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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

ARY 

IS1TY OF 
: ORNiA 




MURICIN^E. 



PLATE 1. 





MANUAL 



OF 



GEOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W./TRYON) JR. 

/ 

CONSERVATOR OF TUK CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION OK TUK ACADEMY OF NATURAL 
SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. II. 

MURICIN^ PURPURINJE, 

^4y / 

4*4 f 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Author, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COR. ISTH & RACE STS. 

1880. 







SCIENCE! ySjj 

LIBRARY 



WM. P. KILDARE, PilNTER, 734 & 736 SANSOM ST , PHILA. 



IN THE preparation of the introductory portion of the present 
volume free use has been made of Keferstein's admirable work, 
forming part of" Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen d. Thierreichs:'' 
the most comprehensive treatise on the anatomy of the mollusca 
which has }^et appeared. Of course many additional facts and 
some corrections have been published since the issue of that 
work, and abstracts of the most important of these have been 
herein incorporated. I have endeavored to avoid the prolixity of 
Keferstein without sacrificing clearness of language, but occa- 
sionally quote his very words. The few statements for which I 
alone am responsible, are made in the first person. The body of 
literature consulted is too extensive for quotation in a work like 
this, where much must necessarily be sacrificed for the sake of 
brevity. Whilst 1 have freely used the admirable illustrations of 
Keiner, Reeve, Sowerby, Kiister, and other monographs. I have 
added to these hundreds of figures, names and items of infor- 
mation gleaned from fugitive papers and scientific periodicals ; so 
that I am enabled to present a ca refully arranged, concise account 
of all that is known concerning the Murices and Purpurte. 

I may be thought 03- some, to have treated the species in a too 
conservative spirit; my object in the investigations of which 
this work is the result, has been solely to ascertain truth, not to 
establish, maintain or destroy scientific reputations. 

January. 1880. (T. W. T.. JR. 



If there be nothing new, but that which is, 
Hath been before, how are our brains beguil'd, 

Which, laboring for invention, bear amiss, 
The second burden of a former child ! 

SHAKSPERE. 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF] 




PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



ANATOMY. 

External Features. 

The body in prosobranchiates presents the following, more or 
less, differentiated portions : 

1. Head. This is sometimes partially separated from the body 
by an intervening- constriction or neck, but is very 'frequently 
only indicated by the possession of a mouth on its ventral and 
of a pair of tentacles on its dorsal surface. From the latter 
sometimes proceed pedicels bearing the eyes. 

2. Mantle. This covers the posterior portion of the dorsal 
surface of the body. 

3. Foot. Arising from the ventral anterior part of the body. 

The mouth may be either simple, in the plane of the head, or 
it may be produced at the end of a contractile rostrum, or of a 
retractile proboscis. Behind the head and on the under side of 
what ma}^ be called the neck is attached the foot, and behind the 
neck begins the posterior portion of the body covered by the 
mantle : this part of the animal is A r ery long, usually, and as the 
shell is moulded upon it, it assumes a similar form general!}" 
spiral. However, in Patella and similar limpet-like shells, the 
body is short and straight. The mantle encircles the body like 
a collar below, but above it is much produced over the back of 
the animal, and the respiratory cavity forms a sinus of its 
margin. The foot consists of the attachment to the neck, which 
is usually narrow, and an expanded portion or sole, or creeping 
disk. Such is its typical form, but in Patella the foot embraces 
the entire ventral surface of the animal. It is a muscular pro- 
cess of the body, and the only locomotive organ possessed by 
prosobranchiates. 



(' EXTERNAL FEATURES. 

Viewed externall} 7 , the prosobranchiates, as well as the mol- 
lusca in general, must be regarded as bilaterally symmetrical ; a 
view which is strengthened by the position of the nervous 
system ; and the developmental history of the intestines, though 
its actual position, as well as that of the sexual organs, does not 
correspond with this symmetry. Thus we find that at first the 
anus is at the posterior end of the body, but gradually it ap- 
proaches nearer and nearer to the anterior end until finally it 
opens on the back or right side near the mouth. In its early 
stages the shell and mantle only occupy the extreme posterior 
end of the body, but in their growth they cover more and more 
of the latter, gradually pushing the anus forward. 

An external shell, usually sufficiently large to contain the 
entire animal, is common to all the prosobranchiatee. It is a 
secretion of the mantle, and conforms to its shape; and the hard- 
ness which it assumes by the addition of carbonate of lime, 
renders it an efficient protection to the animal, whilst the faith- 
fulness with which it reproduces the external features of the 
latter renders it extremely useful in classifying the niollusca. 
The spiral growth of shells is as nearly of true mathematical 
regularity as is possible in an organic body, forming the loga- 
rithmic spirals of Moseley. or conchospiral of Naumann. Cor- 
responding to the shell, which is produced by the mantle, and 
borne by the posterior portion of the body, the posterior dorsal 
part of the foot bears an operculum, secreted by an expansion of 
its skin called the opercular mantle. Typically, the operculum is 
a spiral also, but in the same plane ; yet in many cases its growth 
is annular. Usually horny, it is sometimes nearly, entirely or 
partially calcareous, and on the retirement of the animal within 
the shell it is brought into the aperture of the latter, which it 
more or less complete!} 7 closes. Like the shell itself, it may be 
considered a protective organ, and when in apposition with the 
former suggests the two enclosing valves of the lamellibranchiate 
or bivalve mollusks. 

Notwithstanding the large portion of the animal which is 
always within the shell, even when the head and foot are ex- 
truded, the latter is only attached to the former at one point, on 
the columella, and by means of a columellar muscle, which, pass- 
ing through the foot, is attached at its other end to the oper- 



THE SKIN. 7 

culum (when the latter is developed, which is not always the 
case . Although there is only this single actual bond of con- 
nection between shell and animal, the contact of the body serves 
to maintain the vitality of the shell, which soon bleaches, and 
finally decays when separated from its architect and inhabitant. 
We will now describe, in a necessarily cursory manner, 
successively, the skin, the foot, the muscles, the shell and 
operculum, the digestive, nervous, vascular, respiratory, secre- 
tive and sexual organs of the prosobranchiates. 

The Skin. 

The body is completely enveloped by MH external skin. Its 
epithelial layer is formed of quadrangular or prismatic cells, 
which have a distinct nucleus, and occasionally, when long- 
cylindrical in form, they have a tail-like end beneath, penetrating 
the cutis.* Externally the epithelium sometimes supports cilia 
upon the exposed portions of the body. 

The cutis consists essentially of tine interlacing muscular fibres 
with interposed cells; often attaining a perceptible thickness. 
The subcutaneous muscular layers of the body are immediately 
continuous with those of the cutis: the fibres of which they are 
formed may be clearly distinguished as an outer longitudinal 
and inner circular layer. These fibres are i as in molliisks gene- 
rally ) compressed and band-like, with pointed ends and central 
oval nucleus. 

The skin forms a fold above and surrounding the foot, and 
this portion is technically termed the mantle; it surrounds the 
body, behind the cephalic portion like a collar, and thence spreads 
dorsally over the posterior part of the animal. In the terminal, 
thickened border of the mantle, the cutis becomes of greater 
thickness ; its upper stratum containing very numerous glands, 
furnishing the mucus and colors which are here mingled with the 
secreted shell-material. Similar glands, furnishing a copious 
supply of mucus are found also in the cephalic portion of the 
body as well as in the foot, and especially in the sole ; but no 
cells are found in that part of the animal permanently covered 

* It is possible that these last are epithelial terminations of nerves 
hence sense organs. 



8 THE SKIN. 

by the shell. Frequently the external skin is colored by a gran- 
ular pigment, which either is contained in cells, lying between or 
enveloping the glands, or else sometimes appears to lie free under 
the epithelium. 

The mantle border is the principal agent in the secretion of 
the shell : it is thrown out by the epithelial layer as a sort of 
cuticular development. With the organic basis of this secretion 
is mingled carbonate of lime, originating in the epithelial cells, 
where it may be separated from the blood : in hardening, the 
exuded material becomes half crystalline or laminated. Usually 
the external layer of the shell is a transparent or translucent skin, 
the epidermis ; having no lime in its composition. It is often 
colored by pigments lying in the outermost border of the mantle. 

Whilst the growth of the shell is thus provided for by addi- 
tions of the aperture margin from the mantle border, the whole 
mantle is equally capable of producing shelly substance ; and not 
only are shells thus thickened from within by the mantle surface, 
but breaks are repaired with new material by a similar provision : 
only such repaired and interior portions are devoid of epidermis 
and of color, the pigments being found only in the free border of 
the mantle. Mollusks are even able to secrete shelly matter to 
provide against threatening- dangers from the boring of other 
animals into their shell.* In certain genera, as Haliotis, Turbo, 
etc., the inner shelly layer is nacreous that is, it forms mother- 
of-pearl. 

The mantle border by means of its sphincter muscles embraces 
the body closely, thus closing the mantle cavity except at one 
point, where a small opening allows the ingress and egress of 
water for respiration. This respiratory opening is a semi-circular 
notch, formed by muscles, and is sometimes prolonged on its 
dorsal wall into a half-closed tube or respiratory siphon; which, 
when present, assists by the phases of its development in the 
classification of the mollusca. This siphon usually forms an an- 
terior notch in the shell near the margin of the columella and the 



* A curious example of shell secretion by the visceral mantle occurs in 
a cone belonging to the cabinet of the late Dr. Gray. A section of this 
shell has been made, showing holes bored into the spire end by lithodomi 
and the repeated walls erected by the animal across the ends of the 
whorls to protect itself against the ravages of its insidious enemies, 
(plate 2, fig. 1.) 



THE SKIN. 

existence of the latter thus predicates that of the former. The 
siphonal tube is sometimes greatly prolonged, and is then fre- 
quently covered for most or all its length by a prolongation of 
the aperture, which is technically known as the canal of the shell. 
The canal in Mu rex and Pusus is extremely long, at least in the 
typical species. Mollusks of which the shells are furnished with 
a canal or anterior notch are called siphonostomata, the first 
great division of the prosobranchiates. The siphon is principally 
confined to predatory or carnivorous mollusks. The second 
great division, termed holostoniata, have rounded apertures ; 
consequently no siphon but simply an opening for respiration. 
They are vegetable feeders usually (Natica is a remarkable ex- 
ception), and close the aperture of the shell completely by their 
operculum. 

At the posterior left border of the mantle, behind the branchht, 
is sometimes an opening from which a small siphon extends back- 
wards, and when it is present, it forms a notch in the posterior 
part of the shell, as in Cypraea and Conus, or a canal as in Ovula, 
or frequently it only forms a callosity on the upper part of the 
columella. close to its junction with the posterior part of the 
aperture margin. Probably this siphonal opening is for the exit 
of the water that has entered lay the branchial opening. In 
many of the siphonostomata it is not present. 

The mantle border can be freely withdrawn within the whorl, 
as it is not united to the shell at any point. It is frequently- 
prolonged into digitations, or exhibits prominences or invagina- 
tions, all of which develop similar features on the shell ; thus 
giving rise to the fingers of Pteroceras, the spines of Murex, etc. 
Occasionally, how r ever, processes of the mantle do not secrete 
shelly coverings : Cerithium and the oriental Melanians, for in- 
stance, have delicately digitated mantle margins, these digita- 
tions forming no secretion, and sometimes thrown back over the 
shell. 

The mantle is occasionally largely developed into side lobes, 
which in Marginella and Cypraea are so extended as to be thrown 
up over the external surface of the shell, nearly or completely 
covering it. In such shells an epidermis is not present. The 
mantle lobes of Cypr*ea are beset with numerous papillae, which 
seem to partake the function of tentacles as tactile organs. In 
2 



10 FOOT. 

other genera, as in Oliva, the mantle is prolonged into filiform 
processes before and behind. 

The female Vermetus has the mantle cleft in the middle, ac- 
cording to Lacaze-Duthiers, although there is no corresponding 
cleft in the shell, and in Haliotis a similar mantle cleft impresses 
a groove in the shell, in which are situated the row of holes 
characteristic of the genus. The shell of Pleurotoma also has 
a sinus corresponding to a cleft mantle. The cause of the 
sutural sinus of the shell of the American fresh-water genus 
Schizostoma is as yet unknown; it may be due to a similar cause 
or it may be sexual. As the genus is restricted to the Coosa 
River and its neighborhood, I am inclined to think that it is a 
local disturbance of growth, especially as most of the species 
could not be distinguished from corresponding forms of Gonio- 
basis except by the lip notch or slit. 

Foot. 

The foot is a fleshy, expanded mass, attached to the under 
side of the body, in front of the mantle by a peduncle. In the 
heteropods the foot is divisible into three portions, termed, 
respectively, propodium, mesopodium and metapodium ; but in 
the typical gasteropods these three areas are blended in the sole, 
although the metapodium is indicated by the fact of its support- 
ing on its dorsal side the operculum. In Strombus (pi. 3, fig. 
14), a transverse furrow separates the mesopodium from the 
propodium, and the metapodium is covered downwards and in 
front by the operculum. 

The peduncle of the foot is usually short and depressed", and 
covers the under side of the body between the mantle collar and 
mouth, the foot being expanded forward, but more extensively 
backwards ; but in Strombus and its allies the operculum is long 
and narrow, whilst the foot is slim and cylindrical. Haliotis, 
Patella and Chiton have the foot, on the other hand, very much 
expanded. Rapidity of motion appears to be in inverse ratio to 
the size of the foot ; those genera in which this organ is enor- 
mously developed, especially in those just cited, where it occu- 
pies the entire ventral surface of the body, being slow in 
movement. 



FOOT. 11 

Generally, the anterior border of the foot is variously lobed 
(plate 3), and these lobes are mostly of glandular structure, 
though Keferstein has found them in Buccinum to consist of 
interwoven meshes of muscular fibres, in which are lodged beau- 
tiful nucleated cells. These lobes or filiform processes, like 
those of the mantle, are tactile organs. 

When the foot is greatly expanded, as in Cymba, Harpa, 
Doliuin, etc., it is generally laterally recurved over the shell, 
somewhat like the mantle in Cyprsea and Marginella. In 
Oliva (pi. 3, fig. 16) and in Ancillaria, the propodium, repre- 
sented by triangular lobes, lies flat, while the distinctly separated 
mesopodium covers a portion of the sides of the shell. In Natica 
the propodium is greatl}' developed forwards, extending beyond 
the head and reflected backwards over the latter in such manner 
as to conceal it, with its tentacles, and the anterior part of the 
shell itself, from view. The mesopodium in Natica, being like- 
wise largely reflected over the shell, the respiratory cavity is 
covered, but a canal is developed between the reflected pro- 
podium and the mesopodium, which conveys water to the 
branchiae. 

There is a rounded glandular opening in the sole of the foot 
of many prosobranchiates (Pyrula, pi. 3, fig. 18), which is the 
external opening of the pedal aqueous vascular system ; to be 
more particularly noticed hereafter. 

Nearly all of the prosobranchiates whilst in the larval state 
support an operculum on the dorsal side of the metapodium ; 
with some, the operculum is fugatious, and is lost in the trans- 
formation of the animal, yet it continues present in most of the 
groups. Its secretion from the operculigerous mantle, and its 
morphological relation to the shell, will be explained further on. 
The opercular mantle sometimes extends beyond the borders of 
the operculum itself, and is divided into processes or filaments, 
which may, as in Ampullaria, be reflected over it. 

The foot is the organ of locomotion of univalve mollusks : 
the anterior portion is protruded, and then by means of wave- 
like muscular contractions of the sole, the whole mass of body 
and shell is brought forward when the former motion is re- 
peated. In Phasianella, Quoy and Gaimard have observed that 
the foot is divided lengthwise by a furrow, and that when motion 



1 '2 COLUMELLAR MUSCLE AND OPERCULUM. 

is rapid the muscles of the sole are alternately used on either 
side, so that the effect of the motion is that of a pair of feet. In 
attached shells, like Vermetus, the foot is only rudimentary and 
serves merely as a support to the operculum. 

In retiring within the aperture of the shell the foot is generally 
doubled upon itself across the middle, so that its dorsal posterior 
side, bearing the operculum, comes outermost ; but in Oliva and 
Voluta it folds longitudinally, whilst the quadrate foot of Conus 
is withdrawn obliquely, without folding, first the right and then 
the left side. 

The Columellar Muscle and Operculum. 

As already stated, there is but one attachment of the proso- 
branchiate to its shell ; namely, by means of the columellar 
muscle, by which the inner face of the columella is directly 
united with the posterior portion of the body of the animal. It 
passes underneath the mantle, greatly thickening the body wall, 
and terminates upon the inner face of the operculum, so that by 
its contractions the operculum and shell are approximated. The 
form of this muscle depends on that of the shell, and in the 
conical, non-spiral shells especially, varies greatly from its 
normal development. Thus, it is horseshoe-shaped in Capulus ; 
it is divided into two portions, one of which lies on either side 
of the anterior part of the animal, in Fissurella. In Haliotis the 
animal is coiled around it, and its insertion, instead of being on 
the columella, is on the middle of the inner wall of the shell 
itself. 

At the ending of the columellar muscle in the dorsum of the 
foot, its fibres are nearly vertical to the plane of the operculum, 
which usually appears to be immediately superimposed upon 
them : in Buccinum, however, Keferstein finds interposed a layer 
of long cylindrical epithelial cells, with mostly distinct nuclei, 
and long divided processes entering between the muscular fibres. 

The operculum, a cuticular development of these cells, is com- 
posed, as may be seen in the corneous opercula of Murex, 
Purpura, Triton, etc., of very thin superimposed layers. With 
the microscope one may perceive in a thin section, the cylindri- 
cal cells with their head attached to the lowermost layer ; or, on 



COLUMELLAR MUSCLE AND OPERCULUM. 13 

the inner face, the small rounded pittings where they have been 
attached. 

Dr. J. E. Gray was the first investigator who announced that 
the operculum is homologous with the second valve of the lamelli- 
branchiates or bivalve mollusks. He has shown that the oper- 
culum is developed on the embryo long before it is hatched ; 
that it is placed on and covers a particular part of the body 
called the lobus operculigerus, and which bears to it the same 
relation which the mantle does to the shell, and that its growth 
occurs in the same manner ; that this growth is made by the ad- 
dition of new matter to the inner surface and especially near 
the margin ; that it is attached to the animal by means of one 
or more muscles, which, as in the bivalve shell, pass from the 
larger valve or shell to the smaller one or operculum ; that the 
operculum, as it increases in size, is gradually moved on the end 
of its muscle the many-whorled operculum of the Trochi re- 
volves as many times on the end of the muscle as the many- 
whorled spiral shell turns on its imaginary axis ; that the opercu- 
lum is often lined internally with a shelly coat like a shell, and 
sometimes, like the Cowries, its outer surface is covered also with 
a shelly deposit by a special development of the opercular lobe. 

The principal difference between the operculum and the valve 
or shell of the Gasteropods consists : 

1. In the operculum having no cavity, its cone being de- 
pressed, flat or even concave, or very much compressed, form- 
ing only a spiral riband, as in the spiral operculum. But this 
absence of a cavity is a difference only of degree, for the valves 
of some Gasteropods, as Umbrella, Patella, etc., are much flat- 
tened ; the first resembling the annular operculum of Ampul- 
laria and Paludina : but the greatest resemblance is to be ob- 
served in the small, flat valves of Gryphaea, Exogyra, Chama, 
and other genera of bivalve shells which are attached by one of 
their valves. These valves are often quite as flat and destitute 
of any cavity as the operculum of any Gasteropod ; and it is to 
be remarked that these valves exactly resemble a spiral opercu- 
lum in shape, the remains of the ligament forming a spiral mark 
on the outer surface, showing how the valve has rotated on the 
body of the animal as the operculum rotates on the foot of the 
Gasteropods. 



14 COLUMELLAR MUSCLE AND OPERCULUM 

2. The operculum is generally horny and formed of a sub- 
stance similar to the epidermis of shells ; but then some shells, 
like the Bulla, Aplysia, certain Uniones, etc., are entirely or 
almost destitute of calcareous matter, and some of the helices, 
when inhabiting granitic regions, are equally of epidermal sub- 
stance : on the other hand many opercula are thickened inter- 
nally with a calcareous deposit. 

Dr. Gray proceeds to show that in bivalve shells like Chama, 
where one valve (the attached one) has a spiral apex, whilst the 
other valve, is a flattened spire, the position of the hinge with 
reference to the spire must rotate slowly with growth, as in the 
spiral operculum in its growth. The direction of the spire of a 
spiral operculum is opposite that of the shell, showing another 
analogy. 

The conclusion arrived at by Dr. Gray is that the normal or 
typical form of mollusks is that protected by two valves or 
shells : indeed, some nudibranchiate gasteropod mollusks which 
have no shell in their adult state (Doridse), have their newly 
hatched young covered with two shelly valves which afterwards 
fall off.* 

Dr. Gray has always maintained that the opercula are of 
great value in the distinction of genera, and he does not fail to 
condemn severely the practice of preserving shells in museums, 
or of figuring and describing them in conchological works, with- 
out opercula. I have already alluded to the supposed opercular 
bodies found with the fossil Ammonites : f it ma}' be added that 
they occur as well in some of the Heteropods and Fteropods. 

In 1847, Loven proposed to consider the operculum as analo- 
gous to the byssus ; but Dr. Gray has pointed out that some 
genera of Gasteropods provided with an operculum, secrete a 
byssus also (Rissoa, Cerithium, Littorina, etc.). However, Prof. 
Huxley, one of the latest and best authorities, thus endorses 
Loven's views : 

" On the haemal aspect of the posterior portion of the foot, 
a chitinous or shelly plate, termed the operculum, may be de- 
veloped. This operculum appears to be the analogue, if not the 

* Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2 ser., v, 476, 1850. 
f MAN. OP CONCH., vol. i, Cephalopoda, 267. 



COLUMELLAR MUSCLE AND OPERCULUM. 15 

homologue, of tlie byssus of the lainellibranchs ; and is certainly 
not homologous with either of the valves of the shell of the 
latter, which are pallial structures." * 

The following interesting note by Dr. Gray, will throw some 
light on this very interesting subject : 

" Oti the reproduction of the lost part of an operculum., and its 
probable restoration ivhen entirely destroyed. 

" It is to be expected that the operculum of a gasteropodous 
rnollusk may be sometimes broken or injured, but I have never 
hitherto been able to find any very distinct example of the kind, 
so as to study how the repair of the lost part would be effected. 
That such an occurrence would most probabty be rare, is easily 
explained from its situation, as the operculum is protected by 
the last whorl of the spire of the shell when the animal is 
expanded, and by the mouth when it is contracted into the 
cavity of the shell. 

" I have lately met with a very distinct example in a specimen 
of Fusus in the British Museum collection. In this specimen 
the apical half of the operculum has been broken off (pi. 2, fig. 
12 a), and the lost part has been renewed by an irregular round- 
ish process, nearly of the size of the lost part, not quite as thick 
as the original portion, and formed of rather irregular horny 
plates ; the smaller or first-formed portion being in the centre of 
the broken line, so that the restored part bears some similarity 
to the annular operculum of a Paludina. This restoration is 
exactly like that which would have taken place in a shell under 
similar circumstances, and is a further proof of the truth of the 
theory which I have long advocated, that the operculum is a 
rudimentary valve, and is homologous to the second valve of the 
bivalve mollusks. 

" In examining two specimens of Pleurotoma babylonica, pre- 
served in spirits, with the opercula attached, I was much sur- 
prised to observe that the opercula of the two specimens were 
exceedingly different in structure and belonged to two distinct 
modifications of that valve, one (pi. 2, fig. 12 b) being sub- 
annular, with the nucleus apical, like the other species of the 
genus, and the other (pi. 2, fig. 12 c) annular, with the nucleus 



Huxley, Anat. of Invert., 487, 1877. 



16 COLUMELLAR MUSCLE AND OPERCULUM. 

sub-central, somewhat like the operculum of Paludina. Tlie 
examination of the restoration of the lost half of the operculum 
of the Fusus before referred to has solved the difficulty, and I 
have no doubt that one of these animals had by some accident 
lost its operculum, and that it had gradually restored it; com- 
mencing, as in the case of the restored part of the operculum of 
the Fusus, by a small nucleus in the centre of the opercular 
mantle, on the back of the foot, and gradually adding new Ia3^ers 
around the edge of it, until it formed an annular operculum 
nearly of the size of the original, but differing from it in shape, 
being less acute in front and nearly similar in form at the two 
ends. A more minute examination has strengthened this theory, 
for the operculum of this specimen is less regularly developed 
than is usual in the annular operculum of the kind, and is much 
thinner than the normal operculum of the genus, as is the case 
in both these particulars with the restored part of the operculum 
of the Fusus. 

u This change in the formation of the operculum when it is 
reproduced is just what might have been expected. The animal, 
when it has to form the operculum at its birth, begins its forma- 
tion at the tip, and increases its size, as the animal requires a 
larger operculum for its protection, by the addition of new layers 
to the outer edge of its larger and last-formed end ; but when it 
has to reproduce this organ, the opercular mantle having reached 
a certain size, it proceeds to cover its surface with a new pro- 
tection in the most easy and rapid manner, and, commencing 
from a more or less central spot on the surface, enlarges the 
surface covered by adding new matter to the entire circumfer- 
ence of the first-formed part ; it continues this process without 
waiting to making the operculum as thick and solid as the one 
which was lost, until it readies the size of the original, moulding 
itself on the opercular mantle, and adapting its form to the form 
of the throat of the aperture of the shell which it has to close. 
The change of form in the front of the restored and mended 
operculum is caused by the parts being moulded on the existing 
opercular mantle consequently they have not the narrow front 
part which is found in the normal form caused by that part 
having been formed when the animal had this part of a small 
size; and as it increases in size the whole opercular mantle 



THE SHELL. 17 

moves forward, leaving the small tip of the operculum free, and 
useless to the animal, and, therefore, not necessary to be repro- 
duced when the operculum is reformed in the adult age of the 
animal."* 

The Shell. 

All prosobranchiates (and nearly all mollusks) are provided 
with an external shell, a dwelling place and a citadel combined, 
the hardness and durability of which, as Keferstein remarks, 
" supplies us with the best means of knowing the animal ; in- 
deed, in many cases, it is the only part known, and was formally 
the only part valued and preserved in collections. Although 
the animal itself offers more weighty and striking characters for 
the separation of the higher groups, yet having learned the close 
relationship existing between shell and animal, we find therein 
ample justification for attaching especial importance to the shell 
in a systematic point of view." 

We have already shown how the shell is produced by the 
mantle. 

The form of the shell is throughout regular, and is normally a 
cone curved into a spiral, and descending in a screw-like manner 
from the apex or initial whorl to the aperture. Nothing can be 
more beautiful than the regular geometrical progression of the 
growth of a shell or the certainty with which each species and 
genus grows in its normal pattern, although these modes vary 
among themselves so widely : thus we have the simple depressed 
cone of the Patella, all aperture and no spire, and from it every 
gradation from the Haliotis, almost equally depressed and broad, 
the result, however, of a very rapidly enlarging spiral, to the 
long, many-whorled Turritella, or the Vermetus, which is a 
Turitella partially unrolled into a simple long tube : the opposite 
of the Patella. The whorls of a spiral shell are, in most cases, 
closely wound around its axis, and, therefore, most part of their 
surface is in contact, each whorl partially covered and concealed 
by its successor ; and where the axis does not lengthen by the 
obliquity of the spiral, we find, as in the cone and Cypraea that 
the shell only shows externally its last whorl, with, perhaps, a 



* Dr. J. E. Gray, Proc. Zool Soc., 100, 1854. 
3 



18 THE SHELL. 

very small portion of its predecessor visible on the spire. On 
the other hand there are genera in which the whorls are not at 
all in contact, and where the axis becomes itself an imaginative 
cone, widest at the base. Besides the almost numberless modifi- 
cations of form resulting from the degree of obliquity and close- 
ness of the spiral, the direction of the latter may be mentioned 
as another factor in producing modification. In most spiral 
shells the spire normally curves to the right, that is to say, plac- 
ing the shell with its apex turned from the observer and its 
aperture in view, the latter will be found on the right hand. In 
others the volutions proceed in the opposite direction with such 
regularity as to be eminently characteristic of some species and 
genera. However, in certain genera, it is found that species 
normally dextral will exceptionally produce sinistrally coiled 
shells, and this abnormal growth probably is caused by disturb- 
ance of the relations of the embryo with its initial shell. 

Whilst the bulk and weight of shells are composed principally 
of carbonate of lime, yet they have always an organic basis, 
which is first developed, and then gradually impregnated with 
the lime. If the latter be removed by the use of acids the 
organic residuum (conchy olin) still retains the shape of the shell, 
forming a sort of membranous framework. It is this organic 
basis which maintains the life of the shell, for, the animal re- 
moved, as in beach-worn or fossil species, the conchyolin soon 
disappears and the shell becomes pure carbonate of lime, growing 
at the same time more and more brittle. Many of the long spiral 
shells, such as Bulimus decollatus, some Pupas, Truncatella, 
Melania, etc., withdraw the body from the earlier whorls in the 
course of growth, and partition off the unoccupied space with a 
shelly plate : in such cases the unoccupied whorls become brit- 
tle and are soon broken off. We must, therefore, believe that 
the shell is vitalized, or rather, that its vitality is maintained by 
simple contact of its organic basis with the living animal. 

There are two very distinct types of shell structure, the cel- 
lular or porcellanous and the membranous or nacreous. In 
bivalve mollusks the former is the outer and the latter the inner 
layer, in most cases, but in univalves the shell is usually porcel- 
lanous only ; although a few of the holostomata, such as Turbo, 



THE SHELL. 19 



Troclms, Stomatia, etc., have both layers, the inner one 
pearly. 

Nacreous shell substance consists of very thin, superimposed 
membranes, lying parallel with the surface and impregnated 
with aragonite. The iridescence of this substance proceeds 
from the waved or wrinkled close edges of these membranes. 
The aragonite is of crystalline structure, showing beautiful five or 
six angled tables. (PI. 2, figs. 8, 9.) 

As porcellanous shell structure is essentially the same in 
almost all Gasteropods, and the only kind of shell structure in 
most of them, a few sections of Strombus gigas will give a clear 
idea of the disposition of the material. (PL 2, figs. 4-6.) 

There are, it will be perceived, three layers of deposition (of 
which the middle one is thickest in this case), each composed of 
a multitude of plates or prisms, but each differing in the direc- 
tion of arrangement of these. It will be readily perceived how 
much this diversity of arrangement adds to the toughness of the 
shell structure, as no line of fracture can penetrate the entire 
shell wail, except by the violent breaking across of part of these 
layers of prisms. 

As to the chemical composition of shells, the conchyolin or 
organic material is a small, varying percentage, carbonate of 
lime, existing in quantities varying, from Turritella, 88.70 per 
cent, to Strombus gigas, 99 per cent. There are traces of other 
constituents, of which carbonate of magnesia is perhaps one of 
the most important ; it varies from 0.12 per cent, in Teles- 
copiuni to 0.48 per cent, in Fusus antiquus. Silicic acid has 
also been detected. C. Schmidt has obtained almost 1 per 
cent, of phosphate of lime from the shell of Helix nemoralis. 
The calcareous operculum of Turbo (analyzed by Wicke) con- 
tains : Carbonate of lime, 98.72 per cent. ; organic material 
1.28 per cent. 

Shells are perceptibly harder than, and will scratch calc-spar. 
Their specific gravity is somewhat higher than that of Carrara 
marble, being about 2.15 to 2.85 for the prosobranchiates, and 
varying but slightly in the pulmonates. 

With reference to the coloring of shells (terrestrial as well as 
marine species) Fischer points out that as a rule, brilliancy of 
coloring increases towards the equator. He suggests three 



20 THE SHELL. 

zones of coloration corresponding to the thermal zones, which 
may be designated as : 

1. Monochromic or frigid zone. 

2. Oligochromic or temperate zone. 

3. Polychroniic or tropical zone. 

Of course exceptions are numerous modifications based upon 
habits, ocean currents, adaptive coloration, etc.. M. Fischer 
particularly cites the melanism which characterizes so many 
shells of the West Coast of North and South America, giving, 
among other examples, the numerous species of sad colored and 
lugubriously named Trochi, which pervade those regions.* 

On adaptive coloration. A number of papers on mimicry or 
adaptive resemblance as a means of protection of animals 
against their enemies have been published, and the subject has 
awakened much interest and discussion. Coincidence of colora- 
tion of molluscous animals with their surroundings has been 
frequently remarked, but it is probably not so often for purposes 
of attack or security as the result of the food upon which the^y 
live or a dye obtained by contact with it. I have shown in my 
volume on the Cephalopoda that conscious adaptation of color 
has been noticed in the Octopus. Mr. Morse gives a number of 
instances of coincidence of color between American marine mol- 
lusks and their surroundings which he supposes to be evidences 
of protective adaptation.f 

" The thickness, the roughness, and the smoothness of the sur- 
faces of shells appear to depend, in a great measure, on the still- 
ness or agitated state of the water in which they reside. Shells 
which have branching or expanded varices. like the Murices, are 
also much influenced by circumstances, and hence many mere 
varieties, arising from local causes, have been considered as dis- 
tinct species. Thus Murex anguliferus is merely a Murex ramo- 
sus with simple varices ; and Murex erinaceus, M. torosus, M. 
subcarinatus, M. cinguliferus, M. tarentinus, and M. polygonus 
are all varieties of one species. Murex magellanicus, when found 



* Dr. P. Fischer, Jour, de Conch., xxiii, IQ.% 1875. 

f E. S. Morse, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hut., xiv, 141, 1871. 



SHELL. 21 

in smooth water, is covered with large acute foliaceous expan- 
sions ; but the same shell living in rough seas is without any 
such expansions, and only cancellately ribbed. In such situa- 
tions it seldom grows to a large size ; but when it does so, it 
becomes very solid, and loses almost all appearance of cancella- 
tion. Triton maculosus is very widely spread over the ocean in 
different temperatures and different kind of seas ; it consequently 
offers a multitude of varieties both of size and surface, all gradu- 
ally passing into each other, and most probably produced by the 
operation of the foregoing causes. Indeed, a vast number of 
merely nominal species have been formed from the habit, too 
prevalent among conchologists, of describing from single speci- 
mens, or even from several individuals brought from the same 
locality, which would never have been considered as distinct 
had collectors kept in their cabinets a series of specimens found 
under different circumstances, and studied, on the coasts where 
they are found, the variations which shells undergo."* 

Shell. 

Rest periods in the growth of mollusks are sometimes, as in 
the Murices, marked by a thickening of the edge of the shell, 
caused by continuous depositions of shell material, forming a 
ridge or varix ; and the rate of growth may be thus traced readily, 
in numerous mollusks. Thus in Murex one group shows three 
varices upon each whorl, indicating that a period of three years, 
or at least three seasons of activity is required for the completion 
of a single whorl of growth. In another group of Murices the 
varices are more numerous, as many as four to ten being counted 
on a whorl. In Triton, the varices are two on each whorl, but 
nearly alternately situated, so that the varices of each whorl oc- 
cupy an intermediate position to those on the preceding whorl : 
in Ranella there are also two varices but they form a continuous 
fringe or wing-like expansion on each side of the spire, showing 
a very regular growth by periods of half-whorls. 

The accretion of surface during growth is not continuous but 
is made by minute layers, around the margin of the aperture, 
each extending a little beyond its predecessor, and the edges of 



Dr. J. E. Gray. PMlos. Trans., 771, 1833. 



22 SHELL. 

these layers as exposed on the external surface are called growth- 
lines. Those shells which have a simple, or sharp-lipped aper- 
ture and which do not develop varices, nevertheless distinctly 
show the rest-periods by the greater impression of the growth- 
lines. Many shells retain the sharp aperture for a variable period, 
which may be called their juvenescence, but finally acquire adult 
characters, consisting of a thickened, reflected, inflected or lipped 
aperture which is sometimes more or less contracted by inflected 
calcareous projections called teeth. Growth, however, frequently 
continues after adult characters have been acquired, and then 
these are absorbed away when accretion recommences, leaving 
the mark of their former position in a more prominent growth- 
scar or line. 

The power of dissolving their shells is possessed by certainly 
a large portion of the mollusca and is habitually exercised by 
many of them : thus the cone, which we have seen partitioning 
off its whorls against an enemy and thus seriously incommoding 
itself for room, would under normal circumstances acquire for 
itself additional accommodation by absorbing away most of the 
thickness of the enclosed whorls or partitions, and Cypraea, Nerita 
and Auricula assist themselves in the same manner so as to 
become eventually an external shell only, with a single cavity. 
Tn species with lengthened spire, this method is not so practi- 
cable, because only a small portion of the whorls are enclosed within 
succeeding ones. The growth of many of these animals is such 
that they cease after awhile to occupy some of the earlier whorls? 
and they then partition them off as a regular habit, in the same 
manner that the cone has worked under the pressure of excep- 
tional necessity. These partitions made, the portion thus cut off' 
from contact with the animal loses vitality, becomes brittle and 
breaks off, forming the truncated shells which are characteristic 
of numerous groups especially of land shells. 

From what has been said of the mode of formation of shells it 
will be readily seen that details of sculpture as striae, sulcations, 
ribs, nodes, spines, etc., result from similar ornamentation of the 
applied mantle : thus the spine of a Murex, if closety examined, 
will be found to have a longitudinal seam upon its front face, 
showing that it has formed by a corresponding digitation of 
the mantle. It is scarcely necessary to pursue this subject 



DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 23 

further at this time : reference to the plates of this and succeed- 
ing volumes will demonstrate this relationship of shell and 
animal. 

Neither shall we investigate further the forms of shells or 
their opercula, monstrosities, etc. All these matters, where 
general in scope, may well be relegated to an introductory treat- 
ise on Conchology ; or we may at some future time include them 
with other particulars of more general than special application 
in a volume of appendix to this series.* 

Digestive Organs. 

The digestive organs in the Prosobranchiates are well devel- 
oped. The mouth, which is sometimes in the lower plane of the 
head, and sometimes at the end of a proboscis capable of protru- 
sion and retraction, is frequently encircled by an extensible lip ; 
within, it is often armed with a jaw on either side, and the tongue 
is usually armed on its upper surface with numerous transverse 
rows of teeth, constituting the lingual ribbon. The oesophagus 
is often beset with appendages and salivary glands, and leads to 
the stomach; whence the intestine turns forward, passing close 
to the kidney and heart and into the respiratory cavity, the right 
side of which it traverses and finally empties into the anus. The 
intestine and often a portion of the stomach is embraced by an 

* Such a volume might embrace the facts of geological and geographi- 
cal distribution, in addition to the outlines of molluscan structure and a 
history of classification. One can readily conceive that such a volume 
would be a natural outgrowth and completion of a monographic series, 
a collation of the information contained in its predecessors, and an appli- 
cation of the same to the various important generalities which occupy 
modern scientific thought. It is a reproach to natural science, and to 110 
department thereof more than to conch ology, that most of its votaries 
consider the determination of species and genera its legitimate end ; that 
they are more actuated by the selfish ambition of acquiring reputation 
than by the love of knowledge. Thus it happens that in most treatises 
very few structural details are given, whilst the technical descriptions of 
external features occupy the bulk of the work such descriptions being the 
necessary justification for the imposition of generic or specific names and 
the consequent glorification of the namer. I propose, as far as practi- 
cable, to reverse this procedure, to consider the necessarily arbitrary and 
artificial nomenclature simply preliminary ; as a facility towards the ac- 
quisition of knowledge of nature and its laws not as the end of knowl- 
edge. As the builder finds it convenient to express the kinds of instru- 
ments used in his labor, by technical names, so do naturalists find 
necessary a succinct designation of the subjects of their studies ; and the 



24 DIGESTIVE OEGANS. 

enormous liver, filling nearly the whole of the first whorl of the 
shell, and pouring its secretions into the former (and often into 
the latter also) by several openings. We will successively ex- 
amine these various organs more in detail. 

The proboscis is a production of the skin of the anterior or 
head portion of the body, bearing the mouth at its end. When 
it remains permanently protracted it receives the name of ros- 
trum, that of proboscis being more properly limited to this organ 
when provided with muscles by which it can be retracted within 
the body. The typical proboscis is quite characteristic of the 
siphonostomated Prosobranchiates, or those carnivorous mol- 
lusks of which the shell is canaliculate or notched at its lower 
extremity; whilst those animals provided with a rostrum or snout, 
or with a simple mouth are members of the usually phytophagous 
holostomata In Dolium, a remarkable exception, the exceed- 
ingly long proboscis accompanies phytophagous habits. 

The invagination of the proboscis is effected by means of pow- 
erful retractor muscles supplied along its entire length and espe- 
cially numerous at its base, where the retraction begins. The 
protrusion of the proboscis, on the contrary, is effected by press- 
ing forward the blood towards the head, an operation assisted by 
the contraction of the annular muscles of the fore-part of the 
body. In Natica, according to Troschel, the invagination of the 



naming and technical description of species, in the same manner dis- 
tinguishes for us the implements which we should use in our investigation 
of nature implements by which the Great Builder has worked, in which 
He has expressed His thought. The proper acquisition of a language 
requires the preliminary knowledge of its grammar, the knowledge of 
letters precedes reading : even so, the simple name of a species, then of a 
genus, and its recognition when met with or referred to forms the mere 
alphabet of science, from which we proceed gradually to the consideration 
of individual properties, then to intimate and to wider relationships, 
until we are fortified with sufficient knowledge to generalize. In these 
latter days generalizations are numerous enough also, but unfortunately 
they are usually the product of minds not furnished with the requisite 
intimate knowledge of the factors with which they build their theories. 
The details of anatomy and physiology of the mollusca will be given for 
each group as it occurs in the course of this work, and I shall thus neces- 
sarily repeat myself frequently ; and I hope that by the time that my 
reader and I have finished the volumes containing the technical descrip- 
tions, we will both be better prepared than we are at present to under- 
stand the subject as a whole. This course has also the important personal 
advantage, that if at any time I shall be attacked for sins of commission 
or omission, I may make the obvious defenseswait and see. 



DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 25 

proboscis commences at its extremity (like that of the tentacles 
of snails) by means of two retractor mnscles attached to the oral 
mass. ' The same observer describes a muscular disk on the 
under side of the proboscis, behind the mouth, in Natica and 
Sigaretus. This disk possesses suctorial action and probably 
enables the mollusk to attach itself firmly to the shells of other 
species when drilling them for the purpose of devouring the soft 
parts. 

The oral mass is usually an oval body formed by invagination 
of the external skin through the mouth, from the upper posterior 
end of which proceeds the <x?sophagus, whilst at the lower pos- 
terior end is situated the lingual sheath, enclosing the odonto- 
phore. The wall of the oral cavity is filled mostly with flesli- 
colored muscles and clothed with an epithelium, which is often 
covered b}' a thick cuticula, and furnished with cilia on the roof 
of the mouth. 

The lips form a short hollow cylinder at the commencement of 
the mouth, made up of longitudinal and annular muscles, the 
latter preponderating ; and sometimes forming a ring-like thick- 
ening, which is greatly developed and cleft into lobes in the 
genus Conus. and forms another kind of sucking disk, by the use 
of which the animal assists its locomotion necessarily laborious 
on account of the weight of its shell. In the terrestrial branch- 
iferous genus Cyclostoma the snout possesses a similar disk. 

Jaws. The inner surface of the lips is sometimes covered by 
hard plates, which are evidently of much service in grasping and 
comminuting food. The jaws are attached by their hinder por- 
tions to the labial skin or membrane, from the epithelium of which 
they are secreted. They are hyaline, without structure, and yel- 
lowish. Their front face is detached from the membrane and 
frequently elevated like a scale, bearing sometimes, as in Dolium 
galea, a rounded free hook. In the Prosobranchiates the jaws 
are a pair, situated on either side, but in some of the Pulmonates 
this pair become united above, forming a single, arched, superior 
jaw. These cheek plates or immovable mandibles are found in 
nearly all the Taenioglossata, as well in those provided with a 
rostrum (Cyclostoma, Valvata, Rissoa, Jeffrey sia, Crepidula, 
Vermetus, Trichotropis, etc.) as in those with a haustellum 
(Marsenia, Xatica, Cyprsea, Cassis, Triton, Strombus, etc.). 
4 



6 DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 

These plates are apparently wanting in all the Rachiglossata 
(Murex, Fusus, Xassa, etc.). The linear hornj" plates described 
in Buccinum undatum by Cuvier and Valenciennes, are probably 
appendages of the tongue, and used as a handle in perforating 
the shells on which they prey. 

Tongue. The odontophore or tongue (pi. 4, fig. 40) is attached 
to the floor of the mouth. It contains two parallel cartilages, 
which may be more or less confluent, and which are united to- 
wards the middle by fibrous and muscular tissue. <c The in- 
trinsic muscles of the odontophore are attached at one end to 
the posterior and under faces of the subradular membrane, some 
being inserted into its posterior and lateral portions, and others 
into its anterior extremity, after it has turned over the anterior 
extremities of the principal cartilages. Certain of the muscular 
bundles, are also attached to the forepart of the odontophoral 
cartilages themselves. The contraction of these muscles must 
tend to cause the subradular membrane, and with it the radula, 
to travel backwards and forwards over the ends of the cartilages 
in the fashion of a chain-saw, and thus to rasp any body against 
which the teeth may be applied. When undisturbed, the radula 
is concave from side to side, and the teeth of the lateral series, 
being perpendicular to the surface to which they are attached, 
are inclined inwards to one another. But when the intrinsic 
muscles come into action, the radula, as it passes over the ends 
of the cartilages, becomes flattened, and the lateral teeth are 
consequently erected or divaricated. The extrinsic nriscles pass 
from the odontophore to the lateral walls of the head, and pro- 
tract or retract the whole apparatus. They may give the pro- 
truded extremity of the radula a licking motion, which is quite 
independent of the chain-saw action due to the intrinsic mus- 
cles." HUXLEY, Anat. Invert., 490.* 

The subradular membrane does not terminate behind with the 
muscular mass of the tongue, but is continued and invaginated 
into a pouch called the tongue-sheath. The under wall of the 

* Geddes has recently carefully investigated the mechanism of the 
odontophore in Loligo Buccinum and Patella. He does not altogether 
agree with Huxley as to the mode of action of this organ, but thinks 
its movements depend on those of the cartilages, whilst Huxley regards 
the cartilages as passive. Trans. Zool. Soc., London, x, 485, 1879, with 
three plates. 



DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 2 if 

oral cavity forms a muscular elevation, which is frequently semi- 
circular, and above which the O3sophagus opens. Troschel has 
regarded this as an organ of taste, and from its position it may 
well have that function. 

For convenience of description the odontophore may be di- 
vided into five longitudinal areas, which are crossed by the 
numerous transverse rows of teeth : these teeth are distinguish- 
able in character in each area. The central tooth is termed 
median or rachidian, the adjoining area on each side bears the 
laterals, and these again are Hanked by the'uncini. Sometimes, 
however, only three areas are found, when the laterals are sup- 
pressed, and a cross series includes only rachidian and uncinial 
teeth. In Bullidse again, the rachidian teeth are suppressed and 
there are simply two bands of uncini. A numerical formula has 
been devised which represents these teeth thus : 

In Trochus (oo . 5. 1. 5. oo .), meaning 1 rachidian, 5 laterals 
and numerous ( oo being the sign of infinity) uncini. The mollusks 
with which we are at present occupied (the Muricidae), have but 
three longitudinal areas and the formula for Murex, for example, 
is 1. 1. 1., signifying one rachidian tooth, with a single uncini on 
either side. The tongue areas bearing the uncini are sometimes 
designated as pleurae. 

Rev. G. Rowe, 'from whose lucid description the above is ex- 
tracted,* truly observes that " this subject has been inves- 
tigated by several naturalists, with a view to obtaining criteria 
for a systematic arrangement of Gasteropodous Mollusca. Up 
to the present time, however, their labors have only partially 
succeeded. The union under one formula of so many creatures 
widely differing in shells, anatomy and habits, clearly indicates 
that if the lingual ribbon contains generic characters, they have 
not yet been ascertained. At the same time it does present 
differences which may offer collateral evidence in cases difficult 
of discrimination. It does not help us to discriminate carnivo- 
rous from phytophagous animals ; but it seems possible to make 
use of it as a mark between species." 

The teeth, according to the investigations of Leuckart, Bergh 
and Troschel are composed of ninety-four per cent, organic or 

* Intellectual Observer, v, 67, 1864. 



28 DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 

chitinous material and six per cent, of bone-earth, agreeing 
nearly with horn in composition. They are readily extracted 
and prepared as microscopic objects, the easiest method of pro- 
cedure being that given by Mr. A. M. Edwards, which I subjoin. 

On extracting and preserving Odontophores. If the specimens 
are large enough, they may be first roughly out away from the 
surrounding tissues; otherwise the entire animal, even with the 
shell may be placed in a test tube, immersed iu Liquor Potassae. 
and allowed to soak from a day to several weeks until everything 
is dissolved except the shell, the odontophore and a few shreds 
of muscular fibre. The contents of the tube being poured into a 
large vessel of clean water, the odontophore will settle to the bot- 
tom, whence it must be carefully taken out by means of a dip" 
tube and thoroughly washed until all alkali is removed. Alcoholic 
specimens require boiling in the alkaline solution, but fresh ma- 
terial had better be treated cold, unless time presses, when boiling- 
will facilitate the extraction of the odontophore. In this case 
care must be taken as delicate specimens are likely to be injured 
by boiling. When the specimens are very delicate, a solution of 
less than officinal strength is substituted with advantage: this is 
a matter in which experience is the best teacher. 

The odontophore can be preserved (in either alcohol or glyc- 
erine), but in mounting as a microscopic object Canada bnlsam 
or still better, glycerine-gelatine should be used." 

Through Troschel, in 1836, attention was first directed to the 
various forms of tongue sculpture as being available in classifi- 
cation, and Loven and Troschel himself by means of the 
most exhaustive investigations discovered the extraordinary 
multiplicity of form, etc., of the radula. In their syste- 
matic labors Troschel and Gray raised the r#dula to the rank of 
a character of the first importance, in the molluscan, especially 
the gasteropod system, and they accordingly made many changes, 
rearrangements, and improvements. 

To be sure, the tongue and its delicate teeth have been long 
since known, but they occupied only a subordinate place in the 
minds of systematists. With Lebert we might agree that Aris- 
totle meant the teeth upon the radula (Hist. Aniin. vi, 4.) 



* A. M. Edwards, Proc. N. Y. Lye., 160. 



DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 29 

" habent quaedam os et dentes, ut Limax, acutos et minutes," 
and not as Love'n held, the jaws, but we meet with a better ac- 
count of them for the first time in Swammerdam upon Paludina, 
Littorina and Neritina. 

With many other striking (observations upon nioHusks we 
meet with the first description of the radula in Adanson, 
which with the underlying tongue he regards as a lower jaw. 
" La machoire inferieure," writes Adanson (Hist. Nat. du Seneg. 
p. 17) in a Bnlimus, his B. Kambeul, u ne consiste que dans le 
palais inferieur de la bouche, qu'est tapise d'une membrane 
coriace, mais extremement mince, blanche et transparente, sur 
Jaquelle sont distribues longitudinalement sur deux eens rangs 
environ vingt mille dents semblables a autant de crochets cour- 
bes en arriere. Ces crochets sont si petits qu'on a peine a les 
seutir au toucher, on ne les distingue parfaitement qu'au micro- 
scope." 

I 'oli was one of the first to figure the radulae of Cephalopoda. 
Gasteropoda and Chiton, then Savigny in his Zoology of the 
Description de I'Eg^pte. Cuvier in his Memoires correctly de- 
scribes the radulae of a number of mollusks, but attached 
little systematic value to the part. On the other hand Quoy and 
(iaimard, and Souleyet in the works describing the collection of 
their voyages, figure many radula 4 . but they were not brought 
forward with sufficient prominence. In Osier's work on the 
mode of feeding of mollusks, attention was again more especially 
directed to the radula 1 . and Lebert studied the same more par- 
ticularly with reference to their microscopic characters. As 
already observed, the extensive observations of Love'n and 
Troschel are the most comprehensive in their treatment of the 
subject of this discussion, though the great work of the latter 
approaches completion very slowly. We shall hereafter sketch 
an outline of the classifications which have been wholly or par- 
tially based upon modifications of the odontophore. 

The tongue, beset with such teeth, is well adapted as an ap- 
paratus for filing off or rasping food and drawing it into the 
mouth. In mollusks which creep up on the glass sides of a 
vessel in which they are confined, one can easily observe the 
mechanism of eating. The tongue with the whole oral mass is 
pushed forward a little beyond the lips, so that one can see the 



30 DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 

little teeth spreading out. The tongue rubs off particles of 
nourishment only in the process of retraction, or tears larger 
pieces from leaves for example, and draws them into the oral 
cavity. In seizing and holding the nourishment, the strong 
annular lip and the jaws are useful accessories. 

As already stated, certain corresponding peculiarities of ani- 
mals and shells enable us to separate the carnivorous from the 
phytophagous mollusks ; curiously enough, the arrangement of 
the lingual ribbon does not indicate this separation, and we ac- 
cordingly find, in systems of classification based upon this organ, 
the animal and vegetable feeders rather incongruously mixed. 

Besides the mastication of food, the teeth are probably used 
in boring through the shells of other mollusks in order to obtain 
the flesh. It is still a matter of discussion whether this opera- 
tion is effected by mechanical or chemical action or by a combi- 
nation of both ; but it is generally supposed that the teeth are 
the tools by which an excavation through the hard shell of the 
victim is perforated. Most of the large siphonostomate Proso- 
branchiates obtain food in this manner, as well as the Naticas 
among the holostomates ; and I shall have occasion frequently 
to refer to the subject hereafter when treating of the individual 
species. The shells attacked are usually bivalves, which are 
bored near the beaks where they are thinnest. That instinct is 
sometimes at fault in these creatures is evidenced by the solid 
spine of a sea urchin, which P. P. Carpenter relates, has been 
bored through by a mollusk. 

On every coast the evidence of this work of destruction is 
abundant, a large portion of the bivalves washed ashore, being 
perforated near the umbones. 

Miiller has seen Cerithia on the Brazilian coast bored by 
Murex Senegalensis, in consequence of which the animal dies 
and opens its operculum, when a Turbinella comes to share the 
feast. He has seen a dozen specimens of Cerithium at one time 
with the Murex extracting the meat through a boring in the 
spire and the Turbinella at work within the aperture of the shell. 
When both these are done, a Pagurus occupies the empty shell, 
or shares it with a Crepidula.* 



* Jena Zeit., 57, 1871. 



DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 31 

Mobius has seen Venus mercenaria, and Cypraea Europaea 
bored through the shell by Murex erinaceus, and the soft parts 
eaten.* 

Mr. C. Spence Bate has proposed the following theory of the 
means by which mollusks make these perforations. f 

u His observations upon the boring of the Buceinum into the 
shells of other mollusca attributed their power of perforation to 
a current of sea-water passing through the buccal apparatus, the 
lingual^ ribbon having no part in the operation. The animal 
takes two days to perforate the shell of Mytilus edulis, and per- 
forms the work without the least motion of its shell, as must be 
the ease whenever a circular hole is bored by mechanical action. 

The sea-water itself is probably the solvent used in boring bv 
the mollusca, being charged with free carbonic acid ; and is 
directed by them against the object to be bored through the 
process of respiration, and ciliary currents. 

The action of sea-water upon limestone coasts in driving tun- 
nels and excavating caverns in the rock is evidence of this sol- 
vent power ; and the same theory will probably account for the 
absorption of the columella in the Purpuridae as well as other 
instances of absorption by the animal of portions of its shell." 

I think that the above theory, ingenious as it is, will not ac. 
oount for the perfectly round hole, with clean-cut vertical walls 
made by boring mollusks in the shells of their prey ; indeed it 
is difficult to imagine any solvent as the unassisted agent in 
making such a perforation ; yet, on examining a shell not en- 
tirely bored through, the bottom of the hole is perfectly smooth, 
showing no marks of mechanical rasping. 

The oesophagus, as already stated, opens into the upper pos- 
terior end of the mouth. In those mollusks furnished with a 
proboscis that portion of the (esophagus which traverses it is 
much narrowed, and w r hen the proboscis is retracted it is bent 
into a sigmoid or coil. In its entire length it is provided with 
interior longitudinal folds. Its middle is dilated into a sort of 
crop in Voluta, Dolium and some other prosobranchiates. Kefer- 
stein has found in Triton variegatum, and in Dolium galea that 

* Zool, Garten, 871 1866. 
f Kept. Brit. Assoc., 73, 1849. 



32 DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 

the oesophagus, just behind the lingual wall (pi. 4, fig. 2T), is 
dilated below into a longitudinal pouch which is filled up with 
a gelatinous tough mass, projecting into the interior like a ridge : 
it consists of a hyaline material, with many spindle-shaped or 
stellate cells with round nuclei. A similar organ has been 
detected in aperies of Murex, Yoluta (pi. 4, fig. 33), Aneill- 
aria, etc. 

The stomach, in its simplest form (pi. 4. fig. 38), is a dilata- 
tion of the digestive tract into which the hepatic ducts open. 
In Murex and Buccinum it is rounded and curved so that the 
origins of the oesophagus and intestine approximate. In many 
of the species a blind sack has been detected in connection with 
the stomach. In some there are internal lobes or filaments (as 
in Mitra episcopalis), and in others actual tooth-like bodies for 
compressing the food (Telescopium). In Bythinia, S trombus 
and Pteroceras the blind sack has been found to contain a firm 
body, somewhat like the hyaline rod of muscles ; it extends some 
distance into the cavity of the stomach. 

The intestine in spiral shells may enter the stomach opposite 
the entrance of the oesophagus, or. in consequence of the bend- 
ing of the stomach, it most usually enters not far from the 
(esophagus ; it then bends forwards, terminating in an anus 
situated not far from the mouth. In the carnivorous species, 
Murex, Triton, etc.. the intestine is direct or nearly so, but in 
the phytophaga it usually forms one or more convolutions (pi. 
4. fig. 32 . The intestine may be distinguished into two por- 
tions, the small intestine and the rectum, the latter being usually 
enlarged in diameter, confined to the anal end and straight por- 
tion of the tube, and having longitudinal folds of its inner wall. 
In the female, the vagina is placed alongside the rectum, and in 
some univalves there are anal glands opening by the anus. 

The anus is simply a round opening closing by sphincter mus- 
cles ; situated in the anterior part of the respiratory cavity, 
lying on the right side of the animal. 

Salivary glands. Usually a pair of these lie along the oesoph- 
agus (behind the oesophageal ring), and open into it close to its 
entrance into the oral mass. These glands may be tubular and 
long, dilated behind as in Strombus, or the posterior extremity 
cork-screwed as in Yoluta (pi. 4, fig. 33), or they may be short 



DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 33 

or cylindrical or clavate as in Pleurotoma, Littorina, Trochus, 
etc. Sometimes, as in Dolium, Cassis and Triton, the elongated 
glands are in two subdivisions, divided by a deep fissure into a 
small anterior and a larger posterior portion (pi. 4, fig. 27). 
The two glands may also unite over the dorsal side of the oesoph- 
agus, into a single mass, from which, however, separate ducts 
proceed on either side. 

Souleyet was not able to discover distinct salivary glands in 
Turbo, but its oesophagus is enlarged just behind the mouth, and 
this enlarged space is furnished with a number of folds which 
may be regarded as substitutes (pi. 4, fig. 34). 

In Conns there is only a single gland (pi. 4. fig. 36 , and it is 
veiy doubtful whether this is salivary in function; Troschel 
considers it a poison-gland. 

In addition to the salivary glands there is found in Murex 
(not observed in other genera), a gland lying above the oesoph- 
agus ; it is thick, granular in structure, of liver-brown color, 
divided into several large lobes and opens into the oesophagus by 
two ducts. Its purpose is unknown. In Dolium the secretion 
of the salivary glands is distinctly acid, a property first detected 
by Troschel, and afterwards observed in this and in several 
other mollusks by a number of investigators.* Troschel states 
that if the Dolium galea is irritated, it will protract its proboscis 
as much as a foot, and eject from it a quantity of clear fluid, 
with a very acid smell, and producing effervescence upon calca- 
reous soil. The liquid has been ascertained to contain several per 
cent, of free sulphuric acid, and about 4 per cent, of hydrochloric 
acid.f How the mollusk secretes this acid, and how it protects 
its own tissues and the epithelial cells of the glands themselves 
against its action is not at all understood. The acid secretion 
does not appear to be taken into the stomach, for Troschel 
found in the stomach of Dolium seaweed and calcareous remains, 
which, when artificially brought into contact with the acid, im- 
mediatelv commenced to dissolve. He thinks the secretion is 



* Researches upon the organs which, in the gasteropods, secrete sulphuric 
acid. By Prof. Paolo Panceri, Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., ix, 308, 1869. 

f De Luca and Panceri have ascertained the existance of free sulphuric 
acid in the salivary product of Murex trunculus and M. brandaris. Ann. 
8c. Nat., 87, 1867. 



34 NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

for defensive purposes, and it has been suggested by others that 
it assists carnivorous inolliisks like the Murex in boring into 
the shells of their victims usually bivalve mollusca. 

The liver in all prosobranchiates is a brownish or greenish 
gland of extraordinary size, which forms almost the whole of the 
usually spirally coiled hinder portion of the animal from the 
.stomach back, giving up to the sex-glands but a small space. 
The form of the liver is, therefore, very much the same as that 
of the posterior portion of the body itself. It is lobulate, and 
when removed to water is found to be acinose. The acini at 
their ends are cleft into many digitiform processes ; the ducts 
from the acini unite, then those of the lobes, with frequently 
sinus-like dilatations, but ending as two bile ducts, placed one 
before the other, and which correspond to the largest subdivisions 
of the liver, and approach and, finally, enter the digestive tract 
at the stomach ; if a blind sack is present they enter in front 
of it. One may accordingly regard the liver as a much sub- 
divided gland, since it is only at a few places, in respect to 
minute structure, that its ducts and sinuses may be distinguished 
from the terminal lobes. The liver consists here, as in all 
univalve mollusks, of an outer structureless membrane and an 
internal epithelium of roundish secretive cells, which have a 
distinct nucleus and yellow concretions, and also contain fat. 
H. Meckel would distinguish fat and bile cells : according to 
Leydig, however there is no such distinction possible. The 
hepatic lobules are united together by thin membrane, plexuses 
of finely subdivided blood-vessels surround them, and externally 
the whole liver is surrounded by a blood sinus. 

Nervous System. 

The typical arrangement of the nervous system throughout 
the mollusca is the same, the differences of which we have 
occasion to speak being simple modifications of a single funda- 
mental type. The oesophageal ring consists essentially of three 
pairs of ganglia and a double commissure on each side, and in 
the more highly organized prosobranchiates these ganglia are 
approximated and the commissures shortened until the cerebral 
mass resembles that of the cephalopods, where the ganglia can 
be distinguished only by the origin of some of the nerves. In 



ORGANS OP TOUCH. 35 

species having a simple mouth, the cesophageal ring surrounds 
the oesophagus immediately behind the oral mass, but in those 
having a proboscis or snout, it is situated so far back as to 
remain at rest whilst the proboscis is protruded or retracted. 

The cerebral ganglia are placed above or at the sides of the 
ossophagus, and from them proceed the nerves of the e} r es, tenta- 
cles, lips and rnouth ; the pedal ganglia are under the oesoph- 
agus, and from them the acoustic and pedal nerves arise ; the 
visceral ganglia are mostly at the underside, somewhat above 
the pedal ganglia, and here the nerves supplying the mantle, 
branchiae, viscera, heart and columellar muscle take their 
origin. Almost all of the nerve-cords arising from these three 
ganglionic pairs may also develop ganglionic enlargements 
whence numerous nerves in their turn originate. Such is the 
general plan of the nervous system in prosobranchiates, differing 
but little from that of the lamellibranchiates or bivalve mollusca. 
A sufficiently clear idea of the modifications of the ganglia, and 
of the origin, course and function of the various nerves, may be 
obtained from my figures on plate 6, with the accompanying ex- 
planations, so that it will not be necessary to particularize here. 

Organs of Touch. 

The principal tactile organs are the tentacles, but there are in 
addition, in certain prosobranchiates lobular productions of the 
head near the tentacles, which appear to have a similar function 
(plate 3), whilst the whole exposed surface of all mollusca is 
delicately sensitive. 

The tentacles, always two in number in the prosobranchiates, 
are solid structures, not invaginate and capable of retraction 
within the head as are those of the pulmonates : they arise from 
the front dorsal part of the head and in the proboscidiferous 
species are situated at the base of it. 

The tentacles usually bear the eyes upon stalks which are con- 
nate with or branch out from them. The position of the eyes 
varies in different genera ; thus they are found near the bases of 
the tentacles in Littorina, Dolium, or near the middle, as in 
Murex, Fusus, Cassis, Mitra, etc., or even at the end, as in 
Terebra. In Strombus the robust eye-stalk originates about the 
middle of the filiform tentacle. In many holostomates, as Tro- 



36 



SIGHT, HEARING. 



chus, Nerita, Ampullaria, Paludina, etc.. the ommatophores are 
entirely separate from the tentacles. 

The tentacles are sometimes delicately hairy, and these hairs 
are evidently tactile also. In the same category of tactile organs 
must be included the lobes, filiform processes, etc., of the mantle 
margin, as well as the processes which beset the mantle lobes of 
Cyprsea, which lobes are thrown over the back of the shell so as 
nearly to cover it. The anterior lobes of the foot existing in 
many mollusks, as in Buccinum and Harpa for example, may 
also be regarded as tactile organs. 

Sight. 

We have already seen that the eyes are variously situated upon 
or branching from the tentacles in most cases ; in others they 
are sessile or nearly so, upon the head, and situated behind and 
outside of the 'tentacular bases. Tentacles and eyes are both 
wanting in Chiton. 

The eyes are spherical, oval, or conical structures, embedded 
in the skin of the eye-stalk in such a way that the epithelium of 
the stalk covers them. Externally they are enveloped by a firm 
laminated membrane (sclerotica) which becomes thinned out 
anteriorly to a cornea. Internally the sclerotica is covered by 
a pigment contained in polygonal cells, the Choroidea, which 
extends forwards to the cornea, and since the cornea does not 
cover the whole of the external side of the eyeball but only its 
middle, a dark pigment ring is seen at its border, which might 
be described as an iris, but cannot be considered equivalent to 
the same structure in higher animals. In S trombus this iris-like 
ring exhibits strikingly brilliant colors, yellow, red, and green ; 
often several colors appear in separate rings behind each other, 
numerous instances of which are figured by Quoy and Gaimard 
in the Voyage de L' Astrolabe, and used by them as specific 
characters. In this eyeball, just behind the cornea, the lens is 
placed, which is nearly spherical and consists of concentric layers. 
The posterior part of the eyeball is occupied by the so-called 
vitreous or glassy body which Keferstein regards as a retina. 

Hearing. 

Souleyet first detected auditory organs in univalves, and Sie- 
bold, Krohn, Kolliker, Schmidt, Lucaze-Duthiers and Jhering 



VASCULAR SYSTEM. 3? 

have so multiplied observations upon this point, that their exis- 
tance in all prosohranchiates may be considered highly probable. 

Two auditory vesicles usually exist, and very generally appear 
to be sessile upon the pedal ganglia, where they appear as small 
white points. In the heteropoda, in many nudibranchiata, as 
shown by Hancock, and in numerous genera of branchio- and 
pulmo-gasteropoda, which have been carefully examined by 
Lacaze-Duthiers. however, there seems to be no doubt that the 
auditory nerves arise from the cerebral ganglia, even though the 
vesicles may be situated close to the pedal ganglia.* 

Within the vesicles are found, in many univalves a single large 
otolith, whilst in others numerous smaller ones exist, or even, as 
in the oriental Melania and Melanopsis, a large laminated otolith 
together with small crystalline ones, f The auditory nerve 
divides upon the vesicle into a number of branches ; and the 
vesicles are probably connected with the external world by means 
of an auditory canal ; at least such a canal exists (according to 
Ad. Schmidt) in Helix, and K Hiker discovered it in the cepha- 
lopods. 

Vaxcular System. 

The circulation in mollusca varies greatly as to complexity, 
according to the higher or lower organization of the animals. 
In the prosobranchiates (plate 6) the circulation is the most 
complicated, and yet comparatively to vertebrates, simple. Ar- 
teries proceed from the heart to the various organs, where they 
subdivide and terminate in fine capillary vessels. There are no 
venous capillaries, and the blood flows freely around the organs 
in the body. There are valves in the aorta and auricles of the 
heart which permit the now of blood only from the auricle to the 
aorta. From the body cavity the blood flows into veins, some 
of which conduct to the branchiae whilst others pass directly to 
the ventricle of the heart. In some genera the arteries do not 
all end in capillary vessels, but in a portion of them, and espe- 
cially in the anterior part of the body these are replaced by 



* Huxley, Anat. Invert., 494. 

t Hermann von Jhering records the existence of otolitlis in Cassis, 
Cassidaria, Conus, Buccinum, Nassa, Murexbrandaris, Fusus Syracusanus, 
Columbella rustica and Mitra ebenus. Sitzungsb. Phys. Med. So.-. Erlan- 
gen, ix, 63, 1877. 



38 VASCULAR SYSTEM 

lacunae, as in heteropods and pnlmonates, equivalent to both 
venous and arterial capillaries. 

The ventricle is short, conical, with the aorta at its apex with 
two valves at its origin ; and at its opposite blunt end, the 
rounded auricle, separated by a constriction and like the aorta 
with two valves at its origin. Sometimes the auricle is divided, 
a division lying on either side of the heart and receiving each 
the blood of one branchia. When there are two auricles they 
surround the rectum, resembling the lamellibranchs in this 
arrangement. 

The auricle always lies in front of the ventricle in the proso- 
branchiates (as in the pulmonates and heteropods), and therefore 
the blood flows from before backwards to the heart, whilst in the 
opisthobranchiates the reverse is the case; and this difference 
was deemed of sufficient importance by Milne-Edwards to give 
names to these two orders of branchiferous gasteropods. 

In prosobranchiates with spiral shells the heart lies behind 
and below the apex of the respiratory cavity on the left side of 
the animal, between the anterior portion of the liver and right 
border of the kidney. The aorta, which arises from the apex of 
the ventricle, soon divides into two branches, the aorta visceralis 
which supplies the posterior and coiled portion of the animal, 
its liver and sexual organs, and the aorta cephalica which gives 
off many branches forming a plexus over the stomach, oesoph- 
agus, mantle, etc. 

Venous capillaries are wanting, as already observed, and the 
arteries discharge into the body spaces surrounding the oesoph- 
agus, the stomach, the hepatic lobes, the intestine. The blood 
in the mollusca is typically bluish and transparent in color, but 
red in exceptional cases (not in the prosobranchiata), which 
will be noted hereafter. By breaking away the shell of a Helix, 
the circulation of the blood is faintly visible through the thin 
skin of the body. 

Usually there are two large venous sinuses, anterior and pos- 
terior, from which venous branches collect the blood into two 
veins, which finally unite in the branchial artery. The aqueous 
vascular system of the foot forms an important connection be- 
tween the venous sinus and the external world. This pedal 
aqueous system includes a pore on the pedal disc, with direct 



VASCULAR SYSTEM. 39 

communication with the body cavity, and ramifies through the 
pedal mass (pi. 3, fig. 18). It has been observed in Murex, 
Dolium, Triton, Strombus, Buccinum, and many other genera. 
In Nerita canrena Delle Chiaje saw the water spirted from a 
number of holes in the foot. 

The statement of the existence of the remarkable communica- 
tion of the abdominal sinus with the surrounding water was 
received with little faith, and the subject attracted as little atten- 
tion, though immediately after Delle Chiaje's discovery, R. E. 
Von Bar had fully demonstrated its existence in the lamelli- 
branchs, until finally Agassiz made known his weight} 7 confirma- 
tory and thorough observations. In Pyrula carica and P. 
canaliculata, Agassiz observed a large pore in the pedal disc, 
which is so large that it will admit a goose-quill, and which is 
divided into many branches throughout the foot, which open, by 
means of numerous finer branches, into the abdominal cavity. 
Agassiz injected carmine or indigo solution through this pedal 
pore, and it filled not only the pedal canal system, but also the 
body cavity and, finally, the whole vascular system. Quite 
similar relations were found by him to exist in Mactra. The 
water actually mixing with the blood in this manner, Agassiz 
also showed thereby that the blood was exhaled from the body 
cavity, salt crystals also being observed, which were derived 
from the sea-water which had been taken up. It has been known 
for a long time that univalves when removed from the water 
allow considerable water to escape from them, which runs out of 
the foot. Agassiz found numerous blood corpuscles in this 
water, and there can, therefore, no longer be any doubt that 
water passes through the pedal pore into the abdominal or body 
cavity? where it is mixed with the blood.* 



* On the other hand, the researches of Mr. Wedl have led him to an- 
nounce the existence in the mollusca of a completely closed vascular 
system, with capillary networks in the greater part of the organs. The 
type of distribution of these is extremely variable, and intimately connected 
with the structure. It is thus that in the Murices the skin of the trunk 
and of the back is formed of several superposed layers of muscular fibres, 
crossed in different directions, and that several networks of blood vessels 
are likewise superposed in these parts. The vascular networks are super- 
posed in the same manner in the foot of these Ctenobranchs. In no part 
of the skin is there any communication between the veins and the ex- 
terior ; nor do the veins appear to communicate with the aquiferous ves- 
sels. M. Wedl, however, has not been able to determine whether theso 



40 RESPIRATION. 

Many univalves have such an extraordinarily large foot ( Cymba 
neptunis, Buccinum laevissimum, Harpa, Natica, Sigaretus, etc.) 
that it often exceeds the volume of the shell many times when 
fully expanded ; and it has long been cause for conjecture how 
this mass was retracted into the shell. By the discovery of the 
water- vascular system and its connection with the body cavity 
the mode in which the foot is retracted becomes clear, since the 
foot is filled with water in the same way as a sponge, which 
escapes again when it is retracted so that the increase of the 
mass of the foot is due to the water it has sucked up. Delle 
Chiaje already understood the relation of the water-vascular 
system to this process, though upon the whole he ascribed a 
respiratory function to the water which entered the body cavity. 
Osier also attributes the enlargement of the foot in Buccinum 
to the water absorbed by the water-vascular system, well known 
to him. Agassiz introduced quite decisive experiments upon 
this point. He placed a large Natica heros with the foot re- 
tracted, in a glass vessel of water full to the level of the brim, 
and when the animal gradually produced its enormous foot not 
a drop of water was spilled from the vessel. He performed 
similar experiments upon many univalves and lamellibranchs in 
graduated glass tubes and in all movements and variations in 
the size of the foot there never was the slightest difference to 
be detected in the water-level. 

Respiration. 

The branchiae in prosobranchiates are small, leaf-like, hollow 
prolongations of the mantle, placed in rows behind each other, 
and are usually contained in a pouch on the dorsal side of the 
animal, forming the respiratory cavity. In some opisthobran- 
chiates the gills are lodged at the sides of the body between the 
narrow, collar-like mantle and the broad foot : such is the posi- 
tion of the filamentous branchiae of Patella and the laminated 
gills of Chiton. In the spiral species the right branchia only is 
well developed, that on the left side being small and rudimentary; 
sometimes, however, as in Turbo and Phasianella, the two gills 



last open directly into the previsceral cavity, or whether they are dis- 
tributed only in the foot.Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, ii, 1868. Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser., IV, 365. 



RESPIRATION. 41 

are brought close together, so as to appear almost as one. In 
the non-spiral shells. Fissurella. Parmophorus, and in Haliotis 
the gills are symmetrical and both well developed. 

The form of the depressed respiratory cavity is triangular, in 
the hinder angles of which the heart and kidne^y are placed. 
At the same place also the rectum enters and passes forwards 
on its right side. At the left side of the same, but attached to 
its angles, the gills are placed, with the laminae free and extend- 
ing into the cavity simple or double, with their basal position in 
relation with the heart. 

On the floor of the cavity, at the right side, by the rectum, 
lies the vagina or the ciliated furrow of the seminal passage 
and between these sexual organs and the rectum there is fre- 
quently pushed the tubular, inflated, excretory duct of the 
kidney ; above on the rectum sometimes lies the prolonged anal 
gland with its opening in front of the anus, so that the openings 
of the anus, anal glands, kidney and sexual organs are arranged 
close together in the above order from without inwards at the 
right anterior side of the cavity. The covering of the respira- 
tory cavity between the intestine and branchiae is embraced by 
the frequently large mucus gland, and between it and the intes- 
tine there is frequently a special color gland. (Purpura, Murex.) 

The respiratory cavity has its external opening on the left 
side of the body, under the mantle border, which is here con- 
tracted to form a rounded hole. Sometimes the walls of this 
opening are produced into a canal or siphon, and this difference 
is one of much importance, being co-extensive, with important 
modifications of the shell, and i excepting Natica) with difference 
of food. Thus the Siphonostomata, as already stated, have the 
shell terminating in a notch or canal below, and are carnivorous, 
whilst the animals with a sessile respiratory opening belong to the 
Holostomata, the shells with rounded apertures, and i with the 
exception of Natica) vegetable feeders. In some of the Muriccs 
the canal of the shell is very long, but where the canal is short 
or the aperture simply notched below, it by no means follows 
that the siphon is short ; on the contrary, in Cassis and Dolium 
it attains an extraordinary length, and is reflected over the back 
of the shell, so that the borders of its wall become dorsal. 



42 ORGANS OF SECRETION. 

Organs of Secretion. 

We ma}- consider under this head the kidney, mucus gland, 
purple gland and anal gland : all special organs situated in the 
respiratory cavity or opening into it. 

The kidney is a large, hollow, glandular mass at the base of 
the respiratory cavity, close to or sometimes perforated (Triton) 
by the rectum. It contains a fluid having a whitish or brownish 
appearance, filled with hard granules, and in which Jacobson 
first detected the presence of uric acid, ammoniac and salts of 
lime. 

If the kidney is cut open the internal cavity is observed, which 
is, however, much narrowed by numerous thick, spongy, crimped 
annular folds or meshes, which clothe it internally. The spongy 
walls, the surface of which, because of the folds is much increased, 
are covered with round cells, which excrete the urinary products. 
At the wall of the cells, at least in the youngest ones, there is 
always a distinct nucleus and its contents consist sometimes of 
a yellowish or greenish fluid, and within are concentrically lami- 
nated urinaiy concretions. By bursting, these secretory cells 
allow the urinary concretions to escape into the water in the 
kidney. 

External!}', the kidney is spun over by a very thick and strong 
vascular network of the venous system. This vascular network 
has several openings into the kidne}^, through which the urinary 
products are mingled with the blood ; and, consequently, when 
these are examined microscopically, they are found to contain, 
besides renal cells and free concretions, a considerable number 
of blood corpuscles. 

Usually the kidney opens into the base of the respiratory 
cavity by means of a transverse, slit-like opening, encircled by a 
strong sphincter muscle (Triton, Dolium, Cassis, Murex, Lit- 
torina, Natica, etc.) ; sometimes, however, it has a gut-like, 
efferent duct, a ureter, which passes forwarcj between the rectum 
and sexual canal, opening outwards not far behind the anus 
(Paludina, Turbo, Yoluta, Conus). There are accordingly three 
efferent canals alongside of each other at the right side of the 
respirator} r cavity, viz., the rectum, ureter, vagina or vas deferens. 
The ureter is usually a somewhat dilated canal and is not simply 



ORGANS OF SECRETION. 48 

a prolongation of the kidney, but is often separated from the 
latter by a diaphragm perforated by a number of holes which are 
encircled by muscular fibres. Within, a number of longitudinal 
folds are to be observed, and it is covered throughout with 
ciliated epithelium. The ureter is usually filled with water and 
it is possible that it may have some other significance than a 
mere efferent duct. 

The mucus gland lies in the middle portion of the cover of the 
respiratory cavity in most prosobranchiates ; its tough secretion 
is discharged through the respiratory opening in extraordinary 
quantity, especially when the animal is handled. 

The purple gland accompanies or is a modification of the 
mucus gland. It is only found in a portion of the prosobran- 
chiates ; among them, both the typical Muricidae and the Pur- 
puridse. The peculiarity of the fluid secreted by this gland is. 
that originally colorless or yellowish, a short exposure to sun- 
light changes it to a brilliant violet or reddish color, at the same 
time giving off a very penetrating fetid odor. The cause of this 
photographic change of color is unknown, but the knowledge of 
it came to mankind in very early ages, and Tyrian purple was 
the most highly prized and most beautiful dye known to the 
ancients.* 

Pliny states that in his time the purple dye was obtained from 
the Buccinum and the Purpura. The mollusk now known as 
Mu rex trunculus is generally supposed to have been that princi- 
pally used by the ancients in obtaining the Tyrian purple. It is 
related that the discovery of the dye is due to the dog of a Tyrian 
nymph, which crushing some of these shells in its teeth, its mouth 
became stained with purple. It is possible that the fragile lanth- 
iua may have been thus crushed, but the shells of the Muricidae 
would resist the dog's teeth. To be exact, this event occurred 
1500 B. C. The color was so beautiful that the fair nymph ex- 
pressed to her lover, Hercules, her desire to have a robe of simi- 
lar hue. Hercules, of course, gratified her. It is evident that 



* See Lueaze-Duthiers' (Ann. Sc. Nat., xii, 5, 1859) exhaustive "Meraoire 
sur la Pourpre," an exceedingly interesting paper, illustrated by speci- 
mens of the color resulting from various applications of the dyes obtained 
from Murices, Purpuras, etc. See also Smithsonian Report, 1863 ; LovelVs 
Edible Mollusks, p. 124 ; Grimaud de Caux, Mev, et Mag. Zool., 34, 1856. 



44 ORGANS OF SECRETION. 

the product of two different species was mixed in order to pro- 
duce the finest color, as Pliny gives the proportion of 200 pounds 
of juice of "Buccinum," and 111 pounds of that of " Pelagia" as 
suitable for obtaining a beautiful amethyst color, sufficient for 50 
pounds of wool. The extent of the Tyrian industry is visible in 
numerous holes in the rocks, two to three feet deep, containing 
the breccia of shells anciently crushed in them for the extraction 
of the dye. The arms of the city as preserved on its medals was 
the purpura shell, and in the time of Strabo the multiplicity of 
dye-works unpleasantly affected the air of the vicinity. The 
Romans used various species in great quantity for dyeing pur- 
poses, and the remains of Murices form vast heaps; indeed, in 
one case, at Tarento, the mass is so large as to have received the 
name of " Monte Testaceo." 

The color was prepared by pounding up small specimens, or 
by breaking the shells of larger ones and extracting the purple 
gland. This fluid was mixed with five or six times its weight of 
water, with twenty ounces of soda to every hundred pounds. 
Placed in lead or tin vessels the mixture was exposed to the sun 
for several days, until the hue desired was obtained, when the 
wool was simply plunged into it and allowed to remain for a few 
hours. Under Augustus the dyed wool brought as much as $200 
per pound. 

The Indians of the new world also understood the art of purple 
dyeing from shell-fish, and it is probable that all ancient peoples 
inhabiting seashores have become accidentally acquainted with 
this property, common to so many mollusks, at a very early 
date. The Roman law prohibiting the use of purple garments to 
any but the imperial family, was a deathblow to this industry, 
which thenceforth rapidly declined. During the middle ages the 
very existence of such a dye was considered fabulous ; but 
with the revival of the arts and civilization its properties were 
rediscovered, and for awhile successfully utilized. Chemistry 
has now supplied us with even more brilliant colors, whilst 
saving much of the cost of procuring material. 

The anal gland accompanies the purple gland in Murex and 
Purpura and has not been discovered in other mollusks. It lies 
on the left side of the rectum and consists of a central canal 
with lateral branches having a dendritic appearance. It opens 



SEXUAL ORGANS. 

on the edge of the anus, and by pressure its brownish contents 
may be made to issue. The function of this, as well as of the 
purple gland is unknown. 

Sexual Organs. 

The sexes are distinct in the prosobranchiates : the organs 
are. however, very simple and so alike in structure, that frequently 
the sex of the gland can only be determined by microscopical 
examination. Usually a germ-secreting gland is imbedded in 
the liver, from which an efferent duct opens at the right side into 
the mantle cavity. In. most cases the males may be readily dis- 
tinguished by the large penis, which is placed at the right side 
of the head behind the eyes. The shell in the female is generally 
more inflated than in the male. 

