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Full text of "Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species. Second series: Pulmonata"

SECOND SERIES: PULMOKATA. 



MANUAL 



OF 



HOLD 



J 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

CONSERVATOR OF TUP: CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE ACADEMY OP 
NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



Vol. IV. 

HELICID^E: Vol. II. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Author, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COR. I9TH & RACE STS. 

1888. 



EARTH 

SCIENCES 

LIBRARY 




HORACE BINDER, PRINTER, 607 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



UNIVERSITY 



MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



; FAMILY HELICID^E, Vol. II. 

Genus HELIX, Linn. 

Group VII, HELICELLA. 

Section II, XEROPHILA. 
(Continued from Vol. Ill, p. 169.) 
Subsection V. CANDIDULA, Kobelt. 1871. 

Conoidally depressed, periphery rounded. H. CANDIDULA, Stu- 
-der. European, Asiatic. 

It is Helicopsis, Fitz. in part. 

Subsection VI. LEMNISCIA, Lowe. 1854. 

Subimperforate, trochoidal or globosely conoidal, periphery cari- 
nate; whorls 6-7, planate; peristome acute, reflected and thick- 
ened towards the axfe H. MICHAUDI, Desh. Madeira, H. MONI- 
LIFERA, Webb and Berth. Canary Is. 

Monilearia, Mousson, 1872, is a synonym. 

Subsection VII. XEROLEUCA, Kobelt. 1877. 

Sublenticular, granosely striate, periphery laciniately carinated, 
umbilicus wide, funnel-shaped, bordered by a carina. H. TURCICA, 
Chemn. Northern Africa. 

Subsection VIII. TURRICULA, Beck. 1837. 

Conical, umbilicated or perforate, costulate-striate, cretaceous 
white, often fasciate, periphery angulated or carinated ; peristome 
labiate within. H. PYRAMIDATA, Drap. Mediterranean Region. 

Obelus, Hartmann, Irus, Ads., Trochula, Morch, and Crenea t 
Albers (in part), are synonyms. 

l^ubsection IX. COCHLICELLA, Risso. 1826. 

Bulimiform, narrowly perforate, whitish, fasciate, periphery sub- 
angulate ; peristome simple, acute, margins converging. H. ACUTA, 
Muller. Mediterranean Region. 

Elisma, Leach, is a synonym. 



4 HELIX. 

Section III. OCHTHEPHILA, Beck. 1837. 

Small, perforate or narrowly umbilicated, depressed, rounded or 
disk-like, periphery with extremities approaching or continuous. 

Madeira, Azores. 

Subsection I. OCHTHEPHILA (sensu stricto). 

Usually scaly, granular or ribbed, last whorl keeled, periphery 
keeled or continuous. H. ECHINULATA, Lowe. 

Hystricella, Lowe. 1854, is a synonym. 

Subsection II. GEOMITRA, Swainson. 1840. 

Shell mamilliform. H. THIARELLA, Webb, et Berth. 
Coronaria, Lowe. 1854, is a synonym. 

Subsection III. HETEROSTOMA, Hartmann. 1844. 
Shell planorbiform. H. OBTECTA, Lowe. 
Spirorbula, Lowe. 1854, is a synonym. 

Subsection IV. IRUS, Lowe. 1854. 
Shell trochiform. H. ABJECTA, Lowe. 
Placentula, Pfr. 1855, is a synonym. 

Subsection V. PLACENTULA, Lowe. 1854. 

Shell depressed orbicular. H. MADERENSIS, Wood. 

Section IV. ACTINELLA, Lowe. 1854. 

Narrowly umbilicated to scarcely perforate. 

Depressed globose, last whorl keeled, not descending in front, 
aperture oblique, often with a fold-like swelling. H. COMPACTA, 
Lowe. Madeira. 

Eimula and Caseolus (in part), Lowe and Lyrula, Wollaston, are 
synonyms. 

Section V. TECTULA, Lowe. 1854. 

Umbilicated or perforate, depressed pyramidal, solid, roughly 
sculptured, last whorl keeled, with a swollen inner lip. 

H. LYELLIANA, Lowe. Crenea, DePaiva (in part), is a synonyn. 

Section VI. CRASPEDARIA, Lowe. 1854. 

AYidely umbilicated, pitted, the last whorl plicate at the suture, 
spirally sculptured on the periphery and around the umbilicus, 
descending in front to a nearly horizontal aperture, with continuous 
expanded periphery. H. DELPHINULA, Lowe. 



HELIX. 5 

Section VII. DISCULA, Lowe. 1854. 

Pyramidal, umbilicated, rather solid, roughly granularly sculp- 
tured, somewhat babylonic, periphery obtusely keeled. H. CHEIR- 

ANTHICOLA, Lowe. 

Obelus, Hartmann, Turritella, WolL, and Crenea, Lowe (in part), 
are synonyms. 

Section VIII. CALLINA, Lowe. 1854. 

Covered perforate, striate, and granular, periphery sharply keeled, 
keel vanishing behind the aperture. H. ROTULA, Lowe. 

Section IX. ACTJSTA, Albers. 1860. 

Shell globose, thin, umbilicated, last whorl large, swollen, rounded, 
peristome simple, sharp. H. SIEBOLDIANA, Pfr. 

Japan. 

The group is Chinese and Japanese in distribution. It is Ar- 
mandia, Ancey, in part ; other species of that group being H. Da- 
vidi, H. Moupiniana and H. plicatilis, which I have described 
under Macrochlamys, Vol. II, 103. 



Subsection V. CANDIDULA, Kobelt. 1871. 

H. PROTEA, Ziegler. PL 1, figs. 1, 2. 

Narrowly umbilicated, whitish, often maculately banded ; whorls 
5-6, convex, the last large ; peristome acute, slightly labiate within. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Ins. Corfu. 

It is H. obvia, Jan, H. eampestris, Ziegler and H. pustulata, 

Muhlf. 

\ 

H. APICINA, Lam. PL 1, figs. 3-5. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, somewhat flattened above, more 
convex beneath, striated, whitish, the apex variegated with corneous, 
suture deep ; whorls 4-4-1, convex, the last dilated in front; peris- 
tome subsimple, acute. Diam. 7 mill. 

Southern Europe, Azores, Tangiers. 

H. cenisia, Charp., H. lauta, Reeve, and H. hispidula, Risso, are 
synonyms. 

H. Cupani, Calcara, is probably a juvenile. 



6 HELIX. 

Var. KAMBURI, Mabille. 

Somewhat larger, whitish, obsoletely fasciate with brown, irregu- 
larly costate-striate ; whorls 5 5 J, more slowly increasing, apex 
more elevated ; umbilicus narrower. Diam. 9-10 mill. 

France, Crimea. 
H. SUBAPICINA, Mousson. PL 1, figs. 6, 7. 

Narrowly perforate, thinly, sharply striate, greyish white, with 
light corneous striae, bands or maculations, suture slightly impressed ; 
whorls 4, convex, the last not descending in front, rounded below ; 
peristome acute, not labiate. Diam. 5 mill. 

Mogador, Morocco. 
H. OBRUTA, Morelet. PL 1, figs. 8, 9. 

Narrowly perforate, angulated, obsoletely striate, chalky, cor- 
neous strigate and marbled with white, with reddish spiral lines, 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last angulated 
above, rounded below ; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 8 mill. 

Ins. Sta. Maria, Azores ; subfossil. 

H. REBOUDIANA, Bourg. PL 1, figs. 10-14. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, opaque, chalky, greyish white, flamed 
with fulvous, with irregular whitish costulations ; whorls 6, slightly 
convex, rapidly increasing, with impressed suture, last whorl di- 
lated, rounded, convex below, descending in front ; peristome acute, 
slightly labiate within, margins approximating. Diam. 10 mill. 

Algiers. 

Replaces in N. Africa the H. candidula of Europe. 

H. LALLEMANTIANA, Bourg. PL 1, figs. 15-17. 

Perforate, thin, a little translucent, whitish, with brownish cor- 
neous interrupted zones above, forming irregular maculations, and 
5-7 continuous narrow bands below, lightly costulate, suture linear ; 
whorls 6, scarcely convex above, rapidly increasing, the last sud- 
denly, slightly deflected in front, periphery obtusely angulated ; 
peristome acute, rosy-lipped within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. GERYVILLENSIS, Bourg. PL 1, figs. 18-20. 

Perforate, fragile, whitish, often with three or four corneous zones,, 
obliquely costulate; whorls 6, slightly convex, suture impressed, 
last whorl large, the periphery obsoletely angulated, not deflected 
in front ; peristome acute, slightly labiate within, margins approxi- 
mating. Diam. 9 mill. 

Algiers. 



TJNI.VEKSIT1 

H. BARGESIANA, Bourg. PL 1, figs. 21-23. 

Moderately umbilicated, striate, irregularly interruptedly banded, 
or with a white band; whorls 6 2-7, slowly increasing, the last 
rounded, not deflected in front ; peristome white, acute, or slightly 
internally thickened. Diam. 14 mill. 

Syria. 
H. STRIATA, Miiller. PL 1, figs. 24, 25. 

Moderately umbilicated, closely, rather sharply costulate, a little 
shining, white, sometimes fasciate and radiate with brown, base 
white-banded, apex corneous ; whorls 4J-5, slightly convex, rather 
rapidly increasing, the last wider, rounded, scarcely descending in 
front ; peristome acute, very thinly labiate within. Diam. 9'5 mill. 

Middle Europe. 

H. costulata, Ziegler, and H. Narbonensis, Requien, are synonyms. 

Var. NILSSONIANA, Beck. 

Apex depressed, whorls more convex, bands obsolete, sometimes 
wanting. Diam. 8*5 mill. 

Sweden. 
H. BARDOENSIS, Bourg. PL 1, figs. 26-28. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, chalky, rugosely striate, whitish, 
sometimes bilineate with black, or with seven interrupted, faint 
black bands, lineated towards the aperture ; whorls 6, slightly con- 
vex, slowly increasing, the last rounded, scarcely descending at the 
aperture ; peristome simple, acute, deeply labiate within. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Tunis. 
H. PROFUGA, Schmidt. PL 1, figs. 29, 30, 34, 35. 

Moderately umbilicated, closely, regularly costulate-striate, whitish, 
'often with interrupted chestnut bands, apex corneous; whorls 5-5, 
convex, the last obsoletely angulated, not descending in front; 
peristome acute, brown lipped within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Mediterranean Countries. 

It is H. striata, Drap., H. caperata, Pfr., H. fasciolata, Moq. 
Tand., H. fimbriata and H. Apennina, Chiereg. 

Var. ATTICA, Bottger. 

With a broad continuous band. Diam. 8-10 mill. 

Greece. 

Var. VARIEGATA, Mouss. 

More conical, the whorls less convex, striae less distinct, white, 
with spots and rays. 

Epirus. 



8 HELIX. 

H. PARABLETA, Bottger. PI. 1, figs. 31-33. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, smooth, white, with a 
superior chestnut band, and an interrupted one within it, base with 
a broad band, and several narrow ones within it ; whorls 5, very 
slowly increasing, with deep suture, closely irregularly striated, last 
whorl with more or less distinctly angulated periphery, base con- 
vex ; peristome simple, labiate within, margins approaching. 

Diam. 6 mill. 

Nachitscheivan, alluvion of the Araxes. 

H. BOLLENENSIS, Locard. PI. 1, figs. 36-38. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, thick, smooth, opaque, strongly, 
irregularly, somewhat undulately striate, greyish white, usually uni- 
colored, sometimes with interrupted pale brow r n bands, often scarcely 
visible ; whorls 6, very convex, the last well rounded, a little dilated 
towards the aperture ; peristome simple, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 13-15 mill. 

Southern France. 

Locard has indicated varieties depressa, minor and fasciolata. 

H. LAURACINA, Fagot. PI. 2, figs. 55-57. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, solid, chalky, thick, subopaque, 
with strong undulating stride, close, irregular, sometimes not con- 
tinuous, stronger above, yellowish or yellowish white, usually with- 
out bands, sometimes with faint, subcontinuous chestnut bands, 
varying in number ; whorls 4 2 -5, slightly convex, slowly increas- 
ing, suture deep, last whorl a little flattened above at the aperture ; 
peristome acute, with a yellowish or chestnut interior callus. 

Diam. 11-14 mill. 

Southern France. 

H. PERROUDIANA, Locard. PI. 2, figs. 58-60. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, thick, chalky, subopaque, with 
rather close, undulated striae, weaker below, yellowish white or 
greyish, usually without bands, sometimes with faint chestnut 
bands on the middle and below, varying in number, nearly obsolete 
towards the umbilicus ; whorls 4^-5, convex, with deep suture, last 
whorl a little inflated at the aperture, somewhat depressed above 
and below ; peristome acute, with a thick interior callus. 

Diam. 10-12 mill. 

Southern France. 



HELIX. 9 

H. TRICASTINORUM, Florence. PI. 2, figs. 61-63. 

Kather narrowly umbilicated, solid, thick, cretaceous, subopaque, 
with close, undulating striae, equally strong below, yellowish white 
to reddish yellow, without or with chestnut bands varying in num- 
ber, thin, not continuous, faint, especially towards the umbilicus ; 
whorls 41-5, with moderate suture, increase at first slow, but rapid 
in the last whorl; peristome acute, with a slight whitish or rosy in- 
terior thickening. Diam. 12 mill. 

Southern France. 
H. FEDTSCHENKOI, Mart. PI. 2, figs. 64-66. 

Widely umbilicated, slightly striate, whitish, spire scarcely ele- 
vated; whorls 43, convex, with rather deep suture, last whorl 
rounded, slightly descending in front ; peristome acute. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Kulikalan, Turkestan; alt. 9500 ft. 

H. MERIDIONALIS, Parr. PI. 1, figs. 39, 40. 

Differs from H. profuga, Schm., in its flatter form, stronger striae 
and wide umbilicus. 

Dalmatia, Corfu. 

Is H. striata, var. of Rossmassler. 

H. SUBSTRIATA, Clessin. PI. 1, figs. 41-43. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather solid, striulate, shining, milk- 
white, unicolored or banded with chestnut ; whorls 5, slowly, regu- 
larly increasing, convex, with deep suture, last whorl rounded, not 
descending in front ; peristome acute. Diam. 11 mill. 

Crimea. 
H. SUBCOSTULATA, Bourg. PI. 2, figs. 67-69. 

Perforate, chalky, whitish, the earlier whorls obscurely maculated 
with corneous, irregularly strongly costulate, suture impressed; 
whorls 6, convex, the last bluntly angulated, slightly descending at 
the aperture ; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 5-6 mill. 

Algiers. 

H. AGRIOICA, Bourg. PL 2, figs. 70-72. 

Narrowly umbilicated, chalky, whitish, with a few translucent 
corneous maculations above and below, distantly costulate above, 
sculpture weaker on the base, suture impressed ; whorls 6, the last 
bluntly angulated, suddenly deflected at the aperture; peristome 
acute, white-lipped within. Diam. 7 mill. 

Algiers. 



10 HELIX. 

H. ACUTISTRIA, Bottger. PL 2, figs. 73-75. 

Moderately umbilicated, white, unicolored, or with a single 
chestnut band above and five interrupted narrow bands below ; 
whorls 5, rapidly increasing, with deep suture, convex, closely 
covered w T ith thread-like striae, last whorl scarcely descending, ob- 
tusely angulated, angle vanishing towards the aperture ; peristonie 
simple, acute, remotely white-lipped within. Diam. 9-10 mill. 

Tiflis, Transcaucasia. 

This species has been recently referred to JET. crenimargo (Vol. 
Ill, p. 252), as a var. obtusior. 

H. CANDIDULA, Studer. PL 1, figs. 44-48. 

Narrowly umbilicated, minutely striate, whitish, unicolored or 
variously banded with brown ; whorls 4$ 5, slightly convex, the 
last scarcely deflected in front ; peristome acute, internally thick- 
ened. Diam. 9 mill.* 

Middle Europe. 

The synonyms are H. unifasciata, Poir., H. bidentata, Drap., H. 
striata, Var. Drap., H. graphica, H. rugellosa, and H. striatula, 
Hartm., H. azona, H. unizona and H. radiolata, Andrz., H. elegans, 
Fleming. 

Var. ALPICOLA, Stabile. 

Small, cretaceous, globosely depressed, rather thin, with narrow, 
pale, interrupted bands, evanescent, aperture more rounded. 

Diam. 6*5 mill. 

Var. THYMORUM, Alt. 

Turbinately depressed, obtuse, more or less striate, porcellanous 
or yellowish, with a chestnut band above, and sometimes with in- 
ferior lines; last whorl flattened above, obtusely angulated, con- 
vex below ; peristome white-lipped within. 

Var. GRATIOSA, Ziegler. 
Shell much larger. 
H. strigatula, Hartm., and H. adnumerata, Parr., are synonyms. 

Var. SPIRILLA, Westerl. 

Narrowly umbilicated, depressed, costu late - striate, yellowish, 
usually with a superior chestnut band; whorls 4i>-5, the last di- 
lated, planate above, obtusely angulated, base convex; aperture 
angulated above and below, widely 2-3 labiate within, columella 
short, forming an angle with the basal lip. Diam. 4*6 mill. 

Southern France, Sicily. 



HELIX. 11 

Var. VORTEX, Westerl. 

Globosely convex, densely costulate ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, 
convex, the last scarcely larger; aperture rounded lunar. 

Diam. 5-5'5 mill. 

Southern France. 
Var. ALBOCINCTELLA, Colb. 

Shell brownish, the fasciations confluent, with a median white 
line. 

Belgium. 
Var. NAMURCENSIS, Colb. 

Shell whitish with a band of chestnut dots on the periphery, ap- 
pearing again above the suture, and two additional spiral series, 
very faint, on the base. 

Belgium. 
Var. LUNULATA, Kryn. 

Striolate, angulated above, white, sometimes with chestnut bands 
and lines, spire a little more elevated, umbilicus narrower ; whorls 
6, rounded ; peristome patulous, lipped within. 

Odessa. 
Var. MELL^E, Pini. 

Small, somewhat depressed, more rugose, with wide bands above 
or below. 

H. RUGOSIUSCULA, Mich. PI. 2, figs. 76, 77. 

Moderately umbilicated, closely, elegantly costulate-striate, grey- 
ish, apex corneous ; whorls 5, a little flattened above, the last 
scarcely angulated, convex below ; peristome acute, strongly lipped 
within. Diam. 6 mill. 

Tar agon, Central Pyrenees. 

H. PALADILHI, Bourg. PL 2, figs. 78-80. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, somewhat closely unequally costu- 
late, whitish, with a single interrupted brown band above the peri- 
phery, apex light corneous ; whorls 5, slightly convex, slowly in- 
creasing, the last scarcely descending in front, barely angulated, 
convex below ; peristome acute, scarcely labiate within. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Montpellier, France. 
H. CYPARISSIAS, Parr. PL 1, fig. 49. 

Moderately umbilicated, closely costulate-striate, white, punctate 
or irregularly maculated and subfasciate with chestnut, apex cor- 



12 HELIX. 

neous ; whorls 5, convex, the last narrow, not descending in front ; 
peristome acute, thinly labiate with chestnut. Diam. 6 mill. 

Ins. Cyprus. 
H. ARROUXI, Bourg. PI. 2, figs. 81, 82. 

Umbilicated, depressed, fragile, subpellucid, thinly striulate, ful- 
vous chestnut maculated with white, with a shining, blackish apex ; 
whorls 5, a little convex, suture well impressed, last whorl ob- 
scurely subangulated, base convex. Diam. 6 mill. 

JBerytus, Syria. 

Following Pfeiffer, I included this species in Patula (Vol. Ill, 
21), but it is evidently more closely related to the present group. 

H. IMPROBATA, Mousson. PI. 1, figs. 50-52. 

Widely umbilicated, unequally, strongly striate, white, greyish or 
with punctate corneous lines ; whorls 5, flattened above, rounded 
below, the earlier and middle ones distinctly filosely carinated, the 
last with the angle evanescent, irregularly deflected ; peristome 
acute, labiate within. Diam. 13 mill. 

Around Jerusalem. 
H. CONSPURCATA, Drap. PI. 1, figs. 53, 54. 

Narrowly umbilicated, costulate, hairy, horny ash color, minutely 
variegated ; whorls 4-5, depressed ; peristome acute. Diam. 6 mill. 

Southern Europe, Algiers, Teneriffe. 

It is H. radiolata, Jan, and H. Sardiniensis, Porro. H. Aetncea, 
Beuoit is a juvenile of this species. 

Var. ILLUVIOSA, Nevill. 

"An apparently constant form, differing conspicuously in the 
character of the epidermis, and slightly in those of the shell itself." 
No other description given. 

Mentone, France. 

Var. PSARA, Bourg. PL 3, figs. 89-91. 

Rather widely umbilicated, subopaque, dull, strongly irregularly 
striate, earlier whorls brownish, with white maculations, last whorl 
uniform brownish corneous ; whorls 5, rapidly increasing, the last 
rounded, scarcely, slowly descending in front; peristome simple, 
acute. Diam. 8 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. LETOURNEUXIANA, Bourg. PL 3, figs. 92-94. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, subopaque, ash color with 
chestnut maculations disposed in an interrupted spiral zone, costu- 



HELIX. 13 

late striate ; whorls 6, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last 
with angulated periphery, not descending in front, convex below ; 
peristome simple, acute. Diam. 8 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. EUSTRICTA, Bourg. PL 2, figs. 84, 85. 

Moderately umbilicated, whitish, with corneous maculations above, 
disposed as in a serpent's skin, below all white, or with three usually 
interrupted narrow corneous bands, closely striate above, more 
strongly so below ; whorls 5, the last subcarinate, scarcely, slowly 
descending in front, base convex, somewhat inflated round the um- 
bilicus ; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 5 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. LOCHEANA, Bourg. PL 3, figs. 95-97. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, thin, slightly pellucid, striulate, 
and when living clothed with very short, rigid hairs, greyish white, 
with ashy brown flames at the suture or on the base, or more usually 
several bands, flamed with whitish ; whorls 5, convex, the earlier 
ones carinate in young individuals, the last large, rounded, usually 
with a whitish peripheral band, not descending at the aperture; 
peristome simple, acute, slightly labiate within. Diam. 5 mill. 

A Igiers. 
H. MORICOLA, Paladilhe. PL 2, fig. 83. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, thin, fragile, with short, somewhat 
recurved hairs, and slightly flexuous regular striae, brownish, spotted 
with greyish white ; whorls 5, slightly convex, with well-impressed 
suture, last whorl obtusely angulated on the periphery, base convex, 
with white spots formed of concentric lines.; peristome acute. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

Dep. Herault, France. 

Smaller, with narrower umbilicus, deeper suture and rounder 
aperture than H. conspurcata. 

H. INTERSECTA, Mich. PL 2, figs. 86-88. 

Narrowly umbilicated, closely costulate-striate, opaque, whitish 
gray or dark brown, rarely unicolored, usually interruptedly banded, 
maculated, or punctate with fulvous or chestnut color; whorls 5-6, 
slowly increasing, the last obsoletely angulated, shortly descending 
in front ; peristome simple, chestnut- or white-lipped within. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

So. France, N. Spain. 

H. ignota, Mabille is a synonym. 



14 HELIX. 

H. JAYLEI, Paladilhe. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, subdiscoidal, regularly rugosely 
costulate, somewhat chalky, whitish straw-color, apex somewhat 
ros"y; whorls 5, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last large, 
a little descending in front; aperture suboblique, rounded-lunar, 
peristome simple, acute, labiate within, margins approaching. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Tangiers. 
Var. RUSTICULA, Palad. 

Umbilicus narrower, spire more elevated, apex smaller, black- 
ish, costulations stronger, more irregular, whorls more convex 
above, more rapidly increasing. Diam. 14 mill. 

Tangiers. 

Paladilhe, after pointing out the differences between this form, 
which he describes as a species, and H. Jaylei, thinks it not improba- 
ble that they will prove identical. Kobelt reduces rusticula to the 
rank of a variety. I am unable to figure the species because my 
copy of the work containing the description is incomplete, in want- 
ing the plate referred to in the text. 
H. SUBMERIDIONALIS, Bourg. PI. 3, figs. 98-100. 

Narrowjy umbilicated, whitish, with five interrupted chestnut 
zones, strongly striate; whorls 6, scarcely convex above, rapidly 
increasing, the last rounded, slightly descending in front; peristome 
acute, brown-lipped within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Algiers. 

This specific name was originated for an assemblage of species 
now recognized as distinct, and is better limited to the Algerian 
form figured by its author, as typical; perhaps should be suppressed 
altogether. 
H. CAPERATA, Mtg. PI. 3, figs. 1, 3-5, 12, 13. 

Moderately umbilicated, closely striate, whitish or yellowish 
with brownish or corneous bands, maculations or interrupted striga- 
tions; whorls 6, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last not 
deflected, base more convex, peristome white-lipped, acute. 

Diam. 8-11 mill. 

Western Europe. 

It is H. striata, Drap. (in part), H. crenulata, Dillw., H. fasciolata, 
Drouet, H. intersecta of numerous authors. 
Var. BARCINENSIS, Bourg. Figs. 3-5. 

Narrowly umbilicated, irregularly plicate-striate, ashy white or 
light brownish, fasciated and maculated with chestnut, smoother 



HELIX. 15 

below; whorls 5?, convex, the last slightly deflected in front, 
periphery subangulated ; peristome acute, white-lipped within, mar- 
gins approximating. Diam. 10*5 mill. 

Miranda, Spain. 
The synonyms are H. Mirandas and H. Iberica, Rambur. 

Var. DINIENSIS, Rambur. Figs. 12,,13. 

Moderately umbilicated, very thinly, regularly striate-costulate, 
whitish or ash colored, with brown lines and bands; whorls 5, 
slowly increasing, the last subdeflected in front, base more convex ; 
peristome thin, white-lipped within, margins approximating. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Southern France. 
H. LANGLOISIANA, Bourg. PL 3, figs. 6-8. 

Umbilicated, somewhat solid, crispately rugulose above, striate 
below, white, unicolored or with subconfluent bands and strigations 
above, apex light corneous; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last 
wider, scarcely descending in front, periphery subangulated ; peris- 
tome acute, widely white-lipped within, margins approaching. 

Diam. 10'5 mill. 

Syria. 

It is H. caperata, Var. Kobelt's Catalogue. 

H. ARMILLATA, Lowe. PL 3, figs. 9-11. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, costulate, obsoletely spirally striate, 
brownish corneous, marbled and subfasciate with whitish, suture 
impressed; whorls 5, subplanate, the last not deflected in front, 
carinated above, base convex, subcompressed round the umbilicus ; 
peristome simple, acute, margins distinct. Diam. 7-8 mill. 

Madeira, Azores. 

The synonyms are If. striata, Lowe, H. conspurcata, Mouss., H. 
Lowei, Pot. et Mich. 

H. MOLINA, Hidalgo. PL 3, figs. 14-16. 

Perviously umbilicated, rather thin, somewhat shining, striulate, 
brownish above, with white scattered spots, banded below, some- 
times all brown, with small white spots, or corneous, with translucent 
brown bands and irregular maculations ; whorls 5-5?, a little convex, 
slowly increasing, the last scarcely deflected in front, periphery 
obsoletely angulated ; peristome acute, white, labiate within, margins 
approaching. Diam. 10 mill. 

Columbret Is. between Spain and the Balearic Is. 



16 HELIX. 

H. MADRITENSIS, Kambur. PL 3, figs. 17, 18. 

Perforate whitish or ash colored, with two maculated brown 
bands above, often obsolete, thinly and regularly closely costulate ; 
whorls 5, the last subinflated, a little deflected in front, base sub- 
turgid, suture conspicuous, periphery carinated ; peristome simple, 
acute, widely labiate within, margins joined by a thin white callus. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Madrid, Spain. 

H. PENCHINATI, Bourg. PI. 3, figs. 19-21. 

Perviously umbilicated, striate, corneous chestnut color flamed 
with white above, whitish, dark banded below, suture impressed; 
whorls 5?, a little convex, slowly increasing, the last carinated, the 
carina vanishing towards the aperture, suddenly descending, base 
convex; peristome simple, acute, slightly thickened within, margins 
approximating, joined by a thin callus. Diam. 6'5 mill. 

Barcelona, Spain. 

H. CODIA, Bourg. PL 3, figs. 22-24. 

Narrowly umbilicated, subpellucid, elegantly costate, yellowish 
corneous with interrupted chestnut lineolatious, apex corneous; 
whorls 6, slightly convex, regularly increasing, suture scarcely 
impressed, last whorl rounded, abruptly descending at the aperture; 
peristome acute, w 7 hite margined within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Portugal. 

H. intersecta, Morel et is a synonym. 

Ancey has indicated a var. RUFA. 

H. SEMIPICTA, Hidalgo. PL 3, fig. 2. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, subopaque, a little shining, mi- 
nutely striated above, smooth below, light yellowish white, with 
pellucid maculations above, profusely variegated and banded at the 
periphery with brownish corneous, suture rather deep; whorls 5-5?, 
a little convex, regularly increasing, the last convex, slightly des- 
cending in front, base subdepressed ; peristome acute, sublabiate 
within. Diam, 9'5 mill. 

Alearez, Spain. 

H. GIGAXII, Charp. PL 3, figs. 25-27. 

Arcuately rimate, solid, closely striated, opaque, whitish or flesh 
color, unicolored or marbled and interruptedly banded with chestnut, 
apex corneous; whorls 5, somewhat flattened, the last wider, not 




TJNIVE: 

C4LIF 

HELIX. 17 

descending in front, base convex ; peristome simple, acute, remotely 
labiate within, margins approaching. Diam. 9'5-12'5 mill. 

France, Belgium, England. 
H. MEDA, Porro. PI. 3, fig. 44. 

Scarcely rimate, globose above, somewhat flattened below, costu- 
late-striate, whitish or brownish, with narrow interrupted chestnut 
bands, sometimes unicolored; whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last 
angulated on the periphery, not descending in front, base subplane, 
striate ; peristome acute, with flesh colored callus within. 

Diam. 10-12 mill. 

Sicily, Sardinia, Malta. 

H. subclausa, Eossm., and H. Calypso and Turatii, Parr, are 
synonyms. 



Unfigured Species of Subsection Candidula. 

H. HYPJEANA, H. DEFERIANA, and H. DANIELI, Bourg. 

France. 

H. CARCUSIANA, H. HERIPENSIS, H. THUILLIERI and H. LOROO 
LOSSICOLA, H. ARGA, H. ILICETORUM, H. BELLOQUADRICA, Mabille. 

France. 

H. HICETORUM, Locard. = H. ILICITORUM, Mabille. 
H. FLORENTINE, Ponsonby. Tangiers. 

H. ANTONIANA, Kochebrune. St. Antoine, Cape Verd Is. 

H. DUMEVAGA, Morelet. Morocco. 

H. ClTHARISTENSIS, H. REQIUENI, H. MARSIANA, H. VlCIANICA, 

Bourg. France. 

H. PSAROPSIS, H. IDANICA, H. GAROCELIANA, H. ELIMBERRISIANA, 

H. ARELATENSIS, Locard. France. 

H. YCAUNICA, H. PHILOMIPHILA, H. LUGDUNIACA, LE MESLEI, 

Mabille. France. 

H. DlENSIS, H. PSILORITANA, H. 8UBVARIEGATA, H. FBEYTAGI, 

Maltzan. Isle of Crete. 

H. COMMEATA, and H. MESOPOTAMIA, Mousson, and Var. GHAE- 

SIANA, of the latter species. Mesopotamia. 

H. ORDUNENSIS, Kobelt. Orduna, Biscay, Spain. 

H. DEANA, and H. PLEURESTHA, Tassy. France. 

H. NILSSONIANA, Beck, (H. ericelorum, Nilss.). Sweden. 

H. FUREDENSIS, H. BAKONYCA, H. PLATTENICA, Servain. 

Hungary. 
H. ARNUSIACA, Fagot, (H. profuga, Var. Etrusca, Issel). N. Italy. 



18 



HELIX. 



H. APRUTIANA, Fagot. Abruzzi, Italy. 

H. VISANICA, H. CARPENSORACTENSIS, H. FOLIOEUM, Fagot. 

France. 

H. PRINOHILA, H. SOLACIACA, Mabille. France. 

H. ROBINIANA H. PAULI, H. PHILORA, H. RUIDA. Bourg. 

France. 

H. BRINOPHILA, Locard. = H. PRINOHILA, Mabille. 
H. RHYTEPHORA, Carp. Egypt. 

H. KOTSCHYI, Pfr. Persia. 

H. AURIGERANA, H. ALA VAN A, H. UssATENSis, Fagot. France. 
H. LUNULATA, Krynicki. Odessa. 

H. FLORENTINE, Fagot. Florence, Italy. 

H. TRINGA, Fagot. (JET. profuga, Var. tringa, West.) 

Ins. Lido, Venice. 

H. GRADISCANENSIS, Fagot. Istria. 

H. POUZONENSIS, H. RENEI, H. CROUZILIANA, H. MARGIERIANA, 

H. SlTICULOSA, H. SCRUPELLINA, Fagot. 

France. 

H. MONISTROLENSIS, H. JoussEAUMEi, Fagot. France. 

H. IRIANA, Pol. Piedmont. 

H. HONORATI, H. SUBINTERSECTA, H. PlCTONUM, H. LlBOUXIAXA, 



Bourg. 

H. IDIOPHYA, Florence. 
H. CALLISTHA, Berenguier. 
H. VESTITA, Rambur. 
H..STRUCKI Maltzan. 
H. ROMANA, H. COLOSSEANA, Fagot. 
H. FIESOLENSIS, Fagot. 
H. EUMJEUS, Lowe. 
H. BRUNDUSIANA, Fagot. 
H. LESINIACA, Fagot. 
H. SAMNITUM, and Var. PUGNAX, Westerl. 
H. ANDALUSICA, Kobelt. 



France. 
France. 
France. 

So. France, Spain, Corsica. 
Portugal. 
Pome. 

Fiesole, near Florence. 
Mogador, Morocco. 
Brindisi, Italy. 
Ins. Lesina, Dalmatia. 
Samnium, Italy. 
Spain, Portugal. 
France. 



H. HERBARUM, H. XENELiCA, Servain. 

H. GESOCRIBATENSIS, H. SCRUPEA, H. LIEURANENSIS, H. GRO- 

BONI, H. COUTAGNEI, H. NOMEPHILA, H. TOLOSANA, H. V ERANYI, 

H. VALCOURTIANA, H. MAURINIANA, H. ACENTROMPHALA, H. 
JEANBERNATI, H. ACOSMIA, H. FRAYSSIANA, H. MOQUERONI, 

H..EREMA, H. MICROPHANA, H. TARASCONENSIS, H. RUIDA, Bourg. 

France. 



HELIX. 19 

H. LAURAGUAISIANA, Locard. France. 

H. EUCALLA, H. Is^EA, H. IRANA, HAGENMULLER. Tunis. 

H. AMICULA, H. AMPHIBOLA, H. ANASIA, H. GONIOGYRA, H. 

SAHARICA, H. ISCHUROSTOMA, H. TERRICOLA, H. GALEOMMA, 

H. BRYAR^A, H. AGGARICA, H. MALASPINjE, H. DUVEYRIERIANA, 
H. AGRIOICA, H. SPECIALIS, H. MAURITANICA, H. TARIA, H. 

KRIZENSIS, Bourg. Tunis. 

H. TREMATA, H. INCOLUMIS, H. LiECOUFFEI, H. ISTERA, H. MEHE- 
DIANA, H. CRISIA, H. BRADYB^ENA, H. JEGLIA, H. ARGODERMA, 

H. EUCOR^A, H. AMBLOXA, H. CONCHOLEUCA, Letourn. et Bourg. 

Tunis. 

H. MESSAPIA, Blanc. Tunis. 

H. HERBATICA, Fagot. Tunis. 

H. MENDRANOI, H. CANOVASIANA. H. SoLANOI, H. ALLUVIONUM, 

Servain. Tunis. 

Besides the above, wHich are mostly species as understood by the 
"new school" conchologists that is merely local variations, an 
additional large number of names are quoted in Letourneux and 
Bourguignats "Prodr. Mai. Tunisie" as European relations of Tunisian 
forms. These are mostly undescribed, and therefore need not be 
reproduced here. 

Subsection VI, LEMNISCIA, Lowe. 1854. 
H. TUMULORUM, Webb and Berthelot. PI. 3, figs. 28, 29. 

Subcovered perforate, closely, distinctly striate, white with inter- 
rupted brown bands ; whorls 6-7, scarcely convex, the last not de- 
scending, periphery sharply angulated, base flatly convex ; peristome 
simple, acute. Diam. 12 mill. 

Canary Is. 
H. PHALERATA, Webb and Berthelot. PL 3, figs. 31-33. 

Perforate, distinctly costulate-striate, whitish or yellowish white, 
with an interrupted band and a series of maculations of chestnut 
above ; whorls 6, a little convex, the last obsoletely subangulated, 
not descending in front ; peristome acute, sublabiate within. 

Diam. 8*5 mill. 

Canary Is. 

It is H. Roseti, Webb and Berth, not Mich., and H. Nivariemis, 
Shuttl. 
H. PERSIMILIS, Shuttl. PL 33, fig. 70. 

Subcovered perforate, thin, plicately striate, corneous, with two 
interrupted chestnut bands, maculated with white, one above, the 



20 HELIX. 

other below the periphery ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last not 
descending in front, periphery obtusely angulated ; peristome sim- 
ple, acute. Diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe and Palma. 

H. prceposita, Mousson is a synonym. 

Var. DEVIA, Mousson. 

Somewhat larger, depressed conical, subcarinate, marbled with 
grey and corneous above, with two bands of brown and white spots. 

H. OLEACEA, Shuttl. PL 4, figs. 34-36. 

Subcovered perforate, thin, fragile, a little shining, striate, yel- 
lowish brown, with a series of chestnut maculations near the suture 
and another on the middle of the base ; whorls 5-5 , scarcely con- 
vex above, the last not descending, with a peripheral carina vanish- 
ing in front ; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 8 mill. 

Ins. Palma, Canaries. 

H. deusta, Lowe is a synonym. 

H. WOOWABDII, Tarnier. PL 4, figs. 37-39. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, fragile, dull, lightly plicately striate, 
uniform whitish- or yellowish-corneous, without bands, the plicae a 
little paler; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last scarcely descending 
in front, periphery angulated, the keel visible some distance up the 
spire, base a little more convex ; peristome acute, scarcely expanded, 
not labiate. Diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe. 
H. C^MENTITIA, Shuttl. PL 4, figs. 40-42. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, dull, plicately costulate, ash colored, 
marbled with corneous, with a single peripheral interrupted band 
of chestnut and white spots ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, scarcely 
convex, the last shortly deflected in front, periphery carinated, 
carina vanishing towards the aperture ; aperture banded with chest- 
nut, peristome acute, thickened within, the margins joined by a 
white callus. Diam. 11 '5 mill. 

Canary Is. 

H. MONILIFERA, Webb and Berthelot. PL 4, figs. 43, 44. 

Subcovered perforate, somewhat solid, strongly striate, whitish 
with one superior and two inferior bands of chestnut maculations ; 
whorls 5-5 i, slightly convex, the last scarcely descending, periphery 



HELIX. 21 

rounded ; peristome acute, strongly labiate within, margins distant, 
with a slight connecting callus. Diam. 6'7 mill. 

Canary Is. 
It is H. Lancerottensis of Orb. Moll. Canaries, text but not figures. 

H. MICHAUDI, Desh. PI. 4, figs. 45, 46. 

Subcovered perforate, rugosely striate, shining, brownish white, 
with three continuous chestnut bands; whorls 7, slightly convex, 
the last not descending, periphery rounded, base scarcely more con- 
vex than above; peristome acute, labiate within. Diam. 10-12 mill. 

Porto Sancto, Madeiran Is. 

H. bicolor, Lowe is synonym. 

H. LEMNISCATA, Webb and Berthelot. PI. 4, figs. 47-49. 

Covered perforate, obliquely distinctly striate, brownish white or 
yellowish, banded with chestnut or chocolate, bands sometimes 
interrupted; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last not descending in 
front, periphery obtusely angulated, base flattened convex, peristome 
acute, slightly chestnut-lipped within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Grand Canary Isl. 
H. ATOMATA, Menke. PI. 4, figs. 50-52. 

Evidently a young shell, possibly of H. tumulorum, Webb and 
Berth. 

Hob. unknown. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. UMBICULA, Shuttl. Canary Is. 

H. Rosetti, and H. phalerata of Pfr. (not Webb and Berth.), are 
synonyms. 
H. WATSONIANA, Wollaston. Grand Canary, and Teneriffe Is. 

Subsection VII, XEROLEUCA, Kobelt. 1877. 
H. TUNETANA, Pfr. PL 4, figs. 53, 54. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, opaque, roughly granular, yellow- 
ish brown , whorls 4, plane above, exserted and compressly carinated, 
the last not descending, base somewhat convex, angulated round the 
umbilicus; peristome subsimple, the base thickened and reflected. 
Diam. 18 mill. 

Tunis. 

H. TETRAGONA, Morelet. PL 4, figs. 55-57. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, striated, greyish; whorls 4, 
flattened above, suture margined, periphery acutely carinated, base 



22 HELIX. 

compressly inflated, with a thread-like carina round the perspective 
umbilicus; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 15 mill. 

Algeria. 
H. TURCICA, Chemn. PL 4, figs. 58-60. 

Widely umbilicated, rugosely, vermicularly striated, crenulately 
carinated, greyish white; whorls 5J, rapidly increasing, with sub- 
crenulated suture, umbilicus perspective, bounded by a crenulated 
carina. Diam. 24 mill. 

Morocco. 

It is H. cratera, Schum. 

H. MOGADORENSIS, Bourg. PI. 4, figs. 61-63. 

Widely umbilicated, solid, cretaceous, opaque, yellowish white, 
vermicularly striate; whorls five, all slightly carinate, peripheral 
carina compressed, crenulated, last whorl a little descending in 
front, umbilicus bordered by a thread-like carina. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Mogador, Morocco. 

H. MOGRABINA, Morelet. PI. 4, fig. 64. 

Moderately umbilicated, vermicularly striate, cretaceous, solid, 
grayish white ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, crenulately carinated at 
the suture, peripheral carina compressed, tubercularly crenulated, 
base turgid, the umbilical region defined by an angle. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Morocco, Algeria. 

H. DEGENERANS, Mousson. PI. 4, figs. 65, 66. 

Widely umbilicated, cretaceous, vermicularly striated; whorls 
5i, slightly convex above, creuulately carinated, umbilicus with 
a thread-like carina; peristome acute. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Morocco. 

H. CONOPSIS, Morelet. PL 4, figs. 67, 68; PL 5, figs. 11-13. 

Moderately umbilicated, granularly rugose, particularly below, 
grayish white, cretaceous; whorls 6, scarcely convex, periphery 
with a thread-like carina, base convex, umbilical region angulated. 

Diam 12 mill. 

Morocco. 

Unfigured Species of Xeroleuca. 

H. DAROLI, Letourn. Algeria. 

H. DJARICA, Bourg. Algeria. 



HELIX. 23 

H. LIBYCA, Ponsonby. Libya, N. Africa. 

H. BERENICE, Kobelt. Libya, N. Africa. 

Subsection VIII, TURRICULA, Beck. 1837. 

H. DEROGATA, Rossm. PI. 4, v figs. 73-76. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, minutely striate, shining, 
whitish, with narrow chestnut bands above and below the periphery, 
and narrow ones on the base; whorls nearly 5, scarcely convex, 
the last depressed, rounded, not descending in front, base more 
convex ; peristome acute, white-lipped within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Murcia, Spain. 

H. subrogata, var. p. is a synonym. 

Var. ANGULATA, Rossm. Fig. 76. 

Usually maculosely variegated above, costulations stronger, periph- 
ery angulated. 

H. Murcica, Guirao is a synonym. 

H. HIPPONENSIS, Morelet. PI. 4, fig. 77. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, costulate-striate, whitish, with continu- 
ous or interrupted chestnut bands ; whorls 6, convex, the last an- 
gulated at the periphery, not descending in front ; peristome acute, 
slightly margined within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Algeria. 
H. WARNIERIANA, Bourg. PL 4, figs. 78-80. 

Perforate, moderately solid, chalky, somewhat pellucid, malleated 
by obscure stride, yellowish white, irregularly variegated with sub- 
translucid corneous maculations; whorls 62, scarcely convex, the 
last slightly descending in front, periphery obtusely angulated, angle 
evanescent towards the aperture ; peristome acute, remotely white- 
lipped within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Tunis. 

H. PYRAMIDATA, Drap. PL 5, fig. 83-86, 99, 100, 3; PL 4, figs. 81, 82. 
Narrowly umbilicated, striulate, white, unicolored or banded and 
variegated with chestnut, spire obtuse ; whorls 6, convex, the last 
not descending in front, a little flattened on the base; peristome 
acute, labiate within. Diam. 11 mill. 

Mediterranean Region. 

H. agnata, H. arenaria, H. littoralw, H. sabulosa, and H. specta- 
bilis, Zglr., are synonyms. 



24 HELIX. 

Var. NOVA, Paulucci. Figs. 86-88. 

Shell much more depressed, periphery sometimes obsoletely angu- 
lated, unicolored or variegated. 

Calabria. 
Var. GRATIOSA, Paulucci. Undescribed. 

Var. DEPRESSA, Bourg. Fig. 3. 

More depressed than the type, but not so flat as the Var. nova, 
scarcely obsoletely angulated, umbilicus somewhat larger. 

Calabria, Algiers. 
Var. NUMIDICA, Moquin-Tandon. PI. 4, figs. 81, 82. 

Depressed conical, last whorl with angulated periphery, convex 
on the base, umbilicus wider than the type. 

Algiers. 
Var. TARENTINA, Pfr. Figs. 99, 100. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, closely costulate, light brownish, 
sometimes variegated and subfasciate with whitish and brownish ; 
whorls 6, the last subangulated, not descending, base subplanate ; 
peristome remotely labiate. Diam. 10 mill. 

Naples. 
H. THIESSE^E, Mousson. PI. 5, figs. 89-92. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, striate, whitish, often vari- 
ously banded and maculated with chestnut; whorls 51, slightly 
convex, slowly increasing, with impressed suture, last whorl a little 
descending in front, the periphery subangulated ; peristome simple, 
scarcely expanded, strongly, remotely labiate within. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Eubcea, Greece. 
H. CHALCIDICA, Blanc. PI. 5, figs. 93-95. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striate, whitish, unicolored, or with a 
superior and a basal band of chestnut maculations ; whorls 5, 
moderately convex, with well impressed suture, last whorl descend- 
ing in front, base convex ; peristome acute, strongly labiate within. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Greece. 
H. DAVIDIANA, Bourg. PI. 5, figs. 4-6. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, chalky, not shining, whitish, sub- 
maculated above, subzoiiate below, strongly, irregularly costate; 
whorls 5|, convex, regularly increasing, subcarinated, the periphery 
obtusely angulated, the last whorl descending in front ; peristome 
simple, slightly thickened within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Jerusalem. 



HELIX. 25 

H. SERRULATA, Beck. PI. 5, figs. 1, 2. 

Very narrowly perforate, corrugately tuberculate-striate, whitish 
more or less banded with chestnut, especially on the base ; whorls 
6, slightly convex, subcarinate, the last with angulated, tuberculated 
peripheral angle ; peristome acute, internally labiate. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Egypt. 
H. crenulata, Olivier, is a synonym. 

H. PTYCHODIA, Bourg. PI. 5, figs. 7, 8. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, subtuberculate above and 
crispately ribbed, yellowish white; whorls 6, scarcely convex, 
slightly carinate at the suture, the last whorl with angulated peri- 
phery, the angle evanescent near the aperture, base convex, less 
strongly striate; peristome acute, slightly thickened within. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Egypt. 

Is possibly a synonym or a variety of the preceding species. 

H. PHILAMMIA, Boiirg. PI. 5, figs. 9, 10. 

Narrowly perforate, opaque, chalky, rugosely, subtubercularly 
costate above, less roughly so below, whitish, faintly banded on the 
base ; whorls 6?, tubercularly carinated at the suture and on the 
periphery, last whorl suddenly deflected in front, base convex; 
peristome acute, thickened within. Diam. 13 mill. 

Egypt, Syria. 

One of a series of species whose differences may be only varietal. 

H. TUBERCULOSA, Conrad. PI. 5, figs. 16, 17. 

Narrowly perforate, opaque, cretaceous, corrugately striated, and 
tubercularly bicarinated, irregularly rugose below, yellowish white; 
whorls 6, flattened, periphery strongly tubercularly carinated, base 
a little convex ; peristome acute, slightly labiate within. 

Diam. 12-13 mill. 

Palestine. 

H. Despreauxii, Bourg., is a synonym. 

H. DESPREAUXII, d'Orb. PI. 5, figs. 18, 19. 

Perforate, rugosely tuberculate, calcareous, whitish, carinate ; 
whorls 5, somewhat exserted, tubercularly bicarinated, the lower 
carina more prominent ; aperture brownish, peristome simple, acute, 
margins approaching, connected by a callus. Diam. 8 mill. 

Canary Is. 



26 HELIX. 

H. Preauxii, Hartm., is a synonym. 
Var. IMMODICA, Mousson. 

Thicker, more elevated, nodules less numerous but stronger ; 
peristome obtuse, thickened, continuous, subsolute. 

Grand Canary Isl. (subfossil). 

H. MODERATA, Mousson. PI. 5, figs. 20, 21. 

Minutely, varying to rather narrowly umbilicated, nodulously 
rugose and bicarinated, greyish white, suture serrately margined 
above; whorls 5, subexserted, the last strongly carinated on the 
periphery, descending at the aperture, base slightly convex, radi- 
ately nodulous; peristome acute, sublabiate, margins converging 
but not continuous. Diam. 10 mill. 

Is. Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, Canaries. 

Described as a variety of H. Despreauxii, which it very probably 
is, although both Pfeiffer and Wollaston consider it distinct. 

H. MIRANDA, Lowe. PL 5, figs. 22-25. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rugose, with distant oblique corrugated 
ribs, smoother on the base, more regularly plicate, whitish, Avith an 
interrupted basal chestnut band ; whorls 5, obsoletely bicarinated, 
periphery of last whorl crenulately carinated, the suture crenulated ; 
peristome simple, acute. Diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries. 

H. nodoso-striata, Mousson (figs. 24, 25), is apparently a not fully 
grown specimen of this species. 

H. HESPERIDUM, Morelet. PL 5, figs. 14, 15 ; PL 6, figs. 53, 54. 

Very narrowly perforate, slightly shining, greyish, the rugosities 
lighter colored, base unifasciate, obliquely rugose, somewhat tuber- 
culate; whorls 6, carinate, peripheral carina tuberculate; aperture 
brownish, peristome thin, simple. Diam. 8'5 mill. 

Near Mogador, Morocco. 
H. INOPS, Mousson, PL 5, figs. 26, 27. 

Minutely perforate, arcuately subcostulate-striate, slightly shin- 
ing, white, suture impressed, simple ; whorls 5 J, a little convex, the 
last not descending, periphery obtusely carinated ; peristome acute, 
margins not approaching. Diam. 8 mill. 

Grand Canarg Isl. 
H. CYCLODON, Webb and Berthelot. PL 6, figs. 34, 35. 

Scarcely perforate, rugosely striated, brownish white, suture den- 
tate ; whorls 7, flattened, dentately carinated, with a series of tu- 



HELIX. 27 

bercles above the peripheral carina, base slightly convex ; peristome 
simple, acute. Diam. 7*5 mill. 

Canary Is. 

Has been referred, as a synonym, to the next species, but its dif- 
ferential characters are obvious. 

H. PUMILIO, Chemn. PL 6, figs. 49, 50. 

Narrowly umbilicated, whitish, muricately rugose ; whorls 7, all 
acutely carinated, last whorl bicarinated, the peripheral carina ser- 
rated, base rugosely striate. Diam. 10 mill.. 

Near Mogador, Morocco. 

.H. TROCHOIDES, Poiret. PL 5, figs. 28-31 ; PL 6, figs. 36-39. 

Perforate, substriate, whitish, unicolored or chestnut banded ; 
whorls 5-6, slightly convex, with thread-like carina, base a little 
convex ; peristome acute, labiate within. Diam. 6'67 mill. 

Mediterranean Countries. 

It is H. conica, Drap., H. Algira, Chier., If. solarium, Risso. 

Var. SULCULATA, Jan. Figs. 30, 31. 

Carina obsolete, costulate-striate, usually maculated with chestnut, 
whorls scarcely convex. 

Sicily, Malta, Italy, etc. 

H. rugosiuscula, Mich., and H. rugosa, Arad., are synonyms. 

Var. PUMILIO, Pfr. 

Umbilicus wider, costulate-striate, carina crenulated. 
Var. PYRAMIDELLA, Jan. 

Trochiform, umbilicated, striate, obtusely carinated, white, with 
diaphanous corneous maculations. 

Northern Italy. 
Var. TURRITELLA, Parr. Figs. 36, 37. 

Perforate, striate, with a brown band above the carina and usually 
another on the base, suture distinctly thread-margined ; whorls 62, 
convex, the last with subacute thread-like carina. 

Dalmatia. 
Var. REMISSA, Parr. 

Shell smaller, whorls 6, with oblong maculations and brown strise 

above. Diam. 4 mill. 

Ins. Lesina. 
Var. VERTICILLATA, Parr. Figs. 38, 39. 

Perforate, conical, closely plicate, white, suture margined; whorls 
6, slightly convex, peripheral carina defined by a sulcus. 

Diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Rhodes; Italy. 



28 HELIX. 

Var. VIDUA, Westerl. 

Whorls 7, all rounded, without carina, suture very deep. 
Diam. 8 mill. 

Spezzia. 
A single specimen, perhaps a monstrosity. 

H. SYRENSIS, Pfr. PL 5, figs. 32, 33. 

Narrowly umbilicated, closely costulate, whitish marbled with 
brown ; whorls 5, exserted, carinated, flattened, base slightly convex; 
peristome acute, white-lipped within. Diam. 8 mill. 

Ins. Syra. 
H. SCHOMBBII, Scacchi. PL 6, figs. 40-42. 

Deeply umbilicated, obliquely costulate-striate, whitish, some- 
times chestnut banded ; whorls 6, slightly convex, with thread-like, 
crenulated carina, suture somewhat margined, base convex ; peris- 
tome acute, remotely labiate within. Diam. 8 mill. 

Malta. 

If. calcarata, Benoit, is a synonym. 

H. CUCULLUS, Mart. PL 6, figs. 43-45. 

Moderately umbilicated, plicately striate, greyish white, with sub- 
sutural maculations and obsoletely banded with chestnut, suture 
moderately impressed ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last rounded, 
scarcely descending in front, base flatly convex ; peristome acute, 
white-lipped within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Malta. 
H. IDALLE, Bourg. PL 6, figs. 46, 47. 

Narrowly perforate, somewhat solid, whitish or light greyish, ir- 
regularly serrulately costulate ; whorls 6, very convex, obsoletely 
subangulated, with deep suture, last whorl scarcely descending in 
front ; peristome simple, acute, labiate within at the base. 

Alt. 7, diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Cyprus. 

H. LIEBETBUTI, Albers. PL 6, fig. 48. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, subarcuately costate, opaque, creta- 
ceous, whitish, suture deep; whorls 51, very convex, scalariformly 
exserted, the last not descending, crenately carinated below the 
middle, with a slight sulcus above the carina, base flatly convex; 
peristome acute, brown-lipped within. Diam. 5'3 mill. ; alt. 6 mill. 

Ins. Cyprus. 



HELIX. 29 

H. NEWKA, Dohrn. PL 6, figs. 51, 52. 

Perforate, very closely costulate, yellowish grey, maculated and 
zoned with chestnut, suture distinct ; whorls 6-7, bicarinated, ca- 
rinse obtuse, divided by a sulcus, base convex ; peristome acute 
above, slightly reflected below. Alt. 11, diam. 9'5 mill. 

Balearic Is. 

H. APICULUS, Rossm. PI. 6, figs. 55, 56. 

Narrowly perforate, closely costulate-striate, white, marbled and 
flamed with brown ; whorls 6, carinated, flattened, earina minutely 
serrulate, base subplane, striate ; peristome acute, labiate within. 

Diain. 9 mill. 

Ins. Lampedusa, Calabria. 

H. Cumice, Calcara, is a synonym. 

j 

H. TERRESTRIS, Pennant. PI. 6, figs. 57-62. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, solid, opaque, white or corneous 
brown, sometimes unifasciate or maculated, strongly obliquely costu- 
late ; whorls 6-7, flattened, all crenulately carinated, base flatly 
convex; peristome acute, white-lipped within. Diam. 9-13 mill. 

Mediterranean Region. 

It is H. elegans, Gmel., H. crenulata, Mull ?, H. trochulus, Hartm. 

Var. SCITULA, Jan. Figs. 60-62. 

More depressed, greyish brown, without bands. 

H. trochilus, Poir., H. depressa, Beck, and var. perdepressa, West, 
are synonyms. * 

There are also varieties canaliculata, Rigacci, ferruginea, Rigacci, 
and cornea, Dupuy. 

H. ELATA, Faure-Biguet. PI. 6, figs. 63-66. 

Narrowly perforate, obliquely closely costulate, whitish ; whorls 
9, flattened, exserted, crenulately carinated, base flattened convex ; 
peristome acute, sublabiate within. Diam. 7, alt. 9 mill. 

Sicily, Capri. 

Var. DILATATA, Benoit. Figs. 65, 66. 

More depressed, concavely conical, base dilated. 
Diarn. 9-10'5 mill., alt. 7-9 mill. 

H. CARONI, Desh. PL 6, figs. 67, 68. 

Narrowly perforate, obliquely closely plicate, yellowish, macu- 
lated with chestnut; whorls 10-11, flat, exserted, serrately cari- 



30 HELIX. 

nated, the last not descending in front, base flattened ; peristome 
acute, remotely labiate within. Diam. 8, alt. 11 mill. 

Sicily. 

It is H. turrita, Rossm., H. pyramis, Phil., and H. elata, Can- 
traine. 

H. SEQUENTINA, Benoit. PI. 6, figs. 69, 70. 

Narrowly perforate, costulate, whitish ; whorls 9-10, carinated, 
not exserted, flat, the last not descending in front ; peristome acute, 
remotely labiate within, basal margin slightly reflected. 

Diam. 7, alt. 8*5 mill. 

Sicily. 

H. TROCHLEA, Pfr. PI. 6, figs. 71, 72. 

Perforate, obliquely costulate-striate, whitish, sometimes macu- 
lated with chestnut, or banded on the base; whorls 8, exserted, 
acutely crenulately carinated, flattened, base a little convex, more 
closely and finely striated ; peristome acute, slightly labiate within. 

Diam. 7'67, alt. 8 mill. 

Algeria. 



Unfigured Species of Turricula. 

H. EUGONIOSTOMA, H. CHTHAMALOLENA, H. SYROSINA, Bourg. 

Ins. Syra. 

IJ. SIMIARUM, Kobelt. Gibraltar. 

H. LICODIENSIS, Cafici. Sicily. 

H. SULLIOTTII, Pollonera. Piedmont. 

H. BERTINI, Bourg. France. 

H. ARCENTOPHILA, Mabille. France. 

H. MELOLONTHA, Shuttlew. Canary Is. 

H. KELIBIANA, H. NEWKOPSIS, H. EUPYRAMIS, H. ZITOUMICA, H. 

MADANA, H. GALACTINA, H. VENERIANA, H. SPAELLA, H. 

SPAELLINA, Letourn. and Bourg. Tunis. 

H. TISEMSINICA, H. OAPUANA, H. DYRRACHIENSIS, H. ANOMBRA, 

H. MACTANICA, Bourg. Tunis. 



The two following Chinese species appear to be at least equally 
related to Bulimus, as suggested by Ancey (Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. 113, 

1885). 



HELIX. 31 

H. BULIMINOIDES, Heude. Vol. Ill, PL 52, figs. 18, 19. 

Covered perforate, obsoletely striulate, shining, brownish white ; 
whorls 7-9, slightly convex, slowly and regularly enlarging, suture 
superficial, last whorl obtusely carinated, not descending in front, 
convex below ; peristome a little thickened and reflected. 

Length, 10-13 mill. 

Nanking, China. 

H. PSEUDOBULIMINUS, Heude. Vol. Ill, PI. 52, figs. 16, 17. 

Perforate, strongly spirally striate, greyish white, shining ; whorls 
9, convex, suture margined, last whorl angulated and channeled 
below the angle, base convex ; peristome acute, slightly expanded. 

Length, 12 mill. 

China. 

Subsection IX. COCHLICELLA, Risso. 1826. 

H. CONTERMINA, Shuttl. PI. 6, figs. 73, 74. 

Perforate, rather thin, closely costulate-striate, light grey, fasci- 
ate or punctate with chestnut ; whorls 7, slightly convex, the last 
rounded ; peristome acute, labiate within. 

Diam. 8, alt. 9 mill. 

Corsica. 

H. psammoica, Morelet, is a synonym. 

H. DITLICATA, Mousson. PI. 6, figs. 75, 76. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, calcareous, strongly obliquely striate, 
slightly shining, white ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last rounded, 
the base convex, with a central filiform spiral ridge, on the two sides 
of which the stria; are differently directed ; peristome acute, not 
labiate within, subincised below. Diam. 8*2 mill. 

Mogador, Morocco. 
H. VATONIAXA, Bourg. PL 6, figs. 81, 82. 

Narrowly perforate, rather thin, chalky, whitish, with subopaque, 
variously disposed flames, strongly, closely costulate-striate ; whorls 
5-1, convex, slowly increasing, scarcely descending in front; peris- 
tome acute, labiate within. Diam. 8 mill. 

Algeria. 
H. CONOIDEA, Drap. PL 6, figs. 77, 78. 

Perforate, striulate, a little shining, white, variously banded with 
chestnut ; whorls 6, somewhat convex, the upper ones carinated ; 
peristome acute, simple, margins converging. 

Diam. 6'5, alt. 9'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Region. 



32 HELIX. 

It is H. fibula, Wood, H. turbida, Kiister, and H. solitaria, Pfr., 
but not of Poiret the latter being a scalariform monstrosity of H. 
candidula, according to Moquin-Tandon. 

H. PRINGI, Pfr. PL 6, figs. 79, 80. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, irregularly striate and punctate, 
whitish, cretaceous, usually with a basal chestnut band, sometimes 
marbled with corneous ; whorls 7, somewhat convex, periphery ob- 
soletely angulated ; peristome simple, margins approaching. 

Alt. 8, diam. 5 mill. 

Portugal. 
H. VENTRICOSA, Drap. PL 6, figs. 83-85. 

Very narrowly perforate, plicately striate, variously strigate and 
banded with corneous or chestnut ; whorls 7, somewhat flattened ; 
peristome acute. Alt. 9, diam. 5'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Region, Canaries, Azores, Bermuda (introd.). 

It is H. ventrosa, Fer., H. acuta, Webb, H. bulimoides, Moquin- 
Tandon, H. carinula, Gmel ?, H. cretacea, Chemn., H. agnata, 
Ziegler, H. barbara, Linn., teste Bourg. 

H. ACUTA, Miiller. PL 6, figs. 86-88. 

Very minutely perforate, irregularly striate, whitish, variously 
banded and strigate with chestnut ; whorls 9-10, at first carinated, 
subsequent ones rounded ; peristome acute, simple. 

Alt. 15, diam. 5%5 mill. 

Mediterranean Region, Great Britain, etc. 

The synonyms are H. barbara, Linn., teste WesterL, H. fasciata, 
Pennant, H. bifasciata, Pultney, H. meridionalis, Risso, H. ventri- 
cosa, Turton, H. litoralis, Brum., H. articulata, Lam., H. acutula, 
ZiegL, var. maritima, Desm., H. turritella, Andrz., H. variabilis, 
Hartm., H. Maroccana, Beck. 



H. BELLUCCIANA, Bourg. Unfigured. Tunis. 



H. BULIMINUS, Heude. Vol. Ill, PL 52, fig. 20. 

Rimately perforate, irregularly striated, chestnut color ; whorls 8, 
slightly convex, with impressed suture, slowly increasing, the last 
rounded; peristome simple, callous within. Length, 16 mill. 

Setchouan, China. 

This and the following would be at least equally well placed in 
Bulimus. 



HELIX. 33 

H. TAIVANICA, Moll. Vol. Ill, PI. 52, fig. 21. 

Subperforate, thin, minutely, obliquely, rugulosely striate, a little 
shining, fulvous; whorls 10, slightly convex, the last rounded; 
peristonie simple. Length, 10 mill. 

China. 

BuL ineertus, Pfr., is a synonym. 

Section III. OCHTHEPHILA, Beck. 1837. 
Subsection I. OCHTHEPHILA (sensu stricto). 

H. ECHINULATA, Lowe. PL 7, fig. 89. 

Perforate, granular scaly, brownish, with two chestnut bands on 
the base ; Avhorls 6, flatly convex, the last acutely carinate, descend- 
ing in front, base somewhat flattened, concave next the carina; 
peristonie acute, continuous, slightly expanded. Diam. 5'6 mill. 

Porto Sancto, Madeira. 

It is H. bifiarinata, var. of Paiva. 

H. BICARINATA, Sowb. PL 7, fig. 90. 

Perforate, roughly granulated, brownish ; whorls 3, bicarinate, 
the last suddenly deflected in front, base scarcely convex ; peris- 
tome acute, slightly expanded, circular, continuous. 

Diam. 5'3 mill. 

Porto Sancto, Madeira. 

H. duplicata, Lowe, is a synonym. 

H. TURRICULA, Lowe. PL 7, fig. 91. 

Scarcely perforate, minutely, closely granulated, brownish, uni- 
colored or obsoletely banded below ; whorls 8-8 , bicarinate, the 
carinse subequal, divided by a sulcus, suture distinct, last whorl 
scarcely deflected in front, base a little convex ; peristonie continu- 
ous, scarcely solute, thin, acute, shortly reflected at the base. 

Alt. 9, diam. 7 mill. 

Ilheo de Cima, near Porto Sancto, Madeira. 

H. OXYTROPIS, Lowe. PL 7, fig. 92. 

Narrowly perforate, roughly granular, chestnut color, with yel- 
lowish base, suture linear ; whorls 6, flattened, the last acutely an- 
gulated, deflected in front, base scarcely convex, sulcate next the 
periphery ; peristome continuous, solute, simple, subexpanded. 
Diam. 9 mill. 

Porto Sancto, Madeira. 
3 



34 HELIX. 

H. ECHINODERMA and H. LEACOCKIANA, Wollaston. Unfigured. 

Pto. Sancto. 
H. ALBERTISII, Brazier. Unfigured. New Guinea. 

Subsection II. GEOMITRA, Swains. 1840. 

H. CORONATA, Desh. PI. 7, fig. 93. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, fulvous white, suture deep, mar- 
gined ; w T horls 5, angulated above, obliquely ribbed above, last 
whorl car mated, suddenly deflected and narrowed in front, base 
convex, undulately costulate ; aperture subhorizontal, nearly tri- 
angular, peristome solute, continuous, a little expanded, right mar- 
gin with an acute internal tooth. Diam. 6'5 mill. 

Ins. Madeira. 

H. juliformis, Lowe, is a synonym. 

H. DELPHINULOIDES, Lowe. PI. 7, figs. 94-96. 

Widely umbilicated, solid, minutely foveately rugose, opaque, 
greyish, suture deep, margined ; whorls 6, subangular, strongly 
plicately subclathrate towards the suture, with several distant "spiral 
lirse above, the last whorl deeply deflected in front, subsolute ; aper- 
ture nearly horizontal, rounded, with simple, expanded peristome. 

Diam. 17'5 mill. 

Madeira. 
H. CORONULA, Lowe. PI. 7, figs. 97-99. 

Moderately umbilicated, dirty white or brownish, spire coronate, 
suture impressed ; whorls 5 5i, carinate, radiately tuberculate and 
foveolate above, the last sub-bicarinate on the periphery, deflected 
in front, base regularly decussated ; aperture rounded, constricted, 
crenulated, peristome continuous, subsinuately expanded. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Deserta major, near Madeira. 

H. MONIZIANA, Paiva. PL 7, figs. 100-2. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, obsoletely radiately 
tuberculately plicate, greyish white, suture margined; whorls 5, 
scarcely angular, with two spiral threads, limiting the radiating 
plicse, periphery acutely carinated, last whorl shortly deflected, 
constricted and solute at the aperture, base granularly lirate ; aper- 
ture diagonal, scarcely crenulated within, peristome continuous, 
simple, scarcely expanded, white. Diam. 7 mill. 

Madeira. 

It is H. coronula y Lowe, in part (recent). 



HELIX. 35 

H. TIARELLA, Webb and Berthelot. PL 7, fig. 3. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, variegated with white and chestnut, 
bicarinate, tubercularly plicate at the suture, apex corneous; 
whorls 62, the last anteriorly deflected, base closely, concentrically 
granularly sulcate ; aperture subhorizontal, circular, peristorne ex- 
panded, continuous, solute. Diam. 7 mill. 

Madeira. 



H. GRABHAMI, Wollaston. Unfigured. Ins. Deserta Grande. 

Subsection III. HETEROSTOMA, Hartmann. 1844. 

H. LATENS, Lowe. PL 7, fig. 4. 

Narrowly umbilicated, very thin, rugulose and velvety, olivaceous 
corneous under a blackish integument, suture impressed ; whorls 3, 
flattened, rapidly increasing, the last not deflected in front, peri- 
phery ciliately carinated, base convex ; peristome simple, margins 
approximating. Diam. 7 mill. 

Madeira. 

Wollaston asserts that this species is never pilose ; yet Pfeiffer so 
describes it. 

H. OBTECTA, Lowe. PL 7, fig. 19. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, eroded scrobiculate, 
subgranular, dirty white ; whorls 5, convex, the first immersed, the 
others turgid, the last angulated above, deflected in front ; aperture 
subcircular, peristome continuous, scarcely expanded, subthickened 
within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Is. Porto Sancto, and Ilheo de Baxo, Madeira. 

H. PAUPERCULA, Lowe. PL 7, fig. 5. 

Widely umbilicated, very minutely granulated, greyish, with 
brown dots, flattened above, convex below ; whorls 3 2-4, the last 
angulated above, angularly constricted at the aperture ; peristome 
sub-duplicate, brownish, usually toothed within the right margin. 

Diam. 5 mill. 

Madeira, Porto Sancto. 

H. semiteda, Ilartm., and H. trachelodes, Menke, are synonyms. 

Subsection IV. IRUS, Lowe. 1854. 

H. SQUALIDA, Lowe. PL 7, fig. 10. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, rugulosely substriate, opaque, dirty 
white, suture moderate ; whorls 5, flatly convex, the last shortly 



36 HELIX. 

descending in front, base convex, periphery obtusely angular ; peris- 
tome a little expanded, subreflected at the base, thickened within, 
margins approaching. Diam. 7 mill. 

Madeira. 

H. DEPAUPERATA, LoWC. PI. 7, fig. 6. 

Narrowly urnbilicated, rather solid, rugose, very minutely granu- 
lar, yellowish white ; whorls 5, convex, the last rounded, deflected 
in front, turgid around the umbilicus ; peristome continuous, not 
solute, labiate within. Diam. 7*75-9*25 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 
H. LATINEA, Paiva. PI. 7, figs. 7-9. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat thick, dirty white, closely ru- 
gosely striate, obsoletely granular, suture impressed; whorls 5i, 
convex, the last rounded-inflated, deflected in front ; peristome con- 
tinuous, not solute, callous within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Porto Sancto (subfossil). 
H. LACINIOSA, Lowe. PI. 7, figs. 11-13. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rudely striated, membranously, triangu- 
larly scaly, chestnut color, variegated with whitish ; whorls 5, 
turgid, the last deflected in front, base somewhat convex, whitish, 
fasciated with chestnut; aperture diagonal, peristome subsimple, 
continuous, basal margin reflected. Diam. 10 mill. 

Is. Deserta Borealis, and Deserta Grande, Madeiran Archipelago. 

H. EUTROPIS, Shuttlew. PI. 7, figs. 16-18. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, solid, obliquely costulate, greyish 
green, suture crenulate, widely carinately margined; whorls 53, 
scarcely convex above, periphery with an acute thread-like carina, 
base inflated , peristome a little expanded, scarcely callous, margins 
approximating. Diam. 14 mill. 

Ins. Fuerteventura, Canaries. 

H. MULTIGRANOSA, Mousson. PI. 7, figs. 14, 15. 

Narrowly umbilicated, granularly striate, whitish corneous, uni- 
colored ; whorls 5, slightly convex, subcarinate, the last obtusely 
angulated, a little descending in front ; aperture white, .peristome 
somewhat obtuse, subexpanded, thin-lipped within, the extremities 
joined by a thick callus. Diam. 14 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries (subfossil?). 



H. IRUS, Lowe. (Unfigured). Mogador, Morocco. 



HELIX. 37 

Subsection V. PLACENTULA, Lqwe. 1854. 

H. COMPAR, Lowe. PL 7, fig. 20. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, solid, strongly, arcuately costate 
with white, with an obsolete band above, and a more distinct band 
on the base, suture deep; whorls 6-62, convexly flattened, the last 
deflected and shortly solute in front, periphery carinated, base more 
convex ; peristome white, continuous, a little expanded. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Madeira, and Deserta Australia. 

H. T^ENIATA, Webb and Berthelot. PL 7, figs. 21-23. 

Widely umbilicated, striate, ashy, with a superior chestnut band ; 
whorls 7, margined above the suture, periphery carinated ; peris- 
tome free, a little thickened. Diam. 8 mill. 

Madeira. 

Not Canarian, as given by Webb and Berthelot, PfeifFer, etc. 

H. MADERENSIS, Wood. PL 8, fig. 24. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, whitish corneous, base 
with a chestnut band, costulate-striate above, base striulate, smooth- 
ish ; whorls 6, somewhat convex, the periphery carinated, subgranu- 
lar and suddenly deflected in. front ; peristome simple, subcontinu- 
ous. Diam. 6 mill. 

Madeira. 

It is H. cyclostoma, Menke. 

H. LEPTOSTICTA, Lowe. PL 8, fig. 25. 

Rimately perforate, rather thin, rugulosely striate and slightly 
granular, diaphanous, corneous, obsoletely banded, suture im- 
pressed; whorls 5 2, slightly convex, the last obsoletely angulated, 
descending in front, base hardly more convex ; peristome simple, 
nearly continuous. Diam. 6'6 mill. 

Madeira. 

H. MICROMPHALA, Lowe. PL 8, fig. 26. 

Rimately sub perforate, somewhat solid, striulate and minutely 
granular, not shining, brownish, obsolecely darker banded ; whorls 
6, scarcely convex, the last dilated and shortly deflected in front, 
periphery subangulated, base more convex and smoother ; peristome 
simple, margins approximating. Diam. 8 mill. 

Deserta Islands, near Madeira. 



38 HELIX. 

H. DEALBATA, Lowe. PI. 8, fig. 27. 

Rimately perforate, solid, rugulosely striate and very minutely 
granular above, greyish white, apex corneous; whorls 5 -1-6 2, 
scarcely convex, the last more or less distinctly carinate, with a 
corneous line below it, deflected in front, base a little convex, shin- 
ing ; aperture fulvous blue, peristorne continuous, fulvous. 

Diam. 8-5-1O5 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 

Var. B. Shell smooth, shining. Ins. Ilheo de Baxo. 

H. FICTILIS, Lowe. PL 8, fig. 28. 

Arcuately rimate, subperforate, somewhat solid, obliquely striate 
above, cinnamon color, sometimes with a single chestnut band ; 
whorls 5, slightly convex, the last dilated and deflected in front, 
periphery obsoletely angulated, base more convex ; peristome simple, 
continuous, shortly adnate. Diam. 7 '5 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 

Section IV, ACTINELLA, Lowe. 1854. 
H. LENTIGINOSA, Lowe. PL 8, fig. 29. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, rugulosely striate, with 
very short scales or hairs, not shining, chestnut color, maculated 
with lighter shade, suture impressed ; whorls 4-4i , slightly convex, 
the last obtusely carinated, subdescending in front, base convex; 
peristome simple, margins approximating. Diam. 5'6 mill. 

Ins. Madeira. 
H. AECTA, Lowe. PL 8, fig. 30. 

Punctiformly perforate, closely, distinctly costulate, light corneous, 
marbled with white, maculated and obsoletely banded with chestnut; 
whorls 5J, rather flattened, periphery carinated, base more convex, 
suddenly, shortly deflected in front: aperture with a white entering 
tooth, peristome white, expanded, callous within, almost continuous. 

Diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Madeira. 
H. STELLARIS, Lowe. PL 8, fig. 31. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, striate, shortly scaly hirsute, 
corneous brown, suture impressed ; whorls 4, scarcely convex, the 
last shortly deflected in front, periphery carinated, base convex; 
peristome sublabiate within, margins approximating, slightly ex- 
panding. 

Diam. 4'5 mill. 

Ins. Madeira. 

Is H. lentiginosa, {3. of Albers. 



.HELIX. 39 

\_Caseolus, Lowe.] 

H. SPHJERULA, Lowe. PI. 8, fig. 32. 

Very minutely perforate or imperforate, rather solid, substriate, 
sparsely granulate, a little shining, smooth towards the apex, suture 
impressed; whorls 5-7, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last 
suddenly deflected in front and a little contracted, periphery obso- 
letely angulated, base flattened ; peristome subsimple, scarcely ex- 
panded, callous within at the base. Diam. 4*5-7 mill. 

Porto Saneto ; fossil in Madeira. 

H. subcallifera, Lowe is a synomym. 

H. CONSORS, Lowe. PI. 8, fig. 33. 

Subperforate, costulately granular above, smooth, striulate and 
shining below, variegated with white and chestnut, base paler; 
whorls 6, flatly convex, the last suddenly deflected in front, periph- 
ery obsoletely angulated; aperture white, peristome simple, with 
distant margins, Diam. 9 mill. 

Ins. Porto Saneto. 

H. CALCULUS, Lowe. PI. 8, fig. 34. 

Subperforate, solid, striulate, finely, closely granular throughout, 
yellowish ash color or chalky white, obsoletely double banded with 
chestnut, suture impressed ; whorls 52-6, somewhat convex, the last 
deflected in front, periphery bluntly angulated; peristome acute, 
subcontinuous, slightly expanded. Diam. 7-8 mill. 

Ins. Porto Saneto. 

It is H. compacta, ft, of Albers. 

H. COMPACTA, Lowe. PI. 8, fig. 35. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, costate-striate and granular above, 
striulate, smooth and shining below, variegated with white and 
corneous, with an obsolete brown band below; whorls 6, slightly 
convex, the last obsoletely angulated, scarcely descending in front; 
peristome simple, margins approximating. Diam. 6 mill. 

Ins. Porto Saneto. 

IL innominata, Gray is a synonym. 

H. ABJECTA, Lowe. PI. 8, fig. 36. 

Perforate, solid, minutely granular, rugosely striate above, grey- 
ish, below with an obsolete chestnut band, spire elate; whorls 6J-7, 
the last subcarinated, suddenly deflected, in front, base a little con- 



40 HELIX. 

vex ; aperture brownish, peristome simple, continuous, white, shortly 
expanded. Diam. 6'6 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 
H. candisata, Menke is a synonym. 

[Rimula, Lowe.] 

H. ARRIDENS, Lowe. PI. 8, fig. 46. 

Perforate, thin light corneous, rugosely striate, hispid; whorls 5, 
planulate, the last shortly deflected in front, periphery carinated, 
base convex ; peristome acute, margins distant. Diam. 6 mill. 

Madeira. 
H. FAUSTA, Lowe. PL 8, fig. 47. 

Covered perforate, thin, rugosely striate, very shortly pilose, 
chestnut color, marbled with yellow, suture impressed; whorls 5, 
scarcely convex, the last carinate, deflected in front, base tumid; 
aperture with a deep parietal dentiform callus, base tumid ; peristome 
acute, sinuously callous within the base. Diam. 6 mill. 

Madeira. 

Wollaston has indicated a var. /$, robusta. 

H. OBSERATA, Lowe. PL 8, figs. 37-39. 

Imperforate, rather thin, obliquely striulate, a little shining, 
sparsely hispid, brownish, variegated with lighter color, suture 
scarcely impressed; whorls 5, flattened, slowly increasing, the last 
acutely carinated, shortly descending and crispate in front, base 
convex, paler, with a brown band; lip simple, margins remote, 
thickened and subsinuate w r ithin at the base, dilated over the umbil- 
ical region. Diam. 7 mill. 

Madeira. 

Wollaston gives a var. BIPARTITA. 

H. ACTINOPHORA, Lowe. PI, 8, figs. 42, 43. 

Perforate, thin, rugosely striate, epidermis radiately laciniated, 
brownish ; whorls 5, flattened, the last carinated, shortly descending 
in front, base convex ; peristome simple, sublabiate within, margins 
remote. Diam. 9 mill. 

Madeira ; 3500 ft. alt. 

Wollaston has indicated a var. DESCENDENS. 
\_Lyrula, Wallaston.] 

H. USURP ANS, Furtado. PL 8, fig. 48. 

. Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, very closely, obliquely,, 
undulately striated, with rare spiral strue above, regularly decussated 



HELIX. 41 

below, not shining, maculated and tessellated with white and chest- 
nut, suture well impressed ; whorls 5, convex, regularly increasing, 
the last with carinated periphery, shortly deflected in front, base 
convex; peristome simple, acute, shortly reflected below, margins 
approaching. Diam. 53 6 J mill. 

Ins. Lanzarote. 

Described by Lowe as H. torrefacta, a name preoccupied by C. B. 
Adams ; therefore changed by Wollaston to H. Loweana, preoccu- 
pied by Ferussac ; finally by Furtado, as above. 

H. CALVA, Lowe. PI. 8, figs, 40, 41. 

Covered perforate, rather thin, diaphanous, costulate-striate above, 
smooth below, horny white, narrowly, obsoletely, doubly banded 
with chestnut ; whorls 7, slightly convex, the la&t scarcely descend- 
ing in front, periphery obsoletely angulated ; peristome thin, sub- 
expanded, white lipped within. Diam. 8*5 mill. 

Madeira. 
H. GALEATA, Paiva. PL 8, fig. 49. 

Covered perforate, somewhat solid, obliquely costulate-striate 
and brownish corneous above, corneous white, smooth and shining 
below, with two obsolete brown bands, suture impressed ; whorls 8, 
slightly convex, the last angulated, descending anteriorly, paler 
towards the aperture ; peristome simple, white-lipped within, basally 
somewhat reflected, margins remote. Diam. 9 mill. 

Madeira. 

It is H. calva, var. galeata, Lowe. 

H. VESPERTINA, Morelet. PL 9, figs. 65-67. 

Perforate, thin, smooth, brownish corneous, with an obscure light 
band below the carina, closely, lightly striate; whorls 5-5, moder- 
ately convex, slowly increasing, the last not deflected; peristome 
simple, margins remote, connected by a callus. Diam. 8 mill. 

Ins. Terceira, Azores. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. CAPSELLA, Lowe. Madeira. 

H. SPIRORBIS, Lowe. Madeira and Deserta Australia. 

H. COMMIXTA, Lowe. Porto Sancto. 

Section V. TECTULA, Lowe. 1854. 
H. LYELLIANA, Lowe. PL 9, fig. 83. 

Rimately perforate, solid, striulate, opaque, brownish above, mar- 
bled with white, with a narrow chestnut band, suture plane, 



42 HELIX. 

margined; whorls 8, flat, acutely carinated, the last subgibbous and 
shortly deflected in front, base convex, yellowish, with two (or rarely 
one) wide chestnut bands; peristome subsimple, thickened below. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Ins. Deserta Grande, near Madeira. 

It is If. Bulverii. var. /5, of Albers. 

H. ALBERSI, Lowe. PI. 9, figs. 84-86. 

Narrowly umbilicated, slightly granular, corneous, with chestnut 
bands, suture obsolete ; whorls 8, narrow, slowly increasing, the last 
a little descending in front, periphery acutely carinated, base convex. 

