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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic : with illustrations of the species"

NERITIDvE. 



PLATE 1 




MAN UAL 



OF 



Structural and Systematic. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



A 



By GEORGE W, TRYON, Jr, ^^^ , 



CONTINUED BY 

HENRY A. PILSBRY. 



VoL X. 

NERITID.E, ADEORBIID^, CYCLOSTREMATID/E, I.IOTIID^ 

By Gfo. W. Tryon Jr. 

PHASIANELLINyE. TURBINID.E. DELPHINULIN^. 

By Henry A. Ph.sbry. 




PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Conchological Section, 

ACADEMY OF NAl URAL SCIENCES, CpR. 19TH AND RACE STS. 

1888. 



MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Blonogrcq-jh of the Families Neritidce, Neritopsidce, 
Adeorbiidcb, Cydostrematidce, and Liotiidce. 

Family NERITIDM 

Animal with a broad, short muzzle, and long slender tentacles, 
with eyes on jDromineut pedicels at their outer bases, foot oblong, 
wide in front, attenuated behind, branchia long, triangular, pointed, 
free at its extremity, ventricle embracing the intestine, anus on the 
right side. 

Dentition : 8-I-(3 -+ I + 3)-I-8. The middle tooth- small, sub- 
quadrangular, second central tooth very large, transverse, sub- 
rhomboidal, third and fourth central teeth very small ; lateral tooth 
with reflected, simple or denticulated margin ; marginal teeth nu- 
merous, narrow, curved, serrated. PI. 1, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell imperforate, thick, semiglobose, porcellanous, spire very 
small, internally porcellanous, the cavity simple from the absorjD- 
tion of the internal portion of the whorls by the animal (PI. 1, fig, 
15), aperture semilunate, entire, the columellar lip flattened, septi- 
form, with a rectilinear, plain or dentate margin, outer lij) rounded, 
sharp or thickened, not reflected. 

The impression of the adductor muscle is horse-shoe shaped, open 
in front, and is visible within the ajoerture. 

Operculum calcareous, usually subspiral, provided with projecting 
lobes on its inner face, the inner margin forming a pseudo-articula- 
tion with the columellar lip. 

Aquatic, although some species can live out of water ; herbivor- 
ous. 

The Neritidse have been monographed by: 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., ix, 1855. 

Sowerby, Thes. Conch, ii, and v. 

Von Martens, Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet, 1879, 1881, 1887. 

The latter author has given for this family the most comj^lete and 
carefully worked-up generic monographs that have lately appeared 

(3) 



4 NERITID.E. 

in either of the iconographies. I have, in the main, followed his 
arrangement of the species, although a different disposition of some 
of the groups has ap})eared to me more desirable, and has accord- 
ingly been attempted. In the Neritinse Von Martens has made the 
opercular processes the l^asis of his classification, whilst I have con- 
sidered characters of the shell as of more importance ; the result is 
a different succession of groups, whilst their contents remain es- 
pentially alike. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus Is^ERITA, Adanson. 1757. 

Shell thick, smooth or spirally ridged and grooved, porcellanous, 
under a corneous adhering epidermis — sometimes wanting ; outer 
lip thick, usually denticulated within, columellar lip flattened, its 
margin dentate, straight. Operculum calcareous, the outer face 
granulated or with a decurrent groove, paucispiral, with excentric 
nucleus, inner fjice callous, the apical and claviform apophyses well- 
marked, marginal apojDhysis more or less developed, corresponding 
with the groove of the outer face. 

Animal usuall}' with festooned mantle margin. Living on rocks 
and stones, generally inactive by day, but said to be active at night, 
roaming about and feeding on algse, etc. Gregarious, and littoral, 
and nearly exclusivel}^ marine. 

About 200 living species have heretofore been recognized, in- 
habiting tropical and semitropical shores throughout the world. 
Sixty fossil species have been enumerated, but the earlier forms are 
somewhat doubtful, and may more probably be referred to Nerito- 
domus. 
Section Nerita, Lamarck. 1799 (sensu stricto). 

Columellar lip granular or tuberculated. N^. albicilla, Linn. 

Theliostyla, Morch. 1852, and Natere, Gray. 1858, are synonyms. 
Section Peloronta, Oken. 1815. 

Columellar lip nearly smooth, its margin strongly dentate, outer 
lip dentate within. N. peloronta, Linn. 

Tenare, Gray. 1858, is a synonym. 
Section Pila, Klein. 1753. 

Columellar lip rugosely grooved and ridged, its edge dentate, 
outer lip plicate Avithin, with a large tooth at either extremity of the 
series. N. plicata, Linn. 
• Ritena, Gray. 1858, is a synonym. 



NERITIDiE. O 

Section Odontostoma (Klein, 1753), Morch. 1852, 

Columellar lij^ smooth or nearly smooth, its margin dentate, outer 
lip scarcely denticulated within. N, polita, Linn. 

Subgenus Lissochilus, Petho. 1882. 

Inner lip smooth, its margin not dentate, outer lip sharp, not 
thickened or dentate within. Triassic and Jurassic. 

N. SIGARETINA, BuV, 

Subgenus Otostoma, d'Archiac. 1859. 

Shell with longitudinal plications and very fine spiral lines, col- 
umellar lip thick, with dentate margin. 

Cretaceous of Europe, Algiers and Asia Minor. N. rugosa, 
Hoeningh. 

These fossils have usually lost the columellar lip and the inner 
layer of the outer lip, but traces of these destroyed parts are found 
upon casts. The discovery of a silicified specimen in good preser- 
vation and intact has proven the identity of Otostoma with Nerita ; 
its longitudinal plications will serve to distinguish it subgenerically, 

Lyosoma, White. 1882, appears to be synonymous. Its type is 
L. PowELLi, White, from the Jurassic of Utah. 

Genus DESHAYESIA, Raulin. 1844 

Shell subglobose, thick, umbilicated, spire short ; aperture entire, 
semicircular, oblique, columella convex, denticulated, outer lip 
smooth internally. 

Eocene and Miocene ; Paris and Bordeaux basins. 
D. Neritoides, Grat. Struct, and Syst. Conch, PI. 78, f. 59. 

This genus presents a very remarkable combination of the char- 
acters of Nerita and Natica, and appears to establish a passage be- 
tween those genera. 

Genus NERITINA, Lam. 1809. 

Shell imperforate, rather thin, globose, with short spire, usually 
smooth, columellar lip flattened, smooth, straiglit-raargined, finely 
denticulated or smooth, outer lip sharp, not callously thickened or 
toothed within, aperture with a projection on the inner surface near 
the base of the columella (PI. 1, fig. 16). 

Operculum calcareous, completely closing the aperture ; exteri- 
orly paucispiral with excentric nucleus, interiorly with an apical 



6 NERITID^. 

and a claviform apophysis, both arising from the summit, and some- 
times a medio-margiual apophysis in addition, arising from the 
columellar or inner margin (PI. 1, figs. 9, 10). 

No important differences in the soft parts have been detected be- 
tween Nerita and Neritina. Dentition, PI. 1, fig. 3. 

About 200 generally recognized species have been described. 
They are mostly fluviatile, but a few inhabit marine or brackish 
water, and a very few are of terrestrial habitat. They are mostly 
tropical and subtropical in distribution. Fossil, they occur from 
the liassic downwards, the pattern of coloring being well preserved ; 
the genus becomes numerous in species in the miocene and pliocene. 

The Neritin^e are small, smooth, globular shells, ornamented with 
a great variety of black or purple lines, bands or spots, covered by 
a smooth, polished, horny epidermis. Some species are amphibious, 
clinging to the roots of Nipah palms and other trees on the mar- 
gins of rivers, while a few inhabit the foliage of tall trees that over- 
hang the water. 

Neritella (Humphrey. 1797), Gray. 1847, Lamprostoma, Swains. 
1840, and Neritcea, Roth, are synonyms. 

Section Nekitina (seusu stricto), Swainson. 1840. 

Lip sharp, columellar lip rather convex, with crenellated margin, 
parietal ridge well marked, dentiform, form ovoid with rather high 
spire, usually strigate. Operculum reddish or blackish, both pro- 
cesses well developed, separate. Fluviatile. N. zigzag, Lam. 

Section Puperita, Gray. 1857. 

Shell white, with black zigzag strigations, yellowish within. 
Similar to the above, but marine. N. pupa, Linn. 

Section Neeitodryas, Martens. 1869. 

Columellar margin smooth. Rib of the operculum deeply furrowed, 
multilobate at the tip, deeply excavated beneath. Terrestrial. 
N. CORNEA, Linn. 

Inhabit damp foliage, Philippines, etc. 

Section Theodoxus, Montf. 1810. 

Transversely globose, smooth or nearly smooth, columellar mar- 
gin smooth. The claviform apophysis of the operculum distinct, 
the apical apophysis rudimentary. Fluviatile. Inhabits mostly 
rivers of Europe and Western Asia. 



NERITID.E. / 

Neritoglobus, Kobelt. 1871, Elea, Ziegler. 1833, and Neritoconus, 
Kobelt. 1871, are synonyms, N. fluviatilis, Linn. 

Kobelt separates the species into two subsections, according to the 
globose or conical shape of the shell, but the latter form represents 
an abnormal growth, including specimens of species undoubtedly 
belonging normally to the former. 

Section Neritodonta, Brusina. 1884. 

Columella thickened, callous, columellar margin subdenticulated ; 
parietal apophysis projecting. N. Lukovici, Brusina. Tertiary 
of Dalmatia. The genera (!) Tripaloia, Letourn., and . Calvertia, 
Saint-Slmonia, Petrettinia and Burgersteinia, Bourg., are identical. 

Section Neritilia, Martens. 1879. 

Columella smooth ; operculum with a single erect spatulate pro- 
cess. N. succiNEA, Recluz. Guadeloupe, W. I. 
Section Smaragdia, Issel. 1869. 

Eyes sessile at the base of the tentacles. Shell greenish, ob- 
liquely oval, with short spire ; columellar area callous, the margin 
finely denticulate. N. viridis, Linn. Marine. 

West Indies, Mediterranean, Pacifie. 

Gaillardotia, Bourg. 1876, is a synonym. 

Section StAnleya, Bourg. 1885. 

Brilliantly polished, transparent, spirally sulcate, imperforate, 
with large parietal callus, 3 sp. Lake Tanganyika. N. neki- 
TOiDES, Smith. 

Section Clypeolum, Recluz. 1850. 

Shell globular, oval or conic, covered by a corneous epidermis, 
columellar margin not dentate, outer lip prolonged upward on the 
spire in a tongue-like manner. Operculum colored, with well de- 
veloped apophyses, the claviform apophysis grooved. Fluviatile. 
Indo-Pacijic. N. pulligera, Linn. 

Section Neritona, Martens. 1869. 

Oval globular, with very short spire ; peritreme widely developed, 
subcontinuous, columellar margin not denticulate. Operculum with 
the apical process depressed, flattened, lobate at the tip. Fluviatile. 
N. labiosa, Sowb. 

Subgenus Clithon, Montfort. 1810. 

Shell coronated with tubercles, or short or long spines (sometimes 
unarmed), and covered by a corneous epidermis ; margin of colum 



8 NERITIDiE. 

ellar lip usually finely denticulated, often with a large sujDerior 
tooth. Operculum with rib and apophyses well developed, the 
latter connected for half their length. 

The spines that usually ornament the whorls are tubular, and 
sometimes very long. They are fluviatile and tropical, crawling 
slowly, and only showing during locomotion the tentacles and tip of 
the muzzle ; they seem to prefer a stony bottom, clear and free from 
weeds, and quiet Avater. N. longispina, Recluz, 

Subgenus Neriptekon, Lesson. 1830. 

Shell flattened, biauriculated posteriorly, spire posterolateral ; 
inner lip septiform, with non-denticulated margin, outer lij^ very 
much dilated behind. Operculum typical. Fluviatile. Polynesia. 
N. Tahitensis, Lesson. 

Section Alixa, Recluz. 1842. 

Shell flattened, transversely dilated, lip irregularly expanded, 
sinuous, margin of inner lip finely denticulated. Operculum typi- 
cal. Fluviatile. Central America. JST. latissima, Brod. 

Subgenus Dostia, Gray. 1840. 

Shell sandal-shaped, solid, the apex completely posterior and a 
little lateral ; peristome continuous and free ; inner lip septiform, 
arcuated and denticulated in the centre of its margin. Operculum 
typical. Brackish water. Ea.st Indies. N. crepidularia. Lam. 

Genus VELATES, Montfort. 1810. 

Oval conic, spiral at the apex only ; last whorl greatly enlarged, 
resembling Trochita externally ; aperture basal, semicircular, its 
margin forming with that of the wide, flat columellar lip a circular 
outline, columellar margin dentate. Operculum as in Neritina. 

Tertiary of Europe, India, Madagascar, etc. V. perversa, 
Linn. (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 78, figs. 81, 82). 

Young individuals are Neritiniform, and the apex is completely 
lateral. 

Section Velatella, Meek. 1878. 

Shell small, oval; apex posterior, spiral, dextral, submedian. 
V. CARDiToiDES, Meek (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 78, figs. 85, 86). 
Laramie formation, N. America. 



NERITID^E. 9 

Subgenus Tomostoma, Desh. 1823. 

Shell oval, apex slightly spiral, iuclined posteriorly, base I'ounded. 
PiLEOLus NERiTOiDES, Desh. Eocene, Europe. 

Calana, Gray, 1844, is a synonym. 

This group, resembling the recent Navicellie, has been referred 
by myself and others to Pileolus. 

Genus NERITOMA, Morris. 1849. 

Shell ventricose, thick, apex eroded ; aperture with a notch in 
the middle of the outer lip, inner lij^ excavated in the middle, 
without teeth. Jurassic, Europe. N. angulata, Sowb. (Struct, 
and Syst. Conch., t. 78, fig. 63). 

Casts of this shell are common, and exhibit the interior charac- 
teristic of the Nerites: — it was probably fluviatile. 

Subgenus Neridomus, Morris and Lycett. 1850. 

Smooth, ovately globose, spire small, oblique ; last whorl very 
large ; aperture ovate or semilunar, outer lip thick, inner lip con- 
vex, smooth. Great Oolite, England. N. hemisph.erica, Romer. 
(Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 78, f. 64). 

Subgenus Oncochilus, Petho. 1882. 

Shell smooth, columellar area covered by a swollen, thick callos- 
ity, the margin smooth or with two or three small teeth ; outer lip 
sharp, smooth within. Triassic, Jurassic. N. globulosus, Klip- 
stein. 

Genus DEJAXIRA, Stoliczka. 1860. 

Shell subglobose, consisting of a few whorls, the last one large, 
spirally grooved, often carinated posteriorly ; aperture large, sub- 
trigonal or oval-elongated, columellar lip callous, having three large 
plications, outer lip sharp. Operculum calcareous, inner margin 
sinuous, with groove corresponding with columellar plication, inner 
face with an obtuse claviform apophysis. 

Lacustrine Cretaceous of Europe. D. bicarinata, Stol. (Struct. 
and Syst. Conch., t. 78, figs. 57, 58). 

Leymeria, Munier-Chalmas. 1884, is a synonym. 

Genus NAVICELLA, Lamark. 1809. 

Shell imperforate, oblong, smooth, limpet-like with a posterior, 
submarginal apex, clothed with a corneous epidermis, often eroded 



10 NERITIDiE. 

at the apex ; aperture large, basal, with a small, not dentate col- 
umellar shelf, and elongated lateral muscular scars. Operculum 
much smaller than the aperture, irregularly subtetragonal ; labral 
margin subcai'tilaginous ; coluniellar margin sinuous, partly bor- 
dered by a parietal apophysis, projecting at its extremity ; apex 
vermicularly granulated on the inner face, with a few radiating 
strijB on both fiices (PI. 1, figs. 11, 12). 

Head large, eyes on long peduncles, foot large, regularly oval, 
attached on each side to the visceral mass, forming a cavity open 
behind, in which the operculum is j^artly buried. Dentition, PI. 1, 
fig. 2. 

The species, about fifty in number, are exclusively East Indian 
and Polynesian in distribution. They are usually found on the 
banks of rivers adhering to floating sticks and to the petioles and 
roots of the Nipah palms and other plants that live near the water ; 
they are also found attached to smooth stones. 

The synonymy includes Septaria, Fer. 1807, which has priority, 
but has not usually found accejitance, Catillus (Humphrey. 1797), 
Swainson. 1840. 

Section Cimber, Montf 1810. 

Apex median, usually decorticated, projecting beyond the posterior 
margin. N. porcellana, Linn. 

Dr. Gray has characterized three sections of this group, under 
the names of Laodia, Elana, and Paria, all in 1867: they are dis- 
tinguished partly from the opercula, partly from the shells. The 
former are so variable in their characters that they aflford but 
slender material for systematic purposes. The following may per- 
haps be maintained : 

Subsection Paria, Gray. 1867. 

Septum projecting, and truncated in the middle. N. Freycineti, 
Recluz. 

Section Stenopoma, Gray. 1867. 

Apex median, posterior, submarginal, entire; shell generally 
narrow. N. lineata, Lam. 

Section Elara, H. and A. Adams. 1854. 

Apex a little elevated above the posterior margin and laterally 
recurved. N. Lapeyrousei, Recluz. 

To these Gray adds a group Orthopoma, 1867, characterized by 
an operculum only, the shell of which is unknown. 



MACLUREIDyE. 11 

Genus PILEOLUS (Cookson), Sowerby. 1823. 

Shell limpet-like, solid, circular or elliptical at the base, convex, 
with subcentral, non-spiral apex; a])erture small, semilunar; col- 
umellar septum convex, smooth or toothed, peritreme continuous. 
Operculum unknown. Fossil; Jurassic to Cretaceous. P. plica- 
Tus, Sowb. 

Subgenus Gargania, Guiscardi. 1856. 

Apex elevated, inclined backwards beyond the peritreme, surface 
radiately ribbed ; lij^ with a central, internal depression. Creta- 
ceous. G. Brocchii, Guiscardi. 




Family MACLUREIDM 

Shell discoidal, few whorled, longitudinally grooved at the back, 
and slightly rugose with growth-lines ; dextral side convex, deeply 
and narrowly perforated, sinistral side flat, exposing the inner 
whorls. Operculum calcareous, solid, sinistrally subspiral, with 
two internal apophyses, one of them beneath the nucleus, very thick 
and rugose. 

Genus MACLUREA, Lesueur, em. 1818. 

The characters are those of the family, of which this is the sole 
genus. A dozen palaeozoic sj)ecies from North America and Scotland 
have been described. M. Logani, Salter. (Struct, and Syst. Conch., 
t. 82, f. 8, 9) ; M. magna, Lesueur. (Ibid, t. 65, f. 10). 

Conchologists have been at a loss where to place this singular 
genus ; according to some it has been included in Solariidse ; others 
have placed it in Pleurotomariidse and in Atlantidi?e. In my "Struc- 
tural and Systematic Conchology" I have given it a position be- 
tween Bellerophontidie and Haliotidie. I think that Dr. Fischer's 
removal of the group to the vicinity of Neritidte, on account of the 
apophyses of the operculum, is a happy idea of that learned con- 
chologist. 



12 

Family NERITOPSIDM 

Animal with large head, and distant, elongated tentacles, the 
gyes on short peduncles at the exterior base, buccal orifice plicate, 
foot obtuse at either extremity, operculigerous disk surrounding the 
operculum, columellar muscle forming a ring interrupted above, 
mantle-margin thickened and papillary. Dentition, 8'l'(2-)-0+2)"l*8, 
PL 1, fig. 1. 

Shell imperforate, neritiform, solid, columellar lip not dentate, the 
margin with a sinus in the middle. Operculum thick, calcareous, 
symmetrical, not spiral, with lateral, median nucleus, the exterior 
face convex, the interior face divided into two unequal parts, the 
columellar margin with a median appendage. 

Fossil oi^ercula of this family, occurring frequently without the 
shell, were long objects of doubt to scientists, and have received the 
names of Peltarion, Deslongchamps. 1858 (PI. 1, figs. 5, 6), Sca- 
phanidea and Cydidea, Rolle. 1862, and Hypodevia, Koninck. lo53. 
They have been supposed to be the beak of a cephalojiod, a valve 
of a brachiopod or of a chiton, and an operculum of the polyp 
Calceola. 

Genus NERITOPSIS, Grateloup. 1832. 

General characters those of the family. Shell white, cancellated 
by spiral and longitudinal ridges and striae. Operculum having on 
its exterior face and columellar margin a large truncate appendage, 
interior face depressed, with a labral, semilunar, smooth part, and 
a striate columellar part, with a pit on either side of it. (PI. 1, figs. 
7, 8). Radula, Gray, 1840, is a synonym. East Indies, Polynesia. 
N. RADULA is the only recent species. Fossil, secondary and ter- 
tiary. 

Genus NATICOPSIS, M'Coy. 1844. 

Shell imperforate, naticiform, thick, suture plicate; columella 
callous, more or less flattened, sometimes minutely tuberculated or 
transversely plicate, lip sharp ( F*l. 1, fig. 17). Operculum something 
like Neritopsis, with convex exterior face, the interior face un- 
equally two-parted, one part smooth, the other rugose, no appen- 
dage on the columellar margin (PI. 1, figs. 13, 14). 
Devonian-Triassic. 

Europe, India. 

I included this group in Naticidee (Vol. viii, 8) ; the oi^erculum, 
however, shows it to be a member of the present group. Nerito- 
mopsis, Waagen. 1880, Carboniferous of India, is a synonym. 



ADEORBIIDiE. 13 

Subgenus Trachydomia, Meek and Wortheu. 1866. 

Whorls regularly ornamented with small tubercles. N. nodosa, 
Meek and AVorthen. Carboniferous. Illinois. 

Included in Naticidse (vol. viii, 8), but is better j^laced here 



Family ADEORBIIDM 

Shell umbilicated, auriform, depressed, paucis2:)iral, with oblique, 
entire aperture, simple columella, and rounded, sharp outer lip. 
Oj^erculum corneous, paucispiral, with excentric nucleus. 

Animal differing from Trochidse by having no cirriform appen- 
dages of the foot. Dentition unknown. 

In this group are provisionally included a few small shells, the 
relationships of which remain somewhat obscure. 

Genus ADEORBIS, S. Wood. 1842. 

Shell depressed, flattened below, white, sub translucent, paucis- 
piral, periphery angulated, widely umbilicated; aperture oblique, 
angular behind, lip sharp, not continuous. 

Europe, Japan, Philippines, West Indies, etc. A. hubcarinatus, 
Mont. 

Genus ARCHYT^A, Costa. 1869. 

Turbinated, but little elevated, thin, widely and deeply umbili- 
cated, very finely decussated, appearing smooth, apertui-e rounded, 
with sharp, simple lip. Operculum corneous, smooth and flattened 
.exteriorly, the spire slightly pi'ominent in the centre of the inner 
side. A. DELiCATUM, Phil. Norway. 

Traehysma, Jefireys, 1878, is a synonym. 

Subgenus Pseudorbis, Monts. 1884. 

Scarcely unibilicated, aperture circular, surface spirally costate, 
not cancellated. A. granulum, Brugn. Mediterranean. 



14 

Family CYCL OSTREMA TIDM 

Animal with ciliated, thread-like tentacles, the eyes on short pe- 
duncles ; snout bilobed ; foot elongated, truncate in front, and ex- 
tending at each angle into a filament ; sides with three or four pairs 
of ciliated cirri, and a pair of auricular appendages in front, be- 
tween the cirri and the tentacles. Jaws scaly. 
Dentition, 8-(4 + 1+ 4)-8, PI. 1, fig. 4. 

Shell small, umbilicated, depressed, white, corneous or transpar- 
ent, not nacreous ; aperture circular, with continuous, sharp peris- 
tome. Operculum corneous, multisjiiral. 

Genus CYCLOSTKEMA, Marryatt. 1818. 

Shell white, or uniformly colored, last whorl obliquely striate. 
C. CANCELLATA, Marryatt. 

About 25 species have been described ; distribution nearly uni- 
versal. Fossil, tertiary. 

Delphinoidea, Brown. 1727, is a synonym. 

Section Cyclosteema (sensu stricto). 

Spire short, surface with spiral ridges, cancellated. 

Section Tubiola, A. Ad. 1864. 

Whorls rounded, simple, contiguous, spirally striate. C. serpu- 
LOiDES, Montagu. 

Section Daronia, A. Adams. 1864. 

Planorbiforra, spire depressed, concave, whorls rounded, more 
or less disunited. C. spirula, A. Ad. 

Subgenus Tharsis, Jefl^reys. 1883. 

Globular, solid, polished ; aperture circular, peristome continuous, 
adhering at the columellar margin ; the umbilicus closed in the 
adult by a callus. 

C. RoMETTENSis, Seguenza. Atlantic, Mediterranean. 

Subgenus Ganesa, JeflTreys. 1883. 

Naticiform, thin, always perforate, axis of the spire oblique; 
aperture subcircular, peristome continuous. 

Atlantic Ocean ; abyssal. C. pruinosa, JeflTreys. 



CYCLOSTREMATIDJE. 15 

Genus VITRINELLA, C. B. Adams. 1850. 

Shell minute, depressed turbiniform, white, often -with spiral 
cariniB, widely umbilicated, and the umbilical region widely indented, 
whorls few, aperture large, rounded. Operculum unknown. 

V. VALVATOiDES, C. B. Ad. A considerable number of species 
have been described by Prof. Adams from Jamaica and Panama. 
They ai'e mostly unfigured, and Dr. Fischer thinks that species of 
Cyclostrema, Adeorbis, Teinostoma and Pseudorotella are included. 

Genus Teinostoma, H. and A. Adams. 1853. 

Shell orbicular, depressed, polished or spirally striated, spire 
short, obtuse, not projecting; whorls few, the last with rounded or 
angulated periphery ; umbilical region covered by a large, flat cal- 
losity ; aperture transverse, distant from the axis, j)eristome con- 
tinuous, lip sharp, simple. Philippines, Japan, Mazatlan. 

T. POLiTUM, A. Ad. Deshayes enumerates fourteen species from 
the Parisian Eocene. 

Section Calceolina, A. Adams. 1863. 

Neritiform, depressed ; inner lip with a large wide callus, cover- 
ing the umbilicus — its margin straight, simple. T. pusilla, Adams. 

Japan. 
Subgenus Pseudorotella, Fischer. 1857. 

Shell thin, diaphanous, subdiscoidal, paucispiral, finely striated ; 
aperture oval, peristome not continuous, outer lip sharp ; umbilical 
region covered by a polished, transparent callus. T. semistriata, 
d'Orb. West Indies. 

Parkeria, Gabb. 1880, Miocene of West Indies, is a synonym. 

Subgenus Discopsis, Folin. 1869. 

Shell discoidal, much depressed, flattened above, carlnated, vitre- 
ous white, widely umbilicated ; whorls few ; aperture very oblique, 
triangular, the margins united by a channeled callosity, prolonged 
posteriorly. C. omalos, Folin. Gulf of Mexico. 

Subgenus Leucorhynchia, Crosse. 1867. 

Shell small, perforate, polished ; whorls few ; aperture rounded, 
coluraellar and basel margins united into a callous rostrum, pro- 
longed past the umbilical region, but without touching it ; peristome 
continuous, simple. L. Caledonica, Crosse. New Caledonia. 

Evidently nearly allied to the preceding group. 



16 • CYCLOSTREMATID^. 

? Subgenus Microtheca, A. Adams. 1863. 

Shell globosely turbinate, widely umbilicated, somewhat porcel- 
lanous, radiately, rugosely plicate, suture channeled and crenulated; 
aperture semicircular, peritreme continuous, inner lip thickened 
and arcuate, outer lip with thickened margin ; umbilicus crenulated. 
Operculum unknown. C. crenellipeea, A. Ad. Japan. 

? Subgenus Morchia, A. Adams. 1860. 

Shell obliquely oval, depressed, widely umbilicated, convex 
above, flattened beneath ; whorls rapidly increasing, the last di- 
lated and ascending, embracing the others to the apex ; aperture 
oblong, obliquely horizontal, dilated below, narrowed above, peri- 
treme continuous, thickened, bilabiate. Oi^erculum unknown. (1 
MoRELETi, Fischer, C. obvoluta, A. Ad. Japan, China, Red Sea. 

? Subgenus Cirsonella, Angas. 1877. 

Shell minute, globosely turbinated, smooth, narrowly umbilicated; 
aperture circular, peristome continuous, slightly thickened. Oper- 
culum unknown. C. australis, Angas. Australia. 

? Subgenus Haplocochlias, Carpenter. 1864. 

Shell solid, turbinate, subperforate ; aperture rounded, peristome 
continuous, thick, exteriorly varicose, columella not callous. Oper- 
culum unknown. C. cyclophoreus, Carp, Mazatlan. 

? Subgenus Cynisca, H. and A. Adams. 1854. 

Shell turbinate, depressed, with large, deep umbilicus encircled 
by a spiral callosity ; whorls ornamented by spiral granular ribs ; 
aperture circular, inner lip straight ; outer lip rather thick, sub- 
crenulated, prolonged behind upon the penultimate whorl. Japan. 

C. granulata, a. Ad. 



ijotiid.e. 17 

Family LIOTIID^. 

Head proboscidiform, epipodial line with a pair of conical lobes 
and three pairs of cirri. Dentition ? 

Shell turbiniforni or discoidal, white, with longitudinal ribs or 
clathrate ; aperture feebly nacreous, peristome continuous, thick, 
with a callous varix. Operculum multispiral, hispid, corneous, 
with a calcareous layer formed of pearly particles spirally disposed. 

Genus LIOTIA, Gray. 1842. 

Characters those of the family. 

Tropical and subtropical seas. L. Peronii, Kiener. 

Section Arene, H. and A. Adams. 1854. 

Ornamented with reddish radiating markings, periphery spinosely 
carinated. L. radiata, Kiener. 

Subgenus Liotina, INIunier-Chalmas. 1877. 

Shell solid, cancellated, subdiscoidal, umbilicus large, with a 
spiral funieulum, aperture not nacreous, j^eristome varicose, re- 
flected, sub-bilabiate. L. australis, Kiener, is a living represen- 
tative ; otherwise the group is Eocene. 

? Subgenus SciEVOLA, Gemmellaro. 1878. 

Sinistral, thick, more or less conic, turriculated or conic-de- 
pressed, umbilicated, spire sharp, longitudinally variciformly pli- 
cate, crossed by spiral rihlets; aperture circular. Liassic, Sicily. 
S. INTERMEDIA, Gemmellaro. 

Genus CRASPEDOSTOMA, Lindstrom. 1884. ' 

Naticiform, with longitudinal laminae ; aperture circular, with a 
widely expanded thick peristome, which is aliformly produced to 
the left at the base ; umbilicus narrow. Silurian of Gotland. C. 
ELEGANTULUM, Lindstrom (PL 1, fig. 18). 

? Genus CROSSOSTOMA, Morris and Lycett. 1854. 

Imperforate, thick, turbinated, apex obtuse ; ai)erture contracted 
circular, entire, sharp edged, with a reflected peristome some dis- 
tance behind it ; umbilical region with a dentiform callosity, 
formed by a funieulum which fills the umbilicus. 

Jurassic. C. reflexilabrum, d'Orb. (PI. 1, figs. 19, 20). 



18 NERITA. 

Family NERITIDjE. 

Geuus NERITA, Adanson. 1757. 

Dr. vou Martens, in the prefoceto his monograph of Nerita, now 
in course of publication, thus divides the geuus into groups, which 
he considers " more or less natural," whilst not so sharply distin- 
guished one from another as the similar divisions of Neritina. I 
find the older and more simple divisions W'hich I have adopted full 
of difficulties to the systematist, which Avould be much increased by 
a more elaborate system. It is noticeable that Dr. von Martens 
has not arranged his own monograph by the system he proposes. 
His groups are : — 

1. Theliostyla, Morch. Whorls flattened, strongly ribbed, 
columellar area granular, the marginal teeth mostly small. Oper- 
culum granular. N. textilis. Natere, Gray, is a synonym. 

2. Cymostyla, Martens. With weaker spiral ribs, whorls 
rounder, columellar area with parallel plications, the teeth stronger. 
Operculum granular. N. undata. Plia, Mtirch, in part, but not 
Pila, Klein. 

3. Pila, Klein. Shell bullet-shaped, with strong rounded spiral 
ribs, and strong columellar teeth. Operculum concave, weakly 
granular or smooth. N. plicata. Ritena, Gray, and Tenare, 
Troschel (not Gray), are synonyms. 

4. Tenare, Gray. Teeth of the interior of the outer liji vanish- 
ing. Oper(ailum smooth, with polished marginal zone. / 

a. Peloronta, Troschel. With weak spiral ribs. Marginal 
zone of the operculum swollen, distinct. N. peloronta. 

h. Ilynerita, Martens. Spiral sculpture stronger, teeth of the 
mouth weaker. Operculum with scarcely developed marginal zone. 

N. PLANOSPIRA. 

5. Nerita (restricted). Spiral sculpture weak or Avanting, colum- 
ellar area swollen, smooth. Operculum flat, with ribbed margin. 
N. POLiTA. Odontostoma, Morch (in part), is a synonym, 

6. Amphinerita, Martens. Shell as in preceding group. OjDer- 
culum granular. N. Umlaasiana, N. Senegalensis, etc. 

7. Heminerita, Martens. Outer lip not toothed, columellar 
margin likewise toothless. Operculum with strongly developed 
skinny projection on its convex margin. N. pica. This group is 
the most nearly related to Neritina. 



NERITA. 19 

Section Nerita, Lain. 1799 (sensu stricto). 

N. ALBiciLLA, Linn. PI. 2, figs. 21-26. 

With wide, fiatly convex ribs, separated by narrow sulci, whitish, 
yellowish or orange color, densely or sparsely clouded, maculated 
or interruptedly or irregularly banded with black ; aperture white, 
the columellar area tuberculated, with small teeth on the middle of 
the margin, outer lip with numerous small teeth. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Natal, Singapore, China, Philippines, 
Viti Is., etc. 

It is N. sanguinnlenta, Menke, N. venusta, Phil. (fig. 24), JSf. 
marmorata. Reeve (not Hombr. and Jacq.), =^ N. crassilahrum, 
Smith, 'IN. marginata, Gmel., N. cornea, Forsk., N. Erythrcea, 
Desh., and j\^. Forskalii, Eecluz (figs. 25, 26). 

N. PLEXA, Chemn. PI. 2, figs. 27, 28. 

With rugose or somewhat nodose spiral ribs, alternately smaller, 
whitish, maculated with black ; aperture whitish, black spotted on 
the fimbriated outer margin, lij^ numerously jilicate-dentate within, 
columellar area with a raised plicate outer border, the face numer- 
ously granulate, the centre of the margin two-toothed. 

Diam. 30-45 mill. 

East Africa, Cape, Madagascar, India, etc. 

The synonyms are N. costata, Schum., N. te.vtiUs, Gmel., N. chlo- 
rostoma, Lam. (fig. 28). 

N. ExuviA, Linn. PL 2, fig. 29. 

With strong, rugose, high ribs, broadest at the top, or somcAvhat 
overhanging, the intermediate sulcatious deep, often in the larger 
specimens with a median thread-like, rugose, but much smaller rib- 
let in each, the ribs blackish or obscurely maculated, the sulci grey- 
ish or yellowish grey, with zigzag black stripes ; aperture white, 
the columellar area, including the raised border, covered by very 
numerous small granulations. Diam. 30-35 mill. 

Indian Ocean, East Indies, Philipj^ines. 

It is N. Malaccensis, Lam. N. chlorostoma. Lam., which I have 
referred to the preceding species. Dr. von Martens places here ; in 
the outer border of the columellar area it combines the characters 
of both, but its exterior ornamentation is, I think, decidedly that 
of N. ple.ra. 



20 NERITA. 

N. GRANULATA, Reeve. PI. 2, fig. 30 ; PI. 4, fig. 70. 

Blackish, spirally subcostate or Urate ; columellar area strongly, 
granulated, outer lip very strongly plicate within. Diam. 17 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

N. CHAM.ELEON, Linn. PI. 2, figs. 31-39 ; PL 6, fig. 4 ; PI. 9, fig. 

66. 

Shell with numerous, low, rugose sj^iral ribs, sometimes alter- 
nately smaller, the interspaces varying from a mere line to the 
width of the ribs, whitish, yellowish white or orange color, macu- 
lated with dark grey, brown or black, often forming three indistinct 
interrupted bands ; aperture white, columellar area with a few 
granules behind the marginal teeth, and some plications on the 
raised outer margin. Diam. 25-30 mill. 

East Indies to Polynesia, East Africa. 

The synonymy includes N. stella, Chemn. (figs. 31-33), N. squa- 
mulata, LeGuillou (figs. 34-36), N. modesta, Hombr. and Jacq. (fig. 
37), ? N. chloroleuca, Phil., N. scahrella, Phil., N. Arabica, Reeve 
(fig. 38), a tessellated specimen, N. annulata, Reeve (figs. 39, 4), 
N. bizonalis, Lam., and probably N. electrina, Reeve (fig. 66). 

N. EXCAVATA, Sowb. PI. 8, fig. 34. 

With strong, approximate, flattened spiral ribs, black variegated 
with white ; aperture yellowish, black-margined, columellar area ex- 
cavated, granular, marginal teeth tumid, acute, plications of lip 
strong, the up2:)er and lower larger. Diam. 22 mill. 

Hab. unknoivn. 

Apparently not very difierent from N. granulata, Reeve. 

N. ORYZARUM, Recluz. PI. 3, fig. 40. 

With rather distant and faint low spiral riblets, black, with zig- 
zag maculations and sometimes an interrupted band of white, lip 
with faint plicate denticles within, columellar margin with three or 
four minute denticles, the area with several small granulations, 
its outer margin with a few plications. Diam. 1 inch. 

Aracan (Hanley), Bombay (Recluz). 

N. SEMiRUGOSA, Recluz. PI. 3, figs. 41-43. 

With numerous low riblets and much narrower grooves, whitish, 
with usually small, frequently linear series of black maculations, 
sometimes undulated, or more or less confluent ; lip plicately 
toothed within, columellar margin strongly three-toothed, tlie area 



NERITA. 21 

convex, with a few more or less elongated granules below, the outer 
margin frequently plicate. Diam. 25-40 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Manritms, E. Africa, East Indies, Philippines, 
Australia, Polynesia. 

The synonyms ai*e N. maura, Recluz (fig. 43), N. histrio, Gmel' 
(fig. 42), N. atrata, Lam. (last whorl entirely l)lack), and N. CJiem- 
nitzii, Recluz. 

N. LoNGii, Recluz. PI. 3, figs. 44, 45. 

With rather wide, close, smooth, rounded ribs, yellowish, well 
covered with brownish or blackish maci;lations, sometimes obscurely 
trifasciate; lip numerously toothed within, the upper two teeth 
strong, columellar margin tridentate, area granular, outer margin 
convexly raised, strongly plicate. Diam. 25-33 mill. 

Red Sea to Bombay. 
N. HiNDsii, Recluz. PI. 3, figs. 46, 47. 

With rather distant thread-like, granularly rugose lirse, and 
sometimes intermediate much smaller ones, whitish, yellowish or 
greyish, punctate and maculated with black ; ajoerture white, col- 
umellar margin minutely two to four toothed, area flattened, with a 
few granules. Diam. 16-20 mill. 

^ Philippines. 

N. PLANOSPiEA, Anton. PI. 3, fig. 48. 

Shell flattened above, with an obtuse shoulder angle, with ele- 
vated, rounded, somewhat irregular, thread-like riblets, and fre- 
quently much smaller intermediate lines, yellowish grey or light 
purplish, with maculations, bands or zigzag strigations of brownish 
black or purplish black ; aperture yellowish white, lip teeth obsolete, 
columellar margin obtusely 4-dentate, area with a few granules, 
outer margin with a long blotch of black. Diam. 20-30 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Japa^i, Australia, Polynesia. 

The synonyms are N. atropurpurea, Recluz, N. bizonalis, Morch, 
and N. angularis, Hombr. and Jacq. 

N. RETICULATA, Karstcn. PI. 3, figs. 49, 50. 

With very irregular crowded spiral sculpture, often with inter- 
mediate smaller threads, or with a pair of smaller lines between 
each pair of ribs, rugosely crossed by close growth-lines, whitish, 
unicolored, or more frequently maculated, subtessellated or undu- 
latingly strigate with red or black ; lip with numerous small plicate 
denticles, columellar margin slightly sinuous in the middle with 2 



22 NERITA. 

or 3 minute teeth, area flat, with a few granules below, and pli- 
cations above, marked by a central bright orange red sjiot. 
Diam. 12-20 mill. 

East Indies to Polynesia. 

The red spot on the columellar area is very characteristic and is 
seldom absent. The species is very generally known under the 
later name of N. signata, Macleay ; other synonyms are N. rudis, 
Wood, N. peticJiialis, Morch, ? N. musiva, Gould (in part), and 
X. fragum, Reeve (fig. 50). 

N. PATULA, Recluz. PI. 3, figs. 53-56, 51, 52. 

With 30-40 close, unequal, flattened riblets, crossed by close 
strife, variegated with grey and black, sometimes Avith black bands 
articulated w'ith white ; aperture white, the lip-teeth minute, numer- 
ous or obsolete, columellar margin distinctly sinuous in the middle 
and the sinuosity indistinctly toothed, the area concave, yellowish, 
with a central semicircular depression, granular and blotched with 
black, base with a transverse j)lica. Diam. 18-25 mill. 

Moluccas, Philippines. 

It is N. musiva, Gould, N. Beaniana, Recluz (fig. bb), N. Dom- 
beyi, Recluz (fig. 56), N. dilatata, Recluz, and N. unidentata, 
Hombr. and Jacq. (figs. 51, 52). 

N. Senegalensis, Gmel. PI. 3, figs. 57, 58. 

With numerous, low, flat-topped riblets, divided by incised lines, 
the sculpture often very faint, blackish, maculated aud variegated 
with yellowish grey ; lij) minutely dentate within, columellar mar- 
gin concave and moderately 2-3 dentate in the middle, area flat- 
tened with a number of tubercles, outer margin narrowly elevated 
and plicate. Diam. 15-25 mill. 

W. Africa, Cape Verd Is. 

N. Largillierti, Phil., is a sy.^.onj'm. 

N. anthracina, Busch. PL 26, fig. 96. 

Black, marl)led with yellowish, spirally, and irregularly longi- 
tudinally striate, epidermis rough ; lip toothed within, columellar 
margin quadridentate, median tooth minute, area concave, granular. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Java. 

This species has not been identified. 



NKRITA. 23 

N. NiGERRiMA, Cliemii. PI. 8, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell thick, spirally grooved, groov^es often becoming obsolete 
towards the aperture, black, polished ; aperture whitish or yellowish 
white, the outer lip finely denticulated within, columellar margin 
toothed in the middle, area obscurely wrinkled above, granular 
below. Diam. 1'25 inch. 

Australia, Polynesia. 

This is iV. nigerrima, Chemn., as unfolded by Reeve and others ; 
the original figures are not readily determinable. N. achatina, 
Reeve (fig. 43), is a probable synonym. 

N. MACULATA, Pease. PL 4, fig. 61. 

Minutely spirally ribbed, separated by engraved lines, polished, 
black, minutely, numerously flecked with yellowish grey ; aperture 
white, lip numerously toothed within, columellar margin with two 
small median teeth and a larger quadrangular one above them, area 
concave, tuberculated. Diam. 15-18 mill. 

Central Polynesia. 

It is N. Schmeltziana, Dunker. 

N. ARCiUS, Recluz. PI. 4, fig. 59. 

Shell smooth, indistinctly, closely spirally striate, olive brown or 
blackish, shagreened with minute white flecks, often apj^arent only 
on close inspection ; aperture yellowish white, outer lip with numer- 
ous small plicate denticles, larger at the extremities of the series, 
columellar margin with four minute teeth, area flattened, with a 
few granules. Diam. 1 inch. 

Philippines, Hong Kong, China. 

The species was described as from Rio Janeiro, but has never 
been authoritatively illustrated ; for convenience, Reeve's identifica- 
tion of it with a rather common oriental species, is followed. 

N. FuLGURANs, Gmelin. PL 4, figs. 62, 63, 66-69 , PL 9, fig. 63. 

Shell with numerous, narrow, distinct rounded ribs, separated by 
incised lines, minutely scabrous from the crossing of close growth- 
strise, black, unicolored or maculated with yellowish grey; aperture 
white, lip with two stronger teeth above and below, and numerous 
intermediate plicate denticles, columellar margin with two minute 
median teeth and a larger quadrate one above them, area flattened, 
granular. Diam. ■75-l"25 inch. 

West Indies, Brazil, Panama to Gulf of California. 



vo 



/^ 



24 NERITA. 

Var. PR.ECOGNITA, C. B. Ad. Fig. 63. 

Embraces the lighter colored specimens, being yellowish grey, 
upon which are blackish maculations composed of separate short 
lines and markings, sometimes forming indistinct, irregular, inter- 
rupted bands. 

Var. Bernhardt, Recluz. Figs. 66-69 ; PI. 9, fig. 63. 

Spire usually somewhat flatter so as to form an obtuse, almost 
obsolete shoulder-angle, color varying from black to spotted, and 
maculated with yellowish grey or orange color. Size somewhat 
smaller. 

West Coast of N. America, Panama, Mazatlan. 

Usually distinguished by the above chai-acteristics, which are, 
however, all shown not infrequently by occasional West Indian 
specimens. N. funiculata, Menke, and N. genuana, Reeve (fig. 68), 
are synonyms ; to which may probably be added N. alhipunctata, 
Reeve (fig. 65, and PI. 9, fig. 63), the locality of Avhich is unknown. 

N. TESSELLATA, Gmcliu. PL 4, figs. 71-74 ; PI. 9, fig. 69. 

With ten or twelve rounded low ribs, separated by deep, narrow 
grooves, white, strigate, tessellated or nearly covered with black ; 
aperture white, lip with numerous plicate teeth within, the upper 
and lower ones larger, columellar edge concave, with small teeth in 
the middle, area flattened, with a few granules. Diam. 18-24 mill. 

West Indies, Florida. 

Sometimes the ribs are more numerous by their division, and by 
the interpolation of smaller intermediate ones. The species is al§o 
subject to erosion in such manner that the black markings become 
elevated and the ribs obliterated, in this condition becoming ^• 
exarata, Pfr. Other synonyms are N. varia (Meusch.), Morch, JSf. 
Antillarum, Gmel., N. .striata, Chemn., N. Listeri, Recluz (fig, 73), 
a nearly black condition, as is also N. nivosa, Reeve (fig. 74), re- 
ferred here with some doubt, and N. comma-notata, Reeve (fig. 72), 
and N. scalpta, Reeve (fig. 69), the localities of both of which are 
unknown. 

Section Peloronta, Oken. 1815. 

N. PELORONTA, Linn. PI. 4, figs. 75-77. 

With broad, flatly rounded ribs and narrow intervening sulci — 
which very seldom give rise to very small riblets ; yellowish or 
whitish tessellated or marked in a zigzag manner with dark red and 
black, the tessellations sometimes forming broad spiral bands in 



NERITA. 25 

which the colors alternately appear, in other cases promiscuously 
scattered; aperture white, outer lip minutely dentate within, colum- 
ellar margin with one or two strong central teeth, area somewhat 
concave, with a few plicate granules, the central portion, and sur- 
rounding the teeth, stained blood-red. Diam. 1-1'75 inch. 

Florida, West Indies, 
The well-known " bleeding tooth." The ribs are sometimes very 
faint, and occasionally the surface is entirely smooth. 

N. VERSICOLOR, Gmelin. PI. 4, figs. 78, 79 ; PL 5, fig. 80. 

With broad, rounded ribs, separated by narrow grooves, varying 
occasionally to entirely smooth (fig. 80); light yellowish, rosy or 
whitish, tessellated, maculated or with zigzag stripes of red and 
black, in some cases of the latter only, in others forming alternate 
spiral bands of markings in one color or the othei', but mostly 
intermingled; aperture white, outer lip dentate within, columellar 
margin decidedly convex, with three or four distant strong teeth, 
area smooth or obsoletely plicate. Diam. 75-r25 in. 

Florida, West Indies. 

This is N. striata, Chemn., N. variegata, Chemn., and N. tricolor, 
Gmelin. 

N. HELiciNOiDES, Recve. PI. 9, figs. 71, 72. 

Whorls faintly spirally ribbed, yellowish, maculated with black 
or red, sometimes forming alternate bands; lip plicate within, 
columellar area smooth, the mai'gin two or three dentate. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Hub. unknoion. 

N. pellis-serpentis. Reeve (fig. 72), is doubtless identical. Very 
probably this species to be referred to the proceeding, but the figures 
do not show its convex margined columella. 

N. WiNTERi, Phil. PI. 9, fig. 73. 

Spirally costate, whitish ; lip very thinly toothed within, columellar 

margin four-toothed, area plane, a little wrinkled. Diam. 16 mill. 

2Ioluecus. 
I know nothing about this species. 

N. iNCERTA, Busch. PI. 8, fig. 48. 

Dark brownish or blackish, minutely speckled with greyish 
white; lip minutely denticulated within, columellar margin with 
five small teeth, area smooth. Diam. 14 mill. 

Java. 



26 NERITA. 

The condition of the specimen figured l)y PJiilippi was too poor 
to do justice to its characters; I can only guess at its relationships. 

N, ATRATA, Keeve. PL 8, fig. 40. 

Black, spirally linearly grooved; aperture white, the outer lip 
black margined, with rather strong internal plicate teeth, columellar 
area smooth, the margin minutely toothed in the middle. 

Diam. 28 mill. 

Australia, New Zealand, etc. 

Reeve figured this species for the N. atrata, Chemnitz — which it 
probably is not, and on this account von Martens preferred for it 
the name N. jmndata. Quo}' — which it ertainly is not, whilst 
Hutton imposed the name of X. saturata, and E. A. Smith that of 
N. melanotragus, both in 1884, with a probable priority of publica- 
tion of the former name. "NVatson (Voy. Challenger, xv, 132) reviews 
the whole subject, preferring the name N. punctata. Inasmuch as 
Chemnitz was not binomial and therefore not entitled to quotation, 
and his figures and description are neither of them sufficient for 
identification, whilst they indicate that at least two species were 
confounded by him, I think it preferable to treat him as non-existent, 
and quote Reeve ; especially as he has been followed by others, so 
that his atrata has become well-known. N. nigra, Gray (who quotes 
Quoy) in "Dieflenbach's New Zealand" has been cited by authors as 
applying to the present species, but the name is not accepted by 
them on account of the prior N. nigra, Chemn. They show that 
Quoy never described a N. nigra, but then neither did Gray; he 
merely mentioned the name in his above list, and it is impossible to 
determine what species he may have intended. Finally, different 
as this species is from N. nigerrima, Chemn., in its form and absence 
of columellar granulations— actually a group distinction, I have never- 
theless some suspicion that it is only a variety of it, and that it 
connects that species with N. morio, which, on account of its smooth 
inner surface of the lip belongs to still another group. In my 
saner moments I am well-aware that such vagaries of conjecture 
are simply the demoralizing result of the questionable questioning 
which has largely supplanted the questionless faith of the last 
generation of conchologists. 

N. ATRAMENTosA, Reevc. PL 8, figs. 44. 

Shell slightly spirally striated, black or dark olivaceous variega- 
ted with black ; aperture white, outer lip strongly toothed within at 



NERITA. 27 

the extremities of a row of fine denticles, inner margin with two 
small teeth and a superior, quadrangular larger one. 
Diam. 28 mill. 

Sivan River, Australia. 

N. YoLDii, Recluz. PI. 9, figs. 55-57. 

Faintly, closely spirally striate or smooth, yellowish white macula- 
ted in a zigzag manner with black, sometimes black with white 
markings, often with a light baud on the darker specimens, or a 
dark band on the lighter ones; aperture yellowish, the outer lip 
dentate within, columellar margin minutely or obsoletely dentate 
in the middle, area smooth or very faintly marked by a few tubercles. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Hongkong. 

Sometimes this sj^ecies, like some West Indian ones is subject to 
an erosion which excavates the white portions leaving the black 
in relief N. haustrum, Reeve (tig. 56), and N. Peruviana, Phil. 
(fig. 57), which is not from Peru, are synonyms. 

Section Pila, Klein. 1753. 

N. PLicATA, Linn. PL 5, figs. 81-83. 

Shell spirally ridged, with equal, excavated interstices, each 
about 18-20 in number on the body whorl, whitish or brownish 
white, here and there sj)otted and streaked with black ; lip crenated, 
with several minor internal teeth, with a larger one at each extrem- 
ity of the series, columellar margin with four strong teeth, columellar 
region rugosely wrinkled. Diam. 15-30 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Formosa, Polynesia, Sandwich Is. 

Sometimes unicolored whitish, sometimes regularly tessellated 
with black, or the spots so dis^^osed as to form interrupted bands. 
Occasionally very thick specimens occur in which the sculpture is 
reduced to rugose strii« or partially or wholly disappears. Entirely 
black specimens are known as N. ringens, Reeve (fig. 83). Other 
synonyms are : N. lactaria, Linn., N. Otaiensis, Lesson. 

N. cosTATA, Chemn. PI. 5, fig. 84. 

With about 12-15 strong spiral ridges, which are black, and 
equal, with excavated yellowish olivaceous interspaces ; lip crenula- 
ted, toothed as in the preceding species, columellar area tuberculated 
below the plications. Diam. 15-35 mill. 

Indian Ocean, East Indies, Japan, Australia, Philippines, etc. 

It is N. grossa. Born, and N. scabricosta, Delessert. 



28 NERITA. 

N. GROSSA, Linn. PI. 5, fig. 85. 

With 10-12 strong, spiral ridges and rather wider deeply excava- 
ted sulci, frequently developing a central, much smaller riblet, 
white, subradiately maculated with dark grey, varying to blackish ; 
lip scarcely crenulated, very thick, internally bearing two strong 
teeth above and usually one beloAV, with an intermediate series of 
numerous fine denticles, columellar teeth strong, o or 4, the area 
covered with wrinkles. Diam. 25-33 mill. 

Indian. Ocean, PhUipj}ine.i, N. E. Australia. 

N. Ascensionis, Lam, is a synonym. 

N. UNDATA, Linn. PI. 5, figs. 86-95; PL 6, figs. 96-3; PL 7, fig. 

30. 

With 30-40, rounded, small spiral riblets and narrower shallow 
interspaces, yellowish, light brown or greyish with darker, olivaceous 
grey or black maculations, often arranged in radiating, undulating 
stripes, sometimes broad so as almost to cover the shell, aperture 
often stained with yellow, median teeth of outer lip very numerous, 
small, columellar area strongly rugose. Diam. 30-42 mill. 

East Indies, Philippines, etc. 

The above may be regarded as the typical system of coloration 
in a species varying much in this respect. It has, under different 
aspects received a number of names, several of which I retain as 
varietal, not so much because of intrinsic value as for mere con- 
venience, these several forms having been heretofore recognized as 
species. With the type may be included N. Papnuina, Recluz, N. 
LeGuillouana, Recluz (fig. 87), N. marmorata, Hombr. et Jacq., 
N. Savieana, Recluz, (fig. 88), N. crassa, Gould (fig. >*9), N. undulata, 
Gmel. and N. Novce-Guinece, Lesson (fig. 90), the two last juveniles. 

Var. MicRONEsrCA, Martens. 

Blackish olivaceous, with two spiral black bands. 

Var. STRIATA, Burrow. Figs. 91-94, 100, 1. 

Costulations small, close, somewhat unequal, greyish, yellowish, 
or light brownish, usually spotted, undately strigate or trifasciate 
with dark grey, olivaceous or black, aperture tinged with yellow. 

The synonyms are N. chrysostoma, Recluz (in part, fig. 91), N. 
undata, Gould, Var. icterina, Marts, including N. aurantia, Recluz, 
(fig. 92), iV. Tongaensis, Hombr. et Jacq. N. grisea. Reeve (fig. 93), 



NERITA. 29 

N. erubescens, Reeve (fig. 100), N. Neritopsoides, Reeve (fig. 1), 
and N. costulata, Biisch and i\". Essingto)ii, Reeve (fig. 94), the two 
latter juveniles. 

Var. Spengleeiana, Recluz. PI. 6, figs. 96-98. 

Greyish, maculated Avith white, interruptedly trifasciate with 
greyish black, riblets flattened, obscure, evanescent below, aperture 
white. 

The type was a juvenile; and iV. oleagina, Reeve (figs. 96, 97) 
is a synonym. 

Var. QUADBicoLOR, Gmelin. Fig. 86. 

Whitish, yellowish white or rosy white, the ribs maculated with 
purplish black, aperture white. 

Red Sea, Bombay, E. coast of Africa, Southward to Natal. 

It is N. maris-rubrce, Chemnitz. 

Var. INCURVA, Martens. Fig. 99. 

Variegated and interruptedly banded with black and yellowish 
grey, aperture white tinged with yellow or fulvous, the outer margin 
elongated and sinuated at the extremities, above and below; riblets 
about 30, flat, close, nnequal. Diam. 30-39 mill. 

Mozambique, E. Africa. 

Var. Grayana, Recluz. Figs. 2, 3. 

Riblets rather narrow and high, sometimes with intermediate 
smaller ones, jnirplish, varying to ash grey, somewhat obscurely 
maculated with purplish black or darker grey. Diam. 30-34 mill. 

East Indies and Philippines. 

Somewhat distinctive in color, but the markings and sculpture of 
the usual patterns. 

Var. FUNicuLATA, Reeve. Figs. 95, 30. 

Black, with scattered white or yellowish white spots on the ribs, 
aperture tinged with yellow. 

Neiv Caledonia to Central Polynesia. 

The ribs vary in number and development, and are often irregular 
in size on the same sjiecimen. Some collectors have confounded it 
with the West American V. scabricosta, but that species is larger 
and more compressed and rounded and generally more rugose. 
Probably N. punctata, Quoy and Gaimard (PI. 7, fig. 30) is identical. 



30 NERITA. 

Var. FLAMMULATA, Recluz. 

Yellowish grey, maculated sjiarsely with black, ribs about 24, 
alternately smaller. Diam. 23 mill. 

Malay Arcldpelago. 

N. scABRicosTA, Lam. PI. 6, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell with numerous, rather close rounded ribs, crossed by close 
scabrous longitudinal strise, dark greyish or black, more or less 
maculated or spotted with orange brown, occasionally irregularly 
banded with the latter; lip black-margined, numerously toothed 
within, with larger teeth at the extremities, columellar teeth very 
strong and ])rominent, the area deeply plicate, with a peri)endicular 
series of three tubercles below, sometimes confluent or obsolete. 

Diam. 30-50 mill. 

Panama, northward to Loiver California. 

The synonyms are N. ornata, Sowb. (fig. 5), N. fuscata, Menke, 
N. Deshayesii, Recluz (fig. Q&), and 'N. multijugis, Menke. I retain 
Lamarck's name for this species although the identification is some- 
what doubtful, Delessert figuring a N. eostata for it; and I do this 
because in the United States the species has been usually so designa- 
ted. Dr. von Martens calls it N. ornata, Sowerby, a name published 
about the name date. The scabrous surface and compressed rounded 
form well distinguish the species. 

Section Odontostoma, (Klein. 1753), Morch. 1852. 

N. POLiTA, Linn. PL (i, figs. 7-11 ; PL 7, figs. 12-23. 

Shell thick, smooth, polished, sometimes with faintly rugose 
growth-lines or very obscure spiral riblets, greyish, flecked or 
spotted or banded with white, yellow, orange, red or black, the 
ground color itself varying rather unusually to one of the other 
colors, with or without flecks and bands; aperture porcellanous, 
polished, thick, outer lip smooth or obscurely dentate w'ithin, colu- 
mellar lip feebly dentate, the area smooth. Diam. 25-40 mill. 

Hed Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Polynesia, Mawritius. 

The immense variation of coloving in this beautiful species has 
been the cause of a considerable duplication of specific names. I 
give examples showing the usual as well as some of the rarer 
patterns of ornamentation. The synonymy includes N. nigra, N. 
flavescens, and N. hieroglyphica, Chemn., N. bidens and JV. bifaseiata, 
GmeL, ^Y. Orbignyana, Recluz (figs. 19, 20). 



NERITA. 31 

Var. ANTiQUATA, Recluz. Fig. 17. 

Closely wrinkled by impressed growth-lines, aperture and colu- 
mella orange-tinted. 

Var. AURORA, Dunker. Fig. 21. 

Closely wrinkled as in Var. antiquata, but the shell less transverse, 
with somewhat elevated spire ; white, with three yellowish brown 
bauds mottled with chestnut, aperture orange-tinted. 

Var. Umlaasiana, Krauss. Fig. 18. 

More obliquely elongated, the outer lip more extended upon the 
spire above, dark olivaceous, mottled with black. 

So. Africa. 
Var. RuMPHii, Recluz. Figs. 8-11, 16, 22, 28. 

Smaller, usually closely spirally striate, coloring often in definite, 
wide or narrow bands, but varying to unicolored, mottled or 
interruptedly banded. 

X. Doreyana (fig. 23) and X. Giiamensis (tig. 22), of Quoy, are 
synonyms. 

M. maxima, Gmel. PI. 7, figs. 24, 25. 

Thick, lightly decussated by incremental strise and evanescent 
spiral sulcations, yellowish grey interruptedly banded with black, 
and irregularly strigated and maculated with black and white ; 
interior of outer lip numerously denticulate, columella smooth, 
bearing three jDrominent teeth on its edge, tinged with yellow. 

Diam. 36 mill. 

Central Pacific Ocean. 

Var. OBATRA, Rqcluz. Fig. 25. 

Shell olivaceous black, obscurely maculated. 

Var. trifasciata, Montr, from New Caledonia, appears to repeat, 
on a darker ground-color the banded condition of the type. 

N. BisECTA, Reeve. PL 7, fig. 26. 

Shell with strong revolving ridges and equal intermediate sulci, 
the ridges black and divided in the middle by an incised line, sulci 
yellowish grey ; outer lip many-toothed within, teeth of the extrem- 
ities larger, columella smooth, yellowish, the margin three-toothed. 

Diam. 23 mill. 

West Africa. 

N. AscENsiONis, Chemn. PL 7, fig. 27. 

Shell with strong spiral ridges and somewhat wider sulci, yellow- 
ish grey, strongly tessellated with black on the ridges, outer lij) 



32 NERITA. 

uuiiierously hut inconspicously minutely toothed, inner lip three- 
toothed, area plane and smooth. Diam. 30-36 mill. 

Ascension Isl. 
X. diversicolor, Martyn is a synonym. 

N. LiNEATA, Chemn. PI. 8, figs. 32, 33; PI. 7, fig. 29. 

Purplish grey or yellowish olive, with numerous, thread-like, 
purplish black spiral elevated lines, often spar&ely speckled with 
white; outer lip numerously denticulate within, inner lip three- 
toothed, area smooth. Diam. 30 mill. 

Malaysian Is., N. Australia, etc. 

X. Birmanica, Phil. (fig. 29) is a synonym. N. balteata. Reeve 
(fig. 33) diflTej-s only in the riblets being a little more distant. 

N. CEROSTOMA, Troschel. PI. 8, figs. 36, 37. 

Black, with about 22 strong, rugose, rounded spiral ribs, the 
upper ones wider, interstices narrow; aperture yellowish, outer 
lip numerously denticulate, columellar area smooth, the margin 
three toothed. Diam. 27 mill. 

Peru. 
N". GEMMULATA, Reeve. PI. 8, fig. 38. 

Greyish, with thin, i-ather distant, acutely granulated spiral lirse, 
tessellated with black and blue; outer lip without internal teeth, 
columellar margin obscurely tridentate, area smooth. 

t)iam. 1 in. 

Hab. unknown. 

N. FULGiNATA, Reeve. PL 8, fig. 39; PI. 7, fig. 28. 

With depressed close spiral riblets, purplish or orange red banded 
with black or maculated; aperture yellowish white, outer lip numer- 
ously minutely toothed within, columellar area smootli, the margin 
three-toothed. Diam. 20 mill. 

Singapore (Schmacker), Viti Is. (Garrett). 

N. alveolus, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 28), appears to be identical and 
if the date on the title page is correct, was published a year earlier. 

N. FiLOSA, Reeve. PI. 8, fig. 35. 

Yellowish, with somewhat distant reddish, serrated, divided 
spiral ridges; aperture white, lip numerously toothed within, colu- 
mellar area smooth, tlie margin with four teeth. Diam. 22 mill. 

Hab unknown. 



NERITA. oS 

N. Georgina, Recluz. PI. 7, fig. 31. 

With acute, subdistant ridges, frequently in pairs, yellowish grey 
articulated with black ; aperture yellowish, with black spots on the 
margin, columellar area smooth, the margin obscurely dentate, den- 
ticles of interior of outer lip obsolete. Diani.18 mill. 

King George s Island. 

N. MORio, Sowb. PI. 9, fig. 75; PI. 8, figs. 41, 46. 

Black, usually polished, with slightly impressed spiral lines; 
aperture yellowish, the outer lip callously thickened Avithin, but not 
toothed, columellar lip minutely or obsoletely toothed in the middle, 
area somewhat concave, polished, smooth. Diam. 18-22 mill. 

Atistralia, New Zealand, Polynesia. 

Confounded with ^V. atrata, Linn. N. nigerrima, Chemn. N. Sene- 
galensis, Gmel. etc. but differs by the smooth interior of the outer 
lip, as well as by its oblique last whorl. It was described as a 
Neritina, and afterwards by Reeve as ^Y. Neritinoides (fig. 46); 
another synonym is N. carbonaria, Philippi (fig. 41). 

"N". EssiNGTONi, Recluz. PL 8, fig. 45. 

Shell with somewhat high sjjire, black, conspicuously spirally 
sulcate; outer lip smooth within, columellar lip slightly dentate on 
the middle margin, the area smooth. Diam. 18 mill. 

Australia. 

Has much the appearance of ^Y. nigerrima externally, but diflfers 
in its columellar area ; also resembles N. atramentosa, except in the 
absence of the teeth within the outer lip. Very probably they will 
all prove to belong to one and the same species. 

N. picEA, Recluz. PI. 8, fig. 47; PI. 9, figs. 52, 70, 74; PI. 4, fig. 60. 

Shell smooth, polished, with close or distant slight engraved lines, 
black, often showing faint minute greyish flecks, but frequently so 
obscure as to be scarcely visible; aperture white, outer liji without 
teeth, columellar margin minutely or obsoletely dentate in the 
middle, area flat, smooth, polished. Diam. 12-18 mill. 

Japan, Polynesia to Sandivich Is^ 

I have been on the point of merging this in the preceding species 
as a synonym. In its unspotted state it is only distinguished by 
smaller size. iV. obseura, Hombr. and Jacq. (fig. 52), N. insculpta,. 
Reeve (fig. 74), and N. bullula, Reeve (fig. 70), are synonyms,, 
The shell which Philippi has figured for N. picea (fig. 60), if that 
species, is a somewhat abnormal specimen. 
3 



34 NERITA. 

N. AFFiNis, Reeve. PI. 9, figs. 51, 58, 54; PL 8, figs. 49, 50. 

Shell usually transverse, closely, somewhat scabrously spirally 
striate, marbled and speckled with white and grey or olivaceous ; 
aperture bluish white, minutely obsoletely toothed or edentulate 
within the outer lip, columeHar area smooth, the margin obsoletely 
toothed. Diam. 10-18 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

N. Samoensis, Dunker (figs. 49, 50), K costulata, Busch, and 
probably K Vitiensis, Hombr. et Jacq. (figs. 58, 54) are synonyms. 

N. PICA, Gould. PI. 9, figs. 59, 60, 76. 

Usually smooth, sometimes spirally striate, black with cuneiform 
markings or reticulations of white; aperture whitish, the outer lip 
.smooth within, columellar margin minutely denticulated, the area 
flattened, smooth. Diam. 15 mill. 

Japan, Polynesia. 

X. Japonica, Dunker is evidently synonymous, but the figure 
given for that species in Thes. Conch, and which I have inadver- 
tently copied (PI. 9, fig. 58), is evidently something else. N. Melal- 
euca, Martens and N. rudis, Pease (fig. 76), are to be added to the 
synonymy. The figure of N. rudis (copied from Pease), very poorly 
represents the shell ; the types before me are undoubtedly ^Y. pica. 

N. ve;xillum. Reeve. PI. 9, fig. 61. 

Spirally ribbed, with narrow intermediate gi'ooves, orange colored, 
with two broad black, orange-spotted bands; aperture yellowish 
white, outer lip edentulous, columellar margin sharply toothed, the 
area flat. Diam. 22 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
N. AECTA, Hombr. and Jacq. PI. 9, figs. 64, 65. 

Spirally ribbed, white, witli scattered dark spots; aperture with- 
out teeth, columellar area flattened, smooth. Diam. 17 mill. 

Ami Is., N. of Australia. 

I know nothing of this species ; it has been overlooked, as most 
of the species of these authors have been, by Reeve and Sowerby. 

N. sTRicTA, Baird. PL 9, figs. 67, 68, 62. 

With low spiral ridges, and broad siiallow interstices, whitish 
with scattered black markings, varying to greyish black ; aperture 
yellowish, lip thickened within, edentulate, columellar area smooth, 
the edge obsoletely dentate. Diam. 12-15 mill. 

Polynesia, Xeiv Caledonia. 



NERITIXA. 