Female Organs, (pi. 3. fig. 19.) The ovary discharges into 
a much looped oviduct and the latter dilates into a gut-like 
uterus the last portion of which, on account of its muscular 
wall may be regarded as a vagina. There is sometimes at the 
commencement of the uterus, or at its connection with the 
vagina, a seminal pouch, but other appendicular organs are seldom 
present. 

The last portion of the uterus or even the whole of it, and the 
vagina lie in the respiratory cavity, to the left \)y the side of 
the rectum and nearest to the abdominal wall. The sexual open- 
ing is accordingly found to the left of the anus, but usually far 
behind it. Sometimes the uterus is split throughout its entire 
length and its folds formed by the longitudinal and transverse 
plaits, consequently lie freely exposed in the respiratory cavity. 
Lacaze-Duthiers has so described it in Yermetus. 

There is scarcely anything to be said in regard to the eggs of 
the prosobranchiates, generally. Where their development can be 
seen, a distinct germinal vesicle and germinative dot are present ; 
but when they leave the ovarium the yolk granules are present 
in such numbers as to conceal the before-mentioned structure. 
In the oviduct, or quite above the uterus, the eggs come into 
contact with the zoosperins, which arc occasionally retained at 
this point in a spermatheca. Further down in the uterus fertili- 
zation could no longer be effected as it here becomes enclosed in 
a tough albumen, and finally is covered, usually many together 



46 SEXUAL ORGANS. 

with a firm capsule. These egg-capsules, in their various shapes, 
will be described in the discussion of the development of the 
animals. 

Male Organs. These are simpler than those of the female 
(pi. 3, fig. 18, 20) : the efferent canal is not divided into so many 
succeeding portions, but instead a copulate ry organ (penis) is 
placed anteriorly, the structural peculiarities of which present 
much that is notewortlry. 

The sperm gland or testicle lies embedded in the liver in the 
same way as the ovariuin usually, only 011 the right side, as a 
flocky mass which has a greater tendency to embrace the liver 
than to crowd it away. Sometimes however, it is a compact mass, 
and in Paludina it is divided into but two lobes, a larger anterior 
and a smaller posterior one. But in most cases the testicle is a 
much expanded and divided, flocky looking, whitish mass, which 
like the ovarium presents an acinose structure. The efferent 
ducts of the simple lobes and lobules then collect together on 
the right side of the body into the vas deferens. 

The single testicular lobules consist of a structureless tunica 
propria and an internal epithelium of rounded cells, in which the 
zoosperms are developed. In all cases where the mode of de- 
velopment can be followed, the contents of the epithelial cells 
divide into daughter-cells, in which, after the development and 
growth of a nucleus and the disappea ranee of the cell-wall, the 
spermatozoa are developed. The zoosperms are filiform nnd 
pointed at both ends in the spiral prosobranchs, but in Patella. 
Chiton and Haliotis the anterior end is a rounded hend. 

The vas deferens passes from the testicle along the columellar 
side of the animal into the mantle cavity, and through the latter 
into the penis on the right side of the body, behind the eyes. 
This duct is formed externally by a strong muscular layer, and 
clothed within with a ciliated epithelium : it is usually dilated 
and coiled at its commencement. 

A penis is wanting in the Trochoidea and Scutibranchiates of 
Cuvier, and the male sexual opening is here placed just as in the 
female, immediately behind and to the left of the anus. The 
penis is an outgrowth from the body wall, and is not evertible and 
retractile in the prosobranchiates as in the pulmonates, though 
having at times a cavity within. It is a fleshy, often very long 



DEVELOPMENT. 47 

and thick appendage usually bent in a sigmoid. form, and can be 
bent back under the mantle and thus be hidden. 

The penis is either hollow, in which case the vas deferens pro- 
ceeds to it as a closed canal passing through it to its extremity, 
where it opens upon a small papilla as in Buccinum, or it opens 
simply as in Littorina, Oliva, Onchidiopsis ; or, in other cases it 
is a solid body upon which the vas deferens passes along in the 
form of a ciliated furrow continued upon it as a deep groove to 
its extremity, as in Triton, Dolium, Cassis, Harpa. Yoluta, 
Terebra. Strornbus. Cypnea, etc. This last and most common 
form of penis presents many varieties ; in Cassis, for example, it 
is pointed anteriorly, in Dolium it is enlarged anteriorly, in 
certain species of S trombus it has a small appendage upon the 
posterior side, and in Natica it presents at the end a whip-like 
(flagelliform), in Dolium a claw-like appendage. Usually there are 
large sack-like glands, which are placed on large pointed papilla? 
near the base of the penis ; they appear therefore as a row of 
tubercles or processes, as in Littorina, Cassis, and Terebra, these 
glands are placed upon special finger-like outgrowths of the 
penis. 

Development. 

The eggs come in contact with the spermatozoa and are ferti- 
lized in the oviduct or at the commencement of the uterus. The 
e^-gs consist of a dark granular yolk ; a germinal vesicle and one 
or more germinative dots, enveloped by a thin vitelline mem- 
brane. How the zob'sperms penetrate this membrane is unknown ; 
but they are introduced into the female tract by an act of copula- 
tion in the bulk of the spiral prosobranchs, which possess a penis : 
in the Trochoidea, Scutibranchs and Cyclobranchs, however, the 
copulatory organ is wanting, and probably the spermatozoa dis- 
charged into the surrounding water by the male, are thence taken 
into the uterus. Of course the attached genera like Vermetus 
and Siliquaria, and including also Magilus and Rhizochilus in 
the Purpurina? cannot possibly fertilize in any other way. 

Very few prosobranchiates arc 1 viviparous. The eggs are 
usually enclosed, a number together, in tough leathery capsules, 
within which they undergo their larval stage of development. 
These capsules are variously aggregated, according to the genera. 



48 DEVELOPMENT. 

Littorina deposits its eggs in gelatinous masses, and the outer 
portion of the albumen of each egg hardens into a sort of shell ; 
but ordinarily an egg capsule is formed, and then the separate 
ova do not possess shells, but the capsule encloses a mass of 
albumen which is common to all the ova within it sometimes 
several hundred. In this albumen the larvae move about before 
leaving the capsule for the outer world. 

The capsules are variously shaped and aggregated, and were 
formerly mistaken for and described and figured as zoophytes. 
It will assist us in our survey of their forms to present the 
classification of these bodies which was proposed b} r the cele- 
brated Danish zoologist, A. Lund, based on their form and group- 
ing, and in which almost all the variations are characterized. 

FIRST CLASS. 

Masses of capsules irregular. The egg-capsules by their union form 
irregular masses. 

First Order. The egg-capsules are attached to each other. (Capsula 
cohwrentes}. 

1. The capsules open by a cleft. 

2. The capsules open by a round hole closed by a round operculum or lid. 
Second Order. The egg-capsules are attached to a common membrane, 

which is attached to some foreign body, and are separated from each 
other. 

1. The capsules open by a cleft. 

2. The capsules open by a round hole, which is closed by a lid. 

a. The capsules are sessile upon the basal membranes. (Sessiles.) 

a. Tubiformes. 

b. The capsules are pedunculate, connected to the basal membrane by 
a stalk. (Petiolatw.} 

o.. Omformes. 

ft. Cyathiformen. 

f. Infundibuliformes. 

SECOND CLASS. 

Masses of capsules regular. The egg-capsules by their union form 
regular masses. 

First Order. The egg-capsules are attached to each other. ( Capsules 
cohcerentes.) 

Second Order. The egg-capsules are attached to a common basis. 
(Capsula adhcerentes.) 

a. The capsules are attached around an axis. 

b. The capsules are attached longitudinally on one side of an axis. 

a. Sessiles. 
. Petiolatas, 



DEVELOPMENT. 49 

I will not here dwell upon the particular form of egg-capsules 
produced by each prosobranchiate genus, because I shall illus- 
trate as many of these as possible in connection with the various 
monographies which will be hereafter presented. In the present 
volume I figure only those belonging to the genera which are 
herein discussed, and for convenience of comparison they are 
grouped together. How these bodies are developed is still a 
mystery. (PL 7.) 

We will now rapidly sketch the developmental history of the 
major portion of the prosobranchiates, illustrated by figures of 
the common Buccinum undatum and Purpura lapillus. (PI. 8.) 

The transformation of the egg into the embryo is preceded by 
division of the yolk mass into blastomeres (cells), which begins 
immediately after fertilization and is speedily completed. The 
yolk assumes the appearance of a cluster of round nucleated 
cells, the large ones internal, the smaller external ; forming the 
embryo except a portion which remains as nutritive material. 
The yolk first loses its spherical form, elongates somewhat, de- 
velops upon its entire surface a delicate ciliary covering, and 
begins its wonderful rotary movement. At the anterior part of 
the body a circlet or crown of long cilia arises ; the portion of 
the body supporting this is then elevated into a ridge, then a 
ring, and finally it develops on each side into a rounded lobe. Both 
lobes together present somewhat the appearance of the figure 8 : 
these are the vela which Forskal had already described as the 
organs of locomotion of the univalve molluscan larva. Immedi- 
ately below the velum the mouth is developed as an invagination ; 
at the posterior end the anus is similarly formed ; both open into 
the intestinal cavity which has been formed by the displacement 
of the large yolk cells in the centre. An intestinal is now pres- 
ent, and the large cells which are somewhat heaped up posteriorly, 
become in large part the liver and intestinal wall. A body- 
cavity between this large-celled intestinal wall and the small- 
celled body wall is not yet present, and originates later by a 
separation of the two walls and the appearance of a fluid between 
them. 

Below the mouth the foot arises as a blunt ciliated appendage, 
whilst the ciliated covering of the rest of the body has become 

7 



50 DEVELOPMENT. 

lost. The velum, that at first surrounded the fore-part of the 
body is more elevated to the dorsal side after the appearance of 
the mouth, since the mouth is not placed in the middle of the 
velum, but beneath its narrow portion, and is dorsally overhung 
by the velum, whilst ventrally the foot extends beyond it. The 
body becomes more elongate, and soon at its posterior dorsal 
portion the delicate, hyaline, cup-like shell appears, in which 
also a distinct laminated structure may be detected ; at the pos- 
terior part of the foot the operculum appears at the same time. 
The sense organs are now developed ; at each side in the velum 
the tentacle arises as a papilla ; internally by the side of the 
oasophagus the auditory vesicles arise, the otoliths then appeal- 
therein ; and immediately thereafter, or at the same time, along- 
side of the tentacles the eyes are formed, which, at first, like the 
organs of hearing are vesicles, lined with cilia internally, the 
lens appearing later. The central portions of the nervous sys- 
tem, the ganglia around the oesophagus, now become visible. 
Along the border of the shell the body wall is raised into a 
ridge, the beginning of the mantle, and, as the shell grows far- 
ther forward, the intestine in most prosobranchiates (not in 
Chiton), instead of terminating posteriorly, begins to be pushed 
forwards, so that the anus is likewise advanced with the border 
of the shell to the right side of the body. 

The pharynx now appears as a distinct portion of the animal 
and within it, the different parts of the lingual membrane may 
be distinguished as the middle, inter, and lateral plates, and 
according to Troschel's observation, the genus to which the larva 
belongs may be already determined by the teeth. One may 
already notice the commencement or the spiral winding of the 
shell, and within it is contained one loop of the intestine and 
many large cells or yolk-spheres, which become the liver. 

As soon as the anus commences to be pushed forwards and the 
intestine becomes a distinct canal, the body cavity begins to 
appear with blood in it. There is as yet nothing to be seen of 
the heart, and the circulation of the blood is effected by the con- 
traction and dilatation of the hollow foot, or often by means of 
an elevation on the neck, consisting of a meshwork of fibres, the 
cervical vesicle. By means of the heart, as soon as it is devel- 
oped, the fluid in the body-cavity, the blood, is put into motion, 



DEVELOPMENT. 51 

but often, as in Paludina, this circulation is assisted, and proba- 
\)\y more effectively, by the contraction and dilatation of the 
foot. 

At this stage the larvae mostly leave the albumen of the egg- 
corpuscles, in which, up to this time, they have been enclosed, 
and swim freely about by means of their velum. Finally, the 
mantle cavity is formed ; the mantle, heretofore simply a ridge 
around the front of the shell, now extends itself from the body 
as a fold and covers, with the shell, the mantle or respiratory 
cavity, in the base of which, a contractile structure the heart 
may soon be observed. The foot is developed still further, the 
velum, the only exclusively larval organ, slowly disappears, the 
tentacles are prolonged and in this way the swimming larva 
slowly becomes the creeping animal of which the various organs 
finally attain maturity. 

Prof. W. B. Carpenter has observed* that whilst a capsule of 
Purpura lapillus contains from 500 to 600 vitelline bodies, never- 
theless only from 12 to 30 embryos are produced, each of these 
having from 20 to 30 times the bulk of the ovum from which it 
sprang ; so that the material contained in the original mass of 
eggs is evidently appropriated by the comparatively few embiyos 
which are thus developed at its expense. Prof. Carpenter ex- 
amined a large quantity of capsules, in which a considerable 
number of small, free embryos presented themselves before the 
conglomeration of the great mass of the ova, so that he could not 
doubt they were generated independently of it. The embryos 
soon attach themselves to the conglomerate yolk-mass, and by 
the action of their cilia, the small segments of which it is com- 
posed are driven down into their interior, which is soon distended 
by them. The bodies which coalesce after segmentation, Prof. 
Carpenter regards as imperfectly fertilized ova, and they evi- 
dently supplement the insufficient supply of nutriment contained 
in the yolk-sack of each developing embryo. A similar con- 
sumption of a portion of the ova takes place in Buccinum and 
Nassa and very probably in a large portion of the prosobran- 
chiates. 

Before dismissing the subject of development, we must refer 
briefly to the temporary larval existence through which a por- 

* Rept. Brit. Assoc., 108, 1854. 



52 DISTRIBUTION IN TIME AND SPACE. 

tion of the prosobranchiates pass after exclusion from the egg- 
capsule. Generally, the shell and operculum developed within 
the capsule are retained by the animal, forming simply the 
nucleus of the adult structure, but in a few cases it has been dis- 
covered that a temporary shell and operculum are provided, 
which are eventually lost. Animals in this larval condition were 
formerly described as distinct genera of pelagic gasteropods, 
until Krohn, and after him Macdonald,* showed their true rela- 
tionship ; in this the lingual dentition became an important agent 
to indicate the connection with adult forms. Krohn discovered 
at Messina a curious mollusk which he called Echinospira (pi. 8, 
figs. 103-105), and which proved to be the larval state of Mar- 
senia conspicua. He found the nucleus of the permanent shell 
to be developed within the spiny nautiloid larval shell, and that 
the latter was eventually cast off. I figure some other pelagic 
larval mollusks : Macgillivraya, which is the larva of Dolium (pi. 
8, figs. 99, 100), and Cheletropis = Sinusigera which, on account 
of its dentition is referred to the Muricidse (pi. 8, figs. 181, 102).f 
In all the egg-capsules of Muricinae which I have examined the 
contained shells are miniatures of the adults. Mr. Arthur Adams 
has referred a Cheletropis to Purpura biserialis, and it is just 
possible that the species belongs to the Pnrpurina?. Investiga- 
tions of the transformations of free swimming larvae are made 
with difficulty, and it will probably be many years before we shall 
have acquired a sufficient body of facts to understand the condi- 
tions under which a portion only of the prosobranchiates undergo 
this larval transformation after exclusion, whilst in most of the 
genera the newborn mollusk is the epitome of the adult. 

Distribution in Time and Space. 

I shall only recall some main facts here, and that A 7 ery briefly, 
because the subject is properly larger than my present limits : 
that is, it can be more advantageously treated with reference to 
the whole molluscan sub-kingdom. On the other hand, peculiari- 



* Macdonald, On Metamorphosis of Mollusca, Linn. Trans. . xxii, 241 ; 
xxiii, 69. 

f Chiropteron semilunare, Bars (Beskriv. og Jagtta gelser], t. 14, f. 38, 
1835), is probably the larva of Aporrhais. Morch Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 
3d Ser., xvi, 78, 1865. 



DISTRIBUTION IN TIME ANT) SPACE. 53 

ties of habit and of distribution characteristic of particular groups 
will find place in the volumes wherein they will be described. 

Whilst the prosobranchiates are typically marine animals, 
there are many exceptions to the rule ; for not only do we find 
a certain number of genera inhabiting brackish water, but some 
live in fresh water only ; and others again, are terrestrial. It is 
not without modification of the breathing organs that such diver- 
sity of station exists, and this modification is co-existant with 
other adaptations. 

Whilst the pulmoniferous mollusks have no operculum, the 
terrestrial and fluviatile sections of the prosobranchiates are pro- 
vided with a very efficient one, completely closing the aperture 
of the shell. The canaliculate aperture of the shell, the opercu- 
lum too small to fill its aperture, and, frequently, the want of an 
operculum are characteristic of the major portion of the proso- 
branchiates the marine zoophaga, whilst the rounded aperture, 
and its efficient operculum belong to the phytophagous mollusks. 
In going over the groups of marine prosobranchiates another 
general law appears to coexist with the foregoing divisions, 
namely, that the zoophaga are the most active, and are deep sea 
animals, whilst the phytophaga are necessarily more confined to 
shallow water, between tides, etc., where their food is more 
readily obtainable. Some of the zoophaga prefer a rocky station, 
whilst others affect sandy or muddy bottoms ; the little genus 
Sty lifer is parasitic upon echini, etc., immersed in which it 
dwells, and some other genera habitually seek special stations, 
as Pedicularia and Magilus upon corals, certain Vermetida? upon 
other shells, etc. On the other hand, numerous animals dwell 
upon and within the substance of the shells of univalve mollusca, 
including sponges, worms, corals, molluscoids, etc., not to men- 
tion many of the true mollusca, and especially bivalve species. 

The influence of structure and habit, of temperature, the chemi- 
cal composition of the sea-water, etc., upon the actual geographi- 
cal and bathymetrical distribution of the species, and the pre- 
sentation of the resultant faunal regions, as already stated must 
be reserved for a future occasion. I purpose, in describing the 
species to note all facts of this nature that have been heretofore 
recorded, as a contribution towards generalizations, which, 
already become interesting and important, will increase in use- 



54 DISTRIBUTION IN TIME AND SPACE. 

fulness according to the correctness and extent of our knowledge 
of the data from which they are derived. 

In the same manner, the geological history of each genus and 
species being carefully noted, we postpone to a concluding 
volume certain geological considerations which properly include 
the whole of the mollusca, rather than particular groups. 

It may not be out of place to recall the observation of Dillwyn 
that the shells of carnivorous gasteropods, almost wanting in 
palaeozoic and secondaiy periods were then replaced in the 
economy of nature by the almost extinct order of tetratranchiate 
cephalopods.* 

Bronn has prepared the following synoptical table of the num- 
ber of genera and species of prosobranchiates occurring in each 
formation; aggregating 7123 species: it would be largely in- 
creased, but its relative proportions probably not much changed, 
by the incorporation of material since made known to science. 



26 



(Silurian, 164 species, 11 Genera. 

rsnecies J Devonian, 244 20 

s ' ) Carboniferous, 312 

57 genera. ( Permianj 17 

SECONDARY. t Triassic, 393 

1764 species. I Jurassic, 488 

166 genera. ^Cretaceous, 883 



36 " 
56 " 

74 " 



TERTIARY ..... 4622 " 179 " 

The relations of the tertiary with the recent mollusca are daily 
appearing to be more intimate. It is probable that a very 
considerable proportion of its species will be found to be sy- 
nonymous with existing forms, and that the juster and more com- 
prehensive views of nature which have now obtained (and which 
are the happy result of the development theory whatever may be 
said of the truth of its ultimate conclusions), will enable us to 
make proper allowances for influences producing variation in 
fossils as we do in recent species. Time has not 'been the only 
factor : as many of our so-called extinct species are obtained 
from particular local deposits, their characteristics are frequently 
more local and varietal than specific. Hundreds of cases might 
be cited of variations from a known specific type of recent mol- 

* This icork, vol. i, p. 48, where is also a table of the number of genera 
of mollusca belonging to each geological period. 



DISTRIBUTION IN TIME AND SPACE. 55 

lusks, where the differences are much greater than those which 
palaeontologists, seeking distinctive characters for their periods 
or formations, have been accustomed to consider as of specific 
and even generic value. It is not many years since some of the 
best palaeontologists held, and actively worked upon, the opinion 
that each principal geological period closed with a cataclysm 
involving the destruction of all life, and a subsequent re-creation j 
and many hundreds of species derive their only title to validity 
from this hypothesis. It is no reproach to able and honest palae- 
ontologists that they have in this manner gone estray ; nor have 
they erred more unfortunately than some conchologists, who 
have not hesitated to describe as new identical forms of recent 
molluscs, simply because they occupy different geographical 
areas. How many identical species have been described under 
di tie rent names when occurring on the opposite coasts of Central 
America, under the belief that, however similar they could not 
have a common origin ? an error thoroughly dispelled by the 
researches of Gabb and others upon the geology and palaeon- 
tology of Central America and the Caribbean area. 

Bronn has also prepared a table of the number of species of 
each genus of prosobranchiates appearing in the various forma- 
tions, with the totals of species, fossil and recent appertaining to 
each. As in his table just quoted, much allowance must be made 
for actual and relative increase of species made known since his 
publication. The Genera are within the Lamarckian limits, and 
those with which we are at present occupied will be found near 
the bottom of the table. 




DISTRIBUTION IN TIME AND SPACE. 

Number of Species. 





>4 

3 

00 


Devon. 


,0 
08 







o 

1 

g 


c 

S3 
1-5 


1 

Q 


Tertiary. 


Bj 

3 

o 

H 


Recent species. 


Total Species,i 
fossil & recent. 


CHITON 




18 






1' 








01 


QAA 




PATELLA 


g 


10 


1 






1 A 


10 


00 


ol 

Oft 


400 
1 no 


231 


FISSURELLA 
EMARGINULA. . . . 

CAPULUS 


1 


2 
10 






-j 


4 


5 

7 


23 
23 

1 9 


yo 
30 
34 


1UU 

84 
26 


198 
114 
60 


PlLEOPSIS 


2 


9 










A 


93 


24 

Af\ 




31 


CREPIDULA 
CALTPTR^EA 

SlGARETUS 




Q 












16 
11 

1 9 


4U 

16 

11 


40 
50 

(\0 


4U 

56 
61 


NATICA 




OH 








oq 


K({ 


ftP. 


10 


/CO 

1 fin 


41 


NERITA .... 


Q 


Q 










9 


OA 


^oU 


1UU 


330 


NERITINA 




1 








i 




OA 


O^ 

f\4 


1/cU 
1 Afl 


172 


\VELLANA . . 














1 ^ 




o4 
1 Q 


IvMJ 




NERIN^A 












Kft 


4fi 




lo 

Q9 




lo 


TURBONILLA 
LOXONEMA 


2 


9 
20 




1 

1" 








22 


y 
32 

oq 




92 
32 


MACROCHEILUS. . 

SCALARIA 


1 


14 
1 


1 


1 




I 


1Q 


ftO 


17 
mo 


-1 AA 


60 

17 

9ftA. 


TURRITELLA 
PHASIANELLA .... 


4 
I 


29 
5 
2 


4 




1 


6 

1 


17 
2 


71 
9 

Q 


107 
11 
1 ^ 


296 
29 

qi 


30 
22 
fin 


00 

326 
51 
01 


TURBO 


18 


32 


I 





Q 


Kf\ 


5R 


Kiy 


9fil 


IJK 


i 

qQO 


DELPHINULA. . . . 
EUOMPBALUS 
SOLARIUM 

ROTELLA 


28 


2 

60 

4 








7 
2 
2 


4 

34 
1 


36 

65 
4 


55 
90 

102 

1 K 


30 
25 

10 


ooy 
85 
90 
127 

f)K 


PHORUS 
















14. 


1 n 




^0 


TROCHUS 


K 


01 


i 




1 


(\C 


Ptl 


1 78 


q/9 


1 (\n 


^4 


MURCHISONIA 
SCHIZOSTOMA 


18 
4 


30 
13 




1 










48 


IDU 


OSsJj 

48 


PLEUROTOMARIA . 
CIRRUS 


28 


128 
2 


1 


5 


1 


41 

7 


63 
^ 


2 


310 


2 


1 4 

312 
1 /i 


CERITHIUM . 




\ 


1 








Q 


O97 


qf7 


QA 


14 

Vfrry 


ROSTELLARIA 
PTEROCERAS 
STROMBUS 










4 


14 
11 


60 

17 
5 


16 

Q1 


94 

27 

Of* 


oU 

6 
10 

7ft 


40 < 

100 
37 

1 ftA 


MUREX 












K 


13 


17Q 


187 


91 ft 


qQ7 


Fusus 




\ 






I 


7 


53 


9QO 


0^7 


1 ftft 


A. r \ < 7 


PTRULA 


I 


2 










17 


3fi 


Ka 


A(\ 


QA 


PLEUROTOMA 
FASCIOLARIA 












1 


6 
2 


344 
32 

Qfj 


350 
34 
,fi 


370 
15 

qer 


720 
49 

71 






7 


3 




I 


15 


5 


142 


173 


100 


970 


TEREBRA 














9 


on 


07 


1 1 ft 


1 J.7 
















13 


93 


106 


70 


17fi 
















2 


110 


112 


Q^O 


49 


















32 


32 


190 


1R9 


CYPR.3SA 














3 


7Q 


09 


1 fifl 


94.9 


CONUS 














3 


89 


92 


270 


362 


Total . . 


127 


473 


15 


17 


S3 


367 


701 


2783 


451 ft 


^500 


ftOlfi 



CLASSIFICATION. 57 

Classification. 

The following rapid sketch of the history of the modern clas- 
sification of mollusks and exposition of the system, based prin- 
cipally on the lingual armature of the gasteropods, is translated 
and condensed from a paper by the late Prof. Morch, published 
in the Journal de Concliyliologie (xv, 232, 1867). 

Ancient authors classified shells according to external forms, 
from which they derived generic names. Linnaeus was the first 
to introduce characters independent of the form of the shell : as 
the teeth and ligament in bivalves, plications and sulcations in 
univalves. By these characters Voluta and Turbinella were 
separated from Murex, Buccinum, etc. 

Linnaeus classed the species of each genus, according to the 
height of the spire, in analogous sections, of which the most 
were adopted by Bruguiere as distinct genera. Thus the follow- 
ing genera were terminated by a section " turrita," Bulla by 
Achatina ; Buccinum by Terebra ; Strombus by Potamides and 
Pirena ; Murex by the spiny Cerithiae ; Trochus by Telesco- 
pium and Pyramidella ; Turbo by Turritella ; Helix by Melania 
and Lymnaea. 

Linnaeus was the first to take the form of the animal into con- 
sideration as a generic character ; but he indicated only five 
different types of animals, namely : Doris, Limax, Tethys. Sepia, 
and Ascidia. Thus the animal of Chiton is a Doris, that of 
Argonauta a Sepia : bivalves with simple mantle are Ascidiae 
(Solen, M}*a, Pholas) and those with fringed mantle Tethys. 
Nearly all the univalves are called Limax. 

Adanson must be regarded as the founder of Malacology, but 
the number of mollusca known in his time was too few to per- 
mit the elimination of the principal systematic divisions. He 
was also the first to take into consideration the operculum and 
the shell structure as characters, and to divide the bivalves ac- 
cording to the number of muscular impressions. 

The system of Cuvier, based on the respiratory organs, in- 
duced a great reform in Conchology. The shells of pulmonate 
mollusks, heretofore dispersed by all authors, with the excep- 
tion of Adanson, among the pectinibranchs, were assembled in 
one group, which still remains intact. Although it may be diffi- 
8 



58 CLASSIFICATION. 

cult to indicate by a description the difference which exists 
between the shell of a pulmonate and that of a branchiate mol- 
lusk, there are, nevertheless, few collectors who will not recog- 
nize it at sight. Ancient authors, like Lister, Miiller, Chemnitz 
and Schrb'ter, who have treated upon the terrestrial and fluviatile 
mollusks specially, have rarely mistaken these shells ; and a 
mistake of this nature is very rare among modern authors, 
although a few instances might be cited. One can say only that 
the shells of terrestrial pulmonates are inoperculate, with entire 
apertures (holostomate), never nacreous, rarely spirally striated ; 
but one cannot give a single character expressible by words, not- 
withstanding that all who have seen a certain number of species 
can distinguish them with facility. The fluviatile mollusks, 
nearly always unicolored, although they may resemble marine 
groups as to form, can also be readily separated at a glance. 

Ferrussac and several modern authors have thought that all 
mollusks inhabiting dry land respire by the aid of a pulmonary 
sack, but nothing is less certain. Among branchiferous genera, 
the Littorinas and many trophical Neritimv, live a long while 
out o v f water. Tbe larvae of Auricula swim in the sea, and con- 
sequently possess a branchial respiration during this period of 
their life. According to Semper, Ampullaria has an accessory 
pulmonary sack. If the inoperculate pulmonates are consid- 
ered, with so much reason, as an incontestible group, it is be- 
cause, apart from their pulmonary sack, they possess other 
collateral characters of equal importance, as for example, the 
position of the eyes, the organization of the mouth and of the 
sexual organs. 

The rest of the gasteropods. after the exclusion of the pulmo- 
nates, were divided by Cuvier into several very natural groups, 
according to the form and position of the branchiae (nudibranchs, 
heteropods, tectibranchs, scutibranchs, cyclobranchs). The 
magnificent work of Quoy and Gaimard is full of precious ma- 
terial for the amelioration of the great group of pectinibranclii- 
ates. The Trochidse are here shown to be inseparable by their 
characters, as much external as internal, from Haliotis and other 
scutibranchs, notwithstanding the presence of an operculum and 
an elevated spire in the former. At the same time the great 
systematic value of the nacre was proved. Stomatella, with an 



CLASSIFICATION. 59 

animal similar to the Trochidse, has a nacreous interior, whilst 
Sigaretus, with a non-nacreous shell, has an animal like Natica. 
The relations between the enamel of the shells of Cypraea, Oliva 
and Natica, and the structure of the animal were shown for the 
first time by the same work. As it has become evident to me 
that the presence of an operculum and the height of the spire, 
considered heretofore as prime characters, have, in reality, little 
value in distinguishing the families, I have sought to divine the 
natural affinities of mollusks according to the sculpture and 
structure of their shells. 

In 1847 Loven published four plates of lingual dentition, re- 
presenting 94 species of cephalous mollusks. The first glance 
at these plates suffices to show clearly that the lingual armature 
confirms the most of the ancient divisions. Thus, the Cephalo- 
pods, Pteropods, Heteropods, Scutibranchs (in the sense of Quoy 
and Gaimard. including the Trochidse), are also distinguished by 
the teeth. The conchological analogy between Pleurotoma and 
Conus had already been shown by Sowerby. There existed, 
nevertheless, certain anomalies until then inexplicable, on ac- 
count of the small number of observations made, as for example, 
the analogy between Philine and Scaphander and the Gymno- 
branchs. The want of teeth must not be considered as fatal to 
the systematic value of characters found in these organs. The 
teeth accepted as an exclusive character have, doubtless, incon- 
veniences, as in the whole animal kingdom, but it cannot be 
denied that all other organs taken as exclusive characters offer 
still greater inconveniences. Thus the shell may be wanting in 
very similar animals (for example, Notarchus, Aplysia ; Ptero- 
trachea, Cardiopoda ; Limax, Tebennophorus). The operculum 
is often wanting in the adult, although the young may have it. 
There are even operculated and inoperculated species in the 
same genus, as understood by many modern authors (for exam- 
ple, Pleurotoma and Bela, Oliva and Olivella, Yetus, Yoluta 
and Lyria, Spirialis and Limacina, Proserpina and Helicina). 
The organs of respiration and locomotion may be entirely want- 
ing in closely related species (Firoloidea and Phyllirhoe). 

Loven has characterized the families according to the teeth ? 
and has given Latin diagnoses. In 1848 Troschel* mentions the 

* Handbook of Zoology, 



60 CLASSIFICATION. 

teeth as characters of all his sub-orders, and introduces into the 
nomenclature, for the first time, several new names taken from 
the form of the teeth. Thus the section H. of Loven is called 
Rhipidoglossa, including the Scutibranchs, that is to say. 
Neritidae, Trochidse, Haliotidse and Fissurellidrc. For the sec- 
tion L. of Loven he proposed the term Toxoglossa. Tsenioglossa 
corresponds to the Ctenobranchous Gasteropods, having seven 
rows of teeth (3. 1. 3.), excepting the operculate pulmonates, 
although they may have the same form of teeth. Thus Cyclos- 
toma is placed in another sub-order from Valvata and Paludina. 
The Heteropods, which have the same general disposition of the 
teeth as Tsenioglossa, are regarded as an order, with the same 
value as the Gasteropods an opinion still maintained by this 
author. 

In 1853, Dr. Gray, in adopting the names of Prof. Troschel, 
proposed several new groups, according to the form of the teeth.* 

1. Hamiglossa. Three ranges of teeth (1. 1.1.), the lateral 
versatile. This last character appears to Prof. Morch to be con- 
sequent upon the rupture of the tissues ; it is observed above all 
when there is abundance of water under the compressor. 

2. Odontoglossa. Including only Fasciolaria, Mitra and Tur- 
binella, which have the same form of teeth, but of which the 
laterals are not versatile. 

3. Rachiglossa. A single row of teeth (0. 1. 0.) ; the laterals 
having disappeared. 

4. Dactyloglossa. Only differing from Taenioglossa by their 
lateral teeth, which are wider, with very profound comb-like 
incisions. 

5. Ptenoglossa. Teeth nearly subulate, in numerous longi- 
itudinal rows; Scalaria, Acteon. 

B. Gymnoglossa. No teeth : Arehiteetonidae, Acusidae, Can- 
cellariadae, Pyramidellidae. But teeth have been since discovered 
in the three first families. There are, doubtless, many genera 
indubitably deprived of teeeh. without, for that reason, forming 
separate groups. 

Gray has regarded these different groups as having a sys- 
tematic value inferior to that of the form of the proboscis. Thus 



Proc. Zool. Soc., 32, 1853. 



CLASSIFICATION. 61 

he divides the Ctenobranchiates into two sub-orders : the Pro- 
boscidifera. which he believes zoophagous, furnished with an 
entirely retractile trunk, and the Rostrifera, having a contractile, 
but not retractile, trunk, and sometimes very long, as in Stru- 
thiolaria, which he supposes phytophagous. 

This author has thus placed the sections of Toxoglossa. Gym- 
noglossa, Ptenoglossa and Trenioglossa in these two sub-orders. 
The small value of the retractile trunk as an ordinal character is 
proved for example in the Bullidi? ( Bulla vexillum, possessing a 
very long retractile trunk). Odostomia has also a very long re- 
tractile trunk ; and the rather short trunk of Janthina is very 
often retracted into the head. 

In a more recent work,* Dr. Gray has reunited all the Toxo- 
glossre in a single division Toxifera, still retaining for the other 
divisions the separation into two widely removed sections. The 
name of Ctenoglossa is changed to Ptenoglossa ; the name 
Trapezodonta is proposed for the Coriocellae, the teeth of which 
do not appear to Prof. Morch to differ from the Tsenioglossae 
except in the want of the two internal teeth on each side (1. 0. 0. 
1.0. 0. 1). Heteroglossa is proposed for the Cyclobranchiates. 

In 1854, Morch divided the cephalophora into five great 
groups, namely: I. Rhipidoglossata (including the Cyclo- 
branchs) ; II. Ptenoglossata ( Pulmonata, Tectibranchiata, Jan- 
thinidse) : III. Taenioglossata (including Pneumonopoma and 
Heteropoda) ; IV. Hamiglossata (Proboscidea of Troschel, 
Odontoglossa and Rachiglossa of Gray); Y. Toxoglossata (in- 
cluding Pleurotoma and Terebra). In 1857, Morch reduced the 
five principal divisions to three, namely: 

I. MUSIVOGLOSSATA (corresponding to the Ptenoglossata of 
1856, but thus modified because this name has been used by M. 
Troschel to characterize the group of Janthimu and Scalariae), 
Pulmonata and Tectibranchia. 

II. ARTHIOGLOSSATA, including : 1. Tamioglossata, 2. Ancis- 
troglossata, 3. Toxoglossata. 

III. RHIPIDOGLOSSATA, with the section Orthodonta (Cyclo- 
branchiates). 

In 1861-2. circumstances having induced Prof. Morch to 
study the Planarians, he was struck with their great affinity 



Guide to Brit. Mus., 1857. 



62 CLASSIFICATION. 

with the Pellibranchs, above all in the generative organs ; 
this caused him to make a comparative revision of the geni- 
tal organs of mollusks. He then ascertained that those be- 
longing to his first division were androgynous and furnished 
with a retractile male organ ; whilst those of the second section 
were dioecious, with a non-retractile male organ ; and those of 
the third section differed from the others by the want of a copu- 
lative organ. In other words, he had thus arrived, inde- 
pendently, at the three groups proposed in accordance with the 
sexual organs by Blainville and Labreille. 

In 1859 Morch perceived that Mollusks were divided into two 
great groups, according to the construction of the heart and that 
these groups accorded also with those furnished by the sexual 
organs. Thus the Phanerogama Latr, with a retractile or non- 
retractile copulative organ, have a heart with a single auricle 
(Monotocardia Morch), whilst the Agama Latr, which have no 
copulative organ, have a heart with two auricles (Diotocardia 
Morch). It appears, doubtless, rather strange that the acephala 
should form a group with a considerable portion of the gastero- 
pods (Rhipidoglossa and Heteroglossa). but there exists a simi- 
lar division among the vertebrates, namely : the cold-blooded 
vertebrates, where the fishes are united with reptiles, the latter 
provided with well-developed locomotive organs analogous to 
those of the mammalia. 

Stimpson proposed, a few years since,* to form a group Anan- 
dria, characterized by the want of a male copulative organ. This 
group includes the Melanians of North America, the Vermetidaj 
and Turritellidae and certain Cerithiai. M. Riippel. however, 
has figured a male organ in Yermetus inopertus, and M. Lacaze- 
Duthiers has found a single male individual which circumstances 
did not permit him to examine sufficiently. As to the Melanians, 
they may want an external conical male organ, but the sexual 
character is with them represented by a groove. In the Agama 
of Latreille there is not the least external sexual difference. 

Mr. Morch believes that naturalists of the most opposite 
schools could agree to a scheme of classification which he sub- 
mits, as follows : 



Am. Jour. Sci., 2 ser. 37, p. 47, 1864. 



CLASSIFICATION. 63 

Sub-Kingdom 3,MOLLUSCA. 

Supra-class 1. PHANEROGAM A Latr. (Monotocardia, Morch). 
Class 1. ANDROGYNA (Hermaphrodita, Latr.). 

Order 1. GEOPHILA, Fer. (Stylomraatophora, A. Schmidt). 

Phyllovora with jaw. Agnatha without jaw. 
Order 2. HYGROPHILA ; eyes at the interior base of the 
tentacles. Planorbis, Physa, Limnrea, Siphonaria, An- 
cylus, Auricula. 

Order 3. TECTIBRANCHIA (Pomatobranchia), Pyramidella 
(connecting with the preceding genus), Obeliscus, Odos- 
tomia, Chemnitzia, Actaeon, Bulla, Aplysia, Notarchus. 
Gasteropteron connecting with the Pteropods. 
Order 4. PTEROPODA. 

1. Gymnosomata. Clione, Pneumodermon. 

2. Ihecosomata. Clio, Hyalrea, Limacina, Heterofusus. 
Order 5. GYMNOBRANCHIA. 

1. Pygobrancliia. Doris, etc. ; branchite near the anus. 

2. Pleurognatha.* Pleurophyllidia. Dendronotus, Trito- 
nia, Bornella, ^Eolis, Glaucus, Phyllirhoe. 

Order 6. PELLIBRANCHIA. Tethys, Chioiwa, Herman, Ely- 

sia, Limapontia, Pelta. 

All these mollusks are placed at the head of the gasteropods 
by Cuvier. Messrs. Troschel and Gray arrange them between 
the Acephala and Patella, considering androgynism as probably 
a character of absolute inferiority ; but the Acephala have gen- 
erally separated sexes. 

Class II. DIOICA, Latr. (Exophallia, Morch). 

Order 1. T^NIOGLOSSATA, Troschel. 

This is the only division where the famity groups and their 
reciprocal relations do not appear to Morch to be perfectly clear. 
In any case, it appears incontestable that all mollusks having 
seven ranges of teeth form a characteristic group. Recently, 
Troschel has divided the Trenioglossata into three groups accord- 
ing to the trunk : 

* Dr. Mobius has recently shown that the Doridae have also lateral jaws, 
although very little developed. 



64 CLASSIFICATION. 

1. Trunk not retractile. 

2. Trunk retractile only by the end. 

3. Trunk retractile from the base. 

These differences appear to originate solely in the different 
length of the trunk. The old divisions Holostomata and Entos- 
tomata are not very faulty. 

Troschel's first section commences with the Pulmonates, but 
Morch considers very doubtful their having a true pulmonary 
sack closed by a contractile opening. Gray calls these respira- 
tory organs of the Cyclostomse " gills vascular, branched," and 
" gills indistinct in the form of series of vessels on the inner sur- 
face of the mantle." 

Sect. 1. Fam. 1. Aciculacea ; 2. Pomatiacea ; 8. Cyclotacea ; 
4. Cyclostomacea. 

Sect. 2. Respiring by branchiae and lungs ; Ampullariacea. 

Sect. 3. Branchiferous Holostomata. Fam. 1. Valvatae ; 2. 
Hydrobiye (Lithoglyphus^ ; 3. Littorinidae ; 4. Rissoidse ; 5. Pa- 
ludinidae ; 6. Meianiidse ; 7. Potamidae ; 8. Cerithiidae (Planaxis) 

The Aporrhaidse form a passage between the Cerithiidae and 
Strombidee. Crepidula and Capulus belong with Hipponyx in a 
group, notwithstanding differences in the labial palpi. Onus- 
tidse connects the Crepidalidfe with the Heteropods. 

Ovulidae (including Pedicularia). generally placed close to Cy- 
praea, is strongly distinguished from the latter by its non-retrac- 
tile proboscis. Notwithstanding this character, Morch considers 
it intermediate between Cassis and Cyprsea. 

The 3d section of Troschel (trunk retractile from the base) 
contains the genera which Morch united in 1852 in the family 
Tritonidse, namely: Cassis, Dolium, Pyrula, Triton, Ranella. 

Onchidiopsis, Yelutina, Marsenia, Tylodina, form, probably, a 
very natural division, notwithstanding the want of the two lateral 
teeth in Marsenia. The family Naticidae stands next in relation- 
ship. It is in the Taenioglossata that the greatest incertitude 
relative to a natural grouping of the families exists ; in the orders 
which follow, these relationships are more positively defined. 

Order 2. RHACHIGLOSSATA, Troschel. Never more than 
three rows of teeth. All mollusks having coriaceous ovisacs, 
heretofore known, belong to this order. 



UNIVERSITY OF \ 

CALIFORNIA. 1 



Sect. 1. Marginella, Voluta, Volutilithes, connecting with 
Cryptochorda and Harpa ; Oliva, Ancillaria, Bullia, Nassa, 
Mitra, Columbella. 

Sect. 2. Buccinum, Fusus, Fasciolaria, Turbinella, Purpura, 
Murex, Magilus. 

Order 3. TOXOGLOSSATA. Two rows of teeth. Stimpson 
has recently discovered a median tooth in Clionella sinuata, 
Born. Conus, (Borsonia?), Pleurotoma, Clionella, Terebra, Can- 
cellaria, Halia, Lachesis ? 

Supra Class II. AGAMA, Latr. (Diotocardia, Morch). 

Mollusks without copulative organ. Heart with two auricles, 
placed nearly always around the intestine. 

Class 1. EXOCEPHALA, Latr. (Psendophallia, Morch). 

Order 1. RHIPIDOGLOSSA, Troschel. Proserpina, Helicina, 
Hydrocena, with sessile eyes. 

Gray, in figuring the teeth of Proserpina (Ceres), formed for 
this mollusk a distinct suborder, alongside of the Neritinse, which 
he called Pseudobranchia. In the same year (1857) Morch 
placed Helicinae in the Rhipidoglossates, with Neritina, notwith- 
standing the want of an operculum in Proserpina, an example 
followed by Troschel with some hesitation. 

Eyes sessile. Shell not nacreous. Neritina, Nerita. 

Shell nacreous. Phasianella, Turbo, Trochus, Margarita, 
Stomatia, Haliotis. 

Eyes not petiolate. Shell not nacreous. ? Scissurella, Emar- 
ginula, Fissurella, the affinity of which with Haliotis, is incon- 
testable. 

Order 2. HETEROGLOSSATA, Gray. (Orthodonta, Morch, 
Docoglossa, Troschel.) Patella, Tectura, Pilidium, etc., Chiton. 

Class 2. ACEPHALA, Cuvier. (Endocephala, Latreille ; 
Dithyra, Anst.) 

Dimyaria (Plagymiona, Latr.). 

Heteromyaria (Mytilacea). 

Monomyaria (Mesomyona, Latr.). 



Notwithstanding that the systematic value given above to 
these different groups varies from that of other authors, their 
order of succession differs but little from Cuvier. The separa- 



66 CLASSIFICATION. 

tion of the Rhipidoglossata (Pectinibranchiates) and Scutibran- 
chiates, is the principal change. The arrangements of Gray and 
Troschel differ still more, above all in the Androgyna, which are 
placed between the Heteroglossa and Acephala, probably because 
androgynism is considered as a character of inferiority ; not- 
withstanding that the Acephala, which are inferior, have the 
sexes separate, with some exceptions. The little division, Pteno- 
glossa, including only Janthina, Scalaria, Solarium, is placed, in 
the system of Troschel, between the Rhachiglossa and Rhipido- 
glossa. If we admit a special concordance between the teeth of 
these three groups, Morch still does not consider the difference 
sufficient to justify a separation from the Androgyna. Janthina 
appears to him more close to the Pteropods by its lateral wings, 
and Scalaria, notwithstanding the position of the eyes, approaches 
Chemnitzia. 

As in the entire animal kingdom, the greatest difference exists 
amongst authors relative to the value of the swimming organs. 
Latreille has united the Cephalopods and Pteropods in a single 
division Pterygia,to which he attributes the same A^alue as to his 
Apterygia, comprehending all other mollusks. Gegenbauer and 
Huxley have demonstrated that the Pteropods are veritable 
Gasteropods furnished with a pair of accessory swimming organs. 
Already the discovery of Gasteropteron has shown the little value 
of the Pteropods as a division equivalent to the Gasteropods. 
The Heteropods merit still less to be considered as a division of 
equal value. 

The late Prof. O. A. L. Morch, although attaching as much 
systematic value to the lingual dentition as any other concholo- 
gist, acknowledged that no single organ could be used in classL 
fication unless its differential characters accorded with differences 
of other portions of the animal and shell ; but he endeavored to 
show that conchologists have erred in estimating too highly for 
systematic purposes the form of the shell, whilst neglecting 
other external characters, such as sculpture, structure (nacreous, 
porcellanous, etc.) and color. " According to my views, one 
must consider shells, so to say, from a mineralogical point of 
view." Having thus chosen conchological characters heretofore 
neglected, in grouping the genera and families, the discrepancies 



CLASSIFICATION. 6t 

between a natural classification of the shells and one founded on 
dentition, according to Prof. Morch, will disappear. " I have 
united in the family Tritonidae, according to the sculpture, 
Ranella, Triton, Pyrnla (Ficus), Dolium, Cassidaria and Cassis, 
placing them near to Cypraea." This is in accord with the 
character of their dentition, which widely removes Triton and 
Ranella from the Muricida?, close to which they have heretofore 
been placed, upon conchological characters principally the form 
of the shell, the presence of varices, the operculum, and also 
upon a decided resemblance of the animals. 

I have carefully re-examined these genera and their relation- 
ships with others, in the point of view taken by Prof. Morch, and 
the result of this examination is to convince me that he has in 
the first place selected in the sculpture a character that is of 
generic importance only in the single genus Dolium that is to 
sajr, its species happen to possess revolving ribs, and that even in 
the sculpture the relationship of Triton and Ranella with Murex 
is exceedingly close, whilst they have little or no affinity with 
Dolium, Cassis, etc. In fact, it is precisely because Prof. Morch 
has regarded lingual dentition a priori as an "infallible cri- 
terium"that he has been enabled to detect supporting resem- 
blances in the shells. It is easy to show in many other instances, 
as in the group under discussion, how heterogeneous is the 
assemblage united by means of the " infallible criterium." There 
is, besides, a growing conviction, in which I share, that there are 
no sharply-defined groups in nature ; that a generic character, for 
example, cannot be made to cover all its species ; that upon its 
borders occur forms which partake of the characters of other so- 
called genera, and that families, orders, etc., similarly coalesce 
upon their confines. I anticipate a future period when our larger 
collections, together with our better knowledge of external influ- 
ences and of the power of adaptation to them of these creatures, 
shall reveal to us a series of recent and fossil forms having rela- 
tionships so intimate, that our present system of classification 
and resulting nomenclature shall become utterly valueless. 

In this point of view classification is essentially arbitrary and 
we can only help ourselves by choosing that which does least 
violence to natural affinities. The value of a classification 
founded on a single organ (the lingual ribbon), which does 



68 CLASSIFICATION. 

violence to most of the apparent affinities, whilst at the same time 
it fails of signification even in one of the most important func- 
tions with which it is connected, in that it does not enable us to 
certainly separate the phytophagous from the zoophagous 
animals, may be seriously questioned. We have many most im- 
portant characters of the mollusks which impress themselves 
upon their shells, so that they are in accord and enable us to 
predicate reciprocally their relationships ; and such characters 
appear to me to be much more useful for classification. 

If it be proposed that a single arbitrary standard shall be used 
because it is arbitrary and hence will remove all doubt as to the 
position of a given species, then the standard selected should be 
the most universal and the most apparent namely, the shell. 
But if a natural arrangement be attempted, still less can we 
make account of any character which is not in accord with 
the assemblage of characters. A natural sequence can only 
result from an accordance of most of the organs and functions. 
That dentition in the mollusks is a character worthy of study, 
that it will throw light on many doubtful points, that it will cor- 
rect many errors is not to be disputed ; but the claims made for 
it are preposterous ; for whilst a few hundred species only have 
had their tongues examined, described and figured, many 
thousands have been arbitrarily placed and displaced in conse- 
quence. Stimpson has examined the tongue of Ranella caudata and 
finds it to be that of a Murex ; accordingly he separates from 
Ranella a few other species because their shells resemble the shell 
of Ea,nella caudata and unites them also with Muricidae and this is 
practically the course (and necessarily so) pursued \)y all these 
dentition systematists. If conchological characters may be used 
to support the fabric reared upon the knowledge (I had almost 
written the want of knowledge) of a single structural character, 
why may they not be equally used against it. Is it not imperti- 
nent to make use of a few hundred observations of an organ 
which only pervades a portion of the mollusca, to establish a 
classification which is frequently in violent contrast with natural 
affinities ascertained by long examination of all the species, 
recent and fossil ? 

If the exo-skeleton or shell carries the impress of its animal, its 
right appreciation will afford us the only possible classification. 



CLASSIFICATION. 69 

It is not partial, but pervades nearly the whole mollusca as well 
those which have no lingual ribbon ; its universality is the proof 
of its higher systematic importance ; its relationships are not 
single,' it is the epitome of the modifications of molluscan struc- 
ture. Supposing the dentition of all living forms to be examined 
(an impossibility), we are still confronted by the fossil shells, 
which absolutely refuse to be classified by any other than con. 
chological characters. What shall we do with them ? Shall we 
use for these 30,000 species obvious external, universal charac- 
ters, yet discard these in the recent mollusca for the modifications 
of a partial character, the very slight observation of which has 
sufficed to show that it may not be predicated with certainty 
from either the shell, operculum, external features, or anatomy of 
the animal ? 

Whilst I shall continue to find in the shell the usual characters 
for the discrimination of genera and families, I shall not refuse 
all the aid which I can obtain from the study of lingual dentition 
as well as from all other sources which may enable me to more 
rightly appreciate natural relationships, to correct error, to avoid 
it. For the present, I prefer to treat Triton and Ranella as 
transitional genera having many relationships with the Murices, 
but partaking in their dentition and in some other structural 
details in the characters of Cassis, Dolium, etc. 

Prof. Theodore Gill published in 1811, under the auspices of 
the Smithsonian Institution an " Arrangement of the families of 
Mollusks," largely founded on their lingual dentition. Whilst 
this classification presents many features as novel as praiseworthy, 
reflecting the highest credit on the philosophical views and 
critical acumen of its author, it is, I think, equally unacceptable 
with those classifications heretofore proposed by European 
authors in which this character has been used as an exclusive 
guide. I reproduce Prof. Grill's arrangement below, as far as it 
relates to the Rhachiglossate mollusca. It will be noticed, as 
particularly affecting the groups of mollusks included in the 
present and succeeding volumes of this Manual, that the families 
of Fasciolariidae (including Fusinse) Biiccinidae,and Muricidse are 
widely separated, being each placed under a group founded on a 
modification of dentition, and that other families of mollusks 
otherwise not nearly related to these, are nevertheless interposed 



70 CLASSIFICATION. 

between them, as for instance, to take an extreme case, the 
Olividae. Of course Ranellidae and Tritonidae do not appear at all 
in this table of Rhachiglossates their dentition places them in 
the Taenioglossates. 

GASTEROPODA. 

Sub-class DICKGA. 
Order III. PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 
(Sub order TOXOGLOSSA. } 
Sub-order RHACHIGLOSSA. 

(Typica.} Formula (H'O- (PI. 5, tig. 48). 
Family 50. CYSTISCIDJE = Cystiscidae, Stm. 

Family 51. MARGINELLID^E < Marginellacea, Troschel. 
Family 52. VOLUTION = Volutacea, Tr. 

a. Volutomitrince { yolutpmitrina, Gray. 

I Amoriana, Gray. 

b. Volutina> fVolutina Gray. 

( i etina, Gray. 

(Odontoglossa.) (PI. 5, figs. 49, 51), 
Family 53- FASCIOLARIID^E = Fasciolariacea, Troschel. 

a. Fusince. 

b. Fasciolfiriinw. 

Family 54. MITRID^ = Mitracea, Tr. 

(Duplohamata. } 

Family 55. MELONGENID^G = Cassidulina. Tr. 
Family 56. BUCCINID^E < Fusacea, Tr. 

a. Photinw = Photina, Tr. 

b. Buccinince = Buccinina, Tr. 

c. Chrysodomina = Neptunina, Tr. 
Family 57. NASSID^E == Nassacea, Tr. 

a. Cyclonassina>, 

b. NassininoR. 

Family 58. CYNODONTID.E < Fusacea, Tr. 

a. Cynodontince = Vasina, Tr. 

b. Imbricarimce = Imbricariina, Tr. 

? Family 59. TURBINELLID.E ^ Vasidae, H. & A. Ad. 

(Hamiglowa.) (PI. 5, figs. 52, etc.) 
Family 60. TURRID^ = Strigatellacea, Tr. 

Family 61. OLIVID^E = Olivacea, Tr. 

a. OUmnas = Dactyliiia, Tr. 

b. OlivellincB = Olivellina, Tr. 

c. Ancillince . Ancillina, Tr. 



CLASSIFICATION. fl 

Family 62. HARPIDJE = Harpacea, Tr. 

Family 63. PTYCHATRACTID^E = Ptychatractidae, Stm. 
Family 64. MURICIDJE. 

a. MuricincB = Muricea, Tr. 

b. Purpurince = Purpuracea, Tr. 

(Atypoglossa.} (PI. 5, fig. 50.) 
Family 65. COLUMBELLID.E = Columbellacea, Tr. 

The relations of the typical Fusi with Fasciolaria are intimate 
and a species of the former examined by Stimpson* has the saw- 
like lateral teeth of the latter ; on the other hand, Macdonaldf 
found the dentition of another species of the typical Fusi to 
agree with that of Murex in having simple, uncinate pleural teeth. 

I propose to follow a classification which does not differ very 
essentially from that most approved before the advent of the 
lingual system, but modified nevertheless by certain ameliorations 
which the latter has enabled us to perceive for the first time. It 
is not denied that this arrangement is exceedingly artificial all 
are so ; but it it believed to be the most obvious, therefore, the 
easiest. It may be remarked here, that one of the inherent diffi- 
culties of arrangement in a lineal line is caused by inter- 
relationships ; thus, I have chosen to proceed from Murex to 
I'urpura, then to Triton, to Fusus and to Buccinum ; yet the 
three latter groups are equally related to Murex and with one 
another, and the passage from one group to another is so gradual 
that the assignment of some of the out-lying forms to a genus is 
very difficult. 

Classification adopted in this Work". 

FAMILIES. 

1. MuRiciD.'E. Including Muriciniii and Purpurimt. 
*2. TRITONIDJS. Tritoniuse, Ranelluue. 

FUSID^E. Fusinae (typical) Fasciolariimw, Ptychatractina. 1 . 
BUCCINID^E. Xeptuninae, Melongenina?, Buccininae, Pisa- 
uiinae, Photimt. 

5. NASSID^E. Nassinse, Cyclonassinte. 

(6. Turbinellidffi. 1. Volutida?. 8. Mitridte. 9. Colum- 
bellidte. 10. Marginellidae. 11. Olividse, including Ancillaricinse. 
12. Harpidae, etc.) 

*Am. Jour. Conch, i. 54. 

fAnn. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser., ii. 243. 



72 CLASSIFICATION. 

SYSTEMATIC. 

CLASS GASTEROPODA. 

Head distinct, furnished with eyes and tentacles. Body usually 
protected by a spiral or conical univalve shell. Lower surface 
of body developing a thickened, expanded, creeping disk or 
foot. 

ORDER I. PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

Animal, creeping or swimming, protected by a shell usually 
large enough to contain it. Breathing organs (branchiae), plume- 
like, situated in advance of the heart. Sexes distinct. 

(Section A. SIPHONOSTOMATA.) Animal with its mantle margin 
prolonged into a siphon conveying the water into the branchial 
chamber. Carnivorous. Marine. The shell is spiral, the axis 
usually imperforate, the aperture prolonged into a canal, or 
simply notched below. Operculum lamellar, horny. 

(Section B. HOLOSTOMATA.) Respiratory siphon wanting, or 
represented by a mere lobe in the collar of the mantle. Shell 
spiral or limpet-shaped, generally globular or pyramidal, with 
the aperture entire below, and rounded. Marine, fluviatile or 
terrestrial. Phytophagous usually. (Natica is carnivorous.) 
Operculum spiral, horny or calcareous. 

SIPHONOSTOMATA. 

Family MURICID^E. Shell spiral, fusiform ; aperture more or 

less canaliculate, or simply notched in front. 
Sub-family Muricinae. Shell canaliculate ; whorls crossed by 

varices. Operculum ovate. Nucleus subapical. 
Sub-family Purpurinse. Shell with very short canal, or simply 

notched in front ; but frequently ribbed or nodulous ; colu- 

mella usually broad and flattened ; operculum oblong, nucleus 

elongate, forming the long outer edge. 

The above division into two sub-families holds good as to a 
majority of the species, but does not cover them all. Thus, 



CLASSIFICATION. 73 

some of the Muricinse have the operculum and short canal of the 
Purpuringe, whilst some of the latter possess the varices of the 
former. 

In the following synopsis of genera and subgenera, the dis- 
criminative characters used separate widely groups, which really 
appear to be closely related : thus, Cerostoma and Pteronotus 
are intimately allied, notwithstanding the difference of the oper- 
culnm ; and Phyllonotus and Chicoreus have the same general 
facies, although they differ in the number of varices. Owing to 
their inter-relationships, no attempt to present the genera in suc- 
cession can be other than exceedingly artificial. 

Sub-Family MURICIN^E. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

MUKEX. Shell ovate or oblong ; spire prominent ; whorls convex, 
crossed by three or more continuous varices ; aperture ending below in 
a canal, which is generally partly closed. 

a. Operculum with sub-apical nucleus. 

* Varices three. 

Typical Murices. Shell spinous ; spire elevated ; canal very long, 

narrow, nearly straight. 
Subgenus PTERONOTUS. Shell triangular ; varices fin-like or foliated ; 

canal moderate, closed, somewhat curved. 
Subgenus CHICOREUS. Shell ovate-pyriform ; varices foliated and 

sometimes spinose ; canal short, curved, wide, nearly closed. 

* * Varices four to ten. 

Subgenus RHINOCANTHA. Has the short body whorl and long canal of 
the typical murices ; differs in having more numerous varices. 

Subgenus HOMALOCANTHA. Whorls rounded and sutures very deep ; 
varices foliated, and peculiarly produced into expanded digitations ; 
canal long. 

Subgenus PHYLLONOTUS. Like Chicereus, but varices numerous. 

b. Operculum purpuroid. 

* Varices three. 

Subgeuus CEROBTOMA. Varices wing-like ; aperture usually dentate 
within the outer lip, with a produced tooth near its base. Analogous 
with Pteronotus. 
10 



t4 CLASSIFICATION. 

* * Varices numerous. 

Subgenus VITULARIA. Shell oblong ; spire short ; body whorl long ; 
canal very short, wide ; outer lip thickened and dentate within. 
Varices nearly obsolete. 

Subgenus OCINEBRA. Spire elevated ; canal more or less closed ; 
varices foliated, sometimes spinose. 

UROSALPINX. Fusiform. No proper varices, which are replaced by 
longitudinal ribs. 

EUPLEURA. Ranelliform, with a pair of lateral varices, one on either 
side, and intermediate smaller varices ; aperture dentate within. 

TYPHIS. Ovate or oblong, with projecting hollow tubes between the 
three spinose varices ; aperture sub-orbicular, prolonged in front into a 
closed siphonal canal. 

TROPHON. Varices numerous, lamelliform or 1 acini ated ; spire promi- 
nent ; aperture ovate ; canal open, usually turned to the left ; shell 
white, often dark-colored within the aperture ; typically, Arctic and 
Antarctic. 

Sub-Family PURPURIN.E. 

As already stated, whilst the Muricida) naturally subdivide into two 
groups, one of them (Murices) distinguished by varices on the shell, oper- 
ctilum with terminal initial point, whilst the other (Purpurae) has nodules 
but no varices, patulous columella, short canal or mere basal notch, oper- 
culum with lateral nucleus ; yet on the confines of these two groups occur 
forms which partake of the characters of either, and the classification of 
which is entirely arbitrary. Ocinebra, species of Trophon, Urosalpinx 
and Eupleura, have undoubted relationships with Purpura, yet are 
classed with Murex partly because the species have usually been con- 
sidered or were described as Murices ; on the other hand, Purpura crispata 
and its allies possess the variceal features of Murex. Kobelt has, on this 
account, included them in his catalogue of the genus Murex ; but on 
account of the extreme variability of the species (some specimens being 
without varices) and the number of connecting forms between the smoother 
varieties and typical PurpuraB, I prefer to retain them in the group to 
which they have usually been referred. 

If the difficulty of defining these two sub-families is great, still greater 
does it become when we descend to the genera and subgenera of either of 
them. Various authors have attempted it, from the "groups" of Kiener's 
monograph to the genera and subgenera of H. & A. Adams. I adopt the 
latter as a mere convenience, premising that nature presents her specific 
forms here (as frequently elsewhere) in such continuous series, that no 



CLASSIFICATION. 75 

real line of demarcation can be traced ; the characters represent simply 
the high tide of an osculation, which at its ebb merges into the next 
incoming wave. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

PURPURA. Shell oblong-oval, last whorl large ; spire generally short ; 
aperture ovate large, terminating in a very short, oblique channel, or 
notched ; columella flattened ; outer lip simple. 

PURPUROIDEA. Shell turriculated, ventricose ; summit of the spire 
sharp ; whorls convex, with a line of spines or tubercles on the 
shoulder ; columella smooth, rounded, excavated in front; siphonal notch 
wide ; outer lip thin. Fossil. 

LYSIS Gabb, Stomatiform, very oblique ; spire moderate ; whorls 
costate ; aperture narrow, outer lip simple inner lip straight, concavely 
expanded over the wide umbilicus so as to completely cover it. Fossil. 

IOPAS. Shell ovate, rugose, last whorl large ; spire acuminate ; aperture 
moderate, emarginate and channelled in front ; columellar lip covered 
witli a thin enamel, and with a prominent plait-like callosity at the hind 
part ; outer lip sinuous, crenate within. 

VEXILLA. Shell purpuriform ; inner lip flattened and depressed, but 
outer lip, when adult, thickened, inflected and toothed ; aperture wide. 

RICINULA. Shell ovate, solid ; spire short, whorls tubercular or spinous ; 
aperture linear, narrow, contracted by callous projections, with a 
short, oblique, emarginate canal in front ; inner lip tubercularly 
wrinkled ; outer lip internally with plait-like teeth, often digitate. 

MONOCEROS. Shell ovate, last whorl large; spire rather elevated; 
aperture semilunar ; inner lip wide and flattened ; outer lip crenated, 
with a prominent tooth at the fore part. 

PSEUDOLIVA. Shell ovate, solid, subglobose ; spire very short, suture 
slightly channeled, whorls tumid round the upper part ; aperture oval, 
canal very short ; inner lip arcuated, with a callosity at the hind part ; 
outer lip thin, furnished at the fore part with a small tooth or callosity. 

CHORUS. Shell laminately varicose, spinose on the shoulder ; canal 
rather long ; outer lip with a spine as in Monoceros. 

PIKAXIA. Shell conical ; spire short, acute ; aperture oval-oblong, 
emarginate anteriorly ; inner lip flattened, with several transverse plaits 
in the middle ; outer lip acute, grooved internally. 

CONCHOLEPAS. Shell ovate, last whorl very large, expanded ; spire 
very short, obliquely inclined towards the left side ; aperture very wide, 
slightly channeled anteriorly ; inner lip flattened ; outer lip with two 
small teeth in front. 



6 CLASSIFICATION. 

CUM A. Shell pyriform ; spire elevated, acute, whorls angular or spinose ; 
aperture oval- oblong ; columella convex, sometimes with a strong an- 
gular tubercle in the middle ; outer lip acute, grooved internally. 

RAPANA. Shell ventricose, axis perforated to the apex ; spire de- 
pressed ; aperture oval, narrowed anteriorly ; canal open, slightly 
recurved; inner lip reflected, free anteriorly; umbilicus Avide, corrugated. 

RHIZOCHILUS. Shell when young free, resembling Rapana ; when 
adult, sometimes with more or less irregular solid shelly extensions of 
the outer and inner lips, which clasp the axis of coral or the surface of 
neighboring shells, and at length close the month with the exception of 
the anterior siphonal canal which is converted into a shelly tube. No 
operculum.(?) 

SEPARATISTA. Shell turbinate, subdiscoidal, the first whorls con- 
tiguous, the last more or less separated ; aperture expanded, slightly 
angulated, the margin everted ; umbilicus very wide, infundibuliform 
with the whorls visible to the apex. No operculum. 

MELAPIUM. Shell ovate-pyriform, ventricose, imperforate, porcella- 
nous ; spire very short, apex papillary ; aperture expanded, inner lip 
with a thick, smooth callus at the hind part columella twisted anter- 
iorly, with a prominent oblique plait ; canal wide, recurved, directed 
towards the left. Operculum unknown. 

WHITNEYA. A cretaceous fossil possibly synonymous with Melapium. 

RAPA. Shell thin, globosely pyriform ; axis perforate ; umbilicus partly 
concealed by the reflected inner lip ; spire obtuse ; aperture oblong, 
produced anteriorly into a wide, subrecurved canal. Operculum 
unknown. 

MAGILUS. Shell when young, spiral, thin ; when adult, white, solid, 
tubular, spiral for three or four whorls, the last prolonged into an 
irregular straight or flexuous tube, solid posteriorly, and with a siphonal 
keel on the left side. Operculum ovate, nucleus sublateral. 

MAGILINA. Young shell free, formed of a single whorl ; finally 
prolonged into a tube which is attached by one side to the surface of 
submarine bodies. 

NISEA. Shell composed of a discoidal portion and of two tubes ; the 
last whorl recurved upon itself in the same way as Anastoma, in two 
tubes of variable length and less sinuous than the single tube of 
Magilus. (Fossil.) Relationships very doubtful. 



I NIVEKSITY OF 

OAL1FOUMA. 



MUREX. 77 

Genus MUREX, Linn. 

Mr. W. Kobelt has published a catalogue of the genus Murex 
(excluding the genera Trophon, Yitularia and Typhis) in the 
' Jahrbiicher " of the German Malacozoological Society, 1877. 
Whilst it is the most complete catalogue of the genus heretofore 
published, I find that it does not include more than about half 
the number of specific names amassed during my researches. 
His introductory remarks upon classification are important, and 
fairly state the difficulties attendant upon any attempt to 
separate the species into natural groups. 

FiA T e monographs, illustrated by colored figures of the species, 
have been published, viz., in Sowerby's " Conchological Illustra- 
tions," in Reeve's " Conchologia Iconica," in " Kiener's " Co- 
quilles Yivantes," in Krister's " Conchylien Cabinet," and in 
Sowerby's " Thesaurus Conchyliorum." The fossil species 
number more than one hundred and fifty, beginning with the 
Eocene. 

On the coasts of the Adriatic Murex brandaris and M. trun- 
culus are constantly seen in the markets, where, under the names 
of " bulo niaschio," u bulo femina," and " garusola," they are 
sold to the poorer classes for food. 

1. Typical Murices, or Tribulus Group. 

M. SCOLOPAX, Dillw. PI. 9, figs. 106, 108 ; pi. 24, fig. 208. 

The comparative smoothness of the surface of this species will 
distinguish it from M. ternispina,vf\i\i which it is too closely 
allied. The revolving ribs are much darker in color than the 
general surface, so that Reeve describes the specimens as banded. 
Full grown specimens attain 8 to 9 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian 0., China. 

M. occa, Sowb. (fig. 108), is a depauperate young state, the 
spines not so w r ell developed, onl}' three of them prominent on 
the body, the intermediate ones becoming more noticeable with 
increase of growth. M. Macgilliurayi, Dohrn. (fig. 208), from 
Lizard Isles, Australia, is similar to occa. 

M. TRIBULUS, Linn. PL 9, figs. 107, 109. 

The whorls are crossed by numerous, somewhat nodulous 
transverse ribs (4 to 6 between varices), decussated by close, 



78 MUREX. 

alternately larger and smaller revolving lines. The typical form 
has also several revolving series of brownish spots, but these are 
not constant The spines of the canal are not so numerous or so 
long as those of M. scolopax. Attains 4 - 5 inches. 

Red Sea, China, Japan. 

M. nigrospinosus, Reeve (fig. 100), is simply a state of this 
species in which the spines become dark colored. 
44. 

M. TENXispiNA, Lam. PI. 10, fig. 113. 

The distinguishing character of this, the most beautiful of the 
Murices, is the large number of long, parallel, curved spines 
which adorn the canal and lower portion of the body, with 
alternating, recurved, smaller spines. In its sculpture it is like 
M. fribulus, and some of the succeeding species. 
Length, 6 to 8 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Japan. Torres Sts., N. Australia, 

in 20 to 3Q fathoms, sandy bottom. 

M. TERNISPINA, Lam. PL 9, fig. 110; pi. 10, figs. Ill, 114; pi. 
11, figs. 117, 118. 

Usually smaller, narrower, especially the canal, and with 
fewer and shorter spines than M. tribulus ; yet it is by no means 
readily distinguished from that species. It has the same sculp- 
ture, and even sometimes the same revolving. spots of brown 
color. It is more graceful usually, in form, its spines are not so 
stout, and the upper and middle series on the body whorl are not 
much larger than the others, as in tribulus. Its claims to specific 
rank are allowed with considerable hesitation. 

Length, 6 inches, but usually not over 3 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Japan, China, Philippines. 

The animal is figured by Quoy and Gaimard (under the name 
of tenuispina (fig. 117) as greatly extended from its shell in order 
to regain its normal position when placed on its back. The 
extended foot is quite large, subcylindrical, yellowish, marbled 
on the sides with yellow, brown and red. Two very long, 
cylindrical, thin and pointed tentacles carry eyes on their middle. 
The mantle is grayish ; its margins undulated. 

M. Martinianus, Reeve (fig. 118), and M. aduncospinosus, 
Beck (fig. 1 14) , I cannot separate even as varieties ; they are simply 



.MUREX. 79 

degrees of spinous development of this species. M. Troscheli, 
Lischke (fig. Ill) is founded on a very large, stout specimen, 
which, when perfect, must have been nearly 7 inches in length. I 
place it here ; yet it has affinities with M. tribulus, particularly 
in its solid, stout appearance. 

M. SOBRINUS, A. Ad. Suppl. PL, fig. 536. 

The seven whorls are convex, longitudinally nodosely plicate 
and transversely lirate, very spiny ; the long, straight canal is 
spiny ; the body whorl has two reddish-brown bands. 

Length, 36 mill. 

Japan, 29 to 55 fms. 

M. RARISPINA, Lam. PI. 10, fig. 115 ; PI. 11, fig. 119. 

The best character of this form is found in the great develop- 
ment of the superior spines on the body whorl. The lower part 
of the canal is smooth, and the upper part has only a few short 

spines. Length, 3*5 inches. 

Indian 0. 

M. Mindanensis, Sowb., (fig. 119) I believe to be a depauperate 
state of this species. Messrs. Kiener & Reeve consider M. 
formosus > Sowb., (fig. 115), a synonym, and as the former cites 
rarispina in the Lamarckian collection, I am disposed to agree 
with them. Mr. Sowerb^y figures an entirely different shell for 
rarixpiiia a shell which appears to me to be a M. tribulus. 

M. BREVISPINA, Lam. PI. 11, fig.121 ; PL 24, fig. 209. 

The spines are very short, scarcely longer than the tubercles 
which, in double series, two in each, divide the space between the 
varices ; these tubercles define a someAvhat flattened periphery. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Red Sea, Ind. 0., So. Africa, N. Australia, 6-11 fms. 

31. seniUs, Jousseaume, (fig. 209), can scarcely be regarded as 
more than a thin variety of this species, in which the spines are 
better developed. It is said to inhabit the Philippine seas. 

M. CONCINNUS, Reeve. PL 11, fig. 122. 

The colored, narrow revolving lines, and short, direct spines 
give this shell a very lively appearance. Only a single specimen 
is known (Metcalfe Museum). It can scarcely be regarded as a 
well-established species because these narrow bands are found in 



80 MUREX. 

individual specimens of several of the following forms (and have 
in these cases caused them to be described as new species), with- 
out being at all characteristic. 

Locality unknown. 

M. CABRITII, Bernard!. PL 11, fig. 123. 

The short, thick-set spines, extending over the canal, remind 
one of M. plicatus, Sowb., with w r hich it also has other relation- 
ships. Only a single specimen is known, without locality. 

Length, 2'5 inches. 

M. PLIOATUS, Sowb. PI. 40, fig. 508. 

This species is well distinguished from others of the group ; it 
is thick and heavy, the spines are obtuse, short on the whorls and 
long on the canal. The color is purplish white, darker within the 
aperture. Length, 3 inches. 

W. Coast of Central Am. to Gulf of California. 

Two specimens in the Mus. Philad. Acad. have thread-like 
brown bands like M. concinnus, Reeve. 

M. BEAUI, Petit. PI. 11, fig. 116. 

Described from a single specimen which, except in its much 
greater size, much resembles varieties of M. recurmroxtris. The 
shell is not in good condition, and presents no satisfactory spe- 
cific characters. Length, 5 inches. 

Isle of Marie- Galante, W. 1. _ 

M. EXIMIUS, Brazier. 

Whorls seven, with two short, blunt spines on each varix of the 
body and no spines elsewhere ; spaces between the varices longi- 
tudinally five-ribbed, crossed by alternately larger and smaller 
striae. Cream color, violet-tinged in the aperture. 

Length, nearly 2 inches. Not figured. 

Darnley M. Torres Sts. N. Australia; 30 fms. sandy bottom. 

M. RECURVIROSTRIS, Brod. PI. 11, fig. 193 ; PI. 10, fig. 112 , PI. 

12, figs. 124-128. 

This is a comparatively small species, rarely exceeding two 
inches in length. The varices are thick, plait-like and tubercu- 
lated by the crossing of elevated lines which also cut the three 
inter-variceal ribs into tubercles. These tubercles are sometimes 
developed into short spines, one on the upper part of each varix, 



MT REX. 81 

and there are also one or two on each varix below the aperture. 
The color varies from whitish to livid with two or three broad 
brown bands which are most visible within the aperture. 

West Indies ; W. Coast of Central America to Mazatlan. 

Having a very extensive suite of this species, including 
specimens from well-authenticated localities on both sides of the 
American continent, I find no difference in them whatever as to 
the typical form described above, and which may be recognized 
at once by its general dark color. M. nigrescens, Sowb. (fig. 
124), is simply a large specimen of the typical form and M. livi- 
r/w.s, Carp., cannot be distinguished as a variety. M. funiculatus, 
Reeve (fig. 112) is founded on an unusually light colored specimen ; 
similar ones are in the collection before me as well as examples 
of intermediate coloration. M. messorius, Sowb., (fig. 125), is 
similar to M. f-uniculatus and also has relationships with the form 
with straight canal which the same author has named M. rec- 
tirostris, (fig. 126). 

There is also a West Indian form, much lighter in color, and 
with the spines usually somewhat more developed whilst the 
canal is generally shorter. If I had fewer specimens I might be, 
able to distinguish this form as a variety, but my material sup- 
plies all intermediate gradations. Of these lighter-colored shells 
Sowerby has made his M. similis (fig. 130), whilst another specimen 
has been figured by him in mistake for M. motaciUa, Chemn. 
Two eager English conchologists discovered this error and Mr. 
Hinds has added to his scientific laurels by describing the 
wrongly identified shell as M. Antillarum, whilst Mr. Reeve has 
called it M. nodatus and refigured it. Of course neither of these 
investigators felt called upon to study the group to which Mr. 
Sowerby 's wrongly identified species belonged and equally of 
course neither of them had time to ascertain whether any other 
naturalist had made and published a similar discovery. Thus I 
place eight so-called species in the synonymy of M. recurvi- 
rostris in addition to a number of synonyms acknowledged by pre- 
ceding authors and upon which I therefore refrain from dwelling. 
Mr. Arthur Adams has issued a short Latin diagnosis (Zool. 
Proc. 1851), of M. pulcher from St. Croix, W. I. No figure has 
been published and the description mentions neither color, 
11 



82 MUREX. 

dimensions nor distinctive characters (nearly all the species pub- 
lished by him in this paper are similarly indefinite), so that it is 
impossible to ascertain what species he intended to describe ; the 
description itself, however, as far as it goes, will characterize 
very exactly our present species, and such being the case, I have 
a right to so identify it. 

M. MOTACILLA, Chemn. PL 12, figs. 129, 131 ; pi. 13, figs. 132-134. 
There are usually two prominent longitudinal tubercles be- 
tween the varices instead of three, as in the last species. The 
surface is closely covered with revolving lines which become 
tuberculous on the elevations, and here and there slightly spinous. 
The canal is very narrow, and turned to the right. There are 
two or three brown bands, usually. 

Length, 2*5 inches. 

Senegal, West Indies. 

This species is rather variable, and presents, among others, 
two forms which may retain the specific names given them, as 
varieties : 

VAR. CAILETI, Petit. Figs. 131, 132. 

Shell smoother, more angulated on the periphery, more spinous, 
the nodules smaller, forming two or three ribs or tubercles between 
the varices. The principal revolving lines are colored brown so 
that the surface appears variegated with revolving, narrow, thread- 
like bands. I figure a specimen from the original lot collected 
by M. Caillet, which is much more angulated than the type^fig. 
131) and I have before me a fine series of intermediate forms. 

VAR. ELEGANS, Beck. Figs. 133, 134. 

Longitudinal tubercles two between the varices, prominent, 
spines not developed, periphery only obtusely angulated, the 
raised revolving, thread-like lines dark-colored. This is a very 
beautiful variety which may include as a synonym M. trilineatiis, 
Reeve, (fig. 134). 

M. CHRYSOSTOMA, Gray. PL 13, figs. 136, 135. 

In general appearance not unlike M. motaciUa, Yar. elegans, 
this species presents the following distinctive characters, which 
appear to be permanent : it is larger, stouter, the canal is pro- 



MUBEX. 83 

portionally shorter and straight or but little turned to the right; 
there are one or two spur-like spines on the varices at the lower 
part of the mouth ; generally on the left-hand varix and some- 
times on the back varix, but very seldom on the right hand or 
lip varix ;. the lips of the mouth are tinged with more or less 
brilliant orange color. I consider M. bella, Reeve, (fig. 135), a 

synonym. 

West Indies. 

M. AUSTRALIS, Quoy. 

Shell fusiform, a little ventricose, with long canal turned to the 
left ; with revolving striae, and short tubercles on the varices. 
Yellowish-white. The animal has short tentacles of a sooty 
color, white towards the points, near which are placed the very 
small eyes. The rest of the body is pale yellowish, mottled with 

white. Length, 33 mill., breadth, 14 mill. 

Port Western, Austr. 

This species has not been figured nor identified ; I think it 
belongs to the Tribulus group. 

M. LIGNARTUS, A. Adams. 

Ovately fusiform, sub-umbilicated ; spire acuminate, reddish 
brown ; whorls excavated above, with two medial, elevated, 
nodulous lines; transversely lirate, the lines unequal, elevated, 
rugulose ; longitudinally three-varicose, the varices with two 
elevated spines ; aperture round-ovate, white within ; canal as 

long as the aperture, subrecurved. 

West Africa. 

This shell has not been figured nor are dimensions given. I 
cannot, therefore, be sure that it belongs to this group. Sowerby 
(Thes. Conch.) refers Ugnarius to M. quadrifrons; I do not know 
whether it be this species, but the description of it does not agree 
at all. 

M. HAUSTELLUM, Linn. PL 13, fig. 137. 

This well-know r n species will end the section of typical Murices. 
Like M. chrysostoma it is never spinous. Adult specimens vary 
from 2 to 6 inches in length. 

Red Sea, Ind. 0., China, Mauritius, Philippines. 



84 PTERONOTl S. 

Sub-genus Pteronotus, Swainson. 

This group may be advantageously restricted to those species 
possessing a muricoid operculum and three varices. Its position 
is somewhat difficult to define, inasmuch as its relationships are 
varied with Chicoreus rather than with Phyllonotus perhaps, and 
on the other hand with Cerostoma : which latter may include 
the forms, likewise with three varices, with or without the lip- 
spine which Conrad makes the typical character of his group, 
but with purpuroid operculum, and in general aspect forcibly 
suggesting a connecting link with Purpura. Kobelt has indeed, 
included such species as Purpura plicata and lactuca in his group 
of Cerostoma, but I think the line between the Purpuroid Muri- 
ces and Purpura proper may be drawn just here, if anywhere 
that Cerostoma is a normal Murex in its three continuous varices : 
whilst the numerous varices of P. pi tea la :nxl its allies insensibly 
degenerate into shells without varices = typical Purpurae. 

It may be remarked that Pteronotus, as thus restricted, consists 
of East Indian and African species, whilst the distribution of 
Cerostoma, is North Pacific, extending from the west const of 
North America to Japan. 

a. With two or three ribs or tubercles between the varices. 

M. TRIGONULUS, Lam. PL 11, fig. 120. 

Owing to the insufficiency of the original description and the 
want of reference to a published figure this species has been 
variously identified with several others since described. I prefer 
the decision of Reeve, because it relieves these other species 
from doubt. Kobelt gives "Antilles ' as locality, which shows 
that he has supposed it related to the motacil/a or >>'<// /-rirostris 
group which it certainly does somewhat resemble. Tapparone 
in quoting it from the Red Sea, confounds it with tri<i<n'ter, Born, 
and Sowerby figures for it (Conch. 111.) an example of M. pel- 
luciduSj Reeve. It will be seen that the form selected b}' Reeve 
to represent the species stands intermediate between M. recurvi- 
rostris and M. triqueter. I have before me a specimen said to 
come from Gambia. The shell is rosy-white, with two darker 
bands. 