Diam. 14-16 mill. 

Porto Saneto. 

Smaller and paler colored than the next species, with less cylin- 
drical umbilicus and less prominent carina, spire more rectilinear. 

This is H. Bulverii, var. p, of Pfeiffer. 

H. BULVERII, Wood. PL 9, fig. 88. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, minutely striate, and very 
minutely granulated, fulvous, marbled and banded with chestnut, 
suture obsolete; whorls 8, flat, narrow, slowly increasing, the last 
acutely carinated, flatly convex below ; peristome simple, thickened 
on the base. Diam. 17 mill. 

Ins. Porto Saneto. 

H. rota, Pot. et Mich., H. Bulveriana, Lowe, and H. variegata, 
Menke are synonyms. 

H. TECTIFORMIS, Sowb. PI. 9, figs. 89, 90. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, calcareous, slightly striate 
above, closely granular beneath ; whorls 7, planate, slowly increasing, 
the last acutely carinated, carina wide, deflected downwards; aper- 
ture trapezoidal, peristome acute, simple above, deflected at base. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Ins. Baxo, near Porto Saneto, 
Var. LUDOVICI, Albers. Fig. 90. 

Somewhat larger, spire a little more dome-shaped, carina not so 
acute. 

Semifossil, (extinct?). 

H. ARGONAUTULA, Webb and Berthelot. PI. 9, figs. 91-93. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, closely costulate, ash colored 
with a single band above and another below, tessellated with white 



OF THE 



HELIX. 



IX 

UNIVERSITY JJ 



and chestnut at the suture and carina; whorls 4$, scalar, crenately 
carinated, base smoother and more convex; peristome acute. 

Diam. 8-9 mill. 

In*. Gran Canaria] Morocco. 

Mousson has described a Morocco representative as Var. typica 
and given the Canary shell the title Var. Canariensis\ whereas if 
there be any difference between |tam the Canary form as originally 
described should be regarded as typical. 

H. PULVERULENT A, Lowe. PI. 9, figs. 94-96. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, granularly striate, brown- 
ish ash color, with one or two tessellated, interrupted bands; whorls 
5, scalar, slightly convex, with simple sutilip, last whorl acutely, 
compivssly carinated ; peristome simple, margins subapproximating. 

Diam. 6-7'5 mill. 

///*. Gran Canaria. 

It is H. argonautula, in part, of Orb. 

H. GRANOSTRIATA, Mousson. PI. 9, figs. 97-99. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, thinly costulate-striate, 
spirally silicate, the reticulations forming elongated granules, greyish 
white, sometimes interruptedly bifasciate with chestnut, suture 
plane, subcarinate above; whorls 5, flat above, compressed carinate, 
carina minutely irregularly crenulated, last whorl scarcely descend- 
ing in front, a little more convex and granularly striate below, 
shortly impressed at the carina; aperture white, peristome a little 
expanded, widely labiate within, margins approaching. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Ins. Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. 

H. MULTIPUNCTATA, MoUSSOIl. PL 9, figS. 100, 1. 

Narrowly umbilicated, with engraved stria? and spiral lines, 
decussating into long, minute granules, maculated or marbled with 
whitish gray and white; whorls 4, somewhat convex, the last not 
descending, periphery angulated, base more convex; peristome 
simple, obtuse, a little expanded, margins joined by a slight callus. 

Diam. 4'2 mill. 

Ins. Fuerteventura, (subfossil). 

H. MORATA, Mousson. Unfigured. Ins. Fuerteventura (subfossil). 



44 HELIX. 

Section VI. CRASPEDARIA, Lowe. 1854. 

H. DELPHINULA, Lowe. PL 33, figs. 63, 64. 

Rather widely, crenately umbilicated, widely carinated, spirally 
costellate and decussately cancellate below, reticulated by oblique 
and spiral lines above; yellowish white, chalky, whorls 7-8, sub- 
planate, each fimbriately carinated; peristome angulated, a little 
expanded, subcontinuous. Diam*18-23 mill. 

Madeira, semifossil. 

Section VII. DISCULA, Lowe. 1854. 

H. TETRICA, Paiva. PL 8, figs. 51-53. 

Widely umbilicated, solid, roughly granular, whitish, broadly 
banded with, or totally dark chocolate color above; whorls 7, 
slightly convex, suture distinct, the last whorl carinated, a little 
depressed in front; peristome simple. Diam. 13-15 mill. 

Ins. Deserta Australia, near Madeira. 

H. POLYMORPHA, Lowe. PL 8, figs. 56-64, 50, 44, 45, 54, 55; PL 

9, figs. 68, 71-82, 89. 

Widely umbilicated, striate, more or less roughened by close 
granulations, marbled with brown and white above, dirty white 
below, with a brown band ; whorls 7-8, planulate, the last acutely 
carinated, subgibbous and suddenly deflected in front, base slightly 
convex, smoother; peristome simple, margins approximating, joined 
by a callus. Diam. 9-12 mill. 

Madeira, Porto Saneto. 

It is H. elegantula, Jan, H. saccharata, Lowe, H. tceniata, Reeve 

Var. SALEBROSA, Lowe. fig. 50. 

Spire a little elevated, scabrous, suture plane, base convex, umbil- 
icus rather small. 

Madeira, and Deserta Is. 

Var. POROMPHALA, Lowe. Fig. 62. 

Scabrous, whorls slightly convex, umbilicus punctiforin in the 
middle, becoming shortly rimate. 

Ins. Deserta Australis. 

Var PITT.E, Paiva. Figs. 60, 61. 

Perforate, subglobose, rugose, closely granular; whorls 6-i, the 
last obtusely angulated, base turgid; peristome thick, whitish, sub- 
reflected. Diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Deserta Australis. 



HELIX. 45 

Var. ALLENIANA, Paiva. Figs. 44, 45. 

Lenticular, with acute keel, white below with a narrow chestnut 
band around the umbilicus and a broader one (sometimes two) 
towards the keel, above mottled with white and chestnut. 

Madeira. 
Var. LINCTA, Lowe. Figs. 54, 55. 

Shortly pyramidal, granular above, smoothish below, umbilicus 
subpatulous, keel obtuse, colors as in preceding variety. 

Madeira. 
Var. ARENICOLA, Lowe. Figs. 63, 64. 

Much smaller, somewhat thinner, and paler in color than the 
preceding variety. 

Madeira. 
It is H. lincta, var. /?, cinerea, Lowe. 

Var. BARBOS.E, Paiva. Fig. 68. 

Conical, acutely keeled, striate above, granular all over, darkly 
clouded above with dark brown and chestnut, with a livid tinge, 
below with irregular brownish markings next the periphery, the 
middle pale. 

Porto Sancto. 
Var. PULVINATA, Lowe. Figs. 71, 72. 

Finely granular, whorls all a little exserted showing a sutural 
carina besides the peripheral one. 

Porto Sancto. 
Var. PAPILIO, Lowe. Figs. 73-76. 

Whitish, substrigated or tessellated with chestnut, granular, base 
smooth, umbilicus minute, margins of peristome scarcely approach- 
ing. 

Ilheo de Eaxo, near Porto Sancto. 

It is var calcigena, Lowe, and H. testudinalis, var. minor, Paiva. 

Var. DISCINA, Lowe. Figs. 77-79. 

Depressed, minutely reticulately granular, marbled with chestnut 
above, banded below ; whorls subplanate, umbilicus large, spiral. 

Porto Suncto. 

Var. GOMESIANA, Paiva. Fig. 87. 

Smaller than the preceding variety, more thickly granulated, 
keel not quite so sharp, more convex, darker above and less varie- 
gated, base more opaque, sides of umbilicus more abrupt. 

Porto Sancto. 



46 HELIX. 

Var. ATTRITA, Lowe. Figs. 80-82. 

Abruptly umbilicated, distinctly striated and minutely granulated, 
light corneous, densely marbled with chestnut above, base bifasciate; 
whorls 7, flattened, the last deflected in front, periphery obtusely 
angular, base much inflated round the umbilicus. Diam. 10 mill. 

Porto Sancto. 

H. TABELLATA, Lowe. PL 9, fig. 69. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, minutely rugose and granulated 
above, marbled with chestnut and white, spire subplane, suture 
impressed; whorls 5. flattened, slowly increasing, the last acutely 
carinated above, scarcely descending in front, base convex, smooth- 
ish, lighter color with a chestnut band ; peristome simple, margins 
approaching. Diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Madeira. 

H., TESTUDINALIS, LoWC. PI. 9, fig. 70. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, striulate and slightly 
granular, diaphanous, corneous with opaque white strigations and 
two chestnut bands; w r horls 7, scarcely convex, the last carinated, 
tumid and deflected in front, base convex ; peristome simple, margins 
approaching and joined by a callus. Diam. 19 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 
It is H. Bulveriana, var. of Reeve. 

[Turritella, Woll.] 

H. CHE1RANTHICOLA, Lowe. PL 9, figS. 2, 3. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, rugosely striate and scaly 
granose, whitish, with a wide chestnut band at the suture, and a less 
distinct one on the base, suture impressed ; whorls 8, convex, tumid, 
with angulated periphery, the last deflected in front; peristome 
acute, simple, margins approaching, joined by a callus. 

Diam. 9'5 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto, and Baxo. 
Var. MUSTELINA, Lowe. Fig. 3. 

Smaller, more uniformly and roughly granulated, whorls flatter, 
without keel, only obsoletely banded. 

Connected with the type by intermediate forms according to 
Wollaston. 

Section VIII, CALLINA, Lowe. 1854. 
H. ROTULA, Lowe. PL 9, fig. 4. 

Covered perforate, striate and granulate, granules oblong, a little 
shining, fulvous, marbled with yellow, with narrow chestnut bands, 



HELIX. 47 

suture linear; whorls 8, flattened, the last acutely angulated, base 
scarcely more convex, rounded in front, subgibbous, ochre color, 
suddenly deflected; peristome white, with an interior callus, basally 
subreflected, margins joined by a parietal callus. 
Diam. 12 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 

Section IX. ACUSTA, Albers. 1860. 

H. SELSKII, Gerstfeldt. PL 10, figs. 5-7. 

Very narrowly perforate, almost covered, thin, transparent, 
closely striate, a little shining, yellowish, three-banded with chest- 
nut; whorls 5, rapidly increasing, the last ventricose, scarcely 
deflected in front ; peristome acute. Diam. 20 mill. 

Amur River, E. Siberia. 

H. CINCTO-INFLATA, Mousson. PL 10, fig. 8. 

Perforate, thin, pellucid, not shining, irregularly striate, decuss- 
ated by minute lines, light brownish, with a dorsal narrow chestnut 
band, suture scarcely impressed; whorls 5s, rapidly increasing, 
somewhat convex, the last inflated, and subgranular on the base ; 
peristome acute, thin. Diam. 32 mill. 

Amur River, E. Siberia. 

H. LAETA, Gould. PL 10, figs. 13, 14. 

Thin, shining, striate, with very thin spiral lines, greenish cor- 
neous, with a brown band on the periphery and another near the 
suture; whorls 5, ventricose; peristome acute, a little expanded, 
reflected at the umbilicus. Diam. 31 mill. 

Hakodadi, Japan. 

II. SlEBOLDTIANA, Pfr. PL 10, fig. 9. 

Scarcely perforate, thin, pellucid, striulate and very obsoletely 
subdecussated, corneous ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last ventri- 
cose; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 18 mill. 

Japan, Formosa. 

Is possibly a variety of H. ravida, Bens. 

H. OSCITANS, Martens. PL 10, figs. 10-12. 

Rimately perforate, slightly striulate, granular hairy, yellowish 
brown, suture impressed; whorls 4?, convex, the last a little des- 
cending, rounded ; peristome simple,- acute. Diam. 18 mill. 

Japan. 



48 HELIX. 

H. RAVEDA, Benson. PL 10, fig. 15. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, slightly rugosely plicate, with obsolete 
spiral lines, light olivaceous brown or yellowish brown ; whorls 6, 
convex, the last inflated, slightly descending in front; peristome 
simple, acute, columellar margin dilated and reflected. 

Diam. 33 mill. 

Middle and Northern China. 

H. helvacea, Phil, is a synonym. 

Var. LINEOLATA, Mollendorff. 

More conical, decussated, corneous yellow, aperture yellowish 
roseate. Diam. 23 mill., Alt. 26 mill. 

Near Pekin and Kalgan, China. 

Mr. E. A. Smith, in a paper on Loo Choo Shells (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
317, 1887) remarks: H. despeeta, Gray, (Manual, iii, 211), H. ravida, 
Benson, H. Redfieldi, H. Sieboldtiana, Pfr. and H. assimilis, A. Ad., 
are all very much alike and might well be considered varieties of 
one and the same species. In the series of eighteen specimens from 
Loo Choo I find considerable differences in form, some being much 
higher and more globose than others. One example is of a peculiar 
purplish brown color, and another is remarkable in having a thick- 
ening or limbus within the lip. 

H. BURTINII, Desh. Fig. 16. 

Smaller than H. ravida, with imperforate axis, columella thin, 
cylindrical, not dilated at the base. Diam. 23 mill. 

China. 

This may be only a phase of H. ravida, as suspected by some 
conchologists, but I think its distinctive characters sufficient. 

H. PHRAGMITIUM, Heude. PL 10, fig. 20. 

Perforation covered or nearly covered, shell thin, fragile, pellucid, 
lightly cancellated, greenish or brownish; whorls 6, convex, the 
last rapidly increasing; peristome simple, acute, thin, columellar 
margin dilated, reflected. Diam. 23 mill. 

Blue River, China. 

This form has been referred to H. Burtinii Desh., but is more 
depressed and differs in the umbilicus. 

H. ASSIMILIS, H. Adams. PL 10, fig. 22. 

Openly umbilicated, thin, irregularly striated and very closely, 
slightly decussated, subpellucid, shining, light fulvous; whorls 5?, 



HELIX. 49 

the last ventricose; peristome simple, acute, columellar margin 
arcuate, dilated, a little reflected. Diam. 22 mill. 

TaJcow, Formosa. 
H. RAVIDULA, Heude. PI. 10, fig. 17. 

Umbilicus nearly covered, shell thin, fragile, obsoletely striate- 
cancellate, amber colored, suture impressed; whorls 53, convex, the 
last inflated, slightly descending; peristome simple, acute, columellar 
margin dilated and reflected over the umbilicus. Diam. 19 mill. 

Tatsien, China, near the frontier of Thibet. 

The shell differs but little from H. ravida, but the animal, 
according to Heude is entirely different, bluish with a white stripe 
on the middle of the neck. 

H. KEDFIELDI, Pfr. PI. 10, figs. 18, 19, 21. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, irregularly, flexuously striate, and 
very obsoletely decussated, diaphanous, shining, fulvous corneous; 
whorls 5-}, convex, the last inflated, not descending in front; peris- 
tome simple, acute, margins remote, columella dilated halt-covering 
the umbilicus. Diam. 17 mill. 

Shanghai, China. 

H. Frilleyi, Crosse and Debeaux (fig, 21), and H. Huberiana, 
Heude (fig. 19) are synonyms. H. Burtinii, Desh. is also possibly 
identical; although I have treated it as distinct. 

H. MILIACEA, Martens PL 10, figs. 23, 24. 

Subcovered perforate, very slightly striulate, a little shining, 
whitish ?, suture well impressed ; whorls 6, the last inflated, not 
descending in front; peristome simple, acute, columellar margin 
slightly thickened and reflected. Diam. 6 mill. 

Ins. Amboina. 

It is H. m ilium, Martens, preoccupied by Morse. 

H. SARELII, Martens. PL 10, figs. 25-27. 

With nearly covered umbilicus, striulate, corneous; whorls scarcely 
4, rapidly enlarging, the last nearly equally convex above and 
below, deflected in front ; peristome acute, a little thickened within, 
columellar margin rather widely deflected. Diam. 11*5 mill. 

Prov. Szetsehuen, China. 

H. Nora, H. Adams, is a synonym. 



50 HELIX. 

fc # 
H. KBAUSSI, Pfr. PL 10, fig. 30. 

Moderately umbilicated, closely striate, brownish corneous, suture 
well impressed; whorls 4s; rapidly increasing, the last wide, sub- 
depressed, deflected in front; peristome simple, acute, columellar 
margin dilated, reflected. Diam. 29 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Var. /?. Smaller, thin. Diam. 21 mill. 

H. MARCESCENS, Cox. PI. 10, figs. 28, 29. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, translucent, a little shining, slightly 
rugosely striate, and faintly granular, yellowish corneous, with a 
narrow chestnut sutural band; -whorls 5, slowly increasing, the" last 
wide; peristome acute, the columellar margin dilated and strongly 
reflected above. Diam. 16 mill. 

Clarence River, N. S. Wales, Australia. 



H. PHYSETA, Ancey. Unfigured. Thibet. 



Group VIII, PLECTOTROPIS. 

Shell flattened, rather thin, sculpture usually rough, riblike or 
granular, sometimes with shaggy epidermis, peristome simple, or a 
little expanded, thickened within, umbilicus wide. 

A group composed of somewhat incongruous elements, charac- 
teristic mainly of the Chinese and Japanese provinces. The 
connection with Camsena or Hadra is so close, through some of the 
species that the separation is rather arbitrary than natural. 

Section I. PLECTOTROPIS, Albers. 1860. 

Shell flat, somewhat lenticular, thin, widely umbilicated, periphery 
carinate, and shaggy, peristome simple, a little thickened within. 
Eastern Asiatic. H. MACKENSII, Ads. and Reeve. 

Thea, Albers, is a synonym. 

Subsection PSEUDIBERUS, Ancey. 1887. 

More coarsely sculptured, peristome thicker and whitish. 
H. PLECTOTROP.IS, Mart. China, Turkestan. 



HELIX. 51 

Section II. AEGISTA, Albers. 1850. 

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated, thin, uniform corneous, 
roughly sculptured, periphery rounded, or obtusely angulated, 
peristome slightly expanded, a little thickened within. 
Eastern Asiatic. H. OCULUS, Pfr. 

Section III, TRACHIA, Albers. 1860. 

Shell small, depressed, moderately or rather widely umbilicated, 
thin with granular sculpture, last whorl deflected and constricted 
in front, periphery rounded, peristome a little expanded, thickened 
within, its margins approaching and connected by a thin parietal 
callus. Lido-Pacific. H. ASPERELLA, Pfr. 

Subsection ANGASELLA, Adams. 1863. 

Shell small, depressed, widely umbilicated, with strong, rib-like 
sculpture, periphery rounded, margins of peristome approaching. 
H. CYRTOPLEURA, Pfr. Australian. 

Ancey has changed the name to Pleuroxia, on the ground that 
Angasella is preoccupied in marine shells, but Crosse's Angasiella 
in Nudibranchiata bears date 1864. 



Section I. PLECTOTROPIS, Albers. 1860. 

H. HORIOMI'IIALA, Pfr. PL 11, figs. 31-33. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, slightly but closely decussated by 
oblique strhe and concentric lines, suture linear; light corneous, 
diaphanous, scarcely shining; whorls 6-}, the last not descending in 
front, acutely carinated, base more convex, the umbilicus bounded 
by an angle; peristome simple, acute. Diana. 25 mill. 

Japan. 

H. CATHCARTyE, ReCVC. PL 11, fig. 44. 

Widely, excavately umbilicated, arcuately rugosely striated, 
i-' (Idish corneous; whorls 6, flattened above, thinly margined at the 
suture, periphery compressly carinated, convex below; periphery 
acute. Diam. 27 mill. 

Typinsan Isl. China Sea. 



52 HELIX. 

H. ELEGANTISSIMA, Pfr. PL 11, fig. 45. 

AVidely umbilicated, thin, distantly subplicate above, diaphanous, 
scarcely shining, yellowish, suture denticulately margined, scarcely 
impressed ; whorls 6i, the last not descending in front, with a ciliate, 
denticulate, acute carina; peristome white, simple, a little expanded, 
columella short, subvertical. Diam. 24 mill. 

Loo Choo and Typinsan Is. 

Closely related to, perhaps a mere variety of the preceding species. 
It is H. pretiosa, Albers. 

H. HOWARDI, Angas. PI. 12, figs. 96-98. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather solid, obliquely irregularly striate, 
and slightly, very minutely granular, yellowish corneous, with two- 
indistinct chestnut bands; whorls 4], slightly convex, the last a 
little descending in front, base more convex, without bands, periph- 
ery acutely carinated ; peristome white, chestnut color at the junction 
with the body, slightly expanded. Diam. 22 mill. 

450 miles N. of Adelaide, Australia. 

H. MACKENSII, Adams and Reeve. PL 11, fig. 34. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, closely arcuately striate above, epider- 
mis hairy on the peripheral carina, brownish corneous; whorls (>L, 
scarcely convex above, slowly increasing, the last shortly deflected 
in front, periphery acutely carinated, base slightly striate, turgid 
around the umbilicus; peristome thin, somewhat expanded above, 
shortly reflected below. Diam. 30 mill. 

Ins. Typinsan, China Sea. 

H. GERLACHI, Mollendorff. PL 11, figs. 35-37. 

Widely umbilicated, subobliquely interruptedly striulate, very 
slightly spirally lineolate, brownish, suture superficial; whorls 6, 
flattened, the last with hairy carina, slightly descending in front, 
convex below and angular round the umbilicus; peristome simple, 
a little reflected below. Diam. 19-21 mill. 

Canton, China. 

Var. GRANULOSO-STRIATA, Mart. 
Pale. Diam. 21 mill. 

Var. ABRUPTA, Mart. 

Smaller, striae interrupted, brownish. Diam. 19 mill. 

Var. HUNANCOLA, Gredler. Undescribed. 



HELIX. 53 

H. LACINIOSULA, Heude. PI. 11, figs. 38-40. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, fulvous corneous, plicately, 
laciniately striate, hairy, especially at the suture and carina; whorls 
6, slowly increasing, periphery acutely cariuate; peristome white, 
slightly expanded. Diam. 30 mill. 

Ouyuan and Tonglieou, China. 

Described a? H. laciniosa, preoccupied by Lowe. 

H. TRICHOTROPIS, Pfr. PI. 11, figs. 41-43, 46-48. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, striulate, very minutely, slightly 
decussated by impressed spiral lines, diaphanous, light corneous or 
brownish; whorls 62, flattened, the last with acute, ciliated periph- 
ery, base more convex; peristome simple, a little expanded above, 
reflected below. Diam. 17 mill. 

Shanghai, China- 
Var. LACINIATA, Heude. Figs. 46-48. 

Shell more depressed above, the carina more obtuse, umbilicus 
rather wider. 

II. MKLLEA, Pfr.' PI. 11, fig. 58. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, slightly, very minutely 
granular, somewhat shining, light fulvous; whorls 5, somewhat 
flattened above, the last scarcely descending in front, periphery 
cariiKited, base somewhat turgid; peristome white, narrowly expan- 
ded above, subreflected and internally thickened at the base. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

Ins. Formosa. 

H. EMMA, Pfr. PL 11, figs. 59-61. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, closely, irregularly, rugosely 
striate, obsoletely spirally lirate above, not shining, variegated with 
flesh-color and white, suture linear; whorls 4, rather flattened above, 
the last acutely carinated, scarcely descending, base convex ; peris- 
tome thin, expanded above, reflected below. Diam. 18 mill. 

Lao Mts., Cambodia. 

H. TAPEINA, Benson. PL 12, figs. 71, 72, 77. 

Widely umbilicated, slightly granularly striate, not shining, light 
brownish, suture thread-like; whorls 6, somewhat flattened, slowly 
enlarging, the last descending in front, base convex, angulate around 
the umbilicus ; peristome simple, white, dextrally a little expanded. 

Diam. 15*5 mill. 

Bengal, Java, China. 



54 HELIX. 

Var. ROTATORIA, Busch. Fig. 77. 

Suture less distinct, periphery acutely keeled; peristome a little 
thickened, less rounded, white. 

Var. BHAMOENSIS, Nevill. 

. Last whorl slightly angular, not distinctly keeled, aperture 
smaller, less produced, columellar margin slightly oblique, angular 
at base, shell smoother. 

Nevill remarks that this variety connects H. tapeina almost 
insensibly with H. eatostoma, Blf. and its varieties. 

H. HUPENSIS, Gredler. PI. 13, fig. 48. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, obliquely striate, carinate, suture mar- 
gined; whorls 62, flattened, brownish above, whtish-rayed below, 
last whorl not descending in front, base convex, subangulated 
around the umbilicus: peristome white, shortly reflected. 

Diam. 20 mill. 

Patong, Ost-Hupe Mts., China. 

H. HUTTONI, Pfr. PL 11, figs. 56, 53-55. 

Rather widely umbilicated, subdiaphanou.s, with scabrous epider- 
mis, light corneous; whorls 6-j, slightly convex, the last very slightly 
descending in front, periphery angulated; peristome simple, acute. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Himalaya Mts., India; Java, etc. 

H. orbicula, Hutton (not Orb.) is a synonym. 

Var. SAVADIENSIS, Nevill. 

Spire more elevated, shell thicker, umbilicus narrower. 
Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Var. WINTERIANA, Pfr. Figs. 53-55. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, light corneous, somewhat shining, 
periphery obsoletely or distinctly angulated; whorls 5 2, the last 
slightly descending in front. Diam. 12 mill. 

Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Timor, Siam. 

H. INTUMESCENS, Mart. PL 11, figs. 64-66. 

Moderately umbilicated, striated, a little shining, light brownish, 
peripheral carina whitish; whorls 5-6, slightly convex, the last 
somewhat deflected in front, carinated, the carina evanescent towards 
the aperture, base obtusely angulated around the umbilicus; peris- 
tome shortly expanded, white, columellar margin subvertical. 

Diam. 8-14 mill. 

Java* 



HELIX. 55 

H. SHANGHAIENSIS, Pfr. PI. 11, fig. 57. 

Moderately umbi Heated, thick, obliquely submembranously striate, 
somewhat shining, brownish corneous; whorls 7, slightly convex, 
slowly enlarging, the last not descending, periphery carinated, base 
convex, granular and subhispid; peristome simple, subreflected at 
the base. Diam. 13 mill. 

Shanghai, China. 
H. CILIOSA, Pfr. PI. 12, fig. 82. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, striulate and very shortly hairy, 
diaphanous, brownish ; whorls nearly 6, slightly convex, slowly 
increasing, the last with a ciliated carina ; base somewhat inflated, 
convex ; peristome simple, shortly expanded. Diam. 10 mill. 

China, Japan. 
H. BARBOSELLA, Heude. PI. 12, figs. 9-12. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, brownish, with shaggy epidermis, 
suture superficial ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, last whorl with an- 
gulated periphery, scarcely deflected at the aperture; peristome 
thin, a little expanded. Diam. 11 mill. 

Shanghai and Great Lake, China. 

H. LEPIDOSTOLA, Heude. PI. 12, figs. 89-91. 

Rather widely umbilicated, brownish, obliquely lamellarly pli- 
cate ; whorls 6-6-1, slowly increasing, the last scarcely descending 
in front, obsoletely angulated and fasciate on the periphery, base 
convex; peristome a little thickened, expanded. Diam. 15 mill. 

Prov. Houpc. China. 
Van TROCHOSPIRA, Moll. 

Smaller, spire more elevated, whorls 7, periphery distinctly an- 
gulated. Diam. 11 '5 mill. 

Prov. Hubei, China. 
H. PHAYRKI, Theob. PL 12, fig. 78. 

Widely umbilicated, obliquely costulate-striate above, stria? finer 
below, suture impressed ; whorls 5, rather convex, the last a little 
descending in front, periphery obtusely angulated, base convex ; 
peristome simple, slightly expanded, margins approximating. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Ava. 
H. ANCYLOCHILA, Crosse. PL 12, fig. 67. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat thin, subdiaphanous, irregu- 
larly obliquely striate, light yellowish olivaceous, suture impressed ; 
whorls 4i, flattened above, the last descending in front, subacutely 



56 HELIX. 

carinated, inflated and scarcely striate below ; peristome simple, ex- 
panded, white, margins distant. Diam. 16'5 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
H. CONELLA, A. Ad. PL 12, figs. 79-81. 

Moderately umbilicated, yellowish corneous, thin, obliquely costu- 
late, epidermis in oblique interrupted lines ; whorls 6, flattened, the 
last with acutely carinated periphery, base convex ; peristome acute, 
expanded. Diam. 10 mill. 

Tabu-Sima, Japan. 

H. SUMATRANA, Martens. PI. 12, figs 68-70. 

Widely umbilicated, striulate, somewhat shining, greyish brown ; 
whorls 5, scarcely convex, periphery carinated, base convex ; obso- 
letely angulate round the umbilicus ; peristome simple, white, ex- 
panded below. Diam. 13 mill. 

Sumatra. 
Var. MOUSSONIANA, Mart. 

Very widely umbilicated, closely arcuately striate, shining, light 
brownish, peripheral carina distinct; peristome white, shortly ex- 
panded. Diam. 12 mill. 

Eastern Java. 
H. SQUAMULOSA, Mousson. PL 12, figs. 74-76. 

Widely umbilicated, closely arcuately striated, epidermis brown- 
ish, scaly, laciniated, in lines parallel with the striae ; whorls 6, sub- 
plane, deflected in front, periphery carinated, base slightly convex, 
with distinct umbilical angle ; peristome white, shortly expanded. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Ins.. Madura, near Java. 
H. PUBEROSULA, Heude. PL 12, figs. 86-88. 

Widely umbilicated, fragile, epidermis reddish brown, with mi- 
nute granose scales, suture subimpressed ; whorls 8, narrow, slowly 
increasing, periphery obtusely angulated ; peristome thin, a little 
reflected. Diam. 10 mill. 

Distr. Tali/oil, China. 

Described by Heude as H. pulverulenta, preoccupied by Lowe. 

H. ATKINSONI, Theobald. PL 12, figs. 83-85. 

Widely umbilicated, rugosely striate, lightly decussated by ob- 
scure spiral lines, dirty white (perhaps corneous in fresh specimens), 
semitranslucent, suture impressed; whorls 5, slightly convex, the 
last sinuately depressed above at the aperture ; peristome slightly 
thickened, simple, callously thickened on the base. Diam. 13 mill. 

Moulmem. 



HELIX. 57 

H. PERPLANATA, Nevill. PI. 13, figs. 49-51. 

Shell widely umbi Heated, flattened on the top, convex below, 
periphery distinctly carinated ; whorls 7, slowly increasing, striate 
above, smooth below. Diara. 16 mill. 

Upper Burmah. 

No diagnosis has been published ; the above particulars are 
gleaned from some remarks upon the species published by its author. 

H. AKOWTONGENSIS, Theobald. PL 12, fig. 73. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, light corneous, densely granular, 
with a thin sub-bristly epidermis ; whorls 5, flattened, the last 
shortly deflected in front, acutely carinated, base tumid around the 
umbilicus; peristome thin, margins approaching, a little expanded 
above, reflected at the base. Diani. 15 mill. 

Akowtong, Province of Pegu. 

My figure (from Conch. Indica), which corresponds with the 
description, and considerably resembles the preceding species, is 
said, nevertheless, not to represent it. No other figure has been 
published. 

H. GABATA, Gould. PL 14, figs. 82, 83. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, slightly striate, some- 
what shining, whitish corneous, carina chestnut banded ; whorls 4i 
somewhat flattened above, the last shortly descending in front, peri- 
phery carinated, base tumid around the umbilicus ; peristome white, 

expanded and a little reflected. Diam. 23 mill. 

Tavoy, Burmah. 
H. Merguiensis, Phil. (fig. 83), is a synonym. 

H. SMITHII, Bock. PL 11, figs. 62, 63. 

Moderately umbilicated, semitransparent, striated by fine growth 
lines, greyish white under a light horn-colored epidermis ; whorls 4, 
flattened, the last slightly descending at the mouth, with a strongly 
marked obtuse keel, defined by a groove above, convex below, ob- 
tusely angular around the umbilicus ; peristome thin, expanded. 

Diam. 21 mill. 

Paio, Sumatra. 
H. RADULELLA, Heude. PL 12, figs. 92-95. 

Widely umbilicated, epidermis reddish brown, covered by wart- 
like scales, with a light peripheral zone, suture impressed ; whorls 
6, the periphery obtusely angulated; peristome acute, scarcely re- 
flected. Diam. 13 mill. 

Talifou, China. 



58 HKLIX. 

With columellar plication. 

H. GONIOCHILA, Pfr. PL 11, figs. 51, 52. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, lightly striulate and 
granular, subdiaphanous, pale corneous; whorls 6 , narrow, slightly 
convex, the last not descending, acutely carinated, base more con- 
vex ; peristome sublabiate, sulcate exteriorly, columella transversely 
uni plicate. Diam. 13 mill. 

Siam. 
H. PTYCHOSTYLA, Mart. PL 33, figs. 65-67. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, striate, brownish ; whorls 
(>!, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last obtusely carinated, 
base convex ; peristome white, expanded, columellar margin al- 
most perpendicular, transversely uniplicate. Diam. 14 mill. 

Siam. 
H. STYLOPTYCTA, Pfr. PL 11, figs. 49, 50. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, closely striulate, diaphanous, 
greyish corneous ; whorls 6, moderately convex, the last obsoletely 
angulated, not descending in front ; peristome white-lipped, margins 
approaching, joined by a callus, expanded above and below, colum- 
ella transversely plicate. Diam. 9 mill. 

Siam. 

A var. DEPRESSIOR has been indicated. This species is the If. 
ptychostyla of Pfr., not Martens; but is perhaps only a variety of 
Martens' species. 

Subsection PSEUDIBERUS, Ancey. 1887. 

H. PLECTOTROPIS, Martens. PL 12, figs. 3-5. 

Moderately umbilicated, strongly, distantly, obliquely ribbed, 
whitish; whorls 5|, flattened above, carinate, carina crenulated, 
angulating the last whorl, slightly descending at the aperture, base 
a little convex ; peristome expanded, margins approaching, con- 
nected by a thin callus. Diam. 19 mill. 

Mts. Thianschan, Central Asia. 
H. SCEPASMA, Pfr. PL 13, fig. 33. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, opaque, white, rugulosely striate, 
suture subimpressed ; whorls 7, scarcely convex, slowly increasing, 
the last a little descending in front, periphery acutely carinated? 
base turgid around the umbilicus; perisiome subthickened, angu- 
larly reflected. Diam. 20 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 



HELIX. 59 

H. ARANEJETELA, Heude. PI. 12, figs. 99-1. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, yellowish brown, strongly cos- 
tate, sparsely scaly, suture impressed ; whorls 5, slowly increasing ; 
peristome acute, scarcely expanded. Diam. 9 mill. 

Tchenkeou, C/t i/ui. 

H. MATAIENSIS, Nevill. PI. 12, figs. 6-8. 

Moderately umbilicated, costulate above, less strongly below, 
white, irregularly mottled with pale corneous, suture well impressed ; 
whorls 5-1, the last only carinated ; peristome simple, expanded. 

Diam. 13'5 mill. 

Mataian, E. Turkestan. 

H. TECTUM-SiNENSE, Mart. PL 12, fig. 2. 

Perforate, with strong, curved, somewhat distant ribs above, 
sometimes branching, below the ribs are closer, anastomosing; 
whorls 5-], undulately carinated, last whorl a little descending in 
front; peristome thickened, expanded! Diam. 16*5-21 mill. 

Prov. Shantung, China. 



H. ZENONIS, Gredler. (Unfigured.) Tsinanfu, China. 

Unfigured Species of Plectotropis. 

H. TROCHULA, H. SCABRICULA, H. SETOCiNCTA, A. Adams. Japan. 
H. MICROTROCHUS, H. APPLANATA, Moll. China. 

H. SQUAMULIFKRA, Moll. In*. Bongao, near Borneo. 

H. OSBECKII, Phil. Loo Choo Is. 

H. REPAXDA, Pfr. Cambodia. 

11. CASEUS, Pfr. Siam. 

H. PIIJSPARSA, Martens. Celebes. 

Section II. AEOISTA, Albers. 1850. 

H. OCULUS, Pfr. PL 13, fig. 13. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, closely rugosely plicate above, 
brownish, suture impressed ; whorls 8, somewhat convex, the last 
shortly descending in front, periphery subangular, white banded, 
base convex, striate ; lip thin, subangulately reflected. 

Diam. 25 mill. 

Ins. Typinsan and Meikoshima, China Sea. 

H. Typinsana, Ads. and Reeve, is a synonym. 



60 HELIX. 

H. CHINENSIS, Phil. PI. 13, fig. 14. 

Widely umbilicated, shining, subpellucid, striated, light fulvous 
above, whitish beneath, epidermis thin, very fugacious ; whorls 8, 
convex, slowly increasing ; peristome white, sublabiate, shortly re- 
flected. Diam. 25 mill. 

Near Nankin, China. 
H. VERMES, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 15. 

Very widely umbilicated, solid, closely rugosely striate, shining 
fulvous horny, with a white peripheral line, whorls 8, slowly in- 
creasing, flattened, the last scarcely deflected in front, periphery 
subangulated ; peristome thin, whitish, reflected. Diam. 32 mill. 

China. 

Has been considered a variety of H. Chinensis, but differs con- 
siderably from that species, in its more depressed form, wider um- 
bilicus, etc. 

H. PSEUDO-CHINENSIS, Mollendorlf. PL 13, figs. 16-18. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, closely obliquely striate, subpellucid, 
somewhat shining, rosy horn color ; whorls 8, slowly increasing, 
slightly convex, suture impressed, last whorl a little deflected in 
front ; peristome reddish, widely reflected. Diam. 27 mill. 

Dlst. Hochan, China. 

This is H. Chinensis, Heude, not Phil. 

H. HERPESTES, Heude. PL 13, figs. 22-24. 

Widely umbilicated, brownish corneous, with an obscure whitish 
corneous band, epidermis brownish or whitish, closely obliquely 
striate ; whorls 7, slowly increasing, the last obsoletely angulated J 
peristome white, narrowly reflected. Diam. 22 mill. 

Ttihenkeou, China. 
H. FURTIVA, Heude. PL 13, figs. 19-21. 

Moderately umbilicated, corneous, striate, suture slightly im- 
pressed ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last narrow, with obsoletely 
angulated periphery ; peristome white, expanded. Diam. 19 mill. 

Prov. Kouetcheou, China. 

H. AUBRYANA, Heude. PL 13, figs. 45-47. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, obliquely striate, brownish white, 
suture impressed ; whorls 7, slightly convex above, periphery ob- 
tusely angulated, deflected in front, more convex on the base ; peris- 
tome thin, white, reflected. Diam. 21 mill. 

Prov. Kouetcheou, China. 



HELIX. 61 

H. ACCRESCENS, Heude. PL 13, figs. 26-28. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, pellucid corneous, with a whitish peri- 
pheral band ; whorls 7, narrow, slightly convex, slowly increasing, 
the last obtusely angulated, peristome white, narrowly reflected. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Outchang, China. 

Heude thinks this may prove a minor variety of H. vermes. 

H. OLDHAMI, Benson. PI. 13, fig. 25. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, irregularly obliquely flexuously striate, 
corneous (?), suture impressed; whorls 6-1, slowly increasing, sub- 
planulate, the last whorl shortly and rapidly descending in front, 
obtusely angulated above, base convex, angular around the umbili- 
cus ; peristome a little expanded, margins approaching. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Burmah. 
H. FRIEDELIANA* Martens. PI. 13, figs. 29-31. 

Widely umbilicated, slightly obliquely striate, olivaceous brown ; 
whorls 5], scarcely convex, the last subangulated, deflected in front, 
base convexly flattened ; peristome white, slightly thickened, ex- 
panded, margins approaching. Diam. 18 mill. 

Nagasaki, Japan. 
H. CIRCULUS, Pfr. PI. 13, fig. 32. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, rugulosely striate, somewhat shin- 
ing, white; whorls 5 a, convex, the last obsoletely angulated, not 
descending; peristome thickened within, shortly expanded, margins 
approaching. Diam. 19 mill. 

Loo Choo Is. 
H. ALPIIOXSI, Desh. PL 13, figs. 34, 35. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, fragile, corneous, brownish, yellowish- 
white, obliquely lineated and irregularly punctate, subplicate and 
spirally substriate above, smooth below ; whorls 7, narrow, the last 
a little deflected in front, obtusely angulated above; peristome 
sinuous, reflected, columellar lip wide, with tooth-like thickening. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Prov. Moupin, Eastern Thibet. 

H. PLATYOMPHALA, MollendorfF. PL 13, fig. 44. 

Very widely umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, corneous, closely ob- 
liquely striated, suture well impressed; whorls 7, subconvex, the 
last obsoletely angulated above, with a whitish zone, and very 



62 HELIX. 

shortly deflected in front, umbilicus bounded by a distinct angle ; 
peristome thickened, white, reflected. Diana. 17'5 mill. 

Prov. Guangdung, China. 

H. SUBCHINENSIS, Nevill. PL 33, figs. 68, 69. 

Widely umbilicated, subpellucid, obliquely striulate, shining, 
chestnut color, with a narrow white band ; whorls 7, slightly con- 
vex, the last scarcely descending in front, subangulate on the peri- 
phery ; peristome thickened, whitish, narrowly reflected. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Formosa. 
H. GOTTSCHEI, Mollendorff. PI. 13, figs. 38-40. 

Widely umbilicated, lightly obliquely striate and membranously 
costulate, microscopically spirally lineate, brownish corneous ; whorls 
63-7, slightly convex, the last obtusely angulated, and very shortly 
deflected in front ; peristome thin, shortly expanded, subreflected. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Soul, Corea. 
H. INITIALIS, Heude. PL 13, figs. 41-43. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, corneous or brownish, very mi- 
nutely obliquely striate ; whorls about 6, narrow, slightly convex, 
the last with obtuse, white-banded peripheral angle, scarcely de- 
flected at the aperture, convex below ; peristome white, sinuous, 
somewhat thickened, reflected. Diam. 12 mill. 

Prov. Nganhoue, China. 
H. CATOSTOMA, Blanf. PL 13, figs. 36, 37. 

, Widely umbilicated, thin, 'striate, corneous ; whorls 7, convex, 
slowly increasing, the last rounded, abruptly descending in front, 
subconstricted behind the aperture, subcompressed around the um- 
bilicus ; peristome sinuous, reflected, with a superior internal pro- 
jection, and basal, subdentiform thickenings. Diam. 16 mill. 

Ponsee, Yunnan, Naga Hills, India. 

Differs from the other species in its indistinctly trilobed aperture- 



Unfigured Species. 
H. HUPEANA and H. KUANTUNGENSIS, Gredler. China. 

Section III. TRACHIA, Albers. 1860. 

H. ASPERELLA, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 58. 

Moderately umbilicated, roughened by minute granules, dirty 
white, variously banded with chestnut ; whorls 4, the last with 



HELIX. 63 

rounded periphery, a little descending in front, base convex ; peris- 
tome expanded, margins approximating. Diam. 14 mill. 

Var. minor. Diam. 7 mill. 

Eastern India. 

It is H. granifera, Benson, Ms. 

H. PROXIMA, Fer. PL 14, fig. 72. 

Moderately umbilicated, lightly striate, shining, white, base 
brownish, lineated with brown ; whorls 5, the last rounded, de- 
flected in front ; aperture brownish, peristome expanded, reflected 
below, margins joined by a callus. Diam. 24 mill. 

Eastern India. 

H. PENANGKNSIS, Stoliczka, PI. 14, figs. 52-54. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, corneous, epidermis yellowish 
brown, closely, shortly pilose, suture deep, subchanneled ; whorls 
4v-, convex, the last a little descending at the aperture, base ob- 
tusely angulated round the umbilicus ; peristome light violaceous, 
expanded, narrowly reflected. Diam. 16 mill. 

Penang. 
H. PROPINQUA, Pfr. PL 14, figs. 55-57. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, thin, striulate, whitish or light 
brownish, with a superior narrow chestnut band ; whorls 4-5, the 
last rounded, anteriorly deflected ; peristome white, sublabiate, ex- 
panded. Diam. 16-19 mill. 

Near Bombay, India. 
H. HELFERI, Benson. PL 14, figs. 59, 60. 

Narrowly, perspectively umbilicated, fpveolate and obliquely 
striulate, epidermis sparsely hispid, brownish, with a narrow su- 
perior chestnut band, suture impressed, submargined; whorls 4i, 
slightly convex, the last descending in front, obsoletely angulated 
above the periphery, a little compressed around the suddenly ex- 
cavated umbilicus; peristome expanded, margins approximating, 

joined by a thin callus. Diam. 12 mill. 

Andaman Is. 

H. RUGINOSA, Fe*r. PL 14, figs. 65-67. 

Moderately umbilicated, whitish, obliquely plicate; whorls 4, 
flattened above, the last shortly deflected in front, periphery sub- 
angulated, base inflated ; peristome thin, white, shortly expanded, 
reflected below. Diam. 13 mill. 

Bengal. 



64 HELIX. 

Var. CRASSICOSTATA, Benson. Fig. 67. 

Spire subplane, plications stronger, periphery crenulately cari- 
nated. 

H. FOOTEI, Stoliczka. PI. 14, fig. 84. 

Moderately umbilicated, granose, plicate ; whorls 4-4-}, whitish, 
graclately increasing, the last carinated on the periphery, base con- 
vex, subangulated around the umbilicus ; aperture almost hori- 
zontally deflected, the margin reflected, almost free. 

Diam. 13'3 mill. 

Belgawn, Western India. 

Allied to the var. erassieostata of H. ruginosa, but is more orbicu- 
lar, with smoother and thinner, but well-marked keel, and has an 
angle defining the umbilicus. 

H. DELIBRATA, Benson. PL 14, figs. 75-77. 

Moderately umbilicated, striate, epidermis corneous, deciduous, 
whorls 4, convex, the last deflected in front ; peristome nearly con- 
tinuous, white, thickened, reflected. Diam. 22 mill. 

Bengal ; Tavoy, Burmah. 

H. procumbens, Gould, is a synonym. 

Var. FASCIATA, Godwin Austen. Fig. 76. 

Somewhat smaller, with deeper suture, variously narrowly chest- 
nut banded. 

Var. KHASIENSIS, Nevill. Fig. 77. 

Spire more elevated, umbilicus narrower, aperture more con- 
tracted, usually unicolored, sometimes with a single chestnut band. 

H. TANQUEREYI, Crosse and Fischer. PI. 14, figs. 73, 74. 

Rather widely umbilicated, obsoletely striate, thin, pellucid, light 
corneous ; whorls 4J, slightly convex, the last descending in front, 
carinated above the middle, convex below and angulated around 
the umbilicus ; peristome expanded, reflected, margins closely ap- 
proaching. Diam. 12-14*5 mill. 

Fuyen-Motli, Cochin China. 

H. FALLACIOSA, Fer. PI. 14, figs. 68, 69. 

Rather widely umbilicated, striate, whitish, unicolored or vari- 
ously chestnut banded, suture deep ; whorls 4i, the last suddenly 
descending in front ; aperture subhorizontal, peristome expanded 
above, reflected below. Diarn 11-18 mill. 

Eastern India, Ceylon. 



^ 

HELIX. 65 

H. NILAGHERICA, Pfr. PL 14, figs. 70, 71. 

Very widely umbilicated, striate, corneous white, with a superior 
chestnut band; whorls 5 J, slowly increasing, the last abruptly de- 
flected in front, aperture small, subhorizontal, peristome nearly 
continuous, white, sublabiate, reflected. Diam. 14'5 mill. 

Xilgheri Mts., Eastern India. 

H. CYCLOSTOMATA, Guillou. PI. 14, figs. 63, 64. 

Widely umbilicated, pellucid, linearly papillary, light olivaceous, 
with chestnut lines ; whorls 4, convex, with deep suture, peristome 
nearly continuous, externally constricted, thin, reflected. 

Diam. 7-8 mill. 

Warrior Isl. Torres Strait, N. Australia. 

Is possibly a synonym of H. Tuckeri, below. 

H, CONTRACTA, Hutton. PL 14, figs. 61, 62. 

Widely umbilicated, obliquely striulate, smooth, a little shining, 
whitish, with a superior chestnut band, suture impressed; whorls 4, 
the last subangulated above, descending in front, convex below ; 
peristome expanded above, reflected below, margins approaching. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Malva, India. 
H. TUCKERI, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 79. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, pellucid, obliquely striate, shortly, 
sparsely hairy, brownish corneous, obsoletely narrowly brown ban- 
ded ; peristome whitish, shortly reflected, externally constricted. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Charles Hardy's Isl. Pacific Ocean. 

H. strangulata, Hombr. and Jacq. is a synonym, and H. cyclos- 
omata, above described, is possibly another. 



H. ALBICOSTIS, Pfr. Unfigured. Ahmednuggur, India. 

H. SORDID A, Pfr. Unfigured. Near Pondicherry, E. India. 

Subsection ANGASELLA, Adams, 1863. 

H. CYRTOPLEURA, Pfr. PL 14, figs. 85, 86. 

.Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, with thread-like cur- 
ve I riblets, whitish; whorls 4-4 , scarcely convex above, slightly 
descending in front, base more convex ; aperture shining ; peristome 
thickened, white, shortly expanded, margins converging. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

5 So. Australia. 



66 HELIX. 

H. PHILLIPSIANA, Angas. PI. 14, figs. 87-89. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, obliquely plicate-striate, and 
lightly granular, brownish white ; whorls 4, convex, the last round- 
ed, descending in front, subconstricted behind the aperture ; peris- 
tome almost continuous, expanded and slightly reflected, margins 
joined by a thick callus. Diam. 13 mill. 

Arrowie, So. Australia. 

H. EYREI, Ad. and Angas. PI. 14, figs. 90, 91. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, obliquely striate, very minutely 
granular, light brown, paler below; whorls 5, a little convex, the 
last rounded and somewhat descending in front; peristome flesh 
colored, thickened, slightly expanded, margins approaching. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Shores of Lake Eyre, Central Australia. 

H. DELESSERTIANA, Guillou. PI. 14, figs. 92, 93, 78. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, obliquely costulate-striate, hyaline 
brownish white, suture subchanneled ; whorls 5, convex; peristome 
reflected above. Diam. 16'5 mill. 

Warrior Is I. Torres Straits, Australia ; New Zealand. 

H. Taranaki, Gray (fig. 78) and H. Torresiana, Hombr. et Jacq. 
are synonyms. 

H. SUBSECTA, Tate. PL 14, figs. 80, 81. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, somewhat rugosely plicate, and 
closely longitudinally striate, greyish white, epidermis ? ; whorls 5, 
the last rounded at the periphery, much depressed in front; peristome 
thin, acute, reflected, nearly continuous. Diam. 15 mill. 

Port Wakefield, So. Australia. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. ENDEAVORENSIS, Brazier. Endeavor River, N. Australia. 

H. DRYANDERENSIS, Cox. Port Denison, Queensland, Australia. 



HELIX. 67 

Group IX, ARIONTA, Leach, 1820. 

Shell of moderate size, globosely turbinate or depressed, usually 
with one or three (rarely with two) bands, last whorl declining in 
front, peristome reflected, thickened, margins approaching. 

Section I, LYSINOE. Adams, 1855. 

Moderately or narrowly umbilicated, smoothish, epidermis some- 
times shortly hairy, globosely turbinate, periphery sometimes sub- 
angulate, last whorl descending in front, peristome reflected, margins 
approaching, impinging on the umbilicus below. West Coast of 
North America. H. FIDELIS, Gray. 

Aglaja, Albers, 1860, is a synonym. 

Subsection I, HELMINTHOGLYPTA, Ancey, 1887. 

Surface vermiculately rugose, H. ARROSA, Gould. 
Subsection II, ODONTURA, Crosse and Fischer, 1872. 

Subglobose, with narrow umbilicus, granular epidermis in fresh 
individuals shortly hairy. Southern Mexico, Guatemala. H. GHIES- 
BREGHTII, Nyst. 

Subsection III, LEPTARIONTA, Crosse and Fischer, 1872. 

Smoothish, small, thin, whorls about 4*, last whorl descending in 
front, with a single brown band, periphery rounded, peristome 
shortly reflected, umbilicus narrow. Mexico. H. FLAVESCENS, 
Wiegm. 

Subsection IV, PRATICOLA, Strebel, 1880. 

Orbicular, small, last whorl constricted behind the aperture, peris- 
tome shortly reflected, lipped within. Texas, Eastern Mexico. H. 
BERLANDIERIANA, Mor. 

This group is Hygromia (Risso) in part, of American authors. 

Subsection V, MICRARIONTA, Ancey. 

Shell thick, small, depressed, peristome shortly reflected, thickened 
within. Islands of So. California. H. FACTA, Newc. 

More depressed, and geographically separated from Praticola, 
but very close to it. 

Subsection VI, PCECILOSTOLA, Ancey, 1887. 

Imperforate, rather thin, globosely depressed, whorls few, the last 
large, peristome thickened, white, thinly reflected. Andes Regions 
of So. America. H. FARRISI, Pfr. 



68 HELIX. 

Subsection VII, EPIPHRAGMOPHORA, Doring, 1875. 

Depressed, smooth, moderately umbilicated, peristome scarcely 
expanded, strongly labiate within, extremities approaching. Aper- 
ture closed in winter by a chalky epiphragm. So. America. H. 
HIERONYMI, Doring. 

Subsection VIII, EURYCAMPTA, Albers, 1860. 

Moderately large, narrowly umbilicated, roughly ribbed, usually 
brownish, with a single band, turbinate, whorls slopingly flattened 
above, more convex below, peristome reflected, extremities approach- 
ing, without callus connection. West Indian (mostly Cuban). 
H. BONPLANDII, Lam. 

Section II, CAMPYLJEA, Beck, 1837. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, orbicularly depressed, planospiral, 
more or less solid, glabrous or hirsute ; whorls 426, the last deflected 
near the aperture ; aperture oval or sub-circular, peristome expanded 
reflected, more or less thickened, its extremities approaching and 
joined by a parietal callus, columellar lip dilated, reflected, very 
rarely touching the umbilicus. 

European ; mostly Mediterranean countries. 

Subsection I. XEROCAMPYL^EA, Kobelt, 1871. 

Depressed, very narrowly umbilicated ; peristome acute, very 
thinly labiate within, margins approaching. 

This group connects with Xerophila, and is therefore not typical 
although Pfeiffer gives it first place under Campyl&a. 

H. CARASCALENSIS, Fe"r. 

Subsection II. FRUTICOCAMPYL^A, Kobelt. 1871. 

Small, flat or flatly bullet shaped species, inhabiting Circassia and 
Armenia. 

H. KAVERGIENSIS, Fer. Caucasus. 
Subsection III. EUCAMPYL^A, Pfr. 1881. 

Typical group of Campylsea. Southern Europe. 

H. CINGULATA, Studer. 

Cingulifera, Held., 1837, Corneola, Held. 1837 and Chilostoma, 
Moquin-Tandon, 1855, are synonyms. 

Subsection IV. TACHEOCAMPYL^A, Pfeiffer. 1877. 
A Corsican group including large, banded species. 

H. EASPAILII, Payr. Corsica. 



HELIX. 69 

Subsection V. PSEUDOCAMPYL^A, Hesse. 1884. 

A Grecian group, including species with sub-continuous peristome. 

H. PELLTTA, Fer. Grecian Archipelago. 
Subsection VI. ELONA, H. and A. Adams, 1855. 

Shell planorboid, spire involute, apex immersed, H. QUIMPERIANA, 
Fer. Sterna, Albers. 1850 (non Linn.), is a synonym. 

Subsection VII. CHILOTREMA, Leach. 1820. 

Lenticular, strongly carinated, aperture basal, sub-horizontal, 
transversely oval, the reflected lip continuous, angular. 

H. LAPICIDA, Linn. 

Helicogona, Risso. 1826, Latomus, Fitz. 1833, Lenticula, Held. 
1837, and Vortex, Moquin-Tandon. 1855, are synonyms. 
Section III. ARIONTA, Leach, 1820. 

Shell perforate, rather thin, turbinately globose ; whorls 6, convex, 
peristome lipped, columellar lip dilated near the umbilicus. 

H. ARBUSTORUM, Linn. 

Europe, California. Different as are these habitats the mollusks 
and shells appear to be intimately related : they are geographically 
isolated, the whole of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains 
possessing no representative of the group. 

Section IV. EURYSTOMA, Albers, 1850. 

Narrowly umbilicated, globosely depressed, calcareous ; whorls 5, 
the last deflected near the aperture, convex below ; peristome widely 
lipped, its extremities approximating, joined by a callus. H. VIT- 
TATA, Mull. Ceylon. 

Eyrystoma, Morch. 1852, is a synonym. 

Group IX, ARIONTA, Leach, 1820. 

Section I. LYSINOE, Adams, 1855. 
H. FIDELIS, Gray. PI. 15, figs. 94-96. 

Moderately umbilicated, rugosely striated with impressed spiral 
lines, light yellowish or brownish above, lower surface dark chestnut, 
sometimes uniformly black, with a peripheral chestnut band ; whorls 
7, rounded ; periphery thickened, simple above, reflected below. 
Diam. 34 mill. 

Northern California, Oregon, Washington Terr. 
H. Nuttalliana, Lea is a synonym. 



70 HELIX. 

H. INFUMATA, Gould. PI. 15, fig. 97. 

Moderately umbilicated, with minute rasp-like elevations, running 
obliquely to the growth-striae and in the fresh state bearing very 
short soft hairs, smoky brown above, blackish, shining and minutely 
granulated on the base ; whorls 6, flatly convex, the periphery 
acutely angulated ; peristome somewhat reddish, simple above, re- 
flected at the base. Diam. 37 mill. 

Northern California, near the coast. 

Young specimens are sometimes banded. The animal is black, 
with bright red tubercles. 

H. HILLEBRANDI, Newcomb. PI. 15, fig. 98. 

Moderately umbilicated, finely striated, granular, and hirsute in 
fresh specimens, yellowish horn color with a chestnut band bordered 
with white on either margin ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last with 
carinated periphery, slightly descending in front ; peristome white, 
subreflected, extremities approaching. Diam. 1 in. 

Sierra Nevada region, California. 

H. AYRESIANA, Newcomb. PI. 15, fig. 99. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, with rough oblique^ incremental 
striae, deeply cut by impressed revolving lines, yellowish white, with 
a narrow superior chestnut band ; whorls 7, convex, the last de- 
scending m front, subglobose ; peristome simple. Diam. 22 mill. 

Sta. Cruz, S. Miguel and Sta. Rosa Islands of California. 

Erroneously described as from Northern Oregon. 

H. MORMONUM, Pfr. PL 15, fig. 1. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, with curved incremental 
striae, light chestnut color, with a chestnut band edged with white on 
either side ; whorls 6, convex, slowly enlarging ; aperture very ob- 
lique, peristome thickened, white, a little expanded, extremities 
slightly converging. Diam. 29 mill. 

Between Sierra Nevada and Coast Range, California, 

Not a coast or Oregonian species, as at first supposed. 

H. CIRCUMCARINATA, Stearns. PI. 15, figs. 2-4. 

Rather w r idely umbilicated, finely granulated, with irregular ribs 
intermingled with the growth striae, yellowish white, sometimes with 
a superior double band, the upper striae being whitish, the lower 
chestnut color ; whorls 6-6 , the last with a compressed, fimbriated 




HELIX. \^C 71 

keel, which also forms a sutural margin above ; peristome moderately 
thickened, subreflected, the extremities connected by a thin parietal 
callus. Diam. 22-25 mill. 

Columbia, Toulumne Co., California. 

Described as a variety of H. Mormonum, Pfr. I regard it as dis- 
tinct. 

H. TRASKII, Newcomb. PI. 15, fig. 5. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, translucent, dark horn colored, 
with a superior narrow chestnut band, edged on both sides with 
white, delicately obliquely striate, with microscopic crowded spiral 
lines ; whorls 6, slightly convex, gradually increasing, the last some- 
what plane above ; peristome thickened, white. Diam. 21 mill. 

Coast region of Southern California. 

H. CARPENTERI, Newcomb. PI. 15, figs. 6-8. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, striate, crossed by microscopic 
spiral lines, whitish, with a narrow, superior chestnut band ; whorls 
5, convex, the last descending in front ; peristome a little expanded, 
the extremities approaching. Diam. 23 mill. 

Cinaloa, Mexico, Lower California, Southern California. 

H. Remondi, Tryon is a synonym. The species is closely allied 
to, perhaps a synonym of H. Traskii, Newcomb. 

H. DUPETITHOUARSI, Deshayes. PI. 15, fig. 9. 

Moderately umbilicated, polished, smooth, subpitted or substriate, 
dark chestnut below, lighter above, with a chestnut, white bordered 
band, or sometimes two; whorls 7-8, convex, the last inflated; ap- 
erture white and banded within, peristome simple, reflected below. 

Diam. 30 mill. 

Monterey, California. 

H. Oregonensis, Lea is a synonym. 

H. SEQUOICOLA, Cooper. PI. 15, fig. 10. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thick, with somewhat rugose 
growth striae, often decussated by coarse incised lines, upper whorls 
with crowded granulations, and probably hirsute in fresh specimens, 
light chestnut color, paler below, with a narrow superior chestnut 
band, bordered with white on either margin ; peristome white, thick- 
ened, extremities approaching. Diam. 23-27 mill. 

Near Sta. Cruz, California. 

A coast species, allied to H. Mormonum but distinguished by its 
sculpture. 



72 HELIX. 

H. RUFOCINCTA, Newcomb. PI. 15, fig. 11. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, scarcely marked by growth 
lines, and occasional revolving lines, horn color, with a narrow, white- 
margined chestnut band ; whorls 5-6, flatly convex above, the last 
descending in front, convex on the base ; peristome white, thickened, 
reflected below. Diam. 17 mill. 

Catalina Island, California. 

H. ROWELLII, Newcomb. PL 15, figs. 12, 13. 

Moderately umbilicated, smooth, very slightly obliquely striulate, 
and very minutely punctulate, somewhat shining, whitish, with a 
single narrow chestnut band ; whorls 4i, somewhat convex, the last 
descending in front and swollen, base subplanate ; aperture widely 
circular, peristome white, expanded, extremities approaching and 
joined by a callus. Diam. 20 mill. 

Lower California. 

H. Lohrii, Gabb, (fig. 13) is a synonym. 



H. SERIATISETA, Rochebrune. Unfigured. Cochin China. 

Referred to by its author to this group, of which it can scarcely 
be a member. 

Subsection I, HELMINTHOGLYPTA, Ancey, 1887. 
H. ARROSA, Gould. PL 16, fig. 17. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather solid, rugulosely malleated and 
minutely granulated, reddish olive, or yellowish, with a superior, 
narrow, dark chestnut band ; whorls 7, convex, the last a little de- 
scending in front ; aperture bluish, with pellucid band ; peristome 
flesh colored, shortly expanded, the base reflected. 

Diam. 34-40 mill. 

Coast of California jrom Sta. Cruz to Mendocino Co. 

Dr. Cooper has named two varieties Holderiana and Stiver siana ; 
the varietal characters appear to be unimportant. Mr. Binney also 
mentions an albino specimen. H. centginosa, Gould (not Pfr.) is a 
synonym. 

H. TOWNSENDIANA, Lea. PL 15, figs. 14-16. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, yellowish ahd brownish horn color 
intermixed, with faintly impressed, minute longitudinal strise and 
coarse oblique, malleated wrinkles ; whorls 6, flatly convex, the last 



HELIX. 73 

well-roimded, descending in front ; peristome white a little expanded 
at the top, becoming reflected on the base. Diam. 29 mill. 

Oregon, Mountains of Idaho and Montana. 

H. pedestris and H. ruida of Gould are synonyms. H. ptycho- 
phora, Brown, was formerly considered a small variety of this species; 
it is now referred to Mesodon (Vol. Ill, p. 154). 

H. EXARATA, Pfr. PI. 16, fig. 18. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather solid, rugulosely malleated, yel- 
lowish brown, with a narrow superior chestnut band ; whorls 7, con- 
vex, the last scarcely descending in front ; peristome slightly white- 
lipped, expanded. Diam. 30 mill. 

Coast region of California, from S. Francisco to Sta. Cruz. 

H. NICKLINIAXA, Lea. PI. 16, figs. 19, 20. 

Minutely umbilicated, rather thin, with light growth-lines, faintly 
indented and granulated in quincunx order, pale horn colored or 
ash-yellow, with a superior chestnut narrow band, paler on its mar- 
gins ; whorls 6, moderately convex, the last ventricose, the periphery 
sometimes obsoletely angulated, base tumid ; peristome white, slightly 
reflected above, more so below. Diam. 28 mill. 

California to Santa Cruz to Mendocino Co. 

H. nemorivaga and H. arboretorum, Val. are synonyms. H. ana- 
choreta, Binney (fig. 20) was founded on a less globose form of this 
species, without revolving band. In his latest monograph Mr, W. G. 
Binney considers H. Nickliniana a variety of H. Calif 'or niensis, Lea, 
a decision with which I by no means agree. I do not think H. Cal- 
iforniensis belongs to this group at all. 

H. RAMENTOSA, Gould. PI. 16, fig. 21. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, obliquely striated and gran- 
ulated, yellowish brown with a superior narrow chestnut band; 
whorls 5?, somewhat convex, the last broad, rounded or very obso- 
letely angulated, not declining in front ; peristome white, thickened, 
somewhat expanded, reflected at the base. Diam. 20 to 30 mill. 

Napa Co. to Sta. Clara Co., California. 

The synonyms are H. reticulata, Pfr. and H. Bridgesii, Newcomb. 
The latter name being preoccupied, I formerly suggested instead of 
it H. Parkeri. Mr. Binney considers H. ramentosa a variety of H. 
Calif or niensis, Lea. 



74 HELIX. 

H. DIABLOENSIS, Cooper. PL 16, fig. 25. 

' Narrowly umbilicated, thin, roughened with incremental wrinkles 
and with regular malleations arranged in spiral series, reddish horn 
color, with a narrow, superior chestnut band, white-margined on 
either side ; whorls 6, convex, the last not descending, somewhat 
compressed on the ?ide ; peristome thickened, white, almost simple. 
Diam. 22 mill. 

ML Diablo near S. Francisco, and in Colusa and Napa Go's. CaL 
A species of the Coast Range. Mr. Binney makes this also a va- 
riety of If. Calif orniensis, Lea. 

H. INTERCISA, W. G. Binney. PL 16, figs. 26, 33, 27. 

Imperforate, thick, growth lines numerous and distinct, crossed 
by close, regular spiral lines, so deeply impressed that the surface is 
divided into minute raised parallelograms, greyish yellow, with an 
obsolete band ; whorls 5, slightly rounded, the last descending in 
front ; aperture very oblique, horse-shoe shaped, peristome dirty 
white, thickened, spread at the umbilicus, which it covers, often with 
a basal tooth-like process near the columella ; margins of peristome 
connected by a parietal callus. Diam. 22 mill. 

S. Clemente and Sta. Cruz Is., Cal. 

The above is the adult condition : a lighter type but connected 
with it is the form described by Dr. Newcomb as H. crebristriata 
(fig. 33). In an apparently semi-fossil condition the thickening of the 
shell is carried still further than in recent specimens. 

Var. REDIMITA, W. G. Binney. Fig. 27. 

Imperforate, thin, wrinkled, covered with minute crowded gran- 
ulations ; whorls 6, rounded, the last descending in front, reddish 
brown, with a chestnut band ; periphery simple, light-chestnut col- 
ored, thickened, extremities approaching. Diam. 21 mill. 

S. Clemente Is., Cal- 

It is H. Nickliniana, A. Binney in part. 

H. TUDICULATA, Binney. PL 16, figs 28-30. 

Imperforate, or subumbilicated, olivaceous brown, with a chestnut, 
white-margined band, visible above the suture on the spire, obliquely 
striate and malleately punctate; whorls 5*, slightly convex, body 
whorl large, tumidly expanding in front ; peristome whitish, thin, 
expanded, slightly reflected below. Diam. 33 mill. 

Coast and Sierra Nevada region of California. 



HELIX. 75 

Var. CYPREOPHILA, Newcomb. Fig. 30. 

Shell thinner, scarcely malleated, umbilicus narrowly open. 

Copperopolis and San Diego, Cat. 

Subsection II, ODONTURA, Crosse and Fischer, 1872. 

H. GHIESBREGHTI, Nyst. PL 16, fig. 31. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striate, pilose when fresh, chestnut color, 
with yellowish bands on the upper part of the shell, the intervening 
surface sometimes darker chestnut or nearly black ; whorls 5 J, some- 
what convex, the last large, rounded, slightly descending in front ; 
lip white, expanded, shortly reflected, margins approaching. 

Diam. 50-65 mill. 

Chiapa, Mexico ; Vera Paz, Guatemala. 

There is some variation in the ground color, and number and dis- 
position of the bands : in one variety the shell is yellowish with a 
narrow chestnut band above, and another and wider one below the 
periphery. 

H. EXIMIA, Pfr. PL 16, fig. 32. 

Scarcely umbilicated, obliquely rugose and very closely granular, 
corneous olivaceous, with five or six dark brown bands ; whorls 4, 
somewhat convex, rapidly increasing, the last inflated, descending 
in front, compressly inflated round the brownish umbilical region ; 
peristome simple, whitish, narrowly reflected, dilated over the um- 
bilicus, which it nearly closes. Diam. 37-41 mill. 

Guatemala, Honduras. 

Subsection III, LEPTARIONTA, Crosse and Fischer, 1872. 
H. FLAVESCENS, Wiegni. PL 19, figs. 76, 77. 

Perforate, thin, smooth, opaque, light yellowish, variegated with 
pellucid strigations and spiral lines and a chestnut band, suture sub- 
plicate ; whorls 4 J, scarcely convex, the last descending and subcon- 
stricted in front ; lip white, shortly expanded, columellar margin 
nearly closing the umbilicus. Diam. 12 mill. 

Near Papantla, Mexico. 
H. BICINCTA, Pfr. PL 19, fig. 78. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, glabrous, pellucid, light greyish yel- 
low, with two narrow spiral bands, the upper one chestnut color, the 
lower one milk white, suture white-margined ; whorls 4, somewhat 



76 HELIX. 

flattened, the last with a black band surrounding the peristome;: 
peristome patulous, acute, subreflected. Diam. 20 mill. 

Oajaca, Mexico.. 



H. VERRILLI, Ancey. Unfigured. Durango, N. W. Mexico. 

Subsection IV, PRATICOLA, Strebel, 1880. 

H. OCAMPI, Strebel. PI. 19, figs. 79, 80. 

Perforate, rather solid, slightly translucent, dull yellowish horn- 
color, or reddish brown with yellowish suture, finely irregularly 
striate, with microscopic spiral lines; whorls 5, somewhat convex, 
the last inflated, descending in front, constricted behind the aperture ; 
peristome shortly reflected, white. Diam. 12 mill. 

Mirador, Mexico. 

If. ampla, Pfr. an unfigured species is possibly identical : if so, it 
should take priority. 

H. BERLANDIERIANA, Moric. PI. 19, figs. 81-83. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, somewhat translucent, sub- 
opaline, scarcely striate, light ashy white or yellowish w r hite, or 
greenish yellow, sometimes with a single chestnut band, suture deep r 
whorls 4^-5, rather convex, the last scarcely descending in front, 
rounded, base subinflated, constricted behind the aperture ; peristome 
white, labiate within, reflected. Diam. 12 mill. 

Prov. Tamaulipas, Mexico, Texas, Arkansas. 

H. pachyloma, Menke and H. virginalis, Pfr. are synonyms. 

H. GRISEOLA, Pfr. PI. 19, figs. 84-86. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, subtranslucent, a little shining, ob- 
liquely striate, greyish, with a light fulvous, white-margined band,, 
suture impressed ; whorls 4-4?, scarcely convex, not descending in 
front, base subinflated ; aperture showing the exterior band, peris- 
tome simple, slightly reflected, white, margins distant. 

Diam. 9*5 mill. 

Near Vera Cruz, Mexico, Texas, Nicaragua. 

Var. ft. More elevated, light corneous, with a single white margined 
:band. Diam. 10 mill. 

The synonymy includes H. cicereula, Fer., H. splendidula, Anton,, 
and H. albozonata, and H. albocincta, Binney. 



HELIX. 77 

H. LEUCORHAPHE, Pfr. PI. 19, fig. 87. 

Narrowly umbilicated, very lightly striulate, diaphanous, yellow- 
ish corneous, with a narrow chalky band at the impressed suture ; 
whorls 6, a little flattened, the last more convex, not descending, 
base subplanate ; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 10 mill. 

Island of Hayti. 



H. TRYPANOMPHALA, Pfr. Unfigured. Sierra Maestra, Mexico. 
H. SALVINI, Tristram. Vera Paz, Guatemala. 

Subsection V, MICRARIONTA, Ancey. 
H. GABBII, Newcomb. PL 19, fig. 88. 

Umbilicus almost covered, shell thin, light corneous, with a nar- 
row brown band ; whorls 5, convex, with well impressed suture, last 
whorl descending in front ; lip white, reflected, not callous. 
Diam. 10 mill. 

San Clemente Isl., S. California. 

Var. FACTA, Newcomb. PI. 19, fig. 89. 

Almost covered rimate, solid, compact, glabrous, whitish, with a 
chestnut band ; whorls 5-5*, slightly convex, the last descending in 
front ; suture moderately impressed ; peristome yellowish, thick, re- 
flected. Diam. 10'5 mill. 

Ins. Sta. Barbara and San Nicolas, S. California. 

Subsection VI, PCECILOSTOLA, Ancey, 1887. 
[The name of this section is preoccupied. Ed.] 
H. FARRISI, Pfr. PI. 18, figs. 69, 70. 

Imperforate, rather thin, spirally striate and reticulated with im- 
pressed pits, fulvous, with four brown bands, and maculated with 
yellowish strigations ; whorls about 4J, rapidly increasing, the last 
ventricose, deflected in front ; peristome white lipped, the margin 
expanded.* Diam. 35 mill. 

Mountains of Peru. 

H. TSCHUDIANA, Phil. PI. 17, figs. 41-43. 

Umbilicus covered, rather solid, striulate, and decussated by very 
thin spiral lines, fulvous, with a single, narrow chestnut band ; whorls 
4-1, the last deflected in front; peristome thickened, white, widely 
reflected, parietal wall with a thin callus. ' Diam. 29 mill. 

Huanvavelica, Peru. 



78 HELIX. 

H. CLAUSOMPHALOS, Deville and Hupe. PL 18, figs. 67, 68. 

Imperforate, depressed, whitish to chestnut color, with a single, 
narrow chestnut band visible on the spire-whorls, last whorl wide, 
deflected anteriorly, periphery obtusely subangulated ; peristome 
thick, reflected, expanded over the umbilicus. Diam. 29 mill. 

Huancavelica, Andes of Peru. 

H. ALSOPHILA, Philippi. PI. 17, figs. 48-50. 

Imperforate, somewhat solid, striulate, slightly transversely mal- 
leated, shining, fulvous brown, with a chestnut band, light bordered 
below ; peristome white, thickened, expanded. Diam. 30 mill. 

Mts. of Sta. Ana, Peru. 

H. ESTELLA, Orb. PL 18, fig. 71. 

Imperforate or perforate, thin, diaphanous, irregularly submal- 
leately reticulated, striated or nearly smooth, yellowish brown or 
whitish, with a narrow superior chestnut band ; whorls 4, convex, 
the last deflected in front; peristome reflected, white, columellar 
margin dilated and appressed above. Diam. 23-38 mill. 

Valle grande, Bolivia. 

Var. TUCUMANENSIS, Doring. 

Costulate-striate, nearly imperforate, submalleately reticulated in 
front, convex below and lighter colored ; whorls 4?. 

Diam. 32-34 mill. 

Sierra de Tueuman. 

Subsection VII, EPIPHRAGMOPHOEA, Doring, 1875. 

H. GUYANA, Strobel. PL 19, figs. 73-75. 

Narrowly umbilicated, lenticular, carinated, rather thin, obliquely 
plicate, suture submargined ; whorls 4, flattened, rapidly increasing, 
the last not descending, periphery acutely crenately carinated, base 
convex, arcuately plicate ; aperture brownish, shining, peristome 
simple, basally shortly reflected, columellar margin dilated above. 

Diam. 14'5 mill. 

Prov. Mendoza, Buenos Ayres. 

H. HIERONYMI, Doring. 

Widely umbilicated, subcalcareous, a little shining, usually with 
a light chestnut band, depressed, slightly convex, suture deep ; whorls 
4?-5, convex, the last slightly descending in front ; peristome sub- 



HELIX. 79 

simple, acute, expanded, slightly white-lipped within, margins ap- 
proximating. Diam. 18-20 mill., alt. 8 mill. 

Catamarca, Argentine Republic. 

This species was figured in Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 143, PI. 6, fig. 4 
1878, but in the copy to which I have access this plate is missing, so 
that I am unable to figure it. 

H. HIGGINSI, Pfr. PL 17, fig. 34. 

Umbilicated, rather solid, striated and malleated, olivaceous brown, 
with a single chestnut band, suture impressed ; whorls 4?, slightly 
convex, the last descending in front, with convex base ; peristome 
white, shortly reflected, the columellar margin impinging on the 
umbilicus. Diam. 32 mill. 

Huamaehuco, Peru. 

This is H. Farrisi, Higgins, not PfeifFer. 

H. JASPIDEA, Pfr. PI. 17, figs. 35-37. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, obliquely costulate-striate, cor- 
neous white, flamed and sub-banded with light corneous, suture 
smooth, margined ; whorls 5, somewhat flattened, regularly increas- 
ing, the last descending in front, periphery angulated, base convex ; 
aperture white banded, peristome whitish, margins approximating, 
simple above, reflected at the base. Diam. 31 mill. 

Prov. Patas, Peru* 

H. COSTARICENSIS, Roth. PI. 17, figs. 38-40. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, smoothly striated and spirally 
subsulcated, purplish flesh color, with four narrow bands; whorl& 
4, obliquely flattened above, the last more convex near the suture, 
obtusely angulated at the periphery, the angle whitish, dark mar- 
gined, base whitish, umbilicus chestnut colored; peristome expanded 
and slightly reflected. Diam. 30 mill. 

Costa Rica. 

H. HUANUCENSIS, Phil. PI. 17, figs. 44-46. 

Moderately umbilicated, smooth, striulate, yellowish, usually one 
or two banded with chestnut above ; whorls 5, planulate, the last 
deflected in front, periphery with a rounded carina; peristome 
slightly thickened, expanded above, reflected below, extremities 
joined by a parietal callus. Diam. 24 mill. 

Huanuco viejo, Peru. 



80 HELIX. 

H. SARGI, Crosse and Fischer. PI. 17, figs. 51-53. 

Kather widely umbilicated, moderately thick, subobliquely, obso- 
letely striulate, chestnut brown, without band, suture somewhat 
deeply impressed; whorls 5, slowly increasing, the last descending in 
front, periphery obtusely angulated, base flattened, paler, olivaceous 
brown ; aperture and periphery white, the latter reflected, margins 
approaching. Diam. 27'5 mill. 

Tamaja, Guatemala. 
H. DILUTA, Pfr. PI. 17, fig. 47. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pellucid, yellowish corneous, with 
three brown bands, the upper and lower ones wider and paler; 
whorls 4, somewhat flattened ; periphery simple, flesh-color columellar 
margin expanded. Diam. "22 mill. 

Cuzco, Peru. 
H. TRIGRAMMEPHORA, Orb. PL 18, fig. 54. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, shining, yellowish white, with 
three narrow chestnut bands; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last 
descending in front ; aperture rounded-lunar, peristome white, ex- 
panded above, reflected below. Diam. 25 mill. 

Valle grande, Bolivia. 
H. PELLIS-COLUBRI, Phil. PI. 19, fig. 72. 

Widely umbilicated, striulate, slightly malleated below; yellowish 
white, with a single chestnut band; whorls 5J, slightly convex, last 
whorl subcylindrical, a little descending in front; peristome thick- 
ened, white, widely reflected. Diam. 35 mill. 

Otusco, Peru. 

H. SEMICLAUSA, Martens. PL 18, figs. 65, 66. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striulate, and slightly, minutely granular, 
reddish brown, with a single brown band ; whorls 4, rapidly increas- 
ing, last whorl scarcely descending in front; peristome reflected, 
flesh color, columellar margin a little dilated, nearly covering the 
umbilicus. Diam. 37 mill. 

Rodersberg, Brazil. 

H. CLAROMPHALOS, Deville et Hupe. PL 18, figs. 55, 56. 

Rather widely umbilicated, ashy fulvous, unicolored or with one 
two or three superior brown bands; lip thickened, reflected. 

Diam. 30 mill. 

Near Cuzco, Peru. 



HELIX. 81 

Var. MESOMPHALOS, Morelet. 

Smaller, more depressed, umbilicus wider, last whorl subangulated. 
H. YOCOTULANA, Doring. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, depressed, smoothish and 
a little shining, minutely striate, chalky white or yellowish, with a 
single chestnut band; spire flattened, scarcely elevated, suture deep; 
whorls 4J, a little depressed, earlier ones whitish or yellowish brown, 
the last somewhat descending in front, pellucid chalky below; aper- 
ture rounded lunate, peristome expanded-reflected, lipped, thickened, 
dilated and shortly subangularly reflected on the columellar margin. 

Diam. 20-22 mill., alt. 9-10 mill. 

Yocotula, Argentine Republic. 

In our copy of the "Boletin" containing the above description 
the figure referred to is missing. 

H. AUDOUINI, d'Orb. PL 18, fig. 64. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, rugosely subreticula- 
ted, brownish violaceous, variegated with whitish lines, and with 
three dark bands; whorls 6, the last depressed, descending in front; 
peristome white, thickened, widely expanded, the margins approach- 
ing, and joined by a parietal callus. Diam. 59 mill. 

Bolivia. 
Var. ORESIGENA, d'Orb. 

Shell smaller, with a slightly more elevated spire. 
Diam. 37 mill. 

H. PATASENSIS, Pfr. PL 18, figs. 61-63. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, striulate and minutely pitted, 
fulvous, with a single, narrow, superior chestnut band; whorls 5J, 
slightly convex, the last depressed rounded, deflected in front; peris- 
tome whitish, the margins approaching, shortly expanded above, re- 
flected below. Diam. 36 mill. 

Andes Mts., Prov. of Patas, Peru. 

Var. minor, has the chestnut band pale-margined. 

H. MACASI, Higgins. PL 18, figs. 57, 58. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, lightly, obliquely plicate-striate, 
and very minutely concentrically striulate, whitish, with three 
chestnut bands; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last deflected in 
front, base convex ; peristome reflected, the margins approaching, 
joined by a thin callus. Diam. 35 mill. 

Macas, Equador. 
6 



82 HELIX. 

H. TRENQUELLEONIS, Grat. PL 18, fig. 59. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, subpellucid, slightly shining, 
obsoletely opaquely plicate above, decussated by spiral strise, smooth 
below, olivaceous brown, with a single, superior, chestnut band; 
whorls 4 , rather flat, rapidly increasing, the last depressed, deflected 
in front, base a little more convex ; peristome shortly expanded, red- 
lipped within, margins approaching, joined by a thin callus. 

Diam. 26 mill. 

Cordova, Argentine Republic. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. HIDALGONIS, Doring. Argentine Republic. 

H. MONOGRAPHA, Burmeister. Argentine Republic. 

Both the above species have been figured, but the figures are want- 
ing in the Philadelphia Academy's copies of the w r orks which should 
contain them. 
H. GUEINZII, Pfr. Moyobamba, Peru. 

Subsection VIII, EURYCAMPTA, Albers, 1860. 

H. BONPLANDI, Lam. PI. 19, fig. 95. 

Narrowly umbilicated, chestnut color, obsoletely doubly banded 
with chocolate, subdecussated by very thin incremental and spiral 
strise; whorls 4i-5, somewhat convex; aperture brownish violaceous, 
peristome simple, right margin patulous, the basal somewhat thick- 
ened, the columellar reflected. Diam. 29-35 mill. 

