. kempi (Mathews) from Northern Australia with a longer bill and shorter 
wing ; Foochow birds may be separable and the Fiji birds may later bear the name 
G. s. decorata (Hartlaub) but series are not yet available. 

Genus STERNULA. 

Sternula Boie, Isis, 1822, heft 5, col. 563, May. Type (by monotypy) : Sterna minuta 
Linne = S. albijrons Vroeg. 

Least Tems, with comparatively long stout bills, short legs, long wings and 
tails. The bill is longer than the head, but less than twice the length of the tarsus, 
which is about equal to the middle toe and claw. The tail is long and forked, but 
the streamers are generally much less than half the length of the wing. The diag- 
nostic features are the small size, stout bill proportionally, and the webbing of the 
feet. The toes are long, with the intervening webs notably incised in front, recalling 
the incision of the Marsh-Terns, and differing apprc<^iably from the Common Tern. 

Coloration grey above with black cap, white below. 

64. Sternula albifrons.— WHITE-SHAFTED TERNLET. 

[Sterna albijrons Vroeg, (ex Pallas MS.) Cat. Rais. d'Ois. Adumb., p. G, ante Sept. 22nd, 

1764 : Europe. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Birds New Guinea, Vol. V., pi. 72 (pt. ui.). May 1st, 1876. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, 

pi. Ill, Nov. 1st, 1912. 

Sternula placens Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. IV., Vol. VIII., p. 192, Sept. 1st, 1871 : 

Torres Strait, Queensland. 

Sternula iiiconspicua Masters, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. I., p. 63, Feb. 1876 : Cape York, 

Queensland. 

Sterna sinensis tormenti Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 210, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Point 

Torment, North-west Australia. 

Distribution.- — Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory, North-west 

Australia. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — General colour of the upper-sm-face grey, 
including the mantle, back, scapulars, and wings ; the four outer primary-quills 



90 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

have a dark brown pattern on the outer web and adjoining the shaft on the inner 
one, the inner portion of which is white ; the innermost primaries and secondaries 
grey, the latter white on the inner webs and fringed with white at the tips ; upper 
tail-coverts and tail ivory-white ; a line of feathers from the base of the bill to the 
eye black, like the hinder part of the crown and nape ; fore-part of head and entire 
mider-surface of body silky -white, including the under wing-coverts and under tail- 
coverts ; bill bellow, black at tip ; iris brown ; feet orange-yellow. Total length 
240 mm. ; culmen 30, wing 176, tail 70, tarsus 18. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult in winter-plumage. — Distinguished from the summer- or breeding-plumage 
by the encroachment of the white of the fore-part of the head on to the hinder crown, 
leaving only the nape and .sides of the crown black, and a shade of black in front of 
the eye. 

Immature. — A good series from Point Torment, North-west Australia, and 
Melville Island are worthy of detailed description, as they seem to indicate that these 
Temlets take on the adult state as soon as they have obtained their full first-season's 
plumage. Thus, a bird killed on February 28th has the head mostly white, as are 
also the lores, while the tail is grey and short ; the primaries are apparently full- 
grown and perfect, but they are short. Close examination reveals the fact that 
though they are miworn, new primaries are commencing from the inside to replace 
them. The bill is given as " black, the basal half of lower mandible olive-bro^vn." 
Another has more black feathers coming on the head, but still, though the new 
adult primaries are more advanced, the perfect immature primaries are scarcely 
worn. The bill is changing colour, " basal half olive-brown, tip black." The next 
stage has the lores black and white, mostly black, the tojj of the head shows the new 
black feathers to be in the majority ; the tail-feathers are new and white, the 
streamers half grown ; the primaries are mostly adult, only the two outside immature 
ones left but they are very little worn ; the bill is now " yellow and black," as in 
full breeding-jjlumage. 

Nestling. — Upper coloration sandy-grey obscurely spotted with grey-brown 
rather thickly, the spots darker on the head, and simulating a linear arrangement ; 
there appears to be an obsolete loral line and also an indistinct frontal darker line ; 
the winglet is spotted at the base but unspotted for the major portion ; the mider- 
surface ■pure white ; the bill is short and yellow, the tip darker. 

Nest. — A depression in the sand. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour stone, spotted all over, but more on the 
larger end, with purplish -red and sparingly with lavender-coloured spots ; axis 
33 mm., diameter 26. 

Breeding-season. — December. (Byron Bay.) October. (Tweed River.) November. 
(Victor Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout southern Palfearctic Regions on coast lines 
but exact range and forms undetennined . Hartert has given the range as : " Breeds 
in Europe from the shores of southern Sweden to the Mediterranean, along the coasts 
of Northern Africa, in the Canaries and on Sladeira, and in north-west Asia as far 
as Turkestan. It winters in Africa and in Asia as far north {sic) as India, Burmah, 
Malacca and Java. Replaced by allied forms in Syria, Egj^rt, the Malay Archipelago, 
the China Seas and Japan, Australia, America, and perhaps parts of Africa." 
Americans distinguish their Temlets sijccifically, and we cannot deal with the western 
forms here ; the Lidian S. a. saundersi Hume may even comprise more than one 
distinct subspecies. The Australian race was called sinensis, which, of course, was 
given to the Chinese bird, so that in Australia there are two races, S. a. placens 
Gould, from East Australia, and S. a. tormenti JIathews from North-west Australia, 
the latter larger and with a heavier and longer bill than the former, and also paler 
upper coloration. 



WHITE-FACED TEENLET. 91 

65. Sternula nereis.— WHITE-FACED TERNLET. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 29 {pt. XIV.), March 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 112, Nov. 

1st, 1912. 

Sternula nereis Gould, Proc. Zool. See. (Lend.), 1842, p. 140, Feb. 1843 : Bass Straits. 

Sterna nereis horni Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 209, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Kalgan River, 

South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, South- and mid-West Australia. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Wing.s, scapulars, mantle, and middle of back 
silvery-grey, becoming white on the upper tail-coverts and tail ; outermost primary- 
quills slightly edged with darlcer on the outer web, and a shade of the same colour 
on the inner web adjoining the shaft ; a spot in front of the eye, hinder part of 
the crown, and nape black ; fore-head to the middle of the crown, lores, and entire 
under -surface silvery-white including the axillaries, mider wing-coverts, and imder 
tail-coverts ; bill and feet orange-yellow, claws brown ; eyes black. Total length 
262 mm. ; culmen 34, wng 185, tail 96, tarsus 18. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult in winter-plumage. — Similar to the adult in breeding-plumage, but the 
black in front above the eye less pronomiced. 

Itnmature. — Top of head white, nape dull black, tail greyish, otherwise as in 
adult ; iris black, legs brown t'nged v/iih yellow, bill olive-brown tinged with yellow 
at gape. 

Nestling (flying). — Fore-head and fore-part of head wliite, back of head and 
neck blackish-brown and white tipped with buff ; primaries and primary-coverts 
deep grey, most of the inner webs white ; greater series of wing-coverts dark grey, 
median and lesser lighter grey, some of the median with brown spots ; feathers of 
back and scapulars with brown spots and tipped with buff ; tail white, faint brown 
tips to centre feathers. 

Nestling. — Covered with white, black and buff down on the upper-surface, with 
irregular, zigzag short lines and spots, especially on the head and sides of the face, 
the dark pattern less defined on the body where the down is longer ; under-surface 
pure white. 

Nest. — ^A depression in the sand. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; gromid-colour pale stone, spotted with dark brown, 
chestnut, and lavender ; axis 34-37 mm., diameter 25-26. 

Breeding-season. — November. (Walker Island, Bass Straits.) December, 
February. (Mud Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Southern extra-tropical Australia, New Caledonia and 
New Zealand. Four forms have been separated : S. n. nereis Gould, from Eastern 
Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia ; S. n. horni Mathews, from 
South-west Australia, by its paler upper coloration ; S. n. exsid Mathews, from 
New Caledonia, by its smaller size, average male M^ing 171 mm. ; and 8. n. davisoe 
jMathews and Iredale, from New Zealand, by its darker coloration and larger size ; 
average male wing 200 mm. 

Genus PELECANOPUS. 

Pelecanopus Wagler, Isis, 1832, heft 3, col. 277, March. Type (by monotypy) : Sterna 
pelecanoidcs King. 

Large Terns with long stout bills, long tails, long wings and short legs, and 
decided occipital crest in their breeding-plumage. The diagnostic features of this 
genus are the long stout bills, long tails, and small feet. The metatarsus is about 
half the length of the culmen, which is longer than the head, while the tail is just 
about half the length of the wing. The tarsus is scutellate in front, and reticulate 



92 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

behind, and although short, is longer than the middle toe ; the webs between the 
anterior toes noticeably incised and the hind-toe short. 

Coloration grey above with black top of head, full crest, and white below. 

66. Pelecanopus bergii.— CRESTED TERN. 

[Sterna hergii Lichtenstein, Verzeichn. doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, p. 80, (pref. Sept.) 1823 : 
Cape of Good Hope. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pis. 23, 24 (pt. xxxiv.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 106, 
Sept. 20th, 1912. 

Sterna pelecanoides King, Survey Intertrop. Coasts Austr., Vol. II., p. 422, "1827 " = April 

26th, 1826 : Torres Strait. 

Sterna polioccrca Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. ii., pi. (37), April 1st, 1837 : Tasmania. 

Sterna novtchollandicB Pucheran, Revue Zool., Oct. 1850, p. 545, Nov. ex Cuvier MS. : 

Nouvelle HoUande, coll. by Peron and Lesueur = Tasmania. 

Not of Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 161, 1826. 

Pelceanopus nigripennis Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLII., p. 772, 

May 1856 : New name for " S. novcehollaiulice Cuv." 

Thalasseus hergii gwendolenm Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 208, Jan. 31st, 1912: 

Perth, South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania, 

Adult nude. — Back, scapulars, wings, and tail ash-grey ; primary-quills silvery- 
gi-ey on the outer webs, somewhat dark on the outer web near the base, inner webs 
grey next the shaft, inner portion white ; inner primaries silvery-grey with white on 
the inner webs ; secondaries white with grey on the outer webs, the grey increasing 
in extent on the innermost feathers ; middle tail-feathers like the back, the outer 
ones grey with white inner webs, the outermost pair almost entirely white ; crown 
of head and long nape feathers black ; fore-head, lores, neck all round, and imder- 
surface of body white, like the axillaries and under wing-coverts ; a small patch 
of grey feathers on the sides of the breast ; bill yellow, base green ; iris brown, feet 
black. Total length 480 mm. ; culmen 55, wing 345, tail 176, tarsus 27. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male ; culmen 52, wing 326, ta.il 164. 

Adidt in tvinter- plumage. — Differs from the adult bird in breeding-plumage 
by the absence of the black on the crown of the head ; the feathers on the fore-part 
of the head, face, and sides of nape with white margins, becoming black on the 
occiput. 

Immature female. — Differs from the adult female in having some of the feathers 
of the upper back with dark shaft-streaks, the lesser wing-coverts rusty-brown, 
bastard-wing and primary -coverts brown ; primary -quiUs brown, inner webs white ; 
secondaries white -with brown on the outer webs, middle tail-feathers white tipped 
with grey, outer feathers brown with white on the inner webs, the outermost pair 
white tipped with brown ; the feathers on the fore-part of the head black margined 
with white, while those on the najje are brown. 

Immature (before moulting into fidl breeding-plumage). — Head more or less dark 
brown, feathers with whiie bases and whitish tips ; fore-head and lores whitish wth 
a few brown speckles ; a sjjot just in front of the eye dark ; a few brown tips to the 
feathers on the sides of the neck ; feathers of the bend of the wing whitish, greater 
wing-coverts dark brownish-grey ; median wing-coverts ashy-grey ; lesser wing- 
coverts darker ashy -grey. 

Immature (in change from juvenile plumage). — A few brown-tipped feathers 
remain on the upper back ; the majority of the feathers slatj^ ; the scapulars and 
median coverts, however, show the juvenile plumage to still predominate. 

Juvenile (young bird just ready to fly). — The feathers of the head have white 
bases and tips, the middle being dark brown, the head having thus an even mottled 
appearance ; the sides and back of the neck are white, some of the feathers having 



LESSER CRESTED TEK^. 93 

brown spots on the tips, giving a speckled appearance. These brown tips become 
larger and more frequent on the feathers of the upper back, with fewer but more 
strongly marked on the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; the tail-feathers 
have white bases and white tips, the anterior portion brown in varying proportions ; 
the middle feathers are mostly grey, with a brownish marking towards their apices, 
but all the tijis white ; the next pair have more bro\ra, less grey, and less white 
tipping, and so on outwards ; the scapulars are marked like the middle tail-feathers ; 
the bend of the wing is white ; the greater wing-coverts are deep brown with white 
tips ; the median white with brownish tips, the extreme tips, however, white again ; 
the lesser wing-coverts ashy-brown tipped with white ; the secondaries ashy-grey 
with white tijjs ; the primaries deep browai on the outer and half of the inner web ; 
the imier half white, distinctlj' marked ofi ; the remainder of the mider-surface white. 

Nestling in down. — Dirty white above and below, the upper-surface with a few 
black speckles, but pattern not discernible. Iris pale brown ; legs and feet brownish- 
white ; bill white. 

Nest. — A depression in the sand. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one, sometimes two ; ground-colour dark to light stone, marked 
with blotches and wavy lines of very dark puiiale, other markings of lavender which 
appear as if beneath the shell ; axis 56, diameter 39. 

Breeding-season. — October to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Round the coast of South and East Africa, tlu-ough the 
Indian and Pacific Oceaas, as far northward as the Jajjanese seas and eastward to 
the Low Archipelago. Oberholser has recently reviewed the species, admitting 
eleven subsjiecies, as follows : P. b. bergii (Lichtenstein) from South Africa ; P. b. 
thalassinus (Stresemann) from the Seychelles Islands, as decidedly smaller and 
somewhat lighter in colour ; P. b. velox (Cretzschmar) as decidedly darker than the 
t^qjical from the Red Sea ; P. b. bakeri (Mathews), as darker still and larger than 
Ijreceding, from the Persian Gulf and south-western Baluchistan ; P. b. edwardsi 
(Mathews) from Ceylon and southern India, much smaller and even a little darker ; 
P. b. cristatus (Stephens) from southern China, the Liu Kin Islands, the Philipijine 
Archipelago (northern islands), etc., smaller than P. b. edwardsi, but about same 
coloration ; P. b. halodramvs (Oberholser) from the southern islands of the Philipj^ine 
Group, much j^aler above than last nameil ; P. b. pelecanoides (King) decidedly 
larger than the preceding, from North Australia, the East Lidies, and Melanesia, 
darker and smaller than the typical race ; P. b. rectirostris (Peale) from Polynesia, 
paler than the former, both as to adult and yomig ; P. b. poliocercus (Gould) is darker 
and smaller, from New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia ; 
and P. b. gwendolence (Mathews) the South-western Australian race, larger and paler. 

67. Pelecanopus bengalensis. — LESSER CRESTED TERN. 

[Sterna bengalensis Lesson, Traits d'Orn., 8^- livr., p. 621, June 11th, 1831 ; India. Extra- 
limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 25 (pt. XXXVI.), Deo. Isfc, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 107, S^pt. 
20th, 1912. 

Sterna media Horefield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lend.), Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 199, 1821 : Java. 

Not VieiUot, Tabl. Ency. Meth. Ornith., Vol. I., p. 347, 1820. 

Thalassevs torresii Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1842, p. 140, Feb. 1843 : Port Essington, 

Northern Territory. 

Thalasseus bengalensis robini Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 55, April 7th, 

1916 : Cape York, Queensland. 

Distribution. — North Queensland, Northern Territory, North-west Australia. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Head and nape deep black ; up2)er wing- 
coverts, scapulars, back, and middle tail-feathers dove-grey ; bend of wing white ; 
primary-quills silvery-grey, inner webs white at base, dark brown near the shafts, 



94 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

this colour increasing in extent and becoming pale towards the tips ; the inner 
primaries and secondaries grej' on the outer webs, fringed and tipped witli white 
on the inner ones, the white increasing in extent on the secondaries ; tail for the 
most part grey like the back with a certain amount of wliite on the inner webs of 
the feathers ; lores, hind-neck and upper mantle, throat and entire undcr-surface 
silky-wliite, inchuling the axillaries, under wng-coverts, and under tail-coverts ; 
bill reddish -orange ; iris dark brown ; feet black. Total length 420 mm. ; culmen 
50, -n-ing 308, tail 152, tarsus 26. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult in winter.— Differs from the breeding-plumage in having nearly the whole 
of the head white, with the exception of a black spot in front of each eye, a few on 
the crown, and the nape feathers, which are black, more or less fringed with ivhite ; 
bill pale in colour. 

Immature. — Fore-head white, on top of head najDe black former with white 
edges as in winter, but darker ; wing-coverts grey with brown edges ; secondaries 
brownish-grey and inner secondaries browni, but with long white edging ; primary- 
coverts browii-grey ; primaries brown wth scant greyish bloom ; tail-feathers with 
long brown edges and tips, bases grey ; legs brown mottled with yellow. 

Nestling. — Does not appear to have been described. 

Nest. — A slight dejiression in the sand or coral. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one ; gromid-colour light stone, blotched or sjiotted with very 
dark purple, with lavender ones appearing as if beneath the surface ; axis 54.5 mm., 
diameter 35-36. 

Breeding-season. — November. (South Barnard Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — From the Red Sea, on the Indian coasts, through 
Malaysia to Northern Australia. Three subspecies ma jr be recognised : P.h.bengalen- 
sis (Lesson) from Lidia (exact range undetennined) ; P. b. arabicus (Mathews), from 
the Red Sea, is a paler and smaller race ; and P. b. torresii Gould is also jialer and 
smaller (with which P. b. robini (Mathews) is included). A fourth is indicated by 
Sterna zimmermanni Reichenow (Oni. Monatsb., Vol. XI., p. 82, 1903), from Kiaou- 
tschou, but diagnosis indeterminate and no specimens available. Under the latest 
ruling of the Nomenclatural Laws, the subspecific arabicus Mathews is inadmissible, 
being a syiaonym of the typical race, so we rename the Red Sea race Pelecanopus 
bengalensis par uom. nov. 

Genus GELOCHELIDON. 

Gehchelidon Brehm, Vogel Deutschl., p. 771, (pref. July) 1831. T3'pe (by monotypy) : 
O. meridionalis Brehm = Sterna nilotica Gmelin. 

Laropis Wagler, Isis, 1832, heft 11, col. 1225, Nov. Tj'pe (by monotj-py) : S. anglica 
Montagu = S. nilotica Gmelin. 

Larger Terns, with short stout bill, long wings, short tail, and long legs. The 
diagnostic features of this genus are the short stout bill and short tail with feet 
with webs incised. The metatarsus is longer than the middle toe and claw, but 
shorter than the culmen, which is also shorter than the head. The tail is deei>ly 
forked, but still less than half the length of the wing. 

Coloration as in Sterna, etc. 

68. Gelochelidon nilotica.— GULL-BILLED TERN. 

ISlerna nilotica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. ri., p. 606, April 20th, 1789 : Egj^pt, North 

Africa. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Suppl., pi. 81 (pt. in.), Sept. 1st, 1859. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 104, Sept. 20th. 

1912. 



GULL-BILLED TEEN. 95 

Sterna macrotarsa Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. ii., pi. (37), April 1st, 1837 : Tasmania. 
Gelochelidon nilotica normani Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 125, Jan. 28th, 
1915 : Normanton, Queensland. 
Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male in breeding-plurnage. — General colour above very pale grey on the 
back, wings, and scapulars ; primary-quills silvery-grey, white on the inner webs, 
the outer quills edged with dark brown on the outer webs ; upper tail-coverts and 
tail pure white ; crown of head black ; feathers of the nape white with black tips ; 
chin, throat, and entire mider-surface white, like the axillaries and under wing- 
coverts ; bill black, mouth orange, iris dark hazel ; feet and legs black, soles with 
ail orange tinge. Total length 432 mm. ; culmen 4.5, wing 342, tail 141, tarsus 36. 

Adult female. — Similar to adult male but smaller in all measurements. 

Adult male in xvinter. — Differs from the male in breeding-plumage in the absence 
of the black on the head and nape, which is rejiresented by white feathers more or 
less streaked with black ; ear-coverts and feathers surrounding the eye black. 

The female in winter has the same j)lumage as the male in the same season. 

Immature. — Pale grey, the feathers edged with pinkish-buff above ; the head 
and nape with short black shaft-lines, a small black spot in front of eyes ; ear-coverts 
ashy-black ; feathers of uj)i3er back with darker centres and broad pinkish-buff 
edges ; rump with pale tips ; tail-feathers with darker tifis edged with white ; 
scai^ulars and inner secondaries grey, bases with dark triangular patches and broad 
pinkish-buff edges ; coverts with jDale tipping ; under -surface pure white. 

Immature with down adhering. — Similar to jireceding but paler ; head fainter, 
streaks less i:)ronoimced and pinkish-buff obscure ; scapulars and ujaj^er back 
pinkish-buff ^^■ith dark shaft-lines to latter feathers only ; scant buff tipping to 
coverts ; down on rump and tail-feathers which are pale grey with obsolete tipping ; 
under-surface pure white with down still present ; ear-coverts scarcely noticeably 
darker, but dark crescent in front of eye ; bill brownish, tip of lower mandible brown, 
base paler ; feet brown. 

Nestling in down. — Above pale biownish-grey with a few scattered brownish 
blotches ; a few small spots on back of head, forming two irregular stripes on sides 
of neck, and a medium stripe down middle of back, and two spots on sides of rump ; 
^vinglet with a dark spot at base ; under-surface pure white ; bill brown ; legs and 
feet orange -brown. 

Nest. — Placed close to one another, and comj)osed of a few bits of diy grass 
or stems of cane grass, on a small piece of ground surrounded by water. 

Eggs.— C\\itch, two to four ; buffj' -white or whity-brovm, sparingly marked 
with light umber, the remainder of the surface being boldly splashed and spotted 
with piu-plish-red and purplish -grey, some with obsolete patches of a lighter tint 
appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell ; axis 51-55 mm., diameter 37-38. 

Breeding-season. — April, May, November. 

Distribution and forms. — From Europe through Asia to Australia, winteriiig 
in Africa. Also breeding in North and South America. Six subspecies have been 
separated : G. n. nilotica (Gmelin) from Europe and North Africa (winter) ; av. 
measurements : culmen 39^1, wing 310-320 mm. ; G. n. aranea (Wilson) from 
North America, with shorter bills and wings ; av. culmen 34^37, wing below 305 
mm. ; G. n. afjlnis (Horsfield) from Java (winter) and Lidia ; with paler coloration 
above ; shorter bills and same wing length at typical form ; G. n. macrotarsa (Gould) 
from Australia in its more powerful and longer bill, longer legs, long wing and paler 
coloration {G. n. normani Mathews has been named on account of its smaller bill) ; 
G. n. addenda Mathews, from China, in its short and stout bill with paler coloration 
approaching preceding ; av. culmen 36-37 mm. ; wing 310 mm. ; and G. n. gronvoldi 
Mathews, from South America with long bills and long -wings, nearly as big as G. n. 
macrotarsa, av. culmen 42—45 mm., wing 325. 



96 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Genus HYDROPROGNE. 

Hydroprogne Kaup. Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch, Nat. Syst., p. 91 (pref. April) 1829. Type (by 
subsequent designation. Gray, Gen. Birds, Vol. III., p. 658, Nov. 1846): Sterna caspiaPallaa. 
Sylochelidon Brehm, Vcigel Deutschl., p. 767, (pref. July) 1831. Type (by inonotypy) : 
iS. halOtiea Brehm = S. caspia Pallas. 

Hefop!(« Waglor, Isis, 1832, hoft 11, col. 1224, Nov. Type (by monotypy) : S. caspia Pallas. 
Pontochelidon Hogg, Edinb. New Philos. Joum., Vol. XLI., p. 69, 1846. Type (by subsequent 
designation, Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. II., p. 133, 1915) : S. caspia Pallas. 
Heroprogne Buller, Suppl. Birds New Zeal., Vol. I., p. 157, 1905. Error only. 

Largest Terns, with long stout bills, long wings, short legs, and short tails. 
The diagnostic features of this genus are the large size and the long stout bills and 
short tail. The metatarsus is much shorter than the culmen, which is longer than 
the head. The tail is forked and only about a third of the wing. 

Coloration as in Sterna. 

69. Hydroprogne caspia.— CASPIAN TERN. 

[Sterna caspia Pallas, Nov. Coram. Acad. Sci. Petrop., Vol. XIV., pt. i., p. 582, 1770 : Caspian 

Sea. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 22 (pt. xxn.), March 1st, 1846. Mathews. Vol. II., pt. 3, pi. 105, Sept. 

20th, 1912. 

SylocheUdon stremius Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xxii.. Vol. VII., pi. 22, March 1st, 1846 : Port 

Stephens, New South Wales, error = Tasmania. 

Hydroprogne tschegrava yorki Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 125, Jan. 28th, 

1915 : Cape York, Queensland. 

DiSTRiBtniON. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male in breeding -season. — General colour above pale grey, including the 
back, scapulars, wings, and tail ; primary-quills silvery-grey on the outer webs, 
dark brown on the inner edge of the iimer webs ; head and nape black, with a short 
white line immediately below the eye ; cheeks, chin, throat and neck all round as 
well as the imder-smiace of body white, like the axillaries and mider wng-coverts ; 
bill red ; feet black. Total length 555 mm. ; culmen 77, wing 422, tail 164, tarsus 47. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult in winter. — Distinguished from the adult in breeding-plvunage by the 
absence of the entire black head, which is represented on the fore-head by black 
feathers wth wliite margins, the black increasing in extent on the nape, ear-coverts, 
and feathers in front of the eye. 

Immature. — Pure white below, except for a few minute grey spots on the fore- 
neck ; the feathers of the back with substantial dark brown spots and fringed with 
sandy-buS ; lesser wing-coverts blackish, fringed with white like the bastard-wing 
and primary-coverts ; median and greater coverts ash-grey fringed with wliite ; 
jjrimary -quills hoary -grey fringed Avith wliite on the inner webs, the inner primaries 
tipped and margined with white on both webs ; secondaries white with dark slate 
colour on the outer webs ; scapulars white at base becoming sandy-buff towards 
the tips, with two longitudinal brown streaks on each side of the shaft which converge 
at the tip. TJiese brown marLs do not alwa3's follow the same course : sometimes 
tlicy form twin spot.^, whereas in others thej^ are irregular bars ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts fairtly marked with grey, but some of tlie feathers have darker jjear- 
shaped spots ; middle tail-feathers are white, with dark grey rmining longitudinally 
towards the tips and margined with white, the outer feathers dark bro\vn, t'ppetl 
with white and fringed wtli the same colour near the base ; feathers of the hind- 
neck white, ■svith an apical spot of black and fringed •nath sandy-buff ; feathers of the 
liead white at the base, centred with black and fringed -with buff, the black being 
more pronomiced on the nape and sides of crown ; a black spot in front of each eye. 










&I 



~n"' PJ-0 =.-« 






BEIDLED TERN. 97 

Nestling in doion. — BufEy -white, darker on the throat and paler on the abdomen, 
with an admixture of black on all the upper-parts, excejit the head. 

Nest. — A depression in the sand. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground -coloiu- stone, marked all over, but more at the 
larger end, with dark purple and brown spots ; axis 63 mm., diameter 45. 

Nesting -season. — March, April, May, August, September, and November. (West 
Australia.) October and November. (Island in Franklin Somid.) 

Distribution and forms. — World -wde distribution, but forms not j-et accurately 
determined, thus : H. c. caspia (Pallas) from the Caspian Sea is in use for all Palaearctic 
birds, while the North American H. c. imperator Coues, from North America, though 
obviously a larger form, is not yet acknowledged by American authorities ; there 
may be other recognisable forms, but the Australian H. c. strenua (Gould) from 
Tasmania, is notably larger in all its measurements, the bill noticeably so, while 
H. c. yorki Mathews from North Queensland is smaller throughout, but still large, 
and H. c. oliveri Mathews and Iredale from New Zealand is another smaller race, 
though still larger than the typical form ; thus, culmen 71, H. c. strenua 75, H. c. 
caspia 66 mm. ; wing 400 against 420 mm. for the Australian form. 



Genus MELANOSTERNA. 

Melanostenia Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XV., p. 373, 1846 [ = 1847 ?]. Type (by 
monotypy) : Sterna ancethetiis Scopoli. 

Medium-sized Terns vnth long bills, long ^\'ings, very long tails and short legs 
and feet. The dark coloration, very long tails and incised webbing of the feet dis- 
tinguish this genus. The bill is not twice as long as the tarsus, though long, while the 
tail is more than three-fourths the length of the wing, the outer feathers extremely 
attenuated. The tarsus shows a reticulate surface in front, whereas all the other 
genera of Sternidce retain the scutes unbroken. The inner toe is extremely short, 
while the toes are very much incised between the middle and inner toe and only 
moderately so between the outer and middle, which are nearly ecjual. The claw 
of the middle toe is extremely long. 

Coloration dark above, white below. 

70. Melanosterna anaethetus.— BRIDLED TERN. 

[Sterna anwthetm Scopoli, Del. Flor. Faunse Insub., pt. 11., p. 92, 1786 : Philippine Islands 
Extra-Iimital.] 

GoiUd, Vol. VII., pi. 33 (pt. xs.xv.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 114 Nov 
1st, 1912. 

Sterna nova:hollandia; Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. I., p. 161, Feb. 18th, 

1826: New South Wales, based on Watling drawing No. 274. 

Melanosterna anmthctus rogersi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 126, Jan. 28th, 

1915 ; Admiralty Gulf, North-west Austraha. 

Distribution. — Tropical Australian Seas. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Crown of head, nape, and lores black ; wings, 
scapulars, back and middle tail-feathers dark brown ; small coverts round the bend' 
of the wing white ; inside webs of primary-quills paler and becoming white towards 
the base ; this is more especially shown on the secondaries ; outer tail-feathers for 
the most part white, the terminal portion blackish on the inner webs ; fore-head and 
a narrow line over to behind the edge white like the throat, breast, and under wing- 
coverts ; abdomen and under tail-coverts grey ; bill and feet black ; iris lead 
colour. Total length 430 mm. ; culmen 40, wing 260, tail 218, tarsus 23. 

Adult female.— Sirnila,! to the adult male ; bill and feet black ; iris dark brown. 

E 



98 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult in winter -jAuynage. — Similar to the adult in breeding-plumage, but lores 
and the crown of the head mottled with white. 

Immature male. — Wings dark brown ; entire back ash-brown, the feathers 
edged with white ; upper tail-coverts paler with no wliite edges ; middle tail-feathers 
similar, slightly fringed with white on the inner webs, outermost pair of feathers 
white at the base and fringed with white at the tip on the outer webs ; fore-head and 
lores wliite, the latter with a few dark dots which indicate the black of the adult ; 
head black with wliite margins to the feathers, which imparts a streaked appearance ; 
hind-neck very pale grey ; entire under-surface pure white. 

Immature (first plumage) . — Uniform brown above, the scapulars, secondaries and 
upper wing-coverts buff tipped ; sometimes the whole of the feathers of the upper 
back have bright buff tips ; sometimes the tii>s are almost absent ; the feathers of 
the top of the head have white tips, the eye-stripe being indicated by a ligliter streak, 
the loral patch being darker ; the back of the neck darker than the head or back, 
and the imder-surface white with a dirty grey wash varying in intensity. 

Nestling. — Bro-miish all over above, the down with a mixture of white, obsolete 
darker patches being indistinctly seen ; throat and chest as back ; abdomen dirty 
white. With age the down appears lighter and the first feathers show with rufous 
tips. 

Nest. — A fissure of a rock close to the water's edge, without any nest, or well 
concealed under a tussock of grass. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour stone, spotted all over with rich chestnut, 
and smaller spots of grey ; axis 44 mm., diameter 31-32. 

Breeding-season. — October to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the tropical seas of the world, breeding 
on isolated islets. Mathews separated five forms and two have since been added, 
thus : M. a. ancethetus (Scopoli) from the Philippine Islands and the China Sea ; 
M. a. 7iovcshollandicE (Stephens) from East Australia, separable by its greyer neck, 
darker brown upper coloration, larger size and different tail coloration ; the West 
Australian M. a. rogersi Mathews is similar but much darker ; M. a. antarctica (Lesson) 
from the Seychelles, Mauritius and Laccadives is a smaller race than the preceding, 
which it resembles in coloration ; M. a. fuligula (Lichtenstein) from the Red Sea is 
larger than above and has less white on inner web of the primaries and more white 
on'the tail-feathers ; M. a. recognita Mathews, from East America, breeding on the 
Bahamas, is generally lighter above, especially on the tail, and obsolete grey wash on 
under-surface and different tail coloration ; and M. a. nelsoni (Ridgway) from Pacific 
Coast of Mexico and Central America, larger than preceding with relatively longer or 
more slender bill and under jiarts of body tinged with pale grey. 

Genus ONYCHOPRION. 

Onychopnon Wagler, Isis, 1832, heft 3, col. 277, March. Tj-pe (by monotypy) : Sterna 
serrata Wagler = S. fuscata Linn6. 

Planelis Wagler, Isis, 1832, heft 11, col. 1222, Nov. Type (by monotypy) : S. guttata ex 
Forster MS. = S. jiiscata Linn6. 

Haliplana Wagler, Isis, 1832, heft 1 1, col. 1224, Nov. T>-po (by monotypy) : Sterna fuliginoaa 
Gmelin = S. fuscata Linne. 

Thalassipora Riippell, Syst. Uebers. Vogel Nord-ost Afrika, p. 140, 1845. Type (by mono- 
typy) : S. infu-Kcata Lichtenstein = S. fuscata Linne. 

Lhpsaleon Gistel, Naturg. Thierr. Schul., p. 10, 1848 (pref. Easter 1847). New name for 
Planetis Wagler. 

Mediimi-sized Terns with comparatively short stout bills, short legs, long 
wings and very long tails. The culmen is a little longer than the head, and much 
longer than the tarsus. The nature of the nostrils shows an approach to that seen 
in the Noddies. The toes are comparatively short and fully webbed. The streamers 
are well developed, making the tail more than half the length of the wing. 



SOOTY TERN. 99 

Most writers upon the Terns have intimated their disapproval of lumping this 
species in with Sterna, but have all been unable to find distinct structural differences 
in the skin to justify the separation. The nature of the young has influenced us 
in accepting Onychoprion, while most writers have commented uj)on its habit of 
laying one egg only. 

71. Onychoprion fuscatus.— SOOTY TERN. 

[Sterna /ttsca/a Linne, Syst. Nat. 12th ed., p. 228, (pref. May 24th) 1766: Santo Domingo, 

West Indies. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 32 (pt. xxvin.), Sept. 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 113, Nov. 

1st, 1912. 

Sterna serrata Wagler, Natur. Syst. Ampliib., p. 89 (note), 1830 (ex Forster MS.) : New 

Caledonia. 

Sterna melanura Govild, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 7, April 1st, 1838 : New South 

Wales. 

Sterna gouldii Reichenbach, Aves Natat. Longip., pi. XXII., f. 829, 1848 : West Australia. 

Onychoprion fuscatus kermadeci Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 55, April 

7th, 1916 : Kermadec Islands = Long Reef, Sydney. 

Distribution. — Tropical Australian Seas. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Crown of head and nape black, as also a line 
of feathers from the gape to the eye ; hind-neck, back, scapulars, wings and tail 
sooty-black ; the small coverts along the ujiper margin of the wing white ; inner 
webs of secondaries whitish towards the base ; outer tail-feathers greyish-brown, 
darker towards the tif)s on the inner webs ; fore-head and a narrow line to above the 
middle of the eye white ; sides of neck, thi'oat, and mider-surface of body also white, 
becoming shaded with grey on the lower -abdomen, mider tail-coverts, axillaries, 
and under wing-coverts ; bill and feet black ; iris black and white. Total length 
475 mm. ; culmen 42, wing 304, tail 210, tarsus 24. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but smaUer in every dimension. 
Adult in tvinter -plumage. — Similar to the adult in breeding-plumage, but the 
lores and crown of head intermixed with white and black. 

Nestling {a few hours old). — Covered with dirty white down, more inclining to 
white on the abdomen ; bill yellowish, tip black ; iris deep brown ; feet and legs 
nearly black. 

Nestling {three days old). — A mixture of brown, black, and white down on the 
upper-sm-face, somewhat darker on the lores and sides of face ; mader-surface white, 
with indistinct dark pectoral band and ashy -black throat. 

Progress of young. — South Island, Houtmau's Abrolhos : — 
January llth, 1843. — In down. Mottled brownish and white above and on sides 
of the breast ; under-surface white. 

January 30th, 1843. — Fore-head and tliroat and flanks still down covered. Head 
dark browix with darker tips ; all back, wing- and tail-feathers brown, with more 
or less extensive white tips ; under-surface ashy-brown with white patch on the 
abdomen. 

February IQth, 1843. — No down remaining. Wing- and tail-feathers half grown. 
Head and mider -surface all brownish, lighter on flanks ; mider tail-coverts paler 
with rufous tips ; back and tail, scapulars and lesser wing-coverts faintly rufous 
and tipped with wliite ; primaries mitipped. 

Kermadecs. — About the same age as second above. Has do\Mi remaining on head, 
which shows slightly rufous tips underneath ; the general upper coloration is slightly 
darker, while the tij)s on the back, wing-coverts and tail-feathers are distinctly 
rufous, those on the scapulars being rufous-white ; the under-surface is darker 
and more mottled with greyish-white. 

Kermadecs. — Slightly older than third above, about ready to Qy. Has the head 

H 2 



100 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

feathers tipped with rufous, the back having nlightly smaller tips ; tail tips worn 
off ; underneath darker but more mottled with grey, especially the throat ; under 
wing-coverts pure grey with whitish tips ; axillaries deep grey with darker tips ; 
under tail-coverts dark grey with rufous tips. 

Nest. — Lays a single egg on the bare ground beneath the thick scrub, or in the 
open. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour stone, .spotted with rich chestnut (more 
noticeable on the larger end), and small markings of grey or lavender ; axis 53-55, 
diameter 35-36. Pure white eggs have been taken on the Kermadec Islands, where 
great variation is seen. 

Breeding -season. — November. (Lord Howe Island and Kermadec Islands.) 
December and January. (Houtman's Abrolhos.) i\Iay and June. (Torres Strait.) 
September to December. (Norfolk Island.) 

Distribution ami forms. — Throughout intertropical seas, Atlantic, Indian and 
Pacific Oceans. Mathews admitted four subspecies, but suggested more, and Ridg- 
way has admitted one of these, so that five definite forms are at present accepted, 
thus : . f . fiiscatus (Linne) from mid-Atlantic Ocean breeding on West Indies, etc. ; 
0. f. infuscatus (Lichtenstein) for the Eastern Indian Ocean bird which has the 
under parts faintly grey and the tail with less white on longest feathers ; 0. f. 
serratiis (Wagler) from East Australian seas with very long streamers, larger size 
and deeper grey wash on under-surface (0. /. gouldi (Reichenbach) would be the 
name of the West Australian race which seems smaller but more specimens must 
be examined) ; O. f. oahuensis (Bloxham) from the Hawaiian Group, with long 
streamers and grey under-surface but streamers not as white as O.f. serratiis ; and 
0. f. crissalis (Lawrence) from Pacific Coast of Central America, with shorter tail 
and darker towards the ends. 

Genus MEGALOPTERUS. 

Megalopterits Boie, Isis, 1826, heft 10, col. 980, Oct. Type (by monotypy) : Sterna tenuis 

rostris Temminck et Laugier. 

Micranous Saunders, BuU. Brit. Ornith. Club, Vol. IV., p. 19, Jan. 29th, 1895. Type (by 

monotypy) : S. tenuiro.'>tris Temminck et Laugier. 

AiwiiseUa Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 4, p. 412, Nov. 1st, 1912. Type (by original 

designation) : Anous leucocapilltis Gould = A. minutus Boie. 

Medium-sized Noddies with long slender bills, long wings and tails, short legs 
and long toes. The culmen is like that of Anous, but is longer and slenderer, being 
longer than the head. The tail has the third or fourth rectrix from the outside 
longest, the first being the shortest. The legs are shorter and fully webbed, with a 
large hind-toe. 

Coloration all dark with a paler head and shoulders, which is seen in the immature 
nestling. 

72. Megalopterus minutus.— WHITE-CAPPED NODDY. 

Anoxts minutus Boie, Isis, 1844, heft 3, col. 188, March : North-east Australia. 

Anoiis leucocapillus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1845, p. 103, Feb. 1846 : Raine Island, 

Queensland. 

Aiwus atrojusciis Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., p. 1 17, Jime 5th, 1894 : New Guinea. 

Megalopterits minutus kermadeei Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III.,pt. 3, p. 55, April 7th, 

1916 : Kermadec Islands = Mackay, Queensland. 

Distribution. — East Australian Tropical Seas, New Guinea. 

Adult male. — General colour above and below sooty-black ; entire wings darker 
and more inclining to black ; tail dark plumbeous-grey ; crown of head white shading 
off into grey on the nape and merging into the sooty-black of the mantle ; lores and 



LESSER NODDY. 101 

feathers in front of the eye jet-black like the upper throat ; short feathers encircling 
the eye black with a white spot above and a short white line below ; bill and feet 
black; iris blackish Total length 330 nina.; culmeu 45, wing 228, tail 118, 
tarsus 23. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Pure or yellowish-white distinct cap on top of head ; lores black 
— otherwise dark brown throughout. 

Nestling. — Sooty-brown, upper part of the head pale ash-grey forming a cap, 
becoming more whitish on the fore-head ; under -surface a shade paler. 

This may develop into a paler brown plumage with fainter tipping, which only 
lasts for a very short time, becoming darker and losing the tipping. 

Nest. — Slightly cupj)ed, composed of fresh seaweed, which is firmly cemented 
to a bough of a tree. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour whitish, si)ottcd round the larger end with 
reddish-brown ; sometimes a few pale grey spots over the rest of the egg ; axis 
45-47 mm., diameter 31.5-33. 

Breeding-season. — November, December. (Norfolk Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the tropical oceans, breeding on isolated 
islets. Mathews admitted seven subspecies, but we find that M . melanogcnys (Gray) 
(=u4. hawaiiensis Roths.) must be reinstated as a distinct species, having the grey 
head and neck of M. tenuirostris, but with the black lores of the present species and 
with a very distinct pale grey tail. This leaves six forms, as follows : M. m. minutus 
Boie {=A. leucocapillus Gould) from North-eastern Australian seas breeding on 
Norfolk Island and the Kermadecs (more than one subspecies may be here included) ; 
M. m. worcesteri (McGregor) from the Philip])ine Islands, in having a darker, greyer 
tail and longer toes ; 31. m. marcusi (Bryan) from Marcus Island (compared only 
with M. hawaiiensis Roths.) ; 31. m. diamesus (Heller and Snodgrass) from the Cocos 
and Clipperton Islands, intermediate between 31. leucocajnlhis and 31 . hawaiiensis 
in both colour of plumage and size of bill ; 31. m. americanus Mathews from the 
Caribbean Sea, British Honduras, separated by its stouter bill and browiier tail, 
while it is less bluish-iilumbeous on the upper back and throat ; and 31. m. allanticus 
Mathews from Ascension Island, St. Paul's Rocks and Fernando Noronha with 
longer stouter bills, white more restricted to crown of head, long wings and blackish 
tail. 

73. Megalopterus tenuirostris. —LESSER NODDY. 

[Sterna tenuirostris Temminck et Laiigier, Planch. Color. d'Ois., 34" livr. (Vol. II., pi. 202), 

(Vol. IV., pi. 104 ? May), July 26th, 1823 : " Senegal " errore = .Seychellea. Extra-limltal.) 

Goidd, Vol. VII., pi. 35 (pt. xxn.), March 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 116, Nov. 

Ist, 1912. 

Anom melanops Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1845, p. 103, Feb. 1846 : Houtman'.s Abrol- 

hos, West Australia. 

Distribution. — South-west Australia. 

Adult male. — Entire wings, back, tail, breast and abdomen sooty-black, like 
the under-tail coverts and under wing-coverts ; head greyish-white becoming ash- 
grey on the hind-neck, darker on the sides of the neck, and inclining to black on the 
throat and fore-neck ; short feathers encircling the eye velvety-black, bill and feet 
black; iris ashy. Total length 393 ram. ; culmen (exp.) 39, wing 209, tail 112, 
tarsus 24. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Young in down. — Sooty-black, upper part of the head mouldy-white, bill and 
feet black. 

Immature. — Does not appear to have been described ; may be similar to adult. 



102 A MANtTAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Nest. — Constructed of seaweed, thrown across the branch, without any regard 
to form, until it has accumulated to a mass varying from two to four inches in 
height. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour dull white, a ring round the larger composed 
of dark brown blotches, a few spots of this colour and others of light grey sparingly 
placed over the rest of the surface ; axis 43-46, diameter 29-31. 

Breeding-season. — September to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Apparently Indian Ocean only. Two forms have been 
recognised : M. t. tenuirostris (Temminck and Laugier) from the Seychelles, and 
M. t. melanops (Gould) from West Australia, differing in its smaller size. 

Genus ANGUS. 

Anous Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 139, Feb. 18th, 1826 (ex Leach 

MS.). Type (by subsequent designation. Gray, p. 79, 1840) : A. nigcr Stephens = S. atolida 

Linn^. 

Stolida Lesson, Trait6 d'Om., 8"^ livr., p. 620, June Uth, 1831. Type (by monotypy) : 

S. stolida Linn6. 

Gavia Swainson, Classif. Birds, Vol. II., p. 373, July 1st, 1837. Type (by monotypy) : Gavia 

leucoceps Swainson = Sterna stolida Linn^. 

Not Gavia Forster, Enchirid. Hist. Nat., p. 38, 1788. 

Aganophron Gloger, Hand- u. Hilfsb. Naturg., livr. 8, p. 463, (early) 1842. Type(bymono- 

typy) : S. stolida Linn6. 

Noddi " Cuvier " Gray, Genera Birds, Vol. III., p. 661, Jan. 1846. In synonjrmy of Anoua. 

" Nodinus Rafin. ? " Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. 131, Oct. 1855. In synonymy of 

Anous. 

This and the preceding genus of the Sternid<e are characterised by the nature 
of the bills and especially the formation of the tail. Li no case are the outer rectrices 
developed into streamers, but in some genera they are absolutely the shortest. 

Largest Noddies vnth long stout biUs, long wings and tails (though no streamers 
are present), short legs but long toes. 

The cuhnen is as long as the head, stout, broad at the base, much longer than 
the tarsus. The nostrils are placed in a deep sulcus which extends almost half the 
length of the bill, and the anterior end of the nostril is about half way from the base 
of the bill to the tip. The tail is long, more than half the length of the wing, forked, 
but the fourth pair of feathers from the outside is the longest, while the outside pair 
is the shortest ; the middle pair is longer than the pair next the outside, but shorter 
than the third pair from the outside, which is subequal with the fifth pair. The 
toes are long and fully webbed, the inner and outer long and little less than the 
middle one. 

Coloration uniformly blackish-brown, with a pale whitish cap. 

74. Anous stolidus.— NODDY. 

ISterna stolida Linno, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 137, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Atlantic Ocean. Extra- 
limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 34 (pt. sxii.), March 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 115, Nov. 
1st, 1912. 

Anous stolidtw gilherli Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 4, p. 405, Nov. 1st, 1912 : Bedout 

Island, West Austraha. 

Anous stolidus antelius Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 6, p. 159, June 25th, 1918 : 

Cooktown, North Queensland. 

Distribution. — Tropical Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — General colour above and below sooty-bro"mi, inclining to black 
on the bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills ; head and nape hoary-white ; 
lores blackish, the short feathers encircling the eye white on the upper and mider 



GREY NODDY. 103 

portions, remainder black ; a blush of hoary-grey pervades the sides of the face 
and hind-neck ; under wing-coverts plumbeous-black ; bill and feet black. Total 
length 395 mm. ; culmen 39, wing 262, tail 150, tarsus 26. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but browner in colour and somewhat 
smaller. 

Immature. — Uniform brown, without a cap. 

Nestling (two days old). — Covered with down, sooty-brown on the upper-surface 
as well as on the throat, fore-neck and chest, becoming paler and inclining to white 
on the abdomen, with the fore-head dirty white, darker on the top of the head, only 
an indistinct cap being seen. 

Nest. — Constructed of seaweed, about six inches in diameter, and varying in 
height from four to eight inches, but without anything like regularity of form ; the 
top is nearly flat, there being but a very slight hollow to prevent their single egg from 
rolling off. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; groimd-colour light stone ; spotted on the larger end with 
reddish-brown and sparsely spotted all over with dull grey ; axis 64-56 mm., diameter 
36-38. 

Breeding -season. — October to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the tropical oceans, breeding on isolated 
islets. Mathews differentiated eight forms and has since added a ninth ; these 
are as follows : A. s. stolidus (Linne) from the Atlantic Ocean ; A. s. rousseaui 
Hartlaub from Madagascar, Mauritius, etc., in its larger size and darker coloration ; 
A. s. plumbeigularis Sharpe, from the Red Sea, in its smaller size and slightly paler 
coloration ; A. s. pilealus (Scopoli) from the Philippine Islands, Liu Kiu Islands, 
and China Seas in being darker and again larger ; A. s. unicolor (Nordmann), from 
the South Pacific Islands (Society, Paumotu, etc.) in its still larger size ; A. s. 
gilberti Mathews from West Australia, lighter and lai'ger than A. s. pilealus and 
smaller than A. s. unicolor; A. s. antelius Mathews from East Australia, browner 
with head lighter and with longer wings ; A. s. galapagensis Sharpe from the 
Galapagos Islands with its dark blackish coloration and dark grey cap, a very distinct 
form ; and A. s. ridgwayi Anthony from the Pacific Coast of Mexico, paler than 
preceding, but darker than A. s. stolidus, the top of the head darker grey, etc. 



Genus PROCELSTERNA. 

Procelsierna Lafresnaye, Mag. de Zool., 1842, pi. 29. Type (by monotypy) : P. tereticollis 
= Sterna certilea Bennett. 

Small Noddies with short slender bills, long wings, long tails, and long toes 
fully webbed. 

The tail has the outer rectrix shorter than the second, which is longest, but 
longer than the middle feathers. The middle toe without the claw is about the 
same length as the exposed portion of the culmen and longer than the metatarsus. 
The tail is slightly more than half the length of the wing. 

Coloration all bluish-grey. 

Procelsterna cerulea.— GREY NODDY. 

[Sterna cerulea Bennett, Narr. Whaling Voy., Vol. II , p. 248, (pref. April 14th) 1840 : 
Christmas Island, Pacific Ocean. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 37 (pt. XXXV.), Deo. 1st, 1848. Mathews. Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 118, 
Nov. 1st, 1912. 

Anous cine-reus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1845, p. 104, Feb. 1846 : northern coasts 
of Australia (? error = Lord Howe Island), 



104 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALLV. 

Procehterna alhivilla Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLII., p. 773, May 

1856. New name for ^. cinerci/j* Gould. 

Procelslerna ccriUea kermadeci Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 55, April 7th, 

1916 : Kermadec Islands. 

Distribution. — Probably as a straggler to east coast of Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour above ash-grey, paler and inclining to white on 
the head, sides of face and entire under -.surface of body, including the under wing- 
coverts ; under tail-coverts ash-grey like the upper -surface ; inner webs of outer 
primary-quills inclining to black near the shaft, the innermost portion becoming 
whitish ; most of the secondaries grey margined with white at the tips ; short 
feathers encircling the eye, black in front and white on the hinder portion ; bill 
black ; iris blackish-blue ; tarsi and toes black, webs lemon-yellow. Total length 
279 mm. ; culmen 29, wing 207, tail 120, tarsus 24. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but smaller. 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in being dark slate-grey both above and 
below, the wings being somewhat darker than the back and the primary-quills 
inclining to black. 

Nestling. — Almost the same colour as the parent bird. 

Nest. — None ; the eggs are laid on the bare rock or sand. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour stone, with underlying spots of grey sparingly 
distributed, and fewer spots of chestnut-brown ; axis 42 mm., diameter 30. 

Breeding-season. — September to January. (Norfolk Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Apparently Pacific Ocean only where, however, five 
forms have been distinguished, as foUows : P. c. cerulea (Bennett) from Christmas 
Island and Hawaiian Group ; P. c. teretirostris (Lafresnaye) from the Paumotus, 
Marquesas and Society Groups ; P. c. nebmixi Mathews, from the EUiceand Phoenix 
Groups darker and smaller than preceding which are all darker than the next two ; 
P. c. cinerea (Gould) from Norfolk, Lord Howe, Kermadec Islands, probably Friendly 
Islands, much paler above and below and also larger ; the form P. c. imitatrix 
Mathews, from St. Ambrose Group of the coast of South America, agreeing almost 
exactly in coloration but a little larger. 

Genus LEUCANOUS. 

Leucanous Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 4, p. 432, Nov. 1st, 1912. Tj-pe (by original 

designation) : Gygis mwrorhyncha Saunders. 

Qygis Wagler, Isis, 1832, heft 11, col. 1223, Nov. Tj^e (by monotypy) : Sterna Candida 

GmeUn. 

Not Gyges Bory de St. Vincent. Ency. Meth., p. 449, 1825. 

Alphagygis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 110, Sept. 24th, 1914. New name 

for Gygis Wagler 1832, as above. 

Small Noddies with long stout bills, long wings, medium tails and very short 
legs, and long toes with indented webs. The diagnostic characters of the genus 
are the shape of the bill and the very short legs, and long toes with deeply indented 
webs. The bill is longer than the head with the culmen straight or even slightly 
upturned, while.it is very deep at the base i>roportionately. The tail is less than 
half the length of the wing and the outer rectrix is shorter than the second which 
is longest. The middle toe is almost twice as long as the metatarsus though not 
much more than half the culmen. 

The bird described as Gygis microrhyncha by Saunders differs from the above 
in having a long slender bill and a proportionateh' shorter tail of different formation, 
the third rectrix from the outside being the longest, while the first is absolutely 
shortest. In Sterna alba Sparrman the outside rectrix is longer than the two centre 
pairs, the centre feather being the shortest. 

Coloration all white. 



WHITE TERN. 105 

Leucanous albus.— WHITE TERN. 

[Sterna alba Sparrman, Mus. Carlson, fasc. r., No. 11, 1786: " India orientali, at Promon- 

torium Bonae Spei, etc." = Ascension Island. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., p. 30 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 119, Nov. 1st, 

1912. 

Gygis alba rot/ana Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., p. 433, Nov. 1st, 1912 : Kermadec Islands 

Distribution. — Probably as straggler to east coast of Australia. 

Adult male. — Entire upper- and under-surface of body ivory-white ; short 
feathers surrounding the eye black ; shaft-lines of primary -quills dark brown, 
somewhat darker and inclining to black on the shafts of the tail-feathers ; bill 
black at tip, base blue ; iris brown ; tarsi, toes and webs yellow. Total length 
330 mm. ; culmen 45, wing 250, tail 110, tarsus 16. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but somewhat smaller. Total length 
260 mm. ; culmen 40, wing 243, tail 108, tarsus 14. 

Immature (half grown). — Retaining down adhering to back of head, sides of rump, 
throat, etc. ; nape with jiale rusty-brown tipping to white feathers, back similarly 
barred with rusty tips, scapulars and inner secondaries prominently so marked 
with darker bars, wing-coverts with rusty edges ; black spots in front of eye ; rest 
of plumage snow-white. Iris dark brown, feet dark blue with cream webs, bill 
greyish-blue and black. (Norfolk Island.) 

Nestling {a few days old). — Shows down to have been mottled and not uniform as 
commonly acce^Dted ; a large black patch above and extending behind the eye, pale 
brown line above, and then black markings towards nape, greyish-brown on fore-head 
with lighter edge ; back dark brownish-grey with indistinct pale blotches ; wings 
similarlj' blotched, method of di.sposal of blotches indistinguishable ; throat dark 
grey, abdomen lighter grey. Iris, very dark brownish-grey, feet light blue, webs 
flesh, bill bluish-black all over. {Idem.) 

Nestling. — Covered with black down. From dark brownish-grey to very light 
grey, or almost white. 

Nest. — The egg is laid in a depression on the branch of a tree or on a point of rock. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour stone, blotched all over with reddish-brown 
and lavender. Some examples have a resemblance to the eggs of Chlamydera ; 
axis 42-44 mm., diameter 33. 

Breeding-season. — October to February. 

Distribution and forms. — Tlrroughout tropical seas breeding on isolated islands. 
Mathews in 1912 suggested half a dozen subspecies and since then no critical work 
appears to have been done on this species. Mathews proved that Sterna alba 
Sparrman must be used for this species and fixed the type locality as Ascension 
Island. The North Pacific form differs in dark coloration of the shafts of the 
primaries, and different shape and parti -coloured bill, the Atlantic form having 
a wholly black bill, slenderer and narrower at base. For this North Pacific form 
Leucanous albus Candidas (Gmelin) may be used, the type locality being Christmas 
Island, to which may be referred the Hawaiian Group birds ; series are not available 
to determine whether the Caroline and Marianne birds are separable, but, if so, 
their name would be Leucanous albus kittlitzi (Hartert) ; Kermadec breeding birds 
have longer wings and longer bills and bear the name Leucanous albus royanus 
(Mathews) ; to this race has been assigned Norfolk Island birds and these would 
occur on the east Australian Coast ; Leucanous albus pacijicus (Lesson) can be used 
for the birds from the Society Grouj) and Samoa, which have shorter wings but 
longer bills than the preceding. Probably other races occur in the Pacific Ocean. 
The Indian Ocean form, breeding at the Seychelles, can be called Leucanous albus 
monte Mathews, differing in their shorter wings from the Pacific forms but having 
bills as long as L. a. royanus. All Atlantic birds are classed as Leucanous albus albus 



106 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

(Sparrmau), but probably more than one race will be admitted, the South Trinidad 
race having been named Leucanous albus crawfordi (Nicoll.) 

Family LARID^. 

Gulls are superficially easily separable from the other members of the suborder 
as above diagnosetl. The two genera recorded for Australia deserve investigation 
as to the internal features, as one of them, Gabianus, has received generic recognition 
by WTiters who commonly Ixmiped the most diverse species together. It differs 
very appreciably from the other Australian species referretl to Brvchigavia, and 
comparison would be valuable. 

Internally, the Gulls differ from the Terns in the leg muscle formula being 
always AXY-}-, the accessory femoro-caudal being always absent, while the expansor 
secundariorum is always present. The cieca are rudimentary, the digestive system 
pevicoelous and mesogyrous. The pterylosis is a little different from that of the 
preceding family and the coloration of the downy young seems to be of one style only. 

Genus BRUCHIGAVIA. 

Brwkigavia Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., Vol. II., p. 228, Oct. 1857. Tj-pe (by monotj-py) : 
Larus '.lovtehollandicE Stephens. 

Gulls are seabirds with webbed feet and a hooked bill, but the nostrils are 
not tubular. As before noted they superficially resemble Petrels, but have had a 
different origin. At the present time no up-to-date classification exists. 

The bill is short and stout, between two and three times as long as it is deep, 
with the maxilla longer, and the tip bent over the mandible ; the tail is short and 
and generally square. The nostrils are placed in a suture at some distance from the 
base of the bill, and are oblong in shape. The tarsus is fairly moderate and the feet 
are large and fully webbed ; the hind-toe fully developed, though small. First 
primary longest. The tail is shorter than the wing, and square. 

Bruchigavia is characterised by having the tail less than half the length of the 
wing, and the bill is short and robust, though of a delicate shape ; the nostrils are 
proportionately very long and linear. 

Coloration grey above, white below. 

75. Bruchigavia novaehollandiae. — SILVER GULL. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 20 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 4, pi. 120, Nov. 
let, 1912. 

Larus novcehoUandim Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 196, Feb. 18th, 
1826 : New South Wales, based on Watling drawing No. 277, the source of Latham's Crimson- 
billed Gull. 

Lartis jamcsonii Wilson, Illustr. Zool., pt. vi., pi. xxiii., 1829: " shores of New Holland" = 
Tasmania. 

Larus erythrorkynchits " Lath." Burton, Cat. Coll. Mamm. Birds Mus. Fort Pitt, Chatham, 
p. 46, (pref. April 1st) 1838, based on Latham's Crimson-billed Gull : New South Wales. 
Gavia gotddii " Bp." Bruch, Joum. fiir Ornith., 1853, heft 2, p. 102, March. In sj-nonj-my 
of jameaonii Wilson, from Vandiemens Land. 

Oavia andersonii Bruch, ib., p. 102; " Neu-Seeland " = ? New South Wales. 
Gavia pomarre Bruch, ib., p. 103: " Gesellschaft's-Inseln " errore = ? New South Wales. 
Type in Mainz Mus. 

Gelasles corallinns Bonaparte, Naumannia, 1854, p. 216 : New South Wales. 
Gelanles rjouldi Bonaparte, ib. : Torres Straits, Queensland. 
Not of Bruch 1853 as above. 

Bruchigavia loiiyirostris Masters, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., Vol. II., p. 113, July 1877_: 
King George Soimd, South-west Australia. 



SILVER GULL. 107 

Larus iwvaliollandia; gunni Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 212, Jan. 3Ist, 1912: 

Tasmania. 

Lariis novcehollandict: eihel<B Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 30, April 2nd, 1912 r 

Kangaroo Island, Soutli Australia. 

Bruchigavia tiovcehollandim yorki Mathews, Birds Austr., Suppl. No. 1, Check List, p. 30„ 

Feb. 16th, 1920: Torres Straits, Queensland. A''ojre. wof. for Gciasics^ouWi Bonaparte, 1854. 

DiSTRiBUTtON. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Back and wings blue-grey ; head and neck all round and entire 
ujider-siuiace of the body pure white including the axillaries and under tail-coverts ; 
upper taiJ-coverts and tail also white as well as the small coverts round the bend of 
the wings, both above and below ; inner under wing-coverts inclining to grey ; 
bastard-wing and primary-coverts white ; the first primary black with a white 
mirror towards the end v^hich occupies both webs, slightly fringed with black on the 
inner one ; the second primary has a line of white near the base which occup)ies the 
shaft and a small portion each side of it, a mirror near the tip similar in shape to 
the one on the first primary but more broadly margined with black on the inner 
web ; the third primary has a similar line of white from the base to beyond th© 
middle of the feather, and another elongated spot on the inner web which is joined 
by the continous white shaft, also tipjjed with white ; the fourth quill is white on 
the outer web for the greater part of its length, towards the end it crosses on to the 
inner web : the basal portion of the inner web is gre3'ish-brown near the shaft with 
a subapical black and white tip ; the fifth primary is white on the outer web nearly 
the whole length, dark grey and fringetl with black on the inner web, with a subapical 
black band and white tij) ; the sixth quill is blue-grey fringed with black on the 
inner web towards the end and a narrow subapical black band and white tip ; the 
seventh primary blue-grey with a very slight fringe of black on the inner web near 
the tip ; secondaries entirely blue-grey ; bill and feet red ; iris white, eyelid red. 
Total length 440 mm. ; culmen 36, wing 309, tail 120, tarsus 50. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but smaller. 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in having the tijos of the feathers on the 
nape, hind-neck, and mantle broun ; the lesser wing-coverts brown tipped with, 
white and fringed on the sides more or less with ochreous-buff, the greater coverts 
grey with a subapical browia spot and white tip ; bastard-wing dark brown on the 
inner web ; the secondaries grey with subapical brown marks and tipj)ed with white ; 
the imiermost secondaries brown with grey bases irregularly marked and fringed with 
white at the tips, also a slight mottling of buff ; some of the scapulars similarly 
marked but paler ; the feathers of the rump grey ^vith subapical brown spots and 
fringed with buff at the tips ; some of the upper tail-coverts blackish at the tip ; 
tail-feathers white with a subapical dark band mottled with buff and tij^ped with 
white. As the bird advances in age the browii of the upper wing-coverts seems to 
be the last to change. Iris light grey, eyelid orange, bill dark hom, legs and feet 
greyish-black. 

Immature with traces of down. — Channel Rock, Torres Straits, June 1st, 1881 : 
" Iris bro\vn, bill hom, legs and feet light brown " ; top of the head uniform light 
brown, bases of all feathers white tipped \vith light bro^^^^ with a penultimate bar 
of much darker brown ; these colours increase in depth on the scaj)ulars ; rump 
white ; tail-feathers with white tips, penultimate browTi bar and white bases ; 
general imder coloration white ; primaries black Avith white tips, the first two 
primaries showing incipient mirrors (which are not present in first complete immature 
plumage, but reappear at a later age) ; greater coverts white, the outermost with 
irregular black markings, the next two fringed on outer web with darker brown. 
(These are similar in immature birds, but are piu-e white in adult.) 

Nestling. — Heavily mottled with brown on the upper-surface ; under-suriace 
white. 

Nest. — Formed of a few rushes and grasses. 



108 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Eggs. — Two usually, sometimes three ; ground-colour bufi-brown blotched 
with dark reddish-brown and grey ; axis 54, diameter 37-39. Very variable in 
coloration. 

Breeding-season. — October, November and December. 

Distribution and forms. — Round the coasts of Australia, New Caledonia and 
New Zealand, the South African B. hartlaubi (Bruch) being scarcely specifically 
separable. The Austral forms are separable by means of the white pattern on the 
primaries ir connection with other features, as follows : B. n. novcekollandice (Stephens) 
from New South Wales, with a light coral bill and first three primaries with elongate 
" mirrors " ; B. n. jamesonii (Wilson) from Tasmania (=fi. n. gunni Mathews) 
with verj' large white markings on the primaiies, an mimistakable race, probably 
also occurring in Victoria ; B. n. ethelce (Mathews) from South Australia, similar to 
the typical race but larger ; B. n. longirostris Masters, from South-west Australia, 
is larger with longer bill which is black for a long time and very deei) red when 
fully coloured, longer legs, and mirror usually missing on third primary ; B. n. yorki 
Mathews, from North Australia, larger than typical race, with a stouter bill and 
usually no mirror on third primary ; B. n. forsteri Mathews, from New Caledonia, 
smaller than the preceding but larger than the next with no mirror on third primary 
and medium on first two ; and B. n. scopulinus (Forster) from New Zealand, a 
smaller race with a paler red bill and bold white tips to the primaries which are 
persistent, and no mirror on third primary, but there may be more than one race 
throughout New Zealand and its Sub-antarctic Islands. 

Genus GABIANUS. 

Gabianus Bruch, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1853, heft 2, p. 100, March (ex Bonaparte MS.). Tj'pe 

(by monotypy) : Lar%i3 pacificus Latham. 

Gahianus Bonaparte, Jouni. fiir Ornith., 1853, hoft 1, p. 47, Jan. Nomcn nudum. 

Large Gulls with square tails ; the bill short, verj' deep and laterally compressed, 
the nostril placed well forward, small and pyriform in shape. 

The bill is strongly hooked, the gonys very pronounced and the bill is scarcely 
twice as long as deep at the base and not twice as long as depth at the gonys ; the 
lateral compression is also very remarkable, while the small pear-shaped nostril 
placed about half the length of the culmen almost suggests a Skua-like cere, the 
nasal groove being merelj' an impression. 

The wings are very long, but the tail, while square and with broad feathers, 
is two-fifths its length, though at first sight it may appear short. 

The legs and feet are large and powerful, the claws small and little hooked ; 
the tarsus is scutellate in front and reticulate behind, the toes long and fully webbed, 
inner shorter than outer, which is a little less than middle one ; hind-toe small. 

Coloration : white head and under-surface, back and wings black, and tail 
white with a black subterminal bar. 

76. Gabianus pacificus.— PACIFIC GULL. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 19 (pt. xxvni.), Sept. 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 5, pi. 121, Jan. 

31st, 1913. 

Larus pacificus Latham, Index Ornith. Suppl., p. 68, 1801, after May: New South Wales, 

based on Watling drawing No. 275. 

Larus frontalis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XXI., p. 505, May 30th, 1818: 

Tasmania. 

Not of Reich., Mag. Thierreichs, Vol. III., p. 129, 1795. 

Larus leucoinelas Vieillot, ib., p. 509 : Tasmania. 

Larus bathyrinchus Macgillivray, Mem. Wern. Sec, Vol. V., pt. i., p. 253, 1824 (after March 

21st) : Coasts of New Holland = New South Wales. 



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PACIFIC GULL. 109 

Larus georgii King, Survey Intertrop. Coasts Austr., Vol. II., p. 423, " 1827 " = April 26th, 

1826 : King George Sound, West Australia. 

Gabianiis pacificus kingi, Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 56, April 7th, 1916 : 

Queensland. 

DisTBiBUTiON. — Australia generally (not in extreme north) and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Back and wings dark brown ; small coverts round the bend of the 
wing pure white ; lesser, median, and greater wing-coverts blackish like the bastard- 
wing, primary -coverts and quills, some of the latter tipped with white, more broadly 
on the innermost primaries which are also margined with white on the inner webs 
towards the tip ; sides of rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail white, the latter with a. 
broad subterminal band of black on all the feathers except the outer pair, each of 
which have a very slight mottling of black and a black shaft-streak on the subterminal 
portion of the feather ; head and neck all round white like the mider-surface, which 
includes the axillaries, under wing-coverts, and under tail-coverts ; bill green, tip 
red, cutting edges yellowish-green ; iris silvery-white ; eyelid yellow ; feet yellow. 
Total length 645 mm. ; culmen 62, wing 475, tail 192, tarsus 78. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but the subterminal black band on the 
tail much more irregular in shajae, the outer feathers pure white with the exception 
of the subterminal black shaft-streak, the second jjair has a slight mark on the 
outer web with a black shaft-streak and a large blotch on the inner web, while on the 
corresponding feather there is only a black shaft-streak and a small black spot 
on the inner web ; iris brown. Total length 645 mm. ; culmen 60, wing 443, 
tail 178, tarsus 64. 

Immature. — Upper-surface brown, most of the feathers margined with white 
or ferruginous, and showing dark shaft-streaks on the scapulars and upper tail- 
coverts ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills dark brown fringed and tipped 
with white, the shafts of the latter white on their basal portion ; secondaries similar 
but paler at the base of the inner web ; tail-feathers dark brown fringed with whitish 
at the tips, outer feather on one side margined with white, and white on the iruier 
web at the base ; head and neck all romad brown with white bases to the feathers ; 
throat white with brown pear-shaped spots to the feathers ; remainder of under- 
surface brown with white bases to the feathers ; mider wing-coverts dark brown ; 
axillaries imiform pale brown ; iris dusky slate-grey, eyelid brick-red ; legs dull 
ochre tinged with olivaceous ; toes and tarsi olivaceous-slate, claws black. 

Nestling. — Buiiy-white, with longitudinal spots of brown on the upper-surface, 
the brown pattern somewhat darker on the head, the mider-surface paler and miiform 
save on throat, which is obscurely spotted ; bill bluish-hom colour, tip light horn 
colour ; feet and iris black. 

Nest. — Very neat, the grass used being womid round and roimd, making a 
beautiful symmetrical hollow — three to four inches deep. Placed under the lee of a 
bunch of tussock grass, or some sheltering bush. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one to three ; ground-colour light olive-brown blotched all over 
with reddish-brown and lavender ; axis 73-76 mm., diameter 50-53. 

Breeding-season. — October to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to AustraUa and Tasmania. Three subspecies 
may be easily recognised : G. p. pacificus (Latham) from New South Wales, Victoria, 
Tasmania and (?) South Australia ; G. p. kingi Mathews from Queensland similar 
in coloration, but smaller ; and G. j>. georgii (King) from South-west Australia, 
with the band across the tail much more irregular and narrower, the broadest part 
only 20 mm. deep. 

Family STERCORARIID^. 
Skuas are recognisable at sight by their cere-bearing gull-like bill, and the 
long sharply hooked claws. Otherwise they vary in size and form from small 



110 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

delicate birds to stout heavy forms. They have the leg muscle formula of the Gulls 
but difier in the presence of long caeca and the absence of the expansor secundariorum. 
The coracoids are separated whereas in the preceding they are in contact. The 
most interesting feature, however, i.s the differentiation of the Antarctic forms as 
to the skull and also in connection with the syrinx. In skull characters the Antarctic 
Skuas are more Pluvialine than Larine and the syrinx is also of the former nature. 
No detailed comparison between these and Stercorarius appears to have been 
instituted. 

Genus CATHARACTA. 

Caiharacta Briinnich, Ornith. Boreal., p. 32, (pref. Feb. 20th) 1764. Tj^je (by subsequent 
designation, Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. v., 1852 (? 1853): Caiharacta skua Briinnich. 
Pomariinis G. Fischer, Nat. Mus. Naturg. Paris, Vol. II., p. 185, (pref. March 6th) 1803. 
Tj-pe (by monotypy) : Pomarinus fuscus = C. ekua BriinBich. 

Megalestris Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIII., p. 643, Sept. 1856. 
Type (by monotypy): Stercorarius catarrhactes = C skua Briinnich. 

Buphagus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1863, p. 124, May. Type (by original designa- 
tion) : Caiharacta skua Briinnich. 
Not Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. 129, 1855. 

Largest Skuas with stout powerful hooked bills, long wings, long wedge-shaped 
tail and strong legs and feet with stout hooked claws, the inner claw peculiarly 
developed. The bill has a horny cere, extending half way along the upper mandible, 
overhanging the nostrils which appear as elongately oval apertures ; the tip of the 
mandible is strongly hooked, and the gonys is not very pronounced. The wing is 
long and the square tail is about two-fifths the length, the central feathers being 
normal and not elongated in any way. The legs are very strong, and the feet with 
very broad webs, the claws very hooked, the iimer claw powerfully and abnormally 
so, the hind-toe small. 

Coloration miiform dusky above and below. 

77. Catharacta lonnbergi. — ANTARCTIC SKUA. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 21 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 5, pi. 122, Jan. 

31st, 1913. 

Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 212, Jan. 31st, 1912: 

New Zealand Seas. 

Distribution. — Southern Australian Seas. 

Adult male. — General colour above dark brown, inclining to blackish on the 
wings ; some of the scapulars fringed and mottled with white, as also some of the 
upper tail-coverts ; wing-coverts uniform dark browii like the bastard-^ring and 
primary-coverts ; primary-quills white at the base, dark brown or blackish at the 
tips, the shafts for the greater part white ; secondaries and tail-feathers dark brown, 
white at the base ; head and neck all round, rufous-brown like the mider -surface 
of the body ; the feathers on the hind-neck and sides of the neck lanceolate in form 
and show glossy shaft-streaks ; mider wing-coverts and axiUaries darker than the 
abdomen and more glossy ; a short, narrow streak of white below the eye ; bill 
black ; iris dark brown ; feet black. Total length 690 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 57, 
wing, 433, tail 170, tarsus 78. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. Total length 610 mm. ; culmen 56, 
wing 410, tail 155, tarsus 77. 

Captain Hutton says : " Sometimes the feathers of the back of the neck are 
finely streaked with pale yellow ; but usually they are of a uniform brown." 