Length, 1-5 inches. 



PTEKONOTUS. $5 

M. Sowerby, in his latest monograph (Thes. Conch.), makes 
the trigonulus of Reeve (not Lamarck) = pulcher, A. Ad., and 
gives the Red Sea as locality . Adams, however, described his 
pulcher as from St. Croix, W. Ind., 60 fathoms, M. Swenson ; 
and I have made it a synonym of M. recitrr'irosfri.x. Sowerby's 
figure of pulcher represents a trigonulus. 


M. TRIQUETER, Born. PI. 40, figs. 506, 515. 

Length, 1'5 to 3 inches. 

Red Sea, Ind. 0., Philippines, Paumotus Is. (W. H. Pease). 
M. roseaiinctus, Sowb. (fig. 515), is a synonym. 

M. RUBRiDENTATUS, Reeve. PL 40, fig. 501. 

The foliated varices are not dentate as in M. triqueter, and the 
lip has a row of teeth tipped with red. Length, 2'5 inches. 

Hub. unknown. Two sp. in Cumingian Coll. 

M. BARCLAYI, Reeve. PI. 41, fig. 535. 

A much larger, wider species than M. triqueter, Born, with 
which it is frequentl}' confounded, and which is its nearest ally. 
It is beautifully colored: pinkish, the ribs and varices golden 
yellow. Length, 3'5 inches. 

Mauritius. 
M. TRIFORMIS, Reeve. PL 40, fig. 511. 

Uniform dull yellowish-brown. Shell thin, appearing as though 
not adult. Length, 2 inches. On oyster-banks in 2-10 fms. 
Probably fond of oysters. 

Port Lincoln, Austr. (Angas). 

M. BIPUNCTATUS, Sowb. PL 40, fig. 509. 

Orange colored, the varices striped with red ; two intervariceal 

purple spots on the shoulder. Length, 1*25 inches. 

Austr. 

Very close to M. triformis, Reeve ; the purple spots are the 
only important distinctive character. 

M. ACANTHOPTERUS, Lam. PL 40, fig. 512. 

Whitish, stained more or less with light brown. Somewhat 
related to the preceding species. Length, 2'25 inches. 

Watson's Bay, N. 8. Wales (Angas). 



86 PTERONOTUS. 

M. ALABASTER, Reeve. PI. 41, fig. 529. 

Shell ivory-white. Length, 5'5 inches. 

Philippines. 
Only a single specimen known. 

M. CANALIFERUS, Sowb. PL 40, figs. 519, 524, 510. 

White. Length, 1 inch. 

ffab. unknown. 

M. cancellatus, Sowb. (fig. 510), is a synonym. 

b. With one nodule between the varices. 
M. LINGUA, Dillw. PI. 40, figs. 513, 518. 

White, more or less stained with brown. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

W. G. Africa. 

M.flavidus. Jousseaume (fig. 518), of which a single dilapidated 
specimen is known, appears to me to be a synonym. Jousseaume's 
figure is named on the plate M. rusticus a name preoccupied by 
Reeve, and therefore changed in his text to M. flaridu*. 

M. HEMITRTPTERUS, Lam. PI. 40, fig. 516. 

The whorls are slopingly shouldered, below which they are 
gradually attenuated to the end of the canal, and the varices are 
not so broadly fimbriated as in the preceding species. It is very 
probable, however, that it will prove to be only a variety of M. 

lingua. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Senegambia. 
M. ABYSSICOLA, Crosse. PI. 40, fig. 520. 

This little shell is finely decussated by growth and revolving- 
lines, and has a single prominent tubercle between the varices. 
Pale brown, with a light chestnut revolving band. Length. 11 

mill. 

Guadeloupe, W. I. 

Obtained by coral fishers at a depth of 500 metres. 

Its resemblance to M. lingua is very close, and it may be re- 
marked in this connection that many species of the Western 
Coast of Africa extend their range to the West .Indies. 

M. ADAMSI, Kobelt. PL 40, fig. 514. 

Light yellowish or white, with a single rib between the varices. 

Length, 30 mill. 

West Indies. 



PTERONOTUS. 87 

Described by A. Adams under the name of alabastrum which 
is preoccupied by Reeve. Yery like M. triqueter, Born, but 
differs in having only a single intervariceal rib. 

M. MACROPTERUS, Desh. PI. 40, fig. 517. 

Of the same general appearance and color as the three pre- 
ceding species, and appearing like a particularly well-developed 
M. lingua. The four-lobed, widely expanded, scabrous foliation 
of the marginal varix is its chief characteristic. Length, 1'5 

inches. 

Hab. unknown. 

In the original figure the operculum approaches purpuroid, but 
the nucleus is scarcely marginal. It has evidently been care- 
lessly figured. Reeve's figure has the typical operculum of 
Murex, 

M. TRIPTERUS, Born. PL 41, fig. 531. 

Columella and lip dentate, foliations very wide, oblique, regular. 
Light yellowish-brown, darker within the aperture. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Red Sea, Ind. 0., Philippines (Upolu). 

M. PINNATLS, Wood. PL 41, figs. 526, 530. 

This well-known Chinese species attains a length of 2'5 to 3'5 
inches. It is always pure white throughout. M. pellucidus, 
Reeve (fig. 530), lt found upon a coral bottom at a depth of 7 
fathoms, Island of Bantayan, Philippines,' 1 is evidently the same ; 
in fact, I have before me a suite of specimens connecting the 
two forms. 

M. CLAVUS, Kiener. PL 41, figs. 533, 534. 

Whitish or flesh-colored. Length, 3*25 inches. In the j'Oimg 
shell (= M. bipinnatus, Reeve, fig. 534) the nodes and revolving- 
striae are much more prominent. 

Philippines. 

#"-x- 

M. OSSEUS, Reeve. PL 41, figs. 525, 527. 

Whitish, more or less tinged with brown. Length, 2'75 inches. 

Hab. unknown. 

This is the first of a group of species in which the foliated 
varices terminate on the shoulder of each whorl in a hooked 



88 CHICOREUS. 

spine. M. Gambien&is, Reeve (fig. 521), from the mouth of the 
Gambia, W. Coast of Africa, is evidently the same species, and I 
suspect that M. uncinarius, Lam., from Cape of Good Hope, 
will prove to be the young ; I find no other difference than size 
between them. 

M. SPECIOSUS, A. Adams. PI. 41, fig. 532. 

Ovate fusiform, whorls seven, spire acute; varices three* 
foliate, dilated into spines posteriorly ; surface with revolving 
ribs and nodulous ; aperture oval, canal straight, closed. Whitish 
tinged with red. Length, 3 inches. 

No dimensions or habitat given in the original description, but 
said to be somewhat allied to M. alabaster. Mr. Sowerby 
has recently figured the species, and assigns Yokohama, Japan, 
as the habitat. 

M. UNCINARIUS, Lam. PI. 40, figs. 521, 523. 

Shell whitish or light brown. Length, "75 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Probably the young of M. osseus. 

M. ANGASI, Crosse. PI. 40, fig. 522. 

Light 3^ellow, with a violet band. The body whorl appears to 
be somewhat more swollen below than in M. uncinarius and the 
spines are shorter and more direct than in that species. De- 
scribed as a Typhis, and as having two internodes, but the figures 
show only one large node. Length, '75 to 1 inch. 

Under rocks and stones low water. 

Port Jackson, Austr .; New Zealand ( Murex eos, Hutton). 
M. QUINQUELOBATUS, Sowb. PL 41, fig. 528. 

Yellowish ; the varices developed into five hooked fronds, con- 
nected by a narrow web-like lamina at their base. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

Possibly only a form of M. uncinarius, Lam. 

Sub-genus Chicoreus, Monti. 

The species are mainly oriental in distribution, yet there art 1 
well-defined groups inhabiting the seas of the West Coast of 
Africa, and the West Indies. 



CHICOREUS. 89 

M. PALMA-ROS.E, Lam. PI. 14, fig. 140. 

This may be taken as the type of a group of Indo-Pacific 
species, very closely related and yet readily distinguishable by 
minor characters. They are solidly built, with elevated spire and 
the spines are peculiarly frondosely branched. M. palma-rosae 
may be recognized by the denticulated border of its inner or 
coluinellar lip. In its brownish hue, with darker tint on the 
raised revolving- lines, and in its pink-tinted fronds it resembles 
other related species. Two or three longitudinal ribs are formed 
between the va rices. Length, 4 inches. 

Ind. 0. 
M. MAUBUS. Brod. PL 14, figs. 138, 139, 142. 

This species is usually smaller in size than the last and has no 
teeth on the columellar lip. The fronds also, have intermediate 

smaller fronds. Length, 3 inches. 

Philippine to Marquesas Isles. 

The type is dark colored, purplish ; lighter colored specimens, 
tinged with pink are called M. Saulise, Sowb., (fig. 142) and a 
somewhat depauperate, small specimen has been figured and de- 
scribed by Reeve as M. affinis, (fig. 138). 

M. MIOROPHYLLUS, Lam. PL 14, fig. 144. 

The fronds like in M. maurus but more stunted in growth ; the 
shell is narrow, with spire much longer than the canal ; the inner 
lip has a denticulate margin, like M. palma-rosae ; there are three 
ribs between the varices ; the color is light brown with dark 
brown or purplish black on the revolving lines and fronds. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Ind. Ocean. 
M. BANKSII, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 141. 

Somewhat like M. microphyllus in form, but a thinner shell, the 
fronds more developed, the revolving lines neither so close nor so 
prominent, the ribs, three in number, merging into two as the 

shell becomes older. 3'75 inches. 

Moluccas. 

M. TORREFACTUS, Sowb. PL 14, figs. 143, 145 ; PL 15, fig. 151. 

Like microphylhis this has a short canal, but it is usually a 
much stouter species ; in fact the stoutest of the group. The 
fronds are as in Saulise ; the inner lip is not denticulate on its 
margin and there is only one large tuberculous rib between 



90 CHICOREUS. 

varices, or at most with an occasional second, much smaller rib. 
Usually dark colored, but sometimes as light as M. palma-rosae 

and like it pink-tinged. Length, 4 inches. 

Uhina. 

The typical torrefactuH may be regarded as a rather slim, 
elongated form of the species, the usual state of which is better 
represented by M. Steerise (fig. 151), one of its synonyms. 

M. ADUSTUS, Lam. PL 15, figs. 148, 149; pi. 24, figs. 210-212 ; 

pi. 25, fig. 217. 

Its jet black color, remarkably frondose spines, crowded even 
on the canal, and pink (sometimes yellow) lipped aperture, 
separates this species from M. torrefactus ; which it resembles in 
having a single large rib between the varices. 

Length, 3*5 inches. 

Ind. 0., Philippines, Japan. 

Mr. E. A. Smith* has compared the type of M. despectus A. Ad. 
(fig. 211), with specimens of adustus and finds it to agree 
perfectly. The locality of despectus " West Indies " is certainly 
an error, as no species of this group is found there. The figure 
of despectus published by Sowerby leaves no room to doubt its 
identity with adustus. 

M. rufus, Lam., (fig. 148), is the young of this species. M. 
fuscus, Dunker, and M. trir-inli* \ . Ad., (fig. 21 2), are also founded 
on a young state. M. AustraUensis, Angas, (fig. 210), and M. Hut- 
tonise, Wright, (fig. 217), may be classed as mere color variations 
of M. adustus. 

M. PALMMRUS, Sowb, PI. 14, figs. 14ti, 147; pi. 24, fig. 215; 

pi. 25, fig. 218. 

This is a small species, ranging from 1*5 to 2 inches in length, 
usually whitish with the long spire tipped with pink ; the 
peculiarly scabrous surface is raised into two ribs between the 
varices. The fronds are short and so close as sometimes to form 

a continuous frill. 

Red Sea, Ind. 0., N. Austr. 

M. corrugatus, Sowb., (fig. 141), does not differ and M. dilec- 
tus, A. Ad., (fig. 218), as well as M. mutiifronxtost, Sowb., (fig. 
215), may also be added to the synonymy. 

*Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, xv. 419, 1875. 



CH1COREUS. 91 

M. TERRITUS, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 152. 

Closely allied to the above species in color and surface ; the 
spines are so close as to form a continuous frill towards their 
bases, but they are longer, more direct and less frondose. The 
principal distinction is that this species has only one large 
tubercle between the varices yet I have before me specimens of 
M. palmiferux in which one rib is much enlarged at the expense 
of the other. Until more specimens of M. territus are examined 
it must be considered a somewhat doubtful species. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Sydney, Austr. 
M. PENCHINATI, Crosse. PL 15, fig. 150. 

Much more narrowly elongate than M. palmiferus, and deli- 
cately tinted with rose-red, the revolving lines and fronds being 
darker ; like palmiferus it has two ribs between the varices. 

Length 1'6 inch. 

Liu-TscMu Islands. 

In the index to his Thesaurus, Sowerby makes this a synonym 
of his M. emarginatus. These species are so different that 1 
suspect he intended to quote some other name. 

M. NUBILUS, Sowb. PL 15, fig. 153. 

" A dusky, ordinary looking shell ; and yet there is no other 
species which exactly corresponds with it," remarks Mr. Sowerby. 
Its principal features are the single, large inter-variceal rib and 
the three revolving brown bands. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Hob. unknown (Coll. Turning ). 

M. ROSSITERI, Crosse. PL 15, fig. 157. 

The single specimen on which this species appears to be 
founded presents unmistakable evidences of depauperization in 
its depressed spire and suppressed spines the latter only ap- 
pearing on the lower part of body-whorl and canal. The red 
aperture and the single large rib between the varices show some 
relationships to M. adustus. Length 35 mill. 

Llfou IsL, Loyalty Group, New Caledonia. 

M. THOMASI. Crosse. PL 15, fig. 154. 

Said to have three large, slightly spinous varices, and three 
intermediate smaller ones ; the latter are probably only tubercles, 



92 CHICOREUS. 

or ribs, as the species is compared to M. maurus, Brod. Yellow- 
pink, pink within the aperture. Length, 1*8 inches. 

Nouka Hiva ; Marquesas Archipelago. 

This is also a depauperated shell ; it has close relationships 
with M. Rossiteri, Crosse. 

M. CEBVICORNIS, Lam. PL 15, fig. 155. 

Readily distinguished from all others by its bifurcated spines. 
White to fulvous. 2 inches. 

Ind. 0., Torres 8t*., Austr. 20-30 fms. 

M. LONGICORNIS, Dunker. PL 15, fig. 156. 

The double series of very long, closed variceal spines, devoid 
of fronds give this shell a very distinctive character, causing the 
body-w T horl to appear biangulate and the spire babylonic. 
Light brown, revolving lines darker. Length, 3 inches. 

Amboina. 
M. MONODON, Sowb. PL 16, fig. 158. 

This has the same long spines as the preceding, but they are 
more curved, somewhat frondose and three in number on each 
varix of the body-whorl, whilst on the upper part of the canal 
there is another very long spine curving backwards so as to form 
almost a semicircle ; there are many smaller spines and the ex- 
ternal lip is also spiniferous, including, inferiorly, a long, direct 
tooth. Whitish or brownish, aperture red. 

Length, 4J inches. 

Torres Sts., Austr. 
M. AXICORNIS, Lam. PL 16, figs. 161-164. 

There are from two to three longitudinal ribs between the 
varices, and the latter are frondosely spinous ; upper spine long 
and curved, appearing on the spire whorls ; there is a shorter 
prominent spine on the lower part of the body-whorl, and 
another, still shorter, between the two ; there are also several 
well-developed spines on the canal portion of the varices. Yel- 
lowish-white to dark brown, the raised revolving lines darker. 

Length, 1*5 to 4 inches. 

Ind. Archipelago. 

Messrs. Higgins and Marrat have described Murex imbricatiis 
(fig. 163), said to have been dredged in Carinage harbor, Island 
of Grenada, W. I. The shell figured by them (and which I copy) 



CHICOREUS. 93 

agrees in all particulars with specimens of M. axicornis before 
me from undoubted East Indian localities, as well as with pub- 
lished figures of that species by Sowerby and Reeve. I do not 
doubt its identity. The Swift collection, the largest West Indian 
collection of shells in existence, contains nothing like this form, 
and I cannot help thinking there must be some mistake about the 
locality. M. spectrum, Reeve, (fig. 162), of which there is a 
single specimen in the Cumingian collection is also a synonym 
and M. aculeatus, Lam., (fig. 164), is scarcely different enough to 
constitute a variety. 

M. RUBESCENS, Brod. PL 16, fig. 160. 

Thick, fusiform; varices tuberculate, with a few very short 
fronds; one large rib between varices. Orange red, the tubercles 
and revolving lines brown. Length, 1'8 inches. 

Coral Reefs, Taheiti. 

M. ANGULTFERUS, Lam. PI. IT, figs. 165,166; pi. 24, figs. 213,216. 
This may be regarded as the type of a series of species dis- 
tinguished by their pyriform, angulate shape and short spines. 
M. anc/yJiferus has usually only one very prominent node 
between the varices, and the mouth is bordered with pink. The 
surface is either light brown with sometimes a medial, darker 
band, or dark brown, not banded the latter forming the var. 
ferrugo (fig. 166). It is the largest species of the group, 
measuring nearly 4 inches. 

Red Sea, Ind. 0., Seychelles, Isle Bourbon. 

I follow Sig. Tapparone-Canefri,who has made a special study 
of the Murices of the Red Sea, in making M. Erythrseus, Fischer, 
a synonym of this species. M. cyacantha, Sowb. (fig. 213), is 
also a synonym, and M. ponderosvs,Cheiam. (fig. 216), is a small, 
thick-shelled variety. 

M. CLAUSII, Bunker. PI. 24, fig. 214. 

Shell yellowish-brown, more or less clouded with light choco- 
late color, chocolate within the aperture. Length, 2'5 inches. 

Gulf of Guinea, W. Africa. 

Said to differ from M. Senegalensis principally in having only 
a single intervariceal node, more tumid and. turbinate form, etc. 



94 CHICOREUS. 

I have before me specimens, however, which are very suggestive 
of its derivation from the typical Senegalensis. 

M. SENEGALENSIS, Gmel. PL 16, fig. 159 ; pi. It, figs. 168, 169. 

Body superiorly angulated, and armed on the varices with a 
single, more or less produced spine, not frondose ; varices 
nodose, but usualty not spinous elsewhere ; inter-ribs usually 
two or three, whitish or brownish ; generally, in fresh specimens, 
banded with brown ; aperture varying from flesh to chocolate 

color. Length, l'5-2 inches. 

Senegal, Rio Janeiro. 

I have a good suite of specimens which enables me to connect 
satisfactorily M. calcar with this species it may be designated 
as a variety, however. 

VAR. CALCAR, Kiener (fig. 169). 

The shell is whitish, with fimbriately-laminated varices bear- 
ing, superiorly, a long spine, which is not frondose. Length, 

2-3'5 inches. 

Senegambia. 

M. pliciferus, Sowb. (fig. 168), is apparently the same as M. 
calcar ; it was described from a single specimen in the Cumin- 
gian collection. 

M. GUBBI, Reeve. PI. 17, fig. 167. 

Of triangular fusiform shape, compressed on the lower part of 
the body ; with slight spines except around the shoulder, where 
they are well developed. The aperture is toothed within, and 
white; the rest of the shell blackish-brown. Length, l'75-2'5 
inches. 

W. C. Africa. 
M. CAPUCINUS, Lam. PI. 19, fig. 174. 

Shell narrow, with elongated spire ; varices thick, depressed, 
fimbriated but not spinous, or but slightly so ; with nodulous, 
revolving, elevated lines, and two inter-variceal nodes. Chocolate 
color ; usually same tint within the aperture the outer lip of 
which is denticulate. Length, 2'5 inches. 

Philippines ? Valparaiso, Porto Rico. 

The two latter localities are authentic, the first is that given in 
the books, and is doubtful. It should be found on the West 



' ' I i ^ I I 1 < ) f 

A. LI KOI; 

OHICOREUS. 95 

Coast of Africa, as it has unmistakable affinities with the pre- 
ceding species. 

M. RAMOSUS, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 1. -3. 

The present species appears to be distinguished from its rela- 
tives in being more pyriform in shape, the spire shorter, the lips 
tinged with rose-pink. It is the largest species of the genus, 
reaching sometimes a foot in length and acquiring considerable 
solidity. Younger specimens, varying from 3 to 4 inches, are 
considerably more frondose. 

Eed Sea, Ind. 0., Hong-Kong, Isle of Bourbon, 

N. Zealand, Austr., Gen. Pacific 0. 

Very commonly used as chimney-place and mantle-shelf orna- 
ments throughout the civilized world. - 

M. ELONGATUS, Lam. PI. 20, fig. 183. 

Longer and narrower than M. rowiosws, with the same tooth on 
the edge "of the outer lip; but usually darker or brownish, the 
interior of the aperture not red, but white or chocolate-brown. 

Length, 4-5 inches. 

Ind. 0., China. 

)/. ,sv//f'//.s-/x. Reeve, is a synonym, but the elonyatus figured in 
Reeve brevifrons, Lam., a species readily distinguished by the 
absence of the tooth on the outer lip. 

M. BREVIFRONS, Lam. PI. 18, figs. 171-173; pi. 19, figs. 175, 

179, 180. 

I unite under this, the oldest name, a dozen species inhabiting 
both the East and West Indies, and which possess typically 
certain distinctions. The union of most of these forms has 
already been surmised by several good conchologists, and the 
very large series of specimens at my command enables me to 
supply connecting forms which remove all doubt upon the 
subject. If these shells were all inhabitants of one faunal 
province exclusively, this union would seem more natural, yet 
there is no means of distinguishing a typical M. calcitrapa 
(fig. 175) from the Indian Ocean, from a West Indian specimen. 
T^ialty, the shell is frondosely spinous, rather thin, with two 
ribs between the varices ; covered with close revolving striae, of 
which those that develop the variceal spines are larger and more 



96 CHKJOREUS. 

elevated. ' The color is yellowish to dark brown, and the smaller 
striae are usually colored in bands of a chocolate color. Within 
the aperture, generally white, sometimes chocolate. When the 
shell becomes adult, and especially in West Indian specimens, it 
takes the form described by Lamarck as M. brevifrons (fig. 172)" 
The spines are then thicker, shorter, not so frondose, the two 
ribs generally run into a single, large one, and the shell is very 
thick and heavy. Mr. Krebs * states that he has collected speci- 
mens taken out of the eggs and in every stage of growth there- 
after, and that they fully prove the identity of M. calcitrapa, M. 
brevifrons and M. purpuratus (fig. 173). " It is proper to 
remark that some specimens have one and others have two 
nodules between each varix, although taken out of one cluster of 
eggs, but all the old and full-grown specimens have only one 
nodule, some with a very faint indication of a second ; young 
specimens have no sculpture before the fourth or fifth whorl." 
Egg-clusters deposited on blue mud in smooth water, 10 or 12 
feet below the surface. 

Red Sea, Ind. 0., China, Brazil, Wext Indies. 

The West Indies is certainly the metropolis of this species, 
and I cannot help thinking that possibly the eastern localities 
have arisen from error, either directly or by identifying with this 
species shells which belong to other species, as axicornin, Banksii, 
etc. M. elonyatus, Lam., as elaborated in the second edition of 
the Anim. sans Vert, by Deshayes, includes references to ancient 
figures which represent our American species as well as exotic, 
but I follow Sowerby in restricting it to an East Indian form 
with tooth on lower part of lip, and more nearly allied to M. 
ramosus. M. ptirpuratus, Reeve, is a light-textured specimen 
of the adult (= brevifrons) ; I have similar specimens. M. 
florifer. Reeve (fig. 180), from Honduras, is a rather stout, 
young shell. M. crassivaricosus, Reeve (fig. 179), is a still 
younger state. A somewhat longer, narrower form, darker in 
color, is the shell figured by Reeve as M. elonyatus (fig. 171) 
( approximatus, Sowb.), and to this form we may add the 
abused specimen which Bernardi has called M. Toupiollei (fig. 
186). 

* "The West Indian Marine Shells," 1864. 



CHICOREUS. 97 

M. CROCATUS, Reeve. PL 19, fig. 181 ; pi. 20, fig. 192. 

There are two to three intervariceal ribs, which are more or 
less nodulous. Surface orange or amber color, white within the 

aperture. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

St. Thomas, West Indies. 

I had at first arranged this species and its synonym, M. 
pudoricolor, Reeve (fig. 192), in the synonymy of M. brevifrons, 
as juvenile specimens ; and I still have doubts of its specific dis- 
tinctness. The shell, however, appears to be mature, notwith- 
standing its much smaller size, and the peculiar color is constant 
in a number of specimens before me. 

M. LACINIATUS, Sowb. PI. 20, figs. 184, 185, 187. 

Closely allied to the well-known West Indian M. pomum, Gmel., 
but somewhat narrower, smaller, and differs in color. It is 
brownish, with a tinge of pink, and darker bands, and the aperture 
is reddish within. Length, 2 inches. 

Red Sea, Philippines. 

M. scabrosus, Sowb. (fig. 187), is a somewhat larger, denuded 
specimen. 

M. Jickelii, Tapp. (fig. 185), described from a single Red Sea 
specimen, appears to be the same. 

M. LAQUEATUS, Sowb. PI. 20, fig. 190. 

Varices slightly frondose, with a single intermediate rib. Light 

brown or yellowish. Length, 1 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 

Possibty a variety of M. fasciatus, Sowb. of which I have 
specimens before me nearly as narrow in form, and which is oc- 
casionally also three variced. 

M. ANGISTOMA, Kiister. PI. 20, fig. 189. 

Described as having a single tubercle between the varices, al- 
though the figure shows two. Whitish, the revolving ribs brown. 

Length, *8 inch. 

Hdb. unknown. 
Possibly a worn specimen of M. fasciatus. 

M. POMUM, Gmel. PI. 20, figs. 182, 188. 

I end the series of Chicoreus with this species, which in form 
approaches nearest to the more numerously variced section Phyl- 
13 



98 RHINOCANTHA. 

lonotus, as I commenced it with those species most resembling 
the true Murices ( Tribulus group). It is readily recognized by 
its form, its peculiarly rough, scabrous and nodulous surface, its 
close succession of frills on the varices,its dark chocolate bands, 
particularly visible on the outer lip, its tuberculate columellar 

lip, frequently also tinged with chocolate. 

West Indies. 

M. Mexicanus, Petit, (fig. 188), and M. oculatus, Reeve, are in 
no way distinguishable. The description of M. 8alleanus,A. Ad., 
also applies well to this species, and a specimen received re- 
cently from Mr. Sowerby under this latter name is certainly 
identical. I figure the embryonic shell, enlarged, and a group of 
egg-cases from St. Thomas, W. I., (pi. 7, figs. 72, 73). 

Sub-genus Rhinocantha H. & A. Ad. 
M. BRANDARIS, L. PI. 21, figS. 193-195. 

Med., W. C. of Africa. 

A variety of this species with three rows of spines, occurring 
at Gibraltar, has been separated as distinct by Frauenfeld, who 
has revived for it the name M. trifariospinosa, Chemn., but as 
Yon Martens has shown (Zool. Record, 1869), the character is 
not constant, and sometimes only one instead of the usual double 
row of spines occurs. Eaten by the poorer classes but not much 
esteemed. 

M. CORNUTUS, L. PI. 21, figs. 196-198. 

W. G. of Africa. 

The curious variety which Mr. Sowerby calls M. tumulosus, 
(fig. 198), whilst unmistakably belonging to this species yet, by 
its smaller size, short, direct spines and general aspect indicates 
a tendency towards M brandaris. The two species, though 
closely allied, are readily distinguished ordinarily. Is M. tumu- 
losus a hybrid ? 

Sub-genus Homalocantha Morch. 

M. SCORPIO, Linn. PL 25, fig. 225. 

The color of this well-known type varies from pure white to 
chocolate-brown, the varices and spines being generally dark 

colored. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

Moluccas, Philippines. 



PHYLLONOTUS. 99 

M. ROTA, Sowb. PI. 25, figs. 219, 220. 

Yery similar to M. scorpio, but not so scalariform, the suture 
not so much excavated, the whorls fuller, the varices palmated, 
the canal shorter. Whitish. Length, 2 inches. 

Philippines, Moluccas, Per. Gulf, Red Sea. 

M. SECUNDUS, Lam. PL 25, fig. 221. 

Smaller than M. rota, with five varices, that of the margin 
much more numerously digitated, but the digitations not palmate 
at the end. Brownish, spines and varices darker. 

Length, 1-1 -5 inches. 

Philippines. 

M. VARICOSUS, Sowb. PI. 25, figs. 222, 224. 

Has more varices than the three preceding species, counting 
from six to eight ; marginal digitations palmate, more numerous 
than in M. scorpio or M. rota. Whitish or light brown, varices 

dark brown. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Red Sea, on Madrepores. 

I do not find any essential characters by which to separate M. 
digitatus, Sowb., (fig. 222). 

M. FENESTRATUS, Chemn. PL 25, fig. 223. 

An elegant shell, of marked individuality. The specimens 
usually seen in cabinets are, however, much worn ; so that but 
little or no trace of the fimbriated spines remains. Ordinarily five 
to six varicose. The coarse lattice-work of ribs and interstices of 
dark colored pits which cover the surface is very characteristic. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Philippines, Red Sea. 

Sub-genus Phyllonotus, Swains. 

M. ROSARIUM, Chemn. PL 22, fig. 199 ; pi. 28, fig. 255. 

Shell covered with coarse revolving ribs, which are tuberculate 
on the seven or eight scaly varices and on the single intermediate 
ribs. Yellowish brown, with three interrupted chocolate bands . 
rose color, with three deeper bands within the aperture. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Senegal, Fernando Po. 



100 PHYLLONOTUS. 

M. ananas, Hinds, is said to resemble M. rosarium " in its 
size and proportions, but finds its specific distinction in its 
greater massiveness, the superior size of its upper series of 
spines, and the absence of nodules on the interstitial ribs. Both 
shells have a distinct fasciation of three dark bands, but our 
species is entirely wanting in that beautiful and elegant covering 
of striae which is so conspicuous in the fine specimen of M. 
rosarium, in Mr. Cuming's collection." Not figured. (Mus. 
Cuming.) 

W. G. of Africa. 

This is very probably a M. rosarium. M. bifasciatus, Sowb., 
(fig. 255), is a variety. 

M. BRASSICA, Lam. PL 22, fig. 200. 

Shell with six to eight flat, folded varices, with serrated edges 
becoming spinous towards the base ; a large spinous tubercle 
arises on the shoulder of the whorls behind each varix, giving 
the shell a somewhat coronated appearance ; on the body-whorl 
there are occasional tubercles, two or more in a single longitu- 
dinal series between the varices ; surface covered with fine, elevated 
revolving striae. Light brown, whitish or pinkish, with three 
brown revolving bands ; fimbrise of the varices and aperture 
bright pink. Length, 6 to 8 inches. 

Mazatlan, Gulf of California. 

M. rhodocheilus, King, is described from a small specimen, 
which is perfectly typical. M. brassica is the largest species of 
Phyllonotus. 

M. REGIUS, Wood. PL 22, figs. 201, 202. 

The six to eight varices consist each, of a double row of ser- 
rated spines, and the interspaces are simply covered with 
revolving striae. Browm, more or less tinged with pink, es- 
pecially on the varices ; aperture bright pink, deepening into 
black on the columellar lip. Length, 4 to 5 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

M. tseniatus, Sowb., (fig. 202), Gulf of California, is the young 
of this species. 



PHYLLONOTTJS. 101 

M. BICOLOR, Yal. PI. 23, fig. 204 ; pi. 22, fig. 203. 

Resembles the preceding species but is distinguished by its 
less luxuriently fimbriated and spined varices, which are fewer in 
number, usually four or five, with single spinous ribs in the 
interstices. Exterior light yellowish brown, aperture pink, which 
does not become black on the columellar lip. Length, 6 inches. 

Panama to Guaymas. 

M. hippocastaneum, Phil., (fig. 203), is a young specimen of 
this shell, in not very good condition, said by him to come from 
Chili. 

M. IMPERIALIS, Swains. PI. 23, fig. 206. 

Four or five varicose, the varices stout; rounded, depressed 
tuberculate, but scarcely spinous ; usually an interstitial, nodu- 
lous rib ; spire pointed, conical. Shell very thick and heavy. 
Light brown, sometimes with a darker band ; aperture sulphur- 
yellow or pink, in the latter case sometimes black on the colu- 
mellar lip. Length, 4 inches. 

Isle of Margarita, W. I. 

This shell is generally attributed to the Pacific coast of North 
America, which appears to be a mistake. Its different zoological 
region taken in connection with its great solidity may serve to 
distinguish it from M. bicolor and M. regius, both of which it 
mimics so closely in coloration ; it appears to hold the same re- 
lation to these species that the var. M. calcitrapa does to M. 
brevifrons. It also has relationships with the West Indian M. 
pomum. 

X- 
fc -X- 

M. SAXATILIS, Lam. PI. 27, fig. 245 ; pi. 26, fig. 226. 

Varices six to eight, singly spinous, the spines somewhat fron- 
dose, those on the shoulder of the whorls usually larger and 
curved ; T*o,_interstitial ribs. Light yellowish brown, usually 
more or less pink-banded ; aperture pink, with three or four 
darker bands. Length, 6 to 8 inches. 

Ind. 0., West Coast of Africa. 

The Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia possesses a fine series of this species from the Gabon 
coast of Africa, some of which have all the richness of color and 



102 PHYLLONOTUS. 

size of the finest Indian Ocean specimens. Dr. Fischer has de- 
scribed M. hoplites, (fig. 226), from the West African coast 
distinguishing it by possessing eight varices instead of six, and 
b}~ its smaller size. The specimens before me are seven to eight 
variced, and some of them correspond well with the figure of M. 
hopUf.es. A starved condition of the animal is shown by the 
multiplication of varices or rest periods, less luxurient spines or 
fronds and smaller size : such is M. hoplites. I cannot doubt 
its identity with M. saxatilis. 

M. ENDIVIA, Lam. PI. 26, figs. 227-229. 

Whorls ventricose, becoming flat-shouldered and thick with 
age ; transversely ridged and striated ; with six to seven frondose 
varices, the fronds elevated, recurved. Yellowish-brown, fre- 
quently banded with a darker tint, fronds usually dark brown or 
blackish ; aperture white, or lips tinged with pink. 

Length, 4 inches. 

Ind. 0. (?), Philippines. 

Mr. Broderip described the variety with declinate, flat shoul- 
ders as M. saxicola, and Punker has called it M. depresso- 
spinosus (fig. 229) ; it bears the same relation to the typical form 
as does a variety of the Mediterranean species M. trunculus. I 
have seen specimens of an all-white variety (var. albicans) from 
the Philippines. 

M. Norrisii, Reeve (fig. 228), (no locality given), appears to 
me to be the young of var. albicans. 

M. CORONATUS, A. Adams. 

An ovate-trigonal shell, fuscous, with conical spire ; there are 
six flattened whorls, angulated behind, with four revolving lirae 
and numerous intermediate smaller ones ; seven varices, fim- 
briated and laciniated, widely uncinate behind ; aperture oblong, 
acuminated in front, outer lip fimbriated ; canal short. 

Tsusaki, Japan ; 35 fathoms. 

" A somewhat small, neat species, with the whorls very prettily 
coronate." No dimensions are given. Appears to be related to 
the preceding species. Sowerb} 7 (Thes. Conch., fig. 199), has 



PHYLLONOTUS. 103 

figured a specimen of M. sobrinus, A. Ad., in error, for this 
species. 

*** 

M. HUMILIS, Brocl. PL 26, figs. 234, 235. 

Pyriform, the whorls depressed on the shoulder, spire rather 
short and canal longer; eight frondose varices, crossed by 
distant revolving costae. Light brown, pink-tinged. 

Length, 1'5 inches. 

St. Elena, W. G. Gen. America. 

M. octogonus, Sowb. (fig. 235), said to come from New Cale- 
donia, and described from a specimen in the Cumingian collec- 
tion, appears to me to be a depauperated specimen of the same 
species. The specific distinction pointed out by Sowerby does 
not hold good against the more perfect specimen of M. humilis 
figured by Reeve. 

M. MULTICRISPATUS, Bunker. PL 26, fig. 231. 

Pyriform, with ten frondose varices, the spines of which form 
a coronal on the body; transversely ribbed, ribs alternately 
larger. Light brown, the larger ribs chocolate colored as well 
as the fronds. Length, 2 inches. 

Pacasmayo, Peru ; found on a reef, at a 

depth of 25 fathoms, 12 miles from shore. 

This shell was originally described by Broderip as M. crispus; 
which name was pre-occupied by Lamarck for a fossil species. 

M. MELANOMATHOS, Gmel. PL 26, fig. 230. 

Globosely pyriform, with eight spinous varices, crossed by 
revolving ribs ; some of the spines erect, long, especially those 
on the lip-varix. Whitish or yellowish, spines frequently black. 

Length, 2'25 inches. 

Real Llejos, W. G. Gen. America. 

This, and the two preceding species, may hereafter prove to be 
identical. 

M. FIMBRIATUS, A. Adams. PL 26, fig. 240. 

Shell pyriform, fulvous ; shoulder excavated and crossed by 
wing-like continuations of the seven digitated varices. Aperture 
ovate, external margin crenate, canal attenuated. 

Length, 1-45 inches. Gulf of California. 



1 04 PHYLLONOTUS. 

I place this species here with considerable doubt, as it has 
other relationships which are quite as close, judging from 
Sowerby's figure of the back of the shell. It is allied to M. 
gemma, for instance, which I have considered a variety of M. in- 
cisus ; it has also the appearance of a Vitularia. 

M. STAINFORTHII, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 23 7. 

Ovate, with seven to eight frondose varices, fronds alternately 
larger, short, close-set, sharp ; with revolving, alternately larger 
ribs. White, fronds dark brown or black. Length, 2*25 inches. 

N. Austr. 
M. ANGULARIS, Lam. PI. 26, figs. 241, 239. 

Ovate, spire elevated, body- whorl more or less shouldered, 
varices five to eight, frondose, the fronds on fresh specimens 
raised into short, sharp spines ; with alternately larger, revolving 
lines of darker color, on a light brown surface ; spinous fronds 

blackish. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Senegal. 

Spire more elevated, spines longer, not so close-set, less fron- 
dose than preceding species. Frequently the varices are de- 
nuded of fronds altogether, and are simply nodulous, and in this 
state the resemblance to M.fasciatus, Sowb., is rather suggestive 
of their identity. I think that M. tennis, Sowb. (fig. 239), may 
= angularis, juv. 

M. FASCIATUS, Sowb. PI. 20, fig. 191 ; pi. 26, figs. 232, 236, 238. 
Shell thick, varices seven or eight, sometimes only ribs, so that 
in occasional specimens the number of true varices is reduced to 
three (fig. 191); surface covered with revolving, rib-like striae. 
Light brown, the varices darker ; frequently the entire surface is 
variegated with rufous bands on the revolving striae. Outer lips 
thickened, dentate-lirate within ; aperture white. Length, 1*25- 

1*5 inches. 

W. C. of Africa. 

M. angularis. Lam., when denuded of spines, much resembles 
this species, but is thinner. It is singular in forming indifferently 
ribs or varices, varying in number. I figure a specimen/ from 
Cape Yerde Isles sent to me by Mr. Sowerby as M. lyratus, A. 
Ad. (fig. 236) ; it appears to me = this species ; as does also the 
figure of lyratus in Thes. Conch, (fig. 238). 



PHYLLONOTUS. 105 

M. FIMBRIATULUS, A. Ad. Suppl. pi., fig. 531. 

Ovate-fusiform ; light fuscous ; spire produced ; whorls six, 
convex, longitudinally nodosely subplicate, transversely lirate, 
lines squamulose, equal, crowded ; aperture ovate, entire ; outer 
lip elegantly fimbriated, fimbrise wide, laciniated on the margin ; 
canal straight, produced, closed. There are no varices on the 
whorls, except the broad, fimbriate one which margins the outer 
lip A It is an elegantly formed species with squamulose liraa 
crossing the very convex whorls. Fawn or light-reddish, with a 
narrow, interrupted darker median band ; pale pink or flesh color 

within. Length, 19 mill. 

Japan. 

Described as a Trophon which it certainly is not. Mr. E. A. 
Smith has recently published a figure of the species, which we 
copy. 

M. NITIDUS, Brod. PI. 26, fig. 233 ; pi. 27, figs. 242, 243. 

Ovately pyriform, ventricose, spire short, body-whorl shoul- 
dered ; with flat, broad revolving ribs, which, as well as the 
interstices, are covered with close fine striae ; varices eight to 
thirteen in number, frondose, the alternate fronds much largest, 
long, spinous. Whitish, ridges and fronds black. Length, 4-7 

inches. 

Mazatlan. 

I give to this species its oldest name, which was, however, 
applied to a young specimen. The adult has been described as 
M. nigritus, Phil. (fig. 243), under which name it is more gene- 
rally known. M. ambiguus, Reeve (fig. 242), is not entitled to 
distinction even as a variety. 

M. RADIX, Gmel. PI. 27, figs. 244, 247, 248. 

Shell globose, very solid and thick, spire and canal very short; 
spirally ribbed ; varices ten to fifteen, very close set, prickly with 
stout, short, sharp spines. Color whitish, ribs and spines black ; 
but the latter are so close as to give the shell a black appearance. 

Length, 3 to 5 inches. 

Panama. 

Although belonging to a different zoological province, I think 
that the differences between this and the preceding species are 
due to a more stunted and slower growth in M. radix, and that 
14 



106 PHYLLONOTUS. 

eventually they will be found to merge one into the other, when 
numerous localities between their respective stations shall be ex 
amined. If my surmise should prove correct, the species must 
bear the name of radix. 

M. PRINOEPS, Brod. PI. 28, fig. 250. 

Pyriform, spire rather longer than in M. nitidus and with a 
shoulder on the whorls ; varices five to eight, raised into distant 
spines, of which a single series on the shoulder of the body, and 
continuing on the spire is much more prominent. Whitish, ribs 
and spines sometimes chestnut brown. 

Length, 2*5 to 4 inches. 

W. Coast Central Am. 

A beautiful species ; the operculum is not fimbriated like that 
of M. radix. 



M. TURBINATUS, Lam. PI. 28, figs. 252, 257. 

Ovate-pyriform, somewhat angulated on the periphery and 
flattened above it; with revolving raised ribs and six to eight 
varices ; the latter tuberculate or shortly spinous on the angles of 
the whorls. Whitish or yellowish, with brown bands, most prom- 
inent on the varices; aperture white or 'pink, columella bright 

pink. Length, 2*5 inches. 

Senegambia. 

The M. tur bin atus figured by Sowerby (Thes. Conch., fig. 185), 
is M. rosarium, Chemn. M. spinosus, A. Ad., (fig. 257), is a 
synonym of turbinatus, being merely a thickened variety. The 
same form has been described by M. Tapparone-Canefri from sub- 
fossil specimens under the name of 'M. Kusterianas. 

M. BECKII, Phil. PL 28, fig. 249. 

Yery like M. turbinatus, but wants .the tuberculations on the 
varices, whilst it is heavier and more spinous. Light brown ex- 
ternally, pink within the aperture. Length, 3 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

May be a form of M. turbinatus and also possesses characters 
in common with M. spinicostata* 



PHYLLONOTUS. 107 

M. SPINICOSTATA, Yal. PI. 23, fig. 207 ; pi. 28, fig. 251. 

Very closely allied to the three preceding species, and may 
prove to be identical with them. It is more spinous and less 
frondose, larger in size and different in color, being white with 
pink brown on the principal narrow ribs ; it comes moreover from 
the West Indies. A. single, much battered dead specimen found 
at Beaufort, North Carolina. Length, 5 inches. 

M. HIDALGOI, Crosse. PI. 27, fig. 246 a. 

Somewhat thin ; uniform light brown ; varices six, frondose, 
long spiny on the shoulder ; lip varix broad, fimbriate spinose. 
Length, 1*4 inches. 

Dredged from coral heds in West Indies, at great depth. 

Its nearest ally is M. spinicostata, Vol. ; from which it is dis- 
tinguished by its smaller size, shouldered whorls and more 
foliated varices. 

M. QUADRIFRONS, Lam. PI. 17, fig. 170 ; pi. 19, figs. 176-178 ; pi. 
28, figs. 254-256. 

Yarices four, the inter-space with one not very prominent 
tubercular rib and sometimes a trace of a second. Yellowish or 

brownish. Length, 2'5 to 4 inches. 

West Africa. 

This was at first supposed to be an accidentally four variced 
variation of M. brevifrons. Lam., but the occurrence of specimens 
in the Taylor collection recently studied by Mr. Sowerby, the 
agreement with a miocene four variced fossil species named by 
Mr. Toumouer M. Bourgeoisii, (fig. 256), and a fine example in 
our collection in Philadelphia, make it expedient to treat it as 
distinct. M. megacerus, Sowb., (figs. 177, 178), ( = M. Moquini- 
anuSj Duval, fig. 170), appears to be a variety of lighter growth. 
Mr. Sowerby (Thes. Conch.) admits the identity of his M. cas- 
taneus, (fig. 176), with M. quadrifrons. 

M. VARJUS, Sowb. PL 27, fig. 246 ; pi. 28, fig. 253. 

Subrhomboidal, with revolving, alternately larger, bead-like 
striae ; varices four to six, spinous at the shoulder and occasion- 



108 PHTLLONOTUS. 

ally so elsewhere, otherwise tuberculate. Whitish or light 
brownish, the lines and spines darker in color. 

Length, 1 to 2 '5 inches. West Africa. 

This species is usually represented by specimens of the smaller 
dimension ; it will probably prove to be the young of M. Beckii 
or M. turbinatus. 

M. TRUNCULUS, L. PI. 23, fig. 205; pi. 29, figs. 258-261. 

The commonest species of Southern Europe, being found 
everywhere throughout the Mediterranean Sea as well as from 
the southern Atlantic coast of France to Senegal and the Canary 
Islands; also Red Sea? Fossil, as far back as the miocene. 
Varies much in form, as shown by our figures. Usually light 
brown, with about three broad purplish bands which are very 
distinctly marked within the aperture. 

Length, about 3 inches. 

M. turbinatus, Lam., and M. Beckii, Phil., are analogous species 
from the West Coast of Africa. 

M. ZELANDICUS, Quoy and Gaim. Pi. 29, fig. 268. 

Pyriform, spire short, canal rather long ; with five rows of 
varices armed with sharp spines, of which those round the shoul- 
der and the lower part of the body-whorl are much longer than 
the others. Yellowish-brown. Length, 2 inches. 

Cook's Straits, New Zealand. 

I copy one of the original figures, including the animal. It 
does not appear to resemble any of its congeners closely. 

M. CRISTATUS, Brocchi. PL 29, figs. 263, 267. 

Shell whitish or yellowish, frequently darker, or chocolate 
colored within the aperture. Length, T5 inches. 

Mediterranean, Atlantic Coasts of /So. Spain to Senegal ; Madeira. 
Littoral to 40 fathoms. Fossil ; miocene and pliocene of So. 

Europe. 

M. Blainvillei, Payr., (fig. 265), is merely a small variety of 
this species. The columella is somewhat tuberculate towards the 
base and the lip has a few large teeth within ; these characters in 
connection with the less spiny, but more frondose varices will 
distinguish it from the nearly related M. hexagonus. Lam. M. 
serotinus, A. Ad., is, according to Sowerby, a synonym. 



PHYLLONOTTTS. 109 

M. DIADEMA, Aradas and Benoit. PL 29, fig. 265. 

Length, -5 inch. 

Mediterranean at Palermo. 

M. HEXAGONUS, Lam. PI. 29, fig. 262. 

Usually pale yellow ; operculum dark brown, its initial point 
sharp. Length, 1 to r*75 inches. 

West Indies. 

M. DUBIUS, Sowb. PI. 29, fig. 266 ; pi. 30, fig. 275. 

Yellowish to chestnut brown, the spinous tubercles darker. 

Length, '75 to 1*25 inches. 

Panama. 
Var. squamulata, Carp. 

Shell white ; minutely imbricately squamose. 

Cape St. Lucas. 

Closely allied to M. cristatus and M. hexagonus. It has been 
referred to Sistrum on account of its tuberculate (almost plicate) 
columella and teeth within the lip, but its operculum is muricoid. 

M. PAZI, Crosse. PI. 29, figs. 269-271. 

A remarkable shell dredged at considerable depth with corals 
in the West Indies. It has seven varices, a rather short but 
sharp spire and long spines on the shoulder. Color milk white. 

Length, 1*4 inches. 

The type figured appears to be much distorted. Sowerby 
figures a better example. Looks very like a miniature edition of 
M. spinicostatuSj Val. 

M. PAUXILLUS, A. Ad. PI. 29, fig. 264. 

Very small, narrowly elongated ; varices seven, crossed by a 
few elevated ribs, forming short, sharp fimbriations ; shoul- 
dered, spire elevated, sharp ; aperture narrow, lip with five in- 
ternal teeth, canal short, partly open, purplish, the revolving 
ribs usually white. Operculum like Murex. 

Length, *5 inch. 

Mazatlan. 

M. ANGASI, Tryon, (M. scalaris, A. Adams). 

Shell scalariform, whitish, variegated with reddish-brown 
whorls shouldered, the last with nine rounded varices and rather 



110 PHYLLONOTUS. 

distant revolving lirse, which become spinulose on the varices ; 

canal sub-produced ; lip lirate within. 

So. Australia. 

Said to resemble M. cristatus, Brocchi. Possibly identical 
with M. octogonus. As Brocchi, has used the name for a fossil 
species, this may be known as M. Angasi. 

M. OCTOGONUS, Quoy and Gaimard. PI. 30, figs. 272-274. 

Shell eight varicose, varices fimbriately spinose. Reddish 
brown, violet and striated within the aperture. The animal has 
a reddish mantle, sides of the foot, head and tentacles yellowish 
with red striae, locomotive disk whitish. Length, 1-4 inches. 

Bay of Islands, New Zealand; Japan. 

M. cuspidatus, Sowb., (fig. 274), is a synonym. 

M. DIPSACUS, Brod. PL 30, figs. 277, 281. 
Length, 1 inch. 

St. Elena, W. Columbia ; from a rocky bottom at the depth of 12 fathoms. 
Cuming. 

Reeve has figured as M. octogonu*, Quoy, a shell which Sowerby 
described as M. Peruvianus, (fig. 281), and which, 1 think, is the 
same as M. dipsacus. It comes from Pacasmayo, Coast of Peru. 

M. VITTATUS, Brod. PI. 30, figs. 280, 279. 

Seven varicose, short spiny ; canal open. White with narrow 
purple-black revolving bands. Length, *85 inch. 

Bay of Guayaquil; sandy mud, at 11 fathoms. 

M. lepidus, Reeve, (fig. 279), described without locality, does 
not appear to me to differ. 

M. BALTEATUS, Beck. PI. 30, fig. 278. 

Seven varicose. White tinged with pink, lips pink, spines and 
tubercles tinged with brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines; on coral reefs. 

M. NODULIFERUS, Sowb. PL 30, figs. 282, 288. 

The shouldered whorls give the spire a babylonic appearance ; 
two distant ribs revolve on the middle of the body, forming a 
pair of fronds on each varix ; a smaller frondose rib encircles the 
canal ; the aperture is denticulate within and, like M. cristatus, 



PHYLLONOTUS. Ill 

there are small tubercles on the lower part of the columella. 
White, the fronds tinged with brown. 

Philippines; Upolu, Navigator's Islands. 

Murex (Trophon) fruticosus, Gould, (fig. 288), is the same 
species, described from worn specimens. In the index to his 
latest monograph of Murex (Thes. Conch.) Sowerby refers this 
species, doubtfully, to Pur pur a. 

M. EURACANTHUS, A. Ad. PI. 30, fig. 287. 

This differs from the preceding, (with which it has been con- 
founded by Reeve), in the double series of short fronds being- 
replaced by long, straight, hollow spines. 

Length, *75 inch. 

It is probably only a well-developed specimen of M. nod- 
uliferus. Hab. unknown . 

Sowerby (Index to Murex, Thes. Conch.) refers it to Purpura 
doubtfully. 

M. CIRROSUS, Hinds. PI. 30, fig. 285. 

Six to nine varicose, crossed by about six ribs, forming sharp, 
spinous processes these form a coronal on the shoulder. Light 
brown, varices whitish. Length, *f 5 inch. 
Sts. of Macassar, in sand and fine gravel, 15 fathoms Hinds. Japan. 

Except by locality it is hard to distinguish this from M. exi- 
guuSj Broc. 

M. RUSTICUS, Reeve. PI. 30, fig. 286. 

Shell solid, tuberculately varicose, fronds short ; yellowish 

white, the varices chestnut. Length, '9 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 

M. INTERSERRATUS, Sowerby. PI. 30, fig. 284. 

Varices seven, very short fronded, hooked at the shoulder of 
the shell; distantly spirally lirate, the interstices of the ridges 
serrated with small scales. Yellowish brown. 

Length, 21 mill. Hab. unknown. 

M. LAMINIFERUS, Reeve. PI. 30, fig. 283. 

Eight varicose , whitish, with a brown band around the upper 

part of the body. Length, 1 inch. 

Hab? 
Probably this is not an adult shell. 



112 CEROSTOMA. 

M. PUTEOLUS, A. Ad. 

Ovately fusiform, spire elate, conical, light fuscous ; whorls 
five, angulated in the middle ; with squamose, subdistant re- 
volving lirae, and seven varices ; costately spinose and produced 
into squamate spines behind; aperture ovate; canal short, open, 

recurved. 

Japan. 
No dimensions given ; not figured. 

Subgenus Cerostoma, Conrad. 

It is very difficult to define the boundary between this group 
and Pteronotus, inasmuch as the operculum of several of the 
species is not known ; moreover the labral tooth does not always 
appear even in those species having a purpuroid operculum. It 
is possible that some of the last species of Pteronotus, as I have 
arranged them, belong in Cerostoma, and on the other hand that 
some of the first species of Cerostoma may be true Pteronoti. 
All the species with more than one inter-variceal node appear to 
be true Pteronoti, and the distribution of the genus is mainly 
Indo-Pacific; Cerostoma, on the other hand, is North Pacific in 
distribution, extending from Japan northwards to Behring's 
Straits, and on the opposite American coast south to Central 
America. In no other group is the difficulty so great in obtain- 
ing good specific characters. I have been forced to admit a 
number of species, which my knowledge of specific variation 
causes me to suspect very strongly to be mere individual varia- 
tions of form ; a considerable reduction of these may be expected 
as soon as extensive suites from numerous Japanese localities 
shall be obtained. 

M. PINNIGER, Brod. PI. 34, fig. 318. 

Light yellow or flesh color. Length, 1*75 inches. 

West Columbia. 

Has very close analogies with M. osseus. Reeve, and indeed, is 
so like the young of that species (M. Gambiensis) that, were it 
not for the wide difference of locality, I would scarcely hesitate 
to put them together. Found at Xixipati, in sand}^ mud, at 8 
fathoms. 



CEROSTOMA. 113 

M. GOULDI, A. Adams. 

Ovate fusiform, fuscous, sparsely maculated with chestnut ; 
spire acute, whorls flattened and somewhat shouldered ; trans- 
versely lirate, the lines unequal ; varices shortly foliated, folia- 
tions each ending in a posterior recurved spine ; aperture ovate, 
closed, the lip margin broadly fimbriated ; canal straight, closed, 

longer than usual in the group. 

Tsu-Sima, Japan. 
No dimensions given ; not figured. 

M. CENTRIFUGA, Hinds. PI. 34, fig. 3ft. 
Light brown. Length, 1'75 inches. 

W. G. of Veragua, N. Grenada ; 

dredged in 52 fathoms, sandy floor. 

M. EURYPTERON, Reeve. PL 34, figs. 374, 379. 

Light yellow. Length, 2 inches. 

Japan. 

M. expansus, Sowb. (fig. 379), supposed to come from China, 
is evidently the same species. 

M. TRIALATUS, Sowb. PI. 34, figs. 372, 375 ; pi. 35, fig. 387. 

Decidedly too close to M. eurypterou. Light yellow, usually 
banded with a darker color, The want of a tooth on the lip, 
the usually smaller size, and the strong development of the 
single node between the varices suffice to distinguish it from M. 
foliatus. Length, 2*5-3'25 inches. 

Todas Santos Bay, L. California (H. Hemphill). 

M. Calif or nicus, Hinds (figs. 375, 387), is a synonym. 

This shell is wrongly referred to Muricidea by Carpenter and 
others ; it has three varices, and its relationships are certainly 
with Cerostoma. Carpenter in his Mazatlan Catalogue describes 
M. ? erinaceoides var. indentata, which I think maybe a synonym 
of M. Calif ornicus. His variety has three varices, whilst the 
true M. erinaceoides ( lugubris, Brod.) has six. 

M. FOLIATUS, Martyii. PI. 34, figs. 370, 371, 373. 

White, usually banded with light chestnut. Length, 2-3 

inches. 

Sitka to Santa Barbara, Cal, Asia ? 

15 



114 CEROSTOMA. 

M. phyllopterus, Lam. (fig. 3*73), is perhaps the same species; 
but does not appear to have been properly recognized by either 
Keeve or Sowerby. 

M. BURNETTI, Adams and Reeve. PI. 34, figs. 367, 368. 

Pale fawn-color, with numerous whitish undulating streaks, 
within the aperture purplish red with whitish stripes ; labral 
tooth very large, the inner side excavated, instead of being 
convex as in M. foliatus. 

Mr. E. A. Smith calls attention to the revolving ribs being not 
very prominent on the whorl, but becoming very strong on the 
varices, which thus become digitate ; he also mentions distinct 
protuberances on the central revolving ribs between the varices, 
which he says are not found on M. foliatus. They are so found, 
however, and very distinctly so, too, on Sitka specimens of the 
latter now before me. I add to the original figure a much better 
one from Sowerby 's Thesaurus. 

M. COREANICUS, A. Adams. PL 34, fig. 316. 

Ovately fusiform, light fuscous, sparsely maculate with chest- 
nut ; whorls nearly smooth, obsoletely lirate ; varices foliated, 
crenate, reflexed ; a single variceal node ; lip tuberculate within, 

with an anterior produced tooth. Length, 2 inches. 

Core' i. 
Too closely allied to M, monachus, Crosse. 

M. PLORATOR, Adams and Reeve. PI. 34, fig. 369. 

Chestnut brown, with a white band in the middle. Length, 

1-5 inches. 

Corea. 

Perhaps young of M. Burnetti ; it possesses the same angulate 
periphery and inferior excavation. 

M. BRACHYPTERON, A. Adams. 

.Ovately fusiform, light fuscous, sparsely maculate with chest- 
nut and with a central white band ; whorls crossed by longitudinal 
and revolving crenulated lines ; margin of aperture fimbriated ; 
canal closed, recurved. The winged varices shorter than in the 

allied forms. 

Uraga, Japan ; 12 fathoms. 

Appears to be closely allied to M. plorator, above. 



CEROSTOMA. 115 

M. STIMPSONI, A. Adams. PI. 35, fig. 392. 

Ovately fusiform ; light fuscous ; spire acute ; whorls seven, flat- 
tened, shouldered, with smooth revolving lines, the interstices 
clathrate ; varices widely foliated, rounded and dilated behind ; 
lip margin widely fimbriate ; canal short, straight, closed. 

Uraga, Japan; 21 fathoms. 

A young shell of no decided character. 

M. EMARGINATUS, Sowb. PI. 35, fig. 380. 

White, blotched with light brown. Length, 2 inches. 

Japan. 
Belongs to the Nuttallii group, but is more gibbous. 

M. FOURNIERI, Crosse. PL 35, fig. 382. 

Light brown. Length, 1'5 inches. Japanese Sea. 

So like M. Nuttallii, Conrad, that I find no distinctive charac- 
ters, and I think it will prove to be the same. 

M. NUTTALLII, Conrad. PI. 35, figs. 381, 386, 391. x 

This is the type of Conrad's genus Cerostoma. The shell is, 

when fresh, whitish, yellowish, brownish or dark chocolate, 

with sometimes central and basal white bands. 

Length, 1*5-2 inches. California. 

M. aciculiger of Yal. (fig. 391) and M. unicornis, Reeve (fig. 
386), I consider synonymous. 

M. MONOCEROS, Sowb. PI. 35, figs. 388, 389. 

More shouldered, the revolving ribs more tuberculate, the 
varices not so much frilled as in M. Nuttallii, Conr. ; there are 
fewer teeth within the -aperture, and they are much larger. 
Usually lighter colored than Nuttallii, with a pink blush within 

the aperture. Length, 1*5 inches. 

L. California. 

This species is described by Spwerby as four to five varicose, 
but I think it is only abnormally so ; the excellent figure in 
Reeve is but three varicose, and so are specimens before me 
which otherwise correspond exactly with Sowerby's fig. 97. Mr. 
R. E. C. Stearns thinks that M. monoceros is a variety only of M. 
Nuttallii. Mr. Gabb has re-described fossil specimens under the 
name of Muricidea paucilirata. 



116 OCINEBRA. 

M. RORiFLUUS, Adams and Reeve. PI. 35, fig. 390. 

Light chocolate-brown, the varices white, lip-tooth prominent. 

Length, 1-3 inches. 

Corea. 
Evidently a young shell. 

M. FESTIVUS, Hinds. PI. 35, fig. 383. 

Whitish, closely encircled by incised lines, which are brown, 
varices reflexed, widely laminar, crossed })y close rows of elegant 
semicircular scales. No tooth. Length, 1*5-2*5 inches. 

California. 

Subgenus Ocinebra, Leach. 

This group, as well as Muricidea, is made by Messrs. Adams 
an omnium gatherum, including true Murices, purpuroid Murices, 
Purpurse, Fusidse, etc. Muricidea as defined b} T them has no 
really distinctive characters from Ocinebra, and Swainson in- 
cluded spiecies of Trophon, Triton, etc. I have suppressed 
Muricidea, and retained Ocinebra for a group of small Murices 
with numerous varices and purpuroid operculum ; the species 
having muricoid operculum are relegated to Phyllonotm, from 
which they do not differ. A number of species the operculae of 
which are unknown, are ranged arbitrarily in Pht/Uonofus or 
Ocinebra, and with regard to these I claim the indulgence of 
brother conchologists who may have similarly found themselves 
in the predicament of being compelled to place something some- 
where just to get it off their hands. 

. :: . ;: -. ; ;. European Group. 
M. ERINACEUS, Linn. PI. 36, figs. 400-404. 

Four to seven Varicose, nodulous, encircled by prominent 
cord-like, raised ribs, alternately smaller, the smaller ones 
minutely scabrous ; varices sometimes frond ose, sometimes 
lamellated, occasionally appressed. Occasionally the larger re- 
volving ribs thickly overlap the varices, forming a succession of 
elongated nodules (var. torosus (fig. 404). Yellowish-brown ; 
whitish within. Length, l'5-2 inches. 

Europe, from Norway to Black Sea, Azores, Madeira ; range, shore to 
30 fathoms ; fossil in European tertiaries and quarternaries. 



OCTNEBRA. lit 

The animal has a yellowish body, mottled with white, with 
slender, tapering, orange-colored tentacles, and eyes on long 
stalks exterior to and united to the tentacles for two-thirds their 
length ; foot small, narrow, rounded in front, pointed behind, the 
sole with a slight median groove ; gills very small, brownish ; 
tongue cylindrical, rather long, the teeth shown in fig. 58, pi. 5. 

Like Purpura lapillus, this animal yields a purple dye, but the 
tint is variable. Its egg-cases are attached in clusters of 15 to 
150 to shells and stones, and each case contains from 12 to 20 
embryos. The cases are triangular, with compressed sides, and 
the attaching stalks are short and narrow. 

The Murex erinaceus is a well-known depredator on the 
oyster-beds of Europe, and is considered one of 'the most dan- 
gerous enemies with which the ostreiculturist has to contend. 
The English fishermen know it under the name of " sting 
winkle," and the French call it the "cormaillot " or "perceur." 
So destructive is it in the oyster-pares of Arcachon (near Bor- 
deaux) that it is incessantly hunted by the fishermen, who spend 
whole days in destroying it by removing with a knife a portion 
of the foot and the operculum, after which the animal is left to 
die at its leisure or become the prey of other carnivores. The 
Murex seats itself firmly upon the shell of the oyster and applies 
its rostrum to the surface of the latter, invariably at a 
point near the beak ; after which a regular movement of the body 
to right and left ensues during a term of three or four hours and 
results in piercing a small, round hole through the oyster shell, 
exposing the most essential viscera to the rapacity of the patient 
tunue'ier. It is believed that the denticles of the tongue are ap- 
plied to the surface to be bored and then the gyration of the 
animal gradually rasps through the hole ; it has been supposed 
by some that an acid solvent is also used in this operation, but 
this is only conjectural. M. Fischer* has observed at Arcachon 
that young Murices chose young oysters, whilst adults select 
larger oysters. The bored oyster soon dies or else exhausted, 
opens its valves, when a myriad of other animals: crabs, mol- 
lusks, worms, fishes hasten to profit by the fruit of the winkle's 
labor. Dr. Fischer says that the Murex only (at Arcachon) 

* Jour. Conch. 5, 1865. 



118 OCINEBRA. 

attacks the living oyster ; the Nassa and Nqtica, on the contrary, 
living on dead flesh, and possessing a delicate sense of smell 
which enables them to perceive from a great distance the pres- 
ence in the water of a decaying animal. 

Murex torosus, Lamarck, (fig. 404), is considered with some 
doubt, a monstrous variety of this species. The spire is much 
shorter, and but for the remains of varices, nearly hidden under 
the nodules of the revolving ribs the form and appearance are 
very suggestive of Pur pur a, and particularly of Pur pur a cin- 
gulifera, L., (P. trochlea, Lam.), of South Africa. This variety (?) 
comes from Sicity and Algiers. 

M. EDWARDSI, Payr. PL 36, figs. 410-412. 

This little shell, as Reeve remarks, appears to oscillate between 
Murex and Purpura ; its dark aperture, toothed lip and numerous 
ribs recalling the latter, whilst the occasional appearance of two, 
three, or more distinct varices indicates Murex. Varies consider- 
ably in form ; sometimes the whorls are well-rounded above, some- 
times shouldered in the latter case the ribs become nodulous on 
the shoulder. Light brown, purplish or livid within ; frequently 
an obscure light band on the periphery. 

Length, *8 inch. 

Mediterranean, 'So. Atlantic coasts of Spain, Portugal, Madeira, Canaries. 
The typical form on rocky bottoms at small depth, the variety ( = P. 
nux, Reeve), on sand at 4 to 8 fathoms. 

Reeve has figured the variety with a shoulder, and no varices 
as Purpura nux ; but every intermediate grade of form and de. 
velopment of varices exists, so that it cannot be separated from 
the type except as a mere inconstant variety. 

M. PUMILUS, Kiister. PL 36, fig. 413. 

This little shell, only about one-fourth inch in length is very 
probably the same as M. Edwardsi, var. nux ; to which Kobelt 
doubtfully refers it. ^ unknown. 

The specific name is twice preoccupied by Broderip and A. 
Adams ; the species is too doubtful to rename. 
M. SEMICLAUSUS, Kiister. PL 36, fig. 414. 

A shell about '35 inch long, having close relationships with 
M. Edwardsi. ^ unknown. 



OCINEBRA. 119 

M. HYBRIDUS, Aradas and Benoit. PL 36, fig. 415. 

A rare shell found at Palermo. Length, '5 inch. It has 
seven ribs forming a coronaj of spines at the shoulder ; the lip is 
denticulate within, and the short canal is closed. 

M. ACICULATUS, Lam. PI. 36, figs. 405, 407, 408, 409; pi. 31, 

fig. 441. 

Brownish, with numerous ribs ; canal short, open. 
Length, -5 inch. 

Channel Islands, stony and rocky ground, at low water mark and in the 
laminarian and coralline zones. Canary and Azores Islands^ Med- 
iterranean 4 to 40 fathoms. Fossil, Coralline Crag, England; 
Italian tertiaries. 

The animal is coral-red or scarlet, sometimes speqkled with 
light yellow ; the tentacles are paler in color, extensile, micro- 
scopical^ ciliated, especially at the bluntly pointed tips. Mr. 
Jeffreys has seen the barrel-shaped, strong^ corrugated ova- 
capsules, attached, solitary, to the under side of the shell ; the 
ova being elliptical and prismatic. Monterosato makes two 
varieties of this species, the first being Fusus minutus Desh. = 
F. Titii, Stossich ; the second, Fusus Hellerianus Brusina = 
Murex Weinkauffianus, Crosse, (fig. 441). 

M. badius, Reeve, (fig. 401), and M.pistacia, Reeve, (fig. 405), I 
refer to this species as suggested by Kobelt. M. pereger, 
Brugnoiie, (fig. 408), appears to me to be very much nearer related 
to this species than to M. erinaceus to which it is referred by 
Monterosato. It is found in African sponges. 

M. SCALAROIDES, Blainv. PI. 30, fig. 276 ; pi. 36, fig. 416. 

Six varicose ; white or yellowish ; canal short ; aperture 

rounded. Length, *5 inch. 

Mediterranean ; rather rare. 

M. INERMIS, Sowb. PL 36, fig. 417. 

White ; the varices narrow, six in number, canal rather long, 

open. Length, '5 inch. 

Japan. 
Has some resemblance to M. svalaroides, Bl. 



120 OCINEBRA. 

M. PURPUROIDES, D-unker. PL 36, fig. 418. 

Whorls slightly shouldered, wide, with numerous ribs and re- 
volving raised lines; yellowish, with a pale brown band ; aperture 
large, canal short, open. Length, -5 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Except in the canal being open, much resembles M. Edwardsi, 
var. nux. It also looks like an immature Triton labiosum, Wood. 

M. PLEUROTOMOIDES, Reeve. PL 36, fig. 406. 

Shell somewhat shouldered, with numerous crispate var ices, 
crossed by revolving ridges ; lip toothed within, columella with 
two or three tubercles, canal moderate, open. 

Length, '5 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 

Reeve does not state whether the columellar tubercles are the 
remains of revolving teeth or not ; if they are, the species will 
be better placed in the genus Peristernia. 

M. B^TICUS, Reeve. PL 36, fig. 421. 

Shell dark purple-brown, purple within ; varices about eight, 
narrow; crossed by revolving ribs; whorls a little shouldered; 
canal short, closed ; lip toothed within. 

Length, 'f to '85 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 

Reeve's figure represents a shell with numerous varices, cor- 
responding with specimens before me ; his description, however 
distinctly states that it has three varices. 

M. INGLORIUS, Crosse. PL 36, fig. 419. 

Narrower, thinner and darker colored than M. Edwardsi, Payr ; 
its mouth is also proportionally smaller, it has ribs instead of 
varices, and its six whorls are less rounded and slightly shoul- 
dered. Brown purple, purple within. Length, *75 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 

M. CONFUSA, Brazier. 

Pyriformly ovate ; spire short, sharp pointed ; whorls five and 
one-half, five varicose, varices laminated, interstices crossed by 
four laminated ribs, forming hollow pits ; last whorl somewhat 
smooth below ; aperture round-ovate, lip denticulated ; canal 



OCINEBRA. 121 

rather short, attenuated and recurved. White, stained with brown 
between the varices. Length, 1-12 inches. 

Darnley Isl, Torres Sts., Austr. Only one specimen, dredged in 30 

fathoms. Not figured. 
M. ANOMALA, Angas. PI. 36, fig. 422. 

Shell rather solid ; light brown, with a darker, black-spotted 
median band, and undulating longitudinal stripes, which are more 
prominent near the base of the last whorl. 

Port Jackson, Austr. Dredged in 25 fathoms. 

Described as a Cronia (Pu-rpura), but appears to agree better 
with Ocinebra. 

M. GRAVIDUS, Hinds. PI. 36, fig. 423. 

Five varicose, varices fimbriated by revolving ribs; canal rather 
long, recurved to the left. Whitish, banded with brown above. 

Length, .85 inch. 

Cape Blanco, W. Coast of Africa ; 60 fathoms. 

Perhaps the young of some species of Phyllonotus. 

*# Group of M. tetragonus, Brod. Tropical. 
M. TETRAGONUS, Brod. PI. 36, figs. 424, 425. 

Shell quadrangular, four varicose ; varices very prominent, 
thickened, scaly fimbriated, interstices transversely ribbed ; canal 
short, much recurved. White. Length, 1 inch. 

Andaman Islands (E. A. Smith); Viti Isles (Polynesia), (A. J. Garrett); 
Bet Island, Torres Sts., Australia, 11 fathoms (Brazier). 

I agree with Reeve in considering M. breviculus, Sowb., (fig. 
425), a variety of this species, the growth being much more 
pyramidal in some specimens than in others, and the varices 
sometimes five in number. 

M. CYCLOSTOMA, Sowb. PL 36, fig. 426. 

Ovate, gibbous, six varicose, a little shouldered, varices crossed 
by prominent ribs ; spire and canal short. Whitish, more or 
less tinged with brown. Length, '8 inch. 

Red Sea, 11 fathoms ; Isle of Bohol, Phillipines. 

M. MUNDUS, Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 427. 

Five varicose, varices narrowly laciniated ;. spire produced ; 
canal very short. Yellowish-white. Length, '1 inch. 

Isle of Zebu, Phillip ines, Cuming. 

16 



122 OCINEBRA. 

M. NUCULA, Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 420. 

Six varicose, crossed by ribs which become more prominent 
on the varices ; a coronal of short spines on the shoulder ; canal 
and* spire moderate. Whitish, mottled with brown. Length, 
75 inch. 

Me of Capul, PMllipines, Cuming. 

Sowerby formerly considered this a variety of his M. cyclostoma; 
it may be so ; but appears to me to be less crowded with ribs, 
and to differ in the coronal of short tubercles or spines. 

M. NUCEUS, Mbrch. PL 37, fig. 429. 

Rhomboidal, thick, five to six varicose, varices thickened, 
fimbriated ; with about ten revolving, scabrous ribs, alternately 
smaller ; spire rather elevated ; aperture small, oval ; canal short. 
White, sometimes the varices chestnut-color. Length, 1 inch. 
West Indies, Bermudas, Coast of S. Carolina (1 spec.). 

At St. Thomas it is found under stones in one or two feet 
water (Krebs). 

M. PUDICUS, Reeve. PI. 37, fig. ,431. 

Seven varicose, shouldered ; spire elevated; nodulose-spinose. 

White. Length, 1-25 inch. 

St. Domingo. 

Notwithstanding the shouldered whorls, I think this may prove 
to be the same as M. nuceus. 

M. ASPER, A. Adams. PI. 37, fig. 428. 

Whorls six, aculeately frondose on the varices ; white. Length, 

30 mill. 

Gulf of California (Adams). 

So close to M. pudicus that I am inclined to think it will prove 
to be a synonym. The assigned locality is doubtful. 

M. DENSUS, H. and A. Ad. PI. 37, fig. 435. 

Angulate, solid, smooth, lightty spirally lirate, varices eight. 

White. Length, 30 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Possibly this is a form of M. pudicus, Reeve, or M. nuceus, Morch. 
It was described by Mr. A. Adams as M. inornatus, but as that 
name was pre-occupied by Recluz, Messrs. H. and A. Adams 
changed it to densus. Mr. Sowerby, not aware of this change, 



OCINEBRA. 123 

has recently substituted the name Adamsi a name which is itself 
pre-occupied by Kobelt for alabastrum, Ad., not Reeve. 

M. SOLJDUS, A. Adams. PL 37, fig. 430. 

Shorter and thicker than M. pudicus, the fronds more rudi- 
mentary, the aperture smaller, canal more completely closed. 
White. Length, 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Very probably a mere variety of M. nuceus or pudicus. 
M. JAMAICENSIS, Sowerby. PL 37, fig. 432. 

Varices eight, distant, narrow, interstices deeply cancellated. 
Reddish-brown. Length, 20 mill. 

Jamaica. 

I have not seen this species ; which is most readily distin- 
guished from others of same form and sculpture by its color. 

M. CASTUS, A. Ad. PL 37, fig. 433. 

Varices seven; rounded, shell globose-oval ; white. Length, 

18 mill. 

China. 

Belongs to the cyclostoma group and appears to be distin- 
guished by its shorter form and more numerous ribs. 

M. INCISUS, Brod. PL 37, figs. 436, 437. 

Five to seven varicose, varices thick, rounded. Shell white, 
crossed by chestnut-colored revolving ribs. Length, 1*25 to 1-5 
inch. 

St. Elena, W. Columbia, 8 fathoms, Cuming ; Catalina Isl., California, 

W. M. Gabb. 

Reeve's figure is somewhat suggestive of the preceding species ; 
that of Sowerby (Conch., 111.) is much better. One of the speci- 
mens obtained by the late Mr. Gabb, at Catalina Isl., is still 
larger than the latter figure, and corresponds to the figure of 
M. gemma, Sowb. (Thes. Conch.), fig. 437. It looks enough 
different, at first sight, to constitute a distinct species, but the 
differences appear to be due to the eroded or beach-worn condi- 
tion of the gemma form. 

M. MACULATUS, Reeve. PL 37, fig. 442. 

Ovate, pyramidal, spire elevated ; whorls well rounded, tuber- 
culately varicose and finely ridged ; aperture oval, small ; canal 



124 OCINEBRA. 

short, closed. Yellowish, with a brown blotch on the shoulder 
between each varix ; aperture and columella tinged with pink. 

Length, *75 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 

This species is perhaps wrongly placed in Ocinebra; it has 
some resemblance to Tritonidea (Pisania) and might, perhaps, 
be ranged with M. cinereus (Fusus), Say, in the genus Urosal- 
pinx, which seems to occupy an intermediate position between 
Ocinebra and Tritonidea,. Unfortunately, the animal and oper- 
culum are unknown. 

#*# Group of M. lugubris. Distribution, Pacific ; Japan ; North and 

South America. 

M. LUGUBRIS, Brod. PI. 37, figs. 438-440. PI. 38, figs. 455, 456. 

Six varicose, varices rather narrow, somewhat laminate, 
crossed by wide, rather flat ribs and intervening sulcations ; 
spire turrited, spiny nodose ; body whorl shouldered, the varices 
raised into curved spines on the shoulder ; canal rather short, 
closed. Chestnut-brown, the sulcations usually darker. 

Length, 1'25 inches. 

Peurto Portrero, W. G. of Cent. Am., in coral rocks. Magdalena Bay, 
Low. Gal. ; dredged from a sandy floor, 7 fathoms. Hinds. Guaya- 
quil, muddy floor, 21 fathoms. Hinds. 

I include with this species M. caUgnositx, Reeve, (fig. 455), M. 
hawatus, Hinds, (fig. 439), and M. peritus, Hinds, (fig. 438), the 
latter being the young. Its nearest affinities are with M. crina- 
ceu-Sj of Europe. M. erinaceoides, Vol., from the Gulf of 
California has also been likened to M. rv/y>r/rr//s. and in all 
probability should be referred to M. Imj-n.hrix instead of to M. 
alveatits, Kiener, with which Carpenter lias likened it. Another 
synonym is M. Barbarensis, Gabb., which is thus described: 
Brown ; whorls shouldered ; varices five to nine, not very prom- 
inent except on the shoulder, where they arc sometimes prolonged 
into a recurved spine ; whole surface covered with strong revolv 
ing ribs, crossed by fine squamose plates ; aperture sub-elliptical, 
lip with a broad varix and five or six internal dentations ; canal 
closed, straight or a little recurved. 

Length, "77, lat. '44 inches. 

Catalina IsL, 40 fms., Santa Barbara Channel, 20 to 30 fms. 

Also post-pliocene. 



OCINEBRA. 125 

Through the kindness of Mr. R. E. C. Stearns I am enabled to 
give a figure from one of the types (fig. 440). 

M. FOVEOLATUS, Hinds. PI. 38, fig. 465. 

Varices seven, simple. Dark brown, with two lighter bands. 

Length. 1 inch. 

Magdalena Bay, L. Gal. 

This species has been referred to Vitularia by Kobelt, but the 
figure is a characteristic Ocwebra. The species has not been 
certainly recognized by any recent collectors. 

M. SUBANGULATUS, Stearns. PL 38, fig. 466. 

Varices seven to nine, crossed by irregular revolving line. 
There is a brown band composed of three brown lines; otherwise 
white. Lip with five or six tubercles within. 

Length, '89 inch. 

San Miguel Isl. off southern coast of CaL, (two specimens). 

Resembles somewhat M. foveolatus above, and also recalls 
Vitularia xcilebrotia, King ; especially the white variety of Reeve's 
monograph, which I have figured. 

M. EXTGUUS, Brod. PI. 31, tig. 451. 

Varices live, frondose, fronds short; transversely ribbed, ribs 
prominent ; spire short ; canal medium, recurved; dirty white. 

Length, -37, breadth, *25 inch. 

Siilango, W. Columbia, sandy bottom at 10 fathoms. 

Evidently a very young shell. 1 give a figure from Sowerby, 
said to represent the species. 

M. LAPPA, Brod. PI. 37, tig. 434. 

Light brown, the short spines of the varices darker in color. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

St. Elena, W. Columbia ; rocky bed at depth of 12 fathoms. 

Here an'ain I figure Sowerby ? s representation of the species ; 
the figure in Reeve appears to nie to be more like ,17. rittahtx, 
Brod. Will not this shell prove to be the adult of M. exiguus? 

M. RADICATUS, Hinds. PI. 37, fig. 443. 

Five varicose, compressly lacinated on the varices. Light 
brown or whitish. Length, '8 inch. 

San Bias, W. C. of Mexico, in mud at 11 fathoms. Mazatlan. 



126 OCINEBRA. 

Carpenter describes a specimen from Mazatlan which he says 
is intermediate between M. radicatus and M. lappa ; it is very 
likely that they should be united, as he has done. 

M. FONTAINET, Tryon. PI. 35, figs. 384, 385. 

Eight varicose, the varices raised into five or six short lamel- 
lar spines, crossed by revolving ridges ; body shouldered ; 
aperture oval, closed ; outer lip bearing a tooth, and crenulate 
within ; canal short, closed, direct. 

Length, 1'3 inches. 

Dredged near Payta, Peru, by M. Fontaine. 

This is the M. monoceros of d'Orbigny, a name preoccupied by 
Sowerby for a Lower California species of the Cerostoma group. 

M. CRASSILABRUM, Gray. PI. 38, figs. 452, 453. 

Pure white. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Valparaiso, in crevices of rocks, at low water. Cuming. 

The generic position of this well-known shell has always been 
doubtful ; its numerous laminated varices recall Trophon, from 
which it is distinguished by its thickly variced and dentate lip ; 
it has also been referred to Purpura. I have arranged it with, a 
group of purpuroid Murices having some relationship with Cer- 
ostoma, and inhabiting principally the same region, but differing 
in possessing numerous varices. The typical species of this 
group might possess sufficient distinction from Ocinebra to 
deserve a peculiar name, but the limits of such a group could 
only be arbitrarily defined. 
M. JAPONICUS, Dunker. PL 31, figs. 445-448. 

Dark brown, with five to six lamellar Avarices, crossed by dis- 
tant revolving ribs ; outer lip much thickened, dentate within ; 
canal short ; sub-umbilicate. Length, 2 inches. 

Japan, Dr. Dunker and Dr. Lischke. North China, (M. 

Talienwhanensis, Crosse, figs. 445-447). 

The type specimen of this species, and the only one known to 
Dr. Dunker, was much worn and did not present good characters; 
Dr. Lischke, however, well describes it (p. 31, Jap. Meeres Conch. 
Supp.) from numerous specimens. 

M. INORNATUS, Recluz. PI. 3T, fig. 444. 

Yellowish-brown, obscurely banded ; slightly roseate within 
the aperture. Length, 1-25 inches. Hakodadi, Corea. 



OCINEBRA. 12t 

The varices vary in number. Can this be a depauperate state 
of M. Japonicus ? 

M. TANTILLUS, A. Ad. 

Small, ovatety fusiform, white, with laciniated lamellae widety 
cancellated with crispate line ; whorls six, angulate in the middle ; 
aperture narrow, sub-ovate ; margin of lip thickened, widely re- 
flected, sub-sinuate behind ; canal very short. 