X. XorcB-Caiedonice, Baird (tigs. 67, GS), is a syuoiiym. My 
figure of K. drida is unfortunately taken from Sowerby's Thesaurus* 
and is certainly not typical, Baird's figure being exactly like N. 
Novce- Caledonia' in all its features exce])t being darker colored. 



Unfigured Species of JVerita. 
N. TENEBROSA, Rccluz. Solo /., N. of Bomeo. 

N. coRROSULA, Recluz. N. Guinea. 

N. 8CABRELLA, and N. RiNGicuLA, Phil. Hob. unknoivn. 

N. HiLLEAXA, Dunker. Samoan Is. 

N. Nov^-HiBERNiiE, Lesson. K. Ireland. 

Genus NERITINA, Lam. 1801). 
Section Np^ritina (sensu stricto), Swaiuson. 1840. 

N. GAGATEs, Lam. PL 10, figs. 77-79, 97, 98 ; PI. 11, fig. 6. 

Striulate, polished, olivaceous or brownish black, with close black 
zigzag lines; aperture bluish white. Diam. 18-26 mill. 

Mauritius, Seyehelles, Isle of Bourbon. 

The synonyms are J\\ liturata, Recluz, N. Caffra, Gi'ay, N. zigzag, 
Morelet. Von IVIartens has vars. minor (fig. 78), and subplanispira 
(fig. 79), the latter for depressed specimens. I think that N. ful- 
gurata, Desh. (figs. 97, 98), from Isle of Bourbon, described from a 
single specimen, is simply a light-colored examj^le of this species. 

N. Natalensis, Reeve. PI. 10, figs. 80, SI ; PI. 11, fig. 9. 

Striulate, somewhat shining, yellowish brown with oblique black 
strigations, more or less decurrent or reticulately confluent; aper- 
ture bluish white. Diam. 19-28 mill. 

Mozambique to Natal. 

It is N. zebra, Krauss. N. Moquiniana, Recluz (fig. 9), is an un- 
identified si^ecies from "Islands of the South Sea," which appears 
to be closely related. 

N. variegata. Lesson. PI. 10, figs. 82-86; PL 12, figs. 23, 24. 

Somewhat shining, variegated with yellowish brown and black, 
usually in an irregular net-woi'k jiattern, the meshes large or small, 
sometimes the black reticulations form irregular broad bands, and 
occasionally they cover the entire surface so as to make it nearly 
unicolored ; aperture whitish or bluish white, the columella with a 
tinge of orange-l)rown. Diam. 16-23 mill. 

East Indies, Polynesia. 



36 NERITINA. 

The synonyms are JV. Siiviatrensis, Sowb., X. pidchra, Sowb. (figs. 
23, 24), N. gagates, Morch, Clithon Zelandicus, var. helvola, Mous- 
son (not Gould). N. WalUsiarum, Recluz, is black, with inconspicu- 
ous pellucid-white or brown dots, and is probably not distinct from 
N. variegata; I think it likely that N. Guvieriana, Reel. (figs. 85, 
86), should also be placed here. N. pidchra, Sowb. (figs. 23, 24), 
was described as from Panama, Avhere it is believed no such species 
exists. kSowerby's figure shows some reddish zones alternating with 
olivaceous, which are not present in specimens of pidchra received 
from Sowerby as from Panama, but of a number of specimens of 
variegata from the Viti Islands, collected by Mr. Garrett, two have 
this peculiar red banding. 

N. ziczAc, Sowb. PL 10, figs. 87-92 ; PL 11, figs. 100, 5. 

Striulate, shining, olivaceous or yellowish, with zigzag or undu- 
lating radiating black stripes; aperture bluish white, columella 
often tinged yellowish-brown. Diam. 20 mill. 

East Indies, Polynesia. 

According to the relative thickness of the stripes and interspaces 
the pattern sometimes appears to be black on an olivaceous ground, 
at others olivaceous on a black ground. Originally identified with 
N. ziczac, Lam., but is not that species ; yet, as it has become well- 
known under that name, I have not deemed it advisable to adopt 
another for it, as Martens has done. The synonyms are N. strigil- 
lata (Lam.), Recluz, N. aquatilis. Reeve (fig. 100), N. Jovis, Reel. 
(fig. 5), N. ramosa, Meusch., and var. inter stitialis, Martens, in 
which the olive color is replaced by orange brown. 

The true N. ziczac of Lam. appears to be most nearly related to 
N. reclivata. Say. 

Var. COROMANDELIANA, Sowb. 

Olivaceous, with subtriangular black maculations. 

N. triangidaris, Meusch., and N. pulcherrima and N. insignis, 
Mousson, are synonyms. Martens has adopted this varietal name 
for the species. 

Var. SERKULATA, Recluz. 

Black, with numerous small olivaceous spots. 

N. gidtxdata, Mouss., and var. xanthostigma, Martens, are syno- 
nyms. 



NERITINA. 87 

N. ZEBRA, Brug. PI. 10, figs. 93-95. 

Somewliat shining, yellowish olive or orange brown, with un- 
dulating radiating broad black stripes ; aperture whitish. 

Diam. 21-23 mill. 

Northern So. America to Brazil; Porto Ricof, Panama?. 

I find no characters by which to distinguish this from varieties 
of jSf. ziczac, unless it be by the less angulated patcern of the stripes 
and their greater width ; moreover, I know of no such American 
form, and I cannot help thinking that, at least as to some of the 
identifications, the mistake has been made of confounding ^vith it 
varieties of N. reclivata and N. virginea. Entirely similar shells 
are in the Philadelphia Collection, received from Cuming as from 
Taheiti. N. lineolata (? Lam.), of Sowb., Reeve, etc., and N. so- 
hritia, Recluz (fig. 95), are referred here by INIartens. 

N. Smithi, Sowb. PI. 10, fig. 96. 

Smooth, somewhat shining, light olivaceous, with close undulat- 
ing black lines, occasionally confluent into varicose-looking wider 
ones ; aperture bluish white. Diam. 22 mill. 

Bengal. 

N. tigrina, Benson, and N. hamtdigera, Troschel, are synonyms. 

N. PLUMBEA, Reel. p. 11, figs. 7, 8. 

Striulate, a little shining, greyish olivaceous, unicolored or with 
two broad dark bands ; a]>erture whitish. Diam. 19-25 mill. 

Philippine Islands. 
Is. TURRiTA, Chemn. PI. 11, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell oblong conical, lightly striulate, shining, spire elevated, 
pointed, olivaceous or brow'nish with oblique, curved or somewhat 
flexuous black stripes ; aperture bluish white, columellar area yellow 
tinted. Length, 25-32 mill. 

J^ast Indies, Philippines, Australia. 

The synonyms are N. strigillata, and N. luguhris. Lam., N. no- 
bills, Chenu. 

Var. CuMiNGiANA, Recluz. Fig. 2. 

Strigations narrower, closer and more numerous. 

N. SEMicoNiCA, Lam. PI. 11, figs. 3, 4. 

Olivaceous or light brownish, with two or three spiral rows of 
black markings, sometimes faintly olivaceous banded. 

Length, 25-30 mill. 

India. 



38 NERITINA. 

iV. fimbria, Meusch., is a synonym. Von Martens and others 
consider X. semiconka a variety of N. tiirrita, but it appears to me 
to have the characters of a distinct species. 

N. RoissYANA, Recluz. PI. 11, figs. 10-13. 

Conical, olivaceous or bluish white, with very close zigzag black 
lines, often wider than the interspaces, so that the whole shell ap- 
pears blackish ; aperture bluish white, the columellar area yellow- 
tinted. Length, 16-20 mill 

Australia to Central Polynesia. 

Shaped like a JSf. turrita in miniature, but with the broad stripes 
of that species replaced by very close zigzag lines. The synonyms 
are N. cuprina, Reel. (fig. 11), K chrysocolla, Gould (fig. 12), N. 
Navigatoria, Reeve (fig. 13), ^V. rivula, Hombr. and Jacq., and N. 
Vitiensis, Mousson. 

N. TuRTONi, Recluz. PL 11, figs. 14, 15. 

Orange or orange-red, often Avith a coppery lustre, with close, 
undulating, oblique, broad black stripes ; aperture light olivaceous- 
or greenish white, columella bright salmon color. 

Diam. 18-25 mill. 

Viti Is., in brackish and fresh water. 

The locality, jSTew Ireland, given by Hinds, needs confirmation. 
The synonymy includes N. lugubris, Sowb., N. Zelandica, Recluz, 
N. helvola, Gould, and perhaps N. mix, Brod., a unicolored brown- 
ish shell from Tahiti. 

N. FULGETRUM, Rcevc. PI. 12, fig. 30. 

Shell olivaceous, with blackish maculations and strigatious ; 
aperture whitish, columellar area orange-red. Diam. 16 mill. 

Hab. miknoton. 

The direction of the pattern of ornantentation is the principal 
difference between this species, which remains unidentified, and the 
preceding one. 

N. COMMUNIS, Quoy and Gaimard. PI. 11, figs. 16-22. 

Smooth and shining, variously solidly zoned with white, yellow 
or purple, a portion of the banding usually overlaid with zigzag 
oblique black stripes ; aperture bluish white, the convex columellar 
area white or yellowish. Diam. 15-21 mill. 

East Indies, Philippines; brackish water. 

The figures which I have selected will give some idea of this 
beautiful species, but there are besides, many other combiiuitions of 



NERITINA. 39 

coloring. N. Waigiensis, Lesson, N. strlgillata, Sowb., N. zebra, 
Troschel, N. elegantina, Bnsch, and N. clegmiiissima, Morch, are 
synonyms, 

N. RECLivATA, Say. PI. 12, figs. 25-30. 

Shell olivaceous, sometimes light brownish, with oblique, some- 
what undulating or zigzag narrow black lines, usually jDarallel but 
sometimes reticulating, the aperture and convex columellar area 
bluish white. Diam. 15-23 mill. 

Florida, West Indies, Mexico, Central America 

N. lineolata, Lam., is now supposed to be identical, and according 
to printed dates of publication has three months' priority ; but con- 
ceding this, it would still be of very questionable advantage to 
science to substitute a name which has been variously identified for 
one the application of which has never been doubted, and so has 
become well-known. N. zigzag of Lam., not authors, has also been 
referred here. Other synonyms are N. microstoma, d'Orb., ^ 
gravis, Shuttl. and Morelet, N. olivacea, Wiegm., and var. conoidalis, 
Martens, for the conical, lineolate form with parallel strigations; N 
reticulata, Cristofori and Jan, for the specimens with reticulated 
pattern; and jV. striolata, Recluz (fig. 28), iV. Floridana, Shuttlew. 
(fig. 29), and var. rotundata. Martens, for a short-spired form. 

N. viRGiNEA, Linn. PI. 12, figs. 31-45. 

Smooth, polished, usually white, sage colored, yellowish or vio- 
laceous, with a fine, close painting of parallel longitudinal darker 
colored lines, either extending across the entire surface or inter- 
rupted so as to form spiral zones, upon this surface of close lines are 
placed miscellaneously numbers of subtriangular spots of the ground 
color of the shell, sometimes covering it entirely, at other times 
forming spiral bands of large spots, with smaller intermediate ones. 

Diam. 6-20 mill. 

West Indies to Brazil. 

I have figured some of the common as well as the more striking 
color modifications of this elegant and very variable species. There 
are tAvo or three patterns of coloring which are much more comhion 
than the others, yet which cannot be called varietal ; they are 1st, 
whitish violaceous, covered by close violet lines upon which are 
triangular spots ; 2d, a similar pattern, but the colors light and 
dark olivaceous ; 3d, light sage green, with darker lines, but almost 
covered over by the spots which are arranged somewhat as on a 



40 NERITINA. 

serpent's skin. The synonymy is enormous, including N. Brasili- 
ana, Recluz, N. trabalis, and K chlorina, Link, J\\ flavojneta and 
N. vinosa, Mouss,, N. Listen, Pfr., N. turriculata, Meuke, N. Matoni, 
Morch, N. meleagris, Lam., N. elegantissima, Hartm. (figs. 44, 45), 
K. Jamaicensis, Ads., K. pulchella, Gray, probably N. Leachii, 
Recluz, and N. tenebrlcosa, Ads., and vars. ohlouga and elongata, 
von Martens. 

N. TRiSERiALis, Sowb. JPl. 12, figs. 46, 47. 

Whitish, closely lined with dark grey, covered by white triangu- 
lar spots which are usually more conspicuous in three spiral series 
or bands. Diam. 14 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

This species has not been identified ; its coloring resembles that 
of N. virginea, but its form is more globose, with the whorls a little 
excavated above. 

N. Wallace!, Dohrn. PI. 12, fig. 48. 

Striulate, greenish, with seven narrow, dark green or blackish 
spiral bands ; aperture white, columellar area strongly callous. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Ami Islands. 
N. PoucHETi, Honibr. and Jacq. PI. 12, fig. 49. 

Brownish, with black transverse striae ; aperture large, rounded, 
with the columellar margin numerously dentate. Diam. 17'5 mill. 

Amboina. 

This species is only known through the original figure and de- 
scription. 

N. Adansonl\na, Eecluz. PI. 13, figs. 50, 51. 

Yellowish brown, fiexuously strigate, and reticulate with dark 
olivaceous or black, usually with an overlaying pattern of miscel- 
laneously arranged light spots ; aperture and columellar area bluish 
white or yellowish white. Alt. 11 mill. 

Senegal, Cape Palmas, W. Africa. 

X. Sangara, Morelet is a synonym. 

N. ATERRIMA, Koch. PI. 11, fig. 99. 

Globosely oblong, smooth, black, the spire elate, conical, some- 
what acute ; aperture white, columellar area flattened, the margin 
toothed in the middle. Diam. 15 mill. 

Habitat nnknoivn. 

This sj)ecies lias not been identified. 



NERITINA. 41 

N. Sayana and N. phasiana, Recluz. Unfigured. Philippines. 

N. piCTA, Sowb. PI. 18. figs. 52-55. 

Smooth, polished, yellowish or grey or broadly alternately banded 
with both, with flexuous oblique, bluish white strigations; aperture 
bluish, columellar area flattened, chestnut color, margin rather 
strongly denticulate. Diam. ll-13'5 mill. 

Gulf of California to Panama. 

Various color variations have been narmed vars. nigrofasciata, 
Inteofasciata, guttata and albescens, Miller. 

N. Ualanensis, Lesson. PI. 13, figs. 56-68. 

Smooth, shining, many colored, usually yellow, olivaceous or pink, 
with subundulating to reticulating close longitudinal purple-black 
or reddish lines, continuous over the whole surfiice, or interrupted 
to form spiral bands, often with subtriangular light colored spots 
with darker margins in spiral series ; aperture usually yellowish, 
sometimes bluish white, columellar area narrow, a little convex, 
yellowish, faintly coriaceous-rugulose and foveolate, the margin 
with a central sinus which has four or five minute teeth, and a 
larger one above them. Diam. 7-12 mill. 

Indian Ocean to Polynesia. 

A widely distributed species, which closely mimics the West 
Indian N. virginea. Like that species, it inhabits both brackish 
water and the ocean, and it is equally variable in its markings. It 
is perhaps less conical, as a rule, smaller, its columellar area is more 
yellowish and flatter. The operculum differs somewhat from that 
of N. virginea, the rib and apophyses are well-developed, nearly 
equally large, with a connecting band almost equally elevated. 

The synonymy includes N. Oualaniensis, Lesson, N. nuhila, 
Busch, iV. MertonianM, Recluz, N. nehulata, and N. Ceylonensis, 
Recluz, N. Garretti, Mousson, N. indchella, Morch, N. cincta and 
N. columbaria, Recluz, N. Gaimardi, Souleyet, N. ornatella, N. 
delicatula, N. guttulata, and N. multipicta, Mouss. Mss. and the 
following color-varieties, named by von Martens : conferta (fig. 56), 
polydelta (figs. 57, 58), diremta (figs, 59, 60),frondicincta (figs. 61- 
64), nigrobifasciata (figs. 65, Q6), j^arcepicta (figs. 67, 68). 

N. NouLETiANA, Gassics. PL 13, figs. 69, 70. 

Solid, shining, blackish violaceous, with superimjjosed tent-shaped 
whitish or yellowish maculations, apex violaceous ; columellar area 



42 NERITINA. 

and aperture greenish yellow, the former concave, with 2-3 margi- 
nal teeth. Diam. 7, alt. 10-12 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
Possibly a variety of the preceding species. 

N. MODicELLA, Desh. PL 13, fig. 71. 

Oval-globose, whorls 3, the last large, rugose, blackish brown, 
Avith small greyish-white irregular scale-like spots ; aperture yellow- 
ish white, columellar area wide, plane, smooth, the edge with a 
single obscure tooth-like elevation. Alt. 12, diam. 9 mill. 

Ins. Bourbon. 

Section Puperita, Gray. 1857. 

N. PUPA, Linn. PI. 14, figs. 72-74. 

Smooth, opaque, white, longitudinally more or less flexuously'and 
anastomosely strigate or coarsely or finely, reticulated Avith black ; 
aperture light orange-brown. Diam. 8-13 mill. 

West Indies. 

The synonyms are N. delineata, Boubee, N. liturata, Schultze, N. 
venosa, Menke and var. tristis, d'Orb., the latter for closely reticu- 
lated specimens. 

N. RETICULATA, Sowb, PI. 14, figs. 75, 7(3. 

Solid, smooth or obsoletely spirally engraved, transverse, whitish, 
openly or closely reticulated with black ; aperture yellowish. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Tahiti, Pauinotus, Mauritius. 

Distinguished from JV. pupa by its more transverse form and sul- 
cations- — when the latter are present. The synonyms are : X. Des- 
mo'idinsiana and X. Bensoni, Recluz. 

N. HOLOSERicA, Garrett. PI. 14, fig. 77. 

Closely spirally striate, with sharp spire, blackish, under a thin 
greyish olivaceous, somewhat tomentose epidermis ; aperture oli- 
vaceous yellow, columellar area flattened, polished, but very mi- 
nutely granular. Diam. 12 mill. 

Viti Is. 
N. AMQiNA, Gould. PI. 14, figs. 78-80, 84. 

Shell transverse, whorls rapidly increasing, the last whorl swollen, 
spire scarcely raised ; with rugose growth-lines and slight, impressed 
spiral strite ; greyish olivaceous or purplish-blue, sometimes with 



NERITINA. 43 

light reddish purple bands, speckled over with white spots ; aper- 
ture tinged with yellow. Diani. 9-11 mill. 

Viti and ^Samoa Is. 

JSf. Godeffroyana, Mousson, PI. 14, fig. 80, and probably N. Gue- 
rini, Recluz (fig. 84), are synonyms : if the latter determination be 
correct, it has precedence in publication ; it is misprinted N. Gui- 
nerii, in Reeve. 

N. MOROSA, Gassies. PI. 14, fig. 81. 

Solid, shining, strinlate, greyish black, irregularly punctate with 
white ; aperture bluish grey, the columellar area brown-tinged. 

Alt. 14 mill. 

Neiv Caledonia. 

N. OBTUSA, Benson. PI. 14, figs. 82, 83. 

Shell spirally engraved, epidermis greenish or olivaceous ; aper- 
ture ash color. Diam, 12 mill. 

India, Java. 

N. spiralis, Reeve (fig. 83), is a synonym. 

N. GUTTULATA, Gassies. PL 14, fig. 85. 

Longitudinally and spirally striate, scarcely shining, violaceous 
black, sparsely white-dotted ; whorls I2, rapidly enlarging; aper- 
ture yellowish corneous, columellar area convex, minutely sub- 
granular. Alt. 9 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Appears to be allied to X. avicena, Gould. Described originally 
as N. gidtata, a specific name preoccupied by Recluz. 

N. 8ALMACIDA, Morelet. PI. 14, fig. 86. 

Thick, shining, laterally compressed, striate, with engraved sjiiral 
lines, more apparent above, greenish brown ; aperture ashy white, 
columellar area light yellowish, the centre of its margin with two 
or three minute teeth. Alt. 13 mill. 

Comoro Is. 

N. MoRCHiANA, Dunker. PI. 14, figs. 87, 88. 

Rather thin, olivaceous, with black zigzag narrow lines, thinly 
striate; aperture bluish white. Alt. 12 mill. 

Madras^ 

I am not acquainted with this species. 



44 NERITINA. 

N", iNCERTA, Gassies. PI. 14, fig. 89. 

Solid, striate, with spiral engraved lines, whitish under a black 
and rosy epidermis, with black lines or flames forming three bands ; 
peristome whitish, interior white, yellowish or rosy. Alt. 13 mill. 

JV. Caledonia. 

Only known to me by the figure and description. 



N. ELLIPTICA, Guillou. Unfigurcd. Marquisas Is. 

Section Neritodryas, Martens. 1869. 

N. DUBiA, Chemn. PL 14, figs. 90-95. 

Finely, faintly striulate, without sj)iral sculpture, olivaceous or 
orange-brown, with a fine or coarse pattern of zigzag black lines, 
often interrupted to form bands, sometimes only appearing here and 
there, or entirely absent, seldom confluent, making the entire sur- 
fiice thick ; aperture bluish white, often with an orange tint near 
the margin, columellar area usually tinted with yellow, varying to 
orange brown, the margin edentulous. Diam. 20-27 mill. 

East Indies, Philippines, New Caledonia, etc. 

The synonyms are N. fasciata, Lam., N. lugubris, Lesson, N. reti- 
culata, Quoy and Gaim., N. zebroides, Lesson, N. Philippinarum, 
Sowb.,? N. vestita, Souleyet, JV". bella, Busch, N. Adamsi, Issel, JSf. 
atra. Lesson. 

Var. APIATA, Recluz. Fig. 95. 

Yellowish olivaceous, transversely flecked with yellowish white. 

Diam 16 mill. 

As this has heretofore been treated as a distinct species, I retain 
it as a variety, but its characteristic markings shade ott' into those 
of JV. dubia, of which it is a juvenile state of growth. 

N. CORNEA, Linn. Pi: 14, figs. 96-100, 1. 

With low, flatly rounded riblets separated by incised spiral lines, 
the sculpture usually faint, sometimes obsolete, yellowish brown or 
olivaceous, generally more or less interruptedly banded and sub- 
tessellated with black, occasionally all black ; aperture whitish, 
columellar area white, or more or less tinged with yellowish to 
orange-brown, when ^vhite often Avith black blotches behind, margin 
edentulate, varying to obsoletely minutely toothed. 

Diam. 25-42 mill. 

East Indies, Philippines, New Caledonia, Viti Is., etc. 



NERITINA. 45 

I have included in the above de^^cription forms heretofore re- 
garded as distinct, but which do not appear to possess permanent 
differential characters. The principal mark of this species is the 
presence of spiral sculpture, but I have before me specimens in 
which this is partially obsolete, suggesting very strongly a connec- 
tion with N. dubia. The typical ^V. cornea embraces the smaller 
forms, with less developed sculpture, columellar area yellowish, be- 
coming deeper, orange or blackish on the outer edge, the margin 
edentulate. Here may be placed as synonyms N. amphibia and N. 
ampxdiaria, Lesson, N. morio, Deshayes, N. sulcata, Anton, N. Savesi, 
Gassies (fig. 1), and N. gagates, Troschel, with var. atramentaria, 
Tapparone Canefri. 

Var. suBSULCATA, Sowb. Figs. 98, 1)9. 

The shell is somewhat larger, often more distinctly sculptured, the 
color patterns more obscure or unicolored, the columellar margin 
obsoletely denticulated, the area white, with black blotches behind. 

N. subsinuata, Mousson is a synonym, being a typographical 
error for subsidcata. 

Var. Chimmoi, Eeeve. Fig. 100. 

The largest form of the series, with moderate sculpture and 
darker epidermis, unicolored or obsoletely maculated and dotted ; 
columellar margin edentulate, area orange-brown. 

Var. NoLANi, Try on. 

Light violaceous, with several black bands over wliich are scat- 
tered opaque white fleckings. 

A single specimen of this exquisite color-variety of the typical 
N. cornea is in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy. 

Section Theodoxuw, Montf. 1810. 

N. Danubialis, Miihlf Fl. 15, figs. 2-9. 

Subglobose, occasionally spirally constricted (fig. 7), yellowish 
white, with irregular purple or brown undulating or zigzag lines, 
aperture bluish white. Diam. 11-18 mill. 

Loiver Danube, Northern Italy, etc. 

The synonyms of the typical form are X. Marsigliana, Hartm., 
N. Damibiensis, Sadler. 

Var. stragulata, Miihlf Figs. 4, 5. 

Angulate form ; sjiire depressed, shoulder of whorl obtusely an- 
gular, strigations wider, sometimes entirely black. The synonyms 



46 NERITINA. 

of this form are JS\ gatKjrenosa, Schmidt, X. atrata, Ziegler, K elata, 
Hauti"., and X. nigresoens and X.fusca, Kutschig. 

Var. CARTNATA, Kokeil. Fig. 7. 

Cingulate form : last whorl spirally constricted, with carinated 
shoulder. 

Var. SERRATILINEA, Ziegler. Fig. 8. 

Transverse form : shell wide, with zigzag strigations, sometimes 
almost entirely black. 

The synonyms are iV. lacustris, Olivi, N. Gardemis, Stenz, N. 
Benacensis, Stenz, N. Mantuana, Porro, and N. atra, Parr. 

Var. CHRYsosTOMA, Kutschig. Fig. 9. 

Golden mouthed form : larger, variously strigate, aperture golden 
yellow, posterior portion of columellar area blackish. 

N. modesta, Kiister and N. incrusfans, Ziegl., are synonyms. 

N. FLUviATiLis, Linn. PL 15, figs. 10-25. 

Shell transverse, rapidly enlarging, last whorl swollen, white, 
light green, pink, violet, grey or brown with transversely elongated 
or subtriangular spots of white, or darker zigzag strigations, some- 
times irregularly banded ; aperture bluish white or yellowish, show- 
ing the external markings by transparency, columellar margin 
edentulous. Diam. 6-12 mill. 

Northern and Middle Europe : Great Britain., France, Holland, 
Germany, Russia, Norway and Stveden, Italy, Dalmatia. 

This common European species is widely distrii)uted in fresh 
Avater, its normal habitat, and occurs also in thermal and salt 
springs, in brackish and even in sea water. Its distinguishing 
character is its transverse form ; the colors vary considerably, but 
the pattern is usually either transverse, nebulous light spots and 
streaks on a dark ground, or oblique dark zigzags on alight ground, 
the difference of appearance being due to the greater or less thick- 
ness and frequency of the dark markings. Fig. 15 represents a 
form from a salt stream; fig. 16 is a marine form from the Baltic 
coasts, known as N. Baltica, Beck, and which is N. littoralis, Linn, 
in part ; fig. 17, the N. thermalis of Boubee (V. Prevostiana, 
Dupuy), occurs in thermal springs ; figs. 18, 19 represent specimens 
from Southern France, described as N. Parreyssii, Villa, N Mit- 
treana, Recluz, N. Reynesiana, Paladilhe, N. Pyrenaica, Moquin- 
Tandoi), and V. zebrlni, Rocluz ; figs. 20, 21 ai'e from Northern 
Italy, and have received the local names of N. rhodocolpos, Jan, N. 



NEEITINA. 47 

trifasciata, N. Ticinenxis and N. intexta, Villa ; rigs. 22, 28 are from 
Central Italy, including ^V. 7:>it.'>'<itA(^a, Parr., N. meridionalis, Mar- 
tens, N. Orsiuii, Pecchioli ; fig. 24, from Dalmatia, is iV. Dalmatica, 
Partsch, N. Diocletiana and N. guttata, Kiister, N. Petteri, Stentz, 
etc. ; and fig. 25 is a South Russian form described as N. dendritica, 
Ziegler, JSf. purpurata, Parr., N. subthermalis, Bourg. etc. Among 
the general synonyms may be enumerated N. lutetiana, Montf , N. 
Europcea, Leach, X. trifasciata, Menke, N. Porrol, Stabile, N. varia- 
bilis, Hecart, N. Bourguignati, Recluz, IN. lacustris, Linn., N. fon- 
tinalis, Brard, N. halophila, Klett, N. Bottgeri, Westerl., and vars. 
dilatata, Moquin-Taudon, and elongata, Broeck. 

N. TRANsvERSALis, Ziegler. PI. 16, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell obliquely transverse, slightly striulate, shining, greyish lead 
color, usually with three narrow dark bands. Diam. 10 mill. 

Danube and tributaries, Bavaria, Austria, Hungary, Tranxyhania, 
etc. 

It is N. trifasciata. Reeve, N. trizona, Zglr., and N. radiata, Lang. 

N. BoniM, Issel. PI. 16, fig. 28. 

Thin, distinctly striate, shining, blackish, with zigzag lighter 
strigations, sometimes interrupted ; aperture bluish white or yellow- 
ish. Diam. 6 mill. 

Southern Persia, in warm springs. 

N. LiTURATA, Eichwald. PI. 16, figs. 29, 30. 

Transverse, yellowish to olivaceous, with oblique, more or less 
zigzag dark strigations, rarely replaced by small flecks irregularly 
arranged in bands. Diam. 5'0-7'5 mill. 

Caspian, Aral and Black Seas. 

It is ^V. DanubiaUs, Siemaschko, N. fluvlatilis, Menetries, N. ser- 
ratilinea, Hohenacker, and N. pu])a, Pallas. 

K. Heldreichi, Schwerzenb. PI. 16, figs. 31, 32. 

Obliquely transverse, closely, slightly striate, light violaceous or 
greyish, reticulated with white and purple, with three ill-defined 
zones; aperture purplish, yellow-margined, columellar area flat- 
tened, minutely rugulose, bluish white. Diam. 7-11 mill. 

Asia Minor, Candia. 

N. vARiA, Ziegler. PI. 16, figs. 33, 34. 

Globosely subturbiuate, slightly striated, shining, yellowish olive, 
with narrow red strigations, or white, red-bordered macub.itions ; 



48 NERITINA. 

aperture diiiphanuuf;, showing the external markings, eolumellar 
area bhiisli, finely punctate. Diam. 6 mill. 

Co-^fu, Cephalonia, perhaps also Dahnatia. 
It is ^V. rimlls, Zglr., N. picturata, Jan, N. lutescens, Muhlf., N. 
Baetica, Mousson, X. Salatana, Zelebor. 

N. MERIDIONALLS, Phil. PI. 16, figs. 85-37. 

Turbinate, with rather high spire, last whorl obliquely transverse, 
very smoothly striulate, a little shining, yellowish, with zigzag red, 
l^urple or black strigations, more or less confluent, so that the sur- 
face sometimes appears of the darker color, with flecks of the 
lighter; eolumellar area a little hollowed, very slightly rugulose, 
whitish, (;olored above. Diam. 8'5 mill. 

Sicily. 

The synonyms are ^V. Philippii, Recluz, N. tessellata, Ziegler. 

Var. NIGROC.95RULEA, Parr. Fig. 87. 

Smaller, slightly more gloliose, black, tlie markings obsolete. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Sicily, Algiers, 

It is X. iiif/rita, Ziegl., ^V. Prerostinna, Benoit, and X. Maresi, 
Bourg. The latter from Algiers. 

N. ELONGATULA, Morelct. PL 16, figs. 38-40. 

Very obliquely transverse, slightly striulate, whitish or yellowish, 
with orange or purple zigzag or anastomosing lines, sometimes close 
enough to form a dark ground on Avliich the lighter color appears 
as irregularly triangular specks ; eolumellar area convex, white, 
lightly rugulose, callous and distinctly margined posteriorly. 

Diam. 6-12 mill. 

Portiujul. 

N. Baetica, Sowb., N. violacea (fig. 39), X. uiquinata, Morelet, 
and X. lutesfa, Reeve (fig. 40), are synonyms. The latter appears 
to be very similar to X. inquinata. 

N. HisPALENsis, von Martens. PI. 16, fig. 41. 

Transversely globose, last whorl swollen, slightly rugose, orange- 
brown or light olivaceous, with close, subvertical, undulating or 
angulated black or dark brown strigations, sometimes interrupted ; 
eolumellar area convex, minutely punctulate, greyish yellow, cal- 
lous posteriorly. Diam. 7 mill. 

Southern Spain. 



NERITINA. 49 

N. GuADiANENsis, Morelet. PL 16, figs. 42-44. 

Colloidal varying to globosely conoidal, olivaceous or yellowisli, 
reticulated by jiurplish or blacki!?h lines, with sometimes rather 
broad purple bands ; columellar area minutely punctate, rugulose, 
yellowish or bluish. Diam. 6'5-10 mill. 

Sotdherii provinces of Spain and Portugal. 

The typical form, with usually reticulated coloring is that shown 
by fig. 42, and of this N. Anatensis, Recluz is a synonym ; iV. Ve- 
lascoi, Graells (fig. 44), is one extreme of variation, being more 
globose, and dark banded, and N. Valentina, Graells (fig. 43), is the 
other -extreme, narrowly conoidal, a little constricted, and also dark 
banded. 

N. HiDALGOi, Crosse. PL 17, figs. 54-56. 

Suboval, thin, not shining, white, interruptedly, obliquely, longi- 
tudinally streaked or reticulated with narrow black lines, sometimes 
Avith three black bands ; whorls rapidly increasing, convex ; aper- 
ture yellowish, translucent, showing the external bands, columellar 
area yellowish grey. Alt. 5, diam. 3 mill. 

San Julian River, near Jativa, Eastern Spain. 

]Sr. CALLOSA, Desh. PL 16, fig. 45. 

Smooth, subglobose, white, reticulated with black lines, often 
forming spiral bands, and faint or vanishing in the interspaces^ 
sometimes covering the whole surface, without bands. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

3Iorea.. 
N. Prevostiana, Partsch. PL 16, fig. 46. 

Subglobose, striulate, shining, black, last whorl sometimes sub- 
angulated ; columellar area slightly rugulose, white. Diam. 8 mill. 

Austria, Hungary.. 

N. Hungarica, Kiister, is a synonym. 

N. Baetica, Lam. PL 16, fig. 47. 

Shell closely striulate, a little shining, brownish black, with 
scarcely visible spiral black lines ; columellar area flat, rugulose^ 
somewhat narrow, distinctly circumscribed, ash-colored. 

Diam. 6 mill. 

Northern Spain, Southern France. 

N. Sardoa, Menke. PL 16, figs. 48, 49. 

Rugosely striulate, opaque, black, often unicolored, more rarely 
closely uudulatingly longitudinally strigate or maculated with 



50 NERITINA. 

white ; columellar area plane, rugulose, bluish white, blackish be- 
hind, distinctly arcuately circumscribed. Diana. 5-6"5 mill. 

Isl. of Sardinia. 
N. gymnocephala, Kiister is a synonym. 

N. Peloponnpisia, Recluz. PI. 16, fig. 50. 

Rugosely striulate, blackish violaceous, with transversely oblong 
white maculations ; columellar area white, a little wrinkled, nar- 
row, flat, aperture brownish grey. Diam. 8 mill. 

Central Greece. 

It is N. Baetica, Desh., and N. melanoleuca, Kiister. 

N. NuMiDiCA, Recluz. PL 16, figs. 51, 52. 

Varying from semiglobose to transversely semiovate, rugosely 
striulate, purplish black,, with white dots, or yellowish reticulated 
with black ; columellar area plane, slightly rugulosely scabrous, 
bluish white. Diam. 6-9 mill. 

Algeria. 

The transverse form recalls iV. fiuviatilis, Linn. The synonyms 
ai-e N. Baetica, Morelet, N. algira, Kuster, N. fiuviatilis, Poiret, N. 
Prevostlana, Terver. 

N. Syriaca, Bourg. PL 17, fig. 53. 

Transversely semiovate, slightly rugosely striate, black, sometimes 
with minute white spots ; columellar area plane or a little concave, 
slightly rugulose, bluish. Diam. 6 mill. 

Beirut, etc., in Syria. 
N. PALLIDA, Dunkei'. PL 17, fig. 57. 

Lightly striulate, greyish yellow, nearly unicolored ; columellar 
area plane, very slightly rugulose, whitish. Diam. 4 mill. 

Persepolis, Persia. 

It is N. Schirazensis, Parr. 

N. ScHULZii, Grimm. PL 17, figs. 58-60. 

Quadrately semiglobose, rugosely striate, light yellowish ; body 
whorl de^jressed above and obtusely biangulated, aperture sub- 
quadrate, the peristome continuous, columellar margin plane, punc- 
tate-rugulose, yellowish white. Diam. 7 mill. 

Caspimi Sea. 

This shell has much the appearance of a Pileopsis ; fig. 60 is 
probably from an abnormal specimen. 



NERITINA. 51 

N. Panayana, Recluz. PL 17, fig. 61. 

Lightly striulate, light yellowish olivaceous, with dark purple or 
blackish zigzag strigations, often subreticularly confluent; aperture 
and coluniellar area bluish, the latter slightly rugulose. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Philijjpine Is. 
N. Baconi, Reeve. PI. 17, fig. 62. 

Spire subexserted, obtuse, whorls convex, striate, shining, colum- 
ellar area subcallous ; ash color, reticulated or flexuously lineated 
with black. Diam. 14 mill. 

Swan River, Australia. 
N. Nilotica, Reeve. PI. 17, figs. 68, 64. 

Conically semiglobose, smooth, a little shining, ash colored, with 
numerous close subundalating purplish black strigations ; colum- 
ellar area plane, yellowish white. Diam. 8 mill. 

Nile River. 

It is N. ardiUneata, Recluz, and N. Africana, Parreyss and Reeve 
(fig. 63), not Recluz, also N. Dongolensis, Ehrenb. 

N. EuPHRATiCA, Mou?son. PL 17, fig. 65. 

Somewhat solid, striulate, yellowish ash color, with close, rather 
wide zigzag blackish or dark violaceous strigations ; last whorl ob- 
tusely subangulated above, columellar area bluish white, circum- 
scribed posteriorly by a semielliptical line. Diam. 6 mill. 

Samava, Lotver Euphi'ates. 
N. JoRDANi, Sowb. PL 17, figs. 66, 67. 

Ovate-conoidal, more or less constricted, striulate, solid, whitish, 
with subconfluent, flexuous black strigations ; aperture bluish white, 
columellar margin slightly sinuated, obsoletely denticulated, area 
plane, yellowish behind. Diam. 7'5-14 mill. 

River Jordan. 

Fig. 67 represents a less compressed shell which may connect this 
species with the preceding. ? N. Aleppensis, Recluz, and var. turris, 
Mousson, are synonyms. 

N. Anatolica, Recluz, PL 17, figs. 68-71. 

Semiglobose, a little shining, lightly striulate, sometimes with fine 
spiral sculpture, convex, often obtusely angulated, suture deep, 
black, or more rarely violaceous with sjjiral black bands or longi- 
tudinal wide strigations; columellar margin edentulous, area plane, 
bluish white. Diam. 5-10 mill. 

Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Rhodes, Scio, etc. 



52 NEKITINA. 

The synonyms are N. Jordcmi, var. nitida, Recluz, N. nigrita, 
Ziegler, N. nitida, Parr., N. interposita, Mouss. I follow von Mar- 
tens in designating four varieties for convenience only ; their char- 
acters have no permanence. 

Var. Bellardii, Mouss. Fig. 71. 
Larger, black, subangulated. 
N. Schirazensis, Bourg. is a synonym. 

Var. Hausknechti, Martens. Fig. 68. 

Size moderate, obsoletely angulated, fulminately strigate. 

Var. Olivieri, Martens. Fig. 70. • 

Size moderate, rounded, light violaceous, spirally banded. 

Var. BELLADONNA, Mousson. Fig. 69. 
Small, rounded, subdilated, black. 
It is N. Trojana, Charp., and var. Boissieri, Martens. 

N. Macrii, Recluz. PI. 17, figs. 72-74. 

Globosely ovate, a little shining, lightly striulate, unicolored 
black, rarely fulminately strigate on a lighter color; columellar 
area convex, whitish, margin edentulous. 

Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine. 

Has not the spiral stride which rather indistinctly mark N. Anato- 
lica. The synonyms are N. Karasuna, Mouss., and N. Michonii, 
Bourg. 

N. Mesopotamica, Mousson. PL 17, fig. 75. 

Lightly striulate, shining, black, usually unicolored, rarely ma- 
culated with white, whorls scarcely convex, the last somewhat flat- 
tened above, wider l)elow ; a2:)erture bluish white, columellar area 
rather wide, plane, minutely rugulose, mai'gin finely denticulate. 

Diam. 6*5-7 mill. 

Upper Mesopotamia. 

Described as a variety of N. meridionalis, and at first considered 
by Martens a variety of N. Anatolica. 

N. ciNCTELLA, Martens. PI. 17, fig. 76. 

Lightly striulate, somewhat shining, greenish olivaceous or black- 
ish, last whorl tumid below the suture, then constricted, base wider ; 
aperture bluish white, columellar area convex, greyish, margin mi- 
nutely denticulate. Diam. 4'5 mill. 

Upper Mesopotamia. 



NERITINA. 53 

Lives in same region as the preceding form, but is said to be con- 
stantly distinguished by its constricted whorl. 

N. Perottetiana, Recluz. PI. 17, fig. 77. 

Shell globose, striulate, black, unieolored, whorls scarcely three, 
the last tinged at the suture ; aperture bluish white, columellar area 
plane, narrow, middle of the margin obtusely denticulate. 

Diam. 9-11 mill. 

India, Ceylon, Pegut. 

N. tristis, Phil, is a synonym. 

N. COLUBER, Thorpe. PL 17, fig. 78. 

Undescribed, and only a single figure published, showing the 
back. It is yellowish green, with black zigzag markings, and (if 
not enlarged) is 15 mill. diam. 

Ceylon. 

N. Jayana, Recluz. PL 17, fig. 79. 

Thin, concentrically striulate, epidermis yellowish, with reticulate, 
flexuously angulated lines, mixed with small white spots ; suture 
narrowly channeled ; inner lip maculated with black, aperture yel- 
lowish. Diam. 6 mill. 

An undetermined species sent by Dr. Jay of N. York to Recluz, 
and therefore doubtfully ascribed to North America. I believe 
that no one has recognized it ; it almost certainly is an old-world 
species. 

N. Showalterii, Lea. PL 17, figs. 81, 82. 

Smooth, diaphanous, yellowish corneous, whorls 3, rapidly in- 
creasing, suture inconspicuous, last whorl somewhat inflated, aper- 
ture bluioh white, edentulate, peristome continuous, forming a pos- 
terior raised margin which limits the rather wide columellar area, 
area smooth, slightly concave. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Coosa River, Alabama. 

Several specimens were obtained, all without the oj)erculum. It 
has been suggested that this is a young Anculosa, but it has not 
the characters of that group ; on the contrary, it more nearly ap- 
proaches in general Neritina crepidularia. The coloring of the 
epidermis more nearly resembles Anculosa however, than the other 
fluviatile species of Neritina. 



54 NERITINA. 

\ Unfigured and undetermined Species of Theodoxus. 

N. Saulcyi, Bourg. Athens. 

N. Maroccana, Palad. (Figure inaccessible to me). Morocco. 

N. LURiDA, Jan. (Perhaps = Littorina obtusata, L,). Antilles. 
N. EuxiNA, Clessin. Dobrudscha. 

Section Neritilia, Martens. 1879. 

N. succiNEA, Recluz. PI. 17, iig. 83. 

Obliquely elliptical, striulate, thin, yellowish, or yellowish cor- 
neous ; columellar area plane, very slightly rugulose, margin eden- 
tulous. Diam. 3-3-4'5 mill. 

Guadeloupe, W. I. 
N. coNsiMiLis, Martens. PI. 18, fig. 86. 

Obliquely elliptical, slightly, closely striulate, a little shining, 
diaphanous, corneous yellow, spire blackish ; columellar area slightly 
convex, and faintly rugulose, blackish, margin edentulous. 

Diam. 3-3 mill. 

Mauritius. 

The shell is scarcely distinguishable from that of N. suecinea, but 
the operculum of the former is reddish, that of consimilis trans- 
parent, but appearing l)lack when the animal is enclosed. 

N. RUBiDA, Pease. PI. 17, fig. 84 ; PI. 18, fig. 85. 

Transversely ovate, thin, translucent, lightly striulate, yellowish 
corneous, usually more or less incrusted with black (epidermal ?) ; 
columellar area nearly plane, ash-colored, margin edentulous. 

Diam. 5 mill. 

Central Polynesia. 

N. ossea, Garrett, is a synonym. 

N. Manoeli, Dohrn. PI. 18, fig. 87. 

Obliquely turbinate, lightly striulate, thin, corneous yellow, 
partly incrusted with black (epidermal ? ) ; columellar area yellowish 
white, margin straight, edentulous. Diam. 4 mill. 

Prince's Isl., W. Africa. 

Section Smaragdia, Issel. 1869. 

' N. viRiDis, Linn. PI. 18, fig. 88. 

Obliquely ovate, dorsally compressed, smooth, shining, bright 
green, varying to yellowish green, more or less interruptedly stri- 
gate or maculate with white, or sometimes with black ; columellar 



NERITINA. 55 

area greenish white, convex, wide, margin sinuate and minutely 
dentate. Diam. 7'5 mill. 

Florida, Wed Indies, Mediterranean Sea. 
It is iV. pallidula (DaCosta), Risso, N. Feuilletii, Audouin. 

N. Rangiana, Recluz. PI. 18, figs. 89-92. 

Somewhat less oblique than N. viridis, usually with a subangu- 
lated shoulder on the body whorl, greenish, occasionally varying to 
yellow or rose color, with short white flames below the suture, and 
spiral bands formed of longitudinal white lines, occasionally coal- 
lescing, or absent, and sometimes intermingled with reddish spots in 
spiral series ; columellar area convex, wide, white, margin distinctly 
toothed. Diam. 8 mill. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Madagascar, Mauritius, Philijipines, 
Australia. 

I think that the un figured N. puella, Gould, from the Loo Choc 
Is., and N. viridissima (figs. 91, 92), of Tapparone Canefri, fall 
within the range of variation in form and color usually attributed 
to N. Rangiana. The latter is a New Guinea species. 

N. SouvERBiANA, Moutrouzier. PI. 18, figs. 93-97. 

Smooth, shining, corneous yellow, variously longitudinally stri- 
gate, fasciculated, or reticulated with black lines, sometimes inter- 
rupted to form spiral bands, and three or four spiral series of white 
maculations; columellar margin sinuate and minutely denticulated, 
area convex. Diam. 5-7 mill. 

New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pt. Jackson, Australia. 

It is N. semen, Tapparone-Canefri (figs. 96, 97), N pulcherrima, 
Augas (figs. 94, 95). 

It is possibly only a variety of N. Rangiana. 

Var. Hellvillensis, Crosse. 

Besides the brown or black strigations and white maculations, 
there are two or three orange bands. 

N. Paulucciana, Gassies. PI. 18, figs. 98, 99. 

Moderately thick, shining, Avhite, yellowish or light pink, dis- 
tantly or closely reticulated with red or black, sometimes with sj)iral 
bands ; aperture yellowish, columellar margin edentulous, area sub- 
granular. Diam. 4"5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 



56 NERITINA. 

N. suAYis, Gassies. PI. 18, figs. 100, 1. 

Obliquely ovate, striulate, shining, translucent, yellowish or red- 
dish, Avith narrow red and black bands ; aperture reddish, showing 
three bands, columellar margin obscurely dentate. Diam. 6 mill. 

Loyalty Is. (near N. Caledonia). 

N. GLABRATA, Sowb. PI. 18, figS. 2-5. 

Obliquely ovate, rather solid, smooth, shining, yellowish or cor^ 
neous, with obliquely longitudinal black strigations often reticu- 
lated, or sometimes with spiral black or reddish bands ; columellar 
area convex, white, margin obscurely dentate. Diam. 5-7 mill. 

Gambia, lAberia, Went Africa. 

N. Wehhei, Recluz, is a synonym. 



Unfigured and undetermined Species. 
N. Matonia, Risso. Mediterranean. 

N. miliacea, Reel, is a synonym. 

N. ORNATA, C. B. Ad. (J=^N.viridis). Jamaica. 

The color is pale greenish or livid brown, ornamented with nu- 
merous rather small irregular spots of bright red ; there are 
crowded spiral microscopic lines ; the columellar lip is obsoletely 
toothed. Operculum divided into two concave regions by an acute 
ridge, which is curved in the direction of the growth. 

Section Stanleya, Bourg. 1885. 

N. NERiToiDEs, Smith. PI. 17, fig. 80. 

Imperforate, rather thin, smooth; whorls 4, convex, subolivaceous, 
with spiral brownish lines ; columella callous, edentulous. 

Diam. 5, alt. 6*5 mill. 

Lake Tanganyika, Africa. 



Unfigured Species. 

N. GiRAUDi and N. Smithiana, Bourg. Jjake Tanganyika. 

Section Clypeolum, Recluz. 1850. 

N. PULLiGERA, Linn. PI. 18, figs. 10, 11, 6-9, 12, 13; PL 19, figs. 

14-19, 22, 24. 

Lightly striate, outer lip raised into a ridge above, epidermis 
dark brown, sometimes nearly black, or olivaceous, obsoletely or 
faintly minutely dotted with black ; aperture yellowish with a deep 



NERITINA. 57 

orange band parallel with the ouler lip, coluniellar area flattened, 
polished, very minutely punctate, greyish black varying to yellow- 
ish olivaceous, edge very minutely dentate. Diam. 40 mill. 

East Indies, Australia, Central Polynesia. 
N. rubella, JNIiiller, N. larga, Hombr. et Jacq. (fig. 9) N. conglo- 
bata, Martens (figs. 22, 24), and vars. sulcata, T. Woods, and sub- 
■canalis, Mouss. are synonyms. 

Var. Knorri, Recluz. Figs. 16-18. 

Smaller than N. piUligera, body whorl without the sutural ridge, 
but extending over the sj^ire, which it completely covers, epidermis 
jet black, unicolored; aperture bluish with an orange band within 
the margin, coluniellar area violaceous, the edge minutely toothed. 

Diam. 28 mill. 
E. Africa, Mozambique to Madagascar; Ins. Labuan, near Borneo? 

It is N. Beckii, Sowb., (fig. 17), and N. cryptospira, Martens 
(fig. 18), from the last named locality. 

Var. CANALis, Sowb. Figs. 6, 7. 

Epidermis black, or very dark brown punctate or minutely retic- 
ulated with black ; aperture varying from bluish to yellowish, colu- 
mellar area yellow becoming reddish orange posteriorly, edge very 
minutely dentate, or smooth. Diam. 20-30 mill. 

Australia, New Caledonia, Viti Is. 

Typically distinguishecl by its strong sutural ridge and interven- 
ing channel, but from this character insensibly merges into the 
parent form; the coloring of the coluiuellar region also, varies to 
that of N. pulligera through intermediate shades. 

N. bicanalis, Phil, is a synonym. 

Var. ovALis, Sowb. Fig. 8. 

More transverse, with terminal apex, spirally striated, aperture 
yellowish, deepening to orange color on the coluniellar area, edge 
very obscurely crenulated. Diam. 25 mill. 

Tahiti. 
Var. Petitii, Recluz. Figs. 12, 15, 19. 

Striate, body whorl somewhat extended above, but not covering 
the spire, and appressed, not ridged, dark brown, faintly black- 
spotted, varying to black ; aperture and columellar area yellowish 
to orange, columellar edge minutely dentate or smooth. 

Diam. 30-40 mill. 

Indo- Australian, Central Polynesian. 



58 NERITINA. 

N. Californica, Reeve (fig. 13), N. expansa, Gassies (fig. 14), N. 
Bruguierei, Recluz (fig. 15), of which N. Dunalii, Montr. Mss., 
N. cirrata and N. circinata Philippi, are synonyms, and N. Lenor- 
mandi, GarSsies (fig. 19), may all be placed here. 

N, SQUAMiPicTA, Recluz. PL 19, figs. 27, 20, 21, 23, 25-27. 

Striate, shining, yellowish olivaceous to brownish, nebulous, or 
with reticulations or biangular markings of black lines, varying from 
minute to large, sometimes intensified into bands, sometimes absent 
or only apparent here and there, last whorl appressed and envelop- 
ing the spire; aperture bluish white to olivaceous, columellar area 
slightly punctate, flattened, yellowish white or pale olivaceous 
margin minutely dentate. Diam. 25-35 mill. 

Philippines, Moluccas. 

I think it not unlikely that this form will prove to be only a 
color variety of N. puUigera, from which it is distinguished mainly 
by its lighter color and more prominent and diversified markings. 
Like that species it has its varieties depending upon the appression 
or erection of the sutural edge, color of interior, etc ; and as in that 
species, so far as these differences have caused separate names to be 
given them, I have treated them as varieties-si mply for convenience. 

This form is N. pulligera, Quoy and Gairnard, JV. Delestennei, 
Recluz. 

Var. Bfxkii, Recluz. Figs. 20, 21, 25. 

Lip rained into a sutural ridge above, columellar area greyish 
black. It is N. 'Knorri, Reeve (fig. 25), N. Brandti, Phil, of which 
N. cornuta, Reeve (Figs, 20, 21) and its Var. Pacifica, Mousson are 
synonmys. 

Var. IRIS, Mousson. Fig. 23. 

Spire subimmersed beneath the last whorl, yellowish olive, con- 
spicuously reticulated Avith brown or black ; aperture bluish, yellow 
around the margin, columellar area purple-red, edge numerously 
dentate. Diam. 18-30 mill. 

Malaysian Archipelago. 

The synonyms are N. Knorri, Sowb., JV. testudinea, Hombr. et 
Jacq. N. Delesserti, Recluz. 

Var. sANGuiNEA, Sowb. Fig. 26. 

Flexuously striate, upper part of body whorl appressed to and 
enveloping the spire, olive yellow, reticulately mottled with black ; 



NERIJINA. 59 

aperture yellowish, with marginal border of blood red, the latter 
color extending over the columellar area, edge edentulous. 

New Ireland, on stones in mountain streams. 

N. PowisiANA, Recluz. PL 19, figs. 28, 29. 

Last Avhorl partially enveloping the spire, raised into a ridge 
towards the aperture, yellowish olivaceous, reticulated or spotted 
with black, sometimes faintly banded with violaceous upon which 
are nebulous light spots; aperture and area olive yellow, columellar 
margin edentulous. Diam. 20 mill. 

Neiv Ireland, on stones. 

Var. iMMERSA, Martens. Fig. 29. 

Pale violaceous with darker bands, with white, black-bordered 
triangular markings ; ajjerture yellowish. 

Japan f 

N. A8PERULATA, Recluz. PI. 19, figs. 30, 31 ; PI. 20, fig. 32. 

Whorls very rapidly increasing, somewhat flattened above a very 
obsolete shoulder-angle, spire minute, but visible, not raised, spirally 
and longitudinally somewhat roughly striate, the spiral lines im- 
pressed, olivaceous brown, transversely reticulated with black,, 
epidermis thin, rough, not shining, aperture bluish white to light 
yellowish, columellar margin edentulous. Diam. 16-25 mill. 

East Indies, N. Caledonia, Philippines^ 

I think that X. arclfera, Morch (fig. 32), will prove synonymous, 
or at most a variety with somewhat more produced spire. 

N. PENNATA, Born. PI. 20, fig. 33. 

Semiglobose, slightly striate, somewhat shining, olivaceous or 
brownish with subtriangular black spots often in oblique series; 
aperture and columellar area yellowish to orange color, margin 
concave, numerously minutely toothed. Diam. 16-25 mill. 

East Indian Archipelago^ 

N. piper ina, Chemn. is the young of the species. 

N. HiEROGLYPHiCA, Wattebled. PI. 20, fig. 34. 

Conically globose, solid, shining, scarcely striulate longitudinally, 
brownish olivaceous, with zigzag dark brown or blackish markings; 
aperture and columellar area bluish white or slightly yellowish,, 
columellar margin concave, minutely dentate. 

Diam. 22, alt. 34 mill. 

Annam.. 



60 NEEITINA. 

N. PORCATA, Gould. PI. 20, fig. 35. 

Equally, closely plicate, epidermis dark brown with inconspicuous 
black reticulations, varying to entirely black, last wdiorl appressed 
on the spire, Avhich is partially covered ; aperture yellowish with a 
deeper zone around the margin, columellar area flattened, minutely 
punctate, yellow, deepening into orange red 2)osteriorly, margin 
minutely dentate. Diam. 18-27 mill. 

Viti and Samoan Is. 

It is -tY. Solomonensis, Reeve, X. Graffei, and Var. frondosa, 
Mousson. 

N. SULCULOSA, Martens. PI. 20, fig. 36. 

Closely spirally engraved, striulate, dark olivaceous brown, with- 
out markings; aperture bluish ash color, columellar margin sinuated, 
distinctly rather strongly dentate, area jDlane. Diam. 14 mill. 

I}is. Flores, E. of Java. 

Is N. spiralis, Martens, not Reeve. 

N. PUNCTULATA, Lam. PI. 20, figs. 37-41. 

Nearly smooth, the striae of growth fine and inconspicuous, last 
whorl enveloping the spire, light brown, sometimes Avith a violet 
tinge, varying to black, covered throughout with close light colored 
suboval spots; aperture bluish white, varying to light yellowish, 
columellar area wide, flattened, minutely punctate, yellowish grey, 
edge minutely dentate, Diam. 20-30 mill. 

West Indies, Central America, New Grenada, Bay of Montija, 
Panama to Mazatlan. 

Probably inhabits the sea as well as fresh water; some of the 
specimens have the spire extensively eroded. The distribution on 
both shores of the American continent is singular, but is well- 
established. The species need not be confounded with N. virginea, 
Linn., as has been done; in its spire-enveloping body whorl and 
other characters it is very distinct from that species, and completely 
indentified with the present group. 

The principal synonym is N. cassiculum, SoAvb. (fig. 39), which 
von Martens by an erroneous reference to Sowerby's illustrations 
has referred to N. reclivata, Say ; other synonyms are N. fnscilabris, 
Wiegmann; and N. aperta, Budgin. I think that to these may pro- 
bably be added JSf. Bahiensis, Recluz (fig. 40), from Brazil, and 
N. turbida, Morelet (fig. 41), from Central America — both of them 
young shells. 



NERITINA. 61 

N. Afra, Sowb. PI. 20, figs. 42-44. 

Very slightly stviulate, spire somewhat prominent, partially en- 
veloped by the last whorl, yellowish olive to brown or nearly black, 
reticulated with black, often forming obscure spiral l)ands; aperture 
bluish white, columellar area yellowish brown, flattened, the margin 
finely toothed. Diam. 15-20 mill. 

West Coast of Africa. 

As in most sinnlarly marked species, the interspaces of the reticu- 
lations sometimes have the appearance of nebulous spots on a dark 
surface. The synonyms are N. cequinoxialis, Morelet, N. Listen, 
Reeve (figured), JSf. Africcuia, Recluz, iV. r(f6r/c(fto, Morelet (figs. 43, 
44), and N. Calabarica, Mousson. 

N. Fraseri, Reeve. PI. 20, fig. 45. 

Olive black, longitudinally ridged-striate, spire but little exserted; 
aperture bluish white, columellar margin sinuous and minutely 
dentate in the middle, area flattened, yellowish. Diam. 14 mill. 

West Afriea. 

This species is unknown to me. 

N. Sandalina, Recluz. PI. 20, figs. 46-48. 

Growth strise crossed by very faint impressed lines, last whorl 
obtusely shouldered, slightly concave above the shoulder, more or 
less enveloping the rather high spire, brown to black, sometimes 
obscurely reticulated ; aperture and columellar area bluish white or 
yellowish, columellar margin sinuous and dentate in the middle. 

Diam. 16-22 mill. 

Sandalwood Bay, Malaysian Archipelago, Viti Is. etc. 

N. cholerica, Gould (fig. 47), JSf. Vanicorensis, Honibr. (fig. 48), 
and N. Caffra, of Garrett are synonyms. There is but little differ- 
ence between this species and JV. propinqua, Mousson in the appear- 
ance of the shell: the latter has not columellar teeth. 

N. ADUMBRATA, Reeve. PI. 20, fig. 49. 

Last whorl a little depressed around, but not enveloping the spire, 
smooth, shining, yellowish olivaceous to brown, closely or coarsely 
reticulated with black, or appearing nebulous on a darker ground; 
aperture bluish w'hite, columellar area flattened, posteriorly orange 
brown, edge slightly sinuous and minutely dentate in the middle. 

Diam. 18-30 mill. 

Solomon^s Is. 



62 NERITINA. 

More elevated, brighter color, aud not enveloping the spire like 
the preceding species. 

N. Marchionata, Reeve. PI. 20, fig. 50. 

Rather thin, orbicular, shining, body whorl concavely impressed 
next the spire, with conspicuous waved yellowish and black striga- 
tions, sometimes nebulous; aperture yellowish, somewhat expanded, 
columellar area rather narrow, the edge minutely toothed. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

Marquesas Is. 



Unfigured Species. 

N. TRUNCATA, Sganzin. Madagascar. 

N. RARA, Dufo. Seychelles. 

N. RossMAssLERiANA, Recluz. Hab unknown. 

Section Neritona. Martens. 1869. 

N. LABiosA, Sowb. PI. 21, fig. 53. 

Semiglobose, last whorl partially enveloping the spire, expanded 
at the aperture, rugosely striate, olive brown, with short black trans- 
verse markings; aperture large, peristome subcontinuous with the pos- 
terior margin of the columellar area, lip and area yellowish white to 
deep orange color, the margin edentulous. Diam. 35-50 mill. 

Celebes, Philippines. 

For operculum, see description of the section, p. 7. 

N. PLANissiMA, Mousson. PI. 21, figs. 54, 55. 

Oval, depressed, striulate, olivaceous, somewhat rough ; aperture 
bluish, columellar area orange tinted, the inargin edentulous, peri- 
stome subcontinuous. Diam. 28 mill. 

3Its. in Navigator's Is. 

Unknown to me, but appears very closely related to the preceding 
species. 

N. Macgillivrayi, Reeve. PL 21, figs. 56, 57. 

Depressed auriform, usually more or less eroded, smooth, brownish 
olivaceous; peristome subcontinuous, columellar area deep orange 
color, margin arcuate in the middle and edentulous, aperture bluish. 

Diam. 29 mill. 

Port Carteret, Solomon Is. 



NERITINA. 63 

N. GRANOSA, Sowb. PL 21, figs. 51, 52. 

Much depressed, covered with warts throughout, arranged some- 
what in quincunx order, rayed on the sides ; aperture bluish w hite, 
radiated and speckled with darker short lines and spots, columellar 
area whitish or more or less tinged and colored with yellow, varying 
to reddish orange. Diam. 30-45 mil). 

Sandwich Is. 

N. papulosa, Jay and N. gigas, Lesson are synonyms. 

Subgenus Clitiion, Montfort. 1810. 

When the spines are developed, as they usually are, there is no 
difficulty in determining these shells; but occasionally the same 
species is spineless, and even some of the species referred here 
appear to never develope spines, in which cases they are only 
separable from Clypeolum by the characters of the operculum. 

N. LONGisPiNA, Reel. PI. 23, figs. 3-5. 

Epidermis varying from rather dark brown to nearly black, the 
lighter colored specimens often with black lines and bands, surface 
plicately rugose, with a series of long, cylindrical spines on the 
shoulder; aperture bluish white, showing the exterior bands, colu- 
naellar area flattened, smooth, usually w'hitish or posteriorly tinged 
with yellow, terminated by a distinct rounded line, margin incurved 
in the middle and edentulous or minutely dentate. 

Diam. 15-30 mill. 

Mauritius, Isle of Bourbon, Rodriguez, Madagascar. 
It is N. corona, Linn, in part, N. coronata, Leach. 

Var. Mauritiana, Morelet. Fig. 5. 

Spines not developed. N. desjiliwsa, Mouss. is a synonym. 

N. spiisosA, Budgin. PI. 23, figs. 6, 7. 

Rather smooth, with a few wrinkles, shining, light yellowish 
brown with irregular black spiral bands, and a corona of moderately 
long, subcylindrical black spines; aperture bluish white, showing 
the bands, columellar area flattened, distinctly circumscribed pos- 
teriorly, often tinged with yellowish, deepening into reddish-orange 
behind, margin a little incurved but scarcely dentate in the middle. 

Diam. 15-20 mill. 

Taheiti. 



64 NERITINA. 

N. undata, Lesson, and vfvr. mermls, Martens (fig. 7), are syno- 
nyms, the latter for specimens in which the spines are broken or 
not well developed ; but I have never seen a specimen without some 
indication of their presence. 

N. SouLEYETANA, Rccluz. PI. 23, figs. 8, 9. 

Rather smooth, shining, black, with white or yellowish, more or 
less interrupted and undulated longitudinal strigations, shoulder 
subangulated, with distant rather short, somewhat stout spines, 
aperture yellowish or bluish white, columellar margin incurved and 
very faintly minutely dentate in the middle. Diam. 13-20 mill. 

Marquisas Is., New Ireland, Moluccas, etc. 

Small specimens entirely devoid of spines are of frequent occur- 
ance. N. Recluziana, Guillou (fig. 10), N. hapa, Hombr. et Jacq., 
and N. rarispina, of the same authors, N. nigrispinis, Lesson, and 
var. Studeriana, Martens are synonyms. 

Var. Keraudkenii, Le Guillou. 

The strigations replaced by numerous small rounded or subtri- 
angular yellowish or whitish spots. 

N. Armstrongiana, Hinds is a synonym. 

N. Madecassina, Morelet. PI. 23, fig. 11. 

Slightly striate, somewhat plicately folded, yellowish or olivaceous, 
more or less variegated in spots or bands, or uniformly reddish 
brown, with a more or less defined shoulder, sometimes unarmed 
but usually cord-like with an occasional short spine; aperture 
bluish white or yellowish white, slightly sinuous on the middle of 
the columellar margin — which is minutely dentate throughout, 

Diam. 15-21 mill. 

Madagascar. 

It is N. corona Bengalensis, Chemn., but does not inhabit the 
neighborhood of Bengal. 

N, DiADEMA, Recluz. PL 23, figs, 12-15. 

Lightly striulate, smooth, shining, yellowish olivaceous, occasion- 
ally pale violaceous, with white, black-bordered subtriangular 
spots, shouldered, with usually moderately long spines, sometimes 
scarcely developed; aperture whitish or bluish white, columellar 
edge minutely dentate. Diam. 12-16 mill. 

East Indies, Philippines. 

N. aranea and N. cryptospina, Mousson are synonyms. 



NERITINA. 65 

Var. spiNiFERA, (Recluz) Sowb. Fig. 14. 

Reticulated with reddish browu. It is very doubtful whether 
this is the spuiifera of Recluz. 

Var. DoNOVANA, Recluz. Figs. 12, 13. 

With subvertical flexuous reddish or blackish strigations. 
N. strigillata, Canefri is a synonym. 

Var. Celebensis, Mousson. 

With alternate orange and black spiral bands, the orange ground 
with triangular black-margined yellowish spots. 

N. BREvispiNA, Lam. PI. 23, figs. 16-18 ; PL 24, figs. 19-28, 31-34. 

Rugosely plicate, and usually very irregularly subgranular, often 
unarmed, or with a shoulder somewhat shortly spinose, yellowish 
brown, with granules whitish, varying to darker brown or nearly 
black, sometimes obscurely maculated or indistinctly banded, some- 
times pinkish under the epidermis; aperture yellowish or bluish 
white, columellar edge usually edentulous in large specimens, mi- 
nutely faintly dentate in small ones. Diam. 1 in. 

East Indies to Central Pacific. 

A very common, widely distributed form which rejoices in an 
extensive synonymy. It is N. corona, Linn, in part (figs. 16, 20.) 
N. spinosa, Wood, jV. variabilis,- Jjesson, N. cardinalis, Guillou, N. 
Montucute, Recluz, N. musiva, N. flexuosa, and N. corrugata, Hombr. 
et Jacq., N. suhgranosa, (figs. 17, 18) and var. mutica, Sowb., N. squar- 
rosa, Recluz, (figs. 25, 26), N. ruida, Mousson, N. squamosa (Reel.) 
Sowb., iV. Pritchardi, Dohrn (fig. 23), — with which may be 
united N. aspera, Phil., N. deltoldea, Garrett and var. Vitiana, 
Mousson, N. rugata, Recluz (figs. 27, 28), and its var. monilifera. 
Marts., in which granules tend to unite into longitudinal plicee. 

Var. ANGULOSA, Recluz. Figs. 21, 22. 

Irregularly longitudinally plicate, blackish olivaceous, usually 
Avith minute yellowish spots, which are sometimes black margined, 
sometimes replaced by short black lines, spines scarcely developed 
on the' shoulder. 

Typically, this form seems very distinct, but it passes into brevis- 
pina by intermediates; one of these is N. obscurata, Reel, others are 
N. discors, Mart. (fig. 24), and N. ruginosa, Reel. (figs. 31, 32), — 
of which N. aspersa, Reel. (fig. 33), N. humerosa, Mousson N. sub- 
rugata, Baird. (fig. 34) are synonyms. 



66 NERITINA. 

N. EHYTiDOPHORA, Tapparoue-Cauefri. PI. 24, figs. 29, 30. 

With elevated, obliquely longitudinal rugre, olivaceous gi*een, or 
light greenish pink, with undulating brown or black lines, sometimes 
evanescent, and sometimes with a submedian black spiral band; 
aperture light yellowish or brownish grey, columellar area brownish, 
shining, very minutely rugulose, margin centrally incurved and 
finely toothed. Diara. 15 mill. 

Ins. Sorong, N. Gkdnea. 