Cuba'. 
H. SUPERTEXTA, Pfr. PL 19, fig. 94. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, subdecussated by incremen- 
tal striae and impressed concentric lines, brownish fulvous, with a 
median chestnut band, suture deep, crenulated, epidermis radiately 
hydrophanous; whorls 5, convex; aperture brownish, peristome white, 
expanded above, thickened and reflected below. Diam. 24 mill. 

Near Matanzas, Cuba. 

Like H. Bonplandi, but smaller with more convex whorls, more 
slowly increasing, with different epidermis. 

H. ARCTISTRIA, Pfr. PI 19, figs. 96, 97. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, closely, obliquely costu- 
late-striate, light brownish, with two dark bands, and numerous 




HELIX. 83 



white epidermal bands; whorls 4J, rather convex, the last depressly 
rounded, strongly descending in front ; peristome fleshy white, mar- 
gins converging, expanded above, reflected below. Diam. 28 mill. 

Ensenada de Corrientes, Cuba. 
H. POEYI, Petit. PI. 19, fig. 93. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, closely costulately striate, epidermis 
deciduous sub velvety ; whorls 5, rather flattened, the last carinated, 
deflected in front; peristome simple, expanded above, reflected 
below, columellar margin dilated, short subvertical. 

Diam. 26 mill. 

Cuba. 

H. staminea, Menke, and H. velutinata, Beck are synonyms. 

H. BBYANTI, Pfr. PI. 19, figs. 91, 92. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat thin, closely obliquely costulate, 
light corneous ; whorls 4$, somewhat flat, the last more convex, with 
an interrupted chestnut line at the subacute carina, shortly reflected 
in front; peristome thin, labiate within, a little expanded above, 
reflected below, margins approaching. Diam. 14'6 mill. 

Water Key, Ragged Isl., Bahamas. 

H. DESIDENS, Rang. PL 18, fig. 60. , 

Moderately umbilicated, striate, thin, brownish, without bands; 
whorls 4, flattened above, periphery obtusely angulated, base con- 
vex ; peristome a little expanded above, scarcely reflected below. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Ins. Martinique* 

Section II, CAMPYL^EA, Beck, 1837. 
Subsection I, XEROCAMPYL^EA, Kobelt, 1871. 

H. ZELEBOBI, Pfr. PL 4, figs. 69-72. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, lightly, subarcuately 
striate, whitish, unicolored or with two chestnut spiral lines, apex 
corneous; whorls 5J, moderately convex, regurlarly increasing, the 
last scarcely descending in front ; aperture light flesh colored, peri- 
stome simple, very thinly labiate, margins approaching. 

Diam. 14*5 mill. 

Servia, Bosnia. 

Has the characters in part of both Xerophila and Campylcea; 
hence forms the passage between the two groups. 



84 HELIX. 

H. DRAGORICHI, Zelebor. PL 45, figs. 22-24. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, striate, a little shining, white, apex 
corneous, suture smooth; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last dilated 
in front, scarcely descending, aperture oblique, wide, peristome 
simple, white-lipped, margins approaching, columellar margin dila- 
ted above. Diam. 16 mill. 

Samsum, Asia Minor. 

A var. minor has more elevated spire, and a very light yellowish 
band. Diam. 14 mill. 

H. NUBIGENA, Charp. PI. 45, fig. 21. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striate, whitish, sometimes becoming yellow, 
ish or rosy at the aperture; whorls 5, slightly convex, regularly 
increasing, the last rounded, slightly descending in front ; peristome 
acute, white-lipped within, margins approaching. Diam. 11 mill. 

Bareges, Pyrenees. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. CAROSINA, H. BORTANA, H. OTTOI, H. ACARIA, H. TWARTKOI, 

H. NACTARA, Servain. Bosnia. 

H. ADARELLA, Bourg. Croatia. 

Subsection II, FRUTICOCAMPYL^A, Kobelt, 1871. 

H. NARZANENSIS, Krynicki. PI. 20, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, pellucid, obsoletely transversely, 
and still more faintly longitudinally striated, whitish, unicolored, or 
with two band? ; whorls 6, rounded ; peristome reflected, margined 
within, the extremities remote. Diam. 8 mill. 

Caucasus, Georgia. 

H. hortensis, Menetr. and H. Ossetinensis, Bayer are synonyms. 

Var. ft, SOLIDIOR. Fig. 19. 

Larger, heavier, bifasicate. Diam. 22 mill. 

Var. 6. PERLINEATA. 

More depressed, with a single superior band and minute decur- 
rent lines. 

Var. SUANETICA, Bottger. PL 20, figs. 20-22. 

Strongly striated, coarsely granular, spiral striae very faint, with 
two distinct chestnut bands and brownish base. 

Diam. H'5-16'5 mill. 



HELIX. 85 

Var. MACROMPHALA, Bottger. PI. 20, fig. 23, 24. 

Umbilicus wider, surface obsoletely, very minutely granular and 
spirally undulately lineolate, light chestnut color with a white band, 
here and there strigated with chestnut. Diam. 15'5-19 mill. 

Var. CYCLOTHYRA, Bottger. PL 20, figs. 33, 34. 

Larger, usually more depressed, umbilicus much wider, margins 
of aperture approaching more closely. Diam. 19-22 mill. 

Var. APPELINSI, Mousson. PI. 20, fig. 25. 

More widely umbilicated, irregularly but strongly crispate-striate, 
intermingled with elongated granulations, dull, light corneous, with 
a pale dorsal band ; whorls 6, flattened, the last descending slightly 
in front, periphery sometimes subangulated ; peristome a little ex- 
panded, slightly but widely labiate within, margins converging, 

Diam. 15-19 mill. 

H. RAVERGIENSIS, Fer. PI. 20, figs. 13, 14. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, slightly pellucid, obliquely 
striate, yellowish gray, with white bands at the suture and periphery ; 
whorls 6, obliquely planulate, suture superficial ; peristome patulous, 
with a white lip within. Diam. 7 mill. 

Caucasus, Georgia. 

It is H. Caucasica, Pfr., and H. limbata, Kryn. 

Var. PERSICA, Bottger. PI. 20, figs. 15, 16. 

More conically depressed, thicker, with thread-like stria?, here and 
there rib-like, violet corneous, radiately strigate with white, bands 
narrower and fainter. Diam. 17*5 mill. 

Astrabad, Northern Persia. 

Var. TRANSCAUCASICA, Bayer. PI. 20, figs. 31, 32. 

Differs from the type in the smaller more depressed, less striate 
shell; umbilicus narrower; corneous. Diam. 15, alt. 12 mill. 

Southern Caucasus. 
H. PRATENSIS, Pfr. PL 20, figs. 26-30. 

Moderately umbilicated, rugosely striate, whitish, with two chest- 
nut bands, or without bands, and the last whorl becoming brownish 
flesh color ; whorls 6, the last scarcely descending in front ; peristome 
expanded, remotely white lipped within, margins approaching. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Riv. Tortoom, Asiatic Russia. 

H. Bayerii, Parr, is a synonym. 



86 . HELIX. 

Var. DELABRIS, Mousson. PL 21, figs. 46, 47. 

Perforate, rather thin, chalky, irregularly striulate and slightly 
and very minutely granular, white, doubly banded with brown, apex 
corneous, suture scarcely impressed : whorls 5i, somewhat convex* 
the last slightly descending in front ; base plano-convex ; aperture 
white, with translucent band, peristome acute, expanded, not labiate 
within, margins approximating. Diam. 15 mill. 

Transcaucasia. 

Var. JOANNIS, Mortillet. PI. 20, figs. 41, 42. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, distinctly striate, sub- 
rugose, whitish or fulvous gray, sparsely pellucid-dotted and with 
two dark chestnut bands ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last descend- 
ing in front; peristome scarcely expanded above, white-lipped 
within, the margins converging and joined by a thin callus. 

Diam. 17-25 mill. 

Erzeroum, Armenia. 

H. Dumonti, Mortillet is a synonym. 

H. PONTICA, Bottger. PL 20, figs. 35-40. 

Narrowly umbilicated, slightly shining, distinctly spirally lineo- 
late, scarcely granular, white unicolored, or with two chestnut bands 
or the upper or lower one absent. Diam. 18-21 mill. 

North of Suchum, Caucasus. 

H. EICHWALDI, Pfr. PL 21, figs. 48, 49. 

^Rather widely umbilicated, rugosely striate, shining, whitish, with 
horny dots and doubly banded ; whorls 6, scarcely convex, the last 
deflected in front ; peristome expanded, prominently, remotely white- 
lipped within, margins acute, almost continuous. Diam. 18 mill. 

Caucasus. 

Var. DAGHESTANA, Parr. PL 21, figs. 50, 51. 

Widely umbilicated, rugosely striate, shining, corneous, radiately 
strigate with white, with a median white band, suture linear ; whorls 
6, a little convex, the last deflected at the aperture ; peristome acute, 
slightly expanded, white-lipped, margins approximating. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Daghestan, Caucasus. 

H. ARMENIACA, Pfr. PL 21, figs. 52-54. 

Moderately umbilicated, plicately striate, variegated with corneous 
and ashy white ; whorls 6, depressed, the last angulated, shortly de- 



HELIX. 87 

fleeted in front; peristome simple above, shortly reflected below, 
remotely white-lipped within, margins approaching. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Armenia, Caucasus. 

H. Ziegleri, var. Airumia, Siemaschko is a synonym. 

H. PH.EOLJEMA, Bottger. PI. 45, figs. 18-20. 

Narrowly perforate, globose-conic, very solid, bluish-white, with 
brown apex and occasional radiating streaks : spire elevated, apex 
minute, acute ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, rugose-striate, sparsely 
and lightly marked with spiral lines, the last whorl subangulate in 
front of the aperture, deflexed anteriorly, rounded below ; aperture 
small, round-lunate, oblique, castaneous within; peristome expanded, 
labiate with white, the extremities converging slightly, columella 
dilated, reflexed. Diam. 14 mill, alt. 11-5 mill. 

Mt. Schach-Dagh, Oriental Caucasus. 



Unfigured Species. . 

H. MENETRIESII, Kalenicz, Caucasus. 
H. ALPINA and H. NIVALIS, Menetr. are synonyms. 

H. DICHROZOSTA, Martens, Ko Kand. 

H. NYMPH^EA, Dubois. Transcaucasia. 

Subsection III, EUCAMPYL^EA, Pfr. 1881. 
I, Group of H. pouzolzi, Desh. 

H. POUZOLZI, Desh. PI. 22, fig. 75. 

Widely umbilicated, striate, spirally lineated above, olivaceous 
brown, with three chestnut bands, the middle one narrowest ; whorls 
6, somewhat flattened, the last deflected in front ; peristome thick- 
ened and reflected, whitish or flesh color. Diam. 40-48 mill. 

Dalmatia, Albania. 

The synonyms are H. Savignyana, Ehrenb., H. Varronis, Cantr., 
If. Brenoensis, and H. Macarana, Miihlf., H. Dalmatina, Parr, and 
the following color varieties : var. trifasciata, Bielz (typical), var. 
bifasciata, Brus., var. unifasciata, Pfr., var, obscura, Bielz (more or 
less dark chestnut with scarcely distinct bands), var. unicolor, Pfr. 
(no bands). 



88 HELIX. 

Var. MONTENEGRINA, Zglr. PI. 22, fig. 76. 

Small, olive green, distinctly dark banded, peristome but slightly 
thickened. Diam. 30 mill. 

Var. BOSNIENSIS, Kobelt. PI. 22, fig. 77. 

Smaller, spire a little elevated, whorls planulate above, with three 
distinct, subequal bands. Diam. 31 mill. 

Bosnia. 

H. Ragusana, Fer. and H. trizona, Reeve are synonyms. 

H. SERBICA, Mollend. PL 21, figs. 66-68. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, and slightly spirally lineate 
above, olivaceous brown, with three chestnut brown bands, the mid- 
dle one narrower, the outer ones diluted on the exterior sides, suture 
deep ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last slightly descending in 
front ; peristome simple, acute, margins distant, columellar lip a 
little expanded, partly covering the umbilicus. Diam. 27 mill. 

Servia. 
Var. TJNIT^ENIATA, Bottger. 

Ferrugineus, with a supra-median black band ; aperture rosy 
white or purplish within. Diam. 29 mill. 

Montenegro. 

H. PAUCICI, Mollend. PI. 21, figs. 69-71. 

"Widely umbilicated, striulate, and spirally lineate above, oliva- 
ceous brown, with three chestnut brown bands ; whorls 6 J, rounded, 
flattened below, the last whorl slowly descending at the aperture ; 
peristome simple above, angulately subreflected and a little dilated 
below. Diam. 30 mill. 

Servia. 

Flatter, with wider umbilicus than the preceeding species, and 
flattened base. 

H. STEMOMPHALA, Menke. PI. 21, figs. 63-65. 

Narrowly umbilicated, lightly striate, yellowish, with three chest- 
nut bands, the outer one wider and diluted ; whorls 5, somewhat 
convex, the last inflated, scarcely descending in front ; peristome a 
little reflected, white-lipped within-, margins distant, columellar mar- 
gin dilated and reflected, partly covering the umbilicus. 

Diam. 31 mill. 

Croatia. 



HELIX. 81> 

II, Group of H. planospira, Lam. 

H. HIRTA, Menke. PI. 23, figs. 10-12. 

Umbilicated, spire plane, thin, slightly striate and punctate-gran- 
ular, hairy, pellucid, somewhat shining, yellowish corneous, with a 
chestnut band ; whorls 4, somewhat flattened, the last scarcely de- 
scending ; peristome reflected, flexuous, white-lipped. 

Diam. 21 mill. 

Illyria, Croatia. 

If. deplana, Zglr., is a synonym. 

H. LEFEBORIANA, Fer. PI. 25, figs. 56-58. 

Umbilicated, spire plane, thin, hairy, ashy corneous, with a sin- 
gle chestnut band ; whorls 5, flattened, the last deflected in front ; 
peristome acute, reflected, white-lipped, margins approaching. 

Diam. 29 mill. 

Illyria, Carniola* 

H. Feburiana, Rossm., H. deplana, Mu'hlf., and A. hirsuta, Brum. 
are synonyms. 

H. HAZAYANA, Clessin. PI. 45, figs. 35-37. 

Large, widely Umbilicated, much depressed, rather solid, finely 
striate, beset with long shaggy crooked hairs, corneous, with a pale 
brown band above, succeeded by a clear zone, and below this a third 
band of brown ; whorls flat, 5? in number, slowly increasing, sep- 
arated by a deeply impressed suture, the last double the width of 
antepenultimate, shortly deflexed anteriorly; aperture oblique, wide- 
ly lunar, slightly wider than high ; peristome sharp, expanded ; 
columella extended. Diam. 22 mill. 

Northern Hungaria* 

H. SADLERIANA, Ziegler. PL 22, figs. 78, 79. 

Widely umbilicated, slightly striate and closely punctate-granular, 
thin, pellucid, shining, with short, close, regularly disposed hairs, 
light yellowish corneous, with a chestnut, white-margined band ; 
whorls 5*, flattened, the last subdeflected in front ; peristome a little 
deflected, subthickened, whitish, margins distant. 

Diam. 30-38 mill. 

Croatia, Carinola* 

H. PLANOSPIRA, Lam. PL 22, figs. 80, 82. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, striulate, greenish corneous, with 
a superior chestnut white margined band, spire obtuse, slightly ele- 



90 HELIX. 

vated ; whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last slowly descending in front ; 
peristome white-lipped, dextrally slightly expanded, basally shortly 
reflected, columellar margin dilated, margins remote. 

Diam. 22-26 mill. 

Southern France, Northern Italy. 

H. adelozona, Parr. 

Var. KOBELTIANA, Clessin. PI. 48, fig. 90. 

Larger than type, whorls elevated, thick, the last whorl double 
as broad as penultimate, aperture wide, transversely ovate, um- 
bilicus wide, partially covered by reflection of columellar lip. 

Carinthia (KarnthenJ) 

Var. TJMBIUCARIS, Brumati. PL 22, fig. 85. 

Much depressed, widely umbilicate, exhibiting all the whorls to 
apex ; last whorl and aperture decidedly widened, base of peristome 
flattened. 

Northern Italy. 

H. Hispanica, Linn, and H. zonata, C. Pfr. 

Var. ILLYRICA, Stabile. PL 22, fig. 86. 

More or less subglobose depressed, glabrous, pale corneous colored, 
with an evanescent fascia. 

Illyria. 
Var. PADANA, Stabile. PL 22, figs. 83, 84. 

Small, subglobose depressed, spire convex, last whorl rounded, 
aperture less horizontal than in the type, and more rounded. 
Diam. 25-27 mill. 

Northern Italy. 

Var. ULLEPITSCHEI, Westerl. PL 48, fig. 91. 

Depressed solid, aperture transversely oval, columellar margin 
immersed in umbilicus. Diam. 32, alt. 16 mill. 

Southern Austria. 
Var. STABILLEI, Paulucci. Not figured. 

Var. SETULOSA, Briganti. PL 22, fig. 92. 

Opaque, rather thin, rich brown ; sharply rugulose, with black 
hairs arranged in oblique series, a dark supra-peripheral band, 
bounded on either side with whitish, whorls 4*-5, the last slightly 
descending, gibbous at the base ; aperture rotund-lunar, slightly ob- 
lique, brown within, labiate. Diam. 26, alt. 13 mill. 

Central Italy. 

H. setipila, Zglr. 



HELIX. 91 

Var. PUBESCENS, Tiberi. PI. 22, figs. 88, 89. 

Very similar to the last variety ; sparsely pilose, pale reddish 
brown, whorls 5, the last rounded, slightly descending anteriorly, 
base convex, umbilicus moderate, peristome brown-labiate, colum- 
ellar margin subreflexed. Diam. 23, alt. 12 mill. 

Abruzzen. 

Var. CASERTANA, Paulucci. PL 22, fig. 87. 

Sparsely hirsute, rather dark colored ; peristome rather widely 
reflected, milky white or yellowish, spotted everywhere with violet 
to the point of its insertion ; last whorl rounded below. 

Diam. 23J-26 mill, alt. 13-14 mill. 

CaseWa Vecchia. 

Var. CALVA, Kobelt. 

Distinguished from the type by the lack of hairs or hair scars. 

Central Italy. 
H. depilata, Orsini, Mss. ; H. planospira, var. depilata, Paul. 

Var. CALABRICA, Paulucci. PI. 22, fig. 90. 

Translucent ; totally destitute of hairs, but with slight traces upon 
the embryonic whorls, depressed globose, umbilicus narrow, the 
columellar margin reflected over it; aperture rotund-ovate, last 
w r horl much dilated below. Diam. 25-28 mill. 

Calabria. 

Var. NEAPOLITAN, Paulucci. PI. 23, figs. 93, 94. 

In form like the type ; minutely granulate and sparsely hirsute, 
rather opaque, umbilicus rather large, last whorl more depressed 
and more descending anteriorly ; peristome yellowish, mottled with 
darker color. Diam. 19-24 mill. 

Castellamare. 

Var. CASSINENSIS, Paulucci. PI. 23, fig. 97. 

In form like typical planospira ; last whorl more rounded ; hairy ; 
<ilear horn colored ; aperture rounded, peristome subreflexed at the 
base. Diam. 20-24 mill. 

Mt. Cassino. 

Var. EUGANEA, Stabile. 

Smaller and thinner than var. padana, to which it is similar in 
form ; shining. Padua, 



92 HELIX. 

Var. ALIFAENSIS, Paul. PI. 23, fig. 95. 

Large, thin, fragile, opaque, sparsely and shortly pilose; last 
whorl inflated ; aperture wide, rounded. Diam. 29, alt. 16 mill. 

Terra di Lavoro, Italy* 
H. ZONATA, Studer. PL 28, figs. 34-36. 

Umbilicated, olivaceous, with a chestnut band, subpellucid ; whorla 
51, somewhat convex, the last descending in front; peristome sim- 
ple, reflected below ; expanded above, margins nearly joining. 

Diam. 21 mill. 

Switzerland, Northern Italy. 

H. fatens, Stud., is a synonym. 

Var. MODESTA, Moquin-Tandon. 
Lacks the band of the typical form. 
H. flavo-virens, Dum. et Mort. is a synonym. 

H. CONFUSA, Benoit. PI. 23, figs. 98-100. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, opaque, striulate, granular above,, 
chestnut corneous, with a chestnut, white or yellowish margined 
band ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last slowly descending in front ; 
peristome thick, flexuous, reflected, white-lipped, callous below. 

Diam. 25-33 mill. 

Sicily* 

Mdme. Paulucci makes this a variety of H. planospiri. 

H. MACROSTOMA, Miihlf. PI. 23, figs. 1, 2, 5, 6. 

Openly umbilicated, opaque, very minutely granular above, yel- 
lowish, with a chestnut band ; whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last 
descending in front ; peristome widely reflected, white-lipped, mar- 
gins approaching. Diam. 29 mill. 

Sicily. 

It is H. planospira, Phil., JET. pervia and H. didyma, Miihlf., H- 
siculina and H. cryptozona (figs. 5, 6), Ziegler ; the last a smaller, 
thinner, diaphanous form. 

Var. BENEDICTA, Kobelt. PI. 23, figs. 3, 4. 

Perfectly plane above, last whorl abruptly descending in front 
lurid fulvous, with long hairs arranged in quincunx order. 

H. Lefeburiana, Phil., and H. trichophora, Bourg., H. setipila, 
Benoit (not Ziegler) are synonyms. 

Var. ERETA, Paulucci. 

Shell oval, last whorl much widened toward the aperture. 

Palermo* 



HELIX. 93 

H. SUBZONATA, Mousson. PL 29, figs. 37-39. 

Umbilicated, dark corneous, with a dark band, pale-margined 
below, striate, with very minute granulations, obsoletely hairy ; 
whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last without hairs, a little descend- 
ing in front ; aperture grayish, showing the exterior band, peristome 
subthickened, whitish, shortly reflected, margins somewhat approach- 
ing. Diam. 23 mill. 

Cephalonia and Epirus. 

Var. DISTANS, Blanc. PL 29, figs. 40, 41. 

More distinctly striate and granular, whitish zone conspicuous, 
umbilicus narrower, suture whitish margined. 

Ins. Corfu. 

H. FOETENS, C. Pfr. PL 25, figs. 59-62. 

Widely umbilicated, corneous brown, with a chestnut band mar- 
gined with white below, translucent, substriate ; whorls 5 J, flattened, 
the last deflected in front ; peristome simple, expanded, right margin 
reflected, extremities approaching. Diam. 21-27 mill. 

Mts. Switzerland and Southern Austria. 

The synonymy includes H. cornea, Voith, H. euzona, Menke, 
If. marginata, Miihlf., H. achatina, Pot. et. Mich., H. cingulina, 
Desh., var. Dufftii, Kobelt (subfossil). 

Var. ACHATES, Ziegler. PL 25, figs. 59, 60. 

Rather smaller than type ; whorls more elevated, the peripheral 
white band broader, the dark band conspicuous ; keel scarcely indi- 
cated. Diam. 19 mill. 

Alps of Southern Bavaria, North Tyrol, etc. 

Var. ICHTHYOMMA, Held. PL 25, fig. 63. 

Depressed finely striate, shining, thin, translucent, corneous, with 
a rufous band, bordered with white below ; whorls 5, flattened, the 
last widened, descending anteriorly, convex below ; sutures deep ; 
aperture very oblique, compressed ovate, peristome labiate, white, 
ends not converging, reflected on basal margin. Umbilicus wide 
and deep. Diam. 22 mill. 

Bavarian Alps. 



94 HELIX. 

Var. CISALPINA, Stabile. PI. 26, fig. 64. 

Large, thin, subpellucid, umbilicus narrow, last whorl convex be- 
low ; narrow brown band not bordered with white. Diam. 27 mill. 

Southern Alps. 

H. vittata, Jan. and H. sebinensis, Kobelt are synonyms. 

Var. ADAMI, Kobelt. PL 26, fig. 65. 

Umbilicus more widely perspective than in var. cisalpina, last 
whorl flattened below ; conspicuously banded. Diam. 32 mill. 

Southern Alps. 
H. Calabriensis, Jan. is a synonym. 

Var. RHAETICA, Mouss. PI. 26, fig. 66. 

Shell larger and more solid than in the type ; whorls less cari- 
naied, flattened below ; with a very distinct castaneous band. 

Diam. 27 mill. 

Mountain valleys of the Rhine and Inn. 

Var. DEBET, Adami. PI. 45, fig, 25. 

Small depressed, solid. Diam. 18, alt. 6-8 mill. 

Southern TyroL 
H. ARGENTELLEI, Kobelt. PL 26, figs. 67, 68. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, olivaceous brown, with a chest- 
nut, white margined band ; whorls 5, the last subangulate, descend- 
ing in front ; peristome a little reflected, the margins approaching^ 
columellar lip dilated above, partly covering the umbilicus. 

Diam. 18-26 mill. 

Taygetus, Greece. 
H. KOLLARI, Zelebor. PL 24, figs. 19-21. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, striulate and sparsely pilose, 
especially at the periphery (the hairs leaving pits), corneous, with 
a white margined chestnut band ; whorls 5 J, scarcely convex, the 
last depressed, descending in front, base light-colored about the um- 
bilicus ; peristome white, sublabiate, shortly expanded, reflected be- 
low, extremities closely approaching. Diam. 17'5-23 mill. 

Servia. 



H. PYRENAICA, Drap. PL 23, figs. 13-15. 

Narrowly umbilicated, flattened above, thin, pellucid, olivaceous 
corneous ; whorls 5, rather flattened, the last not descending ; peri- 
stome acute, reflected, white-lipped. Diam. 19 mill. 

Pyrenees. 



HELIX. 95 

Var. COMPLAXATA, Bourg. PL 23, fig. 16. 

Shell thin, suture profound, peristome horizontal, not arcuate at 
base. 

Pyrenees. 

H. xanthelea, Bourg. is a synonym. 

H. FAUSTINA, Ziegler. PI. 29, figs. 46, 47. 

Narrowly umbilicated, smooth, shining, yellowish above, with a 
chestnut band, brownish below ; whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last 
not deflected in front ; peristome white-lipped, angularly reflected, 
margins somewhat converging. Diam. 18 mill. 

Galicia, Volhynia, Silesia. 

H. selemine, Miihlf., H. Volhyniensis, Andrz., and H. cornea, 
Fitz., are synonyms. 

Var. CITRINULA, Ziegler. 
Smaller, yellowish, without band. 
Var. SATIVA, Ziegler. 

Orange chestnut color. 
Var. ASSOCIATA, Ziegler. PI. 29, figs. 48-50. 

Spire flatter, umbilicus wider, last whorl profoundly deflected in 
front, aperture oblique. 

Transylvania and Bucovina. 

H. Javnaensis, Parr, is a synonym. 

Var. CHARPENTIERI, Scholtz. 

Umbilicated, depressed, lightly and irregularly striate, corneous 
brown above, with an ill-defined reddish brown band, yellowish brown 
below, shining. 

Siletia. 

H. MOLLENDORFFI, Kobelt. PI. 29, figs. 42-45. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pellucid, striate, corneous brown, 
with a single chestnut band, with regular, sparse, long hairs ; whorls 
5, regularly increasing, slightly convex, the last suddenly descend- 
ing in front ; peristome reflected, white-lipped, margins subcontin- 
uous. 

Diam. 14-18 mill. 

Bosnia, Servia. 

Has the form of H. faustina, but differs in the aperture and nar- 
rower umbilicus, and is pilose. 



D6 HELIX. 

H. EOSSMASSLERI, Pfr. PI. 29, figs. 51-53. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, thin, yellowish above, with a single 
chestnut band, brownish below ; whorls 4, slightly convex ; peri- 
stome acute, thin, reflected, margins distant. Diam. 12 mill. 

Carpathian Mountains. 

Smaller than H. faustina, with narrower umbilicus and the peri- 
stome not thickened. H. advena, Rossm. is a synonym. 

H. SCLEROTRICHA, Bourg. PL 23, figs. 7-9. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, slightly convex above, more so below, 
not shining, thin, a little pellucid, corneous chestnut color, lighter 
around the umbilicus, with two lighter zones, last whorl strongly 
striate, with erect rigid hairs in quincunx order, apex obtuse, mal- 
leate ; whorls 6, rather rapidly increasing, the last compressed 
rounded, slowly descending in front; peristome whitish, slightly 
thickened, reflected, margins remote, joined by a thin callus. 

Diam. 32 mill. 

Kabylia, N. Africa. 

It is H. schlcerotricha, Bourg. (err. evid.). 

H. PINDICA, Bottger. PL 45, figs. 26, 27. 

Narrowly umbilicated, depressed, thin, subopaque, reddish cor- 
neous, with a brown supraperipheral fascia, bounded below by a 
light tract, spire convexo-conic, depressed, whorls over 5, regularly 
increasing, slightly convex, striulate and somewhat granulate, with 
short, deciduous sparse hairs, last whorl subangulate, descending in 
front; aperture very oblique, oval, peristome brown, expanded, 
dilated and reflexed at columella. Diam. 24, alt. 13 mill. 

Karawa. 

A more depressed form than H. sitbzonata, with wider aperture 
and less distinctly pilose. Distinguished from Kobelt's If. Argen- 
tellei by the much narrower umbilicus, etc. 

H. COMEPHORA, Bourg. PL 24, figs. 22-24. 

Umbilicated, thin, subdiaphanous, fulvous, corneous, with a supe- 
rior light chestnut band; with erect rigid hairs ; whorls 5, somewhat 
flattened, the last descending in front; peristome acute, simple 
above, reflected below, margins approaching. Diam. 27 mill. 

Morea. 

H. setipila, Bourg. is a synonym. 



HELIX. 97 

H. BAXATICA, Partsch. PI. 22, figs. 72-74. 

Openly umbilicated, very minutely decussated, opaque, olivaceous 
brown, with a chestnut band; whorls 5?, somewhat flattened, the 
last not descending in front, carinated, carina vanishing towards the 
aperture ; peristome acute, white-lipped, outer margin expanded, 
columellar margin dilated and reflected. Diam. 30 mill. 

Transylvania. 

It is H. prcetexta, Ziegl. 

H. THAYACA, Bourg. PL 21, figs. 60-62. 

Imperforate, opaque, solid, olivaceous brown, elegantly striulate, 
spire roof-like ; whorls 6, regularly slowly increasing, flattened and 
carinate, the carina following the suture, becoming evanescent in the 
last whorl, which descends at the aperture ; peristome obtuse, labiate, 
slightly patulous, columellar lip convex, callous, covering the umbil- 
icus, margins joined by a parietal callus. Diam. 27 mill. 

Prov. Constantine, Algeria. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. BRENSKEI, Bottger. Corinth. 

H. CONEMENOSI, Bottger. Sontameri, Greece. 

Ill, Group of H. setosa, Zglr. 
H. SETOSA, Ziegler. PI. 31, figs. 94, 95. 

Widely umbilicated, slightly striate and subgranular, thin, pellu- 
cid, shining, with rather long dense, irregularly disposed hairs, yel- 
lowish corneous, three banded with chestnut ; whorls 5, somewhat 
convex, the last deflected in front; peristome continuous, solute, 
widely reflected, sublabiate, the basal margin subdentate. 

Diam. 30 mill. 

Istria, Croatia, Dalmatia, Albania. 

H. setosula, Briganti is a synonym. 

Var. PILOSA, Stentz. 

Whitish-yellow, without bands. 
Var. IMBERBIS, Brusina. 

Flatter, a little rugose, shining, without hairs. 

Var. denudata, Zeleb. is a synonym. 

Var. LITORALIS, Brus. 

More rugose and opaque, hairs shorter, bands lighter. 



98 HELIX. 

H. WALTERI, Bottger. PI. 45, figs. 28, 29. 

A form intermediate between H. insolita and H. Hoffmani. From 
the former it is distinguished by the thicker, more expanded lip, 
wider band and microscopic short hairs. From H. Hoffmani the 
the number of hairs at once separate it, that species having 9 to 12 
hairs to a square mill., whilst the Walteri shows 25-30 in the same 
space. Diam. 25-28, alt. 15-17 mill. 

Sutomore, Alps. 

H. NICOLAI, Kleciach. PI. 30, figs. 76-78. 

Openly umbilicat9d, somewhat solid but subtranslucent, obliquely 
rugose, ribbed-striate, not hairy, grayish yellow, with three fulvous 
bands ; whorls 5, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last rather 
narrow, deflected in front ; peristome continuous, widely reflected, 
labiate within, basal margin subdentate. Diam. 26 mill. 

Dalmatia. 

H. recordera, Parr, is a synonym. 

H. BRTJSINJE, Stossich. PI. 30, figs. 82-84. 

Widely umbilicated, flattened above, lightly striate and granular, 
thin, subpellucid, with very dense short hairs, somewhat regularly 
disposed, yellowish white, with three chestnut bauds, the middle one 
narrowest ; whorls 5i, the last deflected in front ; peristome contin- 
uous, solute, widely reflected, columellar margin unidentate. 

Diam. 32 mill. 

3Its. Biokovo, Dalmatia. 

H. INSOLITA, Ziegler. PI. 24, figs. 35, 36. 

Openly umbilicated, striate, slightly granular, thin, pellucid, 
shining, not hairy, light yellowish, three-banded with chestnut, outer 
bands interrupted or fading; whorls 5*, convex, the last deflected 
in front; peristome reflected, somewhat thickened, margins sub- 
continuous, columellar margin dilated, tuberculated below. 

Diam. 29-32 mill. 

Dalmatia, Albania. 

It is H. subcostalis, Parr. 

Var. DENUDATA, Rossm. PI. 24, figs. 37, 38. 

Turbinately depressed ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last sud- 
denly deflected in front ; peristome continuous, solute. 



HELIX. 99 

H. PR.ETEXTA, Parr. PI. 25, figs. 42-44. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, closely subrugosely stri- 
ate, light fulvous, with three chestnut bands, the third below the 
periphery ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last depressly rounded, 
descending in front, subconstricted on the base behind the mouth ; 
aperture trifasciate, peristome sublabiate, expanded above, shortly 
reflected below and obsoletely dentate, margins approaching, scarcely 
connected by a thin callus. Diam. 27 mill. 

Dalmatia. 

It is H. insolita var. rugata, Kutsch., and H. insolita var. costu- 
lata, Bielz. 

H. HOFFMANNI, Partsch. PI. 24, figs. 32-34. 

Xarrowly or subcovered perforate, very slightly striate and punc- 
tate granular, thin, subpellucid, shining, with very short and dense 
irregular hairs, yellowish, one rarely obsoletely three-banded; whorls 
5, convex, the last deflected in front; peristome widely reflected, 
sublabiate, margins subcontinuous, with a basal callus. 

Diam. 35 mill. 

Dalmatia. 

H. monozona, Zglr. is a synonym. 

H. KLECIACHI, Parr. PI. 30, figs. 79-81. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, very closely, minutely gran- 
ular, with somewhat close, short, erect hairs, light fulvous, with three 
subequal chestnut bands, whereof two are above the periphery ; 
whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last depressly rounded, abruptly de- 
flected in front, constricted at the aperture below ; peristome white- 
lipped, expanded, reflected below, tuberculate within, columellar 
margin expanded, half covering the umbilicus, margins joined by a 
sinuous callus. Diam. 30 mill. 

Dalmatia. 

H. lucescens, Kutsch. is a synonym. 

H. XARENTANA, Kleciach. PI. 24, figs. 39-41. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, thin, semipellucid, striulate, yellow- 
ish corneous, with three narrow chestnut bands, the middle one 
most distinct; whorls 5, rounded, the last one dilated, inflated below, 
suddenly deflected at the aperture; peristome slightly reflected, 
margins approaching and joined by a callus, columellar margin 
edentulous, dilated above, covering half of the umbilicus. 

Diam. 24-29 mill. 

Mis. of Naret\ta, near Ragusa. 



100 HELIX. 

H. SETIGERA, Ziegler. PL 30, figs. 88-90. 

Narrowly umbilicated, lightly striate and punctate-granular, 
thin, pellucid, shining, with rather long, dense, erect hairs, irregu- 
larly disposed, yellowish, with three pale bands, the middle one 
most distinct; whorls 5, convex, the last deflected in front, peristome 
slightly reflected, continuous, but not solute, columellar margin 
subdentate. Diani. 20-26 mill. 

Dalmatia, Croatia. 

It is H. setosa, var., Rossmassler. 

H. CRINITA, Sandri. PL 30, figs. 85-87. 

Umbilicated, some what solid, irregularly rugose, slightly punctate 
granular, with a few regularly disposed, recurved hairs, brownish 
corneous with three light chestnut bands; whorls 5? flattened, the 
last deflected in front; peristome continuous, solute, widely reflected, 
labiate, columellar margin subdentate. Diam. 28 mill. 

Dalmatia. 

IV, Group of If. alpina, Faure-Biguet. 

H. ALPINA, Faure-Biguet. PL 28, figs. 11-13. 

Widely umbilicated, striate, with fine, undulating spiral lines, 
yellowish, the deciduous epidermis variegated with brown; whorls 
5, convex, the last with obsoletely angulated periphery; peristome 
simple, white-lipped, shortly reflected below. Diam. 19 mill. 

Alps of France, lllyria. 

Var. PHALERATA, Ziegler. PL 28, figs. 24-27. 
With a single band. Diam. 20 mill. 
H. Thessalonica, Mouss, is a synonym. 

Var. FONTENILLII, Michaud. 

Widely umbilicated, pellucid, marbled with whitish and corneous, 
periphery carinated. Eastern France. 

Westerlund, who considers this a distinct species, has a variety 
alpicola. 

H. HERMESIANA, Pini. PL 29, figs. 98-100. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, shining, striate, and with slight 
spiral lines, ashy white or light rosy, usually with a single median, 
narrow, chestnut band; whorls 5, rounded convex, slowly increas- 
ing, the last dilated, subinflated, suddenly deflected in front, suture 



HELIX. 101 

deep; aperture vinous brown, with band, peristome white-lipped, 
margins remote, expanded above but scarcely reflected, basal and 
columellar margins more reflected. Diam. 25 mill. 

ML Presolano, N. Italy. 

Var. LIGURICA, Kobelt * PI. 27, fig. 4. 

Smaller, last whorl less dilated, aperture rounded. 
Diam. 20 mill. 

H. FRIGIDA, Jan. PL 24, figs. 25-27. 

Openly moderately umbilicated, planospiral, solid, ashy white; 
whorls 5, convex, the last scarcely descending in front, subcom- 
pressed around tjie umbilicus ; aperture brownish, peristome white- 
lipped, margins distant. Diam. 21 mill. 

Alps of Northern Italy. 

Var. INSUBRICA, Crist, et Jan. PI. 27, fig. 28, PI. 23, fig. 17. 
Smaller, single banded. Diam. 18 mill. 
H. Bertelliana, and H. frigidissima, Adami, (fig. 17) are synonyms. 

H. NICATIS, Costa. PL 23, fig. 18. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, subarcuately striate, 
a little shining, whitish, with obsolete corneous maculations, spire 
subplane, suture impressed ; whorls 5, somewhat flattened, the last 
with a light chestnut band above the middle, scarcely descending 
in front, base more convex ; aperture brownish flesh color, peristome 
simple, reflected basally, margins joining. Diam. 20 mill, 

ML Nicatis, Naples. 

H. CHAMAELEON, Parr. PL 28, figs. 28-30. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, obliquely striate, with 
impressed spiral lines above, closer at the periphery, brownish, 
dotted with white, with a chestnut, white-margined periphery band, 
mai'bled with chestnut and white below, whorls 5, barely convex 
above, the last more convex below, scarcely descending in front; 
peristome labiate, margins converging, shortly expanded above, 
subflexuous, basally reflected. Diam. 19 mill. 

Near Malborghet, Carinthia. 

Kobelt considers this possibly a variety of H. phalerata. 

H. OLYMPICA, Roth. PL 28, figs. 19-21. 

Umbilicated, striate, whitish, with a single narrow chestnut band, 
epidermis deciduous ; whorls 5, rounded, the last descending at the 



102 HELIX. 

aperture; peristome simple, margins approximating, and joined by 
a thin callus. Diam. 22 mill. 

Mt. Olympus, Greece. 
Var. OSSICA, Bottger. PI. 28, fig. 22. 

Smaller than type, umbilicus narrower; solid, obscure olive-brown, 
brown band margined with yellow above, spire depressed conic, 
whorls 5s. Diam. 21-24 mm. 

Mt. Ossa, Thessaly. 
Var. MAGNESIA, Bottger. PI. 28. fig. 23. 

Large, umbilicus small for size of shell; form depressed conic; 
fascia widely margined above and below with whitish. 
Diam. 33-36 mill. 

Mt. Ossa, Thessaly. 

H. GASPARIN^, Charp. PL 21, figs. 57, 58. 

Umbilicated, solid, striate, bluish white, with a chestnut, white 
margined median band ; whorls 5, rounded, the last scarcely des- 
cending at the aperture ; peristome simple, acute, margins approxi- 
mating, joined by a very thin callus, basal margin slightly reflected. 

Diam. 23 mill. 

Mt. Olympus, Gteece. 

Var. SUBDEFLEXA, Bottger. PL 21, fig. 59. 

Shell much more depressed than type, solid, yellowish-corneous, 
last whorl descending at aperture. 

Near Entrance of Vale of Tempe. 

H. CHORISTOCHILA, Bottger. PL 45, figs. 30-32. 

Narrowly umbilicated, depressed, solid, shining corneous brown, 
paler around the umbilicus ; with a narrow supraperipheral brown 
band, which is margined above by a very narrow, below by a broad 
white tract; spire slightly convex, whorls over 4, regularly increasing 
densely irregularly striate, not granulose nor pilose, the last de- 
scending somewhat at aperture, peristome slightly expanded, labiate, 
upper and lower margins well rounded, distant. 

Diam. 17'5 alt 9*3 mill. 

Karawa. 

Allied to the preceding, but smaller, with narrower umbilicus, etc. 

H. LANGI, Parr. PL 21, figs. 55, 56. 

Widely umbilicated, slightly striate, whitish, with three narrow 
chestnut bands ; whorls 5, a little depressed, slowly increasing, suture 



HELIX. 103 

moderately impressed; peristome reflected, margins joining, colu- 
mella extended. Diam. 25 mill. 

Mt. Parnassus, Greece. 

H. PHOCJEA, Roth. PL 20, figs. 43-45. 

Moderately nmbilicated, somewhat solid, irregularly striated, gray- 
ish white, with three superior bands of chestnut, one of them some- 
times obsolete, apex corneous; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last 
subdepressed, suddenly deflected in front ; aperture almost horizon- 
tal, brownish within ; peristome scarcely labiate, simple above, shortly 
reflected below 7 , margins approximating. Diam. 21-22 mill. 

Mt. Parnassus, Greece. 

Var. ORNATA, Parr. 

Larger, distinctly trifasciate. Diam. 25 mill. 

Var. IXORXATA, Kobelt. 

Smaller, the bands obsolete. Diam. 18 mill. 

H. SCHMIDTII, Ziegler. PL 28, figs. 8-10. 

Moderately umbilicated, slightly convex, solid, rugosely striate, 
brownish, variegated with yellowish or whitish; whorls 5-5?, the 
last scarcely deflected in front ; aperture brownish ; peristome white- 
lipped, scarcely expanded above, shortly reflected below, margins 
joining. Diam. 24 mill. 

Alps of Carniola. 

Var. HESSEI, Kirnakowicz. PL 35, fig. 11. 

Strongly and irregularly striate, with weak spiral lines; dirty 
yellowish brown, with light strigatious, and a scarcely indicated 
dark brown band ; whorls less depressed than H. Schmidti and shell 
smaller. Diam. 19 mill. 

Transylvania. 

H. CARASCALENSIS, Fer. PL 19, figs. 1, 2. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striate, yellowish, variegated and subfas- 
ciolate with corneous; whorls 5?, slightly convex; peristome patulous, 
acute, slightly labiate, columellar margin widely reflected. 

Pyrenees. 
H. VELASCOI, Hidalgo. PL 19, figs. 3-7. 

Umbilicated, somewhat solid, irregularly striate, opaque white, 
strigate with brownish corneous; whorls 5, convex, the last de- 



104 HELIX. 

scending in front, subdilated, peristome simple, white, scarcely labiate, 
basal margin shortly and the columella margin rather widely reflect- 
ed. Diam. 15'5 mill. 

Spain. 

A variety is fulvous corneous, strigate with whitish, with a single 
peripheral band. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. NANSOUTIANA, Bourg. Pyrenees. 
H. CARASCALOPSIS and H. RENEI, Fagot. Haute Garonne. 

H. NEPH^ECA, Fagot. France. 

H. MILLIERI, Bourg. Alps. 

H. NICOLISIANA, Adami. Italy. 

H. GALLICA, Bourg. France. 



V, Group of H. cingulata, Studer. 

H. CINGULELLA, Ziegler. PL 30, figs. 71, 72 (central fig.) 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, somewhat shining, striate, dirty 
white, radiated with bluish black, with a brown band above the 
periphery ; whorls 5, depressed, the last obsoletely angulated above ? 
shortly descending anteriorly; peristome subsimple, thin, a little 
expanded, the margins approximating. Diam. 16 mill. 

Alps of Volhynia. 
H. zinguletta of Ads. Genera, and H. fortunata, Parr, are synonyms. 

H. PRESSLII, Schmidt. PI. 27, figs. 91, 92. 

Widely umbilicated, striated, ashy flesh-color, variegated with 
brown above and dilutely, faintly three banded ; whorls 5, rather 
flattened, the last deflected in front; peristome reflected, sublabiate, 
margins joining. Diam. 27 mill. 

Mts. Carniola, Northern Italy. 

It is H. insubrica, Desh, and var. intermedia Paul. 

Var. NISORIA, Rossm. PI. 27, figs. 93-95. 

Middle band distinct, the others lost in the wide maculations. 

H. CINGULATA, Studer. PI. 26, figs. 73, 74. 

Umbilicated, grayish flesh color, with a single chestnut band; 
whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last deflected in front; peris.tome 



HELIX. 105 

simple, acute, sublabiate within, expanded above, reflected below,, 
columellar margin dilated; extremities approximating. 

Diam. 26 mill. 

Hlyria, Tyrol, Northern Italy. 

It is H. striatula, Fabr. H. subflava, Fer. 

Var. ANAUNIENSIS, Betta. PI. 26, figs. 75, 76. 

Much smaller, pellucid, brown band darker. Diam. 25 mill. 

Southern Tyrol* 

Var. athesina, Paul, is a synonym. 
Var. COLUBRINA, Jan. PL 26, figs. 77, 78. 

Sprinkled with brown, with a pale band. Diam. 26 mill. 

Tyrol 
Var. BALDEXSIS, Villa, PL 26, figs. 79, 80. 

Large, umbilicus wider, margins of peristome joining. 

Diam. 29 mill. Southern Tyrol. 

Var. LUGANENSIS, Schinz. 

Flesh colored with brown band; aperture oblique oval, basal 
margin of peristome subrectilinear, horizontal, columellar margin 
dilated. Diam. 24 mill. 

Lugano. 
Var. CARRABENSIS, Porro. PL 26, fig. 81-83. 

Depressed subglobose, whorls inflated, umbilicus narrow, sub- 
cylindrical, three banded, aperture nearly orbicular. 

Diam. 24 mill. 

Apuanian Alps. 

Var. FRIGIDESCENS, del Prete. PL 28, figs. 14, 16. 

Orbicular, subdepressed, inornate or unifasciate, whorls 6 to 7, 
regularly increasing, aperture pale brown, umbilicus wide. 

Diam. 26 mill. 

Apuanian Alps. 

Var. APUANA, Issel. 

Orbicular depressed, striate, widely umbilicus, wide aperture 
oblique, rotund-oblong. Diam. 26, alt 14 mill. 

Apuanian Alps. 

Var. APPELII, Kobelt. PL 27, figs. 88-90. 

Suborbicular, depressed, umbilicus very wide, perspective, band 
wide, reddish brown, aperture rounded. Diam. 30 mill. 

Paulucci considers this form a variety of H. frigida. 

Apuanian Alps. 



106 HELIX. 

Var. NUBILA, Ziegler. PI. 27, figs. 1-3. 

Aperture dilated, suboblique, base subplanate, color as in var. 
colubrina. Diam. 27 mill. 

Var. LUCENSIS, Paulucci. 

Intermediate between If. cingulata and var. apuana. It is colored 
like the former, but more elevated with less inflated last whorl, and 
wider aperture and umbilicus. The whorls are less convex than in 
var. apuana, the sutures deeper, and the aperture larger. 

Diam. 23, alt 15 mill. Lucca. 

Var. AFFINIS, Paulucci. PL 27, fig. 97. 

Similar to H. cingulata, but with more whorls, the last more 
swollen and descending above. It is more delicate and translucent 
than H. Preslii, with wider umbilicus and less enlarged last whorl. 

Diam. 25, alt 12 mill. 

Central Italy. 
Var. ANCON.E, Gentil. PL 28, figs. 5-7. 

Differs from H. Preslii in the constantly more depressed form, 
wider umbilicus, smooth whorls, which are regularly increasing. 
It is more depressed than H. cingulata, with a greater number of 
whorls, which increase more slowly. 

Casentino. 
Var. PINII, Ad ami. 

Subdepressed, reddish corneous, subpellucid, stimulate. 

Diam. 18-26, alt 8-11 mill. Verona. 

Var. INCERTA, Adami. 

Subdepressed, striate, last whorl subcompressed, yellowish within, 
perspectively umbilicated. Diam. 24-29, alt 9-12 mill. 
Var. CINGTJLINA, De Betta. 

Widely umbilicated, thick, irregularly striate, greyish brown, 
with a brown band bordered by white ; aperture subrotund, very 
oblique, margins converging; whorls 5, subplanulate, sensibly in- 
creasing. 

Klamm. 
Var. BIZONA, Rossm. 

Small, milky white, with a wide clear brown band under the 
normal one, aperture more rounded, not so oblique as in the type, 
margins of peristome more distinct. Diam. 23 mill. 

South Tyrol. 



HELIX. 107 

Var. KOBELTIANA, Paulucci. PL 27, fig. 84. 

Similar somewhat to H. cingulata above; below with wider um- 
bilicus more circular aperture, last whorl more deflexed above, with 
chestnut band bordered with white ; base greenish chestnut ; swollen. 

Diam. 25, alt 13 mill. 

Apuanian Alps. 
Var. MONTANA, Paulucci. PI. 27, figs. 85, 87. 

Identical in color to H. carrarensis, but differs in the more 
regularly increasing whorls, the last much narrower, flatter above, 
umbilicus larger, aperture smaller, less rounded, more oval, base less 
swollen, last whorl not so high as in H. carrarensis. 

Diam. 24, alt 11 mill. 

Apuanian Alps. 

Var. AGNATA, Paulucci. PI. 27, fig. 96. 

Differs from var. affinis in the higher spire, narrower umbilicus 
and more solid shell. The chestnut band is sometimes lacking 
leaving a wide white zone encircling the periphery. 

Diam. 23, alt 12 mill. 

Var. UNICOLOR, Clessin. 

Usually small, concolored, baridless; mouth wide, peristome 
narrowly reflected. Diam. 24 mill. 

Southern Tyrol. 

Var. ROSSMAESSLERI, Clessin. 

Small, dark with peripheral clear zone and the bands one above, 
the other below, lost in maculatious. Diam. 25 mill. 

Southern Tyrol. 

H. GOBANZI, Frauenfeld. PI. 26, figs. 69-72. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, closely, acuately costate, whitish, 
brown banded, the band sometimes obsolete, ribs white, apex black- 
ish corneous, suture deep ; whorls about 5, slightly convex, the last 
depressed, periphery obsoletely angulated, descending in front, base 
scarcely more convex; aperture flesh color, peristome thinly labiate, 
acute, expanded above, reflected below, margins approximating. 

Diam. 21-25 mill. 

Tyrol. 
H. TIGRINA, Jan. PI. 28, figs. 32, 33. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat flattened above, slightly striate, 
convex below, variegated with brown and white; whorls 5, flattened, 



108 HELIX. 

the last suddenly deflected in front, periphery carinate; peristome 
sublabiate, simple above, reflected below, margins joining. 

Diam. 23 mill. 

Lombardy. 
H. TRIZONA, Ziegler. PI. 25, figs. 45-47, 

Umbilicated, yellowish white, three-banded with chestnut ; whorls 
5-5*, somewhat flattened, the last descending in front, peristome 
subsimple, expanded above, reflected below, columellar margin 
dilated, extremities joining. Diam. 30 mill. 

Servia, Roumelia. 

It is H. tricincta, Miihlf., H. zonata, Fer. var. 

Var. RTJMELICA, Ziegler. PI. 25, figs. 48, 49. 
Smaller, with narrower whorls. Diam. 22 mill. 
H. rhodopea and If. Sanderiana, Friv. are synonyms. 

Var. INFLATA, Bielz. PI. 25, fig. 50. 

Inflated, thin, with narrower umbilicus than the type. 

Var. FRAUENFELDI, Zelebor. PL 25, fig. 51. 
Whitish, with hyaline bands. 

Var. BALCANICA, Friv. PL 25, figs. 52, 53. 

Yellowish green, upper and lower bands grown together here and 
there uniting with the median zone. 

Balkan. 
Var. EXIGUA. PL 25, figs. 54, 55. 

Differs only in its much smaller size from the preceding. 

Var. DOBRUDSCH^E. 

Darker than type, with wide umbilicus, and depressed whorls j. 
margins of peristome less approaching. Lower band wide. 

Diam. 27, alt. 13 mill. 

Roumania. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. AMATHIA, Bourg. France. 

H. SIGELA, H. PERFECTA, H. COMPSOPLEURA, Bourg. Italy. 

H. HEMONICA, Thiesse. Greece- 




HELIX. N^ 

VI, Group of H. intermedia, Fer. 
H. GLACIALIS, Thomas. PL 30, figs. 73-75. 

Moderately umbilicated; yellowish, variegated, singly banded 
with chestnut, plicate-striate above, lightly spirally lineate ; whorls 
5, somewhat convex, the last scarcely deflected, slightly angulate; 
peristome white-lipped, upper margin scarcely expanded, basal 
margin shortly reflected. Diam. 13 mill. 

Mts. Tyrol and Northern Italy. 
H. AEMULA, Kossm. PL 30, fig. 72. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, striate, very slightly, thinly 
decussated, opaque, white, with a narrow chestnut band ; whorls 4, 
subplane, the last deflected in front ; peristome thin, expanded, 
scarcely sublabiate, margins joining. Diam. 12 mill. 

Tyrol, Northern Italy. 

It is H. Martinatiana, De Betta, H. Ambrosi, Strob., H. cingulina, 
Bas. 

H. INTERMEDIA, Fer. PL 29, figs. 64-66. 

Openly umbilicated, striate, yellowish white, unicolored, or three 
banded with chestnut, outer bands interrupted ; whorls 5, flattened, 
the last deflected in front; aperture subhorizontal, peristome reflected, 
margins nearly continuous. Diam. 16 mill. 

It is H. catenulata, Miihlf. and H. cornea, Brum., H. tetrazona, 
Jan, referred here as a variety by Pfeiffer, is an Iberus. 

H. PIC^ENA, Tiberi. PL 33, figs. 71-72. 

Umbilicate, depressed, obliquely striate, light corneous, with four 
subcontinuous bands of pale rufous, spire depressed, apex rufous, 
glabrous, whorls 5, separated by deep sutures, the last compressed, 
subangulate at periphery, deflexed anteriorly, subplanulate below; 
aperture very oblique, subovate, peristome sublabiate with brown ; 
basal margin briefly reflected, columella dilated. 

Diam. 20, alt 7? mill. 

Mt. Pizzo di Sivo. 

H. ZIEGLEBI, Schmidt. PL 29. figs. 67-69. 

Widely umbilicated, greyish white, interruptedly three-banded, 
plicately ribbed above; whorls 5, somewhat flattened, the last sud- 
denly deflected in front; peristome labiate, margins nearly continuous, 
expanded above, reflected below. Diam. 20 mill. 

Alps, Carniola. 

It is H. strigata, var., Cantraine. 



110 HELIX. 

H. CANTABKICA, Hidalgo. PL 20, fig. 8-10. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, scarcely shining, very minutely, irregu- 
larly rugosely striate, with very minute, slight impressed punctatious, 
the juvenile with very short hairs, corneous pellucid, opaquely 
striate and punctate with whitish or yellowish ; whorls 5, slightly 
convex, slowly increasing, periphery obtusely angulated, last whorl 
subdilated and descending in front, more convex below; aperture 
brownish corneous, peristome simple, acute, white-lipped within, 
margins approximating. Diam. 13 mill. 

Caldas de Oviedo, Asturia, Spain. 

H. SHAUFUSSI, Kobelt. PL 20, figs. 11, 12. 

Umbilicate, orbicular depressed, solid, shining, lightly striate, 
whitish, irregularly radiate with corneous, spire slightly elevated, 
whorls 5, the last rapidly increasing, subangulate, descending at 
anterior; aperture rotund-lunate, peristome strongly labiate with 
white, margins converging, the basal slightly dilated. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Liebanathal in the Cantabrican Mts. 

H. ZONELLA, Pfr. PL 48, figs. 92, 93. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, closely rugosely 
striate, light brownish, with a median whitish zone, usually chestnut- 
margined; whorls 5J, slightly convex, the last rounded, scarcely 
descending in front; peristome simple, margins converging, acute, 
simple above, shortly reflected below. Diam. 15 mill. 

White Mts., Isl. of Crete. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. TRUTATIANA, Fagot. Pyrenees. 

H. CHIOPHILA, Bourg. France. 

VIII, Group of H. cornea, Drap. 

H. CORNEA, Drap. PL 29, figs. 54, 55. 

Umbilicated, striulate, whitish corneous above, with a single pale 
band, light brownish below; whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last 
suddenly deflected in front; peristome labiate within, angularly 
reflected, margins approximating. Diam. 17 mill. 

* France, Pyrenees. 



HELIX. Ill 

Var. CASTANEA, Rossm. PI. 29, figs. 56-58. 

Chestnut color, without the band. H. squamatina, Fer., is a 
synonym. 

H. DESMOULINSI, Farines. PI. 29, figs. 59, 60. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, lightly arcuately striate, not 
shining, greenish corneous; whorls 5-5 , slightly convex, moderately 
increasing, the last subcarinated, tumid and suddenly deflected in 
front, base convex, more shining, peristorae white, acute, continuous, 
superior margin labiate within, inferior margin angulately reflected. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Eastern Pyrenees. 

It is H. Moulinsii, Pot. et Mich., H. cornea, var. cyclostoma, 
Rossm., H. acrosticha, Fischer and H. Mollerati, Morelet. 

H. MIDDEXDORFFI, Gerstfeldt. PI. 29, figs. 61, 63. 

Openly, almost perspectively umbilicated, more or less depressed 
thin and transparent, closely, distinctly striate, a little shining, 
yellowish or yellowish white, with a single chestnut band ; whorls 
6 j-7, slightly convex, suture moderately impressed; peristome simple, 
a little reflected, sublabiate within. Diam. 24 mill. 

Amur River. 

H. CCERULAXS, Miihlf. PI. 31, figs. 14-17. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, irregularly rugose, solid, opaque, 
shining, bluish, brown in the aperture; whorls 5, convex, the last 
deflected in front; peristome simple, margins subcontinuous, the 
basal margin labiate, subreflected. Diam. 20 mill. 

Croatia. 

H. lactieina, Rossm. is a synonym. Brusina enumerates Var. 
Hyllica, Brus., larger, a little elevated, rugosely striated ; Var. de- 
jn-'-*a, Zel., moderate size, depressed, smooth; Var. rugata, Kucik. 
and Sandri, elevated, rugose, with a single band; Var. Bakovicana, 
Brus., depressed, smooth, brownish, sub-banded; Var. ZrmanicK, Brus, 
small, depressed, smooth, sub-banded. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. SQUAMMATINA, SeiTes. France. 

H. CROMBEZI, Milliere. France. 



112 HELIX. 

Subsection IV, TACHEOCAMPYL^EA, Pfr. 1877. 
H. KASPAILII, Payr. PL 31, figs. 9, 10. 

Covered perforate, brownish yellow, with three chestnut bands, 
striate, somewhat solid; whorls 4, flattened, the last subdeflected 
in front; peristome labiate, expanded above, reflected below. 

Diam. 35 mill. Corsica. 

Var. PILOSA, Kobelt. PI. 31, figs. 11. 

Epidermis strong, thickly beset with short hairs. Corsica. 

H. BROCARDIANA, Dutailly. PL 31, figs. 12, 13. 

Imperforate, depressed, sub-roof-like above, convex below, thin, 
translucent, shining, elegantly striulate, more distinct at the suture, 
brownish olive color, with three chestnut bands above; whorls 5, 
slightly convex, regularly increasing, the last large, almost rounded, 
-slightly descending in front, inflated around the umbilical callus ; 
peristome yellowish chestnut color, thickened, slightly expanded, 
margins approaching, connected by a callus, columellar margin 
widely reflected, appressed upon the umbilicus Diam. 30 mill. 

Mt. Pigno, near Bastia, Corsica. 

H. INSULARIS, Crosse and Debeaux. PL 32, figs. 20, 21. 

Imperforate, very thinly, obliquely striulate, thin, a little shining, 
translucent, greenish white, with occasional light olivaceous longi- 
tudinal lines, suture impressed; whorls 4-4 , planulate, the last 
rounded, suddenly deflected in front, base more convex ; peristome 
white, shortly reflected, margins converging. Diam. 27 mill. 

Near Cenestinwn, Corsica. 

H. REVELIERI, Debeaux, PL 32, figs. 22, 24. 

Umbilicated, somewhat solid, shining, scarcely convex above, 
plano-convex below, rugularly spirally striate, brownish yellow or 
brownish green, with three chestnut bands; whorls 4-5, with deep 
suture; peristome simple, labiate, margins converging, joined by a 

thin callus. Diam. 28 mill. 

Mt. Renoso, Corsica. 

H. Cyrniaca, and H. omphalophora, Dutailly, H. 2)I(inospira, Payr, 
and H. Raspaili, var. umbilicaris, Moq. Tand. are synonyms. 

H. CAROTII, Paulucci. PL 33, figs. 73, 75. 

Umbilicus nearly covered, shell solid, opaque, slightly striulate, 
olivaceous, three narrow chestnut bands; whorls 4 4J, somewhat 
<convex, the last whorl rapidly increasing, suture distinct, descending 



HELIX. 113 

in front and somewhat inflated; peris to me scarcely reflected, col- 
umellar margin dilated, thickened, extremities joined by a callus. 
Diam. 29 mill. 

Ins. Sardinia. 

Var. VIPERINA, Maltzan. PL 45, fig. 33. 

Irregularly marked above with yellow mac illations. Dorgali. 

Var. SPECTRUM, Maltzan. PL 45, fig. 34. 

Unicolored, green, and of light texture, resembling in color the 
unicolored var. H. hortensis. 

Var. LAMARMORJE, Maltzan. 

A more conoidal, elevated form than the type, somewhat smaller. 

H. GENNARII, Paulucci. PL 34, figs. 77, 78. 

Imperfbrate, conoid globose, lightly striate, subopaque olive color- 
ed with a narrow castaneous band, bounded above and below by 
pale brown zones ; spire conoidal, apex very large, sutures distinctly 
impressed, white margined; whorls 4i, regularly increasing, the last 
much inflated, deeply deflexed anteriorly ; aperture oblique, ovate- 
rotund, lunate bluish within, peristome thin, slightly reflected. 

Diam. 32, alt 24 mill. 

Ins. Sardinia. 

H. MELONII, Maltzan. PL 34, figs. 79, 80. 

Depressed globose, covered perforate, spire obtuse, conoid apex 
very obtuse, irregularly striate, trifasciate with brown on an oli- 
vaceous ground, suture distinct, white margined, whorls 4, convex, 
the last inflated, rounded, at aperture suddenly descending, aperture 
very oblique, rotund ovate, margins converging, columella reflexed 
and thickened. Diam. 25-29 mill. 

Ins. Sardinia. 

H. BREXSKEI, Bottger. PL 34, figs. 81, 82. 

Moderately umbilicated, depressed conic, solid, reddish-corneous, 
with u supramedian brown band, apparently lying under the epider- 
mis ; distinctly striate above, with numerous fine short brown hairs, 
about 16 to 25 standing upon a square mill. ; whorls over 6, convex, 
with deep sutures; the last dilated, descending anteriorly; aperture 
oblique, lunate, peristome impinging slightly upon umbilicus. 

Diam. 29 mill. Messena. 

8 



114 HELIX. 

Unfigured Species. 
H. ROMAGNOLII, Dutailly. Corsica. 

H. ACROPACHIA, H. LENELARIA, H. MONEREBIA and H. OUSTEREA, 

Mabille. Corsica. 

Subsection V, PSEUDOCAMPYLJEA, Hesse, 1884. 

H. CYCLOLABRIS, Desh. PI. 30, figs. 91, 92. 

Moderately, perspectively umbilicated, rather thin, subgranular, 
and rarely pilose, light corneous, with a brown, pale margined band 
whorls nearly five, somewhat convex, the last rounded, suddenly de-. 
fleeted in front ; peristome slightly labiate, white, continuous, almost 
solute, expanded above, reflected below. Diam. 22 'mill. 

Greece. 

Var. HYMETTI, Mousson. PI. 31, figs. 96, 97. 
Shell larger, last whorl more transversely dilated, aperture larger, 
peristome solute. Diam. 27 mill. 

Var. ARCADICA, Parr. PI. 30, fig. 93. 
Shell inflated, darker colored. 

Var. HELDREICHI, Shuttl. PL 31, figs. 98, 99. 
Very small with circular mouth and thickly pilose. 
Diam. 15 mill. Athens. 

Var. EUBCEA, Parr. PL 31, fig. 100. 

Spire more planate, peristome continuous, but not solute. 

Diam. 23 mill. Mt. Delphi, Greece. 

Var. SPH^ERIOSTOMA, Bourg. PL 31, figs. 1-5. 

Perviously umbilicated, depressed, striulate, diaphanous, whitish 
yellow, with two or three chestnut bands; whorls 5?, a little convex, 
the last suddenly deflected in front. 

Thessaly. 

H. lysistoma, Shuttlw. (figs. 1, 2.) is a synonym. 

H. GRELLOISI, Bourg. PL 31, figs. 6-8. 

Perviously umbilicated, depressed, fragile, diaphanous, very ele- 
gantly radiately striulate, whitish corneous; whorls 6, the last obsole- 
tely angulated, descending in front; peristome white, thickened 
within, a little reflected, margins approximating. Diam. 16 mill. 

Grecian Archipelago. 



HELIX. 115 

H. NOVERCA, Frivaldszky. PI. 32, figs. 37, 38. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, diaphangus, obliquely ru- 
gosely striate, fulvous, with a narrow chestnut band above and a 
white one upon the periphery, suture white margined; whorls 51, 
scarcely convex, the last one shortly deflected in front, periphery 
very obsoletely angulated; peristome white-lipped within, margins 
somewhat approaching, expanded above, reflected below. 

Diam. 14*5 mill. 

Ins. Crete* 

H. PELLITA. Ferussac. PI. 32, figs. 28, 29. 

Perforate, fulvous with a white, usually chestnut-margined band, 
costulate-striate, with rigid, erect hairs ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, 
the last deflected in front ; peristome acute, white-lipped within, mar- 
gins approximating, joined by a thin callus. Diam. 15 mill. 

Morca, Syra, 1st. of Rhodes. 

Var. KREGLINGERI, Zeleb. PI. 32, fig. 32. 

A little larger, whorls rounded, spire more elate. 

Var. GRAPHICOTERA, Bourg. PI. 32, figs. 30, 31. 

Sharply obliquely sculptured, elegantly minutely decussated, 
whitish brown, with a white, fulvous margined band; whorls 61, 
somewhat convex ; the last suddenly deflected in front. 

Ins. Milos. 

H. NAXIANA, Ferussac. PL 32, figs. 33, 34. 

Narrowly umbilicated, obliquely striate, brownish, strigate with 
whitish, and with a white, chestnut-margined band, spire subelate; 
whorls 5, somewhat flattened, the last deflected and subconstricted 
in front ; peristome white-lipped within, reflected, margins approxi- 
mating. Diam. 14 mill. 

Ins. Naxos, Crete. 

A variety has a white surface, with three chestnut bands. 

Var. WESTERLUXDI, Blanc. PI. 32, figs. 35, 36. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, pellucid, obliquely densely 
rugosely striate, slightly granular, light fulvous or brownish corne- 
ous, with a whitish peripheral band and a narrower chestnut band 
above it, sometimes with a less distinct inferior band, and a third at 



116 HELIX. 

the suture ; whorls 6, suture irregularly white margined, last whorl 
deflected in front; periphery expanded, margins approaching, uni- 
ted by a callus. Diam. 22-23 mill. 

Ins. Crete. 
It is H. sanctorum, Blanc, Mss. 

H. LECTA, Ferussac. PL 32, fig. 39. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, obliquely closely costate-plicate, 
white, unicolored, or with three narrow chestnut bands; whorls 5, 
flattened, the base convex, deflected in front ; peristome white-lipped 
within, shortly expanded, the approximating margins joined by a 
callus. Diam. 17 mill. 

Ins. Theodoro, near Crete- 

H. SUBLECTA, Maltzan. PL 32, figs. 40-42. 

Narrowly umbilicated, globose depressed, regularly obliquely 
costulate striate, solid, white, encircled by 3 brown bands; spire 
slightly elevated, whorls 5, slowly increasing, the last rounded, sub- 
inflated, descending anteriorly; aperture rotund lunar, peristome 
acute, labiate, margins converging, reflected below, partially cover- 
ing the umbilicus. Diam. 18, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Crete. 



H. ZONELLA, Spratt. Unfigured. Greece. 

Subsection VI, ELONA, H. and A. Adams, 1855. 

H. QUIMPERIANA, Ferussac. PL 32, figs. 25-27. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striate, thin, diaphanous, olivaceous corne- 
ous, with irregular yellowish radiating strigations, spire slightly 
concave; whorls 5, convex, the last inflated; peristome acute, reflect- 
ed, white-lipped within, margins distant. Diam. 26 mill. 

Brittany, Spain. 
H. Corisopitensis, Desh., and H. Kermorvani, Coll., are synonyms. 

Subsection VII, CHILOTREMA, Leach, 1820. 

H. LAPICIDA, Linn. PL 31, figs. 18, 19. 

Openly umbilicated, very minutely granulated, yellow corneous, 
maculated with brown; whorls 5, flatly convex, the last suddenly 



HELIX. 117 

deflected in front, periphery acutely carinated ; aperture horizontal, 
peristome continuous, solute, sublabiate, columellar margin reflected. 
Diam. 17-20 mill. 

Middle and Northern Europe, Madeira. 

H. affinis, Gmel., H. acuta, Da Costa, H. rhenana, Hartm., H. expla- 
nata, Schranck, H. Lecoquii, Paton, H. mamillata, Risso, and per- 
haps H. albella, Linn. (= juv.), are synonyms. 



Unfigured Species. 
H. ANDORRICA, Bourg. Pyrenees. 

Section III, ARIONTA, Leach, 1820. 
A. European Species. 

H. ARBUSTORUM, Linn. PI. 32, figs. 43, 44. 

Subcovered perforate, rather thin, shining, very minutely spirally 
striate, longitudinally subrugosely striate, striae stronger at the 
suture, brown, spotted with straw color, usually with a chestnut 
band; whorls 6, convex, the last scarcely deflected in front; peristome 
white-lipped, upper margin expanded, basal margin reflected. 

Diam. 24 mill. 

Middle and Western Europe. 

H. Gothiea, Linn, and If. unifasciata, Da Costa are synonyms ; 
H. turgidula, Wood is a scalariform monstrosity. Extends from the 
valleys to an elevation of 8600 feet. 

Var. PICEA, Ziegler. PI. 32, fig. 45. 

Very thin, papyraceous, olive or chestnut, unicolored, or with a 
band, rugosely plicate. Diam. 20 mill. 

H. Wittmanni, Zawadsky is a synonym. 

Var. JETSCHINI, Kobelt. PI. 33, fig. 51. 

Nearly unicolored, very rarely here and there spotted with yellow, 
thin, translucent. 

Var. DOROS, Paulucci. 

Deep uniform olivaceous green, without spots, sometimes with a 
faint band. 

Mt. Bar one, Piedmont. 



118 HELIX. 

Var. XATARTII, Far. PI. 32, figs. 49, 50. 

Solid, greenish yellow, brownish below 7 , umbilicus moderate, sub- 
obsolete. Diam. 18 mill. 

H. Canigonensis, Boube is a synonym. 

Var. CAMPRODUNICA, Kobelt. PI. 33, fig. 76. 

Solid, depressed, small distinctly costulate-striate, yellowish brown, 
with a few yellowish maculations, and a superior brown band, last 
whorl scarcely descending or dilated, lip almost reflected, with white 
callus within the margin, columellar margin almost covering the 
umbilicus. Diam. 17 mill. 

Spanish Pyrenees. 

Var. RUDIS, Megerle. PI. 32, fig. 46. 

Smaller, umbilicated, globosely depressed, spire somewhat flat- 
tened, maculated with yellow in transverse lines, epidermis rugosely 
plicate. Diam. 21 mill. 

Alps of Tyrol; Scandinavia. 

Var. REPELLINI, Charp. 

Depressed, thin, pellucid, pale colored. Diam. 23, alt. 14 mill. 

Italy. 
Var. ALPESTRIS, Ziegler. PI. 32, figs. 47, 48. 

Smaller, solid, yellowish, single banded. Diam. 10 mill. 

H. subalpina, Hartm. Ms. is a synonym. 

Var. CONOIDEA, West. 

Large, conical, subperforate, subcostulate, with a single, rather 
broad band. Diam. 23-24, alt. 25-26 mill. 

Var. CALCAREA, Hogb. 

Thick, chalky, solid, dark chestnut color, with yellowish macula-, 
tions, dark purple in the aperture. Diam. 22-25 mill. 

Var. EXCELSA, Clessin. 

Very large, thick, normally colored. Diam. 30 mill. 

Roumania. 

H. AETHIOPS, Bielz. PL 33, figs. 52, 53. 

Perforate, very thin, irregularly plicately striate, shining, blackish- 
or brownish-olivaceous; whorls 4, somewhat convex, the last not 
descending in front; peristome slightly white-lipped, a little expand- 
ed, margins scarcely converging. Diam. 18 mill. 

High mountains in Transylvania. 



HELIX. 119 

H. STYRIACA, Frauenfeld. PL 33, figs. 54, 55. 

Moderately umbilicated, \vith rather rough incremental striae, and 
slight spiral lines, sometimes obsolete, dark corneous brown, here 
and there darker, with radiating strigations anjcl maculations of 
light yellowish, with a superior dark brown spiral band, whorls 5, 
aperture large, white-lipped, a little inclined above, dilated below. 

Diam. 25'5, alt, 12'5 mill. 

Styria. 

Probably a flattened, umbilicated variety of H. arbustorum. 



Un figured Species. 

H. THAMNIVAGA, Mabille. Plombieres. 

H. THEMITA, Mabille. Hungary. 

H. FAGOTI, Bourg. France. 

B. California Species. 

H. STEABNSIANA, Gabb. PI. 33, fig. 56. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, with fine oblique incremental strise, 
sometimes crossed by slight revolving lines ; whitish, with crowded 
ash-colored spots, grouped below into revolving series, and a supe- 
rior brown band ; whorls 5, rather convex ; aperture obliquely semi- 
circular, peristome simple, acute, columellar margin expanded. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

Lower California, and at San. Diego, Cal. 

H. KELLETTI, Forbes. PI. 33, fig. 57. 

Narrowly umbilicated, or imperforate (in adults) thin, granulated, 
obliquely striated, with slight impressed spiral lines, fulvous, with 
brownish blotches and a superior band ; whorls 6, rather convex, 
the last with a white peripheral band, and basally inflated ; aperture 
reddish and banded within, peristome thin, scarcely reflected. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

San Diego, and Catalina Isl., California. 

H. CALIFORNIENSIS, Lea. PL 33, fig. 58. 

Subperforate, subglobular, thin and transparent, shining, delicately 
indented and granulated, faintly, regularly striated, yellowish horn 
color, minutely pale spotted, with a superior chestnut, light margined 
band ; whorls 5, convexly rounded, base ventricose ; peristome thick- 
ened within, slightly expanded, columellar margin nearly covering 
the umbilicus. Diam. 19 mill. 

Monterey, California. 



120 HELIX. 

The above is a rare species, more nearly allied than the others to 
the European H. arbustorum. Dr. J. G. Cooper, and following him 
Mr. W. G. Binney refer to Californiensis as varieties, H. NicUin- 
iana, H. ramentosa, H. reticulata. H. Diabloensis, etc., all of which 
appear to me to belong to an entirely different group, and I have so 
treated them (see pp. 73, 74.). H. vincta, Val. (figured but not de- 
scribed) is a synonym. 

Section IV, EURYSTOMA, Albers, 1850. 

H. VITTATA, Miiller. PL 33, figs. 59, 60, 62. 

Perforate, striated, shining, whitish, variously banded with brown 
and yellow, apex black ; whorls 5, somewhat planulate, the last with 
convex base, descending in front ; aperture dark brown, peristome 
labiate, expanded, margins joining by a callus, columellar dilated, 
partly covering the umbilicus. Diam. 28 mill. 

Ceylon, Malabar, CoromandeL 

H. zonula, Wood (fig. 62) is a synonym. 

Var. SPINOL^, Villa. PI. 33, fig. 61. 

Smaller, white, unicolored, apex bluish brown. Diam. 22 mill. 

CONTINUATION OF TRYON'S MONOGRAPH OF THE 
HELICID.E, BY H. A. PILSBRY. 

Group X, PENTAT^NIA, A. Schmidt. 

Shell globose or somewhat depressed, of moderate or large size, 
imperforate or moderately umbilicate, usually with five revolving 
bands ; animal provided with a dart ; jaw moderately arched, and, 
except in Allognathus, w r ith strong separated ribs, usually few in 
number, and grouped on its median portion ; the central teeth have 
a strong middle cusp ; the side cusps are usually obsolete ; the lat- 
erals are similar, but asymmetrical ; the marginal teeth have several 
short cusps. 

I follow Kobelt in grouping the following subgenera under the 
general head of Pentatsenia. The number of bands in nearly every 
species of the group is normally five, but frequently is less, through 
coalescence or absence of bands. This pentatseniate character will 
separate the group from the preceding, Arionta, which has one or 
three bands, and from Rhayada Xeropliila, etc., which have numerous 
bands. The group is European in distribution, and comprises the 
largest and most characteristic helices of that region. 



HELIX. 121 

Section I, TACHEA Leach, 1820. 

Imperforate, globose-conic or depressed, smooth and shining, 
highly colored, banded with a contrasting shade, last whorl ventri- 
cose, slightly deflected at aperture; peristome expanded, labiate, 
columellar lip callous, gibbous. Conspicuous garden-snails of Europe, 
introduced by commerce into America, Australia, etc. type, H. 
nemoralis L. 

Section II, EREMINA, Pfeiffer, 1855. 

Depressed globose, flattened above, convex below, rudely striate, 
cretaceous, solid, white, or marked with dull reddish. Deserts of 
Egypt and Syria. Type, H. desertorum Forsk. 

Section III, MACULARIA Albers, 1850. 

Imperforate, globose or depressed, whorls 4 or 5, the last usually 
strongly deflexed at aperture; peristome expanded, callous within, 
the columellar margin dilated and appressed, callous and sometimes 
dentate within. Large species, characteristic of southern Europe, 
especially Spain, and northern Africa. Type, H. vermiculata Mull. 

Section IV, ALLOGNATHUS Pilsbry, 1888. 

Imperforate, globose thin, whorls rapidly increasing, the last 
large, convex below; aperture rotund-lunate, rounded below; peri. 
stome slightly expanded; jaw arcuate, smooth, without median pro- 
jection, stride or ribs. Type H. grateloupi Graells. Ins. Majorca. 

Section V, HEMICYCLA Swainson, 1840. 

Shell covered perforate, globosely depressed, rugosely sculptured, 
malleated; aperture very oblique, lunate-oval, peristome reflected, 
thickened within, upper and lower margins sub-parallel, the latter 
often toothed. Type, H. plicaria Lam. Shells resembling both 
Macularia and Leptaxis; distribution, Canary and Cape Verd Is. 

Section VI, PLEBICULA Lowe, 1852. 

Umbilicate or imperforate, subglobose, striate, hispid, granulate, 
aperture rounded, peristome simple, margins approaching, subreflex- 
ed on columellar margins. Type, H. punctulata Sowb. 

Madeira Is. 

Section VII, LEPTAXIS Lowe, 1852. 

Thin, umbilicate or imperforate, globose or depressed, striate or 
wrinkled, periphery sometimes keeled, base inflated; columella 



122 HELIX. 

entering, more or less dilated, peristome slightly expanded, extremi- 
ties converging; dark brown, unicolored, or obscurely banded, Azores, 
Madeira Is. etc. Type, H. undata, Lowe. 

Section VIII, IBERUS, Montfort, 1810. 

Narrowly umbilicate or imperforate, globose, or depressed, periph- 
ery sometimes sharply keeled, whitish, obsoletely fasciate, more or 
less rugose, whorls 4-5, the last anteriorly descending ; aperture very 
oblique, peristome expanded, labiate, reflexed at columellar margin. 
Type, If. muralis, Mull. Characteristic of middle and southern 
Italy and Sicily, but found throughout southern Europe. 

Section IX, POMATIA Beck, 1837. 

Large, globose, striate, rather thin, imperforate or narrowly per- 
forate, unicolored or five banded, whorls convex, rapidly increasing, 
last large, ventricose, descending anteriorly ; aperture lunate-orbicu- 
lar, peristome expanded or sharp, callous within, columellar margin 
reflected. Type H. pomatia L. Distribution, Europe, Western 
Asia and Northern Africa. Introduced by commerce into America 
etc. 



Section I, TACHEA Leach, 1820. 

This group comprises the most abundant and conspicuous European 
snails. Several species have been introduced by commerce into 
distant countries. 

The shells are bright colored and banded, the color pattern very 
variable. 

Cepaea Held, 1837, and Archelix Albers 1850 are synonyms. 

The jaw in Tachea (PL 35, fig. 15,) is stout, arched, with strong 
ribs, few in number, denticulating either margin. The dentition is 
characterized by the obsolecence of side cusps to the central and 
adjacent lateral teeth ; marginal teeth with several cusps. 

H. NEMORALIS, Linn. PI. 34, figs. 94-96, PL 35, fig. 97. 

Imperforate, subglobose conic, irregularly striate, yellow, with five 
sharply defined deep brown bands, sometimes coalescent, or unicolored 
white, pink, yellow or bright corneous ; whorls 5, the last slightly 
descending in front; aperture rotund-lunar, peristome expanded, 



HELIX. 123 

labiate, dark brown, its extremities connected by a callus of the 
same color; columella straight, flattened, callous within. 

Diam. 20-25 mill. 

Western, Middle, and Northern Europe. 

The synonymy includes H. citicta, H. quinquefasciata, Shepp., H. 
etrusca, Ziegl, If. imperfecta and H. olivacea, Risso, H. turturum, 
Stew. 

In the arrangement of bands this form, like all species of Tachea, 
is interminably varied. 

Var. CONOIDEA, Clessin. 

Spire conoid, elevated. Diam. 22, alt 18 mill. Bavaria. 

Var. ERJAVECI, Kobelt. PI. 35, fig. 98. 

Broadly two banded, the bands broken into streaks in the direc- 
tion of the striae. Gorz. 

Var. LUCIFUGA, Ziegl. 

Large, solid, thick shelled. Diam. 30 mill. Italy. 

Synonyms : var. appennina, Stab., H. genuensis, Porro. 