Satanomosaki, Jap. ; 55 fathoms. 

Described as a Trophon, but the widely margined lip shows it 
to be a relative of M. Japonicus, etc. It may be the young of 
one of the preceding species. Not figured. 

M. SCALARINUS, A. Ad. 

Ovate, rimate, pallid fulvous, tinged with red ; spire elate, 
acute, as long as the aperture ; whorls five, with five or six 
elevated varices and revolving lamellose larger and intermediate 
crenulate smaller line ; suture profound ; aperture ovate, sub- 
patulous, inner lip smooth, arcuate ; outer lip externally variced ; 
canal moderately open, inclined to the left. 

Length, 1 inch, lat. '25 inch. 

M. MONACHUS, Crosse. PL 3t, figs. 449, 450. 

Chestnut-color, variegated with white ; four varicose, varices 
white ; obsoletely tuberculate between the varices. 

Length, 1*8 inches. 

China, Japan. 

It is just possible that this may be a var. of Japonicus ; on the 
other hand it recalls the genus or group Vitularia. The Japanese 
use it as food. Sowerby (Thes. Conch.) cites author, work mid 
locality incorrectly for this species. 

M. FALCATUS, Sowb. PI. 38, figs. 457-459. 

This has somewhat the appearance of M. (Cerostoma) foliatx*, 
GmeL, but differs in the number of varices and in their hooked 
spinous prolongations from the shoulder of the whorls. Light 
yellowish-brown, sometimes tinted with darker color on the 

middle of the body. Length. 1'66 inches. 

Japan. 

M. aduncusj Sowb., (fig. 459), is a variety, and M. acantho- 
pttorus, A. Ad., (fig. 458), appears to be merely a depauperate 



128 



OCTNEBRA. 



specimen. The latter is thus described: Ovate-fusiform, five 
varicose, solid, whitish ; whorls five, angulated in the middle, 
flattened above, transversely lirate ; varices lamellate, crispate, 
terminating in strong triangular spines on the shoulder ; aperture 
oblong, purplish within, narrowed in front, the lip thick, fim- 
briated, denticulate within ; canal closed, reflected. Operculum 
purpuroid. Length, 1-75 inches. 

Hakodadi, 5 fathoms ; Tsusaki, (Jap.}, 37 fathoms. 

M. ENDERMONIS, Edg. Smith. PI. 38, fig. 454. 

Ovate, spire turrited ; whorls six, with sloping shoulder above, 
and angulated periphery ; varices seven, laciniate, uncinate above ; 
crossed by unequal, scabrous lirations. Aperture ovate, purplish ; 
lip thickened, fimbriate, denticulate within, with a prominent 
basal tooth ; columella bluish-white, maculated with brown-purple 
in the middle ; canal closed, short, slightly recurved. 

Length, 1'35 inches. 

Endermo Harbor, Yesso, Jap., 4 to 7 fathoms, sandy mud. 

Some of the spiral lirations, that at the angle of the whorls 
and three or four others in the last whorl, are much larger than 
the rest, and with the varices produce a coarsely cancellated 
aspect. M. Talienwhanensis, Crosse, and M. inornatus, Kecluz, 
are both allies of this species, but lack the labral tooth. 

I have not seen a specimen. 

*** Group of M. alveatus, Eiener. 
M. ALVEATUS, Kieiier. PL 38, figs. 469, 467, 464. 

Shell long and narrow ; spire much elevated, of seven or eight 
convex whorls separated by deep sutures ; varices three to eight, 
thick, fimbriated, crossing the sutures ; six or eight revolving, 
narrow, seal} 7 ribs, with intervening deep sulci ; mouth small, 
oval ; canal short. Whitish or yellowish. Length -75 to 1'25 

inches. 

West Indies, 1 to 2 feet water, among madrepores. 

The history of this species is somewhat involved : Kiener gave 
no habitat, but Panama has been assigned to it by most subse- 
quent conchologists. I think that the species has been con- 
founded with M. erosus, Brod.,a Panama shell, which is certainly 
so close to this as to lead to grave doubts of its distinctness. A 



OCINEBRA. 129 

large form, in which only three varices appear on the lower 
whorls, lias been named Triton Gantrainei by Reeluz (fig. 464), 
and C. B. Adams has called it M. pauperculus, and A. Adams, 
obeliscus (fig. 



M. EBOSUS, Brod. PL 38, figs. 468, 460. 

Dark colored in the pits between the ribs, or sometimes yellow- 
ish with a brown band. Rather narrower than the preceding 

species. Length, -5 to 1 inch. 

Panama, under stones at low water. 

Sowerby figures this species in Conch. 111., f. 16; Reeve also 
represents it by his f. 160. 



M. KIENERI, Reeve. PI. 38, fig. 461. 
Yellowish or fulvous. Length, '75 inch. 



Habitat unknown. 



Name proposed for M. exiguus, Kiener, preoccupied by Brod- 
erip. It is a very doubtful Murex. 

M. GABBETTII, Pease. 

Oblong-oval, solid, scabrous, dusky brown; whorls about six, 

somewhat angulated above, with spiral, transverse, reddish 

grooves and five varices ; aperture round-oval, outer lip crenu- 

lated ; canal short, subclosed, slightly oblique. Length, '4 inch. 

Shallow pools, rocky coasts of Hawaii, Sandwich Is. 

Apparently rare. Name proposed instead of M. exiyaus, Gar- 
rett, preoccupied by Broderip. I have not seen the species. 

M. PEASEI, Tryon. PL 38, fig. 462. 

Acutely ovate, thick, solid ; spire slender, acute, short, less 
than half the length of the shell ; last whorl with five prominent 
varices, which are squamose ; interstices smooth ; aperture oval, 
outer lip broadly varicose ; canal very short, recurved, nearly 
closed. White, interstices flesh color, with a median brown band. 

Length, '6 inch. 

La Paz, L. California. 

The above is the description of Murex foveolatus, Pease. I 
copy his figure, which does not agree at all with a specimen sent 
to me by him. The latter is too like M. erosus, Brod. Pease 
states that all the specimens except the one figured were covered 

17 



130 OCINEBRA. 

with encrustations. I have much doubt of the distinctness of 
this species. There is a Murex foreolatus, Hinds (which is 
wrongly referred to Vitularia]^ so that I am compelled to give 
Mr. Pease's species a new name. 

M. COCCINEUS, A. Adams. PI. 38, lig. 4C>o. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, blush rose ; spire produced, acuminate; 
whorls five, crossed by six, sharply nodose varices, spiny above; 
interstices with close, sharp revolving lines ; aperture oval, pink, 
lip slightly li rate ; canal short, sub-reflexed, scarcely closed. 
Length, -3 inch. 

St. Thomas, W. I. 

The above description is slightly modified to agree with speci- 
mens before me from the original locality. One of these is 
figured. 

M. PUMILUS, A. Adams. PI. 38, fig. 470. 

Shell rose-colored, ovate fusiform; spire elevated ; whorls six, 
somewhat convex ; varices five, crossed by alternately larger and 
smaller squamose revolving lines ; outer lip lirate within ; canal 
short, partially closed, slightly recurved. Length, '85 inch. 

China Seas ; So. Austr. ( Angas). 

Sowerby makes M. covcinetts, A. Ad., the young of this shell, 
and it certainly resembles it. I have not united them, because 
the present species is assigned to a very distant locality from 
M. coccineus that of the latter being confirmed by specimens 
in the museum of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. 

The specific name was used many years ago by Broderip for a 
species which has never been identified ; under the circumstances 
I think it scarcely necessary to change Mr. Adams' name. 

# \ Group of M. Poulstni. 

M. POULSONI, Nuttall. PI. 38, fig. 4t5. 

Whitish or yellowish, encircled by numerous, close, narrow, 
brown lines ; aperture white or pink. 

Length, 1-85 inches. 

San Diego, Gal. to Pacific Coast of L. Cal.W. M. (4abb. 

I figure a fine specimen from the former locality. 



OOINEBRA. 131 

M. CONTRAOTUS, Reeve. PI. 38, figs. 471-474. 

Light brown, the revolving ribs sometimes darker in the in- 
terstices of the longitudinal plicae ; aperture white within. 
Operculum purpuroid. Length, 1*4 inches. 

New Caledonia ; Philippines ; Viti Isles. 

Very closely allied to M. Pouhoni but differs in the revolving 
lines of color being replaced by close sculpture; sometimes 
these revolving riblets become alternately larger. Reeve's Bucc. 
funiculatum (fig. 474), is certainty the same species, and I 
scarcely doubt the identity of his S.eoncentricum, (fig. 472), and 
E. ligneum, (fig. 473), the latter being a young shell with longer 
spire than usual. 

M. LURIDUS, Midd. PL 3$, figs. 481, 485. 

Fusiform, spire elevated, canal short, open ; whorls closely 
asperately lirate, the lirse crossing a few rounded ribs ; aperture 
dentate within. Reddish or chocolate. 

Length, '35 to 1 inch. 

Sitka to California. 

The var. aspera, Baird, appears to me to be simply the fresh 
state of this species, specimens of which are generally water- 
worn. In the latter condition, when starved into a narrow, small 
form, Carpenter has distinguished them as var. mu-nda. 

M. INTERFOSSUS, Carpenter. PL 39, fig. 484. 

Shell narrower and more shouldered than the last species, the 
lattice of revolving line and longitudinal ribs coarser and more 
elevated ; canal short, closed. Length, '4 to '75 inch. 

Sitka to California. 
M. GRACILLTMUS, Stearns. PL 39, fig. 480. 

Light brown, the revolving costre sometimes white, spotted 
with red. Length, -5 inch. 

San Diego, Cal, to L. Cal; Santa Catalina Is., common from 

low water to 30 fathoms. 

M. CTRCUMTEXTUS, Stearns. PL 39, fig. 478, 494. 

Whitish with brown blotches ; yellowish to purplish within. 

Length, '75 inch. 

California. 

I give in addition to the original figure, that of a larger 



132 OCINEBRA. 

specimen with coarser sculpture. This form is found abundantly 
at San Miguel and Santa Rosa Islands off the southern coast of 
California. Mr. Stearns furnishes me with this figure, (fig. 494). 

M. FRICKI, Crosse. 

Elongately fusiform, longitudinally plicately varicose, the 
varices eight in number, compressed, short, laciniately foliated ; 
whorls seven, spirally costate, two of the costse ascending the 
spire ; aperture small, oblong-ovate, columellar margin subar- 
cuate ; outer lip dilated, elegantly foliaceous, within denticulate ; 
canal short, recurved. With a black-violet sutural, median and 
basal zone, which reappear within the aperture. 

Length, 13, diam. maj. 5*5 mill. 

California. 

Not figured. I can only guess at the relationship of this species 
and prefer simply to record it, and await the publication of an 
authentic illustration. 

M. BBAZIERI, Angas. PI. 30, fig. 289. 

Shell ovate, ventricose, shouldered ; with five varices, crossed 
by five strong ribs, some of which are double ; squamous, the 
varices nodulous ; aperture dentate within. Light brown, 
brownish-purple on the columella arid within the aperture. 

Length, *33 inch. 

Near Pt. Jackson, N. 8. Wales, Austr.; 20 fathoms. 

M. DUTHIERSI, Yelain. PI. 39, figs. 477, 483. 

Yellowish or whitish, varices eight or nine, not much elevated; 
canal short, open. Length, '3 inch. 

Isles of St. Paul and Amsterdam, Ind. O. 

I have ventured to unite with this species the same author's 
M. Hermani, (fig. 483), which appears to be founded on speci- 
mens in less perfect condition. The species does not appear to 
possess any well marked characteristics. 

M. TRITONIDEA, Velaiu. PI. 39, fig. 470. 

Length, 4 to 5 mill. 

1*U of St. Paul, Ind. 0. 

Described as a Troplion, but its characters do not correspond 
well with that genus. 



VITULARIA. 133 

Subgenus Vitularia, Swainson. 
M. MILIARIS, Gmel. PI. 35, figs. 393, 39t. 

Whitish or brownish ; with irregular rounded ribs, which are 
sometimes tinged with chestnut, as though in interrupted revolv- 
ing bands. Whole surface peculiarly scabrously mamillated. 
Length, 2 -5 inches. 

W. Coast of Africa. 

The ribs are more prominent and more rounded, and the form 
is more ventricose and proportionately shorter than in V. sale- 
brosa. Reeve figures a young shell as M. purpura, Chemn. 

V. SALEBROSA, King. PI. 35, figs. 394, 396, 398 

White or yellowish-brown, sometimes banded. The occasional 
varix much thickened, being composed of a number of parallel, 
close laminre. Lip and columella tinged with yellow. Oper- 
culum diamond-shaped, with two short sides above and two long 
ones below, the angles rounded. Length 2*5-4 inches. 

Mazatlan to Panama. 
V. SANDWICHENSTS. Pease. PL 35, fig. 399. 

Fusiformly ovate, rather thin, white, with about three transverse 
rows of brown spots on the varices ; whorls five, sharply angu- 
lated, body-whorl angulated just below the suture; varices six, 
slightly oblique, wrinkled ; aperture white, oblong-ovate, outer 
lip denticulated within ; columella slightly arched ; canal short. 

Not hitherto figured. Represented in our collection only by :t 
somewhat bleached specimen a half inch in length. 

V. CANDIDA, H. and A. Adams. 

Ovate, solid, white, spire produced, whorls convex, shouldered ; 
varices thin, produced on the shoulder, often obsolete, interstices 
1 irate ; aperture ovate, lip thickened, silicate within, margin den- 
ticulate. L. 35, lat. 18 mill. 

New Zealand. 

Said to be very variable in its characters. Not figured. 

V. CRENTFER, Moiitrouzicr. PI. 35, fig. 395. 
Yellowish-brown. L. 35, lat. 25 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
A single specimen obtained. 



134 ADDENDA TO MtREX. 

V. MONACHUS, Crosse. 

This Japanese species which I have included in Ocinebra (ante, 
p. 127), has certain resemblances to Vitularia and may possibly 
belong to the group. 



ADDENDA TO MUREX. 

M. (TRIBULUS) TRYONI, Hidalgo. PL 70, fig. 427. 

Varices three, compressed, those of the body-whorl with three 
short, sharp spines, on the spire a single spine upon each ; a spine 
on the canal below each varix ; canal moderate in length, straight ; 
whorls seven, the two first smooth, the others with eight or nine 
very small, narrow longitudinal ribs crossed by numerous revolv- 
ing lines forming tubercles at the intersections. Color whitish. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Lesser Antilles, at great depths. 

For the above name and description, together with the speci- 
men figured, I am indebted to Mr. J. G. Hidalgo, who obligingly 
forwarded them to me with the request that the publication 
thereof should be made in the " Manual." The shell, which is 
perhaps not adult, belongs to the same group as M. recurviroxtris, 
but differs from all the other species in the great number and 
relatively little prominence of the riblets between the varices. 



I am indebted to Mr. Hidalgo also for the following notes of 
locality : 

M. BEAUT, Petit, M. CABRITIT, Bernardi, M. HIDALGOI, Crosse, 
and M. PAZI, Crosse, have all been dredged together in the 
waters of the Lesser Antilles. 

M. CAPUCINUS, Chemn. In describing this species I gave the 
locality Philippines as doubtful. It certainly is found there and 
exists in all the Madrid collections made at the islands by the 
employe's of the Spanish administration. Mr. Hidalgo possesses 
specimens collected living at Zamboanga, Island of Mindanao. 



INDETERMINATE MTIRICES. 135 

Indeterminate Murices. 

M. ACANTHOPHORUS, Monterosato. Named but not described. 
There is a Phyllonotus acantfiophorus, A. Adams (described in 
Zool. Proc., 3t2, 1862), from Japan. Monterosato's species is 
from the Mediterranean. 

M. CYCLOPUS, Benoit. MSS. Quoted by Monterosato as a 
Mediterranean species, but not characterized. 

M. CINUULATUS, Lam. Hab. ? This shell has not been identi- 
fied. Sowerby thinks it a Fusas. 

M. NANUS, ACUMINATUS, L^BVICOSTA, ALBIOANS, AURANTIUS, DEN- 

TATUS; all described by Anton in his Yerzeichniss, 1834, have 
never been identified. No localities of any of them are given. 
Not figured. 

The following species are described by Mr. Arthur Adams in 
/ool. Proc., London, 1851-3. Neither distinctive characters nor 
dimensions are given in most of these descriptions, nor are they 
figured. I am unable to locate them positively in any of the sub- 
generic groups. 

* With several varices. 

M. ARMATUS (Gulf of California), IOSTOMUS (Philippines). 

* Shell plicate. 

M. EXCAVATUS, PAGODUS, SEROTINUS (South Australia, Angas). 
EXASPERATUS, DiADEMA (Philippines), NITENS (Philippines), UNI- 
FASCIATUS (Japan). 

M. PUMILUS, Brod. 

Rhomboidal, five varicose, varices flattened, short, subrecurved, 
crenulate ; dark brown, subfasciate with white ; canal moderate, 
subrecurved; lip crenulate. L. 5 inches, lat. 3 inches. 

Gallapagos Is., found under stones. 
Probably a young shell. 

M. OSTREARUM and M. CELLTJLOSA, Conrad. Tampa Bay, Fla. 

I am unable to identify the very inadequate descriptions with 
any species ; they are as follow r s : 

M. CELLULOSA. Short-fusiform, with large, prominent revolving- 
lines or costae, the interstices with transverse wrinkled lines, 



136 FOSSIL GENERA. 

largest on the varices, and giving the shell a cellular aspect; 
beak much curved ; color cinereous ; aperture small, obovate, 
purplish within. Inhabits oyster beds. 

M. OSTREARUM. Fusiform, with revolving ribs alternated in size, 
and with longitudinal wrinkles; spire elevated, scalarilbrm ; base 
umbilicated ; within livid. Occurs with the preceding. 



Fossil Genera. 

PTEROHYTIS, Conrad. Genus not characterized. The type has 
lamellar varices like Cerostoma foliatum but more numerous than 
in that group, and the outer lip has a tooth. I think it may be 
safely relegated to Phyllonotus, Swains. 

P. UMBRIFER, Com. PL 70, fig. 429. Miocene, Virginia. 

ODONTOPOLYS, Gabb. Resembles the subgenus Pteronotus in 
having three varices on each whorl but distinguished by the 
crenulations of the outer lip and by having two transverse plaits 
or folds on the middle of the columella. 

O. COMPSORHYTIS, Gabb. PI. 70, fig. 430. Eocene, Wheelock, Texan. 

(ienus TYPHIS, Moritfort. 

The ascending tube which is the distinguishing feature of the 
shells of this genus is occupied by an extension of the mantle 
margin of the animal. 

The operculum is ovate, with apical nucleus, like that of Mnrex. 

There are several European Eocene species. 

This genus is monographed both by Sowerby and Reeve. 

T. TETRAPTERUS, Bronii. PI. 30, figs. 290-292. 

Flesh color. Length, -5 inch. 

Confined to the Mediterranean, where it is widely distributed. 
Miocene to post-pliocene of Southern Europe. 

T. ARCUATUS, Hinds. PI. 30, figs. 293, 297. 

The tubes are incurved so as to approach the preceding whorl. 
Somewhat smaller than the preceding, but not very dissimilar. 

Cape of Good Hope, Japan, China. 

T. Japonicus, A. Adams, is made a synonym in Sowb. Thes. 



TYPHIS. 137 

Conch., after comparison with the type of that species. T. 
dnplicatus, Sowerby (fig. 297), does not offer any distinctive 
characters. 

T. YATESII, Crosse. PI. 30, fig. 294. Length, -4 inch. 

South Australia. 
T. MoNTFORTii, A. Adams. PI. 30, fig. 295. 

Rose color; the last tube much prolonged. Length, *5 inch. 

Japan. 
Very closely allied to T. Yatesii. 

T. NITENS. Hinds. PI. 30, fig. 299. 

Distinguished by its quadrangular form. Length, "5 inch. 

Straits of Macassar. 
T. BELCHERI, Brod. PI. 30, figs. 300, 301. 

This may be regarded as the Atlantic analogue of the Mediter- 
ranean T. tetrapterus. It is a somewhat larger shell, with the 
variceal spines much incurved and a rather longer canal. 

W. Coast of Africa, Brazil. 

The latter locality is for Murex Gleryi, Petit (fig. 301), which, 
notwithstanding his attempt to distinguish it, I cannot consider 
essentially different. 

T. QUADRATUS, Hinds. PI. 30, fig. 296. 

Chestnut-brown, the varices white ; hooks and tubes short ; 
canal rather short, bent, wide above. Length, *7 inch. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

T. CLERYI, Sowerby. PL 30, fig. 302. 

This Australian shell is figured by Sowerby in the Thesaurus 
and also in Conchologia Iconica as T. Cleryi, Petit which is an 
error, as that species comes from South America and = T. 
Belcheri, Brod. The name being .thus freed, I adopt it as of 
Sowerby, not Petit. It is distinguished from all the other 
species by its elegantly spinous varices. 

New Zealand ; off Sydney Head, Austrlia. 

T. CUMINGTI, Brod. PI. 30, fig. 298. 

The very long, slender, straight canal sufficiently distinguishes 
this species from all its congeners. Pale fulvous, with bands of 
darker color crossing the varices. Length, 1 inch. 

Bay of Garaccas, Venezuela. 
18 



138 TROPHON. 

T. EXPANSIS, Sowb. PI. 30, fig. 306. 

The broad frill of the marginal varix is the principal feature. 

Length, -85 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 
T. CANCELLATUS, Sowb. PL 30, fig. 30o. 

Shell obscurely cancellated, white ; varices broadly foliated, 
hooked at the shoulder, the folise extending to the lower end of 
the short canal ; tubes usually connate with the hooks of the 

varices. Length, ^5 inch. 

Bahamas, St. Johns, W. I. (Krebs.) 

T. GRANDIS, A. Adams. PI. 30, fig. 30tta. 

Varices broad, fimbriate-lamellar. Length, 1'5 inches. 

Gulf of California. 

The largest species of the genus, and the type of a group of 
species peculiar to the West Coast of America. 

T. PINNATUS, Brod. PI. 30, figs. 304. 305. 

Also from (jiilf of California. I suspect it is the same species 
as the preceding. Von Martens acknowledges the identity of 
his T. Jamrachi with fimbriatus, A. Adams (fig. 305), which is 
evidently the adult state of T. pinnatus. 

T. CORONATUS. Brod. 

The only specimen known, Avhich is not adult, is in the 
Cumingian Collection. 

Buy of Car(icc<(ft, Venezuela. 
T. TRIANGULARIS, A. Ad. 

Fusiform, triangular, white, subcancellate; three pinnate varices. 
tubulate behind ; interstices transversely lirate. with a median 
node ; aperture oval, canal moderate, open, turned to the right. 

Hab. ? (Mus. Cuining.) 

Said to resemble Murej- tripterus in form. Xot figured. 

Genus TROPHON, Montf. 

The typical Trophon has a fusiform shell, thin and white, the 
whorls with numerous, sharp, laminated varices, the interstices 
smooth, or spirally ribbed; canal open, usually turned to the 
left ; no umbilicus ; lip thin, smooth within. This group is essen- 
tially boreal in distribution. There is, however, another group 



TROPHON. 139 

of species inhabiting the southern temperate and antarctic zones, 
which, whilst possessing- the main features of the type, the laminae 
and the white color, present peculiar characters. These shells are 
usually broadly ovate, shouldered, umbilicate, the aperture dark 
colored within. They form a transition to Siphonalia,ai}d. might 
with almost equal propriety be included in that genus. ' It may 
be remarked here that Montforfs definition of the genus Trophon 
does not correspond so well with the typical group as now recog- 
nized, as it does witli these Siphonalia-like shells. 

Kobelt has catalogued the genus in Jahrbiicher Deutsch. Mai. 
Gesell., vi, 168, 1879. 

The name is a contraction of Trophonius, a mythological 
deity. 

1. Typical or Boreal Species. 

T. (JBATicuLATUS. Fab. ' PI. 31, figs. 301), 310, 307, 320; PI. 33, 
fig. 359. 

Shell white, aperture white also. Length, 1 '25-1*5 inches. 
Greenland; Iceland; Gulf of St. Lawrence; Spitsbergen; 

Norway; Pacific Coast of N. America south toPugefs Sound. 

Fossil: England; California, ; Japan (A. Ad.). 

The name given by Fabricius as of Linnaeus was supposed by 
Beck and others to be intended by Linnaeus for another species 
of Troplton. and under this impression Beck changed the present 
specific name to T. Fabricn. The species of Linnaeus is, how- 
ever, a Fumx : so that it is proper to continue to use the specific 
name craticulatus, Fab. T. Orpheux, Gld. (fig. 310), is a shoul- 
dered var. of this species, and T. squamulifer, Carp. (fig. 320), 
appears to be the same form. 1 figure a specimen from Puget's 
Sound, which appears to unite the characters of T. Orpheus with 
the thickened lip and three revolving lines of T. squamulifer. 
T. tenuisculptus, Carp. (fig. 359). from the post-pliocene of Sta. 
Barbara, Cal., ma}' also be the same species. 

Amongst the synonyms of T. craticulatus 1 am much inclined 
to place 

T. Heuglini, Morch ; which is thus described : 

Narrowly fusiform, whitish : spire turreted with mamillary 
apex ; the ribs are compressed, membranaceous, eight in number 



140 TROPHON. 

last whorl with six squamose revolving lines ; lines of growth 
membranaceous, crowded, undulated. Length 22, lat. 10'5 mill. 

Polar Sea. 

T. Maltzani. Kobelt (fig. 307), is an Alaska form in which the 
varices are nearly entirely suppressed. 

T. MURICATUS, Mont. PL 31, figs. 308, 311, 319. 

Yellowish or flesh-color, sometimes white (var. alba). 
Length, *6 inch. 

England; Ireland; Atlantic Coasts of France ; Spain ; 

Portugal ; Mediterranean ; 8-150 fathoms. 

The ova-capsules are described by Jeffreys as about a line in 
diameter, with an oval orifice ; they contain a purplish liquor 
together with the fry. The animal is light yellow or whitish. 
Eaten by fishes Trigla Gurnardi and Perixtedion cataphractum. 
It has also been taken, on a single occasion, from a fish caught 
on the Massachusetts coast. 

T. BARVICENSIS, Johust. PL 31, fig. 318. 

Shell and animal white. The shell is broader, proportionally, 
than T. muricatus ; it is also a little more shouldered, and has 
fewer ribs, which are more laminar and prominent. 

Length, '(>-'9 inch. 

North British ; Norway ; Mediterranean ; 8-200 fathoms. 

Creeps like Lachesis, foot upwards, on the surface of the 
water. An ova-capsule was found by Mr. Jeffreys in a valve of 
Leda mimtta: it is very thin, semitransparent, and marked with 
delicate, close-set, microscopic, concentric lines ; orifice oval 
The species bears the Roman name of Berwick-on-Tweed. 

So far the Mediterranean specimens have only been obtained 
at considerable depths. 

T. CLATHRATUS, Linn. PL 31, figs. 312. 314, 316, 31 T, 322, 325. 
Most authors separate this into two species, distinguished by 
size and number of ribs. T. truncatus, Strom, (fig 325), is about 
(> inch long, with twenty ribs on the body-whorl ; whilst T. 
clalhratus, L. (fig. 312), has fourteen ribs when the same size, 
and grows, moreover, to much greater dimensions. I haA-e no 
doubt that the British specimens are all small and correspond 



TROPHON. 141 

uniformly to the description of T. truncatus, but specimens from 
Arctic American localities vary all the way in size from the T. 
clathratus or large form (equivalent to T. lyratus, Lam., fig. 312, 
and T. scalarifyrmis, Gld., fig. 314), to the small shells corres- 
ponding to T. truncatus; and the ribs vary greatly in number, 
not only on different specimens, but even on different whorls of 
the same species. Murex Bamffivs of Montagu is a synonym of 
the English type. A scalariform variety, with excavated sutures, 
shouldered whorls, coronated with spines more or less, has been 
called T. Gunneri by Loven, and T. multicostatus (fig. 316), 
by Escholtz. Provisionally, I allow the T. truncatus to stand 
as a variety. 

Inhabits from Spitsbergen ; Norway ; Or eat Britain ; Iceland ; Arctic 

America, south to Massachusetts ; Newfoundland ; W. Coast of 

America, to Vancouver 's Island ; Japan. Depth, 5-500 fms. 

It is a usual post-glacial fossil of N. Europe, and the variety 
occurs in the older pliocene at Messina.' Post-pliocene, Santa 
Barbara, Cal. The Icelanders call it " St. Peders-snekke," or 
St. Peter's snail ; I know not why. 

Dr. Jeffreys sep.Mntted the large and small forms in his British 
Conchology, but has more recently thought fit to unite them. 

.Fusus candelabrum, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 317), is indistinguish- 
able from the shouldered carinate form of Gould's Fusus scalari- 
formis. It is reported from Japan, by A. Adams. 

T. MURICIFORMIS, Dall. PI. 31, fig. 313. 
Yery like Busycon carica in form. 
Length (apex broken off), 40 mill. 

Behring's Sts., Dall ; Victoria, Vancouver^ I. (young), Richardson. 

Large and peculiar as is this shell, I very much doubt its dis- 
tinctness from T. clathratus. Kobelt has changed the name to 
T. Dalli, on account of Eupleurn, miiriciforme, Brod., which lie 
has included in Trophoti. 

T. OLAVATUS, Sars. PL 31, fig. 326. 

This is a smaller shell, with the whorls somewhat more shoul- 
dered, the ribs fewer, more prominent and more spinose on the 
shoulders, and the canal straighter than T. Mariciformis. It is 



142 TROPHON. 

very like that species ; but appears to be more closely related to 
T. Barvicensis, of which it may prove to be a variety. 

T. TRIANGULATUS, Carpenter. 

Small, thin, white, wide behind, narrow before; two nuclear 
and four normal whorls, the latter shouldered ; rapidly narrow^ 1 
to the front, with long, arcuated canal ; varices about seven, 
acutely laminated, forming open, radiated, somewhat curved 
spines around the shoulder ; there is an obsolete angle or line on 
the periphery. Length, *35 inch. 

Catalina 1*1., Gal., 60 fins. 

Said to be related to T. muricatus, Hinds. 

I have not seen this species. Mr. Stearns writes me that a 
specimen in the California State collection, about 1 inch long, 
and so labelled, is the young of Chorus Belcheri, Hinds. 

T. SUPPOSITUS, Gld. 

Shell pyrifonn, turreted, thin, dirty white, with remote, erect 
laminae ; whorls six, convex, shouldered, the last bulbous, pro- 
tracted in front into a thin, recurved canal. Aperture ovate, 
three-fifths the length of the shell, columella porcellanous. 

Length 30 mill., diam. 15 mill.; length of aperture, 20 mill. 

H,ib. ? 

I know nothing of this species ; the description does not dis- 
tinguish it from T. clathratux. 

T. CONCINNUS, A. Ad. 

Ovately fusiform, solid, cinereous ; decussated by nodulous 
concentric lines and thin longitudinal plicae; whorls five, sub- 
angulated in the middle ; spire acutely conical ; aperture narrow, 
ovate, narrowed in front into a contorted canal ; columella arcu- 
ated, smooth. 

Japan, 35 fathoms. 

This little, neatly-sculptured species resembles in some par- 
ticulars T. crispus of Gould ; but the transverse line are nodulous 
and crowded, and the longitudinal laciniated plica 1 are close to. 
gether, whereas in T. crispus the whorls are finely cancellated. 
The above is a copy of the original description ; I do not know 
the species. 



I, I M li A U V 
UN I VERITY 

2. Antarctic or Southern -Forms? - v ' -< 1 ^ii N I A 

T. LIRATUS. Couthouy. PL 31, tig. 333. 

Animal and shell pale yellow ; operculnm fusoid. Shell fusi- 
form, polished, with traces of a thin epidermis ; the whorls are 
crossed by about twenty close-set, angular ridges, and the inter- 
stices have deep-cut revolving stria?. Aperture white, clouded 
with purple ; columella with a purplish callus ; lip simple, but 
bordered with the last angular ridge. Length, '75 inch. 

Dredged at Orange Harbor (Terra del Fuego), 15 fathoms, Couthouy. 
Castle Point, Manchuria, Japan, 20 fathoms, A. Adams. 

It is not probable that both these localities are correct. The 
external appearance of the shell is somewhat like a Urosalpinx. 

T. CRISPUS, Gould. PL 31, figs. 321. 323, 328, 329; PL 70, 
fig. 437. 

Animal yellow. Shell ashy, polished and purplish within; 
lip evasive, deeply furrowed within. Length, 1 inch. 

Dredged at Orange Harbor, 16 fathoms. 

Arthur Adams quotes this species also from Japan probably 
an error in identification. Animal very timid ; when fully pro 
truded, the head is not advanced beyond the foot. A scalariform 
monstrosity occurs. 

Murexpallidus^i'od. (fig. 329), from Falkland Islands, appears 
to be the young of this species; Fusu-sfasciculatu*, Hombr. (fig 
328), and F. fitnbriatm?, Gay (PL 70, fig. 437), are also the same 
species. 

T. LACINIATUS, Martyn. PL 31, figs. 330-332. 

Shell whitish, chestnut within the aperture; animal yellow. 

Length, T5-2 inches. 

Magellan's Sts., Falkland Isles. 

1 do not hesitate to unite with this species T. antarctic us, Phil. 
The single specimen on which the description is based is said to 
be narrower, the lamellar spines on the shoulder shorter, etc. I 
have before me specimens which answer well to this description, 
as well as intermediate forms. 



144 TROPHON. 

The aperture in this species, as well as in the related T. Gever- 
sianus and T. xanthostoma, being very wide, a modification of 
the form of the operculum occurs, in a lateral growth from the 
initial point, which causes the latter to appear as if on the outer 
side instead of the lower extremity, simulating the Purpuroid 
operculum. I veiy much doubt whether these Southern Ameri- 
can and New Zealand species really belong to Trophon, but am 
not prepared to giA r e them any other position at present. 

T. GEVERSIANUS, Pallas. PL 32, figs. 337-347 ; PL 70, tigs. 
433, 435. 

Typically, this species is broad ovate, shouldered, with numer- 
ous frill-like varices and elevated, rounded, revolving ribs; um- 
bilicus widely exposed, aperture chestnut within. 

Length, 2*5 to 3 inches. 

Magellan's Straits to Chili. 



With this typical form must be united Murex 
d'Orb. (fig. 340). This author has described a much heavier 
shell, round shouldered, without varices, under the name of M. 
varians (figs. 346, 348), although suspecting it to be the same as 
Geversianus. -Gray considers it the same, and I think there is 
no doubt of it, as I have before me intermediate forms, among 
which are vars. calva (fig. 338) and lirata (fig. 347) of Kobelt. 
Then there is a smaller form called Philippianus, Dunker (fig. 
343), which I figure. This may be considered a variety. Fusus 
intermedium, Gay (PL 70, fig. 433) is another variety. Fusus 
decolor, Phil. (fig. 342), is founded on worn specimens of var. 
Philippianus, Dunker. I think F. albidus Phil. (341), is also this 
variety. T. albolabratus, E. A. Smith (PL 70, fig. 435), from 
Kerguelen's Island is said to differ from T. PTiilippianus in the 
whorls being more rounded above, the penultimate whorl is larger 
and more elevated ; body-whorl more inflated below the middle, 
not prolonged into such an elongated cauda ; the aperture rather 
larger, longitudinal lamellae more prominent and not nearly so 
numerous. Long. 40 mill., diam. 18 mill. 

It is a narrower shell than any of those quoted above, and 
mav be distinct, but I doubt it. 



TROPHON. 145 

T. MURICIFORMIS, King. 

Ovately-fusiform, cinereous ; whorls tumid, cancellated; aper- 
ture dark chestnut; margin of lip crenulate. 

Lengtli 1 inch, diam. '55 inch. 

Straits of Magellan. 

I cannot identify this species. Very probably it is a variety 
of T. Geversianus. 

T. CORRUGATUS, Reeve. PI. 33, tig. 352. 

Closely latticed ; pale fulvous white. Length, 1*25 inches. 

Habitat? 

A very doubtful form. It may = T. muriciformis above, and 
Thilippi (Abbild. Ill) has identified it with his Fusus albidus, 
which is a synonym of T. Geversianus. On the other hand 
Hutton thinks that his T. plebetus, of New Zealand, may be the 
same. 

T. LOEBBECKEI, Kobelt. PI. 31, fig. 335. 

Very like the preceding, but not so closely ribbed. 

Length. 32 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
It may belong to the genus Uros&bpvnx. 

T. PLEBEIUS, Hutton. 

Small, fusiform ; whorls convex, striated spirally, and finely 
plicate longitudinally ; mouth oval, angular, lip striated in adult 
individuals ; canal short, slightly inclined to the left. Purpure- 
ous, the salient parts darker j within brownish purple. 

Length, -8 inch. 

New Zealand. 

Trophon in/eras, Hutton is said to resemble the above, but 
much larger, with shorter canal and more irregular ribs. 

Length, 1-1 inches. 

They are probably identical. Hutton thinks that possibly 
Fusus corruyafus. Reeve (= Trophon) is the same. Not figured. 

T. GrLocKERi, Anton. 

Only known through a short description ; no locality. Is 
probably a Trophon. 
19 



146 TROPHON. 

T. PLUMBETJS, Old. PI. 31, figs. 334, 324, 327 ; PI. 70, fig. 432, 

This is figured in the Wilkes Exped. Mollusca as Fusus plum- 
beus, Phil. The latter, however, is a Euthria, from the North- 
west Coast of North America, whilst the mollusk figured by 
Gould is a Trophon, and probably from Orange Harbor (Terra 
del Fuego). The animal is yellow like others of the genus, and 
the operculum has its nucleus terminal. " The animal secretes 
abundantly a sap-green viscous fluid." Couthouy. Fusvs roseus, 
Hombr. (fig. 327), appears to be the same species. 

T. BUCCINEUS, Gray. PL 39, fig. 490. 

No description or locality is given but an excellent figure, 
which I copy. The shell is allied to T. plumbeus, is light 
chocolate-brown, deeper within the aperture, and a little exceeds 
an inch in length. 

T. XANTHOSTOMA, Brod. PL 33, figs. 349, 350. 

Perfect specimens have the varices beautifully firnbriated by 
the crossing of six or eight prominent revolving ribs, whilst the 
interstices of the latter are crowded with incised revolving lines, 
and crossed with raised growth-striae The adult is very rarely 
in this perfect condition. It much resembles forms of T. Gever- 
sianus, but may be distinguished b} T the following characters : 
the shell is much heavier, the lamella* are broader, the shoulder 
of the whorl is more sloping, the aperture is inclined to pink 
within, and the lip is frequently margined inside and slightly 
dentate. Like T. Geversiamis, this species varies much in the 
proportions of the shell. It has characters in common with 
Siphonalia. Reeve (who figures it as a Purpura) remarks upon 
its variability and the difficulty of assigning it permanently to 
any genus. I figure Fusus fusiformis, Potiez et Midland (PL 
70, fig. 432), which is certainly the same species. 
Dredged in gravel and sand, 7 to 25 fathoms ; 

harbor of Valparaiso, Chili. 

T. HORRIDUS, Brod. and Sowb. PL 33, figs. 356. 353. 

Only differs from T. xanthostoma by its elongated spire, and is 
probably a variety of that species. The type is young, and does 



TROPHON. 147 

not exhibit the internal denticles of the outer lip, but an older 
stage (M. Boivinii, Kiener, fig. 353) has these well developed. 
St. Elena, Panama. In sandy mud, 8-12 fathoms, Broderip. 
Troschel includes it in the enumeration of the Tschudi collec- 
tion from Peru, and figures the operculum, which is murieoid.* 

T. WAHLBERGI, Krauss. PI. 31, fig. 315. 

Length, 1*33 inches. 

Natal Coast, So. Africa. 

T. DUODECIMUS, Gray. 

Ovate, fusiform, pale yellow, longitudinally costate; spire coni- 
cal, acute ; whorls rather rounded ; last whorl about half the length 
of the shell, with twelve concentric rounded ribs and a central 
white band, with some spiral ridges in front crossing the varices, 

and closer over the short, open canal. 

New Zealand. 

1 do not know this species: Hut-ton, in his catalogue of New 
Zealand shells, confesses his inability to determine it. 

T. STANGERI, Gray. PI. 38, figs. 363, 365. 

" Small, ovate, fusiform ; brown. ; regularly and closely concen- 
trically striated ; spire acute, rather shorter than the body-whorl ; 
the upper whorl with two, and the body -whorl one (what ?) ; with 
eight continued, distant, spiral ribs, the hinder ones farthest apart, 
and most raised ; the mouth dark brown ; the canal short, open ; 

axis '75 inch.'' 

New Zealand. 

To this species Hutton refers the Mure.r liratus of his cata- 
logue (not of Gmel.) as well as his FUBUK varius. Dr. von Mar- 
tens has identified the liratus with T. ambiyuus, Philippi (fig. 
365), and Hutton thinks Fusus cretaceus, Reeve (fig. 363), may 
be the same. Both these species are very closely allied to T. 
xanthostoma, Brod., from Chili. 

T. SPIRATUS, Adams. PI. 33, fig. 354. 

Very like T. cretaceus, Reeve, and may be the young of that 
species. Lip slightly striate within ; operculum with terminal 

nucleus. Length 46, diam. 23 mill. 

New Zealand. 



Archiv. fur Naturg., i, 1852. 



1 48 TROPHON. 

T. CORONATUS, Adams. 

Ovately fusiform, thin, cretaceous, white ; spire moderate ; 
whorls angulate behind ; varices distant, laciniated, produced into 
squamiform spines on the shoulder ; interstices smooth ; last 
whorl ventricose, produced into a long rostrum, which is recurved 
at the extremity ; aperture ovate ; lip smooth, simple ; canal open. 

L. 45, lat. It' mill. New Zealand. 

Not figured. 

T. PETTERDI, Brazier. PI. 33, fig. 361. 

Color dirty white, light yellowish within the aperture. 

Length, 8*5 mill. Tasmania. 

An aberrant form, which might as well be placed in Muricidea 
as here. T. clathratus, Woods, is the same species according to 
Yon Martens (Zool. Rec., 152, 18t5) ; and T think Murex scala- 
rinus, A. Adams, will prove to be the same or an allied species. 
If the same, it will have priority. It is not figured, and no locality 
is given. Sowerby has figured in error for this species a little 
shell which much resembles a slim variety of Mure x aciculatus, 
Lam. 
T. BRAZIERT, Woods. 

Ovately fusiform, attenuate at both ends, sordid white ; spire 
subturreted, almost acute, mamillate ; whorls seven, with rib-like 
varices (six distant ones on the body), smooth or finely striate : 
aperture ovate, chestnut-colored, indistinctly brown-banded ; outer 
lip thin ; columella subtuberculate anteriorly ; canal sub-elongate, 
recurved. L. 10, lat. 5 mill. Tasmania. 

Not figured. 

T. GOLDSTEINI, Woods. 

Abbreviately fusiform, lamellosely varicose, sordid white, spire 
subturreted ; whorls eight, convex, angulate and coronate above, 
girdled with distant, subraised lirae (in last whorl four, the two 
towards the base between the varices obsolete), lirae not passing- 
over the varices, which are anteriorly squamose and flexuons ; 
aperture ovate, enamelled and chestnut-brown banded within : 
outer lip varicose ; columella twisted ; canal twisted and flexuous. 

L. 16, lat. 8 mill. Tasmania. 

Not figured. 



TROPHON. 149 

T. AUSTRALIS, Woods. 

Ovate, acuminate at each end, sordidly greenish ; whorls six, 
convex, angular above ; obsoletely ribbed lengthwise, and finely 
transversely lirate ; ribs on last whorl ten, vanishing anteriorly ; 
spire acute ; aperture ovate, outer lip thin ; columella flattened ; 
canal somewhat long and slightly recurved. 

L. 16, lat. 9 mill. 

Tasmania. 
Xot figured. 

This and the preceding species may be young specimens of 
Urosalpinx. 

T. FIMBRIATUS, Hinds. PI. 33, fig. 355. 

Light brown, sometimes obscurely banded, aperture white, 
sulcate within; shell rather solid. Length, 1*5 inch. 

Straits of Macassar; 11 fathoms in sand and gravel; Formosa. 

Generic relationships doubtful. Reeve changed the name 
to luculentus, in his monograph of Murex, because Lamarck 
has described a Murex fimbriatus: as a Trophon, however, 
Hinds' name will stand, and consequently that of Reeve becomes 
a synonym to it. Murex lamelliferus , Dkr., from Formosa, 
appears to be the same species. 

T. SQUAMEUS, Dunker. 

Ovate-fusiform, acute ; whorls eight, convex, angulate, and 
flat-shouldered above the angle, the last whorl two-thirds of the 
total length ; longitudinally plicate, crossed by imbricately 
squamous revolving riblets ; lip crenulate, sulcate within ; canal 
open, sub-umbilicate. Yellowish white, with interrupted chestnut 

bands. Length, 1 inch. 

Manilla. 

An unfio-urod species said by its author to resemble T. fim- 

briafus. 

T. CARDUUS, Brod. PI. 33, fig. 358. 

'Very like T. fimbriatus, but differs somewhat in the ornamenta- 
tion of the spire. Dredged by Mr. Cuming from a coral reef, 
twelve miles from shore, at a depth of 25 fathoms, at Pacosmayo 
Peru. 



150 TROPHON. 

T. CRASSUS, A. Ad. PI. 33, fig. 364. 

Yellowish brown, violet within the aperture. Length, 1*35 in. 

Hakodadi, Japan. 

This is an aberrant form, removed by its solidity, its usually 
internally dentate lip, etc., from the typical Trophons. 

T. incomptus, Gould, is suspected by Mr. Adams to be the 
same species : the description applies pretty well to the figure of 
T. crassus, and it conies from the same locality. Gould says 
that in young shells the laminre are quite prominent, with small 
spines at the angles. 

T. FLINDERSI, Ads. and Angas. PL 33, fig. 357. 

Cinereous, margin of aperture purplish. Length, 1*25 inches. 

York? s Peninsula ; 8. Australia. 

Described as a Trophon-like species of Purpura ; but the 
operculum of the figure is decidedly muricoid and not purpuroid, 
1 therefore place it in Troplion. 

I add descriptions of two species of Purpura b} r Tenison- 
Woods : they have not been figured, and the operculum is not 
mentioned, but as they are compared with T. Flindersi, as pos- 
sibly mere varieties of it, they may belong in Trophon rather 
than in Purpura. 

P. LITTORINOIDES, Tenisoii-Woods. 

" Acuminately ovate, greenish white, spire produced, acuminate, 
mamillate ; whorls six, angnlate and bicarinate above with trans- 
verse rounded line (equaling the interstices in width), and can- 
cellated with scaly imbricate lamellae ; aperture acutely ovate, 
stained deep blackish purple within ; inner lip somewhat flattened 
and partly enamelled, blackish purple ; outer lip slightly crenu- 

late.* Length 15 mill., diam. 8 mill. 

South Australia. 

" This shell approaches in habit the P. Flindersi of Ads. and 
Angas, but it is much smaller and more like a Littorina, while 
the other resembles a Trophon." 

* Since the above was written, P. littorinoides has been found at vari- 
ous localities in Victoria. " Some specimens had a Nassa-like mouth, 
that is, teeth on the outer lip." 



UROSALPINX. 151 

P. PROPINQUA, Tenison- Woods. 

u This shell so closely resembles P. littorinoides, that no better 
description can be given than to say that it is broader, shorter, 
with fewer whorls, and the spiral lira 1 become six stout corrugated 
ribs with a corrugated one at the angle. The aperture is fulvous. 
It is intermediate between the species just mentioned, and Mr. 
Angas ? P. Flinderxi. The difference may be due to climate. 
Future observers must solve the question of the specific distinc- 
tion of these three shells which are different enough at their 
various stations, many hundred miles apart, but may possibly 
graduate one into another as they are traced north or south. 

" Length 13, diam. 8 mill." 

N. W. Coast Australia ; extremely abundant on rocks at low water. 

T. GYBATUS, Hinds. PI. 33, fig. 3f)2. 

Brownish white. Length, '75 inch. 

Straits of Macassar ; in coarse sand, 17 fms. 

Described as a Trophon, and by Reeve and Kobelt placed in 
Murex. I figure it here, but think it may prove a young Siphon- 
alia. Operculum unknown. 

T. UNICARINATUS, Phil. 

Shell minute, violaceous, oblong-fusiform, smooth ; whorls 
carinate above, forming a shoulder ; canal open, equaling and 
confluent with the aperture. Length, 3*5 lines. 

Straits of Magellan. 

This may possibly be the young of one of the numerous 
varieties of T. Geversianus. It was described as a Fusm, which 
of course it is not. Not figured. 

Genus UROSALPINX, Stimpson. 

Shell elongated oval, or short fusiform, longitudinally ribbed 
or undulated and spirally striated ; aperture with a short canal ; 
outer lip dentate and lirate within. Operculum somewhat like 
that of Purpura, semicordate, with the nucleus at the outer edge 
a little below the middle. Lingual dentition nearly like that of 
Trophon, the lateral teeth having an elongated base of attachment ; 
but the rhachidian tooth has numerous minute denticles between 
the principal ones, corresponding to ridges on the surface of the 



152 UROSALPINX. 

tooth, as in the Murices. Ova-capsules oblong, shouldered, 
widest near the summit, compressed, cariuated on either side 
peduncle short ; base of attachment very small ; aperture meuutu 
at the summit. 

It differs from Trophon in its operculum, and from Ocinebra 
in its smoother shell, want of distinct varices, and open canal. 

I think the genus as defined above will include a natural group 
of species such as I have ventured to refer to it. It is possible 
that several species which 1 have preferred to place in Ocinebra. 
such as M. liratus, A. Ad., and M. maculatus. Reeve, may really 
belong here : for the present they cannot be definitely placed, the 
operculum and animal being unknown. Robert has monographed 
Urosalpinx as a subgeiius of Trophon. 

The fossil genus Scalaspira, Conrad, is certainly closely allied 
to, if not identical with Urosalpinx ; if the latter, it has priority : 
it would scarcely be advisable, however, to reject Stimpson's well- 
characterized genus in favor of one having no diagnosis, and only 
known by its type. 

Scalaspira strumo f sa, Conr. PI. 70, fig. 431. Miocene, Ft 



U. CINEKEA, Say. PI. 39, figs. 493, 489. 487. 

Usually light brown or yellowish, rarely with several revolving, 
indistinct, rufous bands. Within the aperture varying from 
light flesh-color to dark salmon, chocolate or purple. 

Length, 1-35 inches. 

Maine to Florida. 

Animal small, foot scarcely covering the aperture, very little 
dilated at the front angles, cream-colored, margined with lemon 
color beneath, punctured with light drab above ; siphon merely 
surpassing the tip of the canal ; head scarcely protruded ; ten- 
tacula nearly united at origin ; eyes black, at the outer upper 
third of tentacula, which third is a mere filament, contractile. 
Motions sluggish. Littoral. 

The eggs of Urosalpinx cinerea are contained in small trans- 
parent membranous parchment-like vases, each of which is at. 
tached by an expanded foot to some solid substance, usually the 
under surface of an overhanging rock, a little above low-tide 
mark. Each female deposits from ten or twelve to more than a 
hundred of these vases, the process of laying occupying several 



I T ROSALPINX. 153 

weeks. The vases are generally attached in more or less regu- 
lar rows, covering sometimes an area of three or four square 
inches. In shape and size they are like the egg-cases of Purpura, 
but without the slight reddish tinge of the latter. They are 
flattened vertically, and their edges are marked by keel-like 
ridges. Owing to the lengthened period of oviposition, eggs and 
embryos in all stages of development are to be found in the 
various vases of a group, and the young escape from the first- 
laid vases before the female has finished laying. Unlike the 
vases of Purpura, each of which contains several hundred eggs, 
those of Uroxalpiii.r contain only from six to twenty, ten or 
twelve being the usual number. All of these normally undergo 
development, and give rise to embryos. Occasionally a partially 
segmented egg or more advanced embryo becomes abortive and 
breaks up into separate cells, each of which remains alive for 
some time, and often swims actively by the motion of its cilia. 
These cosmelhe and the yolk of the aborted eggs are drawn into 
the digestive cavities of other embryos, but this method of fur- 
nishing the young with food is exceptional and accidental, 
although normal in the Purpunie.* 

Reeve (Monog. Fusus) has figured JEupleura Tampaenzis, 
Conrad, in mistake for this species. Fiisus recur vus, Koch (fig. 
487), appears to be a small specimen of U. cinerea. 

II. FLORIDANA, Conrad. PL 39, fig. 48G. 

Distinguished from U. ciyerea mainly by its shouldered whorls, 
the ribs forming nodulous projections at the angles. Cinereous, 
not banded ; purple within. Length, 1*2;> inches. 

Florida . 

U. MEXICANA, Reeve. PL 39, fig. 482. 

" A neatly sculptured species, distinguished by the light yel- 
lowish color of the ridges upon a purple-brown ground. n 

Length, '9 inch. 

Mexico. 

This may prove to be identical with U. Floridana, and if so, 
will have priority over that species. 



* W. K. Brooks, in "Scientific Results, Chesapeake Zoological Labora- 
tory," 121, 1879. 

20 



154 UROSALPTNX. 

U. MORRISI, Dunker. 

Solid, ovate-fusiform, with acute apex ; the convex whorls have 
about ten ribs crossed by revolving line ; aperture sulcate 
within; cauda short, subrimate ; canal open, a little incurved, 
white, with three fuse us bands. Length 1-3 inches, lat. -7 inch. 

Habitat? 

Has not been figured. Is said to be distinguished from U. 
cinerea. Say, by its greater size, more tumid whorls, more pro- 
found sutures and distinct sculpture. Described as a Trophon, 
but evidently belongs to Urosalpinx. 

U. CANCELLTNA, Phil. * PI. 39, fig. 492. 

Longer and narrower than U. cinerea, Say, the ribs and re- 
volving lirae both more numerous, the former sixteen, the latter 
tw T enty-four in number on the body. Dirty white, violet within. 

Length, 1-5 inches. 

Magellan's Straits. 

U. WAHLBERGI, Krauss. PI. 31, fig. 336. 

A solid, whitish species, most nearly allied to U. cancelUna, 

Phil. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

U. BIRILEPPI, Lischke. PI 33, fig. 300. 

Solid, subturreted fusiform ; yellowish brown to chestnut, 
sometimes mottled ; whorls seven, 'con vex, shouldered; imbri- 
cated costulre cross eight or nine longitudinal ribs ; lip crenulate, 
thickened and dentate within ; aperture violet or reddish. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Japan. 

U. FicuLA, Reeve. PI. 39, fig. 479. 

Somewhat pyriform, spire rather short, whorls longitudinally 
ribbed, ribs somewhat distant, obtusely keeled round the upper 
part, corded with raised lines, alternate!}' smaller. Light brown, 

lines reddish brown. Length, '9 inch. 

Manilla ? ( Cuming. ) 

Very close to U. Paivse, Crosse, and very closely allied to U. 
Birileffi, above. 



UROSALP1NX. 155 

U. INNOTABILIS, E. A. Smith. PI. 70, fig. 439. 

Light brown, with two interrupted darker bands ; aperture 
white within, the outer lip with about six teeth. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Japan. 

U. PAIVJE, Crosse. PL 39, figs. 495, 499. 

Ash-gray to cinereous, whitish or purple within the aperture. 
Length, 1 inch. 

So. Australia : under stones at low-water. 

U. Hanleyi, Angas (fig. 499), is founded on elate specimens 
of this species. It is not readily distinguished from U. Floridana, 
Conrad. Yon Martens considers Fusus corticatus, Hutton, a 
synonym of U. Paivae. 

U. FUSIFORMIS, A. Adams. PL 39, fig. 498. 

A yellowish brown shell, thirty millimetres in length. No 
locality. Described as a Murex* but appears to be a Urosalpinx, 
and remarkably similar to U. Floridana, Conrad, besides being- 
very like U. Paivas, Crosse. 

U. ASSIST, Woods. 

Ovately fusiform, grayish olive ; whorls six, convex, angular 
above, elegantly ribbed and peculiarly thickly striate lengthwise, 
with very fine lamellose striae ; transversely conspicuously lirate, 
lira' alternating and passing over the ribs; suture impressed; 
ribs elevated, narrow, eleven in last whorl ; aperture ovate, outer 
lip thin, acute, canal long-oblique, purple within. 

Length, 12 mill. 

N. Coast of Tasmania. 

In form resembling 1. Paivae, Crosse, and T. Hanleyi, Ang., 
but easily distinguished by its long canal and peculiar lamellose 
striations. 

The above is Woods' description. I doubt its distinctness 
from U. Paivae, Crosse. It is probably a young shell. 

U. UMBILICATA, Woods. 

Ovate, yellow or pale chestnut, solid, spire raised ; whorls five 
to six, angulate above and concave, conspicuously plicate length- 
wise (eight in the last whorl), and transversely thickly lirate, 
lira* alternating large and small, the larger flattened, squamately 



156 UROSALPTNX. 

imbricated over the plaits ; squama 1 behind the columella valid, 
raised and canaliculate ; at the sutures, the plaits and lirae obso- 
lete ; outer lip cremilate outside and toothed within ; columella 
lip expanded, umbilicus margined with rounded, imbricated 
scales. Length 27, lat. 15 mill. 

E. Coast Tasmania ; rather uncommon. 

At one time I considered this a Tasmauian var. of T. Hanleyi, 
Ang. (== Paivae, Cr.), but a comparison of many specimens 
shows me that the present is an entirely different shell, very 
much more scabrous. The umbilicus and its margin are also 
peculiar and distinct. 

The above is the original description. Not figured. 

U. DUBIA, Hutton. 

Oval, fusiform, thick ; whorls of the spire seven, convex, with 
coarse spiral ribs ; the spiral whorls only furnished with longitu- 
dinal ribs ; mouth oval ; canal very short. Covered with a per- 
sistent greenish brown epidermis ; dark purple within the aper- 
ture. Length *7 inch, lat. *4 inch. 

New Zealand. 

Wider than U. Paivte, the canal much shorter ; distinguished 
also by the absence of ribs on the body -whorl. Not figured. 



U. PLEBEIA, Hutton. U. BRAZIERI, Woods. U. AUSTRALIA, 

Woods. U. INFERA, Hutton. U. GOLDSTEIN j. Woods. 
Kobelt includes these in his catalogue of Uroxalpiitx, which he 
makes a subgenus of Trojjhon. I have described them under 
Trophon. 

U. TRITONIFORMIS, Bl. PL 39, fig*. 491, 488, 41H>. 

Brownish, the nodules sometimes nearly black ; bluish or pur- 
plish within, sometimes banded. Length *75 1*25 inches. 

Philippines ; Australia ; Tasmania. 

Readily distinguished by its small size and long, turriculated 
spire. I have before me a similar form said to come from 
Ceylon. 

Dunker redescribed this species making for it a new genus, 
Adamsia typica, and H. and A. Adams have adopted it as a sub- 
genus of the pisanoid genus Cominella: it is, however, a true 



EUPLEURA. 157 

Urosalpinx, judging from its operculum, which is purpuroid. A 
more shouldered variety has been described by Adams and Angas 
as Adamsia Adelaide (fig. 488), and again by the latter as Pur- 
pur a neglecta (fig. 496). Rev. E. Teiiison-Woods has proposed 
the generic name Agnewia for this shell, that of Adamsia being 
preoccupied by E. Forbes in Anthozoa. Tasmanian specimens 
are banded with purple or chestnut. 

Genus EUPLEURA, H. and A. Ad. 

Stimpson has shown (Am. Jour. Conch., i, 58, 1865), that Ea- 
nella caudata, Say, has the dentition of the Muricidae (instead of 
that of the Ronellid&). The tongue of no other species of Eupleura, 
however, has been examined, and it was, perhaps, unadvisable to 
separate this group so widely from its former congenerers on the 
evidence of a single character in a single species. I can readily 
place Eupleura in the Muricidse, however, because I think that 
in its conchological characters it forms a passage between Murex 
and Ranella, as I believe Ocinebra to form a passage between 
Murex and Purpura, Urosalpinx between Murex and Fusus. etc. 
Kobelt, who has recently monographed the Muricidse, considers 
Urosalpinx and Eupleura both subgenera of Trophon. 

E. CAUDATA, Say. PL 39, fig. 503. 

Color varying from nearly white to dark brown, livid within. 
Animal has a light yellow foot ; siphon, head and tentacles nearly 
white. Length, -6-1-2 inches. 

Narragansett Bay^ Mass., to Georgia and Florida. 

Generally, the southern specimens are largest. The two lateral 
YM rices characteristic -of Ranella are sometimes scarcely more 
developed than the intermediate ribs. Operculum purpuroid. 

E. TAMPAENSIS, Conrad. PL 39, fig. 49t. 

This is a more robust species than the preceding, the longitu- 
dinal ribs are more elevated and sharper, and the revolving ribs 
coarser and more distinct. The canal is much shorter; teeth 
within the lip smaller and more numerous. Aperture dark chest- 
nut within. Length, 1 inch. 

W. Coast of Florida. 

May possibly prove to be an extreme form of E. caudata. The 
lateral varices are not distinguishable from the others. 



158 PURPURA. 

E. MURICIFORMIS, Brod. PL 39, figs. 502, 501, 504, 505. 

This appears to be the Pacific Coast analogue of E. caudata. 
Its distribution is from Southern California to Central America ; 
and it is largest and finest from the southern localities, attaining 
a length of 1'75 inches, whereas northern specimens are stunted 
and do not exceed *75 inch. Mr. W. W. Calkins has collected a 
few specimens of this species near Cedar Keys, Florida, part of 
them on the pretty little coral Oculina diffusa : these he sub- 
mitted to me and I have no doubt that the}^ are the same species ; 
there is also a specimen labeled Florida in the Swift collection.* 

Eanella triquetra (fig. 505), and E. plicata, Reeve (fig. 504), 
appear to be forms of this species, and an extreme form is E. 
pectinata, Hinds. E. clathrata, Gray, has been also referred 
here : it has not been figured, and the description will not permit 
us to assign it definitely. 

E. NITIDA, Brod. PI. 39, tig. 500. 

Dark brown or purple, sometimes banded ; varices laminate. 

Length, '6-1 inch. 

Panama, W. Columbia. 

E. PULCHRA, Gray. 

Whitish, brown or violet. Length, l'5-2'25 inches. 

Japan; Philippine*. 

It is very doubtful whether this beautiful species belongs to 
this group, to which it is assigned by H. and A. Adams. I men- 
tion it here, but will include it in Eatiella, in Vol. III. 

Genus PURPURA, Drug. 
lenera. 



PURPDRA (typical). Shell oblong-oval, last whorl large ; spire generally 
short ; aperture ovate, large, with an oblique channel or groove at the 
fore-part ; columella flattened ; outer lip simple. 

PURPURELLA. Aperture contracted ; outer lip strongly dentate within ; 
columella flattened, with one or two distinct spiral ridges upon its 
centre. 



* Mr. R. E. C. Stearns, in " Science News," supposes Mr. Calkins' shell 
to be a variety of E. caudata. I can only repeat that the specimens sent 
me are undoubtedly E. Muriciformis. 



PURPURA. 159 

TRIBULUS. Spire depressed, whorls simple, the last ventricose ; aperture 
wide ; columella arcuated ; inner lip excavated, corrugated at the fore- 
part. 

THALESSA. Spire elevated, whorls spinose, augulated at the upper part ; 
aperture moderate ; columella rounded, tubercular in front ; outer lip 
nodulous internally. 

STRAMONITA. Spire elevated, whorls simple or nodulous ; aperture 
moderate, produced anteriorly ; columella rounded, simple in front. 

TROCHIA. Whorls separated by a deep groove ; inner lip thickened, 
convex, striated ; aperture with a very short canal. 

POLYTROPA. Spire acuminate, whorls foliated or tuberculose ; inner Up 
flattened ; canal small, oblique ; aperture narrowed at the fore-part. 

CRONIA. Shell ovate ; spire acuminated ; aperture moderate ; inner lip 
callous at the upper part ; columella straight, simple anteriorly. 

Genus PURPURA, Brug. 

For the dentition of P. patula, L., see PL 42, fig. 1. The 
same plate contains figures of the lingual armature of represen- 
tatives of the different subgeneric groups. 

The animal does not differ essentiall}- from that of Murex in 
its general external and anatomical characters. The eyes aiv 
usually placed near the tips of the tentacles, the siphon is short, 
and the foot not large. 

About forty tertiary species have been described. 

P. PATULA, Linn. PI. 43, figs. 19-22. 

Brown, the ribs and nodules darker ; the much excavated 
columella light chocolate-color, with a darker margin or semi- 
lunate portion posteriorly ; grooves within the outer lip dark 
chocolate. Adults attain 4 inches in length. 

Gulf of California to Panama; Isle of Bourbon (Deshayes) ; 
Philippines (Cuming) ; West Indies. 

There can be no doubt of the very extensive distribution of 
this species in tropical and subtropical latitudes. Dr. Gould 
has distinguished the Pacific specimens by characters derived 
from depauperate or immature shells, under the name of P. pansa; 
but well-developed forms do not differ from those of the West 
Indies. In young individuals the revolving ribs and tubercles 
are much sharper than in adults. This species does not inhabit 
the Mediterranean, although so stated by several authors. 



160 PURPURA. 

P. HAUSTRUM, Montf. PI. 43, fig. 25. 

Exteriorly various shades of chocolate ; within the aperture 
bluish white, more or less tinged with chocolate. Substance of 
shell thin. Length, 2-3-5 inches. 

Australia; New Zealand. 

P. PERSICA, Linn. PL 43, figs. 24, 23. 

Brown, with narrow revolving zones of white alternating witli 
dark chocolate ; aperture bluish or pinkish, with interrupted 
narrow revolving brown lines upon the interior of the outer lip. 

Length, 3-4 inches. 

Philippines. 

P. inerma, Reeve (fig. 23), does not differ, and P. .Rudolphn, 
Chemn., is so close that .its identity may be suspected. 

P. RUDOLPHII, Chemn. PI. 44, fig. 26. 

Shell heavier than P. persica, with usually higher spire ; two 
or three of the revolving zones develop tubercles ; whorls some- 
what shouldered ; outer lip less dilated and thicker than in 
P. persica; columella straighter and less patulous. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Philippines. 
P. CHOCOLATUM, Duclos. PL 44, figs. 27-29. 

The substance of the shell is uniformly thin ; color uniform 
chocolate, the columella tinged with orange, the interior bluish 
or yellowish. In some young specimens the whorls are rounded, 
without angles or tubercles, whilst others, of same size, have t ho 
shoulder and tubercles equally developed with the adult. 

Length, 3*5 inch. 

Peru. 

D'Orbigny found clusters of eggs (fig. 28) in May. He says 
that the mollusk is very active in its movements, and that, 
judging from the quantity of shells found in the vicinity of the 
ancient tombs at Arica, it must have been a favorite article of 
diet with the aborigines. 

P. LEFEVREI, Lesson. 

Said to belong to the Patula-group. Has not been figured or 

identified. 

Pacific 0. 



PURPURELLA. 161 

Subgenus Purpurella, Ball. 

A section of the shell shows that the projections upon the 
centre of the cohimella, are not mere tubercles, but regular spiral 
ridges extending through nearly all the whorls. 

P. COLUMELLARTS, Lam. PI. 44, figs.3l, 35. 

Dark brown ; interior flesh color, the lips tinged with orange. 

Length, 1*5-3 inches. 

Mazatlan ; Gallapagos Isles. (Cuming.^ 

Carpenter remarks that, different as normal specimens of this 
shell are from P. patula^ the labial callosity gradually vanishes in 
some specimens, whilst the labral teeth are scarcely developed, 
and the resemblance of the two species is then so great that they 
can only be separated by a balance of characters. The series of 
specimens before me confirm this view, and afford abundant 
evidence of a common derivation however distinct they may be 
typically. P. semi-imbricata, Lam., a species which has not been 
identified, is perhaps equivalent to this species. 

P. leucostoma, Desh. (fig. 35), does not present any well-marked 
distinctive characters ; it is quite young, being only 14 mill, in 
length, and the coloration varies from the specimen figured to 
that of P. columellaris. 

Subgenus Tribulus, Klein. 

P. PLANOSPIRA, Lam. PI. 45, fig. 32. 

Pale yellowish brown ; interior white, the revolving ribs within 
the outer lip, and the basal ribs of the columella yellowish red. 
The singular deep excavation of the middle of the columella is 
crossed by an oblique black rib. Length, l*5-2'5 inches. 

Gallapagos Isles ; Lower California. 

P. APERTA, Blainv. Plate 44, fig. 30 

White, or yellowish white ; more or less stained with orange 
upon the columellar tubercles and the teeth of the lip. 
Length, 1*5-3 inches. 

W. Co. Central America. (Cuming.) Sandwich Isles. 
Pease remarks that the species is peculiar to the latter locality. 
21 



162 THALESSA. 

Suhgpnus Thalessa, H. and A. Adam?. 

P. HIPPOCASTANEUM, Lam. PI. 45, figs. 42, 43, 36 to 41 ; PI. 46, 
fig. 45. 

Yellowish or whitish, more or less mottled or stained with 
dark chocolate, which is sometimes disposed in bands between 
the spinose revolving ribs; internally whitish with darker revolv- 
ing bands. Sometimes the surface is nearly covered with black, 
and a broad band margins the outer lip. Length, 1*5-3 inches. 

Philippine* ; Zanzibar ; Paumotus ; Central Pacific ; 

Bay of Muscat ; Indian Ocean, 

The description of Linnauis' P. kippocastaneuvn is too indefi- 
nite, and his references include other species; so that I am com- 
pelled to cite Lamarck. 

P. bitubercularis, Lam. (fig. 36), is merely a black variety, in 
which the outer lip is generally broadly margined with black ; it 
has no distinctive characters in the tube re illation. 

A similar form from the Red Sea has been called P. Savignyi 
(fig. 45) by Deshayes. 

P. distinguenda. Dunker t fig. 37), is a depauperate form of the 
black variety, the whorls merely nodulous instead of spinose. In 
P. intermedia, Kiener (fig. 41), even the nodules have almost 
disappeared and are principally indicated by white spots upon 
the otherwise dark surface; P. ocellata, Kiener (fig. 38), is the 
young of this form. It may be convenient to designate P. inter- 
media as a variety. Another variety is P. alveola ta, Reeve, 
which I have also figured (fig. 40). It is whitish or brownish, 
the tubercles darker; interior yellowish, mottled with brown. 

Length, T25 inches. 

Panama. (Cuming. ) Formosa ; Japan and Swan River, 

(E. A. Smith.) 

P, TUMULOSA, Reeve. PL 46, figs, 44, 48, 49 ; PL 45. figs. 33, 34 ; 

PL 47, fig. 65. 

Revolving ribs rounded, raised into round nodules superiorly ; 
outer lip thin, not dentate within. Color varying from very 
light brown to dark chocolate, more or less mottled with white, 
especially the tubercles. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Zanzibar ? ; Japan. 



THALKSSA. 16H 

The adult specimen (P. Bronni\ which I figure from Lischke 
(fig. 33), is remarkable for the confluence of the tubercles into 
greatly raised rounded ribs on the body-whorl. P. clamgera, 
Kiister (fig. 49 \ is a depauperate form. Reeve's locality, " Zan- 
zibar," for P. tumulosa is probably an error. 

P. PICA, Blainv. PL 46, figs. 46. 47, 52, 53. 

Shell whitish, banded with dark chocolate; bands appearing 
within the margin of outer lip and on columella; interior of 
outer lip with close, narrow, raised, brown revolving lines. 

Length, l*25-2'5 inches. 

China Sea; Philippines; Central Pacific Ocean. 

Broader, more ventricose, with shorter, stouter, and more 
direct spines than P. hippocastaneum. The want of teeth and 
development of raised revolving ribs within the outer lip are 
good distinguishing characters. P. cuspidata, Ad. and Reeve 
(fig. 47), is the young. 

P. ARMIGERA, Chemn. PL 46, figs. 50, 51. 

White, generally with light brown bands between the roww of 
tubercles ; aperture yellowish or pink within. 

Length, 2-3'5 inches. 

Philippines; Paumotus, etc. 

P. affinis, Reeve (fig. 51), is the young. The animal is described 
fully in Gould's Moll. Wilkes' Exped., p. 245. 

P. TRISERIALIS, Blainv. PL 47, fig. 54. 

White, with revolving bands composed of brown squares ; yel- 
lowish white within. Length, '75-l'5 inches. 

Acapulco ; Mazatlan. 

P. DELTOIDEA, Lain. PL 47, figs. 55, 58. 

Light brown or whitish, with dark chestnut bands, which 
sometimes appear also on the inside of the outer lip ; columella 

pink. Length, '75-2 inches. 

West Indies ; Florida. 

^ery closely allied to P. triserialis; the bands are not broken 
up into squares of color, but are continuous and much darker ; 
the color of the columella is also different. 

P. albocincta, Kiister (fig. 58), appears to be founded on a 
worn, immature specimen of this species. 



164 THALESSA. 

P. MELONES, Duclos. PI. 47, fig. 56. 

Dark chestnut, variegated with white, especially upon the 
periphery and inferior portion of the bod} 7 ; columella tinged 
with pink ; outer lip frequently black-bordered. 

Length, l'5-2 inches. 

Pacific Coast of Central America, 

The want of nodules or spines disagrees with the character of 
the group ; yet the relationship of this species with P. deltoidea 
is tolerably close. Sometimes the body-whorl is, in adults, con- 
stricted around the middle. Morch describes the animal in 
Mai. Blatt., vii, 99. 

P. TRIANGULARIS, Blainv. PL 47, fig. 57. 
White ; more or less stained with light brown externally. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Mazatlan to Panama. 

Something like P. triserialis, but differs in the equal develop- 
ment of the second row of revolving tubercles. 

P. MANCINELLA, Linn. PI. 47, figs. 59-61, 63, 64. 

Shell yellowish, the tubercles frequently tinged with red ; aper- 
ture A r arying from white (P. echinata ) to deep yellow ; in the latter 
with the raised interior revolving lines darker colored (typical). 

Length, 1-5-2*5 inches. 

Say of Muscat; Singapore; Fiji Isles; W. Coast Central 

America ; Peru ; Japan ; Australia. 

The more elevated and more sharply tubercled forms, white 
without and within, are called P. echinata (fig. 63), and might 
continue to be so designated as a variety, but the intermediate 
gradations are very complete. P. xgrota, Reeve (fig. 64), said 
to inhabit the waters of Japan and Australia, is one of these 
intermediate forms. 

P. LUTEOMARGINATA, Montrouzier. PL 47, fig. 62. 

Yellowish white, the nodules chocolate ; margin of lip and 
columella tinged with orange. Length, 1-6 inches. 

New Caledonia. 

This may be a mere variety of the preceding species, but has 
relationships with P. bimaculata also. 



THALESSA. 166 

P. LISCHKEI, Kiister. PL 48, fig. 68. 

Light brown with four whitish subnodulous revolving ribs, 
lineated with chestnut-brown ; aperture tinged with orange. 

Length, 1*6 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Has very much the appearance of a depauperate variety of P. 
luteomarginata. If identical, P. Lischkei will have priority. 

P. BIMACULATA, Jonas. PI. 48, fig. 67. 

White, the rounded nodules black ; a black spot at the base of 
the columella and a similar one at the base of the outer lip. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Zanzibar. 

P. NERITOIDEA, Linn. PL 48, figs. 72, 73, 69. 

Whitish, externally more or less penciled with brown revolv- 
ing lines ; two or more round black spots on the middle of the 

columella. Length, 2 inches. 

Cape Verde Is.; Ascension Isl. 

The type is tuberculate, but the variety Ascensionis, Quoy 
(figs. 69, 73), is smooth ; both have the characteristic black spots 
on the columella. 

P. BUFO, Lam. PL 48, tigs. 66. 67, 71. 

Yellowish white with brown revolving lines ; interior of aper- 
ture flesh-color, sometimes showing revolving brown lines like 
the exterior. Substance of adults very thick, not banded within. 

Length, 1-5-2-5 inches. 

Philippines, on rocks at low water. 

Varies from nearly smooth, only some slight tubercles on the 
shoulder, to forms having several revolving rows of tubercles. 

P. multilineata, Kiister (fig. 71), is the young of this species ; 
I also figure a young shell with well-developed tubercles, from 
Kiener (fig. 70). 

P. TRINITATENSIS, Guppy. 

Solid, ovate, yellowish, subrimate ; with numerous spiral ridges 
crossed by fine imbricating stride ; four spiral rows of obtuse, 
elongated tubercles, the superior one forming the angle of the 
body -whorl ; mouth pink within, often with two or three more or 



166 STRAMONITA. 

less interrupted spiral red or chestnut revolving lines, obsoletely 
striate, denticulate on the lip. Length, 40 mill. 

Gulf of Paria, Trinidad, W. I. 

Said to resemble P. mancinella, but with a sharper spire arid 
more decided striation. It has not been figured, nor have 1 
seen it. 



P. COCCINEA, Anton. 
P. BICONICA, Anton, 

Both said to belong to the P. armigera group; not figured, 
nor identified by subsequent writers. No locality given. 

Subgenus Stramonita, Schutn. 
P. CONSUL, Lam. PL 49, figs. 74, 79. 

Yellowish, usually with narrow brown revolving lines ; aper- 
ture orange color. Length, 2'5-5 inches. 

Philippines. 

Reeve has attempted to show distinctive characters in a large 
form with short tubercles, and has calle^ it P. gigantea (fig. 79). 
I have before me a series which completely connects this form, 
however, with the sharply tuberculate P. Consul. 

P. LUTEOSTOMA, Chemn. PI. 49, figs. 77, 78, 81. 

Yellowish brown, mottled or longitudinally waved with dark 
chocolate ; aperture yellow or orange within, sometimes banded 

with brown lines. Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

Loo Choo ; Japan. 

The undulatory character of the tubercles reminds one of P. 
hippocastaneum ; it is distinguished from that species, however, 
by its yellow mouth and thin outer lip. 

P. Capensis, Petit, said to have been collected by M. Verreaux, 
at Cape of Good Hope, is evidently the same species ; the figure 
which I copy, does not agree well in coloring with the descrip- 
tion. 

P. RUSTICA, Lam. PL 49, figs. 75, 76. 

White, marbled with purplish brown or red ; aperture fiesh- 
color or yellowish. Length, 1-6-2 inches. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Insl. Apiana, Polynesia (Pease). 

P. marmorata. Pease (fig. 76), appears to be the same species, 



STRAMONITA. 167 

P. HSEMASTOMA, Linil. 

J cannot separate the numerous species which are referred to 
the hsemastomoid group ; they appear to be at best mere names 
for geographical groups, which, whilst usually presenting some 
slight peculiarities, invariably connect themselves with the parent 
form. As might be expected under these circumstances, the 
various monographers in endeavoring to recognize a number of 
these species, differ among themselves quite as much as do the 
shells under consideration ; I will not attempt to disentangle all 
this synonymy, but will proceed to designate by name a certain 
number of forms (1 cannot call them varieties, much less 
species). 

Hsemasioma (typical). PL 49, figs. 80, $4 ; pi. 50, fig. 87. 

This has two rows of tubercles and an orange-colored mouth. 
It is principally Mediterranean and West African, but recurs in 
the West Indies and W. Coast of Mexico also. A smoother 
state from Barcelona has been called P. Barcinonensis by M. 
Hidalgo (fig. 84). Sometimes the spire is drawn out, becoming 
babylqnic ; this elate form is represented by a figure in d'Orbigny's 
Mollusca of the Canary Isles (fig. 87); it occurs also upon the 
Gulf Coas ; t of the United States. 

Undata, Lam. PL 49, fig. 82; PL 50, figs. 100, 103; PL 51, 
fig. 109. 

By common consent, the usual W. Indian manifestation of P. 
hsemastoma bears this name, although the form which it charac- 
terizes is equally common on the W. Coast of America, and in the 
East Indies. The shell is generally smaller, less tuberculated, the 
pattern of painting more defined (undulated or striped), the mouth 
white or fasciated within instead of orange color. P. Forbesii, 
Dunker (fig. 100), from Guinea, W. Africa, belongs to this form. 

Floridana, Conrad. PL 49, figs. 83, 85 ; PL 50, figs. 86, 90, 94. 

This is a still less tuberculate form, with yet more distinct 
painting, and P. fasciata, Reeve (fig. 90), is a depauperate or 
worn state of the same. It is West Indian, but Conrad includes 
in his species a var. of haemastoma figured by Dunker, from 
Guinea, W. Coast Africa (fig. 83). Another figure of hsemastoma 



8 STRAMONITA. 

in the same work is cited by Conrad as the type of his P. nebu- 
losa (fig. 94) ; P. Nuttalli, Conrad (fig. 109), from Fayal, is again 
the same form. P. viverratoides, d'Orb. (fig. 103), from the 
Canary Islands, is so completely dissimilar to the typical hsema- 
Ktoma that it is no wonder it was described and figured as a dis- 
tinct species ; yet it is only a variation of the Floridana type 
a variation which is quite abundant among West Indian speci- 
mens of the latter, and it is connected with haemastoma by an 
unbroken series of gradations. 

Biserialis, Blainv. PL 50, figs. 91, 99, 102.* 

In some of the shells thus named the aperture is white, but 
usually it is orange-colored, with an unmistakable recurrence to 
the typical P. haemastoma. It occurs from Southern California 
to Panama very plentifully. Other names of this group are 
unifascialis, Lam. (fig. 102), hsematura, Yal., macrostoma, Kiis- 
ter (fig. 99), Consul, Mke. (non Lam.). 

Bicostalis, Lam. PI. 50, figs. 91, 93. 

P. P. Carpenter proposes that this name be reserved for the 
East Indian forms ; its normal type as well as a specimen devoid 
of tubercles and almost without shoulder, are well represented 
by Reeve's figures (which I have copied), although the originals 
of these are from West Columbia. 



* SINUSIGERA. 

Mr. Arthur Adams has identified a Cheletropis with Purpura biserialu, 
of which he supposes it to be the larval state (see ante, p. 52). The fol- 
lowing species of Cheletropis (= Sinunigera] have been described : 
S. CANCELLATA, Orb. (Figured in Keferstein.) PI. 8, figs. 101, 102. 
S. MICROSCOPICA, Gray (== Huxleyi, Forbes). PI. 50, fig 88. 

S. GLABRA, A. Ad. 

S. TROCHOIDE8, A. Ad. 

S. VITREA, A. Ad. 

S. CRENILABRIS, Garrett. PI. 50, fig. 89. 

The arms, four in number, are arranged in a cruciform manner around 
the head; There are two tentacles, and the eyes, well formed, are situated 
on the outer side of their bases. Respiratory siphon short, being a simple 
fold of the mantle. Foot large and very mobile, furnished with a small, 
thin operculum ; unprovided with a float. 



TROOHTA. 169 

'BlainwHei, Desh. PL 50, figs. 104, 95, 92. 

Usually uniform chocolate color exteriorly ; the aperture bor- 
dered with chocolate, bluish within. Shoulder and tubercles 
very slight, shell rather thin. Peruvian. To this form belong 
P. Callaoensis. Blainv. (non Gray), P. Del esser liana, d'Orb. (fig. 
95), P. Peruriana, Souleyet (fig. 92), and P. JanelH, Kiener. 
(fig. 98). 



P. LINEATA, Lam. PI. 50, fig. 10(>. 

Yellowish, with orange-colored revolving ribs, which are 
slightly nodulous on the shoulder ; interior yellow, with columelln 
and lip tinged with orange ; substance of shell rather thin. 

Length, 1'5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

I have not seen this species ; it may be an extreme variety of 
P. h&mastoma, or possibly the young of P. Consul. 

P. CRUENTATA, (Imel. PI. 50, fig. 105. 

A thin spirally ribbed shell ; ashy gray with chestnut blotches. 

orange-colored within. Length, 1*8 inches. 

llhitt unknown. 

My figure is from K lister, who alone has attempted to identify 
it; evidently belongs to the hfrHtnxlinnn group. 

P. FASCIATA, Punkt-r. 

The description indicates a shell of the haemastomoid group, 
and applies very well to forms of /'. bsemastoma. Unfortunately 
the specimen is not figured. Locality unknown. 