Immature. — Uniform brownish-black on the ujijicr-surface ; the lower, uniform 
brownish-grey ; the white bases of the primarj-quills extensive. 



POMARINE SKUA. Ill 

Nestling in rfowrt.— Smoky-grey, darker above and paler below, with indistinct 
darker blotches on the upper-surface. 

Nest. — None ; a shallow dejiression. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour dark stone, sparingly marked with blotches 
of bro^-n, and a few dark grey ones romid the middle ; axis 76 mm., diameter 52. 

Breeding-season. — November. (Chatham Island, Macquarie Island.) 

Distribution andfonns. — Romid the Sub-antarctic Circle. Probably many forms 
will be later differentiated, but Mathews onl}' separated three, as : C. /. lonnbergi from 
New Zealand and its sub-antarctic Islands ; C. I. interced,ensMa\hevts, from Kerguelen 
Island, smaller than the preceding, with a large bill, wing average 410 mm. ; typical 
form 430 mm. ; and G. I. clarkei Mathews from South Orkneys is a smaller form 
still, the wing generally under 400 mm. 

Genus COPROTHERES. 

Coprothcres Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. v., 1852 (1853 ?). Tj-pe (by original designa- 
tion) : Larus = (Lestris) pomarinus Temminck. 

Medium Skuas with stout bills, long wings, long tail with central pair of feathers 
elongated and twisted, but not attenuated, strong legs and feet. Differing from 
CaiAarocto in its smaller size, with a less stout bill and the elongation of the central 
tail-feathers, which are, however, broad, and from Stercorarius in its much larger 
size and stouter bill, stronger legs and feet and in lacking the attenuation of the 
longest central tail-feathers. As to proportions, it might be noted that the bill is 
just over one-tenth the length of the wing ; in the latter it is less, and in the former, 
it is more than one-eighth, and other items are in agreement as the wing is less than 
twice the length of the tail as in the latter, but in the former it is more. 

Coloration dark brown-black above -with the under-surface more or less white. 

78. Coprotheres pomarinus.— POMARINE SKUA, 

[Lei<trts pomarinus Temminck, Manuel d'Orn., p. 514, (pref. dated 1814) 1815 : Arctic Europe. 

Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 5, pi. 123, Jan. 31st, 1913. 

Catarracies camtschaiica Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., Vol. II., p. 312, 1827 : Kamtschatka. 
Coprotheres pomarinus nulcheri Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 4, p. 72, July 21st, 
1917 : Broken Bay, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — Siberia (breeding) migrating southward to Australia (visitor). One specimen 
preserved in Mathews's collection. 

Adult male. — General colour of the upper-surface sooty-black including the 
crown of head, cheeks, back, wings, and tail ; ijrimary-quills black on the outer 
webs and tips, brown on the inner webs and white at the base, the shafts white, dark 
brown at the tips ; secondaries dark brown, white at the base ; tail dark brown with 
white shafts at the basal portion, the two middle feathers ))roduced beyond the rest 
of the tail and twisted ; hind-neck and sides of neck straw colour ; a band which 
encircles the fore-neck and lower hind-neck, is composed of white feathers barred 
with brown and fringed with white at the tips. This colour extends on to the sides 
of the body ; throat, breast, and abdomen white ; axillaries and under v.-ing-coverts 
sooty-black like the vent and under tail-coverts ; bill horn brown ; tarsi and toes 
reddish-black. Total length 550 mm. ; culmen 38, wing 366, tail 227, taisus 53. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male. Nearly adult. — General colour of the 
upper-surface brown with pale edges and sometimes white bars to the feathers, 
crown of head rather paler than the back with buff edgings to the feathers ; sides 
of the crown, nape, and hind-neck pale brown with buiiy-white bars and 
edgings to the feathers ; upper back and sca^pulars dark browaa, the feathers 



112 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

margined with buff ; lesser upper wing-coverts dark brown with earth-brown 
margins to the feathers ; bastard -wing and primary -coverts uniform pale 
brown ; primaiy and secondary flight-quills dark brown on the outer webs, paler 
on the inner ones which are white at the base, the shafts of the feathers con- 
spicuously white on the outer primaries, most of the secondaries have pale narrow 
edges at the tips ; lower back almost uniform ash-brown ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts barred with white or smoky-white ; tail dark broAvn, white on the basal 
portion of the inner webs, the two middle feathers only slightly exceeding the lateral 
ones in length ; a pale eyebrow slightly indicated ; hinder face isabeUine with dark 
narrow shaft-lines to the feathers ; throat white with pale brown pear-shaped marks 
on the middle of the feathers, lower tliroat similar, but tinged with buff ; fore-neck, 
sides of neck, upper -breast and sides of breast pale browia barred with white or buffy- 
white like the sides of the body and under tail-coverts ; breast, abdomen and vent 
white ; under tail-coverts and axillaries pale brown barred with white ; quills below, 
white at the base and brown on the apical portion like the lower aspect of the tail. 
Eyes and bill black. Tarsus pale blue-black on the back. Toes and webs black. 
Total length 475 mm. ; culmen 39, wing 375, tail 155, tarsus 52. 

Immature. — General colour above dark bro^vn, the feathers everywhere marginetl 
and spotted with ochreous or rufous, more thickly on the rump and upper tail- 
coverts and more sparsely on the head and hind-neck ; the small coverts round the 
bend of the vnng white with dark centres ; mider parts more rufous and barred 
almost entirely over the whole surface, each feather being white at the base with two 
brown bars and fringed with rufous, more coarsely on the flanks ; the long under 
tail-coverts have four brown bars ; under wing-coverts browai barred with white ; 
axiUaries, some uniform grey with twin spots of rufous at the tips, others are grej-ish- 
brown barred and irregularly marked with white, fringed also with the same colour 
at the tips ; a dark spot in front of the eye. 

Nestling in down. — Pale sooty-brown above with a tinge of rufous, paler sooty 
below. 

Nest. — None made, the eggs are placed on the moss. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; the eggs have, on a j^ellowish-olive groimd-colour, a few 
spots of greyish-brown, irregular and fairly pale, and other overlying spots of a 
rather deep olive-brown ; others have a pale greenish ground-colour, varied by small 
pale ashy spots, and olive-bro\^'n ones smaller than the former and a little deeper 
in colour. The surface is fairly rough and a little glossy. Length 61-64 mm., by 
42-46. 

Breeding-season. — July. 

Distribution and forms. — Along the Arctic Circle, wintering in the southern 
hemisphere. An eastern and western form has been admitted, but the Australian 
specimens are not exactly in agreement, and consequently Mathews proposed the 
above name until more material is examined and the exact status determined. 

Genus STERCORARIUS. 

Stercorarius Brisson, Omith., Vol. I., p. 56, Vol. VI., p. 149, 1760. Type (by tautonj-my) : 

Stercorarius = Lams parasiticus Linne. 

Leslris lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 272, (pref. April) 1811. Type (by subsequent 

designation) : L. parasiticus Linne. 

Prcedatrix Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 65, April 14th, 1816. Tj'pe (by monotypy) : 

Labbe Buffon = Larus parasiticus Linn^. 

Oceanus Koch, Syst. baier. Zool., p. 380, (July) 1816. Tj-pe (by raonotj^py) : L. parasiticus 

Linn^. 

Not of Montfort, Conch. Syst., Vol. I., p. 58, 1808. 

Labbus " Rafinq. 1816 " Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. 129, Oct. 1855. In synonymy. 

AtahUslris Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 500, Jan. 31st, 1913. Typo (by original 

designation) : Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot. 



ARCTIC SKUA. 113 

The two species restricted to the genus Stercorarius are small Skuas with slender 
bills, weak legs and feet (comparatively), long wings, and very long central tail- 
feathers, acviminate, and attenuated into long streamers in the subgenus Atalo- 
lestris. In the subgenus Stercorarius the tail does not exceed the wing, but is about 
equal to it. 

79. Stercorarius parasiticus. — ARCTIC SKUA. 

{Larus parasiticus Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 136, Jan. 1st, 1758 : coasts of Sweden. 

Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. II., pt. 5, pi. 124, Jan. 31st, 1913. 

Stercoraritis parasiticus visitori Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 126, Jan. 28th, 

1915 : Sydney, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — Australia. Winter visitor. 

Adult : dark ]}hase. — General colour above and below sooty-black with white 
shafts to the primary -quills ; the lanceolate feathers on the sides of the neck rufous- 
brown, nostril plumes dull white ; bill browni.sh-hom colour, tijj black ; tarsi and 
toes black. Total length 525 mm. ; culmen 32, wing 333, tail 212, tarsus 50. 

Adult : light phase. — Differs from the dark phase in having the breast and 
abdomen dull white like the sides of the head ; cheeks, throat, and fore-neck pale 
brown ; hind-neck pale brown with straw-coloiu-ed shaft-streaks. 

Female. — General colour above smoke-brown •(vith a hoary tinge ; the feathers 
at the base of the fore-head whitish and those on the fore-part of the head with pale 
edges, hinder crown and nape uniform brown somewhat darker than the back ; 
the feathers on the hind-neck, grey at the base and fringed with isabelline at the 
tips ; the feathers on the mantle margined with pale umber as also are some of the 
short scapulars, but rather darker ; marginal upper wing-coverts fringed with 
whitish or isabelline ; inner webs of the primary- and secondary -quills white on the 
basal portion, the shafts of the primaries flattened in structure and conspicuously 
white in colour, but becoming dark at the extreme tips ; upper tail-coverts white, 
more or less tinged with isabelline, banded and very slightly tipped with brown ; 
tail white at the base — the white decreasing in extent on the outer feathers — and 
brown at the tip, somewhat darker on the two central feathers which are extended 
beyond the lateral ones and pointed in shape ; fore-part of the face including the 
eye smoke-browni ; chin dull white ; the feathers of the thi'oat and sides of the hinder 
face white at the base with a pear-shaped mark of brown at the tips ; fore-neck 
and sides of the upper-breast almost miiform brown ; remainder of the under- 
surface white barred and fringed at the tips of the feathers with brown, narrowly on 
the middle of the breast and sides of the abdomen, and broadly on the sides of the 
body, flanks and mider-tail coverts ; axillaries also broadly banded and more or 
less isabelline as well as white ; under wing -coverts isabelline irregularly marked 
brown or ash-brown, some of the feathers on the margin of the wing are only fringed 
with white ; quill-lining white at the base and ash-brown on the apical portion ; 
lower aspect of tail brown, becoming white towards the base. Eyes and bill black ; 
tarsus pale blue, toes and webs black. Total length 455 mm. ; culmen 33, wing 310, 
tail 169, tarsus 45. 

Immature male : dark phnse. — Dark brown above, the small coverts along the 
edge of the wing margined with fulvous, the head and neck all round very similar in 
colour, which colour is spread, more or less, over the breast ; remainder of mider- 
surface rufous or rust-brown, becoming almost black on the under tail-coverts, 
which have slightly pale edges. 

Immature : light phase. — Upper-surface greyish-brown, the feathers having 
rufous edgings, the head and neck streaked with rusty-brown, sometimes rufous, 
the neck paler than the head ; the imder-surface irregularly barred, more or less 
distinctly with brownish bars. Individual variation very pronounced. 

I 



114 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA 

Nestling in down. — Sooty-brown above, paler below. 

Nest. — A depression in the moss. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour dark stone to greenish-buff, spotted, but 
more at the larger end, -v^dth very dark brown to light grej' ; others have large 
irregular markings of light broMii ; axis 56 to 59 mm., diameter 40 to 41. 

Breeding-season. — June, July? (Bering Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the Arctic and Subarctic zones of the 
Holarctic Region. The variation seen in this species has so confused investigators 
among Palpearctic forms that Austral-Neozelanic specimens have been incorrectly 
named. The eastern breeding form is different from the western, but there may 
be more than one subspecies also breeding in the east ; therefore the only sm-e name 
is the one proposed by Mathews as given above, which should be used for Australian 
and Neozelanic birds at present. 

Suborder CHARADRIIFORMES. 

A congregation of Stone-Plovers, Waders (commonly so called), Plovers, Jacanas, 
Coursers and Pratincoles constitute this suborder, which shows development in many 
directions from an easily recognisable basis. We have subdivided this suborder 
into five superfamilies, Burhinoidea, Scolopacoidea, Charadrioidea, Jacanoidea and 
Glareoloidea, and as we give more study to these higher groupings we recognise 
that this suborder is due to a misconception of the value of the internal features 
formally used in so dogmatic a manner, and that, later, revision will be undertaken 
upon reasonable lines. The anatomists refer continually to generalised features, 
and misunderstand specialised characters and their value, though they accept the 
law of recapitulation, which they do not thoroughly miderstand. By means of the 
application of this law to external characters and colour pattern we get a good view 
of the evolution of many forms whose status has entirely puzzled students of internal 
items only. The Burhinoidea, or Stone-Plovers, are probably the most isolated, 
though the Jacanas have given a lot of trouble to systematists, and the Pratincoles 
have met with poor treatment. From the superficial characters of these forms a 
fairly correct idea of their relationships should have been reached. The Stone- 
Plovers would appear to be related to the Plovers, while the Jacanas similarly show 
Vanelline relationship, the Coursers and Pratincoles seeming to have varied in the 
opposite direction from a similar Vanelline ancestral form. The large congregation 
of Waders and Plovers have been commonly lumped, though there are valid differential 
features characteristic of each group which merit superfamily distinction, which is 
here allotted. The Waders seem to have independently evolved from a pre-Larine 
ancestor while the Plovers have develojied in a different direction ; we can trace 
the facts in many ways, so that when more knowledge of osteological and anatomical 
items is attained we may be able to determine more accurately the phylogeny of 
the groups. 

Osteological items have been little studied in detail : the skull shows a schizogna- 
thous palate and schizorhinal nasals, though those of the Burhinoidea have been 
commonly recorded as holorhinal, through a misusage of that term ; the nasals in 
the Burhinoidea are pseudo-holorhinal, being obviously schizorhinal in development. 
The presence or absence of basipterygoid processes varies according to the groups, 
being present in the superfamilies Scolopacoidea, Charadrioidea and Jacanoidea, 
absent in the Burhinoidea and Glareoloidea. The vomer is variable in shape and 
the lachrymal bone articulates vnih the ectethmoid in varjaug degrees. There 
are conspicuous supraorbital grooves and occipital foramina in some of the groups. 
There are fifteen or sixteen cervical vertebrae and the dorsals opisthoccelous, or 
heteroccelous : the coracoids are generally separated and the posterior border of 
the sternum two notched ; the furcula is reported as sometimes with and without 



FAMILY BUKHINIDaj;. 115 

a hypocleidium. The carotids are two, the syrinx tracheo-bronchial, a single pair 
of intrinsic muscles present or absent ; the digestive system is pericoelous and ortho- 
coelous, tending to the tjqDically mesogyrous, and caeca usually large though sometimes 
rudimentary. The leg muscle formula is variable, generally AXY4-, but in many 
cases ABXY+. The biceps slip and expansor secundariorum generaUy present, 
but in a few cases altogether missing. The oil gland is present and feathered, an 
aftershaft present and the wing aquincubital. The pterylosis of a few species is 
known but the variation has not been determined. The nestlings are hatched 
covered with down and the colour jiattern of this down seems a valuable character 
for the recognition of groups, as it is very constant. 

SUPERFAMILY BURHINOIDEA. 

An ancient group with only a single family and few genera distributed generally 
through the Temperate and Tropical zones of the world. Superficially the whole 
series agree, only showing variation in size, shape and size of bill and proportions 
of wings, legs, etc. Thus (Edicnenms contains the smaller species, Burhinus the 
larger ones with small bills, Orthorhamphus larger ones with very large straight stout 
bills, and Esacus larger ones with large stout recurved bills. The same style of 
coloration is retained by all with not much variation. 

Osteologically great stress has been laid uijon the holorhinal nostrils, as all other 
Charadriiform birds are credited with schizorhinal ones, but upon examination the 
holorhiny will be seen to be spurious and that the nasals are of schizorhiiaal origin. 
Another peculiar item is the variation of the leg muscles within the limits of the 
" genus " (Edicnenms, some members having lost the femoro-caudal, while others 
possess the full complement. There are no basipterygoid processes nor occipital 
foramina but supraorbital grooves are present. The lachrymals are united to the 
prefrontals. The cervical vertebrae are sixteen in number, while the coracoids 
overlap ; the dorsal vertebrae are heterocoelous and the sternum is four notched at 
the posterior border. There are generally no intrinsic muscles to the syrinx. 

Family BURHINID^. 

Four genera only are admitted in this family, of which two are represented in 
Australia, one being endemic. It is noteworthy that the extra-limital " genus " 
CEdicnemus shows more internal variation than appears externally, the variation 
in the leg muscles being extraordinary. The Australian endemic genus Burhinus 
has the formula BXY + , in this respect agreeing with the type of CEdicnemus, while 
other species of "CEdicnemus " have the formula ABXY+. Such a difference is 
elsewhere regarded as of great importance, but in this group merely as of specific value. 

Genus BURHINUS. 

Burhinus lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p 250, (pref. April) 1811. Type (by monotypy): 
Charadriiis magniroslris Latham. 

Planorhamphus Billberg, Synops. Favmfe Scand., Vol. I., pt. ii., Aves, tab. A, 1828. New 
name for " Burrhinus 111.? " c/. Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts 2 and 3, p. 40, Oct. 23rd, 1913. 

Burhinine birds with short bills, short wings, long tails, and long legs and feet. 

The bill is shorter than the head, thick, and strong ; nostrils pervious ; the 
nasal depression is less than half the length of the bill with the linear nostrils placed 
in its anterior i)ortion ; the culmen is much less than half the length of the meta- 
tarsus. The wing is short with the second primary longest, the first equal to the 
third ; the wing is much less than three times the length of the metatarsus. The 
tail, consisting of twelve rectrices, is long and wedge shaped, and more than half 

I 2 



116 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

the length of the wing. The legs are long ; a long tibia is exposed ; the metatarsus 
is reticulate throughout, and is nearly half the length of the wing. There is no 
webbing between the toes, and there is no hind-toe. 

The genus CEdicnemus differs in its smaller size and in the proportions of the 
wing, tail, and culmen. Thus the culmen i.s almost equal to half the metatarsal 
length ; the tail is about half the wng length ; and the wing, with the first primary- 
longest, is about three times the length of the metatarsus. 

Coloration grey, sandy or sandy-rufous, blotched with black above, throat 
striped with black ; abdomen, etc., white. Orthorhamphus is of similar coloration, 
but more miiform like Esacus with a huge straight, not upturned bill. 

80. Burhinus magnirostris.— STONE-PLOVER. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 5 (pt. XXI.), Dec. 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 173, Dec. 31st, 

1913. 

Charadrius magnirostris Latham, Index Omith. Suppl., p. Lxvi., 1801 after May : New 

South Wales, based on Watling drawing No. 251. 

Charadrius grallaritis Latham, ib. : New South Wales, based on ib. No. 246. 

Charadrius frcenattis Latham, ib., p. Lxvn. : New South Wales, based on ib. No. 252. 

(Edicnemrts lomjipes Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XXIII., p. 232, Sept. 5th, 1818, 

ex Geoffroy St. Hilaire MS. : Nouvelle HoUande ex Baudin Exp. = New South Wales. 

Burhinus novcehollandim Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIV., pt. i., p. 342, 1826 (end). 

New name for C. magnirostris Latham. 

Charadrius giganteus WagUr, Isis, 1829, heft 6, col. 048, June : New South Wales. 

CEdicnemus major Brehm, Isis, 1845, heft 5, col. 357, May : New South Wales. 

CEdicnemus australis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, p. 212. Error only. Norn. nud. 

CEdicnemus longipcs Ramsay, Tab. List. Austr. Birds, p. 35, 1888 : Gulf of Carpentaria, 

Queensland. 

Not of Vieillot as above 1818. 

Burhinus magnirostris rufescens Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 225, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Burhinus magnirostis ramsayi Mathews, ib. : Mackay, Queensland. 

Burhinus magnirostris broomei Mathews, *., p. 226 : Broome Hill, South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — General colour of the upper-surface pale grey with black shaft-lines, 
more broadly on the scapulars, and brown bars and mottlings on the upper tail- 
coverts and tail ; lesser upper wing-coverts bro\vn margined with buff, the median 
coverts broadly margined on the basal portion wth buliy-white, which give the 
appearance of an irregular wing-band ; the marginal coverts romid the bend of the 
wing greyish-brown with black shaft-lines ; bastard-wing, primary -coverts and quiUs 
black with a broad white band on the four out«r primaries, secondaries dark brown 
with paler margins, the long innermost secondaries like the long scapulars ; outer 
tail-feathers mottled with grey and barred with bro-\vn on the outer web and barred 
with brown and white on the imier webs and tipped with black ; fore-head, lores, 
cheeks, a streak below the eye, and superciliary line white like the chin and throat ; 
ear-coverts, fore-neck and breast buff with dark shaft-streaks, which are much 
broader on the breast ; abdomen and axillaries white ; flanks and under tail-coverts 
buff ; under wing-coverts grey with dark brown shaft-lines, the greater series with 
brown tips ; bill black ; iris greyish-yellow ; legs yellow, feet brown. Total length 
550 mm. ; culmen 61, wing 297, tail 170, tarsus 138. 

Adult /e7na7e.— Similar to the adult male, but smaller ; culmen 50, wing 275, 
tarsus 132. 

Nestling in down. — Whitish-grey above with four longitudinal black lines, two 
of which meet on the tail, each fringed with sandy-buff ; head whitish-grey, more or 
less mixed with black ; a black spot on the fore-head, which is continued over the 
eye on to the ear-coverts, also a black spot in front of the eye and a line of the same 
colour below the latter ; throat and under-surface white with a more or less buffy tinge. 



LONG-BILLED STONE-PLOVER. 117 

Nestling in partial down. — Crown of head, hind-neck, back, scapulars, and tail 
blue-grey with dark centres to the feathers ; outer scapulars tinged with rufous ; 
the grey down still adhering to the feathers on the sides of the crown, sides of 
neck, rump, and tail ; fore-head, eyebrow, and tlu-oat white ; lores and ear-coverts 
blackish ; quills black with white downy tips ; lower throat and fore-neck dark buff 
with broad black shaft-lines which extend on to the sides of the body ; abdomen, 
lower flanks, and thighs buffy-white ; under tail-coverts sandy-buff. 

Young. — Head and hind-neck grey, with dark central streaks to the feathers, 
the down still adhering to the feathers of the latter ; the feathers of the back, 
scapulars, and lesser wing-coverts broadly margined with rufous, becoming brighter 
and inclining to chestnut on the wings ; median coverts for the most part white with 
dark shaft-lines ; tail grey barred and mottled with brown ; cheeks and ear-coverts 
buff \vith dark shaft-streaks ; abdomen and thighs white, the latter tinged with 
buff ; under tail-coverts cimaamon-buff. 

Nest. — A depression. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour stone, blotched with dark brown, more 
especially on the larger end ; axis 53 mm., diameter 39. 

Breeding -season. — September and October. August to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Australia and Tasmania. Four subspecies 
are recognisable : B. m. magnirostris (Latham), from New South Wales, Victoria, 
South Australia and South Queensland ; B. m. ramsayi Mathews, from North 
Queensland, Gulf of Carpentaria, etc., with longer legs (146 mm.) though similar 
length of wing ; B. m. rufescens Mathews, from North-west Australia and Northern 
Territory, in their generally smaller size (tarsus 125 mm.) and more rufescent upper 
coloration ; and B. m. broomei Mathews, from South-west Australia, in their still 
smaller size, especially their shorter legs, tarsus 115 mm., average leg measurement 
of typical form 135 mm. 

Genus ORTHORHAMPHUS. 

Orthorhamphus Salvadori. Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, Vol. V., p. 312, 1874. Type (by raonotypy) : 
(Edicnemus magniroatris Vieillot. 

Burhinine birds with very long stout bills, short wings, short tail, and stout 
long legs. The bill is massive, longer than the head, with tip slightly decurved ; 
the nasal depression is about half the length of the culmen with the long linear 
nostrils anteriorly placed ; the length of the culmen almost approaches that of the 
metatarsus. 

The wing is short with the first three primaries longest and subequal. The 
tail is romided and short, being less than half the length of the wing. The legs are 
long and stout ; the metatarsus is reticulate throughout and is only about one-third 
the length of the wing. No hind-toe. 

8i. Orthorhamphus magnirostris.— LONG-BILLED STONE-PLOVER. 

[(Edicnemus magnirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XXIII., p. 231, Sept. 5th, 

1818, ex Geoff roy St. Hilaire MS. No locality = Binongka, Celebes, in error = Timor, 

collected by Peron. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 6 (pt. XXI.), Dec. 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 174, Dec. 31st, 

1913. 

Esacus magnirostris neglecttis Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 226, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Lewes Island, mid-West Australia. 

Esacus magnirostris melvillensis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 4, p. 85, Sept. 18th, 

1912 : Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Esacus magnirostris queenslandicus Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 6, Aug. 

2nd, 1913 : Mackay, Queensland. 

Distribution. — North-west Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland. 



118 A MANUAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult male. — Head, neck all round, back, and scapulars brown, with dark shaft- 
lines to the feathers of the head and hind-neck ; lesser upper wing-coverts dark 
brown ; median coverts banded with white, which shows a narrow wing-bar, the 
small coverts round the bend of the wing and greater coverts pale grey, outside edge 
of wing wliite ; bastard-wing and primary -co verts dark brown ; jjiimarj^-quiils 
also dark brown with white on the inner webs, the outer primary white on the outer 
web towards the tip, the second one mottled only with white, the third, fourth, and 
fifth have no white on the outer web, the sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth entirely 
white except a small patch of brown on the outer weh of the sixth near the tip ; 
secondaries white, obliquely banded with bro"mi, the long imiermost secondaries 
like the back ; tail-feathers browii banded with white, the white band preceded by 
a dark narrow cross line ; lores, sides of cro'mi, and a line mider the eye black like 
the sides of the nape and lower cheeks ; a white line above and below the eye which 
miites behind the latter and extends backward on to the sides of the nape ; chin 
and throat white ; breast grey, becoming paler and inclining to buffy-white on the 
abdomen ; thighs and under tail-coverts buff ; axillaries and under wing-coverts 
white : bill black, operculum at base of bill, eyelid and naked skin yellow ; feet 
yellowish grey . Total length 530 mm.; culmen 76, ^ving 280, tail 120, tarsus 95. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but smaller ; culmen 72, tarsus 90. 

Nestling. — Undescribed. 

Nest. — None made. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one ; ground-colour cream-white, streaked and marked all over 
with dark olive-brown, some of the markings being large and bold without assuming 
any regular form, and others mere blotches about an eighth of an inch in diameter, 
while many of the streaks were as fine as hair, and were of a crooked or zigzag form ; 
axis 61-66 mm., diameter 44-46. 

Breeding -season. — October to February. 

Distribution and forms. — Through the Moluccas, New Guinea and the coasts of 
tropical Australia. The extra-limital specimens are all lighter than Australian ones 
and each may represent more than one race. Thus Mathews has separated 0. m. 
melvillensis from Melville Island, as being darker above with the lesser wing-coverts 
almost black, and O. m. queenslandicits from Mackay, Queensland, also in being 
lighter above than the last named, though darker than the tj'pical form. Oberholser 
has recently renamed the extra-limital form O. m. scommophorus, on the groimds 
that Vieillot's name ^vas given to an Australian specimen, but the locality label was 
simply one of the many errors apparent in the relabelling of Peron's specimens. 

SUPERFAMILY SCOLOPACOIDEA. 

This superfamily is composed of four families, Painted Snipe, Waders (restricted), 
Phalaropes, and Avocets and Stilts. The relationship of the first named is still 
somewhat obscure, while the distribution is peculiar, species being fomid in southern 
South America, South Africa, Southern Asia and Australia. The Waders, as restricted, 
are all peculiar in that they breed in the Arctic and North Temperate zones and 
migrate southwards into the South Temperate and Antarctic zones as soon as their 
breeding-season, which is very short, is over. They remain in the North Temperate 
zones, outside their breeding localities, during the winter as well as travel farthest 
south, while non-breeding birds will remain during the breeding-season in their 
southern quarters. The Phalaropes are a small group of specialised swimming 
waders, three in number, each of them having lobed toes but otherwise rather distinct, 
and breeding in the extreme north, migrate southwards as the preceding, but some- 
times erratic extensions of their migrations occur. None have as yet occurred in 
Australia, but one species not uncommonly occurs as near as the Moluccas, while a 
specimen of another species has been recorded from New Zealand. In contradis- 



PAINTED SNrPE. 119 

tinction to these, the Avocets and Stilts occur in tropical and fcubtropical regions 
of the world and in this family Australia has three species referable to three genera, 
the whole number admitted, and one of which is restricted to Australia. 

The osteological items vary in this superfamily as detailed under the suborder 
and little attention has yet been paid to this matter. Lowe has recently begun a 
series of articles but the material available is not sufficient to determine the debat- 
able items accurately. At the present time the superficial details hereafter given 
are of considerably more importance than the variable and inconstant anatomical 
items recorded. 

Family ROSTRATULID^. 

Mathews separated the Painted Snipe mth family rank from a study of the 
superficial features and Ridgway has since suggested its separation also. The 
superficial features are those given for the genus which has the extraordinary range 
of South America, South Africa, South Asia and Australia, and the species are very 
difficult to distinguish. The females are larger and more beautifully feathered than 
the males, who have to undertake the duties of incubation, while the female is said 
to be polyandric. The windpipe is convoluted in the adult female, but not in the 
male or immature female. 

Recently Lowe has published some notes on the osteology of the genus, especially 
as regards the skull and has concluded it "is neither Scolopacine nor Ralline. It 
is, however, Limicoline, possibly a surviving relic of a primitive Limicolinc stock." 
The palate is schizognathous and the nasals schizorhinal ; there are well-developed 
basipterygoid processes, occipital foramina and indistinct supraorbital grooves. 
The premaxilla is quite peculiar when compared with that of other Scolopacoid forms. 

Genus ROSTRATULA. 

Rosiralula Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 56, April 14th, 1816. Type (by monotypy) : 

Bicassine de Madagascar Buffon = Scolopax capensis Linn^. 

Rhynchcea Cuvier, Kegne Anim., Vol. I., p. 487, Dec. 7th, 1816. Type (by monotypy): 

Scolopax capensis Linne. 

Rostratuline birds with long decurved bills, long wings, long legs and feet. 

The bill is long, hard, narrow, and decurved at the tip ; a deep narrow groove 
extends more than half-way along the sides of the upper mandible and ends abruptly ; 
the bill is narrow at the base and about the same width all the way, somewhat 
flattened immediately after the ending of the groove, but then the tip is obsoletely 
keeled with a slight grooving at the sides ; the under mandible can scarcely be said 
to be grooved, but shallowly channelled on the side, and the tip of the same form as 
that of the ujjper mandible. The culmen is less than one-third the length of the 
wing and about equal to the metatarsus, which is longer than the middle toe. 

The wing is somewhat concave though the first primary is longest, the second 
and third being little shorter. 

The metatarsus is seutellate in front and behind with part of the tibia 
unfeathered ; the toes are long with no interwebbing ; the tail is short, compos«l 
of sixteen feathers. We can see no close relationship between the birds of this 
genus and Gallinagine birds. 

82. Rostratula australis.— PAINTED SNIPE. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 41 (pt. IX.), Dec. 1st, 1842. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 168, Dec. Slst, 

1913. 

Rhynchaia auslralis Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 6, April 1st, 1838 : New 

South Wales. 

Rostratula auslralis filzroyi Mathevs, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 4, p. 85, Sept. 18th, 1912 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 



120 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult female. — Head olive-brown, minutely barred with black and divided in 
the middle by a white line from the base of the bill over the top of the head, a white 
eye-ring which widens out at the back of the eye into a large white spot ; nape and 
hind-neck chestnut, the feathers minutely barred with black ; upper back and 
scapulars greenish-grey, the feathers minutely speckled and barred with dark brown ; 
the inner webs of the inner scapulars buff which form a longitudinal line on each 
side of the back ; the upper, lesser, median, and greater wing-coverts -with narrow 
dark cross-bars ; some of the primary -coverts, inner primaries, and secondaries 
silvery-grey, with narrow bars of black and buff and also white blotches edged with 
black, the long innermost secondaries more inclining to dark green barred and finely 
vermiculated ; outer primary-quills brown, darker towards the base, with golden- 
olive on the outer webs and oval spots of buff ; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, 
and tail silvery-grey, with wide bars of white or buff and very narrowly lined across 
with black ; lores, sides of face, sides of neck, throat, and fore-neck dark brown, 
more or less mixed with white especially on the chin and throat ; a patch of dark 
brown on each side of the breast which terminates with olive-coloured feathers 
which are very narrowly barred ; a broad band of white on each side of the fore-neck, 
which extends in a narrow line on each side of the mantle, where it joins the buff 
streak on the inner scapulars ; middle of breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts 
white like the axillaries and inner mider wing-coverts ; marginal under wing-coverts 
and the greater series grey, minutely barred with black and tinged with golden- 
olive ; bill yellowish-brown ; iris hazel ; feet blue-grey. Total length 290 mm. ; 
culmen 45, wing 150, tail 52, tarsus 43. 

Adult male. — Differs chiefly from the adult female in its smaller size and by the 
absence of the chestnut on the hind-neck, the more golden-olive on the upper wng- 
coverts, which have large twin spots of buff, and by the much paler and more white 
on the throat and fore-neck ; bill, iris, feet, and legs brown. Total length 282 mm. ; 
culmen 41, wing 139, tail 49, tarsus 38. 

Immature and Nefstling. — Unknown. 

Nest. — A depression lined with grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour cream-white, almost completelj- hidden 
by irregular broad lines of black wound round the thicker end and extending longi- 
tudinally towards the thin end, the lines are curved and twisted forming loops and 
blotches ; axis 30-31 mm., diameter 27-28. 

Breeding-season. — November and December. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Australia. Subspecies at present requiring 
confirmation, the north-western form having been separated by Mathews as R. a. 
ftzroyi on account of its larger size and paler wing markings. 

Family SCOLOPAClDiE. 

The inclusion of the Snipe, Sandpipers, etc., in one faniilj- has long been accepted, 
but it is probable that the association will f)rove faulty when the group is studied 
more fully. We have recently indicated the separation of three subfamilies, Cali- 
dritinae (=Canutin3e or Eroliinse olim), Tringinae (=Numeniinse or Tringinse olim, 
i.e., Totaninae of older writers), and Scolopacinae (Woodcocks only.) These may 
later be granted family rank as the differences seem valid and important. No 
detailed comparison of the constituents has yet been carried out, but Lowe found 
many items peculiar to these groups in the osteology of the species he examined. 
Our separation was framed from a studj^ of the colour pattern of the downy young 
of which at least three distinct types are seen. These tj'pes are somewhat permanent, 
as the adults vary appreciably, being referred from structural characters to distinct 
genera by genus-lumpers. In the Calidritinse a summer breeding-plumage of bright 
coloration is attained, often red, while in the Tringinaj little change is made for 



SNIPE. 121 

breeding purposes, while none at all appears ia the Scolopacinse (as here restricted). 
In the external features the first named are generally smaller birds with soft-tijDjjed 
bills and short legs, the toes cleft to tlieir bases and a small hind-toe, rarely missing ; 
in the Tringinas the species are generalh' larger with hard-tipped bills and longer 
legs, the toes mth small webs between their bases and a long hind-toe, never missing ; 
in the Scolopacinae the bill is hard-tipi)ed, the birds stoutly built, the legs short and 
stout, the hind-toe short and thick aiid the toes without webs. Variations in some 
of these items occur which study of downy nestlings will at once explain. 

Lowe's osteological features for the separation of the subfamilies are less impor- 
tant than the superficial ones, and some of the former are coincident with the latter, 
as the status of the distal end of the premaxilla, while others cited require confirma- 
tion from study of more material. Thus he apparently classed Gallinago with 
Scolopax, whereas it should go nearer, or with, the Calidritinsc ; the bony orbital 
ring is complete in some cases, imperfect in others, and its value has j'et to be demon- 
strated ; the pterygoids are also said to differ but this is not entirely proven, and 
this remark applies to most of the insignificant characters cited. 

Genus DITELMATIAS. 

Ditelmatias Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 4, p. 282, Dec. 31st, 1913. Type (by 
original designation) : Gallinago hardwickii Gray. 

GalJinagine birds with eighteen tail-feathers. 

The bill is very long, narrow, not deep at the base, straight and not expanded 
at the tip, where it is wrinkled ; the wrinkling is only seen at the terminal third, 
and the culmen shows scarcely any flattening at that point. The nostrils are short 
slits placed in a groove near the base of the culmen ; this groove extends about 
two-thirds the length of the bill, but becomes indistinct after the middle. The lower 
mandible is similarly grooved and pmictulate, and is shorter than the upper, which 
becomes thickened at the tip and overlaps it. The wing is long and pointed, the 
first primary longest, and is more than twice the length of the culmen. The legs 
and feet are strictly Totanine ; the metatarsus is short, regularly covered with scutes 
both in front and behind, and is about half the length of the culmen. The toes are 
long and not webbed between ; the middle toe is slightly shorter than the metatarsus, 
but with the claw slightly exceeds it. The hind-toe and claw are long and slender 
and regularly Totanine in appearance. 

The tail is composed of eighteen feathers, which show little attenuation through- 
out, though the outermost is thin and but little shorter than the central ojies. The 
tail is more nearly even than in the typical Gallinagine birds ; the outermost tail- 
feather in G. gallinago (Linne) is much shorter than the middle ones. 

83. Ditelmatias hardwickii. — SNIPE. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 40 (pt. xxxn.), Sept. 1st. 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 166, Aug. 

18th, 1913. 

Scolopax australis Latham, Index Ornith. Suppl., p. Lxv., 1801, after May : New South Wales, 

based on Watling drawing No. 241. 

Not of Scopoli., Annus i., Hist. Nat., p. 94, 1769. 

Scolopax hardwickii Gray , Zool. Miscell., pt. I., p. 16, Nov. 5th, 1831 : Tasmania. 

DisTRiBtJTiOji. — Winter visitor to Australia and Tasmania, breeding in the northern hemi- 
sphere. 

Adult male. — General colour above dark brown, the feathers everj^where barred 
and mottled or margined with ochreous-buff ; head black, divided in the middle 
and skirted on each side by sandy-buff, this latter colour more intense on the hind- 
neck, where it almost obliterates the dark portion of the feathers ; lesser upper 



122 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA . 

wing-coverts dark brown, very narrowly fringed with white at the tips ; median 
and greater coverts barred and tipped with ochreous-buS ; bastard-wing and 
primary-coverts dark brown tipped with white ; primary- and secondary-quills 
dark brown more or less edged with white at the tips, the outer web of the first primary 
mottled with buff, the long innermost secondaries black, barred and fringed \vith 
oclireous-buff like the scapulars ; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts more 
thickly spotted and barred with sandy-buff, some of the latter fringed with white ; 
middle tail-feathers black with a broad subterminal bar of rufous narro^\ly lined 
with black and tipped with white, the rufous and black fading away on the outer 
feathers, which are for the most part buffy-white ; throat and sides of face buffy- 
white ; a dark line from the base of the eye and passing below the latter on to the 
sides of the neck ; fore-neck and sides of neck ochreous-buff wtli irregular bars of 
brown ; middle of abdomen white ; sides of body and flanks barred with brown and 
white as also the axillaries and under wing-coverts ; mider tail-coverts sandy-buff 
barred with brou-n ; bill black ; iris brown ; feet brown. Total length 324 mm. ; 
culmen 72, wing 157, tail 69, tarsus 37. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — The immature plumage of this species appears to be little different 
from that of the adult, a more rufous shade being the only noticeable character, 
though the throat and breast appear more boldly streaked with black. 

Nestling.- — Unknown . 

Nest. — A depression in the groimd. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three to four ; ground-colour pale stone, blotched all over, but 
more on the larger end, with dark purplish-red spots and imderlying ones of lavender ; 
axis 40-43 mm., diameter 30-31. 

Breeding-season. — May. (Japan.) 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in Japan, and wintering in eastern Australia 
and Tasmania, its northern limits being undetermined and no subspecies known. 

Genus SUBSPILURA. 

Subspilura Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 4, pp. 295, 300, Dec. 31st, 1913. Tj-pe (by 
original designation) : Gallinago megala Swinhoe. 

Gallinagine birds with twenty tail-feathers, the outer ones attenuated. 

The bill is very long, straight and thin, not much expanded at the tip, neither 
is it noticeably wide nor deep at the base ; it is grooved along the upper mandible, 
but the groove becomes obsolete towards the tip where the bill is punctulate or 
wrinkled ; the tip of the upper mandible extends beyond the lower mandible and 
is thickened at that point ; an obsolete groo^^ng can be seen along the side of the 
lower mandible, which is likewise punctulate and wrinkled towards the tip. The 
nostrils are short slits at the base of the bill. The wing is pointed with the first 
primary longest, and is a little more than t-wice the length of the culmen. The tibia 
is unfeathered for a short distance and the metatarsus, which is short, is regularly 
scutellated before and behind ; the metatarsus is a little more than half the length 
of the bill. The toes are long and there is no webbing between them ; the middle 
toe is very little shorter than the metatarsus, and with the claw much exceeds it. 
The hind-toe and claw are long. The tail is composed of twenty feathers, regularly 
rounded save that the two central ones are very broad and generally much longer. 
From the centre to the outside the tail-feathers become thin, so that the outside 
five on each side are less than 3 mm. in breadth, the outermost being the most 
attenuated. 

In the genus Sjnlvra the tail-feather.s are twenty-six in number, and eight on 
each side are very attenuated ; these are also much shorter than the middle ones ; 
but in Snbspilura no such distinction in size is seen. 



PIN-TAILED SNIPE. 123 

84. Subspilura megala.— PIN-TAILED SNIPE. 

Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 167, Dec. 31st, 1913. 

Gallinago megala Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 343, Oct. : Pekin, China. 

Gallinago heierocerca Cabanis, Joum. fiir Om., 1870 (.June No.), p. 235 : Luzon. 

Gallinago australis mccni Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 223, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Parry's 

Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Northern Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male. — Differs from Ditelmatias hardwickii (Gray) in its smaller size, and 
in having twenty tail-feathers, the outer six on each side being very narrow, the 
outermost being the narrowest and the others increasing in width. The light streaks 
in the head are much lighter — that is, with only a tinge of bufE ; the colouring of the 
upper-surface is much lighter. The two outer tail-feathers are tipped with white, 
with irregular bands of bro^vn, more noticeable on the inner web ; the next four 
becoming gradually more uniform blackish-brown ; distal half of bill blackish- 
brown, basal half of ujjper mandible greyish-brown ; base of lower mandible grey ; 
iris brown ; feet and tarsus lead-grey. Total length 257 mm. (in the flesh) ; culmen 
59, wing 138, tail 55, tarsus 35. 

Ad^ilt female. — Similar to the male. 

Immature. — Duller above, with rufous edgings to the feathers above and behind 
the eyes, to the inner webs of the scapulars and upper tail-coverts ; the wing-coverts 
more dusky ; the markings on the scapulars and secondaries are more rufous ; the 
outer tail-feathers lack the bold white tips of the adult, the markings being dusky ; 
the under tail-coverts are also dusky -rufous, not pale buffy-white, and the feathers 
of the throat and upper-breast have longitudinal black centre-streaks. 

Nestling. — Does not appear to have been described. 

Nest. — A hollow, lined with grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour, creamy-white or a little more yellow 
or pale, dirty ochre. The spots of the lower end are of pale reddish, the upper 
reddish-brown or brown ; the larger ones slanting, and coming together at the 
larger end, where there are also sometimes either zigzags or sjiots ; on the rest of 
the surface there are only dots and little stripes ; axis 40-43 mm., diameter 30-32. 

Breeding-season. — June. (Siberia.) 

Distribution and forms.- — Breeding in Eastern Siberia from Lake Baikal to the 
Sea of Japan, ranging southward in winter to Northeni Australia, where it has been 
recorded from Northern Territory and North-west Australia, but occurs in Dutch 
New Guinea, so should bo looked for in Queensland. No subspecies are known. 

Genus CALIDRIS. 

Calidris (Anon.) Allg. Lit. Zeitung, Vol. 2, No. 108, .June 8th, 1804, col. 542. Type (by 
tautonymy) : Tringa calidris = Tringa canutits Linne. (c/. Kiehmond (3) p. 581, Aug. 2oth, 

1917.) 
Canutvs id., ih. Tjrpe (by monotypy) : " Knot " = Tringa canutus Linne. 
Calidris Cuvier, Rfegne Anim., Vol. I., p. 489, " 1817 " = Dec. 7th, 1816. Type (by mono- 
typy) : Tringa cantiliis Linne. 

Canutus Brehm, Handb. Natiu-g. Vogel Deutschl., p. 653, (pref. July) 1831. Type (by 
tautonymy) : Tringa canutus Linn^. 

Tringa Gray, List. Genera Birds, 1st ed., p. 69, April 1840. Type (by original designation) : 
Tri^iga canutus, Linne. 
Not of Linne, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 148, 1758. 

Stout medium Waders with short straight bills, long wings, short tail, short 
stout legs and feet. The culmen is short, stout and straight, the tip decidedly 
expanded but not punctulate ; the groove in the ujiper mandible extends almost 
to the tip. The culmen is noticeably depressed, in the terminal half, to the tijj • 



124 A MANtXAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

is longer than the metatarsus, and a little more than half the length of the tail. 
The wings arc long and very pointed, the first primary longest. The tail is short 
and even le.ss than half the length of the wing. The tarsus is short and stout, 
regularly scutellate in front and behind ; it is about the same length or a little less 
than the culmen, but longer than the middle toe. The toes are short, strong, and 
widely margined, though cleft to the base ; the middle toe is about two-thirds the 
length of the tarsus. A strong hind-toe and claw are present. 

85. Calidris canutus. — KNOT. 

[Tringa canutus Linn^, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 149, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Europe. Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 163, Aug. 18th, 1913. 

Canutits canulus rogersi Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 270, Aug. 18th, 1913 : 

Japan. 

DiSTKiBUTiON. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — Side.s of face, sides of crown, throat, and 
under-surface rufous, abdomen white, and the tmder tail-coverts have narrow black 
streaks ; axillaries white with brown bars ; under wing-coverts white with small 
•dark frecklings ; the top of the head black with rufous margins to the feathers ; 
hind-neck grey with dark shaft-lines ; back and scapulars black with chestnut or 
white edgings to the feathers of the former and twin spots on the latter ; lesser upper 
wing-coverts, median, and the greater series pale brown, the latter tipped with white ; 
bastard-wing dark brown, as also the primary-coverts, which have white tips ; 
primary -quills dark brown, black at the tips and white shafts ; secondaries paler 
brown with white tips and whitish inner webs, the long innermost feathers like the 
back ; rump grey with whitish tips to the feathers ; upper tail-coverts white, barred 
and longitudinally lined with black ; tail-feathers grey ; eyes brown ; feet olive- 
brown ; bill black. Total length 258 mm. ; culmen 31, wing 156, tail 64, tarsus 31. 

Adult femule in summer-plumage. — -Very similar to the adult male. 

Adult male in winter-plumage. — Ash-grey above, with narrow dark shaft-lines 
to the feathers ; wings much the same as that of the summer-plumage ; upper tail- 
coverts also similar but not so strongly pronounced ; sides of face, throat, and entire 
under-surface white, with minute pale brown shaft-streaks on the sides of the face 
and frecklings of the same colour on the breast and sides of the body and, more 
sparsely, on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; axillaries longitudinally marked 
with brown and white. 

Adult female in winter-plumage. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Differs from the winter-plumage in having black submarginal 
lines fringed with white to the feathers of the back and wings, which are brown ; 
under parts buffish-white, with an indistinct chest band of darker shade. 

Nestling in down. — Fore-head warm buff, with a central black line ; over the 
eye a double black line ; crown, from centre backwards, black slightly varied with 
rufous and dotted with buff ; nape creamy-buff, slightlj' varied with blackish ; 
upper-parts black, slightly varied with reddish-brown, and profuselj' dotted with 
creamy-white ; under parts very slightly washed with warm buff. Specimens in 
the British Museum, probably through exposure, are greyish-browii, mottled with 
black and spangled with white ; under parts nearly white. 

Nest. — Li a hollow in the ground, lined with lichen. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; greenish-grey, finely spotted all over with pale inky 
shell markings and blackish surface spots, sometimes the latter larger and bolder 
at the larger end ; somewhat variable in coloration. Average measurements : axis 
43 mm., diameter 30 mm. 

Breeding-season. — 3\\\y. 



GREAT KNOT. 125- 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout the Arctic Regions of the northern hemi- 
sphere ranging southward in winter almost into the Antarctic Regions. Three 
subspecies have been differentiated, as follows : Calidris camttus canutus (Linne) 
from the European Region ; Calidris canutus rufus (Wilson) from the American 
Region ; and Calidris canutus rogersi (Mathews) from the Eastern Asiatic Region, 
the last named visiting Australia in %vinter. In summer -plumage the first named 
is darkest, the second palest, the last somewhat intermediate, but has a white 
abdomen ; in winter-plumage the American birds are paler than the European 
and similar to the Eastern Asiatic birds. Li series the races are very marked. 

Genus ANTELIOTRINGA. 

Anteliolringa Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 274, Aug. 18th, 1913. Type (by 
original designation) : Totanus tenuiroslris Horsfield. 

Medium, stoutly-built Waders with long straight bills, long wings, short tails 
and short stout legs, and strong feet. 

The bill is long, straight, and fairly stout ; it is however proportionately more 
slender than that of Calidris = Canutus, with which genus it has been confused ; 
the nostrils are very long, and the tip is less expanded than in Calidris = Canutus ; 
the culmen is longer than the metatarsus. 

The wings are long and narrow with the first primary longest. The tail is short 
and square, somewhat emarginate, about one-third the length of the wing. The 
metatarsus is stout and short, noticeably shorter than the culmen, and about half 
as long again as the toes. The middle and hind -toe are short and strong. 

86. Anteliotringa tenuirostris.— GREAT KNOT. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 33 (pt. XXXIV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 164, Aug. 
18th, 1913. 

Totontts ienM4Vo«(«s Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XIII.,pt. i., p. 192, 1821 : Java. 
Schosniclus magnus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1848, p. 39, Nov. 14th : Australia. 
Tringa crassirostris Temminck et Schlegel, Fauna Japonica (Siebold), pi. 64, 1849 : Japan. 
DiSTKlBUTiON. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-j)lumage. — Upper-surface black, white, and chestnut ; 
head and hind-neck black, streaked vnth white or grey ; back and scapulars black, 
fringed with white and twin spots of chestnut on the latter ; wings dark grey or pale 
brown with lighter edges to most of the coverts, the major coverts more distinctly 
margined with white ; bastard-wing and primary-coverts blackish, more or less 
tipped with white ; primary-quills also blackish on the outer webs and at the tips, 
pale brown on the inner webs and the shafts white ; secondaries ash-brown, fringed 
with white, the long innermost feathers dark brown with hoary edges ; lower back 
pale brown with white fringes to the feathers ; upper tail-coverts white with dark 
lanceolate shaft-lines or irregular dark spots ; tail ash-grey, somewhat darker on 
the middle feathers ; sides of face, throat, and under-surface white with streaks 
of brown on the fore-head and sides of face, and oval spots of dark brown on the 
fore-neck, breast, and sides of body — much more sparsely on the latter ; a few dark 
streaks on the mider tail-coverts and some elongated brown marks on the flanks ; 
axillaries white, irregularly marked with pale brown longitudinally ; imder wing- 
coverts white ; iris browii ; feet olive-bro^vn ; bill black, base of lower mandible 
brown. Total length 292 mm. ; culmen 40, wing 186, tail 70, taisus 34. 

Adult female in summer-plumage. — Differs only in having less rufous on the 
back. 

Adult in tvinter-plumage. — Differs chiefly in being greyer above with no black 



126 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

or chestnut, and the streaks and .spots on the breast and sides of body are paler in 
colour and smaller in size. 

Immature. — Somewhat like summer -plumage ; head with broader brown tips, 
feathers on back dark brown but with faint white tips ; coverts with white tips, 
primaries and tail-feathers with white tipping ; very pale b^o^vnish spotting on 
breast and flanks, a few elongated streaks on latter ; no chestnut on back, and 
much darker than winter -plumage ; bill weak. 

Nestling, Nest and Eggs. — Appear to be unde.scribed. 

Distribution and forms. — Eastern Siberia to Japan, ranging in winter to 
Australia, hitherto chiefly from the northern parts, but recently recorded by Alexander 
from the southern coast of South-west Australia. No sub.species are known. 



Genus PLATYRHAMPHUS. 

Platyrhamphiis Billberg, Sjmops. Faunoe Scand., Vol. I., pt. ii., Aves, tab. A and p. 172. 1828. 

Type (by monotypy) : Numenius pusillus Bechstein = Scolopax falcinellus Brunnich, c/. 

Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 41, Oct. 23rd. 1913. 

Limicola Koch, Syst. baier. Zool., p. 316, July 1816. Type (by monotypy) : Limicola 

pygmcea = Scolopax falcinellus Brunnich. 

Not Limicula Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Ornith., p. 56, April 1816. 

Falcinelltis Kaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst.. p. 37, pref. April 1829. Type (by 

monotypy) : Tringa platyrhynclia Temminck = S. falcinellus Briiimich. 

Not of Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Ornith., p. 47, 1816. 

Smallest Waders with very long broad bills, long wings, medium tail, short 
legs and feet. 

The culmen is very long, broad, from the middle flattened and with the tip 
decurved ; the groove in the upper mandible becomes obsolete in the terminal 
half, due to this flattening ; the culmen is much longer than the tarsus which is 
again longer than the middle toe. 

The wings are long and narrow with the first primary longest. The ta;il is 
more than one-third the length of the wing, and is doubly emarginate like that of 
Pisobia. The metatarsus is short, regularly scutellate both in front and behind ; 
it is not much more than two-thirds the length of the culmen, and nearly half as 
long again as the middle toe. The feet are small, the middle toe being much shorter 
than the metatarsus ; short hind-toe present. 

87. Platyrhamphus falcinellus.— BROAD-BILLED SANDPIPER. 

[Scolopax falcinellus Briinnich, Ornith. Boreal., p. 49, (pref. Feb. 20th) 1764, exPontoppidan, 
Der Danske Atlas, Vol. I., p. 623, pi. xxvi., 1703 : " Siaelandia," Europe. Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 165, Aug. 18th, 1913. 

Limicola eibirica Dresser, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1876. p. 674, Oct. 1st: China. 
Limicola falcinellus rogersi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec. Vol. III., pt. 4, p. 70, July 21st, 1917 : 
Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

DisTRiBtJTiON. — Winter visitor to Northern Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male (winter). — General colour above ash-grey with dark shaft-lines and 
white fringes to the feathers, some of the feathers on the upper back black, margined 
on the sides with ferruginous, like some of the long scapulars ; bastard-wing and 
lesser marginal wing-coverts sooty-brown ; median coverts brown wth darker 
shaft-lines and fringed with white, greater coverts similar but paler and inclining 
to ash-grey ; primary -coverts blackish ; primary-quills dark browii with white 
shafts, paler on the inner webs and inclining to white towards the base ; secondaries 
pale brown, margined with white and with more or less white at the base ; some of 



BEOAD-BILLED SANDPIPER. 127 

the long innermost secondaries sooty-black, with ferruginous margins and tipped 
with ash-grey ; middle of the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts sooty- 
black, fringed with white, grey, or ferruginous ; tail-feathers ash-brown with white 
shaft-lines and white margins, cro'mi of head, hind -neck, and sides of neck blackish- 
I)rown, with grey and sometimes white margins to the feathers ; sides of the fore-head 
and an indistinct line over the eye white, the feathers above and behind the latter 
more or less streaked with dusky-brown ; loral streak and ear-coverts dusky-brown, 
the feathers on the fore-neck inclining to grey with broader darlc centres, which 
form a band ; remainder of the mader-surface white, including the breast, abdomen, 
mider tail-coverts, sides of rump, sides of body and axillaries ; thighs dusky -grey ; 
mider wing-coverts white, finely mottled with brown romid the margin, the jDrimary- 
coverts and quill-lining greyish-brown. Total length 175 mm. ; culmen 31, wing 
106, tail 37, tarsus 23. The sexes are alike. 

Adult male (summer). — General colour of the upper-surface sooty-black with 
ferruginous and white margins to the feathers ; bastard-wing and marginal wing- 
coverts dark brown, lesser and median coverts grey with dark centres ; greater 
coverts pale brown, margined with white ; primary-coverts and primary-quills 
dark brown, the latter having white shafts and pale inner webs becoming white at 
the base ; secondary-quills pale dusky-brown with white margins and white bases, 
the long innermost secondaries black, broadly margined with ferruginous ; upper 
tail-coverts black, narrowly fringed with ferruginous ; tail-feathers pale brown, 
margined with white, becoming much paler on the outer feathers ; crown of head 
black with slight ferruginous margins to the feathers and divided by a whitish streak 
on each side of the crown ; sides of fore-head white, superciliary line also white, 
more or less intermixed vfith minute lines of pale brown like the cheeks and sides 
of neck ; loral sjjot blackish, sides of breast grey, narrowly centred with dark brown ; 
mider -surface white with a buffy tinge ; axillaries and sides of rump pure white ; 
under wing-coverts white, mottled with pale brown on the margin ; primary -coverts 
and quill-lining pearl-grey. 

Immature. — Fore-head grey with white tipping, top of head dark brown, 
neck grey, back dark browii with pale buff and white tips, coverts grey with black 
centres and tips grey, primaries with white tij)s, tail-feathers with white tips ; 
under-surface white with indistinct ashy-grey breast-band ; bill small and weak, 
otherwise very like summer-plumage but lacking feiTUginous edging to the 
feathers. 

Nestling in down. — Upper-surface mottled with black and rich red -brown, 
definite pattern indeterminable, the black being predominant, very thickly sjiangled 
with minute white specks ; frontal streak distinct, and as well as a loral streak 
there is a pronomiced malar stripe ; under-surface very pale huffish tinge on chest, 
otherwise pure white ; the bill is long and shows the beginning of the flattening 
of the tip. 

Nest. — A depression in the moss, on a marsh, lined with withered leaves and 



Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour stone-buff with a few pale purplish under- 
lying shell spots and closely marked, so as sometimes to almost appear miiform, 
with rich dark umber-brown or rufous-umber spots. Average measm-ements : 
axis 32 mm., diameter 23 mm. 

Breeding -sea.son. — June. 

Distribution and forms. — Northern Europe and Asia, migrating southward for 
the winter, and two well-marked subspecies are distinguiehable : P. /. falcinellus 
(Briinnich ex Pontoppidan) from Europe ; and P. f. sibiricus Dresser from China 
and East Siberia, a much paler race, in svunmer -plumage having the feathers on 
the ujoper side with bright rufous margins, while the western race has black back 
with nan'ow white or oohreous -white margins. 



128 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Genus EROLIA. 

Erolia Vioillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 55, April 14th, 1816. Type (by monotypy) : 
Erolia varietjata Vieillot = Tringa jerruginea Briinnich. 

Falcinellus Cuvier, R^gne Anim., Vol. I., p. 486 [1817 =] Dec. 7th, 1816. Type (by mono- 
typy) : Scol. pygmea Lin. [ = Gmelin] = T. jerruginea Briinnich. 
Not of Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 47, April 1816. 

Ancylocheilus Kaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 50, (pref. April) 1829. Tj'pe (by 
monotypy) : Triiiga suharquata Gueldenstadt = T. ferriiginea Briinnich. 
AcTolia Temrainck et Laugier, Planch. Col. d'Ois., Vol. V., pi. 510, note, 1830. Error only. 

Small Waders with long decurved bills, long Things, short tails, short legs, and 
short toes. 

The long slender culmen is decurved, with the groove in the upper mandible 
extending almost to the tip, which is not expanded. The culmen is longer than the 
metatarsus, and almost exactly twice the length of the middle toe. The wings are 
long and pointed, the first primary longest. The tail is short, doubly emarginate 
as in Pisobia, much less than half the length of the wing and not much longer than 
the culmen. The metatarsus is short, about three-fourths the length of the culmen ; 
it is regularly scutellate, both in front and behind. The toes are all cleft to the 
base, the middle toe about two-thirds the length of the metatarsus ; a long hind- 
toe present. 

88. Erolia ferruginea.— CURLEW-SANDPIPER. 

[Tringa jerruginea Briinnich, Omith. Boreal., p. 53, (pref. Feb. 20th) 1764: Iceland. Extra- 

limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 32 (pt. xxxin.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews. Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 162, Aug. 

18th, 1913. 

Tringa (Pelidna) chinensis Gray, Zool. Miscell., pt. i., p. 2, Nov. 5th, 1831 : China. 

Erolia jerruginea wilsoni Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. III., pt. 4, p. 70, July 21st, 1917 : 

Wilson's Inlet, South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — Head and hind-neck dark bro-mi with rufous 
margins to the feathers, which is shown more intensely on the latter ; the feathers 
of the mantle, upper back, and scapulars tipped with white, and spotted with chestnut 
on the margins ; lower back blackish with pale edges to the feathers ; upper tail- 
coverts white, barred with black ; tail ash-grey with white shafts to the feathers ; 
lesser wing-coverts dark brown like the bastard-wing and primary-coverts, some 
of the latter tipped with white ; median coverts pale, as also the greater coverts 
which are tipped with white ; primary-quills dark brown with white shafts and 
pale brown inner webs, some of the inner primaries edged with white on the outer 
webs ; secondaries for the most part white with brown on the outer webs, the 
long innermost secondaries blackish, edged with rufous and fringed with white at the 
tips ; sides of face, throat, and under-surface of bodj' chestnut, more or less tinged 
with white, becoming paler on the vent and under tail-coverts, the latter having 
dark sagittate markings and cross-bars ; axillaries and under wing-coverts white, 
the small marginal coverts dotted with pale brown ; bill and feet black ; eyes 
brown. Total length 210 mm. ; culmen 39, wing 127, tail 48, tarsus 30. 

Adult female in summer-plumage. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult mnle in uinter-plumage. — Differs from the summer-dress by the grey of 
the upper -surface and the almost uniform white on the under parts. 

An adult female collected in March is just beginning to put on the summer- 
dress, which may be seen by the rufous feathers on the fore-neck, breast, and the 
sides of the body. 

Immature. — Upper-surface brown, feathers with white tips forming a scalloped 



SHARP-TAILED STINT. 129 

appearance ; head speckled, the feathers of the back of the neck dull grey tips, the 
upper back darker ; scapulars and inner secondaries bright brown with huffish tips, 
coverts with, broad whitish tips, secondaries with broad white edges ; rump feathers 
with dull grey tips ; upper-tail coverts i)ure white ; tail tipped with white ; under- 
surface white with a greyish breast-band, feathers with dark shaft-stripes. 

Nestling in donm. — Golden-buS and rich red-brown mottling above, with white 
spangling ; imder-surface huffy-white, darker on chest, paler on abdomen. 

Ne-st. — A depression in the ground. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour pale greenish-grey, marked with a few 
purjilish-grey underlying spots, and rich deep rufous-brown surface spots and large 
blotches, the latter collected at the larger end ; axis 36.75 mm., diameter 25.65. 

Breeding-season. — June. (Taimyr River, Siberia.) 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in the Arctic Regions of Europe and Asia, 
migrating southward to Australia in the winter. Eastern and western subsjjecies 
are admitted, the eastern form being paler in both summer- and winter-plumage. 

Genus LIMNOCINCLUS. 

Limnocinchi-s Gould, Handb. Birds Austr., Vol. II., p. 254, Dec. 1865. Type (by subsequent 
designation, Salvadori, Ornit. Pap. e Mol., Vol. III., p. 312, Dec. 1882): Totanus acuminatua 
Horsfield. 

Small Waders with short straight bills, long wings, short tails, short legs, but 
stout and long toes. 

The culmen is short, straight, and slightly expanded at the tip, the groove in 
the upper mandible extending almost to the tip ; it is shorter than the metatarsus 
and about equal to the middle toe alone. 

The wings are long and pointed, with the first primary longest. The tail is 
less than half the length of the wing, and is just twice the length of the metatarsus. 
It is strongly wedge shaped. The metatarsus is short but stout, regularly scutellate 
in front and behind ; quite appreciably longer than the culmen, also than the middle 
toe and claw. The hind-toe is comparatively short ; all the toes are cleft to the base. 

89. Limnocinclus acuminatus.— SHARP- TAILED STINT. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 30 (pt. xxvm.), Sept. 1st, 1847. Mathews. Vol. III., pt. 3. pi. 161, Aug. 
18th, 1913. 

Totanus acuminatus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XIII., pt. I., p. 192, 1821 : 

Java. 

Tringa australis Jardine and Selby, lUustr. Ornith., Vol. II., pi. 91, Aug. 1830 : New Holland. 

Not of Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., p. 679, 1789. 

Limnocinclus acumiiiatus ru/escetu Mathews, Bull. Brit. Om. Club., Vol. XXXVI., p. 82, 

May 25th, 1916: North-west Australia. 

DisTErBUTiON. — Winter visitor to Australia and Tasmania, breeding in the northern hemi- 
sphere. 

Adult male. — Upper-parts dark brown with paler brown bases and ferruginous 
or grey margins to the feathers of the head, hind-neck, back, scapulars, rump, and 
central upper tail-coverts ; sides of rump and lateral upper tail-coverts white with 
dark shaft-streaks, some of the long coverts have a dark submarginal line ; lesser 
and marginal upper wing-coverts dark brown narrowly edged with ash-grey, the 
median coverts grejish-brown with darker shaft-lines, the greater coverts more 
uniform brown with pale edges and broadly fringed with white at the tips ; bastard- 
wing and primary -coverts dark brown, the latter edged with white at the tips, more 
consj^icuously on the inner ones ; marginal coverts on outer edge of mng dark 
brown fringed with white ; jirimary-quills dark brown, paler on the inner webs 
and at the tips, the shafts partially white, the secondary-quills similar but the inner 

K 



130 A MAKITAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

ones paler and more broadly edged with white ; central tail-feathers dark brown 
fringwi with ferruginous, the outer feathers pale brown and edged with white ; a 
circle of short white feathers surrounds the eye ; fore-head, lores, a line over the 
eye, sides of face, and throat white, -with dark pear-shaped spots on the middle of 
the feathers, which become larger and coarser on the ear-coverts, sides of neck, 
lower throat, and chest which are tinged with ferruginous, some of the feathers 
on the sides of the chest and breast are more or less grey ; breast and sides of body 
paler wth dark V-shaped markings to the feathers ; middle of abdomen white ; 
imder tail-coverts white with dark lanceolate markings to the feathers ; under 
wing-coverts dark brown broadly fringed with white, the greater series greyish- 
brown with white borders ; under side of Ciuills also greyish-brown, paler on the 
inner webs at the basal portion, and with conspicuous white shafts ; bill brown, 
base of lower mandible pale brown ; iris browai ; feet and legs olive. Total length 
230 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 125-130, tail 55, tarsus 30. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Head, upper back, and scapulars black, with rufous or white edgings 
to the feathers ; hind-neck dark brown, the feathers margined \idth huffy-grey ; 
lesser, median, marginal, and greater wing-coverts dark brown, edged with white 
at the tips, inclining to grey on the inner coverts ; bastard-wing and primary- 
coverts dark brown, some of the latter narrowly tipped with white ; primary- 
and secondary-quills also dark brouTi, the latter fringed vnth white at the tips ; 
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts dull black, the feathers of the latter 
margined with rufous at the tips ; the lateral upper tail-coverts white, with black 
shaft-lines ; middle tail-feathers dark browr, edged with rufous, the outer feathers 
pale brown with white margins ; throat, lores, and eyebrow whitish ; sides of 
face, sides of neck, fore-neck, and sides of breast buff with dark narrow shaft-lines ; 
middle of breast and sides of body uniform sandy-buff ; abdomen and under tail- 
coverts dull white, with dark shaft-streaks to the latter ; axillaries and under wing- 
coverts white ; the marginal coverts dark brown, edged with white, the greater 
imder wing-coverts grey, tipped with white ; bill brown, base of lower mandible 
olive-brown ; iris brown ; tarsi and feet olive-yellow. Total length 215 mm. ; 
culmen 25, wing 128, tail 56, tarsus 30. 

Nestling, Nest and Eggs.- — Unknown. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeds in Siberia, migrating southward to Australia, 
etc., in winter. 

Genus PISOBIA. 

Pisobia Billberg, Sj-nops. FauniP Scand., Vol. I., pt. ii., p. 136, 1828. Type (by subsequent 

designation, Amer. O.U. Comm., Auk, July 1908, p. 366) : Tringa tninula Leisler (c/. Austral 

Av. Rec, Vol. II.. pts. 2 and 3, p. 40. Oct. 23rd, 1913.) 

Leimoniies Kaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 37, (pref. April) 1829. Tj^ie (by 

monotypy) : Tringa tcmminckii Leisler. 

Actodromas Kaup, ib., p. 55. Type (by monotypy) : T. minuta Leisler. 

Heteropygia Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1861, p. 190, July. Type (by original 

designation) : Tringa bonapartei = Tringa /tiscicollifi Vieillot. 

Delopygia Coues, ib. (note). Alternative name for Heteropygia. 

Neophobia Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 245, Aug. 18th, 1913. Tj-pe (by 

monotypy) : Totantw damacensis Auct. not Horsfield = Tringa aubminuta Middend. 

Smallest Waders with short straight slender bills, long wngs, comparatively 
long tails, short legs, and short feet. The culmen is short, straight, and slender, 
with the groove m the upper mandible extending almost to the tip ; the tip is some- 
what exiianded and faintly punctulate. The culmen is shorter than the metatarsus, 
and less than half the length of the tail. 

The \\'ings are long and pointed with the first primary longest. The tail, which 
is strongly doubly emarginate, is less than half the length of the wing but more than 



RED-NECKED STINT. 131 

one-third, and is twice the length of the culmen. The metatarsus is short, regularly 
scutellate both in front and behind, longer than the culmen and also the middle toe. 
The toes are all cleft to the base and a hind-toe is present. 

The bird described by Middendorff as Tririga subminuta differs from the preceding 
in its longer legs and especially longer toes and claws. The hind -toe and claw is 
also very long. The metatarsus is more than a fourth the length of the wing, and 
the middle toe is longer than the culmen ; in typical members of the genus Pisobia 
the metatarsus is less than one-fourth the wing and the middle toe is shorter than 
the culmen. 

90. Pisobia ruficollis.— RED-NECKED STINT. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 31 (pt. XXXII.), Sept. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pis. 159-160, 
Aug. 18th, 1913. 

Trynga ruficollis Pallas, Reise Russ. Reichs., Vol. III., p. 700, 1776 (pref. Feb. 10th, O.S.): 
Siberia. 

Totanus damacensis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. See. (Lend.), Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 192, 1821 : Java. 
Trrnga albescens Temminck et Laugier, Planch. Color. d'Ois., 7" livr. (Vol. I., pi. 41), Feb. 
1821 : Australia. 

Trynga salina Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., Vol. II., p. 199, 1827 : Mongolia. 
Caluiris australis Lesson, Traite d'Orn., 7' livr., p. 558, April 9th, 1831 (ex Cuvier MS.). 
New name for Trinqa albescens Temm. 

DisTBiBUTiON. — Winter visitor to Australia and Tasmania, breeding in the northern hemi- 
sphere. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — Head and neck all round rufous, like the back 
and scapulars, with dark centres to the feathers ; the long iimermost secondaries 
dark brown \rith chestnut margins ; bastard -wing, lesser, median, and greater wing- 
coverts dark brown, the latter tipped with white, which forms a wing-bar ; primary- 
coverts dark brown, the inner ones tipped with white, primary- and secondary- 
quills also dark brown vnth white shafts ; rump and upper tail-coverts dark brown, 
the feathers edged ^vith white, the long central upper tail-coverts black ; middle 
tail-feathers dark brown, the outer feathers pale grey ; base of fore-head and chin 
whitish ; sides of breast grey with blackish centres to the feathers ; remainder of 
the mider-surface white, with a tinge of buff on the abdomen, sides of body, and 
under tail-coverts ; bill and feet black ; eyes brown. Total length 162 mm. ; 
culmen 17, wing 102, tail 43, tarsus 21. 

Adult female in summer-plumage. — Similar to the male, but rather more grey 
on the feathers of the upper-surface, throat, and sides of face ; it is also paler. 

Adult male in winter-plumage. — Upper -parts grey, with dark shaft-lines to the 
feathers of the head, back, scapulars, and wings ; the small marginal upper wing- 
coverts dark brown like the bastard-wing and primary-coverts, major coverts 
tipped with white which forms a wing-bar ; primary-quills dark brown with white 
shafts ; secondaries brown, with white on the inner webs ; rump, upper tail-coverts, 
and tail much the same as in the summer -plumage ; fore-head, sides of face, and a 
faintly indicated superciliary streak white, like the chin, throat, and the entire 
under-surface. 

Another bird, collected in May and still in winter-plumage, differs in being 
somewhat paler grey, and in having the dark central spot to the feathers on the side 
of the breast larger. 

An adult female, collected in March, is just begimiing to assume the breeding- 
dress, which is by the appearance of rufous on the throat and top of the head, and 
the chestnut on the margins of the scapulars. 

Adult female in winter-jilumage. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Top of head brownish-black with bufSsh edges to the feathers ; 
brownish loral stripe ; back black with buffish and white edges ; lower back and 

K2 



132 A MANCAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

rump with grey tipping ; coverts with paler tips, scapulars with broad whitish tips, 
iimer secondaries with huffish tips, outer secondaries with white edgings ; under- 
surface white \vith an indistinct ashy band across chest. 

Nestling, Nest and Eggs. — Appear to be undescribed. 

Distribiitio)} and fornix. — Breeding in the Arctic Regions of eastern Palsearctica, 
migrating southwards to Australia and Tasmania in winter. Xo subspecies are 
known and it is a distinct species from P. rninuta, though apparently geographically 
replacing that species. 

91. Pisobia subminuta.— LONG-TOED STINT. 

Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3. pis. 159-160, Aug. 8th, 1913. 

Tringa subminuta Jliddendorfi, Sibirische Reise, Vol. 11., pt. 2, p. 222, 1851 : Siberia. 

Pisobia subminuta boweri Mathews, Emu, Vol. XVI., pt. 1, p. 35, July 1st, 1916 : Fitzroy 

River, North-west Australia. 

