(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"







ft 



TRITONIXJ3. 



PLATE 1. 




MANUAL 



OF 



T C\ n ^7 

LOG Y 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



B Y GEORGE W,TR YON) JR. 

' NM-.UV \TOR OF THE CONCHOLOOICAL SKCTIOX OF THK Ar AT>TCMY (F NATURAL 
SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 



YOU III. 

TRITONIDjE, FUSION BUCGINIDJE. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Author, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. COR. IDTH & RACE ETC. 

1881. 

LIB It A K i 

U N J Y K K S I T V Of 

nA T TIT/ u>\ i \ 



EARTH 

SC1ENC 
LIBRARY 








,.< 




WM, P. KILDARE, PRINTER. 734 & 736 8ANSOM ST , PHILA. 



IN offering the Third Volume of the Manual of Conchology, 
I desire to express my sincere thanks for the very kind reception 
which the work has obtained from those interested in this arid 
kindred pursuits, throughout the world. My constant endeavor 
is to perform my task in such a manner as will, in some measure, 
merit a continuance of their approbation. 

The present volume includes monographies of the families 
Tritonidae, Fusidse and Buccinida?. embracing a large number of 
familiar genera : a portion of them variable in specific character- 
istics and hence difficult of identification. I trust that the 
conservative view r which I have adopted in treating these will at 
least facilitate their recognition. 

I am under especial obligation to a number of correspondents 
who have manifested their interest in the Manual in a very 
pleasing way, by sending me (unsolicited, for the most part) 
specimens, drawings and critical observations upon the species. 
I shall be glad to continue to receive similar aid, and as a hint to 
those who are willing to furnish it, I would mention that, in 
addition to the three families mentioned above, material relating 
to the genera Nassa, Turbinella, \ r oluta, Mitra, Columbella, Mar- 
ginella, Oliva. Anciilaria. Harpa and their allies will be very 
acceptable. 

January, 1881. (I. W. T., JR. 



Already Triton at his call appears 

Above the waves, a Tyrian robe he wears ; 

And in his hand a crooked trumpet bears. 

The sovereign bids him peaceful sounds inspire, 

And give the waves the signal to retire ; 

His writhen shell he takes, whose narrow vent, 

Grows by degrees into a large extent. 

DRTDEN. 

I have seen 

A' curious child, who dwelt upon a tract 
Of inland ground, applying to his ear, 
The convolutions of a smooth-lipp'd shell ; 
To which, in silence hush'd, his very soul 
Listen' d intensely, and his countenance soon 
Brighten'd with joy : for murmurings from within 
Were heard, sonorous cadences, whereby, 
To his belief, the monitor express'd 
Mysterious union with its native sea. 

WORDSWORTH. 




MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Family TRITONIDJE. 

Shell with varices, which are either few and irregularly dis- 
posed ( Triton ) or form a continuous row crossing the whorls on 
opposite sides (RaneUa). The number of varices does not exceed 
two to each whorl, whilst in Murex the smallest number is three. 
Operculinn annular, with sub-apical or central nucleus. Mantle 
enclosed, siphon straight, foot small. Lingual membrane with 
teeth in seven rows (3-1-3), like the Doliidse, etc. (The Muricida? 
have the teeth 1-1-1). The dentition is illustrated on plate 2. 

I have already stated the reasons which induce me to place the 
Tritonidae in close connection with the Muricidae, yet forming a 
passage to the Cassidida* and Doliidae, rather than arrange them 
with the latter groups. See Vol. II, p. 67. 

The Tritonida 1 first positively appeared in the eocene strata; 
the genus Spinigera d'Orb., from the cretaceous, being now 
referred, more correctly I think, to the family Strombidae, and 
Trachytriton Meek, also cretaceous, does not belong certainly to 
the family. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

TRITON, Montfort. Shell oblong ; spire prominent, whorls with a few 
remote and non-continuous varices ; columella rough or smooth ; canal 
recurved, short or long ; outer lip internally crenated or denticulated. 
More than a hundred recent species have been characterized. 

DISTORSIO, Bolten. Shell subturreted ; whorls distorted ; aperture 
irregular, contracted, ringent ; canal recurved ; inner lip dilated, 
lamellar, rugosely plicated ; columella excavated, verrucosely plicate ; 
outer lip sinuous, internally plicate-dentate. 



6 ' TKITON. 

RANELLA, Lamarck. Shell ovate or oblong, compressed, with two rows 
of continuous varices, one on each side ; aperture oval ; columella 
arcuated and ridged, or crenulated ; canal short, recurved ; outer lip 
crenated. 

There are over fifty recent species. In the lingual dentition (PI. 2). 
Triton and Ranella are closely allied, but with a difference in the 
rachidian tooth ; Triton Cutaceum, however, approaches Ranella argus. 
Distorsio (PI. 2, fig 9.) is not sensibly different from Triton. The 
dentition of the family is unmistakably allied to that of the Cassididse, 
Doliidse, etc. 

Fossil Genera. 

The distinctness of the following groups is very doubtful. 

RANELLINA, Conrad. The genus was never characterized. The type 
differs from the figure in the varices being partially disconnected, thus 
showing more affinity to Triton than to Ranella. 

RANELLA MACLURII Conrad . Plate 3, fig. 14. Tertiary ; Glaiborne, Ala. 

PERSONELLA, Conrad. Genus not characterized. Scarcely a Distorsio, 

but more like a Gutturnium. 
DISTOKSIO SEPTEMDENTATA, Gabb. Plate 3, fig. 15. Eocene, Texas. 

TRITONOPSIS, Conrad. The type is a water-worn specimen, which Mr. 
Angelo Heilprin, who has examined the shell, declares to be too 
imperfect to assign to it any reliable characters. Has some resemblance 
to the section Cabestana, like T. doliarium L. 

TRITON SUBALVEATUS, Conrad. Plate 3, fig. 30. Eocene, Vicksburg. 

TRACHYTRITON, Meek. The generic character appears to be confined 
to the occurrence of internal varices, marking the former positions of 
the lip, and which have not been absorbed when growth recommenced ; 
otherwise very like Priene Oregonensis = cancellatus. The want of a 
callus on the upper part of the columella, which Meek makes a distin- 
guishing character from Priene, also characterizes the P. Oregonensis, 
young, as described by Mr. Redfield. 

T. VINCULTJM, Hall and Meek. PI. 3, fig. 13. Cretaceous, Dakotah. 



Genus TEITON, Montfort. 

Animal of T. Tritonis, Linn., figured upon Plate 1 (Frontis- 
piece). Details of the anatomy of the genus will be found in the 
introductory portion of Vol. II of this Manual, together with 
figures upon the 3d, 4th and 6th plates thereof. 

Shell oblong, with generally prominent spire, the whorls crossed 
by a few remote and non-continuous varices ; the columella 



TRITON. 7 

smooth or nodulous ; the canal long or short ; the outer lip 
erenated or denticulated within. 

Opercnlum ovate, its growth annular either from a sub-apical 
or submarginal nucleus. 

Whilst the lingual armature of Triton allies it elosety with 
Dolium, etc., among the so-called tsenioglossate mollusks, the 
affinities of the animal are on the whole closer, and those of the 
shell decided^ so, to Muricidae.* It may be considered a 
connecting link between the two groups, but certainly cannot be 
safely removed from the vicinity of the latter, to which it is not 
only allied by its operculum (which is entirely different from that 
of Dolium), but so closely by the shell in some instances, that 
the assignment of the generic position is quite arbitrary. 

The Tritons are distinctly tropical in distribution, no species 
inhabiting the colder seas. The species are numerous and beau- 
tiful, presenting a great range of variation in size and color ; one 
species being almost the largest of gasteropod mollusks, attaining 
a length of one and a half feet, whilst others, belonging to the 
Epidromoid section, do not exceed a half inch in length. The' 
cancellated forms are chiefly East Indian, and are dredged in sand 
in deep water ; the West Coast of America group, covered with 
a rough epidermis, is obtained in sandy mud at from six to thirt}^ 
fathoms' depth. A number of species have a world-wide distri- 
bution , which is doubtless due to their free-swimming or pelagic 
larvae. These, unlike the Mu rices, but like the Purpuraj,f are 
very different at first from the adult both in animal and shell, 
undergoing a metamorphosis at a period subsequent to hatching. 

I adopt the well-known name Triton in preference to the pre- 
viously given Tritoniiim of Olivier, believing that the interests 
of science are best conserved by keeping the nomenclature as 
stable as possible. Triton has been used in other departments 
of zoology-, but so have many other generic names, which are 
nevertheless accepted without question. The fact is, that prac- 
tical common sense has quietly shelved the British Association 
rule forbidding the use of a generic name in more than one 
branch of zoology. In these days only the very few enjoying 



* See Vol. 2, Manual of Conchology, page 67. 
f Vol. II, plate 8. 



8 TRITON. 

exceptional advantages can hope to acquire a competent knowl- 
edge of the names in use in a single department, and no one 
possesses the time or acquaintance with general zoology which 
would be necessary to avoid duplications. The alternative adop- 
tion of the name Tritonium has its difficulties : it is more gener- 
ally known in connection with a Buccinoid group, and it is too 
close to Cuvier 's genus Tritonia. 

Reeve says* : The Tritons are shells oi much more solid structure 
than the Murices or Ranellae, and of much more simple growth. 
They are not furnished with any spines nor have they any rami- 
fied branches like the Murices ; the rude manner in which the 
whorls are convoluted seem rather to indicate that their animal 
inhabitant, though possessing abundant power of calcification, is 
of somewhat sluggish growth. The epidermis of the Tritons is 
often remarkably thick, hairy and bristly, and is sometimes 
accompanied with small tufts of bristles. Another curious pecu- 
liarity in these shells is the structure of the apex ; it appears in 
numerous instances to be formed of horny substance, thinly 
plated with shelly matter, and it is not an uncommon thing to 
find examples in which the calcareous plating is broken off so as 
to expose the horny cast underneath. The coluinella of the 
Tritons is generally covered with a bright coat of wrinkled 
enamel, and the outer lip becomes thickened in a manner exceed- 
ingly curious ; upon arriving at maturity the lip curls under so 
as to form a deep, broad channel or gutter, and this is then filled 
up to form the thickened lip. The varices are all constructed in 
the same manner, each forming for a time the margin of the 
aperture ; they are destined, it is conjectured, to protect the lip 
during a season of rest, and it would be extremely interesting if 
it could be discovered what length of time ordinarily elapses 
between the formation or deposit of the varix and the renewal 
of the operation of growth. 

Mr. Arthur Adainst mentions the adaptation of the Trumpet- 
shell ( T. tritonis) to the purposes of a tea-kettle by the inhabitants 
of the Typinsan archipelago, near the Loo-Choo Islands ; the 
operculum forming the lid, the canal answering the purpose of a 

* Conch. Icon., Vol. II, Triton, 1844. 
f Narrative Voy. Samarang, I, 89. 



TRITON. 9 

spout, and the shell suspended by a wooden hook over the fire. 
Mr. Adams says that this rude vessel was adopted several times 
for the convenience of his party, and answered its purpose 
admirably. 

The species of Triton being numerous, several attempts have 
been made to separate them into generic or subgeneric groups ; 
the most successful being the arrangement of Messrs. H. and A. 
Adams. Two of these groups, however, Simpulum and Cabestana, 
are so closely related that I think Kobelt has very judiciously 
united them. Priene is the connecting form approximating 
Triton and Eanella ; whilst in the latter genus species of the 
group Lampas recall Triton. 

A very excellent catalogue of the genus has been published by 
Kobelt, the arrangement of which I mainly follow ; adding, how- 
ever, some additional species, making about one hundred and fifty 
in all. Kobelt has monographed the genus in Kiister's Conchylien 
Cabinet and there are also monographies by Reeve and Kiener 
in their respective Iconographies. 

Subgenera. 
SIMPULUM, Klein. Shell fusiform, whorls nodosely ribbed; outer lip 

thick, plicate-dentate internally. Operculum with apical nucleus. 
CYMATIUM, Bolten. Whorls triangular ; aperture longer than the spire ; 

outer lip dentated internally. Operculum with apical nucleus. 
GUTTURNIUM, Klein. Shell pyriform, subturreted, canal long, narrow. 

Operculum with submarginal initial point, near the middle of the 

inner margin. 
EPIDROMUS, Klein. Shell with long, generally curved spire ; aperture 

small and canal very short. Operculum triangular, with submarginal 

nucleus. 
PRIENE, H. and A. Ad. Shell ventricose, thin, cancellated or plicated ; 

canal short. Operculum with apical initial point. 

( Typical.) 
Genus TKITON, Montf. 
T. TRITONJS, Linn.- PL 1. fig. 1 ; pi. 3, fig. 1(5 ; pi. 4, fig. 25. 

Whitish or yellowish, variegated with semi-lunar markings of 
chestnut or chocolate color ; spire pink towards the apex ; orange- 
red within the aperture ; columella dark chocolate crossed by 
numerous white wrinkles or plaits ; outer lip denticulated at the 
2 



10 TRITON. 

margin, each denticle terminating a double revolving band of red- 
brown, or chocolate color. Length, 16 inches. 

Isle of Bourbon, Philippines, New Zealand, Polynesian 
Islands. Japan, Indian Ocean. 

Yar. NOBILIS, Conrad. PI. 4, figs. 21, 26. 

Usually heavier and shorter than the typical form, the whorls 
with a distinct shoulder ; color within the aperture lighter. 

Sicily, So. Coast of Spain, Portugal, Cape Verd Isles, West Indies. 

Conrad considers this a distinct species, and Aradas and Benoit 
have also described it, from the Mediterranean under the name of 
T. Seguenzae (pi. 4, fig. 26) ; but the numerous specimens before 
me enable me to satisfactorily connect the two forms. The hump 
appears to become gradually more prominent with age, as in half 
grown specimens it is not apparent either in Mediterranean or 
West Indian specimens. 
T. NODIFERUS, Lam. PL 1, figs. 2, 3 ; pi. 3, fig, 17 ; pi. 4, fig, 23, 

AY lute, clouded and painted with reddish brown; aperture 
white within ; lip margin painted with brown ; columella with 
white plaits, of which the posterior one is very prominent. 

Length, 5 to 10 inches, 

Mediterranean, Atlantic Coast of Europe, BritisJt. Channd, Can- 
aries, Natal, Mauritius, Japan, Australia, 3>?r Zealand. 

T, Sauliae, Reeve (pi. 3, fig, IT), and T. australis, Lam, (pi. 4, 
fig, 23), are generally considered at least varieties of this species. 
but I am unable to give them any permanent differential char- 
acters. The species varies in much the same manner as 2\ 
Tritonis in the smoothness or nodulation of surface, length of 
spire, etc. It is found fossil, commencing with the miocene, at 
several localities in southern Europe. The most northern 
European locality is the island of Guernsey, where three living 
specimens were trawled at different times between 1825 and 1832. 
Madame Power found this animal capable of reproducing ampu- 
tated tentacles, etc. The Sicilians and Algerians eat the mollusk 
and esteem it a delicacy. At Nice, the fishermen and country 
people make a hole in the apex of the spire and use the shell us 
a trumpet which, Yerany remarks, produces a braying sound. It 
is an indispensable instrument in the old-fashioned charivari, 
which he describes as a deafening serenade to signalize the mar- 
riages of ill-assorted or unpopular couples. 



SIMPULUM. 11 

T. SUBDISTORTUS, Lam. PI. 3, fig. 18. 

Whitish, maculated and spotted with reddish brown ; white 
within the aperture. Length 2 to 2.5 inches. 

Australia . 
T. BASSI, Angas. PI. 3, fig. 20. 

The revolving riblets and tube re illations appear to be propor- 
tionally smaller than in the preceding species, and the denticu- 
lations of the lip-margin are described and figured as " close." 
The color does not differ from that of T. subdistortus, and I 
think it will prove to be synonymous with that species. 

Length 1,08 inch. 

Busi? Straits, Australia. 

T. fraterculus Dunker appears, from the description (not 
figured) to be a synoirym. 

T. FUSIFORMIS, Kiener. PI, 4, fig, 22. 

The whorls have two or three large knobs between the varices 
and the entire surface is covered with very fine, close, revolving 
striae, which are composed of minute, oblong granules. Yellow- 
ish brown, articulated with darker brown ; aperture white within. 

Length 1.5 to 2 inches, 

Australia. 

Subgenus Simpulum, Klein. 

T, OLEARIUM, Linn. PI. 3, fig. 19 ; PL 4, fig. 24 ; PI. 5. figs. 27- * 

29; PL 6, fig. 37. <^) 

Light brown, the varices and lip usually tesselated with 
chocolate, the columella frequently chocolate between the 
whitish plications ; within the aperture flesh color. Variable 
in its proportions, the spire being sometimes short, in others 
longer. Frequently, the revolving ribs are partially separated 
into approximate pairs by an incised line ; sometimes they are 
partiall}' broken up into revolving series of granules. When the 
shell is fresh it is covered by a thin epidermis which, at frequent 
intervals, develops longitudinal, reflexed ridges terminating, 
upon their entire length, in long, hair-like digitations. Opercu- 
lum with terminal initial point. Length, 2 to 6 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea ; Atlantic Coast of Europe and Africa; 

Canary and Cape Verd Isles ; St. Helena; West Indies to Brazil; 

Polynesia ; Australia ; New Zealand ; Japan. 



12 SIMPULUM. 

The animal is of a light straw -yellow, covered with black spots, 
which become distant and larger upon the head ; tentacles long 
and black. The name olearium Linn, appears in the 12th edition 
to apply here partially, .but it is not the olearium of the 10th 
edition nor of Born nor (Imelin. It is the Mitrc.r roxtafm* of 
Born (not Gmelin), and partkenopu* of von Sails. The current 
identification of the Linnean name is so well established that, 
however ill it may accord with tact, it seems preferable to 
retain it. 

T. PILEARIS, Linn. PI. (>, figs. 31-30 ; PI. 7, figs. 38-39. 

Yellowish brown, with occasionally darker (and sometimes 
white) revolving bands; aperture and columella orange-red to 
blood-red, with white plications ; epidermis thin, hairy and 
bristly, light olive color. Length, 2 to 5 inches. 

Red Sea, Seychelles, Natal, China, Japan, Australia, Philippines, 

Sandwich Isles, Florida, West Indies, Brazil. 

Kobelt distinguishes T. Martimanus ( Veliei Calkins, fig. 36). 
T. aquatilis Reeve, (fig. 34), and T. intermedium Pease, (fig 35), 
as varieties ; but I cannot so regard them, as 1 find no characters 
by which to separate them. T. vestitus Hinds, (figs. 38, 39), 
from the west coast of Central America, has normally, a shorter 
spire and more inflated body-whorl, is smoother, darker in color, 
the lip and columella between the plications dark chocolate ; yet 
the intermediate stages between this and the typical pilearis 
make a continuous series. 

T. RUBECULA. Linn. PL 7, fig. 40. 

Lemon to orange color, or orange-red, with a light lemon or 
white revolving band on the middle of the body whorl, and w r hite 
blotches on the varices ; lip and columella same color as outer 
surface, with the plications white. Length, 1 to 2 inches. 

Red Sea ; Nicobar Isles ; Philippines ; Central Pacific ; 

Sandwich Isles; St. Thomas, W. I. 

The last locality is upon the authority of a dredged specimen 
in the Swift Collection, now in the museum of the Philada. 
Acad. For this specimen Morch made a variety occidentale, but 
it has no distinctive characters. 



SIMPULUM. 13 

T. GEMMATUS, Reeve. PL 7, figs. 41-44. 

Whitish to orange-yellow. Revolving ribs fewer in number 
than in T. rubecula, with three revolving stride between each rib 
of which the middle one is largest ; frequently laticed by longi- 
tudinal ribs, and sometimes developing two or three nodules 
between the varices. Length, 1 to 1-5 inches. 

Ph/lippfnes to Sandwich Islands; Paumotus. 

More graceful in form, Avith more rapidly accuminated spire 
and longer canal, and smaller than T. rubecula ; to which? 
nevertheless, it is closely allied. T. munduin Gould, (figs. 43, 
44), appears to be the same species. 
T. FICOIDES, Reeve. PL 7, fi.g. 46. 

Fig-shaped ; yellowish, the lip and columella orange color. 

Length, 2 inches. 

West Africa. 
T. oiiLOROSTOMi s, Lam. PL T, tigs. 47,48. 

White, more or less tesselated with red or chocolate spots, 
the revolving, incised lines usually colored ; aperture deep 
orange within. Length, 1'5 to 3 inches. 

Red Sea ; Isle of Bourbon ; New Caledonia; Philippines; 

Central Pacific; Sandwich Islands; West Indies. 

T. CORRUGATUS, Lam. PL 8, tig. 49. 

Whitish, more or less stained and marked with brown; 
epidermis brown, pilose. Length, 2'5 to 3*5 inches. 

Mediterranean; Atlantic coasts of France, Portugal and Spain. 
Yar. KREBSIT, Morch. PL 8, fig. 50. 

Spire shorter, nodules between the varices stronger. 

St. Thomas, St. Croix, W. I. 

Described as a distinct species but the characters by which 
Morch distinguishes it are common to the type form except the 
shorter spire and more rugose longitudinal ribs. Probably not 
perfectly acclimated, and depauperate in consequence. 

T. BECCARII, Tapparone-Canefril PL 7, fig. 45. 

Light yellowish; aperture orange color. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Massaua ; Red Sea. 

A single specimen only obtained. Its very narrow form will 
distinguish it at once from the nearly related species. 



14 SIMPULUM. 

T. LINEATUS, Brocl. PL 8, fig. 51. 

Yellowish brown, the raised revolving lines chestnut-brown ; 
columella and aperture chocolate, the plications white. 

Length, 2'25 inches. 

Galapagos Isles, iu sand ; 6 fathoms. 



T. GRANULATUS, 1) linker. 

An unfigiired species, 35 mill, in length, from Bass' Straits, 
Australia. Said to belong to the group Simpulum. I cannot 
it. 



T. CONTABULATUS, Alltoil. 

Unfigured and not identified ; placed by the author in his 
"jrileare" group. 

T. LIROSTOMUS ^ Described by Mr. Arthur Adams in Ann. Mag. 
T PAPILLOSUS Nat. Hist. 1870. All from Japan. No figures. 
T TRING\ f dimensions, nor comparative characters are 

T. NODILIRATUS given ; so that I am unable to give an opinion 
as to their novelty. 






# * # Group Linatella, Morch. r 

The species of this group approach more nearly to the Doliidae 
in form and sculpture than any other Tritons. 

T. TRANQUEBARICUS, Lain. PI. 8, figs. 52, 53. 

Light yellowish brown, the revolving ridges chocolate-brown ; 
whitish within. Length, 1'25 to 2 inches. 

W. Coast Africa ; West Indies. 
T. POULSENII, Morch. PI. 8, fig. 54. 

Thin, inflated, orange-brown; white within the aperture; lip- 
teeth orange color. Length, 2 inches. 

West Indies. 

Two specimens in the Swift Cabinet (Mus. Philad. Acad.). It 
is possibly a variety of T. cingulatus, although much more 
inflated and with shorter canal than the typical form of that 
species. Very much like the genus Dolium in its general 
appearance. 



SIMPULUM. 15 

/ 

T. CINGULATUS, Lam. PL 8, figs. 55, 56. 

Light yellowish brown, with the revolving ribs darker ; slightly 
shouldered and tuberculate on the angle ; canal rather long and 
recurved. Length, 2 to 2'75 inches. 

Philippines; Floating dock, St. Thomas, W. I. (Swift Coll.). 

T. Voigtii, Anton (fig. 56) is a synonym, according to Philippi, 
who publishes the first and only illustration of that species. 

T. WIEGMANNI, Anton. PI. 9. fig. 57. 

Whorls decidedly shouldered, and nodulous on the angle of 
the shoulder. Yellowish brown, the revolving ribs darker in 

color. Length, 2*5 to 3'5 inches. 

Mazatlan to Panama. 

There is but little difference between this and the preceding- 
species : it lias a more decided shoulder and the canal is shorter. 
Should they prove identical, which is probable, the species must 
be called T. cingvlatus, Lam. 

T. CLANDESTINE. Lam. PI. 9, fig 58. 

Yer}- light yellowish brown ; the regular cord-like revolving 
ribs chestnut-brown ; aperture white within. 

Length, 1-5 to 2'5 inches. 

Australia. 

T. LIGNARIUS, Brod. PL 9, fig. 63. 

Solid ; yellowish brown, with dark chestnut revolving bands ; 
columella with a double series of small tubercles which are white 
upon an orange ground; outer lip orange stained, with white 
tuberculations. Length, 1-25 inches. 

W. Coast Central America ; sandy mud, 7 to 12 fathoms 

A very distinct species, readily recognizable by its sculpture 
and showy coloring. 

.; : / :; ". ;: . Group Ubt*t(infi, Bolteu. 
T. CUTACEUS, Linn. PL 9, fig. 59. 

The revolving ribs are elegantly sculptured into close, bead- 
like nodules. Light yellowish brown, white within the aperture. 
Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea ; W. Coast of France ; 

Channel Islands ; Cape Verd Isles. 



16 SIMPULUM. 

The epidermis differs from that of most of the Tritons in being 
a thin, smooth skin. The species is found from low to deep 
water. Philippi describes the animal thus : Body on the upper 
part painted with irregular spots of dark purple, which are 
separated by narrow white lines ; foot pale violet above, marbled 
on the sides, and speckled here and there with reddish spots 
which are edged with white. 
T. DOLIARIUS, Linn. PL 9, fig. tiO. 

Pale yellowish to brown, sometimes spotted with brown on the 
ribs ; white within the aperture. Epidermis short-tufted, light 
olive-brown or }^ellowish. Length, 1*25 to 1'75 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope ; New South Wales, Australia. 

Ranella tuberculata, Risso, is a synonym of T. cutaceus, but 
the shell figured for Risso's species by Kiister in his monograph 
of Purpura is a T. doliarius, t} r pical in every respect. 
T. AFRICANUS, A. Ad. PL 10, fig. 73. 

Red-brown, white within the aperture. Length, 2*25 inches. 

Ickaboe, 8. Africa. 

1 separate this from T. doliarius with considerable hesitation. 
It may prove to be merely a lengthened, more solid form of that 
species I have before me an example of T. doliarius which is 
rather longer than usual, with the peculiar revolving sculpture 
almost obsolete. 
T. FOSSATUS, Gould. 

Shell solid, subglobose, yellowish; spire short; whorls six, the 
sutures profoundly canaliculate ; surface with two revolving ribs, 
crossed by nodulous longitudinal undulations ; aperture narrow, 
rounded behind; lip varicose, denticulate, sulcate within; 
columella erectly sulcate, the posterior sulei larger. 

Length 35, diam. 20 mill. Honkong, China. 

Not figured ; said to approach T. doliarius in form and sculp- 
ture, but has the sutural canal and a longer beak. 

T. SPENGLERI, Lam. PL 9, fig. 61. 

Yellowish brown, the incised revolving lines chestnut-brown ; 
all the ribs crossed by longitudinal striae, cutting their surface 
into bead-like nodules ; white within the aperture. 

Length, 3'5 to 5 inches. & Australia; Chnth-am Islands. 

The epidermis is thin, smooth, yellowish olive. 



SIMPULUM. l IT 

T. WATEBHOUSEI, Ad. and Ang. PL 9, fig. 62. 

Yellowish brown, somewhat tinged with olive; white within 
the aperture. Length, 2'25 inches. 

8. Australia. 

The spire is proportionally shorter, the shoulder of the whorls 
not so well marked ; whorls more rounded than in last species. 
Epidermis squamately pilose. 

T. BOLTENIANUS, A. Ad. 

Allied to T. Spengleri, but smaller, more ponderous, and 
without varices. The j^oung shells are peculiarly inflated, and 
banded inside with dark purple ridges. Length, 2 inches. 

Not figured. I have not seen it. 

T. BARTHELEMYI, Bernardi. PL 10, fig. 69. 

Yellowish white, the transverse grooves darker; brownish 
within the aperture. Length, 5-5 inches. 

S. Australia, among rocks at low tide. 

Evidently very closely allied to T. Spengleri, of which it will 
very probably prove to be an overgrown form, living amidst 
uncongenial surroundings. 

T. LABIOSUS, Wood. PL 9, figs. 64-68. 

Shouldered ; encircled by revolving ribs, each of which is 
bi-sulcate, so as to divide the rib into three ; decussated by 
almost equally strong longitudinal costae ; canal usually short. 
Yellowish to dark chestnut-brown, sometimes light-banded ; 
aperture and columella white. Length, 1 inch. 

Japan, Philippines, Mauritius, Australia, West Indies. 

The numerous specimens before me, from various West Indian 
localities, are not distinguishable from Australian examples. T. 
Loroisii, Petit (fig. 66), has no distinctive characters. T. 
Strangei, A. Ad. and Ang. (fig. 6T), from Australia, has less 
shoulder and longer canal than the typical form, but I have 
before me a West Indian specimen which closely mimics the 
figure of that species. T. orientalis, Nevill (fig. 68), from the 
Indian Ocean, has a somewhat longer canal, but does not other- 
wise differ from the typical labiosus. These may be considered 
varieties by those who are fond of minute distinctions. 
3 



18 CYMATIUM. 

T. DORSUOSUS, A. Ad. 

A Japanese species, not yet figured. No dimensions given. 
Assigned by the author to this group. The Latin diagnosis, as 
usual, is worthless for the purpose of identification. It is simply 
the cabalistic ceremonial through which Mr, Adams becomes 
invested with the title to a specific name ; it does not and cannot, 
and perhaps never was intended, to define his property with 
sufficient accuracy to prevent trespass on his rights by others ; 
therefore it becomes a trap for the unwary and ambitious. On 
the other hand the indefiniteness of the usual diagnosis permits 
its author the greatest latitude in shifting its object from species 
to species ; or, if he is enterprising, in capturing some of the 
species diagnosed at a later date b}' his brother conchologists. 
As a rule, I will not attempt to identify unfigured species, and 
would like to exterminate all such descriptions and names for 
the benefit of science. 

Submenus Cymatium, (Bjlten) Adams. 

This group is well distinguished by the trigonal form of the 
shell of the typical species, large varices and nodules. Opercu- 
lum with initial point at its apex. 
T. FEMORALE, Linn, PI, 10. fig. 70. 

Yellowish brown ; the principal revolving ribs white where 
they cross the varices ; aperture white, light purplish or roseate 
within. Length, 3 to 7 inches. West India Islands. 

Reeve mentions that the varices of this species suggested the 
gadroon border used by silversmiths for the decoration of plate. 
The epidermis is very thin, somewhat bristly. The initial point 
of the operculum is apical. 

T. TIGRINUS, Brod. PL 10, fig. 71, 72. 

Yellowish brown, tinged more or less with dark brown between 
the revolving ribs. Length, 4*5 to 6*5 inches. 

W. Co. Central America; II fathoms in sandy mud. 

A wider, smoother species than the preceding, with simpler 
sculpture. . .When full-grown, the outer lip spreads out, making 
the body whorl very wide. 

T. J^anzarm, Bianconi (fig. 71) from Mozambique, E. coast of 
Africa, appears to be the same species. 



GUTTURNIUM. 19 

T. LOTORIUM, Linn. PL 11, figs. 78, 79 ; pi. 10, fig. 76. 

Orange-brown ; the principal revolving ribs yellowish white 
upon the varices, where the interstices become intensified to a 
dark chestnut color ; aperture white or blush color, the teeth of 
the outer lip varying from orange to chocolate, with blotches of 
the same on the columella. Length, 3'5 to 4*5 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Central Polynesia. 

T. grandimaculatus, Reeve (fig. 76) belongs here; the distinc- 
tive characters are individual only. 

T. PYRUM, Linn. PL 10, fig. 74. 

Orange color ; usually lighter within the aperture ; the teeth of 
the lip and columella nearly white. Length, 3 to 4 inches. 

Indian Ocean ; Madagascar ; Isle of Ticao, Philippines, 

under stones at low water. 
T. DUNKERT, Lischke. PL 11, fig. 82. 

White or yellowish, more or less irregularly variegated with 
brown; aperture, columella and lip-teeth white. Length 3*75 in. 

Japan. 

Very like T. pyrum in form, but thinner ; the longitudinal 
nodules between the varices are much smaller, more continuous 
and more numerous, being seven or eight in number ; whilst in 
pyrum they are five ; the coloring also, is different. 



T. MUNSTERI, Anton. 

Described as a species of the lotorium group. It has never 
been figured nor identified. 

Subgenus Gutturnium, Adams. 

The shells of this group possess a peculiar polished, porcel- 
laneous outer and inner lip, the latter reflected over the coluraella, 
together with a short, rounded pyriform body and lengthened, 
narrow, more or less twisted canal. Operculum with initial point 
submarginal, near the middle of the inner margin. 

T. CYNOCEPHALUS, Lam. PL 11, figs. 80, 81 ; pi. 15, fig. 152. 

Light yellowish or orange, smetimes with deeper indefinate 
bands ; aperture yellowish white ; columella, especially the upper 
portion, with a brown patch. Length 2*25 to 3 inches. 

West Indies ; Philippines, 6 fathoms in coral sand. 



Occasionally the longitudinal disposition of the tubercles pre- 
vails over the transverse, in which state the species has been 
re-described by Reeve as T. moritinctus (fig. 81). This, and 
intermediate forms are found in West Indian, as well as in Phil- 
ippine Islands specimens. 

T. SARCOSTOMA, Reeve. PI. 10, fig 75. 

Intervariceal ribs not so numerous, and more prominent than 
than in the preceding species. Yellowish brown. Lip tinged with 
orange ; columella without the brown markings of T. cynoceph- 

alus. Length 2'5 inches. 

On the reefs, Isle of Ticao, Philippines. 

I admit this as a distinct species with some hesitation, as the 
growth of one rib or nodule at the expense of two smaller ones is 
not unusual in this and allied genera. 

T. TRILINEATUS, Reeve. PL 10, fig. 77 ; pi. 11. fig. 87. 

Longitudinal ribs distant, less prominent than the revolving 
series ; shoulder of the whorls obtuse, defined by tubercles ; 
body whorl a little attenuated below. Yellowish brown, whitish 
on the prominent nodes and revolving ribs ; aperture white, 
columella brown stained. Length 3 inches. 

Red Sea, Philippines, China. 

Mr. Reeve distinguishes his T. degrotus (fig. 87), from this 
species by the less developed tubercles on the shoulder, and by 
its having a varix on the back of the penultimate whorl : neither 
of which distinctions holds good. I consider it a synonym. 

T. TESTUDINARIUS, Ad. & Reeve. PL 11, fig. 84. 

The longitudinal ribs are more developed than the revolving 
ones, so that the shoulder of the whorls is less defined by 
tubercles ; the canal is also longer than in trilineatus ; which it 
greatly resembles. 

Chinese Sea. 

T. SINENSIS, Reeve. PL 11, fig. 85. 

White, more or less stained with pale yellow. 
Length, 3*5 inches. 

Chinese Sea. 



rU 1 J. V rtlNl U 



M. 



T. CLAVATOR, Lam. PI. 11. fig. 86. 

Whitish, varices more or less stained with brown ; columella, 
and inner margin of lip orange. Epidermis bristly tufted on the 
ribs. Length, 2-5 inches. 

Isle of Burias, Philippines; sandy mud, seven fathoms. Cuming. 

T. GALLINAGO, Reeve. PI*. 11, fig. 89. 

White, more or less stained with yellow on the varices. 

Length, 2- 4 inches. 

Isle of Mindanao, Philippines ; sandy mud at 20 fathoms. Cumiug. 

More boldly sculptured, and with shorter canal than 
T. Sinensis ; of which it may prove to be a variety. 

T. EXILIS, Reeve. PI. 11, fig. 88. 

Differs from T. clavator in having no varix on the penultimate 
whorl, in the white aperture, the surface vividly stained with 
orange-brown, and especially in the well-developed nodulous ribs. 

Length, 2'5 inches. 

Isle of Zebu, Philippines ; in sandy mud, 10 fathoms. Cuming. 

T. PACHYCHEILOS, Tapparone-Canefri. 

Differs from T. exilis, Reeve, in the columella being destitute 
of prominent rugose plications, in the less developed tubercles 
and canaliculate suture. White, variegated with orange, and 
obscurely doubly zoned with brown ; varices two, maculated 
with dark brown ; aperture white, lip with seven large teeth. 

Length, 55 mill. 

Mauritius. 
This species has not yet been figured. 

T. MONILIFER, Ad. & Reeve. PL 11, fig. 90. 

White, variegated with chestnut ; lip and columella white. 

Length, 2 inches. Chinese Sea. 

The figure indicates a canaliculate suture, but it is not men- 
tioned in the description. Possibly the preceding species is 
identical with this. 

T. CAUDATUS, Gmel. PI. 12, fig. 92. 

A white shell, identical in sculpture and general appearance with 
T. Sinensis, except that the spire is more depressed, the whorls 
arising from deeply grooved sutures. Length, 3 inches. 

Chinese Sea. 



22 GUTTURNIUM. 

T. TRIPUS, Lam. PI. 12, fig. 93. 

Pale yellowish brown, lighter colored on the revolving ribs; 
white or pale blush within the aperture. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Indian Ocean, China. 

Like T. caudatus, this species has canaliculate sutures. 

T. VESPACEUS, Lam. PL 12, figs; 94-100. 

Very, finely granulated ; dorsal tubercles large, .giving the 
shell a somewhat hump-backed appearance. Yellowish white, 
marbled and banded with brown. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Australia, Viti Isles, Sandwich Isles. (Pease). West Indies. (Swift). 

The above localities are all authentic. The typical full-grown 
shell is that described by Reeve as T. Thersites (figs. 99, 100), a 
forin occurring both in the West Indian and Polynesian localities. 
T. vespaceus was described from a smaller, though perhaps full- 
grown shell, probably a more stunted growth. T. elongatus ( fig. 96) . 
and T. gracilis (fig. 9T), of Reeve, are of somewhat more graceful 
form and have a longer canal ; the latter is represented in the 
collection of the Philada. Academy by specimens from St. Croix, 
W; I., and from the Yiti Isles. 

T. TENUILIRATUS, Lischke. PL 42, fig. 105. 

Shell varying from light to dark brown, white within the 
aperture. Yarices four; whorls nine, of which the first four 
are embryonal and small. Length, 40 mill. 

Japan; Sandwicli Isles, ( W. H. Pease). 

I copy the figure of Dr. Lischke, which represents the unique 
and decidedly imperfect specimen from which he described his 
species. 

T. AMICTUS, Reeve. PL 40, fig. 188. 

Whitish, with a soft, sparingly bristled epidermis. 

Length, 1'4 inohes Philippines. 

I do not know the species. The figure somewhat resembles 
Eupleura caudata. 

T. EXARATUS, Reeve. PL 12, figs. 102, 104. 

Shell with two varices ; the whorls flat shouldered ; revolving 
ridges duplicate. Whitish, variegated or banded with brown, or 
brown with a white median band. Length, I't5 inches. 

Australia. 



GUTTURNITJM. 23 

Has fewer varices, and the shoulder angle is not so gibbously 
nodulose as in the next species; yet I suspect them to be 
identical. 

T. GIBBOSUS, Brod. PL 12, figs. 101, 103. 

Shell with four varices ; gibbous ; strongly tuberculated on 
the margin of the flat shoulders ; spire scalariform ; surface 
closely covered with chain-like minute tuberculations. Yellowish 
brown. Length, 2*5 inches. 

Panama; Monte Christi, W. Columbia, 7 fathoms, coarse sand. 

T. LOBBECKEI, Lischke. PL 12, fig. 106. 

Very closely allied in general appearance, with T. exaratus 
Reeve, but the whorls are rounder, with shorter spire and canal ; 
shoulder more rounded ; spiral striae finer ; ribs between the 
varices obsolete. Length, 1/5 inches. 

Japan. 
T. PFEIFFERIANUS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 107. 

Yellowish white, wHh irregular darker bands ; whitish within 

the aperture. Length, 2*5-3 inches. 

Philippines. 
T. RETUSUS, Lam. PL 13, fig. 108. 

Yellowish-brown, sometimes maculated or banded with darker 
brown ; aperture white within. Length, 2 to 2-5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Mauritius. 
T. PYRULUM, Ad. & Reeve. PL 13, fig. 109. 

Light yellowish brown. Length, 1*75 inches. 

East Indies. 
T. ENCAUSTICUS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 110. 

Light yellowish brown. When adult, the columella and lip 
are thickly enamelled, pale orange-brown. Length, 1'75 inches. 

/. Ticao, Philippines ; on the reefs. 

T. TUBEROSUS, Lam. PL 13, figs. 111-113. 

Light to dark brown, the ribs and tubercles lighter or whitish, 
with sometimes, a median white band. Lip and columella thickly 
enamelled, white or yellowish ; interior of aperture orange red. 
Operculum with terminal nucleus. Length, 1*5 to 2*5 inches. 
West Indies, Indo-Pacific 0., Mauritius, Polynesia. 



24 GUTTURNIUM. 

Several authors hare separated the West Indian and exotic 
specimens of this most common of Tritons, upon differences 
which are purely assumptions the variations in coloration, 
length of canal etc. pervading specimens from either of the 
localities. 

T. MAURITIANUS, Tapparone-Canefri. 

. Said to resemble T. tuberosus, but smaller, with diifereiitly 
shaped and ornamented mouth ; shorter canal ; smaller number 

of varices ; and light color. Length, 32 mill. 

Mauritius. 

Not figured. It is very doubtful whether the species is a valid 
one; very probably it is one of the numerous variations of 
T. tuber osus. 

T. OBISPUS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 114. 

Whitish or yellowish ; lip and columella covered with white 
enamel ; aperture blush or yellowish within. Length, "75 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 

Has the appearance of a short, stout, miniature tuberosus. 

T. QUOYI, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 116. 

Varices four or five ; whorls closely decussated, and nodulous 
at the crossings of the riblets. Orange-brown. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

Australia. 

This is the T. viperinum of Kiener, not Lamark the latter 
being a distinct fossil form. T. eburneus, Reeve is closely allied, 
but may be distinguished by its shorter and more obtuse spire. 

T. EBURNEUS, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 115. 

Closely decussated ; varices four ; white. Length, -75 inch. 
Isle of Ticao, Philippines ; under stones at low water. 

T. VERRTJCOSUS, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 117. 

Yarices four or five ; whorls decussated and roughly nodulous. 
Orange-brown ; lower portion of body whorl sometimes articu- 
lated with darker brown ; aperture white within. 

Length, -85 inch. 

Australia ; Jamaica (one specimen, R. Swift). 



EPIDROMUS. 25 

*** Cumia. 
T. CONVOLUTUS, Brod. PI. 13, fig. 118. 

White ; whorls encircled by sharp, close revolving ridges. 
Length, 1*25 to 2 inches. 

Marquesas (7 to 10 fathoms, sandy mud); New Guinea, 
(22 fathoms soft mud); Philippines. 

T. SCALARIFORMIS, Brod. PI. 13, fig. 119. 

White ; with sharp, close-set revolving ribs, crossed by slighter 

longitudinal ribs. Length, -80 to 1-60 inches. 

Panama. 

Although the specimen figured shows sufficient distinction, I 
have individuals of intermediate character before me which ren- 
der the separation of this and the last species somewhat doubtful. 
Typicalty, the position of the varices is different, and the decus- 
sated striae of T. Scalariformis are coarser. 

T. SPECIOSA, Angas. PI. 13, fig. 120. 

Shell with from 20 to 22 conspicuous, erect, rounded varices ; 
yellowish white, with sometimes a pale chestnut, narrow band ; 
with alternately larger and smaller concentric ridges, decussated 
by sharp, raised striae into bead-like nodules ; aperture white 

within. 

Port Jackson, Australia; at very low spring tides. 

The number of varices suggests the genus Trophon. I have 
not seen the species. 

Subgenus Epidromus, (Klein) Adams. 

T. MACULOSUS, Grmelin. PI. 14, fig. 121. 

White, shaded and spotted with chestnut-brown ; aperture and 
columella white. Length, 3 inches. 

Mauritius, Philippines, Amboina, Red Sea. 
T. TENERUS, Gray. 

" Shell ovate, turreted, thin, pale, fulvous, pellucid, cancellated, 
with equalty fine longitudinal and spiral ridges ; spire attenuated, 
longer than the mouth ; whorls'rounded ; varices rounded ; can- 
cellated, with two brown spots. Mouth ovate, oblong ; outer lip 
crenulated ; throat smooth ; inner lip thickened ; smooth, elevated, 
canal short, perforated in front. Axis, 3*5 inches. 



26 EPIDROMUS. 

"Allied to T. maculosus, but thinner and cancellated." The 
above is the original description, and the species has not been 
figured nor recognized. Very probably it is founded on a thin 
specimen of T. maculosus. 

T. SOWERBYI, Reeve. PI. 14, fig. 122. 

Shell encircled by brown, excavated lines, in pairs. Orange- 
brown, variegated with brown and ornamented with two distant 
rows of square brown spots. Length, 2*5 to 3 inches. 

Galapagos Isles, in sandy mud at six fathoms (Cuming) ; Red Sea, 
(Mac Andrew, Tapparone-Canefri) ; Me of France (Chemnitz). 

Said to live in the Red Sea at a less depth than T. maculosus ; 
from 10 to 11 metres. 

T. CLATHRATUS, Sowb. PI. 14, figs. 123, 124, 129. 

Whorls well-rounded, rapidly increasing, so as to form a stout, 
heavy shell, with small mouth and broad lip-varix. Covered with 
strong, sharp-set longitudinal ribs which are fimbriated by the 
crossing of revolving lines. Yellowish white, mottled with 

orange-brown. Length, 1'5 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 

The coarse, prominent sculpture, rounded whorls, and stout 
form distinguish this species. T. Gumingii, Dohrn (fig. 129), is 
described from an unusually stout specimen. 

T. DISTORTUS, Schubert & Wagner. PI. 14, figs. 125, 126. 

Light yellowish brown, clouded with chestnut, with frequently, 
a median row of chestnut spots. Length, 1'25 to 2'5 inches. 

Indo-Pacific Ocean. Polynesia. 

This species is readily distinguished by its curved spire, which 
is caused by the single varices of each whorl occurring in a con- 
tinuous oblique line. The animal is pale flesh-color with a fawn- 
colored head, and tentacles annulated with fawn-color. 7. 
tortuosus, Reeve (fig. 126), cannot be considered even a variety. 

T. OBSCURUS, Reeve. PL 14, figs. 127, 128 ; PL 16, fig. 151. 

Light brown, clouded with chestnut, with one or two revolving 
series of chestnut spots. Length, 1*5 to 2*25 inches. 

Indian Ocean ; Paumotus, West Indies, Cape Verd Is. 



EPIDROMUS, 27 

In sculpture this species resembles T, distortus, but it is dis- 
tinguished by the straight spire, the varices far apart instead of 
in a continuous oblique series, and the revolving spots. 

T. testaceous, Morch (fig. 128), does not appear to differ in 
any appreciable degree from the type; it is the West Indian 
manifestation of the species. T. comptus, Sowb. (fig. 151), from 
China, is certainly the same species. 

T. NITIDULUS, Sowb. PL 14, figs. 130-132. 

Whorls smooth, polished, sometimes obsoletely granulated. 
Light brown, belted and spotted with darker brown, sometimes 
with longitudinal flame-like markings, sometimes with a white 
median band. Yarices twelve or fourteen, usually maculated 
with brown. Length, 1 to T75 inches. 

Paumotus, Central Polynesia. 
Var. CEYLONENSIS, Sowb. PI. 14, fig. 131. 

Decussating ribs mcire prominent, giving the surface a closely 

granulated ornamentation. 

Polynesia, New South Wales, Ceylon. 

In both forms the granules are equally prominent upon the 
upper whorls of the spire, but in the smoother T. nitidulus this 
nodulation is finally covered by or lost in a smooth enamelled 
surface. T. Brazieri, Angas (fig. 132), inhabiting the coast of 
New South Wales offers no important differential characters. 
The lip and columella of the specimen described are tinged with 



orange color. * 

* * 



T. RETICULATUS, Blainv. PL 16, figs. 160, 161. 

Light brown, variously stained or banded with darker brown, 
sometimes uniform dark brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

T. pygmseus, Reeve (fig. 161), does not differ. The Galapagos 
Islands are given by Reeve as a locality for T. reticulatuSj but 
there is no subsequent confirmatory information. 
T. LANCEOLATUS, Menke. PL 16, fig. 162. 

Yellowish white or flesh-color, more or less clouded and spotted 
with brown ; varices eight or nine, bearing brown spots. 

Length, 1 inch. 

West Indies, under stones and pieces of coral, 

in one or two feet water. 



28 EPIDEOMUS. 

T. SIPHONATTIS, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 133. 

" Chiefly distinguished by its anterior extension." The figure 
shows evidences of juvenility, in the small development of the 
columellar lip. I think it will prove to be a young T. lanceolatus. 

Habitat unknown. 
T. ANTIQUATUS, Hinds. PI. 15, fig. 134. 

Whitish, with occasional brown spots on the varices. 

Length, **75 inch. 

New Ireland, Viti Islands. 
T. Coxi, Brazier. PI. 15, fig. 151. 

Whorls with three revolving rows of brown dots on a light 
brown surface ; body- whorl blotched and finely dotted. 

Length 1 inch. 

New South Wales, Australia. 

Will probably prove to be a variety of T. antiquatus. 
T. SCULPTILIS, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 135. 

White, with a median brown band ; the. interstices of the longi- 
tudinal ribs upon the shoulder of the whorls are sometimes 
colored brown. Length, 1 to 1*15 inches. 

Viti Isles ; Mascarenes ; Isle of Capul, Philippines, 

under stones at low water. 
T. EXIMIUS, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 136. 

White, sometimes obscurely banded or mottled with light 
brown. Length, -55 inch. 

Mascarenes, Philippines, Lord Hood's Isl., West Indies. 

T. parvus, C. B. Ad., from the Caribbean region does not 
differ in any respect from Pacific specimens. 

T. DECOLLATUS, Sowerby. PI. 15, fig. 13T. 

Whorls transversely grooved, grooves dark brown; surface 
yellowish, clouded with brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Is I. of Annaa ; found on the reefs. 

T. TRUNCATUS, Hinds. PL 15, fig. 138. 

Orange-yellow, with generally, two white bands, and large 
brown spots disposed in revolving rows. Length, -T5 inch. 
Isl. Bohol, Philippines, under stones at low water ; 

New Ireland ; Viti Isles ; Sandwich Isles. 

A beautiful species, sharing with the following two a long 
cylindrical form and greatly truncated spire. 



EPIDROMUS. 29 

T. CYLINDRICUS, Pease. PI. 15, fig. 139. 

Yellowish white, ornamented with longitudinal blotches of 
dark reddish brown, regularly disposed, usually oblique on last 

whorl. Length, 10 mill. 

Tahiti. 
T. DECAPITATUS, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 140. 

Whorls slightly, longitudinally ribbed, and closely concentric- 
ally striate. Yellowish, longitudinally flamed with brown, with 
two narrow yellow bands on the last whorl and one on the spiral 

whorl. Length, *66 inch. 

Kingsmill and Viti Isles. 

T. BRACTEATUS, Hinds. PL 15, figs. 141, 148, 149. 

Yellowish white, tubercles tipped with dark brown, frequently 
disposed as revolving rows of spots. Length, -40 to '60 inch. 
Philippines, Marquesas, Sandwich Isles, Red Sea. 

The old shells are frequently devoid of color, and whilst the 
longitudinal ribs remain, the revolving stria? and tubercles disap- 
pear ; in this state the species has been redescribed by Reeve as 
T. latevaricosus (fig. 148). 

T. bacillum, Reeve (fig. 149), is apparently founded upon a 
white specimen of bracteatus in a somewhat worn condition ; the 
prominent varices on either side of the body-whorl mentioned by 
him are equally characteristic of bracteatus, and the additional 
spire varices of the latter are obsolete in some specimens. 

T. DIGITALIS, Reeve. PL 15, figs. 142, 143. 

White or light yellowish brown, with sometimes, faint brown 
revolving bands. Length, 15 mill. 

Philippines, Mauritius, Viti Isles. 

The spire is not so turriculate, the whorls without the shoulder ; 
the sculpture finer than in T. bracteatus, Hinds. 

T. CONCINNUS, Reeve. PL 15, figs. 144, 145. 

Shell decussately striated, the longitudinal striae rib-like on the 
spire and sometimes on the bodj^-whorl. White or yellowish, 
with flame-like brown markings and clouds, which are sometimes 
subsutural, sometimes covering the entire surface, and occasion- 
ally modified into large spots. Length, -66 inch. 

Philippines, under stones at low water., 



30 EPIDROMUS. 

The sculpture is variable ; in some specimens the longitudinal 
ribs are well developed, in others these are subordinated to the 
close revolving striae. I unite with this species T. tessellatus, 
Reeve^ (fig. 145), the coloring and sculpture of which are not per- 
manently distinctive. 

T. ANGULATUS, Reeve. PL 15, figs. 146, 147. 

Yellowish white, sometimes with narrow brown bands. 

Length, *5 inch. 

Philippines, under stones at low water. 

There is nothing but the slight shoulder on the whorls to dis- 
tinguish this from T. concinnus. 

T. FICTILIS, Hinds. PI. 15, fig. 150. 

Yarices three, whorls longitudinally obliquely ribbed, and 
transversely finely striated. Brown. Smooth within the small 
aperture. Length, *75 inch. 

ISAgulhas lank, Gape of Good Hope, 50 to 60 fathoms. Hinds. 

I am not acquainted with this species. 

T. PICTUS, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 154. 

No varices. Longitudinally very closely ribbed, transversely 
elevately striated. Tessellated with reddish brown. 

Length, -7 inch. 

Galapagos Is., under stones at low water. 

I do not know this species, but the figure is singularly like a 
narrow form of Columbella varia, Sowerby. 

T. CREBRISTRIATUS, Carpenter. 

Shell like T. pictus. Reeve, but closely spirally striate ; white, 
densely maculated with reddish chestnut; aperture scarcely 

varicose, simple within. Length, -58 inch. 

Bay of Panama. 

Is destitute of the expressed spiral ribs of T. pictus. The 
only specimen seen has no teeth in the aperture. It may be only 
on the verge of maturity, or it may belong to a Buccinoid genus. 

The above is a copy of the original description which is 
worthless, as very probably is also the species. It maj r not 
really differ from T. pictus, or it may well be a young Columbella 
varia. 




EPIDROMUS. 

T. ANOMALUS, Hinds. PI. 16, fig. 163. 

Yellowish brown, with narrow, darker bands. 

Length, 15 mill. 

Isl. of Quibo, Veragua ; found on the sandy shore at low water. 

More ventricose than T. pictus, and the ribs more distant. 
T. RETICOSUS, A. Adams. PI. 16, fig. 155. 

White, distantly maculate with brown ; whorls seven, covered 
with rounded longitudinal plications, crossed by revolving lirse ; 
lip lirate within ; no varices except that of the lip. 

Length, '5 inch. 

Japan. 

Something like a Phos, and therefore a doubtful Epidromus. 
The species has not been illustrated heretofore ; I give a figure 
from a specimen forming part of Adams? original lot. 

T. PUSILLUS, Pease. PI. 16, fig. 156. 

Whorls six, non-varicose, plicately ribbed longitudinally and 
spirally striated ; columella arcuate posteriorly, callous, smooth ; 
outer lip denticulate. White, with irregular brown spots or 
flammules, longitudinally disposed, interrupted in the centre of 
each whorl by a narrow transverse white line. Length, -25 inch. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Figured from a typical example in Coll. Acad. Phila. 
T. SWIFTI, Tryon. PI. 16, fig. 158. 

Whorls eight, convex, without varices ; covered with longitu- 
dinal rounded ribs, crossed by close revolving striae. White, 
maculate with brown. Length 17, diam. 6 mill. 

Isl. of Antigua, W. I. (R. Swift). 

Differs from the related species by its narrow form, elongated 
sharp spire, small aperture, etc. 

Unfigured and Doubtful Species. 

I can only insert the descriptions of the following species, with 
which I am not otherwise acquainted. 

T. LINEOLATUS, Conrad. PI. 16, fig. 159. 

Elevated, with brown revolving Hues ; spire scalariform ; with 
numerous varices or costse on the body-whorl ; they are generally 



32 EPIDROMUS. 

smaller, and crenulate the revolving lines ; labrum with four 

teeth within. Length, -9 mill. 

Tampa Bay, Florida. 

I copy Conrad's figure, which is utterly unrecognizable ; very 
probably the shell is an Engina or Columbella. 

T. BEDNALLI, Brazier. 

Shell elongately turreted, thickish, with six rather indistinct 
rounded elongated varices, spire straight, apex acute, whorls 
eight, convex, sculptured with regular close-set longitudinal ribs 
and transversely striated ; ribs noduled at the suture, white, 
sometimes brown; aperture ovate-oblong, smooth within ; colu- 
mella arcuate, smooth, straight, outer lip thickened, white. 

Length 11, breadth 3'75 lines. 

Guichen Bay, S. Australia. 

Approaches near to Epidromus Brazieri, Angas, and E. Coxi, 
Brazier. 

T. LIMBATUM, Phil. 

Quoted in H. & A. Adams' Genera. I am unable to find any 
description of it. 

T. PAPILLATUS, D unker. 

Shell small, subulately turreted, white ; whorls seven, rounded ; 
suture profound, subcanaliculate ; closely longitudinally plicate, 
varicose, transversely striate, the last whorl a little smaller than 
the spire; aperture ovate, columellar lamina much expanded, 
canal short, recurved. Length 8 mill, lat. 3 mill. 

Viti Islands, 

T. ANGASI, Brazier. 

Fusiform, turreted, thin, with eight distinct rounded varices ; 
spire slightly twisted in the centre, apex obtuse, whorls seven, 
slightly convex, sculptured with longitudinal fine ribs, transversely 
lined, interstices with very minute striae, suture rather deep,crenu- 
lated at the edge ; whitish, besprinkled with chestnut-brown spots, 
a blotch of the same color somewhat square in front of the varices; 
the back of the last whorl showing more of the irregular, nearly 
obsolete brown spots ; columella straight, thickened with a white, 
expanded callus, smooth, outer lip thin at its edge, thickened 



PRIENE. 33 

behind, minutely denticulated within ; aperture oblong-ovate, 
white within ; canal very short, recurved. 

Length 10, breadth 3 lines. 

Torres Straits, Australia. 

It differs from Epidromus Coxi by having coarser sculpture, 
varices larger, more distorted at the third and fourth whorl from 
the aperture by one slightly bulging to the right, and the other 
to the left ; the outer lip thin at the edge, very much thickened 
behind and more strongly crenulated at the suture. 

T. GLADIOLUS, Monterosato. 

A small flattened species, with dichotomous varices like the 
true Ranellse, the canal short, recurved, the mouth rounded, the 
whole shell lance-shaped, without sculpture, white. 

Length 12, diam. 5 mill. 

Alexandria, Egypt. 

This species has not } r et been figured. The description would 
not be unlike a worn specimen of Ranella pusilla, Brod., which 
is recorded from the Red Sea. 

T. VITREUS, FOXII. CANCELLATUS, all of Gray, Beechey's Yoyage, 
110, 1839. 



These species have not been recognized by any author during 
the forty years which have elapsed since they were published. 
They have not been figured, 

T, OBSCURUS, A. Adams, South Coast of Africa ; T. PYRIFORMIS, 
A- Adams, China; T. COMPTUS. A, Adams, China. 
Not figured nor recognizable. 

Subgenus Priene, H. & A. Adams. 

This small group contains shells of comparatively large size, 
thin, cancellate, white without any bands or spots of color, usually 
more or less covered by an epidermis ; the operculum has a 
terminal initial point. The species inhabit a somewhat limited 
region, the West Coasts of South and North America, one of 
them recurring on the Japanese coast. The rarity of varices 
and general appearance of these shells indicate a passage into 
the Fusidae, whilst they appear to connect more remotely with 
the argus group of Ranella and with Buccinvm. 
5 



34 PRTENE. 

T. CANCELLATUS, Lam. PL 16, figs. 164-167 ; pi. 17, figs. 170-172. 

Varying from cancellated to coarsely decussated surface, in 
the latter the intersections of the longitudinal and revolving striae 
frequently rounded nodulous. The epidermal fringe upon the 
nodules is sometimes half an inch in length. 

Length, 3 to 4-5 inches. 

Straits of Magellan, Chili, Oregon, Alaska, Japan. 

I agree with P. P. Carpenter that T. Oregonensis, Red field 
(fig. 167), is synonymous with this species ; the want of the ridge 
upon the upper part of the columella by which Mr. Redfield dis- 
tinguishes his species, being in consequence of the juvenility of 
his type specimen. The variation in the sculpture which, in his 
type, may have supported the view of specific distinction, includes 
every intermediate stage in specimens before me, and in some of 
them, a portion of the shell is rudely cancellated whilst another 
portion is smoother and more finely decussated. The northern 
distribution of T cancellatus is undoubted, but its occurrence 
upon the southern coast of South America is not so certain, 
although probable. 

The male (figs. 171, 172). and female (fig. 170). of this species 
are, according to Gould, distinguished by their coloration ; the 
shells also differ somewhat in form. 

T. SCABER, King. PI. 16, fig. 168. 

Varies like T. cancellatus in the closeness and prominence of 
its sculpture. The internally toothed lip and closely bristled, 
persistent epidermis are quite characteristic of the species. 

Length, 1'5 to 2*25 inches. 

Valparaiso, (7 to 45 fathoms) northwards to the coast of 
Bolivia ; Arctic America to California. 

T. RUDIS, Brod. PL 16, fig. 169. 

Whitish, with a yellowish brown, close, rather persistent epi- 
dermis. Length, 1'5 to 2 inches. 

Chili ; Iquiqui, Peru, in mud and sand, 6 to 10 fathoms, 

and in coarse gravel, 9 fathoms (Cuming\ 



DISTORSIO. 35 

Genus DISTORSIO, Bolten. 

This genus, in its ringent aperture reminds one of the genus 
Media in the Doliidae. 

D. ANUS, Linn. PI. It, figs. 173, 174 ; pi. 15, fig. 153. 

White, with reddish brown bands : colnmellar plate and lip 
flesh white. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Society islands, 
under stones at low water (Cuming). 

The operculum (fig. 174) is curiously modified in form to suit 
the contracted aperture of the shell, with central nucleus. 

D. CANCELLINUS, Roissy. PI. 17, figs. 175-178. 

Yellowish brown, without bands ; spire and canal proportion- 
ally longer than in D. anus; surface peculiarly divided into 
squares by the distant, decussating narrow ribs ; epidermis light 
brown, velvety ; coluuiellar plate and lip varying from very light 
to dark salmon color* Length, 1*75 to 3 inches. 

Ceylon ; China ; Philippines, in coral sand, 6 fathoms (Cuming) ; 
St. Thomas and other West Indian Islands ; Monte Christi and 
Xipixapi, W. Columbia, sandy mud, 7 to 10 fathoms ( Cuming). 

D. con8trictu8,JlrQd (fig. 176) from the West Coast of tropical 
America, as well as D. ridens (fig. 177) and D. decipiens Reeve 
(fig, 178), from the Philippine Islands have no claim to rank even 
as varieties. 

D. PUSILLA, Pease. 

Shell solid, oblong ovate, gibbous, somewhat distorted, four or 
five varices ; whorls beautifully latticed, with rather coarse gran- 
ular raised ridges and fine microscopic spiral striae ; aperture 
small, narrow ; outer lip thick, strongly dentated on inner edge, 
sinuatecl above ; columella deeply excavated and plicately toothed ; 
canal short. 

Only a single specimen has been found, too much faded to 
determine its color. It is pale yellow, with faint traces of brown. 

The above is the original description in full ; it does not give 
any characters not possessed by D. cancellinus. 



36 RANELLA. 

Genus RANELLA, Lain. 

In Eanella the tentacles are commonly somewhat closer together 
than in Triton, and the head is longer and narrower than in 
Murex and Fusus ; the eyes in some species are nearly basal, but 
are generally placed about the middle of the tentacles on their outer 
sides ; the siphon is short and directed upwards ; the foot larger 
than in Triton, Murex, or Fusus, and considerably dilated both 
before and behind ; the mantle does not appear to be furnished 
with limbriated processes as seen in some Murices. In some 
species the trunk is enormously developed, whilst in others it is 
not protruded, in the usual condition of the animal. Operculum 
ovate, horny, with a lateral nucleus and semicircular elements.* 

The species are inhabitants of warm seas, and principally trop- 
ical : those of the typical group, having winged varices live in 
deep water, whilst the nodose species forming the sub-genus 
Lampas, are found at less depth, and prefer coral reefs and rocks. 
The animal is active in its movements. Eupleura, formerly con- 
sidered a subgeneric group of Eanella, is now classed with Muri- 
cinse, on account of the lingual dentition of one of its species.f 

I have retained the generic name Eanella in preference to Bursa, 
Gyrinium, Bufo, Rana, etc., all of which have priority, but were 
obscurely published and have never attained general acceptance. 

Mr. Macdonald J thus describes the larval state of Ranella : 

" I next observed a stout little shell, much resembling a Mac- 
yillivrayia in form, but having the spire more minute and sharply 
marked, and the whorls beset with epidermic spines, disposed in 
close spiral lines. The microscopic examination of the animal 
gave unmistakable proof of its being a Ranella, the lingual den- 
tition agreeing, at least generically, with my figures and speci- 
mens. On examining the operculum, which in Ranella, is so 
very remarkable, exhibiting three successive stages of growth, 
I found that it was quite of the same character, Only that it had 
but yet attained the second stage, Finally, on comparing the 
whole operculum, and the little shell respectively, with the nu- 
cleus of the operculum and the apex of the shell of an adult 



* Adams and Reeve, Voy. Samarang, 37. 

f For the species of Eupleura vide Vol. 11, p. 157. 

\ Linn. Trans. XXIII, 69. 



RANELLA. 37 

Ranella, I could detect no points of difference, even with mag- 
nifying powers ; the conclusion, therefore, is irresistable,that the 
one is but the young state of the other." 

Subgenera. 
LAMPAS, Schum. Shell turreted ; whorls nodose ; aperture with posterior 

channel ; canal very short and recurved. 

ASPA, H. and A. Adams. Shell ovate, ventricose, smooth ; spire very 
short ; whorls nodulous at the angles ; aperture with posterior channel. 
ARGOBUCCINUM, Klein. Spire elevated ; canal short ; posterior channel 
wanting. 

( Typical.) 

(ionu.s RANELLA, Lam. 

R. SPINOSA, Lam. PI. 18, fig. 1 

Light brown, obsoletely banded or mottled with a darker 
shade. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Mauritius. 
R, FOLIATA, Brod. PI. 18, fig. 2. 

Light yellowish brown, both margins of the aperture deep 
orange. Length, 2'25 to 3 inches. 

Mauritius. 

Very closely allied to JR. crumena, with which it has been 
confounded : the only differences are the color of the margins of 
the aperture, the greater extension of the superior sinus-foliation, 
and more distinct wrinkles of the inner lip. It may be only a 
varietal form of JR. crumena. 

R. CRUMENA, Lam. PI. 18, fig. 3. 

Yellowish brown, with darker bands or spots ; aperture white, 
lips more or less stained with orange, Length, 2 to 3'5 inches, 

Ceylon, Philippines. 

R. MARGARITULA, Deshayes, PI. 18, fig. 4, 

Light brown, with darker spots on the principal tubercles; 
^white with a roseate blush within the aperture, with sometimes 
close, narrow brown bands, There is a singular depression upon 
the lower part of the columella. Length, 1'25 to 2 inches, 

Indian Ocean. 



38 LAMPAS, 

Very close to R< crumenq, Lam,, and perhaps only a variety of 
that species. It is usually smaller, more uniform in color, with 
the granules of the surface closer, and more distinct, 

R, ALBIVABICOSA, Reeve, PI. 18, figs, 5, 6, 

White, stained with reddish brown ; varices usually white ; 
aperture roseate. Length, 3 inches, 

India, Java, N. E. Australia. 

More inflated and thinner than the related species, 
R. SUBGRANOSA, Sowb, PI. 19, fig. 8 ; pi. 18, fig. 7, 

Spire and canal more drawn out than in the preceding species, 
not so much inflated ; tubercles less prominent. Marbled light 
brown and white ; interior roseate. Length, 3 to 3'5 inches. 

Chinese Coast, Manilla. 

E. elegans, Beck (fig. 7), is a variety in which the two princi- 
pal rows of tubercles are more spinosely developed. 

R. NANA, Sowb. PI. 20, fig. 15 ; PI. 19, fig. 9. 

Purple or reddish brown, with a white band ; lip and aperture 
white. Shoulder of the whorls encircled by a row of tubercles, 
rest of surface granulate or smooth. Length, 1\5 inches. 

Panama; in coarse sand, 10 fathoms (Cuming). 

The smooth form (fig. 15) is t3^pical ; the granulate shell has 
been called by Sowerby, R. albifasciata (fig, 9), and may retain 
its name as a variety. 

R. CRASSA, Dillw. PI. 19, fig. 10. 

Yellowish brown, irregularly banded with white and chestnut ; 
lip and columella usually tinged with yellow. Shell thick ; sur- 
face obsoletely or distinctly granulate, with frequently one or 
two larger nodes on the middle of the front and back of the 
angle of the whorls ; posterior canal long, bordered by the fim- 
briated lip. Length, 1-25 to 2'5 inches. 

West Indies, Northern Coast of 8. America. 

Subgenus LAMPAS, Schum. 

R. LAMPAS, Linn. PL 19, fig. 12. 

Whitish or cream-color, stained and variegated with orange- 



PAMPAS. 39 

brown ; flesh-color within the aperture ; in the young shells 
orange-red within the aperture and on the lip. 
Length, 3 to 9 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Ins. Viti, Mauritius. 

The most ponderous species of the genus. The half-grown 
shell, when 3 to 5 inches long, is quite thick and already pos- 
sesses adult characters ; it is more highly colored than the larger 
specimens. 

R. BUFONIA, Gmelin. PI, 21, figs. 21-23, 28, 29, 68 ; PI. 19, fig. 
11; PL 20, figs. 13, 14. 

White, brown punctured and spotte'd ; lip and interior white 
or yellowish. Length, 2'5 inches. 

Red Sea, Philippines, Seychelles, I. Bourbon, Paumotus, etc. 

B. tuberosissima. Reeve (fig. 14), is the young of this species, 
with the lip-margin and interior more deepty yellow stained. 
R.asperrima (fig. 29), and Grayana, Dunker (fig. 28), are synon- 
ymous. 

Var. VENUSTULA, Reeve, PI. 20, fig. 13. 

Lip and columella stained with very dark purple ; aperture 
roseate within. R. siphonata, Reeve, (PL 19, fig. 11), is a 
synonym. 

R. CRUENTATA, Sowb. PL 21, figs. 24-27, 30, 31. 

Light yellowish or brownish white, the principal tubercles 
frequently maculated with red ; white or rosy within the aper- 
ture, columella sometimes with dark red spots. 

Length. '15 to 1-5 inches. 

Mauritius, Philippines, West Indies. 

The spots on the columella are not always present in the Phil- 
ippine specimens constituting the type form, and are not found 
in the variety. This species is very closely related to R. bufo- 
nia, but is uniformlj* much smaller and the siphon is not con- 
tinued up the spire in the peculiar manner of that species. 

R. verrucosaj Sowb. (fig. 27), is a rather remarkable looking 
shell, as represented in the monographs, but is nothing else than 
a worn specimen of R. cruentata, in which the nodules become 
smooth and darker in color. I have before me several 



40 LAMPAS. 

intermediate stages which prove their identity. A large cruen* 
tata, with the tubercles dark, and the shell in a fresh state has 
been called E. rugosa by Mr. Sowerby (fig. 31). 

Var. RHODOSTOMA, Beck. PI. 21, fig. 25. 

Shell smaller ; aperture roseate within ; columella white. This 
variety inhabits several West Indian localities, and these were 
named E. Thomas by d'Orbigny (fig. 36). but they do not differ 
at all from Philippine and Mauritian specimens. 

R. CALIFORNIA, Hinds. PL 22, fig. 42 ; PI. 21, fig. 32. 

White, variegated and interruptedly banded with chestnut ; fine 
specimens are roseate within the aperture. 

Length, 2-5 to 4 inches, 

California, Lower California. 

P. P. Carpenter considered this species identical with E, ven- 
tricosa, Brod., and they are certainly so similar as to indicate a 
common ancestry ; venlricosa, however, is much thinner (very 
thin for a Ranella}, more ventricose, spire shorter, surface 
smoother, nodules less developed and more numerous ; E. Cal- 
if ornica is found in the pliocene and post-pliocene formations, 
of California. E. Thersites, Redfield (fig. 32), is a synonym. 

R. VENTRICOSA, Brod. PI. 20, figs. 16-18. 

White, when fresh, mottled and banded with chestnut ; aper- 
ture white within. Shell very thin for the genus. 

Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Callao, Peru. 

D'Orbigny dredged this species in 8 to 10 metres' depth, rocky 
situation With strong current. The eggs are deposited in crowded 
groups upon Macrocystis; they are yellowish or reddish in 
color. 

R. SCROBICULATOR, Linn. PI. 20, figs. 19, 20. 

Mottled yellowish brown and white, with faint darker bands. 
Surface thickly covered with papillary tubercles. 

Length, 2 to 3-5 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Described as a Triton and still referred to that genus by sev- 
eral distinguished conchologists. Like E. lampas it has the var- 
ices of a Triton, but otherwise the facies of a Eanella, and I think 



LAMPAS. 41 

that the balance of characters will agree best with its position 
in the present genus. I cannot doubt that E. coriacea, Reeve 
(fig. 20), is a juvenile state of the same species. 

R. PUSTULOSA, Reeve. PL 22, fig. 33. 

Shell ponderous, chestnut-colored, with two or three rows of 
chocolate-colored, distant, rounded tubercles ; margins of aperture 
orange-brown. Length, 1*5 to 2*25 inches. 

Ascension Isl, Atlantic #., 280 m. N. W. of St. Helena. 

Larger and more ponderous than E. ceelata, with larger and 
less numerous tubercles ; the latter, however, are more numerous 
on the earlier whorls, and it would probably be difficult to dis- 
tinguish a young specimen from E. cselata. The great difference 
in the habitat of the two species nmy readily account for their 
distinctive features, supposing, as is probable, that they were 
originally derived from a common stock. 

R. O^ELATA, Brod. PI. 22, fig, 34. 

Shell dark chestnut-color, with a number of dark chocolate 
colored tubercles, arranged in several rows. 

Length, 1 to 1*75 inches. 

Panama. 
R. CANDISATA, Lamarck. PI. 22, fig. 43. 

Yellowish white, maculate with brown. Length, 4 to 5 inches. 

Philippines, Isle of Annaa. 

Distinguished from the following forms by its large size and 
elongated spire, 

R. GRANIFERA, Lam. PI. 22, figs. 35-37. 

Shell with high spire, rather thin. Light yellowish brown, 
stained and maculated with a darker tint, sometimes obscurely 
white banded, tubercles white ; white within. 

Length, 1-5 to 2-25 inches. 

Eed Sea, Natal, Paumotus, Philippines, N. E. coast of Australia. 

E. semigranosa, Lam., (fig. 37), is a state of this species in 
which the granules are obsolete. I separate E. affinis, Brod. 
(with its synonyms), from this species only with great doubt, for 
although that species is normally more ventricose, with larger 
tubercles, replacing the granules in one to three rows, yet there 
are intermediate forms which it is difficult to place. 



42 ASPA, ARGOBUCCINUM. 

R. AFPINIS, Brod. PI. 22, figs. 38-41 ; pi. 23, fig. 55. 

Light yellowish or fleshy white, frequently rose-tinted towards 
the apex ; surface stained and spotted with brownish red ; tuber- 
cles of the angle largest, sometimes bipartite. 
Length, 1/5 to 2 inches. 

Philippines, New Caledonia, lux. A/uiaa, 

Samoa Isles ; also West Indite. 

R. livida, Reeve (fig. 39), is a less angulated form with the 
tubercles more nearly equal in size throughout. I cannot detect 
an}^ difference in the West Indian shells, of which E. ponder osa, 
Reeve (fig. 55), may represent the typical affinis, whilst E. 
Cubaniana, d'Orb. (fig. 40), is equivalent to E. livida. So many 
intermediate stages of development of angle and tubercles occur 
that no separation of the species is possible; moreover, the 
identity of the whole with E, granifera, Lam., is probable. 

Subgenus Aspa, H. & A. Adams. 

R. MARGIN ATA, Gmelin. PI. 23, fig. 52. 

Porcellanous, polished ; white with a light yellowish tinge. 

Length, 20 to 35 mill. 

E. Coast of Africa ; fossil in Piedmont. 

Subgenus Argobuccinum, Klein. 

R. GIGANTEA, Lam. PI. 24, fig. 09. 

Very light yellowish brown, more or less stained with darker 
brown. Length 5 to 7*5 inches. 

Mediterranean ; Miocene and Pliocene of S. Europe. 

R. LEUCOSTOMA, Lam. PI. 23, figs, 53, 54. 

Chestnut-brown, variegated with white upon the varices, under 
a short velvety brown or green epidermis ; aperture white within. 

Length, 2'5 to 3'5 inches. 

Australia, Tasmania, Ntin Zealand. 

This is one of the species which (like gigantea, lampas, etc.) 
appears to partake almost equally of the characters of a Triton. 
The operculum like the Triton, has a terminal initial growth. 

R. BITUBERCULARIS, Lam. PI. 23, fig. 44. 
Yellowish brown, white within the aperture. 

Length, 20 to 28 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, Australia. 



ARGOBUCOINtlM. 43 

The tubercles are numerous ou the earlier whorls, but (in some 
instances) coallesce into two large ones between the varices on 
the last whorl of the adult. When the more numerous tubercles 
are persistent, the resemblance to the next species is striking, 
there being little to distinguish them except coloration. 

R. TUBERCULATA, Brod. PI. 23, figs. 45-47. 

Chestnut-brown, with infra-sutural and submedian lighter 
bands ; the numerous small tubercles regularly disposed and 
dark chocolate color. Length, 20 to 40 mill. 

Red Sea, Indian , China, Malacca, Manilla, Tahiti. 

Very doubtfully distinct from both the preceding and succeed- 
ing species. E. fmco-costata, Dunker (fig. 45), is a half-grown 
shell of this species in which some of the tubercles have become 
confluent into longitudinal ribs. 

R. PULCHRA, Gray. PI. 23, fig. 51. 

Light yellowish or nearly white, mottled or obscurely banded 
with light brown ; aperture white. Length, 1'6 to 2*25 inches. 

Philippines, Japan. 

H. and A. Adams include this species in Eupleura^ a section of 
the RanelLne which, on account of the dentition and general 
resemblance of the shells to Urosalpinx, etc., has been placed in 
the Muricime : it shows no close relationship to the species of 
Eupleura, however. 

R. GYRINA, Linn. PI. 23, fig. 48. 

Shell white, with two dark chestnut bands on the body-whorl 
and one on those of the spire. Tubercles larger than in E. 
tttberculata, disposed to become confluent into ribs longitudinally. 

Length, '75 to 1-5 inches. 

Torres' Straits, Australia ; Viti Isles. 

R. CUSPIDATA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 49. 

Light orange-color ; ponderous ; the last whorl bituberculate 

between the varices. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Philippines. 

Somewhat like E. bitubercularis but more pyramidal, and 
wants the long canal of that species ; it is also heavier in its 
growth. 



44 ARGOBUCCINUM. 

R. PUSILLA, Brod. PI. 24, figs. 56-58, 66 ; pi. 23, fig. 50. 

Color varying from white, more or less stained with rose 
(typical) to uniform roseate or rosy with yellow varices (var. E. 
rosea, Reeve, fig. 58), or. light chestnut with a, median white band 
(R< concinna, Dunker, fig. 50). Length, 10 to 20 mill. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Australia, New Caledonia, 
Tahiti, Lord Hood's IsL, Sandwich Isles, Natal. 

The intermediate stages of coloration and perfect similarity of 
appearance of the three species indicated above, justify their union 
under the oldest published name. R. polychloros, Tapparone- 
Canefri, agrees well with a variety of R. pusilla from the Sand- 
wich Islands in Coll. A. N. S. Philada., having a purple-tinted 
aperture, dirty white exterior surface and chestnut bands. I can 
scarcely doubt its identity with R. pusilla. It has not been 
figured. 

R. ANCEPS, Lam. PL 24, figs. 59, 67. 

Pure white ; obsoletely bi-triplicate between the varices, encir- 
cled by revolving lines. Length, '4 to 1 inch. 

Torres' Straits, Australia ; Japan; Vitiand Sandwich Isles ; 

Panama ; West Indies. 

The above localities have all been duly verified, and notwith- 
standing the very extensive distribution there does not appear to 
be any variation in the species. In general appearance it is much 
like some of the small Tritons of the subgenus Epidromus. 

R. HASTULA, Reeve. PI. 24, fig. 60. 

Chestnut-brown, varices yellowish ; transversely granulately 
striated. Length, 15 mill. 

lid h. >i iil.-nnicn. 

R. AEGUS, Gmelin. PI. 24, figs. 61-65. 

Longitudinally plicately nod tiled, the nodules being either 
distant and large or crowded and small ; in the latter case they 
are scarcely connected by longitudinal ridges, and being rubbed 
white, upon the brown, banded shell, have given rise to the name 
of the hundred-eyed monster. Fresh specimens are covered with 
a closely-wrinkled brown epidermis. Outer lip of shell thickened 
and coarsely dentate within, sometimes in the adult, developing 



ARGOBUCCINUM. 45 

a tooth, like Monoceros ; columella plicate in the young, much 
thickened and smooth in the adult shell. Length, 2'5 to 4 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope; Ins. Chiloe and Conception, Chili ; 

Chatham Isles, New Zealand ; Isle of St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

The type-form of this species (fig, 61) is from Cape of Good 
Hope, whilst the R. Ranelliformis, King (= vexillum, Sowb, 
fig. 62), supposed to be distinguished by being lighter in structure, 
more fusiform, columella wrinkled, no tooth on outer lip, etc., is 
from W. Coast of S. America ; found in rocky places at from 3 
to 10 fathoms by Mr. Cuming, There is every gradation between 
the two forms, however, even in Cape specimens, and I cannot 
separate them even as varieties. 

Mr. Velain* remarks that R. proditor (fig. 64 = this species) 
is very plentiful at the Islands of Amsterdam and St. Paul, in the 
Indian Ocean, where the skeletons of seals, abandoned on the 
rocks at low-water by the fishermen, were literally covered with 
lobsters and Ranellse at the succeeding tide. They are nocturnal 
in nabit and may be readily fished by suspending over-night, in 
10 or 15 metres depth, the body of a bird or fish. 

Undetermined Ranellse. 

The following species being imfigured, cannot be placed 
definitely : 

R. PRODUCTA, Pease ; R. UITKOSTOMA, Pease; both from the 
Sandwich Islands. 

R. JUCUNDA, A. Adam's ; North Auxtrc/lia. 

R. EPITREMA, Tenison- Woods. This is described as a widely 
ovate, whitish species, not quite an inch in length ; it is nodose 
and lirate. with a conspicuously margined lip. dentate within. 
It has a deeply canaliculate suture, causing the varices to over- 
lap in a singular hooked manner. Australia. 

The description agrees very well with that of R. jucunda, A. 
Adams, 

R. PAULJJCCIANA, Tapparone-Canefri ; Mauritius. Possibly 
one of the numerous varieties of R. cruentata, Sowb. 



Archiv. Zool. Exp. VI, 100. 



46 

Family FUSID^E. 

Shell more or less spindle-shaped, without varices ; the lip of 
the aperture not thickened, 

Operculum ovate, acute, with apical nucleus. 

The animal possesses the essential features of a Murex. 

Dentition. That of the tj-pical genus Fusus does not differ es- 
sentially from that of Fasciolaria; Stimpson states* that it has the 
saw-like lateral teeth of Fasciolaria, whilst M acdonaldf found an- 
other species to possess lateral teeth of the Muricoid type. Tros- 
chel finds a Fasciolarioid dentition in Fusus Syracusanuv, and he 
has accordingly made for it a new genus, Aptyxis ; but Schacko has 
recently found the same dentition in Fusus inconstans Lischke, a 
typical Fusus. I think that Macdonald must have mistaken some 
other genus for Fusus. The dentition of Sipho, which, according 
to Troschel, resembles that of Fasciolaria is shown by the more 
recent investigations of Sars to be Buccinoid , Ptychatractus, with 
evident resemblance to Fasciolaria has a peculiar dentition, ap- 
proaching Murex, and on this character alone Stimpson, followed 
by Gill, assigns to it a distinct family. 

Neptunea, Melongena, etc., long classed with Fusidae are now 
brought into more intimate relationship with Buccinum, and 
Busycon, and Tudicla will go into the same group ; on the other 
hand Peristernia, Latirus, etc., formerly included in Turbinellidee 
have a Fasciolarioid dentition, which, with added conchological 
characters may suffice for their removal from that to the present 
family. Stimpson j describes and figures the dentition of an 
unknown species of Peristernia from the coast of Georgia, which 
lias the essential features of Busycon* and he thereupon places 
the genus in Neptuniin^e ; but it is evident that he was in error, 
as Troschel figures known species, which are Fasciolariform in 
dentition as they are in conchological characters. 
Sub-family Fusinse. Columella not plicate, not tortuous. 
Sub-family Fasciolariinse. Columella tortuous with oblique plaits 

or plications. 

* Am. Jour. Conch. I, 54. 

f Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th Ser. II, 243. 

Am. Jour. Conch., I, 60. 



9& V " ' 

FUSING. -fjf* ^fi 

Q/u o / 

Sub-family Ptychatractinve, Differs from Fasciolariinae in lihaual '^ A 

dentition, and includes only three small boreal species. 
Sub-family Peristerniinse, Columella with transverse plications. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Sub-Family FUSINJE. 

FUSUS, Lam. Shell fusiform or spindle-shaped ; spire many-whorled, 

acuminate, longer than the last whorl ; aperture oval ; canal long, 

straight, narrow ; columella smooth, arcuated. Dentition, PI. 25, fig. 1. 

Subgenus SINISTRALIA, H. and A. Ad. Shell reversed, fusiform ; canal 

long ; whorls rounded. 

AFER, Conrad. Shell short fusiform, spire and canal moderate, body 
whorl rather large, shouldered and tuberculate, aperture channelled 
behind, outer lip dentate within. (Professor Meek * states that the 
fossil species described by Conrad, are not congeneric with the type> 
the recent Fusus afer, Lam., and he refers them to Conrad's genus 
Pyrifusus, one of the forms of N'ptuniincB.) 

CLAVELLA, Swains. Shell solid, thick, subfusiform ; spire acuminate; 

last whorl suddenly contracted in front, thickened and rounded next the 

suture ; aperture narrow, canal long and straight ; columella excavated 

in the middle ; outer lip simple. Operculum ovate ; nucleus apical. 

Dentition, unknown. 

Peistocheilus, Meek, Described as a subgenus of Fasciolaria, appears to 
be identical with Clavella, as Meek himself subsequently suspected. 
The columellar plaits are nearly obsolete, situated so far within the 
aperture as to be barely-visible and in many specimens are not seen 
at all. Clavella itself occasionally shows these adventitious and in- 
conspicuous plaits. The shell is so decidedly fusiform that I place it 
in the Fusinae in preference to the Fasciolariinse despite these folds. 
The dentition of Clavella distorta corresponds with that of Cantharus, 
Kuthria, etc., with which the genus has heretofore been associated in 
the sub-family Pisaniinae, and this species and its allies are also con- 
chologically related to that sub-family, but the fossil types and the 
recent C. serotina are generically different, so that the genus as thus 
restricted must be placed here. 

I figure the type of Meek's subgenus Peistochilus. 

P. Scarborough^, Meek and Hayden, PI. 28, figs. 41, 42. Cretaceous ; 
Butte au Ores, Missouri River. 

BUCCINOFUSUS, Conrad. Shell ventricose, spirally sculptured ; epi- 
dermis pilose ; spire produced ; canal moderate in length ; columella 

* Pal. Hayden's Survey., IX, 344, 



48 FASCIOLARIINjE, ETC. 

smooth. Dentition, pi. 25, fig, 4. The type of this genus is a miocene 
fossil. B. parilis Conr. (PI. 28, fig. 40): the recent species is Boreo- 
fusus Berniciensis, the type of a genus described by Sars, which becomes 
a synonym. 

Sub-Family FASCIOLARIINJE. 

FASCIOLARIA, Lam. Shell fusiform ; spire acuminated ; aperture oval, 
elongated ; canal open, moderate in length, nearly straight ; columella 
smooth, with a few oblique plaits at the forepart ; outer lip internally 
crenate. Dentition, pi. 25, figs. 2, 3. 

Sub-Family PTYCHATRACTIN7E. 

PTYCHATRA.CTUS, Stimpson. Shell fusiform, spirally striated; 
aperture with a moderate canal ; columella plicated as in Fasciolaria. 
Dentition, pi, 25, fig, 5. 

MEYERIA, Dunker and Metzger. Shell elongate fusiform, longitu- 
dinally obtusely plicate ; spire produced ; canal exserted ; columella 
obscurely plicate. Operculum irregularly ovate ; apex obtuse ; 
nucleus inconspicuous. Dentition, pi. 25, figs. 6, 1. 

Sub-Family PEKISTERNIIN^E. 

PERISTERNIA, Morch. Shell turreted, not umbilicated ; whorls longi- 
tudinally ribbed ; aperture oval ; canal moderate and recurved ; outer 
lip thin and crenulated ; columella with one or two slight plaits anteri- 
orly, Dentition, pi. 25, fig. 8. The want of umbilicus, less distinct 
columella folds and recurved canal are the principal (and not sufficient) 
distinctions from Latirus. 

LATIRUS, Montf. Shell turreted, fusiform, sometimes umbilicated ; 
spire produced ; whorls nodulous , aperture oval-oblong ; outer lip 
thin, crenulated ; columella straight, with two or three small oblique 
plaits in front, Mr. H, Crosse remarks upon the insufficiency of the 
diagnosis of Latirus by Montfort and H, and A, Adams, and proposes 
to relegate the species to Turbinella; that genus, however, may be more 
advantageously restricted to the forms for which the genera Vasum and 
Mazza have been constituted, 

LEUCOZONIA, Gray. Shell oval, subglobose, shouldered ; spire mode- 
rate ; aperture oblong ; canal short ; columella subflexuous, with small 
oblique, unequal plaits ; outer lip sub-acute, with a more or less promi- 
nent tooth or tubercle at the forepart. Dentition, pi. 25, fig. 9. 
Subgenus LAGENA, Schum. Whorls rounded above, not shouldered. 



FUSING. 49 

Fossil Genera and Subgenera. 
Subfamily FUSINJE. 

Subgenus EXILIFUSUS, Gabb. Shell very long, slender, fusiform ; spire 
high ; aperture produced into a long, slender, twisted canal. 

This group differs from the true genus Fmus, as restricted, by its 
twisted, slender canal. In this character it approaches some of the 
Neptuneae, but its high spire and strongly costate whorls show that it is 
more nearly allied to the true Fvsxs. 

E. KERRI, Gabb. PL 28, fig. 43. Cretaceous, N. Carolina. 

Subgenus EXILIA, Conrad. Shell very narrow, costate, spire subulate, 
canal long and narrow. 

E. PERGKACILIS, Conr. PI. 28, fig. 44. Eocene, Alab<tt/t. 
Scarcely distinct from the typical Fusae. E,riUfnsux, Conrad (non 
Gabb), is evidently a synonym. 

E. THALLOIDES, Conr. PI. 28, fig. 45. riiiiborne, Alabama. 

Genus TURRISPIRA, Conrad. Has not been characterized, and does 
not seem to differ from FHXHN. 

T. SALEBROSA, Conrad. PI. 28, fig. 46. Eocene, Alabama. 

Genus PRISCOFUSTJS, Conrad. Founded on Fmm genicultts, Conrad, 
a very poorly preserved or figured fossil ; the type has "been lost for twenty 
years. The species is wholly unrecognizable, and should be expunged 
from nomenclature. For this rubbish Mr. Conrad has proposed a genus 
Priscofusus, but with neither figure nor diagnosis." Drill, Proc. Calif. 
Ac fid. 1877. 

F. GENICULUS, Conrad. Plate 28, fig. 47. Eocene, Astoria, Oregon. 
Subgenus SERRIFUSUS, Meek. Shell short-fusiform ; body volution 

large, and bi- or tricarinate. with carinae more or less nodose ; spire and 
canal moderate, the latter bent and more or less twisted ; outer lip broadly 
but slightly sinuous in outline, between the upper carina and the suture. 

S. DAKOTENSIS, Meek and Hayden, PI. 28 figs. 48, 49. Cretaceous, 
Dakotah . 

This form so much resembles the recent Ft/tors (Hemifuxus] probotd- 
fliferi's, Lam., that it might well be considered a fossil form of the same 
group. 

SCALASPIRA, Conrad. This uncharacterized Miocene genus is figured 
by me (Manual, Vol. 2, pi. 70, fig. 431) as a possible synonym with Uro- 
salpinx. It may be a Fusus, however. 
7 



50 FASCIOLARITN^E. 

Sub-Family FASCIOLARIINJE. 

Subgenus TEREBRISPIRA, Conrad. Shell of medium size, with spire 
much produced and canal short ; volutions convex, angular, and strongly 
spirally ridged ; plaits of columella not exposed externally ; outer lip 
internally sulcated. 

T. ELEGANS, Emmons. PI. 29, fig. 50. Miocene, Alabama. 

Subgenus MESORHYTIS, Meek. Shell agreeing nearly with Peistocheilus 
in form, but with plaits of columella stronger, comparatively little oblique, 
and exposed directly opposite the middle of the aperture ; surface with 
fine spiral striae, and vertical costss. 

M. GRACILENTA, Meek. PI. 29, fig. 51. Cretaceous, Yellowstone River, 
150 miles from its mouth. 

Has the folds of a Mitra, rather than a Fasciolaria, and Meek refers it 
with considerable doubt to its present position. 

Subgenus CRYPTORHYTIS, Meek. Shell generally under medium size, 
with volutions convex, but constricted above, and provided with regular 
vertical costas or small folds ; plaits of the columella very oblique, not 
exposed in a direct view into the aperture, and occupying a higher position 
than in the typical group ; outer lip smooth within. 

C. CHEYENNENSIS, Meek and Hayden. PI. 29, fig. 52 (from a cast). 
Cretaceous, Dakotnli. 

Subgenus LIROSOMA, Conrad. Subpyriform ; ribbed, beak narrow and 
produced, slightly recurved ; one long, very oblique plait at the angle of 
the columella. 

L. SULCOSA, Conrad. PL 29, fig. 53. Miocene, Maryland. 
Its pertinence to this genus is very doutful. 4 

Genus FASCIOLINA, Conrad. Fusiform; columella nearly straight 
to the extremity of the beak ; one prominent oblique fold on the columella, 
situated above the middle of the aperture. 

F. WOODII, Gabb. PI. 29, fig. 52. Miocene, New Jersey. 

The only figure does not exhibit the aperture, but Conrad states that 
the fold is situated more remote from the beak than in any other genus 
except Cuma. 

CORDIERIA, Rouault. This genus is synonymous with Borsonia, and is 
a member of the family Pleurotomida3. Conrad, however, has referred 
fossil Fasciolarise to it. 

WHITNEYA, Gabb. Pal. Calif., I, 205. 

This is said by its author to have some resemblance to Fasciolaria ; I 
have referred it to Purpurinse, as a distinct generic group related to 
Melapium. See Manual, Vol. II, p. 214, pi. 68, fig. 397. 



FUSING. 51 

Sub-Family FUSING. 

Genus FTJSUS, Lam. 

Shell fusiform ; spire long, acuminate, many whorled ; aper- 
ture oval, usually striate within; outer lip simple; columella 
smooth ; no umbilicus ; canal long and straight. Yellowish 
brown or light horn-color, sometimes with red brown strigse or 
spots ; never banded. Operculum ovate, acute, with apical 
nucleus. 

The genus as above denned, includes a considerable number of 
species very closely related in form, sculpture and color. The 
chief discriminative characters used are the proportions of dia- 
meter to length of shell, the longitudinal ribs and revolving striae, 
the presence or absence of a shoulder on the whorls and of tub- 
ercles. Having examined extensive suites of specimens from 
single localities I find so much variation in all these respects 
that I am somewhat at a loss how to treat the species. I much 
fear that the number of specific forms, which, for want of actual 
demonstration to the contrary, I must leave intact, will eventu- 
ally have to be greatly reduced when more material shall render 
possible a more philosophic consideration of the specific char- 
acters. The genus, as restricted to the spindle-shaped forms, is 
sub-tropical in distribution the northern species usually de- 
scribed as Fusus ~by the older conchologists being now more 
correctly referred to the family Buccinidae. 

1. Shell with periphery carinate and tuberculate. 
a. Tubercles produced, spinous. 

F. PAGODA, Lesson. PI. 32, fig, 86. 

Shell yellowish brown. Length, 2'5 inches. 

Near Kiusu, Gorea ; in 14 fathoms. Belcher, Adams. 