Suhgnus Trochia, Swains. 

P. CINGULATA, Linn. PI. 51, figs. 108, 110, 111, 114-117. 

The prominent revolving ribs, excavated at their sides, distin- 
guish this species from all that precede it. Color white or gray ; 
tops of ribs and interior of aperture usually brown. 

Length, 1*5 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Reeve has proposed to restrict this species to those having 
only three revolving ribs, and he describes a form with five ribs 
as P. spiralis (fig. 114) ; but I have before me a series including 
22 



170 POLYTROPA. 

specimens with from one to eight ribs, and' in some of which the 
ribs become obsolete and replaced by deep striae ; even the shoul- 
der of the whorls disappears in other specimens, and then we 
have the form the young of which is described by Krauss as P. 
cribrosa (fig. 111). The normal development of ribs strikingly 
resembles the fossil Rapaim (Ecphora) quadricostata, Say, of the 
United States. 

P. SUCCINCTA, Martyn. PI. 51, figs. 118-120, 107, 125, 113. 

Shell white, encircled 'by about eight strong revolving ribs, the 
sides of which are deeply excavated ; crossed by rugose growth - 
lines. Sometimes the interstices of the ribs are filled with ele- 
vated revolving striue, and occasionally the tops of the ribs are 
incisely striate. The whole ornamentation is sometimes obsolete. 

Length, 1*5-3 inches. 

Australia ; New Zealand ; Cape of Good Hope, 

This is a more gibbose species than P. cingulata, varieties of 
which it somewhat resembles ; the clathrate appearance of its 
initial whorls is a distinguishing character. Its metropolis ap 
pears to be South Australia, where it is common on rocks, at low 
water. Sometimes the clath rated growth continues beyond the 
early whorls, and in this state the shell has received the name of 
P. squamosa, Lam. (tig. 1 13). This name may be retained as a 
variety, from Abyssinia and Cape of Good Hope. 

Subgenus Polytropa, Swains. 

P. SCOBINA, Quoy. PI. 51, figs. 123, 112, 121, 122, 124; PI. 52, 
figs. 126-130, 132, 133. 

Shell very variable, ranging from quite smooth to cancellate ; 
sometimes with revolving costae, which are occasionally tubercu- 
late. Color whitish, more or less tinged or flamed with choco- 
late, brown or yellow. Aperture narrow or wide ; sometimes in 
the narrower forms obsoletely toothed within the outer lip ; deep 
chocolate or violet within. Length, '75-1*5 inches. 

New Zealand ; Cape of Good Hope. 

Large, smooth specimens of this mollusk are referred by Kiister 
to P. versicolor of Gmelin, which would have priority if it could 
be made out with certainty ; but the figure in Martini referred to 
by Gmelin is very unsatisfactory. Besides the type, I figure a 



POLYTROPA. 171 

number of forms to which different names have been attached. 
These include P. rugosa, Quoy (fig. 112), which does not differ 
much ; P. tristis, Dunker (fig. 124), and P. albomarginata, Desh. 
(fig. 121), which is a depauperate state of tristis ; P. Quoyi, 
Reeve (fig. 122), an extreme ribbed form, together with an inter- 
mediate state figured by Kiener and Kiister. 

Dr. Gould was the first (in Moll. Wilkes' Exped.) to notice the 
variation from costate to smooth forms in the New Zealand 
specimens, and the latter becomes usual .in those from the Cape. 
F figure of these P. cataracta, Reeve (fig. 132), as of Chemnitz, 
P. lagenaria, Duclos (fig. 128), P. duUa, Krauss (fig. 127), P. 
versicolor, Wood (fig. 133), according to Kiister; the last con- 
necting with the ribbed form. P. Zeyheri, Krauss, appears to be 
founded on a young shell. \ 

P. HARPA, Conr. PI. 52, fig. 145. 

Chocolate, the revolving ridges maculate with white ; bluish 
within, columella and lip-dentations tinged with chocolate, with 
narrow revolving bands of the same color. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Sandwich Isles. 

\ rather constant species in sculpture and coloration, and ap- 
parently of limited distribution. 

P. LAPILLUS, Linn. 

Shell usually whitish or orange-brown or chocolate-colored ; 
with sometimes one to several white revolving bands. Obso- 
letely ribbed, conspicuously ribbed, or covered with revolving 
striae ; surface smooth, or imbricated or lamellate by the crossing 
of the growth-lines upon the revolving ribs. Lip at the rest 
period in the adults usually much thickened within and dentate. 

Length, 1-2-5 inches. 
Roreal Sens ; North Europe to North Africa (not Mediterranean) ; 

Northern Atlantic Shores of the United States to Greenland ; 

(Siberia to Jn/pan ; Behring's Straits to California, f} 

The quantity and variety of material before me, embracing a 
rich series of forms from many localities, together with the com- 
parison of the numerous descriptions and figures that have been 
published, induce me to include under this, the oldest name, a 
very large number of nominal species. As in the case of P. 
hsemastoma, I have considered it preferable to retain some of 



1 72 POLYTROPA. 

these names as indicating growth modifications and localities : 
those who take a less conservative view than myself will thus 
have the names and descriptions at hand to designate these seve- 
ral forms as varieties or species, or even genera, if it so please 
them. I have also endeavored to illustrate a few of the transi- 
tion forms. 

P. lapillus, Linn. PI. 52, tigs. 131, 134, 135, 137-144, 14, 147 ; 
PL 53, figs. 148-151. Typical The metropolis of this form is 
Northern Europe, the North American specimens, as well as 
those from Southern Europe and North Africa, being stunted in 
comparison of size and ornamentation. Its fossil distribution 
ascends as far back as the Red Crag of England. It lives gre- 
garious on rocks and stones within the tides, where it preys on 
mussels, limpets, and barnacles. It is especially fond of oj'sters, 
and is considered a destructive enemy by the cultivators of the 
bivalve. A single reversed, as well as a scalaroid specimen are 
recorded by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys. He says that "this mollusk 
has a shambling gait and sedentary habits, and seems to be 
always eating or digesting its food. Lister, however, observed 
it early in the morning, at the commencement of June, otherwise 
engaged, viz., in perpetuating its species on a dry rock after the 
tide had receded. It is very destructive to mussel-beds, and is 
said by Linne to eat the dead fish left in fishermen's nets. 1 
have seen it busily feeding on Balanu* balano'ides, its strong 
proboscis being inserted between the opercular walls of the bar- 
nacle. According to Mr. Osier, it also devours Littorinaj, Trochi, 
Naticse, and even its own kind. From what I have observed of 
the mode by which it perforates the shell of a mussel, I am in- 
clined to agree with Mr. A. Hancock, that it uses its tongue. 1 
cut off the end of the proboscis of a Pur pur a, while it was attack- 
ing a mussel ; the part thus lopped still remains in the hole, with 
the front of the tongue exposed. The hole is shaped like an in- 
verted cone, and exhibits under the microscope extremely fine 
scratch-like striae, as if caused by the rasping action of the lin- 
gual apparatus. I believe the movement to be rotatory, because 
the sides of the hole are quite even. The process is an extremely 
slow one. Mr. Osier states that, after watching for some hours 
a Purpura attached to a Limpet, he found the perforation incom- 
plete ; and Mr. Spence Bate and Mr. Bretheiton noticed that it 



POLYTEOPA. 173 

took two days to get through the shell of a moderate-sized 
mussel.* It does not Appear that the prey is destroyed by any 
poisonous secretion of the whelk, after it ha's gained access to 
the interior. The proboscis is at first thrust into the hole which 
it had drilled, and the whelk eats in that way ; but when, from the 
death of the mussel or limpet, the former gapes or the latter 
separates from the rock, the Purpura devours the remainder by 
the natural opening. 

" According to Mr. Peach, it deposits its spawn all the year 
round, but more actively from January to April. Spawn which 
he collected in January, 1843, was hatched four months after- 
wards ; he took forty-seven fry from a single capsule. They 
soon began to assume the peculiar habit of their parents, by 
getting out of the water, where they would remain for hours, 
answering to the period of the ebb and flow of the tide." t 

This is one of the species which furnished the dye known as 
T3 T rian Purple to the ancients (see ante, p. 43). Mr. Jeffreys 
remarks that the liquor contained in the egg-capsules is also pur- 
puriferous, and that it tastes like the strongest pepper. The 
male P. lapillus is longer and more slender than the female, and 
lias a fine, tapering spire, with a plicated but not tubercular 
throat. In aged specimens the throat has not unfrequently a 
succession of tubercular rows, forming internal varices. Occa- 
sionally the shell is truncated or the first whorls broken and 
deserted. In brackish water they are smaller and thinner. They 
are called korsewinkles in Ireland. J 

Like all other predacious and voracious beasts the Purpura 
meets with retribution occasionally ; here is an instance : 

Mr. Henry Crowther, whilst collecting in the shore pools at 
Whitby, England, ;i noticed a commotion amongst the rnollusks 



* M. Boucliard-Chantereaux observes that the shells of Purpura lapillus, 
found on the Boulonnais (France" coast are thinner and smaller in those 
situations where they are subject to the influence of brackish or fresh 
water. It is very fond of Mytilus edulux, Mactra, Donax etc., the shells 
of which ii bores through in from three to five minutes, preserving per- 
fect immobility during the operation and protecting the tongue from 
contact with the sea water by applying the two anterior lobes of its foot 
closely around its mouth. After boring the shell of its victim, the mantle 
is torn away, and the viscera only devoured. Jour, de Conch., p. 124, 
1879. 

f Brit. Conch., iv, 37. Jeffreys, ibid. 



174 POLYTROPA. 

which was of too brisk a nature for their well-known and charac- 
teristic slowness. When the obscuring sands which they had 
thrown up in the fray had settled, we saw that the shells were 
principally in possession of hermit crabs, which, under this guise, 
were attacking a Purpura lapillus and dragging it from its shell. 
We caught the whole school at once and transferred them to a 
collecting-bag ; the shells occupied were Nassa pyymaea, Trochus 
cinereus, Littorina littorea, three sizes, and a P. lapillus, the 
sheik of the party, for lie was taken red-handed. We presume to 
think that if their object had not been frustrated, there would 
have been ere long a mutual exchange of crab's clothing."* 

Varieties major, minor, and imbricata are enumerated by 
European naturalists. I give figures of the first (fig. 135), and 
third (fig. 131), of these varieties from Forbes and Hanley. 
besides a young shell (fig. 139) and several adults from Kiister 
and Kiener. The variety major, of Europe is very suggestive 
of P. crispata, of the Pacific coast of North America, and differs 
quite as much from extreme depauperate forms as does the latter 
( so-called) species from P. ostrina. 


P. saxicola, Val. PI. ^3, figs. 152-154a. 

This is normally the lapillus of the W. Coast of N. America , 
extending from the California Islands northward to Sitka, and 
recurring in Japan. Towards the south it becomes shorter, wider, 
usually thinner, darker colored, tuberculate, assuming the suc- 
cessive forms of ostrina and emarginata, whilst towards the 
north it seems to run into lima, septentrionalis , crispata, etc. 
generally larger, heavier, smooth or lamellate forms, with the 
outer lip thickened and toothed internally. The type of P. 
Freycineti, Desh. (fig. 153), is a young shell of large size, very 
like saxicola; but there is considerable variation in the forms 
that have been referred to Freycineti. P. ostrina, Gould (fig. 
1544), is a small form of the saxicola type, characterized by short 
spire, gibbous whorls, smooth or spirally ribbed, color usually 
dark chocolate, the ribs white. P. fuscata, Forbes (fig. 
is similar in ornamentation and color, but the spire is longer. 



* The Naturalist, 1878-79. 



POLYTROPA, 175 

P. emarginata, Desh. PI. 53, fig. 155. 

When the revolving ribs of saxicola or ostrina become broken 
up into nodules, the result is P. emarginata, Desh., which is typi- 
cally a very distinct looking shell, but connected by minute 
gradations with the smoothest ostrina. It is a southern form, 
P. Conradi, Nuttall MSS., is referred to it by P. P. Carpenter. 

P. LIMA, Mart. PI. 53, figs. 159, 156-158, 161. 

This is another form in which the typical variation from 
lapillus is very great ; its characteristic appearance is due to a 
considerable number of narrow, elevated revolving ribs, which 
are alternately larger. The shell is usually so thin that the 
external ribs form corresponding sulcatioris within the aperture. 
The suture is frequently channelled, color light brown, more or 
less banded and clouded with a deeper tint. Extends from Cali- 
fornia northward to Alaska, and merges into fuscata and Frey- 
cinetti on the one hand, and into saxicola on the other. P. 
canaliculata, Duclos (fig. 156), P. attenuata, Reeve (fig. 158), P. 
analoga, Forbes (fig. 157) and P. decemcostata, Midd. (fig. 161) 
are synonymous. 

P. omspATA, Chemn. PI. 53, fig. 160 ; PL 54, figs. 163-166, 168. 
This variet}' is well known under this name, but the work con- 
taining the description only contains binomial phrases, as in this 
case, accidentally. Murex plical, Marty n (fig. 165), is the 
earliest binomial designation, and Buwinnui latnellosum, 
Umelin. refers to the same shell, as do also Murex lactuca (fig. 
163), and M. ferruginea (fig. 164), of Esch. It is a very thick 
shell with long spire, the whorls more or less angulated by the 
usually obsolete revolving ribs. At its southern limit on both 
the California!! and Asiatic coast, it is comparatively smooth (P. 
rupeslritt, Val. (fig. 160), septentrional s^ Rve. (fig. 160), Frey- 
ciiietti, Liseh. (fig. 168), whilst at its northern limit the growth- 
lines are occasionally developed into the lamellae which charac- 
terize its most luxurious state. Outer lip very much thickened 
within and dentate. Yellowish to reddish brown, with frequently a 
central white band. Loves oysters, and has accompanied these 
bivalves transplanted from Puget's Sound to Oakland, Cal. The 
smoother form much resembles the vur. major of the European 
lapillus. 



1 T6 POLYTROPA. 

Dr/ P. P. Carpenter was the first who attempted to classify 
the lapillus group of the West Coast of North America ; he 
separates them as follows : 

" P. saxicola, Yal. Some varieties run into the New England 
form of P. lapillus sufficiently nearly to justify the identifica- 
tion; but the bulk of the specimens are easily distinguished by 
the excavated columella. They pass by insensible gradations to 
P. ostrina, Gould, which is a rare and extreme variety. Many 
of the shells called P. Freycinetii by Mjdd., are certainly refer- 
able to this species. Some forms pass towards the true P. Frey- 
cinetii* Desh., while others are equally close to the very different 
P. emarginata, Desh. 

"V&r.fuscata, Forbes. 
" Var. emargina,ta, Desh. 
' ' . V ar. ostrin a. G Id . 

u P- canaliculcttd i Duel. =-. decetncostdta^ Midd., attenuata, Kve.. 
analoga, Forbes. 

" P. crispata, Chemn. = plicata, Mart., lartt/ca, Esch.. septen- 
trionaMs, Rve., etc." 

E. von Martens (Mai. Blatt.. xix, 86, 1872) does not hesitate 
to refer all these forms to P. lima, Martyn, but does not speak 
of their relationship to lapillus except as " N. W. American 
species of Purpura of the lapillus group." 

Doubtful Species referred to Polytropa. 

P. EXILIS, Dunker. 

Narrowly ovate, yellowish, whorls four, with a number of 
revolving riblets and striae, decussated by narrow r growth-lines ; 
body-whorl double the length of the spire, with three revolving 
costulse, next whorl bicarinate, upper one unicarinate ; aperture 
ovate; columella sinuous ; labrum thickened, crenulate. 

Length t mill., diam. 3 mill. 

Upolu. 

Not figured. Evidently a young shell, and appears to be 
related to P. heemastoma. 



POLYTROPA. 177 

P. BICONICA, Hutton. 

Shell small, widely fusiform ; spire short and pointed ; last 
whorl wide above and narrowed below, with spiral ribs and slight 
transverse plicae. Whitish, shaded with dark brown; within, 
dark purplish brown, with white teeth inside the lip. 

Length '4, diam. '28 inch. 

ffew Zealand. 

Not figured. The name has been already used by Anton. I 
am not able to identify it. 

P. RETIARIA, Hlltton. 

Shell oval-fusiform ; whorls carinated, with four or five spiral 
ribs in front of the carinse, and a small one behind it on 
the last whorl, crossed by transverse plicae at regular intervals, 
forming a series of squares on the surface. Whole shell covered 
with delicate transverse foliations. Aperture oval ; columella 
curved ; canal short and slightly bent. Grayish white ; purplish 

within. Length '9, diam. '5 inch. 

New Zealand. 

P. DUMASI, Yelairi. PI. 54, figs. 162, 167, 170, 172. 
A polymorphous species ; whitish or pale rosaceous. 

Length. '75-1 -2 inches. 

Isle of 8t Paul, Indian Ocean. 

The type is so close to P. patens, Hombr., that I suspect them 
to be identical ; in which case the latter name will take prece- 
dence. Mr. Yelain has selected from the numerous forms of this 
species the following named varieties : 

Tar. multistriata, fig. 172. 

Yar. semicostata, fig. 170. 

Yar. cincta, fig. 162. 
P. PATENS, Hombr. et Jacq. PI. 54, fig. 171. 

Light gray, cinereous within. Length, 21 mill. 

Probably = P. Dumasi. New Zealand. 

P. VARIABILIS, Desh. 

Chocolate ; violaceous within ; lips crenulated. 

Length, 1'3 inches. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

Allied to P. patens, Jacq.. evidently. 
33 



] T8 POLYTROPA. 

P. MAGELLAN!, Velain. PI. 54, figs. 169, 113. 

Grayish purple, flecked with brown. Length T4 inches. 

Isles of St. Paul and Amsterdam, Ind. 0. 

M. Velain recognizes the close relationship of this species with 
those of the genera Pisania and Euthria, but states that both the 
operculum and lingual dentition are those of Purpura. 

P. SQUAMATA, Button. 

Shell sharply oval ; spire long ; whorls narrow, spirally striate 
and noduled, with numerous fine, foliaceous, transverse imbrica- 
tions ; outer lip crenulated and striated within ; columella with a 
plication. Color brownish white ; purplish within, with columella 
and border of lip white or yellowish. Length '75, diam. '45 inch. 

Not figured. New Zealand. 

Doubtful Purpurof. 
P. LITTORINOIDES, Tenison-Woods. 
P. PROPINQUA, Tenison-Woods. 

The above being possibly synonymous with Purpura Flindersi. 
Ad. and Aug., which appears^ to be a Trophon, are described 
under that genus. 

P. CALVITOMA, Nllttall. 

P. ARGUS. DlldoS ; P. TURBO, Dliclos. 

MSS. names appearing in Jay's Catalogue. 

P. AVENACEA, P. ATERRIMA. P. BICOLOR. LCSSOII. 

These are all very shortly and indefinitely characterized, and 
have not been recognized by subsequent authors. They may bo 
young shells. 

P. NODULIFER, Meuke. 

Morch does not find this in the Menke collection, to which it 
once appertained. Not identified. 

P. Nux f Reeve = MUREX EDWARDSI, Payr. 

P. QUADRIDENTATA, Dilfo. M<ihi, Seychdlea Mets. 

P. DENTATA, Menke., Sf. Vim-rut, Cd-fia Verde Isles. 

P. MINUTA, Anton. 

P. INCISA, Phil. 



ORONIA. 179 

Subgenus Cronia, H. it A. Ad. 

P. AMYGDALA, Kiener. PI. 55, fig. 174. 

Orange or cream-color ; the principal revolving ribs lighter 
in tint; frequently brown-tinged at base ; cream-color within the 
aperture. Length, 1-1*4 inches. 

Australia. 

This species is, in its typical state, thickly covered over its 
entire surface with small, arched scales, covering its close ribs; 
I am much inclined to think, however, that P. aurantiaca is 
merely a smooth state of the same species. 

P. AURANTIACA, HoiKlbl*. PI. 55, fig. 175. 

Orange-colored, more or less tinted with brown ; sometimes 
white-banded. Length, 35 mill. hL of HogoUu . 

Probably a smooth var.'of P. amygdala. 

P. BUCCINEA, Desh. PI. 55, fig. 17ti. 

Brown ; larger revolving ribs articulated with white and 
darker brown ; aperture cream-colored to light brown. 

Length, 1 '25-1 '75 inches. 

New Guinea. 

The distinguishing characteristic of this species is an obtuse 
angle or protruberance upon the very centre of the columella ; 
this might put it along with P. columellaris in Mr. Ball's sub- 
genus Purpnrella, ; but the angle is not persistent in some of the 
fully grown specimens. Except the angle and the narrower form 
of the shell, this species closely approximates to vars. of P. 
amygdala. Kiister adopts the name fammea as of Chemnitz, 
but this author was not binomial, and the identification of the 
species is surely an error. 

P. CASTASEA, Krauss. PI. 55, fig. 177. 

Chestnut-brown ; purple within. Length, -6 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
\ young shell which perhaps belongs to this group. 

P. ALBA, Hombr. and Jacq. PL 55, fig. 178. 

White, externally and internally. Length, 1 inch. 

Isle of Manganeva. 

This is also a young shell, the generic position of which is 
very doubtful. 



180 PURPTTROIDEA, LYSIS, JOPAS. 

P. ANOMALA, Angas. P. 121, PL 36, fig. 422. 

This is described as a Cronia, but does not resemble the group 
at all ; it is so like OHnebra that I have preferred to place it 
there. 
P. AVELLANA, Reeve. PL 55, fig. 179 

Shell smooth, distantly plicately ribbed ; white, mottled with 
chocolate-color ; lip thickened and dentate within. Length, 1 in. 

N. Coatt of Australia. 

Described as a Buccinum, with simple lip. H. and A. Adams 
included it in the genus Clavella ; its really thickened, dentate 
lip (per specimen before me) and longitudinal ribs, together with 
its form, show it to belong rather with Cronia. 

Genus PURPUROIDEA, Lycett. 

This fossil genus has been confounded with Purpurina, d'Orb. : 
its typical forms appear to be true Purpuras, and the species I 
figure has some resemblance to the recent P. chocolatum ; whereas 
the species of .Parpurirta are nearly related, apparently, to 
Gancellaria. 

P. NODULATA, Lycett. PL 55, fig. 180. Oolite. 

Genus LYSIS, Gabb. 

Founded on L. duplicata, a cretaceous fossil from California, 
and supposed by its author to be nearly related to Stomatia. I 
have examined authentic specimens in our museum, and do not 
hesitate to refer it to the Purpurse. 

L. DUPLICOSTA, Gabb. PL 55, figs. 182, 183. Cretaceous, 

California. 
Genus JOPAS, H. and A. Adams. 

J. SERTUM, Brug. PL 55, figs. 181, 188-190. 

Shell varying from smooth or finely striate, to a form covered 
with small revolving ribs, which are sometimes decussated and 
rendered granulate by growth-lines. Chestnut-brown, more or 
less undulately marked with yellowish white, and having an in- 
terrupted white band on^the periphery. Sometimes purplish 
red, with the band and maculations light purple. Aperture 
whitish or cream-color, the lip margin and coltimella brown or 
blackish. Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

Red Sea to Paumotus Isles. 



VEXILLA, USILLA. 181 

Mr. W. H. Pease was the first to show the variability of this 
species, and to add to its synonymy /. francolina, Brug (fig. 190), 
and J. situla (fig. 188), which simply represent different stages 
of sculpture and coloration. I have before me a specimen from 
Rarotonga, nearly 8 inches in length, and very ponderous. 

Genus VEXILLA, Swains. 

V. T^NIATA, Powis. PI. 55, figs. 184, 185. 

Brownish or chocolate, encircled by six or eight narrow, whitish 
bands and numerous close striae. Animal bilobed in front. 

Length. -75-1 inch. 



Philippines to PaiitnotT* ; Sandwich hie*. 

V. VEXILLUM, Chemn. PL 55, fig. 186. 

Smooth ; yellowish, with six or eight narrow, brown, revolving- 

bands. Length, *75-l inch. 

Philippines; Sandwich Isles. 

It is not unlikely that V. tseniata will eventually prove to be a 
variety of this species. D'Orbigny includes this species among 
the moll asks of Cuba, and saj^s that the East Indies is a locality 
given in error ; it is scarcely necessary to remark that he is him- 
self mistaken ; the mollusk is not West Indian. 

Suhgenus Usilla, H. Adams. 

Founded on V. fusco-nigra. Pease, which differs from the typi- 
cal Vexilla in the spire being acuminate, and the aperture some- 
what contracted or narrowed. 

Pease (Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 115) adopts the subgenus, and 
adds to it Purpara leucostoma, Desh., and Planaxis cingulata, 
Gould. I very much doubt whether the group will stand, as the 
little specimen of Pease's species before me is very suggestive of 
Pisania, and Deshayes' species is a true Purpura, and evidently 
very closely allied to. and as I believe = P. columellaris. The 
opercula of Pease's and Gould's species are unfortunately un- 
described. 

V. FUSCO-NIGRA, Pease. PL 55, tig. 187. 

Abbreviately fusiform, ventricose, solid ; spire moderately 
produced, acute, and less than half the- length of the shell ; whorls 
six, convex, furnished with close, transverse, granular ribs; 



182 RICINULA. 

suture impressed ; body-whorl large, ventricose, and marked with 
coarse, remote, revolving impressed lines, and line longitudinal 
striae and wrinkles; canal short, slightly recurved; aperture 
oblong-ovate ; outer lip thick, somewhat dilated, and furnished 
with six or seven intra-marginal tubercular teeth, sinuated at its 
junction with the body -whorl ; columella-lip smooth, flattened, 
slightly callous above. Color black or brownish black, impressed 
lines on body-whorl light chocolate-color: lip purplish-brown; 
teeth white or bluish. 

Animal. Foot oblong, truncated in front, rounded behind ; 
tentacles cylindrically tapering. Eyes lateral and sessile, at. 
about two-thirds of the length of the tentacles ; siphon long. 
Color dark greenish slate, closely punctured with black and 
white ;i tentacles zoned with brown, tips white. 

Sandwich Isle* (Pease) ; Solomn/Ss Tale* ( Brazier i. 

V. CINGULATA, Gould. 

Shell small, thick, ovate-turreted, smooth, brownish red alter- 
natety zoned with yellow, striae intercurrent ; whorls seven, some- 
what convex, the apical granular, the last large ; aperture nar- 
rowly ovate ; lip oblique, with seven teeth, and fascia ted within ; 
columella excavated, red. Length 12, diam. 6 mill. 

Ov,*ima, Japan, under stones at low water. 

Described as a Planaxis, which it may well be. and as likely 
to be a Pisania a,s a Vearilla. 

Genus RICINULA, Lam. 

H. and A. Adams restrict the typical group to those species 
having spinose or tubercular whorls, with digitate outer lip ; and 
they practically include in it a few species distinguished for size. 
The teeth within' the outer lip are generalty disposed into an 
upper and a middle compound tooth, besides single, inferiorly 
placed ones. The subgenus Sistrum has usually a longer spire, 
the shell is smaller, more fusiform, the teeth within the outer lip 
not grouped, but single. This separation has its conveniences, 
and I adopt it : nevertheless the characters, as in so many other 
groups, only serve we.ll for the recognition of some of the forms ; 
others must be arbitrarily placed. The dividing line between 
Sistrum and Engina, Latirus and some Pisanoid forms is very 



RICINULA. 183 

difficult to trace, and I have seen worn specimens of either of 
t hose genera which might be readily referred to the others ; on 
this account some species originally described under Sistrum I 
have been able to refer definitely to other groups ; whilst others, 
from insufficiency of diagnosis, illustration or specimens are 
retained, but with doubt. The genus is essentially Polynesian 
in distribution, frequenting coral reefs. 

R. HYSTRIX, Linn. PI. 56, fig. 195. 

The surface varies from nodulous to spinose ; in very large 
specimens the shell is sometimes umbilicate. Yellowish brown; 
the interior of aperture rich rose-color. 

Length, l 5-2-5 inches. 

Sandwich Isles ; Fiji Isles ; Pauinotus. 

In this, the largest species, the teeth have but little disposi- 
tion towards grouping. 

Var. REEVEANA. Oosse. PI. 5(5, tig. 196. 

The surface is nine-varicose instead of seven-varicose as in E. 
clathrata, Lam. The interior of the aperture is violet-purple. 
I do not find the distinction in the number of varices to hold 
good, as I have before me specimens of the latter with as many 
as ten varices. The interior of the aperture is less rugose upon 
lip and columella, and wants, besides, the brown markings of 

clathrata. 

Marquesas Isles. 

Yar. SPEOIOSA, Dunker. PI. 56, fig. 194. 

Small, rugosely tuberculose, the tubercles prominently arranged 
in revolving series ; columella strongly four-plicate. 

Length, '83 inch. 

Rarotonga, Paumotus. 

This is a well marked variety, distinguished by its small size, 
very deep rose-purple interior, columellar plaits, etc. It was 
first figured by Reeve as var. of JR. clathrata, Lam., and then 
described by Dunker. Subsequently, the latter finding Reeve's 
figure cited as the young in Crosse's description of Reeveana, 
abandoned his species as synonymous with that of Crosse. I 
consider the two to be well distinguished varieties, diverging in 
opposite directions from the type. 



184 RICINULA. 

Var. CLATHRATA, Lam. PL 56, figs. 197, 198. 

Brownish white externally, violet within ; the lip and colu- 
mella whitish, stained and marked with brown. 

Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Central Pacific, on coral reefs. 

Var. LAURENTIANA, Petit, PL 56, fig. 192. 

This shell, of which only a single individual is known, has the 
exterior surface covered with a parasitic growth, which obscures 
its color. Within the mouth it is rose-colored, and the lip and 
columella are yellowish brown. Length, '8 inch. 

Locality unknown. 

Most nearly related to var. tspec'iosa, Dunker. 

R. IODOSTOMA, Lesson. PL 56, fig. 199. 

Surface not tuberculate, light brownish with incised revolving 
lines, and four or five dark chocolate bands. Columella with 
three or four plications ; teeth of outer lip grouped ; aperture 
rosy violet within. Length, 1-1 '75 inches. 

Tahiti; Sts . Macassar ; New Zealand. 

Very closely allied to R. horrida ; but distinguished by its 
colored bands and absence of tubercles. 

R. HORRIDA, Lam. PL 56, figs. 201, 202. 

Usually white or very light brown ; the tubercles or short 
spines black ; interior deep violet. Length, 1-1 -75 inches. 

Philippines to Sandwich Isle*. 

R. RICINUS, Linn. PL 56, fig. 200 ; pi. 57, figs. 204, 206, 212. 

White or yellowish brown ; the tubercles or spines black ; 
aperture white, the lip sometimes tinged with yellow. 
Length, '75-1-25 inches. 

Red Sea ; Benguela, Natal, Guinea, Japan, Philippines, 

New Zealand, Polynesia. 

Var. ELEGANS. Brod. PL 56, fig. 193. 

Varies from the type in the external surface being uniform 
white, and the lips of the aperture encircled by a narrow brown 
band. Length, -5-- 7 5 inch. Paumotus Isles. 

Mr. Pease remarks of this var. that its variation from the 
type is parallel to that of R. lobata from R. digitata. 



SISTRUM. 180 

R. DTGITATA, Lam. PL 56, fig. 191 ; pi. 57, fig. 203. 

Shell whitish externally, columella, lip and interior of aper- 
ture orange-color. Length, 1-1/5 inches. 

Central Pacific Ides. 

Var. LOBATA, Blainv. PI. 57, fig. 205. 
Columella and lip dark chocolate-color. 

R. BICONTCA, Blainv. PI. 57. figs. 208-211. 

A revolving row of tubercles forms a shoulder on the bod}'- 
whorl, and there is another median (and sometimes an inferior) 
row of less developed tubercles ; these are usually white, but 
sometimes dark brown; interspaces covered by brown revolving 
ribs; more or less longitudinally plicate; aperture light violet 
within ; two upper teeth of lip grouped together. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Philippines. 

PURPURA RTJFOSTOMA, LesSOll. 

This is evidently a Ricinulo, but the description does not 
suffice for the recognition of the species. It is from the Gam- 
bier Isles, and has never been figured. 

Submenus Sistrum, Montf. 

R. MOK.IJS. LMUI. PI. 57, figs. 213, 214. 

Usually white (sometimes orange-colored), the nodules black 
(sometimes unoolored) : interior light violet. Length, '6-1 inch. 

Polynesia. 
Var. ASPERUS. Lain. PL 57. figs. -215, 21(>. 

The longitudinal ribs which, in the type are scarcely apparent, 
here become more pronounced, causing the tubercles to be nar- 
rower and sharper. 

Philippines. 

Var. STRIATUS. Pease. PL 57, fig. 217. 

A depauperate form, with the longitudinal ribs almost con- 
tinuous and developed at the expense of the tubercles. 

Length, '7 inch. 

Paumotu*. 

24 



1.86 SISTKUM. 

R. TUBERCULATUS, Blainv. PL 57, figs. 218, 220. 

Very variable in outline, some specimens being much shoul- 
dered, with short spire, others ovate with longer spire. Closely 
allied at first sight to R. morus but dark olive-brown, the tuber- 
cles darker or black, and surface closely covered with revolving 
striae instead of the single small rib between each row of tuber- 
cles as in E. morus. The aperture is dark brown or black, the 
teeth and columella partially white. Length, *75-l inch. 

Japan; Philippines to Sandwich Isles. 

The external resemblance of this species to Purpura musiva, 
Kiener, is very great ; the genuine purpuroid aperture of the 
latter will serve to distinguish them. 

The animal is described by Gould in the Mollusca of Wilkes' 
Exped. as being deep grass-green ; with the mantle, locomotive 
disk and tentacles light sea-green finely dotted with white. 

R. ANAXERES, Duclos. PI. 51, fig. 219. 

The coloration is the reverse of that of R. tuberculatux ; that 
is, the shell is dark and the nodules light frequently nearly 
white. Length, -4--5 inch. 

Natal; Solomon" s Isles ; Australia; Paumotus. 

Is possibly not adult, and is related in sculpture to R. morux, 
but otherwise more closely to R. tuberculatu*. 

R. MARGINATRA, Blainv. PI. 57, figs. 221, 222, 225-229. 

Shell very variable in outline, cancellated by revolving and 
longitudinal ribs, by which the surface is broken up into tuber- 
cles ; most prominent as revolving series and usually ineisely cut 
by revolving stride which, in the interstices of the nodular series 
become scabrous. Brownish, the nodules usually darker. Aper- 
ture bluish within, with revolving raised chocolate lines which 
terminate in four or five white or fulvous tubercles upon the 
thickened lip ; lip and columella stained with chocolate. 

Length, '75-1 inch. Australia; Central Polynesia. 

The type (fig. 225) is a young shell; tlie adult \sPurpura 
marginalbum , Blainv. (figs. 221, 226). I cannot distinguish P. 
cancellata, Kiener (fig. 227) nor Ricimda fus<-a, Kiister (fig. 222). 
Pease acknowledges the difficulty of separating his Sistrum 
affine (fig. 228). and von Martens has already considered it a 



SI STRUM. 187 

synonym ; I add S. squamoaum. Pease (fig. 229), from the per- 
fect concordance of description, figure, and type specimens. Dr. 
Gould has described, but not figured a S. parvulum collected at 
Simon's Bay by Stimpson. He distinguishes it from E. tubercu- 
latux, but I cannot find any characters by which to separate it 
from this species. 

R. OCHROSTOMA, BUiinv. PL 57, tigs. 230, 223. 224; PI. 58, figs. 
231-234. 

White ; the aperture also, usually white, but sometimes cream- 
color or yellowish. Length, '75-1*5 inches. 

Australia ; Philippines to Paumotus Isles. 

Varies much in the development of the tubercles, longitudinal 
ribs and revolving stria?, and has consequently received a number 
of names. The E. ochrosloma and its var. rufonotata of P. P. 
Carpenter, are stated by Mr. Pease to belong to the genus 
Engina.* 

Var. HEPT.u.oN'ALis, Reeve. PI. 58, figs. 235-240. 

Whitish ; more or less stained with brown ; sometimes with a 
central and inferior band ; yellowish within the aperture. 

The distinguishing feature of the several species described by 
Reeve, which I write here MS . variety is, that the longitudinal 
ribs are not. well developed and the nodules therefore constitute 
revolving series. The type is said to have been collected by 
C uming at Panama a very doubtful locality, as yet unverified 
by subsequent collectors ; Kiister figures a specimen from Natal, 
also somewhat doubtful ; the E. eburnea of the latter author is 
founded on a specimen said to come from the Indian Ocean. 

R. CHAIDEA, Duclos. PI. 58, figs. 241, 247. 

White, without and within. Length, -65 inch. 

Philippines; Australia; New Caledonia. 

May be only a depauperate var. of the preceding, but the short 
ventricose form is very characteristic. 

S. rugulosum, Pease (fig. 247), from Rowland's Island, appeart 
to be the same species not adult. 

* Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 116. 



188 SISTRUM. 

R. MUTICA, Lara. PI. 58, fig. 246. 

Brownish black; lip margined with dark chocolate, teeth white j 
columella and interior white or bluish. Length, '65 inch. 

Mozambique ; Mauritius. 

Very distinct in form and coloring. 

R. DUMOSA, Conr. PL 58, figs. 245, 243, 249. 

Yellowish externally; purple, violet or light chocolate within. 

Length, -65--8 inch. Sandwich Isles ; Marquesas. 

There can be no doubt of the identity of Reeve's R. porphy- 
rostoma with this species, which is well figured in connection 
with the original description, and has nine years' priority. 

Murex J^ienardi, Crosse (fig. 249), from Mauritius has been 
referred to R. fiscellum, Chemn., by Nevill (Jour. Asiatic Soc., 
83, 18*75) ; I am inclined to consider it very close to, if not iden- 
tical with R. dumosa. 

R. TOSTOMa, Reeve. PL 58, fig. 248. 

The nodules of the revolving ribs are tinged with black ; the 
violet aperture is not contracted ; otherwise this species is closely 

related to R. dnmosa. Length. 1 inch. 

Hub. unknown. 
R. CANCELLATA, Quoy. PL 58. figs. 242, 250. 

Externally whitish or grayish ; aperture yellowish or orange- 
brown. Length, '75-1-25 inches. Philippines to Sandwich Isles. 

Readily distinguished b} T the deep-pitted, square interstices 
formed by the crossing of the longitudinal and revolving ribs. 

R. PISCELLUM, Chemn. PL 58, figs. 251-257. 

White, yellowish or chocolate, the longitudinal ribs and the 
pit-like depressions (defined by the crossing of the revolving ribs) 
frequently tinged with brownish or blackish : violaceous within 
the aperture. Length, -6-1 inch. /v,/^,,,/,,,, to tendxwh Isles. 

The spire is much shorter and the whorls more shouldered 
than in R. cancellata. The color of the "aperture is different. 
There are fewer longitudinal ribs, and the revolving ribs are com- 
pound, composed of a bundle of smaller ones. The species has 
been confounded especially with R. undata (= margariticola) 
by some of the monographers, and considerable confusion of 
synonymy has thereby resulted. 



8ISTRUM. 189 

Var. FUSCO-NIGRA, Dunker (PL 59, fig. 258). 

Shorter and stouter than the type ; internally chocolate-colored. 
Length, 17 mill. 

Kingsmill hi. 

No figure of this form having been given hitherto, I am able 
to give one from a specimen forming part of the original lot. 

R. UNDATA, Chemn. PI. 59, figs. 259-268, 270, 271. 

Shell shouldered, with rounded longitudinal ribs, crossed by 
close, scabrous, revolving, raised lines. Brown or blackish ; 
aperture light chocolate or violaceous within. 

Length, -75-1.5 inches. 

Trcmquebar ; Natal; China; Japan; Australia ' ; 

Polynesia to Paumotus Isles. 

1 adopt the above name with some hesitation, as Chemnitz is 
not a consistently binomial author ; it is undoubtedly prior to 
any other name for the species, whilst its rejection would involve 
the necessity of adopting either margariticola, Brod., or muricina. 
BL, both published in the same year, 1832. Frequently the 
revolving ribs are broken up by the longitudinal elevations into 
long, bead-like tubercles, which are not scabrous, and in this 
state it somewhat resembles E. concatenate!,, Lam. Purpura reti- 
culata, of Quoy (fig. 264), and P. humtlis, of Crosse and Fischer 
(fig. 265), both appear to me to be young shells of this beaded 
form. 

Var. ALBOYARJA. K iister. PI. 59, fig. 271. 
Shell banded. 

R. ADELAIDENSJS, Crosse. PI. 59, fig. 273. 
Whitish or yellowish, the aperture violaceous. 

Length. '75 inch. 

Australia. 

I suspect that this will prove a variety of the preceding species. 

R. CONCATENATA, Lam. PL 59, fig. 269. 

Whitish, yellowish or gray; the bead-like revolving tubercles 
generally dark colored ; aperture sometimes orange or violet 
within, frequently white. Length, 1-1 '25 inches. 

Philippines; Australia. 



190 SISTRUM. 

R. NODULOSA, Adams. PI. 59, fig. 275. 

Chocolate or lead -color, the nodules black ; interior chocolate, 
the teeth white. Length, -6 inch. 

West Indies ; Brazil. 

Mr. Hidalgo in his work on the Mollusks of the " Yiaje al 
Pacifico," has described Brazilian specimens with great doubt as 
a variety of E. tuber culata, Blainv. He has sent me specimens 
which are certainly the same as authentic types of E. nodulosa ; 
the species is much smaller and different in shape from E. tuber- 
culata, but the details of sculpture and color are curiously alike. 

R FERRUGINEA, Reeve. PI. 59, fig. 277. 

Blackish, sometimes obscurely white-banded, the nodules 
black ; aperture bluish or chocolate within. Length, '6-'8 inch. 

Gua/yma*) Cape St. Lucaa. 

A large, thinner species than the preceding, with rather thin 
outer lip, and more spinous tubercles. Has been confounded 
with E. carbonaria. Reeve, which is an Enyina. 

R. JUGOSA, C. B. Ad. 

The description of this species is so very close to E. ferrugi- 
nea, that I suspect them to be identical, although P. P. Carpenter 
thinks, from an examination of the single type specimen, that it 
is either an Engina or a Peristernia. The t} r pe is white-banded 
and the " inner lip is excavated, with a few wrinkles above and 
granules below ; canal moderately long. This species is much 
like a Murex" Length *94 inch, diameter '47 inch. 



R, SIDEREA, Reeve. PI. 59, tigs. 276, 278. 

White, irregularly marked with reddish brown square spots. 
Obsoletely nodosely ribbed, with revolving stria 1 . 
Length, '85 inch. 



Found on coral reefs and under stones at low water. Does 
not appear to be closely related to any of the species. It looks 
something like a Columbella. I copy a figure (fig. 278) from 
Von Martens' u Vorderasiatische Conchylien," which is referred 
to this species : I doubt it. 



SI STRUM. 191 

R. FUNICULATA, Reeve. PL 59, fig. 272. 

Bluish-white, ridges and tubercles black ; violaceous within. 

Length, *7 inch. 

Hab. unknown, 

R. PARVA, Reeve. PL 59, fig. 274. 

Whitish ; nodules orange-color and black in alternate rows. 

Length. *3-*6 inch. 

. Philippines. 

It is doubtful whether this species belongs here or in Peri- 
sternia. I have not seen authentic or undoubted specimens. 

R. SCABRA, Koch. 

Ovate fusiform, nodulous by decussating ribs and striae ; with 
three brown-black zones ; aperture as long as the spire, coarctate, 

with six equal teeth within the outer lip. 

Hab. unknown. 

I do not know this species ; it has not been identified or 
figured by subsequent authors. 

R, LIVIDA, Reeve. PL 59, fig. 281. 

Chocolate-brown, variegated with darker color. 

Length, 1 inch. 

hie of Negros, Philippines. 

Very like Reeve's Buc. bivtucrona.tum (which is a syn. of 
R. ochrostoma,) , the principal difference being, that in this 
species, the rib forming the shoulder forms a single angle, instead 
of being double as in the latter. It is possibly a mere variety. 

R. CHRYSOSTOMA, Desh. PL 59, figs. 283, 279, 280. 

Light brown or yellowish ; orange or violet within the aper- 
ture. Length. "75 inch. 

f 'I'-i/loii; Seychelles ) Mauritius, Polynesia, 

Reeve has figured a different species (= R. biconica) under 
this name. I think that #. ozenneana, Crosse (fig. 279), 
and Murex Crossei. Lienard (fig. 280), are merely varieties of 
the same specific form, but I am unable to include (as Messrs. 
G. and H. Nevill have done) Latirus gibbus, Pease ; the latter ap- 
pears to be a true Turbinelloid species. 



1 92 STSTRUM. 

R. MUSIVA, Kiener. PI. 59, fig. 284. 

Characterized by the revolving nodules being in alternate 

series of color, brown and black. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines. 



Doubtful or Undetermined Rwinul. 

PURPURA COSTIFERA and P. OOSTA-STRIATA, Dufo. 

e t Seychelles Isles. 



P. VIOLACEA, Lesson. 

Close to P. cancellata, Kiener (= R. marginatra, Bl.) ; small, 
longitudinally and transversely costate, cancellate ; aperture 
oblique, dentate within, violaceous; canal distinct ; columella 

smooth. 

iiii'mMer and Marquesas Isles. 

R. PAPILLOSA, Phil. 

Hab. 'unknown. 
R. VENTRICOSTJLA, Nevill. PI. 59, fig. 282. 

White stained with pale brown. Length, '23 inch. 

(Jeylon. 

Evidently a young shell; the columella shows plications. 
which would indicate affinities with the Tnrbinellidse. the outer 
lip, however, bears four internal teeth. 

The following species, described as Ricinuhv. nre referred to 
other genera. 

To the genus Enginci: 

R. forticostata, crocostorna., lineata, zona/a, lanfo, hixtrio. ca/r- 
bonaria, trifasciata, mendicaria, of Reeve. 
Purpura alveolata and turbinella, of Kiener. 

Sistrum ochrostoma (not Bl.), var. rufonotatum, Carpenter, 
Buc. pulchrum, Rve. 

To Urosalpinx. P. tritomformis, Blainv. 
To Turbinellidee : 

R. deformis, rosea, rutila, bella, recur va, eximia, contra eta, 
concinna, astricta, armillata, acuminata, pulchra, of Reeve. 
R. Reeveana, C. B. Ad. 
Purpura bncciniformis, Kiener. 




MONOCBRO8. 



Genus MONOCEROS, Laiu. 



This small group is restricted in distribution to the Pacific 
coasts of North and South America and the neighboring islands. 
It is also represented in the tertiary of Chili. 

M. GRANDE, Gray. PL 60, figs. 288, 285-287. 

Brown externally, flesh-color within the aperture. 
Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 



The young shell has the ribs rounded, and not crossed by 
scales. I have before me an extreme variety in which the spire 
and canal are both produced and the ribs smooth. 

Length, 3'5 inches. 

M. MURICATUM, Brod. PL 60, figs. 290, 289. 

Yellowish or brownish ; aperture white or flesh-color, the 
revolving raised lines usually darker. Length, 2*5-3 inches. 

Pi i m mi a to Mazatlan. 

Varies greatly in appearance ; the typical form having a very 
much depressed spire and broad shoulder on the body, the whole 
surface very scabrous, whilst an extreme variety, described by 
Gray as M. tuber culo turn (fig. 289). has more elevated spire, the 
surface not so scabrous, the ribs broken up into tubercles. 
Carpenter, in his " Mazatlan Catalogue," refers this species to 
Purpura, on account of the slight development of the horn in 
the specimens which he studied; R. E. ('. Stearns (Am. Jour. 
(7<wcfr.,vii, 170) facetiously remarks that this horn is sufficiently 
prominent in his specimens " to enable the shell to enter the 
genus Monoceros on its own hook. 1 ' This I can confirm. 

M. LUGUBRE, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 291. 

Yellowish brown, blotched or flamed with chocolate ; yellowish 
brown within the mouth. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Pacific and Gulf Coasts of Lower California. 

Sowerby's is not the earliest published name for this species, 
but it is so well known that it had better not be changed. 



194 MONOCEROS. 

M. BREVIDENTATUM, Gray. PI. 60, fig. 294. 

Dark chocolate, encircled by three or four rows of widely 
separated depressed white nodules; aperture bluish within, 
margin stained with chocolate. Tooth very small. 

Length, '75-1/25 inches. 

Panama, and W. Coast of Central Arnericu. 

M. GIGANTEUM, Lesson. PL 61, fig. 301. 

Yellowish brown, lighter within. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Chili. 

M. CALCAR, Martyn. PI. 60, figs. 295, 292, 293, 296, 297; PI. 61, 
figs. 298-300, 302, 303, 307. 

Varying from chocolate-brown, through yellowish to white ; 
interior and columella usually white, with frequently a chocolate 
border within the margin of the lip. Surface in the typical form 
covered with closely imbricated revolving riblets and the lip but 
slightly thickened within the margin. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Cape Horn to Chili. 

A species which, like Trophon Geversianus from the same 
region, exhibits much variation. At Cape Horn the typical 
form, as described above, occurs, and this, when the spire is 
more exserted, has received from Lamarck the name of imbri- 
catum (fig. 296). The surface varies to nearly smooth with 
simply revolving lines occasionally, becoming M. striatum of 
Lamarck (fig. 302). 

On the Chilian coast the species is usually heavier, the whorls 
very thick, smooth or with revolving striae or riblets, the outer 
lip very much thickened within and obscurely dentate. This 
form may, for convenience, be designated as var. crassilabrum, 
Lam. (fig. 307), although its union with the type is apparent 
from long series of transition forms. With this must be united 
M. glabratum, Lam. (fig. 300), and M. globulw, Sowb. (fig. 298), 
as well as M. costatum, Sowb. (figs. 292, 297). M. citrinum, 
Sowb., is a mere color variation, and M. acuminatum of the same 
author (fig. 303) is a form with more exserted spire. 



MONOCEROS. 1 95 

M. ENGONATUM, Conr. PI. 61, fig. 304. 

Whorls with a carinated shoulder, with revolving striae and 
intervening, more or less interrupted, chocolate-brown narrow 
bands. Aperture white within, lip thickened and dentate. 

Length, '8-1-25 inches. 

California, from Bolinas Bay to Kan Diego. 

This is the most northern in distribution of three California 
species, which are evidently of common derivation. Mr. Stearns, 
who is excellent authority, considers them distinct, although so 
very closely related, and as I find that I can place every specimen 
of the numerous individuals before me in its appropriate species, 
I acquiesce in this arrangement. 

The Pur pur a spirata of Blainv. is evidently the same species 
as engonatum and would have precedence according to date of 
publication, but Conrad's name is so well known in connection 
with the species that I am unwilling to drop it. Mr. Stearns has 
designated under Blainville's name what he calls a local variety 
from San Diego, but it does not seem to me to have sufficient 
character. 

M. LAPILLOIDES, Conrad. PI. 61, fig. 305. 

Shell oval, not shouldered, last whorl inflated, aperture wide, 
canal very short. Covered with revolving riblets and interrupted 
chocolate bands or series of square spots ; aperture chocolate, 
but little thickened within the lip, and with or without slight 
teeth. Length, -75-1 inch. 

Monterey to Catalina Island, California. 

M. PAUCILIRATA, Stearns. PI. 61, fig. 308. 

Somewhat shouldered ; body-whorl with four or five narrow 
revolving raised ribs, the interstices of which are chocolate-brown, 
and generally broken up into squares ; aperture light-chocolate, 
slightly toothed within the outer lip. Length, '5-' 6 inch. 

Coronado Isles, off San Diego, Cal. , to Todos Santos Bay, L. Cal. 

Much smaller than the two preceding forms, with fewer revol- 
ving ribs and larger tessellations. 



196 PSEUDOLIVA. 

M. TESSELLATA, LeSSOn. 

This species has not been recognized, never having been figured. 
It is said to come from New Zealand doubtless a mistake. 

M. CINGULATA, Lam. 

This belongs to the Turbinelloid genus Leucozonia. 

Genus PSEUDOLIVA, Swainson. 

The shell has some resemblance to Monoceros in its tooth on 
the outer lip, and its operculum is purpuroid ; it also resembles 
the Olivancillarise The animal is unknown. H. and A. Adams 
described a subgenus Macron, in which are included several 
species from the west coast of America, but this group must be 
eliminated, as the operculum has since been ascertained to be 
unguiculate. P. Australia is now placed among the Eburnse as 
subgenus Zemira. The genus thus limited embraces a few 
African species, but is found in the eocene of Europe and 
America. 

P. PLUMBEA, Chemn. PL 61, fig. 310. 

Smooth and polished, with sometimes faintly impressed revolv- 
ing lines. Yellowish or brownish ; white or yellowish within 

the aperture. Length, 1*25-1' 15 inch. 

? Africa. 

Very probably the two next succeeding species are only dif- 
ferent stages of the young of P. plumbed; unfortunately the 
material accessible is not sufficient to permit a definitive conclu- 
sion upon this point. 

P. STRIATULA, A. Adams. PL 61, fig. 311. 

Yellowish, no callus on the inner lip ; evidently quite immature. 

Length, -55 inch. 

Africa. 
P. SEPIMANA, Rang. PL 61, fig. 312. 

Dull gray, reddish within the aperture and on the columella. 
Length, -75 inch. 

PrincS x Ixluiid) Africa. 
P. ZEBBINA, A. Adams. PL 61, fig. 306. 

Yellowish, with zebra-like longitudinal streaks. 

Length, '85 inch. 

Africa . 



CHORUS. 1<)7 

It is a question whether this ought not to be referred, like P. 
Australis. to Eburna, under the subgenus Zemira. 

P. ANCILLA, Hanley. 

Yellowish-red ; oblong- conical, solid, rather smooth ; last 
whorl ventricose, pallid in the middle, widely concave above, 
slowly narrowing and with a wide sulcus below. 

L. 1-63, lat. -85 inch. 

Caffraria. 

Said to " remind one alike of Bullia and Ancillaria. The basal 
distinctive groove is nearly square-cut ; its bottom is closely 
traversed by wrinkles of increase, and is flat, not concave." Not 
figured, and I have not seen it. 

P. NASSOIDES, Hanley. 

Small, solid, conic-oval, smooth, yellowish-red ; spire one-third 
the total length, with somewhat obtuse apex; aperture small, 
sub-elliptical, narrow ; scarcely exceeding half the total length ; 
columella white, thick, without posterior callus but obsoletely 
uniplicate anteriorly. L. '37, lat. *19 inch. 

Malabar. 

The only specimen " bears the aspect of being fully adult. Its 
outer lip seems thickened externally, and the tooth-like projection 
over the characteristic groove is rather conspicuous." Not figured. 

(Jcnus CHORUS, Gray. 

To this group have been referred Ch,. numoceros. Desh. (= Monoc. 
yiganteum, Lesson), Ch. xanthostoma, Brod. (= Trophon), and 
Ch. Belcheri, Hinds. These three species are certainly repre- 
sentatives of three distinct genera, of which the last only remains 
to represent the genus. The dentition of Ch. Belcheri (PI. 42, 
Jig. 12), reminds one of the Buccinidae more than any other group, 
and is nearest to that of the sub-family Photinae ; but the shell 
does not bear out this relationship, its spines, peculiar varices 
and long canal suggesting Trophon, from which it is distin- 
guished by having a purpuroid operculum and the tooth of a 
Monocero*. A naturalist fond of making systematic groups 
might construct for this species a family, to follow, perhaps, 
Ptychatractidee and intervening between the latter and Buccinidje. 



198 PINAXIA, CONCHOLEPAS. 

In placing it between Monoceros and Pseudoliva and Bapana, I 
think that I have adopted the best alternative to the course 
above suggested. 

C. BELCHERI, Hinds. PI. 61 , fig. 309. 

Shell very light brown, sometimes with two obscure darker 
bands ; aperture white within. Length, 3-5 inches. 

Sfin Diego to Lower California. 

Genus PINAXIA, A. Adams. 

The shell has some resemblance to Pyrula pugilina in form as 
well as in the revolving raised lines within the aperture, but 
differs in possessing plications upon the columella. Mr. E. A. 
Smith has, fortunately,* received specimens with the operculum in 
situ : this is purpuroid, and definitely settles the proper place of 
the genus, The animal is unknown, and a description of it and 
its dentition particularly, is desirable. The plications of the 
columella only appear upon old specimens, and the tubercles of 
the shoulder of the body -whorl are not always developed. 

P. CORONATA, A. Ad. PI. 61, fig.313. 

Shell 3'ellow or white, or clouded with those colors, with, 
usually, equidistant narrow brown revolving bands; aperture 
yellowish within. Length, *75 inch. 

Ceylon, Philippines, Polynesia. 

I agree with Mr. E. A. Smith that it is not advisable to change 
the well-known name of this species for the prior one of versi- 
color (Pyrula), given by Dr. Gray, the latter not having been 
figured, nor the description identified with this shell until very 
lately. 

Genus CONCHOLEPAS, Lam. 

The single species has the basal groove of Monoceros and 
Pseudoliva but its margins are defined by two sulci, giving rise 
to two horns, instead of one, on the edge of the outer lip. The 
immense development of the last whorl gives the shell a some- 
what limpet-like rather than a spiral appearance. In consequence 
of this great enlargement of the aperture the operculum, which 
is normally purpuroid in its growth, is entirely unfitted to close 



* Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 Ser. xv, 301, 1875. 



-CUM A. 199 

the aperture, and in fact, becomes a useless appendage. The shell 
is used by the Magellanic tribes as a drinking-cup, and by the 
Chilians the foot is eaten, being well-beaten to render it tender. 
Large piles of shells around the cabins of the fishermen testify 
their appreciation of this mollusk as an article of food. The 
large foot, like that of the limpets, adheres by suction to rocks, 
and so tightly that the shell is detached from them with extreme 
difficulty, unless suddenly removed before the animal becomes 
aware of danger. 

Mr. A. Adams formed a stibgenus Coralliobia for Conch. Jim- 
briatus described by him in 1852; subsequently this subgenus 
and its type were ranged under Leptoconclius in H. and A. Adams' 
" Genera.' 1 This latter disposition I consider correct. 

C. PERUVIANUS, Lam. PI. 62, figs. 314-317. 

Shell brownish, white within. Length, 1-6 inches. 

W. G. of 8. America, from Peru to Patagonia. 

Genus CUMA, Humph. 

This small group is related by some of its species to Rapana; 
by others, to Ehizochilus. 

The genus Cuma of Humphrey is founded upon a number of 
species, of which about one-half have been identified and referred 
to other genera, and no species remains which can be certainly 
made to represent the group. Morch,* inasmuch as Milne- 
Edwards has used the name in Crustacea, in 1828, proposes 
Cymia for these shells. I am not disposed to disturb a well- 
known name, even under these mitigating circumstances ; be- 
sides, it is not impossible that Milne-Edwards' genus may itself 
be superseded by some other name or dismembered, and nothing- 
left of it, as in our old genus Pyrula. 

Humphrey may not have understood what limits he ought to 
have given to his genus Cuma, and whilst I do not think that he 
has any very strong claim on us for the recognition of any of his 
names, I am unwilling to increase the already confused state of 
our nomenclature by attempting to follow out the absurd and im- 
practicable ' ; rules " of the British Association. Every naturalist 

* Mai. Blatt., vii, 98, 1861. 



200 CLMA. 

knows that the names of genera in his specialty are repeated in 
other branches of natural science, and accepted without hesita- 
tion, and that we only follow the "' rules " by changing a dupli- 
cated name occasionally. Besides, no one pretends to be a 
general naturalist in these days, and the conchologist will not 
find himself embarrassed by the use of the generic name Cum a 
in any other sub-kingdom of nature, or in all of them, whilst he 
would be " very considerably bothered " upon encountering the 
name Cymia. 

C. KIOSQUIFORMIS, Duclos. . PI. 62, figs. 318, 321, 323. 

Gray or brown externally, the revolving ribs sometimes white ; 
chocolate-brown, sometimes disposed in many narrow revolving 
bands, Avithin the aperture. Length, 1*25-2 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

Very variable in form ; sometimes short and wide, with a 
conical spire and much-developed angle on the body, in other 
specimens with scalariform spire. In all forms the characteristic 
is the presence of growth-laminae passing over the sutures and 
connecting the whorls. Abundant on the rocky shores at Panama, 
at low water. 

C. PURPUROIDES, d'Orb. (= 0. FUSIFORMIS, Blainv.). 

This well-known species, inhabiting the West Coast of Central 
and South America, is said to have a fusoid operculum ; it will, 
therefore, be described and figured in Vol. Ill of this work. 
Conchologically, the species is very closely allied to C. kiosqui- 
formiS) Duclos, but may be distinguished at once by its greater 
size and the want of frills below the sutures. 

C. CARINIFERA, Lam. PL 62, figs. 31D, 320, 324, 325, 327. 

Shell yellowish-brown or gray externally ; yellowish, some- 
times obscurely banded, within. Length, 1*25-2' 25 inches. 

Philippines, Ascension IsL, St. Helena,. 

Like the preceding species, it is very variable, developing 
more or less, either one or two revolving rows of tubercles. It 
rejoices in eleven specific names, representing essentially different 
degrees of spinous development and age. The series before me 



CUMA. 201 

is sufficiently large and miscellaneous in character to prove the 
identity of all these forms, and that none of the names can stand 
even as designations of varieties. 

C. CORONATA, Lam. PI. 62, fig. 826. 

Yellowish, frequently encircled by numerous narrow brown 
bands; aperture white or orange within, sometimes incisely 

striate. Length, 1'25-1'75 inches. 

W. Coast of Africa. 

I have before me a specimen without tubercles, simply incisely 
striate. Like C. kiosquiformis, the whorls are connected across 
the sutures by laminae, but these vary from occasional develop- 
ment, with wide intervening spaces, to a continuous succession 
of closely appressed layers ; the latter state being the Purpura 
callifera of Lamarck. 

C. GRADATA, Jonas. PI. 63, fig. 332, 338. 

Whitish, with revolving rows of brown spots ; aperture cream- 
colored, and generally brown-banded within. 

Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

Singapore, Moluccas, China. 

The characters by which M. Petit distinguishes his Purpura 
Grateloupiana (fig. 332), are not at all distinctive. Fig. 338 
represents C. trig(ia, Reeve. 

C. TECTUM, Wood. PI. 63, fig. 330. 

Chocolate-brown externally, yellowish or chocolate within. 
The deeply incised external sulcations become internally raised 

lines. Length, 1 '25-2*5 inches. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

Peculiar in the single, prominent median fold on the columella. 
The adult is very gibbous and heavy. 

C. RUGOSA, Born. PI. 63, figs. 328, 329, 334. 

Yellowish or brownish, dark brown on the tubercles ; aperture 

white within. Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Bombay, Singapore, Java. 

Known by many under the name of C. sacellum, Chemn., 
adopted by Gmelin, but C. rugosa has priority as a binomial 
designation, and as several conchologists have already adopted 

26 



202 RAP AN A. 

the latter name, I do so likewise. The species is exceedingly 
variable, but in all stages presents a sloping shoulder to the 
whorls. This shoulder is defined by a line of tubercles, which 
are open scales in the finest examples, but become mere rounded 
knobs in more worn specimens. The inferior revolving ribs are 
also garnished with either tubercles or scales. 

C. MURICATA, Hinds. PL 63, fig. 335. 

Shell yellowish (dead). Length, (> inch. 

P< i in i in a ; in mud, 19 fathoms. 

A single specimen dredged by Hinds. It is so exactly like a 
very young C. rugosa that the widely distinct locality appears 
to be the only distinctive feature. It was described as a Trophon, 
but the specific name in that genus being pre-occupied by Montagu, 
P. P. Carpenter proposed to change its name to Trophon Hindsii. 



C. MURICINA, Blainv.,= Ricinula undata, Chernn. 

A number of authors have assigned this species erroneously to 
Cnma ; among them Pease,* who quotes among the synonyms 
P. tMrbinata, Bl., which = Cnma carimfera, Lam., and Pvrpitra 
foUacea, Conr., which = Bhizochilun. 

C. COSTATA. BL, = Khizochilii*. 

Onus itAPANA, Schum. 

This well-characterized group includes a few species usually 
found upon coral reefs in tropical seas, and probably living upon 
the coral polyps. 

The Fusus quadricostatus of Say (PL 64, fig. 341), a common 
American tertiary fossil and very remarkable shell, is referable 
to this genus : Conrad has formed for it his genus Ecphora. 

R. BEZOAR, Linn. PL 63, figs. 333, 337 ; PL 64, figs. 339, 340. 

Shell spirally ribbed or striate ; growth-lines smooth or sca- 
brously foliated ; shoulder of whorls flattened. Light brown, 
usually longitudinally flamed and obsoletely spirally spotted with 



* Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 111. 



LATLAXIS. 203 

darker brown. Internally white or orange-colored, the lip sul- 

cated. Length, 5-8 inches. 

China, Japan, Philippines. 

The typical form is ribbed, with foliated growth-lines ; a 
smoother form, simply striate, has been described as a distinct 
species, but may be designated as 

Var. THOMASIANA, Oosse. 

Purpura marginata (fig. 337), and P. venosa (figs. 339, 340), of 
Valenciennes, are equivalent, and enough intermediate varieties 
are before me to establish its identity with the type form. It is 
sold as food in the markets of Yokohama. 

R. BULBOSA, Sol. PI. 63, fig. 336. 

Shell bulbous, shoulder convex ; only slightly defined by a 
a revolving series of vaulted scales or tubercles ; suture excavated ; 
spire depressed. Yellowish-brown, clouded ; white or orange 

within. Length, 2*5-4 inches. 

China, Japan, Philippines. 

More inflated, thinner, smoother than the typical P. bezoar ; of 
which it is, perhaps, only a variety. 

It is the Murex rapa of Gmelin, but not of Linnaeus, the latter 
being the same as Pyrula payyracea of Lamarck, belonging to 
the genus Rapa. 

Subgenus Latiaxis, Swainson. 

Whorls more or less detached, carinated ; aperture small, 
trigonal ; canal narrow, rather long, curved. The animal and 
operculum are unknown. 

R. MAW.E, Gray. PI. 64, figs. 344-346 ; PI. 66, fig. 383. 
White, yellowish or flesh-color ; usually flesh-tinted within. 

Length. 2 inches. 

China, Philippines. 

With this species I unite R. Delete rti (fig. 346) and R. pur- 
purata (fig. 345) of Ohenu, as well as R. De Burghise of Reeve 
(fig. 383). 
R. IDOLEA. Jonas. PL 64, figs. 342, 343. 

Light brown; covered with close revolving ribs ; sometimes 
longitudinally plicate ; periphery aiigulated or carinated. 

Length. 1-2 inches. 

China, Australia, Philippint'S. 



204 LATIAXTS. 

21. Eugeniae, Bernard!, R. nodosa, Ad., and R. tortilis. Ad., are 
referred to this species by Dr. Gray in a short paper in Ann. 
Mag. N. H., 1867, in which, in a single paragraph, R. Mawse is 
referred to as JR. Mairse, R. Eugenise quoted as of Beraud instead 
of Bernardi, and R. textilis substituted for R. tortilis, Ad. ; whilst 
the adopted name, quoted as R. pagoda*, Johnson, instead of R. 
idolea, Jonas, caused me to hunt up all the Johnson papers con- 
tained in the Royal Soc. Catalogue. Dr. Gray remarks that these 
so-called species are founded on single variations, such as the 
presence or absence of a keel on the body, nodose plications, etc. 
R. Eugenise only has been figured (fig. 343). I venture to add 
Pyrula fusiformis, Chenu, which appears to agree well in its 
characters. 

R. FORTUNI, A. Ad. 

Not figured, and no dimensions given. It is widely umbili- 
cated, imbricated, pink in color, and may be a variety of R. 
Mawse. 

China. 
R. RHODOSTOMA, A. Ad. PI. 64, fig. 34T. 

Yellowish-brown, with white bands ; pink within the aperture. 

Length, 1-38 inches. 

China. 

The aspect of this species is so decidedly that of a Turbinella, 
that, although no folds are depicted on the columella, or described. 
I suspect that it really belongs to that group. In a series of T. 
carinifera, Lam., in the collection of the Philad. A cad., occurs 
ah abnormal specimen entirely similar in the wide, carinnted 
umbilicus. 

R. TURRIS, Morch. PI. 65, fig. 351. 

This was described as a Goralliophila, but its similarity to R. 
rhodostoma is sufficiently close to make it probable that it may be 
more properly arranged in the group of Latiaxis. 

Length, 1-.75 inches. 

Hob. unknown ; probably coll . near Montevideo, 8. Am. 

R. ELEGANS, Angas. 

This species, described in 1878, and well figured, is another of 
the numerous synonyms of Rhizochilus bracteatus, being equiva- 
lent to the var. babelis. 



RHIZOCHTLUS. 205 

Genus RHIZOCHILUS, Steenstrup. 

Dr. Gray remarks of this singular genus that " the shell, while 
the animal is growing, is free ; but when the animals have arrived 
at their full development, two or more congregate together in 
groups, each animal forming a more or less irregular, opaque, 
white, solid shelly extension of the outer and inner lip clasping 
the axis of the coral, Antipathes ericoides, or the neighboring 
shells, or both, and at length entirely closing the mouth of the 
shell, and firmly attaching the shells to the coral, or to one 
another, in such -a manner that the animal is completely sur- 
rounded by a solid shelty case, having no communication with 
the outer world but through the case of the anterior siphon of 
the mantle, which, by the contraction of the mouth of the shell, 
has been converted into a shelly tube. This self-immurement of 
the animal within its shell has not been described in any other 
mollusk, and one is led to inquire if by so doing the animal com- 
mits voluntary suicide or has a prolonged existence ; if the latter, 
one should expect that it must be of a very torpid or lingering 
description, as the animal is entirely precluded from procuring 
its usual or indeed any other food for its subsistence, and the 
supply of water for respiration which can enter by the single 
siphon must be of a very limited quantity, there being only one 
nperture for its entrance and exit. Many of the lung-breathing 
mollusca cover the mouth of their shell after the animal is with- 
drawn during very dr}' weather with a membranaceous or calcare- 
ous epiphragm, the animal during the time sinking into a torpid 
condition ; but these animals have the power, at the first recur- 
rence of clamp weather, to remove this cover, which is not the 
case with the hard shelly secretions which cover up the mouth of 
the shell of Rhizochilux.' 1 ' 1 * 

Notwithstanding the decided opinion given by Dr. Gray that 
the self-immurement of the Rhizocliilus is permanent, I cannot 
help thinking that it only continues during a period of hiberna- 
tion, and as many mollusks have the power of absorbing away 
partitions in their shells, as well as parts of the columella and the 
interior thickening of the outer lip, it appears to me that his 
argument that the hardness and thickness of the prison-walls 

* Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d Ser., VII, 477, 1851. 



206 CORALLIOPHILA. 

would prevent escape, can scarcely be sustained. We do not 
know how many of the species allied to the type of the genus 
ma}^ partake of this singular mode of growth ; it has only been 
observed in R. antipathic us. A large number of species have 
been grouped by Messrs. H. and A. Adams in a subgenus Coral- 
liophila, the character of which is, that they do not (are not 
known to) form this shelly enclosure. If this supposed differ- 
ence of habit should be proved by observation, there can be no 
doubt that the two names should be generically separated. It 
may be remarked that no lingual denticles have been found in 
the animals of Coralliophila, Leptoconchus or Magilus examined 
by Troschel. Coralliophila possesses an operculum ; I do not 
know whether the younger stage of Rhizochilus has one or not, 
but the presumption is that it has not. 

Several species have been described, besides the type ; but as 
the latter only has been observed with the closed aperture, I 
think it better to refer the others to Coralliophila. 

R. ANTIPATHICUS, Steenstrup. PI. 65, figs. 348-350. 
Shell thin, whitish. Length, 1 inch. 
When adult, grasping the axis of Antipathy* ericoides. 



Coralliophila, H. and A. A<i. 

A large number of specific forms have been described, many 
of which have not been figured. Judging from the extreme 
variabilit3 r of the well-known species both in form and sculpture, 
it may be anticipated that most of the more recently characterized 
species will prove to be synonyms, and as the diagnoses alone 
are insufficient for their determination, I have placed the names 
of these species at the end of the genus, as doubtful. 

C. NERTTOIDEA, Lam. PI. 65, figs. 353, 355, 356 ; PI. 66, fig. 375. 

White ; light purple within the aperture. 

Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Central Pacific. 

Purpura violacea, Kiener (figs. 353, 375), is undoubtedly the 
same species and P. gibbosa (fig. 356) is a form with the scabrous 
revolving stride well developed. TricJiotropis Orbignyana, Petit 
(= Purp. Trichotropoides, Montr, (fig. 355), from New Caledonia 
is the latter form not yet adult. 



rORALLIOPHlLA. 207 

C. PORPHYROLEUCA, (-rosse. PL 66, figs. 369, 370. 

Yellowish white, externally ; columella and interior rose-tinted. 

Length, -88 inch. 

Tahiti. 

C. BULBIFORMIS, Conrad. PI. 65, figs. 357, 359, 360. 

Colors as in last species. The spire is more raised and the 
shell is longitudinally ribbed. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Sandwich Isles to Tahiti, New Caledonia. 

( 1 . ELABORATA, H. a i id A. Adams. 

Shell ovate-conic ; solid, white, obliquely longitudinally plicate; 
with revolving scabrous line, the scales of which are produced 
and aculeate on each side, making the lira? biserrate. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Not figured ; evidently allied to C. bulbiformis. 

C. CALLAOENSIS, Gray. PI. 65, fig. 358. 

Light brownish white, without and within. Length, 1 inch. 

Gallapagos Isles, Peru. 

In form not unlike C. neritmdm, but has not the violet aperture 
of that species, and is very faintly longitudinally nodose or 
ribbed. 

C. GALEA. Chemn. PL 65, figs. 363, 362, 364. 

Shell yellowish white externally ; white, frequently tinged with 
light yellow or light pink within the aperture. 

Length, 1-2 inches. 

Philippines.^ Central Pacific, West Indies. 

There can be no doubt of the specific identity. of the West 
Indian with the Pacific shells ; of the former, I have before me 
numerous specimens from St. Thomas, St. Croix, Bahamas and 
Nicaragua. Chemnitz is not a binomial author, and according 
to priority his name should yield to C. abbreviata. Lam., but it 
has become so well known that its displacement would become 
an injury to science. 

The young shell is Murex plicata, Wood ; and in this stage the 
spire is conically elevated, the shoulder of the body-whorl more 
distinct, below which the shell rapidly narrows to the base, the 
umbilicus and its ridge scarcely defined. 



208 CORALLIOPHILA. 

Possibly Purp. aberrans, C. B. Ad., is a still more juvenile 
state of this species. C. nodulosa and C. salebrosa of H. and 
A. Adams, from Guadalonpe, W. I., can both be identified with 
C. galea. 

C. deformis, Lam., is treated as a distinct species by Pease, and 
he refers to it his C. exarata (fig. 364) as a synonym, but it is 
only a monstrosity of C. galea ; to which Purpura scalariformis, 
Lam., may be also referred. 
C. COSTULARIS, Lam. PI. 65, figs. 365, 366. 

Shell white, tinged with yellow or purple ; aperture light purple. 

Length, -85-1-35 inches. 

Philippines, Australia, Central Pacific. 

C. undosa, H. and A. Adams, said to come from Sandwich 
Isles, seems to agree with this species in description, and Murex 
planiliratus, Reeve (fig. 366), is certainly the same. 

C. BRAZIERI, E. A. Smith. PI. 70, fig. 436! 
White, the lirse reddish-brown ; aperture white. 

Length, 44 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described as a Fusus, but appears to be very closely related 
to C. costularis, Lam. 

C. CONSTRICTA, Koch. *P1. 70, fig. 434. 

Orange-brown. Length, 40 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described as a Fusus, yet I think that the figure j ustifies me 
in placing it in Coralliophila, and that it has a decided resem- 
blance to C. Fritschi, Martens. 

C. FRITSCHI, Martens. PL 65, fig. 352. 

Light rosaceous. Length, 32 mill. 

False Bay, South Africa. 

Described from a single, evidently worn specimen. It does not 
appear to me to be sufficiently distinct from C. costularis. 

C. CONSTRICTA, Koch. PI. 70, fig. 434. 

Orange-brown. Length, 40 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described as & Fusus, yet I think that the figure justifies me in 
placing it in Coralliophila, and that it has a decided resemblance 
to C. Fritschi, Martens. 



CORALLIOP11TLA. 209 

C. JEFFREYSII, E. A. Smith. PL 66, fig. 371. 

Light reddish brown ; bluish white within the aperture. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Japan. 

This small shell has so much affinity with C. costularis, and 
the variations of form, sculpture and color are so great in this 
genus, that I much doubt its distinctness. 

C. INFLATA, Dunker. PL 66, fig. 367. 

White ; yellowish white within the aperture. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

Java. 

A wider shell, with more numerous ribs than C. coxtularis ; of 
which it may prove to be only a variety. 

C. SQUAMOSISSIMA, E. A. Smith. PL 65, fig. 354. 
Ovately fusiform, narrowly umbilicated ; white. 

Length, 31 mill. 

Ins. Rodriguez. 

Said by the author to be allied to C. in flatus, Dunker, " but 
the sculpture and proportion of the aperture to the shell is very 
different." Neither of these differential characters appear to me 
to be of much weight in this genus. 

C. PACHYRAPHE, E. A. Smith. PL 70, figs. 441, 442. 

Varices eight or nine, nodulous at the crossing of the imbri- 
cately squamous revolving ridges. Lip margin crenulated ; six 
short lir<ne within the aperture. Light brown, pale at the angula- 
tion of the whorls ; fleshy brown within the aperture ; columella 

livid pinkish. Length, 16-21 mill. 

Japan. 

Described as a Fusus, which it certainly is not. I think it 
may be placed in this genus, although it also somewhat resembles 
Ocinebra. 

C. IMBRICATA, E. A. Smith. PL 70, fig. 440. 

Brownish white, darker on the ribs; aperture white, columella 

brown. Length, 27 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Described as a Fusus, but I think it may be better placed here 
or in Cuma. Closely related to the foregoing species. 

27 



210 PSEUDOMUBEX. 

C. NUX, Reeve. PL 66, fig. 368, 374. 

Shell white, without and within. Length, '75-1 inch. 

Mazatlan to Panama, Gallapagos Isles. 

This solid, white little shell has many synonyms ; among them, 
C. osculans, C. B. Ad., C. distans, Carp., C. niveus, C. Galifor- 
nica and G. asper of A. Ad., and C. parva of E. Smith (fig. 374) 
from Grallapagos. 

C. CORONATA, Barclay. PL 66, figs. 373, 372. 
Light rose-purple, darker within the aperture. 

Length, -88-1-25 inches. 

Mauritius. 

The form of this shell is very distinct. I unite with it C. 
Barclay ana, H. Ad. (fig. 372), from same locality ; being merely 
a better grown or older specimen. E. A. Smith has referred to 
C. Barclayanu, a specimen collected at the Andaman Islands, 
and removes the species to the genus Muricidea. 



[Genus PSEUDOMUREX, Monterosato.] 

An aberrant form, referred by authors to Murex, to Corallio- 
phila and to Latiaxis. I cannot find any good characters by 
which to separate it from Coralliophila. It includes four species 
and numerous varieties, all inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. 

C. BRACTEATA, Brocchi. PL 66, figs. 378-380, 384, 386. 

Whitish or yellowish. Length, 1-1 '3 inches. 

Mediterranean ; found on corals at considerable depths. 

Very variable in form and ornamentation. Monterosato has 
distinguished six varieties, which have mostly been described as 
species : 

Var. 1. G. lamellosa (Jan), Phil. (figs. 378, 385). 

Var. 2. C. minor, Mont. 

Var. 3. C. lacerata, Desh. (fig. 379). 

Yar. 4. G. Babelis, Requien. (fig. 380). 

Var. 5. G. Panormitana, Mont. 

Var. 6. C. brevis, Bl. (fig. 384). 

C. MEYENDORFFI, Calcara. PL 66, fig. 382. 

Whitish. Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Mediterranean, Canaries^ Madeira. 



GALEROPSIS. 211 

Aradas and Benoit state that this species, instead of being 
found at great depths as G. bracteata, is littoral. 

It is usually known as Murex scalaris, Brocchi, but that 
shell is a fossil and entirely distinct. 

P. SOPHIA, Aradas and Benoit. PI. 66, fig. 381. 

Very rare. Length, 1*5 inch. 

Palermo. 

Distinguished by its ventricose form, numerous ribs, cauda 
and closed reflexed canal. Monterosato, Kobelt, etc., consider 
this = Hindsia nivea, Pfr., an exotic shell : they are probably 
correct ; still I insert the species here. 

P. SPAD^E, Libassi. 

Described as a fossil, but recently found living. I do not know 
the species. It has been referred to Tritonidea. 

Mediterranean. 



Species of Coralliophila unidentified. 

0. MADREPORINA, A. Ad. = Rhizochilus coralliophila, A. Ad. 

(Philippines), C. SENTICOSA (Bombay), C. CONFRAGOSA (Hab. 
unknown), C. ASPERRIMA (Hab. ? resembles C. scalariformis , 
Lam.), C. RETUSA (Hab. unknown), all of H. and A. Adams. 

C. RADULA (China), C. PULCHELLA (Philippines), C. SUTURALIS 
(Philippines), C. SCALA (Juan Fernandez), C. FRAGTLIS (Philip- 
pines), C. CLATHRATA (Philippines), all of A. Adams. 

None of these species are figured, and in a genus in which the 
form and sculpture of the species are so variable, it is very unsafe 
to endeavor to identify them by descriptions only. Probably 
most of these names, founded on ideas of the immutability of 
specific characters which no longer obtain credence, will become 
synonyms. 

Subgenus Galeropsis, Hupe. 

I venture to place under this name the Bhizochilus madrepo- 
rarum, Sowb., which possesses differential characters from both 
Rhizochilus and Goralliophila. The young shell is free, and not 
unlike a Coralliophila, and in this stage it has a small, thin oper- 
culum with lateral nucleus. The animal has a short siphon which 



212 GALEROPSIS. 

scarcely projects beyond the canal. It is sluggish in its move- 
ments. As it matures it becomes attached to the coral, on which 
it lies and adheres with great tenacity, often allowing the foot to 
be torn away before releasing its hold. The conformation of the 
lip corresponds exactly with the irregularities of the place of 
adhesion. Upon removing the animal, scars will be noticed on 
the coral, more or less worn by the abrasion of the shell, and old 
specimens will be found to have deposited a shelly base. When 
removed, the animal is very timid and never wholly expands. 
It can only partly withdraw behind the columella-shelf, leaving a 
portion of the mantle and foot exposed. The foot is small, of an 
oval form, thick and fleshy. The tentacles rapidly taper to a 
fine point, on which the eyes are sessile a little beyond the middle 
of their length. The foot is tinged with pale orange, dotted with 
white along the upper margins. The mantle is colorless centrally, 
tinged with orange along the margins and dotted with white, .the 
dots crowded anteriorly and becoming more and more remote 
posteriorly. The operculum is of a pinkish violet color. The 
foot has a well-developed duplication in front. Such is the 
description given by Mr. W. H. Pease,* who places the species 
in Ehizochilus proper ; but it appears to me to differ from that 
genus in the excavated, shelf-like columella, the expanded con- 
tinuous lip of the adult (very like Condwlepas} and in not closing 
up its aperture with shelly matter when mature. In the expanded 
lip, flattened columella and tooth-like projection of the basal 
margin of the latter it well agrees with Hupe's genus Galeropsis, 
a tertiary fossil, the type of which I figure : 

GALEROPSIS LAVENAYANUS, Hupe. PL C>7, figs. 387, 388. 

It also has considerable affinity with Mr. Grabbs' cretaceous 
genus Lysis (which I have already figured and described). 

R. MADREPORARUM, Sowb. PL 67, figs. 389-391, 394. 

White externally, tinged with purple on lip, columella and 
within the aperture. Length, -75-1-25 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Japan, Central Pacific. 



* Am. Jour. Conch., IV, 112. 



SEPARATISTA, MELAPIUM. 213 

Genus SEPARATISTA, Gray. 

The animal is unknown, and the relationships of the genus are 
doubtful. 