DisTRiBmos. — Siberia to Australia (visitor). One specimen preserved in Mathews's 

collection. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — General colour above black, rufous, and grey ; 
crown of head, back, and scapulars black, the feathers margined with rufous ; upi^er 
hind-neck inclining to brown, with grey margins ; lesser, median, and greater wing- 
coverts brown, with pale or whitish margins at the tips ; bastard -wing and primary- 
coverts dark brown, the latter tipped with white ; primary -quills also dark brown, 
the outer, or first, primary with a white shaft ; secondaries pale brown, fringed with 
white at the tips, the long innermost secondaries dark brown with rufous margins ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts black, the lateral feathers white : middle tail-feathers 
blackish with pale margins, the outer feathers grej- with white edges ; superciliary 
line whitish ; sides of face and sides of neck buff, with pale brown streaks becoming 
broader on the sides of the neck and narrower again on the lower throat ; chin and 
upper throat white like the breast, abtlomen, and imder tail-coverts ; sides of breast 
like the sides of the neck ; axiUaries white as also the median mider wing-coverts, 
the marginal coverts and the greater series pale brown ; bill black, base of lower 
mandible olive-brown ; iris dark brown ; feet greenish-yellow. Total length 163 mm. ; 
culmen 18. wing 93, tail 40, tarsus 22. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult in winter-plumage. — Differs from the male in summer-dress bj- the absence 
of rufous on the feathers of the upper -surface, which is replaced by olive margins ; 
the grey on the hind -neck as well as the dark grey on the fore-neck and chest, and the 
marginal coverts on the under-^\-ing being almost black. 

Immature. — Top of head dark bro^vn with pale edgings to the feathers ; indistmct 
loral brown streak ; back of neck greyish-brown ^Tith paler grey edges ; upper 
back black with buff edgings ; lower back black as rump, latter with white tips ; 
tail-feathers with white tips, centre pair with huffish tips ; scapulars and inner 
secondaries with broad bufE edges, coverts with white tips ; throat white, chest with 
duskj--grey streaks, rest of under -surface pure white. 

Nestling, Xest and Eggs. — Appear to be imdescribed. 

Di.stribution and forms. — Breeds in Eastern and Central Siberia, not farther 
north than 66° X. in easternmost parts of its range, ranging to Australia in winter. 
Xo subspecies are known, and the long toes sufficiently distinguish this as a species 
from its alhes, like P. minuta and P. mi nut ilia. 

Genus CROCETHIA. 

Crocethia BiUbcrg, Synops. Fauna> Scand. , Vol . I. , pt . n. , tab. A and p. 132, 1 828. Xew name 
for Calidris Miger 1811 not o£ (Anon.) 180-4. Tj-pe (by monot\-py) : Charadrius calidris 
Linn6 = Trynga alba Vroeg. 



SANDEKLING. 133 

Arenaria Bechstein, Omith. Taschenb. Deutschl., p. 462a, 1803. Type (by monotypy) : 

Aretiaria vulgaris Bechstein = Trynya alba Vroeg. 

Not of Brisson, Ornith., Vol. V., p. 132, 1760. 

Calidris lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 249, pref. April 1811. Type (by monotypy): 

Charadrius calidris Linn6 = T. alba Vroeg. 

Not of (Anon.) Allg. Lit. Zeitung, Vol. 2, No. 168, col. 542, June 8th, 1804. 

Mori-nellus Gray, List Genera Birds, 2nd ed., p. 90, Sept. 1841. In synonymy. 

Not Morinella Meyer und Wolf, Taschenb. d. Vogel, p. 383, note, 1810. 

Small Waders with short straight bills, long wings, short tails, very short legs 
and toes, and no hind-toe. The culmen is short and straight with the tip somewhat 
expanded and slightly deeurved ; the groove in the upper mandible is long, extending 
almost to the tip ; the culmen is about equal to the very short metatarsus and about 
half the length of the tail. 

The wings are long and pointed with the first primary longest. The tail is 
short, doubly emarginate as in preceding, and less than half the length of the wing. 
The metatarsus is very short and only about one-fifth the length of the wing ; it is 
regularly scutellate in front and behind. The toes are very short, the middle toe 
being about half the length of the metatarsus ; there is no webbing between the toes. 

92. Crocethia alba.— SANDERLING. 

[Trynga alba Vroeg (ex Pallas MS.), Catal. d'Ois., Adumb.. p. 7, ante Sept. 22nd, 1764. 

Holland, Europe. Extra-limital.] 

Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 158, Aug. 18th, 1913. 

Tringa tridactyla Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., Vol. II., p. 198, 1827 : Lake Baikal, Asia. 

Arenaria leiwophwa carteri Mathews, Emu, Vol. XVI., p. 35, July 1st, 1916 : Point Cloates, 

mid -West Australia. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — Head and neck all round rufous with narrow 
browii shaft-streaks ; a narrow crescentic white line immediately below the eye ; 
back and scapulars blackish the feathers fringed with rufous or white, some of the 
rufous margins mottled with black ; lesser wing-coverts brown, median and greater 
coverts tipped with white ; bastard-wing and primary -coverts dark brown ; primary- 
quills also dark brown on the outer webs and at the tips, inner webs paler brown, 
shafts white except at the extreme tips, some of the inner primaries white on the 
outer webs ; secondaries b^o^^^l, some of the inner ones almost white, the innermost 
like the back ; upper tail-coverts blackish with white tips, the long central ones 
entirely blackish ; middle tail-feathers dark brown, blackish towards the tips, the 
outer feathers much j)aler and mottled or dusted with brown and white ; breast, 
abdomen, and imder tail-coverts white as also the axillaries and mider wing-coverts, 
the small marginal coverts show minute blackish dots. Total length 207 mm. ; 
culmen 2.5, wing 125, tail 51, tarsus 25. 

Adult female in summer-plumage. — Similar to the adult male, but larger and 
not quite so bright rufous. 

Adult male in lointer-plumage. — Upper-parts pale grey with dark shaft-lines, 
including the head, hind-neck, sides of neck, median wing-coverts, and scapulars ; 
lesser u^jper wing-coverts dark brown ; greater wing-coverts dark brown broadly 
tipped with white ; bastard -wing and primary -coverts dark brown or blackish, some 
of the latter tipped with white ; primary-quills also dark brown on the outer webs 
and at the tips much paler and inclining to white on the inner webs, some of the 
inner primaries white on the outer webs towards the base ; secondaries for the most 
part white with browai at the tips, the long innermost secondaries like the back ; 
upper tail-coverts rather darker than the back, the lateral ones broadly fringed and 
tipped with white ; middle tail-feathers dark bro%vn with white on the outer webs 
near the base and narrowly fringed with white, the outer feathers similar but paler ; 



134 A MANUAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

fore-head, sides of face, and entire under -surface white including the under tail- 
coverts, axillaries, and under wing-coverts. 

The bird in autumii differs from the summer- and winter -plumages in having the 
dark brown feathers on the crown of the head, back, and scapulars fringed with 
grey ; feathers on the side of the neck and breast brown with grey edgings ; throat 
and abdomen white. 

Immature. — Fore-head white, loral brown stripe ; top of head blackish-brown 
with huffish tips ; back black with white spots to tips of feathers, lower back grey 
with black bars ; upper tail-coverts black with white tips ; wing-coverts with white 
tips, secondary coverts, scapulars and inner secondaries with white edges, all under- 
surface pure white. 

NestliTig. — Upper-surface mottled with pale reddish-buff and black, the pattern 
not determinable ; the frontal and loral streaks distinct, but no malar stripe ; spangled 
thickly with small white spots ; the imder-surface buffish-white, the breast darker 
huffish. There is no hind-toe. 

Nest. — A depression in the ground. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four; the eggs ovo-conica!, somewhat oblong; have the back- 
ground green, more or less bright or a little darker, with the under spots reddish-grey, 
the middle ones brown and the surface ones dark or blackish-brown ; on the eggs with 
light backgroimd the spots are deeper and vice versa ; the spots in general small, 
more or less round, mixed with streaks, numerous and almost equally distributed 
over all the surface ; axis 38-45 mm., diameter 26 to 26.5. 

Breeding-season. — June. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding throughout the Arctic Circle, ranging south- 
ward in winter almost into the Antarctic Regions. Three subspecies are distin- 
guishable ; Crocethia alba alba (Vroeg) from Europe ; Crocethia alba tridacti/la 
(Pallas) from Eastern Asia (occurring in Australia) a paler and slightly less form ; 
and Crocethia alba rubida (Gmelin) from America, a still paler and slightly larger 
form with a noticeably longer bill. 

Genus GLOTTIS. 

Glottii Koch, Syst. baier. Zool., pp. xlii., 304, July 1816. Type (by monotypy) : Glottis 

natans Koch = S. nebnlaria Guimerus. 

Limicula Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, p. 23, Dec. 1817 : Type (by monotypy) : Limicula 

glottis Forster = Scolopax nebnlaria Guimerus. 

Not Limictila Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 56, April llth, 1816. 

Limosa Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XII., pt. i., p. 85, 1824. Type (by monotypy) : 

Scolopax glottis Latham = Scolopax nebvlaria Gunnerus. 

Not of Brisson, Omith., Vol. V., p. 261, 1760. 

Nea Billberg, Synops. Fauns Scand., Vol. I., pt. ii., tab. A and p. 155, 1828. Tj^pe : 5. 

nebularia Gunnerus (c/. Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 41, Oct. 23rd, 1913). 

Large Totanine Waders with long upturned bills, long wings, short tail, long 
legs, and small feet. The culmen is stout with a distinct upward tendency ; the 
groove in the upper mandible is very short, being less than half the length of the 
culmen ; though long the culmen is less than either the metatarsus or the tail. 

The wings are long and pointed with the first primary longest, and are more 
than three times the length of the culmen and more than twice the length of the tail. 
The tail is comparatively short, being less than half the wing but longer than the 
metatarsus or culmen. The metatarsus is regularly scutellate iu fiont and behind, 
and is longer than the culmen though shorter than the tail ; the exposed tibia is 
equal in length to the middle toe and claw. The toes are short, and the middle 
toe is less than half the length of the metatarsus. A long hind-toe is present ; 
between the outer toe and middle one is a distinct basal web, between the iimer 
and middle toe is an indistinct and scarcely appreciable web. 



GREENSHANK. 135 

93. Glottis nebularius.— GREENSHANK. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 3G (pt. xvr.), Sept. 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 155, Aug. 

18th, 1913. 

Scolopax nebularia Gimnerus, in Knud Leem, Beskrivelse over Finmarken's Lapper, p. 251 

(note), (pref. Jan. 29th) 1767 : Norway, Europe. 

Scohpax cine.racca Latham, Gen. Synops., Suppl. I., p. 292, (pref. May 1st) 1787 : Spalding, 

Lincolnshire, England. 

Scolopax canescens Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. II., p. 668, April 20th, 1789. Baaed on 

same as preceding, viz.. Pennant, Brit. Zool., Vol. II., no. 180, pi. XLVI. 

Limosa varia Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat. (ed. Levrault), Vol. IV., p. 64, 1805 : Europe. 

Totamis griseus Bechsteiu, Gemein. Naturg. Deutschl., Vol. IV., p. 231, 1809 : Europe = 

Germany. 

Totanus fistulatw Bechstein, ib., p. 241. 

Totamis chloropxia Meyer und Wolf, Taschen. deutsch Vogel, p. 371, 1810 (pref. Aug. 20th, 

1809) : Germany. 

Olottis nutans Koch, Syst. baier. Zool., pp. xui., 305, July 1816. New name for preceding. 

Limicula glottis Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, p. 23, Dec. 1817 : England. 

Tetanus longipes Brehra, Beitr. z. Vogelk., Vol. III., p. 517, 1822, pref. May : shores of Baltic. 

Totamis gloitoides Vigors, Proc. Coram. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1831, p. 173, March 2nd, 1832: 

Himalayan Mountains, India. 

Glottis floridanvs Bonaparte, Geogr. Comp. List Birds Europe and North America, p. 51, 

April 14th, 1838 : Florida, North America. 

Glottis vigorsi Gray, List Sp. Birds Brit. Mus., pt. iii, sect, i., p. 99, 1844. New name for 

T. glottoides Vigors. 

Glottis albicollis Brehm, Isis, 1845, heft 5, col. 352, May. New name for T. glottoidesVigora. 

Glottis nivigvla Gray, Cat. Mamm. and Birds Nepal, pres. Hodgson Brit. Mus., pp. 138, 156, 

pref. Dec. 10th, 1846 : Nepal, India. 

Glottis linnei Malm, Gotebergs and Bohuslans Fauna, p. 278, 1877. New name for " S. 

glottis Linn." = Lath. 

Glottis nebularius georgiM&thews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 126, Jan. 28th, 1915: 

New South Wales. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — ^Head and hind-neck dark brown with white 
margins to the feathers ; mantle and upper back black with grey edgings, the dark 
markings becoming more elongated on some of the long scapulars where the margins 
are grey barred with black ; lesser, median, and greater wing-coverts dark brown, 
some of the major coverts edged with white at the tips, the small marginal coverts 
roimd the bend of the wing also edged with white ; bastard-wing, primary -co verts 
and quills dark brown, the latter paler brown on the inner webs, some of the short 
imier primaries narrowly tipped with white, the shaft of the first, or outer primary, 
is white ; secondaries greyish-brown, mottled with white on the inner webs, and 
edged with white at the tips, the long innermost secondaries like the long scapulars ; 
lower back and the rmnp white ; upper tail-coverts and tail white, barred with 
brown, the bars much more sparsely shown on the outer feathers of the latter ; a 
ring of short white feathers encircles the eye ; fore-head, sides of face, and throat 
white, with dark central streaks to the feathers ; the central lines become larger and 
more pear-shaped on the sides of the neck, fore-neck, and breast ; these markings 
are more or less broken up into bars on the sides of the body and lateral under tail- 
coveits ; axillaries and under wing-coverts white, barred with brown ; greater 
under wng-coverts uniform grey with white edges ; bill brown, basal third leaden- 
grey ; iris blackish-brown ; tarsi and feet light grey. Total length 335 mm. ; 
culmen, 52, wing 183, tail 80, tarsus 58. 

Adult female in summer-plumage. — Similar to the adult male but larger. 

Adult male in winter-plumage. — Differs from the summer-plumage in being 
greyer and less black on the upper-surface, and by the uniform white mider-surface. 

The bird in autumn has the dark upper-surface similar to the summer-plumage, 
and the all-white imder-surface like that of the winter-plumage. 

Young bird of the year. — Similar to the adult in winter -plumage but differs on 



136 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

the upper-parts where the feathers are more mottled and the margins regularly 
edged vnth white. 

Nestling. — Upper-surface brownish-grey with blackish-brown marking somewhat 
linearly arranged showing an obscure stripetl appearance ; a marked frontal streak 
and prominent loral stripe running through the eye ; under-surface pure white ; 
legs and bill long. 

Nest. — A depression in the grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour pale stone, covered with verj' dark red 
blotches and underljang ones of lavender ; axis 48-50 mm., diameter 34. 

Breeding-season. — May, Jmie. (Siberia.) 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout northern Europe and Asia, migrating 
southward in winter. Though many authorities have recognised the eastern form 
as differing in its paler plumage at the present time this appears to be ignored on 
account of lack of good series. 

Genus ILIORNIS. 

lUornis Kaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 156, (pref. April) 1829. Type (by 
monotypy) : Totanus stagnatilis Bechstein. 

Medium Totanine Waders with long straight slender bills, very long wings, 
very long legs with long exposed tibia, and tails of medium length. 

The culmen is long and slender, with the tip of the upper mandible hard and 
not expanded but turned down over the lower mandible ; the grooves in both 
mandibles are short and less than half the length of the culmen. The wings are 
long and pointed, the first primary longest. 

The metatarsus is very long and regularly scuteUate both in front and behind 
and equal to, or more than twice the length of, the middle toe ; it is also more than 
one-third the length of the wing. The exposed tibia is very long, cquaUing the 
middle toe in length. The tail is a little longer than the metatarsus. The toes are 
long and slender with a distinct web between the outer and the middle one, and a 
scarcely noticeable web between the middle and imier toe. Hind-toe present. 

94. lliornis stagnatilis.— LITTLE GREENSHANK. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 37 (pt. sxxiii.). Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. 111., pt. 2, pi. 149, May 

2nd, 1913. 

Totanus stagnatilis Bechstein, Omith. Taschenb. Deutschl., pt. 11., p. 292, 1803 : Germany. 

Trynga gtnnetia Pallas, Zoogr. Kosso-Asiat., A'ol. II., p. 195, 1827 : Eiissia. 

Limosa horsfieldii Sykes, Proc. Comm. Zool. Sec. (Lond.), 1832, p. 163, Nov. 22nd : Dukhun, 

India. 

Tolamis lathamii Gray and Hardwicke, Illiis. Ind. Zool., Vol. II., pi. 51, fig. 3 (? May 3rd), 

1834 : Cawnpore, India. 

Totanus gracilis Brehm, VoUstand. Vogelfang, p. 313, 1855 (pref. Nov. 8th, 1854): north 

East Africa. 

lliornis stagnatilis addenda Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 126, Jan. 2Sth, 1915 : 

Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Mantle and back ash-grey with dark shaft- 
lines and arrowhead black blotches ; some of the long scapulars irrcgularh marked 
and barred with black, the long innermost secondaries similarly marked ; lesser 
and greater wing coverts dark bro-rni, the latter tipped wth white ; some of the 
median coverts blotched with black like the back ; bastard-wing, primary -coverts 
and quills dark brown, the shaft of the outer primary white, the imier primaries 
paler and margined with white like the secondaries ; lower back and rump pure 
white ; upper tail-coverts and middle tail-feathers white, barred with bro-mi, the 



LITTLE GEEENSHAKK. 137 

outer feathers with irregular dark lines on the outer margins ; head and hind-neck 
grey, minutely streaked with black ; sides of face, throat, and breast white, sparsely 
spotted and streaked with black more coarsely on the sides of the breast and sides 
of body, sometimes taking the form of bars on the latter ; remainder of under-siirface 
white with a few dark narrow streaks on the under tail-coverts ; axillaries and 
mider wing-coverts also white ; lower primary-coverts grey, fringed with white. 

Adtilt female. — Similar to the adult male but larger. 

Adult in winter-plumage. — Differs from the adult in summer-plumage in the 
absence of the dark arrowheaded black blotches on the feathers of the back, the long 
secondaries not so conspicuously barred, in having fewer dark striations on the sides 
of the neck and body, and in having the fore-head quite white ; bill black, lower 
base grey ; iris brown ; feet and legs olive-yellow. Total length 210 ; culmen 38, 
wing 146, tail 62, tarsus 53. 

Bird of the year. — Hinder crown, hind-neck, mantle, scapulars, and long inner- 
most secondaries ash-grey with dark shaft-streaks and pale margins to the feathers, 
some of the long innermost secondaries have longitudinal dark lines ; wings darker 
than in the breeding-plumage, as also the lower back and rump ; tail white, mottled 
with grey on the outer webs and more or less barred on the inner webs of the middle 
feathers ; inner webs of outer feathers pure white ; under -surface white. 

Nestling. — Like those of the preceding in general style of plumage, but with 
shorter legs and of paler shade. 

Nest. — A depression in the grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; surface glossy ; ground-colour very pale yellow, sometimes 
shading to a greenish tint. The spots larger on the larger end, where they often 
form a kind of irregular zone ; in some there are large spots on the smaller end, 
but never so large as those on the upper end. Dimensions : axis 38 to 39.6 mm., 
diameter 26 to 28. 

Breeding-season. — Jmie. (Siberia.) 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout northern Europe and Asia, migrating 
southward as far as Australia in winter. Though Mathews recorded : " Eastern 
specimens in summer-plumage are certainly brighter on the upper-surface, the black 
markings being less noticeable, while the spotting on the breast and flanks is not 
so bold and probably larger," these differences have not been accepted yet, mainly 
on account of lack of series. 

Genus RHYACOPHILUS. 

Rhyacophilus Kaiip, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 140, (pref. April) 1829. Tj-pe (by 
monotypy) : Tringa glareola Linn^. 

Small Totanine Waders with short straight slender bills, long wings, short 
tail, long legs, and long feet. The culmen is short, straight and slender, with the 
groove in the upper mandible scarcely extending beyond half its length ; it is less 
than one-fourth the length of the wing and shorter than the metatarsus, and only 
about equal to the middle toe and claw. 

The wings are long and pointed with the first primary longest, and more than 
twice the length of the tail and more than three times the length of the metatarsus. 
The tail is comparatively short and rounded, less than half the \ving and longer than 
the metatarsus, but shorter than the metatarsus and exposed tibia. 

The metatarsus is of medium length, being less than the tail but longer than 
the culmen or middle toe : the exposed tibia is however proportionately long, being 
more than half the length of the metatarsus. The toes are long, the middle toe 
being two-thirds the length of the metatarsus, longer than the exposed tibia, and 
little less than the culmen, with the claw exceeding the last named. The webbing, 
of the feet is as in the preceding genus and a long hind-toe is present. 



138 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

95. Rhyacophilus glareola.— WOOD SANDPIPER. 

Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 15G, Aug. 18th, 1913. 

Tringa glareola Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 149, Jan. Ist, 1758 : Sweden, Kurope. 

Tringa grallatoria Montagu, Suppl. Omith. Diet., App. S., " Sandpiper, Long-legged," 1813 : 

England. New name for T. glareola Linn^. 

Totamts affinia Horsfield, Trans. Linn See. (Lond.), Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 191, 1821: 

Java. 

Totanua sylvcslria Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 038, 1831 (pref. July) : Germany. 

Totamts pahiatria Brehm, ih., p. 639 : Germany. 

Totanua ktihlii Brehm, ib., p. 641 : Java. 

Totanus glareoidea Gray, Zool. Miscell., pt. VI., p. 86, June 29th, 1844 : Nepal. Nom. 

ntid. 

Totanua glareola vulgaria A. E. Brehm, Verz. Samml., p. 12, 1866. Nom. nud. 

Rhyacophilus glareola picturala Mathews, Bull. Brit. Om. Club, Vol. XXXVI., p. 82, May 

25th, 1916 : North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Dusky-brown above, with blotches of darker 
Ijrown distributed over the upper-surface ; head and hind-neck streaked with white, 
and white spots distributed over the back and wings ; upper wing-coverts for the 
most part browi" , more or less fringed and barred with white ; bastard -wing, primary- 
coverts and quills dark brown, shaft of outer primary white ; secondary-quills 
somewhat paler brown, and edged with white at the tips ; the innermost secondaries 
like the back ; upper tail-coverts white, barred with brown ; middle tail-feathers 
brown, barred with white or buffy-white, the outer feathers for the most part white 
with irregular markings of pale brown ; eye-ring white ; eyebrow and sides of face 
minutely spotted with brown ; ear-coverts brown, intermixed with white ; chin 
white, the feathers of the lower throat brown with white margins ; fore-neck and 
breast ash-grey, more or less barred with white ; the feathers on the sides of the 
body white, barred with brown like the under tail-coverts, but more sparsely on 
the latter ; middle of abdomen dull white ; axillaries white, regularly barred with 
brown ; imder wing-coverts brown, fringed with white, the greater series grey with 
white tips ; bill blackish-brown, base of lower mandible brown ; iris dark brown ; 
tarsi and feet light olive-brown. Total length 225 mm. ; culmen 31, wing 128, tail 
50, tarsus 37. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but larger. 

Adult in winter-plumage. — Differs from the summer-dress in being more imiform 
on the head and hind-neck, and in having a well-pronomiced white superciliary 
streak ; also in having the breast uniform grey. 

Immature. — The upper spotting is rufous and the spots are closer together ; 
"the throat and chest ashy with distinct shaft-stripes of brown which also occur on 
flanks ; axillaries not regularly barred. 

Nestling in doivn. — Upper-surface for the most part black, with longitudinal 
smoky-grey lines on the head, hind-neck, and back ; a narrow black loral streak 
which cuts through the eye on to the sides of the hinder crown ; entire mider- 
surface white. 

Nest. — A depression in the earth. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour bluish, coveied more thickly at the larger 
end with large spots and blotches of dark puq;)lish-red, and imdcrlying ones of 
lavender ; axis 30, diameter 27. 

Breeding-season. — May, June. (Siberia.) 

Distribution and forms. — The northern regions of Europe and Asia, ranging 
southward to Australia in winter. No subspecies are at present recognised, though 
JVIathews observed " the eastern form is smaller and paler," and probably fuller 
series will later confirm that statement. 



COMMON SANDPIPEB. 139 

Genus ACTITIS. 

Aclitis lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 263, (pref. April) 1811. Type (by subsequent 
designation, Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. xiv., 1852, 1853 ?): Tringahypoleiicos Linne. 
Tringoidcs Bonaparte, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York, Vol. II., p. 326, " 1828 " 
[November 1827.] Type (by subsequent designation, Richmond (3), p. 627, Aug. 16th = 
25th, 1917) : Tringa macularia " WUs." 

Guinetta Gray, List Genera Birds, 1st ed., p. 68, April 1840 : Type (by original designation) : 
Tringa hypole-ucos Linne. 

Smallest Totanine Waders with short straight bills, long wings, long tail, short 
legs, and long toes. The culmen is short, straight, and slender with the groove in 
the upper mandible extending three parts its length ; the culmen is scarcely longer 
than the metatarsus, which is about equal to the middle toe and claw ; the inter- 
ramal space is feathered. 

The long wings have the first primary longest. The tail is long, romided and 
about half the length of the wing or twice the length of the culmen. The metatarsus 
is regularly scutellate in front and behind and about equal to the middle toe and 
claw in length ; the exposed portion of the tibia is less than half the length of the 
metatarsus. 

The toes are long and a basal web connects the outer and middle, an indistinct 
web joining the middle and inner toe. Long hind-toe present. 

96. Actitis hypoleucus.— COMMON SANDPIPER. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 35 (pt. xxxn.), Sept. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 153, Aug 

18th, 1913. 

Tringa hypoleucos Linne, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 149, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Sweden. 

Trynga ralloides Vroeg (ex Pallas MS.), Catal. d'Ois., Adumb., p. 7, ante Sept. 22nd, 1764: 

Holland. 

Tringa aurila Latham, Index Omith. Suppl., p. Lxvi., 1801, after May: New South Wales, 

based on Watling drawing No. 244. 

Totanus guinetta Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, p. 24, Dec. 1817. New name for Tringa 

hypoleticos Linn6. 

Trynga leiicoptera Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., Vol. II., p. 196, 1827 : Siberia. 

Actitia cinchis Brehm, Naturg. Vogel Deutschl., p. 648 (pref. July) 1831 : Germany. 

Actitis stagnaiilis Brehm, ib., p. 649 : Germany. 

Actitis empusa Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1847, p. 222, March 29th, 1848: Port 

Essington, Northern Territory. 

Aclitis megarhyfichos Brehm, VoUstand. Vogelfang, p. 314, 1855, pref. Nov. 8th, 1854 : " Im 

Morgenlande, selten im Sudeuropa." 

Acitis cinclus major and minor A. E. Brehm, Verz. Samml., p. 13, 1866. Nom. nud. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-phimage. — General colour above olive-brown, including 
the head, back, wings, and tail ; the feathers of the head, hind-neck, and mantle 
having narrow darlc shaft-lines, while those of the back and wings have dark cross- 
bars, some of the lateral upper tail-coverts are edged with white ; the small marginal 
coverts round the bend of the wing as also the outer edge of the bastard -wing and 
outer primary-coverts white ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and primary-quills 
pale brown, the latt«r white on the middle inner webs, except the outer one, the inner 
ones edged with white at the tips ; secondaries white at the base and browii at the 
tips, the middle ones edged with white at the tijjs, some of the inner quills almost 
entirely white, the innermost olive-brown barred with darker brown ; middle tail- 
feathers like the back, the outer feathers paler, notched and tipped with white also 
mottled with buffy-white ; a white spot in front of the eye and a dark line through 
the latter ; sides of face and ear -coverts pale brown, intermixed with white, giving 
a streaked appearance ; throat, abdomen, under tail-coverts white, like the axillaries 
and under wii^.g-coverts ; fore-neck and breast white with narrow brown shaft-lines 



140 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALU. 

becoming brown on the sides of the breast where it forms a patch. Total length 
215 mm. ; culmen 26, -n-ing 112, tail 58, tarsus 24. 

Adult female in summer-plumage. — Similar to the male but larger, and the streaks 
on the middle of and the patch on the sides of breast not so strongly pronounced. 

Adult male in winter-plumage. — Differs from the summer -plumage in being 
more bronzy-olive on the back and scapulars, the crossing and shaft-lines not so 
strongly pronounced, the bars on the wings minute and composed of black and bufi ; 
bill brown, base of lower mandible grey ; iris brown ; feet leaden-grey tinged ^vith 
brown. 

Adult female in winter-plumage. — Similar to the male. 

Immature. — Upper-surface brown, each feather fringed with a huffish tip and 
darker succeeding mark ; wing-coverts barred with whitish and with huffish tips ; 
inner secondaries barred \vith white on outer webs ; tail barred, tips buif, otherwise 
as in summer-plumage. 

Nestling. — Upper-surface pale ash-grey and with a black striped pattern of 
marking and no spangling ; a black loral line and a black frontal line ; mider-surface 
creamish-grey. 

Nest.— A depression in the grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, fovu" ; ground-colour either grejrish or yellowish-white, covered 
all over with underlying spots of grey, and others, few and irregular, of deep or coffee- 
brown. On some there are a few lines and zigzag.s ; generally the markings are 
thicker on the large end, which is sometimes even smudged with brown ; axis 33 
to 37.2 mm., diameter 24.8 to 26.2. 

Breeding-season. — Jiuie and July. (Sakhalin Island.) 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in Eiu'ope and Asia, migrating southward 
in winter. The eastern form is at present indefinable, but later study with good 
series may reinstate it. 

Genus TEREKIA. 

Terekia Bonaparte, Comp. List Birds, Europe and N. Amer., p. 52, April 14th, 1838. Type 
(by monotypy) : Tolanus javanicus Horsfield = Scolopax cinerea Gueldenstadt. 
Xenus Kaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 115, pref. April 1829. Type (by mono- 
typy) : Scolopax cinerea Gueldenstadt. 
Not Xenos Rossi, Mantissa Insect., Vol. II., p. 114, 1794. 

Simor/iyw/i !« Keyserling und Blasius, Wirbelth. Europa's, p. lxxit., (before April) 1840: 
Type (by monotj'py) : S. ciiierea Gueldenstadt. 

Not of Merrera, Ersch und Gruber, AUg. Ency., Vol. II., p. 405, 1819. 

Rhynchosimus Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 326, (pref. Sept.) 1890. New 
name for Simorhynch ua Kej'S. und Blasius. 

Smallest Totanine Waders with very long upcurved bills, long wings, medium 
tail, short legs, and long toes. The culmen is very long and distinctly uptunied, 
with the tijj not expanded but decurved ; the base of the culmen is considerably 
wider than the tip, and the lower mandible has the base jiroportionately more s'W'ollcn, 
the interramal space being unfeathered ; the groove in the upper mandible extends 
more than half the length of the culmen. The culmen is less than half the length 
of the wing, but more than one-third. The wings are long and pointed with first 
primary longest, and are more than twice the length of the tail. The tail is rounded 
and of medium length being longer than the culmen, but less than half the length 
of the wing. The metatarsus is short, but is more than half the length of the culmen, 
and is regularly scutellate in front and behind. The toes are long and the outer 
connected with the middle by a distinct basal web which almost extends to the 
second joint, the inner showing a distinct web with the middle one which extends 
to the fust joint ; the middle toe is shorter than the metatarsus, and a long hind-toe 
is present. 



TEEEK SANDPIPER. 141 

97. Terekia cinerea.— TEREK SANDPIPER. 

Gould. Vol. VI., pi. 34 (pt. XXXIV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 154, Aug. 

18th, 1913. 

Scolopax cinerea Gueldenstadt, Nov. Comm. Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop., Vol. XIX., p. 473, 

pi. 19, 1774 : shore of Caspian Sea. 

Scolopax terck Latham, Index Ornith., Vol. II., p. 724, before Dec. 9th, 1790. New name 

for preceding. 

Totanus javanicus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XIII., pt. r., p. 193, 1821 : Java. 

Scolopax sumatrana Baffles, ib., pt. n., p. 327, 1822 : Sumatra. 

Fedoa terekensis Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XII., pt. i., p. 83, 1824. New name for 

S. cinerea Gueldenstadt. 

Limosa recurvirostra Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., Vol. II., p. 181, 1827. New name for S. 

cinerea Gueldenstadt. 

Limicola indiana Lesson, Traits d'Orn., livr. 7, p. 554, April 9th, 1831 : India. 

Totanus terekius Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr., p. 369, 1888. New name for T. cinerea. 

Terekia cinerea aiisiralis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 4, p. 69, July 21st, 1917 : 

Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — General colour above, brown with a bronzy 
sheen, the feathers lined with brown shaft-streaks on the head, back, and scapulars, 
some of the short scajjulars almost entirely black, which looks like two broivn parallel 
lines ; lesser, median, and greater wing-coverts for the most part dark brown, like 
the bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills, the latter paler and inclining to 
whitish on the inner webs, shaft of outer primary white ; secondary -quills greyish- 
brown broadly tipped with white, becoming less white on the inner ones, the long 
innermost secondaries like the back ; rump and upper tail-coverts ash-giey ; the 
long upjjer tail-coverts barred with buff, and dark brown on the margins of the 
feathers ; tail-feathers ashy-grey becoming lighter on the outermost ones ; the eye 
is encircled by a ring of short white feathers ; sides of face, sides of neck, throat 
and breast dull white streaked with dusky-brown ; abdomen and under tail-coverts 
white like the axiUaries and imder wing-coverts, the small marginal coverts on 
the under-wing brown, tipped wth white ; bill black, base olive-brown ; iris brown ; 
feet, tarsus, and lower tibia dull yellow. Total length 290 mm. ; culmen 50, wing 
136, tail 57, tarsus 30. 

Adult female in summer-plumage. — Similar to the adult male but larger. 

Adult in unnter-plumage. — Differs from the adult in summer-plumage in being 
greyer and less bronzy above. 

Immature. — -Differs from the adult in having the base of the bill yellowish 
instead of brown, the head and hind-neck grey with scarcely any perceptible dark 
shaft-streaks ; the dark markings on the back less pronounced, the rimap paler grey, 
and the sides of face, throat and fore-neck more faintly streaked. 

Nestling in down. — Upper-surface greyish-buff ; a broad black longitudinal 
line along the middle of the back ; a narrow black streak from the fore-head over the 
middle of the crown on to the hind-neck ; loral streak and a narrow line beyond 
the eye also black ; entire under parts creamy-wliite. 

Young partly fiedged. — The feathers on the sides of the breast, back, scapulars, 
and tail grey tinged mth sandy-buff, aiul black shaft-lines ; the crown of the head 
similar but more minutely marked ; fore-head whitish ; loral streak black ; lesser, 
median, and greater upper wing-coverts blackish like the primary-coverts and 
quills ; the greater coverts broadly tipped with white ; liiud-neck, throat, and fore- 
neck covered with grey down ; abdomen white, down still adhering to the feathers 
of the abdomen, under tail-coverts, and tail. 

Nest. — A depression in the grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; surface glossy ; gromid-colour pale stone, sparingly 
covered all over, but more at the larger end, with medium-sized blotches of dark 



142 A MANUAL OF THE BIBBS OF AUSTBALIA. 

purplish-red and imderlying ones of lavender ; axis 35-36.5 mm., diameter 
26-27. 

Breeding -season. — June and July. (Siberia.) 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding throughout northern Europe and A.sia, 
migrating southward in winter. Mathews recognised an eastern form as smaller 
and paler which recently has not been accepted, but we anticipate that on later 
reconsideration this will be allowed. 

Genus HETERACTITIS. 

Heieractitis Stejneger, Auk, Vol. I., p. 236, July 1884. New name for Heteroscelus Baird 
1858. Type (by monotypy) : Totanus brevipes Vieillot = Scolopax incanus Gmelin. 
Heteroscelus Baird, Rep. Expl. Surv. Pac. Ocean, Vol. IX., p. 734, Oct. 1 1858. Type {by 
monotypy) : T. brevipes Vieillot. 
Not Hcleroscelis BoisduvaJ, Voy. Astrol., Entom., Vol. II., p. 25, 1835. 

Medium Totanine Waders with short, somewhat stout bills, long wings, medium 
tails, short stout legs, and strong feet. 

This genus is easily recogiiisable by the stout bill in conjunction with the nature 
of the metatarsal covering from which it gains its name. 

The culmen is stout and short., being less than one-fourth the length of the 
wing and almost exactly half the length of the tail. The nasal groove varies from 
one-half to two-thirds the length of the culmen. Wings long and pointed, the 
first primary longest. Tail doubly emarginate like that of Pisohia, rather less 
than half the length of the wing. Metatarsus short, less than the culmen, but 
longer than the middle toe and claw, the exposed tibia being about half the length 
of the metatarsus. There is a distinct web between the outer and middle toes 
towards the base, but only an indistinct webbing between the middle and inner 
toes. The hind-toe and claw are proportionately long. The metatarsus is covered 
with transverse scutellse in front and the sides are coarsely reticulate ; the back 
is clothed with little larger reticulation in some, in hexagonal scales approaching 
transverse scutes in others, and in apparently regular scutellse in others. 

98. Heteractitis incanus.— WANDERING TATTLER. 

Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 152, Aug. 18th, 1913. 

Scolopax incana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. 11., p. 658, April 20th, 1789 : Eimeo and 

Palmerston Islands, Pacific Ocean. 

Scolopax solitaris Bloxham, Voy. " Blonde," Sandwich Is., p. 252, " 1826 " = Feb. 20th, 

1827 : Sandwich Islands. 

Totanus fuliguwsiis Gould, Voy. " Beagle," Birds, p. 130, March 1841 : GaJapagos Islands. 

Scolopax vndulata Forster, Descr. Anim., ed. Licht., p. 173, (pref. Jan. 1st) 1844 : Tahiti. 

Not of Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enlum., p. 54, (after Dec.) 1783. 

Scolopax pacifica Forster, ib., p. 174 : Tahiti. 

Totanus oceaniciis Lesson, Descr. Mamm. et Ois., p. 244, April 1847 : Pacific Ocean. 

Totanus pohjnesiw Peale, Zool. U.S. Expl. Exped., Vol. VIII., p. 237, 1848 (c/. 2nd ed., p. 318, 

1858): Fiji. 

Heteroscelus incanus porieri Mathews, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, Vol. XXXVI., p. 82, May 25th, 

1916: Cape York, Queensland. 

Distribution. — Cape York in winter, as far as yet recorded. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — Upper -parts olive-giey including the crown 
of the head, entire back, wings and tail ; the small marginal upper TOng-coverts 
dark brown fringed with white like some of the major and primary -coverts ; primary- 
and secondary -qui lis dark brown, paler on the inner webs, the shaft of the outer 
primary inclining to white ; an ill-defined white line running from the base of the 
bill over the eye and along the sides of the cro^vn ; sides of face, ear-coverts, sides 
of neck, and fore-neck streaked with brown and white ; chin and upper throat 
with small ovate spots of slate-brown ; remainder of the mider-surface slate-grey 



GREY-EUMPED TATTLER. 143 

barred with white ; axillaries slate-brown ; under wing-coverts similar in colour, 
faintly edged on the inner, and more broadly on the outer, coverts with white. 
Total length 260 ; culmen 38, wing 164, tail 70, tarsus 34. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult in unnter-pliimage. — Differs from the adult in summer-plumage in lacking 
the barring on the under-surface. There is a greyish band on the breast, and the 
sides of the body are also of the same colour. Throat, abdomen, vent, and muler 
tail-coverts white ; bill gre3'ish -green ; iris brown ; feet and legs dull green. 

Immature. — Similar to the winter-plimiage, but upper back, scapulars and 
inner secondaries indistinctly edged with whitish and the feathers of the flanks 
also faintly edged with white. 

Nestling, Nest and Eggs. — Undescribed. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in Alaska, and wandering southward through 
the Pacific to Cape York in winter. No subspecies, and the representative species, 
H. brevipes, seems almost generically separable, instead of subspecifically as recently 
suggested. 

Forbes and Robinson (Bull. Liver p. Mus., II., (2), p. 70, 1899 (Sept.) record r 
" Torres Straits, collected by Macgillivi-ay in 1844, a male is referable to this species, 
not brevipes," so that probably it occurs more commonly than recorded. 

99. Heteractitis brevipes.— GREY-RUMPED TATTLER. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 38 (pt. xxxm.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 151, Aug.. 

18th, 1913. 

Totanus brevipes Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. VI., p. 410, Dee. 14th, 1816 : No. 

loo. = Timor, coll. by Mauge fide Pucheran, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1851, p. 570. 

Totamis pulverulentiis MvUIer, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Land- en Volkenk., p. 153, 1842: Timor. 

Totanus griseopygius Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1848. p. 39, Nov. 14th : Port Essington, 

Northern Territory. 

DiSTKiBUTiON. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — General colour above slate-gre}', the feathers 
everywhere narrowly margined with white, more broadly on the greater wing-coverts 
and upper tail-coverts ; bastard-wing dark browii ; primary -coverts dark brown, 
the inner ones tipped with white ; primary-quiUs dark brown, the outer one with 
a white shaft ; secondaries pale slate-grey fringed with white, the long innermost 
secondaries like the back; fore-head, a line over the eye, ear-coverts, and throat 
white, minutely spotted and streaked with grey ; fore-neck, breast, and sides of 
body barred Math slate-grey ; abdomen and mider tail-coverts white, the latter 
barred with grey at the tips ; axillaries and mider wing-coverts slate-grey fringed 
with white at the tips ; bili black, base of lower mandible brown ; iris dark brown ; 
feet dull yellow. Total length 280 mm. ; culmen 39, wing 161, tail 67, tarsus 35. 

Adult female in breeding-plumage. — Similar to the adult male. 

Adult male in ivinter-plumage. — Differs from the adult in nuptial-dress in being 
uniform slate-grey above, also in the miiform pale grey of the fore-neck, breast, and 
sides of body. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature male {bird of the year). — Dark slate-grey above, and the margins of 
the feathers dappled with white, some of the wing-coverts margined with white ; 
crown of head, hind-neck, and mantle miiform slate-grey ; lores dusky ; fore-neck, 
chest, and sides of body miiform grey, darker on the latter like the axillaries ; lower 
flanks more or less barred with white. 

Nest and Eggs. — Undescribed. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeds in Eastern Siberia from Lake Baikal to the 
Sea of Japan, and wandering southward to Australia in winter. No subspecies,, 
and quite distinct specifically from preceding. 



144 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Genus BARTRAMIA. 

Bartramia Lesson, Traits d'Om., livr. 7, p. 553, April 9th, 1831. Type (by monotypy) : 

B. laticauda — Triruja lonqicaitda Bechstein. 

Actidurux Bonaparte, Giomale Arcadico (Roma), Vol. LII., p. 208, 1831, 1832. Type 

(by monotypy) ; Tringa longicauda Bechstein. New name for Bartramia Less. 

Eiiliga Nuttall, Man. of Omith., Vol. II., p. 167, 1834. Type (by original designation) : 

Tringa bartramia Wilson = Tringa longicauda Bechstein. 

Medium Totanine Waders with short bills, long wings, long tails, long legs, and 
long toes. 

The culmen is short and straight, the tip slightly swollen and decurved ; the 
groove in the upper mandible extends for more than half the length of the culmen, 
which is scarcely longer than the middle toe and claw and less than two-thirds the 
length of the metatarsus. 

The ^vings are very long, with the first primary longest. The tail is very long 
and wedge shaped, more than half the length of the wing, and three times the length 
of the ciilmen. The metatarsus is more than half the length of the tail but less than 
twice the middle toe ; the exposed portion of the tibia is more than half the length 
of the metatarsus and equal to the middle toe. Tarsus regularly scutellated before 
and behind. 

The toes are long, and the middle toe is more than half the length of the meta- 
tarsus and little less than the culmen ; the webbing between the toes is as in the 
preceding Totanoid genera. A long hind-toe is present. 

100. Bartramia longicauda.— LONG- TAILED SANDPIPER. 

Gould, Suppl., pi. 77 (pt. IV.), Dec. 1st, 1867. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 3, pi. 157, Aug. 18th 

1913. 

Tringa loiigicauda Bechstein, Kurze Uebers. Vogel, p. 453, (pref. April 12th, 1810), 1811 

North America. 

Tringa bartramia Wilson, Amer. Omith, Vol. VII., p. 63, pi. 59, fig. 2, 1813 (pref. March 1st) 

Permsylvania, North America. 

Totan'us variegatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. VI., p. 397, Dec. I4th, 1816 

South America. 

Totanivs campestris Vieillot, ib., p. 400 : Paraguay, South America. 

Totanus melanopygitis Vieillot, ib., p. 401 : North America. 

Bartramia laticauda Lesson, Traite d'Om., livr. 7, p. 553, April 9th, I83I. New name for 

Trimja bartramia Wilson. 

Distribution. — No Australian-shot specimens preserved, and record very doubtful. 

Adult male. — General colour above black, the feathers everywhere margined 
with sandy-rufous and white ; head black with sandy-rufous edges to the feathers ; 
hind-neck rufous with dark brown centres to the feathers, giving a streaked appear- 
ance ; mantle and back black, the feathers edged with rufous ; lower back, middle 
upper tail-coverts and rump uniform black, the lateral upper tail-coverts barred with 
buff and black ; lesser wing-coverts dark brown fringed with sandy -rufous ; greater 
coverts olive-brown barred with darker bro^^^l, fringed on the sides with sandy- 
rufous and tipped with white ; bastard-wing blackish, tipped ^vith white ; primary- 
coverts black with pale edges to some of the inner ones ; primary -quills dark brown 
on the outer webs, the inner webs barred with white ; first primary mottled and 
barred with brown and white, shaft also white ; inner primaries barred with pale 
and dark brown, fringed and tipped with white, the secondaries similarly coloured ; 
the long innermost secondaries like the back ; middle tail-feathers grejnsh-brown 
tinged with rufous and barred wth black, becoming rufous on the outer feathers 
which are also barred wth black and broadly tipped with white ; throat white ; 
sides of face, lower throat, and upper-breast sandy-buff, with narrow brown streaks ; 
abdomen and mider tail-coverts buffy-white ; sides of body sandy-rufous barred 



BARR3D-RXJMPED GODWIT, 145 

with brown ; axillaries and luider mng-coverts white barred with dark brown ; 
bill greenish-yellow, culmen and tip dark brown ; iris hazel ; tarsi and feet yellowish- 
green. Total length 288 mm. ; culmen 29, wing 165, tail 82, tarsus 47. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Young. — Similar to the adult, but the buff of the head, jugulum, wings, etc., 
much deeper, the streaks on the fore-neck and jugulum much less distinct, and the 
back plain black, the feathers bordered with buff. 

Nestling in down. — Upper-surface black, rufous, and white ; lores, sides of the 
face, collar on the hind-neck, and the entire under parts white, with a tinge of jiale 
buii on the abdomen ; lower flanks, tliighs, and under tail-coverts marked with 
rufous and black. 

Nest. — A rather deep depreision in the ground, sparingly lined with fine weed 
stems, grasses and a few bits of manure, and one or two small feathers. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colom' light stone, sparingly marked all over, but 
more at the larger end, mth spots of dark chestnut to yellowish-brown, and under- 
lying ones of lavender ; axis 41.5 to 43 mm., diameter 32 to 32.5. 

Breeding-season. — .June. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in North America, migrating southward to 
South America in winter, and accidental in Europe, and has been recorded from 
Australia but no .specimens are preserved. No svibspecies. 

Genus VETOLA. 

Vetola Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 2, p. 191, May 2nd, 1913. Type (by original 
designation) : Scolopax lapponica Linn^. 

This genus, which has been continually confused with Liraosa. is as well 
characterised as the majority of the Scolopacine genera. It is easily distinguished 
by its short legs, differing much in the same way as Pseudototanus differs from 
Glottis. Compared with Limosa the bill is iJroportionately shorter and more slender 
and distinctly more upturned ; the groove on the upper mandible becomes obsolete 
at about three-quarters the length of the culmen owing to the strong vertical com- 
pression of the upper mandible, the groove on the lower mandible, however, persists 
as in Limosa. The legs are short, the exposed tibia being less than the length of the 
middle toe, the metatarsus is less than twice the middle toe and also less than one- 
third the length of the wing, the scutellation of the front of the metatarsus becomes 
irregular and broken up into hexagonal scales towards the tibio-tarsal joint, whereas 
in Limosa the scutellation is quite regular. The middle claw is normal, imtoothed 
and short, being one-foiu-th, or less, the length of the middle toe. 

loi. Vetola lapponica.— BARRED-RUfAPED GODWIT. 

[Scopolax lapponica Liiui^, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 147, Jan. 1st, 1758: Sweden, Europe. 

Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 29 (pt. sxxni.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 2, pi. 14S, May 

2nd, 1913. 

Limosa batieri Naumann, Vogel. Deutsehl., Vol. VIII., p. 429, (pref. Oct.) 1836: New 

Holland = Victoria. 

Limosa australis " Briss." Bennett, Cat. Spec. Nat. Hist. Austr. Mus., (after .July 26th) 1837, 

p. 48. Norn. mid. 

Limosa brevipes Gray, List Sp. Birds Brit. Mus., pt. in., p. 95, 1844 : New Zealand. Nomen, 

ntidum. 

Limosa aiistralasiana Gray, ib., p. 96 : Port Essington, Northern Territory. Nomen nudum. 

Lim/>sa lapponica var. novmzealandim Gray, Voy. " Erebus and Terror," Birds, p. 13, Oct. 

1845 : New Zealand. 

Limosa foxii Peale, Zool. U.S. Expl. Exped., Vol. VIII., p. 23, 1848 (c/. 2nded., p. 314, 1858) : 

Samoa. 

Limosa uropygialis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond. ), 1848, p. 38, Nov. 14th: Australia = 

Victoria. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 



146 A IIANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult male in summer-jdmnage. — Head and hind-neck cinnamon-rufous with 
dark brown shaft-streaks to the feathers ; upper back and scapulars dark vnih white 
and buJEE marginal spots to the feathers ; the feathers of the lower back pale brown 
fringed with white — these edgings becoming rufous on the short upper tail-coverts, 
the long ones barred with rufous and brown and tipped with M'hite ; ta,il pale bro^w^, 
barred and tipped with white ; lesser, median, and greater wng-coverts brown, 
fringed with white ; bastard-wing and ijrimary-coverts uniform dark brown ; 
primary-quills also dark brown, paler on the inner webs and mottled with white 
towards the base, the shafts conspicuously white ; the iimer iirimaries and secondaries 
pale brown and edged with white ; tail brown, tipped and barred with white ; 
a short white line immediately below the eye ; eyebrow, throat, breast, abdomen, 
and mider tail -coverts cinnamon -rufous, some of the mider tail-coverts have dark 
broTm bars ; mider wing-coverts white vnih. a subterminal browai bar ; axillaries 
white barred with brown ; bill blackish, pale at base of lower mandible ; iris brown ; 
feet blackish. Total length 373 mm. ; culmen 83, wng 224, tail 78, tarsus 51. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male but larger. According to Middendorff, 
coloration appreciably different. 

Adult male in winter-plumage. — Top of head and hind -neck ash-grey with narrow 
pale brown streaks to the feathers becoming darker on the back and scapulars, some 
of the feathers of which are dark brown fringed with white ; upper tail-coverts 
brown barred and fringed with white, the long ones barred wth browai and white ; 
"tail dark bro%^ii mottled with wliite towards the base, some of the middle feathers 
subterminallj' barred with white, the shafts of the feathers white at the base and 
brown near the tips ; lessei, median, and greater wng-coverts pale brown with 
whitish margins like the secondary-quills ; bastard-wing and primary-coverts 
muform dark bro\m ; primar3'^-quills dark brown on the outer webs and at the tijis, 
paler bro^^^l on the inner webs and mottled with white towards the base, the shafts 
consf)icuously white ; an ill-defined white eyebrow ; sides of face duskj'-whito 
with minute dark shaft-lines, an indistinct line in front of the ej'e and the ear-coverts 
a shade darker than the rest of the face ; a narrow white line immediately below 
the eye ; throat dull white ; lower throat and breast ash-grey with narrow blackish 
shaft-lines on the lower throat and fore-neck ; the feathers of the breast, sides of 
body, and under tail-coverts more or less barred with pale brown ; abdomen and 
vent whitish ; axillaries bro\\ai, barred and margmed with white ; mider wing- 
coverts pale brown barred and margined with white. 

Immature. — Top of the head brown with pale tips, the back of the neck greyish- 
brown with paler tips ; the upper back tip23ed wth broader edges, giving a scalloped 
appearance ; the rump and tail barred, the feathers wth whitish tips ; the wing- 
coverts with long whitish edges ; there is an ill-defined superciliarj' line of whitish ; 
throat whitish, the lower thjoat and chest fawnish-white, abdomen dirty white ; 
indefinite brownish flank stripes ; mider wing-coverts bro^mi with wliite bases and 
broad white edges ; axillaries wliite barred irregularly with pale brown. 

Nestling in down. — Rufous-brown above with black blotches, rather irregularly 
placed so that linear arrangement is not easily seen ; a black frontal line spreading 
out into an irregular black blotched cap ; a pronomiced white superciliary succeeded 
by a black loral line passing through the eye ; cheeks and all mider-surface pale 
bu£Ey-red, the thighs tinged with yellow ; the winglet browii edged with paler buff}' 
centre. 

Nest. — A depression in the grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour deep greenish-drab to pale drab ; the 
markings are scattered in the form of irregular blotches of a dilute umber. In some 
the markings are more pronounced and more aggregated towards the larger end 
and of a much deeper shade of umber ; axis 57 mm., diameter 36-37. 

Breeding-season. — In Siberia, June and July. 



BLACK-TAILED GOD WIT. 147 

Breeds in Eastern Siberia as far north as Taimyr Peninsula and tundras 
at the mouth of Kolyma. Breeds in colonies, and is very noisy. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout northern Europe and Asia, migrating 
southTrard in winter to Australia. Two subspecies are commonly recognised : 
V. I. lappmiica (Linne) from Europe, and V. I. baueri (Naumami) from East Siberia, 
separable by its darker rump and more heavily barred flanks and generally paler. 

Genus LIMOSA. 

Limosa Brisson, Ornith., Vol. I., p. 48, Vol. V., p. 261, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : Limosa 

= Scolopax limosa Linne. 

Limicula Vieillot, Anal. nouv. Orn., p. 66, April 14th, 1816. Type (by monotypy) : " Barge 

Buft'on " = Scolopax limosa Linn6. 

Oamhetta Koch, Syst. baier. Zool., pp. xlii., 307, JiJy 1816. Type (by monotypy) : S. limosa 

Linn6. 

Fedoa Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XII., pt. i., p. 70, 1824. Type (by tavitonyray) : 

Scolopax fedoa Linn^. 

Not of Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, pp. 20, 56, 1817. 

Actites Billberg, Synops. Fauna? Scand., Vol. I., pi. 2, Tab. A and p. 153, 1828. Type : 

Scolopax limosa Linne. Cf. Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 41, Oct. 23rd, 1913. 

Not of lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 263, 1811. 

Large Scolopacine Wading birds with very long straight bills, long wings, very 
long legs, and long toes. 

The culmen is very long and straight but with a faint upward tendency towards 
the tip ; the tip is slightly expanded and projects bej'ond the lower mandible but 
it is not curved down over the latter. A slight vertical comjiression is noticeable 
towards the tip of the upper mandible. Nostrils are linear and placed near the base 
of the culmen, in a groove which extends the length of the bill mitil stopped by the 
expanded tip. In the lower mandible a similar groove is observed, quite as distinct 
as that in the upper, while the tip is similarly expanded. The culmen is longer than 
the tail or tarsus. Wings long with first primary longest. Tail rounded or almost 
square, longer than the tarsus but less than half the length of the wing. The legs 
are very long ; the exposed portion of the tibia being longer than the middle toe ; 
the metatarsus is very long, being more than one-third the length of the wing and 
more than twice that of the middle toe ; it is regularly scutellated both before and 
behind. The outer and middle toes are connected by a web at the base, but only 
the indication of a web exists between the middle and inner one. Hind-toe 
long. The claw of the middle toe is peculiar, being very long, linear, fragile, and 
strongly pectinate ; it is more than one-fourth and almost one-third the length of 
the middle toe. 

102. Limosa limosa.— BLACK-TAILED GODWIT. 

[Scolopax limosa Linne, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 147, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Europe. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 28 (pt. XXXIV.), Sept. 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 2, pi. 147, May 

2nd, 1913. 

Limosa melanuroides Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xxxrv. (Vol. VI., pi. 28), Sept. 1st, 1846 ; Port 

Essington, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — Head and hind-neck cinnamon-rufous, the 
feathers centred with brown, more strongly pronounced on the crown of the head ; 
upper back and scapulars blackish-brown, barred and margined with rufous ; 
marginal upper wing-coverts dark brown, as also the bastard-wing ; some of the 
median coverts blackish with pale margins, greater coverts brown, broadly tipped 
with white ; primary-coverts blackish edged with white at the tips, more broadly 
on the imier ones ; primary-quills dark brown on the outer webs and at the tips, 

L 2 



148 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

inner webs much j)aler and becoming white towards the base, some of the inner 
primaries entirelj' white at the base ; secondaries white tipped M-ith bro'wn, the 
latter colour becoming veiy pale and almost white towards the inner ones, the long 
innermost secondaries greyish-brown and blackish, with rufous spots on the margins ; 
lower back miiform dusky-brown ; upper tail-coverts white, the long ones tipped 
with blaciv ; tail white at the base, the white increasing in extent on the outer 
feathers which are black at the tips, the black much more extended on the middle 
feathers, which are slightly edged with white at the tips ; throat and a line from the 
base of the bill to the eye white ; a small crescent-shaped white line immediately 
below the eye ; lores, sides of face, and ear-coverts cinnamon-rufous minutely 
streaked with blackish like the fore-neck and sides of neck, somewhat darker in 
colour on the latter ; breast similar in colour to the fore-neck but barred with 
brown, more broadly on the sides of the breast and sides of body ; middle of 
abdomen, vent and mider tail-coverts white barred -nith brown, some of the latter 
barred and margined with black ; axillaries and imder wing-coverts pure white, 
the lesser coverts romid the margin of the wing dark brown or blackish ; bill — 
distal half of mandible brown, shading to pale brown at the base of upper mandible 
and greyish-white at base of lower mandible ; iris bro-mi ; tarsi and feet olive-brown. 
Total length 36C> mm. ; culmen 73, wing 190, tail 71, tarsus 65. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but larger. 

Adult male in ivinter-jplumafje. — Head, hind-neck, and sides of neck ash-grey, 
with a wash of rufous on the fore-part of the head ; back, scapulars, and lesser 
marginal wing-coverts dark greyish-brown ; lower back dark bro'wii with pale 
narrow margins to the feathers ; upper tail-coverts white, the long ones tipped with 
black ; tail white at base and black at the tip, the latter colour more pronounced 
on the middle feathers, and the former more extended on the outer ones ; median 
and greater wing-coverts fringed with white at the tips more broadly on the latter ; 
bastard-TOUg, marginal coverts, and primary-coverts blackish ; quills blackish on 
the outer webs and at the tijis, with white shafts for the greater 2Jart of their length, 
inner webs paler brown and becoming entirely white at the base of the inner ones ; 
secondaries white with brown tips, on some of the feathers the brown is restricted 
to the inner web ; the long innermost secondaries greyish-brown like the back ; a 
pale line from the base of the bill over the ej'e ; a small crescent white line imnie- 
dately below the eye ; chin whitish ; throat, fore-neck, chest, and sides of body 
ash-grey ; abdomen and mider tail-coverts white, the latter margined with black ; 
axillaries and imder wing-coverts pure white, the small marginal coverts romad 
the bend of the wing dark brown edged with white. 

Immature male. — Tof) of head dark browii, the feathers margined with buff ; 
sides of face and neck all round grey, the latter washed with rufous ; upper back 
and scapulars dark bro'mi, the feathers everjTvhere margined with buff ; the marginal 
upper wing-coverts, bastaixl-wing, and primary-coverts blackish, some of the latter 
tipped with whitish ; median wng-coverts dark brown wth grej- edges, the major 
coverts broadly tipjjed -with white ; primary-quills are much the same in colour 
as the summer and winter birds described above ; the long innermost secondaries 
differ from the winter-i^lumage in being dark with rufous or sandy-buff margins ; 
lower back blackish with slightly paler margins to the feathers ; upper tail-coverts 
and tail also similar, but differ in ha\Tng dusky tips to the latter, throat whitish ; 
lower-breast, abdomen and under tail-coverts \\hite washed with grej-. 

Nestling. — Rusty-yellow marked with black, especially on crown and rump ; 
a narrow streak through the eye ; wing joints, cheeks, and belly light yellowish. 

Nest. — A depression in the grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; surface not glossy ; gromid-eolour pale olive-green to 
pale yellowish ; covered all over \^ath small spots of a more or less olive-brown ; some 
on the larger end being olive-grey ; ajcis 51-55 mm., diameter 35-37. 



LITTLE ^V-HEMBREL. 149 

Breeding-season. — July. (Siberia.) 

Breeds in Easteni Siberia as far south as Kamtschatka (perhaps Com- 
mander Islands) shores of Okhotsk Sea, Baikal, and as far west as Upper Yenisei 
Valley (rare). 

Distribution and forms. — Tlirougliout the Arctic Regions of Euroj^e and Asia, 
migrating south-n'ard in winter to Australia, Lidia, etc. Two well-marked 
subspecies are recognisable : L. I. limosa (Linne) the western race, and L. I. 
melanuroides (Gould) the eastern form visiting Australia, easily separable by its 
smaller .size ; culmen average, 86 mm. against 115 ; wng av. 195 against 220 ; 
tarsus av. 66 against 86 ; middle toe 32 against 35 mm. 

Genus MESOSCOLOPAX. 

Mesoscolopax Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.. Vol. XXIV., pp. 338, 371, (pre£. dated July lOtli) 
1S96. Type (by monotypy) : Numeniits minutus Gould. 

Small Scolopacine Waders with a short arched bill, long wings, legs and feet, 
and long tail. The bill is only slightly curved and is less than a fourth of the wing, 
and also shorter than the metatarsus. The metatarsus is regularly scutellated both 
before and behind ; a feature which separates it at once from the Numenioid Waders, 
and shows its relationship with the Tetanoid forms. The middle toe is slightly 
shorter than half the length of the metatarsus. The tail is long and rounded. 

103. Mesoscolopax minutus.— LITTLE WHIMBREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 44 (pt. XXXI.), June 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 2, pi. 146, May 

2nd, 1913. 

Numenius minutus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1840, p. 176, July 1841 : New South 

Wales. 

Numenius minor Muller, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Land- en Volkenk., p. 110, 1841 : Amboina. 

Not of Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, p. 58, 1817. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male. — Upper-parts dark brown with white or rufous spots on the margins 
of the feathers ; some of the long upper tail-coverts regularly barred with grey ; 
the small marginal coverts romid the bend of the wing very dark brown like the 
bastard-wing and primarj'-coverts ; median and greater coverts similar to the 
back ; primary-quills dark brown, shaft of first primaiy white, some of the inner 
quills fringed with white at the tips ; secondaries pale brown slightly tipped with 
white, the long innermost secondaries like the back ; cro-^vii of head brown spotted 
with white or buff with a scarcely defined mesial streak ; lores, eyebrow, ear-coverts, 
and sides of face buff minutely streaked with browii ; hind-neck brown with pale 
margins to the feathers ; throat whitish ; lower throat and fore-neck buff with 
dark shaft-streaks, becoming coarser on the breast and sides of the body where 
the feathers are barred with brown ; middle of abdomen inclining to white ; the long 
under tail-coverts buffy-white ban-ed mth browii like the axillaries and under 
wing-coverts ; bill blackish-bro\vn, base of lower mandible flesh colour ; iris blackish- 
brown, tarsi and feet lead -grey. Total length 333 mm. ; culmen 43, wing 182, 
tail 68, tarsus 50. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male but slightly larger ; culmen 48, v.ing 184, 
tail 75, tarsus 53. 

Immature. — Similar with pale rufous tips to upper feathers. 

Nestling in down. — Apparently not described. 

Nest and Eggs. — Undescribed. 

Breeds evidently on Ujjper Yana (near Verkhojansk, about 67i° N.) and Middle 
Lena. Not farther south than about 59° N. 



150 A MANUAL OF THE BIKDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in East Siberia, migrating southward to 
Australia in winter. No subspecies have been named. 

Genus PH.iEOPUS. 

PhcEOpus Cuvier, R^gne Anim., Vol. I., p. 485, Dec. 7th, 1816. Tj'pe (by monotj-py and 
tautonjTTiy) : Scolopax phcBopua Linno. 

Medium Scolopacine Waders with long arched bills, long wings, long tails, 
moderately long legs, and strong feet. 

Though the structural features are generally as in the succeeding, the proportions 
differ ; the bill is more slender, more strongly arched, and shorter than the tail and 
less than half the wing. The tail is proportionately longer, with the legs shorter 
and the feet stronger ; the middle toe is more than half the length of the metatarsus 
and the two together exceed the bill in length. 

104. Phseopus phaeopus.— WHIMBREL. 

[Scolopax phcBopu^ Linn(S, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 146, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Europe. Extra- 
limitaj.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 43 (pt. XXXI.), June 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 2, pi. 145, May 

2nd, 1913. 

Tantalus variegatus Seopoli, Del. Flor. Faun. Insub., fasc. n., p. 92, 1786, based on Sonnerat, 

p. 85, pi. 48 : Luzon, Philippines. 

Scolopax liizoniensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., pt. n., p. 656, April 20th, 1789. Same basis 

as preceding. 

Numenius atricapillus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. A'lII., p. 303, March 15th, 

1817. New name for preceding. 

Numenius uropygialis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1840, p. 175, July 1841 : south coast 

of Australia. 

DiSTiuBUTiON. — ^Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Fully-phimaged male of first season. — General colour above dark brown, with 
buS or white spots on the margins of the feathers ; upper tail-coverts barred with 
white and brown, tail darker than the back and barred with white ; wing-coverts 
paler than the back but similarly marked ; bastard-wing, small marginal coverts, 
and primary-coverts dark bro^vn tijipcd \\ith white ; primary-quills dark brown 
notched -n-lth white on the inner webs, the four outer primaries uniform on the 
outer web, the remainder tipped and notched with white on both webs ; secondaries 
similarly marked but rather paler in colour, innermost long secondaries like the 
scapulars ; head dark brown wth an irregular white line down the middle ; lores, 
eyebrows, and sides of face minutely streaked with bro^^T^ and white, neck all roimd 
brown with buff margins to the feathers, becoming paler and coarser on the breast 
and sides of the body ; middle of abdomen ahuost white ; mider tail-coverts buffy- 
white barred with brown ; axillaries and mider wing-coverts regularly barred with 
brown and white ; bill black, white at base of lower mandible ; iris blackish-bro'«ii ; 
feet olivaceous-grey. Total length 405 mm. ; culmen 62, wing 223, tail 86, tarsus 56. 

Fully-plumaged female of first season. — Similar to the adult male but larger ; 
culmen 72, -w-ing 228, tail 99, tarsus 58. 

Breeding male and female. — Bill black ; head dark brown with imperfect but 
distinct mesial stripe of pale whitish ; superciliary line white, brownish tips to 
feathers ; lores brown ; sides of face with brown streaks ; chin pure white ; breast 
white with broad shaft-stripes ; flaiJis white more or less barred with brown ; 
axillaries and \ving-lining barred -nith brown and white ; under tail-coverts faintly 
and irregularly barred ; back white with dark shaft-stripes almost obsolete, on 
rump more pronomiced, becoming bars on upjoer tail-coverts ; tail barred with 



CURLEW. 151 

brown and grey ; back brown with indistinct paler edges, as are inner secondaries, 
scapulars and ujiper wing-coverts ; secondaries toothed on outer edge with white ; 
primaries toothed on inner edge with white. 

Winter-plumage. — As above but more worn. 

First autumn bird. — As described. 

Nestling out of down. — With broader edges, otherwise as preceding. 

Nestling in down. — Upper coloration pale greyish-brown with black blotches 
linearly arranged on back, down centre and more irregularly on sides ; frontal 
brown stripe and loral stripe ; pale mesial stripe on centre of crown ; stripes on 
head darker than other blotches ; under-surface pale fuscous-grey. 

Nest. — A depression. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; olive-green, blotched with dark brown, more boldly at 
the larger end ; axis 58, diameter 40 mm. 

Breeds in Eastern Siberia as far west as Lena and Baikal. Li the north it 
breeds in large numbers on Kolyma as far as 69° N., on the borders of the timdras. 

Distribution and forms. — Northern Europe and Asia, migrating southward to 
Africa, Ladia and Australia in wnter. Two subspecies are commonly accepted : 
P. p. phceopus (Linne), the European race, and P. p. variegatus (Scopoli) the Eastern 
Asiatic race, visiting Australia, slightly smaller with the rump more barred, and the 
axillaries with narrower and closer bars ; in simimer breeding-plumage paler, and 
with under-surface more heavily streaked with paler brown. 

As above described, breeding birds have black bills and have lost the bold 
spotting of the immature form, which has been generally described as breeding. 

Genus NUMENIUS. 

Numenius Brisson, Vol. I., p. 48, Vol. V., p. 311, 1760. TjTe (by tautonymy) : Nitmeniiis = 
Scolopax arquata Linne. 

Cracticornis Gray, List Genera Birds, 2nd ed., p. 88, Sept. 1841. Type (by original designa- 
tion) : Scolopax arquata Linn^. 

Largest Scolopacine Waders with very long arched bills, long wings, moderately 
long legs, strong feet, and medium tails. 

The very long bill is strongly arched, with the tip of the upper mandible curved 
down and projecting beyond the lower, obtuse and little thickened. The nostrils 
are linear, near the base of the bill, placed in a groove which extends more than half 
the length of the bill. The culmen is longer than the tail and more than half the 
length of the wing. Wings long with the first primary longest. Tail rounded and 
moderately long but less than half the length of the wing. 

Tarsus long and partly scutellated in front, but regularly covered with the 
hexagonal scales on the hinder part. In the nestling the frontal scutellation is quit© 
regular, but in many adults the scutellre appear broken up towards the heel. The 
toes are strong, about half the length of the metatarsus ; the anterior ones are 
connected by a web near the base only, the skin of the soles laterally dilated ; claws 
flattened and bhmt ; hind-toe rather long, provided with a claw. 

105. Numenius cyanopus. — CURLEW. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 42 (pt. XXXIV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vel. III., pt. 2, pi. 144, May 
2nd, 1913. 

Ntmuiniiis cyanopus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. VIII., p. 306, March 15th, 1817 : 
Nouvelle HoUande = New South Wales, based on Latham's N. arquatus var., described 
from Watling drawing No. 239. 

Numenius australasianus Gould, SjTiops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 6, April 1st, 1838 : 
New South Wales. 

Numenius australis Gould, Proc Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1837, p. 155, Dec. 5th, 1838 : New South 
Wales. 



152 A MANUAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Nitmenius rostratus Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XI., p. 194, March 1st, 1843, ex Latham 
MS. for Watling plate, basis of Latham's Numenins arquatus var. = JV. cyanopus V'ieillot. 
Numenius rufescens Gould, Proc. Zool. Sec. (Lond.), 1862, p. 286, April let, 1863 : Formosa. 
Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult female. — General colour of the upper-parts darlc grey and bro\vn, some 
of the featlicrs, ijarticularly on the wings, margined wth white ; the feathers of the 
back and scapulars dark broMTi margined wth paler brovm ; rump, upper tail- 
coverts and tail regularly barred -nith dark bro^^-n and giey, the latter tipped with 
white ; lesser wing-coverts almost black \vMh white or pale margins, medium and 
greater coverts somewhat paler ; bastard-wng and primary -coverts black ; ]5rimary- 
quills dark bro'wn notched with white on the inner web, the first three uniform on 
the outer web, the remainder mottled with light-coloured spots on the outer web 
and tijijicd mth white, the shafts straw coloured : secondaries bro^^ii notched on 
both webs wth white ; head and hind-neck brown, the feathers margined with grey ; 
fore-head, lores, and sides of face minutely streaked with brown and white ; throat 
almost pure white ; fore-neck and chest more coarsely streaked ; abdomen and 
under tail-coverts paler and more inclining to white and the shaft-streaks narrower ; 
some of the under tail-coverts narrowly barred with, brown ; axillaries and under 
wing-coverts barred with brown and white ; bill dark brown, tip black, base of 
lower mandible flesh-white ; iri: b^o^^^^ ; tarsi and feet leaden-bluc. Total length 
650 mm. ; culmen 187, wing 317, tail 122. tarsus 93. 

Adult male. — Similar to the adult female but smaller. 

Adult in summer-plumage. — Has distinctlj' rufescent edges to the feathers. 

Immature. — Like the adult but with pale rufous edges to the feathers of the 
upper-surface, somewhat recalling the summer -jilumage, but paler and easily recog- 
nisable by the smaller measurements, especially of the bill. The imder-suiface with 
the streaks more pronounced. 

Nestling in dawn. — Does not appear to have been described. 

Nest and Eggs. — Apparently midescribed. 

Breeds in southern parts of Eastern Siberia, as far west as Southern Baikal 
and Upper Olekina (tributary of the Lena) and as far north as about 56-57° N. on 
(Lena) Olekina. 

Distribulion and forms. — Eastern Siberia, migrat'ng southwards to Australia in 
winter. No subspecies are laio\^ii. 

r.iMiLY RECURVIROSTRID^. 

This familj- consists of a group of Wading birds with long slender bills, long 
necks, and very long legs. Seebohm included all the species in his genus Himantopus, 
as he pointed out that the species ■nere coniiected by various features. Thus the 
the members of that genus, as commonly and here restricted, have straight bills, no 
hind-toe, and small webs to their toes. Cladorhyncliiis has also a straight bill, but 
the toes are fully webbed and no hind-toe. Eecurvirostra has the bill upturned, the 
toes fully webbed, and a hind-toe is present. In coloration, upon which Seebohm 
based his aftinities, a similar range is noticeable. 

The straight-billed birds are called Stilts, and thore with upturned bills Avocets ; 
they are very closely related, as some of the species of Avocet have straightish bills 
when immature. 

There appears to be little recorded as regards the anatomical characters of this 
family ; the peculiar slendemess of the lachrj'mals has been noted, as well as the 
vomer with the extremity excavate instead of pointed. The muscle formula of 
the leg is ABXY-f and there are no intrinsic muscles to the sj'rinx v.hich is of 
the tracheo-bronchial pattern. A comparison of the anatomy and osteology of the 
three Australian genera from nestling to adult would be verj' valuable. 



WHITE-HEADED STILT. 153 

Genus HIMANTOPUS. 

Himantopus Brisson, Ornith., Vol. I., p. 40, Vol. V., p. 33, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : 
Himantopiis = Charadrius himantopus Linne. 

Macrotarsus Lacepede, Tabl. Ois., p. 18, Dec. 1799. Species added by Daudin, in Hist. Nat. 
Bufioii, ed. Didot, Quadr., Vol. XIV., p. 336 [1799 =] Oct. 1802. Type (by monotyj^y) : 
C. himantopus LiiuiiJ. 

Not of Link, Beytr. Nat., I (2), pp. 51, 65, 1795. 