The spinose shoulder and the additional lower angle, with the 
short-spined lateral riblets on the canal distinguish this species 
sufficiently from all others. Fusus Japonicus Gray, according to 
the description must be identical with it. 

F. VAGINATUS, Jan. PI. 32, figs. 87, 88. 

Yellowish brown ; the spines of the shoulder terminating in 
longitudinal laminae. Length, 1 inch. 

Coasts of Provence, Sicily, sEgean Isles, 



52 FUSING. 

A rare species, inhabiting deep waters. It is found fossil in 
the miocene and pliocene of the adjacent countries. 

b. Tubercles compressed ; not ribbed. 
F. FROBOsciDiFERUg, Lam. PI. 32, fig. 93. 

Yellowish brown, covered by a light brown epidermis. 

Length, 8 to 12 inches. 

Australia. 

This species is remarkable for its shelving shoulder, forming 
a conical spire with flat sides, for the ridge at the angle of the 
shoulder, which on the body whorl is only slightly or not at all 
tuberculate, for the absence of longitudinal ribs, and for the sepa- 
ration of the lip from the canal, forming a long, narrow, umbili- 
cal channel. It is an aberrant form which I have been tempted 
to place in Hemifustis, or to make it the type of a new genus. 
Dr. Binney identified this species with Murex Aruanus, Linn., 
which is exceedingly questionable, as that name is usually cited 
for a very different shell belonging to the genus Ftilyur. It 
appears to me to be more advisable to retain Lamarck's well- 
known name. 

F. VENTRICOSUS, II. Adams.^ PL 32, fig. 94. 

Yellowish white. Length, 130 mill. 

D'Agulhas Bank, Cape of Good Hope. 

Evidently related to the preceding species and showing even 
more clearly than it does the separation of the inner lip from 
the columella. Kobelt has changed the name to Adarnvii, because 
the original specific name is preoccupied by Beck and Gray, but 
as I do not adopt either of these in the genus, I retain Adams' 
designation. 

c. Tubercles compressed, shell ribbed longitudinally. 
F. COLUS, Linn. PI. 32, figs. 89-92, 95. 

White, the upper whorls of the spire and a part of the canal 
stained with brown ; periphery sometimes brown-banded between 
the nodules. Length. 6 to 7 inches ; diameter 1 -5 inches. 

Ceylon, Tonga Tabou. 

Var. TOREUMA, Martyn (fig. 95), is distinguished from the 
typical form only by being more highly colored. The shell is 
yellowish brown, with chestnut-brown between the tubercles on 



FUSING. 53 

the periphery and the rest of the surface irregularly longi- 
tudinally streaked and clouded with the same color. 

F. NICOBARICUS, Lam. PI. 32, figs. 98, 97, 96 ; pi. 33, fig. 99. 

Shell very like F. coins ^ var. toreiima, but* stouter and more 
coarsely sculptured, the ribs being rounded, and duplicating the 
nodules of the shoulder. Length, 5 to 6 inches. 

Japan, Philippines. 

F. oblitus, Reeve (fig. 97), appears to be the same. 
Var. BECKII, Reeve. PI. 33, fig. 99. 

Only differs in being denuded of epidermis ; white, without 
any fuscous markings. 

'Var. BRENCHLEYI. Baird. PL 32, fig 96. 

A little shorter and proportionally wider than the type, the 
revolving ridges more irregular and consisting of two to four 
striae combined, the coloring more closely disposed and deeper. 

Length, 3*5 inches. 

I suspect that this is founded on a single specimen and that 
the characters are individual only, and would gradually change 
into those of the type, if a scries should be examined. I have 
not seen the specimen. 

F. LATICOSTATUS, Desh. PL 33, fig. 101. 

Profusely strigated with chestnut-brown ; heavier and wider 
than F. Nicob&ricus, the revolving ribs wide and flattened. 

Length, 5 inches. 

Ceylon. 
Perhaps only a variety of the preceding species. 

F. VIRGA, Gr&y. 

" Shell fusiform, elongate, solid, white , apex yellowish ; spire 
acute, two-thirds the length of the mouth; whorls rounded, 
convex, regularly and strongly longitudinally plaited, with alter- 
nate broad, sharp-edged and very fine spiral ribs ; suture distinct ; 
mouth ovate ; throat grooved ; outer lip crenulated ; canal 
elongated, tapering, transversely striated, smooth in front. 

Length, 5 inches. 

Hob. China ; not uncommon. 

Compare with F. latiL-ostahis, Desh., but the ribs are not broad 
and depressed. The nucleus of this species, as in most of the 



54 FUSING. 

genus, is quite smooth, sub-cylindrical, blunt, of one whorl and 
a half; the periostracum thin, pale brown, hairy." 

The above description is all that is known of the species ; it 
does not seem to. convey any really distinctive characters from 
several other well-known species. It has not been figured, 

P. TUBERCULATUS, Lam. PI, 33, fig. 100; pi. 34, figs, 110, 111. 

White, coarsely sculptured with revolving rounded ribs, the 
angle of the shoulder somewhat distantly tuberculated, and the 
interstices chestnut-brown. Length, 4*5 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean. 

' This shell has a shorter spire and canal and is wider in pro- 
portion than F. Nicobaricus, of which, however, it may be only 
a variety. M. Tapparone-Canefri has given this species the 
name F. maculiferus because of the prior use of the specific 
name by Chemnitz for another species, but as that author was 
not binomial, his descriptive phrase being " F. tuberculatus sen 
muricatus," Lamarck's designation can stand, 

Yar. NODOSOPLICATUS, Dunker. PI 34, figs. 110. 111. 

Shell larger, more prominently nodose, unicolored. 

Length, 5' 5 inches. Japan. 

Lischke figures a variety (fig. 1 11) of this form, which not only 
approaches the next species but, in its obsolete carin<e, connects 
it also with a different group of Fusi. t 

F. LOEBBECKEI, Kobelt. PI. 34, fig.'112. 

Greyish white, spire somewhat stained with yellow. 
Length, 106 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Described from a single, somewhat worn specimen. 

F. PERPLEXUS, A. Adams. PI. 3S, figs. 102-10T. 

Shell white or yellowish, with or without chestnut markings, 
rather thin. Typically the shoulder and nodules are well devel- 
oped, but they gradually disappear in a series of individuals 
until in some forms they are entirely absent, and the body-whorl 
is rounded and simply sculptured with revolving stria?. This 
extensive range of variation, fully established by the admirable 
figures of Lischke 's Fusus inconstant (as above), not only suffices 



FUSING. 55 

for the suppression of this species but, if a similar variability in 
the other forms be assumed, it would almost reduce the oriental 
Fusie to a single species. I do not think that science will be 
advanced by a radical reduction of these species at present : on 
the other hand, whilst perplexus has no real claims to recognition 
as a species, yet to suppress it would be to refer its various forms 
to several different species, although they are very evidently 
mere modifications of growth of a single species. Under these 
circumstances I let it stand, F. perplexus has not been figured, 
but Mr. E. Smith, of the British Museum, finds no difference 
between specimens of it and the figures of Fusus inconstant 
Lischke, a species published four years later. 

Length, 3 to 5 inches. 

flab Japan. 
F. MULTICARINATUS, Lam. PI. 33. fig. 109. 

Yellowish white. Length, 4*5 to 5 inches. 

Red Sea. 

The species figured by Reeve under this name is not angulate 
and much resembles F. turricula ; it has been separated from 
multicarinatus by Philippi and Tapparone-Canefri and is called 
F. Reeveanus by the former ; it is a synonym of Fusus spectrum, 
Adams and Reeve. 

F. AUSTRALIS, Quoy. PI. 34, figs. 113-119. 

Brownish red, or yellowish with chestnut spots or narrow 
bands ; periphery snbcarinate but shoulder scarcely defined, 
rounded ; upon the bod3 7 -whorl the revolving stria? arc frequently 
more prominent than the ribs, breaking up the latter into tuber- 
cles at their crossing. Spire and canal proportionally shorter 
than in the preceding species. Length, 3' 75 inches. 

Red Sea, Japan, Australia. 

M. Tapparone-Canefri gives to this species the name of F. 
tuberculatus, Chemn., which cannot stand, as the descriptive 
phrase is " F. tuberculatus seu muricatus." He also refers to 
F. verrucosus, Wood (as of Gmelin), but the identification is 
doubtful. F. marmoratus (figs. 114, 115), Phil., F. aureus, 
Reeve (figs. 116, 117), and F. crebriliratus, Reeve (fig. 118), 
may be confidently placed in the S3 T nonymy of the species. F. 
caudatus, Quoy (fig. 119), is the young shell. 



56 FUSING. 

F. LONGISSIMUS, Gmel. PI. 34, fig. 120. 

Shell white, covered sometimes by a very light brown 
epidermis ; angle of each whorl bearing about ten rather large, 

compressed nodules. Length, 7*5 to 9 inches. 

Ceylon. 

F. candidus, Gmel., appears to be the same species and has a 
prior position in the " Systema," although published on the same 
page ; I use longissimus preferably because it was adopted by 
Lamarck, and the species is, consequently, much better known 
under that name. 
F. UNDATUS, Gmel. PI. 32. figs. 121, 126. 

Shell heavy, white; nodules more prominent, not compressed, 
and fewer than in F. longissimus, being 7 or 8 to the whorl ; 
revolving striae not so prominent. Length, 6 to 7 inches. 

Central Polynesia. 

This species resembles the preceding, but the characters given 
above will serve to distinguish it. It is a very ponderous shell, 
and has an obsolete angle on the periphery below the shoulder 
line, making the body-whorl somewhat biangulate. 

F. similis, Baird (fig. 126), from New Caledonia appears to be 
the same species, only differing in having "about 10 or 11" 
nodules in the specimen described. 

F. POLYGONOIDES, Lam. PL 35, figs. 127, 128. 

Light brown, spotted and strigate with chestnut-brown ; body- 
whorl distinctly biangulate; both angles nodulous, those of tho 
shoulder the most prominent. Length 2'5 to 3*5 inches. 

East Indies. 

I figure two examples of this species, the proportions varying 
considerably. It is possible that the succeeding species may be 
only a very sliin variety, yet I am inclined to consider it distinct. 

F. LEPTORHYNCHUS, Tapparone-Canefri. PI. 35, fig. 129. 
Whitish, more or less strigated with reddish brown. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Red tfe<t. 
See remarks under F. polygonoides, above. 

F. STRIGATUS, Phil. PI. 35, fig. 122. 

White, sharply angulate at the shoulder ; longitudinal ribs 
prominent, chestnut-brown. Length, 2 inches. 

Red Sea f Australia ? 



FUSING. 57 

M. Tapparone-Canefri thinks that this species .approaches 
rather too closely to a variety of F. polygonoides, Lam.; he thinks 
F. pauper culus, Desh., may be the young of it. 

F. GRADATUS, Reeve. PL 35, figs. 123-125. 

Light yellowish or orange, the nodulous sculpture white. 
Shell distinctly shouldered, covered by coarse rounded longi- 
tudinal ribs, which are cut into compressed nodules by coarse 

revolving riblets. Length, 2 to 2*5 inches. 

West Indies. 

The species was described without locality, but the figure 
corresponds exactly with specimens of F. Hartwigi, Shuttl. (fig. 
124), which were collected at the island of St. Thomas, W. I. 
F. Paeteli, Dunker (fig. 125), also described without locality, 
appears to be the same. The latter species is compared by 
Dunker with F. strigatus, Phil., with which, notwithstanding the 
differences he has pointed out, it is entirely too closely allied. 

F. SCHRAMMI, Crosse. PI. 35, fig. 130. 

Subtranslucent, finely striated with revolving lirre ; longitu- 
dinaly, tuberculately costate ; with a median sharp angle or 
carina, appearing on the spiral whorls also. Yellowish, with an 
interrupted, pallid brown band. Length, 69 mill. 

Guadeloupe, W. L 

This may possibly be the young of an extreme variety of the 
following species. 

F. DISTANS, Lam. PI. 36, fig. 131. 

Whorls convex, carinate in the middle, and encircled by a row 
of compressed tubercles. Light yellowish brown, the raised 
revolving line darker, as are also the interstices of the tubercles. 
Shell stout but rather light in texture. Length, 5 to 6 inches. 

Philippine Islands. 

Murex ansatus and versicolor, Gmelin, are probably the same 
species, but I am unable to identify them positively. The fol- 
lowing, however, can only be separated by locality, and by its 
usually more elate form although some are exactly like distans. 
It may be advisable to treat it, for the present, as a variety. 

8 



58 

Var. CLOSTER, Philippi. PL 36, fig. 132. 

Spire usually more drawn out ; sometimes uncolored beneath 
the light olive epidermis. Length, 6 to T'S inches. 

1*1. of Margarita, W. 1. 

I have a fine suite of this form connecting it very completely 
with F. distant. 

Yar. DUPETITHOUARSII, Kiener. PI. 36, figs. 133, 134. 

Unicolored beneath the light olive epidermis ; spire more elate 
than the type ; upper whorls more or less tuberculate, the tuber- 
cles usually vanishing before the last whorl, although sometimes 
continued and forming an angle upon it ; body usually well 
rounded, showing no distinct shoulder, encircled throughout 
with revolving ribs, no tubercles. 

Galapagos Isles ; W. Coast of Central America, N. to Acapulco. 

Kiener 's figure of this form (fig. 133) represents a shell quite 
similar to F. distans, and the collection of the Philad. Academy 
contains a similar specimen ; ordinarily, however, the non-carinate 
form obtains, and such is represented by the figures of Valen- 
ciennes and Reeve. Fusus Novse-Hollandise, Reeve, next de- 
scribed, is certainly very closely allied to this species. 

F. SPECTRUM, Ad. and Reeve. PL 36, fig. 135. 

Shell slim, graceful, unicolored, white under a light brown 
epidermis; spire whorls crossed by rounded ribs, which are 
evanescent on the body, the latter having a sharp carina of com- 
pressed tubercles, defining a shoulder. Length, 3 inches. 

Eastern Seas ; Japan. 

Yar. NOVJE-HOLLANDIJE, Reeve. PL 37, fig. 137 ; pi. 33, fig. 108. 
Ribs continued over the body-whorl, obliterating the carina 

and shoulder. Length, 4 to 6 inches. 

Australia. 

F. multicarinatus, (non Lam., fig. 108) = F. Eeeveanus, Phil,, 
appears to be the same species. 

Notwithstanding its slimmer form it is very doubtful whether 
this should be considered specifically distinct from the last 
species. Fusus albus, Philippi is, according to the description, 
a synonym of the variety. 



FUSING. 59 

F. TORULOSUS, Lam, PI. 36, fig. 136. 

Chestnut-brown, the nodules lighter and their interstices 
darker. Length, 6 inches. 

Red Sea f 

Perhaps more robust and more boldly sculptured as well as 
darker color than the average F. distans, yet scarcely distinct 
enough to be separated from it. 

F. ASSIMILIS, A. Adams. 

The description of this unfigured species will suit any species 
of the group, and it is said to resemble in form and sculpture 
the F. turricula except that the whorls are nodosely angulated. 

China Seas. 
F. AMBUSTUS, Gould. PI. 37, fig. 138. 

Shell yellowish, shaded with brown, so as to appear as if 
scorched ; spire acute, whorls eight, angular, girdled with elevated 
threads, and having about eight varicose folds, which disappear 
on the lower part of the body. Aperture quite small, nearly 
semicircular; beak nearly straight, and with a very narrow 

channel. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Mazatlan, Guaymas. 

It is evident, from Gould's figure, that his species is a young 
shell, and 1 think that the adult is the Dupetithouarsi of Car- 
penter, which he considered equivalent to Novse-Hollandise of 
Reeve. I have before me a pair of shells three inches long, from 
Cape St. Lucas, and identified by Carpenter as Dupetithouarsi, 
Kiener : they are narrower and more graceful than that species, 
however, and whilst sufficiently resembling an ambustus, also 
before me, except in much greater size, they cannot, on the other 
hand, be distinguished from F. spectrum, vai\ Novse Hollandiae. 
I have indicated the synonymy as it appears to me, but have not 
sufficient material to justify me in deciding the matter definitely. 

Mr. W. H. Ball has examined a photograph from an original 
drawing of F. tumens, Carpenter, an unfigured species described 
from a very young individual, and identifies it with ambustus. 
The ambustus of Carpenter, Cooper and others = the following 
species. 



60 FUSINJE. 

F. CINEREUS, Reeve. PL 3f, figs. 139-141. 

Shell more or less shouldered ; canal rather short; spire long. 
Ribs generally whitish ; revolving lirse, alternately larger and 
smaller, cross the ribs, and the larger lirse are brownish ; the 
interstices of the sculpture are brownish, sometimes variegated 
with white. Length, 20 mill. 

Farallone Isles to San Diego, Gal. ; La Paz, L. Gal. Gabb. 

Fusus luteopictus, Dall (fig. 140), is the shell which many 
Californian collectors have erroneously referred to F. ambustus, 
Gld., and which others have identified as F. geniculus, Conrad : 
the latter is a miocene fossil, the figure of which is not sufficiently 
good for recognition, the type lost. I do not doubt the identity 
of luteopictus with cinereus, which was described without locality. 
and as a Turbinella. P. Taylorianus, Reeve, (fig. 141). appears 
to be a worn, immature state of the same species. 

F. DUNKERT, Jonas. PL 3t, fig. 142. 

White, with a brownish interrupted zone. Length, 20 mill. 

Australia. 

This is evidently a very much worn specimen and perhaps not 
adult; the locality, also, has not been confirmed by subsequent 
collectors. Dr. Philippi considered F. Taylorianus, Reeve, a 
synonym, but I do not think the condition of Dunkeri justifies a 
positive conclusion. If the two species be merged the adopted 
name will be Dunkeri, which has decided priority of publication. 

F. CRATICULATUS, Brocchi. PL 3t, figs. 143, 144. 

Reddish brown, resembling F. Syracusanus somewhat in form 

and sculpture. Length, 31 mill. 

Mediterranean ; rather rare. 

F. scaber, Lam. (fig. 144), is a synonym. 

F. SYRACUSANUS, Linn. PL 3T, figs. 145, 146. 

Whitish, with usually the shoulders of the whorls chestnut- 
brown, as well as the canal, a median band of the same 0:1 the 

body-whorl. Length, 1*5 to 2'25 inches. 

Mediterra nean. 

The form and coloring are remarkably similar in a number of 
specimens from various localities, now before me ; yet a variety 
figured by Reeve (fig. 146), is larger, whorls rounded, without 



FUSING. 61 

shoulder, and unicolored. The dentitioR of this species was 
ascertained by Troschel to be fasciolarioid, on which account he 
founded for it a new g % enus, Aptyxis; it has more recently ap- 
peared, however, that an undoubtedly genuine Fusus and the 
only one of which the dentition has been hitherto examined, 
possesses the same type of dentition (see F. inconstans, Lischke, 
PI. 25, fig. 1), so that Aptyxis cannot hold. 

F. ROSTRATUS, OHvi. PI. 3*7, figs. 147-150. 

Yellowish to reddish brown, spirally corded with sharp, narrow 
ridges, which become prickly on the ribs, and form a sharp series 
of tubercles, defining a somewhat convex shoulder ; interstices of 
the main ridges each provided with a smaller ridge and scabrous. 

Length, 1 to 1*15 inches. 

Mediterranean ; Canary Islands. 

Rather common in deep water, from 20 to 100 fathoms, upon 
corals and rocks. Fossil, miocene and pliocene, South of Europe. 
I have described the fully developed form, with carina, but this 
is often obsolete, so that the contour of the body-whorl is almost 
regularly rounded. To the latter belongs Reeve's F.fragosus, 
(fig. 148), to the former his F. coelatas (fig. 149), is certainly very 
nearly related. 

F. CCELATUS, Reeve. PI. 37, fig. 149. 

Whitish ; sculpture sharp arid delicate. Length, 2*25 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

Except in its larger size it is not essentially different from F. 
rostratus. 

F. BRUIJNII, Tapparone-Canefri. 

Elongately fusiform, sub-umbilicate, reddish brown ; spire elate, 
apex somewhat acute ; whorls nine, convex, with impressed 
sutures, closely encircled with squamous lirre crossing nine or 
ten longitudinal ribs ; rounded, the last whorl obscurely sub- 
angulate ; aperture ovately-subquadrate, crenulate at margin of 
lip, sulcate within ; lip and columella margined with a vivid 
reddish tint, otherwise white within ; canal moderate, riot equalling 

the spire. Length, 40 mill. 

Papuan Islands. 



62 FUSING. 

Not figured, but compared with Fusus constrictus, Koch, a 
species which I have placed in the genus Coralliophila (Yol. II, 
p. 208). It is said to possess a narrower umbilicus and to differ 
in proportions and somewhat in color. Judging from the 
description I think it possible that F. Bruijnii belongs also in 
Coralliophila. 
F. NIGRIROSTRATUS, E. A. Smith. PL 37, fig. 151. 

Brownish, streaked with darker color between the plications, 
the revolving lirse whitish, the rostrum purplish black ; aperture 

bluish or purplish within. Length, 50 mill. 

Japan. 

I know nothing of this species beyond the description and 
figure. 
F. PHILIPPII, Jonas. PL 38, fig. 152. 

Strigate with brown on a yellowish brown ground ; white 

within. 

Australia. 

This species has not been recognized by local collectors, nor is 
it found in the Monographies : it is probably not a true Fusus. 

2. Shell with rounded shoulder, no distinct carina. 

This division is made to include a few species, which, so far as 
our information goes, do not become sharply angulate upon the 
shoulder ; there is no marked demarkation, however, between it 
and the preceding group, because some of the latter, normally 
carinate, vary to rounded whorls without carina. 
F. NOBILIS, Reeve. PL 38, fig. 153. 

White ; interstices of the ribs faint reddish brown. 

Length, 10-5 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

Too closely allied to the varieties of F. distans, Lam., having 
rounded whorls : the only differences being larger size, and per- 
haps a little more ventricose growth. The specimen figured is the 
only one known ; a shell sent to me by a London dealer under 
this name, as from the island of Tortola, West Indies, proving to 
be identical in all respects with forms of F. distans, var. closer. 
F. nobilis much resembles F. longissimus, GmeL, also, in size 
and proportions. 
F. TURRICULA, Kiener. PL 38, fig. 154. 

Uniform yellowish white. Lentgh, 3*5 to 4'5 inches. 

China. 



FUSING. 63 

This appears to be a pretty constant form, the ribs large and 
rounded and extending over the body-whorl ; an inner lip is 
usually present in the larger specimens, presenting a well-defined 
edge, raised above the columella. 
F. PFEIFFERI, Phil. PI. 38, fig. 155. 

Brownish yellow. Length, 2 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

I know nothing about the species, which is described, I presume, 
from a single specimen. Its validity is more than doubtful, as it 
has no characters to separate it from a half dozen other species. 

F. MEYERT, Bunker. PI. 38, fig, 156. 

Uniform white. Length, 7 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

Said to differ from F. longicauda by its larger size, larger and 
more rugose revolving ridges, slightly concave shoulder, etc. It 
seems to differ from F. diKtan^ var. Novae Hollandiae only in the 
ribs not being continued over the body. If might well be con- 
sidered a synonym of both ! 

F. LONGICAUDA, Bory. PI. 38, fig. 15 f . 

Yellowish white ; epidermis brown, thin ; apex and end of 
canal frequently brownish. Length, 5 to 6'5 inches. 

Ceylon. 

This is, perhaps, a F. colus without carina, or a F. turricula 
without ribs on the body-worl. 

F. COUEI, Petit. PI. 38, fig. 158. 

Yellowish-white. Length, 4 inches. 

Hob. Gulf of Mexico. 

The locality is as doubtful as the shell ; if the former is incor- 
rect, the species might well be merged in the preceding one. 

F. GRACTLLIMUS, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 38, fig. 159. 

Light chestnut-brown. Length, 3 inches. 

Eastern Sea*. 

Very like F. turricula, Kiener, but more slender. 
F. ACUS, Ads. and Reeve. PL 38, fig. 160. 

Reddish brown ; spiral grooves fine, close-set, peculiarly flatly 

excavated. Length, 1-65 inches. 

China Sea, off Borneo. 

The most slender and graceful of all the species of Fusus. 



64 



FUSING. 



F. LACUSICAUDATUS, Hinds. PI. 38, fig. 161. 

Reddish brown ; aperture contracted by an inward curvature 
of the lip. Length, 2-25 inches. 

ISAgulhaa Sank, Cape of Good Hope. 

This is doubtless a monstrosity caused b}^ some injury to the 
mantle of the animal. I have seen a number of similar instances 
of abnormal inflection in the lip in both marine and terrestrial 
mollusks. 

F. KOBELTI, Dall. PI. 39, fig. 162. 

Whorls 1 or 8, with rounded ribs crossed by revolving ridges, 
alternately larger. The shell is white, under an ashy gray or 
greenish olivaceous epidermis, the alternate larger revolving 
ridges chocolate brown ; spire moderately long, whorls well 
rounded ; canal rather short, somewhat curved. 

Length, 2 to 2'5 inches. 

Catalina Island and Monterey, Gal. 

As this species has not been figured hitherto, I give that of a 
beach-worn specimen (the best I have) from Catalina I. The 
shell has been confounded by some of the West Coast collectors 
with F. ambustus, Gld., but is a stouter species. 



F. TENUILIRATUS, Bunker. PI. 3&, fig. 163. 

Whitish, with light yellowish brown longitudinal strigations. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Hal), unknoirn. 

The gradual inferior contraction of the aperture, until it merges 
insensibly into the rather wide canal is the principal distinctive 
feature of this stout but probably immature shell. 

F. RUDOLPHI, Dunker. PI. 39, fig. 164. 

Yellowish white, the revolving striae light chestnut, crossed b}* 
longitudinal strigations or maculations of the same color. 

Length, 3*5 inches. 

Hab. unknown. 

In the features of this species as well as in those of the follow- 
ing one, may be recognized some of the characteristics of the 
genus Hemifusus. 



FUSING. 65 

F. OCELLIFERUS, Bory, PI. 39, fig. 165. 

Whitish, with pale yellowish brown, longitudinal strigations ; 
revolving ribs rather broad and flattened, disposed to break up 
into tuberculations, and striate on the top ; the inter-channels 
each with a single narrow ridge ; whorls peculiarly appressed 
below the sutures ; shell thin. Length, 4 inches. 

East Indies ? 
F. MINUTISQUAMOSUS, Reeve. PI. 39, fig. 166. 

Longitudinally plicately ribbed, crossed by squamous fine ridges. 

Yellowish white. Length, -15 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 

I am not acquainted with this species, of which Reeve has 
only given us a back view : it may be a Coralliophila, perhaps. 

F. PULCHELLUS, Phil. PL 39, fig, 167. 

Light chestnut-color, the longitudinal ribs dark chocolate, ex- 
cept upon the periphery, where they are tipped with white, form- 
ing an nterrupted band. Length, 22 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

F, NIPONICUS, E. A. Smith. PL 39, fig, 168. 

Whitish or yellowish, brown stained on the spine, and with a 
narrow brown band on the body-whorl ; white within. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Japan. 

Evidently immature, and very probably not a true Fusus. 
F. SIMPLEX, E. A. Smith. PL 39, fig. 169. 

White, under a smooth, grayish-olive epidermis. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Japan. 

Certainly a very young shell ; very probably its adult form has 
an older name. 

F. RUBROLINEATUS, Sowb. 

Shell rather short, light reddish, bifasciate with chestnut, dis- 
tantly lineated with spiral red lines, thinly striated ; spire rather 
short; whorls seven, marked with rather distant rounded ribs 
and spiral lines, with a wide chestnut band above ; aperture 
sub-ovate, terminating in a sub-elongate canal. 

Agulhas Bank, South Africa. 



STNTSTRALTA. 

Not figured, and no dimensions given. The coloration pre- 
cludes its being a Fusus I suppose, but the description does not 
indicate its true generic position. 

F. USTULATUS, Reeve. PI. 39, fig. 170. 

Rusty brown; whitish within. Length, 2*75 inches, 

Hab. unknown. 

In the partial separation of an inner lip from the columellar 
margin of the canal, and in the canal being wide and open this 
species possesses characters which remove it from the typical 
Pusi and connect it with two shouldered species, F. proboscidi- 
ferus and F. ventricosus. It is possible that these may form a 
new generic group. 

F. PYRULATUS, Reeve. PI. 39, figs. 171, 172. 

Yellowish brown. Length, 2*75 inches. 

Van Diemari's Land. 

Appears to be somewhat immature. I have not seen the 
species. 

Subgenus Sinistralia, H. <fc A. Act. 

F. MAROCCENSIS, Gmel. PL 40, figs. 173, 174. 

Yellowish white to light brown. Length, *75 to 1 inch. 

Isl. of Guadeloupe, W. Indies? 

The ribs are not continuous to the sutures, below which a 
smooth space intervenes ; in the smaller specimens this space is 
very narrow and thus may escape observation, but in better 
grown individuals it becomes wider and more marked. In the 
latter state Mr. Reeve has called the species F. elegans (fig. 174 ) : 
a name which cannot stand even as a variety. The locality given 
is exceedingly doubtful. 

Doubtful and Spurious Fusidas. 

F, LINCOLNENSIS, Crosse. PL 40, fig. 175. 

Whitish, with a wide central brown band. Length, 19 mill. 

York Peninsula, Australia. 

The coloration and very short canal remove this species from 
Fusus; yet I do not know where to locate it. Resembles a 
Muricidea. 



FUSING. 67 

F. HEMIFUSUS, Kobelt. PI. 58, fig. 397. 

Locality unknown. 

This species, published in the Conchylien Cabinet in 1 880, came 
to me too late to insert in its proper position in the genus Fusus. 
It is precisely like F. CO/MS, var. Brenchlyi, and is therefore a 
synonym. 

F. LINEOLATUS, Costa. This is evidently not a Fusus. It is said 
to inhabit the Mediterranean Sea, but I do not find it in Wein- 
kauff or Monterosato. 

F. PUSILLUS, Pfeiffer. Probably a very young shell, if a Fusus, 
as it only measures two lines "in length. It has not been recog- 
nized. 

West Indies. 

F. APERTUS, Carpenter. " The six specimens found of this spe- 
cies were either young or fragmentary." The length of the 
shell is one-tenth of an inch ! Why will naturalists cumber the 
nomenclature with species founded upon such insufficient ma- 
terial ? 

F. MODESTUS, Gould. An unfigured shell, collected by the North 
Pacific Expl. Exped. in ten fathoms, shelly sand, at Hakodadi, 
Japan. The description is useless for recognition of the species, 
and the types were destroyed, I presume, in the great Chicago 
fire. 

F. QILVUS, Phil. This may be a Hemifusus, as there is a per- 
forate umbilicus. The species is from China, and has not been 
figured. 
F. OBSCURUS, Phil. PI. 40. fig. 176. 

Nearl}' black, the upper part of the whorls, the keel, the 
tubercles and a central band on the last whorl are lighter. 

Length, 1-65 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

The color, the flexure of the columella, etc., are not typical of 
the genus, and would indicate some relationship to the Perister- 
niinae: there is no mention made of columellar plaits, however. 
Is this possibly a discolored fossil ? 

F. NUCLEUS, Brod. PI. 40, fig. 187. 

Whitish. Length -5, lat. '33 inch. 

Galapagos. 



00 FUSING. 

I do not know the species. It was described as a Murex, but 
neither belongs to that genus nor to Fusus where it is placed 
by Sowerby, of whose figure I give a copy. Perhaps it is a very 
young Coralliophila. 

F. UNICARINATUS, Phil. This unfigured and minute species from 
Magellan's Straits is certainly not a Fusus, but may be a Trophon. 

1 have described it under that genus in Vol. II, p. 151. 

F. SPIRALIS, A. Ad. This is a genuine Fusus, shouldered and 
spirally striate, about three inches in length. Inhabits New 
Zealand. F. pensum, Hutton, is a synonym, according to the 
latter author. Unfigured. 

F. NODICINCTUS, A. Ad. Australia, 

F. DILECTUS, A. Ad. Venezuela. 

F. ALBINUS, A. Ad. Ichaboe, W. Africa. 

F. SOLIDULUS, A. Ad. Japan. 

F. SPICERI, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

F. LEGRANDI, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

F. NIVEUS, Gray. Sierra Leone. 

F. GRANDIS, Gray. Habitat unknown. 

F. GLACIALIS, Gray. Arctic Ocean. 

F, VARIUS, Lam. Australia. 

F. CREBRICOSTATUS, Lam. Hab. unknown. 

F. RUBENS, Lam. Isle of France. 

These three species are not figured by Kiener in his delinea- 
tions of the Lamarckian types, and the descriptions have not 
been identified by any other conchologists. 
F. VENTRICOSUS and F. EXILIS, Menke. Australia. 

F. CHONETICUS, F. UMBILTCATUS, F. BERNARDIANUS, F. CYGNEUS 

and F. NIGRINUS, Philippi. 

F. umbilicatus is certainly not a Fusus, but the description 
does not indicate its generic position. 
F. MURICOIDES and F. NITENS, C. B. Adams. Jamaica. 

Both minute shells, and not true Fusi. 
F. LINEATTJS and F. MALSBURGIANUS, Menke. 

The above', described in Menke 's catalogue, are not now in his 
collection. Vide Mai. Blatt, xviii, 12T. 



AFER. 69 

F. JAPONICUS, Gray. I have not been able to find any reference 
for this name. 



The following numerous species, described by Anton, in his 
" Verzeichniss," have never been identified ; they are mostly not 
true Fusi and will go into Neptunea, Hemifusus, or other related 
groups, judging from the diagnoses. 

F. ROEDINGI and F. GIESEKII, Anton. No locality. Appear to 
be true Fusus. 

F. SPLENDIDUS, Anton. Something like a Turbinella or Fascio- 
laria. 

F. TRISKADEKAGONUS, F. AURANTIUS, F. HEXAGONUS ("inclines 

to Turbinella, still more to Murex "), F. GRANULOSUS (= Turbin- 
ella ?), F. CIRCULUS, F. REMOTUS, F. CONICUS. F. VENTRICOSUS, F. 
CONTABULATUS, F. PUNCTATUS, F. ROSSMASSLERI, F. PLEUROTO- 
MOIDES, F. MURICINUS, F. VARICOSUS, F. MONACHUS, F. ROSEUS 

(= Purpura?}, F. ALBICAWS (== TurbitieUa?). 

Genus AFER, Conrad. 

Conrad never characterized his genus ; but he made Fusus 
afer of Gmelin the type of it. The fossil forms assigned by him 
to the genus are stated by Prof, Meek to be different from F. afer, 
and he refers them to Conrad's Pyrifusus. Fusus afer does not 
seem to have been very well understood by conchologists, the 
figure in Kiener looking like an immature shell, whilst that given 
by Reeve belongs to the Turbinellidae. 

I retain the genus, with great doubt, and refer to it a second 
species, which seems to have some resemblance to the type, and 
for which I have no other convenient place. 

A. AFER, Gmelin. PL 40, fig. 177. 

Light brown ; aperture sillonated within and dentate at the 

margin, slightly channeled behind. Length, 1 inch. 

Senegal. 
A. BLOSVILLEI, Desh. PL 40, figs. 178-180. 

Livid brown or bluish or pale yellow ; sometimes the revolving- 
ridges are brown ; aperture orange or yellowish. 
Length, T75 inches. 

Red Sea; Ceylon ; Bay of Manilla ; rocky places at low water. 



70 CLAVELLA, BUCCINOFUSUS. 

Fasus lividus, Phil. (fig. 180), is usually considered identical 
with this species. 
Var. HEPTAGONALIS, Reeve. PI. 40, fig. 181. 

In this variety some of the longitudinal ribs coallesce, so that 
those remaining are not only fewer in number, but they are also 
wider. 

Genus CLAVELLA, Swainson. 

Only one recent species can be referred properly to this fossil 
genus, which is the C. serotina, the type of Hinds' genus Cyrtulus. 
The three other recent species referred to it by H. and A. Adams 
are members of other genera : 

C. avellana, Reeve, is a Cronia. Vol. II, p. 180. 

C. dislorta, Reeve, belongs to the Pisaniinse. 

C- subrostrata, Gray, belongs to the Melongeniinse. 

C. SEROTINA, Hinds. PI. 40, fig. 182. 

Pale yellowish or flesh-color ; within light rosy or white. 
Length, 3*5 inches. 

NukaMva, Marquesas, in 9 fathoms, among sand. 

A thick and heavy shell which would probablv be equally well 
placed in Melongeniinse ; or in Turbinellida?, as some specimens 
show incipient folds on the columella. 

Genus BUCCINOFUSUS, Conrnd. 

The single recent species referred by Conrad to his genus has 
since been made the type of Boreofusus, Sars which, of course, 
becomes a synonym. The dentition, only, separates this from 
Siplio, several species of which might be regarded as either iden- 
tical, or varieties at most. When the lingual armature of these 
allied forms shall become known their definite position can be 
ascertained ; at present I prefer to leave them all in Sipho. 

Jeffreys thus describes the animal : 

Body white or cream-color, with a slight tinge of flesh-color ; 
mantle sometimes edged with brown; pallial tube extensile, 
occasionally protruded beyond the canal, with an expanded or 
trumpet-shaped opening ; proboscis exceedingly long, measuring 
nearly two 'inches even when contracted after the death of the 
animal ; tentacles conical, rather short, and close together, with 



uucc'iNoprsus. 71 

bluntly pointed tips ; eyes small and black, seated on long stalks, 
about half wa}^ up the tentacles ; foot lanceolate, thick, rounded 
and double-edged in front ; tail either pointed or blunt and some- 
what truncated. 

B, BERNICIENSIS, King, PL 40, figs. 183, 184. 

Whorls encircled with alternately larger and smaller revolving 
ridges, decussated by fine growth-lines ; lip margin slightly 
everted ; shell thin, white, under a very thin, light olive epider- 
mis. Length, 3 inches. 

North Sea ; French Coast, occasionally ; Circumpolar ? 
Dredged in fine sand 78 to 090 fathoms. Jeffreys cites varie- 
ties eleganSj tener and inflata. He says that " the young, when 
fresh-caught and living, look like tiny rosebuds." The color of 
foil-grown specimens (especially of the inside) is not less beauti- 
ful ; these may vie with 

.... "The dappled shells 
That drink the wave with such a rosy mouth." 

Middendorff, Adams and Kobelt think that F. Sabinii, Gray, 
is the young of this species ; if so, that name would have priority ; 
but the species is unfigured, and doubtful. Jeffreys refers it 
doubtfully to Sipho ventricosus. 

B. TEREBRALIS, Gould. PI. 39, fig. 189. 

Yellowish brown, columella tinged pallid rosaceous. Labrum 

effused. Length, 2*25 inches. 

Spitsbergen. 

If not identical with the preceding species, it is very closely 
allied to it. Gould's type had a broken lip, but he refers besides 
to a perfect specimen in the Cumingian Collection ; this after- 
wards became the type of Fusus Spitzbergenxis, Reeve. 

Sub-Family PTYCHATRACTINJE. 

This group was distinguished as a family by Stimpson. The 
shell of Ptychatractus unites the form of a Sipho with the folds 
of a Fasciolaria ; its small size, color, and northern habitat will 
distinguish it from the latter, even without taking into account 
the very diverse dentition ; yet without the latter difference it 
would scarcely have been advisable to have separated the single 
species upon which the genus was founded from Fasciolaria. 



PTYCHATRAOTUS. 

Mr. Stearns has added a second species, which may not be dis- 
tinct ; and I place here (because I must place it somewhere) the 
Fusus Coreanicus of Mr. E. A. Smith. 

Genus PTYCHATRACTTTS, Stimpson. 

P. LIGATUS, Mighels and Adams. PL 40, fig. 185. 

Shell light reddish brown. Length, *t5 inch. 

Coasts of Maine, Nova Scotia ; Gulf of St. Lawrence ; 

in deep water. 
Operculum like that of Fusus. 

P. OCCTDENTALIS, Stearns. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, rather slender, whitish, traversed by 
narrow, revolving, brownish threads and much wider intervening 
spaces ; suture distinct, spire tapering ; aperture oblong-oval, 
about half the length of the shell ; within white, polished ; canal 
short, nearly straight ; columella obliquely, not strongly plicated. 

Length, -15 inch. 

Isle of Nagai, one of the Shumagin Islands. Forty fathoms. 

More delicate than the Atlantic species, although the single 
specimen was not quite mature. This specimen having been 
mislaid, Mr. Stearns has not yet figured it. It must be con- 
sidered a doubtful species for the present, as the description 
presents no features by which the shell can be positively dis- 
tinguished. 

P. COREANICUS, E. A. Smith. PL 40, fig. 186. 

Whorls slightly longitudinally costate and encircled by about 
twelve revolving ridges, which are alternately smaller. Dirty, 
diluted flesh-color, the ribs stained with dark brown ; fuscous 
within the aperture. Columella smooth, arcuate above, very 
oblique inferiorly ; canal short, slightly retro verted. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Japan. 

The evanescent ribs are sometimes indicated very obscurely 
on P. ligatus. Nothing is said about columellar folds, but these 
are sometimes not apparent on P. ligatus. The general form of 
the shell is so nearly that of Ptychatractus, that I do not know 
where else to place it with equal probability of giving it its 
correct position. 



MEYERIA, FASCIOLARIA. 73 

Genus MEYERIA, Dunker and Metzger. 

The dentition of the problematical mollusk which has rejoiced 
within the short period of our scientific knowledge of it under so 
many names, appears to relate it somewhat to Ptychatractus, and 
I prefer to place it in the same sub-family with that shell, rather 
than make a new family for it. Norman shows that Meyeria is 
pre-occupied by McCoy for a genus of fossil crustaceans, and he 
therefore proposes the generic name Metzgeria ; but I see no 
advantage (and much disadvantage) in changing names because 
they happen to have been previously used in some other depart- 
ment of zoology. 

M. ALBA, Jeffreys. PI. 39, figs. 190-193. 

Fusiform, dirty white ; whorls six or seven, moderately con- 
vex, suture distinct ; longitudinally plicately costate, crossed 
by revolving striae ; lips smooth, columella twisted, very obso- 
letely biplicate ; canal somewhat twisted, open. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Faroe Isles ; North Sea ; Norway. 

Prof. G. 0. Sars makes this name a synonym of M. ( Tritonium) 
pusilla, M. Sars (figs. 191, 192); but the latter name, given in 
1858, was neither accompanied by diagnosis, distinctive characters, 
nor figure. I therefore cannot adopt it. 

Sub-Family FASCIOLARIIN^E. 

Genus FASCIOLARIA, Lam. 

The animal of Fasciolaria does not differ essentially from that 
of Fusus, nor do we find very much difference in the shells ; the 
usually shorter spire, more swollen body-whorl, wider and shorter 
and flexuous instead of straight canal, and the oblique plaits 
near the fore-end of the columella, are the chief distinguishing 
characters. Between Fasciolaria and Fulgur the resemblance is 
much closer, and, until the dentition of the two groups became 
known, they were placed close together by systematists ; in 
Fulgur, however, the scarcely apparent folding of the columella 
is single, whilst in Fasciolaria it is double, sometimes triple. 
The Peristerniinse have columellar folds, but these are usually 
more transverse, are situated higher on the columella, and the 
shells are much smaller ; indeed one of the characteristics of the 
10 



74 FASCIOLARJA. 

Fasciolarias is the comparatively large size of the species. The 
distribution of the genus is tropical and sub-tropical, in shallow 
waters. But few living species are known, to which may be 
added some fossil forms, commencing with the cretaceous. The 
operculum is more claw-shaped than that of Fusus, and is rather 
large, filling the aperture. 

I have figured the nidimental capsules of F. tulipa, Linn., in 
Vol. II, PL 7, figs. 77, 81. 

* Shell not nodulous or shouldered. 

F. TULIPA, Linn. PI. 59, figs. 1-5. 

Color white or bluish-ash or orange, irregularly mottled with 
orange, chestnut or chocolate ; encircled with chestnut-brown 
narrow lines, which are sometimes engraved. Aperture and 
columella blush or orange, with revolving lines of chestnut 
within. Length, 4 to 8 inches. 

West Indies, Southern Atlantic Coast of United States, 

from N. Carolina, southwards. 

Krebs found it in two to six feet of water, on sand and small 
stones, where Algse are growing, and where the sea is calm. 

The color-varieties are very numerous, including, not fre- 
quently, one of a uniform dark mahogany, with black revolving 
lines, and the following, which has been usually accepted as a 
distinct species, and may be retained as a variety. 

Var. DISTANS, Lam. Fig. 5. 

The revolving colored lines are less numerous than in the type, 
the more prominent ones, to the number of about a half-dozen, 
being retained on the body-whorl, whilst the intermediate ones 
are absent. The shell does not usually grow to such a large size 
as the typical form. Inhabits the same localities. In the 
numerous specimens before me, I have abundant evidence that 
the variety originates from the type, in the unbroken series 
of intermediate stages of coloration. I figure a rugose form 
which Dunker intended at one time to describe as F. Scheepmakeri, 
but finally illustrated in his " Novitates " as a variety of F. 
tulipa (fig. 3). 

F. canaliculata, Valenciennes, described as from Acapulco, 
Pacific Coast of Mexico, has never been figured nor positively 



F ASCI OL ARIA. 75 

identified. Carpenter remarks upon the resemblance of the 
description to F. tulipa ; I have but little doubt that it should be 
considered a synonym, and that the locality is erroneous. 

* * Shell shouldered, but not tuberculate. 
F. LUGUBRIS, Reeve. PL 59, figs. 6, T. 

Fleshy-brown, covered with a dark olive-brown epidermis. 
Length, 2*5-3 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

F. badia, Krauss (fig. 7), described a year subsequent to F. 
lugubris, and from the same locality, is evidently synonymous. 

* * * Shell shouldered and tuberculate. 
F. PBINCEPS, Sowb. PI. 60, figs. 11, 17. 

Nodulous on the shoulder, distantly spirally ridged, interstices 
concave, spirally striate. Light orange, covered with a per- 
sistent chestnut-brown epidermis ; columella and interior of 
aperture orange, the latter with close, revolving, raised red lines, 
which sometimes tend to separate into groups resembling music 

staves. Length, 6-9 inches. 

Panama to-Mazatlan ; Peru f 

P. P. Carpenter describes the operculum as " pyriforrn, apex 
terminal ; outside with about five longitudinal furrows on the 
middle and interior ; exterior with irregular diagonal ribs ; inside 
with very large attachment, not corrugated." F. Reevei, Jonas 
(fig. 17), is a poor, faded F. princeps, although it is stated in 
Kiister to be " himmelweit " in its characters. 

F. GIGANTEA, Kicner. PI. 60, figs. 14-16. 

Shell yellowish-white, covered with a chestnut-brown epider- 
mis ; flesh-color or yellowish within the aperture ; tubercles dis- 
tant, large. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

South Carolina; West Indies, Brazil. 

This is the largest known species of univalve shells. F, papil- 
losa, Sowb. (figs. 15, 16), appears to be the young : it has priority, 
but Kiener's name is so well known that I let it stand. 

F. FILAMENTOSA, Lam. PI. 59, figs. 8-10 ; PI. 60, figs. 12, 13. 

Bluish-white, variegated and streaked with red, brown or 
orange, the spiral grooves dark chestnut or blackish. Aperture 



76 FASCIOLARIA. 

blush or yellowish, with close, raised, red 'revolving lines, each 
pair of which terminates in a marginal denticle. 

Length, 4-6 inches. ;'& 

Red Sea ; Ceylon ; Philippine IB. ; Australia ; Central Polynesia. 

F. ferruginea, Lam. (fig. 12), is only a slim form of this 
species, in which the nodules are scarcely apparent. Occasion- 
ally there are no nodules, the shell being scarcely shouldered : 
this state has been described by Jonas as F. inermis (fig. 13). 

F. FUSIFORMIS, Valenciennes. PI. 61, figs. 18, 19. 

Upper whorls rudely, plicately ribbed, lower whorls with re- 
volving striae or ridges only. Epidermis brown, under which 
the shell is light brown. Length, 3-4 inches. 

So. Australia ; in grass wrack, 2 to 5 fathoms. 

I doubt whether this is more than an extreme form of the pre- 
ceding species. 

F. AURANTIACA, Lam, PI, 61, figs. 20, 21 ; PI. 63, fig. 33. 

Rugose, tuberculate on the shoulder, with occasional swollen 
tubercles elsewhere on the body-whorl ; spirally grooved, the 
grooves generally in pairs. Mottled reddish-orange and white, 
under an olive or purple epidermis ; white within. 

Length, 3-5 inches. 

Coast of Brazil? Cape of Good Hope? 

Both localities are somewhat uncertain. The species is wider, 
but closely allied to F. filamentosa, a few specimens of which 
have a tendency to tuberculation below the shoulder, in the same 
manner as in F. aur'antiaca. F. purpurea, Jonas (fig. 27), is 
founded apparently, on a specimen with epidermis. F. Persica, 
Reeve, = clava, Jonas (fig. 33), is founded on the very ponder- 
ous, adult form. 

F. CROCATA, Phil. PI. 61, figs. 22, 23, 

Shell yellowish, the revolving, elevated lines lighter in color. 

Length, 3-4 inches. 

Yucatan; Guiana. 

The original figure and description (fig. 22) are from a young 
shell ; that of Kuster (fig. 23) represents a more mature speci- 
men. The nearest species appears to be F. filamentosa which 
is from an entirely different habitat. This species does not 



FASCIOLARIA. 77 

appear in the Swift West Indian Collection, and I have, therefore, 
some slight doubt of the correctness of the localities. 

t 1 . TRAPEZIUM, Linn. PL 61, figs. 24-26 ; pi. 62, figs. 27, 28. 

Thick, ponderous ; whorls slanting on the shoulder, armed 
'with a row of tubercles, which, in old specimens, become large 
and thick. Flesh-color, beneath a yellowish brown epidermis, 
encircled by brown, engraved lines, which are approximated in 
pairs ; aperture flesh-color, with revolving brown, raised lines. 

Length, 4-8 inches. 

Philippines ; Java; China ; Red Sea ; Auckland Is. ? 

Among the forms of this species several have received specific 
names ; among these I figure F. Lischkeana, Dunker (fig. 27), a 
rather smooth form, the nodules not being developed ; F. Au- 
douini, Jonas (figs. 24, 25), which is somewhat more slim than 
the type, and differs somewhat in color. F. ponderosa, Jonas 
(fig. 28), which, at first sight, appears sufficient!} 7 distinct, I am 
able to connect with the t} T pical form by intermediate stages ; 
it is very ponderous, the tubercles projecting outwards like spines 
from the angle of the shoulder. 

F. HEYNEMANNI, Dunker. PI. 62, fig. 29. 

Flesh-color, under a yellowish olive epidermis. 

Length, 3-5 inches. 

Natal, So. Africa. 

Evidently described from a worn specimen : it is very doubt- 
ful whether it has any good claim to recognition as a species. 

F. CORONATA, Lam. PL 63, figs. 34, 30. 

Light yellowish brown or flesh-color, under a thin, olive-brown 
epidermis. Length, 4-7 inches. 

Philippines; Australia; Tasmania. 

The spire is longer, the tuberculations closer, and consequently 
more numerous than in F. salmo, Wood ; and perhaps the shell 
is not quite so heavy : but these are differences of degree onty, 
and sometimes a F. salmo is met with which very reasonably 
fulfils the above bill of particulars. There is a wide difference 
of locality between the two forms, and I therefore allow them 
both to remain for the present, but with considerable desire to 
merge them under the .name of F. coronata. 



78 FASCIOLARIA. 

F. SALMO, Wood. PL 62, figs. 31, 32, 35. 

Light flesh-color or yellowish, the very thin epidermis 
yellowish brown ; aperture flesh-color. Length, 4-5 inches. 

Panama to W. Coast of Mexico. 

The spire is short, giving the species very much the appear- 
ance of a Busycon or Fulgur. 

Var. GRANOSA, Brod. Fig. 32. 

Still larger, measuring 5-7 inches. Edge of aperture and 
columella tinged with orange. Epidermis darker colored, covered 
with black granulations. 

Gray states that the animal of F. salmo is bright red. See 
remarks under preceding species. 

F. Valenciennesij Kiener (fig. 35), is a F. salmo with the nodules 
but slightly developed. 

F. LIGNARIA, Linn. PI. 63, figs. 36, 37. 

Whitish or yellowish, sometimes with brown bands ; brown 
tinted within the aperture. Epidermis olive-brown. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

This species has a rude, solid growth, usually appearing as if 
water-worn ; the sculpture being somewhat rounded and indis- 
tinct. 
F. RUFA, Reeve. PL 33, fig. 38. 

Reddish brown, interior white ; revolving ridges indistinct or 

lost, except upon the ribs. Length, 2-25 inches. 

Philippines. 

Described as a Fusus, but the strong resemblance of Reeve's 
figure to the foregoing species induces me to place it here. 

Unidentified and Doubtful Fasciolarise. 

P. SULCATA, Lesson. Acapulco. 

F. RUGOSA, Yal. Acapulco. A young shell ; perhaps Latirus. 
F. SULCATA, TUBERCULATA and MAGNA, Anton. Like most of 
Anton's species, these have never been identified. 

Sub-Family PERISTERNIIN.E. 

Kobelt, in Kiister's Conchy lien Cabinet, has divided the species 
among the several generic groups, and arranged them in accord- 



PERI STERN IA. 79 

ance with their relationships, I have mainly followed this ar- 
rangement, although it is certainly far from perfect. The 
difficulty is, that whilst the genera hold good in a general way 
as roughly indicating several great groups of species, there are 
species which unite these characters in such manner that to ar- 
range them in either group does violence to some of their 
affinities. 

Besides Kobelt, Kiener and Reeve have monographed these 
shells the work of Kobelt being the most complete, and con- 
taining most of the species which I shall here describe and 
figure. 

(lenus PERISTEENIA, Morch. 

P. PICTA, Reeve. PL 64, fig, 39. 

White, more or less completely covered with chestnut, or 
chestnut and orange narrow revolving lines ; columella and in- 
terior of aperture blush color. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Viti Isles. 
P. BELCHERI, Reeve. PI. 64, fig. 40. 

White, with dark chocolate or blackish longitudinal flames or 
blotches, and revolving bands ; epidermis light yellow ; aperture 
white within. 

Cargados Garajos, Indian Ocean ; on coral. Liukiu Is. 

Very closely allied to the preceding species. 

P. AUSTRALIENSIS, Reeve. PL 64, fig. 41. 

White, ornamented between the ribs by dark chocolate square 
blotches ; aperture yellowish, with two interrupted bold brown 
bands. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Port Essington, Australia. 

P. PHILBERTI, Recluz. PL 64, fig. 42. 

Chocolate-brown, variegated and banded with white ; aperture 
white or purplish within. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Philippines. 
P. LOBBECKEI, Kobelt. PL 64, fig. 43. 

White, base dark chocolate, with three more or less interrupted 
brown bands ; aperture rosaceous, columella stained with black. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Polynesia. 



80 PERISTERNIA. 

I suspect that this is merely a rather slim specimen of P. 
Philberti, which is itself, possibly a mere variety of P. nassa- 
tula. Lam. 



P. NASSATULA, Lam. PL 64, figs. 44-47, 51, 52, 58. 

Light yellowish-brown, deeper in the interstices of the ribs ; 
aperture light purple. Length, 1-1*75 inches. 

Red Sea ; Indian Ocean ; Philippines ; New Guinea ; 

New Caledonia ; Paumotus. 

P. sub-nassatula, Souverb. (fig. 52), is founded on a single 
specimen in which the ribs are undeveloped ; it is from New 
Caledonia. P. Deshayesii, Kobelt (fig. 47), is a small form, 
without sufficient permanence to constitute a variety. P. Fors- 
kalii, Tapparone (fig. 51), is a long, slim form from the Red 
Sea, which may be separated as a variety. P. microstoma, 
Kobelt (fig. 58), from Mauritius, is the same. 

P. WAGNERI, Anton. PL 64, figs. 59-62. 

White or yellowish, interruptedly marked with chestnut spots 
between the ribs, forming three revolving rows of maculations ; 
aperture white within. Length. 1-1-5 inches. 

Viti Islands Garrett. 

This unfortunate shell, misunderstood by Reeve and others, is 
certainly quite distinct from the species with which it has been 
confounded. I figure Turbinella craticulata, Wagner (not Lam.), 
upon which Anton founded the name (fig, 62) ; also T. crenulata, 
Reeve, not Kiener (fig. 61), Purpura Bucciniformis, Kiener 
(fig. 59), and T. tigriha, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 60), the latter 
being a young shell. 

P. SPINOSA, Martyn. PL 64, figs. 48-50. 

Body-whorl biangulate, and spinose on the angles ; white, 
banded, especially on the lower part, with chestnut or chocolate ; 
aperture light purple. Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Viti and Friendly Islands. 

P. iostoma, Nuttall (but never described by him), is figured in 
Kuster's monograph, and referred to the coast of California. 
The figure (fig. 50) represents very fairly a P. spinosa, and the 
locality is, of course, erroneous. 



PERTSTERNIA. 81 

P. SPINOSA, Gray. 

Shell fusiform, white, covered with a smooth brown periostra- 
cum ; whorls seven, upper ones with a series of conical tubercles, 
the last with distinct spiral ridges and a sub-posterior series of 
conical spines ; canal sub-cylindrical, with the mouth about as 
long as the spire ; throat ridged ; pillar with three very slight 

plaits. 

Sierra Leone. 

This species, the type of which is said to be in the British 
Museum, was described over forty years ago, but not figured. 
It has not been recognized by subsequent authors. It appears 
to correspond in some degree with P. spinosa, Mart, The name 
being pre-occupied, I would give it another if I knew the species 
to be a good one. 

P. PULCHELLA, Reeve. PI. 64, figs. 53-57. 

Fulvous brown, sometimes white, with brown bands ; aperture 

violet. Length, 1-1 -10 inches. 

Zanzibar; New Caledonia. 

Var. MARIEI, Crosse (fig. 57). Brown or white, with brown 
bands and base ; whorls with a more defined shoulder than in 

the type. 

New Caledonia. 

I think that P. Sutons, Kobelt (fig. 56), described from a 
single specimen, locality unknown, is identical. 

P. INCARNATA, Desh. PL 65, figs. 63-66, 69, 70. 

Orange-brown, aperture rosy. Length, *75-l'30 inches. 

Philippines ; Indian Ocean ; Red Sea. 

Eicinula pulchra, Reeve (fig. 64), appears to be the same 
species ; it has the teeth on the outer lip characteristic of Sis- 
trum, but there are two folds on the columella. 

Var. ELEGANS, Dunker. Fig. 65. 

Yellowish brown, with dark brown between the revolving ribs ; 

whitish within. Length, '66 to 1 inch. 

Viti Isles. 

P. gemmata, Rousseau, non Reeve (fig. 66), is probably the 
same form. 
11 



82 PERISTERNIA. 

P. lauta, Reeve (fig. 69), I am inclined to place here also; it 
appears to be somewhat worn. I add a figure from Kiister (fig. 
70), which is somewhat like the next species. 

P. CAROLINA, Kiener. PL 65, figs. 67, 68, 83. 

Flesh-color or reddish with two dark chocolate bands ; roseate 
within the aperture. Length, '66 to 1 inch. 

Mauritius, Philippines. 

Very close in sculpture and form to the preceding species; 
distinguished by its coloration. Eicinula bella, Reeve (fig. 83), 
is a synonym. 

P. CLATHRATA, Yalenc. PI. 65, fig. 92. 
White, tinged with pink, aperture white. 

Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

At first I was inclined to place this among the numerous forms 
of P. incarnata, Desh., but the discovery of three specimens in 
the Collection of the Philada. Academy, all corresponding closely 
with the figure of the type in Kiener, induces me to consider it 
provisionally distinct. It is rather larger and thinner than P. 
incarnata, the ribs are narrower and more numerous, the canal 
more produced , the outer lip is not thickened nor dentate on the 
margin, the color is entirely different. 

P. LIRATA, Pease. PU 65, fig. 71. 

Orange-yellow on the longitudinal ribs, chocolate in the inter- 
stices, the revolving ridges occasionally spotted with white ; 
aperture and columella saffron-yellow ; covered with a thin, 
membranous epidermis, roughened longitudinally. 

Length, 30 mill. 

Marquesas Isles. 

P. GEMMATA, Reeve. PI. 65, figs. 72, 74, 

Light yellow, longitudinal ribs narrower and more numerous 
than in P. lirata ; chocolate, occasionally spotted with white ; 
revolving sculpture impressed, instead of being ridged, as in P. 

lirata. Length, 30 mill. 

Taheiti ; Western Polynesia. 

P. lirata was figured by Reeve as a variety of gemmata ; Pease 
subsequently distinguished it. Though at first sight very similar 



PERISTERNIA. 83 

in general appearance, my specimens show very constantly the 
differential characters of the diagnosis. 

P. GRANATA, Koch. PI. 65, fig. 73. 

Whitish, covered by brown tubercles formed at the intersection 
of the longitudinal and revolving sculpture ; lip five-dentate 
within ; columella with two obscure folds below. 

Length, 4 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Evidently a young shell. It was described as a Fusus, but is 
either a Peristernia, in which case it may be a worn specimen of 
a young P. gemmata, Reeve, or else it is a Ricinula, and then, 
perhaps, = young of E. concatenata, Bl. 

P. CHLOROSTOMA, Sowb. PL 65 , figs. 75-82, 84, 91. 

Shell whitish or yellowish, with an interrupted chestnut or 
chocolate central band, and the sutures and base of shell tinged 
with the same colors. Length, -7 5-* 85 inch. 

.Sandwich Islands; New Zealand ; Philippines ; Andaman Isles. 

The earliest description, by Sowerby, gives no figure nor 
locality, -but is sufficiently distinctive for certain identification. 
P. chlorostoma, Nuttall, and P. xanthostoma, Nuttall, are both 
unpublished names, but widely circulated. P. crocea, Gray, was 
likewise published without a figure, but fourteen years later. 
To these are to be added the subsequent names of P. Newcombi 
and P. stigmataria, A. Ad., P. scabrosa, Reeve, P. solida, Reeve. 
P. scabrosa, Reeve (fig. 78), said to come from Tonga Taboo 
(by Dunker), does not offer any distinctive characters except the 
absence of the spots, and these are present in a form (fig. 79) 
figured by Dunker as var. gracilior. The brown coloring is 
entirety absent in some Sandwich Island specimens before me. 

P. crenulata, Kiener,* '(fig. 80), is evidently the same species. 
Reeve has misconceived it, and figured for it an entirely different 
shell (P. Wagneri, Anton), as pointed out by Mr. Tapparone- 
Canefri, who reports the species from the Aru Islands. P. Wag- 
neri, Anton, var. Samoensis, as figured by Kiister (fig. 82), is also 
identical, whilst the P. craticulata. Wagner (not Gmelin), for 
which Anton proposed his name Wagneri, is another species. 

* Craticulata by error on his plate. 



84 PERISTERNIA. 

I add also to the synonymy P. decor ata, A. Ad. (fig 91), 
which, according to Mr. E. A. Smith's careful description can be 
no other than this species : the necklace-like rows of tubercles 
beneath the sutures are developed in several specimens of chloros- 
toma before me. 

P. USTULATA, Reeve. PI. 65, figs. 85-90. 

Reddish brown, sometimes darker beneath the periphery and 
at the sutures, dark chocolate at base of shell. 

Length, 1-1 '4 inches. 

New Caledonia, Viti Isles, Tonga Taboo, 

Mauritius, Indian Ocean. 

The sculpture is not unlike the preceding species, but the color 
differs, and the shell is not only larger, but narrower, with longer 
spire and canal. The dark base is a character in common with 
P. chlorostoma ; otherwise, the species varies greatly, particu- 
larly in sculpture, and has thus received several names. These 
synonyms are P. Caledonica, Petit (fig. 87), P. irieolor, Hombr. 
et Jacq. (fig. 88), P. infracincta, Kobelt (fig. 89), which is a 
light colored variety with a dark, interrupted, sub-sutural band, 
and P. Marquesana, A. Adams (fig. 90). 

P. MACULATA, Reeve. PI. 66, figs. 93, 94. 

Yellowish white, irregularly stained and variegated with red 
blotches ; the nodules upon the ribs whitish. Length, 1 inch. 

Mauritius. Robill ard. 

Is perhaps only a variety of the preceding species. P. macu- 
lata, Hombr. et Jacq., described from a single specimen, is 
evidently the same species. 

P. NANA, Reeve. PL 66, fig. 95. 

Yellowish brown ; columella pink, Length, 1 inch. 

Java. Dunker. 

Resembles P. maculata, Rve., so closely that I suspect it to be 
a light colored form of it. 

P. BICOLOR, Kobelt. PI. 66, fig. 96. 

Whitish, purple-brown between the ribs, on the last whorl two 
rows of purple spots in the interstices ; mouth and apex yellowish. 

Length, 1/6 inch. 

Locality unknown. 



PEBISTERNIA. 85 

Not unlike P. ustulata, Rve., and may be only a large variety 
of it. 

P. DESPECTA, A. Ad. PI. 66, figs. 91, 98. 

Yellowish or reddish brown, ornamented with white spiral 
lirse, base of canal dark chocolate. Length, '8-1 inch. 

China ; New Zealand. 

P. Zealandica, A. Ad. (fig. 98), is somewhat more slim, the 
spire more produced than the type, but is otherwise indistin- 
guishable. 

P. SQUAMOSA, Pease. PI. 66, fig. 99. 

Orange-yellow, nearly white at the base of the shell and beneath 
the sutures where the ribs become spinose ; light roseate within 

the aperture. Length, 1*25 inches. 

Baker's Island. 

P. ROLLANDI, Bernardi. PI. 66, fig. 100. 

Light orange-colored, yellowish within. Length, 41 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Kobelt compares this to P. Caledonica, Petit (= ustulata, 
Rve.), and suggests that it may prove to be a large, old speci- 
men of that species ; it is very probable, although the figure and 
description do not indicate the dark base characteristic of P. 
ustulata. The figure reminds one of a Coralliophila. 

P. NASSOIDES, Reeve. PI. 66, fig. 101. 

Yellowish brown, with a central white band ; apex and aper- 
ture rosy. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Isl. of Ticao, Philippines ; upon coral reefs. Cuming. 

The plications of the columella are obsolete, so that it is very 
doubtful whether this is a true Peristernia. Reeve and Kobelt 
are both uncertain as to its generic position. I have seen no 
specimen, and therefore leave the shell where my predecessors, 
in the exercise of their best judgment, have placed it. Is it per- 
chance a Hindsia ? 

P. SCABEA, Souv. PI. 66, fig. 102. 

Chocolate-brown, lighter on the ribs. Length, 15 mill. 

New Caledonia. 



86 PERISTERNIA. 

Only a single specimen known, which is in the Bordeaux 
Museum. 

P. NOUMEENSIS, Crosse. PI. 66, fig. 103. 
Ashy, with three orange-colored bands ; purplish within. 

Length, 11*5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

This shell is so close to the preceding, that I have very little 
doubt that they will prove to be identical. 

P. FUSCOZONATA, Angas PI. 66, fig. 104. 

White, with a more or less interrupted, broad, brown band on 
the periphery appearing above the sutures on the spiral whorls. 

Length, 14 mill. 

So. Australia. 

Described as a' Siphonalia because there are no distinct plaits 
on the columella, but I think that Kobelt is correct in referring 
it to the Peristerniinae. It looks something like a young Triton 
chlorostoma, Lam. 

P. GIBBA, Pease. PI. 68, fig. 143. 

Ribs white, interstices pale purple-violet, sometimes iridescent ; 

aperture deep violet. Length, 1.3 mill. 

Howland Isl. 
An aberrant form, quite distinct. 

P. GRANULOSA, Pease. PI, 66, fig. 105. 

Shell elongately fusiform, longitudinally ribbed, ribs nine, 
rounded, corded with transverse ridges, with a small granose 
ridge encircling the interstices ; whorls angulated and slightly 
excavated at the upper part, angulation encircled by close-set 
granulose ridges ; outer lip lirate within ; whorls convexly 
rounded ; color reddish-brown, granules lighter, aperture violet. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 

Undetermined Species. 

P. CALIFORNICA, A. Ad. In H. & A. Adams' Genera. I have not 

found the description of this species. 

P. FENESTRATA, Gould.' A young shell 13 mill, in length. Not 

figured. 

St. Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope. 
There is a Turbinella fenestrata, Anton also undetermined. 



LATIRUS. 87 

P. NODULOSA, A. Ad. Not figured. Australia. 

P. LUCULENTA, H. & A. Ad. White, with a broad flesh-colored 
band in the middle of the nodosely plicate whorls, and with a 
series of rufous-dotted spiral lirae at the fore-part of the last 
whorl. Dimensions not given ; not figured. Gulf of Mexico. 

P. VIBEX, Brod, Turrited, seven-varicose, varices subnodose, 
transversely sulcate ; subluteus, aperture white, sulcate within ; 
margin of labrum crenulate ; canal very short ; epidermis fus- 
cous, rugose. Length, 1*63 inches, lat., 1 inch. 

St. Elena and Panama; sandy mud, six to twelve fathoms. 

" This shell appears to be intermediate between Murex and 
Turbinella. It has the varices of the former, and the plaits on 
the columella which distinguish the latter." 

Described as a Murex, and referred by Sowerby to Pollia 
(= Cantharus). Not figured. 

Genus LATIRUS, Montfort. 

As already stated in my synopsis of the genera, the diagnosis 
of this genus is very unsatisfactory, its distinction from Peris- 
ternia being entirely arbitrary. One of its characters is that the 
shell is umbilicated, yet perhaps half of its species are utterly 
without perforation, whilst those which possess it, show only a 
narrow opening, except when abnormal in growth like L. Ma- 
derensis. Swainson's group Plicatella has been adopted by 
Messrs. Adams as a subgenus of Latirus, having " spire moder- 
ate, whorls angular, concavely depressed around the upper part," 
but these are only comparative characters, and I prefer to sup- 
press the group rather than place in it species having no relation 
thereto, as Messrs. Adams have done. The umbilicus shows 
more distinctly in most of the species of Latirus than in those 
of Peristernia, but in some of them it is not any better marked ; 
Latirus, however, differs in form from Peristernia, the species 
having longer spire and canal, the columella generally straight, 
the plications more central, simply because the canal is more 
produced. 

The animals of most of the species that have been observed, 
are of a dull red color. 



88 LATIEUS. 

L. POLYGONUS, Grmel. PL 66, figs. 106-108 ; pi. 61, figs. 109-114. 
Orange-brown or whitish, with revolving bands and strigations 
of chestnut-brown ; fulvous white within the aperture. 
Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines : on the reefs. Cuming. 

Mascarene Isles ; Red Sea ; Central Pacific. 

Var. TESSELLATA, Kobelt. Fig. 109. 

Yar. BARCLAYI, Reeve. Fig. 110. Mauritius. 

Yar. CANDELABRUM. Reeve. Fig. 114. 

Revolving ridges much sharper ; umbilicus usually more open. 

Isle of St. Elena, W. Columbia. In sandy mud, seven 

fathoms. Cuming. 

L. AMPLUSTRIS. Mart. PL 67, figs. 115, 116. 

White under a yellowish epidermis, closely and regularly 
banded with chestnut brown ; aperture ivory white. 
Length, 2-3 inches. 

Isle of Annaa ; on the reefs. Cuming. Ascension Isl. Pease. 

Of the same general appearance as the preceding species, but 
much smoother, the ribs and revolving sculpture obsolete. 

L. GtBBULUS, Gmel. PL 67, fig. 117 ; pi. 68, fig. 126. 

Orange or brown, encircled by chestnut-brown bands ; yellow- 
ish pink within the aperture ; usually smooth and polished. 

Length, 2*5-3*5 inches. 

Australia. ' 

The columella is very indistinctly, sometimes not at all plaited. 
L. CARINIFERUS, Lam. PL 67, fig. 118, 119. 

Yellowish brown, lighter on the ribs ; aperture white within. 
Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Indian Ocean ; Viii Is. Garrett. 

L. CERATUS, Gray. PL 67, fig. 120. 

Yellowish brown, lighter on the ribs ; epidermis chestnut or 
chocolate. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Galapagos Is.) under stones at low water Cuming ; 

Panama; Mazatlan. 



LATIRUS. 89 

L. RECTJRVIROSTRIS, Schubert and Wagner. PI. 6f , fig.* 121. 

Pale orange-brown, interstices of the ribs stained and spotted 
with chestnut-brown ; aperture orange-yellow. 

Length, 2*5 to 3*5 inches. 

Isl. of Luzon, Philippines ; in deep water. Cuming. 

Deshayes considered this a variety of L. cariniferus, which it 
may well be ; it is, however, proportionally narrower, the inter- 
tubercular raised belt on the body whorl is not so wide, and the 
umbilicus is much wider. 

L. AMAKLE, Kobelt. PL 68, fig. 131. 

Dark brownish yellow, lighter on the revolving ridges, and 
chestnut-brown in their interstices upon the ribs ; yellowish brown 

within. Length, 2 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

Very like L. recurvirostris in form, but is smaller, and has not 
the wide open umbilicus of that species. 

L MADERENSIS, Watson. PI. 68, figs. 124, 125. 

Yellowish to chestnut-brown, darker in the interstices of the 
ribs ; white or light yellowish within the aperture. 

Length, 1-5 to 2'5 inches. 

Madeira ; West Indies. 

This species is certainly ve^ closely allied to the preceding ; 
having much the same form and the large, open umbilicus. 
Watson gave it a new generic name Cliascax, and states that 
the inner lip is quite smooth ; this, however, may be due to the 
bad condition of his very insufficient material, the specimen 
figured by him showing dentations within the border of the lip, 
which he states to be caused by the borings of annelids. West 
Indian specimens before me, in much better condition are lighter 
in color, larger, and have three not prominent columellar plaits, 
Turbinella Stokesii, Gray, from Porto Praya, Cape Yerd Isles, a 
species which has never been figured or identified, corresponds 
in description somewhat with this species. 

L. INFUNDIBULUM, Gmel. PL 6t, fig. 122 ; PL 68, figs, 127, 144, 
Orange-yellow or light brown, with darker narrow revolving 
ridges ; epidermis dark brown. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

West Indies ; in deep water. 
12 



90 LATIRUS. 

L. attenuatus, Reeve (figs. 122, 144), appears to be founded on 
a young shell of the above, 

L, FILOSUS, Schubert and Wagner, PI, 68, fig. 128. 
Whitish, the narrow revolving ridges chestnut-brown. 

Length, 1*5 to 2*25 inches. 

Prince's Isl. ; Senegal. 

L. LYRATUS, Reeve. PI, 61, fig. 123 ; PI. 68, fig, 145, 
Rufous-brown, lighter on the ribs. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Philippine Isles. 

Kobelt (in Kiister, Conch. Cab.) considers this = Fusus con- 
strictus Koch, which was published during the same year. The 
latter I have referred to Coralliophila, because the figure and de- 
scription afford no evidence of columellar plaits, and the umbilical 
fasciole is fringed as in that genus. 

L. MODESTUS, Anton. PI. 68, figs. 129, 130, 142. 

Reddish yellow, revolving cords sometimes darker ; sutures 

frilled. Length, 1-85 inches. 

Panama to Acapulco. 

Described as a Fusus, without locality, and said to have no 
plaits on the columella; it has the facies of a Latirus, however, 
and appears to be nearty allied to the preceding species. 

L. spadiceuSj Reeve (fig. 130) can scarcely be distinguished 
as a different species. The latter is said by C. B. Adams to oc- 
cur at Panama. I include also L.concentricus, Reeve (fig. 142), 
which occurs at St. Elena and Acapulco. 

L. LANCEOLATUS, Reeve. PL 68, fig. 132. 

Light yellowish brown, darker beneath the periphery ; violet 
within the aperture Length, M5 inches, 

Philippine Is. on the sands. Cuming. 

L. LANCEA, Gmel. PI, 68, figs. 133-135. 

Yellowish brown, the interstices of the longitudinal ribs chest- 
nut brown. Length, 2 inches, 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines ; Indian Ocean. 

Fusus aeus, Ad. and Reeve (see p, 63, t. 38, f. 160) is almost 
certainly a synonym. 



LATIRUS. 91 

L. PAETELIANUS, Kobelt, PL 68, fig. 136. 

Light yellowish brown, paler on the ribs ; aperture white. 

Length, 46 mill. 

? China. 
L. THERSITES, Reeve, PI. 68, fig. 131, 

Ivory white, covered with a thin, yellowish epidermis. 

Length, 50 mill. 

China. 
L. CASTANEUS, Reeve. PI. 68, fig. 138, 

Reddish orange, covered by a shining, chestnut-colored epider- 
mis ; aperture white. Length, 2 to 2*5 inches. 

Panama. 

Gray has also described a Turbinella castanea, in the Zool, 
Beechey's Toy,, but has not figured it, and gives the locality 
" Pacific Ocean." The indefinite description may suit this 
species as well as any other. 

L, ACUMINATUS, Kiener. PI. 68, figs, 139, 140. 

White, under a rather persistent dark brown epidermis. 

Length, 1*15 inches, 

Philippines. Cuming. 
L. GRACILIS, Reeve. PI. 68, fig, 141. 

Reddish brown ; yellowish, white in the aperture. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Locality unknown ; possibly W. coast of Central America. 

Carpenter described L % tumens distinguishing it from gracilis 
" In L. gracilis the spiral lines are few and raised ; in this species 
numerous and impressed. Length, 2-f 8 inches. Hob. Panama." 
A single specimen in the Cumingian collection : not figured. 
The distinctive character is insufficient, especiall}" as in the fig- 
ured specimen of gracilis the spiral lines are not "few." 
L. FASTIGIUM, Reeve. PL 69, fig, 164. 

Reddish brown, sometimes lighter on the ribs. 

Length, 1 to 1 25 inches. 

Indian Ocean ft. A. Smith ; St. Thomas, W. L R. Swift. 

L. AUREOCINCTUS, Sowb. PL 69, fig. 146. 

Dark chocolate, encircled by golden yellow bands which are 
continuous over ribs and interstices. Length, 20 mill. 

Mauritius Robillard. 

A very distinct species, both in form and coloration. 



92 



LATIRUS. 



L. CAYOHUESONICUS, Sowb. PL 69, fig. 147. 

Purplish brown, same color within the aperture; columella 
bicostate. Length, 16 mill. 

Key West, Florida ; St. Thomas, W. LR. Swift. 

There are four immature specimens of this very recently 
described species in the Swift Collection. In one of them there 
is a broad lighter band below the periphery. 

L. NODATUS, Martyn. PL 69, fig. 148. 

Orange-brown (light yellow under the epidermis) ; the aperture 
roseate. Length, 2'5-3*5 inches. 

Sandwich and Viti Islands, etc. ; Panama. Cuming? 

The last locality is doubtless erroneous, as it has not been con- 
firmed by any collector subsequent to Cuming 

L. VARICOSUS, Reeve. PL 69, fig. 149. 

Light orange-brown, the ribs dark chocolate-brown; aperture 
yellowish or blush. Length, 2*5 inches. 

Galapagos Is.; in crevices of rocks. Cuming. 

L. RHODOSTOMA, Dunker. PL 69, fig. 150. 

Brown, with the revolving lirae whitish ; aperture rosaceous. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Japan. 

L. BREVICAUDATUS, Reeve. PL 69, figs. 154, 151. 
Reddish brown, the revolving cords dark chestnut-brown ; 

aperture yellowish brown. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

West Indies. 

Most of the specimens before me have a well-marked posterior 
channel in the aperture. L. filamentosus, Koch (fig. 151), is a 
synonym, perhaps, but the only figure is evidently a very poor 
one, and hardly to be identified with certainty. 

L. CONTEMPTUS, A. Ad. PL 69, fig. 152. 

Reddish brown, with darker revolving lines ; yellowish within 

the aperture. Length, 1*25 inches. 

8t. Oroix, West Indies. 

I have not seen this species ; there is nothing like it in the 
Swift Collection. 



LATIRUS. 93 

L. FALLAX, Kiister. Plate 69, fig. 153. 

Reddish brown, darker in the interstices of the ribs ; aperture 
reddish white. Length, 45 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Kobelt quotes three specimens in the German collections ; I 
have not seen it. 

L. BBAZIERI, Angas. PI. 69, fig. 155. 

Orange-brown, lighter on the ribs ; columellar plaits very slight 

or absent. Length, 1 inch. 

New South Wales. Brazier. 

Adult specimens have a slight callous projection on the colu- 
mella, near the posterior junction of the lip. 

L. VIOLACEUS, Reeve. PI. 69, fig. 156. 

Violet- white, stained with dark chestnut at base ; aperture 

pinkish violet. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
I have not seen this species. 

L. SANGUIFLUUS, Reeve. PI. 69, figs. 157, 158. 

Orange or reddish, the ribs and revolving ridges yellowish 

white. Length, 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

This may be a short variety of the following species, 
L. CRATICULATUS, Linn. PL 69, fig. 159. 

Whitish, with the ribs orange-red, or the deep color in the 
interstices and the ribs white. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Central Polynesia, 

Isle of Bourbon. 

L. TURRITUS, Gmel. PI. 69, figs. 160, 161. 

Reddish orange, the revolving ridges chestnut or chocolate ; 
aperture yellowish. Length, 1-75-2-25 inches. 

Red Sea, Philippines, Australia, Isle of Bourbon, 

Central Polynesia. 

L. PRISMATICUS, Martyn. PL 69, figs. 162, 163. 

Yellowish white, the revolving ridges as they pass over the 
ribs blackish blue, chatoyant when wet; saffron-yellow within 

the aperture. Length, 1*5-3 inches. 

Central Polynesia. 



94 LEUCOZONIA. 

Undetermined Species. 

L. ZEA, Morch, Yoldi Catalogue. Not described. 
L. NEGLECTUS, A. Ad. China. 

L. ARMATUS, A. Ad. California. 

L. FLAVIDUS, A. Ad. Philippines. 

L. ELEGANS, A. Ad. Hob. ? 

L. DISTINCTUS, A. .Ad. Hob. ? 

L. STRANGEI, A. Ad. Sydney, Australia. 

None of the above are figured, nor are dimensions and dis- 
tinctive characters given. 

Genus LEUCOZONIA, &ray. 

The most prominent character of this genus, when present, is 
the tooth which arises from the fore-part of the outer lip. It 
varies greatly in its development in the different species. In 
L. cingulata, in which it is always present, it is long, curved and 
tusk-like, so that the species has been erroneously arranged with 
Monoceros, from which it is instantly distinguished l>y its claw- 
like operculum and columellar plaits. In the other species it is 
sometimes entirely absent in some specimens, whilst well-devel- 
oped in others. There is usually a posterior subchannel to the 
aperture. The sculpture does not vary essentially from that, ef 
the species of Latirus, but the color is usually a chestnut-brown, 
the only ornamentation being lighter or darker revolving bands. 
Usually the species are prominently shouldered ; those which 
have whorls rounded above constitute the sub-genus Lagena 
which may be conveniently retained for them. 

L. CINGULIFERA, Lam. PL 70, figs. 165-173. 

Chestnut-brown, encircled below the periphery by a white 
callous raised band, terminating in a tooth on the outer lip ; 
apperture white, bluish or yellowish within. 

Length, 1-2*5 inches. 

MoutJi of the Gambia, W. Africa ; West Indies ; 

Florida ; Brazil. 

The specimens said to come from W. Africa are the largest, 
but I have never seen any which can be referred to that locality 
without doubt. The species is variable in its proportions and in 
the prominence of its sculpture and has therefore received several 



LEUCOZONIA. 95 

names ; the numerous specimens before me, representing localities 
from Florida, Central America, West Indies and Brazil, enable 
me to place these in the synonymy. Figs. 166-168 represent 
L. angularis, Reeve; Fig. 169 is L. Knorrii, Desh., from Hon- 
duras and Brazil; Fig. 170 is L. Braziliana, d'Orb., also from 
Brazil, and Fig. Ill represents the animal thereof; Fig. 173 is 
L. rudis, Reeve. 

L. inculta, Gould, described without figure or locality is very 
probably a synonym. L. nassa, Gmel, is the oldest name for the 
species, but he included L. leucozonalis in his species, and as 
the subsequent name given by Lamarck has become universally 
current, it seems advisable to adopt it. 

L. TRISERIALIS, Lam. PI. 70, figs. 174-177. 

Chestnut-brown, encircled with three rows of revolving, whitish 
nodules ; aperture and columella white. Length 1-1*5 inches. 
Isle St. Vincent ; W. Africa. Menke / BaJiia, Brazil. 

The latter locality is for L. dubia, Petit (fig. 174). which 
appears to me to be a somewhat depauperate variety of triserialis. 
Another variety is Turbinella Hidalgoi, Crosse (fig. 177), which 
develops three instead of the two lower rows of tubercles. Its 
habitat is unknown. 
L. MULTANGULA, Phil. PI. 70, fig. 187. 

Yellowish-white, with brown strigations between the longitu- 
dinal ribs. Length, 1-12 inches. 

Yucatan. 

There is but little doubt that this species, described as a 
Fusus, really belongs to the Peristerniinae, as the columella is 
said to be plicate at the base, and the form is not unlike speci- 
mens of L. triserialis. It may equal that species, possibly, with 
longitudinal ribs, developed at the expense of revolving ones. 
It is an immature individual. 

L. OCELLATA, Gmelin. PI. 70, figs. 178, 179. 

Chestnut or chocolate, the raised portions white ; aperture 

white. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

West Indies. 

There is considerable variation in the form of this well-known 
species, the spire being sometimes drawn out like the elate forms 
of L. cingulifera, Lam. 



96 LAGENA. 

L. CINGULATA, Lam. PL 70, fig. 180. 

Chestnut, with distant, flat, somewhat raised, revolving bands 
of dark chocolate ; aperture white. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 
Panama, to Mazatlan ; southern extremity of Florida, 

W. W. Calkins. 

Mr. Calkins is the only authority for the occurrence of this 
common West Coast species in the Atlantic waters ; his locality, 
however, is not to be doubted: besides, several other Pacific 
species have been discovered recently on the Florida coast. 

Subgenus Lagena, Schuua. 

L. SUBROSTRATA, Gray. PI. TO, figs. 181, 182. 

Yellowish brown, white within the aperture. 

Length, 1-6 inches. 
Bay of Montija, W. Columbia (in sandy mud, 12 fathoms Cuming). 

L. agrestis, Anton (fig. 182), is founded on younger specimens 
of this species. Its generic position is very doubtful ; Reeve 
considers it a Pyrula ( Melongena), and H. and A. Adams 
have put it in Clavella ; it is also allied to Cantharus distortus. 
The columella plaits are sometimes obsolete. 

L. LEUCOZONALIS, Lam. PL TO, figs. 183, 184. 

Brown, with a white raised band below the periphery, ter- 
minating in a tooth on the lip; upper part of whorls sub- 
nodulous. Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

West Indies ; Honduras. 

Different as this species appears at first sight in its form and 
want of distinct shoulder and tubercles, the re is almost sufficient 
evidence to justify its being made a synonym of L. cingulifera. 

L. SMARAGDULA, Linn. PL- 70, figs. 185, 186. 

Chestnut-brown, closely encircled by numerous, narrow, equi- 
distant white lines; aperture white. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Philippines ; Viti Isles. 

Undetermined Species of PeHsterniinae. 

None of the following species have been figured, nor have they 
been identified by the monographers of the Turbinellse. 

TURBINELLA STRIATA, Gray. No locality. 



BUCCINID^!. 97 

T. (Fusus) SULCATA, Gray. No locality. 

T. (Fusus) ELEGANS, Gray, Sierra Leone. 

A, Adams and Dunker have both used the same specific name. 

T. PLICATULA, T. L^EVIGATA, T. IMPRESSA, T. FENESTRATA, Allton. 

All without locality. 

T. SPINOSA, Phil. China. 

T. (FASCIOLARIA) BISTRTATA, Gould and Carpenter. 

The small size (1*07 inches) and long canal render it im- 
probable that this is a Fasciolaria, unless a very young speci- 
men. Possibly a Latirus. Panama ; a single specimen. 
T. (Fusus) ROSA-PONTI, Lesson. Gambier Is. 
T. TAHEITENSIS, Lesson. Taheiti. 
T. PURPUROIDES, Lesson. Gambier Is. 

Family BUCCINID^. 

Shell ovate, oblong or pear-shaped ; canal moderate or short, 
columella without folds or plications. 

Operculum with terminal or lateral nucleus. 

Dentition 1 1 1. The rhachidian tooth normally three 
(sometimes as many as seven) pronged, the laterals two- or three- 
pronged. 

The t} T pical Buccinum is a rather thin ovate shell, uniform and 
dull in color, with the base of the aperture broadly notched 
instead of being prolonged (as in the Fusidse) into a canal ; but 
with these have been more recently associated pyriform shells 
having some resemblance to the latter family. Hemifusus, 
Melongena, Sipho, etc., pretty well bridge the chasm between the 
two families as far as the general form of the shell is concerned, 
but in those species of Buccinidee approaching Fusus there is 
the general distinction that the canal, if long, is wide and open ; 
whilst tortuous as in Fasciolaria, it has at most a single fold in 
lieu of the plaits on the columella of that genus. I have 
arranged the subfamilies and genera, commencing with those 
most closely allied to Fusus, and terminating with the buccinoid 
forms. Although the range of form is great, it will be seen that 
the transitions are not abrupt ; and in this case the lingual den- 
tition affords confirmation of the grouping adopted upon conch- 
ological grounds. 
13 



98 BUCCINTD^:. 

Sub-family Melongeninse. Shell pear-shaped, heavy ; spire and 

canal short. 
Sub-family Neptuniinse. Shell rather thin, pear-shaped or ovate ; 

canal moderate and twisted. 
Sub-family Pisaniinse. Shell small, heavy, costate ; canal very 

short and wide, outer lip thickened, dentate within ; columella 

callous or rugose. 
Sub-family Buccinince. Shell rather thin, costate or smooth, 

ovate, covered with a horny epidermis ; aperture very large, 

lip thin, smooth within, terminating below in a short oblique 

notch. 
Sub-family Eburninse. Shell thick, smooth, ovate-oblong ; deeply 

umbilicated or umbilicus covered by a heavy callus ; outer lip 

simple acute. 
Sub-family Photinse. Shell small, smooth, costate or cancellate, 

ovate or turreted, thick; outer lip striate within; canal short 

and wide, columella twisted below. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Sub-Family MELONGENINSE, 

MELONGENA, Schum. Shell pyriform, solid, dark colored or banded ; 
spire short, nodulose, spiny ; aperture oval-oblong ; canal short, open ; 
columella smooth ; outer lip simple. Opercuhmi solid, claw-like, nu- 
cleus apical. Dentition, PI. 25, figs. 10, 11 ; PI. 20, figs. 12, 13. 

HEMIFUSUS, Swainson. Shell sub-fusiform, uiicolored or light yellowish ; 
spire shorter than the aperture, ponderous ; whorls armed with com- 
pressed spines upon the shoulder; aperture long ovate, with an ascending 
internal canal at the hind part, produced into a moderate wide canal 
anteriorly ; columella smooth ; outer lip simple. Operculum unknown. 
Dentition, PI. 26, fig. 19. 

[Thatcheria, Angas. Shell conic with scalariform spire, whorls 
attenuating to base ; growth flexuous, causing a broad sinus on the 
flattened shoulder of the body-whorl. No doubt a monstrosity. ] 

Sub-Family NEPTUNIIN^E. 

NEPTUNE A, Bolten. Shell fusiform, ventricose ; spire elevated, whorls 
rounded, covered with a horny epidermis, apex papillary ; aperture 
oval ; canal short ; inner lip simple, smooth. Operculum ovate, nucleus 
apical. Dentition, PI. 26, figs. 14-16. 



99 

VOLUTOPSIS, Morch. Shell smooth, ovate, ventricose ; spire short, 
apex bulbaceous ; last whorl rather large ; aperture very large, the lip 
considerably expanded ; canal scarcely produced, widely obliquely 
truncate. Operculum irregularly ovate, with apical nucleus. Dentition, 
PL 26, figs. 24, 25. 

Subgenus HELIOTROPIS, Dall. Shell thin, sinistral, apex mammillated ; 
operculum relatively very small. 

SIPHO, Klein. Shell thin, pyriform or fusiform, not tuberculate or spiny, 
usually smooth and rounded whorls ; spire moderate ; canal produced 
and recurved. Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. Dentition, PI. 26, 
figs. 17, 18. 

Subgenus MOHNIA, Friele. Operculum paucispiral. 

SIPHONALIA, A. Adams. Shell ovately-fusiform, sometimes variegated 
in coloring, rather thin, epidermis very thin, fugaceous ; last whorl 
ventricose, shouldered, usually nodosely plicate and spirally ribbed ; 
aperture oval, outer lip thin, columella smooth ; canal rather short, 
twisted. Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. Dentition unknown. 

Subgenus AUSTROPUSUS, Kobelt. Whorls not shouldered. 

FULGU'R, Moiitf. Pear-shaped, thin ; spire short, the angle of the shoul- 
der spinous ; body -whorl very large, attenuated below into a rather long 
twisted canal ; lip and columella smooth, the latter with a single, rather 
obsolete fold. Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. Dentition of typical 
form ; rhachidian tooth 5-6 dentate, laterals 5-6 dentate. 

Subgenus TAPHON, H. and A. Adams. Shell dextral, transversely stri- 
ated, whorls rounded ; aperture ovate, fore-part produced into a long, 
slightly-recurved canal. 

Subgenus SYCOTYPUS, Browne (Gill). Shell with canaliculate suture, 
periostraca ciliated, nodulous instead of spinous. Dentition, PI. 26, 
fig; 20. 

STREPTOSIPHON, Gill. Shell subfusiform ; spire rather short, apex 
papillary ; whorls angulated at the upper part and tuberculate on the 
angle ; columella concave, with a double very oblique fold on the lower 
part ; canal moderately long, twisted ; aperture lirate within. Opercu- 
culum and animal unknown. Seems to connect Busy con with Tudicla. 

TUDICLA, Bolt. Shell fusiform ; spire short, apex papillary ; aperture> 
oval ; canal very long, narrow, straight ; columella smooth, flattened, 
with a single large, or three smaller transverse folds at the fore-part. 
Operculum fusoid. Dentition unknown. 



100 BUCCINID.E. 

Sub-Family PISANIIN^E. 

PISANIA, Bivona. Shell oblong; spire prominent, whorls smooth or 
spirally striated ; canal very short ; outer lip thickened and crenated. 
Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. 

EUTHRIA, Gray. Shell fusiform, smooth ; aperture oval, produced 
anteriorly into a long recurved canal ; inner lip simple ; outer lip poste- 
riorly sinuated, striate within. Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. 
Dentition, PI. 27, figs. 27, 28. 

METULA, H. and A. Adams. Shell elongately fusiform, finely cancel- 
lated; spire elevated, acute; aperture narrow; inner lip distinct, smooth; 
outer lip thickened externally, crenulated within, emarginate poste- 
riorly. Operculum unknown. Dentition, PL 26, fig. 21. 

CANTHARUS, Bolten. Shell bucciniform, more or less ventricose in the 
middle, narrowed anteriorly ; spire and aperture nearly equal ; colu- 
niella generally with a few transverse ridges; outer lip internally 
crenated, and with a superior siphonal canal. Operculum ovate, nucleus 
apical. Dentition, PI. 26, figs. 22, 23 ; PI. 27, fig. 26. 

Sub-Family BUCCINI1SLE. 

BUCCINTJM, Linn. Shell ovate or oblong, covered with a horny epider- 
mis ; spire elevated, apex acute ; aperture large, oval, emarginate in 
front ; canal wide, very short, or a mere oblique truncation of the base 
of the aperture ; columella smooth ; inner lip expanded ; outer lip 
usually thin, smooth internally. Operculum ovate, nucleus small near 
the outer front edge. Dentition, PI. 27, figs. 29, 30. 

NEOBUCCINUM, E. A. Smith. Shell bucciniform, smooth, thin ; aper- 
ture obliquely, widely notched below. Operculum subspiral. Den- 
tition resembling that of Neptunea.* 

BUCCINOPSIS. Jeffreys. Shell bucciniform, smooth or spirally striu- 
late, last whorl inflated ; aperture obliquely truncate below. Operculum 
small, subtriangular, nucleus apical. Dentition, PI. 27, fig. 32. 

VOLUTHARPA, Fischer. Shell ventricose, thin ; spire short, body-whorl 
and aperture very large. Operculum usually wanting ; when present, 
at first with apical nucleus, afterwards becoming annular. Dentition, 
PI. 27, fig. 31. 

* Mr. Smith founds his genus principally upon the paucispiral opercu- 
lum, but the figure given by him shows an operculum which is no more 
curved than occurs sometimes in the genus Sipho, for example. This, 
with the dentition indicates relationship with J^eptunea, but the absence 
of canal in the shell on the other hand, relates it to Buccinum. 



BUCCINID^E. 101 

CHLANIDOTA, Martens. Shell subglobose, thin, spirally costate. 
Operculum with apical nucleus. Dentition : middle plate with five 
teeth, the outer ones much smaller, laterals with three teeth, the middle 
one smallest, the outer one somewhat smaller than the inner. 

COMINELLA, Gray. Shell bucciniform, marked or spotted, covered 
with an epidermis ; spire short, acute, last whorl large, ventricose, with 
a posterior depressed groove at the suture, producing a contraction at 
the hind part of the outer lip.* Operculum with apical nucleus. Den- 
tition, PI. 27, fig. 32. 