S. GRAYI, A. Adams. 

Shell with the spire depressed, whorls with five transverse 
keels ; aperture transversely oblong ; inner lip reflexed, anteriorly 

rounded. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Xot figured. 

S. CHEMNITZII, A. Adams. PL 68, fig. 398. 

Shell with the spire elevated, whorls with three transverse 
keels ; aperture subcircular ; inner lip somewhat reflexed, ante- 
riorly produced and angulated. 

Is le of Burias, Philippines. 

S. LAXA, Say. PI. 68, fig. 399. 

Nearly glabrous ; yellowish-white ; a dilated, rugose groove on 
the line of the umbilicus. Length, *9 inch. 

Coast of South Carolina. 

Only a single specimen obtained. Mr. Say suggests that it 
may be a scalariform Natica. May it not rather be a valve of the 
fossil genus Diceras, one of the Chamidae ? 

S. BLAINVILLEANA, Petit. 

Tricar inated on the body-whorl, bicarinated on the spire ; 
membranaceous, transparent ; rosaceous under a corneous epider- 
mis. Length 7*5, diam. 10 mill. 

Marianne Isles. 

Something like S. Chemnitzii, A. Ad., but with more elevated 
spire. 

Genus MELAPIUM, H. and A. Adams.. 

This genus was instituted for the Pyrula lineata of Lam. ; the 
animal and operculum of which are unknown. Its systematic 
position is very doubtful. It has the porcellanous texture of 
Pusionella ; from which, however, it is distinguished by its ven- 
tricose body-whorl and short papillary spire. 

M. LINEATUM, Lam. PL 6*7, fig. 395- 

Smooth, porcellanous, yellowish-white, longitudinally streaked 
with brown ; columella violet-tinted. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Kant Indies. 



214 WHITNEYA, RAPA, MAGILUS. 

Genus WHITNEYA, Gabb. 

This fossil genus is said by its author to be related, probably, 
to Fasciolario^ but I agree with Stoliczka that its nearest apparent 
ally is Melapium ; from which I can only separate it geologically. 

WHITNEYA FICOIDES, Gabb. PL 68, fig. 397. 

Cretaceous, California. 
Genus EAPA, Klein. 

This, like the preceding genus, has only one properly authen- 
ticated species ; but that, is unquestionably very closely related 
to Leptoconchus. The operculum is of the normal purpuroid 
t}^pe, but like the shell, very thin, translucent and yellowish 
white. 

R. PAPYRACEA, Lam. PI. 67, figs. 393, 396, 392. 

Shell very thin, covered by variable revolving striae or ribs, 
which, towards the base, become scabrous; sutures also scabrous. 
White or light yellowish, frequently tinged with rose-pink 
towards the base. Length, 1 -75-2-7 5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, China, Philippines. 

Being very thin, the shell of this species is peculiarly liable to 
distortion. The Bulbus incurvus of Dunker ^fig. 396) I can only 
regard as one of these variations of form. I give a copy of the 
original figure of it. I copy below the description of another 
species, which does not appear to possess good distinctive 
characters. 

R. BULBIFORMIS, Sowb. 

Subglobose, spirally imbricately lirate below ; spire produced ; 
whorls six, rounded ; aperture somewhat narrowly pyriform ; lip 

crenulate belqw. 

Tongataboo, Friendly Isles. 

Has a much more produced spire than the known species ; with 
rounded whorls. I am not acquainted with it ; has not been 
figured. May = E. papyracea. 

Genus MAGILUS, Montfort. 

In the " Genera of Recent Mollusca," the authors, following 
Ruppell, distinguish the species of Leptoconchus from the single 
species of Magilus. They thus describe the animal of the former : 

The mantle margin is greatly thickened and fleshy ; the tenta- 



MAGILUS. 215 

cles are small, broad and united at their bases ; the eyes are small 
and black, on the outer side of the tentacles, near their tips ; the 
foot is small, short, obtuse and rounded behind, with a thin, 
expanded, disk-like lobe in front, and the siphon is obsolete. 
The genus differs from Campulotus (Magilus) not only in the 
absence of the operculum, but in the shell never forming a long- 
tubular projection of the mouth as in that genus. It comprises 
but few species, which take up their abode in corals and madre- 
pores. 

Deshaj^es, in his " Conchology of the Island of Bourbon," 1862, 
describes a number of species of Leptoconchus as well as the 
anatomy of one of them, confirms the non-existence of the oper- 
culum and sustains the separation from Magilus. 

On the other hand, that experienced conchologist, Mr. G. B. 
Sowerby, in his introductory remarks upon the genus Magilus, 
in Conch. Iconica, xviii, 1872, unites Leptoconchus with that 
genus. He says : 

The habits of this genus of mollusca are very curious. The 
young fry, after a short period of free locomotion, seems to find 
its way into some hole in a growing madrepore, and then to 
become stationary ; but as the substance grows around it, it 
would soon become enclosed unless the growth of the shell kept 
pace with that of the madrepore. In order, therefore, to keep' 
its aperture close to the surface, the two lips are extended in the 
same direction in the form of an irregular tube. The Magilus 
leaves its shell in the original cavity, and filling it up (with shelly 
material) so that it becomes solid, occupies only that portion of 
the tube which is nearest to the opening. The walls of the tube 
are thickened, and the portion which represents the canal is con- 
solidated into a thick keel. The species which have not been 
found as yet in an advanced state, and which appear generically 
to resemble the young shells of Magilus antiquus, have been 
separated by authors under the generic term Leptoconchus ; and 
it is asserted that while the Magilus possesses an operculum, the 
Leptoconchi do not. It is also said that the young shell of the 
Magilus begins to form a thickened and entire edge to its aper- 
ture, as if preparing for the future erratic course of its shell. It 
appears to me, however, that it depends upon the accidental 
conditions of habitat and growth whether and at what period of 



216 MAGILUS. 

life the shell of a Magilus shall become tubular ; and as for the 
operculum, it is certain that some, if not all, the species 
enumerated as Leptoconchus l>y authors have been found with 
opercula; notably, we have figured the genuine operculum of 
L. Lamarckii, Desh. The Isle of Bourbon, the Mauritius and 
Sandwich Islands perhaps most islands with reefs afford 
homes to the Magili. 

We agree with Mr. Sowerby ; indeed, it would be impossible 
to designate from the shells which species should be referred to 
Leptoconchus and which ones to the juvenile condition of Magilus. 
It is probable that the development of the tube is accidental, and 
it is equally probable that, as in Conus, the operculum is not 
always developed. Troschel has not discovered an}' indication 
of armature upon the lingual ribbon. So irregular are the shells 
of the Magili and so much is their growth influenced by the 
circumstances of their habitation that all the species that have 
been differentiated from M. antiquus must be regarded with sus- 
picion. When immense numbers of specimens, from different 
localities, and collected with a view to coallescence rather than 
to differentiation shall have been compared, we shall be able to 
assign definite places to the species which we are now compelled 
to take on probation. 

M. ANTIQUUS, Lam. PL 68, figs. 400-411. 

Bed Sea, Me of Bourbon. 

M. Djedah (fig. 403) and M. tennis (fig. 404), Chenu, are 
certainly synonymous. M. microcephalus, Sowb. (fig. 401), is 
separated with some doubt by its author on account of the small 
size of the spiral nucleus and rapid enlargement of the tube ; but 
I think that the position taken by the mollusk, in this case was 
so restricted as to prevent spiral growth to the usual dimensions, 
and the sudden increase in the size of the tube is evidence that 
such was the case. 

M. Cuvieri, Deshayes (fig. 405), is a well-formed 3'oung speci- 
men from the Isle of Bourbon. M. ellipticus, Sowb. ^fig. 408), 
M. striatus, Ruppell (fig. 406), M. Peronii, Lam., M. serratus, 
Desh. (fig. 407), M. rostratus,A. Ad. (figs. 409, 410), M. Schrenkii, 
Lischke (fig. 411), are all too close in form, and had better be 
considered synonyms. The latter is from Japan. 



MAGTLUS. 217 

M. COSTATUS, Sowerby. PL 69, fig. 421. 

The revolving costa? are perhaps simph~ a pronounced form of 
the somewhat evanescent lines or strife which frequently occur 
on M. a-nh'quus. The cost*? continue on the tube. 

Hob. ? 

M. Cumingii. H. and A. Adams, described as from California, 
is evidently the same species, and probably described from the 
same specimen. The name had already been used by Deshayes, 
J therefore prefer to retain Mr. Sowerby 's later name costatus. 

M. RUPPELLII, Deshayes. PI. <;8, fig 412 ; PI. 69, figs. 414, 418. 

I unite with this form M. Cumingii (fig. 418), and M. ylobulosus 
(fig. 414), Desh. 

The spire is sometimes depressed so as to make the distinction 
from M. antiques arbitrary, and the body-whorl is narrowed 
below, and somewhat produced in some specimens so as to suggest 

a passage into the next form. 

Me of Bourbon. 

Mr. Sow^rby's fig. 1 6., in the Conch. Icon. (fig. 413), appears 
to me to represent this form, although I do not dispute his deter- 
mination of it as M. 



M. MAILLARDI. De>hay<^. PL H9, figs. 416, 415. 417. 

The type is a depauperate shell, somewhat distorted, the normal 
growth being better shown in M. LainarfL-ii. Desh. (fig. 415), 
and J/. soli <li 11*1:1.1 la, Pease (fig. 417). I have before me a series 
connecting these species. I have already suggested their rela- 
tionship through M. /,'"p/'//ii with M. 0,'nfii/im^ : on the other 
hand some transition forms to 31. tirnhriotu* are not wanting. 

1*1 1 <>f I >o iii-bo n. 

M. PIMBRIATUS. A. Ad. PL r,9. figs. 4111. 420. 4'2'2. 423. 

The fimbriated, ribbed surface, in the type, the great expansion 
of the body-whorl and largr aperture suggest the genus ('<>,,- 
ckolepas, and Mr. Adams originally made a . subgenus Coralliobia 
under Conrholepas, for his species ; afterwards H. and A. Adams 
made Coralliobia a subgenus of Leptoconchus. The shell'is very 
like Coralliophila madreporaram^ which I have placed in the 
subgenus Galeropsis, Hupe, but differs in the surface and in 
color. The expansion of the lip does not appear to be uniform ; 
28 



218 MAGILINA, NISEA. 

hence in other stages of growth, additional specific names have 
been made. M. Eobillardi, Lienard (figs. 422, 423), is one of 
these less-developed stages. Coralliobia cancellata and sculptilis 
of Pease, neither of which have been figured, present no distinc- 
tive characters in the descriptions, and may be here included. 

Genus MAGILINA, Velain. 

The species which forms the type of this new genus is much 
smaller than those of Magilus. The distinctive characters con- 
sist in the spiral shell having one whorl only and in the fixed 
adult being attached by one side of the tube to the external 
surface of submarine objects instead of growing in their interior. 
This is a great change of habit, and the animal may prove to 
have no relationships with Magilus but rather with the Vermetidse. 
I do not know how closely it may be related to Nisea. 

M. SERPULIFORMIS, Velain. PL 69, figs. 425, 426. 

Shell at first thin, transparent, deep red-brown ; growing into 
an irregular tube affixed by its side to shells, etc., and then 
becoming whitish. Length 3-4 mill., diam. 1*25 mill. 

Isles of St. Paul and Amsterdam, Iniiian Ocean. 

Animal and operculum unknown. 



Genus NISEA, Marcel de Serres. 

A fossil of very doubtful affinities, of which two species have 
been described. 

N. SIMPLEX, M. de Serres. PI. 69, fig. 424. 

Lower Crag, cidnity of Nimes. 



J * I H 11 A R V 

UN I VEILS IT V OFJ 

CALIFORNIA. 
INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



PAGE. 

Aberrans (Purpura}, Adams. Contr. Conch., 58, 1850. 

? = Coralliophila galea, Chemn. 
Abbreviata (Purpura), Lam. Encyc. Meth., t. 36, f. 2, a, b. 

Coralliophila galea, Chemn. 

Abyssicola (Murex), Crosse, Jour. Conch., xiii, 30, t. 1, f . 4, 5, 1865. 86 
Acanthina. Fischer. Mus. Demidoff, iii, 174, 1807. = Monoceros, Lam. 
Acanthophorus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 372, 1862. 

= M. falcatus, Sowb. 

Acanthophorus (Murex), Monterosato. Nuova Revista, 39, 1875 135 

Acanthopterus ( Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 577 85 

Acanthopterus (Murex), var. Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 51. 

= M. triformis, Reeve. 

Aciculatus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 600 119, 148 

Aciculiger (Murex), Val. Voy. Venus, t. 10, f. 1, 1846. 

== M. Nuttallii, Conrad. 
Aculeatus (Murex), Wood. Ind. Test. Suppl., t. 5, f. 19. 

= M. dubius, Sowb. 
Aculeata (Purpura), Deshayes. Anim. sans Vert., x, 104, Kiister, 

185, t. 31, f. 7-10. = P. hippocastanum, Lam. 
Acuminata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 52, 1846. = Peristernia. 
Acuminatum (Monoceros), Sowb. Conch. Illust., f. 10. 

= M. calcar, var. crassilabrum. 

Acuminatus (Murex), Anton. Verzeich., 81, 1839 135 

Adamsi (Murex), Sowerby (not Kobelt). Thes. Conch. Murex, p. 38. 

= M. densus, H. and A. Adams. 
Adamsia, Dunker. Zool. Proc. 357, 1856. = Urosalpinx. 

Adamsii (Murex), Kobelt. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., iv, 154, 1877 86 

Adelaide (Adamsia), Ad. and Ang. Zool. Proc., 421, t. 37, f. 2, 1863. 

== Urosalpinx Tritoniformis, Bl. 
Adelaidensis (Ricinula), Crosse. Jour. Conch., 3d Ser., v, 50, t. 2, f. 

1, 1865 189 

Aduncospinosus (Murex), Beck, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 93. 

= Var. of M. ternispina, Lam. 
Aduncus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 55. = M. falcatus, Sowb. 

Adustus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 373 90, 91 

^Egrota (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 42, 1846. 

== P. mancinella, Linn. var. 

.Ethiops (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., sp. 108. = Purpura cingulata, Linn. 
Affine (Sistrum), Pease. Zool. Proc., 1862 ; Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 

23, f. 13. = R. marginatra, Bl. 

Affinis (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 182. = M. maurus, Brod. 
Affinis (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 77, 1846. =P. armigera, Chemn. 
Africanus (Murex), Martini. Conch. Cab., iii, 266, t. 100, f. 951. 

= Cuma carinifera, Lam. 
Agnewia, E. Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 29, 1877. 

=- Urosalpinx Tritoniformis, Bl. 
Alabaster (Murex), Ad. Zool. Proc., 508, 1863. =M. Adamsii, Kobelt. 

Alabaster (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 86, 1845 86, 88 

(219) 



220 INDEX. 



Alatum (Triton), Menke. Verzeiclm., No. 97S, 1828. 

= Ranella (Eupleura), caudata, Say. 
Alatus (Murex), Bolten, Morch. = M. pimiatus, Wood. 
Alba (Purpura), Hombr. et Jacq. Moll. Voy. Astrol. i*t Zelce, 91, t. 

22, f. 30, 31 179 

Alba (Ricinula), Martini, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 87, 1852. 

R. morus, Lam. 

Albicans f Murex), Anton. Verzeichn., 82, 1839 135 

Albidus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild., ii, 119 ; Fusus, t. 3, f. 5. 

= Trophou Geversianus, Pallas, var. 
Albocincta (Purpura), Kiister. Monog., 180, t. 30, f. 8, 9. 

= P. deltoidea, Lam. 

Albolabratus (Trophon), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. II., 68, 1875 144 

Albolabris (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., 208, t. 9, f. 5, 

1832. = Ricinula ricinus, Linn. 
Albomarginata (Purpura), Deshayes. Guerin'sMag. Zool, t. 44, 1841. 

P. scobina, Quoy. 
Albovaria (Ricinula), Kiister. Monog. 31 t. 5, f. 14, 15. 

= Var. of R. undata, Cheran 189 

Alutaceus (Murex), Menke. Verzeichn., 1828. =M. miliaris, Gmel. 
Alveatus ( Murex), Beau. Coq. Guadaloupe. ? = M. Cantrainei, Recluz. 

Alveatus (Murex), Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 46, f. 2 128, 121 

Alveolata (Purpura), Kiener, 42, t. 9, f. 23, (Ricinula), Reeve, Icon., 

sp. 23. == Engina. 
Alveolata (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 60, 1846. 

= Var. of P. hippocastaneum, Lam. 162 

Ambiguus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild. Fusus, t. 1, f. 2, 1844. 

? = Trophon Stangeri, Gray. 
Ambiguus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 86, 1845. =M. nitidus, Brod. 

Amygdala (Purpura), Kiener. Purpura, t. 10, f. 26 17!* 

Analoga (Purpura), Forbes. Zool. Proc., 273, t. 11, f. 12, 1850. 

== P. lapillus, Linn., var. 
Ananas (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 127, 1843. 

= M. rosarium, Chemn. ? 

Anaxeres (Purpura), Duclos, Kiener, Monog., 26, t. 7, i'. 17 186 

Anaxeres (Ricinula), Duclos, Kiister. 1'urpura, t. 28, f. 13. 

= R. musiva, Kiener. 
Anceps (Murex), Pfr. = Ranella 

Ancilla (Pseudoliva), Hanley. Zool. Proc., 429, 1859 197 

Angasi ( Murex), Tryon 109 

Angasi (Typhis), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xi, 86, t. 1, f. 2 1863. 

= Murex Angasi, Crosse 88 

Angistoma (Murex), Kiister. Conch. Cab., ii, 88, t. 31, f. 7 97 

Anglicanum (Buccinum), Lam. = P. lapillus, Linn. 
Anglicum (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat. = P. lapillus, Linn. 

Augularis (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 593 104 

Angulifera (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Hist. Nat., t. 1, f. 6, 1832; 

Kiener, Purpura, 60, t. 15, f. 42. == Cuma tectum, Wood. 
Anguliferus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 588, Edit. I, vii, 171. 93 
Anguliferus (Murex), Vaillant. Jour. Conch., xiii, 105, 1865. 

= M. Erythraeus, Fischer. 
Anomala (Purpura), Angas. Zool. Proc., 34, t. 5, f. 1, 1877. 

= Murex (Ocinebra) 121, 180 

Antarcticus (Trophon), Phil. Mai. Blatt., xv, 225, 1868. 

= T. laciniatus, Mart. 



IM>KX. 221 



Antillarum (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 126, 1843. 

= M. recurvirostris, Brod. 
Antipathicus (Rhizochilus, Steenstrup. Oversigt Danske, Videns. 

Selsk., 18-50 : Gray, Ann. Majr. N. Hist., '3d ser , viii, 477, t. 17 ft., 

f. 1, 2, 1851 206 

Antiquus Magilus), Lamarck. 2d Edit., v, 639 216, 217 

Aperta i Purpura i, Blainv. Xouv. Ann. du Mus., i, 210 161 

Approximates (Murex , Sowerby. Thes. Conch., 13, f. 62, 1879. 

= M. brevifrons. Lam. 
Arachnoidea f Ricinula;, Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 232, 1822. 

= R. ricinus, Linn. 

Araiiea. Perry. Conch., t. 45, 46, 1811. = Murex. Linn. 
Aranea (Murex , Blainv. Kiener, t. 36, f. 1.==, M. mouodon, Sowb. 
Arcuatus Typhis , Hinds. Zool. Proc. 19, 1843, Voy. Sulphur, 10, 

t. 3, f. 1, 2 ." 136 

Arginna Murex , Meuschen, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 07. 

= M. palma-rosae, Lam. 

Argus (Purpura), Duclos. Jay's Cat of Shells, 84, 2d Edit 

Anna-turn 'Monocerosi, Gray, Wood. Index, Test. Suppl., t. 4, f. 12. 

= M. luirubre, Sowb. 

Armatus (Murex ). A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 71, 1853 135 

Armigera Purpura . Cheuin. Conch. Cab., xi. t. 1*7. f. 1798, 1795. 

163, 166 
Anniffera Purpura , Quoy and Gahn. Moll. Astrol., t. 37, f. 17-19. 

= P. pica, Blainv. 

Armillata Ricinula , Reeve. Icon., sp. 47, 1846.= Peristernia. 
Ascensionis i Purpura . Quoy and Gaim. Astrol. ii. 559, t. 37, f. 20-23. 

== P. neritoidea, Linn. 

Asper (Murex , A. Adams- 12'J 

Asper Rhizochilus . A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 137. 1854. 

. C'oralliophila nux, Reeve. 
Ispera (Yitularia). Baird. Zool. Proc. 6H, ixfcf. Carp. Rep. II. 663. 

= Yar. of M. luridus, Midd 131 

Asperrima (Coralliophila \ H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 431, 1863 211 

Asperrimus Fusus), Leach. Brit. Mus. = Trophou muricatus, Mont. 
Asperrimus (Murex u Grateloup. Atlas, t. 30, 31. 
" == M. trunculu>. L 
Asperrimus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert, ix, 570. 

= M. pomum. Gmel. 

Asperus (Ricinula), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 51. = Var. of R. moiiis, Lam. 185 
Assisi (Trophon), AYoods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1876. 

_ Urosalpinx : 155 

Afetiicta (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon. sp. 30, 1S46. = Peristernia. 

Aterrima Purpura), Lesson. Rev. Soc. Cuv., 186. 1842 178 

Atromarginata (Purpura), Blainv. Menke, Zeit. Mai., 1847. 

=-= P. marginatra, Bl. 
Attenuata Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 49. 1846. 

= P. lapillus, Linn.. Var. 
Aurantiaca f Purpura), Hombr. et Jac/i- Moll. Voy. Astrol. et Zelee. 

91, t. 22, f. 28, 29 179 

Aurantius Murex , Anton. Verzeichu. 82, 1839 135 

Australiensis Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 72, 1853. 

= M. adustus, Lam. 

Australis (Murex), Quoy and Gaim., ii, 536 83 

Australis ( Pseudoliva ) . . 196 



222 INDEX. 



Australia (Trophon), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 136, 1875. 

149, 156 
Avellana (Purpura), Reeve. Conch. Icon., Buccinum, f. 52, 1846. . . 180 

Avenacea (Purpura), Lesson. Rev. Zool. Soc. Guv., 186, 1842 178 

Axicornis (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 574 92, 96 



Babelis (Fusus), Requien. Coq. de Corse, 76. 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Br., var. (4), 210 

Baccata (Purpura), Hombr. et Jacq. Moll. Voy. Astrol. et Zelee, 87, 

t. 22, f. 9, 10. = Siphonalia raphanus, Lam. juv. 
Badius (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 162. = M. aciculatus, Lam. 

Bseticus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 162 120 

Balteatus (Murex), Beck, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 146, 1840 110 

Bamffius (Murex), Donovan. Brit. Shells, t. 169, f. 1. 

= Trophon clathratus, L. 

Banksii (Murex), Sowb. Conch, 111., f. 82 89 

Barbarensis (Muricidea), Gabb. Cal. Proc., iii, 183, 1866. 

= M. lugubris, Brod. 
Barcinonensis (Purpura), Hidalgo. Jour, de Conch., xv, 357, t. 12, 

f. 2, 1867. = P. haemastoma, Linn. 
Barclayana (Coralliophila), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 205, t. 23, f. 1. 

1873. = C. coronata, Barclay 210 

Barclayana (Muricidea). E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc. , 806, 1878. 

= Coralliophila Barclayana, H. Adams. 

Barclayi (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 209, t. 38, f. 2, 1857 85 

Barvicensis (Trophon), Johnston. Edinb. Phil. Jour, xiii, 225. 140, 142 
Beaui (Murex), Petit. Jour, de Conch., v, 295, t. 8, f. 1, 1856. . .80, 134 

Beckii (Murex), Phil. Abbild. iii, t. 2, f. 1 106, 108 

Belcheri (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc. 127, 1843 ; Voy. Sulphur, t. 2, 

f. 1-3. = Chorus 142, 197, 198 

Belcheri (Pyrula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 4. = Chorus Belcheri, Hinds. 

Belcheri (Typhis), Brod. Zool. Proc., 178, 1832 137 

Bella (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 15. = Peristemia. 

Bellus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 88, 1845. Conch. Icon., sp. 84. 

= M. chrysostoma, Gray. 
Benoitii (Murex), Tiberi. Jour. Conchyl., ii, ser. ii, 291, 1857. Petit, 

ibid., 3 ser., iii, 828, 1813. = Coralliophila bracteata, Br., var. (4) 

Babelis. 
Bezoar (Buccinum), Linn. Syst. Nat. Reeve, Pyrula, sp. 15. 

= Rapana 202 

Bicolor (Murex), Valenciennes. Zool. Humb. , ii 101 

Bicolor (Murex), Var. Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 44. Note. 

= M. hippocastaneum, Phil. 

Bicolor (Purpura), Lesson. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv., 187, 1842'. 178 

Biconica (Purpura), Anton. Verzeichn., 89, 1839 166 

Biconica (Ricinula), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., i, t. 9, f. 1 185 

Biconica (Purpura), Button. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xviii, 20, 1878. 

Trans. N. Zeal. Inst., x, 294,1878 177 

Bicostalis (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 82. = P. haemastoma, Linn. 
Bicostatum (Buccinum), Brug. Encyc. Meth., i, 248. 

= Purpura succincta, Mart. 
Bicatenata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 48, 184.6. 

= R. biconica, Bl. 
Bifasciatus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 269, 1851. 



INDEX. 223 

PAGB. 

Bifasciatus (Murex), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 155, 1879. 

= M. rosarium, Chemn. 
Bimaculata (Purpura), Jonas. Zeit. Mai., 171, 1845 ; Reeve, Icon., f. 

5, 1846. 165, 164 

Bimucronatum ( Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. sp. 88. 

? = Ricinula ochrostoma, Yar. heptagonalis. 
Bipinnatus (Mnrex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 85, 1845. 

= M. clavus, Kiener. 

Bipunctatus (Murex), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 22, f. 188, 1879 85 

Birileffi (Trophon), Lischke. Mai. Blatt , xviii, 39, 1871; .lap., 

Meeres Conch., suppl. 32. = Urosalpinx 154 

Biserialis (Purpura), Blain. Nour. Ann., du Mus., t. 11, f. 11. 

= P. hsemastoma, L. 
Bitubercularis (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x. 64. 

= P. hippocastaneum, Lam. 

Bizonalis (Purpura), Lam. Edit., 2, x. 88. = P. lapillus, Linn. 
Blaiuvilleana (Trichotropis), Petit. Jour, de Conch., i, 22, t. 1, f. 5, 

1850. = Separatista '213 

Blainvillei (Cancellaria), Blainv. Faune franc., 139, t. 5, f. 4. 

= Murex cristatus, Brocchi. 

Blainvillei (Murex), Maravigna. = M. cristatus, Brocchi. 
Blainvillei (Murex), Payr. Moll. Corse, p: 149, t. 7, f. 17, 18. 

= Var. of M. cristatus Brocchi. 
Blainvillei (Purpura), Desh. Anim. sans Vert, x, 93. 

= P. haemastoma, L. 
Boivinii (Murex), Kiener. Coq. Viv. t. 43. f. 2. 

= M. horridus, Brod and Sowb. 
Borbonica (Pyrula), Marav. 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Brocchi, Var. brevis. 
Borealis (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 145. 

= Trophon craticulatus, Fab. 
Bourgeoisi (Murex), Tournouer. Jour, de Conch, xxiii, p. 156, t. 5, 

f. 5, 1875. = M. quadrifrons, Lam. 

Brachypteron (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 371, 1862 114 

Bracteatus (Murex), Brocchi. = Coralliophila 210 

Bracteatus (Murex), Sandri. Elengo, p. 48. = Var. of M. erinaceus, 

Linn. 

Brandaris (Murex), Linn. Edit, xii, 1214 98, 77 

Brasiliensis (Murex), Sowb. Conch. Ill, f. 55. = M. costatus Gmel. 

Brassica (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert, ix, 581 100 

Brazieri (Fusus), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc. xii, 539, t. 30, f. 16. 

1876. = Coralliophila 208 

Brazieri (Murex), Angas. Zool. Proc., 171. t. 26, f. 3, 1877 132 

Brazieri (Trophon), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 136, 1875.148, 156 
Breve (Buccinum), J. Adams. Linn. Trans., iii, 1797. 

? = Fry of Purpura lapillus, Linn. 
Breve (Monoceros), Sowerby. Gen. Shells, f. 2. 

= M. Calcar, Martyn. 
Breviculus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111. f. 37. 

= Var. of M. tetragonus Brod 121 

Brevidens (Monoceros), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad. vii, 264, 1837. 

= M. lapilloides, Conr. 
Brevidentatum (Monoceros), Gray. Wood's Index, Test. Suppl. , t. 

4, f. 10 194 

Brevifrons (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert, ix, 573 95 



224 INDEX. 



Brevis (Murex), Forbes. Aeg. Invert. 190. 

? = Coralliophila bracteata, Broc., Yar. (5) Panormitana. 
Brevis (Purpura), Blainv., Nouv, Ann. Mus. i, 233, t. 11, f. 10. 

= Coralliophila, bracteata, Broc. , Var. 6 210 

Brevispina (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert, ix, 567 70 

Brocchii (Murex), Cantraine. = M. cristatus, Brocchi. 
Brocchii (Murex), Monte rosato. Jour. Conch, xxii, 393, 1874. 

= Fusus craticulatus, Brocc. 
Bronni (Purpura), Dunker. Mai. Blatt. vi, 235, 1860. Moll. Japon. 

5, t. 1, f. 23. = P. tumulosa, Reeve. 
Brontes, Montf. Conch. Syst. ii, 622, 1810. = Haustellum, Klein. 

Buccinea (Purpura), Deshayes. Anim. sans Vert, x, 92 179 

Buccineus (Trophon), Gray Zool. Beechey's Voy. 155, t. 36, f. 12, 

1839 146 

Bucciniformis (Purpura), Kiener. Purpura, 40, t. 8, f. 19. 

= Peristernia. 
Buccinorbis, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 21, 1865. 

= Pseudoliva, Swains. 

Bufo (Purpura), Lam. , Edit. 2, x, 69 165 

Bufonides (Purpura), Val. Voy. Venus, t. 8, f. 1. 

= P. bufo, Lam. 
Bulbiformis (Purpura), Conr. Jour. Philad. Acad. , vii, 266, t. 20, f. 

23, 1837. = Coralliophila 207 

Bulbiformis (Rapa), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 252, 1870 214 

Bulbosa (Pyrula), Solander. Dillw. Cat. ii, 631; Reeve, Pyrula, 

sp. 14. = Hapana bulbosa, Sol 203 

Bulbus (Buccinum), Wood. Index Test. 

= Melapium, lineatum Lam. 

Bulbus Humphrey. Mus. Gallon, 1797.=- Rapa, Klein. 
Burnetti (Murex), Ads. and Rve. Voy. Samar., t. 8, f. 4 ; E. Smith, 

Ann. Mag., N. H., 4 ser., xv, 420 114 

Buxeus (Murex), Brod. = Pollia. 

Cabritii (Murex), Bemardi. Jour. Conch., vii, 301, t. 10, f. 3, 

1858 80, 134 

Cailleti (Murex), Petit. Jour. Conch., v, 87, t. 2, f. 1, 2, 1856. 

= Var. of M. motacilla, Chemn 82 

Calcar (Monoceros), Martyn. Univ. Conch., ii, t. 10, 50 194 

Calcar ( Murex), Kiener, t. 36, f. 2 94 

Calcar (Murex), Scacchi. 1834. = Trophon carinatus, Biv. 
Calcarius (Murex), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., vi, 230, 1860. Moll. Japon, 

5, t. 1, f. 2. = Siphonalia. 
Calcitrapa (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 573, Edit, i, vii, 162. 

= M. brevifrons, Lam. 
Californica (Coralliophila), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 121, 1855. 

= C. nux, Reeve. 
Californicus (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 128, 1843. Voy. Sulph., 

t. 3, f. 9, 10. = M. trialatus, Sowb. 
Caliginosus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 141. 

= M. lugubris, Brod. 

Callaoensis (Purpura), Blainv. (not Gray). = P. Blainvillii, Desh. 
Callaoensis (Purpura), Gray (non Blainv.). Spicil. Zool., 4, t. 6, f. 11 . 

= Coralliophila 207 

Callifera (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, 72. Cuma coronata, Lam.' 
Callosa (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, p. 70. = P. bufo, Lam. 



INDEX. 225 



Callosa (Purpura), Sowb. Gen. f. 9. = Cuma teetum, Wood. 
Calva (Trophon), Kobelt. Kiister, t. 75, f. 1. 

= T. Geversiauus, Pallas, var. 

Calvitoma ( Purpura , Nutt. Jay. Cat., 84, 3d Edit 178 

Campulotus Guettard (part. ). Mem. iii, 540, 1786. = Magilus, Montf. 
Canaliculata (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Sc. Nat., t. 1, f. 1, 1832. 

= P. lapillus, Linn, var. 
Canaliferus (Murex), Sowb. Zool.Proc., 142, 1840. Conch. 111., f. 74. 

= M. acautliopterus, Lam . . 86 

Cancellata (Coralliobia), Pease. Zool. Proc., 399, 1860. 

= Magilus fimbriatus A. Ad 218 

Cancellata (Purpura), Kiener (non Quoy). Purpura, t. 7, f. 16. 

= Ricinula marginatra. Bl. 

Cancellata (Sinusigera), Orb., H. and A. Adams. Genera, t. 137, f. 4. 168 
Cancellata (Sistrum), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 563, t. 37, f. 15, 16, 

1832 188 

Cancellatus (Fusus), Bivona. = Trophon muricatus, Mont. 
Caiicellatus f Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc. 143, 1840. 

= M. canaliferus, Sowb. 
Cancellatus (Murex), Sowb. Zool.Proc., 1845. 

= Typhis Cancellatus, Sowb. 

Cancellatus (Typhis), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 143, 1845 138 

Cancellinus (Fusus), Phil. Archiv fiir Naturg. i, 67, 1845, Abbild. ii, 

Fusus, t. 3, f. 2. = Urosalpinx 154 

Candelabrum (Trophon), Ad. and Reeve. Icon. Fusus. 

= T. clathratus, L. 

Candida (Vitularia), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 430, 1863 133 

Canrena, Link. Beschreib. Nat. Samml. Rostock, iii, 135, 1807. 

= Ricinula, Lam. 
Cantrainii (Purpura), Montr. Journ. de Conch., 282, 1. 11, f. 11, 1861. 

= Coralliophilabulbiformis, Conr. 
Cantrainei (Triton), Recluz. Jour. Conch., iv, 246, t. 8, f. 10. 1851. 

= Murex alveatus, Kiener. 

Capensis (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 76. = M. uncinarius, Lam. 
Capensis (Purpura), Petit. Jour, de Conch., 162, t. 7, f. 6, 1852. 

Kiister, Purpura, 134, t. 23 , f. 6. = P. luteostoma, Chemn. 

Capucinus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 576. 94, 134 

Carbonaria (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 22. 1846. = Engina. 

Carduus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 175, 1832. = Trophon 149 

Carduus (Trophon), Kobelt. Conch. Cat., 275, lief. 296. 

= Triton carduus, Reeve . 
Carinata (Purpura), Wagner. Conch. Cab., xii, 141, t. 232, f. 4078 ; 

t. 133, f. 4091, 4092, 1828. = Cuma carinifera, Lam. 
Carinatum (Haustellum), Schum. Essai Nouv. Syst. 

= M. spirillus, L. 

Carinifera (Purpura), Lam. vii, 241, 1822. = Cuma. 200 

Cariniferus (Murex), Brod., Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 58. 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Broc., Var. (3) lacerata, Desh. 
Cariosa (Purpura, Gray. Beechey's Voy., 123; Wood, Suppl. t. 5, 

f. 22. = Ricinula cancellata, Quoy. 

Carneola (Purpura), Bolten. Morch. = M. microphyllus, Lam. 
Carolensis (Purpura), Reeve, Icon., sp. 57, 1846. 

P. triangularis, Blainv. 
Cassidiformis (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., i, 230, 1832. 

= Trophon xanthostoma, Brod. 

29 



226 INDEX. 



Castanea (Purpura), Bolt. Mus. = P. pica, Blainv. 

Castanea (Purpura), Krauss. Kiister, Monog. 170, t. 28, f. 8, 9 179 

Castaneus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1840. Conch. 111., f. 44. 

= M. quadrifrons, Lam. 

Castus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 71, 1853 123 

Catafractus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 40. = M. cristatus, 

Brocchi. 
Cataracta (Purpura), Chemnitz, x, 188, t. 152, f. 1455. 

= P. scobina, Quoy. 
Cataracta (Purpura), Chemn. Kiener, t. 36, 37. 

= P.hsemastoma Linn. 
Caudata (Eupleura), Say. Journ. Philad. Acad. ii, 238, 1822. 

Am. Conch., t. 48 157, 158 

Cavernosa (Ricinula). Reeve. Icon., sp. 38, 1846. 

= R. ochrostoma Bl., Var. heptagonalis. 

Cellulosa (Murex), Conrad. Proc. A. N. 8. Phil., iii, 25, 1846 135 

Centiquadra (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Sc. Nat., t. 2, f. 8, 1832. 

== ? P. triserialis, Blainv. 
Centrifuga (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 126, 1843. Voy. Sulph., t. 

3, f. 7 8 113 

Centronotus, Swains. Elem. Conch., 1835. = Phyllonotus, Swains. 
Cerastoma, Conr. Jour. Philad. Acad., vii, 263, 1837.. 73, 112, 84, 126 

Cervicornis (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 575 92 

Chaidea (Sistrum), Duclos. Ann. Sc. Nat., 106, t. 1, f. 4, 1832 187 

Cheletropis Forbes. Yoy. Rattlesnake, App. 385, 1851. 

= Sinusigera, d'Orb. 
Chemnitzii (Separatista), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 45, 1850. II. & 

A. Ad. Genera, t. 14, f. 6, 213. 
Chicoreus, Montf. Conch. Syst., ii, 610, 1810. 

= S. G. of Murex, Linn 73, 88, 84, 97 

Chocolatum (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Sc. Nat., xxvi, t. 2, f. 7.. 160, 180 
Chorus, Gray. Zool., Proc. 136, 1847. H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 

125, t. 8, f. 6 ...7.5, 197 

Chrysostoma (Murex), Gray. owb. Conch. 111., f . 1 82 

Chrysostoma (Ricidula), Desh. Mag. de Zool., t. 86, 1844 191 

Chrysostdma (Ricinula), Reeve, (noil Desh.). Icon., f. 12 b. 

= R. biconica, Bl., Var. 
Chusani (Purpura), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite, 604, t. 39, f. 20-22. 

= P. luteostoma, Chemn. 

Cichoreum (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 35, 30.= M. endivia, Lam. 
Cinereus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., sp. 78 (not of Say). 

= Eupleura Tampaensis, Conr. 
Cinereus (Fusus), Say. Jour. A. N. S. Philad. ii, 236, 1821. Am. 

Conch., t. 29. = Urosalpinx 152 124 

Cingulata (Monoceros), Lam. = Leucozonia. 
Cingulata (Planaxis), Gould. Otia. Conch., 140. 

= Vexilla (Usilla) 182, 181 

Cingulata (Purpura), Linn. Mantissa, 549 169 

Cingulatum (Buccinum). Encyc. Meth., t. 400, f. 6. 

= Purpura lineata, Lam. 

Cingulatus (Murex), Lam 135 

Cinguliferus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert, ix, 597. 

= Var. of M. erinaceus, Linn. 
Circumtextus (Murex), Stearns. Am. J. Conch., vii, 172, t. 14,f. 14, 1871. 131 



INDEX. 227 

PAGE. 

Cirrosus (Murex), Hinds. Zool., Proc. 128, 1843. Voy. Sulph' t 3, 
f. 17,18 HI 

Citrinum (Monoceros), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 2, 12. 

= M. calcar, Var., crassilabrum, Lam. 
Clathrata (Purpura), Kiister. Monog. 149, t. 25, f. 1, 2. 

= P. succincta, Mart., Var. squamosa. 
Clathrata (Ranella), Gray. Beechey's Voy., 109, 1839. 

= Eupleura muriciformis ? 
Clathrata (Rhizochilus), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 97, 1853. 

= Coralliophila 211 

Clathrata (Ricinula). Lam. Anim. sans Vert., edit. 2, x, 49. 

= Var. of R. hystrix, Linn 184, 183 

Clathrata (Ricinula), Var. B. Reeve, Icon., sp. 9, a. == R. hystrix, 

Linn., var. speciosa. 
Clathratus (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1223, 176. 

= Trophon 140, 142 

Clathratus (Murex), Reeve Conch. Icon., sp. 185. = Hiiidsia. 
Clathratus (Trophon), Woods. Proc. Roy., Soc. Tasmania, 135, 1875. 

= T. Petterdi, Brazier. 

Clausii (Murex), Dunker. Jour, de Conch., 213, t. 8, f. 6, 1879 93 

Clavatus (Trophon), Sars. Moll. Norv., 249, t 15, f. 12, t. 23, 

f. 14, 1878 141 

Clavigera (Purpura), Kiister. Mong., 186, t. 31, a. f. 1. 

===== P. tumulosa, Reeve . 

Clavus (Murex), Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 37, f. 2 87 

Clavus (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 87. == P. cingulata, Linn. 
Cleryi (Murex), Petit. Rev. Zool., 1840. Guerin's Mag., t. 54, 1841. 

== Typhis Belcheri, Brod. 
Cleryi (Typhis), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., iii, 320, t. 284, f. 14; 

Conch. Icon., f. 11. 137 

Coccinea (Purpura), Anton . Verzeichn, 89, 1839 166 

Coccineus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 72, 1853 130 

Columellaris (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x. 62; vii, 236, 1822. .161, 179, 181 
Compositum (Buccinum), Chemn. Conch. Cat., x, 176. 

= Murex plicatus, Mart. 

Compsorhytis (Odoptopolys), Gabb 136 

Concatenata (Ricinula), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 599 189 

Concentricum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., sp. 72, 1846. 

= M. contracta, Reeve. 
Concholepas (Buccinum), Brug. Diet., No. 10. 

= Concholepas PeruvianuB, Lam. 

Concholepas, Lam. Syst. Anim. 69, 1801 75 

Conchopatella Chemn. Conch, x, 322, 1788. = Concholepas, Lam. 
Conchulus, Raf. Binney and Try oil's Edit. = Concholepas, Lam. 
Concinna (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 35, 1846.= Peristernia. 

Concinnum ( Trophon), A. Ad. Zool., Proc. 375, 1862 142 

Concinnus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 104 79, 80 

Confragosa (Coralliophila), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 432, 1863.. 211 
Confusa (Murex), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 172, 1877. 120 
Conglobatus (M.) Michelotti. Monogr., p. 16. = M.trunculus, L. 
Conradi (Purpura), Nuttall. MSS. =P. Lapillus, Linn., Var. 

Constricta (Coralliophila), Koch. Phil. Abbild, ii, 21, t. 2, f. 5 208 

Consul (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 63 166, 169 

Consul (Purpura), Menke (non Lam.). Mai. Blatt., 180, 1850. 

= P. haemastoma, Linn. 



228 INDEX. 



Contracta (Ocinebra), Reeve. Icon. Buccinum, f. 53, 1846 131 

Contracta (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 32, 1846. = Pcristernia. 
Corallinus (Fusus), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 178, t. 25, f. 29, 1844. 

= M. aciculatus, Lam. 
Corallinus (Murex), Scacchi. Cat. Regn. Nap., 12, f. 15. 

= M. aciculatus, Lam. 

Coralliobia, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 93, 1852 = Magilus, Montf. . .199, 217 
Coralliophila (Rhizochilus), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 98, 1853. 

= Coralliophila madreporinus, A. Ad 211 

Coralliophila, H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 135, 1853 206, 210 

Coreanicus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 72, 1853 114 

Cornigera (Purpura), Blainv. Ann. du Mus., t. 9, f. 10. 

= Monoceros brevidentatum, Gray. 
Cornuta (Purpura), Menke. = P. hsemastoma, Linn. 

Cornutus (Murex), Linn. Edit, xii, p. 1214 98 

Coronata (Coralliophila), Barclay, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 272, t. 19, 

f. 4, 1869 210 

Coronata (Cuma), Lam. vii, 241, 1822 201 

Coronata (Pinaxia), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 185, 1853. H. and A. 

Adams' Genera, iii, t, 14, f. 1 198 

Coronatum (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat., vi, 3486, 1791. 

= Jopas sertum, Mart. 

Coronatus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 372, 1862 102 

Coronatus (Murex), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 190, f. 78. 

= M. brand aris, L. 
Coronatus (Murex), Sowerby (not Adams). Thes. Conch., f. 199. 

= young M. rarispina, Lam. 

Coronatus (Trophon), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 429, 1863 148 

Coronatus (Typhis), Brod. Zool. Proc., 178, 1832 138 

Corrugatus (Fusus) Reeve. Icon., sp. 84. = Trophon 145 

Corrugatus ( Murex) , Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 72. = M. palmiferus, Sowb. 
Corticatus (Fusus), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., 9, 1873. 

= Urosalpinx Paivae, Crosse. 

Costa-striata (Purpura), Dufo. Ann. Sc. Nat., 77, 1840. ? = Ricinula. 192 
Costata (Cuma), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., t. 11, f. 8. 

= Rhizochilus. 
Costatum (Monoceros), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 6. 

= M. calcar, Var. crassilabrum. 
Costatus (Fusus), Hisinger. = Trophon clathratus, L. 

Costatus (Magilus), Sowerby, Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 5, 1872 217 

Costatus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3549. = M. Senegalensis, Gm. 
Costifera (Purpura), Dufo. Ann. Sci. Nat., 77, 1840. ?= Ricinula. . 192 
Costularis (Murex), Lam. Encyc. Meth., t. 419, f. 8, 1816. 

= Coralliophila 208, 209 

Costulatus (Murex), Chiereghini, Aradas and Benoit. Moll. Sicil., 

270. = M. aciculatus, Lam. 
Crassa (Purpura), Blainv. Ann. du Mus., i, 241, t. 12, f. 4. 

= P. meloiies, Duclos. 
Crassilabrum (Monoceros), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 120. 

= Var. of M. calcar, Martyn 194 

Crassilabrum (Murex), Gray, Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 14 126 

Crassispina (Murex), Kiener (not Lam.), t. 4 ; t. 5, i, 1. 

= M. scolopax, Dillw. 
Crassispina (Murex), Lam. (not Kiener). An. s. V., ix, 564. 

= M. tribulus, Linn. 



INDEX. 229 

PAGE. 

Orassivaricosus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 86, 1845. Conch. Icon., 

sp. 33. = M. brevifrons, Lam 96 

Crassus( Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 269, 1851 ; 374, 1862. = Trophon. 150 
Craticulatum (Tritonium), Fabricius. Faun. Gronl., 400. 

= Trophon 139 

Craticulatus (Murex), Brocchi. Conch. Foss., 406, t. 7, f. 14, 1814. 

= Fusus. 

Craticulatus (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat. = Latirus. 
Crenifer (Murex), Montr. Jour. Conch., 2d ser. i, 279 t. 11, f. 9-10, 

1861. = Vitularia 133 

Crenilabris (Cheletropis), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 215, t. 2, 

f. 18, 1873 168 

Cretaceus (Fusus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 48. 

= Trophon Stangeri, Gray. 
Cribrosa (Purpura), Krauss, Kiister. Monog., 166, t. 27, f. 5, 6. 

= P. cingulata, Linn. 
Crispata (Purpura), Chemn., Conch. Cat., xi, t. 187, f. 1802, 1803. 

Kiister, Conch. Cab., 105, t. 19, f. 3, 4. = P. lapillus, Linn, Var. 
Crispatus (Murex). Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 596. 

= M. plicatus, Martyn. 
Crispus (Fusus), Gould. Bost. Proc. iii, 141, 1849. Moll. Wilkes' 

Exped.. 229, f. 279. = Trophon crispum 143, 142 

Crispus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 176, 1832. 

= M. multicrispatus, Dunker. 
Cristatus (Murex), Brocchi. Conch, foss. sub-app., 394, t. 7, f. 15. 

108, 109, 110 
Cristatus (Murex), Gray, Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 50, 109. 

= M. pinniger, Brod. 

Crocatus ( Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 108, 1845. Conch. Icon. sp. 168. 97 
Crocostoma (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 40, 1846. =.- Engina. 
Cronia, II. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 128, 1853. 

= S. G. of Purpura, Brug 159, 121, 179 

Crossei (Murex), Lienard. Jour. Conch., xxi, 285, 1873; xxii, p. 70, 

t. 1, f. 2, 1874. = Ricinula chrysostoma, Desh., Var. 
Cruentata (Purpura), Gmel. Kiister, Monog., 167, t. 27, f. 9-12. 

= Pisania. 

Cruentata (Purpura), Gmel. 3491. Kiister, Purpura, 139, t. 24, f. 5,6. 169 
Cucurbitula (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Sc. Nat., t. 2, f. 12, 1832. 

= Cominella lagenaria, Lam. 

Cuma, Humphrey. Mus. Gallon., 1797, 199 76 

Cumingii ( Campulotus), II. and A. Ad. (notDeshayes). Zool. Proc., 

430, 1863. = Magilus costatus, Sowb. 
Cumingii (Magilus), Deshayes. Conchyl. He Reunion, 125, t. 12, f. 

26-27, 1863. = M. Riippellii, Desh. 
Cumingii (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 270, 1851. 

? = M. triqueter, Born. 
Cumingii (Murex), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 115, 1879. 

= M. triqueter, Born. 

Cumingii (Typhis), Brod. Zool. Proc. , 177, 1832 137 

Cuspidatus (Murex), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 203, p. 36, 1879. 

= M. octogonus, Quoy. 
Cuspidata (Purpura), Ads. and Reeve. Voy. Samar., 33, t. 11, f. 35, 

1848. = P. pica, Blainv. 
Cuvieri (Magilus), Deshayes. Conch. He Reunion, 128 t. 13, f. 6, 7. 

= M. antiquus, Lam. 



230 INDEX. 



Cyacantha (Murex), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., f. 160, 1879. 

= M. anguliferas, Lam. 
Cyclopus (Murex), Benoit. MSS. Monterosato, Conch. Med. Jour. 

Sci. Nat. Palermo, xiii, 101, 1878 135 

Cyclostoma (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 146, 1840 121, 122, 123 

Cymatium (Monoceros), Sowb. Tankerv. Cat. = M. lugubre, Sowb. 
Cymia, Morch. Mai. Blatt., vii, 98, 1861. = Cuma, Humph. 

Dactyloides (Ricinella), Schum. Nouv. Syst., 241. 

= Ricinula digitata, Lam. 

Dalli (Trophon), Kobelt. Conchyl. Cat. 275, lief. 289, t. 74, f. 1, 2. . 141 
Dealbata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon. sp. 26, 1846. = R. ochrostoma, Bl. 
De Burghiae (Rhizochilus), Reeve. Zool. Proc. 208, t. 38, f. 3, 1857. 

= Rapana (Latiaxis) Mawse, Gray 203 

Decemcostata (Purpura), Middendorff, Mai. Ross., 116 t. 9, f. 1-3, 

1849. = P. lapillus, Linn., Var. 
Decolor (Fusus), Phil. Archiv fiir Naturg., i, 68, 1845. Abbild., ii. 

Fusus, t. 3, f. 3. = Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. 
Decussatus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3527. 

= Var. of M. erinaceus, Linn. 
Decussatus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 153. 

= M. ricinuloides, Quoy. 
Decussatus (Murex), Reeve. Icon., t. 31, f. 153. 

= Ricinula fiscellum, Ch. 
Deformis (Pyrula), Lam. Edit. 1, vii, 146 ; Edit. 2, viii, 520. 

= Coralliophila galea, Chemn. 

Deformis (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 44, 1846. = Peristernia. 
Delessertiana (Purpura), D'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 439, t. 77, f. 7. 

= P. haemastoma, Linn. 
Delesserti (Pyrula), Chemn. Traite de Conch., t. 9, f. 4, 1847. 

= Latiaxis Mawae, Gray. 

Deltoidea ( Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 85 163, 164 

Demersa (Bela), Tiberi. = Trophon (or Taranis) Morchi. 

Densus (Murex), H. and A. Adams. Genera i, 75 122 

Dentata (Purpura), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 74, 1853 178 

Dentatum (Buccinum), Wood. Index Test , t. 24, f. 168. 

= Monoceros calcar, Var. crassilabrum. 

Dentatus (Murex), Anton. Verzeichn., 82, 1839 135 

Denticulatum (Monoceros), Wood. Index Test. Suppl., t. 4, f. 11. 

=r M. lugubre, Sowb. 
Depresso-spinosus (Murex), Dunker. Novit., 126, t. 42, f. 3, 4. 

= Var. of M. endivia, Lam 102 

Despectus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 72, 1853. 

= M. adustus, Lam. 

Diadema (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 70, 1853 135 

Diadema (Murex). Aradas and Benoit. Conch. Sicil., 271, t. 5, f. 8, 

1870 109 

Diadema (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 62, 1846. 

= Cuma carinifera, Lam. 

Digitata (Ricinula), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 50 185, 184 

Digitatus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 114. = M. varicosus, Sowb. 
Dilectus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 120, 1855. 

= M. palmiferus, Sowb. 
Dipsacus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 194, 1832 110 



INDEX. 231 

PAGE. 

Distans (Rhizochilus), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 484, note. 

= C. mix, Reeve. 

Distinctus (Murex), Jan. Cat No. 4. = M. scalaroides, Blainv. 
Distinguenda (Purpura), Dunker. Verb. Z. B. Vereins, xvi, 910, 

1866. Reise, Novara Moll., t. 1, f. 3. 

= P. hippocastanum, Lam., Var. 
Diversiformis (Purpura). Kiener. Monog., t. 19, f. 57. 

== Coralliophila neritoidea, Lam. 
Djedah (Magilus), Chenu. 111. Conch., t. 1, f. 3, 4. 

= M. antiquus, Lam. 
D'Orbignyi (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 32, 1846. 

= Fusus purpuroides d'Orb. 
Drupa Bolten. Mus., 1798. = Ricinula, Lam. 
Dubia ( Purpura), Krauss. Siidafrik. Moll., 117. Archiv fur Naturg., 

i, 34, 1852. ='P. scobina, Quoy. 
Dubia (Trophon), Button. Jour, de Concliyl., 3 Ser., xviii, 13, 1878. 

= Urosalpinx 156 

Dubius (Murex), Sowb. Concb. 111., f. 23 109 

Ducalis (Murex), Brod & Sowb. Zool. Jour., v, 377. 

M. brassica, Lam. 
Dumasi (Purpura), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, 102, t. 2, f. 12, 

13, 14, 15, 1877 177 

Dumosa (Ricinula), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad., vii, 267, t. 20, f. 

20, 1837 188 

Dunkeri (Murex), Krauss. Siidaf. Moll. 112, t. 6, f. 14, 1848. 

= M. purpuroides, Dunker. 

Duodecimus (Trophon), Gray. Dieff. N. Zeal., 230 147 

Duplicatus (Murex), Morch. Yoldi Cat., p. 98. 

= M. tenuispina, Lam. 
Duplicatus (Typhis), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 251, t. 21, f. 1, 1870. 

= T. arcuatus, Hinds. 

Duplicosta (Lysis), Gabb 180 

Duthiersi (Murex), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, t. 2, f. 1, 2, 

1877.. 132 



Eburnea (Ricinula), Kiister. Monog. 17, t. 3, f. 9. 

= R. ochrostoma, Bl., Var., heptagonalis. 
Echinata (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., t. 11, f. 2. 

= P. mancinella, Linn. 

Echinata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 54. = S.ochrostoma, Bl. 
Echinatus (Fusus), Kiener. = Trophon carinatus, Biv. 
Echinatus (Fusus }, Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, 179. 

== Trophon muricatus, Mont. 
Echinulata (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 84. 

= P. mancinella Linn. 

Ecphora, Conrad. Proc., A. N. S. 310, 1843. = Rapana, Sebum. 
Edwardsi (Murex), Payr. Moll. Corse. 155, t. 7, f. 19, 20.. 118, 120, 178 
Edwardsii (Purpura), Payraudeau. Catlow, 271. 

= Murex Edwardsii, Payr. 

Elaborata (Coralliophila), H. & A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 433, 1863 207 

Elata (Pyrula), Schub. et Wag. Conch. Cab. 

= Melapium lineatum, Lam. 
Elatum (Sistrum), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., t. 11, f. 1, 1832. 

= R. ochrostoma, Blainv. 



232 INDEX. 



Elegans (Latiaxis), Angas. Zool. Proc., 74, t. 5, f. 12, 1878. 

= Coralliopliila bracteata, Broc., Var. babelis. 
Elegans (Murex), Beck. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 84. 

= Yar. of M. motacilla, Chemn 82 

Elegans (Ricinula), Brod. Zool. Jour, iv, 376, 1829. 

= R. ricinus, Linn. , Yar 184 

Ellipticus (Magilus), Sowb. Genera No. 21. = M. antiquus, Lam. 
Elongata (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., t. 10, f. 9, 1832. 

= Ricinula cancellata, Quoy. 

Elongatus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert, ix, 571 95 

Elongatus (Murex), Reeve (not Lamarck). Conch. Icon. 

= M. brevifrons, Lam. 

Elongatus (Murex), Sowb. Var. = M. Sinensis, Rve. 
Emarginata (Purpura), Deshayes. Rev. Zool., 1839. Mag. Zool. t. 

25, 1841. = P. lapillus, Linn., Var. 

Emarginatus (Murex), Sowb. Zool . Proc., 143, 1840 115, 91 

Endermonis (Murex), Edg. Smith. Ann. Mag., 4 ser., xv, 420, 1875, 128 

Endivia (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert, ix, 583 102 

Engonata (Purpura), Conrad. Jour. Acad. Philad., vii, 264, t. 20, f. 

17, 1837. = Monoceros 195 

Eos (Murex), Button. Mar. Moll. N. Zool., 8, 1873. Jour, de 

Conch., 3 ser., xviii, 12, 1878. = M. Angasi, Crosse. 
Erinaceoides (M.), Valenciennes. Humb. Voy. II, 302, 1833. 

= M. lugubris, Brod. 

Erinaceus (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. xii, 1216 116, 119, 124 

Erosus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 174, 1832 129, 128 

Erythrseus (Murex), Fischer. Jour. Conch, xviii, 177, 1870. 

= M. anguliferus, Lam. 

Erythrostomus (Murex), Swains. Zool. 111., ii, 73. = M. bicolor, Val. 
Eugeniae (Latiaxis), Bernard!. Jouri'de Conchyl., iv, 305, t. 7, f. 1, 

1853. = L. idolea, Jonas. 

Eupleura, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 107, 1853 ..... 74, 157 

Euracanthus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 268, 1851 Ill 

Eurypteron (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 109, 1845. Conch. Icon., 

t. 34, f. 176 113 

Eurystomus (Murex), Swainson. Zool. 111., iii, 101. 

= M. saxatilis, Lam. 
Exaratus (Rhizochilus), Pease. Zool. Proc., 399, 1860. 

= Coralliophila galea, Chemn. 

Exasperatus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 268, 1851 135 

Excavatus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 269, 1851 135 

Exigua (Purpura), Dunker. Godeffroy Catalogues. MSS. name. 

Exiguus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 175, 1832 125, 111 

Exiguus (Murex), Garrett. Proc. Cal. Acad., i, 102, 1857. 

M. Garretti, Pease. 

Exiguus (Murex), Kiener. Coq. Viv. t. 46, f. 3. = M. Kieneri, Reeve. 
Exiguus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 166. = M. mundus, Rve. 

Exilis (Purpura), Dunker. Mai. Blatt. xviii, 154, 1871 176 

Eximia (Ricinula), Reevei Icon., sp. 45, 1846. = Peristernia. 

Eximius (Murex), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, .170, 1877. 80 

Expansus (Murex), Sowb.ZooL Proc., 428, t. 49, f. 5, 1859. 

= M. eurypteron, Reeve. 
Expansus (Typhis), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 719, t. 59, f. 4, 1873 138 

Fabricii (Trophon), Beck. Moller Ind. Moll. Grdnl., 14. 
= Trophon craticulatus, Fabr. 



INDEX. 233 

PAGK. 

Falcatus (M. ), Sandri. Elengo, ii, 48. = M. trunculus, L. 

Falcatus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 145, 1840 127 

Fasciata (Purpura), Dunker. Zool. Proc., 357, 1856 169 

Fasciata (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 45, 1846. 

= P. haemastoma, L. 
Fasciatus (Murex), Kiister, ii, 1. 19, f. 6 (non Sowb.). 

= M. Jickelii, Tapp. 

Fasciatus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 144, 1840 104, 97 

Fasciculatus (Fusus), Homb. et Jacq., 110, t. 25, f. 5, 116. 

? = Trophon crispus, Gld. 

Fasciolaris (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 87. = P. haemastoma, Linn. 
Fenestrata (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. duMus., 221, t. 10, f. 11, 

1832. = Ricinula cancellata, Quoy. 

Fenestratus (Murex), Chemu. Conch. Cab., x, t. 161, f. 1536, 1537. 99 
Ferruginea (Murex), Eschsch. Zool. Atlas, t. 9, f. 2, 1829. 

= P. lapillus, Linn. var. 

Ferruginosa (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon,, sp. 50, 1846 190 

Ferrugo (Murex), Wood. Ind. Suppl., t. 5, f. 16. Var. of M. angu- 

liferus, Lam . , 93 

Festivus (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc. 127, 1843. Voy. Sulph., t. 3, 

f. 13, 14 116 

Ficoides ( Whitneya), Gabb. Pal. Cal 214 

Ficula (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., sp. 73. = Urosalpinx 154 

Filosum (Buccinum), Gmel., 3486. = Purpura lapillus, Linn. 
Fimbriata (Concholepas [Coralliobia]), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 93, 1852. 

= Magilus 271 

Fimbriattilus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 375, 1862 105 

Fimbriatum (Buccinum), Martyn. Univ. Conch., f. 6. 

Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. 
Fimbriatus (Fusus), Gay. Hist. Nat. Chile, viii, 165, t. 4, f. 7, 1854. 

= Trophon crispus, Gld. 

Fimbriatus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 71, 1853 103 

Fimbriatus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 599. 

? = R. fiscellum, Chemn. 

Fimbriatus (Trophon), Hinds. Voy. Sulph., t. 1, f. 18, 19 149 

Fimbriatus (Typhis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 70, 1853. Conch. Icon., 

sp. 3. = T. pinnatus, Brod. 
Fiscella (Purpura), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, 83. 

= Murex fiscellum, Chemn. 
Fiscellum (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 160, f. 1524, 1525. 

= Ricinula 188 

Fiscellum (Murex), Chemn. Hombr. and Jacq. Astrol., 89, t. 22, f. 

16-22. = R. undata, Chemn. 
Fiscellum (Murex), var. Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 83, 1875. 

== M. Lienardi, Crosse. 
Fiscellum (Ricinula), Reeve (non Chemn.). Icon., sp. 28. 

= R. undata, Chemn. 
Fistulosus (Typhis), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, 208, 1836. 

= T. tetrapterus, Bronn. 
Flammea (Purpura), Chemn. (iv, 62, Vigii., 38, a. b.) 

= P. buccinea, Desh. 
Flavidus (Murex), Jousseaume. Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 8, t. 1, f. 7, 

8, 1874. = M. lingua, Dillw. 
Flindersi (Purpura), Ad. and Aug. Zool. Proc., 421, t. 37, f. 22, 

1863. = Trophon 150, 151, 178 

30 



234 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Floridana (Purpura), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad., vii, 265, t. 20, f. 

21, 1837. = P. hsemastoma, Linn. 
Floridana (Urosalpinx), Conra'd. Am. Jour. Conch., v. 106, t. 12, f. 

4, 1869 153, 155 

Florifer (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 188. 

= M. brevifrons, Lam. 
Foliacea (Purpura), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad., vii, 268, t. 20, f. 

24, 1837. = Coralliophila bulbiformis, Conr. 

Foliatus (Murex), Mart. Univ. Conch., t. 66 113, 114, 127, 136 

Fontainei (Murex ), Tryon 126 

Foraminiferus (Murex), Tapparone-Canefri. =.- M. cyclostoma, Sowb. 
Forbesii (Purpura), Bunker. Ind. Moll. Guin., 22, t. 4, f. 7, 8, 13. 

= P. haemastoma, Linn. 
Formosus (Murex), Sowb. Z. P., 1840. Conch. 111., f. 91. 

= M. turbinatus, Lam. 
Formosus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 112. 

= M. rarispina, Lam. 

Forskali (Murex), Bolten, Morch. = M. scolopax, Dillw. 
Forticostata (Ricinula), Reeve Icon., sp. 29, 1846. = Engiua. 
Fortis (Murex), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 195. 

= M. cristatus, Brocchi. 

Fortuni (Latiaxis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc , 99, 1853 204 

Fournieri (Murex), Crosse. Jour, de Couch., ix, 352, t. 16, f. 7, 

1861 115 

Foveolata (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 127, 1843. Voy. Sulph., t. 

3, f. 15, 16. = Ocinebra , 125 

Foveolata (Purpura), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, 76, 1852. 

= Cuma costata, Bl. 
Foveolata (Rhizocheilus), Carpenter. Rep. i, 340. 

= Ocinebra foveolata, Hds. 

Foveolatum (Sistrum), Pease MSS. == S. tiscellum, Chemn. 
Foveolatus (Murex), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, 83, t. 8, f. 3, 1869. 

= M. Peasei, Tryon 125, 129, 130 

Fragilis (Rhizochilus), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 98, 1853 ' 211 

Fragum (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., I, t. 9, f. 4. 

= Ricinula concatenata, Lam. 
Francolinus (Purpura), Brug. Encyc. Meth., I, 261, Kiener. Monog., 

135, t. 42, f. 97. = lopas sertum, Mart. 
Freycinetti (Purpura), Desh. Rev. Zool., 360, 1839. Mag. de Zool., 

t. 26, 1841 . = P. lapillus, Linn. var. 

Fricki (Murex), Crosse. Jour, de Couch., xiii, 57, 1865 132 

Fritschi (Coralliophila), Martens. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., I, 135, t. 6, 

f . 3 : 208 

Frondosus (Murex), Morch. Yoldi Cat., 97. = M. inliatus, Lam. 
Fruticosus (Trophon), Gould. Bost. Proc., Ill, 125, 1849. Moll. 

Wilkes Exped., 236, f. 287. = Murex noduliferus, Sowb. 
Fucus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. , 3538. 

= Purpura neritoidea, Linn. 
Fulvescens (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 30. Kobelt. Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell., 155, 1877. == M. spinicosta, Val. 

Funiculata (Ricinula), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1846. Icon., sp. 16 190 

Funiculatum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., sp. 61, 1846. 

= M. contracta, Reeve. 
Funiculatus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 88, 1845. Conch. Icon., 

sp. 74. = M. recurvirostris, Brod. 



INDEX. 235 

PAGK. 

Funiculus (Murex), Wood. Index Test. Supp., t. 5, f. 17. 

R. fiscellum, Chemn. 
Fusca (Ricinula), Kiister. Monog., 26, t. 4, f. 16. 

= R. marginatra, Blaiiiv. 
Fuscata (Purpurai, Forbes. Zool. Proc., 274, t. 11, f. 13, 1850. 

= P. lapillus, Linn. var. 
Fusco-nigra (Sistrum), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 154, 1871. 

. = Var. of R. fiscellum, Chemn 189 

Fusco-nigra (Vexilla), Pease. Zool. Proc., 141, 1860 (Usilla). A. J. 

Conch., iv, 115 181 

Fuscus (Murex), Dunker. = M. adustus, Lam. 

Fusiformis (Cuma ), Blainv 200 

Fusiformis (Fusus), Potiez et Michand. Galerie, I 436, t. 34, f. 3, 4, 

6. 7, 1838. = Trophon xanthostoma, Brod. 
Fusiformis (Murex), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 268, 1851. 

= Urosalpinx , 155 

Fusiformis (Purpura), Petit MSS. Jay's Catalogue, p. 85. Not 

described. 
Fusiformis (Pyrula), Chenu. Traite de Conch., t. 9, f. 3, 1847. 

Roquaii, Jour, de Conch., iv, 406, 1853. = R. idolea, Jonas. 
Fusoides (Monoceros), King. Zool. Jour., 1830. 

= M. giganteum, Lesson. 

Galea (Purpura), Chemn., x, 237, t. 160, f. 1518-1519. 

= Coralliophila 207 

Galeropsis, Hupe. Rev. et Mag. Zool., 125, 1860. 

= Subgeims of Rhizochilus 211, 217 

Gambiensis (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 88, 1845. 

= M. osseus. Reeve. 

Garretti (Murex), Pease. A. J. Conch., iv, 103, 1868 129 

Gastridia, Gray. Zool. Proc., 136, 1847. = Pseudoliva, Swains. 
Gastridium, Sowb. Conchol. Man., 312, 1832. 

= Pseudoliva, Swains. 

Gaudioni (Murex), Monterosato. Conch. Med. Jour. Sci. Nat. Pal- 
ermo, xiii, 101, 1878 (not described). 
Gemma (Murex j, Sowerby. Thcs. Conch. Murex. p. 32, f. 214, 1879. 

= M. incisus, Brod. var. 
Gemmulata (Purpura). Encyc. Meth., t. 597, f. 3. 

= P. mancinella, Linn. 
Geversianus (Trophon), Pallas. Spicil. Zool., t. 3, f. 1, 1769. 

144, 145, 146, 1-51 
Gibbosa (Purpura \ Reeve. Icon., sp. 78, 1846. 

= Coralliophila neritoidea, Lam. 
Gibbosus ( Murex) juv., Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 7, f. 4. 

= M. hemitripterus, Lam. 
Gibbosus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 580. 

= M. lingua, Dillw. 
Gibbus (Latirus), Pease. Nevill, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., II, 83, 187."). 

= Murex Crossei, Lienard. 

Gigantea (Purpura), Calcara. = P. haBinastoma, Linn. 
Gigantea (Purpura) Reeve. Icon., sp. 17, 1846. == P. Consul, Lam. 
Giganteum (Monoceros), Lesson. Voy. Coquille. Moll., 405, t. 11, f. 

4, 1826 194 

(llabra (Sinusigera), A. Adams 168 



236 INDEX. 

/ 

PAGE. 

Glabratum (Monoceros), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 120. 

= M. calcar, var. crassilabrum. 
Globosa (Ricinula), Mart. Bunker, Novit., 101. 

= R. horrida, Lam. 
Globulosus (Magilusi, Deshayes. Sowb. in Conch. Icon., sp. 10, 1872. 

= M. Riippellii, Desb. 
Globulus (Monoceros), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 8. 

= M. calcar, var. crassilabrum, Lam. 

Glockeri (Murex), Anton. Verzeichn, 81, 1839. = Trophon? 145 

Goldsteini (Trophon) Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 136, 1875. 

148, 156 

Gouldi (Murex) , A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 371, 1862 113 

Gracillimus (Murex), Stearns. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 172, t. 14, f. 

15, 1871 131 

Gradata (Cuma), Jonas. Zeit. Mai., 14, 1846. Philippi Abbild., II, 

t. 1, f. 2, 1847 201 

Granarius (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 599. ?= P. lapillus, L. 
Granatina ( Purpura), Deshayes. Voy. Belanger, 425, t. 3, f. 8, 9. 

= Cerithium. 

Grande (Monoceros), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 124 193 

Grandis (Typhis), A. Adams. Zool. Proc.. 42, t. 27, f. 4, 1854 138 

Granulata (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Sci., Nat. t. 2, f. 9, 1832. 

= Ricinula tuberculatus, Bl. 
Grateloupiana ( Purpura i, Petit. Jour. Conch., i, 402, t. 8, f. 1, 1850. 

= Cuma gradata, Jonas. 
Gravesii (Purpura), Brod. Zool. Proc., 44, 1836. 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Brocc., var. (3) lacerata Desh. 
Gravidus (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 128, 1843; Voy. Sulph., t. 

3, f. 19,20 121 

Grayii (Separatista), Adams. Zool. Proc., 45, 1850; Ann. Mag. N. 

H., 228, 1851 213 

Grayi (Purpura), Kiener. Monog., 109, t. 28, f. 74. 

= Monoceros grande, Gray. 
Grossularia ( Ricinula), Bolten. = R. digitata, Lam. 



Grossularius (Peiitadactylus), Bolt. H. & A. Ad., Genera. 

digitata, Lam. 
Gubbi (Murex), Reeve. Icon. , sp. 193, 1849 94 



== Ricinula digitata, 



Guinensis (Purpura), Schub & Wagn., xii, 144, 1828. 

= Cuma coronata, Lam. 
Gunneri (Trophon), Loven. Index. Moll. Sueciae, 12. 

= T. clathratus, L. 
Gyratus (Trophon), Hinds. Voy. Sulph., 14, t. 1, f. 14, 15. 

? = Siphonalia 151 

Gyrinus (Murex), Brown. Conch., Gt. Br., t. 5, f. 12, 13. 

= M. aciculatus, Lam. 
HaBmastoma (Purpura), Chemn. (not Linn.), xi, t. 187, f. 1796-7. 

= Consul, Lam. 

Hiemastoma (Purpura), Linn. Edit, xii, 1202 167, 169, 171, 176 

Hsematura (Purpura), Val. Voy. Venus., t. 8, f. 3. 

= P. hsemastoma, Linn. 
Hamatus (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 128, 1843; Voy. Sulph., 8, t. 

3, f. 11, 12. = M. lugubris, Brod. 
Haneti (Murex), Petit. Jour. Conch., v, 90, t. 2, f. 7, 8, 1856. 

= Cantharus (Tritonidea). 



INDEX. 237 



Hanleyi (Trophon), Angas. Zool. Proc., 110, t. 13, f. 1, 1867. 

= Urosalpinx Paivse, Crosse. 
Harpa (Purpura), Conrad. Jour., Philad. Acad., vii, 266, t. 20. f. 

25, 1837 171 

Hauritorium (Buccinum), Chemnitz. = Purpura haustrum. Mart. 
Haustellaria, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 98, 1852. 

= Rhinocantha, H. & A. Ad. 

Haustellaria, Swains. Malacol, 296, 1840. = Haustellum, Klein. 
Haustellum, Klein. Ostracol, 63, 1753. = Murex, Linn. 

Haustellum ( Murex), Linn. Edit, xii, p. 1214 83 

Haustorium (Purpura), Gmelin. = P. haustrum, Mart. 

Haustrum (Purpura), Martyn. Univ. Conch. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., ii, 

554, t. 37, f. 4-8 160 

Hederacea (Stramonita), Schum. Essai Nouv. Syst., 227. 

= Jopas sertum. Lam. 
Helena (Purpura), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., II, 573, t. 39, f. 7-10. 

=-= Cum a carinifera, Lam. 
Hellerianus (Murex), Brusina. Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesell. Wien., xv, 

8, 1865. = M. acioulatus, Lam. 

Hemitripteius (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 579 86 

Heptagonalis (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 17, 1846. 

Var. of R: ochrostoma, Blainv 187 

Hermani (Murex), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, 99, t. 2, f. 3, 4, 

1877. = M. Duthiersi, Velain. 
Heuglini (Trophon), Morch. Jour. Conchyl., xxiv, 368, 1876. 

= T. craticulatus, Fab. 

Hexagonus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 585 109, 108 

Hidalgoi (Murex), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xvii, 408, 1869. 3 ser., 

xi, 68, 1871 107, 134 

Hindsii (Trophon), Carpenter. Report 205, 1856. For muricatus, 

preoc. by Montagu. = Cuma muricata, Hinds. 
Hippocastaneum (Murex), Philippi, Abbild. I, t. 1, f. 2, 1845. 

= M. bicolor, Val. 
Hippocastanum (Murex), var. B. Gmelin, 3539. 

= Purpura pica, Blainv. 
Hippocastanum (Purpura), Linn. Edit, xii, 1219. 

( Part) = P. hippocastaneum, Lam 162 

Histrio (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 36, 1846. = Engina. 
Homalocantha, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 95, 1852. 

= S. G. of Murex, Linn 73, 98 

Hoplites (Murex), Fischer. Jour. Conch., 236, t. 8, f. 3, 1876. 

= M. saxatilis, .Lam. 
Horridus (Murex), Brod. et Sowb. Zool. Proc., 176, 1832. 

= Trophon horridus 146 

Horrida ( Ricinula), Lam., x, 47 184 

Hiulca (Purpura), Val. Voy. Venus, t. 8, f. 2, 1846. 

= P. aperta, Blainv. 

Humilis (Murex,, Brod. Zool. Proc., 176, 1832 103 

Humilis (Purpura), Crosse and Fischer. Jour, de Conch. 3d ser., 

v, 51, t. 2, f. 2, 1865.= Ricinula undata, Chemn. 
HuttoniEe (Murex), Wright. Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 57, 1879. 

= M. adustus, Lam . 

Huxleyi (Cheletropis), Forbes. = Sinusigera microscopica, Gray. 
Hybridus (Murex), Aradas and Benoit. Moll. Sicil., 272, t. 5, f. 9, 

1870.. 119 



238 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Hystrix (Murex), Martini. Conch. Cab., Ill, 363, t. 113, f. 1052. 

= M. scolopax, Dillw. 
Hystrix (Murex), Martini, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 98. 

= M. scolopax, Dillw. 
Hystrix (Ricinula), Linn. Edit., xii, 1219. . , , 183 

Idoleum (Pyrula), Jonas. Zool. Proc., 120, 1846. = Latiaxis 203 

Imbricata (Fusus), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 540, t. 30, f. 

3, 1876. = Coralliophila 209 

Imbricata (Purpura), Lam. Edit., 2, x, p. 8. 

= P. lapillus, Linn. 

Imbricatum (Monoceros), Lam. Edit., 2, x, 119. = M. calcar, Mart. 
Imbricatus (Concholepas), Kiister. Monog., 205, t. 32 6, f. 6-10. 

= C. Peruvianus, Lam. \ 

Imbricatus (Fusus), Jas. Smith. = Trophon clathratus, L. 
Imbricatus (Murex), Brocchi. Coq. Foss. 

?= Coralliophila bracteata, Br., var. (4) Babelis. 
Imbricatus (Murex), Higgins and Marratt. Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc. 

Liverpool, xxxi, 413, t. 1, f. 2, 1876 7. = M. axicornis, Lam. 

Imperialis (Murex), Swainson. Zool. 111., 2 ser. , II, 67. , 101 

Imperialis (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., I, 227, t. 11, f. 6. 

= Cuma carinifera, Lam. 
Imperialis (Purpura), Kiener (not Blainv.). Monog., t. 14, f. 39 a. 

= P. rugosa, Born. 
Improbus (Murex), Gould. Otia, 125, Bost. Proc., vii. 1860. 

= Pollia. 
Inca (Murex), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., 455, t. 78, f. 3. 

= Pisania. 
Incarnatus (Murex), Bolten. Morch, Yoldi Cat., 97. 

= M. inflatus, Lam. 

Incisa (Purpura), Philippi. Zeit Mai., 26, 1848 178 

Incisus ( Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 176, 1832 123 

Incomptus (Trophon), Gld. Otia, 125, Bost. Proc., vii, 1860. 

? = T. crassus, Ads. 
Inconspicuus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1841. Conch. 111., f. 81, 

117. = M. aciculatus, Lam. 
Incurvus (Bulbus), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 126, 1852. Novit. Conch., 

17, t. 5, f. 3, 4. = Rapa papyracea, Lam. 
Indentatus (Murex), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 527. 

? = M. Californicus, Hinds. 
Inerma (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 20, 1846. = P. persica, Linn. 

Inermis (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1840. Couch. 111., f. 87 119 

Inferus (Trophon) Button. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., p. 9. Jour. 

de Conchyl., 3 ser., xviii, 13, 1878. = Trophon plebeius, Button. 
Inflatus (Fusus), Dunker. Hombr. and Jacq., 109, t. 25, f. 11, 12. 

= Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. 
Inflatus (Fusus), Dunker. Phillippi, Abbild. II, 193, t. 4, f . 2. 

= Coralliophila inflata, Dunker 209 

Inflatus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, p. 570. 

= M. ramosus, Linn. 
Infumata (Purpura), Bombr. and Jacq., 85, t. 22, f. 3, 4. 

= Ricinula undata, Chemn. 

Inglorius (Murex), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xiii, 213, t. 6, L 4, 1865.. . 120 
Innotabilis (Urosalpinx), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 201, t. 20, 

f. 32, 1869 155 



INDEX. 239 

PAGE. 

Inornatus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 269, 1851. 

= M. densus, H. and A. Ad. 
Inornatus (Murex), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., ii, 207, t. 6. f. 7, 8, 

1851 126, 128 

Interfossus (Murex), Carpenter. Rep. ii, 668. 1868 181 

Intermedia (Purpura), Kiener. Monog., 51. t. 12, f. 84. 

= P. hippocastaneum, Lam. var. 162 

Intermedius (Fusus), Gay. Hist. Nat. Chile, viii, 166, t. 4, f. (J, 

1854. = Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. 
Intermedius (Murex), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 60, 1850. 

=-: M. alveatus, Kiener. 

Interserratus (Murex), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 89, t. 21, f. 204, 1879. . Ill 
lodostoma iRicinula), Lesson. Guerin's Mag. Moll., t. 58, 1842; 

Rev. Zool. 355, 1840 184 

iostoma, (Murex), Sowb. Conch 111., f. 42. 

Ricinula fiscellum, Chemn. 

Iostoma (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 87, 1846 188 

lostomus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 267, 1851 135 

Jamaicensis (Murex). Sowerby. Thes. Conch. Murex, p. 39, f. 223, 

1879 123 

Jamrachi (Typhis,) Martens. Mai. Blatt., 225, 1861. 

= T. fimbriatus, Ad. and Reeve. 
Janellii i Purpura), Kiener. Monog., 122, t. 38, f. 89. 

--= P. haemastoma, L. , var. Blainvillei, Desh. 
Japonicus (Murex), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., vi, 230, 1860; Moll. 

Japon., 4, t. 1, f. 14 126, 127 

Japonicus (Typhis', A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 374, 1862. 

= T. arcuatus, Hinds. 

Jaton, Adanson. Feneg., t. 9, f. 21. = M. gibbosus, Lam. 
Jatonus ( Murex ), Brug. Encyc., Meth,, t. 418, f. 1. 

= M. gibbosus, Lam. 

Jatonus (Murex!, Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 60. == M. hemitripterus, Lam. 
Javanica (Purpura), Phil. Zeit. Malak., 27, 1848 ; Kiister, Monog., 

171, t. 3R, f. 10, 11. = Cuma rugosa, Born. 
Jeffreysii v 'oralliophilas E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 213, t. 20, f. 48, 

1879 209 

Jickelii i Murex), Tapparone. Mur. Mar Rosso., 18, t. 19, f. 6, 1875. 

. M. laciniatus, Sowb. 

Jopas, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 128, 1853 75, 180 

Jugosa (Ricinula), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat., 101, 1850 190 

Kieneri (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 172 129 

Kienerii (Purpura), Deshayes. Lam., ed. 2, x, 101. 

= P. hippocastaneum, Lam. 
Iviosquiformis (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. He. Nat., xxvi, t. 1, f. 5. 

= Cuma; 200, 201 

Kroyeri ^ Trophon), Beck. Morch, Ann. Soc. Mai., Belg., iv, 21. 

= Trophon clathratus, L. 
Kiisterianus (Murex), Canefri. Mur. Mar. Rosso., 71, t. 19, f. 1, 2, 

1875. = M. turbinatus, Lam. 

Labiatus (Typhis), Jan. Cat. 11. = T. tetrapterus, Bronn. 
Labiosus (Murex), Gray. Spicil. Zool., 4. = M. crassilabrum, Gray. 
Lacera (Purpura), Born. Mus. 308 ; Kiister, Purpura, 147, t. 24, a, f. 

7, 8. = Cuma carinifera, Lam. 
Laceratum (Murex), Desh. Jour. Conch., 2 ser. i, 79, t. 3, f. 3, 4, 

1856. = Coralliophila bracteata, Br., var. 3. 



240 INDEX. 

FA0E. 

