(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species. Second series: Pulmonata"



EART 



REESE LIB: 



cSKHtNlVERSfrY OF CALIFO 

LIBRARY 



ccessions 




:^M 



SECOND SERIES: PULMONATA. 



MANUAL 



OF 



CONCHQLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W, TRYON, JR. 

CONTINUED BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY. 

CONSERVATOR OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE ACADEMY OF 
NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



Vol. 

HELICID^, Vol. IV. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Conehological Section, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. COR. IQTH AND RACE STS. 
1890. 



UNIVERSITY 



EARTH 

SCISN 
LIBRARY 









.U 





BINDER & KELLY, PRINTERS, 518 AND 520 MINOR STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



PREFACE. 



The present volume is devoted to the oriental Helices, including 
the large species of Japan, China, the East Indies, Australia, 
Madagascar and Ceylon. First place has been given to Stegodera, a 
Chinese group of uncertain affinities, containing forms with curiously 
toothed and contorted apertures. Pedinogyra and Ampelita follow, 
each of these being apparently an isolated group, not united by 
known characters to other subgenera. A number of groups are 
then discussed which the writer has brought together on account of 
the novel character of their ova, which are relatively enormous, the 
embryonic shell often exceeding one-third the diameter of the adult. 
To this macr embryonic group, as it may be termed, belong Helico- 
phanta, Stylodonta, Acavus and Panda the largest of Helices. The 
great series of which Hadra, Xanthomelon and Sphcerospira are lead- 
ing forms is then considered ; and finally are monographed Plani- 
spira, Obba, Chloritis, and the forms grouping around them. 

Philadelphia, April, 1890. H. A. P. 




MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY, 



FAMILY HELICIDJE, Vol. IV. 
Genus HELIX, Linn. (Continued.) 



Subgenus XV. STEGODERA (Martens) Pilsbry. 

Under the above title may be grouped a number of peculiar 
Helices, figured on pi. I of this volume. They range from the Yang- 
tsze River in Central China to Cambodia. These shells have a certain 
similarity to the American groups Cepolis and Polygyra, and to the 
Indian and Ceylonese Plectopylis and Gorilla. But they are in all 
probability a distinct phylum, which may be given the same rank as 
the assemblages called "groups" in the previous volume of this 
MANUAL. 

The anatomy is unknown. The shells are depressed, umbilicated, 
dark colored, granulate, often with hairy cuticle. The aperture is 
very oblique, and always obstructed in some way ; either by teeth or 
folds, or by a constriction of the last whorl. The systematic position 
of the subgenus can only be determined by a study of the soft parts. 
I have used Martens' name Stegodera in an extended sense, as it is 
the oldest proposed for a member of this group of forms now for the 
first time associated. 

The species of the subgenus may be separated into two main 
divisions; (1) those with crescentic or rounded-lunar aperture, and 
(2) those with triangular mouth. Further than this, I do not think 
the several sections proposed have much taxonomic value. They 
may be grouped thus : 

I. Aperture crescentic or rounded-lunar ; folds or teeth if present, 
not developed from the margin ofperistome; parietal callus very light. 

a. Sinistral, the last whorl distorted ; no teeth or folds within. 

STEGODERA 
(5) 



6 HELIX-STEGODERA. 

b. Dextral, whorls regular. ; lamellae within outer lip. 

TRAUMATOPHORA. 

II. Aperture trigonal or squarish ; teeth or folds developed from the 
inner edge of peristome ; the ends of which are joined by a parietal 
callus. 

a. Parietal callus scarcely elevated, not toothed; spire flat or 

sunken, TRIHELIX. 

b. Parietal wall elevated, toothed ; peristome free, continuous. 

MOELLENDORFFIA. 

The characters of each of these subdivisions are given more in 
detail in the following. 

Synopsis of Sections of the Subgenus Stegodera. 

Section I. STEGODERA Martens, s. sir. 

Shell sinistral, discoidal, umbilicate ; inner whorls slowly increas- 
ing, regular ; latter half of the last whorl straightened, covering the 
preceding whorl above; aperture narrowly lunar, without teeth; 
peristome narrowly reflexed ; throat very narrow. Type, H. angust- 

icollis Mart. 

Central China. 

Section II. TRAUMATOPHORA Ancey. 

Shell discoidal, umbilicate, spire low, whorls slowly widening; 
surface granulate ; body-whorl rounded, deflexed in front ; aperture 
rounded lunar, oblique, with three entering lamellae within the outer 
and basal lips, their positions marked outside by long grooves. Type, 
H. triscalpta Mart. 

Central China. 

Section III. TRIHELIX Ancey. 

Shell discoidal, with flat or sunken spire ; umbilicus funnel-shaped, 
wide; surface granulate, hirsute; last whorl rounded, descending 
anteriorly ; aperture trigonal, with a tooth on the basal and one on 
the outer-superior lip, their positions marked by external pits or 
grooves ; peristome reflexed, continuous. Type, H. horrida Pfr. 

China, Cambodia. 

Section IV. MOELLENDORFFIA Ancey. 

Shell depressed, the spire convex ; umbilicus rather narrow ; 
surface granulate, hirsute in the young; last whorl descending 



HELIX-STEGODERA. 7 

anteriorly, then suddenly deflexed, becoming free from the preceding ; 
aperture trigonal or squarish, nearly horizontal, with teeth on the 
basal and outer lips, and on the elevated parietal margin ; peristome 
expanded all around. Type, H. trisinuata Mart. 

South-eastern China, Tonquin. 



Section I. STEGODERA Martens, sensu stricto, 1876. 

Stegodera MART, in Novitates Conchologicse iv, p. 150, 1876. 

Stegodera in the restricted sense comprises only one species of 
Central China, remarkable for its sinistral convolution, distorted last 
whorl, crescentic aperture and narrow throat. It may possibly be 
allied to such species as H. arbusticola and rupelli Desh., which are 
dark colored, granulate forms, but I regard this as doubtful. The 
affinity with H. triscalpta seems much nearer. 

H. ANGUSTICOLLIS Martens. PL 1, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Shell sinistral, umbilicate, depressed, last whorl irregular, its latter 
half straightened, embracing and covering part of the two preceding 
whorls of spire. 

Discoidal, solid, opaque, slightly shining, rich chestnut brown ; 
surface densely, minutely granulated on the last whorl, the whorls 
of the spire arcuately striate, more shining, not granulate. Spire a 
little convex ; apex blunt, whitish ; whorls 5, quite convex, separated 
by well-impressed sutures, slowly widening, the last whorl very wide, 
its latter portion (nearly one-half) straightened, very tumid, embrac- 
ing the preceding and part of the next inner whorl, deeply descending 
anteriorly to about the middle of the preceding whorl. Aperture 
extremely oblique, narrowly lunar, dark within, the peristome nar- 
rowly reflexed, brown above, white on the baso-columellar portion ; 
parietal wall with a mere wash of transparent callus. Throat 
extremely narrow. Umbilicus deep, cylindrical. 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 28-30, lesser 22 mill. 

On the Lake Po-yang, Province of Kiang-si ; Right bank of the 
Yang-tsze River, between Kiou-kiang and Hwang-tschoii. 

H. angusticollis~M.A.RT., Sitz. Ges. nat. Fr. Berl., Jan. 1875, p. 2 ; 
Mai. Bl. xxii, 1875, p. 185. PFEIFFER, Monographia vii, p. 449 ; 
Novitates Conch, iv, p. 149, t.-184, f. 7-10. HEUDE, Moll. Terr. 
Vallee Fleuve Bleu, p. 36, t. 15, f. 8. 



8 HELIX-STEGODERA. 

Heude mentions a rare form, corneous or pure white within. The 
animal is grayish-black, with a yellow dorsal line ; the foot is black- 
ish, bordered with white. 

This is one of the strangest forms of Helix. The whorls are 
regular in increase until the latter half of the last, which is straight- 
ened, concealing part of the spire, and excessively narrow in the 
throat. The specimens before me are even more marked in these 
anomalous characters than those figured by Von Martens. They 
are also larger than the figures on pi. I. 

Section II. TRAUMATOPHORA Ancey, 1887. 

Traumatophora ANC. in the Conchologists' Exchange, April, 1887, 
p. 54. 

H. TRISCALPTA Martens. PI. 1, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Shell depressed, umbilicate, obliquely irregularly striate above, 
pale ; whorls 5, forming a slightly convex spire, slowly widening, the 
first smooth, obliquely protruding, the last rounded, inflated beneath, 
suddenly passing into the moderate umbilicus ; before reaching the 
aperture the whorl is constricted and marked by three linear, 
angular, obliquely descending impressions, then it suddenly descends. 
Aperture small, very oblique to the axis, rounded-lunar ; peristome 
thickened, reflexed, white, with two lip folds within, and a third basal 
fold, none of which extend to the edge of the peristome. (Martens.) 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 31, lesser 25 mill. 

Alt. 13-18, greater diam. 28-38, lesser 23-32 mill. 

Between the Yang-tse-Kiang and its affluents, Han-Kiang and 
Hwai ; Province of Hu-pe (Heude) ; around Lake Po-yang, Province 
of Kiang-sij China. 

H. triscalpta MARTENS, Sitz. Ges. nat. Fr. Berlin, Jan. 1875, p. 
2; Mai. Bl. xxii, 1875, p. 185. PFR., Monographia vii, p. 443; 
Novitates Couch, iv, p. 148, t. 184, f. 1-4. HEUDE, Notes sur les 
Moll. Terr, de la Vallee du Fleuve Bleu, p. 35, t. 15, f. 7. 

It is not a common species, according to Heude, but inhabits a 
vast area. On the Yang-tse-Kiang River, between Hwang-tchou 
and Kiou-Kiang, Province of Hu-pe, there is a small variety, with 
flattened spire. The large variety prefers an altitude of 1200 to 
1500 meters, it inhabits the triangle formed by the confluence of 
the Han-Kiang with the Yang-tse-Kiang. 

The animal, according to Heude, is blackish-ashen above, livid 
white beneath ; it is slender, the head more attenuated. 



HELIX-STEGODERA. 9 

Section III. TRIHELIX Ancey, 1887. 

Trihelix ANC. in The Conchologists' Exchange, May, 1887, p. 64. 
Cepolis (in part) of authors. 

To the type of Trihelix, H. horrida, I have added two Chinese 
species which seem to belong here rather than with H. triscalpta. 
This section is closely related to Mollendorffia ; the latter name has 
priority. 

H. HORRIDA Pfeiffer. PL 1, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, depressed, spire concave, aperture tri- 
angular, lip 2-toothed. 

Discoidal, decidedly concave above, rather thin, light brown in 
color. Surface dull, with very minute and sparsely scattered granules, 
visible only under a lens, and small tubercles arranged in quincunx, 
standing about one mill, apart, each one bearing a. stiff hair or bristle 
from J to 1 mill, in length. Spire sunken, apex rather coarse, plan- 
orboid ; whorls 4i, very convex, the last more than double the width 
of the preceding, very convex above and below, deeply descending 
toward the aperture, having a deep pit behind the lip above, and 
another a short distance preceding it, both above the periphery ; on 
the base there is a deep pit partly concealed by the expanded lip, 
and a groove running obliquely into the umbilicus from it. Aper- 
ture ,very oblique, subtriangular, liver-brown, peristome reflexed all 
around, parietal margin a little elevated, the upper lip bearing a large 
tubercular tooth, the straight basal lip a similar one ; there is also a 
deep-seated tubercle within the mouth at the position of the second 
supra-peripheral pit of the outside. Umbilicus broad, funnel-shaped. 

Alt. 8, greater diam. 19, lesser 14? mill. 

Laos Mts.j Cambodia. 

H. horrida PFR. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1862, p. 272, t. 36, f. 15 ; 
Monographia v, p. 395 ; Novitates Conchol. iii, p. 399, t. 92, f. 17- 
19. DOHRN, Continuation of Kiister's Conch yl. Cab., p. 579, t. 170, 
f. 8-10. 

A peculiar species, distinct in its concave spire, broad umbilicus 
and hairy cuticle. The single specimen before me agrees in all 
respects with Pfeiffer's original description. 

H. BISCALPTA Heude. PI. 1, figs. 25, 26, 27. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, irregularly discoidal, the spire plane, 
apex subconcave, whorls 5, cylindrical, much compressed ; epidermis 



10 HELIX-STEGODERA. 

brown, minutely roughened at the apex, with long, spirally disposed,, 
sparse, tubercles on the whorls; aperture very oblique, with two 
external sulci, dentate above and below ; upper sulcus arcuate, 
almost equaling the diaineter of the disc, the columellar excavated 
into the umbilicus, both appearing as palatal lamella inside ; peristome 
thin, narrow, reflexed, continuous, nearly free; umbilicus open,, 
conic. (Heude.') 

Alt. 9, greater diam. 22, lesser 17 mill. 

Tchen-K'eou, China.. 

H. biscalpta HEUDE, Moll. Valle*e Fleuve Bleu, p. 113, t. 29, f. 10. 

May be hairy when perfect ; described from specimens in bad 
condition. The pit behind the baso-columellar lip is not represented 
in fig. 25. It is formed about as in H. horrida Pfr. 

This species and the following seem to be nearer to H. horrida 
Pfr. than to H. triscalpta Mart. 

H. FABERIANA Mollendorff. 

Shell rather openly umbilicate, discoidal, solid, minutely granu- 
lated with transverse stria? and spiral lines, in the young with rather 
long, sparse hairs ; purplish-brown ; spire plane, apex scarcely 
projecting ; whorls 5, nearly flat, the last flat above, obtusely angula- 
ted, inflated beneath, gibbous, a little distorted, obtusely angled around 
the umbilicus, and with two impressions near the aperture, the basal 
short, the upper one longer, forming lamellae within ; shortly deflexed 
anteriorly. Aperture very oblique, cordiform ; peristome broadly 
expanded, labiate, a little reflexed, the margins remote, scarcely 
joined by a callus, outer margin sinuous, basal dentate. (Mlldff.) 

Alt. 7 2, greater diam. 18, lesser 15 mill. 

Mt. Omi, province Sytshuan, China.. 

H.faberiana MLLDFF. Nachrichtsbl. D. Mai. Gesell. 1888, p. 40. 

Differs from If. biscalpta Heude in being smaller, the last whorl 
angular above, peristome scarcely continuous, the scrobiculations or 
grooves, especially the upper one, shorter, etc. (Mlldff.*) 

Section IV. MOELLENDORFFIA Ancey, 1887. 

Mollendorfia ANC. in the Conchologists' Exchange, May, 1887, p* 
64. Proctostoma MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Malac. de France iv, p. 102 r 
103, 104, 1887 (Received at Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 
Jan. 10, 1888). Polygyra of Gredler and others. 



HELIX-STEGODERA. 11 

H. TRISINUATA Martens. PL 1, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, the spire low ; color dark brown, 
opaque ; aperture very oblique, obstructed by four teeth, the per- 
istome white, continuous, expanded and reflected. 

The form is depressed convex above and below, obtusely carinated 
above the middle of the body whorl. It is solid, opaque, dark 
brown or sometimes yellowish-brown, darker on the latter third of 
the body-whorl. Surface lusterless, covered all over with a micro- 
scopic granulation, and with a rather coarse pattern of tubercles ar- 
ranged in very oblique rows, often forming short folds at the periph- 
ery, and disappearing in the vicinity of the umbilicus. Spire low, 
rounded, flattened at apex ; apical whorl large (commencing with a 
width of f mill.), microscopically granulated. Suture slightly im- 
pressed, from apex to termination. Whorls 4J, the inner slightly 
convex, the outer two flatter ; they increase slowly in width, the last 
narrowing toward the aperture ; last whorl obtusely carinated above 
its middle, descending anteriorly, becoming free from the preceding 
at the aperture, and deeply grooved or scrobiculate behind the outer 
lip by an oblique pit within the umbilicus, a deep narrow curved one 
below the periphery, and a small one just above it. Aperture sub- 
horizontal, triangular, dark purplish-brown inside, the peristome 
pure white, broadly expanded all around, the basal margin bearing 
a square tooth, the outer margin a strong entering fold, with a 
smaller one above it, the parietal wall elevated, emarginate, with an 
inward-projecting tubercle or angle. Umbilicus deep, as wide within 
as at its opening. 

Alt. 11, diam. maj. 19, min. 17 mill. 

Alt. 9, diam. maj. 16 mill. 

Island of Hong-Kong ; Ma-aa-shan Mts., Province of Kwang-tung > 
China. 

H. trisinuata MARTENS, Die Preuss. Exped. nach Ost-Asien, 
Landschn., p. 50 (1867). PFEIFFER in Novit. Conch, iii, p. 352, t. 
82, f. 16-18 ; Monographia v, p. 412 ; vii, p. 465. MOLLEN.DORFF, 
in Jahrb. d. Mai. Gesell. viii, p. 302, 303 ; and 1. c. xi, p. 309, 1884. 
Polygyra trisinuata Mart., GREDLER, Mai. Blatt. 1887, p. 129. 
H. trisinuata var. sculptilis MOLLENDORFF, Jabrbucher, 1884, p. 
310, t. 4, f. 7. 

Mollendorff says (Jahrb. d. D. Mai. Gesell. 1884, p. 310) that H. 
trisinuata is found only near Cape d'Aguilar near the village of Shek- 
ko, on the Island of Hong-Kong. It-lives deep in rocky debris, and 



12 HELIX-STEGODERA. 

is very scarce. Another locality is on the mainland around Mirs 
Bay. It is probably distributed throughout the central portions of 
the province Kwang-tung. 

The nucleus consists of H rather wide, convex but planorboid 
whorls, which are very delicately microscopically shagreened. The 
whorl is a little narrowed where the nuclear whorls give place to the 
post-embryonic growth. The latter has a microscopic granulation 
and coarse tuberculation as described in the text. 

Var. SCULPTILIS Mollendorff. PL 1, figs. 23, 24. 

Smaller, the whorls more convex, tuberculation stronger, the gran- 
ules and tubercles generally whitish. Alt. 8-9, diam. maj. 16-16 
mill. 

Lo-fou-shan Mts., back of Canton, China. 

H. EASTLAKEANA Mollendorff. PL 1, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed-conoidal, with oblique ear- 
shaped aperture, the peristome free, continuous, basal margin with 
two teeth. 

Low-conoidal above, convex below, rather thin but opaque, dark 
reddish-brown, the aperture liver-brown; surface lusterless, the 
whorls sculptured with tubercles which form backward directed 
obliquely descending folds above and below the periphery; spire 
rather elevated, conoidal, blunt at apex ; nuclear whorl rather large, 
planorboid, convex ; suture evenly impressed. Whorls 5, slowly, 
regularly widening, the last whorl scarcely wider than the penulti- 
mate, obtusely carinated, slightly convex below the periphery, slowly 
descending toward the aperture and then suddenly becoming free 
from the preceding whorl. There are two pits behind the basal lip, 
one near the umbilicus, the other near the periphery. Aperture 
triangular or ear-shaped, the peristome narrowly expanded, contin- 
uous ; parietal wall elevated, emarginate, obtusely projecting inward ; 
outer lip with an acute fold where it joins the basal lip ; the latter 
with a smaller square tooth ; umbilicus narrow, partly concealed by 
the inner angle of the peristome. 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 20, lesser 18 mill. ; umbilicus 2 mill. wide. 

Alt. 151, greater diam. 23 , lesser 21 mill. 

In a ravine of Tai-mo-shan, mainland, opposite Hong-Kong. 

H. eastlakeana MLLDFF., Jahrbiicher D. M. Ges. ix, p. 185, 
1882; 1. c. xi, p. 311, 1884; I. c. xii, p. 391, 1885, t. 10, f. 18. 
Polygyra eastlakeana Mlldff., GREDLER, Mai. Bl. ix, p. 129, 1887. 



HEL1X-PEDINOGYRA. 13 

I have seen but a single specimen of this beautiful and rare 
species, and that without a cuticle. It differs from H. trisinuata in 
the higher spire, narrower umbilicus, and in lacking the upper lip- 
tooth of that species. Young specimens have pretty long bristle-like 
hairs upon the warts of the surface, which are lost in the adult. 

H. LOXOTATUM Mabille. PL 1, figs. 18, 19, 20. 

Shell widely, deeply umbilicated, destitute of cuticle and color, 
rather solid, lusterless, covered above and below with a sculpture 
of large sharp tubercles arranged in rows ; spire plane ; apex small, 
scarcely projecting; whorls 5-5 J, rounded, narrow, rapidly and 
regularly increasing, separated by a well-impressed suture ; the last 
whorl large, above double the width of the preceding one, rounded, 
compressed below the periphery, convex around the umbilicus, a 
little descending in front and then abruptly deflexed, free from the 
preceding whorl, profoundly scrobiculate on the outer, basal and 
columellar margins behind the lip. The aperture is horizontal, with 
continuous toothed margins. There is a strong tuberculous but not 
entering tooth on the parietal wall ; two somewhat entering folds on 
the outer wall, the upper one pointed, the other large, entering ; and 
finally a deep-seated columellar tooth. The peristome is thin, well- 
expanded. Alt. 8, greater diam. 19, lesser 16 mill. (Mabille.) 

Tonquin. 

Helix loxotatum MABILLE, Moll. Tonk. diagn., p. 5, May, 1887. 
Prodostoma loxotatum MAB. Bull. Soc. Mai. France iv, p. 102, t. 1, 
figs. 1, 2, 3. (Received at Philadelphia Jan. 10, 1888.) 

Allied to H. trisinuata, but with wider last whorl, wider umbilicus, 
and differently shaped aperture. 

H. HENSANIENSIS Gredler. 

The description of this form is not now accessible to me. 

Subgenus XVI. PEDINOGYRA Albers, 1860. 

Pedinogyra ALBERS, Die Heliceen, 2d ed., p. 162 (type H. cun- 
ninghami Gray). PFEIFFER, Noment. Hel. Viv., p. 184. Macro- 
cyclis BECK, and of Pfeiffer and Cox, olim. 

Shell large, discoidal, solid, opaque and colored; very broadly 
umbilicated ; spire very low ; whorls 5-6, the last very large, deeply 
deflexed anteriorly ; aperture oblong, nearly horizontal, lip a trifle 
expanded ; base compressed behind the baso-columellar lip. Type, 
H. cunninghami Gray. 



14 HELIX-PEDINOGYRA. 

A subgenus of doubtful affinities. The two known species are 
confined to Eastern Australia. 

H. CUNNINGHAMI Gray. PL 2, figs. 28, 29, 30, 31. 

Shell very broadly umbilicated, spire slightly convex ; color yel- 
lowish or greenish, with brown spiral bands ; body-whorl not dis- 
tinctly carinated. 

Discoidal, very broad, somewhat oblong or transversely inflated, 
solid and strong, opaque, greenish-yellow with numerous encircling 
bands and lines of brown ; generally light (but sometimes dark) 
within the umbilicus. Surface with close, irregular fine growth- 
wrinkles, decussated above the periphery and within the umbilicus 
by numerous fine but indistinct spiral impressed lines. Spire a lit- 
tle convex, whorls 5? ; apex flattened, earlier whorls with distinct 
arcuate growth folds but no spiral lines. Whorls of the spire con- 
vex, slowly increasing ; last whorl very wide, convex-sloping above, 
very convex beneath ; its latter third rapidly widening ; toward 
the aperture it descends nearly to the base of the preceding whorl, 
and behind the baso-columellar lip it is broadly constricted. Aper- 
ture horizontal, truncate-oblong, deep chocolate within ; peristome 
thick, narrowly expanded, the margins joined by a shining callus, 
basal and upper margins white, the outer portion dark brown. 
Umbilicus broad and deep, showing all the volutions. 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 64, lesser 47 mill. 

Brisbane to Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia. 

H. cunninghami GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1834, p. 64. 
GRIFFITH'S Cuviers' Anim. Kingd., t. 36, f. 4. PFEIFFER Mono- 
graphia i, p. 374; Conchyl. Cab., t. 130, f. 11-13. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 363. Cox, Mon. Austr. Land Sh., p. 52, t. 1, f. 5, 5a. 
MOUSSON in Journ. de Conchyl. 1869, p. 60 (var. minor, alt. 18, 
diam. 52 mill., scarcely angled at periphery ; compressa, more de- 
pressed, last whorl more acutely angled, compressed, olive with dark 
lines). Macrocyclis cunninghami Gray, BECK, Index, p. 24. FRAU- 
ENFELD in Verh. zool-bot. Ges. Wien, 1869, p. 876. H. tupinieri 
EYDOUX, in Guerins' Mag. de Zool. 1838, pi. 114. H. (Pedinogyra, 
cunninghami Gray, ALBERS, Die Heliceen 2d ed. p. 162. HEDLEY, 
List Queensl. Land Sh. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. v, p. 62, 1888 ; 
loc. cit. vi, p. 63 (anatomy), 1889. 



HELIX-PEDINOGYRA. 15 

A very variable form in size and coloration. The lip is sometimes 
entirely black. The largest specimen before me measures, alt. 23, 
greater diam. 80, lesser 61 mill. ; the smallest, alt. 18, greater diam. 
47, lesser 37 mill. 

H. MUHLFELDTIANA Pfeiffer. PI. 2, figs, 35, 36. 

Shell discoidal, smaller, duller, darker colored and more carinated 
than H. cunninghami. 

Broadly umbilicate, convex above, solid, opaque, lusterless, 
chocolate-colored, lighter brown on the spire; sculpture as in cun- 
ninghami but less distinct. Whorls 5, a little convex, the last very 
broad, carinated at the periphery, compressed above and below the 
carina, descending about to the carina at the aperture, and flattened 
or excavated behind the columellar lip; aperture subhorizontal, 
truncate oblong, white within, the peristome not thickened, chocolate 
-colored, scarcely expanded. Umbilicus very wide, showing all the 
whorls. 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 58, lesser 42 mill. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 47, lesser 36 mill. 

Richmond River, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

H. muhlfeldtiana PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1852, p. 156; 
Monographia iii, p. 157 ; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 393, 1. 143, f. 26-28. 
Cox, Monogr. Austr. Land Sh., p. 53, t. 6, f. 2. H. rotabilis, 
KEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 361. 

Smaller than H. cunninghami, of a nearly uniform dull chocolate 
or chestnut-brown color. The mouth is white inside but the lip is 
broadly edged with dark brown. It is nearly allied to the cunning- 
hami, but I have seen no intermediate specimens. 



H. CANALICULATA Pfeiffer. Unfigured. 

Shell orbicular-ovate, very widely umbilicate, depressed, a little 
convex, very thin, fragile, subhyaline, epidermis yellowish-brown, 
beneath yellowish-green ; spire obtuse ; whorls 5, convex ; separa- 
ted by a profound, channeled suture ; obliquely very densely, 
deeply, undulately striate, the strise wrinkle-like on the under 
surface, separated, irregular, very delicate ; under a lens seen to be 
Tery densely concentrically striate ; umbilicus large, dilated to the 



16 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

apex ; aperture ovate, whitish, a little reflexed ; upper lip depressed 
outside. Alt. 20, diam. 47 mill. (Guilt.} 

Triton Bay, New Guinea. Very rare. 

H. undulata LE GUILLOU, Revue Zool. 1845, p. 187 (not H. 
undulata Fer.). H. canaliculata PFR., Monographia i, p. 199. H. 
(Pedinogyra) canaliculata Pfr., ALBERS Die Heliceen, 2d ed., p. 
162. PFEIFFER, Noment. Hel. Viv., p. 184. TAPPARONE-CANEFRI. 
Fauna Mai. della Nouva Guinea, in Ann. Mus. Civ. di Storia 
Naturale di Genova xix, p. 160, 1883. 

A species known only by Le Guillou's original description. It is a 
doubtful member of this subgenus ; the description seems to indicate 
a shell resembling Macrocyclis laxata. 

Subgenus XVII. AMPELITA Beck, 1837. 

Ampelita BECK, Index Moll., p. 30. ALBERS, Die Heliceen (ed. 
Martens), p. 163. PFR. Nomentel. Hel. Viv., p. 184. 

Plates 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 62 and 63 contain 
figures of Ampelita. 

The subgenus Ampelita is one of the most numerous and char- 
acteristic groups of Madagascar land shells. The species may be 
divided into two sections: (1) AMPELITA, comprising shells of 
(generally) large size, depressed form, the umbilicus open, the aper- 
ture decidedly wider than high, periphery often angular or keeled, 
peristome expanded or reflexed, surface frequently granulate or 
sculptured ; and (2) POECILOSTYLUS, including imperforate, globose, 
polished species, intensely colored, banded, the peristome very nar- 
rowly expanded, aperture as high or higher than wide. 

The species are mostly known by but few examples ; the extent 
of variation is therefore little understood, and the danger of multiply- 
ing species founded on inconstant characters correspondingly great. 
There are, nevertheless, a considerable number of undoubtedly well- 
defined specific forms, and probably many more to be discovered, as 
the island is still but imperfectly explored. Of the geographical 
distribution of the several forms, not much is known ; I have given 
exact localities in the text when known to me. 

The anatomy of Ampelita is unknown. 

I have grouped the species by certain obvious and natural char- 
acters, around a number of characteristic types, as follows : 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 17 

Group of H. sepulchral Per. Globose-depressed, carinated or 
rounded ; upper lip of aperture broadly expanded and reflexed ; 
basal lip narrower, reflexed. 

Group of H. omphalodes Pfr. Depressed, often bluntly angled 
but not acutely keeled ; peristome narrowly expanded and reflexed 
all around, scarcely more widely above than below. 

Group of H. xystera Val. Periphery acutely keeled ; peristome 
narrowly expanded all around, or not at all expanded above. 

Group of If. lanx Fer. Shell large, depressed, usually malleated ; 
umbilicus decussated inside ; peristome narrowly reflexed below, 
upper margin scarcely expanded. 

Group of H. duvallii Petit. Depressed ; rounded or not acutely 
keeled ; umbilicus moderate ; peristome narrowly expanded all 
around, blunt ; parietal callous heavy. 

Species not grouped, including a number of diverse forms not seen 
by me, which do not seem to belong to any of the foregoing groups. 



NOTE ON THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF MADAGASCAR. This great 

island, says Wallace, is situated about 250 miles from the east coast 
of Africa, and extends from 12 to 25 S. lat. It is almost exactly 
1000 miles long, with an extreme width of 360 and an average width 
of more than 260 miles. A lofty granitic plateau, from 80 to 160 
miles wide, and from 3000 to 5000 feet high, occupies its central por- 
tion on which rise peaks and domes of basalt and granite to a height 
of nearly 9000 feet. There are also numerous extinct volcanic cones 
and craters (Island Life, p. 377). 

The central elevated region is surrounded by extensive plains, ly- 
ing much lower, and widest to the west and south. It is encircled 
by a continuous zone of dense forest, from six to fifty miles wide, 
and except in the northeast, about thirty miles inland. The entire 
island is well watered. The rivers are numerous but small. Many 
of those on the eastern slope cutting their way in magnificent gorges 
through the ramparts of the inland plateau. . 



Section AMPELITA s. s. 
Group of H. sepulchralis Fer. 

These shells have the upper part of the lip very broadly expanded 
and reflexed, much broader than the basal margin. Most of the 
2 



18 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

species have a tendency toward the formation of a slightly saliant 
point in the middle of the upper lip, marked by a slight groove 
behind the revolute peristome. The following analysis of species 
may perhaps be of use. 

(1.) Umbilicus constricted and narrowed within ; upper surface 
of body- whorl with a spiral depression ; parietal callus strong, 
opaque. H. hova, lamarei, sakalava, watersi. 

(2.) Umbilicus wider ; body-whorl not grooved above ; parietal 
callus strong, opaque. H. subsepulchralis. 

(3.) Umbilicus narrow ; parietal callus thin. H. stragulum. 

(4.) Umbilicus broad, open to the apex ; parietal callous thin, 
subtranslucent. H. sepulchralis, funebris, atropos?, eurychila, ex- 
coriata, cadaverosus. 

H. SEPULCHRALIS Ferussac. PI. 3, figs. 38, 89, 40, 41, 42. 

Shell widely perspectively umbilicate, broad and depressed, with a 
spiral depression ascending the spire on the upper surface. 

Broad, subdiscoidal, solid, opaque, dark chocolate colored, lighter 
chestnut on the spire, and often with a light zone bounding 
the umbilicus. Surface shining, nearly smooth, with fine growth- 
strise and ill-defined fine spiral lines ; under a lens seen to be very 
densely and minutely but obscurely granulate. Spire low, apex 
whitish ; sutures deep. Whorls 4, convex, usually with a depres- 
sion around the outer part ; the last whorl very wide, concave and 
sloping above, but tumid just below the sutures, convex and slightly 
flattened on the base, a little descending at the aperture. Aperture 
very oblique, bluish inside, the outer and upper lips broadly expanded, 
reflexed, basal lip narrowly expanded and reflexed ; terminations of 
the peristome approaching, connected by a thin translucent callous. 
Umbilicus broad, funnel-shaped, showing all the whorls to the apex. 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 48, lesser 36 mill. 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 39, lesser 30 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. sepulchralis FEB., Histoire, t. 75, f. 1 ; t. 75 C, f. 4, 5, 11, 12. 
PFEIFFER Monographia i, p. 374 (description but not synony- 
my !) ; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 104, t. 14, f. 5, 6? ANGAS in P. Z. 
S. 1877, p. 803, t. 80, f. 1, 2. KEEVE, Conch. Icon., 147a H. la- 
brella LAM. An. s. Vert., p. 73. CHENU, Illust. Conchyl. iii, t. 5, 
f. 14. 

This species has a broader umbilicus than either hova or lamarei. 
The last whorl is obliquely waved or wrinkled in the spiral depres- 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 19 

sion above, although sometimes not very obviously. The base is 
either unicolored, or has, as in Ferussac's types, a spiral light zone 
around the umbilicus. It is a broader, larger species than either 
hova, lamarei or subsepulchralis, and in fact is perfectly distinct from 
either of these. 

Typical SEPULCHRALIS is chocolate colored, with lighter brown 
spire, with or without a light circum-umbilical band. 

A color-variety which may be called OLIVACEA is yellowish-olive 
or light olive-brown with darker (purple, pink or dark brown) spire, 
with or without a basal band (fig. 39). 

Var. FUNEBRIS Martens. PL 3, figs. 43, 44, 45. 

Broadly umbilicated, depressed, lightly striatulate and obsoletely 
spirally lined, blackish-brown, unicolored ; spire scarcely projecting ; 
whorls 4J, rapidly increasing, the penultimate and last with a rather 
broad impressed spiral sulcus above, the last somewhat convex on 
the base, angulated around the funnel-shaped umbilicus, deflexed 
anteriorly ; aperture very oblique, elliptical-oval, grayish-blue inside, 
margins approaching, the upper broadly reflexed, somewhat arched, 
the lower narrowly reflexed, arcuate, columella a little dilated above. 
Alt. 23, greater diam. 51, lesser 38 mill. Distinguished from the 
normal sepulchralis by the greater size, uniform blackish-brown color, 
without bands (only in places, especially on the penultimate whorl, 
there is a modification of the epidermis in the form of narrow 
grayish-white bands, similar to those of many Cochlostylas) and the 
malleated sculpture of the last whorl. (Martens.) 

Von Marten's description is translated above. His figures, copied 
on pi. 3, are probably too -highly colored. 

H. CADAVEROSUS PUsbry. PL 62, figs. 29, 30, 31. 

Shell large, depressed, subdiscoidal, with a deep, funnel-shaped 
umbilicus ; solid, opaque, dark chestnut colored, more or less covered 
with white or cream-colored bloom, like many Cochlostylas; this 
over-color is hydrophanous, disappearing if the shell be thoroughly 
wetted ; it is irregularly diffused over the surface with narrow 
oblique streaks .and spirals of more opaque creamy and of chestnut 
color; there is an indistinct yellowish , zone around the umbilicus. 
Surface somewhat shining, scarcely striate, seen under a lens to be 
very finely, subobsoletely granulate all over, the, granulation visible 
without a lens in the umbilical region. Spire very small and low, 
a trifle raised above the contour of the last whorl ; apex minute, a 



20 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

little sunken, light brown or yellowish ; sutures moderately impressed. 
Whorls 4, convex, rapidly widening, the last very wide, with a 
slight depression on the upper surface, extending upward on the 
penultimate whorl, but becoming obsolete toward the aperture ; 
periphery rounded, but the shoulder has an obtuse angle bounding 
the spiral depression; the base has also a spiral depression or con- 
cavity, the surface somewhat malleated within it ; there is a project- 
ing, very prominent but obtuse angle around the umbilicus ; the 
whorl descends gradually, but rather deeply in front, and the base 
has a slight constriction behind the baso-columellar lip. The aper- 
ture is very large, very oblique, of a livid grayish color inside and 
a changeable luster ; the peristome is very broadly expanded and 
rolled backward above, much more narrowly so below, the ends con- 
verging and connected by a bluish callus. The umbilicus is very 
much contracted as it penetrates, but opens rather widely. 

Alt. 23 greater diam. 57, lesser 42 mill. ; aperture 34 mill, wide, 
measured outside of peristome. 



This is a larger species than H. sepulchralis, with the hydrophanous 
creamy markings much more prominent, the last whorl and aperture 
decidedly larger, the ridge around the umbilicus very much more 
prominent. The umbilicus is very much contracted within, and the 
surface is much more obviously granulated, especially within the 
umbilicus. Although larger, this shell has a half whorl less than 
sepulchralis. The spirally impressed base and top give a decidedly 
sunken and cadaverous appearance to the shell. 

H. ATROPOS Fe>ussac. PI. 5, fig. 77 ; >pl. 63, fig. 44. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, transversely dilated or oblong in cir- 
cumference, rather solid, irregularly striate, chestnut colored with 
three white bands, one near the suture, two wider basal ones ; spire 
slightly convex, obtuse ; whorls 5, moderately increasing, the last 
compressed-rounded, deflexed in front, subcompressed around the 
chestnut colored umbilicus, somewhat constricted in front. Aper- 
ture very oblique,' ovate-oblong ; peristome narrowly reflexed all 
around, its terminations approaching, joined by a thin callus. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 18, greater diameter 39, lesser 32 mill. 

Around bay of Diego Suarez, Madagascar. 

H. atropos Fer., DESH. in FERUSSAC, Histoire, t. 69 H, f. 13, 14, 
p. 56. PFR. Monographia iii, p. 239 ; iv, p. 288. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 1347. 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 21 

In the coloration of chestnut bands on a light ground, and the 
dark umbilicus, it is like H. subsepulchralis, but the form is more 
depressed and the parietal callus light, not strong and opaque as in 
that species. Pfeiffer mentions a variety in which the chestnut bands 
are much narrower. 

H. EURYCHTLA Crosse & Fischer. 

Shell broadly and subperspectively umbilicated, depressed, sub- 
lenticular, rather thin, but somewhat solid, transversely obliquely 
rugate-striate, very delicately granulate-roughened, scarcely shining, 
brownish under a papery epidermis, blackish -brown, partly dull whit- 
ish, darker at the external margin ; spire nearly plane, apex scarcely 
prominent ; suture profoundly impressed ; whorls 4, rather rapidly 
widening, the embryonic H plane, slightly shining, brown, the 
following a trifle convex, a little above the middle deflexed, sub- 
concave ; the last whorl rapidly descending, then a little ascending, 
obtusely subangular above the middle, the angle becoming evanes- 
cent, base subplanate ; umbilical area deep chestnut-brown, encircled 
by a rather prominent whitish narrow zone. Aperture large, very 
oblique, almost horizontal, elongate-lunate, livid-brown, paler inside; 
peristome very broadly reflexed, dull white, livid brown inside, the 
margins converging, joined by a very thin hyaline callous, colu- 
mellar margin very short, partly covering the umbilicus, middle 
slightly gibbous, and slightly subdentate, outer margin very broad, 
subdentate in the middle and a little scrobiculate outside. ( C. & F.) 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 64, lesser 48 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. (Ampelita) eurychila C. & F., Journ. de Conchyl. 1882, p. 
324. 

Variety b. smaller, paler, dull brownish-white under a fulvous 
epidermis; aperture dull brownish-white inside. Alt. 21, greater 
diam. 60, lesser 46 mill. 

An unfigured species allied to H. sepulchralis, Sganziniana fune- 
bris and water si, but larger, scarcely shining, and said to be readily 
distinguishable. 

H. SGANZTNIANA Crosse and Fischer. 

Shell broadly and perspectively umbilicated, depressed, sublenticu- 
lar, rather thin but solid, with distant suboblique striae, very 
delicately granulose-roughened, pale olive-brown, darker at external 
margin ; spire almost completely plane, apex scarcely projecting ; 



22 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

suture profoundly impressed, subcanaliculate ; whorls 4', moderately 
rapidly widening, the embryonic 1 yellowish-white, plane, the 
following deflexed a little above the middle, subexcavated, the last 
whorl at first descending then ascending, obtusely angulated above 
the middle ; base subplanate ; umbilical area granulate-striate, deep 
chestnut-brown, bounded by a narrow whitish, brown-edged zone. 
Aperture almost horizontal, large, bluish-white within ; peristome 
very broadly reflexed, bluish-white, margins joined by a very thin 
subhyaline callus; columellar margin very short, narrower, outer 
margin very wide. (C. & F.) 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 44, lesser 33 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. sganziniana C. and F., Journ. de Conchyl. 1876, p. 167. 
PFR. Monogr. vii, p. 593. 

Intermediate between H. lanx and H. sepulchralis; the last 
whorl is deflexed and then rises again ; spire planate ; suture pro- 
found ; aperture broad. H. stragulum and H. subsepulchralis are 
also closely allied. (C. & F.~) 

H. EXCORIATA Martens. -,\>. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, radiately obliquely striatulate and 
lightly granulose, of a bay color variegated with whitish decortica- 
ted fascioles ; spire almost plane ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, sut- 
ure rather deep, last whorl flatly rotund, at the aperture at first 
descending and then ascending again ; umbilicus rather broad, fun- 
nel-shaped, perspective ; aperture very oblique, transverse-oblong, 
peristome reflexed, bluish-gray, margins converging, the outer much 
dilated, basal nearly straight, subcalloused. (Mart.) 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 60, lesser 45 mill. ; aperture, diam. 39, ob- 
lique alt. 27 mill. 

South. JBetsileo, Madagascar. 

H. excoriata MART. Jahrb. d. Deutsch. Mai. Ges. 1883, p. 82. 

Evidently a member of the sepulchralis group. It has riot been 
figured. 

H. SUBSEPULCHRALIS Crosse. PI. 3, figs. 46, 47 ; pi. 62, figs. 36, 37. 
Shell broadly umbilicate, turbinate-depressed, solid, nearly smooth, 
or marked by very slight unequal oblique striae. Color white, with 
spiral zones of blackish-brown, under a very thin, rather evanescent 
fawn-yellow cuticle. Spire short. Suture impressed. Whorls of 
the spire moderately convex, very rapidly increasing ; the last whorl 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 23 

descending, rounded, flattened or subcora pressed on the base, orna- 
mented with three deep blackish-brown spiral zones, the upper and 
smallest one above, the second a little below the periphery, the third 
occupying the entire umbilicus, which is large and shows all the 
whorls of the spire. There is a fourth narrow subsutural band. 
Aperture very oblique, oval-elliptical, whitish inside, but two of the 
zones of the outside show through. Peristome broadly reflexed, 
edged with brown at the terminations of the zones. Lips united by 
a deposit of callus. ( Crosse.) 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 40 , lesser 32 mill. ; length of aperture 
(inclusive of peristoine) 26, breadth 19* mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. subsepulchralis CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1868, p. 174; I. c. 
1869, p. 391, t. 12, f. 3, and variety, f. 3a. PFR. Monographia, 
vii, p. 436. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 803, t. 80, f. 3. H. sepul- 
chralis (in part) REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 147b. 

Distinguished from H. hova Angas by its more turbinate form and 
broader umbilicus, as well as by the positions of the color bands. 
From H. sepulchralis by the more solid shell, elevated spire, number 
of whorls, the last lacking a spiral depression on the upper surface, 
and by the thick parietal coat of enamel. Another strongly marked 
character is that the bands of the outer surface color the lip ; this is 
not the case in H. hova. The callus connecting the ends of the 
peristome is white and opaque, not transparent, as in H. sepulchralis. 

Variety ,3. (figure 47). A little larger, the colors deep, with three 
broad zones. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 43 J, lesser 34 mill. ; length of aperture 29, 
breadth 26 mill. 

H. STRAGULUM Crosse and Fischer. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, much depressed, rather thin, with 
very delicate impressed incremental lines and minutely granose un- 
der a lens ; chestnut-brown, spotted sparsely with buffmaculations; 
spire nearly plane, apex obtuse ; suture impressed ; whorls 4, plane, 
rapidly increasing, the upper 2? violet-brown, the last margined at 
the suture with yellow, large, subdepressed above, angulate-carina- 
ted a little above the periphery ; base convex, inflated, subangular 
around the umbilicus ; umbilical area deep chestnut, bounded by a 
pale buff zone; aperture large, very oblique, elliptical-oval, bluish- 
white inside ; peristome broadly reflexed, bluish-white, margins 



24 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

joined by a thin callus, dilated on the outer lip and toward the in- 
sertion. ( C. & F.) 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 36, lesser 26 mill. 

Variety. Olivaceous, obscurely and sparsely spotted with yel- 
lowish ; umbilical area chestnut, bounded by a buff zone. Alt. 16, 
greater diam. 32, lesser 24 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. stragulum C. & F., Journ. de Conchyl. xxi, 1873, p. 158. 
PFR. Monographia vii, p. 453. 

Allied, say Crosse and Fisher, to H. sepulchralis Fer., but distin- 
guished by the nearly plane spire, the shell minutely granose, last 
whorl angulate-carinate above the periphery, base much inflated, 
and the narrow umbilicus. 

H. HOVA Angas. PL 4, figs. 48, 49, 50, 51, 52. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, yellow with three conspicuous bands 
of dark brown, or sometimes bandless. 

Depressed, the spire convex; solid, opaque, straw-yellow with 
dark brown bands at the suture, just above the periphery and on the 
middle of the base. Surface somewhat shining, smooth, with slight 
growth-striae, and obscure spiral lines. Spire low conoidal ; suture 
impressed. Whorls 4, the inner convex, the last large, with a 
depression or flattening around its upper face, descending anteriorly, 
and with a spiral furrow within the umbilicus. Aperture very 
oblique, white or bluish-white inside ; peristome broadly expanded, 
and flaring above ; the basal margin narrower, ends connected by an 
opaque white callus. Umbilicus rapidly narrowing to a small deep 
perforation, umbilical region light colored. 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 38, lesser 28 mill. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 27, lesser 21 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. hova ANGAS, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 804, t. 88, f. 4, 
5. H. sepulchralis (in part) FERUSSAC, Histoire, t. 75 C, f. 1-3, 
8-10. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 147c. PFEIFFER, Conchylien 
Cabinet, t. 15, f. 1, 2.? H. trivittata Born (where ?) vide VILLA, 
Disp. Syst. Conch. Terr, et Fluv. Coll. Villa, p. 15. 

This species is separated from H. lamarei and H. sakalava by the 
different color-pattern and more widely perforated umbilicus ; from 
H. sepulchralis by its smaller size, banded coloration, and very 
much more contracted umbilicus, as well as its strong parietal 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 25 

callus ; H. hova differs from H. subsepulchralis in the different dis- 
tribution of the color-zones and in having a narrower umbilicus. 

Several specimens before me have no dark spiral zones, being 
unicolored yellow or russet. The bands are present, but of a faint 
chestnut tint in some others. 

I have figured on PI. 64, figs. 64, 65, a color-variety of this 
species. It is chocolate-brown above, uniform in color except for 
irregular, radiating, creamy, hydrophanous, ragged-edged patches, 
and a narrow, indistinct trace of a spiral band. The basal brown 
zone is very wide. The specimen figured is from the museum of 
the Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia. 

H. LAMAREI Menke. PI. 5, figs. 65, 66, 67. 

Shell ri mate-perforate, depressed, conspicuously excavated above, 
unicolored greenish-yellow or banded with chestnut, or chocolate ; 
when dark, freckled with whitish. 

Depressed ; low convex above, the last whorl convex just below 
the suture and then deeply concave, angulated or carinated above 
the middle, very convex and inflated below the angle ; solid ; color 
{typically) brownish- or greenish-yellow; surface shining, nearly 
smooth, obscurely granular under a lens. Spire low ; whorls 4 to 
4, the last descending somewhat anteriorly, compressed around the 
base, and obtusely angular around the umbilicus. Aperture very 
oblique, rounded-lunar ; upper and outer margins of peristome very 
broadly expanded and reflexed, baso-columellar margin very nar- 
rowly reflexed ; terminations joined by an opaque white callus. 
Umbilicus a crescentic rimation ending in a minute perforation. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 34, lesser 26 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. lamarei MKE. mss. in PFEIFFER, Symbolse iii, p. 79 ; Mono- 
graphia i, p. 392 ; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 272, t. 123, f. 22-24. H. 
mkalava ANGAS, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 804, t. 80, f. 6- 
11. H. sepulchralis (in part) FEB., Histoire, t. 75C, f. 6, 7. 
Ampelita lamarei Mke. MOUSSON, Journ. de Conchyl. 1882, p. 39. 

The typical H. lamarei has a thin greenish-yellow epidermis ; the 
last whorl is rather acutely keeled ; the umbilicus is a curved rima- 
tion ending in a perforation or entirely closed. f In this character it 
differs wholly from unicolored yellow or brown specimens of H. hova, 
as that species has a narrow but decidedly funnel-shaped umbilicus. 



26 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

Var. SAKALAVA Angas. PL 5, figs. 68, 69, 70, 71 ; pi. 63, fig. 45. 

Entire surface chestnut or chocolate brown, freckled and zigzag- 
streaked with opaque yellowish ; a light yellow zone on the angle 
surrounding the umbilicus, within which is a dark band ; inside of 
the umbilicus light yellow. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 37, lesser 28 mill. 

A color-variety having freckled brown zones on a pale green, 
ground is figured on pi. 63, fig. 45. 

H. WATERSI Angas. PI. 5, figs. 72, 73. 

Shell with a small, compressed umbilicus, discoidal, rather solid,, 
obliquely closely striated with irregular somewhat undulating erect 
striae, which are crossed by numerous concentric lines, exhibiting 
here and there a minutely reticulated appearance at the points of 
crossing; light purplish-brown, becoming darker behind the lip, 
partially covered with a pale straw-colored epidermis ; spire depressed,, 
whorls 4, rapidly increasing, somewhat convex, the last very wide, 
swollen, bluntly keeled, with a slight depression above the keel;, 
aperture nearly horizontal, transversely lunately ovate, margined 
within with a broad band of purplish-black, interior pale lilac ; peri- 
stome thickened, expanded and reflected, edged with white ; margins 
approximating and joined by a callus. (Angas.) 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 41, lesser 32 mill. 

Ekongo, S. E. Coast of Madagascar - 

H. watersi ANGAS, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 527, t. 54, f. 3. 
Distinguished from H. sepulchralis and its allies by its elaborate 
sculpture and by the expanded form of the aperture. 

Group of H. omphalodes Pfr. 

The form is depressed but not lenticular; bluntly carinated at 
times, but never acutely or conspicuously so, as it is in the closely 
allied group following. The peristome is narrowly reflexed all 
around, but a little more broadly above. The species are mostly 
banded; the umbilicus is moderately wide, circumscribed by a 
blunt angle. 

(1.) Basal lip of the aperture nearly straight, the columellar lip 
short, narrowly expanded, forming a blunt angle where it joins the 
basal margin. H. omphalodes, loucoubeensis, calypso, basizona, con- 
sanguinea, guillani. 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 



27 



(2.) Basal lip arcuate, passing gradually into the columellar 
margin, not angled at their junction. H. chlorozona, vesconis, 
robillardi, madagascariensw. 

H. OMPHALODES Pfeiffer. PL 4, figs. 58, 59, 60. 

Shell broadly umbilicate, depressed, rather solid, finely striate, 
white under a light, deciduous yellow epidermis, with a reddish - 
brown girdle at the periphery and at the umbilicus. Spire* very lit- 
tle elevated, with small obtuse apex ; whorls 5, nearly flat, the last 
obtusely carinated, scarcely perceptibly descending in front, beneath 
somewhat more convex, indistinctly granulated by fine spiral-lines, 
somewhat compressed around the broad umbilicus, which is dark 
brown inside. Aperture very oblique, lunate-oval, white inside. 
Peristome narrowly reflexed, brownish, with converging margins. 
(Pfr.) Alt. 16, diam. 41 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. omphalodes PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1845, p. 64 ; Mono- 
graphia i, p. 374 ; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 56, t. 75, f. 9-11. PHIL- 
IPP'I, Abbild. u. Beschreib. ii, p. 183, Helix t. 9, f. 1. MOUSSON 
Journal de Conch. 1882, p. 40. CROSSE (with var. loucoubeensis) 
Journ. de Conchyl. 1881, p. 195. 

The more prominent characters are the thin but strong shell, with 
yellowish, rather deciduous epidermis, and the base finely granula- 
ted by close spiral lines. 

The figures of Philippi and of Pfeiffer agree in representing the 
form described above. 

Mousson says of the specimens of this species examined by him: 
They are a little more flattened than the figures, and have the 
peripheral angle a little more marked ; they do not have the narrow 
dark line at the circumference. The other characters, yellowish 
color, brown umbilicus, subsutural dark line and fine sculpture of 
the base are present. This species is closely allied to H. calypso Pfr., 
but that form is smaller, more compact, without sculpture, and hav- 
ing broad bands at periphery and suture, which fade into the ground- 
color at their edges. 

Var. LOUCOUBEENSIS Crosse. PL 62, fig. 38. 

Shell broadly and perspectively umbilicated, umbilicus about 3- 
the diameter of the shell ; rather thin, brown or nearly black, 
unicolored, opaque, the base shining ; spire depressed-convex ; apex 
plane ; whorls 5, nearly plane, separated by slightly impressed 



28 HELIX-AMP EIJTA. 

suture, striatulate and with indistinct spiral lines ; last whorl some- 
what distinctly carinated, a little descending in front, slightly more 
convex beneath, subangulated around the umbilicus and distinctly 
striated ; slightly compressed at the aperture, not constricted. 
Aperture very oblique, transversely oval, a little excised ; throat 
livid ; peristome narrowly reflexed, brown, margins converging, the 
columella sub-retracted. Alt. 17?-2.H, diam. 37-40 mill.; aperture, 
alt. 15-16, breadth 18J-19J mill. (Boettger.) 

Forest of Loucoube, Island of Nossi-Be. 

H. omphalodes var. Loucoubeensis CROSSE, Journ de Conchyl. 
1881, p. 195. H. omphalodes Pfr., REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 184. 
Ampelita lucubeensis Crosse, BOETTGER, Nachrichtsbl d. Deutsch. 
Mai. Ges. 1889, p. 46. 

I do not regard it as impossible for this to be a unicolored variety 
of H. omphalodes ; the var. intensior of H. calypso is a parallel 
case. It is, however, restricted to the Island of Nossi-Be, while the 
typical form inhabits Madagascar proper. I have taken Reeve's 
figure of H. omphalodes to represent Mr. Crosse's variety. 

H. CALYPSO Pfeiffer. PI. 2, fig. 37. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, rather solid, closely striate, tawny, 
with a rufous band at the suture ; spire little elevated, obtuse ; 
whorls 4, a little convex, regularly increasing, the last not descend- 
ing in front ; periphery subcarinated ; below more polished, reddish- 
yellow, subangular around the funnel-shaped umbilicus, which is 
brown inside. Aperture very oblique, irregularly oval, whitish- 
pearly inside ; peristome pale lilac, the margins converging, upper 
flexuous, expanded and a little reflexed, basal narrowly reflexed, 
columellar margin ascending nearly vertically. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 36, lesser 29 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. calypso PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, p. 386, t. 37, f. 
8 ; Monographia v, p. 403. 

Var. INTENSIOR Pilsbry. PI. 4, figs. 61, 62, 63. 

I refer to Pfeiffer's species, as a variety, the shells figured on my 
plate, fig. 63 representing the type. It is compact, solid, strong, 
opaque, of a deep chestnut or chocolate color all over, but lighter, 
tawny, on the inner whorls. The surface is slightly shining, with 
irregular wrinkles of increment, and under a lens a few minute, 
scattered granules may be seen ; beneath it is more polished, with 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 29 

slight indications of spiral lines. The spire is convex, low, very 
obtuse, apex planorboid, light brown ; suture evenly but slightly 
impressed. Whorls 4, rapidly widening, a trifle convex, the last very 
obtusely angular at periphery, a little descending in front, the base 
with a rather flattened aspect. Aperture very oblique ; bluish and 
shiny inside ; peristome narrowly expanded all around, bluish, edged 
with brown, the upper lip moderately arched, basal lip straight, 
columella short, making nearly a right angle with the basal lip ; 
parietal wall covered by a very thin transparent wash of callus. 
Umbilicus moderate, deeply penetrating, funnel-shaped. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 31, lesser 26 mill. 

Other specimens are a little more elevated, and of a straw yellow, 
with a narrow deep chestnut sutural band, another wider one at and 
above the periphery, the umbilicus also dark inside (see figs. 61, 62 
of pi. 4). The dark zones are not so sharply defined as shown in the 
figure, but fade into the ground-color at the edges. 

H. BASIZONA Mousson. PI. 9, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, depressed, obtusely conical, solid, 
irregularly striated, somewhat shining, deep brown. Spire depressed 
conical, regular ; summit very obtuse, denuded, gray ; suture 
moderately distinct. Whorls 5, moderately widening, the earlier 
nearly plane, the following somewhat convex, the last scarcely de- 
scending, obtusely angulated, less convex beneath, narrowly round- 
ing at the perforating umbilicus, with a broad yellow zone in the 
middle of the base, umbilicus dark. Aperture oblique (45 degrees 
with the axis), obtusely triangular, violet-gray inside; peristome 
narrowly expanded and reflexed, whitish, the margins much con- 
verging, joined by a transparent, thin callus ; upper margin curved, 
basal nearly straight, suddenly ascending at the columella, not in- 
vading the umbilicus. (Mouss.) 

Alt. 22, greater diam. 35, lesser 31 mill. 

Madagascar. 

Ampelita basizona MOUSSON, Journ. de Conchy 1. 1882, p. 41. 

This is a form closely allied to H. calypso Pfr. The surface is 
dark all over except on the base, which has a broad zone of straw- 
yellow ; the earlier whorls lose their epidermis, becoming whitish. 
The single specimen before me is smaller than- Mousson's types, and 
has nearly the entire base occupied by the broad yellow zone. 



30 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

H. CONSANGUINEA Fe>ussac. PI. 6, figs. 81, 82. 

Shell orbiculate-depressed, smooth, brownish-white, two-zoned 
with brown above; whorls 5, slightly convex, closely coiled, the 
last whorl umbilicate; umbilicus blackish-brown inside; aperture 
oblique, transverse-ovate ; lip reflexed, pale reddish-brown. 

Alt. 15, diam, 28 mill. (Desk.) 

The shell is orbicular-depressed, 5-whorled. Spire subconoid, 
obtuse at summit. Earlier whorls whitish, little convex, closely 
joining; it seems that the young are carinated or angular. The 
suture is superficial on the earlier whorls, impressed on the last two 
whorls. The last whorl is regularly convex at the circumference, 
cylindrical, a little depressed below, perforated by a funnel-shaped 
umbilicus bounded by an obtuse angle. The greater diameter of 
the umbilicus is a trifle more than a third that of the last whorl. 
The shell is smooth, with slightly growth lines. Aperture oval- 
transverse, wider than high ; it is deflexed, the upper lip inflexed 
below the periphery, the lower lip prolonged a little above the 
umbilicus. The extremities of the lip are separated by a little less 
than half the circumference of the penultimate whorl. The plane 
of the aperture is inclined about 30 degrees to the vertical axis. 
Right margin quite thick, strongly reflexed at the base, a little 
reflexed above ; the edge is chestnut brown, more or less dark in 
different individuals. The coloration seems to be pretty uniform ; 
on a brownish or reddish-black ground there are two deep brown 
zones above, very distinct, equal; the first at the suture, the second 
above the circumference. Umbilicus brown inside, bounded by a 
white zone. (Desk.*) 

Near Say of Diego-Suarez, Madagascar. 

H. consanguinea Fer., DESH. in FER., Histoire, t. 69H, f. 1, 2. 
PFR. Monogr. iii, p. 239. ? H. zonalis REEVE, f. 94, not of Ferussac. 
The " zonalis " of Reeve is the same as a shell figured by PfeifFer 
in the Conchylien Cabinet, pi. 149, figs. 8, 9, and described on p. 
424 of the same work, under the name of " H. consanguinea Fe>." 
I do not know what these figures really represent. They may belong 
to a distinct and undescribed species, or to a variety of the present 
form, which, for want of a name may be called var. SUBCONSAN- 
GUINEA. PfeifFer's figures are copied on my pi. 63, figs. 46, 47. 

H. GUILLAINI Petit. . PI. 4, fig. 64. 

Shell suborbicular, solid, glabrous, depressed, olivaceous-yellow, 
narrowly umbilicated ; umbilicus subangulate ; whorls 4, plane, the 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 31 

last somewhat convex beneath, carinated, the carina obtuse ; aper- 
ture irregular, quadrangular ; columella sub-calloused ; peristome 
Tiolet-white ; lip reflexed. Diam. 30 mill. (Petit.) 

Island of St. Marie, near Madagascar. 

H. guillaini PETIT DE LA SAUSSAYE, Journ. de Conch yl. 1850, p. 
169, t. 7, f. 3. PFR. Monographia Hel. Viv. iii, p. 352. (Not H. 
guillaini Pet., PFEIFFER, Monogr. iv, p. 3Q2,=cazenavetti F. & B.) 

Very imperfectly described. 

H. CHLOROZONA Grateloup. PL 4, figs. 56, 57. 

Shell umbi Heated, conoid-semiglobose, rather solid, obliquely 
:striate, a little shining, reddish-chestnut colored with three buff or 
white zones ; spire conoidal, obtuse ; suture bordered by a broad 
white band ; whorls nearly 5, almost plane, the last obtusely 
angular, not descending in front ; base convex ; umbilicus funnel- 
. shaped, pervious ; aperture oblique, truncate-oval ; peristome simple, 
narrowly expanded, the margins somewhat converging, columellar 
margin much dilated above. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 31, lesser 26 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. chlorozona GRAT., in Actes Soc. Linn. Bord. xi, p. 409, t. 1, f. 
4. PFR. Monogr. i, p. 331 ; iii, p. 225 ; iv, p. 263 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 421, t. 148, f. 21, 22. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 563. 

H. VESCONIS Morelet. PL 4, figs. 53, 54, 55. 

Shell umbilicate, orbicular-convex, solid, obliquely striate, red- 
dish-chestnut, little shining, encircled by 3 whitish zones, one at the 
suture, the other median, the third around the umbilical region ; 
umbilicus moderate, pervious ; whorls 5, regularly increasing, the 
last more striate ; base convex, descending in front ; aperture ob- 
lique, oval, concolored within ; peristome slightly thickened, mar- 
gins subconverging, the upper nearly straight, columellar more 
arcuate', narrowly reflexed. (Mor.~) 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 30, lesser 25 mill. 

' Port Leven, Madagascar at the foot of trees. 

H. vesconis Morlt. Rev. Zool., p. 218, 1851 ; Series Conchyl. ii, p. 
49, t. 4, f. 5. PFEIFFER, Monographia iii, p. 225. 

Less globose than H. chlorozona, more inflated transversely, pro- 
ducing a broader aperture ; umbilicus narrow-er ; peristome more 
reflexed ; last whorl with stronger striae above. The two forms are 
nevertheless very closely allied, perhaps not separable specifically. 



32 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

H. MADAGASCARIENSIS Lamarck. PI. 8, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell umbilicate, conoid-depressed, rather thin, striatulate, pallid, 
ornamented with two blackish-brown bands, the upper one wider, the 
other narrower, at the periphery ; spire a little conoid ; apex obtuse ; 
whorls 4, a little convex, the last subdepressed, dilated and somewhat 
descending in front ; base convex, suddenly passing into the funnel- 
shaped, narrow, scarcely pervious umbilicus. Aperture very oblique, 
oval ; peristome somewhat thickened, narrowly expanded, the mar- 
gins converging, basal narrowly reflexed, arcuately ascending at the 
umbilicus. (Pfr.) Alt. 14, greater diam. 29, lesser 23 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. madagascariensis Lam., DESH. in LAMARCK, Anim. s. Vert., 
2d ed. viii, p. 44. PFR., Monographia i, p. 375. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 1014. H. madecassina PER. Histoire, t. 73A, f. 2. 

An extremely rare species not seen by me, and probably allied to 
H. robillardi Angas. 

H. ROBILLARDI Angas. PI. 7, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell umbilicate, globose-depressed, rather solid, striate, white 
under a pale horn-colored deciduous epidermis, and ornamented with 
3 narrow brown bands (one sutural, two around the periphery) ; 
spire convex, obtuse ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, slowly widening, 
the last rather depressed-rounded, strongly and shortly deflexed in 
front, subcompressed around the funnel-shaped umbilicus. Aperture 
very oblique, ovate-oblong ; peristome narrowly reflexed all around, 
somewhat thickened, its ends converging, connected by thin callus, 
the right margin arched, columellar margin dilated, impinging on 
the umbilicus. (Dohrn.') 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 32, lesser 27 mill. ; width of aperture, 17 
mill. 

Southwest Madagascar. 

H. robillardi ANGAS, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 489, t. 47, 
f. 6, 7. DOHRN, continuation of Conchylien Cab., p. 596, t. 174, f. 
14-16. 

The brown bands sometimes disappear on the last whorl. The 
more prominent characters are the coloration, rounded or arcuate 
basal lip, and the narrow umbilicus impinged upon by the columellar 

HP. 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 33 

Group of H. xystera Val. 

The periphery is very acutely keeled ; the peristome narrowly 
expanded or not expanded above, narrowly reflexed beneath. I have 
not seen sufficient material to properly analyze this group of species, 
some of which are narrowly, some widely umbilicated. 

H. NOVACULA Martens. PL 6. figs. 75, 76, 77. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, carinate, lens-shaped, some wh at striate, 
unicolored, brownish-black ; spire planate ; suture superficial ; whorls 
scarcely 5, rapidly widening, the first very small and a little 
sunken, the following acutely keeled, the last whorl about equally 
convex above and below, only moderately convex, not de- 
scending in front, the keel becoming more obtuse toward the 
aperture ; the base obtusely angular around the very wide um- 
bilicus. Aperture very oblique, ear-shaped, leaden bluish within ; 
peristome narrowly expanded, the upper margin curving a little for- 
ward in the middle, not expanded, the basal margin slightly arcu- 
ate, forming an angle with the short, obliquely ascending columellar 
margin. The aperture has two blunt angles ; one at the periphery, 
the other at the base of columellar. (Martens.) 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 45, lesser 35 mill. ; aperture, width 21 1, ob- 
lique alt. 17 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. novaeula MTS. Novitates Conch, v, p. 181, 1. 152, f. 4-6. " H. 
lanx var." Ferussac, Histoire,t. 62A, f. 8, 9, 10. 

Of this species I have seen but one example. It is irregularly 
malleated on the last two whorls above, and the base has numerous 
spiral strise about as coarse as the wrinkles of increment. Under 
a lens close microscopic spiral striae became visible, both above and 
below. They are very superficial and rather unevenly developed. 
I refer to novaeula the figures 83, 84, 85, of pi. 6 copied from Fer- 
ussac. 

H. XYSTERA Valenciennes. PI. 11, figs. 36, 37, 38. 

Shell umbilicate, orbicular, depressed, very acutely carinated, 
thin, diaphanous, olive-brown ; suture not at ajl impressed ; whorls 
4, plane, the last convex beneath, subangular around the funnel- 
shaped umbilicus ; aperture very oblique, depressed, irregular ; per- 
3 



IVERSITY 



34 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

istome reflexed, the upper margin dilated, columellar margin short, 
forming an obtuse angle with the base. 

Alt. 14 i greater diam. 38, lesser 32 mill. (Pfr.) 

Madagascar. 

H. xystera VAL. in Paris Museum. PFEIFFER, Symbolse i, p. 
41 ; Monographia i, p. 392; Conchyl. Cab., p. 343, t. 61, f. 4-6. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 185. FER., Hist., t. 62A, f. 5-7. Jf. lanx 
Desh. olim. 

H. SHAVI E. A. Smith. PL 2, figs. 32, 33, 34. 

Shell thinnish with a funnel-like umbilicus, orbicular, very flat 
above, very acutely keeled, sculptured with oblique subflexuous lines 
of growth and most minute spiral striae, and exhibiting, especially 
on the upper surface an irregular fine granulation. Epidermis 
yellowish-olivaceous, thin. Spire very slightly raised, with the 
apex sunk below the penultimate whorl. Volutions 4, the 3 first 
feebly convex, the last very sharply carinated above the middle, 
visibly concave on each side of the keel, with a brown line at the 
suture and with or without a stripe of the same color upon the 
carina. Beneath it is only a little convex, and forms with the 
umbilicus which is stained with violet-brown a decided angulation. 
Toward the aperture it suddenly descends from the carina about 
3J millimeters. Aperture transverse, horizontal, white exhibiting 
the sutural brown band and that at the periphery, when present. 
Peristome more or less stained with violet-brown, everywhere re- 
flexed, the extremities much converging, upper margin oblique, 
straitish, lower regularly curved, forming an angle at the outer 
extremity. Columella slopingly arcuate, violet-brown. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 27, lesser 22 mill. (Smith.) 

Tanala Province, Madagascar. 

H. (Ampelita) Shavi SMITH, Journ. of Conch, ii, 1879, p. 339 ; 
P. Z. S. 1882, p. 382, t. 22, f. 1-3. 

This species has the general fades of If. xystera or H. cazenavetti. 
The former is a larger species, more widely umbilicated, with a non- 
descending last whorl and a malleated upper surface; the latter 
also possessing the two last-mentioned characteristics, is more narrow- 
ly umbilicated, more solid, and in fact appears to differ but very 
slightly from H. lancula. (Smith.) 

Specimens subsequently received by Mr. Smith are larger, greater 
diam. 35, lesser 28 mill.; all retain the character of the last whorl 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 35 

descending in front, and have the labrum more or less (sometimes 
entirely) violet-brown. 

H. STUMPFFII Kobelt. PI. 62, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell not very widely but deeply umbilicate, lenticular, acutely 
keeled, thin but strong, with very fine lines of increment and still 
finer, close spiral lines, making the surface finely granulate, yellow- 
ish-green, whitish toward the suture, the apex lilac, encircled by two 
narrow intense chestnut-brown bands, one midway between suture 
and keel, and ascending the spire, the other is a little distance below 
the keel. The 4 whorls increase rapidly, and are scarcely convex ; 
the upper whorls are a little impressed above the level suture ; the 
last one is acutely keeled, and compressed both above and below the 
keel, which appears as an acute angle. The whorl does not descend 
in front, is unevenly swollen below, and is compressed into a blunt 
crest around the narrow, funnel-shaped, but perforating umbilicus. 
The aperture is irregularly rhombic, very oblique, rosy inside and 
showing the bands of the outer surface. The peristome is thickened, 
beautifully rosy ; its terminations are not converging, not joined by 
a callus ; the upper margin is expanded, concave above the carina, 
the basal margin is rounded, reflexed, the columellar margin short- 
ly ascending, partly covering the umbilicus, but very little expanded. 
(Kobelt.) 

Alt. 15, greater diam. 26, lesser 22 mill. ; aperture 13 mill, long, 
11? broad. 

Forest of Loucoube Island of Nossi-be, off Madagascar. 

H. stumpffii KOB. Nachrichtsbl. d. Deutsch. Mai. Gesellschaft, 1880, 
p. 31 ; Jabrbiicher d. Deutsch. Mai. Ges. 1880, p. 332, t. 7, f. 3, 4. 
CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1881, p. 196. 

Closely allied to H. cazenavetti, but differs in the thinner, more 
shining shell, the flatter form, and the dark, contrasting, brown 
bands. 

H. CAZENAVETTI Fischer & Bernardi. PI. 63, figs. 48, 49. 

Shell orbicular-depressed, rather solid, perforate, concentrically 
very minutely striate, with oblique, obsolete submalleated lines, 
shining, yellow ; whorls 3<j, rapidly increasing, plane ; suture scarcely 
impressed, tinged with violet ; last whorl very large, carinated, very 
convex beneath; umbilicus violet-tinted; aperture triangular, 
angulate ; peristome white, reflexed, not descending, violet at the 



36 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

umbilicus ; columella [parietal wall] scarcely calloused, violet 
colored. (F. & B.} Alt. 14, greater diam. 26, lesser 22 mill. 

Madagascar f 

H. eazenavetti F. & B., Journal de Conchy 1. vi, p. 280, t. 10, f. 1- 
2, 1857. H. guillaini PFR., Monographia iv, p. 302 (not H. 
guillaini Petit.). H. eazenavetti F. & B., PFEIFFER, Monogr. v, p. 
402. 

H. FULGURATA Sowerby. PL 8, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, acutely carinated, regularly decussa- 
ted by close longitudinal and transverse lines, shining, whitish, 
elegantly marked with zigzag reddish lines; spire nearly flat; 
whorls 4, plane, the last ornamented with a single concentric red 
band ; base inflated, angulated around the narrow funnel-shaped 
umbilicus ; aperture subtriangular, shining inside, livid ; peristome 
chestnut colored, the margins joined by a chestnut callus diffused 
inwardly on the parietal wall ; upper margin* subexpanded, basal 
reflexed, forming an obtuse angle with the short oblique columellar 
lip. (Pfr.) Alt. 14J, greater diam. 37, lesser 30 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. fulgurata SOWB. in Malacol. and Conchol. Mag. i p. 47c, 
plate. PFR. Symbolse iii, p. 79 ; Monographia i, p. 393 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 239, t. 112, f. 20-22. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 1446. 
CROSSE & FISCHER, Journal de Conchyliologie, 1873, p. 117. 

An excessively rare species in collections, the habitat of which, 
formerly unknown, was discovered by Mr. Lantz, Director of the 
Museum of Natural History of Reunion, to be Madagascar. 

H. LANCULA Ferussac. PI. 7, figs, 98, 9, 100. 

Umbilicate, orbicular, depressed, obliquely striate decussated by 
very close concentric lines seen under a lens, shining olive-brown, 
carinate, the carina obsolete anteriorly ; spire little raised, pale ; 
whorls 4, plane, the last flattened around the base, angulated around 
the moderate non-pervious umbilicus ; aperture very oblique, trans- 
versely lunate elliptical ; peristome subthickened, narrowly reflexed, 
bluish-brown; margins joined by a dark purple callus, diffused 
inwardly, right margin dilated, depressed, basal margin straightened, 
forming a very obtuse angle at its junction with the columellar lip. 
(Pfr.) Alt. 14, greater diam. 32, lesser 28 mill. 

Madagascar. 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 37 

H. lancula FERUSSAC, Histoire, t. 65, f. 4-6. PFR. Symbolse iii, 
p. 79; Monographia i, p. 394; Conchylien Cab., t. 61, f. 12-14 
(copied from Fer.). REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 194. 

The fine spiral sculpture and contracted umbilicus are character- 
istic. 

H. t-ERVERlANA Grateloup. PI. 14, fig. 66. 

Shell orbicular, convex above and below, the periphery angular, 
acute. Color pale greenish-yellow. Spire elliptical, very obtuse and 
white at summit. Umbilicus well marked, but of moderate width, 
violet colored inside. Aperture very oblique, oval, plainly angular, 
the right margin dilated, white and reflexed, the columella violet. 
Whorls of the spire 4. (Graf) 

Madagascar. 

Carocolla Terveriana, GRAT., Actes de la Soc. Linn, de Bordeaux, 
xi, p. 404, t. 1, f. 16, 1839. PFR. Monographia i, p. 394. 

Grateloup's orginal description is translated above, and his figure 
copied on the plate. It has not been identified by subsequent au- 
thors. 

H. UNICOLOR Pfeiffer. PL 5, figs. 74, 75, 76. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, acutely carinated, thin, brown, deli- 
cately striate above, with several elevated spiral lines beneath ; spire 
depressed-conoidal ; whorls 5, nearly plane, visibly increasing, the 
last not descending ; base convex abruptly angular at the narrow 
umbilicus ; aperture rhomboidal ; peristome deep brown ; margins 
joined by a very thin callus, upper margin dilated, expanded, basal 
ascending, straightened, the columellar margin short, dilated, half- 
closing the, umbilicus, forming an angle where it joins the basal lip. 
(P/r.) Alt. 16, greater diam. 32, lesser 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H. unicolor PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 64; Monographia i, p. 
393 ; Conchylien Cabinet p. 343, t. 61, f. 1-3. REEVE, Conch. Icon., 
f. 190. 

Differs from H. xystera in the narrower umbilicus, higher spire, 
and number of whorls. 

Group of H. lanx Fer. ^ 

The umbilicus is broad, seen to be decussately sculptured within 
under a lens ; the aperture is oblong or oval, upper margin scarcely 



38 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

expanded, basal narrowly reflexed ; terminations of peristome con- 
verging, the ends joined by a very thin, translucent parietal callus. 

H. LANX Femssac. PI. 8, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell depressed, with a very broad umbilicus, chestnut-brown, 
darker below, often lighter around the umbilicus ; last whorl deflexed 
below the peripheral carina at aperture ; basal lip straightened or a 
little projecting in the middle. 

The form is nearly discoidal, spire low, convex, periphery 
carinated, the carina becoming more obtuse on the latter part of the 
whorl. It is rather thin ; brown and somewhat shining above, 
polished and of a rich chestnut color below the periphery, somewhat 
lighter around the umbilicus. The surface has obliquely-radiating 
low waves on the upper whorls, scarcely apparent in the typical form ; 
it is lightly obliquely striate ; within the umbilicus the surface is cut 
into a fine decussated pattern by incremental striae and close, fine 
spiral incised lines: Whorls 4i, almost flat, separated by slightly 
impressed sutures, the last whorl large, carinated, somewhat mallea- 
ted or rugose near the aperture, descending below the periphery of 
the preceding whorl, and deeply constricted behind the basal lip. 
Aperture very oblique, purplish or bluish-white inside, the superior 
lip very slightly, narrowly expanded, outer lip expanded, basal lip 
straightened in the middle, columella expanded ; parietal wall with 
a mere wash of transparent callus. Umbilicus very broad, funnel- 
shaped, showing all the volutions. 

Alt. 27, greater diam. 60, lesser 50 mill. 

Alt. 22, greater diam. 55, lesser 46 mill: 

Madagascar. 

H. lanx FEE. Histoire, t. 65, f. 7. PFEIFFER, Symbolse i, p. 41 ; 
Monographia i, p. 392 ; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 209, t. 106, f. 1-3. 
KEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 171. H. radama LESSON, Voy. de la 
Coquille, p. 384, t. 7, f. 1, 1826 ; Cent. Zocl., t. 9. 

This is a rather thin, large species, more or less corrugated on the 
spire, finely decussated inside the broad umbilicus. 

Var. RADAMA Lesson. PI. 8, figs. 10, 11. 

More transversely inflated or oblong in contour, very distinctly 
corrugated above. Alt. 25, greater diam. 57, lesser 42 mill. The 
specimen figured by Lesson measures 90 mill, in diameter. 



HELIX-AM I'KIJTA. 39 

H. CAMPBELLIANA Pilsbry. PI. 63, figs. 41, 42, 43. 

Shell depressed, umbilicate, solid, opaque, light chestnut-brown in 
color, with a whitish zone encircling the umbilicus. Surface some- 
what shining, slightly striate obliquely, and showing under a lens, 
traces of close microscopic spiral lines ; the latter three-fourths of 
the last whorl is conspicuously malleated above and below the pe- 
riphery. Spire low, convex ; whorls 4-]-5, convex, the inner slow- 
ly, the last two rapidly widening ; sutures well impressed ; last whorl 
depressed, almost rounded at the periphery, but with a slight keel or 
angulation ; convex above and below, abruptly and deeply deflexed in 
front. Apertureoval, subhorizontal, flesh-colored within ; peristome 
narrowly expanded, basal margin narrowly reflexed, upper lip scarce- 
ly expanded ; terminations of the lip much converging, connected 
by a thin, transparent callus ; there is a small, triangular white 
callus within the upper termination of the peristome. The umbilicus 
is deep, funnel-shaped, showing the whorls to the apex. 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 46, lesser 39 mill. ; aperture, oblique alt. 
21, breadth 26 mill.; measured outside the peristome. 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 50, lesser 41 \ mill. ; aperture, oblique alt. 
23, breadth 27 mill. 

Madagascar. 

An exceptionally well-marked form. The whorls are convex, not 
grooved above or below ; the aperture is oval ; peristome narrowly 
expanded, reflexed below. The color is a rich light chestnut brown. 
It is probably allied to H. clotho Fer., but does not have the strong 
parietal callus of that form, and is very conspicuously malleated on 
the last whorl. The umbilicus is obliquely dilated behind the col- 
umellar lip, and obscurely grooved. The two specimens before me 
agree in all respects, except that one has a slightly greater diameter. 

The species is named in honor of Mr. John H. Campbell of Phil- 
adelphia. 

H. LANCIFORMIS Boettger. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, umbilicus perspective, & to 1 the 
diameter of the shell ; depressed, not at all carinated, scarcely sub- 
angulated, at the place of the carina it is encircled by an obsolete 
thread ; chestnut under olivaceous epidermis, base with a yellow or 
white band around the umbilicus ; spire slightly convexly raised, 
apex plane ; whorls 42-5, slightly convex, separated by lightly 
impressed sutures, very minutely granulate, transversely striattilate, 
and with a broad tract at the periphery obliquely wrinkled or 



40 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

malleated ; penultimate more or less high proportionally to the 
breadth of shell, last whorl more convex beneath, base somewhat 
saccate and inflated toward the aperture, then transversely im- 
pressed and constricted ; whorl above slowly, and for a long distance 
deflexed. Aperture much broader than high, very oblique, sub- 
rectangular-elliptical, a little excised ; peristome all around reflexed, 
margins approximating, joined by a thin callus, right margin curved, 
either white or often smoked with brown; columellar margin 
straightened, white, subreceding above. 

Alt. 28, diam. 57^-63 mill.; aperture, alt. 24-25, breadth 32^-35 
mill. (Boettger.~) 

Northwestern Madagascar and Nossi-Be. 

H. lanciformis BOETTGER Nachrichtsbl. d. deutsch. Mai. Ges. 
1889, p. 47. 

The prominent distinctive characters are the small spire ; the in- 
conspicuous thread which seems, so as to speak, to be laid upon the keel 
which is indicated upon the middle of the last whorl ; the narrow, more 
elongated aperture, the constantly present oblique wrinkling of the 
middle part of the last whorl, and especially the broad yellow or 
white spiral band, usually sharply defined, which encircles the um- 
bilicus. 

Var. NOSSIBEENSIS Boettger. 

Differs from the type in the subexcentric umbilicus, the last whorl 
planate-sloping above the middle, last whorl less inflated behind the 
aperture and less deeply constricted, aperture longer, narrower, more 
produced and rostrate, right margin curved, brown, columellar mar- 
gin straighter, whitish. 

Alt. 25-28, diam. 53-60 mill; aperture, alt. 21-23, breadth, 31- 
34 mill. (Boettger.) 

Rare, in the forest of Loucoube, Island of Nossi-Be. 

Group of H. duvallii Petit. 

Compact forms, with moderately wide umbilicus, narrowly ex- 
panded thick blunt lip, its terminations converging and joined by a 
heavy parietal callous. H. schaerfice and H. percyana may perhaps 
belong near the following three species. H. atropos also seems to be 
similar. Of these forms I have seen only H. duvallii. 



IIELIX-AMPELITA. 41 

H. DUVALLII Petit. PL 14, figs. 62, 63, 64 ; pi. 62, figs. 32, 33, 34, 

35. 

Shell with a deep, moderately wide umbilicus, depressed-globose, 
solid and strong, opaque, yellowish or reddish-brown above, more 
tinged with olive below, and with a narrow dark band at the periph- 
ery, with a light band bordering above ; the suture edged below with 
dark brown. The surface is somewhat shining, finely obliquely 
striate above, smoother beneath ; on the upper surface there are 
numerous spiral lines, which under a lens are seen to be composed 
of granules on the striae of increment, as the detail drawing on pi. 
62, fig. 34 shows. Spire low, somewhat conoidal, very obtuse ; api- 
cal whorl minute, a trifle sunken ; suture very deeply impressed. 
Whorls 4, very rapidly widening, the inner ones moderately convex, 
the outer whorl quite convex just beneath the suture, then sloping, 
somewhat flattened on the base, deeply descending in front to the 
aperture, and with a deep and broad constriction behind the basal 
lip, extending obliquely into the umbilicus. Aperture oblong, very 
oblique, livid-brown within, and showing the peripheral band of the 
outer surface ; peristome thickened, and narrowly reflexed all 
around, brown, lighter above, upper and outer margins arched, baso- 
columellar lip straightened, oblique, reflexed ; margins somewhat 
converging, joined by a thick brown callus. Umbilicus deep, fun- 
nel-shaped. Alt. 22. greater diam. 41, lesser 31? mill. 

Bay of St. Augustine, Southern Madagascar. 

H. duvallii PETIT. Mag. de Zool. 1844, pi. 93. PFEIFFER, Mon- 
ographia i, p. 376 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 334, t. 59, f. 7, 8 (copied). 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 178. 

A very distinct species. The lip is equally, narrowly reflexed all 
around ; the base has a deep constriction behind the columellar lip ; 
the aperture is irregularly oblong, baso-columellar lip straightened, 
and the sculpture and coloration are peculiar. Figures 62-64, pi. 
14 are from the original ones. The figures on pi. 62 are from a spec- 
imen before me. 

H. LACHESIS Ferussac. PL 10, fig. 29. 

Shell umbilicate, subconpidal-depressed, rather solid, striatulate, 
chestnut-brown above, white beneath ; spire short-conoidal, obtuse ; 
whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last obsoletely dngled in the middle, 
suddenly deflexed in front, turgid, the base somewhat flattened, 
distinctly radiately striate, obsoletely angulated around the conical, 



42 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

brown umbilicus. Aperture nearly horizontal, truncate-oblong; 
peristome narrowly reflexed, the margins converging, joined by a 
slightly sinuous callus; basal margin straightened, dilated at the 
umbilicus. (Pjf.) Alt. 19, greater diam. 40, lesser 33 mill. 

Near the Bay of Diego-Suarez, Madagascar. 

H. lachesis Fer., DESH. in FERUSSAC, Histoire, p. 57, t. 69H, 
f. 3, 4. PFR. Monographia iii, p. 239, and iv, p. 288, v, p. 375. 

The species belongs near H. duvalli. The figured is copied from 
Ferussac, and the description from Pfeiffer, who drew it from a 
specimen in the Albers collection. It has not been noticed by other 
authors. 

H. CLOTHO Ferussac. PI. 6, figs. 78, 79, 80. 

Shell orbiculate-subdiscoidal, depressed, with very obtuse apex ; 
whorls 5?, first deprressed, angular at the periphery, the others 
slightly convex, the last very obtusely angled at periphery ; base 
broadly umbilicated ; aperture oblique, ovate-oblong, margins thick- 
ened, reflexed, joined on the parietal wall. (Desk.*) 

Alt. 26, diam. 48 mill. 

Around the Bay of Diego-Suarez, Madagascar^ 

H. clotho DESH. in FERUSSAC, Histoire i, p. 57, t. 691, f. 3. PFR. 
Monographia iii, p. 238. 

Known only by the original description and figures which were 
drawn from a dead, bleached specimen. It is evidently closely 
allied to H. lachesis and H. duvallii, but has a more curved basal lip 

than either. 
I 

Species not grouped. 

H. PERCYANA E. A. Smith. PI. 10, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell rather thin, globose-depressed, moderately umbilicated,. 
sculptured all over with granules arranged in transverse series, and 
very oblique lines of increment; olive-brown, sparsely zigzagly 
streaked with opaque white. Whorls 4, rapidly increasing, convex ; 
the last large, inflated, descending in front. Spire rather prominent, 
obtuse at apex. Aperture large, transverse, oblique, nearly subhori- 
zontal, lilac colored inside ; peristome white, narrowly expanded and 
reflexed, margins approximating, columellar margin oblique, straight- 
ened, scarcely arcuate. (Smith.) 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 31, lesser 22| mill. 

Ankafana, Betsileo, Madagascar.. 



HELTX-AMPELITA. 43 

H. (Ampelita) percyana SMITH, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 
485 ; pi. 48, f. 12, 12a ; I c., 1882, p. 382. 

The ornamentation of this pretty species is very peculiar. The 
narrow zigzag lines are irregular in their disposition, and of the 
same opaque creamy color as frequently adorns many of the Philip- 
pine Island Orthostylus. The granules which cover the entire 
surface are disposed in somewhat irregular closely-set transverse 
series, interrupted considerably by oblique lines of growth. The 
texture of the shell is thin, and so transparent that the figurations 
of the exterior are quite conspicuous through the lilac interior of the 
aperture. Sometimes the expanded outer lip is of a livid purple 
color. (Smith.) 

H. GRANULOSA Ferussac. PI. 7, figs. 92, 93, 94. 

Shell orbicular-depressed, with very obtuse apex, obtusely angled 
at the periphery, brownish-white, base perforated by a very broad 
umbilicus; whorls 6, convex, granulose, separated by a profound 
suture ; aperture ovate, subhorizontal, margins much approaching, 
laterally in flexed. (Desk.) Alt. 17, diam. 45 mill. 

Near Diego-Suarez, Madagascar. 

H. granulosa Fer., DESH. in FERUSSAC, Histoire, i, p. 61, t. 69H, 
f. 7-10. PFR. Monographia iii, p. 239. 

Described from a single dead, discolored shell in the Ferussac 
collection. The conspicuous granulation of the striae will render its 
identification easy. Not seen by subsequent authors. 

H. SCHAERFI^ Pfeiffer. PL 7, figs. 95, 96, 97, 1, 2. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, globose-depressed, rather thin, above 
closely subrugose striate, sparsely malleate, encircled by numerous 
reddish-brown bands, base shining, yellowish ; spire scarcely ele- 
vated ; whorls 4, slightly convex, rapidly widening, the last de- 
pressed-rounded, deflexed in front, somewhat contracted. Aperture 
very oblique, lunate-oval, bluish inside, the bands showing through ; 
peristome white, thickened within, blunt, the terminations approach- 
ing, connected by a thin callus ; upper margin arched, the basal 
elongated at the umbilicus (Dohrn.) 

Oudebosch and Bredasbosch, Cape of Good Hope. 

H. schaerfice PFR. Mai. Bl. viii, 1861, p. 73, t. 2, f. 1-3 ; Mono- 
graphia v, p. 242. BENSON, Ann. and Mag. NT H. 3d. ser., xiii, p. 
494, 1864. DOHRN, Conchylien Cabinet, p. 615, t. 178, f. 1-6. 

A species of very uncertain systematic position. Benson says : 



44 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

Mr. Layard sent a smaller whitish variety from Swellendam, and 
another variety (white with chestnut bands) from Bredasdorp, to 
the northeast of Cape Lagulhas. Mr. Layard reports that the eyes 
of those varieties are situated at the upper and inner side of a length- 
ened knob turning down from the summits of the upper tentacles. 
The foot, when the animal is withdrawn into the shell, looks like 
raw meat ; and the animal greedily devours other living mollusks 
confined with it, but in the bush is attracted in numbers by pieces 
of water-melons placed as a bait. 

The species is placed in both Macrocyclis and Ampelita by Pfeiffer, 
in Ampelita by Dohrn. It may prove to belong to the Agnatha, 
near Ehytida or Aerope. 

H. GALACTOSTOMA Pfeiffer. PI. 10, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell umbilicate, convex-orbicular, solid, striate, granulate under 
a lens, brown ; spire short, apex obtuse ; whorls 4?, slightly convex, 
slowly widening, the penultimate angulated, the last somewhat 
depressed, deflexed in front; base angular, descending into the 
moderate, open umbilicus (not exceeding i the diameter). Aperture 
very oblique, lunar-oval, milk-white within ; peristome simple, brown- 
edged, margins converging, joined by a callus; right margin very 
narrowly expanded, basal margin subreflexed, columellar margin 
white, dilated-reflexed above the umbilicus. (Pfr.} 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 36, lesser 31 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. galactostoma PFR. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1849, 130 ; Mono- 
graphia iii, p. 238 ; Conchy lien Cabinet, p. 550, t. 166, f. 8, 9. 
KEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 192. 

H. COVANI Smith. PI. 7, figs. 89, 90, 91. 

Shell broadly and openly umbilicated, moderately thick, orbic- 
ularly depressed, lightish brown, becoming more olivaceous upon 
the spire, decussately sculptured with fine spiral striae and oblique 
lines of growth producing a subgranulated surface. Spire depressed 
with slightly convex outlines, and a somewhat raised apex. Whorls 
5 5i, rather convex, enlarging moderately slowly and separated by 
an impressed suture; last volution large, rounded at the periphery, 
a little descending and compressed anteriorly, more feebly sculptured 
beneath, except within the umbilicus, than above, and exhibiting no 
trace of an angulation around the umbilicus. The latter is open 
and perspective to the apex. Aperture oblique, white. Peristome 



HELJX AMP.KLITA. 45 

subsimple, its upper margin prominent in the middle, thin, apparently 
scarcely expanded; columellar edge slightly thickened, expanded 
and reflexed. (Smith.') Alt. 16, greater diam. 36, lesser 30 mill. 

Ankafana, Betsileo Province, Madagascar. 

H. (Macrocyclis) covani E. A. SMITH, Journal of Conchology ii, p. 
338, 1879 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 381, t. 21, f. 10-12. 

This species was originally described from a single specimen which 
did not illustrate the full size attained by adult shells. The largest, 
and apparently full-grown example, lately brought to England by 
Mr. Cowan, has a greatest diameter of 45 mill., is 33 across at the 
smallest diameter, and 20 high, resting upon its base. The peristome 
is not thickened or expanded on the upper margin, but is simple and 
arcuate. (Smith.') 