Hypsibaies Nitzsch, in Ersch und Griiber's Enoy., sect, i., Vol. XVI., p. 150, 1827. New 
name for Himantop us Bonnaterre = Brisson. 

Cahbatus Lesson, Manuel d'Orn., Vol. II., p. 339, June 28th, 1828. New name for Himan- 
topus Brisson. Tjrpe (by monotypy) : Charadrnis himantopus Linne. 

Himantellus " Rafinq. 1815 " Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. 1 17, Oct. 1855. In synonymy 
of Himantopus Brisson. 

The members of the genu.s Himantopus have the bill long, thin, and flattened ; 
it is straight, with the tip of the upper mandible decurved over the lower one. 
The cuhnen is about half the length of the metatarsus ; shorter than the 
exjtosed tibia, but longer than the middle toe with claw. The nostrils are linear, 
placed near the base of the culmen and situated in a groove which extends half 
the length of the bill. The wings are long and pointed, about twice the length of 
the metatarsus. The tail is short and square, about one-third the length of the 
wing. The legs are very long — about twice as long as the culmen and half the 
length of the wing ; the bare tibia is longer than the culmen ; the metatarsus is 
covered with reticulated scales, which tend to fu.sion in the adult. The outer toe is 
•connected to the middle one by a small basal web ; the inner toe is not connected. 
No hind-toe. 

Jo6. Himantopus leucocephalus.— WHITE-HEADED STILT. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 24 (pt. IV.), Sept. 1st, 1841. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 2, pi. 141, May 2nd, 

1913. 

Himantopus leucocephalus Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. ii., pi. 34, April 1837 : New South 

Wales. 

Himantopus novmhollandia Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIII., p. 

421, Sept. 1st, 1856. New name for Himantopus leucocephalus Gould. 

Hiinantopus seebohm,i Hartert, Katal. Vogels Mus. Senckenb., p. 220, 1891, mid-January. 

New name for H. leucocephalus Gould. 

Hypisbates leucocephalus assijnilis Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII. , p. 219, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Not Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Hind-neck, mantle, scapulars, and wings, both above and below, 
glossy black with obsolete wavA^ cross-bars on the long innermost scapulars ; head, 
lower hind-neck and back below the mantle pure white ; tail also white, the middle 
feathers tinged with grey ; throat and entire under-surface white including the 
axillaries ; primary- and secondary-quills below fringed with white at the tips ; 
bill black ; iris dark red ; tarsi and feet pink. Total length 388 nim. ; culmen 59, 
wing 223-230, tail 75, tarsus 109-119. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but smaller, and the feathers of the 
mantle and scapulars inclining to browai. 

Immature male. — Distinguished from the adult by the dark grey on the head 
and nape, the bro^vn on the back and scapulars and the darker tips to the tail- 
feathers. Some of the feathers of the back have white edgings and the under wing- 
coverts are margined with white. As the bird advances in age the grey on the head 
and nape di,?appears. 

Nestling. — Yellowish down, the upper side with black markings. 

Nest.- A bare shallow hollow in the earth. A slight structure consisting 
merely of a few short pieces of rushes and grass placed in and around a depression 



154 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

at the foot of a clump of rushes growing near the water's edge. Composed princi- 
pally of a dried alga, with other aquatic plants, placed on clumps of the dwarf 
salt marsh plant, being built up about 9 inches above the water. They measured 
approximately 8 inches across. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour greenish-stone, marked all over with 
irregular-shajied spots of dark purj^lish-black and smaller underljang ones of lavender ; 
axis 44.5 to 45 mm., diameter 30.5 to 31.5. 

Breeding -season. — April, May, August to October. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout Australia and the Molucca Islands and 
also New Zealand. Four subspecies have been distinguished, as : H. I. leucocephalus 
Gould, from Eastern Australia ; H. I. assimilis (Mathews) from North-western 
Australia and Northern Territory, a smaller form 'with smaller bill, ■wing and legs, 
wing ^(J 223-232 against typical ,^^ 239-245 ; culmen 59-61 against 64 ; tarsus 
109-119 against 123-127 mm., males being alwaj^s larger than females ; H. I. 
timoriensis (Mathews) from East Timor and ? North Celebes agreeing in general 
size with the typical birds but with notably shorter legs, as tarsus 117-119.5 
against 123-127 mm. ; and H . t. albus Ellman from New Zealand, the white collar 
being mottled with black and the tail being darker. 

Genus CLADORHYNCHUS. 

Cladorhyyv:hus Graj', List Genera Birds, 1st eil., p. 69, April 1840. Tj-pe (by original designa- 
tion) : Himantopus palmatiis = Becurviroslra Icucocephala Vieillot. 

Eectirvirostra Boie, Isis, 1826, heft 10., col. 979, Oct. Type (by monotj-py) : i?. oricntalis 
Cuvier = R. leucocephula Vieillot. 

Not of Lirrn^, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 1.51, Jan. 1st, 1758. 

Leptorhynchits Du Bus, Mag. de Zool., 1835, pi. 45 (dated Aug.). Tj'pe (by monotj-py) : 
L. pecloralis Du Bus = R. leucocephala Vieillot. 
Not of Guerin, Voy. Coquille, Zool., Vol. II., p. 110, 1831. 

XipMdiorhynclni.'i Reichenbach, Vogel Neuholl., pt. i., p. 28, 1845. Tj^je (by monotj'py) : 
R. leucocephala Vieillot. 

Timela Gistel, Naturg. Thierr. Schul., p. 9, (pref. Easter, 1847) 184S. New name for 
Leptorhynchus Du Bus. 

The solitary member of the genus Cladorhjnchus differs from those of Himantopus 
in its stouter legs and fully webbed toes. The culmen is much more than half 
the length of the metatarsus, the wings are about twice the length of the metatarsus, 
while the tail is short but nearly half the length of the wing. There is no hind-toe. 

107. Cladorhynchus leucocephalus. BANDED STILT. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 26 (pt. 11.), March 1st, 1841. Mathews, Vol. III., r)t. 2, pi. 142. May 2nd, 

1913. 

Recurvirostra leucocephala Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. III., p. 103, Sept. 14th, 

1816 : " aux Terres australes " = Victoria. 

Recurvirostra orientalis Cuvier, Regne Anim., Vol. I., p. 496, Dec. 7th, 1816. 1 Same specimen. 

Leptorhynchus pectoralis Du Bus., Mag. de Zool., 1835, pi. 45 (dated Aug.) : Victoria. 

Himantopus palmatus Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. 11., pi. (33), April 1st, 1837 : Victoria. 

Cladorhynchus ausfralis Lawson, Emu, Vol. IV., p. 131. .July 1905. N omen nudum. 

Cladorhynchtis leucocephalus rottnesli Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 31, April 

2nd, 1912 : Rottneat Island, South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Head and neck all round and entire back white, like the sides of 
the breast and abdomen, under tail-coverts, and inner under wing-coverts ; marginal 
coverts brown, edged with white ; upper wing-coverts and scapulars black ; small 
coverts on outer edge of wing bro\\ni ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills 
dark brown, the five outer primaries paler bro'mi on the inner webs, the remainder 
white on the inner webs ; secondaries white except two of the inner ones which hav& 



BBD-NECKED AVOCET. 155 

a browii spot on the outer web, the long innermost secondaries black like the 
scapulars ; tail, middle feathers pale grey, outer feathers grey on outer webs, white 
on inner ones ; breast chestnut, the feathers of which have white bases followed by 
blackish and very broadly tii^ijecl with chestnut, so that the white of the fore-neck 
and the chestnut on the breast is divided by a narrow blackish line, the feathers 
on the middle of the abdomen dark browii, some of which are suSused with chestnut ; 
bill black ; iris dark broA\ai ; tarsi and feet yellow. Total length 405 mm. ; culmen 
69, wing 193, tail 80, tarsus 88. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male. 

Young male (bird of the year). — Differs from the adult in the entire absence of 
the chestnut, or dark pattern, on the breast and middle of the abdomen, these parts 
being white like the rest of the under-suiface ; iqiper wing-coverts very narrowly 
edged with wliite. 

The first stage of advance towards the breeding-plumage is shown in specimens 
which have the chestnut pattern on the breast and the dark patch on the middle 
of the abdomen just faintly outlined on the white mider-surface, while others demon- 
strate more clearly the colour of these parts, which can be seen by the chestnut, 
more especially on the sides of the breast, which is still much intermixed with white. 

Other specimens also show the advance of the chestnut and the dark portion 
on the middle of the abdomen ; the white, so prevalent in the fii'st one mentioned 
above, is fast disappearing and the next stage appears to be the fully adult. 

Nestling. — Undescribed . 

Nest. — A rough construction placed in a low salt bush. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; the ground-colour varies from an olive-brown to creamy- 
brown, irregularly spotted and blotched with black, in shape oval but slightly 
pointed ; axis 44-48, diameter 29-33. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Australia, and at present through lack 
of good series no subspecies admitted. 

Genus RECURVIROSTRA. 

Recurvirostra LinniS, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 151, Jan. 1st, 1758. Type (by monotypy): 
Becurmrostra avosella Linne. 

Avocetia Brisson, Ornith., Vol. I., p. 60, Vol. VI., p. 537, 17G0. Type (by tautonymy) r 
Avocetta = Recurvirostra avosclta Linni^. 

In the genus Recurvirostra the bill is long and recurved, the feet are fully webbed, 
and a hind-toe is present ; otherwise it resembles Himantopus. The bill is very 
long, somewhat flexible, flattened, then tapering with a strong upward turn and 
the tip again decurved ; the nostrils a very narrow slit in a flat, short groove ; the 
culmen is almost as long as the metatarsus and equal to the tail. The wings are 
long and pointed, and more than twice the length of the tail, which is square. The 
metatarsus is reticulated and the toes are fully webbed, and there is a hind-toe. 

IDS. Recurvirostra novsehollandise.— RED-NECKED AVOCET. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 27 (pt. IX.), Dec. 1st, 1842. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 2, pi. 143, May 2nd, 
1913. 

Recurvirostra novcehollandice VieUlot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. III., p. 103, Sept. 14th^ 

1816 : " NouveUe HoUande " = Victoria. 

Recurtiirostra rttbricollis Temminek, Manuel d'Orn., 2nd ed., Vol. II., p. 592, Oct. 21st, 1820 : 

Victoria. 

Recurvirostra novcehollandim stalke.ri Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 220, Jan. 31st,. 

1912 : Alexandra, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Austraha generally and Tasmania. 



156 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult male. — Head, hind-neck, throat, and fore-neck chestnut ; lower hind-neck, 
back, outer scapulars, tail, and entire undcr-surface pure white including the \inder 
tail-coverts, axillaries, and under wing-coverts ; the small marginal coverts round 
the bend of the wing white like the bastard-wing, greater coverts, secondaries, 
and imaer primaries, some of the latter tipjied -with dark brown ; primary-coverts 
and primary-quills black, the basal portion white ; median wng-coverts and long 
innermost secondaries very dark brown ; some of the inner scapulars dark brown, 
others are brown on the inner web and white on the outer one ; small feathers 
round the eye white which ■tridens out and forms a patch below the ej'e ; bill black ; 
iris dark red ; tarsi and feet slate-blue. Total length 457 mm. ; culmen 87, wing 225, 
tail 86, tarsus 94. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature and Nestling. — Apparently undescribed. 

Nest. — Made on little heaps of stiff grass. 

Egg.s. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour light stone to creamy-yellow, some of 
the former tint have a faint olive-green shade, some are heavily blotched towards 
the thicker end, others sparingly covered with spots, dots and freckles of dark 
amber-brown and black, with a few obsolete spots of slate-grej' ; axis 48-51 mm., 
diameter 32-36. 

Breeding -season. — September to December. 

Distribution and fanns. — Australia and straggling to New Zealand. Two 
subspecies have been distinguished, as : E. n. novcehollandice Vieillot, from Eastern 
Australia ; and R. n. stalkeri Mathews from the Northern Territory as being smaller, 
especially in the bill measurement, and with a darker chestnut head. The north- 
western birds are attached to the latter, but may be separable. 

SuPERFAMiLY CHARADRIOIDEA. 

We have arranged in this superfamily four families, Oystercatchers, Turnstones, 
Plovers (restricted) and Wattled Plovers. Here again the distribution is erratic and 
interesting, the first two families consisting of generalised forms of different range, 
the third world-wide range of both specialised and generalised species, while the last 
named is a specialised group of definite range. Oystercatchers occur throughout 
the world save in the Arctic and Antarctic zones. Turnstones breed in the Arctic 
Regions but migrate southwards even to the Antarctic, similarly to and in company 
with Waders. Some Plovers, as the true Plovers, have the same habits but breed 
in the North Temperate zones ; while the Shore Plovers breed throughout the world, 
some niigrating from the north southwards, others stationaiy in the south and show- 
ing much specialisation. Other forms, as the Sand Plovers, agree in similar mamier, 
but while the Shore Plovers favour the shores of the countries they breed in for nesting 
purposes, the Sand Plovers go inland to sandy plains in the north. The Wattled 
Plovers are probably the most interesting group as having localised themselves in 
the more or less tropical zone, one or two have extended their ranges outside. 
Generally specialised, they have continued their specialisation in detail developing 
huge facial wattles in some cases, large fighting spurs on the wings in others, and 
crests on the head in others ; some have retained a hind-toe, others have lost it ; j-et 
withal maintaining a general coloration recognisable at sight and peculiarh' constant 
throughout the series, though shomng duller or brighter plumage changes as well. 
There is variation in the presence or absence of the hind-tee throughout the super- 
family, as well as in the nature of the tarsal covering, but no species has the toes 
fully webbed, though some have slight webs. The bill is generally short, long only 
in the Oystercatchers. 

The osteological and anatomical features are generally as recorded for the sub- 
order, no detailed account of the various species and forms having yet been prepared. 



pied oysteecatchee. 157 

Family H/EMATOPODID^. 

All Oystercatchers are referable to one genus, as lumpers consider the value of 
that group, but the distinction of Prohcematopus Mathews will later be fully acknow- 
ledged. The group is undoubtedly ancient, as the distribution proves, the species 
occurring on all shores save in the Arctic and Antarctic Circles and Polynesia. There 
is 1 ittle variation in the colour and size of the species, a dark unicolour series apparently 
having independently evolved in different localities. Superficially with their long 
bills and short legs they present a different appearance from other Charadriiform 
birds, and are seen to belong here by examination of the structural features of the 
downy young. 

Genus H^MATOPUS. 

Hwmatoptis Limi6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 152, Jan. 1st, 1758. Tjrpe (by monotypy) : 

Hcematopus ostralegiis Linne. 

Osfrahga Brisson, Ornith., Vol. I., p. 46, Vol. V., p. 38, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : H. 

ostralegus Linne. 

Oslrelaga Bonnaterre, Tabl. Ency. M(5th. Ornith., Vol. I., pp. Lxxxii., 25, 1791. Type (by 

monotjrpy) : H. ostralegus Linne. 

Ostralegus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. sii., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original 

designation) : Hcematopus longirostris Vieillot. 

Melanibyx Reichenbach, ib. Type (by original designation) : H. niger Temminck. 

The Oystercatchers constitute a distinct familj' of birds, whose exact relation- 
ships are somewhat obscure. 

They are Wading birds characterised by very long straight, laterally compressed 
bills, long wings, short legs and stout feet. 

The bill is long and straight, laterally compressed in front of the nostrils, much 
longer than the head and also longer than the tarsus ; the nostrils lie near the base 
of the cuhnen as longitudinal slits, in a groove which extends along half the length 
of the bill. The wings are long and pointed with the first jmrnary longest and more 
than twice the length of the tail which is square. Metatarsus short and thick and 
entirely covered with somewhat hexagonal scales ; toes short and thick, with slight 
webs between the basal phalanges, and the skin of the soles laterally extended. 
Hind-toe entireljf absent. 

109. Kaematopus ostralegus.— PIED OYSTERCATCHER. 

[Hcematopvi ostralegus Linn^, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 152, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Sweden, Europe. 
Extra-hmital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 7 (pt. xvm.}, March 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 126, April 

2nd, 1913. 

Ha-matopus lorujiroslris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XV., p. 410, Sept. 13th, 1817 : 

" Australasia " = New South Wales. 

Hcematopus picatus King, Survey Intertrop. Coasts Austr., Vol. II., p. 420, " 1827 " = April 

26th, 1826. No locality = Point Torment, North-west Australia. 

Hcematopus australasianus Gould, SjTiops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 6, April 1st, 1838 : 

New South Wales. 

Hcematopus longirostris mattingleyi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 213, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Cooktown, Queensland. 

DisTKiBtiTiON. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Head and neck all round, back, wings, and tail black ; lower back, 
rump, upper tail-coverts, and base of tail white, like the breast, abdomen, axiUaries, 
and under tail-coverts ; inider wing-coverts black margined and tipjjed with white ; 
some of the feathers on the upper-breast fringed with white at the tips ; upper greater 
wing-coverts broadly tipped with white ; secondary-quills white at the base with 



158 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

black tips. A few black feathers on the thighs ; bill scarlet, cream colour at the 
tip ; iris ai\d eyelid red ; feet jDinkish-red. Total length 500 mm. ; culmen 82, 
wing 282-7, tail'llG, tarsus 61. 

Adult female. — Similar in colour of jjlumage to the adult male but larger and 
with a longer bill. 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in having the parts that are black in the 
adult, brown. The wing-coverts and scapulars are tipped and edged with white. 
The flank feathers are tipped with b^o^vu. The brown extends on to the lower back. 
The upper tail-coverts are almost all bro\TO, having onl}'' a slight edging of white. 
Bill, culmen, and point dark brown ; legs and feet dark in the skin. 

Nestling in down. — Greyish-buff, with black spots on the back, and with a 
dark longitudinal stripe on each side above the wing. 
Nest. — A depression in the sand. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; gromid-colour pale stone, spotted all over with marks of 
very dark reddish-brown and lavender ; axis 61-65 mm., diameter 40^3. 
Breeding-season. — August to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Through Europe and Asia, the Moluccas, Australia 
and New Zealand, wintering in North Africa and Lidia. The number of forms is 
not well known at i^resent, j)robabIy many more than the five admitted by Mathews 
in 1913 being later accepted ; these are : H. o. ostralegus Liune, from Sweden, through 
Euroj)e, jirobably not in Turkestan, where a form with much longer bills may breed, 
as all Indian birds in winter-iJumage have much longer bills and more white on the 
throat ; H. a. oscidans Swinhoe from China and Japan, with less white on the 
primaries, longer bill and black tips to the upper tail-coverts ; H. o. picatus King 
from Northern Territory and North-west Australia, with a black edging to the inner 
wing, and small amount of white on inner web of primaries ; U. o. longirostris Vieillot 
from East and South Australia, with no white on the inner webs of jirimaries, more 
black on inner portion of 'wing, the black of the uj^ijor back extending on to the 
lower back (the smaller form from North Queensland and South-east New Guinea 
which Mathews named H. o. mattingleyi being probably later reinstated) ; and 
H. 0. Jinschi Martens from New Zealand, with still longer bills and ajijiarently a 
strong tendency to melanism as evidenced in the aberration named H. reischeki 
EiOthschUd. 

no. Haematopus unicolor.— BLACK OYSTERCATCHER. 

[Hcematopus tmicolor Forster, Descr. Anim., ed. Licht., p. 112, (pref. Jan. 1st) 1844: New 

Zealand. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 8 (pt. XVIII.), March 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 127, April 

2nd, 1913. 

Hmmatopus niger Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIV., pt. i., p. 336, 1826 : Australia. 

Not of Temminck, Man. d'Om., 2nd ed.. Vol. II., p. 533, Oct. 21st, 1820 : South Africa. 

Hmmatopus fuUginosus Goiild, Birds Austr., pt. xviii. (Vol. IV., pi. 8), March Ist, 1845 : 

Tasmania. 

HcBmatopiis niger aiistralasianus Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIII., 

p. 420, Sept. 1st, 1856 : New name for H. fuUginosus Gould. 

Hcemalopns opthalmkns Castelnau and Ramsaj', Proc. Lirm. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. I., p. 385, 

March 1877 : Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland. 

Hcsmatopiis unicolor bernieri Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 214, Jan. 31st, 1912: 

Bernier Island, West AustraUa. 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — Austraha generally and Tasmania. 

Adult nmle. — Entirely glossy black above and below ; bill orange-yellow ; iris 
red ; eyelid orange-yellow ; feet dull brick-red. Total length 520 mm. ; culmen 82, 
wing 297, tail 124, tarsus 51. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but larger, browner, and with a 
longer bill. 



TURNSTONE. 159 

Immature. — Much browner and paler with dull greyish-pink feet and horn 
■coloured bill, the feathers of the back with pale tips. 

Nestling in down. — Sooty-brown with white tips on the upper-parts ; head 
black as also two longitudinal lines on the back. 

Nest. — A depression in the earth. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; very similar to the eggs of the preceding but the ground- 
colour seems darker ; axis 65 mm., diameter 44. 

Breeding-season. — August to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Confiiied to Australia and New Zealand. Four 
subspecies are easily recognisable : H. u. unicolor Forster from New Zealand ; H. u. 
fuliginosus Gould from South-east Australia, with a shorter, more rounded bill 
anterior to the nostrils ; H. u. bernieri Mathews, from South-west Australia, with 
a browner coloration, smaller wing but longer legs ; as typical, wing 297, tarsus 51, 
against wing, 282 tarsus 56 ; and H. k. opthalmicus Castelnau and Ramsay from 
Northern Australia, of smaller size but with a remarkable bare space round the ej'e. 

Family ARENARIID^. 

This family containing only two species both breeding in the northern 
hemisphere and one migrating almost to the Antarctic in winter. The superficial 
features are peculiar, a conical bill with no differentiated dertrum, and a well-dereloiied 
hind-toe, wdtha strong Plover-like apjoearance. The bill of the nestling when hatched 
is Pluvialine but in a few days it takes on the adult appearance, thus indicating the 
Pluvialiue descent. The tarsus is quite peculiar, being transversely seuted in front 
and behind. No detailed examination of the osteology or anatomy appears to have 
been made, the leg muscle formula being AXY-|-. By some writers the American 
genus Ajihriza was included owing to the presence of the hind-toe, but the bill is 
typically Pluvialine and the tarsal covering different. Ridgway has recently allowed 
a family Aphrizidse for this genus alone, but upon insufficient grounds, as he stresses 
the presence of the hind-toe, though including the Vanelline forms in his Charadriidse. 
We cannot see any reason for separating Apliriza from the Charadriidse as here 
restricted. 

Genus ARENARIA. 

Arenaria Brisson, Ornith., Vol. I., p. 48, Vol. V., p. 132, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : 

Arenaria = Tringa inierpres Linn^. 

Morinella Meyer \md Wolf, Tasehenb. d. Vogel, pt. n., p. 383, note, (pref. March) 1810. Type 

(by monotypy ) : M. coUaris Meyer und Wolf = Tringa inierpres Linne. 

Strepsilas lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 263, (pref. April) 1811. Type (by monot}rpy) : 

T. inierpres Linne. 

Cinclus Gray, List Gen. Birds, 2nd ed., p. 85, Sept. 1841. Tj-pe (by original designation) : 

T. inierpres Linne. 

Not of Borkhausen, Deutsch. Fauna, Vol. I , p. 300, 1797. 

Small Wading birds with short straight bill, long wings, and short and stout 
legs and feet. The bill is distinctive, being somewhat conical, almost straight 
or very slightly upturned, the culmen flattened. The nostrils are linear, situated 
near the base of the culmen, in a groove which extends nearly half the length of the 
bill. The wings are long and i^ointed, the first primary longest. The metatarsus, 
just exceeding the culmen in length, is transversely scutellated in front, reticulated 
behind. Hind-toe well developed, the toes not connected or webbed at all. 

III. Arenaria interpres.— TURNSTONE. 

[Tringa inierpres Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p 148, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Europe. Extra-limital.] 
Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 39 (pt. XXXIV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 125, AprU 
2nd, 1913. 



160 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AfSTEALIA. 

Tringa oahuetwia Bloxham, Voy. " Blonde," Sandwich Is., p. 251, 1826 = Feb. 20th, 1827 : 

Sandwich Islands. 

Charadrius cinclus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., Vol. II., p. 148, 1827 : Siberia. 

[Slrepsilas inlerpres] pacificus Nelson, Cruise of the Corwin in 1881, p. 83, 1883, pref. March 

3rd : Behring Sea, Coast and East Asia. 

Arenaria interpren nova Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 4, p. 69, July 21st, 1917 : 

Rottnest Island, West Australia. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in tlie northern liemisphere. 

Adult male in breeding-^ilumage. — Lores, fore-part of crown, sides of crown, 
and sides of neck white like the lower back and upper tail-coverts, as also the throat, 
middle of breast, abdomen, mtder tail-coverts, axillaries, and luidcr wing-covcrts ; 
fore-head black \vith white fringes to the feathers ; a black line in front of the eye 
joined to a black j)atch on the sides of the face which extends in a line on to the 
sides of the neck and is continued in a large space of black round the lower throat 
and sides of breast ; crown of the head, the feathers fringed ^\dth white, gi\Tng a 
streaked appearance ; hind-neck white, the feathers tipped with brown and buff ; 
a black spot on each side of the nape ; the feathers of the mantle white, tijiped with 
chestnut and a small black elongated spot ; some of the feathers of the back and 
scajiulars are chestnut tipped with black, while others are black tipped with chestnut ; 
rump dark brown ; tail mostly white with a broad subterminal black band, the 
outermost pair of feathers white with the exception of a browii spot on the inner web 
near the tip ; lesser ujjper wing-coverts dark brown, some of the innermost white, 
those on the outer edge white \vith a subterminal bro-mi spot ; bastard-wing and 
outer median coverts bro\vn, the inner ones for the most part chestnut ; greater 
coverts brown margined and tipped vnih white ; primary-coverts and primar\--quills 
brown, the latter paler brown on the inner webs, with white shafts and white on the 
outer webs towards the base ; secondaries for the most part bro\Ma margined and 
tiijped with white, the innermost brown vaiied with chestnut and white, some of 
the feathers pure white ; bill black, eyes brown, feet red, joints brown. Total 
length 225 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 155, tail 61, tarsus 24. 

Adult female in breeding-plamage. — Similar to the male but with more black 
on the mantle and less chestnut ; the feathers on the crown of the head black 
margined •ndth brown ; the white on the sides of the head and fore-jiart of crown 
not so clearly defined. 

Adult in lointer-plumofje. — Differs from the breeding-plumage in the entire 
absence of chestnut on the upper-surface where it is rejilaced by dark brown, or 
black, with pale brown margins to the feathers ; head and hind-neck duskj--brown 
more or less intermixed or streaked with white like the ear -coverts and sides of face, 
the feathers on the sides of the upper-bi-east very similar. 

Immature. — Upper-parts dark browai wth jJaler brown edges to the feathers 
of the scapulars and upper wing-coverts ; entire head, sides of face, hind-neck and 
sides of neck dusky-brown becoming black on the fore-neck and sides of breast, 
where the feathers are more or less edged with white. 

Immature just mit of down. — Black breast-band mottled with white tips ; 
ujiper-parts with pale rufous tips. 

Nestling in down. — Pale greyish-brown with a wash of yellow and mottled with 
black on upper-surface and top of head, showing no definite pattern ; an indistinct 
frontal streak not reaching bill ; fore-head and above and around the eyes j'ellowish- 
brown ; loral black stripe with a black spot below in front of gape ; mider-surface 
pale creamy -white, an indistinct dark band across chest through dark bases to downi ; 
winglet mottled black and brown with white tip. A few days older shows tAiMcal 
bill formation ; coloration grej'er, mottling more confused on top of head and back ; 
neck paler as in previous stage while there is a distinct broad blackish breast-band, 
the chin and throat and rest of mider-surface pure white. 

Nest. — A slight depression, sometimes lined with grass. 



TURNSTONE. 161 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour pale green, marked all over, but more 
oil the larger end, \rith irregular markings of olive-brown and lavender ; axis 40- 
43 mm., diameter 30. 

Breeding-season. — June and July. (East Siberia.) 

Distribution and forma. — Breeding right round the Pole in the Arctic Regions 
and wandering southwards almost to the Antarctic Circle in winter. Ttiree sub- 
sj)ecies are recognisable : the Eurojoean A. i. inlerpres (Limie) ; the American 
A. i. morindla (Linne) a much paler race, the chestnut on the back being lighter 
and more pronomiced ; and A. i. oahuensis (Bloxham) the form visiting Australia, 
perhajos breeding north of Alaska, somewhat intermediate in coloration, darker than 
American but i^aler than European, and also intermediate in size, the European 
being the largest form with probably tiie longest bill. 

Family CHARADRITD^. 

The Plover series includes three fairly distinct groups, the Pluvialis 
( = Charadrius olim), the Charadrius ( = JEgialitis dim) and the Cirrepidesmus 
( = Ochthodromus olim) alliances. The superficial features of these have been fully 
detailed by Mathews and we may here add that the downy young show that these 
distinctions are well founded. As regards internal features we may just note that 
skeletal items of some import occur as confirmation of these divisions, but that 
detailed accomits have not yet been published. In Pluvialis the leg muscles are 
recorded as AXY-j-, but in Charadrius the full formula ABXY-f is reported. 
Litrinsic muscles of the syrinx are also stated to be present in the latter series but 
absent in the former. 

The Pluvialis series breed in the Arctic and Subarctic regions migrating 
southwards in winter, two forms more or less commonly occurring in Australia. 
It might be here noted that some birds remain in the southern hemisphere during 
the summer and even take on their breeding -plumages but they do not breed. 
The Charadrius series, wth which is here included the Leucopolius group, breed 
more or less on the littoral thi'oughout the world and the Australian breeding forms 
number three, one almost indistinguishable from a Palsearctic species, another 
superficially distinct but easily showing its alliance through its plumage changes 
with the Paliearctic type, v/hile the third is so specialised as to obscure its descent, 
though as far as can be gauged of the Charadrius group. The Cirrepidesmus series 
breed in the southern Palsearctic deserts and migrate southwards to Australia in 
winter. Further the bill varies in form and coloration as detailed by Mathews, in 
one form being black, the dertrum more or less strongly developed, the base of the 
bill not much deeper than the dertrum ; in the other parti-coloured, the dertrum less 
developed and generally the bill at the base noticeably deeper ; the former occurs 
in Pluvialis and the shajoe was termed Pluvialine, the latter is typical of the next 
family, the Vanellidse, and the shajoe was termed Vajielline. It would now appear 
that these terms were well chosen, as osteological studies suggest distinct derivation 
from the sources indicated. 

Genus SQUATAROLA. 

Squatarola Cuvier, Regne Anim., Vol. I., p. 467 [1817 =] Dec. 7th, 1816. Type (by tau- 
tonymy) : Tringa squatarola Linn6. 

Large Plovers vnth. stout bills, long wings, short legs and strong feet. 

The bill is straight and stout, the dertrum much swollen and rounded, as long 
as the head ; the nostrils linear and placed in a groove. The wings are long, and 
the first primary is longest. Tail rounded. ?.Ietatarsus short and covered both in 
front and behind with hexagonal scales. Outer and middle toes connected by a short 
web at the base. Minute hind-toe and claw present. 

M 



162 



A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



112. Squatarola squatarola. -GREY PLOVER. 

[Triima squatarola Linne, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 149, Jan. 1st, 175S : Sweden. Extra- 

limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 12 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt 1, ol. 132, April 
2nd, 1913. 

Charadriiis hypomelua Palla.s, Reise Russ. Reichs, Vol. III., p. 699, pref. Feb. 10th, O.S., 

1776: Siberia. 

Charadrius hypomelanus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., Vol. II., p. 138, 1827 : Siberia. 

Charadrivs pardela Pallas, ib., p. 142 : Siberia. 

Squatarola helvetica australis Reichenbach, Novit. Syn. Av.,No. v., 175, cccxL., Nos. 2683- 

2684, 1851 : Australia. 

PiSTBIBUXlON. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in northern hemisphere 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — Upper-surface variegated with black, brown, 
•and white ; fore-head and a line over the eye which is continued on to the sides of 
the breast white like the under wing-coverts, thighs, and under tail-coverts ; sides 
of face, throat, middle of breast and abdomen black like the axillaries ; primary- 
coverts black edged ■ndth white at the tips ; the four outer primaries black with white 
shafts and wliite on the inner web at the base ; the fifth has a white longitudinal 
line adjoining the shaft on the outer web towards the tip which is increased on the 
sixth, on the seventh it crosses the outer web, the outer web of the eighth primary 
is almost absorbed -nnth white, and the ninth likewise ; secondaries pale browii with 
white bases and fringed with white ; bill black, base of lower mandible purplish- 
black ; iris dark brown ; feet greyish-black. Total length 290 mm. ; culmen 31, 
wing 195, tail 76, tarsus 50. 

Adult female. — Very similar to the adult male. 

Adult in winter -plumage. — Differs from the adult in breeding-plumage in being 
more uniform above, the feathers dark brown, with black shaft-liues and edged wth 
white ; sides of crown, sides of face, and ear-coverts streaked with brown and wliite ; 
a dark .spot in front of each eye; throat, abdomen, and under tail-coverts white, 
the latter with sjjots of brown on the outer webs ; primary-quills black with 
white shafts, the sixth, seventh, and eighth showing an indication of a white line 
on the outer web next to the shaft. 

An adult male, immediately after breeding, has commenced to cast off the 
nujitial-iilumage, wliicli is only retained for a short jieriod, and has become more 
brown on the upjier-surface, the white and black marldngs being everywhere worn 
off ; the upper tail-coverts are almost white instead of being regularly barred ; sides 
of face, throat, breast, abdomen, and sides of body chequered Avith white ; sides of 
crown white, but the line leading to the sides of the breast scarcely defined. 

Immatnre of the first year. — Upper-surface mottled -with broMTi and white which 
is produced b3' the feathers being brown-notched on the sides and tijiped wth white, 
these markings more minute on the top of the head and hind-neck ; sides of crown, 
ear-coverts and sides of face streaked ■with pale bro\vn and white, paler and more 
coarsely marked on the breast ; axillaries black ; primary- and secondary-quills 
much the same as in the adult ; a short white line immediately below the eye ; 
breast and sides of body mottled with pale brown and white shomng obsolete bars 
on the flanks ; throat and middle of abdomen A-^hite like the imdcr tail-coverts. 

Young. — Dark brown above, the feathers spotted and notched with dull white 
or buff on the margins ; upper tail-coverts white, some of them tinged with buff and 
barred with brown ; tail bro'mi, barred with wliite, the bro'w-n becoming merged 
at the ends with marginal spots of buff ; croT\-n of head like the back but the pattern 
much smaller ; fore-head, sides of face, fore-neck, and breast minutely marked 
with longitudiiial broA\-n streaks ; throat, abdomen, mider tail-coverts, and under 
wing-coverts for the most part white. 



LESSER GOLDEN PLOVEK. 163 

The young of this species can always be distinguished by its black or blackish 
axillaries from the Golden Plover (Phiviaiis apricarius) which have white axil- 
laries, and from the Asiatic Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominicus fulvus) — which have 
the axillaries dusky-brown — by being smaller. 

Nestling. — Upper-parts greenish-yellow, mixed ■ndth black, or dark brown and 
buff, with a white nuchal collar ; under-surface silky-white. 

NesL — A dej^ression in the earth lined with dry leaves and lichen. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; gromid-colour yellowish-grey to brownish-yellow, covered 
with dark brown spots ; axis 48 to 56 mm., diameter 36. 

Breeding-season. — Jmie and July. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding all round the Arctic Circle and migrating 
southward in winter to Australia, etc. The birds breeding in eastern Siberia and 
visiting Australia constitute a recognisable race, S. s. hypomelus (Pallas) in their 
larger size throughout, the bill stouter, and also in winter-jjlumage paler. 

Genus PLUVIALIS. 

Pluvialis Brisson, Ornith., Vol. I., p. 46, Vol. V., p. 42, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : 
Pluvialis = Charadrius apricarius Liniie. 

Structurally like Squatarola, but with the hind-toe and claw missing. The 
bill is not quite so stout, and one of the si^ecies is less strongly built, but still 
considerably larger than the Ring- and Sand -Plovers. 

The close connection between this and the preceding genus is easily traced 
by their general coloration, notwithstanding the absence of the hind-toe. In 
Squatarola the summer-i)lumage is mottled black-and-white above with the under- 
surface black : in the jjresent genus the summer-plumage is mottled black-and- 
golden above with the mider-surface black, but in the former genus the immature 
has the upper-surface showing a mottled black-and-golden aiijjearance. No other 
Plovers, save the tlu'ee included in the two genera Squatarola and Pluvialis, have 
the upper-surface mottled, nor have they uniform black under-surfaces. 

113. Pluvialis dominicus.— LESSER GOLDEN PLOVER, 

[Charadrius dominicus P. L. S. Miiller, Vollst. Natursyst. Suppl., p. 116, pref. Jan. 4th, 1776 : 
St. Domingo, America. Estra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 13 (pt. XXXI.), Jime 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 133, April 
2nd, 1913. 

Charadrius fulvus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., Vol. I., jjt. 11., p. 687, April 20th, 1789: Tahiti. 

C haradriiis griseus hathm-n, Index Ornith., Suppl., p. Lxvn., 1801, after May: New South 

Wales, based on Watling drawing No. 245. 

Charadrius taitcnsis Lesson, Diet. Sci. Nat. (Levrault), Vol. XLII., p. 35, Sept. 23rd, 1826 : 

Tahiti. 

Charadrius xanthocheilus Wagler, Syst. Av. Charadr., sp. 36, p. (68), Oct. 1827 : Australia. 

Charadrius glaucopus Wagler, Isis, 1829, heft 6, col. 649, June (ex Forster MS.) : Tahiti. 

Charadrius pluvialis orientalis Temminck und Schlegel, Fauna Japonica (Siebold), p. 104, 

1849 : Japan. 

Charadrius auratits longipes ScMegel, Vogel von Nederl., p. 411, 1854 : East Asia. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in breeding-plumage. — Crown of head, entire back, and scapulars 
"black, thickly spangled with golden-bufE, becoming paler and inclining to brown 
and white on the upper wing-coverts ; greater coverts brown, edged with white ; 
bastard-wng brown, small coverts on the margin of the wing dark brown tii^ped 
with white like the primary-coverts ; primary-quills dark brown, paler on the inner 
•webs, and white on a xJortion of the shafts towards the tip ; secondaries brown, white 

M 2 



164 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

at the base, the inner ones edged with white, and the innermost long feathers dark 
brown notched with golden-buff on each web, and fringed at the side with the same 
colour ; central tail-feathers barred with dark and pale brown, outer feathers pale 
b^o^vn and white ; fore-head and a line over the eye white, which is contiiiuetl down 
the sides of the neck and miitcd to a small white patch on the sides of the upper- 
breast ; lores, a sjaot in front of each eye, cheeks, throat, middle of breast, and middle 
of abdomen black ; sides of bodj^ variegated with black, white and golden-buff ; 
axillaries and uiider wing-coverts pale ash-brown ; under tail-coverts white, the 
short ones tipped with black, and the long ones barretl with black towards the tips ; 
bill black ; iris dark brown ; feet leadeu-grey. Total length 243 mm. ; culmen 
22, \nng ICG, tail 60, tarsus 44. 

Adult female in breeding-plumage. — Similar to the adult male but sUghtly 
larger. The tarsi of seventeen Eastern birds varies from 40 to 45 mm. 

Adult in ivinter-jdumage. — Similar, on the upper-parts, to the adult in breeding- 
plumage, but differs in the absence of the white on the fore-head, line over the eye, 
and the sides of the neck, as also the white patch on the sides of the upper-breast. 
It is further distinguished on the under parts by the absence of black on the throat, 
sides of face, middle of the breast and abdomen, these ])arts being streaked with 
brown and buff on the sides of the face and throat, and duskj'-brown with twin 
buff spots on the breast and sides of the body ; the feathers on the lower flanks 
dull white barred with dusk3'-bro%vn ; under tail-coverts white inclining to buff 
on the lateral ones. The moult from the summer- to the vduter-plumage in this 
species is similar to that of Squatarola squatarola. 

Immature. — General colour above, clark brown, including the head, back, ■vvings, 
and tail, the feathers margined or spotted with bright golden-yellow ; upper \ving- 
coverts paler brown with lemon-yellow spots and margins ; basta^d-^ving, primary- 
coverts, and quills dark brown with white edgings to the tips of the feathers, ^vhite 
shafts to the qui Us and gre3'ish-brown on the inner webs ; outer tail-feathers paler 
brown than the middle ones and the light pattern inclining to whitish ; base of 
fore-head, a small patch behind the eye and the hind-neck covered -nith whitish 
down which have dark bases on the latter ; lores and fore-cheeks golden yellow, 
the feathers centred with brown ; hinder cheeks and throat similar but paler ; chin 
and upper tliroat covered wth white down ; fore-neck and breast grejish-brown, 
the feathers marked with lemon-yellow ; sides of body lemon-yellow etlged with 
dark brown, which gives a barred ajipearance ; middle of abdomen and mider tail- 
coverts creamy-white, the lateral under-tail coverts marked with brown ; axillaries 
and under wng -coverts dusky-brown. 

Nestling in down. — Dusky-black on the upper-surface, with golden-yellow 
tips to the down, more or less mixed with white, the predominating colour being 
golden-j'ellow. Under-surface dull white wth blackish bases to the thighs and 
under-surface of the wings. 

Nest. — A mere hollow in the ground upon a j)iece of turfy land, overgrown 
with moss and lichen, and lined with broken stalks of reindeer moss. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour pale buff, siJotted and blotched vnth rich 
purplish-brown, with a few underlying ones of inkv-grey ; axis 47-49 mm., diameter 
32-34. 

Breeding-season. — June, July. 

Distribution and forms. — The arctic regions of Eastern Siberia and North 
America migrating southward through the Pacific Islands to Australia and to South 
America, straggling to Europe. Two subsjjecies are well knowii : P. d. dominicus 
(^liillcr) from the West Indies, the American race Avith bro^\nush axillaries (the 
Golden Plover, P. apricarius (Linne) of Europe having white axillaries) ; and P. d. 
fulvus (Gmelin) from Eastern Siberia, the form visiting Australia, ■with shorter wings 
and tail but longer legs and toes, and more boldly marked with yellow. 



M0NG0LL4N SAND-DOTTEEEL. 165 

Genus CIRREPIDESMUS. 

Cirrepidcsmiis Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIII., p. 417, Sept. Ist, 
1856. Type (by tautonymy) : Charadri'us pyrrhothorax Gould = C. atrilrons Wagler. 

Small Plovers \vith stout bills, long wings, short legs, and medium-sized feet. 
The culmen is straight, mth a swollen dertrum which is almost half the length of 
the culmen. The wings are long and i^ointed with the first primary longest. The 
tail is short and scjuare. The metatarsus is short and reticulated throughout. 
The toes are connected by very small webs at the base. No hind-toe. The culmen 
is shorter than the middle toe without claw. 

114. Cirrepidesmus mongolus.— MONGOLIAN SAND-DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 19 (pt. XXIV.), Sept. 1st, 1846 (smaU fig.). Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 

135, April 2nd, 1913. 

Charadrius mongolus Pallas, Reiso Russ. Reichs, Vol. III., p. 700, (pref. Feb. 10th, O.S.) 1776 : 

Mongolia. 

Charadrius sanguineus Lesson, Diet. Sci. Nat. (Levrault), Vol. XLII., p. 35, Sept. 23rd, 1826 : 

Java. 

Charadrius cirrhepidesmos Wagler, Syst. Av. Charadr., sp. 18, p. (61), Oct. 1827 : Hab. 

unknown, Mus., Paris = Java. 

Charadrius gularis Wagler. ib., sp. 40, p. (69). New name for C. mongolus Pallas. 

Hialicula inornata Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xxrv. (Vol. VI., pi. 19), Sept. 1st, 1846 (small fig.) : 

Torres Straits. 

Charadrius sonneratii Gray, Handl. Gen. Sp. Birds B.M., pt. in., p. 15 (pref. July 8th) 1871. 

In synonymy of C. mongolus Pallas. 

^gialitis mastersi Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. I., p. 135, July 1876 : Cape York, 

North Queensland. 

Distribution. — ^Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male in summer-plumage. — Lores, feathers surrounding the eye, ear- 
coverts, and a band across the fore-part of the cro's^aa black ; fore-part of head and 
sides of crown cinnamon-rufous, becoming darker rufous on the hind-neck and 
continued on to the chest and sides of breast, where it becomes bright chestnut ; 
fore-head, throat, abdomen, under tail-coverts, and axillaries white ; a very narrow 
line of black dividing the white of the throat from the rufous chest-band ; lesser 
under wing-coverts white, more or less spotted with brown ; greater under wing- 
coverts grey with white at the tijis ; middle of crown, back, scajDulars, wings, and 
middle tail-feathers pale brown ; upper tail-coverts inclining to grey fringed with 
white ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills darker than the back, and inclining 
to black ; greater wing-coverts and secondaries fringed with white at the tips ; 
outer tail-feathers paler than the middle ones, and tipped with white, the outermost 
pair white on the outer web ; bill and iris black ; feet lead-grey. Total length 
204 mm. ; culmen 17, \^4ng 135, tail 52, tarsus 31. 

Adult female in sumtner-plumage. — Similar to the adult male but the characters 
on the head less pronomiced. 

Adult in winter-plumage. — Distinguished from the nuptial-dress by the absence 
of cinnamon-rufous on the head and hind-neck, and the rufous and black bands on 
the fore-neck, these parts being represented by greyish-browia more sjjarsely on the 
fore-neck ; fore-head and eyebrow white without any black band on the former ; 
lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts brown. 

Nestling with doion adhering. — Top of head brown ; fore-head white down, sides 
of head black and white down, the markings almost linear and meeting at back ; 
nape of neck white down ; back brown feathers with minute pale rufous tips ; lower 
back still -vvith black and white mottled dovm ; tail black down ; wing -coverts 
IDale brown with pale rufous edges tipped with down ; primaries just sj^routing 
brown ; throat white down ; chest fawnish feathering vnth brown at sides ; 
abdomen fawnish-white. 



166 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Nestling in down. — Sides of head (including a broad supialoral and superciliary 
stripe), hind-neck, and under parts white, slightly tinged wth pale greyish-buffy, 
especially on breast and sides, the whole of under parts immaculate ; a loral line 
(from bill to eye), a postocular streak, a small spot near middle of malar region, a 
larger spot beneath suborbital region, an obliquely transverse bar on sides of nape, 
and a longitudinal stripe down middle of nape (the last widening posteriorly) black ; 
me^^lian portion of crown and occiput (broadly) irregularly mottled ■with black and 
cinnamon or sayal-brown ; back, rump, etc., irregularly but boldly marbled with 
black, ciimamon and whitish, the markings more longitudinal on back, more trans- 
verso on lower rump. (Ridgway.) 

Nest. — A slight hollow in the gromid lined with leaves. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three ; ground-colour between cream-buff and clay colour ; 
spotted, less numerously at the small end, with markings of irregular size, chiefly 
of clove-brown, bistre, and even as light as wood-brown. The lighter markings 
are for the most part rather obscure, as if imbedded in the shell, or as if laid on 
before the groimd-colour. The markings are irregularis' confluent on the greater 
hemisphere of the egg ; axis 36-37 mm. ; diameter 26.5-27.5. 

Breeding-season . — Jmie . 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in eastern Siberia and the Commander 
Islands, westward to the Kirghiz Steppes, wintering in Australia and Africa and 
India. Two subspecies are with difficulty separable : C. mongolus mongolus (Pallas), 
and C. m. atrifrons Wagler, the latter the western form -svith a black fore-head in 
summer and lacking the black pectoral line, while it is slightly larger in the bill 
and tarsus. 

Genus NESOCERYX. 

Nesoceryx Mathews, Bull. Brit. Ora. Club, Vol. XLI., p. 35, Nov. 30th, 1920. Tvpo (by 
original designation) : Charadritw hicinctus Jardine and Selbj-. 

Mathews has separated the species C. hicinctus Jardine and Selby as a distinct 
genus as we find the immature stages to diiier entirely from thof c of the preceding 
genus with which it was associated recently. The bill is quite different and the legs 
are longer when immature siJecimens just losing down are compared. 

Li the adult the bill is a little longer with the dertrum much less pronounced, 
and though the wing is shorter, the tail is a little longer, while the tarsus is also a 
little longer. Thus, gauging the adult structural features, the two were considered 
congeneric, whereas from a study of the immature stages there is really little close 
relationship, and the case is better considered as apparentlj' homeomorphic. 

115. Nesoceryx bicinctus.— DOUBLE BANDED DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 16 (pt. XIX.), June 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 134, April 

2nd, 1913. 

Charadrhis hicinctus Jardine and Selby, lllust. Ornith., Vol. I., pi. 28, (June) 1827 : New 

Holland = New South Wales. 

Charadriiis hiciiicHis incerlus Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 217, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Point Malcolm, South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — South Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia 

and South-west Australia. 

Adidt male. — General colour above olive-brown, including the hinder crown, 
hind-neck, sides of neck, entire back, scapulars, long innermost secondaries and upper 
wing-coverts ; greater coverts margined with white at the tips ; bastard-wing and 
primary-coverts tipj^ed with white ; primary-quills dark brown with white shafts, 
somewhat paler on the inner webs towards the base, basal portion of inner primaries 
white on the outer web ; secondaries brown with pale inner webs and fringed with 



DOUBLE-BANDED DOTTEREL. 167 

white at the tips on the outer web ; middle tail-feathers rather darker brown than 
the back, becoming paler on the outer feathers which have white edges at the tip, 
the outermost pair almost pure white ; fore-part of cro^vn, lores, and cheeks black 
like the broad band which crosses the lower thi-oat ; a wide chestnut band on the 
lower-breast ; fore-head and a narrow line over to behind the eye white like the 
throat, the space dividing the chestnut-and-black bands on the breast, abdomen, 
under tail-coverts, axillaries, and mider wing-coverts ; bill black slightly tinged 
with olive ; iris blackish-brown, eyelids scarlet ; feet pale yellowsh-white, the 
joints of the toes and knees broAvner. Total length 190 mm. ; culmen 19, wing 127, 
tail 56, tarsus 33. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but the colours not so distinct. 

Female nearly adult. — Upper-parts similar to the adult male but the feathers 
everywhere margined with rufous, the black on the fore-head and cheeks scarcely 
pronoimced, the dark band on the lower throat brown instead of black, and the 
chestnut band on the breast much paler and narrower. 

Adult in tvinter-plum^ige. — Distinguished from the adult in breeding-plumage 
by the absence of the black on the lores, cheeks, and fore-part of head, also the 
chestnut and black bands on the lower throat and breast. 

Young. — Differs from the adult in the feathers of the upper-surface being 
margined with rufous, by the absence of any black on the fore-heari, lores, and cheeks, 
these parts being washed vnth sandy-buff, which colour is also showii on the lower 
throat, where the black band of the adult is indicated by an irregular band of brown 
feathers ; but there is no sign of a chestnut band. 

Other immature birds in Mathews's collection differ from the adult in having 
the bands on the chest and tlu'oat narrower, less defined, and mixed vnth white, and 
the black on the fore-head, lores, and cheeks less pronomrced. 

Nestling with doivn adhering. — Top of head brown with well-marked brown 
tips ; no loral stripe ; back of neck spotted black and white down which also can 
be seen on rump and tail ; all back, secondaries, scapulars, etc., are brown with 
broad rufous edges ; primaries very short brown ; under-surface chestnut from 
chin to abdomen which is white ; bill long. 

Nestling in down. — Covered with soft down of a bright sandy-yellow on the 
upper-surface, changing to yellowish-white on the under parts ; the cro\vn of the 
head and the back prettily mottled with dark brown, of which there is also a broad 
streak on the wings and thighs. 

Fledgeling. — Feathers of the upper-parts brown largely margined with fulvous, 
under parts white with fulvous markings on the breast ; the sides of the head and 
lower part of back and rump covered with do-\vn of a dull sandy-yellow, sj)otted 
with black, and with fluffy down still adhering to other parts of the body. Bill 
dark brown, legs brownish-grey. 

Nest. — A depression in the earth. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three ; greenish-browii, much sprinlcled with dark brown 
markings ; axis 35 mm., diameter 26. 

Breeding season. — August to December. (New Zealand.) 

Distribution and forms. — Australia and New Zealand, but not yet found breeding 
in Australia, though occurring in West Australia, from which locality Mathews 
proiJosed the subspecies N. b. incertus, but no further knowledge has since 
been added. 

Genus PAGOA. 

Pagoa Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 1, p. 82, April 2nd, 1913. Type (by original 
designation) : Charadrius geoffroyi Wagler = C. lescheiiaultii Lesson. 

Plovers of medium size with verj stout bills, long wings, short legs and 
medium feet. 



168 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

The characters are as in Cirrepidesmits, but the long powerful bill, which is 
longer than the middle toe and claw, at once characterises this genus. Theculmen 
is almost half the length of the tail and two-thirds the length of the tarsus, which 
is more than one-fourth the length of the wing. These proportions are exactly 
opposite to those of Cirrevidesmus . The wing is long and pointed with first 
primary longest and the tail is short and square. The tarsus is covered throughout 
with hexagonal scales, smaller behind. 

ii6. Pagoa leschenaultii.— LARGE SAND-DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VT., pi. 19 (pt. XXIV.), Sept. 1st, 1840 (large Eg.). Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 

136, AprU 2nd, 1913. 

Charadrius lenchenaultii Lesson, Diet. Sol. Nat. (Levrault), Vol. XLII., p. 36, Sept. 23rd, 1826 : 

Pondicherry, India. 

Charadrius geoffroyiWagier, Syst. Av. Charadr., sp. 19, p. (61), Oct. 1827 : " InPondichery," 

India. 

Charadrius columbinus Wagler, Isis, 1829, heft 6, col. 650, June (ex Hempr. und Ehrenb. MS. ) : 

Charadriiis rufinus Blyth, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XII., pp. 169, 231, (Sept. 1st) 1843 : 

India. 

Mgialitia gigas Brehm, VoUstandige Vogelfang, p. 283, (pref. Nov. 8th, 1854) 1855 : Suez 

to East Europe. 

Charadrius columboides " Reich." Gray. Handl. Gen. Sp. Birds B.M., pt. iir., p. 14, (pref. July 

8th) 1871. In synonymy of C. geoffroyi Wagler. 

Eudromias crassirostris Severtzoff, Bull. Soc. Moscow, Vol. VIII., Uvr. 2 [Turkest Jevotnie.], 

p. 146, 1873 : Fort Peroffsky, Turkestan. 

Eudromias magnirostris Severtzoff, Joum. fiir Ornith., 1875, pt. 2, p. 183 (April). ? Error 

for preceding. 

Pagoa zanda Mathews, Emu, Vol. XVI., p. 35, July 1st, 1916 : Point Torment, North-west 

Australia. 

Distribution. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adidt male in breeding -j-)lv.mage. — General colour above pale brown, the feathers 
everywhere showing black shaft-streak.s, with a wash of cinnamon-rufous on the 
upper back and scapulars ; greater coverts brown margined and tipped with white ; 
median coverts grey ; lesser coverts dark brown fringed with white at the tijis like 
the primary-coverts ; primary-quills dark brown, inner web.s fringed wth whit© 
towards the base, shaft of the first primarv white, the four following white on.ly 
towards the tips, the remaining primaries white on the outer web and fringed with 
white at the tij^s ; secondaries brown on the outer webs, fringed with white at the 
tip, some of the inner ones white on the outer web and pale grey on the inner one, 
the long iimermost secondaries like the back ; upper tail-coverts grey, tipped with 
white ; middle tail-feathers dark bro^vla fringed with white at the tips becoming 
l^aler on the outer feathers, the outermost pair being almost pure white -v^ith an 
obsolete spot of grey near the tip ; cro\TO of head, hind-neck, and a narrow collar 
round the fore-neck cinnamon-rufous, which extends more or less on to the sides of 
the upper-breast ; lores and a line acro.ss the fore-head black fringed with white ; 
a black spot below the eye ; ear-coverts dark brown streaked with white ; middle 
of crown darker than the hind-neck and inclining to grej' ; fore-head, throat, and 
the remainder of the under-surface white including the under wing-coverts, axillaries, 
and under tail-coverts ; bill black ; iris brown ; tarsi light brown ; feet darker 
brown. Total length 230 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 14(), tail 55, tarsus 37. 

Adult female in breeding-plumage. — Similar to the male in nuptial-dress, but 
the characters everywhere less pronounced ; the black on the lores, fore-head, and 
under the eye being absent, the ear-coverts rufous-brown, and the middle of the 
crown more grey. 

Adult in winler-plumMge. — Differs from the breeding-plumage in the entire 
absence of cinnamon-rufous on the head, hind-neck, and collar on the fore-neck ; 



EED-CAPPED DOTTEREL. 169 

also by the absence of black on the fore-head, lores, and a spot below the eye ; the 
ear -coverts grey, the fore-head and a line over the eye white like the cheeks, throat, 
and under-siirface of body. 

One examjile, just assuming winter -plumage, still retains an indication of the 
cinnamon -rufous collar on the hind-neck, the band on the fore-neck is more strongly 
pronomiced and is composed of rufous and grey feathers, the superciliary line buff ; 
there is no black line across the fore-head, and the patch imder the eye and on the 
ear-coverts is rufous-brown. 

Nestling. — Unknown . 

Nest. — A depression in the sand and fine shingle, on the borders of a lake. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ? Li shape the egg is oval, very slightly jjointed at one 
end. Ground-colour pale stone, heavily marked at the larger end. and sparingly 
on the smaller, with dark purjjiish-black and lavender spots ; and about the middle 
of the shell there are some sjiots of pale greenish-yellow ; axis 40 mm., diameter 29. 

Breeding-season. — June. 

Distribution and forms. — Eastern Siberia, breeding in Tibet, migrating south- 
ward to Australia in winter and accidental westward to Europe. No subspecies 
yet determined. 

Genus LEUCOPOLIUS. 

LeiicopoUu.9 Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIII., p. 417, Sept. 1st, 
1856. Type (by tautonymy) : Charadrius nivijrons Cuvier = C. marghiatus Vieillot. 
.Egialophilns Gould, Handb. Birds Austr., Vol. II., p. 234, (Dec.) 1865. Tj^e (by original 
designation) : Charadrius cantianus Latham = C. alexandrinus Linne. 

Smallest Plovers, with long slender Pluvialine bills, long wings, short tails 
and legs, and weak feet. The bill is Pluvialine, and all black, about half the length 
of the tarsus and equalling the middle toe in length. The wing has the first primary 
longest. The tail is short and square. The legs arc slender, and between the outer 
and middle toe, near the base, is a distinct v.'eb. There is no hind-toe. 

117. Leucopolius ruficapillus. — RED-CAPPED DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 17 (pt. XXIII.), June 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 2, pi. 138, May 

2nd, 1913. 

Charadrius ruficapillus Temminck et Laugier, Planch. Color. d'Ois., S^' livr. (Vol. I., pi. 47, 

f. 2) (Vol. v., pi. 68), March 1821 : " Oceanie " = New South Wales. 

Charadrius marginatus Lesson, Diet. Sci. Nat. (Levrault), Vol. XLIL, p. 25, Sept. 23rd, 1826 : 

south coasts of New Holland = Victoria. 

Not of Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XVIII., p. 138, Dec. 26th, 1818. 

JSgialitis t canvs Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., App., p. 6, April 1838 : New South 

Wales. 

Charadrius ruficapillus tormenti Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 217, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Point Torment, North-west Australia. 

DisTRiBtTTiON. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male in summer -plumage. — General colour above jjale reddish -brown, 
including the back, wings, scapulars, and long imiermost secondaries ; bastard-wing, 
primary-coverts and quills dark brown, the latter paler brown on the inner webs 
and the shafts white ; secondaries grey wth the basal and apical portions white, 
this colour increasing in extent on the inner ones ; ujoper tail-coverts and tail darker 
than the back ; hinder crown, hind-neck, and sides of neck bright chestnut ; a black 
band across the upper fore-head, which is continued backward over the eye ; ear- 
coverts black, as also a patch on the sides of the neck ; fore-head, cheeks, throat, 
and entire under-surface white, including the under wing-coverts, axillaries, and 
under tail-coverts ; bill black, iris deep brown, tarsi and feet dull black. Total 
length 164 mm.; culmen 14, wing 108, tail 43, tarsus 29. 



170 A JUNUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but even^vhere duller, the black band 
on the upjjer fore-head very slightly indicated, the chestnut of the head and hind- 
neck only faintly pronoimced, ear-coverts brown instead of black, as also the patch 
on the sides of the neck ; wing 105. 

Adults in winter-plumage have no black on the fore-head. A patch in front 
of the eye and on the side of the breast brown. 

Immature. — Similar to the adult in winter -plumage, but the white of the fore- 
head not so pronounced and the feathers of the upper-surface edged with buff. 

Young. — Slightly darker on the upper-surface than the adult with minute 
dark shaft-lines and very narrow rufous edgings to the feathers ; upper tail-coverts 
inclining to dark brown ; head like the back ; no black line across the upper fore- 
head ; a dusky streak on the lores ; ear-coverts like the head ; fore-head, throat, 
and under parts generally white. 

Nestling in down. — Upper-parts pale yellowish-buff, finely spotted with black ■; 
fore-head buff ; spot in front and behind the eye black as also spot below in front 
of gape ; white collar at back of neck but no black nape band ; tail black ; wnglet 
black TOtli pale centre and white edges ; all mider-surface pure white ; a spot on 
ear-coverts black. 

Nest. — A depression by the shore. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; groimd -colour pale greenish, marked all over with dark 
brown to pm7)lish-black markings and fewer ones of lavender, some of the markings 
being dots and lines ; axis 28.5 to 32 mm., diameter 23 to 24. 

Breeding-season. — August to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia only, straggling to New Zealand (once). 
Two subspecies have been separated : L. r. nifcapillns (Temminck and Laugier) 
from Eastern Australia, and L. r. tormenti (Mathews) from West Australia, paler 
and slightly larger. 

Genus CHARADRIUS. 

Charadrius Liim6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 150, Jan. 1st, 1758. Type (by tautonjTny) : 

Charadritia hiaticvla Linn6. 

/Egialitis Boie, Isis, 1822, lieft 5, col. 558, May. Type (by subsequent designation Gray, 

Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. Ill, 1855) : C. kiaticula Linn6. 

Hiaticida Gray, List Gen. Birds, 1st ed., p. 65, April 1840. Tj^pe (by tautonymy) : C. 

hiaiicida Linne. 

Small Plovers mth short Vanelline bills, long wings, short tails and legs, and 
strong feet. The bill i,s Vanelline, as previously defined, and is much shorter than 
the tarsus and also than the middle toe ; it is parti -coloured in the adult, the tip 
being black, the base pale flesh. The wing is long vath the first primary longest. 
The tail is short and square and less than half the length of the wing. The tarsus 
is short and thick and covered with hexagonal scales. The toes are long, the outer 
being connected with the middle one by a web near the base. No hind-toe. 

ii8. Charadrius cucullatus. — HOODED DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 18 (pt. XXXIV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 2, pi. 139, May 

2nd, 1913. 

Charadrius cuctdlattis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XX\ai., p. 136, Dec. 26th, 1818 :. 

New South Wales. 

Charadrius monachiis WagUi, Syst. Av. Charadr., sp. 15, p. (60), Oct. 1827, ex Geofiroy MS. 

New name for preceding. 

Charadrius cuctdlatus tregeUasi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 218, Jan. 31st, 1912 •.. 

Ellensbrook, South-west Australia. 

Charadrius cucullatus torhayi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 30, April 2nd, 

1912 : Torbay. South-west Australia. 

DiSTMBDTlON. — New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South and South-west Australia. 



HOODED DOTTEREL. 171 

Adult male. — Back, wing-coverts, scajjulars, and long innermost secondaries 
ashy-grey ; outer edge of wing white ; bastard-wing bro^vn ; small coverts near the 
edge of the wing and primary-coverts brown tij^ped with white, the four outer 
primary-quills dark brown, the remainder white tipped with brown ; secondaries 
similar in colour, some of the imaer ones entirely white ; head and throat black as 
also a collar on the upper mantle which joins the black of the throat on the sides 
of the neck ; a black patch on the sides of the breast, the feathers of which have 
white tips ; a collar on the hind-neck and the entire mider-surface pure white, 
including the axillaries ; bill yellowsh-red, tip black ; iris hazel, eyelids scarlet ;. 
tarsi and feet flesh-pink. Total length 215 mm. ; culmen 17, wing 145, tail 66, 
tarsus 27. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but smaller. 

Melanistic form {C. c. torbayi). — Head and throat black ; a white collar on the 
nape ; entire back and upper tail-coverts black like some of the wing-coverts ; 
primaries black, with a large white patch on the imier web ; rest of mider-surface 
white, including the vmder wing- and tail-coverts. 

Littler, Haivlb. Birds Tasm., p. 133, wrote : " Female — Resembles the male 
save that the head is mottled with white," following Gould, but we find the male 
and female to be alike in coloration. 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in the entire absence of black on the head 
and throat, the former being greyish-brouai while the latter, as also the fore-head, 
is white ; the black of the upper-surface, in the adult, is here indicated by dark 
brown feathers ; the dark patch on the sides of the breast, much the same as in the 
adult ; secondaries white \nth broad subterminal band of brown ; throat pure 
white ; brown patch on the side of the breast ; bill dark brown, yellowish at the 
base ; legs and feet paler yellow than in the adult. 

Nestling. — Upper -surface pale buff, vermiculated with dark brown ; tail black ; 
fore-head more sparsely marked than the back ; a black nuchal band ; cheeks, chin, 
throat, and entire under-surface white, including the mider tail-coverts and the 
under wing-coverts ; a spot of black on each side of the lower throat. 

Nest. — A depression in the ground. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two or three ; ground-colour pale stone, marked all over, but 
more at the larger end, with purplish-black and lavender spots ; axis 39 to 39.5 mm., 
diameter 26.5 to 27. 

Breeding-season. — September to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Southern Australia, outside the tropics, 
and two subspecies admitted : the eastern C. c. cucullatus (Vieillot) and the western 
C. c. tregellasi (Mathews) a larger and darker form, with ajiparently a tendency to 
melanism as evidenced strongly in the aberration above named C. c. torbayi Mathews. 

Genus EUPODELLA. 

Eupodclla Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 1, p. 83, AprU 2nd, 1913. New name for 

JEwpoda Brandt 1845 ; not Eupodes Koch 1835. Type (by monotypy): Charadrius aaiaticus 

Pallas. 

Eupoda Brandt, in Tchihatcheff 's Voy. Sci. Atlai Orient., pt. n., p. 444, May 3rd, 1845. Type 

(by monotypy) : C. asialicus Pallas. 

Not Eupodes Koch, Deutschl. Crust., Vol. I., tab. 8, 1835. 

Medium-sized Plovers with long slender bills, long wings, long legs, and 
small feet. 

The culmen is long and slender, thedertrum little swollen, much longer than the 
middle toe. Wing long and jjointed, first primary longest. Tail short and slightly 
rounded. The metatarsus is very long, more than twice as long as the middle toe 
and about twice as long as the culmen. 



172 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 



119. Eupodella vereda.— ORIENTAL DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 14 (pt. xxxm.), Dec. l3t, 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 137, April 

2nd, 1913. 

Charadrius veredus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1848, p. 38, Nov. 14th : North-west 

Australia. 

DisTKiBTTTiON. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male. — Entire back, wings, and tail olive-bro-mi, all the feathers narrowly 
fringed vnth. rufous ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills dark browai, the 
latter ynih pale inner webs, the outer primary has a white shaft ; secondaries some- 
what paler than the primaries and fringed with white, the long innermost secondaries 
like the back ; all the tail-feathers tipped with white, outer feathers much paler, 
the outermost pair entirely white on the outer webs ; collar on the nape and eye- 
streak pale brown ; fore-part of crown wliite intermixed with olive-brown ; ear- 
coverts more or less stained with pale rufous or buff ; fore-head and lores pale buff ; 
throat buffy -white ; patch below the eye, middle of the abdomen, flanks, and umder 
tail-coverts white ; fore-neck chestnut, extending on to the sides of the breast 
followed by a black patch on the middle of the breast, which also extends down the 
sides of the upper-abdomen, where the feathers are tipped with white ; under wing- 
coverts and axillarics olive-brown, the former tipped with grey ; bill black, lower 
base hom colour ; iris hazel ; feet light flesh colour ; joints almost black. Total 
length 245 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 170, tail 62, tarsus 49. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male. 

Adult male in uinter-plumage. — Differs chiefly from the male in summer-dress 
by the almost entire absence of chestnut and black on the fore-neck, chest, and sides 
of breast. The sexes are alike. 

Young female. — Olive-brown above, the feathers everj-where margined with 
rufous which are paler and almost pure white on the median and greater wing- 
coverts ; fore-head and eyebrow white ; throat whitish, more or less tinged Viith. 
rufous, v/hich is more pronounced on the fore-neck and chest ; abdomen and imder 
tail-coverts white. 

Immature female. — Distinguished from the adult chiefly by the absence of the 
chestnut on the fore-neck and the broad rufous margins to the feathers of the upper- 
surface ; the chestnut collar on the fore-neck of the adult is here represented by 
a grey band with a few rufous feathers intermixed, which shows that the bird is 
attaining the breeding -plumage. 

Nestling, Nest and Eggs. — Unknowia. Breeds in South-east Mongolia. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in Mongolia and migrating southward in 
winter to Australia, mainly in the north. No subspecies have been proposed. 

Genus ELSEYORNIS. 

Elseyornis Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 87. Sept. 24th, 1914. New name for 

Elseya Mathews 1913 not Grandidier 1867. Type (by original designation) : Charadrius 

mclanops Vieillot. 

Elseya Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. III., pt. 2, p. 125, May 2nd, 1913. Tj-pe (by original 

designation) : Charadrius melanops Vieillot. 

Not Elxeya Grandidier, Rev. de Zool., p. 232, 1867. 

Smallest Plovers with long Vanelline bills, long wings, and long tail ; slender 
legs and feet. 

The bill is very long for the Vanelline-billed group of Ring-Plovers, being only 
exceeded by that of the genus Tkinornis ; it is almost as long as the tarsus and exceeds 
the middle toe. The wing is long with the first primary longest. The tail is long 
and rounded, about half the length of the wing. The tarsus is short and slender ; 



Plate f!. 








?^ y. 






S 33 









BLACK-FRONTED DOTTEREL. 173 

the scaling is indistinct and shows a strong tendency to fusion ; it does not show 
the regular hexagonal scaling of Charadritis. The toes are long and slender and 
the outer one is connected with the middle one by a web near the base. No 
hind -toe. 

120. Elseyornis melanops.— BLACK-FRONTED DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 20 (pt. XIX.), June 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. HI., pt. 2, pi. 140, May 2nd,. 
1913. 

Charadriits melanops VieiUot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat.. Vol. XXVII., p. 139, Dec. 26th, 1818 : 
" aux Torres Australes Baudin Exp." = New South Wales. 

Charadritis nigrifrons Temrainck et Laugier, Planch. Color. d'Ois., 8' livr. (Vol. I., pi. 47^ 
fig. 1), (Vol. v., pi. 68), March 1821, ex Cuvier MS. : Nouvelle Hollande = New South- 
Wales. 

Charadriits riissatus Jerdon, Madras Journ. Lit. Sci., V^ol. XII., p. 213, Oct. 1840 : Madras,. 
India. 

Charadrius melanops marngli Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 218, Jan. 31st, 1912:- 
Mamgle Creek, North-west AustraUa. 
Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Fore-head, middle of crown, lores, a line below the eye, ear-coverts, 
hind-neck, sides of neck and a broad band across the fore-neck deep black ; a line 
over the eye along the sides of the crown and nape white like the tliroat, sides of 
the breast, abdomen, and axillaries ; crown of head, back, long scapulars, and long 
innermost secondaries greyish-browna ; short scapulars maroon-chestnut ; leaser 
wing-coverts brown ; median coverts greyish-brown with dark shaft-lines, greater 
coverts also greyish-brown broadly tipped with white forming a wing-bar ; a portion 
of the outer edge of the wing white ; bastard-wing and primary-coverts black ; 
primary-quills very dark brown ; secondaries white at base, apical jjortion dark 
bro^vn, some of the inner ones almost entirely white ; upper tail-coverts rufous with 
dark shaft-lines ; middle tail-feathers dark lirown, outer pair white, next pair with 
a brown spot on the inner web near the tip, the remainder brown tij)ped with white ; 
muler tail-coverts white, the lateral ones with a black spot on the outer web ; mider 
wing-coverts white, the small marginal coverts brown edged with white ; quills 
below dark brown ; bill red, black at tip ; iris bro\vn, eyelids scarlet ; feet red. 
Total length 165 mm. ; culmen 15, wing 110, tail 53, tarsus 25. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but slightly smaller. 

Immature. — Differs from fully adult by being darker on the upper-suiface, in 
being rufous on the scapulars instead of maroon-chestnut ; paler rufous on the upper 
tail-coverts, the buff tips to the central tail-feathers, the incomijlete black fore- 
head and the very much narrower band on the chest, which is also intermixed with 
buff. (May.) 

Immature (yotinger). — Head, back and scapulars earth-brown, with slightly 
paler edges to the feathers, the scapulars somewhat tinged with rufous. Among 
the latter may be noticed two or three deep chestnut feathers which suggest the 
first appearance of the adult jjlumage ; the long scapulars, innermost secondaries, 
and middle tail-feathers bronze-brown, the latter tijiped with buff, the outer tail- 
feathers white marked ^vith jiale bro^vn ; the lesser upper wing-coverts show the 
remains of youth, and are similar to the stage next described, but not quite so bright, 
the secondaries differing also in having more white ; fore-head and lores dusky ; a 
line over the eye and continued round the nape buffy-white becoming whiter on 
the nape ; a dark line from behind the eye joining the black collar on the hind- 
neck, which extends in an incomplete band across the chest ; vmder-surface white. 
(April.) 

Immature just losing down. — Crown of head, back, scapulars, innermost 
secondaries, and upper tail-coverts pale earth-brown strongly tinted with rufous. 



174 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

with semicircular dark bars to the feathers which gives a scalloped appearance to 
the back, the feathers on the head have dark central spots ; lesser, u])per and some 
of the inner median wing-coverts blackish, edged with rufous and spotted with 
black, others are white on the inner web ; greater series for the most part white with 
a small amount of earth-brown near the base ; bastard -wing, primary -coverts and 
quills black, secondaries edged with white at the tips, some of the inner ones almost 
entirely white ; lower back and upper tail-coverts have the downy texture of the 
nestling, which is fawn colour dotted with black ; tail-feathers bronzy-brown tipped 
with rufous ; a broad band from behind the eye encircling the hind-neck, black, a 
crescentic patch of white on the nape ; entire under-surface white, except a few dark 
feathers on the chest, which is the first indication of the black band ; the small 
«overts on the outer edge of the under -wing black, margined with white. Bill, tip 
black, base orange ; eye black, eyelids orange ; feet pink. (February.) 