Laciniatus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 59 97 

Laciniatus (Trophon), Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 42 143 

Lactuca (Murex), Bolten. Morch, Yoldi Cat. = M. endivia, Lam. 
Lactuca (Murex), Esch. Zool. Atlas, ii, 11 t. 9, f. 3, 1829. 

= Purpura lapillus, Linn. var. 
Lacunosum (Buccinum), Brag. Eiicyc. Meth., i, 258. 

= Purpura succincta, Mart. 
Laeve (Buccinum), J. Adams. Linn. Trans., iii, 1797. 

? = Fry of Purpura lapillus, L. 
Laeve (Haustellum), Schum. Nov. Syst., 213. = Murex haustellum, L. 

Laevicosta (Murex), Anton. Verzeichn., 81, 1839 135 

Lagenaria (Purpura), Lam. Duclos. Ann. Sc. Nat, 112, t. 2, f. 11, 

1832. = P. scobina, Quoy. 
Lagenaria (Purpura), Var. Kiener, Monog., t. 46, f. 94. 

= P. scobina, Quoy. 
Lamarckii (Magilus), Deshayes. Conch. He Reunion, 127, t. 12, f. 1 3. 

= M. Maillardi, Desh. 
Lamellatum (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3498. 

= Trophon clathratus, L. 
Lamelliferus (Murex), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 158, 1871. 

= Trophon fimbricatus, Hds. 
Lamellosum (Buccinum), Gmelin, 3498. 

= Purpura lapillus, Linn. Var. 
Lamellosus (Fusus), Gray. Zool. Beech. Voy., 118, t. 36, f. 13. 

= Trophon clathratus, L. 
Lamellosus (Murex), Jan. Cat. rerum. Nat., 10. (Fusus) Philippi, 

Moll. Sicil., t. 11, f. 30. = Coralliophila bracteata, Br., var. 1. 
Lamellosus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 591. 

= Trophon laciniatus, Mart. 

Laminiferus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 117 Ill 

Lanstorium (Purpura), Gray. Beechey's Voy., 123. Misprint for P. 

haustrum, Martyn. 

Lappa (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 177, 1832 125, 126 

Lapilloides (Monoceros), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad., vii, 265, t. 

20, f. 18, 1837 195 

Lapillus (Purpura), Linn. Edit, xii, 1202 171, 117 

Lapillus (Purpura), Risso. = P. haemastoma, Linn. 

Laqueatus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 142, 1840. Conch. 111., 

f. 78 97 

Lassaignei (Murex), Desh. Expl. Sc. Moree, 188. 

= Murex Edwardsi, Payr. 
Lassargnii (Purpura), Basterot. = Murex Edwardsi, Payr. 

Latiaxis, Swains. Malacology, 82, 306, 1840 203 

Laurentiana (Purpura), Petit. Jour, de Conch., I, 403, t. 13, f. 2, 

1850. = Var. of Ricinula hystrix, L 184 

Lauta (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 24, 1846. = Engina. 
Lavatus (Fusus), Phil. Moll. Sicil., I, 203, 1836. 

= Murex aciculatus, Lam. 
Lavenayanus (Galeropsis), Hupe. Rev. et Mag. Zool., x, 127, t. 10, 

f . 4 1860... 212 

Laxa (Delphinula), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad., v, 207, 1826. 

= Separatista 213 

Lefevrei (Purpura), Lesson. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv., 355, 1840 160 

Lepas (Patella), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3697. 

= Concholepas Peruvianus, Lam. 



INDEX. 241 



Lepidus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 113. = M. vittatus, Brod. 
Leptoconchus, Riippell. Zool. Proc., 105, 1834. Desh., He Reunion, 

117 214, 215 

Leucoderma (Murex), Scaccbi. Cat. Neap., 12, f. 16. 

= M. scalaroides, Blainv. 
Leucostoma (Purpura), Chemn. Catlow, Nomencl. 

= P. luteostoma, Chemn. 
Leucostoma (Purpura), Desh. Conch. He Reunion, 116, t. 12, f. 23, 

1863. ? = P. columellaris, Lam. 
Lienardi (Murex), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xxi, 284, 1873; xxii, 74, t. 

3, f. 4, 1874. ?= R. dumosa, Conr. 
Ligata (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 78. = Cominella. 

Lignarius (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 268, 1851 83 

Ligneum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., sp. 56, 1846. 

? = M. contracta, Rve. 
Lima (Purpura), Martyn. Univers. Conch., f. 46, 1784. Desh., 

Anim. sans Vert., x, 99. = P. lapillus, Linn. Var. 
Limbatus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild., t. 1, f. 9. = Pisania. 
Limbosa (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 78. Kiener, Monog. Pur- 
pura, 127, t. 40, f. 95. = Cominella. 

Lineata (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 163 169 

Lineata (Purpura). Encyc. Meth., 397, f. 5, a. b. 

= P. planospira, Lam. 
Lineata (Pyrula), Lam. Edit. 2, ix, 520. Reeve, Icon., sp. 28. 

= Melapium lineatum 213 

Lineata (Rieinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 51> 1846. = Engina. 
Lineata (Vexilla), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 73, 1853. 

= V. tseniata, Powis. 

Lingua (Murex), Dillw. Desc. Cat., II, 688 86, 87 

Lingua vervecina (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 161, f. 1540, 

1541. = M. gibbosus, Lam. 
Lippistes, Montf. Conch. Syst., II, 126, 1810. ? = Separatista, Gray. 

Lirata (Trophon), Kobelt 144 

Liratus (Fusus), Couthouy. Gould, Bost. Proc., Ill, 141, 1849. 

Moll. Wilkes Exped., 231, f. 282. = Trophon liratum 143 

Lischkei (Purpura), Kiister. Monog., 196, t. 32 a, f. 4, 5 165 

Littorinoides (Purpura). Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc., Tasma- 
nia, 135, 1875 150, 151, 178 

Lividum (Buccinum). Reeve. Icon., sp. 87, 1846. = Ricinula 191 

Lividus (Murex), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 519, 1856. 

= M. recurvirostris, Brod. 
Lobata (Ricinula), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. Mus., I, 210. 

= R. digitata, Lam 185, 184 

Loebbeckei (Trophon), Kobelt. Conch. Cab., 275, lief. 294, t. 10, f. 

13, 14 145 

Longicornis (Murex), Dunker. Novit., 64, t. 22, f. 5, 6, 1864 92 

Longurio (Fusus), Weinkauff. Jour, de Conch., xiv, 247, t. 5, f. 4, 

1866. = Trophon muricatus, Mont. 
Luculentus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 127. 

= Trophon fimbriatus, Hds. 

Lugubre (Monoceros), Sowb. Genera, f . 3 193 

Lugubris (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 175, 1832. Sowb., Conch. 111., 

f. 26 124 

Luridus (Tritonium), Midd. Mai. Ross., 150, t. 4, f. 4, 5. 

= Murex luridus, Midd 131 

31 



242 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Luteomarginata (Purpura), Montrouzier. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., 

I, 280, t. 11, f. 4, 1861 164, 165 

Luteostoma (Purpura), Chemn., xi, 83, t. 187, f. 1800-1 166 

Lyratus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 269, 1851. 

= M. fasciatus, Sowb. 
Lyratus (Murex), Hutton (non Lam.). Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal. 

= Trophon Stangeri, Gray. 
Lyratus (Murex), Lam. Am'm. sans Vert., ix, 598. Encyc. Meth., 

t. 438, f. 4. = Trophon clathratus, L. 
Lysis, Gabb. Pal. Calif., I, 138, 1864 75, 180, 212 

Maegillivrayi (Murex), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 203, 1862 77 

Macron, H. and A. Adams. Genera, 1, 132, 1853. Z. Proc., 1865. . . 196 

Macropterus (Murex), Deshayes. Mag. Zool., t. 38, 1841 87 

Macrostoma (Purpura), Conrad. Jour. Phil. Acad., vii, 267, 1837. 

?== P. aperta, Blainv. 
Macrostoma (Purpura), Kiister. Monog. 197, t. 32 #, f. 6, 7. 

= P. hsemastoma, Linn. 
Maculatum (Monoceros), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 125. 

= M. brevidentatum, Gray. 

Maculatus (Murex), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 108, 1845 123, 152 

Maculosa (Purpura), Blainv. Kiener, Monog., 136, t. 42, f. 98. 

= Pisania. 
Maculosum (Purpura), Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 8. 

= Buc. testudineum. 
Madreporarum (Purpura), Sowb. Genera, Purpura, 1832. 

= Rhizochilus 212, 217 

Madreporinus (Coralliophila), A. Ad. Gen. of Shells 211 

Majga (Purpura), Martini. Conch. Cab., Ill, 70, t. 100, f. 961-962. 

= P. neritoidea, Linn. 
Magellan! (Purpura), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, 104, t. 2, f. 

8-11, 1877 178 

Magellanicus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3548 (part.). 

= Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. 

Magilina, Velain 76, 218 

Magilus, Mont. Conch. Syst., 43, 1810 76, 214 

Maillardi (Magilus), Deshayes. Conch. He Reunion, 217 124 

Maltzani (Trophon), Kobelt. Conch. Cab. 275, lief. 301, t. 75, f. 17, 

18. = Var. of T. craticulatus, Fab 140 

Mancinella, Link. Rostock Cat., Ill, 115, 1807 (part). 

= Purpura, Brug. 

Mancinella, Link. Rostock Cat., 1807 (part). = Rapana, Schum. 
Mancinella (Purpura), Hanley. Ipsa Linn., 295. 

= Ricinula ochrostoma, Blainv. 

Mancinella (Purpura), Linn. Syst. Nat, edit. 12, 1219 164, 165 

Mancinelloides (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus. 

P. mancinella, Linn. 
Margariticola (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 177, 1832. Reeve, Icon. 

Murex, f. 178. = Ricinula undata, Ch. 
Marginalbum (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., 219, t. 10, f. 

6, 1832. = Ricinula marginatra, Bl. 
Marginata (Purpura), Val. Voy. Venus, t. 7, f. 3. 

= Rapana bezoar, Linn. 
Marginatra (Sistrum), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., I, 218, t. 10, f. 

1, 1832 186, 192 



INDEX. 243 



Marginella (Purpura), Blaiiiv. Catlow, Nomenc. 

= Sistrum marginatra, Bl. 
Marmorata (Purpura), Pease. Zool. Proc.. 515, 1865. Am. Jour. 

Conch., iv, 92, t. 11, f. 5, 1868. = P. rustica, Lam. 
Martiniana (Purpura), Anton. Verzeichn., 88, 1839. 

= R. ochrostoma, Blaiuv. 

Martinianus (Murex), Pfeiffer. Krit. Reg., 8. = M. pinnatus, Wood. 
Martinianus (Murex , Reeve. Zool. Proc., 88, 1845. Conch. Icon., 

sp., 72. = M. ternispina. Lam. 

Maurus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 174, 1832 89, 92 

Mawse (Pyrula), Gray. Griffiths' Cuvier, t. 25, f. 3, 4. Reeve, Icon., 

sp. 25. = Latiaxis 203, 204 

Mediglacialis (Trophon), S. V. Wood. = T. craticulatus, Fabr. 
Megacerus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1840. Conch. 111., f. 18. 

= M. quadrifrons, Lam. 
Melanoleuca (Murex), Morch. Yoldi Cat., 96. 

= M. nigrita, Phil. 

Melanomathos (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. , 3527 103 

Melapium, H. and A. Adams. Genera, I, 136, 1853 76, 213 

Melo (Purpura), Deshayes. Lam. Edit., 2, x, 106 

= P. m el ones, Duclos. 

Melones (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Sci. Nat., xxvi, t. 1, f. 2, 1832... 164 
Melonulus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 589. 

= M. rosarium, Chemn. 
Mendicaria (Ricinula), Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 8. 

= Engina mendicaria, Lam. 

Messorius (Murex), Menke. Zeitsch., 1850. = M. recurvirostris, Br. 
Messorius (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 93. 

= M. recurvirostris, Brod. 

Mexicanus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., sp. 77. = Urosalpinx 153 

Mexicanus (Murex), Petit. Jour. Conch., Ill, 51, t. 2, f. 9, 1852. 

= M. pomum, Gmel. 
Meyendorffii (Murex), Calcara. Cenno Moll. Sicil., 33, t. 4, f. 22, 

1845. Aradas and Benoit, Moll. Sicil., 268, t. 5, f. 6 210 

Microcephalus(Magilus), Sowerby. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 3, 1872. 

= M. antiquus, Lam. 
Microphyllus (Murex), Kiener (non Lam.), t. 23, f. 1. 

M. torrefactus, Sowb. 

Microphyllus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 576 89 

Microscopica ( Struthiolaria) , Gray. Voy. Blossom. = Sinusigera. . . 168 
Microtoma, Swains. Mai., 72, 301, 1840. = Purpura, Brag. 

Miliaris ( Vitularia), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3536 133 

Mindanensis (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 92. 

= M. rarispina, Lam. 

Minuta ( Purpura), Anton. Verzeichn., 88, 1839 178 

Minutus (Fusus), Requien. Coq. Corse., 76. 

= Murex aciculatus, Lam. 
Miticula (Ricinula), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 48 (Juv.). 

= R. clathrata, Lam. 
Mitriformis (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 75. 

= M. uncinarius, Lam. 
Moiiachus (Murex), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., x, 55, t. 1, f. 8, 1862 ; 

xiv, 197,1866 127,114,134 

Monachus-capucinus (Murex\ Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, t. 192, f. 

1849-50. = M. capucinus, Lam. 



244 INDEX. 



Monoceros (Buccinum), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 197, t. 154, f. 1469, 

1470. = Monoceros calcar, Marty n. 

Monoceros (Chorus), Desh = Monoc. giganteum, Lesson. 
Monoceros (Murex), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 454, t. 78, f. 1, 2. 

= M. Fontaine!, Tryon. 

Monoceros, Lam. Philos. Zool., 1809 75, 193 

Monoceros (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 143, 1840 115 

Monodon (Buccinum), Gmel. = Monoceros calcar, Mart. 
Monodon (Murex), Esch. Zool. Atlas., 10, t. 9, f. 1, 1829. 

= Var. of M. rorifluus, Ads. and Rve. 

Monodon (Murex), Sowb. Tankerv. Cat. App., 19, 1825 92 

Monodon (Rudolpha), Schum. Essai Nouv. Syst. 

= Monoceres calcar, Marty n. 
Monodonta (Purpura), Quoy. and Gaim. Astrol., II, 561, t. 37, f. 

9-11. = P. madreporarum, Sowb. 
Monstruosa (Purpura), Lesson. JRev. Zool. Soc. Cuv., 103, 1842. 

? = Ricinula digitata, Lam. 

Montfortii (Typhis) , A. Ad. Zool. Proc.. 374, 1862 137 

Moquinianus (Murex), Duval. J. C., iv, t, 5, f. 4, 1853. 

= M. quadrifrons, Lam. 
Morchi (Trophon), Malm. Jeffreys, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser., v, 

447, 1870. = Pleurotomidse. 

Morrisi (Trophon), Dunker. Zool. Proc., 356, 1856. = Urosalpinx. . 154 
Morula, Schum. Nouv. Syst., 227, 1817. = Sistrum, Montf. 

Morus (Ricinula), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ed. II, x, 51 185, 186 

Motacilla (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 163, f. 1563 82, 81, 84 

Motacilla (Murex), var. Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 69. 

= M. recurvirostris, Brod. 
Multicostatus (Murex), Eschscholtz. Zool. Atlas, II, 11, t. 9, f. 4. 

Kiister, Murex, 45, t. 18, f. 5, 6. = Trophon clathratus, L. 

Multicrispatus (Murex), Dunker, 125. Novit., t. 42, f. 1, 2 103 

Multifrondosus (Murex), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 16, f. 192, 1879. 

= M. palmiferus, Sowb. 
Multilamellosus (Murex), Phil. Test. utr. Sicil., t. 27, f. 8. 

= Trophon Barvicensis, Johnst. 
Multilineata (Purpura), Kiister. Monog., 168, t. 27, f. 13, 14. 

= P. bufo, Lam. 
Munda (Murex;, Carp. Rep. II, 663. = Var. of M. luridus, Midd.. . 131 

Mundus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Index 121 

Murex, Linn. Syst. Nat., x, ed., 746, 1758 73, 77, 84, 157 

Muricanthus, Swains. Mai., 296, 1840. = Phyllonotus, Swains. 
Muricata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 39, 1846. 

= R. ochrostoma, Bl., var. heptagonalis. 

Muricatum (Monoceros), Brod. Zool. Proc., 125, 1832 193 

Muricatus (Murex), Mont. Test. Brit., I, 262, t. 9, f. 2. = Trophon. 140 
Muricatus (Trophon), Hinds. Voy. Sulph., 14, t. 1, f. 16, 17. Reeve, 

Icon. Murex, sp. 147. = Cuma muricata, Hinds 202 

Muricidea, Swains. Malacol., 296, 1840. == Trophon, Ocinebra, etc.. 116 
Muriciforme (Buccinum), King. Zool. Jour., v, 348, 1831. 

? = Trophon Geversianus, var 145 

Muriciforme (Eupleura), Brod. Zool. Proc., 179, 1832 ... 158 

Muriciformis (Trophon), Dall. Preliminary Desc., 1877 141 

Muricina (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., I, 218, t. 10, f. 

2-4. = Ricinula undata, Chemn. 
Muricina (Purpura), Kiener, t. 6, f. 13 b. = Murex dubius, Sowb. 



INDEX. 245 



Muricoides (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., I, 219, t. 10, f. 

5. = Ricinula undata, Chemn. 
Muricoides (Purpura), Hombr. et Jacq. Moll. Voy. Astrol. et Zelee, 

87, t. 22, f. 11, 12. =, Ricinula fiscellum, Chemn. 
Murula, Desh. Encyc. Meth., Ill, 588, 1830. = Sistrum, Montf. 
Musiva (Purpura), Kiener. Monog., 38, t. 9, f. 22. = Ricinula. .192, 186 
Mutica (Ricinula), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 51 188 

Nanus (Murex), Anton. Verzeichn., 81, 1839. 

Nanus ( Ocinebra), Dunker. Godeffroy Catalogues 135 

Nassoides (Pseudoliva), Hanley. Zool. Proc., 430 1859 197 

Nassoides (Purpura), Quoy and Gaim. Astrol., II, 564, t. 38, f. 7-9, 

exel. var. = Ricinula chaidea, Duclos. 
Nassoides (Purpura), var. Quoy and Gaim. Astrol., II, t. 38, f. 10, 11. 

= Ricinula ochrostoma, Blainv. 
Nebulosa (Purpura), Conrad. A. J. C., Ill, 270, 1867. Dunker, 

Moll. Guin. , t. 3, f. 15. = P. hsemastoma, L. 
Neglecta (Purpura), Angas. Zool. Proc., 110, t. 13, f. 3, 1867. 

= Urosalpinx Tritoniformis, Bl. 
Neritoidea (Murex), Cheinn. (not Linn.), x, t. 165, f. 1577, 1578. 

= Coralliophila neritoidea, Lam 206, 207 

Neritoidea (Murex), Gmel. (not Linn.), 3537. 

= Ricinula horrida, Lam. 

Neritoidea (Purpura), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit. 12 165 

Neritoideus (Pyrula), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 146, 1822. 

= Coralliophila neritoidea, Lam. 
Nicobaricus ( Murex >, Chemn. Conch. Cab., x. 241, t. 160, f. 1523. 

= Fusus. 
Nigrescens (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 113. 

= M. recur virostris, Brod. 
Nigrita (Murex), Meuschen. Morch. Yoldi Cat., 96. 

= M. radix, Gmel. 
Nigrita (Murex), Philippi. Abbild. I, t. 1, f. 1, 1845. 

= M . nitidus, Brod. 
Nigrospinosus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 88, 1845. Conch. Icon., 

sp. 79. = Var. of M. tribulus, L , 78 

Nisea, Serres. Ann. Sc. Nat., xiv, 1840 76, 218 

Nitens (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 72, 1853 135 

Nitens (Typhis), Hinds. Zool. Proc.. 19, 1843. Voy. Sulph., t. 3, 

f. 5, 6 - 137 

Nitida (Eupleura), Brod. Zool. Proc., 179, 1832 158 

Nitidus i Murexj, Brod. Zool. Proc., 175, 1832 105, 106 

Niveus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 270, 1851. 

= M. pudicus, Reeve. 
Niveus (Rhizochilus), A. Ad. Carp., Mazat. Cat., 484. note. 

= C. nux, Reeve. 
Nodatus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 107. 

= M. recurvirostris, Brod. 
Nodosa (Latiaxis), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 98, 1853. 

= L. idolea, Jonas. 
Nodosa (Purpura), Hombr. and Jacq. Moll. Voy. Astrol. and 

Zelee, 86, t. 22, f. 5, 6. = Ricinula undata, Chemn. 
Nodosa (Purpura), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit. x. 

= P. neritoidea, Linn. 
Nodosum (Sistrum), Dunker. = Ricinula Anaxeres, Duclos. 



246 INDEX. 



Nodulata (Purpuroidea), Lycett 180 

Nodulifer (Purpura), Menke. Verzeiclm., No. 702, 1828 178 

Nodulifera (Purpura), Menke. Verzeichn., 33, 1832. 

= Ricinula chaidea, Duclos. 
Noduliferus (Murex), Reeve. Sp. 150 (not of Sowb.) 

= M. euracanthus, A. Ad. 

Noduliferus (Murex ), Sowerby. Zool. Proc., 147, 1840 110, 111 

Nodulosa (Coralliophila),'H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 431, 1863. 

= C. galea, Chemn. 
Nodulosa (Purpura), 0. B. Adams. Bost. Proc., II, 2, 1845. 

== Ricinula 190 

Nodulosa (Purpura), Gmel. Syst. Nat. = P. deltoidea, Lam. 
Nodus (Ricinula), Encyc. Meth., t. 395, f. 6, a. b. 

= R. morus, Lam. 
Norrisii (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 129. 

= M. endivia, Lam. 
Novse Zealandica, Gray. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 34. 

= M. Zelandiae, Quoy. 

Nubilus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 428, t. 49, f. 4, 1859 91 

Nuceus (Murex), Morch. Kjerulf. Cat., 81, t. 1, f. 9 122, 123 

Nucleus (Murex), Morch (err. typ.). Zeit. Mai., 127, 1850. 

= M. nuceus, Morch. 
Nucleus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 1832. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 2. 

= Fusus, 
Nucleus (Purpura), Chemn. Conch., iv, t. 125, f. 1183. = Plauaxis. 

Nucula (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1845 122 

Nuttallii (Murex) Conrad. Jour. A. N. S., Philad., vii, 264, t. 20, f. 

22, 1837 115 

Nuttalli (Purpura), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad., vii, 265, t. 20, f. 

19, 1837. = P. haemastoma, L. 

Nux (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 181. = Coralliophila 210 

Nux (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 73, 1846. 

= Murex Edwardsi, Payr., var. 

Obeliscus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 269, 1851. 

= M. alveatus, Kiener. 
Oblongus (Concholepas), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 2, 1863. 

= C. Peruvianus, Lam. 
Oblongus (Leptoconchus), Sowb. H. and A. Adams, Genera, I, 138. 

(Error for L. ellipticus, Sowb. ?) 
Occa (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 137, 1840. Conch. 111., f. 45. 

= M. scolopax, Dillw. 
Ocellata (Purpura), Kiener. Monog., 124, t. 37, f. 86. 

= Monoceros brevidentatum, Gray (Juv. ). 
Ocellata (Purpura), Kiener. Monog. t. 37, f. 86. 

:= P. hippocastaneum, Lam. var. 
Ocellata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 34, 1846. 

= R. ochrostoma, Bl. var. heptagonalis. 
Ochroleuca (Pyrula), Menke. Phil. Abbild., I, Pyrula, t. 1, f. 3-6. 

= Trophon xanthostoma, Brod. 

Ochrostoma (Sistrum), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., 205 187, 191 

Ochrostoma (Sistrum), var. rufonotatum, Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 

3d ser., xiv, 48, 1864. = Engina. 

Ocinebra, Leach. Gray, Ann. Mag., xx, 1847 74, 116 

Octogonus (Murex), Quoy and Gaim. Astrol., 531, t. 36, f. 8, 9 110 



INDEX. 247 



Octogonus (Murex), (not Quoy and Gaim.) Reeve. Icon., f. 134. 

= M. dipsacus, Brod. 
Octogonus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 428, t. 49, f. 7, 1859. 

_ M. humilis, Brod. 

Octonus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 32. = M. angularis, Lam. 
Oculatus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 86, 1845. Conch. Icon., sp. 

36. = M. pomum, Gmel. 
Odoutopolys, Gabb. Jour. A. N. S., Philad. N. S., iv, 377, t. 67, f. 

16, 1860 136 

Orbignyaiia (Trichotropis), Petit. Jour, de Conch., II, 261, t. 7, f. 2, 

v, 37. = Coralliophila neritoidea, Lam. 
Orbita (Buccinum), Chemn., x, 199, t. 154, f. 1471-72. 

= Purpura succincta, Mart. 
Orpheus (Fusus), Gould. Bost. Proc., Ill, 142, 1849. Moll. Wilkes 

Exped., 234, f. 285, 285 a. = Trophon craticulatus, Fab., var. 
Osculans (Coralliophila), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat. = C. nux, Reeve. 

Osseus (Murex), Reeve. Zool, Proc., 87, 1845 87, 88, 112 

Ostrearum ( Murex), Conrad. Philad. Proc . Ill, 25, 1846 136 135 

Ostrina (Purpura), Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped., 244, f. 310. 

= P. lapillus, Linn., var. 
Oxyacantha (Murex), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 176, 1832. 

= M. melanomathos, Gmel. 
Ozenneana (Ricinula), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., I, 285, 1861 

II, 49, t. I, f. 4, 5, 1862. = R. chrysostoma, Desh., var. 

Pachyrhaphe (Fusus), E. A. Smith Zool. Proc., 205, t. 20, f. 37, 37 a, 

1879. = Coralliophila 209 

Pagoda (Latiaxis), Johnson. Gray, Ann. Mag., 78, 1867. 

= L. idolea, Jonas. 

Pagodus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 269, 1851 135 

Paivae (Trophon), Crosse. Jour. Conchyl., 3 ser., iv, 278, 1864. 

= Urosalpinx Paivse, Crosse 155, 154, 156 

Pallidus (Murex), Brod. Sowb., Conch., 111., f. 3. = Fusus. 
Pallidus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 194, 1832. 

= ? Trophon crispus, Gld. 

Palma-rosse (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, p. 572 89, 90 

Palmiferus (Murex!, Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 104 90, 91 

Paiiorraitana (Pyrula), Monterosato. 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Broc., var. 5. 
Pansa (Purpura), Gould. Bost. Jour. N. H., vi, 406, 1853. 

= P. patula, Linn. 

Papillosa (Ricinula), Phil. Menke's Zeit, 32, 1849 192 

Papyracea ( Pyrula i, Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 144. = Rapa 214 

Parva (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 43, 1846 191 

Parvulum (Sistrum), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 328, 1860. 

= R. marginatra, Bl. 
Parvus (Coralliophila), E. Smith. Zool Proc., 70, t. 11, f. 6, 1877. 

= Coralliophila nux, Reeve. 
Patagonicus (Murex), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., 451, t. 62, f. 2, 3. 

= Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. 

Patens (Purpura), Homb. et Jacq. Astrolabe, 85, t. 22, f. 1, 2 177 

Patula (Purpura), Linn. Syst. Nat, edit. 12, 1262.... 159, 161 

Paucilirata (Monoceros), Stearns. Prelim. Desc., 1871. Am. Jour. 

Conch., vii, 167, 1. 14, f. 16, 1872 195 



248 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Paucivaricata (Murex), Gabb. Pal. Cal., II, 43, 1869. 

= M. monoceros, Sowb. 
Pauperculus (Murex), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., p. 60, 1850. 

= M. alveatus, Kiener. 

Pauxillus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 171, 1853 109 

Pazi (Murex), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xvii, 183, 1869; xviii, t. 1. f. 

4, 1870 109, 134 

Peasei (Murex), Tryon 129 

Pectinata (Ranella), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulphur, 13, t. 4, f. 17, 18. 

= Eupleura Muriciformis, Brod. 
Pellucidus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 86, 1845. Conch. Icon., sp. 

54. = M. pinnatus, Wood. 
Penchinati (Murex), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., ix, 351, t. 16, f. 6, 

1861 91 

Pentadactylus, Klein. Ostracol., 17, 1753. = Ricinula, Lam. 
Perca (Ranella), Perry. Deshayes, Anim. s. Vert., ix, 593. 

= Eupleura pulchra, Gray. 
Pereger (Murex), Brugnone. Misc. Mai., I, 10, f. 17, 1873. 

= Var. of M. aciculatus, Lam 119 

Peritus (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 129, 1843. Voy. Sulph., 9, t. 

3, f. 23, 24. = M. lugubris, Brod. 
Peronii (Leptoconchus), Lam. Edit. 2, t. 5, p. 639. 

= L. antiquus, Lam. 

Persica (Purpura), Linn. Edit, xii, 1202 160 

Peruviana (Purpura), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite, 606, t. 40, f. 1-3. 

= P. hsemastoma, Linn. 

Peruvianus (Concholepas), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 126 199 

Peruvianus (Fusus), Sowb. Loven, Kiister, Conch. Cab., 33. 

= Trophon clathratus, Linn. 
Peruvianus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 103. 

= M. octogonus, Q. and G. 
Peruvianus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1840 ; Conch. 111., f. 103. 

= M. dipsacus, Brod. 
Pettardi (Murex), Sowb. (not Brazier). Thes. Conch., f. 255, 1879. 

? = M. aciculatus, Lam. 
Petterdi (Trophon), Brazier. Jour. Conchyl., 3 ser., x, 303, 1870; 

xi, 324, t. 12, f. 2, 1871 148 

Philippianus (Trophon), Dunker. Mart, and Chemn., t. 72, f. 4. 

= Var. of T. Geversianus, Pallas 144 

Phyllonotus, Swains. Malacol., 296, 1840. =S. G. of Murex, Linn. 73, 99 

Phyllopterus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 577 114 

Phyllopterus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 63. 

= M. trial atus, Sowb. 

Pica (Purpura), Blainv. NOUV. Ann. du Mus., I, 213, t. 9, f. 9 163 

Pileopsis (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., I, 244. 

= Concholepas Peruvianus, Lam. 

Pinaxia, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 185, 1853 75, 98 

Pinnata (Triplex), Perry. Conch., t. 7, f. 5. = Murex foliatus, Mart. 

Pinnatus (Murex), Wood, Index Test. Suppl., t. 5, f. 20 87 

Pinnatus (Typhis), Brod. Zool. Proc., 178, 1832 138 

Pinniger (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc. , 174, 1832 112 

Pisolina (Ricinula), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., edit. 2, ix, 52. 

= R. mutica, Lam. 
Pistacia (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 109, 1845. 

= M. aciculatus, var. ? 



INDEX. 249 

PAGK. 

Planiliratus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 149, 1845. 

= Coralliophila costularis, Lam. 

Planospira (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 71 161 

Plebeius (Trophon), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., 9. Jour. 

de Conchyl., 3 ser., xviii, 12, 1878 145,156 

Pleurotomoides (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 109, 1845. Conch. 

Icon., sp. 173 120 

Plicata (Murex), Wood. Index Test., t. 26, f. 56. 

= Coralliophila galea, Chemn. 
Plicata (Purpura), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3551. Kiister, Monog., 180, t. 

30, f. 5-7. = P. hippocastaneum, Lam. 
Plicata (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 138, 1844. 

= Eupleura Muriciformis, Brod. 
Plicatus (Murex), Martyn. Univ. Coch., t. 44. 

= Purpura lapillus, Linn., var. 

Plicatus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f . 6 80 

Pliciferus (Murex), Bivona. .-= M. cristatus, Brocchi. 

Pliciferus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 138, 1840. Conch. 111., f. 

101. = M. calcar, Kiener. 
Plicosum (Buccinum), Menke. Synop., 2d edit., 59, 1830. 

= Urosalpinx cinerea, Say. 

Plorator (Murex), Ad. et Reeve. Voy. Samar., t. 8, f. 3 114 

Plumbeus (Fusus), Old. ' Moll. Wilkes Exped., 230, f. 281, 281 a. 

= Trophon 146 

Plumbea (Pseudoliva), Chemn., xi, 86, t. 188, f. 1806, 1807 196 

Polygonulus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 173. Kiener, Coq. 

Viv., 75, t. 41. f. 2. = M. trunculus, L. 
Polytropa, Swains. Malacol., 80, 305, 1840. 

. S. G. of Purpura, Brug 159, 170 

Pomiformis (Murex), Martini. Morch, Yoldi Cat., 96. 

= M. pomuin, Gmel. 

Pomum (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3527 97, 101 

Pomum (Murex), Basterot. Mem. Geol. Bord., 59. 

= M. trunculus, L. 
Ponderosus (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab. 

= M. anguliferus, Lam., var. 
Porphyroleuca (Purpura), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., x, 302, 

1870, xi, 322, t.' 13, f. 7, 1871. = Coralliophila 207 

Porphyrostoma (Ricinula), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1846. Conch. Icon., 

f. 7. = R dumosa, Conr. 
Pothuauii (Purpura), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite, 605, t. 39, f. 30, 31. 

= Ricinula fiscellum, Chemn. 
Poulsoni (Murex), Nuttall. Carp., Jour. Conch., 3 ser., v, 148, 1865. 

130, 131 

Princeps (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 175, 1832 106 

Propinqua (Purpura), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

135, 1876 151, 178 

Pseudodactylus, Herm. Index Mai., I, 467. = Pseudoliva, Swains. 

Pseudoliva, Swains. Malacol., 82, 306, 1840 75, 196 

Pseudomurex, Monterosato 210 

Pterohytis, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 64, t. 5, f. 7 136 

Pteronotus, Swains. Malacol., 296, 1840. 

= S. G. of Murex, Linn 73, 84 

Pterynotus, Swains. Elem., 19, 1835. = Pteronotus, Swains. 

Pudicus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc. , 1845 122, 123 

32 



250 INDEX. 



Pudoricolor (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 108, 1845. Conch. Icon., 

sp. 171. = M. crocatus, Reeve. 

Pulchella ( Rhizochilus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 98, 1853. 
Pulchellus (Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 600. 

= Young of Buc. d'Orbignyi, Desh. 
Pulchellus (Murex), Lam. Pfeiffer, Weigm. Archiv., I, 258, 1840 

(non Lam ). = Fusus limbatus. 
Pulcher (Murex), A. Ad. of Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 43, f. 119, 

1879. = N. trigonulus, Lam 85 

Pulcher (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 270, 1851 81 

Pujchra (Eupleura), Gray. Sowb., Conch. 111. Ranella, f. 19 158 

Pulchra (Ricinula), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1846. Icon., sp. 20. 

= Peristernia. 
Pulchrum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., sp. 80. = Engina. 

Pumilus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 70, 1863 130 

Pumilis (Murex), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 175, 1832 135 

Pumilus (Murex), Kiister. Conch. Cab., II, 118, t. 35, f. 8-10. 

= M. Edwardsi, var. ? 118 

Punctatum (Monoceros), Gray. Beechey's Voy., 124. 

= M. lapilloides, Conr. 
Punctatum (Monoceros), Reeve. Monog., f. 2. 

= M. engonatum, Conr. 
Punctulatum (Monoceros), Sowb. Conch. Illus. , f. 9. 

= M. lapilloides Conr. 

Purpura, Brug. Encyc. Meth.. I, 241, 1789 158, 75 

Purpura, Humphrey. Mus. Calloii. = Murex, Linn. 

Purpura fasciata (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 246, t. 161, f. 

1530, 81. = M. Jickelii, Tapp. 
Purpura (Murex), Deshayes. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 595, note. 

= Vitularia miliaris, Gmel. 
Purpura scabra (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 161 f. 15. 

= Vitularia miliaris, Gmel. 
Purpurata (Latiaxis) Chenu. Moll. Mar. 

= L. MawaB, Gray. 
Purpuratus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 183. 

= M. brevifrons, Lam. 

Purpurella, Ball. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 110, 1872 158, 161, 179 

Purpurina, d'Orb. Prodr. I, 270, 1850 '= Cancellariidse. 

Purpuroidea, Lycett. Ann. Mag. N. H.,II, 250, 1848 75, 180 

Purpuroides (Cuma), d'Orb 200 

Purpuroides (Murex), Dunker, Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 158 120 

Puteolus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 374, 1862 112 

Pyruliformis (Fusus), Tiberi. Petit, Jour, de Conch, xi. 330, 1863. 
= Coralliophila bracteata, Br., var. brevis, Bl. 

Quadratus (Typhis), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 18, 1843; Voy. Sulph., t. 3, 

f. 3, 4 137 

Quadricostatus (Fusus), Say 202 

Quadridentata (Purpura), Dufo. Ann. Sci. Nat., 76, 1840 178 

Quadrifrons (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 580 107 

Quinquelobatus (Murex), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 22, f. 218, 1879. . . 88 
Quoyi (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 71, 1846. = P. scobina, Quoy. 

Radicatus (Murex), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 128, 1843 ; Moll. Voy. Sul- 
phur, t. 3, f. 21, 22 125, 126 



INDEX. 251 



Radix (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3527 105, 106 

Radula (Coralliophila), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 137, 1854 211 

Ramosus (Murex), Linn. Edit, xii, 1215, partim 95, 96 

Ramosus (Murex), Linn, partim. = M. adustus, Lam. 
Rapa (Bulla), Linn. Edit, xii, 1184 , Reeve, Pyrula, sp. 21. 

= Rapa papyracea, Lam. 
Rapa (Murex), Gmelin (not of Linn). = Rapana bulbosa, Sol. 

Rapa, Klein. Ostracol., 62, 1753 76, 214 

Rapana, Schum. Nouv. Gen, 214, 1817 76, 202 

Rapella, Swains. Malacol., 307, 1840. Rapa, Klein. 
Rapiformis (Murex), Var. a, Born. = Rapana bulbosa, Sol. 
Rapiformis (Murex), Var. &, Born. = Rapana bezoar, 

Rarispina (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix. 567 79 

Rarispina (Murex), Sowb. (non Lam). Conch. 111., f. 52. 

= M. tribulus, Linn. 
Rectirostris (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 111. 

= M. recurvirostris, Brod. 

Recurva (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 53, 1846. = Peristernia. 
Recurvirostris (Murex), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 174. 1832... 80, 84, 134 
Recurvus (Fusus), Koch. Philippi Abbild, II, Fusus, t. 3, f. 6, 1846. 

= Urosalpinx cinerea, Say. 
Reeveana (Ricinula) C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat., 102, 1850. 

= Peristernia pulchra, Rve. 
Reeveana (Ricinula), Crosse. Jour. Conch., 3d ser,, II, 47, t. 1, f. 3, 

1862. = Var. of R. hystrix, Linn 183 

Regius (Murex), Schub. et Wagn., t. 230, f. 4066, 4067. 
' = M. bicolor, Val. 

Regius (Murex), Wood. Index Test. Suppl., t. 5, f. 13 100, 101 

Retiaria (Purpura), Button. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., xxiii, 20, 1878; 

Trans. N. Zeal. Inst., x, 294, 1878 177 

Reticulata (Purpura), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. AstroL, II, 566, t. 38, 

f. 17, 18. = R. undata, Chemn. 

Retusa (Coralliophila) H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 432, 1863 211 

Retusa (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 86. ?= Bullia. 
Rhiuocantha, H. and A. Adams. Gen. I, 72, 1853. 

= S. G. of Murex, Linn 73, 78 

Rhizochilus, Steenstrup. Overs. K. Danske, Selsk, 75, 1850 76, 205 

Rhodocheilus (Murex), King. Zool. Jour., v, 347, 1831. 

= M. brassica, Lam. 
Rhodostoma (Latiaxis), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 138, t. 28, f. 1, 

1854 204 

Richardsoni (Trophon), Beck MS., Kiister. Conch, Cab., 33. 

= T. clathratus, Linn. 

Ricinula, Lam. Extr. d'un Cours, 1812 75, 182 

Ricinuloides (Murex), Quoy. Astrol., t. 36, f. 13-16. 

= Ricinula fiscellum, Chemn. 
Ricinus (Murex), Wood. Index Test., t. 26, f. 51. 

= Ricinula digitata. Lam. 

Ricinus (Ricinula) Linn. (Murex), Syst. Nat. 750, 1758 184 

Robillardi (Leptoconchus), Lienard. Jour, de Conch., xviii, 305, 

1870 ; xix, 73, t. 1, f. 5, 1871. = Magilus fimbriatus, A. Ad. 

Rorifluus (Murex), Ads. and Reeve. Voy. Samar., t. 8, f. 2 116 

Rosarium (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 161, f. 1528, 1529. 

99, 100, 106 
Rosea (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 46, 1846. = Peristernia. 



252 INDEX. 



Roseotinctus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 429, t. 32, f. 6, 1859. 

= M. triqneter, Born. 
Roseus (Fusus), Hombr. et Jacq., 107, t. 25, f. 4, 5. 

= Trophon plumbeus, Gld. 

Rossi (Tritonium), Leach, Morch, = Trophon clathratus, L. 
Rossiteri (Murex), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xx, 74, 228, t. 13, f. 2, 

1872 91, 92 

Rostratus (Leptoconchus), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. H., 3d ser. 

xiii, 310, 164. = Magilus antiquus, Lam. 
Rostratus (Murex), Olivi. = Fusus. 

Rota (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 119 99 

Rotifer (Murex), Bronn. = Coralliophila bracteata, Br. 

Rubescens (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 174, 1832 93 

Rubiginosus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 86, 1845; Conch. Icon., 

sp. 32. = M. torrefactus, Sowb. 

Rubridentatus (Murex), Reeve, Zool. Proc., 1846 85 

Rudis (Murex), Link, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 97. 

= M. anguliferus, Lam. 

Rudis (Murex), Michelotti. Monogr., p. 14. = M. brandaris, L. 
Rudolpha, Schum. Nouv. Syst., 210, 1817. = Monoceros, Lam. 

Rudolphii (Purpura), Chemn., x, t. 154, f. 1467, 1468 160 

Rudolphus, Blainv. Diet. Sci. Nat. xlvi, 418, 1827. 

= Monoceros, Lam. 
Rufostoma (Purpura), Lesson. Rev. Zool. Soc Cuv., 102, 1842. 

= Ricinula 185 

Rufus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 574. 

= M. aclustus, Lam. 
Rugosus (Murex), Born. Museum, 305, t. 11, f 6, 7, 1780; Kiister, 

Purpura, 145, t. 24 a, f. 5. = Cuma rugosa, Born 201, 202 

Rugosa (Purpura), Deshayes. Lam., edit. 2, x, 111. 

= Ricinula concatenata, Lam. 
Rugosa (Purpura), Hutton (nonQuoy). Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zealand. 

= P. squamata, Hutton. 
Rugosa (Purpura), Quoy. Zool. Astrol., t. 38, f. 19 21. 

.= P . scobina, Quoy. 
Rugosus (Polyplex), Perry. Conch., t. 9, f. 2. 

= Murex plicatus, Martyn. 
Rugulosum (Sistrum), Pease. Am. Journ. Conch., iv, 93, t. 11, f. 7, 

1868. = Ricinula chaidea, Duclos. 
Rugulosus (Murex), Costa. Microdor. Med., 57, t. 9, f. 4, , &, 1861. 

= M. cristatus, Var. ( Juv. ), Brocchi. 
Rupestris (Purpura), Val., Hombr. et Jacq. Moll. Voy. Astrol. et 

Zelee, 89, t. 22, f. 23. = P. succincta, Mart. 
Rupestris (Purpura), Val. Voy. Venus, t. 9, f. 1. 

= P. lapillus, Linn. , var. 
Riippelli (Magilus), Deshayes. Conch. He Reunion, 126, t. 11, f. 4, 5. 217 

Rustica (Purpura), Lam., edit. 2, x, 83 .166 

Rusticus (Murex), Jousseaume (non Reeve). Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 

t. 1, f. 7, 8, 1874. = M. lingua, Dillw. 

Rusticus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc. , 108, 1845 Ill 

Rutila (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 49, 1846. = Peristernia. 

Sacellum (Purpura), Chemn., x, 36, 267, t. 163, f. 1561, 1562, 

= Cuma rugosa, Born. 
Salebrosa (Coralliophila), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 431, 1863. 

= C. galea, Chemn. 



INDEX. 253 

PAGE. 

Salebrosa (Vitularia), King. Zool. Journ., v, 347 133, 125 

Salleanus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 70, 1853 98 

Sandwichensis (Vitularia^ Pease. Zool. Proc., 397. 1860 133 

Sanguinolenta (Purpura), Duclos. Gnerin'sMag. Zool., t. 22 f. 1. 

= Pisania. 
Santangeli (Pyrula), Marav. Rev. Zool., 170, 1840: 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Broc., var. brevis. 
SauliaB (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 141, 1840; Conch. 111., f. 77. 

= M. m auras, Brod. 
Savignyi (Purpura), Deshayes. Lam., edit. 2, x, 112 ; Kiister, 182, 

t. 31, f. 1, 2. = P. hippocastaneum, Lam. 

Saxatilis (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix,- 583 101, 102 

Saxatilis (Murex), Linn. pars. Morch. Yoldi Cat., p. 95. 

= M. endivia, Lam. 
Saxicola (Murex), Brod. Zool. Jour., II, 201, t. 11, f. 3. 

=Var. of M. endivia, Lam 102 

Saxicola (Purpura), Val. Voy. Venus., t. 8, f. 4. 

= P. lapillus, Linn., var. 

Scabra (Ricinula), Koch. Menke's Zeit., 26, 1848 191 

Scabrosus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1840; Conch. 111., f. 73. 

= Var. of M. laciniatus, Sowb. 
Scala (Buccinum). Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3485. 

= Purpura cingulata, Linn. 

Scala (Rhizochilus), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 98, 1853 211 

Scalariformis (Fusus), Gould. Invert. Mass., 288, f. 203. 

= Trophon clathratus, Linn. 
Scalariformis (Purpura), Lam., edit. 2, x, 73. 

= Coralliophila galea, Chemn. 
Scalariformis (Trophon), Loven. Woodw. Man., 336. 

= T. clathratus, L. 

Scalarinus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. , 508, 1863 127 

Scalarinus (Murex), Bivona, Nouv. Gen., t. 3, f. 11. 

= M. scalaroides, Blainv. 
Scalaris (Murex), Auct. (non Brocchi). 

= Coralliophila Meyendorffi, Calc. 
Scalaris (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 71, 1853 (non Brocchi). 

= M. Angasi, Tryon. 
Scalaris (Purpura), Menke. Verzeichn., No. 728, 1828. 

= P. succincta, Mart. 
Scalaris (Purpura), Wagner. Conch. Cab., xii, 147, 1828; Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., 98,t. 17, f. 4, 5. ?= Cuma carinifera, Lam. 

Scalaroides (Murex), Blainv. Faune Franc., 131, t. 5 a, f. 56 119 

Scalaspira, Conrad. Proc. A. N. S. Phil., 560, 1862 152 

Schrenckii (Leptoconchus), Lischfce. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 40, 1871 ; 

Lischke Jap. Moll. Sup., 45, t. 4, f. 9, 10. = Magilus antiquus, Lam. 
Schultzei (Purpura), Dunker. Troschel, Gebiss, II, 132. 

== P. scobina, Quoy. 

Scobina (Purpura), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., II, t. 38, f. 12, 13 170 

Scobina (Purpura), Reeve (not Quoy). Monog., f. 72. 

= P . harpa, Conr. 

Scolopax (Murex), Dillwyn. Cat., II, 681 77, 78 

Scorpio (Murex). Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1215 98 99 

Scrobiculatus (Fusus), Dunker. Phil. Abbild., II, t. 3, f. 4. 

= Murex purpuroides, Dunker. 
Sculptilis (Coralliobia), Pease. Zool. Proc., 513, 1865. 

Magilus fimbriatulus, A. Ad. 



254 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Secundus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 568 99 

Semiclausus (Murex), Kiister. Conch. Cab., II, t. 34, f. 6 118 

Semi-imbricata (Purpura), Lam., edit. 2, x, 84 161 

Seminodosum (Sistrum), Pease MSS , Carp. Zool. Proc., 517, 1865. 

. Ricinula ochrostoma, Bl., var. 

Senegalensis (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3537 94 

Senegalensis (Murex), var. Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 61. 

= M. calcar, Kiener. 
Senilis (Murex), Jousseaume. Rev. et Mag de Zool., t. 1, f. 5, 6, 

1874. = M. brevispina, Lam. 

Senticosa (Coralliophila), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 432, 1863 .... 211 
Senticosus (Murex), Blainv. Malac., 402 ; Encyc. Meth., t. 419, f. 3. 

= Phos. 
Separatista, Gray. Zool. Proc., 136, 1847 ; A. Ad., Zool. Proc., 45, 

1850 76, 213 

Separatista (Turbo), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab. 

= Separatista Chemnitzii, Ads. 
Sepimana (Pseudoliva), Rang. Mag. Zool., t. 18, 1832; Thes. Conch., 

Ill, 74, t. 216, f. 1, 2 196 

Septentrionalis (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 50, 1846. 

= P. lapillus, Linn., var. 
Serotinus (Murex), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 268, 1851. 

= M. cristatus, var. Blainvillei 135 

Serpuliformis (Magilina), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, 106, t. 2, 

f. 16, 17, 1877 218 

Serratus (Leptocouchus), Riippell, A. Adams. Ann. Mag., N. H., 3 

ser. xiii, 310, 1864. ?= L. striatus, Riippell. 
Serratus (Magilus), Deshayes. Sowb. in Conch. Icon., sp. 8, 1872. 

M. antiquus, Lam. 
Sertum (Jopas), Lam., vii, 243; Kiener, Monog. Purpura, 133, t. 31, 

f. 96 180 

Sexcostatus (Murex), Brug. Encyc. Meth., t. 441, f. 3. 

= M. angularis, Lam. 

Siderea (Ricinula), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1846: Icon., sp. 14 190 

Similis (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f, 70. 

= M. recurvirostris, Brod. 

Simplex (Nisea), Serres 218 

Hinensis (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc. 85, 1845; Conch. Icon., sp. 25. 

= M. elongatus, Lam. 
Singaporensis (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 270, 1851 (indeterm.). 

Sinusigera, Orb. Gray's Genera, 1847 168 

Sirat (Murex), Adams. Seneg., 125, t. 8, f. 19. 

= M. costatus, Gmel. 
Sistrum, Montf. Conch. Syst., II, 594, 1810. 

= S. G. of Ricinula, Lam 185 

Situla (Buccinum), Reeve. Monog., sp. 40, 1846. 

= Jopas sertum, Mart. 

Sobrinus (Murex), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 370, 1862 79, 103 

Sofise (Murex), Aradas and Benoit. Moll. Sicil., 270, t. 5, f. 7, 1870. 

= Coralliophila 211 

Solidus (Murex), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 267, 1851 123 

Solidiuscula (Magilus), Pease. Sowb. in Conch. Icon., sp. 12, 1872. 

= M. Maillardi, Desh. 
Sowerbyi (Murex), Kobelt. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., iv, 248, 1877. 

=M. humilis, Brod. 



INDEX. 255 

PAGE. 

Sowerbyi (Typhis), Brad. Zool. Proc., 178, 1832. 

= T. tetrapterus, Bronn. 
Spadse (Murex), Libassi. Att. Acad. Palermo, III, 43, f. 29, 1 and 2, 

1859. = Coralliophila 211 

Spathulifera (Purpura), Blainv. Ann. du Mus., I, 212, t. 9, f. 8. 

= Ricinula hystrix, Linn. 
Speciosa (Purpura), Valenc. Recueil Voy. Humb. 

== P. triserialis, Blainv. 
Speciosa (Ricinula), Dunker. Novit. Conch., 100, 139, t. 33, f. 7, 8. 

= Var. of R. hystrix, Linn 183, 184 

Speciosus (Murex), A. Adams, Zool. Proc., 121, 1855 88 

Spectrum (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 187. 

= M. axicornis, Lam. 
Spectrum (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 19. 

= Sistrum ochrostoma, Bl. 
Sphseridia (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Sci. Nat., t. 2, f. 10, 1832. 

Ricinula morus, Lam. 

Spinicostata (Murex), Val. Kiener, t. 41, f. 1 107, 106, 109 

Spinosus (Murex), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 268. 1851. 

=- M. turbinatus, Lam. 
Spinosus (Sistrum), H. and A. Adams. Genera I, 130. 

=-. Ricinula biconica, Bl. 
Spinulosus (Murex), Costa. Microdoride Medit. 56, t. 9, f. 2, a, &, 

1861. = Coralliophila bracteata, Br., var. Babelis, Requien. 
Spiralis (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 74, 1846. 

= P. cingulata, Linn. 
Spirata (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus. I, t. 12, f. 8. 

= Monoceros engonatum, Conr. 

Spiratus (Trophon), H. and Ad. Zool. Proc., 429, 1863 147 

Spirobranchus, Blainv: K Bull. Soc. philom., 79, 1818. ? = Vermes. 
Squamata (Purpura), Desh. Voy. Belanger, t. 3, f. 10, 11. 

= Ricinula undata, Chemn. 
Squamata (Purpura), Hutton. Jour. Conch., 3 ser. xviii, 19, 1878. . . 178 

Squameus (Trophon), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 50, 1852 149 

Squamigera (Purpura), Deshayes. Voy. Belanger, 426, t. 3, f. 10-12. 

= Ricinula undata, Chemn. 
Squamosa (Purpura), Deshayes. Voy. Belanger, 427, t. 2, f. 6-8. 

==-. Ricinula undata, Chemn. 
Squamosa (Purpura), Lam., edit. 2, x, 74. 

= P. succincta, Mart. Var. 
Squamosissimus (Coralliophila), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 

4 ser., xvii, 404, 1876 209 

Squamosum (Sistrum), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., Ill, 277, t. 23, f. 

14, 1867. = Ricinula marginatra, Bl. 
Squamosus (Fusus), Bivona. = Murex lamellosus, Jan. 
Squamosus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 1832; Sowb., Conch. 111. f. 

23 = Fusus. 
Squamulata (Murex), Carp. Zool. Proc., 281, 1865. 

= Var. of M. dubius, Sowb 109 

Squamulata (Pyrula), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., I, 207, t. 9, f. 21. 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Broc., var. (6) brevis. 
Squamulifer (Trophon), Carpenter. Pal. Calif., II, 44, 1869. 

= Var. of T. craticulatus, Fab 139 

Squamulosa (Purpura), Deshayes. Catlow Nomenc. 

P. squamigera, Desh. 



256 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Squamulosa (Purpura), Gray. Beechey's Voy., 123. 

= P. lapillus, Linn., var. 
Squamulosa (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 68, 1846. 

= Coralliophila neritoidea, Lam. 
Squamulosus (Fusus), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., I. 204, t. 11, f. 31; 

Reeve, Icon., Murex, f. 184. = Coralliophila bracteata Broc., 

var. (1) lamellos'a (Juv.). 
Squamulosus (Murex), Reeve. Icon., sp. 184. 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Broc., var. brevis. 
Stainforthii (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 104, 1843 ; Conch., Icon., 

sp. 68 104 

Stangeri (Trophon), Gray. Dieff. N. Zeal., 230 , 147 

Steeriae (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 85, 145; Conch., Icon., sp. 28. 

= M. torrefactus, Sowb. 
Stellaris (Purpura), Hombr. et Jacq. Moll. Voy. Astrol. et Zelee, 88, 

t. 22, f. 13, 14. = Cuma rugosa, Born. 

Stimpsoni (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 371, 1862 115 

Stramonita, Schum. Essai d'un Nouv. Syst, 226, 1817. 

= S. G. of Purpura, Brug 159, 166 

Striata (Purpura), Quoy and Gaim. Astrol., II, 567, t. 37, f. 12, 14. 

= P. buccinea, Desh. 
Striatella (Purpura), Garrett. Proc. Calif. Acad., 102, 1857. 

= Vexilla taeniata, Powis. 
Striatula (Pseudoliva), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 184, 1853; Sowb., 

Thes. Conch., Ill, 74, t. 216, f. 3, 4 196 

Striatuni (Buccinum), Mart. Univ. Conch., t. 7. 

= Purpura succincta, Mart, 
Striatum (Monoceros), Lam. An. sans Vert, x, 119. 

= M. calcar, Martyn. 
Striatum (Sistrum), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., Ill, 276, t. 23, f. 12, 

1865. = Var. of Ricinula morus, Lam 185 

Striatus (Magilus), Riippell. Trans. Zool. Soc., I, 259, t. 35, f. 9, 10. 

= M. antiquus, Lam. 

Strumosa (Scalaspira) Conrad 152 

Subangulata (Muricidea), Stearns. Cal. Proc., v, 81, t. 1, f. 4, 1873. . 125 
Subasperrimus (Murex), d'Orbigny. Prodr., 175. 

= M. trunculus, L. 
Subbrandaris (Murex), d'Orbigny. Prodr. Pal., 72. 

= M. brandaris, L. 
Subcarinatus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 598. 

= Murex erinaceus, L. 
Subdeltoidea (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. Mus., t. 9, f. 11. 

= P. deltoidea, Lam. 
Subglobosus (Murex), Wood. Index Test/Suppl., t. 5, f. 23. 

== Coralliophila galea, Chemn. 
Submuricatum (Tritonium), Schrenck. Bull. St. Petersb., iv, 411. 

= M. inornatus, Recluz. 
Subspinosus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 72, 1853; Sowb., Thes. 

Conch. Murex, Index. = M. cristatus, Brocchi. 
Subtrunculus (Murex), d'Orbigny. Prodr., p. 74. 

= M. trunculus, L. 

Succincta (Purpura), Martyn. Univ. Conch., II. t. 45.. 170 

Sulcata (Cuma), Swainson. Treat. 87, f. 4. =Curna tectum, Wood. 
Sulcobuccinum, d'Orb. Prodr. Pal. Franc., II, 303, 1850. 

= Pseudoliva, Sw. 



INDEX. 25 t 

PAGE. 

Suppositus (Trophon), Old. Otia, 126; Post. Proc., vii, 1860 142 

Suturalis (Rhizochilus), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 98, 1853 211 

Syphonellus (Typhis), Bellardi and Michelotti, Mem. Acad., 129, t. 3, 

4. = T. tetrapterus, Bronn. 

Taeniata (Purpura), Powis. Zool. Proc., 96, 1835 181 

Tseiiiatus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 428, t. 49, f. 3, 1859. 

Young of M. regius, Wood. 
Talienwhanensis (Murex), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., x. 56, t. 1, f. S, 

1862. = M. Japonicus, Dunker. 
Tampaensis (Murex), Conrad. Philad. Proc.. Ill, 25, 1846. 

= Eupleura, Am. Jour. Conch., v, 106, t. 12, f. 5 157, 153 

Tantillus ( Trophon}, A. Ad.. Zool. Proc., 375, 1862. = Ocinebra. . 127 
Tarentinus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 593. 

= Var. of M. erinaceus, Linn. 
Tectum (Cuma), Wood. Index Test. Suppl., t. 4. f. 13; Kiister, 128, 

t. 22 a, f. 6, 7 201 

Tectum-Sinense (Murex), Desh. Jour. Conchy!., 2 ser. I, 78, t. 3, f. 

1, 2, 1856; Ibid, II, 37, 1857 ; Ibid, 3 ser., iv, 14. 

= Coralliophila bracteata, Br., var. (4), Babelis. 
Tenuiliratus \ Trophon), Carpenter. Kobelt in Conch. Cabinet. 

= Eupleura muriciformis, Br 302 

Tenuirostrum (Murex), Lam. An. sans Vert., ix, p. 569. 

= M. tenuispina. 

Tenuis (Buccinum), Martini. Conch. Cab. = Rapa papyracea, Lam. 
Tenuis (Magilus), Cherm. 111. Conch., t. 1, f. 8, a. 

=: M. antiquus, Lam. 
Tenuis (Murex), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 174, 1879. 

= M. angularis, Lam., Juv. 
Tenuisculptus (Trophon), Carp. Ann. Mag., N. II., 227, 1866. 

= ? Var. of T. craticulatus, Fab 139 

Tenuispina (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 566 78 

Tenuispiua, (Murex), Quoy (not Lam.). Voy. Astrolabe, II, 528, t. 

36, f. 3, 4. = M. ternispina, Lam. 

Ternispina (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, p. 567 77 

Ternispina (Murex), var., Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 68. 

= M. aduncospinosus, Beck. 
Territus (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 108, 1845; Conch. Icon. sp. 167.. 91 

Tessellata (Monoceros), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 356, 1840 196 

Tessellata (Purpura), Sowb. Genera of Shells. 

= Ricinula undata, Chemn. 

Tetragonus ( Murex), Brod. Zool . Proc., 174, 1832 121 

Tetrapterus (Typhis), Bronn. Leth. Geogn., 1077, t. 41, f. 13.. 136, 137 
Textiliosa (Purpura), Lam., edit. 2, x, 77. = P. succincta. Mart. 
Textiliosus (Fusus), Hombr. et Jacq., 108, t. 25, f. 9, 10. 

? = Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. 

Thais, Link. Rostock Cat., Ill, 114, 1807. = Purpura, Brug. (part). 
Thalessa, H. and A. Ad. Genera, 1, 127, 1853. 

= S. G. of Purpura, Brug , 159, 162 

Thiarella (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 83. =-. Cuma carinifera, Lam. 
Thiarella (Purpura), var. Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astro!., II, t. 39, f. 

4-6. = Cuma carinifera. Lam. 
Thomasi (Murex), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xx, 212; xxi, t. 11, f. 4, 

1872-3 91 

Thomasiaiia ( Rapana), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., I, 276, 268, 
1861. = R. bezoar, Linn., var. 



258 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Tissoti (Purpura), Petit. Jour, de Conch., Ill, 163, t. 7, f. 4, 1853. 

== Pisania. 
Torosus (Murex), Lam. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 39. 

? = Var. of M. erinaceus, Linn 116, 118 

Torrefactus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 141, 1840; Conch. 111., f. 

120 89, 90 

Tortilis (Latiaxis), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 431, 1863. 

= L. idolea, Jonas. 
Tortuosus (Murex), Brocl. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 8. 

= M. multicrispatus, Dunker. 
Toupiollei (Murex), Bernard!. Jour. Conch., viii, 211, t. 4, f. 5, 1860. 

= M. elongatus, Lam. 
Trapa (Murex), Bolten. Morch, Yoldi Cat., 98. 

= M. Martinianus, Rve. 
Trialatus (Murex). Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 31, f. 2. 

= M. tripterus, Born. 

Trialatus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1841 113 

Triangularis (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., t. 11, f. 4. . . . 164 

Triangularis (Typhis), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 124, 1855 138 

Triangulatum (Sistrum), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., Ill, 278, t. 23, 

f. 15. Ricinula fiscellum, Chemn. 

Triangulatus (Trophon), Carpenter. Cal. Proc., Ill, 224, 1866 142 

Tribulus, Klein. Ostracol., 18, 1753. = S. G. of Purpura, Brug.159, 161 

Tribulus (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, p. 1214 77, 78, 79 

Tribulus-duplicatus (Murex), Chemn. f xi, t. 189, f. 1821; t. 190, f. 

1822. = M. tenuispina, Lam. 
Tribulus-maximus (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab., t. 189, f. 1819, 

1820. = M. scolopax, Dillw. 

Trichotropis (part), Sowb. Conch. Man., 1839. = Separatista, Gray. 
Trichotropoides (Purpura), Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., I, 284, 

1861. = Coralliophila neritoidea, Lam. 

Tricolor (Murex), Val. Voy. Humb., II, 300. == M. regius, Wood. 
Trifariospinosa (Murex), Chemn. Frauenfeld, Verh. Zool. Bot. 

Gesell., 889, 1869. = M. brandaris. L., var. 
Trifasciata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 41, 1840. = Engina. 
Triformis (Murex), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 87, 1845. Conch. Icon., 

sp. 53 85 

Trigona (Purpura), Reeve. Icon., sp. 53, Sept., 1846. 

= Cuma gradata, Jonas. 
Trigonulus (Murex), Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 25, f. 2. 

= M. triqueter, Born. 

Trigonulus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 581 84 

Trilineatus (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 103. 

= M. elegaus, Beck. 
Trinitatensis (Purpura), Guppy. Proc. Sci. Assoc. Trinidad, 186!). 

Ami. Mag. N. H., 4 ser., xv, 50, 1875 165 

Tripterus (Murex), Born. Mus. Caes., t. 10, f. 18, 19 87, 138 

Tripterus (Murex), Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 26, f. 2. 

= M. foliatus, Mart. 

Triqueter (Murex), Born. Mus. Cges., t. 11, f. 1, 2. ; 85, 84, 87 

Triqueter (Murex j, Kiener (non Born), t. 40, 1*. 3. 

= M. trigonulus, Lam. 

Triqueter (Murex), Olivi. Adr., 153. = Var. of M. erinaceus, Linn. 
Triquetra (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 139, 1844. Conch. Icon., 

sp. 41. = Eupleura Muriciformis, Brod 158 



INDEX. 259 



Triserialis (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. Mus., 226, 1832 163, 164 

Tristis (Purpura), Dunker. Verb. Z. B. Vereins, Wien, xvi, 910, 

1866. Voy. Novara. Moll., t. 1, f. 4. = P. scobina, Quoy. 
Tritonidea (Trophon), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, 101, t. 2, f. 6, 

7, 1877. = Murex 132 

Tritoniformis (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., t. 10, f. 10. 

Kieiier, Monog., 37, t. 8, f. 18. = Urosalpinx 156, 192 

Trivialis (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 71, 1853. 

= M. adustus, Lam. 

Troscheli (Murex), Lischke. Jap. Moll. = M. ternispina, Lam., var.. 79 
Trocbia, Swains. Malacol., 74, 302, 1840. = S. G. of Purpura, Brug. 159 
Trochlea (Purpura i, Lam. Anim. s. Vert. = P. cingulata, Linn. 

Trochoides ( Sinusigera), A. Adams 168 

Trophon, Montf. Concb Syst., II, 482, 1810 74, 138 

Troscheli (Murex), Lischke. Mai. Blatt., 219, 1868. Jap. Moll., I, 

41, t. 1, f. 1, 2, Suppl., 164. = M. ternispina, Lam. 
Truncata (Purpura), Duclos. Mag. de Zool., t. 22, f. 2, 1833. 

= Monoceros muricatum, Brod. 
Truncatum (Trophou), Strom. Kgl. Norsk. Vid. Selsk. Skr.. iv, 369, 

t. 16, f. 26. = Var. of T. clatbratus, L 140 

Trunculoides (M.), Pusch. Polens Palajont, 136, t. 11, f. 23. 

= M. brandaris, L. 

Trunculus (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit., xii, 1215 77, 108 

Trunculus (Murex), var. Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, 271. 

= M. Kiisterianus, Canefri. 

Tryoni (Murex), Hidalgo 134 

Tuberculata (Purpura >, Risso. Kiister, Purpura, 146, t. 24 a, f. 6. 

=. Triton. 
Tuberculatum (Monoceros), Gray. Sowb. Conch. Illust., f. 9. 

= M. muricatum, Brod. 
Tuberculatum (Sistrum), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., t. 9, f. 3. 

186, 187, 190 

Tubifer (Murex), Costa. = Typhis tetrapterus, Bronn. 
Tubulatus (Murex\ Martyn. Morch, Yoldi Cat., 97. 

= M. rubigniosus, Rve. 
Tubulites, Davilla. = Magilus, Montf. 

Tumida (Purpura), Schubert and Wagner, xii, 140. = P. bufo, Lam. 
Tumuiosa (Purpura 1 , Reeve. Icon., sp. 55, 1846. Lischke, 56, t. 5, 

f. 15, 16 162, 163 

Tumulosus (Murex), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1840. Conch. 111., f. 71. 

Var. of M. cornutus, Linn 98 

Turbinatus (Murex), Kiister. Murex, 59, t. 23, f. 1, 2. 

= M. Kiisterianus, Canefri. 

Turbinatus ( Murex ), Lam. Anim. s. Vert. , ix, 586 106, 108 

Turbinatus (Murex \ Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 30. = M. spinicosta, Val. 
Turbinella (Ricinula), Kiener. Purpura, 29, t. 9, f. 25. Reeve, 

Icon., sp. 42. = Engina. 
Turbinoides (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. du Mus., I, 217. 

= Cuma carinifera, Lam. 

Turbo (Purpura), Duclos. Jay's Cat., 85 178 

Turgida (Purpura), Gray. Dieff., N. Zealand, II, 234. Buccinum 

turgidum, Gmel., 3490. = Cominella. 
Turonensis (Murex), Dujardin. Mem. Geol., II, 295. 

= M . trunculus, L . 
Turris (Coralliophila), Morch. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., xii, 129, t. 

5, f. 4, 1872. = Latiaxis turns, Morch .204 



260 INDEX. 

PAGK. 

Typhis, Montf. Conch. Syst., II, 614, 1810 74, 88, 136 

Typica (Adamsia), Bunker. Zool. Proc., 357, 1856. 
= Urosalpinx Tritoniformis, Bl. 

Umbilicatus (Trophon), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 135, 

1875. = Urosalpinx 155 

Umbrifer (Pterohytis) Conrad 136 

Uncinarius ( Murex), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 579 88 

Uncinarius (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 106. 

= M. clavus, Kiener. 

Undata (Purpura), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 67. = P. haemastoma, L. 
Undata (Purpura), Kiener (not Lam.). Monog., t. 34, f. 81 c. 

= P. rustica, Lam. 
Undata (Purpura), var. Kiener. Monog., t. 35, f. 84. 

= Cuma rugosa, Born. 
Undata (Ricinula), Chemn. (Murex). Conch. Cab., xi, 124, t. 192, 

f. 1851, 1852.. 189, 188 

Undosa (Coralliophila), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 432, 1863. 

?= C. costularis, Lam. 
Unicarinatum (Monoceros), Reeve. Icon., sp. 1. 

= M. lapilloides, Conr. 
Unicarinatum (Monoceros), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 5. 

= M. engonatum, Conr. fc 

Unicarinatus (Trophon), Phil 151 

Unicorne (Monoceros), Brug. Gray, Beechey's Voy., 124. 

= M. calcar, var. crassilabrum . 
Unicornis (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 194. 

= M. Nuttallii, Conrad. 

Unicornus, Montf. Conch. Syst., II, 454, 1810. = Monoceros, Lam. 
Unidentatus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 52, Provisional List. 

=1M. rarispina, Lam. 
Unidentatus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 52, Grig. List. 

= M. tribulus, L. 

Unidentatus (Murex), Menke. Zeitsch., 1850. == M. plicatus, Sowb. 
Unifascialis (Purpura-), Lam. Edit. 2, x, 86. 

= P. hsemastoma, Linn. 

Unifasciatus (Murex), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 372, 1862 135 

Urosalpinx, Stimpson. Am. Jour. Conch,, I, 58, 1865 74, 151, 192 

Usilla, H. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 369, 1860 181 

Ustulatum (Bucc.), Reeve. = Murex contractus, Reeve. Addenda. 

Vaginatus (Murex), Crist, et Jan., 1833. 

= Trophon carinatus, Biv. 
Vaginatus (Trophon), Jan. Kobelt in Kiister's Conch. Cab., 286. 

= Fusus. 

Variabilis (Murex), Jan. Cat., 8. = Trophon muricatus, Mont. 
Variabilis (Purpura), Deshayes. Conch. He Reunion, 115, t. 12, f. 22, 

1863 177 

Varians (Murex), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., 451, t. 62. f. 4-7. 

== Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. 

Varicosus (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 49 99 

Variegatus (Murex), Mart. A. Ad., Gen., I, 98. 

= M. bellus, Rve. 
Varius (Fusus), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal. 

= Trophon Stangeri, Gray. 



INDEX. 261 

PAGE. 

Varius (Murex), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 57, 108 107 

Venosa (Purpura), Val. Voy. Venus., t. 7, f. 1. 

= Rapana bezoar, Linn. 
Ventricosula (Ricinula^, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc., 97, t. 8, f. 16, 

1875 192 

Versicolor (Murex), Gmel. Morch. = M. adustus, Lam. 
Versicolor (Purpura) (Gmelin), Wood. Index Test., t. 23, f. 102. 

? = P. scobina, Quoy. 
Versicolor (Pyrula), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 114, 1839. 

= Pinaxia coronata, Ads. 

Vexilla, Swains. Malacol., 300, 1840 75, 181 

Vexillum (Purpura), Chemn., x, 222, t. 157, f. 1504, 1505. 

= Vexilla vexillum, Ch 181 

Vibex (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 175, 1832. = Cantharus. 
Viduata (Purpura), Kiister. Purpura, 135, t. 23 a, f. 7. 

= P. hsemastoma, Linn. 
Violacea (Purpura), Kiener. Monog., 77, t. 19, f. 57. 

= Coralliophila neritoidea, Lam. 
Violacea (Purpura), Lesson. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv., 186, 1842. 

=Ricinula 192 

Violacea ^Ricinella), Schum. Nouv. Syst., 240. 

= Ricinula horrida, Lam. 
Virginens (Murex), Bolten. Tapparone, Mur. Mar Rosso., 14. 

= M. anguliferus, Lam. 
Vitellus (Murex), Brod. Sowerby, Thes. Conch, f. 249, p. 43, 1879. 

= M. vittatus, Brod. 

Vitrea (Sinusigera ), A. Adams 168 

Vittatus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 176, 1832 110, 125 

Vitularia, Swains. Malacol., 64, 1840 74 133 

Vitulinus (Murex), Gray. Zool. Beech., t. 33, f. 4, 6. 

= Vitularia salebrosa, King. 
Vitulinus (Murex), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., ix, 595. 

= Vitularia miliaris, Gmel. 
Viverratoides (Purpura), d'Orb. Moll. Canaries, 91, t. 6, f. 38. 

= Cantharus variegatus, Gray. Addenda. 

Wahlbergi (Murex), Krauss. Siidaf. Moll., 112, t. 6, f. 13, 1848; 

Kiister, Murex, 90, t. 32, f. 4, 5. = Trophon 147 

Wahlbergi (Purpura). Krauss. Siidafrik. Moll., 118, t. 6, f. 15; 

Kiister, Monog., 165, t. 28, f. 6, 7. =Urosalpinx Wahlbergi, Kr. . 154 
Weinkauffianus (Murex) Crosse. Jour. Conchyl., 3ser., vi, 274, t. 8, 

f. 4, 1866. = M. aciculatus, Lam. 

Whitneya, Gabb. Pal. Calif., I, 104, 1864, t. 28, f. 216 76, 214 

Winteri (Fusus). Dunker. Phil. Abbild., II. 192, t. 4, f. 3. 

= Urosalpinx ficula, Reeve. 
Woldemarii (Purpura), Kiener. Monog., 129, t. 39, f. 91. 

= Tritonidea. 

Xanthostoma (Chorus), Brod. H. and A. Ad., Gen. I, 125. 

= Trophon Xanthostoma, Br 197 

Xanthostoma (Purpura), Brod. Zool. Proc., 8, 1833. 

= Trophon 146, 144, 147 

Xanthostoma (Purpura) Var. Kiister, 126, t. 22 a, f. 3. 

? = Monoc. giganteum, Lesson. 



zbiS ADDENDA. 

PAGE 

Yatesi (Typhis), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xiii, 54, t. 2, f. 3, 1865 137 

Yoldii (Murex), Morch. Sowerby, Thes. Conch., f. 210, p. 36, 1879. 
= M. tranculus, L. 

Zebrina (Pseudoliva), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 184, 1853; Thes. 

Conch., Ill, 74, t. 216, f. 13, 14 196 

Zelandicus (Murex), Quoy et. Gaim. Astrol., t. 36, f. 5-7 108 

Zeyheri (Purpura), Krauss. Wiegmann's Archiv, I, 35, 1852; Kiister, 

Monog., 167, t. 27, f. 7, 8. = P. scobina, Quoy. 
Zonatus (Murex), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 132, 1876. 

= M. Angasi, Crosse. 
Zonata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon. sp. 33, 1846. == Engina. 



ADDENDA. 

Additional Species of Murex. 

M. BEDNALLI, Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, II, 6, 

1877. 

This is a beautiful species of the Pteronotus section, having 
closely frilled, thin, produced varices, and revolving ribs. The 
color is brownish white, stained chestnut-brown on the varices. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Hab., Port Darwin, N. Coast of Australia. 

The general appearance of this shell is more like Cerostoma 
foliatus, Mart., than any other species. The Proceedings in 
which the description is published, had not been received by the 
Philadelphia Academy when my text was issued, consequently it 
would have been omitted altogether but for the kindness of Mr. 
Brazier, who sends me a beautiful colored drawing unfortunately 
too late for insertion in my plates. 

M. CONTRACTUS, Reeve. I have been misled by an error in num- 
bering the species in the Conchologia Iconica into describing 
and figuring (p. 131, f. 473) Buccinum ligneum of Reeve as a 
synonym: it should bear the name of Buc. ustulatum, Reeve, 
instead. 

UROSALPINX FICULA, Reeve. Fusus Winteri, Dunker appears 
to be the same species, and if so, has a year's priority of publi- 
cation. 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 263 

Sinusigera. 

S. CALEDONICA, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xxviii, 146, t. 4, f. 2, 

1880. 

In describing the above species, M. Crosse dissents from the 
general belief that the genus is synonymous with Cheletropis. 
The former, says he, by its well formed spire, with nuclear apex 
and thickened lip appears to be adult, whilst the latter, thin and 
transparent, is probably the larval state of a pelagic species. 

Pur pur a. 

P. H^EMASTOMA, Linn. A more critical examination of the 
figure of d'Orbigny's P. civerratoide* convinces me that the 
species has been incorrectly identified by me. It has been re- 
ferred to Cantharas variegatux by several conchologists, and is 
doubtless that species. A shell of the same general form as 
viverratoides is, however, a frequently occurring variety of 
haemastoma. 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 1 (Frontispiece). 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

1. Murex ramosus, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f . 3 95 

2. Murex inflatus, L. (= ramosus, L.). Kiener, Coq. Viv., t. 1 95 

Plate 2. 

1. Section of a Couus perforated by Lithodomi. Woodward's Manual, 

f. 25, p. 34 22 

2, 3. Sections of Conus ponderosus, Brug. Miocene of the Touraine; 

a, outer layer ; , middle; c, inner layer; d, e, /, lines of 

growth. W oodward, f. 24, p. 32 19 

4-6. Sections of Strombus gigas, showing the shell layers and their 

structure. Keferstein, Bronn's Thierreichs, t. 71, f. 5-7 19 

7. Structure of shell of Cypraea mauritiana, 235 diam., Keferstein, 

t. 71, f. 8 19 

8, 9. Aragonite crystals on the inner side of the pearly layer of the 

shell of Pinna nigrina, magn. 360 diam. Keferstein, t. 71, 

f. 9, 10 19 

10. Polished surface of pearly layer, magn. 85 diam. Ibid., f. 11 .. 19 

11. Section of Pinna nigrina, showing rhombohedral crystals. Kefer- 

steinj t. 71, f. 12 19 

12. a, Repaired operculum of Fusus; b, normal operculum of Pleuro- 

toma Babylonica; c, abnormal operculum of PI. Babylonica. 
Zool. Proc., London, 101, 1854 15 

13. Fusus antiquus, used as a lamp in Zetland. Johnston's Intr. to 

Conch., f. 9, p. 64 



264 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 3. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

14. Strombus Isabella, Lam. Male, a, anus;jj, penis; #, thread-like 

posterior filament of mantle. Keferstein, t. 83, f. 4. 

15. Phasianella bulimoides, Lam. Keferstein, t. 82, f. 12 5 

16. Oliva maura, Lam. x, filiform appendages of the mantle; s, 

siphon. Keferstein, t. 83, f. 10 5 

17. Anatomy of Fusus australis, Quoy and Gaimard. Female, r, 

kidney ; , salivary glands; g, cerebral ganglion ; v, vagina; a, 
anus; z, tongue; op, operculum; br, branchiae; S, siphon; pv, 
crop 5 

18. Pyrula tuba, Lam. Male, aq, aqueous pore; p, penis; r, kidney; 

8, respiratory siphon; P, foot; br, branchiae. Keferstein, t, 85, 

f . 3 5 

19. Pyrula tuba, Lam. Female. Proboscis withdrawn (see Fig. 18). 

a, anus; v, vagina; y, mucous gland; v, stomach; i, intestine; 
od, oviduct; k, liver; ov, ovary; oe, alimentary canal; me, colu- 
mellar muscle. Keferstein, t. 85. f. 4 5 

20. Pyrula tuba, Lam. Male. Proboscis extruded (see f. 21). pr, 

proboscis; vd, vas defereiis; vd'. sperm-groove; t, testicle; p, 
penis. Keferstein, t. 85, f . 5 5 

21. Ibid. The proboscis withdrawn and body cavity exposed, o, 

mouth; S, respiratory siphon; s, salivary; oe, gullet, pr, probos- 
cis. Keferstein, t. 85, f. 6 5 

22. Ibid. Stomach opened (see previous figures). Keferstein, t. 85, 

f. 8 5 

23. Anatomy of Murex ramosus, L. Quoy and Gaimard, Zool. Voy. 

Astrolabe., t. 36, f. 1 5 

24. Buccinum undatum, L. (For expl. see former figures). Kefer- 

stein, t. 86, f. 4 5 

25. Triton variegatum, Brug. Section of body, showing the aqueous 

canals and their openings in the foot, o', oral mass. Kefer- 
stein, t. 86, f. 6 37 

26. Purpura lapillus, L. Respiratory siphon opened to show xg, 

vagina; a, anus; gp, purple gland; br, branchiae; r', opening of 
the kidney. Keferstein, t. 87, f. 7 5 

Plate 4. 

27. Dolium galea, L. Kf, jaws; I, lip; z, tongue; ch, Chiagiaii organ; 

ch', blind sack of the oesophagus; pv, crop; s, salivary gland. 
Keferstein, t. 87, f. 5 23 

28. Buccinum undatum, L. Proboscis half protruded 23 

29. 30. Ibid. Proboscis extended. After Cuvier. a, invagination 

of proboscis; b, proboscis; c, mouth; d, contractile muscles; 

e, muscular ring;/, opening of salivary gland 23 

31. (Esophageal ring of Pyrula tuba, Lam. s, salivary glands; oe, 

oesophagus; 02', extension of oesophagus into the proboscis; pr, 
proboscis; g, cerebral ganglion; g', pedal ganglion; n, nerves. 
Keferstein, t. 85, f. 7 23 

32. Digestive system of Patella. After Cuvier. a, mouth; b, oral 

mass; d, stomach; e, intestine 23 

33. Digestive tract of Voluta undulata, Lam. o, mouth; o', oral mass; 

s, salivary glands; g, cerebral ganglion; ch, cesophageal appen- 
dage; pv, crop; v, stomach; a, anus. Keferstein, t. 84, f. 7.... 23 

34. Digestive tract of Turbo rugosus, Lam. (See explanation of 

former figures.) y, nerve ganglise; ', blind sack 23 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 265 



35. Commencement of digestive tract of Natica marmorata, Lam. 

Keferstein, t. 79, f. 6 23 

36. Conus tulipa, Lam. Male. After Quoy and Gaimard. (See 

previous explanations.) h, hepatic lobes; r, kidney; t, testicle; 
vd, vas deferens ; p, penis. Keferstein, t. 82, f. 4 23 

37. Section of oral mass of Triton nodiferum, Lam. o, mouth; rd, 

radula; Kf, jaw; y, opening of the oesophagus; pp, tongue 
papillae; o?, oesophagus; sch, tongue-sheath; kn, tongue cartilage. 
Keferstein, t. 87, f. & "... 23 

38. Stomach of Pteroceras lambis, Lam. i, intestine; v, stomach; 

ce, cesophagas. Quoy, Voy. Astrolabe 23 

39. 40. Tongue and section of teeth of Buccinum undatum, L. Wood- 

ward's Manual, f. 16, p. 22 26 

Plate 5. 