H. GONOSTYLA Ancey, Le Naturaliste, iv, p. 119. This number 
of Le Naturaliste is missing in the Academy library. 

Unfigured species of Ampelita. 

The following diagnoses are translated from the original ones of 
Mr. Jules Mabille. In a group where the species are so critical as 
in these Madagascar Helices, good figures or careful comparisons 
with known species are essential for the recognition of new forms. 
Diagnoses without such comparisons are worse than useless. Con- 
chologists should give such work precisely that measure of recogni- 
tion which has been given by its author to the real needs of descrip- 
tive zoology. The practice of publishing such literature in this age 
of inexpensive illustration is obviously inexcusable. It would seem 
that in order to prevent, as far as possible, the identification of their 
species, Mr. Mabille and his colleagues invariably neglect to men- 
tion the subgenus or section of the immense genus Helix, to which 
their supposed novelties belong. 

H. porcaria Mabille. Shell sub-broadly umbilicate, depressed- 
conical, solid, thick, hardly shining, white under a dull black epider- 
mis, subregularly ribbed -striate ; spire convex-conic, nearly destitute 
of epidermis; apex obtuse, rugose; whorls 5-5 z, convexly sloping, 
very rapidly increasing, separated by a narrow, well-impressed sut- 
ure ; last whorl large, sloping above, impresse'd in the middle, all 
over obscurely malleated, slightly descending at the aperture, 
dilated, rounded-angular at periphery, planulate beneath, rounded 



46 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

around the umbilicus ; aperture little oblique, lunate, oblong-ovate ; 
peristome subthickened, obtuse, expanded and somewhat reflexed ; 
margins approximating, the outer arcuate, broadly expanded, 
columellar thickened somewhat, patulous, nodiferous, reflexed at the 
moderate, pervious, umbilicus. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 37, lesser 29 mill. (Mabille, in Bull. Soc. 
Mai. France i, p. 139, 1884.) 

Madagascar. 

H. scotina Mabille. Shell rather broadly umbilicate (umbilicus 
pervious, funnel-shaped), conico-depressed, thick, opaque, of an in- 
tense chestnut-purplish color ; ornamented with a more or less con- 
spicuous reddish zone behind the periphery ; very delicately striate, 
decussated by slightly visible longitudinal lines ; little shining ; spire 
conical, slightly prominent, apex obtuse, rugose, whitish ;. whorls 5- 
5?, a little convex, rapidly increasing, separated by an impressed 
suture; the last large, inflated above at the suture, delicately im- 
pressed in the middle, sometimes lightly malleated ; at the periphery 
rounded, beneath subcompressed, distinctly striate-costulate, slightly 
angular around the umbilicus; aperture oblique, slightly lunate, 
ovate, whitish inside ; peristome thick, variegated white and rufous ; 
margins approximating, the outer patulous, lightly arcuate and ex- 
cavated, columellar narrow, thickened, obliquely straightened, tinged 
with fulvous. Alt. 19^-20, greater diam. 36-38, lesser 29-31 mill. 
The shell is conic-depressed, solid, quite thick and opaque ; it is little 
shining, of a reddish-brown color, ornamented above with a clear 
red zonule ; there are some yellow vermiculations here and there on 
the first whorls ; the striae are little apparent ; sometimes they are 
accompanied by irregular oblique malleations, much elongated, and 
assuming the form of folds. The peristome is edged with black, 
white within. The umbilicus, of a deep chestnut color, is encircled 
by a bright yellow zone. Its form is that of a broadly expanded 
funnel, suddenly contracted but very narrowly and deeply penetrat- 
ing. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 140.) 

Madagascar. 

H. omoia Mabille. Shell rather broadly and perviously umbili- 
cated, depressed-conico-suborbicular, solid, shining, yellowish-tawny, 
very sharply striate and with decurrent lines, 3-banded. Spire 
conical, slightly prominent, apex rather large, obtuse, striatulate ; 
whorls 4i-5, a little convex, subregularly and very rapidly increas- 
ing, separated by an impressed suture ; the last whorl large, broadly 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 47 

margined with rufous at the suture, tumid, impressed in the middle, 
encircled at the periphery by a narrow rufous zone, angulated and 
then rounded, slightly descending and broadly dilated at the aper- 
ture ; convex below, angulated around the umbilicus and encircled by 
a broad rufous zone ; aperture oblique, lunate, within bright white, 
ovate-subquadrate ; peristome obtuse, expanded, reflexed, slightly 
thickened, the margins converging, joined by a shining white callous ; 
outer margin at first nearly straight, then curved, sinuous, broadly 
expanded, reflexed, basal margin shortly arcuate ; columellar ob- 
liquely descending, straightened, thickened, narrowly reflexed. Alt. 
14, greater diam. 29, lesser 27 mill. The size and form resemble 
those of H. thelica ; it is thicker, more solid, rather shining, orna- 
mented with 3 clear chestnut bands ; the first sutural, the second 
narrow at the periphery, bounded by a depression on the last whorl ; 
finally the third, occupying the greater part of the base. The spire 
is very small, conic, mammillated ; the umbilicus moderate, much 
covered relative to its size, yellow inside, and bounded by an appre- 
ciable angulation. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 141.) 

Madagascar. 

H. thelica Mabille. Shell narrowly, subperviously umbilicated, 
conic-depressed, solid, little shining, rufous-yellowish, under a lens 
very minutely reticulate-decussate ; spire subconvex, little prominent ; 
apex obtuse, whitish ; whorls 5, subregularly, rapidly increasing, 
first whorl plano-convex, whorls separated by impressed suture, the 
last large, somewhat turgid above at the suture, impressed in the 
middle, obtusely angulated at the periphery, dilated and shortly de- 
scending at the aperture, convex below, obscurely angled around 
the umbilicus ; aperture oblique, lunate, irregularly ovate ; peris- 
tome white, patulous, a little reflexed, a little thickened ; margins 
subapproximating, the outer dilated, well curved, columellar a little 
incurved. Alt. 13, greater diam. 28, lesser 22 mill. A small Helix, 
in general form like H. lamari, but differing in the smaller size, 
more solid shell, less rapid increase in the earlier whorls, the last 
more descending, and with a well-marked circular depression ; the 
umbilicus is more open than in the lamari. Finally, the base of H. 
thelica has the form of a truncated cone. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 142.) 

Madagascar. 

H. monacha Mabille. Shell narrowly, pervicrusly umbilicated, de- 
pressed-orbicular, shining, little thick, solid, closely and pretty ir- 
regularly striate, white under a deciduous epidermis, ornamented with 



48 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

a broad brown zone ; spire a little convex, scarcely prominent, apex 
minute, obtuse, rugose; whorls 5-5?, a little convex, visibly widen- 
ing, separated by a narrow, well-impressed suture, the last sloping 
above, obscurely angular at the periphery, dilated and briefly de- 
flexed at the aperture, somewhat tumid beneath, chestnut tinted at 
the umbilicus and rounded, a little constricted behind the peristome. 
Aperture very oblique, lunate ; peristome thickened, livid, narrowly 
reflexed, obtuse ; margins approximating, joined by a rather thick 
callus, outer margin subsinuous, basal broadly subappressed, colu- 
mellar margin very short, concave, dilated. Alt. 19, greater diam. 
44_45 ? lesser 36-37 mill. In the H. monaeha the spire is relatively 
little developed, feebly convex-conic ; the whorls are little salient ; 
the last forms nearly two-thirds the entire shell, is feebly convex 
above, and a little sloping as far as the periphery ; it is rounded and 
then obliquely v swollen below. The umbilicus is narrow, little 
spreading, penetrating, tinted with reddish-brown. The peristome 
is livid flesh-colored, a little reflexed, narrowly thickened, obtuse, 
nearly continuous in consequence of the presence of a callous unit- 
ing the insertions, feebly interrupted in the middle by the parietal 
wall. (Mabille,L c., p.* 143.) 

Madagascar. 

H. eyanostoma Mabille. Shell broadly umbilicated, depressed- 
orbicular, solid, little thick, subshining, more or less striate and 
often here and there malleate, white under a fulvous or blackish 
deciduous epidermis, rufous zoned at the suture ; spire convex, little 
prominent, apex valid, obtuse, costulate, whitish ; whorls 5-5?, sub- 
planulate, rapidly and subregularly increasing, separated by im- 
pressed sutures, the last large, dilated and a little descending in front, 
obscurely angulated at the periphery, planulate beneath, tinted with 
black at the umbilicus, scarcely rounded; aperture oblique, obscurely 
tetragonal-ovate ; peristome a little thickened, broadly expanded, 
reflexed ; margins converging, the outer arcuate, basal straightened 
somewhat, columella oblique, scarcely incurved. Alt. 16-18, diam. 
maj. 41-46, min. 33-41 mill. This large and beautiful form has a 
thin but quite solid shell, of a brown color verging a little on red ; 
it is distinctly striate; the striae a little spaced and oblique, are 
accompanied by some malleations. The aperture presents within a 
beautiful blue shade with brilliant reflections. The umbilicus is 
wide, quite open, regularly circular, little angular at its edge and 
widely penetrating. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 144.) 

Madagascar. 



ITKLIX-AMPKLITA. 49 

H. oomorpha Mabille. Shell subrimate or imperforate, egg-shaped, 
little thickened, solid, subshining, fulvous, bifasciate with rufous, 
striate and densely decussated with minute tubercles in rows; spire 
small, semiglobose, apex subelevated, a little papillar; whorls 4-'-5, 
convex, irregularly (the first minute, rapidly and regularly, the rest 
very rapidly) increasing, separated by an impressed (especially 
at last whorl) suture ; the last whorl large, equaling T 8 <y the length 
of shell, convex, inflated, slowly and for a long distance descending 
at the aperture, a little ventricose beneath, lightly impressed around 
the columellar area; aperture nearly subvertical, broad-lunate, 
bifasciate inside, and bright fuligineous ; peristome white, thickened 
somewhat, narrowly expanded-reflexed, margins joined by a very 
thin, shining callus ; the outer margin long-arcuate, columellar 
slightly incurved, much dilated at the insertion, white, closing the 
umbilicus. Alt. 41-49, greater diam. 62-64, lesser 43-49 mill. ; 
aperture, including peristome 41-42 mill, long, 32s-38 wide. In 
contour it forms a pretty regular oval, narrowed at the two extremi- 
ties. The shell, of a brownish-red, a little shining, is solid, but not 
very thick, ornamented by a net-work of fine tubercles disposed in 
pretty regular series ; in a fresh condition these tubercles are pilose. 
There are two dark reddish-brown zones on the last whorl, the upper 
one continued nearly to the apex of the spire, which is semiglobose, 
very small, the last whorl forming nearly the whole shell. The 
aperture is nearly parallel with the axis, large, oval, a little acute 
posteriorly, well rounded at the base ; outer border gently curved, 
the columellar is thick at its insertion, widely reflexed at the umbili- 
cal region, white, and slightly tortuous. 

(Mabille, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, 1884, i, p. 146.) 

Madagascar* 

Probably belongs to Helicophanta. 

H. catarella Mabille. Shell moderately umbilicated (umbilicus 
funnel-shaped, subpervious, surrounded by an obtuse angle), de- 
pressed-suborbicular convex, a little thickened, solid, shining, white 
under a fulvescent or rufescent epidermis, regularly costulate-striate, 
and under a lens decussated by very delicate longitudinal lines ; 
spire convex -conic, a little prominent, apex denuded, valid, subshin- 
ing, obtuse, whitish ; whorls 5, convex, subregularly (first rapidly, 
the rest very rapidly) increasing, separated by ah impressed suture ; 
last whorl large turgid around the suture, more or less impressed 
and obscurely angulated before the periphery, at the aperture very 
4 



50 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

shortly, rapidly descending, obliquely dilated ; aperture oblique, 
lunate; peristome thickened, white, broadly reflexed, margins ap- 
proximating, joined by a white lamina; the outer excavated, a little 
campanulate, basal arcuate, obscurely nodiferous, columellar very 
short. Alt. 19, greater diam. 33^-36, lesser 25-28 mill. The shell 
is depressed-convex, a little orbicular, of a russet color, sometimes 
without epidermis and white ; ordinarily unicolored, but sometimes 
ornamented with scarcely apparent bands. Shell covered with regular 
striae and longitudinal lines, visible only under a lens. Whorls of 
tho spire convex, the last with a more or less marked depression. 
Umbilicus quite wide, showing usually two-thirds of a volution, 
terminating in a minute, deep perforation. Peristome white, well 
expanded, especially on the outer side. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 146.) 

Madagascar. 

Evidently close to H. lamarei Mke. 

H. polydora Mabille. Shell moderately but profoundly subper- 
viously umbilicate, depressed -orbicular, convex, a little thickened, 
very solid, shining, white, ornamented with purple-chestnut zonules ; 
spire a little prominent, apex minute, obtuse, smooth, concolored ; 
whorls 5, subregularly and very rapidly increasing, convex-depressed, 
separated by a distinct, linear suture ; the last large, turgid at suture, 
impressed at periphery, then angulately rounded, convex beneath, 
a little angular around the umbilicus, at the aperture dilated and 
very shortly deflexed ; aperture oblique, slightly lunate, irregularly 
oblong-ovate ; peristome white, a little thickened, reflexed, margins 
approximating, joined by a thin callus ; outer margin sinuate, broad- 
ly expanded ; basal margin incurved, subnodose ; columellar oblique, 
incurved and thickened. Alt. 16, greater diam. 32, lesser 25 mill. 
A very shining shell, of a beautiful porcelain-white color, ornamen- 
ted with three purple bands, two above, one below. Stria3 fine, 
scarcely visible ; spire visibly convex ; last whorl angular at its be- 
ginning, rounded at its termination, with a well-marked but narrow 
depression situated between the two superior bands ; base convex, a 
little angular around the umbilicus, which is well opened, deeply 
penetrating, but more contracted than in H. madera. (Mabille, 1. c., 
p. 148.) 

Madagascar. 

Allied to H. hova Angas. 

H. madera Mabille. Shell moderately umbilicated (umbilicus 
subpervious), subconoid-depressed, pretty thin but solid, shining, 



HELIX-AM 1'KIJTA. 51 

yellowish with three broad chestnut-reddish bands, vermiculated 
with yellowish ; costulate-striate, especially at the sutures, and under 
a lens with spiral lines ; spire conic, a little prominent, subacute, 
the apex obtuse, striatulate, shining; whorls o, convex, pretty 
regularly and very rapidly increasing, separated by impressed 
sutures ; the last whorl large, a little convex below the suture, then 
superficially impressed, then turgid-angulate ; beneath rather convex, 
obtusely angulated around the umbilicus, at the aperture dilated and 
suddenly deflexed ; aperture oblique, lunate, oblong ovate ; peristome 
white, a little thickened, reflexed ; margins subapproximating, joined 
by a thin callus, the outer incurved, then substraightened, with a 
tubercle in the middle, much dilated and projecting ; columellar 
margin obliquely incurved, narrowly reflexed. Alt. 18, greater 
diam. 32, lesser 25? mill. A conic-depressed shell, solid, a little 
transparent, shining ; ornamented with 3 blackish chestnut bands, 
on a bright yellow ground. Spire regularly conical, a little acumina- 
ted at summit. Shell striate, the striae being more apparent at 
suture than in the middle of the whorls; the last whorl is convex at 
the suture, then depressed, finally becoming inflated and rounded 
beneath, the base visibly compressed. Umbilicus middling sized, 
well opened, suddenly contracted and then penetrating. (Mabille, 
1. c., p. 148.) 

Madagascar. 

Doubtless either a synonym or at most a variety of H. hova 
Angas. 

H. erythromorpha Mabille. Shell moderately and perviously um- 
bilicated (umbilicus rounded), depressed-orbicular-convex, solid, 
slightly thick, white under a brown deciduous epidermis, costulate- 
striate, very minutely punctulate under a lens ; bifasciate , spire 
regularly conic, prominent, apex valid, obtuse; whorls 5J, a little 
convex, pretty regularly increasing, separated by a suture impressed 
around the last whorl ; last whorl very large, flattened-sloping above, 
rotund-angular at the periphery, not descending at the aperture, en- 
circled by a narrow purple zone at the suture and another wide one 
at the periphery, complanate beneath, angulated around the umbil- 
icus and tinged with blackish-purple; aperture scarcely oblique, 
lunate, ovate; peristome shining, partly whitish, partly purple 
tinged, narrowly reflexed and thickened, obtuse, margins subap- 
proximating, outer a little expanded, scarcely arcuate, nearly 
straightly descending, columellar very short, scarcely arcuate, basal 



52 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

sub-straight, armed with a little-conspicuous lamina. Alt. 18, greater 
diam. 41, lesser 34 mill. In this species the shell is orbicular- 
depressed with a moderate, well-rounded umbilicus, not widened, and 
showing the whorls : the shell is thin, solid and strong, finely striate ; 
the prominent spire is a regular, elevated cone ; the apex is very ob- 
tuse, compressed ; the suture is linear, quite superficial on the earlier 
whorls, becoming a little profound at the last. The last whorl is 
large, a little compressed -sloping, feebly angular at the periphery, 
not descending, and a little dilated at its termination, compressed- 
flattened below, and plainly rounded around the umbilicus. (Ma- 
bille, 1. c., p. 150.) 

Madagascar. 

H. lychna Mabille. Shell subdepressed-orbicular, broadly and 
perspectively umbilicate, solid, subopaque, a little shining, rubes- 
cent, unicolored above, beneath ornamented with a more or less con- 
spicuous whitish zone, densely striate, under a lens very minutely 
roughened, here and there malleated ; spire a little convex, prom- 
inent; apex minute, obtuse, striatulate, concolored ; whorls 6, con- 
vex, regularly and rapidly increasing, separated by impressed sutures, 
the last large, a little convex above, compressed and a little 
angulated at the periphery, descending at the aperture ; beneath 
complanate-depressed, rubescent tinged around the umbilicus, and 
encircled by white, a little convex ; aperture oblique, slightly lunate, 
obscurely ovate- trigonal ; peristome narrow, reflexed, a little thick- 
ened, margins approximating, the outer obliquely descending, then 
arcuate, basal substraight, columellar arcuate, subpatulous. Alt. 21- 
22, greater diam. 45-48, lesser 39-40J mill. The shell is large, 
orbicular-depressed, of a brownish-red, quite dark, unicolored above, 
but ornamented beneath with a white zone around the umbilical 
tract ; the striae are quite strong, nearly regular, and are accompanied 
by malleations, visible especially at the periphery ; and under a 
strong lens little points or striae longitudinally disposed, are visible. 
The spire is moderately salient, the apex small and obtuse ; the last 
whorl is well-developed ; it is convex above, a little compressed at 
the circumference, presenting at this place an inconspicuous angle ; 
compressed beneath ; this compression ceases at the white zone 
around the umbilicus; the aperture is oval, but visibly tetragonal; 
the peristome, very little thickened and obtuse, is feebly but narrowly 
reflexed. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 151.) 

Madagascar. 



1 1 KLIX-AMPELITA. 53 

H. stilpna Mabille. Shell urabilicate, subglobose-depressed, quite 
thick, coarsely striate, under a deciduous epidermis white, ornamen- 
ted with three broad rufous-purplish zones, two above, one around 
the umbilicus; spire convex-globose, a little prominent, apex obtuse, 
reticulated ; whorls 53, slightly convex, very rapidly increasing, sep- 
arated by a linear quite distinct suture ; last whorl large, rounded, 
without trace of angulation at periphery, descending and subdilated 
at aperture ; aperture oblique, whitish within, ovate ; peristome ob- 
tuse, thickened, reflexed ; margins approximating, columellar dila- 
ted ; umbilicus moderate, a little widening, showing the whorls of the 
spire, a little impinged upon by the reflexed columellar lip. Alt. 
17-19, diam. maj. 37-39, rain. 30-32 mill. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 152.) 

Madagascar. 

If. lithida Mabille. Shell broadly umbilicated (umbilicus funnel- 
shaped, pervious), depressed-convex, slightly thick, slightly shining, 
chestnut colored, lightly striate, under a lens very minutely more or 
less decussated, and especially at sutures, malleated ; spire convex, 
little prominent, apex obtuse, submalleated, brown ; whorls 4i-5, a 
little convex, subregularly, very rapidly increasing, separated by lin- 
ear suture, the last whorl large, convex-rotund above, impressed 
above the periphery, rapidly descending and obliquely dilated to- 
ward the aperture, beneath a little convex, the umbilicus encircled 
by a buff zone, scarcely angulated ; aperture oblique, slightly lu- 
nate, bluish inside, regularly ovate; peristome white, thickened, 
broadly reflexed-effuse ; margins converging, joined by a very thin 
shining lamina, outer margin dilated, subexcavated-arcuate, colu- 
mellar obliquely descending, substraight, a little thickened. Alt. 
17-18, greater diam. 37-39, lesser 29-31 mill. The shell although 
not very thick, is solid afhd opaque ; of a uniform reddish-brown 
color, at times interrupted on the last whorl by little yellow spots. 
The spire is little developed, regular but feebly projecting ; on the 
contrary, the last whorl has great extension ; it is well rounded, with 
a visible trace of a depression ; the slightly irregular striae are ac- 
companied by some superficial malleations ; and the broadly ex- 
panded but little reflexed peristome is very little thickened. (Ma- 
bille, 1. c., p. 153.) 

Madagascar. 

H. galactostomella Mabille. Shell broadly, profoundly pervious- 
umbilicate, depressed-conic, solid, scarcely shining, covered with a 
rufous or chestnut-blackish epidermis ; ornamented with dense, ir- 



54 HELIX-AMPELITA. 

regular arcuate riblet-like striae, sometimes a little crispate. Spire 
convex, little prominent, apex obtuse, shining, dull yellowish, des- 
titute of cuticle. Whorls 5, a little convex, the first slowly, the rest 
rapidly widening, narrowly separated by a simple suture ; last whorl 
large, angular at periphery, slightly descending in front, subdilated, 
convexly sloping above, compressed and shining beneath, obscurely 
angulated around the wide, pervious umbilicus. Aperture oblique, 
lunate, obscurely triangular, outer margin at first straightened, then 
curved, basal margin rather straight, columellar margin oblique, 
dilated, calloused, not covering the umbilicus ; peristome thickened, 
convolutely dilated all around. 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 36, lesser 29 mill. (Mabille, in Bull, de la 
Soc. Philomathique de Paris, 1885-'86, p. 124, 1886.) 

Madagascar, coll. Ancey. 

H. gaudens Mabille. Shell broadly and profoundly pervious- 
umbilicate, subdepressed-discoidal, a little thick, solid, scarcely 
ponderous, slightly shining, rufous ; very minutely punctulate at the 
sutures, then crispate-malleate ; irregularly striate ; spire a little 
prominent, somewhat convex, apex large, vitreous-shining ; whorls 
5-5 , convex, rapidly widening, separated by a deeply impressed 
suture ; the last whorl is large, convexly sloping above, irregularly 
angular at the periphery, deeply and rapidly descending in front, 
dilated and a little advanced ; beneath it is subcompressed, orna- 
mented with minute radiating striae, roughened by small granules ; 
around the umbilicus there is a yellowish zone. The aperture is sub- 
horizontal, subquadrate, lunate, the margins approximating, livid 
inside ; peristome slightly thickened, narrowly reflexed, the outer lip 
at first rather straight, then arcuate ; basal margin somewhat 
straightened, moderately convoluted ; columellar margin oblique, 
expanded, not covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 27, greater diam. 63, lesser 50 mill. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 125.) 

Madagascar, coll. Ancey. 

H. campelica Mabille. Shell broadly and perviously umbilicate, 
discoidal-com pressed, rather thick, solid, shining, yellowish, seen un- 
der a lens to be exceptionally decussated and punctulate ; spire 
plane, apex strong ; obscurely striatulate, buff 1 , shining; whorls 5- 
6, convex-depressed, earlier subregularly and visibly increasing, the 
rest rapidly, separated by a whitish, impressed suture ; the last whorl 
large, complanate above, cylindrical at the periphery, rapidly de- 
scending and broadly dilated in front, subconvex below, obscurely 



HELIX-AMPELITA. 55 

angulated around the umbilicus; aperture oblique, ovate-oblong, 
white inside, bright, blue-tinted, margins subapproximating ; peris- 
tome white, thickened, broadly reflexed-convolute. Alt. 17, greater 
diam. 51, lesser 39 mill. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 125.) 

Madagascar, coll. Ancey. 

H. paropta Mabille. Shell covered-subperforate, globose subtur- 
binate, hardly shining, rather thick, solid, remarkably decussated- 
rugose, white at the apex ; spire convex-subconic, rather prominent, 
apex well-marked, complanate, rugose and lyrate ; whorls 42-5, a 
little convex, very rapidly widening, separated by a ruddy, im- 
pressed suture ; the last whorl is large, convexly sloping above, in 
front descends for a rather long distance and moderately, a little di- 
lated, a little subcompressed, angular on the base, the angle disap- 
pearing towards the aperture ; aperture oblique-lunate, ovate-oblong, 
the margins subparallel, not converging ; peristome a little thick- 
ened, whitish within, edged with lilac ; outer lip sinuous, sub- 
straightened, then incurved, emitting a white callus over the umbil- 
ical perforation. Alt. 18, greater diam. 35, lesser 30 mill. (Mabille, 
1. c., p. 126.) 

Madagascar, coll. Paris Museum. 

H. subfunebris Mabille. Shell broadly umbilicated, depressed- 
convex, rather delicately solid, somewhat shining, purplish, clouded 
here and there with black ; irregularly, coarsely arcuate-striate and 
rugate ; spire convex, little prominent, apex large, complanate, shin- 
ing; whorls 5-5 J, slightly convex, the earlier concavely impressed 
on the lower part, visibly and subregularly increasing, separated by 
a distinct narrowly margined suture ; last whorl large, convexly 
sloping at the periphery, obtusely angled, dilated in front and slight- 
ly descending, compressed beneath, with strong radiating stria?, an- 
gulated around the pervious umbilicus, scrobiculate behind the per- 
istome ; aperture oblique, trigonal-subovate, bluish inside ; peristome 
thickened, patulous-dilated, little reflexed ; outer lip well curved, 
joining the basal which is thickened, .1 little reflexed, tuberculate and 
straightened in a superficial angle ; columellar margin oblique, sub- 
curved, slightly reflexed. Alt. 17, greater diam. 48, lesser 40 mill. 

(Mabille, 1. c,p. 126.) 

Madagascar, coll. Ancey. 

H. gaudiella Mabille. Shell very broadly umbilicated, depressed- 
subdiscoidal, a little thick, solid, slightly shining, blackish-reddish, 
with obscure grayish streaks, and arcuate, irregular stride ; spire 



56 HELIX-PCECILOSTYLUS. 

scarcely prominent, apex moderate, rugose rib-striate ; whorls 4i- 
5, convexly plane, depressed at the sutures, rapidly widening ; sut- 
ure profound, margined by an obtuse carina ; last whorl large, a 
little swollen above at first, and then sloping, cylindrical at the 
periphery, beneath a little compressed, marked by a wide white zone 
around the umbilicus, descending and broadly dilated in front ; 
aperture oblique, ovate, margins subapproximating, peristome whit- 
ish, dilated and reflexed ; columellar margin obliquely reflexed, 
outer incurved, broadly dilato-reflexed. 

Alt. 15, greater diam. 59 i, lesser 50 mill. (Mabille, 1. c., p. 127.) 

Madagascar, coll. Ancey. 

Section PCECILOSTYLUS Pilsbry, 1890. 

Eurystyla ANCEY, in The Conchologists' Exchange ii, p. 39, Sept., 
1887, type, H. cerina Morel, (not Eurystylus Stal, 1871). Cochlo- 
styla, in part, of Authors. 

These beautiful shells are like some forms of Ampelita in facies, 
but are very compactly convoluted, the umbilicus being a mere 
perforation closed in the adult. The surface is glossy and vividly 
painted. The anatomy is unknown. There are but two species known 
at present H. viridis Desh., not an uncommon form in collections, 
but usually classed as a Cochlostyla ; the other, H. cerina Morel., is 
still rare. I have seen but a single specimen of it. 

H. VIRIDIS Deshayes. PL 63, figs. 50, 51, 52. 

Shell imperforate elevated-globose, solid, strong, opaque, bright 
or dark green, with three broad encircling dark brown zones, one at 
periphery, one above, and one on the base ; the suture is narrowly 
edged with brown ; on the spire the green ground-color is replaced 
by yellow and then white, and the zones become light chestnut 
brown. Surface smooth, polished, scarcely striate ; spire elevated, 
blunt ; apex very obtuse, corneous ; whorls 5, convex, the last de- 
scending in front. Aperture very oblique, rather small, obscurely 
quadrangular, opaque white within, not showing the bands ; peris- 
tome dark purplish-brown, obtuse, very narrowly expanded all 
around, dilated and appressed over the umbilical tract, and whitish 
there; parietal callus thin, transparent. 

Alt. 29, greater diam. 28 mill. ; aperture, oblique alt. 20, breadth 
17-1 mill. 



IIKLIX-MACROON. 57 

Alt. 29, greater diam. 23 mill.; aperture, oblique alt. 18, breadth 
15 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. viridis DESH., in Lam., An. s. Vert., p. 102. PFR. Monogra- 
phia i, p. 225 ; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 297, t. 50, f. 9-12. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., f. 182. Bulimus viridis Dh., PFR. Monogr. iii,p. 298. 
Orthostylus viridis of Albers and Beck ; Orusta viridis Mo'rch. 
Cochlodryas viridis Dh., in Pfeiffer's Noment. Hel. Viv., p. 206. 

The principal variations are illustrated on my plate. The ground- 
color is sometimes chestnut or olive-brown all over, unicolored or 
with dark brown zones ; in these the lip is of a light flesh-color. 
Some shells have the dark zones very wide, almost concealing the 
green ground color. Figure 50 represents a shell of normal propor- 
tions and coloration. The relationship of this species to H. cerina 
was first pointed out in Novitates Conchologicse, vol. v. 

H. CERIXA Morelet. PI. 63, figs. 53, 54, 55. 

Shell covered-perforate, very narrowly perforate when immature, 
globose, thin but solid, opaque, of a rich smoky chestnut color, shad- 
ing into bright yellow at the umbilical region and on the next to the 
last whorl, the inner whorls porcelaneous bluish-white, the apex deep 
purple ; a narrow black baud margins the suture below, and a wider 
one encircles the periphery. The surface is polished, glossy, under 
a lens faint, fine incremental and spiral striae appear. The spire is 
rather elevated, blunt ; apex not raised, the apical whorl dark 
purple ; sutures slightly impressed. Whorls 4-4i, convex, the last 
globose-depressed, convex above, below and at periphery, a trifle 
deflexed in front. Aperture oblique, semilunar, opaque white and 
showing the band inside ; peristome a little thickened and expanded, 
dark, margins distant ; columellar margin straightened, narrowly 
reflexed above. Alt. 18, greater diam. 23, lesser 18 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. cerina MOREL. Journ. de Conchyl. 1877, p. 217. PFR. in Nov- 
it. Conch, v, p. 180, t. 153, f. 4-6. 

In its compact, subglobose form, glossy surface and beautiful 
coloration, this species is very distinct. The contour is different 
from the larger, elevated H. viridis, and the banding is peculiar. 

Subgenus XVIII. MACROON Pilsbry, 1890. 
This subgenus is proposed for a number of sections which com- 
prise most of the largest known Helices. The group as a whole is 



58 HELIX-MACROON. 

characterized by the relatively great size of the egg, and the corre- 
spondingly large embryonic or nuclear shell, which is in most of the 
species from one-fourth to over one-third the total diameter of the 
adult shell. It is in most cases sculptured differently, more regu- 
larly and elaborately, than the post-embryonic portion of the shell. 
The termination of the embryonic or nuclear shell is distinctly 
marked by the change of sculpture, or color, and by an oblique 
streak or wrinkle of the surface. The adult shell is either imperfor- 
ate or umbilicate ; but the umbilicus when open, does not penetrate 
deeper than the last whorl. The contour of the adult shell varies 
fromdepressed^globose, heliciform, to elevated and bulimiform. The 
various modifications of shell and nucleus will be discussed more 
fully under the several sectional heads. 

I have offered a new name because the group is wholly new, both 
in the collocation of its contents and the characters upon which it is 
founded. 

Four well-marked sections may be recognized : 

(1.) HELICOPHANTA, large Madagascar shells, with a distinct line 
marking the junction of the nucleus with the post-embryonic growth, 
the latter consisting of one and a half whorls or less ; form varying 
from heliciform to bulimiform ; whorls 4 to 5, very rapidly widen- 
ing ; lip expanded or reflexed, narrow ; the columellar margin 
somewhat dilated at its insertion at the axis. 

(2.) PANDA, globose-bulimoid shells of great size and variegated 
coloration, the nucleus not marked off from the after-growth nor 
different from it in any way ; whorls 4? or less, rapidly widening ; 
lip simple, not expanded, dilated and reflexed on the columella. 
The two species inhabit Australia. 

(3.) ACAVUS, a Ceylonese group of brightly colored species ; the 
junction of the nuclear and post-embryonic whorls not strongly de- 
fined generally, but visible ; whorls less than 5 in number, rapidly 
increasing; lip broadly expanded, the columellar margin long, 
obliquely descending, very broadly flattened and adnate to the base. 

(4.) STYLODONTA having a brown helicoid shell with about 5? 
slowly widening whorls, the nucleus differently sculptured and easily 
distinguishable from the post-embryonic growth, the latter consist- 
ing of more than two whorls ; lip expanded or reflexed ; the col- 
umella very short, vertical, convex or toothed. Habitat, Seychelles 
Islands. 



HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 59 

Section I. HELICOPHANTA (Beck) Albers. 

Helicophanta (in part) BECK, Index Molluscorum, p. 46, 1837. 
ALBERS-MARTENS, Die Heliceen, 1st edit., p. 148. PFR. Noment. 
Hel. Viv., p. 169. 

This Madagascar group contains more very large Helices than any 
other. The shells are characterized by their great size, either 
lengthened, bulimiform, or depressed, and of an oblong, transversely 
inflated shape. The volutions increase very rapidly in size ; the last 
one descends deeply in front. The surface is nearly always finely 
granulate or malleated; the nuclear whorls are several in number, 
and attain a size exceeding one-third the greatest diameter of the 
adult shell. The post-embryonic growth consists of not more than one 
and one-half whorls, frequently less. 

The species vary from depressed, broadly heliciform, to elongated, 
Bulimus-shaped. They fall into groups as follows : 

I. Heliciform species, either umbilicated or imperforate, much 
broader than higher ; the columella proper consisting of a very 
short curve and a small pad of white callus spread upon the base, 

Group of H. cornugiganteum* 

II. Bulimiform species ; imperforate, generally nearly as high or 
higher than broad ; the columella rather long, straight or gently 
arcuate, not terminating in a little pad, but more or less deeply 
entering. 

a. Shell broader than high, rather thin. Group of H. magnified. 

b. Shell broader than high, thick and ponderous. 

Group of H. gloriosa* 

c. Shell decidedly higher than broad, columellar lip reflexed. 

Group of H. goudotiana. 

d. Shell lengthened, bulimiform, thick, columellar lip obtuse, not 
reflexed, Group of H. farafanga* 



Group of H. cornugiganteum Chemn. 

This is a group of closely allied forms, very variable and difficult 
to distinguish. I have not seen the true H. vesicalis, nor H. gues- 
tieriana. The other species lie before me. Of these, cornugigan- 
teum and betsileoensis are openly umbilicate, the former having 
smooth, the latter decidedly granulate parietal callus and columel- 
lar lip. H. guestieriana, bicingulata and ibaraoensis are imperforate 



HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 

or very narrowly rimate ; the first two are finely obliquely indented 
or wrinkled on the body- whorl and bicingulata has granulate colu- 
mella when adult ; H. ibaraoensis is not wrinkled by oblique 
indentations, and the columella is smooth, although the thin 
parietal callus is granulate. H. vesicalis is remarked upon under H. 
bicingulata. 

H. CORNUGIGANTEUM Chemnitz. PI. 14, figs. 59, 60, 61. 

Shell large, umbilicate, depressed, solid and rather thick, opaque, 
brownish-yellow, streaked with chestnut ; surface shining, with ir- 
regular, obliquely arcuate growth-wrinkles, and a number of incon- 
spicuous, low, cord-like spirals, a little darker colored than the 
ground-color; more closely examined, the surface is seen to be 
covered with a fine malleation or oblique wrinkled pattern ; and in 
some places it is microscopically granulate, notably on the inner 
whorls when not worn. The spire is small and very obtuse ; apex 
minute, flat ; suture narrowly impressed. Whorls about 4 , the first 
3 of a uniform fleshy-brown color ; last whorl depressed, its last 
third rapidly descending, rather flattened beneath. Aperture very 
oblique, oval-truncate, bluish-white inside ; peristome white, rather 
thick and obtuse, narrowly expanded all around, dilated and pro- 
jecting in a rounded lobe partly over the umbilicus ; parietal wall 
with a white callus, heavy at its edge. Umbilicus rather wide, but 
scarcely penetrating deeper than the last whorl. 

Alt. 45, greater diam. 75, lesser 58 mill. Oblique alt. between 
basal and upper lips 40, greatest width of aperture 50 mill. 

Alt. 36 greater diam. 75, lesser, 54 mill. Oblique alt. from basal 
to upper lip 38, greatest width of aperture 48 mill. 

Id. of Agalega, N. E. of Madagascar (teste Sir David Barclay). 

i 

Helix cornu giganteum CHEMNITZ, Syst. Conchyl. Cab. ix, p. 247, 
t. 208, f. 2051, 2052. PFR. Monographia i, p. 16. REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 173. 

This species may be known by its depressed form, solid texture, 
light yellow color, streaked obliquely with chestnut, and especially 
by the rather broad umbilicus, which is usually more than half 
covered by the expanded lobe of the columellar lip. The parietal 
callus shows no trace of granulation. 

The measurements given above show how the species varies in eleva- 
tion. There is, however, but little change in the general features of 
the shell. The umbilicus is always wide, even when nearly covered 



HELIX HELICOPHANTA. 61 

by the lip; the base is decidedly flatter than in any other species. 
I do not believe that the H. vesicalis of Lamarck, figured by Ferus- 
sac and Chenu, is the same. 

H. BETSILEOENSIS Angas. PI. 10, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell large, umbilicate, very broad and depressed, solid, opaque, 
chestnut shading to chocolate color, the inner whorls and first part 
of the last closely dotted with golden yellow. Surface shining, 
smooth, the inner whorls granulate, the granulation ex tending upon 
the body-whorl for a distance along the suture ; under a high power 
a pattern of excessively minute close scratches may be seen upon the 
apparently smooth surface. The spire is very much depressed, al- 
most plane ; suture impressed. Whorls 4J, rapidly increasing, the 
last very large, very convex, broad and transversely inflated, its last 
third descending ; base very convex, deeply, broadly excavated 
around the open umbilicus. Aperture oblique, oval-truncate, blue 
inside ; peristome scarcely thickened, white, narrowly expanded all 
around, the terminations converging, joined by a closely granulate 
callus, the columellar termination expanded, dilated somewhat over 
the umbilicus. 

Alt. 45, greater diam. 83, lesser 62 mill. Greatest width of aper- 
ture 51 mill. 

S. E. Betsileo ; Tanala country, Madagascar. 

H. (Eurycratera~) betsileoensis ANGAS, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1879, 
p. 728, t. 57, f. 1,2. 

This species is easily distinguished from H. cjornugiganteum by its 
more depressed upper surface, much less oblique aperture, darker 
coloration, and less concealed umbilicus. The epidermis is rather 
thick and strong, and the surface free from the fine oblique wrink- 
ling or malleation shown by the cornugiganteum. The parietal cal- 
lus, upper and columellar lips are rather coarsely granulated. 

H. IBARAOENSIS Angas. PL 13, figs. 49, 50. 

Shell large, depressed -globose, imperforate or very narrowly 
rimate, solid, opaque, olive-yellow, with dark chocolate-brown 
spiral bands, the entire surface becoming deep chocolate on the 
latter part of the body- whorl, almost black just back of the lip, all 
of the whorls except the last one (in the specimen before me) eroded, 
destitute of epidermis and of a dull reddish-brown color. Surface 
shining, the first part of the body-whorl minutely granulate both 
above and below, the granulation becoming obsolete on the latter 



62 HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 

two-thirds of the whorl, which is marked above and below by rather 
coarse wrinkles of growth; the whorl is encircled by numerous 
girdles of a brown color and a trifle raised. The spire is low, con- 
vex ; suture impressed ; whorls nearly 4?, rapidly increasing, the 
first three forming the nuclear or embryonic shell, the last whorl 
very large, descending in front, convex beneath, and impressed 
around the narrowly rimate or imperforate axis. Aperture oval- 
truncate, dark violet-bluish and with a silky luster inside. Per- 
istome white, narrowly expanded all around, narrowly dilated at the 
columellar insertion ; columellar margin smooth, not granulate ; 
terminations of peristome connected by a thin callus which extends 
inward on the penultimate whorl, and is conspicuously granulate. 

Alt. 50 greater diam. 77, lesser 58 mill. Greatest breadth of 
aperture 54 mill. , 

Southeast Betsileo and Tanala country, Madagascar. 

H. ibaraoensis ANGAS, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1879, p. 728, t. 57, figs. 3, 
4. SMITH, P. Z.'S. 1882, p. 381. 

This is a species of a dark chocolate color, light olive-yellow be- 
tween the spiral dark girdles. The columellar and upper lips are 
smooth, but the thin whitish callus which is spread upon the penul- 
timate whorl within the mouth is studded with whitish granules. The 
outer surface lacks those small oblique impressions or wrinkles so 
characteristic of H. bicingulata and its varieties, and the columellar 
lip is uniformly though slightly concave, not bending a little for- 
ward or outward as in the If. bicingulata. The figure on my plate 
is incorrect in showing the spiral girdles extending upon the penul- 
timate whorl this portion being eroded and bandless in the speci- 
men from which the drawing was made. 

H. GUESTIERIANA Crosse. PI. 9, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell narrowly subrimate, depressed, ovate-subglobose, rather thin, 
scarcely ponderous, obliquely closely plicate-striate, spirally encir- 
cled by unequal blackish-brown, very slightly raised girdles, on 
an olive-fulvous ground. Spire obtuse, terminating in a rather flat 
apex ; suture deeply impressed. Whorls of the spire 4, rapidly in- 
creasing, the two first nearly smooth, the penultimate covered by a pe- 
culiar, c^ose granulation, the last whorl descending, large, much in- 
flated, granulated in the vicinity of the suture, then strongly malleated 
as far as the umbilical region, which presents only low striae, and is of a 
deeper color than the base. Aperture very oblique, diagonal, broad- 



HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 63 

ly oval-lunar, somewhat pearly and of a livid whitish-brown inside, 
and shows, by its transparence, the stronger girdles of the outside. 
Peristome somewhat thickened, narrowly reflexed, soiled whitish, the 
terminations united by a thin callus. Columellar margin dilated, al- 
most wholly closing the umbilical chink. 

Alt. 37, greater diam. 63, lesser 49 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. guestleriana CROSSE. Journ. de Conchyl. 1868, p. 268, t. 9, f. 
4. 

The above description is from the original one of Crosse. The 
species (which has not been seen by English authors), is very 
similar to H. bicingulata, but differs, apparently, in the less oblique 
mouth, more globose body-whorl, and lack of granulation upon the 
columellar lip. 

H. BICINGULATA Smith. PI. 11, figs. 34, 35. 

Shell large, ovate, ventricose, imperforate or narrowly rimate, light 
olive-brown above, darker brown towards the lip, with the lower sur- 
face beneath the periphery still deeper in tint, encircled by two dark 
brown, slightly raised narrow bands, one at the periphery, the other 
and more distinct one above it. Spire depressed, convex, only a lit- 
tle raised above the body-whorl. Volutions 4, very rapidly increas- 
ing, convex, separated by a deepish suture ; two upper ones striated 
by simple arcuate lines of growth, the third coarsely granular, the 
lines of growth being but feebly expressed ; the last whorl very large, 
much descending in front, granular at its commencement, the gran- 
ules gradually disappearing and replaced by d'ose, oblique, short in- 
dentations, also exhibiting 5 or 6 nearly obsolete concentric ridges 
above the upper brown zone, and 2 or 3 between it and the lower one, 
the lines of increase being more distinct upon this than the preced- 
ing whorl. Lower surface swollen around the umbilical region, 
marked with arcuate lines of growth and oblique, close, short inden- 
tations like the upper surface, rounded at the periphery. Aperture 
obliquely elongate, bluish-lilac within. Lip whitish, expanded, re- 
flexed. Columella thickened, arched forward a trifle just beneath 
the umbilicus, very granular, expanded and reflexed over the per- 
foration, sometimes not quite closing it, united to the outer lip by a 
very thin granulated callosity, coating the whorl within the aperture. 
(Smith.) 

Greatest diam. 76, smallest 58, height, (resting on its base) 35 

mill. 

Ekongo, Southeast Madagascar. 



64 HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 

H. (Helicophanta) bicingulata E. A. SMITH, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1882, p. 380, t. 21, f. 13, 14. IT. cornu-giganteum ANGAS, P. Z. S. 

1877, p. 527 (not of Chemnitz). H. guestieriana ANGAS, P. Z. S. 

1878, p. 312 (not of Crosse). 

This is the species erroneously considered by Mr. Angas to be the 
H. guestieriana of Crosse, which much more closely resembles H. 
ibaraoensis of the former author. H. guestieriana is a more globose 
shell, with a higher penultimate whorl, a shorter aperture, a smooth 
columella, and a smooth callosity upon the body-whorl, which is en- 
circled by several slightly raised ridges of more equal size than in 
H. bicingulata. The granular, slightly arched-forward columella in 
the latter species, the obliquely indented surface of the body-whorl, 
and the two very conspicuous brown slightly raised girdles distinguish 
this from the allied forms, H. cornu-giganteum, betsileoensis, ibara- 
oensis, and guestieriana. The first two are openly umbilicated, the 
third generally imperforate (in about 50 specimens I have seen a 
few with a narrow perforation) ; and the last is said to be " nar- 
rowly subrimate." H. betsileoensis has the columella granular, as 
in the present species; in the other three it is smooth. In H. 
ibaraoensis the callus uniting the columella and the outer lip and 
spreading over the whorl within the aperture is conspicuously gran- 
ulated, and the epidermis is nearly black toward the lip. (Smith.) 

Smith's description and comments are given above. It is scarcely 
necessary to add any further distinguishing marks. The species has, 
however, so great a range of variation that certain of its forms may 
embarrass the student. One of these is figured on pi. 64, fig. 63. 
This is a chestnut-brown shell, becoming olive-brown on the penul- 
timate and earlier part of the last whorl, darker beneath. The two 
girdles are not nearly so well marked as in the type ; the form is 
less depressed. Alt. 40, greater diam. 68 mill. 

Another form (pi. 64, fig. 62) is very much smaller, and the spiral 
girdling quite different, being multicingulate, like H. guestieriana,. 

Alt. 35, greater diam. 60 mill. 

It is altogether likely that H. vesicalis Lam. ( Vide Ferussac, His- 
toire, t. 10, figs. 3a, b, and Chenu, Illust. Conchyl., Helix, t. l,figs. 
1, 2, 3) is a form of this same species. It is certainly not correctly 
placed in the synonymy of H. cornu-giganteum Chem. 



HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 60 

[NOTE. Since the foregoing part of the MANUAL was issued, 
Messrs. Crosse and Fischer's Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques, being 
vol. xxv of Grandidier's Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politiqae 
de Madagascar, has been received. The part of the work before me 
consists of 26 plates of land-shells. It is not accompanied by text, 
and there are numerous errors in the lettering on the plates. I shall 
notice in the appendix the species of Ampelita figured.] 

Crosse and Fischer figure (Hist. Nat. Moll. Madag., pi. 2, figs. 1- 
4 under the name of H. vesicalis), two forms referable to H. cornu- 
giganteum, although fig. 4 has the umbilicus more nearly closed than 
in the specimens I have seen of that species. Whatever the H. 
vesicalis of Lamarck may have been, the H. vesicalis of Chenu and 
the H. cornugiganteum of Deshayes (in Ferussac, Histoire i, p. 284, 
=vesicalis of Lam. teste Desh.) are undoubtedly the species lately 
called H. bicingulata by E. A. Smith. 

The same authors figure (Moll. Madag., pi. 9, figs. 2, 3) two shells 
as varieties of H. guestieriana. These figures seem to correspond 
A\ 7 ith the shells I have mentioned on page 64 as small varieties of bi- 
cingulata. The aperture is more oblique than in guestieriana; there 
is frequently a narrow umbilical rimation. This form (pi. 64, fig. 
62) may be called var. minima. 

Group of H. magnifica Fer. 

H. MAGNIFICA Ferussac. PI. 9, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell imperforate or with a very narrow chink behind the reflexed 
columellar lip; globose-depressed; diameter a trifle exceeding the 
height. It is rather thin but strong and solid ; opaque ; ground 
color yellow, more or less suffused with chestnut, and with a broad 
dark brown spiral zone above, one at periphery, and a third upon 
the umbilical area. These bands are generally split into very numer- 
ous narrower bands and spiral lines. Surface shining, obliquely 
striate, under a lens seen to be minutely granulate, except the last 
one-half of the body-whorl which is obscurely or not at all so. 
Spire very little raised above the penultimate whorl, almost flat ; the 
inner 1J whorl increase slowly, the rest very rapidly. The embry- 
onic shell is extremely large (greatest diam. 23-25 mill.) and finely,, 
densely granulated under a lens ; its inner whorls are deep purplish- 
brown, the last one-half whorl dull reddish, lighter at periphery, not 
distinctly banded. The post-embryonic growth consists of a little 
more than one volution ; upon this whorl the color-bands are dis- 



66 HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 

tinct, the microscopic granulation becomes obsolete, the striae of 
growth are far more distinct ; and numerous low, irregular, incon- 
spicuous spiral cords appear on the surface. The whorl is very large ; 
it descends rapidly from its beginning, and is slightly but distinctly 
impressed at the place of the umbilicus. Aperture oblique, oblong 
truncated, pinkish white and distinctly showing the bands inside. 
Peristome very narrowly expanded and subrefiexed on the outer 
and basal margins ; columella straight, vertical, deeply inserted, its 
edge reflexed backward in a small triangular callus over the umbil- 
ical fissure, and continued in a rather strong brown callus across to 
the superior lip. This parietal callus shows an excessively minute, 
regular granulation under a strong lens. 

Alt. 53, greater diam. 60, lesser 45 mill. 

Alt. 56, greater diam. 64, lesser 47? mill.; oblique alt. of aper- 
ture, 53 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. magnifica Fer., Histoire, t. 10, f. 4. PFK. Monographia Hel. 
Viv. i, p. 17 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 116, t. 86, f. 1, 2. KEEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 175. CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Madag., t. 3, f. 1, 2.H. 
polyzonalis LAM. An. s. Vert., p. 66. CHENU, Illust. Conch., Helix, 
t. 1, f. 3, 4. Helicophanta polyzonalis BECK, Index, p. 46. 

In H. magnifica the shell is almost as high as broad ; the inner 
-whorls of the spire are either almost flat or a trifle raised above the 
penultimate whorl. The color pattern varies in the details of band- 
ing, scarcely two specimens being alike. From all" the species of the 
cornugiganteum group, it differs in the longer, more deeply inserted, 
more straightened columella, and in the much more broadly ex- 
panded last whorl. Viewed from above, H. magnifica and Souver- 
biana have the apex more excentric than the species allied to gues- 
tieriana, cornugiganteum, etc. Crosse and Fischer have figured a 
specimen measuring 78 mill. alt. It is far larger than any I have 
seen. 

H. SOUVERBIANA Fischer. PI. 12, figs. 44, 45, 46. 

Shell imperforate, globose-depressed, broad, strong and solid but 
rather thin, opaque, chestnut colored, lighter and yellowish on the 
earlier part of the body whorl, dark chestnut on the later part, the 
inner whorls dark purplish-brown ; the earlier half of the last 
whorl has several spiral bands denuded of epidermis. Surface some- 
what shining, lightly, irregularly marked by growth wrinkles, and 



HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. G7 

under a strong lens seen to be minutely granulate ; the granula- 
tion is indistinct on the last whorl, but dense and distinct on the 
inner ones. Spire flat, tip of the apex a trifle sunken. Whorls 4, 
the inner three forming the nucleus, which is densely, microscopi- 
cally granulate. The post-embryonic portion is composed of one 
whorl or a little less ; this widens rapidly, descends throughout its 
latter two-thirds, and has a very slight indentation around the 
umbilical region. The aperture is oblong-truncate, very broad, the 
upper and lower margins straightened, subparallel ; inside it is whit- 
ish flesh colored, with an opalescent luster ; the lip and a broad 
margin inside is dark brown ; it is very narrowly expanded, reflexed 
at the columella, dilated over the umbilical fissure ; parietal wall 
covered with a milky or bluish callus edged with brown. 

Alt. 45, greater diam. 70-80, lesser 52-55 mill. ; aperture, alt. 
from basal to superior lips, 34, oblique breadth 53 mill. 

Eastern Madagascar. 

H. souverbiana FISCHER, Journ. de Conchyl. 1860, p. 210, t. 4, f. 8. 
PFR. Monogr. v, p. 305. DOHRN in Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet, 
p. 624, t. 179 f. 6, 7. Helicophanta Souverbiana Fischer, MOUSSON, 
Journ. de Conchyl. 1882, p. 38. 

A beautiful species. The color is a rich chestnut-brown, with 
narrow zones extending part way around, denuded of epidermis. 
The form is more depressed than H. magnifica, more inflated trans- 
versely, flatter above. It is best shown in fig. 46 of the plate. The 
embryonic shell measures about 28 mill, in greatest diameter ; 
its junction with the body-whorl is at a point in advance of the aper- 
ture. 

VAR. ATJDEBERTI Mousson. PI. 10, fig. 28. 

Shell large, covered rimate, depressed auriform, rather thin, strong- 
ly transversely obtuse-striate, and indistinctly encircled by obsolete 
interrupted sulci, partly irregularly and lightly granulate, pale ful- 
vous or yellowish, ornamented with a single blackish-brown band, 
paler beneath. Spire very short, apex plain or a little impressed ; 
suture moderate. Whorls 4, very rapidly increasing, the first con- 
vex, the last very large, descending, sloping above, narrowly curv- 
ing at the periphery. Aperture oblique (50 with axis), transverse, 
long-oval, whitish-gray inside, the baud showing. Peristome not 
thickened, narrowly reflexed, blackish, margins subparallel or some- 



68 * HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 

what converging, straightened, joined by a brown-edged callus. 
Columellar lip reflexed, almost covering the perforation. (Mouss.) 
Alt. 43, greater diam. 77, lesser 45 mill. 

Eastern Madagascar. 

Helicophanta (Helix) Audeberti MOUSSON, in Journ. de Conchyl. 
1882, p. 38, t. 3, f. l.H. souverbiana CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. 
Madagascar, t. 5, f. 1, 2 ; t. 6, f. 2, 2a. 

This beautiful species is seen at a glance to belong with H. sou- 
verbiana ; differing however in the following characters : the shell 
is more depressed and more transverse ; the whorls of the spire are 
less convex ; the last, especially, descends, beginning at the suture, 
in a slightly swollen surface, whilst at the back it is more strongly 
curved, sometimes almost angular ; the coloration is lighter, more 
yellowish, and especially remarkable for the girdle of brown, a color 
which also is seen on the peristome and edges the parietal callus. 
(Mouss.) 

Notwithstanding the differences indicated above by Mousson, I 
regard the H. audeberti as a mere variety, distinguished principally 
by the persistent epidermis, not evanescent in zones as in typical 
souverbiana. 

Group of H. gloriosa Pfr. 

H. GLORIOSA Pfeiffer. PI. 11, fig. 40. 

Shell imperforate, depressed-ovate, thick, ponderous, obliquely 
closely plicate-striate and encircled by close, obtuse subregular lirse ; 
tawny, marked with paler and darker oblique streaks ; spire convex, 
obtuse, denuded of epidermis, granulate under a lens ; apex very 
small. Whorls 3 J, rapidly widening, the last much inflated. Aper- 
ture oblique, lunate-oval, reddish inside; peristome very thick, 
narrowly expanded, margins joined by a thick callus, the columellar 
margin adnate. (flfr.) Alt. 39, greater diam. 64, lesser 50 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. gloriosa PFR. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 385; Mono- 
graphia iv, p. 205 ; Novitates Conch, i, p. 107, t. 30, f. 1, 2. 

Group of H. Goudotiana. 
H. OVIFORMIS Grateloup. PI. 66, fig. 60. 

Shell ovoid, ventricose, imperforate, greenish-fulvous, a little 
rugose ; spire short, obtuse ; last whorl large, encircled by two 



HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 69 

scarcely noticeable zones ; aperture ample, obliquely oblong ; lip 
subacute, subreflexed ; inner lip dilated above. 

Alt. 45-48, diam. 35-38 mill. (Grat.) 

I do not think that this Helix is the Goudotiana. The compar- 
ison I have made with Ferussac's figure causes me to regard it as a 
distinct species. It is much larger, less globulose, more elongated, 
and consequently of a Bulimus shape. The aperture is very large, 
oblong, inclined, smooth within, a little translucent, and notwith- 
standing the greenish-fawn color, traces of the two spiral zones of 
the last whorl are visible within. Last whorl very large, elevated, 
ventricose, and at least four times longer than the short, obtuse 
spire. ( Grat.') 

Madagascar. 

H. oviformis GRATELOUP, Actes Soc. Linn, de Bordeaux, xi, p. 
396, t. 2, f. 2, 1839. f H. . . . . FEB., Histoire, t. 10B, f. 1, 
2 ; t. 10 A, f. 6. f H. amphibulima~FER., in Mus. ; and Helieophanta 
amphibulimea BECK, Index, p. 46 ? (Not H. oviformis of REEVE'S 
Conch. Iconica, t. 38, f. 172a, b /) 

I have translated above Grateloup's original diagnosis and com- 
ments, and given on pi. 66, fig. 60 a fac-simile of his figure. From 
these it will be seen that Reeve and Pfeiffer are in error in their 
identifications of this form. 

Grateloup's description and figure were probably drawn from 
rather immature specimens. I have on the strength of this supposi- 
tion, considered the following form a variety ; it has however, ap- 
parently good claims to specific rank. 

Var. PHENAX Pilsbry. PL 66, fig. 61 (type) ; pi. 11, fig. 39. 

Shell oval or oblong, imperforate, but with a narrow, deep chink 
or rimation behind the reflexed columellar lip ; solid but not thick ; 
opaque ; rich chestnut-brown, sometimes a trifle tinged with olive, 
and encircled by two dark brown bands, one at periphery, the other 
above it. The surface is slightly shining, and shows when closely 
examined, a very fine, dense granulation all over. The granulation 
is produced by the decussation of growth-striae by close, fine spiral 
impressed lines. Spire short, obtuse ; apex a trifle sunken ; suture 
impressed. Whorls 4, convex, the last very rapidly increasing, 
oval, descending, somewhat depressed in the baso-umbilical region. 
Aperture oblique, egg-shaped, rather acute above, rounded beneath, 
livid-flesh-colored inside and showing the two bands. Peristome 



70 HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 

dirty white, narrowly expanded and subreflexed, the columellar mar- 
gin more broadly reflexed, becoming adnate at the umbilical region, 
where is expands into a broad whitish callus plate, a thinner con- 
tinuation of which extends across the body to the upper angle of the 
aperture. The inner edge of the columella is concave. 

Alt. 57, greatest diam. 50 mill. Oblique alt. of aperture, includ- 
ing peristome, 46, greatest width 35 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. goudoiiana REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 38, f. 174a, b, not of 
Ferussac ! 

The specimen described above is drawn on pi. 66, fig. 61 ; Reeve's 
illustration of the same form is given on pi. 11, fig. 39. Compar- 
isons should be made with H. oviformis Grat. (pi. 66, fig. 60), and H. 
Goudotiana Fer. (pi. 9, fig. 21). The former I have assumed to be 
a shell of immature growth, although it is obvious that Grateloup 
had more than one specimen before him. It is narrower than my 
H. phenax, with decidedly different columella; the true Goudotiana 
Fer. (non Reeve nee Pfr.) is a smaller shell, with more tortuous col- 
umella, and as Deshayes states and the figures plainly show, the 
columellar lip is more narrowly reflexed than the outer lip. The 
wrinkling of the surface also separates it, phenax being entirely 
free from malleation or wrinkling. 

Another shell which may be referred to H. oviformis or H. phenax 
as a variety is figured on pi. 66, fig. 59; it agrees with phenax except 
in the following characters : it is more lengthened, proportionally 
narrower, the body-whorl less ventricose, and convex instead of flat- 
tened on the umbilico-basal portion. The columella is more suddenly 
dilated at the umbilical region. 

Alt. 62, greatest width 47 2. Oblique alt. of aperture 50, greatest 
breadth 37 mill. 

Pfeiffer's figures (in the Conchy lien Cabinet, plate 54, figs. 1, 2, 
" H. Goudotiana") are evidently drawn from a shell of this variety. 

Crosse and Fischer figure under the name " oviformis" a specimen 
of my H. phenax. (Vide Moll. Madagascar, pi. 1, figs. 5, 6.) 

H. GOUDOTIANA Ferussac. PI. 9, fig. 21. 

Shell oblong-ovate, imperforate ; spire very short, composed of 4? 
whorls, very rapidly increasing ; color reddish-brown or yellowish, 
with two narrow encircling zones of deep dark brown. Surface fine- 
ly granulate all over, and with obliquely descending wrinkles (visi- 



HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 71 

ble especially on the back of the shell opposite the aperture). Last 
whorl oblong, convex, much higher than broad. Aperture oval, 
much higher than broad ; peristome whitish, thick, strongly and 
uniformly reflexed all around except on the columellar margin, 
which is narrowed somewhat, and becomes nearly cylindrical, and 
noticeably tortuous. A straight parietal callus unites the ends of 
the peristome, and covers the umbilical region with a small callus. 
Alt. 50, diam. 35 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. Goudotiana FER., Histoire iii, t. 10 A, f. 4, 5 ; vol. i, text, by 
DESHAYES, p. 286 (not H. goudotiana of REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 38, 
f. 174 a, b, nor of PFR. Conchylien Cabinet, t. 54, f. 1, 2). H. ovi- 
formis Grat., REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 172 a, b. 

Reeve and Pfeiffer have confused this species with H. oviformis 
and its variety phenax. From these it differs entirely in the more 
tortuous columella, smaller size and the obliquely descending wrin- 
kles of the surface. 

Boettger (Nachrichtsblatt d. Deutschen Mai. Ges. 1889, p. 44) re- 
ports it from the island of Nossi-Be ; but whether he had the true 
Goudotiana or not I do not know. 

I have not seen the species, my description being compiled from 
Deshayes' account of the original specimen. All doubtful refer- 
ences have been purposely omitted in the above synonymy. 

% 

H. ECHINOPHORA Ferussac. PL 9, fig. 20 ; pi. 42, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell ovate-oblong, imperforate, reddish-chestnut colored, encir- 
cled by a broad light zone, with 2 narrower zones bordering it. 
Epidermis yellowish, bristling with a great number of stiff, suberect 
but minute scales, disposed longitudinally in series coincident with 
the growth-strise. Spire short, conoid, apex obtuse. Whorls 4, 
slightly convex, the last large, ovate. Aperture ovate-oblong, sub- 
quadrangular ; peristome white, thickened and expanded ; colu- 
mella arcuate, base calloused, above entirely covering the umbilical 
tract. (Desk.) 

Alt. 40, diam 34 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. echinophora Fer. in Mus. ; Histoire, t. 10 A, f. 7-9. DESH. in 
Histoire, i, p. 287. PFR. Monographia iii, p. 27. CROSSE & FISH- 
ER, Moll. Madag., t. 4, f. 1, a, b, c, d. 



7.2 HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 

Has not been described by any authors except Ferussac and 
Deshayes. Pfeiffer copies the original diagnosis. Crosse and Fish- 
er have given good figures of the shell, two of which are reproduced 
on pi. 42, figs. 31, 32. 

H. GRANDIDIERI Crosse & Fischer. PL 42, fig. 30. 

Shell scarcely covered sublimate, globose-oviform, solid, longitu- 
dinally granulate-rugose, pale reddish-chestnut ; spire short, apex 
obtuse, planate; suture impressed; whorls 5, convex, embryonic 
first 1J scarcely striate longitudinally, pale chestnut-rosy, the last 
whorl large, inflated, longer than spire, spirally bifasciate with 
blackish-brown, base rounded, aperture subvertical, ovate-pyriform, 
livid white inside, the bands of the last whorl showing through ; 
peristome reflexed, dull white ; margins connected by a thin callus, 
the columellar dilated, thick, vertical, straight, basal and outer 
margins reflexed, thickened. (0. & F.} 

Alt. 49, greater diam. 35 mill. Aperture, alt. 35, breadth 26 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. grandidieri C. & F. in Journ. de Conchyl. 1875, p. 226. Pfr., 
Monogr. vii, p. 579. Helix Goudotiana CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. 
Madagascar, t. 1, f. 1, 2. 

A species allied in form and coloration to H. Goudotiana Fer., 
but much smaller, more globose, the aperture subvertical, not 
oblique, and the columellar margin much more broadly dilated. 

H. PARTULIFORMIS Boettger. 

Shell imperforate, bulimiform, ovate, compressed on the back, 
rather solid, brown, obscurely quadri-fasciate, bauds little distinct ; 
spire rather elevated, convex-conical, apex a little acute. Whorls 
4, slightly convex, very rapidly increasing, the upper whorls very 
elegantly reticulated with spiral and transverse lines, the last 
inflated ; incremental striae subwrinkle-like, gathered at the suture, 
and numerous oblique wrinkles or malleations ; last whorl descend- 
ing to the aperture, thrice the size of spire. Aperture substraight, 
auriform, rather narrow, livid and showing the bands inside ; colu- 
mella long, straight, with a knife-shaped callus in the middle ; 
peristome thickened, all around expanded and reflexed, margins 
joined by a thin callus, the columellar margin broadly dilated above. 

Alt. 58, greater diam. 42, lesser 31 mill. ; alt. of aperture (with 
peristome) 38J, width 26* mill. 

Fotest of Loucoube, Island of Nossi-Be (one specimen). 



HELIX-HELICOPHANTA. 73 

H. (Helicophanta^) partuliformis BOETTGER, Nachrichtsbl. Deutsch 
Mai. Gesellsch. 1889, p. 44. 

This new form is separated from the allied If. Goudotiana Fer. 
by the more slender shell, more produced spire, the two little bands 
lying between those which encircle the middle part of the shell, the 
oblique wrinkles of the last whorl, and the narrower, ear-shaped 
aperture with much more thickened and reflexed peristoine. H. 
farafanga H. Ad., also a Madagascar species, is narrower, has higher 
spire, finer apex, and numerous dark spiral bands. If. partuliformis 
is separated, moreover, from all known species of the group by the 
thickened, quite rectilinearly ascending columella, which bears in 
the middle a distinctly convex, long, knife-shaped, sharpened callus. 
(Boettger.) 

I refer with some doubt to this species, the "H. amphibulima " of 
Crosse & Fischer's Moll. Madag., pi. 1, figs. 3, 4. One of these 
figures is copied on pi. 42, fig. 29. There seems to be no warrant 
for reviving the name amphibulima; it has never been properly 
characterized, and has certainly been applied to several distinct 
species. 

Group of If . farafanga Ad. 

H. FARAFANGA H. Adams. PI. 15, fig. 71. 

Shell large, bulimiform or pointed-ovate, impefforate, solid and 
rather thick, pale brown, encircled by very many dark brown bands ; 
surface dull, with irregular growth wrinkles ; spire short, conical, a 
little obtuse at apex ; suture impressed. Whorls 4, convex, the 
last forming the greater part of the shell, oval. Aperture ovate, 
angled above, whitish-lilac colored and banded with dark purplish 
inside, and having an opalescent luster ; peristome white, thickened, 
obtuse, a trifle expanded all around, a little dilated at the place of 
the umbilicus, the terminations connected by a rather thick white 
callus. 

Alt. 92, diam. 70 mill. ; aperture, alt. 67, width 50 mill. 

Ekongo, on the Farafanga (or Farafangane) River, 8. E. Mada- 
gascar. 

Eury crater a farafanga H. AD., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1875, p. 389, 
t. 45, f. 1, la. DOHRN, in Bolster's Conchyl. Cab., p. 622, t. 179, f. 
1, 2. Bulimus farafanga PFR. Monographia, viii, p. 17. H. fara- 
fanganensis CROSSE & FISCHER, Journal de Conchyliogie, 1881, p. 
161 ; Moll. Madag., t. 6, f. 1 ; t. 10, f. 1. 



74 HELIX-PANDA. 

A magnificent species. The shell before me lacks epidermis, and 
this is the case I believe with all known specimens ; it is probably 
constantly deciduous, as in the Ceylonese Acavus. The embryonic 
shell is very large, as in the other species of Helicophanta. It is of 
a tawny color, bandless, and shows rather prominent and regular 
wrinkles of growth ; under a lens very minute granulation is visible. 
The last li whorls are banded. 



H. FOLLIS Ferussac. PI. 15, fig. 76. 

Under the above name Ferussac gives a figure of a gigantic Helix 
belonging to the collection of the museum of Paris. There is but a 
single individual known, it being one of the rarest specimens in the 
collection. It is nearly the size of a man's fist, is quite globose ; the 
spire is short and obtuse ; it is formed of 4 convex, rapidly increas- 
ing whorls ; the last one enormous, forming most of the shell, is glo- 
bose, its diameters nearly equal. Umbilicus none. Aperture very 
large, obrotund, semilunar, a little oblique, a little higher than wide ; 
peristome simple, not very thick, obtuse. The shell is thin, some- 
what transparent, smooth, with a few slight marks of increment. 
Color milky-white, with a broad red dish- yellow zone around the 
axis, upon which there are three equidistant brown bands, formed 
of a multitude of close, fine longitudinal lines. 

Alt. 88, diam. 83 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H.follis FEB., Histoire, t. 17, f. 4. DESK, in Fer., Hist., p. 268. 
PFR. Mon., i, p. 191. 

A portion of Deshayes' description of this unique shell is given 
above. 

Section II. PANDA Albers, 1860. 

Panda Albert, Die Heliceen (edit. Martens), p. 149. PFR. Nomen. 
Hel. Viv., p. 170. FISHER, Manuel de Conch., (as sect, of 
Helicophanta). 

Shell very large, globose-ovate, umbilicate or imperforate, higher 
than wide, thin but solid ; spire short, obtuse ; body- whorl very 
large, yellowish, variegated and spirally zoned with chestnut. 
Whorls 4J. Aperture higher than wide, ovate ; peristome simple, 
not expanded. Columella subvertical, sinuous, dilated and reflexed ; 
parietal callus thin. Type H.falconeri Reeve. 



HELIX-PANDA. 75 

In Panda the embryonic whorls are not different from the adult 
part of the shell in texture or sculpture. The surface has very fine, 
close, spiral incised lines. On the inner whorl the color-markings 
fade out leaving a light uniform flesh tint. 

Like the other groups which I have assembled under Macroon, 
Panda has an aspect of individuality that precludes the inclusion of 
its species in any other section. Its mode of reproduction is still 
unknown. It is not, therefore, certain that the section belongs in 
Macroon. 

H. FALCONERI Reeve. PL 19, fig. 33. 

Shell very large, globose, umbilicated, thin but strong, opaque, 
light yellow, very closely marked all over by narrow, irregular 
rich chestnut-colored lines in the direction of growth-strise, and 
encircled by a number of girdles formed of dark chestnut spots, 
one girdle below the suture, most of the others on the lower part 
of the whorl. Surface very densely marked all over by close, fine 
spiral incised lines. Spire short, obtuse ; suture impressed ; whorls 
4J, the last very large, globose, deeply impressed around the umbili- 
cus. Aperture scarcely oblique, flesh-colored inside ; lip thin, 
simple, the columellar margin sinuous, broadly expanded above. 
Umbilicus deep, narrow. 

Alt. 85, greater diam. 82 mill. Alt. of aperture 65, wjdth 52 mill. 

Manning, Bellinger, Clarence, Richmond and Tweed Rivers, N. 
S. W. ; Ipswich and Muggerabaa, Queensland, Australia. 

Helix Falconeri REEVE, in Conch. Syst. ii, t. 163, f. 4; Conch. 
Icon., f. 355. PFEIFFER, Monographia i, p. 16 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 
385, t. 12, f. 11, ll.Eurycratera Falconeri BECK, Index, p. 45. 
Helicophanta Falconeri ALBERS, Die Hel. ed. 1, p. 110. Cox, 
Monogr. Austr. Land Sh., p. 5, t. 6, f. 6. Pandji Falconeri ALB.- 
MART. Heliceen 2d. ed. SEMPER, Reisen im Arch. Phil, ii, p. 104, 
t. 12, f. 20 ; t. 16, f. 10 (Anatomy). H. (Panda) Falconeri Rve., 
HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl., v, p. 63, 1888 ; loc. cit., p. 152. 

The largest Australian Helix. The ground-color of light yellow 
is so closely marked by chestnut lines as to appear of a brown 
color ; but specimens are not infrequently found of a clear straw 
color, without dark markings. Mr. Hedley gives his experi- 
ence in collecting this species as follows : Only two immature living 
examples rewarded my exertions, though the scrubs were full of 
dead and broken shells. They probably hide during the dry 



76 HELIX-ACAYUS. 

weather in the nooks and crannies of the giant fig trees. The rub- 
bish among the buttressed roots of the great scrub trees is capital 
hunting grounds for a naturalist, but too often he finds himself 
forestalled by that enthusiastic conchologist and able collector, the 
scrub turkey. 

H. MACONELLI Reeve. PL 19, fig. 26. 

Shell imperforate, lengthened-ovoid, bulimiform, thin but strong; 
surface shining, microscopically spirally striate. Color light yellow, 
covered with fine close longitudinal broken lines of chestnut and en- 
circled by a number of girdles formed of dark chestnut or chocolate 
spots. Whorls 4 *, the last very large; spire short, obtuse. Aper- 
ture ovoid, angled above, flesh-colored inside ; peristome thin, 
simple ; columella sinuous, reflexed and appressed over the umbilical 
region. Alt. 75, diam. 58 mill. 

Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 

Bulimus Maconelli REEVE, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1851, p. 198, t. 
12. Helix maconelli Rve., PFR., Monogr. iii, p. 380. Cox, Monogr. 
Austr. Land. Sh., p. 6, t. 3, f. 5.H. (Panda) maconelli Rve., 
HEDLEY, List Queensl. Land Shells, in Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, 
p. 63, 1888. 

Just like H. falconeri in color and sculpture, but narrower and 
imperforate. 

Section III. ACAVUS Montfort, 1810. 

Acavus MONTF. Conch. Systematique, ii, p. 234 ; 1810. Type, H. 
hcemastoma. Acavus Montf., of ALBERS, BECK, MORCH, PFEIFFER, 
and authors generally. Otala (in part) SCHUMACHER, Essai, p. 191, 
1817. Oligospira ANCEY, in The Conchologists' Exchange ii, p. 22, 
1887. Types H. yialtoni and jff. skinneri. 

The section Acavus comprises Ceylouese helices of large size and 
superb painting. The capacious shell is either globose-conical or 
depressed in contour ; pink predominates in the color-scheme of the 
outer surface, combined with chestnut and white ; and the broad 
polished lip and columella are intensely black, vivid red, or of a 
lilac tint. 

The lusterless surface is seen under a strong lens to be very min- 
utely cut by oblique, decussating scratches ; in waltoni and skinneri 
it is granulated. The epidermis is very thin, yellowish ; in most 
species it is deciduous, being wholly absent. Such shells are covered 



IIELIX-ACAVI-. 77 ' 

(when fresh) by a thin greenish coat, composed probably of alga?, 
which almost entirely obscures the conspicuous hues of the under- 
lying shell-substance. Cabinet specimens are generally denuded of 
this extraneous layer. The two species (waltoni and skinneri) which 
retain the epidermis in part, do not possess this dull outer coat. 

The axis is hollow, but closed in adult shells by the broadly ex- 
panded columellar lip. The aperture is very oblique, truncate- 
oblong ; the lip broadly expanded and revolute ; the entire length 
of the columellar lip is reflexed and adnate to the base of the shell, 
spreading into a broad flat or excavated plate. The young shell is 
subglobose, with rounded periphery. The egg, as in all other 
members of the subgenus Macroon, is large (about the diameter 
of the adult shell). It is calcareous. Sarasin says : In moist places 
in Ceylon, under the mould around the roots of large trees, one often 
finds white hard-shelled eggs, the size of a small bird's egg. The 
people know them well, and enjoy opening them to find the young 
snail which each contains. The sight is indeed unusual enough to a 
European ; for the young snail stays, like a chicken in its egg, so 
long as it has room to grow ; and its shell shows remarkably fresh 
and varied colors. These are the eggs of H. hsemastoma, and sillied 
species such as H. waltoni, everywhere abundant in the southwestern 
part of the island. 

I have excluded those species from New Guinea which Messrs. E. 
A. Smith and Tapparone-Canefri refer to Acavus. I have examined 
several of them and find that the embryonic shell (and consequently 
the egg) is small. This character at once removes them from the 
vicinity of Acavus, and shows them to belong to the Papuina (Geo- 
trocJius] series. Of these excluded species, H. brumeriensis Forbes, 
is figured on PI. 12, figs. 41, 42, 43. H. comriei Angas on PI. 16, 
figs. 8, 9. H. coraliolabris Smith, PL 17, fig. 13, and H. latiaxis 
Smith, PI. 17, fig. 16. The descriptions will be found under the 
subgenus PAPUINA (Geotrochus of authors). 

Groups of Acavus. 

Group of H. hcemastoma. The shell is. conoidal, the spire 
elevated, its whorls convex. The surface is wholly deprived of 
, cuticle or epidermis, except just back of the lip where it sometimes 
is preserved ; but the outer surface has, in living or fresh shells, a 
thin coating of greenish algae, which hides the bright underlying 
colors. The post-embryonic growth comprises about 1 J whorls. 



78 HELIX-ACAVUS. 

Group of H. waltoni. Shell depressed-globose, oblong, spire 
very short and obtuse, scarcely projecting above the body-whorl. 
The surface retains a thin epidermis, deciduous in places, not con- 
cealed in life by any foreign growth. There are numerous more or 
less perceptible low girdles on the shell, easily seen when it is worn. 
The post-embryonic growth consists of only one whorl, or a little 
more or less. H. waltoni and H. skinneri are the only species of this 
type. 



Group of H. hcemastoma Linn. 
H. H^MASTOMA Linne. PI. 18, figs. 22, 23, 24, 25. 

Shell globose-conical, w r hite, brown above and usually brown 
around the umbilicus ; aperture very oblique ; columella not trun- 
cated where it joins the basal lip. 

The shell is solid and opaque, with rounded periphery and co- 
noidal spire. It is porcelaneous white, but dull, not polished when 
in a natural condition ; the whole surface above the periphery is 
usually of a reddish-brown hue, becoming paler of a brownish-flesh- 
color on the embryonic three whorls, and pink on the inner two ; at 
and below the periphery there is a white zone, which covers the base, 
or is limited by a brown tract upon the umbilical region ; the suture 
is often edged by a white line. The surface has rather rude but in- 
conspicuous lines of growth, and under a strong lens is seen to be 
covered by a dense minute pattern of incised criss-cross scratches ; 
the embryonic whorls have radiating subregular striae, cut by sub- 
obsolete spiral engraved lines. AVhorls nearly 5, convex, the last 
flattened and sloping above, a little descending in front. Aperture 
very oblique, oblong-truncate, white inside, showing faintly the bands 
of outer surface. Entire peristome broadly reflexed, of a bright 
pinkish-red color typically ; columellar margin long, oblique, very 
broadly expanded and adnate to the base, flat, with a curved exca- 
vation at the place of the umbilicus ; parietal wall covered by a 
heavy callus of the same color as the lip. 

Alt. 37, diam. 43 mill. 

Ceylon. 

Helix hcemastoma LINN. Syst. Nat. edit, x, p. 773. PFR., Mono- 
graphia i, p. 247. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 366. HANLEY & THEO- 
BALD Conch. Indica, t. 127, f. 2 and of authors generally. H. 
hcematrayus BORN, Ind., p. 400. H. melanotragus BORN, Ind., p. 
400 ; Test. Mus. Ca?s. Vindob., p. 388. IT. senegalensis Eucyc. 



HELIX-ACAVUS. 79 

Meth., t. 462, f. 4. H. acava VALENCIENNES in Paris Mus. 
Acavm hcemastomus MONTF, Conch. Syst., p. 235, t. 59. SEMPER, 
Reisen im Arch. Phil., Land Mollusken ii, p. 99, t. 12, f. 8-10 
(Anatomy). 

This species is smaller and less globose than H. phoenix, and has 
clearly denned dark encircling zones. There is great variation in 
banding, as the figures on plate 18 show ; and very rarely bandless 
specimens occur (fig. 23). 

It may be noted that the columella is entirely red in the typical 
form having no white spot at its insertion such as occurs in all other 
species. 

The synonymy given above includes only references which may 
be of use to modern students. PfeifFer cites many additional authors 
in the Monographia. 

Benson collected this shell at Point de Galle, Ceylon. He says : 
The trunks of the mangoe trees were literally encrusted with living 
specimens of hcemastoma, with its gorgeous red peristome and chest- 
nut and milk-white bands, the splendor of which was invariably 
concealed by a coating of green fsecula, which served in some mea- 
sure to screen the shells, which otherwise by the contrast of colors 
would have been too conspicuous to their enemies. On a single tree 
I counted thirty specimens within reach. 

Var. MELANOTRAGUS Born. PL 18, fig. 24. 

Peristome and a broad band across the parietal Avail black ; a 
white spot at the insertion of the columella. 

This variety is nearly as abundant as the typical red-lipped form. 

Var. CONUS Pilsbry. PI. 16, fig. 7. 

More elevated and conical than the type, with which it agrees in 
the color of the outside. The entire peristome, colnmella and a 
broad band across the parietal wall are a beautiful lilac or purple 
color ; a rather deep excavation at the place of the umbilicus. 

Alt. 36, diarn. 35 mill. 

H. FASTOSA Albers. PL 16, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell imperforate, globose-conical, regularly, closely striate, whit- 
ish, obliquely streaked, and multifasciate with tawny ; spire conic, 
rather obtuse; whorls 4, a little convex, rapidly increasing, the 
last descending in front ; periphery most obsoletely subangulated ; 
aperture diagonal, obliquely oblong, white inside ; peristome liver- 



80 HELIX-ACAVUS. 

colored, the terminations joined by a shining, entering, blackish- 
chestnut callous ; superior margin slightly arched, expanded and a 
little reflexed, columella sloping, flat, much dilated, adnate. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 27, greater diam. 38, lesser 30 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H.fastosa ALBERS, Mai. Bl. i, 1854, p. 213. PFR. Novit. Conch, 
i, p. 40, t. 11, f. 1, 2; Monographia iv, p. 197. HANLEY & 
THEOBALD, Conch. Indica, t. 127, f. 5. 

Pfeiffer notes a variety which is white, peristome very pale rose, 
parietal callus purple. 

I have not seen this species. It seems nearest to H. hcemastoma, 
but differs in having many encircling bands, etc. 

H. PROSPERA Albers. PL 17, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell imperforate, conoid-globose, solid, distinctly striate, unicol- 
ored, purplish-chestnut ; spire inflated-conoidal, apex rosy ; whorls 
4, convex, moderately increasing, the last ventricose, subdescending 
in front ; aperture diagonal, truncate-oblong, rounded below, milk- 
white inside ; peristome purple, expanded, its terminations joined by 
a purple callus, right margin a little bent in the middle, upper mar- 
gin arcuate, columellar margin straightened, dilated, a little exca- 
vated, passing gradually into the basal margin. (Pfr. from speci- 
men in coll. Albers.) 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 44, lesser 34 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H. prospera ALB. in Malak. BL 1857, p. 93, t. 1, f. 7, 8. PFR. 
Monographia iv, p. 197. 

Differs from all other species in its globose form, etc. I have not 
seen specimens. 

H. PHCENIX Pfeiffer. PL 17, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

Shell globose-conoidal, dull chestnut colored, or when rubbed yel- 
lowish or pink with wide indistinct light brown or pink oblique 
streaks ; never distinctly spirally banded ; lip black (rarely brown 
or pink) ; columella a little truncated at its lower end or not per- 
ceptibly so. 

The shell is globose conoidal, rounded at the periphery ; solid ; 
last whorl reddish-brown, upper whorls yellowish or pink ; but when 
worn or rubbed the body-whorl is light with oblique streaks of 
yellowish-brown or pink. The surface is lusterless, rather rudely 
striate, and shows under a strong lens a very faint, very minute pat- 



HELIX-ACAVl s. 81 

tern of criss-cross scratches, less distinct, even on well-preserved spec- 
imens than in H. hcemastoma. Whorls 4f , convex, the last descend- 
ing in front, rounded at the periphery. Aperture bluish-white in- 
side, the lip and a broad band across the parietal wall deep black. 
The entire peristome is broadly expanded and revolute ; the colu- 
mellar margin straight, broad, adnate to the body, and generally 
visibly truncated at its junction with the basal lip. Parietal callus 
strong and polished. 

Alt. 51, diam. maj. 64 mill. Alt. 41, diam. maj. 50 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H. phffitiix PFR., Mai. Bl. 1854, p. 53 ; Monographia iv, p. 194. 
HANLEY & THEOBALD, Conch. Indica, t. 127, f. 6. H. hcemastoma 
var. PFR., Monogr. i, p. 248. H. melanotragus REEVE, Conch. Icon, 
f. 367 ; and of others, not H. melanotragus Born. H. senegalensis 
LAM. in Encyc. Meth., t. 462, f. 4. H. seposita ZIEGL. mss. teste 
STROBEL, in Giorn. di Malac. 1854, p. 70. 

This is easily distinguished from H. hcemastoma by its larger size, 
rather less elevation, and especially the lack of encircling bands, 
which are always present in the hcemastoma. The peristome is rare- 
ly pink or brown ; and I have seen an albino form with pure white 
lip. It differs from H. superba and H. grevillei in having a more 
globose body-whorl, not distinctly bluntly angled at the periphery 
as those forms are ; the columellar plate of the superba and grevillei 
is more strongly truncated than in phoenix. 

H. SUPERBA Pfeiffer. PI. 16, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell globose-conoidal, bluntly but quite distinctly angular at the 
circumference ; lip white, broadly edged with rich orange-chestnut 
color. 

The form is decidedly conoidal above, the earlier whorls rounded,, 
the last flat arid sloping to the obtusely angular periphery. It is 
chestnut-brown all over, covered when fresh with a thin yellowish- 
green coat, which is rubbed off below in front of the aperture. The 
upper whorls are delicate pink. The surface of the last whorl shows 
a few very indistinct shallow spiral furrows above and beneath the 
periphery, and is obscurely, very coarsely malleated, or sometimes 
has obliquely descending low folds above the peripheral angle, 
visible on the back of the shell ; both this sculpture and the^ spiral 
furrows are frequently obsolete or nearly so. The aperture is very 
oblique, rather dark bluish-white inside, and of an oblong-truncate 
6 



82 HELIX-ACAVUS. 

shape, the upper and lower margins subparallel. The peristome is 
very broadly expanded and revolute, its face white, shading toward 
the outer edge into a beautiful reddish-chestnut color ; the back of 
the reflected lip is white, or when not denuded of the very thin 
epidermis it is yellowish. The broad columellar plate is generally 
very distinctly truncated at the base ; it is white. The parietal 
callus is usually bordered with chestnut-color. 

Alt. 40, diam. 49 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H. superba PFEIFFER, Zeitschrift fur Malak. 1850, p. 71 ; Mono- 
graphia iii, p. 185 ; Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., p. 342, t. 133, f. 1, 2. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 368a, b. 

A beautiful shell, separated from H. phoenix, hcemastoma, fastosa 
and prosper a by its decidedly more angulated periphery. It is more 
or less malleated or obliquely plicate on the back of the body- whorl. 
The lip is white toward the inner side, shading into a lovely carnel- 
ion hue on the outside edge, and the back of the recurved portion is 
white. 

The following forms are distinguishable as varieties. 

Yar. ROSEOLABIATA Nevill. PI. 16, figs. 1, 2. 

This form is somewhat larger than the typical superba. The sur- 
face is scarcely malleated, and not obliquely plicate. The peristome 
is more broadly expanded than in superba ; the lip, columella and a 
band across the parietal wall of a deep rose color. There is a white 
spot at the insertion of the columella. The columellar plate is ab- 
ruptly truncated at its base. 

Alt. 42, diam. 60 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H. superba in HANLEY & THEOBALD'S Conchologia Indica, t. 
127, f. 4. H. superba var. roseolabiata NEVILL, Journ. Asiatic Soc. 
Bengal, vol. 50, pt. ii, p. 134, 1881. 

In its pristine condition this magnificent shell does not have so 
pink an outer surface as the figures on the plate show. It is of a 
chestnut or pinkish-purple color, covered, like all Acavus, with a 
dull greenish coating. 

Var. GREVILLEI Pfeiffer. PL 12, figs. 47, 48. 

A little more elevated than the average superba; dark chestnut- 
brown, with pink spire ; the face of the peristome and a parietal 
band is black, the columella having a white spot at its insertion. 



HELIX-ACAVUS. 83 

The reverse or back of the reflected lip is blackish-brown, not light 
as in the superba and roseolabiata. The surface is more or less prom- 
inently corrugated on the back of the body-volution by obliquely de- 
scending folds, generally less regular than in my figure 47. 

Alt. 44, diam. 52 mill. Alt. 36, diam. 44 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H. grevillei PFR. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 387 ; Mono- 
graphia iv, p. 105 ; Novitates Conch, i, t. 30, f. 6, 7. HANLEY & 
THEOBALD, Conch. Indica, t. 127, f. 7. 

This form has the same angular contour shared by superba and 
roseolabiata. The surface is more corrugated by oblique folds than 
the majority of specimens of H. superba, but not more than the 
rougher examples of that form before me. The lip and parietal 
band, as well as the greater part of the columellar plate are black, 
ae in H. phoenix. 

I may safely say that H. grevillei is not more distinct from the 
typical superba than roseolabiata is ; and the three constitute in my 
opinion nothing more than varietal manifestations of a single spe- 
cific type. 

Group of H. waltoni Rve. 
H. WALTONI ReeVe. PL 18, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell globose-depressed, the spire very low and small ; lip ex- 
panded and re volute, not thickened, blackish-brown. 

The shell is of a globose form, much depressed, and transversely 
inflated so that it is oblong seen from above or below. The spire 
is small and short, very obtuse; whorls about 3f, the first 3* form- 
ing the embryonic shell, which is separated from the after-growth 
(of a little over one volution) by a distinct line and a change of 
color, the nucleus being darker than the part following. The last 
whorl is much inflated, and descends deeply in front. The color is 
pinkish, banded with chestnut-brown ; the bands rather wide, 3 to 6 
in number, fading into the ground-color at their edges. The whole 
shell is covered with a very thin yellowish epidermis, which comes 
offin angular patches and flecks, leaving pinkish markings; or remain- 
ing on these tracts becomes separated from the shell substance, and 
appears as white or cream colored angular hydrophanous patches. 
The surface is obliquely striate, and under a lens is seen to be cut 
into granules in places by fine incised spiral lines. The aperture is 
very oblique, of a lovely pink tint inside ; the broadly reflected per- 



84 HELIX-ACAVUS. 

istome, the entire columella and a broad band across the parietal 
wall are blackish-brown. Alt. 33, greater diam. 52, lesser 37 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H. waltoni KEEVE, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1842, p. 49 ; Conch. 
Syst. ii, t. 166, f. 23 ; Conch. Icon., f. 372. PFR. Monographia i, p. 
19 ; Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., p. 267, 1. 121 , f. 1-3. P. & F. SARASIN, 
Ergebnisse naturwissensch. Forschungen auf Ceylon i, 2tes Heft, 
1888. (Embryology.) 

A lovely shell, of peculiarly beautiful and effective coloration. 
The angular patches of hydrophanous epidermis are characteristic, 
but unfortunately my artist did not reproduce this feature in the 
figures. 

H. SKINNERI Keeve. PI. 18, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Shell depressed-globose, the spire very low, small, obtuse ; peris- 
tome very greatly thickened, violet or lilac in color. 

The shell is much smaller than that of H. waltoni, of an inflated- 
depressed form, the spire flat and obtuse, projecting but slightly 
above the body-whorl. Whorls 3J, the earlier 2 forming the nu- 
cleus or embryonic shell, the post-embryonic growth consisting of a 
little less than one volution. This body-whorl is globose-depressed, 
descending in front, inflated beneath. The color is dull chestnut- 
brown, the thin epidermis worn off on the base, showing the pink- 
ish-gray substance of the shell. The epidermis, where not worn, is 
seen to be closely flecked with golden specks. The surface is luster- 
less ; there are numerous little-raised encircling ridges or cords on 
the body-whorl, and under a strong lens the surface is minutely 
granulate ; the whorls of the spire are decussated by subobsolete 
spiral lines crossing growth-striae. The aperture is very oblique, the 
interior, the parietal wall, the columella and lip of a violet or lilac 
color. The outer lip is slightly expanded, its face thickened by 
a callous growth extending 5 millimeters or more in front of the 
expansion. Alt. 21 greater diam. 36, lesser 26 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H. skinneri REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 1387. PFR. Monographia 
iv, p. 219. HANLEY & THEOBALD, Conch. Ind., t. Ill, f. 1 
Acavus skinneri FFLD. in Zool-bot. Ges. Wien 1869, p. 876. 
SEMPER, Reisen in Archip. Philippinen, Land Moll, ii, p. 100, t. 
12, f. 7 ; t. 16, f. 5. (Anatomy.) 



HELIX-STYLODONTA. 85 

In the peculiar thickening or duplication of the peristome this 
species stands alone. It is the smallest of the Ceylonese Acavus. 

Section IV. STYLODONTA Cristofori & Jan. 