OLE A, A. Adams. Shell turbinate, covered by an epidermis, aperture 

ovately acute, truncate at base and profoundly sinuate, dextral margin 

regularly arcuate, parietal callus none or thin. Operculum subtrigonal, 

with apical nucleus. Dentition, PI. 27, fig. 38. Inhabits fresh wate 

Subgenus CANIDEA, H. Adams. Shell small, fusiform or turbiuate, 

covered with an epidermis ; spire longer than the aperture, apex 

eroded ; whorls slightly convex, plicate ; aperture elongately ovate, 

emarginated in front ; columella truncate ; lip simple, sinuated in 

front. Operculum small, unguiculate ; nucleus apical. Dentition, 

PI. 27, fig. 37. Living in fresh water. 

Sub-Family EBURNIN.E. 

EBURNA, Lam. Shell ovate-oblong, thick, porcellanous, under a thin 
epidermis ; deeply umbilicated ; spire acuminated, whorls more or less 
convex, suture more or less channeled ; aperture oval ; columella arcu- 
ated, posteriorly callous ; inner lip spreading, often covering the umbil- 
icus in the adult ; outer lip simple, acute. Operculum with apical 
nucleus. Dentition, PI. 27, fig. 33. 

Subgenus ZEMIRA, H. and A. Adams. Umbilicus moderate ; outer lip 
with a tooth near the fore-part. 

MACRON, H. and A. Adams. Shell ovate, solid, with a thick epidermis; 
spire elevated ; columella wrinkled, with a callosity at the upper part ; 
outer lip thin, with a small tooth anteriorly. Operculum ovate, with 
apical nucleus. Dentition unknown. 

Sub-Family PHOTIN.E. 

PHOS, Montfort. Shell cancellated, oblong, acuminated, usually longi- 
tudinally ribbed ; outer lip striated internally, with a slight sinus near 
the fore-part ; columella obliquely grooved, or with a single plait in 
front. Operculum claw-shaped, nucleus apical. Dentition, PI. 27, 
fig. 35. 



* H. and A. Adams (Genera II, 615) make Adamsia, Dunker, a sub-genus 
of Coiiiinclla ; the operculum and facies of the type show it, however, to 
be a Purpura (See Manual, Vol. II, p. 156). 



1 02 BUCCINID^E. 

NASSARIA (Link), H. and A. Adams, Shell ovately fusiform ; spire 
accuminated, whorls longitudinally ribbed and cancellated ; aperture 
ending anteriorly in a long recurved canal ; inner lip thin, circum- 
scribed, transversely corrugately plicated ; outer lip grooved internally. 
Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. Dentition, PI. 27, fig. 34. 

CYLLENE, Gray. Shell ovate ; spire short, acute, suture canaliculated; 
'columella concave, smooth or finely grooved ; outer lip with a slight 
sinus at the fore-part, emargiiiate posteriorly, grooved internally. 
Operculum with terminal nucleus. Dentition unknown. 

Fossil Genera and Subgenera. 
Sub-Family MELONGENIN^E. 

Genus BULBIFUSUS, Conrad. Not characterized. 

B. INAUKATUS, Conr.* (=Fusus FITTONII, Lea), PI. 29, fig. 55. Eocene, 

Claiborne, Ala. 

Genus CORNULINA, Conr. Not charactized. 

C. ARMIGERA, Conr. (= Fusus TAITII, Lea) . PI. 29, fig. 56. Eocene, 
Ala. 

Genus LEIOSTOMA, Swains. Fusiform, ventricose in the middle, 
entirely smooth, almost polished ; inner lip thickened and vitreous ; base 
of the pillar very straight. 

L. BULBIFORMIS, Lam. PI. 29, fig. 57. Griynon. 

A comparison of numerous specimens indicates the very close relation- 
ship of Bulbifusus, Conr., with this genus, which is itself entirely too close 
to the recent group Volema. Bayle has changed the name to Sycum, be- 
cause Leiostoma is preoccupied by Lacepede in Fishes. I cannot concur 
in such changes, which would completely unsettle our nomenclature. 

Sub-Family NEPTUNIINJ3. 

Genus FUSISPIRA, Hall. Shell fusiform, imperforate, spire more or 
less elevated, with rounded volutions ; aperture elongate, oval or elliptical, 
produced below, forming a sub-rimate canal ; columella slightly twisted, 
without folds, peristome sharp. Surface smooth. 

F. VENTRICOSA, Hall. PI. 29, fig. 58. Trenton Limestone, near Green 



So far as known, this palaeozoic genus is confined to the Quebec, Tren- 
ton and Hudson River groups. 

* In describing the fossil genera of Conrad I quote his specific names 
for the types specified by him. I have indicated, however, the equivalent 
species of Dr. Lea in brackets. The decision of questions of priority of 
publication of fossil species does not fall within the scope of this work. 



103 

Genus CLOSTERISCUS, Meek. Shell thin, fusiform ; spire 'slender, 
longer than aperture and canal ; surface smooth or minutely striate ; 
aperture rhombic, outer lip broadly retreating above the middle, thin, 
excepting at irregular intervals, where it became thickened and denticu- 
late within, so as to leave internal varices behind as the shell advanced in 
growth ; inner lip very thin, or wanting ; columella smooth ? 

C. TENUILJNEATUS, Meek. PI. 29, fig. 59, Cretaceous, Cheyenne, Riv., 
Dakota. 

Genus PAL^EATRACTUS, Gabb. Pyriform, thick; spire low ; colum- 
ella slightly twisted ; outer lip simple, inner lip incrusted. Surface 
heavily ribbed or cancellate. 

P. CRASSUS, Gabb. PI. 29, fig. 60. Cretaceous, California. 

Genus PYRIFUSUS, Conrad. Pyriform ; columella broad, thick, 
flattened ; body volution transversely oval, compressed dorso-ventrally. 

P. SUBDENSATUS, Conr. PI. 29, fig. 61. Cretaceous, Mississippi. 

Subgenus NEPTUNELLA, Meek. Body volution rounded ; columella not 
flattened ; spire more elevated ; outer lip broadly sinuous above the 
middle. 

P. NEWBERRYI, Meek and Hay den. PI. 30, fig. 62, Cretaceous, Dakota. 

Subgenus HERCORHYNCUS, Conrad. Shell fusiform ; spire promi- 
nent, scalariform, longitudinally ribbed and tuberculated, or with 
tubercles only ; top depressed above the angle or shoulder of the last 
whorl, which depression becomes angular at the aperture, emarginating 
the upper part of the labrum ; last whorl broad and rather abruptly 
rounded at base ; beak abruptly recurved and produced. 

H. TIPPANA, Conr. PI. 30, fig. 63. Cretaceous, Mississippi. 

Genus LIROFUSUS, Conr. Genus not characterized. 

L. THORACICUS, Conr. (= DECUSSATOS, Lea). PI. 30, fig. 64. Eocene, 
Alabama. 

Subgenus SYCOPSIS, Conrad (Subgenus of Busy con = Fulgur). Shell 
tuberculate, not canaliculate. Eocene and Miocene. Differs from the 
genus in having tubercles instead of spines on the shoulder. 

Genus STREPSIDURA, Swainson. Widely fusiform ; basal portion of 
the pillar turned outwardly, with a sharp fold at the base of the aperture; 
shell costate and sub-carinate, body-whorl ventricose. 

S. COST AT A, Swainson (= Fusus ficulneus, Lam.). PI. 30, fig. 65. 

Genus PAPILLINA, Conrad. Pyriform; shoulder angular and spinous; 
beak long, with an obtuse fold on the columella ; three volutions from the 
apex forming a papillated summit. Very probably = Tudicla, Bolt. 

P. PAPILLATUS, Conrad. PI. 30, fig. 66. Eocene, Claiborne, Ala. 



104 SUCCINITE. 

Genus PERISSOLAX, Gabb. Spire depressed ; body-whorl patulous ; 
canal long ; columella without folds or plaits. 

Distinguished from PapiUina by the want of a columellar fold, and 
evidently intended to be ranged in the Fusinae, but I think its general 
appearance decidedly that of Busycon or Tudicla. Cretaceous Eocene. 

P. BREVIROSTRIS, Gabb. PI. 30, fig. 67. Cretaceous, California. 

Lemfusus, Conrad, is generally considered synonymous with Perissolax. 
It is an uncharacterized Eocene form, of which I figure an example : 

L. (PERISSOLAX) TRABEATUS, Conr. PI. 30, fig. 69. Eocene, Alabama. 

Genus TORTIFUSUS, Conrad. Differs from Busycon in being without 
a trace of tubercles or spines, and in having prominent regular ribs ; the 
whorls are flattened on top, and slightly canaliculated. 

T.CURVIROSTRA, Conr. PI. 30, fig. 69. Miocene, N. Carolina. 

Genus PYROPSIS, Conrad. Spire very short, apex not papillated ; 
labrum without striae within, thick ; columella without a fold. 
P. PERLATA, Conrad. PI. 30, fig. 70. Cretaceous, Tippah Co. Miss. 
Genus CLAVIFUSUS, Conrad. The genus has not been characterized. 
C. COOPERI, Conrad. PI. 30, fig. 71. Eocene, Alabama. 
C. ALTILIS, Conrad. PI. 30, fig. 72. Eocene, Alabama. 

Sub-Family PISANIINJB. 

Subgenus CANTHARULUS, Meek. (S. G. of CantJiarus}. Shell with 
canal moderately produced, rather narrow and twisted ; inner lip smooth 
throughout, and rather well developed ; columella arcuate and twisted, so 
as to form an obtuse, undefined prominence below ; outer lip slightly 
sinuous above. 

C. VAUGHANI, Meek and Hayden. PL 31, fig. 73. Cretaceous, Upper 
Missouri River. 

Genus METULELLA, Gabb. Shell fusiform, canal more or less pro- 
duced; inner lip covered with a thickened plate, continuous posteriorly 
with the outer lip. Interior of both inner and outer lips strongly denticu- 
lated or transversely striated. Surface cancellate or costate. More dis- 
tinctly fusiform than Metula, the columella with a row of denticles. 

M. FUSIFORMIS, Gabb. PI. 31, fig. 74. Miocene, San Domingo, W. I. 

Genus LEVIBUCCINUM, Conrad. Not characterized. 

L. PRORSUM, Conr. PI. 58, fig. 412. Eocene, Alabama. 

Genus AGASOMA, Gabb. Subfusiform, spire low, body-whorl long ; 
canal moderately produced and slightly deflected ; aperture elongate, 
labrum simple; labium incrusted with a thin, smooth plate; suture bordered 
by an elevated portion of the succeeding whorl as in Clavella. It differs 



BUCCINID^E. 105 

from Clavella in the very short spire and in the short and slightly curved 
canal. 

A. GRAVID A, Gabb. PI. 31, fig. l^r Miocene, California, -f' 7.*? 6- ( 

A. SINUATA, Gabb. PI. 31, fig. 1^ Miocene, California. ?,* 7^- 

Sub-Family BUCCININ.E. 

Genus ERIPACHYA, Gabb. Shell short, robust, subovate to subfusi- 
form, spire moderately elevated. Aperture broad, terminating in advance 
in a very short canal or a mere notch ; outer lip simple ; inner lip more or 
less heavily incrusted. Surface marked by longitudinal ribs and revolving 
lines. 

B. PERFORATA, Gabb. PL 31, fig. 79. Cretaceous, California. 

Genus PSEUDOBUCCINUM, Meek and Hayden. Shell oval, thin, 
ventricose ; spire very short ; body volution large, not produced below ; 
aperture large, terminating below in a rounded sinus ; outer lip thin and 
simple ; inner lip very thin, smooth, and closely and very broadly folded 
upon the imperforate umbilical region and body volution above, so as to 
form, with a low revolving umbilical ridge, a kind of profoundly arcuate, 
strongly spiral, false columella ; surface with more or less distinct revolv- 
ing lines and furrows. 

Meek is inclined to believe that Bullia ampullacea is a living example 
of his genus ; if so, Volutharpa, Fischer, will have priority over Pseudo- 
buccinum. 

P. NEBRASCENSE, M. and H. PI. 31, fig. 78. Cretaceous, Moreau R. 

Genus ODONTOBASIS, Meek. Shell buccinoid-fusiform , spire more 
or less produced ; body volution ventricose, and separated below from the 
short narrow beak, by a sharply defined, narrow, revolving sulcus, that 
terminates below at the connection of the outer lip with the canal, in a 
small tooth-like projection ; outer lip thin, smooth within, and nearly 
straight in outline ; inner lip not thickened, but well-defined ; columella 
a little twisted, slightly flattened, and bearing two oblique plaits below, 
the lower one of which is formed by the raised lower edge of the obliquely 
truncated columella, and the other, which is very obscure, or perhaps 
sometimes obsolete, placed a little above the same ; surface ornamented by 
vertical folds and revolving lines and furrows. 

This genus referred doubtfully to the Buccinidse by Meek, seems to 
unite characters of several different groups ; the shell is Buccinoid in form 
and sculpture, but the fold and tooth remind one of Fasciolarise, whilst 
the truncate columella recalls the Nassse. 

O. VENTRICOSA, Meek. PI. 31, fig. 79. Cretaceous, Dakota. 

Genus ECTRACHELIZA, Gabb. Shell accuminately oblong, spire 
elevated (always truncated in the only species known). Surface com- 
14 



106 

pressed near the suture. Inner lip incrusted ; columella sinuous, short ; 
outer lip produced in advance. 

This genus seems to be allied in many of its characters to Cominella 
and Truncaria. Like them, it is compressed adjoining the suture. It 
shows no trace of umbilicus, as seen in most of the Buccinidse, but its 
most distinctive character is in its obliquely subtruncated columella, 
which does not reach to the anterior end of the shell. 

E. TRUNCATA, Gabb. PI. 31. fig. 80. Miocene, San Domingo, W- L 

Genus BRACHYSPHINGUS, Gabb. Shell bucciniform, short, robust, 
thick ; spire low ; aperture large, notched anteriorly ; outer lip simple ; 
inner lip incrusted with a smooth callus ; surface longitudinally ribbed or 
striate. Allied probably to Cominella or VolutJiarpa. 

B. LIBATUS, Gabb. PI. 81, fig. 81. Cretaceous, California. 

Genus LACINIA, Conrad. Globose ; pillar lip widely reflected, with 
a heavy posterior callus ; basal emargination profound ; base dilated ; 
aperture with a posterior channel ; outer lip simple. 

L. ALVEATA, Conr. (=PYBULA SMITHII, Lea). PI. 31, fig. 84. 
Eocene, Ala. 

This does not differ very much from the -recent Cominella maculata, 
Martyn. 

Genus HAYDENIA, Gabb. Shell massive, allied, in general form, to 
OUva, spire low. Outer lip simple, not thickened nor crenulate ; inner 
lip incrusted, callus marked posteriorly, without teeth or folds ; canal 
slightly recurved ; anterior extremity of the mouth notched, and a small 
sinus at the posterior extremity of the aperture, where the outer lip unites 
with the body- whorl. Surface ornamented as in some of the Buccinidse. 
This curious form is probably a link between Buccinum and Volutharpa. 

H. IMPRESSA, Gabb. PI. 31, fig. 82. Cretaceous, California. 

Sub-Family PHOTISUE. 

Genus BUCCITRITON, Conrad. Genus not characterized. One of the 
typical specimens of B. Sagenum has a single varix on the back of the 
the body-whorl but the other specimens are without it, so that its non- 
absorption may be regarded as accidental. B. altum is a different type of 
shell entirely, and looks something like a Truncaria. 

Sagenella, Conrad, also un characterized, judging from the type, is 
identical with Buccitriton. 

B. CANCELLATUM, Lea (= SAGENUM, Conr.) PL 31, fig. 83. Alabama. 
B. ALTUM, Conr. PL 31, fig. 85. Eocene, Texas. 



MELONGENA. 107 

Sub-Family MELONGENIIN^E. 

Genus MELONGENA, Schum. 

Kobelt, in his recently published monograph of Pyrula 
(Conchylien Cabinet), adopts that genus, taking as subgenera 
Cassidulus ( = Melongena), Myristica, Pugilina, Volema and 
Hemifusus These groups which are too closely related coiicho- 
logically as well as by their lingual dentition, Troschel also places 
together, but without subordinating them to a higher group. 
Pyrula would, indeed, be an excellent name on account of its 
acceptance years ago for the major part of the species, but 
unfortunately the first and only species cited by Lamarck in his 
original description of the genus is the Bulla ficus, Linn., which 
is a member of the genus Ficula, Swainson, over which it 
has priority, and instead of which it should therefore be adopted. 
Cassidulus j Humphrey, has priority over Melongena, but I can- 
not adopt it as it is a mere catalogue name, not positively iden- 
tified. 

M. PATULA, Brod. and Sowb. PI. 41, figs. 194-196. 

Chestnut-brown, banded with pale yellow or white ; aperture 
and columella orange or yellowish flesh-color. 

Length, 4-10 inches. P(m(ma tg Mazatlan , 

The animal has a yellowish, brown-spotted foot, elongate- 
quadrangular in shape ; head long and narrow ; siphon chestnut- 
color ; tentacula short, distant, straight, diverging. 

Closely allied to the West Indian M. melongena, but may be 
distinguished by its greater size and darker color. This species 
develops no spines except at the shoulder of the whorl, where 
they are irregularly produced, few in number, sometimes entirely 
absent ; in M. melongena. although some specimens are equally 
smooth and devoid of spines, there are usually on adult specimens 
one to three rows of spines on the upper part of the body-whorl, 
and an additional row half-way to the base of the whorl. 

M. MELONGENA, Linn. PL 41, figs. 197, 198. 

Light bluish or chocolate, with light yellowish, numerous 
bands ; interior yellowish white. Length, 3-5 inches. 

West Indies. 

See remarks upon preceding species. 



108 MELONGENA. 

M. TUBERCULATA, Anton. 

No figure or locality is given with the description of this 
species ; which has not been recognized. 

M. CORONA, Gmelin PI. 41, figs. 199-203. 

Bluish or chestnut-brown, with white bands ; same color and 
bands within the aperture. Length, 2*5-4*5 inches. 

Florida and West Indies. 

The ordinary type of this species has erect or incurved scaly 
spines on the edge of the square shoulder, usually crowded, with 
a more or less prominent sub-basal series of spines ; sometimes 
the latter is suppressed and sometimes the upper series is replaced 
by two less prominent ones. 

M. Belknapi, Petit (fig. 201), is synonymous. I figure also a 
small variety (fig. 200) illustrated recently by Mr. Sowerby in 
the Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 

M. bispinosa, Phil. (fig. 203), is a variety of this species in 
which the shoulder is encircled by a double girdle of spinose 
tubercles, the upper one being most prominent. I have several 
examples of this variety before me from Yucatan. 

M. Martiniana, Phil. (fig. 202), appears to be a specimen of 
this (or possibly of the next) species with the spines almost sup- 
pressed. 

Fusus bicolor, Say, described from immature specimens, has 
not been identified properly heretofore : I am glad to be able, 
from the examination of types sent to the Philada. Academy by 
Mrs. Say, to identify it with M. corona. 

M. GALEODES, Lam. PI. 42, figs. 204-208. 

Pale brown, with the revolving ridges darker, or chestnut- 
brown with the ridges whitish ; sometimes uniform cream-color ; 
aperture usually white, brown-banded. The whorls are generally 
frilled or scaly spinose at the sutural line, nodulous or spinose 
on the shoulder, and sometimes with one or two lower lines of 
spines, about equidistant one from another. 

Length, 1*5-2*5 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Singapore, China, Philippines. 

Mr. Tapparone-Canefri, in his review of the Murices of the 
Red Sea, distinguishes, under the name of calcaratus, Dillwyn, 



MELONGENA. 109 

the shell which Lamarck called Pyrula angulata, and which 
Kiener figures (fig. 204). The very numerous suite of specimens 
before me conclusively shows that all the various forms which I 
have figured are conspecific. 

M. BUCEPHALA, Lam. PI. 42, tig. 209. 

Light yellowish brown, covered usually with a thin, rather 
smooth, horn-colored epidermis. Length, 3-4*5 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 

Reeve's habitat " Mexico " is certainly an error. 

M. PALLIDA, Brod. and Sowb., PI. 42, figs. 210-215. 
Yellowish white. Length, 1-25-1 -15 inches. 

Mazatlan, W. Coast of Central America. ? 

With this species I unite the following as synonyms : 

M. anomaly, Reeve (figs. 212, 213), which is the adult state of 
growth the variability of the species is shown by fig. 213, which 
Reeve considers a variety of his anomala, M. lignaria, Reeve 
(fig. 214), a form which is not adult, and Fusus Turbinelloides, 
Reeve (fig. 215), is older, still not quite adult. 

H. and A. Adams erroneously refer M. anomala, Reeve, to 
Neptunea, in which the name is preoccupied; they therefore 
changed it to Neptunea anceps. 

The species might as well be referred to Siphonalia as here. 

M. FUSIFORMIS, Blainv. PL 42. figs. 216-218. 

White, more or less stained with rusty brown, under a fibrous 
brown epidermis. Length, 2-2-5 inches. 

St. Elena, W. Columbia, in crevices of rocks at low 

water. Cuming. Peru. d'Orbigny. 

This shell is apparently very closely related to Guma Kios- 
quiformis (Vol. II, p. 200), but the operculum, according to 
d'Orbigny, is not purpuroid. The resemblance, conchologically, 
is much nearer Cuma than either Melongena or Siphonalia, and 
I cannot help thinking that the great French naturalist was mis- 
taken as to the operculum. 

M. MYRISTICA, Reeve. PL 42, fig. 219. 

Yellowish red, white within the aperture. Length, 28 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 



110 MELONGENA. 

This, and the two following, are located in Melongena with 
much doubt. 

M. CANCELLAEIOIDES, Reeve. PI. 43, fig. 231. 

Whitish, ridges reddish brown. Length, 47 mill. 

? China. 
M. SPADICEA, Kobelt. PI. 43, fig. 230. 

Yellowish. Length, 2 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

Kobelt thinks it not improbable that this is an Austrofusus ; 
I place it here on account of the coloration which corresponds 
with Melongena. 

M. BERNARDIANA, Phil. 
Not figured. Said to resemble FULSUS turbinelloides, Reeve = 

M. pallida, Brod. and Sowb. 

Marquesas Isles. 
M. PUGILINA, Born. PI. 43, figs. 220-222. 

Chestnut-brown ; aperture orange-yellow ; epidermis dark 

brown, pilose. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 
M. PABADISIACA, Reeve. PI. 43, figs. 223-225. 

Whitish or yellowish, either unhanded, or encircled with 
numerous light brown bands , aperture flesh-yellow to orange ; 
shoulder smooth or defined by low tubercles. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Red Sea; Ceylon; Mozambique ; Natal. 

The specific name is given by Reeve and others as of Martini, 
who was not a binomial writer. I cannot cite him as authority 
and in substituting Reeve I pass over several intervening, differ- 
ent names given by other authors : the species is so well known 
as paradisiaca that to change it would be inadvisable. A yellow 
form, without tubercles (fig. 224), was called by Lamarck Pyrula 
citrina ; whilst the tubercmate shells were named by him P. 
nodosa. 

M. COCHLIDIUM, Linn. PI. 43, figs. 226, 227. 

Deep chestnut-brown : aperture yellowish or white. 

Length, 3*5-6 inches. 

Indian Ocean; Raines* IsL, Torres Sts. Capt. Ince. 

Somewhat resembling the dark-colored, tuberculate variety of 
M. pugilina, Born, but a larger shell, thinner, and with the 
tubercles or short spines larger and much less numerous. 



HEMlFtTSTTS. Ill 

M. MORIO, Linn. PL 43, figs. 228, 229. 

Chocolate-brown under a rather porsistent olive-brown, pilose 
epidermis ; usually encircled by one or more white bands, the 
principal one at the top of the aperture ; interior light brown or 
bluish with revolving brown ridges ; shoulder with or without 
rather distant compressed tubercles. Length, 3-7 inches. 

W. Coast of Africa ; West Indies ; Brazil 

This and the preceding species were placed by the Messrs. 
Adams in the genus Hemifusus, but they are quite as closely 
related in form to Melongena whilst their coloration is decidedly 
that of the latter genus. 

M. (MUREX) SQUAMOSA, Brod. PL 58, fig. 399. 

Yellowish brown ; pink tinged, especially on the columella. 
Length, 40 mill. 

Payta, Peru. 

This species has been neglected by recent monographers. 
The only figure is in Sowerby's Conch. Illustrations. The want 
of real varices and thin outer lip removes it from Murex, and 
it cannot be a Fusus, as Sowerby conjectures, that genus being 
now restricted to the spindle-shaped shells, with long canal. I 
locate it here, not knowing how to dispose of it otherwise. 

M. (PYRULA) PLICATA, Lam. 

M. Deshayes has not been able to identify this species. 

Genus HEMIFTJSUS, Swainson. 

Besides being thinner, the shells of this genus are distinguished 
from Melongena, by being white (without bands or other color 
markings) under a light yellowish brown epidermis. They differ 
from Fusus in the flexuous, wider, open canal, which is widened 
gradually into the lower portion of the aperture. 
H. COLOSSEUS, Lam. PL 44, fig. 232. 

Pale fawn-yellow ; light roseate within the aperture. 

Length, 10-14 inches. 

Indian Ocean ; Philippines. 

Varies in the development of the tubercles upon the shoulder ; 
occasionally they are obsolete, and are never very prominent. 

I 



112 THATCHERIA. 

H. TERNATANUS, Gmel. PL 44, fig. 233. 

Fawn-yellow to yellowish red; interior yellowish flesh-color. 
Length, 3-5 inches. Indian Ocean; PhiUppines , 

A smaller, wider shell than the preceding species, with more 
prominent tubercles. 

H. PASTINACA, Reeve. PL 44, fig. 234. 

Thin ; whitish, under a thin, yellowish epidermis. 

Length, 3-5 inches. 

Australia. 
I do not know this species. 

H. LACTEUS, Reeve. PL 44, fig. 235. 

Yellowish cream-color, or light chestnut-yellow. 

Length, 2-5 inches. Philippines. 

I think it very probable that this and the preceding species 
will prove to be identical. 

H. ELONGATUS, Lam. PL 44, fig. 236. 

Whitish to yellowish orange. Length, 3-4-5 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 
H. TUBA, Gmelin. PL 44, fig. 23t. 

Yellowish flesh-color, under a brownish yellow, thin epidermis ; 
light flesh-color within the aperture. Length, 4'5 inches. 

China; Japan. 

The broad shoulder and prominent spines or tubercles well 
distinguish this well-known species from its congeners. 

Genus THATCHERIA, Angas. 

Shell angularly pyriform, solid ; spire prominent, shorter than 
the aperture, many whorled, whorls flattened above, strongly 
keeled at the periphery and contracted below ; aperture with a 
broad incurved sinus between the extremity of the last keel and 
the junction of the body -whorl ; basal canal wide and open ; 
columella smooth ; outer lip simple below the sinus. 

T. MIRABILIS, Angas. PL 44, figs. 238, 239. 

Yellowish white ; aperture white. Length, 3' 5 inch. 

Japan. 

That this shell is a scalariform monstrosity cannot be doubted, 
but what may be its normal form is not so readily ascertained, 

4 



NEPTUNE A. 113 

I saw the single specimen from which the above generic descrip- 
tion was made, when in London, in 1877, and was immediately 
convinced that the conical form, flattened shoulders and sinus 
were all due to distorted growth. In the Annals of the Malacol. 
Soc. of Belgium is figured a monstrosity of Strombus Luhuanus, 
which I have copied for comparison (figs. 240, 241). I may here 
also include a notice of Pyrula Benyalina, Grat., evidently also 
a monstrosity, 

PYRULA BENGALINA, Grat. PL 44, fig. 242. 

Thin, fragile, transversely striate ; white, maculated with 
yellowish red ; initial whorls cancellated ; aperture subviolaceous ; 
lip thin, very acute at edge. Length, 50 mill. 

f M h - F"* mi )y /V- ? y f Ben 9 al 

Genus NEPTUNEA, Bolten. 

The shells of this genus are boreal in distribution, and like the 
other circumpolar genera, are nearly destitute of color, being 
white or yellowish, under a light brown or yellowish, rather 
smooth epidermis. The sculpture, when there is any, consists 
of revolving striae, ridges or ribs, and the lip of the aperture is 
smooth within or merely modified by the external sculpture when 
the shell is thin. In the genus Siphonalia, the species of which 
are mainly Japanese and Australian, the general form is similar, 
but the shell is nodose, frequently developing longitudinal ribs, 
and the outer lip is more disposed to be crenulate ; the surface is 
more usually ornamented with color, disposed in bands, etc. 
There are some species which can be only arbitrarily placed, 
having characters partaking of either genus ; and in fact geo- 
graphical considerations must sometimes be allowed considerable 
weight in assigning such species to their respective genera. 

Some of the species are apparently very variable, and it is 
difficult to decide whether the conservative views of Gwyn Jef- 
freys and Kobelt, or the more extreme views of Morch, etc.. are 
most in accordance with truth. 

N. ANTIQUA, Linn. PL 45, figs. 243-246. 

Whorls rounded, the apical ones obscurely carinated, closely 
marked with revolving striae. White, interior yellowish. 

Length, 3'5-7 inches. 
15 



1-14 NEPTUNEA. 

" " r ~^'\- '~ '" f 

The animal has a white or yellowish white body, sometimes 
partially speckled with black ; the sole of the foot often straw 
color or light orange. 

Cornwall (coralline zone) to Shetland (there found in the 
laminarian, and deep water also) ; Nortli Sea ; 
Atlantic Coast of France. 

Kobelt has varieties carinaia and despecta, but Jeffreys con- 
siders them distinct from this species, of more Arctic distribution, 
and not found living (although fossil) in the British Isles. 1 
agree with Jeffreys' views. On the other hand, Jeffreys has the 
following varieties, viz. : alba, ventricosa, striata, gracilis ; they 
are merely arbitrary distinctions among forms very variable. 
Jeffreys also enumerates montrosities, as follows : 

N. contraria, Linn. Spire reversed. (This has usually been 
considered a distinct species, and I prefer to so regard it.) 
Monstr. 2. acuminatum ; Monstr. 3. scalariforme, whorls more 
or less detached ; Monstr. 4. cinctum, with a sharp ridge at the top 
or in the middle of the lower whorls, now and then bicarinated ; 
5. sulcatum, lower whorls furrowed in the middle, and outer lip 
notched like a Pleurotoma ; 6. Babylonicum, spire turreted ; 7. 
compressum, squeezed in at the sides, mouth narrow ; 8. Volutse- 
forme, shaped like a Voluta ; 9. varicosum, the former outer lip 
(sometimes two or three of them) persistent ; 10. coritorlum, spire 
twisted on one side or inwards; 11. suffuUum, basal ridge con- 
tinued to the periphery ; 12. bioperculatum, having two opercula. 

The following information concerning this common British 
shell I obtain from Jeffreys.* 

" This is good bait for codfish, and a favorite delicac} 7 of the 
lower working-classes in London. At Billingsgate it is sold 
under the name of ' almond ' or ' red whelk ;' according to Rutly's 
History of Dublin the Irish call it ' barnagh,' the tail (liver) 
being said to be more fat and tender than a lobster. The egg- 
cases or capsules (Vol. II, t. 7, f. 11) overlap one another in an 
imbricated fashion, each being firmly attached by its base to the 
underlying capsule ; they are deposited in clusters of from a 
dozen to a hundred, the capsules in each cluster being equal in 
size. Those which compose one cluster, however, are not half as 

* Brit. Conch. IV, 326. 




NEPTUNE A. 

large as those forming another cluster, although in both cases 
the fry are in the same state of maturity. When they are dry, 
the upper or convex side shrivels, and is wrinkled or pitted ; the 
under or flat side (which by contraction becomes concave) is of 
a silky texture, and divided across by a few lines ; the opening 
is a wide slit, lying just under the top which makes a narrow 
flap. 

" Before leaving the capsule the fry are perfectly formed, with 
conspicuous tentacles, eyes, and operculum ; their shell has two 
whorls, the first being smooth, and the other showing a few 
slight incipient striae. Each capsule produces only from two to 
four fry. The latter end of winter appears to be the spawning- 
season ; on the 26th of January, 1861, I examined fresh capsules 
which contained merely eggs immersed in a glairy liquid ; and 
seven days afterwards I found in the other capsules full-sized 
and living young whelks. 

" The sculpture of the adult shell differs according to the 
locality and nature of the ground ; sometimes it is coarse, and at 
other times scarcely perceptible. Specimens from Kiel Bay are 
stunted and depauperated, owing probably to the admixture of 
fresh water from the Baltic. In Shetland and at Berwick the 
fishermen make an elegant lamp of the shell, suspending it hori- 
zontally, mouth upwards, b} r a string round the middle, from a 
nail in the wall ; the cavity contains oil, and the canal a wick 
(See Vol. II, PI. 2, fig. 13). Now and then giants are seen, T or 
8 inches long. The body-whorl of the female is larger than that 
of the male. Chemnitz knew the reversed form as a Crag fossil 
of Harwich ; and he deplored in moving terms the indolence and 
apathy of naturalists in not procuring live specimens of this 
k most delicate monster.' It is still very rare. Not only the 
spire of the shell, but also the curve of the operculum is reversed. 
I am not aware of any explanation of the phenomenon having 
been offered on physiological grounds." 

Mr. Crosse considers N. contraria, Linn. (t. 50, f. 291, 292), a 
good species, and not a reversed antiqua, because it is so abun- 
dantly found at Vigo, a locality more southern than any for the 
normal antiqua, and Weinkauff also, remarking upon the abun. 
dance of contraria in the Mediterranean and the absence of 
antiqua, comes to the same conclusion. 



116 NEPTUNEA. 

N. LURIDA, A. Ad. 

Shell ovate-vehtricose, cretaceous or dirty white, epidermis 
thin, brownish, spire shorter than the aperture ; whorls four-and- 
a-half convex, the last obtusely subangulate behind; aperture 
large, ovate, livid within ; inner lip smooth, convex, canal very 
short, open, scarcely reflexed ; lip lirate within, towards the 

margin smooth, behind widely subsinuated. 

Japan. 

" This is the common edible Whelk of the Ainos." Not figured, 
nor have I seen it. 

N. DESPECTA, Linn. PL 45, figs. 247-254 ; PI. 46, figs. 255-261 ; 

PI. 47, figs. 262-268. 

Shell with a flat shoulder and keel, which is nodulous ; surface 
covered with irregular revolving striae and riblets ; sometimes 
longitudinally lamellose. Fawn-brown, lighter or whitish within 
the aperture. Length, 3-5 inches. 

Norway ; Spitsbergen ; Siberia ; Japan ; Alaska ; 

Greenland ; Iceland ; Newfoundland. 

A circumpolar species, very variable in form and sculpture, 
and bearing numerous names. It has been confounded with N. 
antiqua, but appears to me to be distinct. It inhabits colder 
seas, is not found in any portion of the British ocean, but occurs 
in boreal Asia and America where the antiqua is not found. 

In the var. striata the revolving sculpture is pretty regular, 
consisting of alternate larger and smaller stria? or riblets, and the 
shoulder is destitute of tuberculation. The variety fornicata 
(fig. 251) usually has the angle of the shoulder with a stout rib, 
upon which are compressed tubercles, but the striae upon the rest 
of the shell are more or less obsolete ; sometimes the angle itself 
is obsolete and the tubercles form the only ornamentation of the 
surface. This latter variety is still regarded by some good 
conchologists as a distinct species ; my specimens, however, 
clearly indicate to me its derivation from despecta. Among the 
synonyms of var. fornicata may be placed Fusus borealis, Phil, 
(fig. 554), Chrysodomus lieros, Gray (figs. 252, 253, 255, 256), an 
extremely lengthened, non-carinated form, which approaches 
Siplionalia Kellettii, Forbes, Tritonium antiquum, Midd., not 
Linn. (figs. 251-260), some forms of which are suggestive of 



NEPTUNEA. 11 Y 

lirata, Martyn, from the same localities, N. arthritica^al. (figs. 
262, 264), N. bulbacea or bulbosa, Yal. (figs. 265, 266), which is 
evidently the same as artliritica, Fusus saturus, Martyn (fig. 267). 
To these I must add N. Cumingii, Crosse (fig. 268), from N". 
China. 

Fusus tornatus, Gould (fig. 261), from codfish at the Bank 
Fisheries is equivalent to the typical despecta. 

So variable is this species that I doubt the distinctness of even 
such diverse forms as N. lirata, Martyn, and Siphonalia Kellettii, 
Forbes, as well as of Volutopsis Behringii, Midd. 

N. LIJIATA, Martyn. PI. 48, figs. 269-272. 

Shell light brown, encircled on the body-whorl by nine to fifteen 
revolving ribs, which are not flattened on the top, usually three 
of these ribs are visible on the spire whorls. 

Length, 3-6 inches. 

N. W. Coast of America. 

Animal whitish, black-spotted ; end of siphon and proboscis 
black. 

Yaries by the partial or entire suppression of the ribs as shown 
by figures 210-272, and then approaches smooth varieties of N. 
despecta. The question of identity of this and the following 
species has been carefully discussed by Mr. W. H. Dall,* who 
gives a table of differences in ornamentation and dimensions 
founded upon the examination of numerous specimens. Mr. 
Dall remarks that " it should be remembered that lirata does not 
occur on the Arctic shores of North America, and the two species 
are separated by a vast expanse of water. Some of the characters 
in the comparative table graduate towards each other in excep- 
tional cases, but the sum of the characters is always sufficient 
to discriminate between the two, and this is all that can be 
expected between any two nearly allied forms. I regard the two 
as perfectly distinct." My material is not so abundant as that 
on which Mr. Dall bases his conclusions, and the differences are 
not so great. If it be true that neither species exists on the 
Arctic Coast, it would have to be proven that they did not exist 
there at some previous period of the world's history in order to 

* Am. Jour. Conch., VII, 108. 



118 VOLUTOPSIS. 

indicate distinct origin ; we find the same species on both sides 
of Central America in numerous instances. Perhaps I usually 
regard species from a somewhat more comprehensive point of 
view than does Mr. Dall, because in the present case he is quite 
willing (indeed does not expect otherwise) to distinguish allied 
species except by the " sum of the characters " of a number of 
individuals of each, whilst I regard principally those "exceptional 
cases " where the " characters graduate towards each other " as 
extremely damaging to their specific distinctness ; consequently, 
whilst Mr. Dall u regards the two as perfectly distinct," I expect 
future researches to establish their identity. In case they shall 
be united, Marty n's name having priority, must be adopted. 

N. DECEMCOSTATA, Say. PI. 48, fig. 273. 

Shell light brown, aperture usually white, sometimes brownish ; 
encircled on the body-whorl by six to eleven ribs, which, in 
adults are usually flattened on the top ; generally only two of 
these ribs are visible on the spire-whorls. 

Length, 2-5-4 inches. 

Massachusetts Bay ; Maine ; Nova Scotia, etc. 

Animal frequently pure white, sometimes flecked with blackish. 

See distinctive characters under preceding species. 

N. CREBRICOSTATA, Dall. PI. 48, fig. 274. 

Revolving ridges flat-topped and overhanging the interspaces 
slightly, tops of ridges impressed with one or more lines ; em- 
bryonic whorls cylindrical, free from strong ridges ; canal scarcely 
produced ; siphonal fasciole none or very faint. White, under a 
yellowish brown epidermis. Length, 3'5 inches. 

Unalashka ; 100 fathoms. W. H. Dall. 

Mr. Dall remarks that this species recalls Purpura trochlea ; 
it is, perhaps, still more like P. succincta. 

Snbgenus Volutopsis, Morch. 

The shells of this division are characterized by their large 
mouths, expanded lips, want of distinctly produced canal, etc. 
The small operculum is (in V. Norvegica) more ovate than in 
the true Neptunese ; the dentition also, varies from the typical 
form. Volutopsis appears to stand between Neptunea and 
Buccinum. 



VOLUTOPSIS. 119 

N. NORVEGICA, Chemn. PI. 48, figs. 276, 277 ; PL 49, figs. 278, 

279; PL 50, fig. 288. 

Whorls smooth, polished, sometimes very faintly striate ; pink- 
ish cream color or white. Length, 3-4-25 inches. 

North Sea Coast of England ; Shetland Is. ; Greenland ; Iceland ; 
Newfoundland ; Norway (100 fathoms) ; Sea of Okhotsk ; Alaska. 

The animal has a pale orange or yellowish white body, irregu- 
larly streaked with purple. " The egg-cases are solitary. Each 
forms a compressed hemisphere about one inch in diameter, 
dirty lemon color, semi-transparent, and attached by the whole 
of its base to the inside of old bivalve shells and other flat sub- 
stances, and edged by a rim or strip of membrane. The upper 
surface is covered with a thin whitish crust, which breaks up 
into crystalline particles and is finely corrugated ; the under side 
is satiny. Ova pink or bright flesh-color. There are in each 
capsule from two to four perfect fry, which make their escape 
through a slit in the rim. The shell has the expressive name of 
' wide mouth ' among the North-country fishermen."* 

Occurs fossil in the glacial shell mounds at Udevalla ; and in 
England in the Norwich Crag. At the former locality the spire 
is somewhat longer, approaching the next species. 

JV. Largillierti, Petit, from Newfoundland (fig. 278), is con- 
sidered by its author a synonym of this species ; nevertheless 
Kobelt has figured and described a specimen (fig. 279) which 
differs still more than Petit's type from the normal Norvegica, 
and which he thinks is distinct ; it approaches the next species 
in form. 

I can scarcely doubt the identit}- with this species of N. regu- 
laris, Dall (fig. 271), which, by a curious error, was described as 
a var. of N. Beringii, Midd., supposed by him to be equivalent, 
or nearly so, to N. Norvegica. It comes from Unalashka, etc., 
and appears to be a stunted form. 

N. TURTONI, Bean. PL 48, fig. 275 ; PL 49, figs. 281-283. 

Shell whitish, spirally striated. Length, 3-5-4-75 inches. 
North Sea, English and Norwegian Coasts, 

coralline zone to 100 fathoms. 
Animal white with purple markings. 

* Jeffreys Brit. Conch., IV, 331. 



120 VOLUTOPSIS. 

The much produced spire and very short canal serve to dis- 
tinguish this from the preceding species. The egg-capsules, 
according to Jeffreys, " are pale orange, either solitary, or two 
together, and attached side by side, not to each other, but to a 
rather broad membraneous substratum ; they are triangularly 
oval, the base being the narrowest part, and consist of an outer 
filmy sheath and an inner and thick fibrous case ; the latter 
resembles in structure a cocoanut husk ; the opening is a wide 
slit at the top. Mr. Howse found six young in one capsule. 
The fry are almost cjdindrical, and of a dark reddish brown hue. 
The shell goes by the name of ' long neck ' among the Straithes 
fishermen." 

Sars has separated this shell from Neptunea, appropriating to 
it the generic name Chrysodomus, Swainson, a name usually con- 
sidered synonymous with Neptunea. The distinctive points are, 
of the shell as stated above, a somewhat different dentition (PI. 
26, fig. 16), and operculum (fig. 283). I suppose that these char- 
acters might be sufficient for the separation of a group, but the 
opercula and dentition of so many species of Neptuniinaa being 
unknown, it is perhaps most advisable to make no separation at 
present. 

N. CALLORHINA, Dall. PI. 49, fig, 287. 

Shell white, solid, smooth, with faint traces of revolving striae ; 
spire acute ; embryonal whorls very minute, not mammillate ; 
suture distinct, not channelled ; canal very short, wide, straight ; 
aperture rounded, outer lip thickened, strongly waved behind ; 
posterior angle not acute ; whorls, seven evenly tapering, not 
inflated. Length, 2 inches ; width, *9 inch. 

St. Paul Island, Behring Sea. 

Found two specimens dead, on Fur Seal Rookery. The apex 
alone would distinguish it from any described species. 

The above is Mr. Pali's description. I have not seen it. 

N. HALLII, Dall. PL 49, fig. 285. 

Suture subcanaliculate, not deep, but very distinct; canal 
rather long (says Dall, but his figure does not show it so). White, 
covered with a yellow-brown epidermis, with very faint revolving 
striae crossing the slightly evident, waved lines of growth. 

Length T7 inch., lat. -8 inch. 

Alaska. 



VOLUTOPSIS. 121 

1ST. ATTENUATA, Dall. PI. 50, fig. 296. 

Shell solid, pinkish white, much attenuated before and behind ; 
spire one-quarter shorter than the aperture. Whorls six, apex 
mammillated. Posterior surface of the valves flattened towards 
the suture, where they are somewhat wrinkled and appressed. 
Surface of the whorls completely covered with fine, even, spiral 
lines. Aperture long and narrow, a thickened callus on the inner 
lip, and the outer lip slightly reflected. Canal long, nearly 
straight, rather narrow. Length 2'33 inches, lat. 1 inch. 

Behring's Strait. 

I do not know this species. The long canal is a feature not 
consistent with Volutopsis ; nevertheless, Mr. Dall places it here. 
Is it not equivalent to the next species ? 

N. PERICOCHLION, Schrenck. PI. 49, figs. 284, 286. 

Shell canaliculate, spirally striate, white under a yellowish or 

reddish brown epidermis. Length, 4 inches. 

Japan. 

N. tabulata, Baird (fig. 286), of which a single dead specimen 
was dredged in Esquimault Harbor, Vancouver's Island, may be 
synonymous with N. pericoclilion. It has six whorls, flattened 
above and canaliculate next the sutures, covered with revolving 
striae, which are asperate ; the canal is of considerable length, 
bent to one side. Length 3 inches, lat. 1*33 inches. 

Carpenter mentions a second dead specimen, dredged at 120 
fathoms, Catalina Isl., Cal. 

N. BEHBINGII, Middendorff. PI. 49, fig. 280 ; PI. 50, figs. 289, 290. 
Shell ovate-fusiform, rather solid when adult, whorls obtusely 
shouldered, irregularly plicate longitudinally, with minute revolv- 
ing striae, which are lost on the middle of the body-whorl but 
become more conspicuous at its lower part. Yellowish white ; 
epidermis deciduous, membranaceous, brown. 

Length, 4-5 inches. 

Behring's Sea. 

The rudely folded whorls are the distinguishing characteristic of 
this species : of which there is a short-spired variety, N. castanea, 
Morch, which equals N. Kennicottii, Dall (fig. 290). 
16 



122 HELIOTROPIS. 

Subgenus Heliotropis, Ball. . 

The essential character of this group is the reversed direction 
of the spire, placing the aperture on the left instead of the right 
side of the shell. The principal species have been considered by 
good conchologists as mere monstrosities of dextral species ; thus 
Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys regards N. contraria as equivalent to N. 
antiqua. But of this species it has been shown that it has an 
extensive distribution in Southern Europe, where the normal N. 
antiqua is unknown, and that the so-called reversed antiqua is 
very rare where the normal form is abundant. The last two 
species, in form and want of denned canal appear like reversed 
Volutopsse, and possibly they are. 

N. CONTRARIA, Linn. PL 50, figs. 291, 292, 

Pale yellowish to fulvous brown ; whitish within. 
Length, 3-4 inches. 

Atlantic Coast of Spain, Portugal, South France; Mediterranean? 

Fossil in the English Crag, in Belgium, and in the newer Ter- 
tiary at Palermo. 

See remarks under Heliotropis, above ; yet the so-called 
English specimens may be veritable reversed monstrosities of N. 
antiqua. 

N. DEFORMIS, Reeve. PI. 50, fig. 293. 

Rather thin, with fine revolving striae, and tubercularly swollen 
beneath the sutures. Yellowish chestnut, the columella and part 
of lip-margin white. Length, 3 inches. 

Spitzberyen. 

N. HARPA, Morch. PI. 50, figs. 294, 295. 

Yellowish white, salmon within the aperture. 

Length, 3*75 to 6 inches. 

Sitka. 

Closely allied to the preceding species. Mr. Dall remarks that 
the " operculum. is very small when compared with the size of 
the animal. Ovicapsules solitary, of hemispherical form, attached 
by the entire base, smooth above, and maturing only two or three 
individuals to each sac, although of much greater size than the 
ovicapsule of any other specie;, of mollusk in the region." 



SIPHO. 123 

Undetermined Neptunese. 

N. DOMTNOV^E and N. LAMNTGERA, Yalenc. The first said to 
belong to the group of Fusus bulbaceus, the last to that of F. 

despectus. 

Gulf of Tartary, Mantchuria. 

N. ARGYROSTOMA, Lam. H. and A. Adams' Genera. 

I do not find any species of this or similar name in the Hist. 
An. sans Yert. 

N. ANGULATA, Gray. 

Shell ovate, acute, smooth, rather solid, brownish white ; the 
spire elongated, rather longer than the mouth and canal ; apex 
blunt ; whorls convex, rounded, with five or six subequal narrow 
elevated spiral ribs. The mouth small, roundish ovate ; the canal 
short, rather twisted, open. Length, 2' 14 inches. 

North Sea. 

Genus SIFHO, Klein. 

This is one of the most perplexing groups that I have 
studied ; the distinctive characters of the so-called species are 
comparative only, having mainly reference to the proportions 
of the shells, color and sculpture being nearly identical through- 
out. Experience with boreal shells teaches that they are much 
more liable to variation in form than those of more temperate 
latitudes : hence the conclusion is irresistable that nearly all the 
species of Sipho must be relegated to the synonymy eventually. 
The want of sufficient and authentic material has prevented me 
from doing this in several instances. The species are confined 
to the boreal seas of the northern hemisphere. 

* Shell smooth, with revolving striae. 
S. ISLANDICUS (Chemn.), Auct. PL 51, fig. 291. 

White, under a thin fawn-color or yellowish brown epidermis. 
Length, 4-5 inches. 

North Sea ; N. Atlantic Ocean to Iceland and Greenland; 

30 to 100 fathoms. 

It is much larger than the next species, S. gracilis ; is more 
spindle-shaped, being produced and attenuated towards the base ; 
the canal is much longer, and in some specimens quite straight 



124 . SIPHO. 

the whorls are more rounded ; the apex is stiliform and prominent ; 
and the ridges are less crowded, and are sharper and more raised, 
especially on the upper whorls. The odontophores of the two 
species also differ. The true Islandicus is a northern species, 
very rare upon the northern confines of Great Britain. The 
English species usually known under this name is the S. gracilis, 
whilst the American species commonly known as S. Islandicus is 
S. Stimpsoni, Morch. The name of S. cornea, Linn., is excluded 
because it is believed to have covered more than one species. 

S. GRACILIS, Da Costa. PI. 51, figs. 298, 299, 311. 

White (rarely with a tinge of flesh color) beneath a membranous, 
yellowish brown or lemon-colored epidermis. Length, 3 inches. 
Great Britain, 20 to 145 fathoms, rare in the South, 

and on the Coast of France ; Sweden ; Norway ; 

Iceland; MassacJiusetts ; Behring's Straits f 

Jeffreys describes a var. convoluta, which is smaller, narrower, 
and somewhat cylindrical, more solid, with a longer spire, having 
sharper ridges and a deeper suture ; mouth proportionally smaller. 
He thus describes the egg-capsules. 

" The capsules are solitary, small, membranous, pouch-shaped, 
and attached by a broad base to stones and corallines ; their sur- 
face is microscopically and closely reticulated ; orifice extremely 
large and sometimes having the edge partly stained with pink. 
Each capsule contains only a single embryonic shell, which is 
transparent, and through it may be seen the orange liver and two 
unequal-sized plumes of pale yellow gills." 

" Monstrosities now and then occur, viz., some of the ridges 
being prominent and keel-like ; spire twisted on one side or down- 
wards ; penultimate whorl swollen ; apex broken off and replaced 
by a shelly plug ; or the operculum aborted and concave. This 
whelk is occasionally brought to Billingsgate (London) market, 
mixed with the common eatable kinds ; but it is not saleable. 
The fishermen call it l borer.' " 

Kobelt considers the Fusus Islandicus of the American coast 
the equivalent of this species, and calls it var. ventricoswr ; but 
two species appear to be confounded in our u Islandicus :" a 
form which can be readily referred to S. gracilis, and a much 
larger, more ventricose form which has been separated as a dis- 
tinct species under the name of Stimpsoni, Morch. 



SIPIIO. 125 

S. PROPINQUUS, Alder. PI. 51, figs. 300, 301. 

Resembling S. gracilis in shape, but narrower, thinner, less 
opaque, and somewhat more glossy, the whorls not so convex, 
the outer lip not projecting so much and more contracted or 
incurved above. Length, 1'75 inches. 

Great Britain, muddy and sandy ground in the coralline and 
deep-water zones ; Norway ; Sweden ; Nova Scotia ? 

Jeffrej^s says, " The shell of the female is more tumid than 
that of the male. Capsules solitary, and attached to the inside 
of old bivalves ; they are hemispherical, and resemble those of 
F. gracilis, but have a smaller and oval orifice ; the base is mar- 
gined by a narrow membrane. Embryo the color of a pomegranate. 
The smaller size and more delicate texture, finer and closer 
sculpture, longer, turreted, and regularly tapering spire, deeper 
suture, hispid epidermis, less abrupt curvature of the canal and 
especially the symetrical apex will readily serve to discriminate 
this from the last species." 

Mr, Verrill has obtained from the waters of Nova Scotia two 
shells which are referred by Mr. Dall to this species after direct 
comparison with authentic specimens thereof. 

N. Ebur, Kobelt, non Morch (fig, 301), described as a white, 
polished variety, with more acute spire and less incurved canal, 
was probably, as suggested by Morch, polished in the stomach of 
a fish. 

S. TORTUOSUS, Reeve. PI. 51, figs. 302, 303. 

White, under a thick, olive epidermis. Length, 42 mill. 

f Arctic America; Norway. 

Var. TURRITA, Sars. Pl,/01, fig. 304. 

Smaller and thinner, more slender and almost cylindrical, with 

a larger spire. 

Shetland; Norway. 

Jeffreys considers this a variety of S. propinquus, Alder ; 
which it may well be, but it is certainly more closely allied to 
S* tortuosus if the shape of canal is a specific character : I think 
all these differences of extreme^ doubtful persistence, and would 
prefer to consider most of the so-called species mere modifications 
of S. Islandicus. 



126 . SIPHO. 

Var. ATTENUATA, Jeffreys. PL 51, fig. 305. 

u Differs from the type in being narrower, canal not so tortuous," 
etc. Length, 43 mill. 

Norway; W. Coast of Ireland 1180-1215 fms. (Porcupine 

Exped., 1869) ; Bay of Biscay, 1207 fms. 

S. GLABRA, Yerkriizen. PL 51, figs. 306, 30t. 

I cannot find any characters by which to distinguish this satis- 
factorily from S. Stimpsoni, Morch the American representative 

of S. Islandicus. Length, 65 mill. 

Coast of Norway. 
S. JEFFREYSIANUS, Fischer. PL 51, fig. 308. 

Shell differing from that of S. propmquus in being much larger, 
more ventricose and solid, and in having a conical and shorter 
spire ; the whorls are more convex, and the last occupies eight- 
elevenths of the shell ; the ridges of the back of the canal are 
stronger ; the surface is covered with microscopic spiral striae, 
which intersect the equally fine lines of growth, so as to produce 
a slight and partial decussation ; The epidermis is membranous 
and deciduous, fibrous near the outer lip, never hispid, and of a 
brownish yellow color ; the alternation of size in the spiral ridges 
gives a lineated appearance to that part of the epidermis on the 
body-whorl which is of a paler color aud situated below the 
periphery ; the canal is proportionally shorter, much wider, and 
more open ; the outer lip is sinuated in the middle ; operculum 
amber-eolor. Length 2*25 inches, breadth 1*15 inches. 

English Coast to Bay of Biscay ; coralline zone. 

The description above is copied from Jeffreys, who first de- 
scribed -the species under .the name of Fusus Buccinatus, Lam., 
which is, however, an EutTiria. 

S. STIMPSONI, Morch. PL 51, figs. 309, 310, 313 ; PL 52, fig. 311. 
This is the North American representative of S> Islandicus, 
and it has generally been confounded with that species ; it is, 
however, more ventricose, with a shorter, wider and more curved 
canal. It is a robust shell, with a dark, rough epidermis. 

Long Island to Massachusetts, northwards to Labrador ; 

deep water. 

The animal is white, with small, irregular black specks ; e} r es 
black ; foot rectangular, angles rounded. 



SIPHO. 127 

Var. STRIATUS, Reeve. Fig. 3 It. 

Approaching S. Sarsii and S. ventricosus. Reeve's figure is 
different enough to be a distinct species from Stimpsonii, but I 
possess a good series of intermediate forms. 

S. TURGIDULUS, Jeffreys. PL 52. figs. 314, 315. 

Shell very thin, white, under a thin yellowish olive epidermis. 
Length, 47-56 mill. 

N. Atlantic Ocean, 290 to 400 fathoms (Porcupine Exped.). 

S. SCHANTARICUS, Middcudorff. PL 52, fig. 316. 
Shell opaque, thick, spirally lirate. canal very short. 

Length, 72 mill. 

Sea of Ochotsk. 
S. TOGATUS, Morch. PL 52, figs. 318, 319. 

Thin, epidermis coriaceous, at the intersection of the revolving 
and incremental striae sometimes ciliated. Length, 48 mill. 

Arctic Seas; circum polar. 

Several authors identify with this species the unfigured Fusus 
Sabinii, Gray, described in the Conchology of Parry's Voyage ; 
others have identified it with Buccinofusus Berniciensis, King. 
I very much doubt the distinctness of S. turyidulus from togatus. 
S. PFAFFII, Morch. PL 52, fig. 320. 

Thin, fragile, rosy white ; epidermis brown, membranaceous, 
ciliated ; spirally striated, decussated by growth striae. 

Length, 57 mill. 

Jacobshavn, Greenland. 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys refers this, together with tortuosus, Spitz- 
bergensis and Ebur to S. Sabinii, Gray, with which he also 
identifies togatus, Morch. He says, " The epidermis is usually 
smooth; but in one of my specimens it is finely and closely 
ciliated. The comparative length and curvature of the canal are 
variable characters," 

S. LIVIDUS, Morch. PL 52, fig. 321. 

Whitish, encircled by narrow, flat lirae and narrower interstices ; 
epidermis olivaceous ; lip slightly expanded. Length, 50 mill. 

Newfoundland. 

Morch mentions the resemblance of this species to Spitzber- 
yensis, Reeve (= Buccinofusus terebralis, Gld.), the type of 



128 SIPHO. 

which he has not seen. It is possible that the two are identical, 
and that lividus should be expunged from the genus Sipho. It 
must be considered a very doubtful species ; I am not aware of 
anything like the figure in the American Seas, and cannot help 
thinking that the illustration is a bad one. 

S. SARSII, Jeffreys. PI. 52, figs. 322, 323. 

Spirally costulate, clathrate by narrow, undulated growth-lines. 
White, epidermis pallid olivaceous. Length, 54 mill. 

Southern Norwegian Coast ; 106 fathoms. 

Outline somewhat like that of the next species, but the spire is 
more elevated and the whorls rounder; sutures, consequently, 
deeper. 

S. VENTRICOSUS, Gray. PL 52, fig. 324. 

Shell rather thin, inflated, spire short ; epidermis light olive. 
Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

Banks of Newfoundland. 

Fusus striatus, Reeve, is supposed by Kobelt to =this species, 
but I think it more closely allied to F. Stimpsoni, Morch. 

S. LACHESIS, Morch. PI, 51, fig. 312. . 

Pinkish white under a coriaceous epidermis. Length, 41 mill. 

Greenland ; Finmark. 

S. VERKRUZENI, Kobelt. PL 52, fig. 325. 

Shell solid, nearly smooth ; canal very short ; columella strongly 
callous below. Epidermis smooth, greenish yellow. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Northern Norway. 

Totally different from all the other species in its Bullia-likc 
aspect, want of striae and short canal. The radula and operculum 
are those of Siplio, otherwise its generic position would be very 
doubtful. Kobelt suspects that Chemnitz had this shell before 
him when he assigned Norway as a habitat for Bullia polita. 

S. ROSEUS, Dall. PL 52, fig. 329. 

Shell small, of a rosy color when fresh, smooth to the touch, 
elegantly proportioned. Whorls six, well-rounded but not in- 
flated ; suture distinct; apex not mammillate, but eventy and 
elegantly rounded off. Sculpture consisting of delicate, evenly- 



STPHO. 129 

distributed revolving grooves, with wide interspaces, of which 
there are thirty or forty on the last whorl ; these are crossed by 
faint lines of growth. Aperture rounded ovate, outer lip thin, 
columella arcuated, polished, not thickened ; canal very short 
and wide. Fasciole none. Length, '9 inch. 

Arctic Ocean. 

The sculpture reminds one of the true Fusus Islandicus, which, 
however, has a long canal. The epidermis is not perceptible, and 
all the specimens were imbedded in lumps of dense spongy 
growth. // ^ 

The above is Mr. Dall's description. ^ & >< 

( "^ **, 

S. PRODUCTUS, Beck. PI. 52, fig. 326, 4l Q /* ^ 

Yellowish white under a brownish epidermis s ,^omfei^)us^eer- 
ture small and narrow. Length, 41 mill. 

Cape No 




S. BENZONI, Morch. PI. 52, figs. 327, 328. %/ 

Thick, ponderous, white, covered with obsolete spiral \\\ 
epidermis thin, reddish brown. Length, 32-39 mill. 

Bahia, Brazil. 

I figure, besides the original in the Jour, de Conchyl., a shell 
(fig. 328) which Kobelt refers to the same species. The locality 
is probably an error. 

S. PYGM^EUS, Gould. PI. 52, fig. 330. 

White, under a yellowish epidermis ; animal white. 
Length, 15-20 mill. 

Connecticut, northward to Newfoundland. 

Mr. Yen-ill has made for this species a subgenus Neptunella, 
founded on the peculiarly velvety epidermis and the dentition. 
The epidermis is, however, no more velvety than in some other 
species, and the description of the dentition given by Yen-ill 
applies very well to that of S^ho Islandicus. 

This species is very like S. gracilis, except that it is much 
smaller. 
17 



130 STPHO. 

* * Shell longitudinally plicate, decussated by revolving lira. 

S. KROYERI, Holler. PL 53, figs. 333-336, 349-351. 
Greyish white under a smooth, thin, brownish epidermis. 
Length, 91 mill. 

Circumpolar; Greenland; Behrmg's Sea; Spitzbergen ; 

Labrador ; Banks of Newfoundland* 

In addition to the typical form I figure, from Kobelt, a stout 
variety collected by Dall at Unalaschka. Among the synonyms 
are S. (Bucc.} tortuosus, Reeve (fig. 349), S. arcticus, Phil. (fig. 
336), and S. cretaceus. Reeve (fig. 350), and, possibly, S. scalari- 
formis, Beck. S. plicatus, A. Ad. (fig. 351), from Japan, is 
apparently the same species. 

S. FENESTRATUS, Turton. PI. 53, figs. 337-339. 

Shell rather thin, semi-transparent; epidermis rather thin, 
brownish yellow, rising into numerous fine prickles on the spiral 
striae. Length, 1/7 inches. 

Norway ; Ireland ; Newfoundland ; 40 to 160 fathoms. 

S. LATERICEUS, Moller. PI. 53, figs. 340-342. 

Light reddish brown. Length, 25 mill. 

Greenland ; Norway. 
S. BRUNNEUS, Dall. PI. 53, fig. 343. 

Nearly allied to the preceding, but with smaller and higher 
plications more plainly developed on the last whorl. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Px'hriinfs Sea ; 10 fathoms. 

S. PELLUCIDUS, Hancock. PL 53, fig. 344. 

Yellowish horn-color, pellucid. Length, '37 inch. 

West Coast of Davit' Strait. 

Only one specimen dredged, thirty -five years ago ; has not 
since been recognized. May be a Bela or even a TrojJton, but 
is compared by Hancock with Fuaus Jftlandicus. 

S. VIRENS, Dall. PL 53, fig. 347. 

Shell small, similar to S. brunneus in general characters, but 
covered with a grass-green epidermis, tinged with light brown in 
some specimens. The canal is more clearly defined ; aperture 
much shorter and rounder, ridges and grooves less prominent 



SIPHO. 131 

and clearly defined. The costoe are more arcuated posteriorly, 
and the embryonic whorl larger, with revolving threads instead 
of being smooth. Whorls five and a-half. Costae nine to eleven 
on the last whorl ; ridges more numerous than in S. brunneus, 
but almost too faint to count. Length, *65 inch. 

Ky*ka Harbor, Alaska; 10 fathoms. 

None of the specimens fully adult, but clearty different from 
any other described species of the region. Pall. 

S. JESSOENSIS, Schrenck. PL 53, figs. 345, 346. 

Light roseate or reddish, under a light olive-green epidermis. 

Length, 27 mill. 

Japanese Seas ; 48 fathoms, sand and mud. 

My figure is from the original ; afterwards the same species, 
apparently, was described by Mr. E. A. Smith under the name of 
Sipho Manchuricus, A. Adams' MS. ; and in this description 
the specimen is larger, attaining the above length. Some of the 
preceding species may be identical with it. 

S. ANGUSTUS, E. A. Smith. 

Fusiform; whorls about ten, slightly convex, longitudinally 
plicated, finely spirally striated; plicae somewhat oblique and 
arcuate, not particularly raised, broader than the interstices, 
about eighteen on the penultimate whorl ; last whorl contracted 
and produced below into a slender, recurved beak ; aperture 
rather less than half the entire length of the shell. Whitish, 
with a broad obscure brownish band round the middle of the 
whorls, clothed with a greenish yellow epidermis ; aperture light 
brown within. Length 25 mill., diam. 6*5 mill. 

Vancouver's Island. 

Remarkable for its slender form. It is not figured, and I know 
nothing concerning it. 

Undetermined Species of Sipho. 

S. RECTIROSTRIS, Carpenter. PI. 53, fig. 348. 

Puget Sound, etc. 

No diagnosis of this species has been published ; it is merely 
mentioned in Carpenter's 2d Report, and figured in Kiister from 
a drawing furnished by W. H. Dall. 



132 STPHO. 

S. BREVICAUDA, Desh. 

Kamtsehatka. 

Not figured. Said to resemble S. lividus, Morch. 



In Sowerby's monograph of Fusus, just published in the 
Thesaurus Conchyliorum, occur the following species, referable 
to Sipho: 

S. KECTIPLIOATUS, Sowb. PI. 87, fig. Hi 2. Northern Seas. 

This is a form of the very variable S. Kroyeri, Moller. 
S. OBESUS, Sowb. PL 81, fig, 624. Northern Seas. 

Nearly allied to S. glabra, Verkriizen, but more bulbous below. 
Probably not distinct from that species. 

S. SOLIDULUS, Sowb. PI. 87, fig. 622. Northern Seas. 

= S. Stimpsoni, Morch, Var., p. 126, t. 51, f. 313. 

Through the courtesy of Prof. Friele, who has forwarded to 
me proof plates of his forthcoming work on the Mollusca of the 
Norwegian Polar Expedition, I am enabled to illustrate the 
following additional species : 

S. DANIELSENI, Friele. PL 87, fig. 610. 

Shell whitish. Length, 39 mill. 

Dredged between Norway nd Greenland, at 1000 fathoms. 

Very closely related to S. lividus, Morch (t. 53, f. 321), and 
S. Sarsii, Jeffreys (t. 52, f. 322, 323). I have not seen specimens 
of this or the succeeding species. 

S. HANSENI, Friele. PL 87, fig. 628. 

Yellowish brown. Length, 61 mill. 

Spitsbergen. 

Only one example found. Resembles the variety of S. Stiinp- 
soni, which I have illustrated, PL 51, f. 313. 

S. VIBGATUS, Friele. PL 87, fig. 613. 

Reddish yellow. Length, 30 mill. 

Near Lofoten, Spitsbergen. 

In form and extraordinarily short canal, like S. Verkruzeni, 
but sculpture and apex different. 



MOHNIA, SIPHON ALIA. 133 

S. DALLI, Friele. PL 87, fig. 625. 

S. UNDULATUS, Friele. PL 87, fig. 626. 

Not published ; figured from advance plate of the Norwegian 
North Sea Expedition. /S. Dalli appears to be a S. tortuosus 
with well-developed spiral sculpture (see t. 51, f. 302-305); S. 
undulatus is not adult. 

NEPTUNEA OSSIANI, Friele. PL 87, fig. 621. 

Form similar to N. Turtom, with yellowish brown, somewhat 
scabrous epidermis. Length, 88 mill. 

Near Lofoten, Spitzbergen. 

The sculpture and epidermis, mouth and canal, are considered 
different from N. Turtoni, and the shell is less solid. Cer- 
tainly very closely related. 



Subgenus Mohnia, Friele. 

M. MOHNII, Friele. PL 52, figs. 331, 332. 

White, subpellucid, epidermis thin, smooth or slightly hispid. 

Length, 22 mill. 

North Atlantic Ocean. 

The paucispiral operculum is the distinguishing feature of this 
species and subgenus ; and I can scarcely believe that some error 
has not occurred in assigning such an operculum to one of the 
Buccinidae, because we are accustomed to consider this form as 
evidence that the shell to which it belongs is holostomate. 

Cenu* SIPHONALIA, A. Adams. 

This genus is principally of tropical and subtropical distribu- 
tion, and more highly colored than Neptunea : which, neverthe- 
less, it approaches very nearly in the form and color of S. 
Kellettii, for instance. The metropolis of the genus is Japan, a 
few forms being found, however, on the opposite shores of the 
West Coast of North America ; some species occur also in Aus- 
tralian waters. The shells are usually thin and ventricose, varie- 
gated in color, and destitute of epidermis. The operculum is 
fusoid. 

A number of the species have been recently described by Mr. 
Arthur Adams and others, the diagnoses being unaccompanied 



134 SIPHON ALT A. 

by comparative characters or figures. The variation of coloration 
and sculpture is known to be great in this genus, consequently it 
is very probable that a portion of these species will prove to be 
synonymous with others previously described. I shall merely 
enumerate these as unidentified species. 

The animal and dentition of Siphonalia are unknown. 

S. KELLETTII, Forbes. PI. 54, fig. 352. 

Thick, ponderous, white. Length, 4-6 inches. 

Lower California ; California ; Japan. 

Kobelt justly remarks that this 'species occupies an interme- 
diate position between Siphonalia and Neptunea, so that it is 
difficult to decide in which genus it ought to be placed. 

S. FUSCOTINCTA, Cpr. 

A unique, unfigured shell from Sta. Barbara, Cal. It is probably 
very immature, being only *17 inch long. It is said to look like 
a minute edition of S. Kellettii, but does not accord with the 
young of that species. Science is not benefited by the descrip- 
tion of such material as this. 

S. FUSCOZONATA, Angas. PL 55, fig. 361. 

White, with an interrupted, broad brown band on the periphery ; 
lip acutely lirate within, columella with a superior callus. 

Length, -54 inch. 

8. Australia. 

Said to resemble Peristernia, but without the colurnellar 
plications of that genus. It is too small to be an adult shell, if 
a Siphonalia. 

S. MODIFICATA, Reeve. PI. 55, fig. 8<J2. 

Light yellowish brown. Length, 44 mill. 

La Pas, L. California, Carpenter ; J<i.j[ni)i t A. Adams. 

Resembles somewhat Melongena pallida, B. and S., and may 
not be properly classed as a Siphonalia; 

S. SPADICEA, Reeve. PL 55, fig. 363. 

Light brown, with here and there longitudinal reddish ila-mes 

and reddish brown spiral ridges. Length, 42 mill. 

Jitpaji. 

I do not know this species ; it resembles some of the Melon- 
geme quite as much as this group where it is placed by Kobelt. 



SIPHON ALIA. 135 

S. TUBEROSA, Reeve. PL 54, fig. 354. 

Chestnut-brown, white on the principal spiral ribs and nodules ; 
aperture bluish white. Length, 3 inches, 

Japan. 
S. MAXIMA, Tryon. PI. 54, fig. 355. 

White, sprinkled and blotched with light chestnut-brown on 
the spiral ribs ; a broad, brown band between the tubercles on 
the shoulder of the whorls ; aperture white. Length, 7*5 inch. 

Tasmania. 

This shell was sent to the Philadelphia Academy by Mr. Or. B. 
Sowerby, under the name of Siphonalia Tasmaniensis, Angas, 
and he has since figured a somewhat similar form in his " Thesau- 
rus' 7 as that species ; Tasmaniensis is, however, a very different 
species, as will be seen by my copy of the original figure. The 
present species may possibly be the subject of one of the unil- 
lustrated diagnoses which I have considered it useless to attempt 
to identify. 

S. DTLATATA, Quoy. PI, 54, figs. 356-359. 

Pale yellowish brown, the revolving ridges deep chestnut ; 
interior white, Length, 2*5-5 inches. 

New Zealand ; Japan, A. Adams. 

F. adustus, Phil. (fig. 359) is a synonym. 

Reeve and Hutton both suspect this to run into the non- 
shouldered F. Mandarinus, Duclos (= Zelandicus^ Quoy); if this 
be so, all the species of Siphonalia might as well be given up at 
once. Mandarinus I have referred to the group Anstrofusus. 

S. CASSIDARI^EFORMIS, Reeve. PI. 55, figs, 364-369. 

Reddish orange variously banded and tinged with chocolate 
and white; aperture white or orange. Length, '30-55 mill. 

Japan. 

Qiiite characteristic in its general appearance, although very 
variable in coloring. Probably several of Mr. Arthur Adams' 
unfigured species are synonymous with this ; Lischke thus iden- 
tifies two of them, S. ornata and S. conypersa. 

S. TASMANIENSIS, Ad. and Angas. PI. 54, fig. 360. 

Yellowish orange more or less fasciated with red (three bands 
on the last whorl), yellowish white within. Length, 60 mill. 

X Anntnilht- and Tasmania. 




136 SIPHON ALT A. 

S. SIGNUM, Reeve. PI. 5'5, fig. 370. 

Yellowish, marbled with gray or light brown, with five or six 

narrow brown revolving bands. Length, 2 inches. 

S. Japan. 

Very like S. Cassidarineformis in shape, but smooth, and more 
produced and contorted inferiorly. 

S. concinna, A. Adams, may be synonymous, as suggested by 
Kobelt. 

S. PUSOIDES, Reeve. PI. 55, figs. 371, 372. 

Light brown, ridges profusely stained with small spots of 

deeper color. Length, 46 mill. 

Japan. 

Very like S. CassidariteforTtiis, but with longer spire, and 
somewhat narrower ; the canal also, is a little more produced. 

S. FUSCOLINEATA, Pease. PI. 87, fig. 618. 

Whitish fawn, sparingly streaked longitudinally with brown, 
and ornamented with sub-equidistant revolving dark brown lines. 

Length, 1*6 inches. 

Corea, 70 fathoms. 

I have not seen this species ; the figure of it appears very 
closely related to the preceding, and it is probably .synonymous 
with it. 

S. TROCHIJLUS, 'Reeve. PI. 55, fig. 373. 

Yellowish bay-color, encircled by white raised lines ; light 

chocolate within the aperture. Length, 40 mill. 

Japan. 
S. HINNULUS, Ad. and Reeve. Plate 55, fig. 374. 

Whitish, strigated and maculated sparsely with orange-brown. 

Length, 41 mill. 

Sooloo Sea ; Japan, 35 fathoms. 

The very short canal and smooth surface as well as the peculiar 
color-markings almost suggest Eburna rather than Siphonalia. 

S. NODOSA, Martyn. PL 56, figs. 376, 377 ; PL 58, fig. 398. 
Yellowish white, more or less stained with rust-red. 

Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Sac Zealand. 

Purpura baccata, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 398), is the young of 
this species. 



AUSTROFUSUS. 137 

S, VARICOSA, Kiener. PL 54, fig. 353. 

Light brown, the revolving stria} darker. Length, 2 inches. 

Hab. unknown. 

This species was first figured by Chemnitz, but his figures as 
well as Kiener's are from worn specimens. My illustration is 
from Reeve, and represents a very peculiar shell, the generic 
position of which is doubtful. 

Unidentified Species of Siphonalia. 

S. LIGATA, COMMODA, NODULOSA, MUNDA, FILOSA, CORRUGATA, 

QRISEA, COLUS, ACUMiNATA, PYRAMis, A, Adams, all from 

Japan. None of them figured. 

S. ARATA, Gould. Hab. unknown. 

S. -<ESTOSA, Gould. Kagosima, Japan. 

S. TRAVERSI, Hutton. Chatham Isle, New Zealand. 

S. CALCARIUS, Dunker. PL 55, fig. 375. 

White, cretaceous. Length, 21 mill. 

Japan. 
Described as a Murex : generic position doubtful. 

S. GYRATA, Hinds (Vol. II, 151, t. 33, f. 362). 

This shell may be a young Siphonalia, although described as a 
Trophon, and included by me in the monograph of that genus. 

S. CLARKEI, TURRITA, CASTANEA, PULCHRA, Woods. Tasmania. 

Mr. W. F. Petterd* makes Trophon Brazieri, Woods = S. 
castanea, and considers Siph. pulchra, Woods, a young Pleuro- 
toma philomeiide, with undeveloped lip. 

Subgemu Austrofusus, Kobelt. 

Shell ovate fusiform, whorls rounded, not angulated at the 
upper part. 

S. ALTERNATA, Phil. PL 56, figs. 378, 379. 



Yellowish white, the ridges deep chocolate. 

Length, 2-3*25 inches, 

W. Coast of Central America ; Peru. 

S. Fontainei, d'Orb., is from the Peruvian Coast, and appears 
to be a synonym (fig. 379). 

* Zool. Proc., 1880. 
18 



138 AUSTROFUSLS. 

S. SULCATA, Lam. PI. 56, fig. 380. 

Yellowish brown, with chestnut-colored revolving ridges; 

aperture white. Length, 4*5 inches. 

8. Australia. 
S. CINNAMOMEA, Reeve. PL 56, fig. 382. 

Light reddish brown, with darker revolving ridges. 

Length, 2-25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

The want of longitudinal folds appears to distinguish this 
species from its congeners, except S.- Mandarina, Duclos. To 
this it is very closely allied and may be identical, although the 
revolving ridges in cinnamomea appear to be fewer and more 
distant. 

S. BUXEA, Reeve. PI. 56, tig. 381 ; PI. 61, tig. 386. 

Light reddish brown, obscurely light-banded, white within the 

aperture. Length 2 k 25 inches. 

Cape Verd Isles. 

S. Fisheriana, Petit (fig. 386), was described as a Fasciolaria 
but the want of distinct columellar folds and the sculpture seem 
to indicate that it would be more properly placed here; it is 
almost certainly equivalent to S. bu.rea, described at an earlier 
date, without locality. 

S. REEVE AN A, Petit. PL 56, fig. 383. 

Described from a worn specimen, deprived of epidermis, sup- 
posed to come from Newfoundland. The figure appears to be 
badly drawn. Kobelt suspects that this will prove to be identical 
with S. sulcata, Lam. Fusus Reeveanus, Sowb., not Petit ( t. 86, 
f. 600), is possibly also a Siphonalia* 

S. MANDARINA, Duclos. PI. 56, fig. 384; PL 57, fig. 3S5. 
White or pale rust-color, ridges dark, chocolate. 

Length, 2'5^3'25 inches. 

New Zealand. 

Fusus Zealandicus, Quo}^ (fig. 384), is evidently the same spe- 
cies; and F. caudatus, Quo} T , is supposed to be the young shell, 
by Hutton, but I think it quite certain, from comparison of 
Quoy's figures, that caudatus is the young of F, australis. 
Hutton connects S. Mandarina with S. dilatata, Quoy. 



FULQUR. 139 

S. HARFORDI, Stearns. 

Solid, elongate, regularly fusiform ; spire elevated, whorls six 
or seven, moderately convex, slightly flattened (in outline) above, 
with a groove or channel following the suture ; color chocolate- 
brown ; surface marked by numerous narrow revolving costse, 
which alternate in prominence on the body-whorl, and longitudi- 
nally by fine incremental striae, and the upper whorls by obtusely 
rounded ribs of more or less prominence ; aperture ovate, about 
half the length of the shell, polished, white and finely ribbed 
within ; canal short, nearly straight. 

Length 2'1, lat. '94 in. 

Mendoeino Co. and Farallone Is., California. 

Mr. Ball compares this species to S. cinnamomea, Reeve. It 
has not been figured and I have not seen it. Very rare. 

Genus FULGrUR, Montfort. 

Shell with a simple, very thin periostracum, with little raised 
revolving lines ; pyriform, with the whorls wound tightly round 
the axis, leaving no umbilicus, angular behind, with the upper 
surface shelving towards the angle ; and the whorls below the 
angle ventricose, and thence gradually contracted and terminating 
in a moderately elongated canal, generally little or no longer 
than the aperture, concurrent with and proximal to the siphonal 
fasciole, and correspondingly tortuous, Siphonal fasciole coinci- 
dent with the columellar plait ; spire variable in evolution, with 
a papillary nucleus ; sutures plane ; aperture rhombo-ovate ; outer 
lip in youth striated within ; columella covered with a thin, 
callous coat, decidedly and regularly concave, and with a wide 
oblique marginal fold. Operculum with the nucleus apical. 

Animal rather small, retractile with its operculum within the 
shell for about a third of a volution from the aperture. 

I quote above Prof. Theodore Gill's somewhat lengthy des- 
cription, forming part of his admirable synopsis of the genus ; 
which I have adopted as a basis for this work. The distribution 
of the genus is restricted to the temperate and subtropical waters 
of the Atlantic Coast of the United States, and its manifest con- 
chological position connects Fasciolaria with Neptunea. It is 
not infrequent in our miocene deposits, from which several 
species have been described by Mr. Conrad. 



140 FULGUR. 

The name Fulgur, meaning lightning, is in allusion to the 
somewhat tortuous longitudinal brown streaks upon the shell, 
indicating rest-periods in its growth. The animal is used for 
bait by fishermen, and the trade in the shells for garden orna- 
ments and for use as hanging flower-pots is so extensive as to have 
nearly caused the extermination of the species upon portions of 
the New Jersey coast. 

Morch and Adams have used the name Busycon, of Bolten, for 
this genus, but Bolten did not characterize it, whilst the later 
name given by Montfort accompanies a full generic description ; 
I therefore prefer Fulgur. It was included by Lamarck in the 
heterogenous assemblage of species which he called Pyrula. 

The late Dr. Jeffreys Wyman, in his valuable memoir on the 
" Fresh Water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida,"* 
mentions two kinds of chisel-shaped tools cut from the shells of 
Fulgur carica and F. perversa. These implements were probably 
used by the aborigines for fleshing skins and for the manufacture 
of articles of wood. F. perversa was also used by the Florida 
Indians as a drinking vessel, the interior whorls being removed 
to increase its capacity. This same species was extensively used 
and must have been an important article of trade among the 
natives, as it is frequently found in Indian graves and mounds 
throughout the Southern and Western States and Canada. It 
is probable that, amoii other uses it was cut up into beads and 
various small ornaments. The white kind of wampum or shell 
money of the Indians was partially made of the axis of the shells 
of Fulgur, and partially from Buccinum undatum. 

F. CARICA, Gmelin. PI. 57, figs. 387-390 ; PI. 58, fig. 400. 

Whitish, the younger specimens often marked l)y ash or 
chocolate-colored longitudinal stripes at the principal rest-periods 
in their growth ; mouth and columella in adult specimens deep 
orange color. Length, 6-10 inches. 

Cape Cod, Mass, to Florida. Also Miocene and Post Pliocene. 

Animal large, dirty white to almost black ; mantle thick, white, 
edge plain ; proboscis long, cylindrical, slightly bi-lobed and 
black, or nearly so, at the end, lighter next the body ; tentacles 
short, triangular ; eyes on the outer side near the base. Opercu- 



* Memoirs of the Peabody Academy, Vol. I, 1875. 



FULGUR. 141 

lum ovate, thick, with a broad callus around the inner edge, 
which is heaviest on the left side; outer surface coarse and rough, 
greenish yellow. Mr. Conrad adopts Linnaeus' name, Aruanum, 
for this species, and st^s that the figures in llumphius and 
Gnaltieri referred to by him represent this species : the latter 
does, but the former is Fumta proboscidtferus, Lam. I am com- 
pelled on account of this uncertainty to reject the prior name 
given by Linnaeus in favor of carica under which the species is 
more generally known. 

Yar. ELICEANS, Montfort. PI. 57, figs. 388-390. 

On the coasts of Georgia and Florida occurs a variety which, 
commencing like a normal carica, eventually becomes more 
thickened, the spines fewer in number and more prominent, the 
columella white The appearance of fine specimens is perhaps 
sufficiently distinct to justify its separation as a different species. 
The ordinary manifestation of carica occurs in the same regions, 
and various transition states as well. The coloration of the rest- 
periods is more vivid and is retained to a much larger size in the 
Southern than in the Northern specimens. An exaggerated 
specimen of the var. cHrtwiitt is the shell called by Lamarck 
Pyrula candelabrum (fig. 389) in which the animal has completed 
the growth of the body-whorl in three growths, and consequent!}', 
has only three spines upon this whorl. The type (and only 
specimen known) formed part of the Lamarckian collection. F. 
Kieneri, Phil. (fig. 390), is founded on a reversed and distorted 
shell of var. elicvans. Specimens of this distorted form, uni- 
formly from the Southern Coast, are not uncommon, and are 
either dextral or sinistral. Conrad has named sinistral specimens 
of this variety Busy con yibbofsum. Sowerb}^ in his recently pub- 
lished monograph of FHXHX (Thesaurus Conchyliorum) describes 
and figures a F. lainellomix, Kay (meaning De Kay, or of Gould, 
in his plate-explanations), said to come from the Northwest 
Coast of Africa. Neither of the authors cited described such a 
species, and the figure represents a young, but beach-worn, F. 
carica. 

P. PERVERSUS, Linn. PI. 57, figs. 391-393. . 

The spire is very low and the tubercles numerous and small. 
The shell is usualty reversed, but sometimes dextral, and is 



142 SYCOTYPUS. 

readily distinguished by the above characters and by its narrower, 
more elongated form, long canal, etc. The coloring is usually 
quite vivid in young specimens, and is frequently interrupted by 
the interposition of a median, broad, white, revolving baud. 

Length, 6-12 inches. 

Florida. 

Has been united with F. carica by several authors, and I am 
not nearly so certain as I once was that it is distinct ; it is pos- 
sibly oi\\y a variet} r , yet it does not seem to merge into the 
carica form. Pyrula coarctatus, Sowerb}' (fig. 393), said to occur 
in Florida, is this species, almost certainly. 

Subgenu* Sycotypus (Browne) Gill. 

I do not consider Browne's description sufficiently characteris- 
tic to meet the requirements of a diagnosis ; moreover, these 
shells are not even now known to inhabit Jamaica. Gill's diag- 
nosis is, of course, accurate and exhaustive ; but it mainly repeats 
the characters of Falgar : the real difference is in the canalicu- 
lated sutures and ciliated periostracum. The distinction of 
" spinous " for Busy con or Fulgur, and " tuberculated v for 
Sycotypus is of little importance generically, as the Fulgurs a 
frequently only tubercnlate when j'oung and become spinous 
with advancing age ; moreover, the miocene series serve to con- 
nect the two groups in this respect. Under these circumstances 
I judge it better to make Syc<>fyi>i'# a submenus only, under 
Falgur. 

Mr. T. A. Conrad* attempts to distinguish the embryos of 
Sycotypus from those of Falgur by the latter having a long fissure 
parallel with the columella, whilst the columellar region of the 
former is entire. Mr. Conrad's specimens, which are before me, 
and which I saw him extract from the pouches, certainly show 
this difference, but I have since had occasion to examine the 
embryos of Falgur several times, and from different strings of 
pouches, none of which show the slit columella : the character was 
probably pathological. 



* Am. Jour. Conch. Ill, .182. 



TAPIION, STREPTOSIPHON. 143 

P. CANALICULATUS, Linn. PL 57, figs. 394, 395; PI. 58, fig. 401. 
Fulvous ash-color, covered, when fresh, by a light yellowish 
brown pilose epidermis. Length, 5-7 inches. 

Cape, God, Mans, to Florida. Fossil, miocene to postpliocene. 

The tubercles become obsolete on the body-whorl of the adult 
shell. Animal with white mantle, edged with a narrow, bright 
yellow granulous cord ; proboscis long, black-tipped, reddish 
near the body. A string of the ovicapsules from Atlantic City, 
N. J., contains ninety-eight embryos in each capsule, making 
about five thousand for the entire string. 

F. PYRUM, Dillw. PI. 58, figs. 402, 403. 

Whitish, conspicuously longitudinally flamed with light chest- 
nut or orange ; aperture whitish or yellowish within. 

Length, 4-5 inches. 

Florida. 

Whorls carinated, but scarcely tuberculated at the angle of the 
shoulder. Mr. Conrad maintained that his F. plagosus is a dis- 
tinct species, but I am not able to separate it. 

Snt'^enus Taphon, H. and A. Adains. 

Dr. (rill eliminates this from Fulgar. with which he s:iys it 
evidently has no aflinity. I have not seen the shell, but judging 
from -description and figure I would suppose it to be either 
related to Ficus or to Fulyur, and probably much closer to 
Ficuts. 

F. STRATUS, Gray. PL 58, fig. 404. 

Whitish, streaked longitudinally with orange-brown ; interior 

of aperture white. Length, 1*6 inches. 

China. 

(u'.uis STREPTOSIPHON, Gill. 

S. PORPHYROSTOMA, Adams and Reeve. PL 58, figs. 405, 406. 

Whitish, with a yellow-brown epidermis, marked obsoletely 
with spiral brown lines ; aperture white or light purple. 

Length, 38 mill. 

Eastern. SeaSj Senegal. 

S. recti.rva, A. Adams (fig. 406) is evidently the same species. 



144 TUDICLA. 

Genus TUDICLA, Bolten. 

Besides the typical form three additional spinose species have 
been described, viz., T. armigera and spinosa of Adams, and T. 
inermis, Sowb. For these H. and A, Adams have proposed a 
subgeneric name, Tudicula. Sowerby remarks that their posses- 
sion of three prominent transverse plaits on the columella brings 
them to the family Turbinillidae, but T. spirillus itself, when closely 
examined, shows slight traces of additional plaits besides the 
single prominent one, and the shells are otherwise closely related 
to T. spirillus particularly in the long, narrow canal, and the 
well-defined inner lip. 

T. SPIRILLUS, Linn. PL 58, fig. 409. 

Flesh-brown, spotted and clouded with light chestnut. 

Length, 70 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 
T. CUMINGII, Jonas. PL 58, figs. 407, 408. 

Whitish, maculated with chestnut. Length, 65 mill. 

China. 

T. Couderti, Petit (fig. 408), appears to me to be identical, as 
does also T. fusoides, A. Ad., an unfigured species, also from 
China. 

T. ARMIGERA, A. Adams. PL 58. fig. 41 1. 

Light yellowish brown, whitish within the aperture. 
Length, 2' 7 5 inches. 



This species has not been figured by its author, but I am able 
to give an illustration from specimens sent to me by Mr. John 
Brazier, of Sydney, N. S. Wales. In possessing spines upon the 
canal as well as shoulder these specimens agree with the descrip- 
tion of T. armigera, whilst in that of T. spinosa no second series 
of spines is mentioned : yet I suspect that the latter is not dis- 
tinct, and that Mr. Sowerby's T. inermis is simply a depauperated 
specimen of the same species. 

T. SPINOSA, H. and A. Adams. 

An unfigured species from Australia, probably identical with 
T. armigera : See remarks under that species. 



PISANIA. 145 

T. INERMIS, Sowb. PI. 58, fig. 410. 

White, with a broad chestnut band, and longitudinal flames of 
the same color ; white within. Length, 1*6 inches. 

Singapore ? 

The two specimens were obtained from a dealer at Singapore, 
so that the locality it inhabits is very doubtful. See remarks 
under T. armigera. ^ 

: v s5*V^*~" 

Genus PISANIA, Bivona. 

Between typical specimens of this genus and of Euthria " there 
is a distinction with a difference," and therefore it may be profit- 
able to retain both groups ; but there are species in which the 
characters become so merged that their generic classification is 
merely arbitrary. 

P. PUSIO, Linn. PL 71, figs. 188, 189. 

Chocolate or purplish, with revolving series of red-brown 
arrow-headed markings, bluish within, columella and edge of lip 
fawn-color ; usually a white central band on body. 

Length, l'5-2 inches. 

West Indies ; Central America. 

Reeve's locality, California, is an error. 
P. IGNEA, Gmel. PI. 71, figs. 190-194. 

Yellowish, spotted and flamed with reddish chestnut, and occa- 
sionally with white. Length, 1*25-1'75 inches. 

Red Sea ; Singapore ; Philippines ; Viti Islands. 

The spots in this species are square instead of arrow-like as in 
P. puxio : they are frequently confluent into longitudinal flames 
a>nd being interrupted on the periphery, cause it to appear as 
though light banded. 

Var. TRITONOIDES, Reeve, PI. 71, fig. 193. 

Shell more ventricose, heavier, mottled with white on the 
periphery and below the sutures. 

Philippines ; Cape of Good Hope (Gould). 

I think Gould's Euthria lacertina (fig. 194) is a synonym. 
Yiir. VLAMMULATA, Hombr. et Jacq. (not Quoy). PI. 71, fig. 192. 
Shell snuiller, uniform yellowish brown with a lighter central 
band. 

19 



146 



PISANTA. 



The typical form is well represented by its synonyms, P. picta, 
Reeve (fig. 190), P. flammulata, Quoy (fig. 191), and P. buccinu- 
lum, Martini. 

P. MOESTUM, Phil. 

A small, unfigured species, the locality of which is unknown. 
It has revolving sulci, the intermediate spaces being articulated 
with white upon a dark brown ground. The description is not 
sufficient for positive identification with P. pusio or ignea. 

P. KOSSMANNI, Pagenstecher. PI. 71, fig. 196. 

Described from a distorted specimen which is said to resemble 
P. pusio, but shows within the aperture eight brown revolving 

bands. Length, 30 mill. 

Red Sea. 
A doubtful species. 

P. FASCTCULATA, Reeve. PI. 71, figs. 195, 197. 

Orange-yellow, the narrow revolving riblets chestnut-color 

dotted with white. Length, 1*25-1 '5 inches. 

Philippines. 

P. crenilabrum, A. Adams, described in error as from the West 
Indies, is apparently a mere color variation of this species ; it is 
found at New Caledonia, and probably equals P. Montrouzieri, 
Crosse, the latter name having priority. If my surmise prove 
correct, the latter may be distinguished as 

Yar. MONTROUZTERT, Crosse. PI. 71, fig. 197. 

Color purple-brown, with darker revolving riblets, sometimes 
obsolete; an obscure white, irregular band on the periphery, 

riblets sometimes white spotted. 

7\Y/r Caledonia. 

P. STRTGATA, Pease. PL 71, fig. 198. 

Orange or light brown, mottled and spotted with white, incised 
revolving lines darker ; upper whorls granular; aperture white. 

Length, 37 mill. 

Lisl. Ponape. 

P. HERMANNSENI, A. Adams. PI. 71, fig. 199. 

Smooth, fulvous, obscurely punctate with white ; body-whorl 
sulcated below. Length, ]-5 inches. 



PISANIA. 147 

P. GRACILIS, Koch. PL 71, fig- 200. 

Light } r ellowish brown ; whorls cingulately sulcate, the upper 
portions lightly crossed by longitudinal folds or ribs. 

Length -7 inch. 

Hal), unknown. 

Probably a young shell ; generic characters doubtful. 

P. RETICULATA, A. Adams. PI. 71, fig. 201. 

Light yellowish brown, sometimes marbled with reddish brown; 
surface closely reticulated by longitudinal and revolving fine lines. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

New Caledonia; Tasmania. 

Var. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. 

Smaller ; white, with irregular varices. 

Mr. Woods says that the type is common in Tasmania. I give 
an illustration from a specimen received from that locality. Mr. 
Adams has not published a figure of his species. 

P, MARMORA'^.V. Reeve. PI. 71, figs. 202, 203. 

Granulated by the intersection of obsolete longitudinal and 
revolving ribs ; polished ; white with spots and clouds of light 
chestnut. Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Philip-pities ; Sandwich Isles ; Jupnn (Schrenck). 

Var. .BILLELIEUSTI, Petit. Fig. 203. 

This is narrower than the type but does not seem to differ. 
Petit naively says of it : " Si quelqu'un nous disait que notre 
espece est le Bucc. marmoratum decrit par M. Reeve, nous 
n'oserions, en veritc afllrmer le contrairc." 

The variety is found at Xew Caledonia, and Viti Isles. The 
form of this species is that of Pisania, but its sculpture is more 
like Cantharus, and it might be placed in the latter genus with 
perfect propriety. 

P. CINIS, Reeve. PL 71, fig. 204. 

Reddish white, the granules chocolate-color. Length, 1 inch. 

Galapagos Is., (under stones). 

Reeve says, u The granules of this shell impart a rough touch 
to it, resembling that of a coal cinder." I think it very probably 
identical with P. marmorata. 



148 



PISANIA. 



P. PAZI, Crosse. PL 71, fig. 205. 

Brownish black ; livid within the aperture ; lip margin and 
columella tinted with yellowish brown. Length, 40 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

This species also, as well as P. cinis, Reeve, may be a form of 
P. marmorata, Reeve. 