N. THERMOPHiLA, Martens. PI. 24, figs. 3u, 36. 

Plicately striate, olivaceous brown, with occasional yellowish 
maculations, sometimes black-margined, occasionally triseriate, 
slightly shining, peristome yellowish within, sub-thickened, columellar 
margin obtusely dentate in the middle, upper tooth much larger, 
area slightly rugose, orange-yellow. Diam. 6'5 mill. 

Isl. New Britain. 

Only known to me by the description and figure, but appears not 
unlike a spineless JV. brevispina. 

N. H^MASTOMA, Martcus. PI. 24, fig. 37. 

Striulate, olivaceous brown, with small yellowish, black-margined 
sjjots; aperture bluish white, columellar margin slightly incurved in 
the middle, with a few indistinct teeth on the upper part of the 
sinus, area plane, scarlet. Diam. 26'5 mill. 

Philippines. 

Described from a single specimen. 

N. CHLOROSTOMA, Brod. PI. 24, figs. 38, 39 ; PL 25, fig 62 ; PI. 26, 

figs. 83-85. 

Smooth, somewhat shining, greyish, varying to violaceous, light 
brown or black, with numerous, usually minute white dots and 
spots which, when the ground color is light, are black-margined, 
sometimes indistinctly darker banded; apertui'e whitish, yellow, 
olivaceous etc, columellar margin scarcely sinuous in the middle, 
edentulous, or obscurely dentate, area plane, smooth, often tinged 
with yellow posteriorly. Diam. 7-12 mill. 

Marquesas, Harvey, Cook's, Samoan and Viti Is. etc. 

The synonymy includes N. pisiformis, Recluz, iV. siderea, Gould, 
(fig. 83), N. parvula, Guillou, iV". tristis, Reeve, (fig. 85), N. lentigi- 
nosa, Reeve, (rig. 62), N. dispar. Pease, (fig. 84), N. Harveyensis, 
Mousson, N. paludosa. Garrett, lV[s. 



NERITINA. 67 

N. RETROPiCTA, Marteus. PI. 24, figs. 40, 41. 

Closely striulate, subopaque, olivaceous, with subtriangular yel- 
low markings, bordered on the basal margin with black, aperture 
bluish or yellowish, columellar margin siuuated and obtusely dentate 
in the middle, area light greyish yellow, slightly rugulose. 

Diam. 14-17 mill. 

Southern Japan, Siam, Viti Is. 

I susj^ect that this will prove a variety of the preceding species. 
The synonyms are N. obtusa, Reeve, (fig. 41), N. nuhila. Martens, 
and N. obscura, Diinker. 

N. CASTANEA, Hombr. and Jacq. PI. 24, fig. 42. 

Minutely flexuously striulate, somewhat sharply so above, dark 
brown, with black zigzag longitudinal lines, so obscure that they 
are not usually visible except when the surface is wetted, epidermis 
of last Avhorl appressed to and partially or entirely covering the 
spire; aperture bluish white, columellar margin slightly sinuous, and 
scarcely dentate in the middle, area flattened, minutely punctate 
and rugose. Diam. 15-18 mill. 

Samoa and Caroline Islands. 
X. j^ropinqua, Mousson is a synonym. 

N. RETUSA, Morelet. PI. 24, figs. 43, 44. 

Subrugosely striate, soiled olivaceous, with scarcely visible brown- 
ish maculations, with short spines on the shoulder in the young state 
which are mostly lost in the adult; aperture yellowish white, the 
columellar area becoming orange color behind, edge sub-emarginate 
in the middle and minutely dentate. Diam. 12 mill. 

JSfeiu Hebrides. 

N. Sow-ERBYANA, Recluz. PI. 24, fig. 45; PI. 25, figs. 46-51. 

Solid, subopaque, closely, faintly striate, shining, yellowish brown, 
orange brown or rosy, frequently with minute white and red spots, 
sometimes more or less interruptedly bauded or longitudinally 
strigate with black; aperture usually bluish white, columellar mar- 
gin dentate for most of its length. Diam. 10-15 mill. 

Gulf of Siam, China, Japan, Philipjnnes. 

Great as is the typical difference between this species and N. 
brevispina. Lam., I have specimens before me which seem to estab- 
lish a passage between that species and the granvilar, spineless form 
of the latter, N. pulehella, (figs 50, 51), Recluz, and JSf. Soiverbii, 
Reeve, (figs. 48, 49), are synonyms. 



bo NERITINA. 

N. AVELLANA, Recl. PI. 25, figs. 52-55. 

Solid, irregularly striate, subopaque, somewhat shining, olive 
grey, yellowish or orange-red, with articulated black bands; aper- 
ture bluish white, columellar area minutely j^unctate, the margin 
sinuous in the middle, and obsoletely dentate. 

Borneo, Formosa, Philippines. 

I fear that this will prove synonymous with the preceding species. 
The synonyms are N. dubia, Issel (^=var. Isseliana, Martens) and 
vars. 2)6tholata, and cJdorostida, IMartens. 

N. FABA, Sowb. PL 25, figs. 57-60. 

Solid, irregularly striulate, shining, yellowish or reddish, more 
or less interruptedly strigate or reticulated with chestnut or black, 
sometimes black-banded ; aperture bluish white, columellar margin 
scarcely sinuous in the middle, obsoletely dentate. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Western part of the Indian Archipelago, Singapore, etc. 

My only specimens of this species, types from its author, strongly 
indicate identity with N. Soiverbyana. N. Baliensis, Mousson, and 
the color-varieties strigosa, sagittata and fasciata. Martens are 
synonyms. 

N. iNTERRUPTA, Recluz. PI. 25, fig. 56. 

Solid, striulate and occasionalty subplicate, yellowish, with fine 
olivaceous somewhat anastomosing longitudinal lines, often interrupt- 
ed partially, 'to form lighter colored spiral bands, young shells 
frequently and old ones occasionally with several short spines above- 
aperture bluish or yellowish, the columellar margin dentate nearly 
throughout, with stronger teeth at the extremities of a central sinus, 
area subrugose and minutely punctate, usually tinged with bluish 
black behind ; often the base of the shell has a jet-black fasciole. 

Diam. 9-16 mill. 

Philippines; New Caledonia. 

Von Martens considered the species of Recluz a synonym of N. 
avellana; on the contrary it ap]3ears to possess all the characters of 
the more recently named New Caledonian N. nucleolus, Morelet, 
(fig. 63). N. plieata, and N. Pazii, Gassies, and var. spinifera. 
Martens are synonyms. The unfigured N. costulata and ^V. Artensis 
of Gassies, likewise New Caledonian, are probably to be added. 



NERITINA. 69 

N. RARispiNA, Mousson. PI. 25, figs. 65, 66. 

Striate, dark greenish, minutely punctulate with black, last whorl 
obtusely angulated, and obsoletely or shortly spinose; aperture 
bluish, columellar area rather narrow, plane, margin with a dentate 
median sinus. Diani. 6-9 mill. 

■Java. 

According as the shell is with or without spines, Mousson has 
made varieties spinosa and destltuta,— which, of course, have no 
varietal value. The species itself has not been identified. 

N. Tritonensis, Guillou. PI. 25, fig. 61. 

Greenish, with arcuate longitudinal yellowish lines, spire entirely 
eroded, flat; aperture oblique, with a rather narrow, flat area, its 
margin subarcuate, unidentate, lip rounded, depressed above. 

Triton Bay, Nero Guinea. 

The above is a copy of the original description — which was not 
illustrated. The figure is from Reeve, and I cannot believe that it 
pertains to the same species; it looks more like N. chlorostoma, Brod. 

N. BicoLOR, Reel. PI. 25, figs. 68, 67, 69 ; PL 26, fig. 75. 

Shell j^licate-striate, the body whorl enveloping the spire, some- 
what shining, closely finely strigate with r.lternate yellowish and 
olivaceous green, sometimes minutely punctate with the lighter color 
ujDon the darker, as though serrating the margins of the strigations; 
aperture bluish white, columellar area flattened, subrugose, margin 
slightly incurved and faintly dentate in the middle, the curve boun- 
ded by a stronger tooth above. Diam. 15-27 mill. 

East Indies to Philipjnnes. 

It is N. eelata, Recluz, (fig. 69), N. s'ubpunetata, Recluz, (fig. 67), 
iV. rugata, Souleyet, N. rugosa, Bush, JV. punctifera, Mousson, and 
varieties glandiformis, Molluccensis and tricolor of Martens — the 
latter with reddish brown rug?e and a basal zone of the same, with 
elongate triangular diaphanous yellowish maculations. I have not 
seen this variety, nor has it been figured except a section showing 
coloring, but I can scarcely believe it to belong here — the pattern 
is more like N. avellana. Finally in N. WalUsii, Mousson (fig. 75) 
=N. rugata, Gallies, we have a sparsely spinose form which appears 
to connect very closely with the spinose form of the next species. 

N. OLivACEA, Recluz. PI. 26, figs. 71, 72 : PI. 25, fig. 70. 

Smooth, slightly striate, dark olivaceous varying to brownish with 
obscure black undulating lines, often obsolete, occasionally with one 



70 NERITINA. 

or two short spines above, but mostly without them ; aperture bhiish 
Avhite, columeUar area flattened, subrugose, sometimes bounded by 
a callous orange-brown fasciole, edge incurved in the middle and 
dentate there, and slightly so above the curve. Diam. 15-24 mill. 

Moluccas, Philijjjyines, Viti Is. 
N. inconspicua, Busch is a juvenile, and N. suhocellata, Schepmaun 
(fig. 70). a spinose specimen ; other synonyms areiV. solium, Recluz, 
=iV. dolium, Rve., (fig. 72). I suspect that this will, after all, jjrove 
a smooth form oi N. blcolor, Recluz. Mousson has described a var. 
Vitiana. 

N. FLAvoviRENS, Busch. PL 26, figs. 76, 77. 

Lightly striulate, sliining, greenish with yellow, black-margined 
maculations, sometimes a few spines at the suture ; aperture bluish- 
white, columellar margin with a denticulate sinus, terminated by a 
larger tooth above and below, area convex, very slightly punctate 
rugulose, Diam. 15 mill. 

Java, Borneo, etc. 

The synonyms are N. emergens, Mouss., N. Cochinsmce, Recluz, 
N. cyanostoma, Morelet (fig. 77). 

N. spiNiPERDA, Morelet. PI. 26, fig. 78. 

Uniform olive green, roughly longitudinally ridged, ridges some- 
times articulated, young shells with an obtuse shoulder bearing an 
occasional short spine ; aperture bluish or livid white, columellar 
area callous, dilutely maculated with orange color or greyish green, 
margin arcuated and dentiulated, Avith a median larger tooth and 
another below\ Diam. 18 mill. 

Ins. Nossl-be, near Madagascar. 

Perhaps a variety of N. blcolor, Recluz. 

N. FULiGiNOSA, Busch. PL 26, fig. 79. 

Plicately striate, shining, olivaceous brown, with numerous pallid 
dots scarcely visible ; aperture whitish, black-bordered ; columellar 
area white, plane, fiiintly rugose, margin arcuate and dentate in the 
middle, with a larger tooth above and below. Diam. 13-15 mill. 

Batavia. 

N. Bataviensis, Mousson, is a synonym. 

N. ACULEATA, Gmeliu. PL 26, figs, 80, 81. 

Shell with revolving ridges elevated into nodes and short spines, 
olivaceous brown ; aperture bluish white with yellowish bands, col- 



NEEITINA. 71 

umellar margin slightly .concave, multidentate, area flattened, mi- 
nutely punctate. Diam. 18-25 mill. 

Indian Archipelago. 
It is N. squamcespina, Mousson and N. sulcata, Nyst. 

N. ciRCUMvoLUTA, Recluz. PL 26, fig. 82. 

Smooth, fulvous, or pink, with minute white maculations, ■with 
two or three spiral black bands articulated with white ; aperture 
bluish white, the columellar margin slightly arcuate and minutely 
dentate in the middle, with a stronger tooth at either extremity. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Ins. Negros, Philippines ; on stones in a mountain stream. 

N. LUCTUOSA, Recluz. PI. 26, fig. 86. 

Shell small, smooth, greyish, with close undulating black sfcriga- 
tions ; columellar area plane, narrow, whitish defined on the middle 
and base by a semicircular line, margin slightly arcuate in the 
middle, the tooth above the sinus prominent. Diam. 3"5-7 mill. 

Ne^v Guinea, Norfolk Island. 

N. Peguensis, Blanford. PI. 26, fig. 87. 

Striulate, shining, greenish or yellowish olivaceous, sometimes in- 
distinctly darker banded, covered with minute white dots, shaded in 
front with brow'n or black ; aperture bluish white, columellar area 
bluish grey, slightly corrugated, margin slightly sinuous in the mid- 
dle, the sinus and above it minutely toothed, with a stronger tooth 
between. Diam. 14 mill. 

Irawadi River, Pegu, Burmah. 

It is N. fuliginosa, Theobald. 

N. RETiFERA, Benson. PI. 26, figs. 88, 89. 

Lightly striulate, yellowish olivaceous or greenish, with oblique 
angulated reddish or blackish lines, sometimes forming a coarse re- 
ticulation ; aperture bluish white, columellar margin incurved and 
minutely dentate in the middle with a stronger tooth at the top, 
area somewhat convex, wide, whitish. Diam. 9-12 mill, 

Calcutta, Madras. 

The synonyms are N. Michaudi, Recluz, (fig. 89) N. reticidaris, 
Sowb., N. capillulata, Gould, of Sowb., N. Morchiana, Frauen., N. 
humeralis, Theob. Perhaps N. fxdgetrum, Reeve (PI. 12, fig. 30) 
which I have described on p. 38, and for which no habitat is given, 
should also be referred here. 



72 NERITINA. 

N. Dringii, Recluz. PI. 26, figs. 90, 91. 

Rather thiu, whorls obliquely rugulose, with yellow bands ou a 
blackish ground, sometimes obliquely longitudinally strigate with 
black or brownish and yellow ; aperture bluish, tinged with yelloAV 
around the margin and on the columellar area, columellar margin 
subarcuated and dentate in the middle. Diam. 12 mill. 

Hanover Bay, N. Australia. 

N, FLEXUOSA, Gassies. PI. 26, fig. 92. 

Oblique, flexuous, striulate, scarcely shining, thin, yellowish oli- 
vaceous, somewhat anatomosely strigate with longitudinal black 
lines, sometimes obscurely yellowish banded ; aperture yellowish,, 
columellar area bluish white, flattened, subpunctate, margin sub-in- 
cised, with a superior, rather sti'ong tooth. Diam. 5, alt. 7"5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
N. UNIDENTATA, Recluz. PL 26, fig. 93. 

Thin, olivaceous, wdth oblong, oblique yellowish maculations, last 
whorl a little angulated and flattened above ; aperture yellowish 
green near the margin, columellar lip narrow, whitish, its margin 
with a single superior tooth, and scarcely arcuated. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Taheiti. 

Sometimes a short spine occurs at the superior angle of the lip. 
The species has not been recognized. 

N. CoMORENSis, Morelet. PI. 26, figs. 94, 95. 

Solid, irregularly striulate, not shining, greenish grey ; brown- 
spotted ; aperture grey or greyish brown, columellar area plane, 
yellowish, the margin with one to three obtuse denticles. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Comoro Is. 

Unfigured species, jn'obably belonging to CUthon. 

N. RARispiNA and N. Lesloni, Recluz. Sicily. 

The locality is doubtless erroneous. 

N. GUTTATA, Recluz. Neiv Guinea. 

N. Pfeifferiana, Recluz. Neiv Ireland. 

N. Bourgainvillei, Recluz. Samoa Is. 

N. Dacostje, Recluz. Philippines. 

N. Menkeana, Recluz. Taheiti. 



NERITINA, 73 

N. Troscheli, Recluz. Hah. unknoivn. 

N. CORONOIDES, Lesson. Ne^v Guinea. 

N. PENiciLLATA, Gould. New Ireland. 

Subgenus Neripteron, Lesson, 1830. 

In the diagnosis of tins group (p. 8), the cohinielhir margin is 
stated to be edentulous, but this is in fact, only occasionally the case ; 
usually there are traces of teeth, and sometimes they are very dis- 
tinct, although small, 

N. AURicuLATA, Lam. PI. 21, figs. 58-63. 

Rather convex, slightly striate, somewhat shining, brownish or oli- 
vnceous, obsoletely reticulated with black lines or with lighter spots ; 
aperture yellowish white, bluish black around the lip and on the 
columellar area, margin of columella a little arcuate in the middle, 
and minutely or obsoletely toothed. Diam. 15-25 mill. 

Ceylon, East Indies, Philippines, Viti Is. 

It is M. suhalata, Recluz, N. subauriculata, Recluz (fig. 60), N. ros- 
trata (figs. 61, 62), and N. Layardi (fig. 63,), Reeve, as well as var. 
inaurita, Morch. 

N. RUBicuNDA, Martens. PI. 21, figs. 64, 65. 

Convex, very slightly striulate, yellowish brown or chestnut, uni- 
colored, a little shining ; aperture ash color, peristome reddish, col- 
umellar margin minutely multidentate, area large, a little rugose, 
slightly convex. Diam. 12 mill. 

Kapera River, Borneo, on floating timber. 

Supposed to differ from the preceding species by its small size, 
want of reticulated markings, etc. I think it will prove identical. 

N. Tahitensis, Lesson. PI. 21, figs. QQ, 67. 

Striate, and spirally slightly engraved with subdistant lines, light 
olivaceous brown, without markings ; aperture greyish blue or yel- 
lowish grey, columellar margin slightly sinous and minutely dentate 
in the middle, columellar area slightly rugose and minutely punc- 
tate. Diam. 19-25 mill. 

Ins. Taheiti, Samoan Is., Sandwich Is. 

The synonyms are X. auriealata, Sowb., N. Lamarckii, Desh., 
N. marginata, Hombr. and Jacq., N. vespertina, Nuttall (PI. 22, fig. 
71), and K Sandivichensis, Reeve (PI. 22, fig. 73). 



74 NERITINA. 

Von Martens separates N. vespertma on account of a slight differ- 
ence in convexity of whorls, and habitat, but in the large series 
before me frojn both Taheiti, and Sandwich Is., the supposed local 
peculiarities disappear. 

N. Christovalensis, Keeve. PI. 21, figs. 68, 69. 

Convex, striulate, yellowish, with spiral bands of reddish chestnut 
markings ; aperture yellowish, columellar area slightly arcuate and 
minutely dentate in the middle. Diam. 19 mill. 

San Christoval, Solomon^s Is. 

K. BicANALicuLATA, Recluz. PI. 21, fig. 70. 

Rather depressed and somewhat widely winged ; olive brown, 
rather closely reticulated and sometimes banded with reddish chest- 
nut ; aperture bluish white clouded or changing to greyish yellow, 
columellar margin without teeth, area minutely punctate. 

Diam. 15-20 mill. 

Philippines, Viti Is. 

The ears are usually broader than in the specimen figured, but 

the depressed form and markings are pretty constant in the series 

before me. It is X. biauriculata, Reel. 

N. Lecontei, Recluz. PI. 22, figs. 74, 75, 76. 

Very convex, with numerous elevated close spiral lines, olivaceous 
brown, spirally more or less liueated with black ; aperture lead color 
or yellowish grey ; columellar margin incised, minutely and reg- 
ularly dentate in the middle, area rugose and minutely granular. 

Diam. 1 in. 

New Caledonia. 

N. Novce- Caledonica, Reeve, (fig. 76) is a synonym. 

N. ACicuLATA, Morch. PI. 22, figs. 77, 78. 

With small, distinct, obliquely lateral spire, closely radiately 
striated, dark olivaceous, unicolored ; columellar margin arcuate 
and dentate in the middle. Diam. 17 mill. 

Nicohar Is.; Sumatra f 

It is N. navicularis, Morch (undescribed). 



N. MARMORATA, Brazier. Unfigured. New Guinea. 



NERITINA, 75 

Section Alina, Recluz, 1842. 

N. CARiosA, Gray. PL 22, figs. 79-81. 

With distinct growth lines, and sometimes engraved spiral strise, 
body whorl convex, swollen, dilated into wings above and below, 
spire visible, flattened, epidermis black or very dark brown, with 
nnmerous close minute yellowish spots, sometimes scarcely visible ; 
aperture bluish, sometimes yellowish, columellar margin scarcely 
arcuate in the middle and slightly dentate, terminating with a larger 
superior tooth. Diam. 18-25 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

In young specimens the wings are often not developed, and then 
the shell would scarcely be taken for a member of this group. Von 
Martens changes the name to N. Sandwichensis, Desh. because he 
thinks that Gray's figure should be referred to N. Maiiritii. Lesson ; 
I do not agree with him : the figure appears to me to be decidedly 
that of the present species. Other synonyms are N. Nuttalli, Recluz. 
N. convexa, Nuttall, N. solldissima, Sowb., N. lugubris, Phil., N. per- 
striata, Mousson, N. tristis, Phil., N. affinis, Recluz., (=A". lugnbris, 
Sowb. fig. 83.) 

N. Mauritii, Lesson. PI. 22, fig. 82. 

Rather more depressed than the preceding species, with the wings 
larger and more dilated, somewhat rugose, epidermis black, unicol- 
ored ; aperture bluish white, columellar nuirgin minutely dentate in 
the middle. Diam. 18 mill. 

Mauritius, Ins. Bourbon, Mas Karene Is., E. coast of Madagascar. 

It is N. auriculata, Sowb., N. alata, Robillard, N. Deshayesii, Pease, 
N. Sandwichensis, Desh, 

N. LiFOUANA, Gassies. PI. 22, fig. 84. 

Spirally striulate, shining, light yellowish, unicolored, translucent ; 
aperture yellowish white, columellar margin with about five minute 
teeth in the middle. Diam. 18 mill. 

Neiu Caledonia. 

I have not seen this species. 

N. DiLATATA, Brod. PI. 22, figs. 85, 86. 

Shell broadly winged, rather regularly striulate, yellowish olive, 
sometimes with three indistinct spiral pink bands, covered through- 



76 NERITINA. 

out with zigzag black reticulations ; aperture bluish white or yellow- 
ish grey, columellar margin slightly arcuate and dentate in the 
middle. Diam. 16 mill. 

Taheiti, in streams. 
iV. navicellina, Guillou, N. florida, Recluz are synonyms. Von 
Martens refers here jS\ Owenii, Wood's Index Test. Suppl. t. 8, f. 
16, but it appears to me to belong to the next species. 

N. LATissiMA, Brod. PI. 22, fig. 87-89. 

Finely striulate, Avith produced but broadly rounded ears, oliva- 
ceous or brownish black, reticulated A\'ith black or triangularly 
marked with numerous light, black margined spots ; aperture bluish 
or yellowish grey, columellar margin a little concave, scarcely in- 
curved but minutely dentate in the middle. Diam. 20-37 mill. 

West coast of Central America. 

The synonvms are X. glohosa, Brod., 3". intermedia, Sowb. (fig. 89). 

Var. PiLSBRYi, Tryon. PI. 22; fig. 91. 

A color variety characterized by a purplish or pink very fine re- 
ticulation upon a white ground, upon which are numerous subtri- 
angular white s])ots with dark margins. 

Var. FoNTAiNEANA, d'Orb. PI. 23, figs. 92,' 93. 

Smoothish, olivaceous, reticulated with black, with one or two 
greenish or blackish zones. Less winged than the type. 

Gtuiyaquil, Eqaador. 

It is N. Guaquilensis, Sowb. (fig. 94.) 

N. OwENiAXA, Gray. PI. 22, fig. 90. 

Slightly, closely striulate, yellowish or brownish olivaceous, with 
a small or large reticulating pattern of black lines, often forming 
triangular light spots, last wdiorl usually enveloping the spire ; 
aperture bluish white to greyish yellow, showing the external pat- 
tern, columellar margin nearly straight, edentulous, or obscurely, 
minutely dentate in the middle. Diam. 18-25 mill. 

West coast of Africa; Ins. Fernando Po, Cape Pahnas. 



N. CRIST ATA, Moi-elet. Unfigured. Gabon, W. Africa. 

N. ALATA, Brod. and Sowb. Taheiti. 



NERITINA-NAVICELLA, 77 

Subgenus Dostia, Gray, 1840. 

N. CREPiDULARiA, Lam. PI. 23, figs. 95-99. 

Very convex, lightly striulate, sometimes unicolored, varying from 
light yellowish, or olivaceous to blackish, but usually reticulated, 
checkered or spotted with a light color on a dark ground or dark on 
a light ground, frequently the darker tint is violaceous, and some- 
times it is reddish ; aperture bluish, bluish grey, yellowish grey etc., 
peristome continuous, columellar area slightly rugose, margin a 
little arcuate and dentate in the middle. Diam. 15-25 mill. 

Indian Ocean, India to Malay Archip., China, Philippines, Neiv 
Caledonia. 

The form is pretty constant, but the coloring exhibits considerable 
variation, within rather narrow limits, however; not sufficient to 
excuse the immense synonymy. It is N. violdcea, Gmel. in part, 
N. jmrpurea and N. gracilenta, Budgin, N. concentriea, N.p)lumata and 
N. mitrida, Menke, iV. intermedia, Desh., N. eornuco2nai, and N. de- 
jjressa, Benson, N. melanostoma, Troschel, N. Indicce and N. TouT' 
annensis, Souleyet, N. Siquijorensis, N. exaltata. and iV^. pileolus, 
Recluz, N. Schlcejlii and N. compressa, Mousson, and N. Montrouzieri, 
Ga8sies. 



N. LiFUENSis, Angas. Unfigured. Viii Is. 

N. LACUSTRis, Jan. Unfigured. Brazil. 

Unassigned species described as Neritinye. 

N. PYGMiEA, C. B. Adams. Jamaica. 

N. PusiLLA, C. B. Ad. =Teinostoma. 

N. neglecta, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 

N. MINIMA, Recluz. Nukahiva. 

N. Hessei, Bottger. Moidh of River Congo, W. Africa. 

Genus NAVICELLA, Lam., 1809. 
Section Cimber, Montfort, 1810. 

The shells of the Navicellee are modified in form and convexity 
according to the nature of the surface to which they adhere ; thus 
the form called N. lineata, is a N. tessellata, higher and laterally 
compressed from inhabiting the stems of sea- weed, whilst the typical 
N. tessellata is from surfaces giving the shell a chance to spread ; so 



78 NAVICELLA. 

also the projection of the apex varies so that it may reasonably be 
considered as effected by environment; again, the central projection of 
the septum, usually conspicuous in JV. Freycineti, is sometimes want- 
ing in that species, whilst it occasionally occui's in others. Thus the 
sectional characters (made subgeneric by Messrs. Adams), insensibly 
coalesce. As to coloring, certain patterns have been regarded as 
characteristic of species, but there appear to be no breaks in the 
modifications by which most of the species may be connected. 

In the interest of scientists (and so, perhaps, of science) it becomes 
necessary to set iq^ some arbitrary landmarks, be they varieties, 
species or sections, it matters not, for the recognition of certain 
stages of the variations else in unbroken progresssion, and to these 
stages the names given by naturalists at a time when species were 
entities have been applied. This task Dr. von Martens has per- 
formed as well as his opportunities, learning and experienced judg- 
ment permitted : if I have succeeded in making any improvement, 
it is due to having his work as a foundation. 

N. BoRBONicA, Bory. PL 27, figs. 2-12. 

Rather convex, apex small, somewhat attenuated, produced be- 
yond the posterior margin ; color varying from dark chestnut brown, 
unicolored to light olivaceous brown, or tinged with purple and 
marked with radiating reiiculations, interior bluish or blackish, 
the posterior margin usually with a long black stain on either side. 

L. 25-40 mill. 

Mauritius, Ins. Bourbon, Madagascar, Seychelles Is. 

It is N. ellij)tica. Lam., (fig. 3) N. tabernaculata, Montf., iV. por- 
ce/lana, Recluz, not Linn., N. Cookii, Recluz (figs. 4, 5), iV. bimac- 
ulata. Reeve (fig. 6), var. triloba, Martens=A\ apiata, Sowb. in part 
(fig. 7), N. livida, Rve. (fig. 9), very similar to var triloba, Yiir. com- 
pressa, ]V[artens = J^. affinis, Reeve (fig. 8). I do not separate as 
such the two varieties given by Dr. von Martens, because such forms 
occur in all the species and are the result of station upon the growth of 
the individual. The black markings which Reeve has commemorated 
in his name bimaculata are very usually, but not always present, and 
unfortunately occur in other species. A more depressed form has 
been treated by von Martens as a distinct species, but seems to con- 
nect insensibly with Borbonica ; it is called N. depressa, Lesson, 
(figs. 10, 11), and N. zebra, Lesson, N. hai(strum. Reeve (fig. 12) and 



NAVICELLA. 79" 

its var. fissa, Mousson, N. hupeana, Gassies and N. affinis, Mousson 
are referred to it as synonyms. It occurs from New Caledonia to 
Tahiti. 

Both iV. borbonica and the form depressa have been x'eferred to 
N. porcellana, Linn., but that species, devoid of epidermis, must re- 
main unrecognizable. 

Morelet has figured (Jour, de Conch., Oct. 1887) a color variety 
from the (Jomoros Is. It is large, and bimaculate with vermillion 
inside in young as well as adult individuals. 

N. MACROCEPHALA, Guillou. PI. 27, figs. 13-16. 

Convex, laterally compressed, beak much produced, large, worn 
away below, epidermis dark chestnut color, with somewhat rugose 
growth lines. L. 25-35 mill. 

New Caledonia to Vitl Is. 

iV. sanguisuga, Reeve (figs. 13, 14), N. scarabceus, Reeve (figs. 15), 
and its var. decapitata, Mousson, and N. magnifica, Reeve (fig. 16), 
with its var. truncata, Mousson, are synonyms. N. parva, Mousson 
(PI. 28, figs. 23, 24), from the Malay Archipelago appears to 
have no distinctive character, except its nuich smaller size: I think 
it is identical. 

N. scuLPTA, von Martens. PI. 27, fig. 17, 18. 

Elliptical, lateral margins compressed, beaks large, dark chestnut 
color, without markings, distinctly longitudinally, granularly lirate. 

L. 13 mill. 

Sumatra. 
N. LuzoNiCA, Souleyet. PI. 27, fig. 19. 

Chestnut brown, rather smooth and somewhat shining, very mi- 
nutely radiately reticulated, the markings barely visible except on 
the beak ; convex, beak narrow, recurved, projecting beyond the 
margin. L. 20-40 mill. 

Celebes,. Philipj)ines, Marquesas Is., etc. 

The insufficient distinction of this species rests on the fineness of 
its reticulating dark lines. N. crepiduloides, Reeve (PI. 28, fig. 20), 
= var. compressa, Martens (PI. 28, fig. 21) and var. adspersa, Mar- 
tens (PI. 28, fig. 22) are synonyms. 

N. BouRGAiNviLLEi, Recluz. PL 28, figs. 25, 26. 

Broadly elliptical, chestnut color or yellowish olivaceous, with a 
large j^attern of radiating, transverse, black reticulations. 

L. 20-30 mill. 

Netv Caledonia to Viti Is. 



80 NAVICELLA. 

The synonyms include N. macrocephala of Sowb. and Reeve (figs. 
27, 28), N. Freycineti, Gould, N. Caledonica, Morelet, N. affinis, 
Gassies, N. ornata, Adams and Angas, N. undxdata, Mousson, N. 
squama, Mousson, and N. nana, Montr, (juvenile). 

N. CuMiNGiA'NA, Recluz. PI. 28, fig. 29. 

Olivaceous yellow with irregular concentric greenish brown or 
blackish bands and reticulations. L. 15-30 mill. 

Philippines. 

The undulating, transverse alternate series of light and dark col- 
ored stripes give character to this species ; it is scarcely as convex 
as N. Boitrgainvillei. 

N. Janella, Recluz. PI. 28, figs. 30-33. 

Broadly ovate, laterally somewhat produced, convex, with high, 
narrow, recurved beak, olivaceous yellow, with numerous, close ra- 
diating strigations of greenish black, sometimes coalescing, smooth, 
shining. L. 30-45 mill. 

Philippines, Marianne Is., Moluccas. 

N. lentiginosa. Reeve (fig. 33) is a synonym. 

N. Laperousei, Recluz. PI. 28, fig. 34. 

Convex, elliptical, with compressed sides, chestnut color, with 
here and there a black longitudinal strigation, sometimes forking, 
postero-lateral margins of the lij) black stained. L. 18-25 mill. 

Marianne, Guam, Ponape Is. 

Will probably prove a variety of N. macrocephala, Guillou. 

It is N. elliptica, Quoy. 

N. LUTEA, Martens. PI. 28, figs. 35, 36. 

Broadly oval, convex, epidermis thin, yellowish, without mark- 
ings, apex reddish, interior light greyish. L. 17'5 mill. 

Vili Is. 
Subsection Paria, Gray, 1867. 

N. Freycineti, Recluz. PI. 28, figs. 37-41. 

Oval, convex, yellowish brown, varying to chestnut color, diver- 
gently radiated and coarsely reticulated with black ; septum trun- 
cately produced in the middle. L. 17-35 mill. 

New Hebrides to Viti Is. 

The synonyms are N. jxila, jNIousson and its var. Vitiensis, Mouss., 
var. compressa. Martens, which includes N. suffreni, Reel., N. psit- 
tacea. Reeve (figs. 40, 41), and N. jKila, xav. pirofunda, Mouss. 



NAVICELLA. 81 

N. JuNGHUHNi, Herklots. PL 28, figs. 42, 43. 

Sub-rotund, smooth, shining, convex, dark olivaceous brown, the 
apex often purplish, with undulating transverse black lines, rest of 
surface without markings ; septum a little produced in the middle. 
L. 30-35 mill. 

Java. 
Section Elara, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

N. suBORBicuLARis, Sowb. PL 29, fig. 44. 

Rounded oval, rather elevated, ajjex elevated and recurved, inter- 
marginal, a little oblique, epidermis yellowish green, varying to oli- 
vaceous brown, the lighter colored specimens sometimes purple 
tinted above, with triangular radiating markings or irregular ra- 
diating blackish strigatious. L. 20-30 mill. 

Andaman, Is., to Java, and Philij)2)i'iies. 

The synonyms are ? N. jiorcellana, Linn., N. picta, Schum, N. el- 
liptica, Blainv. (in part), X. orbicularis, Reeve (figs. 45, 46), N. 
squamata, Dohrn, N. Javanica, Mouss., N. Forstenii, Herklots, N. 
Urvillei, Recluz, and its vars. Gaimardi and Quoyi, Recluz, and 
N. pulcherrima, Tapparone-Canefri. I am also compelled to unite 
with this species A. variabilis, Recluz, (figs. 47, 48) ; typically it is 
somewhat higher and more elliptical in outline, but shades away in 
both respects : N. Schmeltziana, Mousson, is a synonym of it. 

Philijyjjines, Viti Is. 

N. APiATA, Guillou. PL 29, fig. 49. 

Obovate, apex high, blunt, olivaceous yellow, variegated with 
black, so as often to form large tear-like radiating blotches of the 
lighter color. L. 25-32 mill. 

Marquesas to Viti Is. 

N. TESSELLATA, Lam. PL 29, fig. 57. 

Subelliirtical or oblong, rather depressed, spire narrow, recurved, 
not terminal, thin, not much shining, olivaceous yellow, tessellated 
with pur})le brown or black, Avith obscure rays, varying to olivaceous 
or purplish brown, with a few short radiating lines and minute spots 
of white. L. 18-30 mill. 

Ceylon, Java to Philippines. 

The synonymy includes A^. clypeolum, Recluz (figs. 50-52), A". 
Reclazii, and N. variabilis, Reeve (fig. 53, 54), A^ ambigua, Recluz, 
N. atra, Reeve, A. radiata, Reeve, var. subrostrata, Martens, and its 
6 



82 NAVICELLA. 

synonyms N. jyulehella (fig. 56) and N. insignis, Reeve (fig. 55), var. 
oblonga. Martens, and its synonym N. maculifera, Mousson, var. 
compressa, Mart., and its synonym N. Eiitrecasteauxi, Reel., (fig. 59) 
N. reticulata, Reeve (fig. 62), inclnding, N. eximia, Reeve (fig. 61) 
and its var. compressa, Martens (fig. 67), of which N. Livesayi, Dohrn 
is a synonym, and N. ccerulescens, Reel. (figs. 63, 65), with its syn- 
onyms N. plumhea, Sowb., N. comjoressa, Benson, and N. orientalis, 
Reeve (fig. QQ). 

Section Stenopoma, Gray, 1<S67. 

N. LiNEATA, Lam. PI. 29, fig. 58. 

Shell compressed elliptical, light yellowish, with a radiating pat- 
tern of chestnut or purplish longitudinal reticulations, forming tes- 
sellations and triangular markings of the lighter color, very thin, 
translucent, interior showing all tlie exterior markings, light bluish 
or yellowish. L. 25 mill. 

Philippines, Viti Is. 

Von Martens unites this species with N. tessellata, Lam., and I 
have no doubt that he is correct, but the latter might with equal 
propriety be united with N. sub orbicular is, etc. : in fact, the charac- 
ters in this group anastomose in every direction. 

N. navicula, Fer., and N. pictinxUa, Garrett (fig. 60) are syn- 
onyms : in the latter the ground color varies from yellow to pale 
purple, and the tessellations are often replaced by distinct radiating 
bands. 

Unfigured species of Navicella. 

N. APONOGETONis, Valil. East Indies. 

N. EXCELSA and IST. Moreletiana, Gassies. JSfew Caledonia. 

These two have the interiors only, figured, and those have no 
characters. 

Family NERITOPSIDM 
Genus NERITOPSIS, Grat, 1832. 

N. RADULA, Linn. PI. 29, fig. 68. 

Shell opaque, thick, white, with thick, close, beaded, spiral ribs, 
the narrow interstices pitted ; outer lip fluted by the ribs. 

Alt. •75-l"5 inch. 

Singapore, Java, Mauritius. 



adeorbis. 83 

Family ADEORBIID^. 

Genus ADEORBIS, S. Wood, 1842. 

A. PLANA, A. Ad. PI. 80, figs. (39, 70. 

Much depressed, last whorl obliquely flattened, broad, spirally 
striated, umbilicus very large, its wall spirally flattened, ajDerture 
wide, oblique, white. Diam. 12 mill. 

Philijjpines, Japan. 

A. ELEGANS, A. Adams. PI. 30, fig. 71. 

White or yellowish white, depressed, closely striate and with im- 
l)ressed spiral lines, last whorl obliquely flattened in front, umbilicus 
large, its wall rounded, aperture wide, obliquely subtriangular. 

Diam. 10-12 mill. 

Ins. St. Thomas, W. I. 

A. DEPREssus, A. Ad. PI. 30, fig. 72. 

Much depressed, broad, smooth, last whorl not obliquely flattened 
above, umbilicus moderate white. Diam. 4 mill. 

Mino-Sima, Japan. 
A. STRiATELLA, Montr. PI. 30, figs. 73, 74. 

Spirally striate with impi-essed lines and suboblique curved lines 
of punctations, white, subtranslucent, shining, umbilicus narrow, 
spire somewhat elevated, aperture transversely oval. 

Diam. b'b mill. 

Neiv Caledonia. 

A. ORBELLA, A. Ad. PI. 30, fig. 75. 

White, moderately depressed, with somewhat elevated spire, whorls 
sloping above, umbilicus very large, defined, aperture obliquely 
rounded. Diam. 4 mill. 

Mino Sima, Jap)an. 

A. CLAUsus, A. Ad. PI. 30, fig. 7G. 

Finely concentrically striated, translucent, spire convexly de- 
pressed, whorls somewhat flattened above, umbilicus partly covei'ed 
by callus. Diam. 3 mill. 

Mino-Sima, Japan. 

A. Japonicus, a. Ad. PI. 30, fig. 77. 

Depressed, smooth, semipellucid, concentrically obliquely striated, 
whorls slowly increasing, rounded, with impressed suture, umbilicus 
wide, bordered by a strong rib. Diam. 2*5 mill. 

Gotta Is., Japan. 



84 ADEORBIS. 

A. Adamsi, Fischer. PI. 30, fig. 78, 

Convexly depressed, with sharp spire, sinuously concentrically 
striate, umbilicus rather Avide, aperture wide, obliquely oval. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

Guadeloupe, W. I., Cedar Key, Fla. 

A. Seguenzianus, Tryon. PI. 30, fig. 79. 

White, widely umbilicated, whorls very oblique, spire elevated, 
suture impressed, microscopically striate, with intermediate spiral 
lines, last whorl very oblique, umbilicus surrounded by an obtuse 
angle of the base. Diam. 4 mill. 

Italy, Sicily ; 11-108 fms. 

Seguenza describes this species as A. depresses, preoccupied by A. 
Adams. 

A. FRAGiLis, G. 0. Sars. PI. 30, fig. 80. 

Thin, fragile, whitish, or slightly brownish, spire elevated, reg- 
ularly si)irally striate, whorls convex, with deep suture, last whorl 
obliquely flattened above, aperture obliquely ovate, patulous, umbil- 
icus large, defined by an obtuse angle. Diam. 2 mill. 

LoffodenlsL; W. coast of Norway ; 60-190 fms. 

A. PROMiNULA, A. Ad. PL 30, figs. 81, 82. 

Umbilicus moderate, slightly bordered; thinly concentrically stri- 
ate, translucent, polished, whorls scarcely prominent, rapidly increas- 
ing, aperture obliquely I'ounded. Diam. 2 mill. 

Mino-Shna, Japaii. 

A. MANULA, A. Ad. PI. 30, fig. 83. 

Moderately umbilicated, depressed, subdiscoidal, the spire a little 
exserted, Avhorls rounded, slowly increasing, umbilicus bordered, 
aperture rounded, Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Mino-Sima, Japan. 

A. TROCHULA, A. Ad. PI. 30, fig. 84. 

Umbilicus small, defined by a rib, spire rather elevated, trochiform, 
the whorls slojiing above, periphery bluntly angulated, aperture 
rather round. Diam. 3*5 mill. 

Gotta Is., Japan. 

A. PATRUELis, A. Adams. PL 30, figs. 85, 86. 

Semipellucid, white, spire slightly elevated, last whorl sloping- 
above, obtusely triangular, rather flattened below, umbilicus some- 
what narrow, columellar lip erect. Diam. 3 mill. 

Mino-Sima, Japjan . 



ADEORBIS. 85 

A. suBANGULATus, A. Ad. PL 30, figs. 87, 88. 

Umbilicus narrow, defined by an angle, rather solid, last whorl 
gibbous and obscurely angular near the suture, outer lij) sinuously 
produced above. Diam. 3 mill. 

Gotto Is., Japan. 
A. Sinensis, A. Ad. PI. 30, figs. 89, 90. 

Depressed, solid, opaque, spire slightly elevated, decussated by 
minute concentric and spiral striae, Avhorls rounded, umbilicus rather 
large, aperture nearly round. Diam. 3 mill. 

China Sea. 

A. NiTiDus, A. Ad. PI. 30, figs. 91, 92. 

Whorls rounded, with impressed suture, spire slightly elevated, 
umliilicus large, defined by an angle, a2)erture nearly round. 

Diam. 3"5 mill. 

Philippines. 

A. CARiNATUS, A. Ad. PI. 30, figs. 93, 94. 

Whorls rounded, the last gibbous towards the suture, flattened on 
the base, which is surrounded by a keel, becoming stronger towards 
the aperture, umbilicus rather large, defined by an angle, aperture 
obliquely subquadrate. Diam. 4 mill. 

Seto-Uchi, Japan. 

A. PLANOEBULUs, A. Ad. PI. 30, figs. 95, 96. 

Shell much depressed, planorbiform, spire not raised, whorls round- 
ed, the last rapidly increasing towards the aperture, umbilicus very 
large, not defined, aperture round. Diam. 4'5 mill. 

Philijjpines. 

A. suBCARiNATUS, Montagu. PI. 30, fig. 97. 

Depressed turbinate, white, subcostulate-striate, er.circled by two 
or three equidistant spiral threads above, sometimes obsolete, occa- 
sionally developed into ridges, base convexly flattened, bicarinated, 
umbilicus moderate. Diam. 3 mill. 

Europe. 

It is ^. carinatus, Wood, and Delphinula jjusilla, Phil. 

A. Angasi, a. Ad. PI. 30, figs. 98, 99. 

^[uch depressed, discoidal, thin, white, convexly flattened above, 
whorls few, rapidly increasing, perijohery shar])ly carinated and 
crenulated by radiating strong growth strite, which also crenulate 



86 ADEORBIS. 

the suture, coiicavely flattened below, with the folds of the growth 
striae very prominent, umbilicus wide, aperture large, basal. 
Diam. 4-5 mill. 

A ustralia ; Singajwre (Archer), 

A. ViNCENTiANUS, Angas. PI. 80, fig. 100. 

Widely unibilicated, rather thin, semipellucid, white ; whorls 3, 
rapidly increasing, the last very large, convex, finely undulately 
concentrically striated, obtusely keeled below the periphery, and 
Avith a basal keel surrounding the umbilical region, which is slightly 
crenated by rude growth-iines ; a|ierture semilunar, the inner lip 
nearly straight, sinuously angulated above. Diam. 6 mill. 

Aldinga Bay, St. Vincent's Gulf, Australia. 

A. scABER, Phil. PI. 30, figs. 99 a, h. 

White, scabrous, with elevated, subserrated s])iral lines above, 
and sublamellar incremental lines below, whorls rapidly increasing, 
the last with acutely angulated periphery. Diam. 3 mill. 

• Panama. 

A. TENUiLiRATUs, Smith. PI. 30, figs. 1-3. 

Moderately unibilicated, yellowish, marked with spiral interrupted 
lines and oblique radiating streaks of dark olivaceous, base yellowish 
white, unicolored ; whorls 4, convex, rapidly increasing, with deep 
suture, obliquely striate, and with thin spiral lirse ; aperture sub- 
circular, receding at the base, whitish, showing the external mark- 
ings. Diam. 3 mill. 

Sa7i Christoval, Solomon Is. 

I think this will 2:)rove to be a Trochus ; there are slight evidences 
of pearly nacre on the specimens before me. 

JJnfigured and doubtful species. 

A. COSTATUS, Garrett. =^Fossarus Garretti, Pease, Manual, ix, 272. 

A, VARius, Hutton. =Fossarina, Manual, ix, 276. 

A. ABJECTA, C. B. Ad. ^^Fossariis, Manual, ix, 274. 

A. STRIATUS, Chemn. z=Circulus striatus, Phil. 

A. iMPERSPicuus, Monts. Sicily^ 

A. Orbignyi, Fischer, Cuba. 

A. pimbriatus, Martens. New Guinea. 

A. PICTUS, Tenisou-Woods. Tasmania. 



aechyt.t:a. 87 

Genus AECHYTiEA, Costa, 1869. 

I have added to this genus a number of species described as Ad- 
eorbis, but which are related to the following type species by the 
characters of the shell. 

A. DELiCATUM, Phil. PI. 30, fig. 6. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, semipellucid, white ; whorls 3i, 
convex, the last large, suture well imj^ressed, base a little flattened; 
surface smooth, microscopically decussated ; aperture oval, peristome 
simple, nearly continuous. Diam. I'l mill. 

Norivay ; fossil in Sicily. 
Var. EXPANSA, Sars. PL 30, fig. 7. 

Shell and aperture more oblique, dilated below. Diam. 1"4 mill. 

Xortvay. 
A. suTURALE, A. Ad. PI. 30, figs. 4, 5. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, very finely concentrically striated, 
thin, semipellucid, white, spire a little elevated ; whorls somewhat 
convex, rapidly increasing, suture deep ; aperture rounded. 

Diam. I'd mill. 

Tsu-jSima, Japan. 
A. coRNicuLUM, A. Ad. PL 30, figs. 8, 9. 

Umbilicus narrow, defined by an angle, white, translucent, very 
minutely striated ; whorls somewhat convex, rapidly increasing, the 
last rounded, large ; aperture round. Diam. 2 mill. 

3Iino-Sima, Japan. 
A. DIAPHANUM, A. Ad. PL 30, figs. 10, 11. 

Narrowly umbilicated, globose, transparent ; whorls rounded, the 
last inflated; aperture round. Diam. I'd mill. 

Gotto Is., Japan. 
A. EXQUisiTUM, Jeffreys.' PL 30, figs. 12, 13. 

Rather widely, deeply umbilicated, white, rather thin, transparent 
and glossy, microscopically decussated, the crossings slightly nodose ; 
whorls 3, convex, with deep suture; aperture obtusely subtriangular. 

Diam. 175, alt. 2-5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Subgenus Pseudorbis, Monts., 1884. 
A. GRANULUM, Brugnone. PL 30, fig. 14. 

White, subglobose, spire a little exserted, whorls 3, spirally ribbed, 
ribs elevated, scarcely umbilicated, peristome subcontinuous. 
Diam. 1.5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 



88 CYCLOSTEEMA. 

Faault C rCL OSTBEMA TID^. 

Genus CYCXOSTREMA, Manyan, 1818. 

Section Cycix)STRE3i[a, « .^emu *tndo). 

C. A>rAGLYPrA. A. Ad. PI. 31, figs. 15, 16. 

Turbinate, with broad, flattened umbilicus, last whorl with three 
spiral, beaded ribs, convex, white, solid, lip externallv cienulated. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

Seto- Uchi, Japaiu 

C. MiCA>.-^. A. Ad. PL 31, figs. 17, 18, 19, 20. 

More depressed than the preceding species, thick, white, last 
whorl with three spiral nodulous ribs, the middle one more prc»mi- 
nent, peristome continuous, thick, externally crenulatel. iimbilieus 
rather small. 

Japan, Sin'rij^H-rt. Au-<rrfilia, 

C. puleheUa, Dunker, (figs« 19, 20) is a synonym. 

C. Calaaleli, Jousseanme. PI. 31, figs. 21, 22. 

Rather widely umbilicated, white, thick, solid, minutely costulate, 
with an obscure spiral line above, periphery angulated, base with 
three carina crowing the radiating striae, producing a subnodulous 
surface. Diam. 2"5 milL 

Prinees Isl. W. Africa. 

C. ^Iakchei, Jou^eaume. PL 31, figs. 23, 24, 25. 

Rather widely umbilicated, white, thick, solid, with spiral rihlets, 
that in the midtlle of the upper surface tuberculated, riblets closer 
on the base. Diam. 2'5— 1"5 milL 

Ponhj-Penaiig. Sv.gapore, Yiti Is. 

The larger diameter and last locality are for VitrineUa sculptilis. 
Garrett (fig. '2o), an undoubted svnonym. the types agreeing com- 
pletely with Singapore specimens coDected by Archer. 

C. RzEVEAXA, Hinds. PL 31, fig. 26. 

Moderately umbilicated, white, radiately lirate. crossed above 
by several spiral ridges, of which the centre one is more prominent, 
fi>rming an angle, ridges close below, spinously tuberculated by the 
radiating lirte, umbilical wall radiately closely striate. 

Diam. 10 mill. Singapore. 



CYCLOSTREMA. 89 

C. CANCELLATA, Marrvatt. PL 31, figs. 27, 28. 

White, sublenticular, flattened convex above, more convex below, 
with oblique radiating riblets, interrupted by an obtuse peripheral 
rib, the interstices of the riblets finely sj^irally striated, umbilicus 
moderate. Diam. 6 mill. 

West Indies; Philippines f 

C. EBURNEA, Nevill. PI. 31, figs. 29, 30. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thick, white, shining, longitudinally ob- 
liquely plicate, the interstices spirally striated, suture narrowly mar- 
gined, periphery with a corded carina, bordered by an impressed 
line above and below, base sculptured like the upper sui-face. 

Diam. 4'75 mill. 

Pooree, Bay of Bengal. 

The Philippine specimens referred to C. concellata, ]\Iarryatt by 
Sowerby, may prove to belong to this species. 

C. ALVEOLATA, Jousseaumc. PI. 31, figs. 31, 32. 

Depressed, widely umbilicated, rather thick, transparent, vitreous 
white, with an occasional spiral ridge, between which are radiating 
riblets, both above and below, the interstices spirally striate. 

Diam. 1-5 mill. 

Hub. unknown. 

C. ScHRAMMii, Fischer. PI. 31, fig. 33. 

Subdepressed, spire rather flattened, whorls excavated below the 
suture, with strong, oblique, sharp radiating ribs. 

Diam. 3*5 mill. Isl. Guadeloupe, West Indies. 

C. Archeri, Tryou. PI. 33, fig. 84, ^r). 

Rather widely umbilicated, shell depressed, spire scarcely elevated, 
whorls rounded, with regular convex longitudinal ribs, the inter- 
stices finely spirally lirate, peristome thickened. Diam. 2"5 mill. 

Singapore (Archer). 

C. Ammoxoceras, a. Ad. PI. 31, figs. 34, 35. 

Depressed, spire slightly elevated, la.st Avhorl flattened near the 
suture and around the moderate umbilicus, with rather thick, dis- 
tant longitudinal ribs, the interstices finely spirally striated, aperture 
large, outer lip thin. Diam. 3 mill. 

Japan. 

Less depressed, with more distant and prominent ribs than the 
preceding species; diflers also in the thin peristome, and sutural 
and basal flattenino; of the bodv whorl. 



90 CYCLOSTREMA. 

C. EXCAVATA, Carpenter. PI. 31, figs. 36, 37. 

Flatly convex above, flattened below, the wide umbilicus defined 
by an angle, minutely spirally striated, last whorl angulated at the 
base, peristome thin. Diam. 6 mill. 

China Sea. 

C. ATOMUS, Issel. PI. 31, figs. 38, 39. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, greenish, a little shining, 
obliquely longitudinally striate; whorls 4^, rapidly enlarging, 
slightly convex, the l^st subangulated at the base, umbilical area 
longitudinally crispate; peristome thickened, continuous. 

Diam. I'o mill. Suez. 

C. Nevilli, H. Adams. PI. 31, fig. 40. 

Narrowly umbilicated, disk-like, subpellucid, shining, thin, spirally 
lirate and radiately striate, smooth at the periphery, spire subplane, 
suture scarcely impressed; whorls 4, moderately increasing, flattened, 
the periphery angulated, base more convex; peristome simple, um- 
bilicus with callous margin. Diam. 4'5 mill. 

Ceylon. 
C. MiLiTARis, Jousseaume. PL 31, figs. 41, 42. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, thin, pellucid, slightly convex 
and faintly, finely, irregularly striate above, base nearly plane, 
equally striate, the strise becoming stronger upon the walls of the 
umbilicus, with a spiral thread-like carina near the periphery of the 
base, and another close to the umbilicus. Diam. 2'75 mill. 

Prmce's Isl., W. Africa. 
C. AREOLATA, Sars. PI. 31, figs. 43-45. 

"Widely, perspectively umbilicated, solid, semipellucid, white, 
finely spirally lirate, crossed by close incremental stripe; whorls 3, 
convex, moderately increasing; aperture orbicular, peristome thin. 

Diam. 1*4 mill. Arctic Norway. 

C. Verrilli, Tryon. PI. 31, fig. 46. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, with low spire, white, finely, longi- 
tudinally, obliquely striate, with several spiral lines on the body 
whorl above the periphery, more numerous and closer on the base; 
whorls 3=1, the last large, very convex, base oblique; aperture large, 
very obliquely ovate, periphery thin and sharp. 

Diam. 2*2 mill. Off Xew Engla.nd; 545 fms. 

Described by Verrill as C. cingidatum, a specific name twice pre- 
occupied. 



CYCLOSTREMA. 91 

C. DiAPHANA, Verrill. PL 31, fig. 47. 

Narrowly umbilicated, depressed trochiform, thin, translucent, 
white, smooth, shining; whorls 82, very convex, with deep suture, 
smooth, except twenty to twenty-five close spiral lines around the 
umbilical perforation. Diam. 3 mill. 

Off New England; 98 fms. 

C. DuNKERi, Tryon. PL 32, figs. 48, 49. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, with a spiral rib near the suture, 
another on the periphery, and a third circumscribing the umbilicus. 

Diam. 2'5 mill. Jajyan. 

Described by Duuker as C. clngulata, a name preoccupied by 
Philippi. 

C. Philippii, Issel. PL 32, figs. 50, 51. 

Widely umbilicated, yellowish white, obsoletely radiately plicate- 
striate, with three spiral ridges, one near the suture, the other defi- 
ning a narrow peripheral area; whorls ?)h, rapidly increasing, flat- 
tened above, a little convex below, umbilicus defined by a granular 
rib. Diam. 1"5 mill. 

Suez. 

O. ciNGULATA, Philippi. PL 32, figs. 53, 54. 

Narrowly umbilicated, with radiating low, broadly rounded un- 
dulations above, scolloping the periphery, quadricarinate in the 
adults, bicarinate in the young, the carime being more acuate, sin- 
uately dentate, and dotted with brown ; aperture subcircular in the 
adult. • Red Sea. 

The only figure represents a young shell, Vb mill, in diam. 
The size of the adult is not given. 

C. Verreauxii, Fischer. PL 32, fig. 52. 

jNIoderately umbilicated, whorls rapidly increasing, the last en- 
circled by three keels, of which the peripheral one is most prom- 
inent, and produced at the aperture into a tongue-shaped lobe, 
umbilical wall flattened, defined by an angle, peristome produced 
by the peripheral keel. Diam. 4*5 mill. 

California. 

I believe that the indefinite locality given by Fischer thirty 
years ago remains unverified. 



92 CYCLOSTREMA. 

C. BiPORCATA, A. Ad. PI. 32, figs. 56, 57. 

Rather narrowly unibilicated, orbicularly depressed, last whorl 
with two sharp keels of which the lower is most prominent, aperture 
rather rounded, outer lip two-lobed. Diam. 2"5 mill. 

Seto- UcJii, Japan. 
C. L.EVis, Kiener. PL 32, fig. 55, 59, 60. 

Widely unibilicated, depi'essed, smooth, last whorl encircled by 
a number of rather distant keels, one of which forms an angular 
periphery, umbilicus with a flat wall, defined by a rib. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Port Lincoln, Australia; Japan; Viti Is. 

It is C. diatreta, Gould, and Delphinula nivea, Reeve. The latter 
attribvites his species to Chemnitz, who in this, as in many other 
instances was not binomial. C. lactea, Jouss, (figs. 79, 60), a species 
described as differing from loevis in the regularity of its keels, also 
appears to belong here, for the keels are very irregularly developed 
in number, prominence and spacing; it was described from a single 
specimen, without locality. 

C. DUPLiCATA, Lischke. PL 32, fig. 58. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather solid, striate, carinate at the suture, 
bicarinate at the periphery, with tw^o less developed carinas on the 
base, circumscribing the flat-walled umbilicus; periphery thickened. 

Diam. 4 mill. Japan. 

C. Virginia, Jousseaume. PL 32, figs. 61, 62. 

Widely umbilicated, thick, solid, opaque, white, with about eleven 
rounded spiral ribs on the last whorl, the intervening grooves longi- 
tudinally striate, the strise more prominent around the umbilicus, 
whorls 4j, rapidly enlarging, convex ; peristome thickened. 

Diam. 6 mill. Madagascar? 

Has more ribs than C. cingvlifera, A. Ad. 

C. ANGULATA, A. Adams, PL 32, figs. 63, 64, 65. 

Widely umbilicated, periphery keeled, with spiral lira) above it, 
base with a submedian keel, defining the umbilicus, and producing 
the basal margin of the peristome. Diam. 12 mill. 

Isl. Zebu, Philippines; Guadeloupe, St. Martin, W. Indies. 

C. angulata. A, Ad. was described as from the Philippines on the 
authority of Cuming, but as that great collector sometimes made 



CYCLOSTREMA, 93 

mistakes, the locality needs confirmation. There can be no doubt of 
the identity with this species of C. Beaux, Fischer (fig. 63), a West 
Indian species. 

C. TRicARiNATA, Smith. PI. 32, figs. 66-68. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, white ; whorls 5, rapidly increas- 
ing, spirally lirate, the last whorl acutely tricarinated, the peripheral 
carina strongest; aperture subhexagonal, peristome acute. 

Diam. 3 mill. Whydah, West Africa. 

C. ROSEOTiNCTA, Smith. PI. 32, fig. 70. 

Moderately umbilicated, rosy white; whorls 4, convex, distantly, 
slightly, spirally lirate, decussated by faint incremental strife, suture 
depressed; peristome thin. Diam, 1 "75 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

C. CARINATA, H. Adams. PL 32, fig. 71. 

Widely umbilicated, solid, with regular, angular spiral carin?e> 
the interstices radiately sculptured; whorls 4, convex, rapidly in- 
creasing, the last dilated in front; aperture subcirciilar, peristome 
thickened, subcoutinuous. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Persian Gulf. 
C. ciNGULiFERA, A. Ad. PI. 32, figs. 72, 73. 

Widely, flatly umbilicated, depressed, whorls rapidly increasing, 
the last encircled by six prominent, very sharp ribs; peristome ex- 
ternally fluted. Diam. 3*5 mill. 

Philippines, Japan. 
C. Tatei, Angas. PI. 32, figs. 74, 74a. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, moderately thin, shining, pearly 
white, microscopically striated; whorls 4, rounded, flattened and 
slightly excavated next below the suture, with one, or sometimes 
two, narrow thread-like keels at the upper part, and strongly keeled 
round the umbilical region, suture distinct; aperture subcircular, 
lip simple. Diam. 2*5 mill. 

South Australia. 

" The above is the normal condition of the species ; but examples 
occur which are thinner and have a greater number of keels, some- 
times as many as seven or eight. At first I was inclined to regard 
the many-keeled variety as specifically distinct; but on the examina- 
tion of a large series by Professor Tate, he assures me that the 
number of keels varies so greatly that it would be impossible to 
separate them. The thin hyaline examples with many keels are 
probably younger shells." 



94 CYCLOSTREMA. 

I have figured both the illustrations given by IMr. Angas. If his 
above remarks be well-founded, which I am very willing to believe, 
several species herein described, and which are principally distin- 
guished by the number of revolving riblets will need to be suppressed ; 
that of the inconoclast himself will be deservedly lost in the general 
ruin which he has caused. 

C. TORNATA, A. Ad. PI. 32, figs. 75, 76. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, depressed-subglobose, spire slightly 

elevated; whorls slowly increasing, rounded, spirally six-ribbed; 

aperture rounded. Diam. 4'5 mill. 

Japan. 

C. SULCATA, A. Adams. PI. 32, figs. 77, 78. 

Umbilicus very wide, grooved, spire convexly depressed, whorls 
regularly spirally sulcated, the last broad, aperture nearly rounded. 

Diam. 4 mill. Pldlippines, Jajxin. 

C. EXiGUA, Phil. PI. 32, figs. 79, 80. 

Rather widely umbilicated, subdiscoidal, with radiating riblets 
fimbriating four spiral carini?e. Diam. 2"3 mill. 

Aden, Arabia. 

C. Watsoni, Try on. PI. 32, figs. 81, 82. 

Widely umbilicated, rather depressed, with a narrow, concave 
shoulder on the whorls, periphery rounded, umbilicus broadly funnel- 
shaped, bordered by a thread-like carina, with another within it; 
Avhite, under a slightly mottled or longitudinally banded smoky 
brown membranous, epidermis ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing. 

Diam. 28 mill. Off Per mimbuco, Brazil; 675 fms. 

This is C. sulcata, Watson ; preoccupied b^ A. Adams. 

C. CONIOA, Watson. PI. 33, figs. 83. 

Narrowly umbilicated, conical, with about 17 longitudinal lamellie, 
the interstices spirally striate, white, suture well-impressed : whorls 
42 , well-rounded, rapidly increasing, the last tumid; peristome con- 
tinuous, but not solute. Diam. Vb mill. 

Off Peniamhuco ; 350 fms. 

Looks more like a Scalaria than a Cyclostrema. 



CYCLOSTREMA. 95' 

Unfigured species, described as Cyclostrema. 

C. FLUCTUATA, Huttoii. = TurbinidcB. 

C. IMMACULATA, aud C. SPINOSA, Teiiison-AVoods. Tasmania. 

C. MODESTA, Gould. Hong Kong.. 

This has been referred to C. micans, A. Ad. but the description 
does not agree. 

C. PENTEGONiosTOMA, Carpenter. Red Sea. 

C. Carbonnieri, Jousseaume. Aden. 

C. Harriett.^;, and C. micra, Petterd. Tasmania. 

C. JoHNSTONi and C. Brunxiensis, Beddonie, Tasmania. 

C. CONSPICUA, and C. depressa, Monts. Mediterranean. 

Section Tubiola, A. Ad. 1864. 

C. coRNUELLA, A. Ad. PL 33, fig. 14, 15. 

Widely unibilicated, depressed turbinate, smooth, spire somewhat 
elevated, whorls rounded, rapidly increasing, the last large, aperture 
rounded. Diam. 2 mill. Jajxin. 

Is possibly a Skeuea. 

C. JosEPHi, Tenison- Woods. PL 33, fig. 9. 

Widely unibilicated, obliquely turbinate, thick, white, opaque, 
maculated with very pale chestnut ; whorls 5, rounded, closely 
spirally striate ; peristome thick, posteriorly produced. 

Diam. 3 mill. Tasmania. 

C. 8USONIS, Tenison-Woods. PL 33, fig. 10. 

Widely unibilicated, depressed, translucent white, polished, spire 
slightly exserted, whorls 4, rounded, aperture simple, orbicular. 

Diam. 1'5 mill. N. coast of Tasmania. 

C. Weldii, Tenison- Woods. PL 33, fig. 11. 

Moderately unibilicated, umbilicus margined, depressed turbinate, 
somewhat translucent, thin, shining, smooth, with faint growth striae, 
whitish; whorls 6, depressed convex; aperture rounded, everted 
posteriorly. Diam. 2 mill. 

Long Bay, Tasmania. 

C, MICRA, Tenison-Woods. PL 33, fig. 13. 

Perspectively unibilicated, turbinate, minute, polished, white; 
whorls 5, rounded, with deep suture ; peristome simple, acute. 

Diam. 1"5 mill. Long Bay, Tasmania. 



96 CYCLOSTEEMA. 

C. DivisA, Adams. PI. 33, figs. 87, 88. 

Widely umbilicated, turbinate, spire elevated, with obtuse ajDex, 
white ; whorls 3, rouuded, last whorl obliquely descending, becoming 
free ; aperture obliquely ovate. Diam. 4 mill. Euroj^e. 

C. serpuloides, Mtg. is a synonym, 

C. NivEA, A. Ad. PI. 33, figs. 89, 90. 

Widely umbilicated, obliquely semiglobose, convex above, some- 
what flattened below, spire slightly elevated, whorls rapidly increas- 
ing, aperture large, obliquely ovate. Diam. 5 mill. 

Japan. 

Adams very curiously publishes this as Chemnitz's nivea, and 
says that it is exactly similar to the figures in the "Couehylieu 
Cabinet." The latter, is however, not being binomial, a synonym of 
C. IcBvis, Kiener, and neither agrees with the description nor the 
figures published by Adams (which I copy). 

C. RUGULOSA, Jeffreys. PI. 33, figs. 91, 92. 

Narrowly umbilicated, pellucid, yellowish white, with short, 
obtuse spire, smooth, microscopically rugulose and spirally striate; 
Avhorls 3, convex, the last large, suture well-impressed. 

Diam. 1'3 mill. 

Norway, Mediterranean, New England (Verrill). 

C. BAsiSTRiATA, Bruguone. PI. 33, figs. 93, 94. 

Narrowly umbilicated, shining, smooth; whorls 4?, tumid, with 
deep suture, rapidly increasing, base with oblique, arcuate stripe 
running into the umbilicus. Diam. 2"2.5 mill. 

Spitzbergen to Drobak; 50-1 333 /ms. Fossil, Italian plioiene. 

The strise sometimes extend over the whole shell, this state being 
C. profundnm, Friele; C. striolatum Sars ms., is another synonym. 

C. MiNUTUM, Jeffreys. PL 33, fig. 95. 

Perforate, thin, transparent, polished, Avhite; whorls 3, convex, 
ra])idly increasing; peristome continuous, partly appressed. 

Diam. 62 mill. Mediterranean Sea. 

C. CuTLERiANA, Clark. PI. 33, fig. 96. 

Narrowly umbilicated, depressed globose, spirally striate, Avhite, 
whorls convex, rapidly increasing, suture deeply excavated. 

Diam. 2 mill. Europe. 

Helicella mutabilis, Costa, is a synonym. 



CYCLOSTREMA. 



§7 



C. NiTENs, Phil. PI. 88, fig. 97. 

Narrowly umbilicated, more depressed and thicker, more glossy 
than the preceding species; there are a few indistinct grooves on the 
upper part of the umbilicus, otherwise the surface is smooth and 
polished. Diam. 87 mill. Euroj)e. 

Margarita pusilla, Jeffreys is a synonym. 

Var. Alderi, JefiTreys. 

Shell thinner and more transparent. Skenea Icevis, Forbes and 
Hanley is possibly identical. 

C. TROCHOiDES, Jeffi'eys. PL 33, figs. 98, 99. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, white, opaque, smooth, shining, base 
sometimes with a few faint oblique, curved lines; whorls 4, convex, 
with deep suture; columellar lip vertical, forming a slight angle 
with the outer lip at their junction. Diam. 2 mill. 

• Norway. 

It is C. Peterseni, Friele. 

C. Dalli, Verrill. PL 33, fig. 100. 

Umbilicus imperforate or narrowly rimate, yellowish white, smooth 
except for minute grooth-lines; whorls 3 i, rapidly enlarging, well 
rounded, with deep suture, base with seven or eight spiral incised 
lines. Diam. 2*25 mill. 