Stylodonta C. & J., Catal., p. 2, 1832 ; type, H. unidentata. 
PFEIFFER (in part) Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 170, 1881. FISCHER 
Manuel (as sect, of Acavus]. TRYOX, Manual of Couchology, 2d 
Series, ii, p. 5, 26 (as sect, of Rotula, a subg. of Nanina). Stylodon 
BECK, Index Moll., p. 46. ALBERS (in part) Die Heliceen, edit. 
Martens, p. 149. Columplica HARTMANX, Gastropoden Fauna 
Schweitz, p. 187 (as subg. of Helix). Pachya ALBERS (in part) 
Die Heliceen, p. 107, 1850. 

The shell in Stylodonta is irnperforate, the axis a solid pillar, not 
perforated even in the young. In contour it is globose-depressed, 
wider than high, with conoidal blunt spire. The texture is strong and 
solid, opaque ; the surface peculiarly sculptured. Color chestnut- 
brown or yellowish ; whorls about 5, very gradually widening, some- 
what descending in front. Aperture wide-lunate, oblique, the per- 
istome expanded, reflexed ; columella short, nearly vertical, and 
either convexly lobed or strongly toothed. The terminations of the 
peristome are remote, joined by a translucent callus. , 

Most authors have included the If. cepoides Lea in Stylodonta. 
That species is, however, far more closely allied to Cochlostyla, and 
will be considered in connection with that group, in the next volume 
of the MANUAL. The late Mr. Tryon (Man. Conch, ii, p. 26) in- 
cluded Albers' group Erepta (type H. stylodon) as a synonym under 
Stylodonta. This grouping is obviously unnatural, for the species of 
Erepta do not exhibit the large embryonic shell nor the reflexed 
peristome of the present group, and are besides wholly diverse an- 
atomically, being correctly placed in the genus Nanina (sensu lati- 
ore), whilst the true Stylodonta belongs to the Helicidce. 

Dufo's account of the reproduction of these snails is of the great- 
est interest. He says of H. unidentata : " Sixty days after impreg- 
nation the young are born. They lie in the oviduct one after an- 
other, enveloped in a glairy mass, thicker at the aperture where the 
head is. The animal of the mother is not protruded from the shell 
during the birth of the young. After they have left the oviduct 
they pass by their own movements out between the shell and 
the body of the mother. There are usually two, rarely three ; 
and in the latter event one of them is much smaller than the two 



86 HELIX-STYLODONTA. 

others. During the period of gestation the animal becomes thin, 
having lost over a half of its volume by the end of that time. I 
have always noticed that those individuals having shells of a less 
dark color are the only ones bringing forth young." The same ob- 
servations apply to H. studeriana also. This species, however, bears 
only one or two young at a time. 

H. UNIDENTATA Chemnitz. PL 61, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell depressed, imperforate ; spire low-couoidal, blunt ; body- 
whorl keeled ; aperture very oblique, the short vertical columella 
with a strong, acute, twisted tooth. 

The shell is solid, strong and opaque, of a chestnut-brown color all 
over, sometimes yellowish-brown ; the surface is slightly shining, the 
inner 3? whorls very minutely granulated and marked by impressed 
spiral lines ; the following whorls lightly marked by growth-lines 
and covered with fine, close, obliquely descending wrinkles ; this 
corrugation is often almost obsolete above, but is always distinct be- 
low the periphery. A strong lens reveals a microscopic decussation 
over all the coarser sculpture, like that described under H. studeriana. 
The spire is elevated-dome-shaped ; the suture superficial at first, be- 
coming impressed around the last volution. The body-whorl is 
acutely keeled at its origin, but becomes more rounded at periphery 
as it approaches its termination. It descends below the peripheral 
keel in front. Aperture very oblique, broader than high, flesh- 
colored or livid-brown inside ; peristome narrowly expanded, thick- 
ened within ; columella short, vertical, formed of a strong, acute 
fold. 

Alt. 33, greater diam. 49, lesser 42 mill. 

Alt. 27, greater diam. 41, lesser 35 mill. 

Alt. 24, greater diam. 34, lesser 29 mill. 

Make, Silhouette, etc., Seychelles Islands. 

Helix unidentata CHEMNITZ, Syst. Conchyl. Cab. xi, p. 273, t. 
208, f. 2049, 2050. FEB., Histoire, t. 104, f. 8, 9. PFR., Mono- 
graphia i, p. 303 ; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 30, t. 2, f. 6, 7. DUFO, 
Ann. Sci. Nat. xiv, p. 199, 1840. SCHACKO, in Beitrage zur Meeres- 
fauna der Ins. Mauritius und der Seychellen, p. 342, 1880 (Anat- 
omy). REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 39, f. 156. Nanina (Stylodonta) 
unidentata Ckem., TRYON, Manual of Conchology ii, p. 26. H. mi- 
crodonta DESK., Encyc. Meth. ii, p. 266. H. ventricosa JAN, Man- 
tissa, p. 1. Columplicauniplicata HARTM. Gastrop. Schweitz i, p. 187, 



HELIX-STYLODONTA. 87 

t. 67, f. 3-5. Helix militaris PFR. Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1855, p. 
Ill ; Monographia iv, p. 245. 

The strong columellar fold is not paralleled in any other Helix 
except H. cepoides Lea. The surface-sculpture of unidentata is justlike 
that of stu deriana. The uniform brown color is usually relieved by 
an indistinct lighter peripheral girdle. The granulation of the em- 
bryonic whorls is finer and less regular than in H. studeriana. We 
are indebted to M. H. Dufo for many important observations 
upon the mollusks of the Seychelles, made by him during a residence 
there of four years. He says of this species : " It inhabits the mid- 
dle region of the mountains, sometimes upon large trees, but usually 
on bushes or climbing vines. During the pleasant season they hide 
under the soil or in rock-crevices, and do not come out except in 
winter or during rain storms of several days duration. They feed 
upon green leaves. Movements slow." 

The figures on PL 61 as well as fig. 85 of pi. 5, vol. ii of the Man- 
ual, were drawn from specimens in the collection of the Academy. 
These figures and fig. 84, pi. 5, vol. ii of the Manual, show the 
great mutation in form and degree of elevation of the species. The 
H. militaris of Pfeiffer is merely an elevated specimen. 

H. STUDERIANA Ferussac. PL 61. figs. 18, 19, 20. ,- 

Shell large, depressed, imperforate ; spire low-conoidal and blunt ; 
aperture very oblique, the columella nearly vertical, its inner edge 
convex ; periphery not keeled. 

The shell is solid, of a compact, depressed form, not keeled at 
periphery but encircled by an inconspicuous sulcus and usually a 
line or thread there ; it is opaque, and either chestnut brown, becom- 
ing olive-brown on the. spire and flesh-colored on the earlier two 
whorls, smokey below just around the axis, or else of a clear light olive- 
yellow tint, the spire darker. The surface is nearly lusterless ; the 
earlier (embryonic) 3J whorls are cut by close oblique and spiral im- 
pressed lines into a beautifully regular decussated pattern of squarish 
granules ; the following whorls have rather blunt, rude wrinkles of 
increment, and are covered by a close fine corrugation of irregular 
wrinkles, obliquely descending in a direction at right-angles to the 
growth-lines. Under a strong lens there is seen over this coarser 
sculpture, an excessively minute, close decussation, like that pro- 
duced by pressing a woven fabric upon plastic clay. The apex is 
plane ; earlier whorls scarcely convex, with linear, superficial suture ; 



88 HELIX-STYLODONTA. 

upon the last whorl the suture becomes deeply impressed, the whorl 
convex above and below, descending a little below the periphery in 
front. Aperture very oblique, rounded-lunate, white or flesh-colored 
inside ; the entire peristome rather broadly reflexed, white ; columella 
convex on its inner edge, deeply, vertically inserted ; parietal wall 
washed with transparent callus. 

Alt. 40, greater diani. 62, lesser 51 mill. 

Alt. 36, greater diam. 51, lesser 43 mill. 

Island of Praslin, Seychelles. 

Helix (Helicostyla) Studeriana FER., Histoire, 1. 103, f. 6. PFR., 
Symbolse i, p. 36 ; Monographia i, p. 243 ; Conchylien Cabinet, t. 
41, f. 1, 2.Stylodon Studeriana BECK, Index, p. 46.Nanina (Sty- 
lodonta) Studeriana Fer. TRYON, Manual of Conchology, 2d. Ser., 
vol. ii, p. 26. Helix Studeriana Fer. KEEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 39, f. 
153. DUFO, Obs. sur les Moll, marins, terrestres et fluviatiles des 
iles Seychelles et des Arnirantes, in Annales des Sci. Nat., 2d Ser., 
vol. xiv, p. 199. STEENSTRUP, Om Ovo-vivipariten hos Helix Stu- 
deriana, etc., in Videnskabelige Meddelelser 1879-80, p. 301. 
VIGUIER, Obs. sur la viviparite de 1'Helix studeriaua Fer., in Arch, 
de Zool. Exper. et Generate viii, 1879-80, p. 529, plate 40. 

A large species having much the aspect of H. illustris Pfr., but 
readily distinguishable by the beautifully clear-cut granulation of 
the upper whorls and the short almost vertical columella. The 
young shells are acutely keeled. It is an ovo-viviparous species, as 
Dufo observed as long ago as 1840. 

The abrupt change in surface-sculpture which takes place at birth 
is shown in the enlarged detail-drawing, pi. 61, fig. 18. 

Dufo says : " Inhabits the mountain tops, on bushes and lianas. 
Feeds upon green leaves. Movements slow." 

Subgenus XIX. CAM^ENA Albers, 1850. 

The name Camcena may be used in an extended sense, to include 
a number of sections containing most of the larger helices of the re- 
gions lying between Japan on the north and Australia on the south. 
Until more knowledge of the soft parts is obtained,, it is impossible 
to indicate the rank and classification of the several minor groups 
with certainty. In the formation of sections I have not hesitated to 
discard certain characters heretofore used for this purpose, in favor 
of new and original ones. This course has inevitably led me to 
change the limits and contents of the groups of previous authors. 



HELIX. 89 

It should be understood that I do not claim that every species is 
herein correctly grouped. Many of them I have not seen ; these are 
interpolated into the sections to which in my judgment they belong. 
It is often essential to examine specimens, because in descriptions 
important characters are frequently omitted. 

Three main divisions .or supersections may be recognized ; syn- 
opses of the sections are given under each of these divisions. 

Supersection I. THERSITES Pfr. 

Nucleus small, its junction with the aftergrowth not distinct ; 
whorls keeled ; aperture triangular, the outer lip markedly sinuous 
just above the peripheral carina. 

Supersection II. HADRA Albers. 

Nucleus small, consisting of less than two whorls ; aperture lunar, 
outer lip not sinuous; surface striate or decussated, not malleated. 

Supersection III. CAM^NA Albers. 

Nucleus comparatively large, about one-fifth the diameter of the 
shell, composed of 2-2 2 whorls; surface generally malleated or 
finely wrinkled. 



Supersection I. THERSITES Pfeiffer. 

Under the above, name may be grouped two Australasian sections, 
Thersites and Anoglypta, which agree in being carinated, more or 
less trochoidal, with small nucleus, 5 to 6 whorls, the last suddenly 
deflexed below the carina in front. The aperture is subtriangular 
or irregularly oval, terminations of the peristome distant, its upper 
portion sinuous just above the termination of the peripheral carina. 

These sections may have, possibly, affinities with Geotrochus or 
Papuina 

Two sections may be admitted : 

(1) THERSITES Pfr. Upper and lower surface not conspicuously 
different in sculpture ; peristome expanded, reflexed over and clos- 
ing the umbilicus. 

(2) ANOGLYPTA Martens. Upper surface spirally ridged and 
tuberculate, base smooth, polished ; peristome not expanded ; um- 
bilicus open. 



90 HELIX-THERSITES. 

Section I. THERSITES Pfeiffer, 1856. 

Thersites PFR. Malak. Blatter ii, 1856, p. 141 ; Nomencl. Hel. 
Viv., p. 178, 1881. First species H. Eichmondiana. ALBERS, Die 
Heliceen (edit. Martens) p. 157, 1861 (restricted to H. Eichmon- 
diana). Merope (in part) of ALBERS and many other authors. 

Shell perforate when young, closed in the adult, trochoidal or 
lens-shaped, acutely keeled, moderately solid, dark chestnut-brown, 
or light with dark bands at suture, periphery and umbilicus. Sur- 
face covered (at least on the base) with a minute, dense sculpture of 
fine wrinkles, generally zigzagged or irregular, often cut into gran- 
ules in places. Whorls 5 to 6, flat or nearly so, the last whorl on 
its latter half pinched or furrowed above and below the keel, or 
with a visible tendency to be flattened or modified there ; deflexed 
in front. Aperture triangular, very oblique, angular, the outer lip 
expanded, sinuous above, columellar lip reflexed, adnate. 

This section, like Pedinogyra, is restricted to eastern Australia. 
Its more prominent shell-characters are the narrowly perforated axis 
closed in the adult, the trochoidal acutely keeled form, the flattened 
or furrowed surface of the last whorl in the region of the periphery, 
and especially the finely, irregularly wrinkled surface-sculpture. Any 
one who will carefully compare the two species I have grouped in 
Thersites and examine them under a lens, will, I doubt not, agree 
with me in associating H. novcehollandice with H. richmondiana, 
and in dismembering the section Merope of Albers, as that section is 
constituted in Die Heliceen, and in PfeifFer's Nomenclator Helice- 
orum Viventium, restricting it to H. fringilla, the type species. 

Since the above paragraph was written I have noticed with pleas- 
ure that Dr. Dohrn has already separated H. novcehollandice from 
fringilla, and placed the former in Thersites. 

H. RICHMONDIANA Pfeiffer. PI. 20, figs. 34, 35, 36. 

Shell large, trochiform, flat below, acutely carinated at the periph- 
ery, im perforate. 

It is solid, strong, opaque, dark brown all over ; the surface rather 
smooth, growth-striae light ; under a lens there may be seen a very 
peculiar pattern of fine zigzag wrinkles on the base and just above 
the keel. The spire is conical, terminating in an obtuse rounded 
apex. Suture linear. Whorls 6, flat, the last compressed into an 
acute projecting flange or keel at the periphery ; the latter half of 
the whorl distorted by a deeply impressed furrow above and one be- 



HELIX-THERSITES. 91 

low the keel. In front the whorl descends a little below the keel of 
the preceding one. Aperture very oblique, triangular, bluish-white 
inside ; peristome thick, dark brown, upper margin expanded, basal 
and columellar margins reflexed, the latter closing the umbilical 
perforation. 

Alt. 35, greater diam. 50 mill. 

Alt. 32, greater diam. 52 mill. 
Richmond River, N. S. Wales; Albert River and Muggerabaa, 

Queensland, Australia. 

H. Richmondiana PFR. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 252 ; Monographia iii,p. 
178 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 371, t. 140, f. 3, 4. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
365. Cox, Monog. Austr. Laud. Sh., p. 62, t. 8, f. 5, 6. HEDLEY, 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland v, 1888 p. 62 ; and Tkersites Richmon- 
diana Pfr. HEDLEY, 1. c. vi, 1889, p. 62, plate 3. (Anatomy.) 

There is a light yellowish or reddish variety, with the suture and 
cariua edged by dark brown bands, the peristome and a small um- 
bilical patch also dark brown. It may be called forma decolorata. 

The microscopic wrinkles are usually but not always obsolete on 
the upper surface. The basal lip often has a callous swelling where 
it joins the short subvertical columellar insertion, corresponding to 
the callous on this part in the H. novcehollandice. 

H. NOV^HOLLANDIJ^ Gray. PL 13, figs. 51, 52 ; pi. 4, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell lens-shaped or trochiform, carinated at the periphery, the 
base quite convex ; imperforate. 

Moderately solid, opaque, chestnut-brown, with narrow bands a 
little lighter on the carina, surrounding the umbilical dark tract, and 
bordering the dark margin below the suture ; there is also a darker 
band just above the keel. Surface slightly marked by growth-lines, 
and showing under a lens a very beautiful pattern of fine, close, 
wavy wrinkles, covering the surface both above and below ; these 
wrinkles are usually cut more or less into granules, and on the base 
are very irregular. The spire is scarcely more convex than the base, 
conoidal, apex obtuse, sutures scarcely impressed. Whorls about 5, 
almost flat, the last acutely keeled, the keel becoming more obtuse 
on the last half of the whorl, which is there more gibbous beneath ; 
often there is a slight furrow parallel with the keel just below it on 
the latter part of the last volution. In front the whorl abruptly de- 
scends below the carina of the preceding whorl. Aperture subtri- 
angular, purplish inside, very oblique ; peristome dark brown, upper 
margin expanded, a little sinuous and often toothed just above the 



92 HELIX-ANOGLYPTA. 

angle of the carina; columellar margin reflexed, appressed over 
the axis ; parietal callus thin, brown. 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 33 mill. (Specimen.) 

Alt. 1 7, greater diam. 28 mill. (Specimen.) 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 32 mill. (Pfr.) 

Ash Island, Hunter River, Wingham, Manning River, Scone, New 
England, Port Macquarie, Madeay, Nambuccra and Bellengen rivers, 
N. S. Wales, Australia. 

Carocolla Novae Hollandice GRAY P. Z. S. 1834, p. 67. Helix 
( Geotrochus) novce hollandice Gray, Cox, Monog. Austr. Land Sh., 
p. 68. H. (Merope) novce hollandice Gray, BRAZIER, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond. 1872, p. 805. PFEIFFER Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 178. 
H. dupuyana PFR. P. Z. S. 1852, p. 159 ; Monographia iii, p. 177 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 280, 1. 124, f. 15, 16. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 354. 
H. depugana JAY, Cat. 1850, p. 135. 

The species is rather variable in size and in the degree of eleva- 
tion of the spire. There are also some mutations in coloration. 
One specimen before me is light brown all over, the peristome white ; 
suture bordered by a dark band. Mr. Brazier says : Specimens 
from the Bellengen are very large, a few that I collected measuring 
17 lines (35 mill.) in the greater diameter. A variety is also met 
with of a dirty yellow color, with a dark chestnut band on the 
periphery. The specimens from the other localities are of smaller 
size and of a dark chestnut color. At Port Macquarie it is found 
on high hills near the sea under logs. 

The basal lip usually exhibits a callus like a long low tooth, nearer 
to the columella than to the outer angle ; but this, like the sinuosity 
just above the outer angle, is often nearly obsolete. 

Section II. ANOGLYPTA Martens, 1860. 

Anoglypta MART. Die Heliceen, p. 312 (nachtrage) 1860. Type 
H. launcestonensis Rve. 

This section was proposed for an extremely peculiar Helix, differ- 
ing from nearly all others in having the upper and lower surfaces 
totally dissimilar in sculpture and coloration. It is lusterless and 
tuberculate-lirate above, polished beneath ; the umbilicus is open ; 
the last whorl acutely keeled, suddenly deflexed in front. The aper- 
ture is very oblique, the peristome scarcely at all expanded, and 
just above the carina it is sinuous, projecting forward and down- 
ward in a little point. 



HELIX. 93 

The last feature mentioned corresponds to the similar but less de- 
veloped sinuosity of the upper lip in the two species of Thersites, 
and also to that shown by various forms of Papuina. 

In having the spiral sculpture continued to the very apex, Ano- 
glypta is unique ; almost all other Helices having the nucleus smooth 
or differently sculptured from the rest of the whorls. 

H. LAUNCESTONEXSIS Keeve. PI. 20, figs. 37, 38, 39. 

Shell depressed, conoid, umbilicated, acutely carinated, lusterless 
and prominently tuberculate-lirate above, polished and banded be- 
low the carina. 

The color above is light olive-green, the spiral beaded ribs being 
brown ; beneath it is polished chocolate colored (sometimes somewhat 
suffused with yellowish and having scattered yellow dots), and about 
midway between periphery and umbilicus there is a broad, sharply 
defined yellow zone. The surface above is dull, sculptured with 
4 to 6 principal spiral beaded or tuberculate spiral cords, and nu- 
merous smaller threads between them. Spire conoidal, apex obtuse ; 
sutures scarcely impressed. Whorls 5 J, nearly flat, the last acutely 
keeled, very abruptly and deeply deflexed at the aperture. Aper- 
ture subhorizontal, irregularly oval ; peristome simple, not expanded, 
the upper margin sinuous and projecting downward just above the 
periphery ; baso-columellar margin somewhat thickened. Umbili- 
cus deep, funnel-shaped, with a more or less obvious spiral groove 
inside. Alt. 19-20, diam. 30-32 mill. 

Tasmania. 

H. Launcestonensis REEVE, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 31, t. 13, f. 
11 ; Conch. Icon., f. 968. PER. Monographia iii, p. 159 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 491, 1. 161, f. 1, 2. Cox, Monog. Austr. Land Shells, p. 31, 
t. 7, f. 4. 

A species so peculiar in sculpture that it is approached by no 
other form. The H. semicarinata Ancey does not belong near laun- 
cestonensis, but in Nanina, sect. Rotula (see Le Naturaliste iii, p. 
293). 

Most specimens show short folds just below the suture, and some- 
times these are continued as far as the periphery, making the sur- 
face radiately corrugated. 

Supersectiou II. HADE A Albers. 

The shells of this great branch differ from the species of Camcena 
in having the nucleus small, the point of its junction with the after- 



94 HELIX. 

growth often not distinguishable. The surface is either striate or 
decussated, not malleated or obliquely wrinkled. 

Synopsis of Sections. 

Section I. EUHADRA Pilsbry, 1890. 

Shell depressed, the spire depressed or low-conoidal ; rather thin; 
umbilicus moderate, rarely covered ; surface striate, and decussated 
by fine spiral lines ; aperture oblique, lunar, broader than high, the 
peristome expanded, dilated and reflexed at the columellar insertion. 
Type H. peliomphala Pfr. Species mostly inhabiting Japan, China 
and the adjacent islands. 

Section II. HABRA Albers, 1850 (restricted). 

Shell umbilicate or imperforate, globose turbinate, the spire more 
or less conical ; solid ; surface nearly smooth, obliquely striate, some- 
times hirsute, but without spiral striae. Aperture rounded-lunar ; per- 
istome expanded, generally reflexed. 

New Guinea, Australia, etc. 

Subsection HADRA (sensu stricto). Shell narrowly umbilicate, 
obliquely striate or hirsute, unicolored brown or brown below, yellow 
above ; never having numerous bands. Spire conoidal ; peristome 
expanded, reflexed. Type H. bipartita Fer. 

Australia, etc. 

Subsection BADISTES Gould, 1862. Shell globose-depressed some- 
times carinated moderately solid or thin, chestnut colored, yellowish 
or greenish, often subtranslucent ; surface microscopically densely 
granulated all over. Aperture oblique, rounded-lunate ; peristome 
a little thickened and very narrowly expanded, suddenly dilated at 
the columella, covering or almost covering the narrow umbilicus. 
Type, H. grayi Pfr. Australia. 

Differs from Splicerospira in the less expanded peristome and ten- 
dency to be carinated. 

Subsection SPH^ROSPIRA Morch, 1867. Shell globose, elevated, 
chocolate colored, or yellowish with numerous brown spiral bands 
and lines ; umbilicate or imperforate ; surface smooth or nearly so ; 
spire hemispherical or dome-shaped; peristome broadly expanded, 
often reflexed. Type H. frazeri Gray. 

Australia; New Guinea. 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 95 

Section III. RHAGADA Albers, 1860. 

Shell rather small, depressed-globose, solid, white and calcareous, 
generally encircled by numerous bands. Aperture very oblique ; 
peristome a little expanded," reflexed nearly over the umbilicus. 
Type, H. reinga Gray. 

Australia. 

Section IV. XANTHOMELON Martens, 1860. 

Shell large, globular, the spire very short, body-whorl large, glo- 
bose, descending in front ; aperture semioval, oblique ; peristome 
narrowly expanded, thickened within, columellar lip broad, flattened, 
reflexed over and covering the umbilicus in whole or in part. Sur- 
face roughened, covered by a yellow epidermis. Type, H. pomum 
Pfr. 

Australia. 



Section I. EUHADRA Pilsbry. 

Hadra and Camcena in part, of authors. 

Helix peliomphala may be taken as the type of a group of helices 
numerous in species throughout Japan, and also well represented in 
China and Formosa. To this group or section (which represents in 
the northern hemisphere the sections Hadra and Sphcerospira from 
south of the equator) I have given the name Euhadra. 

Group of H. peliomphala Pfr. Surface of shell obliquely striate, 
and seen under a lens to be decussated by very close minute, incised 
spiral lines. 

Group of H. succincta Ad. Shell conical above, convex below, 
carinated at periphery ; umbilicus narroiv, deep, cylindrical ; surface 
obliquely striate, often with shallow spiral grooves ; color brown or 
yellowish, with a dark band just on and above the periphery. 

Group of H. mandarina Gray. Shell solid, compact, globose- 
conic ; axis solid, im perforate. 

Group of H. peliomphala Pfr. 

H. SIMODJE Jay. PI. 41, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell depressed, deeply umbilicate, light buff, with a narrow supra- 
peripheral chestnut band ; surface microscopically decussated ; spire 
very obtuse, slightly convex, not at all conoidal. 



96 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

The shell is about the size of H. peliomphala, and like that spe- 
cies in general form, but more obtuse and lower in the spire. It is 
moderately thin, moderately solid. The surface is scarcely shining, 
with very fine growth-striae (not nearly so coarse and irregular as 
in peliomphala, nipponensis or brandti and even less unequal than 
those of amalice) ; these striae are decussated by excessively minute 
spiral strise (which are not regular and well defined as in peliomphala 
and its varieties, but are irregular, rather undulating, and are more 
minute and closer than in amalice, far closer than in the circle of 
peliomphala, etc.). The spire is a little convex, the inner two whorls 
nearly plane. The apical whorl is large, obviously larger than in 
peliomphala. The suture is moderately and evenly impressed from 
apex to its termination. Whorls 5J, all of them somewhat convex, 
the last rather deeply deflexed in front. Aperture oblique, broad- 
lunar, white inside ; peristome reflexed all around, white, the ter- 
minations converging, joined by a scarcely perceptible callus. Um- 
bilicus rather narrow, very deeply penetrating and showing the 
whorls to the apex. 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 33, lesser 27? mill. ; oblique alt. of aper- 
ture 16, width 19J ; width of umbilicus 4? mill. 

Simoda, Japan. 

Helix simodce JAY, in Perry's Narrative of the Exped. of an 
American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, in 1852-'54, ii, 
p. 294, t. 5, f. 1, 2, 3, 1856. (Exclusive of the " var., t. 5, f. 4-6," 
which is H. peliomphala Pfr.) 

I have received, through the courtesy of Prof. R. P. WHITFIELD 
of the American Museum of Natural History, Central Park, New 
York City, the type specimen of H. simodce. It proves to be quite 
distinct from other described Japanese species. It is figured and 
described above. The spiral sculpture is more minute than in any 
other species of Camcena, and appears under the lens to consist of 
tiny wrinkles which descend somewhat as well as revolve, taking the 
direction of tangents from the suture. The umbilicus, while it is not 
wider at its opening than in peliomphala, does not suddenly contract 
to a mere perforation as it does in the allies of peliomphala, but is a 
cylindrical tube of sufficient size to enable one to see each whorl as 
far as the apex, if a little care be taken. 

H. CONNIVEXS Pfeiffer. PI. 37, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell depressed, rather broadly umbilicate, solid and strong, whit- 
ish straw-colored, with a narrow chestnut band (rarely indistinct or 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 97 

lacking) just above the periphery. Surface hardly shining, rather 
coarsely obliquely striate, seen under a lens to have excessively fine 
close spiral stria?. Spire low-conic ; sutures impressed ; whorls 6, 
somewhat convex, slowly increasing, the last not descending hi 
front. Aperture oblique, white and showing the band inside. Per- 
istorne somewhat expanded, decidedly widened by a white callous 
thickening or rib within, margins all curved, converging, the upper 
margin scarcely expanded toward its insertion. Umbilicus funnel- 
shaped, penetrating deeply. Alt. 15, diam. 24 mill. 

Liu-kiu Is. 

H. connivena PFR. P. Z. S. 1849, p. 130 ; Monographia iii, p. 232 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 465, t. 156, f. 26, 27. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
404. ANCEY, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, 1888, p. 345. 

Allied to H. herrmannseni, but smaller, having a brown band ; 
the last whorl not descending at the aperture, and the peristome 
strongly labiate or calloused within. 

Yar. FHJEOGRAMMA Ancey. 

Shell smaller (diam. 22 mill.), less depressed, ornamented with a 
rather wide deep brown peripheral zone ; whorls 5 ; aperture less 
oblique ; umbilicus minute ; last whorl subangular at its beginning. 
Form and color recalling the Formosan H. succincta H..Ad. (Ancey.) 

Liu-kiu Is. 

H. MELLEA Pfeiffer. PI. 26, fig. 7. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, carinate, rather thin, seen to be 
very minutely granulated, under a lens ; oily-shining, pale fulvous ; 
spire little elevated, apex obtuse ; whorls nearly 5, nearly plane, 
regularly increasing, the last descending only a trifle in front, sub- 
inflated under the rather acute carina ; umbilicus moderate, pro- 
found ; aperture littl oblique, subangularly lunar, peristome whit- 
ish, margins scarcely converging, the upper narrowly expanded, 
basal subreflexed, columellar shortly ascending, subdilated above. 
(Pfr.) Alt. 9, greater diam. 22, lesser 20 mill. 

Formosa. 

H. mellea PFR. P. Z. S. 1865, p. 830, t. 46, f. 4 ; Monogr. v, p, 
406. 

This form I have not seen. It belongs either in the present group 
or in Cathaica. My reason for not placing it next to H. pyrrohozona 
(the type of Cathaica) is that the surface is granulated, not simply 
striate as in the species named. 




98 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

H. HERRMANNSENI Pfeiflfer. PL 37, figs 38, 39, 40 ; pi. 31, figs. 33, 

34. 

Shell depressed, umbilicated, rather strong and solid, covered 
with a thin straw-colored epidermis. Surface obliquely striate, and 
covered with microscopic close spiral strise. Spire low-conoidal ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last one decidedly 
deflexed in front. Aperture very oblique, rounded, white inside ; 
peristome white, expanded all around, rather broadly reflexed on 
the basal and columellar margins. Umbilicus funnel-shaped, not 
very deeply penetrating, showing only two whorls. 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 29 mill. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 33 mill. 

Corea (Pfr.) ; Liulciu Is. (specimen). 

H. Koreana PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1850, p. 72 (supposed to be 
preoc.). H. Herrmannseni PFR., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1852, p. 63 ; Mon. 
Hi, p. 223 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 347, t. 134, f. 5, 6. H. connivens var. 
HEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 406. 

This shell is larger than H. connivens, with more oblique aperture, 
more expanded lip (which is not labiate within), and much less pro- 
foundly penetrating umbilicus. The figures on pi. 31 are colored 
much too brightly, and entirely incorrectly. Those on pi. 37 are 
drawn and colored from the specimen described above. 

H. EGA Crosse. PL 30, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell openly umbilicated, orbicular, a little lens-shaped, subde- 
pressed, rather thin, nearly translucent, marked with slightly oblique, 
irregular, strongly-marked rough strise. General color fawn-brown. 
Spire depressed, short, little exserted and terminating in a rather 
obtuse apex. Suture well marked. Whorls 6, flattened, the embry- 
onic 1 violet-white; last whorl descending, presenting a narrow 
blackish-brown band a little above the periphery, and rather a sharp 
carina; base quite convex, noticeably inflated. Umbilicus quite 
wide, deeply penetrating, and lined by a blackish-brown band. 
Aperture oblique, of a rounded semi-lunar form, livid whitish-violet, 
shining and almost iridescent inside, and showing the blackish band 
to the edge of the lip. Peristome reflexed, violet-brown ; margins 
subconverging, the columellar margin broader at its insertion, and 
colored by the umbilical dark band ; outer margin narrower at its 
upper insertion. (Crse.) Alt. 16, greater diam. 37, lesser 31 mill. 

Japan. 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 99 

H. eoa OROSSE, Journ. de Couchyl. 1868, p. 278 ; 1. c. 1871, p. 60, 
t. 2, f. 2. PFR. Monogr. vii, p. 454. MARTENS, Mai. Blatter 1872, 
p. 153. 

This form is certainly closely allied to H. luchuana Sow., but seems 
to be flatter above. 

H. BLAKEANA Newcomb. Unfigured. 

Shell unicolored yellowish-white, rounded, semiglobose, shining, 
translucent ; umbilicus large, deep and slightly covered ; apex obtuse ; 
whorls 6, convex, the first three nearly on the same plane, the balance 
rapidly increasing, the last swollen ; suture well marked ; aperture 
roundly lunar ; lip thin, flatly reflected, at the columella broadly 
dilated but not adherent. (Neivc.) 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 27 ?, lesser 25 mill. 

Niphon, Japan. 

H. Blalceana NEWC., Proc. California Acad. Sci. iii, p. 179, Jan. 
1875. VON MARTENS, Sitzungs-Bericht Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde 
zu Berlin 1877, p. 105. MOLLENDORFF, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
LIV, p. 60, 1885. KOBELT, Faun. Jap., p. 23, t. 7, f. 10, 11. 

In general form and color this species makes a nearer approach to 
H. Candida Moricand [Streptaxis (Artemoii) candidus Spix], than to 
any species with which I am acquainted. It varies in the less eleva- 
tion, in the form of the spire, and in some other respects. (Neivc.~) 

Dr. von Martens has identified with this species specimens 
collected by Hilgendorf at Mohedsi, not far from Hakodate. Dr. 
Anderson obtained it at Chitose, Yesso, according to Mollendorff. I 
have not seen Dr. Kobelt's work, which is said to contain figures of 
this shell. 

H. PELIOMPHALA Pfeiffer. PL 30. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Shell depressed, rather thin and light, openly umbilicate, straw- 
colored, encircled by 1 to 3 chestnut zones, which are usually flecked 
or interrupted by whitish streaks. The umbilicus is generally dark 
chestnut inside. The surface is shining, rather coarsely obliquely 
striate, microscopically and most densely striate spirally. The spire 
is low, conoidal ; suture impressed ; whorls 5J-6, convex, the last 
convex, descending a little in front; aperture oblique, rounded- 
crescentic, showing the bands within ; peristome expanded, some- 



100 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

what reflexed, flesh-colored ; the columellar margin a little dilated, 
impinging a trifle upon the umbilicus. 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 34 mill. 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 39 mill. 

Alt. 18J, greater diam. 30 mill. 

Yeddo, Yokohama, Simoda, Mososaki, etc., Japan. 

H. Japonica FER. mss. Histoire, t. 69 H, f. 5, 6. DESK. Ibid., in 
text, i, p. 58 (about 1850). H. peliomphala PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 
1850, p. 150; Monographia iii, p. 233. MARTENS, Mai. Blatter vii, 
1860, p. 35 ; Ostas. Conch., p. 25, 1. 15, f. 1-5. H. Simodce var. JAY 
in Narrative of Perry's Exped. ii, t. 5, f. 4, 5, 6. 

This is a protean species, very variable in size, width of the um- 
bilicus and coloration. The ground-color is usually buff, but often 
a paler straw-color, or tinged with reddish. Some examples are of 
a light tint all over, two before me entirely lacking bands or umbil- 
ical spot. The bands when all present number 5 ; the first very 
narrow bordering the suture ; the second and third are above the 
periphery ; the fourth is wider and below the periphery ; the fifth 
occupies the interior of the umbilicus. The most constant of these 
bands are the 3d, 4th and 5th. The 2d, when present, is generally 
narrow. The bands above the periphery are generally crossed by 
opaque whitish or buff streaks, or have light flecks upon them ; and 
sometimes these streaks so break the color-pattern that forms like 
H. brandti are produced. Only one of the banded specimens before 
me lacks the umbilical brown tract. 

The number of described forms of this group which will be found 
to be connected by series of intermediate varieties, still remains an 
open question. Possibly H. amalice on one hand and senckenber- 
giana on the other mark the extremes of a continuous series which 
includes nipponensis, congenita, callizona, nimbosa, brandti, etc. 
Compare Kobelt's remarks in Jahrbiicher D. M. Gesellsch. 1876, p. 
32, and von Martens in the same volume, p. 357. 

Var. LUCHUANA Sowerby. PI. 30, figs. 14, 15, 16. 

Shell a little larger, umbilicus somewhat narrowed, less abruptly 
excavated ; whorls a little more convex ; brown, with a single pe- 
ripheral band, peristome violaceous. Alt. 22, greater diam. 38, less- 
er 3H mill. (Mart.} 

Southern Japan, island ofKiusiu; Dagelet Id.; in the neighbor- 
hood of Nagasaki ; Liu-kiu Is. 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 101 

H. luhiiana Sow. Beechey's Voyage, ZooL, p. 140, t. 35, f. 4. 
PFR. Monogr. i, p. 354; Conchyl. Cab., p. 436, t. 151, f. 15-17. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 382. H. luchuana Soiv., AD. Ann. & Mag. 
1ST. H. i, 1868, p. 461. H. peliomphala var. luchuana Sow., MARTENS, 
Ostas. ZooL, p. 27, pi. 15, f. 4. 

Differs from If. peliomphala in being of a chestnut brown color, 
yellowish at suture, around the brown umbilical tract and on each 
side of the distinct peripheral zone. 

Var. BRANDTI Kobelt. PL 28, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell similar to H. peliomphala but somewhat smaller, the spire a 
little more elevated, the umbilicus rather narrower. Surface nearly 
lusterless, sculptured as in the type ; ground-color yellowish or 
corneous, almost wholly concealed by broad irregular obliquely de- 
scending opaque white or buff streaks, which interrupt the three 
blackish-brown spiral zones, making them appear as spots or streaks. 
Umbilicus dark inside ; lip broadly expanded of a pinkish-purple 
color. Alt. 17, greater diam. 26, lesser 23 mill., often larger. 

Interior of Niphon. 

H. brandti KOB., Nachr.-Bl. D. M. Ges. 1875, p. 55 f Jahrb. D. 
M. Ges. 1875, p. 328, t. 12, f. 5, 6. 

The specimens before me show this to be a form intermediate 
between typical peliomphala and nimbosa. 

Var. NIMBOSA Crosse. PL 28, figs. 8, 9. 

Form and sculpture as in the closely allied H. peliomphala. Epi- 
dermis deep brown, with oblique, irregular yellowish streaks ; aper- 
ture violet-brown inside, the peristome the same color. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 35, lesser 31 mill. 

Japan. 

H. nimbosa CROSSE, Journal de Conchyl. 1868, p. 277 ; ibid. 1871 , 
p. 59, t. 2, f. 1. 

Probably as von Martens says, a color-variety of H. peliomphala. 

H. HERKLOTSI Martens. PL 26, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

Shell rather narrowly urnbilicated, conoid-depressed, subgradate, 
rough-striate and most subtly spirally lined, buff, painted with 3 
chestnut bands, the middle one narrow, the upper double, the lower 
triple its width, the upper edge of the upper band and the lower 
edge of the basal one fading into the ground color. The umbilicus 
is only a trifle darker than the rest of the shell. Whorls 5-1, a little 



102 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

convex, the last about equally convex above and below, descending 
in front. Aperture very oblique, truncate-ovate; peristome pale 
flesh color, showing the bands, margins converging, the upper 
narrowly expanded, the basal more broadly reflexed, thickened ; the 
umbilicus rapidly narrowing, the antepenultimate whorl not visible 
within it. Alt. 19, greater diam. 33, lesser 26 mill. 

Kioto, Japan. 

H. herklotsi MART., Mai. Blatter vii, 1861, p. 38 ; Landschnecken 
der Preuss. Exped. nach Ostasien, p. 27 ; Novit. Conch, v, p. 177, t. 
150, f. 1-3. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 358. H. Sandai KOBELT, Faun. 
Jap., p. 39, t. 6, f. 10, 11. 

This form holds the same relation to H. peliomphala that perryi 
bears toward qucesita. It should probably be considered a color-race 
of the protean peliomphala. With H. simodce, the present species 
has nothing to do. The conic spire and rapidly narrowing umbilicus 
show it to be allied to peliomphala. 

H. SENCKENBERGIANA Kobelt. PI. 28, figS. 10, 11. 

Shell large, broadly umbilicated, orbicular-depressed, solid, striate, 
very minutely granulated under a lens ; reddish-brown, with irregu- 
lar yellow streaks in the direction of growth-lines, interrupting the 
three dark bands. Whorls 5i, rounded, slowly increasing. Aper- 
ture broadly lunate ; peristome reflexed, thickened, margins joined 
by a thin callous, livid purple ; throat showing three bands on a 
lighter ground. (Kob.) Alt. 30, greater diam. 56, lesser 47 mill. 

Interior of Niphon. 

H. senckenbergiana KOB. Nachr.-Bl. D. M. Ges. 1875, p. 55 ; 
Jahrb. D. M. Ges. 1875, p. 326, t. 12, f. 1, 2. 

This form also may prove to be a variety of H. peliomphala, with 
which it agrees in all its characters except the larger size. It has a 
great resemblance to the H. ( Campy Icea) pouzolzi of Europe. 

VARIETY (pi. 28, fig. 12). A form referred by Kobelt to sencken- 
bergiana is figured. This shell is dark greenish-brown, with a 
peripheral band, having scarcely visible light bands above and 
below it. 

H. NIPPONENSIS Kobelt. PL 29, figs. 3, 4 ; pi. 41, figs. 4, 5. 6, 7. 

Shell depressed, with conoidal spire ; umbilicate ; sculptured with 
strong, unequal thread-like whitish stride on a ground of straw- 
color mottled and clouded with chestnut. 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 103 

The shell has much the general form of H. peliomphala, and the 
umbilicus is about as wide as in that species. The surface is shin- 
ing, very roughly, irregularly marked by thread-like growth-stria?, 
which are very unequal in size, and are mostly of an opaque whitish- 
color. Under a lens the close microscopic spiral stria? characteristic 
of this group become visible. The ground-color is straw-yellow or 
whitish-corneous, more or less clouded and streaked with chestnut, 
the latter color often forming a narrow band (interrupted by the 
stria?) above the periphery ; whorls 5 5, convex, slowly increasing, 
the last rather strongly deflexed in front. Aperture very oblique, 
broad-lunate, pinkish-brown inside ; peristome expanded, reflexed, 
dark purplish-brown or rosy in color, thickened within, the thick- 
ening white or brown. Basal margin somewhat straightened and 
horizontal ; terminations of peristome approaching, joined by a thin 
transparent callus. 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 30, lesser 26 mill. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 27 J, lesser 23 mill. 

Kobe, Japan. 

H. nipponensis KOB. Jahrb. D. M. Gesell 1876, p. 31, 1. 1, f. 2. 
H. congenita SMITH, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 496 (wood- 
cut). 

This species although closely allied to H. peliomphala may 
probably be distinguished by its stronger striation, by the greater 
deflexion of the whorl at the aperture, by the more straight- 
ened and horizontal basal lip, and by the peculiarly mottled or 
stained coloration. The umbilicus is either light or dark inside. 
I have figured on pi. 41, figs. 4-7, three specimens from the suite 
before me, showing variations in color-pattern. Figures 3, 4, of 
plate 29 are Kobelt's typical nipponensis. Fig. 5 of the same plate 
is copied from Smith's cut of congenita. The coloration of congenita 
as Smith describes it, applies so well to part of the shells before 
me that I quote him : 

The coloration of this species is not easily definable. The 
ground-colour is pale straw, the oblique raised lirae being more 
opaque and yellower. The body-whorl below the periphery is 
stained with brown, or looks as if it were scorched. The coloring 
takes the form of a very broad interrupted transverse band, or, in 
other words, of wide blotches or stripes. The latter are sometimes 
continued upon the upper half of the whorl, and are also here and 
there faintly observable on the upper volutions. One specimen has 



104 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

a narrow peripheral brown band. The body-whorl is stained with 
brown outside the lip; and this owing to the thinness of the shell, 
produces a brownish labrum, which in some places, particularly at 
the extreme edge and in the columellar region, is somewhat whitish. 
It is rather widely expanded at the base and columella, and is a 
trifle reflexed everywhere. The aperture is very transverse, in fact 
almost horizontal ; it is of a livid white color within, exhibiting the 
brown marking of the exterior. 

H. PLATYSOMA Pilsbry. PI. 41, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell much depressed, discoidal, perspectively umbilicated, thin 
but moderately strong, white (lacking epidermis). The surface has 
strong oblique, rib-striae, which are rather unevenly developed, and 
rather weaker below ; and very minute close spiral strise are visible 
in the intervals between the growth striae, under a lens. The spire 
is almost plane ; apex obtuse, the first whorl smooth, polished, con- 
vex, the following whorls of the spire flat, acutely keeled at circum- 
ference, the keel filling the suture; there is a "margined" appear- 
ance above the suture. Whorls 5i ; the last whorl is wide, becom- 
ing more convex on its last half and deeply descending below the 
periphery in front. The periphery is obtusely carinated. The 
aperture is extremely oblique, oval-truncate ; white inside ; peristonie 
somewhat expanded, white, narrowly reflexed on the basal- margin, 
dilated at the insertion. Umbilicus deep, broad, perspective. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 31, lesser 27 mill. ; width of umbilicus 6 
mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This is a shell of anomalous characters, but apparently allied to 
the Liu-kiu Island and Japanese group of Cam&na. The whorls of 
the spire are flat, showing that the young are acutely keeled at periph- 
ery. The spiral microscopic lines are about as fine and near together 
as in peliomphala. The umbilicus is broad ; the lip slightly ex- 
panded above, reflexed below. 

H. MIRANDA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell depressed-globose, broadly perforate, spire turbinate, rather 
elevated, apex obtuse; whorls 6, convex, with conspicuous oblique 
streaks and close decussating revolving striae ; last whorl rounded at 
the periphery, convex on the base ; aperture oblique, lunate ; per- 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 105 

istome expanded, reflexed, thickened within. Straw-colored, oriui- 
raented with reddish-brown bands at periphery and at suture. (Ad.) 
Alt. 18, diam. 32 mill. 

Id. of Rifunsiri, Japan. 

H. miranda Ad., Ann. & Mag. .N. H., 4th ser., i, p. 461, 1868. 

A handsome species, of a deep straw color, adorned with a red- 
brown band at the periphery and another at the suture. I found 
several specimens adhering to the stems of a gigantic species of 
Archangelica, in the little island of Rifunsiri near the Straits of La 
Perouse. (Ad.) 

This species may be an Acusta. I have not seen it. 

H. CALLIZONA Crosse. PI. 28, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ; pi. 29, figs. 

1,2. 

Shell dextral, narrowly, partly covered umbilicate, globose-conoi- 
dal, thin and light. Surface slightly shining, lightly striatulate, 
under a lens seen to be extremely finely marked by spiral striae all 
over, except the inner two whorls. The color is pale buff, more or 
less tinged with greenish or bluish, encircled by several distinct 
deep chestnut zones, usually three in number ; the first a narrow 
line edging the suture, the second encircling the whorl just above 
the periphery, the lower one wider, sometimes occupying the entire 
central tract of the base and the umbilicus. The spire is elevated, 
conoidal ; apex a little obtuse ; whorls 6, very slowly widening, the 
last deflexed in front, rounded at the periphery. Aperture oblique, 
rounded-lunar ; peristome expanded, a little thickened within, basal 
and columellar margins reflexed, the latter partly covering the 
umbilicus. Alt. 23-25, greater diam. 25-30 mill. 

Hada and Idsumo, Western Japan ; Id. of Niphon, in the interior. 

H. callizona CROSSE, Journal de Conchyl. 1871, p. 226, 319, t. 
13, f. 3. MARTENS, Jahrb. D. M. Gesell. iii, p. 358, 1876; Sitz- 
ungsb. der Gesellsch. naturforsch. Freunde zu. Berl. 1877, p. 102; 
Novit. Conch, v, p. 31, t. 143, f. 24-27. H. amalice KOBELT, 
Jahrb. D. M. Gesell. ii, 1875, p. 327, t. 12, f. 3, 4; Nachr. D. M. 
Ges. vii, 1875, p. 55 ; Jahrb. iii, p. 149, t. 5, f. 2. PFR. Monogr. 
vii, p. 587. H. congener E. A. SMITH, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1878, 
p. 105 (figs, in text). 

H. callizona may be distinguished from peliomphala and its 
varieties by the more elevated, conoidal form, narrower umbilicus 
and continuous bands, not interrupted by opaque whitish flecks or 



106 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

streaks. The forms included in the above synonymy do not seem 
to possess even varietal characters. Figure 4 of plate 28 is from 
the original illustration and Crosse. Figures 6 and 7 represent 
H. amalice Kobelt. Figures 1, 2, plate 29, are H. congener Smith. 
The specimens before me are from the Hakone Mountains. 

H. SEROTINA A. Adams. Unfigured. 

Shell subglobose, broadly perforate ; spire elevated-turbinate, apex 
obtuse ; whorls 6, convex, obliquely grooved (grooves unequal) and 
decussated by most minute close revolving striae ; base convex ; aper- 
ture lunate ; peristome expanded, reflexed, white within, thickened, 
dilated at the umbilicus, straw-colored, sometimes ornamented with 
a transverse reddish-brown band. (Ad.) 

Sagaleen, near Cape Notoro, Japan. 

H. serotina AD. Ann. Mag. N. H. 1868, 4th ser., vol. i, p. 461. 
PFR. Monogr. vii, p. 374. 

A pretty species, orange or deep straw-colored, very much resem- 
bling in general appearance the bright yellow varieties of H. horten- 
sis. I found it living in the dense thickets of bamboo near the shore. 
(Ad.) 

H. LEWISII E. A. Smith. PI. 29, fig. 6. 

Shell dextral, conoidal-globose, narrowly umbilicate, obliquely 
striate, white covered by a thin buffish-olivaceous epidermis, and 
encircled at the periphery by a narrow brown band. Whorls 6, a 
little convex, sensibly increasing, the last rounded, descending a 
short distance in front ; aperture oblique, white within ; peristome 
expanded all around; columellar margin tinged with dull rose, 
broadly expanded and reflexed above. (Smith.) 

Alt. 24, greater diam. 35, lesser 29 mill. 

Japan. 

H. lewisii SMITH, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 495 (wood-cut). 

Perhaps the most closely allied Japanese species to this one is H. 
miranda, A. Adams. From it H. lewisii differs in having a more 
conical spire, a narrower umbilicus, finer oblique striae, and no spi- 
ral sculpture. The oblique striae at the suture are rather deeply in- 
cised and more crowded than on the other parts of the whorls, many 
of them extending only about a line from the suture and then grad- 
ually fading away. The first four whorls differ from the last two in 
being obliquely punctato-striate, instead of exhibiting an ordinary 
striation. 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 107 

The brown band is situated a very little above the middle of the 
body-whorl, and passing just above its suture, is visible on two or 
three of the preceding volutions. The umbilicus is very deep and 
penetrable to the apex of the shell, but rather narrow, occupying 
about one-seventh of the smallest diameter. Peristome rather broad- 
ly expanded and white, with the exception of the columellar and 
basal margins, which are stained with a dirty pinkish color. Over 
the umbilicus it is broadly expanded, reflexed and joined to the up- 
per margin by a thin callosity. This species is quite distinct from 
H. myomphala, Martens, and, although agreeing in the style of col- 
oration, differs in form and the umbilicus. 

The single example in the British Museum was presented by Mr. 
George Lewis. (Smith.') 

H. MYOMPHALA von Martens. PI 29, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell dextral, umbilicus closed, depressed conoidal-globose, 
obliquely striate, decussated by very subtle close spiral lines, buff, 
with a single peripheral chestnut band, the umbilical region con- 
colored ; whorls 6?, scarcely convex, slowly increasing, the upper 
ones angulate at the periphery, the last rounded, a trifle deflexed in 
front ; aperture a little oblique, obliquely-lunar, peristome expanded, 
white, margins distant, connected by a scarcely visible callus, upper 
and basal margins well arched, columellar margin reflexed and 
adnate at the insertion. (Martens.') 

Alt. 32, greater diam. 43, lesser 38 mill. ; aperture, length 27, 
breadth 22 mill. 

Hagi and Nagasaki, Japan. 

H. myomphala MARTENS, Monatsberichte der Berl. Akad. 1865, 
p. 53 ; Preuss. Exped. nach Ost-Asien, Zool. ii, p. 29, t. 15, f. 6. 
PFR. Monographia v, p. 268. H. daimio ADAMS, rnss. in Cuming 
collection. 

In form and size this species is nearest to H. qucesita but is always 
dextral, with closed umbilicus, more numerous and more slowly 
widening whorls, and finer sculpture. The single band is narrower 
than in H. qucesita or H. peliomphala. A young specimen with only 
5 whorls shows a pronounced keel (while a qucesita of equal size has 
a very blunt one) and a narrow but not closed umbilicus. (Mart.) 



108 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

H. QU^SITA Deshayes. PL 29, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell sinistral, umbilicated, rather thin and light, straw-yellow, 
encircled by a chestnut baud at the periphery and inside the umbili- 
cus ; rarely unicolored. 

The shell has a deeply penetrating narrow umbilicus which 
expands and is somewhat funnel-shaped at its opening. It is some- 
what shining, opaque ; the surface marked by rather strong growth- 
striae, generally a little malleated in places, and showing under a 
strong lens excessively close, fine spiral striae all over except upon 
the inner two whorls. Spire low-conoidal ; apex obtuse, polished. 
Whorls 5|, convex, the last wide, a little descending in front, inflated 
on the base ; aperture oblique, broad-lunate, whitish-flesh-color 
inside and showing the band ; entire peristome expanded, basal and 
columellar margins reflexed, the latter dilated and impinging a 
little upon the umbilicus ; the brown bands at periphery and umbili- 
cus are continued upon the expanded peristome. The ends of the 
peristome converge, and are joined by a scarcely perceptible callus. 

Alt. 31, greater diam. 42 mill. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 37 mill. 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 32 mill. 

Yokohama, Simoda, Tabusima and Awasima, etc., Japan. 

H. qucesita DESK, inFer., Hist., t. 10B, f. 10-12 ; texte, i, p. 179. 
PFR. Monographia iv, p. 262. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 1355. 
FORTUNE, Japan and China, p. 215. MARTENS, Ostas. Zool. Land- 
Moll., p. 28, t. 15, f. 5. var. montium MARTENS, Novit. Conch, v, 
p. 178, 1. 151, f. 1-3. H.perryi JAY, Commodore Perry's Narrative 
of the Exped. of an American Squadron to Japan ii, p. 294, t. 5, f. 
7, 8, 9, 1856. 

This species frequently lacks the peripheral band and the brown 
lining of the umbilicus, being then of a uniform straw-yellow or 
olive-tinged yellow color. The size varies much, and the umbilicus 
may be either quite wide at its opening or narrow. 

Var. PERRYI Jay. PI. 41, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell similar in form to H. qucesita; somewhat more solid ; three- 
banded with tawny; middle or supra-peripheral band narrow, 
bordered on each side with yellow ; upper and lower bands wide, fad- 
ing into the ground-color toward suture and umbilicus ; interior of 
umbilicus dark. 

Yeddo. 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 109 

The shell figured is Jay's type specimen, which has been loaned 
to me by Prof. R. P. Whitfield, curator of the American Museum 
of Natural History, Central Park, New York City. It is somewhat 
abnormally elevated. The var. montium of Martens is a synonym. 
The figures given by Martens are copied on pi. 30, figs. 9, 10. The 
description is as follows : 

Var montium Martens (pi. 30, figs. 9, 10). Brownish, 3-banded, 
the middle band narrow, bordered above and below with yellow, the 
upper and lower bands wider, fading at their edges into the ground- 
color. Alt. 27, greater diam. 43, lesser 35 mill. (Mart.} 

Mts. of Tsukuba-San, Hakone and Hatta, Japan. 

Resembles H. lierklotsi and H. luchuana in color, but does not 
differ in form from the normal gucesita. 

H. LATILABRIS Mollendorff. PI. 41, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell sinistral, umbilicated, depressed-conoidal-globose, rugulose- 
striate, thin, yellow, with a single narrow reddish peripheral band ; 
whorls 5?, a little convex, the last inflated beneath, very briefly de- 
scending in front ; aperture wide-lunar, very oblique ; peristome 
reflexed, broadly expanding, white, margins distinct, joined by a 
scarcely visible callus, the upper margin arcuate toward the inser- 
tion, the columellar dilated. Alt. 16, greater diam. 26, lesser 22 
mill. ; aperture including peristome 14 mill, long, 15 wide, 11 high. 
(Mid/.) 

Kiukiang, China. 

H. latilabris MOLLEND. in Jahrb. D. M. Gesell. i, p. 79, 1874. 
See also vox MARTENS, loc. tit, p. 129 ; and GREDLER, Mai. Bl. 
1882, p. 174. Nachr.-Bl. D. M. Ges. 1890, t. 1, f. 3 a, b. 

Doubts have been expressed of the specific distinctness of this 
form from If. qucesita. The smaller size, lack of an umbilical dark 
patch and the different locality separate it from the Japanese spe- 
cies, at least varietally. 

** * 

H. CECILLEI Philippi. PI. 31, fig. 29. 

Shell umbilicated, orbicular-conoid, solid, striate and obsoletely 
granulate, tawny brown, ornamented with two chestnut bands, the 
upper one ascending along the suture ; spire short-conic ; apex rather 
obtuse, paler. Whorls 6, somewhat convex, the last subangular at 
the periphery, deflexed in front ; perforated by a moderate um- 



110 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

bilicus (about equaling i the diameter of the shell); aperture rounded- 
lunar, livid inside, with pellucid bands ; peristome livid-flesh-colored, 
margins joined by a callus, the right margin much arched, expanded 
an d a little reflexed, columellar and basal margin reflexed. (Pfr.^) 

Alt. 26, greater diam. 48, lesser 40 mill. 

Tien Tong, China; Region of Ningpo, Central China. 

H. cecillei PHIL. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 82. PFR. Mon. Hel. 
Viv. iii, p. 221. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 1431. MARTENS, Ostas. 
Landschn , p. 48. 

H. ORIENTALIS Adams & Reeve. PI. 27, figs. 13, 14. 

Shell umbilicated, conoid-semiglobose, solid, striate and micro- 
scopically granulated, tawny with two encircling blackish-chestnut 
bands ; spire short conoid, the apex a little acute ; whorls 6, scarcely 
convex, the last rounded, shortly deflexed in front ; umbilicus mod- 
erate (7 the diameter), open ; aperture oblique, lunate-rounded, with 
a pearly luster within ; peristome brownish-violet, margins approach- 
ing, the right margin expanded and a little reflexed, the basal and 
columellar margins reflexed. (P/*r.) 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 46, lesser 38 mill. 

Borneo. 

H. orientalis A. AD. & RVE., Voyage of the Samarang, Moll, p. 
61, t. 16, f. 4 (not H. orientalis Gray, Annals of Philos., new ser., 
ix, 1825, p. 412 , and Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 409, a species ofNani- 
na)H. germanus REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 385. PFR. Monog. Hel. 
Viv. iii, p. 222 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 383, t. 142, f. 1, 2. 

I have restored the original name to this species, since the H. orien- 
talis of Gray belongs to a distinct genus and family. 

H. MORELETIANA Heude. PI. 24, figs. 78, 79, 80. 

Shell umbilicated, large, thick, depressed conoid-globose, tawny- 
reddish or blackish, shining, three-banded, the middle or peripheral 
band is broad, whitish, more or less tinged with fawn color, the 
upper and lower bands are blackish, rather ill-defined at the edges ; 
obliquely strongly and closely striate, spire depressed, convex; 
whorls 5-6, the last rapidly increasing, convex, separated by moder- 
ately impressed sutures, the last inflated, convex, descending ; aper- 
ture very oblique, elliptical ; throat blackish-violet, with a white 
band ; peristome strongly reflexed, somewhat thickened ; columellar 
margin reflexed partly over the umbilicus, joining the upper margin 
by a smooth parietal callus ; umbilicus moderate, but little enlarged 



HELIX-EUHADRA. Ill 

at its opening, nearly cylindrical within, and permitting one to see 
the earlier whorls. (Heude.) 

Alt. 37, greater diam. 53, lesser 44 mill. 

Ning-guo-fu and Guang-de-dshou, province of An-hui, China. 

H. moreletiana HEUDE, Moll. Terr. Fl. Bleu, p. 38, t. 16, f. 1. 
MLDFF. in Jahrb. D. M. Ges. 1884, p. 380. 

This is a large two-banded species, comparable to H. cecillei Phil. 
It is said to be the largest Helix of Central China. 

H. PERCUSSA Heude. PL 24, figs. 86, 87, 88. 

Shell umbilicate, orbicular-conoid, thin but solid, shining, amber- 
colored ; decussated by delicate oblique and concentric stria? forming 
a latticed pattern ; spire obtuse, convex ; whorls 5i, convex, regularly 
increasing, joined by a narrow, little deepened suture, the last whorl 
large, very convex, with a mere suggestion of a carina, not deflexed 
in front. Aperture very little oblique, oblong, lunar, sinuous ; per- 
istome somewhat thickened, a little extended, erect, notably sinuous 
at the extremity of the false-carina ; right margin short, the col- 
umellar elongated and dilated at the base, covering some of the um- 
bilicus. Umbilicus small, perspective. (Heude.') 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 30, lesser 26 mill. 

On Rocks of the Wu-tang Mts., Province of Hupe, China. 

H.percussa H., Moll. Terr. Fl. Bleu, p. 39, t. 16, f. 4, 1882. 
H. BAIRDI H. Adams. PI. 31, fig. 28. 

Shell umbilicated, turbinate-depressed, solid, obliquely plicate- 
striate, tawny, ornamented with a blackish-chestnut, yellow mar- 
gined peripheral band. Spire short conoidal ; whorls 6, a little con- 
vex, slowly increasing, the last descending in front ; umbilicus mod- 
erate, profound ; aperture diagonal, ear-shaped-lunar ; peristome 
brownish flesh-colored, expanded and narrowly reflexed, the mar- 
gins remote, both the upper and the lower flexuous in the middle 
and obsoletely tubercled, indented on the outside ; columellar mar- 
gin dilated. (Ad.) Alt. 23, greater diam. 41, lesser 36 mill. 

Tamsui, Formosa. 

H. (Camcena) Bairdi Ad. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 316, t. 33, f. 3. 

H. BATANICA Adams & Reeve. PI. 27, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell sinistral, umbilicate, conoid-subglobose, rather solid, stri- 
atulate, olivaceous-buff, 3-banded with chestnut ; spire conoid, apex 
rather obtuse ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last rounded, scarcely 



112 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

descending in front; aperture oblique, lunar, whitish inside; per- 
istome white, a little expanded, the margins remote, columellar mar- 
gin reflexed above into a plate which half covers the very narrow 
umbilicus. (P/V.) Alt. 12 2, greater diam. 18, lesser 16 mill. 

Island of Batan, Basliee group. 

H. batanica AD. & RVE. Voy. Samarang, Moll., p. 60, t. 15, f. 5. 
RVE., Conch. Icon., f. 588. PFR. Monog. Hel. Viv. iii, p. 218 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 384, t 142, f. 5, 6. 

H. FORMOSENSIS Pfeiffer. PL 13, fig. 56 ; pi. 29, fig. 10. 

Shell sinistral, umbilicate, subturbinate-depressed, rather thin, 
obliquely finely striate, waxen white under a very thin epidermis ; 
spire short turbinate, apex obtuse ; whorls 5, regularly increasing, 
slightly convex, the last obsolete ly unifasciate and subangulated at 
the periphery, slightly descending in front, convex beneath, sculpt- 
ured with very minute spiral striae, not compressed around the mod- 
erate, profound umbilicus ; aperture oblique, broad lunar ; peris- 
tome somewhat thickened, margins remote, the upper one sinuous, a 
little expanded, basal margin reflexed, dilated at the insertion. 
(Pfr.) Alt. 12-13, greater diam. 26, lesser 22 mill. 

Formosa. 

H.formosensis PFR. P. Z. S. 1865, p. 829, t. 46, f. 7; Mai. BL 
1866, p. 41 ; MoDogr. v, p. 340. 

H. BOCAGEANA Crosse. PI. 32, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed-globose, longitudinally 
rugose-striate, with very obsolete decussating spiral striae, pellucid, 
dull yellowish, with a single chestnut band ; apex rather obtuse ; 
whorls 6, a little convex, the last scarcely descending in front, 
moderately subdepressed around the umbilicus ; aperture trans- 
versely dilated, lunar; peristome pale brownish-violet, columellar 
margin dilated above partly closing the umbilicus, outer margin 
subattenuated ; throat white, showing the brown band. ( Crse.) 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 25, lesser 22 mill. 

China f 

H. bocageana CRSE. Journ. de Conchyl. 1864, p. 284; 1866, p. 
58, t. 1, f. 4. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 342. 

H. BACCA Pfeiffer. PI. 32, fig. 49 ; pi. 26, fig. 8. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed-globose, solid, very lightly striate, 
whitish-buff, ornamented with three chestnut bands, the peripheral 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 113 

one wider ; spire shortly turbinate, apex minute, flesh-colored ; 
whorls 5, moderately convex, the last not descending, base subin- 
flated, sculptured with very obsolete spiral stria?, very narrowly im- 
pressed around the umbilicus ; aperture slightly oblique, lunar, 
white inside, with pellucid bands ; peristome white, narrowly re- 
flexed all around, the margins remote, basal margin dilated at the 
insertion, subangulated. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 23*, lesser 20? mill. 

Formosa. 

H. bacca PFR. P. Z. S. 1865, p. 829, t. 46, f. 8 ; Mai. Blatter 1866, 
p. 42 ; Monogr. Hel. Viv. v, p. 342. 

H. DELICIOSA Pfeiffer. PI. 32, fig. 50. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed turbinate-globose, rather thin, sub- 
distinctly plicatulate-striate, slightly shining, Isabella-colored, ele- 
gantly girdled with reddish lines ; spire conoidal, rather acute ; 
whorls nearly 6, a little convex, the last not descending, having a 
thread-like angle and a broader band above the middle, the base con- 
vex ; umbilicus narrow, pervious, aperture nearly vertical, rounded- 
lunar ; peristome pale rose-color, expanded, margins scarcely con- 
verging, the right one subaugularly produced in the middle, colu- 
mellar dilated, partly covering. (P/r.) 

Alt. 15*, greater diam. 26, lesser 23 mill. 

Loas Mts., Cambodia. 

H. deliciosa PFR. P. Z. S. 1862, p. 271, t. 36, f. 3 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. 
v, p. 342. 

H. PEGUENSIS Benson. PL 31, fig. 22. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, globose-depressed, rather solid r 
obliquely rugose-striatulate, a little shining, translucent, rufous- 
corneous, obscurely unifasciate; spire conoidal, apex obtuse, suture 
rather profound, rough-submargined ; whorls 5, scarcely convex^ 
slowly increasing, the last rounded, obtusely angulated above the 
periphery, slightly descending in front, a little compressed around 
the umbilicus ; aperture oblique, rounded-lunar, peristome a little 
expanded, livid violet-whitish, margins remote, subconverging, 
columella expanded, a little reflexed, partly closing the umbilicus. 
(Bens.) Alt. 13, greater diam. 20, lesser 18 mill. 

Sheoay- Gheen, Pegu. 

H. peguensis BENS. Ann. Mag. N. H. 1860, vi, p. 192. PFR. 
Mon. Hel. Viv. v, p. 346. HANL. & THEOB. Conch. Ind., t. 58, f. 6. 



114 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

The umbilicus is wider in some specimens than in others, and the 
angle above the periphery is variable and occasionally more pro- 
nounced. In dead specimens the livid violaceous color of the 
aperture is changed into white, and the obscure fuscous band at the 
periphery is scarcely to be detected. (Bens.*) 

H. PILIDION Benson. PI. 31, fig. 20. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, subglobose-conoid, very thin, smooth, 
lightly striate, striae rather remote, elevated, corneous-brown, and 
with very close decussating spiral ones; translucid, whitish orna- 
mented with a single peripheral rufous band ; spire conoidal, apex 
somewhat obtuse, suture lightly impressed. Whorls 4?, sensibly 
widening, a little convex ; the last scarcely descending in front, 
convex beneath ; aperture oblique, quadrate-lunate, peristome acute, 
thin, expanded a little all around, margins remote, subconniving, 
joined by a delicate callus, columella wider, triangularly expanded. 
^Bens.) Alt. 9, greater diam. 16, lesser 13 mill. 

Pegu. 

JET. pilidion BENS, in Ann. Mag. N. H. 3d ser., vi, p. 191, Sept., 
I860. PFR. Mon. Hel. Viv. v, p. 347. HANLEY & THEOB., Conch. 
Ind., t. 53, f. 6. 

A small species which I have not seen. It is perhaps allied to 
H. hemiopta. 

H. PHAYREI Theobald. PI. 32, fig. 53. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, orbicular-conoid, somewhat solid, 
with corneous epidermis, shining; obliquely flexuously, rudely 
plicate-striate under the epidermis, the periphery obtusely angulated. 
Spire depressed-conoid, apex obtuse, suture scarcely impressed; 
whorls 6, a little convex, slowly increasing, the last descending and 
rotund toward the aperture, convex beneath, compressed around 
the open profound umbilicus. Aperture sub circular-lunate, diago- 
nal ; peristome white, slightly expanded all around, the margins 
approximating, joined by a callus. (Stanford.} 

Alt. 8, greater diam. 18, lesser 15? mill. 

Ava. 

H. phayrei THEOB. in. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1859, p. 306. 
BLANF. Contrib. to Ind. Malacol. v, p. 26, 1865. PFR. Monogr. v, 
p. 346. HANLEY & THEOBALD, Conch. Indica., t. 15, f. 1 . 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 115 

*** 

The following are shells agreeing with the group of H. peliomphala 
in the fine spiral sculpture and rather light texture. They are 
brown in color ; the umbilicus is moderately open ; the periphery is 
prominently keeled. 

H. SWINHOEI Pfeiffer. PI. 20, figs. 40, 41 ; pi. 30, fig. 8. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, turbinate-depressed, rather solid, 
obliquely and rather coarsely striate and sculptured with very close 
fine spiral strise, which give the surface a silky luster; reddish- 
brown finely and obscurely marbled with lighter ; spire low-turbin- 
ate, rather obtuse ; whorls nearly 5i, the first If convex, polished, 
forming the nucleus ; the several following ones nearly plane, the 
last whorl slightly descending in front, a little convex above, en- 
circled by a prominent keel in the middle, inflated beneath. Aper- 
ture diagonal, rounded-lunar, bluish-pearly inside ; peristome fleshy- 
brown, margins converging, joined by a thin callus, the upper mar- 
gin narrowly expanded, basal somewhat reflexed, dilated at the in- 
sertion. Alt. 27-30, greater diam. 50-58, lesser 43-48 mill. 

Formosa. 

H. swinhoei PFR., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 829, t. 46, f. 6 ; Mai. Blatter 
xiii, p. 41, 1866 ; Monographia v, p. 338. DOHRN in Conchyl. Cab., 
Helix, p. 581, t. 171, f. 6, 1. 

Pfeiffer mentions a variety which is smaller, fulvous, the peris- 
tome pale rose, aperture white inside ; diam. maj. 46, miu. 39, alt. 
25 mill. 

The figures on plate 20 are very characteristic. The spiral sculpt- 
ure is visible on close inspection without a lens. Excessively close, 
crowded spiral lines cover the whole surface, except the apex and 
inside of the umbilicus. 

H. CASPARI Mollendorff. PI. 25, figs. 92, 93. 

Shell openly umbilicated, depressed-globose-conoid, solid, with 
curved radiating coarse striae, shining, dark chestnut-brown, with a 
narrow lighter band at the periphery, which is distinctly angular, 
almost carinated. Whorls 6, but slightly convex, the last deflexed 
a short distance in front. Aperture diagonal, lunate-elliptical, 
violet-brown inside, the peristome rather expanded, somewhat re- 
flexed, a little thickened, the margins joined by a very thin callus, 



116 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

columellar margin dilated, partly covering the umbilicus. (Mlldff.) 

Alt. 30, greater diam. 47, lesser 38 mill. 

Alt. 26, greater diam. 43, lesser 35? mill. 

Southern part of the province Hunan, China. 

H. caspari MOLLENDORFF, Jahrb. D. M. Ges. 1884, p. 381, t. 9, 
f.1,2. 

H. VULPIS Gredler. 

Shell thin, openly umbilicate, depressed, the spire applanate- 
convex,. irregularly and unequally tuberculate-striate, granulate, 
slightly shining, brown, paler beneath, ornamented with a bruad 
brown band under the peripheral carina and many wide and 
narrow lines around the umbilicus, carinate at the periphery ; 
whorls 5i, slightly convex, sensibly widening, separated by impress- 
ed sutures, the last whorl inflated below, scarcely deflexed in front. 
Aperture oblique, lunate-oval, ashen-violet ; peristome little expand- 
ed, quite narrowly reflexed, flesh-colored, margins distant, joined 
by an extremely thin callus. ( Gredler.) 

Alt. 21-23, diam. 44-48. 

Near Hensan, Southwestern Hunan, China. 

H. (Hadra) vulpis GRED. Jahrb. D. M. Ges. xiv, 1887, p. 352. 

Allied to H. caspari, but greater in circumference, and although 
the spire is more depressed, yet the whorls are higher ; the color is 
lighter (cinnamon-brownish), and below there are numerous red- 
dish spiral bands such as adorn most species of Hadra. The blunt 
angle at the periphery of caspari is here formed into a perfect keel, 
almost projecting above, and not whitish. The last whorl is much 
more inflated below the keel, and continues along the keel, not 
being deflexed in front as it is in caspari. The sculpture is wholly 
different : it has furrow-like, wavy oblique striae, especially on the 
penultimate whorl, and above and below is distinctly granulate. 
The aperture is little oblique, not diagonal, the lip-margins not 
approaching, and the columellar margin scarcely widened at its inser- 
tion. The shell is fragile, nearly as thin and light as paper. The 
species is named in honor of Mr. P Lorenz Fuchs. 

H. PANTHEIA Mabille. PL 31, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Umbilicate, depressed, rather solid but not thick, opaque, yellow- 
ish-olive-brown ; surface somewhat shining, obliquely irregularly 
striate, under a lens seen to be covered with an extremely dense, close, 
distinct sculpture of spiral lines, all over except in the umbilicus and 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 117 

on several of the inner whorls ; spire low-conical, obtuse at apex ; 
sutures scarcely impressed. Whorls 5, the first two smooth, shining, 
corneous ; last whorl rapidly widening, angular at the periphery, 
convex beneath, scarcely deflexed at the aperture ; aperture ob- 
lique, rounded-truncate, of a livid-bluish tint inside ; peristome ex- 
panded, not thickened, flesh-colored, its margins converging, the 
basal dilated ; parietal callous light ; umbilicus funnel-shaped. 

Alt. 25, diam. maj. 43, min. 35 mill. ; umbilicus 4 to 5 mill. wide. 

China. 

H. pantheia MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Philomathique de Paris 1888, 
p. 74. 

Described and figured from a specimen in the collection of L'abbe 
A. Vathelet. The deflection of the last whorl shown in the figure 
is caused by an injury received by the specimen. It would be very 
slight in an uninjured shell. The species is allied to H. swinhoei 
and H. Caspar i. 

H. AMMIRALIS Pfeifler. Unfigured. 

Shell umbilicate, turbinate-depressed, rather solid, rather rudely 
striate all over, tawny or yellowish, generally ornamented with a 
peripheral blackish-chestnut band ; spire regularly conoidal. Whorls 
6, a trifle convex, slowly widening, the last a little descending in 
front ; periphery carinated, base convex, subcompressed around the 
narrow chestnut umbilicus. Aperture oblique lunate; peristome 
liver-colored, narrowly expanded, the columellar margin reflexed 
above. (Pfr.) Alt. 20, greater diam. 36, lesser 33 mill. 

China. 

H. ammiralis PFR. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 328 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, p. 
262. 

An unfigured form, probably grouping here. 

Group of H. succincta Ad. 

The shells of this group are depressed, conical above, convex 
below, carinated at the periphery. The umbilicus is narrow but 
deep and cylindrical, and partly covered by the reflexed columellar 
lip. The surface is obliquely striate, and in some species there are 
superficial spiral striae. In fact, the sculpture in certain of the 
forms here grouped reminds one of that of Camcena s. s. ; in others 
of the group of H. peliomphala ; and in H. caliginosa it is micro- 
scopically granulated. The nucleus is minute ; the whorls are 



118 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

narrow, increasing slowly ; and the aperture is not so oblique as in 
most helices. The species all have a narrow dark band just on and 
above the periphery. They range from Central China to Formosa 
and the Liu-kiu Islands. 

H. SUCCINCTA H. Adams. PL 25, figs. 94, 95. 

Shell narrowly, profoundly umbilicated, depressed, convex below, 
the spire low-conical, periphery rather sharply keeled ; it is rather 
thin but solid, of a light brownish or pale yellow color, with a 
narrow distinct reddish peripheral girdle visible on the whorls of 
the spire at the suture ; this girdle is bordered both above and below 
with whitish ; the suture also is bordered below with whitish. 
Surface slightly shining, obliquely finely striate, encircled by numer- 
our fine irregular spiral lines on the base, very finely obliquely but 
obsoletely malleated on the upper surface. Spire conic ; apex shin- 
ing, minute; whorls 5, a little convex, slowly widening, the last 
keeled, not descending in front. Aperture a little oblique, broad- 
lunate ; peristome white, narrowly expanded, subreflexed and flat- 
tened, dilated half over the umbilicus, marked by the termination 
of the band on the outer lip. 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 19J, lesser 18 mill. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 24, lesser 21 J mill. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 27, lesser 23 mill. 

Formosa. 

H. succincta H. AD. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 316, t. 33, f. 4, 4a. PFR. 
Monog. Hel. Viv. vii, p. 388. MOLLENDORFF, Jahrb. D. M. Ges. 
1884, p. 383, t, 9, f. 7, 8. 

This species is abundant at Da-gou (Takow or Takao), Formosa. 
It varies considerably in size. 

H. FRIESIANA Mollendorff. PI. 25, figs. 96, 97. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, globose-conoid, obliquely striatulate 
and decussated by rough spiral lines, brown, marked at the periph- 
ery with a blackish-brown very narrow band. Spire conoid, apex 
rather acute ; whorls 6, subplane, separated by a scarcely impressed 
suture, the last whorl acutely carinated, scarcely descending in front, 
compressed beneath, flattened behind the aperture on the base. 
Aperture oblique, lunate-elliptical ; peristome expanded, slightly re- 
flexed, margins joined by a very thin callus, the basal margin nearly 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 1J9 

horizontal, thickened by a callus, columellar margin dilated, thick- 
ened, partly closing the narrow umbilicus. (Mlldjf.) 
Alt. 21, greater diam. 27, lesser 25 mill. 

Da-gou, Southern Formosa. 

H.friesiana MLLDFF. Jahrb. D. M. Ges. 1884, p. 385, t. 9, f. 3,4. 

Very near to H. succincta, but more conic with flatter whorls, the 
last one very acutely keeled, much more compressed beneath, and 
remarkably flattened behind the mouth, causing the basal lip to be 
horizontal instead of arcuate. Described from a single specimen. 

H. STENOZONA Mollendorff. PI. 27, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell umbilicated, conoid-depressed, thin, obliquely arcuately 
striatulate, decussated by very delicate spiral lines, straw colored, 
painted with a very narrow brown peripheral band. Whorls 5 5, a 
little convex, the last obtusely angulated at the periphery, slightly 
deflexed in front, subcom pressed on the base, subangulated around 
the umbilicus. Aperture oblique, rotund-lunar, the peristome nar- 
rowly expanded, a trifle reflexed, whitish, margins joined by a very 
thin callus, the basal margin subhorizontal, callously thickened, the 
columellar margin dilated. (Moll.} 

Alt. 14?, greater diam. 23, lesser 19 mill. 

Fu-dshou, province of Fu-dshien, China. 

H. stenozona MOLL., Jahrb. D. M. Ges. 1884, p. 385, t. 9,f. 5, 6. 

A species closely allied 'to H. succincta H. Ad., especially to its 
smaller forms, but smaller, thinner, somewhat more widely umbili- 
cated, the last whorl much more bluntly angulated, the spiral stria? 
finer and more regular. The color is simply straw-yellow, with a 
very narrow reddish brown girdle. (Moll.) 

H. HzEMATOzoNA Heude. PI. 24, figs. 81, 82. 

Shell globose or globose-depressed, imperforate or half-covered 
umbilicate, thin, somewhat solid, greenish-amber-colored encircled at 
the periphery by a narrow red zone; cancellated by broad, con- 
spicuous oblique and concentric strise ; shining ; spire subelevated or 
much compressed ; whorls 4 to 5, a little convex, separated by linear 
sutures ; the last whorl large, and angulated below the color-band, 
convex, not descending in front ; aperture little oblique, oblong- 
lunar, sinuous; peristome white, thickened, straight, scarcely reflexed, 



120 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

the columella vertical, its margin reflexed, and wholly or half cover- 
ing the umbilicus. (Heude.) 

Alt. 19-11, greater diam. 27-19, lesser 22-17 mill. 

Southwestern part of the province Gui-dshou, China. 

H. hcematozona HEUDE, Moll. Terr, de la Valle du Fleuve Bleu, 
p. 40, t. 20, f. 14. 

This species has two forms, one perforated, the other im perforate ; 
they are considered to be specifically identical by Heude, who 
examined a great number of specimens. 

H. BATHYMOPHORA Mabille. PL 15, figs. 72, 73. 

Shell partly covered umbilicate, depressed conical, solid, a little 
thick, white under a deciduous epidermis, shining, radiately deli- 
cately striate and crispate-malleate ; spire convex, prominent ; apex 
large, a little obtuse, shining ; whorls 5J, regularly and rapidly in- 
creasing, convex, the suture narrow, little impressed, margined by a 
purple line ; last whorl large, rounded above, sloping, angulated at 
the periphery and narrowly zoned with red, scarcely descending at 
the aperture, not dilated, convex beneath ; aperture irregularly ovate, 
lunate ; peristome a little thickened, patulescent, scarcely reflexed ; 
columellar margin short, oblique, a little thickened, dilated in a 
slightly thickened callus half covering the umbilicus ; basal margin 
sinuous, tuberculose ; outer margin incurved, obscurely angulated in 
the middle. (3fa6.) Alt. 19, greater diam. 33, lesser 29 mill. 

Tonquin. 

H. bathymophora MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. 1887, p. 83, t. 2, 
f. 6, 7. 

Allied to H. friesiana Mlldff., but with nearly covered umbilicus, 
whorls more inflated, etc. 

H. JACULATA Mabille. PL 42, figs. 20, 21. 

Shell nearly covered perforate, conic-globose, rufescent under a 
hydrophanous deciduous epidermis, a little thick, solid, striatulate, 
longitudinally impressed and crispatemalleate, under a lens, shin- 
ing; spire strong, conic-globose, the apex obtuse, corneous, shining; 
whorls 5-5?, the first costulated, the rest convex, regularly and 
sensibly increasing, separated by a quite distinct suture narrowly 
marked with white ; last whorl large, not descending in front, seen 
from above equalling nearly the moiety of the width of the penulti- 
mate, swollen, obscurely angulated toward the base; aperture 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 121 

oblique, irregularly ovate, lunate ; peristome thickened, white, a 
little reflexed ; margins distant, the columellar margin oblique, 
dilated into a rather thick callus which almost entirely covers the 
umbilicus, joining the basal margin in a tuberculiform prominence; 
the basal margin nearly straight, the outer arcuate and excavated. 
(Mabille.} Alt. 21, greater diam. 31, lesser 26 mill. 

Tonquin. 

H.jaculata J. MAB., Moll. Tonk. Diagn., p. 5, May, 1887 ; Bull. 
Soc. Mai. Fr. 1887, p. 86, t. 1, f. 8, 9. 

This species belongs to the same group as H. bathymophora, but 
differs from that form in its more globose outline, more elevated but 
more obtuse spire, etc. 

H. MERCATORINA Mabille. PI. 15, figs. 67, 68. 

Shell umbilicated, globose-subdepressed, solid, shining, buff, 
radiately ribbed-striate, and a little crispate ; spire strong, convex- 
mamillated,apex, obtuse, shining, ruddy ; whorls 6, convex, rapidly 
and regularly increasing, separated by a distinct linear suture ; the 
last whorl large, convex-rounded, a little dilated and descending in 
front, a little convex beneath ; aperture oblique, lunate, oblong- 
rounded ; peristome expanded, a little thickened, white, reflexed, the 
margins distant, outer ( margin excavated and incurved, columellar 
margin nearly straight, dilated in a pretty thick callus which is not 
appressed but projects a little over the umbilicus ; columella thick, 
oblique, with a strong tubercle at its base. (Mabille.} 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 31, lesser 25 mill. 

Tonquin. 

H. mercatorina MAB. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. 1887, p. 88, t. 2, f. 10, 
11. 

H. MERCATORIA Gray. PL 31, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell with a narrow, deep umbilicus, of a depressed form, convex 
below, conoid-convex above the obsoletely subangular periphery ; 
thin but moderately strong, chestnut-brown, encircled at the periph- 
ery by a narrow darker girdle, which is bordered above and below 
by light yellowish bands ; the dark girdle is visible at the suture of 
penultimate whorl ; the inside of the umbilicus is perceptibly darker 
than the color of the base. The surface is nearly lusterless, with 
strong curved stride, more prominent above. Spire low-conoidal, 
apex obtuse ; suture evenly impressed ; whorls 6, slightly convex, 
slowly widening, the last obsoletely angular at the periphery, de- 



122 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

scending a trifle or not at all in front. Aperture slightly oblique, 
lunate ; peristome expanded and reflexed, purplish-brown. 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 32, lesser 28 mill. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 38, lesser 34 mill. 

China (Pfr.) ; Liu-Kiu Islands (Phil. Acad. Coll.) 

H. mercatoria Gray (in British Mus.), PFEIFFER in Zeitschr. f. 
Mai. 1845, p. 154; Monogr. Hel. Viv. i, p. 331 ; Conchylien Cab- 
inet, p. 336, t. 132, f. 1, 2. KEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 383. 

This is a pleasing species, allied to If. succincta somewhat, and 
like that species in .general outline, closely coiled whorls and in the 
aperture, which is not so oblique in these forms and in the general- 
ity of depressed helices. The nearly lusterless surface sometimes 
shows in places very fine spiral incised lines, when viewed under a 
strong lens ; but such sculpture is neither frequent nor characteristic. 
The largest specimen before me measures 37 mill, in diameter ; the 
smallest is of a light russet-tinged yellow color, the umbilicus a 
shade darker, and banded like the usual form. It measures alt. 16, 
greater diam. 26, lesser 23 J mill. 

H. SUBMANDARINA Pilsbry. PL 42, figs. 33, 34, 35. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, somewhat turbinate, conoidal above, 
flattened below ; yellowish, with a narrow brown peripheral band ; 
periphery rounded ; lip a little expanded, labiate within. 

The shell has a narrow but deep and tubular umbilicus ; it is 
somewhat trochoidal in outline, very solid and strong, opaque ; 
spire elevated, composed of 6 very convex, slowly widening whorls, 
the last one rounded at the periphery, scarcely descending in front ; 
apex a little obtuse ; suture deeply impressed. Aperture slightly 
oblique, small, showing the band within and upon the face of the 
lip ; peristome slightly expanded, strongly labiate or thickened in- 
side ; columellar margin a little dilated, impinging upon the nar- 
row umbilicus. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 21 mill. ; width of umbilicus 1} mill. 

Liu-kin, Is. f 

This is a species belonging to the H. succincta group, but much 
more trochoidal than that species and of a solid, heavy texture. In 
the elevated spire, rounded periphery and heavy texture there is 
some resemblance to H. mandarina ; but it differs wholly from that 
species, having the axis perforated. Two specimens are before me ; 
one received from J. G. Anthony, labelled " China" ; the other is 



HELIX-EUHADRA. 123 

from the Swift collection, marked " Loo-Choo Is." The last local- 
ity is probably correct. Both specimens were in trays containing 
H. mandarina. 

H. CALIGIXOSA Adams & Reeve. PI. 27, figs. 9, 10, lOa. 

Shell globose depressed with couoidal spire, the umbilicus narrow 
but deep, circular, and somewhat impinged upon by the reflexed 
columella ; rather thin but solid ; color fawn-brown, encircled by a 
narrow red band, the upper whorls yellowish-white. Surface sculpt- 
ured by close, oblique arcuate striae, conspicuous both above and 
below, the whorls of the spire showing under a strong lens minute, 
delicate separated granules or little elevated points. Spire rather 
elevated, apex minute, shining, whitish ; sutures well impressed 
from the apex to its termination. Whorls 6?, convex, slowly widen- 
ing, the last slightly descending in front. Aperture oblique, lunate ; 
peristome expanded, the basal margin sinuous (being arched forward, 
seen from below), the columellar margin suddenly dilated and 
partially covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 32, lesser 29 mill. 

Mindanao, Philippines. 

H. caliginosa A. AD. & REEVE, Zool. Voyage of the Samarang, 
Moll., p. 62, t. 16, f. 6. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 525. 

This species is said by Reeve to belong to the group of which 
H. ungulina is the type. The only published figures represent base 
and top views, so I am not absolutely certain that the specimen 
before me (from which fig. 10 of pi. 27 was drawn) is correctly 
named. The original description is as follows : " Shell subglobose, 
perforate, concentrically marked by oblique, slightly elevated 
streaks, yellowish-white ; whorls 6, the last spadiceous-brown, sur- 
rounded by a narrow rufous band ; aperture depressed-lunate, peris- 
tome reflexed." 

The specimen drawn in fig. 10 probably a little abnormally 
elevated. 

H. PHILIPPINENSIS Semper. PI. 60, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Shell large, depressed, very solid and strong, narrowly umbilicated, 
opaque, of a beautiful reddish-fawn color, somewhat darker on the 
spire, and encircled just above the periphery by an indistinct darker 
band. The surface is nearly lusterless, nearly smooth below, oblique, 
rather coarsely striate above. Spire low, depressed ; suture im- 
pressed ; whorls 5 J, slightly convex, the last very obsoletely angulated 



124 HELIX-EUHADRA. 

at the periphery, which is slightly above the middle of the whorl ; 
it does not descend in front. The aperture is broadly lunar, whitish 
inside, oblique; peristome flesh-colored, thickened, its face flattened 
on the upper and outer margins (which are expanded), the baso- 
columellar margin very convex on its face, reflexed, somewhat 
straightened, dilated partly over the umbilicus. The umbilicus is 
narrow, but deep and cylindrical. 

Alt. 31-32, diam. 47-49, lesser 39-40 mill. 

Island of Tablets, Philippines. 

f Hadra philippinensis SEMPER, Reisen im Archipel der Philipp- 
inen iii, Landmollusken, iv Heft, t. 10, f. 7a, b, 1877. 

A beautiful tawny species, of which two specimens lie before me. 
Both lack epidermis, a peculiarity I am disposed to believe may 
be constant in the species. It seems to me to be allied to H. cali- 
ginosa, mercatoria, etc., although the texture is decidedly heavier and 
stronger, and the whorls widen more rapidly. 

Judging from Hidalgo's remarks (Journal de Couchyliologie, 
1887, p. 110) I am disposed to believe that the true philippinensis 
was not before him. 

Group of H. mandarina, Gray. 

Shell solid, compact, globose-conical, elevated, the top obtuse ; 
axis or pillar solid at all stages of growth; lip obtuse, thickened-, 
slightly expanded. 

H. MANDARINA Gray. PL 31, fig. 32. 

Shell globose-conical, the spire elevated, obtuse ; imperforate ; solid ; 
reddish-brown, with a light peripheral band, or sometimes yellowish, 
lightly streaked with reddish, encircled at periphery by a narrow 
deep brown band which is bordered above and below by whitish 
bands. Surface rather rudely but inconspicuously obliquely striate. 
Spire elevated, conical, obtuse ; suture well impressed. Whorls 5 J, 
the inner H scarcely convex, the others convex, slowly widening, 
the last convex below, not indented around the axis, slowly descend- 
ing or not descending in front. Aperture semicircular, very 
oblique ; lip flesh-colored, blunt, slightly expanded, evenly arched 
all around, the columellar margin much thickened. 

Alt. 23, diam. 26 mill. 

Alt. 23, diam. 29 mill. 

Alt. 20, diam. 23 mill. 

Liu-Mu Islands. 



HELIX-IIADRA. 125 

H. mandarina GKAY, Zool. of Beechey's Voyage, p. 143, t. 38, f. 
2, 3. PFR. Monog. Hel. Viv. i, p. 255 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 375, t. 
140, f. 15, 16. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 401. 

A solid, turbinate shell, peculiar in its elevated contour and solid 
axis. Two of the trays before me are marked " Bonin Is.," probably 
erroneously. All of the shells I have seen (13 specimens, received 
from five sources) are devoid of epidermis. Several of them have 
been inhabited by hermit crabs. 

(Species of doubtful position.) 

H. PRIMEANA Crosse. PL 31, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, little thickened, somewhat solid, 
longitudinally rugose-striate, unicolored, pale brown ; spire little ele- 
vated, obtuse ; suture light, impressed. Whorls 5, a trifle convex, 
slowly widening, the last not descending in front ; periphery acutely 
carinated, more convex beneath the carina, obsoletely rugate-striate ; 
umbilicus moderate, subcylindrical ; aperture oblique, rounded- 
lunar, subangulated at the position of the carina, dirty white inside; 
peristome whitish, upper margin narrowly expanded, basal and col- 
umellar thickened, reflexed. (Crosse.) 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 26, lesser 23* mill. 

China ? 

H. primeana CRSE., Journ. de Conchyl. 1864, p. 284 ; 1. c. 1866, 
p. 57, t. 1, f. 3. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 403. 

Compared by Crosse to If. ( Oxytes) pallasiana. It is placed by 
Pfeiffer in Camcena, but is probably an Oxytes. It differs from If. 
connivens and its allies in lacking the fine spiral lines characteristic 
of that group of species. 

Section II. HADRA Albers, 1860. 

Hadra ALB. Die Heliceen, edit. Martens, p. 165. Type H. bi- 
partita Fer. 