P. MACULOSA, Lam. PI. 71, figs. 206-209. 

Olive-brown, yellowish white or light purple, profusely streaked 
and spotted with chestnut-brown, with frequently a light central 
band ; interior brownish or chocolate, showing the white band. 
Sometimes dark chocolate, with numerous white spots and band. 

Length, -75 to 1-25 inches. 

Mediterranean (littoral), Azores ; St. Croix, W. I. f 

Fossil in several parts of Southern Europe. 

This species is known to many European naturalists under the 
name of P. pusio. Linn., but the type of pusio is a very different 
shell, being the West Indian P.plumata, Gmel. = articulata, Lam. 
Gmelin has called it striata, and his name has priority over 
maculosa, but the latter is so well known that I will not displace 
it. Specimens in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy 
are labelled " St. Croix, W. I., R. E. Griffith," but the species luis 
not been otherwise reported from the West Indies. Buc. jEtliiopx, 
Phil. (fig. 209), is evident^ a very dark, immature maculosa. 

P. JANEIRENSE, Phil. PL Tl, fig. 210. 

Fusiform, solid, transversely obsoletely lirate ; dark brown, 
longitudinally flecked with white, with a brown articulated white 

revolving band. Length, 1*5 inch. 

Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

The greater size and solidity are the chief distinctive features ; 
it is very likely only a finely grown P. maculosa, Lam. 

P. CINGULATA, Reeve. PL 71, figs. 211, 212. 

Yellowish brown, with narrow chestnut revolving threads, 
which are frequently interrupted, causing the coloring to appear 
as revolving rows of spots ; light chocolate within the aperture, 

ridged. Length, 1 to 1'25 inches, 

Loo Choo Is. 

Reeve described this peculiar, thick shell without locality, and 
at first I was disposed to regard it as a variety of Eutliria lineata, 



BUTHRIA. 149 

Martyn, but the heavy appearance and great general similitude 
to P. maculosa, ascertained by the examination of specimens 
collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, of the U. S. N. Pacific Expl. 
Exped., show that its proper place is next after the common 
European species. Buccinum guttatum, Phil., an unfigured spe- 
cies from Java (?), appears from the description to be very similar 
to P. cingulata. 

P. CINGILLA, Reeve. PL 11, fig. 213. 

Covered with fine revolving grooves ; reddish chestnut, with 

a central white band. Length, 22 mill. 

Hal), unknown. 
P. GUTTATA, Busch. PL 71, fig. 214. 

Reddish brown, with white or yellowish blotches and angular 

markings. Length, I'l inch. 

Hob. unknown. 
Looks very much like a Columbella. 

P. SOLOMONENSIS, E. A. Smith. PL 71, fig. 217. 

Granular; Whitish, with two, more or less interrupted brown 

bands. Length, 8 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 
P. GLIRINA, Blainv. PL 71, figs. 215, 210. 

Violet-grey, maculated longitudinally with reddish brown ; 
columella yellowish, aperture grey. Length, *75 inch. 

Australia? Island of Tonga-Tabou ? 

Kiener, Kiister and Reeve figure this as discolor, Quoy, but 
the latter is a very different shell and belongs to the Purpurinae. 

Indeterminate Pisanise. 

P. MOLLIS, Gould. Simoda, Japan. 

P. FILARIS, A. Adams. China. 

P. LUCTUOSA, Tapparonc-Canefri. Mauritius. 

Neither of the above have been figured. 

Genus EUTHRIA, Gray. 

E. CORNEA, Linn. PL 72, figs. 218, 219. 

Yellowish white, reddish or purplish, variously painted with 
brown ; interior of aperture purple-brown. 

Length 1-75 to 2-5 inches. 

Mediterranean, 5 to 15 fathoms 

Fossil ; miocene and pliocene of Southern Europe. 



150 ELTHRfA. 

B. ARACANENSIS, Angas. PI. 72, fig. 220. 

Pale olivaceous brown, with longitudinal irregular, chestnut 
markings ; aperture pale flesh-color. Length, 2 inches. 

Aracan. 

Appears very like a Siphonalia, and is the most ponderous 
species of the genus. 

E. PLUMBEA, Phil. PI. 72, figs. 221-226. 

Smooth, or upper whorls slightly costate in fresh specimens ; 
ashy brown, sometimes light chocolate. 

Length, 1-25 to 1*5 inches. 

(Jape Horn to Chili ; Japan. 

Var. FERREA, Reeve. PI. 72, fig. 223. 

Spirally lineated with brown. 

Japan. 

E. ferrea, Reeve, and E. viridula, Dunker (fig. 225), from 
Japan, are doubtless the same as E. plumbea, notwithstanding 
the great difference of locality : that of plambea being undoubt- 
edly as quoted. As to the identity offerrea and plwuibea, P. P. 
Carpenter and A. Adams, admit it, whilst E. A. Smith makes 
viridula = ferrea. To these S3 r nonyms I add Fusus riifus, 
Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 222) Buccinum Mayellanicum, Phil. (fig. 
224), and B. Patagonicum, Phil. (fig. 226), from Cape Horn. 

E. SIMONIANA, Petit. PI. 72, fig. 227 

Whitish (stained greenish) with reddish brown tlauies, spir- 
ally lirate, lirae plano-convex ; brownish within the aperture. 

Length, 48 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

The color is difficult to ascertain, says M. Petit, on account 
of a stain resulting from the waters where it lives. 

E. ANTARCTICA, Reeve. PI. 72, fig. 228. 

Whorls strongly plicately ribbed towards the apex, ribs of the 
last whorl fading away ; epidermis thick, olive ; interior purple- 
brown, columella and inner edge of lip white. Length, 1-3 inch. 

Falkland Islands. 

Its pertinence to this genus, where it is placed by H. and A. 
Adams, is doubtful. 



EUTHRIA. 151 

E. LINEATA, Martyn. PL 72, figs. 229-231. 

Yellowish white regularly lineated with chestnut revolving 
bands, which are sometimes raised into low ridges ; pink or pur- 
plish within the aperture. Length, 1-25 to 2 inches. 

New Zealand. 

A broader species than E. plumbed, Yar. f erred, but the young 
shells of this species are very like the latter. 

Yar. PERTINAX, Martens. Shell more ventricose, longitudinal 
costse of the spire extending over the antepenultimate whorl ; 
color bands less numerous. Length, 68 mill. 

Auckland Islands. 
This variety has not been figured. 

Yar. LTTTORINOIDES, Reeve. PI. 72, fig. 231. 

Smaller, more ponderous, canal shorter. The t} T pe figured by 
Reeve (fig. 229), is a very different-looking shell, but I have a 
specimen before me which seems to connect it with lineata. 

New Zealand. 
E. MARTENSTANA, Hutton. 

Smaller than Littorinoides, much thinner, spiral whorls more 

distinctly costulate. Length, '7 inch. 

New Zealand. 

Not figured. Will very probably prove to be a synonym of 
the above species. 

E. DIRA, Reeve. PI. 72, figs. 232, 233. 

Vpper whorls longitudinally plicate, plicae becoming evanescent 
on the body-whorl ; whole surface deeply engraved with narrow 
revolving channels, making the interstices appear as though 
covered with revolving, flat-top ribs ; sometimes these ribs are 
divided by an impressed line into pairs. Grayish brown, revolv- 
ing ribs darker; aperture yellowish 'brown, ribbed within and 
stained darker in the interstices a the lip. 

Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Monterey, Gal, to Sttka. 

F. Sitchensis, Midd., and F. incims, Glcl. (fig. 233), are 
synonyms; the figure of the latter is, however, not very charac- 
teristic of the species, being too nuieh inflated and with the canal 
not sufficiently produced. 



152 METULA 

E. BICINCTA, Hutton. PL 72, fig-. 234. 

Smooth, white, porcellanous, with two chestnut bands on the 
body-whorl and one on the spiral whorls. Length, I'l inches. 

Chatham and Auckland Isles. 

E. VITTATA, Quoy. PL 72, figs. 235, 236. 

Yellowish, with two brown bands on the body, and one on the 
spire ; bands made up of three approximate lines. 

Length, -75 inch. 

New ZeulfUuL 

A smaller, heavier species than the preceding ; lip thickened 
and dentate within, canal more produced. E. trilineata, fleeve 
(fig. 236), appears to be the same. 

Undetermined Species. 

E. CHLOROTICA, Martens. Kerguelen's Id. 

E. FUSCOLABIATA, E. A. Smith. 'la pan. 

E. BADIA and LIRATA, A. Adams. Japan. 

E. FUSCATA, Brug. PL 72. fig, 237. 

Reddish brown, brown within the aperture. Length, 31 mill. 

Coast of Peru, abundant. 

I am not able to assign this species to any genus with cer- 
tainty ; it was described as a Bucvinum, which of course it is not. 

Genus METULA, H. and A. Adams. 

Only four species have been described : they are deep-water 
shells, conchologically closely related to Pisania, etc., but with 
finely cancellated surface. The dentition resembles somewhat 
that of the Turbinellidae. 

M. CLATHRATA, Adams and Reeve. PL 72, fig. 238. 
Brownish white, obscurely two or three fasciatc. 

Length, 27 mill. 

(Jupe of Good Nope ; 136 fathoms. 

M. MITRELLA, Adams and Reeve. PL 72, fig. 239. 

White, obscurely marked with four subquadrate dark macnla- 

tions. Length, 23 mill. 

f'Jumi Mfis ; from ten fathoms. 



CANTHARLS. 153 

M. CUMINGII, A. Adams. PI. 72, fig. 241. 

Yellowish brown, tinged with chestnut. The cancellation in 
the specimen described, which appears to be an old one, is con- 
fined to the upper part of the spire. Length, 37 mill. 

West Coast of Africa. 

M. HINDSII, H. and A. Adams. PI. 72, fig. 240. 

White, with four revolving series of brownish maculations. 
Length, 17 mill. 

West Coast of Veragua ; in mud, at a few fathoms* depth. 

Doubtful Species. 

M. BELLA, C. B. Ad. 

White, with reddish brown spots in spiral series, mostly in 
three series, one above and two next below the middle of the 
whorls; with ten rather narrow prominent ribs, and spiral raised 
lines, nodulous at their intersection. Rather elongate, with seven 
very convex whorls, a long ovate aperture, and a wide, mode- 
rately lengthened canal. Length '44 inch, diameter -21 inch. 

A single specimen only obtained. This was subsequently 
examined by P. P. Carpenter and said by him to resemble, a 
young Metula: I am inclined to think it more likely a Golumbella. 
In his Mazatlau Catalogue, Carpenter enumerates four doubtful 
Mctuhi', to which he does not give specific names. It is not at all 
probable that they belong to the genus. 

(Jenus CANTHARUS, lioltcii. 

Swaiusou described a group Tritonidea which Messrs. H. and 
A. Adams make a subgenus under Can-f.ha/'Hi*, distinguishing it 
-from the typical form by " Shell turreted ; canal lengthened." 
The distinction is altogether arbitrary, as the spire in the different 
species varies considerably from the typical species of Gantharus 
to much higher, but with no considerable break in the series, 
whilst the canal can scarcely be called " lengthened " in any of 
them. I have suppressed the subgenus as superfluous and con- 
fusing. 

20 



154 CANTHARUS. 

C. SPIRALIS, Gray. PL 73, figs. 242, 243. 

White, more or less marbled with reddish brown ; covered by 
a dark brown, sparsely pilose epidermis. Length, 1/5 inches. 

Mauritius. 

Buccinum Prevostii, Yal. (fig. 243), is evidently a S3^nonym. 

C. TRANQUEBARICUS, Gmel. PL 73, fig. 244. 

White, or with the revolving ridges sometimes reddish, under 
a thin, light brown epidermis ; margin of aperture sometimes 
tinged with orange. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Tranqucbar. 

The shoulder of the whorls is more convex, the longitudinal 
ribs are more numerous and narrower and extend over the spiral 
whorls, where they are obsolete in C. spiralis : the revolving 
lines which take the place of the more sharply defined and less 
numerous revolving ribs and sulci of spiralis will also serve to 
distinguish the two species. 

C. MELANOSTOMA, Sowb. PL 73, fig. 245. 

Orange-brown, usually interruptedly stained with darker color 
on the longitudinal ribs. Aperture white, with an orange-brown 

lip and chocolate columella. Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

Ccylotu 

This species was confounded by Kienor and others with C. 
Tranquebarieus, from which it differs not only in its greater size 
and solidity, and in coloration, but in its wider, cord-like revolv- 
ing ribs and more apparent shoulder, 

C. IOSTOMA, Gray. 

Shell ovate, solid, dark brown, closely spirally striated, slightly 
longitudinally plaited, covered with a thin, hairy periostnicum ; 
spire short conical ; last whorl subangular and nodulose behind. 
Mouth ovate, large, black ; throat purple, grooved ; outer lip 
crenulated ; inner lip rather expanded, and strongly veined. 

Length, 1'5 inches. 

Pacific Ocean. 

The above is the original description : the species has not been 
figured nor recognized by subsequent authorities. It has some 
affinity with melanostoma, and may possibly be a form of that 
species. 



CANTHARUS. 155 

C. ERYTHROSTOMA, Reeve. PI. 73, fig. 246. 

Yellowish brown, the ribs stained with chestnut or chocolate ; 
margin of aperture and columella orange or red. 

Length. 1/25 to 1/5 inches. 

Ceylon; Japan. 

The more rounded whorls, deeper sutures and slighter sub- 
stance, as well as the coloration, distinguish this from the following 
species. C. fumosus sometimes has a yellowish lip also, but 
generally, on good specimens, there is a light revolving band, 
which is barely indicated upon erythrostoma. 

C. FUMOSUS, Dillw.- PL 73, figs. 247-255. 

Yellowish orange or light brown, the longitudinal ribs chestnut 
or chocolate, usually a revolving white band below the periphery ; 
lip and columella sometimes stained with yellow. 

Length, 1 to 1*25 inches. 

Red Sea ; Ceylon ; Singapore ; Philippines ; Japan ; 

Australia; Polynesia. 

Buccinum strigosum, Gmelin has priority, but the name is not 
adopted because he included two species in his description. The 
principal recent synonyms are C. Proteus, Reeve (figs. 247-249) 
and C. undosus, Kiener and Quoy (not Linn., fig. 250). 

Var. RUBIGINOSUS, Reeve. PI. 73, fig. 251. 

Tliis is a narrower form, with more elate spire ; orange brown, 
white banded, usually not darker on the ribs. Its metropolis is 
the Red Sea, whence it extends throughout the Indian Ocean 
into Polynesia, merging into the typical fumosus. One of these 
slight variations has been called C. subrubiginosus, by Mr. E. A. 
Smith (fig. 252), and conies from Japan. The specimen figured 
is not fully adult. Other species, founded on the narrow variety 
are C. biliratus, Reeve (fig. 253), from Galapagos and Yiti Is- 
lands, and C. nigricostatus, Reeve (fig. 254), said to come from 
Panama, which I doubt. Pisania Desmoulinsi, Montrouzier (fig. 
255), from New Caledonia, is synonymous also. 

C. CARINIFERUS, Kuster. PL 73, fig. 256. 

Described by Krauss as C. rubiginosus, from which it differs 
in the ribs being obsolete and the spiral striae well developed on 
the body-whorl. Mjirtons and Kobolt have placed it in Gomi- 



156 CANTHARUS. 

nella, the former as synonymous with G. porcata, the latter as a 
distinct species; but the want of a superior depression on the 
whorls and the possession of tubercles near the base of the colu- 
mella show that Krauss was right in comparing it with G. rubi- 
yinosus, although it may not be identical with that species. It is 

chestnut-brown, with a white band. 

South Africa. 

C. LTMBATUS, Phil. PI. 73, fig. 251. 

White, marbled with orange. Longitudinal ribs fourteen, re- 
volving stride eight ; lip with an external varix. Length, 10 mill. 

West Indies. 

I know nothing of this minute species ; it is a very doubtful 
one. 

C. EXTENSUS, Bunker. PI. 13, fig. 258. 

Yellowish brown, generally with two white revolving bands on 

the body-whorl. Length, 15 mill. 

Java. 

Looks very much like a minute edition of fumosus var, rubi- 
ginosus. 

C. BOLIVIANUS, Souleyet. PI. 13, fig. 259. 

Yellowish brown, not banded. Length, 1 mill. 

Cobija ; Bolivia. 
Evidently allied to the above. 

C. CAPENSTS, Bunker. PI. 13, fig. 200. 

Dirty yellow, variegated with brown. Length, 22 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Among eight specimens, two had white bands. The specimen 
figured is evidently not adult. I cannot, for want of material, 
decide upon its position, but think it will pro veto be synonymous 
with C. fumosus. Kobelt's figure of this species is incorrect, and 
represents Pisania lacertina, Gould 

C. RUBENS, Kiister. PI. 13, fig. 261. 

Dull orange-brown, white within. Surface cancellated by close 

longitudinal and revolving ribs. Length, 22 mill. 

R<-d Sea. 

The smaller size, and more numerous ribs are relied upon as 
distinguishing features from G. fumosus var. rubiginosus^ but I 
think it may prove to be a stunted variety of that species. Prof. 



CANTHARUS. 151 

Morch has labelled specimens in our collection " C. rubiginosus." 
The longitudinal ribs are sixteen to eighteen in number. 

C. MENKEANUS, Dunker. PL 73, fig. 204. 

Ribs yellowish brown on a white surface, eleven to fifteen in 
number; a white band on the middle of the body-whorl. 

Length, *5 to *6 inch. 

Japan. 

A. Adams (Ann. Mag. Y, 1870), identifies with this Engina 
concinna, Reeve, but Lischke (Moll. Jap. Suppl. 50), points out 
the great difference' between the two shells. The illustration 
which I copy, is either a very poor one, or it is taken from a 
worn specimen. I conjecture that it will be found to differ not 
much from G+fumosus var. rubiginosus. 

C, CECILLTI, Phil. PI. 73, figs. 262, 263. 

Longitudinal ribs six in number, which become true varices on 
the body-whorl ; yellowish to chestnut brown, the revolving striae 
darker, frequently a white band below the periphery. 

Length, 28 to 38 mill. 

Chirm ; J<tpan; Torres Straits. 

Turbinella Cecillii has not been figured, but the description 
is unmistakable and has priority over Buccinum ligneum, Reeve 
(fig. 2r>2), B. balteatum. Reeve (fig. 263), and B. Cumingianum, 
Dunker. Philippi described the species as a doubtful Turbinella 
on account of the tubercles at the base of the columella, which 
are transverse and oblique, somewhat resembling the plaits in 
that genus. Frequently, the ribs become true varices on the 
body-whorl, which, with their smaller number and greater size 
will distinguish them from C. erythrostoma. 

C. FUSULUS, Brocchi. PL 73, fig. 265. 

This mollusk, described seventy years ago as a fossil species, 
has recently been found living in the Mediterranean Sea. I have 
not seen it and have not access to the paper by Libassi, in which, 
under the name of Spadse, it is redescribed and figured. My illus- 
tration is from Brocchi, and apparently resembles a Murex rather 
than a Cantharus. 



158 CANTHARUS. 

C. D'ORBIGNYI, Payr. PI, 73, figs. 266 y 2C>7. 

Yellowish to chocolate, with a median white band ; aperture 
usualty white, sometimes light violet. Length, 15-20 mill. 

Mediterranean ; littoral, upon rocks. 

Var. ASSIMILIS, Reeve. PI. 73, fig. 267. 

Senegal; Algiers, etc. 
C. SCABRA, Monts. 

This name is proposed by Monterosato, without description or 
figure for a shell which he previously designated as C. d'Orbignyi, 
var. subspinosa likewise without diagnosis. I do not know the 
species. 

C. LEUCOZONA, Phil. PL 74, fig. 270; PL 73, fig. 268. 

Purple or chestnut-brown, with a white band on the angle of 

the shoulder. Length, 20 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

Fusus violaceus, Desh. (fig. 268), is doubtfully referred to this 
species by Weinkauff. 

C. PICTUS, Scacchi. PL 74, fig. 271, 

Yellowish white, interruptedly marbled with chestnut-brown. 

Length, 8-10 mill. 

Mediterranean, from tticily to Greece. 

C. HOMOLEUCA, Kiister. PL 74, fig. 272. 

Dirty white. Length, 12 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

Described from a single specimen, which is probably beach- 
worn, and so has lost its color. The localit3 T is not certain. It 
may be the same as C.'pictus,or perhaps (.J. tVOrbiyiiyi, var. 
as&imilis. 

C. PERLATUS, Kiister. PL 74, fig. 273. 

Yellowish white, the nodules purple-brown ; with a white band. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Natal Coast, 8. Africa. 

Compared by Kiister with C. piclus. It looks as much like a 
Columbella as a Cantharus. 

C. LUGUBRIS, C. B. Ad. 

Long ovate-fusiform ; very dark brown, with a cinereous tinge ; 
with small ribs, from nine to thirteen on each whorl, traversed 



CANTHARUS. 159 

by rather coarse, unequal, spiral strife, with the intersections of 
the larger striae rather acutely nodulous ; apex acute ; spire conic; 
whorls eight, very convex, with a moderately impressed suture ; 
aperture ovate ; labrum rather sharp, thickened behind ; with a 
short, recurved canal. Length, *67 inch. 

Panama and Taboga ; under stones at low water. 
I am not acquainted with this species. 

C. ELATA, P. P, Carpenter. 

Shell elate, white, strigate or maculate with reddish brown ; 
whorls more than six, convex, with impressed sutures ; longitu- 
dinal ribs six to eight, crossed by alternately larger and smaller 
revolving lirulae ; canal narrow, subrecurved ; aperture subovatc, 
dentate within. Length, '68 inch. 

(Jape St. Lucas, L. California. 

The description indicates imperfect specimens. I have before 
me a shell received from the Smithsonian Institution as from 
Cape St. Lucas, and identified by Carpenter as G. luyubris, C. B. 
Ad. This shell corresponds so well with the above description 
that I suppose it to be the same ; but it is in too imperfect condi- 
tion to figure advantageously. 

C. PUNCTICULATUS, Dunker. 

Shell small, ovately acute, more or less graceful, subfusiform, 
transversely lirate, lirnu crowded, longitudinally costate, costae 
gnuiose. Whitish or yellowish, the nodules obscurely fuscous. 

Length, 10-15 mill. 

tied Sea. 

I am not acquainted with this species Mr. Tapparone-Canefri 
suspects that Buccinum seriale, Deshaj^es, will prove to be iden- 
tical with it, in which case the latter name will have priority. It 
is said to resemble Buc. Scacchianum (= pictus, Scacchi). 

C. PAPUANUS, Tapparone-Canefri. 

Small, ovate-fusiform, attenuate above and below, graceful. 
Color white and light brown, with darker spots upon the spiral 
lines. Spire subturretted, apex smooth. Whorls eight, more or 
less angulate above, the three upper ones smooth, the rest spirally 
lirate and obscurely longitudinally costate ; lirae in last whorl 
unequal, with granular, oblong, varicolored costae. Aperture 



160 CANTHARUfc. 

oblong-ovate, lip thickened within, obsolctely plicate at margin, 
columella smooth, canal rather long, reflected. 

Length, 9-10 mill. 

Papuan Is. 

Not figured. Said to be distinguished from G. puncticulatus 
by the smaller size, the smaller number and greater size of the 
spiral lirae and costse and by the angular whorls of the spire. 
C. LANCEOLATUS, Koch. PI 74, fig. 274. 

Yellowish, white banded. Length, 13 mill. 

Nab. u-n known. 

A shell of doubtful generic position, described as a Fusus, but 
which Philippi remarks, might as well be referred to Murex, 
Purpura or Pyrula, the animal and operculum being unknown. 
C. FILARIS, Garrett. 

Shell solid, elongate, slenderly fusiform, light brownish, with 
whitish mottlings and spirally lineated with deeper brown ; whorls 
seven, convex, longitudinally and spirally ridged ; ridges small, 
granulated at their points of intersection ; the transverse ones 
alternately larger and smaller ; base contracted and produced 
into a short, slightly -twisted canal ; aperture oblong, ovate, tawny 
yellow and lirate within ; columella with several small nodules. 

Length, 16 mill. 

Samoa and Viti Isles ; very rare, under stones on reefs. 

Unfigured. 

0. GRACILIS, Reeve. PI. 74, fig. 275. 

Whorls a little granulated in the middle, crossed by longitudi- 
nal and transverse obtuse, granose ridges. Whitish, longitudinal 
rows of granules orange-brown. Length, 1*25 inches. 

Isl. of Masbate, Phi1ii>i>incx ; under stones at low water. 

I suspect that this and the following species are really identical. 
Their generic position is somewhat doubtful ; they might as well, 
I think, be ranged with P. marmorata,, Reeve, in the genus 
Pisania. I have before me sonic 1 shells collected by Mr. (iiirrett 
at the Viti Islands which may possibly belong to this species. 
C. CROCATUS, Reeve. PL 74, fig. 276. 

Longitudinally very closely plicated, transversely granosely 
ridged. Saffron-orange, speckled here and there with white ; 
striae between the ridges of a darker orange-brown. 

Length, 27 mill. 

Isl. of Gapul, Philippines. 



CANTHARUS, 161 

C. OBLIQUECOSTATUS, Reeve. PL 74, figs. 277,278. 

Longitudinally obliquely and very closely ribbed, ribs crossed 
with small ridges. Brown-red, transverse ridges whitish. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines. 
C. CROSSEANUS, Souverbie. 

Fusiform, rough, longitudinally costate, cut into transverse 
oblong granules by transverse sulci ; whorls eight to ten, sub- 
carinated, convex, suture well marked. White, tinged with light 
chestnut ; body-whorl with a fulvous, median band ; bluish white 

within the aperture. Length, 13-20 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Described originally as Yar. Artensis of Pisania Billeheustii, 
Petit (=marmorata, Reeve), this species occupies an anomalous 
generic position : it has not been figured. 

C. ASPERA, Dunker. 

Oblong fusiform, with six or seven slightly convex whorls, 
longitudinally densely plicate, crossed by roughly granose revolv- 
ing ridges ; white variegated with brown. Length, 12 mill. 

Upolu. 

This species is compared with Pisania marmorata, Reeve, but 
differs in its much smaller size, rougher sculpture, thicker longi- 
tudinal ribs, suture not incised, canal much shorter, varicose 
labrum, etc. It has not been figured. 

C. SAMOENSIS, Dunker. 

Ovate, subturreted, cancellated by thick longitudinal plicae, and 
revolving small ribs. White, unicolored or with interrupted 
fuscous revolving lines, under a pallid corneous epidermis. 
Whorls convex, with distinct suture, the last but little longer 
than the spire ; canal deep, widely open. Length 14, lat. 7 mill. 

Samoan Isles. 

Not figured. 

C. AUSTRALIS, Pease. PL 73, fig. 269. 

Dark purplish or reddish brown, encircled by an irregular 
broad whitish band, or irregularly spotted, grooves reddish. 

Length, 14, diam., 6 mill. . 

New South Wales, Australia. 

If G. unicolor, Angas, prove to be the same species, it will have 
priority over Pease's name. 
21 



162 CANTHARUS. 

C. UNICOLOR, Angas. PL 74, fig. 279. 

Pale brown or whitish throughout. Length, 12, diam., 4 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia ; under stones at very low spring tides, 
C. PETTERDI, Brazier. 

Shell fusiform, thick, longitudinally flatly ribbed and trans- 
versely ridged, the interstices filled with rows of muricated scales 
(only seen under the lens), whitish, ornamented with a pure white 
band in the centre of the whorls, and a faint brown one below ; 
spire moderately elevated, apex blunt ; whorls six, almost flat, 
suture impressed ; aperture ovate; canal short, slightly recurved ; 
columella arched; outer lip crenulated, thickened externally, 
strongly denticulated within. Length, 12, diam., 4 mill. 

North-East Coast of Tasmania. 

Mr. Brazier has only seen one specimen of this species, which 
is in the cabinet of Mr. W. F.'Petterd. 
C. UNDOSUS, Linn. PL 74, figs. 280-282. 

Yellowish white, the revolving ridges chestnut- or chocolate- 
brown ; aperture white, the columella and margin of lip tinted 
with yellctw. Length, 1*25 to 1*5 inches. 

Malacca ; Australia ; Philippines ; Viti and Paumotus Is. 

Epidermis olive, short pilose. Occasionally the shell has a 
few large, rounded, longitudinal ribs. 
C. GEMMATUS, Reeve. PL 74, fig. 283. . 

Rusty brown, blotched with white, under an olive epidermis. 
Revolving ridges broken up into chocolate-colored tubercles upon 
the longitudinal ribs. Aperture white. 

Length, 1'25 to 1-5 inches. 

Monte Christi, W. Columbia (in clefts of the rocks) ; Mazatlan. 

The interrupted revolving lines, more numerous ribs, higher 
spire and less distinctly marked shoulder will serve to distinguish 
this species from C. undosus. 
C. CANCELLARIA, Conrad. PL 74, figs. 284, 285. 

Fusiform, with longitudinal plicae, and more elevated, distant, 
undulated, revolving costae, and intermediate fine lines ; whorls 
longitudinally rugose ; aperture half as long as the shell ; labrum 
with distant, acute, prominent lines within ; columella distinctly 
plaited at base ; beak recurved ; color cinereous. 

Length, 20 to 30 mill. 

Ship Island, Gulf of Mexico; Cedar Key, Fla. (Calkins). 



CANTHARUS. 163 

Fusus Floridanus, Petit (fig. 285), is undoubtedly a synonym 
of this species. Neither of the figures nor the specimens before me 
are adult, and the shell is so close to G. gemmatus, as to suggest 
identity ; the sole distinctive characters being a more elevated 
spire, and more convex whorls. 

C. TINCTA, Conrad. PI. 74, fig. 286. 

Irregularly variegated with chocolate- and chestnut-brown and 
white ; margin of lip frequently tinted with orange-brown. Lon- 
gitudinal ribs rather small, close, irregular or evanescent; re- 
volving ridges sometimes broken up into tubercles where they 
cross the ribs ; spire conical, its whorls flattened. 

Length, 1 to 1/5 inches. 

Florida ; West Indies. 

The ribs are more numerous, but not so large nor so markedly 
tuberculate as in C. Coromandelianus, the latter possessing much 
ruder sculpture and a decided shoulder on the body-whorl. 

C. COROMANDELTANUS, Lam. PL 74, figs. 287-290. 

Chestnut-brown and white, variegated, under a thin, rather 
smooth, dark olive epidermis. Length, *75 to 1*25 inches. 
Panama to Mazatlan, on rocks at low water ; West Indies ; 

Brazil; Coromandel? 

A very robust, wide species, rudely, prominently sculptured, 
with very decided shoulder and produced posterior sinus. I can- 
not detect any difference between the typical W. Indian (and 
Coromandel?) form and C. ringens (fig. 288), from the West 
coast of North America. C. pastinaca, Reeve (fig. 289), from 
the Bay of Montija, W. Columbia, is probably a variety only. 

Yar. LAUTUS, Reeve. PL 74, fig. 290. 

Differs from the type in coloration, the prevailing arrangement 
being chestnut variegated with white on the nodules, with a white 
band on the periphery ; sometimes the shoulder and base of the 
shell are both white, when it appears to have two irregular brown 

bands upon a white ground. 

West Indies. 
C. HANETI, Petit. PI. 74, fig. 302. 

Brown, with reddish brown revolving lines ; strongly longi- 
tudinally ribbed. Length, 37 mill. 

Near Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 



164 CANTHARUS. 

I am not acquainted with this species. It was described as a 
Murex, but the want of varices and of an internally thickened 
lip-margin determines me to place it here. 

C. TISSOTI, Petit. PL 74, figs. 291, 292. 

A very doubtful species, described as a Purpura, from Bom- 
bay ; I find no record of its identification by Indian conchologists, 
however. The two figures at first sight appear to represent dif- 
ferent species, one of them resembling a young Eicinula ; but I 
have before me West Indian specimens referred to the species 
by Robert Swift, which are intermediate in character between the 
two. Is it a variety of G. Goromandelianus ? 

C. SANGUINOLENTUS, Duclos. PI. 74, figs. 293-295. 

Variegated with clouds of chocolate, chestnut and yellowish, 
under a thin olive epidermis ; aperture white within ; margin of 
lip and columella blood-red, the latter covered with white 
tubercles. Length, 1 inch. 

Panama (under stones at low water) to Mazatlan. 

G. haemastoma, Gray (fig. 294), and C. Janelii, Yal. (fig. 295), 
are synonyms. 
C. ELEGANS, Gray. PI. 74, figs. 29G, 297. 

Chestnut-brown, variegated with white, especially on the no- 
dules. Epidermis short, fibrous, olive-brown. 

Length, 1'75 to 2 inches. 

St. JElena, W. Columbia (in clefts of rocks at low water) ; 

Panama ; Mazatlan. 

This species is more generally known as G. insiynis, Reeve 
(fig. 297), but Gray's name and figure were published twelve 
years earlier. 

C. INCA, d'Orb. PL 74, fig. 301. 

Greenish brown ; reddish brown within the aperture. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Callao, Peru; at 8 or 10 metres. 

The figure is a copy of that given by d'Orbigny and is nearly 
one-half larger than the dimensions given in his text (and above) : 
it is probably inaccurately drawn as it represents an internally 
thickened and dentate lip margin, whilst the description only 
mentions a sulcated lip. Is it possibty identical with the last 
species ? 



CANTHARUS. 165 

C. ^EQUILIRATUS, Carpenter. 

Like G. insignis ( elegans) but much smaller, with tumid 
whorls, the ribs continuous to the base, crossed by equal-sized 
lirse, of which five are shown in the spiral whorls ; basal plication 
of the columella angular. Length, *98 inch. 

Mazatlan ; one dead specimen. 

Carpenter adds to his above description " (tpagodus, Yar.) " 
sandwiched between the generic 'and specific names, and as syno- 
nymy " Comp. Buccinum pagodus, Reeve," etc. It is a pity to 
add to our already overburthened synon} T my by describing shells 
from single dead specimens, and which moreover, so greatly 
resemble other species as to suggest identity even to those who 
describe them as distinct. Carpenter was a great sinner in this 
respect. 

C. VARIEGATUS, Gray. PI. 74, figs. 298, 299. 

Yariegated with chocolate-brown clouds upon an ashy gray 
surface, with narrow, crowded, purple-black revolving lines. 

Length, 1'25-1*5 inches. 

Senegal; Cape de Verd Isles ; Hio Janeiro. 

Two prior names have been used : Buc. lineatum, Gmel., which 
is really Littorina angulifera, and Murex sulcatus, Gmel., founded 
on Le Tafon, of Adanson, whose figure is too poor for positive 
identification with this species. 

Purpura viverratoides, Orb. (Yol. II, 168, t. 50, f. 103), placed 
by me erroneously in the synonymy of P. hsemastoma, is a 
synonym ; as is also Buc. viverraium, Kiener (fig. 299), errone- 
ously reported from the Mediterranean lay that author. 

C. DISTORTUS, Gray.. PI. 74, figs. 300, 305. 

White, variegated and longitudinally striped with chestnut- 
brown ; epidermis brown-olive, short, scabrous, rather persistent; 
aperture white. Length, 1'25-1*75 inches. 

W. Columbia ; Panama. 

The thickened, ear-like extension of the posterior margin of 
the aperture of the adult shell gives it a unique and distorted 
appearance. The spiral whorls are cancellated by longitudinal 
ribs and revolving ridges : the former become obsolete on the 
body-whorl and the latter are only present upon its basal portion, 



166 CANTHARUS. 

so that the body is mainly smooth. This and the next species 
have been erroneously referred by H. and A. Adams and others 
to the genus Clavella (= Cyrtulus),thQ type of which, G. serotina, 
is a fusiform shell, with long canal, 

Doubtful Species. 

C. PORCATUS, H. and A. Ad, New Hebrides. 

An unfigured species, said to be a true Cantharus. 

C. STRIGOSUS, Jonas. Hab. Unknown. 

The name of Gmelin is quoted in parenthesis and with a query 
as authority for this species : the Bucc. strigosum of that author 
is, however, a Cassidaria. 

C. AMCENUM, Phil. Hab ? 

C. BUXEUS, Brod. 

Subfusiform, numerously undulately varicose, transversely 
striated ; brown, transversely lineated with white ; aperture white, 

lip denticulated within. Length 30, lat. 17 mill, 

Peru. 

Is a Cantharus, according to Dr. J. E. Gray, but was described 
as a Murex. I give a copy of a figure in Sowerby's Conch. Illus- 
trations (PL T4, fig. 303) which, if it truly represents the shell, 
shows it to be a Murex, closely allied to, if not identical with M- 
(Ocinebra} contractus, Reeve. 

C. ORUENTATA, Gmelin. 

In the Index to Vol. II, I have referred a portion of the 
figures in Kiister representing Pur pur a cruentata to Pisaniinse. 
Upon re-examining them I prefer to consider them as Kiister has 
done. 

C. IMPROBUS, Gould. 

In the Index to Vol. II, I have referred this species to Pollia 
(== Cantharus}. It is said to resemble buxeus, Brod., but is 
shorter. Upon studying the description I believe the balance of 
characters is decidedly in favor of considering it a Murex 
( Ocinebra), as originally described by Dr. Gould. It is unfigured, 



BUCCINUM. 16 1 

and the type, I think, has been destroyed by fire ; if this is so., it 
will probably never be identified with certainty. 

C. GUALTIERIANUS, Kiener. PI. 14, fig. 304. 

This is said to be a well-grown specimen of Purpura Nassoides, 
Quoy and Gaimard, but, unless Kiener's description and figure 
are both at fault, he is very wrong in referring it to a species 
which differs so materially from his own in having the outer lip 
thickened and dentate within. P. Nassoides is a Ricinula and 
= E. chaidea (See Vol. II, p. 187), whilst Gualtierianus is 
probably a Cantharus and certainly very closely allied in form 
and sculpture to C.fumosus, Dillw. 

Genus BTJCCINTJM, Linnaeus. 

The group of shells to which the generic name Buccinum was 
originally applied, a century ago, by Linne, has been found by 
subsequent investigation to contain many heterogeneous forms, 
and has consequently been greatly subdivided. The name has 
been retained for the genus typified by Buccinum undatum, by 
common consent, and, I believe, in accordance with the best 
rules of nomenclature. It is true that Linnets first species that 
which is to be selected, as in cases where no type is distinctly 
specified is a Dolium. But in the case of Linne's genera, he 
must be considered to have indirectly specified the type, as he 
has expressly stated that, in his view, where it becomes necessary 
to divide a group, formerly supposed to be one genus, the original 
name must be retained for the subdivision containing the most 
common species ; in other words, that the most common species 
must be considered as the type of its genus. And he -must 
therefore have regarded the undatum, the most common of all 
his Buccinums, as the type of the genus. 

The Scandinavian naturalists have generally retained the name 
Tritonium of Miiller for this genus, but Linne's name has priority 
by many years. Tritonium, as proposed, and as frequently used 
since, would include both the Murex and the Buccinum of Linne*. 

The genus is too well known to require particular description 
here, and few points require special remark. Among the spiral 
grooves and striae or ridges with which the shell is always more 



168 BUCCINUM. 

or less deeply sculptured, two kinds may usually be distinguished, 
a large and a small kind, those of the latter being by far the more 
numerous, and distributed upon the surface of the others. These 
kinds we shall call, for convenience, the primary and secondary 
grooves, or ridges, as the case may be. The difference between 
them is very conspicuous in B. glaciale. The columella has 
normally three folds, an upper, middle, and lower one ; the lower 
one constituting the oblique inferior margin of the columella. 
These folds are not always distinct, but all of them may be made 
out in B. tenue. The middle fold is obsolete in most of the 
species, but is very prominent and tooth-like in B. ciliatum. The 
layers of the shell are very distinct in this genus, the outer coat 
being most frequently of a brownish color. - The periostracum is 
generally ciliated with minute processes along the lines of growth, 
corresponding to their intersections with the secondary ridges. 

The operculum is oval or subcircular, and may have the nucleus 
near the centre, or more or less approximated to the posterior 
(outer) margin, according to the species. On the lingual ribbon, 
as in all the Buccinidse, we find three teeth in each row, the 
central one of which is lamelliform, with denticles on its poster- 
ior edge ; while each lateral tooth has two strong hook-shaped 
denticles, with smaller ones between them. The denticles of the 
central tooth are more numerous than in Neptunea. 

With one or two doubtful exceptions, the genus Buccinum is 
restricted geographically to the temperate and frigid seas of the 
northern hemisphere. More careful examination, both of the 
shell and soft parts of the Antarctic species referred to the genus, 
is required, before deciding upon their actual pertinence to it.* 

Geologically, the history of the genus commences in the Plio- 
cene formation. They are found in the European tertiary 
deposits of that age, even as far south as the shores of the Medi- 
terranean. They become very numerous in the Pleistocene 
deposits, both of Europe and North America, but reach their 
maximum development in the existing seas. 

The shells of the genus Buccinum are peculiarly liable to 



* The Antarctic as well as tropical species described as Buccinum all 
belong to other genera; the genus is limited to northern seas. G. W. T,, Jr. 



BUCCINUM. 169 

variation both in form and sculpture, and to obsolescence or ero- 
sion of the surface-markings. The identification of imperfect or 
worn specimens is extremely difficult in this genus.* The late 
Dr. William Stimpson studied with great care the species of Buc- 
cinum, having before him fine suites of specimens and possessing 
a special experience in this genus which few of his successors 
can claim to have enjoyed. I think it inadvisable, however, to 
use his published researches as the skeleton of the present mono- 
graph, subscribing to the doubt expressed by Dr. Jeffreys that 
" Whether all those which he reckoned distinct will stand the 
test of a more extensive examination of this extremely variable 
group is questionable." During the fifteen years that have 
elapsed since the publication of Stimpson 's researches, the num- 
ber of nominal species has been largely increased, mainly through 
the labors of W. H. Dall in Arctic Western America, of Yerkriizen 
in the waters of Newfoundland, and of Sars and Friele in Nor- 
way ; still, no monography of the genus subsequent to that of 
Stimpson, has appeared. The earlier monographs by Reeve, 
Kiister and Kiener contain, of course, heterogeneous assemblages 
of species belonging to numerous genera and are therefore almost 
utterly valueless for the purpose of comparison and classification 
of the species. 

I annex the synoptical table of species given in connection 
with Stimpson 's monograph. 

Very few of the later species being known to me autoptically, 
I fear that this portion of my work may be considered autosche- 
diastical by some of my brother conchologists. 

The great variability of the species, a common characteristic 
of Arctic mollusca, has caused almost every student of the Buc- 
cime, to estimate differently the range of variation permissable 
within specific limits, so that what is referred to by one author 
as B. undatum, for instance, may include less or more than the 
specific form as herein limited, or as understood by all others ; 
may include portions of related species, which thus become dis- 
membered and themselves distributed among their allies or may 
refer exclusively to forms herein characterized as distinct. 

* William Stimpson, in Oanad. Nat. N. 8. II, 364. 1865. 
22 



170 BUCCINUM. 

Synoptic Table of the Species of Buccinum. 
According to Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

A. Body-whorl angulated or carinated. 

a. Primary transverse ridges flat ; secondary ridges inconspicuous. 

1. Shell thin ; aperture not patulous ; outer lip not sinuated. 

* Whorls shouldered; aperture broadest above. B.POLARE. 

* * Whorls scarcely shouldered ; aperture broadest below. 

B. GKCENLANDICUM. 

2. Shell thick and strong ; aperture patulous ; outer lip sinuated. 

* Shell elongated. B. DONOVANI, 

* * Shell ovate. B. GLACIALE. 

b. Primary transverse ridges convex ; secondary grooves very dis- 

tinct. B. ANGULOSUM. 

B. Body- whorl not angulated. 

a. Aperture narrow. 

1. Primary ridges flat. B. STRIATUM. 

2. Primary ridges convex ; a strong tooth-like plait on the 

columella. B. CILIATUM. 

b. Aperture broad. 

1 . Longitudinal folds numerous, often interrupted or interposed. 

* Primary ridges flat. B. PLECTRUM. 

* * Primary ridges obsolete ; secondaries conspicuous, 

crowded. B. TENUE. 

2. Longitudinal folds not interrupted or interposed. 

* Shell thick and coarsely striated. 

f Sinus of outer lip near the suture, columella short. 

B. UNDULATDM. 

f f Sinus of outer lip near the middle, columella pro- 
jecting. B. UNDATUM. 

* * Shell finely striated, usually thin. 

f Secondary ridges easily distinguished from the 

primaries, which are often obsolete. 
|| Columella distinctly folded. B. SIMPLEX. 

|| || Columella smooth, not distinctly folded. 

B. CYANEUM. 

f f Secondary ridges confounded for the most part 
with the primaries 

I Longitudinal folds conspicuous. B. TOTTENI. 
| I Longitudinal folds obsolete. 

B. HUMPHREYSIANUM. 

Since the preparation of my manuscript on Buccinum, Dr. J. 
Gwyn Jeffreys has published a paper upon their S3^nonymy, 
which, in view of his discriminative ability and experience with 



BUCCINUM. 171 

Northern marine shells, is entitled to the careful consideration 
of those specially interested in the correct elimination of specific 
forms. I have not thought it advisable to change the synonomy 
in accordance with Dr. Jeffreys' views, because my conclusions, 
carefully worked out from the (inadequate) material accessible 
to me, ought therefore to have a certain value, but I deem it ad- 
visable to insert here Dr. Jeffreys' paper in full for the purpose 
of comparison with my own results results which would doubt- 
less have been much modified if this paper had been published 
before I commenced my stud} 7 of the genus. It will be seen that 
a good number of species included in my monograph are omitted 
from Dr. Jeffrey's paper. 

On the Northern Species of Buccinum. By J. Gwyn Jeffreys.* 

" The late Prof. Stimpson published, in the ' Canadian Natural- 
ist ' for October, 1865, a ' Review of the Northern Buccinums.' 
and gave sixteen species with fifteen synonyms. Having had the 
privilege of examining his types, as well as those of Linne, 
Fabricius, Turton, Bennett, Broderip, Forbes, Moller, Hancock, 
Morch, Reeve, Gr. 0. Sars, Friele, Yerkriizen, and others, I 
thought a revised list of the species might be useful, and I now 
submit it. I recognize eight species only, with forty-six 
synonyms ; and I believe even that number of species may be 
reduced when more intermediate forms are observed. Their 
fecundity and extensive distribution in the northern hemisphere, 
added to the difference in the conditions of habitat and tempera- 
ture, would account for the great variability of the species. 
Buccinopxis connects Buccinum. with Fusus. The generic name 
Tritonium is undoubtedly subsequent to Buccinum, and included 
Fusus, and what I consider its subgenera, viz., Sipho, Neptunea, 
Chrysodomus, Volutopsis, and Boreofusus. 

1. BUCCINUM GLACIALE. Linn. 
B. carinatum, Phipps. B.polaris, Gray. 
Vars. B. angulosum, Gray. B. Donovani, Gray. 
" B. Groenlandicum, Hancock (not Chemnitz). 
" B. tubulosum, Rve. B. undatum, Dawson (not L.). 
" B. Hancocki, Morch. B. turritum, Verkriizen. 

* Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 5th Ser., VI, 423, Dec. 1880. 



172 BUCCINUM. 

2. BUCCINUM UNDATUM, Linn. 
B. vulgare, Da Costa. 

Vars. B. striatum, Pennant. B. zetlandicum, Forbes (a deep-water 

form). 

" B. Labradorense, Keeve. B. Belcheri, Reeve. 
" B. fragile, Verkriizen. B. conoideum, G. O. Sars. 
Monstr. B. carinatum, Turton. B. acuminatum, Brod. 
" B. imperiale, Reeve. 

3. BUCCINUM GRCENLANDICUM, Chemn. 

B. cyaneum, Brug. B. undatum, Fab. (not L.). B. tenebrosum, Hanc. 
Vars. B. Donovani, Gould (not Gray). B. ciliatum, Gld. (not Fabr.). 
" B. boreale (Leach), Gray. B. undulatum, Moller and Dawson. 
" B. Humphrey si anum, Moll, (not Bennett), B. sericatum, Hanc. 
" Tritonium ovum, Midd (not Turt.). B. fusiforme, Kien. (not 

Brod.). 

" B. Perdix (Beck), Morch. B. Finmarkianum, Verk. (a deep- 
water form). 

" B. pulchellum, G. O. Sars. B. parvulum, Verk. B. sulcatum, 
Friele. 

This species is closely allied to B. undatum ; and both may be 
one and the same species. Herr Friele has shown that the cus- 
pidation of the odontophore is not a reliable character for 
distinguishing the species of this genus. 

4. BUCCINUM HYDROPHANUM, Hanc. 
Vars. B. tumidulum, G. O. Sars. B. Morchi, Friele. B. nivale, Friele. 

5. BUCCINUM HUMPHREYSIANUM, Benn. 

B. anglicanum, Fleming (not Lamarck). B. Puxleianum, Leach. 
Vars. B. veiitricosum, Kiener. B. striatum, Philippi (not Pemi.). 
" B. Kieneri, Monterosato. B. inflatum, Benoit (not Deshayes). 

Not B. Humphrey sianum, of Moller, Loven, Middendorff, M. 
Sars, Danielssen, or Malm. 

6. BUCCINUM TOTTENI, Stimpson. 

B. Terrce-novce (Beck), Morch. B. undulatum, Hanc. (not Moll.). 
Vars. B. plectrum, St. B. Packardi, St. Tr. simplex, Midd. 
" B. Amalise, Verkr. B. elegans, Verkr. 

7. BUCCINUM TENUE, Gray. 
B. scalariforme (Beck), Moll. Tr. Ochotense, Midd. B. tortuosum, Rve. 

8. BUCCINUM CILIATUM, Fabr. 

B. cyaneum, Hanc. (not Brug.). B. Molleri, Reeve. 
Tr. tenebrosum (as of Hancock), var b orealis, Midd." 



BUCCINUM. 173 

B. UNDATUM, Linn. PI. 75, figs. 306-321 ; PI. 76, figs. 322-325 ; 
PL 78, figs. 361-366. 

" Shell conical above the periphery or centre of the body-whorl, 
and somewhat truncated at the base, more or less solid (accord- 
ing to the habitat), opaque, and usually lustreless ; sculpture, 
numerous fine thread-like spiral ridges, some of which are much 
stronger than others and are arranged in bands (from three to 
seven small ridges between every large one) ; the whole surface 
is covered with extremely delicate and close-set longitudinal 
striae, which seldom, however, cross the spiral ridges so as to 
cause any decussation ; the upper portion of the body-whorl and 
of the four or five preceding whorls is often strengthened by 
curved ribs or folds (like buttresses), of which there are from 
twelve to fifteen on the penultimate whorl ; top whorl smooth ; 
the base is girded by a very large, strong, and obliquely-twisted 
keel. Color mostly yellowish white, tinged with reddish brown, 
sometimes white banded with the latter color, or reddish brown 
with a pink tinge and beautifully mottled with white ; inside 
yellow, white, pale reddish brown or chocolate. Epidermis pale 
brownish yellow, rather thin, usually rising into close-set laminar 
folds, corresponding with the longitudinal striae, which form 
short, spiiious processes on the outer ridges. Spire regularly 
tapering, apex blunt and irregular or mammiform ; whorls seven 
to eight, rounded, the last .occupying about two-thirds of the 
shell ; suture deep ; mouth oval and somewhat expanded ; length 
about one-half that of the spire ; canal open and deep, exhibiting 
outside a similar and oblique notch ; outer lip semicircular, flexu- 
ous, and having a large sinus or bay in the middle ; it slopes 
outwards from the periphery ; edge reflected and thickened in 
full-grown specimens ; inside slightly and indistinctly grooved ; 
inner lip broad, consisting of a rather thick glaze on the pillar 
and adjacent part of the body-whorl; pillar smooth and highly 
polished, microscopically freckled or pustulated by the lower 
fold of the mantle. Operculum pale brownish yellow, rather 
solid, more or less concave towards the nucleus ; the layers of 
growth are laminar and numerous, resembling the epidermis in 
texture. Length, 3'25 inches ; diameter, 2 inches. 

" Yar. 1. FLEXUOSA. More slender, with a produced spire ; 



174 BTJCCINUM. 

whorls apparently twisted, in consequence of the ribs being ob- 
liquely curved. 

" Yar. 2. LITTORALIS (King). (Fig. 316.) Yentricose; .spire 
shorter, and body-whorl disproportionately large ; longitudinal 
plaits strong ; throat often coffee-colored. 

" Yar 3. PAUPERCULA. Dwarf and depauperated. 

"Yar. 4. STRIATA (Fig, 319). Thinner than usual, with the 
longitudinal ribs nearly obliterated. 

"Yar. 5. PELAGICA (King). Twice the usual size, and also 
thinner, with a longer spire. 

"Yar. 6. ZETLANDICA (Forbes). (Fig. 364.) Smaller, and of 
a thin and delicate texture, destitute of longitudinal ribs ; epider- 
mis smooth and membranous. 

"Monstrosities. 1, sinitstrorsum (fig. 321). Spire reversed. 
2, carinatum. Upper part of each whorl encircled by a keel or 
more prominent spiral ridge. (B. carinatum, Turton). 3, im- 
perials. Body-whorl compressed and elongated, so as to give it 
the shape of a Valuta, (B. imperials, Reeve, PL 78, fig. 365). 
4, acuminatum (lig. 320). Spire extending to a considerable 
length; whorls flattened, and the periphery consequently angu- 
lated (B. acuminatum, Brod.). 5, conico-operculatum. Opercu- 
lum patelliform or conical. 6, bi-operculatum and tri-opercula- 
tum. Having two or three opercula. 

Animal. " Body varying in color from dirty white to yellow- 
ish, speckled or streaked with black ; mantle rather thick, folded 
over the pillar of the shell ; pallial tube extensile, protruded an 
inch or more beyond the canal, recurved, and obliquely truncated 
at the extremity ; head small, narrowish ; proboscis ve^ long 
and powerful, enclosing a muscular sheath, within which lies the 
tongue ; tentacles flattened, long and pointed, abruptly thickened 
at the base ; eyes very small, placed nearly one-third of the way 
up the tentacles ; foot oblong, with shelving sides, capable of 
considerable expansion and distension, rounded in front, with 
small ear-shaped corners, and bluntly-pointed behind ; very large 
and fleshy, with a short point at the extremity. Odontophore 
(PI. 27, fig. 29): central tooth armed with seven cusps or points 



BUBCINUM. 175 

in a comb-like manner ; shaft of the side tooth having three 
notches, the lowest being the largest." * 

Arctic, Ocean ; Siberia ; Sea of Ochotsk ; North Gape ; 
Norway ; Baltic Sea; England ; France, {Atlantic Coast) ; 
Iceland; Labrador ; Newfoundland, southwards to New 
Jersey; Mediterranean Coast of France (exceptional). 

B. undatum being the typical species of the genus, I have 
deemed it advisable to copy the somewhat extended diagnosis of 
the British specimens given by Jeffreys. I add his further re- 
marks in order to complete the portraiture of the species: the 
diverse conditions under which the varieties are found perhaps 
sufficiently account for their existence. 

" Habitat : Every kind of ground, in all parts of the British 
seas, from the shore to the greatest known depths. The first 
variety is peculiar to hard ground in the coralline zone, through- 
out the Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetland ; it is not common. 
Second, among stones and on mud, in the higher part of the 
laminarian zone, north of England, as well as Ireland, Scotland, 
and Shetland. Third, brackish water at Southampton and Ips- 
wich. Fourth, coralline zone of England, Wales and Ireland ; 
not common. Fifth, Dogger bank ; Mr. Leckenby has a speci- 
men six and one-half inches long. Sixth, soft ground in the deep- 
water zone, west of Ireland, outer Hebrides, Orkneys and 
Shetland ; I have a specimen of a pure white color. Besides 
these, which I regard as the principal varieties, others have been 
described by Professor King and Mr. A. "Hancock. 

" In horticultural language, the species is very much given to 
sporting. Every abnormal growth of the shell can be disting- 
uished from those of a specific or varietal sort by examining the 
apex or nucleus ; this will be seen to be regular, the malformation 
having subsequently taken place, and being in most instances 
caused by some injury to the outer edge of the mantle. 

"The typical form and variety striatum have been recorded 
from every recent geological formation in the northern latitudes 
of both hemispheres, and as far back as the Coralline Crag ; Pal- 
ermo (Philippi). Mr. James Smith found the monstrosity 
carinatum fossil at Bute, and Mr. Grainger at Belfast. 

* Jeffreys, Brit. Conch. IV, 285. 



I 6 BUCCINTJM. 

"American specimens of the common sort are smaller than 
European ; and Stimpson endeavors to show that they belong to 
a distinct species, because of ' a fades difficult to describe.' * If 
the supposed difference cannot be defined by any words or delinea- 
tion, and the only substitute offered is the nearly exploded idea 
of representation of species, it is a pity that naturalists should be 
so unnecessarily perplexed. 

" In Scotland and Shetland this common shell-fish is called 
' Buckle/ in the Isle of Man (according to Forbes) ' mutlag,' in 
Holland ' wulk ' (Born), in France ' bouche-aurore ' (Lamarck), 
at Brest ' grosse bigorne ' and at Rochelle ' burgau morchon ' 
(De Montfort), and in La Manche 'ran' (De Gervillej.f The 
animal emits a thin and copious slime. From its size and tough- 
ness it makes a good subject for anatomical demonstration 
although Cuvier has left very little to be known about that part 
of its history. J It burrows in the sand like Natica catena ; and 
its foot is similarly traversed by numerous canals, which admit 
of its being distended by water ; this enters by an orifice at the 
upper corner of the mouth of the shell, and finds its way, through 
the abdominal cavity, into the vascular system of the foot. 
When it burrows, the end of the pallial tube or siphon is either 
exposed or but slightly covered by the sand, so as to supply the 
gills with water or air as the case may require. Beudant's ex- 
periments show that it cannot live in fresh water. The formation 
of two opercula by the same individual appears to be congenital, 
and not owing to an injury of the opercular lobe, which would 
cause an aborted or defective growth ; for in some of these mon- 
strous specimens the twin opercula are so large that they are 
doubled or folded inwards, side by side, in order to fit the mouth 
of the shell. This mollusk is very voracious, and is often caught 



* In his Synoptical Table, Stimpson distinguishes the American form 
(B. undulatum) by its short columella, and the sinus of the outer lip being 
near the suture instead of near the middle. These distinctions usually 
hold good, but not always : it is not difficult to find American specimens 
with the European characters, and vice-versa. 

f The common generic name inEnglish is "whelk." 

} Details of the anatomy and embryology of Sue. undatum, will be 
found in the introductory portion of Vol. II of this Manual, with illus- 
trations upon Plates 3, 4 and 8, 



BUCCINUM. 177 

on the fishermen's hooks. Orsted tells us, in his interesting 
treatise ' De regionibus marinis,' that great numbers of B. un- 
datum and Fusus antiquus are collected in the Cattegat for fish- 
bait, by putting a dead cod into a wicker basket and letting it 
down on a muddy bottom ; it is soon taken up half-filled with 
whelks. The same method is adopted for their capture on the 
English and Irish coasts. The whelk affords an illustration of the 
lex talionis ; fishes in their turn devour it with equal greediness. 
I have seen between thirty and forty shells of B. undatum ex- 
tracted from the stomach of a single cod. After the shell has 
been cleared out and ejected by the fish, it makes a convenient 
habitation for the hermit-crab. Other nations have not quite so 
great a fancy as ours for eating the whelk ; perhaps it is an indige- 
nous taste ; for when the Romans were in this country, they 
seem to have acquired it being one which they could not gratify 
in Italy. Shells of B. undatum, mixed with those of the oyster, 
have been noticed among the ruins of a Roman station at Rich- 
borough. At the enthronization feast of William Warham, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, on the 9th of March, 1504, there 
were provided ' 8000 whelks at 5s. per 1000.' In the shell-fish 
market at Billingsgate the present species goes by the name of 
the ' white ' or ' common ' whelk, in contradistinction to Fusus 
antiquus, which is there called the 4 red ' or ' almond ' whelk. 
My obliging informant, Mr. Baxter, says, 4 Wilks must be sold 
the same day we receive them at market in the summer, being 
the day after they are caught ; if the supply is greater than the 
demand, we boil them, and they keep good for several days.' 
Evidence was given before a select committee of the House of 
Commons in the Session of 1866, on the ' Whitstable oyster- 
fishery extension Bill,' that the whelk-fishery on a sandy flat in 
that bay yielded 12.000 a year, part of the produce being dis- 
posed of in the London market for food, and the rest sent to the 
cod-fishing banks for bait. They are seldom eaten in the northern 
part of our Isles. At Dieppe and Nantes they may occasionally 
be seen exposed for sale in the fish-markets. The embryology of 
B. undatum has been investigated by Baster and many other 
writers. Its curious spawn-cells are figured in Ellis' Corallines 
as ' Alcyonium sen Vesicularia marina of Bauhin ;' they are 
23 



7 BUCCINUM. 

also called 4 Sea wash-balls,' because of their being used instead 
of soap by sailors to wash their hands (fig. 312). Dr. Johnston 
compares this vesicular mass to the nest of the humble-bee. It 
is composed of numerous cartilaginous pouches, of the shape and 
size of a large split pea, piled irregularty one upon another, and 
attached by their edges at the base. Cailliaud counted 544 of 
these cells in one of the spawn-masses. Each cell contains at 
first several hundred eggs, which are afterwards so greatly re- 
duced in number that only from fifteen to thirty fry come to 
maturity. The process by which this redaction takes place has 
been disputed by Scandinavian and English, physiologists, not 
less as to Bucdnum than with respect to Purpura. Koren and 
Danielssen state that the eggs are first spherical, that they after- 
wards separate into distinct portions, and then amalgamate or 
agglomerate and assume a different shape. Sir John Lubbock, 
on the contrary, ascertained that the more advanced embryos 
swallow the other yelks whole, and in such quantities as to 
become greatly distended ; his paper in the ' Report of the British 
Association ' for 1860 contains a representation of ' a young 
embryo in the act of swallowing an egg ' (figs. 306, 307). Dr. 
Mclntosh observed two specimens of the variety littoralis, on 
the 19th of October, 1863, in the act of depositing spawn under 
a stone, about mid-tide, in a rock-pool at St. Andrews. An egg- 
case, extruded from one of these whelks which he held in his 
hand, was quite soft, and fell into the water like a ball of jelly. 
Before the fry leaves its cell, it is furnished with two rounded 
and ciliated lobes in front, a proboscis, eyes, foot, gills, heart, 
otolites or ear-stones, and other organs, besides a perfectly formed 
shell of two whorls and an operculum. The spanning season 
takes place according to the latitude and climate, between 
October and May ; about two months are required for the devel- 
opment of the fry. The shells vary exceedingly in thickness ; 
some are solid and coarsely ribbed ; others are thin, and their 
sculpture is very delicate. Sometimes the top of the shell is 
broken off, and the opening is closed by a plug. In young speci- 
mens the nucleus of the operculum is more central than in the 
adult, the lateral extension of growth being inwards or towards 
the pillar. Mr. Dennis and Mr. Norman believe that the scalari- 
form distortion of the whorls, which is not unfrequent, is occa- 



BUCCINUM. 1Y9 

sioned by an annelid occupying the suture ; but the epidermis in 
such cases may be traced covering that part, and the distinction 
between post hoc and propter hoc may apply to the opinion of the 
above naturalists, as well as to the arguments of lawyers. The 
shell is the i roaring buckie ' of Scotch bairns. Wordsworth 
has amplified this idea in the following pretty lines : 

' I have seen 

A curious child, who dwelt upon a tract 
Of inland ground, applying to his ear 
The convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell ; 
To which, in silence hush'd, his very soul 
Listen'd intensely, and his countenance soon 
Brightened with joy ; for murmurings from within 
Were heard, sonorous cadences, whereby, 
To his belief, the monitor express' d 
Mysterious union with its native sea.' " 

" Whelks are taken in great numbers in wicker baskets baited 
with offal. Billingsgate Market is chiefly supplied from Harwich 
and Hull ; and some of the steamers from the north bring six or 
seven tons at a time. They are sold at Is. 6<Z. to 2s. a measure ; 
are in season from August to September, though they are really 
good to eat at any time. Whelks are very troublesome to the 
lobster-fishers, for they often devour the bait, and I have seen, at 
St. Margaret 's-at-Cliffe, on the Kentish coast, the lobster pots 
drawn up, one after the other, baitless, and full of these greedy 
mollusks ; most trying to the poor fishermen, especially when 
bait was scarce, and they had been obliged to walk some miles 
in the morning to purchase it. On some parts of the coast the 
fishermen use the Buccinum for bait for the long-line fishing, and 
they know it by the following names, viz., the conch, buckie, 
whelk-tingle, or sting-winkle ; and at Youghal they call whelks 
' googawns,' and ' cuckoo shells.' " LovelVs Edible Mollusks, 
125. 

Mr. Lovell gives the following recipes for preparing whelks 
for table-use : I copy them because, notwithstanding its abun- 
dance on our northern coast the whelk is rarely eaten in the 
United States. 

Dublin Method of Cooking Whelks Cleanse them well, boil 



180 BUCCINUM. 

them till they can easily be taken from the shell, and then fry 
them with plenty of fat or butter, till they are brown. 

Whelk Soup. Take two onions and cut them into small dice, 
fry them in a stewpan with some butter ; shake the pan well for 
a few minutes, add five heads of celery, two handfuls of spinach, 
two cabbage lettuces cut small, and some parsley. Shake the 
pan again, put in two quarts of water, some crusts of bread, a 
teaspoonful of pepper, and a blade or two of mace. Let this 
boil gently for an hour. Boil the whelks, take them out of their 
shells and fry them a good brown, then add them to the soup 
and let the whole boil a few minutes, then serve. 

Another Way of making Whelk Soup. Wash the whelks well, 
boil them and pick them out of the shells. Put an ounce of 
butter or dripping, with some finely chopped parsley, an onion, 
a little pepper and salt, into a saucepan, and fry it until it becomes 
brown, adding a little flour. Then to this add a pint of water 
or a pint and a half of milk, and when it boils place in the 
whelks, and a teaspoonful of anchovy. Let it boil again for half 
an hour, then serve. 

To Dress Whelk's. Boil them till quite tender, then eat them 
with vinegar and pepper. 

On a diminutive form of Buccinum undatum <$ : Case of Natural 
Selection. By Edw. S. Morse. (Figures 308-311.) 

The object in making this communication is to point out some 
curious results of natural selection on Buccinum undatum within 
limited areas, in which the male scarcely equalled half the length 
of the female. 

On a ledge in the harbor of Eastport (Maine), just east of the 
town, a small variety of Buccinum undatum occurs in great pro- 
fusion. At the time of collecting them the sexes were pairing, 
and in every case (and hundreds were observed) the male was 
much smaller, sometimes not exceeding half the length of the 
female. It seemed impossible that the males could be mature, 
and yet they were not only found in actual connection, but an 
examination of the shell revealed the full number of whorls, and 
from other well-known characters indicated the fact that they 
were full-grown, though of diminutive size, 



BUCCINUM. 181 

A glance at the condition of things at once revealed the 
mystery of these dwarfed males. The ledge on which these 
specimens were found is partly exposed at low tide, and is at all 
times washed by impetuous currents, so that it is quite difficult 
to land. 

A study of the surface features of the ledge indicated the force 
of the tidal currents. There were no loose fragments, of rock 
upon it, save those which were so tightly wedged in the crevices 
of the ledge that they could not be worked out with the hands. 
The specimens of Buccinum in every case were found hid away 
in nooks, and concealed in the cracks and crevices marking the 
ledge. It was clearly obvious that only the smallest males could 
work their way into such constricted quarters for the purpose of 
uniting with the females, and that the smaller males had the ad- 
vantage over the larger males in this respect, there could be no 
question. The true state of the case was so instantly seen, that 
though hundreds of specimens were collected with the object of 
determining whether in any case a large male occurred, not a 
single exception was met with in which the female was not being 
fertilized by a diminutive male. 

The constrained position in which these were found precluded 
the possibility of a large male with his cumbrous shell getting 
close enough to the female in her narrow quarters to perform the 
sexual act. The smaller males having this advantage, have from 
generation to generation perpetuated their dwarf characters. It 
would seem from these facts that natural selection has worked 
in an unusual way in producing secondary sexual characters, 
rarely, if ever, seen in gasteropods. 

Both males and females presented a wide range of variation in 
the characters of the shell, some of them showing very distinctly 
the oblique folds so characteristic of the species, while in others 
these folds were scarcely visible. The shell of the male is 
smoother than that of the female, and is also more slender and 
more delicate. The figures represent normal males and females 
from this peculiar colony.* 

Gould supposed that BUG. undatum did not occur south of 
Cape Cod, Massachusetts, a point believed in his da}^ to separate 



Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 284, 1876. 



182 BUCCINUM. 

very distinctly two molluscan faunal provinces, but it has since 
been found throughout the waters of the New England States, 
and, according to Captain Gedney, off New Jersey, N. lat. 40, 
W. long. 73, in 32 fathoms, sandy bottom. It occurs generally 
in deep water, and not so numerously, however, south of Cape 
Cod. It has been dredged at 100 fathoms in the Bay of Fundy, 
but off 'the European coast has been found as deep as 650 
fathoms. 

Mr. Verrill remarks that " the ordinary American specimens 
from shallow water differ considerably in form from the typical 
European specimens, but the species is quite variable on both 
coasts, and I have examined large specimens from St. George's 
Bank and La Have Bank, dredged by Mr. S. I. Smith, which 
differ very little from the common European form, and it is easy 
to form series connecting these with our common shore specimens. 
I am, therefore, unable to agree with Dr. Stimpson, who con- 
sidered our species distinct from the European, and adopted the 
name undulatum for it."* 

In addition to the varieties enumerated in Dr. Jeffrey's descrip- 
tion of the species, I have figured others from Sars, Middendorff 
and Reeve ; they are possibly none of them really entitled to 
varietal names. These are Yar. coerulea (fig. 314), Var. Schanta- 
rica (fig. 317), from the Sea of Ochotsk, B. pyramidale, Reeve 
(fig. 366), B. Labradorense, Reeve (fig. 322) = the American 
form of B. undatum, called B. undulatum, and a representation 
of the latter form (fig. 318) from Gould's Invertebrate of Massa- 
chusetts. To these synonyms I add B. parvulum, V erk. (fig. 323 ) , 
B. fragile, Verk. (fig. 324), and B. conoideum, Sars (fig. 325) ; 
species which can have no place in the genus unless we agree to 
a minute discrimination of its variable characters. It is true 
that a slight difference exists in the dentition between one of 
these forms and the normal dentition of B. undatum (PI. 27, 
fig. 29), namely, a variation in the number of tooth-like points 
developed on the plates, the formula of B. undatum, B. conoideum 
and B. parvulum being 4 6 4, that of B. fragile 3*4*3, accord- 
ing to Sars, but Meyer and Mobiusf have shown that the central 

* Kept. U. S. Fish Com'r, 638, 1875. 
f Fauna der Kielerbucht II. ) 



BUCCINUM. 183 

teeth vary from 4 to 6, and those on the sides from 2 to 4 in 
specimens from a single locality, and that the number on opposite 
side-plates of the same individual is sometimes different, so that 
but little dependence can be placed upon the secondary charac- 
ters of dentition in distinguishing species, at least in this instance. 
Dr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys considers B. Belclieri, Reeve, a variety ; 
it appears to me to be distinct. 

B. ZEALANDICUM, Reeve. PI. 79, fig. 384. 

Yellowish, the revolving lines between the ribs brown tinted. 

Length, 1*25 inch. 

? New Zealand. 

This species never came from the locality assigned to it : it is 
a true Buccinum and may be a form of undatum, having acci- 
dentally deepened color upon the superior revolving lines, or, if 
the color is normal, then it is probably a variety of B. cyaneum, 
Brug. 

B. EFFUSUM, Reeve. PL 79, fig. 376. 

Shell ovately conical, thin, inflated, spire rather short but 
elevated, whorls obscurely flatly ridged and minutety striated ; 
lip simple, effused ; chestnut-brown. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

The ridges of this species are of quite a superficial character. 
The above is a copy of Reeve's description, which does not 
mention longitudinal ribs, although they appear to be slightly 
indicated in the figure. I do not know whether this may be a 
depauperated Buc. undatum or a Cominella. 

B. TOTTENII, Stimpson. PI. 76, fig, 326. 

White, of a light and thin structure ; spire acute ; suture im- 
pressed, whorls seven, regularly convex; longitudinal folds about 
twenty-two in number, not large, very regular, straight, not at all 
oblique, and about equaling their interspaces in width ; these 
folds are prominent on the spire, but usually obsolete on the 
body-whorl, except occasionally at the suture ; the revolving 
striae are somewhat as in B. undatum, but sharper and more 
regular, and the grooves are narrower and more deeply cut. 

Length, 1-75 to 2*25 inches. 

Banks of Newfoundland. 



184 BUCCINUM. 

It might be taken for a thin and delicate form of B. undatum, 
but is easily distinguished by the number and straightness of the 
longitudinal plications of the spire-whorls, the more numerous 
and sharply cut transverse ridges and the wider mouth. Occurs 
in the pleistocene beds of Montreal, 

B. TENUE, Gray. PI. 76, fig. 32 1. 

Whorls convex ; with twenty-five to thirty longitudinal ribs, 
sometimes interpolated about the middle of the body-whorl ; no 
prominent revolving sculpture, but merely crowded minute striae, 
sometimes obsolete. Length, 1-T5 to 2*5 inches. 

Greenland, southwards to Gulf of St. Lawrence ; Nova Zembla ; 

Lapland; Behring's Straits. 

This is a circumpolar species, possessing the well-known facies 
of such shells ; its occurrence southwards in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence is rare and in deep water. It is a pleistocene fossil in 
various localities from Canada northwards. The well-expressed, 
very numerous, curved and partially duplicating ribs and the 
almost total absence of transverse sculpture are its distinguish- 
ing characters. B, scalariforme, Beck, is possibly a synonym, 
although it is also referred to Sipho Kroyeri, Holier. Besides 
the typical form, Middendortf mentions & forma elatior, in which 
the ribs tend towards evanescence. B. tortuosum, Reeve, is con- 
sidered a monstrosity of this species by Stimpson, but I think it 
more probable that it has that relation to Fusus (Sipho) Kroyeri, 
Moller. 

B. PLECTRUM, Stimpson. 

Shell rather large, thin, elongated, whorls less convex than in 
B. tenue, with about nineteen curved longitudinal folds, and deep 
cut primary revolving grooves, with depressed intervening ridges. 

Length 2-23 to 2-5 inches, diain. 1/2 inches. 

Arctic Ocean, north of Behring's Straits ; 

20 to 30 fathoms. 

It may be described in brief language by saying that it has 
nearly the form and plaits of B. tenue, with a striation of the 
glaciale type. It evidently approaches nearest to tenue, but 
besides the difference in the striation, the much greater regularity 
of the longitudinal plaits will serve to distinguish it. I have 
among a number of fossil Buccinums kindly loaned by Dr. 



BUCCINUM. 185 

Packard, two imperfect specimens, probably of this species, from 
the pleistocene beds of Portland, Me. The shell is broader and 
thicker, with fewer (thirteen) longitudinal folds, none of which 
are interrupted, the primary ridges are more convex, and are 
alternately wider and narrower. The secondary grooves are 
rather less numerous. These diiferences may proove to be spe- 
cific, when perfect specimens of both forms can be obtained in 
sufficient numbers. If so, I would suggest the name B. Packardi 
for the Portland form. It is easily distinguished from B. undu- 
latum (= undatum) by the flattening and finer striation of the 
primary ridges, which are also much broader than the correspond- 
ing grooves. I have also a fragment of the form Packardi from 
the pleistocene of New Brunswick. 

The above is copied and condensed from Stimpson's descrip- 
tion. I am unacquainted with the species. Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys 
considers it a variety of B. Totteni, Stimpson. 

B. STRIATUM, Sowb. PI. 76, figs. 328, 329. 

Shell of moderate size, thick, rather elongated and appressed ; 
whorls seven, not convex, not angulated, longitudinal ribs eleven 
in number, not at all oblique, rather distant and prominent, espe- 
cially at the suture ; spiral ridges flat ; aperture narrow, a little 
less than half the length of the shell, columella projecting beyond 
the extremity of the outer lip. Length, 2 inches. 

Sea of Ochotsk. 

Occurs as a pleistocene fossil in Scotland, whence it was first 
described. Dr. Stimpson unites with this B. Ochotense, Midden- 
dorff (fig. 329), and Dr. Jeffreys makes it a synonym of B. tenue, 
Gray. 

B. QLACIALE, Linn. PL 76, fig. 345 ; PI. 78, figs. 367-373. 

Whorls flattened, spire conic-elevated ; ribs few, obliquely 
curved, prominent ; body-whorl with one, two or three prominent 
revolving keels, one of which is sometimes visible on the spire ; 
revolving ridges coarse, well marked. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Behring's Straits; Sea of Ochotsk; Spitsbergen; Greenland. 

The typical form, according to Stimpson, has not as yet been 

found fossil, but the var. (B. Groenlandicum, Hancock = polar e, 

Gra}^) is quite abundant in the pleistocene beds of Montreal. 

The living shell reaches a notably larger size in the North Pacific 

24 



1&6 BUCCINUM. ' 

than in the North Atlantic, and the vicinity of Beh ring's Straits 
may be considered the metropolis of the species. It has been 
erroneously reported as from the Orkney Islands, but is not 
British. Mr. W. H. Dall, to whose enlightened explorations in 
Alaska conchology is so greatly indebted, was the first to point 
out the protean characters of this species and to assign to it a 
numerous s^ynonymy. I have figured the typical glaciale (fig. 
345) and a two-carinated form (fig. 367), B. anguloxum, Gray, 
evidently not adult (fig. 368), and regarded by Stimpson as a 
distinct species, B. carinatum (fig. 372), B. rutilum (fig. 369), 
B. Eombergi(fig.31Q), and B. Morchianum (fig. 311), of Dunker's 
Novitates. Besides these, B. Stimpsoni and B. Roger si of Gould, 
two unfigured species from the vicinity of Behring's Straits, are 
referred to this species by Mr. Dall. 

Var. POL ARE, Gray. 

This form has been described but not figured ; nevertheless, 
Stimpson recognizes it as a distinct species differing from B. 
glaciale in its thin structure, shouldered whorls and narrower aper- 
ture. B. Grcenlandicum of Hancock (fig. 373), which I consider 
equivalent to polare, is also treated as distinct by Stimpson, who 
says that it is narrower and smaller, without shouldered whorls. 
This latter difference depends upon whether one or two carina 
are developed on the body-whorl. I think the only reason for 
considering polare (including Gramlandicum) as a variety is 
the thinness of the shell, 

B. MIRANDUM, E. A. Smith. 

Shell ovate, thick, pallid, brownish red, irregularly maculated 
upon the spiral ribs, invested with a fugacious, thin, light olive 
epidermis ; whorls seven, concave and augulated above, concave 
below the angle, longitudinally plicate, encircled by two nodose 
ribs, and shallow sulcations, minutely graiiosely striate, beneath 
the suture somewhat rugose ; aperture light brown; scarcely more 
than half the total length, labrum sinuated by the spiral carinae, 
canal short, slightly recurved. Length 53, diam. 25 mill. 

East Yesso, Japan; 11 fathoms. 

The plications which produce nodules on the spiral elevations 
become almost obsolete on the last half of the body-whorl. The 
nodules number about ten on the penultimate whorl. The entire 



BUCCINUM. 187 

surface is spirally rather distantly striated, which is plainly 
visible to the naked eye, and also very minutely granosely striated, 
only apparent with the aid of a lens. I do not know the species, 
but it appears to be related to B. glaciale, Linn., some specimens 
of which certainly exhibit, though in a less marked degree, per- 
haps, the principal characteristics noted above. 

B. DONOVANI, Gray. PL 76, fig. 330 ; PI. 78, fig. 374. 

More elongated, with much more convex whorls than B. gla- 
ciale. Sometimes slighty carinated on the middle of the body- 
whorl. Ribs most prominent at the sutures, which they undulate, 
soon becoming evanescent upon the body. 

Length, 2-25 to 3 inches. 

Banks of Newfoundland ; Greenland. 

The B. Donovani of Reeve is another species = B. Terrae- 
Navae, Beck. B. tubulosum, Reeve (fig. 374), is, however, a syno- 
nym. Dr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys makes Donovani a variety of B. 
glaciale. 

B. CASTANEUM, Dall. 

Shell large, clear cjiestnut-brown, with whorls seven in number, 
inflated and smooth, except for microscopic, closely crowded, 
revolving striae. Suture distinct, not channeled. Apex rather 
acute, pointed. Columella straight, with a faint fascicle. Aper- 
ture wide, rounded, more than semicircular. A slight glaze on 
the columella. Outer lip heavily thickened, expanded and smooth, 
not projecting before the column nor waved ; within livid whitish 
or purple. 

Length 2'5in.,diarn. 1*1 in.; length of aperture 1 in., width *75 in. 
Shumagin Islands ( Alaska), 20 fathoms. 

A very remarkably distinct form in a genus where distinctness 
is the exception and not the rule. I know of no species at all 
resembling it. There are rarely faint costse on the junior whorls. 

Yar. TRICARINATUM, Dall. 

This form, which I now consider to be probably an extreme 
race of the foregoing, has a similar color and fine microscopic 
sculpture, but grows larger and is furnished with one strong carina 
on the junior whorls and three on the last whorl. When the lip 
is not formed they are remarkably similar to young Chrysodomus 



188 BUCCINUM. 

liratus, and were passed over as such by me, in the field. After- 
wards, when the carinse and lip are fully formed, they look like 
brown B. glaciale of the carinated form. On examination, the 
sculpture was found to be essentially different, and by that alone 
its connection with B. castaneum is surmised. It is found in the 
Western Aleutians only, and was caught with bait in five fathoms. 
No intermediate specimens have been observed. Length S'OS 1 
inches, width 1-5 inches ; aperture long, 1'25 inches ; wide, -9 inch. 
The lip is less thickened than the typical B. castaneum. 

The above is a copy of Dall's description. I am unacquainted 
with the species. 

B % CYANEUM, Brug. PI. 76, figs. 331-342 ; PL 78, fig. 375. PI. 
19, figs. 377-380. 

Shell thin, whorls six to eight, not very convex, flattened near the 
suture, and generally smoother than in any other species ; longi- 
tudinal folds, when they exist, ten to fifteen, straight, extending 
very little below the suture ; primary spiral ridges rounded, not 
flattened, very narrow and distant, about fourteen on the lower 
whorl, often obsolete, but sometimes sufficiently prominent to 
form angles rather than ridges ; secondary ridges, when present 
about five to each primary ridge and groove taken together. 
Colors bright but variable, usually bluish with chestnut-brown 
revolving lines or series of spots or patches : sometimes brown 
with white spots. Periostraca smooth or short-ciliated. 

Length, l-2'3 inches. 

Greenland) Norway, Lapland, Behring" 1 s Straits. 

An arctic species ; occurs fossil in the pleistocene of Riviere- 
du-Loup, Canada. A number of authors apply to this shell the 
name Grrcenlandicum, Chemn., which I do not adopt because 
Chemnitz was not a binomial writer, and Gf-rcenlandicum is only 
a portion of his compound designation of the species. 

I figure a variety patula, Sars. (fig. 332), which appears to cor- 
respond with the dwarf variety of Stimpson ; also Neptunea 
Baerii, Midd. (fig. 377), which is a marked, short, convex 
variety. The following species described by Hancock, are all 
synonymous with cyaneum, viz. : B. hydrophanum, Hanc. (figs. 



BUCCINUM. 189 

333, 334, 375), B. sericatum, Hanc. (fig. 335),* B. tenebrosum, 
Hanc. (figs. 336-338, 378). Mr. W. H. Dall adds to the syn- 
onymy Volutharpa Morchiana, Fischer, a short-spired variety 
(fig. 379), and B. perdix, Beck, to which I agree, the latter being 
very probably the same as B. Finmarkianum, Verkruzen (figs. 
340-342), which is at most a variety. B. Terree-Novae, Beck, is a 
large, thin variety, showing traces of plicas, and revolving ano % u- 
lations. B. leucostoma. Lischke, an unfignred species from 
Japan, is very probably another variety of this protean species : 
it is a large shell, 81 mill, in length, like Terrae-Nov&e, but thicker, 
with white lip, etc. B. simplex, Midd., from the Sea of Ochotsk, 
is also a large shell, the description of which presents no dis- 
tinctive peculiarities. B. pulchellum, Sars (fig. 339), does not 
appear to be very different from his figure of Grcenlandicum 
(= cyaneum, fig. 331). I add a figure of a remarkable shell (PI. 
87, fig. 617), which Friele calls var. acuta. 

B. JAPONICUM, A. Ad. 

Ovate, fusiform, thin, spire produced, epidermis horny brown, 
longitudinally plicate and laminate, with acute, revolving lines 
(about six in the last whorl), base spirally lirate, lip margin 
thickened and reflected. Length, 1 inch. 

Okosirij Sea of Japan; 35 fathoms. 

Unfigured. Probably nearly related to the preceding species. 
B. Jeffreysii, E. A. Smith, is another unfigured Japanese species, 
30 mill, in length; it is described from a single specimen, with 
the following remarks appended. " This species may eventually 
prove but a large and fine variety of B. Japonicum, A. Ad. ; but 
at present I distinguish it with a separate name, since there are 
several differences which may be regarded as specific. The 
whorls are only slightly angulated in the middle by the keel 
which encircles them at that part; and this keel is undulated, a 

* Mr. E. A. Smith figures the dentition of this form in Ann. Mag. 1ST. 
Hist., XX, 134, 1877, and as the side plates have three fangs on one side 
and two on the other, and the epidermis differs, he considers it distinct 
from B. cyaneum. Mr. Jeffreys, in same magazine, p. 239, calls attention 
to the variability of the epidermis in northern shells, and mentions that 
he had examined numerous specimens of sericatum, and had no doubt of 
their specific identity with cyaneum. The unequal distribution of denti- 
cles upon the side plates of the radula, is itself sufficient evidence of the 
little value of this character. 



190 BUCCINUM. 

character not assigned to B. Japonicum : the red spotting on 
the keels is also absent in that species ; and the color of the 
epidermis is different. At the base of the cauda in the present 
species there is a largish excavation ; biit I am inclined to attri- 
bute it to a repaired injury." 

B. FISCHERIANUM, Dall. 

Shell with four whorls, of which the upper three form less 
than one-sixth of the entire length, though acuminated. Epi- 
dermis smooth, thin, yellowish, marked with very fine, wavy, 
revolving lines, not ciliated. Surface of the whorls smooth, but 
marked with rather evident lines of growth, which are raised 
into plicate rugosities near the suture, which is appressed. 
Whorls inflated, amply rounded, solid, porcellanous and strong. 
Aperture elongate-ovate; outer lip thickened, broadly, effusely 
arched. Peristome white. Throat of a muddy pink. Inner lip 
with a thin callus, thicker on the columella, where it is colored 
with a dash of deep pink. Columella twisted, broad, arched. 
Canal wide and shallow, very short. Color externally yellowish 
pink, upper whorls a little livid, last whorl with a few indistinct 
revolving brown lines, frequently interrupted. Traces of obscure 
revolving ridges appear in a few places on the last whorl. 

Length 1-3 in., lat. '9 in. 

St. George's IsL, Behring's Sea. 

Described from one perfect specimen and fragments obtained 
in 1868. Its nearest ally is that form of B. cyaneum described 
by Fischer as Volutharpa Morchiana. From this it is very 
doubtfully distinct. 

B. PICTURATUM, Dall. 

Shell of moderate size, rather slender, with acute apex, sculp- 
tured with fine wavy striae, the interspaces between which are 
usually flat, but occasionally rise above the general surface as 
flattened threads ; junior whorls with seven to nine faint, very 
oblique transverse costse, the prominence of which varies in 
different specimens ; epidermis very thin, smooth, dehiscent ; 
color whitish, painted with oblique, reddish brown flammules, 
irregularly distributed in patches transverse to the whorls ; 
columella twisted with a strong fasciole, lightly glazed ; outer 



BUCCINUM. 191 

4 

lip smooth, entire, slightly thickened, white on the edge, orange- 
yellow within, extending a little in advance of the columella ; 
apex rather acute, suture appressed ; whorls seven, regularly 
tapering, not inflated ; lip not waved posteriorly, and meeting 
the whorl at a rather sharp angle. 

Length 2*18 in., width 1 in.; length of aperture, 1-05 in. 

Aleutian Islands, 

A very doubtful, unfigured species. The original description 
is given above. Probably = B. cyaneum, var. 

B. CILIATUM, Fabricius. PI. 79, figs. 381, 382. 

Shell small, ovate, strongly ribbed and with fine revolving 
stria) ; solid, becoming very thick with age ; aperture elliptical, 
elongated and narrow, a little more than half the length of the 
shell ; outer lip scarcely at all sinuated ; columella with a dis- 
tinct tooth or projection near its lower extremity, corresponding 
to the second fold of the columella seen in several other species, 
such as B. tenue and B. undatum, but more tooth-like and con- 
stituting an important and easily recognized specific character ; 
periostraca ciliated. Length. 1*54 in. 

Greenland, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, 

Behring Straits, and the Arctic Sea north of it. 

" Although B. ciliatum is the most distinct and well-marked 
form in the genus, it is by no means a common species, and has 
been frequently referred to other quite different species, for want 
of attention to its peculiar characters." So says Dr. Stimpson, 
but I must confess my inability to separate it satisfactorily from 
B. cyaneum. If I rightly understand the specimens before me, 
1 think that it will prove to be a dwarf, slow-growing race of the 
last-named species. B. ciliatum of Gould and American authors 
generally, is a very different shell and is equivalent to B. Hum- 
phreyKianum, Bennett. It is the B. Molleri of Reeve's Index, 
and B. tenebrosum of Middendorff (fig. 382). 

B. FRINGILLUM, Ball. 

Shell white, resembling B. sericatum, Hancock (== cyaneum), 
on the one hand, and B. ciliatum, Fabr., on the other. It has the 
dense fringed epidermis of ciliatum (when the shell is perfect), 
with the sculpture of the same, but wanting the tooth on the 
columella, and having a number of sharp carinae not found in 



192 BUCCINUM. 

& 

any specimens of ciliatum which I have seen. The form is much 
like that of sericatwn, Hanc., except that the whorls are inflated 
and shouldered, and the suture canaliculate. Whorls seven. 

Length 1'36 in., width '8 in. ; length of aperture -66 in. 

Arctic Ocean, near Icy Cape. 

The above is Mr. Dall's description, who, moreover, appends 
n. s. ? to the name. It is a very doubtful species, the canaliculate 
suture being its only peculiar feature, and that would indicate its 
pertinence to the genus Volutliarpa. 

B. HUMPHREYSIANUM, Bennett. PI. 76, figs. 343,344; PI. 77, 
figs. 346-352 ; PI. 79, figs. 383, 385. 

Shell thin, subtranslucent or nearly opaque, pale brownish or 
yellowish, sometimes mottled with fawn or reddish brown, or 
irregularly banded with rows of spots or chain-like markings, 
frequently without spots or mottlings ; sculpture numerous fine 
close-set revolving lines ; no longitudinal ribs, or at most but 
faint indications of them upon the spire- whorls ; periostraca 
very thin, ciliated. Length, ! 75-3*5 inches. 

Shetland Is. ; Ireland ; Norway ; American Arctic Ocean ; Banks 
of Newfoundland ; Lapland ; Coast of Provence, France ; Sicily. 

Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys says that u Dr. Stimpson must have mis- 
taken some other species (perhaps B. ciliatum) for. B. Hum- 
phrey sianum when he described the latter as having a ciliated 
epidermis ; and I therefore cannot recognize the North American 
localities indicated by him. B. ventricosum of Kiener (from the 
coast of Provence), is closely allied to our shell ; but the whorls 
are more tumid and gibbous, and the operculum is not so dispro- 
portionately small. They bear the same relation to each other as 
Aporrhais Serresiana does to A. Macandrese. The operculum 
bears the same proportion to the size of the mouth as that of 
Aporrhais ; it seems to be more ornamental than useful, like the 
coquettish hats worn by the girls of Tuscany on the crown of 
their heads. The opercular lobe covers only the centre of the 
operculum, the upper and under sides of which are sometimes 
encrusted with sessile Foraminifera. The egg-cases are sepa- 
rate and hemispherical. Some of the above characters are so 
peculiar as perhaps to warrant the generic separation of B. 
Humphrey sianum, under the name of Mada, its surface being 
glabrous." 




BUCCINUM. 193 

Dr. Jeffreys has narrowed his conception of the species in this 
instance to suit the British specimens which are, as he says, 
glabrous, without epidermis or any traces of ribs ; the species, 
however, appears to attain its maximum development in the 
waters of the Atlantic coast of British America, and it is from 
these that our description is made. The ventricosum of Kiener 
does not appear to differ. Colored markings are rare upon 
American specimens which are almost invariably invested more 
or less with a very thin epidermis. Our Banks specimens (fig. 
348) were wrongly identified by Gould and others with B. 
ciliatum, Fabr., and still are to be found in most of our collec- 
tions under that name. Stimpson was the first to refer them to 
B. Humphrey sianum. Of course, there is hardly sufficient 
character left in the egg-cases alone to justify the adoption of 
Jeffreys' suggested generic name Mada. 

The zebra-like striped variety (B. ventricosum, Kiener) is 
rarely so highly colored as the original figure which I have 
copied (fig. 385). B. fusiforme, Kiener (fig. 347), is the typical 
European form (= glabra, Jeffreys), and comes from Provence. 
B. ztriatum, Phil. (fig. 349), a Sicilian fossil, is certainly a very 
good representation of the typical American form. Among the 
sj^nonyms are also to be included B. tumidulum, Sars (figs. 350, 
351 ), from Norway, and Tritonium ovum,, Midcl., not Turton (fig. 
352) ; and probably B. Morchii, Friele, an unfigured species, 
notwithstanding the more central nucleus of the operculum, the 
different number of teeth on the middle and side plates of the 
lingual, etc. 

B. BELCHERT, Reeve. PI. 77, fig. 353. 

Oblong-ovate, base truncate, thin, whorls convex, linearly 
spirally sulcate, aperture ovate, columella arcuate, sub-excavated 
in front, contorted ; livid chestnut within, pellucid ; epidermis 
thin, deciduous. 

Port Refuge and Dobbin Bay, Arctic Am. (30 fathoms) ; Finmark. 

Like the rest of the genus, this species is subject to great 
variation. The type specimen is comparatively smooth and 
without plications beneath the suture; others are strongly 
plicated, and have the spiral ridging much raised. Dr. J. Gwyn 
Jeffreys considers it a variety of B, undatum. 
25 



1 94 BUCCINUM. 

Spurious, Doubtful and Undetermined Species. 

B. ESCAL.E, Philippi. PI. 17, fig. 354. 

A minute shell, about 5-5 mill, long ; white, maculated with 
rufous. Has the aspect of a Ricinula (Sistrum). 

Coast of Chili. 

B. CLAVULA, Menke. St. Thomas. 

B. SCHRCEDERI, Beck. India. 

B. BOYSII, Nuttall. California. 

B. POULSONI, Nuttall. California. 

B. PLICATULUM, Nuttall. Sandwich Isles. 

MSS. names in Jay's Catalogue, 3d edit. They are not to be 
found in the 4th edition. 

The following species are described by Lesson in the Revue 
Zoologique : 

B. GENETTA (Coast of Or an, Algiers); B. AFFINIS, " related 
to and of same form as B. ovum, Turt., and B. fusiform*-, 
Kiener," Pacific Ocean; B. PHAL^ENA, Lesson (= Engina ?), 
Acapulco ; B. FLORIDANUM (= Nassa?). Acapulco; B. TULIPA, 
Acapulco ; B. PULICARIS, Sandwich Isles and Taheiti. 

B. ACUMINATUM, Menke (? = Columbella). Australia. 

B. FASCICULARE, Menke. Australia. 

B. PULCHELLUM, C. B. Ad. Jamaica, St. Thomas, W. I. 

B. LUTEOLUM, Val. (Named but not described.) Kurile Isles. 
B. LEIOCHEILOS, Yal, Acapulco. 

B. SUCCINCTUM, Powis; B. CATENATUM, Powis (? = Columbella). 

Mauritius. 

B. MELO, Lesson (? == Melo). New Zealand. 

B. TRITON, Lesson. New Zealand ; Oallao, Peru. 

Dr. J. E. Gray and Mr. Hutton identify this species with the 
young of Siphonalia nodosa, Mart. The original description 
assigns New Zealand as habitat, whence it was brought by a 
vessel stationed in the South Seas ; a year afterwards the habitat 
is corrected to Callao, Peru, where it is said to be very common 
and eaten by the inhabitants. 



BUCCINOPSIS. 195 

B. VINOSUM, Lam. Australia; B. ZEBRA and B. TENUIPLICATUM, 
Lam. Hob. unknown. These are not figured and M. Deshayes 
has failed to recognize them. B. zebra may belong to the 
Cerithiadse. 