Neslliyu) in down. — Crown of head and entire back fawn colour, dotted with 
black ; a semicircular black line across the fore-part of the head from eye to eye, 
a short line of black on the hinder crown, followed by a semicircular band of white, 
a line of black commencing in front of the eye, enclosing the latter, continued and 
widened out round the hind-neck where it forms a collar ; another black band starting 
on the inner portion of the wing, continued along the sides of the back, dividing the 
fawn colour and enclosing the tail ; outer jjortions of the wings and entire under- 
surface white. (Januarj\) 

Nest. — A depression in the earth. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three ; ground-colour stone, covered with strange markings of 
lavender and brown, patches of the ground-colour frequently aiJjDearing ; axis 
29-30 mm., diameter 21-21.5. 

Breeding-season. — Ai^ril, May, September to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Australia, but one bird said to have been 
killed at Madras, Incha. Two subspecies are recognisable, as : Elseyornis melanops 
melanops (Vieillot) from Eastern Austraha generally, and Elseyornis melanaps russatus 
(Jerdon) from Western Australia, a smaller and paler race mth less black on the 
second outer tail-feather. 

Family VANELLID^. 

This family is better circumscribed than any other Charadriine group, yet has 
never been accepted through lack of examination. Mathews gave details and these 
are confirmed by more complete criticism of all the series. Thiough the confusion 
of the members of this family with those of the preceding no detailed accomit of 
their osteological and anatomical jJeculiarities is on record. Yet that such exist 
is gleaned from the item " Vanellus cristatus has been recorded -with two separate 
biceps slips." The leg muscle formula is AXY+ and the intrinsic muscles of the 
syrinx are very large. 

Of the three genera occurring in Australia, two have hind-toes, the other not ; 
two have facial wattles, one with a very large wing spur, the third neither wattles 
nor spur. 

Genus LOBIBYX. 

Lobihyx Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 334, (pref. Sept.) 1890. Type (by 
original designation) : Tringa lobata Latham = Vanellus novwhoUandiw Stephens. 
Lobivanellus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. xvni., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original 
designation) : V. novmhollandice Stephens. 
Not^'of Strickland, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lend.), p. 32, 1841, Oct. 

Largo Lapwings with facial pendant wattles, long sjDurs at the bend of the wing, 
long bills, long wings and long legs with small feet. 



SPUR-WmGBD PLOVER. 175 

The bill is typically Vanelline ; in front, above and behind the eyes a fleshy 
wattle which develops into a long pendant lajipet in front. The wing is long with 
the first three primaries about equal ; on the bend of the wing a long sharp spur 
occurs which is smaller in the female. The legs are long and the feet small, the 
metatarsus being more than twice the length of the middle toe ; the metatarsus is 
transversely scaled in front, and in mature specimens apparently similarly covered 
behind. 

121, Lobibyx miles.— LESSER MASKED PLOVER. 

[Tringa miles Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enlum., p. 51, (pref. Dec. 1st) 1783 : Timor Laut. 

Extra-Iimital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 10 (pt. vm.), Sept. 1st, 1842. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 130, April 

2nd, 1913. 

Lohivanellus personatus Gould, Birds Austr., pt. viii. (Vol. VI., pi. 10), Sept. 1st, 1842: 

Coburg Peninsula, Northern Territory. 

Lobibyx miles harterti Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 215, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Inkerman, 

Queensland. 

Distribution. — North Queensland, Northern Territory, North-west Australia. 

Adult male. — Crown of head black ; hind-neck, sides of face, ear-coverts, tliroat, 
and entire under-surface pure white including the under wing-coverts, axillaries, and 
mider tail-coverts ; wings ash-grey ; middle of back, scapulars, and the innermost 
secondaries olive-grey ; upjier outer edge of wing white ; primary-coverts and 
primary-quills black, the latter paler on the inner webs and white at the base, some 
of the outer primaries brown at the ends ; secondaries black with grey at the base 
on the outer web and white on the inner one, the white and grey increasing on the 
inner secondaries where the black is confuied to the tip ; tail white with a broad 
subterminal band of black which is preceded by pale grey and tipped with the 
same colour — this same colour occupies the outer web of the innermost feathers ; 
facial wattles larger than in L. lobatus and extending over and behind the eye ; 
bill yellow, tip brown ; iris yellow ; lapels and spurs yellow ; tarsi and feet 
purple-red ; lower end of tibia pink. Total length 377 mm. ; culmen 35, wing 228, 
tail 95, tarsus 74. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature and Nestling. — Appear to be undescribed. 

Nest. — A depression in the gromid. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two to four ; of a yellowish-stone gromid-colour, slightly tinged 
with olive, with frecldes, sjoots, and larger irregular -shaped marldngs of olive-brown 
and blackish-brown distributed over the entire surface of the shell, together with a 
few superimposed sjiots of dull bluish-black ; axis 41^2 mm., diameter 33. 

Breeding-season. — August to October, January to April. 

Distribution and forms. — North and North-western Australia and the Moluccas. 
Three subsj)ecies can be admitted : L. m. miles (Boddaert) from Timor Laut and the 
Moluccas ; L. m. personatus (Gould) from Northern Territory and North-western 
Australia, a darker race ; and L. m. harterti Mathews from Northern Queensland, 
still darker and also larger. 

122. Lobibyx novaehollandise.— SPUR-WINGED PLOVER. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 9 (pt. VIII.), Sept. 1st, 1842. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 129, April 
2nd, 1913. 

Tringa lobata Latham, Index Ornith., Suppl., p. Lxv., 1801, after May : New South Wales, 

based on Watling drawing No. 242. 

Not of Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 148, Jan. 1st, 1758. 

Vanellus novfehollandicE Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zoo\., Vol. XL, pt. II., p. 516, 1819, Aug. 

New name for T. lobata Latham. 



176 A MANUAL OF THE BIEDS OF AUSTRALIA . 

Charadriiis gaUinaceus Waeler, Syst. Av., Charadr., sp. 50, p. (75), Oct. 1827, ex Temminck 

MS. : " Timor" errore = New South Wales. 

Lohihyx 7iova:hoUand>(e gracetncri MathewB, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 126, Jan. 2Sth, 

1915 : Gracemere, Queensland. 

Distribution. — East Australia, Tasmania, South Australia. 

Adult male. — Back, scapulars, and wngs olive-brown, becoming paler and 
inclining to ash colour on the outer wing-coverts ; the wng with the first three 
primaries subequal, the first probably the longest ; outer, median, and primar}'- 
coverts black as also the primary -quills ; the latter brown at the tips and paler on 
the inner web at the base of iimer primaries ; secondaries for the most jiart black 
with grey at the base and white on the inner web, the grey and white increasing in 
extent on the inner ones, two of which are edged with white at the tip ; the inner- 
most secondaries like the back ; tail white with a subterminal broad black band, 
and white or greyish-brown tips ; head, hind-neck and a collar skirting the upper 
mantle black like the patch on the sides of the breast ; throat, cheeks and sides of 
neck white like the entire under-suriace, including the mider wng-coverts, axillaries, 
and mider tail-coverts ; bill, wattles, and iris canarj'-j^ellow ; feet and legs very 
dark crimson ; spurs canary -yeUow with black tips. Total length 360 mm. ; culmen 
34, wing 245, tail 107, tarsus 81. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, second and third primaries equal 
and longest, the first equal to the fourth. 

Immature. — With pale tips to feathers of upper-surface. 

Nestling in down. — General colour of the upper-surface buS, mottled with 
black ; wings broadly lined with bufEy -white ; fore-head ochreous-buS ; a black 
line over the eye, which widens into a band on the upper hind-neck, this being 
followed by a white collar which extends in a narrow line on to the cheeks ; throat 
and mider-surface dull-white, becoming tinged wth buff on the mider tail and 
thif'hs ; hinder portion of the thighs lined v.ith black ; a yellow wattle above and 
in front of the eye. Iris dull blue ; bill and feet slaty-blue, the lower mandible 
pale flesh colour. 

Nest. — A depression in the gromid. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three to four ; gromid-colour green, heavily blotched with 
spots of dark purple-brown and lavender ; axis 50-54 mm., diameter 36 to 
36.5. 

Breeding-season. — July to JanuarJ^ 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to East and South Australia and Tasmania, 
ranging northwards to mid-Queensland only. Mathews has named a northern 
race L. n. gracemeri as being smaller and paler and this may be accepted, as the 
representative species L. miles (Boddaert) of the extreme north and north-west 
is a smaller biKl. 

Genus ZONIFER. 

Zonifer Sharpe. Cat. Birds Brit. Miis., Vol. XXIV., pp. 145, 154, (pref. July 10th) 1896. Type 

(by original designation) : Chnratlriti/: tricolor Vieillot. 

Sarciophorus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. xvni., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original 

designation) : C. ■pectoralis Wagler = C. tricolor Vieillot. 

Not of Strickland, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), p 32, 1841, Oct. 

Large Lapwings with short bills, long wings, no spurs, small facial wattle, 
short legs and small feet with no hind-toe. 

The bill is short (comparatively) and stouter than in the preceding genus ; 
in front of the eye is a small oval flesh lappet but no pendant wattle. Wings long, 
Avith the first three primaries subequal ; only a blmit knob on the bend of the wing. 
Tail square, with broad feathers, less than half the length of the wing. 



BLACK-BREASTED PLOVER. 177 

Metatarsus short and apparently irregularly scutellated on the back, though 
regularly scaled in front. Toes short, less than half the length of the tarsus, and 
no hind-toe. 

123. Zonifer tricolor.— BLACK-BREASTED PLOVER, 

Gould, Vol. \a., pi. 11 (pt. IX.), Dec. Ist, 1842. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 131, April 

2nd, 1913. 

Cliaradrius tricolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XXVII., p. 147, Dec. 26th, 1818 : 

" aux Terres Australes, Baudin Exp." = New South Wales. 

Charadrius pectoralis Wagler, Syst. Av., Charadr., sp. 8, p. (58), Oct. 1827. New name for 

preceding ex Cuvier MS. 

Not of Vieillot, loc. cit., p. 145, 1818. 

Charadrius vanelloides Peale, United States Expl. Exp., Vol. VIII., p. 240, 1848 (cf. 2nd ed., 

p. 328, 1858) : New South Wales. 

Zonifer tricolor givendolence Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 216, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Broome Hill, South-west Australia. 

Distribution.— Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — General colour above purplish-bronze somewhat paler on the 
hind-neck ; darker and inclining to blackish on the lower back ; lesser wing-coverts 
rather darker than the back ; the small coverts on the outer edge of the wing dark 
brown edged with white ; median coverts tipped with white ; the greater series 
almost entirely white ; tail white, with a broad black band at the tip, the outer 
feathers fringed with white at the ends ; crown of head, cheeks, sides of neck, and 
breast black, the latter with a puqDlish gloss ; in front of the eye an oval-shaped red 
wattle ; a line behind the eye, throat, and fore-neck white, like the abdomen, under 
tail-coverts, axillaries, and under wing-coverts ; bill, iris, and eyelid canary-yellow ; 
knees and tibia dark crimson ; tarsi and feet black ; soles of feet dark greyish- 
flesh colour ; wattle bright red. Total length 284 mm. ; culmen 22, wing 194, 
tail 83, tarsus 49. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Has the marginal wing-coverts above edged with rufous. 

Nestling in down. — Upper-parts reddish-yellow groimd with small dark brown 
blotches, white collar round hind-neck, with a black circular nape band above ; 
under-surface pure white with indistinct black band across chest ; tips of feathers 
white, bases dark ; winglet with a whitish edge ; edges of thighs with darkish bases 
to down ; fore-head reddish, a minute oval lappet in front of eye hidden by down. 
Young in nestling plmnage (partial down). — Rufous-brown on the upper-parts 
with indistinct barrings of sandy-bufE ; fore-head, sides of crown, and nape covered 
with black-and-bufE down ; a narrow white line under the eye, continued over ear- 
coverts and around the hind-neck ; ear-coverts pale brown ; throat, abdomen, and 
sides of body white ; broad black band across chest, feathers tipped with rufous ; 
tail, composed of down, blackish, tipped with white. 

Nest. — A depression in the gromid, lined with dead sticks, etc. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour stone, covered all over with spots of 
reddish-purple and lavender ; axis 42-44, diameter 30-31 . 

Incubation-jieriod. — Said to be twenty -eight days. 

Breeding -season. — May to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Australia. Two subspecies are admis- 
sible : an eastern, Z. t. tricolor (Vieillot) ; and a western race, Z. t. gwendolence 
Mathews with a narrower black breast-band, a larger wattle above the eye and 
generally of darker coloration. 

Genus ERYTHROGONYS. 

Erythrogonys Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt iv., pi. 73, April 1st, 1838. Tj'po (by mono- 
typy) : Erythrogonys cinctus Gould. 

N 



178 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Small Lapwings without spurs or wattles, proportionately long bills, long 
•wings, short tail, long legs and feet. The bill is straight, as long as the head, with 
a distinct swollen dertrum ; nostrils short and linear, situated near the base of the 
bill in a groove which extends over two-thirds the length of the bill. Wings long 
•with the first primary longest. There is a bony knob at the bend of the wing in 
place of a spur. Metatarsus long and slender, apparently scutellated before and 
behind with a narrow row of hexagonal scales on each side ; middle toe more than 
half the length of the metatarsus ; distinct hind-toe and claw. Toes only slightly 
connected at the base. This genus is monotypic and confined to Australia. 

124. Erythrogonys cinctus.— RED-KNEED DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 21 (pt. III.), June 1st, 1841. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 1, pi. 128, April 

2nd, 1913. 

Erythrogonys cinctus Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. iv., pi. 73, April let, 1838 : New South 

Wales. 

Vanellus rufiventer Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant, 11'^ Ann., No. 9, col. 207, Aug. 1st, 1844 : 

New South Wales (c/. Menegaux, reprint Art. d'Omith., Lesson, p. 175, 1913). 

Erythrogonys ciiMits mixtus Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. X\^II., p. 215, Jan. 31st. 1912 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Not Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Head, sides of face, hind-neck, upper mantle, and a broad band 
across the breast black ; back and 'wings olive-bro'wn like the middle of the rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and middle tail-feathers ; a portion of the outer edge of the wing, 
•white ; primary -coverts and primary-quills bro'wn, the latter paler on the inner 
•webs and becoming white at the base, the inner primaries white at the tips and 
fringed ■with white on the inner webs ; secondaries dark brown at base with broad 
•white tips, the long imiermost secondaries like the back ; outer tail-feathers white, 
the outermost pair edged •with olive-bro'wn on the outer web near the tip ; throat 
and fore-neck white like the lower sides of neck, abdomen, and axillaries ; the 
long feathers on the sides of the body chestnut, edged and tipped wth white ; some 
of the feathers adjoining the pectoral band black, edged with white on the outer 
web ; flanks, sides of rump, and vmder tail-coverts white, •with dark centres to 
the feathers at the tip, more or less mixed ■with chestnut ; inner imder ■wing-coverts 
white, the long ones vfiih a bro'wn spot at the tip, the marginal coverts blackish ; 
bill, culmen, and distal third black, remainder red ; iris bro^wn ; feet and tarsi 
blue ; knees and tibia red. Total length 174 mm. ; culmen 22, wing 108, tail 46, 
tarsus 41 . 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but has the cro^wn of the head bro^wn. 
Young. — General colour of the upper-parts earth-bro^wn, including the head, 
back, •wings, and middle tail-feathers, •with pale edges to the upper ■wing-coverts, 
the dark and light patterns on the wing similar to the adult ; throat and general 
under-surface white, including the middle of the breast, with a slight indication of 
the black pectoral band on the sides of the latter, and the chestnut flank feathers 
appearing. 

Another immature example, rather more advanced in age, has the upper 
wing-coverts uniform ■without any pale edges, the cheeks, ear-coverts, and a band 
on the hind-neck inclining to black, the pectoral band more pronounced on the sides 
of the breast and faintly indicated across the middle of the latter, the chestnut 
on the sides of the body well marked, mider ■wing-coverts for the most part white. 
A further specimen shows a still greater advance, in ha^ving the pectoral band 
complete in form but bro'wn in colour, with a few white feathers intermixed, the 
dusky-bro^wn on the top of the head still retained, the black on the under -wing- 
coverts increased as also the black on the sides of the breast. 



EED-KNEED DOTTEREL. 179 

Another specimen, which appears to be a year old, has nearly gained the adult 
plumage and has the head, sides of face, and hind-neck black with a few brown 
feathers remaining ; the pectoral band shows similar colours. 

Nestling, three loeeks old. — The crown and back are brown, each feather being 
tipped with a lighter shade, which give it a mottled appearance. All the under- 
surface is white, including the throat, and also a band just behind the crown extending 
to the back of the eye, and adjoining this white band, but behind it, is a black one 
extending to the lower part of the eye. The primaries are black slightly tipped 
with white. The secondaries are also black and tipped boldly with white, and also 
white at the base, the amount varying in each feather. The lesser and median 
wing-coverts are mostly white, with a few brown feathers just coming, and a small 
patch of white on the spurious wing. Humeral feathers dark brown, tipped with 
a lighter shade. The tail-feathers are black, tipped with lighter brown ; under 
tail-coverts white, with a few bro^vnish-black spots. Beak yellowsh for about 
half its length, the end being black. The nasal groove is more than half the length 
of the beak. Feet yellowish and toes black. 

Nestling in down. — Apjiears to be undescribed. 

Nest. — None is made ; the eggs are placed in a slight depression in the ground, 
on the edge of a large inland lagoon. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four; ground-colour varies from light to dark stone, thickly 
covered all over with irregular angular and curved hair-lines, and irregular-shaped 
markings of black, which cross and recross each other in various directions, the lines 
vary in thickness from that of a fine hair to that of coarse thread, on the thicker end 
here and there they loop and form tangles ; axis 29-31 mm., diameter 23. 

Breeding -season. — October, November and December. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Australia. Two subspecies are easily 
acceptable : E. c. cinctus Gould, from East Australia ; and E. c. mixtus Mathews, 
from West Australia in its darker upper coloration, less marked chestnut flank 
feathers and narrower black breast-band. 

SUPEEFAMILY JACANOIDEA. 

A delightful little group of birds apparently developed from a pre-Charadriine 
source, and recalling in many ways the Wattled Plovers, the coloration, head wattling 
and bill formation all suggesting their derivation from that basic source, the wing 
also sometimes being spurred. Their distribution is more or less coincident, being 
rather more restricted to the Tropical zones of the world. Agreeing in the extreme 
elongation of the toes and claws and in the possession of the hind-toe and claw 
similarly elongated they show as much diversity otherwise in evolution as the Wattled 
Plovers do. That the development of the peculiar feet is adaptive seems proven 
by the formation of the flexor tendons of the feet, there being no special slip for the 
extraordinary hallux. 

Osteological items of note are few ; the skull has well-developed basipterygoid 
processes, but no occipital foramina nor supraorbital grooves. The sternum is 
singly notched on each side at its posterior margin. The tracheo-bronchial syrinx 
has a pair of intrinsic muscles, while the caeca are reduced to mere passeriform 
nipples. Other internal features as recorded seem to agree with the ordinal characters 
given. 

Family JACANID^. 
Genus IREDIPARRA 

Irediparra Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 7, June 17th, 1911, Type (by original 
designation) : Parra gallinacea Temminck et Laugier, 



180 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Jacanine birds with short bills, peculiar facial ornament, long wings, short 
tails, and long toes with very long claws. 

The culnien is short with a notable rhamphotheca, the nostrils pervious and 
placed before the middle of the mandible in a shallow groove ; no groove present 
in the lower mandible. At the base of the mandible arises a large leaf -like lappet 
of bare skin with a thin erect upright comb running up the centre of the head. The 
wing is long and the primaries are normal in shape ; the first primary is longest ; 
the tail is short and rounded, of ten feathers only ; the metatarsus long and regularly 
scutellate in front and behind, the scutes sometimes fusing ; the tibia long and naked 
and regularly scutellate in front and behind ; the toes are very long, not webbed 
either internally or externally ; and the claws are longer, quite straight, and tapering 
to a fine point. The claw of the hind-toe is extraordinarily lengthened, being longer 
than the hind-toe and the metatarsus. 

125. Irediparra gallinacea. — LOTUS BIRD. 

[Parra gallinacea Temminck et Laugier, Planch. Color. d'Oia., 78" livr. (Vol. IV., pi. 464), 

July, 1828 : Celebna. Extra-Umital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 75 (pt. X.), March 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 169, Dec 

31st, 1913. 

Hydralector novcehollandice Salvadori, Omit. Pap. e Mol., Vol. III., p. 309, (pref. Dec.) 

1882: New South Wales. 

Irediparra gallinacea rothschildi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 224, Jan. 3l3t, 1912 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Irediparra gallinacea melvillensis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 3, p. 73, June 28th, 

1912 : Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory, North-west Australia. 

Adult male. — Hinder crown, hind -neck, and mantle black like the lower back and 
rump, the feathers tinged with metallic -purple ; back, scapulars, and wings light 
bronze-brown ; lesser upper wing-coverts round the bend of the wing, bastard-wing, 
primary-coverts and quills deep black with a metallic-purple tinge ; tail white at 
the extreme base, the remainder bronze-black ; a short narrow line of black on the 
lores, a white spot in front of the eye ; sides of face, ear-coverts, sides of neck and 
fore-neck golden-buff ; chin and entire throat white ; the feathers of the breast deep 
black with white bases ; sides of body, axillaries, and under wing-coverts uniform 
black ; abdomen, thighs, mider tail-coverts, and sides of rump buffy-white ; bill 
• — distal half black, extreme tip brown, basal half and frontal plate pale red ; iris 
pale yellow, eyelids blue ; feet and legs olive-brown. Total length 205 mm. ; culmen 
and comb 37, wing 122, tail 35, tarsus 56. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but larger. Total length 225 mm. ; 
culmen and comb, 44, wing 142, tail 37, tarsus 64. 

Young (bird of the first year). — Differs chiefly from the adult in having the loral 
streak, entire head and nape rufous, the feathers of the back, scapulars, and wings 
with rufous margins, the upper tail-coverts and tail dull black tipped with rufous, 
and the entire under-surface of the body white with a tinge of buff on the fore-neck 
and breast. 

Immature (bird of the second year). — Shows an advance towards the adult 
plumage by the appearance of black intermixed with rufous on the head, the black 
loral streak, the encroachment of black on the sides of the breast, and the outline 
of golden-buff on the sides of the neck and the fore-neck, but still leaves an open 
space on the breast wliich is completely covered with black in the next stage. 

Nestling (just out of doivn). — Has a reddish head ; verj' dark bro^vai hind-neck 
and mantle ; upper back bro^vn with rufous edges to the feathers ; lower back 
black with rufous edges, giving a barred appearance ; wings bufi' ; under-surface 
white, the frontal plate just showing. 





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LOTUS BIKD. 181 

Nestling in down. — Appears to be undescribed ; in egg, lappet scarcely 
discernible, and feet almost normal, no long claws yet developed. 

Nest. — Composed of sedge, grass and aquatic plants, placed close to the 
■water's edge, or upon any bunches of weeds or grass growing in the water which 
may be sufficiently strong to bear its weight. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour brownish-buff, marked all over with 
lines of blackish-brown and highly polished ; those from Melville Island have no 
polish and are much lighter ; axis 28-31 mm., diameter 21-23. 

Breeding-season. — September to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia, only in the north but ranging as far south 
as northern New South Wales, and New Guinea, the Moluccas and Celebes. Five 
subspecies are separable, thus : /. g. gallinacea (Temminck and Laugier) from Celebes ; 
/. g. novceguinece (Ramsay) from New Guinea, separable by its much blacker colora- 
tion, more oil-green sheen, not bronze-brown as in the succeeding forms ; /. g. 
novcBhoUandice (Salvadori) a paler, bronze-brown form with less black on the back 
and the tail bronze-black ; /. g. rothschildi Mathews from North-west Australia, a 
much darker race than the preceding, but not as dark as /. g. novceguinece ; and 
I. g. melvillensis Mathews from Melville Island, with a heavier bill than the preceding 
and the coloration of the under-surface more subdued. 

SuPERFAMiLY GLAREOLOIDEA . 

We unite the Pratincoles and Coursers in this superfamily as, though the extremes 
seem very different, a regular gradation of species is still existent. The bill is more 
conical and the linear nostrils are placed parallel to the edges of the culmen ; the 
dertrum is less pronounced and the legs are scutellated in front and behind. The 
neck may be long or short, the wings may be very long and pointed or short, while 
the tail may be short and romided or very long and deeply forked, and the legs 
may be very long or very short, a hind-toe absent or present. As above noted the 
connecting links are all available. The superficial features of the Pratincoles are 
so peculiar that great difference of opinion was formerly held as to their location, 
but now it is generally admitted that they are aberrant Plover forms. As usual, 
some anatomists have been just as puzzled as to the origin of the variations seen in 
internal features also. 

The schizognathous skull has the nasals of schizorhinal origin, but showing 
pseudo-holorhiny, while basipterygoid processes and occipital fontanelles are 
absent, and supraorbital grooves present. The tracheo-bronchial syrinx has a 
pair of intrinsic muscles and the leg muscle formula is ABXY-f-. The coracoids 
do not overlap. 

Family GLAREOLIDiE. 

The three genera represented in Australia are easily distinguishable by means 
of superficial characters, and it may be noted that the two breeding forms are 
peculiarly modified, one so much as to obscure its relationship without careful study. 
The other, while still a true Pratincole, has the legs lengthened after the style of the 
Coursers. 

Genus GLAREOLA. 

Glareola Brisson, Oraith., Vol. I., p. 48, Vol. V., p. 141, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : 

Glareola = Hirundo pratincola Linne. 

Trachelia Scopoli, Annus I., Hist. Nat., p. 110, 1769. Type (by monotypy) : Hirundo 

pratincola Linn^. 

Pratincola Forster, Fauna Indica, p. 11, (pref. June 20th) 1795. Type (by monotypy): 

Glareola (Priitincola) maldivarum Forster. 



182 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Pralincola Sehrank, Fauna Boica, Vol. I., p. 209, (pref. July 20th 1797), 1798. Type (by 
tautonymy) : Pralincola glareola = Hirundo pratiticola Linne. 

Dromochcliflon Landbeck, .Jahresh. Ver. Nat. Wiirttemb., 1847, p. 228, after March. Type 
(by monotypy) : Dromochelidon natrophila Landbeck = Hirundo pralincola Liime. 

Glareoline birds with very short bills, long wings, long tail and short legs with 
rather long toes. The bill is very short ; the feathering of the fore-head extends 
on the culmen, so that the depression in which the nostrils lie is covered save the 
portion showing the nostrils ; it is broad at its base and the tip decurved ; com- 
paratively like a miniature of that of Stiltia with the greater portion covered with 
feathers ; the lower mandible is practically without a marked gonys. 

The wings are very long and pointed with the first primary longest, but not 
attenuate and lengthened as in Stiltia. Tail long and very deeply forked ; the 
outer tail-feathers measuring almost half the length of the wing. The legs are short ; 
the metatarsus is regularly scutellate in front and behind ; the toes are long and 
the outer one connected with the middle one by a web, the inner disconnected ; 
middle claw extraordinarily long and pectinated ; hind-toe present. 

126. Glareola maldivarum.— ORIENTAL PRATINCOLE. 

[Glareola (Pralincola) maldii'arvm Forster, Fauna Indica, p. 11, (pref. June 20th) 1795: open 

sea near the Maldive Islands. Extra-Iimital.l 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 23 (pt. XXXV.), Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews. Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 171, Dec. 

31st, 1913. 

Glareola orientalis Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.). Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 132, 1821 : Java 

(breeding ?). 

Glareola pralincola parryi Mathews, Austral Av. Eec, Vol. III., pt. 4, p. 70, July 21st, 1917 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

DisTKiBTTTioN. — Winter visitor to Australia, breeding in the northern hemisphere. 

Adult male. — General colour of the upper-parts olive-brown, somewhat darker 
on the head, and a slight shade of rufous on the hind-neck ; bastard-wing, primary- 
coverts, primarj'- and secondary-quills dark brown ; upper tail-coverts pure white ; 
tail also white with dark brown tips to the feathers ; loral space black, which colour 
is continued in a narrow line below the eye on to the sides of the throat and joining 
on the fore-neck, encircling the buff colour on the throat : these black feathers have 
white bases ; the patch on the side of the breast olive-brown like the back ; middle 
of fore-neck and breast rufous becoming paler on the flanks ; abdomen and under 
tail-coverts pure white ; axillaries and inner under wing-coverts chestnut, marginal 
and greater under wing-coverts black, more or less tipped with white ; bill black, 
basal half of tomium and comer of mouth red ; iris dark brown ; tarsi and feet 
blackish-brown. Total length 227 mm. ; culmen 16, wing 191, tail 82, tarsus 34. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but differs by the absence of the black 
lores, which are more or less rufous. 

Immature male (of the year). — Dififers from the adult only in being paler on the 
throat (which is streaked) and breast, and by the absence of the white bases to the 
feathers which encircle the buff throat patch. 

Immature female. — Differs from the immature male in being almost white on 
the throat, and the entire absence of rufous on the fore-neck. 

Young. — Differs from the adult chiefly in having white margins to the feathers 
on the upper-surface ; the upper-breast is browni, with lighter margins to the feathers, 
and the throat has white feathers with narrow brown centres. As the bird gets 
older, the margins to the feathers of the upper-surface become narrower, the feathers 
approaching those of the fully adult in colour, and the black rim surromiding the 
throat becomes pronounced. 

Nestling. — Appears to be undescribed. 

Nest. — A depression in the soil. 



PRATINCOLE. 183 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour pale stone, marked all over with bold 
markings of dark purplish-black, and underlying ones of smoky -grey ; axis 31 mm., 
diameter 24. 

Breeding-season. — April, May. 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding in eastern Siberia, migrating southward to 
Australia in winter. The subspecies are imperfectly known, so that Mathews's 
G. p. parryi may even later be recognised as separable from the form occurring in 
Java, the migration routes being as yet midetermined. 

Genus STILTIA. 

Stiltia Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. HI, Oct. 1855, ex Bonaparte MS. Type (by original 
designation) : Glareola Isabella Vieillot. 

Rhimphalea Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 338, (pref. Sept.) 1890. New 
name for Stiltia Gray. 

Glareoline birds with short bills, very long wings, short tail, and long legs and 
small feet. 

The bill is short, very broad at the base, tip decurved and sharp ; the lower 
mandible straight, gonydial angle a little marked, but tip slightly decurved. The 
wings are very long and pointed, the first primary somewhat attenuated and exceeding 
the second by nearly an inch. The tail is short and slightly emarginate, only about 
a third, or less, the length of the wing. The legs are long, the metatarsus is regularly 
scutellate, both before and behind ; the toes comparatively long and slender, the 
claws very long, the middle claw not at all pectinated ; hind-toe present. The 
combination of short Glareoline bill, very long attenuate wings, short tail and long 
Cursorine legs, make this genus distinctive and immistakable. 

127, Stiltia isabella.— PRATINCOLE. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 22 (pt. xxni.), June 1st, 1840. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 170, Dec. 

31st, 1913. 

Glareola isahella Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 69, April 14th, 1816 : Australia. 

Glareola grallaria Temminck, Manuel d'Om., 2« ed.. Vol. II., p. 503, Oct. 21st, 1820 : South 

Asia. 

Glareola australis Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 132, 1821 : Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Not Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Pale olive-browni on the head, back, scapulars, and wings ; all the 
feathers margined with rufous except on the rump ; hind-neck, fore-neck, and 
breast rufous ; bastard-wing, primarj^-coverts and quills blackish, the short inner- 
most primaries pale brown and edged with white on the inner webs, the shaft of the 
outer primary conspicuously white, secondaries miiform olive-brown ; upper tail- 
coverts white ; base of tail and outer pair of tail-feathers also white with a broad 
subterminal black band, which becomes much narrower on the outer feathers, 
tipped with brown on the outer webs and white on the inner ones ; lores blackish ; 
throat inclining to white ; flanks and abdomen maroon -chestnut ; vent and under 
tail-coverts white ; axillaries and under wing-coverts black ; bill, base scarlet, tip 
black ; iris and feet brown. Total length 210 mm. ; culmen 15, wing 198, tail 60, 
tarsus 50. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Have very broad reddish-buff edges to the feathers of the upper- 
surface, giving it a imiform appearance. 

Nestling in down. — Does not appear to have been described. 

Nest. — A depression in the soil. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ground-colour pale stone, marked all over (sometimes 



184 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

very heavily) with irregular-shaped markings of dark brown and underlying ones of 
grey ; axis 32-33 nun., diameter 23.5 to 24.5. 

Breeding-season. — September to February. 

Distribution and forms. — Through the Molucca Islands and Australia. No 
subspecies have been separated. 

Genus PELTOHYAS. 

PeUohyaa Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., Vol. XXIV., p. 307, (July 10th) 1896. Type (by 
monotypy) : E udromi us aiislralis Gould. 

Glareoline birds with rather long bills, short wings, short tail, and long legs 
with small feet. The bill is long, with the tip very little decurved ; the depression 
in which the nostrils lie extends more than half the length of the bill ; the nostrils 
are linear and placed at the anterior end of this depression ; lower mandible is 
straight, with the gonydial angle little marked, but more so than in most genera 
of this family. The wings are short, with the first primary longest. The tail is 
short and rounded, less than half the length of the wing. The legs are long ; the 
tarsus is regularly scutellate in front and behind ; the toes are short, and the middle 
claw is not pectinate ; while there is no hind-toe. 

The status of this genus requires confirmation from criticism of immature 
and nestling specimens and also osteological examination, as if the present location 
should prove to be inaccurate it is quite aberrant wherever it may be placed. 

128. Peltohyas australis.— DOTTEREL. 

Gould, Vol. VI.. pi. 15 (pt. xin.), Dec. 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 172, Dec. 

31st, 1913. 

Eudromiiin australis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1840, p. 174, July 1841 : interior 

Australia (South Australia). 

Charadritis australis whillocH Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. X\^II., p. 218, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Daydawn, mid-West Australia. 

Distribution. — South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, West Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour of the upper-surface rufous and dark brown, the 
feathers being dark browoi broadly margined with rufous, the dark pattern becoming 
paler on the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; outer edge of wing rufous ; 
bastard-wing and primary-coverts dark brown tipped with rufous ; primary-quills 
black on the outer webs and at the tips, shaft of first or outer primarj' white, remainder 
reddish-brown, inner webs rufous, some of the inner primaries rufous on the outer 
webs ; secondaries brown with rufous margins ; tail dark brown, the feathers edged 
with sandy-rufous and white ; hinder crouni and nape like the back ; a broad black 
band across the top of the head which is continued in a narrow line backward over 
the eye on to the sides of the neck, where it joins a narrow collar on the hind-neck 
which is extended on the fore-neck and ends in a point on the middle of the breast ; 
a black patch from below the eye to the sides of the throat ; ear-coverts buff streaked 
with black ; a spot behind the eye, chin, and throat fawn colour, somewhat darker 
on the lower throat ; sides of breast and sides of body rich fawn colour ; the feathers 
adjoining the black mark on the fore-neck much paler as also a spot below the ear- 
coverts ; middle of abdomen and flanks deep chestnut ; vent, thighs, and imder 
tail-coverts white tinged with buff ; tmder wing-coverts and axillaries fawn colour, 
rather paler than the sides of the body ; bill black, paler at base ; iris dark brown ; 
tarsi and feet drab colour. Total length 221 mm. ; culmen 17, wing 142, tail 65, 
tarsus 34. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 



DOTTEREL. 185 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in having all the characters much more 
faintly indicated, except on the crown of the head where the black band of the adult 
is entirely absent. 

Nestling. — Appears to be undescribed. 

Nest. — A depression in the soil. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three to five ; gromid-colour is of a rich cream or buff, 
sparingly sprinkled all over with irregular spots and some elongated crooked 
markings of chocolate-black with a few minute dots and dashes of a lighter tint ; 
the markings look black in certain lights, but of a chocolate tint in others ; axis 
37 mm., diameter 27. 

Breeding -months. — April, May, August, September and October. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Central Australia. Two subspecies 
have been determined, but more may later be recognised ; these are : P. a. australis 
(Gould) from eastern interior (South Australia), and P. a. whitlocki (Mathews) 
from interior Western Australia, a darker and larger race. 

SuBOEDER OTIDIFORMES. 

The Bustards we have allowed as a suborder of the order Lari or Limicolse, 
though we acknowledge this is a debatable point. The examination of the bill 
proclaims it to be Plover-like, while the legs are quite unmistakably of the same 
affinity and certainly not at all Gruine. The nestling plumage is also referable 
to the Limicoline series and not to the Gruine form. They are all large stoutly-built 
birds with longish necks, short heads, flattened broad bills, long round wings, short 
tail and long stout legs and small feet with no hind-toe. The distribution of the 
suborder is tropical and subtropical. 

Osteologically, the skull shows a schizognathous palate while the nasals are 
commonly cited as holorhinal, but this is a pseudo-holorhiny and is of schizorhinal 
origin. There are no basipterygoid processes, and the descending process of the 
lachrymal does not anchylose with the ethmoid. The coracoids do not touch at 
their articulation with the sternum, the cervical vertebrae sixteen to eighteen in 
number, and the sternum is doubly notched. The members of the suborder are 
remarkable for tjie variation in the number of the carotids, some genera having 
both, others only the left, and for Austrotis australis the right has only been recorded, 
a state unique. The digestive system is periccelous, and the cseca are remarkable 
and variable in form. The syrinx is tracheo-bronchial, without intrinsic muscles. 
The leg muscle formula is BXY+, and there is no biceps slip, but an expansor 
secundariorum is present. There is no oil gland, but an aftershaft is present ; 
the wing is aquincubital and the pterylosis is variable and the variation yet 
undetermined. 

Family OTIDID^. 

In this family from int«rnal items Austrotis is almost the best marked genus, 
possessing the least modified form of syrinx, the most peculiar caeca, extraordinary 
carotid development, and a " showing-off " apparatus quite distinct from that of 
the well-known type. 

Genus AUSTROTIS. 

Austrotis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II. pt. 1, p. 12, Aug. 2nd, 1913. Type (by original 
designation) : Otis australis Gray. 

Otidine birds with medium-sized bill, long wings, long legs, and long tail. 
The bill is rather long, flattened, wide at the base, with the nostrils placed near 



186 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

the base of the culnien. The culmen is less than one-third the length of the tail. 
The crown of the head bears a crest, but this is not extended on to the hind-neck. 
The feathers of the throat and fore-neck are also elongated. The wing is long 
and rounded, the fifth primary longest ; the wing length is more than twice that 
of the tail. 

The tail, composed of twenty feathers, is long and romided and is more than 
three times the length of the culmen and less than half that of the wing. 

The legs are strong and long ; the metatarsal covering is composed throughout 
of hexagonal scales ; the metatarsus is less than one-third the length of the wing. 
The toes are strong and comparatively long ; no hind-toe. 

129. Austrotis australis. — BUSTARD. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 4 (pt. vm.), Sept. 1st, 1842. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 175, Deo. 
31st, 1913. 

Olia ajMtrafo "Gray," Griffith and Pidgeon, Anira. Kingd., Cuvier, Vol. VIII., p. 305, "1829" 
? 1830 : New South Wales. 

Otis aiietralasianus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1840, p. 176, July 1841 : interior of 
New South Wales. 

Otis novcehollatidicB Leichhardt, Joum. Overl. Exped. Austr., p. 260, 1847. Error for pre- 
ceding. Nomen nudum. 

Choriotis australis derbyi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 226, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Derby, 
North-west Australia. 

Austrotis australis rtielvillcnsis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 2, p. 51, Nov. 19th, 
1915 : Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — AustraUa generally. Not Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Entire back, wings, and tail dark brown, everywhere finely vermi- 
culated with sandy-buff ; median and greater wing-coverts white with pale brown 
vermiculations on their basal portions, subtemiinally black, and tipped with white ; 
bastard-wing and primary -coverts lead-grey edged with white at the tips ; primary- 
quills pale brown, more or less vermiculated with white towards the base ; secoiidarj'- 
quills greyish-brown, finely vermiculated with sandy-bufi and tipped with white, 
the long innermost secondaries like the back ; middle tail-feathers also like the 
back, the outer feathers subtemiinally black, tipped with white, and some dark 
bars more or less indicated ; crown of head and an elongated nuchal crest black ; 
lores, eyebrows, and ear-coverts buffy-white ; throat, sides of face, neck all round, 
and breast white, finely barred with dark brown and tinged with buff ; an irregular 
black band across the breast, the feathers of which are black, white, and bufi ; 
abdomen, sides of body, and axillaries buffy-white ; lesser under wing-coverts white ; 
the small marginal coverts black, edged with white, the larger series grey, vermicu- 
lated with white ; a patch of black feathers on the lower flanks vermiculated with 
white and buff ; the short under tail-coverts black tipped with white, the long ones 
buffy-white irregularly marked with brown, the thighs also buffy-white more or 
less vermiculated %vith brown. Total length 1,155 mm. ; culmen (exj).) 72, wing 
610, tail 245, tarsus 180. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but smaller and differs in having 
the tail regularly barred with dark brown, the outer marginal upper wing- 
coverts coarser, and the sides of the face and neck all round darker. Total length 
830 mm. ; culmen (exp.) 51, wing 563, tail 210, tarsus 149. 

Nestling (losing down but retaining egg-tooth). — Fore-head and top of head 
downy, down continuing on back of neck and throat, but patch of feathers showing 
at back of head ; another jiatch of down still retained on rump, flanks and thighs. 
Down on fore-head jjale fawn ; top of head mottled black and fawn, surrovmded by 
a fawn line, above the ej^es, but a narrow loral streak runs just over the ej'cs to the 
back of the neck, where it becomes indistinct ; the back of the neck is fawn as below 



BUSTARD. 187 

the eyes and most of the throat : a linear dark line runs from the gape probably 
meeting the loral line ; the interramal space is dark coloured as is the centre of the 
throat, indistinct linear edges to the throat patch darker ; the down on the rump is 
fawn profusely mottled with black, the flank and thigh down fawn with brownish 
markings on the thighs. The feathers on the back of the head are black with fawn 
markings and narrow fawn tips ; those of the back are reddish-fawn with black 
vermiculations, the scapulars showing brown ti^xs of iawn with a black edging 
po.steriorly, of a triangular shape ; the lesser wing-coverts are similarly reddish- 
fawn but the black vermiculations scantier and no broad fawn tipping ; the second- 
aries, however, approach the scapulars in style of marking, but not in so pronounced 
a manner ; the apparent primar\' -coverts are pale fawn with irregular black markings 
in bar formation and broad fawn bars to tips ; primaries just sprouting with black 
tips ; tail scarcely showing as such ; the tail-coverts as the back feathers ; under- 
surface pale sandy. 

Nestling (in similar plumage procured at same time but larger, probably male). — 
The down has been lost from fore-head, which shows feathering as back of head in 
preceding but darker ; the dark patch on throat more pronounced and showing 
distinctly a central light patch followed by a darker line, and a darker line surrounding 
the whole, and also less distinctly darker lines on the lower throat : also the feathering 
on the breast is seen to consist of vermiculated feathers similar to those of the back, 
while the feathers of the under-surface are paler than in the above. The feathers 
of the back are longer and show much darker vermiculation and much smaller buS 
tips, less triangular in shape, the black edging straighter ; the edges of the wings are 
as above described, but the lesser wing-coverts generally agree with the description 
of the primary -coverts above and the broad tips are much more pronounced, making 
a pale fawnish bar and proving them to be the secondary coverts ; the primary- 
coverts are just seen in connection with the primaries as much darker vermiculated 
feathers with black bars and narrow tips of darker fawn and the primaries are longer 
with minute fawnish tips to their black colour ; tail not yet discernible. 

Nest. — None made. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one to two ; groimd-colour reddish-brown with blotches of 
darker browia all over ; axis 75 mm. by 55 ; eggs from West Australia are smaller, 
darker, and more heavily blotched than those from the eastern side of the continent. 

Breeding-season. — May to November. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Australia. Three subspecies may be 
admitted : A. a. australis (Gray) from the East coast; A. a. derbyi (Mathews) from 
the North-west coast, a much browner and smaller form; and A. a. melvillensis 
(Mathews) from Melville Island, a blue-grey form also larger than the preceding. 
There are probably more subspecies, but long series of these variable birds have 
never been collected owing to their edible qualities. 

Order PSOPHII or GRUES. 

This order includes large birds of varied superficial appearance and doubtful 
close relationship. Three suborders, Cariamiformes, Psophiiformes and Eurypygi- 
formes, are recognised, the last named a heterogeneous assemblage of peculiar forms, 
Eurypygidee, Rhinochetidae and Mesitidae. As one authority has written : " If we 
don't put these here, where have we to put them ? " This was -nTitten from the 
study of the anatomy and osteology of the forms, and is good evidence of the 
futility of attempting to classify birds by the " deeper-seated " features without 
complete study of the external items. All the items yet depended uj)on are variable, 
the palate is generally schizognathous, the nasals schizorhinal, but sometimes 
holorhinal ; basipterygoid processes are absent and supraorbital grooves and occipital 
fontanelles absent or present. The sternum has the posterior margin entire or 



188 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

singly notched on each side ; the furcula variable. The cervical vertebrae vary 
from fifteen to twenty in number and both carotids are present. The .syrinx is 
tracheo-bronchial but \-ariable in detail. The digestive system is periccelous, but 
again variation is to be noted. The leg muscle formula varies from XY+ to 
ABXY + , the biceps slip may be present or absent, but the erpansor secundariorum 
is always present. The oil gland is present but it may be feathered or nude ; the 
aftershaft is supposed in one group to be absent, otherwise always present ; while 
the \ving may be aquincubital or quincubital. The ptcrj'losis is, as far as has been 
studied, variable. Such a series of variable items indicates the indeterminate 
nature of the association, which seems purely artificial. 

As regards the birds themselves, they probably represent the results of isolation 
and convergence, as the whole collection is few in number. The distribution is 
also peculiar, the tjrpical Cranes being generally distributed through the tropics 
and subtropical regions, the Mesitidae one Madagascar genus, the Rhinochetidse one 
New Caledonian genus, the Eurypygidse, Psophiidae, and Cariamidae, the two 
former with one genus, the latter with two genera restricted to South America. 

Many fossils have been referred to this neighbourhood, generally on very in- 
suflScient evidence, such as a single piece of bone. The similarity in osteological 
characters of these birds to the Rails has also confused matters. Thus the Neozelanic 
Aptornis was first regarded as allied to Dinornis, was then considered to be a Ralline 
form, and more recently relegated here. Its Ralline affinit}^ seems the most probable. 
Then, the " Stereomithes " of the lower Tertiary of Patagonia are generally placed 
alongside this order, but much more material and study are necessary before a definite 
opinion can be maintained. 



Suborder PSOPHIIFORMES. 

Family BALEARICID^. 

This family includes the true Cranes, to which the Native Companion or Brolga 
must be referred. There is some divergence in connection with internal features, 
though externally there is great similarity. The palate is schizognathous and the 
nasals schizorhinal, basipterygoid processes absent but supraorbital grooves and 
occipital fontanelles present. The sternum is not notched posteriorlj- and the 
cervical vertebrte nineteen or twenty, the furcula sometimes anchylosed with the 
sternum, but not always. The syrinx varies, that of Balearica more modified than 
in the true Cranes, while the trachea is convoluted in the latter, but not in the former. 
The digestive system shows little variation in this family. The leg muscles, however, 
vary from ABXY+ to XY+ only in apparently closely allied species at present 
referred to the same genus ; the biceps slip is generally present, the expansor 
secundariorum always. The oil gland is always tufted, the afteishaft present and 
the wing is aquincubital. There are no powder downs, which are present in the 
aberrant superfamilies. 

Genus MATHEWSENA. 

Malhewecna Iredale, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 82, Sept. 24th, 1914. New name 
for Mathewnia Iredale. Type (by original designation) : Ardea rubicunda Peny. 
Mathewfia Iredale, Bull. Brit. Omith. Club, Vol. XXVII., p. 47, Jan. 23rd, 1911. Type 
(by original designation) : Ardea rubicunda Perry. 
Not Mallhewsia Saulcy. Catal. Colcop., Vol. II., p. 745, 1868. 

Psophiine birds with long bills, long neck, long wings, long legs and feet. 
The culmen is long, compressed, straight, and sharp pointed ; the upper mandible 
has on each side a depression extending rather more than half its length ; the nostriJs 



BEOLGA. 189 

covered with a membrane ; an obsolete groove can be traced in the lower mandible. 
The culmen is longer than the head, little shorter than the tail, and more than half 
the length of the metatarsus. The head is denuded of feathers save on the ear- 
coverts. The wing is long, with the inner secondaries longer and resolving them- 
selves into drooping plumes. The tail, composed of twelve feathers, is more than 
one-third the length of the wing. The legs are very long, as also the exposed tibia, 
while the very long metatarsus is scutellate, and is equal to half the length of the 
wing. The toes are long with no webbing between ; hind-toe present and raised 
above the level of the others ; the middle toe is about half the length of the culmen. 

130. Mathewsena rubicunda. — BROLGA. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 48 (pt. XXX.), March 1st. 1848. Mathews, Vol. III., pt. 4, pi. 176, Deo. 
31st, 1913. 

Ardea rubicunda Perry, Arcana, pt. vi. [pi. 22], June 1810 : Botany Bay, New South Wales. 
Orm antarctica lUiger. Abhandl. Ak. Wissen Munch., 1811-12, p. 230, 1816 : New South 
Wales. 

Grus amtralasianus Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xxx. (Vol. VI., pi. 48), March Ist, 1848 : New 
South Wales. 

Mathewsia rubicunda argentea Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 227, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 
Derby, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Not Tasmania. 

Adult male. — General colour above and below silvery -grey, with pale edgings to 
the feathers of the upper -parts ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills dark 
brown ; lower throat covered with hair-like feathers ; bill and crown of head olive- 
green ; papillae on the sides of the face and the back of the neck red ; iris yellow ; 
tarsi and feet brown. Total length 1,220 mm. ; culmen 163, wing 580, tail 210, 
tarsus 290. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male ; culmen 150, wing 555. 

Young. — Still retaining a portion of the do-\vny plimiage. Differs from the 

adult by having the head covered with pale rufous feathers, becoming paler and 

inclining to buS on the upper hind -neck, the grey ear -coverts only slightly indicated. 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in being darker and the feathers of the mantle 

edged with brown. 

Nest. — None made. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; surface minutely pitted ; ground-colour creamy-white, 
sparingly covered with spots of brown and lavender ; axis 84-91 mm., diameter 
60 to 62. 

Breeding -season. — September to March. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia only, a straggler once recorded from Central 
Asia ! Two well-marked subspecies are recognised : M. r. rubicunda (Perry) from 
the East, and M. r. argentea (Mathews) from the North-west, a smaller and much 
paler silvery-grey race. 

Order RALLI. 

This order, as recognised by us, comprises three suborders, Rails proper, Finfeet 
and Grebes. All are small to medium wading or swimming birds, though some are 
mainly land birds, all three forms being seen among the Rails. The bill is of varied 
shapes, the body generally slender, rarely stout, the wings short and the legs stout, 
sometimes peculiarly developed for swimming purposes. They all seem to have 
a strong tendency to Sightlessness, which is seen in many cases acting now through 
isolation. A few semi-flightless forms still exist, some flightless ones are only 
recently extinct, l,nd quite a few fossil flightless forms are known. Rails and Grebes 
are of world-wide distribution, while the Finfeet occur only in tropical America and 
Africa. 



190 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

The skull shows a schizognathous palate with holorhinal nasals and without 
basipterygoid processes ; the lachrymals do not join the ectethmoids, which have 
a process jointing the frontal, producing a foramen. The cervical vertebrae vary 
from fifteen to twenty -one, the Rails fifteen, the Finfeet seventeen, Grebes twenty -one. 
The sternum is singly notched on each side of its posterior margin ; the furcula is 
somewhat variable in position. The carotids vary, the syrinx is tj-pically tracheo- 
bronchial, and the digestive system pericoelous, cseca long. The leg muscle formula 
varies, the Rails showing ABXy+, the Finfeet ABX+, and the Grebes BX-, 
the expansor secundariorum as also the biceps is variable. The oil gland is generally 
tufted, the aftershaft present and the wing aquincubital or quincubital (in the 
Finfeet.) The pterylosis is somewhat variable and the nestlings hatched covered 
with down. Fossil Rails are comparatively frequent, but they are generally of 
flightless form, and show convergence in the most marked manner, as the famous 
instance of Aphanapleryx from the Mauritius and Diaphoroaptcryx from the Chatham 
Islands recalls, the bones being regarded as congeneric on account of their similarity. 
Again Tribonyx was used for a Sladagascar Rail, the author admitting its usage 
was due to non-differentiation of the osteological items, though probably no near 
relation of the living birds was a fact. 

Suborder RALLIFORMES. 

We allow three families in this suborder. Rails (including Crakes), Moorhens 
and Coots. These are easily separable by almost intangible superficial features, 
the bill in the first named developing no frontal plate, while a more or less strongly 
formed frontal plate is seen in the latter two, which differ in the peculiar lobe formation 
surromiding the toes in the Coots. The general distribution of the whole three is 
world \vide, but Coots do not occur in New Zealand. Rails and Crakes are more or 
less land forms, generally living about swamps but not suimming ; Moorhens frequent 
water more commonly and swim a lot, while Coots invariably swm. 

Osteologically the skull is schizognathous and holorhinal, but in order to estimate 
the value of the last term Nesolimnas has been cited as having schizorhinal nasals. 
The schizorhinyinthis case is pseudo-holorhiny, and not schizorhinal as used in the 
Limicoline series ; there are no basipterygoid processes and the lachrymals do not 
fuse with the ectethmoids, while there are no supraorbital grooves. The cervical 
vertebrae number fifteen, the sternum is singly notched with very long lateral processes 
and the furcula does not reach the keel of the sternum. There are two carotids, 
the syrinx is typically tracheo-bronchial with little variation and the digestive system 
typically pericoelous with the caeca long. The leg muscle formula is ABXY+, 
and the expansor secundariorum is present, as also the biceps. The oil gland is 
tufted, but exceptions have been recorded, while an aftershaft is present and the 
wing aquincubital. The pterylosis is variable and has been little studied. The 
downy nestling is generally able to swim from birth. 

Family RALLID^. 

Includes the Rails and Crakes, non-swimming Ralline forms of varied superficial 
features but very similar internal characters. 

Genus RALLUS. 

Rallus Linn^, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 153, Jan. Ist, 1758. Type (by subsequent designation 

Fleming, Mem. Werner. Soc, Vol. III., p. 176, 1821) -. Ralliis aquaticiis Linne. 

Lemnia Gray, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. 120, (Oct.) 1855 (ex Reichb. and Pr. B(onaparte), 

MS.). Type (by original designation) : R. lewinii Swainson = Rallus pectoralis Temminck 

et Laugier. 

Donacias Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 321, (pref. Sept.) 1890. New name 

for Lewinia Gray. 



SLATE-BEEASTED RAIL. 191 

Small Rails with long slender bills, short rounded wings, short tail and short 
legs and long toes. 

The bill is long and laterally compressed, generally decurved and slender ; 
the culmen ridge is a little flattened and does not develop any frontal plate ; a 
very long deep groove extends more than half the length of the upper mandible 
and the nostrils are linear pervious apertures, placed near the base of the culmen, 
parallel and adjacent to the lower edge of the mandible ; the mider mandible is 
a little curved and slender, the rami enclosing a very narrow space and merging 
near the tip forming no gonys ; there is only a minute shallow groove on sides of 
lower mandible near the base ; the culmen is longer than the tarsus. The wing is 
short and rounded, the first primary short, less than the fifth, the secoiid usually 
the longest ; the iimer secondaries long, very little shorter than the longest primaries. 
The legs are short, the tarsus regularly scutellated in front and behind, the scutes 
separated on the sides by rows of small hexagonal scutellse ; the middle toe longest, 
and the inner shorter than the outer, claws long, thin and little curved, the hind-toe 
long. The tail is composed of twelve soft feathers, rounded in shape, and less than 
half the length of the wing. 

Coloration scalloped dark brown and black above, brownish-grey below ; 
flanks barred, black and white. 

131. Rallus pectoralis.— SLATE-BREASTED RAIL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 77 (pt. xxxm.). Dec. 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 46, Aug. 9th, 

1911. 

Rallus pectoralis Temminck et Laugier, Planch. Color. d'Ois., 88'^ livr. (Vol. V., opp. pi. 523), 

May 14th, 1831 : New South Wales. 

Rallus brachipus Swainson, Anim. in Menag., Dec. Slat, 1837, p. 336 : Tasmania. 

Rallus lewinii, Swainson, ib. 

Rallus pectoralis clelandi Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. I., pt. 4, p. 189, Aug. 9th, 1911 : West 

Australia. 

Distribution. — South Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Austraha 

and South-west Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour above black, all the feathers broadly margined 
with olive-brown, including the mantle, back, upper tail-coverts, and tail ; scapulars 
black, barred with white ; lesser wing-coverts olive-brown ; median and greater 
coverts blackish, narrowly barred with white — these white bars are not always 
continuous across the feathers, but only represented by a short bar on each web ; 
bastard -wing, primary -coverts, quills, uniform dark brown, the long inner secondaries 
barred with white on the outer webs ; tail-feathers black, margined with olive-brown ; 
feathers of the head and hind-neck black margined with chestnut ; fore-head, 
eyebrow, and sides of neck bright chestnut ; cheeks, throat, and breast grey with 
a brownish tinge, becoming whitish on the chin ; remainder of the under-surface, 
including the sides of the botly black, barred with white, not so sharply defined on 
the thighs ; vent and under tail-coverts tinged with sandy-bufi ; axiUaries and 
imder wing-coverts blackish, slightly tipped with white ; bill brownish-red ; feet 
flesh colour, becoming darker about the toes ; iris hazel. Total length 210 mm. ; 
culmen 33, wing 103, tail 45, tarsus 29. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but differs in being smaller and in 
having the breast almost pure grey. Total length 203 mm. ; culmen 33, wing 93, 
tail 41, tarsus 26. 

Immature female. — Differs from the adult female in having a darker appearance ; 
the absence of chestnut on the head, hind-neck, and sides of neck ; fore-neck and 
sides of neck blackish, like the imder-siuiace of body, showing only traces of white 
cross-bars on the lower flanks ; throat pale grey like the adult ; also paler on the 
middle of the abdomen. 



192 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALL4.. 

Nestling. — Covered with black, silky down. 

Nest. — Composed of fine grass and rushes, and situated in a swamp amongst 
thick rushes, which are usually drawn together above, so as to form a covering. 
There is a staging or landing leading to the nest, which is variously placed from six 
inches to three feet above the water. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four to six ; ground-colour pale stone, sparingly spotted with 
pinkish-brown spots, and more thickly with lavender-grey ones ; axis 36-37 mm., 
diameter 28-29. 

Breeding-season. — October to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia, New Guinea and South Flores. Four 
subspecies have been distinguished : R. pectoralis pectoralis Temminck and Laugier 
from Eastern and Southern Australia ; R. p. cldandi Mathews from South-west 
Australia, a much larger and darker form, culmen 42, wing 114, tarsus 36 mm. 
against t3rpical culmen 33, wing 93-103, tarsus 26-29 mm. ; R. p. exsul (Hartert) 
from South Flores, with a more uniform chestnut head, more olivaceous back, 
and greyer breast, culmen 27, wing 101, tarsus 28 mm. ; R. p. alberti (Rothschild 
and Hartert) from British New Guinea (Angabunga River) in its smaller size, more 
uniform chestnut head, the chestnut extending on to the shoulders, darker back 
and whiter throat; culmen 26-30.5, wing 93.5-95, tarsus 30-31.5 mm. 

Genus TOMIRDUS. 

Tomirdus Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 193, Jan. 31st, 1912. Type (by original 

designation) : Eulabeornis tricolor robinsoni Mathews. 

Medium Rails with short stout bills, short wings, short tail and medimn legs and 
feet. The bill is short, stout, laterally compressed and at the base the depth is 
more than one-third its length ; the culmen ridge is pronomiced but flattened, the 
til) a little decurved and notched ; the nasal groove is large, extending more than 
half the length of the culmen, but shallow ; the nostrils are pervious slits placed 
near the anterior end of the groove parallel to the edges of the mandible. The 
culmen ridge shows no flattening nor extension at the fore-head where the frontal 
feathers approach on to the edge of the nasal groove. The rami of the mider 
mandible are deep, the gonys nearly half the length and with a distinct upward 
tendency but scarcely angulated ; the intermandibular space is scarcely feathered, 
and a minute process is seen anteriorly. 

The wings are short and rounded, the first primary shorter than the seventh, 
the intervening ones nearly all the same length, the second and sixth shorter, third 
and fourth the longest ; secondaries long. The tail is short and rounded, composed 
of soft, broad feathers, and less than half the wing, and about twice the length of the 
culmen. The legs are of medium length, a small portion of the tibia exposed. The 
tarsus is scutellated in front and behind, a single narrow row on the sides between 
the two series of scutes ; the toes are long but the middle toe is shorter than the 
tarsus, the outer subequal with the inner and with their claws equalling the middle 
toe alone ; the hind-toe is long, while the lateral membranes on the edges of the 
toes are very small. 

Coloration brown with red head, neck, and breast, the abdomen brown with 
yellowish bars. 

132. Tomirdus tricolor.— RED-NECKED RAIL. 

[Rallina tricolor Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1858, p. 188, July 13th : Aru Island. Extra- 

limital.] 

Gould, Suppl., pi. 78 (pt. v.), Aug. 1st, 1869. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4. pi. 49, Aug. 9th, 1911- 

Eulaheorni.i tricolor robitisoni Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. I., pt. 4, p. 203, Aug. 9th, 1911 : 

Cairns, North Queensland. 

Distribution. — North Queensland. 



Plate 8. 





S--^ 



H M 





^. 



^^ 



RED-NECKED RAIL. 193 

Adult male. — ^Head, hind-neck, mantle, and entire breast bright chestnut, 
somewhat j^aler on the sides of the face, and whitish on the chin ; back and scapulars 
olive-brown ; wings, rump, ujjper tail-coverts and tail dark brown ; bastard-'wing 
brown, with whitish spots on the inner webs, and sometimes on the outer webs also ; 
primary-coverts uniform brown ; primary- and secondary-quills brown, wth white 
bars on the inner webs and faint traces of bars on the outer webs ; abdomen, lower 
flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts sootj'-black with rufous cross-bars, paler and 
inclining to white on the middle of the abdomen ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
black, barred with white ; bill green ; iris red ; feet slaty-green. Total length 
276 mm. ; culmen 34, wing 148, tail 70, tarsus 47. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nestling. — The young, on leaving the egg, are covered with a sooty-black 
down, having a dark, phunbeous tinge on the mider-surface. 

Immature. — The young at about five months old have the upper-surface of a 
dull, dark brown tingetl with olive, and washed with light rufous-brown on the back 
of the neck : the under-surface is of a duller and more p!umbeous-bro\vn, vvith a 
faint wash of rufous-brown on the chest and under tail-coverts, which latter have 
two pale rufous bars on each feather ; the under-smiace of the wings blackish, 
dull brown, a band of white spots near the base, and a similar band about the middle 
of the quill-feathers ; bill olive-brown ; legs greenish-olive ; iris reddish-brown. 
Total length 176 mm. ; culmen 23, wing 92, tail 38, tarsus 51. 

Nest. — Composed of a few leaves and grass and hidden among debris at the 
root of a tree, in a dense part of the scrub. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; glossy white ; axis 40-38.5 mm., diameter 30-28.5. 

Breeding -season. — January. 

Distribution and forms. — North Australia, New Guinea and Aru Islands. Three 
subspecies have been named : T. t. tricolor (Gray) from the Aru Islands ; T. t. grayi 
Mathews from New Guinea, with more numerous and whiter bars on the abdomen 
and flanks ; and T. t. robinsoni Mathews from Queensland, with a shorter, more 
slender bill, shorter tarsus, less barring on the abdomen and browner back, less 
grey, and darker chest. 

Genus HYPOT^NIDIA. 

HypotcEnidia Keiclienbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. xxm., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original 
designation) : Rallus pectoralis Gould (not Temminck) = HypotcEnidia axistralis Pelzeln. 

Small Rails with rather short stoutish bills, short rovmded wings, very short 
tail and stout legs and feet. The bill is longer than the head, fairly stout, the tip 
a little decurved ; the nasal groove is long, more than half the length of the culmen, 
the ridge a little flattened, but not expanded basally into a frontal plate ; the nostrils 
are narrow pervious slits placed about the middle of the nasal groove ; the under 
mandible has a distinct gonys about one-third of its length, an indistinct groove 
being seen along the other two-thirds of the mandibiflar rami. The culmen is less 
than the length of the tarsus. The wing is short and rounded, the first primary 
being shorter than the seventh, the second usually longest, the succeeding ones 
slowly decreasing ; the secondaries are almost as long as the primaries. The tail 
is short, about two-fifths the length of the ^ying, the twelve feathers rather soft and 
somewhat pointed, the shape being rounded, the upper tail-coverts about half the 
length of the tail, the under reaching to the tips. The legs are rather stout, scutellated 
in front and behind, a row of smaller scales between the scutes on the sides ; the 
toes rather short, the middle toe longest, the outer and inner notably shorter, and 
practically subequal. The hind -toe rather short, the claw short, the claws of the 
anterior toes longer and little curved. 

Coloration brownish-black above with white spots, superciliary whitish line, 
throat grey, under-surface barred black and white, a red chest-band usually present, 



194 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

133. Hypotaenidia philippensis. — BUFF-BANDED RAIL. 

[Rallus philippennia Linne, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., Vol. I., p. 263, (pref. May 24th) 1766 : 
Philippine Islands. Extra-limital.] 

Gould. Vol. VI., pi. 76 (pt. XXIV.), Sept. 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 47, Aug. 9th, 
1911. 

Hypottenidia australis Pelzeln, Ibis, Jan. 1873, p. 42 : New South Wales. 

Eulabeornis philippensis mellori Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 192, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Sandy Hook Island, South-west Australia. 

Eulabeornis philippensis yorki Mathews, Austral Av. Eec., Vol. II., pt. 1, p. 6, Aug. 2nd, 

1913 : Cape York, North Queensland. 

Distribution. — AustraUa generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Head reddish-brown, streaked with black ; superciliary streak 
\vhite, merging into grey behind the ej'e ; lores and a broad line through the eye 
chestnut, like the hind-neck, to which it is joined ; sides of neck, lower hind-neck, 
and mantle blackish, barred and spotted with white ; back, rump, upper tail-coverts, 
and tail black, broadly edged with ochreous-brown, and a few marginal white spots 
on the upper tail-coverts ; scapulars dark brown, margined Avith ochreous-brown, 
and spotted with white ; lesser wing-coverts ochreous-brown, ttith black and white 
spots on the margins of the feathers ; bastard-wing dark brown, barred with rufous 
and white ; primary-coverts and quills dark brown, barred with rufous, some of 
the bars on the two outer primaries white, the innermost secondaries black, with 
rufous and white bars and fringed with ochreous-brown ; throat and fore-neck pale 
grey, darker on the latter ; upper-breast and abdomen banded with narrow black 
and white bars, more broadly on the sides of the body and abdomen, as also the 
axillaries and under wing-coverts ; a band of ochreous-buff across the breast ; 
thighs buffy-white ; imder tail-coverts black, barred with white, and tipped with 
sandy-bufi ; quills below baiTed with rufous and brown of almost equal widths, 
the two outer primaries more broadly banded with blackish, and more narrowly 
with white ; bill warm brown ; feet flesh-red ; iris indian-red. Total length, 
335 mm. ; culmea 33, wing 153, tail 66, tarsus 39. The wing measurements of 
seventeen birds from the same locality give — the males 143 to 153, the females 
133 to 145. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but slightly smaller. 

Young about eleven days old. — General api^earance sooty-black, with down of a 
hair-like texture. Breast and flanks black, barred with white. Sides of the throat 
and cheeks black, flecked -with white. Iris, grey-hazel. 

Nestling. — Covered with glossy black down. 

Nest. — Situated near swampy ground and placed in the vegetation. Composed 
of grass and leaves. Egg cavity, 4 inches. 

Eggs. — Clutch, about six. Eggs from the Dawson River, North Queensland, 
are smooth and glossy ; ground-colour creamy or buff, with spots and blotches of 
chestnut-brown over the surface, but more thickly at the larger end ; underljdng 
spots and blotches of lilac-grey ; axis, 33 to 36 mm., diameter 24 to 26. 

Breeding -season. — September to February. 

Distribution and forms. — From the Philippine Archipelago southward to the 
Macquarie Islands, eastward to Samoa and Tonga, tliroughout Australia and west- 
ward to the Cocos Keeling Islands. In 1911 Mathews distinguished twelve sub- 
species, and has since added two more, so that fourteen are here diagnosed : U. j). 
philippensis (Linne) from the Philippine Islands ; H. p. australis Pelzebi from 
East Australia, with a decided red hind-neck, smaller bill, shorter tarsus, reddish- 
brown fringes (not ochraceous as in preceding) to feathers on toj) of head, darker 
upper-surface with more spotting on back, secondaries shorter and wide pale buff 
pectoral band ; average measurements, culmen 30, \ving 144, tarsus 39 mm. as 



BUFF-BANDED BAIL. 195 

against typical culmen 31, wing 144, tarsus 43 mm. ; H. p. mdlori (Mathews) from 
South-west Australia, darker than the preceding above but similar below ; H.p. yorki 
(Mathews) from North Queensland, which may include some New Guinea birds, 
is smaller and with a darker buS pectoral band ; H. p. sethsmithi (Mathews) from 
the Fiji Islands, a little larger with the pectoral band obsolete and lower throat grey, 
average culmen 34, wing 148, tarsus 46 mm. ; H. p. forsteri Hartlaub from Tonga, 
darker than the preceding with more spotting on the wing-coverts, shorter bills 
and wings, but longer tarsi, culmen 28-30, wing 132-141, tarsus 40^3 mm. ; H. p. 
goodsoni (Mathews) from Samoa, a larger form with a faint pectoral band, darker 
below and tail much barred with white ; culmen 32-36, wing 136-155, tarsus 
46-48 mm. ; H. p. swindellsi (Mathews) from New Caledonia, a very dark race, 
scantily spotted above and very closely barred with black below ; faint red hind -neck, 
faint pectoral wash only ; culmen 31-33, wing 143, tarsus 41^3 mm. ; H. p. lesouefi 
(Mathews) from New Hanover, nearly as dark as preceding, but with lower hind-neck 
liarred with white and a distinct pectoral band ; culmen 32-33, wing 136-141, tarsus 
40-43 mm. ; H. p. wsshnilis (Gray) a very well-marked form with almost uniform 
dull brown upper-surface, no red hind-neck, and large bill, abnormally developed 
wing-coverts and long secondaries, well-marked pectoral band ; culmen average 
37 mm., wing 146, tarsus 42 mm. ; H. p. macquariensis Hutton, from the Macquarie 
Islands, with a shorter bill and wing and darker above and below, culmen 29-33, 
wing 122-131, tarsus 39-41 mm. ; H. p. chandleri (Mathews) from Celebes, nearest 
to the typical race but with a distinct red hind-neck, more spotted above, generally 
darker and no pectoral band, more pronounced barring underneath, dusky lores 
and shorter secondaries, culmen 31-32, wing 147, tarsus 43 ; H. p. wilkinsoni 
j;Ma thews) from South Flores, larger than preceding, culmen 32-33, wing 155-157, 
tarsus 45-46 ; and H. p. aiidrewsi (Mathews) from Cocos Keeling Group, a distinct 
race, with much white spotting above, the rump even spotted, well-marked hind- 
neck of dull red, and distinct brick-coloured pectoral band, culmen 33, wing 148, 
and tarsus 42 mm. 

There may be more subspecies to be named. 

Genus EULABEORNIS. 

Eulabeornis Govild, Proo. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1844, p. 56, Sept. Type (by monotypy) : 
E. castaneoventris Gould. 

Large Rails with long stout bills, medium wing, long tail and stout legs and 
feet. The bill is straight with the tip decurved, much laterally compressed, culmen 
ridge flattened ; nasal groove large and deep, extending more than half the length 
of the bill, nostrils as linear pervious slits about the middle of the groove ; the 
lower mandible stout, with a shallow groove half way along, reaching almost to the 
gonydial angle ; the gonys being nearly half the length of the mandible ; interramal 
space narrow and feathered ; depth of the bill about one-third of its length. The 
wing rounded with the third, fourth, and fifth primaries longest, the second equal 
to the sixth and the first about equal to the ninth ; the inner secondaries long, 
almost equal to the second primary. The tail, composed of twelve feathers, some- 
what decomposed, and of rounded shape, the outer ones being notably shorter, is 
more than half the length of the wing. The legs are long and stout, the scaling in 
front of the tarsus being regular transverse scutes, those of the back being broken 
into hexagonal scales and becoming confused with the hexagonal scaling of the 
sides ; the tarsus is longer than the culmen and about half the length of the tail. 
The toes are long and strong ; the middle toe longest, the inner just a little shorter 
than the outer, the hind-toe short and stout and somewhat opposed ; all the claws 
stout and sharp. 

Coloration oUve above, head and tlu-oat ashy, chestnut below. 

o 2 



196 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

X34. Eulabeornis castaneoventris.— CHESTNUT-BELLIED RAIL. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 78 (pt. xvii.), Dec. 1st, 1844. Mathew.s, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 48, Aug. 9th, 

1911. 

Eulabeornis castaneoventris Gould, Proc. Zool. See. (Lond.), 1844, p. 56, Sept. : Flinders 

River, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland. 

Eulabeornis castaneoventris rogersi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 193, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Obagama, North-west Australia. 

Eidabcornis castaneoventris mehnlli Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 29, April 

2nd, 1912 : Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — North Queensland, Northern Territory, North-west Australia (Mangroves 

only). 

Adnlt male. — General colour above olive, including the hind-neck, back, wings, 
and tail, with a tinge of rufous-bro'n'n on the rump ; inner web of bastard-wing, 
primary- and secondary -quills chestnut-brown, as also the tail-feathers ; cro%vn of 
the head, sides of the face, and throat ash-grey ; under-surface of body rich chestnut, 
deeper in colour on the under wing-coverts and mider tail-coverts ; washed with 
grey on the fore-neck and chest ; thighs ash-grey ; base of bill green, tip honi 
colour ; iris red ; feet and legs olive-yellow. Total length 537 mm. ; culmen 61, 
wing 212, tail 136, tarsus 70. 

Adult female.' -DiHeTS from the adult male in having the upper hind-neck 
ash-grey like the head, instead of olive like the back. Total length 512 mm. ; 
culmen 56, wing 206, tail 130, tarsus 66. 

Immature but breeding male. — Has iris yellow, slightly mottled with brown. 

Nestling. — Appears to be uiadescribed. 

Nest. — Placed on a low slanting mangrove, and built of sticks, with no lining. 
Placed from 3 to 7 feet from the ground. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; rather lengthened in form, of a pale pinky -white, spotted 
all over with reddish-chestnut and lavender, the .spots being thinly dispersed ; axia 
51.5-54 mm., diameter 36.5 mm. 