Off N. England Coast. 

It is C. troehoides, Verrill, not Jeffreys. 

Var. ORNATUM, Verrill. PL 33, fig. 1. 

Spiral lines of the base crossed by thin, impressed, oblique lines. 

C. BiTHYNOiDES, Jeffi'eys. PL 33, fig. 23. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, the fine growth lines crossed by 
microscopic close-set spiral strife, giving the surface a frosted appear- 
ance, whitish; whorls 3?, rapidly increasing, the last tumid; peri- 
stome continuous, but partly adnate. Diam. 1"25, alt. 1'66 mill. 

European Atlantic (Porcupine Exped.), Mediterranean. 

C. AFFiNis, Jeffreys. PL 33, fig. 5. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, semitransparent glossy, with- 
out sculpture, white, suture narrow but deep; whorls 4, swollen, 
rapidly increasing; periphery simple, acute. Diam. 1'87 mill. 

Bay of Biscay, Palermo; 103-913 /)us. 



98 CYCLOSTREMA. 

C. PROxiMA, Tryon. PL 33, fig. 4. 

Narrowly umbilicated, faintly striate, with a few indistinct spiral 
lines below tlie sutnre, and numerous well defined ones on the base, 
around the umbilicus the inferior strife stronger, surface smooth, 
greyish white, suture impressed, whorls very convex, rapidly in- 
creasing; periphery round, thin, slightly in contact. 

Diam. 2-2 mill. Off New England Coast; S-iZ fms. 

Said to be closely allied to C basistriata, Brugnone. Described 
by Prof. Verrill as C. afflnis, preoccuj)ied by Jeffreys for the pre- 
ceding species. 

C. TENERA, Jeffreys. PI. 33, fig. 6. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, semitransparent, lustreless, with 
nearly microscopic spiral stride, which are wanting on the base and 
replaced by a rugose or fretted appearance, pale yellowish white, 
with a faint greenish tinge, suture very deep; whorls 4, convex; 
mouth circular, peristome thin, slightly expanded. Diam. 2*5 mill. 

European Atlantic (Porcupine Exped.) 

C. siMiLis, Jeffreys. PI. 33, fig. 7. 

Moderately umbilicated, depressed turbinate, rather thin, glossy, 
opaque, without sculpture; whorls 42, convex, rapidly increasing, 
suture wide and deep; mouth nearly circular, slightly appressed, 
peristome thin. Diam. 1"25 mill. 

European Atlantic (Porcupine Exped.) 

C. Valvatoides, Jeffreys. PI. 33, fig. 8. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, opaque, glossy, with a few' 
irregular growth-lines, yellowish white, spire with rather flattened 
apex, suture deep ; whorls 4, well-rounded ; peristome considerably 
expanded. Diam. 3'12 mill. 

European Atlantic (Porcupine Exped.) 

C. sph^roides, S. Wood. PI. 32, fig. 69. 

Narrowly umbilicated, white, spirally costate; whorls three, rapidly 
increasing, suture deep. Diam. 1*25 mill. 

Bay of Biscay^ 

Described as a fossil of the Crag, Sutton, England, and said to 
be nacreous in the original diagnosis. 



CYCLOSTREMA. 99 

C. TUBERCULOSA, d'Oi'b. PI. 35, fig. 65a. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thick, white, with six tuberculated spiral 
ribs ; whorls 4, convex, the last large ; aperture x'ounded, peristome 
thick, externally tuberculated. Diam. 2 mill. 

Cuba. 

Section Daronia, A. Adams. 1864. 

C. CYCLOTINA, A. Ad. PI. 33, fig. 16. 

Umbilicus lai'ge, flat within, surface smooth, spire flat, last whorl 
rapidly increasing, not contiguous, aperture subangular above. 

Diam. 4 mill. Japan. 

C. suBEXCAVATA, Tryon. PI. 33, figs. 17, IS. 

Umbilicus wide, perspective, shallow, whitish under a yellowish 
brown, membranous epidermis, spire scarcely raised, suture broadly, 
angularly impressed, a little below the suture there is a bluntly 
angulated spiral keel, and on the middle of the base, towards the 
mouth there is another keel; whorls 4, rather slowly increasing, 
until the last, which is rather large ; mouth a little oblique, peristome 
simple, thin. Diam. 2'15 mill. 

Off Cidebra IsL, W. Indies; 390 >s. 

Described by Watson as C. excavata, preoccuj^ied by Carpenter. 

C. CATENOIDES, Monts. PI. 34, figs. 20, 21. 

Widely umbilicated, closely spirally striated throughout, with 
several spiral chain-like lines on the base, whorls convex, regularly 
increasing. Diam. 1"25 mill. 

Harbor of Civita Vecchia, Italy. 

C. sEMisuLCATA, Issel. PI. 34, fig. 22. 

Widely umbilicated, subpellucid, shining, closely spirally sulcate 
above, smooth below; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, convex; peris- 
tome simple, acute, margin interrupted. Diam. 3 mill. 

Red Sea. 

C. OCTOLYRATA, Carpenter. PL 34, figs. 24, 23. 

Widely umbilicated, with eight spiral lirie covering the last whorl; 
whorls Si, convex, regularly increasing; peristome thin, modified 
by the lirse. Diam. 1"75 mill. Bed Sea. 

The figure is from a shell identified by Issel with Carpenter's 
description. 



100 CYCLOSTEEMA-VITRINELLA. 

C. SPIRULA, A. Ad. PL 84, figs. 25, 26. 

Very widely umhilicated, planorbular, spire excavated, whorls 
rapidly increasing, spirally striated, with a sloping, smooth sutural 
margin, last whorl becoming disjointed; ajicrture large, round, outer 
margin of periphery crenate. Dimensions not stated. 

Philipjnnes. 

C. suBDisjuNCTA, H. Adams. PI. 34, fig. 27. 

Widely umbilicated, spire somewhat elevated, suture deep, white, 
subpellucid, with numerous spiral riblets, the interstices very mi- 
nutely longitudinally striate ; whorls 82, rounded, rapidly increasing, 
the last solute and descending in front; peristome continuous, simple. 

Diam. 10 mill. Ceylon. 

Subgenus Tharsis, Jeffreys, 1883. 
C. RoMETTENSis, Segucuza. PL 34, fig. 28, 

Imperforate, solid, polished, white; whorls somewhat convex, with 
well-impressed suture; aperture round, peristome simple, continuous, 
but slightly appressed, columellar margin callously reflected over 
the umbilicus. Diam. 2* 25 mill. 

European Atlantic, Mediterranean. 

Subgenus Ganesa, Jeffreys, 1883. 
C. nitidiuscula, Jeffreys. PL 34, fig. 29. 

Rimate, opaque, rather glossy, with remote, flexuous growth strife, 
peristome sharp, simple, interrupted by the parietal wall. 
Diam. 3*12 mill. 

Between the Hebrides and Faroe Is., 570 fnis. 

C. PRUINOSA, Jeffreys. PL 34, fig. 30. 

Narrowly rimate, semitransparent, frosted by minute numerous 
white tubercles, which are partly embedded in the substance of the 
shell, on one specimen there are slight spiral lines l)elow the suture; 
whorls 4, swollen, rapidly increasing, snture deep. 

Diam. 3-75 mill. 

European Atlantic (Porcupine Exped.) 

Genus VITRINELLA, C. B. Adams, 1850. 

As stated under the generic description, this is probably a group 
of heterogeneous shells, many of which might be referred to other 
genera. The resemblance of the following species described by 
Garrett to Cyclostrejna and Daronia is striking. 



VITRINELLA. 101 

V. PURA, Garrett. PL 34, fig. 31. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, smooth, shining, Avhite, with 
faint microscopic growth-lines; w^horls 4, flatly convex, rapidly in- 
creasing, the last large, rounded, slightly deflected in front, base 
somewhat angular near the umbilicus, suture channeled, umbilicus 
spirally grooved; peristome rather thick, nearly continuous. 

Diam. 2 mill. Viti Is. 

V. LiRiciNCTA, Garrett. PL 34, fig. 32. 

Widely umbilicated, hyaline, white, shining; whorls 4, convex, 
rapidly increasing, the last encircled by from 9 to 11 ridges, most 
crowded on the base, suture linear, lunbilicus spirally ridged ; peri- 
stome nearly continuous. Diam. 1"5 mill. 

Viti Is. 
V. ciELATA, Garrett. PL 34, fig. 33. 

Narr"owly uml)ilicated, vitreous, shining, subpellucid, white; 
whorls 3i', angular, the last one trigonal, angles slightly carinate, 
crossed by small closely-set, rounded, slightly flexuous ribs; peri- 
stome thick, continuous. Diam. 2 mill. Viti Is. 

V. NODOSA, Garrett. PL 34, fig. 34. 

Umbilicus large, crenulated, shell discoidal, with flat spire; whorls 
Si, convex, rapidly increasing, the last rounded, subtrigonal, trans- 
versely nodose, crossed by crowded thin elevated stride; peristome 
nearly continuous. Diam. 2 mill. Viti Is. 

V. PoNCELiANA, Foliu. PL 34, fig. 35. 

Moderately umbilicated, very minute, discoidal, thin, hyaline, 
pellucid ; whorls 4, the last large, Avith thin spiral ridges, the inter- 
stices radiately striate, suture subimpressed ; peristome simple, nearly 
continuous. Diam. 2 mill. 

Bay of Panama. 
V. PARVA, C. B. Adams. PL 34, fig. 36. 

Narrowly umbilicated, white, with numerous stout, prominent 
transverse ribs; whorls 3l', the last very large with a spiral ridge 
above and another below the periphery; aperture very oblique, lip 
slightly thickened. Diam. 1"2 mill. 

Panama— Mazatlan. 

V. dathrata, Carp, is a synonym. 



102 VITRINELLA. 

V. DECUSSATA, Cpr. PL 34, fig. 37. 

Moderately urabilicated, turbiniform, thiu, porcellanous, white; 
whorls 4:i, rounded, the last with about 15 spiral ridges, decussated 
by more or less distant radiating strise; peristome continuous in the 
adult. Diam. 1 mill. Mazatlan. 

V. MONiLE, Carp. PI. 34. fig. 38. 

Narrowly umbilicated, subelevated, heliciform, diaphanous, white; 
whorls 4j, very minutely decussately striate on the last whorl, the 
spiral lines being about twenty in number; peristome continuous, 
sinuous as in lanthina. Diam. 1*3 mill. Mazatlan. 

The decussating sculpture enters the umbilicus; the interstitial 
spaces are suboval, punctate, appearing (in a favorable light) like 
rows of pearl necklaces. 
V. suBQUADRATA, Carp. PI. 34, fig. 39. 

Widely umbilicated, subhyaline white, smooth, shining, discoidal 
planate, whorls 4, sometimes striate at the suture, the last whorl 
subangulated near the umbilicus and below the periphery; aperture 
subquadrate, lip sinuated at the suture and in the middle. 

Diam. 1 mill. Mazatlan. 

V. HELicoiDEA, C. B. Ad. PI. 34, figs. 40, 41. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, white, opaque or translucent, with 
an impressed sutural line, and transverse unequal stride, spire convex, 
scarcely elevated ; whorls 4, subcouvex, the sutui'e scarcely impressed; 
peristome subthickened; umbilicus defined by a spiral angle. 

Diam. TST mill. Jamaica. 

V. STRIATA, d'Orb. PI. 34, figs. 42, 43. 

Narrowly umbilicated, translucent, whitish, spirally striate; aj^er- 
ture oblique, peristome slightly thickened, slightly sinuous; pe- 
riphery subangulated. Diam. 1 mill. Cuba. 

V. AXOMALA, d'Orb. PL 34, figs. 44, 45. 

Umbilicated, subdiscoidal, translucent, smooth, whitish; whorls 5, 
flatly convex, periphery subangulated; peristome slightly thickened. 

Diam. 2 mill. Cuba. 

JJnfigured Species. 

Neither Adams nor Carpenter figured any of the numerous species 
described by them. I have been able to illustrate a few of the 
species of both authors, by drawings from authentic specimens; many 



VITRINELLA-TEIXOSTOMA. 103 

of the others might be identified in the type collections of these 
authors, but tlie labor and expense attending such an investigation 
Avould scarcely be repaid by the result. The paucity of material 
and minuteness of the species must prevent satisfactory conclusions, 
most of the descriptions being based upon dead specimens, unique 
or few in number. 

V. Panamensis, V. coNcmNA, V. Janus, V. modesta, V, semi- 
NUDA, V. TRicAKiNATA, C. B. Adams. Panama. 

V. ExiGUA, C. B. Ad. (V. TEiGONATA, Cpr. a synonym). 

Fanama-Mazatla7i. 
V. HYALINA, V. INTERRUPTA, V. TiNCTA, C. B. Ad. Jamaica. 

V. MEGA8TOMA, C. B. Ad. (?= Ethalia). Jamaica. 

V. REGULARIS, V. VALVATOIDES, V. MINUTA, C. B. Ad. (?=Ethalia). 

Panama. 

V. MONILIFERA, V. LIRULATA, Y. BIFILATA, V. BIFRONTIA, V. 
CORONATA, V. ANNULATA, V. CINCTA, V. CARINULATA, V. NATI- 
COIDES, V. PLANOSPERATA, V. ORBIS, Y. TENUISCULPTA, Y. SPI- 

RULoiDES, Y. ORNATA, Carpenter. Mazatlan. 

Y. PERPARVA, C. B. Ad. and var. nodosa. Carp. 

Panama— Mazathm. 

Genus TEINOSTOMA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 
T. POLITUM, A. Ad. PI. 34, figs. 46, 47. 

!Much depressed, flattened above, polished, white, periphery sub- 
angulated, peristome thickened above and below. Diam. 7"5 mill. 

Philippines. 
T. Carpentert, a. Ad. PI. 35, figs.- 52, 53. 

Much depressed; spire nearly covered by a callous deposit, only 
exposing the apex, last whorl flattened, periphery faintly angulated, 
umbilical callus rounded. Diam. 2"75 mill. 

Gulf of Pechili. 
T. coNCENTRicuM, A. Ad. PI. 35, figs. 54, 55. 

Depressed convex, finely spirally striate, white, body whorl round- 
ed at the periphery, aperture transversely ovate. 

Diam. 2'75 mill. Takano-Sima, Japan. 

T. RADiATUM, A. Ad. PL 35, figs. 56, 57. 

Depressed orbicular, convex above, somewhat flattened on the 
base, periphery rounded, ridged by strong growth-lines, peristome 
callously projecting above, basal callus somewhat excavated. 

Diam. 3 mill. Kino-0-Sima, Japan. 



104 TEINOSTOMA. 

T. PUNCTATTTM, Jousseauiiie. PL 3-4, figs. 48, 49. 

Depressed convex, solid, subtrauslucent, yellowish white, more 
flattened below, umbilicns almost covered, surface covered *by mi- 
croscopic, close granular spiral stride, more apparent at the suture 
and around the umbilicus. Diam. 2'o mill. 

Prince's Isl. W. Africa. 

T. MoRLiERi, Jousseaume. PI. 34, figs. 50, 51. 

Subopaque, milk-white, slightly convex above, nearly flat lieloAv, 
umbilicus almost completely covered, suture narrow-margined^ 
surface microscopically spirally striate. Diam. 3'5 mill. 

Martinique. 

In this species the heavy umbilical callus joins at a somewhat 
acute angle with the cclumellar lij), of which it is an extension, the 
angle forming a pit. 

T. LUCiDUM, A. Adams. PI. 35, figs. 58, 59. 

Depressed orbicular, smooth, white, spire enveloped with callus, 
umbilicus covered by a heavy, convex callous deposit, aperture a 
little oblique. Diam. 1"5 mill. Japan. 

T. AMPLECTANS, Carpenter. PI. 35, figs. 60, (U. 

Depressed-convex, white, whorls very rapidly increasing, spire 
small, last whorl large, oblique, periphery subangulated, aperture 
subtriangular, umbilical region covered by a large callus. 

Diam. 2"5 mill. Mazatlan. 

T. SUBSTEIATUM, Carp. PI. 35, figs. 62, 63. 

Shining, smooth, white, very minutely impressly striated near the 
suture, callus strong,convex, narrow, coiling round the umbilical 
fissure, lip thick. Diam. 2 mill. Mazatlan. 

T. DiAPHANUM, d'Orb. PI. 35, figs. 64, 65. . 

Depressed orbicular, thin, diaphanous, vitreous, smooth, shining, 
white, umbilicus slightly callous, whorls convex, rather slowly in- 
creasing. Diam. 1'5 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I. 

T. CARiNATUM, d'Orb. PI. 35, figs. 66, 67. 

Depressed convex, lenticular, periphery strongly carinated, the 
carina forming a sutural margin above, smooth, thin, dia})hanous 
white, umbilicus minutely callous. Diam. 1"5 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. L 



TEINOSTOMA. 105 

T. soLiDUM, E. A. Smith. PI. 35, fig. 68. 

Shell solid, small, light fulvous, smooth ; whorls 4, rapidl}' increas- 
ing, the last smooth above, base flattened, with three exterior sjiiral 
sulci, umbilical region callous ; peristome receding at the base. 

Diam. 3-3 mill. Whydah, W. Africa. 



Unfigured Species. 

T. Carbonnieri, T, Deschampse, T. rhinoceras, Jousseaume. 

Aden. 

Section Calceolina, A. Ad. 1863. 
T. pusiLLUM, C. B. Ad. PI. 35, figs. 69, 70. 

Orbicular-depressed, very minutely striated, suture impressed, 
last whorl large, aperture widely lunate, columellar lip septiform, 
with straight margin, whence a wide callus spreads over the umbili- 
cus. Diam. 1*5 mill. 

Jamaica, Jajxm (A. Adams). 

This species, figured from Japanese S2:)ecimens, is said by A- 
Adams to be identical with the above named Jamaica species; I 
have no means of verifying this. T. anomalum, H. and A. Adams is 
a synonym. 

Subgenus Pseudorotella, Fischer, 1857. 

T. semistriata, d'Orb. PI. 35, figs. 71-73. 

Orbicularly depressed, thin, diaphanous whitish, closely, minutely 
spirally striate above, smooth below, with a somewhat flat, shining, 
transparent umbilical callus; whorls 4, slightly convex, slowly in- 
creasing, peristome thickened. Diam. 1*5 mill. 

Cuba. 

Subgenus Discopsis, Folin, 1869. 

T. OMALOs, Folin. PI. 35, fig. 74. 

Shell much depressed, disk-like, thin, diaphanous, vitreous, shin- 
ing, almost plane above; whorls 3, rapidly increasing, the last whorl 
spirally tri-lirate, widely cristate at the periphery, base slightly con- 
vex, umbilicated, aperture large, oblique, subti'iangular, peristome 
acute, left margin a little reflected, separating into a thickened 
tongue-like projection at the base. Diam. 1"7 mill. 

Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, W. I. 



106 TEINOSTOMA. 

T. cosTu LATUM, Foliii. PI. 35, fig. 75. 

Deeply uiubilicated, depressed, disk-like, very slightly convex 
above, subplauate below, vitreous, whitish, lougitudiually minutely 
costulate, above the base these are decussated by a spiral thread ; 
whorls 3, rapidly increasing, base with cord below the periphery ; 
aperture oblique, subcordiform, margins subacute, joined by an 
oblique channel above the penultimate whorl. Diam. 2 mill. 

Cape Sta. Anne, W. Africa. 

Subgenus Leucorhynchia, Crosse, 1867. 
T. Caledonicum, Crosse. PI. 35, figs. 85, ^Q. 

Subdiscoidal, slightly convex above and below, polished, shining, 
whitish; whorls 3, flattened, rapidly increasing, periphery carinate; 
peristome continuous, simple, thickened at the base and produced 
into a tongue-like callus past the umbilicus, leaving a perforation 
between it and the columellar wall. Diam. 3 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
T. Crossei, Tryon. PI. 35, figs, ^a, 866. 

Diflfers from the above in having a rounded periphery ; surface 
polished, without a trace of strife. Diam. 3 mill. 

Singaj)ore, (Archer). 

Subgenus Microtheca, A. Ad. 1863. 

T. crenelliferum, a. Ad. PI. 35, figs. 76, 77. 

Thick, globose, broadly umbilicated, longitudinally, somewhat 
obliquely plicate, whorls crenulated at the channeled suture, umbuli- 
cus Avith a crenulated marginal angle, peristome thick. 

Diam. 3'5 mill. Japan. 

Subgenus Morchia, A. Adams, 1860. 

T. OBvoLUTA, A. Ad. PI. 35, figs. 78, 79. 

Obliquely ovate, laterally compressed, last whorl angular above 
and below, the spire depressed, umbilicus wide, its margin suban- 
gulate, aperture obliquely ovate, j^eristome thick, continuous. 

Diam. 3-5 mill. 

Japan. 

T. jMoreleti, Fischer. PI. 35, figs. 80-82. 

Depressed, whitish, whorls 4, the first ones obliquely immersed, 
the last embracing, obliquely flattened with a tuberculate-crenate 



TEINOSTOMA. 107 

peripheral carina, prominent and crenate at the sntnre, base flattened, 
widely umbilicated, the umbilicus bordered by a crenate angle ; 
aperture horizontal, subbasal, peristome thickened, duplicate, con- 
tinuous, callously reflected. Diam. 2 mill. 

CJihia Sea. 
A bizarre affair, which differs widely in ajDpearance from the type 
of the group. 

T. BiPLicATA, Fischer. 

Like the preceding species, but smaller, more convex above, and 
concave below, last whorl radiately ribbed, carinated below, ribs 
paired, uniting in a pre-sutural tubercle. Diam. 1'75 mill. 

China Sea. 

Unfigured. 

Subgenus Cirsonella, Angas, 1877. 
T. AUSTRALE, Angas. PI. 35, figs. 83, 84. 

Globosely turbinate, narrowly umbilicated, semi-opaque, smooth, 
shining, white ; whorls 4, convex ; the last large, rounded at the 
periphery; aperture circular, 2:)eristome continuous, slightly thick- 
ened on the columellar margin. Diam. 2 mill. 

Botany Bay, JV. S. Wales, Australia. 

Subgenus Haplocochlias, Carpenter, 1864. 

T. CYCLOPHOREus, Carp. 

Compact, small, solid, whitish or light yellowish ; whorls 5, rap- 
idly enlarging, suture impressed ; very minutely spirally striate, 
shining ; aperture rounded, peristome continuous, thickened, varicose 
exteriorly, inner lips distinct; umbilicated in the juvenile, adult 
rimate. Diam. 5 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, Lower California. 

Subgenus Cynisca, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 
T. GRANUEATUM, A. Adauis. 

Orbicularly depressed, widely umbilicated, white, with granular 
:spiral ribs, last whorl rounded, umbilicus patulous, perspective, cal- 
lously margined, aperture rounded, columella sinuate, lip thickened 
within, subcrenulated. 

Philijjpines. 
No dimensions or figure. 



T. Japonica; A. Ad. Unfigured. Japan. 

This is said to = Collonia p)ihda. Danker. 



108 LIOTIA. 

Family LIOTIIDjE. 

Genus LIOTIA, Gray, 1842. 

L. scALAROiDEs, Keeve. PI. 36, fig. 87. 

Subglobose, white, stained with chestnut, with seven distant oblique 
varices, crossed by a few raised spiral stride, umbilicus moderate, with 
angular mai'gin, interior of aperture salmon-colored. Diam. 15 mill. 

Phili^ypines. 
L. DEPRESSA, Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 88. 

Flatly rounded, spire remarkably depressed, last whorl somewhat 
shouldered, distantly obliquely costate. with distant s})iral ribs, the 
intersections subspinous or nodose, interstices punctate in spiral 
series. Diam. 21 mill. Phil'qjpmes. 

L. VARicosA, Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 89. 

Angularly globose, with longitudinal thick varices, rendered nod- 
ulous by the crossing of spiral liri^e, interstices punctate. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Philippines. 

L. ciDARis, Reeve. PI. 86, fig. 90. 

Depressed globose, solid, rounded, with broad varices and rather 
wider interspaces, crossed by spiral ribs, of which two median ones 
are more prominent, lower part of the iDody whorl deeply punctate. 

Diam. 21 mill. Philippines. 

L. Peronii, Kiener. PL 36, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell shouldered, radiately distinctly ribbed to the shoulder, be- 
low which they become obsolete, with a spiral rib forming the 
shoulder and another just below it, tooth somewhat tubercular, and 
numerous small elevated spiral lirse, becoming granular below, be- 
tween the lirse are minute punctations, and a row of large, deep pits 
revolves around the base, outer lip strongly, crenulately varicose. 

Diam. 12-20 mill. 

China, Australia, Philippines, Ilauritiiis, Viti Is. 

L. Hermanni, Dunker is a synonym. 
L. CRAssiBAsis, E. A. Smith. PI. 36, fig. 94. 

Solid, umbilicated, smooth ; whorls 4, plane above, scarcely slop- 
ing, bicarinate, radiately ribbed, and spirally lirate, base produced 
and greatly thickened, forming a very thick basal lip. 

Diam. 14 mill. Hah. unknown. 



LIOTIA. 109 

L. CLATHRATA, Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 95. 

Somewhat discoidal, with rounded whorls, regularly latticed hj 
equidistant spiral and longitudinal ridges, the former more prom- 
inent, lip varicose, umbilicus very large. Diam. 12 mill. 

Philippines, A ustrcdia. 
L. GRANULOSA, Dunker. PI. 30, fig. 96. 

Depressed subglobose, with rounded whorls, with spiral riblets, 
which above are granular, umbilicus wide ; whitish or rosy, some- 
times w^iite with the ribs colored. Diam. 6*4 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius 

It is Monilea spuria, of Gould. 

T. SEMiCLATHRATULA, Schrenck. PI. 36, figs. 98-100. 

Dej^ressed turbinate, whitish, spirally costate, the costpe slightly 
tuberculate above, suture channeled, lip crenately varicose, umbili- 
cus large, bicarinate within, crenulately margined. 

Diam. 6'25 mill. 

Amur region, E. Asia. 
L. FENESTRATA, Carp. PI. 36, fig. 97. 

Depressed, clathrate by equidistant spiral and radiating riblets, 
with deep interstices, sculpture terminating with a spiral ridge sur- 
rounding the rather wide, deep umbilicus. Diam. 4*5 mill. 

Catalina IsL, California. 
L. ACUTicosTATA, Carp. PI. 36, fig. 1. 

Turbinate, with revolving riblets, which are more or less nodose 
above, imperforate. Diam. 4 mill. 

Catalina IsL, California. 

L. CANCELLATA, Gray. PI. 36, fig. 2. 

Turbinate, whorls convex, regularly latticed with equidistant 
spiral and longitudinal ribs, umbilicus moderate, defined by a spiral 
rib. Diam. 5 mill. 

Cohija, Peru. 

L. Cobijensis, Reeve is a synonym. 

Has the sculpture and umbilicus of L. fenestrata. Carp., but is 
more elevated. 

L. DiscoiDEA, Reeve. PI. 36, fig. 3. 

Discoidal, with flattened spire, periphery with two prominent 
ribs, connected by lattices which subspinously project, surface Avith 
clathrate ridges, the interstices of which are finely striated. 

Philippines. 

No dimensions are given, but the figure is said to be magnified. 



110 LIOTIA. 

L. Angasi, Crosse. PI. 36, fig. 4. 

Moderately umbilicated, strong, solid, light brownish or greyish, 
with abont five strong revolving series of rounded tubercles, the last 
defining the umbilicus, peristome tubercularly varicose. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
L. sPECiosA, Angas. PI. 36, figs. 5, 7, 8. 

Rather solid, depressly orbicular, pale brown, with three prom- 
inent spiral ribs, and longitudinally finely, distantly plicate, the 
intersections nodose, suture excavated, umbilicus moderate, encircled 
by a rib, its walls decussated with concentric and radiating striae, 
outer lip a little thickened, with continuous peristome. 

Diam. 2 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Notwithstanding some differences in the descriptions, I think this 
will prove synonymous with the preceding species. 

L. Gowllandi, Brazier (figs. 7, 8) appears to me to be synomymous, 
judging from description and figure. Mr. Brazier states that it ap- 
proaches closely to L. speciosa, but does not give distinctive charac- 
ters. It comes from Percy Isl., N. E. coast of Australia. 

L. ASTERiscus, Gould. PI. 36, fig. 6. 

Solid, brownish white, with about twenty radiating ribs, cut by a 
subsutural sulcus, another at the periphery and a third around the 
moderate umbilicus; whorls 4, convex, very minutely spirally 
striate. Diam. 1*5 mill. 

Hong Kong. 

Figured from a type specimen. Too close to the two preceding 
species. 

L. siDEREA, Reeve. PL 36, fig. 10. 

Depressed turbinate, with three prominent spiral ribs on the mid- 
dle of the body whorl, and smaller ones above and below them, 
crossed by distant, sharp longitudinal ribs, forming nodosely spin- 
ous intersections, suture deeply channeled, umbilicus very wide, 
perspective. 

Philippines. 

The peculiarity of the species is its star-like projection of tubercles 
on the periphery of the whorls. The figure is enlarged, and dimen- 
sions not oiven. 



LIOTIA. Ill 

L. BELLULA, H. Adams. PL 3G, fig-. 11. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, whitish, cancellated by dis- 
tant longitudinal and spiral sculpture, suture crenulated ; whorls 
Si, tabulate above, the last crenulately, carinate at the periphery and 
on the base ; umbilicus scalariform, with a marginal crenulated rib, 
and another interior rib. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Persian Gulf. 
L. KiENERi, Phil. PI. 36, fig. 14. 

Planorbiform, encircled b> three distant, sharp ribs on the middle 
of the last whorl, and smaller ones above and below them, clathrate 
by distant, sharp radiating ridges, the intersections nodosely spinous, 
umbilicus very wide, perspective. Diam. 10 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I. (Swift), Philippines (Cuming). 

Described by Kiener as L. cancellata, preoccuj^ied by Gray. 

L. AKNULATA, Tenison-Woods. PI. 36, fig. 20. 

Planorbiform, opa(}ue white, flattened above, rounded below, with 
somewhat distant longitudinal lamellse, above and l)elow, otherwise 
smooth, umbilicus wide. Diam. 1'5 mill. 

Blackman's Bay, Tasmania. 

One of the ring-like lamellae forms the ])eristome. 

Section Arene, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

L. RADiATA, Kiener. PI. 36, fig. 9. 

Subtrochiform, spire exserted, with deep suture, periphery strongly 
carinate, with scale-like spines, radiately striate, one or more tuber- 
culate or shortly spinose cinguli below the periphery ; base gran- 
ularly concentrically striate, umbilicus large, encircled by two or 
three granular riblets, white, with radiating red strigations. 

Diam. 12-15 mill. 

West Indies. 

The locality " Indian Seas " given by Kiener, is very questionable. 

L. CRENATA, Kiener. PI. 36, figs. 12, 13. 

Depressed turbinated, spire whorls somewhat exserted, all showing 
a pair of peripheral keels, which are strongly, or subsi^inosely cren- 
ulated, whorls encircled by a spiral series of granules above, base 
smooth, umbilicus moderate, defined by a riblet ; peristome strongly 
crenately varicose; whitish stained with chestnut. Diam. 15 mill. 

Philiiypines (Cuming). 



112 LIOTIA. 

L. STELLARTS, Ads. 1111(1 Reeve. PL 86, fig. 15. 

Discoidal, flat and smooth above, with a spinose periphery, scaly- 
spinose and convex beh^w ; whitish, tinged with chestnut. 

Diam. 18 mill. Eastern Seas- 

L. MURicATA, Reeve. PL 36, figs. 16, 17. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, pale orange yellow, radiated and 
spotted with a reddish chestnut, whorls with three scaly-prickly 
keels at the periphery, slopingly flattened above, suture excavated, 
surface above and below with minutely beaded revolving stride. 

Diam. 12-20 mill. 

Australia, Philippines. 

L. TAMSiANA, Dunker. PL 36, fig. 21. 

Moderately umbilicated, whorls with three somewhat distant spiral 
tubcrculated ridges, shouldered above, spire exserted, suture excava- 
ted, base with less conspicuous series of beaded stride, a stronger one 
surrounding the umbilicus ; peristome crenately varicose ; whitish, 
distantly rayed with chestnut. Diam. 4 mill. 

Pto. Cabello, Venezuela. 

Subgenus Liotina, Munier-Chalmas, 1877. 

L. australis, Kiener. PL 36, figs. 18, 19. 

Rather widely umbilicated, white, whorls rounded, with spiral 
riblets and longitudinal stripe, a beaded riblet winds into the umbil- 
icus ; peristome varicose, the inner margin produced below and above. 

Diam. 14 mill. Australia, Pohjnesia. 

This, the only living example of the group, has also been referred 
by Mr. A. Adams to Cynisca (p. 107). 

Unfigured species of Liotia. 

L. daedala and L. tantilla, A. Ad. Japan. 

L. PAULLA, Phil. China Sea. 
L. LOCULOSA (Loo Choo), L. fulgens (Cape), L. solidula (China) 

of Gould. 

L. ARMATA, A. Ad. Korea Strait. 

L. CARINATA, L. STRiuLATA, L. Adamsi, Carp. Mazatlan. 

L. COMPACTA, and L. Lodder^, Petterd. Tasmaiiia. 

L. iNCERTA, L. Tasmanica, Tenisou-Woods. Tasmania. 

L. PILULA, Dunker (=Collonia), Japan. 

? L. Bryareus, Dall. Off Havana, Cuba. 

L. Shandi, Hutton (? = Turbo). Neiv Zealand. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



NERITID/€, ADEORBIID/E, CYCLOSTREMATID/E, 
LIOTIID>E. 



Abjecta (Adeorbis) C. B. Ad. Panama Cat., 257. 

= Fossarus abjectus, Ad. Manual ix, 274, . . .86 

Achatina (Nerita) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 68, 1855. 

= N. nigerrina, Chemn. ....... 23 

Aciculata (Neritina) Morch. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 108, 

1855, 74 

Aculeata (Neritina) Gmelin. Syst. Nat. Ed. xiii, p. 3686, . 70 
Acuticostata (Liotia) Carp. Second Report 652, 1863, . 109 

Adamsi (Neritina) Issel. Ann. Mus. Genova vi, t. 7, figs. 23, 

24. = N. dubia, Chemn 44 

? xldamsi (Liotia) Carp. Mazat. Cat. 249, . . . .112 
Adamsii (Adeorbis), Fischer. Journ. de Conch., 173, t. 10, f. 

11, 1857, 84 

Adansoniana (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 1841, p. 313, . 40 
Adeorbis, S. Wood. Ann. Mag. N. Jlist., ix, 530, 1842, . 83 

Adspersa (Navicella Luzonica, Souleyet, var.) Martens. Kiist. 

Conch. Cab., p. 16, t. 2, f. 9-11, 79 

A(himbrata (Neritina), Rve. Conch. Icon., ix, pi, 12, f. 57, . 61 
Aequinoxialis (Neritina), Morelet. Rev. Zool. 1848, p. 355. 

^ N. afra, Sowb. 61 

Afra (Neritina), Sowb. Conch. III., no. 39, f. 13, ... 61 
Africana (Neritina), Parreyss in Hartmann, Gasterp. d. 

Sehweitz. 1840, 8, 133. = N. Nilotica, Reeve. . . .51 
Africana (Neritina), Recluz. Zool. Proc, 198, 1843. 

:^^ N. afra, Sowb 61 

Affine (Cvclostrema), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 199, 

1)1. 32, f. 15. ■■= C. proxima, Tryon. . . . ,98 

AHine (Cyclostrema), Jeffreys, P, Z. S., 1883, p. 92, pi. 19, f. 

5, 97 

Affinis (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 81, 1855, ... 34 
AHinis (Navicella), (Reeve) Gassies. Fauna Conch., Nouv. 

Caledon. p, 112, pL 8,f. 15. = N. Bourgainvillei, Reel. . 80 
Affiuis (Navicella) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 15, 1856. 

= N. Borbonica, var. compressa. Martens. . . . .78 
Affiiiis (Navicella), Mousson. Journ. de Conch., 1865, p. 189. 

^= N. depressa. Less. . . . , . . , .79 
Affinis (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. de Conch., i, 1850, p. 153. 

^= N. cariosa. Gray, ........ 75 

8 (113) 



114 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Alata (Neritina), Robillard in coll. 

=^ N. Mauritii, Less. ........ 

Alata (Neritina), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Journ., iv, 1829, p. 

871. -^ N. Nuttallii, Reel 

Albescens (Neritina picta Sowb. var.), Miller. Mai. Bliit. 1879, 

p. 168, ......... 

Albicilla (Nerita), Linn. Syst. Nat., Ed. x, p. 778, 
Albipunctata (Nerita), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 61, 1855. 

= N. fulgnrans, Gmel. .... 



75 



76 



41 
4, 19 



Brit. 



24 



Conch., iii. 



97 



51 



8,9. 



Guerin's Mag. 1872, 
Voy. Astrolabe et 



50 
8, 75 

89 



Alderi (Cyclostrema nitens, var.), Jeffreys 

289, ' : 

Aleppensis (Neritina), Recluz. 

= N. Jordani, Sowb. .... 

Algira (Neritina), Kiist., Conch. Cab., 1863, t. 3, f. 

= N. Nuiuidica, Reel. .... 

Alina, Recluz. Rev. Zool., 235, 1842, 
Aveolata (Cyclostrema), Jousseaume. 

p. 392, t. 19, f. 4, ... 

Alveolus (Nerita), Hombr. and Jacq 

Zelee, v, p. 66, pi. 17, f. 8-10, 1854. 

? = N. fulginata. Reeve 

Ambigua (Navicella), Recluz. Journ. de Conch., i, 1850, p. 376 

= N. tessellata, Lam. ...... 

Ammonoceras (Cvclostrema), ^4. Adams. Ann. and Mag 

Nat. Hist., 1863, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 73 
Amoena (Neritina), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, 

1847, p. 238, 42, 43 

Amphibia (Nerita), Lesson. Voy. de la Coquille. Zool., ii, p. 

372, pi. 16, f. 1. = Neritina cornea, Linn. 
Amphinerita, Martens. Monog. Nerita, Conch. Cab., 9, 1887, 
Amplectans (Teinostoma), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 253, 
Anaglypta (Cyclostrema), A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1863, p. 73, . 
Anatensis (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. de Conch., i, 1851, p. 150. 

= N. Guadianensis, Morelet. ...... 

Anatolica (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 342, 51,52, 53 
Angasi (Liotia), Crosse. Journ. de Conch., 343. t. 13, f. 4, 

1864, 

Angasi (Adeorbis), A. Ad. P. Z. S., 424, t. 37, f. 11, 12 

1863, 

Angularis (Nerita), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astralabe et 

Zelee., v, p. 61, pi. 16, f. 7-11. = N. planospira, Anton. 
Angulata (Cyclostrema), A. Ad. P. Z. S., 44, 1850, 
Angulosa (Neritina), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 173 

= N. brevispina. Lam., var. .... 

Annulata (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 78, 1855. 

= N. chamseleon, Linn. ..... 

Annulata (Liotia), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 

121, 1877 

Annulata (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 245, 



32 

81 

89 



45 

18 
104 

88 

49 



110 



21 
92 

65 

20 

111 
103 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 115 

PAGE. 

Anomala (Rotella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 64, t. 18. f. 32- 

34. — Vitrinella anomala, d'Orb 102 

Anomalum (Teinostoma), H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. 

IVIoll., I, 120. ^ Calceolina pusillum, C. B. Ad. . . 105 

Anthracina (Nerita), Busch, in Phil. Abbild. u. Beschreib. neur. 

Conch., 7, 22 

Autillarum (Nerita), Gmel. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, p. 3685. 

= N. tessellata, Gmel. . . , . . . .24 

Antiquata (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 106. 

:= N. polita, Linn .31 

Aperta (Nerita), Budgin ms. Sowb. Cat. coll. Tankerville, 

p. 45. •-= Neritina punctulata, Lam. . . . .60 

Apiata.(Neritina), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1843, p. 72. 

= N. dubia, Chemn., var. ....... 44 

Apiata (Navicella), Guillou in Reel., Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 376, 81 
Apiata (Navicella), Sowb. Thes. ii, p. 549, pi. 117, f. 14, 15. 

in part = N. Borbonica, var. triloba, Martens.. . . 78 

Aponogetonis (Navicella), Vahl. Skrifter naturhist., Selskab, 

Kopenhagen iv, 2, 1798, p. 153, 82 

Aquatilis (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, pi. 15, f. 73. 

= N. ziczac, Sowb. ........ 36 

Arabica (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 20, 1855. 

? = N. chamseleon, Linn. ....... 20 

Aranea (Neritina), Mousson in coll. 

= N. diadema, Recluz. ....... 46 

Architea, Costa. Ann. Mus. Nap., iii, 1869, . . 13, 87 

Archeri (Cyclostrema), Tryon. . . . . . .89 

Arcifera (Nei'itina), Morch. Journ. de Conch., xx, 1872, p. 324. 

? = N. asperulata. Reel. ....... 59 

Arcta (Nerita), Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. Astralabe et Zelee, 

V, p. 62, pi. 16, f. 12-13, 34 

Arctilineata (Neritina), Reel. ms. in Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, 

p. 531, pi. 116, f. 223, 224. 

= N. Nilotica, Reeve. 51 

Arene, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll. 1, 404, 1854. 17, 111 
Areolata (Cyclostrema), Sars. Moll. arct. Norv. 345, t. 34, f. 

6, 90 

Argus (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool, 1841, p. 150, . . 23 

Armata (Liotia), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1861, . .112 
Armstrongiana (Neritina), Hinds. Ann. Nat. Hist., x, p. 86. 

= N. Souleyetana, Recluz. ....... 64 

Artensis (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., 1866, p. 51. 

? = N. interrupta, Gassies. . . . . . .68 

Ascensionis (Nerita), Chemn. Conch. Cab 31 

Ascensionis (Nerita), Lam. An. s. Vert., vi, p. 193. 

= N. grossa, Linn. ........ 28 

Aspera (Neritina). Phil. Arch. f. Naturg. i, 1845, p. 63. 

= N. Pritchardi, Dohrn 65 



116 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Aspersa (Neritina), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iv, 1853, p. 319, 

t. 7. f. 6. = N. brevispiua, Lam., var. . . . .65 
Asperulata (Neritina), Eecluz in Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

512, pi. 144, f. 160, 161, . • 59 

Asteriscus (Liotia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc, vii, p. 142, . 110 

Aterrima (Neritina), Koch. Phil. Abbild. u. Beschweib. neuer 

I, p. 28. Neritina, t. 1, f. 11, 1843, 40 

Atomus (Liotia), Issel. Mai. Mar. Ross., p. 217, t. 2, f. 11, . 90 
Atra (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Syst., pi. 199, f. 4. 

= N. tessellata, Lam. ....... 81 

Atra (Neritina), Parr. Teste Villa, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., iv, 3, 

1871. ? = N. Danubialis, Miihlf. vai\ serratilinea, Ziegl. 46 
Atra (Neritina), Less. Voy. de la Coquille ii, pt. i, p. 376. 

= N. dubia, Chemn 44 

Atrata (Nerita), Chemn. Conch. Cab. vol. v, p. 296, f. 1954, 

1955. ? = N. atrata, Reeve 26 

Atrata (Nerita), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 16, 1855, . . 26 
Atrata (Nerita), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vi, 191. 

= N. semirugosa, Recluz. ....... 21 

Atrata (Neritina), Ziegler. mss. 

= N. Danubialis, Miihlf., var. 46 

Atramentaria (Neritina cornea, L. var.), Tap-Canefri. Ann. 

Mus. Genova, ix, p. 286, 45 

Atramentosa (Nerita), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 25, 1855, 26, 33 
Atro-purpurea (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 107. 

= N. planospira, Anton. ....... 21 

Aurantia (Nerita), Recluz. Journ. de Conch., vol. i, pi. xi, 

f. 11. = N. striata. Burrow _. .28 

Auriculata (Neritina), (Lam.) Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, 508, 

t. 118, f. 129, 130. = N. Mauritii, Less. ... 75 

Auriculata (Neritina), Lam. Encyc. Meth. Vers., ii, pi. 455, 

f. 6, 73 

Auriculata (Neritina), Sowb. Couch. 111., f. 17. 

= N. Tahitieusis, Less. ....... 73 

Aurora (Nerita), Dunker. Phil., Abbild., i, p. 87, t. 1, f. 12. 

^ N. polita, Linn., var. ....... 31 

Australis (Liotina), Kiener. Monog. Delphiuula. Coq. Viv., 

p. 8, t. 4, f. 7, 17, 112 

Australe (Cirsonella), Angas. P. Z. S., 38, t. 5, f. 16, 1877, 16, 107 
Avellana (Neritina), Reel. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 76, . 68, 69 

Baconi (Neritina), Rve. Conch. Icon., ii, pi. 28, f. 127, . 51 

Baetica (Neritina), Lam. An. s. vert., p. 188, . . .49 

Baetica (Neritina), (Lam.) Morelet. Journ. de Conch., 12, 1853, 

p. 297. = N. numidica. Reel . 50 

Baetica (Neritina), Desh. Exped. au Moree, p. 155, pi. 19, 

f. 1-5. = N. Peloponnesia, Recluz 50 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 117 

PAGE. 

Baetica (Neritina), (Lam.) Sowb. Conch. 111., No. 23, f. 45. 

= N. elongatula, Morelet. 48 

Baetica (Neritina), Mousson. Ein Besuch auf Corfu u. Catalon- 

ien p. 73. := N. varia, Ziegler. ...... 48 

Bahiensis (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. de Conch., i, 1850, p. 154. 

pi. 7, f. 10. ? = N. punctulata, Lam. . . . ^ 60 

Baliensis (Neritina), Mousson in coll. = N. faba, Sowb. . 68 
Balteata (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 28. 

= N. lineata, Chemn. ....... 32 

Baltica (Neritina), Beck. Oerstzd de region, mar., 1844, p. 

69. = N. fluviatilis, Linn. 46 

Basistriata (Cyclostrema), Brugnone. Misc. Malacol., ii, 17, 

1876 ; Jeffr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser. xix, p. 234, 

1877 ; P. Z. S., 90, 1883, 96, 98 

Bataviensis (Neritina), Mousson, in coll. 

= N. fuliginosa, Busch. ....... 70 

Beaniana (Nerita), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1843, p. 200. 

= N. patula, Reel 22 

Beanii (Adeorbis), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 1857, p. 173, pi. 

10, f. 12. = C. angulata, A. Adams 93 

Becki (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 275. 

= N. squamipicta. Reel., var. ...... 58 

Beckii (Neritina), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 572, pi. 109, f. 

13. = N. Knorri, Recluz. ...... 57 

Bella (Neritina), Busch. Phil. Abbild. neuer Conch., i. 27, t. 

l,f. 8. = N. dubia, Chemn 44 

Belladonna (Neritina), Parreyss, in coll. Mouss. Jour, de 

Conch., p. 16. = N. anatolica, Recluz., var. . . .52 
Bellardii (Neritina), Mousson. Naturf. Gessel. Zurich., vi, 

1861, p. 62. = N. anatolica, Recluz, var. . . .52 

Bellula (Liotia), H. Adams. P. Z. S., 1873, p. 206, pi. 23, f. 

7, . Ill 

Benacensis (Neritina), Stentz. Recluz, Jour, de Conch., i, 1850, 

p. 150. = N. Danubialis, Miihlf., var. serratilinea, Ziegl. . 46 
Bengalensis (Nerita corona), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi. t. 197, 

f. 1911. = Neritina, madeeassina, Morelet. . . .64 

Bensoni (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 150. 

= N. reticulata, Sowb 42 

Bernhardi (Nerita), Recluz. Journ. Conch., vol., i, p. 285. 

= N. fulgurans, Gniel., var. ...... 24 

Biauriculata (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 

145. = N: bicanaliculata, Recluz 74 

Bicanalis (Neritina), Phil. Arch. f. Naturg., i, 1845, p. 64 ; 

Zeit. Malacol., 160, 1848. = N. canalis, Sowb. . . 57 

Bicanaliculata (Neritina), Recluz. Sovvb. Thes., ii, p. 509, f. 

135-137 74 

Bicolor (Neritina) Reel. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 172, . . 69,70 



118 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Bidens (Nerila), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii. 

= N. polita, Linn. . . . . . . . .30 

Bifasciata (Nerita), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed., xiii. 

=^ N. polita, Linn 30 

Bifilata (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat, 241 , . . .103 
Bifrontia (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 242, . . .103 
Bimaculata (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 2, 1856. 

= N. Borbonica, Bory. (Juv.) . .... 78 

Biplicata (Morchia), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 1877, p. 203, 107 
Biporcata (Cyclostrema), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1863; P. Z. S., 1863, p. 73 92 

Birmanica (Nerita), Phil. Sowb. Thes., f. 82. 

= N. lineata, Chemn. ....... 32 

Bisecta (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 39, . . . .31 

Bithynoides (Cyclostrema), Jeffreys. P. Z. S., 1883, p. 93, pi. 

19, f. 6, 97 

Bizonalis (Nerita), Lam. Encyc. Meth., pi. 454. 

= N. chamreleon, Linn. ....... 20 

Bizonalis (Nerita), Morch. Yoldi Cat., 168, 1852. 

= N. planospira, Anton. ....... 21 

Boissieri (Neritina), Martens. Conch. Cab., 86. 

= N. anatolica, Reel., var. ...... 52 

Borbonica (Navicella), Bory St. Vincent. Voy. dans le qua- 

tre princip. iles d'Afrique, i, p. 287, pi. 37, f. 2, . . 78, 79 
Bottgeri (Neritina), Westerl. = N. fluviatilis, var. . . 47 
Bourgainvillei (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 

159, .72 

Bourgainvillei (Navicella), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 79, 80 
Bourguignati (Neritina), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iii, 293, 

1852. = N. fluviatilis, Linn 47 

Brandti (Neritina), Phil. Zeitschr. f. Malak. zool, 1848, p. 

61. = N. Beckii, Recluz. 58 

Brasiliana (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 314, 1841. 

= N. virginea, Linn. ........ 40 

Brevispina (Nerita), Lam. An. s. vert., vi, 2, p. 188, 65, 60, 67 
Briareus (Turbo), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 52, , 112 
Bruguierei (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 274. 

= N. Petitii, Recluz, 57 

Bruniensis (Cyclostrema), Beddome. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

1882, p. 168, . 95 

Bullula (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., fig. 76, 1855. 

= N. picea, Reel 33 

Burgersteinia, Bourg. Foss. Dalmat. Lettres Mai., 51. 

= Neritodonta, Brusina, ....... 7 

Cffilata (Vitrinella), Garrett. P. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 214, 
pi. 2, f. 16, 101 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 119 

PAGE. 

Cserulescens (Navicella), Reel. Sowb. Thes., ii, p. 550, pi. 118, 

f. 129, pi. 118, figs. 36-38. 

= N. tessellata. Lam. ....... 82 

Caffra (Neritina), Wood, Garrett, in coll. 

= N. sandalina, Reel. ....... 61 

CafFra (Neritina), Gray, in Wood. Suppl. viii, f. 10. 

^= N. gagates, Lam. ........ 35 

Calabariea (Neritina), Mousson coll. 

^ N. rubrieata, Morelet, ....... 61 

Calameli (Cyclosti'ema), Jousseaume. Rev. Zool., 1872, p. 393, 

pi. xix, f. 5, 88 

Calana, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1844. 

= Tomostoma, Desh. ........ 9 

Calceolina, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hi?t., xi, 264, 1863, 15, 105 
Caledoniea (Leueorhynchia), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1867, 

320, t. 11, f. 4 15, 106 

Caledoniea (Navicella), Morelet. Test. Nov. Austral, 1857, 

p. 6. = N. Bougainvillei, Reel. . . . . .80 

Californica (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., fig. 20. 

= N. Petiti, Recluz 58 

Callosa (Neritina), Desh. Exped. Seientif. de Moree, iii, Zool. 

p. 156, ])1. 19, figs. 16-18 49 

Caivertia, Bourg. Foss. Dalmat. Lettres Mai., 50. 

= Neritodonta, Brusina. ........ 7 

Canalis (Neritina), Sowb. Tankerville coll. Catal, p. 44, 1825. 

= N. pulligera, Linn. var. . . . . . . .57 

Cancellattt (Liotia), Kiener. Coq. Viv. Delphinula, t. 4, f. 10. 

= L. Kieneri, Phil Ill 

Cancellata (Liotia), Gray. Spieil. Zool., 3, 1829 . . .109 
Caneellata (Cyelostrema). Marryatt. Trans. Linn. Soe., 1818, 

vol. xii, p. 338, 89 

Capillulata (Neritina), Gould. Sowb. Thes., f. 267. 

= N. retifera, Bens. . . . . . . . .71 

Carbonaria (Nerita), Phil. Abbild. u. Beschreib. neuer Coneh. 

i, 84, t. 4, f. 5. = N. morio, Sowb 33 

Carbonnieri (Teinostoma), Jousseaume. Bull. Soe. Zool., France, 

1881, p. 184 105 

Carbonnieri (Cyelostrema), Jousseaume. Bull. Soe. Zool., 1881, 

p. 181, 95 

Cardinalis (Nerita), Guillou. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 345. 

= Neritina brevispina, Lam. ...... 65 

Carinata (Adeorbis), A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1863, p. 75. . . 85 
Carinata (Liotia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 248. . . . .112 

Carinata (Rotella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 62, t. 18, f. 26-28. . 104 
Carinata (Neritina Danubialis, Miihlf. var.), Kokeil. Ferd. 

Schmidt, Land und Siiss-wasser Conch, in Krain, 1847. 

= N. Danubialis, Miihlf. var 46 



120 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Carinata (Cyclostrema), H. Adams. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 207, pi. 

23, f. 8 _ . . . .93 

Carinatus (Adeorbis), Wood. == A. subcarinatus, Montg. . 85 
Carinulata (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 246, . . .103 
Cariosa (Neritina), Gray, in Wood Index. Test. Supplement, 

1828, fig. 11, 75 

Carpenteri (Teinostoma), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1861, . 103 
CassicLilum (Neritina), Sowb. Conch. 111., no. and f. 55. 

= reticulata. ......... 60 

Castanea (Neritina), Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud. Zool, ii, 

p. 68. pi. 17, fig. 24-26, .67 

Catenoides (Cyclostrema), Monts. Ann. Mus. Civico Genova 

ix, p. 417, fig. . . 99 

Catillus (Humphrey, 1797), Swainson, Malac. 21, 1840. 

= Navicella, Lam. . . . . . • . . .10 

Celata (Nerita), Recluz. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 120. 

=^ Neritina bicolor, Recluz, ...... 69 

Celebensis (Neritina), Mousson in coll. 

= N. diadema, Recluz, ....... 64 

Cerostoma (Nerita), Troschel. Arch. f. Naturg., 1852, p. 180, 

t.5, f. 5, 32 

Ceylonensis (Nerita), Recluz. Journ. Conch., ii, 1851, p. 202. 

:= Neritina Ualanensis, Less. ...... 41 

Chamteleon (Nerita), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, 779; ed. xii, 

1255, ' 20 

Chemnitzii (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 103, 1841. 

= N. semirugosa, Reel. ....... 21 

Chimmoi (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., vol. ix, pi. 37, fig. 

171. • = N. cornea, Linn. var. . . . . . .45 

Chlorina (Vitta), (Link), Morch. Cat. Yoldi., p. 167. 

= N. virginea, Linn. ........ 40 

Chlorosticta (Neritina avellana. Reel, var.) Martens in Conch. 

Cab. p. 174, fig. 5-9 68 

Chloroleuca (Nerita), Phil. Zeitsch f. Mai., 1848, p. 14. 

? = N. chameleon, Linn. ....... 20 

Cholerica (Neritina), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 

1847, p. 225. ::= N. Sandalina, Recluz, . . . .61 
Chlorostoma (Nerita), Lam. An. s. Vert., vol. viii, p. 603. 

-= N. plexa, Chemn 19 

Chlorostoma (Neritina), Bcod. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 201, . 66, 69 
Christovalensis (Neritina), Rve. Conch. Icon., ix, pi, 33, fig. 

150, 74 

Chrvsocolla (Neritina), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 

1847, p? 225. = N. Roissyana, Recluz 38 

Chrysostoma (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 104. 

= N. striata. Burrow. ....... 28 

Chrysostoma (Neritina Danubialis, Miihlf. var.), Kutschig. 

Kiisters Verkauts-Katalog., 1845. . . , . .46 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 121 

PACK. 

Cidaris (Liotia), Rve. Zool. Proc, 1843; Conch. Icon. sp. 27, 108 
Cimber, Montf. Conch. Syst., ii, 82, 1810, . . . .77 

Cincta (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 245. . . .103 

Cincta (Neritina), Rechiz. Jour, de Conch., 1850, i, p. 158. 

= N, Ualanensis, Less. ....... 41 

Cinctella (Neritina), Martens. Norderasiatische Conch., 1874, 

p. 34, t. 5, f. 43 52 

Cingulata (Cyclostrema), Diinker. Mai. Bliitt., vi, p. 225, . 91 
Cinguhita (Cyclostrema), Philippi. Kiister's Conch. Cab. Del- 

phinula, p.'24, 1853, • ^1 

Cingulatum (Cyclostrema), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

198, pi. 32, f. 14, 90 

Ciugulifera (Cyclostrema), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1850, 

p. 43, . ; 92, 93 

Circumvoluta (Neritina), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 173, . 71 

Circinata (Neritina), Philip. Menke Zeitsch., 1848, p. 161. 

== N. Brugiueri, Reel. ....... 58 

Cirrata (Neritina), Phil. Arch. f. Naturg., i, 1845, p. 64. 

= N. Brugiueri, Reel. ....... 58 

Cirsonella, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc, 38, 1877, . . 16, 107 
Clathrata (Liotia), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Delphinula, sp. 29, 

1843, 109 

Clathrata (Vitrinella), Carp. Cat. Mazat. 

=: V. parva, C. B. Ad 101 

Clausa (Adeorbis), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 245, 1861, . . 83 

Clithon, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 326, 1810. . . 7, 63 
Clypeolem (Navicella), Red. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 157. 

= N. tessellata. Lam. ....... 81 

Clypeolum, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 1850, . . 7, 56 

Cobijensis (Liotia), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Delphinula, sp. 22, 

1843. = L. cancellata, Gray, 109 

Cochinsinae (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 159. 

^ N. flavovirens, Busch, ....... 70 

Coluber (Neritina), Thorp. Hani, and Theobald. Conch. Ind. 

p. 64, pi. 157, fitr. 10, 53 

Columbaria (Neritina), Reel. P. Z. S., 1845, p. 121. 

= N. Ualanensis, Less. ....... -41 

Comma-notata (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., fig. 72, 1855. 

= N. tessellata, Gmel 24 

Communis (Neritina), Quoy and Gaim.. Voy. de 1' Astrolabe, 

Zool., iii, p. 195, pi. 65, fig. 12-14 38 

Comorensis (Neritina), Morelet. Journ. Conch., 1877, xxv, p. 

345, pi. 13, fig. 6, 72 

Compacta (Liotia), Petterd. Jour, de Conch., iv, 135, . . 112 
Compressa (Neritina), Mousson, in coll. 

= N. crepidularia, Lam. ....... 77 

Compressa (Navicella tessellata. Lam. var.) Martens, in Conch. 

Cab. p. 38, t. 8, fig. 4-8-194, 82 



122 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Compressa (Navicella), Benson. J. A. S. B., v, 1836, p. 749. 

= N, cserulescens, Reel. 82 

Conij)ressa (Navicella reticulata, Rve. var.) Martens, in Conch. 

Cab., p. 41, 82 

Compressa (Navicella Luzonica, Souleyet, var.) Martens, in 

Conch. Cab., p. 16, t. 2, fig. 16-18, 79 

Compi^essa (Navicella Freycineti, Reel, var.) Martens, in Conch. 

^ Cab., p. 21, t. 3, fig. 23-24, 80 

Compressa (Navicella Borbonica, var.) Martens, in Conch. Cab. 

^ p. 11, t. 1, fig. 9-12 78 

Concentria (Neritina), Menke. Verzeichn. d. Conchyl.-Samml. 

des Fr. v. Malsburg, 1829. -— N. crepidularia, Lam. . 77 
Coucentricum (Teinostoma), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 267, 

1863, 103 

Concinna (Vitrinella),»C. B. Ad. Panam. Cat., No. 258, . 103 

Conferta (Neritina Ualanensis, Less, var.), Martens, in Conch. 

Cab., p. 193, t. 20, fig. 5, 41 

Conglobata (Neritina), Martens, in Conch. Cab., p. 57, t. 8, f. 

7-9. = N. pulligera, Linn. ...... 57 

Conica (Cyclostrema), Watson. Challenger Rept., xv, 122, t. 

8, f. 9 94 

Conoidalis (Neritina reclivata, Say var.) Martens, in Conch. 

Cab., p. 119, . 39 

Consimilis (Neritina), Martens, in Conch. Cab., p. 243, t. 123, 

f. 25, 26, 54 

Conspicuum (Cyclostrema), Monts. Nuova Revista, p. 23, . 95 
Convexa (Neritina) Nuttall, in Jay's Cat., 3rd edition, p. 66. 

= N. cariosa, Gray 75 

Cookii (Navicella), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1843, p. 197. 

= N. Borbonica, Bory St. Vincent 78 

Cornea (Nerita), Forsk. Desc. Anim., 123, 1775. 

= N. albicilla, Linn. 19 

('ornea (Neritina), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 777, . 44, 45 

Corniculum (Archyta^a), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., 245. 1861, . 87 
Cornu-copite (Neritina), Benson. J. A. S. B., v, 1836, p. 748. 

= N. crepidularia. Lam. ....... 77 

Cornelia (Cyclostrema), A. Adams. Zool. Proc, 74, 1863, . 95 
Conuta (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, f. 63. 

r--^ N. Brandti, Phil 58 

Coromandeliana (Neritina), Sowb. Conch 111. no., 53, f. 52. 

= N. ziczac, Sowb. var. ....... 36 

Coronata (Clithon), Leach. Zool. Misc., ii, 1815, pi. 104. 

=^ Neritina longispina, Recluz. ...... 63 

Coronata (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 244, . . .103 
Corona (Neritina), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, x, 777; edit, xii, 

1252. in part = N. brevispina, Lam. . . . .65 

Corona (Nerita), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed., x, p. 777, in part 

= Neritina longispina, Recluz. . . . . .63 



IXDKX ANlJ .SYNONYMY. 123 

VAGK. 

'Coronoides (Neritina)., Lesson. Voy. de la Coquille. ZooL, ii, 

p. 381, 73 

Oorrosula (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 1842, p. 177, . . 35 
CoiTugata (Neritina), Hoinbr. et Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud. ZooL, 

V, p. 70, pi. 17, f. 45, 47. 

= N. brevispina, Lam. ....... 65 

Costata (Nerita) Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, 299, pi. 191, f. 

1966, 1967, 27 

Costata (Nerita), Sebum. Nouv. Syst., 287, 1817. 

= N. plexa, Chemn. ........ 19 

Costatus (Adeorbis), Garrett. Proe. Cal. Acad., i, p. 103. 

= Fossarus Garretti, Pse. Manual, ix, 272, . . . .86 
Costulata (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch. 1866, p. 52. 

? = N. interrupta, Gassies, ....... 68 

Costulata (Nerita), Buseh. Phil. Abbild., i, 86, 1844. 

= N. striata, Burrow, 29 

Costulata (Nerita), Busch. Cat. Godeffroy, no. iv, 99; No. v, 

144. = N. affinis, Reeve, 34 

Costulatum (Discopsis), Folin. Fonds de la Mer., i, 205, 1869, 106 
Craspedostoma, Lindstrom, 1884, ...... 17 

Crassa (Nerita), Gould. Expl. Exped., p. 166, f. 195. 195a. 

= N. undata, Linn. ........ 28 

Crassibasis (Liotia), E. A. Smith. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 484, pi. 

48, f. 10, 108 

■Crassilabrum (Kerita), Smith. P. Z. S. 603, 1885. 

= N. albicilla, Linn 19 

Crenata (Liotia), Kieuer. Coq. Viv. Delphinula, t. 4, f. 8, .111 
Crenellifera (Teinostoma), A. Adams. Sowb. Thes. Conch., 

ii, Cyclostrema, f. 41 , 42, ....... 

Crepidularia (Neritina), Lam. An. sans Vert, vi, pt. 2. . 106 

1822, 53, 77 

Crepiduloides (Navicella), Reeve, tig. 19, 1856. 

= N. Luzonica, Souleyet var. compressa. Martens, . . 79 
Cristata (Neritina), Morelet., Journ. Conch., xii, 1864, p. 288, 76 
Crossei (Leucorhynchia), Tryon, ...... 106 

Crossostoma, Morris and Lycett. Moll. Gt. Oolite, 1854, . 17 

Cryptospina (Neritina), Mousson in coll. 

= N. diadema, Recluz, ....... 64 

Cryptospira (Neritina), Martens. Kiist. Conch. Cab., p. 61, pi. 

8, f. 10-12. = N. Knorri, Recluz, 57 

Cumingiana (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 1842, p. 74. 

r= N. turrita, Chemn. var. ....... 37 

Cumingiana (Navicella), Reel. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 157, . . 80 
Guprina (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 151. 

=^ N. Roissyana, Recluz, ....... 38 

Cutleriana (Cvclostrema), Clark. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

iv, p. 424, ' 96 

Curvieriana (Neritina), Reel. Rev. ZooL, 1841, p. 338, . 36 



124 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Cyanostoma (Neritina), Morelet. Journ. Conch., iv, 1853, p. 

373, pi. 12, f. 9, 10. = N. flavovirens, Busch, . . 70 

Cyclidea, Rolle, 1862. = Neritopsis, Grat 12 

Cyclophoreus (Haplocochlias), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d. 

Ser., xiii, 474, 1864, 16, 107 

Cyclostrenia, Marryatt. Trans. Linn. Soc. xii, 1818, . 88, 14 

Cyclotina (Cyclostrema), A.Adams. Sowb. Thes., f. 35, 36, . 99 

Cymostyla, Martens. Monog. Nerita, Conch. Cab., 9, 1887, . 18 
Cynisca, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i. 406, 1854, 

16, 112, 107 



DaCostffi (Neritina), Reel. P. Z. S., 1843, p. 199, . 

Dsedala (Liotia), A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1863, p. 72, 

Dalli (Cvclostrema), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad, v, p. 532, pi 

57, tig". 39, 

Dalmatica (Neritina), Partsch. Sowb. Conch. 111., No. 44, fig 

57. = flnviatilis. Linn. var. ..... 

Danubialis (Neritina), Miihlf. Land und Wasser Schnechen 

Pt. 3, 1828, t. 8, f. 17, 18 

Dannbialis (Neritina), Siemaschko. Bnll. Soc. Imp. Moscou 

1847, p. 102. = N. liturata, Eichwald, 
Danubiensia (Neritina), Sadler. Sowb. Conch. 111., No. 47. 

= N. Danubialis, Miihlf. 

Daronia, A. Ad. Sowerby's Thes. Conch., 1864, . 14, 99. 
Decapitata (Navicella scarabseus Rve. var.), Mousson. Jour, 

de Conch, xvii, 1869, p. 384. = N. macrocephala., Guillou, 
Decussata (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 239, 
Deficiens (Neritina), Mabille. Bull. Soc. Mai. Fr., iv, 160 

1887, 

Dejanira, Stoliczka, Sitzb. Akad. Wien., xxxviii, 488, 1860 
Delessertii (Neritina), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iv, p. 260, pi 

7, f. 2. =1 N. ills, Mousson, 

Delestennei (Neritina), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iv, 1853, p 
259, pi, 7, f. 3. = N. squamipicta, Recluz, . 
Delicatula (Neritina), Mousson in coll. 

=^ N. Ualanensis, Less. ...... 

Delineata (Neritina), Boubee. Villa, Disp. syst., 1841, iv, 38 

= N. pupa, Linn. ....... 

Delicatum (ArchvtKa), Phil. Moll. Sicil, ii, 222, 1844, 
Delphinoidea, Brown. 111. Conch. Gt. Brit., t. 51, 1827. 

= Cyclostrema, Marryatt, ...... 

Deltoidea (Neritina), Garrett Ms. Mousson, Jour, de Conch 

xviii, 1870, p. 224. == N. Pritchardi, Dohrn. . 
Dendritica (Neritina), Ziegler. Villa disp, Syst. Conch., 1841 

p. 38. = N. fluviatilis, Linn. var. .... 
Depressa (Navicella), Less. Voy. de la Coquille, Zool., ii, 1830 

p. 386. = N. Borbonica, Bory. .... 

Depressa (Liotia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 14, 1843, 



72 
112 

97 

47 

45 

47 

45 
100 

79 
102 

9 

58 
58 
41 

42 

87 

14 

65 

47 

78 
108 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 125 

Depressa (Cyclostrema), Monts. Enum. e Sinon. p. 20, . . 95 
Depressa (Neritina), Benson. J. A. S. B., v, p. 1836, p. 748, 

^= N. crepidularia, Lam. ....... 77 

Depressa (Adeorbis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 245, 

1861, . . _ . . .83 

Depressus (Adeorbis), Seg. Bull. Real. Comit. Geol. Ital. Fasc. 