B. SECHELLARUM, Dufo. Seychelles Isles. 

B. CHILOENSE, Phil. Chili. 

B. CASANI, Maravigna. Hab.t 

B. ANTARCTICUM, Phil. ( ? = Columbella). Magellan's Straits. 

B. ACTONIS, Phil. Magellan's Straits. 

B. SULCATUM, Friele. PI. 87, fig. 627. 

I have a proof figure received in advance of its publication, 
but no description of this species. Locality probably Spitz- 
bergen. 

B. NIVALE, Friele. PI. 87, figs, 619. 620. 

Unpublished : by the author's kindness I am enabled to give 
copies of the shell and peculiar operculum, taken from a proof 
copy of a plate. It probably comes from the vicinity of Spitz- 
bergen. 

Genus BUCCINOPSIS, Jeffreys. 

Mr. Jetfreys, who places his genus in the family Muricidse, 
remarks that " the principal difference between this genus and 
Buccinum consists in the operculum, the nucleus of which, is in 
Buccinopsis terminal, at the inner base of the mouth, the increase 
taking place by sernielliptical layers ; while in the other genus it 
is placed within the edge, at the outer side of the mouth, the 
increase taking place by concentric layers. The egg-cases of 
Buccinopsis are separate,* and shaped like a well-filled leather 
purse, the opening for the egress of the fry being at the top and 
very wide. According to Mr. Alder, 'its tongue (PL 27, fig. 32) 
differs from that of Buccinum undatum, as well as from those of 
the allied species of the genus Fusus, and makes a slight 
approach to that of Mangelia. It has a single plain and slightly 
curved tooth on each side, and a very thin, non-denticulated plate 
in the centre.' " 

* As in Buccinum Humphrey sianum. 



196 BUCCINOP.SJS. 

B. DALEI, Sowb. PL 79^ figs. 381, 388 ; PL 77, figs. 355, 356. 

Shell egg-shaped, with a truncated base, moderately solid, 
semitransparent, somewhat glossy ; sculpture numerous very 
slight and delicate spiral striae, and still more close-set lines ot 
growth ; these marks are only discernible with a magnifying 
power, the surface appearing smooth to the naked eye ; color 
ivory-white ; epidermis extremely thin, pale yellowish white, 
with a faint tinge of brown. Length 1-15 in., diam. 1 in. 

Animal, body pale yellowish-white, with a faint tinge of flesh 
color. Egg-cases sometimes deposited on the under side of the 
maternal shell. 

Ireland and Scotland, Norway, Behring's Straits, Sea of Ochotsk. 

Dredged 40 to 160 fathoms. Fossil in the Red and Coralline 
Crag, and Antwerp Crag. A specimen from the latter deposit, 
in the Brussels Museum, measures 3*75 ins. long by 1*7> ins. 
in diam. Among the synonyms may be mentioned B. ovoides, 
Middendorff (fig. 355), and B. ovum, Turton (fig. 388). 

Yar. EBURNEA, Sars. Fig. 356. 

Shell smaller and thinner, with the spire more produced. 

B. NUX, Ball. 

Short, very solid, smooth, except for microscopic revolving 
striae, with an ivory-like surface, which in. young living speci- 
mens is covered with a beautifully reticulated, short, velvety 
epidermis, of a brownish color. The adult shell is white or with 
a band of livid purple. Suture distinct ; spire very short ; 
whorls five, last very much the largest, A^ery rotund. Outer lip 
thickened, smooth, projecting beyond the columella, whose 
anterior edge is smoothly and widely twisted, so that a glimpse 
can be had of the interior axis. Column thickened, short, some- 
what arcuated, with no fasciole. 

Length 1*28 inches, width -8 inch. 

Aleutian Islands; 10 fathoms, rocky bottom. 

Differs from B. Dalei in the epidermis, which, in the latter, is 
smooth and polished, and in the solidity of the shell. I do not 
know the species. 



NEOBUCCINUM. VOLUTHARPA. 197 

B. CANALICULATA, Ball. 

Shell solid, livid white, covered with a strong, dark brown 
pilose epidermis; whorls moderately rounded; suture deeply 
channelled; surface of the whorls covered with fine, spiral, 
thread-like ridges, with still finer ones intervening between them, 
lightly decussated by the fine but distinct lines of growth, to 
which the epidermis especially adheres ; the coarser ridges are 
about seven in number, between the posterior end of the aperture 
and the edge of the suture behind it. Whorls five and a half, 
aperture half as long as the shell ; internally polished ; outer 
edge somewhat thickened ; inner lip callous; columella strongly 
twisted ; canal short, rather wide. 

Length 1-33 inches, diam. -75 inch. 

Cape Expenherij, Alaska. (One specimen, on the beach.) 

Much less inflated and proportionally longer than B. Dalei, 
which is nearly smooth and has not the channelled suture. I am 
not acquainted with this species. 

<Jenus NEOBUCCINUM, E. A. S urth. 
N. EATONI, E. A. Smith. PI. 77, figs. 357, 358. 

Pallid brown ; shell thin and smooth. Length, 56 mill. 

Kerguelen Island, 3-7 fathoms. 

Animal (in spirit) uniform buff color; foot broad in front and 
somewhat truncated, narrowed posteriorly; head of moderate 
size, furnished with two rather short tentacles not adjacent at 
their base ; e} r es situated on prominences on the outer side of 
the tentacles towards their bases ; proboscis very long ; siphonal 
expansion of the mantle thick, of medium length. 

Lingual ribbon very long ; rachidiari tooth tricuspidate, uncini 
tricuspidate also, prongs hooked, outer one the largest, the inner 
rather smaller, the median very much smaller still and close to 
the latter. 

The preceding, genera, liuvcinum and B >"(/ /><>/>^s. are in- 
habitants of the Arctic sea ; this, of the Antarctic waters, 

Genus VOLUTHARPA, Fischer. 

This little group of mollusks is confined in distribution to the 
North Pacific Ocean, its metropolis being Japan. Three of the 
species were originally described as Bullia, from which genus it 



198 VOLUTHARPA. 

differs in its simple foot and in possessing e3'es as well as in den- 
tition. The form and porcellanous texture of the shell are like 
Bullia, and serve to separate it from Buccinum. Mr. Arthur 
Adams says that the animal is like Buccinum, of a white color 
sparsely sprinkled with black on the head, foot and siphon; the 
tentacles are broad, close together at the base, and rather short, 
with the eyes on the outer side, near the middle ; the siphon is 
thick and short, and the foot is fleshy and simple behind. 

With regard to the Volutharpa ampullacea,3i very remarkable 
fact may be mentioned. The majority of the individuals are 
without opercula, even without a trace of the pad-like gland or 
area from which the operculuin is secreted. About ten per cent, 
of the individuals of the var. acuminata which I have examined 
had traces of this gland or area, marked l>y its smooth and 
rather whitish surface on the granulous dark slate-colored foot. 
About fifteen per cent, had well developed opercula in the proper 
position. I have ascertained the same to be the case with regard 
to the typical form, from alcoholic specimens, collected by Dr. 
William Stimpson in Behring's Strait. There is no mistake 
about this, strange as it may and must appear, that different 
individuals of the same species are indifferently operculate or 
inoperculate. 

A careful examination of this appendage reveals some singu- 
larities in it worthy of note. At first the operculum is of an 
ovoid form, with the nucleus near the edge at the larger end, and 
increases by additions around the edge, but principally upon the 
smaller or upper end. However, at some late period of its 
growth it takes a new start, and, seemingly, a new operculum is 
commenced underneath the old one, with a central nucleus 
which increases by annular additions, and finally has its edges 
very much thickened and turned upward, giving it a saucer-like 
appearance, while the old operculum seems as if laying upon the 
saucer, with its nucleus and some of the adjacent portion pro- 
jecting over the edge anteriorly. It has in all a diameter of 
1 inch. That its form is not due to an individual abnormality 
is evident from the fact that all the specimens examined were 
similar.* 



* W. H. Dall, Am. Jour. Conch., VII, 106. 



VOLUTHARPA. 199 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, in his excellent " British Conchology," 
records the occurrence, upon the Kentish and Sussex Coasts, of 
Buccinum undatum, having two or three opercula. " In a bi- 
operculate specimen, procured by Mr. Rich, one of the opercula 
is conical and borne on a cylindrical, stalk-like lobe, the other 
being of the usual shape ; in a second specimen, one operculum 
is longitudinally oval, with the nucleus nearly terminal (as in 
Fusus), the fellow operculum being placed at a right angle 
to it." 

" The above facts," says Dr. Paul Fischer,* " modify con- 
siderably our confidence in specific and generic characters fur- 
nished by the operculum. 'They at least demonstrate that the 
absence of an operculum will not suffice for the exclusion of 
mollusks from families the other genera of which are provided 
with them." 

I have inserted in a former volume of the Manual an account 
of abnormal opercula observed in Fusus and Pleurotoma^ and 
it is well known that some species of the latter genus as well 
as of the nearly related genus Conus are provided with opercula, 
whilst others have them not. The duplication of opercula in 
Buccinum undatum appears to meet a parallel in the case of the 
Cephalopod genus Loligo, in the duplication of the internal car- 
tilaginous pens or shells. | 

After all, the operculum furnishes generic characters of con- 
siderable value in classification ; we can by no means afford to 
dismiss its evidence as unreliable because it sometimes, ab- 
normally, unsettles our long cherished (and perhaps erroneous) 
convictions of the stability of generic and specific characters. 

" The ovicapsules of Volutharpa are not at all like those of 
Buccinum, but rather like those of Busy con ( Fulgur), though 
smaller, consisting of disk-like capsules, united by one edge to a 
ribbon or stalk. They contain from eight to twelve embryos, 
which attain the length of a half inch, and a shell of two whorls, 
which, except in the absence of epidermis, essentially resembles 
the adult. The first whorl, however, is whitish and amorphous, 



; Jour, de Conch., 114, 1875. 
f Vol. II, p. 15. 
% Manual, I, 141. 



200 VOLUTHARPA. 

and very fragile ; it is large for the size of the embryo, and is 
invariably lost in shells which have attained maturity. The 
remainder of the embryonic shell is translucent purplish red, or 
wine-color, with revolving lines. I found the embryos on the 
point of escaping from the ovicapsules in September. The disks 
of the capsules are three-quarters of an inch in diameter and two- 
tenths of an inch thick, with the edges perpendicular to the top 
and bottom, and the angles serrate or furnished with slight 
coriaceous projecting- points.* 

Y. PERRYI, Jay. PL 79, fig. 389. . 

Shell ovately globulose, rather thin, inflated towards the base, 
spire short, acute, sutures impressed, whorls smooth, color 
yellowish ash, interior of aperture rusty brown. 

Bay of Yedo, Japan. 

V. AMPULLACEA, Midd. PL 77, figs. 359, 360 ; PL 79, fig. 390. 

Reddish brown under a rufous or yellowish epidermis. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Japan, Sitka ; Sea of Ochotsk, etc. 

V. DESHAYESIANA, Fischer (fig. 390), is generally considered 
specifically identical. 

Mr. Dall lias described a var. acuminata, from Sitka ; it has a 
narrower, less rounded form, with a thicker and stronger, almost 
pilose epidermis. 

In perfect, fresh specimens of the typical form the thin " epi- 
dermis is covered with minute, very short cilia, caused by the 
elevation of minute threads of the epidermis at the intersection 
of the crowded fine revolving strire which cover the whorl, with 
the lines of growth. In some apparently perfect specimens, 
however, the epidermis appears perfectly smooth and even 
polished, "f 

It is very doubtful whether V. Perryi, Jay, is distinct from tliis 
species ; no dimensions are given, but the figure is considerably 
larger. I do not detect any other difference between them than 
that of size. 



* W. H. Dall, Am. Jour. Conch., VII, 106. 
f Dall, Am. Jour. Conch., VII, 104. 



CHLANIDOTA, COMINELLA. 201 

Y. FlSCHERIANA, A, Ad. 

An unfigured species said to be " intermediate in form between 
V. ampullacea, Midd., and V. Perryi, Jay. It is a thinner and 
smaller shell, with a hispid epidermis, the short hairs being 
arranged in close-set cross rows, giving the surface a reticulated 
appearance." Length, 1 inch, diam., 11 lin. 

Korea Strait, South Japan. 

Unfigured. Probably not distinct from Ampullacea. 



V. LIMN^EANA, A. Adams. 

This name is in the list of species of Bullia in the Genera of 
Recent Mollusca, and is mentioned subsequently as a Volutharpa 
in Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 1860. I do not find any description of it. 

Y. MORCHIANA, Fischer. 

This is believed to be synonymous with Buccinum cyaneum, 
Brug. 

Genus CHLANIDOTA, Martens. 

C. VESTITA, Martens. PI. 79, fig. 391. 

Epidermis yellowish brown ; shell white. Length, 23 mill. 

Kerguelen Island. 

Genus COMINELLA, Gray. 

Kobelt has recently published a systematic catalogue of the 
species of this genus, in which they are carefully arranged in 
accordance with their inter-relationships. I have followed it ; 
merely reducing the number of species which he admits, and 
adding a few which appear to have escaped his notice. The 
genus is confined in its distribution to the Southern hemisphere, 
the metropolis of the typical species being New Zealand ; 
although a few are found at the Cape of Good Hope, etc. 
Martens' subgenus Ghlanidota does not appear to me to be very 
closely related to Cominella, and I have preferred to treat that 
shell as a genus. Kobelt includes the species of Amphissa, but 
the thickening and dentition of the outer lip, the absence of the 
posterior constriction and general facies, as well as lingual 
ribbon, indicate a closer relationship with Columbella. I have 
26 



202 COMINELLA. 

included as a subgenus Tenison-Woods' new genus Josepha, 
although its principal character, the plait on the columella, 
appears to ally it to Plios. also. 

0. POBCATA, Gmelin. PL 80, figs. 392, 396, 399, 404. 
Yellowish brown ; aperture white, tinged with brown. 
Length, 2 inches. 

New Zealand ; Cape of Good Hope. 

C. ligata, Lam. (fig. 393), is a synonym. 

G f Anglic-ana, Lam. (fig. 394), is called a variety by Kobelt, 
but is scarcely entitled to be so considered. 

Var. TIGRINA, Kiener. Fig. 39f>. 

Sutural and shoulder ridges usually broken up into granules ; 
surface usually spotted or flamed with darker brown. 

Length, 1-25-1-5 inches. 

C. pubescem, Kiister (fig. 395), is the same ; as are also C. 
robusta (fig. 399) and G. biserialis, Kiister (fig. 404). 

C. LIMBOSA, Lam. PI. 80, figs. 39*7, 398, 400, 403. 

Spire shorter, shell consequently more globose than G. porcata. 
Yellowish to chestnut-brown, the revolving ribs whitish, macu- 
lated with chestnut-brown ; sometimes unicolored with revolving 
ribs or simply fine striae. Length, 1*25-1 -75 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

I fear that this will prove to be a well-marked variety only of 
C. porcata. Typically the color is uniform dark brown ; without 
ribs (fig. 400). 

Var. LAGENARTA, Lam. Figs. 400, 403. 

Shell with revolving ribs, which are usually white, spotted with 
chestnut. It is related to C. limbosa in much the same manner 
that tigrina is to porcata. 

Kiener's G. lagenaria (fig. 94a), which Kobelt refers to dubia , 
Krauss, as a species of Gominella following lagenaria* represents 
a species of Purpura (P. scobina, Quoy., Vol. II, 170, t. 52, 
f. 127). 

C. PAPYRACEA, Brug. PI. 80, tigs. 401, 402. 

Thin, with close revolving striae ; suture somewhat channelled, 
concave shoulder of whorls obsolete or barely perceptible. Light 



COMINELLA. 203 

reddish brown or white under a very thin yellowish brown 
epidermis. Length, 1 '5-1 '75 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope ; Natal. 

C. intincta, Reeve (fig. 402), is a synonym. C. robusta, 
Kiister, which Kobelt makes a variety = the Anglicana form of 
C. porcata. 

C. ZEYHERI, Krauss. PI. 80, figs. 406, 406. 

This is considered a distinct species by Kobelt, but the speci- 
mens figured are evidently immature shells, the first, of C. 
limbosa, perhaps ; the second, of C. porcata. The first figure is 
certainly a bad drawing, because it does not show any subsutural 
depression of the whorls although the description mentions it. 

.Length. '6 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

0. DUNKERI, Kiister. PI. 80, figs. 408, 409, 407. 

Whitish with chestnut revolving lirse. or flames and strigations. 

Length, *5-* 6 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Another immature shell, described as a Fusus, and by Kiister 
placed in Buccinum ; where, the specific name being pre-occupied 
by Lamarck, he calls it B. Dunkeri (figs. 408, 409). It is a 
doubtful species ; even its pertinence to the genus is problematical, 
as well as the identity of Krister's shell with that of Dunker. 
Schrenck reports it from the Bay of Hakodadi,but certainly has 
mistaken the species. 

C. YIOLACEA, Quoy. PL 80, figs. 410, 412. 

Brown, with violet revolving lines. Length, 1*5 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
C. DELALANDI, Kiener. PL 80, fig. 413. 

Ash-color, with waved longitudinal brown markings Pine 
revolving striae. Epidermis greenish. Aperture light chocolate. 

Length, 1'5 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

In form it is very close to C. lineolata, Quoy. 

C. TESTUDINEA, Martyn. PL 80, figs. 414, 415. 

Ash-color, tessellated or flamed with chocolate-brown; lip 
margin and columella yellowish brown, becoming bluish or choc- 



204 OOMINELLA. 

olate within the aperture. With obsolete revolving ribs; surface 
frequently irregularly pitted. Length, 1'25 to 1'5 inches. 

New Zealand. 

C. cataracta, Chemn. (fig. 415), is a mere color-variety of this 
species. Kobelt quotes as a variety C. lineolata, Lam., (not of 
Quoy nor Reeve,) but I think Lamarck's species is the same as 
that which those authors have figured for it. 

C. MACULATA, Martyn. PL 81, figs. 421-424. 

Yellowish grey with revolving lines of chocolate-brown spots ; 
aperture yellowish ; epidermis chocolate color. 

Length, l-f5 to 2-25 inches. 

Neio Zealand. 

A heavy, widely oval shell, with :i strong callous deposit on 
the upper part of the columclla. C. teatudineaj Lam. (fig. 422), 
is a synonym ; (7. maculosa, Mart. (fig. 423), is probably a young 
individual, and I am inclined to believe that C. Woldemarii, 
Kiener (fig. 424), is also a immature specimen, as the rude 
growth often causes irregular nodules on the shoulder, at the 
rest-periods. 

C. QUOYI, Kiener, PL 80, fig. 418. 

Spire plicate, surface covered by numerous revolving stria* ; 
reddish brown, yellowish brown within the aperture. 

Length, 1/5 inch. 

j\ r < tc Zcitil(tn<l. 

I am unacquainted with this species, of which, I believe, only 
one specimen is recorded, in the Museum at Paris. 

C. LINEOLATA, Lam. PL 80, figs. 410, 417, 419. 420 ; PL si, figs. 
425-429. 

Shell with turrited, long pointed spire, the whorls of which 
are more or less coronated on the shoulder by the commencement 
there of longitudinal ribs : ribs sometimes obsolete. Body whorl 
not ribbed, with a concave shoulder. Yellowish or reddish brown 
or grey, with interrupted brown bands ; aperture yellowish or 
purple, with numerous deep purple revolving lines, or sometimes 
white raised revolving lines. Length, 1 to 1-5 inches. 

New Zenld/Kl. 

Kobelt considers lineolata, Lam., a variety of testudinea. Mart., 
and therefore separates from it lineolata of Quoy and of Kiener 



COMINELLA. 205 

(in part), whilst lineolata of Reeve he considers a distinct species. 
I unite the three, finding the surface painting inconstant, and 
consider them very distinct from C. testudinea : the latter being 
much wider, with less exserted spire and without ribs. C. alveo- 
lata, Kiener (fig. 420), has sometimes incised revolving lines, 
between which the revolving dark spots take the form of oblong 
tesselations ; but these lines are frequently absent, and the mark- 
ings vary all the way to uninterrupted bands. 

Var. VIRGATA, II. and A. Adams. Figs. 417. 425-429. 

Revolving fines continuous; surface occasionally with longi- 
tudinal brown flammules. 

Name proposed for 6'. lineolata, Quoy (fig. 425), supposed to 
be a different species from that of Lamarck. Reeve proposed 
the name C. Qaoyi \ fig. 411)), at an earlier date tor the same form 
in the event of its proving distinct. 1 do not use Reeve's name 
for the variety, because it had already been used by Kiener. 
C. obscura, Reeve (tig. 42<;,. is a slow-growing, thicker form, in 
which the revolving bauds occasionally become slightly elevated 
above the surface. G. plwriannulata, Reeve (fig. 427), said to 
come from Swan River. N ai>o a ci.)'<jat<i : a> well as ('. Hneare 
(fig. 428) ? and C. lactea^ Reeve (fig. 421)). 

C. COSTATA, Quoy, PI. 81, figs. 430-434, 438. 

Yellowish brown or ash color, tessellated with revolving series 
of reddish brown oblong spots sometimes confluent into lines. 
Ribbed on the shoulder of all the whorls, with incised revolving 
lines. Lip and columella fawn color, aperture with revolving 
raised lines. Length. 1 to 1*25 inches. 

So. Australia. 

A very variable species, differing from forms of C. lineolata 
only in the ribs being developed on the body-whorl : more ex- 
tensive collections may prove that this is not only synonymous 
with that species, but that the two following species (C. acuti/io- 
dosa and filicea) should be referred to it also. The list of 
synonyms is already sufficiently extensive : C. Anyasi, Crosse 
(fig. 432), C. Adelaidenxix, Crosse (fig. 433), C. eburnea, Reeve 
(fig. 434), which is a whitish variety, and 6 y . funerea, Grid. (fig. 
438), which partially connects this species with acutinodosa. 



206 COMINELLA. 

C. Quoyana, A. Ad., an unfigured species, has no distinctive 
characteristics in its diagnosis : Kobelt changes the name to 
Huttoni, on account of C. Quoyi, Kiener. 

C. ACUTINODOSA, Reeve. PI. 81, figs. 435-43T r 439. 

Shell with close revolving grooves, whitish or ash-color, with 
interrupted chocolate bands or series of spots ; aperture closely 
chocolate banded within. Length, 1 inch. 

So. Australia ; New Zealand. 

Perhaps only a short variety of C. costata. 'Apparently C. 
Glandiforme, Reeve (fig. 436), C. Zealandica, Jacq. (fig. 437), 

and C. lurida, Phil. (fig. 439), are synonyms. 

i 
C. FILICEA, Crosse. PI. 81, fig. 440. 

Has a proportionally longer spire and less numerous nodules 
than C. costata. Light brown or flesh color, tessellated with 

chestnut-brown. Length, 16 mill. 

Oape York, Australia. 
C. CITRINA, Reeve. PI. 81, fig. 441. 

Smooth, pale yellowish orange. Length, 1*4 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

This shell looks nearly as much like a Bullia, S. G. Buc- 
cinanops, as a Cominella. 

C. NASSOIDES, Reeve. PI. 81, fig. 442. 

Orange-brown, ridges and nodules lighter. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
Compare with next species. 

C. NODICINCTA, Martens. PI. 81, fig. 443. 

Light yellowish brown. Length 45, diam. 26 mill. 

Auckland Islands. 

Martens says that its Antarctic habitat is undoubtedly correct. 
I fear that it is not distinct from C. Nassoides, above. 

Unfigured and Doubtful Species. 

C. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. . Tasmania. 

Distinguished from G. costata, Quoy, by being double the size, 
having distinct raised revolving lirae, no costae on the last whorl, 
and being white or greenish, obscurely fasciate. Length, 30 mill. 



JOSEPHA, CLEA. 207 

C. MAURA, A. Adams. Darnley^s Island. 

" This is a blackish brown shell, in some specimens lineated 
with white ; the whorls are constricted just below the sutures, 
and the upper ones are longitudinally plicate and somewhat 
eroded." 

No dimensions given. Probably a form of lineolata. 

C. ELONGATA. Dunker. Hab. unknown. 

C. FUCATA, A. Ad. Japan. 

C. CROCEA, A. Ad. Philippines. 

Both these localities are on the authority of labels in the Cu- 
mingian Collection, and being distant from the usual range of 
the genus they may be considered rather doubtful. 

C. ALBOLIRATA, C. TENUicosTATA, Teuison-Woods. Tasmania. 

Subgenus Josepha, Tenison-Woods. 

Founded upon the following species, which differs from 
Cominella in possessing a plait upon the columella. If it is 
really distinct from Cominella, why is it not a Phos? 

C. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. 

Ovately fusiform, small, solid, opaque, flesh color and white; 
whorls, including the nucleus 7, convex, angular, regularly and 
neatly striate, striae distant and passing over the ribs, which are 
raised , rounded, and interrupted above by a conspicuous groove ; 
nucleus of two whorls, smooth, inflated ; aperture ovate, attenuate 
posteriorly; labrum thin, acute, columella conspicuously unipli- 
cate, canaliculate behind ; base concave, spirally lirate. 

Length, 10, diam. 4'5 mill. 

Tasmania, 
Unfigured. I have not seen it. 

Genus CLEA, A. Adams. 

First proposed as a genus of the family Melanidtt, which the 
shell resembles in its form, epidermis and habitat in fresh waters, 
especially reminding one of the genus Hemisinus. The operculum 
with its apical nucleus, no less than the lingual dentition, whereof 
the formula is Tl-l in Clea, instead of 3'1*3 as in Melania, 
induced Brot to remove the species to Buccinidse ; and really 



CANIDIA. 

the form and sculpture of the shell do not contravene such a dis- 
position of Clea, its fluviatile distribution being actually the 
strongest argument for considering it a Melania. As to the 
genus Canidea, the differential characters are slight and of 
specific value only, except that the margin of the aperture is 
sinuated in front in all the species, and this may serve as a con- 
venient means of dividing the genus Clea into two groups, one 
of which may bear the name of Ganidea as a subgenus. The 
differences in operculum and dentition pointed out by Brot are 
unimportant. The geographical distribution of the genus com- 
prises the Malaysian Peninsula and Archipelago. It would be 
interesting to ascertain whether the waters inhabited are really 
fresh, or perhaps brackish. 

For the species, I follow the monograph by Dr. A. Brot, pub- 
lished in the " Journal de Conchy liologie," 1876. 

C. NIGRICANS, A. Adams. PI. 81, figs. 445, 446. 

Epidermis dark olive, aperture light chocolate. Length, 28 mill. 

Sarawak, Borneo. 

C.funesta, A. Adams, an unfigured species from Malacca, does 
not appear to differ specifically, judging from the description. 

Subgenus Canidia, A. Ad. 

C. HELENA, Meder. PL 81, figs. 447, 448. 

Yellowish olive, with two chestnut bands. Length, 20 mill. 

,/aoa. 

I do not find any good characters by which to separate C. 
Theminckiana, Petit (fig. 448), an immature shell. 

C. TENUICOSTATA, Brot. PL 81, fig. 449. 

Brown, without bands. Length, 21 mill. 

Pexabury, Siam. 
Perhaps a variety of G. Helena. 

C. BAUDONTANA, Mabille and Le Mesle. PL 81, fig. 450. 

Yellowish olive, the bands chestnut-brown. Length, 30 mill. 

Houdong, Cambodia. 

With a longer spire than C. Helena, and three bands, this 
still be only a variety of it. 



EBURNA. 209 

C. FusiFORMis, Deshayes. PL 81, figs. 457, 458. 

Straw color, with three orange bands. 

Cambodia. 
Another possible variety of C. Helena. 

C. BOCOURTI, Brot. PL 81, fig. 459. 

Light corneous, with from one to five brown bands. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Pexabury, Siam. 

The ribs are more distant than in the preceding' species. There 
is a slight shoulder, the further development of which might run 
the species into C. scalarina. 

C. CAMBOJIENSIS, Reeve. PL 81, figs. 451, 452. 

Straw colored or greenish olive. Length, '75-1 inch. 

Cambodia. 

C. SCALARINA, Deshayes. PL 81, fig. 453. 

Orange-brown. Length, 12 mill. 

Cambodia. 
C. JULLIENI, Deshayes. PL 81, figs. 454-456. 

Yellowish white, with three usually broad chocolate bands. 

Length, 16-24 mill. 

Cambodia. 

G. bizonata, Desh. (fig. 455), does not differ, and C. Broti, 
Desh. (fig. 456), is a variety in which the spire is more depressed, 
making the form more globose, with the longitudinal ribs merely 
rudimentary. 

C. ANNESLEYII, Benson. Quilon, Malabar. 

C. FUSCA, H. Adams. Cambodia. 

I cannot attempt the identification of these two unfigured 
species. 

Sub-Family EBURNIN.K. 

Genus EBURNA, Lam. 

The Eburnae comprise a small, very well defined group of about 
a dozen species, the generic character being unmistakable in all 
of them. The whorls have more or less shoulder; those of E. 
Zeylandica showing the least, being a mere slight flattening of 
the contour next below the sutures, whilst in E. spirata there is 
27 



210 EBURNA. 

a regular channel out of which arises the preceding whorl : The 
species are all largely umbilicate, but in some of them the um- 
bilicus is covered or filled, more or less completely by the callous 
inner lip : the umbilical region is defined by a strong rib. A 
thin, dark brown epidermis, sometimes translucent, covers the 
living shell, but cabinet specimens are usually denuded of this, 
exhibiting upon an ivory-white surface, spots arid maculations 
of orange-red. The aperture is usually white, sometimes tinged 
with violet upon the columella. This pattern of coloring is most 
uniform throughout the genus ; but the species are distinguished 
by modifications of the arrangement of these color spots, as well 
as by the differences of shoulder and umbilicus. None of the 
species are strictly banded, although in some the coloring coal- 
lesces into irregular revolving masses. The coloring reminds 
one strongly of Phasianella* whilst the shell, except for the want 
of its characteristic groove and tooth recalls the genus Pseudo- 
liva one of the species of which was formerly erroneously 
referred to this group. The surface of the shell is invariably 
smooth, devoid of the sculpture of ribs, strhe,.tuberculations, etc. 
The operculum is ample, filling the aperture. The Eburnae are 
natives of the tropical seas of the Eastern hemisphere. 

If we observe the rule of taking the first species as the type of 
a genus, Eburna, Lamarck must become a synonym of Ancillaria, 
his first species being A. glabrata: Lamarck's assemblage of 
species, however, clearly indicate his intention. Naturalists have 
done much to render science and themselves contemptible by 
expending their time upon the nomenclature, instead of the 
structure and habits of animals. Ebunio. Lamarck is well under- 
stood and will answer my purpose. 

I commence with those species showing the least, shoulder, 
ending with those in which it is most strongly defined. My 
illustrations are mainty derived from'Sowerby's Thesaurus Con- 
chyliorum : Reeve has also monographed the genus is his Con- 
chologia Iconica. 



* Or of the ecclesiastical group of Mitrse, such as M episcopalu, 
ficatts, papalis, cardinalts, etc. 



EBURNA. 211 

E. PAPILLARIS, Sowerby. PL 82, fig. 460. 

Surface covered with small spots ; shoulder scarcety angulated ; 
umbilical region narrow, covered. Length, T75 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
A rare species. 

E. ZEYLANICA, Brug. PI. 82, figs. 461, 462. 

Painted with oblique blotches below the sutures, and in a 
revolving series near the base; other spots smaller; shoulder 
rounded, scarcely apparent; umbilicus open, its margin some- 
times tuberculated and tinged with violet. 

Length, 2-2'f 5 inches. 

Ceylon. 
E. JAPONICA, Sowb. PI. 82, fig. 463. 

Shorter than E. Zeylanica, with narrower umbilicus ; the 
painting of the same pattern, but the spots much smaller and 
more numerous. Length. 2-2*5 inches. 

Japan. 

Mr. Arthur Adams has described the animal of this species.* 
He says : The tentacles are ringed with red brown, and speckled 
with light yellow ; and the siphon is spotted with yellowish white, 
and irregularly banded with red brown lines. The foot (long, 
large, thick, and flesh}', like that of Buccinurn), is transversely 
banded with irregular red brown lines and minutely spotted with 
pale yellow. The sole is also edged with pale yellow. At the 
caudal extremity of the foot there is a single conspicuous cylin- 
drical terminal filament. He obtained living specimens from 35 
fathoms, off Tsu-saki, in Japan. 

E. FORMOSA, Sowb. PL 82, fig. 475. 

Coloring, large brown blotches, more or less confluent into 
longitudinal zigzag markings ; no spots. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Island of Formosa. 
E. LUTOSA, Lam. PL 82, fig. 465. 

Blotches of color pale and irregular, rarely in spots, usually 
arranged in an upper broad, and two inferior and narrower re- 
volving series, separated by narrow white spaces. The epidermis, 
usually orange-brown, is more persistent upon this than on any 

other species except E. spirata. Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

China. 



* Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3. ser., xiii, 1864. 



212 EBURNA. 

E. AREOLATA, Lam. PI. 82, fig. 476 ; PL 83, fig. 525. 

Shell thinner than E. lutosa, with shoulder more marked and 
slightly channelled ; umbilicus wider, open ; same pattern of 
markings as E. lutosa, but color much darker, blotches more 
regular, quadrangular, the three revolving series more widely 
separated by intervening white spaces. 

Length, 2-25-3-5 inches. 

Ceylon ; China Sea, 14 fathoms. 

E. spirata, Linn., included this species, as well as the one which 
now bears that name. Lamarck separated and defined the two 
forms. 

E. SPIRATA, Lam. PL 82, figs. 466-468 ; PL 84, fig. 526. 

Shoulder sharp-edged, deeply channelled ; umbilicus narrow, 
perforated or closed ; epidermis frequently adhering, dark brown ; 
coloring a well-defined series of blotches superiorly, below which 
are numerous, rather large transverse or oblique oval spots ; 
some of the latter frequently become confluent into an inferior 
revolving series of irregular or cuneiform markings. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

' 'i !/! 1 1 : I '/> llippines. 

E. CHRYSOSTOMA, Sowb. PL 82, fig. 469. 

The blotches and spots are both smaller and more numerous 
than in E. spirata, the form is more oval, the coloring brighter, 

including a carneous aperture and columella. 

Ceylon. 

I separate this from E. spirata with some hesitation. Sowerby 
considers his Fig. 3 of E. spirata to represent this species ; it has 
the coloration, but the form and markings are of the charcteristic 
spirata pattern. Perhaps it would bo better regarded as a 
variety of spirata. 

E. BORNEENSTS, Sowb. PL 82, fig. 464. 

Spots large, dark chestnut, distributed over the surface with 
no arrangement into revolving series. Length, 2 inches. 

Borneo. 

Peculiar in the coloring and leopard-like arrangement of the 
spots. 



ZEMIRA. 213 

E. SEMIPICTA, Sowb. PL 82, fig. 470. 

Epidermis yellowish. The two-banded arrangement of the 
spots and absence of superior row of blotches will 'serve to dis- 
tinguish this species. Length, 1'7 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
E. PERFORATA, Sowb. PI. 82, fig. 471. 

The deep, wide channel, short rounded whorls, turbinate spire, 
very wide umbilicus, with tuberculate margin and central callus 
deposit, and above all the peculiar zebra-like coloring, will serve 
to distinguish this species. Length, 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
E. AMBULACRUM, Sowb. PI. 82, tig. 472. 

Very deeply channelled, with short whorls, somewhat flattened 
upon the upper half;, color darker than in the other species in 
consequence of the color blotches and spots nearly covering the 
entire surface. Length. 1*5 inch. 

Island of Mindanao, Philippines. 

E. YALENTJNIANA, Swains. PL 82, fig. 473. 

Shell ovate-globose, heavy, shoulder channelled; spire very 
short ; umbilicus narrow, covered with callus. Color like that of 
E. spirata. Length, 1'75 to 2-25 inches. 

Persian Gulf ; Red Sea. 

Von Martens considers this merely a short form of E. spirata, 
and it is quite possible that such is the case, although the three 
figures which he gives I would refer without doubt to Valentini- 
ana. I cannot adopt the Chemnitziaii name Molliana, because 
he was not a binomial author. 

Rubgfmis ZEMIRA, H. :m<l A. Adam.-. 

The revolving channel near the base of the shell, ending in a 
tooth-like projection on the outer lip, has induced Sowerby to 
class this species in the genus Pseudolivai it seems nearly 
related to Eburna, however. 

E. AUSTRALIS, Sowb. PL 82, fig. 474. 

Shell covered by revolving incised lines ; epidermis very thin, 
yellowish ; irregularly brown spotted, spots usually more promi- 
nent on the shoulder border, Length, -66 inch. 

Port Jackson, Australia ; 10 fathoms. 



214 MACRON. 

Genus MACRON, H. and A. Adams. 

This was originally described as a subgenus of Pseudoliva, 
which it resembles in having an inferior revolving groove ter- 
minating in a small tooth-like projection of the outer lip ; the 
operculum, however, is unguiculate like that of the Eburna 1 , 
whilst that of Pseudoliva is purpuroid. The more decided canal 
and absence of sutural channel, and the rather persistent black- 
ish brown epidermis, will distinguish it from the subgenus Zemira 
of Eburna. Its locality, West Coast of North America, is also 
a distinctive character ; Eburna being East Indian, and Pseudo- 
liva African in distribution. The species are partly included in 
Sowerby's monograph of Pseutfolwa in Thesaurus Conch., 
Vol. III. 

M. KELLETTII, A. Adams. PL 82, fig. 477. 

Epidermis blackish or dark brown, under which the shell is 
white. Whorls partially or entirely encircled with low, broad, 
rounded ribs, sometimes only apparent on the lower part of the 
body whorl, sometimes obsolete. Length, 1*75 to 3 inches. 

Sun Diego, Cal.; Gulf of California. 

Buccinum JEthiops, Reeve, has been confounded with this 
species, but is a very different shell, entirety distinct in its over- 
hanging ribs, broad flat shoulder, want of tooth on the lip, etc. ; 
in fact is a synonym of Purpuru cingulttta. Linn. M. KelieUii. 
Hinds, belongs to the genns Siphonalw. 

M. LIVTDA, A. Adams. PI. 82, fig. 478. 

Epidermis dark brown, whitish or livid beneath : surface 
smooth except several incised strijv near the base. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Sf in Diego, Cal.; Todas Santos Bay, L. Cal. 

Mr. Stearns thinks this will prove to be a small form of M. 
Kellettii, dwarfed by reason of its northern liabitat. Its perfect 
growth, narrower form, much smaller size, and thick lip indicate 
to me adult specimens of a "distinct species. 

M. WRIGHTII, H. Ad. donsf of Patagonia. 

M. COMMODA, H. and A. Ad. Hab. unknown. 

Neither of these species has been figured. 



PHOS. 215 



Sub-Family 

Uenus PHOS, Montfurt. 

The animal of P/?ox has a small head, with the tentacles ap- 
proximating or connate at their base, and eyes near their tips ; 
foot dilated, forming an auriculate, shield-like lobe in front, and 
terminating behind in a long, tapering filament. 

The species of / J /i0x bear some resemblance to Nassa, and 
were originally placed in the family Xassidre; from which, how- 
ever, they are distinguished by certain good conchological and 
malacological characters. The turreted form, cancellated sur- 
face and grooved interior of aperture are common to Nassa also, 
but the oblique basal fold of the columella is characteristic of 
this genus. The animal differs from Buccinum in the foot, 
ending in a filament behind : Naxsa has a bifid posterior termina- 
tion, The genus is widely diffused, the species however, as far 
as known, being rather local in distribution. Plios has been 
monographed b}' Sowerby in Thesaurus Conch yiiorum, Vol. III. 
An inspection of his plates suggests the probable identity of 
many of the species there figured as distinct. No allowance is 
made by most describers for individual variation in form, sculp- 
ture and coloring; yet. where a number of specimens of a species 
from a single locality are compared, there will usually be found 
to exist much difference in the number and prominence of ribs 
and stria', coloring, etc. Even the augulated (or shouldered) 
body whorl appears to be a variable character; some specimens 
of a single lot of P. Gu&daloupensi* being broadly shouldered 
as described ; others entirely without shoulder or angulation. I 
am convinced that March's submenus Strongyloc&rte, comprising 
the species with nngulated whorls has no title to distinction, and 
I have suppressed it according!} 7 . I have allowed some species 
to stand provisionally which, judging from the ascertained range 
of variation in other forms, will probably eventually be con- 
sidered synonyms. 

Oriental tipec-ies. 
PH. SENTICOSUS, Linn. PL 83, figs. 479-490, 492, 493, 506, 575. 

White to chocolate brown, with or without yellowish or red- 
dish brown bands. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Philippines; New Caledonia; Amboina ; Andaman Isles. 



216 PHOS. 

I am compelled to refer to this form a considerable number of 
species which do not appear to me to have distinctive characters : 
I have figured them all, however, and those who suppose that I 
am too conservative, will be able thereby to form their own con- 
clusions. P. muricatulus, Gould (fig. 484), from Japan; P. an- 
gulatus, Sowb. (fig. 485), Philippine Isles ; P. scalaroides, A. Ad. 
(fig. 486), habitat unknown ; P. filosus, A, Ad. (fig. 487), habitat 
unknown ; Ph. ligatus, A. Ad. (fig. 488). habitat unknown ; P. 
plicatus, A. Ad. (fig. 489), from Eastern Seas ; P. rufofasciatu*. 
A. Ad. (fig. 490), Philippines; P. fasciatus, A. Ad. (fig. 575), 
Philippines; P. textilis, A. Ad. (figs. 492, 493). Philippines; 
P. nodicostatus, A. Ad. (fig. 506), Philippines. 

PH. ADAMSI, Petit. PL 83, fig. 491. 

Whitish, obscurely fasciated with brown ; regularly cancellated, 
and prickly nodose. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

This appears to be less pyramidal in form, and differs also from 
senticosus in its equally prominent longitudinal and revolving 
sculpture ; still, it may be only a variety. It was described by 
A. Adams as P. cancellatus, which name being preoccupied, 
Petit changed it to Ph. Adamsi. 

P. PLICOSUS, Bunker. PI. 83, tigs. 523, 522, 524. 

Ribs rather distant, tubercled at the shoulder of the whorls, 
encircled by close, sharp revolving stri;e; white, middle of outer 
lip and base of shell chestnut-brown. Length, 1*2 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

The type is b:tdly figured (tig. 523), yet the description identi- 
fies it with the subsequently published P. speciosas. A. Ad. (fig. 
524) and P. Morrlssii, I) linker (fig. 522 j. The ribs are somewhat 
closer and the shoulder angle not so marked as in P. pallidus, 
the revolving strite are inuch finer, and the chestnut coloring 
appears to be a constant distinctive character. 

PH. CYLLENOIDES, A. Ad. PL 83, fig. 497. 

Light yellowish brown, with ash-colored revolving bands 

crossing the ribs. Length, '5 inch. 

Philippines. 

Distinguished by its short, angulated form, few and prominent 
ribs, wide shoulder, etc. 



PHOS. 217 

PH. VIRGATUS, Hinds. PL 83, fig. 502. 

Light yellowish, the ribs crossed by impressed brown lines. 

Length, 1/5 inches. 

Ceylon. 
Spire longer than in its allies. 

PH. L^EVIGATUS, A. Ad. Pi: 83, fig. 499. 

Whitish, tinged with orange or brown. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
The only species devoid of spiral sculpture. 

PH. TEXTUM, Gmel. PI. 83, figs. 498, 500, 501, 503-505, 507. 

Shell whitish, the aperture and columella deep orange or 
brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines ; Indian Ocean ; Andaman Men. 

The richly colored interior is the best character by which to 
distinguish this species. It has several synonyms : P.pyrostoma, 
Reeve (fig. 501); P. cancellatus, Quoy (fig. 498); P. varians, 
Sowb. (figs. 503, 504); P. spinicostatux, A. Ad. (fig.. 505); P. 
BlainriUei, Desh. (fig. 500). The last name is adopted by 
Sowerby for this species, although Deshayes himself considers 
it a synonym of P. textum in his edition of Lamarck, published 
3f> years ago. P. cyanostoma, A. Ad. (fig. 507), as illustrated by 
Sowerby in his " Thesaurus.' 1 is also a synonym ; but Mr. E. A. 
Smith says that this is a mistake in identification, the true 
cyanostoma being different. Adams never published a figure. 

PH. ROSEATUS, Hinds. PI. 83, figs. 508-511. 

Whorls rounded or scarcel}' shouldered, the longitudinal ribs 
small, narrow, rounded. Yellowish, roseate or brown, sometimes 
three-banded with darker color. Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

Philippines; Moluccas; Borneo. 

P. Borneensis, Sowb. (fig. 510), of which a single specimen fur- 
nished the diagnosis and figure, and P. varicosus, Gld. (fig. 511), 
are synonyms. 

PH. TEREBRA, Sowb. PI. 83. fig. 513. 

Narrow, with long spire; yellowish brown, with brown bands; 
whorls occasionally crossed by rounded varices. 

Length. -75 inch. 

Sydney, Australia; Borneo? 

28 



218 PHOS. 

PH. RETECOSUS, Hinds. PL 83, fig. 514. 

Orange-brown to yellowish white ; revolving lines beaded 
where they cross the low longitudinal rounded ribs ; lip of 
aperture varicosety thickened externally. Length, 1*25 inches. 

Ceylon. 
PH. GRACILIS, Sowb. PI. 83, fig. 515. 

A small, graceful, brown species ; narrow and elongated. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

Very like Ph. Terebra* Sowb., but without the varices of that 
species. 

.v*# American Species. 
PH. PALLIDUS, Powis. PL 83, figs. 494-496. 

Whitish, yellowish or fuscous, usually darker between the 
longitudinal ribs, color sometimes broken up into revolving 
series of spots (Ph. notatus, Sowb., fig. 496). Length, 1 inch. 

Panama ; Philippines f 

A stout, ovate, rugose species, with prominent nodulated 
shoulder and Nassa-like form. Ph. pallidus is known to come 
from Panama, yet it is recorded " Philippines " in Sowertty's 
Thesaurus. Ph. notatus is also " Philippines " in the same work, 
and I do not think the locality can be correct in either case. 

PH. CRASSUS, Hinds. PL 83, fig. 521. 
Thick, broad, light brown, more or less banded. 

Length, 1/5 inches. 

Panama. 
PH. ARTICULATUS, Hinds. PL 83, figs. 516, 517. 

Shell long and slender, with small rounded ribs and slight 
shoulder ; }'ellowish or reddish brown, sometimes with revolving, 
interrupted, darker bands. Length, 1-1 '38 inches. 

Panama; coral sand, 6 to 10 fathoms. Cuming. West Columbia. 

With this species I unite Ph. turritus. A. Ad. (fig. 517). 

PH. GAUDENS, Hinds. PL 83, figs. 518, 519 ; PL 84, figs. 527, 528. 
Shell without, or with a slight shoulder ; ribs small, few and 
distant, tuberculated at the crossing of the revolving lines ; 
light yellowish brown, generally with two revolving bands of 
chocolate interrupted by the ribs. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Gulf of Tekuantepec, W. Coast of Mexico ; W. Columbia. 



PHOS. 219 

Hinds described this species from a young shell (fig. 527), 
which, however, agrees well enough with Ph. Gumingii, Reeve 
(fig. 519). The figures given in Sowerby's Thesaurus (fig. 518, 
gaudens, fig. 528, Cumingii), differ somewhat, but evidently 
belong to the same species. I am very doubtful of the propriety 
of separating this from Ph, articulatus, Hinds ; from which typi- 
cally it differs in the smaller number of ribs. 

PH, VERAGUENSIS, Hinds. PL 84, figs. 529-532, 534. 

Shell without shoulder, closely covered with narrow, elevated, 
longitudinal ribs, crossed by narrow, raised revolving lines, 
forming prickly tubercles at the intersections. Yellowish or 
brownish, sometimes faintly banded. Length, 1-1'25 inches. 
Veragua, W. Coast of Central America ; West Indies ; Senegal. 

I cannot detect any difference between the West Coast and 
West Indian specimens, and accordingly place in the synonymy 
the following species from the latter area : Ph. Antillarum, Petit 
(fig. 531) and Ph. Candei, d'Orb. (fig. 534). Ph. Grateloupiana, 
Petit (fig. 532), said to come from Senegal, may also be placed 
here. 

PH. BEAUII, Fischer. PL 84, fig. 533. 

Elongate-conical, with numerous slight longitudinal ribs, and 
occasional revolving lines ; yellowish brown, obsoletely 4-5 
banded ; whorls occasionally crossed by rounded varices. 

Length, 39 mill. 

Isle of Marie Galante, W. Indies. 

Shell less solid and with much less developed sculpture than 
the preceding species ; the absence of prickly tubercles being the 
most important differential character. 

PH. GUADELOUPENSIS, Petit. PL 83, figs. 520, 512. 

Shell broad-ovate, spire conical-turreted ; longitudinal ribs ter- 
minating in nodules upon the margin of the sloping, usually broad 
shoulder. White, more or less maculated with brown ; aperture 
stained with brown within. Length, 1 inch. 

West Indies ; Northern Coast of South America. 

A very common species of the Caribbean province, having 
much the form of Ph. pallidus, Powis, and Ph. textum, Gmel. 
In sculpture and degree of development of shoulder there is 



220 ENGINA, NASSARTA. 

great individual variation. I unite with this species P. textilinus, 
Morch. Nassa unicincta, Say (fig. 512), is an unidentified species 
which may possibly equal Guadeloupensis ; if so, it will have 
priority. 

Doubtful and Undetermined Species. 

PH. SCULPTILIS, PH. VARICOSUS, A. Ad. Mentioned in H. and A. 
Adams' Genera, but not described. 

PH. CANCELLARE, Menke, PH. DUMALE. Phil, Marquesas Is. 
PH.. FUSOIDES, C. B. Ad. Panama. 

A single specimen described as a Triton, having varices upon 
the whorls. P. P. Carpenter, who has examined it, says that it 
is not a Triton however, that the aperture has an anterior sinus 
of the lip, and that it may be an Euthria. The lip sinus and 
other characters, however, agree well enough with Phos. 

PH. BIPLICATUS, Carpenter. Panama. 

Not figured ; described from a single specimen. The diagnosis 
fairl}' applies to Ph. Veraguensis, Hinds. 

(ienus ENGINA, (iniy. 

A group of Columbelloid shells, nodulously, longitudinally 
ribbed. The dentition of one species, E. mendicaria, has been 
published (PL 27, fig.36), and exhibits the characteristic features 
of the Photinte. There must always be some doubt as to identifi- 
cation of species in a case where, like the present one, a single 
character antagonizes all the others ; and, on consideration, I 
prefer to continue to include Engina among the Columbellidae 
until the weight of evidence shall be more decisively against it. 
than it is at present. Even if no mistake has been made, and 
the lingual examined was that of E. mendicaria, it by no 
means follows that the other species possess similar armature. 
So decidedly is the shell Columbelloid that to separate the genus 
on account of the dentition of a single species would be, I think, 
unphilosophical and undesirable. 

Genus NASSARIA (Link), H. <fe A. Adams. 

Animal with the tentacles connate at the base ; with the eyes 
near their distal ends; foot anteriorly produced, ending behind 
in a simple tail without filament. 



N ASS ART A. 221 

This genus partakes of the characters of several recognized 
forms. Its animal, however, differs from that of Triton in the 
approximated tentacles, with the eyes near their ends, and the 
anteriorly produced foot ; from that of Nassa in the tail not being 
bifurcated. In its shell it may be known from Phos by its 
recurved canal ; from Nassa by its circumscribed inner lip and 
elongated canal ; and from Triton by its want of irregular varices. 

The first attempt at a monograph of this interesting little genus 
was made by Mr. Arthur Adams, in the Zool. Proc. for 1853, in 
connection with the publication of the generic diagnosis. Subse- 
quently, illustrated monographs have been published by Sowerby 
in his Thesaurus Conchyliorum and by Kobelt in the Conchylien 
Cabinet of Kiister. The few species are all inhabitants of the 
tropical Asiatic coasts and contiguous seas. 

N. NIVEA, Gmel. PL 84, figs. 535-538. 

Whitish, sometimes with a rosy tinge. Length, 22 mill. 

Tranquebar ; Singapore ; Malacca. 

I consider Triton carduus, Reeve (fig. 537), a synonym of this 
species ; Kobelt being very much mistaken in referring it to the 
genus Trophon. In N. multiplicata, Sowb. (fig. 538), I am also 
unable to find distinctive characters. 

N. SOPHIA, Benoit. Manual II, t, ti<5, f. 381. 

Yellowish brown. Length, 34 mill. 

Mediterranean, Coralline zone. 

A single specimen in the collection of Benoit. I have described 
and figured this species under Coralliophila in Vol. II, p. 211 ; 
its generic position being somewhat doubtful. ATI European 
conchologist has referred it to Naxsaria nivea, and there is, of. 
course, a possibility that it is a specimen of that species intro- 
duced accidentally into the Mediterranean Sea. 

N. ACUMINATA, Reeve. PL 84', figs. 539-546, 548. 
Whitish, indistinctly fasciate with reddish brown. 

Length, 39 mill. 

China tiea ; Indian Ocean. 

With this species I unite N. bitubercularis, A. Ad. (fig. 541), 
from the Philippine Islands ; N. suturalis, A. Ad. (fig. 542), from 
Malacca; N. recurva, Sowb. (fig. 543), from Ceylon; N. vari- 



222 NASSARIA. 

cifera, A. Ad. (tig. 544), China Sea, distinguished only by having 
an occasional varix ; N. nodicostata, A. Ad. (fig. 545), habitat 
unknown; N. Sinensis, Sowb. (fig. 546), China Sea; N. turrita, 
Sowb. (fig. 548). 

N. FUSIFORMIS, Sowb. PI. 84, fig. 547. 

Light reddish, slightly fasciated. Length, 19-26 mill. 

China Sea ; Malacca . 

Kobelt remarks upon the resemblance of N. turrita, Sowb. 
(fig. 548), to N. fusiformis, and that the more slender form and 
higher spire alone distinguish them from N. nivea: I think, 
however, that the resemblance to N. acuminata is still more 
striking. 

N. NASSOIDES, Gray. PI. 84, figs. 549, 550. 

Yellowish white, ribs faintly tinged with brown. 

Length, 23 mill. 

Philippines. 

Distinguished from its congeners by the peculiar expansion of 
the outer lip. 

N. MAGNIFICA, Lischke. PL 84, figs. 551, 552. 

Reddish brown, with one or two white bands. Length, 2 in. 

Southern Japan. 

I figure, from Kobelt (fig. 552). a non-tuberculate variety of 
this fine species. 

N. EGREGIA, Reeve. PL 84, fig. 553. 

Yellowish white, ribs crossed by narrow, close, brown bands. 

Length, 1*4 in. 

Isle of Masbate, Philippines ; under stones at low water. 

Described as a Triton and excluded by Kobelt from Nassaria 
and referred to T. eximius, Reeve. It is certainly not that 
species, although possibly a Triton. The want of varices and 
form of the shell certainly indicate close relationship with 
N. nivea. 

N. CLATHRATA, Reeve. PL 84, fig. 554. 

Whitish, apex pale pink. Length, 1-25 in. 

Habitat unknown. 



CYLLENE. 223 

I know nothing of this shell. It ma}- be a distorted Nassaria, 
and is equally likely to be a Cor alii ophila. It was described as 
a Murex which it certainly is not. 



N. CUBTA, Gould (unfigured). Port Jackson (W. Stimpson). 

N. PAGODA, Reeve described as a Triton, and referred by Kobelt 
to this genus, is a true Nassa from Panama. 

N. ANGICOSTATA. Pease (= Buccinum farinosum Gould), is an 
Engina. 

N. AMBOYNENSIS, Watson. Amboyna. 

Not figured. It is said to resemble "N. acuminata, Rve., but 
is shorter, squatter, coarser, with more ribs, is deeper in suture ; 
the canal is shorter, more recurved, and more twisted." 

Genus CYLLENJE, (irav. 

The species of Cyllene inhabit the intertropical coasts of 
Africa, the Malaysian Archipelago, etc. They live with the 
Nassas along shore lines and do not appear to inhabit great 
depths. The animal which is unknown, is supposed, from the 
sutural slit which characterizes the shell, to possess a mantle 
provided with a prolongation or fold occupying this slit, some- 
what analogous perhaps, with that of Oliva. The operculum of 
C. lyrata is elongated, rhomboidal, with terminal nucleus, exter- 
nally concave, internalty convex. 

The genus has been monographed by Sowerb}^, in his u The- 
saurus." Specimens are rare in collections, and the want of 
material prevents me from proving or disproving the suspicion 
which I strongly entertain that all the forms described are mere 
variations of a single protean species. It is certain that neither 
coloring nor sculpture present reliable characters, and even 
Sowerby places together ribbed and plain specimens in his 
C. plumbea. 

C. LYRATA, Lam. PL 84, figs. 555-5(>0. 

Whitish, sometimes with interrupted bands, or a single band. 
Length, -75 in. 

W, Africa. 



224 CTLLENE. 

C. sulcaia, A. Ad. (fig. 559), is certainly identical, and C. uni- 
maculata, A. Ad. (fig. 560), is merely less sculptured, with a 
brown spot on the shoulder. 

C. LUGUBRIS, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 84, figs. 561-563. 

Yellowish, light brown or chocolate, with sometimes two or 
three revolving series of reddish brown spots. 

Length, '50--75 in. 

Sooloo Isles ; Singapore, 6 fathoms, mud; Malacca, 

6 fathoms, sand. Cuming. . W. Africa ? Japan. 

C. fuscata, A. Ad. (fig. 562), from Malacca and Singapore, 
and C. pallida, A. Ad. (fig. 563), from W. Africa ? are certainly 
the same. The variation of this type from C. lyrata, consists in 
the smaller, more numerous ribs, and is probably not a good 
distinctive character. 

C. OWENI, Gray. PI. 84, figs. 564-566. 

Yellowish brown, maculated or blotched with red-brown, 

Japan ; Senegal. 

The rather close ribs are not prominent, and are crossed by 
pretty strong revolving lines, giving a closely cancellated appear- 
ance. C. Senegalensis, Petit (fig. 566), and G. Orientalis, A. 
Ad, (fig. 565), appear to be synonymous with this form. 

C. PULCHELLA, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 84,. figs. 567-571. 

Flesh- or ash-color, sometimes banded or spotted in revolving- 
series, or blotched with reddish brown. 

Borneo ; Japan. 

Ribs and revolving striae both obsolete, except a few impressed 
revolving lines at base ; almost positively a smooth state of C. 
lyrata. I unite with this C. Grayi, Reeve (fig. 568), C.glabrata, 
A. Ad. (fig. 569), G. striata, A. Ad. (fig. 570), and G. Guillaini, 
Petit (fig. 571). 

C. CONCINNA, Soland. PI. 84, fig. 572. 

Fusiform, pale, blotched with brown, smooth. Length, *5 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 
Probably only a depauperate form of the last. 

C. PLUMBEA, Sowb. PI, 84, figs. 573, 574. 

Chocolate-brown, ribbed or smooth. 

Hab. unknown. 



APPENDIX. 225 

Unidentified Specie*. 

C. CURYSOSTOMA, Meusclien. Morch, Yoldi Cat. 
C. GIBBA, A. Ad. Japan. 

C. LACTEA, Ad. and Angus. New South Wales, Australia. 

C. RUBROLINEATA, Sowb. Lof. unknown. 

None of the above are figured. 



Appendix. 

TRITONIUJE. 

EPIDROMUS BEDNALLI, Brazier. P. 32, t. 85, lig. 576. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Brazier I am enabled to figure a 
specimen of this species. 

TRITON PHILOMELA, Watson. Nightingale I. Tristaoda Cunha. 
RANELLA FIJIENSIS, Watson. Fiji Islands. 

The first dredged at 100-150 fathoms, the last at 315 fathoms. 

No figures have been published. 

FUSIIXE. 
PERISTERNIINJ;. 

Genus MAZZALINA, Conrad. Not characterized. The type 
appears to be very similar to Lagena, Schum., if not identical 
with that genus. I figure it from the original specimen. 

M. PYRULA, Conrad. PL 85, lig. 577. Eocene, Alabama. 

LATIRUS NAGASAKIENSIS, E. A. Smith. PL 85, fig. 578. Japan. 

The large chocolate plic^are twice the width of the pale inter- 
mediate spaces. 

LATIRUS. (Fusus) CANALICULATUS, Gray. China. 

Described as a Fusus, but has oblique coluniellar plaits. It 
has never been figured, nor mentioned by the monographers, 
and I suppose that, like many of Gray's species, the type is lost. 

29 



226 , APPENDIX. 

LEUCOZONIA CINGULATA, Lam. 

On page 96 I have given Florida as a locality, on the authority 
of Mr. W. W. Calkins, who informs me that the name is a mis- 
print in his Catalogue ; L. cingulifera being the species which 
he intended to mention, as collected there. 

TURBINELLA INTERMEDIA, Koch. Habitat unknoirii. 

The figure given in Kiister is that of a very much water-worn 
shell, so that its characters cannot be certainly made out ; it 
appears to me to be very like T. filamentosa, Koch (t. 69, f. 151). 
a synonym of Latirus brevicaudatus. Reeve. 



Luigi Bellardi, in his " Molluschi dei Terreni Terziarii del 
Piemonte e della Liguria," makes the following fossil genera : 

Genus JANI A, Bellardi. Shell subfusiform ; spire elongate; 
mouth scarcely canaliculate behind ; lip marginate, nodose or 
plicate within ; columella uniplicate anteriorly and posteriorly ; 
canal short, recurved. 

1. ANGULOSA, Brocchi. PI. 85, fig. 579. 

Genus MAYERIA , Bellardi. Ovate. fusiform, spire short, but 
slightly acute ; whorls very sharply carinate in the middle ; 
columella smooth, rather straight in front, canal moderate. 

M. ACUTISSIMA, Bellardi. PL 85, tig. 583. 

Genus ANTJRA, Bellardi. Shell tuirreted, ovate vrntricosi- : 
whorls convex ; mouth orbicular or suborbicular ; lip somewhat 
arcuate, exteriorly subvaricose in the adult, interiorly margined 
and smooth; canal scarcely produced; columella slightly con- 
torted, smooth. 

A. INPLATA, Brocchi. PL 85, fig. 581. 

Genus MITRJEFUSUS, Bellardi. Elongated, mitrjeform ; 
spire very long and acute ; whorls numerous, the last scarcely 
depressed in front ; mouth narrow, long ; lip simple ; canal long, 
produced in the axis of the shell. 

M. ORDITUS, Bell, et Mich. PL 85, fig. 580. 



APPENDIX. 221 

Genus GENEA, Bellardi. Shell subfusiform, long, narrow ; 
spire long, very acute ; mouth long, narrow ; lip simple ; colu- 
mella smooth, but slightly arcuate ; canal very short, wide, 
straight. 
G. BONELLTT, Gene. PI. 85, fig. 582. 

FTJSUS. 

A monograph of this genus has been published by Mr. G. B. 
Sowerby in the " Thesaurus Conchyliorum," since the appear- 
Mnce of the pages comprising the Fusidre in the present volume. 
The " Fusus " of Mr. Sowerby is an assemblage of shells belong- 
ing to a number of genera, omitting many species and misinter- 
preting others, and (inevitable under such circumstances) 
describing as new, a number of forms which scarcely present 
sufficient claims to novelty. The figures are superb in their life- 
like delineation of the shells ; indeed, in this respect Mr. 
Sowerby is without a rival, for to great technical skill he unites 
a scientific knowledge of the subjects he delineates. I give 
below the names, localities and copies of the figures of the sup- 
posed new species, together with opinions and suggestions con- 
cerning them. 

F. PERCY ANUS, Sowb. PL 85, fig. 586. Habitat unknown. 

Appears to be a fine F. polygonmdes, Lain., a very variable 
species. 

F. SAND VTCHEN sis, Sowb. PI. 85, fig. 51)1. Sandwich Is. 

= F, spectrum, Ads. and Reeve, var. No-vse-Hollandix, Reeve. 

F. SPIRALIS, A. Adams. PI, 85, fig. 593. New Zealand. 

F. spectrum. Ads. and Reeve. 

F. DILECTUS, A. Ad. PL 85, fig. 590. Habitat unknown. 

= F. distans. Lam. (versicolor, Gmel. ?), young. 

F. L^BVIGATUS, Sowb. PL 85, fig. 588. Australia. 

= F. Australia, Quo} r (F. marmoratns, Phil.). 

F. RUDICOSTATUS, Sowb. PL 86, fig. 594. Australia. 

= F. AustraHsj Quoy (F. marmaratus, Phil.). 



228 , APPENDIX. 

F. NODICINCTUS, A. .Ad. PI. 86, fig. 595. Australia. 

= F. Australia Quoy (F. marmoratus, Phil.). 
F. BIANGULATUS, Desh. PI. 86, 'fig. 596. Habitat unknown. 
= F. polygonoides, Lam. 

F. SUBQUADRATUS, Sowb. PI. 86, fig. 597. Habitat unknown. 

Very close to F. leptorhynclms, Tapparone-Canefri. 
F. ACUTICOSTATUS, Sowb. PI. 85, fig. 584. Habitat unknown. 

Appears to = F. caelatus, Reeve. 
F. ARTICULATUS, Sowb. PL 86, fig. 602. Habitat unknown. 

= F. australis, Quoy (F. marmoratus, Phil.). 
F. ASSIMTLIS, A. Adams. PI. 86, fig. 601. Habitat unknown. 

Perhaps a variety of F. turricula, Kiener. 
F. VULPICOLOR, Sowb. PL 85. fig. 585. Falkland Is. 

F. GRAOILIFORMIS, Sowb. PL 85, fig. 592. Japan. 

F. RUBROLINEATUS, Sowb. PL 86, fig. 604. 

Agulhas Bank, So. Africa. 
Evidently an immature shell. 

F. REEVEANUS, Petit. PL 86, fig. 600. . New Zealand. 

This is not Petit 's species, which I have figured under Siphon - 
alia. PL 56, fig. 383. If the localit}' of the specimen is correct, 
it is possibly one of the southern Trophons, allied to T. Stan- 
geri, Gray. 

F. ROBUSTIOR, Sowb. PL 86, fig. 603. Gape of Good Hope. 

Is allied to F. ocelli ferus. but has a more distinct shoulder and 
tubercles. This is one of those species which combines the 
characters of more than one genus : it may be considered either 
a Fusus, Hemifusns or Siplionalia. 

F. CRENULATUS, Sowb, PL 87, fig. 623. Cape of Good Hope. 
This perhaps, is also a Siplionalia. 

F. DEPICTUS, Sowb. PL 85, fig. 589. Habitat unknown. 

S. G. Sinistralia. A quite young shell : I do not recognize it. 



APPENDIX. 229 

F. ALBINUS, A. Adams. PI. 86, fig. 599. W. Africa. 

Yery closely allied to, if not identical with, F. tistulatus. 
Reeve. 

F. FILOSUS, Schubert and Wagner. 

Sowerby remarks that F. filosus, Lam., is a Latirus ; but this 
is the same species, the plicae frequently becoming obsolete on 
the columella of the adult. I have figured it as Latirus. 

P. EXCAVATUS, Sowb. PI. 86, fig. 598. Habitat unknown. 

F..TENUISTRIATUS, Sowb. PL 86, fig. 608. Habitat unknown. 

This is not a Fusus: it may be a Trophon or Siphon alia. 
F. FUSCONODOSUS, Sowb. PI. 86, fig. 605. Habitat unknown. 
F. L^TUS, Sowb. PL 86, fig. 606. Habitat unknown. 

F. TESSELLATUS, Sowb. PL 86, fig. 607. Habitat unknown. 

Closely allied species, or three forms of one species. 
F. OAUDATTJS, Qiioy. PI. 85, fig. 581. Habitat unknown. 

This does not correspond with Quoy's species (t. 34, f. 119). 
It is probably immature, and not readily determinate. 

MELONGENA. 

M. ANGULATA. Sowb. (Fusus). Australia. 

= Melongena pallida, Brod. and Sowb., p. 109. 
Substituted for Fusus lignarius, Reeve, preoccupied in that 
genus. The shell is a Melongena, however, and is a synonym, 

besides. 

M. ANCEPS, A, Ad. (Fusus\ PL 8t, fig. 609. Australia. 

Probably a var. of M. pallida, Brod. and Sowb., p. 109. 

M. PYRULOIDES, DeKay (Fusus). N. America. 

Sowerby's figure, which he says is copied from that in the 
Nat. Hist., of New York, varies in several important particulars : 
he has evidently tried to improve it from the description. It 
was found adhering to the bottom of a vessel, and is supposed to 
have come from the South. Yery probably a depauperate M. 
corona, Gmelin, with the spines suppressed. 



230 APPENDIX. 

NEPTUNEA. 

X. TORNATA, Gould (Fusus). PI. 87, fig. 616. Mas*a,ch-u&eM#. 

This is not Gould's species ; the latter I have figured (t. 46, f. 
261). Is it possibty au extreme form of N. decemcostata, Say ? 

X. INCISA, Gould (Fusus). PL 87, fig. 611. Northern Seas. 

This also is an erroneous determination. No such shell in- 
habits our coast. The true F. incisus, Gould = Euthrio dira, 
Reeve (PI. 72, fig. 233), and is from New Zealand. 

N. T^ENIATA, Sowb. (Fusus). PI. 87, fig, 614. Japan. 

This is probably a var. of Neptunea despecta, var. arfh.ri/ira. 
X. BOREALIS, Sowb. PL 87, fig. 615. British Coaxfx. 

= N. despecta, var. saturnus, Mart. 




INDEX 

To GENERA AND SPECIES, INCLUDING SYNONYMY. 



PAGE. 

Abnormis (Fusus), Smith. Zool.Proc. 811, t. 50, f. 10, 1878.=Coralliophila. 
Accincta (Purpura), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 146. = Pisania pusio, Linn. 
Acclivis (Triton), Button. Cat. Mar. Moll N. Zeal, 1873. 

= T. olearium, Linn. 

Aciculatum (Buccinurn), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 175. = Terebra. 
Aciculatus (Fusus), DelleChiaje, iii, t. 148, f. 13. = F. rostratus, Olivi. 

Actonis (Buccinum), Phil. Mai. Blatt, xv, 228, 1868 195 

Aculeiformis (Fusus), Lam. = Pusionella. 

Acaleiformis (Fusus), Sowb. Genera, f. 2 = Turbinella lancea, Gmel. 

Aeuminata (NassariaJ, Reeve. Zool. Proc., 116, 1844 221 

Aeuminata (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., xi. 206, 1863 137 

Aeuminata (Turbinella), Wood (not Kiener). Ind. Test. Suppl., t. 5, f. 12. 

= Latirus castaneus, Reeve. 
Acuminatum (Buccinum), Brod. Zool. Jour., v, 44, t. '',, f. 1, 2. 

= B. undatum, L., Monstr. 
Acuminatum (Buccinum), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl., 2f\ 1843. 

? =Columbella 194 

Acuminatus (Latirus), Kiener. 28, t. 15, f. 2 01 

Acus (Fusus), Ads. & Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samarang. 41, t. 7, f. 3, 1848... 6;l 
Acuticostatus (Fusus) Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 35, f. 30, 1880. 

= F. ctelatus, Reeve 228 

Acutimargo (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 55, 1851 ? = Nassa. 

Acutinodosa (Corninella), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 21, 1846 206 

Adamsi (Phos.), Petit. Jour. Conch., iv, 239, 1853 216 

Adamsia, Bunker. Zool. Pro., 357, 1856 101 

Adamsii (Fusus), Kobelt. Conch.- Cab., 152. = F. ventricosus, Adams. 
Adansonii (Triton), Dunker. Moll. Guin., 26, 1853. 

= T. Tranquibaricus, Linn. 

Adelaide (Adamsia), Ad. & Ang. Zool. Proc., 421, 186U 101 

Adelaidensis (Cominella), Crosse. Jour. Conch. ,xii, 276, t. 11, f. 6, 1864. 

= C. costata, Quoy. 
Adspersum (Buccinum), Brug. Encyc. Meth. i, 265. 

= Cominella maculata, Martyn. 
Adustus (Fusus), Philippi. Abbild., ii, 21, Fusus, t. 2, f. 7. 

= Siphonalia dilatata, Quoy. 
.Egrotus (Triton). Reeve. Icon., f. 42, 1844. = T. trilineatus, Reeve. 

JEquiliratus (Cantharus), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 515, 1857 165 

jEstuosa (Siphonalia), Gould. Otia, 123,1860 137 

.Ethiops (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 134, 1848. 

= i'isania maculosa, Lam. 
.Ethiops (Pseudoliva), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Buccinum, f. 108 ; Stearns, 

Proc. A.N.S.,Philada.,:)97, 1878. = Purpura cingulata. L. vol. ii, 169. 
Afer, Conrad. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc., N. 8., iii, 332, 1858. 

=S. G. of Fusus, Lam 47, 6'J 

Afer (Fusus), Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 3558 69 



232 INDEX. 

Affine (Buccinuin) Lesson. Rev. Cuv., 237, 1842 194 

Affine (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3490. = Cantharus undosus, Linn. 
Affine (Busycon), Sowb. H. & A. Ad., Gen. i, 151 (not published). 

Affinis (Ranella), Brod. Zool. Proc., 179, 1832 ! 42, 41 

Africanus (Triton), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 312, 1854 16 

Afrum (Buccinum) Phil. Zeit. Mai., 53, 1851. = Nassa. 

Agasoma, Gabb., Pal. Calif, ii, 46, 1869 104 

Agrestis (Leucozonia), Anton. Verzeichn, 71, 1839. 

= L. subrostrata, Gray. 
Alatum (Triton), Menke. Synops.,No. 978. = Eupleura caudata. 

Alba (Meyeria), Jeffreys 73 

Alba (Nassa), Martini. Conch. Cab., iv, t. 122, f. 1122, 1123. 

.= Nassaria nivea, Gmel. 
Albellus (Lathyrus). Dunker and Metzger. Jahrb. Deutches Mai. Ge- 

sell., i, 150. t. 7, f. 4, 1874 ; Deutches Meer Comn., 257, t, 6, f. 4, and 

Cat., 1875. = Meyeria alba, Jeffreys. 
Albescens (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 170, 1840. = Nassa 

Albicans (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn, 78, 1839....; (59 

Albidus (Fusus), Philippi. Abbild., ii, 119, t. 3, f. 5 

= Trophon Geversianurn, Pallas, vol. ii 14J 

Albifasciata (Ranella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 52, 1841. == R. nana, Sowb. 

Albinus (Fusus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 222, 1855 Gif, 228 

Albinus (Fusus), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 63, f., 72, 1880. 

? = F. ustulatus, Reeve. 

Albivaricosa (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 136, 1844 38 

Albocingulatus (Triton), Desh. Moll. Reunion, 113. 

= T. tuberosis, Lam. 

Albolirata (Cominella), Tenison- Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 33, 1878, 207 
Albus (Fusus), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 75, 1851. 

= F. Spectrum, Ad. & Reeve, var. 

Albus (Latirus), Jeffreys. Thompson's Depths of the Sea, 474, figure, 
1873. = Meyeria alba. 

Alternate (Siphonalia), Phil. Abbild., Fusus, t. 4, f. 6 137 

Alveolata (Cominella), Kiener. Monog., t. 10, f. 34. 

= C. lineolata, Lam. 

Amalite (Turbinella), Kiister. Conch. Cab., 81, t. 19, f. 4, 5 89 

Ambiguus (Fusus), Phil. Icon. Fusus, i, 107, t. 1, f. 2. = Trophon, 
vol. ii, 147. 

Amboynensis (Nassaria), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv. 273, 1880 22:'. 

Ambulacrum (Eburna), Sowb. Tank. Cat, App., 22, 1825 213 

Ambustus (Fusus), Cpr. Cooper and most California writers (not of 

Gould). = F. Taylorianus, Reeve. 
Ambustus (Fusus), Gould. Bost. Proc., vi, 385, t. 14, f. 18, 1853 ; Dall. 

Cal. Proc., 1877 59 

Americanum (Triton), Orb. MolL Cuba, ii, 163, t. 23, f. 22, 1853. 

= T. olearium, Linn. 

Amictus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 62, 1844 , 22 

Amoenum (Buccinum). Phil. Zeit. Mai., 140, 1848. = Cantharus 166 

Amphissa, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 111. = Columbellidtc 201 

Amplustris (Latirus), Martyn. Univ. Conch., 1, t. 3 88 

Ampullacea (Bullia), Middsndorff. Reise, ii, 237, t. 8, f. 3, 4; t. 17, f. 

1-3, 1851 ; Beitr, Mai. Rossica, 179, 1849. = Volutharpa 198, 200 

Ampullacea (Ranella), Val. Comptes Rendus, xlvi, 761, 1858. 

?= R. argus, Gmel. 
Anceps (Fusus), A. Adams. Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 95, f. 131, 1880. 

= Melongena pallida, Brod. & Sowb., var 229 



INDEX. 



238 



Anceps (Neptunea), H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 80. 

= Melongena pallida, B. and S. 

Anceps (Ranella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., edit. Desh., ix, 550 44 

Angasi (Cominella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xii, 275, t. 11, f. 5, 1864. 

= C. costata, Quoy. 

Angasi (Triton), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i, 174, 1877 32 

Angicostata (Nassaria), Pease. Zool. Proc., 142, 1860 ; Am. Jour. Conch., 

iv, 109,1868. = Engina 223 

Anglicana (Cominella), Mart. Conch. Cab., iv, t. 126, f. 1212. 

= C. porcata, Gmel., var. 

Anglicanum (Buccinum), Fleming. Brit. Anim. = B. undatuin, Linn. 243 
Anglicum (Buccinum), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 156. 

= C. porcata, Gmel., v;ir. 

Angularis (Leucozonia), Reeve. Icon., f. 49, 1847. 
Angularis (Leucozonia), var. Riiseana, Bunker, Kobelt, 83. 

= L. cingulifera, Lam. 
Angulata (Pyrula), Lam., vii, edit., 145; Desh., ix, 517. 

= Melongena galeodes, Lam. 

Angulatus (Fusus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 117, 1839 123 

Angulatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 94, f. 130, 1880. 

= Melongena pallida, Brod. and Sowb 229 

Angulatus (Phos.), Sowb. Thes. iii, 89, t. 221, f. 7. 

= P. sentieosus, Linn. 

Angulatus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 88, 1814 30 

Angulosum (Buccinum), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 127, t. 36, f. 6, 

1839. = B. glaciale, Linn. 
Angulosum (Tritonium), March, Dunker. Novit., t. 2, f. 3, 4. 

= B. glaciale, Linn. 

Augustus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3556. ? = Turbinella lancea, Gmel. 
Augustus (Sipho), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 5 ser., vi., 287, 1880. 131 
Annesleyii (Canidia), Benson. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., vi, 258, 1860. 209 
Anomala (Buccinum), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 54, 82, 1846. = Melongena. 
Anomala (Pyrula), Reeve. Pyrula, f. 9, 12, 1847. 

= Neptunea anceps, H. and A. Adams. 
Anomalus (Triton), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 22, 1844, Voy. Sulphur, 12, t. 4, 

f. 13, 14 31 

Ansatus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3554, 1788, ? = F. distant, Lam. 

Antarctica (Euthria), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 30 150 

Antarcticum (Buccinum), Phil. Mai. Blatt., xv, 222, 1868. 

? = Columbella 195 

Antillarum (Buccinum), Dunker, = Cantharus tincta, Conrad. 
Antillarum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 139, 1848. = Nassa. 
Antillarum (Phos.), Petit. Jour. Conch., iv, 242, t. 8, f. 9, 1853. 

= P. Veraguensis, Hinds. 
Antillarum (Triton), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, 161, t. 23, f. 20, 1853. 

= T. tuberosus, Lam. 

Antiqua (Neptunea), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 222 113 

Antiquatus (Triton), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 4, f. 7, 8 28 

Antiquum (Tritonium), Middendorft' (not Linn.). Mai. Ross., 130, t. 2, 

f. 1, 2. ; t. 5, f. 1-6. == Neptunea despecta, Linn., var. fornicata, Gray. 
Antonii (Fasciolaria), Recluz. Mag. Zool., t. 92, 1844. 

= Fasciolaria coronata, Lam. 

Anura, Bellardi. Mem. Acad. Turin, xxvii, 23], 1873.... 226 

Anus (Distorsio), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1218 35 

Apertus (Fusus), Carpenter. Mazat, Cat., 504, 1857 07 

Apiotropis, Meek. Hayden's Survey, ix, 369, 1876. = Pyropsis, Conr. 



234 INDEX. 

Apollon, Montfort. Conch. Syst.,ii, 570, 1810. Argobuccinum, Klein, 
Aptyxis, Troschel. Gebiss der Schnecken, ii, 61, 1868. = Fusus, Lam. 
Aquatile (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 24, 1844. = T. pilearis, Linn. 
Aquillus, Montf. Conch. Syst., ii, 578, 1810. = Simpulum, Klein. 

Aracanensis (Euthria), Angas. Zool, Proc., 182, t. 20 f. 1, 1873 150 

Arata (Siphonalia), Gould. Otia, 123, 1860 137 

Arcticus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild., Hi, FUSUS; 119, t. 5, f. 5, 1850. 

= Sipho Kroyeri, M oiler. 
Areolata (Eburna), Lam. Anim, sans vert., x, 235. Reeve, f. 6, Yoy. 

Samarang, 32, t. 8, f. 5 212 

Areolatum (Buccinum), Tiberi. = B. Lefebrui, Marav. 

Argobuccinum, Klein. Ostrac., 44, 1753. 8. G. of Ranella, Lam 37, 42 

Argus (Ranella), Gmelin, 3547 44 

Argyrostoma (Neptunea), Lam., H. and A. Ad. Genera, i, 80 123 

Armatus (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 314. 1854 94 

Armigera (Tudicula), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 221, 1855 144 

Arthritica (Neptunea), Valenc. Compt. Rend., xlvi, 761. 

= N. despecta, L., var. fornicata. '/ 

Articulare (Triton), Menke. Synops., No. 987. 

= Cantharus variegatus, Gray. 

Articulatus (Fusus), Larn., vii, 38. = Pisania pusio, Linn. 
Articulatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 37, f. 06, 1880. 

= F. Australis, Quoy 228 

Articulatus (Phos.j, Hinds. Voy. Sulpb., 38, t. 10, f. 7, 8, 1844 218 

Aruanus (Murex), Linn. Mus. Ulric., 641. Partly = Fulgur carica. 
Aruanus (Murex), Linn., Binney. Bost. Jovir , 1, 67. 

= Fusus proboscidiferus, Lam. 
Aspa, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Recent. Moll., i, 106. 

= S. G. of Ranella, Lam 37, 42 

Asper (Melongena), Mart. Conch. Cab., ii, 78, t, 40, f. 398, 399. 

= M. galeodes, Lam. 

Aspera (Cantharus), Bunker. Mai. Blatt,, xviii, 155, 1871 161 

Asperrirna (Ranella), Dunker. Zool. Proc.,. 238, 1862. 

= R. bufonia, Gmel 39 

Assimilis (Buccinum), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 90, 1846. 

= Cantharus, d'Orbignyi, Payr. 
Assimilis (Fusus). A. Ad. Thes. Conch., Sp. 39, f 78, 1880. 

? = F. turricula, Kien., var W } i"js 

Assimilis (Tritonidea), Angas (not Reeve). Zool. Proc., 187, 1867. 

= Cantharus Australis, Reeve. 
Atractus, Agassiz, Sowb. Min. Conch., ed., Germ., 44, 63, 1840. 

= Sipho, Klein. 

Atteuuata (Volutopsis), Ball. Calif, rroc., v. 253, 1874 121 

Attenuatus (Fusus), Jeffreys. Proc. Roy. Soc., xviii, 434, 1870. Ann. 

Mag., 4 ser., xix, 326, 1877. = Sipho tortuosus, Reeve, var. 
Audouini (Fasciolaria), Jonas. Zeit. Mai. iii, 63, 1846. 

= F. trapezium, L. , var. 
Attenuatus (Latirus), Reeve. Reeve. Icon, f. 69, 1847. 

= L. infundibulurn, Gmel. 

Aurantiaca (Fasciolaria), Lam. Edit. 2, ix, 434 76 

Aurantiaca (Fasciolaria), Sowb. (not Lamarck). Gen. Shells, No. CO. 

= F. princeps, Sowb. 
Aurantium (Buccinum), Lam. Edit. Deshayes, x, 177. ? = Columbella. 

Aurantius (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn. 76,1839, 69 

Aureocinctus (Latirus), Sowb. Zool. Proc. 129, t. 24, f. 2, 1875 91 

Aureus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon, f. 17, 1847. = F. Australis. Quoy. 



INDEX. 235 

Auritula (Buccinum), Link. Morch, Yoldi Cat, 93. 

= Cantharus Coromandelinus, Lam. 

Austi-alasia; (Monoplex), Perry. Conch, t. 3, f. 3. = T. olearium, Linn. 
Australe (Buccinum), Chemn. Conch. Cab. x t. 153, f. 1463-4. 

= Cassis abbreviata, Lam. 

Australiensis, (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon. f. 56. 1847 79 

Australis (Cantharus), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 21. 1872 161 

Australis (Eburna), Sowb. Conch. 111. f. 5 213 

Australis (Fusus), Quoy. Voy. Astrol. ii. 495, t. 24, f. 9-14. 1832.. 55 
Australis (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 625. = T. nodiferus, Lam. 

Austrofusus, Kobelt/ Kiister's Conch. Cab. Neptunea. p. 127 99, 137 

Avellana (Clavella), Reeve. H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 86. 

= Cronia. Vol. ii, 180. 
Avena (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 52. 1846. = Columbella. 

Babylonia (Schliit), Syst. Verzeichn. 18, 1838. = Eburna. Lam. 
Babylonicus (Fusus), Brown. Illust. Brit. Conch., 227, t. 57, f. 17. 

= Neptunea antiqua, L. monstr. 
Baccata (Purpura), Hombr. et Jacq. Moll. Voy. Astrol. et Zelee, 87, t. 

22. f. 9, 10. = Siphonalia nodosa. Mart. 
Bacillum (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 94, 1844. = T. braeteatus. Hinds. 

Badia (Euthria), A. Adams. Proc. Linn. Soc. vii, 108. 1864 152 

Badia (Fasciolaria), Krauss. Sud. Af. Moll. 110. t, 6, f. 12, 1848. 

= F. Lugubris, Reeve. 
Badia (Neptunea), Bunker, Novit. Conch, t. 1, f. 12. 

= N. castanea, Morch. 
Baerii (Neptunea), Midd. Mai. Ross, ii, 148. t. 6. f. 7, 8, 1851. 

= Var. of Buccinum cyaneum, Brug. 
Balteatus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum. f. 59. 1846. 

= C. Cecillii, Phil. 

Balteatus (Triton), Beck. Reeve. Icon. =: T. Tranquebariuus. Larn. 
Bamffius (Fusus), Pennant. Donovan, t. 169, f. 1. 

= Trophon clathratus, Linn., vol. ii, 140. 
Barclay! (Latirus), Reeve. Icon. f. 20, 1847. 

= L. polygonus, Gmel. var. 

Barthelemyi (Triton), Angas. Xool Proc., 45, t- 2, f. 2. 1879 11 

Bassi (Triton), Angas. Zool. Proc., 45, t. 21, f. 2, 1869 11 

Baudoniana (Canidia), Mabille, et Le Mesle. Jour, de Conch. 132, t. 7, f. 

1. 1866 208 

Beaui (Phos), Fischer, Jour, de Conchyl. 2 ser. i, 358, t. 12, f. 8, 9, 1856.. 219 
Beccarii (Triton), Tapparone-Canefri. Mur. Mar. Rosso., 23 t. 19, f. 7. 

1875..... 13 

Beckii (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. t. 17, f. 34 b 1848. 

= Var. of F. Nicobaricu?, Lam. 

Beckii (Ranella), Kiener. Monog. 5. t, 4, f. 1. R. subgranosa. Beck. 
Bednalli (Triton), Brazier. Proc Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i, 6. 1876... 32, 225 

Behringii (Neptunea), Midd. Mai Ross, ii, 147, t. 3, f. 5, 6 121 

Behringii (Volutopsis), var. regularis. Dull. Proc. Cal. Acad. 1873. 

= Neptunea regularis, Dall. 
Belcheri (Buccinum), Reeve. Belcher's Voy., 394, t. 32, f. 7. 1855. 

Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 4, ser., xx, 133, figs. 1877 193 

Belcheri (Hemifusus), Hinds. H. and A. Adams. Genera i, 83. 

= Chorus Belcheri, Hinds, vol. ii, 198. 

Belcheri (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon. f. 22. 1847 79 

Belknapi (Melongena), Petit. Jour. Conch., iii, 165, t, 2, f. 5, 1852; 

Ibid., 2 ser., i, 38. = Melongena corona, Gmelin. 



236 INDEX. 

Bella (Peristernia), Reeve. Ricinula. f. 15. 1840. = P. Carolina}, Kiener. 

Bellus(Fusus), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat. No. 147. ? Metula 153 

Bengalina (Pyrula), Grateloup. Memoires, 61, t. 4, f. 5, 1840 113 

Benzoni (Sipho), Morch. Jour, de Conch , xx, 130, t. 5, f. 3, 1872 129 

Bernardianus (Fusus), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 76, 1851 68, 110 

Berniciensis (Fusus), King. Ann. Mag., 246, 1846 71 

Bezoar (Buccinum), Born. Mus. 259. = Melongena galeodes, Lam. 
Biangulatus (Fusus), Desh. Voy. Laborde, 66, t. 65, f. 13, 14. Sowb. 

Thes. Conch., sp., 32, f. 159, 1880. = F. polygonoides, Lam 22* 

Bicanalifera (Cyllene), Sowb. == Columbella. 

Bicincta (Euthria), Hutton. Jour, de Conch., 15, 1878 155 

Bicolor (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 56, 1851. =Nassa. 
Bicolor (Fusus), Say. Jour. A. N. S. v., 215, 1826. 

= Melongena, corona, Gmel. Young. 
Bicolor (Murex), Cantraine. = Cantharus leucozona, Phil. 

Bicolor (Peristernia), Kobelt. Kiister, 75, f. 18, f. 8, 9..* 84 

Biliratus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 71, 1846. 

= C. fumosus, Dillw., var. 
Billeheusti (Pisania), Petit. Jour. Conch., iv, 244, t. 8, f. 5 ; Ibid, vi, 42. 

= P. marmorata, Reeve, var. 
Billeheustii (Pisania), var. Artensis, Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., iv, 

265, 1865. = Cantharus Crosseanus, Sowb. 
Biplex Perry. Conch., 1811. = Ranella. Lain. 

Biplicatus (Phos.), Carpenter. Zool. Proc., 166, 1850 220 

Birmanicum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeii. Mai., 57, 1851. ?= Nassa. 
Biserialis (Cominella), Kiister. Buccinum, 80, t. 14, f. 12, 

= C. porcata, Gmel. 
Bispinosa (Melongena), Phil. Abbild., Pyrula, i, t. 1, f. 7, 8. 

= M. corona, Gmel. 

Bistriata (Fasciolaria), Gould & Carp. Zool. Proc., 207, 1855 97 

Bitubercularis (Hindsia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 183. 1853. 

= Nassaria acuminata, Reeve. 

Bitubercularis (Ranella), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix,648 42 

Bizonata (Canidia), Deshayes. Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Bull., x, t. 8, f. 25, 

26. = C. Jullieni, Desh. 
Blainvillei (Phos.), Deshayes. Voy. Bellanger, 428. = P. textum, Gmel. 

Blosvillei (Fusus), Deshayes. Encyc. Meth. ii, 155 61 

Bocourti (Canidia), Brot. Jour, de Conch., ser., xviii, 352, t. 12, f.C, 1876, 209 
Bolivianum (Buccinum), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite, 610, t. 41, f. 22-24, 1852, 

Cantharus 150 

Boltenianus (Triton), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 311, 1854 17 

Bonnanii (Triton), Scacchi. Cat., 12. = T. reticulatus, Blainv. 
Boreale (Buccinum), Leach. Jour, de Phys., Vol. 88, 464, 1819. 

= B. cyaneum, Brug. 
Boreale (Buccinum), Brod. & Sowb. Zool. Jour., iv, 375, 1829. 

? = B. cyaneum, Brug. 
Borealis (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 139, f. 110, 1880. 

= Neptunea despecta, var. saturnus. 
Borealis (Neptunea), Phil. Abbild. Fusus, iii, 118, t. 5, f. 2, 1850. 

= N. despecta, Linn., var. fornicata 230 

Boreofusus, Sars. Moll. Norv., 278, 1878. = Buccinofusus, Conr. 

Borneensis (Eburna), Sowb. Thes. Conch., iii, t. 291, f. 14 212 

Borneensis (Phos.), Sowb. Thes. Conch., iii, 91, t. 222, f. 22. 

= P. roseatus, Hinds. 

Boysii (Buccinum), Nuttall. Jay's Cat., 3d edit. 87 194 

Brachysphingus, Gabb. Pal. Cal., ii, 155,1869 106 



INDEX. 237 

Bracteatus (Triton), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 21, 1844, Voy. Sulphur ii, t. 4, 
f. 5, 6 20 

Branscombi (Fusus), Clark. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2, ser., iv, 4<i5, 1849. 

= Defrancia gracilis. Mont. 

Brasilianum (Buccinum), Lam. Edit. Ueshayes, x, 171. = Plunaxi-i. 
Brasilianum (Triton), Gould. Bost, Proc., iii, 142. 1849. Moll. Wilkes' 

Exped., 504, f. = T. olearium, Linn 296 

Brazieri (Fusus), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 539, t. 80, f. 16, 

1876. = Coralliophila, Vol. ii. 208 

Brazieri (Peristernia), Angas. Zool. Proc., 1 71, t. 26, f. 4, 1877 93 

Brazieri (Triton), Angas. Zool. Proc., 46, t. 2, f. 3, 1869. 

= T. nitidulus, Sowb., var. Ceylonensis. 
Brazieri (Trophon), Woods. Vol. ii, 148, 156, 22:;. 

? = Siphonalia castanea, Woods. 
Braziliana (Turbinella), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., 449, t, 77, f. 17. 

= Leucozonia cingulifera, Lam. 
Brenchleyi (Fusus), Baird. Brenchley's Voy. Curaooa, 434. t. 37, f. 1, 2, 

1873. = F. INicobarius, Lam, var. 
Breve (Buccinnm), Adams. Linn. Trans., iii. 64, t. 13, f. 3, 4. 

= Purpura lapillus, Linn , Young. 

Brevicaudus (Sipho), Desh. Encyc. Meth., ii. 159. IH:JO 132 

Brevicaudatus(Latirus), Reeve. Icon., f, 50, 1847, 92 92 

Breviculus (Fusus), Desh. Morch, J. C., 3 ser., xvii, 270, 1877. 

= Sipho brevicaudus, Desh. 
Brocchii (Murex), Monterosato, Jour, do Couch., xxii, 393, 1874. 

= Fusus craticulatus, Brochii. 

Bronni (Ranella), Michellotti. Mioc. It. Sept. 257. = R. Gigantea, Lam. 
Broti (Canidin), Deshayes. Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Bull., x, t. 8, f. 27, 2S. 

= C. Jullieni, Desh, var. 
Bruijnii (Fusus), Tapparone-Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ., Genoa, yiii, 323, 

1876 ot 

Brunneus (Sipho) Dall. Calif. Proc., Kobelt, Conch. Cab., 121, t, 40, f. 9, 

1877.... 130 

Bucephala (Melongena), Lam. Edit, Desh, ix, 508 109 

Buccinatorium, Petiver. == Triton, Montf. 

Buccinatus (Fusus), Jeffreys (non Lam.) Brit. Conch., iv, 340, t. 86, f. 4, 

= Sipho Jeffreysianus, Fischer. 
Buccinatus (Fusus), Lam. = Pusionelki. 

Huccinea (Eburna), Menke. Cat.z=Cominella m.-iculata, Mart., (polished.) 
Bucciniformis (Purpura), Kiener. 40, t, 8, f. 19. 

= Peristernia Wagneri, Anton. 

Buccinofusus. Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 264, 1867 47, 70 

Buccinopsis, Jeffreys, Brit, Conch., iv, 297 100, 195 

Buccinulum (Pisania), Martini. Conch. Cab., iv, 72^ t. 127, f. 1217. 

= P. ignea, Gmel. 

Buccinum, Linn. Edit. xii. 1196, 1767 100,167 

Buccitriton, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 20, 1865 ; 106 

Bufo, Montf. Conch Syst., ii, 574. 1810. = Ranella, Lam. 
Bufonaria, Schum. Essai, 251, 1817. = Ranella. Lam. 
Bufonia (Bursa), Bolten. Morch, Yoldi Cat., 107. 

= Ranella spinosa, Lam. 

Bufonia (Ranella), Gmelin. 3534 .-. .... 39 

Bulbaceus (Fusus), Valenc. Comptes Rend., xlvi, 761 
= Neptunea despecta, Linn., var. fornicata. 

Bulbifusus, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 17, 1865 102 

Bulbosus (Fusus), Val. Voy. Venus, t. 5, f. 2. 

= Neptunea despecta, L. var. fornicata. 



238 INDEX. 

Bulliopsis, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., ii, 65, t. 8, f. 1, I860. 

? = Melanopsis. 