Varieties albolabiata and roseolabiata are sufficiently described by 
their names. Var. libellula, Risso is diaphanous, green, peristome 
reddish violet. Var. creticola. Morch, is a large heavy form of 30 
mill, diam., from Sweden. Var. porrecta, Westerlund from Sweden, 
in which the suture does not descend at aperture; etc., etc. 

H. HORTENSIS, Miiller. PL 35, figs. 99, 1. 

Similar in form to H. nemoralis ; somewhat smaller ; peristome 
white, its ends connected by a light white callus on parietal wall; 
bands five, subject to the same mutations as those of H. nemoralis. 

Northern and Central Europe, Westward to Pyrenees; introduced 
into Eastern U. S. and Canada. 

H. ludoviciana d'Aumont, and H. subglobosa, Binn. are synonyms. 
Var. TROCHOIDEA, Clessin. Diam. 19, alt 17 mill. 
Var. PERFORATA, Westerlund. 

Yellow, five fasciate, deeply perforate. Gotland. 

Var. ARENICOLA, Macq. 

Thin pellucid, pale yellow, white banded; Scotland. 



124 HELIX. 

Var. HYBRIDA, Poir. PL 35, fig. 100. 

Peristome and parietal callus pale reddish. 

If. sauveuri, Colb. is synonymous. 

The hortensis is considered by many conchologists to be a variety 
of H. nemoralis, with which the Var. hybrida connects it. 

H. VINDOBONENSIS, C. Pfr. PI. 34, figs. 89-93. 

Im perforate, globose conic, heavily striate, whitish or yellowish, 
.with five unbroken deep brown bands, the upper two usually nar- 
row ; whorls 5, the last large, convex, descending anteriorly; aperture 
widely rotund-lunar, peristome brown, expanded, labiate, appressed 
and flattened below, bearing on columella a white tipped callus. 

Diam. 20-25 mill. 

Central and Eastern Europe; Caucasus. 

The synonymy includes H. austriaca, Miihl., mutabilis Hartm. 
arvensis, Kryn., and subaustriaca, Bourg. 

The bands are sometimes coalescent, but are usually more stable 
than in other species of Tachea. 

Var. EXPALLESCENS, Ziegl. PI. 34, fig. 90, 91. 
Bands obsolete, pale brown or wanting. 

Var. MINOR, Rossm. PI. 34, fig. 93. 

Small, globose ; altitude nearly equal to diameter. 

H. ATROLABIATA, Krynicki. PL 34, fig. 83. 

Large, depressed globose, imperforate, solid, rudely and irregular- 
ly striate, somewhat malleate ; epidermis thin, yellowish, with one 
to three deep, brown revolving bands ; spire conic, apex obtuse, whorls 
5 to 6, the last rounded, descending anteriorly ; aperture widely lu- 
nar, peristome deep brown, widely reflected and labiate, apprised 
at umbilical region, margins joined by a dark callus, columellar 
margin flattened, wide, thickened near the middle. Diam. 40 mill. 

Caucasus. 

H. calligera, and var. repanda, Dubois, and var. decussata, Bottg. 
are synonyms. 

Var. STAUROPOLITANA, A. Schmidt. PL 34, fig. 86. 

More elevated, with more oblique aperture ; roughly malleate,. 
and conspicuously fasciate. Diam. 35, alt. 21-25 mill. 



HELIX. 125 

Var. LENKORANEA, Mousson. PI. 34, fig. 85. 

Small, depressed globose, columellar scarcely dentate, fascia sub- 
interrupted ; sculpture rough. 

Southern Shore, Caspian Sea. 

Var. PALLASI, Dubois. PL 34, fig. 84. 

Radiating streaks of brown ; no bands. 

Imeretia. 

Var. NEMORALOIDES, Mart. PL 34, fig. 87. 

Small, globose, weakly striate, one or tsvo fasciate. 

Diam. 30 mill. Georgia. 

H. SYLVATICA, Drap. PL 35, figs. 47, 15. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, yellowish white, striate, five fas- 
ciate, the bands much interrupted, broken into maculations, whorls 
5, last slightly descending ; aperture oblique, widely lunate, peri- 
stome expanded, labiate, light brown, slightly thickened on columel- 
lar margin, and expanded over the umbilicus. 

France, Switzerland. 

The median bands are less maculated than those above and below. 

Synonyms are H. signata var. a, Fer., and H. mutabilis, Hartm. 

Var. MONTANA, Studer. PL 35, fig. 2. 

More conic ; whorls more convex, with a dentiform callus on col- 
umellar margin of peristome. 

Switzerland. 

Var. EXIMIA, Dup. 

Larger, bands confluent. Diam. 24 mill. 

Dauphiny. 

Var. ALPICOLA, Fer. 

Smaller, more convex and inflated ; heavily striate, deeply colored. 

Var. RIIKNANA, Kobelt. PL 35, fig. 9. 

White, maculated bands of pale brown ; no continuous bands. 

Upper Rhine Valley. 
H. COQUANDI, Morelet. PL 35, figs. 12-14. 

Imperforate, globose depressed, slightly convex below; finely 
>triate, yellowish brown or rosy, variously fasciate, whorls 5J, the 
last deflexed anteriorly, aperture oval, peristome labiate, expanded, 
slightly reflexed below, columellar margin dilated, rose colored, 
covering umbilical region. Diam. 34 mill. 

Morocco, Southern Spain. 



126 HELIX. 

H. AIMOPHILA, Bourgnignat. PI. 34, fig. 88. 

Globose, subperforate, solid, chalky white, irregularly striate r 
apex obtuse, sutures impressed, aperture oblong lunate, peristome 
simple, acute, columella reflexed, almost covering umbilicus. 

Diam. 25, alt. 23 mill. 

Asia Minor. 
Var. TCHIHATCHEFFI, Kobelt. PI. 35, fig. 17. 

Umbilicus wider ; conspicuously five fasciate. 

Biledschik. 

Var. AIMOPHILOPSIS, Villeserre, Unfigured Asia Minor. 

It is similar to aimophila, but imperforate. 
H. GIBBOSULA, Desh. PI. 35, fig. 3. 

Globose, irregularly striate, white, with three unequal bands, 
spire short, conic, obtuse ; whorls 5, narrow, convex, the last large, 
convex, imperforate ; base gibbous ; aperture small, semilunar, lip 
slightly thickened, wide below. Diam. 17, alt. 16 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

I know nothing of the real position of this species or of the next. 
It may be identical with some of the preceding, or possibly belong- 
ing to a wholly different group. 

H. FILOSA, Desh. PL 35, fig. 18. 

Imperforate, subglobose, smooth, yellowish, encircled by narrow 
dark bands, which are continued upon the peristome ; spire short, 
apex obtuse, reddish ; whorls 5, slightly convex ; aperture rotund 
semilunar, peristome labiate, dilated, white with purplish spots. 

Diam. 30, alt. 25 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Like vindobonensis, but in that species the bands are not contin- 
ued to the margin of lip. 

H. LITTUREA, Pfr. PL 35, fig. 16. 

Imperforate, turbinate, semiglobose, solid, striate, minutely ru- 
gose, malleate, shining, pinkish, with revolving series of reddish 
markings ; spire depressed turbinate, apex somewhat acute, whorls 
5, slightly convex, the last scarcely descending, with rounded periph- 
ery, encircled by chestnut tessellated bands ; base convex ; aperture 
rotund lunar, peristome simple, right margin expanded, columellar 
subcallous. Diam. 23, alt. 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Perhaps is a form of H. sylvatiea. 



HELIX. 127 

Section II, EREMINA, Pfr. 1855. 

Desert snails of North-east Africa and Syria, with essentially the 
same structure as Tachea, but, like all desert forms, thick, heavy 
and calcareous. The jaw is slightly arcuate, with a few strong ribs 
on its central portion. Teeth, as is usual in the Pentateenia, lacking 
side cusps ; central cusp long as the base. Erinna, Morch 1865 
and Eremophila, Kobelt 1871, are synonyms. 

H. DESERTOKUM, Forskal. PI. 35, figs. 19-23 ; PL 46, fig. 63. 

Subcovered umbilicate, rather thick, subglobose, depressed above, 
tumid below, irregularly striate, chalky white unicolored, or with 
zones or radiating streaks of reddish brown ; whorls 4, the last 
large, scarcely descending anteriorly, aperture widely lunate, sub- 
angular below ; peristome simple, obtuse or somewhat expanded, di- 
lated partially over umbilicus. Diam. 30 mill. 

Egypt, Syria, Palestine. 

H. maculosa, Bora, H. rhodia, Chem., H. irregularis and H. ni- 
cceensis, Fer., H. arabica, Roth., H. forskalii, Ehr., H. psammitus, 
and H. gemmellarii, Arad. and Mag. are synonyms. 

Var. HASSELQUISTI, Ehrenb. PL 36, fig. 24. 

White, inflated, irregularly rugose, striate, aperture dark within-. 
Var. HEMPRICHTII, Ehrenb. PL 36, fig. 25. 

More inflated, mouth rounder, peristome expanded and much 
thickened, double, continued beyond the expansion ; columella with 
a shining white callus. The form called H. chilembia by Bourgui- 
gnat represents the extreme development of this variety. 

H. DTLLWYNIANA, Pfr. PL 36, figs. 29-30. . 

Umbilicate, depressed, solid, irregularly rugose, and lightly mal- 
leate, chalky, shining, spire nearly flat, apex prominent, brown ; 
whorls 4*, the last rounded, shortly deflexed in front, base inflated, 
umbilicus narrow ; aperture very oblique, wide lunate, white within; 
peristome acute, thickened within, reflexed at base. * 

Diam. 31, alt. 14 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Said by Kobelt to be an abnormal H. desertorum. 

H. DESERTELLA, Jickeli. PL 36, figs. 26-28. 

Covered perforate, depressed globose, solid, lightly striate, white, 
unicolored or trifasciate, maculate above; spire depressed conic, 
whorls 4J, inflated, rapidly increasing, the last rounded, descending 







, )ft 

128 HELIX. 

in front, aperture oblique, rounded lunar, peristome recurved, labiate, 
margins converging. Diam. 22, alt. 16 mill. 

Abyssinia. 

H. DUROI, Hidalgo. PL 45, figs. 38-40. 

Imperforate or umbilicate, depressed globose, solid, somewhat shin- 
ing, rugulose malleate, longitudinally striate, white with four rufous 
bands, spire obtuse, slightly convex, or depressed, whorls 5, scarcely 
convex, regularly increasing, the last twice as wide as penultimate? 
smoother below, strongly deflexed anteriorly ; aperture transverse, 
white, shining ; peristome widely reflexed, labiate, arcuate above, 
subhorizontal below with a more or less developed wide callus, adnate 
to body. Diam. 35, alt. 19 mill. 

Morocco. 

Has much the appearance ofMacularta, but said by Kobelt to be 
:an Eremina. 

Section III, MACULARIA, Albers, 1850. 

A group of large species, characteristic of Southern Europe and 
Northern Africa. They are related on one hand to Tacked-, through 
.such species as H. splendida, and on the other to the insular groups 
Hemicycla and Leptaxis. The Italian subgenus Iberus is also con- 
nected by nearly intermediate forms with the depressed Macularise. 
The central teeth lack lateral cusps ; and the jaw, as in Tachea etc., 
is moderately arched, and bears a few strong, separated ribs. 

Otala, Moq-Tand. 1855 is a synonym. 

H. VERMICULATA, Miiller. PL 37, figs. 54-57. 

Imperforate, globo^e-depressed, yellowish .or dirty white, with five 
brown bands, the upper one, or sometimes all broken into irregular 
maculations ; surface sculptured with numerous minute vermiform 
white anastomosing wrinkles ; whorls 5, the last descending ante- 
riorly ; aperture very oblique, broadly lunate ; peristome white, 
labiate and widely reflected, thickened on columellar margin. 

Diam. 30-35 mill. 

Southern Europe, Northern Africa. 

A common species, variable in color somewhat. It is Hartmann's 
H. laclea, H. muraloides, Chier. and H. thalassina, Porro. 

Yar. SAHARICA, Kobelt. PL 37, fig. 59. 
A small, thick shelled form. 

Southern Algiers. 






^SK 

' \V OF THE \i 

HELIX. ; 129 

Var. LINUSJE Calcara. PL 37, fig. 58. 

Smaller than type, with more globose and thicker shell and larger 
aperture. 

Ins. Linosa, near Malta. 

H. linuisiana Benoit is the same. 

Var. SUBANGULATA Issel. 

Shell smaller, more solid, aperture subangulate. Malta. 

Letourneux and Bourguignat describe but do not figure vars. 
minuta and pelagosana from Tunis. 

H. PUNICA Morelet. PI. 40, figs. 6-9. 

Imperforate, globosely depressed, transversely dilated, lightly 
striate, with decussating revolving striae, white, with four subequal 
brown bands ; spire conoid, whorls 5, slightly convex, regularly in- 
creasing, the last rounded, deflexed at aperture ; aperture very ob- 
lique, truncate-oblong, showing the bands within ; peristome narrowly 
reflected, slightly labiate, widened on columella, brownish. 

Diam. 31, alt. 20 mill. 

Constantine, Algiers. 
H. CONSTANTINO Forbes. PI. 37, figs. 60-62. 

Imperforate, subglobose, striatulate, shining, whitish, five-banded, 
bands brown, sometimes obselete, whorls 5, convex, the last deflected 
anteriorly ; aperture rounded-lunate, peristome expanded, sublabiate, 
columella margin with a heavy subdentate callus. Diam. 27 mill. 

North Africa. 

H. drt(K Terver is a synonym. 

Var. FLEURATI Bourg. PL 37, fig. 66. 

Substance of shell calcareous ; form more globular ; whorls less 
rapidly increasing. 

Tunis. 
H. BOGHARIENSIS Debeaux. PL 39, figs. 1-3. 

Imperforate, more or less depressed globose, typically thin shelled, 
but sometimes rather heavy, with fine incremental striae, coarser at 
sutures, and sparse, short, broken impressed transverse lines, some- 
what malleate, dirty white or yellowish, with five (sometimes four) 
bands, showing through the shell ; whorls 5, the last inflated and 
greatly descending at aperture ; aperture oblique, wide, with a thin 
broadly reflected peristome, slightly labiate within ; fauces white. 

Diam. 36 mill. 

Bogliar and %oukhrari, Algiers. 

Very near to H. constantince. 



130 HELIX. 

H. PARETIANA Issel. PI. 45, %. 41. 

Shell large, imperforate, subglobose, ventricose, irregularly striate, 
with lightly impressed spiral lines, white, with reddish bands; 
whorls 5, convex, the last inflated, deflexed anteriorly ; sutures im- 
pressed, aperture very widely lunar, peristome narrowly reflected, 
oppressed and dilated at base; throat reddish. 

Diam. 41, alt. 32 mill. Monaco, (fossil.) 

H. moncecensis Ramber is a synonym. Perhaps this species be- 
longs in Tachea. 

H. LACTEA Miiller. PI. 39, figs. 89-96. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, solid, obliquely striate, with fine 
revolving lines, dirty white, variously fasciate with rufous, rarely 
unicolored by absence or coalescence of bands; spire slightly eleva- 
ted, apex obtuse; whorls 4J-5, slightly convex, rather rapidly in- 
creasing, the last wide, rounded, profoundly deflected anteriorly; 
aperture very oblique, truncate-oval, deep brown or black and 
shining within, peristome expanded, obtuse, dark colored, margins 
subparallel, connected by a black callus which covers the umbilical 
tract; columella with a heavy callus within, subdentate. 

Diam. 25-40 mill. 

Spain, Canary Is. North Africa ; Introduced into Cuba, Buenos 
Ayres, and other Spanish colonies. 

H. irrorata Say, H. fauci-nigra Chem, H. punctatissima Jeniss, 
H. flattersiana Ancey, H. tagina Servain and perhaps H. hispanica 
Mich, are synonymous. H. axia Bourg. is a small unfigured form, 
and with H. Jacquementana Bourg. from the Canary Is., likewise 
unfigured, may be placed here. 

Var. BATHYLJEMA Bourg. 

Whorls smaller, the last inflated; mouth short and rounded; 
outer lip more strongly reflected than in the following varieties. 

Balearic Is. 

Yar. ALYBENSIS Kobelt. PI. 39, fig. 97. 

A small solid form, with fine sculpture and distinct bands; whorls 
five; aperture intensely black. Diam. 30 mill. 

Gibraltar. 
Var. TAGINA Servain. 

Similar to H. nlybensis but usually flatter, with more swollen 
outer whorl. Spaii 



UNIVERSITY 




H. GIBBOSO-BASALIS Wollastou. Unfigured. 

Similar to H. lactea, but smaller, nearly concolored, dark brown, 
without white points or flecks; spire obtuse; whorls 4, not much 
deflexed at aperture; basal margin of peristome with a distinct 
tooth. Diam. 24 mill. 

Northern part of Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

H. ATAVORUM Mabille. PL 40, fig. 11. 

Imperforate, subglobose, solid, thick, destitute of cuticle, roughly 
obliquely malleate, and costulately -striate, grayish brown, obscurely 
five-fasciate ; spire conoidal, prominent ; apex minute, obtuse, slightly 
striate, shining; whorls 6, slightly convex, very rapidly increasing, 
the last large, globose, subangulate in front of the aperture, becoming 
rotund-turgid, and somewhat descending at termination of whorl; 
aperture oblique, rotund lunate, peristome thick, narrowly reflected, 
appressed at base, regularly curved, terminations distant, connected 
by a thin callus ; base thickened inside with a subtriangular denti- 
form callus. Diam. 31 mill. Grand Canary Id. (fossil.) 

H. AHMARINA (Bourg.) Mabille. PL 40, fig. 13. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, solid, thick, shining, not transpa- 
rent, with undulating interrupted spiral lines and incremental striae; 
color greyish, strewn with white dots and flecks, and encircled with 
four dark bands; spire conic, slightly elevated, acute at the corneous 
or pinkish apex ; whorls over 5, the last large, rounded, abruptly 
descending anteriorly; aperture oblique, oval-elongate, maroon 
colored inside. Diam. 29-34 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. PUNCTATA Muller. PL 39, figs. 99-100. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, solid, with minute revolving lines 
and incremental striae, color dirty white, four or five banded with 
brown or rufous, bands generally indistinct, clouded, or coalescent, 
rarely wanting, strewn with white points and flecks ; spire depressed 
conic ; whorls 5, slightly convex, more or less rapidly increasing, 
the last large, inflated, decidedly deflexed anteriorly ; aperture ob- 
lique, widely semioval, blackish or brown within ; peristome broadly 
expanded, reflexed, appressed and thickened within at base, black, 
the extremities approaching, connected by a dark callus. 

Diam. 30-45 mill. 

Spain ; Northern Africa ; Canary and Balearic Is ; introduced 
into Cuba and other Spanish colonies. 



132 HELIX. 

The synonymy includes H. lactea Fer. and some other authors,. 
H. canariensis Villa, H. punctatissima Jen., H. bredeana, If. engas- 
tora, If. stomatodea, If. bandotiana, If. calendyma Bourguignat. 

Differs from If. lactea in having a thinner, smoother shell, bands 
more disposed to be coalescent and clouded, and basal callus not so 
decidedly dentate within. 

Var. APALOLENA Bourguignat. PL 64, figs. 4, 5. 

Differs from the typical form in its more depressed outline, thinner, 
smoother shell ; whorls more rapidly increasing in width, and con- 
sequently aperture more elongated transversely. 

Mediterranean littoral region of Spain and France; Balearic Is. 

H. BLEICHERI Paladilhe. PI. 39, fig. 98. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, spire depressed conic, thick, with 
fine, curved, irregular incremental striae, crossed by broken revolv- 
ing lines, as in the preceding forms, and with vermiform transversely 
elongated minute wrinkles, and quadri-fasciata, when young some- 
what angulate around periphery ; fauces and columella margin deep 
castaneous ; aperture very dark within, rotund-lunar, very oblique, 
more regularly oval than in H. punctata ; peristome narrowly re- 
flexed, its ends converging, connected by a thin castaneous callus. 

Morocco. 

Probably a variety of H. lactea Miiller. 

H. TINGITANA Paladilhe. PI. 64, figs. 1-3. 

Imperforate, globose-conic, solid, opaque, shining, with fine wrink- 
les, undulating revolving lines, and regular incremental striae; 
whorls 4-5, encircled by four or five yellowish-purple unbroken 
bands, the upper ones usually confluent ; spire depressed-conoidal, 
upper whorls rather flattened, rapidly increasing, abruptly deflected 
at aperture ; aperture large, truncate-oval ; peristome regularly 
curved above, straighter below, ends slightly converging, connected 
by a light callus ; outer lip broadly expanded, light colored ; throat 
and thickened columellar callus deep brown. Diain. 29 mill. 

Between Tanger and Melcnes* 

Specimens before me are decidedly larger than above indicated. 

H. LTJCASII Deshayes. PL 40, figs. 14, 15. 

Imperforate, orbicularly depressed, smooth, white, with five broad 
dark brown bands ; spire short ; apex brown and white, obtuse, 
whorls somewhat flattened, the last convex and descending anteriorly ; 



HELIX. 133 

tiperture very broadly semilunar, oblique, nearly black within ; 
peristome expanded, obtuse, black, the ends converging and con- 
nected by a black callus ; a dentate callus on columella. 

Diam. 35, alt. 18-20 mill. 

Oran, Algiers. 

It is H. lactea var. of Rossm., and H. hispanica Mich. It is 
flatter than H. lactea, with less oblique aperture. The bands are 
usually continuous and distinct. 

H. GHAZOUANA Debeaux. PI. 46, figs. 47, 48. 

Covered umbilicate, depressed globose, solid, very finely striate, 
under the lens finely spirally striate, white, encircled by five deep 
chestnut zones, which are interrupted throughout by vermicular 
white flecks and spots, behind the aperture and between the bands 
covered with numerous netted anastomosing lines ; spire depressed 
conoid, apex small, slightly prominent ; suture simple, linear ; whorls 
o, regularly, rapidly increasing, the first a little flattened, last rather 
inflated, rounded, below subplane, anteriorly deeply deflexed ; aper- 
ture very oblique, ovate rotund, distinctly lunate, deep blackish 
brown within ; peristome acute, upper and outer margins expanded, 
deep brown, edged with fuscous, margins subcon verging, joined by 
a thin callus, the basal margin thickened, at first straight, then 
sharply tuberculate, before the tubercle lightly excavated, and join- 
ing the outer lip with a slight angle. Diam. 27, alt. 16 mill. 

Near Nemours, Algiers. 

This form differs from H. lucasi in the lesser size, more solid 
shell, and white-punctate bands. 

H. HIEROGLYPHICULA Michaud. PI. 40, figs. 17-19. 

Imperforate, depressed, solid, shining, white, with brown flecks 
and four or five deep brown bands, the upper often interrupted ; 
revolving lines and incremental striae very minute ; spire dome- 
shaped, depressed ; whorls 5, flattened; apex smooth, obtuse ; body 
whorl swollen, turgid below on its last half, abruptly deflexed in 
front ; aperture very oblique, small, oblong, peristome slightly ex- 
panded, white, labiate, with a broad prominently dentate callus at 
base ; margins connected by a light callus ; fauces and columella 
deep castaneous. Diam. 24 mill. 

Oran, Algiers. 

A " var. " integrivittis, with bands not interrupted, has been de- 
scribed by Ancey. (PI. 40, fig. 16.) 

H. oranica Bourg. is a synonym. 



134 HELIX. 

H. ALABASTRITES Michaud. PL 40, figs. 20-22. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, lightly striate, shining, white, 
sometimes with five pale bands ; spire convex, obtuse ; whorls 5, 
flattened, the last compressed, obsoletely angulate, profoundly de- 
flexed anteriorly; aperture subhorizontal, truncate-ovate; peristome 
labiate, slightly expanded, extremities converging, connected by a 
light callus, columella with a thick callus. Diam. 24 mill. 

Or an, Algiers. 

N. soluta Mich, is a synonym. 

A forma minor has been noted by Ancey, diam. 20 mill. Easily 
recognized by the great obliquity of mouth, solid texture and sub- 
angulate whorls. 

H. ATLASICA Mousson. PI. 37, figs. 69-71. 

Imperforate, globose-depressed, lightly striate and decussate, 
smooth, shining, white, greyish or brownish, with five bands, the 
three upper usually more or less confluent, and variegated with 
patches of white; spire slightly convex, summit not prominent; 
sutures linear; whorls 45, the last large; aperture oblique, trans- 
versely ovate ; peristome acute, expanded, labiate with white ; ends 
not converging, connected by a light callus ; columella thickened 
within. Diam. 22 mill. 

A tlas Range of Western Morocco. 

H. ALCYONE Kobelt. PL 40, figs. 23-25. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic, somewhat thick, smoothish, shining,, 
finely striate, whitish, with four conspicuous corneous-brown bands, 
broken into cloudy maculations, with intermediate corneous patches ; 
whorls 5, regularly coiled, the last widened at aperture, slightly 
tumid below ; aperture very oblique, transversely ovate ; peristome 
and columella white, fauces reddish ; columella straight. 

Diam. 28; alt. 16 mill. Southern Morocco. 

H. JUILLETI Terver. PL 41, figs. 26, 27. 

Imperforate, subglobose-conoidal, rather solid, shining, lightly 
irregularly striate, and with very minute spiral lines, slightly mal- 
leate, white, with irregular corneous maculations, especially above ; 
banded with four or five reddish brown zones; whorls 6, regularly 
increasing, upper ones somewhat flattened, the last a little dilate'd,. 
profoundly deflexed anteriorly ; base convex ; aperture very oblique, 



HELIX. 135 

lunate-oval, brown inside; peristome white, margins connected by a 
light callus ; columella wide, gibbous, callous. Diam. 32 mill. 

Mascara and Saida, Algiers. 
Synonyms are If. chottica Ancey, and H. saidana Debeaux. 

H. BAILLONI Debeaux. PI. 46, figs. 51-53. 

Covered perforate, orbicularly depressed, solid, shining, striulate, 
here and there lightly malleate, and under the lens seen to be encir- 
cled with fine lines, white, with four rufous bands, the second and 
third wide ; spire slightly convex, apex large, obtuse, suture distinct, 
linear; whorls 4J, regularly increasing, convex, the last slightly 
dilated transversely, rather flattened below, excavated at umbilicus r 
deeply deflexed anteriorly; aperture small, ovate, oblique, lunate, 
with white translucent band inside; peristome simple, slightly thick- 
ened, the ends converging, joined by a thin subdilated callus, basal 
margin concave, dilated at its insertion, lightly callous and subden- 
tate. Diam. 24, alt. 13 mill. 

Province of Oran, betiveen Tint and Mograr, near the boundary of 
Morocco. 

The large apex and small number of whorls at once separate this 
form from H.juilleti, and other allied species. 

H. DENANSI Kobelt. PI. 46, figs. 61, 62. 

Covered umbilicate, depressed conoid, convex below, rather thin 
and solid, somewhat shining, irregularly striatulate, the striae espe- 
cially distinct below the sutures; under a strong lens showing fine 
spiral lines; ground-color white, bands five, brown, and under the 
sutures a series of radiating maculations; spire conoid, apex obtuse; 
whorls 51, slowly and regularly increasing, the last decidedly widened 
toward the aperture, suddenly, rather deeply deflected anteriorly, 
but not so deeply as in other species of the group; aperture diagonal, 
ovate-rotund, brown within ; peristome acute, outer margin expand- 
ed, ends scarcely converging, joined by a thin callus; basal margin 
at first straight, then truncate-tuberculate, uniting with the outer 
lip with a slight angle. Diam. 23, alt. 14 mill. 

" This small form of the Juilleti group was communicated to me 
some time ago by Mr. Albert Denans of Marseilles, without informa- 
tion regarding the exact locality from whence it came. I cannot 
identify it with any of the Pechaud-Bourguignat species." (Kobelt) 
H.-BEGUIRANA Debeaux. PL 41, figs. 28, 29. 

Umbilicate, depressed globose, transversely ovate, solid, shining, 
striate, at sutures costulate, with spiral impressed lines, malleate, 



136 HELIX. 

white, with five bands, often confluent or irregularly broken ; whorls 
5 -6, slightly convex, regularly increasing, the last dilated, inflated 
on base, anteriorly deflexed ; aperture ovate-lunar, oblique, bright 
chestnut within ; peristome white, slightly labiate, margins distant, 
subparallel; columella contracted, with a callous thickening. 

L)iam. 31 mill. Beguira, near Mascara, Algiers. 

Probably a form of H. juilleti as Kobelt at first considered it. 

H. WAGNERI Kossmaessler. PL 41, figs. 30, 31. 

Similar to H. juilleti, but distinguished by the much more de- 
pressed form and thinner shell. From H. begiurana it is separated 
by the larger mouth, which is not contracted as in that species. 

Boghar and Mascara, Algiers. 

H. CHARIEIA Pechaud. PL 46, figs. 45, 46. 

Imperforate, depressed conoid, below convex, rather solid and 
shining, irregularly striulate, encircled with impressed interrupted 
lines, and marked with longer or shorter cicatrices ["narften&men"] 
which cross the sculpture obliquely, especially near the aperture; 
color milky-white, with a narrow castaneous band at the periphery; 
above this band covered with narrow interrupted little bands and 
numerous white points, giving the color effect of coffee with milk ; 
spire flattened conic, with blunt apex ; suture linear, becoming im- 
pressed toward the aperture; whorls 6, the last slightly dilated, 
base convex, lightly impressed at place of umbilicus, abruptly 
arcuately deflexed anteriorly; aperture very oblique, semi-ovate, 
lunate, castaneous within ; peristome obtuse, thickened, white, mar- 
gins sub-converging, joined by a light callus, upper margin straight, 
outer slightly reflexed, basal straightened, with a more or less dis- 
tinct denticle. Diam. 30-31, alt. 15-17 mill. 

Mts. of Day a, at the source of the Sig, Or an, Algiers. 

Allied to H. ivagneri, but differing both in shell and dentition. 
According to Kobelt from whom I have taken the above description, 
the central teeth are somewhat asymmetrical in this species a very 
unusual character in the present group. 

H. JOURDANIANA Bourguignat. PL 41, figs. 32, 33. 

Imperforate, globose, solid, shining, lightly striate, obscurely mal- 
leate, white, with four corneous brown bands, broken by irregular 
whitish patches ; spire convex, conoidal ; sutures moderately im- 
pressed ; apex smooth ; whorls 5, the first flattened, regularly in- 
creasing, the last well rounded, abruptly descending anteriorly ; 



HELIX. 137 

aperture subhorizontal, oblong-ovate, deep brown inside ; peristome 
expanded, obtuse, its edge white, and its margins slightly converging, 
connected by a brown callus ; basal margin thickened, subdentate. 
Diam. 32 mill. 

Mazagran and Mostaghanem, Algiers. 

H. ARICHENSIS Debeaux. PI. 41, figs. 34, 35. 

Depressed globose, slightly dilated transversely, solid, irregularly 
rugosely striate, and marked with short impressed transverse lines ; 
chalky white, obscurely four banded ; whorls 6, slightly convex, 
gently increasing ; sutures distinct ; last whorl subiuflated, strongly 
deflexed anteriorly, subexcavated around the umbilical area ; aper- 
ture very oblique nearly horizontal, chestnut colored within, margins 
converging ; peristome expanded, subreflexed, adnate at base ; colu- 
mella with a heavy callus. 

El Arich, District of Muluja, Algiers. 

Var. CRASSIDENS Debeaux. PI. 41, fig. 36. 

More globose than the type, with the columellar plication strongly 
developed. 

H. LOBETHANA Debeaux. PI. 46, figs. 49, 50. 

Covered umbilicate, depressed trochoidal, solid, rudely irregularly 
striatulate, more or less malleate toward the aperture, white with 
four pale brown sharply defined bands, apex smooth, obtuse ; suture 
impressed; whorls 5, regularly and rapidly increasing, the last 
rounded, convex below, dilated, deeply deflected anteriorly ; aperture 
very oblique, wide ovate ; peristome acute, somewhat thickened in- 
side ; margins not approaching, and connected by a thin brownish 
callus ; columella margin with a sharp truncate pliciform callus. 

Diam. 33, alt. 21 mill. 

Separated from H. arichensis by the convex not excavated umbil- 
ical tract, but probably not specifically distinct. 

H. ZAFFARINA Terver. PI. 41, fig. 37. 

Imperforate, conoid, depressed-globose, solid, chalky white, deep 
brown within the aperture, irregularly striate and malleate, with 
impressed short transverse marks, most developed behind the broadly 
expanded lip ; whorls 5, nucleus large, smooth, upper ones flattened, 
the last widened at the aperture and abruptly deflexed ; aperture 



138 HELIX. 

very oblique, transversely truncate-oval, peristome white, sublabiate, 
the ends converging and connected by a light callus, the columella 
with a heavy dentiform callus. Diam. 30 mill. 

Zaffarine Is., and adjacent mainland. 

Var. ZELLERI Kobelt. PI: 41, fig. 38. 

Smaller, more globose, with four interrupted brown bands, mac- 
ulated in the interspaces ; aperture smaller and less intensely colored 
than in the typical H. zaffarina. Diam. 27 mill. 

Mascara, Algiers. 

H. doubletti Bourg. is a synonym. 

H. ANOTERODON Pechaud. PI. 46, figs. 43, 44. 

Covered umbilicate, conoid-globose, solid, chalky, white, irreg- 
ularly rudely striate, with subtle spiral impressed lines, body-whorl 
distinctly malleate ; spire conoid-convex, apex small, white, suture 
above linear, becoming impressed ; whorls 6, convex, regularly in- 
creasing, the last tumid, slightly dilated, suddenly deeply deflexed 
at aperture ; aperture very oblique, lunate, semiovate, deep brown 
within, upper and lower margins parallel, scarcely converging at 
extremities, the upper at first rather straight, then becoming patulous, 
outer margin dilated, reflexed, white, with a white dentiform incurved 
strong lamella, basal margin castaneous on its upper part, declivous, 
with an abruptly truncated strong, somewhat transversely placed 
tooth on its anterior edge ; parietal wall and throat deep brown. 

Diam. 30 J, alt. 22 mill. 

Environs of Leila Marnia, on the Morocco boundary. 

I follow Kobelt's identification of this form. It has the appear- 
ance of If. tigri and other forms of that group ; but Kobelt says : 
" Es ist eine Helix zaffarina mit einem Gaumenzahn. Zur Gruppe 
der saharischen Zweizahner mochte ich sie nicht rechnen." 

H. DUPOTETIANA Terver. PI. 41, fig. 39. 

Imperforate, subglobose, white, irregularly striate and malleate, 
with four or five brown bands, often coalescent or wanting ; whorls 
5, the upper ones planulate, last two convex, the last strongly de- 
flected at the very oblique, broadly lunate aperture ; peristome 
brownish, reflexed, sublabiate, columellar margin brown, thickened, 
with a decided tooth ; fauces deep brown. Diam. 30-35 mill. 

Or an, Algiers. 

Perhaps not specifically distinct from H. zaffarina Terver. 



*0- 

HELIX. 

H. BREVIERI Pechaud. PI. 41, figs. 40, 41. 

Large, thick, depressed conoid-globose, rough sculptured, with 
coarse lines of increment, and on the upper whorls and near the 
sutures with fine spiral striae ; last w r horl malleate, vermiculate with 
white anastomosing wrinkles ; with four broad and faint bands on a 
yellowish-white ground ; or unicolored chalky white ; whorls over 
6, slightly convex, regularly increasing, the last inflated, dilated 
and abruptly descending at the oblique, ovate-truncate aperture ; 
peristome white, expanded, declivous at base, with a more or less 
developed truncate dentiform callus ; aperture larger than that of 
H. dupotetiana, castaneous within. Diam. 40 mill. 

Nemour, Algiers. 

Kobelt's H. dupotetiana var. rugosa, and H. dupotetiana var. aspera 
Gassies are synonyms. H. subbrevieri Bourg. may also be placed 
here. 

H. XAXTHODOX Anton. PI. 41, figs. 42, 43. 

Imperforate, subglobose-depressed, white, solid, spire convex ; 
whorls 5, slowly increasing ; aperture rounded, very oblique, dark 
brown inside, small ; peristome reflexed, white ; columella margin 
with a heavy dentate callus. Diam. 22 mill. 

Oran, Algiers. 

Aperture smaller and whorls less rapidly increasing than in H. 
dupotetiana, to which it is very closely allied. A variety figured 
by Kobe-It is larger, last whorl more inflated and malleate. The 
species is also nearly allied to H. arabica. 

H. ARABICA Terver. PI. 42, figs. 47, 48. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, solid, shining, with three or four 
brown bands, interrupted with white, sometimes unicolored, white ; 
spire convex; apex smooth, obtuse; whorls 5, rapidly increasing,, 
the last rounded, inflated below, descending at the very oblique, 
oblong-lunate aperture; peristome white, thickened, expanded, colu- 
mellar margin callously thickened, dentate and brown like the 
interior of the aperture. Diam. 28 mill. 

Province of Oran and Adjacent Islands. 

This is not the H. arabica of Roth, which .ff. desertorum Forsk. 
II. abrolena Bourg., proposed because the name arabica was supposed 
to be preoccupied, is said by Ancey to be more globose, with more 
convex and more rapidly increasing whorls, and thicker shell than 
typical arabica. It is figured on PI. 42, figs. 44-46. 



140 HELIX. 

H. ODOPACHA Bourguignat. PI. 42, figs. 49-52. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, ventricose, shining, slightly sub- 
pellucid, white, striate and malleate; apex smooth, obtuse; spire 
convex; whorls 5, regularly increasing, the last rounded, abruptly 
-deflexed anteriorly ; aperture oblique, narrow, subtriangular-oblong, 
pale brown inside; peristome white, thickened, patulous; columellar 
margin thickened, bearing a heavy brownish callus, terminating in 
:a thick tubercle ; margins connected by a light callus. 

Diam. 24 mill. Oran, Algiers. 

A variety is figured by Kobelt with four narrow brown bands. 
The species is very closely allied to H. arabica. 

H. BONDUELLIANA Bourguignat. PI. 37, figs. 67, 68. 

Imperforate, ventricose, solid, bright, chalky, lightly striate and 
obscurely malleate, bluish-white, obscurely unifasciate; spire convex, 
apex small, obtuse, smooth ; whorls 5 J, regularly and rapidly in- 
creasing, the last descending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, lunar- 
ovate, white within ; peristome sublabiate, expanded ; columella 
margin with a white callus. Diam. 28 mill. 

Or an, Algiers. 

H. asteia Bourg. is more deflected at aperture and has darker 
mouth, with the columella callus slightly more developed. Said to 
be from Madrid, Spain, but referred to H. bonduelliana, by Hidalgo, 
who considers it an African species. (PI. 42, fig. 53.) 

H. SENILIS Morelet. PL 42, figs. 54, 55. 

Imperforate, globose depressed, dilated transversely, thick ; whorls 
-5&, planulate, the last dilated and deflexed anteriorly, four banded ; 
.aperture truncate-oval, subhorizontal ; peristome very thick, reflexed, 
margins connected by a callus ; columella dentate. Diam. 25 mill. 

Between Constantine and Setif, A Igiers. 

H. EMBIA Bourguignat. PL 42, figs. 56-57. 

Covered perforate, depressed subglobose, solid, chalky white, 
striatulate and malleate, spire convex, apex smooth, obtuse ; whorls 
5 to 6, the upper ones flattened, the last two convex ; suture mod- 
erately impressed ; last whorl rounded, tumid below, at the aperture 
suddenly descending; aperture oblique, irregularly lunate, deep 
chestnut within, with a tooth on the base, and opposite it a slight 
prominence inside the outer lip ; peristome broadly expanded, lab- 
iate, margins connected by a white callus, Diam. 23, alt. 15 mill. 

Island of Habibas, off Algiers. 



HELIX. 141 

In addition to Bourguignat's figures of this form, I give those of 
Kobelt, (PI. 61 figs.13-15.) According to the latter author, the species- 
is not found upon the island of Rachgoun, but at Nemours. There 
is also some difference between the two authors as to the concholog- 
ical characters of the species, Kobelt's form being less striate above,, 
and measuring 26 mill, in diam., 17 in alt. 

H. PSEUDOEMBIA Debeaux. PI. 42, figs. 58, 59. 

Subglobose, imperforate, solid, chalky, white, with irregular in- 
cremental striae and short transverse impressed lines ; whorls 5 r 
slightly convex ; suture moderately impressed ; last whorl inflated,, 
depressed around the umbilical area, strongly deflexed in front ^ 
aperture oblique, lunate, bright chestnut colored inside and on col- 
umella ; peristome acute, the margins converging, joined by a light 
callus ; peristome widely reflexed, albolabiate, obsoletely dentately 
thickened inside the outer lip ; columella subexcavated, with a dis- 
tinct white, truncate, dentiform fold. 

Diam. 32, alt. 21 mill. 

Leila Marnia, Morocco, between Nemours and Tlemcen* 

Allied, according to Kobelt, to H. zaffarina. Its relation to H. 
embia seems quite as close, and with that species it forms the transi- 
tion to " die Gruppe der Doppel-Zahner," as Kobelt calls the follow- 
ing species. Most of these are probably merely local races ; for like 
many of the northern African shells the characters upon which the 
species are founded, such as texture, development of mouth parts,, 
etc., are endlessly variable ; every locality, with its slightly differing 
soil and climate producing a new and correspondingly differing race 
of mollusk. 

H. BURINI Bourguignat. PL 42, figs. 60-62. 

Imperforate, convexo-globose, 'shining, elegantly striate, white r 
with four brown bands; spire conoid, apex obtuse; whorls 5-6,. 
slightly convex, regularly and slowly increasing, the last rounded, 
anteriorly descending; aperture very oblique, lunate-oblong, white 
within ; peristome expanded, labiate, with a long basal tooth and a 
lamelliform denticle within the outer lip. Diam. 27 mill. 

Southern Or an, Algiers 

Teeth not much more developed than in H. pseudoembia. 

H. TIGHT Gervais. PL 42, figs. 63-65. 

Imperforate, orbicularly depressed, solid, shining ; convex below : 
whorls 5, slightly convex, the last profoundly deflexed anteriorly, 



142 HELIX. 

rounded, and banded with brown; sutures linear, slightly impressed; 
aperture very oblique, transversely ovate, dark brown within; peri- 
stome reflexed, white, bearing a strong basal tooth ; outer lip with a 
strong denticle. Diam. 25 mill. 

Southern Oran, Algiers. 

The tubercles are strong, and situated so near to each other as to 
leave but a narrow space between them. 

The synonyms are If. tigriana Bourg. and H. maresi Crosse. If. 
stereodonta Bourg. (PL 43, figs. 68, 69) H. dicallistodon Bourg. (PL 
42, figs. 66, 67,) and H. surrodonta Bourg. (PL 43, figs. 70, 71,) seem 
to be too closely allied to the H. tigri to warrant separation as dis- 
tinct species. 

H. DASTAGUI Bourguignat. PL 43, fig. 72. 

Imperforate, depressed, solid, striate, white, with four brown 
zones ; spire slightly convex ; whorls 5 to 6, rather rapidly increas- 
ing, the last descending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, oblong-lunate, 
white within, with a lamelliform denticle within the outer lip and 
a heavy tubercle at the base ; peristome expanded, slightly labiate. 

Diam. 27 mill. Southern Oran, Algiers. 

Specimens occur in which the umbilicus is not wholly covered. 

H. SUBJOBAEANA Kobelt. PL 46, figs. 54-56. 

Shell depressed-globose, covered umbilicate, irregularly rudely 
striate, solid, unicolored grayish white ; spire slightly elevated, short 
conoid, apex smooth, white; whorls 5, subconvex, with distinctly 
impressed sutures, slowly increasing, the last a little widened, not 
angulate, rather flat below, anteriorly subcontracted and suddenly, 
deeply deflected; aperture very oblique, small, semiovate, com- 
pressed, and still more contracted by two strong teeth, margins of 
peristome joined and apparently continuous by a thick parietal 
callus, outer margin with two teeth, the outer lamelliform, the inner 
tubercular ; inside of aperture in fresh specimens brownish. 

Diam. 23*, alt. 13* mill. 

Chott el Tigri, on the boundary of Morocco. 

A curious form, closely allied to the following. 

H. JOBAEANA Crosse. PL 46, figs. 57-59. 

Imperforate, subglobose, obtusely angulate, smooth, slightly 
striate, shining, solid ; sutures linear, becoming impressed ; whorls 
5, the last obtusely angulate, base convex, deeply, suddenly, deflexed 
anteriorly ; aperture small, very oblique, ovate, contracted, peristome 



HELIX. 143 

continued over the parietal wall by a strong callus, much thickened 
in adult specimens, outer margin provided with two teeth. 

Constantine, Algiers (fossil.) 
The most bizarre of the "Gruppe der Doppelzahner." 

*** 

H. CODRINGTONI Gray. PI. 38, figs. 72-75. 

Imperforate, subdepressed, solid, coarsely and irregularly striate, 
decussated with fine spiral lines, white, irregularly marbled and 
streaked with brown, the markings usually arranged into four or 
five broken bands ; spire depressed conoidal, apex smooth ; whorls 
5, somewhat convex, the last descending anteriorly; aperture large, 
very oblique,truncate-oval, peristome slightly expanded bearing a 
truncate dentiform callus at base ; parietal wall with a light callus. 

Diam. 45 mill. 

Greece and Adjacent Islands. 

H. ferussaci Christ, et Jan, and H. spiriplana Desh. are synonyms. 
Bourguignat has described as species H. eucineta, H. euchromia, and 
H. eupcecilia; they are not even entitled to varietal rank. If. 
pseudoparnassia Mousson is also a synonym. 

Var. PARNASSIA Roth. PL 38. figs. 74, 75. 

Globose conic, with obtuse apex ; last whorl not widened toward 
aperture, strongly and abruptly deflected anteriorly ; aperture round- 
oval, slightly thickened at base, distinctly toothed ; extremities of 
peristome approaching; no parietal callus. Diam. 30 mill. 

Parnassus. 
Var. OET^E Kobelt. 

A form with the depressed and widened body-whorl of typical 
H. codringtoni, but not larger than var. parnassia. Diam. 36 mill. 

Mi. Ito (the ancient Oeta.) 

Scarcely distinct from the type. 

Var. AETOLICA Boettger. 

Smaller than the type generally openly rimate; quadrifasciate, 
the upper bandjisually obsolete; spire short, exactly conical; whorls 
greatly depressed. Diam. 33-34, alt. 18-20 mill. 

Veluchi Mis., Aeiolia. 

A white unicolored form is also figured (fig. 73.) The species is 
like all Macularice, variable in color pattern and size ; and in the 
Grecian peninsula occupies the place of H. alonensis in the Iberian. 



144 HELIX. 

Like that species, too, the codringtoni seems to be an esteemed 
delicacy of the cuisine ; for Roth relates that in the markets of 
Athens quantities of them are exposed for sale during the Lenten 
season. 

H. CRASSA Pfeiffer. PI. 38, fig. 76-77. 

Subcovered umbilicate, depressed, thick, ponderous, rugosely 
striate, with revolving lines, and five or fewer interrupted brown 
bands, sometimes wanting; spire slightly elevated, apex obtuse; 
whorls 4-5, slightly convex, regularly increasing, the last depressed, 
subplanulate below, deflected in front, compressed around the um- 
bilicus; aperture very oblique, ovate-truncate, peristome widely 
expanded, labiate with white, its margins subparallel, extremities 
connected by a light callus. Diam. 42 mill. Corfu. 

H. INTUSPLICATA Pfeiffer. PI. 43, figs. 73-75. 

Umbilicate, depressed, solid, rudely obliquely striate, and with 
fine revolving lines, bluish-white; spire slightly convex, apex obtuse; 
whorls 5, the last flattened, anteriorly deflected, more convex below; 
aperture very oblique, irregularly oval, reddish within; peristome 
briefly expanded, margins converging; base with an internal trans- 
verse callous plication. Diam. 31 mill. 

Mt. Chelmos, in Arcadia. 

A rare species. 

H. MASSYL^A Morelet. PL 38, figs. 86-88. 

Imperforate, globose depressed, somewhat solid, with irregular 
incremental stria3 decussated by revolving lines ; color yellow- 
ish white, concolored, or encircled by five reddish brown bands; 
spire conoid, apex smooth, obtuse ; whorls 5, convex, the last widened 
and descending at aperture, inflated below ; aperture oblique, some- 
what subquadrate, as long as wide ; peristome narrowly expanded, 
white; columella dilated, callous. Diam. 40 mill. 

Algiers, Province of Constantine and southward. 

A var. concolor is described by Bourguignat. 

Var. ZENATIA Kobelt. 

Last whorl less expanded ; mouth shorter, and columellar callus 
less extended. 

Wed Zenati, Algiers. 






HELIX. 145 

H. PR^EDISPOSITA Mousson. PI. 39, figs. 4, 5. 

Imperforate, depressed, transversely striate, with decussating lines, 
whitish, with four bands, the upper narrow, the second wide, inter-i 
rupted with white ; spire depressed conic, with large obtuse nucleus ; 
w r horls 4 to 5, rapidly increasing, slightly convex, the last dilated, 
strongly deflexed anteriorly; aperture very oblique, transversely 
ovate; peristome narrowly expanded, margins approaching, con- 
nected by a light callus ; basal margin subhorizontal, wide, adnate. 

Diam. 29 mill. 

Reraya Valley, Morocco (subfossil). 

H. RERAYANA Mousson. PL 37, figs. 63-65. 

Imperforate, depressed, irregularly obliquely striate and with 
transverse short irregular wrinkles ; color dirty white, with flam- 
mules and flecks of brownish, indistinctly two to five banded ; spire 
slightly convex, apex smooth ; whorls 5, rapidly increasing, the 
last widened toward the aperture and abruptly descending ; aperture 
very oblique, transversely oblong; peristome slightly expanded, 
acute, slightly thickened within, Diam. 37-41 mill. 

Reraya Valley, Morocco. 

H. MOUSSONIANA Wollaston. PL 43, fig. 76. 

Large, imperforate, globose-depressed, subinflated, rather thin, 
strongly striate, not granulate nor malleate, lacking epidermis ; 
spire rapidly increasing, apex smooth, obtuse ; sutures irregularly 
impressed ; whorls nearly 5, the last deflexed suddenly at aperture, 
convex and turgid below ; aperture oblique, transverse, perfectly 
elliptical ; peristome narrowly reflected, adnate below, its ends joined 
by a callus ; columella excavated. Diam. 37 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries (/ossify. 

It is H. adonis Mousson, not Angas. It is closely allied to the 
following species and to H. alonensis. 

H. EFFERATA Mousson. PL 43, fig, 77. 

Globosely depressed, subsolid, striate and with obtuse undulating 
rugose malleations, not granulate ; whorls 4, less convex and di- 
lated than in H. moussoniana, obtusely angulate. Diam. 31 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries (fossil.) 

The pattern of sculpture, obscure undulations obliquely crossing 
the stride is characteristic. 

Both this and the preceding species may prove to belong to 
Hemicycla. 
10 



146 HELIX. 

H. ALONENSIS Ferussac. PL 43, fig. 78-82. 

Covered perforate, depressed globose, somewhat solid, yellowish 
white, variegated with streaks and marblings of light brown, or five 
fasciate; irregularly striate, decussated with fine revolving lines; 
whorls 4-5, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last large, tumid, 
deflexed anteriorly ; aperture large, rotund lunar, oblique ; peri- 
stome narrowly reflexed, appressed at base, the ends converging, 
joined by a very light callus. Diam. 30 mill. 

Southern Spam ; Balearic Is. 
An abundant and extremely variable species. 

Var. CARTHAGINIENSIS Rossm. PI. 44, fig. 86-89. 

Similar in general characters and sculpture to H. alonensis, but 
smaller, more depressed, aperture more oval on account of the 
greater deflection of the last whorl ; usually conspicuously five- 
fasciate ; lip well expanded. 

Diam. 24 mill. 

Sierra da Cartagena, Spain. 

Differs from H. campesina in being imperforate, with less devel- 
oped peristome, which is reflected and adnate to the base of the shell. 
The genitalia offer some points of difference, according to Ross- 
msessler ; but until we have descriptions or figures of those of the 
allied forms we can scarcely make use of this character. 

Var. CAMPESINA Ezquerra. PI. 43, figs. 83-85. 

With the markings and sculpture of H. alonensis this variety ex- 
hibits a much more oblique nearly perfectly oval mouth, broadly 
expanded and reflexed peristome, scarcely or not at all appressed to 
base, its extremities converging and connected by a decided callus ; 
umbilicus wide or sometimes nearly covered by the reflection of the 
lip. Diam. 40 mill. 

Spain, provinces Marcia and Valentia. 

Rossmsessler's var. lorcana is synonymous. 

A mountain form. 
Var. LOXANA Rossmsessler. PI. 44, figs. 90-93. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, usually five-fasciate, the upper 
bands interrupted ; aperture very oblique, rounded lunar; peristome 
expanded, margins converging, dilated over the umbilical area. 

Diam. 28 mill. 

Granada. 

A mountain form. 



HELIX. 147 

H. ALCARAZANA Guirao. PL 44, figs. 97-100. 

Imperforate, depressed subglobose, obliquely striate, obsoletely 
decussated by spiral lines, yellowish white, with five brown bands, 
the upper ones broken into irregular maculations ; spire shortly 
conic, obtuse ; whorls 4-5, rapidly increasing, the last somewhat de- 
scending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, rotund-lunar, peristome rose- 
colored, labiate, margins slightly converging, reflexed and appressed 
at the columella. 

Diam. 20 mill. 

Sierra de Segura, Province of Alcaraz, Spain. 

It is perhaps H. serpentina of Graells. 

H. GUIRAOANA Rossmassler. PL 44, figs. 94-96. 

Umbilicate, depressed, solid, striate, whitish, five fasciate, the 
upper bands interrupted ; spire slightly convex, whorls 4-5, rapidly 
increasing, the last subinflated, and abruptly descending anteriorly; 
aperture rotund lunar; peristome rose colored, slightly reflexed at 
the base. Diam. 23-28, alt. 10-12 mill. 

Var ANGTJSTATA Rossmassler. 

Smaller; umbilicus narrower. Granada. 

H. MARMORATA Ferussac. PL 44, figs. 1-3. 

Imperforate, globose depressed, white, five-fasciate, the upper 
bands regularly interrupted with white, the lower less so; above 
marbled with corneous; whorls 5, a little convex, the last wide 
and descending anteriorly ; aperture widely rotund lunar, peristome 
rose-colored, narrowly reflexed, appressed at base, extremities ap- 
proaching. Diam. 20 mill. Gibraltar; Granada. 

If. exornata Parr is synonymous. 

Size and color-pattern rather variable, but always marbled above 
with brown, white and corneous. 

Var VIOLACEA Rossmassler. PL fig. 

Small; last whorl strongly deflexed, deep colored, violet-lipped. 

Granada. 

It is H. balearica var. violacea and var. pulchella of Rossmassler's 
Iconography, and H. partschii Bourg., according to Kobelt. 

H. SPLENDIDA Drapernaud. PL 44, figs. 4-9. 

Imperforat'e, globose depressed, white or corneous, with five deep 
brown bands, the upper ones usually interrupted or confluent; in- 
cremental striae very faint; whorls 4-4, slightly convex, rapidly 



148 HELIX. 

increasing, the last deflexed anteriorly; aperture rotund-lunar, 
oblique, white lipped; peristorae narrowly expanded, reflexed, ad- 
nate at base and over the umbilicus. Diam. 15-20 mill. 

Spain and Southern France. 

Peristome and aperture sometimes rose tinted within. A lovely 
species, connecting the smaller Maculariw with Tachea, and as far 
as shell characters go, intermediate between these groups. 

Var. COSSONI Letourneux. 

More depressed; spire moderately convex ; whorls 4, more rapidly 
increasing, the last large ; aperture less oblique than in the type. 

Diam. 19 mill. Herault, France. 

H. BALEARICA Ziegler. PI. 36, figs. 49, 50. 

Imperforate, depressed, brownish white above variegated with 
deep brown, white, and corneous marblings; with five bands, all 
interrupted; whorls 5 rapidly increasing; aperture oblique, rotund- 
lunar, peristome narrowly reflected brownish, labiate, appressed at 
base. Diam. 30 mill. Balearic Is.; Spain. 

The synonymy includes H. hispanica Partsch., (pi. 36, figs. 51-53) 
and H. speciosa Zieg. 

Var. COMPANYONI Aleron. PI. 36, figs. 47, 48. 

Smaller than the type, more fragile and more delicately sculp- 
tured; peristome and columella white. Diam. 15-20 mill. 

Balearic Is.; Catalonia. 

It is H. haspanica var. pyrenaica Rossm. 

H. MINORICENSIS Mittre. PI. 38, figs. 78-81. 

Imperforate, depressed, lightly striate, white with five brown 
bands, more or less interrupted with white, the intervening spaces 
maculated with corneous; spire slightly elevated, apex corneous, 
smooth, obtuse ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, the last wide, descend- 
ing anteriorly ; aperture oblique, rotund lunar, showing the bands 
within; peristome expanded, adnate at base. Diam. 13-18 mill. 

Minorca, Balearic Is. 

H. BEAUMIERI Mousson. PI. 44, figs. 12-14. 

Imperforate, globose depressed, thin, slightly striate, and with 
light spiral lines, evanescent at the base ; whitish with five rufous 
interrupted bands, the upper two usually confluent, those on base 
narrow; spire obtuse, convex, not conic; whorls 4, the last large, 
strongly and abruptly descending at aperture, subinflated, rotund 



HELIX. 149 

and tumid at base; aperture very oblique, transversely round-ovate; 
peristome expanded, subreflexed, thickened within, the margins 
considerably converging, joined by a callus. Diam. 24 mill. 

Morocco. 

H. RAYMONDI Moquin. PL 44, figs. 10, 11. 

Imperforate, globose depressed, subsolid, yellowish white, with 
five subequal faint bands; spire slightly elevated, apex obtuse; 
whorls 4J, the last strongly deflected anteriorly; aperture very 
oblique, rotund-lunar ; peristome labiate, margins converging and 
joined by callus, expanded, and adnate at base. Diam. 20 mill. 

Province of Oran, Algiers. 

Morelet's H. desfontanea is a synonym. 

H. VERMICULOSA Morelet. PI. 44, figs. 15-17. 

Subperforate, turbinate, globose, solid, densely sculptured with 
undulating, anastomosing wrinkles, lustreless, dirty yellowish grey, 
more or less distinctly fasciate with wide irregular brown or yellow- 
ish bands, five in number ; spire somewhat turreted, apex dark col- 
ored ; whorls over 4, convex, the last inflated, descending, aperture 
circular, porcelain white within, very oblique ; peristome narrowly 
expanded, margins approaching ; columellar margin reflexed. 

Diam. 25, alt. 22 mill. 

Hir, Province of Sus, Morocco. 

Comparable to Pomatia mazzulii in aspect, but probably more 
nearly related to the present group. 

Unfigured species of Macularia. 

H. omphalophora Dut. Corsica. 

H. aecouria Let. et. Bourg. Tunis. 

H. nitefacta, toukriana, maltarica, seignetti of Bourguignat. Algiers. 
H. catharolena, simocheila, cantcv, chorista, tiranoi, lucentumensis, 

pelopica, and engastora, Bourg. Spain. 

H. sevillensis Servain, Seville. 

Section IV. ALLOGNATHUS Pilsbry, 1888. 
The only member of the group Pentatcenia, as far as known, in 
which the jaw is wholly devoid of the strong ribs characteristic of 
that division. The type and only species, H. grateloupi has been 
classed by some authors in Leptaxis, by others in Macularia. From 
both groups it differs in characters of shell and animal. 



150 HELIX. 

H. GRATELOUPI Graells, 1846. PI. 48, figs. 94, 95. 

Imperforate, depressed globular, rather thin, shining, whitish- 
corneous, or suffused with light brown, with five distinct narrow 
chestnut-brown bands, frequently interrupted, or broken into nearly 
separate maculations, very lightly obliquely striate ; whorls 4, con- 
vex, very rapidly increasing, the last rotund, gently descending 
anteriorly ; aperture rounded-lunar, very oblique, its margins con- 
verging, joined by a transparent parietal callus; peristome thin, 
acute, slightly expanded, regularly arcuate, columellar margin con- 
cave, adnate to the rather inflated base, and slightly tinged with 
brown. Diam. 21, alt. 16 mill. 

Majorca, Balearic Is. 

H. tessellata Fer. and H. graellsiana Pfr. are synonyms. 

Section V, HEMICYCLA Swainson, 1840. 

This group of large Helices is intermediate in conchological 
characters between Macularia and Leptaxis, and rather closely allied 
to both. In distribution it is restricted to the Canary Archipelago, 
no species being found outside the limits of that group ; and it is 
the most prominent form of Helix in the mollusk fauna of those 
islands, occupying them to the exclusion of Iberus, Leptaxis and 
(almost) of Macularia. Several species very similar to recent forms 
are found fossil in central European miocene deposits, associated 
with Macularia, Clausilia, Melanopsis, etc. 

There is a similarity between some species of Hemicycla (such as 
H. malleata) and certain West Indian forms of Dentellaria, (H. 
obesa, H. dentiens) ; this resemblance is more likely to be due to con- 
vergence of type, caused by similar environments than to any close 
relation or connection between these specialized forms ; and the same 
may be safely said of the superficial likeness which the African Macu- 
laria jobaeana bears to the West Indian Dentellaria formosa, etc. 

The species of Hemicycla are very numerous, and frequently sep- 
arated by characters so slight as to render it very likely that the 
number of species bonce would be considerably reduced by a critical 
study of the intermediate forms and the variations produced by 
peculiarities of station, hypsometical distribution, etc. Such a study 
however, we are not likely to have as long as the great majority of 
land-shell specialists pursue the intensely analytical methods now in 
vogue. 



HELIX. 151 

In the treatment of the species I have generally followed Jules 
Mabille, whose paper, "Materiaux pour une fauna malacologique des 
lies Canaries" is the most recent and complete publication on the 
subject. A number of descriptions have been taken from Mousson, 
and from Wollaston. 

H. PLICARIA Lamarck, 1816. PI. 49, figs. 51, 52. 

Imperforate, depressed, solid, opaque, corneous brown, lighter 
below, unicolored, or with very obscure darker bands above, about 
three in number, and sometimes a fourth just below the periphery; 
obliquely costate with elevated separated coarse ribs; frequently 
split or slightly interrupted upon the periphery, and which are 
crenulated by very numerous dense fine spiral impressed lines, which 
scarcely or not at all cut the surface between the ribs ; whorls 4, 
moderately convex, regularly increasing, the apex nearly smooth, 
large, obtuse, first two whorls much smoother than balance of shell, 
body-whorl obtusely subangular at its beginning, becoming rounded 
and rather tumid and gibbous below as it approaches its termination, 
abruptly, deeply deflexed and deeply constricted behind the aper- 
ture ; aperture very oblique, contracted, small, irregularly oval ; 
peristome white, very broadly, flatly expanded, its terminations some- 
what converging, joined by a thin callus ; basal margin thickened 
within by a slightly tortuous lamellar denticle, appressed over the 
umbilical region, which is but slightly or not at all indented. 

Diam. 22, alt. 14 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

H. plicatula Lam., H. orbiculata Wood, H. planorbula Gray are 
synonymous. Some authors have included several allied forms under 
the name plicaria, but attention to the above diagnosis will enable 
any one to separate them. The sculpture of the ribs is very charac- 
teristic. 

H. BENTHENCOURTIANA Shuttleworth, 1853. PI. 50, figs. 60, 61. 

In form and appearance similar to If. plicaria, but distinguished 
by the thin shell, narrow (often subobsolete) bands, regularly spaced 
incremental costse, which are less developed than in plicaria, and 
without the secondary sculpture of incised lines shown by that spe- 
cies; the interspaces between costse are finely striate; the young 
shell is pilose. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 



152 HELIX. 

H. SARCOSTOMA Webb et Berthelot, 1832. PL 49, figs. 49, 50. 

Imperforate, globosely depressed, solid, flesh-tinted or yellowish r 
with four dark frequently interrupted bands, sometimes obsolescent, 
the whole, surface, including apex, covered by an extremely minute 
dense granulation, rather obscurely irregularly obliquely striate, 
sometimes with inconspicuous vermiform anastomosing reticulating 
wrinkles upon the last whorl, upon which are short white marks in 
the direction of the whorls ; apex rather obtuse ; sutures well-marked ; 
whorls 5, the outer rapidly increasing and wide, rounded, tumid, 
especially below, deeply descending to the aperture ; not constricted ; 
aperture very oblique, rotund-lunate ; peristome very ividely expanded 
and flattened, pale fleshy-white colored, very regularly arched, its 
margins converging and joined by a thin callus, appressed over the 
umbilical tract, and very slightly thickened within, scarcely sub- 
dentate. Diam. 30, alt. 20 mill. 

Ins. Lanzarote, Fuertaventiira and Grand Canary* 

Specimens of 25 mill. diam. or less are frequent. I see nothing 
more than varietal characters in the following form, but admit it 
provisionally at this time. 

H. THAUMALEA Mabille, 1882. PL 47, figs. 87, 88. 

Shell subglobose, solid, somewhat opaque, striate, all over very 
finely granulate and superficially obscurely crispato-malleate, 
smoother below, ruddy with scattered white spots and four or five 
brown or blackish bands more or less intense and interrupted ; spire 
convexo-depressed, apex reddish, obtuse, shining, rugose-punctate; 
whorls 5, the last most rapidly increasing, separated by impressed 
sutures ; body-whorl very large, rounded-tumid, inflated below,, 
slightly descending and deflexed at aperture ; aperture very oblique, 
lunate, suboblong-ovate, the ends subapproximating, joined by a 
callus ; peristome thick, dilated, reflexed, whitish, tinted with yellow, 
strongly thickened "within, columellar margin contorted, shining, 
appressed, with an elongate lamellose tooth. 

Diam. 31-33, alt. 14-16 mill. 

Ins. Lanzarote and Fuertaventiira, Canaries. 

Shell thicker than H. sarcostoma ; spire more depressed ; the um- 
bilical callus is very heavy and livid white in color. 

H. PAETELIANA Shuttleworth, 1859. PL 50, fig. 80. 

Imperforate, depressed conoid-globose, thin, striulate, and slightly 
granulate, shining, fulvous olivaceous, ornamented with five deep 



HELIX. 153 

brown bands ; spire conic, rather obtuse ; whorls 5, slightly convex, 
the last inflated, deflexed anteriorly; aperture large, oblique, 
rounded lunate, submargaritaceous within ; peristome thin, labiate 
with flesh-color, margins converging, the right briefly reflexed, the 
columellar dilated, adnate. Diam. 24, alt. 15 mill. 

Ins. Fuertaventura, Canaries* 

A very rare species, which Wollaston believes to be the same as a 
large variety of H. pouchet. It is probably, however, distinct. My 
description is a translation of PfeifFer's. 

H. CHERSA Mabille, 1882. PL 49, figs. 32, 33. 

Imperforate, depressed orbicular, solid, opaque, scarcely shining,, 
grayish rufescent, with equidistant laminar costulre, the interstices 
rugose or minutely granulate, sometimes with a brown line around 
the periphery ; spire depressed conic, apex large obtuse, rugulose ; 
whorls 4-5, the upper slowly, the remainder very rapidly increasing,, 
separated by a linear suture, becoming impressed at outer whorl ; 
body-whorl large, carinate, compresso-inflated toward the aperture,, 
convex below, briefly, suddenly descending ; aperture lunate, elon- 
gate-ovate, margins approximating, peristome livid, broadly and 
flatly expanded, acute, subreflexed, thickened within, outer margin 
regularly curved, the columella substraightened, with a long sub- 
denticle within, and appressed at the insertion. 

Diam. 23, alt. 10 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries* 

Intermediate between plicaria and benthencourtiana ; differing^ 
from the first in the more depressed shell, with smoother costa?, the 
intervals transversely wrinkled and presenting traces of hairs, the 
the thicker shell, dilated last whorl, and form of the aperture; from 
the second, the thick shell, depressed-angulate form, and different 
sculpture separate it. 

H. BATHYCOMA Mabille, 1882. PI. 48, figs. 98, 99. 

Imperforate, depressed subglobose, rather thick, opaque, scarcely 
shining, brown, with four deeper colored bands, costulate-striate, 
young densely squamosely pilose, adults asperate with squamose- 
granulations ; spire convex, apex rugose, obtuse, purplish ; whorls 
4:1-5, convexo-depressed, regularly, rapidly increasing, separated by 
impressed sutures; body- whorl large, rounded, anteriorly constricted, 
rapidly descending ; aperture oblique, lunate, wide, irregular oblong- 
lunate, margins subapproximating ; peristome acute, deeply labiate 
within, purplish flesh-colored, broadly reflexed, outer margin arcuate, 



154 HELIX. 

joining the basal at a more or less conspicuous angle, basal margin 
straightened thick, adnate, appressed at its insertion, and with a 
lamina within. Diam. 22-23, alt. 10*-11 mill. 

Environs of Telde, Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. EUCALYPTA Mabille, 1883. PL 49, fig. 37. 

Shell subglobose depressed, imperforate, scarcely shining, corneous 
yellowish or reddish, costulate striate, asperate with minute gran- 
ules, five-fasciate, the upper bands maculate ; spire conic, apex 
obtuse, more or less deeply purpled-tinted, rugose ; whorls 5-52, 
regularly, rapidly increasing, separated by impressed sutures ; body- 
whorl large, compressed at the suture, rounded at periphery, grad- 
ually descending at aperture, subconstricted behind the peristome ; 
aperture oblique, lunate, ovate-elongate; peristome a little thickened, 
expanded, in very old specimens very greatly thickened, and broadly 
reflexed, margins subdistant, the outer regularly curved, joining 
with an angle the straight basal margin, which is callous, adnate, 
.and bears a slightly thick lamina within, in old individuals much 
thickened. Diam. 22-24, alt. 12-14 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. SABINIANA Mabille, 1883. PI. 48, figs. 3, 4. 

Half-covered umbilicate, depressed orbicular-convex, striate, 
scarcely shining, asperate with granules deposited in series, rufous, 
five-fasciate, and lineolate with white at the suture, below greenish, 
shining, apex red, granulose, crispate, shining; whorls 5?, regularly 
increasing, suture distinct, body-whorl large, obscurely rounded- 
subangulate at its origin, becoming rounded, a little shortly descend- 
ing and subconstricted behind the peristome ; aperture oblique, 
lunate, ovate-rounded ; peristome acute, slightly thickened, reflexed, 
margins distant, joined by a thin callus, the outer slightly excavated, 
the columellar concave, appressed, callously reflexed at the insertion 
half covering the umbilicus. Diam. 23, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. ZELOTA Mabille, 1883. PL 49, fig. 30. 

Imperforate, depressed orbiculate-convex, slightly thickened, 
solid, opaque, destitute of cuticle or lustre, dull rufous, costulate 
striate, with granules, especially conspicuous on the last whorl, and 
deposited in series ; spire depressed mamillate, apex large, rugose or 
nearly smooth; whorls 4^-5, regularly increasing, suture slightly 
impressed; body-whorl large, a little tumid and angulate at its 



HELIX. 155 

origin, becoming rotund compressed, below obliquely compressed, a 
little descending at aperture ; aperture oblique, lunate, small, ovate 
or ovate-triangular; peristome subthickened, reflexed, 'acute, basal 
margin armed with a thin lamina. Diam. 21, alt. 11 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

This species, found only in a fossil state, is separated from its 
allies by the lesser development of the last whorl, the large, obtuse 
apex, smaller aperture, thin peristome, and decided compression of 
the base. 

H. EPHEDROPHILA Mabille, 1883. PI. 48, figs. 21, 22. 

Imperforate, depressed-convex, thick, solid, opaque, scarcely shin- 
ing, distinctly costulate-striate, obscurely submalleate, under the 
lens minutely granulate ; spire convex, apex minute, punctate, obtuse, 
shining, reddish ; whorls 5-51, regularly, rapidly increasing, sutures 
linear but distinct; body-whorl large, compressed-rotund, descending 
briefly and suddenly at the aperture, slightly constricted, not gib- 
bous; aperture small, oblique, lunate, oblong-subrhomboidal, mar- 
gins subconverging, joined by a thin livid callus; peristome thickened, 
reflexed, outer margin subnodulous, excavated, curved, appearing 
sinuous, basal margin lengthily appressed, callous, with an internal 
dentiform, short, tortuous lamina, columella short, tortuous, ap- 
pressed over the umbilicus. Diam. 21, alt. 11 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 
H. THEMERA Mabille, 1883. PI. 49, fig. 38. 

Imperforate, depressed-subglobose, solid, a little shining, and 
ornamented, under a yellowish, transparent, very evanescent cuticle, 
with striae and irregular malleations, especially upon the last whorl; 
color brown, five fasciate ; spire small, convex, apex subacute, ob- 
scurely rugose, purplish; whorls 5-5 2, rapidly increasing, separated 
by impressed sutures ; body-whorl large, compressed-rounded, a little 
dilated and strongly descending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, lunate, 
oblong-subquadrate, margins subapproximating; peristome thick- 
ened, labiate within, reflexed, outer margin sinuately arcuate, basal 
margin straightened, thickened, armed with a long denticle, lengthily 
adnate on the base, appressed at the insertion over the umbilicus. 

Diam. 13, alt. 8 mill. 

Barranco Angostura, Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. RIPROCHI Mabille, 1882. PL 48, figs. 7, 8. 

Imperforate, slightly convex-orbiculate, striate, decussate, espe- 
cially around the suture of last whorl, finely, regularly marked 



156 HELIX. 

with white vermicular malleations, punctate, everywhere minutely 
granulate, with five interrupted violaceous bands ; spire subpromi- 
nent, apex -obtuse, shining, punctulate-rugose, purplish ; whorls 4 y 
very rapidly increasing, separated by distinct sutures; body-whorl 
large, compressed rotund, subconstricted, rapidly descending ; aper- 
ture oblique, lunate, long ovate, slightly narrowed, margins sub- 
parallel, not approximating, much thickened, labiate within, convo- 
lutely reflexed, rosy tinted, outer margin sinuous, basal margin 
straightened, lengthily adnate, planulate, with a strong lamina 
within, and a heavy appressed callus at the insertion. 

Diam. 25-28, alt. 11-13 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

The cuticle is very thin, corneous, usually yellowish, sometimes 
very bright, and exfoliates with great facility. The shell has some 
resemblance to H. consobrina. 

H. JANTHINA Mabille, 1883. PL 48, figs. 1, 2. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, solid, somewhat thickened, a 
little shining, reddish, under a very evanescent, thin, yellowish 
cuticle, paler beneath, ornamented with five brown bands, (the 
second and third ordinarily coalescent), more or less interrupted 
with yellow spots, costulate-striate, all over malle^te and under the 
lens minutely granulate; spire conic, apex obtuse, rugose-punctulate r 
bright, purplish ; whorls 5, convex, regularly, very rapidly increas- 
ing, separated by subirnpressed sutures ; body-whorl large, rotund- 
tumid, obscurely subconstricted at aperture, slightly gibbous, regu- 
larly descending ; aperture oblique, lunate, wide oblong-ovate, 
fauces bluish-white, margins subdistant ; peristome thickened, re- 
flexed, rose-tinted, outer margin sinuately incurved, basal substraight- 
ened, with a broad appressed callus at the insertion, and a strong, 
elevated, dentiform lamina, columella short, obliquely tortuous. 

Diam. 24-26, alt. 11-12 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

Allied to the preceding species. 

H. GRAVID A Mousson, 1872. 

Imperforate, solid, conic-globose-depressed, striate, rudely mal- 
leate, destitute of cuticle and color ; spire widely conoid, apex small, 
smooth ; suture closely subimpressed ; whorls 5, first sensibly increas- 
ing, flattened, the last somewhat descending, subinflated around the 
suture, rounded, declivous above, subturgid below; aperture very 



HELIX. 157 

oblique, transverse lunate-oval; peristome obtuse, very thick, convex- 
reflexed, sublabiate within, margins subremote, joined by a rather 
thick callus, the upper and lower subparallel, the basal thickened, 
with a long dentiform callus inside, widely expanded, appressed and 
callous at insertion. Diam. 33, alt. 24 mill. (Mousson.) 

Ins. Fuertaventura, Canaries. 

A rare sub-fossil species, said to be somewhat intermediate between 
the lactea and sarcostoma types. 

H. BATHYCAMPA Mabille, 1883. PL 47, figs. 84, 85. 

Imperforate, subglobose, rather thick, somewhat shining, rudely 
striate, and under a lens minutely granulate, yellowish rufous or 
purplish, with five bands often interrupted with yellowish macula- 
tions ; apex obtuse, rugose, purplish ; whorls 5, very rapidly increas- 
ing, separated by impressed sutures, the last large, tumid-rounded, 
convex below and above, slightly compressed at the suture, slightly 
constricted at the aperture, and strongly, suddenly deflexed anterior- 
ly ; aperture oblique, lunate, ovate-rounded, the ends approximating; 
peristome thickened, broadly reflected and flattened, rufous, colu- 
mella margin subreflexed, with a dentiform lamella. 

Diam. 29, alt. 18 mill. Fuertaventura, Canaries. 

The shell is thinner than in H. sarcostoma, and the sculpture 
different. 

H. SUBGRAVIDA Mabille, 1882. PI. 47, fig. 86. 

Imperforate, solid, thick, subglobose-depressed, entirely covered 
with minute points and scarcely apparent costulations ; spire conic, 
apex minute, obtuse ; whorls 5, slightly convex, irregularly increas- 
ing, suture narrowly impressed ; body-whorl large, angled in front 
of the aperture, but becoming swollen and rounded, anteriorly briefly 
deflexed ; aperture oblique, lunate, irregularly ovate ; peristome 
widely reflexed, slightly thickened within, the ends subconverging, 
joined by a conspicuous callus ; columellar margin nearly straight, 
provided with an elongated tooth, widely expanded over the umbil- 
ical tract. Diam. 30, alt. 17 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

Compare H. gravida Mouss. 

H. BARCKERIANA Mabille, 1883. PI. 40, fig. 10. 

Imperforate, depressed, thick, solid, scarcely shining, destitute of 
color and epidermis, but with three or four obscure rufous bands, 



158 HELIX. 

striate and coarsely crispate-malleate ; spire convex, subprominent, 
apex minute, subrugose ; whorls 5-5 J, first planato-convex, rapidly 
and regularly increasing, last very rapidly increasing ; suture im- 
pressed especially at last whorl ; body whorl large, rounded, below 
slightly flattened, toward aperture slightly dilated, briefly descend- 
ing, subconstricted at the peristome ; aperture oblique, lunate, 
* oblong ; peristome obtuse, reflexed ; ends not converging, connected 
by a slightly heavy callus, basal margin nearly straight, callous, 
with a long internal tooth. 

Quatenary of Ins. Grand Canary, near Agaete* 
Allied to the preceding. 

H. CACOPISTA Mabille, 1883. PI. 48, figs. 5, 6. 

Imperforate, depressed conic, subthickened, without epidermis, 
yellowish ruddy, with five white-dotted rufous bands ; apex minute, 
obtuse, granulate, concolored ; whorls 5-5 J, scarcely convex, sub- 
irregularly increasing, separated by distinct sutures ; the last large, 
slightly angular, subplanulate below, briefly deflexed at aperture ; 
aperture lunate-oblique, ovate-elongate ; peristome subthickened 
within, widely expanded, subfragile, acute, ends converging, con- 
nected by a thin callus ; basal margin slightly incurved, with a 
long appressed callus ; columella short, tortuous, with a strong um- 
bilical callus, and a lamelliform, elevated, straight tooth. 

Diam. 26, alt. 12 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Grand Canary, near Agaete. 

H. CATEUCTA Mabille, 1883. PL 47, fig. 82. 

Imperforate, depressed subglobose, thick, destitute of cuticle, shin- 
ing, yellowish, with four rufous spiral bands, maculated with white; 
spire conic, apex minute, nearly smooth, concolored; whorls 6, first 
plano-convex, last very rapidly increasing, separated by distinct 
sutures; body-whorl large, rounded, subflattened below; aperture 
oblique, oblong-lunate, peristome thickened, reflexed, its ends sub- 
approximating, joined by a thin callus; columellar margin nearly 
straight, widely adnate, subexcavated, with a lamellose denticle. 

Diam. 35, alt. 18* mill. 

Quarternary of Ins. Grand Canary, near Agaete. 

Whorls of the spire flatter than in H. subgravida, the last not 
angular and more dilated. 



/& 

If V^ OF THE 

[( UNIVEBSITY 

H. JUSTINI Mabille, 1882. PI. 47, fig. 79. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic, solid, striate, destitute of cuticle and 
color, not malleate nor granulate, spire conic, moderately elevated, 
apex minute, obtuse, whorls 5, sub-depressed, a little rounded, the 
first three regularly, rapidly, the last very rapidly increasing ; suture 
very distinct; body-whorl large, angulate, anteriorly obliquely 
roundly subcompressed, much constricted and abruptly descending 
at the aperture, convex-inflated below; aperture lunate, oblique, 
irregularly transverse-oval; peristome thickened, obtuse, dentate, 
margins joined by a thick callus, outer margin sinuous, bidentate, 
columellar nearly straight, oblique, widely expanded over and 
wholly covering the umbilicus. Diam. 21, alt. 13 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Tenerijffe, near the light-house of Anaga. 

H. poirieri Mabille, is a synonym. 

Intermediate between H. pouchet and H. bidentalis. The teeth 
of the outer lip are stronger than in H. bidentalis more oblique in 
direction, and obstructing the aperture more; basal margin is less 
oblique, thicker, etc. The shell is neither malleate, like H. bidentalis 
nor granulate, as in H. pouchet. 

H. HELYGAIA Mabille, 1882. PI. 47, fig. 68. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic, solid, destitute of color or cuticle, 
coarsely striate, and in well preserved examples with fine microscopic 
decurrent lines; spire widely convex, apex obtuse; whorls 4J, a 
little convex, rapidly (especially the outer) increasing, separated by 
impressed sutures ; body-whorl large, turgid, visibly angulate, com- 
pressed before the aperture, suddenly descending and constricted at 
the aperture ; aperture oblique, lunate, small, somewhat subquadrate, 
peristome thickened, subdentate in the middle, margins subcon verg- 
ing, joined by a subthickened callus ; columellar margin longly 
appressed, excavated, adnate and callous at its insertion, uniting 
with the sinuous outer lip with a decided angle. 

Diam. 25-28, alt. 14 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe near Anaga. 

Allied to H. pouchet, but differing in the more regularly increas- 
ing whorls, less prominent spire, thick peristome, and more devel- 
oped process on the outer lip. 

H. CACOPLASTA Mabille, 1882. PI. 47, fig. 75. 

Imperforate, subdepressed-globulose, thick, opaque, destitute of col- 
or and cuticle, obtusely angular at the periphery, not malleate nor 



160 HELIX. 

granulate, irregularly striate ; spire convexo-conic, slightly promi- 
nent, apex obtuse, smooth; whorls 5*1 , convexly rounded, regularly, 
rapidly increasing, separated by impressed sutures; body-whorl 
large, compressed-rotund in front of the aperture, becoming rotund- 
tumid, somewhat constricted behind the aperture, turgid below, 
briefly, rapidly descending ; aperture slightly oblique, lunate, wide 
oblong-subrotund, margins subdistant, joined by a callus ; peristome 
thick, scarcely reflected, labiate within, exterior margin sinuous, 
columellar adnate, obliquely thickened, with an appressed callus 
and slightly excavated at the insertion of the callus. 

Diam. 30, alt. 18 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe, at the lighthouse of Anaga. 

May be distinguished by its very depressed form and rounded 
whorls, the body-whorl slightly angular at its origin, and the small, 
regular aperture. 