Lingual Dentition 70 

47. Ranella subgranosa, Beck. Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, I. 

t. 19, f. 5 70 

48. Voluta olla. Keferstein, t. 74, f. 19 70 

49. Fusus morio. Ib., t. 74, f. 8 70 

50. Columbella nitida, Troschel, II, t. 9, f. 4 70 

51. Fasciolaria. Keferstein, t. 79, f. 9 70 

52. Murex rarispina. Jaws. Troschel II, t. 10, f. 18 25, 79 

53. Murex pomiforinis. Ibid., t. 11, f. 7 73 

54. Murex oculatus. Ibid., t. 11, f. 6 73 

55. Murex brandaris. Ibid., t. 11, f . 1 73 

56. Murex Senegalensis. Ibid., t. 11, f. 5 73 

57. Murex tribulus. Ibid., t. 10, f. 21 73 

58. Murex erinaceus. Ibid., t. 11. f. 11 73 

59. Murex brevispina. Ibid., t. 10, f. 20 73 

60. Murex alveata. Ibid., t. 11, f. 10 7% 

61. Trophon Gunneri. Ibid., t. 11, f. 18 74 

62. Murex ramosus. Ibid., t. 11, f. 3 \ 73 

63. Murex trunculus. Ibid., t. 11, f. 8 73 

64. Trophon xanthostoma. Ibid ., t. 11. f. 19 76 

65. Murex corallinus. Ibid., t. 11, f. 13 73 

66. Murex cornutus. Ibid., t. 11, f. 2 73 

67. Urosalpinx cinereus. Am. Jour. Conch., I, t. 8, f. 6 74 

68. Trophon clathratus. Troschel, II, t. 11, f. 17 74 

69. Eupleura caudata. Am. Jour. Conch., I, t. 8, f. 5 74 

70. Trophon craticulatus. Troschel. II, t. 11, f. 16 74 

Plate 6. 

41. Triton variegatum, Brug. pr, proboscis; o', oral mass; oc, eye; 

8, respiratory siphon; br, branchiae; c, heart; h, liver; t, testicle; 
g, cerebral ganglion; g>, pedal ganglion; g" t visceral ganglion; 
i f , intestine; vd, vas deferens; a, anus; p, penis. Keferstein, 
t. 86, f. 5. 5 

42. Dolium galea. Anatomy of the nervous and circulatory systems. 

ao. aorta; other references same as above. Keferstein, t. 87, 

f . 2 34, 37 

43. Eye of Pteroceras lambis. Keferstein, t. 83, f. 1 a 36 

44. Circulation of Haliotis tubereulata. (References as above.) 

Milne-Edwards. Ann. Sc. Nat. , 3 ser. ; Zool., viii. 37 

34 



266 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



45. Circulation of Paludina vivipara. gc, cerebral ganglion; gp, 

pedal ganglion; ot, ear; op, operculum; r, kidney; ut, uterus; ov, 
ovary; other references as above. Leydig, Zeit. Wiss. Zool., II. 37 

46. Nervous system of Chiton. After Garner 34 

Plate 7. 

71. Egg capsules of Fusus antiquus. Keferstein, f. 92, p. 997 47 

72, 73. Egg capsules and embryo of Murex pomum, Gmel. Specimen. 47 
74, 75. Egg capsules of Purpura lapillus. Keferstein, f. 95, p. 999 . 47 

76, Capsules of Littorina littorea, with developed young. Kefer- 

stein, f. 91, p. 995 47 

77, 81. Capsules of Fasciolaria tuli pa? Fort Macon, N.C., Specimen.. 47 

78, 79. Capsules of an unknown Muricoid mollusk. Mus. Acad. 

Philada 47 

80. Capsules of Nassa reticulata, upon a portion of Zostera leaf. 

Johnston's Introd. Conch., f. 75 a, p. 359 47 

Plate 8. 

82-89. Development of Buccinum undatum, L. ot, otolitbs; T, ten- 
tacles; <7, ganglia; br, branchiae; v, stomach; r, heart (kid- 
ney of K. and D. ); i, intestine; op, operculum; P, foot; 
s, salivary gland; c, embryonic heart (contractile vesicle of 
Koren and Dan.). Koren and Danielssen, Faun. Lit. 

Norv., 1856 47 

90-98. Development of Purpura lapillus, L. a, oesophagus; ch, 
shell; P, foot; other explanations as above. Koren and 

Danielssen, Bidrag. Pectin., t. 3 and 4, 1851 47 

99, 100. Macgillivraya pelagica. Macdonald, Philos. Trans., t. 16, 

1855 47 

101, 102. Sinusigera cancellata, Orb. ( Cheletropis, Huxleyi). H. and 

A.Adams. Genera, III, t. 137 47 

103-105. Echinospira diaphana, Kr. Within the temporary shell in 
f. 104, is seen the permanent shell (Marsenia). Krohn, 
Archiv fur Naturg., xi, 1853. 

Plate 9. 

106. Murex scolopax, Dillw. Kiener, Coq. Viv., t. 4, f. 1 77 

107. Murex tribulus, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 82 77 

108. Murex occa, Sowb. (= scolopax, Dillw.). Sowb., Conch. Illust., 

f. 45 77 

109. Murex nigropinosus, Reeve (= tribulus, L.). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., sp. 79. 77 

110. Murex ternispina, Lam. Sowb., 1. c., f. 110. 78 

Plate 10. 

111. M. Troscheli, Lischke (= ternispina, Lam.) Lischke, Moll. 

Japan, t. 1, f. 2 78 

112. M. funiculatus, Reeve (=- recurvirostris, Brod. ), Reeve, 1. c., 

f. 74 80 

113. M. tenuispina, Lam. Reeve, f. 85 78 

114. M. aduncospinosus, Beck (= ternispina, Lam.). Sowb., 1. c., 

f. 68 78 

115. M. formosus, Sowb. (=rarispina, Lam.). Sowb., f. 112 79 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 26t 

Plate 11. 

FIGURES. PAGK. 

116. M. Beaui, Petit. Jour, de Conch., v, t. 8, f. 1, 1856 80 

117. M. ternispina, Lara. Quoy., Voy. Astrol., t. 36, f. 3 . . 78 

118. M. Martinianus, Rve. (= ternispina, Lam.). Reeve, f. 72 .... 78 

119. M. Mindanensis, Sowb. (= rarispina, Lam.). Sowb., f. 92 79 

120. M. trigonulus, Lam. Reeve, f . 87 84 

121. M. brevispina, Lam. Reeve, f. 77 79 

122. M. concimms, Reeve. Reeve, f. 104 79 

23. M. Cabritii, Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., vii, t. 10, f. 3, 1858. . 80 

193. M. recurvirostris, Brod. Reeve, f . 75 80 

Plate 12. 

124. M. nigrescens, Sowb. (= recurvirostris, Brod.) Reeve, f. 92.. 80 

125. M. messorius, Sowb. (= recurvirostris, Br.). Sowb., f. 93 80 

126. M. rectirostris, Sowb. (= recurvirostris, Br. ). Reeve, f. 91... 80 

127. M. motacilla, Sowb. (= recurvirostris, Br.). Sowb., f. 69 80 

128. M. nodatus, Rve. (= recurvirostris, Br.). Reeve, f. 107 80 

129. M. motacilla, Chemn. Reeve, f. 88 82 

130. M. similis, Sowb. (= recurvirostris, Br.). Sowb., f. 70 80 

131. M. Cailleti, Petit (= var. of motacilla, Ch.}. From Specimen. 82 

Plate 13. 

132. M. Cailleti, Petit (= var. of motacilla, Ch.). Journ. de Conch., 

v, t. 2, f. 2, 1856 82 

133. M. eleyans, Beck (=, var of motacilla, Ch.). Sowb., f. 84. . . . 82 

134. M. trilineatus, Rve. (= elegans, Beck). Reeve, f. 103 82 

135. M. bella, Reeve (= chrysostoma, Gray). Reeve, f. 84 82 

136. M. chrysostoma, Gray. Reeve, f. 83 82 

137. M. haustellum, Linn. Kiener, t. 13, f. 1 83 

Plate 14. 

138. M. affinis, Rve. (=- maurus, Br.). Reeve, f. 182 b 89 

139. M. maurus, Brod. Reeve, f. 16 89 

140. M. palma-rosae, Lam. Reeve, f. 30 89 

141. M. Baiiksii, Sowb. Reeve, f. 38 89 

142. M. Sauliae, Sowb. (= maurus, Br.). Sowb., f. 77 89 

143. M. rubiginosus, Rve. (= torrefactus, Sowb.). Reeve, f. 32 89 

144. M. microphyllus, Lam. Reeve, f. 40 89 

145. M. torrefactus, Sowb. Reeve, f. 41 89 

146. M. palmiferus, Sowb. Sowb., f. 104 90 

147. M. corrugatus, Sowb. (= palmiferus, Sowb.). Sowb., f. 72... 90 

Plate 15. 

148. M. rufus, Lam. (^-adustus, Lam.). Reeve, f. 19 90 

149. M. adustus, Lam. Reeve, f. 29 90 

150. M. Penchinati, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser. I, t. 16, f. 6. . . 91 

151. M. Steeriae, Reeve (= torrefactus, Sowb.). Bunker, Novit. 

Conch., t. 5, f. 1 89 

152. M. territus, Reeve. Reeve, f. 167 & 91 

153. M. nubilus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 49, f. 4, 1859 91 

154. M. Thomasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xxi, t. 11, f. 4 91 

155. M. cervicornis, Lam. Kiener, t. 20, f. 2 92 

156. M. longicornis, Bunker. Novit. Conch., t. 22, f. 5 92 

157. M. Rossiteri, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xx, t, 13, f. 2 91 



268 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 16. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

158. M. monodon, Sowb. Reeve, f. 21 a 92 

159. M. Senegalensis, Gmel. Kiener, t. 11, f. 2 94 

160. M. rubescens, Brod. Reeve, f . 45 93 

161. M. axicornis, Lam. Reeve, f. 37 92 

162. M. spectrum, Reeve (= axicornis, Lam.). Reeve, f. 187 92 

163. M. imbricatus, Marrat (= axicornis, Lam.). Lit. Phil. Soc. 

Liverpool, xxxi, t. 1, f. 2 92 

164. M. aculeatus, Lam. (= axicornis, Lam., var.). Reeve, f. 60.. 92 

Plate 17. 

165. M. anguliferus, Lam. Kiener, t. 31, f. 1 93 

166. M. anguliferus, var. ferrugo, Wood. Reeve, f. 43 b 93 

167. M. Gubbi, Rve. Reeve, f. 193 a 94 

168. M. pliciferus, Sowb. (= Senegalensis, Gm., var.). Reeve, f. 80. 94 

169. M. calcar, Kiener (=-. Senegalensis, Gm., var.). Reeve, f. 100. 94 

170. M. Moquinianus, Duval (= quadrifrons, Lam.). Jour, de 

Conch., iv, t. 5, f. 4, 1853 107 

Plate 18. 

171. M. elongatus, Lam. (= brevifrons, Lam.). Reeve, f. 26 9^ s 

172. M. brevifrons, Lam. Reeve, f. 13 95 

173. M. purpuratus, Rve. (= brevifrons, Lam.). Reeve, f. 183.... 95 

Plate 19. 

174. M. capucinus, Lam. Reeve, f. 10 94 

175. M. calcitrapa, Lam. (= brevifrons, Lam.). Kiener, t. 19, f. 1. 95 

176. M. castaneus, Sowb. (= quadrifrons, Lam.). Sowb., Conch. 

111., f. 44. 107 

177. M. megacerus, Sowb. (== quadrifrons, Lam.). Sowerby, Conch. 

111., f. 18 107 

178. M. megacerus, Sowb. (= quadrifrons, Lam ). Reeve, f. 24 107 

179. M. crassivaricosus, Rve. (= brevifrons, Lam.). Reeve, f. 33. . 95 

180. M. florifer, Rve. (= brevifrons, Lam. ). Reeve, f. 188 95 

181. M. crocatus, Rve. Reeve, f. 168 97 

Plate 20. 

182. M. pomum, Gmel. Reeve, f . 35 97 

183. M. sinensis, Reeve (= M. elongatus, Lam.). Reeve, f. 25 95 

184. M. laciniatus, Sowb. Reeve, f. 2 % 97 

185. M. Jickelii, Tapparone (= laciniatus, Sowb.). Mai. Mar. Rosso, 

t. 19, f. 6 97 

186. M. Toupiollei, Bernardi (= brevifrons, Lam.). Jour, de Conch., 

2 ser. iv, t. 4, f. 5 95 

187. M. scabrosus, Sowb. (= laciniatus, Sowb.). Sowb., f. 73 97 

188. M. Mexicanus, Petit (= pomum, Gm.). Jour, de Conch., Ill, 

t. 2, f. 9 97 

189. M. angistoma, Kiister. Conch. Cab., t. 31, f. 7 97 

190. M. laqueatus, Sowb. Reeve, f. 115 97 

191. M. fasciatus, Sowb. Reeve, f . 126 104 

192. M. pudoricolor, Rve. (== crocatus, Rve.). Reeve, f. 171 97 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 269 

Plate 21. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

193-4. M. brandaris, Linn. Kiener, Monog., t. 3, f. 1 98 

195. M. brandaris, Linn. Poli .. Ill, t. 49, f. 8 98 

196-7 . M. cornutus, Linn. Kiener, Monog. , t. 2, f. 1 98 

198. M. tumulosus, Sowb. (= cornutus, L.). Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 71. 98 

Plate 22. 

199. M. rosarium, Chemn. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 118 99 

200. M. brassica, Lam. Sowb. , Ibid., f. 56 , 100 

201. M. regius, Wood. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 59 100 

202. M. tamiatus, Sowb. (= regius, juv.). Zool. Proc., t. 49, f. 3, 1859. 100 

203. M. hippocastanum, Phil. ( tricolor, Val.). Abbild., Murex, 

t. 1, f. 2 107 

Plate 23. 

204. M. bicolor, Val. Reeve, Icon., f. 44 101 

205. M. trunculus, Linn. Poli., Ill, t. 49, f. 7 108 

206. M. imperialis, Swb. Reeve, Icon., f. 42 101 

207. M. spinicostatus, Val. Reeve, Icon., f. 18 107 

Plate 24. 

208. M. Macgillivrayi, Dohrn. (= M. scolopax, Dillw.). Sowb., 

Thes. Conch., f. 162 77 

209. M. senilis, Jouss. (= brevispina, Lam.) Guerin's Mag., t. 1, 

f. 5, 1874 79 

210. M. Australiensis, A. Ad. (== adustus, Lam.). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch. , f. 58 90 

211. M. despectus, A. Ad. (= adustus, Lam.). Thes. Conch., f. 85. 90 

212. M. trivialis, A. Ad. (= adustus, Lam.). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 80 93 

213. M. cyacantha, Sowb. (=- anguliferus, Lam.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 160 93 

214. M. Clausii, Bunker. Jour. Conch., 213, t. 8, f. 6, 1879 93 

215. M. multifrondosuSjSowb. (= palmiferus, Sowb.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 192 90 

216. M. ponderosus, Chemn. (= anguliferus, Lam., var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 67 93 

Plate 25. 

217. M. Huttonige, Wright (= adustus, Lam.). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 57 90 

218. M. dilectus, A. Ad. (=palmiferus, Sowb.). Thes. Conch., f. 60. 90 

219. M. rota, Sowb. Reeve. Icon. , f. 105 99 

220. M. rota, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 140 99 

221. M. secundus, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 8, f. 2 99 

222. M. digitatus, Sowb. (= varicosus, Sowb.). Conch. 111., f. 114. 90 

223. M. fenestratus, Chemn. Reeve, Conch, Icon , f. 58 b 99 

224. M. varicosus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 49 . 99 

225. M. scorpio, Linn. Kieuer, Monog., t. 9, f. 3 98 

Plate 26. 

226. M. hoplites, Fischer (= saxatilis, Lam.). Jour, de Conch., t. 

8, f. 3, 1876 101 



270 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



227. M. endivia, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 27 b 102 

228. M. Norrisii, Reeve (== endivia, juv.). Icon , f. 129 6 102 

229. M. depresso-spinosus, Bunker (= endivia, Lam.). Novit., t. 

42, f. 4 102 

230. M. melanomathos, Gmel. Reeve, Icon. , f . 48 103 

231. M. multicrispatus, Bunker. Reeve, Icon., f. 67 103 

232. M. fasciatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 178 104 

233. M, nitidus, Brod, Sowb. , Conch. 111., f . 4 105 

234. M. humilis, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 50 b 103 

235. M. octogonus, Sowb. (= humilis, Brod.). Zool. Proc., t. 49, 

f. 7, 1859 103 

236. M. lyratus, A. Ad. (= fasciatus, Sowb.). Specimen 104 

237. M. Stainforthii, Reeve. Icon., f. 68 104 

238. M. lyratus, A. Ad. (= fasciatus, Sowb.). Thes. Conch., f. 173. 104 

239. M.teneris, Sowb. (=angularis, Lam., juv.). Thes. Conch., f. 174. 104 

240. M. fimbriatus, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 215 103 

241. M. angularis, Lam. Sowb., Conch. Illust., f. 32 104 

Plate 27. 

242. M. ambiguus, Reeve (= nitidus, Brod.). Icon., f. 51 105 

243. M. nigritus, Phil. (= nitidus , Brod.). Reeve, Icon., f. 47.... 105 

244. M. radix, Gmel. Kiener. Monog., t. 38, f . 1 . * 105 

245. M. saxatilis, Lam. Kiener, Monog., t. 30, f. 1 101 

246. M. varius, Sowb. Conch. Illust., f. 57 107 

246 a. M. Hidalgoi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xix, t. 1, f. 4, 1871. . 107 

247-8. M. radix, Gm. Operculum. Specimen 105 

Plate 28. 

249. M. Beckii, Phil. Abbild., Ill, Murex, t. 2, f. 1 106 

250. M. princeps, Brod. Sowb., Conch. Illust., f. 43 106 

251. M. spinicostatus, Val. Kiener, Monog., t. 41, f. 1 107 

252. M. turbinatus, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 15 106 

253. M. varius, Sowb. Reeve, Icon. f. 34 107 

254. M. quadrifrons, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 216 107 

255. M. bifasciatus, Sowb. (= rosarium, Ch.). Thes. Conch., f. 155. 99 

256. M. Bourgeoisii, Tourn. (= quadrifrons, Lam.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 184 107 

257. M. spinosa, A. Ad. (= turbinatus, Lam.). Sowb., Thes Conch., 

f. 181 106 

Plate 29. 

258-9. M. tmnculus, L. Reeve, Icon., f. 22 a, b. 108 

260. M. Yoldii, Morch (= trunculus, L.). Thes. Conch., f. 210. ... 108 

261. M. polygonulus, Lam. (= trunculus, L.). Kiener, t. .41, f. 2.. 108 

262. M. hexagonus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 120 b 109 

263. M. cristatus, Brocchi. Hidalgo, Moll. Esp., t. 13, f. 4 108 

264. M. pauxillus, A. Ad. Specimen 109 

265. M. diadema, Aradas and Benoit. Moll. Sicil., t. 5, f. 8 109 

266. M . dubius, Sowb. Conch. Illust., f. 23 109 

267. M. Blainvillei, Payr. (= cristatus, Brocchi). Reeve, Icon., f. 

110 108 

268. M. Zelandicus, Quoy. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 36, f. 5 108 

269_70. M. Pazi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xviii, t. 1, f. 4 109 

261. M. Pazi, Crosse. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 208 109 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 271 

Plate 30. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

272, 3. M. octogonus, Quoy and Gaimard. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 36, 

f 8, 9 110 

274. M. cuspidatus, Sowb. (= octogonus, Quoy). Thes. Conch., f. 

203 110 

275. M. muricina, Kiener (= M. dubius, Sowb.). Kiener, Purpura, 

t. 6, f. 13 b 109 

276. M. distinctus, Jan. (= scalaroides, Bl.). Reeve, Icon., t. 32, 

f. 161 119 

277. M. dipsacus, Brod. Reeve, Icon. f. Ill 110 

278. M. balteatus, Beck. Reeve, Icon., f. 136 110 

279. M. lepidus, Reeve (= M. vittatus, Brod.). Reeve, Icon., f. 113. 110 

280. M. vittatus, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 140 110 

281. M. Peruvianus, Sowb. (= dipsacus, Brod.). Reeve, Icon., f. 

134 110 

282. M. noduliferus, Sowb. Conch. Illust., f. 94 110 

283. M. lamimferus, Reeve. Icon., f. 117 Ill 

284. M. interserratus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 204 Ill 

285. M. cirrosus, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 138 Ill 

286. M. rusticus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 33, f. 163 Ill 

287. M. noduliferus, Reeve (= euracanthus, A. Ad.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 150 Ill 

288. M. fruticosus, Gould (= noduliferus, Sowb.). Wilkes' Exped., 

f. 287 110 

289. M. Brazieri, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc.. t. 26, f. 3, 1877 132 

290. Typhis Sowerbyi, Brod. (= tetrapterus, Bromi). H. and A. 

Adams, Genera, t. 8, f. 2 136 

291. Typhis Sowerbyi, operculum. Ibid., t. 8, f. 2 a, & 136 

292. Typhis Sowerbyi. Thes. Conch., III., t. 284, f. 13 136 

293. Typhis arcuatus, Hinds. Ibid., f . 4 136 

294. Typhis Yatesii, Crosse. Ibid., f. 20 137 

295. Typhis Montfortii, A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 15 137 

296. Typhis quadratus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur., t. 3, f . 4 137 

297. Typhis duplicatus, Sowb. (== arcuatus, Hinds). Reeve, Icon., 

f . 8 b 136 

298. Typhis Cumingii, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f . 4 a 137 

299. Typhis nitens, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f . 6 b 137 

300. Typhis Belcheri, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f . 9 137 

301. Typhis Cleryi, Petit (= Belcheri, Brod.). Mag. de Zool., t. 

54, 1842 137 

302. Typhis Cleryi, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 11 137 

303. Typhis cancellatus, Sowb. Conch. Illust., Murex, f. 79 138 

304. Typhis pinnatus, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f . 7 b 138 

305. Typhis fimbriatus, A. Ad. (= pinnatus Brod.). Reeve, Icon., 

f.3 .138 

306. Typhis expansus Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 12 & 138 

306 a. Typhis grandis, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f . 1 a 138 

Plate 31. 

307. Trophon Maltzani, Kobelt. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 75, f. 17. . .140 

308. Trophon muricatus, Mont. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., 

t. Ill, f.3 140 

309. Trophon borealis, Reeve (= craticulatus, Fabr.). Icon. Murex, 

f. 145 b 139 

310. Trophon Orpheus, Gld. (= craticulatus, Fabr.). Wilkes' Expl. 



272 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

Exp., f. 285 a 139 

811. Trophon echinatus, Phil. (= muricatus, Mont.). Forbes and 

Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 55, f. 5 140 

312. Trophon lyratus, Lam. (= clathratus, L.). Eucyc. Meth., t. 

438, f. 4 & 140 

313. Trophon Dalli, Kobelt (= muriciformis, Dall). Kiister, Con- 

chylien Cabinet, t. 74, f. 1 141 

314. Trophon seal ariformis, Gld. (= clathratus, L. ). Invert. Mass., 

2 edit., 378, f. 644 140 

315. Trophon Wahlbergi, Krauss. Sud-Afrik. Moll., t. 6, f. 13 147 

316. Trophon multicostatus, Esch. (= clathratus, L.). Zool. Atlas, 

t. 9, f. 4 a 140 

317. Trophon candelabrum, Ad. and Reeve (= clathratus, L.) 

Reeve, Icon. Fusus, f. 79 140 

318. Trophon Barvicensis, Johnston. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t. Ill, f. 6 140 

319 Trophon longurio Weinkauff. (= muricatus, Mont ) Jour.de 

Conch., 3 ser., vi, t. 5, f. 4 140 

320. Trophon squamulifer, Carp. (= craticulatus, Fabr., var.). 

Specimen 139 

321 . Trophon crispus, Gould. Wilkes' Expl. Exped., f . 279 143 

322. Trophon lamellosis, Gray (= clathratus, L.). Zool. Beechey's 

Voy. Blossom, t. 36, f. 13 140 

323. Trophon crispus, Gould. Wilkes' Expl. Exped., f. 279 143 

324. Trophon plumbeus, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exp., f. 281 146 

325. Trophon clathratus, L., var. truncatum, Strom. Forbes and 

Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. Ill, f . 1 , 140 

326. Trophon clavatus, Bars. Moll. Norv., r,. 23, f. 14 141 

327. Trophon roseus, Hombr. et Jacq. (== plumbeus, Gld.). Voy., t. 

25, f. 5 146 

328. Trophon fasciculatus, Hambr. and Jacq. (= crispus, Gld.). 

Voy., t. 25, f. 14 143 

329. Trophon pallidus, Brod. (= crispus, Gld.). Sowb., Conch. 111. 

Murex, f. 3 143 

330. Trophon laci-niatus, Martyn. Wilkes' Expl. Exped. Moll., f. 278. 143 
331-2. Trophon laciniatus. (Operculum. ) H. and A. Adams, Genera, 

III, t. 8, f. 3, a, b 143 

333. Trophon liratus, Couth. Gould, Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 282. 143 

334. Trophon plumbeus, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 281 146 

335. Trophon Loebeckii, Kobelt. Kuster, t. 74, f. 13 145 

336. Urosalpinx Wahlbergii, Krauss. Kuster. Purpura, t. 28, f. 7. . 147 

Plate 32. 

337. Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. Outline of proboscis, Wilkes' 

Expl. Exp., f. 277, b 144 

338. Trophon Geversianus, var. calva, Kobelt. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t.75,f. 1 144 

339. Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. Reeve, Icon. Fusus, t. 4, f. 2. .. 144 

340. Trophon Patagonicus, Orb. (= Geversianus, Pallas). Voy. 

Amer. Merid., t. 62, f. 2 144 

341. Trophon albidus, Phil. (= Geversianus Pallas). Phil. Abbild., 

II, Fusus, t. 3, f. 5 144 

342. Trophon decolor, Phil. (= Geversianus, Pallas). Abbild., II, 

Fusus, t. 3, f. 3 144 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 2 7; 3 

FIGURES. PAGK. 

343. Trophon Philippianus (= Geversianus var.) Dunker. Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 72, f. 4 144 

344. Trophon inflatus, Hombr. et. Jacq. (= Geversianus, Pallas). 

Voy., t. 25, f. 11 144 

345. Trophon textiliosus, Hombr. et Jacq. (= Geversianus, Pallas). 

Voy., t. 25, f. 9 144 

346. Trophon varians, Orb. (= Geversianus, Pallas, var.). Voy. 

Am. merid., t. 62, f. 5 144 

348. Trophon varians (Eggs). Ibid., t. 62, f. 6 144 

347. Trophon Geversianus, var. lirata, Kobelt. Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 76, f. 1 144 

Plate 33. 

349. Trophon xanthostoma, Brod. Reeve, Icon. Purpura, f. 24 146 

350. Trophon ochroleuca, Menke (= xanthostoma, Br.). Phil. 

Abbild., I, Pyrula, t. 1, f. 3 146 

351. Trophou Cassidiformis, Blain. Operculum (= xanthostoma, 

Br.) 146 

352. Trophon corrugatus, Reeve. Icon. Fusus, f. 84, a 145 

353. Trophon Boivinii, Kiener (= horridus, B. and S.). Kiener, 

Monog. Murex, t. 43, f. 2 146 

354. Trophon spiratus, Ad. Kiister, Murex, t. 73, f. 6 147 

355. Trophon fimbriatus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 1, f. 18 149 

356. Trophon horridus, Brod. and Sowb. Conch. 111. Murex, f. 29.. 146 

357. Trophon Flinders!, Ad. and Ang. Zool. Proc., t. 37, f. 22, 1863. 150 

358. Trophon carduus, Brod. Reeve, Icon. Murex, f. 125 149 

359. Trophon tenuisculptus, Carp. Kobelt, Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t. 76, f. 9 

360. Urosalpinx Birileffi, Lischke. Kobelt, Kiister, t. 75, f. 7 154 

361. Trophon Petterdi, Brazier. Jour, de Conch., xi, t. 12, f. 2, 

1871 148 

362. Trophon gyratus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 1, f. 15 151 

363. Trophon cretaceus, Reeve (= Stangeri, Gray?). Conch. Icon. 

Fusus, f. 48, a 147 

364. Trophon crassus, Ad. Kiister, Conch. Cab. Murex, t. 73, f. 8. 150 

365. Trophon ambiguus, Phil. (= Stangeri, Gray?). Abbild., I, 

Fusus, t. 1, f. 2 147 

366. Trophon Cassidiformis, Blainv. (= xanthostoma, Br.). Voy. 

Bonite, t. 39, f. 27, 28 146 

Plate 34. 

367. Murex Burnettii, Ad. and Rve. Thes. Conch., f. 128 114 

368. Murex Burnettii, Ad. and Rve. Conch, Icon., f. 192 , 114 

369. Murex plorator, Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, t. 8, f. 3, b 114 

370. Murex foliatus, Martyn. Univ. Conch.', t. 66 113 

371. Murex foliatus (Operculum). Specimen 113 

372. Murex trialatus, Sowb. Conch. Illust., f. 32 113 

373. Murex phyllopterus, Lam. (= foliatus, Martyn). Kiener, t. 

24, f. 1 114 

374. Murex eurypteron, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 176 113 

375. Murex Californicus, Hinds (= trialatus, Sowb.). Reeve, Icon., 

. f. 144 113 

376. Murex Coreanicus, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 131 114 

377. Murex centrifuga, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 130 113 

35 



274 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PAGE 

378. Murex pinniger, Brod. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 62 112 

379. Murex expansus, Sowb. (= eurypteron, Reeve). Zool. Proc., 

t. 49, f. 5, 1859 113 

Plate 35. 

380. Murex emarginatus, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f . 1 115 

381. Murex Nuttallii, Conrad. Specimen 115 

382. Murex Fournieri, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., I, 1. 16, f. 7. 115 

383. Murex festivus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 3, f. 13 116 

384-5. Murex monoceros, Orb. (= Fontainei, Try on). Voy. Am. 

Merid. , t. 78, f. 1, 2 126 

386. Murex unicornis, Reeve (= Nuttallii Com*.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 194 115 

387. Murex Californicus, Hinds (= trialatus, Sowb.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 220 113 

388. Murex monoceros, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f . 7 115 

389. Murex monoceros, Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 64 115 

390. Murex rorifluus, Ad. and Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 190 116 

391. Murex aciculiger, Val. (= Nuttallii, Conr.). Voy. Venus, t. 

10, f. 1 115 

392. Murex Stimpsoni, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 196 115 

393. Vitularia miliaris, Gmel. Kiener, Murex, t. 47, f. 2 133 

394. Vitularia salebrosa, King. Reeve, Icon. Murex, f. 98, a 133 

395. Vitularia crenifer, Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., I, t. 11, f. 10. 133 

396. Vitularia salebrosa, King. Kiener, Murex, t. 47, f. 1, a 133 

397. Vitularia purpurea, Ch. (= miliaris, Gmel.). Reeve, Murex, 

f. 102 133 

398. Vitularia salebrosa, King. Kiener, Murex, t. 47, f. 1 . 133 

399. Vitularia Sandwichensis, Pease. Specimen. . . 133 

Plate 36. 

400. Murex erinaceus, L. Reeve, Icon., f. 11 116 

401. Murex Tarentinus, Lam. (=erinaceus, L.). Kiener, Monog., 

t. 44, f. 2 116 

402. Murex cinguliferus (= erinaceus, L.). Ibid., t. 30, f. 2 116 

403. Murex erinaceus, L. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., t, TT, 

f. 1, a : 116 

404. Murex torosus, Lam. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 39 (= erinaceus, 

L. Var.) 116 

405. Murex pi stacea, Reeve (= aciculatus, Lam.), Conch. Icon., 

f. 174 119 

406. Murex Pleurotomoides, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 173 120 

407. Murex badius, Reeve (== aciculatus, Lam.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 159 119 

408. Murex pereger, Brugn. (= aciculatus, Lam.). Misc., I, f. 17. 119 

409. Murex aciculatus, Lam. (= corallinus, Seacchi), Forbes and 

Hanley, t. 102, f . 6 119 

410. Murex Edwardsi, Payr. Var. nux, Reeve, Purpura, f. 73 118 

411. Murex Edwardsi, Payr. Reeve, Murex, f. 179 118 

412. Murex Edwardsi, Payr. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 117 118 

413. Murex pumilus, Kiister (? = Edwardsi, var. nux). Conch. 

Cab., t. 35, f. 10 118 

414. Murex semiclausus, Kiister. Couch. Cab., t. 34, f. 7 118 

415. Murex hybridus, Aradas and Benoit. Moll. Sicil., t. 5, f. 9. . . 119 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 275 

FIGURES. PAOK. 

416. Murex scalaroides, Blainv. Hidalgo, Moll. Esp., t. 13, f. 10.. 119 

417. Murex inermis, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 152 119 

418. Murex Purpuroides, Dunker. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 34, f. 5. 120 

419. Murex inglorius, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, t. 6, f. 4 120 

420. Murex nucula, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 131 122 

421. Murex baeticus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 162 120 

422. Murex anoraala, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 5, f. 1, 1877 121 

423. Murex gravidus, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 133 121 

424. Murex tetragonus, Brod. Sowb., Conch. 111.. f.-36. 121 

425. Murex breviculus, Sowb. (= tetragonus, Brod.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 118 121 

426. Murex cyclostoma, Sowb. Reeve, Icon. f. 154 121 

427. Murex mundus, Reeve. Icon., t. 32, f. 166 121 

Plate 37. 

428. M. asper, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 244 122 

429. M. nuceus, Morch. Specimen 122 

430. M. solidus, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 246 123 

431. M. pudicus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 137. . . . 122 

432. M. Jamaicensis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 223 123 

433. M. castus, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 225 .' 123 

434. M. lappa, Brod. Sowb., Conch. Illust., f. 15 125 

435. M. Adamsi, Sowb. (== densus, H. and A. Ad.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 234 122 

436. M. incisus, Brod. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 13 123 

437. M. gemma, Sowb. (= incisus, Brod.). Thes. Conch., f. 214.. 123 

438. M. peritus, Hinds (= lugubris, Brod. ). Reeve, Icon., f. 139.. 124 

439. M. hamatus, Hinds (= lugubris, Brod.). Reeve, Icon, f. 119. 124 

440. M. Barbarensis, Gabb. (= lugubris, Brod.). Specimen 124 

441. M. Weinkauffianus, Crosse (= aciculatus, Lam. t. Jour, de 

Conch., 3 ser., vi, t. 8, f. 4 119 

442. M. maculatus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 33, f. 136 123 

443. M. radicatus, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 148 125 

444. M. inornatus, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., II, t. 6, f . 8 126 

445. M. Talienwhanensis, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., II, t. 1, 

f.9 

446-7. M. Talienwhanensis, Crosse (=Japonicus, Dkr.). Sowb., 126 

Thes. Conch., f. 247-8 , 126 

448. M. Japonicus, Dunker, Jap. Conch., t. 1, f. 14 126 

449. M. monachus, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., II, t. 1, f. 8 127 

450. M. monachus, Crosse. Thes. Conch., f. 132 127 

451. M. exiguus, Brod. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 17 125 

Plate 38. 

452. M. crassilabrum, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 146 126 

453. M. labrosus, Orb. (== crassilabrum, Gray). Voy. A.m. meiid., 

t. 62, f. 8 126 

454. M. endermonis, E. Smith. Thes. Conch. , f. 213 128 

455. M. caliginosus, Reeve (== lugubris, Br.). Reeve, Icon., f. 141. 124 

456. M. lugubris, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 143 124 

457. M. falcatus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon. , f. 61, b 127 

458. M. acanthopterus, A. Ad. (= falcatus, Sby.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 151 127 

459. M. falcatus, var. aduncus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 61, a.: 127 



276 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PLATE. 

460. M. erosus, Brod. Sowb., Couch. 111. , f. 16 129 

461. M. Kieneri, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f, 172 129 

462. M. foveolatus, Pease (= Peasei, Tryon). Am. Jour. Conch., v, 

t. 8, f. 3 129 

463. M. coccineus, A. Ad. Specimen 130 

464. M. Cantrainei, Recluz (= alveatus, Kiener). Jour, de Conch., 

iv, t. 8, f. 10 128 

465. M. foveolatus, Hinds, Voy. Sulphur, t. 3, f. 15 125 

466. M. subangulata, Stearns. Cal. Proc., v, t. 1, f. 4 125 

467. M. obeliscus, A. Ad. (== alveatus, Kr.). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 233 128 

468. M. erosus, Brod. Reeve. Icon., f. 160 129 

469. M. alveatus, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f. 163 (erosus) 128 

470. M. pumilus, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 200 130 

471. M. contractus, Reeve. Icon. Buccinum, f. 53 131 

472. M. concentricus. Reeve (= contractus, Reeve). Ibid., f. 72... 131 

473. M. ligneus, Reeve (= contractus, Reeve). Icon. Buccinum, 

f. 56 131 

474. M. funiculatus, Reeve (= contractus, R. ). Ibid., f . 61 131 

475. M. Poulsoni, Nuttall. Specimen 130 

Plate 39. 

476. M. Tritonidea, Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., t. 2, f. 6, 1877 132 

477. M. Duthiersi, Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., t. 2, f. 1, 1877 132 

478. M. circumtextus, Stearns. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 14, f. 14. 131 

479. Urosalpinx ficula, Reeve. Icon. Fusus, f. 73 154 

480. M. gracillimus, Stearns. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 14, f. 15. .. 131 

481. M. luridus, Middendorff. Mai. Ross., t. 4, f. 4 131 

482. Urosalpinx Mexicana, Reeve. Icon. Fusus, f. 77 153 

483. M. Hermani, Velain (== Duthiersi, Velain). Archiv. Zool. 

Exp., t. 2, f. 3, 1877 -132 

484. M. interfossus, Carpenter. Specimen 131 

485. M. luridus, Midd. Specimen 131 

486. Urosalpinx Floridana, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., v, t. 12, 

f.4 : 153 

487. Urosalpinx recurva, Phil. (= cinerea, Say.). Abbild. II, 

Fusus, t. 3, f. 6 152 

488. Urosalpinx Adelaide, Ad. and Ang. (= tritoniformis, Bl.). 

Zool. Proc., t. 37, f. 2, 1863 156 

489. Urosalpinx cinerea. Ova-capsules. Am. Jour. Conch., I, t. 8, 

f. 7 152 

490. Trophon buccineus, Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., t. 36, f. 12. . 146 

491. Urosalpinx Tritoniformis, Bl. Specimen 156 

492. Urosalpinx cancelling Phil. Abbild. II (Fusus), t. 3, f. 2.... 154 

493. Urosalpinx cinerea, Say. Am. Conch., t. 29 152 

494. Murex circumtexta, Stearns. Specimen 131 

495. Urosalpinx Paivse, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., iv, t. 11, 

f. 7 155 

496. Urosalpinx neglecta. Angas. (= tritoniformis, Bl.). Zool. 

Proc., t. 13, f. 3, 1867 156 

497. Eupleura Tampaensis, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., v, t. 12, f. 5. . 157 

498. Urosalpinx fusiformis, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Murex, f. 

207 155 

499. Urosalpinx Hanleyi, Angas. (== Paivae, Crosse). Zool. Proc., 

t. 13, f.l, 1867 * 155 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 277 



500. Eupleura nitida, Brod. Reeve, Ranella, f. 45 158 

501. Eupleura pectinata, Hinds (= Muriciformis, Br.). Reeve, 

Ranella, f. 35 7. 158 

502. Eupleura Muriciformis, Brod. Reeve, Icon. Ranella, f. 34 158 

503. Eupleura caudata, Say. Reeve, Icon. Triton, f. 57 157 

504. Eupleura plicata. Rve. (= Muriciformis, Br.). Icon. Ranella, 

f. 33 158 

505. Eupleura triquetra, Reeve (== Muriciformis, Br.). Icon. Ran- 

ella, f. 41 ; 158 

Plate 40. 

506. M. triqueter, Born. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f . 4 85 

507. M. rubridentatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 186, b 85 

508. M. plicatus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 87 

509. M. bipunctatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 188 85 

510. M. cancellatus, Sowb. (= canaliferus, Sowb.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 34 86 

511. M. triformis, Reeve. Icon., f. 53 85 

512. M. acanthopterus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 64 85 

513. M. lingua-vervecina, Chemn. (= lingua, Dillw.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 121 86 

514. M. alabastrum, A. Ad. (= Adamsi, Kobelt.). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 191 86 

515. M. roseotinctus, Sowb. (= triqueter, Born.). Zool. Proc.,t. 

49, f. 6, 1859 85 

516. M. hemitripterus, Lam. ( jatonus, Sowb.). Sowb., Conch. 111., 

f. 60 86 

517. M. macropteron, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 123 87 

518. M. flavidus, Jouss. (= lingua, Dillw.). Guerin's Mag., t. 1, f. 

8, 1874 86 

519. M. canaliferus, Sowb, Conch. 111., f. 74 86 

520. M. abyssicola, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, t. 1, f. 4, 1865. . . 86 

521. M. Capensis, Sowb. (= uncinarius, Lam.). Conch. 111., f. 76.. 88 

522. M. Angasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xi, t. 1, f. 2, 1863 88 

523. M. uncinarius, Lam. Reeve, Icon. f. 156 88 

524. M. canaliferus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 82 86 

Plate 41 

525. M. osseus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 14, f. 60 87 

526. M. pinnatus, Wood. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 57 87 

527. M. Gambiensis, Reeve (= osseus, Reeve). Conch. Icon., f. 65. 87 

528. M. quinquelobatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 218 88 

529. M. alabaster, Reeve. Icon., f. 39 86 

530. M. pellucidus, Reeve (= pinnatus, Wood), Icon., f. 54 87 

531. M. tripterus, Born. Reeve, Conch. Icon , f. 55 87 

532. M. speciosus, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 125 88 

533. M. clavus, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f . 9 87 

534. M. bipinnatus, Reeve (= clavus, Kr.). Conch. Icon., f . 6 87 

535. M. Barclayi, Reeve. Zool. Proc., t. 38, f. 2 a, 1857 85 

Plate 42. 

Dentition of the Purpurince. 

1. Purpura patula, L. Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, II, t. 12, 

f.l.. 75,158 



278 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



2. Tribulus hippocastaneum, Lam. Troschel, t. 12, f. 14 159 

3. Thais neritoidea, Lam. Ibid., f. 12 159 

4. Polytropa lapillus, L. Ibid., f. 18 159 

5. Stramonita Floridana, Conr. Ibid., f . 4 159 

6. Stramonita rustica, Lam. Ibid., f . 9 159 

7. Stramonita consul, Chemn. Ibid., f. 11 159 

8. Polytropa haustrum, Quoy and Gaim. Troschel, loc. cit., f. 20. 159 

9. Coucholepas Peruviana, Lam. Troschel, loc. cit., t. 13, f. 9 75 

10. Ricinula hystrix, lam. Troschel, loc. cit., t. 13, f. 4 75 

11. Ricinula digitata, Lam. Troschel, loc. cit., t. 13, f. 1 75 

12. Chorus Belcheri, Hinds. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 13, f . 4 75 

13. Sistrum tuberculatum, Blainv. Troschel, Gebiss II, t. 13, f. 6. . . 182 

14. Monoceros crassilabrum, Lam. Troschel, Gebiss II, f. 8 75 

15. Rapana corouata, Lam. Troschel, Gebiss II, f. 12 76 

16. Jopas sertum, Lam. Troschel, Gebiss II, t. 12, f. 2 75 

17. Cuma kiosquiformis, Duclos. Troschel, Gebiss II, t. 13, f. 11. . . 76 

18. Rapana rapa, Lam. (= bulbosa, Soland). Troschel, Gebiss II, 

t. 13, f. 13 ; ; 76 

Plate 43. 

19. Purpura patula, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 3 15 

20-21. Purpura patula, Linn. Operculum. Specimen 159 

22. Purpura patula, Linn. Kiener, Purp., t. 24, f. 66 159 

23. Purpura inerma, Reeve (= persica, L.). Conch. Icon., f. 20.. 160 

24. Purpura persica, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 8. 160 

25. Purpura haustrum, Mart. Quoy. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 37, f. 6... 160 

Plate 44. 

26. Purpura Rudolphii, Chemn. Reeve, Icon., f. 10 160 

27. Purpura chocolatum, Duclos. Reeve, Icon., f. 22 160 

28-29. Purpura chocolatum, animal and egg-capsules. Orb., Voy. 

Amer., t. 61, f. 1 and 3 160 

30. Purpura aperta, Blainv. Reeve, Icon., f. 15 161 

31. Purpura columellaris, Lam. Reeve. Icon. f. 9 161 

Plate 45. 

32. Purpura planospira, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 14 161 

33. Purpura Bronni, Dunker (= tumulosa, Rve.). Lischke, Jap., 

Meeres Conch., Suppl., t. 4, f . 20 * 162 

34. Purpura Bronni, Dunker (= tumulosa, Rve.). Moll. Japon., 

t. 1, f. 23..... 162 

35. Purpura leucostoma, Desh. (= columellaris, Lam.). He Re- 

union, t, 12, f. 23 161 

36. Purpura bitubercularis, Lam. (= hippocastaneum, Lam.). 

Reeve, Icon., f. 37 162 

37. Purpura distinguenda, Dunker (= hippocastaneum, Lam.). 

Moll. Voy. Novara, t. 1, f. 3 162 

38. Purpura ocellata, Kiener (= hippocastaneum, Lam.). Pur- 

pura, t. 37, f. 86 162 

39. Purpura plicata, Gmel. (= hippocastaneum, Lam.). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab.,t. 30, f. 6 162 

40. Purpura alveolata, Reeve (= hippocastaneum, Lam.). Icon., 

f. 60.. 162 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 279 

FIGURES. PLATE. 

41. Purpura intermedia, Kr. .(== hippocastaneum. Lam.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 38 . 162 

42, 43. Purpura hippocastaneum, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 34. 162 

Plate 46. 

44. Purpura tumulosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 55 162 

45. Purpura Savignyi, Desh. (= P. hippocastaneum, Lam.) 163 

46. Purpura pica, Blainv. Reeve, Icon., f. 36 163 

47. Purpura cuspidata (== pica, Bl. ). Ad. and Rve., Voy. Samarang, 

t. 11, f. 35 163 

48. Purpura tumulosa, Reeve. Lischke, Jap. Meeres Conch., t. 5, 

f. 15 162 

49. Purpura clavigera, Kiister (== tumulosa, Rve.). Lischke, t. 5, 

f. 13 162 

50. Purpura armigera, Chemn. Reeve, Icon. f. 27 163 

51. Purpura affinis, Reeve (= armigera, Chemn.) Icon., f. 77 163 

52. 53. Purpura armigera, Quoy (= pica, Bl.). Voy. Astrolabe, t. 

37, f. 18, 19 163 

Plate 47. 

54. Purpura triserialis, Bl. (= speciosa, Val. ). Reeve, Icon., f. 56. 163 

55. Purpura cleltoidea, Lam. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 32, f. 2 163 

56. Purpura melones, Duclos. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 19 164 

57. Purpura carolensis, Reeve. ( triangularis, Bl.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 57 164 

58. Purpura albociucta, Kiister (= deltoidea, Lam.), t. 3 ( >, f. 8, 9. 163 

59. Purpura mancinella, L. Quoy, Voy. Astrolabe, t. 38, f. 15 164 

60. Purpura echinulata, Lam. (= mancinella, L. ). Rve. , Icon., f. 1. 164 

61. Purpura mancinella, L. Reeve, Icon., f. 2 164 

62. Purpura luteomarginata, Montrouzier. Jour. Conch., 3 ser., I, 

t. 11, f . 4 164 

63. Purpura echinata Bl. (= mancinella, L. ). Reeve, Icon., f. 33. 164 

64. Purpura segrota, Reeve ( = mancinella, L. ). Icon., f. 42 164 

65. Purpura Bronni, Dunker. Lischke, Jap. Meeres Moll., t. 5, f. 17. 162 

Plate 48 

66. Purpura bufo, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 7 165 

(>7. Purpura bimaculata, Jonas. Reeve, Icon., f. 5 165 

(58. Purpura Lischkei, Kiister. Conch. Cab. Purpura, t. 32 a, f. 4. . 165 

69. Purpura Ascensionis, Quoy (= neritoidea, Linn.). Voy. Astrol., 

t. 37, f. 22 165 

70. Purpura bufo. Lam., young. Kiener, Monog., t. 21, f. 606 ... 165 

71. Purpura multilineata, Kiister (= bufo, Lam.). Conch. Cab., t. 

27, f. 13 165 

72. Purpura neritoidea, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 12 165 

73. Purpura Ascensionis, Quoy (= neritoidea, Linn. ). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 11 165 

Plate 49. 

74. Purpura Consul, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 4 166 

75. Purpura rustica, Lam. Reeve, Icon., 54 166 

76. Purpura marmorata, Pease ( = rustica, Lam.). Am. Jour. 

Conch., iv, t. 11, f. 5 166 



280 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PLATE. 

77. Purpura luteostoma, Ohemn. Reeve,, Icon., f. 35 166 

78. Purpura Capensis, Petit (= luteostoma, Chemn.). Jour, de 

Conch., Ill, t. 7, f. 6 166 

79. Purpura gigantea, Reevs (= Consul, Lam.). Icon. f. 17 166 

80. Purpura haemastoma, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 21 166 

81. Purpura Chusani, Souleyt. (== luteostoma, Chemn.). Voy. 

Bonite, t. 39, f. 20 166 

82. Purpura undata, Lam. (= haemastoma, Linn.). Kiister, Monog., 

t. 30, f. 3 167 

83. Purpura haemastoma, Linn. Dunker, Moll. Guinea, t. 3, f. 14. . 167 

84. Purpura Barcinonensis, Hidalgo (=ha3mastoma, Linn.). Jour. 

de Conch., xv, t. 12, f. 1 167 

85. Purpura Floridana, Conr. (= hsemostoma, Linn.). Kiister, t. 

23 a, f . 5 167 

Plate 50. 

86. Purpura Floridana, Conr. (= hsemostoma, Linn.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 44 167 

87. Purpura hsemastoma, Linn. Orb. Moll, Canaries, t. 6, f. 40 167 

88. Sinusigera Huxleyi, Forbes (= microscopica, Gray). Adams, 

Genera, III, t. 7, f . 6 168 

89. Sinusigera crenilabris, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. , t. 2, f. 18, 

1873 168 

1)0. Purpura fasciata, Reeve (= hsemastoma, Linn.). Icon. f. 45.. 167 

91, 93. Purpura bicostalis, Lam. ( hsemastoma, Linn.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 28 ft, a 168 

92. Purpura Peruviana, Souleyet (- hsemastoma, L^). Voy. Bonite, 

t. 40, f. 1 168 

94. Purpura nebulosa, Conr. (= haemastoma, L.). Dunker, Moll. 

Gum., t. 3, f. 15 168 

95. Purpura Delessertiana, Orb. (= haemastoma, L.). Voy. Am. 

Merid., t. 77, f . 7 169 

97 Purpura biserialis, Blainv. (= hsemastoma, L.). Reeve, Icon, 

f. 67 168 

98. Purpura Janellii. Kiener (= hsemastoma, Linn.). Kiister, t. 

27, f. 17 167 

99. Purpura macrostoma, Kiister (= hsemastoma, L. ). Conch. 

Cab., t. 32 a, f. 6 167 

100. Purpura Forbesii, Dunker (== hsemastoma, L.). Moll. Guinea, 

t. 4, f. 8 167 

101. Purpura viduata, Kiister (= hsemastoma, L.). Conch. Cab., 

t. 23 a, L 7 167 

102 Purpura unifascialis, Lam. (= hsemastoma, L.). Reeve, Icon. , 

f. 64 167 

103 Purpura viverratoides, Orb. (== Cantharus). Moll. Canaries, 

t. 6, f. 38 167, 263 

104. Purpura Blamvillei, Desh. (= hsemastoma, L. ). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 41 169 

105. Purpura cruentata, Gmel. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 24, f. 5 169 

106. Purpura lineata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 29 169 

Plate 51. 

107. Purpura rupestris, Val. (= succincta, Mart.). Hombr. et 

Jacq., Astr. and Zel., t. 22, f. 23 170 

108. 116, 117. Purpura cingulata, Linn. Kiister, t. 29, f. 2, 6, 5 169 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 281 

FIGURES. PAQK. 

109. Purpura Nuttalli, Conrad ( =hsemastoma, L.). Jour. Philad. 

Acad., vii, t. 20, f. 19 '. 167 

110. Purpura cingulata, Linn. Reeve r Icon., f. 76 169 

111. Purpura cribrosa, Krauss (= cingulata, L.). Kiister, t. 27, f. 6. 169 

112. Purpura rugosa, Quoy (= scobina, Quoy). Voy. Astrol., t. 38, 

f. 20 170 

113 Purpura squamosa, Lam. (= succincta, Mart. var.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 48 170 

114. Purpura spiralis, Reeve (=-. cingulata, Linn.). Icon., f. 74 169 

115. Purpura JEthiops, Reeve (= cingulata, L.). Icon. Buccinum, 

f. 108 169 

118. Purpura succincta, Mart. Reeve, Icon., f. 23 170 

119. Purpura textilosa, Lam. (= succincta, Mart.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 66 170 

120. Purpura succincta, Mart. Kiister, t. 22 a, f. 2 170 

121. Purpura albomarginata, Desh. (= scobina, Quoy). Guerin's 

Mag., t. 44, 1841 170 

122. Purpura Quoyi, Rve. (== scobina, Quoy). Icon., f. 71 170 

123. Purpura scobina, Quoy. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 38, f. 13 170 

124. Purpura tristis, D linker (= scobina, Quoy). Voy. Novara, t. 

1, f. 4 170 

125. Purpura textilosa, Lam. (= succincta, Mart.). Quoy, Voy. 

Astrol., t. 37, f. 1 170 

Plate 52. 

126. Purpura scobina, Quoy. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 25 a, f. 10. . 170 

127. Purpura dubia, Krauss (== scobina, Quoy). Kiener, t. 40, f. 

94 a 170 

128. Purpura lagenaria, Duclos (= scobina, Quoy). Ann. Sc. Nat., 

t. 2, f. 11, 1832 170 

129. Purpura versicolor, Wood (= scobina, Quoy). Kiister, t. 28, 

f.l 171 

130. Purpura versicolor, Wood (==. scobina, Quoy). Kiister, t. 28, 

f.3 171 

131. 135, 137, 141. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Forbes ahd Hanley, 

Brit. Moll., t. 102, f. 2, 1, 3 171 

132. Purpura cataracta, Reeve (= scobina, Quoy). Icon., f. 40 170 

133. Purpura versicolor, Wood (= scobina, Quoy). Kiister, t. 27, 

f. 3 170 

134. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Kiener, t. 49, f. 76 171 

136. Purpura Zeyheri, Krauss. Kiister, t. 27, f. 8. . . 

138. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. II, 

f 4 171 

139. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 24,. f. 11 171 

140. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Kiister, t. 25 a, fig. 4 171 

145-144, 146, 147. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Kiister, t. 25, figs. 3, 8, 

10, 9 171 

145. Purpura harpa, Conrad. Specimen 171 

143. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Kiister, t. 25, f. 11 171 

Plate 53. 

148, 150. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Kiister, t. 25 a, figs. 3, 2 171 

149, 151. Purpura lapillus, Linn. Kiener, t . 30, f. 77, i. s 171 

152. Purpura saxicola, Val. Voy. Venus, t. 8, f. 4 174 

36 



282 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



153. Purpura Freycinnetti, Desh. Mag. de Zool., t. 20, 1841 174 

154. Purpura ostrina, Gld. Moll. Wilkes' Exped , f. 310 174 

154 a. Purpura fuscata, Forbes. Zool. Proc., t. 11, f. 13, 1850 174 

155. Purpura emarginata, Desh. Mag. de Zool., t. 25 175 

156. Purpura canaliculata, Duclos. Ann. Sc. Nat., t. 1, f. 1, 1832. . 175 

157. Purpura analoga, Forbes. Zool. Proc., t. 11, f. 12, 1850 175 

158. Purpura attenuata, Reeve. Icon., f. 49 1 75 

159. Purpura lima, Mart. Conch., f. 47 175 

160. Purpura rupestris, Val. Voy. Venus, t. 9, f. 1 a 175 

161. Purpura decemcostana, Midd. Mai. Ross., t. 9, f. 2 175 

Plate 54. 

162. Purpura Duraassi, Velain, var. cincta. Archiv. Zool. Exp., 

vi, t. 2, f. 15 177 

163. Purpura lactuca, Esch. Zool. Atlas., t. 9, f. 3, a 175 

164. Purpura ferruginea, Esch. Zool. Atlas., t. 9, f. 2, a 175 

165. Purpura plicata, Mart. Univ. Conch., t. 44 175 

166. Purpura septentrioualis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 50 175 

167. Purpura Dumassi (= patens, Hombr.?). Archiv. Zool. Exp., 

vi, t. 2, f. 12. 177 

168. Purpura Freycinetti, Desh. Lischke Jap. Conch. Suppl., t. 4, 

f. 16 174 

169. 173. Purpura Magellan!, Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, t. 2, 

f. 8, 10 178 

170. Purpura Dumassi, var. semicostata, Velain. Archiv. Zool. 

Exp., vi, t. 2, f. 14 177 

171. Purpura patens, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., t. 22, 

f.l 177 

172. Purpura Dumassi, var. multistriata, Velain. t. 2, f. 13 177 

Plate 55. 

174. Purpura amygdala, Kiener. Reeve, Bucciuum, f. 60. 179 

175. Purpura aurantia, Hombr, et Jacq. Voy. Astr. et Zel , t. 22, 

f. 28. . .\ . : 179 

176. Purpura buccinea, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 16, a 179 

177. Purpura castanea, Krauss. Krister, t. 28, f. 9 179 

178. Purpura alba, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astr. et Zel., t. 22, f. 30. 179 

179. Purpura avellana, Reeve. Buccinum, f. 52 180 

180. Pupuroidea undulata, Lycett. Chenu. Man , I f. 811 180 

181. Jopas sertum, Brug. Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 31), f. 11 180 

182. 183. Lysis duplicata, Gabb. Pal. Calif., I, t. 21, f. 98, a, b. ... 180 

184. Vexilla tseniata, Powis. Reeve, Buccinum, f. 78, b 181 

185. Vexilla tseniata, Powis. Gould, Wilkes' Exped. Moll., f. 309. 181 

186. Vexilla vexillum, Chemn. Reeve, Buccinum, f. 79 181 

187. Vexilla fusconigra, Pease. Specimen 181 

188. Jopas situla, Reeve (= sertum, Brug.). Icon. Buccinum, f. 

40, & 180 

189. Jopas sertum, Brug. Kiener, Purpura, t. 41, f. 96 180 

190. Jopas Francolina, Kiener (= sertum, Brug.). Monog., t. 42, 

f. 97 180 

Plate 56. 

191. Ricinula digitata, Lam. Quoy. and Gaim., Vol. Astrol., t. 39, 

f. 20. . . 185 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 283 

FIGURES. PAOK . 

192. Ricinula Laurenti ana, Petit. (= hystrix, L. var.). Jour, de 

Conch., I, t. 13, f. 2 183 

193. Ricinula elegans, Br. (= ricinus, L. var.). Reeve, Icon., f. 1.. 184 

194. Ricinula speciosa, Dunker (= hystrix, L. var.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 9, a 183 

195. Ricinula hystrix, Linn. Reeve, Purpura, f. 13 183 

196. Ricinula Reeveana, Crosse (= hystrix, L. var.). Jour, de 

Conch., 3 ser., II, t. 1, f. 3 183 

197. Ricinula clathrata, Lam. (= hystrix, L. var.). Reeve, f. 9, b. . 183 

198. Ricinula clathrata, Kiener. Purpura, t. 3, f. 5 183 

199. Ricinula iodostoma, Lesson. Reeve, f. 4, a 184 

200. Ricinula arachnoidea, Lam. (= ricinus, Linn ). Reeve, f. 5. . . 184 

201. Ricinula horrida, Lam. Kiener, Purpura, t. 1, f. 1 184 

202. Ricinula horrida, Lam. Reeve, Ricinula, f. 3 184 

Plate 57. 

203. Ricinula digitata, Lam. Reeve, f. 2, a 185 

204. Ricinula arachnoidea, Lam. (= ricinus, Linn.). Gould, Moll. 

Wilkes' Exped., f. 307 184 

205. Ricinula digitata Lam., var. lobata, Bl. Reeve, f. 2, b 185 

206. 212. Ricinula albolabris, Bl. (= ricinus, Linn.). Kiister, t. 2, 

f. 2 184 

208. Ricinula biconica, Blainv. Kiener, Purpura, t 9, f. 24 185 

209. Ricinula bicatenata, Reeve (== biconica, Bl.). Icon., f . 48 185 

210,211. Ricinula chrysostoma, Reeve (= biconica, Bl.). Icon., f. 

12, &, b 185 

213. Ricinula morus, Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 39, f. 25 185 

214. Ricinula morus, Lam. Reeve Icon., f. 10 185 

215. Ricinula asperus, Lam. (= morus, Lam. var.). Kiener, Pur- 

pura, t. 4, f. 9, a 185 

216. Ricinula asperus, Lam. i= morus, Lam. var.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 13 185 

217. Ricinula striatus, Pease (= morus, Lam. var.). Am. Jour. 

Conch., Ill, t. 23, f. 12 185 

218. Ricinula tuberculatus, Blainv. Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, t. 39, 

f. 11 186 

219. Ricinula Anaxeres, Duclos. Kiener, Purpura, t. 7, f. 17 186 

220. Ricinula tuberculatus, Blainv. Reeve, Icon, f. 11 186 

221. Ricinula marginalbum, Bl. (= marginatra, Bl.). Kiener, Pur- 

puya, t. 5, f. 11 186 

222. Ricinula fusca, Kiister f == marginatra, Bl. ). Conch. Cab., t. 

4, f. 16 186 

223. Ricinula elata, 151. (= ochrostoma, BL). Kiener, t. 10, f. 27. . 187 

224. Ricinula spectrum, Reeve (= ochrostoma, Bl,!. Icon., f. 19.. . 187 

225. Ricinula marginatra, Blainv. Nouv. Ann. Mus., 1, t. 10, f. 1. . 186 

226. Ricinula marginalbum, Bl. (== marginatra, Bl.). Kiister, t. 2, 

f . 9 186 

227. Ricinula cancellata, Kiener (= marginatra, Bl. ). Kiener, Pur- 

pura, t. 7, f. 16 180 

228. Ricinula affine, Pease (== marginatra, Bl.). Am. Jour. Conch., 

Ill, t. 23, f. 13 186 

229. Ricinula squamosa, Pease (= marginatra, BL). Ibid., f. 14.. 186 

230. Ricinula ochrostoma, Blainv. Reeve, Icon., f. 31 187 



284 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 58. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

231. Ricinula Nassoides, Quoy and Gaim. (= ochrostoma, Bl.). 

Voy. Astrol., t. 38, f. 10 187 

232. Ricinula dealbata, Reeve (= ochrostoma, Bl.). Icon., f. 26.. 187 

233. Ricinula echinata, Reeve (= ochrostoma, Bl.). Icon., f. 54.. 187 

234. Ricinula cavernosa, Reeve (= ochrostoma, Bl.). Icon . f. 3-L . 187 

235. Ricinula heptagoualis, Reeve (= ochrostoma, Bl. var.). Icon , 

f. 17 187 

236. Ricinula heptagonalis, Reeve (= ochrostoma, Bl. var.). Kiis- 

ter. t. 3, f. 1 187 

237. Buccinum bimucronatum, Rve. (= R. ochrostoma, Bl. var.). 

Icon. Bucc., f. 88 187 

238. Ricinula muricata, Rve. (= ochrostoma, Bl. var.). Icon., f. 39. 187 

239. Ricinula ocellata, Reeve (= ochrostoma, Bl. var.). Icon., f. 34. 187 

240. Ricinula eburnea Kiister (= ochrostoma, Bl. var.). Conch. 

Cab., t. 3, f. 9 187 

241. Ricinula chaidea, Duclos. Reeve, Icon., f. 21 187 

242. Ricinula elongata, Bl. (= cancellata, Quoy). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 25 188 

243. Ricinula porphyrostoma, Reeve (=dumosa, Conr.). Icon., f. 7. 188 

245. Ricinula dumosa, Conr. Jour. Philad. Acad., vii, t. 20, f. 20. . 188 

246. Ricinula mutica, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f . 6 188 

247. Ricinula rugulosa, Pease (== chaidea, Duclos). Am. Jour. 

Conch., iv, t. 11, f. 7 187 

248. Ricinula iostoma, Reeve. Icon., f 37 188 

249. Murex Lienardi, Crosse (= R. dumosa, Conr.). Jour, de 

Conch., t. 3, f. 4, 1874 , 188 

250. Ricinula elongata, Bl. (= cancellata, Quoy). Gould, Moll. 

Wilkes' Exped., f. 304 188 

351. Purpura muricoides, Hombr. et Jacq. (= R. fiscellum, Ch.). 

Voy. Ast. and Zel., t. 22, f. 11 188 

252. Ricinula fiscellum, Chemn. Sowb., Conch. 111. Murex, f. 62. . 188 

253. Murex Ricinuloides, Quoy (= R. fiscellum, Ch.). Voy. Astrol., 

t. 36, f. 13 188 

254. Murex iostoma, Sowb. (= R. fiscellum, Ch. ). Conch. 111. 

Murex, f. 42 188 

255. Murex decussatus, Reeve (== R. fiscellum, Ch.). Icon. Murex, 

t. 31, f. 153 188 

256. Ricinula triangulata, Pease (= R. fiscellum, Ch.). Am. Jour. 

Conch., III. t. 23, f. 15 188 

257. Purpura Pothuauii, Souleyet (= R. fiscellum, Ch.). Voy. 

Bonite, t. 39, f. 31 188 

Plate 59. 

258. Ricinula fusconigra, Dunker (= R. fiscellum, Ch.). Specimen. 188 

259. Ricinula fiseellum, Reeve (non Chemn. = R. undata, Ch.). 

Icon., f. 28 189 

260. Ricinula margariticola, Br. (= R. undata, Ch.). Reeve, 

Murex, f. 178 189 

261. Ricinula muricina, Bl. (= R. undata, Ch.). Kiener, Purpura, 

t. 6, f. 12 189 

262. 268. Ricinula fiscellum (= R. undata, Ch.), Hombr. and Jacq. 

Astrol. Zel., t. 22, f. 19, 21 189 

263. Ricinula squamosa, Desh. (= uudata, Ch.). Voy. Belanger, 

t. 2, f . 6 189 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 285 

1-IQtTRES. PAGE. 

264. Purpura reticulata, Quoy (== undata, Ch.). Voy. Astrol., t. 38. 

f. 17 189 

265. Purpura humilis. Crosse aud Fischer (= undata, Ch.). Jour. 

de Conch., t. 2, f. 2, 1865 189 

266. Ricinula nodosa, Hombr. (= undata, Ch.). Astrol. et Zel., t. 

23, f- 5 189 

267. Purpura infumata, Hombr. (= undata, Ch.). Astrol. et Zel., 

t.22,f. 3 189 

269. Ricinula concatenate, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 18, b 189 

270. Purpura squamigera, Desh. (= undata, Ch.). Voy. Belanger, 

t.3,f. 11 ... 189 

271. Ricinula albovaria, Kiister (== undata, Ch. var.). Conch. Cab.. 

t. 5, f. 15 189 

272. Ricinula funiculata, Reeve. Icon., f. 16 191 

273. Ricinula Adelaidensis, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 1, 1865. 189 

274. Ricinula parva, Reeve. Icon., f. 43 191 

275. Ricinula nodulosa, Adams. Specimen 190 

276. Ricinula siderea, Reeve. Icon., f. 14 190 

277. Ricinula ferruginea, Reeve. Icon., f. 50 190 

278. Riciuula siderea, Reeve. Marten's Vorderas. Conch., t. 5, f. 49. 190 

279. Ricinula Ozenneana, Crosse (=chrysostoma, Desh. var.). Jour. 

de Conch., t. 1, f. 4, 1862 191 

280. Murex Crossei, Lienard (= chrysostoma, Desh. var.). Ibid., 

t. 1, f. 2, 1874 191 

281. Buccinum (Ricinula) livida, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 87. 191 

282. Ricinula ventricosula, Nevill. Jour. Asiatic Soc., t. 8, f. 16, 

1875 192 

283. Ricinula chrysostoma, Desh. Guerin's Mag., t. 86, 1844 191 

284. Ricinula musiva, Kiener. Reeve, Purpura, f. 52 , 192 

Plate 60. 

285. 286. Monoceros Grayi, Kiener (== grande, Gray). Val. Voy. 

Venus, t. 9, f 3 &, c 193 

287. Monoceros Grayi, Kiener (= grande, Gray . Kiener, Purpura, 

t. 28, f. 74 ' 193 

288. Monoceros grande, Gray. Reeve, Iconog. f. 6 193 

289. Monoceros tuberculatum, Gray <= muricatum, Brod.). Reeve, 

Icon., f . 5 193 

290. Monoceros muricatum, Brod. Reeve, f . 7 193 

291. Monoceros lugubre, Sowb. Reeve, Iconog., f. 95 193 

292. 297. Monoceros costatum, Sowb. (= calcar, var. crassilabrum). 

Conch, 111., f . 6 194 

293. Monoceros rupestris, Val. (= lugubre, Sowb.). Voy. Venus, 

t. 9 f. 1 a 193 

Monoceros brevidentatum, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 4 b 194 

Monoceros calcar, Martyn. Reeve, Icon., f. 12 194 

Monoceros imbricata, Lam. (= calcar, Mart). Reeve, f. 10 a. 194 

Plate 61 

298. Monoceros globulus, Sowb. (=-. calcar, var. crassilabrum). 

Conch. 111., f . 8 194 

299. Monocerus citrinum, Sowb. (= calcar, var. crassilabrum). 

Conch. 111., f.2 194 

300. Monoceros glabratum, Lam. (= calcar, var. crassilabrum). 

Reeve, Icon., f. 15 194 



286 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

301. Monoceros giganteum, Lesson. Reeve, Icon., f. 3 194 

302. Monoceros striatum, Lam. (= calcar, Mart.). Reeve, Icon., f. 

10 & 194 

303. Monoceros acuminatum, Sowb. (= calcar, var. crassilabrum). 

Conch. 111., f. 10 194 

304. Monoceros punctatum (=engonatum, Oonr. ). Reeve, Icon., f. 2. 195 

305. Mouoceros unicarinatum (=.- lapilloides, Conr.). Reeve, Icon , 

f. 1 195 

306. Pseudoliva zebrina, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., Ill, t. 216, 

f. 14 196 

307. Monoceros crassilabrum, Lam. (== var. of calcar, Mart.). Orb. 

Voy. Am. Merid., t. 61, f. 4 194 

308. Monoceros paucilirata, Stearns. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 14, 

f. 16 195 

309. Chorus Belcheri, Hinds. Dunker, Novitates, t. 10, f. 7 198 

310. Pseudoliva plumbea, Chemn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., Ill, t. 216, 

f . 9 196 

311. Pseudoliva striatula, A. Ad. Sowb., Ibid., t. 216, f . 3 196 

312. Pseudoliva sepimana, Rang. Ibid., f . 2 196 

313. Pinaxia coronata, A. Ad. Adams' Genera, III, t. 14, f.l 198 

Plate 62. 

314. 315. Concholepas Peruviana, Lam. Kiister, Purpura, t. 32 a, 

figs. 9, 10 199 

316. Concholepas oblonga. Reeve ( = Peruviana, Lam.). Icon., f. 2 c. 199 

317. Concholepas imbricata, Kiister (= Peruviana, Lam.). Conch. 

Cab., t. 32 6, f. 10 199 

318. 323. Cuma Kiosquiformis, Duclos. Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, t. 

39, f. 23. 25 200 

319. Cuma carinifera Lam. Reeve, Purpura, f. 26 . 200 

320. Cuma imperialis, Bl. (= carinifera, Lam.). Reeve, Purpura, 

f. 30 a 200 

321. 322. Cuma Kiosquiformis, Duclos. Reeve, Purpura, figs. 31 a, b. 200 

324. Purpura Helena, Quoy (= Cumacarifera, Lam.). Voy. Astrol., 

t. 39, f. 7 200 

325. Purpura diadema, Rve. (= C. carinifera, Lam.). Icon., f. 62.. 200 

326. Cuma coronata, Lam. Reeve, Purpura, f. 25 201 

327. Cuma thiarella, Lam. (= carinifera, Lam.). Reeve, Purpura, 200" 

Plate 63. 

328. Cuma stellaris, Hombr. (= ragosa, Born.). Astr. and Zel., t. 

22, f. 14 201 

329. Cuma sacellum, Chemn. (= ragosa, Born.). Reeve, Purpura, 

f. 58 201 

330. Cuma tectum, Wood. Kieuer, Purpura, t. 15, f. 42 201 

331. Purpura Javanica, Phil. Kiister, Purpura, t. 28, f. 10 

332. Purpura Grateloupiana, Petit (= Cuma gradata, Jonas). Jour. 

de Conch., J, t. 13, f. 1 201 

333. Rapana bezoar, Linn. Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, t. 40, f. 9 202 

334. Purpura sacellum, Chemn (== rugosa, Born.). Voy. Astr. and 

Zel., t. 22, f. 15 201 

335. Cuma muricata, Hinds. Reeve, Murex, f. 147 202 

336. Rapana bulbosa, Solander. Val., Voy. Venus, t. 7, f 2 a 203 

337. Rapana venosa, Val. (= bezoar, L.). Voy. Venus, t. 7, f. 1. . 202 

338. Purpura trigona, Reeve (= Cuma gradata, Jonas). Icon., f. 53. 201 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 287 



Plate 64. 



FIOUKKS. 



T-AGK 



839, 340. Rapana marginata, Val. (= bezoar, L.). Voy. Venus, t, 

7, f. 3 202 

341. Ecphora quadricostata, Say. Conrad, Tertiary Fossils, t. 48.. 202 

342. Latiaxis fusiformis, Chenn. (=idolea, Jonas). Traite, Conch., 

t. 9, f. 3 a 203 

343. Latiaxis Eugeniae, Bernardi (= idolea, Jonas). Jour, de 

Conch., iv, t. 7, f. 1, 1853 203 

344. Latiaxis Mawa3, Gray. Reeve, Pyrula, f . 25 203 

345. Latiaxis purpurata, Chenu (= Mawas, Gray). Traite, Conch., 

t- 9, f. 2 203 

346. Latiaxis Delesserti, Chenu (= Mawae, Gray). Traite, Conch , 

t.9, f.4 ; 203 

347. Latiaxis rhodostoma, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 28, f. 1, 1844 204 

Plate 65. 

'548. Rhizochilus antipathicus, Steenst. H. and A. Ad., Genera, III, 

t. 14, f, 5 a 206 

349, 350. Rhizochilus antipathicus. Ann. Mag. Hist., 2 ser., viii, t. 

17 S figs. 1,2 206 

351. Latiaxis turris, Morch, Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., xii, t. 5, f. 4. 204 

352. Coralliophila Fritschi, Martens. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., I, t. 6, f. 3. 208 

353. Coralliophila violacea, Kiener (== neritoidea, Lam.). Purpura, 

t. 19, f. 57 ..". 206 

354. Coralliophila squamosissimus, E. A. Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc., 

vol.168, t. 51, f . 8 209 

335. Trichotropis Orbignyana, Petit (= Coral, neritoidea, Lam.). 

Jour, de Conch., II, t. 7, f. 5 206 

356. Coralliophila gibbosa, Rve. (= neritoidea, Lam.). Icon., Pur- 

pura, f . 68 206 

357. Coralliophila bulbiformis, Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad., vii. t. 

20, f. 23 207 

358. Coralliophila Callaoensis, Gray. Reeve, Purpura, f. 79 207 

359. Coralliophila gibbosa, Reeve (== bulbiformis, Conr. ). Icon., 

Purpura, f. 78 ... 207 

360. Coralliophila Cantrainei, Mortr. ( bulbiformis, Conr.). Jour. 

de Conch., t. 11, f. 11, 1861 207 

361. Coralliophila foliacea, Conrad (= bulbiformis, Conr.). Jour. 

Philad. Acad., vii, t. 20, f. 24 .207 

362. Coralliophila scalariformis, Lam. (= galea, Chemn.), Reeve, 

Purpura, f. 75 207 

363. Coralliophila galea, Chemn. Reeve, Purpura, f. 65 207 

364. Coralliophila exarata, Pease (= galea, Chemn.) Specimen. . 207 

365. Coralliophila costularis, Lam. Reeve, Purpura, f. 63.... ... 208 

366. Murex planiliratus. Reeve (= costularis Lam.). Reeve, Murex, 

f. 149 208 

Plate 66. 

367. Coralliophila inflata, Duuker. Philippi Abbild., II, Fusus, 

793, t. 4, f. 2 209 

368. Coralliophila nux Reeve. Icon. Murex, f. 181 210 

369. 370. Coralliophila porphyroleuca, Crosse. Jour, de Conchyl., 

xi, 43, f. 7, 1871 207 



288 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



371. Coralliophila Jeffreys!!, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 48, 

1879 ................................................... 209 

372. Coralliophila Barclayana, II. Adams (= coronata, Barclay). 

Zool. Proc., t. 23, f. 1, 1873 ............................. 210 

373. Coralliophila coronata, Barclay. Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 4, 1869. 210 

374. Coralliophila parva, E. A. Smith (=nux Reeve). Zool. Proc., 

t. 11, f. 6, 1877 ........................................... 210 

375. Coralliophila violacea, Kiener. Reeve, Purpura, f. 70 ........ 

376. Coralliophila costata, Blainv. Kiister, Purpura, t. 30, f. 11 . . 

377. Coralliophila costata, Blainv. Ibid., t. 25, a, f. 6 ............. 

378. Pseudomurex bracteatus, Br., var. lamellosus, Phil. Moll. 

Sicil., I, t. 11, f. 30 ........ .............................. 210 

379. Pseudomurex bracteatus, Br., var. laceratus, Desh. Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., I, t. 3, f. 4 ................... . ............ 210 

380. Pseudomurex bracteatus, Br., var. babilis, Requien (tectum- 

sinense, Desh.). Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., I, t. 3, f. 2. ..... 210 

381. Pseudomurex Sophite, Aradas and Benoit. Moll. Sicil., t. 5, f. 

7 (= Hindsia nivea, Pfr.) ................................ 211 

382. Pseudomurex Meyendorffi, Calcara. Ibid., t. 5, f. 6. . ........ 210 

383. Latiaxis De Burghise, Reeve. Zool. Proc., t. 38, f. 3 6, 1857. . 203 

384. Pseudomurex brevis, Blainv. (== bracteatus, Br.). Ann. du 

Mus., I, t. 11, f. 10 ...................................... 210 

385. Pseudomurex br., var. lamellosus, Phil. (Fusus squamulosus, 

Phil.). Moll. Sicil., I, t. 11, f. 31 ......................... 210 

386. Pseudomurex elegans, Angas. (= bracteatus, Brocc.). Zool. 

Proc., t. 5, f. 1, 1878 ...................................... 210 

Plate 67. 

387. 388. Galeropsis Lavenayanus, Hupe. Ouerm's Mag., t. 10, f. 4, 

I860 ............................................... 212 

380. Coralliophila madreporarum, Sowb. Gould, Moll. Wilkes' 

Exp., f. 483 ................... ........................... 212 

390. Rhizocheilus monodonta, Quoy. (= C. madreporarum, Sowb.). 

Voy. Astrol., t. 37, f . 9 ....... .................... ........ 212 

391. Coralliophila monodonta, Quoy (= madreporarum, Sowb.). 

Kiener, Purpura, t. 17, f. 50 .............................. 212 

392. Rapa tenuis, Adams. Genera, III, t. 14, f. 8 ............... 

393. Rapa papyracea, Lam. Reeve, Pyrula, f . 21 ................. 214 

394. Rhizocheilus madreporarum, Sowb. Reeve, Purpura, f. 69.... 212 

395. Melapium lineatum, Lam. Reeve, Pyrula, f. 28 .............. 213 

396. Bulbus incurvus, Dunker (= Rapa papyracea, Lam.). Novi- 

tates, t. 5, f. 4 ............................................ 214 

Plate 68. 

397. Whitneya Californica, Gabb. Pal. California, t. 28, f. 216 ____ 214 

398. Separatista Chemnitzii, A. Ad. Genera, III, t. 14, f. 6 ....... 213 

399. Separatista (Delphinula) laxa, Say. Am. Conch. (Ed. Binney), 

t. 7 ..................................................... 213 

400. 402. Magilus antiquus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 1, a ........... 216 

401. Magilus microcephalus, Sowb. (= antiquus, Lam.). Reeve, 

Icon., f . 3 ................................................ 216 

403. Magilus Djedah, Chenu. (= antiquus, Lam.). 111. Conch., 

f. 8, a. .. ................................................. 216 

404. Magilus tenuis, Chenu (= ibid.). 111. Conch., f . 8, a ......... 216 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 289 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

405. Magilus Cuvieri, Desh. (== ibid. ). Reeve, Icon., f. 4, a 216 

406. Magilus striatus, Ruppell (= ibid. ). Reeve, Icon., f. 6, b .... 216 

407. Magilus serratus, Desh. (= ibid. I. Reeve, Icon., f . 8 216 

408. Magilus ellipticus, Sowb. (= ibid.). Reeve, Icon., f. 7, ft. ... 216 
409,410. Magilus rostratus, A. Ad. (= ibid. i. Reeve, Icon., f. 

15: a, ft 216 

411. Magilus Schrenckii, Lischke (= ibid, i Jap. Meeres Conch. 

Suppl.. t. 4, f. 9 216 

412. Magilus Ruppellii, Desh. (?= ibid.). Reeve, Icon., f. 11 .. 216 

Plate 69. 

418. Magilus antiquus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 1, ft 216 

414. Magilus globulosus, Desh. (== Ruppellii, Desh.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 10 217 

415. Magilus Lamarckii, Desh. (== Maillardi, Desh.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 14, a 217 

416. Magilus Maillardi, Desh. Reeve, Icon , f. 16, a 217 

417. Magilus solidiusculus, Pse. (== Maillardi, Desh.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 12, a 217 

418. Magilus Cumingii, Desh. (== Riippellii, Desh.). Reeve, Icon., 

2 217 

419. 420. Magilus fimbriatus, A. Ad. Icon. Reeve, f. 9, a, ft. 217 

421. Magilus costatus Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 5, ft 217 

422, 423. Magilus Robillardi, Lienard (= fimbriatus, A. Ad.). 

Reeve, Icon,, f. 13, a, ft 217 

424. Nisea simplex, Marcel de Serres, Chenu. Man. Conch. I 

f. 861 218 

425, 426. Magilina serpuliformis, Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, 

t. 2, f. 66, 17 218 

Plate 70. 

427. Murex Tryoni Hidalgo. Specimen 134 

586. Murex sobrinus, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 30, 1879 

429. Pterohytis umbriler, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, t. 5, f. 7. . . 136 

430. Odontopolys compsorhytis, Gabb. Jour. Phil ad. Acad., iv, t. 

67, f. 16 i . 136 

431. Scalaspira strumosa, Conr. Tert. Foss., t. 3, f. 4. 

432. Fusus fusiformis (= Trophon xanthostoma, Br. ), Pot. et Mich. , 

I, t. 34, f. 3 146 

433. Fusus intermedius (= Trophon Geversianus, Pallas), Gay. 

Hist. Chile, t. 4, f. 6 144 

434. Coralliophila constricta, Koch. Phil. Abbild., II, Fusus, t. 2, 

f . 5 208 

435. Trophon albolabratus, Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc , clxviii, t. 9, 

f.2 144 

436. Coralliophila Brazieri, Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, t 30, f. 16. 208 

437. Fusus fimbriatus (= Trophon crispus, Gld.j, Gay. Hist. Nat. 

Chile, t. 4. f. 7 143 

537. Murex fimbriatulus. A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 31, 1879 105 

439. tJrosalpinx innotabilis, Smith. Zool. 1'roc., t. 20, f. 32, 1879.. 155 

440. Coralliophila imbricata, Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, t. 30, 

f. 3 209 

441. 442. Coralliophila pachyraphe, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 

37, 1879 209 



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