Bursa, Bolten. Mus. 1798. =- Ranellla, Lam. 
Busycon. Bolt. Mus. Morch, Yoldi Cat. i, 104, 1 852 Fulgur, Montfort. 

Buxea (Siphonalia), Reeve. Fusus, f. 18, 1847 '. 138 

Buxeus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc., 194, 1832 ? == Cantharus 166 

Cabestana Bolt. Mus., 1798. == Simpulum, Klein 9, 15 

Cselata (Ranella), Brod., Zool. Proc., 179, 1832 41 

Ccelatus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 35, 1847 01 

Calcar (Murex), Scacchi. Notizie 41, t. 1, f. 16. = Fusus vaginatus, Jan. 
Calcaratus (Murex), Dillv. Desc. Cat. ii, 710. 

= Melongena galeodes, Lam. 
Calcarius (Murex), Dunker. Mai. Blatt, vi, 230, 1860. Moll. Japan, 

5 t, 1 f. 2. == Siphonalia... .> 137 

Caledonica (Peristernia) Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 367, t. 10, f. 6 ; 

1851. = P. ustulata, Reeve. 

Californica (Leucozonia), A. Ad. H. and A. Adams' Generas, i, 153 Si 

Calif ornica (Ranella), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 12, t. 2, f. 4, 5. 1844 40 

Callomphala, Ad. and Ang. Z. P. 35, 1864. = Trochidae. 

Callorhinus (Volutopsis) Ball. Calif. Proc.. 1877 120 

Callosa (Turbinella), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 211, 1842 

= Cuma tectum, Wood, vol. ii, p. 201. 

Cambojiensis (Canidia) Reeve, Icon. Melania, f. 461, 1861 209 

Canaliculata (Buccinopsi), Ball. Cal. Prod., v, 252, 1874 197 

Canaliculata (Eburna), Schum. Essai, 224. Sowb. Thes. iii, 69, t. 215, 

f. 2, 8. == E. spirata, Lam. 
Canaliculata (Fasciolaria), Val. Recueil d'Observations, 286. 

= F. tulipa, Linn. 

Canaliculatus (Fulgur), Linn., Syst. Nat. edit, xii, 1222 142 

Canaliculatus (Fusus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 116 225 

Canaliferus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 684. = T. caudatus, Gmel. 
Canariense (Bucc.), Orb. Moll. Canaries, 90, t. 6, f. 35-37. = Columbella. 

Cancellare (Phos), Menke. Phil. Zeit. Mai. 59, 1851 220 

Cancellaria (Cantharus), Conrad. Proc. Phil. Acad., 25, t. 1, f. 12, 1846.. 162 
Cancellaroides (Melongena), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Fusus, 1. 15, f. 59, 1848.. 110 

Cancellata (Priene), Lam. Anim. s. Vert, ix, 638 84 

Cancellatus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. f. 62. = Triton cancellatum, Lam. 
Cancellatus (Phos), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 153, 1850. 

== Phos Adamsi, Petit. 
Cancellatus (Phos), Quoy. Voy. Astrol. ii, 449, t. 32, f. 80, 31. 

= P. textum, Gmel. 

Cancellatus (Triton), Gray. Beechey's Voy. 110, 1889 3;'. 

Cancellatus (Triton), Lam. Hist, edit, Desh. ix, 638 34 

Cancellinus (Distorsio), Roissy. Buff. Moll. 56 : 35 

Cancellinus (Fusus), Phil. Archiv fur Naturg., i, 67, 1845. 

= Ocinebra lurida, var. aspera, vol. ii, p. 131. 
Cancellinus (Fusus), Phil. Archiv Nat, 67, 1845. Abbild. ii, 117, t. 8, 

f. 2. = Urosalpinx, vol. ii, p. 154. 
Candei (Cancellaria), d'Orbigny. Moll. Cuba, ii, 129, t, 21, f. 23, 24. 

= Phos Guadeloupensis, Petit. 
Candelabrum (Latirus), Reeve. Icon. f. 9, 1847. 

= L. polygonus, Gmel. var. 
Candelabrum (Pyrula), Lam. An. sans Vert., viii, 1822. 

= Fulgur carica, Gmel., var. 
Candidus (Fusus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 8556. = F. longissimus, Grnelin. 



INDEX. 239 

Candidas (Fusus), Phil. Abbild. iii, 117, t, 5, f. 7. = Netrum (Pusionella). 
Candidissiinum (Buccinum), C. B. Adams. Bos. Proc. ii, 2, 1845. = Nassa. 

Candisata (Ranella), Lamarck. An. sans Vert., edit. Desh. ix, 542 41 

Canidia, H, Adams. Zool. Proc. 388, 1801 101, 208 

Capense (Buccinum), Bunker. Zeit. Mai. 110, 1846. = Nassa. 

Capensis (Fusus), Dunker. Phil. Abbild. i, 110, t. 1, f. 7. = Cantharus.. 156 

Cantharulus, Meek. Hayden's survey, ix, 878, t. 32, f. 5, 1870. 

= S. G. of Cantharus 104 

Cantharus. Bolteri, Mus. 1798 100, 153 

Cantrainei (Triton), Petit, Jour, de Conch. 256, t. 8, f. 10, 1853. 

= Murex alveatus, Kiener. 

Carduus (Triton), Reeve. Zool. Proc. 121, 1844. = Nassaria nivea, Grael. 
Caribbrcum (Triton), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba ii, 162. 

= Cantharus Coromandelianus, Lam. 

Carica (Fulgur), Gmel. Syst. Nat, 3545 140 

Carinatum (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat, 3493. = B. glaciale, L. 
Carinatum (Buccinum), Turton. Conch. Diet, 13. 

= B. undatum, Linn., Monst. 

Carinatum (Haustellum), Schum. Nouv. Syst, 213. = Tudicla spirillus, L. 
Carinatum (Tritonium), Dunker. Novit. Conch. 1, t, 2, f. 3, 4. 

= Bucc. glaciale, L. 
Carinatus (Fusus), Pennant, Brit, Zool. iv, t, 77, f. 96. 

= Neptunea despecta, Linn., var. 
Carinatus (Murex), Bivona. Nuov. gen. 27, t, 2, f. 12. 

= Fusus vaginatus, Jan. 

Cariniferus (Cantharus), Kiister, 63, t, 12, f. 9, 10 15~> 

Cariniferus (Latirus), Lam. Hist, vii, 108 88 

Carnaria (Pyrula), Encyc. Meth. = Melogena pugilina, Born. 

Carolina? (Turbinella), Kiener. Monog. 47, t. 18, f. 1 82 

Casani (Buccinum), Maravigna, Rev. Cuv. 325, 1840 195 

Cassidariu'formis (Siphonalia), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 11, 1846 135 

Cassidulue, H. and A. Adams. Genera i, 81. = Melongena, Schum. 

Cassidulus, Humph. Mus. Calonn, 1797. = Pyrula partim. 

Castanea (Neptunea), Munch. Diag Nouv. Moll. Amer. Vidensk, Meddel 

341, 1857. = Volutopsis Behringii, Midd. 

Castanea (Siphonalia), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 139, 1876 137 

Castaneum (Buccinum), Dall. Calif. Proc., 1877 187 

Castaneus (Latirus), Reeve Icon., f. 26, 1847 91 

Oataracta (Cominella), Chemn. Conch. Cab. x, 188, t. 152, f. 1455. 

= C. testudinea, Mart. 

Catenatum (Buccinum), Powis. Zool. Proc. 94, 1835. ? = Columbella... 194 
Catilini (Fusus), Petit. = Pusionella. 

Caudata (Ranella), Say. = Eupleura caudata, Say. Vol. ii, p. 157. 
Caudatum (Bucc.), Wood. Index Test,, t, 22, f. 8. 

= Triton cingulatus, Lam. 
Caudatum, (Triton), Kiener. Monog., t, 9, fig. 2. = T. ficoides, Reeve. 

Caudatus (Triton), Gmel. Syst, Nat. 3535 21 

Caudatus (Fusus), Quoy. Voy. Astrol. ii, 508, t. 34, f. 20, 21. 

= F. Australis, Quoy. 

Caudatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp, 13o, f. 167, 1880 229 

(Javitensis (Ranella), Beck. = R. orumena, Lam. 

Cayohuesonicus (Latirus), Sowb. Zool. Proc. 796, 1878 92 

Cecillii (Buccinum). Phil. Zeit. Mai. 27, 1848. = Nassa. 

Cecilia (Turbinella), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 166, 1844. = Cantharus 157 

Ceratus (Latirus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 114 88 

Ceylonensis (Triton), Sowb. Zool. Proo. 71, 1883. 

= T. nitidulus, Sowb. var. 



240 INDEX. 

Charonia, Gistel. Naturg. 170, 1848. = Triton, Montf. 
Chascax, Watson. Zool. Proc. 362, 1878. = Fasciolaria Lain. 
Chemnitzii (Ranella), Kuster. Conch. Cab. 148, t. 39, f. 3, 4. 

= R. bitubercularis, Lam. 

Chemnitzii (Triton), Reeve. Icon, f. 37- = T. Wiegmanni, Anton. 
(Chemnitzii (Triton), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 110, 1830. 

= T. Tranquebaricus, Lam. 

Cheyennensis (Cryptorhytis), Meek 50 

Chiloense (Buccinum). Phil. Zeitsch. fiirdieGes. Naturwiss. 124, 1858.. 195 
Chinense (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 57, 1851. = Nassa. 

Chlanidota, Martens. Sitzb. Berl., 23, 1878 101, 201 

Chlorostoma (Peristernia), Sowb. Tank., Cat. App., 15, 1825 S3 

Chlorostomus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 636. ..x 13 

Chlorotica (Euthria), Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 22; 1878 152 

Chonoticus (Fusus). Phil. Abhandl. Nat. Gesell. Halle, 21, 1857 68 

Chrysostoma (Cyllene), Meuschen, Morch. Yoldi Cat,, 80. 225 

Chrysostoma (Eburna). Sowb. Thes. Suppl., t. 291, f. 15, 16 212 

Chrysodomus, Swainson. Malacol., 90, 308, 1840. ' Neptunea, Bolten. 

Ciliatum (Buccinum), Fab. Faun. Grsenl., 401, 1780 191 

Ciliatum (Bucc.), Part. Gould. Invert. Mass., 307, 1841. Dawson, Canad. 

Nat., ii, 415, t. 7, f. 5, 1857. = B. Tottenii, Stimpson. 
Ciliatum (Bucc.), Part, Gould. Invert, Mass., 307, f. 209, 1841. 

= B. Humphreysianum, Bennett, 
Cinctum (Buccinum), Quoy. Astrol., ii, 413, t, 30, f. 5 7. 

= Cantharus undosus, Linn. 

Cinerea (Turbinella), Reeve. Icon., f. 68, 1847. = Fusus cinereus, Rve. 
Cinereum (Buccinum), Born. Test, Mus. Cis. . Terebra. 

Cinereus (Fusus), Reeve. Conch. Icon GO 

Cinei-eus (Fusus), Say. = Urosalpinx cinereus, Vol. ii, p. 152. 

Cingilla (Pisania), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 101, 1847 149 

Cingulata (Pisania), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 75, 184G 148 

Cingulata (Leucozonia), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 118 96, 225 

Cingulatus (Triton), Lam. Edit, Desh., ix, 643 '. 15 

Cingulifera (Turbinella), Lam. Hist, vii, 108...: 94 

Cinis (Pisania), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 84, 184G 147 

Cinnamomea (Siphonalia), Reeve. Icon., f. 16, 1847 138 

Circulus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn., 77, 1839 69 

Citrina (Cominella), Reeve. Icon. Bucc,, f. 70. 1846 206 

Citrina (Pyrula), Lam. Edit, Desh.,ix, 518. 

= Melongena paradisiaca, Reeve. 

Clandestinus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 639 15 

Clarkei (Siphonalia), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 138, 1875 137 

Clathrata (Metula), Adams and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 32, t, 11, f. 12, 

1848 152 

Clathrata (Peristernia), Kiister. Monog. Turbin., 41. t, 9, f. 5. 

? = P. chlorostoma, Sowb. 
Clathrata (Ranella), Gray. Beechey's Voy. Blossom, 100, 1839. 

= Eupleura, vol. ii, p. 158. 

Clathrata (Turbinella), Valenc. Kleiner, 46, t, IS, f. 4 

Clathratum (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 637 .T. cancellinus, Roissy. 

Clathratus, (Murex), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 185. = Nassaria 222 

Clathratus (Triton), Sowb. (not Lam.) Zool. Proc., 71, 1833 26 

Clausicaudatus (Fusus), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 13, t. i, f. 10, 11, 1844... 64 
Clava (Fasciolaria), Jonas. Zool. Proc., 35, 1846. = F. aurantiaca, Lam. 
Clavator (Triton), Sowb. Genera. = T. exilis, Reeve. 
Clavella, Swainson. Elem., 1835 47, 70 



INDEX. 241 

Clavella (Pyrula), Reeve. Icon., f. 10. = Fulgur striatus, Gray. 
Olavellithes, Swains. Mai. 77, 304, 1840. = Clavella, Swains. 

Clavifusus, Conrad. Eocene Check List, Nos. 615, 612 104 

Clavula (Buccinum), Mencke. Jay, Cat,, 3d edit., 87 194 

Clea, A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 119, 1855 101, 207 

Closter (Fusus), Phil. Abbild., iii, 115, t. 5, f. 1, 1850. 

= F. distans, Lam., var. 

Closteriscus, Meek. Hayden's Survey, ix, Pal. 306, t, 19, f. 10, 1876.... 103 
Coarctata (Pyrula), Sowb. Tank. Cat., App., 17. Petit, Jour. Conch., iii, 

155, t. 753. = Fulgur perversus. Linn. 
Cochlidium, Gray. Fig. Moll. An., iv, 68, 1850. = Hemifusus, Swains. 

Cochlidium (Melongena), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit. 11, 1221 110 

Columbarium (Murex), Ohemn. Conch, Cab., x, 284, 1. 169, f. 1637, 1638. 

= Peristernia spinosa, Martyn. 

Colosseus (Hemifusus), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 442 Ill 

Colubraria, Schum. Nov. Gen., 251, 1817. = Epidromus, Klein. 

Colubrinum (Triton), Grateloup. Atlas, t. 29, f. 21. = T. nodiferus, Lam. 

Colus, Bolton. Mus. 1798. = Fasciolaria, Lam. 

Col us, Humphreys. Mus. Colon., 1797. = Fusus, Lam. 

Colus (Fusus). Encyc. Meth., t. 424, f. 4. = F. tuberculatus, Lam. 

Colus (Fusus), Linn. Syst. Nat,, edit, xii, 3543, 1767 52 

(Mus (Fusus), Renieri. Taf. Alf. = Fusus rostratus, Olivi. 
Colus (Murex), Wood. Index Test. = Fusus Nicobaricus, Lam. 

Colus (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xi, 205, 1863 137 

Cominella, Gray. Guide Brit, Mus., 15, 1857 101, 201 

Commoda (Macron), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 430, 1863 214 

Coinmoda (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xi, 203, 1863 137 

(oiiiniutiitum (Triton), Dunker. Kiister, 224. 

= T. Tritonis, Linn., var. nobile. 

Comptus (Triton), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 312. 1854 33 

Comptus (Triton), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 598, t, 72, f. 2, 1874. 

= T. obscurus, Reeve. 

Concentricus (Latirus), Reeve. Icon., f. 2, 1847. L. modestus, Anton. 
Concentricus (Tritonidia), Reeve. Bucc. f. 72, 1846. 

= Ocinebra contracta, Reeve, vol. ii, p. 131. 

Concinnna (Cyllene), Soland, Adams. Zool. Proc., 204, 1850 224 

Concinna (Rauella), Dunker. Zool. Proc., 239, 1862. Novit. Conch, 55, 

t. 18, f. 3, 3. = R. pusilla, Brod., var. 
Concinna (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xi, 204, 1863. 

? = S. signum, Reeve. 
Concinnum (Buccinum), C. B. Adams. Bost. Proc., ii, 2, 1845. 

= Columbella. 

Ooncinnus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 87, 1844 1M* 

Conditus (Murex), Gmelin. = Ranella candisata. Lam. 

Conicus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn., 77, 1839 69 

Conoidalis (Buccinum), Deshayes. Voy. Belanger, 433, t. 3, f. 6, 7. 

= Nassa. 
Conoideum (Buccinum), Sars. Moll. Norv., 258, t. 24, f. 7, 1878. 

= B. undahim, L. 
Conspersa (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist,, ii, 204, 1863. 

= S. Cassidarioeformis, Reeve. 

Conspersum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 138, 1848.= Nassa. 
Constricta (Distorsio), Brod. Zool. Proc., 5, 1833. 

= D. cancellinus, Roissy. 
Constrictus (Fusus), Koch. Phil. Abbild, ii, 21, t, 2, f. 5. 

= Coralliophila, vol., ii, p. 208. 

31 



242 



INDEX. 



ContabulatUm (Triton), Anton. Verzeichn., 82, 1880 '. 14 

Contabulatus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn., 77, 1889 69 

Contemptus (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc.,315, 1854 92 

Contraction (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. f. 53, 1346. 

= Ocinebra, vol., ii, p. 131. 

Contraria (Neptuna), Linn. Mant. No. 554 122 

Convolutus (Triton), Brod. Zool. Proc., 7, 1833.. 25 

Cordieria Rouault, = Borsonia, in Pleurotomidre 50 

Coreanicus (Fusus), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 204, t. 20, f.36, 1879. 

= Ptychatractus > 72 

Coriacea (Ranella), Reeve. Zool., 137. = T. scrobteulator, Linn. 

Cornea (Euthria), Linn. Syst. Nat, Edit., xii, 1224 149 

Corneus (Fusus), Linn. Syst. Nat. = Sipho Islandicus and S. gracilis. 
Corneus (Fusus), Say. Am. Conch., t. 29. = Sipho gracilis, Da Costa. 

Cornulina Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch, i, 21, 1865 102 

Coromandelianus (Cantharus), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 169 163 

Coronata (Fasciolaria), Lam. Edit, 2, ix, 435 77 

Corona (Melongena), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3552 ." 108 

Coronatus (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix., 452. = Melongena morio, Linn. 
Corrugata (Ranella), Perry. Conch., t. 5, f. 1, 1811, Morch. Mai. Blatt. 

xxiv, 24. .= R. affinis, Brod. 

Corrugata (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xi., 204. 1863 137 

Corrugatum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., f. 110, 1847. == Amphissa. 
Corrugatus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 84, 5848. = Trophon, vol. ii, p 145. 
Corruscans (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 58, 1851. ? = Nassa. 
Corticatus (Fusus), Hutton. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal., 9, 1873. 

= Urosalpinx Paivse, Crosse, vol., ii, p. 155. 

Corrugatus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh.. ix., 028 

Costata (Cominella), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 417, t. 30, f. 17, 20 ; ... 

Costatum (Buccinum), Meusch. Mus. Qevers., 605, 1787. 

= Triton Poulsenii, Morch. 

Costatus (Triton) Born. Mus. 297. = T. olearium, Linn. 
Costulatum (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn., 92, 1839. = Nassa. 
Couderti (Streptosiphon), Petit. Jour, de Conch., 70, t, 2, f. 8, 1853. 

= S. Cumingii, Reeve. 

Couei (Fusus), Petit. Jour, de Conchyl.. iv., 249, t. 8, f. 1, 1853 63 

Coxi (Triton), Brazier. Zool. Proc., 22 t. 4, f. 9, 1872 28 

Crassa (Cominella), Adams. Morch, Yoldi Cat,, 94. == C. povcata, Gmel. 
Crassa (Lagena), Schum. Nouv. Syst. = Leucozonia smaragdula, Linn. 

Crassa (Ranella), Dill wyli. Cat. ii, 692 38 

Crassicauda (Pyrula), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 98, 1848. 

=Hemifusus tuba, Gmel. 

Crassum (Buccinum), Nyst. (fossil). ?= Buccinopsis Dalei, Sowb. 
Crassum (Triton), Grateloup. Atlas., t. 29, f. 20. = L. nodiferus, Lam. 

Crassus (Phos), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 37, 1. 10, f, 1,2, 1844 218, 

Craticulata (Turbinella), Costa. Cat. Syst. (excl. syn.) 91. 

= Cantharus d'Orbignyi, Payr. 
Craticulata (Turbinella)., Schubert. Kiener. Iconog., t. 9. f. '2. 

= T. crenulata, Kiener. 
Craticulata (Turbinella), var. Wagner. Conch., 103, t. 227, f. 4023. 

4024. = Peristernia Wagneri. Anton. 
Craticulatus (Fusus), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. Subapp., 406, t. 7, f. 14.... tiO 

Craticulatus (Latirus), Linn. Syst. Nat Edit, xii, 1224 93 

Crebricostata (Neptunea), Dall. Proc. Cal. Acad., Kobelt. Conch. Cab., 

116, t. 39, f. 1, 1377 118 

Crebricostatus (Fusus), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., 2d edit., ix, 458 68 



INDEX. 243 

Crebriliratus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 20, 1847. = F. Australis, Quoy. 

Crebristriatus (Triton), Carpenter. Zool. Proc. 175, 1856 30 

(Yenilabrum (Pisania), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 138, 1854. E. A. Smith, 

Jour. Linn. Soc. xii, 541, 1876. 

= P. fasciculata, Reeve, var. Montrouzieri, Crosse. 
Crenulata (Peristernia), Kiener. (non Reeve). Icon. 43, t. 9, f. "2. 

== P. Chlorostoma, Sowb. 
Crenulata (Turbinella), Reeve (not Kiener). Icon. f. 24, 1847. 

=Peristernia Wagneri, Anton. 

Crenulatus (Fusus), So.wb. Thes. Conch., sp., 87, f. 17, 1880 228 

Cretaceum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., f. 112, 1847; Canad. Nat. viii, 417, 

Packard, Bost. Memoirs, i, 288. = Sipho Kroyeri, Moller. 
Cretaceus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 48, 1847. = Trophon, vol. ii, p. 149. 
Cribrarium (Buccinum), Lam. Anim. sans Vert, vii, 274. = Columbella. 
Crispus (Fusus), Forbes. JEg. Invert, 139. ? = F. pulchellus. Phil. 

Crispus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 68, 1844 24 

(Yocata (Fasciolaria), Phil. Zeit. Mai., v, 25, 1848 76 

Crocatus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 97, 1846 160 

Crocea (Cominella), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 97, 1853 207 

Crosseanus (Cantharus), Sowerby. Jour, de Conchyl., 3 ser., v, 160, 

1865 161, 166 

Cruentatar( Ran ella), Sowerby. Zool. Proc., 51, 1841 ; Conch. 111., f. 5, 5*. 39 
Crumena (Ranella), Kiener, (not Lam.). Monog. 3, t. 2, f. 1, 

= R. foliata, Brod. 

Crumena (Ranella), Lamarck. An. sans Vert., edit. Desh., ix, 545 37 

Crumenoides (Ranella), Blainv. = R. crumena, Lam. 
Cryptorhytis, Meek. Hayden's Survey, ix, 366, 1876. 

= S. G. of Fasciolaria, Lam 50 

Cubaniana (Ran ella), d' Orb. Moll. Cuba, 105, 368, t. 23, f. 24, 1853. 

Morch, Mai. Blatt, xxiv, 24, 1877. == R. affinis, Brod. 
Cucurbitula (Purpura), Duclos. Ann. Sc. Nat , t. 2, f. 12, 1832. 

= Cominella lagenaria, Lam. 

Cumia, Bivona. Nov. Gen., 1838 ,,. 25 

Cumingiana (Ranella), Dunker. Zool. Proc., 238, 1862; Novit. Conch. 

59, t. 19, f. 78. = R. affinis, Brod. 
Cuiningianum (Buccinum), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., Hi, 1846. 

= Cantharus Cecillei, Philippi. 

Cumingii (Metula), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 173, t. 20, f. 1, 2, 1853 153. 

Cumingii (Neptunea) Crosse. Jour, de Conch., x, 51, t, 5, f. 12, 1802. 

= N. despecta, Linn., var. fornicata. 
Cumingii (Phos), Reeve. Elem. Conch., t. 3, f. 16, 1860. 

= P. gaudens, Hinds. 

Cumingii (Streptosiphon), Jonas. Reeve, Icon. Fusus, f. 67, 1818... 144 

Cumingii (Triton), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 205, t. 26, f. 5, 1861. 

= T. clathratus, Sowb. 

Curta (Nassaria), Gould. Otia, 125, I860.... 523 

Curta (Neptunea), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, 336, 1867. 

= Sipho Stimpsoni, Morch. 

Cuspidata (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 139, 1844 : 43 

Cutaceum (Triton), Linn. Syst. Nat, edit. 12, 1217 15 

Cyaneum (Buccinum), Brug. Encyc. Meth., i, 266, 1792 188 

Cyaneum (Bucciuum), Hancock. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xviii, o28, 1846 

=; B. ciliatum, Fabr. 
Cyanostoma (Phos), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 155, 1850. Smith, Zool. 

Proc., 811, 1875. P. textum, Gmel. 
Cygneus (Fusus), Phil, Zeit, Mai., viii, 77, 1851 68 



244 INDEX. 

Cylindricus (Triton), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 94, t. 11, f. 9, 1868... 29 

Cyllene, Gray Griffith's Cuvier, t. 41, 1833 102, 223 

Cyllenoides (Phos), A. Adams. Zool. Proc,, 155, 1850 216 

Cymatium, Bolt. Mus., 1798. = S. G. of Triton, Montf. 9, 18 

Cymatium, Link, Ros. Samml., iii, 119. = Plicatella, Swains. 

Cynocephalus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 633 19 

Cyrtulus, Hinds. Ann. Nat. Hist., xi, 250, 1843, = Clavella, Swains. 

Dakotensis (Serrifusus), M. & H 49 

Dalei (Buccinopsis), Sowb. Min. Conch., 139, t. 486,.f. 1, 2 195 

Dalli (Sipho) Friele. Norw. North Sea Exped., t.*2, f. 18, 19 132 

Danielseni (Sipho), Friele. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., vi, 282,1879 132 

Decapitatus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 85, 1844 29 

Decemcostata (Neptunea), Say. .Tour. Phila. Acad., v, 214, 1826 118 

Decemcostatum (Tritonium), Midd. (non Say). Mai. Ross., ii, 138. 

= Neptunea lirata, Mart. 
Decipiens (Distorsio), Ree\re. Icon., f. 102, 1844. 

= D. cancellinus, Roissy. 
Decollatus (Murex), Pennant (non Linn.), Brit. Zool., iv, 124, t. 79. 

= fry of Neptunea antiqua, Linn. 

Decollatus (Triton), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 72, 1833 28 

Decolor (Fusus), Phil. Archiv fiir Naturg. i, 63, 184-",. 

= Trophon Geversianus, Pallas, vol, ii, 144 
Decoratus (Peristernia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 316., 1854. E. A. Smith, 

Zool. Proc., 812, 1878. = P. chlorostoma, Sowb. 
Decussata (Cumia), Calcara, 1838, Phila. = Triton reticulatus, Blainv. 

Deformis (Neptunea), Reeve. Fusus, f. 45, 1847 122 

Delalandi (Cominella), Kiener. Monog., t. r>, f. 14 203 

Depictus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 82, f. 80, 1880 228 

Deshayesiana (Volutharpa), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., v, 86, t. 3, f. 89,, 

1856, J, C., 112, 1875. = V. ampullacea, Midd. 
Deshayesii (Peristernia), Kobelt, Kiister's Conch. Cab., 109, t, 24, f. 4, 5. 

=P. nassatula, Lam. 
Desmoulinsi (Pisania), Montrouzier. Jour. de. Conch., 3 ser., iv, 268, 

t, 10, f. 3, 1864. = Cantharus fumosus, Dillw., var. 
Despectus (Murex), Montagu, Pennant, etc. = Neptunea antiqua, Linn. 

Despecta (Neptunea), Linn. Syst. Nat,, edit, xii, 1222 116 

Despecta (Peristernia"), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 315, 1854 85 

Digitalis (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 86, 1844 24 

Dilatata (Siphonalia), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 498, t. 34, f. 15-17 135 

Dilectus (Fusus), A. Ad. Zool, Proc., 221, 1855 08, 227 

Dira (Euthria), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 92, 1840. Dall., Calif. Fusus, 

Proc. Cal. Acad., 1877 151 

Discolor (Pisania), Kiener. Buccinum, t, 11, f. 39. =P. glirina, Bl. 
Distans (Fasciolaria), Lam. An sans Vert, Edit, Desh., ix, 433. 

= F. tulipa, L. 

Distans (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 445 57 

Distinctus (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 315, 1856 94 

Distorsio, Bolt. Mus., 1798 5,3-") 

Distorta, Perry. Conch., 1311. = Distorsio Bolt. 

Distortrix Link, Besch. Rostock, iii, 122, 1807. == Distorsio, Bolten. 

Distortum (Triton), Encycl., t. 415, f. 3. = T. lotorium, Linn. 

Distortus (Cantharus), Gray. Wood's Index Suppl., t. 45, f. 7 105 

Distortus (Triton). Schubert. Wagn. Conch., Cab. 138, t, 231, f. 4074, 

4075 20 

Doliarius (Triton), Linn. Edit, xii, 1223 16 



INDEX. 245 

Dominovse (Neptunea), Valenc. Comptes Rendus i, 761, 1858. Kobelt, 

Conch. Cab. 95 1 

Donovan! (Buccinum), Gray. Zool. Beeehey's Voy., 128, 1839 187 

Donovani (Buccinum), Reeve (non Gray). Icon. f. 2 

= T. Terrae-Novoe, Beck. 

D'Orbignyi (Cantharus), Payr. Cat. Moll. Corse, 150, t. 8, f. 4-6 158 

Dorsuosus (Triton), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser. v, 420 18 

Dubia (Cominella), Krauss. Kobelt Cat. No. 3. = Purpura scobina, Quoy. 
Dubia (Leucozonia), Petit. Jour, de Conch, iv, 75, t. 2, f. 9, 10, 1853. 

Dumale (Phos.), Phil. .Zeit. Mai. 60, 1851 220 

Dunkeri (Cominella), Kiister. 86, t, 15, f. 9-11 208 

Dunkeri (Fusus), Jonas. Malak. Beitr. 129, 1844. Phil. Abbild. ii, 191, 

t, 4, f. 4..... 60 

Dunkeri (Triton), Lischke. Mai. Blatt, xv, 219, 1868. Jap. Moll, i, 

49, t. :-), f. 1, 2 19 

Uuodecimus (Fusus), Gray Dieffenbach's N. Zeal, ii, 230. 

= Trophon, vol. ii, p. 147. 
Dupetit-Thouarsi (Fusus) Kiener. Monog. 15, t. 11. 

= F. distans, Lam., var. 
Duplicatus (Murex), Donovan. Brit, Shells, iv, t, 119. 

= Neptunea despecta, Linn., var. fornicata. 

Eatoni (Buccinopsis), Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, xvi, 68, 1875. 

(Neobuccinum), Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc., vol. 168, p, 169, t. 9, f. 1. 197 
Ebur (Fusus), var. togatus, Petit, Cat. Moll. Eur. 275. 

<= Sipho togatus, Morch. 
Ebur (Neptunea), Kobelt (non Morch). Jahrb. Mai. Ges. Hi, 74, t. 3, 

f. 1, 2. 1877. = Sipho propinquus, Alder, var. 
Kbur (Neptunea), Morch. Jour. Conch, xvii, 398", 1869. Kobelt, 118, 

t, .38, f. 6. = Sipho Sarsii, Jeffreys. 

Eburna, Lam. Syst. An. 78, 1801 101, 209 

Eburnea (Buccinopsis), Sars. Reise i Lofoten og Finm. 73, 1849. 

= var. of Buccinopsis Dalei, Sowb. 
Eburnea (Cominella), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 93, 1846. = C. costata, Quoy. 

Eburneus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 69, 1844 24 

Echinata (Gyrineuni), Link. Mus. Rost. iii, 123. 

= Ranella spinosa, Lam. 
Ecliinatus (Fusus), Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, 179. 

= Trophon muricatus, Mont., vol. ii, p. 140. 

Echinatus (Fusus), Kiener. Monog. 19, t. 2, f. 2. = F. vaginatus, Jan. 
Ectracheliza. Nov. Gen. Buccinidge, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad. N. S. ii, 

271, t. 9, f. 2, 1872 105 

Effusum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. f. 65, 1846 183 

Egregia (Nassaria), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Triton, t. 18, f. 78, 1844 222 

Elata (Pisania), P. P. Carpenter. Ann, Mag. N. Hist,. 3d Ser., xiv, 49, 

1864. = Cantharus 15 ( . 

Elegans (Cantharus), Gray. Griffith's Cuvier, t. 25, f. 2, 1834 - 164 

Elegans (Fusus), Gray. Ann. Nat, Hist,, i, 27, 1838. = Turbinella 97 

Elegans (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. f. 87, 1848. = F. Maroccensis, Gmel. 

Elegans (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 315, 1854 94 

Elegans (Ranella), Beck, Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 17. 

= R. subgranosa, Sowb., var. 
Elegans (Ranella), Kiener (not Beck). Monog. 4, t. 3, f. 1. 

= R. crumena, Lam. 
Elegans (Sycotypus), Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, 185. Proc. Philad. 

Acad. 583, 1862. = Fulgur pyrum, Dillw. 



INDEX. 

Elegans (Terebrispira), Conrad '... ">0 

Elegans (Triton), Thompson. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, xv, 317, t. 19, f. 1. 

= Engina farinosa, Gld. 
Eliceans (Fulgur), Montf. Conch. Syst. 303. = F. carica, GmeL, var. 

Elongata (Cominella), Bunker. Zool. Proc., 350, 1856 207 

Elongatulum (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn. 91, 1889. = Bullia. 

Elongatus (Hemifusus), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 513 112 

Elongatus (Triton), Reeve, Icon. f. 59, 1844. = T. vespaceus, Lain. 

Encausticus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 43, 1844 28 

Engina, Gray 220 

Epidromus, Klein. Ostrac. 52, 1753. Adams' Gen. i, 103. 

= S. G. of Triton, Montf 9, 25 

Epitremia (Ranellaj, Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc., Tasmania, I'!:;, 

1876. ? = R. iucunda, A. Ad 45 

Eripachya, Gabb.' Pal. Calif, ii, 148, 1869 105 

Erythrostoma (Can tharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 14,1846 155 

Escalse (Buccinum), Phil. Atacama, 188, t. 7, f. 18, 1860 194 

Eupleura, H. and A. Ad. Genera i, 107. See Miiricidre, vol. ii, p. 157. 

Euthria, Gray. Fig. Moll. An. iv, 67, 1850 100, 149 

Evarne, H. and A. Adams. Genera of Recent Moll, i, 79, 1858. 

= Euthria, Gray. 

Exaratus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 50, 1844 22 

Excavatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp., 136, f. 168, 1880 229 

Exilia, Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad. iv, 29], t. 47, f. 34, 1860 49 

Exilifusus Conr. Am. Jour. Conch, i, 18, 1865. = Exilia, Conrad. 

Exilifusus, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad., 278, 1876 49 

Exilis (Fusus), Menke. Moll. Nov. Roll., 26, 1843 68 

Exilis (Triton), Reeve. Icon, f, 11, 1844 21 

Eximius (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 77, 1844 28 

Extensium (Bucc.), Dunker. Philippi, Abbild., iii, 70, t. 2. f. 11. 

= Cantharus 150 

Fallax (Latirus), Kobelt. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 80, 1. 19, f. 3 ,. 98 

Farinosum (Buccinum), Gould. Otia, Conch., 64, 245. = Engina. 
Fasciata (Melongena), Schum. Essai, Nouv. Syst. = M. melongena, 

Linn. 
Fasciata (Turbinella), Sowb. Reeve, Icon. 

= Peristernia spinosa, Martyn. 
Fasciatus (Phos), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 176, 1858. 

= P. senticosus, Linn. 

Fasciculare (Buccinum), Menke. Moll. Nov. Roll., 21, 1843 194 

Fasciculata (Pisania), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 76, 1848 140 

Fasciculatus (Fusus), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., v. 110, t. 25, 

f. 15, 16, 1854. == Trophon, vol. ii, 143. 

Fasciolaria Lam. Syst. An., 83, 1801 48, 73 

Fasciolarioides (Fusus), Forbes. JEgean. Invert., 190. 

= Cantharus leucozona, Phil. 
Fasciolaris (Purpura) Lam., vii, 249. = Pisania maculosa, Lam. 

Fasciolina (Conrad). Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 186, 18G7 '><> 

Fastigiella Reeve. = Cerithidse. 

Fastigium (Latirus), Reeve. Icon., f. 72, 1847, Zool. Proc. 812, 1878 91 

Femorale (Triton), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit.,xii., 1217 18 

Fenestrata( Peristernia), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, 327, 1860 86 

Fenestrata (Turbinella), Anton. Verzeichn., 71, 1839 97 

Fenestratus (Sipho), Turton. Mag. N. Hist, vii, 351 130 

Ferrea (Euthria}, Reeve. Buccinum, f. 102, 1847. 

= E. plumbea, Phil., var. 



INDEX. 247. 

Kerruginea (Fasciolaria), Luiii. Edit. Desh., ix., 435. 

= F. filamentosa, Lam., var. 

Ficoides (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 51, 1844 18 

Fictilis (Triton), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 12, t, 4, f. 11, 12 30 

Ficula (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 73, 1848. = Urosalpinx, vol. ii, 154. 
Ficus (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3545. = Melongena paradisiaca, Rve. 
Fidicula (Fusus), Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., 233, f. 284. = Bela. 

Fijiensis (Ran ella), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv., 270, 1880 225 

Filamentosa (Fasciolaria), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 434 75 

Filamentosus (Latirus), Koch. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 69, t. 9, f. 8. 

''. = L. brevicaudatus. Reeve. 

Filaris (Cantharus), Garrett. Calif. Proc., iv., 202, 1874 .. 100 

Filaris (Pisania), A. Adams, Zool. Proc. 313, 1854 149 

Filicea (Cominella), Crosse et Fischer. Jour. Conch., xii., 349, xiii, 49, 

t. 15, 16 2(MI 

Filosa (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist,, xi, 205,1863 137 

Filosus (Fusus), Lam., vii, 129. = Latirus gibbulus, Gmel. 

Filosus (Latirus), Schubert & Wagner. Couch., xii, 100, t. 227, f. 4019, 

4020 90 229 

Filosus (Phos), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 175, 185:5. = P. senticosus, L. 
Fimbriatus (Fusus), Gay. Hist, Nat. Chile., viii, 195, t. 4, f. 7, 1854. 

= Trophon crispus, Gld., vol. ii, 143. 
Finmarkianum (Buccinum), Verkriizen. .Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., ii, 237, t. 

5, Friele, Prelim. Rept., 4, f. 8, 1877, Sars. Moll. Norv., 262, t. 13, f. 
10, t. 25, f. 3, 4. = B. cyaneum, Brug., var. 

Fischeriana (Volutharpa), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist,, 4 ser., v. 

422.1870 .. , 202 

Fischerianum (Buccinum), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 106, 1872 190 

Flammulata (Pisania), Hombr. & Jacq. Astrol. et Zelee., v. 75, t. 21, f. 1, 

2. = P. ignea, Gmel., var. 
Flammulata (Pisania), Quoy. Moll. Astrolabe, ii, 426, t. 30, t. 29, 31. 

= P. ignea, Gmelin. 

Flavidus (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 314, 1854 94 

Flavulum (Tritonium), Beck. Morch, Ann. Soc. Mai., Belg., iv. 17, 1*69. 

= B. tenue, Gray. 
Flemingiana (Halia), Macgillivray. Moll. Aberd., 68. 

= Buccinopsis Dalei, Sowb. Jur. 

Floridanum (Buccinum), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 237, 1842, ''. = Nassa 194 

Floridanum (Buccinum), Petit. Jour, de Conch., 2, ser. i, 91, t. 2, f. 5, 

6, 1856. = Cantharus cancellaria. Conr. 

Foliata (Ranella), Brod. Zool. Jour., ii, 199, t. 11, f. 1 37 

Fontainei (Fusus), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., 447, t, 63, f. 2. 

= Siphonalia alternata, Phil. 
Forceps (Fusus), Perry. Conch, t. 2, f. 4. = F. turricula, Kiener. 

Formosa* (Eburna), Sowb. Thes., iii, t. 291, f. 17, 18 211 

Fornicatus (Fusus), Gray. Beechey's Voy. 

= var. of Neptunea despecta, Linn. 
Forskalii (Peristernia), Tapparone. 26, f. 6, 7, Kiister. Conch. Cab., 110, 

Mer. Mar. Rosso., t. 52, t. 19, f, 4, 4, a. 

1875. = P. nassatula. Lam., var. 

Fossatus (Triton), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii. 329, 1860 16 

Foveolatuni (Bucc), Dunker. Zeit, Mai. 63, 1847. = Nassa. 

Foxii (Triton), Gray. Beechey's Voy., 110, 1839 x. 33 

Fragile (Buccinum), Verkr. MSS. Sars. Moll. Novr., 257, t. 24, f. 6. 

= B. undatum, L. 
Fragosus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 71, 1848. = F. restrains, Olivi. 



248 INDEX. 

Fragrans (Fusus), Reeve. H. & A. Adams, Genera. = F. fragosus, Reeve. 
Fraterculus (Triton), Bunker. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 166, 1871. 

= T. Bassi, Angas. 

Fringillum (Buccinum), Ball. Calif. Proc., 1877 191 

Fucata (Cominella), A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., vii, 107, 1864 207 

Fulgur, Montfort, Conch. Syst,, ii, 502, 1810 99 139 

Fulva (Pyrula), Desh. Voy. Bellanger, 422, t. 2, f. 5. 

= Melongena pugilina, Born. 

Fumosus (Cantharus), Dillw. Cat. 269, 1819 15' 

Funerea (Comiuella), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 152, 1850, Wilkes'Exp., 

Moll. 253, f. 320. = C. costata, Quoy. - 

Funesta (Clea), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 383, 1861. 

? = C. nigricans, A. Ad. 
Funiculatum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., f. 61, 1846. 

= Ocinebra contracta, Reeve^, vol. ii, p. 131. 
Funiculatus (Fusus), Lesson. Rev. Cuv., 104, 1842. 

= F. Dupetit-Thouarsii, Kiener. 

Fusca (Canidia), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 384, 1861 209 

Fuscata (Cyllene), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 205, 1850. 

C. lugubris, Ad. and Reeve. 

Fuscatum (Buccinum), Brug. Diet. Hist. Nat., No. 44. ''. = Euthria.... 152 
Fusco-costata (Ranella), Dunker. Zool. Proc., 239, 1862. Novit. Conch., 

57, t. 19, f. 1, 2. = R. tuberculata, Brod. 
Fuscolabiata (Euthria), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 sev., xv,421, 

1875 '. 152 

Fuscolineata (Siphonalia), Pease. Zool. Proc.. 189, 1860 130 

Fusconodosus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 132 x, f. 169, 1880 229 

Fuscotincta (Siphonalia), Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser, xv, :'>99, 

1865 134 

Fuscozonata (Siphonalia), Angas. Zool. Proc., 56, t. 2, f. 7, 8, 1865. ..86, 134, 
Fusiforme (Buccinum), Brod. Zool. Jour., v, 45, t. 3, f. 3. 

= Sipho fenestratus, Turt. 
Fusiforme (Buccinum), Kiener (not Brod.). 5, t. 5, f. 12, 1841. 

= B. Humphrey si anum, Bennett. 
Fusiformis (Canidia), Deshayes. Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Bull., \, 151, t. 8, 

f. 21, 22; t. 7, f. 30-32 20'.' 

Fusiformis (Fasciolaria), Valenc. Kiener, lo, t. 4, f. 2 7G 

Fusiformis (Fusus), Potiez et Muh. Galerie i, 436, t. 34, f. 3-1'., 1838. 

= Trophon xanthostoma, Brod., vol. ii, p. 146. 

Fusiformis (Melongena), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. Mus., i, t. 11, f. 7 109 

Fusiformis (Nassaria), Sowb. Thee. Conch., iii, 87, t. 220, f. 11, 12 222 

Fusiformis (Polygona), Scliura. Nouv. Syst. 

= Latirus infundibulum, Gmel. 

Fusiformis (Triton), Kiener. Monog., 36, t. 5, f. 2 11 

Fusinus Ratinesque. Anal. Nat. 145, 1815. == Fusus, Lam. 

Fusispira, Hall. 24th Report N. Y., 229, 1872. Hall and Whitfield. 

Pal. King's Survey, 236 102 

Fusoides (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., f. 64 (not f. 9). 

= Siphonalia spadicea, Reeve. 

Fusoides (Siphonalia), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 9, 184(5 13<> 

Fusoides (Triton), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat., 128. Carpenter, 2d Report, 

182. = Phos 220 

Fusoides (Tudicla), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 137, 1854. 

= Streptosiphon Cumingii, Jonas. 
Fusulus (Murex), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. Subapp., 409, t. 8, f. 9. 

= Cantharus 157 

Fusus, Lam. Syst, An., 82, 1801 47, 51, 227 



INDEX. 

Galeodes, Bolten. Mus., 1798. = Cassidulus, Humph. 

Galeodes (Melongena), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 517 108 

Gallinago (Triton), Reeve. Icon., t. 2. f. 5, 1844 21 

Gaudens (Phos), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 38, t. 10, f. 5, 6, 1844 218 

Gemmata (Peristernia, var.), Reeve. Icon., f. 61, a, b. 

= Peristernia lirata, Pease. 

Gemmata (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon., f. 5, 1847 82 

Gemmatus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 60, 1844 13 

Gemmata (Turbinella), Rouss. (non Reeve). Voy. Pol.- Sud., 112, t. 25, 

f. 23, 24. = Peristernia incarnata, Desh., var. elegans. 

Gemmatus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 49, 1846 162 

Gemmulatum (Buccinum)j Menke. Zeit. Mai., 1847. 

= Cantharus gemmatus, Reeve. 

Genea, Bellardi. Mem. Acad. Turin, xxvii, 235, 1873 226 

Genetta (Buccinum), Lesson. Rev, Cav., 237, 1842 194 

Geniculus (Fusus), Gabb. Pal. Cal., ii, 71 (pars. syn. excl.). 

= F. Taylorianus, Reeve. 
Geniculus (Priscofusus), Conrad. Wilkes' Exped., 728, t. 20, f. 3. A. 

J. C., 150, 1865 49 

Gervillii (Buccinum), Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 13, f. 43, 44. = Columbella. 

Gibba (Cyllene), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 4 ser., v. 427, 1870 225 

Gibba (Peristernia), Pease. Zool. Proc., 54, 1865. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 

279, t. 23, f. 17, 1868 86 

Gibbosum (Busycon), Conrad. Philad. Proc., 286, 1862. 

= Fulgur carica, Gmel., var. eliceans, Montf. 
Gibbosus (Triton), Brod. Reeve, s. 11, f. 38 (not t. 14, f. 08). 

T. labiosus, Wood, var. orientalis, Nevill 23 

Gibbulus (Latirus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3557 88 

Gieseckii (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn., 76, 1839 69 

Gigantea (Fasciolaria), Kiener. Icon., 5, t. 10, 11 75 

Gigantea (Ranella), Lam. An. sans vert., vii, 150 ~ 42 

Gilvum (Buccinum), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 180, 1847. = Anachis. 

Gilvus (Fusus), Phil. Zeit, Mai., 148, 1848 67 

Glabra (Bucc.), Jeffreys. Sars, Moll. Nov. ii63. 

? == B. Humphreysianum, Benn., var. 
Glabra (Sipho), Verkriizen. Kobelt, Jarhb. Mai. Ges., iii, 174, t. 3,f. 3, 

1876 126 

Glabrata (Cyllene), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 206, 1850. 

= C. Pulchella, Ad. and Reeve. 

Glabrata (Eburna), Schroter. Einl., i, 341. = E. Zeylanica, Brug. 
Giaciale (Buccinum), Donovan. Brit, Shells, v, t. 154, 1779. 

= B. Donovani, Gray. 

Giaciale (Buccinum), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1204 185 

Glacialis (Fusus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 117 68 

Gladiolus (Epidromus), Monterosato. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., v. 226, 1879. 33 
Glandiforme (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., f. 109, 1847. 

= Cominella acutinodosa, Reeve. 

Glaucum (Buccinum), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 125, 1852. = Nassa. 
Glirina (Purpura), Blainv. Nouv. Ann. Mus., i, 254, t. 12, f. 9. 

= Pisania 149 

Gracilenta (Mesorhytis), Meek 50 

Graciliformis (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 60, f. 62, 1880 228 

Gracilis (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 96, 1846 160 

Gracilis (Latirus), Reeve. Icon., f. 53, 1847 91 

Gracilis (Phos), Sowb. Thes. Conch, iii.. 91, t. 221, f. 33 ; 218 

Gracilis (Pisania), Koch, Philippi. Abbild., ii, 20, t. 2, f. 3 147 

32 



250 INDEX. 

Gracilis (Sipho), DaGosta. Br. Conch., 124, t. 6, f. 5 124 

Gracilis (Triton), Reeve. Icon.,f. 58, 1844. = T. vespaceus, Lam. 
Gracillimus (Fusus), Adams and Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samarang, 41, t. 7, 

f. i : 63 

Gradatus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 65, 1848 57 

Grana (Cyllene), Lam. A. Ad. and Pettit. = Nassa. 
Granatus (Fusus), Koch, Philippi. Abbild., ii, 19, t. 2, f. 1, 6. 

= Peristernia 83 

Grandimaculatus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 20, 1844. 

= T. lotorium, Linn. 

Grandis (Fusus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 110, 186P : 68 

Granifera (Ranella), Kiener (not Lam). 17, t. 11, f. !.-_ R. affinis, Brod. 

Granifera (Ranella), Lam. An. sans Vert., edit. Desh. ix, 548 41 

Graniferum (Buccinum) Kiener. Monog., t. 27, f. 111. Nassa. 
Granosa (Fasciolaria. Brod. .Zool. Proc. 32, 1832. F. salmo, Wood. 
Granularis (Apollon), Bolten, Morcli. Cat. Yoldi, 106. 

Ranella granifera, Lam. 

Granulata (Ranella), Blainv., Malacol., t. 18, f. 2. R. cruniena, Lam. 
Graulata (Ranella), Lamarck. Edit. Desh. ix, 547. 
= R. crassa, Dillwyn. 

Granulatus (Triton), Dunker. Mai. Blatt, xviii, 100, 1871 14 

Granulosa (Peristernia), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 27V, t. 2'!, f. 18, 

1868 86 

Granulosus (Anton), Verzeichn., 76,1839. Turbinella ? 69 

Grateloupiana (Phos), Petit. Jour, de Conch., iv, 243, t, 8, f. 4, 1853. 

= P. Veraguensis, Hinds. 
Gratum (Buccinum), Potiez et Michaud. Galerie, i, 377, t. 32, f. 9, 10, 

1838. . ? Columbella. 

Grayana (Ranella), Dunker. Zool. Proc. 238, 1864. R. bufonia, Gmel. 
Grayi (Cyllene), Reeve. Elem. Conch, t, 7, f. 4, 1850 

= C. pulchella, Ad. and Reeve. 

Grisea (Siphonalia), A. Ad. An. Mag. N. Hist., xi, 205, 1803.. 137 

Groenlandicum (Buccinum), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag., 4, xix, 323, 1877, etc.; 

Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 177, 182, t. 152, f. 1448, 1788. 

-B. cyaneum, Brug. 
Groenlandicum (Tritonium) Morch. Rink's Greenland, 84, 1857. 

Bucc. cyaneum, Brug. 

Gruneri (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 171, 1846. Nassa. 
Guadaloupensis (Phos), Petit. Jour, de Conch., fir., t. 2, f. 3,4, 1852... % ^l ( ,i 
Gualtierianum (Buccinum), Kiener. Monog , 69, t. 19, f. 70. 

Cantharus 167 

Gijaltierii (Purpura), Scacchi Cat., 11. Pisania maculosa, Lam. 
Guillaini (Cyllene), Petit. Jour, de Conch., i, 170, t. 7, f. 4, 1850. 
C. pulchella, Ad. and Reeve. 

Guttatus (Pisania), Busch. Philippi, Abbild , i, 106. t, l,f. 6 149 

Guttatum (Buccinum), Phil. Archiv fur Naturg., i, 206, 184. 

Pisania cingulata, Reeve. 
Gutturnium, Klein. Ostrac., 51, 1753; Adams' Gen., i, 103. 

= S. G. of Triton,- M on tf. , 9, 19 

Gyratus (Trophon), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 14, t, 1, f. 14, 15. Vol. 2, 

p. 151. ? = Siphonalia , 137 

Gyrina, Schum. Essai, 253, 1817. Argobuccinum, Klein. 
Gyrina (Apollon), Montf. Ranella gigantea, Linn. 

Gyrina (Ranella), Linn. Sp. edit. 12, 1216 43 

Gyrineum Link. Mus. Rostock, iii, 123, 1807. Ranella, Lam. 
Gyrinoides (Murex) Brocchi. Conch. Foss., 401, t. 9, f. 9, 
Triton nodiferus, Lam. 



INDEX. '251 

Hsemastoma (Pollia), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 112, 1839. 
= Cantharus sanguinolentus, Duclos. 

Hsemastoma (Triton), Valenc. Obs. 802, 1833.-^ T. pilearis, Linn 3 

Haldemanii (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 62, 1847. Phil. Abbild., iii, 

Bucc., t. 2, f. 4. = Columbella. 

Halia, Macgill. .Moll. Abercl., 98, 1843. = Buccinum, Linn. Young. 
Halia, Risso. Hist, Nat., iv, 52, 1820. =3 PlcurotonmUo. 

Hallii (Neptunea), Dall. Proc. Cal. Acad., v, 59, 1873 120 

Hancocki (Tritonium), Morch. Rink's Greenland, 84, 1857. 

- Buccinum glaciale, L., var. polare. 
Haneti (Murex), Petit, Jour. Conch., v, 90, t. 2, f. 718, 1856. 

Cantharus 163 

Hanleyanum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit Mai. 63, 1847. == Nassa? 

Hanseni (Sipho), Friele. Jahrb. Mai. Geeell., vi, 281, 1879... 132 

Harfordi (Siphonalia), Stearns. Proc. Calif. Acad., v, 79, 1873. Dall. 

Calif. Proc., 1877 139 

Harpa (Neptunea), Morch. Diag. Moll. Nouv. Vidensk-Meddel. 342, 

1857 122 

Hartvigii (Fusus), Shuttlw. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., i, 171, 1856. 
F. gradatus, Reeve. 

Hastula (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 139, 1844 44 

Haydenia, Gabb. Pal. Calif., i, 98, t. 18, f. 51, 18(54 106 

Helena (Canidia), Meder (MSS.). Phil. Abbild., (Melania), t. 4, f. 8, 1847. 208 
Heliotropis, Dall. Cal. Proc , 61, 1873. S. G. of Neptuuea, Bolien....UO, l'J2 
Helleri (Fusus), Brusina, Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesell. Wien., xv, 8, 1865. 
Murex aciculatus, Lam., Vol. ii, pp. 119, 148. 

Hemifusus, Swains. Malacol., 91, 308 98, 111 

Hemifusus (Fusus), Kobelt. Conchyl. Cabinet, 186, f. 159, f. 4, 5, 

1880. F. colus, L., var. Brenchlyi 67 

Hepaticum (Buccinum), Montagu. Test, Brit., 243, t. 8, f. 1. Nassa. 
Heptagonalis ( Afer), Reeve. Fusus, f. 26, 1847. 

A. Blossvillei, Desh., var. 
Heptagonum (Triton), S. Wood. = T. cutaceum, Linn. 

Hercorhyncus, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 247, 1868 103 

Herrmannseni (Buccinum), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 63, 1847. ?= Nassa. 

Hermannseni (Pisania), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 138, t, 28, f. 7. 1854 146 

Heros (Chrysodomus), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc. 14, t 7, 18-">0. 

= Neptunea despecta, Linn, var. fornicata, Gray. 

Hexagonus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn., 76, 1839 69 

Heynemanni (Fasciolaria), Dunker. Nachtrag, Novit, Conch. 138. t. 32, 

f.1,2 . 77 

Hians (Ranella), Schum. Nouv. Syst. 252, 1817. 

= Ranella, lampas, Linn. 
Hidalgoi (Turbinella), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xiii, 316, 414, t. 14, f. 1. 

? = T. triserialis, Lam., var. 

Hindsia, H & A. Adams. Genera, i, J23. = Nassaria-, H. & A. Ad. 
Hindsii (Metula), H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 84. -= Buc. metula, Hinds.... 153 
Hinnulus (Siphonalia), Ads. & Rve. Voy. Samarang., 32, t. 7, f. 10, 1848. 136 
Hippocastanum (Melonge^a), Born. Mus. 30, 4, (not of Linn), 1870. 

= M. galeodes, Lam. 
Holbollii (Fusus), Moller. Moll. Groenl., 15, 1842. 

= S. propinquus, Alder. 

Homoleuca (Cantharus), Kiister. Buccinum, 87, t, 15, f. 14, 15. 158 

Horridum (Bucc.) Dunker. Zeit, Mai. 59, 1847. =Nassa, 

Humphreysianum (Buccinum), Bennett. Zool. Jour., i, 398 192 

Humphreysianum(Buccinum), Moller. Kroyer's Tidsskrift, iv, 85, 

1842. =B. cyaneum, Brug. 



252 INDEX. 

Huttoni (Cominella), Kobelt. Cat. 233. ? = C. costata, Quoy. 
Hyperboreum (Tritonium), Beck. Amtl. Bericht. No. 15. 

= Neptunea despecta, Linn. 
Hydropanum (Buccinum), Hancock. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, 1. xviii, 325, 

1846. = B. cyaneum, Brug. 

Idoleum (Pyrula), Jonas. Zool. Proc. 120, 1846, Latiaxis, vol. ii, p. 208. 

Ignea (Pisania), Gmel. Syst. Nat, 145. 

Imbricata (Pyrula), De Kay. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 149, Sowb. Thes. Conch. . 

iv. 104, f. 4. = Urosalpinx cinerea, Say. Young and worn. 
Imbricatus (Fusus), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc % , xii, 540, t. 80, f. 3, 

1876. = Coralliophila, vol. ii, p. 209. 
Imperforata (Pyrula), Menke. Cat. Syn. No. 1077. 

= Strepsidura ficulnea, Lam. (fossil). 
Imperiale (Bucc). Reeve. Buccinum, Sp. 8, 1846. 

= B. undatum, L monst. 

Impressa (Turbinella), Anton. Verzeichn, 71, 1839 97 

Improbus (Murex), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 1860; Otia. 125 166 

Inca (Cantharus), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Me>id. 455, t. 78. f. 3 164 

Incarnata (Peristernia), Deshayes. Voy. Laborde, t. 65, f. 20, 22 SI 

Incarnatum (Tritonium), M. Sars. Moll. Norv. 276. 

= Sipho latericeus, Moll. 
Incerta (Ranella), Michelotti. Misc. It. Sept. 256, t, 10, f. 4. 

= R. gigantea, Lam. 
Incisa (Fusus), Gould. Wilkes' Exped. Moll. 232, f. 2H8. 

= Euthria dira, Reeve. 

Incisus. (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 102, f. 112, 1880. = Neptunea. 230 
Inconstans (Fusus), Lischke. Mai. Blatt., xv. 218, 1868. Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell., i, 115, t. 6, f. 1. = F. perplexus, A. Ad. 
Incrasssatus (Fusus), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii., 122, 1822. 

= F. undatus, Gmel. 

Incrassatum (Tritonium), Miiller. Zool. Dan. 2946. = Nassa. 
Inculta (Peristernia), Gould. Bost. Proc. vii, 824, 1866. 

? = Leucozonia cingulifera, Lam. 
Inermis (Fasciolaria), Jonas. Zeit. Mai., iii, 63, 1846. 

F. filame'ntosa, Lam. var. 

Inermis (Tudicula), Sowb. Zool. Proe. 610, 1878 145 

Inferus (Fusus), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal. 9, 1878. 

= Trophon plebeius, Hutton, vol. ii, p. 145, 156. 
Inflatum (Buccinum), Aradas & Benoit, Moll. Sicil, 287. 

= B. Humphreysianum, Bennett. 
Inflatus (Fusus), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. v. 109, t. 25, f. 

11, 12. = Trophon Geversianus, Pallas, vol. ii, p. 144 
Inflatus (Fusus), Dunker. Phil. Abbild, ii, 19, 3, t. 4, f. 2. 

= Corallophila, vol. ii, p. 209. 
Infracincta (Peristernia), Kiister. Conch. Cab. 92, t. 22. f. 16, 17. 

= P. ustulata, Rve. 

Infundibulum (Latirus), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3554 89 

Insignis (Cantharus), Reeve. Bucc. f. 58, 1846. = C. elegans, Gray; 
Intermedia (Turbinella), Koch. Kobelt in Kiister, 155. t. 9, f. 6. ? 

= Latirus brevicaudatus, Rve 226 

Intermedius (Fusus), Gay. Hist. Nat. Chile, viii, 166, t. 4, f, 6, 1854. 

= Trophon Geversianus, Pallus, vol., ii, p. 144. 

Intermedius .(Triton), Pse. A. J. Conch, v. 84, 1869. = T. pilearis, L. 
Intertextum (Tritonium), Pfr. = T. reticulatus, Blainv. 
Intincta (Cominella), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 32, 1846. 

= C. papyracea, Brug. 



INDEX. 253 

loeranea, Rafinesque. Anal. Nat. 145, 1815. = Fasciolaria, Lam. 

lostoma (Cantharus), Gray. Voy. Blossom, 112, 1839 154 

lostoma(Turbmella), Nuttall. Kuster, 36, t. 9, f. 1, 2. 

== Peristernia spinosa, Mart. 
Tricolor (Turbinella), Hombr. et Jacq. Astrol. et Zel. v, 112, t. 25, f. 25, 

27, 1854. = Peristernia ustulata, Rve. 
Islandicus (Fusus), Gould. (Binney's Edit. ) Invert, Mass. 372, f. 628. 

= Sipho Stimpsoni, Morch. 
Islandicus (Fusus), var. Kiener. Monog, t. 15, f. 2. 

= var. of Sipho Stimpsonii, Morch. 
Islandicus (Sipho), Chemn. Conch. Cab. iv., 154, t, 141, f. 1312, l:-{ 123 

Janelii (Buccinum), Val. Voy. Venus, t, 6, f. 1, 1846. 

Cantharus sanguinoleiitus, Duclos. 

Janeirense (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit, Mai. 133, 1848. = Pisania 148 

Jania, Bellardi. Mem. Acad. Turin, xxvii, 177, 1873 226 

Japonica (Eburna), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 200, 1842 211 

Japonica (Buccinum), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., viii, 

135,1861 189 

Japonicus (Fusus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 115, 1839 6 ( .l 

Jeffreysianus (Sipho), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., xvi, 37, 1862 126 

Jeffreysii (Buccinum), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist., 4 ser., xv., 

424, 1875. ? B. Japonicum, A. Ad. 

.Jeranea, Rafinesque. Anal. Nat.. 1815. Fasciolaria, Lam. 

Jessocnsis (Siphoj, Schrenck. .Hull. St. Petersb., v, 514, 1863. Moll. 

Amur., L., 426, t. 17, f. 8-10 131 

Jonasii (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 171, 1846. = Nassa.- 

Josepha, Teni son-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1878, p, 32 202, 207 

Jucunda (Ranella), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 70, 1853 45 

lullieni (Ganidia), Deshayes. Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Bull., x, 155, t. 8, 

f. 23, 24 209 

Kai-amensis (Fusus), Forbes. .Egean Invert., 1'JO 

Cantharus leucozona, Phil. 

Kellettii (Macron), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 185, 1853 214 

Kellcttii (Siphonalia), Forbes. Zool. Proc., 274, t. 9, f. 10, 1850 134 

Konnicotti (Buccinum), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 108, t. 15, f. 1, 
1872. Calif. Proc., iv, 271. Volutopsis Behringii, Midd. 

Kerri ( Kxilifusus), Gabb 49 

Kieneri (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn., 92, 1839. ? Nassa. 
Kieneri (Bucc.), Monterosato. B. Humphrey sianum, Bennett. 
Kieneri (Fulgur), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 98, 1849. 

F. carica, Gin el., var. eliceans. 

Kingi (Ranella), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 451. R. Argus, Grnelin. ^ 
Knorrii (Turbinella}, Desh. Anini. sans Vert., ix, 391. 

Leucozonia cingulifera, Lam. 

Kobelti (Fusus), Dall. Calif. Proc.; 1877 64 

Kochianum (Buccinum), Dunker. Zeit, Mai., iii, 1846. Nassa.. 

Kossmanni (Pisania), Pagenstecher. Kossmann's Reise, ii, Moll., 53 146 

Kraussianum (Buccinum), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. iii, 1846. Nassa. 

Krebsii (Triton), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 30, 1877. 

T. corrugatus, Lam., var. 
Kroyerii (Sipho), Miiller. Ind. Moll. Gronl., 15, 1842 130 

Labiosus (Triton), Wood. Ind. Test, Suppl., t. 5, f. 18 17 

Labradorense (Buccinum), lleeve. Icon., f. 5, 1846. 
B. undatum, L., var. undulatum, Moller. 



254 INDEX. 

Labradorensis (Neptunea), Packard. Mem. Bost. Soc., i, 233, t.7, f. 8, 

(fossil). 

Lacertina (Euthria), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 327, 1860. Kobelt, Jahrb. 
Mai. Gesell., i, 133, t. 6, f. 2. - Pisania ignea, var. Tritonoides, Rve. 

Lachesis (Sipho), Morch. Jour. Conch., xvii, 397, 1869 128 

Lacinia, Conrad. Proc. A. N. S., vi, 448, 1853 100 

Laciniatum (Triton), Mighels. Pease, Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 107. 
= Ranella pusilla, Brod. 

Lactea (Cyllene), Ad. and Angas. Zool. Proc., 422, 1863 225 

Lactea (Bucc.), Reeve. Icon., f. 117, 1847. := Cominella lineolata, Lam. 

Lacteus (Hemifusus), Reeve. Pyrula, f. 8, 1847...* 112 

Lacunatum (Triton), Mighels. Bost. Proc., ii, 24, 1845. 

= Ranella pusilla, Brod. 
Laetum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 140, 1848. = Nassa, 

Laetus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 133, f. 166, 1880 229 

Laevibuccinum, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 21, t. 20, f. 17, 1865. 
Ltevigata (Cominella), Hutton. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal. 

C. lineolata, Lam., var. virgata, H. and A. Ad. 
Laevigata (Ranella), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., ix, 550. 
R. marginata, Gmel. 

.Lsevigata (Turbinella), Anton. Verzeichn., 71, 1839 97 

Lrcvigatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 30, f. 157, 1880. 

F. Australis, Quoy 227 

Laevigatus (Phos), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 155, 1850 217 

Lagena, Bolt. Mus,.1798, Adams' Gen. i, 104. 
S. G. of Triton, Montf. 

Lagena, Schurn. Nouv. Syst., 240, 1817. Leucozonia, Gray 96 

Lagenaria (Coininella), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 81. 

C. limbosa, Lam., var. 

Lamarckii (Buccinum), Kiener. Monog. 5, t. :], f. i;. Bullia. 
Lamellosa (Ranella), Dunker. Zool. Proc., 240, 1862. 

R. anceps, Lam. 

Lamellosus (Fusus), De Kay. Sowb., Thes. Conch., sp. 24, 1880. 
Fulgur carica, Gmel. 

Lamnigera (Neptunea), Valenc. Comptes Rendus, i, 761, 1858.. 123 

Lampas, Schum. Essai, 252, 1817. S. G. of Ranella, Lam 37, 38 

Lampas (Murex), Linn. Edit, x, 748. Ranella lampas.. 28 

Lampusia, Schum. Ess. No?. Gen., 250, 1817 - Simpulum, Klein. 

Lancea (Latirus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3556 90 

Lanceola (Fusas), Reeve. Icon., f. 52. Latirus lancea, Gmel. 
Lanceolata (Ranella), Philippi. Euum. Moll. Sicil. i, 211, t. 11, f. 28. 

; Triton reticulatus, Blainv. 

Lanceolatus (Cantharus), Koch. Phil. Abbild., ii, Fusus, ]21, t. 3, f. 9.. 160 
Lanceolatus (Latirus), Reeve. Icon., f. 12, 1847. Ads. and Reeve, Voy. 

Samarang, 42, t, 7, f. 8, 1848 90 

Lanceolatus (Triton), Menke. Syn., 87, 1828 , 27 

Lapillus (Fusus), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour, iv, 378, 

Leucozonia subrostrata, Gray. 

Largillierti (Neptunea), Petit. Jour. Conch., ii, 254, t. 7, f. 6, 1851. 
N. Norvegica, Chemn. 

Latericeus (Sipho), Moller, Ind. Moll. Gruenl., 15, 1842 130 

Latevaricosus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 90, 1844. T. bracteatus, Hinds. 

Laticostatus (Fusus), Desh. Guerin's Mag., t. 21, 1830 53 

Latirus (Montf.). Conch. Syst., ii, 531, 1810 48, 87 

Latrunculus, Gray. Zool. Proc., 139, 1847. Eburna, Lam. 

Lauta (Turbinella), Reeve. Icon., f. 73, 1847. 
Peristernia incarnata, var. elegans, Dkr. 



INDEX. 



255 



Lautus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 63, 1846. 

= var. of C. Coromandelianus, Lam. 
Lefebvrii (Buccinum), Maravigna. Rev. Cuv., 325, 1840. ? = Nassa. 

Legrandi (Fusus), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 137, 1875 68 

Leiocheilos (Buccinum), Val. Humb. et Bonpl., 328, 1833 194 

Leiostoma, Swains. Malacol., 308, 1840 102 

Leptorhynchus (Fusus), Tapparone-Canefri. Mur. Mar. Rosso., 63, t. 19, 

f. 6, 1875 56 

Leucostoma (Buccinum), Lischke. Mai. Blatt., xix, 101, 1872, (undeter-' 
mined). 

Leucostoma (Ranella), Lam. An. sans Vert., edit. Desh., ix, 542 42 

Leucozona (Cantharus), Philippi. Zeit. Mai., iii, 1843 168 

Leucozonia, Gray. Zool. Proc., 136, 1847 48, 94 

Leucozonalis (Leucozonia), Lam. Hist, vii, 107 96 

Levibuccinum, Conrad : 104 

Levifusus, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 17, 1865. Perissolax, Gabb. 

Ligata (Purpura), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 78. Kiener, Bucc., t. 5, f. 15. 

Cominella porcata, Gmel. 

Ligata (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist,. 3d ser., xi, 205, 1863. 137 
Ligatus (Phos), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 175, 18">:',. 

Ph. senticosus, Linn. 
Ligatus (Ptychatractus), Miguels and Adams. Bost. Jour. Nat, 

Hist., iv, 51, t. 4, f. 17, 1842 72 

Lignaria (Fasciolaria), Linn. Edit, xii, 1224 78 

Lignaria (Melongena), Reeve. Pyrula, f. 12, t. 9. 

M. pallida, Br. and Sowb. 
Lignarius (Fusus), Lain. Edit. Desh., ix, 455. = Euthria cornea, Linn. 

Lignarius( Triton), Brod. Zool. Proc. 5, 1833 ' 15 

Ligneum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. f. 57, 1846. 

Cantharus Cecillii, Phil. 
Ligula (Fusus), Kiener. Monog., t, 9, f. 2. =c Latirus lancea, Gmel. 

Limbatus (Cantharus), Philippi. Abbild., i, III, t. 1, f. 9 l.~>r, 

Linibatus (Triton), Phil. Ads.' Genera, i, 103 :}2 

Limbosa (Cominella), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 78 202 

Limicola (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit, Mai., 59, 1851. Nassa. 

Linmreana ( Volutharpa), A. Adams. (Bullia). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, 

109, I860 201 

Limnoeforme (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 64, 1847. = ? Nassa. 
Linatella, Gray. H. and A. Adams. Genera, ii, 654. 
JPriene, H. and A. Ad. 

Linatella, Morch 14 

Lincolnensis (Fusus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, 53, t. 2, f. 4, 1865. tHJ 
Lineare (Cominella), Reeve. Bucc., f. 116, 1847. C. lineolata, Lam. 
Lineata (Euthria), Martyn. var. pertinax, Martens, Sitzb., Berlin, 

23, 1878 151 

Lineata (Euthria), Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 48 157 

Lineata (Neptunea), Kiener. II. and A. Ad., Genera, i, 80. 

Eutlma lineata, Martyn. 
Lineata (Pyrula). Encyc. Meth., t. 432, f. 5. Melongena galeodes, 

Lam. 

Lineata (Turbinella), Lam. Hist,, vii, 109. Latirus turritus, Gmel. 
Lineatum (Buccinum), Gmel. 3491. - Littorina, augulifera, Lam. 
Lineatus (Cantharus), Menke (not Gmelin). Zeit. Mai., 72, 1853. 
Cantharus variegatus, Gray. 

Lineatus (Fusus), Menke. Syn., No. 1110 68 

Lineatus (Fusus), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., 601, t. 34, f. 6-8. 
Euthria lineata, Martyn. 



256 INDEX. 

Lineatus (Triton), Brod. Zool. Proc. 6, 1833.. 14 

Lineatus (Triton), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 72, 1831. == T. Sowerbyi, Reeve. 
Lineolata (Cominella), Dunker ('not Lam.) Phil. Abbild., 110, .Fusus, 

t. 1, f. 10, ^= C. Dunker, Kiister. 

Liueolata (Cominella), Lam. Edit. Desh. x, 164, 186 204 

Lineolata (Cominella), Quoy. Astrol. ii, 419, t. 30, f. 14-10. 

- C. lineolata, var. virgata, H. & A. Ad. 

Lin eolatus (Fusus), Costa. Rev. Cuv., 249, 1841 67 

Lineolatus (Triton), Conrad. Proc. Acad., Philad., 26, t. 1, f. 18, 1846.. 31 
Liomesus, Stimpson. Canad. Nat., N. S. ii, 364, 1865. 
= Buccinopsis, Jeffreys. 

Lirata (Euthria), A. Adams. Linn. Proc., vii, 105, 1864 152 

Lirata (Neptunea), Mart, Conch, t. 43 116 

Lirata (Peristernia), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 152, 18G8 82 

Liratus (Fusus), Gould, Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 282. Trophon, vol. ii, 143 
Liratus (Fusus), Reeve, (non Martyn.) Icon. f. 40. 

Neptunea decemcostata, Say. 
Lirostomus (Triton), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser., v, 419, 1870. 14 

Lirofusus, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch , i, 17, 1865 103 

Lirosoma Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad., 286, 1862. 

S. G. of Fasciolaria, Lam 50 

Lischkeana (Fasciolaria), Dunker. Novit. 44, t. 14. 

_- F. trapezium, Linn., var. 
Listen (Fusus), Jonas. Mai. Beitr., 106, t. 10, f. 18. 

= Sipho gracilis, Da Costa. 
Littorinoides (Euthria), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 94, 1846. 

== E. lineata, Martyn, var. 
Livescens( Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 135, 1848. == Nassa. 

Livida (Macron), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 136, 1854 214 

Livida (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 138, 1844. = R. affinis, Brod. 
Lividus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild., ii, 21, t. 2, f. 8.---F. Blossvillei, Desh. 

Lividus (Sipho), Morch. Jour, de Conch., x, 36, t. 1, f. 1. 1862 127 

Loebbeckei (Fusus), Kobelt. Conchyl. Cab., 154, t. 48, f. 1, 1880 54 

Loebbeckei (Peristernia), Kobelt, Kiister's Conch. Cab., 104, t. 25, f. 

4, 5 7'. 

Loebbeckei (Triton), Lischke. Mai. Blatt, xvii, 23, 1870 2:5 

Longicauda (Fusus), Borg. Encyc. Meth., t, 423, f. 2 (>:'. 

Longicaudus (Murex), Wood. Index Test. Fusus colus, Linn. 
Longirostris (Fusus), Schum. Nouv. Syst., 216, 1817. F. colus, Linn. 
Longirostris (Ranularia), Schum. Nouv. Syst., 254. 

= Triton clavator, Lam. 

Longissimus (Fusus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3556 56 

Longurio (Fusus), Weinkauff. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser. vi, 247, t. 5, f. 4, 

1866. =Trophon inuricatum, Mont., vol. ii, p. 140 
Loroisi (Triton), Petit. Jour, de Conch., 53, t, 2, f. 8, 1852. 

= T. labiosus, Wood. 

Lotor (Lotorium), Montf. Conch., ii, 583. - T. femorale, Linn. 
Lotorium, Montf. Conch. Syst. ii, 583,1810. Cymatium, Bolt, 

Lotorium (Triton), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit, xii, 1217, 19 

Lotorium (Triton), Morch. Yoldi Cat,, 109. = T. pyrum, Linn, 
Luctuosa (Pisania), Tapparone-Canefri. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., ii, 242, 

1876 149 

Luculenta (Peristernia), H. & A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 429, 1863 87 

Lugubris (Cantharus), C. B. Adams. Panama, Cat. No 60 158 

Lugubris (Cyllene), Ads. & Rve. Voy. Samarang,33, t. 10, f. 10 224 

Lugubris (Fasciolaria), Reeve. Icon. f. 2, 1847 75 



INDEX. tif)7 

Lupinus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild. iii, 118. = Netrum. (Pusionella. ) 

Lurida (Neptunea), A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc. vii, 107, 1864 116 

Luridum (Buccinum), Hutton. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal. 14, 1873. 

= Cominella lurida, Phil. 
Luridum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 137, 1848. Icon, iii, 46, t. 1, f. 

10. = Cominella acutinodosa, Reeve. 
Luridum (Tritonium), Midd. Bull. St. Petersb. vii, 244, 1849. 

= Ocinebra lurida, var. aspera, Baird. vol.ii, p. 131. 

Luteolum (Buccinum), Val. Comptes. Rendus. Ivi, 762 194 

Luteopictus (Fusus), Dall. Calif. Proc. 1877. = F. cinereus, Reeve. 1872. 
Luteostoma Buccinum), Kiener. Monog. 110, t. 30, f. 1. = Nassa. 

Luteostoma (Ranella), Pease. Zool. Proc. 307, 1860 45 

Lutosa (Eburna), Lam. Encycl. t. 401, f. 4, a. b 211 

Lyrata (Cyllene), Lam. Anim. s. Vert. x. 170 223 

Lyrata (Nassaria), Link. (Morch). = Nassaria nivea, Gmel. 
Lyratus (Fusus), Desh. Anim. s. Vert, ix, 478. 

= Neptunea lirata, Martyn. 
Lyratus (Latirus), Reeve. Icon. f. 13, 1847 90 

Maclurii (Ranellina), Conrad 6 

Macron, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 132, H. Adams, Zool. Proc. 753, 

1865, 101, 214 

Macula (Buccinum), Montagu. Test. Brit. 241, t. 8, f. 4. =, Nassa. 
Maculata (Gyrina), Schum. Nouv. Syst. 253. = R. gigantea, Lam. 

Maculata (Cominella), Martyn. Univ. Conch, ii, t. 49 204 

Maculata (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon. f. 70, 1847 84 

Maculata (Turbinella), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Pol. Sud. v. 113, t. 25, f. 

32, 33, 1854. = Peristernia maculata, Rve. 
Maculiferus (Fusus), Tapparone-Canefri. Mur. Mar Rosso. 62. 

= F. tuberculatus, Lam. 
Maculosa (Eburna), Bolten. Morch. Yoldi. Cat. 76. = E. lutosa, Lam. 

Maculosa (Pisania), Lam. Anim. sans Vert, vii, 269 148 

Maculosum (Buccinum), Martyn. Univ. Conch, t. 8, (non Bl.) 

? = Cominella maculata, Martyn. Juv. 

Maculosus (Triton), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 3548 25 

Mada, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch, iv. 295, 1867. = Buccinum, L. 

Maderensis (Latirus), Watson. Proc. Zool. Soc. 362, t. 36, f. 30, 1873... 89 

Magellanicum (Buccinum), Phil, Zeit. Mai. 138, 1848 

= Eutheria plumbea, Phil. 
Magellanicus (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab. x. t. 164, f. 1570. 

= Triton cancellatus, Lam. 

Magna (Fasciolaria), Anton. Verzeichn, 72, 1839 78 

Magnifica (Nassaria), Lischke. Mai. Blatt. xviii, 148, 1871 222 

Magnum (Buccinum), Da Costa. Brit. Conch. 120, t. 6, f. 4. 

= Neptunea antiqua, Linn. 
Magnus (Fusus), Mart. Conch. Cab. iv t. 144, f. 1339. 

= F. longissimus, Gmel. 

Malsburgianus (Fusus), Menke, Syn. No. 1108 68 

Mammata(Bursa), Bolten. Morch. Cat. Yoldi. 105. 

= Ranella bufonia, Gmelin. 
Manchuricus (Sipho ) A. Adams. Smith, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, 4 ser. 

xv. 422, 1875. = S. Jessoensis, Schrenck. 
Mancinella. Mus, Berl. H. & A. Ad. Gen. i, 81. 

= Melongena, Schum. 

Mandarina (Siphonalia), Duclos. Mag. Zool. t. 8, 1831 138 

Margaritiferum (Buccinum), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 60, 1847. =s Nassa. 



258 INDEX. 

Margaritula (Ranella), Deshayes. Voy. Bellanger, t. 3, f. 13, 15 :J7 

Marginal a (Ranella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat 42 

Marginatus (Fusus), Dnjardin. M6ih. GSol. ii, 294, t. 19, f. 3. 

= Euthria cornea, Linn. 
Mariei (Turbinella), Crosse. Jour. Conch, xvii, 177, 279, t. 8, f. 2, 1869. 

= var. of Peristernia pulchella, Rve. 
Marminea (Mitrella), Risso. Eur. Merid. iv. 272, Y. 64. 

== Cantharus d'Orbignyi, Payr. 

Marmorata (Pisania), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 95, 1846 147 

Marmoratum (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn. 92, 1836. ? -= Nassa. 
Marmoratum (Triton), Link. Verzeichn. 152, 1807. 

_-T. Tritonis, Linn, var. nobile. 
Maruioratus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild. ii, 120, Fusus, t. 3, f. 7. 

= F. Australia, Quoy. 
Maroccanus( Fusus), Chemn. Conch. Cab. iv., 62, t. 105, f. 896. 

= F. Marocensis, Gmel. 

Maroccensis (Murex), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3558 '. 66 

Marquesanus (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 315, 1854. 

== Penisternia ustulata, Rve. 

Martensiana (Euthria), Hutton. Jour, de Cench. 17, 3, .ser. xv. iii, 1874. 151 
Martiniana (Melongena), Phil. Abbild, Pyrula. i, 95, t 1, f. 9. 

M. corona. Gmel. 
Martinianum (Triton), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 162, 1853. 

= T. pilearis, Linn. 

Maura (Cominella), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 313, 1854 207 

Mauritianus (Triton), Tapparone-Canefri. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. ii, 283, 

1876 24 

Maxima (Siphonalia), Tyron 135 

Mayeria, Bellardi. Mem. Acad. Turin, xxvii, 186, 1873 L"-'' 1 . 

Maz/alina, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch, i, 23, 1805. Lagena, Schum. . --" 
Mediterraneus (Triton), Risso. Hist. Nat. iv. 202. T. nodiferus, Lam. 
Mediterraneus (Triton), Sowb. Zool. Proc. 71, 1833. 

= T. reticulatus, Blainv. 

Meganema, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, 267. = Tortifusus, Conrad. 
Melanoides (Buccinum), Deshaye?. Voy. Belanger, 4, 30, t. 2, f. 3, 1. 

= Bullia. 

Melanostoma (Cantharus), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App. 21, 1825 151 

Melo (Buccinum), Lesson. Rev. Cuv. 3t>5, 1840 194 

Melongena, Schum. Essai, 212, 1817 98,107 

Melongena (Melongena), Linn. Syst, Nat, Edit. 12, 1220... 107 

Mendicaria (Engina), ; 220 

Menkeanus < Cantharus), Dunker. Mai. Ulatt., vi, 222, 1860 157 

Mercatoria (Voluta), Delle Chiaje, iii, t, 46, f. 44, 46. 

Pisania maculosa, Lam. 
Mesorhytis, Meek. Hay den's Survey, 5x, 356, 1866. 

S. G. of Fasciolaria, Lam i j 50 

Metula H. & A. Adams. Gen. Recent. Moll., ii, 84, 1858 100, 152 

Metula (Buccinum), Hin'ds. Voy: Sulphur., 31, t. 16, f. 13, 14, 1844. 

= Metula Hindsii, H. & A. Adams. 

Metulella, Gabb. Prc. Philad. Acad. 270, t, H, f. :!, IS72 104 

Metzgeria, Norman. Quar. Jour. Conch., ii, 56, 187'.>. 

= Meyeria, Dunker & Metzger. 
Mexican urn (Buccinum), Brug. 

== Cominella porcata, Gmel. var. Anglicana. 

Meyeri (Fusus), Dunker. Novit. Conch., 127, t, 43, f. 1, 2 63 

Meyeria; Dunker & Metzger. Sars, Moll. Norv. 245, 1878 48 



INDEX. 259 

Microstoma (Turbinella) Kiistcr, Conch. Cab. Ill, t. 20, f. 8, 9. 

Peristernia nassatula, Lam., var. Forskalii, Tapp. 
Middendorffi (Chrysodomus), Cooper. Pac. R. R. Rep. xii, 370. 

- Neptunea lirata, Mart. 
'Milleti (Fusus), Petit. = Pusionella. 

Minutisquamosus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. f. 80,1848 05 

Minutum (Buccinum), Pennant. Brit. Zool., iv, 11, t. 79, f. 122. 

= Nassa incrassata, Miiller. 
Minutes (Fusus), Desh. Exped. Moree, 193, t. 19, f. 31, 83. 

? Murex corallinus, Scacchi, vol. ii, pp. 119, 148. 
Miocienica (Ranella), Miolielotti. Mioc. It. Sept. 258. 

= R. gigantea, Lam. 

Mirabilis (Thatcheria), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc. 529, t. -"4, f. 1. 1877 1 12 

Mirandum (Buccinum), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4 ser. xvi, 

107, 1875 186 

Mitra^fusus, Bellardi, Mem. Acad. Turin, xxvii, 234, 1873 226 

Mitrella (Metula), Adams & Reeve. Voy. Ssimarang., 32, t. 11, f. 13.. .,.152 
Modestum (Buccinum), Powis. Zool. Proc., 94, 1885. . -.._ Truncaria. 
Modestus (Fusus). Anton. Philippi ; Abbild., i, 111, t, 1, f. 11. = Latirus 90 

Modestus (Fusus), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 327, ISOO 07 

Modificata (Neptunea), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 07, 1840 134 

Moebii (Neptunea), Dunker & Metzger. Jahrb., 148, t. 7, f. 1, 1874. 

= Sipho Sarsii, Jeffreys. 

Moestum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 00, 1851.= Pisania 146 

Mohnia, Friele. N. Mag. Natur., xxiii, f. 14, 1877. 

S. G. of Sipho Klein 99, \ '.','} 

Mohnii (Mohnia), Friele, N. Mag. Natur., xxiii, f. 14, 1877 133 

Mb'lleri (Buccinum), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 29, 1846 and Index. 

= B. ciliatum, Fabr. 
Molliaua (Kburna), Chemn. Sowb. Thes., iii, 09, t. 215, f. 1. 

= E. Yidentiana, Swn. 
Molliana (Eburna), Martini. Conch. Cab., iv, 10, f. 1119. 

== E. Zelandica, Brug. 

Mollis (Pisania), Gould. Bost. Proc., viii, 327, 1860 149 

Monachus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn., 78, 1889 69 

Monilifer (Triton), Ads. & Rve. Voy. Samarang, 37, t, 10, f. 18, 1848... 21 

Monoplex, Perry. Conch., 1811. = Simpulum, Klein. 

Montrouzieri (Pisania), Crosse. Jour. Conch., 3 ser. ii, 251, t. 10, t'. 7, 

1802. P. fasciculata, Rve. var. 
Morchiana (Volutharpa), Fischer. Jour, de Conchy!., vii, 299, t. 10, 

f. 2, 1859. = Buccinum cyaneum, Brug., var. 

Morchianum (Bucc.), Dunker. Novit., i, t. 2, f 1, 2, 1858. = B. gkeiale, L. 
Morchii (Buccinum), Friele. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., iv, 260, 1877. N. Mag. 

Naturvid., xxiii, f. 7, 1877. ? =B. Humphreysianum, Bennett. 

Morio (Melongena). Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1221 Ill 

Morrissii (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 00, 1847.~-Phos. plicosus, Dunker. 
MoritLnctus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 49, 1844. = T. cynocephalus, Lam. 
Mucida (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Kobelt, Conch. Cab., 93, S. munda, A. Ad. 

Multangula (Fusus), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 25, 1848. = Leucozoriia 95 

Multicarinatus (Fusus), d'Orb. Voy. Am., 446. = F. closter, Phil. 

Multicarinatus (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 446 55 

Multicarinatus (Fusus), Reeve, (non Lam). Icon., f. 22, 1847. 

= F. spectrum, Ad. & Rve., var. 
Multicostatus (Fusus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 118. 

= Trophon clathratum, vol. ii, p. 140. 
Multigranosum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 61, 1847, = Nassa. 



260 INDEX. 

Multinoda (Turbinella), Petit. Rev. Zool., 232, 1842. 

= T. rosa-ponti, Lesson. 
Multiplicata (Nassaria), Sowerby. Thes. iii, 87, t, 220, f. 6, 7. 

= N. nivea, Gmel. 

Mulus (Murex), Dillw. Desc. Cat. ii, 704. = T. cancellinus, Roissy. 
Munda (Siphonalia), A. Adams. Ann. Mae. N. Hist. 3d ser. xi, 206. 

181)3.....;. 137 

Mundum (Triton), Gould. Bost. Proc., 143, 1849. = T. gemmatus, Rve. 

Miinsteri (Triton), Anton. Verzeichn., 83, 1839 I' 1 

Muricatus (Fusus), Mont. Test. Brit, i, 262, t. 9, f. 2. 

= Tropbon, vol. ii, p. 140. 
Muriceus (Fusus), Blainv. Encyc. Meth., t. 428, f. 3. 

Murex frondosus, Lam. (Fossil). 
Muriciformis (Fusus), King. Zool. Jour., v, 348, 1835. 

= Trophon, Geversianus, Pallas, var. vol. ii, p. 144. 
Muriciformis (Ranella), Brod. Zool Proc., 179, 1832. 

= Eupleura, vol ii, p. 158. 
Muriciformis (Ranella), var. Sowb. Conch. 111. f. 11. 

= Eupleura triquetra, Reeve vol. ii, p. 158. 

Muricinus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn. 78, 1839 69 

Muricoides (Fusus), C. B. Adams. Bost. Proc., ii, p 3 68 

Muriculatus (Phos), Gould. Sowb. Thes. iii. 89, t. 221, f. 12. 

= Ph. senticosus, Linn. 
Mutabile (Buccinum), part Val. Voy. Venus, t. 6, f. 2, e, f, Carp. 

Mazat. Cat., 516, 515. == Cantharus gemmatus, Rve. 
Myristica, Swainson. Malacol., 86, 307, 1810. 

= S. G. of Melongena, Schum. 
Myristica (Melongena). Encyc. Me'th , t. 431, f. 3, a, b. 

= M. galeodes, Lam. 
Myristica (Melongena), Reeve, Conch. Icon. Fusus, f. 57, 1848 109 

Nagasakiensis (Latirus), E. A. Smith. Proc} Zool. Soc., 482, t. 48, f. 7. 

1880 , 225 

Nana (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon., f. 67, 1847 84 

Nana (Ranella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 51, 1841 38 

Nassa (Leucozonia), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3551. 

= Leucozonia cingulifera, Lam. 

Nassaria, Link. Mus. Rost. iii, 123, 1807 102, 220 

Nassatula (Peristernia), Lam. Hist/Tvii, 110 80 

Nassoides (Cominella), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 12, 1846 206 

Nassoides (Nassaria), Gray. Griffith's Cuvier 222 

Nassoides (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon., f. 71, 1847.^ 85 

Nasuta (Voluta), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3455. = Triton Tritonis, Linn. 
Natator (Tritonium), Bolten. Morch, Cat. Yoldi., 106. 

= Ranella tuberculata, Brod 

Nebulus (Fusus), Montagu. Test. Brit., t. 15, f. 6. = Pleurotoma. 
Neglecta (Ranella), Sowerby. Zool. Proc., 52, 1841. 

= R. Margaritula, Desh. 

Neglectus (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 314, 1854 94 

Neobuccinum, E. A. Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. 168, p. 168. 

1879 100, 197 

^Neptunea, Bolten, Mus., 1798 98, 113 

Neptunella, Meek. Cret. Check List, 38, 1804 ; Pal. Hayden's Survey, 

ix, 343. = Pyrifusua, Conrad .*. 103 

Neptunella, Verrill. Rept. U. S. Fish Comr., 639, 1875. Sipho, Klein. 
Nerei (Murex), part. Dillw. Desc. Cat,, ii, 728. 

= Triton nodiferus, Lam. 



INDEX. 261 

Newcombi (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 314, 1854. 

= Peristernia chlorostoma, Sowb. 

Nicobaricus (Fusus), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., ix, 445 53 

Nigricans (Clea), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 119, 1855 208 

Nigricostatus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 73, 1846. 

= C. fumosus, Dillw. var. 

Nigrinus (Fusus), Phil. Abhandl. Nat, Gesell. Halle, 21, 1857 68 

Nigrirostratus (Fusus), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc. 202, t. 20, f. 33, 1879. 62 

Niponicus (Fusus), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc. 203, t. 20, f. 34, 1879 65 

Nisotum (Buccinum), Potiez et Michaud. Galerie., i, 378, 1838. 

? == Columbella. 

Ni'tens (Fusus), Adams. Contrib. Conch., 60. 1850 68 

Nitida (Ranella), Brod. Zool. Proc., 179, 1832. = Eupleura, vol. ii, p. 158. 

Nitidulus (Triton 1 ), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 71, 1844 ; 27 

Nivale (Buccinum), Friele. North Sea Exped., t. 3, f. 24, 25 195 

Nivea (Nassaria), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3504 221 

Niveus (Fusus), Gray. Ann. Nat. Hist , i, 28, 1838 68 

Nobilis (Fusus), Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 60, 1848 62 

Nobilis (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 137, 1844. 

= R. bufonia, Gmel. var. 
Nobilis (Triton), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad. 2 ser. i, 212. 

= T. Tritonis, Linn., var. 

Nodatus (Latirus), Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 51 92 

Nodicincta (Cominella), Martens. Sit/b. Berlin., 23, 1878 206 

Nodicinctus (Fusus), A. Adam. Zool. Proc., 222, 1855. 

= F. Australia, Quoy 68, 227 

Nodicostata (Hindsia), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 183, 1853. 

= Nassaria acuminata, Reeve. 

Nodiferus (Triton), Lam. Edit. L)e*h., ix., 624 10 

Nodiliratus (Triton), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser. v, 419, 1870... 14 
Nodicostatus (Phos.), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 154, 1850. 

= P. senticosus, Linn. 
Nodosa (Pyrula), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 518. 

= Melongena Paradisiaca, Reeve. 

Nodosa (Siphonalia), Martyn. Univ. Conch, t. 5 136, 194 

Nodosa plicatus (Fusus), Dunker. Novit. Conch. 99, t. 33, f. 3, 4 54 

Nodosum (Triton), Mart. Conch. Cab. iv, t. 131, f. 1256. 

= T. Wiegmanni, Anton. 

Nodulosa (Peristernia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., C13, 1854 87 

Nodulosa (Pisania), Biv. Nouv. Gen. = Cantharus d'Orbignyi, Payr. 

Nodulosa (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist,, xi, 206, 1863 137 

Noduliferum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 136, 1848. = Nasssi. 
Nodulus (Triton), Miirch. Yoldi Cat., 109. = T. tuberosus, Lam. 
Notatus (Phos.), Sowb. Thes. iii, 94, t. 221, f. 17, 18. = P. pallidus, Powis. 
Noumeeusis (Peristernia), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xviii, 247, 870. xix, 

199, t. 6, f. 1, 1871 86 

Novae- Hollandise (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. f. 70, 1848. Carpenter, 2d 

Report, 49. = F. spectrum, Ads. and Reeve. 

Norvegica (Neptunea), Chemn. Conch. Cal., x, 218, t. 157, f. 1497-8i... 119 
Norvegicum (Buccinum), Encyc. Meth, t. 399, f.. 5. 

= Cominella porcata, Gmel., var. Anglicana. 
Nucleus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc. 175, 1832. Sowb. Conch. 111. f. 2. 

= Fusus 67 

Nux (Liomesus), Dall. Calif. Proc., 1877 195 

Obesum (Buccinum), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., ii, 2, 1845. Columbella. 
Obesus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 129, f. 92, 1880. = Sipho 132 



262 INDEX. 

Obliqua ( Cyllene), Kiener, Petit. , Nassa. 

Obliqueplicatum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 61, 1847. = Nassa. 

Obliquicostatus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 91, 1846... 161 

Oblitus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon, f. 29, 1847. -== F. 4 Nicobaricus, Lam. 
Obscura (Buccinum), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 68, 1846. 