H. CALLIPONA Mabille, 1882. PL 52, fig. 68. 

Imperforate, conoid-subglobose, opaque, destitute of cuticle and 
color, densely costulate-striate ; spire conic, apex obtuse, smooth ; 
whorls 6, convexly sloping, regularly, very rapidly increasing, 
separated by impressed sutures ; body-whorl large, carinate, more 
or less compressed-rotund, below convex, at the aperture deflexed, 
subconstricted ; aperture oblique, rather small, lunate, oblong-rotund, 
margins subdistant, joined by a thin callus, peristome thick, labiate, 
convolutely reflexed, margins well-curved, the columellar oblique, 
adnate, with a wide appressed callus at the insertion. 

Diam. 28-30, alt. 16-17 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe, at the lighthouse of Anaga. 

Compared with H. cacoplasta this species is less depressed, more 
globulose, whorls more rounded, less sloping, striation stronger, less 
regular, aperture rounder, peristome thicker. 

H. PERRIERI Mabille, 1882. PL 47, fig. 77. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic, thick, opaque, destitute of color and 
cuticle, subacutely carinated, appearing under a strong lens finely 
decussated, costulately striate ; spire conic, slightly elevated, apex 
obtuse, punctulate ; whorls 5 J, convexly sloping, rapidly increasing, 
especially the outer ones, separated by linear sutures ; body- whorl 
large, angulate, becoming compresso-dilated, below convex turgid, 
constricted at aperture, and suddenly deflected ; aperture subhori- 
zontal, lunate, oblong-ovate, margins distant, joined by a thick 



HELIX. 161 

callus ; peristome thick, bilabiate, reflexed, columellar margin 
adnate, thickened, appressed at the insertion of the callus. 

Diam. 30, alt. 14 J mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe, at the lighthouse of Anaga. 

Allied to verneaui and cacoplasta. The peculiar compressed form 
of the body-whorl is very characteristic. 

H. VERNEAUI Mabille, 1882. PI. 47', fig. 70. 

Imperforate, subglobose-depressed, solid, opaque, destitute of color 
and cuticle, obliquely, arcuately plicato-striate ; spire conic, sub- 
prominent, apex obtuse, substriate ; whorls 5-6, subrounded, rapidly 
increasing, especially the last, separated by simple narrowly im- 
pressed sutures; body-whorl large, angulate, compressed above, 
turgid toward the aperture (carina evanescent) and slightly con- 
stricted, slightly inflated below, suddenly and shortly deflected ; 
aperture somewhat oblique, wide lunate-ovate ; peristome thick, 
subbilabiate, acutely reflexed, margins subapproximating, the outer 
curved, the columellar well curved, adnate, appressed at the insertion 
of the callus. Diam. 28-30, alt. 14-15 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe, near the lighthouse of Anaga. 

H. IDBYTA Mabille, 1882. PI. 47, fig. 80. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic, destitute of color and cuticle, opaque, 
striate, and with indistinct decurrent striae, obscurely subgranulose, 
spire conic, apex minute, obtuse, punctate; whorls 5, slightly de- 
pressed, regularly and rapidly increasing; suture impressed, especially 
at last whorl ; body- whorl large, angulate, laterally compressed be- 
fore the aperture, abruptly descending and constricted at the peri- 
stome, convexo-inflated below ; aperture oblique, lunate, irregularly 
ovate; peristome double, reflexed, margins converging, the outer 
sinuous tuberculate, angulate, the columella thick, broadly appressed, 
expanded over the umbilicus. Diam. 19-25, alt. 123-13 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe, near Anaga. 

Distinguished from its congeners by the nearly effaced striae and 
slight granulation, the development of the linguaform duplication 
on the outer lip, the marked angulation of the body- whorl, and the 
wide, excavated columellar margin, smooth and rounded inside. 

H. HEDONICA Mabille, 1882. PL 47, fig. 83. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic-subglobose, solid, destitute of cuticle 
and color, costulate-striate and irregularly minutely malleate, spire 
cenvexo-conic, apex obtuse, rugose-punctate; whorls 5, slightlv con- 
11 



162 HELIX. 

vex, irregularly, the last very rapidly, increasing, separated by 
impressed sutures; last whorl large, angular, laterally compressed, 
obliquely turgid before, below flattened turgid, suddenly deflexed 
and constricted at the aperture; aperture slightly oblique, lunate, 
oblong-subquadrate, margins subconverging, joined by a thin callus; 
peristome obtuse, subreflexed, thickened, the columellar margin 
nearly straight, excavated inside, adnate at the insertion of the 
callus, outer margin regularly curved. 

Diam. 24-27, alt. 12-14 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe, near Anaga. 

Differs from H. helygaia in the very pronounced gibbosity of the 
last whorl, the smallness of the aperture, thinner peristome, and less 
convex whorls of the spire. 

H. GALDARICA Mabille, 1883. PL 49, fig. 26. 

Imperforate, depressed-convex, rather thick and solid, costulate- 
striate, under a lens very finely granulate, destitute of luster and 
cuticle, above reddish brown, with more or less intense zones which 
are covered with white points; spire conic, apex obtuse, mamillate, 
rugose-striate, whorls 5?, rather convex, regularly, rapidly increas- 
ing, separated.by impressed sutures; body-whorl large, flatly rounded, 
obtusely angled at periphery, descending, subdilated, and deeply 
constricted at the aperture, subplanulate below ; aperture oblique, 
widely ovate-elongate, lunate, peristome subthickened within, white, 
very widely expanded, subreflexed, fragile, acute, the margins sub- 
approximating, joined by a rather thick callus, the basal margin 
substraightened, with a prominent thick contorted tooth within. 

Diam. 33, alt. 16 mill. Ins. Grand Canary. 

Spire more elevated and prominent, suture more marked, sculp- 
ture of last whorl more regular than in H. agaetana. 

H. LEDRUI Mabille, 1885. PL 40, fig. 12. 

Imperforate, depressed -globose, solid, opaque, destitute of epider- 
mis, ornamented with four bands of reddish brown, frequently 
interrupted, and striate, especially at the sutures, lightly granulate 
and a little decussated; spire convex; apex minute, smooth, shining; 
whorls 5i, slightly convex, irregularly increasing, suture well im- 
pressed; last whorl very large, angular, but deprived of the angle 
toward the aperture, and suddenly deflected, somewhat constricted; 
aperture lunate, subhorizontal, irregular oblong ; peristome widely 
reflected, upper and lower margins subparallel, not converging, 



HELIX. 163 

connected by a thin callus, basal margin straight, thickened within, 
with a long tooth, a little tuberculate. Diam. 27, alt. 15 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Grand Canary, near Agaete. 
The more salient characters are the solidity, the serrate striation 
and the obscure malleation. The granulation is visible only under 
a lens. 

H. ETHELEMA Mabille, 1882. PI. 49, fig. 31. 

Imperforate, depressed-subglobose, thick, scarcely shining, yellow- 
ish, tinged slightly with red, irregularly striate, and densely, finely y 
granulate, with five indistinct narrow, somewhat interrupted brown 
bands; spire subconvex, apex obtuse, shining, granulose; whorls 5, 
the outer very rapidly increasing, the first two subplanulate, separat- 
ed by distinct, sometimes crenulated sutures; aperture oblique, 
lunate, oblong-ovate, margins subparallel, somewhat approximating, 
joined by a white punctulate callus; peristome thick, broadly rather 
flatly reflexed, columellar margin adnate, with a long tooth inside, 
an appressed callus at the insertion and an obtuse angle at junction 
with outer lip. Diam. 27, alt. 13 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

Allied somew T hat with H. gomerensis', but with more elevated 
spire, last whorl more angular, peristome much thickened and 
dilated. 

H. AGAETANA Mabille, 1883. PI. 46, figs. 64, 65. 

Imperforate, subdepressed-globose, rather thick, solid, opaque, 
greyish rufous, with three or four interrupted bands, color and 
cuticle frequently deciduous, densely costulate-striate, and crispate- 
malleate, above (under the lens) very minutely pustulose, below 
ilattened-turgid ; whorls 6, a little convex, regularly and rapidly 
increasing, separated by distinct sutures ; body-whorl large, convexly 
rounded, more or less angulate at the periphery, deeply deflexed at 
the aperture, and strongly constricted at peristome ; aperture oblique, 
lunate, irregularly subtriangular-ovate, peristome slightly thickened, 
widely, flatly expanded, somewhat reflexed, thin, subfragile, dull 
reddish or yellowish, margins converging, subapproximating, joined 
by a conspicuous lamina, the outer subsinuous, basal somewhat 
straight, adnate, with a prominent elongate, generally white lamelli- 
form tooth. Diam. 28-30, alt. 14-16 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary, near Aga'ete. 

Allied to H. galdarica, but with the peristome of H. sarcostoma. 



164 HELIX. 

H. SAULCYI d'Orbigny, 1839. PL 49, figs. 45, 46. 

Imperforate, globose-conic-depressed, rather solid, greyish, or 
purplish without lustre, encircled by five bands of deep brown, the 
supraperipheral and following bands generally confluent, the whole 
surface covered with a fine netting or malleation formed by anas- 
tomosing oblique wrinkles of white or light grey color, and a 
secondary sculpture of microscopic granulations; apex and first 1 
whorls dark brown, smooth, shining; suture linear, becoming im- 
pressed near the aperture; whorls 41, gradually increasing, the last 
somewhat widened toward the aperture, with an indication of an 
angle at its origin, gibbous below, abruptly and rather deeply de- 
flexed anteriorly, and subconstrirted behind the peristome; aperture 
very oblique, oblong-lunate; peristome expanded, pinkish, arched 
above and below, the ends converging, joined by a scarcely visible 
yellowish parietal callus ; basal margin appressed over the umbilical 
tract, obviously dentately thickened within. 

Diam. 25, alt. 16 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

There is considerable variation in sculpture, the malleations being 
sometimes arranged in more or less regular oblique series. 

Var. TEMPERATA Mousson, 1872. PI. 49, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell larger than H. saulcyi, spire less elevated, body-whorl more 
angular, sculpture less coarse, columellar tooth smaller, peristome 
more developed, thicker. Diam. 24, alt. 17 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

This form is closely allied to H. saulcyi, and is considered by 
Wollaston to be merely a variety of that species. 

H. BAIA Mabille, 1883. PI. 47, fig. 76. 

Shell globose-depressed, imperforate or subperforate, somewhat 
thickened, very solid, destitute of color or cuticle, coarsely malleate, 
the malleations disposed in oblique series, strongly striate, the strise 
interrupted ; spire elevated, convex, apex minute, smooth, concolor- 
ed; whorls 5J-6, convexo-depressed, subregularly, the outer very 
rapidly, increasing; sutures impressed; last whorl large, rounded, 
inflated, very suddenly and briefly descending anteriorly, subcon- 
stricted at the aperture, inflato-convex below; aperture oblique, 
rotund-lunate, peristome thickened reflexed, acute, margins not con- 
verging, joined by a well-marked callus, the basal margin sub- 
straightened, adnate, with a lamellose tooth within. 

.Diam. 28-34, alt. 18S-2LJ mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary; fossil. 



HELIX. 165 

This species presents the following differences from H. temperata; 
the shell is smaller, more globose, whorls higher, striation more 
marked, the sculpture is clearer, and accompanied with granules, 
etc., etc. It is larger than H. saulcyi, more regularly sculptured, 
whorls less rapidly increasing, and aperture rounder. 

H. EMBRITHA Mabille, 1882. Un figured. 

Imperforate, conic-depressed, thick, subopaque, without cuticle or 
color, rudely crispato-malleate, spire convex, prominent, apex smooth, 
shining, obtuse ; whorls 5-6, first convex-sloping, the last compressed 
rounded, regularly rapidly increasing, separated by impressed 
sutures ; body-whorl large, angular in front of the aperture, becom- 
ing round, deflexed anteriorly, constricted at the aperture, swollen 
below ; aperture oblique, lunate, oblong, margins sub-distant, sub- 
parallel, joined by a callus ; peristome thickened within, widely 
reflexed, shining, subrevolute ; columellar margin adnate, strongly 
thickened, appressed over umbilicus, nearly straight, armed with an 
obtuse lamina. Diam. 27, alt. 16 mill. 

Quaternary of Puerto-da-Luz, Ins. Grand Canary. 

Most nearly allied to H. saulcyi, but may be distinguished by the 
thicker shell, larger size, irregular malleation and the entire absence 
of granulations ; from H. temperata the more depressed form and 
more prominent spire separate it. 

H. CRYPSIDOMA Mabille, 1882. PI. 47, fig. 71 . 

Imperforate, subdepressed, orbiculate, solid, thick, opaque, covered 
with sharp malleations ; spire slightly convex, apex obtuse, shining, 
rugulose ; whorls 5-5 i, slightly convex, inner regularly, the outer 
very rapidly increasing, separated by impressed sutures ; body-whorl 
large, angular at its origin, becoming turgid-rounded, subconstricted 
and briefly deflected at the aperture, slightly tumid below ; aperture 
lunate, oblique ovate-oblong, margins acute, the columella adnate, 
appressed, provided with a dentiform lamina. 

Diam. 27, alt. 16 mill. 

Quaternary of Puerto-da-Luz, Grand Canary. 

More depressed, thicker, with less prominent spire than H. saul- 
cyi, and peristome more developed. 

H. STULTA Mabille, 1883. PL 47, fig. 69. 

Imperforate-, subgjobose-depressed, thick, solid, opaque, destitute 
>f color and cuticle, coarsely reticulato-malleate ; spire conic, apex 
obtuse, smooth ; whorls 5-5 J, first convex, regularly, the last rapidly 



166 HELIX. 

increasing ; suture impressed ; body-whorl large, turgid, inflated,, 
rounded at periphery, descending and subconstricted at aperture ~ 
aperture slightly oblique, lunate, transverse oblongo-subquadrate,, 
margins subremote, joined by a shining calcareous lamina ; peristome 
patulous, broadly reflexed, acute, thickened within, external margin 
sinuous, columellar margin with an adnate callus, appressed at its 
insertion, with a strong elongated tooth inside. 
Diam. 35, alt. 18 mill. 

Fossil at Puerto-da-Luz, Grand Canary Is. 

H. CARTA Mabille, 1882. PL 47, fig. 89. 

Shell subglobose-conic-depressed, thick, opaque, striate and rudely 
malleate; spire conic, prominent, apex obtuse, smooth; whorls 5 r 
convex, regularly, rapidly increasing, separated by distinct sutures, 
the last large, rounded, slightly dilated and turgid anteriorly, convex 
below; aperture oblique, lunate, oblong-ovate, margins subdistant; 
peristome acute, reflexed, thickened within, outer margin sinuous r 
columella thickened, expanded and appressed over the umbilicus,, 
within strongly lamellose-dentate. Diam. 29-31, alt. 16-18 mill. 

Ins.Grand Canary, fossil in quaternary of Puerto-da-Luz. 

Compared with H. temperata the size of H. carta is larger, the last 
whorl less globular, the body-whorl obviously angular in front, and 
it lacks granulation. 

H. RETRODENS Mousson, 1872. PI. 50, figs. 68, 69. 

Imperforate, globose-convex, scarcely angled, strongly striate, in 
part elongate malleate, shining, nearly destitute of cuticle, very pale 
brownish-olive, white below, with three indistinct bands, interrupted 
with streaks of white ; spire obtuse, subconoidal, apex rather large,, 
obtuse, granulose-rugose ; sutures subimpressed ; whorls 4?, slightly 
convex, the last rapidly, deeply deflexed anteriorly, gibbously in- 
flated and constricted behind the aperture; aperture contracted, 
very oblique, white, subcircularly trigonal; peristome thickened, 
white, acute, broadly, flatly reflexed, the margins subconverging^ 
joined by a thick callus, the basal with a heavy callus at the inser- 
tion, and a recurved pliciforin tooth. Diam. 17, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

Related, according to Mabille, to If. paeteliana, differing in its 
small size, angulation of last whorl, the excavation of the umbilical 
tract, the strong striae, white spots, and the small aperture. 



HELIX. 167 

H. POUCHET Ferussac, 1821. PL 49, figs. 53, 54; pi. 61, fig. 16; pi. 

52, figs. 69-71. 

Shell imperforate, depressed subglobose, not shining, rather strong 
and solid, unicolored brown, or with faint dark bands, the first, 
narrow, subsutural, second and third above the periphery, generally 
confluent, fourth immediately below the periphery; spire low conic, 
apex obtuse; sutures impressed; whorls 4, regularly increasing, 
the last scarcely wider than the antepenultimate, but near the aper- 
ture somewhat dilated, then strongly constricted and deeply deflexed; 
first whorl not striate, very minutely granulate, nearly smooth; the 
following more or less coarsely obliquely irregularly striate, the 
striae and intervening spaces generally marked with extremely mi- 
nute spiral impressed lines, and the whole surface irregularly gran- 
ular, especially below; the body-whorl at its beginning is angular 
and rather compressed; its last third is rounded, inflated, and. gib- 
bous below; aperture very oblique, rounded trigonal, white within; 
peristome reflexed, much thickened, its margins converging, the upper 
angularly arched, outer margin bearing an obtuse small dentiform 
callus, generally inconspicuous, upon its face, lower margin straight- 
ened, with a rather heavy subtruncate callus within, forming an angle 
at junction with outer lip. Diam. 23, alt. 14 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

H. adansoni Webb et Berth, and H. poucheti Mabille are syn- 
onyms. 
H. DESCULPTA Mousson, 1872. 

Imperforate, conic or depressed-subglobose, with smooth (not in- 
cised nor granulate) costulose strise, destitute of color or cuticle; 
spire convex, wide-conic, aperture obtuse, suture impressed, simple; 
whorls 5, slightly convex, the last not abruptly descending, a little 
inflated and constricted, well rounded, not angulate, somewhat in- 
flated below; aperture very oblique, small, coarctate, transversely 
obtusely triangular; peristome thickened, broadly reflexed, margins 
not approaching, joined by a callus, the basal subelongate, flatly 
expanded and adnate at the insertion, joining the outer lip at an 
angle. Diam. 21, alt. 16 mill. 

Ins. Fuertaventura, Canaries. 

A subfossil form, said to be intermediate between H. pouchet and 
H. plicaria. 

H. MODESTA Ferussac, 1819. PL 50, figs. 62-64. 

Imperforate, solid, depressed, dark olivaceous or brown above, 
shading into light yellow on the base, frequently with obscure ill- 



168 HELIX. 

defined darker bands, four or five in number ; spire depressed convex- 
conic, apex rather obtuse, obsoletely granulate; whorls 4?, coarsely 
obliquely, irregularly striate, the last rudely, obviously malleate, at 
its origin angulate, its last third rounded, inflated, widened in the 
immediate vicinity of the aperture, then constricted, gibbous below, 
deeply deflexed anteriorly; aperture very oblique, rounded trigonal; 
peristome broadly reflected, pinkish gray, labiate with darker, its 
ends converging and joined by a scarcely perceptible callus; upper 
margin well arched, subangular in the middle ; lower margin straight, 
adnate, with a thick white lamella within, and joining the outer lip 
at an angle. Diarn. 19, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

If. paivana Lowe is a synonym. 

May be separated from H. pouchet and other allies by the rude 
malleation, and the lack of spiral impressed lines. 

H. IDIOTBYPA Mabille, 1883. PL 48, figs. 12, 13. 

Imperforate, convex, depressed subglobose, solid, opaque, scarcely 
shining, uniform whitish green, irregularly malleate and rugose, 
plicate-striate ; spire convex, apex rugose, obtuse, decorticated, 
unicolored ; whorls 5, first 3 flat, slowly increasing, the remainder a 
little convex, rapidly widening, separated by linear suture, impressed 
on last whorl; body-whorl large, subacutely angled, becoming 
turgidly rounded toward the aperture, obliquely subdilated, scarcely 
constricted, abruptly descending, flattened and shining below ; 
aperture oblique, lunate, subquadrate-oval ; peristome a little 
thickened, white-labiate within, acute, flatly expanded, margins 
subcouverging, the columellar straightened, excavated, adnate. 

Diam. 20, alt. 9J mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

H. MALLEATA Ferussac, 1821. PI. 49, figs. 42, 44. 

Imperforate, globosely-depressed, somewhat dilated transversely, 
strong and solid, olivaceous brown, base lighter, generally with five 
dark spiral bands, the second and third coalescent, the lower one 
narrow and faint ; spire somewhat conic, obtuse ; suture moderately 
marked ; whorls 4}, regularly increasing, the first one or two reddish, 
apparently nearly smooth, but finely granulate under the lens, the 
balance irregularly obliquely striate, microscopically granulate, 
rather finely and very regularly malleate ; body-whorl angular at 
its origin, but rounded and with very gibbous base on its last third, 



HELIX. 169 

very abruptly deflexed at aperture, and grooved behind the peri- 
stome ; aperture irregularly triangular-trilobate, the peristome white, 
at the upper angle produced downward into a lobe or tooth, the 
outer lip with a similar but narrower tooth, columellar margin 
substraightened, thickened within, adnate to the gibbous base. 

Diam. 20, alt. 14 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

Lamarck published this species as H. bidentalis before the descrip- 
tion of malleata was published. But. since the species is universally 
known by the latter name it is scarcely advisable to change. 

A well known and easily recognized species, quite variable in the 
development of the peristome and in size ; extreme specimens meas- 
ure: Diam. 24, alt. 16 mill., and forma minima, diam. 12 mill. 

Yar. NIVARIJK Wollaston. 

Larger than the type ; body- whorl not keeled, less deflected 
anteriorly ; aperture more triangular, peristome more thickened, 
more reflexed, margins less converging, the basal more straightened, 
the upper margin with the teeth nearly obsolete. 

Diam. 22, alt. 13 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe. 

H. GLASIANA Shuttleworth, 1852. PI. 49, figs. 40, 41. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, solid, above grayish yellow, more 
or less streaked and suffused with the dark coffee color of the bands, 
which are five in number, the upper ones generally interrupted, 
often broken into oblique streaks, the peripheral and lower bands 
wider, usually continuous, base dull yellow; spire conic-convex, apex 
obtuse; suture well marked; whorls 4-4?, the first minutely granu- 
late, the following densely granulate, irregularly obliquely striate, 
the striae mostly broken into coarse granules, below the periphery 
almost smooth; body-whorl not angular, well rounded, the last third 
very gibbous below, widened toward the aperture, somewhat deflexed, 
lightly constricted; aperture oblique trigonal,, subtrilobate ; peri- 
stome much thickened, narrowly reflected, bearing on the upper 
outer margin an obtuse tubercular tooth, base adnate, wide, with a 
a callous lamella within. Diam. 18-22, alt. 14-16 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. pellis-lacerti Reeve (fig. 40.) and H. malleata var. b. Pfr., are 
synonyms. 



170 HELIX. 

H. GLYCEIA Mabille, 1882. PL 47, fig. 78. 

Imperforate, subglobose-depressed, thick, irregularly striate some- 
times obscurely granulate; spire obtuse conic, apex mamillated 
smooth; whorls 5, depresso convex, sensibly increasing, separated 
by linear sutures, the last large, angulate-rotund, abruptly, shortly 
deflexed and obliquely dilated at the aperture, turgid below; aper- 
ture oblique, lunate, irregularly subquadrate; peristome thick r 
revolute, thickened within and without, margins not approaching, 
joined by a thin callus, outer margin angularly curved, middle 
tuberculate, the columellar margin longly appressed, thick, callous 
at its insertion, and provided with a long lamellose tooth inside. 

Diam. 26-30, alt. 15} mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe, near the lighthouse of Anaga. 

H. EMPEDA Mabille, 1883. PI. 47, fig. 81. 

Imperforate, opaque, striate-costulate; spire conic, apex mamillate, 
obtuse, punctulate; whorls 5, convexly sloping, regularly, rapidly 
increasing, separated by impressed sutures; body-whorl large, ro- 
tund-inflated, obscurely angular at the periphery, at aperture com- 
presso-declivous, slightly constricted, rapidly descending, turgid 
below; aperture very oblique, lunate, irregularly rounded; margins 
distant, peristome thick, somewhat reflexed, labiate within, external 
margin obliquely subdentate in the middle, angularly curved, base 
arcuate, slightly excavated, feebly dentate ; columella short, cover- 
ing the umbilicus with a strong callus. Diam. 25, alt. 16 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Grand Canary. 

Allied to H. glasiana and H. fritschi; from the former its greater 
size, the elevation of its conical spire, and the thicker, more oblique 
peristome distinguish it; from the latter, the curved base (straight 
in H. fritschi}, and different armature of same, separate the present 
species. 

H. FRITSCHI Mousson, 1872. PI. 50, fig. 91. 

Imperforate, globose or subdepressed globose, densely minutely 
costulate-striate, the costulse subundulating, subgranulate, base 
smoother; grayish green, paler beneath, with four violet-brown 
bands and scattered elongated small white spots ; spire obtusely 
convex, apex flattened, corneous, rapidly increasing, minutely 
granulate-rugose; suture lightly impressed, subirregular ; whorls 4, 
the last large, rounded, rapidly descending, slightly subinflated and 
subconstricted, below somewhat tumid ; aperture oblique, rounded- 



HELIX. 171 

triangular, showing the bands within ; peristome a little thickened, 
shortly subreflexed, sublabiate within, margins not approximating y 
the upper arcuately descending, sometimes with a small tubercle,, 
the basal, rather flattened, subcallous, straight within, expanded 
and appressed at the insertion. Diam. 17-24 mill, alt. 13-18 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries. 

The peristome usually bears traces of the teeth which are so- 
prominent in the preceding forms. From them, the globose, thin 
shell at once separate it. 

H. CONSOBRINA Ferussac, 1819. PI. 50, figs. 87, 88. 

Imperforate, depressed, solid, yellowish brown, with five dark 
brown bands, the upper ones generally interrupted with light flam- 
mules ; spire depressed conic, sutures slightly impressed ; whorls 4 J 
upper ones scarcely convex, the first shining, light brown, micro- 
scopically granulate, as is the whole shell usually ; last whorl wide, 
becoming wider toward the aperture, finely reticulate-malleate, 
irregularly striate, smoother below, not angulate, the last third 
gibbous below, above descending rather abruptly to the aperture, 
scarcely contracted behind the peristome ; lip more or less widely- 
reflected, its face thickened, rounded, white or pinkish, microscop- 
ically granulate, the margins converging, joined by a thin or moder- 
ate callus ; upper margin arched, outer margin with an obtuse 
subobsolete tooth-like callus upon its face, lower margin broad r 
flattened, bearing inside a dentiform callus. 

Diam. 19-23, alt. 11-14 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

I am not satisfied with the synonymy of the consobrina group ; for 
I believe that several of the following forms are merely varieties or 
that species. It is impossible however, to work the species out with 
the meagre material before me. 

A var. vetmta Mouss., is more depressed, suture less impressed,, 
last whorl subangulate, and aperture smaller than the type. 

H. EVERGASTA Mabille, 1882. PL 48, figs. 100, 101. 

Imperforate, subglobose-conic, solid, sub-shining yellowish rufous r 
with four conspicuous brown bands, irregularly costulate-striate and 
with very dense decurrent lines, visible only under a lens, giving 
the shell a peculiar granulose appearance ; spire conic, prominent,, 
apex minute, obtuse, concolored, rugose; whorls 5, slightly convex r 
regularly increasing, separated by subimpressed sutures, accompanied 



172 HELIX. 

foy a very narrow white zone, and perceptibly crenulated ; body- 
whorl large, rounded-sloping, subangulate, gently descending at the 
aperture and very strongly constricted ; aperture very oblique, 
irregularly lunate-oval, peristome not reflexed, broadly, flatly ex- 
panded, white within, yellowish without, margins approximating, 
joined by a white callus, the columellar a little straightened, denticu- 
late, adnate at the appressed umbilical callus. 

Diam. 23i-25, alt. 14-15 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

A very distinct form, remarkable for the regularly conic spire, 
brilliant peristome, and incised decurrent lines. 

H. CACOPERA Mabille, 1883. PL 49, fig. 34. 

Imperforate, thick, opaque, irregularly striate, dull purplish, very 
irregularly malleate, especially upon the last whorl, under a lens 
very finely granulate, the upper whorls smooth ; spire depressed- 
conic, little elevated, apex punctulate, shining, obtuse, concolored ; 
whorls 5, rapidly increasing, separated by impressed sutures ; body- 
whorl large, angulose-rotund, flattened and impressed in the centre 
beneath, toward the aperture regularly descending, subconstricted 
and slightly gibbous ; aperture oblique, lunate, transversely trian- 
gular ; peristome flatly expanded, not reflected, the margins subdis- 
tant, columellar margin straightened, thick, white, excavated, 
lengthily adnate, briefly appressed at insertion, joining the broadly 
arcuate outer lip at an angle. Diam. 21, alt. 10 mill. 

Ins. Gomera. Canaries. 

Differs from H. consobrina in the more compact coiling of the 
whorls, the last one simply rounded, not inflated ; the peristome 
is slightly thickened, flat, angular at the junction of the columellar 
and' outer margins, not reflexed and callous as in H. consobrina. 

H. BATHYCLERA Mabille, 1885. PL 49, figs. 23-25. 

Imperforate, convex-depressed, solid, opaque, slightly shining, 
rudely striate, obscurely malleate, yellow reddish, with five sub- 
evanescent blackish bands, interrupted with yellow; spire convex, 
apex shining, purplish, punctulate ; whorls 5, regularly, rapidly in- 
creasing, separated by impressed sutures; body-whorl large, inflated 
above, concave below, subdilato-compressed toward aperture, sud- 
denly shortly deflexed and a little constricted behind the peristome; 
aperture lunate, -oblique, irregularly triangular-ovate; peristome 



HELIX. 173 

thick, reflexed, margins converging, the basal appressed, obscurely 
subdentate, with a adnate callus. 

Bufadero, Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries* 

This species is more depressed than the H. consobrina, the last 
whorl is without trace of angulation, is not gibbous toward the 
aperture nor sensibly constricted, but is more deflected ; the striation 
is stronger, and the surface is not granulate. 

H. THANASIMA Mabille, 1883. PI. 47, fig. 74. 

Imperforate, conic-depressed-globose, striate, irregularly malleate,. 
minutely granulate ; spire convex-conic, apex smooth, obtuse ; whorls 
4-5, the upper rapidly, the following very rapidly increasing, separa- 
ted by subim pressed sutures; body- whorl large, distinctly carinated 
at the periphery, toward the aperture gibbously dilated, narrowly,, 
superficially constricted behind the peristome, obliquely dilated 
beneath; aperture oblique, lunate, transversely subquadrate; peri- 
stome thickened, revolute, obtuse, margins subapproximating, joined 
by a callus; the outer margin markedly sinuous, tuberculate in the 
middle, basal margin concave, excavated, adnate and impressed at 
insertion. Diam. 23, alt. 14 mill. 

Quaternary deposit at Anaga, Teneriffe.. 

H. EPHORA Mabille, 1882. PI. 47, fig. 72. 

Imperforate, subglobose-turbinate, thick, solid, opaque, costulate- 
striate, all over minutely malleate-punctulate; spire moderately 
prominent, apex obtuse, smooth ; whorls 5, regularly, rapidly increas- 
ing, separated by impressed suture ; the last large, angulate, toward 
the aperture compressed-rotund, constricted; aperture oblique, lunate, 
subovate-triangular; peristome thick, reflexed, margins approximat- 
ing, the outer sinuously subdentate, the columellar arcuate, appressed, 
closing the umbilicus with a moderate callus. 

Diam. 19i, alt. 11 mill. 

Quaternary deposit at Anaga, Teneriffe. 

Intermediate between consobrina and invernicata. 

H. CARDIOBOLA Mabille, 1882. PL 47, fig. 73. 

Imperforate, depressed-subconic, destitute of cuticle and color, 
thick, indistinctly striate, striae now and then punctate ; spire de- 
pressed-conic, apex obtuse, minute ; whorls 5, subdepressed, rapidly 
increasing, especially the last, separated by impressed sutures; 
body-whorl large, from above appearing dilated near the aperture, 
below inflated ; aperture oblique, subovate, peristome thick, slightly 



174 HELIX. 

reflexed, labiate, margins subremote, the outer bidentate, columellar 
subexcavated, longly adnate, covering the umbilicus by a wide 
expansion. Diam. 22-23, alt. 12 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Teneriffe, at the lighthouse of Anaga. 
The slightly dilated last whorl, not constricted, well developed 
peristome and irregularly triangular small aperture separate this 
form from its allies. 

H. GUAMARTEMES Grasset, 1857. PI. 50, figs. 81-83. 

" Imperforate, subglobose, reticulato-malleate, color very variable, 
yellowish or brown, sometimes with five deep brown subinterrupted 
bands ; whorls 4fc, slightly convex, the last anteriorly deflected ; 
aperture ovate-lunar; peristome reflexed, submargined, shining, 
thick, flesh-tinted. Diam. 20, alt. 12 mill." (Grasset.) 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. manriquiana Lowe, and If. guartemes Martens are synonyms. 

Specimens of this form before me are thinner and of lighter text- 
ure than H. consobrina. They are frequently unicolored ; and the 
peristome is not (generally) so heavy ; its upper margin is highly 
arched, subangular ; and the whole shell is finely granulose, as in 
the allied species. . 

H. INVERNICATA Mousson, 1872. PL 50, fig. 86. 

Imperforate, depressed subglobose, striatulate, irregularly mal- 
leate, obsoletely microscopically granulate, very bright, brownish 
yellow, with four or five brown bands, streaked and maculated with 
yellow; spire obtusely convex, regular; apex minute, brownish purple, 
smooth ; sutures simple, subimpressed, whorls 4, rather rapidly in- 
creasing, slightly convex, the last large, descending, rounded, inflated, 
slightly constricted, below lighter colored, and slightly impressed in 
the center ; aperture oblique, subample, transversely irregularly oval ; 
peristome acute, moderately reflexed, thickened within, margins 
subconverging, the upper subsinuately incurved, basal margin 
slightly curved, nearly straight, thickened, at the insertion, adnate. 

Diam. 21, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

The original description is translated above. Of this species 
Wollaston says: "I cannot feel absolutely satisfied that it is more 
in reality than a smaller and ungranulated race of the consobrina, 
in which the transverse lines of growth are a trifle less evident and 
the malleations a little more so, and in which the surface is altogether 



HELIX. 175 

more glossy and shining, and the color of a more uniform ochreo- 
olivaceous brown speckled with small irregular angulated blotches 
and fragmentary reticulations of yellow. It is generally smaller 
than the H. consobrina. 

H. MAUGEANA Shuttleworth, 1852. PI. 50, fig. 94; PL 48, figs. 
14-16. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, in young shells very thin and 
transparent, in adults solid, yellowish brown or brownish yellow, 
not shining, lightly striate and irregularly reticulate-malleate, under 
the lens densely finely granulate, four or five fasciate, the bands 
sometimes interrupted, the second and third frequently coalescent ; 
spire conic, apex minute, purplish, shining, minutely rugose ; suture 
distinct; whorls 4z-5, the last rapidly increasing, large, rounded 
tumid, toward the aperture somewhat gibbous, slightly constricted ; 
base rather convex, slightly impressed in the centre ; aperture 
oblique, lunate, oblong-oval, margins subparallel, subapproximating ; 
peristome slightly thickened, 'reflexed, violet tinted, basal margin 
adnate, thickened within, whitish. Diam. 20, alt. 11 mill. 

Environs of Saint Croix, Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

It is If. gaudryi of Reeve, and, in part, of Pfeiffer. There has 
been some doubt as to the precise form described by Shuttleworth, 
and the confusion is increased by the fact that he assigns no habitat 
nearer than " Canaries " in his description. I have accepted 
Mabille's identification. 

The species is quite variable in the development of the bands, and 
the intensity of the color. 

H. DISTENSA Mousson, 1872. PL 50, figs. 89, 90. 

Imperforate, globose-depressed, rather thin, striate, obsoletely mal- 
leate, not granulose, rather shining, reddish brown or yellowish, 
unicolored or with five brown bands interrupted with white ; spire 
very obtuse, convex, subirregular, apex minute smooth, flattened ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the inner gradually, 
outer rapidly increasing; body-whorl well rounded, not gibbous nor 
constricted, base convex, subinflated, in the centre impressed; aper- 
ture oblique, transversely elongate-oval and angulose, showing the 
bands within; peristome acute, narrowly expanded, not reflexed, 
within labiate with white, broadly margined with white without, 
margins not converging, subparallel, the basal margin slightly 



176 HELIX. 

arcuate, within straightened, flattened, adnate, thin, subexcavated 
and impressed at the insertion. Diam. 16J, alt. 11 ? mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries. 

Of this little-known form Mabille says: A species intermediate 
between If. guamartemes and H. perraudieri. It is much more 
globular than the latter; its whorls, particularly the last are inflated ; 
the ornamentation consists of a nearly effaced malleation, with traces 
of granulation visible only under a strong lens. 

H. HEDYBIA Mabille, 1882. PL 48, figs. 9-11. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, solid, striatulate, under a lens 
punctulate or irregularly malleate-crispate, not shining, rosaceous ; 
spire globose-convex, apex obtuse, smooth, unicolored; whorls 5, 
convex, rapidly increasing, especially the last; suture impressed; 
body-whorl rounded, abruptly descending, toward the aperture 
angularly dilated, not gibbous; aperture oblique, transversely ovate, 
margins subcon verging; peristome acute, white, thickened within, 
columellar margin subconcave, planulate, adnate, joining the outer 
lip with an obtuse angle. Diam. 18-20, alt. 91-10 mill. 

Canaries. 

Spire more elevated than in the H. distensa, more acute, not 
mamillated, last whorl more obviously angled, more descending, 
etc. From H. perraudieri the large size, globular form, solidity and 
different sculpture will separate it. 

H. PERRAUDIEREI Grasset, 1857. PL 50, figs. 70-72. 

" Imperforate, globose-depressed, regularly and minutely malleate, 
yellowish, apex blackish ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the penultimate 
angulate, the last descending; aperture subangulate-lunar, peri- 
stome reflexed, thick, white margined within and without, columellar 
margin callous, subexcavated at the base. Diam. 16, alt. 9 mill." 

(GrassetJ) Ins. Hierro, Canaries. 

The body- whorl is subangular at its origin. The peristome is 
generally yellow more or less pronounced. 

H. HIERROENSIS Grasset, 1857. PL 50, figs. 57-59. 

" Imperforate, subglobose, striate, minutely granulate, below yel- 
lowish green, above with four very faint brown bands ; whorls 5, a 
little convex, the last anteriorly descending ; aperture wide lunar ; 
peristome reflexed ; -thickened, white, columellar margin callous. 

Diam. 21, alt. 13 mill." (Grasset.) 

Ins. Hierro. Canaries. 

H. valverdensis Lowe is a synonym. 



HELTX. 177 

" It is much smaller than H. gomerensis and rather more globose 
in contour ; but in color and sculpture it has much in common with 
that species. It is however, more opaque above (the minute sand- 
like granules with which it is closely beset being perceptibly coarser 
and more defined) ; and its color is of a dull olivaceous coffee-brown, 
rather than of a reddish castaneous." ( Wollaston.') 

H. INDIFFERENS Mousson, 1872. Unfigured. 

I m perforate, depressed globose, striate, in part obliquely undulate- 
'ugulose, irregularly granulose, destitute of color; spire obtuse sub- 
>nic, regular, apex obtuse; suture impressed; whorls 5, moderately 
icreasing, convex, the last not dilated, well rounded, rapidly a 
little descending, subgibbous and subcoustricted, below convex, 
irgid in the center; aperture very oblique, regularly wide-oval, 
lot angulate; peristome briefly expanded and reflexed, the margins 
)t converging, joined by a callus, upper and lower equally carved, 
te latter with a rounded subthickened callus at its insertion, adnate 
base, with a minute tubercle on the columella. 
Diam. 21, alt. 14 mill. 

Ins. Hierro, Canaries. 
An unfigured fossil species, described from a single specimen, and 
dd to be intermediate between H. hierroensis and H. guamartemes. 

[. GUADRYI d'Orbigny, 1839. PL 50, figs. 75, 76. 
Imperforate, thick, convex orbicular, spire slightly elevated, apex 
Idish, hist whorl rounded, angular at its origin, abruptly descend- 
and slightly gibbous at its termination, and strongly constricted 
ih hid the peristome, more or less irregularly striate, rnalleate and 
>vered with a very fine granulation, visible only under a lens; 
inds five, slightly interrupted; aperture ' oval, peristome thick, 
11 us, reflexed, labiate; basal margin callous, with a lamella inside, 
>vering the umbilicus with a well developed callus. 
Diam. 22, alt, 15 mill. 

Ins. Gomera (d* Orbigny); Grand Canary. 

Two varieties are described by Mabille: Var evergeta, differing 
mi the type in the very depressed dull shell, and less thickened 
'ri.<tome, and var. gaudryopsis remarkable for its small size, solid 
icll, and more marked angulation. A small form is figured (pi. 
50, l'm>. 77, 78) of which Pfeiffer says, "evidentur diversa species /" 
but which may be identical with the second of Mabille's varieties. 
12 



178 HELIX. 

H. GRANOMALLEATA Wollaston, 1878. Unfigured. 

"Imperforate, depressed globose, rather thin, obliquely plicate- 
malleate, the folds very irregular, subconfluent, and minutely very 
densely granulate with sand-like grains; above opaque, base smoother 
and shining in the center, grayish yellow, with four or five castane- 
ous bands, the subsutural more or less interrupted or indented 
around its anterior margin, either one or two below the periphery, 
and a broader band (perhaps composed of two) immediately above 
it; spire obtuse; suture simple, impressed; whorls 5, slightly convex, 
the last large, inflated, obsoletely carinated at its origin, anteriorly 
deeply deflected ; aperture large, lunate-oval ; peristome acute but 
little expanded and reflexed, superior and basal margins subequally 
arcuate, simple, not dentate within, the terminations distant, but sub- 
converging, joined by a callus. 

Diam. 25 mill." ( Wollaston.) 

Los Souces and Barranco de Herradura, Ins. Palma, Canaries. 

H. VERMIPLICATA Wollaston, 1878. Unfigured. 

Partly covered umbilicate, orbicularly depressed, rather thin, very 
densely and coarsely vermiculate-plicate, the folds very irregular, 
submalleate-confluent, and very minutely granulate, subopaque, 
grayish white, with four or five obsolete cloudy bands, one or two 
below, one or two immediately above the periphery, and one just 
below the suture; spire obtuse; suture impressed; whorls 5, the last 
large, inflated, but with a minute carina, descending anteriorly; 
aperture lunate-rounded, terminations of the peristome remote. 

Diam. 19 mill. 

"Llanos" af the Banda, West side of Ins. Palma, Canaries. 

Described from immature examples. Wollaston says: "I feel 
almost confident that the character of 'semiobtecta perforata' will 
be found to hold good during all periods of growth; and such being 
the case, its affinities, which at first sight are not readily apparent 
will perhaps be ascertained to lie amongst the forms around the 
H. planorbella, though, at the same time, the species has evidently 
something in common with the (equally Palman) H. granomalleata. 
Not to mention this peculiarity of the umbilicus, the present species 
is smaller than H. granomalleata, and it is also rather more depress- 
ed both above and below, and it has a fine thread-like though minute 
keel which is traceable even down to the very aperture. It is not 
much malleated, its sculpture consisting mainly (apart from the 
excessively minute sand-like granules) of extremely irregular and 



HELIX. 179 

densely-packed, coarse, subconfluent oblique ridges, or subundulating 
vermiform folds; and in color it would seem to be of a dingy oliva- 
ceous-white, suffused with a darker tint in consequence of the four or 
five obsolete bands which are indistinctly indicated." 

Mabille considers this form a variety or monstrosity of H. planor- 
bella. 

H. AMBLASMODON Mabille, 1883. PI. 48, figs. 17, 18. 

Imperforate, depressed-orbicular-convex, thick, solid, scarcely 
shining, yellowish fulvous, with four dark black-spotted bands, 
irregularly costulate-striate, here and there, especially below, with 
decurrent lines, under the lens all over finely granulate ; whorls 5, 
very rapidly increasing, separated by rather deep suture ; body- 
whorl large, compressed-rotund, rapidly descending and slightly 
gibbous at aperture, scarcely gibbous at aperture, scarcely constric- 
ted ; aperture oblique, lunate, irregularly oblong, peristome thick, 
reflexed, acute, violaceous, margins subapproximating, joined by a 
very thin violet callus, basal margin straightened, lengthily adnate, 
with a strong impressed umbilical callus, tortuous columella, and a 
white, saliant, tortuous lamina inside. Diam. 26, alt. 13 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

Kesembles Macularia balearica somewhat in the maculated bands. 

H. ZORGIA Mabille, 1883. PI. 49, figs. 27-29. 

Imperforate, solid, depressed-orbicular-subglobose, slightly trans- 
parent, yellowish, with four brown bands, interrupted with yellow, 
irregularly costulate-striate, under the lens finely granulate and 
very superficially malleate ; spire depressed-convex, apex minute, 
rugose, rufous ; whorls 5-5 , rapidly increasing, separated by linear, 
obscurely margined sutures ; body-whorl slightly angled at its origin, 
becoming rotund, a little turgid at the aperture, lightly constricted, 
subabruptly, rapidly descending ; aperture oblique, lunate, oblong- 
rhomboid, margins subapproximating; peristome violet-tinted, 
subthickened, reflexed, obtuse, basal margin straightened, adnate, 
with a prominent white lamina inside, and a wide impressed callus 
over the umbilical tract. Diam. 24, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

The more prominent characters are the very solid shell, yellow 
ground color, with wide, frequently interrupted, reddish-brown 
bands, the thick violet colored peristome, and strong basal tooth. 



180 HELIX. 

H. PLANORBELLA Lamarck, 1822. PI. 61, figs 5, 6. 

Umbilicate, orbicularly depressed, costulately striate, the costa3 
arcuate, acute, smooth, thinner on the base, pale yellowish corneous, 
trifasciate with gray, the first band subsutural, the second double, 
just above, the third just below the periphery; spire slightly convex, 
regular, apex flattened ; suture slightly impressed ; whorls 4i>, slightly 
convex, subtumid near the suture, the last abruptly briefly de- 
scending, obtusely angulate, constricted at the aperture, convex, 
subinflated below, whitish in the umbilicus; aperture very oblique, 
circularly-oval; peristome subacute, slightly reflexed, thickened 
with white within, the margins much converging, joined by a thin 
callus, the right margin arcuate, basal much thickened, appressed 
in the middle outside, sub-straight within, colurnellar margin wide 
and flatly callously reflexed. Diam. 20, alt. 10 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe and Gomera, Canaries. 

H. drigata var. /?, Fer., and H. villiersii d'Orb. (pi. 64, figs. 6-8) 
and of Reeve ? (pi. 61, fig. 12,) are synonyms. 

"According to Mousson, H. planorbella presents two totally dis- 
tinct forms, one of them peculiar to Gomera, with the costre simple 
or ungranulated, which he believes to correspond with the Lani- 
arckian type, and the other, which is more depressed and keeled, 
and has the ridges distinctly sculptured, to Teneriffe. This latter 
phasis, figured by Pfeiffer as the -normal state of the H. planorbella, 
Mousson treats as a Var. incisogranulata (pi. 61, fig. 7-10), and de- 
fines it thus: 'umbilicus slightly narrower; plicae less numerous, 
minutely granulate by transverse incised lines; basal margin less 
adnate, less thickened, distinctly convex within.' " (Wollaston.) 

I have followed Mousson's identification of this species, and as I 
have no specimens, have taken my description from his. Mabille, 
however, whose work on Hemicycla is more exhaustive than any 
other, and who is par excellence, analytical in his methods, considers 
the "var. incisogranulata" the true planorbella. 

His note on this point, (under H. quadricincta, Nouv. Arch, da 
'Mus. dHist Nat, 1885, p. 24,) is as follows: "Dans le planorbella, 
lesstries costulees sont incisees exactement comme celles du plicaria; 
le caractere que signale M. Mousson n'est reel qu'autant que Ton a 
en vue une variete de 'cette espece a cotes lisses, variete qui nous 
semble assez rare, et pourrait peut-etre, lorsqu'elle aura ete suffisam- 
ment etudiee, constitutuer une espece distincte" I am unable to de- 
cide upon the identity of a species upon which specialists on this 
fauna hold such diverse opinions. 



HELIX. 181 

H. INUTILIS Mousson, 1872. PL 50, figs. 3, 74. 

Umbilicate, convex-orbicular depressed, strongly obliquely costate, 
the ribs cut into granules by incised lines, interstices striate, pale 
brownish, unicolored, lighter below; spire obtuse conic, apex striatu- 
late, suture impressed, not margined; whorls 4, subconvex, scarcely 
turgid near the sutures the last abruptly descending, transversely 
inflated and strongly constricted, with an evanescent angle, rounded 
below; aperture very oblique, rounded-oval, white; peristome acute, 
broadly flatly reflexed, sublabiate within, -the margins scarcely 
separated, joined by a thin callus, the basal straightened in the 
middle, not adnate, sub-duplicate within. Diam. 17, alt. 9 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Canaries. 

Resembles H. plicaria in sculpture and aperture, but with an 
umbilicus like If. planorbella. 

H. PLUTONIA Lowe, 1861. PL 61, figs. 1, 2. 

Partly covered urnbilicate, subglobose-depressed, solid, .above 
striate and with oblique series of granules (like hair scars and rather 
sparce), brownish, periphery obtusely angular, in the young acutely 
carinated, subciliate, below nearly smooth, whitish; spire slightly 
elevated, apex minute, very finely granulate-rugose ; suture carinato- 
marginate, impressed at the last whorl; whorls 6, the upper flattened, 
the last somewhat descending, slightly convex below the suture, 
moderately convex below; aperture oblique, lunate-oval, submargari- 
taceus-white within ; peristome slightly thickened, white, its margins 
remote, subconverging, parietal callus slight or absent, the upper 
narrowly, the basal strongly reflected, dilated near its insertion, half 
covering the umbilicus. Diam. 25, alt. 12-13 mill. 

Ins. Lanzarote and Fuertaventura, Canaries. 

H. SEMITECTA Mousson, 1872. PL 61, figs. 98,' 99. 

Partly covered perforate, convex orbicular-depressed, strongly 
irregularly striate and granulate, shining, whitish, with four brown 
bands, three above, one below the periphery, interrupted by angular 
white maculations, nearly destitute of cuticle ; spire depressed-conic? 
apex flattened, finely rugose-granulate; suture subimpressed, sub- 
irregular; whorls 5, slightly convex above, the last somewhat 
depressed, not angulate, briefly descending anteriorly, slightly gib- 
bous and constricted, base not granulate in the middle, rounded 
toward the umbilicus, which is one-ninth of the diameter; aperture 
very oblique, small, rounded oval; peristome obtuse, a little ex- 



182 HELIX. 

panded and reflexed, its margins subcon verging, equally curved, 
the lower appressed in the middle, not impressed at the insertion, 
callous, half covering the umbilicus. Diam. 23, alt. 14 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries. 

A species allied to H. planorbella, but without trace of angle on 
the body-whorl. It has been found only in a fossil state. 

H. PAIVANA Morelet, 1864. Unfigured. 

Umbilicate, orbicularly depressed, obliquely granulate-striate, 
yellowish or greyish brown, with four interrupted bands; suture 
impressed ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last carinate above, de- 
flexed anteriorly, turgid below; aperture very oblique, transversely 
oval, expanded slightly within, columellar margin dilated ; umbilicus 
half covered. Diam. 24, alt. 11 mill. (Morelet.) 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries. 

This is not the paivana of Lowe (1861) which=:.ff. modesta Fer. 
On account of this preoccupation, Mabille proposes the name 
paivanopsis for this species. 

"The H. paivana is a rather depressed but obtuse shell there be- 
ing no indications of a regular keel ; its spire is only slightly raised, 
but somewhat blunt and dome-shaped ; and its umbilicus is partially 
visible, it being only half closed-over (or perhaps rather more) by 
the reflexed peristome. It is somewhat thin in substance, tumid 
beneath, and of a yellowish brown hue, paler below but ornamented 
with four narrow and regularly interrupted darker bands, which 
give a somewhat freckled appearance to the whole upper side ; and 
the surface is beset with coarse tubercles (which become obsolete 
toward the nucleus, and gradually disappear on the umbilical area), 
caused by the breaking-up of the densely-packed oblique lines of 
growth." ( Wollaston.) 

H. QUADRICINCTA Morelet, 1864. PI. 53, figs. 24-26. 

Umbilicate, depressed, lenticular, acutely carinate, costulate or 
plicate striate, yellowish corneous, with four castaneous bands, one 
peripheral, another below, the balance upon the upper surface; 
whorls 5, slightly convex, the last anteriorly deflexed, base subturgid, 
aperture very oblique, transverse oval ; peristome thickened, white, 
outer margin expanded, columella dilated, appressed, subdentate; 
umbilicus small, pervious, half covered. Diam. 19, alt. 8 mill. 
(Morelet.) 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries. 



HELIX. 183 

The very depressed, lenticular form, convex base, conspicuous 
but not compressed nor filiform carina, and smooth, regular costa- 
tions, readily separate this species from its allies. 

H. SAPONACEA Lowe, 1861. PI. 50, figs. 65-67. 

Covered perforate, orbiculate-depressed, solid, striate and densely 
minutely granulate, shining, above yellowish corneous, narrowly 
trifasciate with brown, smoother and paler below, umbilical tract 
whitish, spire slightly convex, apex minute granulate, suture lightly 
impressed; whorls 4?, rather slowly increasing, the last depressed, 
obsoletely angulate at periphery, constricted and abruptly falling 
anteriorly, somewhat convex below; aperture very oblique, sub- 
'quadrate-lunar, livid within; peristome heavily white-labiate, margins 
subparallel, remote, hardly converging, basal margin straightened, 
widely reflexed and adnate, covering the umilicus. 

Diam. 17-18, alt. 8-9 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. PSATHYRA Lowe, 1861. PL 50, fig. 79. 

Imperforate, depressed, thin, fragile, obliquely striate, brown or 
corneous-greenish, with four or five ill-defined brownish bands; spire 
slightly elevated, apex obtuse, suture impressed, submarginate ; 
whorls 5, rather flattened, regularly increasing, the embryonic 
minutely granulate, the last with fine irregular incremental striae 
-and faint malleations, periphery obsoletely angulate, anteriorly sub- 
inflated and profoundly deflexed ; aperture very oblique, subdeltoid- 
oval ; peristome thin, fragile, broadly expanded, the margins sub- 
converging, basal reflexed, rather straightened, dilated at the inser- 
tion, and broadly adnate above the axial region. 

Diam. 22-24, alt. 12-14 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. THESPESIA Mabille, 1882, PI. 48, figs. 19, 20. 

Imperforate, depressed-suborbiculate, thin, a little shining, under 
a lens broadly costulate- striate and irregularly crispate-malleate, 
-corneous-reddish or greenish; spire subdepressed, apex subacute, 
obscurely punctulate, reddish; whorls 4J-5, slightly convex, sub- 
regularly, rapidly increasing, suture impressed, obscurely albo- 
larginate; body-whorl at its origin angulate-rounded, becoming 
)tund, slightly descending, a little inflated beneath; aperture 
)blique, lunate, transversely oblong-ovate, margins subdistant ; peri- 
-stome acute, briefly reflexed, thickened with white within, margins 



184 HELIX. 

subparallel, the columellar lengthily adnate, broadly expanded,, 
covering the umbilicus with a white callus. 
Diara. 18-19, alt. 10 mill. 

Canary Is. 

Allied to H. saponacea, but distinguished by the less depressed 
form, more elevated spire, more rapid increase of the whorls, less 
developed peristome, etc. 

H. BITUMINOSA Mabille, 1883. PL 48, figs. 96, 97. 

Depressed, subglobose,thin, subfragile, slightly shining, irregularly 
costulate-striate, especially on the last whorl, and superficially 
malleate, all over, under a lens minutely punctulate, intensely black, 
the apex reddish ; spire a little convex, apex minute, rugose granu- 
late; whorls 5-6, regularly increasing, separated by a slightly 
impressed suture, the last large, convex-rounded, obscurely angled 
at the periphery, toward the aperture gibbous, briefly descending,, 
slightly constricted behind the peristome; aperture wide oblong- 
ovate, oblique, lunate, fauces violaceous, margins subconverging ;; 
peristome thin, vivid violaceous, labiate, outer margin well arched, 
columellar subconcave, with a slightly prominent white lamina. 

Diam. 23-25, alt. 13, 14 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. MERITA Mousson, 1872. Unfigured. 

Imperforate, convex-orbiculate, rather distinctly moderately 
striate and obscurely rugulose, irregularly granulate, shining, yellow- 
ish-white, trifasciate with brown; spire obtuse, depressed conic, 
apex flattened, very finely rugulose; suture subimpressed, not 
marginate; whorls 4-5, the upper flattened, rapidly increasing,, 
carinate, the last abruptly descending, subturgid at sutures, convex 
below,subangulate,the angle disappearing on the last portion, which, 
is subgibbous and constricted ; aperture oblique, transversely sub- 
quadrate-rounded, corneous; peristome obtuse, briefly expanded, 
margins distant, scarcely converging, joined by a callus, the basal 
straightened, elongate-subdentate in the middle, appressed and 
adnate. Diam. 27, alt. 16 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries* 

Form more conic, and at the same time more depressed than its, 
allies. Only found fossil. 



HELIX. 

H. HARMONICA Mousson, 1872. PI. 61, fig. 11. 

Imperforate, subglobose-depressed, rather solid, widely costulate- 
striate, very minutely and indistinctly elongate-granulate, yellowish 
whitish, deeper colored above, bifasciate with pale brown below ~ 
spire obtuse, somewhat convex, nucleus flattened, minutely granu- 
late, corneous; suture slightly impressed narrowly margined with 
white; whorls 4j-5, the last depressed rotund, a little descending, 
subinflated below; aperture very oblique, showing the bands within, 
lunate wide-oval; peristome obtuse, white, shortly reflexed, the 
margins a little converging, the basal less curved than the upper,, 
appressed to the base. Diam, 22, alt. 14 mill. 

Ins. Hierro, Canaries. 

H. GOMERENSIS Morelet, 1864. PL 61, figs. 3, 4. 

Covered perforate, depressed, thin, subtranslucent, corneous brown,, 
with three dark bands, one near the suture, one above, the other 
below the periphery; spire depressed conic, obtuse; suture well 
marked ; whorls 4, apex planulate, nearly smooth, whorls gradually 
increasing except the last, which widens very rapidly, especially 
toward the aperture; sculpture of very minute granules all over, 
and fine irregular oblique stria?; body-whorl angular at its origin,, 
becoming rounded and somewhat tumid below toward the aperture,, 
gradually descending anteriorly; aperture very oblique, large, trans- 
versely oval, slightly lunate; peristome thin, acute, its margins 
converging, the upper and lower equally arched, columella scarcely 
thickened within, rounded, reflexed and adnate on base, with a 
white callus over the indented umbilical region. 

Diam. 21, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries., 

H. THORYNA Mabille, 1882. PI. 46, figs. 66, 67. 

Imperforate, convexo-depressed, subfragile, thin, subopaque, not 
shining, greenish tinged with rufous, with three faint bands of the 
same color; spire convex, apex yellowish, obtuse, punctulate, whorls 
5, flatly sloping, subregularly increasing, suture distinct, body-whorl 
large, subacutely carinated, rounded toward the aperture, the carina 
evanescent, and a little gibbous, very slightly constricted; aperture- 
oblique, lunate, oblong-rotund; peristome subthickened within, acute,, 
expanded, the margins converging, outer margin sinuous, well curved, 



186 HELIX. 

<columellar somewhat thickened, appressed, concave, very decidedly 
-callous at its insertion. Diam. 21-23, alt. 10 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe Canaries. 

Smaller, thinner, more fragile than H. hedeia, aperture shorter, 
larger, peristome thinner. 

H. HEDEIA Mabille, 1882. PI. 49, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell imperforate, wide depressed-subglobose, opaque, thick, not 
lustrous, rufous brown, with one to three faint brown bands, striate, 
the striae granulose ; spire subdepressed convex, apex obtuse, large, 
smooth ; whorls 5, subregularly increasing, the first flattened, balance 
convex, separated by impressed sutures ; body- whorl large, rounded, 
with a salient line at the periphery, compressed at the suture, 
obliquely turgid before the aperture slightly constricted, abruptly 
descending; aperture oblique, lunate, transversely suboblong; peri- 
stome thick, labiate within, well expanded, external margin arcuate, 
concave, appressed, with a long lamelliform scarcely salient tooth 
inside, strongly callous at its insertion. Diam. 25, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, in forests at the feet of trees. 

H. BERKELEII Lowe, 1861. PL 53, figs. 22, 23. 

Closed perforate, depressed, sublenticular, acutely carinated, rather 
thin, obliquely irregularly rugose-striate, and asperate with large, 
irregular tubercles, last whorl rough, cinnamon colored, the granules 
light-colored, with two superior and one inferior brown band ; spire 
slightly or scarcely elevated, apex minutely granulate ; suture im- 
pressed; whorls 4-4i, the last rather flattened, abruptly deflexed 
anteriorly, base somewhat flattened, lightly granulate; aperture 
nearly horizontal, lunate-oval, shining and granulated within ; peri- 
stome thin, white or brownish, the margins subparallel, slightly 
converging, the upper widely expanded, basal broadly reflexed, 
dilated and adnate over the umbilical tract. 

Diam. 19-20, alt. 7 mill. 

| Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. berkeleyi of Wollaston and of Mabille is the same. 

The affinities of this rare species are with H. quadricincta Morelet, 
etc., not with Iberus, with which it has been grouped by authors, a 
4subgenus which is not represented in the Canary archipelago. 

H. DIGNA Mousson, 1872. PL 62, fig. 38. 

Covered perforate, robust, depressed-conic, arcuately widely 
plicate-costulate, very minutely asperate, destitute of cuticle and 






HELIX. 187 



color ; spire depressed-conic, regular, apex obtuse, white, suture not 
impressed, closely submarginate above ; whorls 4?, sub-rapidly 
increasing, the upper slightly convex, smooth, the following plane, 
plicate, the last large, abruptly descending, subdilated, slightly 
convex, encircled by a scarcely undulating carina, more convex 
below, subinflated, smoother; aperture very oblique, angulate-ovate ; 
peristome subacute, slightly labiate within, the margins converging, 
the basal deeply arcuate, briefly reflexed, columellar very short, 
broadly expanded over the umbilicus. Diam. 33, alt. 19 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries. 

This fossil form has no near allies. It has been placed by various 
authors in Leptaxis, Lampadia and Iberus. Mabille, however, 
groups it with H. cuticula, a form bearing even more resemblance 
to Lampadia. (= Mitra Albers.) 

Section VI. PLEBECULA Lowe, 1852. 

This section is confined to the Madeira Is. Its more prominent 
-characters are the globose form and profound sutures. Helicomela 
Lowe, 1854, is a synonym. 

H. PUNCTULATA Sowerby, 1824. PL 51, figs. 1-4, 98, 99. 

Nearly covered perforate, globose, rather thin, chestnut colored, 
with a light corneous peripheral band, base corneous ; with rather 
coarse incremental wrinkles, the whole surface covered with minute 
setigerous granules, base smoother ; spire conic, slightly turreted ; 
sutures impressed ; whorls 5, the apical nearly plane, rugose, convex, 
the last inflated, rapidly widening, slightly descending anteriorly ; 
aperture slightly oblique, narrow-lunar; peristome scarcely thick- 
ened; columella white, dilated and partly appressed over the 
umbilical chink. Diam. 15, alt. 13 mill. 

Madeira Group, Ins. Porto Saneto and Southern Deserta. 

The reddish brown color is sometimes suffused over the entire 
surface of the shell. Specimens nearly white are also found. The 
thinner more elevated form found on the little island of Southern 
Deserta (or Bugio) has received the name of var. avellana Lowe. 

H. BOWDICHIANA Ferussac, 1819. PI. 50, fig. 97. 

Large, globose, covered subimperforate, solid, destitute of cuticle 
and color ; the whole surface irregularly wrinkled, base smoother, 
above finely granulate ; whorls 5, separated by profound sutures, 



188 HELIX. 

the last descending ; aperture small, narrow-lunar ; peristome 
slightly expanded and thickened. Diam. 23, alt. 23 mill. 

Quaternary of Madeira. 

H. vargasiana Pfr. is a synonym. 

Peristome more thickened than in H. punctulata, and form more 
globose. These characters, together with the larger size and much 
heavier texture seem sufficient cause for the specific separation of 
the two forms. 

H. NITIDIUSCULA Sowerby, 1824. PI. 51, figs. 33-35, 19. 

Narrowly umbilicate, depressed globose, rather thin, yellowish 
corneous or whitish, with three rich brown bands above: finely r 
irregularly wrinkled and minutely granulate, smoother below; spire 
low-conic, subacute; suture deeply impressed; whorls 5, convex, 
the last rapidly widening, slightly descending anteriorly; aperture 
oblique, rounded-lunar; peristome simple, its ends converging, joined 
by a light callus, columellar margin subreflexed, white, slightly im- 
pinging upon the umbilicus. Diam. 13, alt. 10 mill. 

Ins. Madeira and Porto Sancto* 

H. vulgata Lowe, is synonymous. 

Var. GIRAMICA Lowe. PL 51 , fig. 35. 

Slightly larger than the type, with the two upper bands confluent,, 
or the whole surface uniform dark brown. 

H. anaglyptica Reeve (fig. 19), is a synonym. 



H. CANICALENSIS Lowe, 1852. PI. 52, figs. 72-74. 

Narrowly umbilicate, depressed conic, destitute of cuticle or color,, 
rather thickened, with fine, irregular incremental wrinkles, an 
somewhat, though very minutely, rugose ; spire elevated, conic, th 
apex subacute; suture profound ; whorls 5, convex, the inner gradu 
ally, the last rapidly increasing, descending anteriorly; aperture 
small, contracted above, oblique ; peristome scarcely thickened, the 
terminations converging, the columellar margin about half conver- 
ing the umbilicus. Diam. 11-12, alt. 10 mill. 

Quaternary of Canical, Madeira* 

Allied to the preceding, but more conical, with smaller umbilicus 
and aperture; found only subfossil. 

H. LURIDA Lowe, 1851. PI. 51, figs. 25-27. 

Narrowly umbilicate, depressed, rather thin, brownish, with 
(usually two) subobsolete spiral bands of dark brown, light incre- 



r, 

i 



HELIX. 189 

mental striae and very minutely, densely granulate ; spire low-conic ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, the inner gradually, the last 
rapidly widening, slightly descending anteriorly ; aperture slightly 
oblique, wide lunar ; peristome scarcely thickened, rather abruptly 
shortly deflected above, ends approaching; columellar margin 
briefly reflexed, white, impinging upon the umbilicus. 

Diam. 9, alt. 6JV mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 
More depressed than any of the preceding forms. 

H. HARTUNGI Albers, 1852. PI. 51, figs. 20-22. 

Umbilicate, subdepressed, striatulate, slightly shining, white, 
spire subelevated, apex minute, corneous; suture smooth, whorls 
5], slightly convex, the last wide, rotund, sensibly descending 
anteriorly ; umbilicus narrow, pervious, equalling i the entire diam- 
eter ; aperture oblique, depressed rotund ; peristome labiate within, 
the margins converging, joined by a thin callus, the upper straight, 
basal subreflexed, the columellar dilated. Diam. 10, alt. 5 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 

I have not seen this species. It is evidently nearly allied to the 
preceding, but differs (perhaps) in the sculpture. My description 
is from Pfeiffer. 

Section VII. LEFT-AXIS Lowe, 1852. 

Leptaxis inhabits the more outlying Atlantic islands, Madeira, 
the Azores and the Cape Verdes. There is considerable diversity 
of form among the species ; and this has caused a part of them to 
be considered as belonging to Hemicycla, (a group restricted to the 
Canary Is.) and the remainder to be divided into several subsections, 
three of which I retain for convenience in identifying specimens. 

Katostoma Lowe, 1864, and Cryptaxis Lowe, 1864, with Lampadia 
Lowe, 1854, ( = Mltra Albers, 1850) are synonyms. 

*** 

Lcjrftu-i* s. str. Axis imperforate ; columella entering, or ex- 
panded at origin ; whorls not acutely carinated nor widening with 
great rapidity. 

A. Species with rounded periphery. 

(Species of the Madeira Islands.) 
H. UNDATA Lowe, 1831. PL 51, figs. 11, 12; pi. 52, fig. 75. 

Imperforate, depressed turbinate, rather thin, uniform dark brown 
cely striate, but all over densely and very coarsely wrinkled, 



190 HELIX. 

the wrinkles more or less irregular, wavy, shining, more obliquely 
descending than the lines of growth ; spire conic, more or less de- 
pressed, apex nearly smooth ; suture well impressed ; whorls 5i, 
convex, the inner gradually, the last rapidly widening, deeply de- 
flexed anteriorly ; aperture very oblique, regular rounded-lunar,, 
wide ; peristome slightly subexpanded and labiate, margins con- 
verging, the columella entering, briefly expanded and appressed 
over the umbilical tract. Diam. 24-30, alt. 16-20 mill. 

Madeira* 

H. corrugata (Soland. MSS.) Lowe, H. groviana Fe"r., and H~ 
scabra Wood are synonyms. 

H. VULCANICA Lowe, 1852. PI. 50, figs. 95, 96; pi. 52, fig. 76. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic, thin, greenish yellow, with two (sub- 
sutural and supra-peripheral) dark brown bands frequently interrup- 
ted by the lighter color; obliquely sculptured with coarse irregular 
wrinkles, base much smother; whorls 5, the inner gradually, the 
last rapidly widening, convex, apex slightly rugose; body whorl 
rather flattened, descending anteriorly; aperture oblique, regular 
rounded lunar; peristome slightly expanded and labiate, its ends 
converging, the columellar margin directly entering, slightly ex- 
panded. Diam. 23, alt. 14 mill. 

Northern and Central Desertas, Madeira Is* 

This species and the next are separated from H. undata by their 
variegated coloration and the much less coarse currugation of the 
surface, which, however, as in the undata is as obvious inside as 
outside, on account of the thin shell. 

H. LEONINA Lowe, 1852. PI. 51, figs. 23, -24; pi. 52, fig. 77. 

Like H. vulcanica, but more globose and turbinate, the base 
more convex, mouth rounder, coloration deeper, the bands scarcely 
or not interrupted. Diam. 26-30, alt. 18-20 mill. 

Southern and Central Desertas, Madeira Is. 

Scarcely distinct from the last species. 

H. NIVOSA Sowerby, 1824. PL 51, fig. 18; pi. 52, figs. 78-80. 

Imperforate, globose-turbinate, yellowish-brown, generally with 
broad dark spiral bands, and a narrow light peripheral fascia, the 
whole surface sculptured with rather coarse oblique whitish wrinkles, 
and an excessively minute granulation ; spire conic, subacute ; 
suture well-marked ; whorls 5, the last rapidly widening, full and 
well-rounded toward its termination, and deeply descending ; aper- 



HELIX. 191 

ture very oblique, rounded oval ; peristome simple, the terminations- 
converging, the upper extended into a white callus, columellar 
dilated, straightened inside, pinkish. Diam. 15, alt. 12 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto- 
H. phlebophora Lowe and H. exalbida Wood are synonyms. 

Var. CRATICULATA Lowe. 

Smaller than the type, and darker, with very coarse corrugations- 
There is also a depressed form (,3. planata Lowe) in which the 

body whorl is frequently car mate at its origin. 

H. PSAMMOPHORA Lowe, 1852. PI. 51, fig. 32. 

Imperforate, turbinate-conic, destitute of cuticle or color, elegantly 
sculptured with irregular incremental wrinkles cut into rounded 
granules by fine and very numerous spiral impressed lines; last 
whorl very deeply detlexed anteriorly ; aperture small, very oblique,, 
rounded oval. Diam. 12, alt. 10 mill. 

Quaternary of Ins. Porto Sancto. 

Allied to the preceding, but distinguished from that and all other 
forms by the peculiar sculpture. The revolving lines are not suf- 
ficiently shown in the figure. 

H. ERUBESCENS Lowe, 1831. PI. 52, figs. 81-83. 

Imperforate, globose, elevated or depressed, rather thin, whitisk 
corneous, with oblique streaks of clear corneous, and usually spiral 
bands or series of blotches of rich dark brown; sculptured with 
incremental wrinkles and oblique anastomosing currugations; spire 
conic, elevated or depressed; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last 
convex below, indented at the center and descending anteriorly* 
aperture oval or rounded truncate, very oblique; peristome expanded, 
labiate with white; columella inserted nearly vertically, simple; 
umbilical tract covered by a white callus. 

Diam. 14, alt. 10-14 mill. Madeira Is.; St. Miguel, Azores- 

H. simia Fer., (pi. 51, fig. 28) is synonymous. 

This species may be known under all its forms by the simple,, 
thin deeply entering columella. 

"The II. erubescens passes through an almost infinite number of 
changes both in outline and hue, as regards the latter scarcely two> 
specimens being precisely alike. Sometimes the volutions are 
elegantly banded, at others some of the fascia? are obsolete, and at 
others the latter are more or less broken up into tessellated frag- 
ments; while many individuals are concolorous, being entirely 
devoid of markings. The ground-color varies chiefly from a pale 



UNIVERSITY 
192 HELIX. 

pinkish-brown and yellowish-white into a dusty yellowish-gray ; and 
there is generally (though by no means always) a rosy tinge about 
the peristome." (Wollaston.) The St. Miguel specimens were 
probably introduced. 

Tar. HYAENA Lowe. 

Large, coarsely sculptured, pale yellowish brown, the bands much 
broken. Diam. 20 mill. 

Southern Deserta, Madeira Is. 

The other varieties recognized by Wollaston, porto-sancti and 
advenoides are scarcely distinct enough for names. The former may 
be the same as H. simia Fer. 

H. FURVA Lowe, 1831. PL 51, figs. 15-17. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, thin, yellowish, with a peripheral 
interrupted dark brown band, roughened by incremental stria? and 
irregular reticulations or malleations, whorls 5, but slightly convex, 
separated by scarcely indenting sutures, gradually increasing, the 
body-whorl angular at its origin, becoming rounded, with tumid 
base, and descending anteriorly ; aperture round-lunar, oblique ; 
peristome simple ; columella entering deeply and nearly directly. 

Diam. 17-22, alt. 12} mill. Madeira. 

Aperture less oblique and less deflected above than in H. erubes- 
cens, body-whorl angular at its origin, and coloration different. 

(Species of the Cape Verde Islands.) 

H. ADVENA Webb et Berthelot, 1833. PL 50, figs. 92, 93; pi. 52, 

figs. 84, 85. 

Imperforate, globose-depressed, rather thin, shining corneous with 
(about) five dark brown bands the upper ones wider, frequently 
coalescent, and interrupted by oblique light streaks densely irregu- 
larly sculptured with oblique striae, and with almost obsolete spiral 
impressed lines; whorls 4, slightly convex, rapidly increasing the 
apex obtuse, dark, smooth; body-whorl gently and slightly descend- 
ing anteriorly; aperture rounded lunar, oblique; peristome slightly 
expanded, its ends converging, the columella arched, and dilated 
and appressed over the umbilicus. Diam. 16, alt. 11 mill. 

St. Antao and St. Vmcente, Cape Verde Is. 

This species has been confounded by some authors with H. erubes- 
cens, but is most readily separated by attention to the sculpture and 
the character of the columella, which has a wholly different in- 
sertion from that species. The spiral sculpture is shared with the 
following species ; but in advena is so obscure as to be easily over- 
looked. The species never has so warm a color as H. erubescens. 




HELIX. 193 



H. SERTA Albers, 1854. PL 50, figs. 84, 85. 

Similar to the preceding, but less strongly striate, and with much 
more variegated coloration ; the brown bands are narrow, very ir- 
regular, much interrupted by patches and articulations of cream 
color. Diam. 16, alt. 11 mill. St. Nicolas, Cape Verde Is. 

H. FOGOENSIS Dohrn, 1869. Unfigured. 

" Covered umbilicate, subglobose, striatulate, shining, corneous 
yellow, with four brown bands, the first and second with central 
line of white; spire obtuse, conic; suture impressed; whorls 5, con- 
vex, the last rounded, descending anteriorly ; aperture diagonal, 
lunate-rotund ; peristome white, slightly expanded, margins converg- 
ing, connected by a thin callus, columella reflexed over umbilicus, 
thickened. Diam. 17, alt. 14 mill." 

Fogo and Bmva, Cape Verde Is, 

The following quotation from Wollaston may aid in the identifi- 
cation of the present species, which I have never seen. 

"In its rather globose outline, dull hue, and uninterrupted bands, 
this Helix has somewhat theprimajastie aspect of the (nevertheless 
totally dissimilar) Porto-Sanctan H. pundulata Sow.; though in 
reality it belongs to an altogether different group. It is indeed 
closely allied to the H. visgeriana, as is evident, not merely from 
its general plan of coloring and from its umbilicus not being com- 
pletely closed over, but likewise from the presence of the minute 
spiral lines which (under a high magnifying power) are everywhere 
visible on its surface. Specifically however, it is quite distinct, it 
being not only larger and more globose, and of a uniformly duller 
tint, but likewise with the minute spiral lines (which look more like 
indistinct subundulating scratches) more irregular and obscure, and 
with the oblique transverse costie well-nigh obsolete, and (such as 
they are) concolorous with the rest of the surface, the entire shell 
appearing comparatively smooth and unsculptured. Its umbilicus 
too, is a little less closed over, and its suture is very deeply im- 
pressed." 

H. VISGERIANA Dohrn, 1867. PI. 66, fig. 80c. 

Covered perforate or nearly so, globose depressed, shining, corne- 
ous, with four or five narrow dark brown bands of which two are 
below the periphery, and which are frequently interrupted by reg- 
ular strong oblique whitish striae; revolving impressed lines visible 
chieHv in the interstices of the striae; whorls 31, slightly convex, 
* 13 



194 HELIX. 

rapidly increasing, the last rounded, slightly descending anteriorly ; 
aperture rounded lunar, oblique ; columella well curved, expanded 
over the umbilicus. Diam. 12-15, alt. 8-10 mill. 

St. lago, Cape Verdes, 

The present species differs from all the preceding in possessing 
stronger spiral as well as incremental stria?. 
H. MYRISTICA Shuttleworth, 1852. PL 52, figs. 61-63. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, shining, thin, brownish corneous 
with four narrow brown bands, which are frequently interrupted 
with light streaks and spots; sculpture as in H. visgeriana, com- 
posed of incremental striaa and very numerous delicately impressed 
spiral lines ; aperture rounded, the columella straighter than in H. 
visgeriana; peristome thin, narrowly expanded, its columellar ter- 
mination expanded and appressed over the umbilicus. 

Diam. 18, alt. 13 mill. St. lago. Cape Verdes. 

This species has not before been figured. I am not sure of the 
relation it bears to If. fogoensis, (see above), but from the other 
larger species of the Cape Verde group, advena and serta, the much 
greater development of the spiral sculpture and the more globose 
form will separate it. 

I am inclined to refer to this species as a variety, a form figured 
on pi. 52, fig. 64. It is different in coloration, lacking the narrow 
articulated brown bands of the type. Probably this is the H. ar- 
joi (or arangoi) Dohrn, a form never described or figured, and re- 
ferred by Pfeiffer to H. advena. My figure indicates that it is cari- 
nated; this is not the case. 

H. BOLLEI Albers, 1854. PI. 51, figs. 53, 54. 

Imperforate, depressed., subglobose, thin, shining, subtranslucent, 
brownish, corneous, finely obliquely striate and covered with an ex- 
cessively minute granulation; spire low, sutures scarcely impressed ; 
whorls 4i, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last carinated at 
origin, the carina nearly disappearing toward the aperture, the base 
convex and slightly indented in the centre, above descending a. lit- 
tle anteriorly ; aperture oval lunar, oblique ; peristome labiate w r ith 
white, its columellar termination deeply entering, the axis covered 
by white callus. Diam. 11-13, alt. 7-8 mill. 

St. Vincente and St. Nicholas, Cape Verdes. 

Separated from all the preceding Cape Verdes species by the 
sculpture. The fragile texture and keel stretched around the pe- 
riphery are also peculiar. 



HELIX. 195 

H. LEPTOSTYLA Dohni, 1869. PL 66, fig. 80b. 

This species has the form, sculpture and aperture of the preceding ; 
but is thicker, larger, and has a tendency to be brown banded, the 
bands broad, faint, and minutely flecked with white. The periph- 
eral keel is more obsolete, and indeed scarcely apparent save in 
front of the aperture. The body-whorl is somewhat more deflexed 
anteriorly. Diam. 13-15, alt. 10-12 mill. 

St. Antao, Cape Verde Is. 

H. milleri Dohrn niss. is a synonym. 



H. PRIMJEVA Morelet, 1873. Unfigured. 

Perforate, depressed turbinate, corrugated with large oblique folds; 
spire conoidal ; whorls 4, convex, the last inflated, rounded, not de- 
flexed ; suture impressed ; aperture ovate-lunar. 

Diam. 18, alt. 11 mill. Quaternary of Ins. Sal, Cape Verdes- 

The peristome was imperfect on the specimens from which More- 
let's original diagnosis (above translated) was drawn. He com- 
pares the species to H. undata of Madeira. 

H. ATLANTIDEA Morelet, 1873. Unfigured. 

Imperforate, globose-depressed, densely and regularly costulate- 
striate ; spire convex, smooth toward the aperture; whorls 3-1, 
slightly convex, separated by impressed sutures, rapidly increasing, 
the last dilated, obtusely angulate, not deflexed; aperture ovate- 
lunar, ends of the peristome joined by a callus, the upper margin 
straight, the columellar callous, dilated, appressed. 

Diam. 13, alt. 8 mill. Quaternary of Ins. Sal, Cape Verdes. 

Somewhat similar to H. chrysomela, but a little more depressed, 
and with one and one-half Avhorls less than that species. The 
peripheral angle, which is quite pronounced at the origin of the 
body-whorl, is gradually lost on approaching the aperture. 

H. SUBROSEOTINCTA Wollaston, 1878. Unfigured. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, scarcely subcarinate, a little shin- 
ing, whitish, sometimes subfuscous, or very obsoletely almost sub- 
ous, obsoletely and irregularly, (especially at the suture) streaked 
smeared with sublacteous, the young subpellucid ; whorls 5, 
ightly convex, the last slightly descending anteriorly ; peristome 




196 HELIX. 

acute, distinctly rosy, margins separated ; columella substraight, 
oblique, forming a slight angle at its junction with the basal lip. 

Diarn. 10-12, alt. 8 mill. Ins. Brcwa, Cape Verdes. 

" The H. subroseotineta in its small size and totally ungranulated 
surface has more in common with the H. bollei than it has with the 
leptostyla. Nevertheless, it is thicker, whiter and more calcareous ; 
its peristome has nearly always a faint rosy tinge (indeed the entire 
shell is often suffused with a faint rosy brown) ; its volutions, the 
basal one of which is not quite so perceptibly keeled, are a trifle 
more tumid, and the suture consequently somewhat more impressed ; 
its columella is just appreciably straighter, forming somewhat of an 
angle at its junction with the lower lip ; and its entire surface has a 
tendency to be irregularly blotched, or freckled, with very obscure 
paler, frequently confluent patches." (Wollaston.) 

(Spedes of the Azores Islands} 

H. AZORICA Albers, 1852. PI. 51, figs. 5-8. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, very thin, transparent, faint gold- 
en, speckled with dots and short oblique marks of opaque whitish 
buff, and generally with traces of brownish faciation about the per- 
iphery, very delicately striate ; spire short; suture moderately im- 
pressed ; whorls 5, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last glo- 
bose, convex, gently deflected anteriorly ; base slightly indented at 
center; aperture rotund-lunar, as long as wide, oblique ; peristome 
.slightly thickened with white, ends remote ; columella thin, deeply, 
vertically entering, well curved. Diam. 11-13, alt. 7-8 mill. 

Sta. Maria and San Miguel, Azores. 