2, p. 382, 1874. == A. Seguenzianus, Tryon, ... 84 
Divisa (Cyclostrema), Adams. Linn. Trans., iii, 254, . . 96 
Deschampsi (Teinostoma), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., France, 

1881, p. 182, 105 

Deshaysia, Raulin, 1844, 5 

Deshayesii (Neritina), Pease. Am. Journ. Conch, iv, 1869, p. 

130. = N. Mauritii, Less 75 

Deshayesis (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 104. 

= N. scabricosta, ........ 30 

Desmoulinsiana (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Couch., i, 1850, p. 

153, 162. = N. reticulata, Sowb 42 

Despinosa (Neritina), Mousson in coll. 

=^ N. longispina, Recluz. ....... 63 

Destituta (Neritina rarispina Mouss. var.), Mousson. Moll. 

Java., p. 84, ......... 69 

Diadema (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 277, . . 64 
Diaphana (Teinostoma) d'Orb. Moll. Cuba., ii, 62, t. 18, f. 

23-25, 104 

Diaphana (Archyta?a), A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1863, f. 76, . 87 

Diaphanum (Cylostrema), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

199, PL 32, f. 16 91 

Dilatata (Nerita), Recluz, Ms. Kiister's Conch. Cab., 53. 

= N. patula. Reel 22 

Dilatata (Neritina), Brod. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 201, . . . 75 
Dilatata (Neritina fluviatilis L. var.), Moq.-Tand., p. 549, . 47 
Diatreta (Cyclostrema), Gould. Bost. Proc. Soc. N. H. ii, 205, 
1847; Moll. Wilkes Exped., f. 126. = C. lajvis, Kiener, . 92 
Diocletiana (Neritina), Kiist. Verkaufskatalog. 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn. 47 

Diremta (Neritina Ualanensis, Less, var.), Martens, in Conch. 

Cab, p. 193, t. 20, f. 17-19, 41 

Discoidea (Liotia), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Delph inula, sp. 15, 

1843, 109 

Discopsis, Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 190, 205, 1869, . 15, 105 
Discors (Neritina), Martens. Kiist. Conch. Cab., p. 160, t, 17, 

f. 7, 18, 11, 65 

Dispar (Neritina), Pease. Am. Journ. Conch., iii, 1867, p. 285, 

pi. 24, f. 3. = N. chlorostoma, Brod 66 

Diversicolor (Nerita), Mart. Univ. Conch., t. 108, 1784. 

= N. Ascensionis, Chemn. ....... 32 

Doingii (Nerita), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1845, p. 121. 

= Neritina Dringii, Reel. ....... 72 



126 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



70- 
22 

51 

64 

47 

31 



68 



Dolium (Neritiiia) Recluz), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 15. 

= N. solium, Reel. ...... 

Dombeyi (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool. 1841, p. 149, 
Dongolensis (Neritina), Ehrenberg. Ms. in Berlin Mas 

= N. Nilot'ica, Reeve. ...... 

Donovana (Neritina), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1843, p. 73. 

= N. diadema, Recluz. ..... 

Dorise (Neritina), Issel. Mem. Acad. Torino., 1865, p. 23, t. 

6, f. 14, 16 

Doreyana (Nerita), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astiolabe iii, jd. 190, 

pi. 65, f. 43-44. = N. polita, var. Rumphii. 
Dostia, Grav. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840, 
Dringii (Neritina), Reel. P. Z. S., 1845, p. 121, . 
Dubia (Neritina), (Chemn) Issel. Moll. Borneensi. 

= N. avellana, Recluz. ..... 

Dubia (Neritina), Chemn. Conch. Cab., bd. v, p. 324, t 

f. 2019, 2020, 

Duplicatum (Cyclostrema), Lischke. Mai. Bliit., xix, p 
Dunalli (Neritina), INIontrouzier, mss. 

= N. Bruguieri, Reel. 

Dunkeri (Cyclostrema), Try on. .... 

Eburnea (Cyclostrema), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. B., 

pt. 2, p. 101, pi. viii, f. 21-22, 

Elana, Gray. P. Z. S., 994, 1867 

Elara, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., 1, 387, 1854 
Elata (Neritina), Hauff". Krain, p. 35. 

= N. stragulata, Miihlf. . . . . . . .46 

Elea, Ziegler. Fitzing. Syst. V£rz., 116, 1833. 

= Theodoxus, Montf. .7 

Elegans (Adeorbis), H. Ad. P. Z. S. 44, 1850, . . .83 
Elegantina (Neritina), Busch. In Phil. Abbild., i. m. 25, t. 1, 

f. 3. = N. communis, Quoy and Gaim. . . . .39 
Elegantissima (Neritina), Hartmann. Gastropod, d. Schweiz, 

1841, p. 189. = N. virginea, Linn 40 

Elegantissima (Neritina), Moreh. Yoldi Cat., 166. 

= N. elegantina, Busch. ....... 39 

Electriua (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 70, 1855. 

= N. squamulata, Le Guillou. ...... 20 

Elliptica (Navicella), Lam. Phil. Zool., 1809. 

= N. Borbonica, Bory St. Vincent 78 

Elliptica (Septaria), Blainville. Man. de Malaeologie, pi. 36, 

bis, f. 1. = Navicella suborbicularis, Sowb. . . .81 
Elliptica (Navicella), (Lam.) Quoy and Gaim. Voy. de I'Ur- 

anie., Zool., p. 458. = N. Laperousei, Recluz. . . .80 
Elliptica (Neritina), Guillou. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 346, . .44 
Elongata (Neritina virginea, L. var.), Martens. Mai. Bliitt., xii, 

S. 63. = N. virginea, Linn, .' 40 



124, 




44, 


45 


101, 


92 




58 


• 


91 


sliv, 


89 


, 


10 


10, 


81 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY, 127 

PAGE. 

Elongata (N. fluviatilis, Linn, var.), Broeck. Ann. Soc. Mai 

Balz., V, p. 32, 47 

Elongatula (Neritina), Morelet. Desc. Moll. Terr, et Fluv. 

Portugal, p. 96, pi. 9, fig. 4, 48 

Emergens (Neritina), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., 1857, p. 162. 

;= N. flavovirens, Busch, ....... 70 

Entrecasteauxi (Navicella), Reel. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 380. 

=:: N. tessellata. Lam. 82 

Erubescens (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 54, 1855. 

= N. undata, Linn. var. ....... 29 

Erythrsea (Nerita), Desh. Laborde, Voy. Mer Rouge. 

= N. albicilla, Linn 19 

Essingtoni (Nerita), Recluz, Petit, Journ. Conch, i, pi. 11, f. 9, 33 
Essingtoni (Nerita), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 29. 

= N. striata, Burrow, ....... 29 

Euphratica (Neritina), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., 1874, p 

49, 51 

Europiiea (Neritina) Leach. Brit. Moll; Menke, Zeit. fiir. Mai., 

vi, 1849. == N. fluviatilis, Linn 47 

Euxina (Neritina), Clessin. Mai. Bliitt. N. S., viii, p. 55, . 54 
Exaltata (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 6Q. 

= N. crepidularia, Lam. ....... 77 

Exarata (Nerita), Pfr. Wiegm. Archiv Naturg., vi, 255, 1840. 

= N. tessellata, Gmel. 24 

Excavata (Nerita), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., p. 109, f. 84, . 20 
Excavata (Cyclostrema), Carpenter. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1850, . 90 
Excavatum (Cyclostrema), Watson. Challenger Mollusca, xv, 

121, t. 8, f. 10, 99 

Excelsa (Navicella), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., xviii, 1870, p. 

Nouv. 150, Caled., t. 8, f. 4, 82 

Exigua (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat, No. 259, . 103 

Exiguum (Cyclostrema), Phil. Zeitsch f. Mai., 1849, p. 25, 94 
Eximia (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 6, f. 26, 1826. 

= N. reticulata, Rve. ........ 82 

Expansa (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., ]875, p. 231. 

= N. Petitii. Recluz, . • 58 

Expansa (Trachysma delicatum, var.), Sars. Moll. Arct 

Norv., 212, t. 22, f. 17, . 87 

Equisitus (Adeorbis), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag., xi, p. 399, 

1883, . 87 

Exuvia (Nerita), Linn. Mus. Reg. Ulricae, p. 682, . . 19 



Faba (Neritina), Sowb. Conch. 111. no., 38, f. 16, 

Fasciata (Neritina faba, Sowb. var.) Martens, in Conch. Cab. 

p. 176, f 16, 

Fasciata (Neritina), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vi, 186. 

= N. dubia, Chemn. ....... 

Fenestrata (Liotia), Carp. Second Report, 652, 1863, 



68 

68 

44 
109 



128 INDEX AND SYNONYMY, 

PAGE. 

Fenilletii (Neritina), Andouin. Descr. Egypte vol. xxii, pi. v, 

f. 11, 1827. = N. viridis, Linn 55 

Filosa (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 48, 1855, . . .32 
Fimbria (Neritina), Menke. Syn. Moll. ed. 2, p. 48, and 139, 

= N. semiconica, Lam. ....... 38 

Fimbriatus (Adeorbis), Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 1881, p. 64, . 86 
Fissa (Navicella haustum, var.), Mousson. Journ. de Corxch., 

xvii, 1869, p. 383. = N. depressa. Less 79 

Flammulata (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 180, 1841. 

= N. undata, Linn., var. . . . . . , . 30 

Flavopincta (Neritina), Mousson, in coll. 

= N. virginea, Linn . . . 40 

Flavovirens (Neritina), Busch in Phil. Abbild., i, sp. 26, t. 

1, f. 6, . . . 70 

Flavescens (Nerita), Chemnitz, Conch. Cab. 

— N. polita, Linn ,30 

Flexuosa (Neritina), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud. 

Moll., p. 69, pi. 17, f, 39-41. = N. brevispina. Lam. . 65 

Flexuosa (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., 1878, p. 342, . 72 
Florida (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 160, pi. 

7, f. 6, 7. = N. dilatata, Brod 76 

Floridana (Neritina), Shuttlewerth ms. Rve., Conch. Icon., 

i: 85. = N. reclivata, Say 39 

Fluctuata (C3'^clostrema), Hutton. N. Z. Journ. Science., i, p. 

477. ^ Turbiuidie. ........ 95 

Fluviatilis (Nerita), Poiret. Voy. en Barberia, ed. ii, p. 33. 

= Neritina Numidica, Recluz. ...... 50 

Fluviatilis (Neritina), Menetries. Catal. rais. Hist. Nat. 

Caucase., 1832. — N. liturata, Eichwald 47 

Fluviatilis (Neritina), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 777, . 46, 50 
Fontaineana (Neritina), Orb. Vov. dans I'Amer. Mer. Moll., 

p. 406, pi. 76, f. 14, 15. == N. latissima, Brod., var. . . 76 
Fontinalis (Nerita), Brard, Hist. Nat. d. coquilles Paris 1815, 

]). 196, pi. 7, f. 11. -^r^ Neritina fluviatilis, Linn. . . 47 

Forskalii (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 147, 1841. 

= N. albicilla, Linn. 19 

Forstenii (Navicella), Herklots in Leiden Museum. 

= suborbicularis, Sowb. ....... 81 

Fragilis (Adeorbis), G. O. Sars. Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 213, 

t. 22, f. 19 a-c 84 

Fragum (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 41, 1855. 

=: N. reticulata, Karsten . 22 

Faseri (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon, xi, t. 25, f. 113, . 61 

Freycineti (Navicella), Reel. Gould. U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., 

p. 156, pi. 11, f. 177. =^ N. Bougainvillei, Reel. . . 80 

Freycineti (Navicella), Reel. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 375, . 80 

Frondicincta (Neritina Ualanensis, Less, var.). Martens, in 

Conch. Cab., p. 193, t. 20, f. 212, 41 



FNDRX AXD SYNONYMY. 



129 



oiisson. 



PACE. 

Journ. 

. 60 

. 112 

38, 71 



Frondosu (Neritiiiu ])orcata, Gld. var.), M 

Conch., xviii, p. 221, ...... 

Fulgeus (Liotia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc, vii, p. 142, 
Fidgetrum (Neritina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 103, 1855, 
Fulglnata (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 50, 
Fuliginosa (Neritina), Theobald. J. A. S. B., vol. xxvii, 

p. 315. = N. Peguensis, Blanf. . . . , , 

Fuliginosa (Neritina), Busch.- in Phil. Abbild., i, s. 2G, t. 1, 

f. 5, . . . . . . . . . 

Fulgurans (Nerita), Gnielin. Syst. Nat. xiii, 
Fulgurata (Neritina), Desh. Moll de li'le Reunion, p. 

lb, f. 1, 2, ? == N. gagates, Lam. 
Funiculata (Nerita), Mke. Zeitscli f. Mai, 1850, p. 166 

= N. Burnhardi, Reel. ..... 

Funiculata (Nerita), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 9, 1855. 

= N. undata, Linn. var. 
Fuscilabris (Neritina), Wiegmann 

= N. punctulata. Lam. .... 
Fusca (Neritina), Kutschig, mss. 

= N. Danubialis, Miihlf. var. 
Fuscata (Nerita), Menke. Verzeichn, 15, 1829 

= N. scabricosta. Lam. .... 



Ms. in Berl. Mus. 



1858, 



8, pi. 



71 

70 
23 

35 

24 

29 

60 

46 

30 



Gagates (Neritina), Lam. Morch, Cat. Yoldi., p. 766. 

^= N. variegata, Lesson. ....... 36 

Gagates (Neritina), Lam. An. s. Vert., ed. i, vi, p. 185, 1822, 35 
Gagates (Neritina), Troschel. Gebiss der Schnecken, ii, t. 16, 

f. 15. = N. cornea, Linn. ....... 45 

Gaillardotia, Bourg, 1876. = Smaragdia, Issel. ... 7 

Gaimardi (Navicella Urvillei var.). Reel. Rev. Zool., 1841, ]). 

o78. = N. suborbicularis, Sowb. . . . . .81 

Gaimardi (Neritina), Souleyet. Voy. Bonite., t. 34, f. 16, 19. 

= N. Ualanensis, Less. ....... 41 

Ganesa, Jeffreys. P. Z. S., 94, 1883, . . . .14, 100 

Gangrenosa (Neritina), Schmidt. Conch. Krain, 24. 

= N. Danubialis, Miihlf. var. stragulata, Miihlf. . . 46 

Gardensis (Neritina), Stenz. Villa, Cat. Moll. Lombardia, 

1844, p. 10. 

:= N. Danubialis, Miihlf. var. serratilinea, Ziegl. . . 46 

Gai'gania, Guiscardi, 1856, . . . . . . .11 

Garretti (Neritina), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., xviii, 1870, p. 

223. =z N. Ualanensis, Less 41 

Geuuana (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 77, 1855. 

= N. fulgurans, Gmel. Var. Bernhardi. . . . .24 
Geinmulata (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 40, 1855. . . 32 
Georgina (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841. p. 180, . . 33 
Gigas (Neripteron), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 186 and 234. 

r= Neritina granosa, 8o\vb. ....... 63 

!) 



180 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

p.\c,v.. 

Giniudi (Stanleya), Bourg. Notic Lac Tanganyika, 88, 1885, 5(> 
Glabrata (Neritina), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 535, pi. 116, f. 

256-263, 56 

Glandiforniis (Neritina snbjunctata, Reel, var.). Martens. 

in Conch. Cab. p. 180, f. 22, 6& 

Globosa (Neritina), Brod. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 201. 

= N. latissinia, Brod. ........ 76 

Godeffroyana (Neritina), Mousson. Jour, de Concli. 1869, p. 

371, pi. 151, f. 7. == N. amoena, Gld 43 

GowUandi (Liotia), Brazier. P. Z. S., 672, t. 83, f. 1, 2, 

1874. = L. sj)ccio8a, Angas. ...... 110 

Gracilenta (Nerita), Budgin. ms. Sowb. Cat. Tankerv, 1825, 

p. 45. ^= Neritina crepidularia. Lam. . . . .77 

Griiffei (Neritina), ^Nlousson, Ms. 

= N. porcata, Gould, ........ (iO 

Granosa (Neritina), Sowb. Tankerville, Catal., Appendix, p. 11, ()3 
Granulata (Cyclostrema), A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1853, p. 183, . 107 
Granulata (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 79, 1855, . . 20 
Granulosa (Liotia), Dunker. Krauss, Sudafr. Moll., 94, t. 5, f. 

28, 109 

Granulum (Pseudorbis), Bruguone. Misc. Malac, p. 13, f. 25, 

1873 87 

Gravis (Neritina), Shuttleworth. Mittheil. d Naturf. Gessell. 

Berne, 1854, S. 160. ^ N. reclivata, Say 39 

Gravis (Neritina), Morelet. Test. Novissima, 1849, p. 27. 

— ^ N. reclivata, Sav 39 

Grayana (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 1843, p. 200. 

= N. undata, Linn., var. ....... 29 

Grisea (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 23. 

= N. striata, Bun'ow. ....... 28 

Grossa (Nerita), Born. Mus. Caes. Vindob., 407, 1780. 

= N. costata, Chemn. ....... 27 

Grossa (Nerita), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, p. 778, . . . 2<S 
Guadianensis (Neritina), Morelet. Desc. Moll. Terr, et Fluv. 

Portugal, p. 98, pi. 9, f. 3, 49 

Guamensis (Nerita), Quoy and Gaini. Astrolabe iii, p. 191, t. 

6d, f. 45. =-- N. polita, var. Rumphii. . . . .31 

Guayaquilensis (Neritina), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 520. pi. 

114, f. 177. = N. Fontaineana, Orb. . . . .76 

Guerini (Neritina), Reel. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 314. 

= N. amoena, Gould. ........ 43 

Guinerii (Neritina), Recluz. Sowb. Thes., p. 541, p]. 176, f. 

272. ? = N. amoena, Gould 43 

Guttata (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 316, . . 72 
Guttata (Neritina), picta, Sowb. var.) Miller. Mai. Bliitt, 1879, 

p. 168, 41 

Guttata (Neritina), Kiister. Verkaufskatalog. 

= N. tluviatilis, Linn. ....... 47 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 131 

PAGE. 

Guttata (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., 1875, p. 230. 

= jS". guttulata, Gassies. ....... 43 

Guttulata (Neritina), Mousson in coll. 

=^^ N. Ualanensis, Less. ....... 41 

Guttulata (Neritina), Gassies. Nouv. Caled., iii, 90, : . 43 
Guttulata (Neritina), Mousson in cojl. = N. ziczac, Sowb. . 36 
Gvmnocephala (Neritina), Kiist. Anton Yerzeichn. Conch., 

1839, p. 30. = N. Sardoa, Menke 50 

Haemastonia (Neritina), Martens. Kiist. Conch. Cab. p. 167, 

t. i3,_f. 6, 7, . . . . .^ . . . . m 

Halophila (Neritina fluviatilis var.), Klett. . . .47 
Hamuligera (Neritina), Troschel. Arch. f. Naturg., iii, 1837, 

f. 177. ■-= N. Smithii, Sowb 37 

Hapa (Neritina), Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud. Zool. i, p. 

68, pi. 17, f. 33-35. = N. Souleyetana. Kecluz. . . 64 

Haplocochlias, Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xiii, 476, 

1864, 16, 107 

HarriettiB (Cyclostrema), Petterd. Journ. Conch., iv, p. 141, 95 
Harveyensis (Neritina), Mousson, nis. 

= N. chlorostoma, Er. ....... 66 

Haustruni (Navieella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, pi. 4, f. 18, 

=: N. depressa, Less. ........ 78 

Haustruni (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 34, 1855. 

= N. Yoldii, Recluz 27 

Hausknechti (Neritina), jNIartens. Conch. Cab., 86. 

= N. anatoiica, Recluz, var. ...... 52 

Heldreichi (Neritina), Schwerzenbach. Samml. von Prof. 

Mousson. .......... 47 

Helicinoides (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 80, 1855, . . 25 
Helicoidea (Vitrinella). C. B. Ad. Monog. Vit. 9, 1850, . 102 
Hellvillensis (Neritina Scuverbiana, Montrouzier, var.) Crosse. 

Jour, de Conch., 1881, p. 208, 55 

Heminerita, Martens. Monog. Nerita, Conch. Cab., 9, 1887, . 18 
Helvola (Neritina), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, p. 

225, 1847. = N. Turtoni, Recluz. 38 

Helvola (Clithon zelandicus, var.), Gould. Mousson Jour, de 

Conch., xvii, 1869, p. 374. = Neritina variegata, Lesson. . 36 
Hermanni (Liotia), Dunker. = L. Peronii, Kiener. . . 108 
Hessei (Neritina), Bottger. Ber. OfFenb. Ver., xxiv-xxv, 192, 

1885, 77 

Hidalgoi (Neritina), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1880, p. 320, pi. 

xi, f. 2, 49 

Hieroglyphica (Nerita), Chemnitz. Couch. Cab. 

:^ N. polita, Linn. ........ 30 

Hieroglyphica (Neritina), Wattebled. Jour, de Conch., 68, 

1886, , .... 59 

Hilleana (Nerita), Dunker. Mai. Bliit., xviii, p. 167, . . 35 



lo2 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Hindsii (Nerita), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1843, p. 201, ... 21 
Hispalensis (Neritina), Martens, in Conch. Cab., p. 220, t. 22, 

f. 20-21, .' . . . .48 

Histrio (Nevita), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3681. 

= N. semirugosa, Recluz. . . . . . . .21 

Holoserica (Neritina), Garrett. Am. Journ. Conch., viii, 1872, 

p. 219, pi. 19, f. 1, 42 

Humeralis (Neritina), Theobald, ms. = N. retifera Benson. 71 
Humerosa (Neritina), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., xiii, 1865, 

p. 188. = N. ruginosa, Reel. . . . . . . 65 

Hungarica (Neritina), Kiist. Conch. Cab., t. 3, f. 13, 1863. 

— N. Prevostiana, Partsch. 49 

Hupeana (Navicella), Gassies. Faun. Conch. Nouv. Caledon., 

p. 114, pi. 8, f. 13. = N. depressa, Leason. ... 79 

Hyalina ( VitrineUa), C. B. Ad. Monog. Yit., 5, 1850, . . 103 
Hypodema, Koniuck. 1853. =; Neritopsis, Grat. . . 12 

Icterina (N. striata, var.), Martens. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 37, 28 
Ilynerita, Martens. Monog. Nerita, Conch. Cab., 9, 1887, . 18 
Inimaculata (Cyclostrenui), Tenison-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, 1876, p. 128, ........ 95 

Immersa (Neritina), Martens. Mai. Bliitt, 1860, p. 51. 

:= N. Powisiana, Reel. var. . . . . . .59 

Impei-spicuus (Adeorbis), INIonts. Nouv. Revist. 36, . . 86 
Inaurita (Neritina subauriculata, Reel, var.), Morch. Jour. 

de Conch., 1872, p. 323, 73 

Incerta (Liotia), Tenison-Woods. Rov. Soc. Tasmania, 1678, 

p. 118; ^ 112 

Incerta (Nerita) Busch in Phil. Abbild, i, p. 85, t. 1, f. 6, . 25 
Incerta (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., 1878, p. 341, . 44 
Inconspicua (Neritina), Busch. Phil. Abbild. i, p, 27, t. 1, f. 7. 

= N. olivacea, Reel. juv. ....... 70 

Incrustans, ( Neritina), Ziegler, ms. 

=:= N. Danubialis, Miihl. var. chrysostoma, . . .46 

Incurva (Nerita), Martens. Kiister's Conch. Cab. 50. 

= N. undata, Linn. var. . . . . . . .29 

Indica (Neritina), Souleyet. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 269. 

=: N. crepidularia. Lam. ....... 77 

Inermis (Neritina spinosa, Sowb. var.). Martens, in Conch. Cab. 

p. 151, t. 15, f. 14, 15, 64 

Inquinata (Neritina), Morelet. Desc. INIoll. Terr, et fluv. 

Portugal, p. 93, f. 2. = N. elongatula, Morelet, . . 48 

Insculpta (Neritina), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 70, 1855. 

= Nerita picea. Reel. ........ 33 

Insignis (Neritina), Mousson in coll. 

^ N. ziczac, SoAvb. var. ....... 36 

Insignis (Navicella), Reeve. Couch. Icon., f. 21. 

= N. tessellata, Lam. ........ 82 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 133 

PAGE. 

Intermedia (Neritina), Deshayes. Belanger Voy. Ind. Orient., 

p. 240, pi. 1, f. 7. = N. crepidularia. Lam. . . .77 
Intermedia (Neritina), Sowb. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 201. 

■^ N. latissima, Brod. . . . . . . .76 

Interposita (Neritina), Mousson in coll. 

= N. Anatolica, Recluz, 52 

Interrnpta (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad. Monog. Vit., 6, 1850, . 103 
Interrupta (Neritina), Reel. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 173, . . 68 
Interstitialis (Neritina ziczac, Sowb. var.), Martens. Kiist. 

Conch. Cab., p. 101, t. 60, f 23, 36 

Intexta (Neritina), Villa dispos. Conch. 1841, p. 38, 60. 

= N. fiuviatilis, Linn. 47 

Iris (Neritina), Mousson. Land und Siissw. Moll, von Java, 

1849. s. 81, t. 12, f. 10. = N. squamipicta. Reel. var. . 58 

Isseliana (Neritina avellana Reel, var.), Mart^^ns. Kiist. Conch. 

Cab. p. 170, 68 

Jamaicensis (Neritina), C. B. Adams. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 

N. Y., 1852, p. 29. = N. virginea, Linn 40 

Janella (Navicella), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 376. . . 80 
Janus (Vitrinella), C. B. x\d. I'anam. Cat. No. 260, , . 103 
Japonica (Cynisca), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., viii, 244, 1861. 

-= Collonia pilula, Dunker. ...... 107 

Japonica (Adeorbis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag.. 246, 1861, . 83 
Japonica (Nerita), Dunker. Mai. Bliit., vi, p. 233, 1859 ; Moll. 

Japon., t. 2, f. 23. = N. pica, Gould. . . . .34 

Javanica (Navicella), Mousson, in seiner Saninilung. 

= N. suborbieularis, Sowb. ...... 81 

Jayana (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 157, pi. 

7, f. 13 _ . 53 

Johnstoni (Cvclostrema), Beddome. Proc. Rov. Soc, Tasmania, 

1882, p. 168 '• . . .95 

Jordani (Neritina), Sowb. Conch. 111., No. 48, f. 49, . ^^. 51 
Josephi (Cyclostrema), Tenison-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1876, 

p. 147, ' . . . .95 

Jovis (Neritina), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1843, p. 72. 

^^ N. ziczac, Sowb. ........ 36 

Junghuhni (Navicella), Herklots. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 22, . 81 

Karasuna (Neritina), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., xxii, 1874, 

p. 34. = N. Macrii, Recluz 52 

Kerondrenii (Nerita), Le Guillou. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 346. 

= Neritina Souleyetana, Recluz. . . . . .64 

Kieneri (Liotia), Phil. Kiister's Conch. Cab. Delphin., 22, t. 

5, f. 19, . . ; 111 

Knorri (Neritina), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 511, \)\. 113, f. 

150. =^ N. iris, Mousson 58 



134 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Knorri (Neritina), Reeve, (^onch. Icon., f. 6. 

= N. Becki, Recluz 58 

Knorri (Neritina), (Recluz). "Rev. ZooL, 1841, p. 274. 

= N. puUigera, Linn., var. ....... 57 

Labiosa (Neritina), Sowb. Conch. Ill, f. 48, . . . . .62 
Lactaria (Nerita), Linn. Mantissa, 551. =r N. plicata, Linn. 27 
Lacteuni (Cyclostrema), Jonsseaume. Guerin's Mag., 1872, p. 

388, pi. 19, f. 1. r= C. Ia3vis, Kiener. 92 

Lacustris (? Nerita), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, p. 77. 

= Neritina fluviatilis, Linn., var. . . . . .47 

Lacustris (Neritina), Jan. Conspect. Meth. Test., p. 7, . 77 

Lacustris (Nerita), (L.) Oliv. Zool. Adriat., 1792, p. 181, 

182. = Neritina Danubialis, IMiihlf., var 46 

Lsevis (Cvclostrema), Kiener. Spec. Gen. Delphinula, p. 12, 

pi. 4, 16, . 92, 96 

Lsevis (Skenea), Forbes and Hanley. Brit. Moll., iii, 165. 

? = Cyclostrema nitens, var. Alderi. . . . . .97 

Lamarckii (Neritina), Desliayes. Lam. An. s. Vert, viii, p. 578. 

= N. Tahitensis, Less. ....... 73 

Lamprostoma, Swains. Malacol, 350, 1840. 

^ Nei'itina, Lam. ........ 6 

Laodia, Gray. P. Z. S., 996, 1867, 10 

Laperousei (Navicella), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 378, 1841, . 80 

Larga (Neritina), Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. an Pole Sud. ZooL, 

ii, p. 67, pi. 17, f. 17, 18. = N. pnlligera, Linn. . . 57 

Largillierti (Neritina), Philip. Menke Zeitsch, 1840, 160. 

= N. Senegalensis, Gniel. ....... 22 

Latissima (Neritina), Brod. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 200, . . 76 

Layardi (Neritina), Reeve, f. 104, 105. 

= N. auriculata. Lam. ....... 73 

Leachii (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 1841, p. 312. 

= N. virginea, Linn. ........ 40 

Lecontei (Neritina), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1853, p. 257, 

. pi. 8, f. 3, 74 

Le Guillouana (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 1842, p. 178. 

= N. undata, Linn 28 

Lenormandi (Neritina), Gassies. Journ. C^onch., xviii, 1870, 

p. 150. = N. Petitii, Recluz, 58 

Lentiginosa (Neritina), Rve. Conch. Icon., ix, pi. 25, f. 110, iid 
Lentiginosa (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 9, 1856. 

== N. Janellei. Reel, (juv.) 80 

Lessoni (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 1841, j). 311, . . 72 
Leucorhynchia, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 319, 1867, . 15, 106 
Leymeria, Munier-Chalmas, 1884. 

=- Dejanira, Stol. ........ 9 

Lifouana (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., 1878, p. 343, 75 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



135 



n, 



VI, 2, p 



p. 2 



Lifuensis (Neritina), Angas. P. Z. S., 1860, p. 36, 

Limosa (Xeritiiia Jordani, var.), Recluz. P. Z. S. 121, 1845. 

= N. varia, Ziegler, ...... 

Liiieata (Navicella), Lam. Encyc. Meth., pi. 356, f. 4, 
Lineata (Kerita), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab., vol. v, £ 19, 58, 

liJ59, 

Lineolata (Neritina) ? Lam. 8owb. Conch. 111., f. 37, Reeve, 

etc. = N. zebra, Bnig. 
Lineolata (Neritina), Lam. An. s. Vert, ed 

Apr. 1822. = N.-reclivata, Say. 
Liotia, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mas., 57", 89, 1842, . 
Liotina, JMunier-Chalmas, 1877, 
Liricincta (Vitrinella), Garrett. P. A. N. S., 1873 

2, f. 14, 

Lirulata (Vitrinella), Carp. jNIazat. Cat., 241, . 
Lissochilus, Petho. 1882, .... 
Listeri (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 71. 

= N. Afra, Sowb. ..... 

Listeri (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 277. 

=-- N. tessellata, Gmel. .... 

Listeri (Neritina), L. Pfr. Wiegmann's Arcliiv. f. Naturg. 

vi, 1840, S. 225. = N. virginea, Linn. 
Littoralis (Nerita), Linn. Fauna Seucise, ed. ii, 2195. 

= Neritina fluviatilis, Linn, var. 
Liturata- (Neritina), Eichwald. Bull. Soc. Imp. Moscou., 

p. 147, ........ 

Liturata (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 315. 

^^ Neritina gagates, Lam. ..... 

Liturata (Neritina), Schultze, in coll. 

= N. pupa, Linn. ...... 

Livesayi (Navicella), Dohrn. P. Z. S., 1858, p. 135. 

= N. reticuUita, Reeve, var. compressa, Martens. 
Livida (Navicella), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 13, 1856. 

= N. Borbonica, Bory. ..... 

Loculosa (Liotia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc, vii, p. 141, 
Lodderte (Liotia), Petterd. Jour, de Conch., iv, 135, 
Longii (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 178, 
Longispina (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 312 
Lucidum (Teinostoma), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

1863, 

Lucutosa (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1741, p. 317, 
Lugubris (Neritina), Philippi. Abbild, i, sp. 29, t. 1, f. 9 

= N. cai'iosa. Gray. ....... 

Lugubris (Neritina), Sowb. Thes., ii, p. 115, pi. Ill, f. 1 

= N. cariosa. Gray. ...... 

Lugubris (Neritina), Lesson. Voy. de la Coquille. Zool 

378. -= N. dubia, Chemn. .... 



PAGE. 

77 



82 

32 

37 
. 186, 

. 39 

17, 108 

17, 112 

3, pi 

101 

103 

5 

61 

24 

40 

46 

47 

35 

42 

82 

78 

112 

112 

21 

63 

104 
71 

75 

75 

44 



1837 



267 



71. 



11, p 



136 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PACE. 

Lugubris (? Neritina), Lam. An, s. Vert., ed. i, vi, 2, p. 185. 

= N. turrita, Chcnin. ........ 37 

Lugubris (Neritina), Lam. Sowb. Conch. 111., no. 8, f. 38. 

= N. Turtoni, Recluz. 38 

Lurida (Neritina), Jan. Catal. Conch. Sect. 2, 1832, p. 8, . 54 
Lutea (Navicella), Martens, in Conch. Cab., p. 30, t. 6, f. 1-4, 80 
Luteofasciata (Neritina picta, SoAvb., var.) Miller. Mai. Blatt, 

1879, p. 1(38, 41 

Lutesta (Neritina), Morelet, ms. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 137. 

=^. N. elongatula, Morelet. ....... 48 

Lutescens (Neritina), INIiihlf. Sowb. Conch. 111., no. 46, f. 56. 

= N. varia, Ziegler. ........ 48 

Lutetianus (Theodoxus), Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, p. 

351. = Neritina fluviatilis, Linn. . . . . .47 

Luzonica (Navicella), Sonleyet. Rev. Zool., 1841, ji. 375, . 79 
Lyosoma, White, 1882. = Otostoma, d'Arch. . . .5 

Macgillivravi (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, Neritina, 

pi. 4, f. 16, 62 

Maclurea, Lesueur. Jour. Philad. Acad., i, pt. 2, 312, 1818, . 11 
Maculata (Nerita), Pease. Am. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 24, pi. 

24, f. 6, . . . . 23 

Maculata (Neritina), Villa. In collections. 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn. 

Macrii (Neritina), Recluz, nis. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 531, 

pi. 116, f. 222. . . . . . . . . ^ ^. 52 

Macrocephala (Navicella), (Le Guillou), vSowb. Thes., p. 547, 

f. 4, 5. = N. Bougainvillei, Reel 80 

Macrocephala (Navicella), Guillou. Recluz, Rev. Zool., 1841, 

p. 374, 79 

Maculifera (Navicella), Mousson. Land und Siiss-wasser, Moll. 

Java, p. 85, t. 12, f. 13. = N. tessellata. Lam. . . . 82 
Madecassina (Neritina), Morelet. Series Conch., ii, 1860, p. 122, 

pi. 6, f. 2, . . . . 64 

Malacensis ( Nerita), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., xi, ii, 193. 

= N. exuvia, Linn. ........ 19 

Manoeli (Neritina), Dohrn. Mai. Blatt, xiii, p. 135, . . 54 
Mantuana (Neritina), Porro. Betta, Mai. Veneta, 1870, p. 102. 

= N. Danubialis, JMiihlf., var. serratilinea, Ziegl. . . 46 

Marchei (Cyclostrema), Jousseaume. Rev. Zool., 1872, p. 391, 

pi. xix, f. 3, . . . . . . , . . .88 

Marchionata (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, pi. 3, f. 12, 62 
Maresi (Neritina), Bourg. INIal. de I'Algerie, ii, 1864, p. 271, pi. 

16, f. 293. = N. meridionalis, PhiL 48 

Marginata (Nerita), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3678. 

?= N. alhicilla, Linn 19 

Marginata (Neritina), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. an Pole Sud. 

Zool., V, 1854, p. 67, pi. 17, f. 22, 23. 

= N. Tahiteusis, Less. 73 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 137 

PAGE. 

MarisrubriB (Nerita), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab., v. 304. 

= N. quadricolor, Gmelin. ....... 29 

Marmorata (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 67, 1855. 

=: N. albicilla, Linn. . . , 19 

Marmorata (Neritina), Brazier. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ii, p. 22, 74 
Marmorata (Nerita), Hombr. et Jacq. Vov. Pole Sud. Moll., t. 

16, f. 14-17. = N. undata, Linn. .* ... 28 

Maroccana (Neritina), Paladilhe. Rev. Zool., (iii) 3, 1875, p. 

95, pi. 6, f. 26-28, . ... . . . .54 

Marsigliana (Nerita), Hartnian. Sturm Deutschl. Fauna, vi, 

pt. 5, 8, 57. = Neritina Danubialis, jMiihlf. . . .45 
Matoni (Vitta), (Reel.) Morcli. Cat. Yoldi., p. 167. 

=^ Neritina virginea, Linn. ....... 40 

Matonia (Neritina), Risso. Hist. Nat. Europ. Mer.,iv, p. 271, 56 
Maura (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 179. 

= semirugosa, Recluz. . . . . . . .21 

Mauritii (Neritina), Les.sou. Vov. de la Coquille, Zool., ii, p. 

384, 1830, . . , . ' 75 

Mauritiana (Neritina), Morelet. Jour, de Conch., 1867, p. 440,. 63 
Maxima (Nerita), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3683, . . .31 

Megastoma (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad. Monog. Vit., 7, 1850, . 103 
Melaleuca (Nerita), Martens. Mai. Bliitt, vii, I860, p. 52. 

= N. pica, Gould. ........ 34 

Melanotragus (Nerita), E. A. Smith. Zool. Alert, p. 69, 1884. 

= N. atrata. Reeve 26 

Melanolenca (Neritina), Kiist, Conch. Cab., t. 3, f. 13-15, 1863. 

= N. Peloponnesia. Recli:z. ...... 50 

Melanostoma (Neritina), Troschel. Archiv. f. Naturg., 1837, 

p. 179. = N. crepidularia. Lam. . . . . .77 

Meleagris (Neritina), Lam. An. s. Vert. ed. I, vi, 2, p. 187. 

=^ N. virginea, Linn. ........ 40 

Menkeana (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 183, . 72 
Meridionalis (Neritina), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, 1836, p. 

159, t. 9, f. 13, 48 

Meridionalis (Neritina), (Phil.) Martens. Mai. Bliltt, xxi, 

1857, p. 136, 158. = N. fluviatilis, Linn. . . .47, 52 
Mertoniana (Nerita), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1843, p. 71. 

=: Neritina Ualanensis, Less. ...... 41 

Mesopotamica (Neritina), INIousson. Jour, de Conch., xxii, 1874, 
Mesopotamica (Neritina Anatolica, var.). Martens. Vorder- 

asiat. Conch., 1873, p. 33, t. 5, f. 42. 

= N. Mesopotamica, Mousson. ...... 52 

Magnihca (Navicella), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 16, 1856. 

= N. macrocei)hala, Guillou. ...... 79 

Micans (Cyclostrema), A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1850, p. 44, , 88, 95 
Michaudi (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool, 1841, p. 315. 

;= Neritina retifera, Bens. ....... 71 



138 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Michonii (Neritina), Boiirg. Test. Novis?. 1852, p. 25. 

= N. Macrii, Recluz. ........ 52 

Micra (Cyclostrenia), Petterd. Journ. de Conch., iv, p. 139, . 95 
Micra (Cyelostreina), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Rov. Soc. Tasma- 
nia, 1876, p. 147, " . . .95 

Micronesica (Nerita undata, var.), Martens. Kiistei-'s Conch. 

Cab.. 35, 28 

Microstoma (Neritina), Orb. Sagra, Hist. Cuba, v, p. 177, pi. 

17, f. 32. = N. reclivata, Say. 39 

Microtheca, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xi, 264, 

1863, 16, 106 

Miliacea (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 316. 

= Neritina Matonia, Risso. . . . . . .56 

Militaris (Cyclostrema), Jousseaume. Guerin's Mag. de Zool., 

1872, p. 394, pi. 19, f. 6, 90 

Minima (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 346, . . 77 
Minor (Neritina gagates. Lam. var.), Martens. Kiist., Conch. 

Cab., p. 94, t. 10, f. 18, 19 35 

Minuta (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad. Panam. Cat.. No. 261, . . 103 
Minutum (Cyclostrema), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

5 ser. xi, p. 395, pi. 16, f. 1, 96 

Mittreana (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 181. 

= N. tluviatilis, Linn., var. . . . . . .46 

Mitrula (Neritina), Menke. Syn. Moll, 48, 1830. 

= N. crepidularia, Lam. ....... 77 

Modesta (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad. Panam. Cat, No. 262, . . 103 
Modesta (Nerita), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Pole Bud,, t. 16, f. 5. 

6. = N. charna^leon, Linn. . . " . . . .20 

Modesta (Neritina), Kiister. Conch. Cab., t. 4, f. 23-26, 1863. 

= N. Danubialis, Miihlt. var. chrysostoma. . . .46 

Modestum (Cyclostrema), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc, vii, p. 148, 95 
Modicella (Neritina), Desh, in ^Maillard Notes sur I'ile Reunion 

Moll., p. 70, ])1. 10, f. 3, 4, 42 

Moluccensis (Neritina subpunctata, Recluz, var.j, Martens, 

Kiist., Conch. Cab., p. 180, 69 

Monile (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 240, . . . .102 
Monilifera (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 240, . . .103 
Monilifera (Neritina rugata, Reel., var.). Martens. Kiist., Conch. 

Cab., p. 164, t. 16, f. 27-29, 65 

Montacuti (Neritina), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 174. 

^= N. brevis])ina. Lam. ....... 65 

Montrouzieri (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., 1875, p. 228. 

= N. crepidularia, Lam. ....... 77 

Moquiniana (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850. p. 156, 

pi. 7, f. 9, ' . .35 

Morchia, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., v, 301, 1860, 16, 106 
Morchiana (Neritina), Dunker. Verb. Zool.-Bot. Gessell, 

Wien, 1866, p. 913, 43 



IKDEX AND SYKONYMY. 139 

I'AGE. 

Morchiana (iSTeritina), Frauenfeld. Reise Xavara, Moll., t. 2, 

f. 54. = N. retifera, Bens. ....... 71 

Moreleti (Morchia), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 1877, p. 202, pi. 

10, f. 1, . 106 

Moreletiana (Navicella), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., xiv, 1866, 

p. 52 ; Nouv. Caled., t. 8, f. 3, 82 

Morlieri (Teinostonia), Jouss. Guerin's Mag., 335, 1872, t. 18, 

f. 4, . . . .104 

Morio (Neritina), Deshayes, in Lam., An. s. vert. ed. 2, viii, 

p. 585. = N. cornea, Linn. ....'■ 45 
Morio (Neritina), Sowb. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 201, . . 26,33 
Morosa (Neritina), Gassies. Journ. Conch., 1870, p. 149, . 43 
Multijugis (Nerita), Menke. Zeit. Malak., 179. 1847. 

= N. scabricosta, Lam. ....... 30 

Multipicta (Neritina), IMousson in roll. =;N. Ualanensis, Less. 41 
Muricata (Delphinula), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Delphinula, sp. 

18,1843, 112 

Musiva (Neritina), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud. Zool., ii, 

p. 70, pi. 17, f. 42-44. := N. brevispina. Lam. . . 65 

Musiva (Nerita), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc, p. 238. 

= N. patula. Recluz 22 

Mutabilis (Heliciella), Costa. Microdoride ^lediterranea, ]j. 

62, t. X, f. 4, 5. = Cyclostrema Cutlerianum, Clark. . . 96 
Mutica (Neritina brevispina, Lam., var.), Sowb. Conch. 111., 

£ 80, 6o 



Nana (Navicella), Montr.ouzier. Jour, de Conch., xxvii, 1879 

]). 135. = N. Bougainvillei, Reel, (juv.) . 
Nanula (Adeorbis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., 245, 1801, 
Natalensis (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 75, . 
Nate re, Gray. Zool. Proc, 92, 1858. 

= Nerita. Adanson. ....... 

Naticoides(Vitrinella), Carp. ]Mazat. Cat., 246, . 
Naticopsis, M'Cov. Carb. Foss. Ireland, 1844, 

Navicella, Lam.' Phil. Zool., 1809 9,-77 

Navicellina (Neritina), Guillou. Rev. Zool., 1841, ]). 346. 

==; N. dilatata, Brod. ....... 

Navicula (Septaria), De Ferussac. Bull. Sc. Nat., x, 413, 1827 

= Navicella lineata, Lam. ...... 

Navicularis (Neritina), Morch. Catal. Coll., 1852, j). 164. 

= N. aciculata, jNIorch. . . . . 
Navigatoria (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 102. 

= N. Roissyana, Reel. ...... 

Nebulata (Nerita), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1844, p. 71. 

= Neritina Ualanensis, Less. ..... 

Neglecta (Neritina), Pease. P. Z. S., 1860, p. 435, 

Neridomus, Morris and Lycett. 1850, 

Neripteron, Lesson. Voy. Coquille, ii, 384, 1830, . . 8, 73 



80 
84 
35 

4 
103 

12 



76 

82 
74 
38 

41 

77 
9 





6 


7, 


54 


6, 


35 


6, 


35 




33 


, 


7 




7- 


6, 


44 



140 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Nerita, Adanson. Hist. Senegal, 188, 1757, . . . 4, 18^ 
Neritsea, Roth. Martens, Kiister's Concliylien Cab. Neritina 

16, 1879, 6 

Neritella (Humphrey 1797), Gray. 1847. 

= Neritina, Lam. ....... 

Neritilia, ^Martens. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1879, 

Neritina, Swains. ]Mah\coL, 347, 1840, 

Neritina, Lam. Phil. ZooL, 1809. . . . . .' 

Neritinoicles (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 21, 1855. 

= N. morio, Sowb. ....... 

Neritoconus, Kobelt. Cat. Eur. Binnenconch., 66, 1871, 
Neritodonta, Brusina. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell,, 1884, . 
Neritodryas, Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 1869, . . 
Neritoglobus, Kobelt. Cat. Euroj). Binnenconch., 67, 1871. 

= Theodoxus, Montf. ........ 7 

Neritoides (I^ithoglyphus), Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, 

426, 1880 ; Zool". Proc, 287, 1881 ; (Tanganyica) Crosse, 

Jour, de Conch., 126, 288, 1881. = Stanleva/ . . 7, 56 
Neritomu, Morris. Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc, v, 332, 1849, . 9 

Neritomopsis, Waagen. Pal. Indica, series xiii, p. lOfi, . . 12 
Neritona, Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 1869, ... 7, 62 

Neritopsis, Grateloup. Act. Soc. Linn. Bord., v, 129, 1832, 12, 82 
Neritopsoides (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 67, 1855. 

;= N. undata, Linn., var. ....... 29 

Nevilli (Cyclostrema). H. Ad. P. Z. S., 1868, p. 293, pi. 28, f. 

17, 90' 

Nigerrima (Nerita), Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, p. 309, pi. 192, 

f. 1985, 1986 • . 23, 26, 33 

Nigra (Nerita), (Quoy and Gaimard), Gray. Dieffenbach's 

New Zealand, vol. ii, p. 240, . . . . . .26 

Nigra (Nerita), CJhemnitz. Conch. Cab. 

= N. polita, Linn 26, 30 

Nigrescens (Neritina), Kutschig, ms. 

= N. Danubialis, JMiihlf., var. 46 

Nigris))inis (Clithon), Less. Voy. de la Coquille, p. 382. 

= .N. Souleyetaua, Reeluz. ...... 64 

Nigrita (Neritina), Ziegler. Reeluz, Journ. Conch., i, p. 149, 

1851. = N. meridionalis, Phil., var. . . . . .48 

Nigrita (Neritina), Ziegler in coll. Jan. Catal., 1830, p. 7. 

= N. anatolica, Reeluz. ....... 52 

Nigrobifasciata (Neritina Ualanensis, Lesson, var.). Martens. 

Kust.,p. 193, t. 20, f. 13-15, ...... 41 

Nigrocierulea (Neritina), Parreyss. In Anton, Yerzeich. d. 

Conch., 1839, p. 30. = N. meridionalis, Phil., var. . . 48. 
Nigrofasciata (Neritina picta, Sowb. var.). Miller. Mai. Bliitt, 

1879, p. 168, 

Nilotica (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 34, fig. 157, . 41 



INDICX AND SYNONYMY. 141 

I'AC.K. 

Nitens (Cyclostrema), Philippi. Enum. Moll. 8icil., ii, p. 146, 

pi. 25, f. 4, . . . . 97 

Nitida (Xerita Jordani var.), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1845, p. 121. 

^= Neritina Anatolica, Recluz, . . . . . .52 

Nitida (Neritina), Parreyss. Villa, Dysp. syst., 1841. 

= N. Anatolica, Recluz, ....... 52 

Nitida (Adeorbis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc, 43, 1350, . . .85 
Nitidiuscula (Ganesa), Jeffreys. P. Z. S., 1883, p. 94, pi. 19, 

f. 9, . . . . • 100 

Nivea (Cyclostrema), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Concb., t. 255, f. 

35, 36, ' 96 

Nivea (Delpbinula), Reeve. Concb. Icon. Delpbinula, sp, 26, 

1843. = Cyclostrema la?vis, Kiener. . . . .92 

Xivosa (Nerita), Rve. Concb. Icon., f. 66, 1855. 

? = N. tessellata, Gmel 24 

Nobilis (Xeritina), Cbenu. Man. Concb., 1859, i, p. 336, f. 

2452. = N. turrita, Cbemn 37 

Nodosa (Vitrinella\ Garrett. P. A. N. S. Pbila., 1873, p. 214, 

pL 21, f. 17, 101 

Nodosa (Vitrinella perparva, var.), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 243, . 103 
Nolani (Xeritina cornea, var.), Tryon, . . . . .45 

Nordquisti (Neritina), Westerl. Vegi^. Exped., iii, 21J,t. 5, 

f. 24, 1887 

Nouletiana (Neritina), Gassies. Fauna Concb. Terr, and Fluv. 

Nouv. Caledon., p. 104, pi. 8, f. 5, 41 

Nov?e-Caledoni?e (Nerita), Baird. Cruise of Curacoa, p. 439, 

pi. 38, f 12-13. = N. stricta, Baird, .... 35 

Novte-Caledonica (Neritina), Reeve. Colicb. Icon., ix, f 107. 

= N. Lecontei, Recluz, ....... 74 

Novae-Guinese (Nerita), Lesson. Petit. Journ. Concb., i, p. 

283. =:. N. undata, Linn 28 

Novse-Hibernise (Nerita), Lesson. Voy. Coquille, v, pt. i, p. 

371, 35 

Nubila (Neritina), Buscb. Pbil. Abbild., i, s. 30, t. 1, f 13. 

= N. Ualanensis, Less. ....... 41 

Nubila (Neritina), Martens. Mai. Bliitt., x, 1860, 

= N. retropicta. Martens, ....... 67 

Nucleolus (Neritina), Morelet. Jour, de Concb., 1869, p. 180, 

Test. Nov. Austral., 1857, p. 6. i= N. interrupta, Recluz, . 68 
Numidica (Neritina), Recluz. Rve. Zool., 1841, p. 343, . 50 

Nuttalli (Neritina), Recluz. Rve. Zool., 1841, p. 276, 

= N. cariosa. Gray. ........ 75 

Nux (Neritina) Brod. Zool. Proc, 201, 1832, 

? = N. Turtoni, Reel 38 



Obatra (Nerita), Recluz, Jour, de Concb., ii, p. 203, pi. v, f. 
4, 5. = N. maxima, Gmel. ..... 



ol 



142 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Oblonga (Navicella tessellata, Lam. var.), Martens. Kiist. p. 

38, t. 8, f. 1-3, 82 

Oblonga (Neritina virginea, L. var. ), Martens. Mai. Bliitt., 

xii, p. G3. = N. virginea, Linn. . . . . .40 

Obscura (Neritina), Dunker. Catal. von Godeffroy coll. 

= N. retropicta, Mat-tens, ....... 67 

Obscnra (Nerita), Honibr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrolabe et Ze- 

lee, V, p. 65, pi. 17, f. 1-2. :=: N. picea, Reclnz. . . 33 

Obscurata (Neritina), Reel. Rev. Zool., p. 183, 1842. 

= N. brevispina. Lam. ....... 65 

Obtusa (Neritiua), (Bens.) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 116. 

= N. retropicta. Martens. ....... 67 

Obtusa (Neritina), Benson. Jour. As. Soc., x, 1836, p. 749, . 43 
Obvoluta (Cyclostrema), A. Adams. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., 1860, . . . . • 106 

Octolyrata (Cyclostrema), Carpenter. P. Z. S., 1856, p. 169, . 99 
Odontostoma (Klein, 1758), Morch. Cat. Yoldi, 167, 1852, 5, 30 
Oleagina (Nerita), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 47. 

= N. Spengleriana, Reclnz 29 

Olivacea (Neritina), Wiegmann. ]\[us. Berlin. 

= N. reclivata. Say 39 

Olivacea (Neritina), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 172, . . 69 
Olivieri (Neritina), ]\rartens. Conch. Cab., 86. 

= N. anatolica, Reel., var. ....... 52 

Omalos (Discopsis), Folin. Fonds de la Mer., i, 190, 205, 

1860, 105 

Ouiatum (Cyclostrema Dalli, Verrill, var.), Verrill. Trans. 

Conn. Acad., iii, p. 255, pi. 32, f. 17, . . . . .97 
Onalaniensis (Neritina). Less. Voy. de la Coquille, ii, pt. I, p. 

379, 41 

Oncochilus, Petho. 1882. 9 

Orbella (Adeorbis), A, Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 245, 

1861, 83 

Orbicularis (Navicella), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 5, 1856. 

= N. suborbicularis, Sowb. ....... 81 

Orbignyana (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 108. 

= N. polita, Linn 30 

Orbignyi (Adeorbis), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., vi, 286, 1857, 86 
Orientalis (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 33. 

= N. cferulescens, Reel. ....... 82 

Orbis (Vitriuella), Carp. Mazat. Cat.. 247, . . . .103 

Ornatus (Catillus), Adams and Angas.- P. Z. S., 1864, p. 36. 

= Navicella Bougainvillei, Reel. . . . . .80 

Ornata (Nerita), Sowb. Gen. Shells, no. 10. 

= N. scabricosta, Lam. ....... 30 

Ornata (Neritina), C. B. Adams. Contr. to Conch., vii, 1850, 

p. 112, . . , 56 

Ornata (Vitrinella), Carp. Zool. Proc, 270, 1865. . . 103 



47 
10 
20 
54 

27 
5 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 143 

PAGE. 

Ornatella (Neritina), Moussou in coll. 

= N. Ualaueiisie, Less : . . 41 

Orsinii (Neritina), Pecchioli in coll. 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn., var. .... 

Orthoponia, Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, 
Oryzarum (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 178, 
Ossea (Neritina), Garrett, ms. = N. ruhida. Pease. 
Otaitensis (Nerita), Less. Voy. Coquille, ii, pt. 1, p. 370 

= N. plicata, Linn. ...... 

Otostoma, d'Archiac. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr.. xvi, 871, 1859, 
Ovalis (Neritina), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 507, i>l. 113, f. 

121, 122. = N. pulligera, Linn 57 

Oweniana (Neritina), Gray. In Wood, Ind. Test, suppl., n. f. 

8, . . '. .^ ■ . . 76 

Pacifica (Neritina cornuta, Rve., var.), Mousson. Jour, de 

Conch., 1870, p. 210, 58 

Pala (Navicella), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., xii, 1865, p, 189, 

201. ==: N. Frevcineti, Reel 80 

Pallida (Neritina),' Dunker. Mai. Bliitt, viii, p. 40, . . 50 
Pallidula (Nerita), Da Costa. Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., 

iv, p. 131, 271. = Neritina viridis, Linn. . . . .55 
Paulucciana (Neritina), Gassies. Jour. Conch., xviii, 1870, p. 

149, 55 

Paludosa (Neritina), Garrett, ms. 

= N. chlorostoma, Brod .66 

Palnise (Neritina reclivata, var.), Dall. Proc. Nat. Mus., 259, 

1885, 39 

Panamensis (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad. Panam. Cat., 238, . . 103 
Panavana (Neritina), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 70, . . 51 
Papillosa (Neritina), Jay. Cat. of Shells, 1839, pi. 4, f. 11. 

=: N. grauosa, Sowb. ........ 63 

Papuana (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 105, 1841. 

= N. undata, Linn 28 

Parcepicta (Neritina Ualanensis, Less., var.). Martens. Kiist., 

p. 193, t. 20, f. 20-24, 41 

Paria, Gray. P. Z. S., 1867, p. 997, . . . . 10, 80 
Parkeria, Gabb. Jour. Philad. Acad., 1880. 

= Pseudorotella, Fischer. ....... 

Parreyssi (Neritina), Villa. Dispos. Syst. Conch., 1841, p. 38 

and 60. = N. fluviatilis, Linn., var. . . . . .46 

Parva (Navicella), Mousson. Land und Siiss-wasser, Moll. 

Java, p. 119, t. 22. = N. macrocephala, Guillou. . . 79 
Parva (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad. Panam. Cat., 187, 316, . .101 
Parvula (Neritina), (Guillou.) Recluz. Jour. Conch., i, p. 148. 

= N. chlorostoma, Brod. ....... 66 

Patruelis (Adeorbis). A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., 245, 1861, . 84 
Patula (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool, 1841, p. 148, . . 22 



144 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGK. 

Paulla (Liotia), Pliil. Kiister's Conch. Cab. Delphin., 24, .112 
Paya (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., vii, 1858, p. 71. 

= N. interrupta, Recluz. ....... 68 

Peguen'sifc (Neritina), Bhxnf. Jour. Asiat. Soc, ii, p. 68, pi. 1, 

f. 1-16 .71 

Pellis-serpentis (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 83, 1855. 

= N. helicinoides. Reeve. .....'. 25 

Peloponnesia (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1851, p. 

49, 50 

Peloronta, Oken. Zool., 360, 1815, ... 4, 18, 24 

Peloronta (Nerita), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 778. . . 24 

Peltarion, Deplongchamps. Bull. Soc. Linn. Norm., iii, 153, 

1858. = Neritopsis, Grat. . . . . . .12 

PeniciUata (Neritella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 

vii, p.43, . . . .^ . . . . . . 73 

Pennata (Neritina), lioin. Index rerum Nat. Mus. Caes. Vin- 

dob., 1778, p. 42, 59 

Pentegoniostonia (Cvclostrema), Car^^enter. P. Z. S., 1856, p. 

169, . . '. .95 

Peronii (Liotiaj, Kiener. Coq. Viv. Monog. Delphinula, t. 3, 

f. 5, . 17, 108 

Perparva (XltrineUa), C. B. Ad. Panam. Cat., 187, 316; Carp. 

Mazat. Cat., 243, 103 

Perottetiana (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 337, . 53 
Per-striata (Neritina), Mousson, ms. Kiister, C^onch. Cab., 276. 

= N. cariosa. Gray. ........ 75 

Peruviana (Nerita), Phil. Abbild. p. 2, pi. 1, £ 4, 

= N. Yoldii, Recluz 27 

Peterseni (Cyclostrema), Friele. Vid. Forh., 1872. 

=^ C. trochoides, Jeffr. var. ...... 97 

Petholata (Neritina avellana. Reel, var.), Martens. Kiist., p. 

174, f. 7-11, .68 

Petichialis (Nerita), Morch. Yoldi Cat., 167, 1852. 

= N. reticulata, Karsten, ....... 22 

Petiti (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 373. 

= N. pulligera, Linn. var. . . . . . .57 

Petrettinia, Bourg. Foss. Dalniat. Lettres Mai., 50. 

^=- Neritodonta, Brusina. ....... 7 

Petteri (Neritina), Stentz. Porro. Cat. Conch, terr and fluv. 

Europ., 1839, p. 4. = N. fluviatilis, Linn. ... 47 

Pfeifferiana (Neritina), Reel. P. Z. S., 1843, p. 72, . . 72 

Phariana (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 75, . . 41 
Philippii (Cvclostrema), Issel. Mar. Rosso., p. 189, . . 91 
Philippii (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 341. 

= Neritina meridionalis, Phil. . . . . . .48 

Philippinarum (Neritina), Sowb. Conch. 111. no. 54, f. 53. 

= N. dvibia, Chemn. . . . . . . .44 

Pica (Nerita), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 43, 34 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 145 

PAGE, 

Picea (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 151, . . . 33 
Pictus (Adeoi'bis), Tenisou- Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1876, 

p. 146, 86 

Picta (Neritina), Sowb. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 201, ... 41 
Pictum (Sandalium), Schumacher. Essai d'un nouv. Syst., 

1817, p. 183. = Navicella suborbicularis, Sowb. . "^ .81 
Picturata (Navicella), Garrett. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 224, 

pi. 19, f. 13. = N. lineata, Lam 82 

Picturata (Xeritina), Jan. Rossmass. Icon., h. ii, 1835. 

^ N. varia, Ziegler. ........ 48 

Pihi, Klein. 1753, 4, 18, 27 

Pileolus (Neritina), Recluz. Journ. Conch., i, 1850, p. 65, pi. 

3, f. 3. = N. crepidularia. Lam. . . . . .77 

Pileolus (Cookson), Sowerbv. Genera of Shells, 1823, . . 11 
Pilula (Liotia), Bunker. Mai. BlJitt, vi, p. 226, . . 107, 112 
Piperina (Neritina), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab. bd. ix, 1795, }). 

173, t. 197, f. 1905, 1906. = Neritina pennata. Born. . 59 

Pisiformis (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 181. 

= Neritina chlorostoma, Brod. . . . . . . i5Q 

Plana (Adeorbis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc, 43, 1850, . . .83 
Planissima (Neritina), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., 1869, p. 378, 

pi. 15, f. 9, 62 

Planorbula (Adeorbis), A. Ad. Zool. Proc, 43, 1850, . . 85 
Planospira (Nerita), Anton Verzeieh., p. 30, 1839, . . .21 
Planospirata (Vitrinella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 246, . . 103 

Plexa (Nerita), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab., vol. v, p. 190, f. 1944, 

1945 19 

Plicata (Neritina), Gassies. Jour, de Conch., vii, 1858, p. 372. 

= N. interrupta, Recluz. ....... 68 

Plicata (Nerita), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 779, . . .27 
Plumata (Neritina), Menke. Syn. Moll., 1830, p. 39. 

= N. crepidularia. Lam. ....... 77 

Plumbea (Navicella), Sowb. In coll. 

= N. cffirulescens. Reel . 82 

Plumbea (Neritina), Reel. ms. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

538, pi. 112, f. 119, 120, 37 

Polita (Nerita), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 778, . . .30 
Politum (Teinostoma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc, 1854, . . . 103 
Polydelta (Neritina Ualanensis, Lesson, var.), Martens. Kiist., 

p. 193, f. 1-4, 7, 41 

Ponceliana (Vitrinella), Folin. Meleagrinicoles, p. 51, t. 5, f. 

7, 101 

P()rcata (Neritina), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, 

1847, p. 225, 60 

Porcellana (Navicella), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 372, 1841. 

= N. Borbonica, Bory. ...... 78, 79 

Porcellana (Patella), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, 1758, p. 781. 

= Navicella suborbicularis, Sowb. . . . . .81 

10 



146 IKDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Porcellna (Navicella), (L.) Gould. U. S. Expl. Exped. Moll., 

p. 156, f. 178. = iSI". depressa. Less 81 

PoiToi (J^eritina), Stabille. Fauna Helv., p. 46. 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn. 47 

Poucheti (Neritina), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud. 

Moll, p. 66, pi. 17, f. 11-13, 40 

Powisiana (Neritina), Recluz. Zool. Proc, 71, 1843. . . 59 
Pnecognita (Nerita), C. B. Adams, Ms. in Mus. Cuming. 

= N. fulgurans, Gmel. var. ...... 24 

Prevostiana (Neritina), Dupuy. INIoll. France, 549, 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn. ....... 46 

Prevostiana (Neritina), Partsch. Terver, Cat. Moll, du Nord. 

de 1' Afrique, p. 38. = N. Numidica, Reel. . . .50 
Pi-evostiana (Neritina), Partsch, Pfr., Land und Wasser- 

Schnecken, iii, 49, 1828, 49 

Prevostiana (Neritina) (Partsch ), Benoit. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 

1875, p. 162. = N. meridionalis, Phil 48 

Prevostianus (Theodoxus), Pax'tch. Issel. Moll, della Pur. 

Pisa., 1866. := Neritina fluviatilis, Linn. . . . .46 
Pritchardi (Neritina), Dohrn. P. Z. S., 1861, p. 206, pi. 26, 

f. 2, . 65 

Profunda (Navicella pala, Mousson, vai'.), Mousson, Cat. Mus. 

Godefli-oy, p. 97. 

= N. Freyeineti, Reel. var. compressa, Martens. . . 80 

Profundum (Cyclostrema), Friele. Jefl^reys, Zool. Proc, 91, 

1883. = C. basistriatum, Brugnone, . . . .96 

Prominula (xldeorbis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., 245, 1861, . 84 
Pro])inquus (Clithon), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., xvii, p. 

373, pi. 15, f. 8. = Neritina castanea, Hombr. et Jacq. 61, 67 

Proxima (Cvclostrema), Tryon, 98 

Pruinosa (Ganesa), Jeffreys. P. Z. S., 1884, p. 94, pi. 19, f. 8, 100 
Pseudorbis, Monterosato. Nom. Gen. e Spec. Conch. Med. p. 

109, 1884, 13, 87 

Pseudorotella, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., vi, 52, 1857, . 15, 105 
Psittacea (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, f. 33. 

= N. Freyeineti, Reel 80 

Puella (Neritella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 

43. ? = N. Rangiana, Recluz, ...... 55 

Pulchella (Nerita), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1842, p. 175. 

= Neritina Sowerbiana, Reel. ...... 67 

Pulchella (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 25. 

= N. tessellata, Lam 82 

Pulchella (Cyclostrema), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 225, 1860. 

= C. micans, A. Adams. ....... 88 

Pulchella (Neritina), Gray. Wood's Index Test. Suppl., t. 8, 

f. 18. = N. virginea, Linn. ...... 40 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



14< 



Pulchella (Neritiua), Morch. Vidensk. Meddelels Naturh. for 

Kjobeiihavn, 1872, p. 27. ^ N. Ualaneusis, Less. 
Pulcherriina (Septaria), Taj^iiarone-Cauefri, Ann. INIus. Gen 

ova, 1883, p. 85, 

Pulcherrima (Neritina), Mousson, Jouru. de Conch., vi, 1857 

p. 164. = N. ziczac, Sowb. var. .... 

Pulcherrima (Vitta), Angas. P. Z. S., 1871, p. 19, 96, pi. i, f. 

25. ;=: Neritina Sowerbiana, Montrouzier, 
Pulchra (Neritina), Sowb. Couch. 111., no. 57, f. 59. 

= N. variegata. Lesson, ...... 

Pulligera (Neritina), Quoy et Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool 

iii, p. 198, pi. 65, f. 6. = N. squamipicta, Recluz. 



Pulligera (Neritina), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. xii, p. 1253, 56, 57 
Punctata (Nerita), Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrolalje, iii, p. 185, pi 
Qr,, f. 41-42. ? = N1 undata, Linn., var. funiculata. . . 29 



Guerin's Mag. 387, t, 
In coll. 



41 
81 
36 
55 
36 
58 



Punctatum (Teinostoma), Jouss. Guerin's Mag. 337, t. 18, f. 

5, 1872, . _ . 
Punctifera (Neritina), Mousson. 

:^ N. subpunctata, Recluz. . 
Punctulata (Neritina), Lam. Encyc. Meth. ii, pi. 455, f. 2, 
Pupa (Neritina), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 378, 
Pu])a (Nerita), Pallas, Reisen d. verschied. Prov. d. Russ 

Reiches, vol. i, p. 345. = N. liturata, Eichwald. . . .47 
Puperita, Gray. Guide Moll. Brit. Mus., 137, 1857, . 6, 42 
Pura (Vitrinella), Garrett. P. A. N. S., Phila., 1873, p. 213, 

pi. 2, f. 13, 

Purpurata (Neritina), Parreyss, in coll. = N. fluviatilis, Linn. 
Purpurea (Nerita), Budginr. Mss. in Sowb., Cat. Tankerv. 

Coll., 1828, p. 45. = Neritina crepidularia. Lam. 
Pusilla (Neritina), C. B. Adams, Cont. to Conch., p. 112 
Pusilla (Natica), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, 141, t. 24, f. 13, 

1844. ^ Adeorbis subcarinatus, Montagu. 
Pusilla (Margarita), Jeffreys, Zool. Proc, 91, 1883. 

= Cvclostrema nitens, Phil. .... 

Pusilla"'(Neritina), C. B. Ad., Contrib. Conch., 112. 

= Calceolina. ....... 

Pustulata (Neritina), Parreyss, in coll. 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn., var. .... 

Pygmsea (Neritina), C. B. Adams, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 

ii, p. 7, ^ ■_ . 
Pyrenaica (Neritina fluviatilis, L. var.) Moq.-Tand., p. 549 



104 

69 
60 
42 



101 

47 

77 
77 

85 

97 

105 

47 

77 
46 



Quadricolor (Nerita), Gmel. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, p. 3684. 