This section is accepted with nearly the original limits, except 
that a part of the species included here in Die Heliceen belong, in 
my opinion, to Camcena and Euhadra. The residue form a group 
of closely allied forms, distributed throughout the Australasian 
zoological province (Australia, New Guinea, Salomon Is., etc.), and 
very characteristic of those regions. The subsections Hadra (re- 
stricted), Sphcerospira and Badistes do not seem to have much in- 



126 HELIX-HADRA. 

dividuality when the entire series is seen together ; I have retained 
them as a matter of convenience. 

Subsection HADRA (restricted). 
Group of H. bipartite Fer. 

H. BIPARTITA Ferussac. PI. 21, figs. 43, 44. 

Shell large, globose-conoidal, narrowly umbilicated, solid and 
strong, yellow or russet-yellow above, the suture margined by a brown 
line, deep chocolate beneath. Surface rather smooth, but with low, 
coarse wrinkles of growth, and under a lens showing an obscure 
microscopic reticulation on some of the whorls of the spire. Spire 
conical, apex somewhat obtuse ; whorls 7, slightly convex, the last 
swollen, deflexed in front, tumid around the umbilicus. Aperture 
oblique, whitish inside ; peristome white, expanded, reflexed, the mar- 
gins converging and joined by a thin callus, baso-columellar margin 
dilated half over the narrow, deep, funnel-shaped umbilicus. 

Alt. 52, diam. 60 mill. 

Cape York, Cape Direction, Cape Grenville, Daintree River and 
Albany Island, N.-E. Australia. 

H; bipartite FER., Hist., t. 75 A, f. 1. WOOD, Ind.Test. Suppl., t. 
7, f. 59. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 359. PFR. Monogr. i, p. 319 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 320, t. 56, f. 9, 10; Novit. Conch, iii, p. 494, t. 
107, 1, 2 (varieties). Cox Monog. Austr. Land Sh., p. 54, f. 5, f. 7. 
HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. v, 1888, p. 57. Hadra bipartita 
Fer. SEMPER, Reisen im Archip. Phil, iii, p. 160 (Anat.). If. semi- 
badia ALBERS, teste Pfr. 

This is a large, solid shell, with elevated spire, and conspicuous 
in coloration. It varies exceedingly in size ; the smallest specimen 
before me (var. minor pi. 21, fig. 44) measuring alt. 26, diam. 31 
mill. Specimens of a nearly uniform yellow are before me. In 
these the base is only slightly darker than the upper surface. 

Var. SEMICASTANEA Pfr. PI. 35, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Generally smaller, the entire shell more depressed. Color either 
light russet-yellow above, chocolate beneath, or dark both above and 
below, having a light line at the periphery. 

Alt. 35, diam. 46 mill. 

Alt. 20, diam. 28 mill. 
Islands of Torres Sts., Australia, from Lizard Id. to Stephen's Island. 



HELIX-HADRA. 127 

H.semicastanea PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1849, p. 77 ; Monographia iii, 
p. 222 ; Conchylien Cabinet, t. 56, f. 3-5. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
1348. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. v, p. 61. Cox, Mouogr. 
Austr. Land Shells, p. 56, t. 5, f. 10. H. bipartita var. DESHAYES. 
-H. funiculata PFR. P. Z. S. 1854; Mouogr. iv, p. 186. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., f. 1363. Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 46, t. 11, f. 15. 

This extremely variable form is, as Dr. Cox says, unquestionably 
a modified bipartita. A number of the leading forms are shown on 
plate 35. Many of the smaller specimens are unicolored chocolate- 
brown all over ; others have a light line at the periphery. H. fun- 
iculata Pfr. should undoubtedly be included in the synonym. Tryon 
has followed Pfeiffer in placing it under Dorcasia (see Manual, Vol. 
Ill, p. 214, pi. 49, fig. 16). This small form is distinctly angulated 
at the periphery. A specimen before me measures alt. 17, diam. 27 
mill. 

H. FORSTERIANA Pfeiffer. PI. 21, figs. 50, 51 ; pi. 66, fig. 66. 

Shell depressed, umbilicated, rather thin, microscopically gran- 
ulated, yellowish-fawn color with brown bands above and below a 
light peripheral zone, and a narrow dark margin to the suture ; lip 
narrowly expanded. 

The form is more depressed than H. semieastanea, and the texture 
thinner ; the spire is low, scarcely conoidal, a little obtuse at the 
apex ; the periphery often has the mere suggestion of a keel. The 
color is pale yellowish ; below and above the peripheral light zone 
there are rather broad brown bands, fading into the light ground- 
color on the base and near the narrow sutural band ; the inside of 
the umbilicus is a little darker than the base. The surface is shin- 
ing, very densely and regularly granulated, the granulation obsolete 
or wanting on the base ; whorls 6, slightly convex, slowly widening, 
the last a little descending in front. Aperture broad lunate, oblique, 
banded inside ; peristome narrowly expanded, not thickened, dilated 
and impinging upon the umbilicus at the insertion. 

Alt. 19, diam. 30 mill. 

Barroiv, Howick and Percy Islands, Northeast Australia. 

H. Forsteriana PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1851, p. 254 ; Mouogr. 
iv, p. 174; v, 377; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 373, t. 140, f. 9, 10. 
Cox, Monogr. Austr. Land Sh., p. 42, t. 4, f. 8. DOHRN, Mai. Bl. 
ix, 1862, p. 210 ; and in continuation of Conchyl. Cab., p. 582, t. 
171, f. 8-12. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. v, p. 58, 1888. 
H. hetcera PFR. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 154. 



128 HELIX-HADRA. 

A species allied to H. semicastanea, but thinner, lighter, with a 
different color-pattern and denser, more obvious and regular granu- 
lation. There is a great variation in size, as in Hadra bipartite and 
the other species. The type form measures, alt. 10J, diam. 19 mill. 
The measurements following the description are those of a " var. 
major" of Dohrn. 

H. DARWINI Brazier. TJnfigured. 

Shell umbilicated, depressedly globose, very thin, finely granu- 
lated and radiately striated ; spire moderately elevated, obtuse ; 
whorls 5, slowly increasing, convex, last roundly convex, slightly 
descending in front, dirty yellow ; base convex, sculptured the same 
as the upper surface ; umbilicus rather small, deep ; aperture diag- 
onal, ovately lunate ; peristome very little reflexed, white ; margins 
approximating and joined by a thin callus, columellar margin re- 
flected and half covering the umbilicus. (Brazier.} 

Alt. 8, greater diam. ] 4, lesser 11 mill. 

North coast of Australia. 

Helix (Hadra) darwini BRAZIER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 
639. 

Allied to H. forsteriana Pfr. 

Group of H. bougainvillei Pfr. 
H. BOUGAINVILLEI Pfeiffer. PI. 22, figs. 55, 56. 

Shell narrowly rimate, globose-depressed, solid, opaque, uniform 
dark chestnut-colored all over. Surface rather smooth, but mal- 
leated obliquely coarsely but superficially above and below the pe- 
riphery, and having shallow concentric sulci on the base. The spire 
is low, obtuse ; sutures impressed ; whorls 5, the inner ones reddish, 
nearly flat, the outer ones convex, the last one descending in front, 
having a cord-like keel at the periphery, much swollen behind the 
columellar lip and around the umbilicus. Aperture very oblique, 
rounded lunate, flesh-colored inside ; peristome expanded, white, 
columellar margin dilated over and covering or nearly covering the 
umbilicus. Alt. 36, diam. 57 mill. Alt. 39, diam. 62* mill. 

Bougainville Island, Salomon Group. 

H. Bougainvillei PFR. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 133, t. 50, f. 7 ; Mai. Bl. 
1860, p. 235 ; Monog. Hel. Viv. v, p. 275 ; Conchylien Cabinet, p. 
557, t. 167, f. 1, 2. H. Angasiana NEWCOMB, Ann. Lye. New 
York vii, p. 283, May, 1860. 



HELIX-HADRA. 129 

The systematic position of this form, I must freely confess, is 
unknown to me. In its slowly widening whorls and obscure mallea- 
tion it resembles the sections Camcena and Phania ; from these it 
differs notably in the aperture and lip. The characters of the 
latter are more like Hadra semicastanea ; and the prominent gib- 
bosity or swelling around the umbilicus confirms to some extent, 
this disposition of the species. Compare also H. majuscula Pfr. 

Subsection BADISTES Gould, 1862. 

Badistes GOULD, Otia Conchologica, p. 243. Pomatia, Hadra, 
Camcena, Fruticicola, Dorcasia, Galaxias etc., etc., of PFEIFFER, 
Cox, ANGAS, and other writers on Australian shells. 

The type of Badistes is H. gulosa Gould. 

This is the earliest name proposed for any division of the Austra- 
lian Hadra, antedating Sphcerospira by several years. It may be 
distinguished from Hadra (bipartita etc.) by a number of unimport- 
ant characters, chiefly the less effaced granulation and more pro- 
nounced peripheral keel. Badistes may, in fact, be considered a 
half- way-house in the great Hadra group, on the one side develop- 
ing into carinated forms which culminate in Thersites novceho Handier, 
and richmondiana, on the other leading toward and all but into the 
globular Sphcerospira and Xanthomelon. 

It will be noted that I now rank Thersites as a mere section of 
Hadra, holding about the same relation to the normal forms that 
Chilotrema (H. lapicida) bears to Campy Icea (H. planospiraetc.'); or 
that ' Aglaia ' infumata, fidelis etc., bear to ' Arionta ' californiensis 
and the allied globose forms. 

The primitive color-pattern of Badistes consists of a subsutural 
dark band, another above the periphery, and an umbilical 'dark 
patch or girdle. Many of the species, how.ever, depart from this 
arrangement. 

The number of species will be reduced nearly one-third, possibly 
more, when critical comparisons are made of good series. The 
characters are mostly slight and variable. 

Badistes is divisible into two groups of species : 

(1.) Carinated ; or if rounded at periphery, revealing traces of 
a distinct though obsolescent keel ; unicolored, or with a dark band 
at suture and umbilicus. Group of H. grayi. 

(2.) Not at all carinated at periphery ; body-whorl with two or 
three bands above, with or without an umbilical dark patch. 

Group of H. bitceniata. 
9 



130 HELIX-HADRA. 

Group of H. grayi Pfr. 

This group comprises the more prominent Helices of New South 
Wales, representing there the Sphcerospira of the warmer portions 
of Australia. 

H. GRAYI Pfeiffer. PI. 43, figs. 42, 43, 44. 

Shell nearly imperforate, depressed-globose with low-conoidal 
spire, the periphery girdled by an indistinct carina ; clear light yel- 
low with a sutural margin and small umbilical patch of chestnut ; 
surface densely and very minutely granulated, smoother and shin- 
ing toward the umbilicus, which is closed except for a narrow chink. 

The form varies somewhat in respect to elevation of spire and prom- 
inence of the peripheral keel. It is rather thin but strong, a little 
translucent. The ground-color is yellow or pale greenish-yellow. 
Whorls 6, convex, the last somewhat descending in front. Aper- 
ture oblique, rounded-lunar, pinkish or brownish inside ; outer lip 
blunt, not expanded ; baso-columellar lip rose-colored, narrowly re- 
flexed, suddenly dilated at the umbilicus and almost closing it. 

Alt. 22, greater diam. 27, lesser 24 mill. 

Brisbane Water; Ash Island; Hunter River; Clarence River 
etc., as far north as Brisbane; South of Sydney as far as Ulladulla, 
but never far from the sea coast. 

H. grayi PFR., Symbolse iii, p. 68. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 755. 
Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 35, t. 6, f. 5 ; t. 1, f. 4, 9 ; t. 10, f. 7. 

The typical form is easily known by its straw-yellow or citron- 
yellow ground, banded with brown at suture, and with a brown 
umbilical patch. Numerous specimens, however, have a broad brown 
girdle covering most of the body-whorl, its edges fading into the 
ground-color on the base and above. A specimen of this form is 
figured. The peripheral keel is almost obsolete on some examples. 
The smallest specimen I have seen measures alt. 16i, diam. 20i mill. 

Var. BEDNALLI Brazier. 

Shell perforated, rather conoidly globose, very thin, fragile, 
obliquely rugose at the upper part, granulated under the lens, sub- 
diaphanous, light horny green, with a fine reddish ring encircling 
the suture, and a rather broad one of the same colour encircling the 
perforation; spire conoid, somewhat obtuse; whorls 5 to 5, moder- 
ately convex, the last very much inflated, rounded ; base convex, 
much smoother than the upper surface ; aperture obliquely lunar, 



HELIX-HADRA. 131 

rather large ; peristome thin, of a pinkish colour ; margins distant, 
right expanded, columellar margin reflected and covering one 
quarter of the perforation. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 5, greater diam. 8, lesser 6 lines. 

Near Adelaide, S. Australia. 

H. Bednalli BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 641. ANGAS, Quart. 
Journ. of Conch, i, p. 135. 

Considered by Mr. Angas a variety of H. grayi. 

H. PATRUELIS Adams and Angas. PI. 58, fig. 16. 

Shell umbilicated, orbicularly-depressed, rather coarsely rugosely 
ribbed, especially at the suture, rather thin, moderately shining, red- 
dish-chestnut with a pale spiral band under the suture ; spire widely 
and obtusely conical ; whorls 5, convex, last whorl sometimes indis- 
tinctly angulated, not descending in front ; base smoother and more 
glossy than above, with a wide yellowish patch surrounding the dark 
circumference of the umbilicus, which is moderate and deep ; aper- 
ture diagonal, lunately-ovate ; peristome simple, thin, straight, the 
dark columellar margin dilated above and reflexed, to cover ? of the 
umbilicus. ( Cox.) 

Alt. 12i, greater diam. 25, lesser 20 mill. 

Port Lincoln, under dead logs; Flinders Island. 

H.patruelis AD. & ANG. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 520. Cox, Monogr. 
Austr. L. Sh., p. 49, t. 3, f. 8. 

A very variable species ; an examination of a series collected by 
Mr. Masters shows the ground color to range from pale reddish- 
horny to very dark reddish chestnut, the band is seldom very well 
defined, is often very indistinct, and occasionally wanting ; and the 
yellow patch on the base may be indistinct or absent. Two speci- 
mens from Flinders Island are of a smaller variety ; but there can 
be no doubt as to specific identity, for one shows very plainly, not 
merely, in addition to similarity of sculpturing, &c., the pale patch 
on the lower surface, but also the spiral band below the suture. 
(Cox.) 

H. GULOSA Gould. PL 33, figs. 66, 67. 

Shell sub-globose, strong, coarse, obtusely keeled at the periphery, 
of a pale chestnut-brown which is here and there diluted so as to 
form large, irregularly disposed clouds, and sometimes bands, the 
shades blending with each other ; the region of the apex is generally 



132 HELIX-HADRA. 

pale, and that of the umbilicus dusky. Whorls six, well rounded, 
with coarse irregular striae of growth, the suture deeply impressed. 
The aperture is large, rounded, its diameters about equal ; throat 
livid, becoming darker near the lip; peristome slightly reflexed, 
whitish, the basal portion nearly horizontal, and the extremities 
widely separated, columella rapidly widening, so as to leave a mere 
chink of the umbilicus uncovered ; a very thin coating of enamel 
unites the two lips. ( Gould.} 

Diarn. about one inch, axis four-fifths inch. 

Illawarra, New South Wales, Australia. 

H. gulosa OLD. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 165, August 1846 ; 
U. S. Expl. Exped. Shells, p. 65, t. 3, f. 43 ; Otia p. 243. 

See Gould (I. c.) for notes on the animal and its peculiar mode of 
progression. The observations on this last point need confirmation. 
The periphery is marked by a trace of the keel, so obtuse as to escape 
superficial observation, in the specimens before me. This species has 
been considered a synonym of H. lessoni Pfr., but on wholly insuffi- 
cient grounds. It is the type of Gould's group Badistes. H. coriaria 
Pfr. is in all probability a synonym for H. gulosa. 

H. CORIARIA Pfeiffer. PI. 43, figs. 48, 49, 51. 

Shell almost imperforate, globose-depressed with low-conoidal 
spire, obsoletely keeled at the circumference; uniform chestnut 
colored all over, or a little darker at suture and umbilicus ; surface 
densely and very minutely granulate, smoother around the um- 
bilicus. 

The color is darker than in H. grayi, and the granulation has a 
somewhat different pattern. There are rather rude, coarse, oblique 
wrinkles of growth, most obvious at the suture. The upper whorls 
of the spire are lighter in color. Whorls 5, convex, the last de- 
scending below the blunt carina in front. Aperture oblique, flesh- 
colored inside, of a rounded-lunar form ; outer lip a mere trifle ex- 
panded, pink; columellar lip reflexed, dilated, covering the um- 
bilicus except for a narrow chink. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 30, lesser 25 J mill. 

Clarence River; Kiama ; Ulladulla; Merimbula; Nulla Mts.; 
Ash Island, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

H. coriaria PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1847, p. 145 ; Monogr. Hel. 
Viv. i, p. 445 ; Conchyl. Cab., t. 120, f. 1, 2. Cox Mon. Austr. L. 



HELIX-HADRA. 133 

Sh., p. '36, t. 2, f. 7 ; t. 8, f 10, t. 10, f. 5. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
417. H. mastersi Cox Cat. Austr. L. Sh., p. 19, 1864. 

A chestnut-colored shell, very variable in size and degree of 
carination. The smallest specimen before me (see pi. 43, fig. 51) 
measures alt. 16, diam. 20 * mill. The color of the lip varies from 
pink to nearly white ; the color of the surface from dark chestnut 
to yellowish-brown. 

This species is probably a synonym or mere variety of H. gulosa 
Gould, described a year previous. H. scotti Cox is perhaps a local 
variety. 

H. SCOTTI Cox. PI. 43, figs. 47. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, turbinately-globose, radiately roughly 
striated, minutely granular throughout, sub-pellucid, chestnut col- 
oured, paler at the apex ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last tumid 
and rounded ; aperture Innately sub-circular ; peristome moderately 
thickened, straight, partly reflected, white within. ( Cox.) 

Alt. 0'90, greater diam. 1*50, lesser 1*25 inch. 

ML Keera, Wollongong, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

H. scotti Cox, Cat. Austr. L. Sh., p. 36, 1864 ; Monog. Austr. L. 
Sh., p. 39, t. 10, f. 4, 4a. PFR. Monog. v. p. 340. 

Closely allied to If. coriaria (=gulosa Gld.), of which it is pro- 
bably a variety. 

H. MONACHA Pfeiffer. PI. 43, figs. 39. 

Shell imperforate, globosely-conical, solid, roughly striated, and 
under the lens, minutely granulated, of a chestnut color ; spire con- 
oidly elevated, rather obtuse ; whorls 5?, moderately convex, grad- 
ually increasing in size, the last slightly decending in front, obsoletely 
sub-angled in the middle; aperture for the most part diagonal, 
rotundately-lunar, livid within, shining, peristome flesh-colored, short- 
ly expanded throughout; margins separated, the columellar mar- 
gin being expanded at its insertion into a triangular adnate plate. 
(Cox.) Alt. 19, greater diam. 27, lesser 23 mill. 

Ash Island, Hunter River ; also Mulgoa, near Penrith, and at the 
Kurrajong, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

H. monacha PFR. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 25, t. 43, f. 7 ; Monogr. Hel. 
Viv. v, p. 278. Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 38, t. 18, f. 13. 

More elevated than H. coriaria, with dark specimens of which it 
is likely to be confused. 



134 HELIX-HADRA. 

H. MOROSA Morelet. PI. 34, fig. 10. 

Shell covered perforate, turbinate-globose, depressed, thin, plicate- 
striate, granulated when under a lens, unicolored deep chestnut; 
spire conoid-depressed ; whorls 6, but slightly convex, moderately 
increasing, the last not descending ; base rather flattened ; aperture 
oval, concolored, the peristome scarcely thickened, narrowly re- 
flexed, purple, margins joined by a callus ; columellar margin dilated 
in a triangular lamina covering the umbilicus. (Morelet.*) 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 31, lesser 26 mill. 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 

H. morosa MOR. Journ. de Conchyl. 1853, p. 369, t. 11, f. 15. 
PFR. Monogr. iv, p. 248. 

Compare H. coriaria Pfr. 
H. DAINTREEI Brazier. PI. 38, fig. 59. 

Shell umbilicated, somewhat depressedly globose, very thin, 
rugosely striated, minutely granulated, pale yellowish brown ; spire 
conical, obtuse; whorls 5, convex, last large, inflated, base convex, 
nearly smooth ; aperture oblique, lunate ; peristome thickened, 
white, margins approximating, right descending in front, columellar 
reflected and partly covering the umbilicus. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 9, greater diam. 12, lesser 9? lines. 

Muggerabaa, Moreton Bay, Queensland* 

H. daintreei BRAZ., P. Z. S. 1875, p. 33, t. 4, f. 8. 
H. DUNKIENSIS Forbes. 

This species was described by Mr. Tryon in Vol. Ill of the 
MANUAL, p. 215, pi. 50, figs. 22, 23, 24, in the Subgenus Dorca&ia. 
It is very closely allied to H. coriaria, differing in the habitat and 
less covered umbilicus. 

Dunk Island, N. Australia. 

H. dunkiensis FORBES, Voyage of H. M. S. Rattlesnake ii, p. 378. 
Cox, (as Galaxias~), Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 43, t. 8, f. 9. TRY- 
ON (as Dorcasia) Manual, 2d. Ser., vol. iii, p. 215. 

Cox says that the H. dunkiensis of Reeve is a different shell. 
H. PRUNUM Ferussac. 

See the MANUAL, vol. iii, p. 215, pi. 50, figs. 25, 26, where this 
species has been described under Dorcasia. It is however a Badistes, 
very close to H, gulosa and H. dunkiensis in characters. It is doubt- 
ful whether Cox has rightly identified the form. I have not identi- 



HELIX-HADRA. 135 

fied the species. The differential characters of species of the H. 
grayi group are largely a matter of personal opinion. No exact 
locality is given by Ferussac, whose figures should be consulted if the 
identification of the form be attempted. 

Prof. Ralph Tate records it from Arnhem Land, N. Australia, at 
Port Essington and Palmerston. He remarks that the periostracum 
of the young shell is raised into short bristles and traces of them 
may be seen in some individuals just prior to attaining their full 
size ; except in the larger size and deciduous bristles, he fails to note 
any other difference between this species and H. Coxeni from 
Queensland. 

The synonymy I do not vouch for ; it is as follows : 

If. prunum FER., Histoire iii, t. 26, f. 7, 8. DESH. in FER. Hist., 
texte, p. 255. Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh., p. 43. TATE, Proc. Roy. 
Soc. S. Austr. v, p. 49. H. argillacea GRAY, not Fer. H. pelodes 
PFR. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 126. 

Brazier considers H. coxeni Cox (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 54, t. 3, f. 2) a 
variety. It has been described and figured by Mr. Tryon in vol. 
iii of the MANUAL, p. 216, pi. 50, fig. 30. 

H. BENNETTI Brazier. Unfigured. 

Shell umbilicated, depressedly globose, very thin, finely rugosely 
striated and minutely granulated, dark-yellowish horny ; spire rather 
conoid, obtuse; whorls 6, moderately convex, rapidly increasing, 
last convex and inflated in front, slightly descending ; umbilicus 
large, deep, and slanting ; aperture oblique, lunately ovate, interior 
of aperture of a bright flesh tinge ; peristome simple, white, straight ; 
margins approximating and joined by a thin callus, right margin 
dilated, columellar margin broadly expanded and reflected, covering 
one-third of the umbilicus. (Brazier.*) 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 16, lesser 13 mill. 

Ipswich, Queensland, inland 50 miles from Brisbane. 

H. (Hadra) Bennetti BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 639. 

I possess two specimens of this species, which approaches near to 
H. prunum Fer., from Port Darwin and Port Essington ; also to H. 
Greenhilli Cox, from the Dawson Biver. I have named it with 
great pleasure in honor of Dr. George Bennett, F. L. S. whose inde- 
fatigable exertions in the cause of science have made us acquainted 
with many new and rare specimens of natural history from Australia 
and the Polynesian Islands. (Brazier.*) 



136 HELIX-HADRA. 

H. MULGO^ Cox. PL 40, figs. 98, 99. 

Shell subglobose, perforated, with conoidal spire, obsoletely keeled 
at the periphery ; thin, light, reddish-brown or pale greenish-yellow, 
not banded ; obliquely, rather rudely striated, especially at the 
sutures, microscopically granulated, smooth beneath. 

The form is slightly more globose and swollen beneath than H. 
grayi, and it is thinner, lighter, without brown bands at suture and 
umbilicus. The spire is low-conoidal, apex obtuse ; whorls 5 to 6, 
convex, the last a little descending in front, swollen below, obso- 
letely keeled at circumference. Aperture oblique, round-lunar, 
purple inside ; peristome very slightly thickened, white, baso-colu- 
mellar margin expanded, half closing the narrow umbilicus. 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 22, lesser 20 mill. 

Mulgoa, near Penrith, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

H. mulgoce Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh., p. 38, t. 1, f. 3, 7, 7a. 

Although closely allied to H. grayi, and even more near to H. 
corneovirens, this species has certain characters peculiar to it. 

H. CORNEOVIRENS PfeifFer. PI. 40, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell globose, somewhat depressed, half-covered umbilicate, the 
periphery obsoletely keeled ; of a light greenish-yellow color, some- 
what translucent, thin and light, rather rudely obliquely striated, 
microscopically granulated, smooth below. 

The shell is inflated, thin and light, pale greenish horn-colored 
or yellowish. Apex whitish, obtuse ; whorls 5 J, the last a little 
descending in front. Aperture rounded-lunar, light purplish inside, 
peristome simple, not expanded or thickened, white ; at the umbili- 
cus suddenly dilated, half concealing it. 

Alt. 17 greater diam. 20 , lesser 19 mill. 

Picton, (46 miles S. W. of Sydney} N. S. Wales, Australia. 

H. corneovirens PFR., Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1851, p. 25 ; Mono- 
graphia iii, p. 41. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1366. Cox, Monogr. 
Austr. L. Sh., p. 46. WOLL ASTON, Testacea Atlantica, p. 505. 

Formerly supposed to inhabit the Cape Verde Is. It is thinner 
and lighter than H. mulgoce, or the other allied species. Fig. 3 is 
typical ; I have figured a more globose specimen. 

H. L^SA Reeve. 

A species of Hadra described by Tryon under Dorcasia, MANUAL 
iii, p. 214, t. 49, f. 15. 



HELIX-HADRA. 137 

H. CAILLETI Crosse. 

Is a member of this group of species. See MANUAL, vol. iii, p. 216, 
pi. 50, figs. 27, 28. 

H. MABELLEI Crosse. 

Undoubtedly a Hadra of the Badistes type. See MANUAL, iii, p. 
216, pi. 50, fig. 29. 

H. SUBGRANOSA Le Gllillou. 

Shell subglobose, umbilicate, thin pellucid, pale rufous spadiceous, 
whitish brown below, longitudinally and transversely delicately 
striated, almost granulated ; whorls 4, convex-depressed ; lip acute ; 
at the umbilicus angulated ; inner lip straight, reflexed over the 
wide, deep umbilicus. ( GuillJ) Alt. 23, diam 28 mill. 

Northern Australia. 

H. subgranosa GUILL. in Revue Zool., p. 137. PFR. Mon. Hel. 
Viv. i, p. 83. 

It is doubtful where this unfigured species belongs. It may be a 
Xanthowelon. 

H. BLACKMANI Cox. PI. 40, figS. 6, 7. 

Shell umbilicated, globosely-turbinate, thin, not shining, every- 
where obscurely radiately striated, and, under the lens, minutely 
granulated, yellowish-horny ; spire conical, apex obtuse, suture rather 
deep ; whorls 5, convex, quickly increasing, last very large, inflated, 
regularly rounded throughout, strongly constricted behind the 
mouth ; aperture diagonal, lunately-roundly-oval ; peristome sim- 
ple, straight, thin, much expanded, white, margins very slightly con- 
verging, joined by a very thin callus, columellar margin expanded 
above and \ concealing the moderately sized umbilicus. (Cox.) 

Alt. 0*45, greater diam. 0*65, lesser 0*55 inch. 

Warroo, Port Curtis, Queensland. 

H. blackmani Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh. p. 45, t. 11, f. 7, 7a. 

The only two specimens I have seen are in the collection of the 
Australian Museum and have a striking resemblance in form to 
Dermatocera vitrea. It may also in some manner be looked upon 
as connecting such shells as H. pachystyloides and H. aridorum. 
(Cox.) 

H. PLETHORICA Crosse. PI. 40, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell umbilicated, globose-turbinate, rather thin, diaphanous, 
longitudinally rudely costulate-striate ; straw-buff; spire moderately 



138 HELIX-HADRA. 

elevated, suture impressed; whorls 5, convex, the embryonic 11 
smooth, the last not descending, rounded, at the periphery indis- 
tinctly subangulated, the base less strongly striated. Aperture 
rotund-lunar, white within ; peristome simple, whitish, the margins 
distant, columellar margin dilated, reflexed in a vaulted manner, 
partly closing the narrow umbilicus, basal margin a little reflexed, 
outer margin thin, rather acute. ( Crossed) 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 14, lesser 12 mill.; length of aperture 8, 
greatest width 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H. plethorica CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1868, p. 175 ; I. c. 1869, 
p. 392, t. 12, f. 2, 

H. GREENHILLI Cox. PI. 43, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell umbilicated,globosely-turbinated, smooth, obsoletely striated, 
under the lens are manifested minute undulating lines, closely packed 
together, reddish-chestnut above, greenish-yellow below ; whorls 6 r 
the last very large, convex, the others only slightly convex, aperture 
lunately-sub-circular ; peristome thin, moderately reflected, colu- 
mellar margin dilated at the base, almost covering the umbilicus ;. 
lip white within, greenish yellow without. (Cox.) 

Alt. 0'90, greater diam. 1'20, lesser 1 inch. 

Upper Dawson River, Queensland. 

H. greenhilli Cox., Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 46; Monogr, 
Austr. L. Sh., p. 40, t. 9, f. 1 ; t. 18, f. 8. 

In general appearance, says Cox, very like H. pachystyloides, but 
differing from that species and all other Australian land shells by 
the wavy lines of sculpture. 

H. COXEN^E Brazier. PI. 33, fig. 70. 

Shell umbilicated, somewhat turbinately globose, obliquely stri- 
ated, minutely granulated, shining, thin, dirty yellow ; whorls 6, 
convex, suture impressed, the last whorl large, obtusely carinated at 
the periphery, base roundly convex, with the striae running into 
the deep funnel-shaped umbilicus ; aperture oblique, ovately lunate, 
interior white ; peristome white, thickened, margins approximating 
and joined by a thin white callus, the right thin and descending 
below the center, columellar reflected slightly over the umbilicus. 
(Brazier.) 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 14, lesser 13 lines. 

Johnttone River, Queensland, in the scrubs. 

H. coxence BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 32, t. 4, f. 5. 

More carinated than the preceding forms. 



HELIX-HADRA. 139 

H. EXOCARPI Cox. PL 40, figs. 100, 101. 

Shell umbilicated, depressedly orbicular, nearly discoid, solid, 
obscurely, irregularly and sometimes coarsely striated, everywhere 
finely granulated, not shining, pale yellowish-brown, spire low, 
widely-con vexly-conical ; whorls 5, very gradually increasing, flatly 
convex, last bluntly angula/ at the periphery, roundly convex below, 
descending in front ; base paler and smoother, and less finely gran- 
ulated than above ; aperture diagonal, lunately rounded ; peristome 
simple, regular, slightly expanded, margins approximating, col- 
umellar margin triangularly dilated above, and reflected, partially 
covering the moderately sized umbilicus. (Cox.) 

Alt. 0'35, greater diam. 0'70, lesser 0'65 inch. 

Cherry Tree Hill; Mudgee and Eyalstone, N.S. Wales, Australia. 

If. exocarpi Cox Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 44, t. 2, f. 2. 

H. LEUCOCHEILITS Cox. PL 40, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

Shell small, depressed, umbilicated, the spire low-conoidal, 
periphery keeled ; thin and rather translucent, of a pale brown 
color, with a light chestnut girdle around the umbilicus, and gener- 
ally another above the carina and at the suture also ; aperture 
much wider than high ; lip thin, expanded all around ; surface all 
over densely microscopically granulated. 

The form is depressed, thick lens-shaped; spire low, composed of 
nearly 5 whorls, which are not very convex, separated by evenly, 
distinctly impressed sutures. Last whorl distinctly carinated, 
slightly, rather abruptly descending in front, a little constricted 
behind the narrowly reflexed white lip. Aperture brown within ; 
columella triangularly dilated partly over the deep umbilicus. The 
base is as distinctly granulated as the upper surface. 

Alt. 6J greater diam. 12, lesser 10i mill. 

Clarence and Richmond Rivers, JV. S. Wales ; Brisbane, Queens- 
land, Australia. 

H. marice Cox P. Z. S. 1864, p. 593 (preoc.). H. leucocheilus Cox, 
Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 54, t. 8, f. 7, 7a, 7b. TRYON (as Trichia) 
Manual, iii, p. 183. 

A small carinated species, densely granulate above and below, 
pale brownish-horn color, with pallid brown girdles at umbilicus, 
periphery and suture, the first more constant than the others. 



140 HELIX-HADRA. 

Var. LISMORENSIS Pilsbry. PL 40, figs. 13. 

Like the type in contour, but larger, with a fraction over 5 whorls ; 
the color a uniform dark chestnut approaching black ; nearly luster- 
less ; without bands ; lip bluish-white. 

Alt. 10, greater diam 15, lesser 13 mill. 

Lismore, Richmond River, N. S. Wales. 

A beautiful variety which I owe to the liberality of my valued 
correspondent John Brazier. 

H. BELLENGERENSIS Cox. Unfigured. 

Shell deeply, rather narrowly umbilicated, turbinately depressed, 
lenticular, thin, dark claret-brown, not shining; whorls 5?, coarsely 
obliquely striated, very gradually increasing in size, last whorl 
rather sharply keeled at the periphery and depressed in front ; base 
convex ; aperture rotundately lunar ; last whorl suddenly contracted 
behind an everted peristome, which is white and slightly -thickened ; 
margins approaching ; anterior margin inserted below the carina ; 
columellar margin only slightly dilated. (Ooa;.) 

Alt. 0'35, greater diam. 0'55, lesser 0*48 inch. 

Bellenger River, east coast of New South Wales. 

H. bellengerensis Cox, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 54. 

A simple, lenticular species, allied to H. leucocheilus Cox, from 
which it differs in being more conical and more sharply keeled. 
(Cox.) 

Compare H. leucocheilus var. lismorensis. 

H. YATALAENSIS Cox. PL 34, fig. 12, 13. 

Shell with a moderately large open umbilicus, depressedly orbi- 
cular, rather solid, obsoletely striated, coarsely granular above, pale 
chestnut below, ornamented around the umbilicus with a broad 
chestnut ring; spire slightly raised; whorls 5 to 6, convex, gradu- 
ally increasing in size, rounded at the periphery, obsoletely carinated ; 
aperture Innately ovate, oblique ; peristome pink, narrow, slightly 
thickened, expanded, and very slightly reflected in front at the 
insertion ; columellar margin triangularly dilated, overhanging the 
umbilicus. ( Cox.} 

Alt. 0-18, greater diam. 0'30, lesser 0'20 inch. 

Yatala River, Queensland, Australia. 

H. yatalaensis Cox, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 149, t. 16, f. 3a, 2b. 

Evidently very close to H. leucocheilus Cox. 



HELIX-HADRA. 141 

H. JERVISENSIS Quoy & Gaimard. PL 40, figs. 90, 91. 

Shell perforate, depressly conoidly-globose, thin, fragile, oblique- 
ly striated with some irregularity, and granulated under the lens 
transparent, of a pale horny tint, generally red about the suture, 
and the umbilical region ; spire conical, and somewhat obtuse ; 
whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last inflated and slightly keeled at 
the circumference ; aperture large, oblique, rotundately-lunate ; per- 
istome with a thin rose-colored lip, and with margins apart ; colu- 
mella dilated above, into a somewhat broad plate, half covering the 
perforation. (Pff.) Alt. 15, diam. 21 mill. 

Jervis Ray; Brisbane Water; Botany Bay Swamps; Lane Cove, 
N. S. Wales. 

H.jervisensis Q. & G., Voy. de FAstrol., Zool., ii, p. 126, t. 10, f, 
18-21. PFR. Monogr. i, p. 79. Cox Mon. Austr. L. Sh. p. 30, 1. 1, 
f. 2, 2a. ? H. sutilosa FEE. Prodr. 263. 

Possibly If. bocageana Crosse is allied to this species. 

H. LIVERPOOLENSIS Brazier. Unfigured. 

Shell perforate, globularly conical, thin, rather strongly rugosely 
and plicately striated, under the lens finely granulated, covered 
with a horny yellow epidermis, with a small narrow chestnut spiral 
band below the suture ; spire conoid, obtuse ; whorls 4J, convex, the 
last large and inflated, descending in front, base convex, smoother 
than the upper surface ; perforation small, more than half covered, 
encircled with a faint broad chestnut band ; aperture oblique, 
roundly lunate ; peristome moderately straight, thin on the upper 
part, thickened and reflected at the columellar margin, which is 
white. (Brazier.) Alt. 13, greater diam. 16, lesser 13.J mill. 

Liverpool Range, interior of New South Wales. 

H. (Galaxias) liverpoolensis BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 618. 

This shell was obtained by Mr. George Masters during his visit 
to the above locality. It approaches nearly to Helix leptogramma, 
Pfr., but differs in having a narrow chestnut band just under the 
suture, with a faint one of the same color round the perforation. 

H. DURALENSIS Cox. 

Described under Dorcasia in vol. iii of this work, p. 215. The only 
specimen I have seen is immature. 

H. duralemis Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 46, t. 8, f. 8, 8a. 



142 HELIX-HADRA. 

H. GILBERTI Pfeiffer. PL 43, fig. 41. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, distinctly striated, very minutely 
granulated, thin, of a pale-horny tint, ornamented by a red line at 
the suture; whorls 4, somewhat convex, the last convex at the 
base ; umbilicus moderate and pervious ; aperture rotundately-lunar ; 
peristome simple and straight, with the columellar margin very 
little dilated and reflected. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 9, greater diam. 16, lesser 14 mill. 

Darling Downs, Queensland; Brisbane Water; Hunter River, 
.Australia. 

H. gilberti PFR., P. Z. S. 1845, p. 127 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. i, p. 108. 
Cox Mon. Austr. L. Sh., p. 30, t. 1, f. 8. 

The above description was drawn from immature examples. 
Adults, it is stated, are extremely like Jervisensis, measuring, alt. 
13, greater diam. 22, lesser 18 mill. The right margin of the 
peristome is somewhat expanded ; the columella of a violet tint, and 
reflected over the umbilicus. It differs from Jervisensis in being 
more solid, the whorls more gradually increasing, the last one less 
inflated. 

H. MARCESCENS Cox. PL 58, figs. 17, 18, 19. 

Shell narrowly and deeply umbilicated, depressedly-orbicular, 
thin, translucent, rather shining, very slightly rugosely striated and 
under the lens, very finely granulated, horny-yellowish ; spire con- 
vex, obtuse, suture moderate, margined with a narrow reddish 
streak; whorls 5, slowly increasing, slightly convex, last roundly 
convex ; aperture lunately-rounded ; peristome straight, thin, mar- 
gins somewhat approaching, columellar margin above dilated and 
reflected. (Cox.) Alt. 0'30, greater diam. 0'63, lesser 0'57 inch. 

Clarence River, about South Grafton, under bark and logs. 

H. marceseens Cox, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1867 ; Monogr. Austr. 
L. Sh., p. '37, t. 4, f. 5, t. 18, f. 6, 6a. 

A thin, horny, semitransparent shell, like a starved miniature of 
H. grayi and to be placed next to H. aridorum, a much more 
globose shell with a deeply impressed suture. The reddish streak 
along the suture is not always present. (Cox.) 

H. EVANDALEANA Pfeiffer. PL 40, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, rather thin, rugosely striated, and 
under the lens granulated and furnished with short hairs, dirty- 
yellowish or blackish-brown ; spire slightly elevated, obtuse, suture 



HELIX-HADRA. 143 

rather deep ; whorls 4, convex, last more or less obtusely carinated ; 
base convex, the striae and granulations gradually becoming fainter ; 
umbilicus moderate, deep ; aperture lunately-ovate ; peristome simple 
thin, more or less angular externally, at the columella triangularly 
dilated above. (Cox.) 

Alt. 0'30, greater diam. 0'55, lesser 0'47 inch. 

Evandale, North Rhine and Barrier Ranges, S. Australia. 

H. evandaleana PFR., P. Z. S. 1863, p. 528 ; Monographia v, p. 
258. Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 51, t. 9, f. 8. ANGAS Quart. 
Journ. of Conchol. i, p. 135. 

I have not seen in any other species the same kind of rugose 
striation, granulation, and pilosity, the last often obsolete, which 
seems to be characteristic. Angas speaks of a " large umbilicus," 
while PfeifFer writes of the same shell "subanguste umbilicata." 



H. TOMSETTI Tate. PI. 58, figs. 13, 14, 15. 

Shell conoidly depressed, rather thin, widely and deeply umbili- 
cated ; spire slightly elevated, widely conical, obtuse ; whorls five, 
flatly convex, narrowly concavely depressed near the anterior suture, 
and margined at the suture ; last whorl rounded, rather depressed 
above, and bluntly angled at the periphery ; posterior to the angula- 
tion at the periphery the surface is slightly depressed, thence convex 
to the suture ; base rather abruptly convex ; aperture not descend- 
ing in front, oblique to the vertical axis, rotundately lunate ; peri- 
stome simple, thin, disunited ; columella very slightly reflected over 
the umbilicus. 

The ornamentation consists of coarse, irregular, oblique striations 
and distant granulations ; the one and a half apical whorls granu- 
lose only ; under surface striated. Colour of the living shell 
unknown. (Tate.) 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 14, lesser 12J mill.; alt. of apert. 6 ; diam. 
of umbilicus 2? mill. 

Cape Borda, Kangaroo Island, S. Australia. 

Helix Tomsetti TATE, Trans., Proc. and Rep. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 
ix, p. 63, t. 5, f. 13a-c. 1887. 

Somewhat intermediate between H. bordaensis and H. evandaleana, 
having the shape of the former with the sculpture of the latter. 
It is flatter and has a larger umbilicus than H. evandaleana. 
(Tate.) 



144 HELIX-HADRA. 

H. LINCOLNENSIS Pfeiffer. PI. 43, fig. 36. 

Shell umbilicated, somewhat conoidly-depressed, rather thin and 
moderately glossy, pellucid, very closely, coarsely and irregularly 
rugosely striated, and finely granulated, of a rich deep-chestnut 
throughout ; spire slightly elevated, widely conical, obtuse, suture 
pale ; whorls 5, rather flattened, last rounded, rather depressed above, 
and sometimes indistinctly angular at the periphery, descending in 
front ; base less strongly striated than above, smoother -and more 
glossy, umbilicus small ; aperture Innately ovate ; peristome simple, 
thin, straight, margins moderately approximating, columellar mar- 
gin rather widely expanded above, and reflected over of the um- 
bilicus. '(Cox.) Alt. 0*35, greater diam. 0'80, lesser 070 inch. 

Port Lincoln, S. Australia. 

H. lincolniensis PFR. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 527. Cox Mon. Austr. L. 
Sh., p. 51, t. 6, f. 9. ANGAS, Quart. Journ. of Conch, i, p. 135. 

H. LTJTEOFUSCA Cox. PI. 40, figs. 93, 94. 

Shell openly umbilicated, depressed, obliquely rugosely striated, 
and obsoletely granulated, thin, yellowish-brown or dark chestnut ; 
spire rather prominent ; whorls 4, regularly increasing, last whorl 
depressed throughout, on which the elevation of the spire depends, 
periphery blunt, slightly angled, base convex ; aperture diagonal, 
Innately rounded ; peristome simple, lip thin, margins approaching, 
columellar margin but little everted, the opposite margin inserted 
beneath the angulation of the, second whorl. ( Cox.) 

Alt. 0-33, greater diam. 0'65, lesser 0'50 inch. 

Flinder's Range, S. Australia. 

H. luteofusca Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 52, t. 12, f. 1, la. 

This species, H. lincolnensis, H. tomsetti and H. evandaleana 
may be more correctly placed in the group of H. bitceniata. 

*** 

Group o/H. bitceniata Cox. 

Species of this group are characteristic of the fauna of South Aus- 
tralia. 

H. BIT^NIATA Cox. PI. 38, figs. 66, 67, 68. 

Shell globose, narrowly umbilicated, straw-colored with two 
brown bands, one at the suture the other and wider one above the 
periphery ; surface rather rudely strongly striated, especially above ; 
lip obtuse, not expanded. 



HELIX-HADRA. 145 

The shell is globose, rather thin but strong, of a yellow tint, or 
tinged with green or brown, having two purple-brown bands. Spire 
obtusely conoidal ; whorls nearly 5, convex, the apical whorl shin- 
ing, smooth ; last whorl globose, rather deeply descending in front. 
Aperture rounded-lunar, oblique, white within, showing the brown 
band ; peristome blunt, not expanded, white ; the columella ex- 
panded, reflexed nearly over the narrow umbilicus. 

Alt. .16, greater diam. 17? mill. 

Port Augusta; Tillowie, near the western slopes of Flinder's 
Range, S. Australia. 

H. bitceniata Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh., p. 50, t. 4, f. 9. ANGAS, 
P. Z. S. 1876, p. 268, t. 20, f. 15, 16. IT. ftindersi Ad. and Ang. 
P. Z. S. 1863, p. 521 ; ANGAS in Quart. Journ. of Conch, i, p. 135. 

This is the most globose of the present group of two-banded 
forms. It may^ besides be known by its narrow, half-covered, but 
deep umbilicus, strong striation, etc. 

The name flindersi has precedence, but was described briefly, 
from dead examples, and not figured . I have preferred the first 
really recognizable description, that of Dr. Cox. 

H. LORIOLIANA Crosse. PI. 13, fig. 55. 

Shell globose-depressed-conoidal, imperforate or nearly so, rather 
thin but strong, yellowish, with two brown bands, one at suture, the 
other above the periphery, and a small brown umbilical patch. Sur- 
face not granulate, lightly obliquely striate ; outer lip a little ex- 
panded, obtuse; columella reflexed over or nearly over the um- 
bilicus. 

The shell is less globose than H. bitceniata, and not nearly so 
deeply cut by the oblique striae. Spire bluntly conoidal ; whorls 5, 
scarcely convex, separated by superficial sutures ; the last whorl de- 
scending in front, not at all keeled at the periphery. Aperture 
oblique, white and bifasciate within ; peristome gradually but only 
slightly expanded, columella triangularly reflexed over the um- 
bilicus, rose-tinted ; terminations of peristome approaching slightly. 

Alt. 18, diam. 23 mill. 

South Australia. 

H. lorioliana CROSSE Journ. de Conchyl. 1863, p. 273, t. 9, f. 6. 
ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 520 ; Quart. Journ. of Conchol. i, p. 
135. not of Cox. 
10 



146 HELIX-HADRA. 

The specimen from which my description was taken corresponds 
exactly with Crosse's figures and description except that is is more 
solid (not " tenuis "), and the umbilicus is not completely closed, 
although the shell is completely adult. The species described and 
figured by Cox as H. lorio liana is a distinct form. 

H. BROUGHAMI Angas. PI. 34, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell narrowly perforate, conically globose, rather thin, obliquely 
striated and obscurely minutely granulated, very pale brown above, 
white below, with three narrow reddish brown bands one at the 
suture, one above and one below the periphery of the last whorl ; 
spire obtusely and depressedly conical ; whorls 5, slightly convex, 
the last rounded, descending in front ; aperture oblique, circularly 
lunate ; peristome slightly expanded and reflexed, the margins ap- 
proximating, the columellar margin almost straight, dilated above, 
and nearly covering the perforation. (Angas.) 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 12, lesser 10 lines. 

Port Lincoln, S. Australia. 

H. broughami ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 390, t. 45, f. 4, 4a. 

Allied to H. cassandra, but more elevated, the columella straight- 
ened, dilated and reflexed, nearly concealing the perforation. 

H. RUFOFASCIATA Brazier. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, globosely depressed, thin, minutely 
rugosely granulated ; pale brown, marked with dark chestnut spi- 
ral bands ; whorls 5, slightly convex, regularly increasing, the last 
large and inflated in front, roundly convex, below the periphery 
the chestnut band becomes broader and runs spirally into the aper- 
ture ; base white with chestnut brown around the umbilicus ; aper- 
ture roundly lunate, slightly angular, peristome thin, acute, margins 
rather distant, the columellar margin dilated partly over the umbili- 
cus, interior of aperture white or pink, the brown bands are seen 
through the shell. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 12 i, lesser 9f lines. 

Yardea, 360 miles north of Adelaide, S. Australia. 

H. (Hadra) rufofasciata BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
i, p. 17, 1875. 

This fine shell approaches near to H. cassandra Pfr. It differs 
very much from that species in having dark chestnut bands above 
and below with a large broad white band on the base, and chestnut 



HELIX-HADRA. 147 

brown round the umbilicus. I am indebted for it to Mr. Water- 
house, the curator of the South Australian Museum. {Brazier.) 

H. SUBLORIOLIANA Pilsbry. PI. 58, figs. 10, 11, 12. 

Shell depressed, narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, light yellowish 
with a chestnut band at the suture, another just above the periphery, 
the interior of the umbilicus also chestnut colored ; surface striatu- 
late, not granulate ; outer lip simple, suddenly dilated at columella 
into a small triangle partially covering the umbilicus. 

The contour is considerably like H. cassandra, but the spire more 
conoidal ; whorls 5, moderately convex, the last rounded at the 
periphery, a trifle descending in front. Aperture oblique, rounded 
lunar, delicate flesh-colored within, showing the bands ; peristome 
simple, white, the columellar triangular dilation flesh-colored. The 
surface is delicately obliquely striatulate but not at all granulated. 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 23?, lesser 20 mill.; width of umbilicus 1 
mill. 

Flinder's Range, 8. Australia. 

H. lorioliana Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 52, t. 3, f. 4a, 4b, not 
of Crosse ! 

Far more depressed than the true H. lorioliana Crosse, with speci- 
mens of which I have compared it. 

H. CASSANDRA Pfeifler. PI. 58, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell depressed, moderately umbilicated, the spire low ; whitish, 
with two pale brown bands above ; surface delicately striatulate and 
densely microscopically granulate all over, save the polished apical 
whorl. Columella triangularly dilated half over the umbilicus. 

The shell is depressed, spire broadly convex and low; rather 
thin ; nearly white beneath, pale isabelline above, with a pale brown 
band at suture and another above periphery. Whorls 5, the inner 
one polished, convex; suture at first impressed, then becoming 
shallower. Last whorl depressed, rounded at the periphery, slightly 
descending in front ; aperture round-lunar, white within ; peristome 
simple, the columella suddenly expanded, half covering the um- 
bilicus. 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 23, lesser 19 J mill.; width of umbilicus 2 
mill. 

Lower Murray River, S. Australia, in bushy patches amongst sand- 
stone cliffs. 



148 HELIX-HADRA. 

H. cassandra PFR. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 527 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. v, p. 
243. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 520. Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh., p, 
50. 

The low spire, delicate whitish color, with pale bands, and densely 
granulate surface will distinguish this form. The specimen figured 
may not be quite adult. A young shell before me shows an addi- 
tional band just below the periphery. 

H. STUTCHBURYI Pfeiffer. PI. 43, fig. 50. 

Shell with the umbilicus nearly covered, turbinate-globose, thin, 
minutely granulated above, seen under a lens ; pale tawny, banded 
with rufous at the suture, and above the middle ; spire convex-con- 
oid, rather obtuse ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last rotund, scarce- 
ly descending in front, the base smooth ; aperture diagonal, round- 
lunar ; peristome thin, narrowly reflected, dilated above the very 
narrow umbilicus and almost closing it. (P/V.) 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 15i, lesser 13? mill: 

Drayton Range and Upper Dawson River, Queensland. 

H. Stutchburyi PFR. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 386 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, p. 
168. Cox, Monogr. Aust. L. Sh. p. 39, t. 10, f. 10. 

*** 

Doubtful Species oj Hadra or Badistes. 
H. MUCIDA Pfeiffer. 

Shell umbilicated, turbinately depressed, rather thin, finely stria- 
ted, deep red, appearing as if spread over with mould ; spire conoid, 
rather blunt ; whorls 5, convex, gradually increasing, last rounded, 
descending in front, sub-angular around the funnel-shaped umbili- 
cus ; aperture nearly diagonal, roundly lunar, shining flesh color 
within ; peristome briefly expanded, margins scarcely converging, 
columellar margin triangularly dilated above and spreading. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 20, lesser 16f mill. 

Percy Isles, northeast coast of Australia. 

H. mucida PFR. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 329 ; Monogr. iv, p. 264. Cox 
Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 59. 

May belong to the group of H. aridorum, porteri, etc. A smaller 
form measures, alt. 7J, greater diam. 15, lesser 13 mill. 

H. MURINA Pfeiffer. 

Shell umbilicated, turbinately-globose, thin, regularly striated, 
granular, somewhat roughened, deep red; spire shortly conoid, 



HELIX-HADRA. 149 

slightly obtuse ; whorls nearly 5, convex, last inflated, scarcely de- 
scending in front, somewhat compressed about the moderate, per- 
vious umbilicus ; aperture diagonal, lunately rounded, pearly with- 
in ; peristome brownish, fleshy, everywhere shortly expanded, mar- 
gins somewhat converging, columellar margin dilated above, re- 
flected in a vaulted manner. (Pff.) 

Alt. 9, greater diam. 15, lesser 12 mill. 

Admiralty Is. ; var. 0. in North Australia. 

H. murina PFR. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 384 ; Monogr. iv, p. 268. 

Var. 0. Paler, brownish-horn colored, peristome white. 

A species of doubtful position, not yet identified by Australian 
naturalists. 

H. PLICULOSA Pfr. (MANUAL iii, p. 216), H. VICTORIA Cox, 
and some other species may prove to belong in this group. 

Subsection SPHJEROSPIRA, Morch, 1867. 

Sphcerospira MORCH, Journ. de Conchyl. 1867, p. 256, for H.fra- 
seri, lessoni, appendieulata. 

The Australian Sphcerospira form a natural group of very closely 
.allied species. It seems obvious to me that a considerable number 
of the described forms say 25 per centum are merely geographic 
races or color-varieties, not really entitled to specific rank. (Com- 
pare croftoni with coxi; gratiosa with blomfieldi, etc., etc.). I have 
preferred to indicate, rather than actually make, many of the more 
apparent reductions, as my material is not extensive enough to show 
the actual coalescence of many forms which I have reason to believe 
belong together. This work of revision should be done by some 
Australian student. The genitalia as well as the shells must be ex- 
amined, as in many groups of Helix they offer excellent specific 
characters. 

The primitive coloration, toward which all the species tend, is as 
follows: the suture is narrowly edged with white, followed by a 
dark brown band ; another dark band encircles the whorl above 
the periphery, and the inside of the umbilicus is dark. This pattern 
is chiefly modified by the addition of numerous narrow lines, or by 
their coalescence, resulting in either a multilineate or a uniformly 
dark shell. 

Fuller knowledge of the forms of Hadra has convinced me that 
the division of that section into three subsections (see p. 94) is at- 
tended with difficulties. Badistes, Sphcerospira and Hadra proper, 



150 HELIX-HADRA. 

seem to be separated by only trifling characters, hardly worthy of 
names, except so far as such divisions may aid one in understanding 
so numerous a group of species. The sphserospira are all inhabitants 
of Queensland most of them of the subtropical northern portion. 
Their western distribution is apparently checked by the arid sand- 
stone region of North Australia. 

The Sphcerospira proper may be most naturally divided into two 
groups : (1) imperforate and (2) umbilicated forms. 

Imperforate Sphcerospira. 

H. FRASERI Gray. PI. 33, figs. 58, 59, 60. 

Shell imperforate, subglobose, spire subconoidal or depressed, , 
brownish-yellow with numerous spiral lines and bands of chestnut, 
suture edged by a light line and a dark band ; aperture light with- 
in, lip broadly reflexed, dark brown, appressed over the umbilicus. 

Solid, globose, varying much in height of spire. Back of the lip 
dark brown, this color suffusing often the latter part of the body- 
whorl. Spiral bands and lines very numerous and inconstant in 
number, width and position. Surface seen under a lens to be mi- 
nutely, almost obsoletely granulated or wrinkled, and sometimes 
fine, close spiral lines are apparent. Whorls 6, slightly convex, the 
last deflexed in front, convex below, and a little impressed at the 
place of the covered umbilicus. The lip is broadly expanded and 
reflexed except at its upper junction with the body-whorl. Parietal 
wash of callus transparent. 

Alt. 33, greater diam. 39, lesser 34 mill. 

Alt. 35, greater diam. 37, lesser 32 mill. 

Alt. 42, greater diam. 48, lesser 38 mill. 

Clarence and Richmond Rivers, N. S. W. ; Brisbane and Wide 
Bay, Queensland, Australia. 

H.fraseri GRAY, Zool. Beechey's Voyage, Moll. p. 143, t. 38, f. 6, 
1839. GRIFF. Anim. Kingd. t. 36, f. 6. PFEIFFER in Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 308, t. 52, f. 9, 10; Monographia i, p. 246. Cox, Monog. 
Austr. Land Sh. p. 64, t. 10, f. 6. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 360. 
HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 1888, p. 58, 151 ; /. c. 1889, p. 
103, plate vii, (anatomy). 

One of the largest species of Sphcerospira. The closed umbilicus, 
broadly reflexed blackish lip, light interior of the aperture and large 
size will distinguish it from the numerous allied multilineate forms. 
The granulation of the surface is not perceptible to the touch, and 



HELIX-HADRA. 151 

only becomes visible under a lens. Some specimens are almost 
devoid of it. Hedley has figured the anatomy. 

Var. FLAVESCENS Hedley. 

Shell bandless, of a uniform light yellow, lip pure white. Differs 
from the type in nothing but coloration. 

Corumbin Creek, Queensland. 

H. COARCTATA FSrussac. PI. 43, figs. 37, 38. 

This is a species of Sphcerospira very closely allied to H.fraseri; 
and I would unite it to that species were it not for the blade-like 
callus on the columella, a character not seen in the H. fraseri. It 
has not been identified or mentioned by writers on Australian shells. 
The type, Deshayes states, is a dead and discolored specimen. 

It is globose, about the size of H. pomatia ; Spire elongated, con- 
oidal ; whorls 4, slowly increasing, convex. Last whorl convex, 
imperforate, deflexed below the periphery of the penultimate whorl, 
and constricted behind the peristome. Surface smooth, with irreg- 
ular growth-striae. Aperture relatively small, a little wider than 
high, white ; peristome regularly arcuate, strongly reflexed, at the 
columella bearing a tooth-like callus, and reflexed over the entire 
umbilicus. Obliquity of aperture 55 to the axis. Color (as far as 
preserved) wide bands and narrow lines of reddish-brown on a 
whitish-yellow ground. A line of deeper color follows the suture. 

Alt. 40, diam. 47 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H. coarctata FER. Hist. t. lOb f. 6, 7. DESH. in Fe*r. Hist, (texte) 
p. 216. Pfr. Monogr. iii, p. 185. 

Compare H. fraseri. The above details are from Deshayes. 

H. ZEBINA Brazier. PI. 47, fig. 89. 

Shell imperforate, rather solid, somewhat globosely-conical, whole 
surface transversely granulated with lengthened grains (as seen 
under the lens), towards the apex they become finer ; pale straw- 
yellow with numerous spiral chestnut lines and bands ; suture orna- 
mented with a rather broad band ; spire rather large, broadly conical, 
obtuse; whorls 5?, rather convex, last large, dilated and produced 
in front, deflected above ; aperture diagonal, ovately-lunate, whitish 
within ; peristome straight, expanded and slightly reflected ; mar- 
gins approximating, joined by a thin callus ; columellar light brown, 



152 HELIX-HADRA. 

thickened and expanded covering the whole of the umbilicus ; 
(Brazier.} Alt. 13?, greater diam. 19, lesser 13 lines. 

Ranges about the Douglas River, Queensland, Australia. 
H. zebina BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. iii, p. 78, t. 8, f. 
2, 1878. 

H. MOSSMANI Brazier. PL 34, fig. 14. 

Shell imperforate, globosely turbinated, very faintly obliquely 
striated, exhibiting minute spiral lines and granulations (only seen 
under the lens) ; reddish yellow, with numerous spiral chestnut lines 
and bands; spire conical, apex obtuse; whorls 62, slightly convex, 
suture slightly crenulated ; aperture oblique, ovately lunate ; peri- 
stome black, reflected, margins approximating, the right descending 
at the upper part, columellar thickened, with a black callus round 
the umbilical region. (Brazier.} 

Alt. 19?, greater diam. 19, lesser 15 lines. 

Dawson River, Queensland, Australia. 

H. mossmani BRAZ., P. Z. S. 1875, p. 33, t. 4, f. 6. 

Comes near to H. fraseri in its markings, but differs in being more 
turbinated and in the lip being thinner. 

H. coxi Crosse. PI. 23, figs. 74, 75 ; pi. 40, fig. 92. 

Shell imperforate, globose, light buff with few lines and narrow 
bands of chestnut, fading out on the latter part of the body-whorl. 
Interior of the aperture and the broadly expanded lip pure white. 

A compact, globose shell, the outline of the spire convex ; solid, 
smooth ; sutures superficial ; whorls 6?, slightly convex, the last 
globose, its latter part of a clear buff tint, the few brown lines fad- 
ing out. It descends strongly to the aperture ; the base convex, not 
impressed or excavated at the place of the closed umbilicus. The 
aperture is rounded lunar, oblique, outer and basal lips broadly ex- 
panded, somewhat reflexed, columellar lip expanded in a triangular 
white plate, closely appressed over the umbilicus. 

Alt. 32, greater diam. 35, lesser 30 mill. 

Alt. 38, greater diam. 32, lesser 29 mill. 

Port Molle and Port Denison, Queensland, Australia. 

H. Forbesi Cox, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 40 (preoc.). H. cerea Cox, 
Catal. Austr. Land Sh. 1864, p. 36 (preoc.). H. Coxi CROSSE, 
Journ. de Conchyl. 1866, p. 195. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 276 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 534, 1. 163, f. 5, 6. TAPPARONE-CANEFRI Zool. del Viaggio 
della Fregata Magenta, Malac., p. 92, t. 2, f. 7. BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 



HELIX-HADRA. 153 

1872, p. 806. H. cerata Cox, Mon. Austr. Land Sh., p. 58, t. 8, f. 
4. Hadra cerata SEMPER, Reis. Archip. Philippinen, Landmoll. iii, 
p. 160. 

A beautiful species, known by its light buff color, with fewer 
spiral brown bands than the majority of banded Sphcerospira. 

It is very numerous, according to Brazier, on the trunks of the 
native fig trees. 

An elevated form is figured on pi. 40, fig. 92. 

H. CROFTONI Cox. PL 21, fig. 52. 

Shell imperforate, globose-conoidal ; buff, with two broad dark 
chestnut zones above, one just under the suture, the other a short dis- 
tance below it, fusing with it on the latter part of the body-whorl, and 
generally a circular umbilical dark patch, the intervening space with 
several brown lines. Aperture of a livid-whitish color inside, flesh- 
colored or bluish-white on the broadly expanded lip, callus over the 
umbilicus dark livid brown. 

Compact, solid; the ground-color is buff; suture edged by a 
narrow white or buff line, bordered by a broad chestnut zone, 
below which there is another broad zone, separated from the first 
by a light space in which a brown line revolves. These two supra- 
peripheral zones coalesce on the last third of the body-whorl, and 
this part often is suffused with brown, all over the light buff ground. 
There is usually a brown basal band or tract around the axis. The 
spire is elevated, outlines convex; whorls 6? to 7, slightly convex, 
the last deflexed in front, not impressed at the place of the closed 
umbilicus. The aperture is broad, oblique ; the lip expanded, sub- 
reflexed, dilated over and closing the umbilicus, passing into a glossy 
wash of parietal callus, which is stained with brown around the axis. 

Alt. 34, greater diam. 34, lesser 29 mill. 
Hydrometer River, West of Port Mackay, Queensland, Australia. 

H. Crofloni Cox, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 18, t. 4, f. 1. PFR. Monog. 
vii, p. 320; Conchyl. Cab. p. 533, t. 163, fr 3, 4. HEDLEY, List 
Queensl. Land Sh., p. 58. 

Curiously intermediate between Coxi and Blomfieldi, decidedly 
darker than the first (of which it should perhaps be considered a 
color-variety) but not nearly so dark as the latter species. It is 
very local in habitat. Found inside the hollow trunks of Quang- 
dong trees. 



154 HELIX-HADRA. 

H. BLOMFIELDI Cox. PI. 23, fig. 67. 

Shell imperforate, globose elevated, unicolored deep chestnut 
on the body-whorl, lighter on the whorls of the spire and showing 
spiral bands or lines there ; aperture purplish or purplish-brown 
inside, the broadly expanded lip brown or purplish. 

The form is elevated-globose, spire short with convex outlines ; it 
is solid, dark chestnut (according to Cox, deep, purplish chestnut), 
with a yellow margin below the suture from to one millim. wide. 
Earlier whorls light fawn colored, with inconspicuous darker stripes 
or lines. Surface showing sometimes very close, fine, subobsolete, 
spiral strise. Sutures superficial. Whorls 6J, slightly convex, the- 
last deeply descending anteriorly. Aperture oblique ; lip broadly- 
expanded and subreflexed, suddenly dilated at the umbilicus and 1 
closely adhering to the base of the shell over it. In immature shells 
the umbilicus is not covered, and the lip is deep brown ; in adults 
a whitish layer is deposited over the brown, giving a purplish effect, 

Alt. 39, greater diam. 36, lesser 31 mill. 

Port Curtis, Queensland, Australia. 

H. Blomfteldi Cox, Catal. Austr. Land Sh. p. 19, 1864 ; Monog. 
Austr. Land Sh. p. 57, t. 1, f. 1. PFR. Monog. Hel. Viv. v, p. 
284; Conchyl. Cab. t. 163, f. 1, 2. TAPPAEONE-CANEFBI, Zool. 
Viaggio della Fregata Magenta, p. 92, t. 2, f. 5. HEDLEY, Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Queensl. 1889, p. 103, pi. vii, (anatomy). 

With the general contour of H. coxi and H. croftoni, this species 
has a decidedly more lengthened aperture, the basal lip being pro- 
duced downward very much as in Cochlostyla or Bulimus, whilst in 
the other species named it is more transverse. Moreover, in blom- 
field there is a distinctly salient angle where the concave, triangular 
and dilated columella joins the basal lip, a structure not so plainly 
shown in coxi or croftoni. There is no trace whatever of darker 
or lighter bands on the body- whorl, save only the subsutural yellow 
line. 

H. MITCHELLS Cox. PI. 47, figs. 92, 93. 

Shell imperforate, globosely-turbinated, solid, striated with the 
lines of growth, under the lens universally reticularly or irregularly 
linearly granulated, deep reddish chestnut, with four yellow bands, 
one broad in umbilical region, another narrow along the periphery, 
with a blackish band above it, a third, broader and separated by a 
dark band from a very narrow fourth at the suture ; spire roundly 



HELIX-HADRA. 155 

convex, obtuse ; whorls 6?, very regularly increasing, convex, last 
deflected in front, convex below ; aperture very oblique, truncately 
elliptical, within of a pearly bluish tint ; peristome thickened, lipped 
within, reflected, inner edge glossy, chestnut black, margins connected 
with a thin dark callus, anterior rather sinuated near the periphery, 
columellar margin flattened, with a very prominent inner lip, hav- 
ing an obsolete tooth-like callosity near the centre. ( Cox.) 

Alt. 1-20, greater diam. 1-80, lesser 1'50 inch. 

Clarence River, N. S. W. ; Beach Hut, Emigrant Creek, Richmond 
River, under masses of dead leaves. 

H. mitchellcB Cox, Cat. Austr. L. Sh., p. 19, 1864 ; Ann. Mag. N' 
H. 3d ser., xiv, p. 181 ; Mon. Austr. L. Sh., p. 65, t. 9, f. 9. PFR. 
Monog. Hel. Viv. v, p. 279. 

Differs from most of the true Sphcerospira in the distinctly gran- 
ulate or reticulate surface-sculpture ; most of the species being nearly 
smooth. 

H. GRATIOSA Cox. PI. 40, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell imperforate, globose-elevated, yellowish brown or purple- 
brown, with two rather broad dark bands, one just below the sutural 
yellow lines, the other above the periphery ; a dark umbilical patch ; 
whorls of the spire lighter, bifasciate with chestnut. 

This is a form very similar to H. blomfieldi in general contour, 
and form of the basal lip and columella ; but smaller and differently 
colored. It has a yellowish-brown ground-color, typically ; but on 
the body- whorl this is sometimes of a very dark brown, almost 
black. The dark bands described above are dark chestnut on light 
examples, but become black on dark ones, and even then are scarcely 
visible on the deep brown ground-color. There are sometimes a 
few dark oblique streaks also, and the subsutural yellow or whitish 
stripe is conspicuous. Whorls 6, the last less deeply deflexed in 
front than most blomfieldi. Aperture oblique, blackish-brown inside, 
with a pearly luster; lip very dark colored, well expanded, sud- 
denly dilated at the columella and covering the umbilicus with a 
closely adherent, triangular shiny callus. 

Alt. 33, greater diam. 27, lesser 25 mill. 

Whitsunday Island, off Port Denison, Queensland, Australia. 

H. gratiosa Cox, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 53, t. 3, f. 1, la. PFR. Monogr. 
Hel. Viv. vii, p. 322 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 545, t. 165, f. 4, 5. 



156 HELIX-HADRA. 

Pfeiffer figures as a variety of this species a form which is larger, 
more elevated, unicolored chestnut brown except for the sutural 
band, becoming lighter above, (see pi. 22, fig. 57). 

Compare H. Uomfieldi, a form from the mainland of which 
.gratiosa may prove to be a variety. 

H. ETHERLDGEI Brazier. Unfigured. 

Shell imperforate, rather thick, somewhat globosely turbinated, 
finely striated, having minute transverse lengthened grains, blackish 
chestnut, ornamented at the periphery with one narrow white line, 
contiguous to the suture, broad yellow-brown band above, running 
spirally to the apex, the third encircling the im perforation, and 
running spirally inwards ; spire rather conoid, apex striated, white, 
whorls 5 J, slightly convex, the last large and moderately ventricose, 
base convexly rounded, suture encircled with a white line, broader 
above the last whorl, aperture ovate, diagonal, violet-tinged within, 
peristome white, expanded and reflected, very much thickened, mar- 
gins approximating, the right descending, columellar expanded, dark 
purple beneath a white callus, and joined to the upper part of the 
peristome. (Brazier.} 

Alt. 14J, greater diam. 17, lesser 13 lines. 

Andromache River, between Bowen and Cape Palmerston, N.-E. 
coast of Australia. 

H. (Calliocochlias) Etheridgei BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
W. ii, p. 25, 1877. 

The first specimen I saw of this species, I was inclined to regard 
as a variety of Helix gratiosa Cox. I have seen three specimens 
since then, one in Dr. Cox's collection, one in Mr. Hargraves, and 
the specimen in my own which I exhibit to-night to the Society, and 
for which I am indebted to Mrs. Coxen, of Brisbane. It differs from 
H. gratiosa in being a heavier and thicker shell, in having a thick, 
white, and reflected peristome, and in being of a violet colour with- 
in the aperture. I have named it after my friend, Mr. K. Ethe- 
ridge, Jr., of Edinburgh, F. G. S. (Brazier.} 

H. MACLEAYI Cox. PI. 19, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

Shell globose, imperforate; epidermis very thin, light grayish, 
tinged with yellow or green ; encircled by a distinct narrow chest- 
nut band just above (almost upon) the periphery, and another 
narrower and subobsolete one just below the white-margined suture; 
lip, columella and parietal wall deep chestnut. 



HELIX-HADRA. 157 

Smaller, lighter colored and more depressed than H. gratiosa and 
most other species of Sphserospira, the surface often appearing 
denuded of cuticle, and of a pinkish tint ; spire low ; whorls 5 J to 
to 5f, slightly convex, the last deflexed in front, convex all over. 
Aperture rounded, pinkish-fawn-color inside, showing the band ; lip 
expanded, dilated at the columella, closely adherent over the umbili- 
cus and spreading in a deep brown callus over the parietal wall 
and into the mouth. Alt. 23, greater diam. 25, lesser 22 J mill. 

Whitsunday Island, and Port Denison, Queensland, Australia, 

H. madeayi Cox. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 486, figs. 1-3 ; Cat. Austr, 
L. Sh., p. 36, 1864 ; Monog. Austr. Land Sh., p. 45, t. 8, f. 3. PFR. 
Mon. Hel. Viv. v, p. 278 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 547, t. 165, f. 10, 11. 
TAPPARONE-CANEFRI, Zool. Magenta, Malac., p. 93, t. 3, f. 1. 

The greatest circumference of this shell is higher on the whorl 
than in most of the species, and the body-whorl is notably convex 
in every part. The coloration is lighter than in Sphserospira 
generally. 

H. ANDERSONI Cox. PI. 23, fig. 68. 

Shell imperforate, rather thin, depressedly globose, finely striated, 
yellow brown, with three or more rather narrow dark chestnut bands 
round the center and lower part of the body- whorl, and one beneath 
the suture ; whorls 6 J, almost flat, gradually increasing in size ; aper- 
ture diagonal, elbngately Innately rounded, lip dark, as is also the 
covered umbilicus ; margins converging, thin, slightly expanded, 
columellar margin triangularly dilated, adnate, occluding the um- 
bilicus and sunk below the marginal line of the aperture, causing 
the latter to be sharply angled. ( Cox.} 

Alt. *80, greater diam. 1'34, lesser 1*10 inch. 
North end of Expedition Range, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia. 

H. andersoni Cox, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 644, t. 52, f. 4. 

Differs from H. yulei in having the umbilicus closed. 

* * * 

Umbilicated species of Sphcerospira. 
H. RAINBIRDI Cox. PL 23, figs. 72, 73 ; pi. 39, figs. 84-87. 

Shell with a funnel-shaped umbilicus, narrow within but expand- 
ing and excavated behind the dilated basal lip which half covers it ; 
depressed below, the upper surface elevated ; deep chestnut colored, 
with (typically) two light yellow zones revolving above the periphery, 



158 HELIX-HADRA. 

one of which continues up the spire, and a light band or lines 
around the umbilicus; sutural light line very narrow, or almost 
obsolete ; lip broadly expanded, deep brown in color. 

The shell is compact, the base depressed, spire convex and more 
or less elevated ; suture superficial ; whorls 5f, those of the spire with 
a light band in the middle, the body-whorl more or less compressed 
and sloping above, broadly excavated around the funnel-shaped um- 
bilicus, deflexed in front. Aperture very oblique, livid and show- 
ing the bands within ; lip broadly expanded, deep brown, baso-col- 
umellar margin dilated over and half covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 29, greater diam. 38, lesser 31 mill. 

Alt. 27, greater diam. 34 mill. 

Mount Dryander, Port Denison, Queensland, Australia. 

H. Eainbirdi Cox, P. . S. 1870, p. 170, 1. 16, f. 1. PFR., Monogr. 
Hel. Viv. vii, p. 365 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 545, t. 165, f. 6, l.H. basa- 
lis Mouss. in Mus. God. Cat. v, p. 95. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Queensl. 1889, p. 120, t. 7 (Anatomy.) 

The typical form described above is figured on pi. 39, figs. 86, 87. 

A variety is figured on pi. 35, figs. 6, 7. It is more depressed 
than the type, with only one supraperipheral yellow zone, the whorls 
of the spire dark, band less. 

The light bands are often split by dark lines. This is shown in 
a specimen before me labelled " H. basalis Mouss., Port Mackay" 
which seems to be a small form of rainbirdi. It is figured on pi. 
39, figs. 84, 85. 

The species is less flattened on the base than H. rockhamptonensis, 
and more depressed. It differs from H. oconnellensis in being larger 
and differently banded. 

H. OCONNELLENSIS Cox. PI. 23, figs. 69, 70, 71. 

Shell with a funnel-shaped umbilicus, depressed globose, unicol- 
ored deep chestnut except for a sharply defined subsutural white 
border. 

The shell is compact, flattened on the base, broadly excavated at 
the umbilicus, which is half-covered by the overhanging baso-colu- 
mellar lip. Unicolored deep chestnut all over, except for a white 
band at the suture about a millimeter in width. Whorls 52-6, 
scarcely convex except the last one, which is well-rounded and de- 
scends rather deeply in front. Aperture very oblique, lilac or pur- 
ple inside, becoming darker on the broadly expanded lip. Columel- 



HELIX-HADRA. 159 

lar lip half-covering the broadly opening umbilicus. 

Alt. 22, greater diam. 26, lesser diam. 22 mill. 

The 0' Connell River, Port Denison, Queensland, Australia. 

H. O'ConnellensisCox, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 55, t. 3, f. 4, 4a, Pfr. 
Monographia, vii, p. 385 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 547, t. 165, f. 12-14. 
H. albofilata Mouss. Mus. God. Cat. v, p. 94. 

Smaller than H. rainbirdi, and differently colored. 

H. ARTHURIANA Cox. PI. 36, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell globosely depressed, largely and openly umbilicated, very 
dark chestnut, almost black, lighter at the apex, transversely finely 
striated ; whorls 6, very gradually increasing in size, last sharply 
depressed in front; suture conspicuously margined below with 
white ; spire bluntly convex ; base somewhat flattened ; aperture 
ovately lunate, livid within, margins closely approximate, joined by 
a thin callus ; peristome straight, expanded and reflexed, of an 
intensely dark livid purple color ; columellar margin triangularly 
dilated, overhanging the umbilicus. (Cox.) 

Diam., greatest 1'28, least O90 ; height 0'77 of an inch. 

L. Island, near Broadsound, lat. 20 52', E. long. 149 37'. 

H. (Camcena) arthuriana Cox, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 564, t. 48, f. 1, 
la. PFR. Mon. Hel. Viv. vii, p. 393. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Queensl. 1889, p. 102. 

More closely allied to H. oconnellensis than to any other species. 
It is more globose, and it has not the excavated base round the 
umbilicus so characteristic of that species; the aperture is also 
mere round, with the margins more approximated. (Cox.) 

H. ROCKHAMPTONENSIS Cox. PI. 21, figs. 48, 49. 

Shell umbilicated, globose-trochoidal, the spire convexly elevated, 
base decidedly flattened ; of a dark chestnut color, encircled on 
periphery and base with a number of narrow yellowish bands and 
lines ; sutural light margin indistinct or wanting, lip deep purplish- 
brown, dilated half over the funnel-shaped umbilicus. 

The form is elevated, like H. crofloni etc., but distinctly flattened 
on the base, much more so than in If. rainbirdi etc. Whorls 6, 
scarcely convex, the last one descending in front. Aperture very 
oblique, lilac within, the broadly expanded lip dark purplish-brown, 
very much dilated at the columella, more than half covering the um- 
bilicus, which is deep and funnel-shaped. 

Alt. 32, greater diam. 34}, lesser 29 mill. 

Rockhampton, North-eastern Australia. 



160 HELIX-HADRA. 

JET. Eockhamptonensis Cox, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 150. PFR. Monog. 
Hel. Viv. vii. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. K S. W. v, p. 445. H. 
planibasis Cox, ms. olim, teste Brazier. .BT. moresbyi ANGAS, P. Z. 
S. 1876, p. 267, t. 20, f. 8, 9. 

A more elevated shell than H. rainbirdi, flatter beneath, and with 
the umbilicus less excavated. It is more elevated than H. appendi- 
culata or H. lessoni, and the base . is flatter. My esteemed corre- 
spondent John Brazier has fully discussed the synonymy in the place 
cited above. 

Var. MORESBYI Angas. PL 36, figs 25, 26. 

Form more elevated, and light stripes more numerous, distributed 
over the whole surface. Alt. 45, diam. 45 mill. 

Port Denison, Northern Queensland. 

H. INFORMIS Mousson. PL 34, fig. 4. 

Shell nearly covered umbilicate, oblong-globose, thick, obtusely 
widely striated, under a lens seen to be covered with close, oblique, 
very minute lines, somewhat silky, purple-black, unicolored or ob- 
scurely unifasciate. Spire obtuse, conoid ; summit obtuse, denuded ; 
suture linear, impressed, whorls 6, moderately widening, the ear- 
lier less, later more convex, at the suture somewhat broadly plicated. 
Last whorl large, slowly descending, somewhat swollen above and 
below, subinflated on the base. Aperture oblique (40 to the axis), 
equaling the spire, lunate-ovate, purplish inside. Peristome obtuse, 
reflexed, somewhat thickened, margins distant, joined by a purplish 
callus, straight, above and below more arcuate ; columellar margin 
straight, elongated, deep, half closing the umbilicus by a broad ar- 
cuate dilation. (Mouss.*) Alt. 54, diam. 50 mill. 

Port Mackay, Queensland. 

H. informis Mouss., Journ. de Conchyl. 1869, p. 59, t. 4, f. 3. 
PFR. Monogr. vii. 

This large species I have not seen. In its uniform dark color it 
resembles H. blomfieldi, but that species is imperforate. 

H. PALMENSIS Brazier. 

Shell umbilicated, globosely turbinated, finely striated, the whole 
surface marked with minute zigzag and lengthened grains, giving 
the shell a granulated appearance, reddish yellow, with numerous 
spiral chestnut lines and bands, very dark at the mouth, whorls 6, 
slightly convex, the last convex above, deflected in front, suture 



HELIX-HADRA. 161 

crenulated and encircled with a dark blackish band ; spire conical, 
apex obtuse, base rounded, marked as above, having coarser lines 
entering the umbilicus, with a dark broad band round it, aperture 
somewhat diagonal, ovately lunate, within shining livid hue, per- 
istome blue-black, thick, and broadly expanded and reflected, mar- 
gins approximating, the right descending at the upper part, and 
connected by a thin callus ; columellar margin very much thickened 
and expanded half over the umbilicus. 

Variety: Yellowish, with one band one line wide on the rjeriph- 
ery, running spirally to the apex, with another broad one at the 
suture, nearly obsolete on the second whorl, peristome lightish 
brown, very dark behind; dark reddish brown round the umbilicus. 
(Brazier.) 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 23, lesser 18 lines. 

Great North Palm Island, North-east Australia ; found under 
stones and rocks in the thick jungle. 

H.palmensis BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i, p. 105 ; 
var. meridionalis BRAZIER, 1. c., v, p. 458. 

Var. MERIDIONALIS Brazier. 

Shell very thin, transparent, brownish yellow ; suture with a dark 
reddish brown band about half a line broad on the two lower whorls ; 
four upper having it continued in a fine thread spirally to the apex ; 
periphery with seven or eight faint nearly obsolete chestnut lines 
contiguous to the suture ; umbilicus encircled with dark chestnut ; 
peristome thin, slightly reflected, internal edge dark, nearly black. 
(Brazier.) 

Diam. maj. 20, min. 15, alt. 14 lines. 

Large South Palm Island, northeast Australia. 

H. BELLENDENKERENSIS Brazier. PI. 34, fig. 1. 

Shell deeply umbilicated, globosely turbinated, obliquely striated 
and minutely transversely lined with small lines resembling grains, 
reddish brown, with two spiral chestnut bands, one on the center 
and the other above ; whorls 6, slightly convex, last large ; base 
convex, striated as above ; spire conical, obtuse ; aperture oblique, 
ovately lunate, interior blue-black; peristome thickened and re- 
flexed ; margins approximating, right descending a little, columel- 
11 



162 HELIX-HADRA. 

lar broadly expanded and bent inwards, forming a long callus tooth. 
(Brazier.} 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 22, lesser 17 lines. 

Bellenden-Ker Mts., northeast Australia. 

H. bellenden-kerensis BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 32, t, 4, f. 4. 

The locality given is near the Endeavor River. The three spec- 
imens seen by Mr. Brazier are of the same color. 

H. PARSONI Cox. PL 35, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell with a deep, open umbilicus, globosely conical, uniform dark 
purplish chestnut on the body-whorl, the spire becoming yellowish 
- with fine indistinct chestnut lines, suture bordered by a distinct nar- 
row white line ; lip dark. 

The shell is compact, elevated, microscopically striated spirally 
like most species of Sphcerospira. Spire elevated, lighter than the 
dark chestnut body-whorl, and having spiral brown lines. Suture 
superficial. Whorls 6J, slightly convex, the last deflexed in front, 
somewhat flattened beneath. Aperture quite oblique, purplish with 
a satin-like luster within, becoming darker on the lip, which is 
broadly expanded, triangularly dilated at the columella, overhang- 
ing the umbilicus, more than half concealing it. 

Alt. 30, greater diam. 33, lesser 27 ? mill. 

Gayndah, Queensland, Australia. 

H. Parsoni Cox, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 18, t. 4, f. 2. PFR. Mono- 
graphia vii. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. v, p. 60, 1888. 

Flatter beneath than H. blomfieldi, differently colored, and differ- 
ing fundamentally in being umbilicated. It is like H. lessoni in 
having the body-whorl dark, spire lighter, but it is a decidedly more 
elevated shell, with more widely expanded dark edged lip. It does 
not have the color-pattern of H. rockhamptonensis, nor is the base so 
flat as in that form. 

H. LESSONI Pfeiffer. PI. 33, figs. 61, 62, 63. 

Shell half-covered umbilicate, depressed globose ; body-whorl dark 
chestnut colored, the spire yellowish or lighter brown, often showing 
spiral brown lines ; lip expanded, becoming lighter toward its white 
edge; suture with an inconspicuous pale margin. 

The shell is compact, base depressed, spire convex-conoidal. The 
body-whorl is typically of a uniform purplish-chestnut color, but 
specimens occur in which it is of a lighter brown, with numerous 
rather obscure darker bands and lines. The base in these banded 



HELIX-HADRA. 163 

examples is still lighter. The spire is always lighter in tint, and 
usually lineated with brown as shown in figure 63 of the plate. 
Whorls 6?, closely coiled, but slightly convex, the last descending 
"in front. Aperture oblique, dark within, becoming lighter toward 
the white-edged lip which is expanded on its outer and basal mar- 
gins, dilated at the columella in a triangular plate, purplish in color, 
'Overhanging and more than half covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 27, greater diam. 33, lesser 28 mill. 

Alt. 26, greater diam. 30 mill. 

Port Curtis, Queensland, Australia. 

H. lessoni PFR. Symbolse iii, p. 71 ; Monographia i, p. 233, v, 
500 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 363, t. 138, f. 9, 10. REEVE Conch. Icon. f. 
754. Cox Mon. Austr. L. Sh. p. 55, t. 4, f. 10. H. Rangii LESSON, 
Voy. de la Coquille, p. 305 (probably ; not H. Rangii Fe*r.). H. 
seminigra MORELET Journ. de Conchyl. 1864, p. 289. Callicochlias 
lessoni FFLD. Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1869, p. 875.Hadra 
lessoni SEMPER, Reisen in Arch. Phil., Landmoll. iii, p. 160. 

From H. parsoni this species is distinguished by its more depressed 
stature and constantly white-edged lip. The lighter, banded forms 
connect it with H. appendiculata, which seems to be merely a vari- 
ety. H. incei is generally smaller, much lighter colored, the ground- 
color being buff. Finally in H. yulei the lip is dark, not white- 



The shells described and figured agree with what is universally 
recognized as H. lessoni. Pfeiffer's description indicates a smaller 
form, differing somewhat in coloration ; his figures are copied on pi. 
35, figs. 14, 15. 

Var. APPENDICULATA Pfr. PI. 33, figs. 71, 72. 

Shell half-covered-umbilicate, globose, depressed on the base, 
brownish-yellow with numerous spiral reddish-chestnut bands and 
lines. Whorls 6, the last suffused with deep chestnut behind the 
expanded peristome. Aperture dark within, or light and showing 
the bands. Lip white, darker and purplish-brown at the expanded 
columelia. 

Alt. 27, greater diam. 32 mill. 

Alt. 30, greater diam. 34 mill. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

H. appendiculata PFR. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 149 ; Monographia Hel. 
Viv. iv, p. 261. Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh. p. 56, t. 5, f. 11. 



164 HELIX-HADRA. 

REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1353. Hadra appendiculata SEMPER, Rei- 
sen im Arch. Phil., Landmoll. iii, p. 160. 

A very variable form, generally with a greater number of nar- 
row bands and lines than fig. 71 shows. It is very variable in size 
and contour. Another locality given by Pfeiff'er is " Drayton Range" 
(small variety.) Specimens before me are marked " Port Curtis." 

H. THATCHERI Cox. PI. 36, fig. 24. 

Shell deeply and openly umbilicated, depressedly globose, rather 
solid, finely obliquely striated, dull horny yellow, ornamented with 
a broad, dark chestnut band below the suture, with five or six fine 
dark lines round the center of the whorls, and also a dark undefined 
zone round the umbilicus, which is of the same color ; this dark 
coloration extends across the last whorl in a broad undefined band 
along the margin of the aperture, and joins the band beneath the 
suture; spire flatly conoid; whorls 6*, flattened, the last becoming 
much inflated, rapidly enlarged and a little depressed in front ; base 
flat ; aperture oblong-oval, large, oblique, livid white within ; lip 
slightly thickened and everted, of a lighter color than the interior ; 
margins approaching, joined by a thin dark callus ; columellar mar- 
gin much dilated, half concealing the umbilicus. ( Cox.) 

Alt. 1-15, greater diam. T60, lesser 1'20 inch. 

Mount BersaTcer, Rockhampton, Queensland. 

H. thatcheri Cox, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 170, t. 16, f. 2. PER. Monogr. 
vii. 

Intermediate between H. appendiculata and H. incei, says Dr. 
Cox, but easily distinguished from either by the marked inflation of 
the last whorl. 

H. HILLI Brazier. PL 36, fig. 27. 

Shell umbilicated, turbinately globose, thick, dark chestnut, spi- 
rally lined with darker lines; whorls 6-j, convex, the three forming 
the apex of a light yellow, with a dark broad band below the suture, 
base convex, lined as above ; aperture oblique ; peristome thickened 
and reflected, white ; margins approximating, the right slightly de- 
scending, columellar thickened and partly expanded over the umbili- 
cus. (Brazier.') Alt. 12, greater diam. 17, lesser 14i lines. 

Mt. Elliott, Queensland, Australia. 

H. hilli BRAZ., P. Z. S. 1875, p. 32, t. 4, f. 3. 

Compare appendiculata, incei, etc. 



HELIX-HADRA. 165 

H. RAWNESLEYI Cox. PL 34, fig. 7. 

Shell broadly coniform, openly umbilicated, obliquely finely stri- 
ated throughout, very dark chestnut, lighter towards the apex, 
which is ornamented with very narrow spiral bands ; spire raised, 
bluntly conoid; whorls 7$, convex; margin of suture faintly lined 
with white below ; last whorl deflexed in front, base flattened ; um- 
bilicus large, half closed by the reflexed expansion of the columellar 
margin ; aperture ovately lunate ; margins much approximated, 
joined by a thin purple callus ; peristome everted, of a dark livid 
purple, as is also the interior of the aperture ; columella triangular- 
ly dilated. (Cox.) Alt. 1-58, diam., greatest 1'68, least 1-25 inch. 
Mt. Elliott, near Port Denison, Queensland, Australia. 

H. rawnesleyi Cox, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 564, t. 48, f. 2. PFR. Mono- 
graphia, vii. 

Seems to be close to H. lessoni, but the lip is dark colored. 

H. BARNEYI COX. PI. 34, fig. 6. 

Shell with deep open umbilicus, orbicularly conoid, obliquely 
finely concentrically striated, of a brown yellow color, shining, hav- 
ing a broad chestnut band below the suture, and a second narrower 
band below the subcarinated periphery with an undefined lower 
margin ; spire bluntly convex ; whorls 7, convex, the last consider- 
ably deflected for about T? of an inch in front ; peristome simple, 
straight ; lip everted, margins approximating, joined by a dark- 
colored callus ; columella irregularly dilated and broadly reflected, 
half covering the umbilicus ; margin of the aperture black within. 
(Cox.) Alt. T15, greater diam. 1'30, lesser I'lO inch. 

Barney Island, near New Guinea, Torres Straits. 

H. barneyi Cox, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 148, t. 16, f. 2. PFR. Mon. 
Hel. Viv., vii. 

May be a typical Hadra near H. semicastanea. 

H. MAZEE Brazier. PL 47, fig. 84. 

Shell with the umbilicus nearly covered, globosely turbinated, 
rather thick, minutely granulated, obliquely striated, ornamented 
with spiral chestnut lines and bands, darker and more rugose at the 
suture ; whorls 5 J, slightly convex, last large and descending in 
front ; spire conical, apex obtuse ; aperture diagonal, ovately lunate ; 
peristome thickened and rather broadly reflected, interior of aper- 
ture blue black, margins approximating and joined by a thin cal- 



166 HELIX-HADRA. 

lus, the right deflected above near the center ; columellar margin* 
rounded and expanded into a broad plate partly over the umbilicus. 
(Brazier?) Alt. 15, greater diam. 19, lesser 14 lines. 

Waterview Scrubs, near Cardwell, Rockingham Bay, Herbert Riv- 
er, Queensland. 

H. mazee BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iii, p. 79, t. 8 y 
f. 5, 1878. 

H. BAYENSIS Brazier. PL 47, fig. 83. 

Shell with the umbilicus covered, depressedly globose, finely 
obliquely striated, marked with numerous spiral yellow and reddish, 
chestnut bands and lines ; spire conoid, apex obtuse, whorls 6 J, con- 
vex, last roundly convex, deflected in front, aperture oblique, per- 
istome thickened, reflected, white, interior purplish, margins approx- 
imating, the right descending, columellar margin thickened and 
broadly expanded over the umbilicus. (Brazier.} 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 19, lesser 16 lines. 

Wide Bay, Queensland. 

H. (Hadra) Bayensis BRAZ. Proc. Linn. Soc.. N. S. Wales, i, p. 2, 
1875. H. incei var., Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh., t. 18, f. 1. 