Breeding-secison. — September to November. 

Distribution and forms. — Northern Australia and Aru Islands only. Four races 
have been distinguished : E. c. castaneoventris Gould from North Queensland ; 
E. c. rogersi Mathews from North-west Australia, a darker race ; E. c. melvilli 
Mathews from Melville Island, Northern Territory, still darker both above and 
below ; and E. c. sharpei Rothschild from the Aru Islands, not darker above but a 
deeper red below. 

Genus CREX. 

Crex Bechstein, Omith. Taschenb.. Vol. II., p. 336, 1803. Tj^e (by monotj'py) : Crex 
pratertsis Bechstein = Rallus crex Linne. 

Octogometra (recte Ortygometra , p. 59), Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, p. 27, Dec. 1817. 
TjTie (by monotypy) : Rallus crex Linn<5. 

Sole species similar to members of the genus Porzana, but larger and of stouter 
build, with a short stout bill and shoit toes ; the bill at the base is more than half 
its length, and the culmen tapers to a point as it enters the fore-head. The culmen 
is shorter than the middle toe, which is shorter than the tarsus, while the base of 
the gonj's forms a decided angle. Other characters as in Porzana. 

135. Crex crex.— LAND RAIL. 

[Rallus crex Linnd, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 153, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Sweden, Europe. Extra- 
Umital.] 

Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 50, Aug. 9th, 1911. 

Rallus featkerstonii Buller, Essay Ornith. New Zeal., p. 18, (pref. dated Feb. 1st) 1865: New 

Zealand. 

Distribution. — Australia (visitor). One specimen preserved in Australian Jluseuin, Sydney* 



LAND RAIL. 197 

Adult male (in autumn). — General colour above olive-grey with blackish centres 
to the feathers, including the head, hind-neck, back, scapulars, long iimermost 
.secondaries, upper tail-coverts and tail ; lesser median and greater wing-coverts 
pale chestnut, like the bastard-wing ; primary -coverts dark bro-nm edged with 
rufous ; quills dark browai ; the first primary white along the outer edge, the 
remainder rufous on the outer webs, with a blackish spot at the tips, the secondaries 
for the most part pale rufous ; lores and a line over the eye rufescent ; throat and 
middle of abdomen whitish ; breast sandy-rufous, darker on the sides of the body, 
where it is barred with white ; under tail-coverts similar, and tipped with white ; 
axillaries and under wing-coverts pale chestnut ; edge of wing white. Li summer, 
the sides of the neck and a stripe over the eye are blue-grey ; bill, feet and claws 
a pale brown ; iris hazel. Total length 240 mm. ; culmen 22, wing 130, tail 75, 
tarsus 35. 

Adult female. — -Similar to the male. 

Nestling. — Covered with sooty-black do-rni, which is darker on the head and 
throat, with lines of rufous feathers and black tips on the back, sides of the body, 
and the flanks. Another example, rather more advanced in age, shows that the 
dorsal tracts of feathers have merged, the feathers having dark browii centres with 
rufous-brown margins ; the tracts on the side of the body are divided by a wide 
ventral space of black down ; the feather tracts on the flanks are more rufous. 
Another exami^le, slightly older and still more fledged, shows the last remains of 
the black down on the head, throat, wings, tail, thighs, and a narrow ventral 
line ; the growth of the feathers having closed in the sjoaces mentioned above ; the 
secondary-quills are just making their appearance, but the primary-quills are 
scarcely perceptible. 

An almost adult approaching breeding-jilumage has the flank feathers very 
definitely barred with rufous-brown and white ; the white on the throat, the grey 
on the face, and the buS streak through the eye, very clearly defined. 

Nest. — A depression in the gromid, lined with a pad of dried grasses ; usually 
in meadows, but where cover is scanty in climips of flags, coarse vegetation, etc. 
(Europe.) 

Eggs. — Clutch, 8 to 13 ; ground-colour drab-grey, blotched and spotted with 
chestnut, and underlying sjiots of lavender-gre}', chiefly at the larger end ; surface 
smooth and glossy ; axis 35 to 38.5 mm., diameter 2G to 27. 

Breeding -season. — Mid-May, June (eggs also in July). 

Distribution and forms. — Breeding through Europe into Western Siberia, and 
wintering in Africa, Arabia and India and has occuiTed once in Australia and once, 
questionably, in New Zealand. The races are, at jiresent, undetermined, but it is 
certain such occur, and consequently we are u.sing the name Buller gave to a Neo- 
zelanic (?) specimen, but if the record is proved bad, the name may not be valid. 
All the eastern specimens available appear to be more boldly marked above and 
with the flanks more boldly barred with darker colour ; the plumages are not well 
imderstood, as some birds have pure grey edgings to the feathers of the upper-surface 
and the breast grej' ; such birds have been secured both in the winter and in the 
breeding-season . 

Genus PORZANA. 

Porzana Vieillot, Analyse nouv. Omith., p. 61, April Hth, 1816. Tj^pe (by monotypy) : 

"Marouetle. Buffon" = Rallu-s porzana Linne. 

Musteliralliis Bonaparte Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIII., p. 599, Sept. 1856. 

Type (by monotypy) : Ralliis albicollis Vieillot. 

Ualeolimnas Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 320, (pref. Sept.) 1890. New 

name for Mustelirallus Bonaparte. 

Smallest Rails with stout bills, short wings, short wed*ge tail and short legs and 
long toes. The bill is short, deep at the base, laterallj' strongly compressed, even 



198 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTEALIA. 

more than preceding ; the culmen ridge narrow, a little swollen but not expanded 
at fore-head where it meets with a semicircular base ; other characters of bill as in 
Tomirdtis, but interramal space much narrower and gonys slightly less, an indistinct 
groove along the sides of the lower mandible reaching to the gonj's. The wing is 
short, but strong for this group, the first primary comparatively long, but still 
shorter than seventh, the second, however, almost the longest, equalling or exceeding 
the third, the others successively little shorter ; inner secondaries long and pointed. 
The tail is composed of twelve rather narrow pointed feathers forming a wedge and 
less than half the length of the wing and not twice the length of the bill ; the tarsus 
is short and strong, though laterally compressed and scutellated in front and behind ; 
the toes are long, the inner with the claw equal to the middle toe but shorter than 
the outer ; the hind-toe long. 

Coloration brownish above with white spotting, leaden-grey below, flanks and 
abdomen barred with white, 

136. Porzana fluminea. — SPOTTED CRAKE. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 79 (pt. X.), March 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 51, Aug. 9th, 
1911. 

Porzana fluminfa Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1842, p. 139, Feb. 1843 : New South Wales. 
Ralltis novwhoUandim Pucheran, Revue Mag. Zool., p. 278, for June 1851 (July) ; ex Cuvier 
MS., New South Wales (Peron and Lesueur Coll.). 

Porzana flitminea whi/ci Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. I., pt. 3, p. 73, June 28th, 1912 : 
EjTo's Peninsula, South Australia. 

Distribution. — Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, 
South-west Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour above olive-brown, the feathers centred with black 
mostly concealed, and thickly spotted with white on the mantle and streaked with 
white on the lower back and rump ; all the white markings edged with a narrow 
line of black ; upper tail-coverts also olive-brown, with concealed black centres to 
the feathers, which have small white spots on either web ; wing-coverts for the most 
part uniform olive-brown, the median and greater coverts with white spots, each 
of which is margined with black ; quills brown, the first primary with a few linear 
spots of white on the outer web, which is less indicated on the others ; inner 
secondaries spotted with white, the innermost blackish down the centre and more 
profusely spotted with white, like the adjoining greater coverts ; tail-feathers 
olive-brown, centred with black and spotted or edged with white ; crown of head 
like the back, the white spots being very small and nearly obsolete on the mantle ; 
base of fore-head, sides of crown, sides of face and ear -coverts leaden-grey, the latter 
washed with olive-broivn, and speckled with tiny white spots ; lores black ; feathers 
in front of the eye, as well as the fore-part of the cheeks, grey ; throat, fore-neck and 
entire breast leaden-grey ; centre of abdomen whitish, barred with grey ; under 
tail-coverts black, lateral ones white ; sides of body and flanks distinctly barred with 
white and black, the black bars being somewhat the broader ; axillaries blackish, 
barred with white, and resembling the flanks ; imder wing-coverts duskj' -brown 
barred with whitish ; quills dull ashy-brown below ; bill olive-green, orange-red 
at the base ; feet dark olive-green. Total length 172 mm. ; culmen 20, wing 93» 
tail 37, tarsus 27. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature. — Upper -surface similar to that of the adult, but the back browner 
with buff edges to the feathers ; lores, sides of face and all under-surface paler with 
white tips to the feathers ; sides of chest washed with brownish ; abdomen and 
flanks feathers with less distinct brownish bars and tips ; iris dark yellow ; feet 
pale green ; bill pale green. 

Nestling. — Appears to be undescribed. 



LITTLE CRAKE. 199' 

Nest. — Composed of grass, dry and green intermixed, ijlaced above water- 
level, in a bush growing in the water of a lake or swamp. 

Eggs. — Five ; the ground-colour is of a light olive-brown, with dark reddish- 
brown spots, more plentiful at the larger end, but not forming a distinct ring, some 
of the marking appear as if beneath the surface. At the larger end there are, in 
each egg, a few round, almost black spots. Measurements 31 by 23 mm. 

Breeding -season. — August to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Southern Australia only. Two subspecies have been 
separated : P. f. fluminea Gould from New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania ; 
and P. f. wJiitei Mathews from Eyre's Peninsula, South Australia and South-west 
Australia, a paler race noticeably on the mider-suiface. 

Genus ZAPORNIA. 

Zapornia Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XII., pt. i., p. 230, 1824. Type (by monotypy) : 

Z. pusilla = Ralhis parvus Scopoli. 

Zaporina Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, pp. 27, 59, Dec. 1817 : Nom. nudum. 

Phalaridion Kaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 173, (pref. April) 1829. Type (by 

subsequent designation Gray, Gen. Birds, Vol. III., p. 593, Nov. 1846) : O. minuta = Rallus 

parvus Scopoli. 

Rallites Pucheran, Kev. Zool., 1845, p. 277 (for Aug., publ. in Sept.). Type (by subsequent 

designation) : R. parvus Scopoli. 

Small Rails with slender bills, short wings, short tail and weak legs and long toes. 
The bill is shorter and much more slender than that of Porzana, the mider mandible 
weaker, the gonys less marked ; the ujiper not much swollen at base of culmen 
ridge but more laterally compressed. The wing is short and more rounded, the 
first primary short, the second equal to the fifth, the third and fourth longest, the 
inner secondaries long. The tail similarly formed is longer, being more than half 
the length of the wing. The legs are slender and the toes thinner and longer, the 
hind-toe very long ; claws very long. 

Coloration like the preceding generally but paler. 

137. Zapornia pusilla. — LITTLE CRAKE. 

[Rallus pusillus Pallas, Reise Russ. Reichs, Vol. III., p. 700, (pref. 10th Feb., O.S.) 1776. 

Dauria, Siberia. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 80 (pt. X.), March 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 52, Aug. 9th 

1911. 

Porzana paUistris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.). 1842, p. 139, Feb. 1843 : Tasmania. 

Porzana pusilla fitzroyi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 3, p. 73, June 28th, 1912: 

Derby, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally (?) and Tasmania. 

Adiilt male. — General colour above tawny-brown, duller on the head, which is 
mottled or spotted, with black centres to the feathers, more sparsely on the nape 
and hind -neck ; mantle and back black, as well as the scapulars, the feathers mostly 
edged with tauTiy-brown or white, and having subterminal spots or streaks of white, 
producing a freckled appearance ; upper tail-coverts and tail-feathers tawn3'-brown, 
with black centres and white spots or bars ; wing-coverts tawny-brown, the greater 
series with white, black-edged spots or bars near the ends ; bastard-wing brown, 
with white on the outer margin ; primary-coverts and quills dark brown, the first 
primary edged with white ; the long inner secondaries black, with tawny-brown 
borders and broken bars of white ; eyebrow, sides of face and sides of neck, slate-grey, 
becoming paler on the chin, throat and middle of breast and abdomen ; sides of 
body and flanks, and under tail-coverts regularly barred with black and white ; 
thighs uniform slaty-grey, paler internally ; under wing-coverts dusky-brown, with 



200 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

broad white margins ; axillaries dusky-brown with a few white bars ; bill and feet 
olive-brown. Total length 158 mm. ; culmen 15 to 17, wing 86 (varies from 77 
to 88), tail 45, tarsus 25. 

Adult female. — Similar to adult male. 

Immature. — Differs from the adult in having the bars on the sides of the body 
not so sharply defined, and more or less mixed with the tawny colour of the upper- 
surface, which also pervades the sides of the breast, which is white like the under- 
surface. 

Nestling. — Covered with greenish-black down. 

Nest. — Slightly concave on top ; composed of portions of small round or flat 
(according to the species) rushes or other aquatic plants, and concealed in rushes 
etc., in shallow water or on the mud of swamps. Dimensions over all, about 4 in. 
by 6 in. in height ; egg cavity, about i in. deep. There are usually two small (back 
and front) entrances to the nest, through the clump of herbage containing the nest. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four to eight ; oval in shape ; texture of shell fine ; surface 
glossy ; colour brownish -olive, fairly but faintly mottled over the whole surface with 
a darker shade of the same colour. Dimensions 25-28 mm. by 19-20. 

Breeding-season. — October to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Central and southern Europe and northern Africa, 
wintering in Africa but local races a!so occun-ing there, across Asia to Japan wintering 
southwards, and through Australia to New Zealand where it is stationary. The 
northern forms have not been accurately determined, the western being accepted 
as Z. p. intermedia (Hermann) by its darker coloration and the lack of the brown 
loral streak ; the southern Australian race Z. p. pahistris (Gould) is a darker form 
throughout, also ■wnth no loral stripe ; Z. p. ftzroyi (Mathews) is a little larger 
with a stouter bill and a little paler coloration ; and Z. p. affinis (Gray) from New 
Zealand, is larger and darker, and without the white on the primaries. 



Genus PORZANOIDEA. 

Porzanoidm Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 5, p. 117, Dec. 28th, 1912. Type (by 

original designation) : Gallinula immaculafa Swainson. 

Gallinula Swainson, Classif. Birds, Vol. II., p. 358, July 1st, 1837. Type (by subsequent 

designation, Mathews, Check List, p. 15, 1920) : G. immaculata Swainson. 

Not of Brisson, Omith., Vol. VI., p. 2, 1760. 

Small Rails with medium bills, fliort wings, short tail and short legs and long 
toes. The bill is like that of Zapornia, but the base of the cu'men has no distinct 
line of demarcation from the fore-heatl and the head seems flatter ; the gonys is well 
marked but not angulated. The wing is s^hort and rounded, the first primary shorter 
than the second which is a little shorter than the third which is longest, the fourth 
little less, but the fifth less than the second ; the inner secondaries long, but com- 
parativel}', for this series, short. The tail is short, but is rounded, composed of 
twelve broad soft feathers, and is longer than half the wing. The legs are medium, 
the tarsus longer than the culmen and also longer than the middle toe ; it is scutel- 
lated back and front ; the middle toe is longest, the outer longer than the inner, 
with the hind-toe very long. 

Coloration dark brown above, head and mider-surface dark leaden-grey. 

138, Porzanoidea plumbea.— SPOTLESS CRAKE. 

[Crex pbimbea " Gray " Griffith and Pidgeon, Anim. Kingd., Cuvier, Vol. VIII., p. 410, 
" 1829 " = 1830. No loc. = New Zealand. Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 82 (pt. XXIV.), Sept. 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4. pi. 53. Aug. 9th, 
1911. 



SPOTLESS CRAKE. 201 

GalUnula immaculata Swainson, Anim. in Menag., p. 337, Deo. 31st, 1837 : Tasmania. 

Porzana plmnbea roberti Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 446, Jan. 31st, 1912 : South 

west AustraUa. 

Porzamndea plutnbea campbelli Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 85, Sept. 24th, 

1914 : Botany Swamps, New South Wales. 

DisTBiBXJTioN. — New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South and South-west Australia. 

Adult male. — Colour above chocolate-brown ; wing-coverts like the back, the 
greater series dull sepia-brown, externally chocolate-brown ; bastard-wing sepia- 
brown, with white margins to the outer feathers ; the primary-coverts and quills 
sepia-bro-ivn, the first primary edged with white, the inner secondaries blackish, 
margined with chocolate-brown ; upper tail-coverts and tail blackish, slightly 
washed with chocolate-brown ; top of the head and hind -neck slaty -black ; lores, 
sides of face, sides of neck and entire imder-suriace of body dark leaden -grey, a 
little paler on the throat ; under tail-coverts black, with a few twin spots or bars 
of white ; axillaries ashy-browii wth narrow whitish ends ; under wing-coverts 
dusky-grej', more or less intermixed with white ; quills duskj'-brown below ; bill 
black ; eye and eyelash red ; feet dull brick-red. Total length 181 mm. ; culmen 20, 
wing 82 (varies from 80 to 91), tail 50, tarsus 26. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Nestling. — Covered with greenish-black down. 

Immature. — An apparently immature bird from Tasmania is not so chocolate- 
brown above ; slightly darker underneath, with the throat uniform -with the breast. 
Bill and iris black ; legs and feet light brov.ai. 

Nest. — Composed of dry grass, placed on the ground mider the shelter of a 
cliuup of rushes or band -grass, in the proximity of water. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three or four ; ground-colour stone, covered all over with brown 
and lavender markings ; 30 mm. by 22. 

Breeding -season. — August to January. 

Distribution and /or?ns.— Through Australia, New Zealand, the Kermadecs and 
New Caledonia ; replaced in the Pacific by other si^ecies. Six subspecies are named, 
as follows : P. p. plumbea (Griffith and Pidgeon) from New Zealand ; P. p. immacu- 
lata (Swainson) from Tasmania, with shorter bill and tarsus and brighter upper 
coloration with secondaries short ; P. p. roberti (Mathews) from South-west Australia 
with a paler chestnut back and darker head ; P. p. campbelli Mathews from New 
South Wales, smaller and paler above and below ; P. p. oliveri Mathews and Iredale 
from the Kermadec Islands, with darker back and short wing-coverts ; and P. p. 
caledonica (Brasil) from New Caledonia, with a short wing (75 mm.) and short tarsus 
25 mm.). 

Genus POLIOLIMNAS. 

Polioltmnas Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Ornith. Qub, Vol. I., p. xxvni., Jan. 26th, 1893. Type 
(by original designation) : Porphyria cinereiis Vieillot. 

Small Rails with long stout bills, short v^ings, short tails, and long legs and feet. 
The bill is laterally compressed as in the preceding, but is stouter and not so pointed ; 
the culmen ridge is a little broader and more arched, thus while the depth at base is 
less than half the length of the bill, the depth at the gonys is not much less ; the 
culmen base broadens out and the feathers of the fore-head form a projecting semi- 
circle, quite unlike the bases of the culmen in the preceding genera ; the lower mandible 
is deep, the rami strong, the gonys marked, the interramal race anteriorly unfeathered 
where a small process can be seen ; the nasal apertures are lin.ear and pervious as 
usual, but only little more than half the length and more open. The wing is short 
and rounded, the first primary short, the second, third, fourth, and fifth subequal, 
the inner secondaries very little less. The legs are long, the tibia being exposed for 



202 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

more than one-third the length of the tarsus and regularly scutellated in front and 
behind like the tarsus ; the toes are long ; the middle toe longest equal to the 
tarsus, and the hind-toe is very long. 

Coloration brown above with a grey head, white eyebrow, and white below. 

139. Poliolimnas cinereus.— WHITE-BROWED CRAKE. 

\Porphyrio cinereus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Vol. XXVIII., p. 29, early 1819 : Loc. 

unknown = Java. Extra-lLmital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 81 (pt. sxvni.), Sept. 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 54, Aug. 

9th, 1911. 

PoTzana leucophrys Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1847, p. 33, April 27th : Port Essington, 

Korthern Territory. 

Porzana cinerea parryi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 3, p. 73, June 28th, 1912: 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — North-west Australia, Northern Territory, North Queensland. 

Adult male. — General colour above dark brown mottled with black, the centres 
of the feathers being blackish vnth light olive-brown margins, the blackish centres 
being indistinct on the mantle, but very distinct on the back and scapulars, less 
pronounced on the lower back, rump and upper ta.il-coverts, which become browner ; 
TOng-coverts olive-brown ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and C£uills dark sepia- 
brown, the first primary margined with hoary-white ; the innermost secondaries 
resembling the scapulars, being blackish, edged with light rufous-brown ; tail- 
feathers dark brown ; crown of head almost blackish in appearance, and slightly 
washed with olive-brown on the nape ; lores and feathers around the ej'e black, Avith 
a small supraloral spot of white extending over the fore-part of the eye ; throat 
white, extending in a line below the eye and above the ear -coverts, which are grej', 
like the sides of the neck and upper-breast ; abdomen white ; the lower flanks and 
imder tail-coverts sandy-buS ; thjghs internally whitish, externally brown ; axillaries 
smoky-brown ; under wing-coverts grey, with paler tips, lower primary-coverts 
and under-surface of quills dusky-brown ; bill red at base, distal half olive-j-ellow ; 
feet olive-j'ellow, the tarsus olive-green ; iris red ; eyelid red. Total length 184 mm. ; 
culmen 22, wing 95, tail 48, tarsus 33. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Young. — The yomig differ from the adult in having only an indication of the 
marks on the face, in having the crown of the head brown instead of brownish-black, 
and the sides of the neck and flanks deep buff instead of grey. 

Nestling. — Appears to be undescribed. 

Nest. — Made of rushes or coarse herbage, lined with grass, and situated among 
swampy vegetation. 

Eggs. — Vary from four to six in number ; are oval or rounded in form, the 
shell being close-grained, smooth and sUghtly lustrous. The ground-colour varies 
from a dull greenish-white to a light yellowish-clay shade, which is almost obscured 
by innumerable fleecy markings, varying from yellowish-bro'mi to dull chestnut- 
bro%\Ti. As a rule the markings are fairlj- even in size and distributed over the 
entire surface ; in others they are intermingled with a few large confluent patches ; 
while in some they are larger and predominate chiefly on the thicker end. Measure- 
ments 27-28 mm' by 21-22. 

Breeding-season. — January to May. 

Distribution and forms. — From the Philippine Islands to North Australia and 
the Pacific Islands ; Collingwood Ligram in 1911 admitted five races, Brasil has 
since added a sixth, and Mathews a seventh. These are as follows : P. c. cinereus 
(Vieillot) from Java ; P. c. leucophrys (Gould) from Port Essington, Northern 
Territory, with an almost black head and dark brown upper coloration, darker below 



RUrOUS-TAILED MOORHEN. 203. 

and short secondaries ; P. c. parryi (Mathews) from North-west Australia, still darker 
as to head, back, thighs and under tail-coverts ; P. c. brevipes (Ingram) from the 
Bonin Group, with lower flanks and under tail-coverts more rufous, lower back more 
ruddy, a deeper bill and smaller feet, tarsus 32 mm., middle toe 33 mm. against 
typical tarsus 36 mm., middle toe 39 mm. ; P. c. ocularis (Ligram) from the Philip- 
pines, especially on the head, pui'er oUve-black and grey neck and greyer breast ; 
P. c. tannensis (Forster) for birds from Fiji and Samoa, with more ruddy back and with 
little grey wash on head and none on neck ; and P. c. ingrami Brasil from New 
Caledonia, with a small delicate bill, culmen 19 mm. long by 7 mm. high, against the 
preceding 22.5 by 8.5 mm. 

Family GALLINULID^. 

Nearly allied to Rallidse, but comprising forms developing frontal shields 
and more or less swimming habits. Probably comprising most extinct semi-flightless 
" Rails." A semi-flightless form, Tribonyx, native of Tasmania, is obviously only a 
degenerate island form of the mainland Microtribonyx, which is just as surely the 
unchanged representative of the well distributed Gallinula, the immature of the 
last named showing the bill coloration of Tribonyx. That genus has left the water 
and is more a land bird and the toes are comparatively short, while in the swimming 
Gallinula the toes are long. The mainland Microtribonyx is also a land bird and the 
sequence seems exactly jiarallel to that of many other Australian birds. In the 
times when Australia and Tasmania were joined, the ancestral form of Gallinula 
arrived and populated the country ; then Tasmania was severed and Tribonyx 
evolved through isolation and indolence ; on the continent Microtribonyx developed 
but competition allowed it no rest to induce flightlessness ; at a later period the 
stronger, more powerfully constructed Gallinula arrived to oust the stationary 
Microtribonyx which it has not yet done, and thus we have a tableau of the struggle 
for existence in present view. Li New Zealand we see a further stage in the present 
almost extinction of Mantdlornis, a parallel ease with the Australian Porphyrio. 
Many extinct forms have followed the same course. 

Genus AMAURORNIS. 

Amaurornis Reichenbach, Nat. Sj'st. Vogel, p. xxi., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original 
designation) : Gallinula olivacca RIeyen. 

Small Moorhens with long stout bill with small frontal plate, short wings, 
short tails and long legs with short (for this group) toes. 

The bill agrees in detail with that of Toniirdus. save that it is a little larger 
and stronger and has develof)ed a frontal jilate at the base of the culmen. In this 
genus this is scarcely seen until the bird is adult. The wing is short and romided, 
the feathers strong, the first primary short, the second and fifth subequal and little 
less than the third and fom-th which are longest ; the inner secondaries are long. 
The tail is short and romided, much less than half the length of the wing, the feathers 
broad and soft. The legs are long, the tibia mifeathered for about one-third the 
length of the tarsus, and like that, scutellated in front and behind ; the toes are 
long but less than the tarsus in length ; hind-toe very long and lateral membranes 
to toes little developed. 

Coloration brown above, slaty-grey below, under tail-coverts rufous. 

140. Amaurornis moluccanus.— RUFOUS-TAILED MOORHEN. 

\Porzana moluccana Wallace, Proc. Zool. See. (Lend.), 1865, p. 480, Oct. 1st: Amboyna. 

Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Suppl., pi. 79 (pt. v.), Aug. 1st, 1869. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 58, Aug. 9th. 191U 



204 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Galliniila ruficrissa Gould, Birds Austr. Suppl., pt. v. (pi. 79), Aug. l3fc, and Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., Ser. IV., Vol. IV., p. 110, Aug. 1st, 18G9 : Cape River, Queensland. 
Qallinula moluccana yorki Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. I., pt. 8, p. 194, March 20th, 1913 : 
Cape York, Queensland. 

Distribution. — North Queensland, Northern Territory. 

Adult — Head, hind-neck and mantle olive-browii, becoming chocolate-brown 
on the scajiulars, back, upper tail-coverts and tail ; wing-coverts like the back, 
somewhat more chestnut-brown on the greater coverts, which resemble the inner 
secondaries ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quilLs dark brown, somewhat 
paler on the outer webs ; lores and sides of head and ear-coverts dull slaty-grey, 
lighter on the cheeks and inclining to greyish-white on the ciiin and upper throat ; 
lower throat, breast and abdomen darker slaty-grey, slightly washed %vith olive on 
the fore-neck ; sides of body entirely olive-brown ; lower-abdomen vinous-isabeHine ; 
a patch of feathers on each side of the vent, thighs and under tail-coverts vinous- 
chestnut ; under wing-coverts and axillaries dark sepia-browii ; quills dusky-brown 
below ; bill green, frontal shield orange ; iris reddish-bro-mi ; feet yellow. Total 
length 213 mm. ; culmen, including frontal shield, 30, wing 143, tail 56, tarsus 66. 

Immature. — A little paler than the adult above and below, the throat whitish, 
the under tail-coverts paler, the frontal plate not developed ; bill green, iris dark 
brown, feet yellowish-brown. 

Nestling. — Appears to be imknown. 

Nest. — Composed of coarse grass and other herbage ; 3J inches in breadth. 

Eggs. — Clutch, foiu" to six ; colour creamy-white, with rust-brown spots and 
blotches, and underlying spots of lilac-grey over the entire surface, more thickly 
at the larger end ; axis 41 mm., diameter 29. 

Breeding-season. — Janua^\^ 

Distribution and forms. — Through the Moluccas, New Guinea to New Britain 
and Northern Australia. Subspecies not accurately determined but Australian 
form well marked by means of smaller bill and legs and warmer coloration of the 
upper-surface. Schlegel described a luiiform bird from imknowii locality received 
via N.E. New Guinea as Gallimila frankii, which may be applicable to this species. 
Mathews named the Cape York form G. m. yorki as being altogether ])aler than 
Gould's Cape River bird. Recently the species has been recordetl from the Northern 
Territory, but we have seen no specimens. 

Genus QALLINULA. 

Gallinvla Brisson, Omith., Vol. I., p. 54, Vol. VI., p. 2, 1760. Tj-pe (by tautonj-my) : 
Oallinvla = Fulica cliloropus L)nn6. 

Hydrogallina Lacepede, Tabl. Ois., p. 19, Dec. 1799. Species added by Daudin in Hist. Nat. 
(Buffon) ed. Didot. Quadr., Vol. XIV., p. 336 [1799] = (Oct.) 1802. Tyjje (by subsequent 
designation. Mathews, List, p. 27, 1913) : F. chloropua Linn6. 

Stagnicola Brehm, Vogel Deutschl., p. 702, 1831 (pref. July). Type (by subsequent designa- 
tion, Mathews, List, p. 27, 1913) : F. chloropus. 

Large Moorhens with long stout bill with well-develoi^ed frontal shield, long 
wings, short tail, long legs and very long toes. 

The bill similar to that of the preceding but a little more slender with a homy 
plate extending backwards and covering the fore-head ; the nostrils longer and 
gonys less marked ; the nasal apertures linear and long, and pervious as usual. 
The wing long, the feathers strong, the first primaiy long and equal to the sixth, 
the second and third longest, the former generallj- exceeding the latter ; inner 
fiocondaries verj' short. The tail is short and little rounded, composed of twelve 
broad feathers and only about one-third the length of the wng. The legs are long 
and stout, a short exposed tibia scutellated behind but reticulated like the joint in 
front ; the tarsus is covered with broad scutes in front and various size scales on 



BLACK MOOEHEJT. 205 

the sides and back. The toes are very long with lateral membranes, the middle 
toe longest and exceeding the tarsus in length ; the outer and inner subequal ; toes 
very long and thin ; hind-toe long. 

Coloration: olive-brown back ; dark leaden-gi-ey head and mider-surface ; lateraL 
under tail -coverts white. 

141. Gallinula tenebrosa. — BLACK MOORHEN. 

Gould, A^ol. VI., pi. 73 (pt. xxiii.), March 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 57, Aug. 9th,. 

1911. 

Gallinula Icnehrosa Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xxui., March 1st, 1846 : South Australia. 

Gallir.ula tenebrosa magniroslris Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 195, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Guilford, West Australia. 

Gallinula tenebrosa subfrontata Mathews, ib. : Richmond River, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South and West Australia. Not 
Tasmania. 

Adult male. — General colour dark slate-grey, including the head, liind-neck 
and mider-suiface, becoming jsaler on the lower-abdomen ; entire back and scapulars 
tinged v^dth brown ; wing-coverts dark slate-grey ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts 
and quills black ; tail-feathers black, more or less fringed with brown on the outer 
webs ; central under tail-coverts black, the lateral ones white ; bill, frontal plate 
orange, base blood-red, tip greenish-yeUow, above the knee a garter of yellow and 
scarlet ; joints of legs and feet olive ; sides of tarsi and frontal plates of toes 
yellow ; iris olive. Total length 360 mm. ; culmen, including frontal shield, 47, 
wing 220, tail 80, tarsus 6-5. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male. 

Immature male. — Similar to the adult female but having the under-surface 
paler with white margins to the feathers, most conspicuously on the chin and lower- 
abdomen ; a line round the bend of the wing white, as also the outer edge of the 
fii-st primarj' ; bill mottled green and horn in male ; mottled green and black (lower 
base green), frontal plate black in female ; legs, ^ olive-green, $ grass-green. 

Nestling in doivn. — Greenish-black above, sooty-black below, with white 
hair-like tips to the down on the chin and thi-oat, the skin of the top of the head 
shining bluish through the scant down ; bright red frontal plate. 

Nest. — Slightly concave on the top, composed of dead flags or rushes, some- 
times with twgs added ; lined with the paper-like bark of tea-tree {Melaleuca), 
and placed in water among rushes, etc., or at the base of tea-trees. Dimensions 
over all, about 12 inches ; height (from the water) about 12 inches. 

Eggs. — Clutch, seven to ten ; smooth and glossy ; ground-colour buff ; blotched 
and spotted with j)urpjish-brown over the entire surface ; axis 53 to 54 mm., 
diameter 36. 

Breeding -season. — November to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia only. Three subspecies have been distin- 
guished as follows : 0. t. tenebrosa Gould, from South Australia, Victoria and 
southern New South Wales ; G. t. magniroslris Mathews, from South-western 
Australia with a notably larger bill ; and G. t. subfrontata Mathews, from northern 
New South Wales and southern Queensland, a smaller form in every dimension. 

Genus MICROTRIBONYX. 

Microtribonyx Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Ornith. CTub, Vol. I., p. xxrs., Jan. 26th, 1893. Type (by 
original designation) : Gallinula ventralis Gould. 

Large Moorhens with short, very stout, bills, long wings, short square tail and 
long legs and short toes. 



206 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

The bill is short, and very deep, at base of culmen the depth is more than half 
the length ; the bill is laterally compressed but the culmen ridge widens out at 
base into an indistinct frontal plate, not covering the fore-head ; the nostrils are 
as in the preceding, linear pervious apertures placed at the anterior portion of the 
nasal groove and lying along the edge of the mandible ; the tip is not decurved while 
the lower mandible is very strong and deep, the gonys ill defined and not at all 
angular, the interramal space being shallow and almost completely feathered. The 
wings are long, the first primary long, almost equal to the fourth, longer than the 
fifth, the second and third subequal and longest ; inner secondaries short. The tail 
is square and less than half the length of the wing, composed of sixteen broad strong 
feathers, the outer two on each side a little shorter than the others. The legs are 
long, the tibia exposed for nearly half the length of the tarsus, reticulate in front, 
scutellate behind ; large plates horizontally placed cover the front of the tarsus, 
the back having similar smaller plates, the sides with a narrow row of scutes between. 
The toes are shorter than the tarsus, the middle toe longest, the outer longer than 
the inner, the hind-toe long, but comparatively short. 

Coloration olive-green above, leaden-grey below ; tail black. 

142. Microtribonyx ventralis.— BLACK-TAILED WATER HEN. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 72 (pt. XX.), Sept. 1st. 1845. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 56. Aug. 9th, 

1911. 

Gallimda ventralis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1836, p. 85, Jan. 16th, 1837 : Swan River, 

West Australia. 

Tribonyx ventralis whitei Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 194, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Never- 

tire. New South Wales. 

Tribonyx ventralis territorii Mathews ib., p. 195 : Alexandra, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Not Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Olive-grey above, including the head, hind-neck, sides of neck, 
back and upper tail-coverts ; wing-coverts olive-brown ; bastard-wing, primary- 
coverts and quills blackish, olive-brown on the outer webs ; outer web of first primarj' 
edged with white ; tail-feathers black, fringed with olive-brown on the outer webs ; 
chin, lores and cheeks black ; lower throat, fore-neck and breast dark slate-grey, 
which extends on to the sides of the body ; middle of abdomen and under tail- 
coverts black, axillaries and lower flanks brown ; long flank plumes black with 
white pear-shaped spots at the tips ; under wing-coverts dusky vnth subterminal 
black bars and white tips ; bill apple-green, base of lower mandible orange ; iris 
deep yellow ; tarsi and feet coral pink. Total length 340 ; culmen, including 
frontal shield, 32, wing 221, tail 85, tarsus 56. 

Adult female. — Very similar to the adult male but smaller, and differs in having 
the flank plumes grey instead of black, and the %\ang-coverts paler. Total length 
309 mm. ; culmen, including frontal shield, 28, wing 194, tail 73, tarsus 59. 

Immature. — Similar to adult. 

Nestling in down. — ^WhoUy greenish-black ; bill coloured as in adult. 

Nest. — Open, constructed of grass, and placed on the ground among bushes, 
such as polygonums, etc., in a swamp situation. 

Eggs. — Clutch, five to seven ; smooth and glossy in texture ; ground-colour pale 
green, minutely spotted over the entire surface with brown dots, with a few large, 
bold blotches of chestnut-browna, as well as paler miderlj'ing spots of a lavender-grej^ ; 
axis 43 to 46 mm., diameter 29 to 32. 

Breeding -season. — October to January or February ; July and August. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Australia. Three forms have been named, 
but on account of sporadic movements due to drought subspecies probably 



NATIVE HEN. 207 

indefinable ; these are : M. v. ventralis (Gould) from West Australia ; M. v. tvhitei 
(Mathews) from Eastern Australia, smaller and browner with a more slender bill ; 
and M. v. territorii (Mathews) from Northern Territory, a still browner form. 



Genus TRIBONYX. 

Tribonyx Du Bvis, Biill. Acad. Roy. Sci. Brux., Vol. VII., No. 4, AprU, p. 212, May 1840. 
Type (by monotypy) : Tribonyx mortierii Du Bus. 

Brachyptrallus La Fresnaye, Revue Zool., Aug. 1840, p. 231, Sept. Type (by monotypy) : 
B. ralhides La Fres. = T. mortierii Du Bus. 

A degenerate form of the preceding, the whole bird of much heavier build, the 
bill larger, stouter, the nostrils more open, the frontal plate better indicated. The 
wing is absolutely shorter, and much more rounded, the first primary still long but 
scarcely longer than the tenth, while the second to the seventh are almost all the 
same length ; the inner secondaries longer and the coverts disintegrated and 
encroaching over the secondaries. The tail longer, over half the length of the 
wing and is composed of sixteen very broad square-tipped feathers, a little softer 
than in the preceding, and the two outer feathers on each side shorter than the others, 
but otherwise the tail is quite square. The legs are long and very stout ; the tibia 
only exposed for a very little bit ; the front of the tarsus covered with horizontal 
scutes, the hind edge mth a similar indefinite row while the sides are reticulated 
with three or four rows of small hexagonal scales ; the toes are very stout, the 
middle toe little shorter than the tarsus and longer than the outer and inner, the 
former exceeding the latter ; the hind-toe is short and stout. 

Coloration the same as the preceding. 

These are obviously degenerate Moorhens, the island form being related to the 
mainland one exactly as Mantellornis is to Porphyrio ; the same processes appear 
to have been followed in exactly the same way ; the isolated form growing larger 
and stouter, the wings rounder and flightless, the tail-feathers broader and softer, 
the legs shorter and stouter, and the toes stouter, the hind-toe also shortening and 
thickening ; all these changes taking place in the structural features and being 
accompanied by similar alterations internally ivMle the coloration has remained 
unchanged. 

143. Tribonyx mortierii.— NATIVE HEN. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 71 (pt. XXXI.), June 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 4, pi. 55, Aug. 9th, 

1911. 

Tribonyx mortierii Du Bus, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Brux., Vol. VII., No. 4, April, p. 214 and 

pi.. May 1840 : Nouvelle HoUande = Tasmania. 

Brachyptrallus ralloides La Fresnaye, Revue Zool., Aug. 1840, p. 234, Sept. : Tasmania. 

Tribonyx gouldi Sclater, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. III., Vol. XX., p. 123, Aug. 1st, 

1867 : Tasmania. 

DiSTRiBUTiox. — Tasmania. 

Adult male. — General colour above warm brown, includng the head, liind-neck, 
back, upper tail-coverts, scapulars and innermost secondaries ; lesser wing-coverts 
slate-grey ; bastard-wing black, with pale outer webs and white tips ; quills black 
with pale edges, the two outer primaries fringed with white at the tips ; tail-feathers 
black, with brown on the outer webs ; lores and feathers behind the eye and fore- 
part of cheeks brown, like the head, but slightly paler ; throat, fore-neck and breast 
slate colour ; a tuft of black feathers, with broad white tips, on the sides of the 
body, giving the appearance of a lateral white patch ; lower flanks and thighs grey, 
minutely tipped with white ; middle of abdomen black, -with minute white tips to 
the feathers ; imder tail -coverts intense black ; under wing-coverts blackish, tipped 



208 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

with Avhite ; bill ye!lowish-gi-een ; iris ruby ; tarsi and feet yellowish. Total 
length 509 mm. ; culmen, including frontal shield, 40, wing 187, tail 95, tar.sus 78. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but very slightly smaller. Total 
length 502 mm ; culmen 39, wing 185, tail 95, tarsus 77. 

Immature male. — Is distinguished from the adult in being paler brown on the 
head, grey on the hind-neck and mantle, and having the lower back washed with 
grey. The chief distinction is the white marks on the wing-coverts, which are pear 
shaped, and as the bird advances in age, become narrow streaks, and finally disappear 
when the adult plumage is attained ; the white margins to the feathers of the lower 
flanks are also much more strongly pronounced. 

Nestling {ten days old). — Covered with black doivH, with a white spot on each 
side of the flank ; ear-coverts silver-grey. 

Young {three weeks old). — Olive-brown above ; tail black ; head streaked with 
black ; chin white, throat streaked with blackish and grey ; sides of the neck grey ; 
a stripe of blackish-brown down the middle of the mider -surface, on both sides of 
which is grey ; the tuft of feathers on the side buff. 

Nest. —Usually placed on the bank of a stream or lagoon. Made of tussocks 
pulled up by the roots and tramped down by the birds' feet, lined -vvith soft reeds. 

Eggs. — Clutch, six to nine ; smooth and slightly glossy ; stone colour, minutely 
spotted with chestnut over the entire surface, with bolder blotching of the same 
colour and paler underlying markings, sparsely distributed ; axis 59 mm., diameter 
39 to 41. 

Breeding-season. — September, October, and November. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Tasmania and therefore no subspecies. 

Genus PORPHYRIO. 

Porphyria Brisson, Oraith., Vol. I., p. 54, Vol. V., p. 522, 1760. Type (by tautonymy) : 
Porphyria = Ftilica porphyria Linne. 

Cce.iarornis Reichenbach, Nat. Syet. Vogel, p. xxi., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original 
designation) : (lallinula polioce.phala Latham. 

Birds generally larger than the species of GaUinula, with a short, high, and 
strongly curved, compressed bill, a-.id the frontal shield very large. Nostrils oval 
or rounded, perviouy ; no nasal groove, but a shallow depression only. Wings 
short and roimded ; toes very long, the middle toe with claw exceeding the tarsus 
in length ; no lateral membranes or lobes to the toes. The tarsus is covered with 
horizontal scutes in front and behind with scarcely a row between on the sides ; 
the hind-toe is long as in GaUinula ; the claws are long and little curved ; the tibia 
is exposed for nearly one-third the length of the tarsus and is scutellate in front 
and behind with reticulation between. 

The tail is rather long, composed of twelve rather broad feathers and square, 
less than half the length of the romuled \nngs which have the second primary 
longest. 

1/^4. Porphyrio melanotus. — BALD COOT. 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 69 (pt. XXX.), March 1st, 1848. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 5. pi. 60, Oct. 31st, 

1911. 

Porphyrio melanotjis Temminck, Manuel d'Om, 2' ed.. Vol. II., p. 701, Oct. 21st, 1820 : 

"Australia" = New South Wales. 

Porphyrio melanottts fletcherce Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. I., pt. 5, p. 243, Oct. 31st, 1911 : 

Tasmania. 

Porphyrio melanotus ncomelarwtus Mathews, ib., p. 246, pi. 60 : Parry's Creek, North-west 

Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia (except South-west) and Tasmania. 




g ^ 





I! 



BALD COOT. 209 

Adult male. — Entire back, scapulars, tail, and the greater portion of the wings 
greenish-black, with a slight glossy tinge ; lesser mng-coverts iiltramarine-blue, like 
the outer webs of the bastard-wing ; marginal coverts, inner webs of the bastard- 
wing, primary-coverts, and quills black ; lores, fore-part of the cheeks, occiput, and 
hind-neck also black ; hinder neck, throat, entire breast, sides of the body, under 
wing-coverts, and flanks piurplish-blue ; midcUe of abdomen black ; under tail- 
coverts pure white ; axillaries black, some tipped with blue ; quills below glossy 
black ; bill and frontal plate red ; iris red ; tarsi and feet dusky-red. Total length 
500 mm. ; culmen and frontal plate 69, wing 266, tail 110, tarsus 95. 

Adult female. — Similar in colour but the i^lumage duller and the .size smaller. 
Immature. — Upper-surface blackish-brown, the wing-coverts first showing the 
bluish colouring, the under-surface paler brown, the chin palest, the breast dull 
bluish-brown, and the abdomen fulvous-brown ; the imder tail-coverts dirty 
yellowish-white ; iris brown ; bill brownish, reddish towards the base and the 
small frontal plate ; legs dark redtUsh-brown. 

Immature (younger, half -fledged). '-Upiier-suri&ce blackish-brown, the feathers 
edged with pale brown, the scapulars and wing-coverts showing a tinge of blue ; all 
under-surface pale dusky-browia, the breast feathers with pale bluish tips, the vent 
feathers fulvous. 

Nestling in down. — Covered with dense black down, the head, neck, wings and 
back tipped with white lines, which are in reality sheaths of the down, and which 
soon fall off ; bill greyish-white, black at the tip ; legs dull slate-grey ; in a few 
days the chick is wholly black ; bill, helmet and feet light red. 

i^esi.— Bulky, carelessly built of dry and green reeds, which had been apparently 
crushed and softened between the bird's bilJ. Situated on the top of tussocks of 
grass, in shallow water ; sometimes ten feet from the bank. Outside measurements, 
14 inches from top to bottom, and sixteen inches wide ; egg cavity nine by four 
inches. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three to five; smooth and slightly glossy ; groimd-colour sandy- 
buff, blotched and spotted with chestnut over the entire surface, with miderlying 
spots of lead-grey ; axis 48-49 mm., diameter 35-36. Tasmanian eggs are larger, 
and more boldly marked ; axis 50-53.5, diameter 35-37 mm. 

Breeding-season. — August to November. (Tasmania, Victoria, etc.) January 
and February. (Queensland.) 

Distribution and forms. — From the Moluccas through New Guinea, Australia, 
save the south-west, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the Chatham Islands, and appar- 
ently the western islands of the Pacific Ocean. The extra-limital forms are as 
usual imperfectly lmo\vn, and no advance seems to have been made since Mathews's 
studies in 1911, when he suggested investigation as below ; the Australian subspecies 
are three in number, but probably more will be later recognised — these are : P. m. 
melanotus Temminck from Eastern AustraUa ; P. m. fletchercB Mathews, from 
Tasmania, a larger form with the wing measuring 300 mm. against 275 of the typical 
race, but sho\ving the same coloration ; and P. m. neomelanotus Mathews, from the 
North-west of Australia, about the same size as the typical form, but with the imder 
coloration ultramarine or cobalt rather than pui-ple, the colour on the upper-breast 
and throat brighter than on the flanks and lower-breast. The Neozelanic bird is a 
brighter purple below, tending to verditer on the upper-breast, and may be called 
P. m. stanleyi Rowley (the name given to an albino specimen apparently received 
from New Zealand, which is famed for its albinistic specimens), and Sharpe called 
the Chatham Island form, on account of the verditer tinge all through the breast„ 
P. cJiathamensis, but this seems to be a feature of mainland birds also at certain 
growth stages ; the Samoan form has been called P. samoensis, the Fijian P. vitiensis, 
the one from the Pelew Islands P. pelewensis, the form inhabiting the New Hebrides 
P. aneiteunensis. and the New Guinea bird P. melanopterus, all of these appearing 



210 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

to be only subspecies of P. melanotus, but no long series is available, all these names 
having been given to odd birds. Hartert also ranged the species westward to Java, 
etc., and included all these as forms of P. calvus, but this does not seem justified, 
though admittedly the matter is a difficult one. 

145. Porphyrio bellus.— BLUE BALD COOT. 

OouUl, Vol. VI.. pi. 70 (pt. v.), Dec. Ist, 1841. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 5, pi. 59, Oct. 31st, 1911. 
Porphyrio bellus Gould, Proc. Zool. See. (Lend.), 1840, p. 176, July 1841 : Western Au.stralia. 
Porphyrio melanotus woodwardi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 29, April 2nd, 
1912 : Monger's Lake, South-west Australia. 
Distribution. — South-west Australia. 

Adult male. — Back, wings, and tail glossy blackish-brown ; lesser wing-coverts 
ultramarine-blue, forming a shoulder patch ; median and greater coverts like the 
back ; bastard-wing, iirimary-coverts, and quills blackish, wth blue on the outer 
webs ; innermost secondaries like the back ; chin, lores, fore-imrt of cheeks, crown 
of head, hind-neck, and sides of neck blackish ; mantle purplish-blue like the lower- 
breast, sides of body, and outer portion of thighs ; middle of abdomen and inner 
portion of thighs sooty-black ; throat and upper-breast verditer-blue ; axillaries 
blackish, tinged -ivith verditer-blue ; lesser mider wing-coverts verditer-blue, greater 
coverts glossy black, like the quills below ; under tail-coverts pure white ; frontal 
plate and bill scarlet ; iris red-hazel, tar.si and feet olive-green to reddish. Total 
length 480 mm. ; culmen, including frontal shield, 70, wing 293, tail 110, tarsus, 97. 

Advlt female. — Similar to the adult male, slightly less, but not so brilliantly 
coloured . 

Immature. — Does not appear to have been described. 

Nestling. — Black ; bill bluish, the base pink ; eyes deep brown, eyelid pink ; 
feet brown. 

Nest. — Similar to that of the Bald Coot (P. melanotus). 

Eggs. — Clutch, five (about) ; stout oval in shape ; texture of shell somewhat 
coarse ; surface glossy ; colour deep stone, fairly blotched and spotted with brown 
and purplish-brown of different shades. Dimensions 56-58 mm. by 40-42. 

Breeding-season. — August to November. 

Distribution and forms. — Restricted to south-west Australia and therefore n_o 
subspecies. 

Family FULICID^. 

Moorhens, which have developed peculiar swimming lobes to the toes of their 
feet, are here segregated as of family rank, especially as their distribution is world 
wide and they are of ancient origin. Thus fo.ssil " Fulica " have been described 
from Mauritius and from New Zealand, and as these had also become degraded and 
semi-flightless, the fixity of the Coot-form is of long date. 

Genus FULICA. 

Fulica Linii6, Syst. Nat. 10th ed., p. 152, Jan. 1st, 1758. TjT^e (by tautonomy) : Fulica 
atra Linnd. 

Birds like the species of Gallinula but differing in having the toes lobed. Bill 
stout and somewhat laterally compressed, shorter than the head, and with a large 
frontal shield. Nostrils pervious, elongatetl slits in the fore-part of the nasal groove ; 
TOUgs short and rounded ; tarsus short, laterally compressed, provided posteriorly 
with a membranous fringe ; tail short, only about one-fourth the length of the wing, 
consisting of fourteen, sometimes sixteen, rectrices ; toes long, the middle toe without 



COOT. 211 

claw exceeding the tarsus in length, each joint having a membranous lobe on each 
side, the claws, very peculiar, being long, very narrow, and rather sharjily curved ; 
the front edge of the tarsus is covered with a row of horizontal scutes, the lateral 
compression of the tarsus making the side reticulations elongate and tending to 
obsolete scutes as on the back. 

Coloration blackish-grey above and below. 

146. Fulica atra. — COOT. 

{Fvlica atra Linn6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 152, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Sweden, Europe. Extra- 

limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VI., pi. 74 (pt. XXIV.), Sept. 1st. 1846. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 5, pi. 61, Oct. 31st, 

1911. 

Fulica australis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1845, p. 2, April : West Austraha. 

F uUca tasmanica Grant, Tasm. Joum. Sci., Vol. II., p. 310, (April ?) 1845 : Tasmania. 

Fulica atra ingrami Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 196, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Alexandra, 

Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male. — General colour plumbeous -grey, paler and duller on the under- 
surface ; head and neck all round black ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills 
dark brown ; edge of \ving white at base of outer primary -quill ; mider tail-coverts 
black, greater under wing-coverts and quill-lining slaty-grey ; bill j)ale bluish- 
grey ; iris brick-red, feet steel-grey. Total length 390 mm. ; culmen and frontal 
shield 42, wing 187, tail 45, tarsus 55. 

Adidt female. — Similar to the adult male but paler in colour, more esjjecially 
on the under-surface. Total length 324 mm. ; culmen 40, wing 191, tail 47, tarsus 55. 

Immature. — The ujitier-surface j)aler grey and of a dull shade, the throat is 
whitish and the uuder-surface is much paler greyish. 

Young in down are black, having yellow hair-like tips, the down thickest about 
the face and neck ; bill cream colour. 

Nest. — Large, loose structure, composed of reeds and rushes ; placed near the 
water. Dimensions 15 inches by 8 inches dee]3 ; egg cavity 8 bj^ 3 deep. 

Eggs. — Clutch, about six or seven ; smooth and glossy ; stone colour, minutely 
dotted with black, evenly over the entire surface ; axis 44 mm., diameter 33. 

Breeding -season. — August to February. 

Distribution and forms. — Through Europe, Asia, Australia and Tasmania, the 
cxtra-limital forms not well distinguished at present. The Australian form is 
separable only by size from the European, the coloration being practically the same 
in every detail. It is however probable that a very small difference is worthy 
of consideration in a genus so widely distributed as this, but sufficient mate- 
rial has not been collected nor studied to determine exactly the status even of the 
Australian-named forms. These are tlu'ee in number : Fidica australis C4ouId 
from West Australia ; Fulica tasmanica Grant from Tasmania ; and Fulica atra 
ingrami Mathews from the Northern Territory; 

SuBOBDEE PODICIPIFORMES. 

There is only one family and not many species in this suborder which has a 
world-wide distribution, little variation beiiig seen in one form ranging over the 
Old World, through Australia into New Zealand. The species are easily recognisable 
by their peculiarly lobed feet, recalling those of the Coots, but yet different in detail ; 
the body is long and rather slender, the feet being placed very far backward ; they 
have short romided wings and no appreciable tail, a longish neck, small head and 
pointed bill, in one form stout and short, in another long and slender. Many species 
have feather ornaments on their heads and necks during the breeding-season. 

p 2 



212 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Generally the Grebes have been placed distant from the Rails, but there can 
be little doubt that this is their correct place. The palate of the skull is 
schizognathous and the nasals holorhinal, and there are no t3asipterygoid processes. 
It has been written by an osteologist that it would be difficult to find differences in 
the skulls of the Grebes and Rails. The cervical veitebrse are twenty-one in number, 
the sterniun is one notched and there is no anterior spine, and the procoracoid i8 
absent. There is only one carotid and the digestive system does not appear to 
have been particularly studied, but may be similar to the Ralline style. The leg 
muscle formula is BX — , which is instructive. The oil gland is tufted, the afters haft 
present and the vring aquincubital. The pterylosis has not been comparatively 
determined, and the swimming downy nestling is of a peculiar striped coloration. 
While fossils are on record as suggested relations of this group, as this has continually 
been confused \vitli the phylogenetically distinct group of Divers (= Colymbiformes, 
a suborder of theLari or Limicolai), it is difficult to consider such at present. Thus 
the Hesperornithes from the Cretaceous of North America have been regarded as 
showing ancestral features of both Grebes and Divers, but such conclusions do not 
seem to have been based on somid premises, and most of the resemblances noted 
are simply due to similar environmental stresses. 



Family PODICIPID^. 

The limits are those of the order, and some workers are diffident in accepting 
many genera, as the ordinal form is omnipresent. However, both osteologists and 
anatomists have recorded, according to their views, important items for separation, 
so that distinct genera must be accepted. Thus the syrinx in Podiceps and Polio- 
oephalus is of different form, while the skull shows numerous differences also. It 
must be noted that the swimming habits of the Grebes have develojied a strong tibial 
crest ; this is the most marked feature for the association of this group with the 
Divers, but it is so purely an adaptive feature that it is difficult to miderstand why 
much stress was laid upon it with regard to phjdogenetic relationship. 



Genus PODICEPS. 

Podiceps Latham, Gen. SjTiops. Suppl., Vol. I., p. 294, (pref. May 1st) 1787. Type (by 

subsequent designation. Gray, p. 76, 1840) : Colymbus cristatiis Linn^. 

Golymbus Illiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 281. (pref. April) 1811. Type (by subsequent 

designation, Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., Vol. XXVI., p. 502, 1898) : Colymhue 

cristaHts Linne. 

Not Liim6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 135, Jan. 1st, 1758. 

Lophaithyia Kaup, Skizz. Entwick.-Gesch. Nat. Syst., p. 72, (pref. April) 1829. Type (by 

monotj'py) : G. cristatus Linn6. 

Largest Grebes, with long straight bills, short roimded wings, rudimentary 
tail and peculiar, flattened tarsi, and largely lobed toes with broad, flattened claws. 
Bill long, straight, and pointed, sometimes slightly curved at the tip : nostrils 
pervious, and placed at the base of the upper mandible. Wings very short and 
rounded, the feathers narrow and pointed, the first loiagest, the secondaries usually 
as long as the primaries. Tail rudimentary, consisting of a tuft of do'miy feathers, 
no rectrices being distinguishable. Tarsus shorter than the middle toe and claw, 
compressed so as to form a ridge ant«riorly and posteriorly, where it is serrated. 
The toes are flattened and surromided by large lobes of skin, only connected at the 
base, not contracted at the joints. The claws are also flattened, forming jmrt of 
the lobe ; the fourth toe is the longest, the hallux is small and also pro%'ided, like 
the others, with a lateral lobe. The anterior ridge is regularly scutellate, and the 



TIPPET GREBE. 213 

sides of the tarsus are similarly regularly scutellate in double rows, the 2>osterior 
edge being scutellated, the scutes projecting so as to form a serrated ridge. The 
feet are placed very far back in the body. 

There is a full double crest in the breeding-season ; general coloration above 
brown, below white. 

147. Podiceps cristatus. — TIPPET GREBE. 

[Colymhus cristatus Linii6, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 135, Jan. 1st, 1758 : Sweden, Eixrope. 

Extra-limital.] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 80 (pt. svii.), Dec. 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 5, pi. 04, Oct. 31st, 

1911. 

Podiceps cristatus christiani Mathews, Birds Austr., Vol. I., pt. 5, p. 207, pi. 04, Oct. 31st, 

1911 : Victoria. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male in breeding-'plumage. — Upper-surface brown, including the head 
(which has a double crest), hind-neck, mantle, scajiulars, and uj^jDer back ; lower 
back somewhat darker and inclining to dusky-browii ; marginal wing-coverts white, 
median and greater coverts brown like the bastard-wing and primary-coverts ; 
primary-quills similar in colour, paler on the inner webs and white at the base ; 
secondaries white, the inner ones brown on the outer webs and tips, the iiuiermost 
like the back ; humerals white, outer ones slightly margined with brown ; lores 
whitish ; the ruff on the upper neck and throat chestnut, tijjped with black ; middle 
of throat, sides of the face, fore-neck, breast, abdomen, axillaries, and under wing- 
coverts pearly-white ; sides of body brown ; bill dark horn colour ; iris red ; 
upper-sui-face of the tarsi and toes dark olive-green, under-suriace pale yellow. 
Total length 520 mm. ; culmen 53, wing 180, tarsus 59. 

Female (adwZi).— Similar to the bird described above. 

The winter-plumage seems to be the same. 

Immature. — Similar to the adult but lacking the crest and paler ; the head 
pale greyish-black, the feathers of the fore-head and superciliary stripe with white 
tij^s ; the feathers of the neck with a chestnut wash, the throat is white, the chestnut 
coloration of the adult missing and the flanks scarcely brown tinged. 

Nestling in down. — Head and all upper-surface pale buff, longitudinally striped 
with black, the stripes down the middle of the back broadest ; the imder-surface 
yellowish-white ; the fore-head is whitish with the to}} of the head white, a black 
bar across the centre ; three stripes can be counted on each side of the neck and 
there is a blotch at the gape, the winglet is black striped ; the bill is yellowish, 
white at the tips and crossed by two black bars ; legs and feet olive. 

Immature, just losing down. — Is pale grey above striped with black similarly 
to the nestling. As it grows it loses the striping, retaining it longest on the head 
and neck. 

Nest. — Constructed of rushes, weeds, etc. Placed low in the water, and always 
damp. Dimensions outside 18 to 20 in. by 12 to 18 deep ; egg cavity 6 in. by 3 
deep. 

Eggs. — Clutch, five ; ground-colour pale green, coated over with a thin layer of 
lime, which soon becomes nest-stained (brown) ; axis 50 to 52 mm., diameter 
34-36. 

Breeding-season. — November to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and New Zealand. 
In 1911 Mathews suggested the recognition of five forms, as follows : P. c. cristatus 
(Linne) for European birds ; P. c. infuscatus Salvador! for African birds, which are 
probably separable into two races, a North African and a South African one ; the 
difference in the superciliary stripe had been before indicated and has since been 



214 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

conftrmed by every worker on African birds ; Asiatic birds, which were larger, 
were left unnamed and do not seem to have been studied since ; Australian birds, 
which were found to be lighter and smaller, were renamed P. c. christiani Mathews, 
as Gould named Pudiceps mistralis as being larger and darker, which are the 
characteristics of the New Zealand race, which should be called P. c. auslralis Gould. 
There may be two races in New Zealand, and it is probable that series in Australia 
would show differences. 

Genus POLIOCEPHALUS. 

Poliocephalns Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Types Aves, p. 47, 1840. Type (by original 

designation) : Podiceps poUocephaliis Jardine and Selby. 

Daeyplilus Swainson, Classif. Birds, Vol. II., p. 369, July 1st. 1837. Type (by original 

designation) : P. poUocephahis Jardine and Selby. 

Not Wagler, Abhandl. Ak. Wiss. Miinch., Vol. II., p. 502, 1832. 

Tachybaptus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. in., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by raonotj^jy) : 

Colymbtis minor Gmelin = C. riificoUis Vroeg. 

Colymheles Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 364, (pref. Sept.) 1890 : New 

name for PoUocephahis Selby. 

Not of Schellenberg, Helvet. Entom., Vol. II., p. 188. 1806. 

Smallest Grebes with short stout bills, short wngs, no tail and large legs and 
feet. The bill is stout, about the length of the head, the culmen almost straight, the 
ridge a little arched, the tif) shaip, not decur\etl ; a well-marked nasal groove 
extends about half the length of the culmen, the nostrils pervious linear small slits, 
about midway between the ridge and the edge of the mandible, in the anterior 
portion of the groove ; the depth of the bill at the base is about one-third the length 
and the imder mandible is about as strong as the upper ; the strong rami are not 
grooved and coalesce to form a strongly angulated gonys, which shows the separate 
rami ; the interramal space is narrow and unfeathercd. The wings are ver\' short, 
the first and second a little scalloped on the inner webs and practically subequal, 
the second probabl^^ the longest, the secondaries as long as the primaries. Tail 
showing no differentiated tail-feathers. Feet and legs as in preceding, the serrations 
on the posterior ridge of the tarsus much more prominent and stronger, sometimes 
a double row being present. The lobes of the toes are connected a little different 
at their bases, the claws more pectinate, sometimes all the claws showing strong 
j)ectinations. 

Coloration dark brown above, head and neck dark with colour markings cr 
white tips, abdomen white. 

148. Poliocephalus ruficollis.— BLACK-THROATED GREBE. 

[Colymbiis ruficollis Vroeg, ex Pallas MS., Cat. Rais. d'Ois., Aduinb., p. 6, (before Sept. 22nd) 

1764 ; Holland, Europe. Extra-limital ] 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 81 (pt. XII.), Sept. 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 5, pi. 62. Oct. 31st. 

1911. 

Podiceps noviFhollatidice Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 18, Feb. 18th, 

1826 : New South Wales, based on Latham's description of WatUng drawing No. 263. 

Podiceps gularis Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. i., pi. 19, Jan. 1st. 1837 : New South 

Wales. 

Podiceps fluviatilis carte.rce Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVII T., p. 197, Jan. 31st, 1912: 

Broome Hill, South-west Australia. 

Podiceps fluviatilis piirryi Mathews, ib. : Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male, breeding. — Upper-surface dark bro\ra, with a tinge of grey on the 
wings ; wing-coverts like the back ; bastard-wing and primary-coverts dark brown ; 
primary-quills dark brown, white at base which increases in extent towaKls the 



HOARY -HEADED GEBBE. 215 

inner ones ; secondaries white, with a shade of brown on the outer webs ; the long 
innermost secondaries brown with white bases ; head black, glossed with green ; 
a line of chestnut fioni behind the eye which widens out on the sides of the neck ; 
throat patch glossy black ; fore-neck rusty-browni ; feathers of the breast tipped 
with dark brown, more intensely on the sides, giving a speckled appearance ; 
remainder of the muler-surface pearly-white, becoming dusky on the sides of the 
body and sides of rent ; axillaries and under wing-coverts pure white ; bill black, 
tip pearly -white ; iris orange, orbits yellow ; feet bluish-grej'. Total length 250 mm.; 
culmen 23, Ming 110, tarsus 34. 

Adult female, breeding. — Similar to the above. 

Adidt male in winter. — Differs from the adult in breeding-plumage in having 
the top of the head, hind-neck, back, and wings dark ashy-grey ; the throat pure 
white, a tinge of buff on the sides of the neck, upper-breast and sides of body, lower 
flanks rufous-buii, the feathei-s tipped with grey ; tips of jirimaries grey. 

Adult female in winter. — Similar to the above. 

Immature female. — Similar to the adult in winter, but differs in having longi- 
tudinal lines of brown and white on the sides of the head and neck ; fore-head and 
a streak over the eye brown ; a white line above the eye which crosses the middle 
of the crown, where it is sandy-buff, and extends in a narrow streak on to the sides 
of the neck ; a white spot on each side of the nape ; a very narrow line of white 
from the hinder part of the eye, which joins the one on the side of the crown ; 0j 
brown streak from behind the eye to the sides of the neck ; a white line from the 
hinder part of the eye, which vmites with another on the cheeks and extends to the 
sides of the neck enclosing a patch of brown at the gape, which extends in a narrow 
line along the sides of the face ; a less distinct line of brown skirting the sides of the 
throat and extending backwards to the sides of the neck. 

Nestling in down. — Upper-smiace black, with numerous narrow lines of buffish- 
white which run horizontally from the hind-neck to the end of the body ; under- 
surface white ; crown of head and hind-neck black, as also two streaks on the sides 
of the neck and another on the fore-neck ; a small chestnut patch on the middle 
of the crown ; a rufous and white V-shaped line from the fore-part of the crown 
to the sides of the nape ; throat white, with three irregular lines of black running 
loiigitudinally on to the fore-neck. 

Nest. — Constructed of rushes, weeds, etc., low down in the water, and always 
damp, and warmed by fermentation. Dimensions 12 in. by 6 to 12 deep ; egg 
cavity 6 in. bj' 2\ deep. 

Eggs. — Clutch, five to eight ; usually nest-stained, which on being scraped off 
reveals a pale green ground-colour ; axis 31-38, diameter 24r-2Q. 

Breeding-season. — September to Februaiy. 

Distribution and forms. — Through Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, and 
many subspecies may be recognised. The extra-Umital forms have not been 
sufficiently studied to limit the subspecies, but in Australia three fairly recognisable 
races are easily seen : PoliocepJialus rvficollis novcehollandice (Stephens) from Eastern 
Australia ; Poliocephalus ruficollis carterw (Mathews) from South-west Australia, 
of darker coloration above and with a shorter thicker bill ; and PoliocepJialus 
ruficollis parri/i Mathews from North-west Australia, of lighter coloration than the 
typical race and with a more slender bill. 

149. Poliocephalus poliocephalus.— HOARY-HEADED GREBE. 

Gould, Vol. VII., pi. 82 (pt. XII.), Sopt. 1st., 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 5, pi. 63, Oct. 31st, 
1911. 

Podiceps poliocephalus Jardine and Selby, Illustr. Ornith., Vol. I., pt. I., pi. 13, Feb. 1827 : 
New South Wales. 



216 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Podiceps neator Gould. Synops. Birds Austr., pt. r, pi. 19, Jan. 1st, 1837 : Van Diemens 

Land and New South Wales = Tasmania. (W. Stone.) 

Podicepi poliocephalus cloatesi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 197, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Point Cloates, mid- West Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally and Tasmania. 

Adult male in breeding-pliunage. — General colour of the upper-surface dark 
slate-grey, the feathers of the mantle, back, scapulars, and wing-coverts fringed 
with white ; bastard-wing, j)rimary-coverts, and quills dark brown, the latter 
blackish at the tips and white on the inner webs, the white increasing in extent on 
the inner primaries, where they become white shaded with brown at the tips, the 
dark pattern increasing on the inner secondaries, where it sjireads over the greater 
])ortion of the feathers, the white pattern being reduced to the base only ; sides of 
tlie lower back and rumj) white streaked with broMTi ; head and neck all roimd 
black, dusky on the fore-head and lores, the feathers on the top of the head and sides 
of the face continued into white, hair-like tijjs. which impart a streaked appearance ; 
lower hind-neck dusky-bro^vn, becoming buff on the fore-neck ; breast also buff, 
darker on the sides, which is continued along the sides of the body on to the lower 
flanks, where they are greyish-brown ; under sui-face pearly-white ; under wing- 
coverts and axiUaries white, the latter with dark brown on the outer webs ; bill 
black, tip flesh colour ; iris straw-yellow ; tarsi and feet olive. Total length 
271 mm. ; culraen 2.5, wing 111, tarsus S.^. 

Adult female in breeding-plumage. — Similar to the adult male but differs in 
b9ing paler, the throat dark brown, and the fore-neck pale fawn. It is also somewhat 
smaller. Total length 230 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 111, tarsus 32. 

Adult in winter. — Everywhere paler on the upper-parts ; toji of head grey, 
blackish on the hind-neck ; the hair-like plumes short on the fore-head, longer on 
the hinder face aiid sides of upper neck ; throat pale grey. 

Immature and Nestling. — Similar to those of prececiing. 

Nest. — Very much like that of the preceding species. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four to six ; ground-colour when fresh pale green, covered with 
white chalky nodules ; axis 39, diameter 26-27. 

Breeding-season. — October to January. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout Australia and Tasmania. It is possible 
that more subspecies will be admitted later, but vnXh the material at hand only two 
are recognised, an eastern and a western form, the latter being darker above and 
the buS on the sides of the breast being more extensive. The New Zealand bird, 
P. rufopectus Gray is closely related but is specificall}' distinct. 

Order GALLI. 

This order comprises five suborders, the Hoatzin as sole member of one, 
Curassows, Megapodes, etc., Hemipodes, and Seed Snipe. The Hoatzin, constituting 
the Opisthocomiformes, has a wonderful literature on account of its mangrove 
breeding-habits and its use of otherwise disused members. Nevertheless, it is 
only a little modified relative of the Curassows and Guans and must be included 
in the same order. Moreover, it inhabits the same countries, both being restricted 
to South and Central America. The Craciformes, including the Cm-assows and 
Guans, are peculiar low forms of Galline birds, agreeing in some internal features 
with the Megapodes with which they have no near relationship. The former are 
large birds which live in the forests in trees ; they are stoutly built with crested 
heads and bare spaces round the eyes, varying in the different species, and mostly 
of dark coloration. The Megapodes are famed for their peculiar lack of incubating 
their eggs and will be more fully dealt with below as they belong to the Papuasian 
and Australian Regions. They are only regarded as constituting a superfamily 



ORDER GALLI. 217 

of the suborder Galliformes, the other sui^erfamily being the Phasianoidea, which 
includes all the well-laiown domesticated fowls and most of the desirable game-birds, 
with a world-wide range but only three small forms in Australia. The Hemipodes 
constitute the fourth suborder, Turniciformes, and is strongly represented in Australia, 
but the forms are small birds. The last suborder, Attagidiformes, for the Seed Snipe 
of South America, consists of a few small birds, which are purely modified forms, but 
which on account of the idiosyncrasies of anatomists have been variously classed, 
commonly with the Plovers, to which they are not nearly related. The internal 
characters cited in favour of the Charadriiform alliance were obviously misunderstood. 
There are no absolute anatomical or osteological features for diagnosis, so we will 
cite the general characters quoted. The skull shows the palate to be schizognathous 
with the nasals holorhinal, and basipteiygoid processes are present ; the jsalatincs 
without internal lamina as a general rule ; the lachrjnnals are variable, sometimes 
large with a large descending process as in the Craciformes, sometimes small with a 
weak or missing descending process as in the Galliformes. The sternum is strongly 
keeled generally with very deep notching and peculiar lateral processes ; the furcula 
is always present and curved and there are sixteen cervical vertebrae. The carotids 
are either one or two, the syrinx is variable and the digestive system is somewhat 
variable, of apparently low origin and showing relationship to the Tinami, the lowest 
forms being seen in the Opisthocomiformes and Craciformes. There is a large crop 
present and the cseca are large. The leg-muscles are generally complete, ABXY+, 
the expansor secmidariormu present but somewhat peculiar, the biceps slip variable. 
The oil gland is sometimes tufted, sometimes nude, an aftershaft always present, 
and the wng quincubital or aquincubital. The pterylosis has only been studied 
in a few forms without much variation determined, and the nestling is hatched 
covered \vith do^va^. Though regarded as an ancient group, the factor, quin- 
cubitalism of the wing, suggesting this, few fossil forms are known. 

Suborder GALLIFORMES. 

We separate this suborder into two superfamilies, Megapodioidea for the 
Megapodes and other mound-building forms as Leipoa, and Phasianoidea for the 
Turkeys, Guineafowl, Grouse, Pheasants, Partridges and American Quail. While 
superficially the Megapodes are rather different from the remainder, the anatomists 
have pointed out many small peculiarities in their internal structure. Thus Huxley 
divided the Galliformes into two, the Peristeropodes and the Alectoropodes, the 
former covering the Craciformes and the Megapodioidea, the latter the remaining 
Galliformes. The former differed in the less notching of the sternum and the short 
obtuse costal processes, with the hallux on the level with other toes ; the latter have 
the sternum very deeply notched and long costal processes and the hallux attached 
above the level of other toes. We have separated the Craciformes as of subordinal 
rank distinct from the Galliformes in which we include the Megapodes, and this 
arrangement agrees with the results of anatomical investigation. 

SuPERFAMiLY MEGAPODIOIDEA. 

This superfamily includes the mound-building Galliformes, but the tliree forms 
represented in Australia are of diverse appearance and possibly of different origin. 
We have admitted only one family but possibly three will later be recognised, the 
three Australian species being each referred to a separate family. It is almost certain 
that Leipoa has no close relation with the others, and we anticipate careful osteo- 
logical and myological comparison will reveal more differences than likenesses. The 
range of the mound-builders is Pajraasia and Australia, but the Papuasian group 
only ranges into the extreme north of Australia, while Leipoa is isolated in 
•the extreme South, both east and west, but not Tasmania. The superficial details 



218 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

of these are given under the genera, and the general internal characters have been 
given under the ordinal heading. The chief differences in the Megapodes may be 
noted : the oil gland is nude, the left carotid only is present, while the sjTinx is 
peculiar and of a primitive nature ; the basipterygoid processes are more noticeable 
and the skull shows details of difference, and the wing is aquincubital. We have 
traced no details of Leipoa, and Shufeldt in his recent papers on this subject in the 
Emu mentions nothing. 