H. CALDEIRARUM Morelet et Drouet, 1857. PI. 51, figs. 39-41. 

Differs from azoriea in being of thicker texture, more decidedly 
striate, with more depressed body-whorl, and more conical spire. 
The surface is nearly free from opaque white markings ; the whorls 
number nearly 6, and the increase in width is very gradual ; the 
aperture is broader than long, the peristome labiate with white, the 
the collumella much more oblique than in H. azoriea; the base is 
rather flattened, and decidedly indented in the center. 

Diam. 11, alt. 7 mill. 

San Miguel, Azores. 
H. NIPHAS Pfeiffer, 1857. Unfigured. 

Imperforate, globose-conic, solid, plicate-striate, white; spire con- 
vex-conic, apex obtuse ; whorls 5J, slightly convex, gradually in- 



HELIX. 197 

creasing the last not descending; base slightly convex; aperture 
oblique, lunar, peristome straight, margins remote, the right short, 
simple, the basal sensibly thickened toward its insertion, and briefly 
ascending. Diam. 11, alt. 8 mill. 

St. Miguel, Azores. 

None but the original specimens (communicated to Pfeiffer by Mr. 
Cuming) are known. It seems to be near H. caldeirarum in form, 
but differs from all Leptaxis of the Azores in the solid texture. 
Pfeiffer's description is translated above. 

H. TERCEIRAXA Morelet, 1857. PL 51, figs. 36-38. 

Imperforate, depressed-conoid, slightly solid, densely, rather rude- 
ly striate, and covered with an excessively minute granulation, cor- 
neous brown, variegated with maculations and streaks of opaque 
pale yellowish ; whorls 6, somewhat convex, Avith well marked su- 
tures, slowly widening, the last obtusely angulate; base somewhat 
flattened, indented in the center, anteriorly briefly descending ; aper- 
ture oblique, ovate-lunar, peristome straight, margined within, slight- 
ly expanded, livid; outer margin acute, columellar callous, flatten- 
ed, entering. Diam. 12, alt. 7 mill. 

Ins. Terceira, Azores. 

Allied to If. caldeinmnn, but less diaphanous, more coarsely and 
roughlv striate, and the columellar margin, toward its insertion, is 
broader, owing to the larger umbilical perforation covered by its 
expansion. 

II. i>i:oi;i:TrANA Morelet, 1860. PI. 51, figs. 29-31. 

Imperforate, globose-conic, somewhat solid, rugose-striate, yellow- 
ish, variegated with corneous radiations and a blackish interrupted 
peripheral fascia ; spire conic, apex rather acute ; whorls 6, slightly 
convex, the last briefly descending; aperture ovate-lunar, marbled 
with white within ; peristome obtuse, labiate, the superior margin 
scarcely expanded, the columellar flattened, entering. 

Diam. 13, alt. 9 mill. 

/HX. Fayal, Azores. 

In this form the corneous surface is almost covered by the opaque 
yellowish-white markings (which in H. azorica only speckle the shell), 
the spire is conic, as in H. caldeirarum, and the shape of the base, 
which is indented in the center, is very similar to that species; the 
aperture is broader than long, and the peristome livid in color. The 
variegated appearance reminds one of H. erubescens ; and the illu- 
sion is increased by a very slight malleation. 



198 HELIX. 

H. EXORNATA Deshayes. PI. 51, figs. 13, 14. 

Subglobose, somewhat depressed, smooth, pale yellow, with white 
zones, ornamented with two black undulate-angular zones at the 
periphery ; spire short, obtuse, convex ; whorls 4, slightly convex, 
wide, rapidly increasing, the last large, convex, slightly depressed 
below, imperforate, obliquely deflexed at the aperture ; aperture 
large, oblique, rotund-lunar ; peristome white or yellow, thickened 
within, reflexed, the base marked with a wide rosy spot. 

Diam. 14, alt. 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This form -is known only by the description of Deshayes which is 
translated above, and the original figures, copied on my plate. I 
follow Pfeiffer in referring it to Leptaxis; but of course any subgen- 
eric reference, without more information than we possess regarding 
it, is little better than guess-work. 

(B. Species with carinate periphery.^) 

H. CHRYSOMELA Pfr., 1848. PL 51, figs. 50-52. 

Imperforate, depressed, destitute of cuticle, chalky white, with 
wrinkles of increment, rugose, malleated ; whorls 5, flattened, grad- 
ually increasing, the last angled at its origin, becoming almost round- 
ed, very briefly but abruptly descending anteriorly ; aperture very 
oblique, slightly contracted, truncate-oval, the upper and lower mar- 
gins subparallel, peristome reddish orange colored ; columellar mar- 
gin very obliquely descending, broad, straight within. 

Diam. 10, alt. 6 mill. 

Quarternary of Porto Sancto. 

H. cenostoma Lowe is a synonym. 

Var. FLUCTUOSA Lowe, 1852. PL 52, fig. 86; PL 51, figs. 9, 10. 

This form differs from H. chrysomela in being larger, more acute- 
ly carinated, and with whorls less rounded above. The peristome is 
white, and is less thickened internally on the columellar margin than 
in the type. Diam. 14 mill. 

H. VETUSTA Morelet et Drouet, 1857. PL 66, fig. 80a. 

Imperforate, conic, rather solid, cretaceous white, (or rarely varie- 
gated with corneous) with two reddish brown bands, usually inter- 
rupted or subobsolete, obliquely striate, and with a tendency to be 
still more obliquely, finely undulate; whorls 66'}, carinate in the 
middle, slowly widening, flattened above, the last a trifle more con- 



HELIX. 199 

vox above, acutely carinated, briefly deflexed anteriorly ; base some- 
what convex, not indented in the center; aperture very oblique, 
slightly broader than long, truncate oval ; peristome labiate inside, 
pink-tinted, its terminations not converging ; columellar margin 
thickened, somewhat flattened, appressed ; parietal wall covered by 
a pinkish callus. Diam. 15-19, alt. 11-12 mill. 

Quarternary of Sta. Maria, Azores. 

This species seems to most nearly allied to the H. chrysomela of 
Porto Sancto, but may be readily seperated by its sculpture, large 
size, conical spire and acute peripheral carina. 

H. AVOLLASTONI Lowe, 1852. PI. 51, figs. 59-60. 

Imperforate, depressed conic, rather solid, carinate, dark yellowish 
or olivaceous-brown, with, usually, two spiral darker bauds ; oblique- 
ly plicate-striite, and covered with a minute granulation ; spire usu- 
ally depressed, the apical whorl smooth ; whorls 5, nearly planulate 
the last 2 rapidly widening ; body-whorl acutely carinated, deeply 
descending anteriorly; base convex, not indented at the center; 
aperture transversely oval, angular at the extremities, very oblique ; 
peristome a little expanded, usually pinkish, nearly continuous over 
the parietal wall; columella somewhat dilated, flattened, entering. 

Diam. 22, alt, 11 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 

Probably more nearly allied to H. nivosa than to the species with 
which on account of its carinate periphery, it is here associated. 

Var. FOKKXSIS \Vollaston. 

A smaller form than the type, in which the aperture is rounded 
at the outer margin, scarcely modified by the peripheral keel; the 
parietal wall is traversed by a very heavy callus which joins the lips; 
and the inner two or three whorls of the spire usually are prominent, 
as if mamillated. Diam. 17, alt. 9 mill. 

Described as a species by Mr. Wollaston, but the specimens before 
me are too similar to wollastoni to be separated. 

V 

2. Psetidocampylcea Pfr. Axis umbilicate ; aperture oval, the lips 
expanded, converging. 

H. rouTOSANCTANA Sowerby, 1824. PL 52, figs. 87-89. 

[Jmbilicate, depressed, rather strong, corneous yellow, with three 
brown bauds, the upper two generally broad, often coalescent ; sur- 
face marked with rather strong, irregular incremental wrinkles, all 



200 HELIX. 

over minutely punctate ; whorls 5, convex, the inner smoother, 
gradually, the outer more rapidly widening ; body-whorl depressed, 
rounded at the periphery, flattened above, deeply deflexed anteriorly ; 
aperture very oblique, perfectly oval ; peristome expanded, brownish, 
continued as a heavy callus over the parietal wall, its basal portion 
subreflexed, partially concealing the umbilicus. 
Diam. 23-30, alt. 13-15 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sancto. 

H. LOWEI Ferussac, 1835. PL 52, fig. 90. 

Differs from the preceding (of which it may be a variety) in the 
,much larger size, the less obviously punctate surface, less oblique 
aperture and narrower revolving bands, of which there are but two, 
and these very slender. Diam. 45-55 mill. 

Porto Sancto. 

This largest of the Atlantic species is quite abundant in the quar- 
ternary deposits of Porto Sancto, but according to Wollaston, only 
a single specimen has been found alive. It seems to be replaced in 
the living fauna by the very similar but much smaller If. porto*<uic- 
tana. 

*** 

3. Lampadia Lowe. Imperforate ; vitrina-shaped, the whorls 
thin, carinate, and very rapidly increasing ; aperture very large. 
Mitra alb., preoc., is a synonym. 

H. WEBBIAXA Lowe, 1831. 'PL 51, figs. 55, 56. 

Imperforate, depressed, carinated, very thin, uniform olivaceous 
brown, lighter below, with oblique irregular incremental stride and a 
rather coarse granulation which is confined for the most part to the 
central portion of the whorl, above and below the carina, and to the 
neighborhood of the aperture, and which, although usually quite 
obvious to the naked eye is frequently subobsolete ; whorls 3, very 
rapidly widening, scarcely convex above, the last convex below, 
bearing a compressed carina at the middle, and slightly descending 
anteriorly ; aperture very oblique, oval, slightly angled at the place 
of the carina ; peristome expanded, thin, its extremities not connect- 
ed, columellar margin thin, entering, slightly reflexed and approv- 
ed at the axis. Diam. 19, alt. 10 mill. 

Porto Sancto, Madeiras- 

Vitrina bocagei Paiva (pi. 51, figs. 57, 58) is a young shell of this 
species. 



HELIX. 201 

H. MEMBRANACEA Lowe, 1852. PI. 51, figs. 45, 46. 

Imperforate, depressed globose, excessively thin, flexible, pellucid, 
yellowish or greenish corneous, usually more or less variegated with 
opaque whitish flecks and reticulations, which sometimes form a 
stripe at the central keel ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing ; spire low, 
obtuse; body-whorl acutely carinated at the middle, the carina be- 
coming obsolete toward the aperture ; not deflected anteriorly ; aper- 
ture large, broad oval lunar, oblique ; peristome simple, thin, ends 
scarcely converging; columella simple, arcuate. 

Diam. 10, alt. 6 mill. 

Madeira. 

The excessively thin, easily indented substance of this species will 
distinguish it from any of its allies. The last whorl is not so acute- 
ly carinated as in H. webbiana. 

H. cimrn,.v Shuttlcworth. PL f>l, figs. 47-41). 

Imperforate, depressed-conic, very thin and fragile, with a silky 
lustre, light green, costulate-striate; spire low, conic, apex prom- 
inent; suture impressed; whorls M, rapidly increasing, convex below 
th sutures and on base, but concave above and below the prominent 
peripheral carina; body-whorl large, depressed, carinated to the 
aperture, not deflected anteriorly, indented at the axis; aperture 
transversely oval, ungulate at position of carina; peristome acute, 
membranous; columella deeply, vertically entering. 

Diam. 7, alt. 41 mill. 

Teneriffe and Palnui, (binaries. 

Section VIII. IBERUS Montfort, 1810. 

Helices of the section Iberus are very numerous, both in species 
and individuals in central and southern Italy, and in Sicily; and 
curiously enough, there have been a few trans-Mediterranean spe- 
cies discovered in recent vears. There is great lattitude of opinion 
concerning the synonymy of the group, arising from the fact that 
transition forms between many of the "species" render any hard- 
and-fast lines of demarkation between them wholly arbitrary; and 
the subject has been still further complicated by a number of diag- 
noses of tv new species," without figures, each of which' admits of be- 
inir applied lo several forms. 

The. Sicilian species form a perfect series of gradations between 
the carinate flattened forms and the globose elevated ones. They 



202 HELIX. 

differ from most of the peninsular species in being marked with 
minute spiral impressed lines. The Italian species are generally 
more depressed, and more deeply colored. 

Montfort's type of Iberus is not H. muralis as I stated on p. 122 
(following Albers and v. Martens) but H. gualteriana of Spain. 
There may be two subsections recognized : Iberus, s. sir. and Levan- 
tina Kobelt, the latter comprising the large forms of Asia Minor. 

The synonymy includes Murella Pfr., and, in part, Crenea Albers. 
Pfeiffer and other authors have included, also, a number of Canary 
Island species, which in this work are placed in Hemicycla. 

IBERUS, s. sir. 

*** 

A. Iberus of depressed and carinated, or rounded globose form, 
the base convex, imperforate. Sicilian, African and Spanish species. 

H. GUALTERIANA Linn., 1767. PI. 53, figs. 6-8. 

Covered perforate, carinate, flattened above, convex below, solid, 
reddish or brownish white, dull, decussated with oblique and spiral 
coarse rough sculpture; spire flat or slightly elevated, the apical 
whorl smoother; whorls 4, rather rapidly widening, with an acute 
compressed carina; body-whorl very convex below, turgid at the 
center, more or less deeply deflexed anteriorly; aperture angulate- 
ovate, transverse, oblique, wider than long; peristome expanded, 
reflexed and appressed over the umbilicus. Diam. 40, alt. 17 mill. 
Provinces Cadix, Aimer ia, Granada, Murcia, Spain. 

H. obversa Born is synonymous. 

Var. LAURENTII Bourguignat. PI. 53, figs. 9-13. 

Differs from the type in the smaller size, elevated spire, less dis- 
tinct keel, less rude sculpture and smaller aperture. 

Sierra Elvira, at Granada. 

H. SULTANA Morelet, 1880. PL 63. figs. 40-42. 

Covered perforate, rather thin, wide conoidal, depressed, micro- 
scopically granulate and obliquely sculptured, near the keel marked 
with a few spiral lines, dirty white, lusterless, spire obtuse, apex 
corneous; whorls 4t>, exserted, nearly flat, the last turgid below, 
briefly and suddenly deflexed ; aperture very oblique, subtrapezoidal, 
acutely angled; peristome thin, the margins approaching, the upper 



HELIX. 203 

straight, lower dilated, reflexed, more or less concealing the perfora- 
tion. Diam. 28, alt. 13 mill. 

Mts. of Tertuan, Morocco. 

H. subscabriusculaHourg., published before sultana, but with nei- 
ther description or figure, is a synonym. 

H. LEACHII Ferussac, 1821. PI. 63, figs. 26-28. 

Xearly covered perforate, car in ate, convex-lenticular, sculptured 
above and below with numerous pliciform costa3, which are parallel 
with the aperture, pale grayish yellow or whitish, opaque; whorls 
4, scarcely convex, the last with a keel which becomes obtuse toward 
the aperture, very convex below, suddenly deflexed anteriorly; aper- 
ture very oblique, transversely subovate; peristorne dilated, expanded, 
white, the upper and lower margins subequally curved, converging, 
joined by a distinct shining wide callus, (v. Martens.) 

Diam. 17-19, alt. 10-12 mill. 

Tarhuna Mts. Tripoli. 

H. tripolitaini Wood is synonymous. 

H. scABRiusri-LA Deshayes, 1830. PI. 53, figs. 19-21, 14-16. 

Covered perforate or nearly so, depressed, carinated, low-conic 
above, convex below, solid, whitish unicolored or with several spiral 
cordons of reddish blotches, more or less strongly obliquely striate, 
and covered with a microscopic granulation; whorls 4-4-1, moderately 
increasing, flattened on the upper surface, with a compressed exserted 
median keel ; body-whorl gibbous below, rather suddenly and deeply 
deflexed anteriorly; aperture oblique, transversely oval, acutely 
aiiii'led at the termination of the carina; peristome expanded, termi- 
uations sub-converging, the basal margin frequently subdentate, 
appressed over the umbilical perforation. Diam. 24, alt. 10 mill. 

Western Sicily. 

H. erycuKt .Jan. is synonymous. 

Var. si: LIXI-NTINA Philippi. PI. 62, figs. 28-30. 

Differs from the type in the interrupted reddish bands; carina 
IK it exserted, striae simple. 

Var. SEGESTANA Philippi. PI. 53, figs. 1-5, 17, 18. 

Umbilicus generally slightly open ; sculpture consisting of eleva- 
u-d anastomosing wrinkles; keel crenulated. 



204 HELIX. 

Var. PACINIANA Philippi. PL 55, figs. 36-38. 

Rather thin, coarsely sculptured with white anastomosing wrinkles; 
columella concave, not callous; keel becoming obtuse or obsolete 
toward the aperture. Diam. 16 mill. 

H. vieta Rossrn. (pi. 62, figs. 32-34.) is synonymous. 

There is a forma major, measuring 20 mill. diam. (pi. 55, fig. 34, 
35). This form may be distinct from scabriuscula; the specimens 
before me have a more distinct aspect than the other varieties. 

Var. EXPLANATA Benoit. PL 62, fig. 31. 

Half-covered perforate; spire planate ; whorls above subconcave, 
exserted at the carina, the last very turgid beneath. 

Var. DEMISSA Benoit. 

Small, subperforate, striate, spire subplane, whorls a trifle exserted 
at carina. 

Var. DREPANENSIS Huet. PL 62, figs. 26, 27. 

.Small, elate-turrited, whorls scalariform, acutely keeled, sculpture 
of coarse white wrinkles on a livid ground. 

Var. scalariformis Ben. is a synonym. 

H. SARDONIA Martens, 1884. Unfigured. 

Perforate, carinate, depressed, rugose-striate, whitish, maculate 
with brown above, with a single interrupted band below; spire 
slightly prominent; whorls 4, above flattened, with a more or less 
exserted carina, the last rather convex below, distinctly descending 
anteriorly; aperture very oblique, axe-shaped ; peristome white, mar- 
gins approximating, the upper expanded, the basal reflexed, concave, 
arcuate, partly covering the perforation. (Martcm*.) 

Diam. 21, alt. 101 mill. 

Dorgali, Sardinia. 

Very similar to the Sicilian H. scabriuseula Desh. and H. segestana 
Phil.; but the rib-striae are finer and more regular, the columellal 
margin more strongly concave. In the intensity of the brown mark- 
ings, which generally are above arranged into two interrupted bands, 
the covering of the umbilicus by the peristome (i1), the exsertion 
of the keel of each succeeding whorl, and the absolute size, there is 
great variation among various specimens. (Martens.^ 

The above descriptions and comments, translated from v. Martens, 
contain all the information published regarding this species, which 
is, apparently, quite distinct. 



205 

Var. DORGALIENSIS Maltzan. 

Differs from the type in the higher spire, thickened, decidedly 
re flexed peristome, its terminations joined by a distinct callus. 

Diam. 20, alt. 101. mill. 



II. (iRoiLMAxxi Philippi, 1836. PI. 54, figs. 7, 8. 

Covered perforate, orbiculate- depressed, carinate, subtly striate, 
white, with three or four spiral series of brown blotches; whorls 4-1, 
subplanulate, the last subdeflexed anteriorly; aperture lunar axe- 
shaped, dark banded within ; peristome simple, the upper margin 
subcxpandcd, the basal appressed, subdilated and reddish at the 
rolumella. (Pfei/er). Diam. 21 alt. tH mill. 

Palermo, Sicily. 

Benoit considers this a form of H. serpentina, a very probable 
supposition. 

11. MURALIS Miiller, 1773. PL 62, figs. 35-37. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, solid, opaque, whitish, with spiral 
bands of blotches or large patches and irregular strigations of dark 
brown, the base light; surface marked with coarse oblique, wavy 
irregular wrinkles, obsolete below, and a secondary microscopic 
sculpture of delicate undulating growth-lines, decussated by fine 
spiral impressed lines; spire low-conic, obtuse; whorls 4-43; the 
inner rather flattened, apex smooth, the body-whorl wide, well- 
rounded, sometimes obtusely subangular at its origin, convex below, 
indented around the axis, anteriorly suddenly, rather deeply de- 
scending; aperture very oblique, dark within, oval-truncate; peri- 
stoinc white, expanded, margins subapproaching, the basal somewhat 
straightened within, appressed at the axis. Diam. 18, alt. 10 mill. 
Sicily; Italy; southern France and Spain; Balearic Is. 

The following are synonyms: H. orgonensis Philbert, (pi. 60, figs. 
71-73.) H. abromia Bourg., H. abraea Bourg. 

Var. i;r<;osA Ziegl. PL 62, figs. 42, 43. 

Very rudely sculptured above, the wrinkles white on a dark 
ground; body-whorl often more or less keeled at its origin. 

Sicily. 
Var. COST ri, ATA Benoit. PL 62, figs. 40, 41. 

Depressed; sculptured with strong ribs; peripheral keel extending 
to the aperture. Western Sicily. 



206 HELIX. 

Var. CRISPATA Benoit. PL 60, figs. 68-70. 

Strongly sculptured with radiating ribs, which extend to the axis 
below; periphery not keeled. Marsala, Sicily. 

Var. ALUTACEA Paul. PL 62, figs. 44-48. 

Shell smooth, leather-colored. Calabria. 

Var. INSULARIS Benoit. 

Depressed; below interruptedly unifasciate with rufous, above or- 
namented with series of zigzag radiating strigations ; axis marked 
with a brown spot; radiating sculpture subobsolete. 

Maretimo. 

Var. UNDULATA Michaud. PL 62, figs. 38, 39. 

Whitish, with radiating undulating or zigzag brown strigations 
above, and one or more cordons of square or arrow-shaped blotches 
below the periphery. 

Provence; Italy; Sicily. 

H. serpentina var. communis Benoit is synonymous. 

H. TIBERIANA Benoit, 1859. PL 64, figs. 21, 22. 

Covered perforate, pyramidal or slightly depressed, costulate- 
rugose, the costulse becoming evanescent on the base, scarcely shining, 
rather solid, bluish white, sometimes a little maculate or interrupt- 
edly fasciate with brown; spire exserted, apex obtuse; whorls 5, 
subplanulate, carinate, the carina upon the spire lying in the suture; 
last whorl becoming rounded toward the aperture, profoundly and 
abruptly descending anteriorly ; aperture oblique," ovate-lunate, peri- 
stome white, the margins converging, the upper expanded, the basal 
reflexed, base callous, sometimes subdentate, dilated at the insertion, 
appressed, covering the umbilicus, axis with a brown spot; fauces 
brown. Diam. 21, alt. 12-13 mill. 

Scupedda, near Calatafimini, north coast of Sicily. 

Separated from its allies by the straight, conical spire; the surface 
generally exhibits the same microscopic granulation that is found 
in If. scabriuscula, muralis, etc. 



H. GLOBULARIS Ziegler, 1838. PL 38, figs. 82, 83. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic-globose, solid, finely striate; whor 
4], slightly convex, the last rounded, descending anteriorly; ape 
ture oblique, oval-lunar; peristome expanded, the margins conve 
ing, the basal margin callous, flattened, appressed for half its length 



>rls 

; 



HELIX. 20 1 

to the turgid base, brown spotted and covering the umbilicus at its 
insertion. Diam. 14-19, alt. 9-13 mill. Sicily, Tarento. 

H. frivaldskyi Calcara is synonymous. 

"Helix globularis forms a natural transition between muralis and 
platychela; it is generally more elevated and globular than the 
muralis, and has the peristome more expanded, whilst in the platy- 
chela it is reflexed. The main difference from muralis lies in the 
aperture, of which the basal margin appears more extended, callous, 
provided with a fold or even a tooth, which is very rarely the case 
with muralis" (Kobelt.) 

The species is variable in form, size and color, and sometimes very 
difficult to separate from H. muralis. 

Var. CONSPICUA Benoit. PL 38, figs. 84, 85. 

Large, globose, marked with four maculose interrupted bands. 

Palermo. 
Var. COSSURENSIS Benoit. 

Small, spire less elevated, ornamented with close wide macula- 
tions. Pantellaria. 

Var. UNUULATA Kobelt. PI. 62, figs. 49, 50. Palermo. 

Var. ACHATINA Benoit. 

Whitish, without bands or maculations. Palermo. 

Var. TARENTINA Kobelt. PI. 62, figs. 51, 52. 

Whorls more planulate than in the type, and base of the aperture 
not dentate. Tarento. 

H. MELITENSIS Ferussac. PI. 54, figs. 24-26. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, more or less conoidal, solid, whit- 
ish, or obscurely strigate or subfasciate with light brown, marked 
with rather irregular oblique growth-lines and microscopic rather 
distant spiral engraved lines, which are frequently subobsolete, and 
usually wanting on the base; spire more or less depressed-conic, apex 
obtuse; whorls 4 4=V, slightly convex, the upper ones obtusely sub- 
angulate, the body- whorl convex, abruptly and deeply deflexed 
anteriorly; aperture truncate-oval, very oblique, rather small, dark- 
colored within; peristome expanded, white, the upper and lower 
margins stibparallel, not converging, the basal callous and sub- 
straightened, sometimes subdentate within, with a brown spot at its 
insertion. Diam. 19-21, alt. 12-15 mill. 

Malta. 



208 HELIX. 

This form is allied to H. globularis, and especially to H.platycliela, 
but may be separated by several characters from both of these Sicilian 
species. The peristome is not so broadly expanded as in platychela, 
nor is it so decidedly dentate as is usual in that species ; and there 
is not so obvious a flattening of the upper whorls as in the more 
depressed forms (which are nearest to melitensis) of platychela. 

Yar. CARUANJE Pilsbry. PI. 62, fig. 54-56. 

Spire elevated, conoidal; aperture small and very oblique; colora- 
tion usually of zigzag brown strigations sometimes broken into 
obscure bands above, and a narrow cordon of blotches below the per- 
iphery. 

Malta. 

H. PROVINCIALIS Benoit, 1842. PL 64, fig. 19, 20; pi. 60, figs. 74, 

75. 

Imperforate, depressed, slightly shining, solid, white, unicolored 
or marked with four cordons of pale brown spots, irregularly 
obliquely striate, and with microscopic spiral incised lines above, 
less striate below; spire low conoid, blunt, but the apical whorl 
slightly projecting, corneous; whorls 4^-5, the upper ones somewhat 
flattened, the body-whorl depressed, (more so than in either the 
several preceding or following species) sub-angulate at its origin, 
abruptly and deeply descending at the aperture, generally a little 
indented around the axis below; aperture small, very oblique, trun- 
cate-oval, slightly darkened and often fasciate within ; peristome 
expanded, outer and basal margins reflected, terminations not con- 
verging, baso-columellar portion appressed, callous and straightened 
within, but not at all dentate. Diam. 17-19, alt. 12-14 mill. 

Sicily. 

H. saracena Benoit mss. is the same. 

The small oblique aperture, not dentate below (not even so much 
as is shown in figs. 74, 75 of pi. 60) but callous, and the depressed 
body- whorl will enable one ,to distinguish this species. There is 
usually a faint brown spot at the insertion of the columella. 

H. RAGUS-E Kobelt, 1884. PL 68, fig. 17-19. 

Imperforate, depressed trochoidal, the base inflated, solid, slightly 
shining, irregularly striate, under the lens showing spiral impressed 
lines, grayish w r hite, with obscure traces of bands of maculations; 
whorls 5, the first 1$ smooth, convex, the apex a little exserted, sub- 
mamillate, the following planulate, distinctly carinate in young 



[( XJNIVEKS 
HELIX. x^C4UFb 209 

specimens, slowly increasing, with moderately impressed suture; 
body-whorl subinflated, angulated at the periphery, the angle be- 
coming evanescent toward the aperture, base subgibbously inflated, 
anteriorly deeply descending; aperture oblique, transverse lunate- 
oval; peristome white, thickened, broadly expanded all around, and 
reflexd, ethe margins subconverging, not connected, the basal margin 
callous, distinctly plicate-dentate, with a brown spot at the insertion 
of the columella. (Kobelt.) Diam. 22, alt. 14 mill. 

Western Sicily. 

Allied to H. provincialis, but with much more broadly reflected 
peristome than that species. 

H. PLATYCHELA Menke, 1830. PL 54, figs. 1-6. 

Imperforate, globose, or somewhat depressed, solid, whitish, some- 
times unicolored, usually with four rather narrow bands composed 
of (generally faint) brown spots, rarely subcontinuous; lightly, 
rather irregularly obliquely marked with growth-lines, and with 
spiral microscopic incised lines; spire pyramidal, the apex obtuse; 
whorls 5-5 L>, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the sutures moder- 
ately impressed ; body-whorl subglobose or somewhat depressed, 
generally well rounded, deeply deflexed anteriorly, convex below; 
aperture rounded oval, very oblique, slightly darkened and usually 
showing bands within; peristome broadly expanded, outer margin 
reflected, basal margin reflexed, adnate to the body toward the axis, 
broad, flattened, with a truncated lamella or tooth within. 

Diam. 24-26, alt. 16-23. 

Sicily. 

H. prcetexta Jan is a synonym. 

An exceedingly variable form, easily distinguished typically by 
the broad peristome and elevated form. There are however depress- 
ed varieties which approach globularis, etc. A small form measures 
diani. 15, alt. 12 mill. 

Yar. KOSALLK Benoit. PL 62, fig. 53. 

Usually larger than the type, whorls of the spire planulate, cari- 
n ate, the last rounded; base more convex; peristome less broadly 
expanded and reflexed. Diam. 26, alt. 19 mill. 

Palermo. 
Yar. IPARIA Benoit. PL 64, figs. 23, 24. 

Depressed ; whorls of the spire planulate ; body- whorl more or 
!es> keeled. 

Palermo. 
14 



210 HELIX. 

H. ASCHER^E Kobelt, 1880. PL 62, figs. 57-60. 

Subdepressed-turbinate, rather thin, striatulate, im perforate, whit- 
ish, rarely unicolored, or with four girdles of small rufous-brown 
spots; whorls 5->, regularly increasing, the upper ones slightly con- 
vex, penultimate and last whorl convex, with impressed suture ; 
body-whorl subdilated, inflated below toward the aperture, anterior- 
ly strongly and abruptly deflexed, and sub-constricted behind the 
aperture ; aperture very oblique, lunate-rotund ; peristome reflexed, 
strongly albolabiate ; fauces brownish, showing the bands ; margins 
converging, the basal arcuate, sometimes callous, dilated and wholly 
covering the .umbilicus, brown-spotted at the insertion. (Kobelt.} 

Diam. 22 J, alt. 16 mill. 

Trapani, Sicily. 

"The upper whorls are quite flat, like those of platychela; and it 
would appear as though young examples were keeled ; the suture is 
not at all impressed. The penultimate whorl first begins to be more 
convex, and the suture deeper ; the last whorl is somewhat widened, 
rounded at the periphery, the base tumid as it approaches the mouth, 
very deeply deflexed, and somewhat constricted." (Kobelt.) 

Very closely allied to some forms of If. platychela. 

H. RID ENS Martens, 1884. Unfigured. 

Covered perforate, subglobose-depressed, white, marked with four 
dark brown bands, the upper interrupted, striatulate below the sut- 
ure, shining, whorls 4?. the first convex, grayish-brown, unicolored, 
the following subangulate, body-whorl rounded, convex below, 
deeply descending anteriorly ; aperture very oblique, wide-ovate j 
peristome white, rather broadly reflexed, the margins approx- 
imating, arcuate above and below, the columellar margin dilated and 
appressed. Diam. 17, alt. 11 mill. ; aperture, diam. and alt. 9 mill. 

(Martens.) 

Dor gali, Sardinia. 

" Some specimens exhibit a small umbilical fissure, but in the 
greater number this is closed by the expansion of the columellar 
margin. A very minute spiral striation is visible upon the upper 
surface of most specimens, with a lens of moderate power." 

" This species is comparable to the Sicilian H. globularis Ziegl., 
and the more flattened forms of H. platychela Mke. By the broad- 
er aperture, more strongly concave columellar lip, without trace of 
a tooth, it may be distinguished from these." (Martens.) 

The following variations are described : 






HELIX. 211 

Var. SPLENDENS Maltzan. 

Differs from the type in the distinctly conoidal shell, last whorl 
subcompressed, trifasciate, aperture narrower. 

Diam. 17, alt. 11 mill. Dorgali, Sardinia. 

Var. MINOR Maltzan. 

Shell much smaller. Diam. 14?, alt. 9 2 mill. 

Dorga li, Sardin ia . 

H. PLATYCHELOIDES Kobelt, 1881. PI. 54, figs. 9-12. 

Covered umbilicate, conoid, spire exserted, striatulate, scarcely 
shining, solid, white or encircled by five castaneous bands ; whorls 
5, somewhat convex, separated by linear, distinct sutures, regularly 
increasing, the last inflated, anteriorly abruptly deeply deflexed ; 
aperture very oblique, irregularly ovate, slightly lunate ; peristome 
labiate with white, the margins considerably converging and joined 
by a distinct callus, upper margin expanded, outer and basal re- 
flexed, basal margin wide, distinctly. expanded above the umbilicus, 
armed with a straightened callus or subdentiform fold within. 

Diam. 24, alt. 17 mill. 

. Mis. of Beni Hosemar, Morocco. 

This species sustains the same relation to H. sicanoides that the 
Sicilian platychela bears to sicana. It differs from platychela (to 
which many examples are very similar in outline) in the constant 
presence of an umbilicus, the less reflected peristome and the pecu- 
liar apex. (Kobelt.) 

H. BOETTGERI Kobelt, 1881. PI. 54, figs. 27-29. 

Covered rimate, depressed conoid, solid, striatulate, microscopic- 
ally granulate, but not so distinctly spirally striate as If. tetuanensis, 
whitish, or yellowish-green, variously painted with bands and flam- 
mules of brownish ; whorls 5, the first two forming a projecting 
apex, the following less convex, the last somewhat inflated, deeply 
deflexed anteriorly ; suture linear, impressed ; aperture very oblique, 
trims verse-oval, the peristome acute, thin, strongly labiate with 
white, the margins converging, and joined by a thin callus, the 
upper expanded, outer slightly and basal distinctly reflexed over 
the rimate umbilicus, bearing inside a straight or dentiform callus. 

Diam. 20-21, alt. 13-i mill. 

Mts. Beni Hosemar, near Tetuan, Morocco. 



212 HELIX. 

This form, which inhabits the more western mountains, is in gen- 
eral shape scarcely to be distinguished from many forms of the Sicil- 
ian H. globularis, but may be readily recognized by the sculpture 
and the columellar lip, which is. not appressed. To the H. tetuan- 
ensis it holds about the same relation as globularis to platyche/a. 

(Kobelt.) 

H. GYROSTOMA Feruss^c, 1821. PL 54, figs. 20, 21. 

Covered perforate, globose, lightly obliquely striatulate, whitish- 
gray (bleached ?) with numerous small opaque white flecks, and 
larger, more translucent grayish markings ; this gray is above form- 
ed into flammules somewhat, and below into two narrow bands ; 
and upon these translucent tracts the white flecks are principally 
distributed ; whorls 4J, the first relatively large, the second and third 
flatter, appearing decidedly carinated in the suture, the last inflated, 
well rounded, very strongly deflexed anteriorly ; aperture very ob- 
lique, comparatively small, circular, the terminations of the peristome 
joined by a thick shining white callus, its margins briefly expanded, 
white. (Martens.) Diam. 19-1, alt. 12i mill. 

Tripoli. 

In the early part of the century this Helix was found in Tripoli, 
and communicated by Dr. Leach to Ferussac ; and again in 1879 a 
single example was taken by Dr. Erwin von Barry, in the first 
range of the Tarhuna Mountains. 

PL 50, figs. 55, 5G are copied from the original figures of Ferussac. 

H. SCHERZERI Zelebor, 1868. PL 60, figs. 86-88. 

Imperforate, globose-depressed, rather thin, striatulate, whitish, 
with sparsely scattered corneous points or also with five continuous 
brown bands ; spire slightly elevated, apex obtuse ; whorls 4i, 
slightly convex, the last inflated, anteriorly profoundly deflexed ; 
aperture very oblique, subcircular, peristome albolabiate, the mar- 
gins approximating, joined by a callus, briefly reflexed, the columel- 
lar obsoletely unidentate within, dilated and appressed above the 
axial region. (Pfeiffer.) Diam. 20, alt. 11 mill. 

Gibraltar. 

This species is distinguished from the preceding and the following 
species, to which it stands nearest, by the entirely closed umbilicus. 
The columellar reflection is however' perfectly sharply defined, and 
distinctly visible. From the H. marmorata, with which it lives, it 
may be separated always by the white lip. (Kobelt.) 






HELIX. 213 

H. TETUANENSIS Kobelt, 1881. PL 54, figs. 30-33. 

Covered perforate, globose conoidal, beautifully undulately gran- 
ulate under the lens by the decussation of distinct incremental 
striae and very fine spiral impressed lines ; rather thin, lustreless, 
unicolored dirty yellow or with brown bands, sometimes coalescent ; 
whorls 5, well rounded, separated by impressed sutures, the first 
forming a projecting apex, the last inflated and briefly, deeply de- 
flexed anteriorly ; aperture very oblique, lunate-rounded ; peristome 
acute, labiate with white, the margins converging, and joined by a 
callus, upper margin a little expanded, outer and basal margins 
reflexed, columellar lip expanded over the perforation, and bearing 
a strong dentiform fold inside. Diam. 20, alt. 17 mill. 

Mts. Beni Hosemar, at Tetuan, Morocco. 

Closely allied to If. bottgeri. 
H. SICANOIDES Kobelt, 1881. PI. 54, figs. 17-19. 

Very slightly but always sensibly rimate, globose-subconoid, apex 
exserted, rather thin but solid, unicolored whitish or yellowish, or 
with brown or blackish bands of various widths, striatulate ; whorls 
5, separated by distinct linear suture, the upper ones flattened, the 
following more convex ; body-whorl inflated, abruptly descending 
at aperture ; aperture very oblique, rotund-lunar ; peristome labiate 
with white, slightly reflexed on the base, margins converging, joined 
by a light callus ; columella with a strong callus, sometimes denti- 
form below. Diam. 21, alt. 16 mill. (Kobelt.) 

Mts. Beni Hosemar, near Tetuan, Morocco. 

Very nearly allied to the Sicilian H. sicana, says Kobelt, but 
constantly separated from that species, after an examination of sev- 
eral hundred examples of each, by the umbilical rimation, of which 
t<i(.'iina never has any indication, by the peculiar apex, and the less 
reflected peristome. 

H. SICAXA Ferussac. PI. 54, figs. 13-16. 

Imperforate, globular or bullet-shaped, thin but rather solid, 
whitish, unicolored or with three or four narrow brown or corneous 
subcontiuuous bands, delicately opaquely striate, the surface decus- 
sated by numerous fine incised spiral lines, base nearly smooth; 
spire more or less elevated conic, obtuse; suture linear, but well 
impressed and distinct; whorls 5-5 4, those of the spire somewhat 
flattened, gradually increasing; body-whorl globose, rounded, very 
convex below, somewhat constricted behind the aperture, rather 
deeply deflexed anteriorly ; aperture small, rotund-lunar, very ob- 



214 HELIX. 

lique; peristome white, narrowly reflexed, its margins converging, 
the columellar with a short callus plate inside, frequently truncate 
or subdentate at base. Diam. 21, alt. 18-21 mill. 

Near Palermo, Sicily. 

H. soluta (Ziegl.) Phil, is a synonym. 

Although quite variable, this species need be confounded with no 
other Sicilian shell. The imperforate base, strong spiral sculpture, 
small aperture and narrow peristome, as well as the globular form 
will distinguish it. 

*** 

B. The following group of Iberus contains shells with rounded 
periphery, generally rather smooth surface, and depressed form, the 
base usually indented at the center or perforate. They are charac- 
teristic of peninsular Italy and the Continent, rather than of Sicily. 

H. NICIENSIS Ferussac. PL 64, figs. 14-18. 

Covered perforate, depressed, slightly shining, thin but rather 
solid, whitish, encircled by four or five spiral series of brown or 
corneous spots, sometimes coalescent into irregular blotches above ; 
surface striatulate, and with sparse interrupted spiral lines above ; 
spire low conic, obtuse ; whorls 5, the first forming a slightly salient 
apex, the following a little flattened, the last rapidly widening, de- 
pressed, rounded at periphery, slightly indented in the center of the 
base, rather deeply deflexed anteriorly; aperture rounded-lunate, 
oblique, lilac colored within ; peristome labiate with the same color, 
slightly expanded, the margins subapproaching ; basal margin flat- 
tened, with a callus lamina within. Diarn. 22, alt. 13 mill. 

Central France.; Italy. 

H. nicceensis of Risso and of Rossmsessler is the same. 

H. SERPENTINA Ferussac. PL 60, figs. 59-65. 

Covered perforate, depressed, rather solid, opaque, somewhat shin- 
ing, lightly obliquely striatulate, whitish or yellow tinged, painted 
in innumerable patterns with deep chestnut, the markings generally 
more or less formed into narrow spiral interrupted zones, of which 
three (one subsutural, indistinct) are above, two (the outer more 
distinct) below the periphery ; or radiately maculate and strigate 
above, sometimes with the whole ground-color deep chestnut, upon 
which are zigzag white vermiculations and strigations ; spire de- 
pressed conoid, the apex subplanulate, corneous; whorls 4J 5, the 
inner gradually, the outer rapidly widening ; body-whorl depressed, 



HELIX. 215 

rounded at periphery, subflattened below, and indented in the cen- 
ter, anteriorly slightly deflexed ; aperture broadly semioval, oblique, 
whitish within, not showing the bands prominently ; peristome nar- 
rowly expanded, slightly albolabiate, its upper and lower margins 
subparallel, not converging ; columellar margin reflexed, appressed 
over the axis, dark colored, especially toward the umbilical callus ; 
parietal wall chestnut colored. Diam. 18, alt. 10 mill. 

Southern France ; Italy ; Corsica ; Sardinia. 

An excessively mutable form, which has been divided by authors 
into numerous species and varieties, the chief objection to which is 
the extreme difficulty of distinguishing them, even with the aid of 
good figures. 

The Marchesa Paulucci has made a critical study of the group 
(Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., viii) and, except in considering hospitans, 
euros, etc., subspecies instead of species, I have not departed from her 
arrangement of the forms. 

Vur. LSILKXSIS (Villa) Mabille. PI. 63, figs. 29-31. 

A pallid depressed form which is considered by the Marchesa 
Paulucci to be a variety or local race of the H. serpentina, the prin- 
cipal character of which is the total want of color. There are also 
individuals with dark dots or spots. Diam. 20-21, alt. 10-11 mill. 

Sardinia ; Corsica. 

Yar. JASPIDKA Moq.-Tand. PI. 61, figs. 20-22. 

Larger, bands not distinct above, marbled ; colors bright. 

Bonafacio, Corsica. 

Yar. ISAR;E Paulucci. PI. 61, figs. 23-25. 

Shell more rugose than the type, the interrupted zones paler ; no 
umbilical or parietal macula ; columellar margin brown-punctate. 

Diam. 20, alt. 12 mill. Sardinia. 

Subspecies HOSIMTAXS Bonelli. PI. 54, figs. 22, 23. 

A form differing in its rather larger more globose form from the 
typical serpentina. " The coloration varies from a whitish ground, 
all covered with dots of dark or pale brown disposed in series like 
interrupted zones, to a milk-white, without trace of markings. The 
spot which ornaments the base at the insertion of the columella, 
however, always remains constant, but even this is subject to great 
mutation as well in the intensity of its color as in the size. As for 
the form, the modifications are still more obvious ; for, whilst the 



216 HELIX. 

type is rather globulose, the last whorl comparatively inflated, there 
occur with it forms almost angulate, and others actually carinated." 

(Mme. Paulucci.) 

Sardinia. 

The synonymy includes, according to Mme. Paulucci, H. mag- 
neMii Cantraine (non magnettii Mabille) and H. carat Kobelt (iwn 
carce Cantraine). 

The following form is described by the Marchesa Paulucci as a 
variety of H. hospitans, which is considered by her a species distinct 
from H. serpentina, although connected with the latter by transition 
forms. 

Var. ALABASTRINA Paulucci. PI. 61, figs. 17-19. 

" Differs from the type by the more globose, more solid shell ; the 
last whorl less dilated ; the brown umbilical and parietal maculation 
wanting ; columellar margin thick, alabastrine ; aperture small." 

Diam. 20, alt. 14 mill. 

Another form inhabiting Cape St. Elias, has been called by Mme 
Paulucci mutation (or variety) porphydiea. Its differential char- 
acters are found in the entire absence or great reduction of the spot 
at the insertion of the columella, and the coloration of the surface* 
which consists of small crowded maculations, which frequently have 
a tendency toward violaceous, instead of brown. 

Subspecies CARJE Cantraine. PL 64, figs. 9, 10. 

Imperforate, orbiculate-convex, somewhat depressed, smooth, shin- 
ing, yellowish marbled and vermiculate with dirty white, ornament- 
ed with five brown interrupted zones ; spire prominent but subplane ; 
aperture ovate-lunate, white, as wide as high ; peristome reflexed ; 
umbilical callosity bordered yellowish. Corsica; Sardinia. 

H. halmyris Mabille is synonymous. 

Var. ADJACIENSIS Paulucci. PL 64, figs. 11-13. 

Smaller, more globose, spire elevated, umbilical tract with a brown 
spot, columellar and parietal margins brown. 

Diam. 21, alt. 15* mill. 

Subspecies CENESTINENSIS Crosse et Debeaux. PL 60, figs. 94, !).'>. 
Imperforate, turbinate-depressed, somewhat solid, slightly shin- 
ing, scarcely striate, whitish, encircled by spiral rather wide regular 
deep chestnut zones, variegated with white; spire subdepressed, 
apex obtuse, smooth, pale violet; suture impressed; whorls 4^, 



HELIX. 217 

slightly convex, the last slightly descending, below bifasciate; aper- 
ture oblique, wide lunar, livid whitish within ; peristorae labiate, 
the margins distant, nearly sub-parallel, the columella (and umbili- 
cal tract) deep brown, subdilated basal and outer margins whitish. 
(Crosse et Debeaux.) Diam. 19, alt. 11 mill. 

Corsica. 

May be distinguished from its allies by the regular disposition, 
width and deep color of the bands. 

Var. SUBURBANA Paulucci. 

More convex, conic and solid, and more striate ; the last whorl 
less globose ; aperture broader and shortened. 

Diam. 19}, alt. 13 mill. Sassari, Sardinia. 

H. OBERNDOERFERI Kobelt, 1882. PL 60, figs. 96, 97. 

Imperforate, depressed-conic, rather solid, densely sub-costate- 
striatulate, whitish gray, with five interrupted bands or series of 
maculations of chestnut, which are more distinct and continuous 
toward the aperture, and marked from the upper to the lowest band 
with clear corneous zigzags and flecks, as in If. serpentina; base 
whitish, unmarked, or at most with a few streaks; whorls 5, convex, 
the apex obtuse, regularly increasing, suture linear, moderately im- 
pressed ; body- whorl scarcely dilated, subinflated, convex below, 
and impressed in the umbilical region, deeply deflexed anteriorly ; 
aperture ovate-rotund, deeply lunate, the margins distant, the upper 
slightly expanded, outer a little reflexed, the basal thickened, sub- 
dentate, scarcely dilated. (Kobelt.) Diam. 20, alt. 14 mill, 

Palma, in Mallorca, Balearic Is. 

Lacks the spot at the insertion of the columella, which is so char- 
acteristic of H. serpentina. 

H. PUDIOSA Paulucci, 1882. PL 63, figs. 32-34. 

Imperforate, orbiculate, depressed convex, opaque, striatulate, 
slightly malleate, white, ornamented with five interrupted brown 
zones ; spire subprominent, apex obtuse, smooth, corneous ; whorls 
4-1, scarcely convex, (the first slowly, last rapidly increasing), sep- 
arated by an impressed suture ; the last subcompressed, convex be- 
low, anteriorly toward the aperture abruptly deflexed, not dilated ;' 
aperture oblique, ovate-oblong, whitish ; peristome lightly labiate 
within, the margins converging, approximating. (Paulucci.) 

Diam. 16, alt. 9 mill. 

Sassari, Sardinia. 



218 HELIX. 

H. VILLICA Paulucci, 1882. PL 63, figs. 51-53. 

Somewhat umbilicated, orbiculate, depressed-convex, opaque, ru- 
gose-striate, whitish, ornamented with four interrupted zones, formed 
of brown maculations, spire subprominent, apex minute, mamillate, 
violaceous ; whorls 4J-5, slightly convex, (the inner regularly, last 
rapidly increasing) separated by impressed sutures; the last whorl 
subcompressed, subinflated below, anteriorly at the aperture sudden- 
ly deflexed, not dilated ; aperture oblique, subcircular, the margins 
approaching ; peristome thin, reflexed ; columellar margin dilated, 
partly closing the umbilical perforation. (Paulucci.) 

Diam. 19, alt. 11 mill. Sardinia. 

H. TETRAZONA Jan. PL 64, figs. 25-27. 

Depressed, umbilicate, transversely striate, whitish, with four 
brown zones ; aperture lunate-rotund ; peristome subreflexed, sub- 
margined. ( Christ et Jan.) Diam. 18, alt. 9 mill. 

Abruzzi. 

H. intermedia var. /3, Pfr. is a synonym. 

H. STRIGATA Miiller, 1773. PL 66, figs. 92a, 92b. 

Umbilicate, depressed, white, with four chestnut bands, the upper 
three interrupted, narrow ; upper surface striate, whorls 4, rather 
flattened, the last deflexed anteriorly ; aperture rounded oval, ob- 
lique ; peristome reflexed, sublabiate, white, the margins converging. 

Diam. 19, alt. 8* mill. 

Central Italy. 
Var. UMBRICA Charp. PL 64, figs. 30,31. 

Moderately umbilicate ; periphery subangulate ; surface strongly 
costate. 

Umbria. 

Var. SURRENTINA (A. Schmidt) Martens. PL 65, figs. 50, 51 
Shell almost covered perforate, subdepressed, very subtly striate, 

slightly pinkish white, with four pale chestnut interrupted bands; 

whorls 4i, slightly convex, the last descending, aperture very oblique, 

oval ; peristome reflexed, patulous, sublabiate, pinkish brown, the 

margins approximating, the basal arcuate ; with a brown umbilical 

spot. (Martens.) Diam. 16, alt. 7 mill. 

Naples. 
In part If. carseolana of authors. It is not according to Mme. 

Paulucci, the surrentina of Kobelt, (Icon, v, t. 123, f. 1172, 1173) 

which is var. fuscolabiata Rossm. 



HELTX. 219 

Var. FUSCOLABIATA Rossm. PL 64, figs. 32-34. 

Somewhat larger than the type, sometimes bandless, usually with 
the lower band absent, the others so interrupted that the shell ap- 
pears above to be radiately streaked with white and brown ; aperture 
and peristome clear brown. Sorrento; Capri; Pcestum. 

Var. POSIDONIENSIS Tiberi. PI. 60, figs. 66, 67. 

Large, decidedly widened, especially the last whorl ; depressed 
and sharply sculptured. Pcestum. 

Var. SICULA Benoit. 

Sharply costulate above; aperture more rounded, fusco-labiate. 

Sicily. 

Var. APULA Blanc. PL 64, figs. 28, 29. 

Sculpture more distinct ; aperture more rounded, less oblique. 

Taranto. 
Var. POLITA Paulucci. 

This pretty variety is distinguished by its relatively almost smooth 
j<liell, as well as by the row of little spots scattered along the suture, 
a character which is completely absent in all the typical individuals. 
I have received this variety from Engineer Molteni, of Foligno 
(Umbria), mingled with a number of H. gtrigata. It appears quite 
common. (Paulucci.') 

H. CAKSOLIANA Ferussac. PL 65, figs. 42-44. 

Almost closed perforate, globose sub-depressed, thick, opaque 
white, with three narrow interrupted chestnut bands, spire slightly 
prominent, com posed of ") whorls, flattened and narrow, the last wide, 
very convex, with a very narrow umbilical perforation ; surface ir- 
tvmilarly striate, the strise more prominent at the suture, becoming 
obsolescent below ; aperture small, very oblique, oval, a little wider 
than high ; peristome thickened within, narrowly reflexed, columel- 
lar margin oblique, dilated at the insertion. (Fer. et Desk.) 

Diam. 184, alt. 8-] mill. 

It is H. carseolana Auct. and H. marrucina Tib., (pi. 66, figs. 84- 
160 

Central Italy. 

Mine. Paulucci (Materiaux, etc., p. 34) says: "The type of this 
^pccies, as it is represented in the work of Ferussac corresponds exact- 
ly with Mt. Maiella specimens which I have received from Dr. Tiberi 
under the name of H. marrucina (PL 66, figs. 84-86). It is a shell 
with the umbilicus wholly closed, with pale bands, so interrupted as 



220 HELIX. 

to be reduced to elongated points, widely separated from one another. 
A variety usually smaller, more depressed, and consequently with 
wider aperture, and having a faint brown spot at the insertion of 
the columella, has been described by Dr. Westerlund under the 
name of H. recondita. I have had the types of the species from 
Mr. Westerlund ; they are identical with mine. It seems to me im- 
possible to separate H. recondita specifically." 

" A second variety, more like the type in general form, and ap- 
proaching H. recendita in the columellar spot, has been named by 

me var. CONTAMINATA this variety frequently has 

the umbilicus partly open ; the coloration is like that of the type, 
but with the maculations or points more intense. It has below a 
more or less interrupted chestnut band." 

"The third variety, which I have called UZIELLIANA (pi. 60, figs 
76-80) is relatively very depressed, the columellar margin dark, the 
umbilicus decidedly open. It is the form which authors have look- 
ed upon as the type of the species, and called H. carseolana" 

Var. PERSIANII Tiberi. PI. 65, figs. 39-41. 

Large, umbilicate, spire flatter, columellar margin rufous-maculate 
Diam. 25, alt. 12 mill. 

Var. UNIARMATA Paulucci. PL 65, figs. 35, 36. 

Differs from the typical carsoliana of Ferussac by the somewhat 
larger shell, somewhat compressed below, the umbilicus nearly clos- 
ed ; aperture widened, the margins subparallel, the lower strongly 
callous or dentate, with a brown spot at its insertion. 

Diam. 21, alt.,13 mill. 

Var. MILETTIANA Paulucci. PL 65, figs. 37, 38. 

Differs from the type in the much larger conic shell, the last whorl 
wider, much inflated ; columella callous, widely brown-maculate ; 
peristome brown. Diam. 22, alt. 15 mill. 

Mt. Miletto. 
H. NEBRODENSIS Pirajno. PL 60, figs. 83-85, 89-91. 

Covered perforate or umbilicate, depressed-globose solid, opaque, 
shining, white> encircled by two to four, usually three deep chestnut 
bands, the lower two subcontinuous, sometimes unicolored white, very 
lightly irregularly obliquely striate and with numerous microscopic 
spiral impressed lines, especially obvious near the aperture, spire low 
depressed conic, apex corneous, blunt, the first whorl convex, the 
following lightly convex, but with a flattened appearance; whorls 



HELIX. 221 

4 j-5, the last rather wide, convex, its last third rather inflated below, 
abruptly deflexed anteriorly ; aperture oval, wide, oblique, yellowish 
flesh-color within, showing the bands ; peristome expanded, white, 
thickened somewhat within, the upper and lower margins subparal- 
lel, somewhat converging, the upper straightened, the basal margin 
rather straight, more or less thickened, sometimes even subdentate 
within, and appressed to the base for a short distance, the expanded 
columellar margin partially covering the umbilicus, at its insertion 
slightly brown-tinged. 

Diam. 25, alt. 18 mill; diam. 26, alt. 16 mill. 

Madonian Mts. Northern Sicily. 

A forma minor (pi. 60, figs. 89-91) measures: diam. 20, alt. 13 
mill. 

A more flattened form from Castelbuono is figured by Kobelt (pi. 
65, figs. 52-56.) 

The spiral sculpture will separate this form from the preceding 
peninsular species. 

II. KUGENIA Pfeiffer, 1853. PI. 65, figs. 48, 49. 

Partly or wholly covered perforate, siibdepressed globose-conic, 
opaque, solid, cretaceous, shining, white, with fine incremental stria? 
and microscopic decussating spiral lines, sometimes subobsolete; 
spire depressed conic, apex corneous, prominent, but blunt; suture 
lightly impressed, linear; whorls 4o, the apical convex, the follow- 
ing flattened, moderately increasing ; body-whorl subangular at the 
periphery, suddenly deflexed above; aperture rounded oval, very 
oblique, yellowish flesh-color inside ; peristome obtuse, its ends con- 
verging, the baso-columellar margin reflexed and appressed, thick- 
ened within, expanded over or partly over the umbilicus, and with a 
brown spot at its union with the parietal wall. Diam. 14, alt. 9 mill. 

Ficuzza, near Palermo, Sicily. 

H. vigenia Parr, (in sched.) and H. calypso Beiioit are identical. 
First discovered by Benoit, but the name of Pfeiffer has priority. 

Var. HUETIANA Benoit. PI. 65, figs. 45-47. 

Double the size of H. eugenia, more depressed, and usually slight- 
ly malleate ; aperture dark within ; carina often obsolete on last 
whorl. Diam. 21, alt, 12 mill. 

Monte St. Giuliano. 

H. hueti Pfr. is synonymous. 



HELIX. 

H. MARIANNE Kobelt, 1880. PI. 60, figs. 92, 93 ; pi. 65, figs. 57, 

58. 

Of this species, which was at first identified with the long-lost H. 
circumornata of Ferussac. Dr. Kobelt says : My examples show three 
bands of square reddish brown markings, which have their longer 
dimension in the direction of the incremental striae ; the middle ones 
are much wider than the two outer, and often formed by the co- 
alescence of the second and third. The arrangement of the markings 
is remarkably regular, as the figure of Ferussac indicates. The 
sculpture is like that of H. carseolana and also the form of the whorls, 
except that these are more raised, and no angulation is visible. The 
aperture more widely rounded, and relatively shorter than in the 
typical carseolana; the terminations of the peristome are much less 
approaching, and the basal margin is less thickened by the callus. 
The peristome, too, is of a rather bright reddish-brown color, and 
only its very edge is white. (Icon. /. u. suss. w. Moll. Eur., etc., 
v., p. 77.) 

Separated from H. surrentina by the greater elevation, and the 
inflated whorls, which are shouldered at the suture ; from H. carse- 
olana by the closed umbilicus and the brown peristome. Its home 
is eastward from the Appennines, in that Apulian outlier of the Ap- 
pennines known as the Murgie. (Kobelt in Icon, etc., vii, p. 9.) 

This is the H. circumornata of Kobelt, (1877), not of Ferussac. 

Var. PEUCETANA Kobelt. PI. 65, figs. 59, 60. 

Nearly unicolored yellowish-brown above, the whitish ground-col- 
or of the type wholly lost; markings wholly coalescent, except for a 
dark subsutural zone and the second and third bands visible behind 
the aperture ; fourth band sharply defined. 

H. CIRCUMORNATA Ferussac. PI. 60, figs. 81, 82. 

Imperforate, globose-depressed, glabrous, white, encircled by a sin- 
gle central fascia, and three series of orange-brown spots ; whorls 
four, planulate, the last inflated ; aperture lunate-elliptical, brown 
within ; peristome subreflexed. (Fer. et Desk., Hist., i, p. 122.) 

Diam. 17, alt. 9 mill.. 

The original figures of Ferussac are copied on my plate. The 
species has not been satisfactorily identified with any of the Italian 
Iberus. Dr. von Martens has described and figured specimens of 
an Iberus similar to H. mariannce as this species ; but the correct- 
ness of his identification is extremely doubtful. See Conch. Mittheil., 
i, p. 19. 



HELIX. 223 

[. SIGNATA Ferussac. PI. 65, figs. 61-65. 

Covered perforate, subdepressed globose, white, ornamented with 
(usually) three interrupted chestnut bands ; substriate ; whorls 5, a 
little flattened, the last descending ; aperture very oblique, lunate- 
rotund ; peristome patulous, brown, albolabiate, the margins subcon- 
verging, the columellar callous, with a brown spot at its insertion. 
Diam. 22, alt. 13 mill. (Pfei/er.) 

r Monte Cassino. 

H. ficuum Miihlf. (and H. circumornata Mart.?) are synonyms. 

H. ARGENTAKOL.E Paulucci, 1886. PI. 67, figs. 4-6. 

Perforate or partly covered perforate, rather thin, subtranslucent, 
densely striate and malleate, whitish flesh-color, ornamented with a 
wide, (sometimes interrupted) brown band below, and three zones of 
varying intensity and width, composed of flecks of the same color 
above ; globosely depressed, spire convex, slightly elevated, apex mi- 
nute, acute ; whorls 5, the inner regularly, last rapidly increasing, 
separated by impressed sutures ; body-whorl wide, rotund, inflated 
below, abruptly greatly deflexed and descending anteriorly ; aper- 
ture wide, ovate ; peristome thin, briefly reflexed, the columellar 
margin expanded, partly covering the umbilicus, brown-maculate. 

Diam. 25 ?, alt. 15 mill. (Paulucci.) 

Promontory of Argentaro, Italy. 

A very distinct species. 

H. FORSYTHI Paulucci, 1886. PL 65, figs. 66-68. 

Subcovered perforate, conico-depressed, solid, opaque, regularly 
densely striate bluish white, with three to four interrupted chestnut 
bands ; apex acute, smooth ; whorls 5, declivous, slowly increasing, 
the last large, inflated below, deflexed at the aperture ; aperture ob- 
lique, subcircular, pale chestnut within, the margins approximating, 
the basal arcuate, brown-maculate at the insertion, the peristome 
somewhat reflexed. Diam. 18, alt. 11 mill. (Paulucci.) 

Promontory of Argentaro. 

H.forsythi is somewhat intermediate between surrentina and stri- 
(jut<t var. fuscolabiata. From surrentina the bluish-white color, les& 
rounded, more sloping form, the body-whorl more swollen below, 
rougher sculpture, different color pattern, and especially the more 
circular aperture distinguish it. From fuscolabiate, it is separated 
by the more sloping form, narrower last whorl, rounder, more oblique 
aperture and notably diverse sculpture. 



224 HELIX. 

Var. ORTA Paulucci, PL 65, figs. 69, 70. 

Larger, conic-globose ; whorls 5, rather convex, the last especially 
inflated. Diam. 21, alt. 14 mill. 

H. SAXETANA Paulucci, 1886. PI 66, figs. 75-77. 

Subcovered perforate, subglobose-depressed, solid, shining, coarsely 
and irregularly striate, flesh-colored, with four interrupted chestnut 
bands ; apex minute, corneous, smooth ; whorls 5i, slightly convex, 
the inner regularly, the last rapidly widening, much inflated below 
strongly descending anteriorly, separated by impressed sutures ; 
aperture nearly circular ; peristome reflexed, pinkish brown sub- 
labiate, margins approximating, the upper straight, the lower deep- 
ly arcuate, with a chestnut umbilical spot. Diam. 20, alt. 13 mill. 

Promontory of Argentaro, Italy. 

A small form, diam. 15, alt. 9, and a smaller, diam. 12, alt. 8 
mill., are also noted by Mme. Paulucci. 

This species is most nearly allied to H. mariannce. It has one- 
half of a whorl less than the latter species, is more depressed, the 
last whorl is smaller and more inflated below, the mouth more cir- 
cular, and the superior margin of the peristome is straight. From 
H. carsoliana, var. milettiana which is also allied, the number of 
whorls (lesser by one), the less elevated form, flatter whorls, larger, 
rounder aperture etc., will separate saxetana. 

Unfigured and unidentified species oj Iberus. 
H. THERESA (" Benoit") Martens, 1861. 

Narrowly umbilicate, depressed, obliquely rugose, whitish, with 
four interrupted yellowish brown bands ; whorls 4i ; slightly con- 
vex, the last descending ; aperture very oblique, ovate-rotund ; 
peristome patulo-reflexed, sublabiate, the margins moderately con- 
verging, columellar arcuate ; no umbilical spot, (von Martens.) 

Diam. 18, alt. 8 mill. 

Sicily. 

May be a synonym of If. strigata. There is an H. tereso3 Benoit, 
1845, but it is the same as H. flavida Ziegl. It is not unlikely that 
some confusion of specimens caused von Martens to describe the 
above Iberus as "H. theresce Benoit." 

H. UMBRICA (Charpentier) Mabille, 1868. 

Moderately umbilicated, orbiculate-depressed, above convex- 
mamillate, whitish lutescent, a little shining, opaque, solid, orna- 
mented with lamelliform costee ; spire subdepressed-subconvex, apex 






HELIX. 225 

obtuse, yellowish corneous, smooth ; whorls 4-5, the first regularly, 
last rapidly increasing, subconvex-depressed, separated by moderate- 
ly impressed sutures ; body-whorl large, depressed, obscurely cari- 
nated at the periphery, gently descending and suddenly deflexed ; 
aperture oblique, lunate, ovate, the margins approximating ; peri- 
stoine somewhat acute, a little expanded, white, sublabiate within, 
reflexed at the umbilicus, the columellar margin appressed, slightly 
thickened. Diam. 17, alt. 8 mill. (Mabille.) 

Monte di Somma, Umbria. 
May be a synonym of H. strigat(( Fer. 

H. TIBERII (Parr. ) Martens, 1860. 

Covered perforate, conic-depressed, obliquely rugose-striate, de- 
cussated by microscopic spiral striae, bands four, interrupted, the 
upper three confluent, marbled ; aperture very oblique, transversely 
oval, brown within; peristome white, sublabiate, superior margin 
straight, columellar margin straightened, callus, subdentate, ap- 
prcssed. Diam. 21, alt. 10 mill. (Martens.) 

Sicily. 

I can learn nothing of the species. 

H. BUELOWI Maltzan, 1886. 

Entirely covered, or very slightly rimate, depressed, nearly lentic- 
ular, acutely carinated, solid, irregularly rugose, under a lens show- 
ing very subtle spiral lines, grayish white, quadrifasciate with brown 
maculations ; whorls 5, the apical slightly convex, smooth, the fol- 
lowing planulate, with a margined carina at the suture ; body-whorl 
convex above and below, with a submedian prominently compressed 
carina, anteriorly abruptly, deeply deflexed ; aperture very oblique, 
an ini late-ovate, somewhat lunate, the margins converging, but scarce- 
ly connected, the upper at first subinflexed, then patulous, the low- 
er reflexed, with a white shining callus, distinctly tuberculate in the 
middle within, a brown spot at its insertion. 

Diam. 22 -V, alt. 12 mill. (Maltzan.) 

Cape San Vito, Sicily. 

Differs from H. scabriuscula in the median carina, and the re- 
nVxrd, strongly dentate basal margin. 

H. UOLLKI Maltzan, 1886. 

Depressed, rather solid, rather smooth, under a lens irregularly 
Btriatulate, shining, whitish, ornamented with brown strigations 
above, which tend to form three bands, and with an interrupted 



226 HELIX. 

brown band or series of spots below; whorls 4-1, a little convex, reg- 
ularly increasing, separated by regularly, moderately impressed 
suture ; body-whorl slightly dilated, subplane above, convex below, 
briefly deflexed anteriorly ; aperture oblique, ovate-rotund, slightly 
lunate ; peristome a little reflexed, labiate within, the margins ap- 
proximating, connected by a very thin brownish callus, the basal 
margin at the insertion dilated, closing the umbilicus, in adults, 
with a brownish callus. Diam. 20, alt. 10 mill. (Maltzan.') 

Maretimo. 
All the information given by Maltzan appears above. 

H. CIOFALOI Cafici, 1885. 

This Sicilian species was described by Cafici in II Naturalista 
Sidliano, 1885, p. 151. It is not figured, but is compared with H. 
nbrcea (Bourg.) Mabille, a form which has not been, probably can- 
not be, identified with certainty. Under these circumstances, and 
in view of the extreme difficulty of distinguishing the species of 
Iberus, even when figured, H. ciofaloi had better be Jeft in obscurity 
until its claims to specific distinction are made more patent. 
H. SILVESTRIT Cafici, is the name given to the form figured by 
Kobelt (Iconographie, figs. 1848-1850) as a depressed variety of H. 
nebrodensis. Figs. 53-56 of my plate 65 are copies of these fig- 
ures of Kobelt. See II. Nat. Sicil., 1885, p. 152. Cafici gives no 
diagnosis. 
H. SUBSTRIGATA (Bourg.) Mabille, 1868. Sicily. 

Another unfigured Silician Iberus, probably a synonym of H. 
strigata. 

H. ABROMTA (Bourg.) Mabille. Lombardy. 

H. AB^KA (Bourg.) Mabille. Lombardy. 

Have been identified by Kobelt with H. muralis. 

LEVANTINA, Kobelt, 1871. 

H. SPIRIPLANA Olivier, (1801 ?) PL 55, figs. 45, 46; pi. 66, figs. 

71, 72. 

Umbilicate, depressed, solid, dull above, brownish white lightei ' 
below, with five indistinct light brown girdles composed of elongated 
or arrow-shaped blotches; strongly, obliquely striate above, the base 
smoother; spire very low conic, obtuse; whorls 4-i, rather rapidly 
widening, the apical convex, smooth, save for a microscopic granula- 
tion which is more or less visible all over the shell, the following 



HELIX. 227 

whorls flat, carinated, the carina fitting into the suture; last whorl 
convex, rounded at the periphery, indented around the umbilicus, 
rather abruptly deflexed anteriorly; aperture oval, very oblique; 
peristome expanded, white, sublabiate, the margins arcuate and 
converging, joined by a white parietal callus; basal margin retlexed, 
not adnate, partially concealing the umbilicus. 

Diam. 36, alt. 19 mill. 

Crete ; Rhodes ; Palestine. 

The typical form is the small island variety of Crete. The large 
form found about Jerusalem has been called var. hierosolyma Boiss. 

Var. (L*:SAREANA Parreyss. PI. 61, figs. 100, lOOa, lOOb. 

This form may be distinguished by the usually completely closed 
umbilicus, the keel on the body whorl distinct, at least at its origin. 

Var. MALTZIANA Parreyss. PI. 55, figs. 53, 54. 

Subcovered umbilicate, subdepressed, solid, obliquely arcuately 
rather roughly striate, opaque, whitish, marked with interrupted 
brown bands; spire subconoidal, apex obtuse; whorls 4 to 4, the 
inner ones carinated, the last depressed, subangulated, (the angle 
becoming evanescent toward the last), anteriorly deflexed, the base 
not inflated ; aperture very oblique, suboval, dull flesh-colored 
within; peristome white, the margins joined by a light callus, the 
right margin expanded, columellar broadly reflexed, almost entirely 
covering the umbilicus. Diam. 28, alt. 13 <i mill. (Pfeiffer.) 

Rhodes. 

H. ccesareana var. nana Mouss. is synonymous. 

Var. MASAD.E Tristram, 1865. Unfiyured. 

Umbilicate, depressed, solid, whitish, transversely regularly and 
deeply striate above and below ; ornamented with evanescent brown 
white-interrupted zones ; whorls 5, the upper carinated, plane, pro- 
duced at the sutures, the last deeply deflexed; aperture oblique, 
rounded ; peristome reflexed, expanded, frequently concealing the 
umbilicus. 

Diam. 30, alt. 14 mill. Diam. of aperture 13, alt. 11 mill. 

Sebbeh (formerly Masada) Palestine, and the most barren and 
sterile mountains from there to Jebel Usdum, the salt-mountain. 
The deep and regular striation of this shell at once distinguishes it 
from H. spiriplana, for a small variety of which (such as that which 
Conrad has described under the name H. lithophaga) it might other- 
wise be mistaken. (Tristram.) 



228 HELIX. 

Var. LITHOPHAGA Conrad, 1852. 

Depressed convex, moderately thin ; volutions 5, those of the 
spire flattened ; suture margined by a carinated line ; base convex ; 
umbilicus rather large, but more than half covered by the lip, which 
is widely reflected ; color whitish varied with pale-brown irregular 
angular spots in series of revolving lines, four on the large whorl ; base 
without colored markings. (Conrad.*) Diam. 32, alt. 18 mill. 

Wady en-Nar, below Deir Mar Saba. 

Remarkable for its habit of penetrating limestone rocks. 

The species seems to me to be a synonym of H. spiriplana. 

Var. MEDIA Mousson, 1874. Unfigured. 

Carina evanescent ; elegantly marked with zigzag white lines. 
Diam. 32-35 mill. 

Basin of Haleb. 

H. GUTTATA Olivier, (1801 ?) PL 55, figs. 51, 52 ; pi. 66, fig. 73, 

74. 

Imperforate or covered perforate depressed globose, solid, opaque, 
rather dull, fleshy whitish, with from two to four spiral girdles of very 
obscure brownish spots; obliquely striate, rather coarsely above, 
smoother below ; spire slightly convex, obtuse at summit, apex 
rather large, smoother and more shining than the following whorls, 
which are almost plane, and until the last, with linear sutures; 
whorls 5, the last more rapidly increasing without trace of keel, even 
at its origin, deeply deflected anteriorly, scarcely indented in the 
center below; aperture transversely truncate-oval, very oblique, 
showing livid bands within; peristome in every part reflected, white, 
the basal margin straightened, callous, subdentate, expanded and 
almost or completely covering the umbilicus at the insertion, the 
terminations somewhat converging, and joined by a shining white 
callus. Diam. 38, alt. 22. mill. 

Mesopotamia. 

The italicised passages in the above description will enable one 
to separate this species from all of the preceding forms. 

Kobelt gives as the measurements of this form: diam. 28-38, alt. 
15-20 mill. 

H. DSCHULFENSIS (Dubois) Bourg., 1857. PL 55, figs. 42-44 ; pi. 

66, figs. 81-83. 

Covered umbilicate, or imperforate, more or less depressed, solid, 
but thin and rather translucent, colored like H. gnttata, irregularly 






HELIX. 229 

striate, whorls but little elevated, but convex ; apex flat, minutely 
rugose ; whorls 4 or slightly more, much more rapidly increasing 
and more convex than in typical guttata, the last quite rounded, and 
very rapidly widening ; aperture very oblique, more circular than 
in guttata, its margins converging, but not joined by a callus ; peri- 
stome expanded, not thickened within, white ; its columellar margin 
arcuate, slightly thickened, expanded over the umbilicus. 

Diam. 30, alt. 17 mill. 

Armenia. 

Described as H. dschulfensii. H. djulfensis Mouss. is the same. 
There are in this species, as in H. guttata, fine impressed spiral lines 
below the suture ; these are, however, sometimes almost obsolete- 
The figures on pi. 55, (copied from v. Martens), are broader and 
more depressed than the specimens I have seen which are better rep- 
resented by the figures on pi. 66. 

H. MAZENDERANENSIS Nevill. PI. 63, figs. 43-45. 

Umbilicate, depressed, thin but strong, finely, regularly striate' 
excessively minutely granulate, but not spirally striate ; spire de- 
pressed conoid, with large smooth blunt apex ; suture distinct ; whorls 
about 4, regularly increasing, rounded, the last widened, strongly 
striate above, smooth below, and indented around the umbilicus, sud- 
denly and deeply deflected anteriorly ; aperture very oblique, ovate ; 
peristome simple, sharp, thickened with white, the ends converging, 
ioined by a thin translucent callus ; coloration extraordinarily hand- 
miefor the group Levantina, consisting of a yellowish white ground- 
dor, darker above, upon which revolve five chestnut bands ; the 
fourth and fifth are most intense in color, sharply defined, but here 
id there with paler spots ; the first and third are less intensely col- 
ored, narrow and interrupted ; the bands are visible within the aper- 
ture, Diam. ').">, alt. 18 mill. 

Province of Mezanderan. 

This brilliantly colored species is related to H. dschulfemis, per- 
haps is only a variety of that form. The description and figures are 
from Kobelt. 

L. MiciioxivxA Bourguignat, 1864. PL 55, fig. 50. 
bnperforate, depressed, solid, subtranslucent, coarsely striate, cov- 
ered with a yellowish corneous, very deciduous caticle, encircled by 
two irregularly interrupted chestnut colored zones ; spire convex, 
ipex very obtuse, corneous, smooth, quite mamillate ; whorls 5, con- 



230 HELIX. 

vex, rapidly increasing, separated by impressed sutures, the last large 
rounded, deeply descending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, slightly 
lunate, wide transverse-oblong ; peristome thickened with white, ex- 
panded, the columellar margin nearly straight, but a little curved, 
broadly reflexed and appressed over the umbilicus, the margins con- 
verging, approximating, united by a strong callus. 

Diam. 35, alt. 21 mill. (Bourguignaf) 

Mts. of Northern Mesopotamia and Kurdistan. 

H. Kurdistana var baschkira Pfr. is synonymous. 

Kobelt considers this form a thin-shelled local variety of H. gut- 
tata. It differs from H. dschulfensis in the greater number of whorls. 

H. KURDISTANA Parreyss, 1861. PI. 55, figs. 39-41. 

More or less covered umbilicate, subturbinate-depressed solid, ir- 
regularly arcuately striate, and marked with minute impressed spiral 
lines, bluish ashen colored, with obsolete spiral brown bands ; spire 
a little elevated, the apex wide, obtuse ; sutures submargined with 
white ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last wide, subdepressed, deflex- 
ed anteriorly ; aperture very oblique, lunate-rotund, fleshy-brown 
within, shining ; peristome labiate with white, broadly expanded, 
concentrically striate without, the margins converging, joined by a 
callus, columellar margin declivous, dilated over the umbilicus. 

Diam. 44, alt. 24 mill. (Pfei/er.) 

Kurdistan. 

Of this rare form Kobelt says : " It is the largest form of the H. 
.gutta-ta series, and recalls in many respects, as Pieiffer truly remarks, 
a certain variety of H. codringtoni. From michoniana and dscknl- 
f ens is, to which it stands nearer than to the type, it is distinguished 
by the larger size, and especially by the spiral lines ; other essential 
differences I do not find. " 

H. ESCHERIANA Mousson, 1864. PI. 55, figs. 47-49. 

Umbilicate, subdepressed, rather thin, strongly arcuately striate, 
with a whitish-yellow deciduous epidermis, and encircled by four 
narrow brownish bands, interrupted by arrow-shaped white markings, 
(one below, one peripheral, the rest above); spire rather depressed, 
regularly increasing, apex purplish corneous; sutures subimpressed ; 
whorls 5, the inner more convex than the following, the last subdi- 
lated, suddenly strongly deflexed anteriorly ; aperture very oblique, 
nearly horizontal, broad-oval nearly circular; peristome shining, 
white, broadly expanded and reflexed, not appressed, slightly labiate 



HELIX. 231 

within, the terminations connected by a nearly free, sometimes ad- 
nate, parietal callus. Diam. 29-32 alt. 14-16 mill. 

Mesopotamia. 

Bears much the same relation to H. guttata that Maeularia cam- 
pesina does to alonensis. 

H. BELLARDII Moussoii. PI. 66, figs. 87-89. 

Covered umbilicate, globosely depressed, rather solid, and smooth, 
.scarcely striate, brownish gray or whitish, with five brown bands in- 
terrupted with white zigzag markings; whorls 4, the upper well 
rounded, sutures subimpressed, the last deeply deflexed anteriorly, 
subterete ; aperture oblique, rotund ; peristome broadly expanded, 
flattened, white lipped, its margins converging, joined by a thick 
callus, columellar margin half covering the umbilicus. 

Diam. .>3, alt. 20 mill. (Mousson). 

Betiveen Nicosia and Cerino, Ins. Cyprus. 

H. GIIILANICA Mousson, 1876. PL 67, figs. 2, 3. 

Openly umbilicate, very depressed, rather thin, striatulate, nearly 
smooth, whitish, with four series of pale brown maculations ; spire 
scarcely elevated, apex plane, pale corneous; suture scarcely im- 
pressed; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, the first slightly convex, the 
following 1-1 plane, carinate and marginate at the sutures, the last 
wider, more descending, rounded, not angulate, at the periphery, 
the base flattened-convex ; aperture very oblique, large, transversely 
oval; peristome white, broadly expanded, acute without, slightly 
labiate within, the margins briefly separated, joined by a thin callous 
lamina; basal margin broadly reflexed, more or less impinging upon 
the umbilicus, but not closing it. Diam. 27, alt. 12 mill. (Mousson). 
I'i'nrhiM of (Jli! /<m, Persia, on the Southern shore of the Caspian. 

Allied to //. tlxchit/j'rn.xi*. The depressed form, wide umbilicus, 
and sharp keel shown by the second and half of the third whorl, will 
distinguish this form. 

II. CERATOMMA i'teitfer, 1855. PL 66, figs. 90-92. 

Imperforate, depressed, rather solid, finely obliquely striate and 
under a lens, decussated with spiral lines, with a silky luster, bluish- 
white, obscurely fasciate with brown; spire slightly elevated, apex 
corneous, obtuse; whorls 4, sensibly increasing, rather convex, the 
last depressed-rotund, deeply deflexed anteriorly, subplane below ; 
aperture nearly horizontal, rounded lunar; peristome simple, the 



232 HELIX. 

margins subconverging, the right scarcely expanded, basal plane, 
broadly reflexed, much dilated over the umbilical region. 

Diam. 28, alt. 13 mill. (Pfeiffer). 

Caucasus. 

The original figures of this little-known form are given. 

H. ^EGOPINOIDES von Maltzan, 1884. Unfigured. 

Open umbilicate, depressed or depressed trochiform, solid, irregu- 
larly striatulate, and under a strong lens minutely granulate ; spire 
depressed ; whorls 5, first two smooth, the following plane, very dis- 
tinctly carinated, regularly increasing, the penultimate and last 
whorls somewhat convex, obtusely angulated, the angle almost eva- 
nescent toward the aperture ; body- whorl subterete, descending ante- 
riorly ; aperture very oblique, ovate rounded, in adults scarcely lu- 
nate, with thickened, subduplicate peristome ; the margins continued 
by a thick heavy callus, in young specimens aperture distinctly lu- 
nate, peristome acute, thin, labiate with white a distance within the 
aperture, margins converging, joined by a thin porcellanous callus ; 
greenish yellowish brown, sutural carina white. 

Diam. 25*, alt. 12-13J mill. 

( '<ipe Sidero, Ins. Crete. 

This species, one of the rarest of the European fauna, has the spire 
of H. spiriplana, and evidently belongs to this group. From below 
it has the appearance of an Aegopina. Very few living examples 
were found, (v. Maltzan). 

Section IX. POMATIA Beck, 1837. 

This section, like the preceding groups of Pentatcenia, is wholly 
Palaearctic in distribution, and is especially characteristic of south- 
western Europe and the adjacent portions of Asia, I have no hesi- 
tation in separating from the section the Australasian and American 
species which Pfeiffer groups here; as I believe that their resem- 
blance to the European types is merely superficial. 

" The arrangement of species here adopted is substantially that of 
Kobelt's Catalogue. 

The large, globular form separates Pomatia from the allied subgen- 
era; it is subject to but slight modification in the various species, 
which are all, indeed, in general appearance very similar. 

The species of Pomatia frequently exhibit sinistral monstrosities, 
and scalariform or partially uncoiled specimens are also not infre- 
quently found. Artificial monstrosities have been produced by in- 
serting the young Pomatia into the aperture of an empty shell, such 






HELIX. 233 

as Limncea stagnalis; as the growth of the Helix proceeds, a normal 
globose variegated body-whorl is added to the artificial spire, and 
becomes solidly attached to it. 

That snails have more intelligence than is usually ascribed to 
them is shown by the following interesting paragraphs on the In- 
stinct of orientation in Helix aspersa by F. d' A. FURTADO : 

"In a house which I inhabited at St. Michael's one of the Azores, 
there was a veranda with a flight of steps leading to a little court 
or garden. Above this was a second veranda supported by a stone 
column, which rested on the wall of the lower veranda. At the 
foot of the column had been set a flower-pot with a young banana 
bearing two or three leaves. 