This species differs from Helix Incei, Pfr. by being a much finer - 
and larger shell, with the umbilicus covered with broad callus, base 
much broader and darker in colour, and by being only found in 
the thick Queensland Scrubs, whereas Helix Incei is found in every 
part of Queensland in the open forest country, Dr. Cox figured 
my new species in his Monograph of Australian Land Shells, plate- 
18, figure 1, as variety of Helix Incei, Pfr. (Brazier.) 

H. HANNI Brazier. 

Shell umbilicated, depressly globose, finely obliquely striated, ful- 
vous, ornamented with two broad chestnut zones, one at the suture - 
and one a little above the periphery ; spire depressed, obtuse, whorls 
5, convex, the last roundly convex, base convex, and ornamented 1 
with numerous chestnut lines, one broad with darker between, and 
a broad one encircling the umbilicus, aperture oblique, lunately 
rounded, peristome blackish, reflected, margin approximating, right 
descending, columellar margin reflected and expanded over the um- 
bilicus. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 9, greater diam. 15 , lesser 12 lines. 

Bowen, Port Denison, Queensland,. 

H. Hanni BRAZIER, Proc. Linn, Soc. N. S. Wales, i, p. 97. 



HELIX-HADRA. 167 

Brazier says : " I have seen only one specimen of this species, and 
it differs from H. incei and H. yulei by being more depressed and 
broader, and in its lesser markings." 

H. INCEI Pfeiffer. PL 39, figs. 77, 78, 79, 80, 81. * 

Shell partly covered umbilicate, depressed-globose, light buff with 
spiral stripes of chestnut, one wider band just under the suture, 
another slightly narrower a short distance above the periphery, with 
a variable number of lines upon the base and upper surface. Per- 
istome white, with a brown spot at the root of the columella. 

Compact, solid, the umbilicus narrow and overhung by the trian- 
gularly expanded basal lip ; spire low; whorls 6i, slightly convex, 
the last descending in front, rather swollen around the umbilicus, 
which is obliquely excavated behind thebaso-columellarlip. Aper- 
ture nearly white inside, and showing the bands ; lip white, ex- 
panded, dilated over the umbilicus, and having a purplish-brown 
spot at its root and spreading a little upon the base, coloring it 
around the axis. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 32 mill, (large, thinner form). 

Alt. 22 i, greater diam. 30 mill, (average specimen). 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 23 J mill, (small form). 

Queensland in forest country, generally distributed. 

H. incei PFE. P. Z. 8. 1845, p. 126 ; Conchyl, Cab. p. 327, t. 58, 
f. 1-3 ; Monographia Hel. Viv. i, p. 329. Cox, Monog. Austr. L. 
Sh. p. 54, t. 5, f. 5. PHILIPPI, Abbild., ii, p. 83, t. 7, f. 3. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 356. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 1888, p. 59. 
Callicochlias incei FFLD Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1869, p. 875. 

An abundant species, usually smaller than H. appendiculata or 
lessoni, light buff with brown bands and lines and a white lip over- 
hanging the umbilicus. Although the columella has a dark spot at 
its root, there is no distinct brown circum-umbilical patch as in the 
closely allied H. yulei, a species further differing in its constantly 
brown lip. The variation in size is shown in my illustrations. The 
base around the umbilicus is clear yellowish, not suffused with brown 
or closely banded, as it is in H. appendiculata and H. lessoni. 

H. PR^ETERMISSI Cox. PL 43, fig. 40. 

Shell deeply, openly, and rather narrowly umbilicated, globose, 
solid, closely and finely striated, glossy, uniformly of a pale brownish 
yellow color, obscurely banded with fine pale chestnut lines ; spire 
obtusely conical ; whorls 7, rather convex, the last inflated and de- 




168 HELIX-HADRA. 

fleeted in front ; base rounded ; aperture roundly-lunate, pure white 
within ; peristome white, thickened, and slightly reflected, margins 
approximating, joined by a thin callus, columellar margin shortly 
dilated at the base, ? covering the umbilicus. ( Cox) 

Alt. l*QS, greater diam. 1'20, lesser 1-13 inch. 

Cape Direction, North-east coast of Australia. 

If. ( Camcena) prcet ermissi Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh., p. Ill, t. 20, 
f. 13. 

Closely allied to H. incei. 

H. MULGRAVENSIS Brazier. Unfigured. 

Shell umbilicated, turbinately globose, thin, smooth, very faintly 
obliquely striated with fine granulations (only seen under the lens), 
reddish yellow, with numerous spiral chestnut lines and bands ; spire 
conoid, obtuse ; whorls 6, convex, last deflected in front, base sculp- 
tured the same as the upper surface; umbilicus deep; aperture 
diagonal, lunate, interior purplish ; peristome reflected, tinged with 
brown, margins approximating and joined by a thin callus, col- 
umellar margin dilated and reflected, nearly covering the umbilicus. 
(Brazier.} 

Alt. ] in., 1 line, greater diam. 2 in. 4 lines, lesser 1 in. 2 lines. 

Large S. Palm Island, Northeast Australia. 

H. mulgravensis BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1872, p, 21 ; Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N. S. Wales v, p. 458, 1880. H. mulgravei Braz., HEDLEY, Proc. 
Koy. Soc. Queensl. 1889, p. 101. 

This species is distinguished by the numerous fine reddish lines 
encircling the whole of the shell, more numerous on the base, and 
by the pink and brown peristome. (Braz.) 

Brazier changes the name to mulgravei, because the locality given 
in his first description proved incorrect. See Hedley, I. c. 

H. CURTISIANA Pfeifler. PI. 47, figs. 90, 91. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, conoid-serniglobose, solid, striate, 
chestnut colored. Spire conoid-convex, whitish above, apex some- 
what obtuse; suture with a white thread. Whorls 6, slowly in- 
creasing, the last large, convex, subangulated above the middle, the 
base somewhat flattened, descending in front. Aperture nearly 
diagonal, rounded-lunar ; peristome scarcely thickened, narrowly 
expanded, the columellar margin triangularly dilated above. (Pff.) 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 25, lesser 17 mill. 

" Port Curtis, Australia." (Pfr.) 



HELIX-HADRA. 169 

Hcurtisiana PFR. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 528 ; Monogr. Hel. Viv. v, 
p. 343. Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 58, t. 20, f. 9, 9a. H. bala 
BRAZIER Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iii, p. 78, t. 8, f. 4, 1878. 
HEDLEY, Proc. Eoy. Soc. Queensl. 1889, p. 101. 

According to Hedley (7. c.) the H. bala of Brazier is synonymous. 
The locality given by Pfeiffer is said to be erroneous. The descrip- 
tion of H. bala is as follows : 

H. BALA Brazier. PI. 47, fig. 94. 

Shell umbilicated, conoidly semi-globose, moderately solid, nearly 
smooth, bright chestnut ; spire conoidly-convex, above light-brown ; 
apex obtuse, suture slightly crenulated ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, 
the last large, roundly convex, descending in front ; flattish at the 
base, aperture nearly diagonal, roundly-lunate; peristome moder- 
ately thickened and reflected, interior flesh-tinged ; margins approx- 
imating; columellar margin broadly expanded covering one-half of 
the umbilicus and joined by a thin callus to the upper margin. 
(Brazier.) Alt. 11, greater diam. 17, lesser 13J lines. 

Castle Hill, near Townsville, Cleveland Bay, Queensland; also 
Magnetic Island. 

H. AUREEDENSIS Brazier. Lnfigured. 

Shell umbilicated, depressedly globose, rather solid, very finely 
obliquely striated, and, under the lens finely granulated, dark chest- 
nut ; suture ornamented with a fine white thread, and also a broad 
dirty white undefined zone round the umbilicus; spire broadly 
conoid, obtuse; whorls 6 to 6J, convex, the five upper whorls of a 
reddish chestnut, the last increasing in size, rounded and deflected 
in front ; base convex ; aperture diagonally ovately lunate, brownish 
white within ; peristome straight, ivory-white, slightly thickened 
.and reflected ; margins approximating, right margin expanded, col- 
umellar margin arcuate and reflexed, concealing nearly half of the 
umbilicus, which is deep. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 1, greater diam. H, lesser H inch. 

Near Port Denison, Australia. 

H. aureedensis BRAZIER, P. Z. S. Lond. 1871, p. 640. HEDLEY, 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 1889, p. 102. 

Differs from H. incei in having a white sutural thread, but is pro- 
bably to be considered a variety of that species. 



170 HELIX-HADRA. 

Hedley writes, on the authority of Brazier, that the true locality" 
of this species is in the vicinity of Port Denison, not " Aureed Island,. 
Torres Straits " as first reported. 

H. JOHNSTONEI Brazier. PI. 34, fig. 5. 

Shell deeply perforated, globosely turbinated, rather thick, finely 
striated, banded with spiral chestnut bands, one very broad at the 
suture ; whorls 6?, moderately convex, last whorl large and descend- 
ing in front ; aperture ovately lunate, diagonal ; peristome white, 
moderately reflected, margins approximating, columellar thickened 
and expanded over the perforation. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 20, lesser 16 lines. 

Bowen, Port Denison, Queensland, Australia* 

H. (Hadra) johnstonei BRAZIER P. Z. S. 1875, p. 32, t. 4. f. 2. 

This species somewhat resembles H. incei in its markings, but is 
more conical, and has a thick, white and reflected peristome. (Bra- 
zier.} 

H. CREEDI Cox. PI. 47, figs. 85, 86. 

Shell deeply, openly, but rather narrowly perforated, globosely 
depressed, finely striated by lines of growth, dull fawn colored, 
darker towards the apex of the spire, ornamented by two brown 
bands, one forming a fine dark margin to the suture, the second 
rather above the periphery; whorls 5J, convex, the last rapidly 
increasing in size, rather inflated, descending in front, spire slightly 
raised, margin broad, impressed ; aperture oblique, thinly enamelled, 
shining and whitish within ; peristome a little thickened and broadly 
reflected, margins somewhat approached, joined by a thin shining 
callus ; columellar margin dilated, slightly covering the umbilicus. 
(Cox.) Alt. "70, greater diam. I'Oo, lesser '82 inch. 

CadelVs Straits, North Coast of Australia. 

H. creedi Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 110, t. 19, f. 2, 2a. 1868. 
PFR. Monogr. Hel. Viv. vii, p. 396. 

H. WESSELENSIS Cox. PI. 58, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Shell deeply, openly and rather broadly umbilicated, globosely 
depressed, white, thin, transparent, shining, very faintly striated by 
lines of growth, ornamented by two orange-brown bands, one very 
narrow forming a margin to the suture below, the second narrow 
above the periphery ; whorls 5, flat above, rounded, and rather 
dilated below, gradually increasing in size till the last J turn when 



HELIX-HADRA. 171 

it becomes flattened on the side and narrowed, and towards the per- 
istome sharply reflected and constricted below forming a broad deep 
channel running into the umbilicus ; suture deep, broad ; aperture 
ovately rounded ; peristome thin, margins much approached, un- 
connected by a callus deposit, right margin slightly everted, left 
and columellar margin broadly reflected, arching over the channel 
running into the umbilicus, formed by the constriction of the last 
whorl. ( Cox.*) 

Alt. *40, greatest diam. *83, lesser '65 inch. 

Wessel Islands, near the north coast of Australia* 

H. wesselensis Cox, Monog. Austr. L. Sh. p. 110, t. 19, f. 4. PFR. 
Monog. vii. 

H. SARDILABIATA CoX. PI. 34, figS. 8, 9. 

Shell deeply, openly, rather largely umbilicated, orbicularly con- 
oid, thin, smooth, very finely striated throughout, pale fawn-gray ;. 
whorls 6, gradually increasing in size, the last sharply deflected in 
front ; aperture oval, margins closely apppoximating, slightly thick- 
ened and reflexed, and of a polished pink carnelian appearance with- 
in; columellar margin triangularly dilated, overhanging the um- 
bilicus. (Cox.) Alt. '80, greater diam. I'lO, lesser "83 inch. 

ML Dryander, Port Denison, Queensland. 

H. sardilabiata Cox, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 54, t. 3, f. 3. PFR. Monogr. 
vii. H. Stephensoniana BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 639. HEDLEY, 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, 1889, p. 101. 

" This species is of a fine straw-yellow color on the last whorl, the 
other whorls being nearly white ; the lip is of a light pink color." 
(Brazier.) 

H. WHARTONI Cox. PI. 19, figs.'31, 32 ; pi. 33, figs. 68, 69. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed-subglobose, rather thin, yellowish 
with numerous chestnut spiral lines and bands, a broad one on the 
border of the umbilicus ; bands visible inside the mouth, continuing 
to the edge of the lip, which is only narrowly expanded on the 
outer margin, slightly more on the base, and dilated partly over 
the umbilicus. 

More depressed than H. appendiculata, the spire low-conoidal ; 
whorls 6, the last broad, depressed, descending in front. Surface 
showing under a strong lens an excessively fine close wrinkling, in 
the direction of lines of growth, visible only on perfectly fresh 



172 HELIX-HADRA. 

or unrubbed specimens. Aperture light inside, showing the bands, 
which continue to the edge of the lip. 

Alt. 24, greater diam. 33J, lesser 28 mill. 

Alt. 22 greater diam. 28, lesser 24 mill. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

H. whartoni Cox, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 55, t. 3, f. 5, 5a. PFR. Mono- 
graphia Hel. Viv. vii, p. 393 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 544, t. 165, f. 1, 
2,3. 

Thinner, more depressed than H. appendiculata, the dark bands 
not coalescent behind the lip, peristome less expanded, and mottled 
by the terminations of the bands, not white as it is in the species 
named. It is a thinner, less compact shell than H. incei, and the 
triangular expansion of the columella at the umbilicus is light 
colored, not marked by a dark spot. H. yulei differs in having a 
dark lip and larger umbilical dark patch. 

H. MOURILYANA Brazier. PI. 34, fig. 11. 

Shell narrowly perforated, depressedly globose, thin, finely 
striated, spirally banded with chestnut bands varying in width ; 
spire raised, whorls 6 to 6J, moderately convex, last descending a 
little in front ; aperture lunate margins rather distant ; peristome 
reflected, purplish-brown ; columellar margin thickened and ex- 
panded over the perforation. (Brazier.} 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 18, lesser 14 lines. 

Bowen, Port Denison, Queensland. 

H. mourilyana BRAZIER, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 31, t. 4, f. 1. PFR. 
Mon. vii. 

Compare H. yulei. 

H. YULEI Forbes. PI. 39, figs. 82, 83. 

Shell narrowly, almost covered umbilicate, globose-depressed, light 
yellowish, spirally striped and lineated with chestnut, the more con- 
stant and prominent bands being one just below the suture, another 
a little above the periphery, and a well-defined and very constant 
circular patch at the umbilicus. Lip dark brown. 

Spire convex-conoidal ; sutures superficial, edged by a inconspic- 
uous whitish line. Whorls 6, the last descending in front. Aper- 
ture oblique, whitish and showing the dark bands inside ; peristome 
expanded, dark purplish-brown, dilated into a triangular plate 



HELIX-HADRA. 173 

nearly closing the umbilicus ; parietal wall with a very thin layer of 
brownish callus. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 30 mill. 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 25J mill. 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 27 mill. 

Port Molle and islands off Port Denison, Queensland. 

H. yulei FORBES, in Appendix to narrative of the Voyage of 
H. M. S. Rattlesnake, p. 377, t. 2, f. 6, 1852 PFR. Monographia 
Hel. Viv. iii, p. 224 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 547, t. 165, f. 8, 9. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon. f. 1447. Cox, Monog. Austr. L. Sh. p. 57, t. 5, f. 3. 
HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 1888, p. 62. 

Very much like H. incei in stature and coloration, but separated 
from incei, whartoni, appendiculata, lessoni, etc., by the dark- 
edged lip. The umbilicus is more contracted by the overhanging 
lip than in the species named. The circular umbilical dark tract 
is also characteristic and constant. The dimensions given show how 
the form and size vary. The striping is very variable ; a form 
striped differently from the type is figured on pi. 23, figs. 65, 66. 

H. CHALLISI Cox. PI. 36, fig. 23. 

Shell solid, heavy, umbilicated, depressedly orbicular, closely, 
finely, striated, of a waxy yellow color, ornamented by six or more 
rather narrow dark chestnut bands of irregular sizes and distances 
apart, dark around the umbilicus ; spire moderately raised, bluntly 
convex, whorls 7, convex, very gradually increasing in size, last 
shortly deflected in front ; aperture ovately lunate, margins slightly 
approximating, joined by a thin callus, interior of aperture showing 
dark lines of ornamentation ; peristome straight, pure white, slightly 
thickened and reflexed, columellar margin triangularly expanded, 
half covering the rather narrow umbilicus. ( Cox.) 

Height 0-90, greatest diam. 1*22, least 0'89 of an inch. 

L. Island, near Broadsound, lat. 20 52', E. Longitl 149 37'. 

H. (Camcena) Challisi Cox, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 565, t. 48, f. 3. 
PFR. Mon. Hel. Viv. vii. 

Compare H. appendiculata, yulei, incei, whartoni, etc. 

H. NICOMEDE Brazier. PI. 47, fig. 87. 

Shell umbilicated, depressly globose, very thin, shining, distinctly 
obliquely striated and granulated throughout, light-brown, encircled 
with one pale yellowish band just showing above the suture ; whorls 



174 HELIX-HADE A. 

6, slowly increasing, moderately convex, scarcely descending in 
front ; periphery with faint keel, base convex, smoother than the 
upper surface, aperture diagonal, roundly lunate ; peristome white, 
simple, straight, margins scarcely approaching, expanded and re- 
flected anteriorly, columellar margin rather broadly reflected on the 
body-whorl. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 18, lesser 15 lines. 

Cardwell, Rockingham Bay, Queensland, Gould Island, in Rock- 
inghan Bay. 

H. nicomede BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iii, p. 79, t. 
8, f. 6, 1878. 

The following two varieties come from Gould Island, and are 
much smaller than those from the mainland : 

Var. a. Thinner, darker in color on the upper surface, granula- 
tion finer ; light yellowish band following the suture spirally to the 
apex. Alt. 8, greater diam. 13, lesser 1(H lines. 

Var. b. Thicker, light straw yellow, upper surface granulated, ob- 
liquely rugosely striated, keel more distinctly seen on the periph- 
ery ; peristome scarcely reflected at the columellar margin. Alt. 7, 
greater diam. 11 f, lesser 9f lines. (Brazier.) 

H. BEDDOM^E Brazier. PI. 47, fig. 82. 

Shell umbilicated, globose, inflated, very thin, distinctly obliquely 
striated, granulated from left to right, taking somewhat of a zig-zag 
form, smoky yellow, with a chestnut band under the suture having 
a faint broad one above, giving it a darker color ; body-whorl from 
the periphery dark chestnut; spire somewhat globular, suture 
smooth; whorls 5J, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last 
roundly convex, descending a little in front ; aperture nearly diag- 
onal, roundly lunate ; peristome below slightly raised somewhat in 
the form of a small obtuse callus-like tooth, bluish white, very little- 
expanded or reflected ; margins rather distant, joined by a thin, 
bluish-white callus ; columellar margin broadly expanded and re- 
flected on the umbilicus. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 17, greater diam. 23, lesser 18 lines. 

20 miles northwest of Cardwell, Rockingham Bay, Queensland, in 
the ranges at an altitude of 3500 ft. 

H. beddomce BRAZ. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iii, p. 80, t. 8, 
f. 7, 1878. 



HELIX-HADRA. 175 

This beautiful shell is very thin ; the granulations on its surface 
:are distinctly seen with the naked eye ; some run straight, some ob- 
lique or zigzag. The sculpture can only be compared to a fine 
double cross-cut file. The species is allied in color to H. bipartite 
Fer. (Brazier.') 

H. BEBIAS Brazier. PI. 47, fig. 88. 

Shell umbilicated, depressedly-globose, thin, obliquely finely gran- 
ulated, fulvous, ornamented with one rather broad chestnut band, 
on the center contiguous to the suture, above the center two thread 
like lines ; suture dark lined, crenulated ; spire sub-conoid, rather 
obtuse at the apex ; whorls 5?, rather convex, the last slightly de- 
scending in front, rounded at the periphery, convex at the base ; um- 
bilicus small, dark broad chestnut band encircling it; aperture 
nearly diagonal, Innately circular ; peristome bluish brown ; mar- 
gins approximating, columellar margin broadly reflected concealing 
half of the umbilicus. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 17i, lesser 13 lines. 

Garden Island, Rockingham Bay, Queensland, Australia. 

H. bebias BKAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales iii, p. 78, 1878. 

H. COOKENSIS Brazier. 

Shell umbilicated, turbinately globose, thin, finely obliquely stri- 
ated (under a lens), rugosely granulated ; spirally banded and lin- 
eated with deep chestnut lines and bands, spire conoid, whorls 5?, 
moderately convex, the last large and roundly convex, base convex, 
umbilicus deep and narrow, aperture oblique, ovately lunate, pur- 
plish within, peristome slightly reflected ; margins approximating, 
the right partly descending, columellar margin straight and broadly 
expanded partly over the umbilicus; with thin coating of callus 
Across the body whorl to the upper part of the peristome. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 16, lesser 13 lines. 

Cook Town, Endeavor River, northeast coast of Australia. 

H. TOMSONI Brazier. 

Shell umbilicated, depressedly globose, solid, surface covered with 
lengthened granulations ; distinctly banded with spiral chestnut 
lines and bands ; a broad one at the suture ; whorls 5, rather convex, 
the last roundly convex, base convex, marked same as upper sur- 
face ; having a dark broad band round the umbilicus ; aperture 
roundly lunate, bluish white within, peristome thickened and re- 



176 HELIX-HADRA. 

fleeted, margins approximating, the right descending, columellar 
margin largely reflected over the umbilicus. (Brazier.) 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 14, lesser 12 lines. 

Mount Elliott, Queensland. 

H. (Hydra) Tomsoni BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i,. 
p. 97, 1875. 

*** 
Species allied to Sphcerospira from New Guinea. 

The following shells differ from Sphcerospira in much the same 
way the latter differs from Badistes ; they are heavier, more solid, 
with well-reflexed peristome. 

H. BROADBENTI Brazier. PL 25, fig. 100 ; pi. 39, ngs. 75, 76. 

Shell large, umbilicated, subglobose with conoidal spire, heavy and 
solid, deep chestnut or purplish brown with a yellowish band on 
the upper and another on the lower surface of the body-whorl ; sur- 
face smooth, not granulate; lip pure white, reflexed all around, 
dilated and partly covering the umbilicus. 

The shell is strong, with conoid al spire composed of nearly 6 whorls, 
separated by sutures only slightly impressed. Surface lightly 
obliquely striatulate ; color yellowish, with a broad dark band be- 
low the suture, another forming an umbilical patch, and a very 
broad dark girdle around the middle of the body-whorl. The spire 
is lighter ; the dark bands coalesce on the latter part of the body- 
whorl. Last whorl somewhat but not much deflexed in front. 
Aperture oblique, wide, somewhat lunate, dark grayish-purple in- 
side ; peristome well reflexed, pure white, dilated at the columella. 
The back of the reflexed lip is white, the thin yellow epidermis 
usually being deciduous there. The interior of the umbilicus is white. 

Alt. 35, greater diam. 43, lesser 36 mill. 

Alt. 32, greater diam. 38, lesser 32 mill. 

Port Moresby, Hall Sound, Laloki and Goldie Rivers, New Guinea ; 
Is. Entrecasteaux. 

H. broadbenti BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 25. 
TAPPARONE-CANEFRI Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, xix, p. 188, t. 5, f. 
21 ; also 1. c., vol. xxiv (Ser. 2, vol. iv) p. 144, 1887. 

A large solid species, having two yellowish-brown bands on a 
'dark chestnut ground, lighter spire, the aperture dark inside. These 
characters, together with the white lip and total absence of 



HELIX-HADRA. 177 

granulation will separate the form from the somewhat similar species 
of Suleobasis (H. rehsei etc.). It should be noted that in the forma- 
tion of the aperture and lip, H. broadbenti is very similar to H. 
rehsei. 

H. HIXONI Brazier. PI. 25, fig. 91. 

Shell with a covered umbilicus, globosely depressed, rather solid, 
obliquely striated, more rugose on the lower whorl, white under a 
thin yellowish epidermis, mottled with irregular light brown opaque 
spots and spiral lines and bands ; whorls 4, convex, the last descend- 
ing a little in front, roundly convex, having a narrow line contig- 
uous to the suture, another just above, a broader one above it near 
the suture and breaking off on the second whorl into irregular spots ; 
spire obtuse, apex tipped with brown ; base convex, covered with a 
thin shining yellowish epidermis, encircled near the center with a 
narrow brown line running spirally into the interior ; aperture ob- 
lique, ovately rounded, interior blue black ; peristome white, thick, 
reflected, margins approximating, joined by a thin white callus show- 
ing a chestnut brown hue beneath, the right slightly flexuous ; col- 
umellar margin broadly expanded and reflected, covering the um- 
bilicus. (Brazier.} 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 40, lesser 3H mill. 

Hall Sound, New Guinea. 

H. Hixoni BRAZIER Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ii, p. 120. 
TAPPARONE-CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, xix, p. 187, t. 5, 
f. 22. 

Differs from the preceding in coloration and the covered umbili- 
cus. The locality is not certain, as the original specimen was ob- 
tained from a trader. 

H. PURPUROSTOMA Le Guillou. Unfigured. 

Shell orbicular, umbilicate, plane above, white, pellucid ; whorls 
4, somewhat convex, separated by a deep suture, the last orna- 
mented with a spirally descending rather wide purple-black band, 
convex beneath, white ; umbilicus deep, moderate, effuse and angled 
at its opening ; aperture most oblique, rotund ; peristome narrowly 
reflexed, within and outside rosy, strangulated. Alt. 9, diam. 20 
mill. (Quill.) 

Triton Bay, New Guinea. 

H. purpurostoma GUILL., Kev. Zool. 1842, p. 141. Pfr. Monogr. 
i, p. 377. TAPPARONE-CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, xix, p. 
159. 

12 



178 HELIX-HADRA. 

Not known except by the original description. Pfeiffer and Tap- 
parone-Canefri place it in Camcena, but it is more likely, if found, 
to prove a Hadra. 

Subsection XANTHOMELON Von Martens, 1861. 

Xanthomelon MART, in ALBERS, Die Heliceen, 2te Ausgabe p. 174 
(as sect, of Cochlostyla), type, H. pomum Pfr. VON MARTENS, Mal- 
akozoologische Blatter, xvi, p. 77, 1869. Galaxias (in part) Cox, 
Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. ^ 

A group of globular shells, especially characteristic of north and 
northeast Australia. They are connected with the typical manifes- 
tations of Hadra by such species as H. bitceniata, etc. The anatomy 
is similar to that of Hadra and Sphcerospira. 

The species are characteristic mainly of central and north Aus- 
tralia, comparatively arid regions in which the Sphcerospira and Ba- 
dites sections of Hadra are but sparingly or not at all represented. 

H. POMUM Pfeiffer. PI. 38, figs. 73, 74. 

Shell nearly covered umbilicate, globose, yellow, often reddish on 
the spire ; not spirally striated ; whorls 4 to 5 ; lip pure white, 
narrowly expanded all around, broad and flattened at the columella. 

The shell is globular, a little depressed, pure white under the epi- 
dermis, which is yellow, a little tinged with olive. Surface shining, 
having oblique growth-wrinkles, and little indentations or dents in 
places ; on the spire granulated more or less distinctly. Spire low ; 
apex obtuse ; suture rather deeply impressed. Whorls convex, the 
last subglobular, descending in front, a little constricted just behind 
the lip. Aperture oblique, round-lunate, white within; lip narrow- 
ly expanded, a little thickened within, the columella dilated into a 
broad flat plate which partly or almost wholly conceals the umbili- 
cus ; columellar edge bearing a blade-like callus. 

Alt. 36, greater diam. 38, lesser 34 mill. 

Arnhem Land, North Australia. 

H. pomum PFR., Symbolse ii, p. 37 ; Conchylien Cab. p. 318, t. 55, 
f. 11-13; Monogr. i, p. 320. PHILLIPPI, Abbild. i, t. 2, f. 8. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 362. Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh. p. 40, t. 4, f. 
7. TATE, Trans. R. S. S. Austr. v, p. 49. H. urvillei Hombr. & 
Jacq., Voy. Pole Sud, Moll., t. 3, f. 1-3. H. pseudomeadei BRAZIER 
in Harcus' S. Austr. Hand-book (name only). And in all proba- 
bility, H. sphceroidea LE GUILLOU, Revue Zoologique, p. 188, May, 
1845. 



HELIX-HADRA. 179 

This species is peculiar to Arnhem Land, though closely allied 
to H. pachystyla which ranges along the whole of the coast of North- 
east Australia. It was first obtained by MacGillivray at Port Es- 
sington, and has since been collected in the Port Darwin district. 
Prof. Ralph Tate found it widely but sparsely distributed over the 
country from Palmerston southwards to Pine Creek. It was only in 
the jungles near the coast that it seemed to be at all plentiful. 

H. pomum is umbilicated and has the outer lip expanded, whilst 
its ally from Queensland, If. pachystyla, is imperforate and its outer 
lip is blunt, slightly thickened within but not expanded. The 
Queensland shell has also obvious spiral striae, not shown in the H. 
pomum. The name pseudomeadii was proposed for specimens hav- 
ing the columella and parietal wall distinctly granulated. One of 
the specimens before me is so sculptured. 

H. BANNERI Macgillivray. PL 38, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell umbilicated, turbinately-globose, rather thin, obliquely ir- 
regularly striated and very thickly pustulated, reddish-yellow, with a 
yellowish band near the suture ; spire shortly turbinated, apex rather 
acute; whorls 4A, convex, the last ventricose, deeply descending in 
front ; columellar slightly arched, sinuous ; aperture almost diagonal, 
Innately rounded, somewhat pearly within ; peristome thin, shortly 
expanded, scarcely reflected, margins converging, joined by a thin 
callus ; columellar margin extremely dilated, reflexed in a vaulted 
manner, adherent, adnate. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 31, greater diam. 41, lesser 33 mill. 

Cape Direction, Queensland. 

H. banneri MACGILLIVRAY in Pfr., P. Z. S. 1862, p. 270 ; Mono- 
graphia Hel. Viv. v, p. 280 ; Novit. Conch, p. 213, t. 56, f. 10, 11. 
Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh. p. 6. 

A species not found as yet by Australian writers. Should be 
compared with pomum and pachystyla. 

H. NIGRILABRIS Martens. PI. 38, figs. 70, 71. 

Shell globular, umbilicated, yellow, with a broad chestnut-brown 
band above, extending from suture nearly to periphery ; surface 
covered with a dense fine wrinkling, in a direction at right angles to 
the growth-stride; aperture white within, the lip expanded ; lip, col- 
umella and parietal wall finely granulate, and of a deep chestnut 
color. 



180 HELIX-HADE A. 

The shell is globose ; spire conoidal, apex obtuse ; suture deep ; 
whorls 5, convex, the last descending, constricted behind the lip ; 
aperture round-lunar, white inside ; peristome expanded all around, 
very dark, granulate in adults ; columella dilated, half concealing 
the umbilicus ; its front edge very strongly arcuate, not straightened 
as in H. pomum. Columella and the dark callus on the parietal 
wall closely granulated. 

Alt. 34, greater diam. 34, lesser 30 mill. 

Liverpool River, Arnhem Land, N. Australia. 

H. Edwardsi Cox, Monog. Austr. L. Sh., p. 109, t. 19, f. 3, 1868. 
MARTENS, Novit. Conch, it, p. 45, 1. 118, f. 4, 5 (not H. edvardsi 
Bland). H. (Xanthomelori) nigrilabris MARTENS, Mai. Bl. xvi, p. 
79, 1869. CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1881, p. 20. H. Meadei 
BRAZIER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 662, 1870. TATE, Trans. Proc. 
Rep. Roy. Soc. S. Austr. v, p. 49, 1882. 

Separated from H. pomum by the fine oblique wrinkling of the 
surface, the blackish peristome, and the concave columella. 

H. ANGASIANA Pfeiffer. PL 38, figs. 60, 61, 62. 

Shell depressed-globose, deeply umbilicated, solid, with distinct, 
oblique striae of growth, and showing .under a lens numerous pecu- 
liar scratches on the surface of the body-whorl, descending in a di- 
rection at right angles to the growth-strite. Aperture round, much 
as in Cyelophorus ; lip reflexed all around. 

The shell is globose-depressed with conoidal spire. The speci- 
mens before me are bleached, lacking epidermis and color ; but ac- 
cording to Angas, living shells have two chestnut bands, one sub- 
sutural, the other above the periphery. Apex flattened ; sutures 
well impressed ; whorls 5, convex, the last somewhat descending in 
front, rounded at the periphery. Aperture not much oblique, cir- 
cular, the lip well expanded all around, terminations approaching, 
connected by a parietal callus. Umbilicus deep, rather cylindrical, 
its sides nearly perpendicular. 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 22, lesser 19 mill. 

Near Lake Torrens, S. Australia ; Darling River, N. S. Wales. 

H. angasiana PFR. Journ. de Conchyl. x, p. 228, t. 10, f. 2, 1862. 
Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 49, t. 6, f. 4. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 
1876, p. 267, t. 20, f. 13, 14. 



HELIX-HADRA. 181 

A shell of anomalous characters. In referring it to Xanthomelon 
I have been guided by a certain resemblance to H. nigrilabris in 
aperture and sculpture. 

H. NULLARBORICA Tate. PI. 40, figs. 96, 97. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, globosely conic, very thick, surface of 
a dirty white color, coarsely and closely wrinkled transversely, in- 
terrupted by equidistant incised lines, whorls 4J , rotund, and just 
perceptibly flattened at the suture, which is impressed. Last whorl 
somewhat inflated, descending but little in front, base convex. Ap- 
erture oblique, subcircular, peristome sub-acute, slightly reflected, 
margins joined by a callus ; columella margin thickly dilated above 
and nearly covering the umbilicus. 

Animal. Foot brownish-grey, muzzle black with white spots, 
tentacles black, collar grey and creamy white. 

H. Nullarborica has considerable resemblance to H. Angasiana, 
differing from it, irrespective of coloration, in its more globose form, 
minute umbilicus, in its wrinkled surface, and longitudinally im- 
pressed lines and in the callus covering on the pillar. 

The ridges of growth of the shell of H. Angasiana are regularly 
curved, and are interrupted by close set striae, giving rise to a gran- 
ulated appearance under the lens; but in H. Nullarborica they are 
wavy and varied in the degree of coarseness, whilst the incised lon- 
gitudinal lines are distant from 20 to 25 on the body-whorl, and 
help to give that pitted appearance to the shell which is observable 
by the unaided eye. The shell is moreover remarkable for its ex- 
cessively thick test, for its semi-fossilized aspect, and is devoid of an 
epidermis. It is very constant in form and color, though in size it 
presents great differences ; the dimensions given are those belonging 
to a specimen of the common size. I may add, to avoid misapprehen- 
sion on the subject, that I gathered many living examples. ( Tate.) 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 18, lesser 16 mill. 

Bunda Plateau, extending to the scrubby sandhills on its east, and 
to the Roe Plains at the foot of the Hampton Range, in Western Aus- 
tralia. 

H. nullarborica TATE, Trans, and Proc. and Rep. Philos. Soc. 
Adelaide, S. Austr., 1878-9, p. 133, t. 5, f. la, Ib. 

The specific name is adopted from that of the treeless portion of 
the Bunda Plateau known as the Nullarbor Plain. (Tate.} 



182 HELIX-HAJ3RA. 

H. FORRESTIANA Angas. PI. 38, figs. 64, 65. 

Shell narrowly perforate, globosely trochiform, rather thin, 
obliquely striated, very finely transversely granulated; from the 
apex to the middle of the last whorl fulvous chestnut with an indica- 
tion of a band of a lighter color between the periphery and the 
suture of the last whorl, below the periphery pale yellowish brown ; 
spire obtusely conical; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last rather in- 
flated, descending in front, a little contracted behind the aperture ; 
aperture very oblique, ovate, purplish brown within ; peri^tome not 
thickened, widely expanded, the margins approximating, joined by a 
thin callus ; the right margin slightly flexuous, brown ; the col- 
umellar margin white, dilated and reflexed, nearly concealing the 
perforation. (Angas.) 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 10, lesser 7 lines. 

Northwest Australia. 

H.forrestiana ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 389, t. 45, f. 3, 3a. ' 

A species of uncertain position. Differs from most Australian 
Helices in having the lip thin and broadly expanded. 

H. JANNELLEI LeGuillou. PI. 38, fig. 69. 

Shell narrowly and deeply umbilicated, globular, somewhat solid, 
horny-yellow, rather glossy ; the light wrinkled lines of growth de- 
cussated with irregular wrinkles, very closely set-together ; spire 
short, obtuse ; suture irregularly crenulated ; whorls 5, convex, 
rapidly increasing, last very large, inflated below ; aperture nearly 
diagonal, irregularly roundly lunate ; margins slightly approach- 
ing, and connected by a thin callus, white lipped, livid within ; per- 
istome flesh colored, uniformly curved, expanded outwardly, more 
so in front, and on the columellar margin, which is dilated above, 
somewhat callous within and outwardly partially concealing the um- 
bilicus. (CW.) 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 26, lesser 21 mill. 

Cape York, etc., northern Australia. 

H. Jannellei LEGUILL. Kev. Zool. 1842, p. 137. PFR., Monog. 
Hel. Viv. i, p. 322 ; Novit. Conch, iv, p. 46, t. 118, f. 9, 10. MAR- 
TENS Mai. Bl. xvi, p. 79, 1869. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 
1888, p. 59. H. pachystyloides Cox, P. Z.S. 1867, p. 725 ; Monogr. 
Austr. L. Sh. p. 41, t. 5, f. 4. 

Like H. nigrilabris in sculpture and umbilicus, but smaller, dif- 
ferently colored, etc. 



HELIX-HADE A. 183 

Brazier is in error in referring H. semicastanea to jannellei (Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. W. i, p. 126) ; this mistake was first made by Cox. 

H. PERINFLATA Pfeiffer. 

Shell umbilicated, globose, solid, decussated by rough growth 
strise and impressed lines descending forward ; yellowish-white ; 
spire convex-conoid, apex obtuse ; whorls 4i, the last large, ventri- 
cose, much inflated beneath, sculptured with obsolete spiral striae, 
deflexed in front ; aperture oblique, lunar-rounded ; peristome nar- 
rowly expanded, the columellar margin dilated in a plate over the 
narrow umbilicus. (P/V.) 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 23i, lesser 20 mill. 

MacDonnell Ranges, Central Australia. 

H. perinflata PFR. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 528 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. v, p. 
320. ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 520. Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh. p. 
45. ANGAS, Quart. Journ. of Conch, i, p. 135. HEDLEY, Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Queensl. vi, p. 250, 251, plate xiv, (anatomy.) 

H. LYNDI Angas. PI. 38, fig. 72. 

Shell imperforate, globosely conical, solid, obliquely plicately stri- 
ated, the upper whorls minutely granulated, the lower whorls dis- 
tantly and obscurely concentrically striate, light-chestnut color 
above, the last whorl brownish olive, with a faint indication of paler 
bands below the periphery ; spire convexly conical, apex obtuse ; 
suture distinct, crenulated ; whorls 5, convex, last whorl descending 
in front, and contracted behind the aperture ; aperture oblique, elon- 
gately oval, purplish brown within ; peristome with the margins 
approximating, and united by a thin callus, finely and sparingly 
granulated, the right margin expanded and reflexed, light brown ; 
the columellar margin angulated at the fore-part, broadly and flatly 
expanded, and slightly excavated at the upper part, white tinged 
with light brown and furnished with a few irregular granules. 
(Angas.} 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 20, lesser 17 lines. 

Port Essington, North Australia. 

H. Lyndi ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 610, t. 42, f. 1. PFR., Mon- 
ogr. vii. TATE, Trans. Proc. Rep. Roy. Soc. S. Austr. v, p. 49, 1882. 

This shell differs from H. pachystyla in the spire being more 
raised, the aperture being more produced anteriorly, with the mar- 
gins approaching, and the outer lip expanded and reflexed. It also 
differs in the character of the sculpture, and in being of a darker 



184 HELIX-RHAGADA. 

color, and having the aperture livid brown instead of white. This 
species has hitherto been obtained only from Port Essington, whilst 
H. pachystyla is widely distributed throughout Queensland. ( An- 
gas.) 

H. PACHYSTYLA Pfeiffer. PI. 38, fig. 63. 

Shell globular, imperforate, yellow with numerous oblique brown 
streaks crossing the whorls ; obsoletely spirally striated ; whorls 5? ; 
lip pare white, blunt, not at all expanded except on base and at the 
columella, which is reflexed in a broad flat plate, adnate over the 
umbilicus. 

The shell is globose with conoidal spire ; surface obliquely striate, 
decussated above by subobsolete spiral incised lines. The last whorl 
is deflexed in front ; aperture oblique, its inside and the lip pure 
white ; columella oblique, broad, its inner edge straight or a little 
convex ; it continues in a gracefully curved white callus across the 
body-wall, joining the posterior termination of the outer lip. 

Alt. 40, greater diam. 38, lesser 33 mill. 

Alt. 31, greater diam. 29 mill. 

Queensland, all along the coast. 

H. pachystyla PFR. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 71 ; Monogr. Hel. Viv. i, p. 
19 ; Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., p. 429, t. 150, f. 7. Cox, Mon. Austr. 
L. Sh., p. 40, t. 6, f. 8. VON MARTENS Mai. Bl. xvi, 1869, p. 77, 
with var. Dameli. SEMPER, Reisen in Archip. Phil., Landmoll. iii, 
p. 160, t. 17, f. 22 (Anatomy). HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 
1889, p. 121, t. 8 (Anatomy.) 

Differs from H. pomum as indicated under that species. It is the 
most abundant and widely distributed Xanthomelon. There is much 
variation in size and in the development of spiral sculpture. 

Von Martens describes a small form as Var. dameli as follows : 
Smaller (diam. maj. 33, alt. 32 mill.) ; aperture more elongated, col- 
umellar margin proportionally long, blade-like, projecting into the 
aperture, so that the dimensions of the mouth some distance within 
the lip are as long as broad, while in the normal form it is broader 
than long. Color darker, more brownish, the darker streaks less 
conspicuous. 

Cape York. 

Section III. RHAGADA Albers, 1860. 

Ehagada ALB. Die Heliceen, 2d edit., p. 108. Type, H. reinga 
Gray. 



HELIX-RHAGADA. 185 

This section comprises small, compact, globose-depressed Helices, 
of solid, chalky texture, characteristic of western and northwestern 
Australia. The color is white or whitish, unicolored or having sev- 
eral spiral bands and lines, of which one just above the periphery 
is the most prominent and constant. The outer lip is more or less 
expanded and generally thickened ; the columella is reflexed more 
or less, often closing the umbilicus. 

Von Martens (in Die Heliceen) places Rhagada between Dorcasia 
and Xerophila ; Pfeiffer (Nomenclator Heliceorum Viventium) be- 
tween Eremina and Tachea. It seems to me more naturally grouped 
under Hadra as a section, the characters of which have a direct re- 
lation to the conditions of existence in the arid desert region of West 
Australia. The anatomy is unknown. 

It is somewhat remarkable that two species of the typical form 
are found in the Malay Archipelago. 

The species falls into two groups : (1) Typical Rhagada, with 
rounded periphery, species of Western and Northwestern Australia, 
and (2) Group of H. silveri with the body-whorl keeled, surface 
strongly obliquely wrinkled, species of South Australia. 

Group of H. reinga Gray (typical forms). 
H. REINGA Gray. Vol. IV, pi. 36. fig. 39. 

Shell covered-perforate, globose-depressed, rather solid, obliquely 
striatulate ; whitish ornamented with one chestnut band and several 
orange-brown lines ; spire subelevated ; whorls 5, a little convex, 
sensibly widening, the last convex beneath, descending in front; 
aperture very oblique, narrow, subtriangular-lunar; peristome nar- 
rowly expanded, labiate with white within, the columellar margin 
straightened, obtusely and obsoletely unidentate. (P/r.) 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 15, lesser 13 mill. 

Australia. 

H. Reinga. GRAY mss., PFR., Symbolse iii, p. 73 ; Conchyl. Cab., 
t. 73, f. 8, 9 ; Monographia i, p. 289. REEVE Conch. Icon., f. 772. 
Rhagada reinga HUTTON Trans. N. Z. Institute xvi, p. 194. 

Formerly supposed to inhabit New Zealand, but now known to be 
an Australian form. 

H. RICHARDSONII Smith. Vol. IV, pi. 36, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell perforated (perforation concealed), globosely depressed, rather 
thin, finely striated by the lines of growth, whitish, the last whorl 
encircled with ten or twelve palish-brown lines (sometimes in worn 



186 HELIX-RHAGADA. 

specimens these are diaphanous and colorless) one of them a little 
above the periphery, being broader, and of a deeper color than the 
rest ; spire moderately raised ; whorls 4J-5, slowly increasing, the 
last conspicuously descending near the lip ; aperture very oblique, 
rhomboidal-lunate ; peristome white, thin, shortly expanded at the 
umbilical region, spread over the whorl in the form of a thin callos- 
ity, concealing the perforation and united to the lip above. (Smith.} 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 19, lesser 16 mill. 

Depuch's Is., West Coast of Australia- 

H. Eichardsonii E. A. SMITH, Voy. H. M. S. Erebus and Terror,. 
ZooL, Moll., p. 2, t. 4, f. 14. 

This species is allied to H. Keinga ; it differs in being of larger 
and thinner growth, in the number of the whorls, which are not so 
convex, being nearly one less, and in having the under side of the 
last whorl, which is proportionately larger, more flattened, especi- 
ally at the umbilical region which is overspread by a broadish thin 
callosity, united above to the outer lip. The greater deflection of 
the last whorl near the mouth is another notable difference, and 
the peritreme is thinner and more expanded. (Smith.) 

H. LEPTOGRAMMA Pfeiffer. Vol. IV, pi. 36, fig. 33. 

Shell umbilicated, globose, thin, striate, sculptured with close, con- 
centric, impressed lines, fleshy-whitish, ornamented above with three 
or four narrow reddish bands. Whorls 4 J, a little convex, the last 
one inflated, shortly descending in front. Aperture scarcely oblique, 
rotund-lunar, concolored within ; peristome white, simple, slightly 
expanded, margins joined by a diffuse very thin callus, the columellar 
margin much dilated, white, shining, reflexed, half covering the nar- 
row umbilicus. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 17, lesser 14 mill. 

Cygnet Bay, North Australia* 

H. leptogramma PFR. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 127 ; Monogr. i, p. 322. 
KEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 437. Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 41, t. 
11, f. 4. E. A. SMITH, Zool. Erebus & Terror, Moll., p. 2, t. 4, f. 18. 

H. DRINGI Pfeiffer. Vol. IV, pi. 36, fig. 40. 

Shell covered-umbilicate, depressed, thin, fragile, closely plicate- 
striate above, whitish, opaque, encircled by pellucid lines; spire 
nearly flat ; whorls 4?, scarcely at all convex, the last one somewhat 
compressed laterally, base smooth, inflated. Aperture lunar, con- 



HELIX-RHAGADA. 187 

colored ; peristome expanded, a little thickened within, the colu- 
mellar margin shortly arcuate, dilated, reflexed, appressed. (-Pff.) 
Alt. 7?, greater diam. 13, lesser 11 mill. 

Torres Straits, northeast Australia. 

H. dringi PFR. Symb. iii, p. 73 ; Monogr. Hel. Viv. i, p. 289. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 769. Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 64. 

Not seen by Cox, nor by the writer. The locality requires con- 
firmation. 

H. TESCORUM Benson. Vol. IV, pi. 36, fig. 34. 

Shell imperforate, conoid-globose, solid, whitish, irregularly stri- 
ated ; spire conoid, rather obtuse ; suture deeply channeled ; whorls 
5?, a little convex, the last rotund, deflexed in front. Aperture 
diagonal, round-lunar ; peristome thickened, the right margin 
slightly expanded, basal margin reflexed, columellar margin dila- 
ted, appressed. (-Pfr.) 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 191, lesser 17 mill. 

Shark's Bay, western Australia. 

H. tescorum BENS. Ann. Mag. N. H. 2d Ser. xi, p. 30. PFR. 
Monogr. iv. p. 233. KEEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1154. 

H. ELACHYSTOMA Von Martens. PL 11, figs. 41, 42, 43. 

Shell imperforate, subdepressed, rather thin, most minutely de- 
cussated with light oblique and spiral striae, somewhat shining, 
white, with a number of yellowish bands ; spire shortly conoid ; 
whorls 5, slowly increasing, a trifle convex ; suture moderate ; last 
whorl rotund, base flattened ; a little descending in front. Aperture 
small, very oblique, lunate-rounded, peristome thin, a little expanded, 
sublabiate with white inside ; lower margin straight, columella short, 
spreading in a subcircular rather thick central callus. (Mart.) 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 19, lesser 16 mill. ; apert. width 8, alt. 8 
mill. 

Mermaid Strait, Northwest Australia. 

H. elachystoma MART. Monatsb. der K. Preuss. Akad. Wissen- 
schaften, Berlin, 1877, p. 273, t. 1, f. 8, 9 ; Novit. Conch, v, p. 35, t. 
144, f. 1-4. 

Far more depressed than H. convicta, and smaller. 

H. CONVICTA Cox. PI. 14, fig. 65 (typical) ; pi. 35, figs. 8, 9, 10 ; 

pi. 30, figs. 7, 11. 

Shell of a compact, depressed-globose form, imperforate, solid, 
white, with a translucent band at the periphery; surface very 
delicately striate, nearly smooth. 



188 HELIX-RHAGADA. 

The spire is low-conoidal, composed of a little over 5 whorls, sep- 
arated by distinctly impressed sutures ; the last whorl is rounded at 
the periphery or somewhat obtusely angled at its origin and slowly 
descending in front. The aperture is half-round, white within, 
rather oblique, peristome thick, blunt, the outer lip a little expanded, 
columellar lip dilated in a thick pad of callus covering the umbilicus 
and adherent around it. There is no depression at the place of the 
umbilicus. 

Alt. 15, greater diam. 21, lesser 18 mill. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 23, lesser 18 mill. 

Nicholas Bay to Mermaid Strait, northwest Australia. 

H. eonvicta Cox P. Z. S. 1870, p. 171, t. 16, f. 6. VON MARTENS, 
Monatsberichte der Koniglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften zu Berlin, 1877, p. 272, t. 1, f. 6, 7. PFR. Mon. Hel. Viv. 
vii, p. 323. 

Larger than the other species, solid, compact, imperforate. Fig. 
65 of pi. 14 is from the original one of Cox ; this (typical) form is 
pale yellowish-white with two narrow brown bands, one near the 
center of the whorls, the other immediately below the suture. Figs. 
7, 11 of pi. 30 represent the slightly differing form described by Von 
Martens, with sharply defined peripheral band of reddish-brown, 
and a paler yellowish one at the suture ; the lip not thick ; ground- 
color a shining white. The specimen described by me and figured 
on PI. 35, figs. 8, 9, 10, is thick, heavy, white, with a scarcely notic- 
able translucent, narrow peripheral band. The lip is very thick, 
ivory-white. 

H. PLECTILIS Benson. PI. 35, figs. 16, 17, 18. 

Shell depressed-globose, nearly covered umbilicate, white, rudely 
wrinkled above (except the rather prominent obtuse apical whorl 
which is smooth), radiately striate below; last whorl very deeply 
deflexed in front ; aperture nearly circular, the ends of the lip ap- 
proaching. 

It is 'a compact little shell, chalky-white, solid, opaque. The sur- 
face has coarse, irregular, oblique wrinkles above, in places inter- 
rupted, forming low tubercles ; this coarser sculpture is covered by 
a minute granulation, visible only under a lens. The base of the 
shell has rather coarse, low wrinkles of growth. Whorls 4 J, convex, 
separated by impressed sutures. The earlier H or 2 whorls are 
smooth. The last whorl is very obtusely subangular at its origin, 



HELIX-RHAGADA. 189 

and descends abruptly and deeply in front. Aperture very oblique 
nearly circular, but a little wider than high, white within ; peri- 
stome expanded all around and arched in every part, dilated on the 
columellar margin, and reflexed nearly over the umbilicus. Parie- 
tal wall with a light callus. 

Alt. 10J, greater diam. 14, lesser Hi mill. ; alt. of aperture 8, 
breadth 9? mill. (meas. outside perist.) 

Shark Bay and Swan River, W. Australia. 

H. plectilis BENS., Ann. & Mag. N. H. 2nd ser., xi, p. 29. PFR. 
Mon. Hel. Viv. iv, p. 250. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1162. JET. pal- 
eata REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1399. H. (Dorcasia) plectilis Sens., 
TRYON, Manual of Conchol., 2nd ser. iii, p. 215, t. 49, f. 18, 17. 

The rude wrinkling of this compact little Helix is very character- 
istic. In sculpture this species forms a passage to the South Aus- 
tralian group of H. silveri. 

The strongly sculptured typical form is figured in Vol. Ill of the 
MANUAL, pi. 49, fig. 18 ; H. paleata of Reeve is figured on the same 
plate, fig. 17. 

H. CARCHARIAS Pfeifler. Unfigured. 

Shell covered perforate, conoid-globose, rather solid, seen under a 
lens to be most minutely granulated, flesh colored ; spire conoidal, the 
apex smooth, rather obtuse ; whorls 5, a little convex, the upper ones 
irregularly tuberculate-plicate, the last one ventricose, above more 
lightly plicate, beneath radiately striate, whitish, very deeply de- 
scending in front. Aperture diagonal, subcircular ; peristome simple, 
thin, narrowly expanded, the margins approximating, columellar 
margin broadly reflexed in a vaulted manner above the umbilicus. 
(P/r.) Alt. 10J-14, greater diam. 17-191, lesser 131-16 mill. 

Shark's Bay, Western Australia. 

H. carcharias PFR. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 528 ; Monographia Hel. Viv. 
v, p. 322. Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 45. 

Closely allied to H. plectilis Bens., but the sculpture is less rude, 
and the last whorl inflated. 

H. TORULUS Ferussac. 

This species, if really Australian, is probably a Rhagada. See 
this MANUAL vol. iii, p. 215, also Cox, Monograph of Australian 
Land Shells, p. 42. FERUSSAC, Histoire, pi. 27, figs. 3, 4, and 
PFEIFFER, Monographia i, p. 238. 



190 HELIX-RHAGADA. 

*** 

Species from the Malay Archipelago. 

H. COLONA Martens. Vol. IV, pi. 36, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, globose-depressed, sculptured above 
with oblique parallel close folds ; whitish, with obsolete translucent 
bands; whorls 4J, convex, separated by deep sutures, the first 1J 
smooth, last whorl rotund, rather smooth beneath, descending in front. 
Aperture very oblique, truncate-ovate; peristome thick, white, 
upper margin not expanded, arched, lower a little expanded, 
columellar margin reflexed, half covering the umbilicus ; parietal 
wall of the aperture with a distinct callus. (Martens.) 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 11, lesser 9 mill.; aperture alt. 5J, breadth 
6 mill. 

On Cypresses, Island of Dana, south-west of Timor. 

H. colona Martens, Monatsberichte der K. Preuss. Akad. Wissen- 
schaften zu Berlin, 1877, p. 272, t. 1, f. 4, 5 ; Novit. Conch, v, p. 36, 
t. 143, f. 20-23. 

Differs from If. plectilis and carcharias its nearest allies, in 
sculpture. It is a smaller species than H. solorensis. 

H. SOLORENSIS Martens. Vol. IV, pi. 36, figs. 31, 32. 

Shell nearly covered perforate, depressed globose, compact, opaque 
white with numerous spiral brown bands, of which one at the peri- 
phery is broader. Whorls 5-5 J, the last descending in front; per- 
istome thick, white, expanded, nearly closing the umbilicus by its 
dilated columella. 

The shell is solid, strong, opaque, compact, ivory-white with brown 
bauds, sometimes light brown on the whole upper surface. The 
bands cease before reaching the edge of the lip, leaving the back of 
the expanded peristome white, like its thick, convex face. Aper- 
ture oblique, half-oval, rather dark and showing the bands within ; 
baso-columellar lip straight, sloping, widened, spreading in a shining 
callus pad at the nearly closed umbilicus. 

Alt. 11 J, greater diam. 16J, lesser 14 mill. 

Alt. 14J, greater diam. 21, lesser 17 mill. 

Id. of Flores (east coast) ; and Solor, East Indies. 

H. solorensis MARTENS, Mai. Bl. x, 1863, p. 179 ; Ostas. Conchyl., 
p. 277, t. 17, f. 3. WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 408. PFR. Monogr. 
v, p. 353. 



HELIX-RHAGADA. 191 

There is also a variety of this shell with numerous grayish bands ; 
or perhaps the brown bands change to gray when the shell is dead. 

Group of H. silveri. (Glyptorhagada). 

Shell more or less strongly keeled at the circumference ; surface 
corrugated by strong oblique folds ; outer lip simple, not reflexed. 

H. SILVERI Angas. Vol. IV, pi. 36, fig. 44. 

Shell perforated, globose-conic, thin, corrugated by strong, oblique, 
flexuous folds, cretaceous ; spire conoid, apex obtuse, suture distinct ; 
whorls 6, a little convex, the last descending in front; periphery 
slightly carinated, base convex. Aperture oblique, suboval, margins 
converging, joined by a thin callus, the outer margin thin, acute, a 
little expanded, columellar margin expanded above, reflexed, half 
covering the perforation. (Angas.) 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 22, lesser 18 mill. 

The Eastern Plains, S. Australia. 

H. silveri ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 257, wood-cuts. 

H. KOORINGENSIS Angas. Vol. IV, pi. 36, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell umbilicated, somewhat globosely lenticular, rather thin, 
strongly obliquely flexuously corrugated, the corrugations more or 
less elevated and irregular, the interstices crossed with short, im- 
pressed, interrupted, transverse lines, especially on the basal portion 
of the last whorl, cretaceous,, white ; spire flatly conoidal, apex ob- 
tuse, sutures impressed ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last very 
strongly flatly carinated, not descending in front, the base tumid 
around the umbilicus ; aperture oblique, subquadrate ; outer lip sim- 
ple ; columella arcuate, slightly thickened and partly expanded 
over the umbilicus. (Angas.) 

Diam. maj. 1 inch, min. 10, alt. 6 lines. 

30 miles northeast of the Burra Mines, South Australia. 

This remarkable species is very similar in the character of its 
sculpture to H. silveri, Ang. ; but the corrugations are less regular, 
the umbilicus is larger, the shell is flattened, and the last whorl very 
prominently keeled. (Angas.) 

A. Kooringensis ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 33, woodcuts. Cox, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales for 1877, 2d. ser. iv, p. 1062, t. 20, f. 
3, 4, 5, (Animal) March, 1888. 



192 HELIX-CAM^ENA. 

H. BORDAENSIS Angas. Vol. IV, pi. 36, figs. 41, 42, 43. 

Shell widely and deeply umbilicated, lenticular, moderately thin r 
very strongly and irregularly obliquely flexuously corrugated, the 
corrugations becoming larger and more elevated toward the middle 
of the whorls; cretaceous, white; spire depressed, apex obtuse; 
sutures very strongly impressed and carinated. Whorls 5, nearly 
flat, the last depressed and strongly keeled above the periphery, not 
descending in front, slightly keeled around the umbilicus. Aperture 
oblique, semilunar; outer lip simple; columella very slightly 
expanded ; margin united by a thin callus. (Angas.) 

Alt. 62, greater diam. 16, lesser 14 mill. 

Cape Borda, Kangaroo Island, 8. Australia* 

E. bordaensis ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 419, t. 40, f. 3. 

This remarkable shell exhibits a somewhat similar sculpture to 
H. silveri Ang., and H. kooringensis Ang., but it differs from both 
these species in having the raised corrugations more numerous and 
elevated, displaying at the sutures and on the keel an elegant frilled 
appearance. It is also smaller, flatter, has a wider perspective 
umbilicus, and the corrugated ridges show here and there a tendency 
to bifurcate. (Angas.) 

Subgenus CAM^ENA Albers, 1850. 

Helices of rather large size, capacious, subglobose or depressed,, 
usually carinated, the surface generally malleated or obliquely 
wrinkled ; lip expanded or reflexed ; umbilicus narrow or closed. 
Embryonic shell (and consequently the egg) comparatively large,, 
but smaller than in Acavus. 

The characters of this group seem to place it between MACROON 
(Helicophanta -f- Stylodonta -f- Panda -f- Acavus) and HADRA. 

Broader knowledge of the Oriental Helices causes me to modify 
the arrangement set forth on page 89 of this work. I now relegate 
Thersites to Hadra as a section having but slight individuality; 
Camcena had better for the present be considered a subgenus, rank- 
ing with the other groups so denominated in this work. The determi- 
nation of its final rank and position awaits a knowledge of the 
anatomy, still lacking. 

It must constantly be borne in mind that the Camcena of which I 
write is a completely different group from the heterogeneous assem- 
blages of species under that name in the works of Pfeiffer and 
authors generally. The Australian group of Helices, Hadra, and 
the Japanese, Euhadra, seem to me to have nothing to do with 
Camcena. 



HELIX-PHANIA. 193 

Synopsis of Sections. 
Section II. PHANIA Albers. 

Shell depressed, imperforate, carinated, convex above and below; 
generally malleated ; unicolored ; junction of nucleus with the 
after-growth not distinct ; lip expanded, bright colored ; columella 
widened, adnate over the umbilicus, its edge with a convex blade- 
like callus. 

Section I. CAMAENA Albers. 

Shell subglobose, umbilicated or imperforate ; coarsely sculptured, 
generally malleated or finely corrugated ; generally banded ; nucleus 
about one-fifth the diameter of the shell, its junction with the after- 
growth distinct, columella concave, rounded. 



Section II. PHANIA Albers, 1860. 

Phania ALBERS, Die Heliceen, 2d edition, p. 157. Type H. lam- 
pas. VON MARTENS, Landschnecken der Ostasiatischen Expedi- 
tion, p. 325. PFEiFFER,NomenclatorHeliceorum Viventium p. 178. 

Shell large, solid, imperforate, depressed ; keeled at the periphery, 
convex above and below ; generally malleated ; unicolored ; peris- 
tome thickened, expanded, highly colored, dilated over the umbili- 
cus, the columella broadened somewhat by a plate or blade-like 
lobe of callus extending into the aperture; whorls about 4J. 

These characters define a group of shells characteristic of the 
Island of Halmaheira in the Moluccas, and the smaller islets around 
it. The several forms are very closely allied, and their variability 
causes me to surmise that they should be reduced to only three spe- 
cies. 

The affinities of the group, so far as they can be known from the 
shells alone (for the soft parts are still unknown), seem to indicate 
a position between the Ceylonese group Acavus and the section Cam- 
cena as reconstructed in this book. From both of these, Phania 
differs in not showing the junction of the embryonic nuclear whorls 
with the post-embryonic growth : a character always to be seen on 
the shells of Acavus and Camcena. Notwithstanding the fact that 
this character is masked, I am wholly inclined to the belief that the 
embryo of Phania undergoes a more prolonged ante-natal develop- 
ment than usual in the Helices, as is the case with Acavus and Cam- 
13 



194 HELIX-PHANIA. 

cena; that the eggs are few and as a consequence comparatively 
large, the young, when hatched, having a shell of several whorls. 



/Shell spirally malleated, especially on the base. 

H. LAMP AS Miiller. PI. 59, fig. 42. 

Shell imperforate, somewhat lens-shaped, rather thin, tawny, 
delicately striate, malleated, acutely keeled ; spire little elevated ; 
whorls 5, nearly flat, the last shortly descending in front, the base 
more convex, encircled by obsolete raised lines. Aperture trans- 
verse, subtriangular, livid or yellowish within ; peristome simple, 
slightly thickened, orange colored, the right margin expanded, 
basal margin reflexed, appressed, columellar margin dilated. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 29, greater diam. 74, lesser 64 mill. 

Island of Halmaheira, Moluccas. 

H. lampas MULLER Hist. Verm, ii, p. 12. GMELIN, Syst. Nat. 
xiii, p. 3619. PFR. Mon. Hel. Viv. i, p. 292. REEVE, Conch. Icon, 
f. 205. H. (Phania) lampas Mull., ALBERS, Die Hel. 2d. Edit., p. 
157. MARTENS, Ostas. Conchyl., p. 326. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, xx, p. 157, 1884. Helix carocolla CHEM- 
NITZ, (not of Linn). Helix carina WOOD, Index Test. Suppl. p. 
23, t. 7, f. 57. Corocolla magna SCHUMACHER, Essai Nouv. Syst., 
p. 192. Corocolla lampas GRAY and others. Discodoma yigas 
SWAINS., MalacoL, p. 329. 

The largest species of Phania. It is larger, and more depressed 
than H. pyrostoma. I have not been able to procure examples. 
Full notes on three specimens taken at Halmaheira, are given by 
Tapparone Canefri, who was the first to announce, the home of the 
species, which was formerly unknown, although the shell was des- 
cribed in the last century. 

H. PYROSTOMA Ferussac. PL 20, fig. 42. 

Shell large, imperforate, depressed, carinated, about equally con- 
vex above and below ; more or less malleated above and below the 
carina; whorls 4J to 4| ; color buff or flesh-colored under a thin 
brown epidermis; lip broadly expanded, reflexed, red, varying 
toward either orange or vermillion. 

The shell is solid, strong, the circumference more or less acutely 
keeled. The color varies from chestnut to light buff, under a thin 
epidermis, lost on the spire and the base in front of the aperture. 



HELIX-PHANIA. 195 

Whorls a little convex, slowly increasing, the last deeply descending 
in front, and losing the keel just behind the lip. Aperture very 
oblique, transversely oblong, white within, or tinged with the color 
of the lip. Peristome broadly expanded, reflexed, red ; the baso- 
columellar lip adnate to the base of the shell for nearly half the dis- 
tance from center to circumference. It is broadly dilated and 
adherent over the umbilical tract ; inner edge of the columella pro- 
jecting into the aperture in a rather broad, convex lobe or blade ; 
parietal wall with a light callus the same color as the lif> or lighter. 
Surface lightly obliquely striated, more or less obviously malleated 
above and below the peripheral keel. 

Alt. 33, greater diam. 56, lesser 46 mill. 

Alt. 32, greater diam. 54, lesser 42 mill. 

Island of Halmaheira, (' Jilolo' or ' Gilolo') Moluccas. 

H. pyrostoma FEB., Histoire, t. 15, f. 3, 4. PFR., Symbols iii, p. 
73 ; Monographia Hel. Viv. i, p. 295 ; Kuster's Conchyl. Cab. p. 
25, t. 67, f. 4, 5. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 176. VON MARTENS 
Preuss. Exped. nach Ostasien, Landschnecken, p. 325. DOHRN in 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 598, t. 175, f. 4. TAPPARONE CANEFRI Annali 
del Mus. Civ. di Storia Nat. di Genova, xx, p. 160, 1884. Carocolla 
pyrostoma GRAY. Lucerna pyrostoma H. & A. AD. H. (Phania) 
pyrostoma ALBERS. Phania pyrostoma MORCH, Journ. de Conchyl. 
xiii, p. 381. WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 408. 

A magnificent species, very variable in size, degree of carination 
and especially color. The indentations of the surface, like repousse 
work, are more constant and prominent on the base. They are not 
seen on the spire whorls. The keel is marked by a light line. One 
of the specimens before me is much more obtusely keeled than the 
figure on plate 20. 

Var. BUCCULENTA Tapparone Canefri. 

Shell large, aperture wider, transversely ovate, peristome of a rich 
orange color. Alt. 35, greater diam. 66, lesser 51 mill. ; width of 
aperture 46, alt. 31 mill., measured outside of lip and columellar 
callus. 

Var. EXTINCTA Tapparone Canefri. 

Shell very large for the species, the spire more elevated, peristome 
porcelain-white. 

This variety should be compared with the H. patricia of Pfeiifer ; 
it may be the same. 



196 HELIX-PHANIA. 

H. PATRICIA Pfeiffer. PI. 60, fig. 6. 

Shell imperforate, subdepressed, solid, carinated, above obliquely 
striated and irregularly malleated ; white (when denuded of epi- 
dermis, the color of which is unknown). Spire convex, apex 
obtuse ; suture linear ; whorls 4?, regularly increasing, a little 
convex, the last more convex above, deflexed in front ; less convex 
below the prominent, acute keel, sculptured with spiral lirse and 
radiating folds. Aperture diagonal, rounded-rhomboidal ; peristome 
white, shining, expanded and shortly reflexed, the margins joined by 
a white callus, columellar margin entering, sloping, widened and 
flattened. (P/V.) Alt. 35, greater diam. 63, lesser 55 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H. patricia PFR. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 23, t. 44, f. 4 ; Novit. Conch, 
p. 155, t. 41, f. 4; Monographia v, p. 310. 

H. SULCOCINCTA Martens. PL 59, figs. 39, 40, 41. 

Shell imperforate, subdepressed, rather solid, striatulate, having 
reticulating wrinkles and malleations, encircled with a rather acute 
keel at the circumference and several quite obtuse, not conspicuous, 
encircling carinse on the base ; purple-brown ; spire shortly conoid, 
obtuse ; whorls 4i scarcely convex, the last a little more convex be- 
low than above, shortly descending in front ; aperture very oblique, 
oblong-rounded, shining bluish inside ; peristome narrowly expanded, 
thin, orange-yellow ; margins disjoined ; columellar margin very 
oblique, dilated, thickened, forming a distinct angle where it joins 
the basal margin, and spreading in a callus over the umbilical tract. 
(Mart.) 

Alt. 32, greater diam. 59, lesser 46 mill. ; alt. of aperture 22, width 

22 mill. 

Island of Batjan, near Halmaheira, Moluccas. 

Cochlostyla sulcocincta MART. Monatsber. Berl. Akad. April 1864, 
p. 270. Helix (Phania) sulcocincta MARTENS, Preuss. Exped. nach 
Ostas., ZooL, Landschnecken, p. 327, t. 18, f. 1. 

Allied to H. pyrostoma ; but the lip is narrower and differently 
colored, and the last whorl descends less at the suture. Described 
from a single specimen. I am inclined to believe it a variety of the 
H. pyrostoma. 



HELIX-CAM^ENA. 197 

Shell not malleated. 
H. XANTHOSTOMA Herklots. PL 26, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell imperforate, subdepressed, obtusely angulated, rather solid, 
closely, lightly plicatulate-striatulate, a little shining, olive-brown, 
with scattered spots of buff; spire short, obtusely conoidal; whorls 
not over 4, slightly convex, the last deflexed in front, the angle 
there vanishing ; aperture very oblique, quadrangular-lunate ; per- 
istome thickened, narrowly reflexed, pale orange colored ; columel- 
lar margin callously thickened, reflexed in a dilated plate over the 
umbilicus. (Mart.) 

Alt. 24, greater diam. 50, lesser 36 mill. ; Aperture, alt. 24, 
breadth 26 mill. 

Island of Batjan (' Bachari* or ' Batchiari) near Halmaheira, Mo- 
luccas. 

Phania pyrostoma var. with yellowish lips, WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 408. Helix (Phania) xanthostoma (Herklots in Mus. Ludg. Bat.) 
MARTENS, Landschnecken der Ostasiatischen Expedition, 1877, p. 
327 ; and in Novit. Conch, v, p. 179, t. 151, f. 4-6. PFR. Mon. Hel. 
Viv. v, p. 499. 

Apparently a^well-marked species, differing from H. pyrostoma 
and H. sulcocincta in lacking the strong malleation so conspicuous 
in those forms. 

Section I. CAM^NA (Albers) Pilsbry. 

Camcena ABL. Die Heliceen, p. 85, 1850; 2d edit. p. 165, 1860, 
type H. cicatricosa. Eucochlias THEOBALD in NEVILL, Handlist 
Moll. Ind. Mus. pt. 1, p. 81, 1878 (in part.) 

Shell rather large, depressed globose or conoidal, dextral or sinis- 
tral, solid, yellow or brown usually encircled by numerous chestnut 
bands, of which qne on the lower edge of the periphery is most 
constant. Surface closely malleated or wrinkled all over; whorls 
about 5-5 J, the upper ones flattened, the last subglobose or carinated, 
scarcely descending in front ; peristome expanded or reflexed, its 
ends not converging, columellar margin dilated over or partly over 
the rather narrow umbilicus. The nucleus is rather large, (about | 
the diameter of the shell), consisting of 2 to 2 \ whorls, its junction 
with the after-growth marked by a (generally) distinct line. The 
young shells are acutely carinated. The columella is rounded. 

As constituted here, Camcena consists of species selected from the 
groups Hadra, Phania, Cochlostyla etc. of previous authors ; on the 



198 HELIX-CAM^ENA. 

other hand it differs from the Camcena of authors in the elimination 
of the species of Euhadra etc. My group is therefore essentially a 
new one, not equal in any sense to the Camcena of previous authors. 
These shells range from China to the Philippines and northeastern 
Borneo. They fall into two groups of species : (1) group of H. 
cicatricosa, embracing species of China and Farther India, and (2) 
group of If. monochroa, including the species of the Philippine 
Islands and northeast Borneo. 



Group of If. cicatricosa Mull. 

H. CICATRICOSA Miiller. PI. 21, figs. 45, 46, 47. 

Shell sinistral, umbilicated, subcarinated, depressed-globose, yellow 
with numerous chestnut bands and lines. 

The shell is globosely depressed, with a rather high dome-shaped 
spire ; the periphery is a little carinated in front of the mouth, but 
becomes rounded. It is solid and strong, of a straw-yellow color, 
with very numerous encircling chestnut lines and bands, the widest 
immediately below the periphery. The surface is covered with a 
dense, close wrinkling or malleation, the wrinkles irregular, obliquely 
descending on the upper surface, concentric on the J)ase. The spire 
has low, inconspicuous radiating folds below the sutures. Whorls, 
5|, those of the spire nearly flat, the last convex ; not descending in 
front. Aperture lunate, pinkish-white inside ; peristome white, re- 
flexed, dilated half over the umbilicus. 

Alt. 32, greater diam. 48, lesser 41 mill.. 

Alt. 26, greater diam. 40, lesser 33 mill. 

Central China* 

H. cicatricosa MULLER, Hist. Verm., p. 42, 1774 (a specimen with- 
out peristome). PFR. Monogr. i, p. 330. VON MARTENS, Ostasia- 
tische Landschnecken, p. 47. MLDFF. Jahrb. d. Mai. Ges. 1884, p. 
373, and of authors generally. H. cornu venatorium /?, GMEL. Syst. 
Nat. xiii, p. 3641. H. contraria HUMPHREY, Mus. Calonnianum, 
p. 60. H. senegallensis contraria arborea CHEMN. Conch. Cab. ix, 
p. 85, f. 917, 918. H. senegalensis Chemn., FERUS. Hist., t. 78, f. 1. 
2 ; and of 'Lam. edit. 2. H. chinensis VOIGT, Cuvier's Thierreich, 
transl. iii, p. 61. Ariophanta cicatricosa Mull., Beck, Index, p. 5. 
H. cicatricosa var. ducalis ANCEY, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, 1885, p. 
129. H. cicatricosa var. inftata MLDFF., Jahrb. d. Mai. Ges. 1885, 
p. 393, t. 11, f. 20. 



HELIX-CAMJENA. 199 

An abundant and well-known shell. Its geographical range com- 
prises a considerable portion of central China. Mollendorff says : 
This species seems to range over the entire province of Guang-dung. 
I have found it besides in Canton, and the hilly district around it 
especially in gardens. Missionary Fuchs has traced it from around 
Liendschou to Canton, but not on the other side of the water-shed in 
Hunan. On the coast it is lacking at Swatow, has not been observed 
at Amoy or Fudschou, and according to Heude is not found in the 
Yangtze Valley. It seems to be absent at Hongkong and the other 
coast islands, as well as upon the adjacent mainland ; those found in 
the gardens and parks of Hongkong having doubtless been imported 
from Canton with plants. The same is true at Macau, where I have 
seen it in Camoens' garden. At both places only small (dwarfed ?) 
specimens occur. 

Var. INFLATA Mollendorff. PI, 25, fig. 101. 

Differs from the type in the much more globose shell, the periph- 
eral angle obsolete ; last whorl much inflated, gibbous, umbilicus 
nearly closed. Alt. 32, greater diam. 46, lesser 37 mill. (Mldff.) 
Tshien-ti-shan, province of Oui-dshou, China. 

Var. DUCALIS Ancey. 

Larger than the type ; collumellar lip much more dilated, broadly 
triangular, more reflexed, everted over the umbilicus, nearly closing 
it. Shell more strongly malleated above. Diam. maj. 74, inin. 67 
mill. (Ancey '.) 

Kouy-yang-fou, province of Kouy-tcheou. 

H. SERAPHINICA Heude. PL 69, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell large, sinistral, solid, narrowly umbilicated, excavated 
around the umbilicus ; epidermis brown, encircled by a broad black 
band above and below the carina, and another narrower one at the 
suture ; suture excavated ; spire subturbinate, whorls 7, keeled at 
the suture, the last rapidly increasing, with a thread-like keel at the 
periphery. Aperture elliptical deflexed, nearly horizontal ; per- 
istome subsimple, a little reflexed, umbilicus penetrating. 

Alt. 30, greater diam, 55, lesser 48 mill. (Heude.) 

Si-lin (Kouang-si), China. 

H. seraphinica H., Journ. de Conchyl. 1889 ; Notes sur les Moll. 
Terr, de la Vallee du Fleuve Bleu, p. 141, t. 38, f. 11 (1890.) 



200 HELIX-CAM^ENA. 

H. HAHNI Mabille. PL 24, figs. 76, 77 ; pi. 65, fig. 88. 

Shell sinistral, narrowly umbilicate, depressed, solid, opaque, rich 
chestnut brown ; surface scarcely shining, covered with a dense 
granulation, very minute and nearly obsolete on the whorls of spire, 
coarser on the last whorl, quite coarse beneath ; spire whorls with 
low, irregular radiating folds, broken into low tubercles at the 
periphery of penultimate whorl ; growth-lines coarse and irregular 
on the last whorl ; whorls 5, the upper ones subplanulate, sutures 
not impressed, the last whorl convex above, the suture becoming 
impressed ; periphery carinated, base convex, whorl not deflexed at 
aperture ; aperture oblique, lunar, livid inside ; peristome thick, 
expanded all around, purplish flesh-colored, terminations not con- 
verging, columellar margin considerably dilated, half concealing 
the umbilicus ; parietal wall with a very thin, flesh-colored callous. 

Alt. 20, diam. maj. 45, min. 40 mill. 

Alt. 28, diam. maj. 45, min. 39 mill. Width of umbilicus 3 mill, 
(specimen.) 

Tonquin. 

H. hahni MABILLE, Moll. Tonk. diagn., p. 3 (May, 1887) ; Bull. 
Soc. Mai. France, 1887, p. 82, t. 4, f. 9, IQ. Camcena Hahni ANCEY, 
Le Naturaliste (Pans) 1888, p. 71. Ariophanta Broti D'HAM. & 
DAUTZ., Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 214, t. 8, f. 1. 

Differs from H. cicatricosa in being more depressed, more cariiia- 
ted, with deeper color and different sculpture. I am indebted to 
L'ABBE A. VATHELET for the specimen described above. The first 
given measurements are from Mabille's description. 

A figure of the synonymous A. Broti is given on pi. 65, fig. 88. 

H. SUBGIBBERA Mollendorff. PI. 25, figs. 89, 90. 

Shell dextral, umbilicated, subdepressed-globose, solid, sculptured 
with transverse close, rough striae and wrinkles, which are obliquely 
descending on the upper surface, concentric on the base. Color pale 
brown, painted with numerous brown bands, a wider blackish-chest- 
nut one at periphery. Whorls 5i, the upper subplane, the follow- 
ing convex, the last subacutely angled at the periphery, base much 
inflated, almost gibbous, compressed and somewhat angled around 
the umbilicus. Aperture diagonal, lunate-rounded, peristome nar- 
rowly expanded, a little reflexed, margins joined by a thin callus ; 



HELIX-CAM^ENA. 201 

columellar margin thickened, dilated, partly covering the umbili- 
cus. (Mlldff.) Alt. 36, greater diam. 48, lesser 40 mill. 

Province of Guang-dung, China. 

Helix (Hadra) subgibbera v. MOLLDFF, Jahrb. D. M. Ges. '1885, 
p. 394, t. 11, f. 21. 

The open umbilicus, coloration and marking show this to be 
closely allied to H. cicatricosa ; and it might be considered a dex- 
tral variety of that shell were it not for the more convex whorls, 
stronger peripheral keel, finer sculpture, and the inflation of the 
last volution. The above description is from Mollendorff. Two 
specimens were collected by Dr. Gerlach, a few days travel inland 
from Hongkong. 

H. LEONHARDTI Mollendorff. Unfigured. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, globose-depressed, a little solid, trans- 
versely striatulate and minutely granulose, a little shining, pale 
brown, ornamented with numerous brown bands, one at the periph- 
ery wider ; whorls 5, the upper subplane, following a little convex, 
the last rather acutely angulated at the periphery, base more con- 
vex, obtusely angulated around the profound, funnel-shaped umbil- 
icus ; not descending in front. Aperture oblique, lunate-rounded, 
peristome expanded, a little reflexed, labiate with white, margins 
joined by a very thin callus, columellar margin dilated, partially 
concealing the umbilicus. Alt. 26, greater diam. 44, lesser 38 mill. 



Nien-hang-li, eastern part of the province Guang-dung, China. 

Hadra Leonhardti MLLDFF. N. D. M. Ges. 1888, p. 42. 

A species similar to H. subgibbera Mlldff., but easily distinguished 
by being more depressed, the umbilicus wider, lacking wrinkles of 
the surface ; by the luster, granulation, less inflated, scarcely gib- 
bous, more angulated last whorl. 

H. ILLUSTRIS Pfeiffer. PL 13, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell with the umbilicus covered or having a minute chink be- 
hind the lip ; solid and strong, opaque, yellow or reddish-brown, 
often with a dark line or narrow band at the periphery, which is 
more or less keeled. Surface slightly shining, covered with a close 
malleated sculpture of irregular wrinkles, which above are coarse and 
obliquely descending, but are finer beneath and concentric. The 
spire is dome-shaped, obtuse ; suture superficial on the upper whorls 
becoming impressed around the last one. Whorls 5, the inner 2 



202 HELIX-CAM^ENA. 

forming the nucleus, the junction of which with the after-growth is 
distinctly marked by a line ; the next whorl is nearly flat ; the last 
whorl is convex above, bluntly carinated at the periphery, convex 
below, and generally descends a trifle (1 to 2 mill.) in front. Aper- 
ture oblique, lunate, livid-bluish inside ; entire peristome expanded, 
reflexed, the basal margin straightened, (appearing curved forward 
in the middle, seen from beneath), the columellar margin a very 
short curve at right angles to the basal lip, very broadly expanded 
over the narrowly perforated axis, entirely or nearly closing the um- 
bilicus. 

Alt. 36, greater diam. 56, lesser 46 mill. 

Cambodia. 

H. illustris PFR. P. Z. S. 1862, p. 269, t. 36, f. 8 ; Monogr. Hel. 
Viv. v, p. 275 ; Novit. Conch, ii, p. 208, t. 55, f. 1-3. MARTENS 
Ostas. Landschn. p. 328. DOHRN Kuster's Conchyl. Cab. p. 581, t. 
171, f. 4, 5. 

A large, solid species, either reddish-brown or yellow in color and 
often encircled at the periphery by a brown zone. On one speci- 
men before me this is replaced by a cream-colored line. The spe- 
cies is about mid-way between H. cicatricosa and H. ochthoplax in 
character of contour and sculpture, and is about equally allied to 
each of them. Dohrn is undoubtedly right in referring it to Cam- 
cena instead of Phania. I had arrived at the same conclusion be- 
fore seeing his note in the Conchylien Cabinet. 

H. OCHTHOPLAX Benson. PI. 61, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell deeply, half-covered umbilicate, depressed, convex above, 
more convex beneath, thick lens-shaped, rather obtusely carinated 
at the periphery, rather thin, opaque, with a thin yellow epidermis. 
Surface obscurely malleated all over, the sculpture consisting of 
low, rather indistinct and irregular revolving wrinkles. Spire low, 
convex, apex plane, suture superficial. Whorls barely 5, nearly 
flat, regularly increasing, the earlier 2 1 forming the nucleus, which 
is rather large, (about 12 mill, diam.) and which is separated 
from the after-growth by a distinct arcuate line. The last whorl is 
depressed, carinated at the circumference, and does not descend in 
front. The aperture is oblique, lunate, livid flesh-color inside; 
peristome thin, expanded, the basal margin seen to be arched a 
little forward when viewed from beneath ; columellar margin short, 



HELIX-CAM^ENA. 203 

broadly dilated, half covering the umbilicus. Umbilicus deep, 
rather narrow. 

Alt. 29, greater diam. 55, lesser 46 mill. (Specimen.') 

Alt. 26, greater diam. 54, lesser 46 mill. (Bens.} 

Khasi Hills ; Pegu. 

H. ochthoplax BENS. Ann. Mag. N. H. 1860, vi, p. 190. PFR. 
Monogr. v, p. 400. H. ochthoplax Sens., THEOBALD & HANLEY, 
Conchol. Ind. t. 26, f. 5. Helix (Eucochlias*) ochthoplax Bens., 
NEVILL, Handlist Moll. Ind. Mus. pt. 1, p. 81, 1878. Nanina 
(Oxytes) ochthoplax Bens., PFR. Nomencl. Hel. Viv. p. 54, 1881. 
TRYON, Manual of Conchol. 2d series, ii, p. 129. 

This form is like illustris in general characters, but is more 
depressed and umbilicated. The sculpture is less distinct than in 
the other species, and the lip is expanded but not reflexed. The 
figures on plate 61 are drawn from a specimen received from Nevill. 
The figure in Conchologia Indica has been copied by Tryon in 
volume II of this work, under the section Oxytes of Nanina, where 
of course, it does not belong. 

H. ochthoplax is the type of the subgenus Eucochlias of Theobald f 
placed by Nevill between Stylodon and Hadra, and containing 
besides the type, H. bougainvillei, illustris, sulcocincta and pyrostoma. 
The second of these is correctly associated with ochthoplax ; but 
bougainvillei belongs to Hadra, near such species as H. semicas- 
tanea ; sulcocincta and pyrostoma belong to the section Phania. As 
H. ochthoplax is a genuine Camcena of the cicatricosa type, Eucoch- 
lias must be regarded as an absolute synonym of Camcena. 

Blanford says of the animal : A true Helix, nearly black, w T ith 
pale tawny markings, surface granulate ; jaw grooved. 

H. SATURNIA Gould. PL 60, fig. 5. 

Shell umbilicated, thick-lens-shaped, rather thin, obliquely stri- 
ated and very minutely granulated, tawny; spire conoid-convex, 
obtuse ; suture submargined ; whorls 4|, nearly plane, regularly in- 
creasing, the last somewhat swollen toward the suture, not descend- 
ing in front ; periphery rather acutely keeled, base inflated, obsoletely 
spirally sulcated. Umbilicus moderate sized, open. Aperture little 
oblique, rhombic-lunar ; peristome expanded and reflexed, the ter- 
minations joined by a thin callus ; columellar margin nearly vertical, 
reflexed in a vaulted manner. (P/V.) 

Alt. 24, greater diam. 53, lesser 45 mill. 

Tavoy, Burmah. 



204 HELIX-CAM^NA.' 

H. saturnia OLD. Proc. Bost. Soc. K H. ii, p. 98, 1845. PFR. 
Monogr. Hel. Viv. iii, p. 250 ; iv, p. 299. HANLEY & THEOBALD, 
Conch. Indica, t. 25, f. 3H. (Phanid) saturnia Gld., PFEIFFER, 
Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 178. 

This species is more nearly allied to H. ochthoplax Bens, than to 
any other described form. It differs in the longer, nearly vertical 
columella and other characters. 

jEf. saturnia has been placed by Albers and Pfeiffer in Phania ; I 
am confident, however, that it is a true Camcena (as that subgenus is 
herein rehabilitated), and that when specimens are examined they 
will show the large, distinctly marked nucleus (about one-fifth the 
diameter of the shell, and composed of about 2? whorls) characteristic 
of that subgenus. I have not seen specimens. 

H. HAINANENSJS Adams. PI. 21, figs. 53, 54. 

Shell dextral, elevated, globose, rimate, or almost closed perforate, 
generally as high as wide or nearly so. Color greenish-yellow, with 
numerous spiral bands and lines. 

The shell is globose, elevated and dome-shaped above, rather 
flattened on the base. It is strong and solid, greenish-yellow with 
numerous narrow bands and lines of dark-chestnut, and a narrow 
blackish-brown girdle at the periphery ; the bands more numerous 
above than below the periphery. The surface is shining, and all 
over is closely finely corrugated by obliquely descending wrinkles, 
becoming concentric on the base. Whorls 5 ; apex obtuse ; earlier 
whorls flattened, with superficial linear suture ; last whorl convex 
just below the suture, rounded at periphery, not descending in front. 
Aperture oblique, small, livid within; peristome expanded, the 
basal margin narrowly reflexed, the columellar margin suddenly 
expanding into a reflexed triangular callus covering the umbilicus 
except a narrow chink behind the lip. Margins of lip remote, con- 
nected by a thin translucent sinuous callus. 

Alt. 40, greater diam. 41, lesser 36 mill. 

Alt. 34, greater diam. 39, lesser 34 mill. 

Alt. 41, greater diam. 46, lesser 38 mill. 

Island of Hainan, Southern China. 

H. hainanensis H. AD. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 8, t. 1, f. 15. MARTENS 
in Novit. Conch, iv. p. 9, t. Ill, f. 5-7. PFR. Monographia, viii, p. 
366. MLLDFF. in Jahrb. D. Mai. Gesell. 1884, p. 374, t. 7, f. 3. 



HELIX-CAM^ENA. 205 

A handsome shell, allied to H. xantlioderma but more elevated, 
and with the umbilical perforation not completely covered by the 
reflexed columellar lip. The measurement last given above is from 
Mollendorff. The others are from shells before me. This shell has 
a certain resemblance to the Australian helices included in the sec- 
tion Sphcerospira. It may be separated at once from them by its 
surface-sculpture and large nucleus. 

H. GABRiELLuE Dautzenberg & d'Hamonville. PI. 42, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell narrowly but profoundly umbilicated. Spire slightly 
elevated. Whorls 6, a little convex, sculptured by arcuate striae 
and very irregular wrinkles. Last whorl scarcely descending in 
front, the base convex, subangulated at the periphery. Aperture 
lunate-subquadrate. Columella oblique, reflexed at the perforation ; 
lip reflexed, margins joined by a very thin shining callus. Color 
grayish-buff, with a rufous line at the periphery. Peristome white. 
(Dautz. & Hamon.} Alt. 24, greater diam. 32, lesser 28 mill. 

Road of Bac-Ninh, at Lang-Son, Tonquin. 

H. gabriellce DAUTZ. & HAMONV. Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 
216, t. 8, f. 2.Hadra Gabriellce ANCEY, Le Naturalists, 1888, p. 
71, fig. l.H. bathmophora MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr. 1887. 
H. bathymophora (typog. err.) in this volume, antea p. 120. 

According to Ancey (1. c.) the H. bathmophora of Mabille is a 
synonym. I cannot tell whether that species belongs where I have 
placed it or here in Camcena, without knowing whether its nucleus 
is large or minute. If bathmophora really prove a synonym of 
gabriellce (which I have no reason to doubt), it is likely that H. 
jaculata of Mabille will also be found to belong to Camcena. 

It is more depressed than H. hainanensis, smaller, with slenderer 
spire and different coloration. The following variety seems to me to 
stand intermediate between hainanensis and gabriellce. The species 
xanthoderma, hainanensis, gabriellce and their varieties will probably 
be found to constitute a continuous series of modifications, when full 
collections are made. 

Yar. SUBHAINANENSIS Pilsbry. PI. 42, fig. 28. 

Shell smaller, less elevated than hainanensis, with more conoidal, 
more acute but less elevated spire; whorls 51, rapidly widening, 
sculptured as in hainanensis; color a light straw tint, encircling by 
a chestnut zone at periphery, visible above the suture on the penulti- 
mate whorl, the specimen before me having three brown lines above 



206 HELIX-CAM^NA. 

the zone. Umbilicus like that of hainanensis not wholly covered by 
the reflexed columellar lip. Alt. 29, diam. 35 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H. XANTHODERMA Mollendorff. PI. 26, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell dextral, imperforate, depressed-globose, broad, yellow or 
greenish-yellow, with a narrow, blackish-brown band at the periph- 
ery, and another encircling the axis, partly concealed by the callus 
of the columella. 

The shell is depressed with conoidal spire; strong and solid, 
slightly shining, closely, finely corrugated all over by oblique wrink- 
les. The apex is blunt, nuclear whorl light corneous in color, with 
arcuate radiating striae seen only under a lens. Whorls 5, a trifle 
convex, slowly widening, the suture at first linear and superficial, 
becoming impressed ; last whorl convex, descending only a trifle 
(about one millim.) anteriorly. Aperture oblique, bluish -white in- 
side and showing the band, which is continued to the edge of the 
lip ; peristome expanded, suddenly dilated near the columellar in- 
sertion, reflexed and completely adnate over the umbilical tract, 
which is covered by a shining callus ; parietal wall covered by a 
translucent wash of callus. 

Alt. 40, greater diam. 49 mill. 

Alt. 43, greater diam. 50, lesser 43 mill. 

Alt. 40, greater diam. 44, lesser 37 mill. 

Ma-an-shan Mts., province of Guang-dung ; smaller form on the 
island of Hongkong, China. 

Helix f (an Cochlostyla ) xanthoderma O. von MOLLENDORFF, 
Jahrb. D. M. Gesell. ix, p. 185, 1882 ; loc. cit. 1884, p. 375, t. 7, f. 
1, 2 ; and var. polyzona MLLDFF. loc. cit., p. 378, t. 8, f. 1, 2. 

A handsome shell, less elevated than H. hainanensis, larger and 
wholly imperforate. 