Family MEGAPODID.^. 

Genus MEGAPODIUS. 

Megapodius Gaimard, Bull. Gen. Univ. Annon. Nouv. Sci. Ferussac, Vol. II., p. 450, (read 

June 6th) 1823 (July, Aug.). Type (by subsequent designation, Mathews, List Birds Austr., 

p. 5, 1913) : Megapodiun freycinel Gaimard. 

Aleclhelia Lesson, Bull. Sci. Nat. Ferussac, Vol. VIII., p. 115, pt. i., (Jan ?) 1826. Type 

(by monotypy) : Alecthelia vrvillii Lesson and Gamot = M, freycinet Gaimard. 

Amelou^ Gloger, Hand- u. Hilfsb., pt. v., p. 375, 1841 (end). New name for Alecthelia Lesson. 

Megathelia Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol, II., pt. 5, p. 112, Sept. 24th, 1914. Type (by 

original designation) : Mega podius tumulus Gould. 

Small Galline birds, wth short head and bill, occipital crest, long roimded 
wings, short tail and very stout legs and short toes. The bill is shorter than the 
head, rather delicate for this group, a little flattened and laterally compressed, the 
tip decurved, the nostrils linear ovals, almost hidden by a membranous operculum ; 
mider mandible flattened. The lores and round the eyes scantily feathered. The 
wing is very roundetl, the feathers stiff, the first primary long but onlj^ equal to 
the ninth, the second equal to the eighth, all the intermediate ones subequal ; the 
secondaries comparativelj' short. The tail is rounded and very short, composed 
of twelve broad rounded feathers and is only about two-fifths the length of the 
wing. The legs are very stout, the tarsus having strong scaling, the broad frontal 
scutes being broken into hexagonal scales towards the toes, the sides having large 
scutes of similar shape ; the toes are rather short, the outer and imier subequal 
and little shorter than the middle toe, while the hind-toe is two-thirds its length ; 
the claws are veiy long and little curved. 

Coloration dark chestnut-brown above, lead -grey below. Nestling barred with 
brown and black. 

150. Megapodius reinwardt. — SCRUB FOWL. 

[Megapodius reinwardt Duniont, Diet. Sci. Nat. (Levrault), Vol. XXIX., p. 416, Dec. 27th, 

1823 : Amboina errore = Aru Islands. Extra-limital.] 

Gould. Vol. v., pi. 79 (pt. VI.), March 1st, 1842. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 6, Oct. 31st, 1910. 

Megapodius tumulus Gould, Birds Austr., pt. vi., March 1st, 1842 : Cobourg Peninsula, 

Northern Territory. 

Megapodius a.'similis Masters, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. I., p. 59, Feb. 1876 : Dungeness 

Island, Torres Strait, North Queensland. 

Megapodius duperrrui niclmllcnsis, Mathews, Austral Av. Bee, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 26, April 

2nd, 1912 : Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

DlSTRlBtJTlON. — North Queensland, Northern Territory. 

Adult male (from the Northern Territory). — General colour above, including 
the wings and tail, dark chestnut-broMai, becoming darker on the lower back, 
rump, upper tail-coverts and tail ; primarj^-coverts and quills blacldsh, paler 
on the outer webs ; head crested, darker than the back, the feathers being 
lanceolate in form imparts a more or less streaked appearance ; hind-neck and 
upper mantle dark lead-grey like the entire under-surface, except the imder tail- 
coverts, which are dark chestnut like the flanks ; imder wing-coverts dark lead- 
grey ; fore-head, sjiace romid the eyes and sides of face very sparsely feathered 



SCRUB FOWL. 219 

with dark hair-like plumes ; chin and upper tliroat with verj' short blacldsh feathers ; 
bill reddish-brown with yellow edges ; iris dark brown ; tarsi and feet bright 
orange, the scales on the front of the tarsi from the fourth downwards and the scales 
on the toes dark reddish-brown. Total length 450 mm. ; culmen, from hinder jjoint 
of nostril, 21, ^^ang 275, tail 105, tarsus 65. 

Adult female (from the same locality).— Similar in every respect to the plumage 
to the male. Iris brown ; feet red. Total length 431 mm. ; culmen, from hinder 
point of nostril, 20, wing 257, tail 106, tarsus 70. 

An adult female from Port Keats, Northern Territory, is in much abraded 
phunage and evidentl3' moulting after the breeding-season. Many of the feathers 
of the wings and back are much M'orn and have paler margins which gives a more 
or less barred appearance on the upx^er-surface. 

An adult male from Cape York is very similar to the adult male described above 
in the distribution of colour, but everywhere much paler, the middle of the abdomen 
is inclining to olive-brown ; the lower flanks, thighs and under tail-coverts deep 
chestnut and inclining to maroon. Total length 455 mm. ; culmen 20, vdng 266, 
tail 105, tarsus 67. 

Immature female (from Bartle Frere, Queensland). — Rich chestnut-bro-wn on 
the head, entire back, upjser tail-coverts and wings, the latter showing the remains 
of indistinct ban-ings and rufous margins on the edges and tips of the greater coverts 
as showii in the nestling plumage. It is also distinguished from the adult by the 
chestnut colour of the lower flanks, thighs and under tail-coverts ; quills and tail- 
feathers blackish as in the adult ; bill and iris brown ; feet yellow. Total length 
370 mm ; wing 234. 

Chick (from Port Keats, two weeks old). — Dark reddish-brown on the head, 
wings, lower back and tail ; the scaijulars and wings show more or less distinct 
brown and rufous bars ; hind-neck and upper mantle olive-brown ; sides of face 
and lower throat lead-grey, becoming more or less whitish on the chin ; sides of 
botly and under wing-coverts lead-grey ; remainder of under-surface russet-brown ; 
under aspect of tail conspicuously darker. 

Another chick, from Cedar Ba}', Queensland, is similar to the above, but every- 
where paler ; the hind-neck and upper mantle slate-grej^ as also the lower throat, 
the sides of the face paler and the chin whiter ; the under-surface pale rust-brown 
or more less mixed mth grey ; imder aspect of tail not consj)icuously darker than 
under-surface. 

Nest or egg momid, usually of immense size, rotmid in shape, occasionally 
conical ; composed of loose, black vegetable mould or soil, niixed with sticks, leaves, 
etc., if close to the beach the momid is chiefly sand and shells ; usually situated 
within a few hmidred yards of the sea-shore, and protected by thickly-foliaged 
scrub or trees. Dimensions, about 20 feet in diameter at base, or a circumference 
of about 60 feet ; height about 5 feet. 

J^ggs. — Clutch, or complement to a momid, variously stated, but probably 
eight to ten ; long ellipse in shajje, both ends being nearly alike ; texture of shell 
coarse ; sm-face wthout gloss ; colour, j)'nkish or jfellowish-buff , the outer or 
beautiful pinkish-bufl: coating, when removed, shows the yellowdsh-buff. If both 
colours are scratched ofE a whitish shell is revealed. Dimensions 84 to 92 mm. by 
50-53. 

Breeding-season. — October to February. 

Incubation-period. — About six weeks. 

Distribution and forms. — Owing to the individual variation (perhaps seasonal) 
the forms of this species, which occurs in the Aru Islands, New Guinea and Northern 
Australia are not well miderstood. At the jiresent time four subsjiecies are indicated 
with the possibility of more ; these are : Megapodius reinwardt reinwardl Dumont 
from the Aru Islands ; M. r. tumulus Gould, from the Northern Territorj^ more 



220 A MANUAL or THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

olivaceous on the upper-surface and larger (M. r. melvilhnsis Mathews from Melville 
Island, named on account of its lighter upper coloration may later be reinstated) ; 
M. r. assimilis Masters from North Queensland, with darker and more rufous 
upper-surface and also smaller size ; M. r. diiperryii Lesson and Ganiot from Dorey, 
New Guinea, may be used for the Arfak Peninsula and Dutch New Guinea birds, 
unless the latter be separated on account of their more olive coloration, but 
Rothschild and Hartert, twenty years ago, also included the Moluccan and Bismarck 
Archipelago, etc., birds as consijecific, recognising five additional subspecies, but 
two species appear to have been confused, and more study is required to determine 
accurately the extra-liniital forms. 

Genus LEIPOA. 

Leipoa Gould, Birds Austr., pt. i., Dec. 1st, 1840. Type (by monotypy) : Leipoa occUata 
Gould. 

Large Galline birds with verj' small heads and bills, short full crest, long roundetl 
wings, long romided tail, strong legs and feet. The bill is short, shorter even than 
head, the culmen ridge basally flattened, the tip forming a dertrum somewhat 
deflected and comparatively delicate ; the nasal groove large, the nasal apertures 
strongly operculate, rather linear and pervious ; the under mandible is flattened, 
a little spoon shajDed, the mandibular rami veiy short and more or less feathered 
towards their bases, the interramal space feathered ; there is a naked sjmce romid 
the eyes. The wing is very rounded, the feathers very stout and stiff, the first 
primary long but shorter than the sixth, which is less than the second, third, fourth 
and fifth little longer, the fifth generally the longest ; the secondaries are veiy long, 
almost as long as the longest primaries. The tail is very long, more than half the 
length of the wing, consisting of sixteen broad feathers, rounded in shape, the tail- 
coverts very long, both upper and imder almost reaching to the end of the tail. 
The legs are very strong, the tarsus a little more than one-fifth the length of the 
wing, the tarsal covering in front being a double row of large hexagonal scutes, the 
remainder coarsely reticulated ; the toes rather short, the middle toe about half 
the length of the tarsus, the outer and inner shorter and subequal, the hind-toe long 
and straight, about half the length of the middle toe ; claws very long and little 
curved. 

Coloration banded and ocellated above, head grey, breast with black stripes, 
under-surface otherwise white to pale buff. NestUng mottled rufous-brown. 

151. Leipoa ocellata.— MALLEE FOWL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 78 (pt. I.), Dec. 1st, 1840. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 7, Oct. 31st, 1910. 

Leipoa ocellata Gould, Birds Austr., pt. i., Dec. 1st, 1840 : Swan River, Western Australia. 

Leipoa ocellata rosinoe Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 177, Jan. 31st, 1912 : South 

Australia. 

Distribution. — New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, South and mid-West Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour above grey and rufous-brown, barred on the wings 
and tail with black and white, which gives the bird a banded appearance ; head 
grey, with dark lanceolate feathers tipped with whitish on the middle of the crown, 
which imparts a more or less streaked appearance ; feathers of the hind-neck Icad- 
gre}\ some of them margined with rufous-bro^vn ; the back covered with silky or 
down-like feathers also grey with paler tips ; mantle grej- barred with black, white, 
and rufous-brown, as also the scapulars, median and greater wing-coverts ; sides 
of neck and lesser wing-coverts ashy-giey, the latter fringed with paler edgings ar.d 
some of the outer ones showing dark shaft-streaks ; primaiy-coveits pale brown 



MALLEE FOWL. 22l 

tipped with whitish ; primaries blackish, paler on the outer webs, marbled towards 
the ends and margined with white at the tips ; secondaries blackish on the inner 
webs, irregularly barred with tawny, scimitar-shaped white and black marks on the 
outer webs ; the long inner secondaries vermiculated and barred with these colours 
on both webs ; the upper tail-coverts and middle tail-feathers are similar in colour 
to the secondaries ; remainder of tail blackish tipped \nth white ; cheeks, chin 
and uj)i3er throat ferruginous ; on the lower tlu'oat a patch of black feathers which 
are streaked with white down the middle, some fringed with white at the ends and 
the lateral ones with white outer webs ; sides of breast grejr, barred with black, 
becoming paler on the sides of the body, and the dark bars broader and more pro- 
nounced ; middle of abdomen and vent silvery-white ; lower flanks, thighs and 
imder tail-coverts buff, more deeply tinted on the latter, and with black shaft-streajis 
to the long under tail-coverts towards the base ; wing-coverts grey on the outer 
margins, some of the inner ones barred with ferruginous and black like the axillaries ; 
bill slate black ; bare skin below the eye bluish-white ; remainder of bare skin 
round eye dusky-black ; iris light hazel ; feet blue-grey. Total length 569 mm. ; 
culmen, from hinder point of nostril, 25, wing 345, tail 197, tarsus 75. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male but distinguished by the marblings or 
vermiculations on the outer webs of the iirimaries, on their lower aspect. Total 
length about 565 mm. ; wing 346, tarsus 71. 

Immature male (tlu'ee-quaiters grown). — Similar in every respect to the adult, 
but has the under wing-coverts and axillaries more rufous and the remains of 
mottlings on the outer webs of the primaries below. 

Im,mature femxile (of the same age). — Similar to the above. 

Immature (about half gi'own). — Under ^\■ing-coverts more numerously but 
faintly barred and less rufous ; the mottlings on the imder-surface are more 
pronounced. 

Chicle. — The general colour of the dorsal surface of the downy plumage of the 
yomig bird shortly after leaving the mound is a mottled rufous-brown, whilst the 
ventral surface is an ashy ci'eam-buff. The legs and feet are well developed and 
strong and the toes are provided with long and powerful claws capable of scratch- 
ing vigorously for food. The primaries and secondaries are fully developed and are 
of a bro^vn colour, barred with white. The wing-coverts, which are of a downy 
nature, are brown, mottled with white. The downy feathers situate on the flanks 
and abdominal surface and throat are a creamy-buff. The lores, auriculars and 
fore-head feathers which are also downy are a browaiish cream-buff. Crown, nape, 
back and rump feathers are a light-mottled brown washed with bufi. The tail, 
which is downy, is a light brown barred with white on the dorsal surface, and is an 
inch long, whilst the ventral surface is somewhat lighter in colour. The breast, 
which has a mottled ajjpearance and downy, is an ashy-buff, whilst the sides are 
somewhat similar in colour only possessing a barred api^earance. Total length 
200 mm. ; culmen 10, wing 100, tarsus 25. 

iV^e>s^ — A large conical-shaped heap or mound of sand, etc., covering a bed of 
leaves and other vegetable debris about 8 inches in thickness, usually situated in 
a water track in the dense scrub of sandy tracts, or in reddish ironstone gravel 
comitry, such as the Mallee, etc. Dimensions 10 to 12 feet in diameter at base, or 
a circumference 30 to 40 feet, and height 2 to 4 feet. 

Eggs. — Clutch, twelve to eighteen — other authors seven to eight ; long oval in 
shape or elliptically inclined ; texture coarse, but shell exceedingly thin ; surface 
without gloss ; colour, when first laid, light pink or pinkish-buff, which on being 
scratched or removed shows a yellowish-buff gromid ; this, in turn, as incubation 
proceeds, chips off in patches and reveals a whitish shell. Dimensions 88-94 mm. 
by 57-60. 

Breeding-season. — September to February. 



222 A MANPAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Incubation-period. — 42 to 45 days. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to southern extra-tropical Au.stralia. Two 
forms have been indicated, an eastern and western form, the latter being darker 
and smaller than the former. 

Genus ALECTURA. 

Aleclura Latham, Gen. Hist. Birds, Vol. X., p. 455, 1824. Type (by monotypy) : New 

Holland Vulture = A. lathami Gray. 

Calhefurus Swainson Clasaif. Birds, Vol. II., p. 206, July 1st, 1837. New name for Aleciura 

Latham. 

Largo heavily built Galline birds with longish necks, small head and bill, long 
rounded wings, very long rounded tail, strong stout legs and feet. The head and 
neck are bare \vith a scanty covering of bristly feathers, and a large fleshy wattle 
at the base of the sides of the neck. The bill is comparatively small, stout, laterallj' 
compressed, culmen strongly arched, no dertrimi differentiated, the depth half as 
long as the length and more than the width, the lower edges of the upper mandibles 
straight, tip not decurved ; the nasal groove indefinite, less than half the length of 
the culmen, and in the anterior portion the nostrils are situated half-way between 
culmen ridge and edge of mandible ; the apertures are rounded ovals, large and 
open, but there appears a small internal process ; the imder mandible spoon shaped, 
the gonys about half the length and almost straight, the mandibular rami ill defined 
posteriorly, the interramal space sparsely bristly as the head and neck. The wing 
is composed of stiff feathers, rounded, the first primary a little more than half the 
fifth, which is longest, the second is about two-thirds, the third and fourth longer, 
and the sixth to the tenth almost the same length as the fifth, and the secondaries 
are almost as long. The tail is peculiar in that it consists of eighteen very broad 
feathers with rounderl tips, the outside feather shortest and the fifth from the outside 
longest, the middle one shorter so that it is doubly rounded ; it is very long, about 
two-thirds the length of the wing, and the tail-coverts are short, the upper shorter 
than the under ones. The feet are very stout, the tarsus ven,' broad with the front 
covered \^dth a row of broad scutes, often divided into two, the sides with small 
hexagonal scutes, but the back with large scut-es, smaller on the inside ; the toes 
are long, the claws long and little curved ; the middle toe shorter than the tarsus, 
the inner and outer shorter and subequal, the hind-toe about half the length of 
the middle toe. 

Coloration above and below blackish. Nestling brownish. 

152. Alectura lathami.— BRUSH-TURKEY. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 77 (pt. I.), Dec. Ist, 1840. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 8, Oct. 31st, 1910. 

Alectura lathami Gray, Zool. MisceU., pt. i., p. 4, 1831, Nov. 5th : [near Sydney], New South 

Wales. 

Meliagris lindesayii Jameson, L'Institut., Vol. III., No. 115, p. 238, July 22nd, 1835. l^om. 

nud. 

Catheturus avstralia Swainson, Classif. Birds, Vol. II., p. 206, July 1st, 1837. New name for 

A. lathami Gray. 

Catheturus novmhollandiai Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. (Paris), Vol. XLII., p. 

876, May 1856. Nom. nud. 

TaUgallus pnrpureicolUa Le Souef, Ibis, Jan. 1898, p. 51 : Cape York, Queensland. 

Alectura lathami robinaoni Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 177, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Cairns, 

North Queensland. 

DisTKiBUTioN. — Queensland, New South Wales. 

Adult male.- — Sides of neck, upper back, wings above and below and tail black ; 
middle of back covered with down-like feathers which are sooty-grey at base and 
blackish at the tips ; under-surface blackish, the feathers of the upper-breast 



BRXJSH-TUEKEY. 223 

narrowly, and those of the lower-breast and abdomen broadly edged with white 
as also the thighs ; under tail-coverts composed of black down-like feathers. Skin 
on head and upjier jjart of neck red, remainder of neck yellow ; bill black ; iris 
brownish-white ; feet yellow. Total length 586 mm. ; culmen, from hinder point 
of nostril, 29, wing 296, tail 200, tarsus 93. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male, distinguished only by the absence of the 
wattle at the base of the neck. ; bill black, iris brownish-white ; feet yellow. Total 
length 577 mm. ; culmen 24, wing 291, tail 210, tarsus 77. 

Young. — Covered with down of a dark fulvous-brown colour, with some black 
feathers appearing on the back ; wings and tail black, and the feathers on the 
under-surface of the same colour, with wliitish margins, as in the adult bird. 

Ohick. — Has the down much lighter colour, wing feathers joale brown with 
paler margins ; mider-sui-face of body more inclining to whitith. 

N&st. — A large rotmid momid of earth, chiefly black vegetable mould, with an 
admixture of decaying matter, some of the momids being smTomided with sticks. 
Usually situated in dense scrub or forest. Dimensions about 12 feet in diameter 
at the base, or a circumference of about 34 to 36 feet, and height about 2} feet. 

Eggs. — Complement to a mound, if used by a pair of birds, twelve to fifteen ; 
if used by several birds, i.e., three pairs, thirty-five to thirty-six ; elliptical in shape, 
while some are more or less comj)ressed at one end ; texture of shell coarse ; surface 
without gloss, and rough ; colour jjure white, more or less stained with the earth of 
the mound. Dimensions 89-95 mm. by 5ii-62. 

Breeding-season. — September to January. 

Incubation-period. — About forty-two days. 

Distribution and forms. — Confined to Eastern Australia, ranging from Cape 
York to New South Wales; three forms have been recorded : the southern A. I. 
lathami Gray from New South Wales, the largest with the skin of the neck red, the 
wattles yellow; A. I. robinsoni Mathews from North Queensland, with similar 
coloured but paler skin and wattles, and smaller size ; and A. I. purpureicoUis 
(Le Souef), from Cape York, North Queensland, also smaller with the skin of the 
lower portion of the neck and the wattles purplish-white. 

SUPERFAMILY PHASL\NOIDEA. 

This superfamily, containing all the well-lcno^vn and familiar game-birds, is 
separable into six families : Me'eagrididae, Numididse, Tetraonidse, Phasianidse, 
Perdicidss and OdontophoiidaB. The first and last named families are American, 
the second African, the third named Holarctic, the Phasianidae practicalljr confined 
to the Indo-Chinese Region, and the Perdicidse with headquarters in Lidia range 
into Palsearctic Region, into Africa and into Australia. Superficially there is 
a great resemblance among the members, the Turkeys and Guineafowl being hand- 
some and i^ecu'iar groups, while the Pheasants are very remarkable for their extrava- 
gance in colour and design. The Perdicidce, with the greatest range, includes the most 
modest and smallest members of the order, and is the onlj^ family penetrating into 
Australia of this superfamily, only three small species referable to three genera, one 
of which, as usual, is endemic, agreeing with the theory of continued imim'grations 
from the north. 

Family PERDICID^. 

Genus COTURNIX. 

Coturnix Bonnaterre, Tabl. Ency. Meth. Ornith., Vol. I., pp. Lxxxvii., 216, 1791. Typa 
(by tautonymy) : C. communis Bonn. = Tctrao coturnix Linne. 

Ortygion Keyserling und Blasius, AVirbelth. Europa's, pp. Lxvi., 112, 202, (before Ai^ril) 18-10. 
Type (by monotypy) : Tetrao coturnix Linne. 



224 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Perdortyx Montessus, M6m. Soc. Saone, Vol. VI., p. 36, 1885. Type (by monotypy) : 
Synoicics lodoi^iB " Vorreaux et Des Murs " Montessus = Tetrao colurnix LinmS. 
Maroturnia Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 112, Sept. 24th, 1914. Type 
(by original designation) : Colurnix pectoralis Linni6. 

Small Galline birds with short curved bills, short wings, short tail and short 
legs and feet. The bill is short, broadly triangular, tip somewhat spoon shaped, 
sides sloping, culmen not keeled but pronounced, deep at base ; the lower mandible 
shallow and entirely overlapped by upper mandible which projects into a prominent 
tip ; the no.strils are situated in a semicircular depression, appearing as linear slits, 
situated midway between ridge and edge of mandible near the base, the feathers 
of the lores projecting on to the nasal groove below the nasal apertures, which are 
almost hidden by the strong membranous operculum characteristic of this family. 
The wings are short and rather pointed, the flight feathers stout and capable of long 
flight ; the first and second primaries are almost or quite equal, the third a little 
shorter, and these constitute the tip of the wing ; the secondaries rather short, 
reaching to the ninth primary only. The tail is composed of ten short soft feathers, 
less than one-third the length of the mng, rounded in shajie and the upper tail- 
coverts long, reaching to the end of the tail, the mider tail-coverts about as long. 
The legs are short and stout, the tarsus transversely scutellate in front, covered with 
hexagonal scales on sides and behind, the toes scutellate ; the tarsus is nearly twice 
as long as the culmen. The toes are short and stout, the middle toe longest, the 
inner and outer subequal, the hind-toe long about one-third the length of the 
inner ; claws fairly long and sharp. 

Coloration streaked black and white above and below. 

153. Coturnix pectoralis. — STUBBLE-QUAIL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 88 (pt. XXV.), Dec. 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 9, Oct. 31st, 

1910. 

Coturnix pectoralis Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. 11., pi. (29), April 1st. 1837 : New South 

Wales. 

Coturnix pectoralis prcetermissa Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 178, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Broome Hill, South-west Australia. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Head, neck, entire back and scapulars rufous-bro'mi and black 
streaked with white ; a white streak from the middle of the crown to the hind-neck, 
another one which commences at the base of the bill and goes over the eye and along 
the sides of the neck forming a white eyebrow ; mantle and upper back rufous-brown 
more broadly streaked with white, some of the feathers broadly barred -ndth black, 
and narrowly mth rufous bars ; some of the feathers of the back black with very 
narrow zigzag markings ; scapulars like the back with grey margins to the tips of 
the feathers ; lower back and rump show more black, with ashy tips to the feathers, 
the rufous-brown broken up into very narrow cross-bars ; tail-feathers dark grey, 
with a white shaft-streak and white bars on both webs towards the margins ; lesser 
■\ving-coverts, median and primary -coverts ashy -grey with paler shaft-Unes ; primary- 
and secondary-quills ashy-grey with dark shaft-lines somewhat paler on the iimer 
webs ; lores, sides of face, chin and throat rufous, with a few black dots from the 
gape, which indicate a line along the sides of the neck and meet on the middle of the 
lower throat ; the feathers on the chest and breast almost entirely black aiwl some 
with white outer webs, the feathers of the lower-breast white Avith a broad streak of 
black down the middle, those on the sides of the breast and sides of the body are 
white narrowly lined on each side with black and margined vnXh. rufous ; the feathers 
on the lower flanks more broadly centred with white, the dark brown on the outer 
webs divided by a narrow longitudinal line of buff ; middle of abdomen, thighs and 
under tail-coverts white, the latter more or less lined with black ; mider wing- 






1, Nestling of King Quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) Australian form. 

2, Nestling of King Quail {Excal/actoria chinensis) Extra-limital form. 

3, Nestling of Stubble-Quail (Coturnix pectoralis). 

4, Nestling of Painted Quail (Marianornis varius). 

All natuml size. 



STUBBLE -QUAIL. 



225 



coverts and axillaries white ; bill bluish-horn ; iris red-hazel ; feet yellowish. Total 
length 191 mm. ; wing 110, culmcn, from base of fore-head, 15, tail 32, tarsus 26. 

Adult female.— DiSeis from the male in ha\nng less black above, the rufous much 
paler and the grey more in evidence ; the throat white instead of rufous, the feathers 
of the chest are less black, some of them margined with buff. Total length 180 mm. ; 
wing 107, culmen 17, tarsus 26. 

Another female from Western Australia, has the head almost entirely black with 
the exception of the white eyebrow ; the back more rufous-brown with no appearance 
of grey ; sides of face isabelline, becoming paler on the throat, but not white ; 
feathers of the breast and abdomen fulvous Avith submarginal lines of black ; the long 
feathers on the sides of the body and flanks with broad white shaft-streaks lined on. 
each side with black aiad mottled -with fulvous on the margins. 

Ymmg male. — Has the white streak of the adult just appearing on the middle 
of the crown ; sides of the crown, chin and throat are covered with buff hair-like 
feathers ; the feathers of the back and scapulars pale bi-own crossed by ferruginous 
and black bars broadly lined with white ; the long inner secondaries and upper tail- 
coverts with longitudinal lines of black next to the jDale shaft-streak ; under-surface 
buffy-white with twin black spots on each feather, the long flank feathers with 
broad white shaft-streaks and three dark spots on each web. 

Nestling. — Tawny and black above, these colours arranged in four lines, more 
or less longitudinally, from head to tail ; mider-siuiace fulvous. 

Nest. — Upon the ground in crop or herbage, the nesting hollow, 4 J inches across, 
being lined with straw or grass as the case may be. 

Eggs. — Clutch, about eight ; three eggs collected in Victoria are oval in shape, 
with a slight gloss on the smiace, and have the gromid-colour buff, freckled and 
blotched with reddish- brown over the entire surface; axis 30 to 32 mm., diameter 
21 to 22. 

Breeding-season. — Usually September to January, but eggs have been taken 
much later. 

Incubation-period. — (In captivity) eighteen days. 

Distribution and forms. — Restricted to extra-tropical Australia and Tasmania. 
An eastern and a western form, the latter much darker above and below, especially 
on the head and breast. The extinct Neozelanic bird, Coturnix novcezealandice, 
Quoy and Gaimard, is very closely related, but may be considered specifically 
distinct. 

Genus YPSILOPHORUS. 

Ypsilophorus Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 5, p. 127, Dec. 24th, 1912. New name 
for Synoicus Gould 1843, not Synoicum Phipps 1774. Type (by monotypy) : Perdix australis 
Latham. 

Synoicus Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xn. (Vol. V., pi. 89, text), Sept. 1st, 1843. Type (by mono- 
typy) : P. australis Lath. 
Not Synoicum Phipps, Voy. North Pole, App., p. 199, 1774. 

Small GaUine birds with small bills, short roimded wings, very short tail and 
stout legs and feet. 

The bill is similarly formed to that of the preceding genus but a little longer, 
while the legs are also very similar to those of the last named but are a shade shorter, 
so that they are correspondingly less when compared with the culmen length. 
The wing is very different, being much romided, the first four primaries being 
subequal and longest and the fifth little shorter, while the secondaries are corre- 
spondingly much longer, reacliing to the tip of the seventh primary. The tail is 
short and softer, being less than half the length of the wing and also having twelve 
feathers. 

The coloration is different from that of the preceding, having streaks above 
but with wavy bars below. 

Q 



226 A MANU.-U:. OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

154. Ypsilophorus ypsilophorus.— BROWN QUAIL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 89 (pt. xn.), Sept. 1st, 1843 ; pi. 90 (pt. xxvi.), March 1st, 1847 ; pi. 91 

(pt. XXIX.), Dec. 1st, 1847. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pk. 10 and 11, Oct. 31st, 1910. 

Coturnix ypsilophorus Bosc, Journ. d'Hist. Nat. (Paris), Vol. II., No. 20, p. 297, pi. 39, 1792 : 

No ioc. = I have designated Tasmania (Frederick Henry Bay). 

Perdix australis Latham, Index Ornith. Suppl., p. Lxn., 1801, after May 30th : Sydney, New 

South Wales. 

Synoicus diemenensis Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xxvi., March 1st, 1847 : Tasmania. 

Synoicus sordidus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1847, p. 33, April 27th : South Australia. 

Synoicus cervinus Gould, Handb. Birds Austr., Vol. II., p. 195, (Doc.) 1865 : Port Essington, 

Northern Territory. 

Coturnix australis rogersi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 179, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Parry's 

Creek, North-west AustraUa (coast). 

Oot-urnix australis mungi Mathews, ib. : Mungi, North-west Australia (interior). 

Coturnix australis melvilletisis Mathews, Austral Av. Kec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 26, April 2nd, 1912 : 

Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Coturnix australis queenslandicus Mathews, ib. : Cape York, Queensland. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Brown, more or less rufous or vinous, washed with bluish-ash 
colour, and with narrow and evanescent shaft-lines of white to the feathers of the 
back. Head brown, mottled with broad black markings, not verj' distinct, but 
more so on the sides of the c^o^vn, tho centre of the latter being rather more vinous 
and showing narrow white shaft-lines which are continued to the na23e, and appear 
in a lesser degree on the hind-neck and mantle, which have a more vinous tint, with 
ill-defined wavy blackish bars, most of the feathers bluish-ash colour at the ends, 
imparting an ashy shade to the uj)per-parts ; scapulars, remainder of back and 
upper tail-coverts similarly shaded and marked, the white shaft-lines scarcely 
i:)erceptlble, but the black cross-bars more distinct ; wing-coverts rufous-brown, 
with indistinct blackish bars, but no conspicuous ashy shade, and the white shaft- 
lines obsolete ; quills brown, the primaries externally mottled with dull rufous, 
crossed with blackish bars, the secondaries more conspicuously freckled and barred 
with rufous externally, the pattern being rufous ■with, irregular dusky bars and spots, 
the inner secondaries being entirely rvifous, vermiculated vith blackish-brown, and 
having a black subterminal bar before a pale rufescent tip ; tail-feathers dusky- 
brown, with zigzag bars of rufous, the centre feathers with black and fulvous bars ; 
eyebrow, lores, and sides of face dull ashy-brown, the ear-coverts with narrow shaft- 
lines of wliite ; the throat uniform pale vinous, whiter on the chin ; lower throat 
and remainder of under-surface vinous-buff, varied with wavy bars of black, with 
white shaft-Uncs or centres to the feathers, the white often dividing the wavy black 
bar in the middle ; the black bars more distinct and broader on the abdomen, sides 
of body and flanks ; under tail-coverts like the abdomen and broadly barred with 
black ; mider ^ving-coverts pale ashy, as also the axiUaries and quill-iiuing. Total 
length about 189 mm. ; culmen 18, wing 96, tail 41, tarsus 25. 

Adult female. — Differs from the male in having the back blotched with broad 
black s^Dots or bars, the latter mostly reaching one side of the white shaft-streak, 
thus causing the latter to stand out in bolder relief ; the sides of the crown blackish, 
forming a broad band on each side, slightlj' mottled with rufous ; along the centre 
of the crown a distinct line of white, corresponding to the whitish superciliary streak 
over each eye, the feathers being white, edged with black ; throat ashy-whitish ; 
remainder of under-surface pale ochraceous-buff, regularly barred vnth wavy lines 
of black, with white shaft-lines, generally dividing the latter, the waved bars much 
broader on the sides of the body and especially on the flanks ; under tail-coverts 
also broadly barred with black ; imder wing-coverts and axillaries, as well as quill- 
lining, ashy -grey ; Bill bluish ; eyes dark red ; feet orange. Total length 197 mm. ; 
culmen 16, wing 100, tail 45, tarsus 18. The absence of vinous colour and grey on 



BROWN QUAIL. 227 

the upper-surface, as well as the coarser black markings, distinguish the female 
from the male. 

Younger male birds closely resemble the females, but are everywhere more 
coarsely barred below, and mottled above with bars of black on the back and wings. 

Sometimes in very old birds the cross-bars of the chest and breast are reduced 
to a very small wavy line, and a vinous colour pervades the under-surface. 

The adult females are much more coarsely blotched with black spots, more 
thickly barred below and with more distinct white shaft-streaks. 

Ne.'itlin.g. — Chestnut-red above, with black bars on the back and wings ; two 
chestnut patches on the head divided by a white line from the middle of the crown 
to the hind-neck, each of these patches is margined on the inner side with black ; 
a black line from the base of the bill to the middle of the crown ; a white line on 
each side of this black streak from the base of the bill over and behind the eye ; a 
black line immediately above the eye and a second immediately below it ; under- 
eurface of the body whitish. 

Nest. — A hollow in the groimd, under the shelter of a tuft of grass or rushes, 
lined with a few dead grass stems and leaves. 

Eggs. — Seven to eleven ; romidish in form, sharply compressed at one end ; 
texture, somewhat coarse and strong ; surface glossy ; colour sometimes of a 
muform dull white, occasionally showing a j^erceptible bluish tone, but more fre- 
quently more or less finely freclded vnih olive or light brown. The markings when 
fresh may be removed by moisture ; axis 29-32 mm., diameter 22-23 mm. 

Breeding-season. — October to February. 

Incubation-period. — (La captivity) twenty days. 

Distribution and forms. — Throughout Australia and Tasmania, and on some 
of the Moluccas. A very variable species, seven subspecies being named, as follows : 
Ypsilophoru-s ypsilophorus ypsilophorus (Bosc) from Tasmania ; Y. j)- australis 
(Latham) from New South Wales, Victoria and South Queensland, smaller and 
lighter ; Y. ^3. queenslandicus (Mathews) from Cape York, Queensland, a more 
reddish form, especially below ; Y. p. cervinus (Gould) from Northern Territory, 
a smaller form of more delicate sandy and buff shade ; Y. p. melvillensis (Mathews) 
from Melville Island, still smaller but darker than preceding ; Y. p. rogersi (Mathews) 
from the coastal districts of the North-west, much darker than the last named ; and 
Y. p. mungi (Mathews) from the interior of the North-west, a pallid desert form ; 
while the South-west and South Australian race may bear Gould's name Y. a. 
sordidus, given to an aberration. 

Genus EXCALFACTORIA. 

Excalfactoria Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLII., p. 881, May 1856. 
Type (by tautonymy) : Teirao chinensia Lirme. 

Compsortyx Heine und Reichenow, Nomencl. Mus. Hein., p. 292, (pref. Sept.) 1890. New 
name for Excalfactoria Bonaparte. 

Smallest Galline birds with short bills, short rounded wings, very short tail 
and short legs and feet. 

The bill is similarly formed but is much less conical, narrower and longer in 
j)roportion to dej)th. The wing is short and rounded, like that of Ypsilojihorus, 
the first five primaries subequal and longest and the secondaries long, reaching to 
the eighth primary and not much shorter than the longest ones. The tail is very 
short, about one-third the length of the wing, the feathers eight only and very soft, 
entirely liidden by the tail-coverts, which are longer, both the uj^per and imder. 
The legs and feet are of the same nature in ever^' detail as in the preceding genus. 

Coloration : the sexes very different ; the female as in the other Quail forms, 
streaked above, more or less barred belo%v, but the male has develojied a beautiful 
more or less uniform coloration, black above, breast slate, abdomen chestnut. 

Q2 



228 A MyVNUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

155. Excalfactoria chinensis. — KING QUAIL. 

[Tetrao chinensis Liim6, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., Vol. I., p. 277, (pref. May 24th) 1766 : China. 

Extra-limjtal.] 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 92 (pt. xn.), Sept. let, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 12, Oct. Slst, 

1910 

Excalfactoria australis Goxiid, Handb. Birds Austr., Vol. II., p. 197, (Dec.) 18G5 : "Australia " 

= Queensland. 

Excaljactoria chinensis victoricc Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 179, Jan. Slst, 1912 : 

Koo Wee Keep, V^ietoria. 

Excalfactoria chinensis colletii Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 3, p. 73, June 28th, 

1912 : Glencoe, Northern Territory. 

Excalfactoria chinensis cairnsce Mathews, ib. : pt. 4, p. 83, Sept. 18th, 1912 : Cairns, 

Queensland. 

Distribution. — Northern Territory, Queensland, Now South Wales, Victoria, South 

Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour above black with pale shaft-lines -which are broader 
and more pronounced on the lower back and rump ; crown of head black vnth a 
longitudinal line of white from the middle of the cro^vn to the hind-neck ; feathers 
of the mantle rufous-brown crossed with black, streaked -RTth narrow white shaft- 
lines and margined ^^^th lead-grey ; scapulars lead-grey with broken up markings 
of black which are submarginal on some of the longer feathers ; upper tail-coverts 
black Vfith lead -grey margins ; wing-coverts grejash-brown wth more or less tracings 
of black bars ; primary-coverts and quills pale brown ; tail-feathers Icad-grcy at 
the base and with a marginal notch at tips ; remainder deep chestnut live the under 
tail-coverts and middle of the abdomen ; sides of crown, breast and sides of body 
deep slate-colour, some of the feathers bordering the chestnut of the imder-surface ; 
a small white line from the base of the bill to the ej'e, followed bj- a black line below 
the eye which is continued along the sides of the face and joined to the black of the 
throat ; a longitudinal white patch enclosed between the black line below the eye 
and the black of the throat ; a semicircular white collar which commences at the 
back of the car-coverts and meets on the middle of the tlu-oat where it is broader ; 
this white collar is followed by a narrow line of black which separates it from the 
slate colour of the chest and upper-breast ; sides of breast more or less barred 
with black ; bill black ; iris red ; feet yellow. Total length 130 mm. ; culmen 12, 
wing 74, tail 26, tarsus 20. Two apparently adult birds still retain a trace of chestnut 
on the outer margin of the greater Aving -coverts. 

Adult female. — General colour above reddish-brown streaked with white shaft- 
lines and black blotches or cross markings ; croAvn of head black with a white line 
down the middle ; sides of crown, sides of face, and lower throat tawny ; wing- 
coverts pale reddish-broAvn finely ban-ed with black and longitudinal white shaft- 
lines ; primary-coverts and quills pale brown ; outer primary^ white along the outer 
edge ; imder-surface fulvous crossed by narrow black bars broad on the sides of the 
body and flanks, less on the thighs and under tail-coverts. Total length 130 mm. ; 
culmen 12, wing 70, tail 2.5, tarsus 18. 

Immature. — Closely resembling the adult female. 

Nestling. — Sooty-black everywhere except the throat which is buff, and three 
indistinct streaks of the same colour on the top of the head . 

The chicks are able to fly when ten days old, and are practically in adult 
plumage at six weeks. 

Nest. — A hollow in the ground, lined, more or less, with grass, etc., and sheltered 
by herbage. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; oval in form, with a glossy surface ; and drab ground- 
colour, minutely freckled with reddish-bro\^Ti over the entire surface, but more 
thickly at the larger end ; axis 14-15 mm., diameter 17-18. 



KING QTJAIL. 229 

Breeding-season. — August to January. March and April in Central Queensland. 

Incubation-period. — (In captivitj') eighteen to twenty days. 

Distribution and forms. — Eastern Asia from China to India and though the 
Philippines, etc., to Eastern AustraHa. The extra-liniital forms have been imper- 
fectly studied and the subspecies are not well known ; fom- names have been given 
to Australian birds and three subspecies may be easily recognised but the names need 
rearrangement. Gould named the Australian bird as a si^eeies and in 1912 Mathews 
selected Queensland as the restricted type locality, but when Witmer Stone studied 
the Gouldian collection in Philadelphia he selected a specimen from South Australia 
as " the type," and Mathews renamed the Queensland form from Cairns. However, 
the type could not be in the Philadelphia collection, as the sjoecies was not named 
mitil 1865, and therefore Mathews's locality selection must be maintained, especially 
as the Queensland birds agi-ee better in size mth Gould's measurements ; therefore 
we have E. chinensis avstralis Gould from mid-Queensland, probably to Glencoe, 
Northern Territory (the type locality of Mathews's E. c. colleUi, but which may be 
separable by paler coloration) ; E. c. cairnsa: Mathews, from North Queensland, a 
darker form above and below ; and E. c. victorice Mathews from Victoria, New South 
Wales, and South Australia, a larger form, also lighter than preceding and with a 
narrower white band on the throat. A somewhat variable species which will repay 
still further study. 

Suborder TURNICIFORMES. 

The little Button Quails, superficially like Quails, but without a hind-toe, 
have peculiar internal features, and as these have been misunderstood by anatomists 
they have been removed from the near vicinity of the Galli, to which they un- 
doubtedly belong. The Plain Wanderer resembles these but has retained the hind- 
toe and is i-egarded as representing a distinct family, especially as intemal modifica- 
tions are recorded. It is confined to the south central portion of Australia, whereas 
the Button Quails range from South Europe and North Africa through India to 
Australia, where they are most strongly represented. The skull is very peculiar, 
having the palate of a pattern named segithognathous, which is otherwise unlcnown 
in this connection, but here again there can be little doubt that this is a false 
fegithognathisni, and that it has been produced from a state of schizognathism, 
such as is always seen in the Galli. The nasals are recorded as scliizorhinal, but 
it is admitted that this is a pseudo-scliizorhiny and is of holorhinal origin. There 
are well-marked basipterygoid processes and the lachrymals fuse \rith the ecteth- 
moids. There are fifteen cervical vertebrpe and the sternum shows a pair of long 
postero-lateral processes as in the Galliformes. The carotids are variable, and the 
tracheo-bronchial sjTinx is somewhat degenerate ; the digestive system is somewhat 
peculiar, the caeca long. The muscle formula is variable, as is also the presence 
of the expansor secundariorum. The oil gland is tufted and the aftershaft present 
and the wing aquincubital or quincubital. The pterylosis is abnormal and the 
downy nestling is typically Gallinc. 

Family TURNICID^. 

Until recently all the Button Quails were referred to a single genus, but super- 
ficially they show variation, so that many genera are here admitted ; no investigation 
has yet been made as to the differences in the internal features of the species, but 
in the few sjiecies yet examined variation has been noted. Thus, the syrinx shows 
variation in detail, while skeletal items have been recorded and even the leg muscles 
are not constant, the accessory femoro-caudal being present in some cases, though 
generally absent. Other features require comparison. 



230 A aLiNTJAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Genus TURNIX. 

Turnix Bonnaterre, Tabl. Ency. M6th. Omith., Vol. I., pp. Lxxxn., 5, 1791. Type (by 

subsequent designation, Gray, p. 63, 1840) : T. gihraltarka Bonn. = Telrao aylvatica Des- 

fontaines. 

Ortygit lUiger, Prodr. Mamm. et Av., p. 242, (pref. dated April) 1811. Newname for Turnix 

Linn. = Bonnaterre. 

Hemipodius Temminck, Pigeons et Gall., Vol. III., p. 607, 1815 ex Eeinwardt MS. New 

name for Turnix Bonnaterre. 

Ortyx Oken, Lehrb. der Naturg., Vol. III., Zool., pt. n., p. 611, vm., 1816. Newname for 

" Turnix." 

Ortyx Billberg, Synops. Faun-i; Scand., Vol. I., pt. u., tab. A, 1828. New name for Ortygis 

Illiger (c/. Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2 and 3, p. 37, Oct. 23rd, 1913). 

Medium Tumices with long thin bills (for this Order), short round wings, short 
tail and stout legs and feet. The bill is comparatively long and thin, laterally 
compressed, tip sharp ; the nasal groove long, about half the length of the bill, 
the nostrils linear pervious slits overhung by strong membranous operculum, placetl 
near base of bill ; the under mandible with distinct perpendicular rami enclosing 
feathered interramal space, not so spoon-like as in the Quails. 

The wing is romided, the first three primaries subequal and longest, the fourth 
very little less and the secondaries fairly long, reaching to the seventh prima^J^ 
The tail is composed of soft feathers and is short and rounded, less than one-third 
the length of the wing, and the upper and mider tail-coverts are longer than the 
tail-feathers. The legs are stout, the tarsus regularly scutellate in front and behind, 
the toes long, the middle toe longest, the outer longer than the inner and there is 
no hind-toe ; the claws are sharp. 

Coloration : the females are larger and more brightly coloured than the males ; 
the upper-surface greyish-brown barred with black and chestnut, the under-surface 
showing throat and abdomen unbarred, the barring ai^pearing on the chest. 

156. Turnix maculosa.— BLACK-BACKED QUAIL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 84 (pt. xsi.), Dec. 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 13, Oct. 31st, 

1910. 

Hemipodius macnhsus Temminck, Pigeons et Gall., Vol. III., p. 631, 1815 : Nouvelle 

HoUande = Sydney. 

Hemipodius melanolus Gould, Synops, Birds Austr., pt. n., pi. (30), April 1st, 1837 : "Van 

Diemen's Land " = Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

Turnix maculona pseules Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 180, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Parry's 

Creek, North-west Australia. 

Turnix maculosa yorki Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 53, April 7th, 1916 : 

Cape York, North Queensland. 

Distribution. — North Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory, North- 
west Australia. 

Adult female. — Head greyish -brown, barred with black ; feathers of the fore-head 
margined vrith rufous ; hind-neck and sides of neck bright rufous ; back slate-grey, 
barred vnih black and chestnut ; scapulars similar in colour, margined with white 
or ochreous-buff on the outer webs ; lower back, rump and upper tail-coverts black, 
the feathers very narrowly barred or margined with chestnut or white ; tail-feathers 
brown, with indications of black bars ; lesser wing-coverts dusky ; median and 
greater wing-coverts barred with ochreous and black ; bastard-wng dark brown 
margined on the outer web wth buffy -white ; primary-coverts blackish ; quills 
dark brown, the outer one edged with white ; the innermost secondaries like the 
back, with ochreous, black and white markings ; lores and a line over the eye, ear- 
coverts, sides of face and throat pale rufous, as also the flanks and under tail-coverts ; 
fore-neck and sides of breast brighter rufous, the feathers on the latter barred or 
spotted with black ; middle of abdomen whitish ; axillaries and aspect of wings 



PAINTED QUAIL. 231 

below pale grey ; bill, distal portion brown, basal part yellow ; iris grejdsh-brown ; 
tarsi and toes dull yellow. Total length 160 mm. ; culmeii 14, wing 80, tail 25, 
tarsus 21. 

Adult male. — Smaller than the female but similar in plumage, with less chestnut 
on the upper-surface, and less vinous-chestnut on the neck ; the inner secondaries 
without any chestnut, but mottled with black and ochi-eous-buff vermiculations. 
Bill yellow, the distal half and the tijD of the lower mandible brown ; iris white ; 
feet yellow. Total length 135 mm. ; culmen 12, wing 78, tail 20, tarsus 17. 
Immature. — Very similar to the adult. 
Nestling. — Very like those of the next species. 

Nest. — A scantily grass-lined hollow in the gromid, sheltered by a convenient 
tuft of grass or low bush. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; gromid-colour very pale slaty-grey, almost entirely hidden 
by brown spots, intermixed with larger blotches of dark slaty -grey ; smiace smooth 
and very glossy ; axis 25 mm., diameter 19. 

These eggs can easily be distinguished from those of T. velox by being much 
darker and the surface of the shell bright and glossy. 
Breediiig-season. — October to January. 

Distribution and forms. — From Lidia through the Moluccas and New Guinea to 
Northern Australia, the only member of the family in Australia which has an 
extra-limital distribution. The extra-limital forms have been insufficiently studied 
to diagnose con'ectly their subspecific differences, but tlu'ee fairly well-marked 
subspecies occur in Australia, as : T. m. maculosa (Temminck) from New South Wales 
and South Queensland (of which H. melanotus Gould is a synonym) ; T. m. pseutes 
Mathews from North-west Australia, with a well-marked fulvous superciliary stripe 
and the fulvous mider coloration more extensive and imiform ; and T. m. yorki 
Slathews from North Queensland, a much paler form than the jsreceding. 

Genus MARIANORNIS. 

Marianornis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 5, p. 128, Dec. 28th, 1917. Type 
(by original designation) : Perdix vwia Latham. 

Larger Tumices with longer and stouter bills, short wngs, tail, and legs and 
feet. The bill is formed as in the last named but is much longer and stouter, and 
the wings, legs and feet are also similar ; the tail is longer, more than one-third the 
length of the wing, the feathers a little stronger than in the preceding. The legs 
are also a little shorter proportionately, being less than one-fourth the length of the 
wing, whereas in the preceding they are more. 

Coloration, general coloration above chestnut, streaked with black, white and 
grey ; under-surface, chin and abdomen whitish, breast with bold black marking ; 
sexes similarly coloured, males duller and smaller. 

157. Marianornis varius.— PAINTED QUAIL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pis. 82-3 (pt. xxi.), Dec. 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 15, Oct. 31st, 
1910. 

Perdix varia Latham, Index Ornith. Suppl., p. Lxiii., 1801, after May 30th : (Sydney), New 
South Wales, based on Watling drawing No. 227. 

Hemipodius scintillans Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1845, p. 62, Sept. : Houtman's 
Abrolhos, West Australia. 

Turnix varia stirlingi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIIL, p. 181, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Stirling 
Range, South-west Australia. 

Turnix varia subminuta Mathews, ib. : Cooktown, North Queensland. 
Distribution. — Australia generally. Tasmania. 

Adult female. — General colour above chestnut, varied with black and grey, and 
linearly streaked with white. Mantle and back chestnut, with a few bars or spots of 



232 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

black, the feathers of the back more phainly barred with v;a\y cross linos of black, 
and having a broad black subterminal band ; on each side of the feathers a margin 
of white, producing a striped appearance ; scapulars like the back, grey, with 
chestnut and black markings towards the end of the feathers, which have somewhat 
broader white linear margins ; lower back and rump like the rest of the back, but 
more mottled with chestnut, and black bars, and wth the white marginal streaks less 
strongly developed ; up23er tail-coverts like the rump, but with broader white edges 
to some of the feathers ; mng-coverts dull ash^^ the lesser series with a few black 
bars, the median and inner greater coverts chestnut towards their ends, which have 
a white tip preceded by a black subterminal bar ; primary -coverts and quills blackish- 
brown, the primaries TOth narrow margins of paler brown, the three outennost edged 
with ashy-white ; the innermost secondaries much varied, being chestnut, with black 
cross-bars, of which the subterminal one is very broad ; the distal aspect of some of 
them notched with buSy-white and edged with this colour, before which is a sub- 
terminal line of black, preceded bj' some blackish vermiculations ; tail-feathers 
ashy-grey, with slight blackish vermiculations ; crown of head black, the hinder 
crown and nape barred with chestnut ; the base of the fore-head, lores, and a line of 
feathers along the sides of the crown white, with black edges, producing a spotted 
appearance ; ear -coverts, dark ashy-grey, with white shaft-lines below the eye ; 
cheeks white, with black margins, resembling the sides of the neck, which are 
similarly spotted, the hind-neck mostly ashy -grey, with a twin bar of white and black 
and a chestnut tip, this followed by an area of nearly uniform chestnut, which over- 
spreads the upper mantle, and has only a few black bars ; chin and upper tlu-oat 
white ; the lower throat, chest, upper-breast and sides of the body dull plumbeous- 
grey, each feather centred with an ovate spot of buff, with more or less of a blackish 
margin, the bufi taking the fonn of bars on the sides of the breast, where there are 
a few black bars ; on the sides of the fore-neck and chest an area of chestnut con- 
tinuous with the chestnut of the upper mantle, and extending down to the sides 
of the ui)per-breast, where there are a few white spots and black bars ; middle of the 
breast and abdomen white, with a slight tinge of buff ; undei- tail-coverts sandy- 
buff, with some lateral black spots ; under wing-coverts, axillaries, and inner lining 
of quills dull ashy -grey. Total length 190 mm.; culmen 18, wing 108, tail 43, 
tarsus 23. 

Adult waZ-:.-— Differs from the female in being smaller ; the distribution of colour 
above is simila.r, but ever\^vhere duller, particularly on the mantle, where the 
extended colour of the back takes the place of the bright chestnut patch, which is 
conspicuous in the female ; the feathers of the lower throat and chest are buffy -white, 
with twin black spots, which gives an irregular barred appearance ; bill bluish- 
horn colour ; iris deep orange ; tarsi and feet deep yellow. 

Immature. — Very similar to that of the adult male. 

Nestling. — Covered with black, white and grey do^vn, with an admixture of 
chestnut on the middle of the back and wings ; a white line on each side of the 
crown, from the lores to behind the eye ; a black line from the base of the fore-head, 
which widens out on the crov/ii and encloses a narrow white line on the hinder crown ; 
there is also a more or less pronounced double white line on the middle of the back ; 
under-surface entirely dusky-grey. 

Two other young individuals, a little more advanced in age, have the head 
similarly coloured to that of the nestling ; the feathers of the back are black, with 
white on rufous margins ; primary- and secondary-quills brown, ■nith buffy-white 
edges ; throat covered with grey down ; the feathers of the breast and sides of neck 
sandy-rufous, with black shaft-lines in one specimen ; in the other the black takes 
the form of bars ; abdomen and flanks buffy-white, becoming tawny on the m\der 
tail -coverts. 

Nest. — A slight depression in the ground, sometimes lined with a little grass 



ALLIED QUAIL. 233 

•or fine leaves, and sheltered by a tussock, stone, etc. ; usually in an ex^josed dry 
locality. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; smooth and glossy, with a whitish ground-colour, minutely 
freckled vnth blue and brown spots over the entire surface, as well as reddish-brown 
s^Dots more sparselj^ distributed; axis 26-27 mm., diameter 21-22. 

Breeding-season. — September to February. 

Incubation-period. — Probably thirteen days. 

Distribution and forms. — Tlu-oughout Australia and Tasmania. The subspecies 
have not yet been accurately determined, though four races have been named, and 
more are indicated. Gould named the specimens from the Houtman's Abrolhos 
as a distinct species on account of their small size and paler coloration and brighter 
markings, also noting that the West Australian birds were smaller than the tyjoical 
birds and the Tasmanian birds larger ; the birds from the Stirling Ranges were 
distinguished by Mathews on accomit of their darker upper coloration but paler 
mider coloration, and the North Queensland form was also named for its smaller 
size. Thus we have M. v. varius (Latham) from South Queensland, New South 
Wales, South Australia and Tasmania (?) ; M. v. subminutus (Mathews) from North 
Queensland ; M. v. stirlingi (Mathews) from the Stirling Ranges, West Australia ; 
and M. v. scintillaris (Gould) from Houtman's Abrolhos, and probably the mainland 
-adjacent of West Australia. 

Genus AUSTROTURNIX. 

Austroturnix Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 8, p. 195, March 20th, 1913. Type 
(by original designation) : Hemipodius castanotus Goiild. 

Large Tumices with stout " parrot-like " bills, short wings, longer tails and 
short legs and feet. The bill is peculiarly stout, strongly laterally compressed, the 
culmen ridge notably arched, the nasal groove short, the lower mandible with strong 
deep perpendicular rami. 

The wing has the first four primaries subequal and longest and the secondaries 
long, reaching to the tip of the primaries. The tail is less than half the length of the 
lirimaries as in the preceding, but is about twice the length of the tarsus. The legs 
are very similar to those of the preceding but a.re comparatively shorter. 

Coloration similar to the foregoing in general style but paler and less boldly 
marked and the markings on the breast becoming obsolete, only a darker breast-band 
remaining. 

158. Austroturnix olivii.- -ALLIED QUAIL. 

Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 17, Oct. 31st, 1910. 

Turnix olivii Robinson, Bull. Brit. Omith. Club, Vol. X., p. xLin., Feb. 28th, 1900 : Cook- 
town, Queensland. 
Distribution. — Queensland (Cooktown). One specimen preserved in Tring Museum. 

Adult female (type of the species).— General colour above, pale vinous-chestnut 
with lavender -grey edges to the feathers of the upper-surface ; on the mantle and 
back a certain number of feathers are crossed with black bars towards their ends and 
broadly edged with ashy-white, forming streaks, which have a coterminal line of 
black accompanying the white streaks on their inner side ; these banded and white- 
streaked feathers being present among the scapulars but absent on the rump, upper 
tail-coverts and tail which are pale cimiamon ; wing-coverts vinous-chestnut, 
like the back and with the same ashy -grey edges to the feathers, which are difierently 
marked, being spotted with white on the inner median and greater coverts, these 
white spots having a more or less distinct subterminal line of black ; lesser wing- 
coverts more dusky, having black centres to the feathers ; primary -coverts blackish, 



234 A IIANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

forming a wing patch ; quills sepia-bro\vii, with ashy or dull rufous margins^and 
slightly paler ends, the first iirimary externally whitish, the next ones edged with 
hoary-grey, inner secondaries spotted ■nath white, like the coverts ; head pale slaty- 
grey with a line of chestnut feathers on each side of the crown which are barred with 
black ; sides of face and ear-coverts ashy -grey spotted with minute specks of white ; 
chin white followed by buff on the tliroat which spreads over the breast, where it is 
washed more or less with ashy -grey ; on the sides of the body the feathers are vinous- 
chestnut edged with pale grey ; abdomen whitish, more or less suffused with buff ; 
flanks and under tail-coverts sandy-buff ; under wing-coverts, axillaries and the 
mider aspect of quills pearly-gre}^ with a certain amount of pale vinous on the imder 
wing-coverts ; the margin of the wing below is dotted ^vith black ; bill brown ; iris 
yellow ; feet yellow. Total length 190 mm. ; culmen, from base of skull, 21, wing 
106, tail 42, tarsus 25. 

The only kno^^^l specimen of this bird is the type which is in the Tring Museum. 

Immature, Nest, Eggs and Distribution. — Unknown. 

159. Austroturnix castanota.— CHESTNUT-BACKED QUAIL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 85 (pt. xiii.), Dec. 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 16, Oct. 31st, 

1910. 

Hemipodius castanotus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1839, p. 145, March 1840: Port 

Essington, Northern Territory. 

Turnix castanota magniftca Mathews, Nov. Zoo!., Vol. XVIII., p. 181, Jan. 31st, 1912 : East 

Kimberley, North-west Australia. 

Turnix castanota mclvillensis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 27, April 2nd, 1912 : 

Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Turnix castanota alligator Mathews, ib. : South Alligator River, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Northern Territory. North-west Australia. 

Adult female. — General colour above vinous-chestnut, the feathers edged on 
either web with white, producing a streaked appearance ; these white marginal 
lines accompanied by an inner line of black ; towards the end of the feathers some 
more or less broken bars of black ; lower back, rump and upper tail-coverts, dull 
vinous-chestnut shaded with ashy-grey, and having nearh^ obsolete blackish bars ; 
scapulars like the back, but with somewhat broader white margins externally ; 
wing-coverts vinous-chestnut, the marginal coverts edged wth black, the median 
and greater series slightly ashy-grey on the edges, and having ovate spots of white, 
bordered -with black on their upper margins ; primar}- -coverts and quills sepia-brown, 
almost black, with narrow rufescent edges, the first primary whitish along the 
outer web ; tail-feathers vinous-chestnut mth faintly indicated dusky cross-bars ; 
crown vinous-chestnut, with a line of ashj'-grey down the middle of the cro'rni to 
the nape, the sides of the crown with scarcely any spots or bars of black, forming 
a broad band of vinous-chestnut on each side of the mesial gi'ey band ; fore-head, 
lores, and a broad ej^ebrow mottled with small white spots, each of which has a 
black margin, this spotted appearance being continued on to the sides of the nape ; 
ear -coverts streaked %vith white, the feathers narrowly edged with black ; sides of 
neck, hinder neck and upper mantle vinous-chestnut, -n-ith ovate spots of white, 
each spot narrowly margined wth black ; this vinous colour extending down the 
sides of the breast, where the spots are somewhat larger ; throat dull white, tinged 
with pale ochre on the lower part ; fore-neck, chest, and upper-breast ashy with a 
slight ochreous tinge and plentifully marked with ovate spots of jiale ochre, increasing 
in size, on the sides of the breasts, which are also somewhat ashy ; centre of breast 
and abdomen white, the sides of the body and flanks pale ochreous-buff, the flanks 
more dusky and having ashy bases to the feathers ; under tail -coverts sandj'-buff ; 
axillaries and under wing-coverts leaden-grey, the former slightly washed with 
rufous ; quills leaden-grey below, tinged with rufous along the inner web ; iris 



LITTLE QUAIL. 235 

yellow ; feet yellow ; bill brown. Total length 162 mm. ; culmen 16, vnng 85, 
tail 37, tarsus 19. 

Adult male. — Differs from the female chiefly in being smaller ; and the grey 
of the breast being mixed with buff. Total length 158 mm. ; culmen 15, wing 79, 
tail 41, tarsus 21. 

Immature. — Apparently similar to the adult. 

Nestling. — Ajjpears to be undescribed. 

Nest. — A depression beneath a tussock of grass or where the grass grows long, 
especially in the neighbourhood of water. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; rounded, glossy and finely pitted ; they are greenish- 
white, and some are boldly sjieckled -with very dark browai, or almost black markings, 
especially on the larger end, while others have much smaller faint spots of purplish- 
bro\vn. The marldngs beneath the surface appear giey. The eggs vary somewhat 
in size and measurement. Dimensions 23-26 mm. by 19-21. 

Breeding-season. — January. 

Distribution and forms. — Restricted to North-west Australia and Northern 
Territory. The forms are not yet imderstood. Gould described the species from 
Port Essington, Northern Tenitory, and his description and measurements apply to 
the smaller race, and probabh' A. c. alligator (]\Iathews) from the South Alligator 
River will prove sjaionymous as the Melville Island race, A. c. melvillensis (Mathews) 
is larger and resembles ^4. c. magnifica (Mathews) from North-west Australia but is 
darker though of the same size. There seems to be individual as well as sexual 
variation and the plumage changes do not appear to be understood. 



Genus ALPHATURNIA. 

Alphaiurnia Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 112, Sept. 24th, 1914. Type (by 
original designation) : Hemipodius vehx Gould. 

Smallest Tumices with stout "parrot-like" bills, short wings, shorter tails and 
short legs and feet. The bill is formed like that of the preceding genus but is even 
more arched and deeper, the lower mandible even stronger. The wing is like that 
of the preceding genus, the imier secondaries long, reaching to the tips of the 
primaries. Tlie tail is similar, but only about one-third the length of the wng, and 
less than twee the length of the tarsus. The tarsus is short and is less than one 
and a half times the length of the culmen. 

Coloration similar to that of the preceding generally, the male smaller and 
duller than the female. 

i6o. Alphaturnia velox.— LITTLE QUAIL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 87 (pt. II.), March 1st, 1841. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 19, Oct. 31st, 

1910. 

Hemipodius velox Gould, Birds Austr., pt. ii., March 1st, 1841 : Yarrundi, Upper Hunter 

River, New South Wales. 

Turnix leitcogaster North, Ibis, July 1st, 1895, p. 342 : Davenport Creek, Central Australia. 

Turnix velox vinotimta Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 182, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Mungi, 

North-west Australia (interior). 

Turnix velox picturala Mathews, ib. : Derby, North-west Australia (coast). 

Distribution. — Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, North-west 

AustraUa. 

Adult female. — General colour above pale vinous, becoming darker on the back 
and scapulars, where the feathers incline to chestnut, barred with black, a sub- 
marginal line of black and edged with white, which gives a streaked appearance ; 
lesser and median wing-coverts pale vinous with a few dark spots here and there ; 



236 A MANUAL OF THE BIBDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

bastard-wing and primary-coverts blackish ; priniary-quills dark bro'mi, the tliree 
outer ones margined with buffy-wliite on the outer webs, the remainder mottled 
with sandy-bulT on the outer edges ; innermost secondaries and tail-feathers similar 
to the back ; head with a dotted line of black on each side of the crowii ; sides of 
the face, neck, ami bod}- pale ^naous ; chin, throat, middle of the abodmen, flanks, 
and under tail-coverts white, more or less tinged with sandy-rufous ; axillaries 
grey ; under wing-coverts buffy-wliite ; under aspect of quills iiearl-grey ; bill, 
culmen and tip leaden-brown, remainder leaden-blue ; iris yellowish-white ; tarsus 
and feet fleshy-white. Total length 145 mm. ; culmen 13, wing 80, tail 28, 
tarsus 16. 

Adult male. — -Distinguished from the female hy its smaller size and more streaked 
appearance above, the median line of white on the middle of the head, the white bars 
on the sides of the neck, and the submarginal black lines on the side of the breast ; 
also by the more pure white of the abdomen. Soft parts similar to those given in 
the female. Total length 140 mm. ; culmen 12, wing 75, tail 26, tarsus 15. 

Immature and Nestling of this common bird appear to be m^described. 

Nest. — Formed of grass placed in a hollow of the gromid behind some 
convenient tuft of grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; ground-colour buffish-white thickly spotted with slate- 
grey, chestnut, and odd spots of purplish-brown ; surface with faint trace of gloss ; 
axis 20 to 21 mm., diameter 16.5 to 17. 

Breeding-season. — The usual breeding-season is from September to December, 
but individuals may be fomid breeding practicality all through the year. 

Distribution and forms. — Tlirough Australia, save the South-west and Tasmania. 
Four subsjiecies are named : A. v. velox (Gould) from New South Wales, Victoria and 
South Australia ; A. v. leucogaster (North) a pallid form from Central Australia •with 
the lower-parts nearly all white ; A . r. jiicturata (Mathews) from North-west Australia 
(coastal) much more rufous than the typical form both above and below ; and A. v. 
vinotincta Jlathews from the interior of the North-west, a much more pallid phase 
with the flanlts and abdomen pale rose tinged, not so white below as A . v. leucogaster, 
but paler above. 

i6i. Alphaturnia pyrrhothorax.~RED-CHESTED QUAIL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. SG (pt. n.), March 1st, 1841. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 18, Oct. Slst, 
1910. 

Hemipoditui pyrrhothorax Gould, Birds Austr., pt. n., March 1st, 1841 : Aberdeen, Upper 

Hunter River, New South Wales. 

Turnix pyrrothorax herneyi Matliews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 182, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west AustraUa. 

Austrotumix pyrrothorax intermedia Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 53, April 

7th, 1916 : Wyangarie, Queensland. 

Distribution. — New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory, North-west Australia, 

South Australia. 

Adult female. — General colour above, dark ashy -grey, varied with black in the 
form of narrow vermiculated bars, with cross lines of dull rufous on many of the 
feathers, several of which are edged with dull white, producing a slightly streaked 
appearance ; these streaks more apparent on the margins of the scapulars, which 
have black markings, and reddish and black vermiculations towards their ends ; 
wing-coverts dull ashv-grey, with faint fulvescent edges ; the inner median and 
greater coverts rufescent-buff with a few black cross-bars ; bastard -wng and primary- 
coverts blackish-brown, forming a wng patch ; quills dusky-brown, with very 
narrow fulvescent margins, lighter on the four outer primaries, the first of which is 
conspicuously margined with buffy -white, like the edge of the wing ; the secondaries 



BED-CHESTED QUAIL. 237 

fringed with ashy-white at the ends, the inner ones barred with buffy-white, and 
vermiculated and barred with black ; rump and uj^per tail -coverts rather darker 
than the back, and regularly barred across with black and dull rufous, resembling 
the scapulars ; tail-feathers ashy-brown, with indistinct blackish bars ; crown, of 
head dusky-brown, with cross-bars of black and a narrow line of white down the 
middle of the head ; the hind-neclc like the mantle, spotted with small white streaks, 
edged with blackish ; on the sides of the neck, a slightly scaly ajjpearance, the feathers 
being white, baiTcd mth black ; lores, eyebrows, cheeks, and ear-coverts white, 
minutely barred with black, the ear-coverts appearing as if streake<:l with white ; 
entire throat and breast orange-chestnut, like the flanks and under tail-coverts ; 
on the sides of the breast a patch of mottled grey, the feathers being grey, barred 
with fulvous and black ; the abdomen wliiter ; under -^ving-coverts very pale ashy- 
grey, with a slight fulvous wash ; quills dull ashy below ; bill blue-grey ; the 
culmen brown ; iris white ; feet fleshy-white. Total length 141 mm. ; culmen 15, 
wing 81, tail 27, tarsus 17. 

Adult male. — ^Smaller than the female, with the chin, upper throat and the whole 
of the abdomen white ; the eyebrow and sides of face, as also the line of feathers 
dovm the crown reddish-buff, and more miiform than the white, black-edged plumage 
of these parts in the female ; the sides of the neck buffj^-white, with dusky-brown 
edges to the feathers, producing an escalloped ajjpearance, which is continued dow^l 
the sides of the breast ; the lower throat and breast orange-chestnut, like the tail 
and under tail-coverts ; the upper-surface of the body less distinctly streaked, 
the white marigns of the scapulars, and inner secondaries being more isabelline or 
rufescent. Total length 147 mm. ; culmen 13, wing 75, tail 31, tarsus 16. 

Nest. — A slight depression in the ground, scantily lined with grasses, usually 
protected by a grass tuft or sheltered in a grain crop. 

Eggs. — Clutch, four ; gromul-colour buffish-white, spotted, but not so thickly as 
Turnix velox, with slate-grey, chestnut, and dark brown ; surface dull ; axis 22 mm., 
diameter 17.5. 

Breeding -season. — September to December. 

Distribution and forms. — Through tropical Australia, rarely occurring outside 
save in northern New South Wales. Three subspecies have been named : Aljiha- 
turnia pyrrhothorax pyrrhotJwrax (Gould) from New South Wales and South Queens- 
land and northern South Australia ; Alphaturnia pyrrhothorax berneyi (Mathews) 
of much darker coloration above, especially on the mantle, which is dark ashy- 
grey instead of fa^vnish, and much more rufous below from North-west Australia 
and Northern Territory ; and Alphaturnia pyrrhothorax intermedia (Mathews) from 
North Queensland, intermediate, lighter generally than the preceding, but darker 
than the typical race. 



Genus COLCLOUGHIA. 

Colchughia Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pt. 5, p. 112, Sept. 24th, 1914. Type (by- 
original designation) : Hemipodius melanogaster Gould. 

Largest Tumices with long stout bills, short wings, medium tails and short legs 
and feet. The bill is long and stout, but shaped more like that of Tvrnix than 
that of Austroturnix, and stouter than that of Marianornis. The wing is like that 
of Austroturnix, and the tail is similarly shaped and is about one-third the length 
of the wing, sometimes a little more ; the legs are short and stout, the tarsus more 
than half the length of the tail. 

Coloration : the female has developed a very distinct coloration quite unlike 
any of the others, the black head and blackish abdomen being distinctive ; the 
nestling shows the stout bill and legs and darkish abdomen. 



23S A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

162. Colcloughia melanogaster.— BLACK-BREASTED QUAIL. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 81 (pt. xxri.), March 1st, 1846. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 1, pi. 14, Oct. 31st, 

1910. 

Hemipodius melanogaster Gould, Synops. Birds Austr., pt. 11., pi. 31, April 1st, 1837 : New 

South Wales = Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

Colchughia melanogaster goweri Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 53, April 

7th, 1916 : Gowrie Creek, Rockingham Bay, Queensland. 

Distribution. — Queensland, New South Wales. 

Adult female. — General colour above brown, with a good deal of chestnut on 
the mantle, upper back and scapulars, which are all crossed with narrow bars of 
black, the scapulars with a broad black subterminal bar, and having a longitudinal 
white streak on the edge of either web ; these streaks of white, bordered by a line 
of black, are also apparent on the mantle and upjicr back ; but less marked on the 
lower back, which is almost entirely brown, save for a few indistinct bars of rufous 
and black ; rump and upper tail -coverts with a slight shade of chestnut, but otherwise 
brown, sjiarsely barred across with black, and having a few white, black-edged, 
streaks or spots of white on the margins of the feathers, some of the ujiper tail-coverts 
with whitish spots or bars, followed by a terminal bar of black ; wings much more 
thickly spangled with white, the wing-coverts in the main ashy-brown, but mixed 
with chestnut, most of them being of the latter colour, narrowly barred with black 
towards the ends, and having a broad white streak along the outer margin, before 
which is a conspicuous black streak ; the lesser coverts nearly uniform dark brown, 
slightly tinged with chestnut, but devoid of white streaks ; the greater coverts 
dusky-bro-\\ai, with sandy-brown margins ; jirimary-coverts and quills imiform 
dusky -brown, the two outer primaries sandy-brown along the outer web ; secondaries 
also dusky-browu, more or less sandj'-buff towards the end of the outer web, the 
inner secondaries extenially tinged •vvith chestnut, and with a few duskj' cross-bars ; 
tail-feathers dusky-brown, freckled %vith a few cross lines of black ; crown of head 
black, with a slight tinge of chestnut towards the nape, and a few white spotted 
feathers above the eye, continued above the ear-coverts to the sides of the neck, the 
feathers of which are black, with a broad subterminal spot of white, these white 
spotted feathers extending across the hind-neck ; lores, ear-coverts and cheeks black, 
with a streak of white on the fore-part of the cheeks below the eye ; throat and entire 
breast black, vnth white spots or subterminal bars on the feathers, the white bars 
being very distinct on the sides of the breast, where a few feathers are chestnut ; 
abdomen and flanks dull ashy-grey, with a blackish bar on the ends of some of the 
feathers, the flanks also showing an occasional subterminal white sjjot between two 
bars of black ; the long feathers of the lower flanks and the under tail-coverts 
vermiculated with blackish, and having a subterminal spot of dull M'hite or buff ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries dull ashy ; the marginal coverts darker ; quiUs 
dull ashy below. Total length 190 mm. ; culmen 19, wing 114, tail 38, tarsus 23. 
Adult male. — Distinguished from the female by the absence of the black on the 
head, and throat, paler abdomen and smaller size. Total length 164: mm. ; culmen 
16, wing 104, tail 40, tarsus 23. 