= N. undata, Linn. ........ 29 

Quoyi (Navicella Urvillei, var.). Reel., Rev. Zool., 2841, p. 

378. = N. suborbicularis, Sowb. . . . . .81 



148 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Racliata (Liotia), Kieuer. Coq. Viv., Monog. Delphinula, 7, t. 

4, f. 9, Ill 

Radiata (ISTavicella), Reeve. Couch. Syst., pi. 199, f. 7. 

= N. tessellata, Lam. . . . ' 81 

Radiata (Neritina), Lang. Jan. Conspect. Metli. Test., 10, \). 

7. = N. transversalis, Ziegler. ...... 47 

Radiatum (Teiuostoraa), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 267, 

1860, 103 

Radula (Nevitopsis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. xii, 1252, . . 82 
Radula, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840. = Neritopsis, Grat. 12 
Ramosa (Neritina), Meuscli. Morch, Cat. Yoldi, p. 166, 1852. 

:= N. ziezac, 8o\vb. ........ 36 

Rangiana (Xeritina), Reel. Rev, ZooL, 1841, p. 339, . . 55 
Rara (Neritiua), Dufo. Ann. d. Sci. Nat. (2) xiv, 1840, p. 

195, 62 

Rarispina (Neritina), Mousson. Land und Siiss-wasser, Moll. 

von Java, p. 83, t. 12, f. 5-6 ; t. 12, f. 12, . . . 69 

Rarisi)iua (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. ZooL, 1841, p. 311, . 72 

Rarispina (Neritina), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud, ZooL, 

V, p. 69, pi. 17, f. 36, 38. := N. Souleyetana, Recluz. . 64 

Reclivata (Neritina), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., iii, 

2, July 1822, p. 257, " . •. . . . 36, 37, 39, 60 
Recluzii (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 199, f. 6. 

= N. tessellata. Lam . . .81 

Recluziana (Neritina), Guillou. Rev. ZooL, 1841, p. 345. 

= N. Souleyetana, Reel. ....... 64 

Reeveiana (Cvclostrema), Hinds. Voy. Suli)hur., p. 52, pi. 

16, f. 17, \ . . . , 88 

Regularis (Vitriuella), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat., No. 266, . 103 
Reticularis (Neritina), Sowb. Conch. 111., no. 51, f. 44. 

= N. retifera, Bens. . . 71 

Reticulata (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, 1856, pi. 5, f. 

20. = N. tessellata. Lam 82 

Reticulata (Nerita), Karsten. Mus. Lesk., 296, 1789, . . 21 
Reticulata (Neritina), De Cristofori et Jan. Cat. Rev. Nat., 

1832, p. 7. = N. reclivata. Say., var. reticulata. . . 89 

Reticulata (Neritina), Sowb. Proc. ZooL Soc, 1832, p. 201 , . 42 
Reticulata (Nerita), Quoy et Gaimard. Voy. de I'Astrolabe, 

ZooL, iii, p. 193, pi. 65, f. 3, 4, =: Neritina dubia, Chemn. 44 
Retifera (Neritina), Benson. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, ii, 

1836, p. 749 71 

Retropicta (Neritina), Martens. Kiist. Conch. Cab., p. 169, t. 

17, f. 18-20, .' 67 

Retusa (Neritina), Morelet. Journ. de Conch., iv, 1853, p. 372, 

pL ii, f. 9, 10, 67 

Revnesiana (Neritina fluviatilis, L. var.) Paladilhe. Dubreuil, 
Cat. Moll. Terr, et fluv. de I'Herault, 1869, p. 73. 
= N. fluviatilis, Linn. ....... 46 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 149 

PAGE. 
105 



Rhinoceras (Teinostoma), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. France 

1881, p. 184, 

Rhodocolpos (Neritina), Jan. Conspect. Meth. Test, 1830, p 

7. = N. fluviatilis, Linn., var. ..... 

Rhytidophora (Neritina), Tap-Canelri. Ann. IMus. Civ. Geuova 

xix, p. 76, t. 1, f. 5, 6, 7, 

Ringicula (Nerita), Philip. Zeitsch. f. MaL, 1851, p. 86, 
Ringens (Nerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 75. 

= N. plicata, Linn. ....... 

Ritena, Gray. Zool. Proc, 92, 1858. = Pila, Klein. . 
Rivula (Neritina), Horabr. et Jacq. Voy. Pole. Slid. Moll., 

p. 17, pi. 18, f. 27-29. = N. Roissyana, Recluz.. 
Rivalis (Neritina), Ziegler. Jan. Conspect. Meth. Test., 1830 

p. 7. = N. varia, Ziegler. ...... 

Romettensis (Tharsis), Seguenza. Graells, Desc. Esp. Nouv. etc. 

7, 1877 ; Jeffreys, Zool., Proc, 93, t. 19, f. 7, 1883, 
Roseotincta (Cyclostrema), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc, p. 737 

pi. 75, f. 27, 1871, 

Rossnitissleriana (Neritina), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1845, p. 119, 
Roissyana (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 338, 
Roissyi (Neritina), Recluz. Jour, de Conch. 1850, p. 151. 

= N. Roissyana, Reel. ...... 

Rostrata (Neritina), Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 151. 

= N. auriculata. Lam. ...... 

Rotundata (Neritina reclivata, Sav. var.). Martens. Mai. Bliitt 

xii, 1865, S. 61. " =N. reclivata, Say 

Rubella (Nerita), O. F. Miiller. Hist. Vermium, ii, p. 195 

= Neritina pulligera, Linn. ..... 

Rubricata (Neritina), Morelet. Series Conch., i, 1858, p. 30 

I>l:3,f.2, . _ . . . ^. 

Rubicunda (Neritina), Martens. Kiister Conch. Cab., p. 32, t 

6, f. 20-23 

Rubida (Neritina), Pease. Am. Journ. Condi., iii, 1867, p 

285, pi. 24, f -. 5 

Rudis (Nerita), Wood. Index Test. Suppl., t. 8, f. 13, 1828. 

= N. i-eticulata, Karsten. ...... 

Rudis (Nerita), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 285, t. 24, f. 4 

1867. = N. pica, Gould . 

Rugata (Nerita), (Reel.) Souleyet. Voy. de la Bonite, Zool. 

ii, p. 566, ])1. 34, f. 24-27. = Neritina subpunctata, Recluz 
Rugata (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool,, 1842, p. 75. 

= N. brevispina. Lam. ...... 

Ruginosa (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 310. 

= N. brevispina, Lam., var. ..... 

Rugosa (Nerita), Busch in Phil. Abbild., i. t. i, f. 4. 

=^ Neritina subjiunctata. Reel. ..... 



46 

66 
35 

27 
4 



48 

100 

93 
62 

38 

38 
73 
39 
57 
61 
73 
54 
22 
34 
69 
65 
65 
69 



150 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Rugulosum (Cyclostrema), (Jeffrey's Mss.), Sai's, Moll. Reg. 

Arct. Norv., p. 129, pi. 21, f. 1, 96 

Ruida (Neritiua), Mousson. Journ. Conch., vi, 1857, p. 162. 

^= N. squarrosa, Recluz. ....... 65 

Rumphii (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 147. 

= N. polita, var. ........ 31 

Sagittata (Neritina faba., Sowb. var.). Martens. Kiist., p. 176, 

t. 18, f. "14, 17, 68 

Saint-Siraonia, Bourg. Foss. Dalmat. Lettres, Mai., 50. 

= Neritodonta, Brusina. ....... 7 

Salatana (Neritina), Zelebor. In litt. 

= N. varia, Ziegler. ........ 48 

Salmacida (Neritina), Morelet. Jour, de Conch., 1879, p. 312, 

pi. xii, f. 5, 43 

Salonitana (Neritina), Lanza. In collections. 

— N. fluviatilis, Linn; 46 

Samoensis (Nerita), Dunker. Mai. Blatt, xviii, p. 167. 

= N. affinis. Reeve. ........ 34 

Sandalina (Neritina), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 76, . . 61 
Sandwichensis (Neritina), Deshayes. Conch. I'isle Reunion, 

p. 81, = N. Mauritii, Less 75 

Sandwichensis (Neritina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 82, 

= N. vespertiua, Nuttall 73 

Sandwichensis (Neritina), Deshayes. An. s. Vert., 2nd, ed., 

1838, p. 519. N. cariosa. Gray 75 

Sangara (Neritina), Morelet. Rev. Zool., 1848, p. 355. 

= N. Adansoniana, Recluz. ....... 40 

Sanguinea (Neritina), Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 513, pi. 114, 

f. 162, 58 

Sanguinolenta (Nerita), Menke. Verzeichn., 15, 1829. 

= N. albicilla, Linn 19 

Sanguisuga (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, pi. iv, f. 17. 

= N. macrocephala, Guillou. ...... 79 

Sardoa (Neritina), Menke. Syu. Moll., ed. ii, 1830. p. 49, 

140, 49 

Saturata (Nerita), Hutton. Proc. Linn. Soc, N. S. Wales, ix, 

p. 354. = N. atrata, Reeve 26 

Sauleyi (Neritina), Bourg. Test. Nov., p. 25, . . .54 

Savesi (Neritina), Gassies. Jour. de. Conch., 1878, f. 345. 

= N. cornea, Linn. ........ 45 

Savieana (Nerita), Recluz, Ms. Mus. Cuming, Conch. Icon., 

f. 37, 1855. = N. undata, Linn. ... . . .28 

Sayana (Neritina), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1843, p. 199, . 41 
Scaber (Adeorbis), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 129, 1848, ... 86 
Scabrella (Nerita), Phil. Zeitsch. f. Mai, 1848, p. 14, . . 35 
Scabrella (Nerita), Phil. Zeit. f. Mai., 14, 1849. 

= N. chamseleon, Linn. ....... 20 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 151 

PAGE 

Scabricosta (Nerita), Lam. An, s. Veit., vi, 2, ji. 194, 

1822, 29, 30 

Scabricosta (Nerita), Delessert. Rec. de Coq., t. 32, f. 6. 

= N. costata, Cliemn. ....... 27 

Scsevola, Gemmellaro. Bull. Soc. Sc. Palermo, xiii, 2, 1878, . 17 
Scalaroides (Liotia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., Sp. 11, 1843, . 108 

Scalpta (jSTerita), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 31, 1855. 

= N. tessellata, Gmel 24 

Scaphanidea, Rolle, 1862. = Neritopsis, Grat. . . .12 
Scarabeeus (Navicella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., ix, pi. 3, f. 12. 

= N. macrocephala, Guillou. . . . . . .79 

Schlaflii (Neritina), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., 1874, p. 49. 

:= N. crepidularia, Lara. ....... 77 

Schiragensis (Xeritina), Parreyss in coll. 

= N. pallida, Dunker. " 50 

Schiragensis (Neritina), Bourg. Issel, Moll. Miss. Ital. Pers., 

p. 24. = N. Anatolica, Recluz., var. . . . .52 

Schmeltziana (Nerita), Dunker. = N. maculata, Pse. . . 23 
Schmelziana (Navicella), Mousson. Jour, de Conch., xviii, 

1870, p. 227. = N. variabilis, Reel 81 

Schraumii (Cyclostrema), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., pi. 10, f. 

10, 1857, 89 

Schulzii (Neritina), Grimm. Kaspinskoe more fauna, ii, 1877, 

p. 77, t. 8, f. 16, 50 

Sculpta (Navicella), Martens. Kiist., Conch. Cab. p. 15, t. 2, 

f 5—8 79 

Sculptili's (Vitrinella), Garrett.' P. A. N. S. Phila., p. 213, pi. 

2, f. 15, 1873. = Cyclostrema Marchei, Jouss. . . 88 

Seguenzianus (Adeorbis), Tryon. . . . . . .84 

Semen (Neritina), Tap-Canefri. Ann. Mus. Genova vii, p. 

1031. = Souverbiana, Montr. . . . . . .55 

Semi-clathratula (Liotia), Schrenck. Amur-land Moll., p. 370, 109 
Semi-conica (Neritina), Lam. An. s. Vert., ed. I, vi, 2, p. 

187, 37, 38 

Seminuda (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad. Panam. Cat., No. 267, . 103 
Semirugosa (Nerita), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 102. . 
Semistriata (Pseudorotella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 61., t. 18, f. 

20-22, 105 

Semisulcata (Cyclostrema), Issel, Mar. Rosso, 287, t. 5, f. 6, . 99 
Senegalensis (Nerita), Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 3686, . . 22, 33 
Septai"ia, Fer., Essai d'une meth. etc. 1807. 

= Navicella, Lam. ........ 10 

Serpuloides (Helix), Montagu, Test. Brit., suppL, p. 147, t. 21, 

f. 3. = Cyclostrema divisa. Ad. . , . . .96 

Serratilinea (Neritina), Hohenacker., Bnil. Soc. imp. Moscou, 

1837, p. 147. = N. liturata, Eichwali. . . . ' . 47 



152 IXDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGK. 

Serratilinea (Neritina Dauubialis, var.), Ziegler, Jan, Couspec- 

Metli. Test. 1830, p. 7, 4() 

Serrulata (Nerita), Recluz, Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 76. 

= N. ziczac, Sowb., var. ....... 36 

Shandi (Liotia), Hutton, Cat. N. Z. Moll., p. 35. 

= ? juv. Turbo creniferus, Kiener. 112 

Showalteri (Neritina), Lea, Proc. Phil. Acad., 1861, p. 55, . 53 
Siderea (Liotia), Rve., Conch. Icon. s]i. 23, 
Sideria (Neritina) Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist ii, 1847, p 

228. = N. chlorostoma, Brod. . 
Signata (Nerita) Macleay, Lam., An. s. Vert., vi, Pt. 2, p. 175 

= N. reticulata, Karsten. ...... 

Simile (Cyclostrema) Jeffreys. P. Z. S. 1883, p. 92, pi. 19, f. 4^ 
Sinensis (Adeorbis) A. Adams, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1861, p 

305, 

Siquijorensis (Neritina) Recluz, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 198. 

= N. crepidularia, Lam. ....... 77 

Smaragdia, Issel, Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 212. 1869, . 7,54 

Smithiana (Stanleva), Bourg., Notic Lac Tanganyika, p. 88, 

1885, . . ' ^ 

Smithi (Neritina) Sowb., Conch. 111., fig. 36, . 
Sobrina (Nerita) Recluz., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 119. 

= Neritina zebra, Brus,-. .... 
Solida (Teinostoma), E. A. Smith, P. Z. S., p. 737 

1871, 

Solidissima (Neritina) Sowb., P. Z. S., 1849. 

-=- N. cariosa. Gray. ..... 

Solidula (Liotia) Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc, vii, p. 141, 
Solium (Neritina) Recluz, P. Z. S., 1845, p. 120. 

== N. olivacea, Reel. ....... 

Solomonensis (Neritina) Reeve, Conch. Icon., fig. 106. 

= N. porcata. Gould. ....... 

Souleyetana (Neritina), Recluz, Rev, Zool., 1842, . 
Souverbiana (Neritina) Monti'ouzier, Jour, de Conch, 1863. p 

75, 175, pi. 5, fig. 5, 

Sowerbiana (Neritina) Recluz, P. Z. S., 1842, p. 174, 
Sowerbii (Neritina) Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 89. 

= N. Sowerbiana, Reel. ...... 

Speciosa (Liotia), Angas. P. Z. S., p. 19, t. 1, f. 26, 1871. 
Spengleriana (Nerita), Recluz. P. Z. S., 1843, p. 201. 

= N. undata, Linn., var. 
Spharoides (Cvclostrema), S. Wood, Ann. Mag. p. 533, t. 5 

f. 3, 1842; Jeffreys, P. Z.S., p. 93, 1883, . 
Spinifera (Neritina), Recluz, Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 183. 

? :=: N. Diadema, Recluz. ...... 

Spinifera (Neritina), (Recluz), Sowb., Thes., ii, p. 526, pi. 110 

fig. 53, 54. = N. diadema, Reel. .... 



110 
66 

22 

98 

85 



56 
37 

37 

105 

75 

112 

70 

60 
64 

55 
67 

67 
110 

29 

98 

64 

64 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 153 

PACK. 

Spinifera (Neritina nucleolus, Morelet, var.) Martens. Kiist. 

Conch. Cab., p. 177, t. 16, fig. 4-6, . . _ . . . GS 
Spiniperda (Neritina), Morelet. Series Conch., ii, p. 121, pi. 6. 

fig. 8, 70 

Spinosa (Nerita), Wood. Suppl. Ind. Test. p. 25, pi. 8, fig. 12. 

= Neritina brevispina. Lam. ...... 65 

Spinosa (Neritina rarispina Mouss., var.) Mousson., Moll. 

Java, p. 84, . _ . 69 

Spinosa (Cyclostrema) Tenison- Woods, Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

1876, p. 147 ' . . . .95 

Spinosa (Neritina) (Budgin) Sowb., Cat. Coll. Tankerville, p. 

45, 1845, 63 

Spiralis (Neritina) Reeve, Conch. Icon., ix, t. 23, fig. 99. 

= N. obtusa, Benson. ........ 43 

Spiralis (Neritina) Martens (not Reeve), Kust. Conch. Cab., p. 

69. = N. sulculosa. Mart 60 

Spirula (Cyclostrema) A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 44, . .100 

Spiruloides (Vitrinella) Carp., P. Z. S., p. 169, 1856, . . 103 
Spuria (Monilea) Gould. = Liotia granulosa, Dunker. . 109 

Squama (Navicella) Mousson, Cat. ]\Ius. Godetfrov iv, 1869, p. 

28. = N. Bourgainvillei. Reel. . . . " . . .80 
Squamse^pina (Neritina) Mousson, in coll. 

= N. aculeata, Gmel. ........ 71 

Squamata (Navicella) Dohrn, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 135. 

= N. suborbicularis, Sowb. . . . . . .81 

Squamipicta (Neritina) (Recluz in mus. Cuming) Sowb., Thes., 

p. 513, . . .58 

Squamosa (Neritina) (Reel.) Sowb. Thes. ii, p. 527, pi. 119, 

fig. 26, 27. = N. squarrosa, Recluz. . . . . .65 

Squamulata (Nerita) Le Guillou, Rev. Zool. p. 344, 1841. 

= N, cham?eleon, Linn. ....... 20 

Squarrosa (Neritina) Recluz, P. Z. S., 1842, p. 173, . . 65 

Stanleva, Bourguignat, Notice Lac Tanganyika, p. 86, 1885, 7, 56 
Stella '(Nerita) Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., xi, pi. 197, fig. 1907, 

1908. r=3 N. chamaeleon, Linn .20 

Stellaris (Delphinula) Ads. and Reeve, A^oy. Samarang, t. 11, 

f. 7, . . . . 112 

Stenopoma Gray, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 998 10, 82 

Stragulata (Neritina Danubialis, Muhlf. var.) Muhlf.. Land und 

Wasser Schnecken, pt. 3, 1828, t. 8, f. 19, . . . .45 
Striata ( Rotella) d'Orb., Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 63, t. 18, f. 29-31, . 102 
Striata (Nerita) Chemn., Conch. Cab., v, p. 311, t. 192, f. 1992- 

1995. ;= N. versicolor, Gm. ...... 25 

Striata (Nerita) Chemn., Conch. Cab., v, p. 298, t. 191, f. 

1962-3. = N. tessellata, Gmel 24 

Striata (Nerita) BurroAv, Elera. Conch., p. 172, 1815. 

:= N. uudata, Linn. var. ....... 28 



154 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Striatella (Adeorbis) Montrouzier, Jour, de Couch., 1869, p. 

419, 83 

Striatus (Adeorbis) Chemu, ]Mauuel de Conch., i. p. 352. f. 

2589, 2590. = Circulus striatus, Phil 86 

Stricta (Nerita) Baird, Cruise of Curacoa, p. 438, jil. 38, fig. 

10, 11, 34 

Strigillata (Neritiua) Sowb., Couch. 111., No. 18, fig. 4. 

■=^ N. comuiuuis, Quoy et Gaim. . . . . .89 

Strigillata (Neritiua) Lam., An. s. Vert., ed. i, vi, p. 187. 

= N. turrita, Chemn. ....... 37 

Strigillata (Neritiua) (Lam.) Recluz, Jour, de Conch., i, p. 151. 

:= N. ziczac. (Lam.) Sowb. ....... 36 

Strigillatus (Clithon) Tapparone-Canefri, Zool. R. Freg. Mag- 
enta, Mai., p. 54, t. 1, fig. 6. = N. Donovana, Recluz. . 65 
Strigosa (Neritiua faba, Sowb. var.) Martens, Kiist. Couch. Cab., 

p. 176, . . . ■ 68 

Striolata (Nerita) Recluz, Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 337. 

= Neritiua reclivata. Say, var striolata 39 

Striolatum (Cyclostrema) Sars, Mss. 

= C. basistriatum, JefFr. ....... 96 

Striulata (? Liotia) Carp., Mazat. Cat., p. 248, . . . .112 

Studeriana (Neritiua Souleyetana, Reel, var.) Martens, Mon- 

atsb. Berlin, p. 284, 1877. ;= N. Souleyetana, Recluz. . 64 
Suavis (Neritiua) Gassies, Jour, de Couch., xxvii, 1879, p. 134, 56 
Subalata (Neritiua) Recluz, Rev. Zool., 1862, p. 269. 

= N. auriculata. Lam. ....... 73 

Subaugulata (Adeorbis) A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 76, . 85 

Subauriculata (Neritiua) Recluz in Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

510, fig. 138. =^ N. auriculata. Lam. . . . .73 

Subcaualis (Neritiua pulligera, Linn, var) Mousson, Jour, de 

Conch, xiii, 1865, p. 205, 57 

Subcariuatus (Adeorbis), Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 438, t. 7, f. 9, 85 
Subdisjuncta (Cyclostrema) H. Adams, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 293, 

pi. 28, f. 18, . . ^ 100 

Subexcavata (Cyclostrema) Tryon. . . . . . ,99 

Subgrauosa (Neritiua) Sowb., Conch. 111., fig. 14. 

= N. brevispina. Lam. ....... 65 

Subocellata (Neritiua) Martens, Schepmanu, Notes Leyden 

Mus., vii, 49, t. 4, f. 3, 1885. = N. olivaeea. Reel. . . 70 
Suborbicularis (Navicella) Sowerby, Cat. Taukerville Coll. 

1825, appendix x. ........ 81 

Subplauospira (Neritiua gagates. Lam. var.), ^Martens, Kiister. 

Couch. Cab., t. 13, fig. 8, . . . . . .35,82 

Subpuuctata (Neritiua) Recluz, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 199, . . 69 
Subquadrata (Vitriuella) Carp., Mazat. Cat., 241, . . 102 

Subrostrata (Navicella tessellata, Lam. var.) jNIartens, Kiist. 

Couch. Cab., p. 37, t. 7, figs. 16, 17, 81 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 155 

PAGE. 

Subrugata (Neritina) Baird, Cruise of Curacoa, p. 438, pi. 38, 

figs. 7-9. = N. brevispina, Lam. var. .... (io 

Subsinuata (Neritina) (Sowb.) Mousson, Jour, de Conch., xviii, 

p. 222. = jST. subsulcata, Sowb. . . . . .45 

Substriatum (Teinostoma) Carp., Mazat. Cat., 254, . 
Subsulcata (Neritina) Sowb., Conch. Conch. 111., fig. 50. 

= N. cornea, Linn. var. ...... 

Subthermalis (Neritina fluviatilis, Linn, var.) Bourg., Issel 

Moll. Miss. Ital. Persia, p. 23, 

Succinea (Neritina) Recluz, Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 343, 
Suflfreni (Navicella), Recluz, Rev. Zool, 1841, p. 374, 375. 

^ N. Freycineti, Reel. var. compressa. Martens. 
Sulcata (Neritina) Nyst, Recluz, Journ de Conch., i, p. 149. 

= N. aculeata, Gmel. . . 
Sulcata (Cyclostreraa) A. Adams, P. Z. S,, 1850, p. 44, 
Sulcata (Neritina pulligera. Lam. var.) Tenison-Woods, Proc 

Lin. Soc. N. S. W., 1878, p. 3, 

Sulcata (Nerita), Anton, Verzeichniss, 1839, p. 29. 

= Neritina cornea, Linn. ...... 

Sulcatum (Cyclostrema) Watson, Challenger Rept. p. 121, t. 8 

f. 11, . . . . • . . . . ^^ 
Sulculosa (Neritina) Martens, Kiister's Conch. Cab., 277, t. 8 

f. 23-26, 

Sumatrensis (Neritina), Sowb., Conch. 111., fig. 54. 

= N. variegata. Lesson. ...... 

Susonis (Cyclostrema) Tenison-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasma 

nia, 1876, p. 147, ' . 

Suturalis (Adeorbis), A. Ad., Ann. and Mag., p. 245, 1861, 
Syriaca (Neritina) Bourg., Cat. Raisonne Moll, Recueillies 

1853, p. 71, 



Tabernaculatus (Cimber) Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii, 1810, p. 82 

= Navicella Borbonica, Bory St. V. . 
Tahitensis (Neritina) Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., ii, p. 385, 
Tamsiana (Liotia), (Dunker) Phil., Kiister's Conch. Cab., Del- 

phin. 16, t. 5, f. 9, 

Tantilla (Liotia) A. Adams, P. Z. S., 1863. p. 72, . 
Tasmanica (Liotia) Tenison-Woods, Proc. Rov. Soc. Tasmania 

1875, p. 153, \ 

Tatei (Cvclostrema) Angas, P. Z. S., 1878, p. 862, pi. 54, f. 10 
Tenare, Gray. P. Z. S., 1858, p. 92. = Peloronta, Oken. 
Tenebricosa (Neritina) C. B. Adams, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N 

Y., 1852, p. 99. = N. virginea, Linn. ". . , 
Tenebrosa (Nerita) Recluz, Rev. Zool, 1842, p. 180, 
Tenerum (Cyclostrema) Jeffreys, P. Z. S., 1883, p. 91, pi 19, 

fiff. 2, . ' 98 



104 

45 

47 
54 

80 

71 

94 

57 
45 
94 
60 
36 

95 

87 

50 



78 
73 

112 
112 

112 

93 

4 

40 
35 



156 INDEX AND SYNONOMY. 

PAGE. 

Teinostoma, H. and A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll., 1, p. 122, 

1853, .15, 103 

Tenuiliratus (Adeorbis) E. A. Smith, Jour. Linn. 8oc., xii, 557, 

t. 30, f. 18, 1876, 86 

Tenuisculpta (Vitrinella) Carp, P. Z. S., p. 270, 1865, . . 103 
Tessellata (Navicella) Lam., Encvc Meth., pi. 456, fig. 4, 77, 81, 82 
Tessellata (Nerita) Gmel, Syst. Nat., p. 36, 85, . . . 24 
Tessellata (Neritina) Ziegler. Villa. Disp. Syst., 1841, p. 33. 

= N. raeridionalis, Phil. ....... 48 

Testudinea (Neritina) Honib. et Jacq., Vov au Pole Sud, p. 67, 

pi. 17, fig 14-16. = N. Iris, Mousson. ' . . . .58 
Textilis (Nerita) Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 3683. 

= N. plexa, Chemn. . . . . . . . .19 

Tharsis, Jeffi-evs, P. Z. S., 1883, p. 93, .... 14,100 

Theliostyla, :\Iorch, Cat. Yoldi, 167, 1852. 

= Nerita, Adanson. . . . . . . . .18 

Theodoxus, Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii, 351, 1810, ... 6 
Thermalis (Neritina) Boubee, Bull. d'Hist. Nat. France, 1833, 

p. 11, 12. = N. fluviatilis, Linn. var. . . . .46 

Thermophila (Neritina) Martens, Monatsb. Berlin Akad., 284, 

t. 1, f. 12, 1877 . . .66 

Ticinensis (Neritina) Villa, Dispos. Syst. Conch., p. 38, 60. 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn. ....... 47 

Tincta (Vitrinella) C. B. Ad., Monog. Vit., 8, 1850, . . 103 
Tigrina (Neritina) Benson, Jour. Asiat. Soc. Calcutta, v, 1836, 

p. 749. = N. Smithi, Sowb 37 

Tornata (Cvclostrema) A. Adams, Sowb., Thes., f. 13, . . 94 
Toraostoma, Desh., Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, Dec. 19, 1823, . . 9 
Tougaensis (Nerita) Homb. et Jacq., Voy. Pole Sud., t. 16, f. 

15-20. = N. striata. Burrow. . ." . . . .28 
Tourannensis (Nerita) Souleyet, Rev. Zool, 1842, p. 269. 

=1 Neritina crepidularia, Lam. ...... 77 

Trabalis (Vitta), (Lam.) Morch, Cat. Yoldi. p. 167. 

^ Neritina virginea, Linn. ...... 40 

Trachydomia, Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., ii, 1866, . 13 
Trachysma, Jeffreys, Sars, Moll. Arct. Norveg, 211, 1878. 

= Architsea, Costa. . . . . . . . .13 

Transversalis (Neritina) (Ziegler) Porro, Mai. Comasca, p. 107, 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn. . . . . . . .46 

Transversalis (Neritina) (Ziegler). Pfr., Deutsche Land und 

Wasser Schnecken, pt. iii, 1828, t. 8, figs. 13, 14, . . 47 

Triangularis (Neritina), Meusch. Morch., Cat. Yoldi, 1852, p. 

166. =: N. ziczac, Sowb., var. ...... 36 

Tricarinata (Cvclostrema) E. A. Smith, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 737, 

])1. 75, f. 26,' . : 93 

Tricarinata (Vitrinella) C. B. Ad., Panama. Cat., No. 268, . 103 



INDEX AND SYNONOMY. 157 

PAGE. 

Tricolor (Xerita) Gmel., ^ys-t. Xat., ed. xiii. 

=; N. vei-sicolor, Gm. ........ 25 

Tricolor (Neritina subpunctata; Reel, var.) Martens, Kiist. 

Conch. Cab., p. 180, fig. 19, 69 

Trifasciata (Neiatina) Menke, Syn. ]Moll. p. 84, 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn. ....... -17 

Trifasciata (Xeritina) (Menke) Villa, Dispos. Syst. Conch., p. 38. 

= X. fluviatilis, Linn. ....... 47 

Trifasciata (Neritina) (Menke), Reeve, Conch. Icon., fig. 147. 

= N. transversalis, Ziegler. ...... 47 

Trifasciata (Nerita obatra, Reel, var.) Montrouzier, Jour cle 

Conch., 2d ser. iv, 118. = N. maxima, Gmel. var. . . ol 
Trigonata (Vitrinella), Carp., Mazat. Cat., 244. 

^ V. exigua, C. B. Ad 103 

Triloba (Navieella Borbouica, var.) Martens, Kiister's Conch. 

Cab., 11, 78 

Tripaloia, Letourn. Bourg., Foss. Dalmat. Lettres Mai., 50. 

= Neritodonta, Brusina. ....... 7 

Triserialis (Neritina) Sowb., Conch. 111., fig. 60, . . .40 
Tristis (Nerita) Phil. Expl. ])1. 1st part of Kiister Conch. Cab. 

=^ Neritina Perottetiana, Recluz. . . . . .53 

Tristis (Neritina) Phil., Abbild., Nerita. I, Register. 

= N. cariosa. Gray. ........ 75 

Tristis (Neritina pupa, L., var.), d'Orb., Moll Cul)a, p. 176, <. 42 
Tristis (Neritina) (Orb.) Reeve, Conch. Icon., fig. 144. 

= N. chlorostonia, Brod. ....... 66 

Tritonensis (Neritina) Guillou, Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 345, . 69 

Trizona (Neritina) Ziegler, Kreglinger, Binnen-Conch., 321. 

== N. transversalis, Ziegler. ...... 47 

Troscheli (Neritina) Recluz, Jour, de Conch., i, 1850, p. 155, , 73 
Trochoides (Cyclostrema), Jeff., Friele, . . . . .97 

Trochoides (Cyclostrema) Verrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., 1880, 

p. 378. = C. Dalli, Verrill 97 

Trochula (Adeorbis) A. Adams, P. Z. >S., 1863, p. 75, . . 84 
Trojana (Neritina) Charpentier in coll. 

= N. Anatolica, Recluz, var. ...... 52 

Truueata (Navieella magnifica, Rve. var.) Mousson, Jour de 

Conch., xvii, 1869, p. 385. = N. macrocephala, Guillou. . 79 
Truncata ( Neritina) Sganzin Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Strasbourgh, 

iii, 2, 1843, p. 20, 62 

Tuberculosa (Liotia ?) d'Orb., Moll. Cuba, ii. 69, 1. 19, f. 28, 30, 99 

Tuhiola, A. Ad. P. Z. S. p. 71. 1864 14,95 

Turbida (Neritina) Morelet, Test. Novissima, Paris, 1849, p. 27, 

? = N. punctulata, Lam. ....... 60 

Turriculata (Neritina) Menke, Syu, Moll., ed. i, 1828, p. 27, 

84. =: N. virffinea, Linn. ....... 40 



158 IXDEX AND SYNONOMY. 

PAGE. 

Turns TNeritina Jordaui, Sowb. var.) Mousson, Naturf. Gesell, 
Zurich, vi, 1861, p. 62, ....... 51 

Turrita (Neritina) Chemn. Conch. Cab., ix, 1786, t. 124, fio-. 
1085, 37, 38 

Turtoui (Neritina) Recluz, P. Z. S. 1843, p. 71, . . . 38 

Ualanensis (Neritina) Less., Vo3\ de la Coquille, Zool., ii, p. 

379, . . _ 41 

Umlaasiana (Nerita) Krauss, Siid-Afr. Moll., p. 89, t. 5, f. 25. 

= N. polita, Linn, var. . . . . . . .31 

Undata (Nerita) Linn., Svst. Nat. x, p. 779, . . . .28 

Undata (Nerita) Gould, Wilkes Expl. Exp. Shells, 167. 

= N. striata, Burrow 28 

Undatus (Clithon) Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool., ii, 1830, 

p. 381, pi. 13, fig. 13. = Neritina sjiinosa, 8owb. . . 64 
Undulata (Nerita)" Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 36, 78. 

:= N. undata. Linn. ........ 28 

Undulata (Navicella Bougainvillei. Reel, var.) Mousson, Jour. 

de Conch., xiii, 1865, p. 206 80 

Unidentata (Nei'itina) Reel, Journ. de Conch., i, 1850, p. 158, 

pi. 7, fig. 8 72 

Unidentata (Nerita) Hombr. et Jacq., Voy. Astrolabe et Zelee, 

V, p. 66, pi. 17, f. 6-7, 22 

Urvillei (Navicella) Recluz, Rev. Zool. 378, 1841. 

= N. suborbicularis, Sowb. . . . . . .81 

Valentina (Neritina) Graells, Cat. Moll. Terr. Espana, p. 21, 

fig. 31-34. == N. Guadianensis, Morelet 49 

Valvatoides (Cvclostrema) Jeffreys, P. Z. S. 1883, p. 92, pi. 19, 

f. 3. . : . . , 98 

Valvatoides (Vitrinella), C. B. Ad., Panama Cat., No. 269, . 103 
Vanikorensis (Neritina) Hombr. et Jacq., Voy an Pole Sud., 

Moll., p. 68, pi. 17, figs, 30, 32. ^- N. Sandalina, Reel. . 61 
Varia (Neritina) Ziegler, Meuke, Svnops. Moll, 1828, p. 27, . 47 
Varia (Nerita) Meusch, Morch, Cat. Yoldi, 168. 

= N. tessellata, Gmel 24 

Variabilis (Neritina.) Hecart, Mem. Soc. Agri. Valenciennes, 

1833, p. 146. = N. fluviatilis, Linn 47 

Varial)ilis (Navicella) Recluz, P. Z. S., 1842, p. 155, . . 81 
Variabilis (Clithon), Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool., ii, p. 

383, t. ix, f. 14. = Neritina brevispina, Lam. . . .65 
Variabilis (Navicella) Reeve, Conch. Icon., fig. 8. 

= N. tessellata, Lam. ........ 81 

Varicosa (Liotia) Reeve, Conch. Icon., Delphinula, sp. 12, 1843, 108 
Variegata (Nerita) Chemn., Couch. Cab. 

= N. versicolor, Gmel. ....... 25 



INDEX AND SYNONOMY. 159 

PAGE. 

Variegata (Neritina) Lesson, Voy. de laCoquille, Zool.,ii, 1830, 

p. 378, 35 

Varius (Adeorbis) Hutton, Cat. Moll. N. Z., p. 35. 

= Fossarina, (Manual ix, 276.) ...... 86 

Veiascoi (Neritina) Graells, Cat. Moll. Terr. Espana 1846, p. 

20, figs. 25-30. =- N. Guadianensis, Morelet. . . .49 
Velatella, Meek, Geol. Surv. Terr., 499, 1872, ... 8, 49 
Velates, Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii, 354, 1810, ... 8 

Venosa (Neritina) Menke, Synops. Moll., ed. i, 1828, p. 26, 83. 

= N. pupa, Linn. ........ 42 

Venusta (Nerita) Dunker, Phil., Abbild. i, p. 86, t. 1, f. 11. 

= N. albicilla, Linn. ........ 19 

Versicolor (Nerita) Gmel, Syst. Nat., p. 3684, . . .25 

Vespertina (Neritina) Nuttall, Jay's Cat. of Shells, p. 68, 73, 74 
Vestita (Nerita) Souleyet, Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 269. 

? 3= Neritina dubia, Chenin. . . . . . .44 

Verreauxii (Adeorbis) Fischer, Jour, de Conch., vi, 171, 1857 91 
Vexillum (Nerita) Reeve, Conch. Icon., fig. 65, 1855, . . 34 
Vidovichii (Neritina) Sandri, in collections. 

= N. fluviatilis, Linn. ....... 46 

Vincentianas (Adeorbis) Angas, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 417, pi. 40, 

f. 9, . . . . _ 86 

Vinosa (Neritina) Mousson, in coll. 

= N, virginea, Linn. ........ 40 

Violacea (Neritina) Morelet, Desc. Moll. Terr, et fluv. Portugal, 

p. 92, fig. ]. := N. elongatula, Morelet. . . . .48 
Violacea (^Nerita) Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 3686. 

? = Neritina crepidularia. Lam. ...... 77 

Virginia (Cyclostrenia) Jouss., Guerin's Mag., 1872, t. 19, f. 2, 92 
Virginea (Neritina) Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 778, . 37, 39 

Viridis (Neritina) Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 778, . . 54, 56 
Viridissima (Neritina) Tap.-Canefri, Ann. Mus. Genova, ix, p. 

287. ? :=: N. Rangiana, Recluz. . . . . . .55 

Vitiana (Neritina olivacea, Recluz, var.) Mousson, Jour, de 

Conch., 1870, p. 223, 70 

Vitiana (Neritina Pritchardi, Dohru, var.) Mousson, Jour, de 

Conch., 1870, p. 219 . . 65 

Vitiensis(Navicella pala, Mouss. var.) Mousson, Jour.de Conch., 

xviii, p. 235. = N. Freycineti, Reel 80 

Vitiensis (Neritina) Mousson, Jour, de Conch, xiii, 1865, p. 

304; 1870, p. 218. = N. Roissyana, Reclnz. . . . 38 
Vitiensis (Nerita) Hombr. et Jacq., Voy Astrolabe et Zelee, v, 

p. 651, pi. 17, f. 3-5. = N. aflinis. Reeve 34 

Vitrinella, C. B. Adams, Monog. Vitrinella, 1850, ... 15 



Waigiensis (Neritina) Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool. ii, p 
379. = N. communis, Quoy Gaim. .... 



39 



160 INDEX AND SYNO^MOMY. 

PAGK. 

Wallacei (Xeritina) Dolira, P. Z. S., 1861, p. 206 ; pi. 26, fig. 1, 40 

Wallisiarum (Neritina) Recluz, Jour, de Couch, 1, p. 161, pi. 
vii, tigs. 11, 12. 1850. = N. variegata. Lesson. . . .36 

Wallisii (Neritina) Mousson, in coll. 

-- N. bicolor, Recluz. ........ 69 

Webbei (Neritina) Recluz, Jour, de Conch., t. 1850, p. 151. 

= N. glabiata, 8owb. ........ 56 

Weldii (Cyclostrenia) Tenison-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, 1876, p. 147, ........ 95 

Winteri (Nerita) Phil., Abbild, i, p. 86, t. 1, f. 10, . . . 25 

Xauthostigma (Neritina ziczac, Sowb. var.) ^Martens, Kiist. 
Conch. Cab., p. 101, 36 

Yoldii (Nerita) Recluz, Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 151, . . . 27 

Zebra (Neritina) Troschel, Gebiss der 8chnecken, p. 177, t. 16, 

tig. 11. = N. communis, Quoy et Gaim. . . . .39 
Zebra (Neritina) (Lam.) Krauss, Siid-afr. Moll. p. 88. 

= N. Natalensis, Reeve. ....... 35 

Zebra (Neritina) Brug., Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 

1799, p. 126, . . . . . . . _ . .37 

Zebra (Navicella) Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, Zool., ii, p. 386. 

= N. depressa. Lesson. . . . . . . .178 

Zebrina (Neritina), Recluz, Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 341. 

^ N. fluviatilis, Linn. var. . . . . . • . -16 

Zebroides (Nerita), Lesson, in coll. = Neritina dubia, Chemn. 44 
Zelandica (Nerita) Recluz, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 120. 

= Neritina Turtoni, Reel 38 

Ziczac (Neritina) Sowb. (et Auct.) Thes. Conch., f. 105, 106, . 36 
Zigzag (Neritina) Lam, (not of authors). An. s. vert, viii, p. 

570. ? = N. reclivata. Say 39 

Zigzag (Neritina) Morelet, Series C*Dnch., ii, p. 120, 

= N. gagates, Lam. ........ 35 



MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 

t 

Vol. X, Part Second. 



MONOGRAPHS OF THE TURBINIDiE AND 
TROCHIDiE, 

BY H. A. PILSBRY, 

Conservator of the Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences 

of Philadelphia. 



Family TURBINIDjE. 



Animal with an oval, broad or narrow foot, truncated anteriorly; 
rostrum rather short, truncate; tentacles long, slender, cylindrical, 
the eyes on peduncles at their exterior bases. Across the front of the 
head, between the tentacles extends the more or less developed 
"veil" ; and from a point below the tentacles, a fleshy ridge, the 
"epipodial line" extends backward parallel with the margins of the 
foot, and bearing usually several slender cirrhi on either side. 

Radula rhipidoglossate, usually with the formula go 'b'Vb'oo , but 
sometimes lacking the median and one outer lateral tooth. The 
lateral teeth are all of nearly the same form ; so that a transverse 
row of teeth shows only three distinct forms. Jaws usually present. 

Shell turbinate or trochiform, generally solid, smooth or rugulose; 
aperture circular, oval or subtetragonal ; peristome simj^le. Oper- 
culum calcareous, heavy, flat or concave with a thin corneous layer 
internally, convex and calcareous externally, the nucleus multispiral 
and either subcentral or at the margin. 

The nervous system is chiastoneurous ; ( i. e. the viceral nervous 
loop surrounding the intestine is thrown into a figure 8 form — the 
right cord passing above the left — by that torsion of the viceral mass 
which brings the outlet of the digestive tract to the right side of the 
neck.) 

The Turbinidce are mostly litoral in station, and inhabitants of 
tropical and subtroj^ical seas. They are herbivorous. 
11 (161) 



162 TURBINID.E. 

Dr. Paul Fischer, in his excellent Manuel de Conchyliologie, divi- 
des the TurhinicUc into three subfamilies, defined as follows : 

" I, Phasianellince — shell not nacreous ; II, Turbinince — shell na- 
creous ; outer surface of operculum with few whorls ; III, Cydonem- 
atince, — shell nacreous, outer surface of operculum conical, elevated, 
scalariform, with very numerous whorls." 

The last group, embracing Cydonema Hall, Oriostovta Munier- 
Chalmas, and other exclusively fossil genera will not be further 
considered here. 

Contrary to the usual custom, the more aberrant subfamily, Phas- 
ia?ie^Zwice, will be considered before taking up the Turbinince; this 
course being less objectionable than the unnatural sequence of groups 
which would result from interpolating the Phasianella? between the 
Turbines and the Trochids. 

Subfamily Phasianellin.e. 

Shell bulimiform or subglobose, polished, without epidermis or na- 
cre, variegated with bright colors; operculum heavy, calcareous, inter- 
nally paucispiral, with nucleus near the basal margin, extei'nally 
convex, white; animal with long tentacles, and usually pectinated 
head lobes ; epijwdial line generally with cirrhi ; branchial plume 
long ; foot narrow, long, pointed posteriorly, rounded before, beloAV 
divided longitudinally by a median groove; jaws rhomboidal, cov- 
ered with imbricating scales. Radula rather short ; formula of teeth 
typically oo "S'l'S" oo, but sometimes lacking the median and outer lat- 
eral teeth. 

The considerable diversity which has been observed in the denti- 
tion of the Phasianellince renders a brief review of our knowledge of 
that organ in the various groups desirable. Unfortunately the soft 
parts of i'HCosj/u'rt, Chromatis and Alcyna have not been observed ; 
and I have been unable to obtain specimens of them containing the 
animal. 

Phasianella{ty\)\^i•^i\). The radulaof P. a^/s^ra^ts has been figured 
by Eberhard. A transverse row of teeth forms a w- shaped line. 
The median tooth is wide, oval, a simple plate, without cusp, over- 
lying the bases of the inner laterals ; the lateral teeth (" Zwischen- 
platten " of Troschel) are of a rhomboidal form, and bear well de- 
veloped cusps with a long and several small denticles ; the outer 
(fifth) one is narrow ; marginals (" Seitenplatten ") with long 
sini{)le cusps, except the inner, which bears accessory small denticles 



TURBINID.E. 163 

at the base of the cusp. (PI. 61, fig. 1.) It is desirable that ad- 
ditional specimens be examined. 

Tricolia. The type species, P. speciosa, has a broad simple median 
tooth, overlying the bases of the inner laterals ; these are sub-rhom- 
boidal, produced at their outer angles into wings Avhich overlie the 
bases of the adjacent tooth outward, and have denticulate cusps. 
The outer lateral is narrow, not produced on the outer angle. The 
mai'giual teeth have long simple cusps, (pi. 60, fig. 72.) Troschel 
has figured the radulse of P. pulla, (pi. 61, fig. 2.) P. Kochii and 
P. capensis, all agreeing with P. speciosa. The following also I have 
found to be of the same type.; P. tenuis, P. umbilicata, P. comptci, 
P. affinis, P. fordicma. The jaws of the latter species are figured 
(pi. 60, fig. 69). Several of these species lack the outer lateral tooth, 
the formula being go" 4' 1. •4" oo . 

Orthomesus. In this group the median tooth is reduced to a lin- 
ear rudiment or wholly absent. The lateral teeth are of a squareish 
form, their outer angles scarcely or not at all " winged," and but 
slightly or not at all projecting over the adjacent tooth. They form 
straight rows across the middle of the membrane, not V-shaped, as 
in the preceding groups. In the typical species, P. variegata, the 
laterals bear long cusps, with minute sj^urs at their bases ; the inner 
marginals are very large, with enormous cusps, the outer ones with 
long denticulate or laciniate cusps (pi. 61, figs. 3, 4.) Troschel fig- 
ures this type of dentition for P. variegata, P. flammulata, Phil, and 
P. lineolata. I have found the same in P. nivosa Rve., (=P. varie- 
gata Lam.). In P. virgo Angas (pi. 60, fig. 70) I have found an ex- 
tremely peculiar and interesting modification of the Orthomesus type 
of dentition. The two inner lateral teeth are united by their inner 
edges, forming a pseudo-median tooth ; the free laterals remaining 
are three in number on either side, and are of the same form as the 
one shown in the figure. As in the smaller species of Tricolia, the 
narroAV outer (fifth) lateral has evidently been lost. The marginals 
all have long laciniate cusps. The lateral teeth have the basal plate 
projecting at the upper outer angle, forming a sort of hood, which 
reminds one of a similar structure in the median teeth of Littorina. 
This " hood," marked a in the figures, is probably homologous with 
the similarly mai'ked basal plate which projects above the cusps in 
P. variegata, etc. The reduction in number of the teeth in this form 
is probably due to the same cause which has, I believe, acted in the 
mure minute members of the Pulmonata and other groups which 



164 PHASIAKELLA. 

have nuinerous teeth ; if the individual teeth were reduced iu size in 
the proportion that the shell is, they would be too minute to fulfil 
their function as efficient rasps. 

The Phasianellinm have been monographed by 

Philippi, in Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet, 1853. 

Reeve, iu the Conchologia Iconica, 1862. 

Fischer, in Kiener's Coquilles Vivants, 1873. 

Sowerby, in the Thesaurus Conchyliorum, 1884. 

Philippi's work is perhaps the best; but lie describes many species 
characterized only by the color-pattern. Reeve unites all the 
smaller and more difficult species, and redescribes most of the larger 
several times. Fischer's work includes only a few species, but these 
are well described and beautifully figured. 
Ke%j to subgenera. 
Columella smooth, arcuate, not dentate, shell ovate, elongated, im- 
perforate; radula with median teeth. 

Large species; head with frontal lobes. . . Phasianella, 
Small species; head without frontal lobes. . . Tricolia. 

Shell as in Phasianella; radula without median teeth. Orthomesus. 
Shell subglobular, small, imperforate ; aj^erture large. Chromotis. 
Shell minute, globose, umbilicate. .... Eucosmia. 
Columella with a strong curved denticle. . . . Alcyna. 



Genus Phasianella Lam., 1804. 
Shell bulimiform or oval; columella smooth, concave. Type, 
P. australis Gmel. 

Eutroiyia (Leach) Gray is a synonym. 

Subgenus Phasianella s. str. 
Shell rather large, bulimiform, imperforate; epipodial line bearing 
cirrhi; head with pectinated frontal lobes. 

S. African and Australian Provinces. 

P. austealis Gmelin, 1788. PI. 37, figs. 22-28. PI. 38, fig. 46. 

Shell large, elongated, rather thin, pointed-ovate ; spire conical, 
elevated ; whorls 7-8, somewhat convex, slightly flattened below the 
sutures; aperture long-ovate, somewhat pyriform, usually less than 
half the total length of shell ; outer lip thin ; columella with more 
or less white shining callus ; surface " variously longitudinally cloud- 



PHASIANELLA. 165 

ed and transversely articulated with red and purple olive " on a 
23olished flesh-colored, cream or white ground. Alt. 50-100 mill. 

Tasmania; South Australia. 

The synonyms are Buccinum tritonis, etc., Chemnitz, P. tritonis, 
Auct., P. bulimoides and P. varia Lam., P. pida DeBlaiu, P. leh- 
manni and P. prelssi Mke., P. decorata Chenu. 

Specimens are frequently found exceeding the dimensions given 
above. The color pattern is extremely variable, as is shown by the 
figures. There is one form which is omitted in my illustrations ; it 
is of a pinkish-cream color, with rather distant, narrow, spiral white 
and deep red articulations. The form is either very elongated, or 
rather short ; it is always, however, longer and with much less convex 
whorls than P. ventricosa.^ 

Var. VENUSTA Reeve, 1862. PI. 37, fig. 24. 

Entire surface tessellated by revolving series of squarish red 
blotches. 

A variety is figured (PI. 37, fig. 26) which reverses the arrange- 
ment of colors in venusta. 

Var. SUBSANGUINEA Pilsbry, 1888. PL 38, fig. 52. 

Shell turreted, elongated ; painted with broad longitudinal irreg- 
ular deep red stripes ; aperture small. 

P. vENTRicosA Quoy et Gaim., 1833. PI. 38, figs. 39-43. 

Shell large, s.)lid, ovate ; spire conic, short ; whorls 6, very con- 
vex, except immediately below the deeply impressed sutures ; aper- 
ture ovate, acutely angular above, broadly rounded below, usually 
exceeding half the entire length of shell ; surface polished, light 
colored, variously marked with revolving series of arrow-shaped, 
square or oblong blotches, or longitudinally striped with white- 
edged pinkish-purple festoons, or broad crimson flammules. 

Alt. 40 mill. 

S. Australia; Tasmania. 

A deep water form. As noted under the last species, size and color 
are very variable. 

The synonyms are : P. sanguinea (figs. 40, 45) P. venosa (fig. 39) 
of Reeve ; P. perdix (Gray) Phil., P. turgida Phil., = P. brevis 
Mke. ; P. solida Desh., of Kiener, P. delessertii Chenu, and prob- 
ably P. ventricosa and P. inflata Swainson, and P. articulata Anton. 



166 PHASIANELLA. 

Var. ZEBRA Reeve, 1862. PL 38, fig. 43. 

" Obliquely, longitudinally, conspicuously, broadly banded with 
chestnut red and yellow, liueated with flesh-color." 

Swan River, Australia. 

Var. RETICULATA, Reeve 1862. PI. 38, fig. 42. 

" Closely undulately painted throughout with brown lines and 
with flesh-colored flames beneath the sutures." Shorter than the 
type. 

Sivan River and St. Vincent's Gulf, Atistralia. 

P. ^THiopicA Phil., 1853. PL 38, figs. 53. 54 ; PL 39, fig. 94. 

Pointed-ovate, thick, solid ; whorls 5-6, moderately convex, slop- 
ing below the sutures ; aperture about half the length of shell, ob- 
lique, ovate ; columella with heavy white or rosy callus, thickened 
and subdentate near posterior angle of aperture ; color, light brown 
or rose, with revolving series of arrow-shapeci or irregular flecks of 
lighter shade, or with longitudinal oblique light stripes extending 
downward to middle of body whorl, apex and base stained with rose 
color. Alt. 25-30 mill. Seychelles (Reeve) ; Austral ia( f) ; 

E. coast of Africa ; Zanzibar {Philippi). 

I am inclined to believe that this is the Helix solida of Born, 
(1780). The latter has been ignored by modern authors. On my 
plate 39a, fig. 8, one of the original figures given by Born is copied. 
Compare also P. unifascialis Kiener, which has somewhat the same 
color pattern as P. solida, and may be the same. 

P. HisTRio Reeve, 1862. PL 37, figs. 34, 35. 

" Shell conically turbinated, amber, flaked with white, spotted at 
the sutures with deep crimson-rose ; spire rather exserted, whorls 
rounded ; aperture small." Alt. 10 mill. 

Philippines ( Cuming.) 

" A very peculiarly marked species, the colors being of a delicate 
transparent kind, edged with brilliant crimson-rose." 

Reeve's description and figure are above copied. 

P. coTURNix (Koch) Philippi, 1853. PL 39a, fig. 17. 

This is a species of about 15 mill, alt., rather solid, very smooth 
and shining ; aperture ovate, with rather heavy columella and inner 
lip ; the color consists of a wliitish ground with yellow flames, which 
behind are bordered with dark and l)rown, and in front ai-e dift\ised 
in the clear ground-color, which here and there shows undulating 



PHASIANELLA. 167 

yellowish longitudinal lines. There is no trace whatever of spiral 
lines; and in this respect T. coturnix differs wholly from T. flammu- 
lata, a species otherwise very similar. 

Habitat unhioivn. 

All the information given by Philippi may be obtained from the 

above paragraph, and from the figure, which is a copy of the original 

Subgenus Tricolia Risso, 1826. 

Shell small ; head without frontal lobes. Type, P. speciosa Miihlf. 

A/l tropical and subtropical seas. 

I have included in this group most of the smaller species, although 
the characters of the animal have not been described in the larger 
number of them. The dentition in the type species, P. speciosa, is 
not very different from that of the typical species of Phasianella. 
The synonymy includes TrlcoUella Monts., 1884, type, P. pulla 
L., (not intermedia Sc. as stated by some authors), and Eudora 
Leach, 1852, type P. pulla L. Troschel wholly mistook the char- 
acters and limits of this group ; a fact which should be born in mind 
when studying his figures and descriptions. 

P. SPECIOSA Miihlf, 1824. PI. 37, figs. 29-33. 

Shell ovate-elongate, thin, shining, white, with alternate red and 
white short flammules below the sutures, and several revolving series 
of white spots, the interstices covered with fine pink or yellowish 
obliquely descending lines; whorls 5, convex, separated by deeply 
constricting sutures ; aperture long-oval, rather produced below, the 
posterior angle occupied by a heavy callus. Alt. 13, diam 6 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas: 

The following are synonyms : P. nica'ensis Risso, P. vieuxii Payr., 
P. ferussaci Guer-Men., and P. lymnceoides Anton. 

Var. RUBRA, Risso, 1826. PI. 37, fig. 32. 

Uniform carmine, with a series of subsutural white flammules. 

Var. sanguinea Monts. and var. purpurea Dautz., are synonyms. 

Var. MAJOR Monts., alt. 18 mill. ; lactea Monts., a white form ; 
ATRA ]\Ionts., brown in color ; marmorata Monts., with large zig- 
zag white flammules ; maculata Monts., an irregularly white macu- 
lated variety ; spiro-lineata Monts., fig. 30, are the principal color 
varieties. 

This species is found fossil in tlie Italian pliocene. 



168 PHASIANELLA. 

P. TENUIS Michaud, 1829. PL 39, figs. 77-80. 

Rather thin, shining, oval, elongated ; spire elevated, conic, com- 
posed of 4-5 somewhat convex whorls, separated by slightly im- 
pressed sutures ; aperture rounded oval ; columella arcuate ; color 
yellowish or rose, with red and white flammules and decurrent lines, 
sometimes punctate with red. Alt. 10 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic; rarely on the Atlantic coast of France. 

P. intermedia Scacchi is a synonym. 

Intermediate in form between speciosa and pnlla. The sutures 
are not so deeply impressed as in the first, and it is more eloiigated 
than the latter. It exhibits the same color varieties as P. speciosa. 

P. PULLA Linn., 1758. PL 38, figs. 56-60. 

Shell ovate-pointed, solid, subtranslucent, more or less elongate ; 
spire short, conic ; whorls about 4, more or less convex, with deep 
sutures ; aperture large, short oval ; color crimson, yellowish or 
white, above generally longitudinally flammulate with red, Avhite or 
deep brown, below with one or more revolving serrate bands of the 
same colors, and all over minutely punctate with red or with fine 
oblique reddish lines. Alt. 9 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas ; English coast ; Canaries and 
Azores. 

The following are synonyms : P. pidchella Recluz (PL 39«, fig. 
20), P. punctata Risso, P. tenius Phil., P. Jiammeus Von Salis, P. 
exigua (?) P. Hoherti and P. striata Brus., P. varians Leach, P. 
crassa Brus., Turbo pictiis DaCosta, and P. pullulus Anton. There 
are many color varieties ; but these are founded on such slight char- 
acters that they are scarcely worth naming. 

Var. ELONGATA Krauss, 1848. PL 39a, figs. 23-25. 

More elongated, last whorl more drawn out longitudinally, the 
penultimate one rather large and very convex ; coloration as in P. 
pulla, with bold subsutural flammules, and revolving bands below. 

Cape Region, S. Africa. 

Var. STRIGATA Phil., 1853. PL 39a, fig. 13. 

Shell elongated, with yellowish-white ground-color marked with 
narrow red lines, a subsutural series of brown flammules, and a sub- 
median girdle of diamond-shaped red blotches ; umbilicus marked 
by a slight fissure. Alt. 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



PHASIANELLA. 169 

Var. DUBiA Pilsbry. PI 38, %. 61. 

" Rather transparent, conspicuously distantly striped with deep 

purple-red ; whorls contracted round the upper part, then rounded ; 

aperture small." 

Mouth of Gaboon River, W. Africa. 

This is P. strigata Reeve, 1862. I have seen neither this form 

nor the preceding ; but they seem to me scarcely distinct from P. 

pulla. 

P. PETiTi Craven, 1882. PI. 39, figs. 84, 85. 

Shell very small, subrimate, shining, microscopically spirally stri- 
ate ; color corneous with irregular spots of reddish brown, except 
immediately below sutures, where they are replaced by a band of 
alternate oblique white, cream and reddish flaramules ; whorls 4?, 
very rapidly increasing ; apex obtuse ; aperture subcircular, colored 
inside, the same as outside ; columella a little thickened, white ; sut- 
ure deep. There is sometimes a band of large blotches on periphery. 

Alt. 3, diam. U mill. 

Mouth of Congo River, W. Africa. 

P. DEANiANA Pilsbry, 1888. PI. 64, figs. 40-43. 

Shell rather thin, ovate-conic, subtranslucent, coi-neous or orange- 
colored, marked with very distinct round or oval dots of deep crim- 
son, scattered over the surface or gathered around the base and 
suture, sometimes with large maculations of opaque white ; spire 
conic, apex acute ; whoi'ls 5, moderately convex, often obtusely an- 
gular and with a light or translucent girdle around the base ; aper- 
ture ovate, slightly less than half the total length of shell, showing 
the coloration inside ; columella thin ; genei*ally imperforate, some- 
times lacunate in large specimens. Alt. 5-6, diam. 3 2 mill. 

Corisco, W. Africa. 

This lovely little species is allied to the preceding, but differs in 
the longer, conic, acute spire, larger size, and the pattern of colora- 
tion. 

I am indebted to Rev. A. Dean, of Muncy, Pa., for numerous 
specimens. 

P. viTREA Desh., 1863. PI. 39, fig. 83. 

" Shell ovate-turbinate ; apex rather obtuse ; very smooth, shining, 
polished, diaphanous-white ; Avhorls 6, convex, the last large ; base 
obtuse, imperforate ; aperture ovate ; operculum white, solid, con- 
vex." Alt. 7, diam. 4 mill. 

Ins. Reunion. 



170 PHASIANELLA. 

P. CAPENsis Dunker, 1846. PL 39, figs. 86-88. 

Shell small, ovate-oblong, subacute, solid, usually brown or rosy 
with white flecks or zigzag lines, sometimes unicolored, or encircled 
by red spiral bands ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, sutures distinct, 
last whorl tumid; aperture rounded, half the length of shell; colu- 
mella white or tinted, flattened. Alt. 6, diam. 4 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope; Manritms. 

P. KocHi Phih, 1847. PI. 37, figs. 87, 38. 

Shell short-ovate, solid, with short conic spire; whorls 5, rapidly 
increasing, convex, the last large ; aperture large, roundly ovate ; 
columella flattened; color deep rose, sometimes yellow, above with 
light flammules radiating from the sutures, below with a revolving 
serrate light band, the entire surface minutely mottled with white 
and rose. Alt. 9 mill. 

South Africa; Mauritius; Poit Jackson, Australia (Angas.) 

The markings above described are occasionally obsolete. There 
are several flesh colored specimens before me. Fresh shells some- 
times show ill defined revolving stripe. It is extremely similar to 
P. pulla in coloration, but is more globose. Probably this species 
and P. capensis will prove to be identical, the latter name having 
priority. Both are, I believe, quite distinct from F. pmlla L. 

P. AFFiNis C. B. Adams, 1850. PI. 39, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell pointed ovate, elongate, rather thin, smooth, shining; spire 
conic, of about 5 rather convex whorls, separated by well impressed 
sutures ; apex acute, rose colored ; aperture oblique, oval, outer 
lip thin, translucent; columella with a white callus which is some- 
what distended at the slightly impressed and grooved sub-perforate 
or imperforate umbilical region ; color white, yellow or pale rose, 
more or less clouded longitudinally with rose, orange or brown, 
sometimes only with subsutural and peripheral series of short 
flammules, the entire surface closely and regularly punctate tvith pink 
or orange, and white. Alt. 8, diam 4 mill. 

West Indies ; Florida (Simpson). 

The synonyms are P. brevis C. B. Ad., and its synonym P. adanisi 
Phil., and P. concinna, C. B. Ad. 

P. TEssELLATA Poticz ct Michaud, 1838. PL 39, figs. 99, 100. 

Short solid, smooth, oval or ovate, spire conic, apex obtuse ; whorls 
4 to 5, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last large and obtusely 



PHASIANELLA. 171 

angulate at periphery ; sutures lightly impressed ; aperture oblique, 
ovate, outer and inner margins equally curved ; columella with a 
white callus; umbilical region excavated, and usually obviously 
perforated ; color white, yellow or reddish, longitudinally clouded 
with white, red or brown, sometimes broken into subsutural and 
peripheral series of flammules, encircled with close continuous narrow 
revolving obliquely descending, regularly sjxiced orange or red lines. 

Alt. 5? diam. 3^. mill. 

West Indies. 

P. minuta Anton (?), P. zehrina d'Orb. (figs. 99, 100.), and P. 
tesselata C. B. Ad. are synonyms. 

This species and the P. affinis are very abundant in many AVest 
Indian localities. They are usually associated together. Fresh 
specimens of both exhibit microscopic revolving impressed strije. 
Reeve, who has subdivided the larger species of this genus so minute- 
ly, "lumps" these forms, with most of the other small species, under 
P. pulla L. I have never seen a specimen among hundreds I have 
examined from the West Indies which could not be most readily 
separated from the Mediterranean shell. Indeed both affinis and 
tessellata exhibit a surprising uniformity in color-pattern and form. 
The dentition of affinis differs from that oi pulla. P. perforata Phil. 
I should be inclined to unite with tessellata were it not from the 
West Coast. , 

The P. concolor of Adams I have identified with a rather rare 
color-variety whicli generally, occurs with P. tessellata. It is extremely 
dark, almost unicolored ; but with a glass one can perceive still 
darker diagonal lines upon the surface. This form is figured on PI. 
45, fig. 1. The following description is from the original one of 
Adams : 

P. concolor C. B. Adams, 1850. 

Shell rather long ovate-conic; uniform glossy brown, rarely with 
a sutural band of a deeper shade of the same; surface polished, 
apex rather obtuse; sutures impressed ; spire with nearlj- rectilinear 
outlines; whorls 5, convex, the last subangular; aperture ovate; 
columella with a thick deposit, and witli an umbilical indentation. 

Alt. 2i mill. Jamaica. 

P. UMBiLicATA d'Orb., 1853. PI. 39, figs. 95, 3, 4. 

Shell ovate-conic, composed of 5 very convex whorls, separated 
by deeply impressed sutures, and encircled by rather coarse revoh - 



172 PHASIANELLA. 

iug impressed Hues; spire conic, the upper whorls sometimes carinate 
or biangulate from the prominence of one or more of the revolving 
strise; last whorl obscurely angular around the lower part, some- 
times rather acutely carinate above the periphery; aperture less 
than half the length of shell, rounded ovate, columella arched, 
scarcely thickened; umbilical region deeply grooved and narrowly 
umbilicate; color white, sparsely punctate with red, more or less 
flammulate longitudinally with red and white. Alt. 5 mill. 

Cuba; Florida. 

The revolving stride are entirely wanting on some individuals. 
There is great variation in the degree of exsertion of spire, some 
shells attaining a length nearly double that given above. 

The more stable characters of the shell are its narrow but decided 
umbilicus, and the very convex whorls. 

D'Orbigny described the smooth form of this species, as will lie 
seen by his diagnosis translated below: 

"Shell elongate, thin, smooth, umbilicate, punctate with red, 
maculate with red and white; spire elevated, apex acute, whorls 5, 
convex, separated, the last anteriorly subangulate ; aperture oval." 

P. PERFORATA Phil., 1848. PI. 38, fig. (32; PI. 39a, fig. 12. 

"Oblong-conoid, perforate, white, subtessellated with oblique pur- 
ple lines; suture and periphery ornamented with large maculations 
of white and purple; whorls deeply convex, last subangulate; aper- 
ture oblong ovate, equal to spire." 

Payta, Panama; Mazatlan. 

"This beautiful shell closely resembles the West Indian species- 
Like many of its congeners, it has parallel diagonal lines of red and 
brown. The first Avhorl of the five is discoidal. It is characterized 
by extremely minute wrinkling over the whole surface, only dis- 
cernable under the microscope when quite fresh. The umbilicus is 
very large when young, and sharply keeled ; when adult it is often 
nearly filled up by the callous labium. Operculum radiately 
wrinkled over a large part of the outer surface; within spire \)yo- 
duced, sharply keeled. The largest specimen measures: Alt. '13, 
diam. "12 in." {Carpenter.) 

My figure on plate 38 is a copy of that given by Reeve. On pi. 
39a, Philippi's figure is reproduced. 



PHASIANELLA. 173 

P. coMPTA Gould, 1857. PL 39, figs. 69-72. 

Small, pointed-oblong, somewhat solid, yellowish, pinkish or whit- 
ish, more or less clouded longitudinally with purple, dull pink or 
gray, marked with numerous narrow close revolving descending 
lines of purple, pink or drab, sometimes conspicuously flammulate 
below the sutures, and broadly transversely fasciate on base ; whorls 
5-6, closely coiled above, with shallow sutures, the last more rapidly 
descending, separated by a deep suture ; aperture usually less than 
half the length of shell, very oblique, short ovate, inner margin 
arcuate, umbilical region excavated and generally minutely perfo- 
rate. Alt. 8-12 mill. 

California. 

Radula similar to that of P. pul/a, but with only 4 lateral teeth 
on either side, by atrophy of the narrow outer one. Operculum 
white, inside stained Avith blue above. 

Var. FULLOiDES Cpr. 

Somewhat similar to P. pulla; solid, compact, with shorter spire ; 
suture distinct. 

Sta. Barbara ; Monterey ; Catalina Id. 

Var. ELATIOR Cpr. 

Very small, spire elongate, painted as in P. pulla; whorls sub- 
planulate, suture scarcely impressed, columella lacunate. 

Sta. Barbara, Cal. 

Var. PUNCTATA Cpr. 