The following variations are noted by Mollendorff. I translate 
his words : 

1. Specimens from Lofoushan ; form as in typical xanthoderma, 
but with many bands. 

2. Specimens from Da-peng-tsheng ; also banded, but higher, not 
attaining the altitude of H. hainanensis. 



HELIX-CAM.ENA. 207 

3. Var. POLYZONA Mollendorff. PL 26, fig. 3. 

Always raultifasciate with brown ; shell elevated-globose, like H. 
hainanensis in contour, and proportionally more elevated ; umbili- 
cus wholly covered. 

Alt. 43, diam. 46 mill. ; alt. 45, diam. 48 mill. 

Hongkong, China. 

All three agree with xanthoderma in the fine, regular wrinkling, 
the strongly raised last whorl, and the total lack of umbilical fissure. 
I believe, therefore, that a combination of all these forms with hain- 
anensis is not necessary, but that the banded form from the main- 
land and from Hongkong may be referred to H. xanthoderma, and 
H. hainanensis be left as a distinct species. (Mlldff.^) 

Group of H. monochroa Sowb. 

The following Philippine Island species have been variously 
classed by authors. The large nucleus and malleated sculpture show 
them to belong to Camcena (as I have restricted that section) rather 
than to Hadra. It may be noted that while many Philippine 
Island helices belong to groups distributed to the south and south- 
west of the Archipelago, the Camcena are evidently of northern der- 
ivation, being more allied to the species of China. 

H. TRAILLI Pfeiffer. PL 23, figs. 63, 64. 

Shell large, globose-conoid (or turbinate), elevated, narrowly 
nearly closed umbilicated ; solid, strong, opaque, russet-brown above, 
becoming reddish-chestnut on the body-whorl, encircled by an ill- 
defined dark band midway between periphery and suture, the 
periphery marked by a narrow darker band, bordered below by a 
wider porcelain-white zone ; this is followed by a wide dark brown 
zone, below which there is a large white umbilical tract. Surface 
closely and very strongly ribbed-striate above, less distinctly so be- 
neath ; and slight traces of malleation are visible. The spire is ele- 
vated, conical ; apex whitish, a little blunt ; nucleus large, consist- 
ing of 2? whorls, the last part darker than the beginning of the fol- 
lowing whorl ; suture impressed. Whorls 5, convex, the last large, 
descending gradually in front, rounded at the periphery. Aperture 
oblong-truncate, oblique, Avhite but showing the bands inside ; peri- 
stome rather broadly expanded all around, dark brown, variegated 



208 HELIX-CAMJENA. 

by the terminating white bands ; baso-columellar margin reflexed, 
expanded over and almost covering the umbilicus. 

Alt. 43, diam. 46 mill. 

Alt. 46, diam. 50 mill. 

Alt. 38, diam. 55 mill. 

Island of Palawan, Philippines ; N. E. Borneo, on Palawan Pas- 
sage. 

H. trailli PFR. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 107, t. 32, f. 4; Mon. Hel. Viv. 
iv, p. 256. DOHRN, Conchyl. Cab. p. 576, t. 170, f. 1, 3. ISSEL,. 
Moll. Borneensi, in Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, vi, p. 409, 1874. 

A fine large species, easily known by its sculpture, form and pecul- 
iar color-pattern. It has been referred by various authors to Heli- 
costyla, Acavus and Phcenicobius, but it doubtless belongs in this 
place. 

H. MONOCHROA Sowerby. PL 22, figs. 58, 59, 60, 61, 62. 

Shell half-covered umbilicate, globose-depressed, solid, opaque, 
yellowish-russet, with a narrow chestnut margin below the suture, a 
narrow band of the same shade at the periphery, and a wider one 
below. Surface obsoletely obliquely striate and slightly malleated 
or rugose, nearly lusterless. Spire low ; sutures impressed. Whorls 
4, somewhat convex, the last rounded at the periphery, slightly de- 
scending in front. Aperture quite oblique, white inside ; peristome 
expanded and reflexed all around, and either edged with dark, or 
entirely of a deep chocolate shade. Umbilicus rather large inside, 
but more than half covered by the expanded columellar lip. 

Alt. 34, diam. 45 mill. 

Alt. 30, diam. 50 mill. 

Palawan, Philippines, and North-east Borneo. 

H. monochroa Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1841, p. 1. PFR. 
Symb. ii, p. 34 ; Monogr. Hel. Viv. i', p. 330 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 326, 
t. 57, f. 1-3. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 11. DOHRN, Nachrbl.D. M. 
Ges. 1889, p. Ql.N.palawanica PFR. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 107, t. 32, 
f. 7 ; Monogr. iv, p. 261. DOHRN, Conchyl. Cab., p. 577, t. 170, f. 
2, 4, and t. 171, f. 1-3. ISSEL, Annali Mus. Civ. Genova, vi, p. 409. 
HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 108, t. 5, f. 1. H. saulce 
PFR. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 72; Monogr. Hel. Viv. i, p. 331. REEVE, 
Conch. Icon., f. 393. H. lagunce HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1877, 
p. 108, t. 4, f. 5. H. dorice DOHRN, Nachrichtsbl. D. M. Ges., May 
1881, p. 67. 



HELIX-CAM^ENA. 209 

A species excessively variable in size and coloration. The follow- 
ing forms are doubtless nothing more than stages in a continuous 
series of modifications. See on this matter, Dohrn, Nachrichtsbl. 
D. M. Ges., 1889, p. 61. 

The typical monochroa differs from the form called palawanica in 
nothing but the color of the lip, which is whitish, shading into deep 
brown on the outer edge. It is said to be from the island of Tablas, 
Philippines, and one of the specimens before me being labelled 
" Tablas " I have no especial reason for doubting it. 

The palawanica of Pfeiffer (pi. 22, figs. 58-62) is large, variable in 
degree of depression, and the color varies from (1) light yellowish 
all over, with narrow brown bands at suture and periphery, the in- 
side of the umbilicus brown, to (2) deep purplish brown (the spire 
light brown) encircled at periphery by a blackish line. See also 
pi. 42, fig. 19 for color-varieties. The lip is entirely purplish-brown. 
It is before me from Palawan and north-eastern Borneo. 

The H. saulice Pfr. (pi. 42, fig. 23) is small, solid, light brown, en- 
circled by a single subperipheral dark zone. Alt. 20, greater diam. 
32, lesser 27 mill. A specimen before me differs from the typical 
saulice in having a light peristome, edged with brown. It is figured 
on pi. 42, fig. 22. 

If. lagunce of Hidalgo (pi. 26, fig. 9) is an elevated form ap- 
proaching somewhat to trailli in outline and system of coloration. 
The four brown bands, says Hidalgo, are disposed in the following 
manner : two very narrow ones, one at the suture, the other at the 
periphery ; the two others are situated at equal distances from the 
peripheral zone, above and below it. The upper of these is wide r 
and continues up the spire on the middle part of the whorls, gradu- 
ally fading out ; the lower band is wider still and of a darker hue ; 
it enters the aperture, its upper margin touching the superior termi- 
nation of the right lip. It is from Luzon, but the precise locality is 
not known. 

H. dorice Dohrn seems to be the dark reddish or chestnut-brown 
form, of which many examples are before me. It may be noted 
that the dark-colored specimens from northern Borneo are larger, 
solider, and have thicker peristome than those from Palawan. 

H. PALUMBA Souverbie. PI. 27, figs. 18, 19; pi. 41, figs. 12, 13, 
14, 15. 

Shell half covered umbilicate, depressed-globose, thin and light, 
of a light brownish color, encircled by a pure white zone at the 
14 



210 HELIX-CAM JENA. 

periphery bordered above and below by narrower chestnut-brown 
bands, the upper one of which is visible above the suture on the 
spire-whorls ; and with a broad white zone surrounding the brown 
umbilicus. Surface delicately striate obliquely. Spire low, apex 
obtuse, suture slightly impressed. Whorls 4J, slightly convex, rap- 
idly widening, the last deflexed in front. Aperture very oblique, 
elliptical-truncate, brownish and showing the band within ; peri- 
stome thin, narrowly reflexed all around, dark brown except at the 
terminations of the white bands, which continue to the edge of the 
reflexed lip ; columellar termination reflexed over the narrow but 
profound umbilicus. 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 27 , lesser 24 mill. 

Busuanga, island of Busuanga, Philippines. 

H. palumba Souv., Journal de Conchyl. 1858, p. 369 ; 1862, t. 
10, f. 5. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1889, p. 297, t. 14, f. 1, 
(1890). 

I agree with Hidalgo in separating this shell from H. saulice Pfr. 
It is a very thin, light species, smoother than any of the forms of 
palaivanica, and it always has white spots on the lip at the termina- 
tions of the white bands. The locality given above is that of the 
following color-variety, described by Hidalgo. 

VAR. /9. Shell larger, more solid, transverse strise almost lack- 
ing ; chestnut, with peripheral and basal white zones (pi. 41, fig. 15). 

H. EGREGIA Deshayes. PI. 37, figs. 43, 44. 

Shell globose, a little depressed, white, transversely 2-banded with 
brown ; spire conic-depressed, apex obtuse ; whorls 4, a little con- 
vex, slowly increasing, the last depressed, convex, base imperforate, 
at the periphery very obtusely angulated ; aperture lunate-circular ; 
peristome reflexed, thickened, margined outside with brown ; colu- 
mella dilated, depressed, calloused ; left margin thickened, short. 
(Dh.) Alt. 28, diam. 38 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H. egregia DH. in Fer. Hist., i, p. 302, t. 102, f. 17, 18. 
A species not noticed by recent authors, evidently grouping with 
//. monochroa. 

H. AVUS Pfeiffer. PI. 27, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, solid, obliquely striatulate, some- 
what shining, pale fulvous ; spire short, convex ; whorls 4, scarcely 
convex, sensibly increasing, the last carinated, convex above and 



HELIX-OBBA. 211 

below, ornamented with a brown band at the suture and a white one 
at the periphery, the base pale, subcompressed around the moderate, 
conical umbilicus ; aperture scarcely oblique, subtriangular-luuar ; 
peristome thick, white, expanded and reflexed, margins remote, 
joined by a thick callus. Alt. 18, greater diam. 37, lesser 31 mill. 



Philippine Is. 

H. avus PFR. P. Z. S. 1852, p. 83 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. iii, p. 251 ; 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 473, t. 157, f. 12-14. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 658. 

The aperture is less oblique than is usual in Cammna, and it may 
prove to belong elsewhere when the characters of the nucleus are 
determined. 



Subgenus OBBA Beck, 1837. 

Obba BECK, Index Molluscorum, p. 30, (species, H. planulata, 
papilla, mamilla). ALBERS, (edit, von Martens,) Die Heliceen, p. 
158, (type H. mamilla Fer.), I860. 

Shell umbilicate (rarely covered) globose, globose-depressed or 
lens-shaped, often carinated ; apex very obtuse, the earlier \\ or 2 
whorls forming a polished nucleus. Aperture generally very oblique 
or horizontal ; peristome expanded, basal margin reflexed. 

Beck did not indicate which of the three species enumerated by 
him should T)e regarded as the type of Obba. We are therefore at 
liberty to accept H. mamilla as the type following Albers' classic 
work. 

This subgenus was accurately defined and limited by Von 
Martens in the second edition of Albers' Die Heliceen. Obba may 
be divided into three well-marked sections : 

Section OBBA, s. s. 

Shell rudely sculptured, the sculpture oblique to lines of growth ; 
solid ; peristome thickened, the ends converging, joined by a cord 
of callus ; brown, or with 1 or 2 light bands. 

Section OBBINA, Semper. 

Shell striate or wrinkled in the direction of growth-lines ; last 
whorl very deeply deflexed in front ; aperture subhorizontal, ends 
of peristome converging, continuous across the parietal wall ; white 
or light colored, banded or speckled with brown. 



212 HELIX-OBBA. 

Section NEOCEPOLIS, Pilsbry. 

Shell striate or granulate ; aperture oblique, the ends of peristome 
but slightly converging ; umbilicus narrow or closed ; last whorl but 
little deflexed in front ; columella thickened, usually toothed ; hav- 
ing sometimes a palatal tooth also. 

Section OBBA, sensu strido. 

Large forms, rudely sculptured with coarse radiating folds or 
malleations above, obliquely descending or revolving wrinkles or 
ridges below, the sculpture- ridges not parallel to the lines of growth ; 
color brown or brownish, banded with lighter. 

A. Last whorl very deeply descending in front ; periphery rounded, 

mamilla. 

B. Last whorl only slightly descending in jront. 

a. Periphery rounded ; inner whorls of spire radiately plicate, 

quoyi. 

b. Periphery acutely keeled. linnseana* 

H. MAMILLA Fe>ussac. PI. 53, figs. 100, 1, 2 ; pi. 40, fig. 95. 

Shell globose-depressed, not carinated, umbilicated, solid, strong, 
opaque ; yellow, with a broad brown band below the suture, a nar- 
rower one at the circumference, and a broad one on the base, fading 
out toward the umbilicus ; spire convex ; last whorl rounded at 
periphery, very deeply descending in front ; lip broadly reflexed, 
white. 

A compact, solid shell, with low dome-shaped spire ; surface of 
the spire-whorls sculptured with strong, coarse, radiating folds ; 
body-whorl corrugated by close, coarse folds, descending in a direc- 
tion much more oblique than the growth-striae, the base irregularly 
pitted and indented. Whorls 5, the inner two smoother, the first 
whorl smooth, white ; last whorl rounded at periphery, but often 
encircled by an inconspicuous raised line indicating the position 
of the carina in the keeled forms of Obba. The whorl is very 
deeply deflexed in front ; aperture very oblique, irregularly oval, 
upper and outer margins well arched, baso-columellar margin 
straightened ; lip broadly reflexed, its face white, thickened, con- 
vex ; margins approaching, joined by a cord of white callus. Um- 
bilicus more or less concealed by the reflexed columellar lip. 

Alt. 30, greater diam. 36, lesser 31 mill. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 30 mill. 

Northern Celebes. 



HELIX-OBBA. 213 

H. mamilla FER. Hist., t. 25, f. 1, 2. QUOY & GAIMARD, Voy. 
de 1'Astrol., Zool., ii, p. 93, t. 7, f. 1-3 (animal). PFR. Monogr. i, 
p. 318; Conchyl. Cab. t. 138, f. 3-5. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 471. 
MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., Landschnecken, p. 291. Semicornu mam- 
illa WALLACE P. Z. S. 1865, p. 410. 

The figure on pi. 53 represent a small form corresponding to Fer- 
ussac's types. I have figured a larger, finer specimen on pi. 40, fig. 
95. Von Martens gives measurements of still larger specimens : 
greater diam. 45 2, lesser 35 J, alt. 35 mill. 

It is an odd thing, quite unlike any other Helix. 

H. QUOYI Deshayes. PI. 53, figs. 96, 97, 98. 

Shell convex-depressed, not carinated, umbilicated, solid, opaque, 
rich chestnut colored with a yellow or white line at the periphery ; 
above having coarse, radiating folds ; below the periphery covered 
with close, fine wrinkles, descending obliquely in a direction at 
right angles to the striae of growth. Last whorl but slightly de- 
scending in front ; lip broadly reflexed. 

Compact, solid ; the spire low, convex, having rude, irregular, 
and uneven radiating folds ; below the periphery the surface is far 
smoother, covered with close, fine wrinkles ; the umbilicus having 
only growth-striae within. Whorls 5, but slightly convex ; suture 
superficial ; the last whorl a little descending in front. Aperture 
oblique, semi-oval ; entire peristome broadly reflexed, its face thick- 
ened, convex, white ; margins approaching, joined across the parie- 
tal wall by a cord of white callus. Umbilicus deep, somewhat 
cylindrical, permitting one to see to the apex within it. 

Alt. 30, greater diam. 57, lesser 38 mill. 

Northern Celebes. 

H. undulata QUOY & GAIM., Voy. Astrol. Zool. ii, p. 91, t. 7, f. 
1, 2 (preoc.). H. quoyi DESK. Anim. s. Vert, viii, p. 105 ; Fer. 
Hist. t. 73b, f. 4. PFR. Monogr. iv, p. 286 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 358, 
t. 137, f. 1-3. MARTENS Ostas. Zool. p. 289. LOEBBECKE & Ko- 
BELT, Jahrb. d. m. Ges. vii, 1880, p. 332, t. 8, f. 2. 3. Semicornu 
quoyi WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 410. Vallonia undulata GRAY, 
Fig. Moll., t. 72, f. 3. 

Allied to H. mamilla, but the obliquely spiral wrinkles of the 
body-whorl descend in the opposite direction ; the form is more de- 
pressed, umbilicus wider, and the whorl does not descend deeply at 
the aperture. 



214 HELIX-OBBA. 

The peripheral narrow band is white in specimens which have 
lost the very thin, yellow epidermis. Just below the sutures the 
growth-striae are very sharp and crowded. The umbilicus is encir- 
cled by a scarcely noticeable yellowish band. 

Kobelt (I. c.) and Mollendorff (Ber. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges. 1890), 
have expressed the opinion that this form belongs to Hadra. It is, 
however, a member of the typical group of Obba, as von Martens 
has already said. 

H. LINN^ANA Pfeiffer. PL 54, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell depressed, acutely carinated, umbilicate; yellowish-brown, 
spire paler, carina white ; deeply malleated above, indistinctly 
spirally sulcate beneath. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, convex above and below the acute, 
compressed carina ; strong but not very thick ; rather roughly and 
irregularly striated, sculptured with fine, oblique wrinkle-like im- 
pressions, which become stronger below the keel, and run into in- 
distinct spiral furrows, of which one furrow just below the keel and 
one at the mouth of the umbilicus are more prominent. There is 
also a row of regular, oblique depressions above the carina, becom- 
ing stronger toward the mouth, continuing upward around the penult- 
imate whorl. The color of the shell is whitish-yellow, but it is 
covered by a persistant shining, beautiful brownish-yellow epi- 
dermis ; toward the apex the color is lighter ; the keel is white. 
The last whorl descends a little in front, is rounded below, a little 
constricted at the aperture, having a deep groove behind the lip with- 
in the umbilicus. The umbilicus is wide, cylindrical, showing all 
the whorls. Aperture narrowly semilunar; peristome thickened, 
guttered at the place of the keel, flesh-red or rosy, the throat also 
rosy ; margins joined by a narrow but distinct callus ; upper mar- 
gin expanded, basal margin broadly reflexed, arched, the short col- 
umella dilated above, inserted quite within the umbilicus, of which 
it covers at least a third part. (L. & K.) 

Alt. 33, greater diam. 65, lesser 59 mill. 

Sangir (Sanguir, Sanghir or Sangi) Is., midway between northeast 
Celebes and Mindanao. 

H. linnceana PFR. P. Z. S. Lond., 1845, p. 43 ; Monogr. Hel. Viv, 
i, p. 390. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 226. LOEBBECKE & KOBELT. 
Jahrb. d. m. Ges., vii, 1880, p. 329, t. 7. f. 1, 2, t. 8, f. l.H. (Obba) 
Linnceana Pfr., ANCEY, Le Naturaliste, viii, p. 366, 1886. Nanina 



HELIX-OBBA. 215 

(Oxytes) Linnceana PFR., Nomencl. Hel, Viv. p. 54. TRYON:, Man. 
ual, 2nd ser., vol. ii, p. 131, t. 43, f. 46. 

A magnificent species, looking like H. quoyi, if we imagine that 
shell depressed and acutely keeled. It is very rare. The locality 
above given is on the authority of Ancey. Sangir, or Great Sangi 
(variously spelled) is a small island, lying south of Mindanao, of 
about 30 by 10 miles extent, having a volcano in the center. Several 
smaller islets are near it, connecting with Celebes. No other land 
shells have been reported from them. 

Section OBBINA Semper, 1873. 

Gal Una HARTMANN, Erd und Siisswasser Gasteropoden, p. 197, 
1840 (Helix rota Sowb.) Obba (part) BECK. Philina ALBERS, 
Die Heliceen, p. 119 (preoc.). Obbina SEMPER, Reisen im Archip. 
Phil., Landmoll. ii, p. 123 (type H. planulata), 1873. 

Shell variable in degree of depression (trochoidal to discoidal), 
having a tendency to be carinated ; umbilicated ; nucleus composed 
of about two polished whorls ; last whorl suddenly deflexed in front. 
Aperture very oblique or horizontal ; peristome expanded, basal lip 
reflexed, its terminations joined by a cord of callus. 

Nearly all of the species inhabit the Philippine Is. and northern 
Celebes. 

Of the names given above, Gallina was not defined. Pusiodon 
is a combination of Planispira and Obbina, a species of the former 
leading. Philina is preoccupied. We are therefore justified, in 
using Semper's thoroughly-defined name Obbina. 

The species have been grouped by some authors according to the 
degree of carination ; others have considered the tooth of the basal 
lip of more importance. Both these characters are too inconstant 
to be of much use. Color-pattern and sculpture are far more 
reliable characters. 

The species fall into four pretty well-defined groups as follows: 

(1.) Group of H. listeri. Roughly sculptured forms, generally 
with one dark band above and one below, the aperture dark inside. 
Basal lip toothed, the tooth often obsolete. 

(2.) Group of H. moricandi. Having a strong tooth on the basal 
lip marked by a pit behind the peristome. Aperture light inside ; 
base microscopically spirally striated. 

(3.) Group of H. marginata. Basal lip without any trace of a 
tooth. Shell banded but not obliquely streaked or speckled, rather 
thin. 



216 HELIX-OBBA. 

(4.) Group of H. horizontals. A strong, oblique gibbous ridge 
behind the upper lip ; peristome thickened. Banded ; surface deli- 
cately striated. 



1. Group of H. listeri. 

Interior of the aperture dark; a single dark band above and 
below; often speckled and spotted. Surface rudely wrinkled or 
malleated. 

Key to species. 

Edge of the parietal callus not thickened, goldei. 

Edge of the parietal callus thickened, 
Acutely carinated, lens-shaped, 

An elevated cord on the upper surface; obliquely ribbed, 
nearly unicolored, calcar. 

No cord above ; speckled ; more or less malleated, 

listeri, gallinula. 
Obtusely or not at all carinated, 

Elevated, trochoidal, nearly imperforate, papilla, heroica. 
Depressed, decidedly umbilicate, planulata. 

H. PAPILLA Miiller. PL 53, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated or imperforate, elevated trochoidal, 
the height equal to or exceeding the shorter diameter ; not cari- 
nated ; sculptured with rude, strong, irregular wrinkles in the direc- 
tion of growth-lines, the wrinkles white, interstices chocolate or 
bluish ; base whiter. 

The form is remarkably elevated, the base rather flattened, swol- 
len, and then constricted behind the basal lip. It is solid, luster- 
less, lacking epidermis, having an ill-defined interrupted dark spiral 
band on the middle of the upper surface of each whorl, and another 
on the base ; the wrinkles become obsolete around the umbilicus, 
and the surface is white there ; under a strong lens the upper sur- 
face shows in places a minute granulation, like the texture produced 
by pressing a very fine textile fabric upon plastic clay ; and upon 
the base traces of fine spiral incised lines may often be observed. 
Whorls 5^, the inner two smooth, horn-colored. Last whorl not 
carinated except immediately behind the outer lip, deeply descend- 
ing in front. Aperture subhorizontal, oval, dark within ; peristome 
white, broadly expanded ; baso-columellar margin reflexed, partly 



HELIX-OBBA. 217 

or wholly closing the umbilicus, its inner edge obscurely one or 
two-dentate. Terminations of peristome approaching, joined by a 
narrow cord of white callus. 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 25 , lesser 21 mill. 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 26, lesser 21 J mill. 

Northern Celebes. 

H. papilla MULLER Hist. Verm, ii, p. 100. FER. Hist. t. 25 B, 
5. PFR. in Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., p. 157, t. 21, f. 8, 9 ; Monogr. 
Hel. Viv. i, p. 318. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 488. MARTENS, Ostas. 
Landschn., p. 292. DOHRN in Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., p. 601, t. 
175, f. 11, ll. Obba papilla BECK, Index, p. 30. WALLACE, P. 
Z. S. 1865, p. 408. 

Easily known by its elevated pupa-like form. It is certainly not 
a true Obba, but an Obbina, closely allied to H. planulata, etc., of 
the Philippine Islands, and especially to the following species. 
Some specimens are distinctly conoidal, others more pupiform. 

H. HEROICA Pfeiffer. PL 55, figs. 42, 43, 44. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed-conoid, solid, sculptured with coarse, 
irregular, oblique wrinkles, whitish, spotted and interruptedly 
banded with brown ; spire convex, apex obtuse, livid ; whorls 4-5, 
a little convex, slowly increasing, the last shortly deflexed in front, 
with angulated periphery, the base scarcely convex, swollen behind 
the basal lip, and then constricted. Aperture very oblique, ellip- 
tical ; peristome subcontinuous, white ; upper margin broadly ex- 
panded, basal flexuous, dilated, reflexed, half-covering the umbili- 
cus ; having a transverse tubercle, sometimes bifid, on its inner edge. 
(Dohrn.) Alt. 12-14, greater diam. 23, lesser 14 mill. 

Around Manado, northern Celebes. 

H. heroica PFR. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 114; Monogr. Hel. Viv. iv, p. 
291. DOHRN in Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., p. 600, t. 175, f. 8-10. 
H. (Obba~) papilla varJ MARTENS, Ostas. Landschn., p. 292. 

Smaller than H. papilla, the umbilicus less concealed, the form 
far more depressed. 

H. GOLDIEI Brazier. PL 58, figs. 37, 38.' 

Shell large, nearly-covered-umbilicate, depressed, about equally 
convex above and below, carinated. Yellowish, speckled with 
lighter buff, irregularly mottled with blackish. Surface roughened 
by irregular, spirally-descending wrinkle-like malleations. Mouth 




Vv t 



218 HELIX-OBBA. 

black inside, the expanded lip white. Edge of the parietal callus 
not elevated. 

This is a large shell, strong and solid, but rather thin ; low-coni- 
cal above, convex beneath ; whorls nearly flat, the periphery acute- 
ly keeled. Whorls 4J, the inner two dark purplish-brown, convex, 
unicolored ; the rest of the whorls speckled and mottled ; last whorl 
deeply and abruptly descending in front, having an interrupted 
black band just above the keel ; interior of the umbilicus and a 
streak back of the lip black. Aperture ax-shaped, nearly horizon- 
tal, shining and black within ; peristome white, expanded, not 
thickened, basal margin reflexed ; parietal wall coated with a shin- 
ing black varnish. Umbilicus narrow, nearly concealed. 

Alt. 22-24, greater diarn. 40-43, lesser 34-35 mill. 

Inland from Port Moresby, New Guinea, under the Astrolabe Mts. 

H. Goldiei BRAZ., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, v, p. 637, 1880 ; 1. 
c. ix, p. 804, 1884. Helix (Obba) oxystoma E. A. SMITH, Ann. & 
Mag. N. H., 5th ser., 1883, p. 191. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Genova, xix, p. 160. 

This beautiful species, now for the first time figured, can be com- 
pared only with H. listeri. From that species it differs notably in 
coloration, and the lack of a parietal cord of callus. It is most 
curious to find a species of the typically Philippine Island group 
Obbina in so distant a locality, and associated with such a totally 
different snail-fauna. 

H. LTSTERI Gray. PI. 56, figs. 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66. 

Shell umbilicated, much depressed, lens-shaped, acutely carinated ; 
very irregularly marbled and spotted with brown and white, having 
one interrupted spiral brown band above and one below ; the base 
white inside the lower band; peristome continuous, basal lip more 
or less obviously toothed in the middle. 

The shell is depressed, generally about equally convex above and 
below, but sometimes low-conical above, or rarely flat there. The 
periphery is acutely keeled, but often the last half of the body- 
whorl is narrowed, the keel blunted, giving the shell an oblong 
rather than circular form. It is thin but solid, rudely malleated, 
obliquely criss-crossly wrinkled with coarse, irregular white wrinkles. 
Whorls 4?, the first 1? corneous, smooth, convex; the following 
flat ; last whorl abruptly descending in front, deeply constricted 
behind the basal lip. Aperture horizontal, elliptical, dark within ; 



HELIX-OBBA. 219 

peristome broadly expanded, white, basal margin reflexed, toothed 
more or less obviously in the middle. Umbilicus deep, cylindrical, 
about one-ninth the diameter of the shell. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 41, lesser diam. 31 mill. 
14j 34j 28 " 

" 11, " " 26, " " 21 " 

8, " " 24, " " 19* " 

Southern Luzon (Province of Albay), and the adjacent islands 
Visayas, Lugbon, Calaquas, Marinduque; Gorontalo, northern Cele- 
bes (a small form.) 

Carocolla Listeri GRAY, Ann. of Philos. xxv, (new ser. vol. ix) 
1825, p. 412 (no description). REEVE, Conch. Syst. ii, 1. 168, f. 11, 
12 H. listeri PFR. Monogr. Hel. Viv. i, p. 402 ; Kiister's Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 208, t. 105, f. 9-15. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, 
p. 103. MARTENS, Mai. Bl. 1872, p. 170. Helix listeriana WOOD. 
Obbina listeri Gray, SEMPER, Reisen ini Archip. Phil., Landmoll., 
ii, p. 125, with var. costata. H. planulata (part) REEVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 122 c, d.H. auriculata SWAINSON, Zool. Illustr. i, t. 9, 1820 
(not Polygyra auriculata Say.) 

The northernmost point recorded for this species is Palanan, far up 
the east coast of Luzon. 

It is a very variable shell, but may be recognized by the peculiarly 
mottled or spotted coloration and acutely keeled periphery. 

Var. AURICULATA Swains. A form collected on the island of Mar- 
induque by M. Quadras is similar to the figures of " H. auriculata " 
given by Swainson, forming a passage to the H. planulata. The 
periphery is rounded. (See Hidalgo, I. c.) 

Var. COSTATA Semper. Number of whorls, form of the mouth and 
the two brown bands as in the typical listeri ; but differing in the 
flatter upper surface, distinct ribs above and below, the keel flaring 
upward, so that the upper surface of the last whorl is concave to- 
ward the keel. Ground-color brown above, the ribs whitish ; yellow- 
ish beneath. Surface not malleated, but goarsely granulated be- 
tween the ribs. 

Camiquin de Luzon ; Cabayat, Northern Luzon. 

H. GALLINULA Pfeiffer. PI. 57, figs. 88, 89, 90. 

Shell umbilicated, lens-shaped, rather strong, rather smooth, some- 
times with irregular malleations ; yellowish-gray, with a few narrow 
brownish-red bands, over which it is clothed with an epidermis hav- 



220 HELIX-OBBA. 

ing clear-yellow, hydrophanous, triangular spots; spire flatly con- 
vex, with broad, blunt apex. Whorls 4, almost flat, all of them 
acutely keeled, causing the suture to appear narrowly margined ; 
the last whorl suddenly falling in front, flatly convex beneath, a lit- 
tle impressed in front. Aperture horizontal, narrow, angular-ellip- 
tical ; peristome simple, white, the margins approaching, connected 
by a thin callus, upper margin expanded, basal shortly reflexed, 
suddenly arcuately ascending at the moderately wide, deep umbilicus. 
Alt. 9, greater diam. 25, lesser 20 mill. (Pfr.) 

Islands of Luzon and Zebu ; Boac and Sta. Cruz, Marinduque, 
Philippines. 

H. gallinula PFR. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 40 ; Monogr. i, p. 396 ; Con- 
chylien Cab. p. 438, t. 152, f. 4-6. REEVE, f. 130. PHILIPPI, 
Abbild. etc., i, Helix, p. 153, t. 5, f. 5. HIDALGO, Journ. de 
Conchyl. p. 103, 1887. Obbina gallinula SEMPER, Archip. Phil., 
Landmoll., p. 128. 

I have not seen this species. PfeifFer mentions two varieties : (1) 
/?, smaller, base obliquely rugulose, aperture laterally less dilated, 
and (2) g, marked all over with impressed oblique lines, becoming 
subconcentric around the umbilicus; bands obsolete. It may be 
compared with H. listeri, but the basal lip is not toothed. The 
sculpture separates it from H. marginata. 

H. PLANULATA Lamarck. PI. 55, figs. 51, 52, 53, 54. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, lens-shaped, obtusely keeled, some- 
times scarcely perceptibly so ; whitish with a brown band above 
and one below, interrupted by oblique, opaque, white streaks ; per- 
istome continuous, basal lip more or less obviously toothed in the 
middle. 

A species closely allied to JET. listeri, but less acutely carinated, the 
surface nearly smooth, not malleated. Spire varying much in 
degree of elevation. Whorls 5, slightly convex, the last abruptly 
deflexed in front, constricted behind the basal lip. Aperture hori- 
zontal, dark inside ; peristome white, broadly expanded, basal mar- 
gin reflexed, having a slight swelling or a distinct square tooth in 
the middle. Umbilicus cylindrical, one-tenth to one-ninth the diam. 
of the shell. 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 30, lesser 24 mill. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 32, lesser 25 mill. 

Alt. 15, greater diam. 26, lesser 21 mill. 

Island of Luzon ; Islet of Corregidor, near Manilla ; Marinduque; 
Mindoro, Philippines. 



HELIX-OBBA. 221 

H. planulata LAM. An. s. Vert., p. 73. FER. Hist., t. 73A, f. 3. 
PFR. Monogr. Hel. Viv. i, p. 379 ; Conchy lien Cab. p. 105, 1. 14, 
f. 9, 10. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 98, t. 2, f. 5, 6, 
varieties. Obba planulata BECK. Obbina planulata SEMPER, Rei- 
sen, etc., p. 126. H. papilionacea VAL., in Humbold & Bonpl., 
Rec. Obs. Zool. et Anat. Comp. etc., ii, p. 241, t. 56, f. 6 (teste Pfr.). 
-H. collapsa FER. Prodr., 187? (teste Pfr.). 

The principal character distinguishing this from H. listeri is the 
less acute carina, and smooth, not malleated, surface. The basal 
tooth is usually present, but in some specimens it fails. Some shells 
are beautifully spotted or mottled above ; some are pale, even en- 
tirely white. A solid, elevated white variety is figured on pi. 68, 
fig. 85. 

H. CALCAR Martens. PI. 65, figs. 92, 93, 94. 

Shell openly umbilicated, depressed, lenticular, bicarinate, sculp- 
tured with coarse, oblique decurrent wrinkles; blackish-brown, 
nearly concolorous; spire nearly plane; whorls 4, a little convex, 
depressed, the last about equally convex above and beneath, deeply, 
abruptly descending in front ; aperture subhorizontal, ovate, outer 
angle acute, brown inside ; peristome reflexed all around, whitish, 
continuous, scarcely toothed. (Mts.) 

Alt. 9, greater diam. 23, lesser 17 mill. 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 19$ lesser 16 mill. 

Dodinga, Island of Halmaheira, Moluccas. 

H. calcar MTS. Monatsber. Berl. Akad. 1864, p. 525; Ostas. 
Zool., Landschn., p. 293, t. 17, f. 5. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 404. 

This beautiful snail, says Von Martens, is most nearly allied to 
H. rota Brod. It differs in having an elevated cord in the place 
of the upper color-band, so that it may be called bicarinate, as this 
thread is almost as prominent upon the last whorl as the peripheral 
keel. All of the rib-like striae continue unbroken over the two 
keels, whilst in rota only every alternate riblet (usually) is con- 
tinued upon the peripheral keel. 

The dark interior of the aperture shows this species to belong to 
the group of H. papilla, listeri, etc., rather than to H. rota. 

2. Group of H. moricandi. 

Basal lip with a strong tooth, marked behind the peristome by a 
pit. Surface obliquely striate or ribbed, microscopically spirally 



222 HELIX-OBBA. 

striated, 2-5 banded. Aperture light inside. No gibbous ridge 
behind the upper lip. 

This perfectly natural group of species is hard to define, as the 
forms included are so variable. The basal tooth is rarely obsolete 
in some forms. 

Key to species. 

Periphery obtuse, moricandi. 

Periphery acutely carinated, 
Coarsely striate or ribbed, 

Ribbed, carina undulating, rota. 

Coarsely striate, carina even, scrobiculata. 

Very finely striated, lens-shaped, livesayi, basidentata. 

Obliquely wrinkled, plane above, swollen below, bulacanensis. 

H. MORICANDI Sowerby. PL 54, figs. 24, 25, 26, 27. 

Shell umbilicated, convexly conical above, flattened beneath ; 
delicately obliquely striated, and having most minute nearly obsolete 
spiral incised lines ; yellowish-white, a little flesh-tinged above, 
with a single chestnut band above and below, sometimes a nearly 
obsolete narrow band a short distance below the suture ; periphery 
rounded or showing the trace of a keel ; whorls 5%. 

The shell is solid, rather smooth. Spire elevated, very obtuse ; 
whorls 5i, slightly convex, the last abruptly descending in front, 
swollen on the latter half of the base, deeply grooved behind the 
basal lip, the groove widening and running into the umbilicus. 
Aperture subhorizorital, ovate-elliptical, white and banded inside ; 
peristome not thickened, outer margin very broadly expanded, basal 
margin reflexed, having a strong tooth in the middle (marked behind 
the lip by a pit), and usually a second minute denticle on the col- 
umellar edge. Umbilicus narrow, deep, partly concealed. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 32, lesser 26 mill. ; alt. 16, diam. 26* mill. 

Islets off northern Mindanao, and Northern and Eastern Mindanao ; 
Bohol; La Laguna, Isl. of Luzon. 

H. moricandi (SowB. in Cuming's shell list) PFR. in P. Z. S. 1842, 
p. 86 ; Monogr. i, p. 380 ; Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., p. 62, t. 77, f. 7- 
9. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 58. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 
1887, p. 99. Obbina Moricandi SEMPER Reisen im Archip. Phil. 
Landmoll., p. 123. 

Semper is in error in referring H. bizonalis Desh. to moricandi as 
a synonym. The true bizonalis is a West Indian species of the 
section Caracolus. 



HELIX-OBBA. 223 

The elevated spire, number of whorls (5%, one more than in most 
species of Obbina), and strong basal tooth (very rarely obsolete), 
are the prominent characters. The color-pattern is very constant. 
The periphery is scarcely keeled. 

H. BASIDENTATA Pfeiffer. 

Shell umbilicated, conoid-semiglobose, solid, obliquely striated, 
white, ornamented with a brown band above and below, and a nar- 
rower orange band at the suture ; spire convex-conoid, obtuse ; 
whorls 5, convex, the last carinated, much deflexed in front, the 
base rather flat. Umbilicus narrow. Aperture horizontal, ellipti- 
cal ; peristome continuous, reflexed all around, the basal margin 
armed in the middle with a strong, obtuse tooth. Alt. 11, greater 
diam. 26, lesser 20 mill. (P/r.) 

East coast of Mindanao ; Islands in the straits of Surigao ; Ubay, 
Island of Bohol, Philippines. 

H. basidentata PFR. P. Z. S..1856, p. 329 ; Monogr. iv, p. '310. 
HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1888, p. 30, t. 5, f. 9. Obbina basi- 
dentata SEMPER, Phil. Archip., LandmolL, p. 124 (anatomy). 

I have not seen this form. It seems to be closely allied to H. 
livesayi. 

H. LIVESAYI Pfeiffer. PI. 56, figs. 72, 73 ; pi. 59, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, lens-shaped, acutely carinated ; yel- 
lowish-corneous with two chestnut bands above, one below ; surface 
delicately obliquely striated, showing under a lens incised spiral 
lines which are nearly obsolete. Basal lip strongly unidentate in 
the middle. 

This is a species of about the form of H. scrobiculata but darker 
colored and far more delicately striated. The surface has some- 
thing of a silky luster. Above there is a chestnut band bordering 
the white suture, and another one of a darker shade midway between 
suture and carina. The carina is white ; the base is more or less ob- 
viously radiately streaked with light brown, and there is a dark 
band near the circumference. Spire low-conic ; whorls 5, nearly 
flat, the last suddenly deflexed in front, constricted behind the 
basal lip. Aperture subhorizontal, ovate ; outer lip broadly ex- 
panded, basal lip reflexed, strongly toothed (position of tooth 
marked by a pit behind the lip), partly concealing the umbilicus. 

Alt. 12, greater diarn. 28 2, lesser 24 mill. 

Zebu and Magtan ; Bohol and Camotes, north of Bohol, Philippines. 



224 HELIX-OBBA. 

H. livesayi PFE., P. Z. S. 1860, p. 134 ; Mai. Bl. 1860, p. 239 ; 
Monographiav, p. 413; Novit. Conch, iii, p. 397, t. 92, f. 12, 13. 
Obbina livesayi SEMPER, Phil. Archip. Landmoll., p. 127. MOL- 
LENDORFF, Mai. Bl. n. f. x, p. 155 ; Bericht Senckenb. naturforsch. 
Ges. 1890, p. 221. 

Mollendorffhas noticed a form luteofasciata and mutations palles- 
cens and albina, with monstr. subscalaris, from Olango and Pandano, 
between Zebu and Bohol. 

Allied to H. scrobiculata ; distinguished by the darker coloration 
and much smoother surface. 

H. SCROBICULATA Pfeiffer. PI. 56, figs. 67, 68, 69, 70, 71. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, lens-shaped, acutely carinated, of a 
delicate brownish tint, varied by obliquely radiating white streaks 
and brown spiral bands, of which one on the middle of the upper 
surface and another on the base are conspicuous and constant. 
Surface having strong oblique growth-striae and on the base close 
fine spiral impressed lines. Basal lip with a strong tooth, marked 
behind the peristome by a corresponding pit. 

The shell is solid, rather thin, strongly obliquely striated. Spire 
low-conoidal, apex obtuse. Whorls 4f, the inner two polished, 
whitish ; last whorl abruptly deflexed in front, constricted behind 
the basal lip, and having a pit to mark the place of the lip-tooth. 
Besides the single prominent bands above and below, there are often 
narrow, faint ones above and below the carina, and a little distance 
below the suture. The aperture is horizontal, ovate, white within 
and showing the band ; peristome white, continuous, broadly ex- 
panded, basal lip reflexed, strongly toothed in the middle. 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 27, lesser 22 mill. 

Alt. 9, greater diam. 22, lesser 18 mill. 

Island of Zebu, Philippines. 

H. scrobiculata PFR. P. Z. S. 1842, p. 88 ; Monogr. Hel. Viv. i, p. 
403 ; Conchylien Cab., p. 67, t. 78, f. 13-15. PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. 
Beschreib. ii, p. 185, Helix t. 9, f. 6. EEEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 130. 
HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 104. 

Pfeiffer gives Bohol as the locality, on the authority of Cuming. 

The species differs from H. listeri in the sculpture, coloration and 
white interior of the mouth \ from H. rota it differs in having the 
keel smooth, not fluted, and the sculpture much less strongly de- 
veloped ; moreover, the parietal callus is adnate to the body-whorl 



HELIX-OBBA. 225 

in H. scrobiculata, its edge but little elevated, whilst in the rota this 
margin is usually decidedly elevated. 

H. ROTA Broderip. PL 56, figs. 77, 78, 79. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, lens-shaped, acutely carinated, light 
brownish, occasionally with oblique white streaks, having three nar- 
row brown bauds above, two beneath. Surface sculptured by prom- 
inent elevated, thread-like oblique riblets, arched in the direction 
of growth-lines ; the base having also microscopic close spiral lines. 
Basal lip toothed in the middle. Carina fluted. 

Shell about as convex above as below, or else nearly flat above. 
Whorls 4J, the inner two whitish, smooth ; last whorl abruptly de- 
scending, constricted behind the basal lip, with a slight pit there, 
marking the position of the lip tooth. Aperture horizontal, ellip- 
tical, white and showing the bands within. Peristome white, con- 
tinuous, expanded, basal lip reflexed, strongly toothed in the mid- 
dle. The outer bands of the body-whorl are on the carina. 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 29, lesser 24 mill. 

Alt. 8, greater diam. 23, lesser 19 mill. 

Visayas Is., Philippine group (Hidalgo) ; Siquijor (Cuming) ; 
north coast of Bohol; Lampinigan, near Basilan ; Balatanai an islet 
near Lampinigan; Islas Camotes, north of Bohol (Semper). 

Helix rota BROD. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 45. PFR. Monographia, i, p. 
403 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 68, t. 78, f. 16-18. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 
128. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 104. Carocolla rota 
REEVE, Conch. Syst. ii, t. 167, f. 1, 4. Gallina rota HARTM. Gast. 
Schw., p. 197, t. 76. Lucerna rota ADS. Obbina rota SEMPER, 
Reis. Arch. Phil. Landmoll., p. 122. MOLLENDORFF, Bericht 
Senckenb. Naturf. Ges. 1890, p. 220. 

This species has strongly elevated, thread-like oblique riblets, and 
and a wavy or fluted keel. The riblets are nearly obsolete on the 
base in some specimens ; the localities given for these are S. Juan de 
Surigao. on the eastern coast of Mindanao, Limansaua, west of 
Surigao, Islas Camotes, Tubigon, east coast of Bohol, and Mac- 
Crohon, south coast of Leyte. Another variety with rugose but not 
ribbed base, feebly crenate or smooth carina, is found at Malitboc, 
south coast of Leyte, Limansaua, Mac-Crohon, Leyte and Islas Cam- 
otes, northward of Bohol. This last variation is much like H. scrob- 
iculata, but differs in the arrangement of the bands. A third variety 
was found by Semper at Maribojoc, west coast of Bohol. It is very 
15 



226 HELIX-OBBA. 

feebly sculptured, the carina distinctly wavy; tooth of the basal lip 
very weak or obsolete ; shell bandless (or bands very faint), or with 
only a narrow basal band. 

Hidalgo found on the Visayas isles a small mutation having the 
spire flattened, last whorl very convex beneath. Specimens are be- 
fore me, but they seem to grade into the typical form. 
H. BULACANENSIS Hidalgo. PI. 65, figs. 78, 79. 

Shell umbilicated, orbicular, rather solid, not shining, flat above, 
the base swollen, periphery acutely carinated, sculptured with close, 
suboblique irregular wrinkles (here and there transversely striated 
under a lens) ; pale fulvous, brown at the carina, ornamented with 
a broad whitish zone around the umbilicus ; suture simple. Whorls 
4-42, flat, the first smooth, the last deeply deflexed in front, sub- 
constricted beneath. Umbilicus broad, perspective, whitish. Aper- 
ture transversely lanceolate ; peristome whitish, expanded above, 
basal margin regularly arcuate, reflexed, margins converging, joined 
by a narrow, slightly elevated callus. (Hid.) 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 32, lesser 27 mill. 

Province of Bulacan, Luzon, Philippines. 

H. bulacanensis HID., Journ. de Conchyl. 1888, p. 310 ; /. c. 1889, 
p. 299, t. 13, f. 2. 

Very distinct in form and sculpture. It may group elsewhere 
than with rota, for the basal lip is toothless. 

3. Group of H. marginata. 

These shells have no trace of a tooth on the basal lip ; the aper- 
ture is white, with bands inside. Surface very finely obliquely 
striated, and with either microscopic spiral lines or an excessively 
minute, dense granulation. Spiral bands 2 to 5. There is no gib- 
bous ridge behind the upper lip. H. marginata and H. bigonia 
have a dark streak on the antepenultimate whorl. 

H. BIGONIA Ferussac. PL 55, figs. 45, 46, 47. 

Shell umbilicated, low-conoidal above, flattened below ; white, 
with one or two brown bands above, one beneath ; surface nearly 
smooth, having delicate growth-strise and microscopic spiral incised 
lines. Upper whorls with a purple streak ; basal lip without trace 
of a tooth. 

The shell is rather elevated, and is angulated at the periphery, 
the angle sometimes obsolete. There is (typically) a single dark 



HELIX-OBBA. 227 

chestnut band above and one below; but often a fainter subsutural 
band is developed. The band on the upper surface ascends to with- 
in about 1? whorls of the apex, and between it and the suture, on 
the antepenultimate whorl the surface is lilac or purple. Apex 
plane. Whorls 4i, the last deeply descending in front, convex 
beneath. Aperture subhorizontal, oval, white and banded within ; 
peristome expanded, white; basal lip reflexed, partly concealing 
the umbilicus. Alt. 13 2-14, greater diam. 22-25, lesser 18-20 mill. 

Samar ; Catbalogan ; Eastern Mindanao; Basilan; and Leyte, 
Philippine Is. 

H. bigonia FER. Hist., t. 70, f. 2. PHILIPPI, Abbild., i, p. 78, t. 
4, f. 7. PFR. in Conchyl. Cab., p. 330, t. 58, f. 13, 14; Monogra- 
phia, i, p. 334. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 105. HIDALGO, Journ. de 
Conchyl. 1887, p. 98. H. samarensis PFR. P. Z. S. 1842, p. 87. 
Lucerna bizonia ADS. Obbina bigonia SEMPER, Phil. Archip. 
LandmolL, p. 127. 

More elevated than the allied toothless species ; white, with two 
or three brown bands and a purple streak on the antepenultimate 
whorl. 

H. MARGINATA Muller. PL 57, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, lens-shaped, acutely carinated, hav- 
ing three chestnut bands above, two below, on a whitish or light- 
brownish ground. Surface lightly obliquely striated, showing when 
highly magnified a texture like that produced by pressing fine cloth 
upon plastic clay. Outer 2 2 whorls banded, the next inner one 
with a brown streak. No trace of a tooth on the basal lip. 

The shell is rather thin, solid, low-conoidal above, feebly convex 
below; carina acute, white, three bands above, two below; apex 
plane. Whorls 4J, the last abruptly deflexed in front, a trifle con- 
stricted behind the basal lip. Aperture subhorizontal, white with 
bands within ; peristome expanded, white, continued in a cord of 
callus, across the parietal wall ; basal lip regularly curved, reflexed, 
with no trace of a tooth. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 26J, lesser 2H mill. 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 2] mill. 

Isl. Camiguin; Pta. Malimono near Surigao, and around Zambo- 
anga, Isl. of Mindanao, Philippines. 

H. marginata MULLER, Hist. Verm, ii, p. 41. PFR. in Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 69, t. 78, f. 7-9 ; Monogr. i, p. 395 ; v, p. 405. REEVE, 



228 HELIX-OBBA. 

Conch. Icon. f. 129. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 102. 
MARTENS, Mai. Bl. 1872, p. 171 (varieties). Helix grayana PFR., 
Symbolse ii, p. 29. H. grayi HOMER. & JACQ., Voy. Pol Sud Moll., 
t. 7, f. 18-21. IT. scabrosa FER., Hist., t. 63, f. 1, 2. Obbina mar- 
ginata SEMPER, Phil. Archip., Landmoll., ii, p. 127. H. sororcula 
MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., Landschn., p. 294, t. 17, f. 4 (not of Ben- 
oit). H. devincta TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 
xx, p, 156, 1884. 

May be known^ from other species having no tooth on the basal 
lip by its color-pattern, and the microscopic sculpture of the upper 
surface of the last whorl. 

Von Martens has discussed the variations and geographic range 
of this species in Malak. Blat. 1872, p. 171. 

Var. SORORCULA Martens. PI. 57, figs. 94, 95, 96. 

Narrowly umbilicated, lenticular, acutely carinated, delicately 
striated, rather shining, whitish, painted with 3-5 narrow pale 
reddish bands ; spire short, conic, obtuse. Whorls scarcely 4, plane, 
the last slightly and equally convex above and beneath, in front 
abruptly and deeply descending ; aperture subhorizontal, subovate, 
its outer angle rather acute; peristome thin, narrowly expanded, 
whitish, margins approximating, joined by a thin callus. (Mts.) 

Alt. 8-9, greater diam. 17-19 mill. 

Manado, northern Celebes. 

Smaller than If. marginata, with narrower umbilicus and less 
developed parietal callus, but scarcely, it seems to me, to be sepa- 
rated specifically. Tapparone Canefri, however, considers it a dis- 
tinct species. 

Var. GRISEOLA v. Moll. Shell a little smaller than the type, um- 
bilicus wider, color gray-yellowish, bands narrower, last whorl at 
aperture suddenly, vertically deflexed ; aperture horizontal, per- 
istome continuous, free above. 

Alt. 10, diam. 26 mill.; alt. 8, diam. 21 mill. 

Mts. of Zebu and Siquijor, Philippines. 

This is Obbina gallinula Moll., J. D. M. Ges. xiv, p. 271, not of 
Pfr. See Bericht Senckenb. naturforsch. Ges. 1890, p. 218. 

H. KOBELTIANA Pfeiffer. PI. 56, figs. 80, 81. 

Shell umbilicated, orbicular-depressed, rather lens-shaped, rather 
thin, obliquely striate and very minutely granulated (seen under a 



HELFX-OBBA. 229 

lens), irregularly malleate-impressed, subunicolored brown, with one 
obscure obsolete band beneath. Spire very shortly conoid, apex 
obtuse ; sutures simple, linear ; whorls 4, flat, the last very shortly 
descending in front. Periphery acutely compressedly carinated, 
the base a little convex around the narrow umbilicus (which is 
about one-ninth the diameter of the shell in width.) Aperture very 
oblique, ax-shaped, outer margin acutely angled, peristome whitish, 
margins scarcely converging, joined by a rather thin callus; upper 
margin narrowly expanded, the outer angle a little turned upward ; 
basal margin thickened, reflexed, horizontal in the middle, ascend- 
ing at both ends, dilated at the umbilicus. 

Alt. 8-8i greater diam. 23-25, lesser 20^-22 mill. (P/r.) 

Island of Ceram. 

H. Kobeltiana, PFR. Mai. Bl. 1871, p. 124; Monogr. v, p. 456; 
Novit. Conch, iv, p. 73, t. 121, f. 12, 13. MARTENS, Mai. Bl. 1872, 
p. 172. 

A form very like H. marginata, but darker, more obviously sculp- 
tured ; whorls flatter, the last one much less descending in front, 
terminations of the peristome more distant, parietal callus slighter ; 
the aperture is more angled at the carina. The locality given is far 
removed from that of the margwata. 

H. PARMULA Broderip. PI. 57, figs. 85, 86, 87 ; pi. 65, figs. 73, 
74, 75. 

Shell umbilicated, very much depressed, with an acute, peripheral 
keel ; pale brown, with a narrow chestnut band above and one be- 
low ; the two sides of the knife-like keel brown, its edge white. 
Surface delicately obliquely striated, and showing in places, under 
a very strong lens, an excessively minute granulation. Surface 
coarsely wrinkled for a short distance behind the lip. 

The shell is rather thin and light, like others of the marginata 
group. It is discoidal, pale colored ; the outer part of the whorl, 
behind the lip, is obliquely wrinkled. Whorls 4?-5. flat, the last 
abruptly deflexed in front, a little contracted behind the basal lip. 
Aperture nearly horizontal ; peristome continuous, white, outer lip 
expanded, angled, basal lip reflexed, not toothed within. 
Alt. 13, greater diam. 43, lesser 37 mill, (typical.) 
Alt. 10, greater diam. 35, lesser 29 mill. (Smaller form.) 
Is. Negros and Zebu (Cuming) ; Zamboango, Mindanao, and Vis- 
ayas Is. (Hidalgo) ; Isl. of Siquijor, Philippines. 



230 HELIX-OBBA. 

Carocolla parmula BROD. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 38. REEVE, Conch. 
Syst. ii, t. 167, f. 7. Helix parmula PFR. Monographia i, p. 394 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 210, t. 106, f. 4-6. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 120. 
DESH. in Fer., Hist., p. 356, t. 101, f. 19-21. HIDALGO, Journ. 
de Conchyl. 1887, p. 100. v. MOLL., Bericht Senckenb. naturfor- 
sch. Ges. 1890, p. 217. ? H. discus DESH. (not Thorn.) in Fer., 
Hist., p. 360, t. 62 A, f. 4. 

More flattened than any other species; very acutely keeled, with 
a somewhat lanceolate horizontal mouth. The bands are nearly 
obsolete. 

A small form is figured on pi. 65, figs. 76, 77. It measures, alt. 10, 
diam. 27 2, mill. It is from Zebu, and was obtained direct from the 
collector. 

Var. DISCUS Desh. (PI. 57, figs. 91, 92, 93.) Thin, white 
(bleached?), striate; whorls 5? ; umbilicus wider than in H. par- 
mula. 

This form, described by Deshayes from a single specimen of un- 
known origin, and not found by recent collectors, is probably to be 
referred to H. parmula as a variety or individual variation. 

Form OBSCURA Mollendorff. Shell smaller, plicate-striate, cor- 
neous-brown, bands obscure brown. Alt. 9?, diam. 28 mill. 

Matutinao, Zebu. 

Form ELEVATA Moll. Shell smaller, more solid, strongly rugose- 
striate ; spire more elevated. Alt. 14, diam, 32? mill. ; alt. 13, 
diam. 27 mill. 

A still more elevated form, trochoidea Moll., measures, alt 13, 
diam. 22f-26? mill. It is from Sambuan and Malabuyoc, Zebu. 

The elevated forms tend to assume a scalariform aspect. See von 
Mollendorff, I. c. 

H. BUSTOI Hidalgo. PL 60, figs. , 13, 14. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, very much depressed, discoidal, 
carinated, thin, subpelluced, sculptured above with obsolete oblique 
costulse, striatulate beneath. Whitish, two-zoned with yellowish- 
brown. Spire little raised ; apex flat, smooth. Whorls 4J, a little 
convex, the last but little wider than the next inner one, angularly 
deflexed in front ; base convex ; carina very acute, white, marked 
by an impressed line. Umbilicus one-seventh the diameter. Aper- 
ture horizontal, sublanceolate ; peristome simple, margins joined by 



HELIX-OBBA. 281 

a narrow, little-elevated callus. Upper margin expanded, basal re- 
flexed. Alt. 8, greater diam. 28, lesser 24 mill. (Hidalgo.) 

Badajos, Isl. of Tab las, Philippines. 

H. bustoi HID., Journ. of Conch. 1887, p. 100, t. 2, f. 3. 

Under a very strong lens most minute granulations are visible, as 
in H. parmula, etc. 

H. SARANGANICA Hidalgo. PI. 60, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, convex-depressed, discoidal, carina- 
ted, rather solid, obliquely striatulate, pale tawny, with five yellow- 
ish-brown zones; spire convex, apex obtuse; whorls 4, planulate, 
the last little wider than the next inner one, in front angularly 
deflexed, scarcely convex above, sloping, at the labrum subcom- 
pressed, beneath convex in the middle, constricted at the aperture, 
carina acute, white. Umbilicus profound, one-tenth the diameter 
of the shell. Aperture horizontal, oblong; peristome simple, mar- 
gins joined by a narrow callus, upper margin expanded, basal re- 
flexed, obsoletely one-toothed in the middle. Alt. 12, greater diam. 
35, lesser 30 mill. (Hidalgo.) 

Islet of Sarangani, south of Mindanao, Philippines. 

H. Saranganiea HID., Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 101, t. 2, f. 4. 

Described from a dead specimen, but apparently a distinct spe- 
cies. It may, perhaps, belong to the group of H. horizontalis. 

H. KOCHIANA Mollendorff. PI. 59, figs. 43, 44, 45. 

Shell rather openly umbilicated, depressed, acutely carinated, 
elegantly sculptured with rather distant riblets becoming evanes- 
cent beneath, and decussating, most minute spiral lines ; pale cor- 
neous-brown, encircled with 5 narrow bands; three above, one at 
suture, one at carina, and a darker one midway ; two beneath, the 
carinal one indistinct. Whorls 5, planulate, the last more convex 
below, suddenly deflexed in front. Aperture nearly horizontal, 
angular-elliptical, the peristome continuous, expanded, a little re- 
flexed, labiate with white, brown margined outside. Alt. 13i, diam. 
32 mill. ; alt. 13, diam. 34 mill. ; alt. 18, diam. 40 mill. (Mild/,) 

Medellin and Bantayan, Northern Zebu. 

Obbina kochiana v. MOLL., Nachrichtsbl. D. M. Ges. 1888, p. 88 ; 
Bericht Senckenb. naturforsch. Ges. zu Frankfurt a. M., 1890, p. 
216, t. 7, f. 10. 

The toothless basal lip combined with strong oblique riblets will 
sufficiently distinguish this form. 



232 HELIX-OBBA. 

4. Group of H. horizontalis. 

Species with a strong oblique gibbous ridge or swelling a short 
distance behind the upper lip ; peristome reflexed all around and 
thickened, preceded by a constriction. The surface is smooth, 
delicately obliquely striated, 1 to 5 banded. Basal lip toothed or 
not. Aperture light within. 

H. HORIZONTALIS Pfeiffer. PL 57, figs. 97, 98, 99 (typical); 100, 
1, (var.) 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, acutely carinated at the periphery, 
soiled whitish with 3 chestnut bands above (the 3d on the carina), 
and two below, the outer one at the carina ; inner half of the base 
of a brown color, lighter than the bands but darker than the ground- 
color. Aperture horizontal, more than l\ times as wide as long. 
Basal lip obtusely toothed just within the termination of the basal 
band. 

Solid, delicately obliquely striated ; spirally banded, the bands 
continuous, not interrupted by light streaks or blotches ; the third 
band upon the carina. Apex obtuse. Whorls 4f , flat, the last one 
suddenly descending at the aperture ; just behind the peristome con- 
stricted and then having a prominent, oblique gibbous ridge or crest 
on the upper surface. Aperture oblong, almost horizontal ; peri- 
stome thickened, convex, reflexed, flesh-colored, continuous ; the 
upper and basal margins parallel, the basal lip obtusely toothed 
near its junction with the outer lip. Umbilicus deep, about one- 
tenth the diam. of the shell. Alt. 13-14, greater diam. 31 mill. 

Island of Batayon and Id. of Tablets, Philippines. 

H. horizontalis PFR. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 40 ; Monographia, i, p. 395 ; 
Conchylien Cabinet, p. 410, t. 146, f. 14-16. REEVE, Conch. Icon, 
f. 116. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 102. 

The mouth is narrower than in H. reeveana, there is a brown 
band on the periphery, and the central area of the base is brown. 
The peripheral keel too is stronger, and the basal lip has an obtuse 
tooth near its distal extremity. A smaller variety is mentioned by 
Hidalgo, having three or only two bands, much resembling H. 
reeveana. It is from Looc, Tablas. 

Var. MAJOR (pi. 57, figs. 100, 1). Decidedly larger than the 
type, somewhat more depressed, but otherwise identical in colora- 
tion and proportions. Alt. 13, greater diam. 41, lesser 34 mill. 



HELIX OBBA. 233 

H. REEVEANA Pfeiffer. PL 55, figs. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, lens-shaped, obtusely keeled at the 
circumference ; yellowish with three (3 to 5, according to Pfr.) 
chestnut bands ; delicately obliquely striate, the base concentrically 
striated. Aperture subhorizontal, its width not 1? times its length. 

A form closely allied to H. horizontalis, but having a less narrowed 
mouth and concentric striie on the base. Whorls 4J, flattened, the 
last abruptly deflexed in front, convex beneath. Behind the reflexed 
peristome it is deeply constricted, having above a gibbous ridge be- 
hind the constriction. Aperture nearly horizontal, elliptical ; per- 
istome continuous, reflexed, its face thickened, upper margin flesh- 
colored, basal lip white, having a very slight indication of a tooth in 
the middle. Umbilicus one-tenth the diameter of the shell. 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 24, lesser 21 mill.; alt. 12, greater diam. 
30, lesser 24 mill. 

Island of Zebu, Philippines. 

H. Eeeveana PFR. P. Z. S. 1846, p. 42; Monographia i, p. 377; 
Krister's Conchyl. Cab., t. 75, f. 6-8. Obbina reeveana MOLLEN- 
DORFF, Bericht Senckenb. naturforsch. Ges. 1890, p. 220. 

A form closely allied to H. horizontalis, but without a brown area 
in the middle of the base, having a less contracted mouth, and the 
basal lip has no trace of a tooth at the position where it is 
-developed in H. horizontalis. Mollendorff has found a more cari- 
nated form. 

H. LASALLII Eydoux. PL 54, figs. 20, 21, 22. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, rather thick, smooth, tawny, three- 
zoned with brown and marbled with whitish. Spire slightly con- 
vex ; whorls 4^-5, nearly flat, the last cylindrical, suddenly de- 
flexed at the aperture. Umbilicus moderate. Aperture horizontal, 
ear-shaped ; peristome much thickened, reflexed, continuous, the 
upper margin sinuous, impressed, basal margin obsoletely toothed. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 28, lesser 22 mill. (Pfr.} 

Luzon, Philippines. 

H. lasallii EYDOUX, in Guer. Mag. de Zool., t. 115, f. 1. PFR. 
in Conchylien Cab., p. 62, t. 77, f. 4-6 ; Monographia i, p. 380. 
REEVE, f. 121. H. meretrix SOWB. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 20. PFR. 
Symbols, ii, p. 33. REEVE, Conch. Syst. ii, t. 163, f. 6. Obbina 
Lasallii (Eyd.) MOLLENDORFF, in N. D. M. Ges. 1888, p. 87, with 
forma subcarinata, f. subcostata, and varieties obscura and grandis. 



234 HELIX-OBBA. 

H. COLUMBARIA Sowerby. PI. .54, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, low-conic above, the periphery not 
carinated ; of an olive-yellow tint, having one, two or three chest- 
nut bands, variegated with opaque buff flecks or zigzag lines ; a row 
of light blotches always below the suture; basal lip prominently 
toothed in the middle. 

The shell is solid, delicately obliquely striated ; there is almost 
always a brown peripheral band present, usually a broader basal 
band, and a fainter one at the suture, interrupted by regularly 
placed opaque buff blotches. Apex obtuse, corneous, first twa 
whorls polished. Last whorl not angled or keeled at periphery, 
abruptly deflexed in front. There is a constriction just behind the 
reflexed upper lip, and then a prominent crest or gibbous ridge. 
Aperture white within, very oblique, ovate-wedge-shaped ; peristome 
white or delicate flesh-tinted, thickened, reflexed ; basal lip toothed 
in the middle. Umbilicus narrow, deep. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 30, lesser 25* mill. 

Province of Albay, Id. of Luzon, Philippines. 

H. columbaria SOWB., P. Z. S. 1841, p. 19. PFR., Monogr. i, p. 
381 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 61, t. 77, f. 1-3. REEVE, f. 54. HIDALGO, 
Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 100. Obbina columbaria SEMPER, Phil. 
Archip., ii, p. 126. 

May be known from other species having a crest or gibbous ridge 
behind the upper lip, by its elevated spire, rounded periphery, and 
row of buff blotches around the sutures. 

Section NEOCEPOLIS Pilsbry, 1890. 

Shell globose or globose-depressed, with no tendency toward car- 
ination. Umbilicus narrow or closed. Columella widened, gen- 
erally more or less toothed ; surface striate, granulated or decussated, 
not malleated or rudely wrinkled ; lip reflexed all around, its ter- 
minations remote from one another, scarcely converging. Last 
whorl only moderately or not at all descending in front ; typically 
having a callus tooth within as in the section Cepolis. Anatomy 
unknown. Type Helix merarcha Mabille. 

Distribution, Southeastern Asia (Tonquin, etc.), Andaman Islands, 
Nicobar Is., Philippines. 

The section here constituted is much more comprehensive than 
Albers' Janira. The latter name is several times preoccupied in. 
Zoology. 



HELIX-OBBA. 235 

Group of H. merarcha (typical Neocepolis). 

Shell globose, with elevated spire, and narrow, slowly-widening 
whorls, the last deflexed in front. Aperture small, truncate-rounded, 
the lip reflexed all around, its ends joined by a stout callus. Colu- 
mella dilated, thickened, and obtusely toothed within. A strong 
fold within the outer wall, marked outside by a deep pit. Type 
Helix merarcha Mabille. 

This shell has very much the aspect of the Neotropical section 
Cepolis, but belongs, I do not doubt, in the vicinity of Obba. 

The value of the internal fold on the outer wall of the aperture 
as a group character is not very great. 

Examples of a similar structure are found in H. subtussulcata, of 
the section Jeanneretia; H. pellisserpentis, of the group Solaropsis; 
H. porcellana and H. endoptycha, of the section Planispira; H. 
duclosiana of the section Plagioptycha ; and teeth with corres- 
ponding pits outside are characteristic of the sections Cepolis and 
Stegodera. The first four groups named include also species with- 
out an internal tooth. 

Besides possessing a palatal fold, Neocepolis merarcha differs 
from H. campanula, etc., in the narrow, closely coiled whorls, 
stronger parietal callus, and different columella. 

H. MERARCHA Mabille. PI. 32, figs. 42, 43, 44, 45. 

Narrowly, almost closed umbilicate,globose-conoidal, solid, opaque, 
(probably brown, the only specimen known being destitute of 
cuticle and whitish) ; surface closely, regularly plicate-striate, 
smoother beneath ; apical two whorls smooth, shining; spire convex 
in outline, elevated, dome-shaped ; apex obtuse ; sutures scarcely 
impressed ; whorls 6, very slowly widening, the upper ones not con- 
vex, the last two somewhat convex above. The periphery is slightly 
angled on the last whorl ; the base is scarcely convex on the first 
half, but its latter part is inflated, gibbous. It is somewhat con- 
stricted behind the basal lip, very deeply deflexed anteriorly. 
There is a deep groove or scrobiculation immediately below the 
periphery a short distance behind the lip, which corresponds to a 
callous lamella inside the outer lip. The aperture is very oblique, 
small, truncate-rounded, livid inside ; peristome thick, expanded, 
subreflexed, flesh-colored, columellar margin dilated, thickened and 



236 HELIX-OBBA. 

obtusely toothed within, parietal wall covered by a thick deposit of 
callous. Alt. 20, diam. maj. 24, min. 21 \ mill. 

Halong, Tonquin. 

H. merarcha MABILLE, Bull, de la Soc. Philomathique, Paris, 
1888. 

A very distinct form. The dome-shaped spire, strong striation, 
and callous fold within the outer lip are the more obvious characters. 
My description and figures are drawn from the unique type in the 
collection of L' abbe A. Vathelet, Ammonier de la Division navale de 
1'Atlantique. 

Group of H. codonodes. 
This group is equivalent to Janira of Albers. 

H. CODONODES Pfeiffer. PL 53, figs. 8, 9, (type) ; 10 (var.) 

Shell umbilicated, globose-conoid, solid, obliquely striatulate, very 
subtly sculptured with close spiral lines ; white or straw-colored, 
shining, with one or two chestnut bands ; spire bell-shaped, apex 
obtuse ; whorls 5, scarcely convex the last descending in front, 
base gibbous, then subconstricted behind the aperture; aperture 
oblique, subquadrangularly rounded ; peristome thickened, reflexed, 
the margins subapproximating, joined by a shining callus ; col- 
umella having a tooth-like protuberance inside, dilated outwardly, 
sinuous. Alt. 17, greater diam. 20, lesser 17 mill. (P/r.) 

Great Nicobar Island. 

H. codonodes PFR. P. Z. S. 184G, p. 112 ; Mon. i, p. 321 ; Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 282, t. Ill, f. 15, 16, and var. minor, 1. 128, f. 3, 4. REEVE, 
f. 91. Helicostyla (Janira*) codonodes MORCH, Journ. de Conchyl. 
xx, 1872, p. 312 (with vars.). 

Var. minor e Morch. (pi. 53, fig. 10). No bands. 

Var. subcylindrica Morch. Larger, with sutural and median 
black bands. Alt. 27, length of aperture 15 mill. 

Var. edentula Morch. Shell thin, having two very obsolete 
bands ; alt. 28, length of aperture 11 mill. 

H. CAMPANULA Pfeiffer. PL 53, figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Shell umbilicate, globose, solid, subtly and regularly obliquely 
striated ; chestnut colored ; spire semiglobose, apex obtuse, pale ; 
whorls 4o, a little convex, the last scarcely wider than the preceding, 
scarcely descending in front, having a pale girdle in the middle. 



HELIX-OBBA. 237 

Aperture very oblique, lunate-oval, livid inside ; peristome brown, 
subthickened, shortly reflexed, margins joined by a callus, the basal 
margin with a white, obsolete tooth within, dilated outwardly ; um- 
bilicus narrow, deep, half concealed. 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 27, lesser 23 mill. (Pfr.) 

Habitat unknown. 

H. campanula PFR. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 65 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. i, p. 
321 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 231, t. Ill, f. 13, 14 REEVE, Conch. Icon, 
f. 66. 

Compared by Pfeiffer to Cochlostyla brachyodon. 
Var. /?. Pale brown, apex chestnut colored, peristome white. 
(PL 53, figs. 11, 12.) 

H. BINTUANENSIS Hidalgo. PL 61, fig. 28. 

Shell obliquely rim ate, globose, solid, somewhat shining, sculp- 
tured with scarcely visible growth lines (in places most minutely 
granulose under a lens) ; tawny, 3-banded with rufous ; spire half- 
globular, apex obtuse ; suture simple, marked by a hair-line of white. 
Whorls 5, convex ; the three last wide, subequal, the last not descend- 
ing in front, periphery scarcely angled ; somewhat turgid beneath. 
Aperture oblique, truncate-oval, whitish inside, with pellucid bands ; 
peristome flesh-colored, thickened-reflexed, margins joined by a thin 
callus, the right margin noduliferous at the insertion ; columellar 
margin inwardly thickened-subtruncate, outwardly much dilated, 
nearly closing the rimation. Alt. 30. greater diam. 28, lesser 26 

mill. (Hid.) 

Penon de Bintuan, Island of Busuanga, Philippines. 

Helix Bintuanensis HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch, xxix, 1889, p. 
296, t. 13, f. 1. 

A form allied to H. campanulata Pfr. The three bands are situ- 
ated, one at the suture, one above and one below the quite obvious 
angulation encircling the periphery of the last whorl. 

H. CAMELUS Pfeiffer. Unfigured. 

Shell compressly umbilicated, conoid bell-shaped, solid, striate, 
under a lens most minutely decussated, white, trifasciate with chest- 
nut. Spire ventricose, conoidly attenuated above ; whorls 6, moder- 
ately convex, the last scarcely descending in front; base sub- 
gibbously compressed. Aperture diagonal, truncate-oval ; columella 



238 HELIX-OBBA. 

arcuate; calloused, subtruncate; peristome white, expanded, col- 
umellar margin dilated. 

Alt. 26, greater diam. 29 ; lesser 25 mill. (Pfr.) 

Habitat unknown. 

H. camelus PFR. P. Z. S. 1855, p. Ill ; Monographia iv, p. 247. 
H. ANACARDIUM Dohrn. PI. 53, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, globose-turbinate, rather solid, chest- 
nut colored ; finely arcuately striated ; under a lens finely wrinkled, 
little shining. Spire convex-turbinate ; whorls 6, moderately in- 
creasing, the last very obtusely angulated, a little descending in 
front, the base subdepressed. Aperture diagonal, bluish inside, lu- 
nate-rounded ; peristome lilac-colored, all around shortly expanded, 
margins approximating, joined by a callus of the same color ; col- 
umellar margin reflexed, half-covering the perforation, having one 
tubercle on its inner edge. 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 28, lesser 24 mill.; width of aperture 15 
mill. (Dofirn.') 

Habitat unknown. 

Helix anacardium DOHRN, Nachr. Bl. D. M. Ges. 1878, p. 68 ; 
Continuation of Kiister's Conchy lien Cab., p. 599, t. 175, f. 5, 6, 7. 

Described from a single specimen of unknown origin. It is allied 
to H. campanula, codonodes, etc., but seems to be perfectly distinct. 

H. HEMIOPTA Benson. PI. 31, figs. 21, 25 ; pi. 64, figs. 67, 68, 69, 

70, 71, 72. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed-conoidal, a trifle striatulate, 
nearly smooth, very minutely granulated, opaque, whitish ; last 
whorl chestnut colored above, darker toward the periphery ; spire 
convex-conoidal, apex obtuse, suture scarcely impressed. Whorls 
4?, a little convex, sensibly widening, the last a little concave above 
the obtusely angled periphery, somewhat convex below ; aperture 
oblique, subquadrate-lunate, concolored within ; peristome a little 
expanded, arched forward above, narrowly reflexed beneath, margins 
remote, the columellar strongly dilated above, nearly covering the 
umbilicus. (Bens.) Alt. 10, greater diam. 16, lesser 13-i mill. 

Port Blair, Andaman Is. 

H. hemiopta BENS. Ann. Mag. N. H. 3d Ser. xi, p. 318, May 
1863. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 347. HANL. & THEOB. Conch. Indica, 
t. 30, f. 4 ; t. 53, f. 8. VON MARTENS, Novit. Conch, v, p. 37, t. 143, 
f. 1-8. DOHRN, Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., p. 578, t. 170, f. 5-7. 



HKLIX-OBBA. 239 

Numerous color-varieties have been figured, the more notable of 
which are given on my plates. 

H. CERES Pfeiffer. PL 53, fig. 99. 

Shell umbilicated, semiglobose-subcampanuliform ; solid, lightly 
striatulate, little shining, dull buff, ornamented with several reddish 
bands ; spire convex, apex subtle, obtuse ; suture scarcely impressed. 
Whorls 62, scarcely convex, slowly increasing, the last not descend- 
ing ; periphery carinated ; base more convex. Aperture diagonal, 
obliquely lunar, whitish-flesh-colored inside ; peristome brownish- 
flesh-colored ; margins remote, right margin expanded, basal shortly 
reflexed, columellar margin dilated, having an oblique fold within, 
vaulted outwardly, half-covering the narrow umbilicus. Alt. 14, 
greater diam 23, lesser 2() mill. (P/r.) 

Philippine Is. 

H. ceres PFR. P. Z. S. 1853, p. 49 ; Monographia, iii, p. 647. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1021. 

Group of H. platyodon. 

Subglobose species, imperforate or narrowly umbilicated, with no 
tendency to carination. Banded or unicolored. Lip reflexed ; 
columella toothed more or less distinctly. 

H. PLATYODON Pfeiffer. PL 32, figs. 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. 

Shell globose-depressed, imperforate, solid ; white, with 5 rich 
chestnut bands, the upper three much interrupted by white spots 
and streaks, often fused into oblique, zigzag streaks, giving the 
upper surface a brown-and-white maculated pattern. Surface 
nearly smooth, delicately obliquely striate and densely microscop- 
ically granulated all over. 

Spire moderately depressed, of 5 2 slightly convex whorls, the 
first 2 glossy, corneous ; *the last whorl deflexed in front. One of 
the bauds is below the suture, one at periphery, another midway 
between them ; these three bands are usually broken into rhombic 
blotches, which often coalesce with the blotches above and below, 
forming oblique streaks. The fourth baud is on the base, and is 
less interrupted. Another band encircles the place of the umbili- 
cus. Aperture quite oblique ; lip reflexed, white ; columellar mar- 
gin bearing within a squarish or simply convex tooth-like process ; 
at the insertion dilated over the umbilicus. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 27, lesser 23 mill. 

Island of Hainan, S. China. 



240 HELIX-OBBA. 

H. platyodon PFR. P. Z. S. 1845; Mon. Hel. Viv. i, p. 311; 
Conchyl. Cab., t. 63, f. 11, 12. PHILIPPI, Abbild., ii, Helix t. 7, f. 
1. MARTENS Ostas. Landschn., p. 50. GREDLER, Mai. Bl. n. f. v, 
p. 175. MOLLENDORFF, Jahrb. D. M. Ges. 1884, p. 372, t. 8, f. 3- 
8. H. tournoueri CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. xvi, 1868, p. 107,, 
173, t. 6, f. 4. 

In both form and coloration this species varies much. The gen- 
eral pattern of banding, the granulated surface and general form 
are, nevertheless, sufficiently different from any other species to per- 
mit ready identification. Fig. 36 of plate 32, represents the typical 
form. The columellar tooth is often more prominent and square 
than the figures show. 

The jaw, Mollendorff says, is of the odontognathous type. Ani- 
mal finely wrinkled, pale reddish gray-brown ; sole yellowish gray- 
brown, indistinctly tripartite. 

H. MORLETI Dautzenberg & d'Hamonville. PL 65, figs. 80, 81. 

Shell umbilicated, conic-globose, thin, subpellucid, very shining. 
Spire conoid. Whorls 7, convex, densely radiately arcuately pli- 
cated ; the base delicately striated, perforated by a very deep, fun- 
nel-shaped umbilicus. Aperture subrotund, margins thickened, 
broadly reflexed, joined by a thin, shining callus. Columella sub- 
dentate at base. Color pale grayish buff. Alt. 23, greater diam. 
30, lesser 25 mill. (D. & d'H.) 

Road from Bac-Ninh to Lang-Son, Tonquin. 

Helix Morleti D. & H., Journ de Conchyl. 1887, p. 217, t. 8,. 
f. 3. Rhagada Morleti ANCEY, Le Naturaliste, (Paris), p. 70, March, 
1888. Helix mereatorina MABILLE, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, 1887, 
p. 88, t. 2, f. 10, 11. 

This species seems more closely allied to H. platyodon than to- 
other forms known to me. A translation of the original descrip- 
tion of H. mereatorina was given in this volume, p. 121, and the 
original figures are on pi. 15, figs. 67, 68. I have no doubt that the 
species really belongs to Obba rather than in Euhadra where I form- 
erly placed it. 

H. morleti is apparently allied to JET. merarcha in having numerous- 
narrow whorls of the spire. 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 241 

Unfigured and doubtful species of Obba. 
H. CHEIRI Lesson. Unfigured. 

Shell depressed, umbilicate, rather solid, obliquely sub-rugose, buff, 
striate with rufous ; last whorl broad, carinated ; suture profound ; 
umbilicus large, funnel-shaped ; aperture obovate, white within ; 
peristome thick, reflexed, margin glabrous. Alt. 8, diam. 16 lines. 
(Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, p. 308.) 

Port Dorey, New Guinea. 

An unrecognized species, probably belonging either to Obbina or 
more likely, Geotrochus. 

H. RECLUZIANA Le Guillou. Unfigured. 

Shell orbicular, convex-depressed above, reddish-brown, whitish 
below. Whorls 5, lightly and closely striated, convex-depressed, the 
last rotund, encircled by a white band margined above with a rufous 
line. Aperture subrotund, reflexed, tinted with brown ; columella 
dilated, truncated and obtusely one-toothed within. Umbilicus con- 
solidated, rufescent. Alt. 17-20, diam. 26-27 mill. (Quill, in 
Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 137.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Evidently not a member of this group. It is impossible to 
identify this species except by an examination of the original type. 



Subgenus CHLORITIS Beck, 1837. 

Shell depressed-globose, discoidal or planorboid, the apical whorl 
(and usually the whole spire) flattened or sunken ; nucleus small, 
not differently sculptured from the succeeding whorls. Lip re- 
flexed. Southern China to northern Australia, East Indies. 

Shells of the great group Chloritis are distinguished from Obba 
and its subdivisions and from Camcena and Acavus by the smaller 
nucleus, not marked off in any way from the following whorls ; from 
Hadra by the flattened or concave nucleus, etc. 

The subgenus comprises a great variety of forms, but the extremes 
are connected by so many intervening species that subdivisions are 
only vaguely bounded and correspondingly difficult to define. 

Section I. CHLORITIS Beck. 

The apical whorl (and often the whole shell) having granules or 
hair-scars arranged in oblique rows. Shell generally reddish or 
brown, unicolored, or more rarely banded. 
16 



242 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

Section II. PLANISPIRA Beck. 

Apical whorl smooth, not granulate or sculptured. Shell white 
or pale, banded with brown. 

For the ill-defined subdivisions of these sections, see under the sec- 
tional heads below. 



Section I. CHLORITIS Beck, 1837. 

Chloritis BECK, Index Moll. p. 29, (Subgenus 24th). ALBERS, 
Die Heliceen 1850, p. 91 ; Die Hel. (Edit, v MARTENS) p. 161, 
1860, type H. ungulina Linn* TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Annali Mus. 
Civ. Genova, xix, p. 161, 1883, and of authors generally, Erigone 
ALBERS, Die Hel., 1850, p. 92 (for H. discordialis Fer.). Semicornu 
(" Klein") H. & A. Adams, Genera Rec. Moll, ii, p, 202, 1855. 

As I have already said above, the species of Chloritis have the 
apical whorl granulate; this character is sometimes obscured by 
the apex becoming rubbed or worn. Under Chloritis four feebly- 
characterized subsections we may recognize with profit, splitting, as 
they do, the multitude of species into manageable portions. 

1. Subsection Chloritis (restricted). Spire plane or sunken, 
rarely elevated. Shell generally unicolored reddish, sometimes 
banded, under a thin, freely deciduous epidermis which is usually 
velvety or hairy. Last whorl embracing the preceding one. 
Umbilicus open. Moluccas, New Guinea, Louisiade, Solomon and 
Admiralty groups of islands. Type H. ungulina Linn. 

2. Subsection Sulcobasis Tapp. Can. Shell large, heavy, globose- 
depressed, the spire convex ; dark, unicolored ; base encircled by 
more or less well-marked sulci or furrows. Type If. sulcosa Pfr. 

3. Subsection Austrochloritis Pilsbry. Small, thin, unicolored, 
narrowly umbilicated ; spire convex ; aperture lunate ; epidermis 
hairy or velvety, not deciduous. Peristome thin, narrowly reflexed. 
Northern Australia, Western New Guinea. Type, If. porteri Cox. 

4. Subsection Trichoehloritis Pilsbry. Shell depressed, thin, 
light, the spire low-convex or plane ; epidermis not deciduous, more 
or less hairy or velvety ; unicolored brown or having a supraperiph- 
eral band. South-eastern Asia ; Philippine Is. Type, H. breviseta 
Pfr. 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 243 

1. Subsection Chloritis, restricted. 
Group of H. ungulina. 

Spire decidedly sunken ; shell unicolored reddish or brown, the 
epidermis generally deciduous. 

H. UNGULINA Linne. PI. 51, figs. 54, 55, 56. 

Unicolored ; striatulate, not decussated ; spire deeply sunken, nar- 
row; whorls 5 5-6. Aperture a narrow crescent. 

Shell umbilicated, planorboid, obliquely striatulate, chestnut 
colored (usually denuded of the thin pellucid epidermis), lighter be- 
neath. Spire deeply sunken, composed of 5i-6 slightly convex, nar- 
row whorls, the last very large, descending in front, tumid above, 
then sloping toward the periphery, bluntly subangular on the base, 
broadly concave around the umbilicus, which is deep, and about one- 
eighth the diameter of the shell. Aperture crescentic, embracing a 
large segment of the whorl, little oblique, pale lilac-colored inside; 
peristome thin, expanded all around and subreflexed, fleshy-white 
or pale lilac. Alt. 22, greater diam. 40, lesser 33 mill. 

Ceram, Moluccas. 

H. ungulina LINN., Syst. Nat. x, p. 772. PFR. Mon. i, p. 383 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., t. 14, f. 7, 8. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 473. CHENU, 
Illustr. Conchyl., t. 8, f. 1. MARTENS, Preuss. Exped. Ostas., Land- 
schn., p. 279. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. xx, p. 
149. Chloritis ungulina BECK, Index, p. 29. 

The largest species of the unicolored group of Chloritis. The 
width of the concave spire, measured along the line of the lesser 
diameter is less than one-third of that diameter, narrower than in 
other species. The figures on my plate are not very good. The 
suture along the latter fourth of the body-whorl should form a 
tangent to the preceding whorls. 

The young are shortly, closely pilose. 
Var. MINOR Fer. PI. 51, figs. 57, 58, 59. 

More shining, brownish-orange, spire less immersed, peristome 
proportionately wider, aperture larger, basal angle obsolete. Alt. 
16, greater diam. 30, lesser 24 mill. ; aperture, length 18, width 16 
mill. It is from Ceram. 

H. ungulina var. /? minor. Fer. Hist. t. 77, f. 2. / Chloritis aur- 
antium BECK, Index, p. 29. v. MARTENS, Preuss. Exped. Landschn., 
p. 280. 



244 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

H. UNGUICULINA Martens. PL 50, figs. 29, 30, 31. 

Shell inflated, with immersed spire, narrowly umbilicated, lightly 
striatulate, little shining, obsoletely pilose, olivaceous-brown, con- 
colored ; spire profoundly sunken, suture profound; whorls 5, sub- 
angular at the suture, the last one tumid, obtusely angulated beneath, 
excavated inside of the angle, deeply descending in front ; aperture 
little oblique, subtrigonal-lunate, margins strongly arcuate near 
their insertions ; peristome not thickened, all around rather widely 
expanded, white. Alt. 10, greater diam. 17, lesser 13 mill ; apert. 
length 8, width 9 mill. 

Alt. 8, greater diam. 13, lesser 10, apert. length 6, width 6 mill. 
Kajeli and Oki, Island of Burn, Moluccas. 

H. unguiculina MART., Mai. Bl. x, 1863, p. 113, 135 ; Preuss. 
Exped. Landschn. p. 278, t. 14, f. 5. PFR. Mon. v, p. 390. 

A miniature H. ungulina ; the two angles are often more promi- 
nent than in that species ; the peristome is proportionally wider. 
Differs from H. unguiculastra in the deeply sunken spire, etc. Tra- 
ces of short numerous hairs are seen on the best-preserved speci- 
mens. 

H. BIOMPHALA Pfeiffer. Unfigured. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, depressed, rather solid, striatulate 
and covered with short down ; brown ; spire profoundly sunken ; 
whorls nearly 5, swollen, the last one rapidly increasing, in- 
flated, high, perceptibly descending in front, not angulated around 
the umbilicus. Aperture slightly diagonal, lunar-rounded, pearly 
inside ; peristome thin, flesh-colored, margins converging, the right 
margin ascending from the insertion, subregularly arcuate, narrowly 
expanded; columellar margin subarcuate-sloping, narrowly reflexed. 
Alt. 10-11, greater diam. 20, lesser 17 mill. (Pfr.~) 

H. biomphala PFR., P. Z. S. 1862, p. 272 ; Mon. v, p. 391. MAR- 
TENS, Preuss. Exped., Landschn., p. 279. 

Similar, says v. Martens, to H. unguiculina, especially in the deeply 
concave upper surface, but larger, umbilicus and spire-cavity nar- 
rower, the umbilicus not encircled by an angulation. 

H. MARTENSI Pfeiffer. Unfigured. 

Shell inflated-discoidal, rather widely umbilicated, lightly stria- 
tulate, chestnut colored ; spire little sunken, sutural angle distinct ; 
no angulation around the umbilicus ; whorls 4?, the last deeply de- 



HKLIX-CHLORITIS. 245 

flexed in front ; aperture diagonal, subtriangular, peristome ex- 
panded all around, rosy, upper margin angled above near the suture. 

Alt. 9, greater diara. 19, lesser 14 mill.; apert., length 9, alt. 
9 mill. (Mart.} 

Ceram, Moluccas. 

H.wartensi PFR. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 193; Monogr. v, p. 389. 
MARTENS, Ostas. Landschn., p. 279. 

Stands between unguiculastra and unguiculina, nearer the last, 
but distinguished by the less sunken spire, wider umbilicus and less 
high shell. 

H. CHERATOMORPHA Tapparone Canefri. PI. 5 1 , figs. 48, 49, 50, 51 . 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, somewhat solid, lightly striated, all 
over closely impressed-punctate, rufous, the umbilicus and peristome 
whitish ; spire compressed, in the middle immersed. Whorls 5, 
separated by an impressed suture, the upper ones flattened, the last 
cylindrical, large, deflexed in front ; umbilicus moderate, deep. 
Aperture oblique, lunar, pale inside ; peristome a little thickened, 
narrowly expanded above, reflexed beneath, margins approaching, 
the right margin ascending a little from the insertion, then incurved, 
basal margin nearly straight, columellar little-oblique, slightly 
dilated. Alt. 16, greater diam. 38, lesser 31 mill. (Can.) 

Island of Sorong, New Guinea. 

H. cheratomorpha CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, xix, p. 167, 
t. 4, f. 15-18, 1883. H. unguicula CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 
ix, p. 289, 1876-77 (not of Ferussac.). 

v 

H. BIFOVEATA Benson. PI. 50, fig. between 36 and 42. 

Shell umbilicated, subglobose, concave above and below, obliquely 
striated and most minutely granulated, buffish-brown, translucent ; 
spire profoundly excavated, perspectively umbilicus-shaped ; whorls 
4i, narrow', convex, receding, the last one prominent, inflated, com- 
pressed above, compressed ly-angulate around the moderate, perspec- 
tive umbilicus beneath. Aperture vertical, very long, projecting 
beyond the body-whorl above and below, very narrowly crescentic, 
subangular above and below ; peristome simple, acute, a little ex- 
panded, the margins remote, converging, columellar margin short, 
sub vertical, lightly expanded. Alt. 6, greater diam. 10, lesser 9 
mill. Aperture, alt. 7, width scarcely 2 mill. (Pfr.) 

Village of Therabuin, Tenasserim Valley, Burmali. 



246 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

H. bifoveata BENS., Ann. Mag. N. H. 2nd ser. xviii, p. 251. PFR., 
Mon. iv, p. 296. HANLEY & THEOB., Conch. Indica, t. 14, f. 8. 

A very peculiar species, having the spire deeply sunken. The 
sculpture consists of lines of granules crossing each other obliquely. 
I have not seen the species, but place it here on account of the con- 
cave spire. It might be considered as a tangent from the circle of 
Helix breviseta. The very poor figure is larger than the natural 
size. 

Group of H. circumdata. 

Spire sunken ; last whorl encircled by numerous dark and light 
bands and lines. Distribution, New Guinea. 

H. CIRCUMDATA Ferussac. PI. 52, figs. 74, 75, 76. 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal-inflated ; surface delicately but closely 
and regularly striatulate, and showing under a lens minute points 
(hair-scars) regularly arranged. Very numerous light yellowish 
and chestnut bands and lines encircle the body-whorl ; Spire con- 
cave, shallow. Whorls 5, the last descending to the middle of the 
preceding whorl in front, broadly concave around the umbilicus. 
Aperture slightly oblique, whitish inside ; peristome white, ex- 
panded all around, baso-columellar margin narrowly reflexed. Alt. 
13, greater diam. 27, lesser 22 mill. ; alt. of apert. 12, width 15 mill. 
Aru Is. ; Mysol; Waigiou ; Mac Cluer Gulf, western New Guinea. 