"One morning I noticed a snail (Helix aspersa) lodged between 
the pot and the column, as if waiting for night to attack the plant. 
A leaf had already been gnawed; and to stop further depredations 
I threw the snail into the court. It was not much the worse for the 
fall, as it chanced to light upon a small manure-heap. Next morn- 
ing I was surprised to find the snail in precisely the same position 
us before, between the pot and column. I knew it by its size and 
color, as well as by a curious covering of spiders' webs which it 
bore. It was evident that the snail possessed a remarkable sense 
of direction, which enabled it after a violent shock, to make its 
way back over a distance of at least six metres in a very short 
time. In order to get at the bottom of the matter, I threw the snail 
back to the heap and watched the result, which was as follow : 

"June 10, 1884 At about 9 A. M. the snail was resting, completely 
retracted within its shell, on the rail of the stair-case, having travelled 
nearly 4 metres. In the evening it resumed its march, but so 
slowly that by 10 o'clock it had only reached the top of the rail, 
where it stopped again, having traversed a metre in two hours. 
Twenty minutes after midnight it began to travel along the balus- 
trade of the veranda, taking at first a very undecided course, but as 
soon as it reached the edge of the balustrade making straight for 
the banana. Halfway it was turned aside by some fish-scales, which 
no doubt indicated that the surface was contaminated; but it soon 
regained its previous direction. Near the column it fell in with a 
grooved washing-board, which it seemed to remember; for it reared 
its head and tentacles towards it, while still two centimetres off. So 
far two metres had been traversed in twenty minutes. The snail 
now advanced resolutely from the board to the flower pot, as if over 



234 HELIX. 

known ground (the board had lain in the same place for several 
days). I watched its movements by a lamp set far off so as to give 
only a faint light ; but when it reached the pot the animal became 
shaded by weeds which grew there, and I found it necessary to 
bring the lamp near in order to observe the movements of the 
snail's lips and tentacles. It climbed the pot rapidly, mending its 
pace as it got nearer; then it examined the rim with care, and at 
last crawled over the mould. For a quarter of an hour it wandered 
among the w r eeds - in the pot licking them frequently. When I saw 
it explore the soil with its lips and larger tentacles, while the re- 
productive orifice seemed to open from time to time, I thought that 
it was seeking a convenient spot to lay its eggs. At last it came up 
to the banana, mounted it, and began to gnaw the leaf previously 
attacked, exactly where it had left off before. I was standing a 
little way off to avoid disturbing the snail, but could readily detect 
the peculiar odor of the gnawed leaf. Very likely the snail could 
perceive, even in an uninjured leaf, that scent which only became 
apparent to me when the leaf was bruised or cut, and this may 
have helped to guide its course. Scent alone, will not, however, ex- 
plain all the movements of the animal. At. 2 p. M. I left it feeding. 

"June 11. At 10 A. M. very little of the leaf had been devoured. 
The snail was comfortably established, as before, between the col- 
umn and the pot. 

"After this I noticed the snail wandering over a vine which trailed 
about the column and upper veranda. Finding that it was disposed 
to escape to the next garden, I opened it on June 17th, to see whether 
it was ready to lay eggs. There was not a single egg in the oviduct. 

"These observations seems to show that a land-snail may possess 
an instinct which enables it to choose its abode and return to it at 
pleasure. We have here the same love of home and topograph- 
ical knowledge which have been observed, and noted with wonder, 
in the limpet." 

V 

Three subsections may be distinguished : 

POM ATI A, s. sir., of which Helix pomatia may be taken as the type. 

CRYPTOMPHALUS Moq.-Tand., 1855. Imperforate; last whorl de- 
scending at aperture ; peristome in every part expanded. Type H. 
aspersa. 

CAXTAREUS Risso, 1826. Imperforate, thin, globular, the spire 
short, aperture large, peristome and columellar arcuate, thin, sim- 
ple. Luce-no, Hartm., Tapada Gray and Cantha re us Agassi z are 
synonyms. 

Pomatia and Cantaretts have calcareous, and Oryptomphalw mem- 
branous epiphragm. 



HELIX. 235 

(jryptomphalus Moq-Tand., 1855. 

H. ASPERSA Miiller, 1773. PI. 58, figs. 31-38. 
Imperforate, globose or globose-conic, rather strong and shining, 

yellowish or russet, with five bands, varying from light chestnut to 
nearly black, more or less interrupted by irregular or zigzag longi- 
tudinal light streaks, the second and third bands generally confluent, 
sometimes all confluent or all absent; obliquely coarsely substriate, 
all over finely malleate; whorls 4, very rapidly increasing, the apex 
blunt, apical whorl shining, smooth ; body-whorl very large, globose, 
deeply deflexed at the aperture ; aperture quite oblique, oval-truncate ; 
livid within, and prominently fasciate ; peristome well expanded all 
around, white, the margins converging, basal and columellar mar- 
gins reflexed, adnate over the very narrow round perforation of the 
axis ; columellar insertion vertical. Diam. 25-40, alt. 20-40 mill. 

Southern and Wi'.^crn Europe ; England; Syria; Northern A fri- 
C't ; Introduced into ('unar'tcx, Azores and Madeira Is.; Brazil; 
Aryoithit.' ; C/ii/i; (inninn: Cape of Good Hope; Mauritius; 
AW 1 So nth Wale* ; AW- Z<:u/and; Haiti; .Cuba; North America 
<i f cluir1<M<ni, -S'. ( '., Xnr Origin*, La., Los Angeles-, Sta. Barbara 
-v/y/ Joxc, (\il.. Nova Scotia, etc. 

The following are synonyms ; H. grisea L., variegata Gm., horten- 
Vmi.. /ciicoi'inn Pult., wiuida Costa., flummensis Lang, adspersa 
k and xjmmoxd Lowe. 

A species of very wide distribution, and great variation in color 
and form. The principal color mutations are figured, the figures 
12, 34 and '>(> representing the more usual patterns. 

II. MA//ULLII Jan. PL 59, fins. 54-57. 

Imperforate ; similar in form to H. aspersa, but more conoid, 
elongated and slender in the spire ; the apical whorl shining, smooth, 
the following very sharply crispate-striate ; aperture rounded, less 
broad than that of aspers, the lip narrowly expanded, thin, acute, 
adnate at the axis; color yellowish russet, plain, or five fasciate 
with deep brown, the bands narrow, subcontinuous, second and 
third often confluent. Diam. 33, alt. 35 mill. 

Sicily. 

The following are synonyms: H. crispata Costa (non Fer.), ritir- 
///.s (Mke.) Cantraine, rugom. Mulilf. (teste Beck), H. costca Benoit. 

This Sicilian modification of the aspersa stock is subject to great 
variation in sculpture and form. In the typical mazzullii the diam- 



236 HELIX. 

eter and altitude are about equal, and the sculpture is very sharp ; 
but forms also occur with less rough surface and traces of the mal- 
leation of H. aspersa. Bourguignat has called the banded form var. 
zonata ; and has given the name of H. quincaycensis to the very narrow 
elevated form shown in my fig. 57. An Algierian form of H. aspersa 
is intermediate between H. mazzullii and H. aspersa in form and 
sculpture. 

H. SUBPLICATA Sowerby, 1825. PI. 67, fig. 99, 

Iinperforate, globose-conic, thin and rather fragile (fossil exam- 
amples heavier) yellowish brown, the upper two whorls deep dull 
reddish brown ; upper whorls densely minutely granulate ; the last 
1J coarsely corrugated in the direction of the growth lines ; spire 
conic, very obtuse, the first 1-1 whorls disproportionately large; sut- 
ure deeply impressed; whorls 3i, the last large, globose, gently de- 
flexed anteriorly ; aperture oval, oblique, its margins converging 
and joined by a slight (or in fossil examples very heavy) parietal 
callus ; peristome slightly thickened, scarcely expanded, reflexed 
and adnate over the axis. Diam. 32, alt. 32 mill. 

Ins. Porto Sando, Madeiras. 

A curious form, very distinct from ail others in the large, clumsy 
apex, granulate surface, etc. 

*** 

Pomatia Beck, s. str:, 1837. 
H. POMATIA Linn., 1758. PL 58, figs. 39-41. 

Perforate or umbilicate, globular, strong, opaque, yellowish brown 
or whitish, indistinctly marked with four darker zones of variable 
width ; coarsely, irregularly obliquely striate, decussated with mi- 
croscopic impressed lines; spire short, conoid, apex blunt, apical 
whorl smooth, shining; sutures w r ell impressed ; whorls 41, convex, 
the last very large, globose, rapidly widening, indented around the 
umbilicus, scarcely deflexed anteriorly; aperture oblique, oval- 
lunate ; peristome slightly expanded, somewhat thickened, the co 
umellar margin reflexed above the umbilicus ; parietal wall, interi 
of aperture and columella white or light flesh color. 

Diam. 45, alt. 45 mill. 

Middle and Northern Euro) 

The synonymy includes the following names: H. antiquoru 
Leach, pomaria Mull., scalar is Mull., sphceralis Hartm., lucorn 
Studer, mutata Hartm. and inflata Hartm. 



HELIX. 237 

Var. GESNERI Hartmann. PL 68, fig. 11. 

Elevated, thick-shelled, with bands or unicolored. Switzerland. 
H. pyrgia Bourg. is synonymous. 

Var. RUSTICA Hartmann. 

Covered tinibilicate, globular, inflated, strongly, irregularly striate, 
whorls 5, rapidly increasing ; sutures deep ; mouth oval, peristome 
somewhat thickened, reddish or violaceous brown ; color yellowish 
or reddish brown, with brown bands. Diam. 44, alt. 42 mill. 

Switzerland, Southern Bavaria, etc. 

Scarcely distinct from the type. 

Var. PULSKYANA Hazay, PL 68, fig. 15. 

Elevated, perforate, rough-sculptured, aperture brown lipped. 

Islands of the Danube ; Budapest. 
Var. SABULOSA Hazay. PL 68, figs. 8, 10 

Small, globose, variable in coloration. Diam. 33, alt. 33 mill. 

Hungaria. 
Var. HAJNALDIANA Hazay. PL 68, fig. 9. 

Thin ; whorls strongly convex ; aperture circular, the peristome 
all around reflexed and white ; no traces of bands. Hungaria. 

This is var. haynaldiana of Kobelt's Iconographie. 

Var. COMPACTA Hazay. 

Large, globose very thick and strong-shelled ; yellowish or whit- 
ish brown with four broad dark brown bands; whorls 5J, aperture 
higher than broad, the peristome strongly thickened, columellar 
margin scarcely half covering the umbilicus, flesh-colored ; interior 
reddish -violet. Diam. 55, alt. 55 mill. 

Hungaria. 
Var. SOLITARIA Hazay. 

Depressed globose, covered umbilicate, more depressed than the 
type, and broader than high ; bands four, very narrow ; whorls 4. 

Diam. 38, alt. 34-j mill. 

Hungary. 

II. emarcosoma Servain is synonymous. 

Var. PICK AT A Gredler. 

A form which is said to have the appearance of the Italian H. 
or of a cross between pomatia and cincta; frequently deep 



238 HELIX. 

blackish brown, unlcolored ; the umbilicus covered ; with fine 
radiating more or less distinct striation. 

Southern Tyrol. 
Var. brunnea Porro is synonymous. 

Var. LEDNICENSIS Brancsik. 

Globose, very thick shelled ; peristome very thick, reddish violet or 
flesh-colored ; columellar lip broadly reflected, the umbilicus almost 
wide open; whorls 442, regularly increasing; ground color in 
young examples yellowish-brown, with slightly marked bands, old 
specimens lighter colored with very faint bands or without them, 
but with several reddish or yellowish brown streaks, in the direction 
of growth-lines, and touched with reddish around the aperture. 

Alt. 38-40 mill. 

Lednicz, Hungarim 
Var. THESSALICA Boettger. 

Differs from the type by the umbilicus, which is twice as wide, 
subinfundibuliform ; the more fragile shell ; bands 4-5, narrower, 
more or less distinct, maculated ; shell large, globose, the last whorl 
wider ; aperture distinctly higher than wide. 

Diam. 47^-52, alt. 46-52 mill. 

Thessaly. 
Var. LAGAKiNyE Adami. 

This is a form of colossal dimensions and uniform dark fulvous 
color. Diam. 45-58, alt. 55-70 mill. 

Mts. of Lagarina Valley, up to 1 300 meters alt. 

Var. PSEUDOLIGATA Paulucci. Not recognizably described. 

Middle Italy. 
Var. RADIATA Ulicny. 

Large, covered perforate, subconic, pale fulvous, without bands, 
but with radiating brown strigations ; rather thin ; aperture oval, 
white within. Diam. 47, alt. 43 mill. 

Bruni 
According to Clessen, this is the same as var. rustica Hartmani 

H. BUCHII Dubois, 1876. PL 57, figs. 20, 21. 

Covered or nearly closed perforate, conic globose, rather thi] 
rugose, very pale fulvous, ornamented with five bands ; spire conoi< 
obtuse ; whorls 4i, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last vei 
tricose, subdescending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, large, lunate- 



HELIX. 239 

oval, white within and fasciate ; peristome white, the margins re- 
mote, the right margin subsimple, the columellar dilated, sub- 
straightened. Diam. 50, alt. 45 mill. (Kobelt.) 

Caucasus and Transcausia. 

It is the If. abichiana Bayer, in coll. 

This form is according to Kobelt, alwa} r s to be distinguished from 
//. pomatia by the relatively lesser altitude and considerable widen- 
ing of the last whorl ; the spiral sculpture is less distinct ; the mouth 
is broader than in H. pomatia, and the columella less perpendicular 
and more straightened. 

H. LUCORUM Miiller 1773. PL 67, fig. 93. 

Nearly covered perforate, depressed globose, solid, opaque white 
h (originally) five deep chestnut bands, the second and third al- 
most always coalescent, and frequently all above the periphery and 
all below coalescent, with a narrow white peripheral zone, the first 
bund however usually separate and very narrow; marked longitudi- 
nally with occasional oblique brown streaks, more intense on the 
bands showing the positions of the former peristomes ; lightly oblique- 
ly striate, and sometimes showing very ill defined spiral lines ; spire 
conic, apex obtuse, unicolored, sutures moderately impressed ; whorls 
5, somewhat convex, gradually increasing ; body-whorl large, indent- 
ed around the center below, gently deflexed anteriorly; aperture 
oblique, rather small, lunate, colored same as the outside , peristome 
slightly thickened, brown, the extreme edge whitish, upper and low- 
er margins subparallel, not converging, joined by a thin brown 
callus, upper and outer margins simple, basal more thickened and re- 
nYxed, columellar margin reflexed, nearly covering the umbilicus and 
slightly straightened within, short. Diam. 40-50, alt. 30-45 mill. 

Central Italy ; Balkan Peninsula; Asia Minor. 
It is H. mutata of Lamarck. 

Var. CASTANEA Olivier. PL 59, fig. 58. 

Presents the following points of difference from H. lucorum : 
the spire is more elevated and conic, body-whorl more depressed ; 
whorls less rapidly widening; aperture smaller, more oblique, outer 
lip more flaring, base with a light colored very heavy straight cal- 
lus within ; bands coalescent into two. 

Constantinople. 

If. mahometana Bourg. is a synonym. 

Quite distinct and easily recognized by the conic form, small 
aperture and callous columella. 



240 HELIX. 

Var. EUPHRATICA Martens. PI. 67, fig. 97. 

Thick, heavy ; bands sharply defined on a white ground ; growth 
stride sparse ; peristome with a thin reddish-brown callus, columellar 
margin clear brown ; umbilicus wholly closed. 

Diam. 50, alt. 44 mill. (Kobelt.) 

Mesopotamia. 

Fig. 97, pi. 67, is a copy of Kobelt's figure ; fig. 39, pi. 63 is 
said by Boettger to represent this form, but it seems to partake 
fully as much of the characters of var. castanea. 

Var. RUMELICA Mousson. PL 67, fig. 94. 

Allied, by the preponderance of the spire and the smallness of the 
aperture, to H. onixiomicra, which is, indeed only a further develop- 
ment of this form. It resembles, also perhaps, the var. rumelica as 
characterized by Mousson, but the umbilicus is remarkably widely 
open, exhibiting the second whorl within. The color is very intense ; 
the umbilical tract flecked with brown, the fifth band, usually the 
most prominently defined, is broken into spots. (Kobelt.) 

Rumelia. 

The above description applies to the shell identified by Kobelt 
with the var. rumelica. I am unable to say how correctly it repre- 
sents Mousson's form. 

Var. ELONGATA Bouvguignat. PI. 67, fig. 96. 

More elongated than any other variety ; aperture short and very 
oblique ; distinctly spirally striate beneath the suture. 

Central Italy. 
I follow Kobelt's identification here, as in the preceding variety. 

Var. STRAMINEA Briganti. 
'Larger than the type, more elevated, the last whorl very large and 

globose. Diam. 45-50, alt. 45-53 mill. 

Central Italy. 
Var. elongata is scarcely distinct from this form. 

Var. ONIXIOMICRA Bourguignat. PI. 59, figs. 52, 53. 

Conic, globose, narrowly perforate or covered ; whorls 6-7, regu- 
larly gradually and more slowly increasing than in the typical lu- 
corum; aperture small, oblique. 

Diam. 42, alt. 38 mill. 

Balkan Peninsula. 
Compare var. rumelica. 



HELIX. 



241 



r ar. TAURICA (Krynicki) Mousson. PL 67, fig. 95. 

The example here figured was sent me by Mousson as his type of 
turica. It differs from radiosa Zgl. (which usually is considered a 
synonym of taurica), very materially; shows only quite indistinct 
traces of longitudinal streaks, but instead of them two very sharply 
outlined broad reddish brown bands. The columella is notably 
callus, with distinct lip, and the margins of the lip are joined by a 
thin white callus; the columella also is white, with a brown spot at 
its insertion. (Kobelt.') 
[. RADIOSA Ziegler. PL 57, fig. 29. 

Imperforate or subimperforate, globose ; color-pattern a combina- 
tion of spiral bands and oblique streaks of chestnut on white ground 
the bands diffuse and coalescent into two on the body-whorl, the 
longitudinal streaks predominating; upper whorls showing two or 
three narrow bands, the inner two whorls unicolored, corneous ; 
ly-whorl globose, indented around the axis. 
Alt. 45, diam. 42 mill. 

Caucasus. 

Differs from H. Incorum in the preponderance of the longitudinal 
:reaks over the revolving bands; there is a narrow white zone, 
lore or less distinct, encircling the periphery ; the columellar lip 
is partly white, partly flesh-color ; the parietal callus is very thin, 
rliite. 

[. s< HLAKFLII Mousson. PL 68, fig. 12. 

Covered perforate, globose, solid, yellowish or soiled white, with 
ivc spiral brown bands, generally not sharply defined, the second 
third usually coalescent, the upper and lower bands usually 
irrower, rudely irregularly coarsely obliquely striate and with fine 
'regular impressed spiral stria? ; spire conoidal, apex very obtuse, 
-mooth, shining, rather large, sutures slightly irregular, well-im- 
; whorls 4], convex, rapidly widening, especially the last; 
)o( ly-whorl globose, a trifle indented around the axis, somewhat 
ffcending anteriorly ; aperture rotund-lunate, oblique, brownish 
Into with brown bands within ; peristome very regularly arcuate, 
columella arched, outer and basal margins simple, columellar 
giu dilated, reflexed and adnate over the axis, deep brown in 
lor. Diam. 51, alt. 50 mill. 



The narrower aperture, adnate columellar lip, completely closing 
ie perforation, and of a dark brown color, will separate this form 
16 



242 HELIX. 

from H. pomatia, with which it has some superficial likeness. The 
parietal wall has a very thin brown callus. 

Var. PR^STANS Blanc. Unfigured. Janina. 

H. SECERNENDA Rossmaessler, 1847. PI. 57, fig. 24. 

Imperforate, globose, solid, whitish, with five rather narrow dis- 
tinct, generally well-defined, chestnut revolving bands, the second 
and third sometimes subcoalescent, irregularly coarsely obliquely 
striate, and lightly decussated by revolving lines ; spire conic, apex 
blunt, shining, smooth; suture well impressed; whorls 4-4-1, mod- 
erately convex, rapidly increasing, especially the last, which is glo- 
bose, very slightly impressed around the axis, and slightly descending 
anteriorly ; aperture oblique, ample, brownish gray, overlaid with 
white within and showing the bands, rounded -lunate; peristome thick- 
ened, brown with light edge, margins not approaching, outer and 
basal margins subexpanded, the columellar dilated and adnate over 
the axis, subvertical, rather straightened, dull brown, especially at 
the insertion, and whitish ; parietal callus thin, light brownish. 

Diam. 43, alt. 43 mill. 

Da hunt it t. 

This is H. ligata var. Beck, H. ligata of Rossmaessler's Iconogru- 
phie. 

This form differs from the last in the generally narrower more 
distinct bands; more thickened peristome, much less impressed sut- 
ures, and lighter colored columella. It is larger than H. ligata, has 
the columellar lip more completely appressed and colored, not white, 
as in the lighter form. 

H. LIGATA Miiller, 1773. PL 56, fig. 5. 

Nearly covered perforate, globose-conic, subsolid., yellowish or soil- 
ed white, with five well-defined deep chestnut bands, which are gener- 
ally narrower than their interspaces and usually separate; irregularly 
obliquely coarsely striate, and decussated with fine spiral impressed 
lines; spire conic, apex obtuse, smooth, unicolored corneous; sut- 
ures moderately impressed; whorls 4s, somewhat convex, rapidly 
widening, especially the last, and slightly descending anteriorly, ;i 
little indented around the umbilicus; aperture oblique, rotund- 
lunate, whitish, but showing the bands within ; peristome white, its 
margins but slightly approaching, simple, the columellar margin 



HELIX. 243 

white, reflexed, dilated over the umbilicus, which is usually reduced 
to a narrow fissure or almost wholly covered. Diam. 32, alt. 33 mill. 

Italy. 

The synonymy includes H. decussata Parr., melissophaga Costa, 
varians Ziegler. 4 

Var. GUSSONEANA Shuttleworth. 

Nearly covered perforate, conico-globose, solid, distinctly, minute- 
ly reticulate, brownish white, ornamented with five brown bands ; 
spire elevated, conoidal ; whorls 5, convex, the last scarcely descend- 
ing; columella arcuate; aperture rounded-lunar, shining within; 
peristome subsimple, the right margin a trifle expanded, colurnellar 
dilated, reflexed, white or flesh colored. Diam. 34, alt. 30 mill. 

(Pfeiffer.) Around Naples. 

I am unable to distinguish this variety from the typical form. 

Var. CALABRICA Kobelt. PL 67, fig. 1. 

Shell marked with five narrow rufous bands; columella and 
parietal wall rufous; umbilicus closed; spiral lines subobsolete. 

Diam. 34, alt. 32 mill. 

Calabria. 
Var. POMATELLA Tiberi. PI. 56, figs. 2, 3. 

Small, very distinctly four banded. Southern Italy. 

Var. PR^TUTIA Tiberi. 

S ibiim itj, depressed globose, strongly striate, solid, whitish with 
three broad pale fulvous bands. Diam. 39, alt. 37 mill. 

Near Naples. 

Var. CAMPANA Tiberi. PI. 56, fig. 1. 

Imperforate, elevated globose, glabrous, . obsoletely striate, six- 
banded. Diam. 26, alt. 25 mill. 

Near Naples. 

Var. DKLPRETIANA Paulucci. 

Elevated, conic, white, with five very distinctly defined deep brown 
bands: surface rather smooth ; umbilicus almost closed. 

Diam. 25, alt. 28 mill. 

Abruzzi. 

Var. TRUENTINA Mascarini. Unfigured. 

An intermediate form between ligata, lucorum and pomatia, so 
equally related to all that Kobelt declares it to be a mere matter of 
taste to which of these species it be referred. 

Ascoli. 



244 HELIX. 

Var. PSEUDOPOMATIA Blanc. 

A form from Monte Corno which exhibits a curious combination 
of the characters of ligata and 'pomatia. 

Var. ALBESCENS Jan. PL 56, fig. 4. 

Differs from ligata by the pale coloration, bands obsolete. 

Italy. 

H. AMBIGUA (Parreyss) Mousson, 1861. PI. 69, fig. 30. 

Imperforate, globose solid, nearly lusterless, brownish white, 
with five encircling rather narrow pale brown bands, the second 
and third generally confluent rather irregularly obliquely striate 
and very obsoletely spirally striate ; spire conic, apex obtuse, white 
or corneous, smooth; suture well impressed, slightly crenulated, 
whorls 41, rapidly increasing, especially the last; body-whorl large, 
globose, sensibly descending anteriorly, slightly indented at the 
axis; aperture oval-lunate, oblique, livid white and obscurely show- 
ing the bands within ; peristome slightly thickened, labiate with a 
well-defined dark brown band within, upper and lower margins sub- 
parallel, scarcely converging, outer margin obtuse, not expanded, 
coluniellar margin expanded, dilated and adnate over the axis, deep 
chestnut colored, subvertical ; parietal wall covered with a thin deep 
castaneous callus. 

Diam. 36, alt. 37 mill. 

Corfu ; Cephalonia. 

H. cyrtolena Bourg. is synonymous. 

A specimen from Corfu, received from CONEMENOS, is figured. 

Var. THIESSEANA Kobelt. PI 69, fig. 31. 

More globose than the type ; shining, ruddy-brown, banded with 
darker, the bands scarcely visible within ; interior of lip, columella 
and parietal wall deep castaneous, almost black. 

Diam. 41, alt. 38 mill. 

Chalkis, Eubwa. 

A ^beautiful deeply colored variety. I have received it from 
Aehaia from Mr. N. Conemenos. 

H. ANCTOSTOMA Martens, 1871. PL 57, fig. 27. 

Imperforate, globose-conic, spire subturrited, solid, heavy, irregu- 
larly striate, whitish gray, with two broad bands of brownish gray ; 
whorls 5s, deeply convex, slowly increasing, the last not dilated, 
slightly descending at aperture ; aperture slightly lunate, small, 






HELIX. 245 

rounded, the peristome thickened, subreflexed, brown, the columellar 
margin albo-dentate, terminations approximating, joined by a con- 
spicuous chestnut-brown callus. Diam. 35, alt. 36 mill. (Kobelt.) 

Asia Minor and Syria. 
Separated from all related forms by the smallness of the aperture. 

H. CINCTA Miiller 1773. PL 57, fig. 26; pi. 69, fig. 28. 

Imperforate, globose or globose-conic, solid, grayish or yellowish 
white with five brown bands, the upper three generally coalescent, 
coarsely obliquely striate, subdecussated by obsolescent spiral im- 
pressed lines; spire more or less depressed conic, apex slightly obtuse, 
white or corneous, unicolored, smooth ; sutures well impressed ; whorls 
5, rather rapidly increasing, moderately convex, the last large, 
globose, somewhat indented at the axis and a little descending 
anteriorly; aperture lunate-rotund, slightly oblique, livid white and 
showing the bands within ; peristome obtuse, labiate with dull brown, 
basal margin slightly expanded, columellar margin brown, straight- 
ened and callous inside, reflected and adnate over -the axis; parietal 
wall with a brown callus. 

Diam. 37, alt. 32 ; diam. 32, alt. 38 mill. 

Northern Italy, Istri<t. 

H. lemnescata Brumati and H. grisea Auct. are synonymous. 

Var. POLLTNII Da Campo. 

Similar to the type, but pure white in color. 

Dalmatia. 

An albino form. Part of the specimens before, me have a more 
opaque white peripheral fascia, in the place of the light central band 
of the normal cincta. The peristome is sometimes edged with brown. 

H. Asi;Mxrs Bourguignat, 1860. PL 69, fig. 27. 

Imperforate, solid, cretaceous, white or encircled by two or three 
obscure brown zones, coarsely striate; whorls 5, somewhat convex, 
rapidly increasing; the last large, dilated ; aperture white, lunate- 
rotund, slightly oblique; peristome simple, acute, white, columellar 
margin reflexed, appressed, margins somewhat approximating, joined 
by a thin white callus. Diam. 40, alt. 40 mill. (Bourguignat.) 

Mt. Taurus, Anatolica. 

H. solida (Zieg.) Albers, is said to be synonymous. 

The above description and figure are taken from the original ones 
of Bourguignat, and correspond exactly with specimens before me 
from the original locality. The shell is quite solid, opaque white, 



246 HELIX. 

very pale, even when banded. The bands appear subtranslucent 
from within. The columellar lip is expanded only in the immediate 
vicinity of the umbilicus, and is closely appressed over it, differing 
in this respect wholly from H. ligata, with which Bourguignat com- 
pares it. From H. cincta and its white variety pollinii, the differently 
formed, less expanded basal lip and columella will separate it. 
Kobelt has identified with this species a form of very different ap- 
pearance; so different that I am inclined to believe it specifically 
distinct. His description (translated) and copies of his figures (pi. 
56, figs. 6, 13) are here given: 

Shell imperforate, globose, whitish, encircled with two or three 
zones, rugose-striate, slightly shining; whorls 5, somewhat convex, 
rapidly increasing, the last large, dilated, gently descending at the 
aperture; aperture lunate-rotund, white within, slightly oblique; 
peristome simple, thick, albolabiate within, the columellar margin 
reflexed, appressed, dilated over the umbilical region, joined to the 
upper lip by a thin callus. Diam, 42, alt. 42 mill. (Kobeti). 

Mountains of Asia Minor and Syria. 

H. MELANOSTOMA Drapernand. PI. 56, figs. 7, 9. 

Imperforate, globular, opaque, somewhat shining, brownish or 
fleshy white, unicolored, or with the upper part of the body-whorl 
slightly darker, the darker portion distinctly defined, coarsely 
obliquely striate, and with obsolesent spiral impressed lines; spire 
conic, very short, the apex minute, obtuse, corneous; sutures linear, 
but impressed; whorls 4, slightly convex, the inner gradually, the 
last very rapidly widening, globose, scarcely indented at the axis, 
gently descending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, rotund-lunate, flesh- 
colored within, its margins scarcely approaching; peristome simple, 
obtuse, thickened, labiate within with deep brown; columellar mar- 
gin deep chestnut colored, reflexed and appressed over the umbilical 
tract, and joining the upper margin by a conspicuous black or deep 
chestnut callus. Diam. 26, alt. 26 mill. 

Southern France; N. Africa; Balearic Is. 

Easily recognized by the compact, globose form and blackish 
aperture. The largest specimen I have seen (from the Balearic Is.) 
measures 35 mill, diam., but Bourgingnat gives for an Algierian 
example these measurements: diam. 42, alt. 50 mill. ! 

Var. VITTATA Rossmaessler. PI. 56, fig. 10. 

Conspicuously fasciate. Egypt. 



HELIX. 247 

Var. CANDIDA Rossmaessler. PL 56, fig. 8. 

Differs from the typical form in being more elevated, chalky 
white, very strongly, coarsely striate. Egypt. 

It is H. rugosa Anton. 

Yiir. NUCULA Parreyss. 

Imperforate, subglobose, solid, densely and sharply striate, slightly 
decussated under a lens, white, ornamented with brown bands some- 
times obsolete; spire convex-conoid, obtuse; whorls 4 U, moderately 
convex, rapidly increasing, the last inflated, regularly descending; 
aperture somewhat diagonal, lunate-rotund, shining within; peri- 
stome brown, the margins joined by a deep brown entering callus; 
right margin obtuse, basal slightly reflexed, subappressed. 

Diam. 25, :l lt. 20 mill. (Pfeiffer}. 

Alexandria, Egypt. 

It is H. figulinu var. of Mousson. 

H. FIGULINA Parreyss, 1839. PI. 57, fig. 30; pi. 69, fig. 26. 

Imperforate, globose-conoid, opaque, rather solid, white or flesh- 
color, five-fasciate with chestnut, the three upper bands generally 
very narrow, second and third often confluent, sometimes the bands 
a iv pale in color or entirely absent; densely obliquely striate, and 
with spiral impressed lines which are scarcely visible, or more often 
almost completely obsolete; spire conic, apex obtuse, corneous, shin- 
ing; suture \vell impressed ; whorls 4, slightly convex, rapidly widen- 
ing, the last subiudented at the axis, and slightly descending anter- 
iorly; aperture rotund-lunar, oblique, colored the same within as 
the outside, shining; peristome very regularly arcuate, simple, 
narrowly labiate within with white, its ends not converging ; outer 
and basal margins simple, columellar margin white, arcuate, vertical, 
reflexed and adnate over the umbilical tract; parietal wall covered 
by a very thin whitish callus. Diam..22-27, alt. 20-30 mill. 

Dalmatia; Greece; Asia Minor. 

Figure 30 represents the paler form from Dalmatia. Specimens 
almost wholly devoid of bands I have seen. 

Var. POMACKI.LA Parreyss, 1860. PL 57, figs. 22, 23. 

Differs from the type in the more globose form, rounded aperture 
and more strongly reflected peristome. 

Bosphorus. 



248 HELIX. 

H. PACHYA Bourguignat 1860. PL 67, fig. 98. 

Imperforate, globose, thick, ponderous, whitish or flesh- colored, 
zoned with chestnut, the zones frequently confluent above and below 
the periphery ; obliquely striate, whorls of spire decussated conspic- 
uously by spiral lines ; spire conic, apex smooth, obtuse ; whorls 5, 
somewhat convex, rapidly increasing, the last ventricose, obliquely 
plicate-striate, thick, very slightly descending anteriorly, slightly 
indented at the axis ; aperture rotund-lunate, livid whitish or brown- 
ish, sometimes showing the bands within ; peristome obtuse, the ends 
not converging, much thickened, not reflexed ; columellar margin 
reflexed and appressed over the umbilicus ; parietal wall with a thick 
callus. Diam. 33, alt. 37 ; diam. 32, alt. 35 miH. 

Syria; Palestine. 

Distinguished typically by the heavy, thick shell, coarsely plicate 
body-whorl, and decussate spire. 

Var. TEXTA Mousspn. PL 56, figs. 11, 12. 
Larger than the type, and rather thinner. 
Diam. 46, alt. 45 mill : diam. 44, alt. 50 mill. 

Palestine. 

H. PATHETICA (Parreyss) Albers, 1860. PL 63, figs. 49, 50. 

Nearly imperforate, depressed globose, thin, translucent, distinctly 
striate, white or yellowish-white, with five brown (according to Al- 
bers, citron yellow) bands, of which the lower are the more conspic- 
uous ; spire depressed, with blunt, rather large apex ; whorls 4, sep- 
arated by an impressed, rather irregular suture ; body-whorl large, 
transversely widened, somewhat inflated, rapidly and rather strongly 
deflected anteriorly ; aperture oblique, ovate, shining and white 
within, and showing the bands; peristome simple, sharp, straight, 
labiate with white within ; columella rather straight, scarcely ex- 
panded, reflected and appressed. Diam. 28, alt. 24 mill. (Kobeti). 

A.iiti Minor. 

Differs from H. obtusalis in the white peristome. 

The form above described and figured differs from the species as 
defined by Albers in being distinctly, instead of " subtillssime " stri- 
ate, and in its greater altitude. The measurements given by Albers* 
are : diam. 29, alt. 18 mill. 

H. SOCIA Kossmaessler. 1853. Unfigured. 

Subumbilicate, depressed-globose, rather thin, obliquely striate, 
pale fulvous, ornamented with broad interrupted deep chestnut bands; 



HELIX. 249 

whorls 5J, slightly convex, sensibly increasing, the last rotund, at 
the periphery white-zoned, scarcely descending anteriorly, base ra- 
diately marked with brown ; aperture oblique, rotund-lunar ; peri- 
stome subsimple, the upper margin almost straight, lower briefly re- 
flexed, much dilated and almost adnate at the umbilicus. 

Diam. 43, alt. 26 mill. (Rossmaessler). 

Constantinople. 

I know the species only by Rossmaessler's description, above trans- 
lated. He mentions a var. /5. which is larger, and partly covered 
by a deciduous yellowish cuticle. 

H. PHILIBINENSIS (Frivaldszky) Rossm., 1839. PL 67, fig. 100. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, rather thin, plicate-striate, under 
a lens decussated with spiral lines, white, with three narrow brown 
bands above, and two separated, wide ones below ; spire slightly 
elevated, obtuse ; whorls 4, slightly convex, the last inflated ante- 
riorly descending, aperture oblique, lunate-rotund, within concolored ; 
peristome simple, white, right margin deeply arcuate, columellar 
margin declivous, dilated, appressed. Diam. 24, alt. 16 mill. 

(Pfeiffer). 

Rumelia ; Macedonia. 

This is H. Philibensis (Friv.) Pfr. (?). Rossmaesslersays: " Der 
name soil wahrscheinlich Philippinensis heisen." 

Pfeiffer's description is given above. He gives as synonym " If. 
Philibensis Friv. in sched. ! Nee H. Philibinensis Parr., JRossm." 

The figure represents Rossmaessler's form. 

H. NILOTICA Bourguignat, 1863. PI. 68, fig. 16. 

Covered imperforate, large, globose-conic, coarsely striate, almost 
costulate at the sutures, pale whitish brown, and obscurely zoned 
with whitish; spire elevated conic, apex smooth, obtuse; whorls 5 J, 
slightly convex, rapidly increasing, separated by an impressed suture , 
the lust large, rotund, slightly descending at the aperture ; aperture 
slightly oblique, lunate-rotund ; peristome simple, slightly thicken- 
ed, obtuse ; columellar margin nearly straight, expanded, widely 
reflected, margins joined by a thin parietal callus. 

Diam. 38, alt. 42 mill. (Bourguignat). 

Damiette, Egypt. 

(. VULGARLS (Parreyss) Rossm., 1839. PL 57, fig. 19 ; pi. 59, figs. 
45, 46. 

Imperforate, depressed-globose, rather thin, obliquely striate, de- 
issated by spiral impressed lines ; yellowish, with four or five deep 



250 HELIX. 

chestnut bands, which become purplish when slightly weathered ; 
spire conic, obtuse, apex very large ; whorls 4, the last large, globose, 
descending anteriorly; aperture oblique, rotund-lunate, peristome 
subsimple, the colurnellar margin chestnut colored, expanded and 
appressed. Diam. 27, alt. 27 mill. 

Southern Russia; Crimea; Rumelia. 

The synonymy is rather involved : It includes H. obtusata (Ziegl.) 
Rossm., 1838, (preoc), H. obtusalis Mousson et auct., H. obtusata 
(Ziegl.) Albers, 1860 (?). The first formal' diagnosis published was 
that of Albers, in 1860 ; It is not certain, however, that he describ- 
ed the real obtusata: (Ziegl.) Rossm., because his diagnosis' does not 
mention the large apex, which is the most prominent character of 
the species. Rossmaessler simply figured, without descriptions, th*- 
obtusata of Zeigler and vulcjaris of Parreyss. 

Var. BICINCTA Dubois. PI. 69, fig. 29. 

Differs from the type in the more solid shell, two-banded, one 
band subsutural, the other surrounding the umbilical tract; col- 
umella callous, somewhat straightened ; peristome thickened. 

Diam. 35, alt. 30 mill. 

Western Caucasus. 

H. LUTESCENS Ziegler, 1837. PL 59, fig. 49 ; pi. 68, fig. 20, 21. 

Imperforate or subimperforate, globose-conic, rather light thin 
and translucent, shining, light brownish or yellowish corneous, uni- 
colored, or frequently encircled by pale brown bands, one to five in 
number; surface rather smooth, obliquely striate, and densely de- 
cussate with numerous close slightly impressed spiral lines ; spire 
conic, obtuse, the apical whorl polished; sutures *well inpressecl ; 
whorls 4, convex, the last large, globose, decidedly indented around 
the axis, very gently subdescending anteriorly ; aperture oblique, 
rotund ; slightly lunate, white within, the margins slightly converg- 
ing ; peristome obtuse, labiate within with white, outer and basal 
margins subexpanded, regularly arcuate, columellar margin sub- 
vertical, arched, scarcely perceptibly straightened, expanded and 
adnate above the umbilical tract, sometimes completely closing the 
perforation, sometimes leaving a considerable fissure; parietal wall 
coated with a very light whitish callus. 

Diam. 31, alt. 33 mill ; diam. 30, alt. 35 mill, 

Between the Carpathian and Balkan Mts.; Transylvania; Rou- 
mania. 

H. cinerascens Andrz. (teste Kryn.) is a synonym. 






HELIX. 251 

An attractive species, which may be distinguished from the pre- 
ceding by the small apex. The pallid coloration, light, decussated 
shell, sometimes partly denuded of the very thin cuticle, are the 
more prominent characters. 

The peristome is very narrowly expanded except at its insertion 
in all the specimens I have seen ; but a form figured by Kobelt (pi. 
68, fig. 21,) shows a considerable departure from the type in this 
respect. 

II. NORDMANNI PaiTeVSS, 1859. PI. 57, figS. 16-18. 

Covered or nearly covered perforate, depressed-globose, rather 
solid, shining, yellowish white or greenish yellow, encircled by five 
rather narrow deep brown hands, the second band narrowest ; finely 
obliquely striate ; spire depressed conic, excentric, apex polished, 
blunt; suture well impressed; whorls 4 U, convex, regularly and 
nj.)dcrati'ly increasing, the last rapidly widening, very wide at the 
aperture, decidedly indented at the umbilical region, descending an- 
teriorly ; aperture oblique-, slightly contracted, whitish, banded with 
dark within; peristoine white or flesh-tinted, slightly thickened 
within, margins converging slightly, joined by a thin whitish callus, 
outer lip simple, columellar margin strongly arcuate, with a triangu- 
lar dilation over the rather wide umbilicus, almost concealing it. 

J)i:un. 25-28, alt. 2:5-26 mill. 

Armenia ; Imeretia. 

May be known by the depressed form, rapid widening of the last 
whorl toward the aperture, and the umbilicus, which is quite wide 
for a .I'omati'i. 

II. KADDKI BoeUger. Uiifigured. 

A species grouping with obtusalis, nordmanni, christophi, maltzani; 
most allied to H. obhixn/i* [H. vulgaris] but larger, bright white, 
five fascia to : spire more conic, whorls more convex, separated by 
deeper sutures; aperture more oblique, larger; peristome mdre ex- 
panded, rosaceous, not brown, the basal margin broad, plane, reflex- 

Diam. .",*, alt. :U mill. 

The large apex and coloration are like obtusalis, but the convex 
whorls, conic spire and rosy peritreme, which is reflexed and widen- 
ed below, will serve to separate the species. 

Talysch, or Northern Persia. 
H. cinnsTOPHi Boettger, 1881. PL 63, figs. 46-48. 

( 'overed perforate, depressed globular, rather solid x rugose-striate, 
ish white, variously fasciate with five brown bands; spire short 



252 HELIX. 

conic, apex obtuse, nucleus very large ; whorls 4*, regularly increas- 
ing, sutures regularly impressed, somewhat crenulated ; last whorl 
inflated, anteriorly descending; aperture lunate-<val ; peristome 
labiate with white within, columellar and basal margins thickened, 
columellar margin callous, subdentate ; parietal wall with a light 
callus. Diam. 32-34, alt. 26-28 mill. (Kobelf). 

Adscharia. 

Allied to vulgaris by the large obtuse apex, to nordmanni by the 
form, coloration, etc. 

H. PRASIXATA Roth, 1855. PL 56, figs. 14, 15. 

Imperforate, turbinate-globose, striate, thin, greenish, with a de- 
ciduous epidermis, very obsoletely and narrowly fasciate ; spire short, 
acute; whorls 4}, the upper subplane, last ample globular: aper- 
ture slightly oblique, lunate-oval, livid within, sometimes pearly; 
peristome simple, the margins joined by a callus, right margin 
straight, acute, the columella scarcely arcuate, thickened, adnate. 
^Rotti). Diam. 30, alt. 31 mill. 

Jerusalem. 

Differs from the following species in the stronger striatioii, the 
last whorl flattened above, giving the shell a conic form ; the aper- 
ture is smaller, the columellar callus much more developed ; the 
coloration is greenish, with slight traces of bands, especially upon 
the upper whorls ; the aperture is brownish-yellow within, without 
trace of bands. 

H. CAVATA Mousson. PI. 69, figs. 32,33. 

Imperforate, globose-conic, solid, whitish, with light chestnut 
bands which are more or less suffused over the whole surface, mark< 
in an oblique direction (at right angles to the rather coarse irreguhu 
stria3 of increment,) with short, narrow clear-grayish marks, denseb 
but obsoletely spirally striate (under a lens) ; spire conoid, ape: 
obtuse smooth ; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 4, moderatel; 
convex, the last rapidly widening, slightly descending anteriorly ; 
aperture oval-lunate, slightly oblique, brownish white within ; peri- 
stome simple, ends scarcely converging, columellar margin slightly 
straightened, expanded, reflexed and closely adnate only in the 
immediate vicinity of the umbilicus, white ; parietal callus very 
slight, white. Diam. 30, alt. 30 mill. 

The above description is drawn from a specimen corresponding 
with the type figured by Kobelt. The oblique clear-grayish marks 



HELIX. 253 

will separate the species from the preceding and following forms, 
which seem to be its nearest allies. The description given by 
Ffeiffer here follows : 

H. cavata Mousson, (pi. 57, fig. 28.) Imperforate, ovate-globose, 
rather solid, striatulate, dull white, with weak grayish bands ; spire 
conoidal, obtuse ; whorls 4, slightly convex, the first minute, last 
elongate-inflated; aperture large, oblique, lunate-oval, grayish within; 
peristome straight, the right margin sublabiate within, columellar 
margin thickened, slightly arcuate, arcuately reflexed, broadly 
adnate. Diam. 31, alt. 26 mill. (Pfeiffer.) 

Palestine. 

H. ENGADDEXSIS Bourguigiiat, 1852. PI. 57, %. 25. 

Imperforate, turbinate-globose, striate, brownish-white, with five 
brown bands (the second and third confluent); whorls 4, slightly 
oon vex, the first smooth, brown, the last very large, inflated, equalling 
v the entire altitude ; columella oblique, whitish ; aperture oval, 
much higher than wide, peristome simple, acute ; columellar margin 
dilated, reflexed, appressed. Alt. 35, Diam. 32 mill. ; aperture, 
Diam. 18, alt. 28 mill. (Bourguignat.) 

Dead Sea, in arid situations ; Jerusalem. 

H. PYCNIA Bourguigiiat, 1860. PI. 59, figs. 47, 48. 

Imperforate, ventricose-globose, thick, cretaceous, whitish, irregu- 
larly striate; whorls 4o, convex, rapidly increasing, penultimate and 
last large, globose ; body-whorl slightly descending at the aperture; 
aperture lunate, nearly rotund; peristome white, thickened, not 
reflexed, acute; columella thickened, the margins joined by a thick 
white callus. Diam. 33, alt. 32 mill. (Bourguignat.) 

Environs of Nazareth. 

H. GODETIANA Kobelt, 187*. PI. 69, figs. 24,25. 

Imperforate, turbinate-globose, inflated, rather thin, but strong, 
coarsely striate, especially at the sutures ; decussated by fine spiral 
lines, shining, dark grayish jellow, with indistinct broad chestnut 
brown bands, which usually leave only a narrow space between, or 
are entirely confluent, leaving only clear subsutural and circum- 
umbilical tracts ; spire short conoid, with conspicuous large blunt 
apex ; suture deeply impressed, distinctly crenulated; whorls scarcely 

I the upper slightly convex, the last inflated, at first gradually, 
en more strongly deflected anteriorly ; aperture oblique, lunate- 
rcular, the peristome simple, the margins scarcely converging, 



254 HELIX. 

outer and basal margins well rounded, coliuuella straighter, thick- 
ened, joined with the superior margin by a thin callus; aperture 
within deep brown, in banded examples showing the zones, and 
more or less distinctly white edged. 

Diam. 43, alt. 37 mill.; Diam. 36, alt. 32 mill. (Kobelt.) 

Amorgos and Santorin, Grecian Archipelago. 

H. latecava Mousson, mss. is synonymous. 

The Amorgos form is large, imicolored, indistinctly sculptured on 
the last whorl ; the specimens from Santorin are smaller, with 
indications of bands, higher spire, sharper sculpture, smaller aper- 
ture, and the basal margin distinctly reflected. 

H. MALTZANI Kobelt, 1883. PL 59, figs. 50, 51. 

Narrowly ritnate-perforate, turbinate-globose, rather solid, rugose 
or costulately striate, decussated by microscopic fine spiral lines, 
grayish yellow, ornamented with five more or less distinct chestnut 
bands; spire short conoidal, apex large, obtuse, smooth; suture im- 
pressed, crenulated, whitish-margined ; whorls 4}, slightly convex, 
the last inflated, descending anteriorly ; aperture rotund-lunate, 
slightly oblique; peristome simple, slightly thickened, distinctly 
labiate, the margins scarcely converging, parietal callus none or 
very thin ; columellar, basal and outer margins regularly arcuate, 
the columellar, at its insertion above the perforation, arcuately 
reflexed ; fauces brown, sometimes with translucent bands. 

Diam. 37-41. alt. 36-40 mill. (Kobelt.) 

Near Smyrna. 

Distinguished from H. godetiana by the distinct umbilical fissure, 
sharper striation, etc. 

*** 

Cantareus Risso, 1826. 
H. APERTA Born, 1780. PI. 58, figs. 42-44. 

Imperforate globular, thin, shining, brown, olive, or greenish 
irregularly, sometimes quite coarsely, striate; spire very short, apex: 
minute, smooth ; sutures well impressed ; whorls 3-3s, very rapidly 
widening, the last globular, slightly descending anteriorly ; aperture 
over.f the entire altitude, ovate-lunate, oblique, whitish within, outer, 
basal and columellar margins regularly arcuate, thin, very narrowly 
subexpanded, the parietal wall and umbilical tract covered by u 
very delicate whitish callus. Diam. 18-26, alt. 20-30 mill. 

Southern Europe; Algiers. 



HELIX. 255 

The synonyms are H. terrestris Forsk., neritoides Chema., naticoi- 
des Drap., karalitana Prunn (teste Villa). 

A common species, easily recognized by its bubble-like form and 
large aperture; the epiphragm is calcareous, white, very convex, 
as if inflated from within (as, indeed, it is), and situated at the edge 
of the aperture; the animal is deep black in color, the central region 
of the foot below lighter. 

H. TRISTIS Pfeiffer, 1845. PL 68, fig. 13,14. 

Imperforate, globose-conic, thin and light, olivaceous yellow, five- 
fasciate with dark chestnut, densely obliquely striate and finely 
decussated by spiral impressed lines, especially above ; spire short, 
conoid, apex rather large and very obtuse; sutures well impressed; 
whorls 4, slightly convex, the first rather large, the last large, inflated, 
indented at the axis, a little deflected anteriorly; aperture oval- 
lunate; peristome simple, very slightly thickened, outer, basal and 
columellar margins regularly arcuate, the latter narrowly reflexed 
and adnate over the umbilical perforation. 

Diam. 20, alt.' 18-22 mill. 

Corsica . 

H. ceratina Shutt. is synonymous. 

Connects H. aperta with the typical group of Pomatia. 

H. A<}<;KUIVAGA Mabille, (Guide Nat 1880, No. 3.) Unfigured. 

Corsica. 

The description of this species, said to be intermediate between 
aperta and aspersa, is not accessible to me. 

*** 

The following species are unknown to me; and are probably, for 
for the greater part, spurious. The manner of species-splitting 
indulged in by the "nouvelle ecole" conchologists is shown in the 
following remarks of M. Bourguignat, prefatory to his Description 
<lc (juefques especes italo-pomatiennes de la serie des H. ligata et 
lucorum, in Miscellanees Italo malacologiques. He says: "Jeconnais 
1 U2 csprces d'Helix du groupe des Pomatia. Sur les 162 especes, j'en 
possede 151. Onze seulement manquent a ma collection." etc., etc. 
And then follows a classification of the group into "deux grandee 
wfions and nineteen series of species. Compare Kobelt, Cat. eur. 
Binnenconch., who admits but thirty-three species! 

The following names are from "Miscellanees Italo-malacologiques," 
.}. R. Bourguignat, 1883. 



256 HELIX. 

H. JAUBERTI Bourg. Syria. 

H. EDROEA Bourg. Syria. 

H. YLEOBIA Bourg. (=: lucorum Miill.) Tricarico. 

H. VIRAGO Bourg. (= lucorum Miill.) Italy. 

H. RYPARA Bourg. Northern Italy. 

H. NIGROZONATA Bourg. Northern Italy. 

H. ATROCINCTA Bourg. Northern Italy. 

The following are from "Species Noviss. Moll, in Eur. Syst. detectce" 
etc., J. R. Bourguignat, 1876. 

H. SCHAHBULAKENSIS Bourg. Armenia. 

H. STRAMIMFORMIS Bourg. Italy. 

H. EQUITUM Bourg. Rhodes. 

H. LUYNESIANA Bourg. Syria. 

H. DICHROMOLENA Bourg. Italy 

H. INTERAMNENSIS Bourg. Italy. 

H. GIULI^: Bourg. Malta. 

H. MELANONIXIA Bourg. Mascara, Algiers. 

The following names are from Arnould Locard's "Cat. gen. des 
Moll Viv. de France," 1882. 

H. KORJEG^ELIA Bourg. 

Provence, Italy, Corsica, Asia Minor, Greece, etc. 

H. PROM.ECA Bourg. France, Tyrol, etc. 

H. PACHYPLEURA Bourg. Grasse, France. 
H. UTICENSIS Letourneux et Bourguignat, Prod. Mai. Tunisie, 1887, 

(= melanostoma). Tunis. 



APPENDIX. 



RHAGADA. 






On account of the position assigned this group by Pfeiffer, with 
Tachea, Eremina, etc., the species were illustrated on pi. 36 of this 
volume. Further study has convinced me that they group with an 
entirely different stock ; and I shall therefore treat of them in a fu- 
ture volume of the MANUAL. 

XEROLEUCA. 
P. 22, after H. mogadorensis Bourg., should follow. 

H. CYCLOSTREMOIDES Sowerby, 1888. PL 68, figs. 22, 23. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicate, depressed, soiled white, curruga- 
ted ; spire concavo-depressed ; whorls 5, rapidly increasing, first two 
smooth, brownish, the following concave, margined with an elevated 



HELIX. 



257 



serrulate carina ; body- whorl acutely tricarina, the median carina 
largest ; aperture hexagonal : peristome acute, triangulate. 

Diam. 11, alt. 6 mill. (Sowerby). 

M'tul, betiveen Morocco and Mazagan. 

The affinities of this apparently valid species are indicated by the 
position I have assigned it. 

COCHLICELLA, p. 31. 

H. OPPOSITA Mousson, 1887. PI. 67, fig. 7. 

Perforate, short elongate-conic, unequally striate, shining, pale 
>rneous ; spire regular, conic, summit minute, obtuse ; suture lin- 
ir, somewhat impressed; whorls 73, slowly increasing, moderately 
mvex, the last rounded, equalling i the entire altitude, a trifle 
ompressed at the axis ; aperture suboblique, (25 from the axis) 
muid lunate oval ; peristome straight, obtuse (?); margins remote, 
joined by an indistinct lamina, the outer and basal nearly equally 
ircuate ; columella straight, subincrassated, obvious, half covering 
;ho perforation, deeply inserted. Diam. 4J, alt. 8 mill. (Moussen). 
Upingtonia, south of Ondonga, 8. E. Africa. 

Based upon a single individual, and placed by Mousson with con- 
siderable hesitation in this genus. It has the appearance of a young 



ACUSTA, p. 47. 

:. V.UJOINA (iredler, 1888. 

Half-covered perforate, trochoid. spire obtuse-conic, (the apex 

>roken on the specimens before me) corneous-whitish, solid, plicate- 

triate. transversely strigate with whitish, rufo-fasciate, somewhat 

hining; whorls 5 (?), rapidly increasing, convex, the last incon- 

gruously subangulated at its origin, slightly deflexed, anteriorly, 

it little convex below, trifasciate, the first band obsolescent, paler, 

u- second above, and the third below the periphery, wide, rufous- 

hcstnut, interrupted with elevated whitish strigations ; aperture oval, 

mil, the parietal wall not deeply intruding, sinuously recurved in 

ic middle, peristome sharp, slightly expanded, and slightly sub- 

ibiate within ; columellar margin short, the junction with basal 

nirgin somewhat angular, reflexed half over the perforation. 

Diam. 17, alt. 19 mill. (Gredler.*) 

District of Patong, or Shi-skia-ho, 8.W. Hupe. 
17 



258 HELIX. 

The name ARMANDIA lias been proposed by Ancey (21. Nat. Sicil., 
1888. ]>. 4) for H. davidi Desh. H. nora H. Ad. etc. The consideration 
of this and other recently proposed subgenera of this group will be 
deferred until the last volume of this series (VI) treating of the 
Helices. 

PLECTOTROPIS, p. ol. . 

Dr. von Mollendorff has instituted for a number of northern and 
middle China shells, included principally in Plectotropis in this work, 
the group CATHAICA. The first species enumerated, H.pyrrhozona 
Phil., may be considered the type. The group will be further con- 
sidered in the last volume treating of the Helices in this series. 

Additional species. 

H. SUP>COXKU,A Mollendorff, 1888. 

Moderately umbilicate, conoid-depressed, thin, subtly arcuately 
striate, decussated with very fine spiral lines, and with membran:;- 
ceous interrupted deciduous costuUn' ; corneous brown; whorls*), 
slightly convex, spire subregularly conoid, last whorl acutely curi- 
nated at the periphery, base slightly inflated, obtusely angulated 
around the umbilicus, very briefly deflexed anteriorly; aperture 
oblique, lunate-trapezoidal ; peristome above scarcely expanded, 
basal margin sinuous, a little reflexed, at the columella refiexed and 
slightly dilated. Diam. maj. 12, min. 10', alt. 6-1 mill. 

(Mollendorff.) Lien-dsou, Southern Chhi'i. 

H. LOFOUANA Mlldff., 1888. 

Somewhat widely umbilicate, depressed, rather solid, arcuately 
striatulate, decussated with fine but distinct spiral lines, with mem- 
branaceous deciduous interrupted costulse sometimes elongately 
ciliose at the periphery ; silky, corneous yellow ; spire convex-con- 
oid ; whorls f)2, a little convex, the last with an exserted subcrenu- 
lated carina at the periphery, convex below, obtusely angular around 
the umbilicus, briefly descending anteriorly; aperture oblique, axe- 
shaped ; peristome above lightly expanded, basal and columella mar- 
gins labiate, a little reflexed. Diam. maj. 14i, min. 13, alt. 8 mill. 
(Mollendor/). 

Lo-fou-Shan Mts., China. 



HELIX. 259 

AEGISTA, p. 59. 

H. VIRILIS Gredler, 1888. 

Moderately umbilicate, globose-trochoidal, apex slightly obtuse, 
slightly and irregularly obliquely striattdate, thin, pellucid, shining, 
vitreous like agate, violet- white, tmifasciate with brown or whitish ; 
whorls 7, gently increasing all the way to the base, slightly convex, 
the last obtusely angulated, descending anteriorly as far as the in- 
ferior band, slightly flattened, ornamented with two castaneous bands, 
one thin situated upon the angle, the other inferior, fading out to- 
ward the umbilicus, the two separated by & milky peripheral band 
of double the width; aperture oblique, rotund-lunar; peristome a 
little expanded, very briefly reflexed, the columellar margin dilated 
above the umbilicus, which it does not conceal, reflexed. 

Diani. 14-15 alt. 9-1).] mill. (Gredler). 

Patong, China. 

Var. sri;i-Ts.(.'A Gredler. 

Corneous-brown or reddish-brown, with a broad white peripheral 
band; spire more depressed; umbilicus wider and striation stronger 
than in the type. The breadth of the umbilicus is quite variable. 

H. L.vriii;xTir Gredler, 1888. 

Moderately umbilicated, convexo-globose, unequally striatulate, 
thin and pellucid, shining, corneous, concolored ; whorls 4, rapid- 
ly increasing, convex, the last large, anteriorly not descending; 
suture impressed ; aperture large, subrotund, slightly oblique; per- 
istome a little expanded, not reflexed, scarcely thickened. 

Diam. 11, alt. 6 mill. 

Hupe, China. 

H. BUPEANA Gredler, 1886. PL 66, figs. 78-80. 

I )extral, orbicular-discoidal, spire depressed, convex ; thin pellucid, 
widely umbilicate, densely but unequally striate, somewhat shining, 
corneous ; whorls 6-6-1, a little convex, sensibly increasing, the last 
descending slightly or not at all, angulate above the periphery, the 
angle sometimes whitish, base cylindrical ; aperture rotund-lunar, 
oblique; peristome broadly expanded all around, reflexed, acute, 
thickly labiate, margins converging, rarely joined by a thin parietal 
callus. Diam. 13-17, alt. 5-6 mill. (Gredler). 

Patong, Western Hupc, China. 



260 HELIX. 

LYSINOE. 
P. 75, subsection Odontura, after H. eximia Pfr. insert 

H. HUMBOLDTIANA Valenciennes, 1841. PL 69, figs. 34-36. 

Narrowly umbilicate, depressed-globose, rather thin but solid, 
opaque, with a very thin yellowish-brown cuticle, encircled by three 
dark chestnut bands, which are narrower than their interspaces, two 
above, one below the periphery, more or less interrupted by longitu- 
dinal irregular whitish streaks ; rudely, irregularly striate, com- 
pletely covered by a dense fine granulation ; spire low conoid, ex- 
centric, with blunt apex and smooth polished first whorl ; sutures 
well impressed ; whorls 4$, well rounded, rapidly increasing, espe- 
cially the last, which at the aperture is double the width of the 
penultimate; body-whorl large, depressed-inflated, deeply indented 
around the umbilicus, descending anteriorly; aperture rotund or 
oval, lunate, quite oblique, pinkish-white and showing the bands 
within ; peristome obtuse, slightly labiate, regularly arcuate, its ter- 
minations converging, outer and basal margins subexpanded, colu- 
mellar margin at its insertion triangularly expanded, adnate above 
the umbilicus, which it narrows and conceals more or less, joined to 
the superior margin by a light white callus. Diam. 33, alt. 28 mill. 

Central Mexico. 

H. badiocincta Wiegm., mss., teste Pfeiffer, is synonymous. 

A beautiful species formerly classed in Pomatia, but doubtless be- 
longing in Odontura. It is quite variable in proportions, a large 
specimen before me measuring: diam. maj. 40, min. 28, alt. 34 mill. 

In this large form the shell is transversely expanded, the whorls 
obliquely flattened above, giving the spire a conoid shape, and the 
aperture is transversely oval. The thin cuticle exfoliates very 
readily. 

Var. BUFFONIANA Pfeiffer, 1845. PL 69, fig. 37. 

More coarsely obliquely striate, thinner, less distinctly granulate, 
darker in color, the bands indistinct, reduced to two. last whorl 
more inflated, peristome less expanded. Diam. 37, alt. 35 mill. 

It is H. humboldtiana Desh., nee VaL, H. matronula Wiegm. 
mss., teste Martens. 

CAMPYLJEA. 

P. 117, subsection Chilotrema, insert under H. lapicida L. 



HELIX. 261 

Var. MEDALPEDENSIS Clessin, 1879. 

Smaller, with flat spire, the whorls more convex below than in the 
type. 

Province of Medalped, Sweden. 

In lat. 62 K, the most northern point reached by the species. 

EREMINA. 

P. 127, after H. DESERTORUM dele PI. 46, fig. 63. 
After var. HEMPRICHTII, instead of PL 36, fig. 25, read PI. 35, fig. 
19. 

In the text I considered H. chilembia Bourg. a form of var. hem- 
prichti, on account of a series which seem to connect the extreme 
forms. It may be better to admit the form as a distinct variety. 

Var. EHRENBERGI Roth, 1839. PL 36, fig. 25. 

Inflated, cretaceous, the peristome expanded, thickened, produced 
and duplicated beyond the expansion. 

Var. chilembia Bourg. is a synonym. 

H. DUROI Hidalgo p. 128., 

Var. MINOR Kobelt, 1888. PL 46, fig. 63. 

Smaller than the type, legs transversely dilated. 
Diam. 27, alt. 17 mill. 

Rio d* Oro, Western border of the Sahara. 
MACULARIA, p. 140. 
After H. EMBTA, add. PL 61, figs. 13-15. 



NOTE. The first three numbers of the present volume, each com- 
prising 64 pp. text ami accompanying plates, were issued upon the 
following dates: 1, March 16; 2, July 1 ; 3, October 1. 



INDEX TO THE GENERA Etc. 



CONTAINED IN VOLUME IV. 



The index to the species of Helix will be published on the com- 
pletion of the monograph. 



Actinella, 4, 38. 
Acusta, 5, 47, 257. 
Aegista, 51, 59, 259. 
Aglaia, 67. 

Allognathus, 121, 149. 
Angasella, 51, 65. 
Archelix=Tachea, 122. 
Arionta, 67, 69, 117. 
Armandia, 5, 258. 
Callina, 5, 46. 
Campylsea, 68, 83, 260. 
Candida la, 3, 5. 
Cantareus, 234, 254. 
Canthareus Cantareus, 234. 
Caseolus Actinella, 4, 39. 
Cepsea=Tachea, 122. 
Ohilotrema, 69, 116, 260. 
Cochlicella, 3, 31, 257. 
Coronaria Geomitra, 4. 
Craspedaria, 4, 44. 
Crenea Discula, 5. 
Crenea Iberus, 202. 
Crenea Tectula, 4. 
Crenea=Turricula, 3. 
Cryptaxis Leptaxis, 189. 
Cryptomphalus, 234, 235. 
Discula, 5, 44. 
Elisma Cochlicella, 3. 
Elona, 116. 

Epiphragmophora, 68, 78. 
Eremina, 121, 127, 261. 
Eremophila Eremina, 127. 
Erinna=Eremina, 127. 
Eucampylsea, 68, 87. 
Eurycampta, 68, 82. 
Eurystoma, 69, 120. 
Eyrystoma Eurystorna, 69. 
Fruticocampylsea, 68, 84. 



Geomitra, 4, 35. 
Helicella, 3. 

Helicomela=Plebeeula, 187. 
Helicopsis Candidula, 3. 
Helminthoglypta, 67, 72. 
Hemicycla, 121, 150. 
Heterostoma, 4, 35. 
Hygromia=Praticola, 67. 
Hystricella=Ochthephila, 4. 
Iberus, 122, 201. 
Irus, 4, 35. 
Irus TuiTicula, 3. 
Katostoma:=Leptaxis, 189. 
Lampadia, 189, 200. 
Lemniscia, 3, 1!). 
Leptarionta, 67, 75. 
Leptaxis, 121, 189. 
Levantina, 202, 226. 
Lucena Cantareus, 234. 
Lyrula=Actinella, 4, 40. 
Lysinoe, 67, 69, 2(>(). 
Macularia, 121, 128, 261. 
Micrarionta, 67, 77. 
Mitra Lampadia, 200. 
Monilaria,-~Lemniscia, 3. 
Murella^r Iberus, 202. 
Obelus^- Discula, 5. 
Obelus=Turricula, 3. 
Ochthephila, 4, 33. 
Odontura, 67, 75, 260. 
Otala Macularia, 128. 
Pentatsenia, 120. 
Placentula, 4, 37. 
Placentula= Irus, 4. 
Plebecula, 121, 187. 
Plectotropis, 50, 51, 258. 
Pleuroxia Angasella, 51. 
Poecilostola, 67, 77. 
(262) 



- 
UNJ 

il : ^r 



INDEX TO GENERA. 



Pomatia, 122, 232, 236. 
Praticola, 67, 76. 
Pseudiberus, 50. 

Pseudocampylsea, 69, 114. 
Khagada, 250. 
Rimula=Actiiiella, 4, 40. 

Spirorbula^^Heterostoma, 4. 
Tachea, 121, 122. 
Taeheocampylsea, 68, 112. 



Tapada=Cantareus, 234. 
Tectula, 4, 41. 
Thea=Plectotropis, 50. 
Trachia, 51, 62. 
Troclmla==Turricula, 3. 
Turricula, 3, 23. 
Turritella=Discula, 5, 46. 
Xerocarnpykea, 68,83. 
Xeroleuca, 3, 21, 256. 



263 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



HELICID/E, Vol. IV. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1, 2. Candidula protea Zieg. Rossmassler, Iconog. ii, f. 5, 

21, . . 5 

3, 4, 5. Candidula apicina Lam. Ibid, i, f. 352, . 5 

6, 7. Candidula subapicina Mouss. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. i, 

t. 4, f. 2, 6 

t 8, 9. Candidula obruta Morel. Moll. Acores, t, 5, f. 13, . 6 
10, 11. Candidula reboudiana Bourg. Mai. Algerie, i, t. 

21, f. 28, 29, .... ... 6 

12-14. Candidula reboudiana Bour. Ibid, i, t. 21, f. 19-21, 6 
15-17. Candidula lallemantiana Bourg. Ibid, i, t. 21, f. 31- 

35 

18-20. Candidula geryvillensis Bourg. Ibid, i, t, 21, f. 1-5, 
2123. Candidula bargesiana Bourg. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1457, 
24, 25. Candidula costulata Zgl. (= striata Mull.) Ibid, i, f. 

353, 

26-28. Candidula bardoensis Bourg. Mai. Reg. Tunis, f. 19- 

21, . 

29, 30. Candidula striata Drap. ( profuga Schm.) Rossm. 

Icon, i, f. 354, b, 

31-33. Candidula parableta Boettger. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell, 

viii, t. 8, f. 15, . 

34, 35. Candidula striata Drap. (== profuga Schm.) Rossm. 

Icon. f. 354, d, . 

36-38. Candidula bolleuensis Locard. Monog. Hel. Boll. f. 

1-3, .8 

39, 40. Candidula striata Rossm. (== meridionalis.) Rossm. 

Icon, i, f. 354, e, 9 

41-43. Candidula substriata Clessin. Mai. Bliitt, X. IS. vi, t. 

2, f. 6, . . . 

44-48. Candidula candidula Studer. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 350, 

a,b, . . , 10 

49. Candidula cyparissias Parr. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 

50-52. Candidula improbata Mouss. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 1556, 12 

53, 54. Candidula conspurcata Drap. .Ibid, i, f. 351, . . 12 

PLATE 2. 

55-57. Candidula lauracina Fagot. Locard. Monog. Hel. 

Boll. f. 4-6, .... . 

58-60. Candidula perroudiana Locard. Ibid. f. 7-9, . . 8 
6163. Candidula tricastinorum Florence. Ibid. f. 10-12, . 9 

(264) 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 265 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

64-66. Candidula fedtschenkoi Mart. Fedsehenko's Reise, t. 

Iff) Q 

, i. <J, . . . . . . . . . & 

67-69. Candidula subcostulata, Bourg. Mai. Alg. i, t. 20, f. 

22-25, 9 

70-72. Candidula agrioica Bourg. Ibid, i, t. 22, f. 1-5, . 9 
73-75. Candidula acutistria Bottg. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. vii, 

t. 5, f. 2-4, 10 

76, 77. Candidula rugosiuscula. Michaud. Com pi. t. 15, f. 

13,14, 11 

78-80. Candidula paladilhi Bourg. Moll, litig. ii, t. 30, f. 2- 

5, .... 11 

81, 82. Candidula arrouxi Bourg. Ibid, i, t. 7, f. 4, 5, . 12 

83. Candidula moricola Palad. Ann. Sci. Nat. t. 21, f. 3, 

1875, 13 

84, 85. Candidula eustricta Bourg. Moll. Algerie. i, t. 20, f. 

28-30, . 13 

86-88. Candidula intersecta Mich. Dupuy, Moll. France, t. 

13, f. 1, ...... 13 

PLATE 3. 

89-91. Candidula psara Bourg. Mai. Algerie, i, t. 20, f. 9- 

13, ........ 12 

92-94. Candidula letourneuxiana Bourg. Ibid, i, t. 20, f. 

33-38, .... 12 

95-97. Candidula locheana Bourg. Ibid, i, t. 19, f. 25-28, . 13 

98-100. Candidula submeridionalis Bourg. Rossm. Icon, vi, 

f. 1559, 1560,- 14 

1. Candidula caperata Mtg. Ibid, iii, f. 831, ... 14 

2. Candidula semipicta Hidalgo. Jour, de Conch, t. 12, f. 

5, 1871, 16 

> >. Candidula caperata (= Barcinensis Bourg.) Rossm. 

Icon, iii, f. 830, 14 

6-8. ( 'andidula langloisiana Bourg. Mem. Ace. Torino, xxiii, 

t. l,f. 17-19, 15 

9-11. Candidula armillata Lowe. Moll. Acores, t. 3, f. 7. . 15 
12, 13. Candidula diniensis Rarnb. Jour, de Conch, t. 9, f. 

2, 18<i<> 15 

-16. Candidula moling Hidalgo. Ibid. t. 2, f. 5, 1883, . 15 
', 18. Candidula nmdritensis Ramb. Ibid. t. 9, f. 4, 1869, 16 
-21. Candidula penchinati Bourg. Moll, litig. ii, t. 42, f. 

9-11 16 

-24. Candidula codia Bourg. Amen. Conch, ii, t. 17, f. 

10-12, . 16 

25-27. C;m<lidula gigaxii Oharp. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

128, f. 23-28, .16 

% 2<S, 29. Lemnisciji tumulorum W. et B. Orb. Canaries, t. 1, 

f. 29, SI . . . 19 

30. Candidula meda Porro. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 927, . 17 






266 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

F10URE. PAGE. 

31-33. Lemniscia Rosetti W. et B. Orb. Canaries, t. 1, f. 

32-34, . ... 19 

PLATE 4. 

34-36. Lemniscia oleacea Shutt. Novit, Conch, iv, t. 120, f. 

45-47, 20 

37-39. Lemniscia wood war dii Tarnier. Ibid, iv, t. 120, f. 

48-50, v . . . . .20 

40-42. Lemniscia ciementitia Shutt, Ibid, iv, t. 120, f. 42- 

44, . . 20 

43, 44. Lemniscia monilifera W. et B. Orb. Yoy. Canar. 

t. 1, f. 21, 22, ......'.. 20 

45, 46. Lemniscia michaudi Desh. Kiister, Helix, i, t. 38, f. 

28, 29, 21 

47-49. Lemniscia lemniscata W. et B. Ibid, i, 38, f. 24-26, 21 

50-52. Lemniscia atomata Mke. Ibid, ii, t. 123, f. 19-21, . 21 

53, 54. Xeroleuca tunetana Pfr. Mai. Reg. Tunis, f. 26, 27, 21 
55-57. Xeroleuca tetragon a Morel. Mai. Algerie. i, t. 31, f. 

1-3, . . 21 

5S-60. Xeroleuca .urcica Chemn. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1016, 22 

61-63. Xeroleuca tmogadorenais Bourg. Ibid, iv, f. 1018, . 22 

64. Xeroleuca mograbina Morel. Ibid, iv, f. 1019, . . 22 

65, 66. Xeroleuca degenerans Mouss. Ibid, iv, f. 1020, 1021, 22 
(57, 68. Xeroleuca conopsis Morel. Ibid, vii, f. 1980, . . 22 
69-72. Campykea zelebori Pfr. Ibid, vi, f. 1562, 15(53, . 83 
73-75. Turricula derogata Rossm. Rossm. Icon, iii, f. 833, 23 

76. Turricula derogata var. angulata Rossm. Ibid, iii, f. 834, 23 

77. Turricula hipponensis Morel. Ibid, vi, f. 1551, . . 23 
78-80. Turricula warnieriana Bourg. Moll. Reg. Tunis f. 

15-18, . . . ' , . . . . . 23 

81, 82. Turricula numidica Moq-Tand. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 

1471, ...... .24 

PLATE 5. 

83-85. Turricula pyramidata Drap. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 349, 23 
86-88. Turricula pyramidata var. nova Paul. Fauna Ca- 

labr. t. 6, f. 7; t. 7, f. 1, 

'S9-92/ Turricula thiessse Mouss. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. vii, t. 

6, f. 10-12, 24 

93-95. Turricula chalcidica Blanc. Ibid, viii, t. 6, f. 13-15, 2- 
99, 100. Turricula tarentina Pfr. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1469, 
1, 2. Turricula serrulata Beck. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, t. 
23, f. 5, 6, . . . . . . 

3. Turricula pyramidata, var. depressa Bourg. Faune Ca- 

labr. t. 6, f. 6, b, . . . . . . . .24 

4-6. Turricula davidiana Bourg. Moil, litig. t. 10, f. 8-10, 24 
7, 8. Turricula ptychodia Bourg. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1467, 25 
9, 10. Turricula philammia Bourg. Ibid, v, f. 1466, . . 25 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 267 

|<;UKF. PAGE. 

11-13. Xeroleuca conopsis Morel. Jour, de Conch, t. 3, f. 1, 

1880 22 

14, 15. Turricula hesperidum Morel. Ibid. t. 3, f. 2, 1880, . 26 

16, 17. Turricula tuberculosa Con. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1465, 25 
18, 19. Turricula desprcauxi Orb. Kiister. Helix, i, t. 23, f. 

20, 21, 25 

20, 21. Turricula moderata Mouss. Novit. Conch., iv, t. 122, 

f. 5, 6, . 26 

22, 2;;. Turriculamirandse Lowe. Ibid, iv, t. 122, f. 7, 8, . 26 

24, 25. Turricula nodosostriata. Ibid, iv, t. 122, f. 20, 21, . 26 

26, 27. Turricula inops Mous. Ibid, iv, t. 122, f. 1, 2, . 26 
2#, 29. Turricula conica Dr. ( trochoides Poir.) Rossm. 

Icon, i, f. 347 ... 27 

30, 31. Turncula conica var. sulculata Jan. Ibid, i, f. 348, . 27 

32, 33. Tiirricnla syivnsis. Kiister, Helix i, t. 23, f. 22, 23, 28 

PLATE 6. 

34, 35. Tunicula cyclodon W. et B. Orb. Voy. Canar. t. 2, 

P. 1, 3, . .' . .26 

36. :?7. Turricula turritdla Parr. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 117, f. 

22. 24 27 

35, 39. Turricula verticillata Parr. Ibid, iv, t. 117, f. 21, . 27 
40-42. Turricula schombrii Scac. Kiister, Helix, ii, t, 119, 

;: n-13, >. 28 

: "). Turricula cucullus Mart. Conch. Mittheil. i, t. 5, f. 

1-3, 28 

17 Turricula idalia 1 Bourg. Rossm. Iconog. v, f. 1468, 28 

4s. Turricula liebtruti Albers. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1245, 28 

45>, 50. Turricula purnilio Chemn. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1464, . 27 

~>2. Turri.'.iiln newka'Dohrn. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. f. 27*>, 

274 . . . 29 

4. Tui'ricnla hesperidum Morel. Rossm. Icon, vii, f. 

1!)<S|, . . 26 

55, 56. Turricula cumise Calc. ( apiculus Rossm.) Benoit, 

111. Condi. Sic.il. t. 5, f. 6, .... . . 29 

57-5!). Turricula dedans (Jm. ( terrestris Penn.) Rossm. 

Icon, i, f. 345, .' 29 

62. Turricula icm-stris var. scitula Jan. Ibid, i, f. 346; 29 
':>, 64. Turricula caroni ( data Faure-Big.) Ibid, i, f. 

344 . . . .29 

(). Turricula caroni var. dilatata Ben. Benoit, 111. 

Conch. Sicil. t. 5, f. 16, . . . . . . 29 

67. 68. Turricula turrita ( caroni Desh.). Rossm. Icon, i, 

f. :54)5 . . ! 29 

'>9, 70. Tun-icula seVjiientina Ben. Ibid, v, f. 1475, . . 30 

71. 72. Turricula trochlea Pfr. Ibid, v, f. 1470, . . 30 

To. 7-1. Cochlicella contermina Shutt. Ibid, v, f. 1462, . 31 



268 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURK. PAGE. 

75, 76. Cochlicella duplicata Mouss. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. i, t. 

4. f. 3, 31 

77, 78. Cochlicella conoidea Drap. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 376, . 31 
79, 80. Cochlicella pringi Pfr. Ibid, v, f. 1463, . . . 32 

81, 82. Cochlicella vatoniana Bourg. Moll. Litig. ii, t. 37, 

f.14, 15, .31 

83-85. Cochlicella ventricosa Drap. Rossm. Iconog. i, f. 377, 32 
86-88. Cochlicella acuta Miill. Ibid, i, f. 378, . . .32 

PLATE 7. 

89. Ochthephila echinulata Lowe. Albers, Mai. Mader. t. 9, 

f. 6, 33 

90. Ochthephila bicarinata Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 908, . 33 

91. Ochthephila turricula Lowe. Ibid. f. 867, . . . 33 

92. Ochthephila oxytropis Lowe. Ibid. f. 868, . . .33 

93. Geomitra coronata Desh. Ibid. f. 902, . .34 
94-96. Geomitra delphinuloides Lowe. Paiva, Moll. Mader. 

t.l, f. 1, 34 

97-99. Geomitra coronula Lowe. Ibid. t. 2, f. 2, . . . 34 
100-2. Geomitra moniziana Paiva. Ibid. t. 2, f. 1, . . 34 

3. Geomitra thiarella W. et B. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 894, 35 

4. Heterostoma latens Lowe. Ibid. f. 903, . . . .35 

5. Heterostoma paupercula Lowe. Ibid. f. 894, . . .35 

6. Heterostoma depauperata Lowe. Ibid. f. 869, . . 36 
7-9. Heterostoma latinea Paiva. Paiva, Moll. Mader. t. 2, 

f. 5, .36 

10. Heterostoma squalida Lowe. Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 1489, '>"> 
11-13. Heterostoma laciniosa Lowe. Albers, Moll. Mader. t. 

8, f. 17-19, ....... . :J6 

14, 15. Heterostoma multigranosa Mouss. Pfr. Xovit. Conch. 

iv, t. 122, f. 25, 27, 

16-18. Heterostoma eutropis Shutt. Ibid. t. 122, f. 28-30, . 3( 

19. Heterostoma obtecta Lowe. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 878, . 

20. Placentula compar Lowe. Ibid. f. 1241), . . . 
21-23. Placentula tseninta W. et B. Orb. Voy. Canar, t, 3, 

f. 18-20, 

PLATE 8. 

24. Placentula maderensis Wood. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 871 . -J7 

25. Placentula leptosticta Lowe. Ibid f. 865, 

26. Placentula micromphala Lowe. Ibid. f. 897, . 

27. Placentula dealbata Lowe. Ibid. f. 892, 

28. Placentula fiotilis Lowe. Ibid. f. 866, . 

29. Actinella lentiginosa Lowe. Ibid. f. 896, 

30. Actiiiella arcta Lowe. Ibid. f. 905, ..... 

31. Actinella stellaris Lowe. Ibid. f. 911, . 

82. Actinella subcallifera (== sphserula Lowe.) Ibid. f. 1494, 

33. Actinella consors Lowe. Ibid. f. 890, .... ->9 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 269 
FKJURK. PAGE. 

34. Actinellii compacta, ft ( calculus.) Albers, Mader. t. 

10, f. 20, . 39 

>.">. Actinella compacta Lowe. Ibid. t. 10, f. 16, . . . 39 

->6. Actinella abjecta Lowe. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 872, . 39 
>7-39. Actinella obserata Lowe. Albers, Mader. t. 10, f. 12- 

14, .. . .... 40 

40, 41. Actinella calva Lowe. Ibid. t. 11, f. 1,2. . . 41 

42, 43. Actinella actinophora Lowe. Ibid. t. 11, f. 6, 7, . 40 
44, 45. Tectula alleniana Lowe. Jour, de Conch, t. 11, f. 

10, 1866, 42 

46. Actinella aridens Lowe. Keeve, Conch. Icon. f. 912, . 40 

47. Actinella fausta Lowe. Ibid. f. 864, . . . .40 

48. Actinella torrefacta f userpans Furtado.) Novit. Conch. 

iv, t. 120, f. 28, .... ... 40 

49. Actinella galeata Paiva. Paiva, Moll. Mader. t. 1, f. 2, 41 

50. Discula polymorpha, var. salebro&a. Albers, Mader. t. 

5,f. 16, . 44 

51-53. Discula tetrica Paiva. Paiva, Moll. Mader. t. 1. f. 7, 44 

54, 5"). Discula lincta Lowe. Albers, Mader. t. 5, f. 21, . 45 

56-51). Discula polymorpha Lowe. Ibid. t. 5, f. 7, 8, 10, 9, . 44 

60, 61. Discula pitta? Paivn. Paiva, Moll. Mader. t. 1, f. 3. 44 
62. Discula polymorpha var. poromphala. Albers, Mader t 

5, f. 19, . . 44 

<;:>, 64. Discula arenicola Lowe. Ibid. t. 5, f. 24, 25, . . 45 

PLATE 9. 