= Cominella lineolata, var. virgata. 

Obscurus (Fusus), Phil. Icon. Fusus, i, 108, jt. 1, f. 5 67 

Obscurus (Triton), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 312, 1854 33 

Obscurus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 63, 1844 26 

Occidentals (Ptychatractus), Stearns. Prelirn. Desc., 1871. Cal. Proc. 

v, 79, 1873 72 

Ocellata (Turbinella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3488 95 

Ocelliferus (Fusus), Born. Encyc. Meth. t. 429, f. 7 65 

Ochotensis (Tritonium), Midd. Reise ii, 235, t. 10, f. 1, 2; t. 9, f. 5, 

1851. =*= Buccinum striatum, Sowb. 

Odontobasis, Meek. Hayden's Survey, ix, 351, f. 41, 42, 43, 1876 105 

Olearium (Murex), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit. 10, 748. 

? = Ranella gigantea, Lam. 

Olearium (Triton), Linn. Syst. Nat,, edit, xii, 1216 11 

Olivator (Ranella), Mensch. Moerch, Cat, Yoldi., 100. 

= R. bitubercularis, Lam. 

Opis (Triton), Bolt. Moerch, Yoldi Cat,, 108. = T. nodiferus, Lam. 
Oregonensis (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. f. 61. = Triton Oregonense, Jay, 
Oregoneusis (Triton), Redtield. Ann. N. Y. Lye., iv, 165, t. 11, f. 2, 

1848. T. cancellatus, Lam. 

Orientalis (Cyllene), A. Ad. Zool. I'roc., 205, 1850. = C. Owenii, Gray. 
Orientalis (Triton), Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xliii, 29, 1874. 

= T. labiosus, Wood, var. 
Ornata (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.., ii, 204, 1863. 

S. Cassidariceformis, Reeve. 
Ornatum (Buccinum), Say. Jour. A. N. S , 229, 1S22. 

: Melongena corona, Gmel. 
Orphnostoma (Tritonidea hocmastoma, var.), Wimrner. Sitzb. Akad. 

Wien, Ixxx, 472. _ Cantharus haemastoma. 
Oryza (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit, Mai., 64, 1847. 7 Astyris. 

Ossiani (Neptunea), Friele. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., vi, 279, 1879 133 

Ovata(Fasciolaria), Menke. Synops. No. 1030. Morch, Mai. Blatt, xviii, 

126. = F. salmo, Wood '! 
Ovoides (Neptunea), Midd. licise, ii, 236, t. 8, f. 7, 8, 1831. 

Buccinopsis Dalei, Sowb. 
Ovum (Buccinum), Turton. Zool. Jour, ii, -566, t. 13, f. 9. 

Buccinopsis Dalei, Sowb. 
Ovum (Tritonium), Midd. Mai. Ross. Pt. 2, 174, t. 4, f. 12, t. 6, f. 1-4. 

B. Humphreysianum, Bennett. 
Oweni (Cyllene), Gray. Griffiih's Cuvier, t. 41, f. 2 224 

Pachycheilos (Triton), Tapparone-Canefri. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. ii, 243, 

1876 21 

Pachyraphe (Fusus), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 205, t. 20, f. 37, 370, 

1879. ~ : Coralliophila, vol. ii, p. 209. 

Pacifica (Eburna), Swains. Zool. 111. iii, t, 146. = E. lutosa, Lam. 
Pacifica (Turbinella), Lesson. Rev. Cuv., 211, 1842. 

? P. chlorostoma, Sowb. 
Packardi (Buccinum), Stimpson. Canad. Nat. N. S., ii, 375, 1865. 

? - B. plectrum, Stimpson, var. 
Pseteli (Fusus), Dunker. Novit. Conch., 100, t. 33, f. 5, 6. 

= F. gradatus, Reeve. 



INDEX. 263 

Pretelianus (Latirus), Kobelt, Raster, Conch. Cab., 71, t. 18, f, 2, 3 91 

Pagoda (Nassaria), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 121, 1844. 3= Nassa 223 

Pagodus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 50, 1846. 

= Melongena fusiformis, Bl. 

Pagodus (Fusus), Lesson. TIL ZooL, t. 40, 1831 51 

Pagodus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 97, 1844. Nassa. 

Palo?atractus, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, 147, 1869 103 

Pallida (Cyllene), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 205, 1850. 

= C lugubris, Ad. & Reeve. 
Pallida (Pyrula), Brod. & Sowb. Kobelt, Conch. Cab., Pyrula, 32, t. 7, 

f. 3 109 

Pallidus (Phos), Powis. Thes. iii, 94, t. 221, f. 19-21 t 218 

Panamense (Bucciuum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 61, 1851. 

Papillaris (Eburna), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., 22, 1825 211 

Papillatus (Triton), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 166, 1871 32 

Papillina, Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad., 262, 1855 103 

Papillosa (Fasciolaria), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App. 16, 1825. 

= F. gigantea, Kiener. 

Papillosus (Triton), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser. v, 419, 1870... 14 
Paposum (Buccinum), Phil. Atacama, 188, 1860. 
Papuanus (Cantharus), Tapparone-Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ., Genoa, vii, 

1028,1875 159 

Papyracea (Cominella), Brug. Encyc. Meth., t. 400, f. 3 202 

Paradisiaca (Melongena), Reeve. Icon. Pyrula, f. 17, 1847 110 

Parthenopus (Triton), Salis. Reisen, 870, 17H8. 
Parvulum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 64, 1847. 

= Col umbel la cribraria, Lam. 

Parvulum (Buccinum), Verkr. Mai. Jahrb., 1876. == B. undatum, L. 
Parvus (Triton), C. B. Ad. Contrib. 5<), 1850. = T. eximeus, Rve. 
Pastinaca (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 88, 1846. 
( '. Coromamlelianus, Lam., var. 

Pastinaca (Hemifusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 64, 1848 112 

Patiigonicum (Buccinum), Phil. Archiv fiir Naturg., i, 68, 1845. 

= Euthria plumbea, Phil. 

Patula (Melongena), Brod. & Sowb. Zool. Jour., iv, 377 107 

Paulucciana (Ranella), Tapparone-Canefri. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., ii, 244, 

1876. R. cruentata, Sowb 4;"> 

Pauperculus (Fusus), Deshayes. Laborde's Voy. Arab., 66, t. 115, 

f. 15-17 r>7 

Pazi (Pisania), Crosse. Jour, de Conch , 2 ser. iii, 380, 1. 14, f. 1, 1858... 148 
Pectiuata (Ranella), Hinds, Voy. Sulphur, 13, t. 4, f. 17, 18, 1844. 

= Eupleura, vol. ii, p. 158. 

Pediculare (Buccinum), Lam. Planaxis lineatus. 

Peistochilus. Meek, Check List Cret. Foss. 22, 1864 ; Hayden's Sur- 
vey ix, 356 47 

Pellucidus (Sipho), Hancock Ann. Mag. xviii, 880, t. 5, f. 3, 1846 130 

Penita (Cassis), Meusch. Mus. Gron, 888. 

Triton cancellinus, Roissy. 
Pennata (Pisania), Chcmn. Conch. Cab., iv, ,. 127, f. 1218-1220. 

P. pusio, Linn. 
Pensum (Fusus), Button. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal, 8, 1873. 

F. spiralis, Adams. 

Perca (Biplex), Perry. Conch., t. 4, f. 5, Ranella jmlchra, Gray 43 

Percyanus (Fusus) Sowb. They. Conch., No. 4, f. 77, 1880. 

- F. polygonoides, Lam 227 

Perdix (Buccinum), Beck. Moerch, Spitzbergen's Mollusken, Ann. Soc. 

Mai. Belg.. iv, 18, 1869. B. cyaneum, Brug. 



204 INDEX. 

Perforata (Eburna), Sowerby. Zool. Proc., 252, t. 21, f. 2, 1870 213 

Perforates (Triton), Conrad. Proc. Philada. Acad., iv, 15G, 1849. 

T. Wiegmanni, Anton. 

Pergracilis (Exilia), Conr 49 

Pericochlion (Neptunea), Schrenck. Bull. Petersb., v, 514, 1866.. 121 

Perissolax, Gabb. Syn. Cret. Moll., 66, 1861 104 

Peristernia, Moerch. Yoldi Cat., 99,1852 48, 79 

Perlatus (Cantharus), Kiister. Conch. Cab., Buccinum. 61, t. 12, f. 5, 6. 158 
Perplexus (Fusus), A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., 106, 1864; E. A. Smith, 

Zool. Proc., 202, 1879 54 

Perryi (Bullia), Jay. Japan Exped., ii, 295, t. 5, f. 13-15, 1856. 
Perstca (Fasciolaria), Reeve. Icon. f. 15, 1847. = F. aurantiaca, Lam. 
Persona, Montf. Conch. Syst. ii, 602, 1810. = Distorsio, Bolt, 

Personella, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 21, 1865. = Triton 6 

Perversus (Fulgur), Linn. Syst, Nat,, edit. 12, 1222 141 

Perversus (Fusus), Lam. Kiener, t, 20, f. 1. = Neptunea contraria, Linn. 
Pes-leonis (Bufonaria), Schum. Nouv. Syst,, 252, 1817. 

= Ranella scrobiculator, Linn. 
Petit Thouarsi (Fusus), Val. Voy. Venus, t. 5, f. 1, 1846. 

= F. Dupetithouarsi, Kiener. 

Petterdi (Cantharus), Brazier. Zool. Proc., 22, 1872 162 

Pfaffi (Sipho), Morch. Jour. Conch., xxiv, 369, 1876 , 127 

Pfeifleri (Fusus), Philippi. Abbild. ii, 117, t, 3, f. 1.. 63 

Pfeifferianus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 14, 1844 23 

Phalaena (Buccinum), Lesson. Rev. Cuv., 237, 1842. ? = Engina 194 

Philberti (Peristernia), Recluz. Mag. de Zool., t, 91, 1844 79 

Philippii (Fusus), Jonas. Mai. Beitr., 129 62 

Philomela (Triton), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 268, 1880. 225 

Phos, Montfort. Conch. Syst,, ii, 494, 1810 101, 215 

Picta (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon. f. 19, 1847 79 

Pictum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 172, 1846. = Nassa. 

Pictum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. f. 74, 1846. = Pisania ignea, Gmel. 

Picturatum (Buccinum), Dall. Calif. Proc., 1871 190 

Pictus (Cantharus), Scacchi. Cat. 10, f. 14..... 15S 

Pictus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 99, 1844 30 

Pileare (Triton), Orb. Voy. Amer. merid. 449. = T. olearium, L. 

Pilearis (Triton), Linn. Syst, Nat,, edit, xii, 1217 12 

Pingue (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 61, 1851. = Nassa. * 

Pisania Bivona, Eftem. scient, 55, 1832 100, 145 

Plagosus (Fulgur), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad., 2d ser., 583, 1862 ; 

Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 182. = F. pyrum, Dillw. 

Planaxiforme (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeich. 92, 1839. ? *= Planaxis. 
Plebeius (Fusus), Button. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal., 9, 1873. 

c= Trophon, vol. ii, p. 145, 156. . 

Plectrum (Buccinum), Stimpson. Canad. Nat. N. S. ii, 374, 1865 184 

Pleurotornarius (Fusus), Couthuoy. Bost. Jour, ii, t. 1, f. 9. = Pleurotoma, 
Pleurotomiforme (Buccinum), Potiez et Mich. Galerie, i, 379, t. 32, f. 

13-14, 1838. 

Pleurotomoides (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn. 17, 1839 69 

Plicata CPyrula), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., edit, Desh. ix, 502 Ill 

Plicata (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc. 138, 1844. Conch. Icon. t. 7, f. 33. 

Kuster, 139, t. 38a, f. 2. = Eupleura, vol. ii, p. 145, 156. 
Plicatella, Swains. Malacol. 78, 304, 1840. = Latirus, Montf. 

Plicatula (Turbinella), Anton. Verzeich. 71, 1839 97 

Plicatulum (Buccinum), Nuttall. Jay, Cat. 3d edit., 88 194 

Plicatus (Phos), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 175, 1857. = P. senticosus, Linn. 



INDEX. 265 

Plicatus (Sipho), A. Adams. Jour. Linn. Soc. vii, 107, 1864. 
Plicosum (Buccinum), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 111. 1846. = Nassa. 
Plicosum (Buccinuin), Menke. == Urosalpinx cinerea, Say. Vol. ii, p. 152. 

Plicosus (Phos), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. Ill, 1846 < 216 

Plumatum (Buccinum), Gmelin, 3494. = Pisania pusio, Linn. 

Plumbea (Cyllene), Sowb. Thes. Conch, iii, 78, t. 217. f. 23, 27, 28 224 

Plumbeus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild. i, 108, t. 1, f. 3, 1844. 

= Euthria plumbea 150 

Pluriannulata (Cominella), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 38, 1846. 

= C. lineolata, Lam., var. virgata. 
Polare (Buccinum), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 128. 1839. 

= B. glacis le, Linn., var. 
Politum (Buccinum), Basterot. Me"m. Geol. Env. Bordeaux, 48. t. 2, f. 11, 

teste Deshayes. Voy. Belanger, 431, t. 3, f. 1, 2. = Bullia. 
Pollia, Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. Ill, 1839. = Cantharus, Bolten. 
Polychloros (Ranella), Tapparone-Canefri. Ann. Mu8. Civ., Genoa, xii, 

1028, 1875. = R. pusilla, Brod., var. 
Polygona, Schum. Essai Nouv. Syst., 241, 1817. = Latirus, Montf. 

Polygonoides (Fusus), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. edit. Desh. ix, 455 56 

Polygonus (Latirus), Gmel. Syst, Nat., 3555 88 

Polyzonalis (Ranella), Encyc. Meth. = R. argus, Gmelin. 
Ponderosa (Fasciolaria), Jonas. Phil. Abbild., iii, Fuse. 93, t. 2. 

= F. trapezium, Linn., var. 
Ponderosa (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc. 137, 1844. = R. affinis, Brod. 

Porcata (Cominella), Gmelin. Syst Nat., 8494 202 

Porcatum (Buccinum), B. Gmelin, Syst. Nat,, 3494. 

= Cantharus variegatus, Gray. 

Porcatus (Cantharus), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 430, 1803 166 

Porphyrostoma (Tudicla), Ads. and Reeve. Reeve, Icon. Fasciolaria, 

1847 : 143 

Poulsenii (Triton), Morch. Mai. Blatt, xxiv, 33. 1877 14 

Poulsoni (Buccinum). Nuttall MSS. Jay, Cat. 3d edit, 88 194 

Prevostii (Buccinum), Val. Voy. Venus, t, 6, f. 3. 

= Cantharus spiralis, Gray. 

Priamus, Beck. Desh. Anim. s. Vert, viii, 299, 1838. = Halia, Risso. 
Priene, H. & A. Adams. Genera, ii, 655, 1858. 

S. G. of Triton, Montf 9, :',:; 

Princeps (Fasciolaria), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App. 16, 1825 75 

Priscofusus, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 150, 1865 49 

Prismaticus (Latirus), Martyn !:; 

Proboscidiferus (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 449 52 

Proditor (Ranella), Frauenfeld. Verb. Zool. Bot. Gesell. Wien. xv, 894. 

1865. Velain. Archives, Zool. Exp. vi, 100, t. 2, f. 5. 

= R. argus, Gmel. 

Producta (Ranella), Pease. Zool. Proc., 397, I860 45 

Productum (Triton), Gld. Moll. Wilkes' Exp. 240, 1852. 

T. tuberosus, Lam. 

Productus (Sipho), Beck. .Morch, Jour. Conch., xxiv, 371, 1876 129 

Propinquus (Sipho), Alder. Cat, North., t. 63 125 

Proteus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 51, IS If.. 

- C. f'umosus, Dillw. 
Provincialis (Fusus), Blainv. Faune Franc., 87, t, 4, D. f. 1. 

= F. rostratus, Olivi. 
Provincialis (Pyrula), Martin. Jour, de Conch,, ii, 249, t. 8, f. 4, 1851 ; 

Petit, ibid. .iii, 272. = Cnssidaria echinophora. 

34 



266 INDEX. 

Pseudobuceinum, Meek & Hayden. Hay den's Survey, ix, 349, t. 31, T. 5. 

1876 105 

Pseudodon (Leucozonia), Burrow. Elem., 184, t. 26, f. 2, 1815. 

= L. cingulata, Lam. 

Ptychatractus, Stimpson. Am. Jour. Condi., i, 59 ? 48, 7-1 

Pubescens (Buccinum), Kiister. Monog., 73, t. 13, f. 8, 9, 1858. 

= Cominella porcata, Gmel., var. 
Pugilina, Schum. Nouv. Syst., 210, 1817, 8. G. of Melongena, Schum. 

Pugilina (Melongena), Born. Mus., 316 110 

Pulchella (Cyllene), Ad. & Rve. Voy. Samarang, 33, t. 10 224 

Pulchella (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon.,f. 65, 1847 81 

Pulchella (Ranella), Forbes. Voy. Rattlesnake, ii, 328, t. 3, f. 6, a, b, 

1852. = R. pulchra, Gray 4>> 

Pulchellum (Buccinum), Adams. Contr. Conch., 130, 1850 191 

Pulchellum (Buccinum), Sars. Moll. Norv., 261, t. 24, f. 9. 1878. 

= B. cyaneum, Brug. 
Pulchellus (Fusus), Pfr. (notLana.) Archiv. fur. Naturg. i, 258, 1840. 

= Cantharus limbatus, Phil. 

Pulchellus (Fusus), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, 178, t. 25, f. 28 65 

Pulchellus (Murex), Lam. Pfeiffer. Weigm. Archiv., i, 258,. 1840. 

= Cantharus limbatus, Phil. 
Pulchellus (Triton), Ad. Contr. Conch., 60, 1850. T. chlorostomus, Lam. 

Pulchra (Ranella), Gray. Sowb. 111., f. 19 4o 

Pulchra (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon. f. 20. == Peristernia incarnata, Desh. 
Pulchra (Siphonalia), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 132, 1876. 

= Young, Pleurotoma philomense 137 

Pulchrum (Buccinum), Reeve., f. 80, 1846. = Engina. 

Pulchrum (Buccinum), Lesson. Rev. Cuv., 238, 1842 194 

Pulla (Fusus), Reeve. Fusus, f. 89, 1848. 

? = Pleurotoma Vahlii, Moller. 
Punctulatum (Buccinum), Potiez el Mich. Galerie, i, 380, t. 32, f. 15, 1C.. 

1838. = Columbellidse. 
Punctatum (Buccinum), Monog., 74, t. 14, f. 51. 

= Ainycla, in Columbellidiw. 

Punctatus (Fusus), Anton. Ver/eichn., 77, 1839 69 

Puncticulatus (Cantharus), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., viii, 44, 1862 159 

Purpurea (Fasciolaria), Jonas. Zeit. Mai., 1846.= F. aurantiaca, Lam. 
Purpurea (Fasciolaria), var. Dunker, Novit,, 94, t. 32, f. 1, 2. 

= F. Heynemanni, Dunker. 

Purpuroides (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn, 92, 1839. Undetermined. 
Purpuroides (Fusus), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., t. 65, f. 1. 

= Melongena fusiformis, Blainv. 

Purpuroides (Turbinella), Lesson, Rev. Zool., 211, 1842 97 

Pusilla (Distorsio), Pease. Zool. Proc.. 397, I860.. 35 

Pusilla (Meyeria), Sars. Norv. Moll., 245, t, 13, f. 8, Vid. Selsk. Foreh. 

Christ., 39, 1858. = M. alba, Jeffreys. 
Pusilla (Neptunea), Bolten. Morch. == Nassaria nivea, Gmel. 

Pusilla (Ranella), Brod. Zool. Proc., 194, 1832 44 

Pusillum (Buccinum), Pff. Archiv., i, 257, 1840. = Columbella. 
Pusillum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 62, 1851. 

Pusillus (Fusus), Pfeiffer. Archiv. fiir Naturg.. i, 258, 1840 67 

Pusillus (Triton), Pease. Zool. Proc.. 4, 34, 1860 Ml 

Pusio, Gray. Griffith's Cuvier., t. 25, 1823. = Pisania, Bivona. 

Pusio (Pisania), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit., xii, 1223 145 

Pusio (Pisania), Linn. Philippi et Auct. = P. maculosa, Lam. 
Pustulosa (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 137, 1844. Conch. Icon., f. 11, 

1844... . 41 



INDEX. 

Puxleyanum (Bucc.) Leacii. Moll. Gt. Brit. 127. 

= B. Humphreysianum, Bennett. 
Pygmaea (Ranella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 154. 

= Nassa pygmasa, Lam. 

Pygmseus (Sipho), Gould. Invert. Mass., 284, f. 199, 1841 129 

Pygmaeus (Triton), Reeve. Icon., f. 67. = T. reticulatus, Blainv. 
Pyramidale(Buccinum), Reeve. Icon., f. 104. 1847. = B.undatum, Linn. 
Pyramidalis (Ranella), Brod. Z. Proc., 194, 1832. =R. anceps, Lam. 

Pyramis (Siphonalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xi, 200, 1863 137 

Pyrella, Swains. Mai., 304, 1840. = Tudicla, Bolt. 

Pyriformis (Triton), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 312, 1854 :'.5 

Pyriformis (Triton), Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad. 2 ser. i, 211, 1849. 

= T. tuberosus, Lam. 
Pyrifusus, Conrad. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. N. S. iii, 332, t. 35. f. 

12, t. 47, f. 2, 1858. Meek, Hayden's Survey, ix, 343 10., 

Pyropsis, Conr. Jour. A. N. S. Philad., iv, 188, t. 16, f. 39, 1860, Am. 

Jour. Conch., iv, 248,1868 104 

Pusillus (Triton), Pease. Zool. Proc., 434, 18.60 31 

Pyrostoma (Phos), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 200, 1842. = P. textum Gmel. 

Pyrula, Perry. Concb. 1811. = Fasciolaria, Lam. 

Pyrulatus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. f. 50, 1847. Var. Dunker, Novit, 103, 

t, 34, f. 5, 6., 66 

Pyrulofusus, Beck, Morch. = Heliotropis, Dall 
Pyruloides (Fulgur), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad., ii, 237. 

= Fulgur pyrum, Dillw. 

Pyruloides (Fusus), DeKay. Nat. Hist. N.Y. = Melongena corona, Gmel. 229 
Pyruloides (Fusus). Encyc. Moth. t. 429, f. 6. 

= Heinifusus ternatanus, Gmel. 

Pyrulum (Triton), Ads. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 37, t. 10, f. 17, 1848. 23 
Pyrum (Buccinum), Gnielin. 3484. = Melongena paradisiaca, Rve. 

Pyrum (Busycon), Dillw. (at. 485 .. 142 

Pyrum (Triton), Linn. Syst. Nat, edit, xii, 1218 19 

Quisquiliarum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 62, 1851. ? = Nassa. 
Quoyana (Cominella), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 313, 1854. 

? = C. costata, Quoy. 
Quoyi (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. sp. 36, 1816. 

= C. lineolata, Lam. Var. virgata. 

Quoyi (Cominella), Kiener. Buccinum, 16, t. 5, f. 13 204 

Quoyi (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 93, 1844 24 

Rana, Humph. Mus. Calonn. 1797. = Ranella, Lam. 

Rana (Murex), pars., Linn, Edit. 12, 1216. = Ranella crumena, Lam. 

Rana (Murex), Linn. = Ranella albivaricosa, Reeve. 

Rana (Murex), var. B., Linn. Edit. 12, No. 527. 

= Ranella spinosa, Lam. 

Ranella, Lam. Extr. d'un Cours., 1812 6, :;0 

Ranellneforme (Triton), Sismonda. Synopsis, 39. = T. nodiferus, Lam. 
llanellteformis (Triton), King. Zool. Jour., v, 347. 

= Ranella Argus, Gmelin. 

Ranellina, Conr. Am, Jour. Conch., i, 21, 1865 6 

Ranelloides (Triton), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1844. Icon. f. 10, 1844. 

= Ranella cruentata, Sowb. 

Ranina (Ranella), Blainv. Malacol, p. 400. = R. gigantea, Lam. 
Ranina (Ranella), Lamarck. Edit. Desh. ix, ">49. = R. gyrina, Linn. 



268 



INDEX. 



Ranularia, Schum. Essai, 1817. = Gutturnium, Klein. 

Ranzanii (Triton), Bianconi. Revue et Mag. Zool. 217, 1851. Zool. 

Mozambicana 63, t. 3, f. 1, 2, 1851. = T. tigrinus, Brod. 
Raphanoides (Fusus), Gray. Zool, Beechey's Voy., 116, 1889. 

== Melongena fusiformus, Bl. 

Raphanus (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 454. = Siphonalia nodosa, Martyn. 
Rapulum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. f. 82. = Pusionella. 
Recluzianus (Fusus), Petit. = Pusionella. 
Rectiplicatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 110, f. 101, 1880. 

= Sipho Kroyeri, Moller 132 

Rectirostris (Chrysodomus), Carpenter. 2d Report, 150 131 

Recurva (Nassaria), Sowb. Thes. iii, 86, t. 220, f. 17, 18. 

= N. acuminata, Reeve. 
Recurva (Tudicla), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 135, t. 28, f. 4, 1854. 

= T. porphyrostoma/Ad. and Reeve. 
Recurvirostris (Latirus), Schubert and Wagner. Conch, xii, p. 100, 

t. 227, f. 4021........ :.... , 89 

Recurvus (Fusus). Koch. Philippi Abbild. ii, 119, t. 3, f. 6. Urosalpinx 

cinerea, Say. Vol. ii, p. 152. 

Reeveana (Siphonalia), Petit, Jour, de Conch, ii, 365, t. 10,-f. 7, 1851.. 138 
Reeveanum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 62, 1847. = Nassa, ' ' i'-t 
Reeveanus (Fusus), Phil. Abbild. iii, 119. 

= F. spectrum, Ad. and Reeve, var. 

Reeveanus (Fusus), Sowb. (not Petit). Thes. Conch, sp. 62, f. 82, 1880.. 228 
Reevei (Fasciolaria), Jonas. Phil. Abbild. iii, 121, t. 3, f. 2. 

. F. princeps, Sowb. 
Regularis (Neptunea), Dall. Kobelt, 115, t, 39, f. 2, :]. 

=N. Norvegica, Chemn. 

Remotus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn. 77, 1839 69 

Retecosus (Phos), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 37, t. 10, f. 3, 4, 1844 218 

Reticosus (Triton), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist,, 4 ser. v, 420, 1870 31 

Reticulare (Tritonium), Pfeiffer. == T. cancellinus, Roissy. 
Reticularis (Murex), Linn. Gmelin, 3536. ?= R. gigantea, Lam. 
Reticularis (Ranella), Deshayes. Encyc. Meth. iii. 877. =R. gigantea, Lam. 

Reticulata (Pisania), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 138. 1854 147 

Reticulatus (Triton), Blainv. Faune Franc., t. 4 D, f. 5 27 

Retusus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, <>3."> ; L>3 

Rheuma (Fusus), Menke. Zeit, Mai. 19, 1851. 

= Fusus colus, L. var. toveuma, Martyn. 
Rhinoceros (Triton), Bolten. Morch, Yoldi Cat,, 109. 

== T. lotorium, Linn. 
Rhinodomus, Swains, Mai., 80, :>05. 1840. == Phos. Montf. 

Rhodostoma (Latirus), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., vi, 238, 1860 92' 

Rhodostoma (Ranella), Beck. Sowb. Zool. Proc., 52, 1841. 

== R. cruentata, Sowb. var. 

Ridens (Distorsio), Reeve. Icon. f. 46> 1844. D. cancellinus, Roissy. 
Rigidus '(Murex), Wood. Ind. Test. Suppl., t, 5, f. 3. 

= Latirus nodatus, Martyn, 

Ringens (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit, Mai., ~>9, 1851. ? = Nassa. 
Ringens (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 45, 1846. 

= C. Coromandelianus, Lam 

Robustior (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 73, f. 63, 1880 22S 

Robustum (Buccinum), Kuster. 81, t. 14, f. 13, t. 15, f. 5. 

~ Cominella porcata, Gmelin. 

Rodgersi (Buccinum), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, 326, 1860. = B. glaciale, L. 
rioedingi (Fusus,) Anton, Verzeichn, 75, 1839, 69 



INDEX. m 

Roissyi (Buccinum), Deshayes. Voy. Belanger, 432, t. 3,.f. 3, 4. 

= Nassa. 
Holland! (Turbinella), Bernardi & Crosse. Jour. Conch., ix, 50, t. l,.f. 6, 

1861 . , 7> 

Rombergi (Buccinum), Bunker. Novit. Conch., i, 4, t. 2, f. 5, 0, 1858. 

= B. glaciale, Linn. 
Rosa-ponti (Fusus), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 104, 212, 1842. 

= Turbinella, Petit, Rev. Zool., 232, 1842 97 

Rosea (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 139, 1844 ; Conch. Icon., f. 46. 

R. Pusilla, Brod., var. 

Roseatus (Phos), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 38, t. 10. f. 9, 10, 1844 217 

Roseus (Fusus), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. et Astrol. et /el., v, 107. t. 25, 

f. 4-5, 1854. = Trophon, Vol. 2. 

Roseus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn, 78, 1839 69 

Roseus (Sipho), Ball. Calif. Proc., 1877 128 

Rossmassleri (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn, 77, 1839 , 69 

Rostratum (Triton), .Mart., iii, f. 1083. = T. cingulatus, Lam. 

Rostratus (Fusus), Olivi. Zool. Adriat., 153 01 

Rubecula (Triton), Linn. Syst. Nat,, edit, xii, 1267 12 

Rubens (Cantliarus), Kiister. Bucc., 25, t. '>, f. 7, 9 156 

Rubens (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 458 68 

Rubicola (Ranella), Perry. Ranella granit'era, Lam. 

Rubiginosum (Buccinum), Krauss (not Reeve). Sild Afr. Moll., 120, 

= B. cariniferus, Kiister. 
Rubiginosum (Buccinum), Krauss. Siid Afrk. Moll., ll'<>. 

Pisania carinifera, Kiister. 
Rubiginosus (Cantharus), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 47, 1840. 

= Tritonidea fumosus, Dillw. var. 

Rubrolineata(Cyllene), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 251, 1870 225 

Rubrolineatus (Fusus), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 252, 1870 65, 228 

Rubrum (Buccinum), Potie/. et Mich. Galerie i, 381, t. 32, f. 17, 18, 1838. 

== Lachesis minima. Mont. 
Rudicostatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 30. f. 19, 1880. 

= F. Australis, Quoy 227 

Rudis (Turbinella), Reeve. Icon., f.51, 1847. 

= Leucozonia cingulifera, Lam. 

Rudis (Triton), Brod. Zool. Proc., 6, 1833 34 

Rudolph! (Fusus), Dunker. Novit. Conch., 128, t. 43, f. 3, 4 64 

Rufociuctus (Phos), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 154, 1 *"><>. 

= Ph. senticosus, Linn, 
llufulum (Buccinum), Kiener. Monog., t, 10, f. 9, 10. 

= Desmoulea ventricosa, Lam. 

Rufum (Bucc.) Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 59, 1847. == Nasssi. 
llufus (Fusus), Hombr. et Jac). Voy. Astrol. et /el. v, 107, t. 25, f. 1-3, 
Euthria plumbea, Phil. 

Rufus (Fusus), Reeve, Icon. f. 58, 1848. Fasciolaria rufa, Rve 78 

Rugosa (Distorsio), Schiim. Nouv. Syst. 249. = D. anus, Linn. 

Rugosa (Fasciolaria), Val. Recueil d'Observations, 280 78 

Rugosa (Ranella), Sowerby. Zool. Proc., 53, 1841. Conch. 111., f. 7. 

F. cruentata, So\vb. 

Rustica (Turbinella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat,, 3486. = T. smaragdula, Linn. 
Rusticula (Tudicla), Bast, H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 152. Unidentified. 
Rutilum (Tritonium), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl., 25, 1843. 

= T. labiosus, Wood. 
Rutilum (Tritonium), Morch. Dunker, Novit. Conch., 3, t. 1, f. 5, 6. 

== B. glaciale, L. 



270 INDEX. 

Saginella, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 21, 1865. = Buccitriton, Conr. 
Sagitta (Ranella), Kiister. Conch. Cab., 147, t. 38 a, f. 0. 

= R. pusilla, Brod., var concinna, Bkr. 
Salmo (Fasciolaria), Wood. Ind. Test. Suppl., t. 5, f. 14. 
Sabini (Fusus), Hancock. = Sipho Islandicus, Chemn., Juv. 
Sabini (Tritonium), Middendorf (not Gray). 

? = Siphonalia Harfordi. Stearns. 
Sabinii (Fusus), Friele. N. Mag. Natur., xxiii, 7, f. 15, 16. 

= Sipho togatus, Morch. 
Sabinii (Fusus), Gray. Append. Parry's Voy., 240, 1824. 

Sagenella, Conrad 10f> 

Salebrosa (Turrispira), Conrad, 49 ? = Buccinofusus Berniciensis, King. 

Salmo (Fasciolaria), Wood. Index Test. 78. 

Samier (Triton), Petit. Jour, de Conch.. iii, t. 2, f.'.lO, 1852. 

= T. ticoides, Reeve. 

Samoensis (Cantharus), Bunker. Mai. Blatt, xviii, 165, 1871 161 

Sanctae-Luche (Murex), v. Salis. lleise. 371, t. 7. f. 3. 

Fusus restrains, Olivi. 

Sandvichensis (Fusus), Sowb, Thes. Conch, sp. 17, f. 25, 1880. 

= F. spectrum, Ads. and Reeve, var 227 

Sanguifluus (Latirus), Reeve. Icon. f. 58, 1847 ( .>:>, 

Sanguineus (Murex), Mawe. Wood Ind. Test. Suppl. p. 217, f. 10. 
= Latirus varicosus, Reeve. 

Sanguinolentus (Cantharus), Duclos. Mag. de Zool. t. 22, f. 1833 164 

Sarcostoma (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 21, 1841 20 

Sarsii (SiphoJ, Jeffreys (Wood). Sars, Moll. Norv. 275 128 

Saturus (Fusus), Martyn. Univ. Conch, t. 47. 

Neptunea despecta, Linn., var. fornicata. 

Sauliuj (Triton), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc. 112, 1844. Icon. f. 17, 1844. 

= T. nodiferus, Lam. 
Savignyi (Fasciolaria), Tapparone. Mur. Mar. Rosso. 

= F. lignaria, Linn. 

Scaber (Murex), Lam. Anim. S. Vert, vii, 175. 
: Fusus craticulatus, Brochi. 

Scaber (Triton), King. Zool. Jour, v, 348 31 

Scabra (Cantharus), Monterosato. Gioru. Acad. Sc. Palermo, xiii, 102, 

1878. (For P. d'Orbignyi, Payr. var. subspinosa, Monts. Nuova 

Revista, 39) 158 

Scabra (Peristernia), Souverbie. Jour. Conch, xvii, 419, 1869, xviii, 430, 

t. 14, f. 3, 1870 85 

Scabra (Pollia), Gray. = Triton scaber, King. 

Scabra (Ranella), Grateloup. Mem. 62, t. 4, f. 11,1840. 

= Triton scaber, King. 

Scabrosa (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon. f. 60, 1847. = P. chlorostoma, Sowb. 
Scabrum (Argobuccinum), King. Carpt. Rept. 218, and note. 

= Triton scaber, King. 
Scabrum (Bucc.), Bunker. Zeit, Mai. 171, 1846. 59, 1847. 

= Nassa horrida, Bunker. 
Hcacchianum (Buccinum), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. ii, 188, t. 27, f. 5. 

^ Cantharus pictus, Scacchi. 
Scalariforme (Buccinum), Beck. Kroyer's Tidssk. iv, 84, 1842. 

? = B. tenue, Gray. 
Scalariforme (Tritonium), Beck. Amtl. Bericht, No. 18. Moller, Moll. 

Groenl. 11, 1842. := Sipho Kroyeri, Moller. 

Scalariformis (Triton), Brod. Zool. Proc. 7, 1833 25 

Scalarina (Canidia), Beshayes. Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Bull, x, 153, t. 8, f. 

18-20.... .. 209 



INDEX. ^ 

Scalarinus (Fusus), Lam. i'usionella Nifat, Adanson. 

Scalaroides (Phos), A. Ad. /ool. Proc, 154, 1859. = P. senticosus, Linn. 

Scalaspira, Conrad 49 

Scarlatina (Sept aria). Perry. Conch, t. 14, f. 2. - T. rubecula, Linn. 

Schantaricus (Sipho), Midd. Reise, ii, 230, t, 10, f. 7-9, 1851 127 

Schrammi (Fusus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch, xiii, 31, t. 1, f. 9, 1865 57 

Schroederi (Buccinura), Beck. Jay's Cat. 3d edit, 88 194 

Scrobiculator (Ranella), Linn. Sys-t. Nat, edit, xii, 1218 40 

Scorbiculatus (Fusus), Bunker. Phil. Abbild, ii, 118, t. 3, f. 4. 

.Murex purpuroides, Dkr. live. vol. ii, p. 120. 

Sculptilis (Phos), A. Ad. H. and A. Adams, Genera i, 115 220 

Sculptilis (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 76, 1844 28 

Sechellarum (Bucciniim), Duffo. Ann. Sci. Nat. 68, 1840 195 

Seguenza; (Triton), Aradas and Benoit. Atti Acad. Giania, ser. 3, v. 90, 

1871. T. Tritonis, Linn, var. nobilis. 

Semigranosa (Ranella), Kiener, Monog. 19, t. 11, f. 2. 

R. civlat'a, Brod. 
Semigranosa (Ranella), Lam. Edit. Deshayes, ix, 54*. 

R. granifera, Lam. 
Sernigranosum (Bucc), Dunker. /eit. Mai. 170, 1S46. Na^a. 

Semipicta (El)urna), Sowb. Thes. Conch, iii, t 291, f. 12, 13 213 

Senegalensis (Cyllene), Petit. Jour, de Conch, iv, 144, t. 5, f. 5, 185:;. 
= C. Owenii, Gray. 

Senticosus (Phos), Linn. Syst, Nat. edit. 12, 1220 215 

Sepimentum (Buccinum), Hang. Guerin's Mag. t. 18, 1832. 

Pseudoliva, vol. ii, p. 190. 
Septemdentata (Personalia), Gabk 0. 
Seriale (Buccinum), Deshayes Laborde Voy. Arab. t. 115, f. 32-34. 

- Cantharus puncticulatus, Dunker. 

Sericatum (Buccinum), Hancock. Ann. Mug. N. Hist, xviii, 328, t. 5, f. 
6, 1846. B. cyaneunj, Drug. 

Serotina (Clavellaj, Hinds. AMU. Nai. Hint, xi, 257 : 70 

Sorrifusus, Meek. Hayden's Survey, ix, 373, t. 32, f. G, a. b. 1876. 

S. G. of Fusus, Lam 4'. 

Setosa (Cassidaria), Hinds. Triton Wiegmanni, Anton. 

Signatum (IJucc. i, Dunker. /eit. Mai. 61, 1847. Nassa. 

Signum (Siphunalia), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 6, 1846 13i; 

Similis (Fusus), Baird. Brenchley's Voy. Curaooa, 432, t. 36, 1873. 
F. uudalus, Gmel. 

Simoniana (Euthria), Jour. <!e (.'ouch, iii, Hi4 t. 7, t'. 7. 1852 150 

Simplex (Fusus), K. Smith, /ool. Proc. 20-t, t. 20, f. '',), 187'.) 65 

Simpuluni, Klein. Ostrac. 50, 1753. Adams' Genera, i, 10_'. 

S. G. of Triton, Montf 9, 11 

Sinarum (Buccinum), Phil. /eit. Mai. 63, 1851. Nassa. 

Sinensis (Hindsia), Sowb. The?, iii, 86, t, 220, f. 8, 9. 

Nassaria acuniinata, Reeve. 

Sinensis (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 18, 1844 20 

Sinistralia, H. and A. Adams. Genera Recent Moll, i, 79, 1858. 

= S. G. of Fusus, Lam 66 

Sinistralis (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 458. 

: F. Maroccensis, Gmel. 
Sinistrorsus (Fusus), Deshayes. Encyc. Meth. ii, 160. 

Neptunea contraria, L. 

Sipho, Klein. Ostracol. 53, 1753 yy, 12 

Siphonalia, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xi, 202, 1863. ...99, 133 
Siphonata (Ranella), Reeve, /ool. Proc. 138, 1814. 

l\. bui'onia, Gmel, var. 



Z72 INDEX. 

Siphonatus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 81, 1844 28 

Siphonorbis, Morch. Sipho. 

Sitchensis (Tritonium), Midd. Mai. Ross, ii, 149. t. 2, f. 58, 1857. 
-.-: Euthria dira, Reeve. 

Smaragdula (Leucozonia), Linn. Mus. Ulric. 610 96 

Solidulus (Fusus), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc. vii, 106, 1864 68 

Solidulus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 131, f. 97, 1880. 

Sipho Stimpsoni, Morch, var 182 

Solidum (Buccinum), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 81, 1846. 
Peristernia chlorostoma, Sowb. 

Solomonensis (Pisania), E A. Smith. Joifr. Linn. Soc. xii, 541, 1876 149 

Soluta (Neptunea). Gould. H. and A. Ad. Genera, i, 80. 

= Bela subluta, Gld. 
Solutum (Buccinum), Dillw. Desc. Cat. B. undatum. Linn. 

Sophias (Nassaria), Benoit. Conch. Mar. Sicil. 270, t. 5, f. 7 221 

Sowerbyi (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 6T>, 1844. T. lineatus, Brod 2; 

Spada? (Pisania), Libassi. Atti, Acad. Palermo, iii, 48, f. 29, 1, 2, 1859. 

Monterosato, Giorn. Acad. Palermo, xiii, 102. 

- Cantharus fusulus, Brocchi. 

Spadicea (Melongena), Kobelt. Kiister, Fusus, 179, t, 55, f. 5, 6, 1880... 110 
Spadicea (Ranella), Montf. Conch. Syst.. 875, 1810. It. crassa, Dillw. 

Spadicea (Siphonalia), Reeve. Icon. Buccinum, Index 184 

Spadiceum (Buccinum), Wood. Index Test. 109, t. 28, f. 71. 

Melongena paradisiaca, Reeve. 

Spadiceus (Latirus), Reeve. Icon. f. 44, 1847. L. modestus, Anton. 
Speciosa (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 101, 1*51. 
Phos plicatus, Dunker. 

Speciosa (Triton), Angas. Zool. Proc. 13, t, 1, f. 1, 1871 1'5 

Spectrum (Fusus), Ads. and Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samarang, 41, t. 7, f. 2, 

1848 58 

Spengleri (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 627 16 

Spiceri (Fusus), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 137, t. 875 68 

Spinicostatus (Phos), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 154, 1850. 

= Ph, textum, Gmel 

Spinigera, d'Orb. = Strombidae 5 

Spinosa (Bufonaria), Schum. = Ranella spinosa, Lam. 

Spinosa (Peristernia), Martyn. Univ. Conch, t. 4, 1789 80 

Spinosa (Ranella), Lamarck. An. sans Vert. edit. Desh. ix, 545 37 

Spinosa (Tudicula), H. and A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 429, 1868.. 144 

Spinosa (Turbinella), Gray. Ann. Nat, Hist, i, 28, 1888 81 

Spinosa (Turbinella), Phil. Arehiv fiir Naturg. i, 68, 1845 97 

Spinosum (Busycon), Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad. 588, 1862. Am. 

Jour. Conch, iii, 182, = Fulgur carica, Gmel. 

Spiralis (Cantharus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. Ill, 1889 154 

Spiralis (Fusus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 221, 1855 68, 227 

Spirata (Eburna), Lam. Anim". sans Vert, x, 233 212 

Spirata (Eburna), Linn. Edit. 12, 1208 (Part.). Sowb. Thes. iii, 70, t. 

215, f. 4. = E. areolata, Lam. 
Spirata (Eburna), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit. 12, 1208 (Part). Reeve, f. 7. 

= E. spirata, Lam. 
Spirata (Eburna), var. Martens. Vorderas. Con. 92, t. 5, f. 4r ( . 

= E. Valentiana, Swains. 
Spirata (Eburna), var. Mart. Chem. ii, t. 65, f. 5. 

= E. semipicta, Sowb. 

Spirata (Pyrula), Kiener. t. 10, f. 1. == Fulgur canaliculatus, Linn. 
Spirata (Pyrula), Lam. vii, 142, 1822. = Fulgur pyrum, Dillw. 



INDEX. 273 

Spirilla, Humph. Mus. Gallon. 1797. = Tudicla, Bolt. 

Spirilla (Tudicla), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1221 144 

Spitzbergensis (Buccinofusus,), Reeve. Last of the Arctic Voy., o'J5, 

t. o2, f. 6 a. b. = B. terebralis, Old. 
Splendidulum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 170, 1846. = Nassa. 

Splendidus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn. 76, 1839. ? = Turbinella 69 

Squameus (Fusus), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 50, 1852. 

: Trophon, vol. ii, p. 149. 
Squamosa (Peristernia), Pease, Zool. Proc. 240, 1862. Am. Jour. Conch. 

iii, 279, t. 23, f. 16, 1868 86 

Squamosa (Pyrula), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 518. 

Melongena galeodes, Lam. 
Squamosus (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc. 176, 1832. Sowb. Conch. 111. 

Murex, f. 27. ^Melongena Ill 

Squamulosus (Fusus), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil. i, 204, t. 11, f. 31. 

- Pseudomurex bracteatus, Br. vol. ii 210 

Stangeri (Fusus), Gray. Dieffenbach's N. Zeal., ii, 230. 

= Trophon, vol. ii, p. 147. 
Stigmataria (Peristernia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 313, 1854. 

= P. chlorostoma, Sowb. 
Stimpsoni (Bucc.), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 325, 1860. = B. glaciale, L. 

Stimpsoni (Sipho), Morch. Moll., Faroer, 84, 1867 126 

Stimpsonianum (Buccinum), C. B. Ad., Panama Cat., No. 65. = Nassa. 

Stokesii (Turbinella), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 113, 1839 89 

Strangei (Latirus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 316, 18-34 94 

Strangei (Triton), Ad. and Ang. Zool. Proc. 35, 1864. Z. P. 816, t. 50, 

f. 16, 1879. == T. labiosus, Wood, var. 

Strepsidura, Swains. Malacol, 308, 1840 103 

Streptosiphon, Gill. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 152 1867 99, 142 

Striatum (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn. 92, 1839. Undetermined. 
Striata (Cyllene), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 205, 1850. 

= C. pulchella, Ad. and Rve. 

Striata (Turbinella), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 114, 1839 96 

Striata (Voluta), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3455. = Pisania maculosa, Lam. 
Striatum (Buccinum), Phil. Moll., Sicil. ii, 193, t. 27, f. 1 

= B. Humphreysianum, Bennett. 
Striatum (Buccinum), Pennant. Brit. Zool. iv, 121, t. 74, f. 91. 

= B. undatum, L. . 

Striatum (Buccinum), Sowb. Records of Gen. Sci. i, 134 185 

Striatus (Fulgur), Gray. Griffith's Cuvier, t. 37, f. 4 142 

Striatus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon., f. 42, 1847. 

= Var. of Sipho Stimpsonii, Morch. 

Strigata (Pisania), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iv, 93, t. 11, f. 6, 1868 146 

Strigata (Fusus), Phil. Abbild. iii, 116, t. 5, f. 3 5(1 

Strigosum (Buccinum), part. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3494. 

= Cantharus fumosus, Dillw. 
Strigosum (Buccinum), Gmel. ? Jonas. Archiv fiir Naturg. i, 26, 1841. 

= Cantharus 16C, 

Strigosus (Fusus), Blain. Faun. Franc. 86, t. 4, f. 3. 

= F. craticulatus, Brocchi. 

Strigosus (Fusus), Lam. Anim. sans vert, vii, 130. =. F. rostatus, Olivi. 
Strombella,. Gray. Guide Brit. Mus. 13, 1857. = Volutopsis, Morch. 
Strongylocera, Morch. Yoldi Cat. 80, 1852. = 8. G. of Phos, Montf. 
Sturmii (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 135, 1848. = Nassa. 
Subalveatus (Tritonopsis), Conrad 6 

35 



2T4 INDEX. 

Subantiquus (Murex), Mat on and Rackett. Linn. Trans, viii, 147. 

= Neptunea despecta, Linn. 
Subcolubrinum (Triton), d'Orb. Rodr. iii, 77. = T. nodiferus, Lam. 

Subdistortus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 638 11 

Subfuscus (Latirus), Martini. Conch. Cab. iv, 161, t. 141, f. 1817, 1818. 

= L. turritus, Gmel. 

Subgranosa (Ranella), So^vb. Zool. Proc. 52, 1841 38 

Subgranulatus (Fusus), Petit. = Pusionella. 

Subquadratus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 33, f. 28, 1880 228 

Sublutus (Fusus), Gould. Wilkes' Exped. 235, f 286. 

= Bela (Pleurotomidae). 
Subnassatula (Turbinella), Sowerbie. Jour. Conch, xx, 50, t. 1, f. 2, 1872. 

= Peristernia nassatula, Lam. 

Subrostrata (Leucozonia), Gray. Zool. Beech ej's Voy., 115, t. 36, f.-15.. 90 
Subrubiginosa (Tritonidea), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc. 200, t. 20, f. 40, 

1879. = Cantharus fumosus, var. rubiginosus, Reeve. 

Succinctum (Buccinum), Powis. Zool. Proc. 95, 1835: 194 

-Succinctum (Murex), Risso. Eur. Merid. iv, 198, f. 121. 

= Triton cutaceum, Linn. 

Succinctum (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 628. = T. olearium, Linn. 
Succinctus (Fusus), Menke. Syn. No. 1096, 1890. 

= Neptunea lirata, Mart. 

Suensomi (Ranella), Mb'rch. Yoldi Cat. i, 106. = R. spinosa, Lam. 
Sulcata (Cyllene), A. Ad. Adams' genera, i, 125. = C. lyrata, Lam. 

Sulcata (Fasciolaria), Anton. Verzeichn. !'l, 1839 78 

Sulcata (Fasciolaria), Lesson. Rev. Zool. 212, 1842 78 

Sulcata (Siphonalia), Lam. Anim. s: vert, edit., Desh. ix, 447 138 

Sulcata (Turbinella), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 11(5 97 

Suleatum (Buccinum), Friele. Norw. North Sea Exped.. t. :'., f. 18 195 

Sulcatus (Murex), Gmelin. Syst. Nat, 3549. 

? := Cantharus variegatus, Gray. 
Hulcosa (Lirosoma), Conr., 50. 
Sutoris (Turbinella), Kiister. Conch. Cab. 106, t, 25, f. Id, 1 I. 

= Penisternia pulchella, Rve., var. 
Suturalis (Hindsia), A. Adams. Zool. Proc. 183. 1858. 

= Nassaria acuminata, Reeve. 

Swifti (Epidromus), Tryon. 31 

Sycopsis (sub. gen. Busy con), Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, 184, 1867.. 108 
Sycotypus, Browne. Hist, Jamaica, 406, 17-~<i. (Jill, Am. Jour. Coneh. 

iii, 146. 1867 99, 142 

Crassicauda (Pyrula), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 1848. ? = Hemifusus tuba, Gmel t 
.Sycum, Bayle. Jour, de Conch, xxviii, 240, 1880. 

= Leiostoma, Swainson. 

Syracusanus (Fusus), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit, xii, 1224 60 

Syrinx. Bolton. Mus. 1798. = Fusus, Lam. 

Syrtensis (Fusus), Packard. Memoirs Bost. Soc. N. Hist, i, 288, t, 7, f. 

13. =Bela? 

Tabulata (Neptunea), Baird. Zool. Proc. 66, 1868. Nat, in Brit. Colum- 
bia, ii, 356 , 121 

Tabulatus (Triton), Menke. Moll. N. Holl. 119; 1843. Mai. Blatt, 60, 1844. 
= T. Spengleri, Lam. 

Taeniata (Turbinella), Desh. Voy. Laborde, t, 65, f. 7, 8. 
= Latirus turritus, Gmel. 

TEeniatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 113, f. 119, 1880. 

? = Neptunea despecta, var. arthritica 230 



INDEX. 275 

Taeniolatum (Buccinum), Phil. Archiv fur Naturg. i, 69, 1845. = Nassa. 

Taphon, H. and A. Ad. Gen. i, 151. = S. G. of Busycon, Bolt 99, 142 

Tafon (Buccinum), Desh. in Lamarck, x, 158. 
Cantharus variegatus, Gray. 

Tahitensis (Turbinella), Lesson. Rev. Zool. 211,1842 97 

Tarentina (Fasciolaria), Lam. Edit. 2, ix, 435. ? = F. lignaria, Linn. 
Tasmanica (Cominella), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 139, 1875.... 206 
Tasmanica (Josepha), Tenisqn- Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1878, p. 32.. 207 
Tasmanica (Pisania), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 28, 1877. 

= P. reticulata, A. Ad., var. 
Tasmanica (Pisania), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 134, 1875. 

= P. reticulata, A. Ad.., var. 
Tasmaniensis (Siphonalia), Ad. and Ang. Zool. Proc., 422, t. 37, f. 1. 

1863 , 135 

Taylorianus (Fusus), Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 85, 1848. 

= F. cinereus, Reeve. 
Tenebrosum (Buccinum), Hancock. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, xviii, 327. t. ">, 

f. 1, 2, 1846. = B, cyaneum, Bmg. 
Tenebrosum (Tritonium), Midd., var. borealis. Mai. Ross., p. 162, t. 3. 

f. 7, 8. = B. ciliatum, Fab. 
Tener (Fusus), Friele, Jeffreys. = Var. of Buccinifusus Berniciensis, King. 

Tenerus (Triton), Gray. Beeehey's Voy. Ill, 1839 25 

Tenue (Buccinum), Gray. Zool. Beeehey's Voy. t. 36, f. 19, 1839 184 

Tenueliratus (Triton), Lischke. Mai. Blatt, xxi, 20, 1873 22 

Tenuicostata (Canidia), Brot. Jour, de Conch. 3d ser. xviii, 351, t. 12, 

f. 5, 1876. == Clea Helena, Meder, var 
Tenuicostata (Cominella), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 135, 1876.. 207 

Tenuiliratus (Fusus), Bunker. Novit. Conch. 198, t. 33, f. 1, 2 64 

Tenuiplicatum (Buccinum), Lam. Edit. Desh. x, 173 195 

Tenuis (Ranella), Potiez and Michaud. Moll. Douai, 426, t, 84, f. 1, 2, 
1838. = R. ventricosa, Brod. 

Tenuistriatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch. sp ; 91, f. 140, 1880 >9 

Terebra (Phos), Sowb. Thes. Conch, iii, 92, t, 221, f. 28, 29 217 

Terebralis (Buccinofusus), Gould. Bost. Proc. vii, 32(1. 1860 71 

Terebralis (Fusus), Sars (non Gld.). Fide Jeffreys. 

= Sipho Lachesis, Morch. 
Terebrispira, Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad. 28, 1862. 

= S. G. of Fasciolaria, Lam 50 

Ternajtanus (Hemifusus), Gmel. Syst, Nat. 3554 112 

Terrne-NovEe (Tritonium), Beck. Morch, Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. iv, 18, 

1869. = B. cyaneum, Brug. var. 

Tessellata (Eburna), Swains. Zool. 111. iii. t. 145. = E areolata, Lam. 
Tessellata (Peristernia), Recluz. Mag. de Zool. t. 97, 1844. 

= P. Philberti, Recluz. 

Tessellatum (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn. 92, 1829. Undetermined. 
Tessellatus (Fusus), Schubert. Conch. Cab. Suppl. t. 219, f. 3048-9. 
= ? Voluta Junonia, Lam., young. 

Tessellatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 134, f. 165, 1880 229 

Tessellatus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 91, 1844. = T. concinnus, Reeve. 
Testaceus (Triton), Morch. Yoldi Cat, 107. Mai. Blatt, xxiv, 25. 
= T. obscurus, Reeve. 

Testudinea (Cominella), Marty n. Univ. Conch, i, t. 8 203 

Testudineum (Buccinum), Lam. Anim. sans Vort. vii, 265. 

= Cominella maculata, Mart. 

Testudinarius (Triton), Ads. and Rve. Samarang, 37, t. 9, f. 3, 1848. 
= T. trilineatus, Reeve, var 20 



276 INDEX. 

Textilinus (Phos), Morch. Yoldi Cat. 80. = Ph. Guadeloupensis, Petit. 
Textiliosus (Fuaus), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol, et Zel. v, 108, t. 25, 

f. 9-10, 1854. = Trophon Geversianus, Pallas. Vol. ii, p. 144. 
Textilis (Phos), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 154, 1850. = P. senticosus, Linn. 

Textum (Phos), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 3493 217 

Thalloides (Exilia), Conr 49 

Thatcheria, Angas. Zool. Proc. 1877, p. 529, t. 54, f. 1 98, 112 

Theminckiana (Canidia), Petit. Jour, de Conch, t. 7, f. 11, 1853. 
= Clea Helena, Meder. 

Thersites (Latirus), Reeve. Icon, f, 21. 1847 'Jl 

Thersites (Ranella), Redfield. Ann. Lye. N. Y. iv, 166, t. 10, f. 6, 1848. 

= R. Californica, Hinds. 

Thersites (Triton), Reeve. Icon f. 48, 1844. = T. vespaceus, Lam. 
Thormo (Ranella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, 164, t. 23, f. 23, 24, 1853. Morch, 

Mai. Blatt, xxiv, 24, 1877. = R. cruentata, Sowb. var. 
Tigrina (Cominella), Kiener. Monog. t. 10, f. 32. 

^= C. porcata, Gmel. vav. 

Tigrina (Turbinella), Homb. et Jacq. Voy. Pol. Sud. v, 113, t. 25, f. 30. 
31, 1854 = Peristernia Wagneri, Anton. 

Tigrinus (Triton), Brod. Zool. Proc. 5, 1833 18 

Tincta (Cantharus), Conrad. Proc. Phila. Acad. 25, t. 1, f. 9, 1846 163 

Tinei (Buccinum), Mar. Atti Soc. Gioenia, '1841. 

= Nassa cornicula, Olivi. 
Tissoti (Purpura), Petit, Jour, cle Conch, iii, 163, t. 7, f. 4, 1852. 

= Cantharus 164 

Toreuma (Fusus), Martyn. Univ. Conch, t. 56 52 

Togatus (Sipho), Morch. Jour. Conch, xvii, 398, 1809 127 

Tornata (Neptunea), Gould. Silliman's Journal, xxxviii. 190, 1839. 

e= N. despecta, Linn. 
Tornatus (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 97, 1. 118, 1880. 

= Neptunea 22'. 

Tortifusus, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, 187, 1867 104 

Tortuosum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. f. 115, 1847. 

? = Sipho Kroyeri, Moller. 

Tortuosus (Sipho), Reeve. Last of Arct. Voy. 394, r. 32, t. 5, a. b, 1855. 125 
Tortuosus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 74, 1844. 
= T. distortus, Schub. et VVagn. 

Torulosus (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 440 59 

Tottenii (Buccinum), Stimpson. Cauad. Nat. N. S. ii, 385, 185 183 

Trachytriton, Meek. Smithsonian Check List, Cret Foss. 22, 37, 1864. 

Hayden's Survey, ix, 303, t, 19, f. 7, 1876 

Tranquebaricus (Cantharus;, (imelin. Syst, Nat. 3491 154 

Tranquebaricus (Triton), Lam. Hist, vii, 189 14 

Trapezium (Fasciolaria), Linn. Syst. Nat, edit, xii, 1124 77 

Trapezium (Murex), Dillw. Desc. Cat. = Faciolaria filamentosa, Lam. 

Traversi (Siphonalia), Button. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal. 7, 1873 137 

Tricarinatum (Buccinum), Ball. Calif. Proc. 1877. 

? = var of Castaneus, Dall. 

Trigonus (Murex), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 3549. = Triton licoides, Reeve. 
Trilineata (Buccinum), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 98, 1840. 
= Euthria vittata, Quoy; 

Trilineatus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 31, 1844 20 

Tringa (Triton), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 4 ser. v, 420, 1870...... 14 

Tripus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 634 22 

Triquetra (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc. 139, 1844. 

= Eupleura. Vol. ii, p. 158. 
Triserialis (Turbinella), Lam. Hist, vii, 110 95 



INDEX. 271 

Triskaedekagonus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn. 76, 1839.... 69 

Triton, Montlbrt. Conch. Svst. ii, 586, 1810 5, 6, 9 

Triton (Buccinum), Lesson. Rev. Cuv. 37, 1841, 237, 1842. 

? = Sipbonalia nodosa. Mart, var 144 

Tritonidea, Swains. Mai. 74, 302, 1040. =^ Cantharus, Bolt. 

Tritonis (Triton), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit, xii, 1222 9, 6 

Tritonium, Fabr. Faun. Grcenl, 1780. = Buccinum, Linn. 
Tritonium, Link. Besch. Rostock, iii, 121. 1807. = Triton, Montf, 
Tritonium (Pisania), Chemn. Conch. Cab. vii, 55, t. 127, f. 1217. 

=P. ignea, Gmel. 

Tritonofusus, Beck. Amt. Bei-1. 24, 1847. == Sipho, Klein. 
Tritonoides (Pisania), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 77, 1846. 

== P. ignea, Gmel, var. 

Tritonopsis, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch, i, 20, 1865 6 

Triumphalis (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch, t, 5, f. 13-16, 1843. 

= Cantharus distortus, Gray. 
Triumphis, Gray. = Clavella, Swains. 
Trochlea (Pollia), Gray. Voy. Blossom, iii, 18:'.'.'. 

? = Purpura trochlea. Vol it, p. 169. 
Trochlearis (Latirus). Kiister. Conch. Cab. 79, t. 19, f. 1, 2. 

= L. Maderensis, Watson. 

Trochulus (Siphonalia), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 7, 1846 I3f> 

Trumbullii (Fusus), Linsley. Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. xlviii, 28, f. 1. 2. 

1845. = Sipho pygnuuus, Gould. 
Truncatus (Triton), "Hinds. Zool. Proc. 21, 1844, Voy. Sulphur 11, t. 4. 

f. 9, 10 2* 

Tuba (Hemifusus), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3554 112 

Tuberculata (Faseiolaria). Anton. Verzeichn. 92, ]839 78 

Tuberculata (Melongena;, Anton. Verzeichn. 79, 18:59 108 

Tuberculata ( Purpura j. Uissu. Kiister, 146, t. 24 a, f. 6. 
Triton doliarium, Linn. 

Tuberculata (Ranella), Brod. Xool. Proc. 179, 1832.... 43 

Tuberculata (Ranella), Risso. Eur. Merid. iv, 203, f. 123. 

Triton cutaceum, Linn. 

Tuberculata (Turbinella), Brod. Zool. Proc. 7, 1833. 
; Latirus cei-atus. Gray. 

Tuberculatus (Fusus), Lain. Edit. Desh. ix, 444 54 

Tuberosa (Siphonalia), Reeve. Fusus, f. 7, 1847- Lischke Jap. Suppl. 27. 135 
Tuberosissinm (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc. 139, 1844. 

11. bufonia, Gmel. 

Tuberosum (Buccinum), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab. iv, 83, f. 1236-1239. 
Ranella lainpas, Linn. 

Tubevosuni i .Buccinum), Lain. Edit. Desh. ix, 635 '-> 

Tubulosum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. f. 105, 1847. 
B. Donovani, Gr.-iv. 

Tudicla, Bokou. '.Musi 179* '. 99, 144 

Tudicula, 11. and A. Ads. Xool. Proc. 429, 18i'.::. 
S. G. of Tudicla, Bolt. 

Tulipa (Buccinum i, Lesson. Kev. (Juv. '2'-\X, 1842 194 

Tulipa (Fasciolaria), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit, xii, 1213 74 

Tumens (Fusus), Carpenter. Mazatl. Shells, p. 508, 185". 

Fusus arnbustus, Gld. 
Tumens (Latirus), Carpenter. Xool. Proc. 166, 1856. 

? L. gracilis, Reeve. 

Tumida (Ranella), Dunker. Zool. Proc. 239, 1862. R. argus, Gmel. 

Tumidulum (Buccinum), Sars. Moll. Now. 263, t, 25, f. 5, 6, 1878. 

= B. Humphreysianum, Bennett. 



278 INDEX. 

Turbinelloides (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. f. 56, 1848. 

= Melongena pallida, Brod. and Sowb. 
Turgidulus (Sipho), Jeffreys. Friele, Prelim. Report, N. Mag. Nat. xxiii, 

f. 17,1877 127 

Turgidum : (Buceinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 3490. 

= Cominella maculata, Martyn. 

Turricula (Fusus), Kiener. Monog. t. 5, f. 1 62 

Turriculatus (Triton), Desh. Exped. Moree, 187, t. 19, f. 58-60. 

^= T. reticulatus, Blainv. 
Turris (Fusus), Val. Humb. et Bonpl. 287, 1833. 

= F. Dupetithouarsii, Kiener. 

Turrispira, Conrad. Eocene Check List, p. 19, 1866 J'.t 

Turrita (Nassaria), Sowb. Thes. iii, 87, t. 220, f. 19, 20. 

== N. fusiformis, Sowb. 

Turrita (Siphonalia), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 138, 1875 137 

Turritum (Tritonium), Sars. Vet. Forh. Christ. 39, 1858. 

Sipho tortuosus, Reeve, var. 
Turritus (Phos), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 154, 1850. = P. articulatus, Hinds. 

Turritus (Latirus), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3456 93 

Turritus (Triton), Menke. Synops. No. 973. = Phos roseatus, Hinds. 
Turtoni (Neptunea), Bean. Ann. Mag. N. H. i, 493, xix, t. 10 119 

Umbilicatus (Fusus), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 77, 1851 68 

Undatum (Buccinum), Dawson. Canad. Nat. ii, 415, 1857. 

= B. glaciale, L., var. polare. 
Undatum (Buccinum), Fabricius. Faun. Gruenl. 395, 1780. 

- B. cyaneum, Brug. 

Undatum (Buccinum), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit, xii, 1204 173 

Undatus (Fusus), Gmel. Syst, Nat. 3556. 56 

Undosuru (Buccinum), Kiener, Monog. t. 12, f. 41 c. (female). 

= Cantharus gemmatus, Reeve. 

Undosum (Buccinum), Kiener, t. 12;fV41 a. = Cantharus fumosus, Dillw. 
ITndosum (Triton), Kiener. Monog. 44, t. 6, f. 2. == T. cingulatus, Lam. 

Undosus (Cantharus), Linn. Edit, xii, 1203 162 

Undulata (Sipho), Friele. Nofw. North Sea E.xped. t, 2, f. 33-35 133 

Undulatum (Buccinum), Hancock. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, xviii, 327, 1846. 

= B. cyaneum, Brug. 
Undulatum (Buccinum), Moller. Stimpson, Cauad. Nat. N. S. ii, 1842. 

379. Index Moll. Grwnl. 11,1842 176 

Unicarinatus (Fusus), Phil. Mai. Blatt, xv, 223, 1868, 

= Trophon, vol. ii, p. 151 68 

Unicincta (Nassa), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad. v, 211, 1826. 

? = Phos Guadeloupensis, Petit 220 

Unicolor (Cantharus), Angas. Zool. Proc. 110, t. 13, f. 2, 1867 162 

Unimaculata (Cyllene), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 123, 1855. = C. lyrata, Lam. 

Ustulata (Peristernia), Reeve. Icon. f. 62, 1847 S4 

Ustulatus (Buccinum), Reeve. Buccinum, f. 56, 1840. 

= Murex contractus, Reeve, vol. ii, 131. 
Ustulatus (Fusus), Reeve. Icon. f. 66, 1848 r,6 

Vaginatus, (Fusus), Jan. Cat. rar. nat. 11, Desh. Anim. s. Vert, ix, 464.. 51 

V r alentiana (Eburna), Swains. Zool. 111. iii, 1. 144 213 

Valenciennesi (Fasciolaria), Kiener. Monog. 16, t. 4, f. 1. 

1= F. salmo, Wood. 

Varians (Phos.), Sowb. Thes. iii, 93, t, 221, f. 24-27. = Ph. textum, Gmel. 
Varicifera (Hindsia), A. Ad. Zool, Proc. 183, 1853. 

= Nassaria acuminata, Reeve. 



INBKX. 2T9 

Varicosa (Pyrula), Menke. Syn. No. 1085. 

= Strombus gibberulus L., Juvenile. 
Varicosa (Siphonalia), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab. x, 1. 162, f. 1545--6. 

Varicosa (Siphonalia), Kiener. Monog. Fusus, 41, t. 10, f. 2 137 

Varicosus (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn. 78, 1839 69 

Varicosus (Latirus), Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 6, 1847 92 

Varicosus (Phos.), A. Adams. H. and A. Adams' Genera, i, 115 220 

Varicosus (Phos.), Gould. Bost, Proc., iii, 143, 1849. 

= P. roseatus, Hinds. 
Variegata (Purpura), Schub. and Wagner. 148, t. 233, f. 4093, 4094. 

= Pisania maculosa, Lam. 
Variegatum (Triton), Lam. Edit:. Desh. ix, 623. = T. Tritonis, Linn. 

Variegatus (Cantharus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 112, 1H39 165 

Variegatus (^usus), Deshayes. Anim. s. vert, ix, 468. 

F. lalicostatus, Desh. 

Varius (Fusus), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 457 68 

Veraguensis (Phos.), Hinds. Voy. Sulph. 37, t. 10, f. 13, 14, 1844 210 

Veliei (Triton), Calkins. Davenport Acad. 235, t. 8, f. 1, 2, 1878. 
: T. pilearis, Linn. 

Ventricosa (Ranella), Brod. Zool. Proc. 178,1832 40 

Ventricosum (Bucciuum), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 3498. 

Neptunea de?pecta, Linn., var. fornicata. 
Ventricosum (Buccinum), Kiener. Monog. 4, t. 3, f. 7, 1H41. 

= B. Humphreysiauum, Bennett. 
Ventrieosum (Buccinum), Lam. ox Desmoulea, 
Ventricosum (Triton), Grateloup. Atlas, t. 29, f. 17. 

= T. nodiferus, Lam. 

Ventricosus (Fusus), H. Adams. Zool. Proc. 1.10, 1870 52 

Ventricosus (Fusu a ), Anton. Verzeichn. 77, 1839 69 

Ventricosus (Fusus), Beck (not Gray). Reeve, Icon. 1. 34, 1847 ; f. 34 A, 

t. 17, 1868. = F. Nicobaricus, Lam., var.; Beckii, Reeve. 

Ventricosus (Fusus), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl. 26. 1843 tiS 

Ventricosus (Sipho), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 117, 1839 128 

Venustum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 59, 1847*! = Nassa. 
Venustula (Ranella), Reeve. Zool. Proc. 138, 1844. 

= R. bulimia, Gmel., var. 
Vera (Cassis), Martini. = Triton anus, Linn. 

Verkrii/eni (Sipho), Kobelt, Jahrb. Mai. Ges. iii, 70, t. 2, f. 1, 1876 128 

Verrucosa (Kanella), Sowerby. Conch. Illus. f. 20. 

= R. cruentata, Sowb. 
Verrucosus (Murex), Gmel. Wood, Index Test, 126, t. 26, f. 77. 

? = F. Australis, Quoy. 

Verrucosus (Triton), Reeve. Icon. f. 71, 1844 ,.... 24 

Verruculatus (Fusus), Lam. Edit, Desh. ix, 455. 

= F. ocelliferus. Bory. 
Versicolor (Murex), Gmelin (part). Syst. Nat, 3550. 

'! = Fusus distans, Lam. 
Versicolor (Pyrula), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 114, 18:19. 

Vespaceus (Triton), Lam. Edit. Desh. ix, 636 22 

Vespertilio (Murex), Gmelin, 3553. = Melongena pugilina, Born. 

Vestita (Chlanidota), Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 23, 1878 201 

Vestitum (Triton), Hinds. Zool. Proc. 21, 1844. = T. pilearis, Linn. 
Vexillum (Ranella), Sowerby. Zool. Proc. 51, 1841. = R. argus, Gmel. 

Vibex (Murex), Brod. Zool. Proc. 175, 1832. 1 = Peristernia 87 

Vinculum (Trachytriton), H. and M 

Vinosum (Buccinum), Lain. Anim. s. Vert,, edit. Desh. x, 172 195 

Violacen (Cominella), Quoy. Voy. Astrol. ii, 450, t, 30, f. 32-34.... 203 



280 INDEX. 

Violaceus (Fusus), Desh. Exp. Moree, iii, 174, t, 19, f. 19-21, 1832. 

? = C. leucozona, Phil. 

Violaceus (Latirus), Reeve. Icon. f. 59, 1847 93 

Viperinum (Triton), Kiener. Moaog. 39, t. 18, f. 4. = T. Quoyi, Kve. 

Virens (Chrysodomus), Dall. Calif. Proc., 1877 130 

Virga (Fusus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy. 116, 1839 63 

Virgata (Cominella), H. and A. Ad. Genera, i, 110, t. 10, f. u. 

= C. lineolata, Lam., var. 

Virgatus (Phos), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 37, t. 10, f. 11, 12, 1844 217 

Virgatus (Sipho), Friele. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. vi,281, 1879 132 

Viridula (Euthria), Dunker. Jap. Moll. 3, t. 1, f. 16, 1861. 

= E. plumbea, Phil. 

Vittata (Euthria), Quoy. Voy. Astrol. ii, 504, t. 34, f. 18, 19 152 

Vittatum (Buccinum), Linn. Edit, 12, 1206. = Bullia. 

Vitreum (Buccinum), Pfr. Kritisches Register, i, No. 5. = Nassa. 

Vitreus (Triton), Gray. Beechey's Voy. 110, 1839 33 

Viverratoides (Purpura), Orb. Voy. Canaries, 91, t. 7, f. 38 

= Cantharus variegatus, Gray. 
Viverratum (Buccinum), Kiener. Monog. 35, t, 10, f 35. 

= Cantharus variegatus, Gray. 

Voigtii (Fusus), Anton. Verzeichn. 77, 1839. = Triton cingulatus. Lam. 
Volema, Bolt. Mus. 1798. = Melongena 

Volutharpa, Fischer. Jour. Conch. 2 ser. i, 85, 1856 100, T.iT 

Volutopsis, Morch. Rink's Greenland, 1857, Sars. Moll. Norv. 2C.S, 1S7S. 

= S. G. of Neptunea, Bolt 99, 118 

Vulgare (Buccinum), Da Costa. Brit. Conch, t. 6, f. 6. 

= B. undatum, Linn. 
Vulpicolor (Fusus), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 49, f. 73, 18S9 228 

Wagneri (Turbinella), Anton. Verzeichn. 71, 1839 80 

Wallaysii (Fusus), Petit. == Pusionella rapulum, Keeve. 

Waterhousei (Triton), Ad. and Ang. Zool. Proc. 35, 1864 17 

Whitneya, Gabb 50 

Wiegmanni (Triton), Anton. Verzeichn. 77, 1838 15 

AVoldemarii (Purpura). Kiener. Monog. 129, t. 39, f. 91. 
? = Cominella maculata, Mart., Juv. 

Woodii (Fasciolaria), Gabb.. 50 

Wrightii (Macron), H. Adams. Zool. Proc. 753, 1865 214 

Xanthostoma (Turbinella), Nuttall MSS. = Peristcrnia chlorostoma, 80 wb. 

Zea (Latirus), Morch. Yoldi Cat 94 

Zealandica (Peristernia), A. Al. Kiister, Conch. Cab. 108, t. 25, f. 14, 15. 

= P. despecta, A. Ad. 
Zealandica (Siphonalia), Quoy. Voy. Astrol. ii, 500. t. 34, f. 4, 5. 

S. mandarina, Duclos. 
Zelandicum (Buccinum), Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. Moll. 24, t. 21, f. 5-6. 

1854. = Cominella acutinodosa, Reeve. 

Zealandicum (Buccinum), Reeve. Icon. f. 28, 1846.. 183 

Zebra (Buccinum), Lam. Edit., Desh. x, 177 195 

Zelebori (Ranella), Dunker, Novit. Conch. 56. = R. argus, Gmel. 
Zemira, H. and A. Adams. Genera i, 110, 1858. 

= S. G. of Eburna, Lam 101, 213 

Zetlandicum (Buccinum), Forbes. Ann. Nat. Hist, viii, 593, f. 62, 1835. 

= B. undatum, L., var. 

Zeyheri (Cominella), Krauss. Kiister. 85, t. 15, f. 6-8 203 

Zeylaniea (Eburna), Brug. Diet, No. 27 211 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



Plate 1. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

1. Triton Tritonis, Linn. Gould, Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 292 9 

2. Triton nodit'erus, Lam. Hidalgo, Moll. Espagne, t. 18, f. 1 10 

:>. Triton nodiferus, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 1 10 

Plate 2. 

Dentition of Tritonidse. 

4. Triton Tritonis, Linn. Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, 1. 19, f. 12, 

a, b, c 9 

5. Triton nodiferus, Lam. Ibid., f. 11, a, b 10 

G. Triton (Simpulum) aquatile, Rve. (= pilearis, Linn.). Ibid., f. 4... 12 

7. Triton (Cymatium) femorale, Linn. Ibid., t. 20, f. 2. Middle plate 

and jaw 18 

8. Triton (Cabestana) cutaceum, Linn. Ibid., t. 19, f. 10 15 

( .i. Distorsio anus, Linn. Ibid., t. 20, f. 1 35 

10. Ranella spinosa, Lam. Ibid., f. 19, f. 4 37 

11. Ranella subgranosa, Beck. Ibid., f. 5 38 

12. Ranella (Argobuccinum) argus, Gmelin. Ibid., f. 11 44 

Plate 3. 

13. Trachytriton vinculum, Hall and Meek. Hayden's Survey, ix, t. 

19, f. 7, b 8 

14. Ranellina Maclurii, Conrad. Tert. Foss., t. 18, f. 9 8 

15. Personella septemdentata, Gabb. Jour. A. N. S. Phil., 2d ser. iv, 

t. 67, f. 21 8 

10. Triton variegatus, Lam. (== Tritonis, Linn.). Reeve, Icon., f. 3, b... 9 

17. Triton Saulirc, Reeve (= nodiferus, Lam.). Reeve, Icon., f. 17, a... 10 

18. Triton subdistortus, Lam. Kiener, Monog., t. 16, f. 2 11 

19. Triton Americanus, Orb. (-^ olearium, Linn.). Moll. Cuba, t. 23, 

f. 22 11 

20. Triton Bassi, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 2, f. 2, 1869 11 

30. Triton (Tritonopsis) subalveatus, Conrad. Jour. Phil. Acad., 2d ser., 

ii, t. 1, f. 8 8 

Plate 4. 

21. Triton variegatus, Lam. (= Tritonis, var. nobilis). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 3, a , 9 

22. Triton fusiformis, Kiener. Reeve, f. 6 11 

23. Triton Australis, Lam. (= nodiferus, Lam.). Kiener, t. 3, f. 1 10 

24. Triton Brazilianus, Gld. (= olearium, L.). Wilkes' Exped. Moll., 

f.296 .. 11 

36 



282 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 5. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

25. Triton variegatus, Lam. (= Tritonis, L.). Kiener, t. 2 9 

2i. Triton Seguenzae, Arad. andBenoit (=Tritonis, var. nobilis). Jahrb. 

Mai. Gesell., i, t. 14 10 

27. Triton olearium, Linn. Reeve, f. 82 11 

28. Triton Brazilianus, Gld. ( = olearium, L.). Moll. Wilkes' Exped., 

f. 200, a 11 

29. Triton succinctus, Lam. (= olearium, L.). Astrol. et Zel., t. 25, f. 34. 11 

Plate 6. 

31. Triton pilearis, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 23 12 

32. Triton pilearis, Linn. Operculum. From specimen 12 

33. Triton pilearis, Linn. Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 40, f. 13. 12 

34. Triton aquatile, Reeve (- pilearis, Linn.). Icon., f. 24 12 

35. Triton intermedius, Pease (= pilearis, Linn.). Donum Bism., t. 1, 

f. 6, a 12 

36. Triton Veliei, Calkins (= pilearis, L.). Shells of Florida, f. 2. 12 

37. Triton succinctus, Lam. (= olearium, L,). Kiener, t. G, f. 1 11 

Plate 7. 

38. Triton vestitus, Hinds (= pilearis, L.). Voy. Sulphur, t. 4. f. 1.... 12 

39. Triton vestitus, Hinds (= pilearis, L.). Reeve, Icon., f. 101 12 

40. Triton rubecula, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 29, a 12 

41. 42. Triton gemmatus, Reeve. Icon., f. GO, a, c 13 

43, 44. Triton mundum, Gld. (= gemmatus, Rve.). Moll. Wilkes' Exp., 

f. 279, 297, a 13 

46. Triton Beccarii, Tapparone Canefri. Mar Rosso, t. 19, f. 7 13 

46. Triton ficoides, Reeve. Icon., f. 51 13 

47. Triton chlorostomus, Lam. Reeve, f. 25 13 

48. Triton chlorostomus, Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrolabe, t. 40, f 16 13 

Plate 8. 

49. Triton corrugatus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 15 13 

50. Triton Krebsii, Morch (= corrugatus, Lam.). Kiister, t. 70, f. 3... 13 

61. Triton lineatus, Brod. Reeve, f. 4, 1 14 

52, 53. Triton Tranquebaricus, Lam. Reeve, t. 14, f. 55, t. 20, f. 55... 14 

54. Triton Poulsenii, Morch. Kiister, t. 70, f. 1 14 

55. Triton cingulatus, Lam. Reeve, f. 35 15 

56. Triton Voigtii, Anton ( cingulatus, Lam.). Philippi, Abbild. i, 

Fusus, t. 1, f. 1 15 

Plate 9. 

57. Triton Chemnitzii, Gray ( Wiegmanni, Anton). Reeve, Icon., f. 

37 .' 15 

58. Triton clandestinus, Lam. Reeve, f. 13 15 

59. Triton cutaceum, Linn. Reeve, f. 39 15 

60. Triton doliarium, Linn. Kiener, Monog., t. 15, f. 2 16 

61. Triton Spengleri, Lam. Reeve, f. 36 16 

62. Triton Waterhousei, Ad. and Angas. Kiister, t. 69, f. 1 17 

63. Triton lignarius, Brod. Reeve, Icon., Triton, f. 40 15 

64. 65. Triton labiosus, Wood. Reeve, f. 52, I, c , 17 

C6. Triton Loroisii, Petit (= labiosus, Wood), Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 

2, f. 8.... 17 



RBSSABNOI TO PLATES. 2-S> 

KKiUUKS. TACiK. 

07. Triton iStraugei, Ad. and Ang. (= labiosus, Wood, var.). /ool. Proc., 

t. 50, f. 16, 1878 17 

08. Triton orientalis, Nevill (= labiosus, Wood, var.). Kiister, t. 69, 

f. 8 17 

Plate 10. 

69. Triton Barthelemyi, Bern. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser. ii, t. 1, f. 1 17 

70. Triton femorale, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 10, f. 1 18 

71. Triton Ranzanii, Bianc. (= tigrinus, Br.). Mem. Acad. Bologna, 

iii, t. 3 18 

Triton tigrinus, Brod. Chenu, Manual Conch., f. 695.....' 18 

Triton Africanus, A. Ad. Kiister, t. 69, f. 3 16 

74. Triton pyrum, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 33 19 

75. Triton sarcostoma, Reeve, Icon., f. 21, b 20 

76. Triton grandimaculatus, Rve. (= lotorium, L.). Icon., f. 20 , 19 

77. Triton trilineatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 31, a 20 

Plate 11. 

78,79. Triton lotorium, Linn. Reeve, Icon., figs. 19 a, 19 b 19 

80. Triton cynocephalus, Lam. Reeve, f. 26 19 

81. Triton moritinctus, Rve. (; cynocephalus, Lam.). Icon., f. 49 19 

82. Triton Dunkeri, Lischke. Jap. Meeres Conch., t. 3, f. 1 19 

84. Triton testudinarius, Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, t. 9, f. 3 b... 20 

85. Triton Sinensis, Reeve. Icon., 18 a 20 

86. Triton clavator, Lain. Reeve, Icon., f. 7 21 

87. Triton ;grotus, Reeve ( trilineatus, Rve.). Icon., f. 42 20 

88. Triton exilis, Reeve. Icon., f. 11 b 21 

89. Triton gallinago, Reeve. Icon., f. 5 21 

90. Triton monilifer, Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, t. 10, f. 18... 21 

Plate 12. 

91. Triton amictus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 62 22 

92. Triton canaliferus, Lam. (.- caudatus, Gmel.). Reeve, f. 8 21 

93. Triton tripus, Lam. Kiener, Icon., t. 8, f. 2 22 

94. 95. Triton vespaceus, Lam. Reeve, f. 61 a, b 22 

96. Triton elongatus, Reeve (= vespaceus, Lam.). Icon., f. 59 22 

97, 98. Triton gracilis, Reeve ( vespaceus, Lam.). Icon., f. 58 a, b 22 
99, 100. Triton Thereites, Reeve (= vespaceus, Lam.). Icon., f. 48 a, b 22 

102, 104. Triton exaratus, Reeve. Icon., f. 50 , b 22 

103. Triton gibbosus, Brod. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 69,. f. 7 23 

101. Triton gibbosus, Brod. Reeve, t. 14, f. 38 b 23 

105. Triton tenuiliratus, Lischke. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 64, f. 4 22 

106. Triton Loebbeckei, Lischke. Jap. Meeres Conch., Pt. 2, t. 4, f. 13.. 23 

Plate 13. 

107. Triton Pfeifterianus, Reeve. Icon., f. 14 28 

108. Triton retusus, Lam. Reeve, f. 47 2:5 

109. Triton pyrulum, Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 1. 10, f. 17 23 

110. Triton encausticus, Reeve. Icon., f. 43 23 

111. 112. Triton tuberosus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 1, a, b 23 

113. Triton tuberosus, Lam. Gould, Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f, 295 23 

114. Triton crispus, Reeve. Icon., f. 68 24 

115. Triton eburneus, Reeve. Icon., f. 69 24 



284 REFERENCE TO I'hATKS. 

FIGURES. VAGK. 

116. Triton Quoyi, Reeve. Icon., f. 93 24 

117. Triton verrucosus, Reeve. Icon., f. 71. 24 

118. Triton convolutus, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 92 25 

119. Triton scalariformis, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 89 25 

120. Triton speciosa, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., t. 1, f. 1, 1871 25 

Plate 14. 

121. Triton maculosus, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 04 25 

122. Triton Sowerbyi, Reeve. Icon., f. 65 b 26 

123. Triton clathratus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 57 a 20 

124. Triton clathratus, Sowb. Kuster, Conch. Cab., t. 60, f. 3 26 

125. Triton distortus, Schub. and Wagner. Reeve, Icon., f. 66 26 

126. Triton tortuosus, Reeve (= distortus, S. and W.). Icon., f. 74, a.. 26 

127. Triton obscurus, Reeve. Icon., f. 63 26 

128. Triton testaceus, Morch (= obscurus, Rve.). Kuster, t. 70, f. 7... 26 

129. Triton Cumingii, Dohrn. '(- clathratus, Sowb.). Kuster, t. 69, f. 9. 26 

130. Triton nitidulus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 70 27 

131. Triton Ceylonensis, Sowb. ( nitidulus, Sowb., var.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 73 ; 27 

132. Triton Brazieri, Angas ( nitidulus, var. Ceylonensis). Zool. 

Proc., t. 2, f. 3, 1869 27 

Plate 15. 

133. Triton siphonatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 81 28 

134. Triton antiquatus, Hinds. Kuster, Conch. Cab., t. 08, f. 9 28 

135. Triton sculptilis, Reeve. Icon., f. 76 28 

136. Triton eximius, Reeve. Icon., f. 77 28 

137. Triton decollatus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 82 28 

138. Triton truncatus, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 83 , 28 

139. Triton cylindricus, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, t. 11, f. 9 29 

140. Triton decapitatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 85 29 

141. Triton bracteatus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 4, f. 29 

142. Triton digitalis. Reeve. Kuster, Conch. Cab., t, 68, f. 17 29 

143. Triton digitalis, Reeve. Icon., f. 86 29 

144. Triton concinnus, Reeve. Icon., f. 87 29 

145. Triton tessellatus, Rve. (-- concinnus. Rve.). Icon., f. 91 29 

146,147. Triton angulatus, Reeve. Kuster, Conch. Cab., t, 68, f. 15, 16. 30 

148. Triton latevaricosus, Reeve (-- bracteatus, Hinds). Icon., f. 90... 29 

149. Triton bacillum, Reeve (=bracteatus, Hinds)'. Icon., f. 94 29 

150. Triton fictilis, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 98 30 

151. Triton Coxi, Brazier. Proc. Zool. Soc., t. 4, f. 9, 1872 28 

152. Triton cynocephalus, Lam. Operculum. Specimen 19 

153. Distorsio anus, Linn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 40, f. 7 35 

154. Triton pictus, Reeve. Icon., f. 79 30 

Plate 16. 

155. Triton reticosus, A. Ad. Specimen 31 

156. Triton pusillus, Pease. Specimen 31 

157. Triton comptus, Sowb. (= obscurus, Rve.). Zool. Proc. t. 72, f. 2, 

1874 .* 33 

158. Triton Swifti, Try on. Specimen 31 

159. Triton lineolatus, Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 1, f. 18, 1846... 31 

160. Triton reticulatus, Blainv. Reeve, Icon., f. 72 27 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 285 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

161. Triton pygmaeus, Reeve ( reticulatus, Bl.). Icon., f. 67 27 

162. Triton lanceolatus, Menke. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 65, f. 8 27 

168. Triton anonialus, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 100 31 

164. Triton cancellatus, Lam. Reeve, Fusus, f. 62 34 

165, 166. Triton Oregonensis, Redf. (= cancellatus, Lam.). Reeve, 

Fusus, f. 61 a, b '. 34 

167. Triton Oregonensis Redfield (-. cancellatus, Lam.). Ann. N. Y. 

Lye., iv, t. 11, f 2 a 34 

168. Triton scaber, King. Reeve, Icon. Triton, f. 34 34 

169. Triton rudis, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 53 34 

Plate 17. 

170-172. Triton cancellatus, Lam, Gould, Moll. Wilkes' Exped. f. 298.. 34 

173, 174. Distorsio anus, Linn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 40, f. 6, 8 35 

175. Triton cancellinus, Roissy. Reeve, Icon., f. 45 35 

176. Triton constrictus, Brod. ( - cancellinus, Roissy). Reeve, f. 41... 35 

177. Triton ridens, Reeve (== cancellinus, Roissy). Icon., f. 46 35 

178. Triton decipiens, Reeve ( cancellinus, Roissy). Icon., f. 102... 35 

Plate 18. 

1. Ranella spinosa, Lam. Kiener, Icon., t. 5 37 

2. Ranella foliata, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 8 37 

3. Ranella crumena, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 17 a 37 

4. Ranella neglecta, Sowb. (- margaritula, Desh.). Conch. 111., f. 22. 37 

5. Ranella albivaricosa, Reeve. Voy. Samarang, t, 13, f. 4 3S 

6. Ranella albivaricosa. Reeve. Icon. f. "2 ;> >s 

7. Ranella elegans, Beck (_--- subgranosa, Sowb.). Reeve, Icon., f. 22. 38 

Plate 19. 

8. Ranella subgranosa, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 1 38 

9. Ranella albifasciata, Sowb. (= nana, Sowb., var.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 27 38 

10. Ranella crassa, Dillw. Reeve, Icon,, f. 18, b 38 

11. Ranella siphonata, Reeve (= bufonia, Gm., var. venustula). Icon., 

f. 38 :J9 

12. Ranella Lampas, Linn. Reeve, Triton, f. 30 b 38 

Plate 20. 

13. Ranella venustula, Reeve ( bufonia, Ginel., var.). Icon., f. 37 39 

14. Ranella tuberosissima, Rve. (: bufonia, Gmel.). Icon., f. 39 39 

15. Ranella nana, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 29 a 38 

16. Ranella ventricosa, Brod. Kiener, Monog., t. 14, f. 2 40 

17. Ranella ventricosa, Brocl. Gould, Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 302 40 

18. Ranella ventricosa (eggs). Orb. Voy. Am. Mlrid., t. 62, f. 11 40 

19. Ranella scrobiculator, Linn. Reeve, Triton, f. 28 b 40 

20. Ranella coriacea, Reeve (. scrobiculator, L.). Icon., f. 26 40 

Plate 21. 

21. 23. Ranella bufonia, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 23 a, b...*. .' 39 

22. Ranella bufonia, Gmel. Gould, Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 299, 'M 

24. Ranella cruentata, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 20 39 

25. Ranella rhodostoma, Beck ( cruentata, var.). Reeve, Icon. f. 32. 39 



281) REFERENCE To PLATES, 

FJGUUKS. TAGK. 

26. Ranella Thomac, d'Orb. (=-- cruentata, var. rhodostoma). Moll. 

Cuba, t. 23, f. 23 3ft 

27. Kanella verrucosa, Sowb. (= cruentata, Sowb.) Concb. 111., f 20... 39 

28. Ranella Grayana, Dunker (= bufonia, Gmel.). Novit. Conch., t. 19, 

f. 5 39 

29. Ranella asperrima, Dunker (: bufonia, Gmel.). Novit. Conch., t. 19, 

f. 3 39 

30. Ranella Ranelloides, Reeve (cruentata, Sowb.). Icon. Triton, f. 

10 a 39 

31. Ranella rugosa, Sowb. ( _-- cruentata, Sowb.). Conch. 111., f. 7 39 

32. Ranella Thersites, Redfield (= Californica, Hds.). Ann. N. Y. Lye. 

iv, t. 10, f. 6 b 40 

68. Ranella nobilis, Reeve (-^bufonia, Gmel.). Icon., f. 16 39 

Plate 22. 

33. Ranella pustulosa, Reeve. Icon., f. 11 a 41 

34. Ranella coelata, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 10 41 

35. Ranella granifera, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 30 41 

36. Ranella granifera, Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrol,, t. 40, f. 21 41 

37. Ranella semigranosa, Lam. (= granifera, Lam.). Reeve, Icon., f. 25. 41 

38. Ranella affinis, Brod. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 12 42 

39. Ranella livida, Reeve (= affinis, Brod.). Icon., f. 28 42 

40. Ranella Cubaniana, d'Orb. (= affinis, Br.). Moll. Cuba, t. 23, f. 24.. 42 

41. Ranella Cumingiana, Dunker (= affinis, Br.). Novit. Conch., t. 19, 

f. 7 42 

42. Ranella Californica, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 9 b 40 

43. Ranella candisata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 5 41 

Plate 23. 

44.- Ranella bitubercularis, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 40 42 

45. Ranella fuscocostata, Dunker (= tuberculata, Br.). Novit. Conch., 

t. 19, f. 1 43 

46. Ranella tuberculata, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 36 43 

47. Ranella tuberculata, Brod. Novit. Conch., t. 18, f. 1 42 

48. Ranella gyrina, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 49 43 

49. Ranella cuspidata, Reeve. Icon., f. 48 43 

50. Ranella concinna, Dunker (= pusilla, Brod.). Novit. Conch., t. 18, 

f. 3 44 

51. Ranella pulchra, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 47..... 43 

52. Ranella laevigata, Lam. (= marginata, Gmel.). Reeve, Icon., f. 50. 42 

53. 54. Ranella leucostoma, Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 40, figs. 3, 4... 42 

55. Ranella ponderosa, Reeve (== affinis, Brod.). Icon., f. 14 42 

Plate 24. 

56, 67. Ranella pusilla, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 44 a, b 44 

58. Ranella rosea, Reeve (= pusilla, Br.). Icon., f. 46 44 

59. Ranella anceps, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 43 44 

60. Ranella hastula, Reeve. Icon., f. 42 44 

61. Ranella argus, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 12 44 

62. Raneila vexillum, Sowb. (== argus, Gmel.). Conch. 111., f. 3 44 

63. Ranella vexillum, Sowb. (= argus, Gmel.). Gould, Moll. Wilkes' 

Exped. f. 301 44 

64. Ranella proditor, Frauenf. (= argus, Gmel.). Voy. Novara, t. 1, 

f. 1 b..., 44 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. " 

FIGTTBES. PAGE. 

<5. Ranella tumida, Bunker (=argus, Gmel.). Novit, Conch., t. 18, f. 8. 44 
GG. Ranella sagitta, Kuster (= pusilla, Br., var. concinna). Conch. 

Cab., t, 38 a, f. G 44 

07. Ranella lamellosa, Bunker (= anceps, Lam.). Novit. Conch., t. 18, 

f. 6 44 

69. Ranella gigantea, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 3 42 

Plate 25. 

Lingual Dentition. 