Immature. — Above like that of Marianornis, a shade more buff, the breast 
feathers quite similar but the abdomen ^^'ith buff feathers barred indistiiictlj' with 
black ; the bill and legs stout. 
Nestling. — Undescri bed . 

Nest. — Merely a slight depression in the ground, in grassed or open scrub 
country. 

Eggs. — Clutch, three to four ; smooth and glossy, with the gromid-colour 
greyish-white, minutely freclded over the entire surface with blue-grey, and bolder 
blotches of blackish-brown ; with underlying blotches of blue-grey ; axis 26-27 mm., 
diameter 21. 



PLAIN WANDERER. 239 

Breeding-season. — September to February. 

Distribution and fortns. — Restricted to Queensland and New South Wales. 
No subspecies recognised at jwesent, though more material may necessitate the 
reinstatement of Mathews's C. m. goweri for the Northern form. 

Family PEDIONOMID.E. 

This monotypic family, endemic to Australia, resembles in superficies the 
preceding, the most notable feature being the presence of a long hind-toe missing 
in the former. The bill is somewhat similar but the feathering is softer. Skeletal 
details are lacking for comparison and the pterylosis needs study. Li this family 
the wing is aquincubital, while it is quincubital in the Tumicidse, as far as is known. 
The leg muscle formula is ABXY+ and both carotids are present, whereas in Turnix 
and its allies the left carotid only occurs. Gadow concluded from an anatomical 
examination that ornithologists who studied superficial features had been clever in 
guessing approximately its systematic position, which otherwise he would have 
been unable to determine. 

Genus PEDIONOMUS. 

Pedionomus Gould, Birds Austr., pt. i., Dec. 1st, 1840. Type (by monotypy) : P. torquatiis 

Gould. 

Turnicigralla Des Murs, Rev. Zool., Aug. 1845, p. 276, Sept. New name for Pedionomus 

Gould. 

Long-legged Turnices with a hind-toe. 

The bill is long and thin, somewhat recalling that of Turnix (maculosa) but 
with the tip shorter and the nasal groove longer ; the feathers of the fore-head 
advancing on the culmen ridge ; the nasal ajjertures long and narrow slits, 
membranous operculum present and generally as in Turnix. The wing is rounded 
with the primaries rather soft, the first five primaries subequal and longest ; the 
inner secondaries very soft and extensive, reaching to the tips of the primaries. 
The legs are long, the tibia exiJosed for about one-third the length of the tarsus ; 
the tarsus is half as long again as the culmen and is transversely scaled in front and 
behind ; the toes are long, the middle toe longest but shorter than the tarsus, the 
inner and outer shorter and subequal, the hind-toe short but prominent ; the claws 
sharp. Plumage soft. 

Coloration generally freckling sandy-rufous with black, with a black and white 
collar and a rufous chest-band. Female larger than males and brighter coloured. 

163. Pedionomus torquatus. — PLAIN WANDERER. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 80 (pt. I.), Dec. 1st, 1840. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 2, pi. 20, Jan. 31st, 1911. 

Pedionomus torquatus Govild, Birds Austr., pt. i., Dec. 1st, 1840 : plains near Adelaide, 

South Australia. 

Pedionomus microurus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1842, p. 20, Nov. : South Australia 

(interior). 

Turnicigralla goitldiana Des Murs, Rev. Zool., Aug. 1845, p. 276^ Sept. New name for 

P. torquatus Gould. 

Turnicigralla macroura Des Murs, ib. : Error for P. microurus Gould. 

Pedionomus torquatus goulburni Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 53, April 7th, 

1916 : Goulburn, New South Wales. 

Distribution. — Adjoining parts of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia ; and 

north-west of New South Wales. 

Adult female. — General colour above sandy-rufous, everywhere barred and 
vermiculated with narrow lines of black, including the head, back, scapulare, ujjjDer 



240 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

tail-coverts, tail and wings ; primary-coverts blackish 'with buff tips ; primary- 
quills sandy-buff at the base, becoming brown or vermiculated with brown towards 
the ends, the secondaries similar but more broadly tipped with buff ; a patch on 
the fore-neck and nuchal collar bright chestnut ; an entire collar of black and white 
feathers ; sides of the face and upper throat white, minutely dotted with black, 
former more or less washed with sandy-rufous ; chin and middle of abdomen white, 
breast and sides of body buff, barred or spotted with black like the under tail-coverts ; 
under wing-coverts white, washed with buff and more or less dotted with black ; 
imder-surface of quills brown, dusted with sandy -rufous ; bill yellow, shading 
into black at the point ; iris straw-yellow ; feet greenish-yellow. Total length 
170 mm. ; culmen 16, wing 100, tail 30, tarsus 2-1. 

Adult male. — Distinguished from the female by the chestnut patch on the breast 
as well as the nuchal band being very much paler. The collar is only indicated by 
buff and white, instead of black and white. Total length 152 mm. ; culmen 13, 
wing 83, tail 30, tarsus 24. 

Immature male. — Differs from the adult in the absence of the chestnut patch on 
the breast. 

Nestling. — Apjiears to be undescribed. 

Nest. — Constructed of dried grasses, and is placed in a slight depression in 
the ground underneath the shelter of some convenient shrub or tuft of grass. 

Eggs. — Four in number for a sitting ; in shape pwiform ; of a stone-white 
ground-colour, thickly freclded and blotched, and a few smudges here and there of 
different shades of umber-brown and slaty-grey, a few nearly obsolete blotches of 
the latter colour appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell. Dimensions 
35 mm. by 25. 

Breeding -season. — September to February. 

Distribution and forms. — South-eastern Central Australia only, and consequentlj' 
no subspecies are at jiresent admitted. 

Order COLUMB^. 

This order includes the Pigeons and the extinct Dodo and allied forms, the 
latter being separated with subordinal rank only as merely degenerate flightless forms, 
but this may be wrong as no recent investigator has studied the facts from recent 
knowledge. The general features of Pigeons are not easily diagnosed, though the 
birds themselves can never be confused : the bill with its generally pronounced 
dertrum suggests that of a Plover, while the operculate nostrils, the operculum swollen, 
just as strongly recall those of the Galline birds. In some cases the legs are absolutely 
Galline even to detail, while in others the legs are Parrot-like in appearance. The 
species are numerous and world wide in distribution, and are remarkable as laying 
two white eggs, which generally hatch out a male and female, hence the expression 
"pigeon pair." Liternal features are very variable, and when Garrod attempted to 
classify them by these means he made an extraordinary muddle. By means of 
sujierficial features, however, a fairly satisfactory scheme can be prepared. Many 
families will be admitted, and then it will be seen that the species have diverged in 
different directions from several sources. Thus the Australian Gromid-Doves, here 
united with the Turtle-Doves, may rejiresent one family, the peculiar genus Ocyphaps 
another, and Lopholaimus a third. At present we are not so dividing the species, 
but wo anticipate fuller knowledge will necessitate such action. 

Osteologically, the skull shows a schizognathous palate with schizorhinal nostrils, 
and with basijDterygoid processes in the Columbiformes, which are absent in the 
Raphiformes. Some of the Columbiformes, however, show the nasals pseudo-holo- 
rhinal ; the lachrxTnal fuses with the ectethmoid and forms a large bone, in which 
sometimes a foramen is formed. There is generally a supraoccipital foramen and 



ORDER COLTJMB^E. 241 

as in the Galliformes the postfrontal process fuses with the zygoma. The cervical 
vertebrae are fifteen to seventeen in number, the sternum having its posterior margin 
two notched on each side, or a single notch and a foramen on each side, this resulting 
in different groups. 

The carotids are variable, but the tracheo-bronchial syrinx shows little variation, 
the intrinsic muscles always present, the extrinsic asymmetrical, while the digestive 
system is pericoelous, showing gradation from the typically periccelous to the typically 
mesogyrous, cseca small and nipple-like or absent. The leg muscles are variable, 
the complete formula ABXY+ being common, sometimes the ambiens is missing, 
and in the genus Lopholaimus the accessory femoro-caudal absent. The biceps slip 
is present of peculiar formation, and the expansor secundariorum sometimes 
absent though generally present. The oil gland is sometimes present, sometimes 
absent, but when present never feathered ; this variation is seen in closely allied 
species. The aftershaft is always said to be absent but the wing, though generally 
aquincubital has been recorded in one instance as quincubital. The pterylosis, as 
to detail, has not yet been reported upon. Li the Raphiformes the scapula and 
coracoid are anchylosed, but in the Columbiformes the coracoids are free and though 
they meet they do not overlap ; in both the furcula has no hypocleidium. It is 
probable that the association of the extinct flightless forms, PezojjhajJS and Raphtos 
( = Didus olim) is incorrect, palaeontologists having been misled by items of con- 
vergence, not of phylogenetic import. 

In this place may be mentioned the Sand Grouse, which we have allowed as 
of ordinal rank between the Galli and the Columbse. Externally they agree better 
to our eyes with the former, and we cannot understand those who have considered 
them as Pigeon-like. Internally they show many characters of Galline aspect and 
a few approaching those of the Pigeons, and hence have been regarded as a living 
representative of the Galline ancestral form from which the Pigeons developed. We 
cannot see, however, that any other than ordinal rank must be accorded the three 
groups. 

Suborder COLUMBIFORMES. 

The superficial homogeneity of this group has made the acceptance of families 
and even genera a difficult task, and not the least assistance, but rather the reverse, 
has resulted from the criticism of the so-called deeper -seated characters. As a matter 
of fact, we find comparatively good superficial features but comparatively valueless 
deeper-seated ones in connection with the groups. 

The internal features have been synopsised above, but we may here add that 
Garrod's differentiation was based on the presence or absence of the ambiens, cseca, 
oil gland and gall bladder, and by usage of this set of items he classed Carpophaga 
vnth Phaps and then PMoganas with Ptilopus in different families. It may be 
that Carpophar/a and Ptilopus have descended from different sources, and that 
Phaps and PJilogcena-s (of which Gallicolumba seems to be the correct name) are 
also homeomorphic, but it would require more evidence than the above set of items 
to prove it. As a matter of fact, the most aberrant form, judged from the superficies, 
proves to be the most peculiar when internal features are examined. We have 
allowed six families, Columbidae, Turturidse, Treronidae, Microgouridfe, Gouridse, 
and Didunculidae. The first named includes the Palaearctic forms, and one or two 
of the second family also range into the Palsearctic but the headquarters are tropical ; 
the remaining four families are Oriental and Papuasian-Australian in range, the last 
three being represented by single species, but not Australian. Three families are 
therefore regarded as being represented in Australia — the Columbidae, Turturidae 
and Treronidae - and we are of the opinion that this arrangement is imperfect, but 
we cannot at this time prove it. In America the first two families occur, and 



242 A 1L\NUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

throughout Africa both are present as also in the Palaearctic Region. Fruit Pigeons 
range from India to Australia and the Pacific Islands, where they are generally- 
associated with a series of Ground Pigeons which are here included in the Turturida), 
probably incorrectly. 

Family COLUMBID^. 

We have allowed in this family two genera, Leucomelcena and Macropygia, 
owing to the prejudice of Garrod's observations on the internal features, but the 
former may be an aberrant Fruit Pigeon and the latter an aberrant Turtle-Dove. 
As these groups need careful investigation in a scientific manner we have preferred 
to leave this matter as it stands without prejudice for the present. 



Genus LEUCOMELCENA. 

Leucomelcena Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XXXIX., p. 1104, Dec. 
1854. Type (by monotypy) : Columba norjolciensis 'L&tham. 

Large Pigeons with short bills, long wings, long square tail, short legs half- 
feathered in front and strong feet. The bill is less than the length of the head, a 
swoDen dertrum \vith tip slightly decurved about half the length ; the culmen 
ridge being flat behind, nostrils linear slits practically hidden by a swollen mem- 
branous operculum, more than half the length of the nasal groove ; the nostrils are 
parallel to the edge of the upper mandible which is parallel to the culmen as far as 
the nasal groove extends, from which point it descends to the tip, which is narrowed 
but not greatly from the base. The under mandible has a short gonj's, the mandibular 
rami pronomaced and grooved, the interramal space notable and completely 
feathered. The culmen is less than the tarsus and less than one-tenth of the wing. 
There is wo bare space round the eye. The wing is long, composed of strong 
broad feathers, the second and third only slightly scalloped on the outer webs and 
not at all on the inner webs ; the first primary is long, equal to the fourth, the 
second and third subequal and longest. The tail is long and square, more than 
half the length of the wing, the feathers very broad, the tips trmicate, the upper 
and mider tail-coverts short but composed of strong feathers. The legs are short, 
the tarsus being half -feathered in front but not behind where the scaling consists of 
small hexagonal scales, the front having a single row of strong horizontal scutes ; 
the tarsus is longer than the culmen but shorter than the middle toe ; all the 
toes are covered with strong scutes and the middle toe is very long with a very long 
claw, the outer and inner subequal ; the hind-toe long with a strong membranous 
edge on each side, on the inside attached to similar membrane developed at the 
base of the inner toe. 

Coloration greenish back above with head white as mider-surface to abdomen 
which is slate. 

164. Leucomelcena norfolciensis.— WHITE-HEADED FRUIT PIGEON. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 59 (pt. xn.), Sept. 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 2, pi. 29, Jan. 31st, 
1911. 

Columha nor/okiemis Latham, Index Ornith., Suppl., p. LX., after May 30th, 1801: Norfolk 

Island (errore) = New South Wales. 

Columha leticomela Temminck, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XIII., pt. I., p. 126, 1821 : 

Queensland. 

Leucomelcena norfolciensia queenslandica Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., pt. 3, p. 54, 

April 7th, 1916: Queensland. 

DiSTEiBtjTiOK. — Queensland, New South Wales. 



PHEASANT PIGEON. 243 

Adult male. — Head and ueck all round, as well as the greater portion of the 
under parts, cream colour with a pinkish metalUc gloss ; throat and cheeks pure 
white ; lower flanks dark slate colour ; entire back and wings black with coppery- 
green margins which have purjale reflections ; bastard-wing, j^rimary-coverts, and 
quills black like the tail ; mider wing-coverts blackish, as also the under tail-coverts, 
the latter with coj)pery reflections ; bill and feet red ; iris yellowish ; bare sj^ace 
round the eye red. Total length 406 mm. ; culmen 22, wing 240, tail 140, 
tarsus 26. 

Adult female. — Similar to the male. 

Immature female. — Differs from the adult in being darker, with fuie dusky 
vermiculations on the head, neck and mader -surface, but with the same coppery 
reflections on the upper-surface. 

Nest. — The usual flat and frail structure of twigs, three or four inches across. 

Eggs. — Clutch, one to two, but mostly one ; elliptical in shape, sharply nipped 
oS at one end ; texture comparatively fine ; surface glossy ; white. Dimensions 
35 mm. by 24. 

Breeding-season. — October to February. 

Distribution and forms. — Restricted to Queensland and New South Wales. 
Two forms have been named : L. n. norfolciensis (Latham) from New South Wales 
(of which C. leucomela Temminck is a synonym from South Queensland) ; and L. n. 
queenslandica Mathews from North Queensland, as a paler race. 

Genus MACROPYGIA. 

Macropygia Swainson, Classif. Birds, Vol. II., p. 348, July 1st, 1837. Tj^pe (by subsequent 

designation Gray, p. 58, 1840) : C. phaaianella Temminck, Planch. Color. 1821 not Trans. 

Linn. See. Lend., 1821 = M. tenuirostris Bonaparte. 

Coccyzura Hodgson, Jonrn. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XII., p. 937, 1843 (? 1844). Type (by 

original designation) : Coccyzura tusalia Hodgson. 

Tusalia Hodgson, ib., same type. 

Large Pigeons with short bills, long wings, long wedge tails and small legs and 
long toes. 

The bill is short, a little dilated at the base, the dertrum fairly strong, the gonys 
well angulated, the sides of the under mandible faintly grooved, the interramal 
space fully feathered ; otherwise details as in preceding. The wing is long, the 
f&st primary faintly scalloj)ed on the inner web, the second and third faintly on 
the outer webs ; the first primary is lone, about equal to the fifth, the second and 
fifth subequal and scarcely exceeded Ijy the third which is a trifle the longest. The 
tail is very long and wedge shajjed, composed of twelve feathers, the outside ones 
only about half the length of the inmost i^air ; the feathers are very strong and broad 
but have the ends rounded, not trmicated ; the tail is almost as long as the wing. 
The tarsus is very short, less even than the culmen, and feathered half its length, 
the lowermost portion showing in front a few broad horizontal scutes, the tarsus 
behind showing a wrinkled skin only, save at base, where a few obscure minute 
reticulations remain. The toes are as in the preceding but much weaker. 

Coloration rufous-brown above, paler brownish below. 

.165. Macropygia phasianella.— PHEASANT PIGEON. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 75 (pt. XVII.), Dec. 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 2. pi. 30, Jan. 31st, 
1911. 

Columha phasianella Temminck, Trans. Linn Soc. (Lond ), Vol. XIII., pt. I., p. 129, 1821 : 

near Port Jackson, New South Wales. 

Macropygia phasianella rohinsoni Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p 185, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Alexandra, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales. 

R 2 



244 A MANUAL OF THE BIKDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult male. — General colour above and below rufous-chestnut, paler on the 
under -surface, with purple and green reflections on the hinder neck and mantle ; 
bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills blackish-brown, the latter with rufous 
edgings ; tail chestnut with indications of a blackish bar towards the tip on the 
three outer feathers, middle feathers with obsolete dark bars, scarcely visible ; 
fore-head paler rufous than the crown ; chin buff ; throat, sides of face, and 
chest dark cinnamon, becoming paler on the breast and rufous-chestnut on the 
tlanks and under tail-coverts ; under wing-coverts much darker chestnut ; 
mider-surface of tail pale rufous, some of the outer feathers marked with slate- 
grey ; iris deep yellow or blue with an outer circle of scarlet, orbital skin bluish- 
lilac, feet pink-red. Total length 382 mm. ; culmen 24, wing 197, tail 187, 
tarsus 22. 

Adult female. — Differs from the adult male in its smaller size and paler coloration, 
the head chestnut, the lower hind-neck, and upper back brown, minutely barred or 
dusted with rufous, the feathers of the wings and scapulars dark brown, everjovhere 
margined with bright chestnut, the bastard-wing, primary-coverts and quills dark 
brown, edged with rufous ; rumji and upper tail-coverts bright chestnut ; the tail 
similar but duller ; chin and middle of upper throat buff ; sides of face and sides 
of neck pale chestnut with narrow black bars, becoming deeper chestnut colour 
on the fore-neck and chest, and with the dark bars wider apart, the abdomen paler 
chestnut and the dark bars less defined ; bill black ; iris white ; feet red. Total 
length 393 mm. ; culmen 23, wing 173, tail 180, tarsus 22. 

Immature male. — Differs from the adult male in having the crown of the head 
bright chestnut ; the feathers of the ■wings margined with bright rufous-chestnut ; 
hind-neck, mantle, fore-neck and chest narrowly barred with rufous and black, more 
broadly on the breast ; a buS streak below the eye ; bill very dark slate colour ; 
iris chestnut ; tarsus and feet dark magenta. Wing 184 mm. 

Immature female. — Similar to the immature male described above. Bill black ; 
iris white ; feet red. 

Nest. — A very primitive structure being simply a few sticks placed crosswise, 
without any cavity, and barely sufficient to retain the egg in position. 

Egg. — Clutch, one ; a true ellipse in form ; pure white ; the texture of the shell 
being fine and slightly glossy. Dimensions 34 mm. by 24. 

Breeding-season. — October to February. 

Distribution and forms. — Queensland, Eastern Northern Territory and New 
South Wales, and probably extra-limital. The two Australian forms are easily 
separable by size, the northern form M. p. robinsoni Mathews, being notably smaller. 
Rothschild and Hartert, twenty years ago, indicated four additional subspecies 
ranging west to Sumatra and north to the Philippines, but this distribution wants 
reconsideration with more material available than at present. 



Family TURTURID^. 

There appears to be at least two distinct groups associated in this familj?, the 
Turtle-Doves and the Ground-Doves. The former are more delicate ground- 
feeding but flying birds, while the latter are stouter ground-feeding and ground- 
living birds. The feet of the latter are very stout and of Galline form, while those 
of the former are more slender and of a semi-perching character. The bills differ 
in much the same way, and of course the wngs show corresponding differences. 
Garrod's peculiar grouping cast a blight upon Pigeon systematics, and novel work 
must be undertaken in a scientific manner to rean-ange the birds accuratelj'. If the 
restricted families here admitted are polyphyletic, as Garrod's conclusions suggest, 
the rearrangement will provide many surj)rises. 



BARRED-SHOTTLDERED DOVE. 245 

Genus CHRYSAUCHCENA. 

Chrysauchosna Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XL., p. 210, Feb. 1855. 
Type (by original designation) : Columba h umeralis Teraminck. 

Erythauchama Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XL., p. 221, Feb. 1855. 
Type (by monotj'py) : Columba humcralis Temminck. 

Medium Doves with slender bills, long wings, long wedge tail and short legs 
and long toes. The bill is comparatively long and slender, the dertrum short and 
decurved mth a forward direction, tip not hooked, nor the dertrmn swollen ; the 
culmen ridge is flattened for more than half its length, the linear nostrils overhmig 
by a swollen membranous deUcate operculiun not expanded at the base ; the 
lower mandible has a short sonii-angulated gonys, the rami long and obsoletely 
grooved, the narrow interramal space feathered. The "n-ing is long -svith the first 
primary shorter than the sixth, the second equal to the fifth and the third longest ; 
the secondaries are comparatively long and the first primary has the tip abruptly 
attenuated for about one-third the length, the outer edge a little scalloped ; the 
fourth and fifth iirimaries show a little scalloping on the outer edges but none, 
except the first, show any on the inner edges. The tail is long and strongly wedge 
shaped, almost as long as the ^^dng ; the feathers are fourteen in number, with 
rounded tips, fairly broad, the outer ones about two-thirds the length of the central 
pair. The legs are short and unfeathered, the tarsus being little longer than the 
culmen and about the same length as the middle toe ; the front of the tarsus is 
covered with regular broad horizontal scutes, the sides and hind portion having 
an mibroken skin ; the toes are regular!}^ scaled, the middle toe longest, but not 
abnormallj' so, the iimer and outer subequal, the claws long but the mid-claw not 
extraordinarily elongated ; the hind-toe verj^ long and straight and without much 
lateral skin expansion. 

Coloration brownish above with black tips to feathers, fore-head and breast 
bluish-grey, abdomen whitish, tail brownish ^vith white tips to outer feathers. 

i66. Chrysauchoena humeralis.— BARRED-SHOULDERED DOVE. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 72 (pt. XV.), June 1st, 1844. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 2, pi. 31, Jan. 31st, 1911. 

Columba humeralis Temminck, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XIII., pt. I., p. 128, 1821 : 

Broad Sovind, Queensland. 

Columha erythrauchen Wagler, Syst. Av., Columba, sp. 98, p. (266), (before Oct.) 1827. New 

name for C. humeralis Temminck. 

Geopelia humeralis inexpectata Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 186, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Geopelia humeralis apsleyi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. X., pt. 2, p. 27, April 2nd, 1912 : 

Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Geopelia humeralis headlatidi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 8, p. 187, JIarch 20th, 

1913 : Port Headland, mid-West Australia. 

Distribution. — New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory, North and mid-West 

AustraUa. 

Adult male. — General colour above earth-brown, the feathers everywhere 
margined with black ; occiput and hind-neck barred with grey and black ; feathers 
of the lower hind-neck and mantle very pale cinnamon, edged with black ; entire 
back and wings earth-brown, margined with black, being somewhat paler on the 
outer wing-coverts ; bastard-wng almost entirely earth-grey, with scarcely any 
black margins ; primary-coverts blackish, with chestnut on the inner webs ; quills 
blackish on the outer webs and at the tips, inner webs chestnut ; innermost 
secondaries like the back, with chestnut on the iimer webs at the base ; middle 
tail-feathers grey, next pair reddish-bro\vn, the outer ones chestnut-brown, tij^ped 
with white ; fore-head, line behind the eye, and throat pale blue-grey, becoming 
darker on the lower throat, sides of neck and ui")per-breast ; lower-breast, abdomen 



246 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

and under tail-coverts white, more or less tinged with pink, especiallj- on the breast ; 
under wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous, including the quill-lining, the latter tipped 
with brown. Bill dull blue, iris pale j'ellow, bare skin round the eyes dull purple ; 
tarsus pinkish-i-ed, feet darker. Total length 300 mm. ; culmen 22, wing 142, 
tail 132, tarsus 23 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male with respect to the plumage, but 
smaller. Total length 295 mm,; culmen 18, wing 131, tail 122, tarsus 21. 

Immature female. — Differs from the adult female in being much more barred 
on the upper -surface ; crown of head almost entirely covered with narrow barring.s ; 
the median and greater coverts tipped with white, forming a more or less double 
wing-bar; innermost secondaries narrowly tipped with white; the blue-grey feathers 
of the chest more or less tinged with pink. 

Nest. — A loose, light structure or platform, three to four inches in diameter, 
composed of twigs, portions of climbing plants, and sometimes grass. Usually 
situated in a low tree or thick bush in scrub. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two; pure white, smooth and glossj'; axis 26-28 mm., 
diameter 21. 

Breeding-season. — August to March. 

Distribution and forms. — Restricted to Australia and only in the northern 
portion, but closely allied species in the islands north of Australia. Four subspecies 
are distinguishable : C. h. humeralis (Temminck) from Queensland and New South 
Wales ; C. h. inexpectata (Mathews) from North-west Australia, smaller and paler ; 
C. h. apsleyi (Mathews) from Melville Island, differing in its darker upper-surface, 
paler fore-head and shorter bill ; and C. h. headlandi (Mathews) from mid-West 
Australia, paler even than C. h. inexpectata and smaller, being thus the palest and 
smallest form. 

Genus GEOPELIA. 

Oeopelia Swainson, Classif. Birds, Vol. II., p. 348, July 1st, 1837. Tj-pe (by monotypy) : 
Columba lineata Sparrman. 

Tomopeleia Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. xxv., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by monotypy) : 
Columba maugeus Temininek. 

Small Doves with weak bills, long wings, long wedge tail and small legs and feet. 
The bill is formed as in the preceding genus but is shorter and weaker and is shorter 
than the head, is a little more expanded at the base, the dertrum less deflexed, the 
gonys less marked and scarcely ascending, the interramal space a little wider and 
scarcely any signs of a groove on the sides of the rami, while the interramal space 
is not fully feathered. The wing is rounder than in the preceding case, the first 
primary being equal to the fifth, and little shorter than the second, third and foiirth 
which are subequal, while the secondaries are comiJaratively shorter, the scalloping 
and attenuation of the primaries being the same as in the last-named genus. The 
tail is composed of fourteen feathers, a little romided but broad at the tips, and 
strongly wedge shape but the middle eight feathers almost all the same length, 
the outside pair more than half the length of the central j)air. The tarsus is short 
and comparatively stout, the front having a row of large horizontal scutes and 
naked unsealed skin at sides and back ; the toes are slender, the middle toe longest, 
the iimer longer than the outer, all the claws short ; the hind-toe very long and 
straight with a long claw equalling the imier toe and claw, and with scarcely any 
lateral skin expansion. 

Coloration brownish, the back feathers, wing-coverts, and scapulars with bold 
black tips, the hind-neck and breast whitish with black bars closely formed ; toi> 
of head and throat bluish-slate, abdomen jiinkish-white, tail bro'miish, the outer 
feathers with long white tips. 



GROUND-DOVE. 247 

167. Geopelia placida.— GROUND-DOVE. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 73 (pt. XIX.), June 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 2, pi. 32, Jan. 31st, 

1911. 

Geopelia placida C4ould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lend.), 1S44, p. 55, Sept. : Port Essington, Northern 

Territory. 

Geopelia iranquilla Gould, ih., p. 56 : Liverpool Plains, New South Wales. 

Geopelia placida clelandi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 186, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Coongan 

River, mid-West Australia. 

Geopelia placida mclrillensis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 28, April 2nd, 1912 : 

Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Geopelia placida hcdkyi Mathews, ih., pt. 4, p. 84, Sept. 18th, 1912 : Cape York, Queensland. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. Not Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Upper-surface barred everywhere with black, white and grey ; 
fore-head and throat pale blue-grey ; hinder crown and nape earth-brown, narrowly 
barred \x\\h blackish ; neck all round narrowly barred with black and white, each 
feather having two black bars and three white ones ; the hind-neck darker and 
more like the back ; entire back and wings earth-bro^vn, barred with black, jjaler 
on the outer coverts ; bastard-wing and i>rimary-coverts blackish ; quills brown, 
paler on the outer edges and on the inner webs towards the base ; innermost 
secondaries like the back ; middle tail-feathers grey, the next two pairs blackish- 
brown ; the outer feathers for the most part black, tipped with white : the outermost 
black, margined on the outer web, and broadh' tipped with white ; breast and sides 
of body with a pinldsh tinge ; abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; axillaries and 
under wing-coverts deejJ chestnut ; a patch of white at the base of the secondary- 
quills below ; quills below, brown, inner webs inclining to rufous. Bill black, base 
bluish-black ; iris white ; bare space round the eyes bluish-green ; tarsi and feet 
flesh colour. Total length 210 mm. ; culmen 15, wing 104, tail 88, tarsus 17. 

Adult female. — Similar in every respect to the adult male both in the colour of 
its plumage and in measurements. 

Immature. — As adult but paler and with white edges to feathers. 

Nest. — A small, slight platform, about two or three inches in diameter, com- 
posed of twigs and rootlets, or just sufficient materials to ensure the saiety of the 
contents. Usually placed on a horizontal limb of a tree, where branches or suckers 
shoot, often overhanging a stream. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; pure %vhite ; smooth and glos.sy ; axis 21-22 mm., 
diameter 15. 

Breeding-season. — August to January, but practically all the year round. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia only. Five subspecies have been named, as 
follows : G. p. placida Gould from the Northern Territory and North-west Australia ; 
G. p. tranquiUa Gould from New South Wales, South Queensland, Victoria and 
South Australia, much darker and also larger in every item ; G. p. clelandi Mathews 
from mid-West Australia, a much paler form in every particular ; G. p. melvillensis 
Mathews from Melville Island, Northern Territoi-y, larger than G. p. placida, and 
also lighter; and G. ^;. hedleyi Mathews, from Northern Queensland, a darker form, 
even than G. p. tranquiUa, and also smaller. 

The bird described by Ogilvie-Grant as Geopelia shortridgei {Bull. B.O.C., 
Vol. XXIII., p. 73, 1909), from Carnarvon, West Australia, is a hybrid between 
this species and the nest. 

Genus STICTOPELEIA. 

Stictopeleia Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. xxv., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original designa- 
tion) : Colunila cuneafa Latham. 

Smallest Doves with slender bills, long wings, very long wedge-shajjed tail, 
and small legs and feet. The bill is slender and a little shorter than the head, the 



248 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

dertrum a little more developed but even less deflexed, the membranous nasal 
operculum more swollen, the under mandible with the goiiys longer but scarcely 
angulated, the interramal space half-feathered, the anterior portion tending to 
fusion showing depression onl}^ the rami grooved as far as the gonj's. The wing 
long with the attenuated first primary a little shorter than the fifth, and both much 
shorter than the second, third and fourth, which are longest and subequal ; scallop- 
ing as in the two preceding forms and secondaries short. The tail is very long, 
longer even than the wing, strongly grailuated, the feathers long and rather thin, 
the outside feathers much less than half the central ones, the four middle ones about 
equal, fourteen feathers in all forming the tail. The tarsus is short, about equal to 
the culmen and middle toe, and stout, the front of the tarsus with strong horizontal 
scutes, the sides and hind portion with skin only showing no scale formation, the 
middle toe long and thin, the mid-claw elongated, the inner and outer toes subequal, 
the hind-toe long and straight, the claw normal ; very little skin seen on sides of 
hind-toe which is shorter than inner toe. 

Coloration : blue-grey head and breast, abdomen pinkish, tail M'ith outer feathers 
half-way white, upper-surface pale brown without any bars but white spots on wing- 
coverts, inner secontlaries and scapulars ; immature barred above and below. 

i68. Stictopeleia cuneata.— SPOTTED-SHOULDERED DOVE. 

Ooiild, Vol. v., pi. 74 (pt. xvn.), March 1st, 1845. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 2, pi. 33, Jan. 31st, 

1911. 

Colmnha cuneata Latham, Index Ornith. Suppl., p. lxi., 1801, after May : Sydney, Now 

South Wales. 

Columhn macqtiaric Quoy et Gaimard, Voy. de I'Uranie et Physic, Zool., p. 122, pi. 31, Aug. 

28th, 1824: Now South Wales. 

Columba spiloplcra Vigors, Zool. Journ., Vol. V., p. 27.5, June 1830 : New South Wales. 

Geopelia cuneata mungi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVllI., p. 187, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Mungi, 

North-west Australia. 

Distribution — Australia generally. Not Tasmania. 

Adult male. — General colour above including the entire back and wings, pale 
brown, with small romidcd sjjots of white on the wing-coverts and scapulars ; 
bastard-wing brown ; primary-coverts, and quills bro^^^l on the outer webs and tips, 
inner webs chestnut ; secondaries grey, without any chestnut ; middle tail-feathers 
grey, becoming blackish towards the tips and showing obsolete dark cross-bars for 
the entire length, the next pair blackish ; the four outer pairs black at base, with 
long white tips ; fore-head and crown pale blue-grey like the chin and throat, 
becoming darker on the breast and imder wing-coverts ; axillaries and sides of 
body of the same colour, but paler ; abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; quill- 
lining pale chestnut. Bill black ; iris red ; feet reddish -cream colour. Total length 
200 mm. ; culmen 15, wing 95, tail 101, tarsus 15. 

Adult female. — Differs from the male in having the sides of neck, fore-neck and 
chest pale brown, somewhat like the hind-neck ; bill bro'ma ; iris light red ; bare 
skin round the eye also red ; tarsi ilesh-white, feet white, 

Immature. — Fore-head whitish, toj) of head fawn with brown tips to feathers, 
back of head and neck a little gre3'er with indistinct browner tips, back brown with 
pale rufous tips, tail-feathers short, central ones brown, outer ones white ; primaries 
brown with inner webs chestnut, outer one atteituated but more broadly than in 
adult; coverts brown with broad whitish tips; inner secondaries with fa-\\Tiish 
tips ; chin pale bluish-white, chest bluish with bro-wii and fa\ni barring, abdomen 
and flanks dirty. 

Immature (a little older). — Head more boldly marked, scapulars and wing- 
coverts with broader fawn tips, the former also barred with fawn, the rump and 
upper tail-coverts with brown tijis, the inn.er secondaries fawn tipped, the central 



LITTLE GREEN PIGEON. 249 

tail-feathers broad, darker towards ends, the outer similar to those of adult ; chin 
and throat whitish, breast brownish, feathers barred with fawnish-white, lower- 
breast more obsoletely barred, abdomen and flanks dirty ; inner wing-lining 
brownish, the feathers on the edge with fawn tips. 

Nest. — A small, frail structure, usually composed of dry grass, including the 
flowering portions, and j)laced in the fork of a low or bushy tree. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; roundish in shape ; texture of shell fine ; surface glossy ; 
pure white. Dimensions 19 mm. by 15. 

Breeding -season. — Practically all the year. May to September. January to 
March. 

Incubation-period. — (In captivity) twelve days. 

Distribution and forms. — Australia only. The form from the interior of the 
North-west of Australia has been named S. c. mungi by Mathews, on account of its 
paler coloration, both above and below, oaid it is probable that this form occurs 
throughout Central Australia, the typical form being named from Sydney, New 
South Wales. 

Genus CHALCOPHAPS. 

Chalcophaps Gould, Birds Austr., pt. xin., Dec. 1st, 1843 (Vol. V., pi. 62). Type (by mono- 
typy) : Columba clirysochlora Wagler. 

Monornia Hodgson, in Gray's Zool. Miscell., p. 85, June 29tli, '1844. Type : Monornis 
perpulchra V Nomen nudum. 

Medium Ground-Doves with slender bills, long wings, short romided tail and 
short legs and feet. The bill is comparatively long and slender, the culnien ridge 
flattened, the dertrum descending and rather strongly decurved but not much 
swollen ; the nostrils linear and the membranous operculum a little swollen ; the 
rami long and sensibly grooved, the gonys very short, a little angulated and ascending, 
the interramal space narrow and half -feathered, anteriorly showing a naked skin 
space. The wing is romided, the secondaries long, the primaries very little scalloped, 
the outer one slightly on the inner web ; the outer primary is long, equal to the 
fourth, the second and third a little longer, subequal and longest. The tail is 
composed of twelve broad feathers with rounded ends, and only a little rounded in 
shape and about tlu-ee-fiftlis the length of the wing. The tarsus is short and stout, 
a little longer than the culmcn, and mifeathered, shows a little reticulation only 
faintly on the back and only a few broad scutes on the lower portion in the front. 
The toes are comi>arativeljr short and stout, the middle toe longest, the inner 
and outer a little less and subequal and the hind-toe notably shorter, though still 
long and straight, the claws short and little curved. 

Coloration : head, neck and chest vinous-brown paler below, abdomen paler 
vinous, wing-coverts and back bronze-green, primaries and tail reddish-brown. 

169. Chalcophaps chrysochlora.— LITTLE GREEN PIGEON. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 62 (pt. xin.), Dec. 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 34, April 29th, 

1911. 

Columba chrysochlora Wagler, Syst. Av., Columba, sp. 79, p. (256), (before Oct.) 1827: 

" Ceylon, Java, etc.," error = New South Wales (Gosford). 

Chalcophaps longirostris Gould, Birds Austr., Introd., 8vo ed., p. 79, Aug. 1st, 1848 : Port 

Essington, Northern Territory. 

Chalcophaps occidentalis North, Vict. Naturalist, Vol. XXIV., No. 8, p. 135, Dec. 1907 : 

Port Keats, Northern Territory. 

Chalcophaps chrysochlora rogersi Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 187, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Cairns, Queensland. 

Chalcophaps chrysochlora kcmpi Mathews, ib. : Cape York, North Queensland. 

Chalcophaps chrysochlora melvillensis Zietz, South Austr. Ornith., Vol. I., pt. i., p. 12, Jan. 

1914 : Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria. 



250 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Adult male. — Head, hin<l-n(x;k, nicies of tlio neck, and mantle dark vinouH 
somewhat darker on tlio nape and Iiind-neek ; win<;s and intc^-soapular region green, 
with co])])ery rellootions ; nonu* of the lesser wing-coverts edged wtli white, forming 
a band ; bastard-wing and ])nn\ary-eo verts black ; quills dark brown, with chestnut 
on the inner webs ; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts grocnish-black, with indistinct 
metallic bars, in certain lights, and grey bands across the rump, the long u])]kt tail- 
coverts paler towai'ds the base ; outer tail-foathors grey, with a subapical blaclc 
band, remainder of the tail bronzy-brown ; sides of the face, chin, throat, and forc- 
noek vinous, becoming ])aler on the abdomen and siiles of the body ; vent and under 
tail-coverts slate-grey, longer ones blackish ; under wing-coverts and the greater 
part of the quill-lining chestnut ; bill red, base greyish-bluo ; iris brown, orbits 
groy ; foot dull rod. Total length 240 mm. ; culinon 22, wing 153, tail 89, 
tarsus 27. 

Adult female. — DilTors from the adult male in having the head and hind-neck 
paler vinous ; wing-bar grey, instead of white ; upper tail-covcrts bro\^'n, with 
dark edges to the feathers ; chin, throat and under-surface rust-brown ; unfler 
tail-coverts reddish-brown, with dark edges. Total length 233 mm. ; culmcn 22, 
wing 147, tail 7!), tarsus 25. 

Adult male. -Head, hind -neck, sides of the neck and mantle lilac, somewhat 
darker on the hinder ])art of the head ; wings antl intersea]Hilar region green, with 
very strong copjiery rellections ; a large white pat(^h on the shoulder, wliich occujiies 
tho greater portion of the lesser wing-covcrts ; bastard-wing and primaT'y-coverts 
i)lack ; quills dark brown on the margins of the outer webs, chestnut on tho inner 
ones, the latter colour eneroaehing on both webs at the base of the inner primaries 
and secondary-quills ; lower back blackish, with minute bronze bars on some of the 
feathers and crossed by a grey band ; tail for the most part black, the two outer 
■[lairs of feathers on each side grey, with a wide subtcrminal black band ; chin and 
throat vinous, becoming ]>a]cr on the breast and abdoin(Mi ; vent and short under 
tail-coverts slate colour, the k)nger ones black ; lower aspect of the tail-feathers 
black, with palo tips ; under wing-coverts and quill-lining pale ehesluut ; bill 
red ; iris brown ; tarsi and feet pink. Total length 2G(t mm. ; culmen 20, wing 158, 
tail 80, tarsus 27. (Ty])e of C. occidcnlalis North.) 

Adult female. Distinguished from the male by the darker lilac colour of the 
head and iiind-ncck, much smaller white shoulder patch, and brown upper tail- 
coverts. Total length 260 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 150, tail 84. (T^qw of C. 
ocddentalis North.) 

Young male. — -Distinguished from the adult by having a paler fore-head, darker 
hind-neck, and the feathers of the head blackish, tipped with rufous ; only median 
wing-coverts green, primary-coverts chestnut, most of the quills tipped with the 
same colour, feathers on the sides of tho neck and breast blackish, margined with 
chestnut, giving a barred appearance, which is much less ])ronounced on the abdomen. 

Nest. — -A frail, flat structure of twigs ; placed in a low troo. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; smooth and slightly glossy ; of a pale cream-colour ; axis 
25-26 mm., diameter 20. 

BrcviHiiij-seawu. October to January. 

Distribulioii and forms.- Through the Moluccas and tro]iiea.l Northern Australia. 
Tho extra-Australian forms are not well known yet well-<lelincd sub.speeies are known 
in Australia ; thus (■. c. ckn/socldora (W'agler) from New South Wales and Southern 
Queensland ; C. c. longirostris Gould from Northern Territory (so distinct that it 
has been renamed twice — by North as C. occidenlalis. ami by Zietzas C. c. ^nelvillen.'iis, 
the latter perhaps later recognisable) with a notably longer l)ill, with brighter 
(^>li)ration ; ('. c. nxjrr.ii ^hl(lu'ws from the Cairns district, North Queensland, a paler 
form, with the unil(>r-surface ])alcr and the nai)e coloration duller ; and C'. c. kcmpi 
from Capo York, North Queensland, a much smaller form. 



BEONZE-'WrNGED PIGEON. 251 

Genus PHAPS. 

Phapa Selby, Naturalists' Library, Pigeons, p. 194, (boforo Aug.) 1835. Typo (by original 
designation) : Coliimba chalcoptera Latham. 

Very large Ground-Doves, with 8lendcr bills, long wing.s, medium tail and 
small legs and foot. The bill is larger, but formed very similarly to that of the 
preceding genus, the tip a little less deflexed. The wing is longer and more pointed, 
the feathers showing very little scalloping, though rather narrow, the first a little 
incised on the inner web ; the first is long, almost as long as the second and third, 
which are subequal and longest, ami longer than the fourth ; secondaries short. 
The tail is long and round, of sixteen broad feathers, rounded at the tips, and is a 
little longer than half the length of the wing. The upper tail-coverts are long, about 
three-quarters the length of the tail. The feet are short and stout, the tarsus covered 
with a double row of strong hexagonal scutes in front, and at the sides and back with 
very small hexagonal scutellas, scarcely recognisable separately. The toes are 
covered with definite scutes, the middle toe longest, the outer shorter than the 
inner, both much less than the middle one, the hind-foe still shorter, though still 
long and straight and practically unmargined, claws rather long. 

Coloration: fore-head whitish, throat white, under coloration pale vinous, upper 
greyish tips to the brown feathers, bronze sjiots on wing-coverts, primaries and tail 
brown. 

170. Phaps chalcoptera.— BRONZE-WINGED PIGEON. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 64 (pt. xm.), Dec. Ist, 184:!. Mathows, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 35, April 29tli, 

1911. 

Coltmiha chalcoptera Latham, Index Omith., Vol. II., p. G04, (before Doc. 9th) 1790 : Sydney, 

New South Wales. 

Phaps clialcoplera consohrina Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 188, Jan. 31st, 1912 : 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Phaps chalcoptera miirch.inoni Mathews, ih. : East Murchison, mid-West Australia. 

Phaps chalcoptera riordani Mathews, Austral Av. Rec., Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 28, April 2nd, 1912 : 

Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Australia generally. 7 Tasmania. 

Adult male. — Pore-head to the middle of the crown white, tinged with fulvous ; 
sides of the crown, and a band across the head adjoining the white maroon-chestnut ; 
hinder part of head washed with grey, like the hind-neck ; ear-coverts and sides of 
the neck lead -grey ; back and scapulars, as also the rump and upper tail -coverts 
dark brown, with jialer brown margins to the feathers, some of the scapulars and 
feathers of the lower back blackish-browii ; wing-coverts pale grey, with whitish 
edgings, the outer webs of the lesser and median coverts have metallic coppery 
reflections, those of the greater coverts are for the most pai't green, and those on 
the inner secondaries purjile and dark grccin ; bastai'd-wing, primary-coverts and 
quills greyish-brown, the latter edged with white on the outer webs and pale rufous 
on the inner ones ; tail-feathers grey, with a blackish subtcrminal band ; eyebrow 
and a lino of feathers from the gape below the eye and skirting the maroon-chestnut 
on the side of the crown, white ; chin and throat white ; fore-neck and upper-breast 
pale vinous ; abdomen pale grey, becoming darker on the thighs and under tail- 
coverts ; sides of the body, axillaries, and under wing-coverts cinnamon, like the 
quill-lining; bill brownish-black; iris dark brown; tarsi and feet pinky-red. 
Total length 360 mm. ; culmcn 28, wing 194, tail 100, tarsus 27. 

In what appears to bo a very old male bird, the hinder part of the head is 
entirely maroon-chestnut, the metallic colour on the wings very bright, inclining 
to fiery red, instead of green, on the greater coverts, and the purple-green of the 
secondaries is extended over a great number of feathers. 



252 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AtTSTRALIA. 

Adult female. — Differs from the male in smaller size and in having the fore-part 
of the head grey, the hinder crown earth-brown, like the hind-neck and upper back, 
the absence of grey on the ear -co verts and sides of neck, the much paler vinous 
on the breast, and the ]:)aler grey on the abdomen. Total length 330 mm. ; culmen 
26, wing 182, tail 103, tarsus 28. 

Young male. — Distinguished from the adult male by the almost entire absence 
of metallic spote on the wing-coverts, which are dark grej', edged with white ; hinder 
part of head earth-bro\^ia, with a few maroon-chestnut feathers apjiearing, and the 
fore-part of the head white. 

Nest. — A slight structure or platform of twigs, slightly concave and about five 
inches in diameter. Usually placed in the fork of a horizontal limb of a low tree, 
sometimes on a bushy branch or even on a stump in the forest, rarely on the gromid. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; smooth and glossy and pure white ; axis 32-36 mm., 
diameter 23-24. 

Breeding-season. — Usually from October to November ; but eggs have been 
taken from April to September. Two broods are reared in the year. 

Distribution and forms. — Restricted to Australia, where four races have been 
diagnosed as : P. c. chalcopiera (Latham) from New South Wales, Victoria and South 
Queensland ; P. c. consobrina Mathews from North-west Australia, Northern 
Territory and Northern Queensland, a paler race of smaller size, as wing ^ about 
190 mm., typical 200 mm. ; wing 9 about 180, tyiiical about 193 ram. average ; 
P. c. murchisoni Mathews from mid-West Australia, of more sandy coloration above, 
and more suffused with pink below ; and P. c. riordani Mathews from Melville 
Island, Northern Territoiy, with a lighter fore-head, a darker back and still more 
pinkish under-surface. 



Genus COSMOPELIA. 

Cosmopelia Simdevall, Mc^th. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent, pt. n., p. 100, (before Juno 12th) 1873. 
Type (by original designation) : Columha elegans Temminck and Knip. 

Large Groimd-Doves with slender bills, long wings, short rounded tail and stout 
short legs and feet. The bill is as long as in the preceding genus, though the bird 
is less and is formed exactly on the same plan, the dertrum scarcely differentiated, 
the tip projecting and deflexed in a forward direction, the gonys a little longer, but 
little ascending, the interramal space showing anteriorly a naked space. The wing 
is more rounded, the first primary about equal to the fifth, the second, third and 
fourth a little longer, subequal and longest, the secondaries very broad, rounded 
and short, the first primary is faintlj'' incised on the imier web, the second to the 
fifth rather noticeably scalloped on the outer web. The tail is a little rounded, 
about half the length of the wing, composed of fourteen feathers, very broad and 
rather square at their extremities. The legs are short, the tarsus stout and on the 
front showing a double row of large hexagonal scutes and on the sides and back 
very small reticulate scaling can onlj' be seen ; the tarsus is about the same length 
as the culmen and longer than the middle, the outer a little shorter than the inner ; 
the hind-toe short, all the claws rather short and becoming flattened. 

Coloration rufous-brown above with bronze markings on coverts and vinous 
below. 



171. Cosmopelia elegans.— BRUSH BRONZE-WINGED PIGEON. 

Gould. Vol. v., pi. 65 (pt. xiir.), Dec. 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 36, April 29th, 
1911. 

Columha elegans Temminck and Knip, Les Pigeons, Vol. II., p. 56, pi. 22, 1810 : Tasmania. 



BRUSH BRONZE-WINGED PIGEON. 253 

Columba lawsonii" Sieber, Isis, No. 67," [ = Isis, 1825, heft 1, Beylage No. 1, Nomen nudum, 

in a price list of " Newholland " birds], Wagler, Syst. Av., Columba, sp. 58, p. (249), 1827 

(before Oct.). In synonymy of C. elegatw. 

Phaps elegans neglecta Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 188, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Long 

Bay, New South Wales. 

Phaps elegans affinis Mathews, ib. : Emu Well, South Australia (interior). 

Distribution. — New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, South-west 

AustraUa. 

Adult male. — General colour above olive- or rufous-brown, including the back, 
wings, and tail ; throat, a line frorn behind the eye, hind-neck, and sides of the 
neck rich chestnut ; wings more rufous than the back ; wing-speculum metallic- 
bronze, coi^per, green and purple : some of the median and greater wing-coverts 
tipped with grey ; bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills brown, edged, more 
or less, with rufous, increasing in extent on the quills, which are rufous on both webs 
for the greater part of their length ; the outer primaries have white margins towards 
the tips ; middle tail-feathers like the back, the outer ones slate-grey, with a blackish 
subterminal band and tipped with rufous-brown ; fore-part of the head and chin 
white, slightly tinged with chestnut ; hinder crown slate-grey ; sides of face and 
entire under-surface pale slate-grey ; axillaries and under wing-coverts chestnut, 
like the quill-lining. Iris hazel-brown. Total length 335 mm. ; culmen26, wing 167, 
tail 88, tarsus 27. 

Adult female. — Differs from the adult male chiefly in having much less rufous 
or chestnut on the plumage of the upper -parts, and the under-surface darker grey. 
There is no white on the fore-head, as in the male, and the chestnut colour is indi- 
cated only by a small patch on the sides of the nape and a wash on the sides of the 
neck ; the hind -neck and mantle ai-e like the back ; bill black ; iris reddish ; tarsi 
and feet deep coral -piuk. Total length 298 mm. ; culmen 25, wing 165, tail 8-4, 
tarsus 27. 

Immature. — Distinguished from the adult, more particularly by the rufous 
fore-head, very slight indication of the chestnut throat patch, and the entire absence 
of chestnut on the hind-neck. 

A male example, from the Dandenong Ranges, Victoria, has the general colour 
much darker and more intensified, the most conspicuous featm'e being the chestnut 
colour on the fore-part of the head. 

Ne-st. — A flat structure or platform of twigs ; usually placed in a thick bush, 
on a fallen tree, or even on the gromid, in secluded scrubby localities. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; elliptical in shape ; textirre of shell fine, except the 
smaller end, which is slightly granular ; surface glossy ; pure white. Dimensions 
31 mm. by 24. 

Breeding-season. — October to January or March. 

Incubation-period. — Fifteen to eighteen days. 

Distribution and forms. — Southern Australia and Tasmania only. Tlu-ee races 
have been distinguished : C. e. elegans (Temminck and Kiiip) from Tasmania ; 
C. e. neglecta (IVIathews) from New South Wales, Victoria, South and South-west 
Australia, in its large size and generally paler coloration ; and C. e. affinis (Mathews) 
from the interior of South Australia, a much paler form, both above and below, but 
especially on the mantle. 

Genus HISTRIOPHAPS. 

Histriophaps Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., Vol. XXI., p. 529, Jime 30tli, 1893. Type 
(by original designation) : Columha histrionica Gould. 

Large Ground -Doves with medium bills, very long wings, short tails and stout 
legs and feet. 



254 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALL\. 

The bill is very similar to those of the jjreceding genera, but stouter, the dertrum 
a little more swollen, and less deflexed, the gonys scarcely angulated and little 
ascending, the interramal space anteriorly imfeathered. 

The wing is very long, with the first primary longest, the secondaries short and 
none of the primaries sliowng any scalloping cither on the outer or inner webs. 
The tail is very short, comijosed of fourteen rectrices, not very broad, with rounded 
tijjs and forming a rounded wedge, less than half the length of the wing, The upper 
tail-coverts are very long, reaching almost to the end of the ta'l while the mider tail- 
coverts are as long as the tail itself. The legs are short and very stout, the front of 
the tarsus covered with two rows of strong hexagonal scales, the sides and back 
with very fine reticulations, the tarsus a little longer than the culmen. The toes 
rather slender, the middle toe longest, the inner longer than the outer, the hind-toe 
with a scant lateral margin and comparatively shorter but with a very long claw 
similar to the long claws of the anterior toes, narrow and little curved but not 
flattened. 

Coloration upper sandy-reddish to brown, wing-feathers pale grey, under- 
surface blue ; eye, fore-head and spot on chest white ; top of head, cheeks and 
throat black ; metallic spot on inner secondaries ; female not so boldly marked. 

172. Histriophaps histrionica. — FLOCK-PIGEON. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 66 (pt. n.), March 1st, 1841. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 37, April 29th, 
1911. 

Columha (Perialera) histrionica Gould, Birds Austr., pt. 11., March 1st, 1841 ; Liverpool 

Plains, New South Wales (interior). 

Phaps histrionica alisteri Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 189, Jan. 31st, 1912 : Parry's 

Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory, North-west Australia. 

Adult male. — -General colour above, including the entire back, wings, and tail 
sandy-brown ; marginal coverts round the bend of the wing, bastard-wing, and 
primary-coverts blue-grey, more or less margined with white on the outer webs ; 
primary-quills pale grey with sandy edges and white tips to all but the outer two, 
inner webs rufous with the excejition of the first quill, outer secondary-quills grey, 
darker towards the tips, inner ones sandy on the outer webs with a metallic-puriile 
and green gloss followed by grey and an ovate spot of white ; middle tail-feathers 
like the bacli, the outer feathers grey, with a dark, subterminal band and tipped with 
white, sometimes in the form of a spot, some of the lateral ones sandy on the outer 
webs ; sides of face, ear-coverts and crown of head black ; fore-head, lores, a line 
behind the eye, almost enclosing the ear-coverts, and a patch on the lower throat 
jjure white ; fore-neck, breast, and abdomen blue-grey, like the axillaries and under 
wing-coverts ; lower flanks sandy-brown, becoming paler on the shorter under 
tail-coverts, the long ones grey, with sandy-white tips ; quills pale brown, with a 
patch of chestnut towards the base ; bill brown ; iris dark brown ; tarsi and feet 
in front leaden-blue, back of tarsi flesh-red. Total length about 317 mm. ; culmen 
24, wing 193, tail 83, tarsus 26. 

Adult female. — Differs from the adult male in having the entire upper -parts, 
including the head, darker sandy-brown, as also a wide grejash-brown band on the 
fore-neck and breast, the black on the chin and throat only faintly indicated, and 
the fore-head inclining to whitish ; wing-speculum very faintly indicated and the 
white tips to the primaries absent. Tota,l length about 303 mm. ; culmen 24, 
wing 190, tail 83, tarsus 26. 

Immature male. — Similar to the adult female but with the fore-part of the 
head white, as in the male, and with the white spots and white tips to the primaries. 

Immature female. — Differs from the adult in having the wing-coverts and tips 



WHITE-QUILLED KOCK PIGEON. 255 

of quills margined with whitish, as also the feathers of the fore-neck ; the black 
throat patch scarcely indicated ; a certain amount of chestnut on the under wing- 
coverts like that of the quill-lining. 

Nest.— The bare ground, under any convenient low covert — tussock or bush 
— on the plains. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; ellij)tical in form ; texture of shell fine but strong ; surface 
glossy ; white, with a slight creamy tone. Dimensions 32-34 mm. by 24. 

Breeding-seaso7i. — Practically all the year round. 

Distribution and forms. — Literior of Australia only. The western form, living 
in interior districts of the North-west of Australia is much paler above and below, 
being named H. h. alisteri (Mathews), than the typical eastern H. h. Mstrionica 
(Gould) from the interior of Ne%v South Wales and Queensland. 

Genus PETROPHASSA. 

Petrophassa Gould, Proo. Zool. Soo. (Lond.), 1840, p. 173, July 1841. Tj-pe (by monotypy) : 
Petrophassa alhipennis Gould. 

Large Ground-Doves with slender bills, very rounded wings, long romided tail 
and very small legs and feet. The bill is formed as in the preceding genus, the 
dertrum a little more swollen, the bill itself a little more slender, the inten-amal 
space less feathered, the gonys a little longer and more ascending but not angulated. 
There is a small space romid the eye and part of the lores naked of feathers as in the 
preceding genus but more marked. The wing is very rounded, the primaries very 
narrow, none showing any scallof)ing on the inner webs but the third to the eighth 
strongly incised on the outer webs ; the first is not much shorter than the second and 
is about equal to the ninth, the intervening eight being almost the same length, 
the eighth being a little less than the others. The secondaries are very long and 
broad, the longest inner secondary being equal to the outermost primary. The 
tail is composed of fourteen very broad feathers, their extremities being almost square 
and is nearly as long as the wing ; in shaj)e it is a broad wedge, the outer feathers 
being more than half the length of the middle eight which are practicallj^ equal in 
length. The upper tail-coverts are very dense and only reach about half-way dovra 
the tail, the under ones being about the same length. The legs are very small ; 
the tarsus is short and thick, about the length of the culmen, and longer than the 
middle toe ; the tarsus is covered on the front with two rows of hexagonal jilates, 
the back and sides being covered vnth minute reticulation. The toes are very 
short, the middle toe longest, the outer and inner about equal and not a great deal 
longer than the straight hind-toe ; all the claws are short and blunt. 

Coloration miiform brown or grey with darker edges to all the feathers, forming 
a scalloped apj)earance ; jtrimaries showing red or white bases, very noticeable. 

173. Petrophassa alhipennis.— WHITE-QUILLED ROCK PIGEON. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 71 (pt. X.), March 1st, 1843. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 38, April 29th, 

1911. 

Petrophassa alhipennis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1840, p. 173, July 1841 : " Western 

Aiistralia " = Wyndliam, North-west Australia (East). 

Petrophassa alhipennis alisteri MathevTs, Austral Av. Kec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 28, April 2nd, 

1912 : Napier Broome Bay, North-west Australia (West). 

DiSTBiBUTioisr.' — North-west Australia, Northern Territory. 

Adult female. — General colour of the upper-surface rufous-brown, with pale 
edges to the feathers ; crown of the head blackish-brown, with whitish margins to 
the feathers ; neck all round, breast and sides of the face grey, with rufous-brown 
edges to the feathers ; lores and a narrow line at the base of the fore-head velvety- 



256 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF ATJSTEjVLL^. 

black ; the feathers of the chin and throat black, with white pear-shaped tips ; 
bastard-wing and primarj'-coverts blackish, the latter dusted with white towards 
the tips ; primary-quills white at the base, becoming darker towards the tips, the 
inner ones dusted wth broAvii and shaded with rufous ; secoudary-quills entirely 
brown, somewhat darker on the inner webs ; the innermost secondaries like the back ; 
some dark metallic-purple spots are indicated on one or two of the inner major 
coverts and long scapular feathers ; tail rufous-brown, the outer feathers inclining 
to blackish ; abdomen, sides of the body, under tail-coverts, axillaries and under 
wing-coverts blacldsh, with pale margins to the feathers ; tail and quills below 
blackish, the latter with white bases ; bill black ; iris dark brown ; tarsi and feet 
blackish-brown. Total length about 310 mm. ; culmen 20, wing 135, tail 120, 
tarsus 20. The sexes are alike. 

/mwiafi/re.— Apparently similar to the adult plumage. 

Nest. — A slight hollow about two inches in depth scooped in the ground 
near a small tuft of spinifex, or stone, and lined with soft dead grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; oval in form, the shell being close-grained, smooth, and 
lustrous, cream colour or creamy -white. Dimensions 27-29 mm. by 21. 

Breeding-season. — July to October. 

Distribution and forms. — North-west Australia only. Two subspecies have been 
named: P. a. albijieimis Gould from "Western Australia," described as having 
" all the dipper-surface rufous-broicn" and, therefore, Wyndham selected as tj-pe 
locality and Northern Territory birds agree ; the specimens from Napier Broome 
Bay, North-west Australia, named P. a. alisteri Mathews, lack the rufous coloration, 
being dark miiform brown above, and tliffer afipreciably. 

174. Petrophassa rufipennis.— CHESTNUT-QUILLED ROCK PIGEON. 

Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 39. April, 29th, 1911. 

Petrophassa rufipennis CoUett, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1898, p. 354, Oct. 1st : South Alligator 

River, Northern Territory. 

Distribution. — Northern Territory. 

Adult male. — The feathers of the upper-surface, as well as those of the breast, 
grey, margined with brown ; throat and a narrow line above and below the eye 
white ; sides of face also inclining to white ; bastard-wing blackish ; primary- 
coverts chestnut, blackish at the tips ; primarj'-quiils chestnut, margins of the 
outer webs towards the ends, and the tips blackish ; secondaries dark brown ; tail 
blackish, as also the axillaries and lesser under wing-coverts ; quills below, greater, 
and a few of the lesser, mng -coverts chestnut ; bill black ; iris brown ; feet black. 
Total length 345 mm. ; culmen 21, wing 151, tail 145, tarsus 22. 

Adult female. — Differs from the adult male only in having metallic spots on a 
few of the scapular feathers. Total length 310 mm. ; culmen 22, wing 152, tail 131, 
tarsus 22. 

Nest and Eggs. — Undescribed. 

Distribution and form^. — Restricted to Northern TeiTitory and no subspecies. 

Genus GEOPHAPS. 

Geophaps Gray, Appendix List Gen. Birds, p. 12, March 1st, 1842. Type (by original designa- 
tion) : Colujiiba scripla Temminck. 

Terraphaps Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 8, p. 195, March 20th, 1913. Tj-pe (by 
original designation) : Columha smilhii Jardine and Selby. 

Medium Gromid-Doves with stout bills, long wngs, long tail and stout legs 
and feet. The bill is short and stout, the dertrum swollen, the tip deflexed, the 



PARTRIDGE PIGEON. 257 

dertrum half the length of the culmen ; the nasal groove sharply defined, the culmen 
ridge posteriorly flattened, the nasal covering much swollen ; the lower mandible 
stout, the gonys not angulated but ascending, the mandibular rami ungrooved and 
the interramal space feathered. The bill is stouter in the male than in the female, 
and in the form called Terraphaps by Mathews the bill in the male is abnormally 
stout, the depth being almost half the length of the culmen, the dertrum, much 
swollen and more than half the length of the culmen, the nasal groove occupied by 
the nasal covering, the mandibular rami very short and ungrooved, the gonys longer 
and more rapidly ascending without any angulation ; in the female, however, the 
bill agrees vAt\\ that of Geophaps. There is a notable bare space about the eyes. 
The wing is long, the first primary, a little incised on the inner web, the third to the 
sixth rather strongly incised on the outer webs ; the first primary is long, a little 
shorter than the seventh, the second and sixth a little longer and subequal, the 
third to fifth a little longer still, subequal and longest ; the secondaries long, reaching 
almost to the seventh j)rimary. The tail is long, composed of fourteen broad, 
rounded feathers, and nearly straight, only a little rounded ; the upper tail-coverts 
very long reaching almost to the end of the tail-feathers and the mider tail-coverts 
nearly as long. The legs are short and very stout, the tarsus very thick, the front 
being covered with a double row of stout hexagonal scutes, the sides and back with 
less well-marked hexagonal scales. The toes are very short, the middle toe longest, 
the inner longer than the outer, wliich scarcely exceeds the hind-toe. All the claws 
are rather long but little curved ; lateral skin at sides of hind -toe obsolete. 

Coloration earth-brown above, a small bronze spot on inner secondaries, white 
throat vnth black markings bordering it, more or less pronounced ; chest brownish, 
beUy slaty, flanks and abdomen white. 

175. Geophaps scripta.— PARTRIDGE PIGEON. 

Govdd, Vol. v., pi. 67 (pt. VII.), June 1st, 1842. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 40, April 29th, 
1911. 

Colutnha scripta Temminck, Trans. Linn. Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XIII., pt. i., p. 127, 1821 : 

Shoalwater Bay, Queensland. 

Columha inscripta Wagler, Syst. Av., Columba, sp. 59, p. (249), (before Oct.) 1827. New 

name for C. scripta Temm. 

Geophaps scripta bourkei Mathews, Austral Av. Ree., Vol. II., pt. 7, p. 124, Jan. 28th, 1915 : 

Bourke. New South Wales. 

Distribution. — Queensland, New South Wales. 

Adult. — General colour of the upper-surface earth-brown, including the head, 
entire back, and middle tail-feathers ; wings darker than the back, with broad 
pale margins to the feathers ; wing-speculum wavy green, with copj^eiy reflections ; 
bastard-wing, primary-coverts, and quills pale brown, with whitish edges to the 
outer webs of the latter ; margins of the secondary-quills rufous ; outer tail-feathers 
rufous-grey, with black tips ; a white line on the lores, which surmounts the narrow 
black band round the eye ; chin and throat white, as also a line along the cheeks, 
which includes the ear-coverts ; a line of black feathers which encircles the white 
throat and extends on to the sides of the neck behind the ear-coverts ; fore-neck 
and sides of the neck like the back ; breast and middle of the abdomen blue-grey ; 
sides of the body and under wing-coverts white ; small marginal coverts on the 
under edge of the wing similar in colour to the upper-surface ; axillaries white at 
base, and dusted with grey towards the ends ; lower -abdomen, thighs, and under 
tail-coverts sandy-buff, the long mider tail-coverts blackish, paler on the outer webs ; 
bill black ; iris black ; naked skin surrounding the eyes bluish-lead colour, the 
comer immediately before and behind the eye mealy vinous-red ; feet and frontal 



258 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

scales dark purplish vinous-red. Total length 325 mm. ; culmen 22, wing 148, 
tail 110, tarsus 25. 

Immat ure . — Undescri bed . 

Nest.~A little hollow, scooped in the ground, about an inch deep, and lined 
more or less with dead, soft grass, sometimes sheltered by herbage. 

Eggs.— Clutch, two. A clutch from the Dawson River, North Queensland, 
are creamy-white, smooth and glossy ; axis 30-31 mm., diameter 21-22. 

Breedi7ig-season.—Se]ptem,hev to Januarj', but breeds at almost any period of 
the year. 

Incubation-period. — (In captivity) seventeen days. 

Distribution and /onn^.— Restricted to Eastern Australia in the interior of 
Queensland and New South Wales. Two forms have been indicated : G. s. scripta 
(Temminck) from Shoalwater Bay, Queensland ; and G. s. bourkei Mathews, from 
Bourke, New South Wales, as being larger and darker. 

176, Geophaps smithii. — NAKED-EYED PARTRIDGE PIGEON. 

Gould, Vol. v., pi. 68 (pt. vil.), June 1st, 1842. Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 41, April 29th, 
1911. 

Columba smithii Jardine and Selby, Illustr. Omith., Vol. II., pi. 104, (? Dec.) 1830 : No 

locaUty = Northern Territory. 

Geophaps smithi blaaimn Mathews, Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 28, April 2nd, 1912 : 

Napier Broome Bay, Nortli-west Australia. 

Geophaps smithi cccike Mathews, ib. : Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

-DiSTKiBUTioN. — Northern Territory, North-west Australia. 

Adult. — General colour above earth-brown, including the head, back, wings 
and nilcicUe tail-feathers ; wing-speculum, which is formed by the metallic spots 
on the outer webs of some of the greater coverts and innermost secondaries, wavy 
purple and green ; outer tail-feathers brown, with broad black tips ; a narrow white 
and black line on the lores, encircling the eye ; the white of the throat exteiKling 
on to the sides of the neck to behind the ear-coverts ; cheeks grej', like the narrow 
line which fringes the white patch on the throat ; fore-neck and breast vinous-grey 
on the middle of the latter, a few grey feathers naiTowly barred with black ; sides of 
body, axillaries and mider wing-coverts white : lower flanks like the breast ; abdomen 
and vent whitish-buff ; thighs buS ; mider tail-coverts brown, margined with 
white ; bill blackish ; iris white, feet dull pink. Total length 290 mm. ; culmen 20, 
wing 136, tail 101, tarsus 23. 

Female. — Similar in coloration but with noticeably weaker bill. 

Immature. — Similar above but all the feathers of upper -surface minutely freckled, 
the freckling more noticeable on rumii and upper tail-coverts, the upper wing-coverts 
similarly freckled, tips whitish ; inner secondaries with all outer webs freckled, tail- 
feathers also freckled as feathers of breast which are brownish and show also white 
tipping ; indistinct central breast patch ; face markings less defined. 

Nest. — Eggs are laid on the ground in a slight nest made of grass, or sometimes 
on a tussock of grass. 

Eggs. — Clutch, two ; somewhat oval, slightly glossy ; colour, verj- pale cream. 
Dimensions 27-28 mm. by 20. 

Breeding -season. — All the j'ear roimd. 

Distribution and forms. — Northern Territory and North-west Australia onlj'. 
Three subspecies as G. s. smithii (Jardine and Selby) from Northern Territory ; 
G. s. blaauun Mathews from North-west Australia, a paler form, with the naked 
eye-space yellow, not scarlet as in typical form ; and G. s. cecilce Mathews from 
Melville Island, a still paler form OTth the upper-breast suffused -nith 2iink, and the 
stripe below the eye lighter. 






PLUMED PIGEON. 259 

Genus LOPHOPHAPS. 

Lophophaps Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vogel, p. xsv., 1852 (? 1853). Type (by original 
designation) : Geophaps plumifera Gould. 

Small stoutly-built Ground-Doves, with short stout bill, long occipital crest, 
short rounded wings, short tail and small stout legs and feet. There is a bare space 
round, in front and behind the eyes. The bill is shorter than the head, nearly half 
as deep as long, dertruni swollen more than half the length of the cuhnen, mider 
mandible stout, gonys very long, more than half the length of the mandible. It 
agrees very closely with that of the preceding genus in most details. The occipital 
crest is composed of a few very long and thin feathers. The wing is roxmded, the 
primaries narrow, the first showing no attenuation but the second to sixth notably 
incised on outer webs, seventh slightly ; the first is only a little less than the second 
and equal to the sixth, the second, third, fourth and fifth subequal and longest, the 
secondaries long and only a little shorter. The tail is nearly square, only slightly 
rounded, the feathers broad, roimded at the tips and fourteen in number ; it is a 
little more than half the length of the wing, the tail-coverts are very long, both upper 
and imder nearly reaching to end of tail. The legs are very small and stout, the 
tarsus about equal to the culmen, covered with hexagonal scutes, a double row of 
large scutes in front, fewer but strong ones on sides and back. The toes very short 
and straight, the middle toe a little longer than the outer and inner, which are sub- 
equal, the hind-toe shorter, the claws short and little curved, the hind-toe showing 
no lateral skin exi^ansion. 

Coloration sandy-buH above and below ; barred with blackish above and a 
dark line across the breast, the abdomen varying to pure white ; the fore-head slaty- 
blue, chin white, black line above and below eyes and a black patch on throat ; 
occipital crest varying to straw colour ; bronze patch on inner secondaries. 

177. Lophophaps plumifera. — PLUMED PIGEON. 

Gould, Vol. v.. pi. 69 (pt. VII.), June 1st, 1842 ; Suppl., pi. 69 (pt. iv.), Dec. 1st, 1867. 

Mathews, Vol. I., pt. 3, pi. 43, AprU 29th, 1911. 

Geophaps plumifera Gould, Birds Austr., pt. vii., June 1st, 1842 : near Cape Hotham, 

Northern Territory. 

Lophophaps leucogaster Gould, Birds Austr., Suppl., pi. 69, pt. iv., Dec. 1st, 1867 : Mach- 

rihanish Station, South Australia (interior). 

Lophophaps plumifera pallida Mathews, Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII., p. 190, Jan. 31st, 1912: 

Parry's Creek, North-west Australia. 

Distribution. — North Queensland, Northern Territory, North-west Australia. Interior 

Soutii Australia. 

Adult male. — General colour above sandy-buff, barred vnih black and gi'ey, 
more coarsely on the wings and sides of neck ; i^rimary-coverts and quills chestnut, 
the latter tipped with blackish-bro^vn ; the outermost primary blackish on the outer 
web ; the greater number of the primaries have black shafts ; some of the inner 
secondaries brown, with whitish margins ; the innermost secondaries like the back, 
with metallic -purijle sfiots on the outer webs ; middle tail-feathers like the back, 
outer f)air almost entirely black, the remainder reddish-brown, broadly tii^ped with 
black ; fore-jiart of the head and ear -coverts blue-grey ; hinder part of the crowii 
and crest bright fawn colour, the elongated plumes straw colour ; a narrow line 
of black on the fore-head, which extends over and below the ej^e ; chin and lower 
throat black ; cheeks and ui>per thi-oat white ; fore-neck, sides of the body and 
mider wing-coverts fawn colour ; abdomen and a band across the breast white ; an 
irregular band across the breast, composed of grey and black bars ; under tail-coverts 
.slate-grej', margined with white ; bill blackish ; iris j^ellow, bare skin round the 

S 2 



260 A MANUAL OF THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

eyes crimson ; tarsi and feet very dark purple. Total