Similar to P. compta ; more elevated ; sutures impressed ; whorls 
tumid, minutely punctate with brown ; columella lacunate. 

San Diego, Cal. 
P. FORDiANA Pilsbry, 1888. PI. 40, fig. 5. 

Shell minute, long-ovate or conoid, composed of 5 convex whorls 
separated by deep sutures ; aperture scarcely more than one-third 
the length of shell, rotund oval, angled above; outer lip thin ; col- 
umella scarcely callous ; umbilical region indented and in adult 
shells perforated; color Avhite, miv.utely dotted with pink or brown- 
ish, usually with a subsutural series of short alternate white and red 
or brown flammules, sometimes repeated on periphery. 

Alt. 3, diam. 2 mill. 

Singapore (Archer). 

This species has something the aspect of a Pissoa. 



174 PHASIANELLA. 

In old specimens the color pattern is very faint. The radula is 
that of Tricolia. Central teeth broad-oval, submembranous ; later- 
als 5-5, with very broad, expanded peduncles ; cusps short, armed 
with several large acute subequal denticles ; outer two laterals nar- 
row. Specimens are in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy, 
the U. S. National Museum, and the collection of Mr. John Ford of 
Philadelphia. 

P. HUTTOXi Pilsbry, 1888. Unfignred. 

Shell smooth, polished ; aperture rounded ; color bright glossy 
rose, generally with oblique white rays; w^horls 65. Alt. 6 mill. 

Auckland. 

Described by Hutton as Rissoa flammulata. This specific name 
is several times preoccupied in Phasianella. 

P. ROSEA Angas, 1867. PL 39, fig. 92. 

" Shell minute thin, shining, ovate, of a uniform deep rosy color 
throughout ; whorls 4, somewhat flattened at the upper part, then 
convex ; cohuiiella white ; edge and outer lip stained with a line of 
dark rose." {Angas.) Alt. 8, diara. 2 mill. 

Coodgee Bay, X. S. Wales; Tasmania. 

One of the specimens before me has a subsutural series of short 
white flammules. 

P. DELiCATULA Tenison-Woods. JJn.figured. 

" Minute, tumidly ovate, aperture longer than spire, smooth, shin- 
ing, polished, intense olive, with girdles of fine regular distant spotted 
white lines, and ornamented with broad flames of clouded chestnut 
proceeding from sutures ; aperture broadly ovate, columella white, 
conspicuously margined with a spotted olive line ; base convex, 
with punctate lines ; operculum bluish white." 

Alt. 3i, diam. 2 mill. , 

Long Bay, Tasmania. 

First named P. pidche/la Tenison-Woods, but changed on account 
of the preoccupation of that name. The author suggests that it 
may be a variety of P. rosea Angas. 

P. PYGM^A Phil., 1848. PI. 39a, fig. 15. 

"The shell is solid for its minute size, long-conoidal, perforate, 
smooth, shining, white, decorated with a few pale yellow flecks and 
numerous red jwints. The whorls, of which I count 5i, are almost 
cylindrical, and more deeply separated than in any other species ; 



PHASIANELLA. 175 

the upper ones are somewhat augulate, and the last scarcely exceeds 

one-third of the entire altitude. The ajjerture is nearly circular." 

Alt. 4 mill. 

Habitat unknoum. 

Phili])pi's description is translated above. 

P. GUTTATA Phil., 1853. PI. 39a, fig. 16. 

Shell ovate-conoid, imperforate, very smooth and shining, whorls 
very convex, rapidly increasing, the last over three-fifths the entire 
altitude ; aperture broad-ovate, nearly circular. One example is 
brown with green spots [" Tropfen "] Avhich are sometimes bordered 
on one side with dark broAvu ; in the other specimen the ground- 
color is brownish rose-red, and the "drops" have united into yellow- 
ish-white longitudinal flammules; the spire is brownish purple in 
both. Alt. 4 mill. Habitat %m.known. 

Description and figure are from Philippi. 

P. iNCONSPicuA Phil., 1853. PI. 39a, fig. 19. 

Shell ovate-conoid, j^^ffarate, very smooth and shining; whorls 
5?, very convex, and rapidly increasing, the last three-fifths of the 
total length ; spire conic, but apical whorl blunt, white ; the following- 
whorls reddish brown, with oblique white brown-bordered flammules 
above, apparently unicolored brown below, excepting a series of 
white flecks around the umbilicus, but upon close inspection showing 
very oblique brown lines as in P. minuta [= tessellata P. et M.] and 
P. perforata. Alt. 5 mill. Habitat unknown. 

From P. minuta and P. perforata it is distinguished by the more 
rapidly increasing whorls, etc; from P. guttata it is separated by the 
umbilical perforation. My description and figure are from Philippi. 

p. FULGEN8 (Koch) Phil, 1853. PI. 39a, fig. 18. 

"The shell is thin, imperforate, steeple-shaped, acute, smooth and 
very shining, unicolored olive brown. Only a narrow l)order on the 
columella is white. The 7 whorls of which it is composed are but 
slightly convex, especially above; the last attains almost half the 
altitude of the shell; the aperture is ovate, acute above." {Philippi.) 

Alt. 8, diam. 5 mill. West Coast of Australia. 

Very distinct, says Philippi, by the turreted form, the nearly 
plane whorls and the uniform coloration. I have not seen the 
species. 



176 PHASIANELLA. 

P. VARIABILIS Pease, 1860. PI. 39a, figs. 21, 22. 

"Shell small, thiu, ovate, shining; whorls 3-4, convexly rounded, 
marked with very fine oblique longitudinal stride; inner lip callous, 
slightly expanded at the base, indented at the umbilical region and 
with a groove behind the inner lip; aperture ovate; color white, 
variously painted with pink lines and blotches, the lines fine, oblique, 
extending over a portion of the whorls, sometimes flexuous and 
covering the whole surface; blotches of a longitudinal shape; 
periphery of last Avhorl usually ornamented with a row of pink 
spots." (Pease) Alt. 3, diam. 2 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

This is Collonia variabilis Pse. My figures are drawn from sjieci- 
mens received from Mr. Pease. 

P. BicARiNATA Duuker, 1846. PI. 39a, fig. 10. 

Shell small, somewhat solid, ovate-conic, rose colored, variegated 
with white, transversely lightly striate; Avhorls somewhat convex, 
the last obsoletely bicarinate. Alt. 4 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

P. MUNiERi Velain, 1877. PI. 39, figs. 89-91. 

Rather thick, white or slightly greenish, turbinate, short, spire 
slightly exserted ; whorls 4 very rapidly increasing, the upper ones 
narrow, rounded and convex, the last very large, rather flattened 
above, surface smooth or slightly irregularly striate above; aperture 
oblique, oval, sub-circular, columellar margin somewhat thickened 
and strongly concave ; operculum as usual in the genus. 

Alt. 3 mill. Ins. St. Paul 

P. brevis Velain (fig. 91) seems to me to be identical ; the name 
is preoccupied. This species seems to form a passage to Chromotis. 

Subgenus Chromotis A. Adams, 1863. 

Shell subglobose, auriform; spire very short; whorls few, rapidly 
increasing; aperture large, oval; operculum as in Phasianella. 

S. African Province. 
P. NERiTiNA Dunker, 1846. PI. 40, figs. 10, 11. 

Small, subglobose, smooth, rather solid, composed of about 3 
convex rapidly increasing volutions, the last descending toward 
ajjerture, and rather flat on the superior portion; aperture very 
oblicjue, large, two thirds the entire length of shell, roundly oval, 
outer lip thin, columella arched, flattened, with a rather heavy 



PHASIANELLA. 177 

white callus; umbilical region excavated ; color white, with numerous 
narrow red revolving, obliquely descending lines. 

Alt. 5, diam. 5 mill. Cape of Good Hope. 

Subgenus Eucosmia Carpenter, 1864. 

"Shell solid, shining, variegated, not nacreous; aperture and 
whorls rounded ; conspicuously umbilicated ; peritreme scarcely con- 
tinuous, not callous." type, E. variegata Carp, 

Californian Pro oince. 

No species of Eucosmia have been figured, and I have no speci- 
mens. My descriptions are taken from the original ones of 
Carpenter. 

P. VARIEGATA Carpenter, 1864. Unfigured. 

Shell small, smooth, turbinate, bi-ight, outlines of spire convex, 
variously maculated with rose color and reddish brown; whorls 
normally 4, very convex, rapidly increasing, the last one produced 
anteriorly, separated by well impressed sutures; nuclear whorls 
regular, apex marnmillated ; base rounded ; umbilicus carinated ; 
aperture scarcely indented by parietal margin, peristome nearly 
continuous, acute. Alt. '1, diam. '07 inch. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. Cal. 

Var. SUBSTRIATA Carpenter. 

Form as in E. variegata; but whorls, except the nuclear, very 
delicately striate, the last with about ten striae. 

As the name variegata is preoccupied in Phasianella, it would be 
better to use the varietal name, substriata, for this species. 

P. PUNCTATA Carpenter, 1864. Unfigured. 

Much larger, more elongated and narrower than E. variegata, 
and more like a Phasianella, the greater part densely punctate with 
brown; umbilicus small; Alt. '22, diam. -15 inch: 

Cape St. Lucas. 

P. CYCLOSTOMA Carpenter, 1864. Unfigured. 

Shell small, very obtuse, wide, regular, valvatoid, outlines of spire 
scarcely convex; pale cinereous, densely punctate or maculate with 
brownish olive ; apex pale, mammillated ; whorls normally 3, very 
convex, with deep sutures; aperture scarcely indented parietally ; 
umbilicus large, subspiral. Alt. -05, diam. -05 inch. 

12 Cape St. Lucas. 



178 PHASIANELLA. 

P. PHASIANELLA C. B. Ad., 1852. Unfigured. 

"Shell ovate-conoid ; color various, mostly red or browu, some- 
times uniform, frequently in dark flammules on a light ground, 
sometimes with spiral darker stripes or series of spots; surface covered 
with spiral strise; apex subacute; spire conoid, with the outlines 
moderately curvelinear; whorls 5, convex, with a distinct suture; 
aperture broad ovate, subeffuse; labrum thin; umbilicus very small. 
-Mean divergence about 64°; Alt. "16, diam. "11 in. Operculum 
<?alcareous, very thick and solid." {Adams). Panama. 

"In the calcareous sand we collected about 112 specimens in 
various stages of growth" (Adams). 

This species, the Turbo (?) phasianella of Adams, is said by 
Carpenter to be the same as his P. (P. jyerforata var. ?) striulata. 
I have seen neither. The descrii)tion of the latter here follows: 

P. STRIULATA Carpenter, 1857. Unfigured. 

Shell similar to P. perfoi'ata, but lacking colored lines; punctate 
and spotted with rufous ; spiral strise below, and in the umbilicus, 
occasionally upon the spire. Alt. •09, diam. '07 in. 

Mazatlan. 

Only two specimens found. One is very slender, the other of the 
ordinary form. There is no trace of the minutely wrinkled surface 
[of P. perforata']. ( Carjyenter). 

.*, 
'h ^ 

P. MINIMA Phil. Vol. ix, PL 46, fig. 24. 

Ovate glol)ose, thin, bluish black, smooth, slightly striate on last 
portion, umbilicate; spire short, very obtuse; whorls 3, not convex, 
last large; aperture oval, lip thin. Alt. 1*5 mill. 

Coast of Peru. 

Littorina wnhilicata d'Orb., preoc. in Phasianella, is a synonym. 

Has been considered a Littorina, but the operculum is that of 
Phasianella. 

I do not know that this and the following species belong to 
Eucosmia. They resemble that group in the minute size, umbilicate 
base and depressed form. 

P. BREVis d'Orb., 1853. PI. 40, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell short, umbilicate, thin, smooth, white, variously flammulate 
or irregularly maculate with blackish or red; spire very short, 
obtuse; Avhorls 4, convex; aperture nearly round. Alt. 11 mill. 

Cuba. 



PHASIANELLA. 179 

The name brevis is several times preoccupied iu Phasianella. l)ut 
not, I believe, for well established species. However if it be deemed 
desirable to avoid this duplication, the present species may be call- 
ed P. brevissima. 

Subgenus Orthomesus Pilsbry, 1888. 

Shell and operculum similar to Phasianella ; radula with the cen- 
tral tooth reduced to a minute rudiment or absent. 

Indo-Pacific Province. 
Type, P. variegata Lam. 

P. VARIEGATA Lam., 1822. PI. 39, figs. 97, 98. 

Shell rather lai'ge, ovate-conic, solid; whorls 5, someAvhat convex, 
separated by well marked sutures, somewhat flattened above; spire 
pointed, conic; aperture rather small, short ovate, less than half the 
length of shell, widely rounded below, angular above; columella 
with a flattened callus ; parietal Avail more or less Avhite callus, and 
decidedly thickened near the posterior angle ; color variable, usually 
flesh tinted, ashen or broAvn, more or less clouded with darker and 
lighter shades, and flammulate Avith dark and light beloAV the 
sutures, spirally traversed by narrow hair-like li)ies of brown or red 
interrupted by white dots and intervals, the Avhite sometimes pre- 
dominating. Alt. 20-25 mill. 

Zanzibar; Bed Sea ; New Caledonia ; Mauritius, etc. 

Rather variable in coloration, but the narrow lines, — too narroAV 
to be plainly shoAvn in the figures, and difficult to make out Avithout 
a glass — are constant. 

The synonymy is extensive ; including P. nivosa (pi. 38, figs. 49, 
50) P. jaspidea, (fig. 44, 36.) P. lentiginosa (fig. 51.) and P. fulgurata 
(fig. 55) of Reeve, P. grata (pi. 39a, fig. 14), P. splendida (pi. 39rt, 
fig. 5,) of Philippi, P. lineolata Wood, P. viridis Anton, and P. rubens 
Lam.. The latter I cannot identify; but judging from Philippi's 
description and figure (pi. 39a, figs. 6, 7) of Avhat he supposes to be 
Lamarck's species, and from Kiener's, (pi. 38, figs. 47, 48) I Avould 
place it in the synonymy of P. variegata. Philippi giA'es Australia 
as the locality of P. rubens. P. broungniarti Audouiu, (PI. 39, figs. 
63-66) is said to belong here. It is from the Red Sea. 

P. UNiFAsciALis Kieucr. PI. 39, fig. 96. 

Shell, oval, conic, moderately thick, spire moderately elevated, 
formed of 5 whorls, not very coua'cx, the last large ; aperture large, 
oval, somcAvhat angulate above; color orange-red, Avith a subsutural 



180 PHASIANELLA. 

sharply defined fascia of white and brown flammules, and a similar 
one encircling umbilical region. Alt. 16 mill. 

Australia. 

No narrow revolving lines are noticed in the description of this 
species, nor ar.e they visible in the figure. There are however before 
me specimens which have all the characters of this species, plus 
the capillary lines, and I am inclined to believe it a variety of the 
P. variegata. 

P. FLAMMULATA Phil., 1848. PI. 39a, fig. 9. 

"The shell is jjretty solid, long conoidal, very smooth and very 
shining, and consists of 6 whorls, which are strongly convex and of 
which the last is about three-sevenths the entire length. The aper- 
ture is ovate, [eiforniig] angular and with a little canal above, 
caused by a thickening upon the inner wall, which stops just short 
of the insertion of the outer lip; the coloration, in the numerous 
examples which! have seen, is very constant; it consists of a yellow- 
ish ground-color, merging into olive, with wavy milk-white flames 
which are anteriorly bounded with dark, posteriorly becoming lost 
in the ground-color, and still finer undulating parallel lines showing 
upon the ground color, as well as spiral rows of milk-wkite points, 
which are not connected by brown lineo as in P. lineolata and P. 
splendida. Alt. 12 mill. Ped Sea. 

Philippi's somewhat circumstantial description is above translated. 
The italics are my own. I have seen no specimens of this species, 
and it is noticed in neither of the three monographies. 

P. AMCENULA Phil., 1853. PI. 39o, fig. 11. 

Shell long-ovate, somewhat conic, acute, imperforate, rather thin, 
translucent, smooth, shining; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last not 
perceptibly rounded, but with an indication of a carina, somewhat 
over half the total length; upon a pale flesh-colored ground are 
numerous spiral bright red lines, punctate with white, and longi- 
tudinal wavy flames, which are dark-bordered toward the suture. 

Alt. 8 mill. Australia. 

This species, like the last, has not been seen by me, nor noticed 
by authors. My description and figure are taken from the original 
ones. 
P. ANGAsi Crosse, 1864. PI. 39, figs, 67, 68. 

Bhell imperforate, elevated-conic, somewhat solid, smooth, orna- 
mented with minute regular subdistant spiral lines of reddish purple 



PHASIANELLA — ALCYXA. 181 

articulated with white, at sutures brownish, variegated and flanimu- 
late with white; spire subacuminate, apex obtuse, rose colored; whorls 
6, slightly convex, the last large, convex; aperture ovate, white, 
columellar and parietal margins callous. Alt. 24, diam. 12 mill. 

Tasmcuna; Port Elliott, S. Anstralia. 

P. GRAEFFEi Duukcr, 1875. PL 39, figs. 81, 82. 

Small, ovate-pointed, rather thin, smooth, glabrous below sutures, 
with 6 convex whorls, the apex usually pink, balance of shell light 
brown or yellowish, with distant narroAV revolving lines of red or 
brown articulated or interrupted with white, encircling the whorls, 
over a varial)le clouding of rich or blackish brown, generally with 
short flammules below the sutures of alternate light and dark; aper- 
ture shorter than spire, ovate; margins neai'ly equally curved. 

Alt. 10, diam 6 mill. Samoan and Viti Is. 

P. wisEMAXNi Baird, 1873. PI. 39, figs. 73, 74. • 

'' Shell small, polished ; whorls 5=1, apex rather obtuse and black- 
ish ; the remaining whorls yellowish with transverse pink bands, 
the body whorl having seven or eight of these, also marked through- 
out with brown spiral hair-like lines. Beneath the sutural line there 
are alternately blackish and white blotches, the latter being produced 
zigzagly over the whorls ; aperture subcircular, equalling the spire 
in length." Alt. 7 mill. 

Netv Hebrides. 
A variety is described with shell of lighter color, only slight indi- 
cations of pink bands, but with the same subsutural dark and light 
blotches. 

P. VIRGO Angas, 1867. PI. 39, fig. 93. 

" Minute, rather thin, globosely conical, white ; whorls 4, the last 
ventricose, and painted with fine undulating pink lines, darker at 
sutures, where they are separated by several broad descending white 
flammules, the lower portion of the last whorl encircled by a row of 
white spots ; columella slightly excavated, white." Alt. 2 mill. 

Coodgee Bay, N. S. Wales, Australia. 

Sometimes su])perf »rate. The peculiar dentition is figured on PI. 
60, fig. 70. 

Genus Alcyna A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell minute, similar in form to Phasianella; aperture ovate; 
columella with a heavy callus, bearing near the base a strong curved 



182 ALCYNA, 

denticle projecting into the aperture; outer lip simple. Operculum 
arid animal unknown. Type, ^4. ocellata A. Ad. 

Japonic and Pacific Provinces. 

A. OCELLATA A. Ad., 1860. PI. 40, fig. 12. 

Shell smooth, imperforate, whorls slightly convex, pale crimson, 
the last encircled by occellated spots; columella terminating in a 
prominent acute denticle. 

Sea of Japan, off Talen-Sima. Dredged in 25 fms. 

A. LEPiDA A. Ad., 1860. Unfig lived. 

Shell smooth, shining, imperforate, pale reddish brown, apex 
blackish, and encircled with pale blackish lines ; whorls 5, rather 
flat ; parietal callus terminating below in a small acute tooth. 

Sea of Japan, off Talen-Sima, in 25 fins. 

A. RUBRA Pease, 1860. PI. 40, figs. 6, 7. 

"Shell small, ovate, smooth, polished ; whorls 4, convexly rounded; 
aperture ovate ; indented at the umbilical region, and grooved ; 
columella with a prominent tooth near the base ; color red, of differ- 
ent shades, or painted in a variety of })atterns with blotches and 
spots of red and white, or marked with oblique longitudinal red 
lines." (Pease.) Hawaiian Is. 

A. LiNEATA Pease, 1869. TJnfigured. 

"Shell somewhat elevately turbinate, solid, thick ; narrowly per- 
forate, transversely ridged; whorls 4, convex ; aperture ovate ; lip 
thickened within ; ridges red, interstices whitish ; columella and 
apex white. Alt. 2], diam. \\ mill." (Pease.) 

Ins. Oahu. 

A. STRIATA Pease, 1869. * Unfig ured. 

"Shell elevately turbinate, rather solid, narrowly perforate, trans- 
versely impressly striate; whorls 4, angulate beneath the suture; 
aperture ovate ; outer lip slightly thickened within ; speckled and 
mottled Avith black and gray of different shades, whitish beneath 
the sutures. Alt. 2, diam. 1! mill." (Pease.) 

Hawaiian Is. 

A. SUBAN(4ULATA Pcasc, 1860. Unfigured. 

"Shell minute, rather solid, turbinate, ovate, ornamented with 
raised spiral stria?; whorls 4, depressed soniewhat in the center; 



PHASIANELLA. 



outer lip thickened externally ; aperture circular; columella ending 
in a prominent tooth ; coh^r deep red, wtth oblique light red lines." 
(Pease.) Hawaiian Is. 



Unfigured and unidentified species of PhafianeUince. 

It is scarcely worth while to attempt to identify species of this 
group without figures or very good descriptions. Nevertheless, in 
order that my readers may have before them all the information 
that is accessible to me, I here reprint verbatim the descriptions of 
Phasianellime not noticed in the preceding pages. 

EuTROPiA MODESTA Gould, 1862. 

"T. parva ovato-conica, glabra, lutescens, fasciis obscuris articula- 
tis et maculis fuscis ad suturas et ad basim ornata ; anfr. 6, ventri- 
cosis ; apertura rotundato-ovata ; columella pallida, vix incrassata. 

Alt. 10, diam. 6 mill." ( Gould.) 

Loo Choo. 
P. MELEAGRis (Beck) Pot. et Mich., 1838. 

"Coquille petite, ovale-conique, ventrue, lisse, luisante, brune, mar- 
quee de petits points ronds allignes dans tous les sens ; ceux de la 
partie superieure des tours de la spire sout peu distincts, ce qui fait 
paraitre la coquille plus blanche ; spire composee de quatre tours 
convexes, les trois premiers simple ; columella droite et anguleuse a 
sou insertion au bord columellaire ; rime ou fente ombilicale mar- 
quee, mais peu profonde." Alt. 9-10, diam. 6-7 mill. {Potiez et 
Michaud.) Habitat unknouin. 

P. MARMORATA Dufo, 1840. 

" Tet de petite dimension, ovale, lisse et convert d'une pellicule 
tr^s mince et transparente ; le dernier tour de spire beaucoup plus 
grand que le reste ; I'ouverture ovale presque circulaire, le bord droit 
tranchant, la columelle arrondie, lisse et blanche. Les couleurs ex- 
terieures sout tonjours marbrees et tres varices, ay ant a chaque su- 
ture des points allonges d'une nuance differente de celles du fond." 

(Dufo.) Seychelles and Admiralty Is. 

Operculum as usual in the genus. 

P. PULCHRA Gray. 

" Testa minuta, oblique conica, tenui, pellucida, linea albida opnca 
et fasciis coccineis ornata ; anfractibus valde convexis," 

"Alt. 2, diam. Ij lines." 

Australia. 



184 TURBININ/E. 

The above I have copied from Philippi, who quotes from Gray. 
I cannot find the original description. 

P. FLAVA Anton, 1839. 

'' Lang conoidisch oval, 6 flache AVinduugen, die letzte f des 
Ganzen, glatte, glanzend, blass isabellgelb, mit dunkelisabellgelben 
vier-eckigen Flecken ; Spindel etwas abgestutzt, weiss ; ungenabelt ; 
Miindung lang-oval." Alt. 5, diam. 2 J lines. . (Anto7i.) 

Habitat unknown. 

Subfamily Turbinin^. 

Shell turbinate or trochiform, solid, nacreous within, smooth or 
sculptured outside ; operculum circular or elongated, smooth or rug- 
ulose outside. Foot rather short and broad ; epipodial line with 
or without cirrhi. Dentition always according to the formula 
oo*5*l"5*oo. 

In this subfamily there are three well-marked groups, here con- 
sidered to rank as genera, of perhaps nearly equal systematic value. 
The principal characters upon which this division is based are the 
ojierculum and the radula. The latter is discussed as fully as my 
material permits below. The operculum, in the entire group, com- 
mences as a multispiral disc, like that of a trochus, upon the outer 
side of which is deposited a thin calcareous layer by a lobe of the 
foot which projects partly over it. This arrangement produces an 
operculum which exhibits all the whorls beneath, l)ut which is only 
feebl}', or not obviously spiral above, from the more or less general 
distribution of the calcareous matter. 

In the genus Leptothyra the development does not go beyond the 
primitive stage. The operculum is multispiral, with a thin, calca- 
reous stratum, slightly more prominent around the outer whorl. In 
Turbo the nucleus is the same ; but several more rapidly increasing 
whorls are added, upon which a much heavier layer of calcareous 
material, covering the whole surface, is deposited. In Astralium a 
very rapidly enlarging whorl starts from the multispiral nucleus, 
forming far the greater portion of the operculum, and usually leaving 
a pit at the starting point. 

The radula is broad and generally rather short. Median, lateral 
and marginal teeth are always present, and the formula is invariably 
30 "S'l^'S" 00. The central teeth are always more developed than in 
the Phasianellince, (in which the central tooth represents the part 
here called the body.) l>ut never have the long sen-ate cusps so 



TURBO. 185 

frequent in the Trochidce. They are made up of three parts, which 
are lettered on my plate 61, fig. 12; the body of the tooth d, which 
bears the emp, e, when any is present ; this is usually expanded at 
the lateral margins into supporting wings, c, (the "Stutzlamelle" of 
Troschel.) Under it lies the basal plate, a. ("Basalplatte" of 
Troschel.) 

Between the body and the basal plate there is frequently an 
accessory plate, marked b in the figure, the function of which is 
unknown to me. 

y Genus Turbo. 

A. Central teeth tvithout cusps. 

Turbo, including Seiiectus and Batillus. Troschel has figured 
the radulffi often species of this group including, however, only one 
of tyi)ical Turbo, T.petholatus ; and I have examined those of several 
additional forms. There is but slight variation in the several species, 
and for detailed descriptions of each the student is referred to 
Troschel's work. The median tooth consists of a narrow oblong 
quadrate l)asal plate, frequently with accessory plates of various 
forms, to the lower end of which is attached the oval body of the 
tooth, — a simple plate without cusp, bearing supporting wings at 
the sides. (pi. 61, fig. 6, T. radiatus Gmel.). Frequently the 
central teeth are asymmetrical in this group. The laterals l)ear 
supporting wings at their outer angles, and are various in form, with 
or without cusps ; the inner marginals are very large, with large 
cusps, (pi. 61, fig. 5, T. argijrostomus.) 

Callopoma. Median teeth like those of Turbo; laterals Avith 
simple cusps, and, except the outer one, supporting wings, giving 
the body of the tooth a trigonal form. INIarginals as in Senectiis. 

Nmella. Very similar to Co/^^o^irt in character. (See Troschel) 

Modelia, Ocana. Radula unknown. 

B. Central teeth with cusps. 
Marmorostoma. In this and the following subgenera the central 
teeth have decidedly reflected simple cusps. The lateral margins 
bear supporting wings. Lateral teeth similar, but asymmetrical, 
the outer one without supporting wing; marginals as in Senectns. 
{T. porphyrites, pi. 61, fig. 10.) Additional species are figured l)y 
Troschel. T. smaragdus, which I include in this group, has similar 
teeth, except that the basal plate projects above the cusps of median 
and lateral teeth. 



186 TURBO — ASTRALIUM. 

Sarmatmis. (T. ■sarmaUcus, pi. 61, fig. 7.) This form is peculiar 
in the central teeth, which are composed of three lamellae overlying 
each other; the cusp is wide and simple. Laterals with cusps, and 
basal plates projecting beyond the cusps. Marginals as in Senectus. 

Prisogaster. (T. niger, pi. 61, fig. 9.) Median tooth with a very 
wide body, and supporting wings, cusp narrowly reflected along 
the whole upper margin of the tooth ; laterals with prominent 
cusps, their bases denticulate ; inner marginals not enlarged as in 
the preceding groups, but rather narrow, with long simple cusps; 
outer marginals with long serrate cusps. In the denticulate cusps 
of the lateral teeth, and the narrow inner marginals this form ap- 
proaches more closely than any other to Leptothyra. 

Genus Astralinm. 

A. Central teeth with cusps. 

Astralium, s. str. {A. spinulosum, p\. 61, fig. 12.) The median 
tooth has a long basal plate, a, upon which an accessory obovate 
plate, b rests; upon this is placed the body, d, with ''stiitzlamelle," 
c, and cusp, e. The laterals are provided with cusps, and, except 
the outer two, with supjiorting wings. 

Lithopovia. (A. tuber, pi. 61, fig. 8.) Median teeth as in A. 
americanum, but with the basal plate projecting below. Laterals 
similar, asymmetrical. In A. ccdatum the central teeth are nearly 
as wide at the apex as at the base ; cusp equally wide ; otherwise 
similar in'essential characters. In A. americanum {\>\. 60, fig. 71,) 
the basal plate does not project above the cusp; the tooth is sub- 
triangular, with supporting wings on the sides. 

Imperator. The radula is known only by a figure published by 
Hogg many years ago. The central and lateral teeth bear cusps. 
The marginals are not especially large toward the inside. No 
further characters can be made out from the figure. 

Guildfordia. Radula unknown. 

B. Central teeth ivithout cusps. 
Bolma. Troschel has figured the radula of Jl. rngosa. My own 
preparations show a decidedly different form from his figures ; the 
centrals (pi. 61, fig. 13) have a narrow long basal plate, which is 
produced above the body of the tooth ; the latter is wide, oval, not 
reflected above ; its lower margin is not well-defined in my specimens 
vthich are, however, not stained ; the laterals are of the usual form 
and bear cusps. This group does not seem to be more related to 



ASTEALIUM. 187 

Turbo than the other subgenera of Astralium ; I have no hesitation 
in placing it in the division oi Astralium containing species without 
cusps to the central teeth. Compare Troschel, Das Gebiss der 
Schnecken, t. xxi, f. 1. 

Cyclocantha. Troschel has examined the dentition of "A. rhodo- 
stoma." His figures show very nearly the same form that I have 
figured for ^4. Aynericanum, and especially in the central teeth. I 
have examined the radula of only one species, A. plicatospiyiosum, 
and find it of a wholly different form. (PI. 61, fig. 14.) The median 
teeth do not have a basal plate projecting above ; the body is quad- 
rangular, somewhat the shape of a maltese cross, without cusp. The 
laterals have long cusps with spurs at their bases. I am inclined to 
believe that Troschel's figure was drawn from a species of the West 
Indian group of Astralium, not the real Cyclocantha. In view of 
the great discrepancy between his results and my own, it is very de- 
sirable that additional species of Cyclocantha be examined. 
Uvanilla. Radula unknown. 

Cookia. My knowledge of the radula of this form is derived from 
a figure and description given by Hutton. Median tooth with a 
long basal plate and short body, of the general form shown on pi. 61, 
fig. 11 for Pomaulax. It bears no cusp, and has small supporting 
wings. The first lateral also is much like that shown in Pomaulax; 
the others bear cusps, and, except the outer, have ''stutzlamelle." 
Inner marginal very broad, with wide cusp. Cusps of outer mar- 
ginals simple. 

Pomaulax. (pi. 61, fig. 11.) In ^4. undosum I find much the same 
type of dentition as Hutton has figured for Cookia. The median 
teeth have long basal plates, and a cuspless body, with its lateral 
margins produced into supporting wings. The inner lateral is quite 
complex in structure ; its upper edge is not reflected, but seems 
turned upward somewhat ; its outer upper angle, a, lies under, and 
its supporting wing ("Stiltzlamelle "), b, over the succeeding lateral 
tooth. The three following laterals have the same form of body, 
but their apices bear broad simple cusps ; the outer lateral is narrow, 
with a bidentate cusp. The marginals offer no unusual characters ; 
the inner ones are large, with long cusps denticulate at their bases ; 
the outer ones have serrate margins. 

Pachypoma. Median tooth with a narrow basal plate, projecting 
above a rectangular simple accessory plate, which l^ears about the 
middle the oval body, without cusp, but with the sides produced into 



188 LEPTOTHYRA. 

supporting wings. Laterals narrow, with simple cusps and supporting 
wings, the outer narrower and with bidentate cusp. Inner marginals 
with very large cusps. (See Troschel.) 

Genus Leptothyra. 

I have examined the dentition of the following species : L. car- 
penteri, (pi. 60, fig. 73,) L. bacii/a, L. kcia, L. aviussittata, L. sangaren- 
sis, (pi. 61, fig. 15) L. granulosa. In all of these species the median 
teeth are oval, wide, with a narrow projection above, and more or 
less narrowed toward the base ; the u]>per margin is in no case re- 
flected, so that cusp, cutting point or edge, in any usual sense, there is 
none. In L. carpenter'i and L. hacula, however, there is a ledge or 
thickening, more or less irregular on its lower raai'gin, extending 
across the body near its upper margin ; but this is not formed by a re- 
flection of that margin, and so cannot be considered as a cusp ; in the 
other species this structure is absent. The lateral margins are pro- 
duced into supporting wings. The laterals are long, excavated on 
the inner side for the reception of the supporting wings of the cen- 
trals, and with a process, b, underlying these supporting wings. 
Their outer margins are produced into supporting wings like those 
of the centrals. The cusps are provided wdth several minute denti- 
cles at their outer bases. All of the laterals are of this form, except 
the outer ones which have no supporting wings. The marginals are 
armed with long blunt narrow cusps, which are longest on the teeth 
about the sixth from the inside, and decrease in size in either direc- 
tion from that point ; about the twelfth from the inside their margins 
begin to become serrate. It will be seen that my results are very 
different from those obtained by Troschel, who has figured the rad- 
ula of /j. carpenteri (under the name of "L. coccineus Desh."). I am 
constrained to believe that, owing probably to some imperfection in 
his preparation or other cause, he misinterpreted certain structures 
of these minute radulje. The characters of the radula lend no sup- 
port to the opinion expressed by some authors as to the position of 
this genus in the Trochidce ; but it is not very closely allied to any 
group- of the Turbinida'. I am undecided about the nature of the 
projection from the upper margin of the central tooth of Leptothyra ; 
it may be homologous with the basal plate of the j)receding groups ; 
but if so it seems to be united with the body as far as the upper 
margin of the latter, — a condition which is not found in Turbo, etc. 

In concluding this review, I wish to direct the attention of con- 
chologists to the desirability of procuring and examining the radula; 



TURBININ.E. 189 

of those subgenera in which tliis organ is unknown, in order that 
their correct systematic position may be confirmed. More especially 
is it necessary that in the cases of Cyclocantha and other groups 
where the testimony of different observers is considerably at variance, 
additional species be investigated. 

In the following account of the various species, subgenera and 
genera of this family, I have taken every care to adopt a nomencla- 
ture that wall prove stable ; deviating in many instances from the 
usage of previous authors upon this family in oi'der to attain this 
end. Notably is this the case in certain subgenera of Astralium, in 
which the pernicious practice followed by many systeniatists of select- 
ing Avhat they believe to be a " natural " type for a group, instead of 
restricting the group to species with the organization of the " histor- 
ical " type, has led in some instances to the exclusion from a subgenus 
of the very species designated by the describer of that group as its 
type ! I have quoted polynomial or "historical" synonymy only in 
cases in which such names have been ado]) ted into general use. 

In describing sculpture, I have usually avoided the use of the term 
" transverse," because there seems to be considerable confusion in the 
minds of many as to whether such sculpture is transverse to the 
whorls or to the axis of the shell. The term " longitudinal " is here 
used to designate markings parallel to the axis, and "spiral" to de- 
note such as follow the direction of the whorls ; in flattened species 
the former is frequently designated as " radiating," and the latter as 
" concentric." 

The Turbines have an old and extensive literature. Most of the 
niore prominent species were figured by Chemnitz, and before him 
by Lister, Rumphius, Knorr, and many another quaint old author, 
whose tomes now stand undisturbed on our library shelves, as per- 
haps our own will rest a century hence. From these store-houses 
Linnseus drew freely in his mammoth task of cataloguing all animate 
nature, fitting the species defined by previous authors into his Systema 
with no other addition than a binomial aj^peilation. 

In modern times each of the four princij^al monographic works 
have considered this group : 

Conchylien Cabinet, monograph by Philippi, 1846-8, 18 — . 

Conchologia Iconica, Reeve, 1848, 1861. 

Coquilles Vivants (Kiener), text by Dr. Fischer, 1873, 1880. 

Thesaurus Conchyliorum, Sowerby Jr., 1886. 



190 TURBININ^. 

Ill the preparation of the following pages the characteristically 
careful and relialjle work of Dr. Paul Fischer has been of constant 
assistance to me. 

Key to genera and subgenera. 

I. Shell turbinate or depressed, convex below, young not spinose ; 
operculum convex outside, usually smooth or granulose, sometimes 
with concentric ribs, nucleus near the centre. 

a. operculum simply convex, smooth or granulose 

shell turbinate, spire exserted .... Turbo, s. s. 

shell depressed above, produced at base . Mamwrostoma. 

b. operculum with spiral ribs outside 

shell imperforate, turbinate, elevated, solid . Callojjoma. 

shell imperforate, thin, depressed, granulose . Modelia. 

shell imperforate, thin, depressed, smooth . . . Ocana. 

shell widely umbilicate, depressed . . . Ninella. 

V. operculum formed of club-shaped processes . Sarmatieus. 

II. Shell turbinate, oval, solid ; operculum with submarginal nu- 
cleus. ......... Prisogasfer. 

III. Shell trochiform, flattened above or below, young carinated 
and spinose ; operculum with submarginal or terminal nucleus, 
generally with ribs outside. 

a. shell conic, flat or concave below 

imperforate, periphery rounded, base concave . . Cookia. 
imperforate, periphery cariuate 

operculum oblong, very convex . . . Paehypoma. 

operculum oval, 2-ribbed outside 

base flat or concave ..... Uvanilla. 

base somewhat convex, spire plicate . . Lithopoma. 

operculumjo-ribbed outside ..... Pomaulux. 

umbilicate, base concave . . . . . . Imperator. 

b. shell depressed, carinated, conic al)ove, convex below 
polished, granulate, spines not projecting at sutures Chiildfordia. 
not polished, spines projecting at sutures 

West Indian species Astralmm s. s. 

Oriental species Cyclocantha. 

c. shell turbinate, not flat below, periphery not cariuate 
operculum with subcentral nucleus . . . . Bobna. 
operculum with submarginal nucleus . . . Lithopoina. 

IV. Shell turbinate or globose, small, solid ; operculum multispirai, 
with subcentral nucleus, concave in the centre outside. Leptothyra. 



TURBO. 191 

Geuus Turbo Liun., 1758. 

Shell turbinate or de^jressed, imperforate or umbilicate; young 
not carinated nor spinose; base convex; operculum- flat or concave 
inside, with three or four whorls and subcentral (multispiral) 
nucleus; outside convex, smooth, tuberculate, or with concentric 
ribs. 

The diversity of forms of both shell and operculum in this genus 
is very great, and has caused the formation of numerous subgenera. 
The affinities of the minor groups I have attempted to express in 
the following table : 



Central teeth without cusps. 



Turbo, 

Callopoma, 

Ninella, 

Modelia, 

Occma. 



Central teeth with cusps, operculum f ,r i. 

convex, granular, ( 

Central teeth with cusps, oi)erculum ( o i- 

^ ^ \ barniaticus. 

tuberculose,. ( 

Central teeth with cusps, oiierculum f d • j. 

. , , \ Jrrisogaster. 

with submarguuil nucleus, ( 

Subgenus Turbo s. str. 

Shell large or moderate in size, turbinate; whorls rounded, smootli' 
or ribbed, spinose or carinated, umbilicate or imperforate; aperture 
subcircular, more or less produced at base. Operculum circular, 
with subcentral nucleus; outside convex, granulate or smooth, not 
spiral nor ribbed. 

Indo-Pacific Provivce. 

Synonyms: Olearia Klein, Senectus Swainson. 

Three subdivisions may be distinguished, diflferiug in unimportant 
characters: Turbo, (restricted), shell large, dilated at base, imperfor- 
ate; whorls smooth or nodulous. Senectus (Humph.) Swainson, 
shell generally perforate; whorls spirally lirate. Batillus ^cXwvoa., 
shell inflated, imperforate ; whorls spinose ; operculum with a convex 
spiral rib outside. The dentition is essentially the same in all. 

T. MARMORATus Linn., 1758. PL 41, flg. 23. 

Shell large, imperforate, solid, ventricose, as broad as long, green, 
marbled with white and rich brown; whorls 6-7 flattened or con- 
cave above, rounded and bearing two nodose keels below, and a 



] 92 TURBO. 

stronger nodose carina above; aperture large, pearly within, base 
produced, columellar region more or less excavated. Alt. 100-200 
mill. Indian Ocean; Philippines; Seychelles; Japan, etc. 

T. regenfussiVhW., not Desli., and T. olearius Gmel. are synonyms. 

Operculum (PI. 59, fig, 21 ) subcircular, somewhat concave within, 
exterior closely tuberculate, whitish. 

T. iMPERiALis Gmel, 1788. PI. 43, fig. 53; PI. 62, fig. 8. 

Shell large, globose-conic, ventricose, imperforate, solid, green, 
irregularly mottled and spirally striped with chestnut, closely 
irregularly striate with the same color; whorls 6-7 convex, with 
well marked sutures, and numerous more or less conspicuous revolv- 
ing furrows; last whorl large, somewhat flattened above; aperture 
subcircular, pearly white within; outer lip rather thin; columella 
arched, with a pearly callus, which reappears at the posterior angle; 
parietal wall nearly devoid of callus, green ; base slightly dilated, 
scarcely produced. Alt. 75-100, diam. 70-90 mill. 

Indian Ocean ; China Se<(S. 

Most specimens have less prominent i*evolviug wrinkles than the 
figure, and some occur almost smooth. Perhaps Reeve's figure, 
copied in my fig. 53, is a form of T. marmoratus. 

Operculum circular, flat inside, with four whorls and subcentral 
nucleus; outside convex, partly granulose, pale brownish olive. 

T.VouRDANi Kiener, 1839. PI. 49, fig. 53. 

Shell large, ovate-conic, solid, imperforate; epidermis castaneous 
or olive ; spire acute ; whorls 8, rounded, regularly increasing, the 
upper ones 1-3-carinate, the lower transversely obsoletely lirate, 
the last large, ventricose, descending, nearly smooth, or with wide 
spiral cost?e; aperture circular, white within, outer lip thin, colu- 
mella arcuate, not expanded at base. Alt. 140-210, diam. 110-170 
mill. Australia. 

T. MAGNiFicus Jonas, 1844. PI. 40, fig. 13. 

Shell ovate-conic, turgid, imperforate, brownish, maculated and 
marbled with violaceous; whorls 6, rounded, finely transversely 
striate, the upper ones obscurely ungulate in the middle, the last 
obtuse; spire a little exserted, suture distinct, linear; aperture large, 
circular, pearly within, opaque at margin ; columella cylindrical, 
callous above. Alt. 63, diam. 60 mill. 

Bay of Sechura, Peru, in fomieen fins. 

I have not seen this s])ecies. 



TURBO. 193 

T. CEPOiDES E. A. Smith, 1880. PI. 44, fig. 78. 

Shell ovate-conic, narrowly but profoundly perforate, pale brown, 
strigate with green variegated with white ; whorls 7, very convex, 
slightly compressed or sub-excavated above, with conspicuous irreg- 
ular sub-lamellose incremental striae and inconspicuous spiral lines 
and sulci above; aperture almost circular, slightly shorter than the 
spire, inside pale salmon, pearly. Alt. 80, diam. 70 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This «ipecies seems to be most nearly allied to T. iinperialis and 
T. jourdani. Smith compares it to T. magnificus Jonas, and says 
that it is distinguished from that form by the presence of a deep 
perforation, the narrow sulcations revolving around the upper part 
of the whoi'ls, and by the coloration. 

T. EEGENFUSSi Desh., 1843. PI. 48, fig. 40. 

Shell ovate-conic, thick, imjoerfbrate, whorls 5-6, smooth, convex, 
the last large, dilated, veutricose, angulate above, with a revolving 
series of more or less prominent tubercles, below rounded ; aperture 
circular, inside pearly; peristome simple, posterior angle with a 
thick callus, columella arcuate, not produced at base ; color vivid 
green, variegated with spiral series of square alternating white and 
deep chestnut maculations. Alt. 84, diam. 80 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 

Operculum as in T. imperlalis, reddish and granulose without. 

I am not at all certain that the figures cited by Deshayes do not 
represent a form of T. marmoratm; they are more produced at the 
base than the figure given by Fischer (and which I have copied) 
indicates. It may prove to be a variety of T. marmoratiis. 

T. PETHOLATus Linn., 1758. PI. 40, ng. 14. 

Shell imperforate, solid, polished, shining, rich brown, variously 
ornamented with dark bands interrupted with white blotches and 
narrow stripes; whorls 5, flattened beneath the suture, sometimes 
carinated above ; aperture about half the length of the shell, circular, 
pearly within ; peristome and columella tinged with greenish-yellow, 
Alt. 50-70 mill. 

Red Sea; Indian Ocean; New Caledonia; Philippines, etc. 

Operculum (PI. 60, fig. 41.) circular, with four whorls and nucle- 
us placed one-third the distance across the face; outside convex, 
shining, bright green on the center, margins brown on one side, 
white upon the other, slightly granulose about the edges. 

T. militai'is Reeve, is-: a synonvm. 
13 



194 TURBO. 

Yar. REEVEi Phil. PL 40, fig.s. 15, 16. 

Deep or reddish browu, clouded and minutely flecked with white; 
peristome white; columella with a heavy callus. Differs from the 
type in the more obscure, marbled color pattern. 

Red Sea; Philipjmies. 

It is T. variabilis Rve. (preoc.) 

Var. CALEDONicus Fischer. PI. 45, fig. 99. 

Rufous-orange, spotted with white, variegated with numerous 
angular maculatious; spiral zones obsolete; form slender, elongated: 
columella white Neiv Caledonia. 

{Seneetus.) 

T. cRASsus Wood, 1856. PI. 47, fig. 20. 

Shell large, ovate-conic, heavy, solid, imperforate ; dirty white, or 
greenish, maculated with angular, alternating blackish or brown and 
lio-ht patches on the broad flat spiral ribs, the interstices narrow, 
superficial, whitish ; whorls 6, convex, more or less prominently 
shouldered above ; ribs obsolete around the axis ; aperture white 
within, over half the length of shell, ovate, angled posteriorly and 
at position of carina; its margin more or less green tinged, not 
fluted ; columella thickened and effiise at base, callous posteriorly. 

Alt. 80, diam. i^o mill. N. Australia; New Caledonia, etc. 

T. canal icidatus of Kiener, (PI. 47, fig. 21) and of Reeve (PI. 42, 
fig. 45), and T. psittacinus Phil.? are synonyms. 

Operculum (pi. 59, fig. 32) subcircular, concave internally, with 
nucleus one-third the distance across face; outside very convex, 
centre dark-brown, coarsely granulose, lighter toward outer margin 
and more minutely granulate; margin of increment white. 

T. spARVERius Gmelin, 1788. PL 47, fig. 26. 

Shell ovate- conic, solid, imperforate ; dirty white or greenish, mac- 
ulate or tessellate with dark ; whorls 6, convex, rounded, more or 
less angular around the upper part, with inconspicuous incremental 
striifi and revolving lirse, which on last whorl are wide and flattened 
with narrow interstices and are obsolete around the axis ; aperture 
over half the length of shell ; white within, oval, angular above and 
below; peristome scarcely crenulated, frequently greenish ; columella 
with a heavy white callus, dilated and eff^use at base. Alt. 80 mill 

EaM Indies. 

Operculum (as figured by Gould) green outside. 

T. canaliculatm Gniel. is probably this species. It cannot be de- 
termined with certainty. It is T. margaritaceus of Kiener. 



TURBO. 195 

I am inclined to believe that T. sparverius is a variety of T. a-as- 
SKS. Both are separated from T. setosus and its allies by the ol)so- 
lesceuee of the spiral lirpe around the axis. 

T. SETOSUS Gmel., 1788. PI. 63, fig. 32. 

Shell solid, ovate-pointed, imperforate, whitish, or greenish, macu- 
lated with brown and olive ; spire conic, acute ; whorls 6, convex, 
striate and spirally lirate, the ridges unequal, wider than the inter- 
sjjaces, frequently Avith interstitial lirulie ; aperture large, oval, white 
within ; outer lip frequently green-tinged, fluted ; columella arcuate, 
deflexed and dilated at base. Alt. 70-80, diam. 60-70 mill. 

South-western Pacific; Pownotus Is., N. Caledonia; Marquesas; 
Kingsmill Is., Seychelles ; Isle of France. 

Operculum circular, flat or slightly concave within, with four 
whorls and subcentral apex ; outside convex, brown, coarsely gran- 
ulose in the middle, paler and more finely granular at margins. 

T. granosus Phil, is prol)al)ly this species. It cannot be positively 
determined. 

Var. PATULUS Phil. PI. 63, fig. 33. 

Shell shorter, thicker with larger mouth, shorter spire and canal- 
iculate sutures. Alt. 84, diam. 75 mill. 

T. JOBiENsrs Tapparone-Canefri, 1878. Unfigured. 

Shell ovate-conic, narrowly umbilicate, solid ; spire acute; whorls 
6, with irregular incremental stria?, spirally lirate, the lir?e unequal ; 
last whorl carinate above, lilanulate between carina and suture, in- 
flated around the middle ; revolving lirse fine, close, minutely gran- 
ulose ; base with larger and irregular lira? ; aperture round, smooth, 
silvery within ; peristome crenulated, subangulate above, narrowly 
margined with lemon yellow and orange ; columella arcuate, mar- 
gined without with reddish orange, effliseatbase ; color rufous- whitish 
with vivid wide irregular reddish-chestnut maculations. 

Alt. o8. diam. 46 mill. 

Ins. Jobi, Bay of Geelvmk, N. Guinea. 

Operculum flat within, castaneous, with 4 whorls and nucleus 
one-third the distance across the face ; outside very convex, polished 
and greeenish at centre, minutely granulose and variegated with 
brown and white at mar2:ins. 



19B TURBO. 

T. ARTENsis Montrouzier, 1860. PI. 45, figs. 96, 97. 

Shell oval or subrhomboidal in outline, ventricose, solid, imperfor- 
ate, covered with a strong olivaceousepiderrais; spire short, acute; 
sutures subcanaliculate ; whorls 5-6, convex, with sj^iral lirje which 
are narrower than their interstices, and number 11-12 on the body- 
whorl, grooves closely radiately lamellar striate, with a central 
riblet; aperture ovate, augulate above and below, white within; 
columella flattened, wide, effiise at base. Alt. 65, diam. 60 mill. 

Ins Art, Neiv Caledonian Archipelafio. 

Operculum slightly concave within, castaneous, Avith 3 whorls, 
the nucleus situated at one-third the distance across the face; outside 
white, convex, center obsoletely granulose, outer part obliquely 
striate. 

T. FUNicuLOSUs Kiener. PI. 48, fig. 33. 

Shell ovate-ventricose, solid, imperforate ; spire short, acute, whorls 
5, convex; sutures canaliculate; spirally Urate; body-whorl large Avith 
unequal line and one or two intermediate lirulje in the interstices; 
aperture ovate, silvery within, peristome greenish, somewhat fluted; 
columella dilated and produced at the base ; color chestnut-olive, 
maculated and tessellated with white. Alt. 48, diam. 49 mill. 

Habitat unknou'U. 

I have not seen this form, which Fischer compares with setosus 
und artensis. In coloration it is similar to T. fluctuosus ; and Car- 
penter has identified it with doubt with that species. 

T. JAPONicus Reeve, 1848. PI. 44, fig. 81 ; PI. 48, fig. 41. 

"Shell ovate, imperforated, rather thin, somewhat inflated; whorls 
smooth, spirally ribbed, ribs sometimes prominent and regulai", some- 
times rather flattened and very irregular; fawn-yellow, variously 
stained and blotched with red, interior silvered." (Reeve.) 

Reeve confounded two forms in his illustrations and diagnosis of 
this species: One of his figures, (pi. ix, fig. 336. of the Conchologia 
Iconica) is the young of T. cornidus Ginel.; the other, (pi. viii, fig. 
33, of the Iconica) precedes this on his plates, and has been recogni- 
zed by Kiener and by Fischer as the real T. Jajwnieus. Under these 
circumstances I am compelled to place in the synonymy Sowerby's 
T. reriiiciis, which he founds upon shells which are (teste Sowerby, 
Thes. Cb?zc/(., p. 197.) identical with Reeve's first figure of T.japoni- 
cus. According to Sowerby the species is from Mauritius, not Ja])aii. 
The following is Sowerby's description. 



TURBO. 197 

T. cernicns Sowerby, 1886, (pi. 44, fig. 81,) "Shell ovate conic, 
solid, subventrieose, imperforate, yellowish, longitudinally flammulate 
with reddish-brown ; spire acute, elevated; whorls convex sloping 
above, minutely obliquely striate, encircled by wide flattened ribs, 
alternating with smaller ; last whorl obtusely angulated above, 
lightly depressed above the angle, scarcely canaliculate ; aperture 
circular, lip acute, scalloped; columella thick, convex, slightly 
arcuate and slightly produced at base, longitudinally plicated." 

"Operculum very convex outside, green, sufi^used with bright 
reddish-brown, conspicuously granulose." Sowerby's figure, copied 
on my plate, is two-thirds natural size. 

Specimens before me from Mauritius, of this species, are rather 
smaller than Reeve's figure ; the broad flat ribs, apd brown opercu- 
lum, conspicuously granulose in the middle, are the more prominent 
characters. 

T. SPLEXDIDULUS Sowcrby, 1886. PI. 44, fig. 72. 

"Shell large, ventricose-conoid, imperforate, orange-brown, white 
and lirown punctate and variegate ; si)ire small, acute, gradate ; 
suture scarcely impressed ; whorls about 62, above concavo-planate, 
then convex, longitudinally obliquely striate, spirally lirate, the 
lira^ numerous, unequal, about 15 on penultimate whorl, the first 
(subsutural ) prominent, subnodulose, brown and white articulated ; 
base convex, smooth, subobsoletely sulcate. overspread by white 
and dark brown maculations ; umbilical region with a white and 
orange callus ; aperture subample, circular, throat silvery." (Soiver- 
hy.) Habitat unhunvn. 

Described from a single specinien of unknown origin. 

T. L.T3TUS Philippi, 1848. PI. 44, fig. 75. 

Shell conoid, imperforate, spirally lirate, smooth, pale flesh 
colored, painted with large radiating ferrugineous maculations; liroe 
about nine in number on the body-whorl, alternately smaller, 
the third nuich elevated forming an angle; lir^e of base slightly 
elevated, white and black maculated ; columella surrounded by an 
orange colored area; aperture sub-circular, silvery within. Alt. 6.S 
mill. Habitat unknotim. 

T. ARGYROSTOMUS Linu., 1758. PI. 40, fig. 18; PL 42, fig. 41; 

PI. 46, fig. 8. 

Shell large, ovate-pointed, solid, whitish, irregularly maculated 
with greenish and brown ; whorls 6, convex, separated by subcan- 
aliculate sutures, the upper two smooth, the lower spirally lirate and 
radiately more or less squamose striate, body-whorl Avitli about 
thirteen liriie, which are generally wider than their interstices, and 
of which the subcoronal and one or two median ones are more 



198 TURBO. 

prominent; penultimate and last whorl bearing numerous elevated 
vaulted scales upon the lirne; aperture white or brownisli tinted 
within, about half the length of the shell, round-ovate, angled above, 
dilated and sub-channelled below ; columella thickened, somewhat 
flattened and grooved below the narrow deeply perforating umbili- 
cus. Alt. 90, diam. 70 mill. 

Seychelles; Ins. Reunion ; Ins. Annaa, Pacific O. 

Operculum (pi. 59, figs. 1,2,7,) flat inside with 5 whorls, nucleus 
situated one-third the distance across the face ; outside convex, with 
coarse obtuse granules, which are largest upon the higher part, nearly 
surrounded by a marginal series of fine oblique wrinkles ; color 
wdiite, more or less tinged with flesh color upon the outer half, and 
with a narrow marginal orange line. 

The synonymy includes T. princeps Phil., T. lamarckii Phil., = 
Delphinula turhinopsis Lam. ? (see next species) T. argenteus, Anton. 

A very variable species. I have seen many imperforate and sub- 
perforate specimens otherwise typical in character. The lirse are 
sometimes subequal and nearly smooth ; this form is the T. margarita- 
ceus of Reeve, Fischer, and other authors. The margaritaceiis of 
Linmeus seems to have been intermediate in character between the 
smooth and spinose forms. 

Var. mar(;aritaceus (Linn.) Auct. PI. 45, fig. 100. 

Similar in form to T. argyrostovius ; lirse nearly or entirely smooth, 
usually with riblets in the interstices except on the base. 

Var. CARDUUs Fischer. PI. 47, fig. 25. 

Differs from T. argyrostomus in the more conical form, less dilated 
body-whorl, and imperforate umbilicus. Alt. 51 mill. 

Var. AURANTius Kiener. PI. 48, fig. 30. 

Shell imperforate, yellowish fulvous, whorls 6, convex, subcarinate, 
longitudinally striate and spirally lirate, with unequal Vine, larger on 
the median portion, and numbering about seven on the penultimate, 
fifteen on the last whorl ; body-whorl with a sub-corOnal distantly 
nodose liration. Alt. 43, diam. 38 mill. 

Habitat uukuorcn. 

Var. BicOLOR Sowerby, 1886. PI. 44, fig. 71. 

This form seems to me to be a synonym of T. vmrgnritacens. 
Sowerby says of it : " In the only specimen I have met with of this 
species, the broad brown oblique rays are very clearly defined upon 



TURBO. 199 

a whitish ground ; the longitudinal strise form minute laminar ridges ; 
the suture is narrowly impressed, not broadly channelled as in T. 
foliaceus." 

Habitat unknown. 

Var. FERRUGiNEUS (Anton) Phil., (1849 ?). PI. 44, fig. 77. 

Shell ovate-conoid, perforate, yellowish, painted with wide ferru- 
ginous flammules ; last whorl with about fourteen line, penultimate 
with about six, the fourth subnodose, forming a distinct angle. 

Alt. 25, diam. 20 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

T. TURBiNOPsis Lam., 1819. PI. 62, fig. 9. 

"Shell elongato-ovate, uuibilicate, pale flesh-colored, maculate 
with ferrugineous; whorls rounded, traversed by elevated spiral 
ciuguli, the interstices crispate with lamellar incremental striae; 
larger cinguli squamose; aperture subcircular; umbilicus narrow." 

Philippine Is. (Philippi.) 

It is the Delphinula turbinopsis of Lamarck ; T. lamarckii Phil, 
is a synonymy. 

With the exception of Philippi whose identification is doubtful, 
no one, in recent times, has seen this form. 

T. LAjONKAiRii Desh., 1839. PI. 49, fig. 42. 

Shell large, turbinate, solid, umbilicate, white, sometimes sparsely 
maculate with chestnut; whorls 6, striate, spii'ally lirate, bicarinate, 
the last one and one-half armed with erect long stout tubular spines 
on the carime, ten to twelve in number on the last whorl, usually 
tinged with green ; apertui-e ovate, pearly white and iridescent 
within; columella thickened below, deflexed, produced and some- 
what channelled, excavated at the conspicuous umbilicus. Alt. 80, 
diam. 80 mill. Keeling Id., Indian 0. ; E. Indies. 

Operculum (pi. 59, fig. 10,j subcircular, inside dark brown, with 
four whorls and subcentral nucleus ; outside convex, coarsely granose, 
and dark brown in the center, lighter and minutely granulate 
toward edges, margin sub-striate, with an orange line. 

This species is most nearly allied to T. argyrostomus, differing in 
the greater developn)ent of spines and the wider umbilicus. The 
spines first appear as vaulted scales upon the upper carina; only in 
well grown specimens do they become closed in front into tubes. 



200 TURBO. 

T. CHRYsosTOMus Liiiii., 1758. PI. 40, fig. 19. 

Shelljovate-pointed, subperforate, solid, brownish or white, mar- 
bled with chestnut; whorls 6, convex, spirally Urate and longitudi- 
nally regularly sublamellose striate, the lirae unequal, numerous, 
sometimes with a coronal and several median carinte, l)earing vaulted 
recurved spines ; a prominent funicle around the umbilical region; 
aperture about one-half the length of shell, rotund-oval, golden- 
orange within, peristome white-edged, undulating, slightly produced 
at base, columella arched, umbilical region indented, subperforate. 
Alt. 60-70 mill. 

New Caledonia; Philippines ; Viti and Samoan Is. 

The golden-orange color of the throat, though sometimes rather 
pale, is diagnostic of this form. Operculum (pi. 59, fig. 4) flat and 
brown inside with four whorls and subceutral nucleus ; outside very 
convex, smooth and shining, brown or yellowish (or green, teste, 
Fischer) in the middle portion, lighter and obliquely striate toward 
the outer margin, white and smooth on margin of increment. 
T. RADIATUS Gmel., 1788. PL 47, fig. 23 ; pi. 62, fig. 1. 

Shell ovate-conic, imperforate, solid, whitish, streaked and macu- 
lated with brown or green, the darker color often predominating; 
spire conic, acute, whorls 5-6, convex, irregularly spirally lirate 
and finely regularly lamellosely longitudinally striate; subcarinate 
above, sutures subcanaliculate ; last whorl usually biangulate, with 
a coronal and one or two submedian linf promkient and armed with 
more or less numerous vaulted scales or spines; a})erture about half 
the length of shell, pearly white within; lip crenate, slightly pro- 
duced at base; umbilical region sometimes slightly indented. Alt. 
40-50 mill. 

Red Sea to Madagascar ; Eastward to New Caledonia, Nicobar and 
Philippine Is., etc. 

Operculum (pi. 60, figs. 86, 87) flat inside, with 5 whorls and sub- 
central nucleus ; outside finely tuberculate, cinereous or pale olive. 

Under the above specific name I unite a number of nominal spe- 
cies which agree in all essential chai-acters. The more important 
are T. speciosus Kiener, (pi. 47, fig. 24) T. spinosus Grael. et auct., 
T. tuberculatus Kiener, T. chemnitzianus Reeve — founded upon the 
same figure cited by Gmelin for T. radiatus — T. nivosus Reeve, (pi. 
42, figs. 44, 46) P. tuherculosns Quoy et Gaim., T. winteri Phil. (?) 
This is not the T. radiatus of Reeve nor of Kiener, nor (probably) 
of Anton. 



TURBO. 201 

T. HiSTRio Reeve, 1848, PL 62, fig. 2. 

"Shell somewhat globose, swollen, imperforated, sutures of the 
spire excavately channelled, spirally ridged, ridges very finely lani- 
iniferous, squamate, scales strong, erect ; snowy-white, broadly rayed 
with orange-rust color. Interior silvered." {Reeve.) 

Alt. 4.5, diam. 40 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

I can add nothing to Reeve's description and figure of this species, 

T. sPECiosus Reeve, 1848. PI. 62, fig. 14. 

" Shell ovate, scarcely umbilicated ; spire somewhat raised ; whorls 
rounded, encircled throughout by very beautifully closely scaled 
ridges ; yellowish ; ridges here and there bright green ; interior sil- 
vered." {Reeve.) 

Australia. 

Closely allied to T. radiatus ; and probably only a variety of that 
species. 

T. FOLiACEUs Philippi, 1846. PI. 46, fig. 9. 

Shell pointed-ovate, solid, umbilicate, greenish, longitudinally 
flammulate with black; spire conic, pointed ; whorls 6, very convex, 
separated by canaliculate sutures ; last vdiorl with about nine rather 
si'parated line, the whole surface covered with crowded elevated 
sibfoliaceus radiating lamellai; aperture round, half the length of 
shell or less ; peristome usually nearly free from body whorl above, 
flited; columella excavated at the deep and prominent umbilicus. 

Alt. 40, diam, 33 mill. 

Torres Straits; Port Essington; Port Darwin, Anstralia. 

Operculum (pi. 59, figs. 11, 12.) with subcentral nucleus ; outside 
green, granulate, wrinkled on outer margin, with a radial sulcus 
marking the limit of the margin of increment. 

The synonymy includes T. foliaceus Hombr. et Jacq., T. lamivif- 
erus Reeve, T. lamellosus Phil., and T. squamosus Gray. 

T. iNTERCosTALis Menke, 1846. PI. 45, fig. 98 ; PI. 46, fig. 4 ; pi. 

62, fig. 7. 

Shell ovate-conic, solid, perforate, green or gray, radiately flam- 
mulate with black, green or brown, sometimes unicolored ; whorls 
6, convex, sometimes subangulate above, with numerous unequal re- 
volving liraj and obsolescent incremental stria^ ; aperture round, the 



202 TURBO. 

upper angle sometimes separated from body-whorl, and projecting, 
l)ase rounded, columella excavated at umbilicus. Alt. 40-50 mill. 

Xew Cahdoma ; Sandwich Is. 

Operculum circular, with 5 whorls ; outside granulose, green or 
olivaceous at centre, yellowish at margins. 

.Sculpture less sharp than in the following form, and color greener. 

The synonyms are T. disjiuictus Anton, T. concinnus Phil., and 
T. articulatus Reeve, (pi. 4.5, fig. 98) T. elegans Phil., =; T. radiatus 
Rve., (pi. 46, figs. 5, 6) is a form somewhat intermediate between 
typical intereostalis and tlcaoniciis Reeve. 

T. TicAONicus Reeve, 1848. PI. 47, fig. 22 ; pi. 4.3, fig. 51. 

Shell ovate-conic, perforate, solid, dirty white or greenish, radiate- 
ly flammulate above and maculate below Avith black or brown ; 
whorls 6, convex, slightly flattened below the subcanaliculate sut- 
ures, sometimes subcarinate, spirally sculptured with inequal lirse, 
the intervening furrows sharjily squamose with striee of increment; 
aperture round, produced into a projecting angle posteriorly and 
frequently disconnected from the body-whorl, white and pearly with- 
in, rounded or slightly produced below; outer lip crenulate, colu- 
mellar arched, excavated at the narrow umbilicus, which is some- 
times subimperforate. Alt. 50-60 mill. 
Philippines; New Caledonia; Seychelles ; Madagascar; Singapore, etc. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 47, 49,) with four whorls and subcentral nu- 
cleus ; outside very convex, deep green, olive or brownish in the 
centre, lighter toward the margins, all over except side of increment 
finely granulose, and with a radial sulcus marking the limit of the 
margin of increment. The prominent character of the operculum 
in this species, as well as in T. foliaceus etc., is the manner in which 
the outer layer of calcareus matter overlies tlie granulose surface 
below, with an obvious sulcus at their junction. PI. 60, fig. 38, is 
the operculum of the form known as T. tiimidubis Rve. 

The following are synonyms: T. radiatus Kiener (in part), T. 
tumidiilus Reeve. This species is closely related to T. intereostalis 
Mke., but differs in color, in tlue greater prominence of the ribs, and 
in the operculum. My description and figure of the operculum of 
ticaonicHS are drawn from alcoholic specimens containing the animal. 
T. foliaceus Phil, is also allied, and has similar operculum, but has 
much more conspicuous incremental lamella?. The umbilicus is in- 
differently perforate or closed, sometimes rather wide, and the 
variation in sculpture is considerable. T. jmlcJier Reeve is separated 
from this species principally because, according to Sowerby, its oper- 
culum is different. I suspect however that he is mistaken in this, 
and that it will prove to l)e the same; pulcher is the prior name. 



TURBO. 203 

T. PULCHER Reeve, 1842. PL 46, fig. 7. 

Shell ovate-conic, solid, subimperforate, yellowish fawn color, 
greenish toward the apex, painted with short blackish waved longi- 
tudinal lines ; whorls 6-7, not very convex, lirate with numerous 
irregular ribs, alternately large and small, the interstices scaly ; 
aperture subrotund, pearly white Avithin, peristome crenulate ; col- 
umella slightly thickened and somewhat produced at base. Alt. 60 
mill. N. Andralia. 

Operculum, according to Sowerby, like that of T. sarmaticus. 
This however is highly improbable. I expect to find it like that of 
T. ticaonkus and other allied species of Senedns. 

T. MOLuccENsrs Phil, 1846. PI. 44, fig. 76. 

Shell globose-conoid, umbilicate, green, rufous marbled ; whorls 
rounded, the upper ones reddish, spirally lirate, the line unequal, 
slightly elevated, separated by narrow obsoletely crenulated inter- 
stices ; aperture subcircular, lip within green-margined, obsoletely 
crenulated. Ins. Amboina. 

Philippi's description and figure are given. 

T. CASTANEUS Gmel., 1788. PI. 45, figs. 88-90. 

Shell ovate-conic, imperforate, solid, orange-colored, brown or 
gray, sometimes banded, flammulate, or maculated with white ; spire 
conic, acute; suture subcanaliculate; whorls 5-6, convex, ornamen- 
ted with numerous unequal spiral granose, spinose or squamose lira?, 
of which the subsutural and three or four submedian are more 
prominent; aperture white, subcircular, subangular above; peristome 
slightly produced below; columella wath a heavy white callus. 