H. circumdata FER. Hist,, t. 77, f. 1. PHILIPPI, Abbild. i, p. 152, 
Helix t. 5, f. 9. QUOY & GAIMARD, Voy. de 1'Uranie, Zool. p. 470, 
t. 67, f. 12, 13. PFR., Mon. i, p. 387 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 335. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 470. MARTENS, Monatsber. K. P. Acad. 
Wissensch. Berl. p. 274, 1887. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Genov. xxiv, 1887, p. 142. H. molliseta PFR. P. Z. S. 1862, 
p. 271 ; Novit. Conch, p. 205, t. 54, f. 4-6. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 1887, p. 142. Semicornu circumdatum and 
S. mollisetum WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 410. 

A smaller species than H. lansbergiana, with less expanded per- 
istome. It differs from H. maforensis in having short hairs or hair- 
scars all over. 

H. molliseta is doubtless a synonym. The original figures are 
given on pi. 51, figs. 63, 64, 65. 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 247 

H. LANSBERGIANA Dohrn. PI. 50, figs. 26, 27, 28. 

Shell urabilicated, depressed, planorboid, rather solid, light ful- 
vous, with many rufous zones, striate, densely beset all over with 
granules (hair-scars arranged in quincunx). Spire plane, sunken in 
the middle. Whorls 6, a little convex, the last very large, de- 
pressed-rounded, deflexed in front. Aperture oblique, lunar, bluish- 
white inside ; peristome milk-white, thickened, right margin broadly 
expanded and a little reflexed. Columella more shortly reflexed, 
flexuous, half concealing the narrow umbilicus. Alt. 18, greater 
diam. 46, lesser 37 mill. (Dohrn.') 

New Guinea? 

H. lansbergiana DOHRN, Nachr. d. Mai. Ges. 1879, p. 69 ; Con- 
tinuation of Conchyl. Cab., p. 598, t. 175, f. 1-3. TAPPARONE 
CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 1887, p. 142. 

Closely allied to H. circumdata, but larger, with broader peristome. 

H. MAFORENSIS Tapparone Canefri. PI. 61, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

Shell broadly and profoundly umbilicated, depressed, planorboid, 
solid, waxy-white, encircled by many brown bands and lines. Spire 
plane, sunken in the middle, whorls 5ij subcouvex, longitudinally 
striated, the last large, rotund, in front moderately descending, sub- 
flattened beneath, excavated around the umbilicus. Aperture 
oblique, narrowly lunate, subquadrate, inside whitish ; peristome 
simple, all around narrowly reflexed, whitish, margins converging, 
the right margin regularly curved, basal substraightened, columellar 
ascending, narrowly reflexed. 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 32, lesser 27 mill. (Canefri). 

Island of Major, Bay of Geelvink, New Guinea. 

H. maforensis CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 1877, p. 140, t. 
1, f. 1-3. 

Differs from H. circumdata and molliseta in lacking hair-scars on 
the body- whorl, in the coloration, solidity and wider umbilicus. 

Yar. MICROMPHALUS Pilsbry. PI. 52, figs. 77, 78, 79. 

Much smaller than typical maforensis; whorls 5 ; umbilicus very 
narrow, one-twelfth the diameter of the shell. 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 21, lesser 171 mill.; Apert., alt. 10, width 
Hi mill. 

Aru Is. 



248 HELIX-CHLORIT1S. 

Group of H. unguicula. 

Spire plane, neither sunken or convex , unicolored or with one 
or two light bands. Distribution, Moluccas. 

H. UNGUICULASTRA Martens. PI. 50, figs. 39, 40, 41. 

Shell discoidal, narrowly umbilicated, lightly, widely striate^little 
shining, chestnut colored, unicolored ; spire plane, suture rather 
deep ; whorls 5, the last tumid, rounded, convex beneath. Aperture 
little oblique; broadly lunar; peristome scarcely thickened, all 
around shortly and equally expanded, violaceous. (Ms.) 

Amboyna group of the Moluccas, Is. of Burn and Amboyna. 

H. unguiculastra MART. Preuss. Exped. Ostas. Landschu., p. 281, 
t. 14,f.l. 

Von Martens recognizes two forms : 

a. var. Buruensis (or typical ; see figs.) 

Larger, last whorl obtusely angled at suture, but little and 
gradually descending in front ; umbilicus narrower. Alt. 14, greater 
diam. 26, lesser 22; length of apert. 15, width 14 mill. Alt. 11, 
greater diam. 22?, lesser 18 ; length of apert. 12, width 12 mill. 

b. var. amboinensis Mts. Smaller, last whorl scarcely angular, 
deeply descending in front ; umbilicus a 1 ittle wider. Alt. 1 1 , greater 
diam. 22, lesser 18 mill.; apert. length Hi, width 10 mill. Alt. 9, 
greater diam. 18, lesser 14? mill. ; apert., length 9, width 9 mill. 

Animal dark reddish-gray, finely granulate ; tentacles slender, 
black ; tail smooth, without mucous gland ; sole 26 mill, long, 6 
broad ; tentacles 13 mill, long; jaw with projecting riblets [leisten]. 
Very shy. Young, fresh examples are finely hairy. (Martens.') 

This species resembles in color and the narrow umbilicus H. un- 
gulina; In the flattened form and the entirely flat spire it is more 
like unguicula; but it is smaller than either. The far flatter form, 
quite comparable to H. quimperiana, renders the smaller forms quite 
different from H. quieta Kve. The H. flexuosa of Pfeiffer may be 
the same. Martens believes the locality " Borneo ", given by Pfeiffer 
for that species, to be an error for Burn. 

Var. PILOSA Martens. Shell inflated-discoidal, moderately um- 
bilicated, lightly striatulate, beset ivith short black hairs ; pale brown ; 
spire plane, suture moderately deep ; no angle at the suture, whorls 
5, the last inflated, rotund, deeply deflexed in front ; aperture sub- 
diagonal, lunate-circular, peristome not thickened, all around ex- 
panded, reflexed, white. Alt. 11, greater diam. 21, lesser 17? mill.; 
apert. alt. 10*, diam. 11 2 mill. (Mart.) 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 249 

The last whorl is more deflexed in front than in unguiculastra. 
H. breviseta Pfr. has a wider umbilicus. 

H. FLEXUOSA Pfeiffer. Unfigured. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, rather solid, lightly striate, a little 
shining, chestnut colored ; spire subplane, a trifle immersed in the 
middle. Whorls 5, rapidly increasing, a little convex, above ir- 
regularly spirally striate; last whorl wide, subdepressed, a trifle de- 
scending in front, base not compressed around the narrow umbilicus. 
Aperture oblique, rotund-lunar, wider than high ; peristome lilac, 
expanded, basal margin sloping, flexuous, reflexed. 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 30, lesser 25 mill. (Pfr.) 

" Borneo:' 

H.flexuosa PFR. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 112 ; Monogr. iv, p. 292. MAR- 
TENS, Preuss. Exped. nach Ostas., Landschu., p. 282. 

H. CERAMENSIS Pfeiffer. Unfigured. 

Shell discoidal, narrowly umbilicated, lightly, rather widely 
striated, shining, chestnut-rufous; spire plane, a little immersed in 
the middle ; suture moderately profound ; whorls 5, the last rounded, 
defiexed in front ; aperture little oblique, transverse, semi-elliptical ; 
peristome slightly thickened, pale violaceous. Alt. 15, greater diam. 
35, lesser 26 mill. ; apert. long 20, alt. 16*i mill. (Mart.) 

Island of Ceram, Moluccas. 

H. ceramensis PFR. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 192; Monogr. v, p. 386. 
MARTENS, Ostas. Landschn. p. 283. 

Intermediate between unguiculastra and unguicula; flatter and 
more shining than the former, having a narrower umbilicus than 
the latter. (Mart.) 

H. UNGUICULA Ferussac. PI. 50, figs. 32, 33, 34. 

Shell inflated-discoidal, openly umbilicate, lightly striate, a little 
shining, orange colored, with a little-distinct whitish bdnd above, and 
a wide umbilical whitish tract ; spire little immersed, nearly plane. 
Whorls 5 3-, suture rather deep ; last whorl swollen, rounded, its base 
^concave; slightly descending in front. Aperture diagonal, broadly 
lunar, peristome rather widely expanded all around, of the color of 
the shell, columellar margin dilated at the insertion. 

Alt. 18 ?, greater diam. 38 , lesser 30 mill; apert. long, 201, lat. 
19 mill. 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 22J, lesser 20 mill. 

Ceram and Amboyna, Moluccas. 



250 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

H. unguicula FER. Hist., t. 76, f. 3, 4. PFR. Mon. i, p. 384. 
REEVE, Conch Icon. f. 468. MARTENS, Preuss. Exped., Landschn. 
p. 283. H. yoldii MORCH, ms. 

Varies much in size. The whitish band above and white um- 
bilical patch will distinguish it from other forms. 

H, GRUNERI Pfeiffer. PI. 68, figs. 86, 87, 88. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, nearly plane above, very minutely 
punctate-striate, rufous ; whorls 5J, perceptibly increasing, nearly 
plane, the last one rounded, a trifle deflexed in front ; umbilicus 
narrow; aperture sub vertical, depressed, broadly lunar; peristome 
thickened, reflexed, margins joined by a thin callus which bears 
above a strong arcuate tooth. Alt. 18, greater diam. 38, lesser 32 
mill. (P/r.) 

Island of Burn, Moluccas. 

H. gruneri PFR. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 63 ; Monogr. i, p. 384 ; Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 473, t. 157, f. 9-11. MARTENS, Ostas. Landschn. p. 284. 
Semicornu gruneri Pfr., WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 410. 

Spire not sunken ; shell finely punctate, unicolored ; umbilicus 
narrow. 

H. EXACTA Pfeifler. PI. 50, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed, solid, somewhat roughly striate, 
tawny ; spire plane, subimmersed in the middle. Whorls 5i a tri- 
fle convex, slowly increasing, the last not descending, rounded on 
the periphery, the base subinflated around the narrow umbilicus ; 
aperture little oblique, narrowly lunar; peristome narrowly ex- 
panded and thickened, margins remote, the right margin ascending 
a little from the insertion, columellar margin a little dilated. Alt. 
14, greater diam. 30, lesser 26 J mill. (Pfr.) 

Northern New Guinea. 

H. exacta PFR., P. Z. S. 1862, p. 271 ; Novit. Conch, p. 212, t. 
56, f. 5, 6 ; Monogr. v. p. 386. 

Group of H. eustoma. 

Shell thin, the spire nearly plane; epidermis thin usually per- 
sistant, hairy. Species inhabiting the islands lying eastward from 
New Guinea, from the Louisiade and Solomon groups north to New 
Ireland and the Admiralty Is. 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 251 

H. ERINACEUS Pfeiffer. PI. 52, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, thin, beset with hairs on tubercles 
arranged in quincunx ; rufescent ; spire subplane, suture simple. 
Whorls 4-1, a little convex, the last inflated, somewhat descending in 
front, compressed around the umbilicus. Aperture oblique, rotund- 
lunar ; peristome fleshy-brown, thin, expanded in every part, mar- 
gins converging joined by a thin callus, columellar margin dilated. 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 22, lesser 18 mill. (Z)o/irn.) 

New Ireland; New Georgia. 

H. erinaceus PFR. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 192 ; Monogr. v, p. 387 ; Novit 
Conch, ii, p. 174, t. 47, f. 3, 4. DOHRN Conchyl. Cab., p. 602, 1. 175 
f. 15, 16. 

A species generally confused with H. eustoma; the difference from 
that species is marked. The spire is less flat; the suture is not 
channelled, the umbilicus penetrates deeply but is not broadly 
funnel-shaped as in eustoma ; the lip is expanded but not reflexed. 
It is more nearly allied to H. discordialis, perhaps not specifically 
separable. See Dohrn, I. c. 

H. LEEI Cox. PI. 49, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell with a large, open, funnel-shaped umbilicus, thin, translu- 
cent, globosely depressed, of a dark cinnamon-brown color, trans- 
versely rather coarsely striated throughout, and covered above and 
below with oblique rows of prominent rather coarse setse ; spire 
slightly raised, bluntly convex ; suture deeply impressed ; whorls 5, 
convex, gradually increasing in size, last somewhat inflated, rounded 
below, excavated round the umbilicus, and gradually depressed in 
front for half the circumference of the whorl ; aperture transversely 
oval, lip broadly expanded and slightly thickened, triangularly 
dilated at the columella, the outer margin of which overhangs the 
umbilicus; margins of aperture joined by a thin callus. 

Alt. 0'76, greater diam. 1-21, lesser 0'95 inch. 

Island of St. Aignan, Louisiade Archipelago. 

H. leei Cox, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 565, t. 48, f. 5, 5a. E. A. SMITH, 
Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1889 (Vol. iv, 6th Ser.), p. 201. 

Resembles a large H. erinaceus. 

H. SUBCORPULENTUS Smith. PL 68, fig. 84. 

Shell broadly and profoundly umbilicated, rather thin, globose- 
depressed, shining, pale brownish, paler toward the apex ; whorls 5, 



252 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

a little convex, rather rapidly increasing, sculptured with oblique, 
delicate lines of growth; separated by a well-impressed suture ; the 
last whorl inflated, shortly and obliquely descending in front. 
Aperture broadly lunar, little oblique, pearl-like inside ; peristome 
livid-rufescent, broadly expanded and reflexed, margins joined by a 
very thin callus, the columellar margin much dilated. Alt. 25, 
greater diam. 40, lesser 32 mill. (Smith.') 

Rossel Island, Louisiade Archipelago. 

H. (Chloritis) subcorpulentus E. A. SMITH, Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History, 6th series, vol. iv, p. 201, t. 13, f. 14, Sept., 



In form this species is very like H. leei ; it is, however, much lar- 
ger and differently sculptured ; it exhibits no trace of the oblique 
rows of granules occurring in that species, the epidermis being ap- 
parently non-pilose, (Smith.') 

H. DISCORDIALIS Ferussac. PI. 45, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell umbilicated, globose-depressed, thin, minutely granulated 
all over, silky, diaphanous, tawny ; spire depressed, plane above ; 
whorls 4i, rapidly increasing, turgid at the sutures, the last descend- 
ing in front, compressed around the broadly funnel-shaped umbili- 
cus. Aperture diagonal, lunate-oval ; peristome thin, broadly ex- 
panded, margins approaching, columellar margin dilated. Alt. 13J, 
greater diam. 26, lesser 20 mill. (Pfr.') 

Port -Carteret, New Ireland. 

H. dincordialis FEB., Hist. t. 74, f. 1. PFR. Monogr. iii, p. 244. 
MARTENS, Monatsb. k. p. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1877, p. 
274, 1878. If. squalus HINDS, Zool. of the Voy. of H. M. S. Sul- 
phur, p. 55, t. 19, f. 12. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 414. 

H. EUSTOMA Pfeiffer. PI. 50, figs. 44, 45, 46 ; pi. 52, figs. 86, 87. 

Shell umbilicated, inflated-discoidal, thin, brown, covered with a 
dull, lusterless, very thin epidermis, usually deciduous in places, the 
surface underneath this epidermis is. shining ; closely beset all over 
with short hairs (or hair- scars the hairs being usually rubbed off.) 
arranged in oblique lines. Spire plane ; whorls 4, very convex, 
separated by profound sutures, the last whorl inflated, descending 
in front ; base prominently angular around the broadly funnel- 
shaped umbilicus. Aperture slightly oblique, rounded-lunate ; lip 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 253 

thin, narrowly expanded, baso-columellar margin more broadly 
expanded, subreflexed. Alt. 13. greater diam. 21, lesser 17 mill. 

Islands of Ugi, Faro, New Georgia, Ysabel, Solomon group. 

H. eustoma PFR., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 383; Mai. Bl. 1856, p. 243; 
Novit. Conch, i, t. 38, f. 3-5. DOHRN, Continuation Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 572, t. 169, f. 1-3. SMITH, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 594. 

A light thin species with flat or nearly flat spire, very deep 
sutures, the base prominently angulated. Mr. E. A. Smith considers 
H. erinaceus a synonym ; but Dohrn has, I believe correctly, retained 
them separate. 

H. DENTRECASTEAUXI Smith. PL 68, figs. 89, 90, 91. 

Shell depressed, narrowly umbilicated, light brown, marked with 
fine lines of growth, and everywhere finely punctate, and probably 
pilose in a fresh condition, spire slightly sunken below the body- 
whorl. Volutions 5, convex above, separated by a deepish suture, 
slowly enlarging ; the last somewhat inflated, a little descending an- 
teriorly, having two indentations one, elongate, about the middle of 
the whorl, at a short distance from the lip, the other nearer the 
labrum, just under the base, both forming denticular prominences 
within. Aperture oblique, narrowly lunate. Peristome whitish, 
thickened, reflexed everywhere, the extremities being united by a 
thin callosity spreading over the whorl. (Smith.') 

This remarkable species is readily distinguished from its allies by 
the peculiar indentations on the body-whorl forming within the aper- 
ture pseudo-denticles. As compared with Pfeiffer's figure of H. 
eustoma, also from the Admiralty Islands, it will be seen that this 
species has a more depressed spire, a narrower umbilicus, and a nar- 
rower aperture. (Smith.') 

Wild Island, Admiralty group. 

H. (Chloritis) dentrecasteauxi E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 265, 
t. 22, f. 6, 6b. 

H. URSINA Pfeiffer. PL 32, figs. 56, 57. 

Shell umbilicated depressed, rather thin, striatulate, and under a 
lens seen to be punctulate, scarcely shining, deep brown. Spire 
very shortly conoidal, vertex minute. Whorls 5J, moderately con- 
vex, the last large, inflated, not descending, subcompressed around 
the narrow perforate umbilicus. Aperture oblique, lunate-oval, 
lilac, with a pearly luster inside. Peristome thin, margins distant, 



254 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

the right one arcuate, narrowly expanded, columellar margin slop- 
ing, somewhat reflexed, dilated at the umbilicus. (Pfr.} 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 20, lesser 17 mill. 

Admiralty {glands. 

H. ursina PFR. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 384 ; Mai. Bl. 1856, p. 243 ; Mon- 
ographia, iv, p. 290 ; Novit, Conch, i, p. 112, t. 31, f. 14, 15. 

H. DINODEOMORPHA Tapparone Canefri. PI. 52, figs. 66, 67, 68. 

Shell umbilicated, rather thin, discoidal lightly striate, under a 
lens seen to be somewhat cancellated by very delicate, obsolete striae, 
and all over covered with minute, close, elevated points ; rufous or 
livid-rufous, covered by a setigerous, freely deciduous brown 
epidermis, the hairs close, short, stiff. Spire plane, immersed in the 
middle. Whorls 4i, rather convex, separated by profound sutures, 
the last whorl large, descending in front, subcompressed at the 
moderate, profoundly perforating umbilicus, generally with some 
very obsolete spiral grooves. Aperture rotund-lunate, oblique, 
large ; peristome reddish, whitish at base, shortly expanded, reflexed 
beneath, margins regularly curved, approaching and joined by a 
thin callus ; right and basal margins regularly curved, columellar 
dilated and reflexed above the umbilicus. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 31, lesser 25 mill. (Canefri.') 

Central New Guinea. 

H. dinodeomorpha CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, xix, p. 168, 
t. 4, f. 4-7 (shell) ; t. 7, f. 5, and t. 9, f. 2, 15, (anatomy.) 

Allied to H. erinaceus, but the umbilicus is narrower, more covered- 

H. SILENUS Angas. PI. 50, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell deeply and perspectively umbilicated, rather thin, globosely 
depressed, pale brown, minutely and very finely punctately striate ; 
spire immersed ; whorls 5, rounded, rapidly increasing, the last in- 
flated, a little flattened at the upper part, descending considerably 
in front, and somewhat angulated round the umbilicus ; aperture 
oblique, rhomboidly lunate ; peristome thin, whitish ; margins ap- 
proximating, the right flexuous, narrowly expanded ; the columellar 
margin rounded, expanded, and slightly reflexed. (Angas.'} 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 14, lesser 12 mill. 

New Ireland. 

H. (Semicornu] Silenus ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 182, t. 20, f. 2. 

Compare H. gaimardi Dh. 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 255 

H. GAIMARDI Deshayes. PI. 52, figs. 69, 70, 71, 72, 73. 

Shell umbilicated, globose-depressed, rather solid, minutely granu- 
lated, tawny ; spire plane, subsunken in the middle. Whorls 4?, 
convex, slowly widening, the last large, deflexed in front, a little 
swollen at the suture, obsoletely subangulated in the middle, the 
base distinctly angulated around the moderate-sized funnel-shaped 
umbilicus. Aperture little-oblique, irregularly, broadly lunar; 
peristome white, narrowly reflexed, upper margin arched upward, 
then flexuous, columellar margin sloping. 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 15, lesser 12 \ mill. (Pfr.) 

Port Carterel, New Ireland. 

H. gaimardi DH. in Guer. Mag. de Zool., 1831, t. 29 ; in Fer., 
Histoire, t. 72, f. 6-9. PFR. Monogr. i, p. 387; iv, p. 294. IT. 
gaymardi DH. olim. H. adustus HINDS, Voyage of the Sulphur, 
Zool., p. 55, t. 19, f. 11. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 451. 

H. MENDAN^E Gox. Unfigured. 

Shell with a deep open, perspective umbilicus, discoid, white, semi- 
opaque, smooth and shining, finely transversely striated throughout 
with lines of growth, ornamented with two narrow dark brown bands, 
one immediately above, the other immediately below the periphery 
of the last whorl, and continuous to the apex of the spire ; the last 
whorl is subcarinated only for a short distance near the insertion of 
the outer margin of the aperture ; spire convexly flattened ; whorls 
6, gradually increasing in diameter, the last not depressed ; base con- 
vex ; aperture oblique, irregularly subcircular, margins approaching, 
joined by a thin brown callus ; lip slightly thickened and everted. 
(Co*,) ' 

Alt. 0-35, greater diam. 0'72, lesser 0'63 inch. 

Solomon Is. 

H. mendance Cox, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 148. 

A semiopaque, white, flattened species, with a conspicuously open 
umbilicus, and ornamented with two narrow dark brown bands, one 
above, the other below the periphery of the last whorl. ( Cox.) 

Systematic position doubtful. 

H. MAJUSCULA Pfeiffer. PI. 48, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell large, discoidal, flat or nearly so above, with a broad fun- 
nel-shaped umbilicus beneath ; dark broAvn. 

It is solid, opaque, of a reddish-brown color, scarcely shining ; 
surface smooth except for slight irregular growth- wrinkles and rude, 



256 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

shallow spiral furrows and malleatioDs on the base. Spire flat or a 
little convex, the suture deeply impressed ; whorls 5, convex, the 
last wide, obtusely angled at the periphery, which is above the mid- 
dle of the whorl ; a trifle descending in front. Below the periphery 
the surface slopes to the prominence around the broad umbilicus, 
within which the whorls are visible to the apex. The aperture is 
oblique, narrowly lunar, livid inside, the lip white or pink, expanded, 
outer, basal and columellar margins reflexed, the columellar edge 
impinging upon the umbilicus. Parietal wall with a transparent 
wash of callus. 

Alt. 16, greater diam. 46, lesser 40 mill. 

Alt. 15, greater diam. 41 mill. 

New Hanover, New Ireland, Admiralty Is* 

H. majuscula PFR., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 381 ; Novit, 
Conch, i, p. 107, t. 30 f. 3-5 ; Monog. Hel. Viv. iv, p. 300. DOHRN 
in Kuster's Conchyl. Cab. p. 592, t. 173, f. 14-16. 

A large, chestnut-brown species, flat above, with deeply impressed 
sutures. The umbilicus is broader than in the following species. 
The surface in all the specimens I have seen, is denuded of the 
very thin epidermis. The remains of the latter to be seen in the 
sutures show it to agree with Chloritis in being granulate. Young 
specimens will doubtless be found to be hirsute. 

H. isis Pfeiffer. PI. 32, figs. 46, 47, 48 ; pi. 49, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, rather solid, striatulate, unicolored 
chestnut ; spire scarcely elevated ; whorls 5, hardly convex, sensi- 
bly increasing, the last subdeflexed in front ; periphery very obso- 
letely angled ; base more convex ; aperture oblique, broadly lunar, 
having a pearly luster inside ; peristome white, the margins scarcely 
converging, upper margin subhorizontal, expanded, basal broadly 
reflexed, shortly ascending at the insertion, partly closing the mod- 
erate umbilicus by its dilation. (Pfr.) 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 45, lesser 38 mill. 

Admiralty Is. 

H. isis PFR. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1860, p. 133, t. 50, f. 8 ; 
Malak. Bl. 1860, p. 237 ; Monographia Hel. Viv. v, p. 375 ; Novit. 
Conch, iv, p. 113, t. 126, f. 1-5. 

Besides the unicolored chestnut form, specimens occur which are 
brown with several broad darker bands or yellowish with broad 
chestnut-brown 'bands (fig. 48). 



HELIXr-CHLORITIS. 257 

The shallower sutures and narrower umbilicus separate this spe- 
cies from H. majuscula. 

Group of H. quercina. 

Depressed-globose with conoidal spire and narrow umbilicus ; the 
apex prominently exserted. Surface covered with short rigid hairs ; 
unicolored brown. 

The Exserted apex of this species is unique in Chloritis, where as 
a rule the apex is planorboid or sunken. The earlier whorls seem 
to be smooth, as in Planispira. Compare also H. majuscula and isis. 

H. QUERCINA Pfeiffer. PL 37, figs. 48, 49. 

Shell narrowly, half-covered umbilicate, depressed-globose with 
conical, acute spire; chestnut-brown, unicolored; surface covered 
with short, stiff hairs, about i millim. apart. 

Opaque, strong but rather thin, the surface in fresh specimens 
nearly lusterless and covered with stiff wirey hairs about a half 
millimeter in length, worn off on the spire and around the umbili- 
cus. In rubbed shells the hair-scars may still be seen on the surface. 
Spire elevated, acute, its sides slightly concave ; apex pointed, pro- 
jecting; suture impressed, whorls 5? to 6, convex, the last sub- 
globose, but often very obtusely angled at the periphery. In front 
it descends a trifle. Aperture somewhat oblique, the peristome 
seen in profile to be arched backward in the middle. The aperture 
is flesh-colored inside, of a rounded-lunar form ; peristome white, 
narrowly reflexed all around, dilated triangularly at the columellar 
insertion, half covering the narrow umbilicus. 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 29, lesser 26 mill. 
Shortland, Faro and Ysabel Islands, Solomon Is.', (Admiralty Is. /) 

H. quercina PFR. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 382 ; Novit. 
Conch, i, p. 108, t. 31, f. 1, 2; Monog. Hel. Viv. iv, p. 247. IT. 
Hombroni PFR. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 382; Novit. Conch, i, p. Ill; 
t. 31, f. 9-11 ; Monog. Hel. Viv. iv, p. 262. DOHRN in Conchyl. 
Cab. p, 583, t. 172, f. l-l.H. janellii HOMBR. & JACQ. Voy. Pole 
Sud, Zool. v. p. 8, t. 4, f. 15-18, (not H. JaneUii Le Guillou, a 
species of Xanthomelon). H. ( Camcena} hombroni Pfr. E. A. SMITH 
P. Z. S. 1885, p. 594. 

The typical quercina is rather globose, the aperture of a rounded- 
lunar shape. The form called H. Hombroniby Pfeiffer is connected 
by insensible gradations with it, and must be considered as at most 
a mere variety. 
17 



258 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

Var. HOMBRONI Pfr. PI. 37, tigs. 45, 46, 47. 

Shell more depressed, the aperture of a narrowly crescentic form ; 
color chestnut-brown like the type, of a chocolate shade, dark spec- 
imens having the inner whorls lighter, and the reflexed lip white, 
both on its face and back. 

Alt. 19, greater diam. 31, lesser 26? mill. 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 36, lesser 31 mill. 

Alt. 18, greater diam. 27, lesser 24 mill. 

Specimens both larger and smaller than the one figured are before 
me. Fig. 47 is incorrect in showing no umbilicus. 

Group of H. tuba. 

Spire flat or convex ; having a few wide dark bands on a lighter 
or white ground. Distribution, Celebes. 

H. BULBULUS Mousson. PI. 44, figs. 1, 2, 3,, 16, 17. 

Shell rather broadly umbilieated, inflated-discoidal, lightly stria- 
tulate, roughened by minute close hairs, and minutely quasi reti- 
culated. White, three-banded with brown, the umbilicus brown ; 
spire subimmersed ; suture rather deep ; whorls 4fc, the last inflated, 
convex beneath, deeply descending in front. Aperture diagonal, 
lunate-semi-elliptical ; peristome broadly expanded all around, thin, 
of the same color as the shell, margins conniving. 

Alt. 19i-16 J, greater diam. 42-33, lesser 31-25 mill. (Mart.) 
Southern Celebes, at the waterfall at Maros. 

H. bulbus Mouss., Moll. Jav., p. 114, t. 21, f. 5 (young). MAR- 
TENS, Mai. Bl. x, 1863, p. 76. H. bulbulus (Mouss., ms.,) PFR. 
Monogr. iii, p. 271. MARTENS, Ostas., Landschn., p. 285, 1. 17, f. 2 ; 
t. 19, f. 4 (animal). DOHRN, Conchyl. Cab., p. 574, t. 169, f. 7-9. 

Distinguished from H. tuba by the wider umbilicus, wider and 
more arcuate basal lip, and completely flat spire. 

H. TUBA Albers. PI. 46, figs. 54, 55, 56 ; pi. 55, fig. 55. 

Shell very narrowly umbilicate, depressed, thin, subgranulate and 
beset with short, rigid hairs arranged in quincunx ; opaque, tawny, 
banded with brown, the umbilical region brown, encircled with 
white ; spire little projecting ; whorls 4, slightly convex, the last 
inflated, a trifle descending in front ; aperture nearly vertical, trans- 
versely oblong ; peristome reflexed all around, pale corneous, the 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 259 

margins rather distant, lower one straightened, convexly bent for- 
ward. Alt. 22, greater diam. 39, lesser 28 mill. (Mart.') 

Southern Celebes. 

H. tuba ALB. Mai. Bl. 1854, p. 214. PFR. Novit. Conch, i, p. 
25, t. 7, f. 1-3 ; Monogr. iv, p. 288. MARTENS, Ostas. Landschn. 
p. 285. DOHRN, Conchyl. Cab. p. 574. t. 169, f. 10-12. 

The banding is variable ; it may be expressed in these formulae : 
00340, 10340 or (123)(45). 

H. ZODIACUS Ferussac. PL 48, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Shell rather narrowly umbilicate, depressed-inflated, lightly 
striated, sculptured with very numerous minute impressed points 
(probably hair-scars) ; orange, tawny, paler beneath, with a broad 
white, brown-edged band. Spire a little projecting. Whorls 4, a 
trifle convex, the last rounded, a little more swollen below than 
above, a little descending in front ; aperture subvertical, trans- 
versely elliptical ; peristome widely reflexed, thick, white, outside 
rosy, margins converging, joined by a white callus, the lower mar- 
gin straightened, bending forward. Alt. 29 , greater diam. 55, les- 
ser 38 J mill. Apert. long. 35, lat. 26 \ mill. (Mart.) 

Celebes. 

H. zodiacus FER., Hist. t. 75, f. 2. PFR., Monogr. i, p. 373 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 472. MARTENS, Preuss. Exped. Ostas., 
Landschn. p. 284. 

Most nearly allied to H. tuba Alb. 



2. Subsection Sulcobasis Tapparone Canefri, 1883. 

Sulcobasis TAPP. CAN., Fauna Malacologica del Nuova Guinea, in 
Annali del Museo Civico di Storia naturale di Geneva, xix, 1883, p. 
161. Chloritis and Sphcerospira, in part, of authors. 

Shell large, globose-depressed, unicolored dark chestnut or brown 
(reddish when the thin epidermis is removed). Spire convex, inner 
whorls (and apex when not worn) showing minutes granules or hair- 
scars arranged in oblique rows; body-whorl more or less spirally 
sulcated, especially on the base. Umbilicus narrow ; aperture wider 
than high, lip reflexed. Type, H. sulcosa Pfr. 

A group of large, solid shells, characteristic of New Guinea. They 
differ from Chloritis chiefly in having the spire raised, not concave, 
and the aperture wider than high. 



260 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

H. SULCOSA. Pfeiffer. PI. 49, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Shell umbilicated, convex-depressed, rather solid, minutely striat- 
ulate and punctate, unicolored, chestnut ; spire little convex, obtuse; 
whorls 5i, rather flattened, the last inflated, sculptured with malle- 
ations and irregular subspiral furrows, the side opposite the aper- 
ture somewhat swollen; last whorl not descending in front, sub- 
compressed and excavated around the moderate umbilicus. Aper- 
ture little oblique, lunar, livid inside ; peristome broadly expanded 
all around, margins slightly converging, the right one much arched, 
basal lightly arched, columellar margin dilated above, vaultedly 
reflexed. Alt. 22, greater diam. 43, lesser 34 mill. (Pfr.) 

Aru Islands. 

H. sulcosa PFR., Mai. Bl. i, 1854, p. 65 ; Novit. Conch, i, p. 1, t. 
1, f. 1-3 ; Monogr. iv, p. 287. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1350. Semi- 
cornu sulcosa Pfr. WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 410. Helix (Sulco- 
basis') yulcosa Pfr. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 
xix, p. 163, 1883. 

H. sulcosa being the first species given by Canefri may be consid- 
ered the type of Sulcobasis. 

H. RUBRA Albers. PI. 48, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Shell umbilicated, solid, lightly striate and irregularly, distantly 
obliquely sulcate ; unicolored brick-red ; spire but little elevated ; 
whorls 5 ?, little convex the last dilated and descending in front, the 
base a little paler ; aperture ample, subdiagonal, oblique, lunate- 
oval, with a pearly luster inside ; peristome simple, white, margins 
joined by a sinuous callus, right margin expanded, basal reflexed, 
columellar margin dilated. 

Alt. 23, greater diam. 65, lesser 50 mill. (Pfr.) 

My sol; Aru Is. 

H. rubra ALB. Mai. Bl. iv, 1857, p. 93, t. 2, f. 1-3. PFR. Mon. 
Hel. Viv. iv, p. 287. DOHRN, Conchyl. Cab., continuation, p. 569, 
t. 168, f. 7-9. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. xix, 
p. 166. 

H. BEATRICIS Tapparone Canefri. PI. 36, fig. 19. 

Shell globose-depressed, longitudinally striated, unicolored brown- 
ish-chestnut under a thin bufGsh-green epidermis; spire depressed, 
a little convex, apex obtuse. Whorl 5, regularly increasing, the 
upper obsoletely impresso-punctate, the last large, inflated, in the 
middle and beneath submalleated and encircled by little-impressed, 



HELIX-CHLOKITIS. 261 

irregular sulci ; last whorl not descending in front, subcompressed 
around the perforating, deep umbilicus; aperture a little oblique, 
rounded-lunar, throat livid ; peristome livid-brown, simple, all 
around expanded and subreflexed, the margins a little converging 
and joined by a very thin callus ; upper and right margins regularly 
incurved, columellar subthickened, broadly reflexed. 
Alt. 35, greater diam. 52, lesser 42 mill. (T. 0.) 

Helix (Sulcobasis) Beatricis T. C., Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. xix, p. 
163, t. 4, f. 14, and anatomy, t. 8, f. 16. 

Distinguished from H. sulcosa by its far greater dimensions, more 
globose form and elevated spire, more convex whorls, more rotund 
form and larger aperture, smaller umbilicus and brownish-chestnut 
color. 

H. REHSEI Martens. PI. 36, fig. 20. 

Shell large, globose-depressed, narrowly umbilicated, solid, dark 
chestnut, unicolored ; whorls 4?, the earlier having microscopic 
hair-scars in oblique series, the last encircled at and below the mid- 
dle by numerous, scarcely noticeable, shallow furrows ; lip bluish, 
thick, broadly reflexed, basal margin sinuous. 

The spire is low-conical, obtuse ; last whorl slightly descending 
in front ; umbilicus deeply penetrating but rapidly becoming nar- 
row. Aperture livid-bluish inside; peristome thick, broadly re- 
flexed all around, its face convex, bluish, brown-edged ; its termin- 
ations remote ; columellar margin dilated, impinging upon the um- 
bilicus. 

Alt. 35, greater diam. 46, lesser 36 mill. 

Alt. 30, greater diam. 43, lesser 34 mill. 

Inland from Port Moresby, at the foot of the Astrolabe Mts. 

Helix (Xanthomeloii) JRehsei v. MARTENS, Jahrb. D. Mai. Ges. 
1883, p. 82. SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. 5th Ser., xix, p. 418, t. 15, 
fig. 19. H. (Camcena) rehsei, Mart. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Genov. 1877, p. 144. H. (Sphcerospira) Gerrardi E. A. 
SMITH, Ann. Mag. N. H. 5th Ser., xi, p. 192, 1883 (preoc. by 
Mackay). TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. xix, p. 
165. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ix, p. 185, 1884 (by 
typog. error " Genardi"). H. (Sulcobasis) Gerrardi var. obtecta, 
REiNHARDT,Sitzungsberichte der Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde zu Ber- 
lin, no. 4, 1886, pp. 58, 59. 



262 HELTX-CHLORITIS. 

This heavy, solid shell is remarkable for the thick, broadly re- 
flexed lip, sinuous on its base. 

Var. OBTECTA Keinhardt. 

Agrees with the typical Eehsei inform, coloration and sculpture; 
differs in having the umbilicus entirely closed by the broadly re- 
flexed columellar lip. Alt. 37, greater diam. 48, lesser 35 mill. 

H. CONCISA Ferussac. PI. 49, fig. 15. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, solid,, unicolored reddish, regularly 
striate, cut by irregular, oblique furrows; spire somewhat plane, 
suture impressed ; whorls 6, a trifle convex, the last one rounded,, 
scarcely deflexed in front; umbilicus funnel-shaped; aperture 
oblique, lunate-oval, shining inside ; peristome subthickened, white, 
expanded, margins joined by an arcuate white callus. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 58, lesser 46 mill. (Pff^ 

Waigheu, New Guinea ; Aru Is.; Id. of Ravack* 

H. concisa FEE., Hist. t. 78, f. 3, 4 ; Voy. de 1'Uranie, p. 470. 
WOOD, Index Test. Suppl. t. 7, f. 53. PFR. Monogr. i, p. 373. 
Semicornu concisa Fer., WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 410. Helix 
(Sulcobasis) concisa Fer., TAPPAKONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Genov. xix, p. 165, 1883. 

3. Subsection Austrochloritis Pilsbry, 1891. 

Shell small, thin, unicolored brown or corneous-brown ; umbilicate r 
depressed, hairy or having hair-scars or points, even to the apex; 
spire slightly convex ; upper whorl planorboid ; periphery rounded ; 
aperture round-lunar, outer lip narrowly expanded, thin, columellar 
lip reflexed partly concealing the umbilicus, which is excavated 
somewhat behind it ; ends of peristome converging ; suture deeply 
impressed. Type, Helix porteri Cox. 

Distribution, Northern Australia and New Guinea. 

Separated from Chloritis by the convex spire ; from Sulcobasis by 
the small thin shell, lacking spiral sulci ; from Planispira and Cristi- 
gibba the closely granulate apex will separate it. 

This group is very like the Indo-Chinese section Trichochloritis. 
The Australian species referred by authors to Trachia (such as H. 
tuckeri, cyclostomata, dentoni etc.) seem to hold about] the same rela- 
tion to Austrochloritis that the typical Trachia of India (H. asperella, 
Nilagherica,*) bear toward Trichochloritits. These groups are still in 
great confusion. In arranging them I am handicapped by the fact 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 263 

that Trachia has already been monographed in the MANUAL (vol. 
IV) by Mr. Tryon, and I do not wish to duplicate species once 
treated. 

H. SPINEI Cox. PI. 52, figs. 90, 91, 92. 

Shell openly umbilicated, discoid, flattened on the top, yellowish- 
brown, covered with coarse, long bristles in regular rows ; whorls 5, 
gradually increasing, rounded, last descending in front, suture deep 
and narrow ; aperture diagonal, rounded ; peristome simple, lip 
everted, columellar margin not dilated. (Cox.') 

Alt. 0'23, greater diam. 0*55, lesser 0'44 inch. 

Port Curtis, Queensland, Australia. 

H. hystrix Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 48, t. 17, f. 5, 5a, 5b, 
(preoc.). H. spinel Cox, L c., p. 111. 

Differs from its allies in being more discoidal and bristled. 

H. PORTER: Cox. PI. 58, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell depressed-globose, half-covered umbilicate, thin, dark red- 
dish-chestnut ; surface densely beset with very short, delicate hairs, 
the scars of which are seen as minute granules in regular oblique 
rows on the earlier whorls of the spire. Whorls 4 J. 

The form is depressed, spire low-conoidal, apex obtuse, planorboid ; 
whorls, especially the earlier, very convex, separated by deep sutures; 
last whorl somewhat compressed above and below, but not carinated, 
its latter half decidedly swollen, abruptly descending in front, and 
narrowly constricted just behind the lip. Aperture very oblique, 
transversely oval, dark within ; peristome thin, narrowly expanded, 
white or nearly so, the columella dilated in a triangular plate, 
partly or nearly concealing the umbilicus. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 16, lesser 14* mill. 

Upper Clarence River at Guy Faux ; Upper Richmond River at 
Cowlong ; Upper Nerang Creek, Queenland. 

H.porteri Cox, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 373; Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., p. 
48. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 1889, p. 249, plate xv 
(anatomy.) 

Allied to H. brevipila but much larger, the earlier whorls more 
distinctly granulated. It has about the size and color of H. man- 
si'ieta, but differs in being hairy and less widely umbilicated. 



264 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

H. MANSUETA Pfeiffer. PI. 33, figs. 64, 65. 

Shell depressed, umbilicated, spire low, obtuse, periphery rounded ; 
chestnut or cinnamon brown, scarcely shining, all over granulated, 
the granules very minute, separated, equidistant, less obvious beneath ; 
suture evenly and deeply impressed from apex to the deflexed ter- 
mination of the last whorl ; outer lip slightly expanded, flesh-col- 
ored, columella white, reflexed partly over the umbilicus, which is 
obliquely excavated behind the lip. 

The form is a little more depressed than H. porteri. Rather thin 
but moderately strong ; spire low, apical whorl planorboid ; whorls 
4, quite convex, the last deeply descending in front ; surface cov- 
ered with minute points, but not hairy. As in the allied species, 
even the apex is sculptured. Aperture flesh-colored inside ; whorl 
slightly constricted behind the lip ; growth-striae fine and weak, not 
stronger at the suture. Terminations of the peristome decidedly 
converging, the aperture assuming a transversely oval form. 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 16J, lesser 14 mill. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland; Richmond River, N. S. Wales. 

H. mansueia PFR., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 57; Monogr. iv, p. 290; 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 534, 1. 163, f. 7-9. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 1304. 
Cox, Monogr. Austr. L. Sh. p. 59, t. 2, f. 4. 

More broadly umbilicated than H. porteri, and although studded 
with minute points, there are no true hairs. 

H. BLACKALLI Brazier. Unfigured. 

Shell deeply, rather largely and openly umbilicated, globosely 
depressed, very thin, translucent, light brown, irregularly striated 
with raised waved striae, irregularly studded with numerous close- 
set, obtuse, short bristles ; whorls 5, roundly convex, the last large, 
in front largely inflated, base roundly convex, smoother than upper 
surface, aperture broadly oval, peristome thin, slightly reflexed, 
right margin descending, columellar margin expanded and partly 
covering the large umbilicus. (Brazier.') 

Alt. 5J, greater diam. 8, lesser 7 lines. 

Mount Dryander, Port Denison, Queensland. 

H (Dorcasia) Blackalli BEAZ. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i, 
p. 1, 1875. 

This species resembles H. brevipila Pfr. and H. coxeni Cox in 
being covered with fine hair epidermis. (1?.) 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 265 

H. BUXTOXI Brazier. Unfigured. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, thin, slightly shining, brownish 
horn under a velvety periostraca ; faintly obliquely striated ; suture 
distinctly impressed covered with short, minute, sharp-pointed stiff 
hairs ; spire small, apex slightly raised, granulated ; whorls 4, 
convex, last large and rounded ; deflected in front, base convex 
with a few minute scattered hairs ; umbilicus rather wide outwardly, 
aperture diagonal, lunately rounded, peristome flesh tinged, ex- 
panded, margins approximating, right thin, columellar margin 
regular, finely granulated, broadly reflected, but not covering the 
umbilicus. 

There are two distinct-varieties of this species ; one is dark brown- 
ish horn, the other reddish-brown ; the least rubbing will remove the 
beautiful velvety periostraca with the short minute pointed hairs 
that gives the surface the appearance of being granulated with 
minute lengthened grains. I wet the outer surface of one specimen 
and removed the outer coating with the point of a penknife ; this 
entirely alters the appearance, showing the striae at the suture and 
umbilicus to be very much coarser, other parts being quite smooth. 
They resemble dark varieties of Helix Delessertiana with the 
sculpture removed. (Brazier?) 

Alt. 6, greater diam. 12, lesser 9J mill.; width of umbilicus 2 mill. 

Thursday Island, Torres Straits. 

H. (Planispira) Buxtoni BR!ZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
iv, p. 394, 1879. 

This may possibly belong to the group of H. tuckeri Pfr. 

H. BREVIPILA Pfeiffer. PL 58, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

Shell small, depressed, narrowly umbilicated, thin and fragile, 
the periphery rounded ; light brown, under a lens seen to be densely 
clothed with short, stiff hairs. 

The form is globose-depressed, spire convex, but low, and blunt ; 
the sutures impressed ; whorls 4, convex, the last not at all angular 
at the periphery, suddenly a little descending in front; aperture 
wider than high, transversely oval, oblique ; peristome thin, nar- 
rowly expanded, dilated at the columella, impinging a little upon 
umbilicus. Alt. 5, greater diam. 9, lesser 8 mill. 

Victoria, S. Australia ; N. S. Wales; Queensland and the islands 
in Torres Straits. 



266 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

H.brevipilaPFR.,P. Z. S. 1849, p. 130; MOD. Hel. Viv. p. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 777. Cox, Mon. Austr. L. Sh. p. 47, t. 5, 
f. 2a, 2b. 

A very small, fragile species, seen under a lens to be densely cov- 
ered with fine short hairs. The shell varies much, the spire being 
at times much flattened, at others more elevated and acute. In 
large specimens the hairs are absent. The facts of its distribution 
are taken from Dr. Cox's account. 

H. ARIDORUM Cox. PI. 58, figs. 31, 32, 33. 

Shell small, umbilicated, of a depressed form, the spire low, sutures 
deep, periphery rounded ; pale yellowish horny, thin, transparent, 
microscopically granulated ; lip thin, a trifle expanded, the col- 
umellar lip dilated half over the umbilicus. 

A small, thin shell with rather small deep umbilicus ; spire low ;. 
the entire surface, even to the tip of the spire is microscopically 
granulated, but the base is smoother, more shining ; the granulation 
is prominent within the umbilicus. Whorls 4, very convex, 
separated by exceptionally deeply impressed sutures, the last whorl 
gradually descending a little in front, rounded at periphery. Aper- 
ture rounded-lunar ; peristome thin, very narrowly expanded, not 
thickened, the columellar margin dilated triangularly, half-covering 
the umbilicus. Alt. 10, greater diam. 13?, lesser Hi mill. 

Clarence River ; Fitzroy ^Island and Brisbane, Australia* 

H. aridorum Cox P. Z. S. 1867, p. 724 ; Monogr. Austr. L. Sh., 
p. 44, t. 11, f. 16. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 351. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn, 
Soc. N. S. W. i, p. 123. HEDLEY, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queens!. 1888, 
p. 54. TRYON, Manual iii, p. 217, t. 50, f. 34, 35. 

A larger species than (the closely allied H. brevipila, and not 
velvety but granulate. The sutures are quite deeply impressed. 

H. OCCULTA Pfeiffer. PI. 58, figs. 25, 26, 27. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, globose-depressed, thin, under a lens 
seen to be everywhere very minutely granulated, brownish ; spire 
slightly elevated ; whorls 4, a little convex, the last wide, deflexed 
and a little constricted in front, more ventricose on the base; 
aperture large, oblique, lunate-oval ; peristome white-calloused, 
margins approximating, the outer margin expanded, basal reflexed, 
dilated above the umbilicus. 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 12, lesser 10 mill. 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 267 

Last whorl distantly longitudinally corrugated, and subcarinated 
at the periphery ; color corneous or reddish brown ; surface pubes- 
cent, "covered with very short, very close hairs. 

Alt. 8, greater diam. 14, lesser 12 mill. (Tapp. Can.') 

Am Is., near New Guinea* 

H. occulia PFR. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 22; Mai. Bl. 1860, p. 238; 
Monogr. Hel. Viv. v, p. 380. Dorcasia occulta WALLACE, P. Z. S. 
1865, p. 408. H. (Dorcaxia') oeculta PFR. Nomencl. Hel. Viv. p. 
188. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, xix, p. 112, 
t. 2, f. 18-20, 1883. 

Distinguished from Dorcasia similaris by the hairy epidermis, 
etc. It seems to belong with H. brevipila etc., of Australia. 

H. CHLORITOIDES Pilsbry. PL 58, figs. 34, 35, 36. 

Shell small, thin, umbilicated, depressed ; the spire only a trifle 
convex ; light horn-color, tinged with brown. Hair-scars close and 
fine on the apical whorl, sparse on the body-whorl, arranged in ob- 
lique rows. 

The shell is depressed, inner whorls of the spire not raised ; whorl& 
4?, very convex, the sutures deeply impressed. Last whorl some- 
what descending in front. Aperture oblique, rounded, a little lunate, 
lip expanded, flesh-colored, baso-columellar margin reflexed, whiter ; 
terminations approaching. Umbilicus one-sixth the diameter of 
shell. Alt. 6i, greater diam. 12, lesser 10 mill.; width of umbili- 
cus 2 mill. ; width of aperture (including peristome) 7 mill., alt. 
5f-6 mill. 

New Guinea. 

Much more depressed than H. aridorum, etc. ; more widely um- 
bilicated than H. occulta. The exact locality in New Guinea is not 
known. The specimens were collected by Mr. Wm. Denton when 
travelling in New Guinea. 

4. Subsection Trichochloritis Pilsbry, 1891. 

Shell depressed, rather thin, the spire low-convex or plane, last 
whorl not carinated, but usually obtusely angled around the umbili- 
cus ; but little deflexed in front ; epidermis not deciduous ; apex, as- 
well as the whole shell, hirsute or marked by hair-scars arranged in 
regular lines. Lip narrowly expanded or reflexed. Type H. bre- 
viseta Pfr. 

Geographical distribution, southern China and Burmah south to- 
the Malay Peninsula ; Mindanao and Mindoro, Philippine Is. 



268 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

I am not sure that all of the species I have placed here belong 
together ; but being under the necessity of grouping the forms in 
some manner, and having no clue to the chaos of Oriental Helices 
save the obscure hints furnished by the shell alone, I have built up 
this apparently natural group. Its members agree in having the 
apex and generally the whole shell hairy or studded with hair-scars 
in close, regular, oblique rows ; in the narrowly, evenly reflexed lip, 
the light, thin shell, unicolored or with a supra-peripheral band. 

As a whole, they differ from Trachia (a section which seems to be 
most closely allied), in having the whorl less deflexed in front, 
whorls more robust, terminations of the lip less approaching. From 
Dorcasia and Planispira their granulated apices distinguish species 
of the present group ; and the same characters separate them from 
Trichia and other hirsute members of the Fruticicola series of 
Helices. 

Besides the species given below, the following forms (among 
others) probably belong here : 

H. hungerfordiana Nevill, Manual iii, p. 182, pi. 40, figs. 27, 28. 
Formosa; Hongkong. f II. tomentosa Pfr. (and some allied forms), 
Manual iii, p. 212, pi. 49, fig. 96. H. tranquereyi C. & F. (Journ. 
Conch. 1863, p. 353) Manual iv, p. 64. Lysinoe seriatiseta Roche- 
brune, Bull. Soc. Philomathique de Paris, 1881-2, p. 69, 1882. 

H. BREVISETA Pfeiffer. PL 52, figs. 80, 81. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, rather thin, covered with very short, 
close hairs ; subdiaphanous, pale fulvous ; spire scarcely raised ; 
whorls 5, a little convex, the last little descending, subangulated 
below the middle, and also around the large, funnel-shaped 
umbilicus. Aperture little oblique, rotund-lunar ; peristome white ; 
shining, margins converging, upper and basal margins arcuate, re- 
flexed, columellar margin short, dilated above. Alt. 10*, greater 
diam. 22, lesser 18* mill. (Pfr.') 

Siam, Perak. 

H. breviseta PFR., Journ. de Conchyl. 1862, p. 41, t. 5, f. 4, 5; 
Monogr. v, p. 387. Planispira breviseta J. L>E MORGAN, Bull. Soc. 
Zool. France, for 1885, p. 386. 

If Pfeiffer really meant " Anfr. ult. infra medium obsolete sub-an- 
gulatus," this character sufficiently distinguishes the species from 
H. tenella. 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 269 

H. TENELLA Pfeiffer. PL 51, figs. 52, 53. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, thin, lightly striate, pellucid, pale 
corneous ; spire plane ; whorls scarcely over 4, a little convex, the 
last not descending, obsoletely angulated above the middle, inflated 
beneath, subangulated around the wide, funnel-shaped umbilicus ; 
aperture oblique, lunate-rounded ; the peristome thin, margin con- 
verging, right and basal margins expanded, columellar margin sub- 
dilated. Alt. 8, greater diam. 16, lesser 13? mill. 

Siam. 

H. tenella PFR. Journ. de Conchyl. 1862, p. 42, t. 5, f. 6, 7 ; 
Monogr. v, p. 390. Chloritis tenella KOCHEBRUNE, Bull. Soc. Phil- 
omathique de Paris, 1881-2, p. 69, 1882. 

The nearly plane spire, body-whorl bluntly subangular above the 
middle and around the widely expanded umbilicus, will distinguish 
this from other similarly sculptured forms. A specimen before me 
is straw-colored and decidedly larger but has the same number of 
whorls. Pfeiffer mentions no hairs or hair-scars, but the latter are 
present on my specimen, and doubtless on the original ones as well. 

H. QUINARIA Pfeiffer. Unfigured. 

Shell sub- widely umbilicated, a little depressed, a little thin, 
striate and all over granulated, diaphanous, rufous-corneous ; spire 
little raised, apex obtuse ; whorls 5, a little turgid at the suture, the 
last obsoletely angulated in the middle, constricted and deflexed in 
front. Aperture very oblique, nearly circular; peristome simple, 
margins approximating, the upper one expanded, basal reflexed. 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 14, lesser 12 mill. (Pfr.) 

Cambodia. 

H.guinaria (typog. err.) PFR. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 195. H. quinaria 
PFR. Monogr. v, p. 380. 

The shape of the aperture seems different from the other species 
grouped here. 

H. CONDORTANA Crosse &-Fischer. PI. 31, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell umbilicated, subdepressed, rather thin, roughened with very 
short, close hairs (setse); subdiaphanous, fulvous ; spire little ele- 
vated. Whorls 5, a little convex, the last descending in front, sub- 
angulated around the moderate, funnel-shaped umbilicus. Aperture 
little oblique, elongate-lunar ; peristome white, shining, margins 



270 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

strongly converging, reflexed ; columellar margin short, dilated 
above, partly closing the umbilicus. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 20, lesser 18 mill. (Oosse.) 

Island of Pulo Condor, Cochin- China. 

H. condoriana C. & F., Journ. de Conchyl. 1863, p. 351, t. 14, f. 
1. PFR. Mon. v, p. 377. 

Compared by Crosse & Fischer to H. breviseta Pfr. 

H. NORODOMIANA L. Morlet. PI. 36, figs. 35, 36, 37. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, thin, buffish, unicolored, minutely 
and regularly striated, subdiaphanous, apex but little projecting; 
whorls 5J-6, a little convex, the last angulated, descending ; suture 
profoundly impressed, subcanaliculate ; umbilicus broad, carinated ; 
aperture oblique, base rounded, columellar margin short, dilated 
above ; margins joined by a thin callus ; peristome white, shining, 
reflexed. Alt. 9, greater diam. 10, lesser 7 mill. (J/or.) 

Kamehay, Cambodia. 

H. norodomiana MOR. Journ. de Conchyl. 1883, p. 106, t. 4, f. 3. 

There is evidently an error in Morlet's measurements. The spe- 
cies should be compared with H. tranquereyi C. & F. (Manual iv, 
p. 64). 

H. MIARA Mabille. PL 68, fig. 83, 83. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, the spire slightly convex ; corneous, 
somewhat translucent, thin, light, striatulate, under a lens seen to be 
densely and very finely granulated in every part. Peristome nar- 
rowly expanso-reflexed all around. 

Whorls 4J-5, convex, the last one wide, a trifle descending in 
front, not at all constricted behind the expanded peristome, which 
is white and a little thickened within. There are traces of low folds 
parallel with growth-striae on parts of the body-whorl. The base is 
indistinctly, obtusely angled around the narrowly funnel-shaped um- 
bilicus. Aperture not much oblique, terminations of peristome con- 
verging. Alt. 10, greater diam. 20, lesser 16? mill. 

Tonquin. 

H. miara MAB. Moll. Tonk. diagn., p. 6, May 14, 1887 ; Bull. 
Soc. Mai. Fr. iv, p. 85, t. 1, f. 6, 7. 

This species is very similiar to H. hungerfordiana Nev. ; it con- 
stantly differs in the more reflexed, more thickened peristome, and 
decidedly wider umbilicus, The specimens before me were collected 
by 1'Abbe A. Vathelet. 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 271 

H. HERZIANA MollendorfF. Unfigured. 

Shell rather openly and deeply umbilicated, globose-depressed, 
thin, horny-brown, transversely lightly striatulate; sculptured with 
most minute impressed points arranged in regular, very close lines. 
Whorls 5, convex, separated by much impressed sutures, the last- 
whorl large, much inflated, not descending in front, obtusely but 
distinctly angled around the umbilicus. Aperture little oblique, 
rounded-lunar, the peristome lightly expanded, a little reflexed, 
sublabiate, basal margin sinuous, bent backward at the columella. 

Alt. 10i greater diam. 17, lesser 14 J mill. (Mlldff.) 

Hoihow, Island of Hainan, S. China. 

H. herziana MLLDFF. K D. M. Ges. 1888, p. 41. 

Allied to .0. hungerfordiana Nev. and also H. franciscorum GredL, 
puberula Heude, etc. 

H. RHINOCEROTICA Heude. PL 69, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

Shell orbicular-discoidal ; spire plane ; whorls 4-5, rather cylin- 
drical, separated by an' impressed suture, regularly increasing, 
epidermis white, shining, obsoletely, very minutely striate, somewhat 
punctate; ornamented with a wide supraperipheral rufous zone; 
last whorl subcylindrical, obscurely angled; aperture subquadrate; 
peristome acute, expanded, scarcely reflexed, the columellar margin 
angular ; umbilicus moderate, open, profound, obscurely margined 
around its opening. 

Alt. 13-9, greater diam. 21-15, lesser 19-13 mill. (IT.) 

Tay-ninh, Cochin China. 

H. rhinocerotica H., Notes sur les Moll. Terr. Fl. BL, p. 144, t. 
88, 14. 

H. QUIETA Reeve. PI. 50, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, striatulate, and everywhere most min- 
utely granulated; silky, pellucid, reddish-horn-colored ; spire plane ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last large, rotund, 
scarcely descending in front, obsoletely angulated around the nar- 
row, funnel-shaped umbilicus. Aperture little oblique, rounded- 
lunar, higher than wide ; peristome shortly expanded, the right 
margin regularly arcuate, columellar margin oblique, sloping, 
dilated. Alt. 10J, greater diam. 20, lesser 16 mill. (Pfr.) 

Misamis, 1st. of Mindanao, Philippines. 



Lfe^jggi 

^> 

rr~- 



272 HELIX-CHLORITIS. 

H. quieta RVE. Conch. Icon. f. 142 ; PFR. Mon. iff, p. 245 ; COD 
chylien Cab. p. 426, t. 149, f. 18, 19. 

Allied evidently to H. brevidens, but has a wider umbilicus and 
lacks the basal tooth. 

H. EVERTTI H. Adams. MANUAL Vol. Ill, p. 211, pi. 49, fig. 95. 
This species described in P. Z. S. 1873, p. 207, from Borneo, seems 
to belong here rather than in Frutidcola or Dorcasia. 

H. BREVIDENS Sowerby. PL 55, figs. 37, 38, 39, 40, 41. 

Shell depressed-subglobose, narrowly, partly covered umbilicate,. 
the upper surface only slightly convex, lower surface very convex ; 
light brownish horn-color, with a narrow chestnut supra-peripheral 
band, which ascends the spire just above the suture, becoming dif- 
fused on the inner whorls. Lip narrowly but evenly and flatly re- 
flexed, the basal margin with a small tooth. 

The shell is thin, light, delicately substriate, covered with very 
closely, regularly placed, short hairs, on the upper whorls and apex 
the scars alone remaining. Whorls 4J, the last a little descending 
in front, swollen below, bluntly subangular around the very narrow 
umbilicus, not constricted behind the lip except in the immediate 
vicinity of the umbilicus. Aperture lunar, somewhat oblique, flesh- 
colored inside, terminations of peristome remote. Alt. 12J, greater 
diam. 21 mill. 

Island of Mindoro, Philippines. 

H. brevidens SOWB. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 25. PFR. Mon. i, p. 381 ; 
Conchyl. Cab. p. 64, t. 78, f. 10-12. REEVE, f. 144. 

The low spire, swollen base, nearly closed umbilicus, and cloth- 
ing of fine hairs or hair-scars are the more prominent characters of* 
this shell. 

H. SANZIANA Hombron & Jacquinot. PI. 37, figs. 51, 52, 53, 54. 

Shell umbilicated, globose-depressed, solid, striatulate and all over 
granulated, a little shining, reddish, with a chestnut peripheral band 
and an obsolete one above and below ; spire depressed-semiglobose, 
apex plane, wide ; whorls 5, a little convex, sensibly increasing, the 
last scarcely descending in front ; periphery subangular, base con- 
vex ; aperture nearly vertical, subangulate-lunate, bluish-white in- 
side. Peristome expanded, brown-edged ; basal margin a little^ 



HELIX-CHLORITIS. 273 

straightened, coluraellar margin violet, triangularly reflexed, half 
covering the narrow umbilicus. (Pfr.) 
Alt, 15, greater diam. 29, lesser 24 mill. 

Zamboanga, Id. of Mindanao, Philippines. 

H. Sanziana HOMBR. & JACQ. Voy. au Pol Sud, Moll., t. 4, f. 19- 
23. PFR. in Conchyl. Cab., p. 423, t. 149, f. 6, 7 ; Monographia 
iii, p. 240. Chloritis Sanziana SEMPER, Reisen im Archip. Phil., 
Landmoll., p. 235. HIDALGO Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 109. 
H. lituus REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 22, f. 93a, b (but not descript.) 

Semper and Hidalgo have recently confirmed the locality, Zambo- 
anga. Semper also found the species on the little island Malaunavi, 
off the north coast of Basilan. 

The diagnosis of Pfeiffer mentions that the surface is granulate. 
This granulation is probably caused by the fresh shell being hairy. 
The hair-scars are far closer together than in a denuded specimen 
of H. spinosissima, and the surface of the shell is much more strongly 
striate. 

H. SPINOSISSIMA Semper. PL 37, figs. 55, 56. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, thin, densely covered all over with 
little spines ; cuticle diaphanous, reddish-chestnut, ornamented with 
a peripheral band of brown and one of white. Spire depressed, 
apex plane or impressed ; whorls 5-5 , a little convex, sensibly 
increasing, the last a little descending in front ; periphery subangu- 
lated, base convex. Aperture subvertical, subangularly lunar, 
white within, or bluish; peristome expanded, columellar margin 
violaceous, triangularly reflexed, half covering the umbilicus. 
(Semper). 

Alt. 21, greater diam. 36, lesser 29 mill. 

Mindanao, Philippine Is. 

H. spinosissima SEMPER, Reisen im Archip. der Philippinen, 
Landmoll., p. 234, t. ix, f. lOa, b, and t. xiv, f. 9a, b (anatomy). 
H. boxalli Sows., P. Z. S. 1888, p. 211, t. 11, f. 13. 

Found at many localities on the Island Mindanao. Semper says : 
This species stands very near to the H. sanziana, discovered by Hom- 
bron and Jacquinot at Zamboanga, and I was formerly inclined to 
consider it a variety of that species. It differs, however, in the 
greater size, the greater flattening of the whorl above, the thinner 

18 



274 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

shell, and especially by the stiff, short but not very thickly standing 
hairs covering the outside of the shell, etc. 

The synonymous H. boxalli of Sowerby is figured on pi. 37, fig. 
50. 

Section II. PLANISPIRA Beck, 1837. 

Planispira BECK, Index Molluscorum, etc., p. 29 (subgenus 25th) ; 
first species H. exceptiuncula Fer. ALBERS, Die Heliceen (edit. v. 
Martens, 1860), p. 160, type H. zonaria L. SEMPER, Reisen im 
Arch. Phil., Landmoll., ii. PFR., Nomencl. Hel. Viv. p. 181, 1878. 
v. MARTENS, Preuss. Exped. nach Ostas., Landschn., p. 295. TAP- 
PARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. xix, p. 162, 1883. 
Pusiodon SWAINSON, in part. Philina ALBERS, Die Hel. 1850, in 
part. 

This section differs from Chloritis proper in the white or pale 
shell, banded with brown, and having a smooth apical whorl, and 
the more oblique aperture. It may be divided into two divisions of 
slight systematic value. 

1. Planispira s. s. No crest-like ridge behind the lip; aperture 
decidedly wider than high ; basal lip usually more or less thickened 
or toothed. 

2. Cristigibba. A crest or gibbous ridge behind the lip ; aper- 
ture about as high as wide; basal lip narrow, not thickened or 
toothed. 

1. Subsection Planispira (restricted). 

Shell depressed, with flattened spire, the apical whorl smooth, 
depressed ; umbilicus narrow, rarely covered ; last whorl deflexed 
in front, usually constricted behind the reflexed peristome, aperture 
very oblique, wider than high ; ends of the peristome approaching 
but not connected by a raised callus ; brown-banded on a white or 
pale ground. 

A group of snails very characteristic of the Moluccas, ranging 
from Celebes to western New Guinea, and replacing to a great 
extent in this region the other forms of Chloritis. 

Key to the groups of species of Planispira. 

Surface showing under a lens hairs or hair-scars. 
Imperforate or very narrowly perforate, 

Group of H. exceptiuncula. 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 275 

Umbilicated ; spire not raised ; bands continued on lip, 

Group of H. kurri. 

Surface without hairs or hair-scars ; shell umbilicated. 
Last whorl with an oblique impression or pit outside, 

Group of H. endoptycha. 
No prominent pit outside. 

Spire convex, lip rather narrow, suture white-bordered, 

Group of H. zonalis. 
Spire plane or concave, Group of H. zonaria. 

Group of H. zonaria. 

Shell umbilicated ; the spire plajie or sunken ; surface without 
hairs or granulations, usually light and banded. Aperture wider 
than high, very oblique. 

H. ZEBRA PfeiiFer. PL 46, figs. 77, 78, 79, 80, 81. 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, the inner two whorls of the spire 
sunken ; yellowish or grayish white, having radiating zigzag brown 
stripes above, and on the base often numerous colorless spiral bands. 
Last whorl descending in front, rounded ; base not much swollen, 
a little constricted behind the basal lip ; aperture oblique, rounded ; 
face and back of the lip white. 

This species resembles some forms of H. zonaria but differs in the 
rounder mouth, less swollen base, absence of a tooth on the basal 
lip, and the absence of an oblique impression on the body-whorl be- 
hind the lip. Whorls 4f . Alt. 10, greater diam. 23, lesser 18 mill. 

Island of Ceram, and islet of Goram. 

H. zebra PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1850, p. 83 ; Monogr. iii, p. 246 ; 
Conchyl. Cab., p. 353, t. 135, f. 16-18. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 
499. MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., Landschn., p. 315. TAPPARONE 
CANEFRT, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 1884, p. 153. H. zonaria var. a, 
FER., Hist., t. 73, f. 5. H. guttata LE GUILLOU, Revue Zool. 1842, 
p. 141 (not guttata, Oliv.). Planispira zebra WALLACE, P. Z. S. 
1865, p. 409. 

The notes given above indicate the differences between this species 
and H. zonaria. 

Var. EMBRECHTIANA Mousson, PL 55, figs. 56, 57, 58. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, rather thin, striatulate and sculp- 
tured with microscopic spiral striae, shining, white, ornamented with 
two rather wide corneous-chestnut bands and having above a series 



276 HALIX-PLANISPIRA. 

of triangular or crescentic spots ; beneath corneous, blotched and 
streaked with white. Spire plane, a little sunken in the middle, the 
suture rather deep. Whorls 4, moderately convex, the last rounded, 
slowly descending in front, not constricted ; the base a little, more 
swollen behind the lip, and lightly impressed toward the moderate 
umbilicus. Aperture diagonal, lunate-rounded, peristome simple, 
white, margins converging, the upper rather widely expanded, 
arched forward, basal margin expanso-reflexed, a little dilated at 
the insertion. Alt. 9, greater diam. 21, lesser 17 mill. (Pff.) 

Moluccas. 

H. embrechtiana (Mouss. in coll.) PFR., Novit. Conch, iv, p. 39, 
t. 117, f. 7-9 ; Monogr. vii, p. 477. MARTENS, Mai. Bl. xx, 1872, 
p. 154. 

This is a form of H. zebra having the zigzag stripes broken for 
the passage of two spiral bands. 

H. IADD.E Pilsbry. PI. 68, figs. 92, 93, 94, 95. 

Shell umbilicated, subdiscoidal, the inner 3 whorls plane, not 
perceptibly sunken ; yellowish-white with radiating interrupted 
zigzags and numerous spiral lines of pinkish or olive corneous, pro- 
ducing a mottled effect. There are usually two spiral chestnut 
bands. Base rather swollen, somewhat constricted behind the basal 
lip. Peristome expanded, basal lip reflexed. 

The shell is thin, quite ventricose, striate, mottled with opaque 
huffish-white on a more translucent pinkish-corneous ground. 
Upper surface convex ; whorls about 4s, convex, the last descending 
in front, slightly constricted behind the basal lip ; aperture very 
oblique, large, oval-truncate, mottled and banded inside ; peristome 
white, expanded, thin, the upper margin with a rather acute but 
generally slight prominence in the middle, marked on the back of 
the expanded lip by one little groove ; outer margin not more widely 
expanded than the upper ; basal margin reflexed, not toothed, but 
showing usually a barely perceptible thickening. 

Alt. 15, greater diam. 30 lesser 23 J mill. 

Moluccas. 

This is a species of the zonaria group. It is less solid than JET. 
zonaria, more ventricose ; but the base is much less swollen. The 
basal lip has no tooth. The coloration is very peculiar, recalling 
H. zebra and its color-variety embrechtiana in some respects, forms 
from which this differs much in the shape of the aperture and the 
flat, not concave spire. 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 277 

H. ZONARIA Linne. PI. 44, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 

Shell umbilicate, discoidal, spire a little concave ; white with 
brown bands, above clouded, mottled or obliquely streaked with 
brown ; bands not continued upon the lip ; latter half of base much 
swollen, constricted behind the basal lip; a wide excavation behind 
the columellar lip. 

Depressed, rounded at periphery, very delicately striated, nearly 
smooth, shining. Whorls 4o, convex, the earlier 2 sunken. There 
is usually a band at the periphery, one above the periphery, a row of 
spots or streaks inside of the upper band, and numerous narrower gray- 
ish or brown spiral lines beneath. The last whorl descends in front. 
Aperture very oblique, truncate-oblong, white with bands inside. 
Peristome white ; upper margin broadly expanded, having usually 
a slightly projecting point in the middle ; basal lip reflexed, with a 
rather long, obsolete tooth. Umbilicus permitting all the whorls to 
be seen. Alt. 13, greater diam. 27, lesser 20 mill. 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 21 J mill. 

Moluccas; Amboyne Is. (Amboyna, Ceram, Burn); Banda-Neira, 
Banda Is. 

H. zonaria LINN. Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1245. PFR. Monogr. i, p. 
386. VON MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., Landschn. p. 307, t. 16, f. 6-11 ; 
t. 19, f. 6. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 1884, 
p. 151 (with color-varieties) ; 1. c. xix, 1883, p. 181, t. 7, f. 8 ; t. 9, 
f. 1, 19 (full synonomy, distribution and anatomy). Planispira colu- 
ber BECK, Index, p. 30. Helix coluber PFR., Monogr. i, p. 286. 
REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 500. H. collis (Mouss. in coll.) PFR. Novit. 
Conch, iv, p. 36, t. 117, f. 1-3. See Martens Mai. Bl. xx, 1872, p. 
153. H. dromedarius Mouss. in coll. 

One of the most abundant snails in the Amboyne Is. and very 
variable in size and coloration. H. coluber is absolutely synonymous. 
The species may be known by the row of streaks or spots above, the 
subobsolete elongated tooth-like process on the basal lip, the swollen 
base, and excavation behind the columellar lip. The two Linnsean 
specimens of H. zonaria belong to the color-varieties lineolata and 
fasciata. Specimens of this species often have an oblique dent-like 
impression on the outer part of the whorl a short distance behind the 
outer lip. 

H. zonaria stands midway between zebra and fasciolata. In zebra 
the oblique streaks or spots cover the surface to the exclusion of the 



278 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

usual two bands ; in fasciolata there is no trace of these markings, 
but the two bands are broad and conspicuous. 

The animal is ochre-yellow externally; sole 21 mill, long, 11 
broad. Jaw slightly arcuate, lightly striated. 

Var. ZONARIA L. PL 44, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10. 

Shell having a row of spots or oblique streaks above, generally 
banded below. The following color-forms have been named. A 
part of the specimens before me combine characters of several of 
them ; others could be named as new varieties, if such a course were 
desirable. 

Form lineolata Mart. (pi. 44, figs. 4, 5). Yellowish-brown 
above, with gray flecks and lines ; gray below with narrow brown- 
ish-yellow, often interrupted spiral bands. Usually rather large. 
Peristome rather narrow, pale rose-colored, rarely in fresh examples 
white. Island of Amboyna. This should be considered the typical 
zonaria. 

Form fulminata Mart. (fig. 10). Reddish-gray or whitish, with 
opaque whiter markings radiating from the suture, at first wavy, 
then zigzag; beneath banded with white; the whole shell often 
washed with rose-red. Always a subperipheral band ; often a supra- 
peripheral, both broad and dark, nearly black. Peristome broad, 
usually rose-red. Size above the medium. Isl. of Buru ; Banda- 
Neira. 

Form obliquata Mart. (fig. 8). Ochre-brown or isabelline, with 
clearer, oblique, close rays. No band, or only a subperipheral 
dark chestnut one. Peristome pale violet or white. Medium size, 
Isl. of Ceram. 

Form maculata Mart. Yellowish-brown, with a row of dark 
brown spots, mostly quadrangular, sometimes appearing as inter- 
rupted bands ; beneath brown with few yellowish-brown narrow spi- 
ral bands. Peristome pale reddish, broad, medium size or over. 
Ceram. 

Form coluber Beck, (figs. 6, 8). Isabella-yellow, with darker, 
mostly crescentic spots, banded below. Ceram. This is the var. lun- 
ulata of Martens. 

Var. FASCIATA Martens. PI. 44, figs. 9, 14, 14, 15. 

Shell with bands (rarely lacking), but no spots or oblique streaks. 

Form fasciata (fig. 9.) Ground-color pure white ; subperipheral 
and supra-peripheral bands present, and very often a broad band 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 279 

above, close to the suture. No spots. Peristorne white, broad. 
Usually an impression behind the lip above. Size below the 
medium or small. North Coast of Ceram. 

Form collis Mouss. (pi. 44, figs. 14, 14, 15.) White, with two brown 
or rufous bands (subperipheral and supra-peripheral) ; last whorl 
higher, more robust than in zonaria, very deeply descending in front, 
the aperture nearly horizontal, rather narrow. Alt. 12, diam. 25 
mill. Amboyna. 

H. FASCIOLATA Lesson. PI. 44, fig. 11 ; pi. 65, figs. 89, 90. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, spire nearly plane, the inner two 
whorls sunken, the next outer whorl a little projecting over the 
succeeding one ; white, with two dark purplish-brown bands, the 
upper one ascending the spire midway between the sutures, the 
lower band wider, at and above the periphery. Base strongly 
swollen, and then deeply constricted behind the basal lip. 

The aperture is very oblique ; lip rather narrowly reflexed, and 
of the same width all around; pure white, perceptibly thickened 
within ; basal lip very obsoletely thickened, not really toothed. 
Whorls 4J, the outer one convex, rounded, its upper surface behind 
the aperture sloping, but without any oblique impression. Face 
and back of the lip white. 

Alt. Hi, greater diam. 21, lesser 17 mill. 

Amboyna (Lesson) ; Ceram, Moluccas (Martens.) 

H. fasciolata LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool., ii, p. 311. VON 
MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., Landschn., p. 314. 

Wh'ile belonging to the immediate group of H. zonaria, this shell 
differs in the more regularly convex last whorl, less expanded aper- 
ture, lack of an impression or dent back of the aperture on the 
upper surface, lack of color spots, etc. In zonaria the outer lip is 
much expanded; in this form it is not broader than the other 
margins. The species is here for the first time figured. 

H. CHARIESSA Pilsbry. PI. 44, figs. 12, 13 ; pi. 68, figs. 96, 97, 98 
Shell umbilicated, subdiscoidal, 1 inner whorls of the spire a 
very little sunken ; chalky white with a narrow brown band exactly 
on the periphery ; base a trifle swollen, gradually constricted behind 
the basal lip ; a broad pit with several distinct little grooves behind 
the middle of the upper lip ; peristome very broadly expanded. 

The shell is opaque white ; the band is brown or has that grayish 
or colorless translucent appearance which the bands often assume in 



280 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

Planispira. The surface is but little shining, is regularly, delicately, 
but very distinctly obliquely striated. Whorls 5 or nearly that, the 
last rounded above, below and at the periphery ; in front it descends 
more or less deeply ; and on the base is somewhat swollen. Aper- 
ture very oblique, oblong-truncate; peristome very broadly ex- 
panded all around, the basal margin obsoletely toothed. The upper 
margin has a blunt projection in the middle, caused by a pit behind 
its expansion, this pit having several short grooves running toward 
the lip-edge, like those produced by sharply folding paper and then 
nearly straightening it. 

Alt. 12, greater diaru. 28, lesser 2 1 mill. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 24J, lesser 18 mill. 

Moluccas. 

This species differs from If. zonaria and all its varieties in being 
much more distinctly striated ; the inner whorls less sunken ; there 
is a wide pit behind the middle of the broadly flaring upper lip^ and 
the base is far less swollen. In H. zonaria the swelling continues to 
within a short distance of the basal lip, and there the base is deeply, 
narrowly constricted ; in H. chariessa the swelling is far less marked, 
and gradually decreases some distance behind the basal lip. In 
zonaria the basal lip is rather narrowly reflexed, whilst in chariessa 
it is broadly flaring, and has on its reverse, short, narrow marks, 
like those in the pit behind the upper lip. The umbilicus is rather 
wide, permitting all of the whorls to be seen. Numerous specimens 
from two sources are before me, but without exact locality. 

The form of this shell reminds one of Ampelita sepulchralis of 
Madagascar. 

H. QUADRIFASCIATA LeGuillou. PI. 56, figs. 82, 83, 84. 

Shell rather widely umbilicated, depressed, striatulate, horny- 
white, 4-banded with reddish; lower band at the umbilicus; spire 
scarcely projecting; whorls 4J, a little convex, the last ventricose, 
the last whorl descending to the middle of the space between the 
two median bands, obliquely swollen, then deeply constricted. 
Aperture very oblique, lunate-half-ovate, the peristome slightly 
thickened, reflexed, white, the margins a little approaching, nearly 
equally arched, the basal margin with one tooth. 

Alt. 8, greater diam. 17i-18i, lesser 13-14 mill. (Mart.) 

Dodingo, Isl. of Halmaheira; Isl. of Ternate, Moluccas. 

H. quadrifasciata GUILL. Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 141 . PFR. Monogr. 
i, p. 381. MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., Landschn., p. 300, 1. 16, f. 4 ; and 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 281 

var. edentata MARTENS, 1. c., t. 16, f. 5. If. instricta MARTENS, 
Monatsberichte der Berl. Akad. 1864, p. 268. 

Var. INSTRICTA Martens. PI. 45, figs. 38, 39, 40. 

Smaller than H. quadrifasciata, more elevated, with thicker, 
toothless peristome, but showing a slight swelling in the place of the 
basal tooth ; whorl more deflexed in front. 

Islands Mar eh and Kajoa, near Ternate, Moluccas. 

This is the H. quadrifasciata var. edentata of Martens. 

H. AURITA Martens. PL 45, figs. 44, 45, 46. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed, striatulate, whitish, three- 
banded with reddish ; spire plane ; suture superficial ; whorls 4i, 
the upper ones complauate, the last one more convex above than be- 
neath, the periphery rounded ; in front it widens, and is deeply de- 
flexed ; is not constricted above, but distinctly so below ; aperture 
subhorizontal, ax-shaped, outwardly bent upward ; peristome thin, 
white, nearly straight above, broadly expanded outwardly, narrowly 
reflexed below ; margins moderately approaching, the upper recti- 
linear, basal quite arcuate. 

Alt. 12, greater diam. 27, lesser 19* mill. (Mart.} 

Island of Moti, Moluccas. 

H. aurita MART. Monatsber. d. Berl. Akad. 1864, p. 369 ; Preuss. 
Exped. nach Ostas., Landschn., p. 316, t. 16, f. 12. PFR. Mon. v, p. 
389. 

A single specimen found. Most nearly allied to H. zonaria, but 
distinguished by the more stretched out mouth, the produced, ear- 
lobe-like outer lip, and the rectilinear, simple upper lip. 

H. BICONVEXA Martens. PL 46, figs. 57, 58, 59. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, lenticular, acutely carinated, lightly 
striatulate, sculptured with very close, very fine spiral lines ; shin- 
ing, white (three) banded with brown ; spire plane ; whorls 4, a 
little convex above, the last one a little and equally convex above 
and below, with acutely carinated periphery, descending in front, 
distinctly constricted below, not so above. Aperture subhorizontal, 
ax-shaped, outer part bent upward ; peristome scarcely thickened, 
white, nearly straight above, narrowly reflexed below, margins 
rather approaching, the upper rectilinear, basal arcuate. 

Alt. 9, greater diam. 26 , lesser 19 mill. (Mart.) 

Island of Tawalli, near Batjan, Moluccas. 



282 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

H. biconvexa MART. Monatsber. Berl. Akad. 1864, p. 526 ; 
Preuss. Exped. Ostas., Landschn., p. 317, t. 16, f. 13. PFR. Mon. 
v, p. 404. 

The band-formula is either (12)340 or 10340. One specimen 
found. 

H. SCHEEPMAKERI Pfeiffer. PI. 55, figs. 48, 49, 40. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, subdepressed, carinated, slightly stri- 
atulate, and sculptured with subobsolete, close, very fine spiral lines ; 
shining, diaphanous white, often banded with brown ; spire plane ; 
suture superficial ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, the last very con- 
vex above, flat beneath, the periphery acutely carinated, descending 
slightly below the carina in front, distinctly constricted below, not 
so above ; aperture subhorizontal, ax-shaped, bent upward outward- 
ly ; peristome subthickened, white, nearly straight above, broadly 
expanded outwardly, narrowly reflexed below, margins much ap- 
proaching, the upper incurved, basal arcuate. Alt. 11, diam. 26 
mill. ; alt. 8, diam. 21 mill. (Martens.*) 

Isl. Batjan, Ternate group of the Moluccas. Eather rare on wooded 
hills. 

H. Scheepmakeri PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1850, p. 82 ; Conchyl. 
Cab. p. 351, t. 135, f. 5-7 ; Mon. iii. p. 254. MARTENS, Preuss. 
Exped. Ostas., Landschn., p. 318. 

The bands are generally one or two, rarely three on the upper 
surface. Formula 12300 or 02300, or 1(23)00 or 02000 ; sometimes 
there are none. 

H. aurita, biconvexa and scheepmakeri are closely allied in gen- 
eral form and especially the aperture. H. aurita has no carina ; 
H. biconvexa and scheepmakeri are acutely keeled, but the former 
is about equally convex above and below, whilst scheepmakeri is flat 
below, very convex above. 

Group of H. endoptycha. 

Spire more or less convex; last whorl with a pit or oblique de- 
pression outside ; umbilicated. 

H. ENDOPTYCHA Martens. PL 45, figs. 32, 33, 34, 35. 

Shell somewhat narrowly umbilicated, depressed, striatulate, some- 
what shining, brownish-tawny ; spire little convex ; suture quite 
deep. Whorls 5, the last rounded, with convex base, deeply de- 
scending in front, having an oblique, descending impression, marked 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 283 

by a prominence inside ; aperture oblique, rounded-triangular, the 
peristome a little thickened, rather widely reflexed, white, the mar- 
gins moderately converging; upper margin deeply arched, basal 
margin rather straightened, having an oblique, entering fold, 
marked outside by a scrobiculation. 

Alt. 8, greater diam. 16, lesser 13 mill. ; length and breadth of the 
mouth 7 mill. 

Islands of Batjan, Mar eh and Ternate, Ternate group, Moluccas. 

H. endoptycha MARTENS, Monatsb. d. Berl. Akad. 1864, p. 268 ; 
Ostas. ZooL, Landschn., p. 301, t. 14, f. 2. ? Dorcasia compta H. 
AD., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 414, t. 21, f. 8. WALLACE, 1. c., p. 408. 

This species is peculiar in the oblique impression on the last whorl, 
visible as a prominence inside the mouth, and the uniform brown 
color. Von Martens is disposed to consider H. compta H. Ad. to be 
a synonym, believing that the presence of the oblique impression 
was omitted in the description. 

H. compta H. Adams (pi. 45, fig. 31). Umbilicated, depressed, 
thin, cinnamon-colored ; spire very shortly conoidal, apex obtuse ; 
whorls 5, convex, slowly increasing, the last scarcely descending, 
base compressed around the funnel-shaped umbilicus; aperture 
oblique, lunate-rounded, pale and shining inside ; peristome whitish, 
a little reflexed, margins conniving, basal arcuate, subreflexed. 

Alt, 62-, greater diam. 14, lesser 11 mill. Id. of Batjan. (Ad.) 

H. PORCELLANA Grateloup. PL 65, figs. 82, 83. 

Shell orbiculate-depressed, umbilicated, very shining, diaphanous, 
yellowish above, white below ; spire retuse ; umbilicus excavated ; 
aperture subovate, bidentate ; margin of outer lip reflexed ; white. 
Alt. 9, diam. 15 mill. (Grat.) 

A charming species, characterized by its orbicularly compressed 
form, nearly flat, but convex below, porcelain- white, very smooth 
and shining. Spire much depressed, very obtuse ; last whorl two- 
thirds the total altitude, with two yellowish brown transverse bands. 
Suture visibly channelled. Umbilicus narrow, deep, funnel-shaped. 
The aperture has behind and toward the base a large tooth-like 
prominence, marked outside by a scar-like depression. Another 
smaller tooth on the columellar margin. Whorls of the spire 5, 
convex, finely obliquely striate. 

Island of Lombo/c, east of Java. 



284 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

H. porcellana GRAT., Actes de la Soc. Linn, de Bordeaux, xi, p. 
410, t. 1, f. 5, 6, 1839. PFR., Mon. Hel. Viv. i, p. 346 ; v, p. 355. 
MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., p. 302 and 397. 

The description above is taken from the original one. Pfeiffer 
says (Monographia, 1. c.) that Wallace found the species upon the 
Island of Lombok. The very poor original figures are given. The 
locality given by Grateloup is " Cuba.' 5 

This is a form much resembling shells of the Haitian section Cep- 
olis. Among Oriental snails it may be compared with H. merarcha 
Mabille, and H. endoptycha Mart. 

Group of H. zonalis. 

Spire convex, not concave, the apex not sunken ; lip narrow, re- 
flexed; surface not hirsute or showing scars or granules; suture 
bordered by a white band ; umbilicus open ; bands not continued 
upon the lip. 

H. ZONALIS Ferussac. PL 45, figs. 24, 25, 29, 30. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, the spire a little convex ; brownish- 
corneous or isabelline, with two chestnut bands above and two be- 
neath ; a white margin to the suture ; base flattened, scarcely at all 
swollen, scarcely constricted behind the basal lip. Aperture rounded- 
oval, peristome evenly expanded and subreflexed all around, the 
basal margin toothed. 

The shell is rather thin, very delicately striated ; whorls 4 1-5, 
slightly convex, the last descending in front ; aperture very oblique, 
purplish-white inside ; peristome white, its ends approaching, basal 
lip usually one-toothed. Alt. 12, greater diam. 26, lesser 21 mill. 

Moluccas, Ternate group, at Dodingo ; Is. of Halmaheira; Port 
Dorey, New Guinea. 

H. zonalis FER. Hist., t. 70, f. 5. PFR. Monogr. i, p. 380. 
MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., Landschn., p. 299. TAPP. CAN. Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Geneva, xix, p. 183. Planispira zonalis BECK, Index p. 30. 
WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 409. H. zonaria (in part) of some 
authors. H. leucostoma ADS. & RVE., Voy. Samarang, Moll., p. 
61, t. 16, f. 3. 

The bands usually number four, but the upper one is frequently 
very narrow, sometimes lacking ; those on the base are broader. 
The banding would be represented by the formula 02345, or (rarely) 
00345. 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 285 

H. ATROFUSCA Pfeiffer. PI. 54, figs. 28, 29, 30. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, rather thin, closely striated, blackish- 
brown, with a buff sutural band. Spire conoid-convex, apex cor- 
neous. Whorls 4J, convex, rapidly increasing, the last depressed- 
rotund, a little descending in front, moderately excavated around 
the umbilicus. Aperture ample, diagonal, lunate-oval, very light 
and pearl-like inside ; peristome white, broadly expanded and a 
little reflexed, margins converging, the columellar dilated above, 
having a rounded tubercle within. Alt. 15, greater diam. 32, lesser 
25 mill. (P/r.) 

Island of Halmalieira. 

H. atrofusca PFR. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 22, t. 3, f. 3 ; Novit. Conch, 
p. 164, t. 45, f. 1-3 ; Monogr. v, p. 382. MARTENS, Ostas. Zool, 
Landschn. p. 299. Planispira atro-fusca WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, 
p. 409. 

Whorls more rapidly increasing than in the allied H. zonalis, 
aperture less oblique, larger, the columella with a rounded tuber- 
cle. The color is also different. 

H. LATIZONA Pfeiffer. Unfigured. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, depressed, rather thin, striatulate, 
scarcely shining, brown, ornamented with a rather broad white zone 
at the suture ; spire sub-plane. Whorls 4*, the upper somewhat 
convex, the last rotund. Above subsulcate in front and deflexed ; 
constricted beneath. Aperture very oblique, rotund-oval ; peristome 
all around rather broadly expanded, margins converging ; the col- 
umella having an oblong noduliform tubercle within. 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 26?, lesser 21 mill. (Pfr.) 

Island of Ceram. 

H. latizona PFR. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 524; Monogr. v, p. 394. 
Planispira latizona WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 409. 

Similar to H. atrofusca but the spire is plane. 

H. LOXOTROPIS Pfeiffer. PL 46, figs. 60-64, 68. 

Shell narrowly or nearly-covered perforate, depressed conoidal, 
subangulate, arcuately striatulate, opaque, greenish-olive with brown 
bands, more distinct and wider beneath ; sutural region pale ; spire 
rather elevated, obtuse ; whorls 4J, a little convex, the last one 
plane beneath, subangulated at the periphery, distinctly descending 
in front, obliquely swollen, then constricted ; aperture subhorizon- 



286 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

tal, ovate ; peristome subthickened, expanded above, reflexed below, 
the columella dilated, toothless. Alt. 11, greater diam. 24, lesser 
19 mill. 

Ternate group of the Moluccas; Port Dorey, New Guinea. 

H. loxotropsis PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1850, p. 82 ; Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 351, t. 135, f. 3, 4; Monogr. iii, p. 226. REEVE, f. 1392. TAP- 
PARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, xix, p. 183. VON 
MARTENS, Preuss. Exped. nach Ostas., Laudsclm. p. 304, t. 16, f. 
3, 2, with numerous varieties (see text). H. lorquini PFR. Mai. Bl. 
1865, p. 122 ; Novit. Conch, p. 273, t. 67, f. 14, 15 ; Mon. v, p. 345. 

I have not seen this species, my description being compiled from 
Martens and Pfeiffer. Martens describes the animal : Head and 
foot black ; tentacles short ; jaw with weak ribs. 

The greenish ground-color and lusterless surface separate this 
form from others. It is similar to H. zonalis in the band arrange- 
ment. The specimens from the island of Dodinga have the band- 
formula 02(34)5, or rarely 0(234)5 ; those from Batjan 00045 ; from 
March 02345 ; and from Kajoa 02340. The following forms have 
received names : 

Form Bemsteinii Martens. Large, rather conical, isabelline- 
yellow, with a white sutural zone, a moderately wide peripheral, 
and a wide basal zone of blackish-brown. Alt. 19, diam. 31 mill. 

Form laticlavia Martens (pi. 46, figs. 62, 64, 68.) Moderate 
sized ; depressed-conic, olivaceous, with a wide white sutural zone, 
upper bands distinct ; suture descending in front into the space be- 
tween the lowest and next upper band. Alt. 13-14, diam. 25 mill. 

Dodingo. 

Form angusticlavia Mart. (pi. 46, iig. 63.) Small ; quite conical 
brownish-greenish* with a narrow whitish sutural zone, upper bands 
obsolete or none ; suture descending in front, next to the lower band. 

Alt. 12-13, diam. 21 J mill. Batjan. 

Form pluricincta Mart. Small, depressed conical, pale greenish- 
yellow, sutural white band rather wide, upper, peripheral and basal 
bands equal, a little wide, intense chestnut. 

Alt. 12-13, diam. 20-22 mill. 