65-67. Actinella vespertina Morel. Moll. Acores, t. 3, f. 3, . 41 
6*. Discula polymorpha var. barbozaB. Jour, de Conch, t. 11, 

f. 8, 1866,' ... 45 

69. Discula tabellata Lowe. Conch. Icon. f. 1258, . 46 

70. Discula bulweriana var. ( testudinalis Lowe). Ibid, f 

848, . 46 

71. 72. Discula pulvinata Lowe. Albers, Mader. t. 5, f. 14, 

15, .... . . 45 

73-76. Discula polymorpha var. papilio Lowe. Ibid. t. 6, f. 

7-10, .... . . .45 

77-79. Discula polymorpha var. discina Lowe. Ibid. t. 6, f. 

1-S, - 45 

80-82. Discula attrita Lowe. Ibid. t. 6, f. 12, 14, 15, . 46 

8:5. Tectula lyelliana Lowe. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 880, . 41 
84-X6. Tectula bulweri var. b. Pfr. (= Albersi). Albers, 

Mader. t. 4, f. 16-18. . .... 42 

87. Discula gomeziana Paiva. Jour, de Conch, t. 11, f. 6 

1866, .45 

*8. Tectula bulwerii Wood. Conch. Icon. f. 849, . 42 

89. Tectula tectiformis Sowb. Ibid. f. 860, ... 42 

90. Tectula ludovici Alb. Ibid. f. 1196, 49 



270 REFERENCE TO PLATKS. 

FFOURK. PAGK. 

91-93. Tectula argonautula W. et B. Moll. Canaries, t. 2, f. 

16-18, . . .42 

94-96. Tectula argonautula Orb. ( rmlverulenta Lowe). 

Ibid. t. 2, f. 13-15, ...,'-.. . 43 

97-99. Tectula granostriata Mouss. Novit. Conch, iv, t, 122, 

f. 13-15, 43 

100, 1. Tectula multipunctata Mouss. Ibid, iv, t. 122, f. 16, 

17, . 43 

2. Discula cheiranthicola Lowe. Conch. Icon. f. 875, . 46 

3. Discula nmstelina Lowe. Ibid. f. 1493, . . .46 

4. Callina rotula Lowe. Ibid. f. 858 46 

PLATE 10. 

5-7. Acusta selskii Gerst. Schrenck Ainurl. Moll. t. 26, f. 

8-10, . 47 

8. Acusta cincto-inflata Mouss. Jour, do Conch, t. 1, f. 3, 

18.S7, ....... . 47 

9. Acusta sieboldiana Pfr. Kiister, Helix i, t. 31, f. 1, .47 
10-12. Acusta oscitans Mart. Condi. Mittheil ii, t. 33, f. .1- 

3, ... 47 

13, 14. Acusta keta Old. Novit. Conch, v, t. 143, f. 17, 18, 47 

15. Acusta ravida Bens. Reeve, Iconica. Helix f. 398, . 48 

16. Acusta burtinii Desh. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Bull. t. 3, f. 1- 

3, . . 4S 

1,7. Acusta ravidula Heude. Hist. Nat. Kmp. Chin, iii, t. 20, 

f. 12, . . 49 

18. Acusta redfieldi Pfr. Reeve, Icon. Helix, f. 688, . . 49 

19. Acusta huberiana Heude ( redfieldi Pfr.) Hist. Nat. 

Emp. Chin, ii, t. 17, f. 1, ... . 49 

20. Acusta phragmitium Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 14, f. 5, 

21. Acusta frilleyi C. et D. ( redfieldi Pfr.) Jour, de 

Conch. 3 ser. iv, t. 12, 3, . 

22. Acusta assimilis A, Ad., Zool. Proc. t. 33, f. 1, 1866, . 

23. 24. Acusta miiiacea Mart. Preuss. Exped. t. 12, f. 15, . 41 
25-27. Acusta s:irelli Mart. Conch. Mittheil. ii, t. 32, f. 4-6. 49 
28, 29. Acusta marcescens Cox. Monog. Austr. L. Sh. t. 4, 

f. 5; t. 18, f. 6, . 

30. Acusta Kraussi Pfr. Reeve, Icon. Helix, f. 1391, . 

PLATE 11. 

31-33. Plectotropis horiomphala Pfr. , Novit. Conch, i, t. 3, f. 

5-7, . . . . . . . . .51 

34. Plectotropis mackensii Ads. and Rve. Moll. Voy. Sama- 

rang, t. 15, f. 6 52 

35-37. Plectotropis serlachi Mlldff. Conch. Mittheil, i, t. 8, 

f. 2, 5, 7, ...... . 52 

3840. Plectotropis laciniosula Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. 

Pt. iii, t. 29, f. 9, 53 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 271 

FIGURE. PACK. 

41-43. Plectotropis trichotrbpis Pfr. Conch. Mittheil, t. 18, f. 

13-15, ...".. . . . . . 5:5 

44. Plectotropis cathcartise Rve.. Conch. Icon. f. 1427, . 51 

4"). Plectotropis eleu'antissima Pfr. Ibid. f. 42<S, . . 52 

46-48. Plectotropis laciniata Hcude. Hist. Xat. Emp. Chin. 

ii, t. 14, f. 10, 53 

49, 50. Plectotropis ptychostyla Mart, Jour.de Conch. 3d Ser. 

ii, t. 6, f. 2, . , " 58 

51, 52. Plectotropis u'oniochila Pfr. Ibid. 3d Ser. ii, 1. 1), f. 1, 5,s 
53-55. Plectotropis winteriana Pfr. Martens, Preuss. Expcd. 

t. 13, f. 11, 54 

5';>. Plectotropis huttoni Pfr. Reeve, Helix, f. 786, . . 54 

57. Plectotropis shanirhaiensis Pfr. Ibid. f. 1027, . . 55 

58. Plectotropis niellea Pfr. Zool. Proc. t, 46, f. 4, 1865, . 5:', 
59-U1. Plectotropis emm a Pfr. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 55, i. 4-7. 53 
(12, 03. Plectotropis sraithii Beck, Zool, Proc, t. 55, f. 3, 1881, 57 
64 (56. Plectotropis intuiuescens Mart. .Martens, Preuss. ex- 

ped. t. 13, f. 10. . 54 

PLATE 12. 

(17. Plectotropis ancvlocheila Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 1, f. 

1, 1S70, / . . . . . . .55 

08-70. Plectotropis sumatrana Mart. Martens, Preuss. Exped. 

t. 13, f. 13 56 

71. Plectotropis tapeina Bens. I\eeve, Helix, f. 750, . . 53 

72. Plectotropis tapeina Var. Couch. Indira, t, 15, f. 10, . 54 

73. Plectotropis akowtongensis Theob. Ibid. t. 15, f. 4, . 57 

74. 76. Plectotropis squamulosa Mouss. Xovit. Conch, iv, 

t. 117, f. 13-15, . 56 

77. Plectotropis rotatoria Busch. Conch. Ind. t. 15, f. 5, . 54 

78. Pleetotropis phayrei Theob. Ibid. t. 15, f. 1, . . . 55 
7 ( .)-81. Plectotropis conelhi A. Ad. Martens' Conch. Mit- 
theil. t. 18, f. 8, 9, 11, 56 

52. Plectotropis ciliosa Pfr. Zool. Proc. t. 43, f. 8, 1859, . 55 
K3S5. Plectotropis atkin.soni I'heob. Conch. Indica. t. 15, 

f. !) ; t. 84, f. 2, 3, 

NU-S8. Plectotropis puberulosa Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. 

Chin, iii, t. 29, f. 16, 

si)-!)l. Plectotropis lepidostola Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 16, f. 10, 55 
1)2-1)5. Plectotropis radnlella Heude. Ibid, iii, t. 29, f. 17, . 57 
!)(>-! )S. Plectotropis howardi Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 2, f. 9, 

1869, 52 

99-1. Plectotropis aranesetela Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. 

iii, t, 29. f. 14, . 59 

2. Plectotropis tectuin-siiiense Mart. Novit. Couch, iv, t. 

134, f. 5, . 59 

3-5. Plectotropis plectotropis Mart. Reise Turkest. t. 1, f. 

11, 58 



272 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



FIGURK.. 

6-8. Plectotropis mataierisis Nevill. Yarkland Exp. f. 7- 
9, 

9-12. Plectotropis barbosella Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. 
Chin, ii, t. 16, f. 3, .... . 

PLATE 13. 

13. Aegista typinsana (= oculus Pfr.) Reeve, Helix, f. 421, 

14. Aegista chinensis Phil. Ibid. f. 427, .... 

15. Aegista vermis Rve. Ibid. f. 424, . . . . 
16-18. Aegista chinensis Heude. ( pseudochinensis Mart.) 

Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, ii, t. 15, f. 4, 
19-21. Aegista furtiva Heude. Ibid, iii, t. 27, f. 13, . 
22-24. Aegista herpestes Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 15, f. 14, . 
25. Aegista oldhami Bens. Conch. Ind. t. 15, f. 7, 
26-28. Aegista accrescens Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, ii, 

t. 15, f. 2, 

29-31. Aegista friedeliaua Mart. Preuss. Exped. t. 14, f. 10, 

32. Aegista circulus Pfr. Reeve, Iconica f. 440, b, 

33. Plectotropis scepasma Pfr. Ibid. f. 1296, 

34. 35. Aegista alphonsi Desh. Nouv. Arch. Mus. ix, Bull., 

t. 2, f. 22, 23, 

36, 37. Aegista catostoma Blanf. Conch, fnd. t. 56, f. 2, 3, 
38-40. Aegista gottschei Mlldff. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. t. 2, f. 

3,1887, . 

41-43. Aegista initialis Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, ii, t. 

15, f. 3, 

44. Aegista platyomphala Mlldff. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. t. 11, 

f. 19, 1885, . . . f . . . . . 

45-47. Aegista aubryana Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, ii, 

t. 20, f. 19, / . 
48. Plectotropis hupensis Gredler. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. t. 6, 

f. 1, 1885, 

49-51. Plectotropis perplanata Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. 

Beng. t. 5, f. 21, 1881, 

PLATE 14. 

52-54. Trachia Penangensis Strl. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 

xlii, t. 3, f. 1, 

55-57. Trachia propenqua Pfr. Novit. Conch, iii, t. 107, f. 

15-17, 

58. Trachia asperella Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 752, . 

59, 60. Trachia helferi Bens. Conch. Ind. t. 29, f. 8, 9, 
61, 62. Trachia contracta Hutton. Ibid. t. 55,. f. 8, 9, 

63, 64. Trachia cyclostomata Guill. Cox. Monog. Austr. L. 

Shells, t. 10, f. 12, . . . . ' . 
65, 66. Trachia ruginosa Fer. Conch. Ind. t. 85, f. 2, 3, 
67. Trachia crassicostata Bens. Ibid. t. 50, f. 10, 
68 69. Trachia fallaciosa Fer. Ibid. t. 85, f. 8, 9, 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 273 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

70, 71. Trachia nilaghirica Pfr. Ibid. t. 55, f, 6, 7, . 65 

72. Trachia proxima Fer. Ibid. t. 28, f. 5, . . . .63 

73, 74. Trachia tanquereyi Crosse et Fischer. Jour, de Conch. 64 

t. 14, f. 2, 1863, 64 

75. Trachia delibrata Bens. Conch. Ind. t. 14, f. 10, . . 64 

76. Trachia delibrata var. fascia ta. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 

t. 1, f. 1, 1875, 64 

77. Trachia delibrata var. khasiaca. Conch. Ind. t. 14, f. 9, 64 

78. Angasella taranakii Gray. Reeve, Icon. f. 443, . . 66 

79. Trachia tuckeri Pfr. Ibid. f. 633, 65 

80. 81. Angasella subsecta Tate. Trans, Phil. Soc. Adelaide, 

t. 5, f. 2, 1879, 66 

82. Plectotropis gabata Gld. Conch. Ind. t. 14, f. 4, . . 57 

83. Plectotropis merguieusis Phil. ( gabata Gld.) Ibid. t. 

14, f. 7, 57 

84. Trachia Footei Stol. Ibid. t. 149, f. 10, . . . .64 

85. 86. Angasella cyrtopleura Pfr. Jour, de conch, t. 10, f. 

10, f. 1,1862, . . , 65 

87-89. Angasella philippsiana Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 20, f. 4, 

1*73, 66 

90, 91. Angasella eyrei Ad. et Angas. Ibid. t. 47, f. 11, 12, 

1*70, . 66 

92, 93. Angasella delessertiana Guill. Cox. Monog. Austr. 

L. Sh. t. 5, f. 8, 66 

PLATE 15. 

1)4-96. Lysinoe fidelis Gray. Tryon Terr. Moll. t. 5, f. 8; 

Biimey, t. 18, 69 

97. Lysinoe infumata Gld. Tryon. Terr. Moll. t. 5, f. 6, . 70 

98. Lysinoe hillebrandi Newc. Ibid. t. 5, f. 7, . ' . . 70 

99. Lysinoe ayresiana Newc. Ibid. t. 11, f. 28, . . . 70 
1. Lysinoe mormonum Pfr. Binney, Terr. Moll, iv, t. 79, f. 

21,_ . . .... 70 

2-4. Lysinoe circumcarinata Stearns. Binney, Manual, 141, 

121, 70 

5. Lysinoe traskii Newc. Tryon, Terr. Moll. t. 5, f. 16, . 71 

6, 7. Lysinoe carpenteri Newc. Binney, Manual, 144, f, 123, 71 
8. Lysinoe remondi Tryon, ( Carpenteri Newc.). Tryon, 

Terr.MolLt. 5,f. 18, 71 

1). Lysinoe dupetithouarsi Desh. Ibid. t. 5, f. 17, . . 71 

10. Lysinoe sequoicola Cooper. Ibid. t. 11, f. 27, . . 71 

11. Lysinoe rufocincta Newc. Ibid. t. 6, f. 20, . . . 72 

12. Lysinoe rowelli Newc. Ibid. t. 11, f. 30, ... 72 

13. Lysinoe Lohrii Gabb. ( Rowellii Newc.). Am. Jour. 

Conch, iii, t. 16, f. 2, 72 

14-16. Lysinoe ^ownsendiana Lea. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 19, , .72 

18 



274 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

PLATE 16. 

17. Lysinoe arrosa Old. Try on, Terr. Moll. t. 5, f. 10, . 72 

18. Lysinoe exarata Pfr. Ibid. t. 5, f. 11, . . . .72 

19. Lysinoe nickliuiana Lea. Ibid. t. 5, f. 12, . . 72 

20. Lysinoe anachoreta Binu. Binney, Manual, p. 132, f. 

106, * 72 

21. Lysinoe ramentosa Gld. Tryon, Terr. Moll. t. 5, f. 15, . 72 

22. Lysinoe bridgesii Newc. (ramentosa). Ibid. t. 11, f. 29, . 73 

23. 24. Lysinoe reticulata Pfr. ( ramentosa). Novit. Conch. 

i, t. 34, f. 4-7 ... 73 

25. Lysinoe diabloensis Cooper. Binney, Manual, p. 135, f. 

112, '. . . . .74 

26. Lysinoe intercisa W. G. B. Tryon, Terr. Moll. t. 6, f. 4, 74 

27. Lysinoe redimita W. G. B. Ibid. t. 6, f. 7, . . 74 

28. 29. Lysinoe tudiculata Binn. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, t. 

16, ......' . .74 

30. Lysinoe cypreophila Newc. Binney, Manual, p. 140, f. 

119, . . 75 

31. Lysinoe ghiesbreghti Nyst. Crosse & Fischer, Mexico, t. 

10, . 9, . .75 

32. Lysinoe eximia Pfr. Ibid. t. 11, f. 3, . . . .75 

33. Lysinoe crebristriata ( intercisa). Tryon, Terr. Moll. 

t. 6, f. 2, . . .74 

PLATE 17. 

34. Lysinoe farrisi Higgins ( Higginsi Pfr.). Zool. Proc. 

t. 14, f. 5, 1868, . . 79 

35-37. Lysinoe jaspidea Pfr. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 41, f. 5-7, 79 
38-40. Lysinoe costaricensis Roth. Ibid, i, t. 21,- f. 15-17, . 79 
41-43. Lysinoe tschudiana Phil. Ibid, iii, t. 79, f. 1-3, . 77 
44-46. Lysinoe huanucensis Phil. Ibid. iii,t. 79, f. 13-15, . 79 
47. Lysinoe diluta Pfr. Reeve, Iconica. f. 594, 
48-50. Lysinoe alsophila Phil. Novit. Conch, iii, t. 79, f. 4- 

6, \ .... ...... 

51-53. Lysinoe sargi C. et F. Jour, de Conch, t. 9, f. 2, 

1873, 

PLATE 18. 

54. Lysinoe trigrammetophora Orb. Reeve, Helix, f. 577, . 80 

55, 56. Lysinoe claromphalos D. et H. Guerin's Mag. Zool. 

t. 14, f. 1, 1850, .80 

57, 58. Lysinoe macasi Higgins. Zool. Proc. t. 56, f. 6, 

1872, .81 

59. Lysinoe trenquelleonis Grat. Conch. Icon. f. 1189, . 82 

60. Lysinoe desidens Rang. Fer. Hist. Moll, iii, t. 69, k. f. 7, 83 
61-63. Lysinoe patasensis Pfr. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 41, f. 8- 

10, . 81 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 275 

'IfiURK. PAGE. 

64. Lysinoe audouini Orb. Reeve, Icon. f. 540, . . .81 
(>.">, 66. Lysinoe semiclansa Mart. Novit, Conch, iii, t. 88, f. 

10, 11, . 80 

67, 68. Lysinoe clausomphalos D. et H. Guerin's Mag. Zool. 

t. 14, f. 2, 80 

69, 70. Lysinoe farrisi Pfr. Novit, Conch, ii, t. 41, f. 1, 2, . 77 

71. Lysinoe estella Orb. Reeve, Helix, f. 578, . . .78 

PLATE 19. 

72. Lysinoe pellis-colubri Phil. Novit. Conch, iii, t. 79, f. 10, 80 
73-75". Lysinoe cuyana Strobel. Ibid, iii, t. 79, f. 16-18, . 78 
76, 77. Lvsinoe flavescens Wiegm. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, 

t. 112, f. 14, 15 75 

78. Lysinoe bicincta Pfr. Crosse & Fischer, Mexico, t. 10, f. 

7, . . 75 

79, 80. Lysinoe ocampi Strebel. Strebel, Mex. L. Conch. 

PI. i'v, t. 11, f. 2, 5, . 76 

81-83. Lysinoe berlandieriana Moric. Binney, Terr. Moll. 

iii, t. 49, f. 1, 76 

84-86. Lysinoe albizonata Binn. ( griseola Pfr.) Ibid, iii, 

t. 49, f. 2, 76 

87. Lysinoe leucoraphe Pfr. Reeve, Icon. f. 330, . . 77 

s. Lysinoe gabbi Newc. Trron, Terr. Moll. t. 6, f. 19, . 77 
39. Lysinoe facta Newc. Ibid. t. 11, f. 32, . . . .77 

90. Lysinoe cicerculn Fur. (= griseola Pfr.) Fer. Hist. Moll. 

'iv, t. 107, f. 10, .76 

91, 92. Lysinoe bryanti Pfr. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 57, f. 4, 6, 83 

93. Lysinoe poeyi Petit, Reeve, Helix, f. 267, . . 83 

94. Lysinoe aapertexta Pfr. Ibid. f. 264 82 

95. Lysinoe bonplandi Lam. Ibid. f. 259, . . . .82 

96. 97. Lysinoe arctistria Pfr. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 67, f. 9, 

10, . . . . . . . . . .82 

1, 2. Lysinoe carascalensis Fer. ' Ibid, ii, f. 570, . .103 

3, 4. Lysinoe velascoi Hidalgo. Ibid, iv, f. 1096, . . 103 

5-7. Lysinoe velascoi Hidalgo. Ibid. f. 1097, . . 103 

PLATE 20. 

8-10. Campylsea cantabrica Hidalgo. Rossm. Iconog. iv, f. 

lO'KS, 110 

11, 12. Campykea shaufussi Kob. Ibid, iv, f. 1099, . . 110 
13, 14. Cainpyhua ravergiensis Fer. Ibid, v, f. 1220, . . 85 
15, 16. Campylsea ravergiensis var. persica Bottg. Ibid. N. 

S. i, f. 49, . . ... . . ;, . .85 

17, 18. Campylsea narzaneusis Kryn. Ibid, v, f. 1230, . 84 

19. Campylaea narzanensis var. solidior. Ibid, v, f. 1225, . 84 
20-22. Campylsea narzanensis var. suanetica. Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell. t, 6, f. 4, 1883, 84 



276 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

23, 24. Campylsea narzanensis var. macromphala. Ibid, t, 

6, f. 3, 1883, f u . . " 85 

25. Campytea appclinsi Mouss. Jour, de Conch, t, 2, f. 3, 1876, 85 

26, 27. Campylsea pratensis Pfr. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1224 . 85 
28, 29. Campylsea pratensis var. depressa. Ibid, v, f. 1226, 85 

30. Campylsea pratensis var. solidior. Ibid, v, f. 1227, . 85 

31, 32. Campylsea transcaucasica Bayer. Ibid, v, f. 1223, . 85 
33, 34. Campylsea cyclothyra Bottg. Jalirb. Mai. Gesell. t. 

6, f. 2, 1883, .85 

35-37. Campy tea pontica Bottg. Ibid. t. 4, f. 3-5, 1883, . 86 
38-40. Campylsea pontica Bottg. Ibid. t. 6, f. 6, 1883, . 86 
41, 42. Campylsea joannis Mort. Rossm. Iconog. iv, f. 992, 86 
43, 44. Campytea phocsea Roth. Ibid, iv, f. 994, . . 103 

45. Campylsea phocsea Roth. Ibid, iv, f. 995, . . . 103 

PLATE 21. 

46, 47. Campylsea delabris Mouss. Rossm. Iconog. v, f. 1229, 86 
48, 49. Campytea eichwaldi Pfr. Ibid, v, f. 1216, . . 86 
50, 51. Campylsea eichwaldi, var. daghestana Parr. Ibid, v, 

f. 1217, . , m . 86 

52-54. Campylsea armeniaca Pfr. Ktister, Conch. Cab. 1. 17, 

f. 23-2o, .86 

55, 56. Campylsea langi Parr. Rossm. Iconog. iv, f. 993, . 102 
57, 58. Campylsea gasparinse Charp. Ibid, iv, f. 989, . .102 
59. Campylsea gasparinse var. subdeflexa Bottg. Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell. t. 4, f. 12, 1885, 102 

60-62. Campytea thayaca Bourg. Moll, litig. ii, t. 38, f. 15- 

18, 97 

63-65. Campylsea stenomphala Mke. Rossm. Iconog. ii, f. 

458, 

66-68. Campytea serbica Mlldff. Ibid, iv, f. 982, 
69-71. Campytea paucini Mlldff. Ibid, iv, f. 983, 

PLATE 22. 

72-74. Campylsea banatica Partsch. Rossm. Iconog. ii, f. 457, 97 
75. Campylsea pouzolzi Desh. Ibid, i, f. 215, . . .87 




80-82. Campytea planospira Lam. Ibid, iv, f. 1059, . 

83, 84. Campylsea planospira var. padana Stab. Ibid, iv, f. 

1055, . . . . . . . . . < . > . 90 

85. Campytea planospira var. umbilicaris Brum. Ibid, iv, f. 

1057, 90 

86. Campylsea planospira var. illyrica Stab. Ibid, iv, f. 1056, 90 

87. Campylsea planospira var. casertana Paul. Faune Mai. 

Calab. t. 3, f. 3, 91 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 277 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

88, 89. Campylsea planospira var. pubescens Tib. Ibid. t. 3, 

f. 1, 2, 91 

90. Campylsea planospira var. calabrica Paul. Ibid. t. 4, f. 4, 91 

91. Campylsea planospira var. setipila Zglr. Kossni. Iconog. 

iv, f. 985, . . . . .... .90 

92. Campylsea planospira var. setipila Brig. Ibid, iv, f. 1060, 90 

PLATE 23. 

93. 94. Campylsea planospira var. neapolitana Paul. Faune 

Mul. Calab. t. 5, f. 1, 3, 91 

95. Campyhea planospira var. alifacnsis Paul. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

ItaL vii, t. 2, bis. f. 3, 92 

96. Campylaea planospira var. calabrica Paul. Faune Mai. 

Calab. t, 4, f. 3, 91 

97. Campylsea planospira var. casseinensis Paul. Ibid. t. 5, 

f. 4, 91 

98-100 Campylsea confusa Ben. Rossm. Iconog iv, f. 1064, 92 

1, 2. Campy 1 sea macrostoma Miihlf. Ibid, i, f. 216, . 92 

3, 4. Campylsea benedicta Kob. Ibid, iv, f. 1062, . 92 
5, 6. Campylsea macrostoma var. cryptozona Zglr. Ibid, i, 

f. 217, . . . 92 

7-9. Campylsea sclerotricha Bourg. Ibid, iv, f. 1061, . 96 
10-12. Campylaea hirta Mke. Ibid, ii, f. 599, . . .89 

13-15. Campylsea pyrenaica Drap. Ibid, i, f. 218, . . 94 

16. Campylsea pyrenaica var. complanata Bourg. Guerin's 

Mag. t. 13," f. 2, 1863, . . . . . . .95 

17. Campylsea frigida var. frigidissima. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 

vii, t. 2, f. 8, 101 

18. Campylsea nicatis Costa. Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. xii, t. 2, 

f. 1, . . 101 

PLATE 24. 

19-21. Campylaea kollari Zel. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1054, . 94 
22-24. Campylsea comephora Bourg. Ibid, iv, f. 1063, . 96 
25-27. Campylaea frigida Jan. Ibid, i, f. 157, . . . 101 
28. Campylsea insubnca Cr. et. Jan. Ibid, ii, f. 512, . . 101 
29-31. Campylaea nicolisiana. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xi, f. 4, 6, 
32-34. Campylaea hoffmani Partsch. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 224, 99 
35, 36. Campylaea insolita Ziegl. Ibid, ii, f. 506, . . 98 

37, 38. Campylaea denudata Rossm. Ibid, i, f. 223, . . 98 
39-41. Campylsea narentina Kleciacb. Ibid, vi, f. 1566, . 99 

PLATE 25. 

42-44. Campylaea praetexta Parr. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1066, 99 

45-47. Campylaea trizona Zgl. Ibid, i, f. 87, . . 108 

48, 49. Campylsea trizona var. rumelica Zgl. Ibid, ii, f. 504, 108 

50. Campylaea trizona var. inflata Bielz. Ibid, iv, f. 996, . 108 

ol. Campylaea frauenfeldi Zel. Ibid, iv, f. 1001, . . 108 



278 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURK. PAGK. 

52,- 53. Campylsea balcanica Friv. Ibid, iv, f. 999, 1000, . 108 
54, 55. Campylaea balcanica var. exigna. Ibid, iv, f. 1002, 108 
56-58. Campylsea lefeburiana Fer. Ibid, i, f. 94; ii, f. 501, 89 
59, 60. Campylsea foetens C. Pfr. var. achates Ziegl. Ibid, ii, 

f. 600, . 93 

61, 62. Campylsea foetens Moq.-Tand. Moll. France, t. 11, f. 
16. 17," 

63. Campylsea foetens var. ichthyomma Held. Excursions 

Fauna f. 77, . 93 

PLATE 26. 

64. Campylsea foetens var. cisalpina Stab. Rossm. Iconog. iv, 

f. 1051, ... 94 

65. Campylsea foetens var. adami Kob. Ibid, iv, f. 1052, . 94 

66. Campylsea foetens var. rhaetica Mouss. Ibid, iv, f. 1050, 94 

67. 68. Campylsea argentillei Kob. Ibid, iv, f. 1053, . 94 
69-72. Campylsea gooanzi Frauenf. Ibid, iv, f. 1078-1079, 107 
7.3. Campylsea cingulata Stud. Ibid, i, f. 135, . . . 104 

74. Campylaea cingulata Stud. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. vii, f. 1, 104 

75, 76. Campylsea cingulata var. athesina Paul. Rossm. Icon. 

i, f. 88, . ' . .105 

77, 78. Campylaea colubrina Jan. Ibid, i, f. 370, . . 105 

79, 80. Campylsea cingulata var. baldensis Villa. Ibid, ii, f. 

603, 604, ...'.. ... 105 

81-83. Campy Lea cingulata var. carraraensis Porro. Ibid, iv, 

f. 1071, . . . 105 

PLATE 27. 

84. Campylsea cingulata var. kobeltiana Paul. Bull. Soc. 

Mai'. Ital. vii', t. 1, f. 4, . . . 107 

85-87. Campylsea cingulata var. montana Paul. Ibid, vii, t. 

1, f. 5, 107 

88-90. Campylsea cingulata var. appeli Kob. Rossm. Icon. 

iv, f. 1070, . . . . . . . . . 105 

91, 92. Campylsea presslii Schmidt. Ibid, i, f. 255, . .104 
93-95. Campylsea presslii var. nisoria Rossm. Ibid, ii, f. 509, 104 

96. Campylsea cingulata var. agnata Paul. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Ital. vii, t. 2, f. 3, . .. 107 

97. Campylsea cingulata var. affinis Paul. Ibid, vii, t. 2, f. 1, 106 
98-100. Campylsea hermesiana Pini. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1080, 100 

1-3. Campylsea cingulata var. nubila Zglr. Ibid, iv, f. 1073, 106 
4. Campylsea hermesiana var. ligurica Kob. Ibid, iv, f. 1081, 101 

PLATE 28. 

5-7. Campylsea cingulata var. anconae Gentil. Bull. Soc. ' 

Mai. Ital. i, t. 3, f. 9-11, 106 

8-10. Campylsea schmidti Zglr. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 156, . 103 

11-13. Campylsea alpina Faune-Big. Ibid, i, f. 158, . . 100 






REFERENCE TO PLATES. 279 

FIGUKK. PAGE. 

14-16. Campylsea frigidescens Delprete. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 

v, t. 1, f. 7-9, *" 105 

17, 18. Oampyhua foDtenilli Mich. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 510, 100 

19, 21. Campylsea olympica Roth. Ibid, iv, f. 990, . . 101 
'22. Campvhea olympica var. ossica Bottg. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 

.t. 4,"f. 10, 1885, 102 

23. Campylaea olvinpica var. iiiagnesise Bottg. Ibid. t. 4, f.8, 

1-s.s.i, * 102 

24-27. Campylsea phalerata Z^lr. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 598; i, 

15<), .. : 100 

28-31. Campyhca var, chamaeleon Parr. Ibid, iv, f. 991, . 101 

32, 33. Campylsea tigrina Jan. Ibid, i, f. 226, . . . 107 

34-36. Campylsea zonata Studer. Ibid, i, f. 91, . . . 92 

PLATE 29. 

37-39. Campylaea subzonata AIouss. Novit. Conch, iii, 1. 107, 

f. 12-14, 93 

40, 41. Camnyhea var. distaiis Blanc. Ro.ssm. Icon. N. S. i, 

f. 105, ' 93 

42-45. C-.unpyhea niollcndorffi Kob. Ibid, iv, f. 1094, 1095, 95 
46, 47. CampylaBa faustina Ziegl. Ibid. i. f. 93, . . .95 

4&-50. Carnpylaea associata Zglr. Ibid, i, f. 374, . . 95 
51-53. Campylaea ad vena Rossm (=Rossinaessleri Pfr.). Ibid. 

ii, f. 6S7, . . . '. . . . . 96 

54, 55. Tainpyhea cornea Drap. Ibid, i, f. 96, . . . 110 
56-5-s. Campylaea var. castanea. .Ibid, i, f. 219, 

59, 60. Campylaea desmonlinsi Farines. Ibid, ii, f. 511, . Ill 
61-03. Campyhea middendorffi Ger^tf. Mem. Sav. etc. Acad. 

St. Peterab. ix, f. 21) Ill 

64-66. Campylaea intermedia F6r. Ro.ssm. Icon og, i, f. 155, 109 

67-69. Campyhea Ziegleri Schmidt. Ibid, i, f. 154, . . 109 

PLATE 30. 

71, 72. Campylaea cingulella Zglr. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 373, . 104 

72. Campylaea aemula Rossm. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1220, 109 
7^-75. C 1 ainpyla-n glacialis; Thomas. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 507, 109 
76-78. Campylsea nicolai Kleciach. Ibid. N. S. i, f. Ill, . 98 
79-81. Campylaea Kleciachi Parr. Ibid, iv, f. 1065, . . 99 
K2-M. Campylsea Brusihaa Stos. Ibid, iv, f. 1131, . . 98 
85-S7. Campylsea crinita Sandri. Ibid, iv, f. 1068, . . 100 

( .K). Campylsea setigera Zglr. Ibid, iv, f. 1069, . . 100 
91, 92. Campylsea cyclolabris. Ibid, iv, f. 1085, . 

93. Campylaea cyclolabris var. arc-adica. Ibid, iv, f. 1086, 

PLATE 31. 

94, ( .).-). Campylii'a sctosa Zglr. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 221, . 97 
96, ( .)7. Campvhea cyclolabris var. hymetti Motiss. Ibid. 

iv, f. 1083, . . . 114 



280 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

98, 99. Campylsea cyclolabris var. heldreichi Shutt. Ibid. 

iv, f. 1087, 114 

100. Campylaea cyclolabris var. euboea Parr. Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell vii, t. 6, f. 8, 114 

1, 2. Campylsea cyclolabris var. lysistoma Shutt. Rossm. 

Icon, iv, f. 1084, , ' . . .114 

3-5. Campylsea cyclolabris var. sphaeriostoma Bourg. Amen. 

Mai. ii, t, 5,f. 1-3, 114 

6-8. Campylsea grelloisi Bourg. Ibid, ii, t. 5, f. 10-12, . 114 
9, 10. Campylsea raspailli Payr. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 505, . 112 

11. Campylsea raspailli var. pilosa Kob. Ibid, vii, f. 1982, 112 

12, 13. Camplysea brocardiana Dut. Ibid, iv, f. 986, . .112 
1417. Camplya3a cserulescens. Ibid, ii, f. 607, 608. 

18, 19. Campylsea lapicida Linn. Ibid, i, f. 11, . . . 116 

PLATE 32. 

20, 21. Cainpybea insularis C. et D. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 

3, 1869, 112 

22-24. Campylsea revelieri Deb. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 987, . 112 
25-27. Campylsea quimperiana Fer. Ibid, i, f. 220, . .116 
28, 29. Campykea pellita Fer. Ibid, iv, f. 1090, . . .115 
30, 31. Campylsea pellita var. graphicotera Bourg. Ibid, iv, 

f. 1091, 115 

32. Campylsea pellita var. kreglingeri Zel. Ibid. iv. f. 1092, 115 

33. Campylsea naxiana Fer. Fer. Hist. Moll, iii, t. 69, f. 1, 115 

34. Campylaea naxiana Var. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 995, . 115 

35. 36. Campylsea westerlundi Blanc. Rossm. Icon. N. S. i, 

f. 55, 115 

37, 38. Campylaea noverca Friv. Ibid, iv, f. 1089, . . 115 
39. Campyljea lecta Fer. Fer. Hist. Moll, iii, t. 69, f. 2, .116 
40-42. Campylsea lecta Fer. (= sublecta Maltz.) Rossm. 

Icon, iv, f. 1093, 116 

43, 44. Arionta arbustorum L. Ibid. i,f. 297, a, c, . 

45. Arionta arbustorum var. picea Zglr. Ibid, i, f. 297, d, .117 

46. Arionta arbustorum var. rudis Meg. Ibid . f. 297, e, .118 

47. Arionta arbustorum var. alpestris Zglr. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 

109, ^ . .118 

48. Arionta arbustorum var. alpestris Zglr. Ibid. O. S. i, f. 

109, ........ .118 

49. 50, Arionta arbustorum var. xatartii Far. Ibid. N. S. i, 

f. 108, .118 

PLATE 33. 

51. Arionta arbustorum var. jetschini Kob. Rossm. Icon. N. 

S. i, f. 106, 117 

52, 53. Arionta sethiops Bielz. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 107, b, 

54, 55. Arionta styriaca Frauenf. Ibid, iv, f. 988, . .118 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 281 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

56. Arionta stearnsiana Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 16, f. 

1, . 119 

57. Arionta kelletti Forbes. Tryon's Terr. Moll. !. 6, f. 1, . 119 

58. Arionta californiensis Lea. Binney, Terr. Moll. t. 6, f. 

9 11Q 

fi t , ...... ny 

59. 60. Eurystoma vittata Miill. Kiister, Helix, i, t. 58, f. 

15, 16, 120 

61. Eurystoma vittata var. spinola Villa. Ibid, i, t. 58, f. 17, 120 

62. Eurystoma vittata var. zonula Wood. Ibid, i, t. 58, f. 18, 120 

63. 64. Craspedaria delphinula Lowe. Albers, Mai. Mad. t. 

17, f. 1, 2, . . .44 

65-67. Plectotropis ptychostyla Mart. Preuss. Exped. Moll. 

t. 13, f. 12, . 58 

68, 69. Aegista subchineusis Nevill. Jabrb. Mai. Gesell. xi, 

t. 7, f. 8, . ... . . . . . .62 

70. Aegista persimilis Shuttl. Conch. Icon. f. 901, 

71, 72. Campylrea picsena Tiberi. Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. xiii, 

_t. 2, f. 4, . . 109 

73-75. Campykea carotii Paulucci. Rossmassler, Iconog. N. 

S. iii, f. 374, 383, ....... 112 

76. Arionta xatartii var. camprodunica Kob. Ibid. N. S. i, 

f. 108, 118 

PLATE 34. 

77, 78. Campylsea gennarii Paul. Rossm. Iconog. N. S. iii, 

f. 371, 113 

79, 80. Campylaja melonii Maltz. Ibid. N. S. iii, f. 381, . 113 

81, 82. Campykea brenskei Bottg. Ibid. N. S. iii, f. 384, . 113 

83. Tachea atrolabiata Kryn. Rossmasler Icon, iv, f. 979, . 124 

84. Tachea atrolabiata var. pallasii Dubois. Ibid. f. 972, . 125 

85. Tachea atrolabiata var. lenkoranea Mouss. Ibid. f. 971, 125 
$6. Tachea atrolabiata var. stauropolitana Schm. Ibid, iii, 

f. 895, . . . 124 

87. Tachea atrolabiata var. nemoraloides Mart. Novitates 

Conch, t. ii, f. 14, 125 

38. Tachea aimophila Bourg. Amen. Malac. ii, t. 17, f. 15, 126 
89-93. Tachea austriaca (= vindobonensis C. Pfr.) Rossm. 

Icon, ii, f. 495, 124 

94, 95. Tachea nemoralis L. Reeve, Con. Icon. f. 989, . 122 

96. Tachea nemoralis L. Forbes & Hanley, t. 115, f. 1, . 122 

PLATE 35. 

97. Tachea nemoralis L. Forbes & Hanley, t. 115, f. 4, . 122 

98. Tachea nemoralis var. erjaveci Kob. Rossm. Icon, vii, t. 

195, f. 1966a, 123 

99. Tachea hortensis Miill. Ibid, i, f. 6, . . . . 123 
100. Tachea hortensis var. hybrida Poir. Ibid. f. 299, . .124 



282 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1. Tachea hortensis scalariform monstrosity. Ibid. f. 300, . 125 

2. Tachea montana. Gaster. Fauna Schweitz, t. 81, . .125 

3. Tachea gibbosula Desh. Fer and Desh. Hist. Moll, iv, t. 

107, f. 2, 126 

4-7. Tachea sylvatica Drap. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 496, . .125 

8. Tachea sylvatica var. eximia Dup. Ibid, vii, f. 1964, . 125 

9. Tachea sylvatica var. rhenana Kob. Ibid, vii, f. 1965, . 125 

10. Tachea sylvatica var. alpicola Fer. Moq-Tand. t. 13, f. 

13, ". . . . . . . . . 125 

11. Campylsea hessei. Moll. Fauna. O-Ungarns etc. fig. 76, 103 
12-14. Tachea coquandi Morel. Rossm. Icon! vii, f. 1961-1963, 125 

15. Tachea sylvatica Drap. (Jan.) Moq.-Tand. t. xiii, f. 10, 125 

16. Tachea litturea Pfr. Reeve, Con. Icon. f. 1131, . . 126 

17. Tachea tchihatcheffi Kob. Rossm. Icon. K F. i, t. 15, f. 

110, . . . . . . . . . .126 

18. Tachea filosa Desh. Fer. Hist. Moll, iii, t. 29a, f. 23, . 126 
19-22. Eremina desertorum Forsk. vars. Rossm. Icon, iv, t. 

96, f. 1010 and 1007, 127 

PLATE 36. 

23. Eremina desertorum Forsk. Fer. Hist. Moll, iii, t. 32a. f. 

9, .... ...... 127 

24. Eremina desertorum var. hasselquisti Ehrenb. Rossm. . 261 

Icon, iv, t. 96, f. 1003, 261 

25. Eremina ehrenbergi, v. chilembia, Bourg. Rev. et Mag. 

Zool. 1864, pi. 77, f. 6, 261 

26-28. Eremina desertella Jickeli. Moll. N. O. Africa's, t. 4, 

f. 26, . . 127 

29-30. Eremina dillwyniana Pfr. Kiister, Con. Cab. Helix. 

ii, t. 140, f. 13, 14, 127 

31-32. Rhagada solorensis Mart. Preuss. Exped. Ostas. . 256 

33. Rhagada leptogramme Pfr. Reeve, Helix, f. 437, . 256 

34. Rhadaga tescorum Bens. Ibid. f. 1154, . . 256 
35-36. Rhadaga richardsonii Smith. Voy. Erebus and Ter- 
ror, Zool. t. iv, f. 14, .... . 256 

37, 38. Rhagada colona v. Martens. Monatsb. K. P. Ak. 

Wiss. 1877, t. 1, f. 4, 5, . . . . . 256 

39. Rhagada reiuga Gray. Ku'srer, Con. Cab. Helix, ii, t. 

73, f. 8, : 256 

40. Rhagada dringi Pfr. Reeve, Con. Icon. f. 769, . . 256 
41-43. Rhadaga bordaensis Angas. PL L. S. 1877, t. xl, . 256 

44. Rhagada silver! Angas. Ibid. 1868, p. 257, f. 1, . .256 

45, 46. Rhadaga kooringensis Angas. Ibid. 1877, p. 34, f. 

1, 2, . 256 

47, 48. Macularia campanyonii Aleron. Moq-Tand. Moll. 

France, t. 12, f. 19, 20, . . . . 148 

49, 50. Macularia balearica Zglr. Rossm. Icon, iii, t. 63, f. 

796, 797, .148 

51-53. Macularia hispanica. Ibid, ii, t, 33, f. 460, . . 148 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 283 

FIGURE. PAGK. 

PLATE 37. 

54-56. Macularia vermiculata M'iill. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. t. 

19, f. 197-199, . .128 

58. Macularia vermiculata var. linusce Calc. Rossm. Icon, iv, 

f. 1138, .... .... 129 

57. Macularia vermiculata var. Ibid. N. F. iii, f. 335, . 128 

59. Macularia vermiculata var. sahariea Kob. Ibid. f. 343, . 128 
60-62. Macularia constantinac Forbes. Ibid. f. 329, 331, 

333, 129 

63-65. Macularia rerayana Mouss. -Ibid, iv, f. 978, . . 145 
6<>. Macularia fleurati Bourg. Ibid. N. F. iii, f. 338, . . 129 
67, 68. Macularia bond uel liana Bourg. Rev. et. Mag. Zool. 

1863, t, 7, f. 1, 3, . 140 

69-71. Macularia atlasica Mouss. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1121, 134 

PLATE 38. 

>, 75. Macularia codringtonii Gray. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 

1811, 1825, . . . 143 

>. Macularia codringtonii var. Ibid. N. F. i, f. 63, . . 143 
[. Macularia codringtonii var. parnassia Roth. Ibid, iii, f. 

896, '143 

-77. Macularia crassa Pfr. Ibid. vi. f. 1819, 1820, . . 144 
\ Muculuriu minoricensis Mittre. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon, ii, t. 

43, f. 506, . .148 

II. Macularia minoricensis Mittre. Ibid, i, t. 30, f. 29, 

30, 33, 148 

>, 83. Iberus globularis. Rossm. ii, fig. 442, . . . 206 
t, 85. Iberus globularis var. conspicua Ben. Test, del Sicilia, 

t. 2, f. 11, . ' ,..'' 2()7 

86-88. Macularia massylaea Morel. Rossm. N. Folge.iii, f. 312, 

314, . . . . 144 

PLATE 39. 

89, 90, 91, 92. Macularia lactea Miill. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. 

t. 28, f. 309, 130 

90-92. Macularia lactea Miill. Ibid. t. 38, f. 444, 443, 440, 130 

93-94. Macularia lactea Miill. Ibid. t. 28, f. 316, 317, . 130 

!>f>, 90. Macularia lactea Miill. Ibid, t, 10, f. 95, 99, . . 130 

97. Macularia lactea var. alybensis Kob. Rossm. Icon. N. F. 

i, f. 67, . ' 130 

98. Macularia bleicheri Palad. Ibid. f. 70, . . . . 132 
99-100. Macularia punctata Miill. Hidalgo Cat. Icon. t. 11, 

f. 102, t. 44, f. 519, . 131 

1-3. Macularia bogliariensis Deb. , Rossm. N. Folge, iii, t. 64, 

f. 323, 327, 129 

4, 5. Macularia prsedisposita Mouss. Jahrb. d. Mai. Gesell. i, 

t. 4, f. 6, ' 145 



284 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

PLATE 40. 

6, 7. Macularia punica Morel. Rossm. K F. iii, t. 63, f. 318, 

320, . . 129 

8, 9. Macularia punica Morel. Jour, de Conch. 1851, t. 9, f. 

3, 4, .129 

10. Hemicycla barckeriana Mabille. Nouv. Arch. Mus. 1885, 

t. 18, f. 22, . , . . . . . . . 157 

11. Macularia atavorum Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 15, . . 131 

12. Hemicycla ledrui Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 15, . . . 162 

13. Macularia ahmarina Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 16, . . 131 

14. 15. Macularia lucasii Desh. Rossm. i, f. 549, 550, . . 132 
16. Macularia hieroglyphicula var. integrivittis Ancev. Ibid. 

ii, f. 556, ; .133 

17-19. Macularia hieroglyphicula Mich. Ibid. f. 555, . 133 

20-22. Macularia alabastrites Mich. Ibid. f. 557, 559, . 134 

23-25. Macularia alcyone Kobelt. Ibid. N. F. i. f. 103, . 134 

PLATE 41. 

26, 27. Macularia juilletti Terver. Rossm. Icon. N. F. iii, f. 

390, 393, 134 

28, 29. Macularia beguirana Debeaux. Ibid. f. 388, . . 135 
30, 31. Macularia wagneri Rossm. Ibid. f. 389, . . .136 

32, 33. Macularia jourdauiana Bourg. Ibid. vol. iv, f. 379, 136 

34, 35. Macularia arichensis Debeaux. Ibid. N. F. iii, f. 394, 136 

36. Macularia arichensis v. crassidens Deb. Rossm. Icon. N. 

F. iii, f. 395, 137 

37. Macularia zaffarina Terver. Ibid. N. F. i, f. 93, . . 137 

38. Macularia zaffarina v. zelleri Kob. Ibid. f. 96, . . 138 

39. Macularia dupotetiana Terver. Ibid. f. 90, . . . 1 

40. 41. Macularia brevieri Pechaud. Ibid. N. F. iii, f. 397, 

398, 

42, 43. Macularia xanthodon Anton. Ibid. vol. iv, f. 1129, . 1! 

PLATE 42. 

44-46. Macularia abrolena Bourg. Mai. de 1'Algerie i. t. 14, 

f. 1, 8, 9, . 139 | 

47, 48. Macularia arabica Terver. Rossm. Icon, iv, t. 114, f. 

1130, 139 

49-51. Macularia odopacha Bourg. Ibid. N. F. i, f.^97, 

52. Macularia odopacha Bourg. Mai. de PAlgerie, i, t. 14, f. 

53. Macularia asteia Bourg. . Moll. Nouv. Litig. etc., t. 3, f. 

6, . . . ^ . . . . .140 

54. 55. Macularia senilis Morel. Jour, de Conch. 1851, t. 9, 

f. 5, 6, .140 

56, 57. Macularia embia Bourg. Mai. de 1'Algerie i, t. 15, f. 

1, 2, . .141 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 285 

FIGURE. PAGE, 

58, 59. Macularia pseudoembia Deb. Rossm. Icon. N. F. iii, 

f. 396, . 141 

60. Macularia burini Bourg. Ibid. f. 399a, . . .141 

61, 62. Macularia burini Bourg. Moll. Nouv. Litig. etc., t. 

1, f. 10, 12, 141 

63-65. Macularia tigri Gerv. Ibid. t. 1, f. 4, 6, 8, . . 141 

66, 67. Macularia tigri var. dicallistodon Bourg. Rossm. 

Icon. X/F. iii, f. 402, 142 

PLATE 43. 

68, 69. Macularia tigri var. stereodonta Bourg. Rossm. Icon. 

X. F. iii, f. 400a, 142 

70, 71. Macularia tiirri var. surrodonta Bourg. Ibid. f. 401 

a, . 142 

72. Macularia dastagui Bourg. Xouv. Litig. etc., i, t. 2, f. 3, 142 

7-'>-75. Macularia hitusplicata Pfr. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1119, 144 
70. Macularia moussonuma, Woll. Fauna Mai. Canaries, t. 

vi, f. 1, 145 

"7. Macularia efferata Mouss. Ibid. t. iv, f. 2, . . 145 
'8-80, 82. Macularia alonensis Fer, Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. 

Moll. Terr. Esp. etc., t. 37, f. 428, 431, 432, 433, . 146 
11. Macularia alonensis Fer. Ibid. t. 8, f. 74, . . .146 

53-85. Macularia campesimi Ezq. Ibid. t. 7, f. 66-68, . 146 

PLATE 44. 

>. Macularia carthaginiensis Rossm. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. 

Mol. Terr. Esp. etc., t. 9, f. 80-82, 85, ... 146 
-92. Macularia loxana Rossm. Cat. Icon. Moll. Terr. Esp. 

etc. t. 44, f. 515, 517, 146 

)3. Macularia loxana Rossm. Ibid. t. 34, f. 394, . . .146 

)4-96. Macularia guiraoana Rossm. Ibid. t. 6, f. 54, 55, 58, 147 
17-100. Macularia alcarazana Guirao. Ibid. figs. 210, 212, 

474, 475, 147 

1-3. Macularia marmnrata Fer. Ibid. t. 44, f. 512,-514, . 147 

4-9. Macularia splendida Drap. Ibid. t. 21, f. ... 147 
, 11. Macularia raymondi Moq. Jour, de Conch. 1851, t. 

9, f. 7, 8, 149 

-14. Macularia beaumieri Mouss. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1124, 148 
15-17. Macularia vermiculosa Morel. Jour, de Conch. 1880, t. 

2,f.5, . . 149 

PLATE 45. 

8-20. Carapylsea phseolsema Bottg. . . . .87 

21. Campy kea nubigena Charp. Jour, de Conch. 1853, t. 3, 

f. 7, . 84 

-24. Campylsea dragorichi Zelebor. Xovit. Conch, iii, t, 
108, f. 25-27, ... 84 



286 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

25. Campylsea debettee Adanri. Moll. Fauna. O-Ungarns, 

etc. fig. 59, . .94 

26, 27. Campylsea pindica Bottg. Jalirb. d. Mai. Gesell. 1886, 

t. 2, f. 3, . 96 

28, 29. Campylsea Avalteri Bottg 98 

30-s32. Campylsea choristochila Bottg. Jahrb. d. Mai. Gesell. 

1886, t. 2, f. 5, . . . ... 102 

33. Campykea caroti, var. viperina Maltz. Rossm. Icon. X. 

Folge, iii, fig. 375, 113 

34. Campylsea caroti, var. spectrum Maltz. Ibid. fig. 376, . 113 
35-37. Campylsea hazavana Clessin. Moll. Fauna. O-Ungarns 

etc fig. 65, 89 

38-40. Eremiiui duroi Hidalgo. Jour, de Conch. 1886, PI. 8, 

%s. 1, 1, 2, . . .128 

41. Tachea paretiana Issel. Bourg. Moll, litig etc. . . 130 

PLATE 46. 

43, 44. Macularia anoterodon Pechaud. Rossm. Icon. N. F. 

iii, f. 466, 138 

45, 46. Macularia charieia Pechaud. Ibid. f. 475, 476, 

47, 48. Macularia ghazouana Deb. Ibid. f. 478,. . 

49, 50. Macularia lobethana Deb. Ibid. f. 468, . 

51-53. Macularia bailloni Deb.. Ibid. f. 474, 

54-56. Macularia subjobaeana Kobelt. Ibid. f. 472, 

57-59. Macularia jobaena Crosse. Ibid. f. 473, . 

61, 62. Macularia denansi Kob. Rossm. Icon. N. F. iii, f. 

477, . . -,... ..- 
63a. Eremina duroi var. minor Kob. Ibid. f. 463, 
64, 65. Hemicycla agsetana Mabille. Xouv. Arch. Mas. t. 

17, f. 3, V. 

66, 67. Hemicycla thoryna Mabille. Ibid. t. 17, f. 15, 

PLATE 47. 

68. Hemicycla helygaia Mabille. Nouv. Arch, du Mus. 2d. 

Ser.vii, t. 18," f. 17, 

69. Hemicycla stulta Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 3, . 

70. Hemicycla verneaui Mabille. Ibid. t. 19, f. 2, 

71. Hemicycla crypsidoma Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 14, . 

72. Hemicycla ephora Mabille. Ibid.-t. 18, f. 19, 

73. Hemicycla cardiobola Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 21. . 

74. Hemicycla thanasima Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 5, 

75. Hemicycla cacoplasta Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 13, . 

76. Hemicycla baia Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 6, . 

77. Hemicycla perrieri Mabille. Ibid. 1. 18, f. 1, 

78. Hemicycla glyceia Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 18, 

79. Hemicycla justini Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 4, . 

80. Hemicycla idryta Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 9, . 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 287 

^FIGURE. PAGE. 

81. Hemicycla empeda Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 7, . .170 

82. Hemicycla cateucta Mabille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 3, . .158 

83. Hemicycla hedonica Mabille. Ibid, t, 18, f. 10, . . 161 

84. 85. Hemicycla bathycampa Mabille. Ibid. t. 15,. f. 1, / 157 
80. Hemicycla* subgravida Mabille. Ibid. t. 18, f. 16, . . 157 
87, 88. Hemicycla thaumalea Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 3, . 152 

89. Hemicycla carta Mabille. Jbid. t. 18, f. 20, . . 166 

PLATE 48. 

90. Campylsea planospira var. kobeltiana Clessin. . .90 

91. Campylsea planospira var. ullepitschei Westrld. . . 90 

92. 93. Campylgea zonella Pfr 110 

94 95. Allognathus graellsiana (= grateloupi). Hidalgo, 

Cat, Icon. t. 4, f. 34, 35, . . . . . '. 150 
96, 97. Hemicycla bituminosa Mabille. Nouv. Arch du 

Mus. 2(1 Ser. vii, t. 18, f. 17, 184 

98, 99. Hemicycla bathycoma Mabille. Nouv. Arch, du Mus., ' 

vii, t. 16,* f. 9, , . . .153 

100, 101. Hemicycla evergasta Mabille. Ibid. t. 17, f. 1, . 171 

1, 2. Hemicycla janthina Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 10, . 156 

3, 4. Hemicycla sabiniana Mahille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 5, . 154 

5, 6. Hemicycla cacopista Mabillq. Ibid. t. 16, f. 1, . 158 

7, 8. Hemicycla riprochi Mabille. Ibid. t. 17, f. 2, . .155 

9-11. Hemicycla hedybia Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 8, . . 176 

12, 13. Hemicycla idiotrypa Mabille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 15, . 168 

14-10. Hemicycla maugeana Shutt. Ibid. t. 17, f. 6, . . 175 

17, 18. Hemicycla amblasmodon Mabille. Ibid. 1. 15, f. 2, . 179 

19, 20. Hemicycla thespesia Mabille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 4, . 183 

21, 22. Hemicycla ephedrophila Mabille. Ibid. 1. 15, f. 18, .155 

PLATE 49. 

23-25. Hemicycla bathyclera Mabille. Nouv. Arch, du Mus., 

vii, t. 15, f. 10, . . . . . . . . 172 

2<i. Hemicycla galdarica Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 17, . . 162 

27-29. Hemicycla zorgia Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 12, . . 179 

30. Hemicycla zelota Mabille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 9, . . . 154 

31. Hemicycla ethelema Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 14, . .163 

32. 33. Hemicycla chersa Mabille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 13, . 153 

34. Hemicycla cacopera Mabille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 14, . . 172 

35, 36. Hemicycla hedyia Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 2, . . 186 
37. Hemicycla eucalypta Mabille. Ibid. t. 16, f. 13, . . 154 
:><S. Hemicycla themera Mabille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 11, . . 155 

39. Hemicycla psathirella Mabille. Ibid. t. 15, f. 12, 

40. Hemicycla pellis-lacerti ( glasiana). Reeve. Con. Icon. 

f. 841, 169 

41. Hemicycla glasiana Shutt. Kiister, Helix, ii, t. 61, f. 10, 169 
42-44. Hemicycla malleata Fer. Fer. et Desh.. Moll, iii, t. 

48, f. 4, . . . ... . . . . 168 



288 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

45, 46. Hemicycla saulcyi d'Orb. Kiister, Helix ii, t. 70, f. 

7, 8, f . . : 164 

47, 48. Hemicycla temperata Mouss. Pfr. Novitates Conch. 

iv, t. 124, f. 5, 6, 164 

49, 50. Hemicycla sarcostoma W. et B. Kiister, Helix ii, t. 

70, f. 5, 6, . 152 

51, 52. Hemicycla plicaria Lam. Ibid. t. 71, f. 13, 14, . 151 
53, 54. Hemicycla adansoni (= pouchet Fer). Ibid. t. 70, f. 

11, 12, 167 

PLATE 50, 

55, 56. Iberus gyrostoma Fer. Fer., Hist, iii, t. 32, f. 5, 6, . 212 
57-59. Hemicycla hierroensis Grasset. Jour, de Conch 1857 

t. 12, f. 1, . . 176 

60, 61. Hemicycla bethencourtiana Shutt. Novit. Conch iv, 

t. 124, f. 3, 4," 157 

62-64. Hemicycla modesta Fer. Fer., Hist, iii, t. 42, f. . 167 
65-67. Hemicycla saponacea Lowe. Novit. Conch iv, t. 124, 

f. 9-11, 183 

68, 69. Hemicycla retrodens Mouss. Ibid. t. 123, f. 14, 15, 166 
70-72. Hemicycla perraudieri Grasset. Jour, de Conch., 1857 

t. 12, f. 2, 2a, . 176 

73, 74. Hemicycla inutilis Mouss. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 124, 

f. 1, 2, ]81 

75. 76. Hemicycla gaudryi d'Orb. Ibid. t. 124, f. 16, 17, . 177 
77, 78. Hemicycla gaudryi d'Orb. var. Ibid. 1. 124, f. 18, 19. 177 

79. Hemicycla psathyra Lowe. Ibid. t. 124, f. 8, . . 183 

80. Hemicycla pateliana Shutt. Ibid. t. 124, f. 7, . . 1 ~>2 
81-83. Hemicycla guamartemes Grasset. Jour, de Conch. 

1857, t. 13, f. 3, 174 

84, 85. Leptaxis serta Albers. Novit. Conch i, t. 12, f. 8-10, 193 

86. Hemicycla invernicata Mouss. Ibid, iv, t. 124, f. 13, . 174 

87, 88. Hemicycla consobrina Fer. Ibid. t. 124, f. 14, 15, . 171 
89, 90. Hemicycla distensa Mouss. Ibid. t. 124, f. 20, 21, . 175 

91. Hemicycla fritschi Mouss. Ibid. t. 124, f. 12, . . 170 

92, 93. Leptaxis advena W. et. B. Kiister Conch Cab. t. 70, 

f. 13, 14, 192 

94. Hemicycla maugeana Shutt. Ibid. t. 71, f. 15, . 175 

95. Leptaxis vulcanica Lowe. Ibid. t. 154, f. 13, 

96. Leptaxis vulcanica Lowe. Reeve, Con. Icon., f. 843, . 190 

97. Plebecula bowditchiana Fer. Fer., Hist., iii, t. 28B, f. 5, 187 

PLATE 51. 

98. 99. Plebecula punctulata Sowb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ed. 

2, t. 123, f. 5, 6, 187 

1, 2. Plebecula punctulata Sowb. Fer. Hist, iii, t, 28 B, f. 

3, 4, 187 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 289 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

3, 4. Plebecula punctulata Sowb. Kuster, Conch Cab. ed. 

2, t. 93, f. 15, 16, 187 

5-8. Leptaxis azorica Alb. Mon. Hist. Nat. Azores, t. 2, f. 2, 196 
9, 10. Leptaxis fluctuosa Lowe. Albers, Mai. Maderensis, 

t. 17, f. 13, 14, 198 

11, 12. Leptaxis undata Lowe. Fer., Hist, iii, t. 46A, f. 1, 189 
13, 14. Leptaxis exornata Desh. Ibid. t. 17A, f. 9, 10, . 198 
15-17. Leptaxis furva Lowe. Kuster, Conch. Cab. ed. 2, t. 

29, f. 20-22, 192 

18. Leptaxis nivosa Sowb. Ibid. t. 7, f. 8, . . . . 190 

19. Plebecula anaglyptica (= nitidiuscula). Reeve, Con. Icon., 

f. 883, 188 

20-22. Plebecula hartungi Alb. Kuster, Conch. Cab. ed. 2, t. 

159, f. 35-37, 189 

23, 24. Leptaxis leonina Lowe. Ibid. t. 72, f. 6, 7, . . 190 
25-27. Plebecula lurida Lowe. Ibid. t. 155, f. 31-33, . 188 

28. Leptaxis simia Fer ( erubescens). Fe>., Hist., iii, t. 28B, 

f. 2, . . . . ... . . .191 

29-31. Leptaxis drouetiana Mor. Mor., Hist. Nat. Azores, t. 

2, f. 5, .... .... 197 

32. Leptaxis psarnmophora Lowe. Mai. Maderensis, t. 17, f. 

15, . . . . 191 

33-35. Plebecula nitidiuscula Sowb. Kuster, Conch. Cab. ed. 

2, t. 94, f. 5-8, 188 

36-38. Leptaxis terceirana Mor. Mor. Hist. Nat. Azores, t. 

2, f. 4, .197 

39-41. Leptaxis caldierarum Mor. et Dr. Ibid. t. 2, f. 3, . 196 
42-44. Irus eutropis Shutt. Novit. Conch, iv, 1. 122, f. 28-30, 38 
45, 46. Leptaxis membranacea Lowe. Kuster, t. 161, f. 14, 

15, 201 

47-49. Leptaxis cuticula Shutt. Novit. Conch., iv, t. 123, f. 

4-6, 201 

50-52. Leptaxis chrysomela Pfr. Kuster, t. 113, f. 6-8, . 198 
53, 54. Leptaxis bollei Alb. Novit. Conch., i, t. 12, f. 5, 7, 194 
55, 56. Leptaxis webbiana Lowe. Kuster, t. 52, f. 5, 6, . 200 
57, 58. Leptaxis bocagei (== webbiana). Jour, de Conch. 

1866, t. 11, f. 4, 200 

59, 60. Leptaxis wollastoni Lowe. Kuster, t. 152, f. 15, 16, 199 

PLATE 52. 

61-63. Leptaxis myristica Shutt. Specimen, . . . 194 
64. Leptaxis myristica var. arangoi Dohrn. Specimen, . 194 
68. Hemicycla callipona Mabille. Nouv. Arch, du Mus., 2nd. 

Ser. vii, t. 18, f. 8, 160 

69-71. Hemicycla pouchet Fer. Specimen, . . . 167 

72-74. Plebecula canicalensis Lowe. Specimen, . . . 188 
7~>. Leptaxis undata Lowe. Specimen, .... 189 
76. Leptaxis vulcanica Lowe. Specimen, .... 190 

19 



290 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

77. Leptaxis leonina Lowe. Specimen, . 190 

78-80. Leptaxis nivosa Sowb. Specimen, . . . .190 

81-83. Leptaxis erubescens Lowe. Specimens, . . . 191 

84, 85. Leptaxis ad vena W. et B. Specimen, . . .192 

86. Leptaxis fluctuosa Lowe. Specimen, . ... . 198 

87-89. Leptaxis portosanctana Sowb. . . . . .199 

90. Leptaxis lowei Fer. Specimen, ..... 200 

PLATE 53. 

1-4. Iberus segestana Phil. Rossm. Icon, vii, f. 1865, 1868, 203 
5. Iberus segestana Phil. Ibid. 1867, . . . .203 

6-8. Iberus gualteriana L. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. t. 5, f. 48, 

51, 52 202 

9, 10. Iberus laurenti Bourg. Rossm. Icon. N. F. i, f. 98, . 202 
11-13. Iberus laurenti Bourg. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. t. 33, f. 375- 

378, 202 

1421. Iberus scabriuscula DesK. Rossm. Icon., vii, 1. 185, f. 

1858-1862, 203 

17, 18. Iberus segestana Phil. Ibid. f. 1852, . . .203 
22, 23. Hemicycla berkeleii Lowe. Novit. Conch., iv, 1. 123, 

f. 7, 8, . . .186 

24-26. Hemicycla quadricincta Mor. Ibid, ii, t. 72, f. 13-15, 182 

PLATE 54. 

1-3. Iberus platychela Mke. Rossm. ii, f. 443-445, . . 209 

4-6. Iberus platychela var. Ibid, i, f. 1112, 1119, 1118, . 209 

7, 8. Iberus grohmanni Phil. Ibid, ii, f. 448, . . . 205 

9-12. Iberus platycheloides Kob. Ibid. N. F. i, f. 57, . 211 

13-16. Iberus sicana Fer. Ibid, ii, f. 446, 447, 594, 596, . 213 

17-19. Iberus sicanoides Kob. Ibid. N. F. i, f. 56, . . 213 

20, 21. Iberus gyrostoma Fer. Ibid. N. F. i, f. 61, . . 212 

22, 23. Iberus hospitans Bon. Ibid, i, f. 240, 241, . . 215 

24-26. Iberus inelitensis Fer. Ibid, iv, f. 1118, . . .207 

27-29. Iberus bottgeri Kob. Ibid. K F. i, f. 59, . . 211 

30-33. Iberus tetuanensis Kob. Ibid. N. F. i, f. 58, . . 213 

PLATE 55. 

34, 35. Iberus paciniana Phil. var. Rossm. Icon., v, f. 1186, 204 
36-38. Iberus paciniana Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 128, 

f. 8-10, ' . ... .204 

39-41. Levantina kurdistana Parr. Rossm. Icon., v, et K F. 

i, f. 65, 1169, .230 

42-44. Levantina dschulfensis Dub. Vorderas. Conch., t. iii, 

f. 17, 18, 

45, 46. Levantina spiriplana Ol. Rossm. Icon., ii, f. 682, 682a, 226 
47-49. Levantina escheriana Mouss. Vorderas. Conch., t. iii, 

f. 19, 230 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 291 

FKJURK. PAGE. 

50. Levantina michoniana Bourg. Rossm., Icon., v, f. 1167, 229 

51, 52. Levantina guttataOl. Vorderas. Conch., t. ii, f. 15, 16, 228 
53, 54. Levantina malziana Parr. Rossm., Icon., v, f. 1166, 227 

PLATE 56. 

1. Pomatia ligata var. campana, Tib. ..... 243 

2, 3. Pomatia ligata var. pomatella Tib. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 

1040, 1041, 243 

4. Pomatia ligata var. albescens Jan. Ibid, ii, f. 585. . 244 

5. Pomatia ligata Mull. Ibid, i, f. 290, . . . .242 

6. 13. Pomatia asemnis (Bourg.) Kob. Ibid, iv, f. 1032, . 246 

7. Pomatia melanostoma Drap. Ibid, iv, f. 1036, . . 246 

8. Pomatia melanostoma var. Candida. Ibid, ii, f. 579, . 247 

9. Pomatia melanostoma Dr. Ibid, ii, f. 576, . . . 246 

10. Pomatia melanostoma var. vittata. Ibid, ii, f. 577, . 246 

11, 12. Pomatia pachya var. texta. Ibid, iv, f. 1030, 1031, . 248 
14, 15. Pomatia prasinata Roth. Ibid, iv, f. 1045, . . 252 

PLATE 57. 

16-18. Pomatia nordmanni Parr. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1047, 

1048 . . . .251 

19. Pomatia obtusata (= vulgaris.) Ibid, i, f. 288. . . 249 

20, 21. Pomatia buchii Dub. Ibid. iv. f. 1028, 1029, . . 238 
22, 24. Pomatia pomacella Parr. Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 5, f. 3, 

4, . .247 

24. Pomatia secernenda Rossm. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 289, . 242 

25. Pomatia engaddensis Bourg. Ibid, iv, f. 1044, . . 258 

26. Pomatia cincta Mull. Ibid, i, f. 287, . . . .245 

27. Pomatia anctostoma Mart. Ibid, iv, f. 1034, . . . 244 

28. Pomatia cavata Mouss. Ibid, iv, f. 1054, . . .252 

29. Pomatia radiosa Zgl. Ibid, ii, f. 556, . . . .241 

30. Pomatia figulina Parr. Ibid, ii, f. 580, . . . .247 

PLATE 58. 

31-35, 37, 38. Pomatia aspersa Mull. Rossm, Icon. K F. 

iii, f. 351, etc . . .235 

36. Pomatia aspersa Mull. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. t. 1, f. 3, . 235 
39-41. Pomatia pomatia L. Fer. Hist. Moll, iii, t. 21, f. 1, 7, 

4, 236 

42-44. Pomatia aperta Born. Rossm. Icon. N. F. iii, f. 370, 

366, 368, 254 

PLATE 59. 

45, 46. Pomatia vulgaris Parr. Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 7, f. 6. 7, 249 
47, 48. Pomatia pycnia Bourg. Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 6, f. 7, 9, 253 

49. Pomatia lutescens Zgl. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 292, . . 250 

50, 51. Pomatia malzani Kob. Ibid. N. F. i, f. 100, . . 254 



292 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

52, 53. Pomatia onixiomicra Bourg. Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 3, f. 

2, 3, . . 240 

54, 55. Pomatia mazzullii Jan. Amen. Mai. ii, t. 22, f. 3, . 235 

57. Pomatia mazzullii var. quincayensis. Ibid. t. 22, f. 6, . 235 
56. Pomatia mazzullii var. Rossm. Icon, i, f. 298, . . 235 

58. Pomatia niahometana ( castanea.) Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 

4, f. 5, . . . . 239 

PLATE 60. 

59-65. Iberus serpentina Fer. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1178-1181, 214 
66, 67. Iberus posidoniensis. Ibid. f. 1171, . . . .219 
68-70. Iberus muralis var. crispata Ben. Ibid. f. 1182, 1183, 206 
71-73. Iberus orgonensis Phil. (== muralis.) Dupuy, Moll. 

France, t. 5, f. 1, . .205 

74, 75. Iberus provincialis Ben. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1187, . 208 
76-80. Iberus carsoliana var. uzzielUana Paul. Ibid. f. 

1174-1176, . . 220 

SI. 82. Iberus circumornata Fer. Fer. Hist, iii, t. 41, f. 2, . 222 
-83-85. Iberus nebrodensis Pir. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1114, 

1115, 220 

86-88. Iberus scherzeri Zel. Ibid. N. F. i, f. 60, . . . 212 
89-91. Iberus nebrodensis Pir. Ibid, iv, f. 1117, . . .220 
92, 93. Iberus marianme Kob. Ibid, v, f. 1177, . . 222 

94, 95. Iberus cenestinensis C. et D, Jour, de Conch. 1869, 

t. 5, f. 7, . . 216 

96, 97. Iberus oberndorfferi Kob. Rossm. Icon. N. F. i, f. 

62, ... . . 217 

PLATE 61. 

98, 99. Hemicycla semitecta Mouss. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 123, 

f. 16, 17, 181 

100, lOOa, lOOb. Levantina caesareana Parr. Rossm. Icon. ' 

v, f. 1164, 1165, .227 

1, 2. Hemicycla plutonia Lowe. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 123, 

f. 12, 13, . 181 

3, 4. Hemicycla gomerensis Morel. Ibid. t. 123, f. 9, 10, . 185 
5, 6. Hemicycla planorbella Lam. Ibid. t. 123, f. 18, 19, . 180 
7, 8, 9, 10. Hemicycla planorbella v. incisogranulata. Ibid. 

ii, t. 72, f. 8, 9, 11, 12 . 180 

11. Hemicycla harmonica Mouss. Ibid, iv, t. 123, f. 11, 

12. Hemicycla villiersii Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 838, . 180 
13-14. Macularia embia Bourg. Rossm. Icon. N. S. iii, f. 

467, ' . . -140 

16. Hemicycla pouchet Fer. Fer. Hist, iii, t. 42, f. 3, . . 167 
17-19. Iberus hospitans var, alabastrina Paul. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Ital. viii, t. 6, f. 1, 216 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 293 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

20-22. Iberus serpentiua var. jaspidea Moq.-Tand. Ibid. t. 4, 

f. 4, 5, . . . . . ... . .215 

23-25. Iberus serpentina var. isara3 Paul. Ibid. t. 4, f. 7, . 215 

PLATE 62. 

26-27. Iberus scabriuscula var. drepanensis. 111. Sicil. t. 4, f. 

32, .... ..... 204 

28-30. Iberus scabriuscula var. selinuntina Phil. Ibid. t. 8, 

f. 11, 203 

31, 31. Iberus scabriuscula var. explanata Ben. Specimens. 204 
32-34. Iberus vieta ( paciniana.) Rossm. Icon, i, t. 17, f. 

232, 204 

35-37. Iberus muralis Mull. Ibid. f. 230, . . . .205 
38-39. Iberus muralis var. undulata Mich. 111. Sicil. t. 2, f. 8, 206 
40, 41. Iberus muralis var. costulata Ben. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 

1182, 205 

42, 43. Iberus muralis var. rugosa Zgl. Ibid, i, f. 231a, . 205 
44-46. Iberus muralis var. alutacea Paul. Faun. Mai. Calabria, 

t, 7, f. 2, 2a, 2b 206 

47, 48. Iberus muralis var. alutacea Paul. Ibid. f. 3b, 4, . 206 
49, 50. Iberus globularis var. undulata Kob. Rossm. Icon, v, 

f. 1184, 207 

51, 52. Iberus globularis var. tarentina Kob. Ibid. t. 1190, 207 
53. Iberus platychela var. rosalise Ben. Ibid. iv. f. 1108, . 209 
54-56. Iberus melitensis var. caruanse Pils. Specimen. . 208 

57-60. Iberus aschera^ Kob. Rossm. Icon, vii, f. 1854, 1856, 

1857 210 

PLATE 63. 

26-28. Iberus leachi Fer. Conch. Mittheil; i, t. 5, f. 11, 13, 203 
29-31. Iberus serpentina var. isilensis Paul. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Ital. viii, t. 4, f. 6, . .215 

32-34. Iberus pudiosa Paul. Ibid. t. 3, f. 6, . . . 217 

35-37. Iberus villica Paul. Ibid. t. 3, f. 3, . . . . 218 

38. Hemicycla digna Mouss. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 123, f. 3, . 186 

39. Pomatia lucorum var. euphratica. Jahrb. d. Mai. Gesell, 

xiii, t. 3, f. 6, 240 

40-42. Iberus sultana Mor. Jour, de Conch. 1880, t. 2, f. 4, 202 
43-45. Levantiua mazenderanensis Nev. Rossm. Icon. N. F. 

i, f. 102, 229 

46-48. Pomatia christophi Bottg. Ibid. f. 66, . . .251 
49, 50. Pomatia pathetica Parr. Ibid, v, f. 1479, . . 248 

PLATE 64. 

4, 5. Macularia apalolena Bourg. ..... 132 

6-8. Hemicycla villiersii d'Orb. Hist. Nat. lies. Canaries, t. 

3, f. 12-14, 180 

9, -10. Iberus carse Cantraine. Mai. Medit. t. 5, f. 7, 7a, . 216 



294 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE.- 

11-13. Iberus carse var. adjaciensis Paul. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. 

viii, t. 6, f. 3, 216 

14, 15. Iberus niciensis Fer. Moq.-Tand. Moll. France, 1. 12, 

f. 6, 7, . 214 

16-18. Iberus niciensis Fer. Rossm. Icon., ii, f. 601, 602, . 214 
19, 20. Iberus provincialis Ben. 111. Sicil., t. 2, f. 14, . 208- 

21, 22. Iberus tiberiana Ben. Rossm. v, f. 1185, . . 206- 

23, 24. Iberus platy chela, var. iparia Ben. 111. Sicil. t. 2, f. 13, 209 
25-27. Iberus tetrazona Jan. Rossm. ii, f. 508, . . . 218 
28, 29. Iberus strigata var. apula Blanc. Ibid, vii, f. 1835, . 219 
30, 31. Iberus strigata var. umbrica Charp. Ibid, v, f. 1170, 218- 
32-34. Iberus strigata var. fuscolabiata Rossm. Ibid. f. 1172, 

1173, .......... 219- 

PLATE 65. 

35, 36. Iberus carsoliana, var. uniarmata Paul. Bull. Soc. 

Mai. Ital. vii, t. 3, f. 3, 220' 

37, 38. Iberus carsoliana, var. milettiana Paul. Ibid. t. 3 f. 2, 220- 
39-41. Iberus carsoliana, var. persianii Tib. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Belg. xiii, t. 2, f. 6, 220- 

42-44. Iberus carsoliana, Fer. Fer., Hist., t. 41, f. 1, . 219* 

45-47. Iberus huetiana Ben. Rossm. Icon., 1189, 1852, . 221. 
48, 49. Iberus eugenia Pfr. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1188, . . 221 
50, 51. Iberus strigata var. surrentina. Krister, t. 113, f. 11, 

12, 218- 

52, 56. Iberus nebrodensis Pir. Rossm. Icon, vii, f. 1848, 

1849, 1851, 221 

57, 58. Iberus mariannse Kobelt. Ibid. f. 1832, . . .222 
59, 60. Iberns marianna? var. peucetana. Ibid. f. 1834, . 222 
61-65. Iberus signata Fer. Ibid. f. 686, 1845, 1846, 1847, . 223 
66-68. Iberus forsythi Paul. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xii, t. 2, f. 

1, 223 

69, 70. Iberus forsythi var. orta Paul. Ibid. t. 2, f. 2, . 22& 

PLATE 66. 

71, 72. Levantina spiriplana Oliv. Specimen. . . . 226 : 
73, 74. Levantina guttata Oliv. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1160, . 228 
75-77. Iberus saxetana Paul. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xii, t. 2, 

f. 3, 224 

78-80. Aegista hupeana Gredlr. Ann. K. K. Naturhist, 

Hofmus. Wien. ii, t. 11, f. 4-6, . . . . 259 

80a. Leptaxis vetusta Mor. Hist. Nat. Acores, t, 5, f. 12, .198 
80 b. Leptaxis leptostyla Dohrn. Specimen. . . .195 

80c. Leptaxis visgeriana Dohrn. Specimen. . . . 193 

8183. Levantina dschulfensis Dub. Bourg. Amen. Mai. ii, 

t. 12, f. 7-9, .228 

84-86. Iberus carsoliana v. marrucina. Bull. Soc. Mai. Belg. 

xiii, t. 2, f. 5, 219 

87, 88. Levantina bellardi Mouss. Rossm. v, f. 1168, . . 231 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 295 

IFIGURE. PAGE. 

89. Levantina bellardii var. occlusa. Bourg. Moll. Litig. 

etc. i, t. 15, f. 5, . . . . . ^ . .231 

90-92. Levantina ceratomma Pfr. Novit. Conch, i, t. 12, f. 

1, 3, 4, . . . . % 231 

92a, 92b. Iberus strigata Mull, Rossm. Icon., vii, f. 1837, . 218 

PLATE 67. 

93. Pomatia lucorum Mull. Rossm. i, f. 291, . . . 239 

94. Pomatia lucorum var. rumelica Mouss. Ibid. f. 1026, . 240 

96. Pomatia lucorum var. elongata Bourg. Ibid. 1027, . 240 

95. Pomatia lucorum var. taurica Kryn. Ibid. f. 1481, . 241 

97. Pomatia lucorum var. euphratica Mart. Ibid. f. 1023, . 240 

98. Pomatia pachya Bourg. Amen. Mai. ii, t. 21, f. 8, 6, . 248 

99. Pomatia subplicata Sowb. Specimen 236 

100. Pomatia philibinensis Rossm. Rossm. ii, f. 581, . . 249 

1. Pomatia ligata var. calabrica Kob. Ibid, iv, f. 1037, . 243 

2. Levantina ghilanica Mouss. Ibid, v, f. 1384, . . 231 

3. Levantina ghilanica Mouss. Jour, de Conch. 1876, t. 2, f. 

4, 231 

4-6. Iberus argentarolse Paul. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xii, t. 

1, f. 5, 5a, 5b, 223 

7. Cochlicella opposita Mouss. Jour, de Conch. 1887, t. 12, 

f. 2, 257 

PLATE 68. 

8. Pomatia pomatia L. var. sabulosa Hazay. Rossm, Icon. 

vi, f. 1971, . 237 

9. Pomatia pomatia var. hajnaldiana Haz. Ibid. f. 1975, . 237 

10. Pomatia pomatia var. sabulosa Hazay. Ibid. f. 1972, . 237 

11. Pomatia pomatia var. gesneri Hartm. Ibid., v, f. 14^8, 237 

12. Pomatia schliiffli Mouss. Ibid., v, f. 1477, . . . 241 

13. 14. Pomatia tristis Pfr. Ibid., iv, f. 1049, . . .255 

15. Pomata pomatia var. pulskyana Hazay. Ibid., vi,f. 1969, 237 

16. Pomatia nilotica Bourg. Moll, litig., etc. i, t. 2, f. 10, . 249 
17-19. Iberus ragusse Kob. Rossm. Icon., N. F. i, f. 115, . 208 
20, 21. Pomatia lutescena Zgl. Ibid., v, f. 1486, . . 250 
22, 23. Xeroleuca cyclostremoides Sowerby. P. Z. S., 1888, 

t. 11, f. 14, 256 

PLATE 69. 

24, 25. Pomatia godetiana Kobelt. Rossm. Icon., vii, f. 1807, 

1808, . 253 

26. Pomatia figulina Parr. Specimen, .... 247 

27. Pomatia asemnis Bourg. Amenites Mai. i, t. 24, f. 4, . 245 

28. Pomatia cincta Mull. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 584, . . 245 

29. Pomatia vulgaris var. bicinata Dub. Ibid, v, f. 1485, . 250 

30. Pomatia ambigua Parr. Specimen. .... 244 
31. Pomatia ambigua var. thiesseana Kob. Rossm. Icon., vii, 

f. 1805, 244 



296 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



FIGURE. PAGE. 

32, 33. Pomatia cavata Mouss. Ibid, v, f. 1488. . . . 252 
34, 35. Lysinoe humboldtiana Val. Moll. Mex. et 1'Am. 

Cent. t. 11, f. 1, la 260 

36. Lysinoe humboldtiana Val. Specimen, . . . 260 

37. Lysinoe humboldtiana var. buffbniana Pfr. Moll. Mex. et 

1'Am. Cent. t. 11, f. 2, 260 




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