1. Fusus inconstans, Lischke. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, t. 6, f. 1 a 47 

2. Fasciolaria tulipa, Linn. Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, ii, t. 5, 

f. 12 48 

3. Fasciolaria lignaria, Linn. Troschel, t. 5, f. 17 48 

4. Buccinofusus Berniciensis, King. Sars, Moll. Norv., 1. 10, f. 26 b... 48 

5. Ptychatractus ligatus, Mighels. Am. Jour. Conch., i, t. 8, f. 8 48 

0, 7. Meyeria pusilla, Sars. Moll. Norv., t. 9, f. 13 b, c 48 

8. Peristernia nassafula, Lam. Troschel, t. 6, f. 3 48 

9. Leucozonia fuscata, Gmel. Troschel, t. G, f. 1 48 

10. Melongena melongena, Linn. Troschel, t. 7, f. 13 98 

11. Melongena pugilina, Linn. Troschel, t. 7, f. 17 98 

Plate 26. 

TAngual Dentition. 

12. Melongena citrina, Lam. Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, ii, t. 7, 

f. 18 98 

I-'). Melongena aspera, Mart. Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, ii, t. 7, 

f. 19 98 

14. Neptunea anfiqua, Linn. Troschel, t, 6, f. 15 98 

15. Neptunea bulbacea, Bern. Troschel, t. G, f. 16 98 

1C. Chrysodomus Turtoni, Bean. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 10, f. 16 98 

17. Sipho islandicus, Linn. Sars, t. 10, f. 19 99 

18. Sipho latericeus, Morch. Sars, t. 10, f. 24 99 

19. Hemifusus tuba, Gmel. Troschel, t. 7, f. 14 98 

20. Sycotypus pyrum, Gmel. Troschel, t. 7, f. 1 99 

21. Metula mitrella, Ad. and Reeve. Troschel, t. 7, f. 10 100 

22. Cantharus undosus, Linn. Troschel, t. 7, f. 8 100 

23. Cantharus distortus, Linn. Troschel, t. 7, f. 7 100 

24. 25. Volutopsis Norvegica, Chemn. Sars, Moll. Norv., t, 10, f. 17 a, b. 99 

Plate 27. 

Lingual Dentition. 

26. Cantharus proteus, live. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t. 7, f. 4 100 

27. Euthria cornea, Linn. Troschel, t. 7, f. 11 100 

28. Euthria lineata, Chemn. Troschel, t, 7, f. 12 100 

29. Buccinum undatum, L. Troschel, t. G, f. 10 100 

30. Buccinum hydrophanum, Hancock. Troschel, t. 6, f. 11 100 

31. Volutharpa Perryi, Jay. Troschel, t. 6, f. 14 100 

32. Buccinopsis eburna, Sars. Moll. Norv., t. 10, f. 15 100 

33. Eburna lutosa, Lam. Troschel, Archiv Naturg., i, t. 3, f. 4, 1868... 101 

34. Nassaria acumiuata, Rve. Troschel, Archiv, t. 3, f. 5 

3"). Phos senticosus, L. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t. 8, f. 1 

JG. Engina mendicaria, Troschel, t. 8, f. 4 220 



288 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

* 

FIGURES. PACK. 

37. Canidea. Jour, de Conch., t. 12, f. 3, 1876 101 

38. Clea. Jour, de Conch., t. 12, f. 4, 1876 101 

39. Cominella limbosa 101 

Plate 28. 

40. Buccinofusus parilis, Conr. Tert. Foss., t. 49, f. 5 48 

41. 42. Peistochilus Scarborough!, Meek and Hayden. Geol. Survey, ix, 

t. 32, f, 4 a, b 47 

43. Exilifusus Kerri, Gabb. Proc. Phil. Acad., t. 17, f. 1, 1876 4<> 

44. Exilia pergracilis, Conr. Jour. Phil. Acad., 2d ser., iv, t. 47, f. 34. 4 ( .) 

45. Exilifusus, thalloides (= Exilia), Conr. Tert. Foss., t. 18, f. 12.... 49 

46. Turrispira salebrosa, Conr. Tert. Foss., t. 18, f, 13 49 

47. Priscofusus geniculus, Conr. Geol. Wilkes' Exped., t. 20, f. 3. 49 

48. 49. Serrifusus Dakotensis, Meek and Hayden. Geol. Surv., ix, t. 32, 

f. 6 a, b 49 

Plate 29. 

50. Terebrispira elegans, Emmons. Geol. N. Car., IV 114 50 

51. Mesorhytis gracilenta, Meek. Pal. Hayden's Surv., ix, 364, f. 45... 50 

52. Cryptorhytis Cheyennensis, Meek and Hayden. Ibid., t. 19, f. 13 b. 50 

53. Lirosoma sulcosa, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 3 50 

54. Fasciolina Woodii, Gabb. Jour. Philad. Acad., 2d ser., iv, t. 67, f. 7. 50 

55. Bulbifusus inauratus, Conr. Tert. Foss., t. 18, f. 2 102 

56. Cornulina armigera, Conr. Ibid., t. 15, f. 1 102 

57. Leistoma bulbiformis, Lam. Swain's Malacol., 308, f. 75 102 

58. Fusispira ventricosa, Hall. 24th Rep. N. Y., t. 8, f. 6 102 

59. Closteriscus tenuilineatus, Meek. Pal. Hayden's Surv., ix, t. 19, 

f. 10 b 103 

60. Palaetractus crassus, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, t. 26, f. 26 103 

61. Pyrifusus subdensatus, Conr. Jour. Phil. Acad., 2d ser., iii, t. 35, 

f. 12 103 

Plate 30. 

62. Pyrifusus (Neptunella) Newberryi, Meek and Hayden. Survey, ix, 

t. 31, f. 6b , 103 

63. Hercorhyncus Tippana, Conr. Jour. Phil. Acad., 2d ser., iv, t. 46, 

f. 41 103 

64. Lirofusus thoracicus, Conr. Tert. Foss., t. 18, f. 6 103 

65. Strepsidura costata, Swains. Eneyc. Meth., t, 428, f. 2 103 

66. Papillina papillatus, Conr. Tert. Foss., t. 18, f. 3 108 

67. Perissolax brevirostris, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, t. 18, f. 48 104 

68. Levifusus trabeatus, Conr. Tert. Foss., t. 18, f. 1 104 

69. Tortifusus curvirostra, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 19, f. 1 104 

70. Pyropsis perlata, Conr. Jour. Phil. Acad. 2d ser., iv, t. 46, f. 39.... 104 

71. Clavifusus Cooperi, Conr. Tert. Foss., t, 18, f. 15 104 

72. Clavifusus altilis, Conr. Ibid., t. 18, f. 16 104 

Plate 31, 

73. Cantharulus Vaughani, Meek and Hayden. Survey, ix, t. 32, f. 5 b. 104 

74. Metulella fusiformis, Gabb. Proc. Phil. Acad., t. 11, f. 3, 1872 104 

75. Agasoma gravida, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, t. 1, f. 6 105 

76. Agasoma sinuata, Gabb. Ibid., t. 1, f. 7 105 

77. Erypachia perforata, Gabb. Ibid., i, t. 18, f. 39 105 



IIEFE11ENPE TO PLATED. '2 SO 

FIUUKK.b. 1'AOE. 

78. Pscudobuccinum Nebrascense, Meek and Haydeu. Surv., ix, t. 31, 

f.5, d 105 

79. Odontobasis ventricosa, Meek. Pal. Hayden's Surv., ix, 354, f. 43.. 105 

80. Ectracheliza truncata, Gabb. Proc. Phil. Ac-ad., t. 9, f. 2, 1872 106 

HI. Brachysphingus liratus, Gabb. Pal. Calif., i, t. 28, f. 211 106 

82. Haydenia impressa, Gabb. Ibid., t. 18. f. 51 106 

83. Buccitriton cancellatum, Lea (== sagenum, Conr.). Contrib. Conch., 

t. 5, f. 170 106 

84. Lacinia alveata, Conr. Tert. Fos., t. 15, f. 2 106 

85. Buccitriton altum, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., i, t. 21, f. 9 106 

Plate 32. 

86. Fusus pagoda, Lesson. Reeve, Icon., Fusus, f. 32 b 51 

87. Fusus vaginatus, Jan. Reeve, f. 51 51 

88. Fusus echinatus, Kiener (== vaginatus, Jan.). Iconog., t. 2, f. 2... 51 

89. Fusus colus, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 11 52 

90-92. Fusus colus, Linn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 44, figs. 1-3 52 

93. Fusus proboscidiferus, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 17 52 

94. Fusus ventricosus, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 110, 1870 52 

95. Fusus toreuma, Mart. (= colus, Linn., var.). Reeve, f. 27 52 

96. Fusus Brenchleyi, Baird (= Nicobaricus, var.). Voy. Cura9oa, 

t. 27, f. 1 5;i 

97. Fusus oblitus, Reeve (== Nicobaricus, var.). Icon., f. 29 53 

98. Fusus Nicobaricus, Lam. Reeve, 37 a ; 63 

Plate 33. 

99. Fusus Beckii, Reeve (= Nicebaricus, var. oblitus). Icon., t. 17, 

f. 34 b..... 5o 

100. Fusus tuberculatus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 38 -II 

101. Fusus laticostatus, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 33 a 5:> 

102-107. Fusus inconstans, Lischke (=perplexus, A. Ad.). Jap. Conch., 

t. 2, figs. 1-6 . 54 

108. Fusus multicarinatus, Reeve ( spectrum, var. Novae Hollandiae). 

Icon., f. 22 '.. 58 

109. Fusus multicarinatus, Lam. Kiener, Monog., t. 10, f. 1 55 

Plate 34. 

110. Fusus nodosoplicatus, Dunker (^= tuberculatus, Lam.). Novit. 

Conch., t. 33, f. 4 54 

111. Fusus nodosoplicatus, Dunker (= tuberculatus, Lain.). Lischke, 

Jap. Conch. Suppl., t, 3, f. 6 54 

112. Fusus Loebbeckii, Kobelt. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t, 48, f. 1 54 

113. Fusus Australia, Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 34, f. 11 55 

114. Fusus maraioratus, Phil. ( Australia, Quoy). Abbild. ii, Fusus, 

t, 3, f. 7 55 

115. Fusus marmoratus, Phil. (= Australis, Quoy). Reeve, Icon., f. 

I a 55 

116. Fusus aureus, Reeve (=s= Australis, Quoy). Icon., f. 17 55 

117. Fusus aureus, Reeve (== Australis, Quoy). Phil., Abbild. iii, Fusus. 

t. 5, f. 4 55 

118. Fusus crebriliratus, Reeve (=s Australis, Quoy). Icon., f. 20 55 

110. Fusus caudatus, Quoy (== Australis, Quoy). Voy. Astrolabe, t. 

34. f. 20 55 

120. Fusus longissimus, Gmel. Kiener, Monog., t. 2, f. 1 56 

87 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 35. 

FIGURES. 

121. Fusus undatus, Gmelin. Reeve, Icon., f. 12 

122. Fusus strigatus, Philippi. Abbild. iii, Fusus, t. 5, f. 3 

123. Fusus gradatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 65 

124. Fusus Hartwigi, Shuttlew. (d= gradatus, Reeve). Specimen 57 

125. Fusus Paeteli, Dunker (= gradatus, Reeve). Novit. Conch., t. 33, 

f. 5 57 

126. Fusus similis, Baird (- undatus, Gmel.). Voy. Cura9oa, t. 36 56 

127. 128. Fusus polygonoides, Lara. Reeve, Icon., figs. 36 a, d 56 

129. Fusus leptorhynchus, Tapparone-Canefri, Mar. Rosso, t. 19, f. 5.. 56 

130. Fusus Schrammi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, t. 1, f. 9, 1865 57 

Plate 36. 

131. Fusus distans, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 28 57 

132. Fusus closter, Phil. (= distans, Lam.). Abbild. iii, Fusus, t. 5, 

f. 1 57 

133. Fusus Dupetithouarsi, Kiener (==- distans, var.). Monog., t. 11.-.. 57 

134. Fusus Dupetithouarsi, Val. Voy. Venus, t. 5, f. 1 57 

135. Fusus spectrum, Ads. and Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 68 58 

136. Fusus torulosus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 24 59 



Plate 37. 

137. Fusus Novae-Hollandiie, Reeve (= spectrum, Rve., var.). Icon., 

f. 70 b 58 

138. Fusus ambustus, Gould. Bost. Jour. N. Hist., vi, 374, t. 14, f. 18.. 5! 

139. Fusus cinereus, Reeve. Turbinella, f. 68 a GO 

140. Fusus luteopictus, Ball. (= cinereus, Rve.). Specimen GO 

141. Fusus Taylorianus, Rve. (= cinereus, Rve.). Icon. Fusus, f. 85... 60 

142. Fusus Dunkeri, Jonas. Phil., Abbild. ii, 191, t. 4, f. 4 GO 

143. Fusus craticulatus, Brocchi. Reeve, Icon., f. 74 GO 

144. Fusus scaber, Lam. (= craticulatus, Broc.). Kiener, Murex, t. 9, 

f. 2 GO 

145. 146. Fusus Syracusanus, Linn. Reeve, f. 10 b, c GO 

147. Fusus rostratus, Olivi. Specimen 61 

148. Fusus fragosus, Rve. (== rostratus, Olivi). Icon., f. 71 61 

149. Fusus crclatus, Rve. Icon., f. 35 b 61 

150. Fusus rostratus, Olivi. Reeve, Icon., f. 55... Gl 

151. Fusus nigrirostratus, E. A. Smith. Zoo!. Proc., t. 20, f. 33, 1879.. G2 

Plate 38. 

152. Fusus Philippi, Jonas. Phil., Abbild. ii, Fusus, t. 4, f. 1 62 

153. Fusus nobilis, Reeve. Icon., f. 60 62 

154. Fusus turricula, Kiener. Monog., t. 5, f. 1 62 

155. Fusus Pfeifteri, Phil. Abbild. ii, t, 3, f. 1 63 

156. Fusus Meyeri, Dunker. Novitates, t, 43, f. 2 63 

157. Fusus longicaudatus, Bory. Reeve, Icon., f. 13 63 

158. Fusus Couei, Petit. Jour, de Conch, iv, t. 8, f. 1 63 

159. Fusus gracillimus, Ads. and Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 69 63 

160. Fusus acus, Ads. and Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 75 b 63 

161. Fusus clausicaudatus, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 54 a 64 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 291 

Plate 39. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

162. Fusus Kobeltii, Dall. Specimen 64 

163. Fusus tenuiliratus, Dunker. Novit. Conch., t. 33, f, 2 64 

164. Fusus Rudolphii, Dunker. Novit. Conch., t. 43, f. 3 64 

165. Fusus ocelliferus, Bory. Reeve, Icon., f. 3 65 

166. Fusus minutisquamosus, Reeve. Icon., f. 80 65 

167. Fusus pulchellus, Phil. Reeve, Icon., f. 81 a 65 

168. Fusus Niponicus, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 34 65 

169. Fusus simplex, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 35 65 

170. Fusus ustulatus, Reeve. Icon., f.. 66 66 

171. Fusus pyrulatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 50 a 66 

\7'2. Fusus pyrulatus, Reeve. Dunker, Novit. Conch., t. 34, f 5 66 

189. Buccinofusus Spitzbergensis, Reeve. Kiister, t. 26, f. 7 71 

190. Meyeria alba, Jeffreys. Thompson's Depths of Sea, f. 77 7:5 

191. 192. Meyeria pusilla, Sars. (= alba, Jeff.). Moll. Norv., t. 13, 

f. 8; t. 18, f.45 73 

193. Meyeria albella, Sars (= alba, Jeff.). Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. i, t. 7, 

f. 4 73 

Plate 40. 

178. Fusus Maroccensis, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 72 66 

174. Fusus elegans, Reeve (= Maroccensis, Gm.). Icon., f. 87 a 66 

175. Fusus Lincolnensis, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, t. 2, f. 4 66 

176. Fusus obscurus, Phil. Abbild. i, Fusus, t. 1, f. 5 67 

177. Afer afer, Gmel. Kiener, Fusus, t. 18, f. 2 69 

178. Afer Blosvillei, Desh. Guerin's Mag. Zool., t. 85, 1844 69 

179. Afer Blosvillei, Desh. Reeve, Icon., Fusus, t. 25 b 69 

180. Afer lividus, Phil. (== Blosvillei, Desh.). Abbild. iii, Fusus, t. 2, 

f. 8 69 

181. Afer heptagonalis, Reeve. Icon., Fusus, t. 26 a 70 

182. Clavella serotina, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 1, f. 12 70 

183. Buccinofusus Berniciensis, King. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, v, t. 87, 

f. 1 71 

184. Buccinofusus Berniciensis, King, var. solida, Sars. Moll. Norv., 

t. 14, f. 2 71 

JS5. Ptychatractus ligatus, Mighels and Adams. Specimen 72 

186. Ptychatractus Coreanicus, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc. 1879, t. 20, 

f. 36 72 

187. Fusus nucleus, Brod. Sowb., Conch. 111., Murex, f. 2 67 

188. Triton amictus, Reeve. Icon., f. 62 22 

Plate 41. 

194, 195. Melongena patula, Brod. and Sowb. Kiener, Monog, Pyrula, 

t. 2, f. 1, 2 107 

196. Melongena patula, Brod. and Sowb. Juv. Gray, Voy. Blossom, t. 

35, f. 3 107 

197, 198. Melongena melongena, Linn. Kiener, Monog. Pyrula, t. 1, 

f. 1, 2 107 

199. Melongena corona, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., Pyrula, f. 7 108 

200. Melongena corona, Gmel. Sowb., Zool. Proc., t. 48, f. 13, 1878 108 

201.' Melongena Belknapi, Petit ( corona, Gmel.). Jour, de Conch., 

iii, t. 2, f. 5 108 

202. Melongena Martiniana, Phil. (= corona, Gmel.). Abbild. i, Pyrula, 

t. 1, f. 9 108 

203. Melongena bispinosa, Phil. (= corona, Gmel.). Jour, de Conch. 

iii, t. 8, f. 3 10S 



292 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 42. 

FIGURES. PAOK. 

204. Melongena galeodes, Lam. Kiener, Pyrula, t. 5, f. 2 108 

205. Melongena galeodes, Lam. Reeve, Icon. Pyrula, f. 23 108 

200. Melongena galeodes, Lam. Voy. Astrol. et /el., t. 22, f. 40 108 

207. Melongena squamosa, Lam. (= galeodes, Lam.). Kiener, t. 4, f. 2. 108 

208. Melongena angulata, Lam. (== galeodes, Lam.). Kiener, t. 7, f. 2.. 108 

209. Melongena bucephala, Lam! Kiener, Pyrula, t. 4, f. 1 109 

210. Melongena pallida, Brod. and Sowb. Kiister, Monog., t. 7, t ">.... 109 

211. Melongena pallida, Brod. and Sowb. Gray, Beechey's Voy., t. 30, 

f. 14 . 109 

212,213. Melongena anomala, Reeve Icon. Pyrula, figs. 9, 12... 10'. i 

214. Melongena lignaria, Reeve (= pallida). Icon. Pyrula, t. 9, f. 13 a.. 10'. 

215. Melongena Turbinelloides, Reeve (= pallida). Icon. Fusus, f. 56. 109 

216. Melongena Orbignyi, Reeve (= -fusit'ormis, Blainv.). Icon. Pur. 

pura, f. 32 109 

217. Melongena Purpuroides, Orb. (= fusiformis, Bl.). Voy. Am. 

Merid., t. 63, f. 1 109 

218. Melongena pagoda, Reeve (=.- fusiformis, Bl.). Icon. Bucc., f. 50.. 109 

219. Melongena myristica, Reeve. Icon. Fusus, f. 57 109 

Plate 43. 

220. Melongena pugilina, Born. Kiener, Pyrula, t. 5, f . 1 110 

221. Melongena pugilina, Born. Reeve, Icon. Pyrula, f. 1 a 110 

222. Melongena pugilina, Born. Voy. Bonite, t, 42, f. 10 110 

223-225. Melongena paradisiaca, Reeve. Icon. Pyrula, f. 17 a, b, c.... 110 

226. Melongena cochlidium, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 2 110 

227. Melongena cochlidium, Linn. Voy. Astrol. and Zel., t. 22, f. 37... 110 

228. 229. Melongena morio, Linn. Kiener, Fusus, t, 22, f. 2 ; t. 23, f. 2. Ill 

230. Melongena spadicea, Kobelt. Kiister, Fusus, t. 55, f. 5 110 

231. Melongena cancellarit)ides, Reeve. Icon., f. 59 110 

Plate 44. 

232. Hemifusus colosseus, Lam. Kiener, Fusus, t. 25, f. 1 Ill 

233. Hemifusus ternatanus, Gmel. Kiister, Pyrula, t. 5, f . 4 112 

234. Hemifusus pastinaca, Reeve. Icon. Fusus, f. 04 112 

235. Hemifusus lacteus, Reeve. Icon. Pyrula, f. 8 112 

236. Hemifusus elongatus Lam. Kiener, Fusus, t. 28 112 

237. Hemifusus tuba, Gmel. Kiener. Fusus, t. 26. f. 1 112 

238. 239. Thatcheria mirabilis, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 54, f. 1 a, b, 

1877 113 

240, 241. Strombus Luhuanus, monstr. Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. x, t. 2, 

f. 1, 2 113 

242. Pyrula Bengalina, Grateloup. Mem., t. 4. f. 5 113 

Plate 45. 

243. Neptunea antiqua, Linn. Kiener, Fusus, t. 18, f. 1 ... 113 

244. Neptunea antiqua, Linn. Operculum. Meyer and Mobius, Kielerb. 

ii, t. 2, f . 9 113 

245. Neptunea antiqua, Linn. Monstr. Brown, Brit. Conch., t. 58, f. 19. 113 

246. Murex decollatus, Donov. ( antiqua, Fry). Brit. Shells, t. 86... 113 

247. 248. Neptunea despecta, Linn. Reeve, Icon. Fusus, f. 39 b, c 116 

249. Neptunea despecta, young. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 14, f. 4 c 116 

250. Neptunea despecta, var. carinata, Penn. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 14, 

f. 4b.... . Ill) 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 293 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

261. Neptunea despecta, var. fornicata, Gray. Reeve, Icon. Fusus, f. 63.. 116 
'252, 253. Neptunea heros, Gray (= despecta, var. fornicata). Zoel. 

Proc., t. 7, 1850 110 

254. Neptunea borealis, Phil. (= despecta, var. fornicata). Abbild. iii, 

t. 5, f. 2 116 

Plate 46. 

255, 'J56. Neptunea heros, Gray (--= despecta, var. fornicata). Zool. 

Proc., t, 7, 1850 110 

257-260. Neptunea antiqua, Middendorf (=-= despecta, var. fornicata). 

Mai. Ross., t. 2, f. 2; t. 5, f. 1, 2, 5 116 

261. Neptunea tornata, Gld. (^-despecta, var. fornicata). Invert. Mass, 

edit, ii, f. 641 116 

Plate 47. 

262. Neptunea arthritica, Val. (= despecta, var. fornicata). Jour. 

Conch., 2 ser., ii, t. 12, f. 3 116 

263. 264. Neptunea arthritica, Val. (== despecta, var. fornicata). Kiis- 

ter, t. 13, f. 2, 8 116 

265. Neptunea bulbosa, Val. ( - despecta, var. fornicata). Voy. Venus. 

t. 5, f. 2 a 116 

266. Neptunea bulbacea, Val. (= despecta, var. fornicata). Bernardi, 

J. Conch., 2 ser , iii, t. 7. f. 1 116 

267. Neptunea saturus, Martyn (= despecta, var. fornicata). Univ. 

Conch., t.47 116 

268. Neptunea Cumingii, Crosse (== despecta, var. fornicata). Jour. 

Conch., 3 ser. ? iii, t. 5, f. 2 116 

Plate 48. 

269-272. Neptunea lirata, Martyn. Kiister, f. 11, f. 1; t. 10, figs. 5, 

4, 2 -. 117 

27:'.. Neptunea lirata, Reeve (== decemcostata, Say). Icon. Fusus, f. 40... 118 

274. Neptunea crebricostata, pall. Kobelt in Kiister, Fusus, t. 39, f. 1. 118 

275. Neptunea Turtoni, Bean (Egg- Capsule). Howse, Ann. Mag.. N. II., 

xix, t. 10, f. 9 119 

276. Neptunea Norvegica, Chemn. (Egg-Capsule). Howse, Ann. Mag. 

N. H., xix, t, 10, f. 3 119 

277. Neptunea regularis, Dall. (= Norvegica, Chemn.). Kobelt in 

Kiister, t, 39, f. 2 119 

Plate 49. 

278. Neptunea Largillierti. Petit (= Norvegica). Jour. Conch., ii, t. 

7, f. 6 119 

279. Neptunea Largillierti, Petit (== Norvegica). Kobelt, Conch. Cab., 

t. 35, f. 1 119 

280. Neptunea Behringii, Midd. Kobelt, Conch. Cab., t. 12, f. 1 121 

281. Neptunea Turtoni, Bean. Reeve, Fusus, f. 83 119 

282. 283. Neptunea Turtoni, Bean ( Young and Operculum). Sars, Moll. 

Norv., t. 25, f. 10; t, 18, f. 68 119 

284. Neptunea pericochlion, Schrenck. Kobelt, t. 43, f. 4 121 

285. Neptunea Halli, Dall. Kobelt, t. 43, f. 1 120 

286. Neptunea tabulata, Baird ( pericochlion, Schrenck). Kobelt, t. 

45, f. 8 121 

287. Neptunea collorhinn, Dall. Kobelt, t, 45, f. 6 120 



294 EEFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 50. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

288. Neptunea Norvegica, Chemn. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., t, 85, f. 3.... 119 

289. Neptunea Behringii, Midd. Kobelt, Conch. Cab., t. 12, f. 3 121 

290. Neptunea Kennicottii, Dall (= Behringii, Midd.). Am. Jour. 

Conch., vii, t. 15, f. 1 121 

291. Neptunea contraria, Linn. Reeve, Fusus, f. 4G 122 

292. Neptunea perversa, Lam. (r contraria, L.). Kiener, t. 20, f. 1... 122 
2'.);?. Neptunea deformis, Reeve. Icon., f. 45 a 122 

294. Neptunea harpa, Morch. Kobelt, t. 14 a, f. 1 122 

295. Neptunea harpa, Morch. Dunker, Novitates, t. 1, f. 3 122 

290. Neptunea attenuata, Dall. Kobelt, t. 45, f. 5 121 

Plate 51. 

297. Sipho Islanclicus, Chemn. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., t. 8G, f. 1 12?, 

298. Sipho gracilis, Da Costa. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., t. 80, f. 2 12-1 

299. Sipho gracilis, Da Costa. Forbes and Hanley, Brit, Moll., t. SS, 

f. 2 124 

300. Sipho propinquus, Alder. Reeve, Fusus, f. 82 b 125 

301. Sipho Ebur, Kobelt (non Morch = propinquus). Conch. Cab., t. 

34, f. G 125 

:'.0 k 2. Sipho tortuosus, Reeve. Kobelt, t, 26, f. 4 125 

.".Go. Sipho tortuosus, Reeve. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 15, f. 4 125 

304. Sipho turrita, Sars (== tortuosus, var.). Moll. Norv., t, 25, f. 10... 125 

305. Sipho attenuatus, Jeffreys (= tortuosus, var.). Sars, Moll. Norv., 

t. 15, f. 5 120 

306. 307. Sipho glabra, Verkriizen. Kobelt, t. 34, f. 2, 3 120 

308. Sipho Jeffreysianus, Fischer 126 

309. Sipho Islandicus (= Stimpsoni), Gould. Invert. Mass., 2d edit,, 

f. 638 126 

310. Sipho Stimpsoni, Morch. Kobelt, t. 34, f. 1 126 

31.1. Sipho corneus, Say (== gracilis, Da Costa). Am. Conch., t, 29 124 

312. Sipho lachesis, Morch. Kobelt, t. 38, f. 5 124 

313. Sipho Islandicus, Kiener (== Stimpsoni, var.). Monog , t. 15. f. 2. 126 

Plate 52. 

314. 315. Sipho turgidulus, Jeffreys. Kobelt, t, 38, f. 2. 3... 127 

310. Sipho Schantaricus, Middendorff. Reise ii, t, 10, f. 7 127 

317. Sipho striatus, Reeve (= Stimpsoni, var.). Icon., f. 42 b 126 

318, 319. Sipho togatus, Morch. Kobelt, t. 38, f . 7 ; t. 40, f. 4 127 

320. Sipho Pfaffii, Morch. Kobelt, t. 41, f. 4 127 

321. Sipho lividus, Morch. Jour, de Conch., x, t. 1, f, 1 127 

322. Sipho Moebii, Dunker and Metzger (= Sarsii, Jeffreys). Kobelt, 

t. 25, f. 5 . 128 

323. Sipho Ebur, Morch (= Sarsii, Jeffreys). Kobelt, t. 38, f. 128 

324. Sipho ventricosus, Gray. Kobelt, t. 25, f. 128 

325. Sipho Verkruzeni, Kobelt, t, 34, f. 4 128 

326. Sipho productus, Beck. Kobelt, t. 41, f. 129 

327. Sipho Benzoni, Morch. Jour, de Conch., xx, t. 5, f . 3 129 

328. Sipho Benzoni, Morch. Kobelt, t, 41, f. 8 129 

329. Sipho roseus, Dall. Kobelt, t, 45, f. 8 128 

330. Siph pygmams, Gld. Invert, Mass., edit, 2, f. 639 129 

331. 332. Sipho Mohnii, Friele. Kobelt, t. 40, f. 6 129 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 295 

Plate 53. 

FIGURES. PAGK. 

333-335. Sipho Kroyeri, Moller. Kobelt, t. 41, f. 1, 2; t. 39, f. 4 130 

336. Sipho arcticus, Phil. (= Kroyeri). Kobelt, t. 14 a, f. 4 130 

337. Sipho fenestratus, Turton. Kobelt, t. 26, f. 6 . 130 

338. Sipho fusiformis, Brod, (= fenestratus). Reeve, Buccinum, f. 31.. 130 

339. Sipho fusiformis, Brod. ( fenestratus). Sa.rs, Moll. Norv., t. 14, 

f. 1 . .. 130 

340. Sipho latericeus, Moller. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 15, f. 8 130 

341. 342. Sipho latericeus, Moller. Kobelt , t. 40, f. 7, 8 , 130 

343. Sipho brunneus, Dall. Kobelt, t. 40, f. 9 130 

344. Sipho pellucidus, Hancock. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xviii, t. 5, f. 3, 

1846 130 

345. 346. Sipho Jessoensis, Schrenck. Moll. Amur., t. 17, f. 9, 10...... 131 

347. Sipho virens, Dall. Kobelt, t. 45, f. 1 130 

348. Sipho rectirostris, Carpenter. Kobelt, t. 45, f . 7 131 

349. Sipho tortuosus, Reeve (== Kroyeri), Buccinum, f. 115 130 

350. Sipho cretaceus, Reeve (= Kroyeri). Buccinum, f. 112 130 

351. Sipho plicatus, A. Ad. (= Kroyeri) 130 

Plate 54. 

352. Siphonalia Kellettii, Forbes. Kobelt, t. 23, f. 1 134 

353. Siphonalia varicosa, Kiener. Reeve, Bucc., f. 10 137 

354. Siphonalia tuberosa, Reeve. Icon. Fusus, f. 7 135 

355. Siphonalia maxima, Tryon 135 

356. 357. Siphonalia dilatata, Quoy. Reeve, f. 49 a, c 135 

:>~>8. Siphonalia dilatata, Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 34, f. 15 135 

3-VJ. Siphonalia adusta (= dilatata). Kobelt, t. 44, f. 4 135 

360. Siphonalia Tasmaniensis, Ad. and Ang. Kobelt, t. 43, f. x, 3 135 

Plate 55. 

361. Siphonalia fuscozonata, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 2, f. b, 1865-. 134 

3f>2. Siphonalia modiflcata, Reeve. Kobelt, t. 42, f. 2 134 

363. Siphonalia spadicea, Reeve. Kobelt, t. 42, f. 8 134 

364-369. Siphonalia Cassidarircformis, Reeve'. Lischke. Jap. Conch., 

t. 4, f. 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10 135 

370 Siphonalia signum, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 6 136 

371. Siphonalia fusoides, Reeve. Bucc , f. 9 136 

372. Siphonalia fusoides, Reeve. Kobelt, t. 23, f. 6 136 

373. Siphonalia trochulus, Reeve. Buce., f 7 b I'M 

374. Siphonalia hinnulus, Ad. and Reeve. Kobelt, t. 42, f. 6 136 

375. Siphonalia calcarius, Bunker 137 

Plate 56. 

376. Siphonalia nodosa, Martyn. Voy. Astrol., t. 31, f. 5 13(1 

">77. Siphonalia nodosa, Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 5 136 

378. Siphonalia (Austrot'usus) alternata, Phil. Reeve, Fusus, f. 6 137 

379. Siphonalia (Austrofusus) Fontaine!, Orb. (= alternata). Voy. 

Amer. Merid., t. 63, f. 2 137 

380. Siphonalia (Austrofusus) sulcata, Lam. Kobelt., t. 44, f. 1 138 

381. Siphonalia (Austrofusus) buxea, Reeve. Fusus, f. 18 138 

382. Siphonalia (Austrofusus) Zealandica, Quoy (== Mandarina, Duclos). 

Kiener, Fusus, t. 14, f. 1 138 

383. Siphonalia (Austrofusus) Reeveana, Petit, Kobelt, t. 35, f. 2 138 

384. Siphonalia (Austrofusus) cinnamomea, Reeve. Fusus, f. 16 138 



2'.K> REFERENCE TO I'LATES. 

Plate 57. 

FIGURES. P.\<;l.. 

385. Siphonalia Mandarina, Duclos. Reeve, f. 8 138 

386. Siphonalia Fisheriana, Petit (= buxea, Reeve.). Jour. Conch., 

2d s'er., i, t. 2, f. 4 138 

387. Fulgur carica, Gmel. Kiener, Pyrula, t. 3, f. 1 139 

388. Fulgur aruanum, Linn. (= cariea, var. eliceans). Chemn., Man. i, 

180 139 

389. Fulgur candelabrum, Lam. (= carica, var. eliceans, monst.). 

Kiener, t. 8, f. 1 139 

390. Fulgur Kieneri, Phil. (== carica, var. eliceans). Kiener, t. 9, f. 2. 139 

391. 392. Fulgur perversus, Linn. Kiener, Pyrula. t. 9, f. 1 ; t. 8, f. 2. 141 

393. Fulgur coarctatus, Sowb. (== perversus ). Petit, Jour. Conch, iii, 

t. 7, f. 3 142 

394. Sycotypus canaliculatus, L. Am. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., x, 202 143 

395. Sycotypus spirata, Lam. (= canaliculatus). Kiener, Pyrula, t. 10, 

f. 1 143 

396. Sycotypus spirata, Lam. (= pyrum, Dillw ), Kiener, Pyrula, 1. 10, 

f. 2... . 143 



Plate 58. 

397. Fusus hemifusus, Kobelt (== colus, var.). Conch. Cab., t. 59, f. 5.. <>7 

398. Purpura baccata, Hombr. and Jacq. (== Siphonalia nodosa, Mart.). 

Ast. and Zel., t. 22, f. 9 136 

399. Melongena squamosa, Brod. Sowb., Conch. 111., Murex, f. 27 Ill 

400. Fulgur carica, Gmel. Egg-Capsules. Am. Marine Conch., t, 5. f. 80. 130 

401. Sycotypus canaliculatus, L. Egg-Capsules. Am. Marine Conch., 

t. 5, f. 27 143 

402. Sycotypus pyruloides, Say (= pyrum, Dillw.). Am. Conch., t. 19.. 143 

403. Sycotypus spirata, Lam. (== pyrum, Dillw.). Reeve. Pyrula, f. 27. 143 

404. Taphon clavella, Reeve (= striatus, Gray). Icon., Pyrula, f. 10... 143 

405. Streptosiphon porphyrostoma, Ad. and Reeve. ' Reeve, Fasciolaria, 

f. 11 a 143 

406. Streptosiphon recurva, A. Ad. ( porphyrostoma). Zool. Proc., 

t. 28, f. 4, 1854 143 

407. Tudicla Cumingii, Jonas. Reeve, Fusus, f. 67 b 144 

408. Tudicla Couderti, Petit (= Cumingii). Jour, de Conch., iv, t. 2, f. 8. 144 

409. Tudicla spirillus, Linn. Reeve, Pyrula, f. 29 b 144 

410. Tudicla inermis, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 601, 1878 144 

411. Tudicla armigera, A. Ad. Specimen 144 

412. LEevibucciiium prorsum, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, t. 20, f. 17. 104 

Plate 59. 

1,2. Fasciolaria tulipa, Linn. Kiener, Monog., t. 1 74 

3. Fasciolaria tulipa, Linn. Dunker, Novit., t. 11, f. 5 74 

4. Fasciolaria tulipa, Linn. Kiener, Monog., t. 2 74 

5. Fasciolaria distans, Lam. (= tulipa, var.). Reeve, f. 10 a 74 

6. Fasciolaria lugubris, Reeve. Icon., f . 2 a 75 

7. Fasciolaria badia, Krauss (= lugubris). Sudafr. Moll., t. 6, f. 12... 75 

8. Fasciolaria filamentosa, Lam. Reeve, f. 4 a 75 

9. Fasciolaria filamentosa, Lam. Kiener, t. 8, f. 1 75 

10. Fasciolaria filamentosa, Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrolabe, t. 35, f. 2 75 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 297 

Plate 60. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

11. Fasciolaria princeps, Sowb. Kiener, t. 12 75 . 

12. Fasciolaria ferruginea, Lam. (= filamentosa). Kiener, t. 9, f. 2 VcT t 

13. Fasciolaria inermis, Jonas (= filamentosa, var.). Phil., Abbild. iii, 

t.3, f.3 ;\. 75 

14. Fasciolaria gigantea, Kiener. Reeve, f. 12 , 75 

15. 1C. Fasciolaria papillosa, Sowb. (= gigantea). Reeve, t. 1, f. 1 ; 

t. 7, f. 1 .y. 75 

17. Fasciolaria Reevei, Jonas (= princeps, Sowb.). Phil., Abbild. iii, 

t. M, f. 2 75 

Plate 61. 

18. Fasciolaria fusiformis, Val. Reeve, Icon., f. 8 b 70 

10. Fasciolaria fusiformis, Val. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 22, f. 1 76 

20. Fasciolaria aurantiaca, Lam. Kiister, t. 29, f. 2 76 

21. Fasciolaria purpurea, Jonas (= aurantiaca). Kiister, t. 29, f. 4 76 

22. Fasciolaria crocata, Phil. Abbild. iii, t. 1, 'f. 3 70 

28. Fasciolaria crocata, Phil. Kiister, t. 30, f. 1 76 

24. Fasciolaria Audouinii, Jonas (= trapezium, var.). Phil., Abbild. iii, 

t. 3, f. 1... 77 

25, Fasciolaria Audouinii, Jonas ( trapezium, var.). Dunker, Novit., 

t, 32, f. 3 77 

20. Fasciolaria trapezium, Linn. Kiener, Monog., t. 77 

Plate 62. 

27. Fasciolaria Lischkeana, Dunker (= trapezium, var.). Novit., t. 14. 77 

28. Fasciolaria ponderosa, Jonas (= trapezium, var.). Kiister, t. 13 b. 77 

29. Fasciolaria purpurea. Jonas, var. ( Hey nemanni, Dunker). Novit., 

t. 32, f. 2 77 

30. Fasciolaria Antonii, Recluz (== coronata, Lam.). Guerin's Mag., 

t. 92, 1844 77 

31. Fasciolaria salnio, Wood. Reeve, f. 7 a 78 

32. Fasciolaria granosa, Br. (= salmo, var.). Reeve, f. 6 78 

Plate 63. 

33. Fasciolaria Persica, Reeve (= aurantiaca). Reeve, f. 15 76 

34. Fasciolaria coronata, Lam. Kiener, Monog., t. 9, f. 1 77 

3-j. Fasciolaria Valenciennesi, Kiener (= salmo). Monog., t. 4, f. 1.... 78 

36. Fasciolaria lignaria, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 13 b 78 

37. Fasciolaria Tarentina, Lam. ( lignaria). Kiener, t. 8, f. 2 78 

38. Fasciolaria rufa, Reeve. Icon. Fusus, f. 58 78 

Plate 64. 

39. Peristernia picta, Reeve. Turbinella, f. 19 , 79 

40. Peristernia Belcheri, Reeve, f. 22 79 

41. Peristernia Australiensis, Reeve, f. 56 b 79 

42. Peristernia Philberti, Recluz. Reeve, f. 63 a 79 

43. Peristernia Losbbeckei, Kobelt, Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 25, f. 4 79 

44. 45. Peristernia nassatula, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 45 a, b 80 

46. Peristernia nassatula. Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 35, f. 17 80 

47. Peristernia Deshayesii, Kobelt (:- nassatula). Kiister, t. 26, f. 4... 80 

48. Peristernia spinosa, Martyn. Reeve, f. 43 80 

49. Peristernia spinosa, Martyn. Voy. Astr. and Zel., t. 25, f. 28 80 



298 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

50. Peristernia iostoma, Nutt. (= spinosa). Kiister, t. 9, f. 1 80 

51. Peristernia Forskalii, Tapp. (f= nassatula, var.). Kiister, t. 26, f. 6.. 80 

52. Peristernia subnassatula, Souverb. (= nassatula). Jour. Conch., 

t. l,f. 2. 1872 80 

5:'.. Peristernia pulchella, Reeve. Icon., f. 55 b 81 

54, 55. Peristernia pulchella, Reeve. Kiister, t. 26, f. 10, 12 81 

50. Peristernia sutoris, Kobelt (=*= pulchella, var.). Kiister, t. 25, f. 10. 81 

57. Peristernia Mariei, Crosse (= pulchella, var.). Jour. Conch., t. 8, 

f. 2, 1869 . 80 

58. Peristernia microstoma, Kobelt (= nassatula, var.). Kiister, t. 20, 

f. 8 80 

5'.). Peristernia bucciniformis ( Wagneri), Kiener. Purpura, t. 8. f. !'.>.. 80 

60. Peristernia tigrina, Hombr. (--= Wagneri). Voy. Astr. and Zel., 

t, 25, f. 80 80 

61. Peristernia crenulata, Reeve (== Wagneri). Reeve, f. 24 80 

62. Peristernia Wagneri, Anton. Kiister, t, 5, f. 9 80 

Plate 65. 

63. Peristernia incarnata, Desh. Reeve, f. 55 81 

64. Peristernia pulchra, Reeve [= incarnata). Icon. Ricinula, f. 20 b... 81 

65. Peristernia elegans, Dunker (= incarnata, var.). Specimen 81 

66. Peristernia gemmata, Rouss. (= incarnata, var. elegans). Voy. 

Astr. and Zel., t. 35, f. 23 81 

67. Peristernia Carolina?, Kiener, t. 18, f. 1 82 

68. Peristernia Carolina?, Kiener. Kiister, t. 9 a, f. 9 82 

69. Peristernia lauta, Reeve (= incarnata, var. elegans). Icon., f. 73... 81 

70. Peristernia lauta, Reeve (=-- incarnata). Kiister, t. 9 a, f. 13 81 

71. Peristernia lirata, Pease (= gemmata, var.). Reeve, f. 61 b 82 

72. Peristernia gemmata. Reeve. Icon., f. 5 82 

73. Peristernia granata, Koch. Phil., Abbild. Fusus, t. 2, f. 6 83 

74. Peristernia gemmata, Reeve. Dunker, Novit., t. 42, f. 6 82 

75. Peristernia chlorostoma, Sow.b. Kiister, t. 25, f. 2 83 

76. Peristernia Newcombii, A. Ad. (-_ chlorostoma). Kiister, t. 22, f. 6.. 83 

77. Peristernia crocea, Gray (-- chlorostoma). Reeve, f. 66 83 

78. Peristernia scabrosa, Reeve ( : chlorostoma). Icon., f. 60 83 

79. Peristernia scabrosa, var. gracilior (= chlorostoma). Kiister, t. 23, 

f. 4 83 

80. Peristernia crenulata, Kiener (== chlorostoma). Monog., t. 9, f. 2.. ' 83 

81. Peristernia solida, Reeve (---. chlorostoma). Icon. Bucc., f. 81 83 

82. Peristernia Wagneri, Anton., var. Samoe'nsis, Kobelt (: chloros- 

toma). Kiister, t. 26, f. 14 83 

83. Peristernia bella, Reeve (: Carolina;). Icon. Ricinula, f. 15 82 

84. Peristernia stigmataria, A. Ad. (_ chlorostoma) Kiister, t. 9 a, 

f. 11 83 

85. Peristernia ustulata, Reeve. Icon., f. 62 84 

86. Peristernia ustulata, Reeve. Kiister, t. 22, f. 4.. v 84 

87. Peristernia Caledonica, Petit (== ustulata). Jour. Conch., ii, t, 10, 

f. 6 81 

88. Peristernia iricolor, Hombr. (:: ustulata). Voy. Astrol. /el., t. 25, 

f. 25 84 

89. Peristernia infracincta, Kobelt (: .- ustulata). Kiister, t. 22, f. 16... 84 

90. Peristernia Marquesana. A. Ad. (= ustulata). Kiister, t. 22, f. 17.. 84 

91. Peristernia decorata, A. Ad. (~ chlorostoma). Kiister, t. 25, f. 12.. 83 

92. Perfsternia clathrata, Val. Kiener, t. 18, f. 4 82 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 66. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

'.;!. Peristernia maculata, Reeve. Turbinella, f. 70 b 81 

94. Peristernia maculata, Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. Astr. Zel., t. 25, f. 32.. 84 

95. Peristernia nana, Reeve. Icon, f. 67 8-4 

96. Peristernia bicolor, Kobelt. Kiister, t. 18, f. 8 84 

07. Peristernia despecta, A. Ad. Kiister, t. 25, f. 6 85 

98. Peristernia Zealandica, A. Ad. (= despecta). Kiister, t. 25, f. 14... 85 

99. Peristernia squamosa, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 16... 85 

100. Peristernia Rollandi, Bern. Crosse, Jour. Conch., 3 ser., i, 1. 1, f. 5... 85 

101. Peristernia nassoides, Reeve. Icon., f. 71 85 

102. Peristernia scabra, Souv. Jour. Conch., xviii, t. 14, f. 3 85 

103. Peristernia Noumeensis, Crosse. Jour. Conch., xix, t. 6, f. 1 86 

104. Peristernia fuscozonata, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 2, f. 8, 1865 86 

105. Peristernia granulosa, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 18 86 

106. Latirus polygonus, Gmel. Reeve, Turbinella, f. 1 b 88 

107. 108. Latirus polygonus, Grnel. Kiister, t. 17, f. 4, 1 88 

Plate 67. 

109. Latirus tessellatus, Kobelt ( ~ polygonus, var.). Reeve, f . 1 c 

110. Latirus Barclayi, Reeve (= polygonus, var.). Icon., f. 20 88 

111-113. Latirus polygonus, Gmel. Eyd. Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, t. 44, 

f. 13-15 .' SB 

114. Latirus candelabrum, Reeve (= polygonus, var.). Icon., f. 9 88 

115. Latirus amplustris, Martyn. Kiener, t. 20, f. 2 88 

116. Latirus amplustris, Martyn. Gould, Wilkes' Exp. Moll., f. 289..... : 

117. Latirus gibbulus, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 36 88 

118. Latirus cariniferus, Lam. Reeve, f. 14 88 

119. Latirus cariniferus, Lam. Kiener, Monog., t. 13, f. 1 88 

120. Latirus ceratus, Gray. Kiener, t. 16, f. 1 88 

121. Latirus recurvirostris, Schub., Wag. Reeve, f. 10 89 . 

122. Latirus attenuatus, Reeve (= infundibulum). Icon., f. 69.. 89 

12:.!. Latirus lyratus, Reeve. Icon., f. 13 90 

Plate 68. 

124. Latirus Maderensis, Watson. Zool. Proc., t. 36, f. 30, 1873 89 

125. Latirus trochlearis, Kobelt (= Maderensis). Kiister, t. 19, f. 1... 89 

126. Latirus filosus. Lam. (= gibbulus, Gmel.). Kiener, Fusus, t. 21, f. 1.. 88 

127. Latirus infundibulum, Gmel. Kiener, t. 14, f. 1 8ti 

128. Latirus filosus, Schub., Wagn. Reeve, f. 64 #9 

129. Latirus modestus, Anton. Phil., Abbild. i., Fusus, t. 1, f. 11 90 

130. Latirus spadiceus, Reeve (= modestus). Icon., f. 44 90 

131. Latirus Amalirc, Kobelt. Kiister, t. 19, f. 4 89 

132. Latirus lanceolatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 12 90 

133. Latirus lancea, Gmel. Reeve, Fusus, f. 52 a 90 

134. Latirus aculeiformis, Sovvb. (= lancea). Genera, Fusus, f. 2 90 

135. Latirus ligula, Kiener (= lancea). Fusus, t. 9, f. 2 90 

136. Latirus Psetelianus, Kobelt. Kiister, t. 18, f. 2 91 

137. Latirus Thersites, Reeve, Icon., f. 21 91 

138. Latirus castaneus, Reeve. Icon., f. 26 91 

139. Latirus acuminatus, Kiener. Monog., t. 15, f. 2 91 

140. Latirus acuminatus, Kiener. Reeve, f. 47 91 

141. Latirus gracilis, Reeve. Icon., f. 53 91 

142. Latirus concentricus, Reeve (= modestus). Icon., f. 2 90 

143. Pevisternia gibba, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii., t. 23, f. 17 86 

144. Latirus attenuatus, Reeve (== infundibulum). Icon., f. 69 89 

145. Latirus lyratus, Reeve. Icon., f. 13 90- 



300 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 69. 

FiGUlUCS. , VAGK. 

146. Latirus aureocinctus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 24, f. 2, 1875 01 

147. Latirus Cayohuesonicus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 48, f. 4, 1878 92 

148. Latirus nodatus, Martyn. Reeve, Icon,, f. 27 02 

149. Latirus varicosus, Reeve. Icon., f. 6 92 

150. Latirus rhodostoma, Bunker. Moll. Japon., t. 1, f. 21 92 

151. Latirus filamentosus, Koch. Kuster, t. 9, f. 8 92 

152. Latirus contemptus, A. Ad. Kuster, t. 27, f. 7 92 

153. Latirus fallax, Kobelt. Kiister, t. 19, f. 2 93 

154. Latirus brevicaudatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 50 92 

155. Latirus Brazieri, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 4, 1877 93 

156. Latirus violaceus, Reeve. Icon., f. 59 93 

157. 158, Latirus sanguiliuus, Reeve. Icon., f. 58 a, b 93 

159. Latirus craticulatus, Linn. Reeve, f. 7 93 

160. Latirus turritus, Gmelin. Reeve, f. 57 93 

161. Latirus lineatus, Lam. (= turritus). Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 35, f. 14. 93 

162. Latirus prismaticus, Martyn. Reeve, f. 25. 93 

163. Latirus prismaticus, Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 2 93 

164. Latirus fastigium, Reeve. Icon., f. 72 91 

Plate 70. 

165. Leucozonia cingulifera, Lam. Reeve, f. 17 94 

166. Leucozonia angularis, Reeve (= cingulifera). Icon., f. 49 94 

167. 168. Leucozonia angularis, Reeve (= cingulifera). Kuster, t. 19, 

f. 10, 12 94 

169. Leucozonia Knorri, Desh. (= cingulifera). Reeve, Icon., f. 52 94 

170. Leucozonia Braziliensis, d'Orb, (= cingulifera). Voy. Amer. t. 77, 

f. 17 94 

171. 172. Leucozonia Braziliensis, d'Orb. (= cingulifera). Voy. Bonite, 

t. 44, f. 16, 17 94 

173. Leucozonia rudis, Reeve (= cingulifera). Icon., f. 51 94 

174. Leucozonia dubia, Petit (= triserialis). -Jour. Conch., iv, t. 2, f. 9. 95 

175. Leucozonia triserialis, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 39 95 

176. Leucozonia triserialis, Lam. Kuster, t. 9 a, f. 3 95 

177. Leucozonia Hidalgoi, Crosse (= triserialis). Jour. Conch., t. 14, 

f. 1, 1865 -. 95 

178. Leucozonia ocellata, Gmelin. Kiener, t. 21, f. 4 95 

179. Leucozonia ocellata, Gmelin. Reeve, Icon., f. 38 b 95 

180. Leucozonia cingulata, Lam. Kiister, t. 7, f. 8 96 

181. Leucozonia subrostrata, Gray. Kuster, t. 24, f. 2 96 

182. Leucozonia agrestis, Anton (= subrostrata). Kuster, t. 16, f. 3... 96 

183. Leucozonia leucozonalis, Lam. Reeve, f. 48. 96 

184. Leucozonia leucozonalis, Lam. Kiener, t. 21, f. 3 96 

185. Leucozonia smaragdula, Linn. Reeve, f. 18 96 

186. Leucozonia smaragdula, Linn. Quoy, Astrol., t. 35, f. 21..., 9(5 

187. Leucozonia multangula, Phil., Abbild. iii, Fusus, t. 5, f. 6 95 

Plate 71. 

188. Pisania pusio, Linn. Kuster, Bucc. t. 11, f. 8 145 

189. Pisania articulata, Lam. (= pusio). Kiener, Fusus, t. 26, f. 2 145 

190. Pisania picta, Reeve (= ignea, Gmel.). Icon. Bucc., f. 74 145 

191. Pisania flammulata (= ignea) Quoy. Voy. Astrol.. t. 30, f. 29 145 

192. Pisania flammulata (= ignea), Hombr. et Jacq. Astrol. et Zel., 

t. 22, f. 1 ; 145 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. .JOl 

FIGURES. 1'AGK. 

193. Tisania Tritoiioidcs, lleeve (== ignea, var.). Bucc., 1'. 77 145 

194. Pisania lacertina, Old. (= igaea, var.). Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, 

t. G, f. -2 145 

19."). Pisania fasciculata. Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 76 140 

196. Pisania Kossmanni, Pageustecher. Kossmann's Reise, f. 27 14G 

197. Pisania Montrouzieri, Crosse (= fasciculata, var.). Jour, de Conch., 

3d ser., ii, t. 10, f. 7 140 

198. Pisania strigata, Pease. Am. Journ. Conch., iv, t. 11, f. G 140 

199. Pisania Hermannseni, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 28, f. 7, 1854 146 

200. Pisania gracilis, Koch. Philippi, Abbild. ii, Fusus, t. 2, f. 3 147 

201. Pisania reticulata, A. Adams. Specimen 147 

202. Pisania marmorata, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., t'. 95 147 

203. Pisania Billeheusti, Petit (= marmorata, var.). Jour, de Conch., 

iv, t. 8, f. 5 147 

204. Pisania cinis, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 84 147 

205. Pisania Pazi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., iii, t. 14, f. 1 148 

206. Pisania maculosa, Lam. Reeve, Bucc., f. 85 148 

2i)7, 208. Pisania maculosa, Lam, Kiister, Bucc., t. 4, f. 3, 4 148 

209. Pisania .Ethiops, Phil. (== maculosa). Abbild. ii, Bucc., t. 1. f. 14. 148 
210 Pisania Janeirense, Phil. Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 1, f. 16 448 

211. Pisania cingulata, Reeve. Bucc., f. 75 148 

212. Pisania cingulata, Reeve. Specimen 148 

213. Pisania cingilla, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 101 149 

214. Pisania guttata, Busch. Philippi, Abbild. i, Fusus, t. 1, f. G 149 

215. Pisania glirina, Blainv. Nouv. Ann. Mus., t. 12, f. 9 149 

I'll). Pisania discolor, Kiener (= glirina). Kiister, Bucc., t. 11, f. G 149 

. Pisania discolor, Kiener (= glirina). Reeve, Bucc., f. 99 149 

217. Pisania Solomonensis, Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, t. 30, f. 4 149 

Plate 72. 

218. Euthria liguaria, Lam. (= cornea, Linn.). Kiener, Fusus, t, 22, 

f. 1 149 

219. Euthria lignaria, Lam. (= cornea, Linn.). Kiener, Fusus, f. 5 149 

220. Euthria Aracanensis, Angas. Zool. Proc., 182, t. 20, f. 1, 1873.... 150 

221. Euthria plumbea, Phil. Abbild. i, Fusus, t. 1, f. 3 150 

222. Euthria rufa, Hombr. et Jacq. (= plumbea). Voy. Astr. et Zel. 

t. 25 f. 1 150 

223. Euthria ferrea, Reeve (= plumbea, var.). Icon. Bucc., f. 102 150 

224. Euthria Magellanica, Phil. (= plumbea). Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 1, 

f. 15 150 

225. Euthria viridula, Dunker (== plumbea). Lischke, Jap. Conch., 

t. 5, f. 5 150 

226. Euthria Patagonica, Phil. (= plumbea). Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 1, 

f. 11 150 

227. Euthria Simoniana, Petit. Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 7, f. 7, 182 150 

228. Euthria Antarctica, Reeve. Buccinum, f. 30 150 

229. Euthria lineata, Martyn. Reeve, Icon. Fusus, f. 31 151 

230. Euthria liueata, Martyn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 34, f. 6 151 

2:J1. Euthria Littorinoides, Reeve (= lineata, var). Bucc., f. 94 151 

232. Euthria dira, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 92 151 

233. Euthria incisa, Gould (= (lira). Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 283 151 

2o4. Euthria bicincta, Hutton. Specimen 152 

235. Euthria vittata, Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 34, f. 19 152 

236. Euthria trilineata, Rseve (= vittata). Icon. Buccinum, f. 98 162 



o02 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. VAttK. 

237. Euthria fuscata, Drug. Kiener, Bucc., t. 8, f. 24 152 

238. Metula clathrata, Ad. and Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samarang, t. 11, f. 12. 152 

239. Metula mitrella, Ad. and Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samarang, f. 13 152 

240. Metula metula, Hinds (= Hindsii, H. and A. Ad.). Voy. Sulphur, 

t, 16, f. 14.. 153 

241. Metula Cumingii, A. Adams. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 2, 1853 153 

Plate 73. 

242. Cantharus spiralis, Gray. Reeve, Bucc., f. 13 154 

243. Cantharus Prevostii, Val. (= spiralis). Voy. Venus, t. 6, f. 3 154 

244. Cantharus Tranquebarieus, Gmel. Reeve, Icon. Bucc., f. 17 154 

245. Cantharus melanostoma, Sowb. Reeve, Icon. Bucc., f. 15 154 

246. Cantharus erythrostoma, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 14 155 

247-249. Cantharus proteus, Reeve (= fumosus, Dillw.). Icon. Bucc., 

f. 51 a, b, c 155 

250. Cantharus undosus, Quoy (= fumosus). Astr., t. 30, f. 1 155 

251. Cantharus rubiginosus, Reeve (= fumosus, var.). Icon. Bucc., f. 47. 155 

252. Cantharus subrubiginosis, E. A. Smith (= fumosiis, var.). Zool. 

Proc., t, 20, f. 40, 1879 155 

253. Cantharus biliratus, Reeve ( -. fumosus, var.). Icon., f. 71 155 

254. Cantharus nigricostatus, Reeve (= fumosus, var.). Icon., f. 73... 155 
255: Cantharus Desmoulinsii, Montrouzier (= fumosus, var.). Jour. 

de Conch., 3d ser., iv, t. 10, f. 3 155 

256. Cantharus cariniferus, Kuster. Buccinum, t. 12, f. 9 155 

257. Cantharus limbatus, Phil. Abbild. ii, Fusus, t. 1, f. 9 1-3G 

258. Cantharus extensus, Bunker. Phil., Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 11 155 

Cantharus Bolivianus, Souleyet. Voy. Bonite, t. 41, f. 23 156 

Cantharus Capensis, Phil. Abbild. i, Fusus, t. 1, f. 7 156 

261. Cantharus rubens, Kuster. Bucc., t. 6, f. 8 1-50 

2f>2. Cantharus ligneus (== Cecillii, Phil.), Reeve. Bucc., f. 57 157 

263. Cantharus balteatus (= Cecillii, Phil.), Reeve. Bucc., f. 59 157 

264. Cantharus Menkeanus, Dunker. Moll., Japon., t. 1, f. 7 157 

265. Cantharus fusulus, Brocchi. Conch, foss. subapp., ii, t. 8, f. 9 157 

266. Cantharus Orbignyi, Payr. Reeve, Bucc., f. 44 158 

267. Cantharus assimilis, Reeve (== Orbignyi, var.). Icon., Bucc., f. 90.... 158 

268. Cantharus violaceus, Desh. Expl. Sci. More"e, t. 19, f. 19 158 

269. Cantharus Australis, Pease. Specimen 161 

Plate 74. 

270. Cantharus leucozona, Phil. Bull. Mai. Ital., ii, t. 4, f. 3....: .. 158 

271. Cantharus Scacchianus, Phil. (= pictus, Scacchi). Kuster, Buc- 

cinum, t. 15, f. 17 158 

272. Cantharus homoleuca, Kiister. Buccinum, t. 15, f. 15 158 

273. Cantharus perlatus, Kuster. Buccinum, t. 12, f. 6 , 158 

274. Cantharus lanceolatus, Koch. Phil., Abbild. ii, Fusus, t. 3, f. 9... 160 

275. Cantharus gracilis, Reeve. Icon., f. 96 160 

276. Cantharus crocatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 97 , 160 

277-278. Cantharus obliquicostatus, Reeve. Icon., f. 91 a, b 161 

279. Cantharus unicolor, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 13, f. 2, 1867 162 

280. Cantharus undosus, Linn. Reeve, Bucc.. f. 55 162 

281. 282. Cantharus ciuctus, Quoy (= undosus). Voy. Astrol., t. 30, 

f. 5, 7 162 

283. Cantharus gemmatus, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 49 162 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 303 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

284. Cantharus cancellaria, Conrad. Proc. PMlad. Acad., t. 1, f. 12, 1846.. 162 

285. Cantharus Floridanus, Petit (= cancellaria). Jour, de Conch., 2 

ser., i, t. 2, f. 5 162 

286. Cantharus tincta, Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad., t, 1, f. 9, 1846 163 

287. Cantharus Coromandelianus, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 62 16;} 

288. Cantharus ringens, Reeve (= Coromandelianus). Icon., f. 45 16;^ 

289. Cantharus pastinaca, Reeve (= Coromandelianus}. Icon., f. 89... 163 

290. Cantharus lautus, Reeve (= Coromandelianus). Icon., f. 63 b 168 

291. 292. Cantharus Tissoti, Petit. Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 7, f. 4 a, b... 164 
298. Cantharus sanguinolentus, Duclos. Mag. de Zool., t. 22, f. 1, 1833.. 164 

294. Cantharus luemastoma, Gray ( sanguinolentus). Icon., f. 46 164 

295. Cantharus Janellii, Val. (= sanguinolentus). Voy. Venus, t. 6, f. 1.. 164 

296. Cantharus elegans, Gray. Griffith's Cuvier, t. 25, f. 2 164 

297. Cantharus insignis, Reeve (= elegans). Icon., f 58 164 

298. Cantharus variegatus, Gray. Reeve, Icon. Bucc., f. 48 H5 

299. Cantharus viveratum (== variegatus), Kiener. Bucc., t. 10, f. 35.. 165 

300. Cantharus distortus, Gray. Reeve, Bucc., f. 86 165 

301. Cantharus Inca, d'Orb. Voy. Amer., t. 78, f. 3 164 

302. Cantharus Haneti, Petit. Jour, de Conch., v, t. 2, f. 7 lfi ; ; 

303. Cantharus buxeus, Brod. Sowb., Conch. 111. Murex, f. 28 167 

304. Cantharus Gualtierianus, Kiener. Bucc., t. 19, f. 70 1C>7 

305. Cantharus distortus, Gray. Kiener, Bucc., t. 18, f. 65 165 

Plate 75. 

306. Buccinum undatum, L. Embryo, showing mouth and digestive 

cavity. Lubbock, Rept. Brit. Assoc., 142, f. 1, 1860 178 

307. Buccinum undatum, L. Embryo, in act of swallowing an egg. 

Lubbock, f. 2 173 

308-311. Buccinum undulatum, L. Female and male. Morse, Bost. 

Proc., xviii, 286 178 

812. Buccinum undatum, L. Ova-capsules. Woodward's Manual, f. 83.. 178 

318. Buccinum undatum, Forbes and Hanley. Brit. Moll., t. LL, f. 5.. 173 

314. Buccinum undatum. var. coerulea. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 24, f. 3... 173 

315. Buccinum undatum, var. pelagica. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 24, f. 4... 173 
816. Buccinum undatum, var. littoralis. S?rs, Moll. Norv , t. 13, f. 12... 173 

317. Buccinum undatum, var. Schantarica, Middendorff. Reise, ii, t. 

10, f. 4 173 

318. Buccinum undatum (undulatum), Gould. Invert. Mass., Binney's 

edit., f. 634 173 

319. Buccinum undatum, var. striatum, Pennant. Brit. Zool.,iv, t. 74, 

f. 91 173 

820. Buccinum undatum, monst. acuminatum, Br. Reeve, Bucc., f. 4.. 178 

321. Buccinum undatum, monst. sinistrorsum, Kiister. Bucc., t. 2, f. 2.. 173 

Plate 76. 

822. Buccinum Labradorense ( B. undatum, var. undulatum), Reeve. 

Icon., f. 5 173 

323. Buccinum parvulum, Verkruzen ( : undatum). Sars, Moll. Norv., 

t. 24, f. 5 173 

324. Buccinum fragile, Verkruzen ( = undatum). Sars, t. 24, f. 6 173 

325. Buccinum conoideum, Sars ( undatum). Moll. Norv., t. 24, f. 7.. 173 

326. Buccinum Totteni, Stimpson. Specimen 188 

827. Buccinum tenue, Gray (elatior). Middend., Mai. Ross., t. 6, f. 6.. 184 

828. Buccinum striatum, Sowb. Mem. Wernerian Soc., viii, t. 1, f. 9... 185 



304 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

329. Buccinum Ochotense, Midd. (= striatum). Reise ii, t. 10, f. 2.... 183 

330. Buccinum Donovani, Gray. Gould, Invert: Mass., 2d edit.,f. 636.. 187 

331. Buccinum Grcenlandicum, Chemn. (-= cyaneum, Brug). Sars, Moll. 

Norv., t. 25, f. 1 188 

332. Buccinum Groenlandicum, var. patula ( cyaneum), Sars, t. 25, f. 2.. 188 

333. Buccinum hydrophanum, Hancock (== cyaneum). Sars, t. 24, f. 8.. 188 

334. Buccinum hydrophanum, Hancock. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xviii, 

t. 5, f. 7, 1846 188 

335. Buccinum sericatum, Hancock (= cyaneum). Ibid., t. 5, f. 6 188 

336. Buccinum tenebrosum, Hancock ( cyaneum). Ibid., t. 5, f. 1... 188 

337. 338. Buccinum tenebrosum, Hancock (== cyaneum). Sars, Moll. 

Norv., 1. 13, f. 9ab 188 

339. Buccinum pulchellum, Sars (= cyaneum, var.). Moll. Norv., 

t. 24, f. 9 188 

340, 341, 342. Buccinum Finmarkianum, Verkr. (= cyaneum). Sars, 

Moll. Norv., t, 13, f. 10; t. 25, f. 3, 4 188 

343,344. Buccinum Humphreysianum, Bennett. Sars, Ibid., t. 25, f. 7, 8. 192 

345. Buccinum glaciale, Linn. Kiener, Bucc., t. 2, f. 4 185 

Plate 77. 

346. Buccinum Humphreysianum, Bennett. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 25, f. 8. 192 

347. Buccinum fusiforme, Kiener (= Humphreysianum). Bucc., t. 5, 

f. 12 192 

348. Buccinum ciliatum, Gould (= Humphreysianum). Invert. Mass., 

f. 635 192 

349. Buccinum striatum, Phil. ( Humphreysianum). Moll. Sicil., ii, 

t. 27, f. 1 , 192 

350. 351. Buccinum tumidulum, Sars (= Humphreysianum). Moll. 

Norv., t. 25, f. 5, 6 192 

352. Buccinum ovum, Midd. (= Humphreysianum). Mai. Ross., ii, 

t. 6, f. 1 192 

353. Buccinum Belcheri, Reeve. Last Arctic Voy., t. 32, f. 7 a 193 

354. Buccinum Escake, Phil. Atacama, f. 28 194 

355. Buccinopsis ovoides, Midd. (= Dalei). Sib., Reise, t. 8, f. 7 196 

356. Buccinopsis eburnea, Sars ( Dalei, var.). Moll. Norv., t, 13, f. 13. 196 

357. 358. Neobuccinum Eatoni, Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc., vol. 168, t. 9, 

f. 1, 1 a 201 

359, 360. Volutharpa ampullacea, Midd. Sib., Reise, t, 8, f. 3 ; 1. 17, f. 2. 200 

Plate 78. 

361. Buccinum undatum, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 3 17?, 

362, 363. Buccinum undatum, Linn. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., 

t, 109, f. 3, 5 173 

364. Buccinum undatum, var. Zetlandicum. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t. 109,f. 4 173 

365. Buccinum imperiale (= B. undatum, L., monstr.), Reeve. Iconica, 

fig. 8 173 

366. Buccinum pyramidale, Reeve (= undatum). Icon., f. 104 173 

367. Buccinum glaciale, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 18 185 

368. Buccinum angulosum, Gray (=== glaciale). Beechey's Voy., t. 36, 

f. 6 185 

369. Buccinum rutilum, Morch (= glaciale). Dunker, Novit., t. 1, f. 5.. 185 

370. Buccinum Rombergi, Dunker (== glaciale). Novit., t. 2, f. 5 186 

371. Buccinum Miirchianum, Dunker (= glaciale). Novit., t. 2, f. 1.... 185 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. .')0r> 

FIGURES. PAGK. 

872. Buccinum carinatum, Dunker (= glaciale). Novit., t. 2, f. 3 185 

373. Buccinum Groenlandicum, Hancock (=> glaciale, var.). Reeve, 

f. 118 185 

374. Buccinum tubulosum, Reeve (= Donovani, Gray). Icon., f. 105.. 187 

375. Buccinum hydrophanum, Hancock (~ cyaneum, Brug.). Reeve, 

f. 103 188 

Plate 79. 

376. Buccinum eft'usum, Reeve. Icon., f. 65 183 

377. Buccinum Baeri, Middend. (= cyaneum, var.). Kiister, t. 8, f. 4.. 188 

378. Buccinum tenebrosum, Hancock (== cyaneum). Reeve, f. 26 188 

37H. Buccinum Morchianum, Fischer (= cyaneum). Jour, de Conch.. 

vii, t. 10, f. 2b ! 188 

3SO. Buccinum Donovani, Reeve (= cyaneum, var. terrse-novrtj). Icon., 

f. 2 188 

381. Buccinum ciliatum, Fabr. Reeve, f. 29 191 

382. Buccinum tenebrosum, Midd. (= ciliatum). Mai. Ross., ii, t. 3, f. 8. 191 

383. Buccinum Humphreysianmn, Bennett. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t, 110, f. 1 192 

384. Buccinum Zealandicum, Reeve. Icon., f. 28 183 

385. Buccinum ventricosum, Kiener (= Humphreysianum). Iconog., 

t, 3, f. 7 192 

386. Buccinum cyaneum, Brug. Reeve, f. 09 .... 188 

387. Buccinopsis Dalei, Sowb. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 

109, f. 2 196 

388. Buccinopsis ovum, Turton (= Dalei). Reeve, Icon., f. 25 196 

389. Volutharpa Perryi, Jay. Japan Exped., ii, t. 5, f. 14 200 

390. Volutharpa Deshayesiana, Fischer (= ampullacea, Midd.). Jour. 

de Conch., 2 ser., i, t. 3, f. '.) 200 

391. Chlnnidota vestita, Marten*. Conch. Mittheil, t. 9, f. 3 a 201 

Plate 80. 

392. Cominella porcata, (jiucl. Reeve, Icon. Bucc., t'. 22 202 

393. Cominella ligata, Lam. ( porcata). Kiener, Bucc., t. 5, f. 15 202 

394. Cominella Anglicana, Mart (= porcata). Reeve, Bucc., f. 23 202 

395. Cominella pubescens, Kiister (= tigrina). Conch. Cab. Bucc., 1. 13, 

f. S 202 

396. Cominella trigina, Gmel. (== porcata, var.). Kiener, Bucc., t. 10. 

f. 32 202 

397. Cominella limbosa, Lam. Reeve, Icon. Bucc , f .35 202 

398. Cominella limbosa, Lam. Kiener, Purpura, t. 40, f. 95 202 

399. Cominella robusta, Kiister (= porcata). Conch. Cab. Bucc., t. 14, 

f. 13 202 

400. Cominella lagenaria, Lam. (== limbosa). Kiister, Bucc., t. 14, f. 16. 202 

401. Cominella papyracea, Brug. Reeve, Icon. Bucc., f. 24 202 

402. Cominella intincta, Reeve ( = papyracea). Icon., f. 32 202 

403. Cominella lagenaria, Lam. (:. limbosa). Reeve, Icon.', f. 33 202 

404. Cominella biserialis, Kiister (= porcata). Bucc., t. 14, f. 12........ 202 

405. 406. Cominella Zeyheri, Krauss. Kiister, Bucc., t. 15, f. 7, 8 203 

407. Cominella lineolata, Dunker ( Dunkeri, Kiister). Phil., Abbild. 

i, Fusus, t, 1, f. 10 203 

408, 409. Cominella Dunkeri, Kiister. Conch. Cab. Bucc., t. 15, f. 10, 11. 203 

410-412. Cbminella violacea, Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 30, f. 32-34 203 

413. Cominella Delalandi, Kiener. Icon. Bucc., t. 5, f. 14 203 

39 



306 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

414. Cominella testudinea, Mart. Reeve, Bucc., f. 66 203 

415. Cominella cataracta, Chemn. (= testudinea, Mart.). Kiister, t. 8, 

f. 15 208 

416. Cominella lineolata, Lam. Kiener, Bucc., t. 8, f. 25 204 

417. Cominella lineolata, Lam. (var. virgata). Reeve, f. 36 204 

418. Cominella Quoyi, Kiener. Iconog. Bucc., t. 5, f. 13 204 

419. Cominella Quoyi ( = lineolata), Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 107 204 

420. Cominella alveolata, Kiener (= lineolata). Reeve, Bucc., f. 87 204 

Plate 81. 

Comiuella maculata, Martyn. Reeve, Icon. Bucc.. f. 1C 204 

Cominella testudinea, Lam. ( maculata). Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 
30, f. 12 204 

423. Cominella maculosa, Mart. (= maculata, Juv.). Univ. Conch., t. 8. 204 

424. Cominella Woldemarii, Kiener (? = maculata, Juv.). Purpura, 

t. 39, f. 91 204 

425. Cominella lineolata, Lam. (var. virgata). Quoy. Voy. Astrol., 

t. 30, f. 15 204 

426. Cominella obseura, Reeve (=.- lineolata, var. virgata). Conch. 

Icon., f. 68..... 204 

427. Cominella pluriannulata, Reeve (= lineolata, var. virgata). Conch. 

Icon., f. 88 : 204 

428. Cominella lineare, Reeve (= lineolata, var. virgata). Conch. 

Icon., f. 11(5 204 

429. Cominella lactea, Reeve (= lineolata, var. virgata). Conch. Icon. 

f. 117 204 

430. 431. Cominella costata, Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 30, f. 17, 20 205 

432. Cominella Angasi, Croese (: . costata.). Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., iv, 

t. 11, f. 5 205 

433. Cominella Adelaidensis, Crosse (= costata). Jour, de Conch., 3d 

ser., iv, t. 11, f. 6 205 

434. Cominella eburnea, Reeve ( costata). Conch. Icon. Bucc., f. 93.. 205 

435. Cominella acutinodosa, Reeve. Bucc., f. 21 206 

436. Cominella glandiforme, Reeve ( acutinodosa). Icon., f. 109 206 

437. Cominella Zealandica, Hombr. (- acutinodosa). Voy. Ast. et 

Zel., t. 21, f. 5 206 

438. Cominella funerea, Gld. (== costata). Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 320. 20". 

439. Cominella lurida, Phil. (= acutinodosa). Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 1. 

f. 10 206 

440. Cominella filicea, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, t, 3,-f. 15 206 

441. Cominella citrina, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 70 206 

442. Cominella Nassoides, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. 12 206 

443. Cominella nodicincta, Martens. Mittheil. i, t. 9. f. 4 a 206 

445, 446. Clea nigricans, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon. Hemisinus, f. 25 b, c.. 208 

447. Clea Helena, Meder. Reeve, Icon. Hemisinus, f. 24 b 208 

448. Clea Theminckiana, Petit ( Helena). Jour, de Conch., iv, t. 7, 

f. 11 208 

449. Clea tenuicostata, Brot. Jour, de Conch., t. 12, f. 5, 1876 208 

450: Clea Bandoniana, Mabille et Le Mesle. Jour, de Conch., t. 7, f. 1, 

1866 208 

451. Clea Cambojiensis, Reeve. Jour, de Conch., t. 7, f. 2, 1866 209 

452. Clea Cambojiensis, Reeve. Icon. Melania, f. 468 209 

453. Clea scalarina, Desh. Archiv du Mus., x, t. 8, f. 18 '. 209 

454. Clea Jullieni, Desh. Ibid., f. 23.... 209 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 307 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

455. Clea bizonata, Desh. (=3 Jullieni). Ibid., f. 25 209 

456. Clea Broti, Desh. ( Jullieni var.). Ibid., f. 27 209 

457. 458. Clea fusiformis, Desh. Ibid., f. 21 ; t. 7, f. 31 209 

459. Clea Bocourti, Brot, Jour, de Conch., t. 12, f. 6, 1876 209 

Plate 82. 

460. Eburna papillaris, Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 215, f. 7 211 

461. 462. Eburna Zeylanica, Brug. Thes. Conch., t. 215, f. 5, 6 211 

463. Eburna Japonica, Sowb. Ibid., t. 215, f. 11 211 

464. Eburna Borneensis, Sowb. Ibid., t. 291, f. 14 , 212 

465. Eburna lutosa, Lam. Ibid., t. 215, f. 10 211 

466. 467. Eburna canaliculata, Schum. (= spirata, Lam.). Ibid., t. 215, 

f. 2, 3 . 212 

468. Eburna canaliculata, Schum. (= spirata, Lam)., Voy. Bonite, 

t. 41, f. 28 212 

469. Eburna chrysostoma, Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 291, f. 15 212 

470. Eburna semi picta, Sowb. Ibid., f. 13 213 

471. Eburna perforata, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 21, f. 2, 1870 213 

472. Eburna ambulacrum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 215, f. 8 218 

473. Eburna Molliana, Chemn. (= Valentiniana, Swains.). Ibid., t. 

215, f. 1 213 

474. Eburna Australis, Sowb. Ibid., t, 216, f. 8 213 

475. Eburna Formosse, Sowb. Ibid., t. 291, f. 18 211 

476. Eburna areolata, Lam. Sowb. Ibid., t. 215, f. 4 212 

477. Macron Kellettii, A. Ad. Sowb.,, Thes. Conch., t. 216, f. 12 214 

478. Macron livida, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t, 216, f. 6 214 

Plate 83. 

479-482. Phos senticosus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., iii, t. 221, f. 8-11. 215 

483. Phos senticosus, Linn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 31, f. 1 215 

484. Phos muricatulus, Old. ( senticosus). Thes. Conch., t. 221, f. 12. 215 

485. Phos angulatus, Sowb. (^ senticosus). Ibid., f. 7 215 

486. Phos soalaroides, Ad. ( senticosus). Ibid., f. 13 215 

487. Phos filosus, A. Ad. (= senticosus). Sowb-,, Thes. Conch., t. 221, 

f. 15 215 

488. Phosligatus, A. Ad. (= senticosus). Ibid., f. 16 215 

489. Phos plicatus, A. Ad. (= senticosus). Ibid., t. 222, f. 23 215 

490. Phos rufocinctus, A. Ad. (= senticosus). Ibid., t. 221, f. 14 215 

491. Phos cancellatus, A. Ad. ( Adamsi). Ibid., t. 222, f. 39 216 

492. 493. Pbostextilis, A. Ad. (= senticosus). Ibid., f. 48, 49 215 

494, 495. Phos pallidus, Powis. Ibid., t. 222, f. 19, 21 218 

496. Phos notatus, Sowb. (= pallidus). Ibid , t. 221, f. 17 218 

497. Phos Cyllenoides, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 222, f. 34 216 

498. Phos cancellatus, Quoy ( textum). Voy. Astrol., t. 32, f. 31 217 

499. Phos Isevigatus, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 221, f. 6 217 

500. Phos Blainvillei, Desh. ( textum). Ibid., t. 222, f. 42 217 

501. Phos pyrostoma. Reeve ( ~ textum). Conch. Syst., t. 268, f. 1 217 

502. Phos virgatus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 10, f. 12 217 

503,504. Phos varians, Sowb. (= textum). Thes. Conch., t. 222, f. 

26, 27 217 

505. Phos spinicostatus, A. Ad. (== textum). Ibid., f. 45 217 

506. Phos nodicostatus, A. Ad. (= senticosus). Ibid., f. 47 215 

507. Phos cyanostoma, A. Ad. (-.- textum). Ibid., f. 46 217 



308 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

508, 509. Phos roseatus, Hinds. Ibid., t. 221, f. 2, 3 217 

510. Phos Borneensis, Sowb. (== roseatus). Ibid., t. 222, f. 22 217 

511. Phos varicosus, Gould (= roseatus). Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 360. 217 

512. Phos unicinctus, Say (= Guadeloupensis). Am. Conch., t. 57, f. 1. 219 

513. Phos Terebra, Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 222, f. 29 217 

514. Phos retecosus, Hinds. Ibid., f. 36 218 

515. Phos gracilis, Sowb. Ibid., f. 33 218 

516. Phos articulatus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 10, f. 8 218 

517. Phos turritus, A. Ad. (== articulatus). Sowb., Thes., t. 222, f. 37.. 218 

518. Phos gaudens, Hinds. Ibid., f. 31 218 

519. Phos Cumingii, Reeve (= gaudens). Elem. Conch., t. 3, f. 16 218 

520. Phos Guadeloupensis, Petit. Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 2, f. 3 219 

521. Phos crassus, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 10, f. 1 ,. 218 

522. Phos Morrisii, Dkr. (=plicatus). Phil., Abbild. iii. Bucc., t. 2, f. 5. 216 

523. Phos plicosus, Dkr. Krauss, Siidafrik. Moll., t. 6, f. 19 216 

524. Phos speciosus, A. Ad. (^ plicoeus). Reeve, Nassa, f. 16 b 216 

515. Eburna areolata, Lam. Ad. and Rve., Voy. Samarang, t. 8, f. 2... 212 

575. Phos fasciatus, A. Ad. (=^ senticosus). Thes. Conch., t. 221, f. 4.. 215 

Plate 84. 

526. Eburna caualiculata, Schm. (=spirata, Lam.). Quoy, Voy. Astrol. 

t. 81, f. 12. (See Anatomy of the Prosobranchinates, vol. ii of 
this Manual, PL 3.) 212 

527. Phos gaudens. Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 10, f. 6 218 

528. Phos Cumingii, Reeve (= gaudens). Sowb. Thes., t. 222, f. 38 218 

5.29. Phos Veraguensis, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 10, f. 14 219 

530. Phos Veraguensis, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 222, f. 41 219 

531. Phos. Antillarum, Petit (= Veraguensis). Jour, de Conch., iv, 

t. 8,f. 9 219 

582. Phos Grateloupiana, Petit (= Veraguensis). Jour, de Conch., iv, 

t. 8, f. 4...! 219 

533. PhosBeaui, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., i, t. 12, f. 8 219 

534. Phos Candei, d'Orb. (= Veraguensis). Moll. Cuba, t. 21, f. 23 219 

535. Nassaria nivea, Reeve. Icon. Triton, f. 75 221 

536. Nassaria alba, Mart. ( nivea). H. and Adams' Genera, iii, t. 13, 

t. 1 221 

537. Naesaria carduus, Reeve (= nivea). Triton, f. 95 221 

538. Nassaria multiplicata, Sowb. (= nivea). Thes. Conch., iii, t, 220, 

f. 7 221 

539. Nassaria acuminata, Reeve. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 76, f. 7 221 

540. Nassaria acuminata, Reeve. Triton, f. 54 b 221 

541. Nassaria bitubercularis, A. Ad. (= acuminata). Zool. Proc., t. 10, 

f. 6, 1850 221 

542. Nassaria suturalis, A. Ad. (= acuminata). Kiister, t. 77, f. 11, 1850. 221 

543. Nassaria recurva, A. Ad. (= acuminata). Krister, t. 17, f. 14 221 

544. Nassaria varicifera, A. Ad. (== acuminata). Thes. Conch., iii, 

t. 220, f. 3 \ 221 

545. Nassaria nodicostata, A. Ad. (= acuminata). Thes. Conch., t. 220, 

f. 13 221 

546. Nassaria Sinensis, Sowb. (= acuminata). Ibid., f. 9 221 

547. Nassaria fusiformis, Sowb. Thes. Conch,, t. 220, f. 11 222 

548. Nassaria turrita. Sowb. (= acuminata). Ibid., f. 19 221 

549. Nassaria Nassoides, Gray. Reeve, Icon. Triton, f. 96 222 

550. Nassaria Nassoides, Gray. Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 220, f. 4 222 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 309 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

551. Nassaria magnifica, Lischke. Jap. Meeres Conch., ii, t. 4. f. 11... 222 

552. Nassaria magnifica, Lischke. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 76, f. 3 222 

553. Nassaria egregia, Reeve. Icon. Triton, f. 78 2 

554. Nassaria clathrata, Reeve. Icon. Murex, f. 185 222 

555-557. Cyllene lyrata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., iii, t. 217, f. 2-4.. 223 

558. Cyllene lyrata, Lam. Jour, de Conch., xxiii, t. 15, f. 5 a 2 

559. Cyllene sulcata, A. Ad. (= lyrata). Thes. Conch., t. 217, f. 11 223 

560. Cyllene unimaculata, A. Ad. (_ lyrata). Thes. Conch., f. 31 223 

5il. Cyllene lugubris, Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 9 224 

562. Cyllene fuscata, A. Ad. (= lugubris). Ibid., f. 17 224 

568. Cyllene pallida, A. Ad. (= lugubris). Ibid., f. 22 224 

564. Cyllene Oweni, Gray. Ibid., f. 20 224 

565. Cyllene orientalis, A. Ad. (= Oweni). Ibid., f. 13..... 224 

566. Cyllene Senegalensis, Petit (= Oweni). Jour, de Conch., iv, t. 5, 

f 224 

567. Cyllene pulchella, Ad. and Reeve. Thes. Conch., t. 217. f. 25 224 

568. Cyllene Grayi, Reeve (= pulchella). Ibid., f. 6 224 

569. Cyllene glabrata, Ad. (== pulchella.). Ibid., f. 15 224 

570. Cyllene striata, A. Ad. (= pulchella). Ibid., f. 26 224 

571. Cyllene Guillaini, Petit ( pulchella). Jour, de Conch., i, t, 7, f. 4. 224 

572. Cyllene concinna, Solander. Thes. Conch., t. 217, f. 30 224 

573,574. Cyllene plumbea. Sowb. Ibid., f. 23,28 224 

Plate 85. 

576. Epidromus Bedualli, Brazier. Specimen 225 

577. Mazzalina pyrula, Conrad. Specimen 225 

578. Latirus Nagasakiensis, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 1880 225 

579. Jania angulosa, Brocchi. Bellardi, Mem. Turin, xxvii, t. 11, f. 5. 226 

580. Mitrofusus orditus, Bellardi et Michel. Ibid., t. 11, f. 1 226 

581. Anura inflata, Brocchi. Ibid., t. 11, f. 8 226 

582. Genea Bonellii, Gene. Ibid., t. 11, f. 1. 226 

583. Mayeria acutissima, Bellardi. Ibid., t. 10, f. 7 a 226 

584. Fusus acuticostatus, Sby. (= coelatus, Rve.). Thes. Conch., f. 30. 228 

585. Fusus vulpicolor, Sowb. Thes., f. 73 228 

586. Fusus Percyanus. Sowb. (= polygonoides, Lam.). Thes., f. 77 227 

587. Fusus caudatus, Sowb. Thes., f. 167 229 

588. Fusus Isevigatus, Sowb. (= Australis, Quoy). Thes., f. 157 227 

589. Fusus depictus, Sowb. Thes. f. 86 228 

590. Fusus delectus, A. Ad. (= distans, Lam.). Thes., f. 36 227 

591. Fusus Sandvichensis, Sowb. (= spectrum, Ad.' and Rve.). Thes., 

f. 25 227 

592. Fusus graciliformis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 62 228 

593. Fusus spiralis, A. Ad. (spectrum, Ad. and Rve.). Thes., f. 37 227 

Plate 86. 

594. Fusus rudicostatus, Sowb. (= Australis, Quoy). Thes., f. 19 227 

595. Fusus nodicinctus, A. Ad. ( Australis, Quoy). Thes., f. 35 228 

596. Fusus biangulatus, Desh. (= polygonoides, Lam.). Thes., f. 159.. 228 

597. Fusus subquadratus, Sowb. Thes., f. 28 228 

598. Fusus excavatus, Sowb. Thes., f. 168 229 

59H. Fusus albinus, A. Ad. (= ustulatus, Rve. ?). Thes., f. 72 220 

600. Fusus Reeveanus, Sowb. Thes., f. 82 228 



310 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

601. Fusus assimilis, A. Ad (= turricula, Kr., var ?). Thes., f. 78 228 

602. Fusus articulatus, Sowb. (= Australia, Quoy). Thes., f. 66 228 

603. Fusus robustior, Sowb. Thes , f. 63 228 

604. Fusus rubrolineatus, Sowb. Thes., f. 68 228 

605. Fusus fusconodosus, Sowb. Thes., f. 169 229 

606. Fusus laetus, Sowb. Thes., f. 166 229 

607. Fusus tessellatus, Sowb. Thes., f. 165.... 229 

608. Fusus tenuistriatus, Sowb. Thes., f. 140 229 

Plate 87. 

609. Melongena anceps, A. Ad. (= pallida, B. and S.). Sowb., Thes. 

Fusus, f. 131 229 

610. Sipho Danielsseni, Friele. Norw. Polar Exped., t. 3, f. 2 132 

611. Neptunea incisa, Sowb. Thes. Conch. Fusus, f. 112 230 

612. Sipho rectiplicatus, Sowb. (= Kroyeri, Holler). Ibid., f. 101 132 

613. Sipho virgatus, Friele, t. 1, f. 22 132 

614. Neptunea taeniata, Sowb. (= despecta, var.). Thes. Fusus, f. 119. 230 

615. Neptunea borealis, Sowb. (= despecta, var.). Ibid., f. 110 230 

616. Neptunea tornata, Sowb. Thes. Conch. Fusus, f. 118 230 

617. Buccinum Groenlandicum, var. acutum ( cyaneum), Friele, t. 3, 

f. 17 . .' 188 

618. Siphonalia fuscolineata, Pease, /ool. Proc., t. 51, f. 3, 1860 136 

619. 620. Buccinum nivale, Friele, t. 3, f. 24, 25 a 195 

621. Neptunea Ossiani, Friele, t. 1. f. 1 133 

622. Sipho solidulus, Sowb. (= Stimpsoni, Morch, var.). Sowb., Fusus, 

f. 97 132 

623. Fusus crenulatus, Sowb. (= Siphonalia ?). Fusus, f. 17....: 228 

624. Fusus obesus, Sowb. (^ Siphoj. Thes., f. 92 132 

625. Sipho Dalli, Friele, t. 2, f. 18 133 

626. Sipho undulata, Friele, t. 2, f. 33 133 

627. Buccinum sulcatum, Friele, t. 3, f. 18 195 

628. Sipho Hanseni, Friele, t. 1, f. 20 132 



TRITONIN.E. 



PLATE 2. 




II 



TRITONINjE. 



PLATK 3. 




13 



// >> <J / 

>,, 



**/, 



TRITONINJE. 



PLATE 4. 




TRITONINJ3. 



PLATE 5. 




TRITONIN.E. 



PLATE 6. 




TRITONIN^E. 



PLATE 7. 




47 



V^QJ 






TRITONIX^E 



PLATE 8. 




56 



TRITONIN-ffi. 



PLATE 9. 




60. 



';'*> 

Y ' 



> 






TRITON IN jE. 



PLATE 10. 




77. 



TRITON IN^. 



PLATE 11. 




''"'V'Y 



*.;: 



..- 






TRITONIN^E. 



PLATE 12. 




TRITONIN^E. 



PLATE 13 




TRITONINJE. 



PLATE 14. 




TRITONIN^E. 



PLATE 15. 




TRITONIN.E. 



PLATE 16. 




TRITON1N.E. 



PLATE 17. 




/1 V 

*'* 






RANELLIN^E. 



PLATE 18. 




'<*. 










RAXELLIX.E. 



PLATE 19. 




11. 



RANELLIN.E. 



PLATE 20. 




19. 



**s ' J 

tr*. ?A 









4 



v% m 
fe ' ^/ 



RANELLINJE. 



PLATP] 21. 




RANELLINvE. 



PLATE 22. 




40. 



RANELLIX^E. 



PLATE 23. 




51. 



I 



BANBLLIKJE. 



PLATE 24. 




PLATE 25. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA 



r i 

x ^ 

m 




PROSOBRANCHIATA. 




PROSOBRANCHIATA 



PLATE 27. 





4'8. 



FASCIOLARIINjE. 

A 



PLATE 29. 



51. MELOXGENINJE 54 




PLATE 30. 







71 



72, 



PISANINJ3. 



PLATE 31. 




73. 



74 
BUCCININJE. 



75. 



76. 




FUSING. 



PLATE 3-2. 




96. 



PU8INJE. 



'LATE 




PLATE 34. 




FUSING. 



PLATE 35. 




122 



FUSING. 



PLATE 36. 




FUSING. 



PLATE 37, 




149 



FUSING. 



PL ATP: 38. 




100 



FUSING. 



PLATE 39. 




FUSING. 



PLATE 40. 



178 




183 



184 



MELONGENIN.E 



PLATE 41. 




MELONGENIN^E 



PLATE 42 




217 



MELOXGENIN.E 



PLATE 43. 







f 



MELONGENIN.E 



PLATE 44. 




NEPTUNINA 



PLATE 45. 




<': 

f i . ' // 



' '* f\ 

7- , . ? 



NEPTUNINJfi. 



PLATE 46. 




/ 

1 1? 



'/l'I' < 

"""'-.,/ 



NEPTUNIX^l. 



PLATE 47. 







** 

'*** " 






NEPTUN1NJE. 



PLATE 48. 







^o ,/ 



NEPTUNIN.E. 



PLATE 49. 




''"^TFX 



NEPTUNINJ5. 



PLATE 50. 




NEPTUNIN.E. 



PLATE 51. 




NEPTUNIN.E. 



PLATE 52. 




f tfjv 



NEPTUNIN^E. 



PLATE 53. 




NEPTUNINJS. 



PLATE 54. 







r 



u 









NEPTUNINJ3. 




372 



371 



374 



373 



. 



f '". 



b/. M . 
1 V/ i 



NEPTUNIN.E. 



PLATE 56. 




NEPTUNINJB. 



PLATE 57 










> 



' 



1 -1 to 



A. 



NBPTUNINJ!. 



PLATE 58. 







"* 

I> , l S 



jvxn;.., A l- 

: ,: r; 4L,','." 



FASCIOLARIIX.-E. 



PLATE 59. 





'.'*? > 

- >.''" 



FASCIOLARIIN^. 



PLATK 60. 




FASCIOLARIIN^E. 



PLATE 61. 




FASCIOLARIIN^E. 



PLATE 62. 




;A UF<>/..V 



FASCIOLARIINJE. 



PLATE 63. 




34. 



' 



PERISTERNIIX-E. 



PLATE 64. 




PERFSTERNIINJB. 



PLATE 65. 




89 90 



PERISTERNIIX.E. 



PLATE 66, 




PERfSTEKNIIN.E 



LATE 67. 




121 



PERfSTERNIIN/F, 



PLATE 68. 




PERISTBRNIIN^J. 



PLATE 69. 




161 



-: i 



PERISTEKN1IN.E. 



PLATE 70. 




: :W^#A 



r/ CV * "VS E* ' 

1 ^ 
4Llt$ 






PISANIN.E. 



PLATE 71. 




216 



215 



211 



212 213 



PISANIN^E. 



PLATE 72. 




239 



238 



237 



240 



PISANINJ3. 



PLATE 73. 




254 



282 



PISANIN.E. 



PLATE 74. 




BUCCININ.E. 



PLATE 75. 




BUCCININ.E. 



PLATE 76. 




BUCCININJE. 



PLATE 77. 




359 



357 



358 



3fiO 



BUCCININ.fi. 



PLATE 78. 




BUCCININJB; 



PLATE 79. 




389 



BUCCININJE. 



PLATE 80. 




115 



416 



BU COINING. 



PLATE 81. 




451 



KBUUNIN.E. 



I'LATK 82. 




478 



PHOTIN.E. 



PLATE 83. 




PHOTIN.E. 



PLATE 84. 




572 



flVT'lK 



FUSING. 



PLATE 85. 



576 







58S 



rj- 

him^ 



FUSING. 



PLATE 86 




? 
(owr 

- 



NEPTUNIN^E. 



PLATE 87. 




fi'2* 




t 5 8 i) 1 



14 




v^-' 



&&ML