Var. LORQUINI Pfr. PI. 57, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell thinner than in loxotropis, spire lower, whorls flatter, and 
peristome much more broadly expanded. 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 287 

H. ATACTA Pfeiffer. PI. 44, figs. 18, 19, 20. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed, subangulate, lightly stri- 
atulate, whitish, with 5 narrow rufous bands, the lowest remote from 
the umbilicus ; spire little projecting ; whorls 4, scarcely convex, 
the last but a little (and equally) convex above and below, suban- 
gulated, the suture descending in front into the interval between the 
lowest and next band. Whorl not swollen above, a little so beneath, 
and slightly constricted ; aperture subhorizoiital, sub-ax-shaped ; 
peristome reflexed, of the color of the shell, thin, margins moder- 
ately approaching, the upper nearly straight, basal arcuate. Alt. 
11-12, diam. 24-25* mill.. (Mart.) 

Halmaheira, Ternate, Kajoa, Moluccas. 

H. atacta PFB., P. Z. S. 1861, p. 386, t. 37, f. 5 ; Mon. v, p. 376. 
MARTENS Preuss. Exped. n. Ostas., Landschn. p. 306, t. 16, f. 1. 
Planispira atacta WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 409. 

Differs from H. loxoiropis in being much more depressed, the 
.swelling and constriction behind the peristome far less developed, 
the lower band remote from the umbilicus. 

Group of H. kurri. 

More or less hirsute, or having hair-scars. Spire plane, not con- 
cave ; suture white-bordered ; band or bands when present continued 
on the lip. Umbilicus open ; suture more or less distinctly white- 
bordered. 

These species are allied to H. zonalis and H. exceptiuncula. 

H. KURRI Pfeiffer. PI. 45, figs. 21, 22, 23. 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, the spire flat or a mere trifle raised, 
not sunken at the apex ; typically corneous-white with a supra- 
peripheral brown band and a fainter peripheral band, both extend- 
ing to the edge of the expanded lip; base somewhat swollen, gently 
constricted behind the peristome. 

The shell is thin, nearly lusterless, showing under a lens sparse, 
short, delicate hairs, or if rubbed, their scars ; delicately striatulate. 
Coloration as described above, or as follows : Base corneous-white, 
becoming brownish toward the periphery, where there is a brown 
band (often indistinct, and sometimes having several very faint nar- 
row bands below it) ; above this peripheral girdle there is a pure 
white zone, and then a dark brown supra-peripheral band, bordered 
on its upper as well as lower edge with white ; the suture has an in- 



288 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

conspicuous white border ; the surface between this border and the- 
supra-peripheral band is light brown, becoming darker on the latter 
part of the body-whorl. Whorls 4^, 'convex; sutures impressed; 
last whorl descending in front. Aperture oblique, rounded-lunar, 
showing the bands within ; peristome expanded, white except where 
the dark bands spot it ; basal margin reflexed, with no trace of a 
tooth. Alt. 10, greater diam. 22 lesser 18 mill. 

Is. Batchian, Waigou, etc., Moluccas. 

H. Jcurri PFR. P. Z. S. 1847, p. 228 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 251, 1. 114, 
f. 1-3 ; Monogr. i, p. 386. EEEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 432. TAPP. 
CAN., Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, *xix, p. 182. Planispira Kurri 
WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 408. 

A variable species in coloration. A pure white specimen with a 
faint, narrow peripheral band and the usual narrow, opaque, white, 
subsutural band is before me. H. flavidula Martens is scarcely 
more than a variety. 

H. FLAVIDULA Martens. PI. 45, figs. 47, 48, 49. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, subdepressed, having short hairs (or 
if denuded, their scars), striatulate, pale corneous-yellowish, gener- 
ally having one rufous band ; spire scarcely or a little raised. 
Whorls 4, a trifle convex above, the last inflated beneath, suban- 
gulated around the umbilicus, in front distinctly descending and 
scarcely constricted. Aperture little oblique, lunate-semiovate ; 
peristome shortly reflexed all around, a little thickened, flesh-col- 
ored, the margins quite remote ; upper margin deeply arched, basal 
margin a little straightened, subcallous ; parietal callus thin, shin- 
ing. Alt. 10-101 greater diam. 171-19, lesser 14-15 mill.; alt. 8, 
greater diam. 15 mill. (Mart.') 

At the water-fall at Maros, southern Celebes. 

H.flaveola MART. Monatsb. d. Berl. Akad. 1864, p. 525 (not H. 
flaveola Kryn., 1837). H. flavidula MART. Ostas. Zool., Landschn. 
p. 302, t. 14, f. 4. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 378. 

The fleshy-yellow coloration leaves a milk-white place close to the 
suture, within the umbilicus, and on each side of the narrow periph- 
eral band, so that one may regard it as the result of coalescent bands 
according to the formula (12)3(45) ; a disposition exhibited by many 
European Campylseas. The constriction behind the lip, in general 
only weakly indicated, is distinct where it passes into the umbilicus. 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 289 

All examples show hair-scars, more separated than in H. exceptiun- 
cula. 

This species is certainly closely allied to H. kurri Pfr., and may 
prove a variety of that species. It is proportionally higher and has 
a smaller aperture. 

Group of H. exceptiuneula. 

Imperforate, or quite narrowly umbilicated ; ends of the broadly 
expanded lip scarcely converging ; columella with a tooth ; spire 
not concave, plane, or nearly so, at least the three inner whorls. 
Surface having minute hairs, or in rubbed specimens hair-scars ; 
suture white-bordered. 

This group of species resembles the group of H. zonalis in having 
a white subsutural border ; it differs in being imperforate or nearly 
so, and in being hairy. The last character forms a bond with the 
Philippine Island species grouping around H. sanziana, and with 
the typical forms of Chlorites. The apex, however, is not granulate 
in these hirsute species of Planispira. 

H. EXCEPTIUNCULA FSrussac. PI. 65, figs. 84-87 ; pi. 45, figs. 50-53. 

Shell imperforate, depressed-globose, spire a little raised but the ear- 
lier 2 i whorls in a plane ; isabelline with few or numerous brown and 
orange bands ; lip white, broadly expanded, reflexed, adnate over 
the umbilicus; terminations of peristome not converging ; surface 
covered with short rigid hairs, or if denuded of hairs, showing their 
regularly arranged scars. 

The shell is elevated, for a Planispira, but the spire is flat-topped. 
Whorls 4, the last descending, rounded, not at all constricted 
behind the peristome. There are two principal dark zones, one 
above, one below the periphery, usually edged with orange ; above 
the upper zone there are three narrow bands, one edging the suture ; 
the base is usually brown. The upper whorls are brown or corne- 
ous, with a sutural white border. Basal lip having a strong tuber- 
cle on its inner edge, at the point of its union with the columella. 
Alt. 13, greater diam. 23, lesser 18 mill. 

Moluccas, Halmaheir a ; Batjan ; Ternate. 

H. exceptiuneula FER., Hist., t. 70, f. 1. PFR. Monographia i, p. 

311. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 501. MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., p. 296, 

t. 18, f. 3. TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 1884, 

p. 155. H. phryne PFR. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 386, t. 37, f. 7 ; Monogr. 

19 



290 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

v, p. 311. H. aspasia H. AD. P. Z. S. 1865, p. 415. PFR. MOD. v, 
p. 312. H. except, var. elatior MARTENS, Ostas. Zool., p. 297. Pla- 
nispira aspasia WALLACE, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 409. 

This aberrant species may be recognized by its closed umbilicus 
(open in the young) and hairy surface. It varies greatly in colora- 
tion. The typical pattern is described above, and figured on pi. 65, 
figs. 86, 87. Another form with few bands is figured on pi. 45, 
figs. 50-52. 

Form phryne Pfr. (pi. 65, figs. 84, 85). Spire more depressed, 
aperture more oblique, more ovate, the lip more broadly expanded ; 
columellar tooth minute. 

Form aspasia H. Ad. (pi. 45, fig. 53.) Only one band ; the next 
to the last whorl a little projecting. This is var. elatior Martens. 

H. THETIS Pfeiffer. PI. 56, figs. 74, 75, 76. 

Shell umbilicated, obtusely bell-shaped, rather thin, smooth, 
shining, white, with two brownish-black bands. Spire elevated, 
obtuse ; whorls five, a little convex, the three upper ones forming a 
corneous, flat or sub-sunken apex, the penultimate whorl inflated, 
the last whorl high, very obliquely descending in front, most ob- 
soletely angulated, the base rather flat ; umbilicus narrow, obliquely 
entering; aperture very oblique, truncate-elliptical, concolored 
within ; peristome simple, broadly expanso-reflexed, margins con- 
niving, the columellar dilated above and adnate above the umbili- 
cus, having a callous tooth within. 

Alt. 14, greater diam. 22, lesser 17 mill. (Pfr.') 

Habitat unknown. 

H. thetis PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1851, p. 127 ; Conchylien Cabinet, 
p. 443, t. 153, f. 1-3 ; Monogr. iii, p. 217. 

Evidently, as Von Martens has said, very closely allied to H. ex- 
ceptiuncula, differing in the more elevated form and perforate um- 
bilicus. It may prove a mere variation of the species named. 

H. NOV^GEORGIENSIS Cox. PL 54, fig. 23 ; pi. 65, fig. 91. 

Shell imperforate, globosely depressed, surface corrugated and 
shiny, white, ornamented with 5 or 6 narrow brown bands ; apex of 
spire bluntly rounded ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing in size, each 
flatly sloping to the center, causing a subcarinated appearance ; last 
whorl suddenly deflected in front, and carinated near the aperture ; 
aperture very oblique, ear-shaped, margin ivory-white, flatly ex- 



HELIX-PL ANISPIR A. 291 

panded ; the brown bands on the last whorl abruptly terminating at 
the base of the expanded lip ; margins approaching, joined by a thin 
callus ; columellar margin slightly dilated, and inclining to be tuber- 
culated within. 

Alt. 0.55, greater diam. 0.95, lesser 0.70 inch. 

New Georgia, Solomon Is. 

H. nov(E-georgiensis Cox, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 170, t. 16, f. 3, 3a. 
I have not seen this species. It may prove to group elsewhere, 
perhaps in Geotrochus. 

2. Subsection Cristigibba Tapparone Canefri, 1883. 

Cristigibba TAPP. CAN. Annali Mus. Civ. di Genova, xix, 1883, 
p. 161. Type, H. corniculum H. & J. Planispira in part, of authors. 

With the general fades of Planispira, these shells differ in having 
a crest or swollen ridge behind the lip, or a strong swelling on the 
base immediately behind the constriction preceding the lip. The 
spire is plane, a little immersed or concave in the middle. The 
group is characteristic of New Guinea. 

Group of H. corniculum. 

Base strongly swollen behind the basal lip; crest scarcely 
developed above. Species of New Guinea. 

H. CORNICULUM Hombron & Jacquinot. PL 46, figs. 65, 66, 67. 

Shell umbilicate, suboblong in circumference, depressed, thin, 
lightly striatulate, shining, whitish, ornamented with one supra- 
peripheral blackish-band. Spire plane, reddish ; whorls 4, a little 
convex, rapidly increasing, the last rounded, descending in front, 
the base substrangulated just behind the lip ; umbilicus narrow, per- 
forating ; aperture very oblique, ample, subcircular; peristome 
broadly expanded, margins approximating, columellar margin short- 
ly reflexed. Alt. 11, greater diam. 24, lesser 19 mill. (Pfr.) 

Id. of Sorong ; Port Dorey, Dorey Hum, New Guinea ; (also Id. 
of Batjan, according to Wallace). 

H. corniculum H. & J. Voy. au Pole Sud, Atlas t. 5, f. 10-12. 
ROSSEAU in text of same, p. 13. REEVE Conch. Icon. f. 502. 
PFR. Monogr. iii, p. 247 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 425, t. 149, f. 16, 17. 
TAPPARONE CANEFRI, Ann. Mus. Civ. di Genova, xix, p. 180, 1883 ; 
xxiv, 1887, p. 143. H. collis ? TAPP. CAN. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 
1878, p. 271. 



292 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

The supra-peripheral band in this species extends to the edge of 
the expanded peristome. It is rarely absent, as in Hombron and 
Jacquinot's figure 13 of plate 5, Voy. au Pole Sud. The peristome 
is rosy in specimens collected at Dorey Hum (Tapp. Can., Ann. 
Mus. Civ. 1887). 

The H. Kiesneri of LeGuillon, briefly diagnosed in Revue Zool. 
1842, p. 140, and not figured nor recognized by subsequent authors, 
is perhaps synonymous with corniculum. See also Pfr., Monogr. i, 
p. 427, and Tapparone Canefri, Annali del Mus. Civ. di Genova, 
xix, p. 181, 1883. It is from Triton Bay, New Guinea. 

H. DEANIANA Ford. PL 63, figs. 56, 57, 58. 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, flattened above and below ; thin but 
solid ; white, with a broad chestnut-brown zone encircling the last 
whorl just above the periphery, and continued on the next earlier 
whorl immediately above the suture. 

Surface comparatively smooth, the growth striae being very faint. 
Whorls 4?, convex, the inner ones sunken a trifle below the level of 
the penultimate whorl, which projects very slightly above the last 
whorl. The latter is large, rounded above, below and at the peri- 
phery, slowly descending in front to about the middle of the pre- 
ceding whorl ; very narrowly and deeply constricted behind the 
basal lip, much inflated just behind the constriction, and with an 
oblique excavation behind the columellar lip running into the um- 
bilicus. Aperture very oblique, rotund, lunar, white, showing the 
brown band inside. Lip broadly expanded on upper and outer 
margins, very narrowly reflexed on the basal and columellar. The 
outer and basal portions are of a beautiful pink rose-color. The 
parietal wall has a thin wash of callus. Umbilicus funnel-shaped 
and slightly impinged upon by the columellar lip. 

Alt. 11, greater diam. 26, lesser 20 mill. Aperture, oblique alt. 
16, breadth 14J mm., including peristome. Width of umbilicus 
21 mm. 

New Guinea. 

H. (Planispira) Deaniana JOHN FORD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. of 
Philadelphia, 1890, p. 188 (July 29, 1890.) 

This beautiful species stands between H. corniculum and H. do- 
minula. It is less elevated, less convex above than the latter species, 
the swelling on the base is much nearer the basal lip, causing the 
constriction to be narrower, and the umbilicus is far broader, far 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 293 

less concealed by the columellar lip, which is in the deaniana very 
narrow. It differs from corniculum in having the band not con- 
tinued upon the lip ; the inner whorls not rosy, the baso-columeliar 
lip much more arcuate, etc. 

H. DOMINULA Tapparone Canefri. PL 68, figs. 79, 80, 81, 82. 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, shining, obliquely striatulate and 
most obsoletely costulate, rosy-reddish, rarely with a brown zone 
above ; spire plano-convex, the apex subimmersed ; whorls 4, a lit- 
tle convex, and separated by profound sutures ; last whorl large, 
very obscurely subangular at the periphery, descending in front, 
subconstricted behind the aperture and obliquely swollen on the 
base ; base a little convex, and having a little-dilated, perforating 
umbilicus. Aperture rotund-lunate, very oblique, ample, the throat 
pearly white; peristome expanded, margins converging, approxi- 
mating, the right regularly lunate, broadly expanded, basal little 
incurved and narrow, columellar short, dilated, and above the um- 
bilicus narrowly reflexed. Largest example, alt. 13, greater diam. 
28, lesser 231 mill. Smallest example, alt. 12, greater diam. 21, les- 
ser 18 mill. (Tapp. Can.} 

On the Rivers Fly and Katau, Southern New Guinea. 

H. dominula TAPP. CAN., Ann Mus. Civ. di Genova, xix, 1883, 
p. 178, t. 4, f. 8-11, and anatomy, t. 7, f. 4 ; t. 9, f. 5, 14. 

This species has much affinity in form to H. corniculum H. & J., 
but is very distinct and easily recognized by its generally larger 
size, the convexity of the spire in the new species, which becomes 
only flat on the last whorl, but is slightly concave in the middle ; 
by the great tumidity of the last whorl behind the aperture and its 
less deflection in front ; and finally by the smaller size of the umbili- 
cus, which differs from that of H. corniculum, in being always at 
least one-third covered by the columellar margin. (Tapp. Can.} 

The following variations are noted by Tapparone Canefri : 

Form a. Entire shell, including peristome, white. Alt. 12, 
greater diam. 27, lesser 22 ^ mill. 

Form b. Shell white, peristome rosy. Alt. 12, greater diam. 26, 
lesser 21 J mill. 

Form d. (pi. 68, fig. 81.) Shell larger, more depressed, the 
aperture wider, white with a wide brownish chestnut zone above, the 
peristome broadly expanded above, bright rose-colored. Alt. 14, 
greater diam 31, lesser 25 mill. River Fly. 



294 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

Group of H. tortilabia. 

A swollen crest developed behind the upper and outer margins of 
the lip. Species of New Guinea. 

H. TORTILABIA Lesson. PL 36, figs. 30, 31, 32 ; pi. 60, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Shell umbilicated, suborbicular, discoidal, yellowish-white, uni- 
colored or bifasciate with reddish brown ; spire plane ; whorls 5, a 
little convex, the last subdepressed, a little deflexed in front and hav- 
ing a gibbous ridge or crest above, constricted beneath ; umbilicus 
moderate. Aperture very oblique, rounded-lunar; peristome re- 
flexed, margins converging. 

Alt. 9J, greater diam. 22, lesser 19 mill. (P/r.) 

Western New Guinea ; Sorong and Aru islands. 

H. tortilabia LESSON, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool. II, p. 311, t. 13, 
f. 1. PHIL. Abbild. i, p. 152, Helix t. 5, f. 4. PFR. Conchyl. Cab., 
p. 129, t. 90, f. 10-12; Mon. Hel. Viv. i, p. 388. EVE, Conch. 
Icon., f. 498. MARTENS, Ostas. Zool. ii, p. 391. IT. (Cristigibba) 
tortilabia Less. TAPP. CAN. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. xix, p. 171, 1883. 
H. (Planispira) tortilabia Less., PFR. Versuch. etc., p. 136 ; 
Nomencl. Hel. Viv., p. 182. TAPP. CAN. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. 
vi, p. 561, 1874 ; ix, p. 289, 1876-77 ; Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1878, 
p. 270. H. gibbosula HOMBRON & JACQUINOT, Voy. au Pole Sud, 
atlas, t. 5, f. 14-16 ; and KOUSSEAU in text of same, p. 14. H. torti- 
collis TAPP. CAN. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. vi, 1874, p. 561, 562 (and 
of Le Guillou ?) 

Two principal forms of this species are recognized by Tapparone 
Canefri. 

FORM A. Shell relatively larger ; aperture somewhat oval, am- 
ple; superior margin of the peristome wider and less expanded out- 
wardly. The following color-forms occur : 

Typical. Shell white all over with two brown bauds. This is the 
typical form figured by Lesson. 

a. White all over, without bands, covered with a very thin, yel- 
lowish epidermis. This is H. gibbosula H. & J. and tortilabia Phil. 
See figs. 30-32 of pi. 36. 

b. Shell bandless, white, the first whorl of the spire, the peristome 
and the palatal region within and outside, bright rose colored. One 
example from Aru Island. 



HELIX-PLANISPIKA. 295 

FORM B. Shell relatively smaller, aperture narrower and rotund ; 
edge of peristome narrow also above and uniformly expanded out- 
wardly. Color-forms as follows : 

c. Shell with a brown band above, the peristome rosy. Reeve's 
figure of tortilabia represents this form. 

d. Shell very small for the species, white and bandless, the peri- 
stome a beautiful rose color. 

e. Shell entirely white, bandless. 

/. Shell blackish all over, the peristome of the same color. 

The H. torticollis LeGuillou (Revue Zool. 1842, p. 140), described 
from Triton Bay, New Guinea, is probably a synonym. It can 
only be identified by an examination of the type. See Pfr. Monog. 
i, p. 388, and Tapparone Canefri, Ann. Mus. Civ. di Genova, xix, 
p. 173, 1883. 

H. SEMIRASA Mousson. PL 46, figs. 71, 72, 73. 

Shell umbilicated, much depressed, thin, subtly striatulate and 
beset with very short, not close, hairs ; a little shining, corneous- 
whitish or white, ornamented with a wide chestnut band above, a 
narrow one below the middle; spire plane, apex subimmersed ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 4, little convex, the last depressed-rounded, 
shortly descending in front, swollen behind the aperture, on the 
base rather flattened, subconstricted in front ; umbilicus moderate 
(about one-seventh the diameter of the shell), conical. Aperture 
very oblique, lunate-subcircular ; peristome simple, rosy, margins 
converging, the upper narrowly expanded, basal narrowly reflexed, 
dilated in a triangular plate at the insertion. 

Alt. 7, greater diam. 19, lesser 16 mill. (Pfr.) 

My sol and Aru Is., near New Guinea. 

H. semirasa (Mouss. in coll.) MARTENS, Preuss. Exped. Ostas., 
Landschn., p. 392. PFR. Novit. Conch, iv, p. 38, t. 117, f. 4-6. 
TAPP. CAN. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, xix, p. 173, 1883. H. moluc- 
censis PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1850, p. 84 ; Mon. iii, p. 245 ; Conchyl. 
Cab., p. 352, t. 135, f. 10, 11. 

The name moluccensis Pfr. has priority, but has been changed by 
Martens, because the species is not from the Moluccas, but belongs 
to the Papuan fauna. It is closely allied to H. tortilabia. 

H. PLAGIOCHEILA Tapparone Canefri. PL 52, figs. 82, 83, 84. 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, rather thin, pellucid, obliquely 
striatulate and obsoletely impressed-punctate ; covered with a gray- 



296 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

ish or brownish-buff epidermis, here and there regularly and shortly 
setigerous, the hairs readily deciduous and leaving a golden or silvery 
impressed point; corneous- white, unicolored or with two brown 
bands, one above, one below the periphery ; spire depressed, plane, 
subimmersed in the middle. Whorls 4, subconvex, separated by 
impressed sutures ; the last whorl large, subconstricted behind the 
lip and with a gibbous crest ; scarcely descending in front ; with a 
moderate, penetrating umbilicus. Aperture rotund-lunate, higher 
than wide, very oblique, white inside ; peristome rosy purple, nar- 
rowly and equally expanded and reflexed, the margins coverging, 
columellar slightly dilated and deflexed above the umbilicus. 
Alt. 8, greater diam. 18, lesser 16 mill. (Tapp. Can.} 
Shores of the river Fly, Southern New Guinea ; also, shores of the 
Katau. 

H. plagiocheila TAPP. CAN. Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, xix, 1883, p. 
174, t. 5, f. 4-7, and anatomy, t. 7, f. 6. 

Resembles H. tortilabia in form. It is a third smaller, is flat 
above, the shell is thinner, is less gibbous behind the constriction 
at the aperture, the latter is higher than wide ; it especially differs 
in the epidermis, which in tortilabia is smooth, lucid, thin, closely 
adherent; that of plagiocheila being velvety, readily coming off and 
having scattered stiff short hairs. 

H. LEPTOCHEILA Tapparone Canefri. PI. 61, figs. 25, 26, 27. 

Shell umbilicate, discoidal, rather thin, shining, pellucid, obliquely 
striatulate, white, having a broad, deep chestnut band above ; spire 
plane, subimmersed in the middle. Whorls 4, a little convex, sep- 
arated by impressed sutures ; the last whorl subconstricted behind 
the aperture, then subinflated and obliquely swollen; moderately 
descending in front ; base convex and subcompressed around the 
penetrating but little widened umbilicus. Aperture ovate-lunate, 
wider than high, very oblique; peristome rosy, narrowly expanded, 
reflexed, margins converging, approximating, columellar slightly 
dilated and reflexed above the umbilicus. Alt. 7J, greater diam. 
17, lesser 15 mill. (Tapp. Can.) 

Moluccas. 

H. leptocheila TAPP. CAN., Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 1887, p. 150, 
t. 1, f. 14-16. 



HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 297 

Intermediate between H. expansa and H. plagiocheila ; above it 
is like the former ; but the swollen base, color and form of the peri- 
stome distinguish it from that species. 

H. EHODOMPHALA Tapparone Canefri. PI. 48, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, depressed above, obliquely striate, 
covered with a grayish-brown, velvety, shortly-hairy epidermis; 
under the epidermis white, apex rosy, a rosy sutural zone on the 
last two whorls, and two narrow brown bands, one edging the rosy 
sutural zone, the other nearly peripheral ; umbilical region purplish ; 
spire plane, apex sub-immersed. Whorls 4, a little convex, sepa- 
rated by profound sutures ; the last large, subtumid beneath, behind 
the aperture subconstricted, and below obliquely gibbous-crested ; 
compressed around the rather open and perforating umbilicus; 
scarcely descending in front. Aperture rotund-lunar, higher than 
wide, very oblique, inside rosy toward the peristome, then white ; 
peristome often blackish-purple, expanded and reflexed in every 
part, margins converging, regularly arcuate, columellar scarcely 
dilated, and reflexed above the umbilicus. 

Alt. 10, greater diam. 21, lesser 17 mill. (Tapp. Can.) 

Shores of the River Fly, Southern New Guinea. 

H. rhodomphala TAPP. CAN. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov. xix, 1883, p. 
176, t. 4, f. 12, 13. 

One example of the seven seen by Canefri was white all over, 
less gibbous behind the aperture, the peristome broad, blackish- 
purple. 

This species has much affinity to the preceding, but is easily dis- 
tinguished by its greater depression above, larger size, form of the 
upper margin of the peristome and the peculiar color of the lip. 

Group of H. margaritis. 

Crest inconspicuous. These species connect Cristigibba and Pla- 
nispira ; they are from the Moluccas. 

H. MARGARITIS Pfeiffer. PI. 52, figs. 93, 94, 95. 

Shell depressed, moderately umbilicated, striolate, white, with 2 
or 3 blackish-brown bands ; spire plane ; whorls 3J, scarcely 4, sub- 
plane, the last convex on the base, not much descending in front ; 
swollen, inflated, and then constricted behind the peristome. Aper- 



298 HELIX-PLANISPIRA. 

ture transversely subelliptical, peristome expanded, white, moder- 
ately thickened. Alt. 9, greater diam. 19, lesser 15 mill. (Mart.) 

Moluccas, Ceram. 

H. margaritis PFR. Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1850, p. 83 ; Conchyl. Cab. 
p. 354, t. 135, f. 19-21 ; Monogr. iii, p. 246. MARTENS, Preuss. 
Exped. nach Ostas., Landschn. p. 307. H. zonulella Mouss. in 
coll. teste MARTENS. 

Typical margaritis has two bands, the last whorl scarcely descend- 
ing in front, aperture little oblique. 

Var. ZONULELLA Mouss. Bands 3, upper one interrupted ; last 
whorl moderately descending; aperture very oblique. Alt. 7$,. 
greater diam. 16, lesser 12 mill. 

H. EXPANSA Pfeiffer. PL 46, figs. 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 76. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, inflated-discoidal, subtly striate, thin,. 
waxy-white, painted above with rufous-brown bands, unicolored be- 
neath ; spire plane, apex a little immersed, suture pretty deep. 
Whorls 4J, a little convex, the last inflated beneath, shortly descend- 
ing in front, not constricted. Aperture diagonal, ample, lunate- 
rotund ; peristome thin, reflexed, white, margins approaching, joined 
by a thin callus, collumellar margin arcuate. 

Alt. 13, greater diam. 20, lesser 15, aperture alt. and width 11 
mill. (Mart.) 

Island of Batjan, Moluccas, on wooded hills. 

H. expansa PFR. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 22, t. 3, f. 8 (unrecognizable 
fig.) ; Novit. Conch, p. 165, t. 45, f. 4-6 ; Monogr. v, 391. MARTENS, 
Preuss. Exped. Ostas., p. 286, t. 14, f. 3. H. anozona MARTENS, 
Monatsber. d. Berl. Akad. der Wissensch. 1864, p. 269. 

Above like H. margaritis ; beneath like H. corniculum. The 
sutural band is sometimes wanting. 

H. MERSISPIRA Martens. PL 45, figs. 26, 27, 28. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed, striatulate, concolored, 
whitish?; spire a little sunken; whorls 4, a little convex, the last 
depressed-rounded at the periphery, below more convex and obtusely 
angulated around the umbilicus; in front distinctly descending; 
above moderately, beneath deeply constricted ; aperture very ob- 
lique, lunate-circular ; peristome shortly expanded all around, rather 
thin, white, margins rather approaching, the upper slightly, the basal 
much arched. Alt. 11J, greater diam. 24, lesser 18 mill. (Mart.) 

Island of Moti, Moluccas* 



APPENDIX. 299 

H. mersispira MART., Monatsb. d. Berl. Akacl. 1864, p. 525 ; Os- 
tas. Zool., Landschn. p. 303, t. 14, f. 8. PFR. Monogr. v, p. 388. 

Only dead, bleached specimens were obtained. The slightly 
sunken spire, narrow lip, without a basal tooth, and uniform white 
coloration are its more notable features. 

H. QUADRIVOLVIS Martens. PI. 45, figs. 41, 42, 43. 

Shell with a funnel-shaped umbilicus, inflated discoidal, subtly 
striate, white, with one brown band. Spire a trifle immersed ; suture 
profound ; whorls 4, cylindrical, the last scarcely descending in 
front, not constricted. Aperture subvertical, sinuous, obliquely 
lunate; peristome thin, shortly expanded in every part, margins 
distant, columellar margin obliquely descending, basal subrectilin- 
ear, ascending forward, the upper inflexed. Alt. 7, greater diam. 
15, lesser 12 mill. (Mart.') 

Western Borneo near Mandlwr ; at Kepahiang and Rinduhati, 
Middle Sumatra. 

H. quadrivolvis MART., Monatsber. Berl. Akad. Wissensch. 1865, 
p. 53 ; Ostas. p. 288, t. 14, f. 6. PFR., Mon. v, p. 392. 

Above, near the suture, and beneath around the umbilicus there 
are slight indications of carination, too indistinct to be mentioned 
in the description. There is no constriction behind the lip. The 
straight basal lip reminds one of Planorbis trivolvis Say. 



APPENDIX. 
STEGODERA. 
STEGODERA HENSANIENSIS Gredler. Unfigured. (See page 13.) 

Allied to H. trisinuata Mart. ; widely umbilicated, scarcely cari- 
nated, subdepressed ; spire a little convex, closely striated, finely 
granulated to the apex, but without the rows of tubercles of H. 
trisinuata; chestnut-rufous, streaked transversely below the suture 
with whitish; whorls 4i-5, separated by profound sutures, the last 
whorl not swollen around the umbilicus, free in front and deflexed. 
Aperture ob-triangular, trisinuate, pale flesh-brown inside; peris- 
tome continuous, thickened, whitish, reflexed, three-toothed ; one 
tooth on the parietal callus, one (somewhat bifid) on the basal 
margin, one on the outer margin, the two latter marked by broad 
furrows behind the peristome. Alt. 10, diam. 20-21 mill. ( Gredler, .) 

He-nsan, Province of Hunan, China 



300 APPENDIX. 

H. (Polygyra) hensaniensis GREDLER, Zur Conchylien-Fauna 
von China, viii Stuck, p. 4, published by the author, Bozen, 1885. 

AMPELITA (page 16.) 

Since the publication of the first number of the MANUAL for 1890, 
Crosse and Fischer's Hist. Nat. Moll. Madagascar has appeared (See 
note on page 65 of this volume) ; and also a review of the group of 
H. sepulchralis in their Journal. 

AMPELITA SEPULCHRALIS Fer. 

Crosse and Fischer (in Journ. de Conchyl., xxx, p. 127) admit 
and diagnose the following varieties of sepulchralis; they are 
mostly merely color-forms. 

Form sganziniana C. &. F. (pi. 64, figs. 58, 59). Depressed ; sub- 
discoidal ; pale olive-brown ; spire subplane ; inside of aperture and 
peristome pale bluish, (see p. 21, this volume). This is the H. 
sganziniana of Hist. Madag., Moll., plate 5, figs. 8-10. 

Form prmclara C. & F. Subdepressed, scarcely subdiscoidal, 
chestnut-brown, aperture and peristome shining, vivid grayish-blue. 
This is H. sepulchralis var. g of Crosse & Fischer, Hist. Madag. 
Moll., t. 17, f. 6. 

Form olivacea Pilsbry (pi. 64, figs. 62, 63). Subdepressed, sub- 
discoidal, olive-yellowish, the earlier whorls very dark, pinkish or 
purple ; apex whitish. This is H. sganziniana var. g of C. & F., 
Hist. Madag., Moll., t. 12, f. 3, December, 1889. 

Form lethifera C. & F. (pi. 64, fig. 61). Subdiscoidal, depressed, 
unicolored black ; aperture bluish-white inside, the peristome in- 
tense brownish-black. H. sganziniana var., C. & F. in Hist. Madag. 
Moll., t. 7, f. 3. 

Form funebris Martens (pi. 3, fig. 43-45). Larger than normal 
sepulchralis, the body-whorl malleated ; of a blackish-brown color, 
with bands of papery whitish epidermis. 

Having again worked over the material examined by me when 
preparing my monograph, together with a large number of additional 
specimens received during the past year, and having studied atten- 
tively the excellent work of Messrs Crosse & Fischer, I have arrived at 
the following arrangement of forms of the H. sepulchralis group. In 
the extent and perplexing inter-relations of the varieties, these 
Helices may be compared to the H. californiensis group in America, 
the H. peliomphala group in Japan, or the H. grayi group in 
Australia. 



APPENDIX. 301 

H. SEPULCHRALIS Fer. typical. 

The type of Ferussac is a shell with rather elevated spire, having 
a distinct furrow on both upper and lower surfaces ; a light zone 
upon the gibbous, subangular ridge around the umbilicus. Alt. 25, 
diam. 45 mill. (From Ferussac's illustration, Hist. t. 75, f. ]). 

Var. SGANZINIANA C. & F. (pi. 64, figs. 58, 59.) 

Spire nearly plane ; last whorl concave above, flattened beneath, 
etc. To this variety are to be referred many depressed specimens 
of a uniform dark hue, which are not angled around the umbilicus 
but have the base convexly flattened. Umbilicus encircled by a 
light or dark band or by none. Color-varieties very numerous. 
There are no white or creamy streaks or bands. 

Var. EURYCHILA C. & F. (pi. 64, figs. 56, 57). 

A distinct furrow above and below, as in the type ; shell large 
(diam. 57-64 mill) ; spire low ; umbilicus bounded by a gibbous 
ridge and usually a light band ; surface streaked or banded with 
hydrophanous whitish markings. H. cadaverosus Pilsbry (pi. 62, figs. 
29-31) is a depressed form of this variety, connecting it with Mar- 
tens' funebris, which is intermediate between cadaverosus and sgan- 
ziniana. 

Connected with the typical sepulchralis by numerous shells smaller 
than eurychila but having the same " papery" epidermis. I have 
acquired a large series of these shells since my description of eadav- 
erosus was printed. The oblique light streaks are sometimes cut 
into spiral bands (like Martens' funebris*) by dark spirals. A pale 
color-form (pcUlidior, pi. 64, fig. 56) is diagnosed by Crosse & Fischer. 

Var. FUNEBRIS Morelet, (not Martens). PL 67, figs. 67, 68, 69. 

No furrow or depression on the convex upper surface, or only a 
very slight one; base having a circular impression ; purplish-black 
or rufous, unicolored ; aperture dark within, lip whitish, the basal mar- 
gin having a low, slight tooth-like prominence in the middle. Alt. 
24-26, diam. 45-53 mill. (See Morelet, Journ. de Conchyl. 1877, p. 
217, also Crosse & Fischer, in Hist. Madag., Moll. t. 11, f. 3). The 
series before me shows this to be a mere variety of sepulchralis. It 
often shows whitish streaks, like H. eurychila. 

I have. not seen H. excoriata Martens. It is probably a form of 
eurychila. 



302 APPENDIX. 

H. SUBSEPULCHRALIS Crosse. Add to synonymy, CROSSE & 
FISCHER, in Grandidier, Hist. Madag., Moll., t. 11, f. 1, la, Dec. 
1889 ; and Journ. de Conchyl. 1890, p. 128. 

Form obscura C. & F. (pL 62, fig. 37), Moll. Madag. t. 11, f. 2, 
2a, 2b; Journ. Conch. 1890, p. 128. 

Form minor C. & F. (pi. 62, fig. 36). See H. sepulchralis RVE., 
f. 147b. H. subsepulchralis ANGAS, P. Z. S. 1877, t. 80, f. 3. 
CROSSE & FISCHER, Moll. Madag. t. 17, f. 7. 

Form nigropurpurea C. & F. This is H. subsepulchralis C. & F., 
Moll. Madag. t. 17, f. 8. 
H. STRAGULUM Crosse & Fischer. PI. 64, figs. 64, 56, 66. 

This is closely allied to H. lamarei Mke. 
H. HOVA Angas. Add to synonymy, H. hova C. & F., Moll. Madag. 

t. 18, f. 2-5. 

In the second paragraph on page 25, read pL 66, figs. 64, 65, in- 
stead of "pi. 64." 
H. LAMAREI Mke. Add to synonymy, H. hova var. C. & F., I. c. t. 

18, f.*6, 6a. 6b, 7, 7a. 

Crosse and Fischer surmise that hova and lamarei will prove to be 
one species. The narrower umbilical perforation of the latter seems 
to me to separate them. 

*** 

H. ATROPOS Fer., according to Crosse and Fischer, belongs to the 

group of H. omphalodes. 
H. NOVACULA Martens. Specimens lately received agree in all 

respects with the one commented upon on page 33. 

H. CAZENAVETTI, Fischer & Bernardi. PI. 67, figs. 73, 74, 77, 78. 

The figures given on pi. 67 are from Crosse & Fischer, Moll. Mad- 
agascar. 

H. FULGURATA Sowb. PI. 67, figs. 75, 76. 
The figures are from Crosse and Fischer. 

H. SUAREZENSIS Crosse & Fischer. PI. 67, figs. 70, 71, 72. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, subdepressed, moderately thick, sub- 
obliquely rugate-striate, pale olive-fulvous, unicolored. Spire little 
projecting, the apex plane ; suture deeply impressed ; whorls 5, 
nearly plane, first two a little roughened, the last scarcely descend- 
ing, carinated a little above the middle, the base more convex, 



APPENDIX. 303 

plane around the umbilicus. Aperture oblique, subhorizontal, 
lunate-elliptical, livid violaceous-brown inside; peristome simple, 
dull whitish, margins joined by a very thin violet-brown callus, 
columellar margin subdilated, slightly reflexed, a little sinuous; 
basal and outer margins thin, subacute. 

Alt. 20, greater diam. 46, Issser 38 mill. (C. & jP.) 

Diego-Suarez, Madagascar. 

H. Suarezensis C. & F., Journ. de Conchyl. 1877, p. 78 ; and in 
Orandidier, Hist. Madag., Moll., t. 4, f. 2, 2a, 2b. 
Belongs evidently in the vicinity of If. lanx Fer. 

H. LANCIFORMIS Boettger. 

H. lanx Crosse & Fischer (not Fe"r.), Moll. Madag. t. 11, f. 4, 4a. 
4b, is doubtless synonymous. It is a distinct, well-marked species. 
H. Campbelliana Pilsbry is perhaps a small variety of the same. 

HELICOPHANTA. 

Page 64, 12th line from bottom, read pi 66, fig. 63, instead of pi. 
4, rig. 63. 7th line from bottom of page, read pi. 66, fig. 62, instead 
of pi. 64, fig. 62. 

ACAVUS. 

ACAVUS H^MASTOMA L. var. CONCOLOR Pilsbry. (The Nautilus 
iv, p. 59, September, 1890). Unicolored chestnut all over, the two 
earlier whorls and a narrow umbilical crescent pink ; lip and parietal 
wall red. No spiral white zones or bands. Form normal. (No 
60959 of Acad. Colin.) 

HADRA. 

On page 88-89 I offered an arrangement of this group, which 
I have found to be imperfect, after the whole of my material was 
studied. The following arrangement is more in harmony with the 
facts as I understand them. I especially would insist upon the 
complete divorce of Hadra from Camcena, and the essential identity 
of Thersites with the former. Upon this latter point I have al- 
ready expressed my opinion (p. 129, this volume) ; I may add, that 
since the passage referred to was printed, I have received a letter 
from Mr. C. Hedley, the talented malacologist of the Queensland 
Museum, in which he expresses the same view of Thersites. 



304 APPENDIX. 

Subgenus XIX. HADRA Albers, 1850. 
(=T her sites -\-Hadr a of my synopsis on p. 89.) v 

(Sino-Japonic branch.') 
Section EUHADRA Pilsbry, 1890. See p. 95. 

(Australian branch^) 
Section HADRA, restricted. 

Subsection HADRA. Type If. bipartita Fer., p. 126. 
Subsection BADISTES Old. Type H. gulosa Old., p. 129. 
Subsection THERSITES Pfr. Type H. richmondiana Pfr., p. 90. 
Subsection SPH^EROSPIRA Morch. Type H. fraseri Gray, p. 149. 
Subsection XANTHOMELON Martens. Type H. pomum Pfr., p. 
178. 

Section RHAGADA Albers, 1860. See p. 184. 

Subsection GLYPTORHAGADA Pilsbry. Type H. silveri Ang. 
p. 191. 

Subgenus XX. ANOGLYPTA Martens, 1860. See p. 92. 

This group has probably nothing to do with Hadra (+ Thersites),. 
and may stand for the present as a distinct subgenus. It is possible 
that an examination of the dentition will prove Anoglypta to belong 
to the Zonitidce. The animal is unknown. 

*** 

It will be understood that I give but little value to the Australian 
subsections of Hadra. They simply represent the more salient or 
extreme aspects of variation, and are connected by forms more or 
less intermediate. 



EUHADRA. 

The Japanese species of the H. peliomphala group are excessively 
variable, and the number of specific types must be considerably re- 
duced. Kobelt has pretty thoroughly worked them up in his work 
Fauna molluscorum extramarinorum Japonice, 1879. I suggest the 
following as a rearrangement of the varieties of H. luhuana Sowb. 
This name must take precedence over H. peliomphala Pfr., as it is 
several years earlier. 



APPENDIX. 305 

EUHADRA LUHUANA Sowb. 1839. (Beechey's Voy., Zool., Moll. p. 

143, t. 35, f. 4. KOBELT, Fauna Jap. p. 27, t. 3, f. 5-7 ; t. 5, f. 

8 ; t. 6, f. 1-9). 

In its typical development this form differs from typical peliom- 
phala in the flatter spire, less oblique, less transversely widened 
aperture, the altogether stronger and rougher shell. It is brown, 
with a single narrow blackish band ; umbilicus dark or light. Alt. 
20, greater diam. 41, lesser 35 mill. 

The periphery is obtusely subangulated above the middle. Spec- 
imens smaller than above indicated, and of a clear yellow color, lip 
white, are numerous. They have no umbilical spots or bands. 

? Var. EGA Crosse, 1868, (see p. 98). This seems to differ in being 
more depressed above than typical luhuana, but is probably a 
variety of that species. 

Banded but not conspicuously obliquely streaked ; bands 
sometimes spotted. 

Var. PELIOMPHALA Pfr. 1850. 

The type of peliomphala as represented in Fer. Hist, is a shell 
like figs. 1, 2 of pi. 30, but without spots or streaks on the bands, 
which are 4 in number, inclusive of the black umbilical patch. 
Specimens with spots on the bands (pi. 30, figs. 1-4) are more 
frequent. Specimens with continuous bands usually lack the superoir 
narrow one (shown in fig. 2, pi. 30.) The spire is rather low. The 
sculpture is finer, smoother than in typical luhuana, and the aper- 
ture is wider. 

Form typica. Bands 2, 3 or 4 (incl. umbil. spot), continuous, not 
streaked or spotted with yellow. Shell more depressed than var. 
callizona. 

Form maculata. Bands 1-4, maculated with yellow ; umbilical 
spot present or absent. 

Form conica. Bandless, yellowish-corneous, usually with a pink- 
ish streak on the body-whorl, marking the place of a former peri- 
stome ; spire elevated, conical, sutures impressed ; lip violet-pink, 
umbilicus rapidly narrowing. Alt. 24, diam. 33 mill. 

Kioto, Japan. 

Var. CALLIZONA Crosse, 1871 (see p. 105). Smaller, much more 
elevated, with narrow umbilicus ; banded, the bands not interrupted 
by flecks or streaks of yellowish. It sometimes lacks bands, but 
20 



306 APPENDIX. 

may be known by the elevated spire and narrow umbilicus. H. 
amalice Kobelt, 1875, and H. congenor Smith, 1878, are synonyms. 

Conspicuously obliquely streaked with whitish over spiral bands. 

Var. NIMBOSA Crosse, 1868 (see p. 101). Spire not much raised ; 
dark bands distinct, frequently interrupted by whitish or buff 
streaks. 

Form brandti Kobelt, 1875. Small ; umbilicus narrow, scarcely 
perforating. 

Form senckenbergiana Kobelt, 1875. Very large ; umbilicus 
wider, open. 

Form nipponensis Kobelt, 1876. Shell having spiral ill-defined 
brownish tracts (at least beneath); obliquely streaked, having 
opaque buff raised thread-like oblique strice in places. H. congenita 
Smith, 1878, is a synonym. See p. 102. The spire is usually dis- 
tinctly conoidal ; the aperture is broad and low ; there is no um- 
bilical dark patch. 

H. SCLEVOLA Martens, Sitzungsber. Naturforsch Fr. zu Berl. 1877, 
p. 104, may be an Euhadra. See Kobelt, Faun. Jap. 

H. BLAKEANA NeWC. 

H. Blakei Newc. KOBELT, Faun. Jap., p. 23, t. 7, f. 10, 11. 

This is scarcely an Euhadra. Kobelt places it in Aegista with 
doubt. 
H. PLATYSOMA, (p. 104). This is a synonym of H.jaspidea, Pfr. 

Group of H. swinhoei, Pfr. (p. 115.) 

H. GRANULIFERA Mollendorff. PI. 69, figs. 99, 100. 

Shell openly umbilicate, depressed-globose, solid, transversely 
plicate-striatulate, closely and minutely granulose, chestnut-brown. 
Whorls 6, subplane, spire globose-conoidal with convex lateral out- 
lines ; last whorl with a strong, exserted carina at periphery ; base 
inflated, subgibbous, very shortly descending in front. Aperture 
diagonal, lunate-rounded, peristome* expanded, a little reflexed, 
violet-lipped ; columellar margin dilated, partially concealing the 
umbilicus. Alt, 28, greater diam. 46, lesser 40 mill. (Mild/.) 

Wutshangfu, Province of Hubei, China. 

Hadra granulifera MLLDFF. N. D. M. Gess. 1888, p. 43. Helix 
granulifera Mlldff., HEUDE, Notes sur les Moll. Terr, da la Vallee 
du Fleuve Bleu, p< 141, t. 37, f. 8, 8a. 



APPENDIX. 307 

H. KENALTIANA Heude. PL 69, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell rather large, subsolid, subconic-discoidal, chestnut-brown, 
minutely spirally striate, striae undulating, interrupted; spire ob- 
tuse ; whorls 5, regularly increasing, the last cariuated ; suture sub- 
plane ; umbilicus narrow ; aperture oblique, sub-elliptical, inequal ; 
peristome undulating, white, expanded, reflexed at the umbilicus. 
Umbilicus small, perforating. 

Alt. 25, greater diam. 45, lesser 37 mill. (/T.) 

Si-lin (Kouang-si\ China. 

H. renaltiana H., Journ. Conch. 1889 ; Notes sur les Moll. Terr. 
Fl. BL, p. 141, t. 38, f. 10. 

Group of H. succincta (p. 117). 

Add to synonymy of H. STENOZONA Mlldff. HEUDE, Notes sur 
les Moll. Terr. Vallee Fl. BL, p. 140, t. 38, f. 9. 
Heude compares it to his H. cremata. 

H. NUX Mollendorff. Unfigured. 

Shell narrowly and half-covered umbilicate, globose-conic, trans- 
versely subtly striate and decussated by spiral rugulose lines, chest- 
nut, girt with a narrow band at the periphery. Whorls 62, sub- 
plane, forming a conic spire with acute apex ; last whorl obtusely 
angulated, base convex, a little applanate before the aperture, very 
shortly descending in front. Aperture oblique, lunate-rounded ; 
peristome rather expanded, a little reflexed, the basal margin sub- 
horizontal, columellar margin dilated, thickened, partly concealing 
the umbilicus. Alt. 25, greater diam. 28i, lesser 24 mill. (Mlldff.} 

Formosa. 

Hadra nux MLLDFF. N. D. M. Ges. 1888, p. 43. 

Differs from H. friesiana (antea, p. 118) in the more elevated 
spire, last whorl scarcely carinated, slightly angulated, base not 
compressed, but more convex, rather inflated, peristome more ex- 
panded. 

H. SCHMACKERI Mollendorff. PL 69, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Shell moderately umbilicated, depressed globose, solid, obliquely 
plicate-striate, spirally rugulose, chestnut-brown, with three yellow 
bands, one at suture, one at periphery, the third around the um- 
bilicus. Whorls 5J, a little convex, the last inflated on the base, 
obtusely angulated at the periphery, shortly descending in front. 



308 APPENDIX. 

Aperture diagonal, lunate-elliptical ; peristome expanded, thickened, 
purplish, margins joined by a thin callus, columellar margin dilated. 

Alt. 24-26i greater diam. 37J-39, lesser 31-33 mill. (Mild/.) 
Lien-shou ret/ion, province of Guang-dung, China. 

Hadra Schmackeri MLLDFF. N. D. M. Ges. 1888, p. 42. Helix 
(Hadra) schmackeri SCHMACKER & BOETTGER, N. D. M. Ges. 1890, 
p. 137, t. 2, f. 9a, 9b, 7b. 

Differs from H. Caspar i in being smaller, higher, whorls more con- 
vex, the last one inflated, obtusely angulated (not carinated), in the 
narrower umbilicus and the bands. 

HADRA. 
Page 137, for " H. mabellei" read H. mabillei. 

Group of H. bitceniata Cox (p. 144). 

H. (HADRA) BOURKENSIS E. A. Smith. Unfigured. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed-globose, sub-thin, shining, 
yellowish, ornamented with two rufous-brown zones above the mid- 
dle; whorls -5J, a little convex, rather slowly increasing, separated 
by rather profound suture, striated by delicate growth-lines, min- 
utely granulated above, the last a trifle descending in front, rounded 
at the periphery, more shining below than above, scarcely granu- 
lated ; spire short, obtuse at apex. Aperture wide, lunate, pale 
brownish, ornamented above with a- zone of darker ; peristome thin, 
pale, slightly expanded, columellar margin dilated and reflexed, half 
covering the umbilicus. Alt. 14*, greater diam. 20, lesser 17 mill.; 
aperture, length 10, width 9? mill. (Smith, Annals and Mag. N. 
H. 6th ser., vii, p. 137, Jan. 1891.) 

Bourke, Darling River, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

This species, in general appearance, is considerably like H. 
Broughami Angas and H. Angasiana Pfeiffer. The banding is 
exactly the same as that of the latter species, but its epidermis is 
yellower. It is also distinguished by its less globose form, smaller 
body-whorl, its more glossy surface, especially the under surface, 
the much smaller umbilicus and much thinner peristome, and a dif- 
ferent granular sculpture on the spire. H. Broughami has an addi- 
tional brown band below the periphery, has a finer granulation 
above, the umbilicus is more open and surrounded by a colored 
zone, and the aperture is wider. If. Stutchburyi Pfr. is a smaller 
form, more finely granular above, and in the type the spiral zones 
are much narrower than in the present and the two above-named 
species. 



Index to Subgenera and Sections 



Contained in Volume VI. 



Acavus Montf., 58, 76, 303. 
Ampelita Beck, 16, 300. 
Anoglypta Mart., 304, 89, 92. 
Austrochloritis Pils., 242, 262. 
Badistes Old., 94, 129. 
Camsena (Alb.) Pils., 192, 197. 
Chloritis Beck, 241, 242, 243. 
Columplica Hartm. Stylodonta, 

85. 

Cristigibba Can., 274, 291. 
Erigone Alb.=Chloritis, 242. 
Eucochlias Theob. Camsena, 197. 
Euhadra Pilsbry, 94, 95, 304. 
Eurystylus Anc. Poecilostylus, 

56. 

Gallina Hartm.=Obbina, 215. 
Glyptorhagada Pils., 191. 
Hadra Alb., 303, 304, 89, 93, 126, 

308. 

Helicophanta, Alb., 58, 59, 303. 
Janira Alb. Neocepolis, 234, 236. 
Macroon Pilsbry, 57. 
Moellendorffia Anc., 6, 10. 
Neocepolis Pils., 212, 234. 
Obba Beck, 211, 212. 



Obbina Semp., 211, 215. 
Oligospira Anc. Acavus 

Montf., 76. 
Otala Schum.=Acavus Montf., 

76. 

Pachya Alb. Stylodonta, 85. 
Panda Alb., 58, 74. 
Pedinogyra Alb., 13. . 

Phania Alb., 193. 
Philina Alb.=Obbina, 215. 
Phi lina Planispira, 274. 
Planispira Beck, 242, 274. 
Pcecilostylus Pils., 56. 
Pusiodon Sw. Planispira, 274. 
Rhagada Alb., 95, 184. 
Semicorum Kl.=Chloritis, 242. 
Sphserospira Morch, 94, 149. 
Stegodera Mart., 5, 7, 299. 
Stylodon Beck. Stylodonta, 85. 
Stylodoiita Crist., 58, 85. 
Sulcobasis Can., 242, 259. 
Thersites Pfr., 303, 304, 89. 
Traumatophora Anc., 6, 8. 
Trichochloritis Pils., 242, 267. 
Trihelix Anc., 6, 9. 
Xanthomelon Mart., 95, 178. 



(309) 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



HELICID/E, (IV) VI. 

PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1, 2, 3, 4. Stegodera triscalpta Martens. Novit. Conch., . 8 

5, 6, 7, 8. Stegodera triscalpta Martens. From Heude, . 8 

9, 10, 11. Stegodera horrida Pfr. Kiister's Conch. Cab., . 9 

12, 13, 14. Stegodera trisinu ate Mts. Novitates Conch., . 11 

15, 16, 17. Stegodera angusticollis Mart. Novitates Conch., 7 

18, 19, 20. Stegodera loxotatum Mabille, . . . .13 

21, 22. Stegodera eastlakeana MollendorfF, . . . .12 

23, 24. Stegodera trisinuata var. sculptilis Mollendorff, . 12 

25-27. Stegodera biscalpta Heude, . . . . . 9 

PLATE 2. 

28, 29. Pedinogyra cunninghami Gray. Original, . . 14 
30, 31. Pedinogyra cunninghami Gray. Guerin's Magazine, 14 
32, 33, 34. Ampelita shavi Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., . . 34 
35, 36. Pedinogyra muhlfeldtiana Pfr. Kiister's Conchyl. 

Cabinet, . . . . . . . . . 15 

37. Ampelita calypso Pfr. Proc. Zool. Soc., . . .28 

PLATE 3. 

38, 39, 40. Ampelita sepulchralis Fer. Original, . . 18 
41, 42. Ampelita sepulchralis Fer. Original, . . .18 
43-45. Ampelita sepulchralis Fer. var. funebris Mart. Novit. 

Conch., 19 

46, 47. Ampelita subsepulchralis Crosse. Journ. Conch., . 22 

PLATE 4. 

50, 48. Ampelita hova Angas. Ferussac, Histoire, . .24 
49. Ampelita hova Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., . . .24 

51, 52. Ampelita hova Angas. Original, . . . .24 
53, 54, 55. Ampelita vesconis Morel. Morelet's Ser. Conch., 31 
56, 57. Ampelita chlorozona Grat. Reeve and Conchyl. Cab., 31 
58, 59, 60. Ampelita omphalodes Pfr. Kiister's Conchylien 

Cabinet, 27 

61, 62, 63. Ampelita calypso var. intensior Pils. Original . 28 
64. Ampelita guillaini Petit. Journ. Conchyl., . . .30 

(310) 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 311 

PLATE 5. 

'IGURE. PAGE. 

65-67. Ampelita lamarei Mke. Conch. Cab., . . .25 
68-71. Ampelita sakalava Angas. Original, . . .26 
72, 73. Ampelita watersi Angas. P. Z. S., . . . . 26 
74-76. Ampelita unicolor Pfr. Conch. Cab., ... 37 

77. Ampelita atropos Fer. Hist., 20 

PLATE 6. 

75, 76, 77. Ampelita novacula Mts. Novit. Conch., . . 33 

78, 79, 80. Ampelita clotho Fer. Ferussac, Histoire, . 42 
81, 82. Ampelita consanguinea Ibid. . . . .30 
83, 84, 85. Ampelita novacula Mts. Ibid.. . 33 

PLATE 7. 

89, 90, 91. Ampelita covani Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., . 44 

92, 93, 94. Ampelita granulosa Fer. Ferussac, Histoire, . 43 

95, 96, 97. Ampelita sch^rfise Pfr. Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., 43 

98, 9, 100. Ampelita lancula Fer. Ferussac, Histoire, . 36 

1 , 2. Ampelita schserfise Pfr., var. Kiister's Conchyl. Cab., 43 

3, 4, 5. Ampelita robillardi Angas. Ibid. . . .32 

PLATE 8. 

7-9. Ampelita lanx Fer. Original, 38 

10, 11. Ampelita lanx var. radama Lesson. Original, . 38 

12-14. Ampelita fulgurata Sowb. Conch. Cab., . . .36 

15, 16. Ampelita madagascariensis Lam. Conch. Icon., . 32 

PLATE 9. 

16, 17. Helicophanta magnifica Fer. Conch. Cab., . . 65 
18, 19. Helicophanta guestieriana Crosse. Journ. Conch., . 62 

20. Helicophanta- echinophora Fer. Hist., . . . .71 

21. Helicophanta goudotiana Fer. ("oviformis" live.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 172, 70 

22. 23. Ampelita basizona Mouss. Journ. Conch., . .29 

PLATE 10. 

26, 27. Ampelita percyana Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., . 42 

28. Helicophanta audeberti Mouss. Journ. Conchyl., . 67 
30, 31. Ampelita galactostoma Pfr. Conchy 1. Cab., . 44 

29. Ampelita lachesis Fer. Histoire, ... .41 

32. Helicophanta betsileoensis Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc. . 61 

33. Helicophanta betsileoensis Angas. Original, . 61 

PLATE 11. 

34. 35. Helicophanta bicingulata Smith. P. Z. S., . . 63 
36-38. Ampelita xystera Val. Fer. Hist., . . 33 



312 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

39. Helicophanta phenax Pils (" goudotiana" Rve.). Conch. 

Icon., . . . .69 

40. Helicophanta gloriosa Pfr. Novit. Conch,, . . .68 
41-43. Rhagada elachystoma Mart. Ibid., . . . 187 

PLATE 12. 

41. 42, 43. Geotrochus brumepiensis Forbes. Original, Vol. VII. 

44. Helicophanta souverbiana Fischer. Journ. de Conchyl., 66 

45, 46. Helicophanta souverbiana Fischer. Conchyl. Cab., 66 
47, 48, Acavus superba var. grevillei Pfr. Novit. Conch, and 

Conchol. Indica, 82 

PLATE 13. 

49, 50. Helicophanta ibaroensis Angas. Original . . 61 

51, 52. Hadra novsehollandise Gray. Conch. Cab . .91 

53, 54. Euhadra fortunei Pfr. Ibid, . . . 112 

55. Hadra lorioliana Crosse. Journ. Conch., . . 145 

56. Euhadra formosensis Pfr. P. Z. S., . 112 

57. 58. Camsena illustris Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . 201 

PLATE 14. 

59-61. Helicophanta cornugiganteum L. Original. . . 60 
62-64. Arnpelita duvalli Petit. Mag. de Zool., ... 41 

65. Rhagada convicta Cox. P. Z. S., 187 

66. Ampelita terveriana Grat. Act. L. S. Bord., . . 37 

PLATE 15. 

67. 68. Neocepolis morleti D. & H. (H. mercatorina Ma- 

bille). Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr., . ... . .240 

69, 70. Euhadra ? fortunei var. raeridionalis. J. D. M. Ges. 

'84, t. 7, f. 5, 112 

71. Helicophanta farafanga Angas. Conch. Cab., . . 73 

72, 73. Camsena gabriellse D. & H. (H. bathmophora Ma- 

bille). Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr., 205 

74, 75. Geotrochus phonicus Mabille. . . . Vol. VII. 
76. Helicophanta ? follis Fer. Histoire, . . . . 74 

PLATE 16. 

1, 2. Acavus superba var. roseolabiata Nev. Original, . 82 
3, 4. Acavus superba Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . .81 
5, 6. Acavus fastosa Alb. Novit. and Conch. Ind., . . 79 

7. Acavus hsemastoma var. conus Pilsbry. Original, . 79 

8, 9. Geotrochus comriei Angas. P. Z. S. 1876. . Vol. VII. 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 313 

PLATE 17. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

10, 11, 12. Acavus phoenix L. Original, Conch. Ind. and 

Conch. Icon., ........ 80 

13. Geotrochus co raliolabris Smith (=chapmani Cox). Ann. 

and Mag. N. H Vol. VII. 

14, 15. Acavus prospera Albers. Mai. Blatter, . . .80 

16. Geotrochus latiaxis Smith ( zeno Brazier). Ann. and 

Mag. N. H Vol. VII. 

PLATE 18. 

17, 18, 19. Acavus skinneri Rve. Original and Conch. Icon., 84 
20, 21. Acavus waltoni Rve. Original and Conch. Indica., 83 
22-25. Acavus hsemastoma L. Original, Conch. Ind., and 

Conch. Icon., ........ 78 

PLATE 19. 

26. Panda macouelli Rve. Proc. Zool. Soc., . . .75 

27. Helix ampulla Bens. Conch. Icon., .... 

28. 29. Hadra macleayi Cox. Kuster's Conchyl. Cab., . 156 

30. Hadra macleayi Cox. Zool. ' Magenta.,' . . . 156 

31, 32. Hadra whartoni Cox. Conchylien Cabinet, . .171 
33. Panda falconeri Rve. Conch. Iconica, . .75 

PLATE 20. 

34-36. Hadra richmondiana Pfr. Original, . . .90 

37-39. Anoglypta launcestoriensis Rve. Original, . . 913 

40, 41. Euhadra swinhoei Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . .115 

42. Phania pyrostoma Fer. Ibid., ... .194 

PLATE 21. 

43. 44. Hadra bipartita Fer., type and small form. Original, 126 
45-47. Camsena cicatricosa Mali. Original, . . . 198 
48, 49. Hadra rockhamptonensis Cox. Original, . . 159 
50, 51. Hadra forsteriana Pfr. var. major. Conch. Cab., . 127 

52. Hadra croftoni Cox. Ibid., 153 

53, 54. Camsena hainanensis H. Ad. Ibid., . . . 204 

PLATE 22. 

55, 56. Hadra bougainyillei Pfr. Conchyl. Cab., . . 128 

57. Hadra gratiosa Cox. var. Conchyl. Cab., . . .156 
58-62. Camsena monochroa Sowb. Conchyl. Cab., . . 208 

PLATE 23. 

63, 64. Camsena traillii Pfr. Conchyl. Cab., . . . 207 
65, 66. Hadra yulei Forbes. Ibid., 172 



314 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE- 

67. Hadra blomfieldi Cox. Ibid., 154 

68. Hadra andersoni. P. Z. S., 157 

69-71. Hadra oconnellensis Cox. Conch. Cab., . . . 15& 

72, 73. Hadra rainbirdi Cox. Ibid., 157 

74, 75. Hadra coxi Crosse. Ibid., 152 

PLATE 24. 

76, 77. Camsena hahni Mabille. Bull. Soc. Mall. Fr., . 200 

78-80. Euhadra moreletiana Heude. Mem. Chin., . .110 

81, 82. Euhadra hsematozona Heude. Ibid 119 

83-85. Acusta billeana Heude. Ibid 

86-88. Euhadra percussa Heude. Ibid., . . . .111 

PLATE 25. 

89, 90. Camsena subgibbera Mldff. J. D. M. G. '85, . . 200 

91. Hadra hixoni Braz. Ann. Mus. Genov., . . .177 

92, 93. Euhadra caspari Gredl. J. D. M. Ges. '84, . .115 
94, 95. Euhadra succincta Ab. Ibid., . . . .118 
96, 97. Euhadra friesiana Mlldff. Ibid., . . . .118 
98, 99. Cathaica magnaciana Heud. Mem. Chin., 

100. Hadra broadbenti Brazier. Ann. Mus. Genov., . . 176 

101. Camsena cicatricosa var. inflata Mldff. J. D. M. G. '85, 199 

PLATE 26. 

1, 2. Camsena xanthoderma Mlldff. J. D. M. Ges. '84, . 20ft 

3, Camsena xanthoderma var. polyzona Mlldff. Ibid., . 207 

4, 5, 6. Phania xanthostoma Herklots. Novit. Conch., . 197 

7. Plectotropis? mellea Pfr. P. Z. S. '65, t. 46, f. 4, . . 97 

8. Euhadra bacca Pfr. P. Z. S. 1865, . . . .112 

9. Camsena monochroa var. lagunse Hidalgo. Journ. Conch. 

'87, -.*' . . .209 

10-12. Euhadra herklotsi Mart. Novit. Conch., . . . 101 

PLATE 27. 

1-3. Dorcasia conrauxiana H. Mern. Chin. t. 27, f. 18, 

6-8. Cathaica? oncopila H. Ibid. t. 16, f. 6, . 

4, 5. Euhadra stenozona Mlldff. J. D. M. Ges. '84, . . 119 

9, 10, lOa. Euhadra caliginosa Ad. & Rve. Original and 

Voy. Samarang, 123 

11, 12. Euhadra batanica. Conch. Icon., . . . . Ill 
13, 14. Euhadra orientalis Ads. & Rve. Ibid., . . .110 

15-17. Euhadra avus Pfr. Ibid., 210 

18, 19. Camsena palumba Souv. Journ. Conch., . . 209 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 315 

PLATE 28. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1-3. Euhadra callizona Crosse. Novit. Conch., . . 105 

4. Euhadra callizona Crosse. Journ. Conch., . . . 105 
5-7. Euhadra amalhe Kobelt. J. D. M. Ges., . . .105 
8, 9. Euhadra nimbosa Crosse. Journ. Conch. 71, . . 101 

10, 11. Euhadra senckenbergiana Kob. J. D. M. Ges., . 102 

12. Euhadra senckenbergiana Kob. var. Ibid., . . . 102 

13, 14. Satsuma papilliformis Kob. Ibid. . See Vov. IV. 
15, 16. Euhadra brandti Kob. Ibid., . . 101 

PLATE 29. 

1, 2. Euhadra congenor Smith. P. Z. S., . . . . 105 

3, 4. Euhadra nipponensis Kob. J. D. M. Ges., . . 102 

5. Euhadra congenita Smith. P. Z. S., . . . . 103 

6. Euhadra lewisii Smith. P. Z. S., . . . . 106 
7-9. Euhadra myomphala Martens. Ostas. Conch., . . 107 

10. Euhadra formosensis Pfr. P. Z. S., . . . .112 
11-13. Euhadra qusesita Dh. Ostas. Conch., . 108 

PLATE 30. 

1-6. Euhadra peliomphala Pfr. Ostas., etc., . . .99 

7. 11. Rhagada convicta Cox. Monatsb. k.-p. Akad. '77, . 187 

8. Euhadra swinhoei Pfr. P. Z. S., ..... 115 

9. 10. Euhadra quiesita Dh. var. montium Mart. (=parryi 

Jay). Novit. Conch., 109 

11. Rhagada convicta Cox. (See fig. 7), .... 187 

12. 13. Euhadra eoa Crosse. Journ. Conch., . . .98 
14-16. Euhadra luhuana Sow. Ostas. Conch., . . . 100 

PLATE 31. 

17-19. Euhadra pantheia Mab. Original, .... 116 
20. Euhadra pilidion Bens. Conch. Ind., . . . .114 

22. Euhadra peguensis Bens. Ibid., 113 

23, 24. Chloritis condoriana C. & F. Journ. Conch., . . 269 

25, 21. Obba hemiopta Bens. Conch. Ind., 

26, 27. Euhadra mercatoria Gray. Conch. Cab., . .121 

28. Euhadra bairdi Ad. P. Z. S., Ill 

29. Euhadra cecillei. Conch. Icon., 109 

30. 31. Euhadra (?) primeana. Journ. Conch., . . .125 

32. Euhadra mandarina Gray. Conch. Cab., . . .124 

33, 34. Euhadra herrmanseni Pfr. Ibid. . . .98 

PLATE 32. 

35-39. Obba platyodon Pfr. J. D. M. Ges., . . .239 

40, 41. Euhadra ? bocageana C. & F. Journ. Conch. . 112 

42-45. Neocepolis merarcha Mab. (from type), . . . 235 



316 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

46-48. Chloritis isis Pfr. Novit. Conch . . . .256 

49. Euhadra bacca Pfr. P. Z. S. f 112 

50. Euhadra deliciosa Pfr. Ibid., . . . . . .113 

51. 52. H. leucolena C. & F. Journ. Conch., 

53. H. phayrei Theob. Conch. Ind., 114 

54, 55. Cathaica constantly H. Ad. P. Z. S. 1879, t. 27, f. 8, 

56, 57. Chloritis ursina Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . . 253 

PLATE 33. 

58-60. Hadra fraseri Gray. Original, .... 150 

61-63*. Hadra lessoni Pfr. Original, 162 

64, 65. Chloritis raansueta Pfr. Original, . 264 

66, 67. Hadra gulosa Old. U. S. Expl. Exped., . .131 

68, 69. Hadra whartoni Cox. Original, . . . .171 

70. Hadra coxeni Braz. P. Z. S., ..... 138 

71, 72. Hadra appendiculata Pfr. Original, . . .163 

PLATE 34. 

1 . Hadra bellendenkerensis Braz. P. Z. S., . . .161 

2, 3. Hadra broughami Angas. Ibid., .... 146 

4. Hadra informis Mouss. Journ. Conch., . . . 160 

5. Hadra johnsoni Braz. P. Z. S., . . . . .170 

6. Hadra barneyi Cox. P. Z. S 165 

7. Hadra rawnesleyi Cox. P. Z. S., . . . . .165 

8. 9. Hadra sardilabiata Cox. P. Z. S., . . . .171 

10. Hadra morosa Mor. Journ. Conch., .... 134 

11. Hadra mouriliana Braz. P. Z. S., 172 

12. 13. Hadra yatalaensis Cox. P. Z. S., . . . . 140 
14. Hadra mossmani Braz. P. Z. S 152 

PLATE 35. 

1-5. Hadra semicastanea Pfr. Original, . . . .126 

6, 7. Hadra rainbirdi Cox var. Original, .... 158 

8-10. Rhagada convicta Cox. Original, . . . .187 

11, 12. Hadra parsoni Cox. Original, . . . . 162 

13. Hadra parsoni Cox. P. Z. S., ... 162 

14. 15. Hadra lessoni Pfr. (Pfr's original illustrations), . 163 
16-18. Rhagada plectilis Bens. Original, . . 188 

PLATE 36. 

19. Chloritis beatricis J. C. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., . . 260 

20. Chloritis rehsei Mart. Ann. Mag. xix, . . .261 

21. 22. Hadra arthuriana Cox. P. Z. S., . . . 159 

23. Hadra challisi Cox. P. Z. S., ..... 173 

24. Hadra thatcheri Cox. P. Z. S., 164 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 317 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

25, 26. Hadra moresbyi Ang. P. Z. S., . . . . 160 

27. Hadra hilli Braz. P. Z. S., 164 

28, 29. Helix sturmiana Pfr., 

30-32. Planispira tortilabia Less. Phil., Abbild., . . 294 
33, 34. Helix grossularia Pfr. Novit. Conch., 

35-37. Chloritis norodomiana Mor. Journ. Conch., . . 270 

PLATE 37. 

38-40. Euhadra herrmannseni Pfr. Original, . . .98 
41, 42. Euhadra connivens Pfr. Original, . . ... 96 

43, 44. Carasena egregia Dh. Fer., Hist 210 

45-47 Chloritis quercina var. hombroni Pfr. Original, . 258 
48, 49. Chloritis quercina Pfr. Original, .... 257 
50. Chloritis boxalli Sowb. (spinosissima). P. Z. S., . 272 

51-54. Chloritis sanziana H & J. Voy. Astrol., . . . 272 
55, 56. Chloritis spinosissima Semper. Reis. Arcip., Phil., . 273 

PLATE 38. 

57, 58. Hadra banner! McGil. Novit. Conch., . . .179 

59. Hadra daintreei Braz. P. Z. S., 134 

60, 61, 62. Hadra angasiana Pfr. Journ. Icon. & P. Z. S., 180 

63, Hadra pachystyla Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . .184 

64, 65. Hadra forrestiana Ang. P. Z. S., . . . . 182 
66-68. Hadra bitaeniata. Original, 144 

69. Hadra jannelli Le Guill. Novit. Conch., . . . 182 

70, 71. Hadra nigrilabris Mart. Novit. Conch. . . .179 

72. Hadra lyndi Ang. P. Z. S., 183 

73, 74. Hadra pomum Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . .178 

PLATE 39. 

75, 76. Hadra broadbenti Braz. Original, . . . .176 

77-81. Hadra incei Pfr. Original, 167 

82, 83. Hadra yulei Forbes. Original, . . . .172 
84, 85. rainbirdi (var. basalis). Original, .... 158 
86, 87. Hadra rainbirdi (typical). Original, . . . 157 

PLATE 40. 

88. Hadra gratiosa Cox. Original, 155 

89. Hadra gratiosa Cox. P. Z. S., . . . . .155 

90. 91. Hadra jervisensis Q. & G. Voy. Astrol., . .141 

92. Hadra coxi Crosse. Original, ..... 152 

93, 94. Hadra luteofasciata. Cox, Mon., . . . .144 

95. Obba mamilla Q. Original, 212 

96, 97. Hadra mullarborica Tate. Proc. Phil. Soc. Adel., . 181 
98, 99. Hadra mulgose Cox. Original, . . . .136 

100, 101. Hadra exocarpi Cox. Cox, Mon., . . . 139 



318 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



FIGURE. 

1, 2. Hadra corneovirens Pfr. Original, . 
3. Hadra corneovirens Pfr. Conch. Icon., 
4, 5. Hadra plethorica Crosse. Journ. Conch., ..,"-,. 
6, 7. Hadra blackmanni Cox. Cox, Mon., 
8, 9. Hadra evandaleana Pfr. Cox, Mon., 
10-12. Hadra leucocheilus Cox. Original, . 
13. Hadra lismorensis Pilsbry. Original, 

PLATE 41. 

1-3. Euhadra simodse Jay (from type specimen), 
4-7. Euhadra luhuana var. nipponensis Kob. Original, 
8, 9. Euhadra parryi Jay (from type specimen), 
10 11. Euhadra latilabris Mlldff. " N D. M G., . 


PAGE. 

. 136 
. 136 
. 137 
. 137 
. 142 
. 139 
. 140 

. 95 
. 102 
. 108 
. 109 


12-14. Camsena palumba Souv. Original, ... 
15. Camsena palumba Souv. var. Jouru. Conch., . 
16-18. H. platysoma (=H. jaspidea Pfr. !) Original, . 

PLATE 42. 

19. Camsena monochroa var. dorise Dohrn. Original, . 
20, 21. Euhadra jaculata Mab. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr., . 
22. Camsena monochroa var. Original, 
23. Camsena monochroa var. saulse Rve. Conch. Icon., 
24, 25. Hadra novsehollandise. Original, 
26, 27. Camsena gabriellse D. & H. Journ. Conch., 
28. Camsena subhainanensis Pils. Original, . . . 
29. Helicophanta partuliformis Bottg. Moll. Madag., . 
30. Helicophanta grandidieri C. & F. Moll. Madg., 
31, 32. Helicophanta echinophora Fer. Moll. Magad., 
33-35. Euhadra submandarina Pils. Original, . 

PLATE 43. 
36. Hadra lincolnensis. Cox, Mon., .... 


. 209 
. 210 
. 104 

. 209 
. 120 
. 209 
. 209 
. 91 
. 205 
. 205 
. 72 
. 72 
. 71 
. 122 

. 144 


37, 38. Hadra coarctata Fer. Hist., .... 
39. Hadra monacha Pfr. P. Z. S., 
40. Hadra prsetermissi Cox. Cox, Mon. 


. 151 
. 133 
. 167 


41. Hadra gilberti Pfr. Cox, Mon 


. 142 


42-44. Hadra grayi Pfr. varieties. Original, 
45, 46. Hadra greenhilli Cox. Cox, Mon., 
47. Hadra scottii Cox. Cox, Mon., . . . . 


. 130 
. 138 
. 133 


48, 49. Hadra coriaria Pfr. Original, . . . 
50. Hadra stutchburyi Pfr. Cox, Mon., 
51. Hadra coriaria Pfr. var. Original, . . 

PLATE 44. 

1-3. Chloritis bulbulus Mouss. Conch. Cab., 
, 16,17. Chloritis bulbulus Mouss. Ostas. Landschn., 


. 132 
. 148 
. 132 

. 258 
. 258 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 319 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

4-10. Planispira zonaria L. vars, Ostas. Landschn., . 277 

11. Planispira fasciolata Lesson. Original, . . . 279 

12, 13. Planispira chariessa Pils. Original, . . . 279 
14, 15. Planispira collis Mouss. (=zonaria var.). Novit. 

Conch., 279 

18-20. Planispira atacta Pfr. Ostas. Landschn., . . 287 

PLATE 45. 

21-23. Planispira kurri Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . .287 

24, 25. Planispira leucostoma (zonalis Fer.). Voy. Sama- 

rang, .284 

26-28. Planispira mersispira Mart. Ostas., .... 298 

29, 30. Planispira zonalis Fer. Conch. Cab., . . . 284 

31. Planispira compta, Ad. P. Z. S., 283 

32-35. Planispira endoptycha Mart. Ostas., . . . 282 

36, 37. Chloritis discordialis Fer. Hist., .... 252 
38-40. Planispira instricta Mart. Ostas. Landschn., . 

41-43. Planispira quadrivolvis Mart. Ostas. Landschn., . 299 

44-46. Planispira aurita Mart. Ostas. Landschn., . . 281 

47-49. Planispira flavidula Mart. Ostas. Landschn., . . 288 

50-53. Planispira exceptiuncula Fer. Ostas. Landschn., . 289 

PLATE 46. 

54-56. Chloritis tuba Alb. Conch. Cab., ... 258 

57-59. Planispira biconvexa Mart. Ostas., . . 281 

60-62, 63, 64, 68. Planispira loxotropis Pfr. varieties. Ostas. 285 

65-67. Planispira corniculum H. & J. Astrol., . . 291 

69-71. Planispira expansa Pfr. Novit, Conch., . . 298 

72-73. Planispira semirasa Mouss. Novit. Conch., . 295 

74-76. Planispira expansa Pfr. Ostas., . . . 298 

77-81. Planispira zebra Pfr. Conch. Cab. and original, 275 

PLATE 47. 

2. Hadra beddomse Braz. P. L. S. K S. W., . . .174 

83. Hadra bayensis Braz. Cox, Monogr., .... 166 

84. Hadra mazee Braz. P. L. S. N. S. W., . . .165 

85. 86. Hadra creedi Cox. Cox, Monogr., .... 170 

87. Hadra nicomede Braz. P. L. S. N. S. W., . . . 173 

88. Hadra bebias Braz. P. L. S. N. S. W., . . .175 

89. Hadra zebina Braz. P. L. S. N. S. W., ... 151 

90. 91. Hadra curtisiana Cox. Cox, Monogr., . . . 168 
92, 93. Hadra mitchella* Cox. Cox, Monogr., . . . 154 
94. Hadra bala Braz. (^curtisiana Pfr.) P. L. S. N. S. W., 169 



320 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

. PLATE 48. 

FIGURE. PAGE~ 

1-3. Chloritis ruba Alb. Conch. Cab., .... 260 
4-6. Chloritis majuscula Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . 255 
7, 8. Planispira rhodomphala T. C. Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, 297 
9-11. Chloritis zodiaca Fer. Hist., and Conch. Icon., . 259 

PLATE 49. 

12-14. Chloritis sulcosa Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . . 260 

15. Chloritis concisa Fer. Hist. . ... 262 

16, 17, , Chloritis isis Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . .256 

18, 19. Chloritis leei Cox. P. Z.S., 251 

20-25. Geotrochus fringilla Pfr. See next vol. of the MANUAL. 

PLATE 50. 

26-28. Chloritis lansbergiana Dohrn. Conch. Cab., . . 247 
29-31. Chloritis unguiculina Mart. Ostas., .... 244 
32, 33, 34. Chloritis unguicula Fer. Hist. & Reeve., . . 249 
35, 36. Chloritis exacta Pfr. Novit. Couch., . . .250 
37, 38. Chloritis silenus Aug. P. Z. S., . . . . 254 
, (below 36) Chloritis bifoveata Bens. Conch. Ind., . . 245 
39-41. Chloritis unguiculastra Mart. Ostas., . . .248 
42, 43. Chloritis quieta Rve. Conch. Cab., . . . 271 

44-46. Chloritis eustoma Pfr. Conch. Cab., .... 252 

PLATE 51. 

48-51. Chloritis cheratomorpha T. C. Ann. Mus. Genov., . 245 
52, 53. Chloritis tenella Pfr. Journ. Conch., . . .269 
54-56. Chloritis ungulina L. Original, .... 243 
57-59. Chloritis ungulina var. minor. Original, . . . 243 
60-62. Chloritis heteromphalus Pilsbry. Original, 
63-65. Chloritis circumdata var. molliseta Pfr. Novit. Conch., 246 

PLATE 52. 

66-68. Chloritis dinodermorpha Can. Ann. Mus. Genov., . 254 

69-72. Chloritis gaimardi Dh. Guer. Mag., . . . 255 

73. Chloritis adustas Hinds (=gaimardi). Voy. Sulphur., . 255 

74-76. Chloritis ciruradata Fer. Original, . ' . . . 246 

77-79. Chloritis micromphalus Pils. Original, . . . 247 

80, 81. Chloritis breviseta Pfr. Journ. Conch., . . .268 

82-85. Planispira plagiocheila Can. Ann. Mus. Genov., . 295 

86, 87. Chloritis eustoma Pfr. Original, . . . .252 

88, 89. Chloritis erinaceus Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . .251 
90-92. Chloritis spinei Cox. Monogr., 

93-95. Planispira margaritis Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . 297 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 321 

PLATE 53. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

96-98. Obba quoyi Dh. Original, 213 

99. Obba ceres Pfr. Conch. Icon., 239 

100, 1, 2. Obba mamilla Fer. (typical). Original, . . 212 
3, 4. Obba papilla Mull. Conch. Cab., . . . -.216 
5-7. Obba anacardium Dohrn. Conch. Cab., . . . 238 
8, 9. Obba codonodes Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . .236 

10. Obba codonodes var. Conch. .Cab., .... 236 

11, 12. Obba campanula Pfr. Couch. Cab., . . .236 
13. Obba campanula Pfr. Conch. Icon., .... 236 

PLATE 54. 

14-17. Obba columbaria Sow. Original, .... 234 
18, 19. Obba linnseana Pfr. J. D. M. G., . . . .214 
20-22. Obba lasallei Eydoux. Conch. Cab., . . .233 
23. Planispira novsegeorgiensis Cox. P. Z. S., . . . 290 
24-27. Obba moricandi Sowb. Original, .... 222 
28-30. Planispira atrofusca Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . .285 

PLATE 55. 

31-33. Planispira reeveana Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . 233 
34-36. Planispira reeveana Pfr. Original, .... 233 
37, 38. Chloritis brevidens Sowb. Original, . . . 272 

39-41. Chloritis brevidens Sowb. Conch. Cab., . . . 272 
42-44. Obba heroica Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . .217 
45-47. Obba bigonia Fer. Conch. Cab. & Spec., . . .226 
48, 49, 40. Planispira scheepmakeri Pfr. Conch. Cab., . 282 
51-54. Obba planulata Lam. Original, .... 220 
55. Chloritis tuba Alb. Novit. Conch., .... 258 
56-58. Planispira zebra var. embrechtiana Mouss. Novit. 

Conch., 275 

PLATE 56. 

59-64. Obba listeri Gray. Conch. Cab., . . . .218 

65, 66. Obba listeri Gray varieties. Original, . . .218 

67-69. Obba scrobiculata Pfr. Conch. Cab., '. . . 224 

70, 71. Obba scrobiculata Pfr. Original, . . . .224 

72, 73. Obba livesayi Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . . .223 

74-76. Planispira thetis Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . 290 

77-79. Obba rota Sow. Conch. Cab., 224 

80, 81. Obba kobeltiana Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . .228 

82-84. Planispira quadrifasciata Guill. Ostas., . . . 280 

PLATE 57. 

85-87. Obba parmula Brod. Conch. Cab 229 

88-90. Obba . gallinula Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . .219 
21 



322 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAG?:. 

91-93. Obba discus Desh. Fer. Hist 230 

94-96. Obba sororcula Mart. Ostas., 228 

97-99. Obba horizontals Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . .232 

100, 1. Obba horizontals Pfr., var. original, .... 232 

2, 3. Planispira lorquini Pfr. Novit. Conch., . . . 286 

4-6. Obba marginata Miill. Conch. Cab., . . .227 

PLATE 58. 

7-9. Hadra cassandra Pfr. Original, . . . .147 

10-12. Hadra sublorioliana Pilsbry. Original, . . . 147 
13-15. Hadra tomsetti Tate. Fr. R. S. S. Austr., . . 143 
16. Hadra patruelis Cox. Cox, Mon., . . . .131 

17-19. Hadra marcescens Cox. Cox, Mon., . . . 142 

20-22 Hadra wesselensis Cox. Cox, Mon., . . . 170 

23, 24. Chloritis porteri Cox. Original, .... 263 
25-27. Chloritis occulta Pfr. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., . . 266 
28-30. Chloritis brevipila Pfr. Original, .... 265 
31-33. Chloritis aridorum Cox. Original, . . . .266 
34-36. Chloritis chloritoides Pils. Original, . . .267 
37, 38. Obba goldiei Braz. Original, . . . .217 

PLATE 59. 

39-41. Phania sulcocincta Mart. Ostas., . . . .196 
42. Phania lampas Miill. Conch. Icon., . . . .194 
43-45. Obba kochiana Miill. Ber. Senck., . . . .231 
46, 47. Obba livesayi Pfr. Original, 223 

PLATE 60. 

1, 2. Euhadra philippinensis Serap. Reisen, . . . 123 
3, 4. Euhadra philippinensis Semp. Original, . . . 123 

5. Camsena saturnia Gld. Conch. Ind., .... 203 

6. Phania patricia Pfr. Novit. Conch., .... 196 
7-9. Planispira tortilabia Less. Phil., Abbild., . 

10, 11. Obba saranganica Hid. Journ. Conch., . . . 231 
, 13, 14. Obba bustoi Hid. Journ. Conch., . . . 230 

PLATE 61. 

15-17. Chloritis maforensis Can. Ann. Mus. Genov., . . 247 

18-20. Stylodonta studeriana Fer. Original, . . .87 

21, 22. Stylodonta unidentata. Original, . . . .86 
23, 24. Cambria ochthoplax Bens. Original, . ' . 

25-27. Planispira leptocheila Can. Ann. Mus. Gen., . . 296 

28. Obba bintuanensis Hid. Journ. Conch., . . . 237 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 323 

PLATE 62. 



29-31. Ampelita cadaverosus Pilsbry (type), . 19, 301 

32-35. Ampelita duvalli Pet. Original, . . . .41 

36. Ampelita subsepulchralis v. minor C. & F. P. Z. S., . 302 

37. Ampelita subsepulchralis v. obscuraC. &F. Conch. Icon., 302 

38. Ampelita omphalodes var. loucoubeensis. Conch. Cab., . 27 

39. 40. Ampelita stumpffi Kob. J. D. M. G., 35 

PLATE 63. 

41-43. Ampelita campbelliana Pils. (type), . . . .39 

44. Ampelita atropos Fer. Conch. Icon., . . . .20 

45. Ampelita sakalava Aug. P. Z. S., 26 

46. 47. Ampelita subconsanguinea Pils. Conch. Cab., . . 30 
48, 49. Ampelita cazenavettii F. & B. Journ! Conch., . 35 
50-52. Poecilostylus viridis Dh. Original, . . .56 
53-55. Poecilostylus cerina Mor. Novit. Conch., . . . 57 
56-58. Planispira deaniana Ford (type)., .... 292 

PLATE 64. 

56, 57. Ampelita eurychila C. & F. Moll. Madag., . .301 

58. 59, 60. Ampelita sepulchralis, v. sganziniana C. & F. 

Moll. Madag., 21, 300, 301 

61. Ampelita sepulchralis v. lethifera C. & F. Moll. Madag. 

21, 300 

62, 63. Ampelita sepulchralis v. olivacea Pils. Moll. Madag. 

19, 300 

64, 56, 66. Ampelita stragulum C. & F. Moll. Madag., 23, 302 
67-72. Obba hemiopta Bens. Conch. Cab., . . .238 

PLATE 65. 

73-75. Obba parmula Brod. Original, . . . 229, 230 

76, 77. Obba parmula Brod. var, Original, . . . 230 

78, 79. Obba bulacanensis Hid. Journ. Conch., . . 225 

80, 81. Obba morleti D. & H. Journ. Conch., . . .240 

82, 83. Plansipira porcellana Grat. Soc. Bord., . . . 283 

84, 85. Planispira exceptiuncula v. phryne. Fer. Hist., . 290 

86, 87. Planispira exceptiuncula (typical). Original, . 289 

88.. Camsena broti (=hahni Mab.). Journ. Conch., . .200 

89, 90. Planispira fasciolata Less. Original, . . . 279 

91. Planispira novsegeorgiensis Cox. P. Z. S., . . 290 

92-94. Obba calcar Mart. Ostas. Zool. ? . . . .221 

PLATE 66. 

59. Helicophanta phenax var. Original, . . . .70 

60. Helicophanta oviformis Grat. (typical). Act. Soc. Bord., 68- 



324 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

61. Helicophanta phenax Pilsbry, (type specimen), . . 69 

62, 63. Helicophanta bicingulata Sw. varieties. Original, . 64 
64, 65. Ampelita hova Ang. var. Original, . . 24, 25 
66, 66. Hadra forsteriana Pfr. Conch. Cab. . . .127 

PLATE 67. 

67-69. Ampelita funebris Mor. Moll. Madag., . . . 301 

70-72. Ampelita suarezensis C. & F. Moll. Madag., . . 302 
73, 74, 77, 78. Ampelita cazenavetti F. &. B. Moll. Madag., 

35, 302 
75, 76. Ampelita fulgurata Sowb. Moll. Madag., . 36, 302 

PLATE 68. 

79-82. Planispira dominula Can. Ann. Mus. Gen., . . 293 

83. 83. Chloritis miara Mab. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr., . .270 

84. Chloritis subcorpulentus Smith. Ann. Mag.,N. H., . 251 

85. Obba planulata var. solidior Hid. Journ. Conch., . 221 
86-88. Chloritis gruneri Pfr. Conch. Cab., . . . .250 
89-91. Chloritis dentrecasteauxi Sw. P. Z. S., . 253 
92-95. Planispira iaddse Pilsbry. Original, . . . .276 
96-98. Planispira chariessa Pilsbry. Original, . . . 279 

PLATE 69. 

99, 100. Euhadra granulifera Mlldff. Mem. Chin., . . 306 

1, 2. Euhadra renaltiana H. Mem. Chin., . . . 307 

3-5. Euhadra schmackeri Mlldff. N. D. M. G., . 307 

6, 7. Camsena seraphinica H. Mem. Chin., . . . 199 

8-10. Chloritis rhinocerotica H. Mem. Chin., . . .271 



HELICTD/e 



PLATE 1 




HELICID^E 



PLATE 2 




PLATE 3 




HELICID>E. 



PLATE 4 




60 



UNIY * )> 




HELJCID^E. 



PLATE 5 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 6 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 7 




PLATE 8 




PLATE 9 




HELICID^E 



PLATE 10 




HELICID^C. 



PLATE 11 




38 



35 



PLATE 12 




HELJCIDyE. 



PLATE 13 




50 



PLATE 14 




61 



RELIGIONS. 



PLATE 15 




HELICID>e. 



PLATE 16 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 17 




12 



HELICID^E 



PLATE 18 




PLATE 10 




PLATE 20 




PLATE 21 




HELICIDyG. 



PLATE 22 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 23 




74 



HELICID^E. 



PLATE 24 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 25 




PLATE 26 




PLATE 27 




PLATE 28 




HELJCID>e. 



PLATE 29 




13 



HELICIDve. 



PLATE 3O 




HELJCID^E. 



PLATE 31 




HELICIDyE. 



PLATE 32 




57 



HELICID^E. 



PL-ATE 33 




71 



HELICID>E. 



PLATE 34 




HELICID>E. 



PLATE 35 




13 



HELICID^I. 



PLATE 36 




PLATE 37 







53 



PLATK 38 




73 



PLATE 39 




86 



HELICID^C 



PLATE 4O 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 41 




HELICID>e 



PLATF 4-2 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 43 




48 



HELJCID>E. 



PLATE 44 




15 



HELICID>E. 



PLATE 45 




HELICID>E. 



PLATE 46 




h ( ^ i *m 

' 



HELICID^E 



PLATE 47 




HEUCID^E 



PLATE 48 




PLATE 49 




UNIVERSITY I 

i\A. 



H ELIGIBLE. 



PLATE 5O 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 51 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 52 




93 94 95 



HELICID>e. 



PLATE 53 




PLATE 54 




PL-ATE 55 




HELICID>E 



PLATK 56 




HELICIDvC. 



PLATE 57 




PLATE 58 




37 



PL-ATE 59 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 6O 




HELICID^E. 



PLATE 61 




PLATE 62 




pTUB 
?> , 

[IVEKSITY 



PLATE 63 




PLATE 64 




60 



r/ \ u' ' "c 

(UNIVERSITY 

^ o 



PLATE 65 




90 



HELICID^E: 



PLATE 66 




63 



HELICID^E 



PLATE 







74 



HELICID^E. 



PLATE 68 




HELICID^E 



PLATE 69 




7 DAY USP r 




U.C. BERKELEY LIBRARIES 




lait