Alt. 30, diam. 25 mill. 

West Indies; coast of the Gulf of Mexico. 

Operculum (PI. 59, fig. 8,) castaneous within, with four rapidly 
increasing whorls, nucleus one-third the distance across the face; 
outside convex, nearly smooth, white, or stained with brown and 
green around the middle. 

T. n-enulatus Gmel., T. virens Anton, and T. hippocastanum Lam. 
are synonymous. 

The typical form is very sharply sculptured, the principal lirse 
bearing vaulted scales. In crenulatus Gmel. the ribs bear less con- 
spicuous tubercles. An abundant and variable species. 



204 TURBO. 

T. QUADRisERiATUS Antcwi, 1839. PI. 44, fig. 79. 

This form is known to me only by a short description and 
Philippi's figure, which I have reproduced. I am inclined to believe 
it a form of T. castaneiis, although I have seen no specimen of that 
species approaching very nearly to it. Anton says that it has "45 
bauschige Windungen, letzte mit vier Reiheu stumpfer Tuberkeln 
besetzt, die iibrigen bloss quergestreift," etc. 

West Indies (Anton.) 

T. SQUAMiGER Reeve, 1842. PI. 49, fig. 43. 

Shell globosely ovate, imperforate, suture excavated ; whorls 5-6, 
convex, carinate, the last ventricose, with erect tubercles at the 
suture, "spirally armed throughout with scales, upper and lower 
scales much larger; pale green, dotted and variegated with reddish 
brown, interior silvery." Alt. 27, diam. 26 mill. 

W. coast Mexico and Central America : Galapagos. 

I have not seen this species. It may perhaps belong in Callojioma, 
but also resembles a very roughly sculptured T. castaneiis. 

T. MOLTKiANus Gmel., 1788. PI. 49, figs. 44. 45. 

Shell ovate-conic, solid, imperforate ; whorls 5, convex, subcari- 
nate above, striate, irregularly Urate and bearing a series of rather 
elongated radiating tubercles below the suture ; shoulder tuberculate, 
median portion of body-whorl with several less prominent nodose 
carinse ; aperture oval ; columella callous, arched, deflected and 
somewhat produced below ; color whitish with broad revolving 
bands of dull red. Alt. 40, diam. 35 mill. 

West ( 'oast of Mexico. 

This is undoubtedly the cochlea liinaris moltkiana etc. of Chemnitz, 
Turbo moltkianus Gmelin. I have been on the point of placing this 
and the next species in Callopoma. The resemblance to T. saxosus 
is striking ; but it differs in its less sloping shoulder and in the 
absence of the columellar^groove. The operculum is unknown. 

T. suBCASTANEus Pilsbry, 1888. PL 46, figs 10, 11. 

Shell ovate-pointed, imperforate, grayish; spire conic, acute; 
w-horls 5, marked with revolving series of tubercles, subangulate 
and nodulose at shoulder ; suture well impressed, with a series of 
coarse radiating corrugations below it ; aperture rounded, slightly 
exceeding half the length of shell, white within ; columella arched, 
slightly dilated at base. Alt. 23, diam. 19 mill. 

Habitat iinknoivii. 



TURBO. 205 

This is the T. pudulatus of Reeve, preoc. by Brocchi. I add to 
Reeve's figure of this species, one drawn from a specimen in the 
Academy's museum. I have a form of T. castaneus which ap- 
proaches it; and subcastaneus may prove to be a vari^^ty of that 
species; an opinion already advanced by Sowerby Jr. The oper- 
culum is unknown. 

T. CAiLLETi Fischer et Bernardi, 1856. PI. 48, fig. 37. 

Shell ovate-conic, perforate, solid, shining; sutures impressed; 
whorls 5-6, convex, rounded, spirally Urate; last whorl exceeding 
balance of shell in length, with six prominent spiral lirse and mi- 
nutely lirate around the umbilicus; aperture ovate, transversely 
dilated, silvery within; peristome acute; columella white, thickened; 
colo)' intense orange-red, the lira- punctate with white. 

Alt. 27, diam. 28 mill. 

Guadaloupe, West Indies. 

Operculum convex without, white. 

T. FiLosus Kiener, (18 ?) PL 48, fig. 86 ; pi. 62, fig. 6. 

Shell ovate-conic, umbilicate, sjiire acute, orange colored, or with 
longitudinal alternating orange and white flames ; whorls 5-6 ; de- 
pressed around the upper part, rounded, spirally lirate, the lirse 
about fifteen on the last whorl, finer beneath, and generally with 
liruke in the interstices about the middle portion ; suture impressed, 
l)ordered below by a fiat tract ; aperture oval, white within ; colu- 
mella thickened into an outwardly flaring lip below, and connecting 
above with a parietal callus which partly covers the umbilicus and 
is produced in front of the aperture. Alt. 25-26, diam. 23-25 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

To Kiener's illustration (fig. 36,) I add that of a specimen with 
longitudinal fiames of color, (fig. 6.) 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 53,) white outside, and showing an obsolete 
spiral structure like that of T. spenglerianus. With this species it 
seems to be most nearly allied. 

T. STENOGYRUS Fischer, 1873. PL 50, fig. 64. 

Shell ovate-conic„ acute, elongate, imperforate ; whorls 6, rounded, 
transversely lirate, radiate and finely striate; last whorl scarcely 
exceeding balance of shell in length ; suture margined ; lir^ narrow. 
bel(jw with flat ribs, the interstices and below the suture striate ; 
aperture circular, silvery within, columella regularly arcuate, not 



206 TURBO. 

produced at base ; color pale green, with chestnut maculations, the 
lirse white and brown articulated. Alt. 26, diam. 21 mill. 

Ins. BasiJan, PhUipphics. 

T. GEMMATus Reeve, 1848. PI. 44, figs. 68, 69. 

"Shell somewhat depressly ovate, imperforated, sutures of the 
spire somewhat deeply channelled, whorls beaded throughout with 
small nodules, light coral red, interior silvered." {Reeve.) 

Habitat unknoum. 

I have added Sowerby's figure (69) to the original one of Reeve. 
I do not know the species. 

T. pARVULus Phil., 1848. PI. 44, figs. 73, 74.^ 

Shell ovate-conoid, imperforate, with strongly convex whorls, en- 
circled by flat lii'se, which are wider than the striate interstices, 
smooth, the incremental stri?e scarcely marking them ; aperture sub- 
circular ; coloration variable; in one example green predominates, 
marbled with black and yellowish-white flecks ; another is reddish- 
brown mingled with olive-green, nearly unicolored. 

Alt. 20, diam. 17 mill. 

Lieu'kiew Is. 

The description and figures are taken from those of Philippi. 

T. SEMicosTATus Pease, 1860. PI. 63, fig. 19. 

"Shell depressly ovate,' finely striated, obliquely and longitudi- 
nally ; spire and upper part of last whorl ridged, lower half smooth, 
ridges irregular in size, somewhat angulated at the centre, aperture 
circular, lip slightly effuse at base, imperforate, color light brownish 
red, marbled and variegated with darker, and ornamented with a 
broad yellowish spiral band below the periphery of the last whorl." 
(Pease.) Ins. Capu/. {Cuming.) 

I copy the original description of Pease, and the figure given by 
Sowerby. The species may be a Leptothyra. 

T. sMiTHi Sowerby, 1886. PI. 44, figs. 64, 65. 

Shell ovate-conic, imperforate, yellowish brown, or yellow clouded 
with orange-brown ; spire elevated, acute ; whorls 5, sloping above, 
convex, longitudinally irregularly striate, spirally costate, the costse 
rugose, irregular, slightly elevated, about four on penultimate, twelve 
on body-whorl ; aperture circular, peristome simple, columella 

white. 

Ins. Capul. {Cuming.) 



TURBO. 207 

This species is known to me only by Sowerby's description and 
figures. 
T. SANDWICENSIS Pcase, 1860. Unfigured. 

Shell ovately turbinated, slightly perforated, somewhat tubulous, 
spirally ridged ; — ridges smooth alternately rather smaller, squa- 
mose; scales most prominent on the last whorl, interstices between 
the ridges finely imbricately laminated ; last whorl somewhat angula- 
ted at the upper part, color green, marbled and variegated with 
dark brownish red." {Pease.) Sandwich Is. 

T. TROCHOiDES Rceve. 1848. PI. 39a, fig. 34. 

"Shell somewhat pyramidally ovate, perforated; whorls spirally 
grooved, concave round the upper j)art, then obsoletely nodose; 
yellowish- white, radiately blotched with oliv^e and obliquely vermicu- 
lated with very minute orange-brown lines." (Beeve.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. EXQUI8ITUS Angas, 1877. PI. 63, figs. 25, 26. 

"Shell small, imperforate, solid, pale greenish buff or light pink, 
painted with very broad descending flames of an orange color on 
the upper portion of the whorls; whorls 42, angulated on the 
periphery, flattened above, the upper whorls encircled below the 
angle with two and the last whorl with five stout scabrously nodulous 
ribs; between these and the sutures are four or five smaller and 
closer ribs of a similar character, and on the base of the last whorl 
about eight ribs which are less nodulous and scabrous than those 
above, the interstices being crossed by finestriic; spire somewhat 
elevated ; aperture nearly circular ; columella thickened, terminat- 
ing in a blunt callosity at the base ; pearly within." (Angas.) Alt. 
12, diam. 9 mill. 

Cape Solander, Botany Bay, Australia. 

A variety occurs of a brilliant orange-red color throughout. 

T. PUSTULATUS Brocchi. PI. 44, fig. 80. 

"This interesting species, which was perfectly defined by Brocchi, 
is characterized by a trochiform shell extremely solid and thick, 
ornamented exteriorly by nodulous transverse ribs, slightly elevated 
and irregular. Its whorls are 5 in number. It is of a dirty green 
color, except around the aperture where small red points appear. 
The aperture is round, and has the right lip interiorly furrowed 
and granulated. The operculum is very convex, and of an ashy 
color. Alt. 15, diam. 12 mill." Suez. 



208 TURBO. 

I do not have access to Brocchi's description of this form. The 
al)ove is a translation of Issel's note in Mai. del Mar Rosso, p. 219. 
My figure is a copy of that of Savigny, to which Issel refers. 

I cannot learn the exact date of Brocchi's paper, "Chtalogo di una 
serle di conchiglie raccolte presso la costa africana del golfo arabico 
dal signor G. Forni," in which this form was described. It was 
published in a journal entitled Bihlioteca Italiana, sometime between 
1819 and 1823. 

T. cucuLLATUs Tenisou-Woods, 1878. Unfignred. 

Shell solidly turbinate, with large irregnlar scorched patches on 
a dirty white ground ; whorls Ak, spirally closely keeled with small 
round alternating keels, on the larger of which, about twelve in 
number, there are small tubercles or small raised hooded scales ; 
the whole shell is obliquely closely imbricately striate; suture im- 
pressed; aperture round, entire, and with an outer margin, within 
which there is a very clearly defined line of silvery nacre which 
lines the throat ; base convex, lirate. Alt. 24, diam. 18 mill. 

King's Id., Bass Sts., Tasmania. 

The proper position of this Senechis is unknown to me. 

T. spENGLERiANus Gmel., 1788. PI. 42, fig. 43 ; pi. 50, fig. 65. 

Shell imperforate, large, ovate-conic, white, irregularly maculated 
and articulated with brown ; spire conic, acute ; whorls 6-7, rounded, 
separated by widely channelled sidures, the last whorl ventricose, en- 
circled by about seventeen smooth ribs wdiich are as broad or broader 
than their interstices ; aperture ovate, white within, outer lip thin, 
base rounded ; columella with a very broad white callus which is 
refiexed over the axis from umbilical region downward ; parietal 
wall callous. Alt. 85, diam. 70 mill. 

West Indies ; Gulf of Mexico. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 35) light brown inside, flat, with 3-4 
whorls, rapidly increasing, with apex scarcely more than one-fourth 
the distance across face ; outside convex, white, much elevated close 
to the columellar edge, minutely acutely and sparsely granose, spiral, 
the beginning of the spiral more roughly asperate, partly covered by 
a rude callus ; outer edge marked by several concentric impressed 
lines. 



TURBO. 209 

T. HETEROCHEiLus Pilsbiy, 1888. PL 69, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell subimperforate, turbinate-conic, solid, soiled white, above 
longitudinally flammulate with greenish and brown, base irregular- 
ly maculated with the same colors ; sculpture consisting of spiral 
lirte cut into regular close rounded beads ; the interstices between 
the principal lirse occupied by beaded lirulre, or, on' the upper 
whorls by very close regular small folds, in the direction of 
incremental lines, the surfaces of which show traces of microscopic 
impressed spiral lines; the lirse number about 20 on the last whorl ; 
three or four about the peripheral region are more prominent; those 
of the base are subequal, and less conspicuous ; the sculpture also 
becomes obsolescent toward the termination of the last whorl; spire 
conic, acute, small ; sutures subcanaliculate, with a beaded border; 
whorls 5o-6, quite convex, rapidly increasing, the last large, con- 
vex, slightly descending anteriorly ; aperture about half the total 
altitude of shell, oblique, oval, rounded above and below, silvery 
within, the outer lip acute, rather thin, regularly arcuate, the col- 
umellar callous continued upon the parietal wall, forming a regu- 
larly arcuate inner lip ; parietal callus dilated upon the body-whorl 
in front of the aperture ; columella rounded, the lip slightly everted, 
partly covering the umbilical fissure, which is encircled by a spiral 
ridge terminating at the base of the columella. 
Alt. 35, diam. 33 mill. 

Hahitat unJcnotvn. 

This handsome Senedus is more closely allied to T. Jilosus than to 
any other known species. The general form and proportions are 
the same , but the beautifully beaded lirse and especially the almost 
perfectly oval aperture will separate it from that species. In color, 
too, the forms are diverse. The parietal callus is not shaped like 
that of T. Jilosus, nor is the columella below so broadly everted and 
lipped as in that species. The anterior outline of the callus, from 
the base to the superior angle of the aperture, is wholly diflferent in 
the two species. The sculpture and columella will separate this 
form from T. spencjlerianus, w^hich, with heterodiellas and jilosus 
form a group of species, lying on the outskirts of Senectus, the more 
prominent characters of which are found in the peculiar parietal 
callus and the operculum Avhich exhil)its a feebly spiral structure 
outside. 
14 



210 TURBO. ' 

(Batillus.) 
T. CORXUTUS Gmel., 1788. PI. 43, figs. 50, 52. 

Shell large, ventricose, ovate-pointed, imperforate, brown, grayish 
or' greenish, with irregular incremental striee and spiral lirte; spire 
conic, acute ; sutures deeply impressed ; whorls 6, the last one and 
one-half ventricose, somewhat bicarinate, armed about the middle 
Avith two spiral series of erect tubular spines, and frequently a small- 
er accessory row above; aperture oblique, rounded, w'hite within; 
lip thin ; columella broad, flattened and somewhat grooved, pro- 
duced and channelled at base. Alt. 95, diam. 95 mill. 

Japanese Seas- 

Operculum (pi. 60, figs. 33, 34) within brown, concave, Avith four 
Avhorls, nucleus one-thir<l the distance across the face ; outside con- 
vex, white or tinged with brow^n and olive, more or less sharply as- 
perate with elevated points, and with a spiral rib commencing in an 
axial elevation and terminating at the margin of increment. 

T. japonicus Reeve, in part, (pi. 43, fig. 52) is synonymous. 

The lower series of spines is sometimes absent. 

Subgenus Callopoma Gray, 1850. 

Shell turbinate, imperforate, dark colored ; aperture round ; face 
of the columella with a deep curved longitudinal groove. Opercu- 
lum circular with subcentral apex ; outside convex, granulose, with 
a deep central pit and a marginal cordon of granulose ribs, separa- 
ted by narrow, deep concentric grooves. 

Californian and Panamic Provinces. 

The afl&nities of this group are with Ninella on the one hand and 
Senectus on the other. In the latter group, the opercula of T. speng- 
lerianus and T. cornutus show some affinity to those of Callopoma. 

T. FLiTCTuosus Wood. PI. 43, figs. 48a, 49 ; PI. 50, figs. 54, 55. 

Shell ovate-conic, short, solid, imperforate, olivaceous, green, 
brown or grayish, longitudinally strigate or tessellate with white ; 
spire conic ; whorls 5, generally angulate and nodose at shoulder, 
W'ith a varying number of coarse subnodose revolving carinse and of 
intermediate liruke upon the median and lower portions of the body- 
whorl ; aperture large, iridescent within ; columella Avide, w'hite, 
slightly produced at the base, and Avith a longitudinal excavation 
or groove upon its face. Alt. 58, diam. 65 mill. 

West Coast of America, from Gulf of California northward. 



TURBO. 211 

The synonyms are T. fluctuatus Reeve, T. moUManus Reeve, T. 
fokkesi Jonas, T. assimilis (fig. 55) T. fessenafu-s, (fig. 54) and in 
])art T, saxosus, of Kiener. 

Operculum (pi. 59, fig. 29) rounded oval, witli four whorls and 
subcentral nucleus ; outside convex, central portion elevated, white, 
sharply granulate, bounded by a wide groove which connects with 
a deep central pit by a lunate channel; outside of this is a zone 
bearing about six narrow concentric beaded green lirulse, which are 
not continuous over the side of increment. 

Sometimes most of the sculpture is subobsolete; whorls rounded. 
The largest specimen I have seen measures alt. 80, diam. 75 mill. 

Yar. DEPRESsus Carp. PI, 43, fig. 48. 

Shell much more depressed than the type. 

California. 

Carpenter cites Reeve's pi. viii, fig. 34 as representing his variety; 
but that figure is of the common form. Reeve's fig. 3c on pi. ix, is 
probably what Carpenter intended. 

T. SAXOSUS Wood. PI. 48, figs. 31, 82; PI. 50, fig. 56; PI. 57, fig. 
50. 

Shell ovate-conic, imperforate, brown, olive or gray, above radi- 
ately marked, below irregularly maculated with snowy white, some- 
times dark, unicolored; spire conic, acute; suture canaliculate; 
whorls 5-6, lamellosely densely striate and spirally irregularly 
lirate, carinated, usually more or less nodose at shoulder, and 
bearing a subsutural series of stout erect tubercles; aperture half 
the length of shell, rounded, white and iridescent within ; columella 
arched, callous, concave, with a deep semilunar longitudinal groove, 
slightly produced at base. Alt. 35-50, diam. 30-45 mill. 

W- Coast Central America to Galapagos. 

T. nitzschii Anton ("mitzchii Anton" Sby.), and T. venustus Phil. 
are synonyms. 

Opprculum (pi. 59, figs. 30, 31) rounded oval, flat and dark 
chestnut inside, with four or five whorls and subcentral nucleus : 
outside convex, white, middle portion coarsely granulose, with a 
deep narrow central pit, bounded by a deep concentric farrow not 
continuous over the margin of increment, outside of Avhich are three 
narrow minutely beaded concenti'ic ridges, margin of increment 
granulose. 



212 TURBO. 

An extremely variable species. Frequently several tuberculate 
lirse encircle the base ; and in this strongly nodose variety the in- 
cremental striae are usually inconspicuous. In another form the 
spiral lirse are not noticably tuberculate. 

T. SHANDi Hutton, 1873. Unfigured. 

"Shell with three smooth spiral ribs near the periphery, with two 
or three nodulous ribs both above and below; white, s^wtted with 
reddish or purplish brown." 

Chatham Is. 

The above description, (copied from Proc. Linn. Soe. X. S. ]Vales 
ix, p. 355) is all the information I can give regarding this species. 
The copy of Hutton's "Catalogue of Marine Mollusca of New 
Zealand" to which I have access is without the signature containing 
his description. The operculum is unknown. Hutton places it with 
doubt in Ccdlopoma, probably not its correct position. 

Subgenus Ninella Gray, 1850. 
Shell depressed, widely umbilicate ; whorls lirate, sometimes car- 
inate. Operculum oval, nucleus excentric ; outside concave in the 
middle, with two strong spiral ribs, the outer margin thin, granulate. 

A ustralo-Zealandic Province. 

T. STAMiNEUS Martyu, 1784. PI. 42, fig. 38 ; pi. 49, fig. 46. 

Shell large, orbiculate, conic, solid, umbilicate, whitish, mottled 
and strigate with dark brown ; whorls 6, with dense lamellose in- 
cremental striae and coarse spiral lirae, the upper ones carinated, the 
carina becoming obsolete on body- whorl ; sutures canaliculate, bor- 
dered below by a row of nodules; aperture round, oblique, white 
within ; columella white, perforated by the wide and deep umbili- 
cus, and Avith a spiral groove extending to the base. 

Alt. 60-80, diam. 75-110, mill. 

S. Australia; New Ireland; New Zealand. 

Operculum (pi. 59, figs. 15, 16) oval, flat within, with four whorls, 
nucleus situated one-third the distance across the face ; outside white^ 
excavated at the center, with two strong spiral ribs, the inner one 
decidedly the stronger ; a sharply granular tract outside the outer 
rib.' The figure given does not well show the character of the ribs. 

Synonyms: T. torquatas Gmel., " T. stramineiis Wood" of authors. 

This species varies much in degree of elevation and carination. 
It merges by insensible degrees into the var. lamellosus. In the 
typical form the sutures are frequently simple, not canaliculate, and 
the subsutural tubercles are wanting. 



TURBO. 213 

Var. LAMELLOSUS Brod. PI. 43, fig. 54; pi. 49, fig. 47. 

Shell more depressed; last whorl strongly carinate at periphery; 
color light. Alt. 50, diam. 68 mill. 

This is T. heteroditus Kiener and var. sxdccda Reeve. 

Subgenus Modelia Gray, 1840. 

Shell depressed, imperforate, granulate all over ; "operculum with 
a convex subcentral granular rib and a sharp-edged submarginal 
keel." 

A ustra Jo-Zealandic Prov in ce. 

T. GRANosus Marty n, 1784. PI. 48, fig. 39. 

Shell orbiculate, depressed-conic, imperforate, pinkish yellow, uni- 
colored, or clouded with purplish or brown ; whorls 7, rounded, the 
upper two smooth, the others closely minutely grauulose in regular 
spiral series ; last whorl rounded, descending ; apertui'e subcircular, 
Avhite and iridescent within ; columella wide, Avhite, subexcavated 
in the center, callus thin, shining, rose-tinted. 

Alt. 40-64, diam. 50-05 mill. 

Aew Zealand ; Chatham Is. 

"Operculum ovate, flat within, with ^i-^o whorls and subcentral 
nucleus ; outside white, thick, subgibbous, and minutely tuberculate 
at center, subcanaliculate at periphery." 

"T. rubicundits Chemnitz" of authors is a synonym. 

This species was first figured by Chemnitz in 1781 under the des- 
criptive name of cochlea lioiaris ruhicunda granosa etc. Reeve in 
his Conch. Syst. figures the shell, naming it T. rubicnndus, and re- 
ferring to P. Z. S., 1842, for description. His reference has been 
copied by subsequent authors, but curiously enough, the species is 
not even mentioned in the "Proceedings," for 1842 or any other year. 
Martyn's figure is excellent, and being the first publication of the 
species under a binominal name, has been here adopted. 

T. GUTTATA A. Ad., 1863. PI. 63, fig. 39. 

Shell turbinate-conic, umbilicus covered by callus, spire elevated ; 
flesh-colored, gold-tinted, punctate with reddish ; sutures canalicu- 
late, deep; whorls convex, cingulate with rows of bead-like separa- 
ted granules, interstices longitudinally obliquely striate, at the suture 
ornamented with a series of squamiform tubercles ; aperture circular, 
sulcate within, a thin wide callus covering the umbilicus. 

Tatiyama, Japan. 



214 TURBO. 

Subgenus Ocana Adams, 1861. 
"Shell turbinate, solid, smooth ; axis imperforate ; spire short, 
conical ; aperture subcircular, Avider than long, inner lip flattened, 
excavated, scarcely produced anteriorly, with an extended thin cal- 
lus. Operculum with a convex granular spiral rib, axis deeply per- 
forated, outer lip simple." 

South African Province. 

T. ciDARis Gmel., 1788. PI. 50, figs, 62, 63 ; pi. oQ, fig. 81. 

Shell depressed, heliciform, imperforate, smooth and polished ; red- 
dish, brown or yellow, usually llammulate above, variously marked 
below, with white ; spire short, whorls 5-6, the upper ones bicari- 
nate, the last often considerably descending, rounded ; aperture circu- 
lar, oblique, white within, rounded below; columella wide, callous, 
excavated at the umbilical region. Alt. 25-40, diam. 33-48 mill. 

South African Coasts. 

Operculum slightly concave inside, with six whorls and subcen- 
tral apex ; outside sharply granulate, white, convex, spiral, with a 
central pit. 

I have not had an opportunity to examine 'either animal ()r 
opercnlum of this species. 

T. ciRCULARis Reeve, 1848. Pi. 41, fig. 24. 

Shell orbicular, conoid, imperforate, pale flesh-color, maculated 
with bright rufous; apex acute; whorls convex, spirally sculptured 
with granulose lirse; aperture circular, columella wide, callous, 
slightly dilated, bounded outside by a spiral funicle. 

Alt.'32, diam. 34 mill. 

Adelaide, and St. Vincents Gidf,S. Australia. 

T. (jruneri Phil. (pi. 56, fig. 82) is a synonym. 

There is some uncertainty about which of the above names has 
priority for this species. The volume of the Conchylien Cabinet in 
which Philippi's description occurs, bears date of 1846 ; but it was 
not completed until after the publication of Reeve's monograph of 
Turbo in the Iconica. Philippi begins to cite Reeve in his synonymy 
on p. 69 of his Avork, so that from that point onward we may be 
certain that his work appeared subsequent to Reeve's; but whether 
liis description of T. gntneri (p. 52 of the Couch. Cab.) Avas actually 
j)ublished before Reeve'.s description I am unable to decide. Brazier 



TURBO. 215 

(Trans. Roy. Boc. S. Australia, ix, p. 125) gives priority to gruneri, 
"Philippi in Zeitschrift fur Malalc, p. 98." The species was never 
published in the Zeitschrift. 

The operculum is unknown to me; the species may perhaps be 
found to group elsewhere. 

Subgenus Marmorostoma Swainson, 1840. 

Shell depressed-turbinate, very solid, deeply and widely umbili- 
cate (except . in T. coronatus), smooth, lirate or nodulose; spire 
depressed, of few whorls; aperture round, produced but not chan- 
nelled at base. Operculum circular, nucleus subcentral, outside 
convex, smooth or granulose. 

Anstralo- Zealandic Province. 

T. roRPHYRiTEs Martyn, 1784. PL 50, fig. 58. 

Shell depressed-turbinate, solid, umbilicate, greenish or blackish, 
irregularly marked with maculations and angular patches or with 
spiral bands of white and dark ; spire depressed, obtuse ; Avhorls 5, 
the upper ones frequently carinate ; suture subcanaliculate, or often 
scarcely at all impressed, sometimes bordered below by a series of 
obsolescent undulations; upper whorls spirally striate or granulate, 
the sculpture becoming obsolete on last whorl but sometimes re- 
appearing around the base; last whorl somewhat descending, large ; 
aperture oval, angulate above and below, white and iridescent 
within, frequently margined with greenish ; parietal wall frequently 
excavated or callous; broad, somewhat flattened below the deep 
narrow umbilicus, dilated and produced or rostrate at base. 

Alt. 35, diam. 40 mill. 
Indian 0.; Philippines; Neio Caledonia; Solomon Is.; Australia, etc. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 49) inside flat, with five whorls and sub- 
central nucleus; outside very convex, white, the outer part green, 
obsoletely granulose, nearly smooth. 

This is T. versicolor, mespilus, ludus and porj^hyrites Gmel. T. 
lugubris Kiener (PI. 50, fig. 57). T. versicolor Rve. (pi. 42, fig. 39,) 
is somewhat intermediate between porjihyrites and porcatus. 

T. mespilus is said by Fischer to be thinner, more uniform in 
color, more rostrate at base, last whorl more descending; but all the 
characters are so variable that I cannot draw the line between the 
several forms. 



216 TURBO. 

Var. PORCATUs Rve. 1848. PI. 48, fig. 34. 

Shell depressed-globose, solid, umbilicate; spire obtuse; suture 
slightly undulating; whorls 5, spirally lirate, and with limine in the 
interstices ; aperture, color and operculum as in T. j)orphyriies. 

N. Australia; Neio Ireland. 

Separated from T. porphyrites by the strong spiral sculpture. 

T. UNDULATUS Martyn, 1784. PI. 42, fig. 40. 

Shell depressed-globose, solid, umbilicate, bright green, longitudi- 
nally strigate with white under a brown epidermis; spire dome- 
shaped, or low-conic, obtuse; whorls 5, the upper ones sometimes 
angulate, spirally lirate, the liri?e wider than their interstices, on the 
body-whorl often subobsolete; last whorl descending, somewhat 
concave below the suture; aperture oval, white within ; columella 
with a very wide white flattened callus which extends over the 
umbilical tract ; umbilicus wide and deep. 

Alt. 35-58, diam. 40-63 mill. 

New Zealand; Australia. 

Sometimes unicolored green, or with the white strigations broken 
into tessellations. Reeve's figure which I have copied is more de- 
pressed than most specimens. 

Var. siMSONi Tenison-Woods, 1876. Unfigured. . 

Separated from T. undidatus by the smaller size, the numerous 
red and black radiating flammules and the peculiar raised carina 
on the upper side of the last whorl, continuing around the suture in 
a kind of hem. Alt. 9, diam. 12 mill.. 

Georges Bay Head and Blachnan^s Bay, Tasmania. 

T. CORONATUS Gmel., 1788. PI. 50, figs. 59-61. 

Shell depressed-turbinate, diamater greater than the altitude, solid 
imperforate, covered with irregular spiralseriesof nodules and gran- 
ules, of which the subsutural series and two on the median portion 
of body-whorl are more prominent; spire depressed, dome-shaped, 
apex frequently eroded and red ; whorls 4—5, the last very large ; 
aperture large, round, iridescent within; columella wide, flattened 
and excavated, deflexed recurved and somewhat chanelied at base, 

Alt. 40, diam. 50 mill. 

Indian Ocean; Japanese and Chinese Seas. 

Operculum inside flat, greenish and golden, iridescent, Avith about 
5-6 whorls and subcentral nucleus ; outside convex, greenish, sparce- 
ly granulate all over. 



TURBO. 217 

T. luguhris Reeve, T. hemprichi Troscliel, T. crenljerus, Kieuer 
and T. ducalis Phil, are synonyms. 

Usually smaller than the dimensions above given. The figures 
illustrate the wide variation to -which this species is subject. The 
passage from the strongly tuberculate forms into those in which the 
transverse striae simply cut the lirae into diamonds or granules is 
made by imperceptible degrees. 

Var. GRANULATUS Gmel, 1788. PI. 46, fig. 18. 

Shell typically more elongated than T. coronatus, altitude about 
equalling the diameter ; umbilicate, finely granulose all over, with 
subsutural and coronal series of tubercles, and sometimes one or two 
additional series upon the median part of body-whorl. 

Indian 0. ; Chinese Seas, etc. 

T. granulosus (Kiener) Sby., T. modestus Phil., are synonyms. 
Var. coREENSis Recluz. PI. 47, fig. 19. 

Similar in sculpture to var. granulatus, but imperforate. 

Alt. 19, diam. 22 mill. 

Corea; Japan. 
T. SMARAGDus Martyn, 1784. PI. G2, fig. 13. 

Shell depressed, heliciform, imperforate, solid, covered with a 
strong blackish cuticle, beneath which it is green ; usually eroded 
at apex ; whorls 4-5, upper ones spirally sulcate or carinate, the 
last large, flattened above, with incremental wrinkles and subobso- 
lete spiral sulci ; aperture large, oblique, rounded, pearly white with- 
in ; outer lip thin, black-edged, columella arched, with a pearly cal- 
lus ; unibilico-parietal area excavated, concave, white. 

Alt. 40-50, diam. 50-60 mill. 

Xeiv Zealand; Fiji Is. 

Operculum (pi. 59, fig. 8,) flat inside with four whorls, tlie nucle- 
us more than one-third the distance across the face; outside deep 
green except on the side of increment which is white ; very minute- 
ly remotely granose ; according to ITutton, smooth. 

It is T. helicinus Born, 1780. This name has precedence over 
Martyn's ; but I doubt the expediency of changing the w'ell-known 
name at this late day. I am not sure that the species belongs in 
Marmorostoma, but it certainly should not be placed in Turbo ss. as 
is usually done. 
Yar. TRicosTATUs Hutton, 1884. Unfigured. 

Body-whorl with three spiral ribs. 

Wellington to Dunedin, N. Zealand.. 



"218 TURBO. 

Subgenus Sarmaticus Gray, 1840. 

Shell depressed, ventricose, imperforate, smooth or nodulous; 
aperture oblique, large, columella wide. Operculum composed out- 
-side of a dense tuft of club-shaped processes; inside flat, Avith sub- 
central nucleus. 

Soidh African Province. 

Cidaris Swainson, 1840, (not of Klein nor Bolt.) is a synonym. 
T, SARMATicus Linn., 1758. PI. 40, fig. 17. 

Shell globose-depressed, imperforate, dull brownish, above flam- 
Tuulate, below more or less banded or maculate with white, usually 
showing more or less of the underlying orange-red layer, between 
Avhich and the nacre there is a stratum of intense black; spire verj' 
.short, conic; whorls 5-6, convex, the upper ones with revolving 
liroe, frequently carinated, the last traversed by several rows of 
nodules, of which the coronal is the more prominent and constant, 
concave above; aperture large, very oblique, beautifully nacreous 
"vvithin, orbicular; outer lip thin, margined with intense black within, 
nacre not extending to the edge; columella arcuate, wide, slightly 
produced below, broadly excavated above; parietal wall eroded, 
showing a black blotch. Alt. 60-100, diam. 70-120 mill. 

Cape Region of S. Africa. 

Operculum (pi. 59, figs. 13, 14) flat within, with 5-6 whorls and 
submedian nucleus ; outside convex, whitish, composed of a dense 
tuft of club-shaped profoundly separated agglomerated j)rocesses. 

S. classariiis Gray is synonymous. 

This species, the " Turk's Cap " of the shell dealers, is extremely 
iibundant at the Cape. 

T. NATALENsis Krauss, (January) 1848. PI. oQ, figs. 83, 84. 

Shell orbicular depressed, imperforate, olivaceous or brownish, 
radiately maculate above, irregularly below, with rufous and whit- 
ish ; spire depressed-conic, obtuse, apex crimson , whorls 5-6, con- 
vex, compressed below the sutures, spirally coarsely Urate, the last 
whorl with about twelve rather widely separated ribs; aperture 
subcircular, oblique, pearly within, outer lip thin, columella more 
■or less tinged with yellow or green, concave, broad above, with a 
•deep curved pit in the place of the umbilicus. 

Alt. 20-30, diam. 25-40 mill. 

Natal. 
Operculum like that of T. sarmaticus. 
T. natalensis Reeve (Jan.) 1848, is a synonym, 
Pischer mentions a uniform orange variety. 



TURBO. 210 

Subgenus PRrso(4ASTER ]Morch, 1850. 

Shell very solid, ovate or subglobular, dark colored, imperforate; 

aperture large, oblique ; Operculum inside yellow, subconcave, with 

submarginal, basal nucleus; outside very convex. 

Peruvian Province. 
Amyxa Troschel, 1852, is a synonym. 

T. NIGER Gray, 1839. PI. 42, fig. 42. 

Shell ovate, very solid, imperforate, deep dull purplish or bluish 
black ; spire short, convex, blunt ; whorls 5-H, somewhat flattened 
below the sutures, with superficial spiral line, and marked with light 
incremental strite ; aperture large, very oblique, ovate, silvery inside, 
rounded below; outer lip slightly fluted within; columella wide, 
white, bearing on its face a longitudinal rib which rises in the region 
of the umbilicus; parietal wall eroded, white, smooth, or with three 
white transverse rugre. Alt. 25-27, diam. 25-80 mill. 

Coasts of Chili and Peru. 

Amyxa nigra Troschel and possibly T. lur/ubris King, (1831), are 
synonymous. 

Operculum oval, concave within, buff, with 2-3 very rapidly in- 
creasing whorls, nucleus one-fourth the distance across the face from 
basal margin ; outside white, very convex, obsoletely rugose, (pi. 
69, figs. 32, 33.) 

The animal has four lateral filaments upon the epi^jodial line on 
either side. 

An example of which Fischer gives measurements is larger than 
any I have seen. Alt. 38, diam, 35 mill. 

T. ELEVATUS Souleyet, 184 . PI. 46, figs. 12-14; pi. 55, %. 73. 

Shell ovate-conic, imperforate, ashy-black, spire acute, elevated; 
whorls 5, convex, slightly excavated at sutures, nearly smooth, ob- 
soletely spirally lirate ; last whorl large, convex below; aperture 
ovate, silvery within; lip black; columella planate, depressed-con- 
cave, not produced at base. Alt. 13, diam. 12 mill. 

Coast of Chili. 

Operculum yellowish inside, ovate, with two to three whorls and 
sublateral nucleus ; outside convex, white, rugose, subumbilicate. 

T. propinqniis Hupe (pi. 55, fig. 73,) is a synonym. 



220 ASTRALIUM. 

Gemis ASTRALIUM Link, 1807. 

Shell trochiform, generally more or less flattened above or below; 
imperforate or umbilicate ; young speciynens ahvays carincded and 
spinose at the periphery ; operculnm oval or oblong, with (except in 
JBolma) submarginal or terminal multispiral nucleus; the last 
whorl forming far the greater portion of the operculum, usually 
with one or several ribs exteriorly, following the course of the spiral 
and most elevated at the distal extremity. 

The synonyms are Calear (Montf.) Fischer and other authors, 
Imperator (Montf) Auct., Trochus, in part, of all earlier authors, 
and Tarho, in part, Sowerby Jr. and others. 

Authors have been consideral)ly at variance in regard to both 
the limits and the proper designation of this genus. I have exam- 
ined the history of every name proposed for species of the group, 
either as generic or subgeneric, and find that none prior in date to 
that of Link (1807) are entitled to any standing in nomenclature, 

I am indebted to Dr. W. H. Dall for a copy of Link's description 
of Astralium. It was defined in the Beschreihung der Naturlien- 
Sammlnng der Universitdt zii Rostock, von D. H. F. Link, Professor, 
etc., p. 134-135, May 17, 1807 ; the genus is briefly described by 
Link and ^4. deplanoium given as the first species, with a reference 
to figures in Chemnitz, which fix the identity of deplanatmn with 
Lamarck's A. costulatum, a species of the West Indian group. 

Those species having a turbinate form, convex base and rounded 
periphery, such as ^4. rugosum, A. cwlatinn, A. tuber, have been 
frequently adduced by authors as supplying the connecting links 
between Turbo and Astralium ; but such resemblance as they have 
to Turbo is to be attributed not to any real relationship, but to a 
secondary modification which they have undergone from the stellate 
forms of Astralium. That this is the case is shown by the young of 
the turbinate species, Avhich we find to be flattened, acutely carinated 
and spinose, precisely as in typical Astralium. As a rule, the young 
of species of this genus are depressed, carinated and spinose at the 
periphery, the sjiines frequently being reduced in size or lost in the 
adult ; whilst in Turbo the young are in the spinose species smoother 
than the adult, the spines becoming always more prominent with age. 

The real connecting forms between these genera the student must 
look to palaeontology to supply; for the recent species which at first 
seem to be intermediate in characters are undoubtedly descending 
from stellate types of Astralium. 



ASTRALIUM. 



221 



Like Turbo, this geiuis is composed of a number of quite diverse 
subgenera of various degrees of affinity to each other. I am in- 
clined to divide them first into two series : those with the central 
teeth of the radula composed of several plates overlying each other, 
and without a reflected cusp at the superior margin, and those with 
a reflected cusp above. The natural sequence and affinities of the 
subgenera are sliown in the following table : 

f f Astraliuni, s.s. 

Central teeth of radula \ ^ ^ 

with cusps. I ^ Imperator. 

t 1 Guildfordia. 



Central teeth of radula 
without cusps. 



<. Bolma. 

( Cyclocantha. 
I U vanilla. 



r Cookia. 
-] Pomaulax. 
(^ Pachypoma. 



Subgenus Astralium, Link, s. str. 
Shell conical, elevated or depressed, narrowly umbilicate or im- 
perforate, carinate at the periphery, base planulate or convex, whorls 
above flattened or concave, costate or tuberculate ; operculum oval, 
outside smooth or nearly so, very convex, excavated near the center. 

West Indian Province. 
Calcar Schum., 1817, is a synonym. 

A. LONGispiNA Lam., 1822. PI. 51, figs. 1-9. 

Shell depressed conic or lens-shaped, umbilicate or imperforate ; 
Avhite, yellowish or light brown ; apex obtuse ; whorls o-Q, acutely 
carinated at periphery, concavely flattened above, obliquely plicate 
or spirally Urate, the lirse bearing tubercles or squamose processes ; 
periphery armed with recurved triangular obliquely wrinkled spines, 
usually thirteen to eighteen in number on the last whorl, and more 
or less projecting at the sutures ; base gently convex, densely laniel- 
lose radiately striate, and with about four concentric subnodose lira3 ; 
aperture transversely ovate, angled and canaliculate at termination 
of carina ; columella short, curved, somewhat dilated over the slight- 
ly indented umbilical tract ; umbilicus generally very narrow or not 
perforated. Alt. 30, diam. 65 mill. 

Entire West Indies; Bahamas; Bermuda; Tbrf tty as (Simpson) ; 
Guatemala. 



222 



ASTRALIUM. 



Operculum (pi. oO, i^g^. 57, 58) oval, nucleus sublateral ; outside 
white or slightly brownish, very convex, nearly smooth, excavated 
near the center. 

Trochus orichalceus (figs. 8, 9) T. aster, and T. heliucus Phil., T. 
planus (Gm.) Phil., Astmlium deplanatum Link and perhaps T. 
inermis Gniel. are synonymous. 

An abundant and variable sjjecies. Figs. 1, 2, represent the typ- 
ical form. The following variety has typically a very distinct as- 
l)ect; but I am unable to separate it specifically by constant or 
well marked characters. 

Var. spiNULosuM, Lam., 1822. PI. 51, figs. 4-6. 

Shell conically elevated, imperforate ; whorls flattened above, ra- 
diately costulate or spirally lirate, or both, and tuberculate or squa- 
mose ; peripheral carina generally subspinose or nodose ; concentric 
lirse on the base three to six in number, the inner generally nodose. 
Two specimens measure as follows : 

Alt. 32, diam. 61 mill ; alt. 38, diam. 45 mill. 

W. Indies; Florida. 

Fig. 6 is drawn from a specimen from Key West, Florida, collec- 
ted by Hemphill. Lamark's T. costulatus (pi. 51, fig. 7), is in form 
intermediate between typical longispina and var. spinulosum; it is 
umbilicate and obliquely plicate above. I cannot tell what species 
Reeve figured as T. spinttlosus ; it seems to be a very depressed form 
of A. petrosum Mart. It is certainly not the spinulosum of Lamarck. 

A. ARMATUM Phil, 1848. PI. 51, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell conic, apex acute ; sculpture as in var. spjinnlosum. 

Alt. 16, diam. 27 mill. 

Antilles (Philippi); St. Croix. 

A single specimen of this form I found in a suite of yl. longispina 
from St. Croix. From that species it diflTers in the conical acute apex. 
A. BREVispiNA Lam., 1822. PI. 52, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell conic, imperforate, solid ; whorls 6-7, flat above, obliquely 
costate below the sutures, then with several revolving series of gran- 
ules; periphery sharply carinate, armed w'ith short triangular spines 
which festoon the sutures and project more or less, about 10-13 
in number on the last whorl ; base a little rounded, radiately lamel- 
lose striate and concentrically lirate, the liras three to five in num- 
ber, mostly tuberculate, especially in the young ; aperture transverse, 
oval, channelled at outer angle ; columella short, arched ; place of 



ASTRALIUM. 22-? 

the umbilicus excavated, whitish, bounded by an intensely orange- 
vermillion tract. Alt. 28, diam. 40 mill. 

West Indies ; Florida Keys (Simpson); Costa Rica; Venezuela. 
T. aurispigmentmn Jonas is synonymous. 

It is frequently larger than I have indicated. 

A. LATispiNA Phil., 1844. PI. 63, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell imperforate, conic, greenish, brown maculated ; whorls 7, 
subplanate, obliquely costulate below the sutures, then with two 
beaded spiral lirae ; margins of whorls exserted, expanded, com- 
pressed, armed with triangular spines ; last whorl sharply carinate ; 
base radiately lamellose and ornamented with three or four granose 
concentric costse; umbilical area depressed, pale greenish or yellow- 
ish, aperture oblique, angulate. Alt. 35, diam. 50 mill. 

Gulf of Mexico to Rio Janeiro. 

Operculum oval, outside white, smooth, with a single arcuate 
wide rib ; inside flat, chestnut colored, nucleus submai'ginal. 

T. huschi Kiener, and T. tentorium Anton are synonyms. 

This form I have not satisfactorily identified with any shells I 
have seen. It seems to be closely allied to the preceding species. 

Subgenus Lithopoma Gray, 1850. 

Shell turbinate or trochifonn, elevated, imperforate, periphery^ 
carinated or rounded, whorls above radiately plicate ; oj^erculuni 
oval, outside coarsely granulose, and either simply convex or with a 
curved spiral rib with its terminations connected by a straight one; 
nucleus submarginal. West Indian Province. 

A. Turbinate species tviih rounded peripherij. 
A. TUBER Linn., 1767. PL 56, figs. 79, 80. 

Shell turbinate-conic, imperforate, ver}^ solid, dirty white or pale 
green, radiately maculated with brown above, irregularly marked 
and lighter below ; whorls 6, upper two smooth by erosion, the fol- 
lowing obliquely coarsely plicate and finely wrinkled in the same 
direction above, somewhat shouldered, obtusely angular near per- 
iphery, above which several obscure beaded lirse revolve, shagreeii- 
ed by intersection of incremental strise and oblique wrinkles ; base 
nearly smooth ; aperture very oblique, oval, silvery within ; colu- 
mella short, wide, generally bituberculate at the base, exca;vated 
over the location of the umbilicus. Alt. 45, diam. 50 mill. 

West Indian Province ; Florida 



224 ASTEALIUM. 

Operculum (pi. 60, figs. 42, 43) oval, nucleus submarginal ; out- 
side white, excavated around the upper edge, with a heavy coarsely 
grauulose rib following the central part of the spiral, its ends con- 
nected by a short rib. 

The young are subspinose at the periphery ; adults generally lose 
the more minute suface-sculpture described above. 

A. c.ELATUM Gmel., 1788. PI. 57, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell conic, solid, imperforate, soiled white, more or less tinged 
with green and brown ; spii*e elevated, apex acute ; whorls 6-7, 
convex, with fine incremental strise and oblique radiating folds 
above ; periphery with several prominent squamose or spinose lirie ; 
base somewhat flattened, with close squamose lirse separated by 
deep interstices ; aperture silvery within, transversely ovate, very 
oblique, its margins fluted ; columella extended, oblique, arcuate. 

Alt. 80, diam. 80 mill. 

West Indies; Bahamas, etc. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 44) oval, nucleus submarginal ; outside 
convex, white or brown tinted, coarsely granulose. 

This is the Trochus caelatus etc. of Chemnitz, T. ccelatus Chemnitz 
of authors. 

B. Conic species, with carinated lyeriphery and flattened base. 

In this section of Lithopoma the species are very variable, and it 
is difficult to find characters salient enough to satisfactorily sepa- 
rate several of them. Much more material than I have before me 
must be studied before the synonymy and limits of the various 
forms can be settled. 

A. AMERicANUM Gmel., 1788. PI. 52, figs. 18-20. 

Shell trochiform, elevated, imperforate, solid, white or yellowish ; 
Avhorls 7, the upper three smooth in adults by erosion of the sculpt- 
ure, flattened or concave on their upper surfaces, longitudinally 
obliquely plicate, the folds numbering about thirty-six on the last 
whorl, terminating on the periphery in nodules (or spines in the 
young,) generally intersected about the middle by two to four spiral 
impressed lines, periphery angled, more or less swollen ; base nearly 
flat, more or less sharply radiately striate, and spirally lirate, the 
lirse about six in number, or sometimes more, frequently nodulose ; 
aperture very oblique ; outer lip usually crenulated ; columella 
short, heavy, bituberculate at base, bounded by a radiately plicate 
cordon. Alt. 35, diam. 30-35 mill. 

West Indies ; Florida Keys. 



ASTEALIUM. 225 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 45) oval, light brown within, with sublat- 
eral nucleus ; outside convex, white, granulose, more or less excava- 
ted around the upper margin, excavated near the center ; young with 
a stout curved central rib following the spiral, its ends connected 
by a short straight rib. 

A. cuBANUM Phil., 1.S4S. PI. 56, figs. 77, 78. 

Shell elevated-conic, imperforate, solid, wdiitish or pale j'ellow ; 
whorls 7, upper two smooth by erosion, sutures moderately impress- 
ed ; whorls flattened above, longitudinally coarsely plicate, nodulous 
on the ijeripheiy, the folds about twenty-two to twenty-eight in num- 
ber on the last whorl, cut about the middle by a lew spiral impress- 
ed lines ; base slightly convex, concentrically Urate, and radiately 
densely striate, the lira3 about six in number, sometimes nodose ; 
aperture wide, subtrapezoidal ; columella arcuate, grooved slightly 
at position of umbilicus, bituberculate at base, surrounded by a ra- 
diately plicate cordon. Alt. 38, diam. 35 mill. 

West Indies ; Tortugas (Simj^son). 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 48) with a strong central spiral granular 
rib, with Its terminations joined by a short riblet, the interval be- 
tween them deeply excavated. 

Allied to A. amerlcanum, but separated by the more decidedly 
granulate and ribbed operculum, which resembles closely that of A. 
olfersii. The peripheral nodes are less numerous than in A. amer- 
ieanum, and more numerous than in A. olfersii. 

A. PAPiLLATUM Potiez et Michaud, 1838. PL 52, figs. 14-17. 

Shell conic, elevated, imperforate, solid greenish-olivaceous, ob- 
scurely banded, spire acute ; wdiorls 7, nearly flat, slightly excavated in 
the middle, finely obliquely striate and radiately costate, folds wdiite, 
oblique, slightly prominent above, at. the peripher)^ tuberculose ; last 
whorl carinated, with about fourteen short tubercles on the carina ; 
base a little convex, radiately striate, with five concentric subnodose 
lira? separated by very shallow grooves ; aperture transverse ; colu- 
mella arcuate, bituberculate at the base ; umbilical tract bounded 
by a plicate cordon. Alt. 25, diam. 29 mill. 

West Lidies. 

Operculum nearly like that of A. cuhanum. 

Figs. 16, 17 are from the original ones of Potiez and Michaud. 

The species is nearly allied to A. cuhanum, perhaps identical. 
15 



226 ASTRALIUM. 

A. GUADALOUPENSE Crosse, 1865. PI. 53, figs. 43-45. 

Shell imperforate, solid, elevated-conic, longitudinally suboblique- 
ly crinkled, reddish orange, marked in places "with white and oli- 
vaceous ;sutnre impressed, irregular ; whorls 6j, subplauulate above, 
slightly concave in the middle, the apical one or two smooth, the 
following longitudinally plicate, the folds cut in the middle by two 
impressed spiral lines, projecting at the carinated jieriphery, and 
about twenty-three in number on the body-whorl ; base nearly flat 
with radiating stripe and five subgranose liras ; aperture oblique, 
rliomboidal, columella white, arcuate, bidentate at base, umbilical 
tract pale violaceous, bounded by a plicate cordon. 

Alt. 23i diam. 25 mill. 

Guadaloupe, West Indies. 

Operculum outside convex, with a median rib, minutely granulose,. 
excavated near the middle. 

It is closely allied to A. papillaiHm P. & INT., but may be separa- 
ted by the flatter base and perhaps the number of the basal lirse. 
Compare also A cnbcuium. In the only specimen of this species I 
have seen (fig. 45) the peripheral tubercles number twenty on the 
body- whorl. I believe that this species will be found to be a form 
of ^. euhanun or A. jmpillatuvi. 

A. OLFERSiTroschel, (18 ?). PI. 57, figs. 47-49. 

Shell imperforate, solid, conic, gray, olive-green and reddish brown; 
longitudinally plicate, the folds about thirteen in number on the last 
whorl ; periphery nodulose ; base slightly convex, with four concen- 
tric lirse ; aperture subtrapezoidal, white ; columella arcuate, bitu- 
berculate at the base. Alt. 45, diam. 52 mill. 

Brazil (Philippi); Bakia (Clery). 

Figs. 48, 49 are drawn from the original ones. I have seen no 
specimen corresponding with them. The variety figured by Kiener 
(pi. 57, fig. 47) scarcely looks the same to me. It differs in the "less 
oblique ^ud more numerous longitudinal folds, which are more in- 
terrupted about the middle and more nodulose above." A specimen 
of this variety before me is marked "West Indies.'^ 

Operculum (pi. 59, figs. 22, 23) oval, granulose outside, strongly 
ribbed. 

T. saxosus Phil., is a synonym. 
A. IMBEICATUM Gmel., 1788. PI. 55, fig. 70. 

Shell conic, solid, imperforate, Cinereous or light brownish ; whorls 
7, planulate above, very obliquely striate, and longitudinally plicate, 



ASTRALIUM. 227 

the folds generally eighteen to twenty in number on the last -whorl, 
sub-interrnpted or excavated about the middle, produced at the 
sharply carinate peri23hery into squamose square soniewhat descend- 
ing spines ; base flattened, radiately striate, and with four to six 
concentric irregular subnodose lirre ; aperture very oblique, wide : 
lip scalloped, chanelled at outer angle ; columella bidentate below, 
its face slightly grooved. Alt. 40, diam. 45 mill. 

Honduras (Reeve); West Indies. 
T. corolkt Reeve is synonymous. 

A. TUBEROSUM Phil. PL 64, figs. 57, 58. 

This thick-shelled Trochid stands near to T. ccelatus, but is distin- 
guished by the following characters ; the whorls are flat, not arched, 
in the middle ; the superior nodules are situated near to the suture, 
are hemi-sphserical and solid ; the last whorl has but a single row of 
nodules ; the carina is sharper, the base flatter, with only three con- 
centric nodose lirse ; the aperture is lower, more rhomboidal ; color 
reddish brown, more or less vei'ging on violet. 

Coast of Mexico. 

I have translated from Philippi the more important portion of his 
description. I am unable to identify the form with any shells I have 
seen. It is 2:)robably immature. 

A. PLicATULUM Philippi. PI. 64, figs. 62, 68. 

Shell strictly conic, imperforate, yellowish white ; whorls planu- 
late, the last acutely angled, obliquely plicate, the folds small, about 
forty in number on the body-whorl, interrupted by two spiral fur- 
rows, of which the upper is in middle of the Avhorl, the lower midway 
between that and the wavy lower margin of the whorl ; base nearly 
flat, with six strong, elevated concentric lirse, and radiating lamel- 
lose strise, Alt. 23, diam. 25 mill. 

Habitat unknoivn. 

Known to me only by Philij^pi's figure and description from which 
the above is taken. It j^robablj^ does not belong to this group. 

Subgenus Imperator, Montfort, 1810. 
Shell large, trochiform, concave and umbilicate below, carinated 
and spinose at periphery, whorls convex and granulose above ; oper- 
culum oval, outside smooth, obsoletely uuicostate. 

Australo-Zealandic Province. 
Canthorbis Swainson, 1840, and in part Guildfordia Gray, 1850, 
are synonynis. 



228 ASTRALIUM. 

A. iiELioTROPiUM Martyn, 1784. PI. 56, fig. 87. 

Shell large, depressed-conic, below widely uaibilicate and concave, 
spire dome-shaped, of 5 convex whorls ; suture rendered zigzag by 
the prominent compressed triav.gular recurved vaulted spines which 
arm the acutely carinated periphery ; whorls above and below with 
numerous spiral series of granules ; umbilicus wide, deep, coarsely 
obliquely striate within ; aperture transversely oval, oblique, pearly 
Avithin, peristome continuous ; columella slightly dilated, impinging 
upon the umbilicus ; color brownish or ])urplish above, light below. 

Alt. 50-60, diam. 100-120 mill. 

Neiv Zealand ; Hauraki Gulf, Foveaux Sts., Cook's Sts., Bay of 
Tasmania. 

Operculum (pi. 59, figs. 5, 6) oval, with cxcentric nucleus ; outside 
smooth, obsoletely unicostate. 

The synonyms are. Trochus solarium imjjeralis etc. Chemnitz, T. 
imperialis Gmel., and of most authors, Imperator aureolatus Mont- 
fort, and Guildfordia lieliopliorus Gray. 

This large handsome species was brought to Europe for the first 
time by the famous Captain Cook. 

Subgenus Guildfordia Gray, 1850. 

Shell wheel-shaped, imperforate ; hnv-conic and graiiulose above, 
convex below, periphery armed with long slender radiating spines, 
"which are concealed at the sutures ; operculum flat, with a subol)so- 
lete arcuate rib outside. 

Ja])onic Province. 

A. TRiuMPHA>'s Phil, 1841. PI. 58, figs. 67, 68. 

Shell low-conic, imperforate, metallic brownish-purple above, 
nearly white below ; whorls 6, slightl}^ convex above ; body-whorl 
armed around the carinate i^eriphery with long slender closed tubu- 
lar radiating spines, about eight in number on the body-wdiorl, 
and Avhich are reabsorbed as the growth advances leaving only short 
stumps to festoon the sutures ; upper surface with close revolving 
series — generally eight to ten on the last whorl — of minute laterally 
compressed granules; base slightly convex, usually w'ith a marginal 
row of granules, and several rows surrounding the central callus ; 
aperture transversely ovate, angulate and channelled at peri})heral 
carina, iridescent within ; peristome sinuous above ; umbilical re- 



ASTRALIUM. 229 

2:1011 covered witli a heavy callus, more or less stained with pinkish, 
somewhat excavated at center, and obsoletely spirally ridged. 

Alt. 25, diam. (including spines) 70 mill. Jajxin. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 60). 

T. guildjordm Reeve is a synonym. 

Subgenus Bolma Risso, 1826. 

Sliell turbinate, spire conic, imperforate, whorls rounded at the 
periphery, the upper ones spiny, base convex ; operculum nearly 
round, nucleus excentric, outside polished, concave in the middle, 
with a convexity or rib upon the center of the spiral. 

Mediterranean and Japanese Seas. 

Tubicanthus Swains., 1840, is a synonym. 

In the Mollusca of the Challenger, p. 131, Watson corrects the 
orthography of this name, making it Bollna. But I find that Gray 
and authors generally have not deviated from the orthography of 
Risso. (see Hist. Nat. de I'Europe mh-ldionale iv, p. 117). 

A. RUGOSUM Linn., 1767. PI. 40, fig. 20 ; pi. m, fig. 85. 

Shell solid, conic, imj^erforate, brown or cinereous ; suture canalic- 
ulate, bordered below by a series of curved radiating tubercles ; whorls 
(^)-7, obliquely lamellose striate, the upper ones carinate and tuber- 
culate or s|)inose at the periphery, the last descending, rounded or 
bicarinate, spirally lirate ; base conspicuously radiately striate ; aper- 
ture obliquely, transversely oval, pearly within ; columella arched, 
white, and pearly, with an orange callus dilated over the umbilical 
region and extending over the parietal wall. Alt. 50, diam. 55 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic shores of Spain and S. W.France; 
Azores, Madeira and Canary Is. 

Operculum (pi. 60, figs. 39, 40) short-oval, brown within, with 
four w'horls, the nucleus situated one-third the distance across the 
face ; outside bright orange, polished, with a spiral callous ridge. 

T. camanensis \\\\. is a synonym. 

A. MODESTUM. Reeve, 1842. PI. 55, figs. 63, 64. 

"Shell imperforate, conically turbinated, orange-rose ; whorls con- 
vexly sloping, then encircled with two rows of scales, papillary- 
grained throughout; base rather fiat, tinged with chrome orange." 
(Reeve). Jajmn. 



230 ASTRALIUM. 

Var. GiRGYLLUS Reeve, 1861. PI. 55, fig. 65. 

" Very closely related to the preceding, but distinguished by a 
more square form, while the scales are curiously expanded." 

{Reeve.) China. 

A. TURSicus Reeve, 1848. PI. 48, fig. 35. 

Shell somewhat pyramidally ovate, imperforated ; sutures of s\m'e 
excavated ; whorls spirally squamately ridged, slanting around the 
upper part, sharply angled, erectly squamate at the angle ; aperture 
small ; yellowish, beautifully rayed with scarlet red. 

Alt. 22, diam. 22 mill. ' ' _ _ 

Philippine Is. 

Calcar turcicus (Rve.) Fischer is the same. 

Reeve's figure and description are copied above. Of this form 
Mr. E. A. Smith says : 

This beautiful species is well characterized by its style of paint- 
ing. It is whitish with broad scarlet rays, particularly distinct on 
the sloping upper surfaces of the whorls; these are sometimes 
edged with black posteriorly, and the suture is more or less stained 
■with that color. The lower part of the body-whorl is for the most 
part scarlet with a few narrow white streaks (sometimes black-spot- 
ted) radiating from the umbilicial region. The o])erculum is white, 
thick, convex, and granose externally. (Zool. Coll. H. M. S. 
'Alert: p. 504.) 

T. tursicus was collected by the ' Alert ' at Darros Island, one 
of the Amirante group. I have copied on pi. 69, fig. 27, Mr. 
Smith's figures. The species apparently is not a Bolma, but with- 
out examining the shells and ascertaining the position of the 
nucleus and nature of the whorls of the operculum, I am not able 
to form an opinion as to its true position. 

Subgenus Cyclocantiia Swainson, 1840. 

Shell conic or depressed trochiform, usually im]>erforate ; whorls 
above smooth, granulate or plicate ; periphery spiuose, tuberculate, 
or with a ])rojccting flange ; base convex, flat, or concave, concen- 
trically lirate ; columella with a more or less obvious tubercle at 
the base ; operculum oval, convex outside, with a more or less 
prominent curved central rib, its terminations connected or nearly 
so by a straight short accessory rib. 

Indo-Pacific, Australo-Zealandie and Juj)0)iic Provinces. 



ASTRALIUM. 231 

Synonyms: Stella (Klein) H. and A. Adams, 1858, (type, A. 
asteriscns Rve.), Calcar Montfort, 1810, (type, A. calcar Linn. ?) 
and Carinidea Tenison-Woods, not Swainson. 

There has been considerable diversity of opinion regarding the 
group above defined, both as to its contents and its proper designa- 
tion. Stella was the first name proposed for it ; but since the no- 
menclature (almost) universally adopted by zoologists dates from 
the publication of the tenth edition of Linmeus (1758), we are com- 
pelled to reject the names proposed by Klein in 1753. This course 
is rendered the more imperative by the nature of Klein's work ; for 
his " genei-a " are as often denominated by a phrase as by a single 
word. Calcar of Montfort was probably founded on a species of 
this subgenus. But this is very uncertain, as his figure might be- 
long to any one of several very different forms. (See also Fischer, 
3fan. de Conch., p. 813.) As to Carinidea Swains., which Tenison- 
Woods has supposed to include the group of A. Jimbriatum, A. ten- 
toriiforme etc., there is no warrant for using it in any such sense; 
for Swainson's two types are (1) an umhilicated species of Trochus, 
and (2) a species of Uvanilla, (A. buscJiii Phil.). Hercoles Montf. 
referred to this group by some authors, is not a mollusc. As to the 
limits and contents of Cyclocantlia, as here defined, I am aware that 
there is room for controversy. Fischer and others have distributed 
a portion of the species among several adjacent subgenera. I have 
included with considerable hesitation A. fimbrlatum and A. tentorii- 
forme.; but I do not think that they would be any better placed 
with ^4. olivaeeus etc. in Uvanilla. 

It is very difficult to express in a diagnosis the differences be- 
tween the shells of this group and of Astralium, .s. s. Both contain 
flattened wheel-shaped umbilicate forms, with long peri2:)heral 
spines, and both have com]:)act trochiform species. The two groups 
occupy almost opposite areas upon the globe. 

A. CALCAR Linn., 1758. PI. 52, figs. 27, 29, 30 ; PL 56, fig. 74. 

Shell conoid, more or less depressed at ajiex ; grayish greenish, 
or brownish cinereous ; whorls 6, flattened above, and radiately pli- 
cate, the folds rather unequal and irregular ; periphery carinated 
spinose, bearing about twelve radiating more or less foliated spines 
upon the body-whorl ; last whorl deeply descending toward the 
aperture ; base convex, concentrically more or less densely squa- 
mosely lirate, the outer lirae generally prominent and subspinose, 
sometimes causing the periphery to appear bicarinate ; ajjerture 



282 ASTRALIUM. 

transversely oval, very oblique, generall)^ golden Avithiu, and stained 
with pnrple or blue on the columella. Alt. 28, diam. 40 mill. 
Indian Ocean ; Australia ; Philippines ; New Caledonia,; Java, etc. 

023erculum oval, nucleus submarginal ; outside deep bluish-green, 
excavated around the upper margin and near the middle, edges 
rugose, center nearly smooth. 

Trochus aculeatus Gmel. is a synonym. 

An extremely variable species. In form it may be either conic 
with nearly flat base, or flat above with very convex and uuibilica- 
ted base. The spines are generally triangular and oliliquely wrink- 
led above, but are often square and elaborately foliated at the ex- 
tremities. Restricting the typical calcar to shells with moderately 
exserted scalariform spire, depressed a{)ex, and body- whorl deflected 
toward the aperture, we may define several varieties which are typ- 
ically quite distinct, but which, in the large series before me, are 
connected with each other and with the type by insensible grada- 
tions. 

Var. HELiciNUM Gmel. PI. 52, figs. 28, 31. 

Last whorl not descending ; spire conical, not much depressed at 
apex ; marginal spines generally short. Usually larger than the- 
typical form. A specimen before me measures : alt. 40, diam. 70 
mill. 

Var. LACiNiATUM Gould. PI. 53, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell bullet-shaped in the adult ; aperture subcircular, white 
within ; columella generally stained with purple. 

Alt. 28, diam. 22 mill. 

Philippines (Gould), Viti Is. 

Young shells are like var. helicinum; the adults are very difl^er- 
ent in shape, and sometimes even more elongated than in the figure. 

Var. PLANORBis Pilsbry. PI. o6, figs. 75, 76. 

vSpire planulate, scarcely at all exserted ;. base very convex, nra- 
bilicated. x\.lt. 10, diam. 27 mill. 

A curious form, very different from the preceding. 

A. STELLARE Gmel., 1788. PI. 55, figs. 66-68. 

Shell imperforate, conoid, solid, more or less elevated, whorls 
5-6, obliquely radiately costate, imbricately spinose at periphery, 
the last carinated, carina with about ten long vaulted sj)ines ; base 



A8TRALIUM. 235 

Avith about ten concentric squamose lira?, columella oblique, white, 
generally rosy margined, rarely bluish ; aperture angulated. 

Alt. 34, diam. 35 mill. 

East Indian Seas. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 67) granulose outside, white or green. 
Animal (fig. 68) without lateral filaments. 

T. chemnitzii Val. and T. asperatus (Lam.) Phil, are synonymous. 

This species seems to be very closely allied to A. helicinuni Gmel. 

Var. ASTERTScus Reeve, 1842. PI. 55, fig. 60. 

Shell conical; whorls obsoletely wrinkled, produced at the carina 
into prominent vaulted sjiines ; basal callosity rose-red or blue- 
green. 

Port Essington, Australia. 

Identified by Fischer with T. chemnitzii Val., but that ioxnx 
seems to me to differ in no respect from typical stellare. 

A. LAPiLLUs Reeve, 1861. PL 64, fig. 49. 

Imperforate, obtusely turbinated, fulvous, tinged with red at the 
base ; Avhorls convexly sloping next the suture, then tumidly round- 
ed, longitudinally rudely ribbed, ribs irregularly wrinkled and 
tuberculated ; base convex, very closely irregularly scaled. (Reeve.) 
Habitat unknown (Reeve); Levuka, Eiji,12fms. (Challenger Exjxl.) 

Watson, who places this species in " Bolina " (= Bolma), says : 
" There are two specimens of this species in the British Museum, 
which differ from one another in the number of spirals on the base 
and. have only a faint tinge of purple at the pillar. In the two 
Challenger specimens, the scaly spirals are much fewer, and a bril- 
liant crimson streak to the left of the pillar, and also in front of it 
on the left corner of the l)asal mouth li}), is a marked feature. I 
observe, however, that as is often the case with these brilliant col- 
ors, the crimson has somewhat faded during the years the shell has 
been in my hands." 

A.siRius Gould, 1849'. PI. 45, figs. 93-95. 

Shell small, low pyramidal, pale emerald green ; whorls 4, acute- 
ly compressed at periphery, above with about ten oblique folds on 
the lower half of the whorl, each of which is produced into a trian- 
gular spine at the periphery, and with spines intercalated making 
about eighteen on the peri2:)hery of last whorl ; surface corrugated 
by oblique wrinkles ; base nearly flat, imperforate, with about five 



234 ASTRALIUM. 

-delicate, distantly nodose, concentrip, iuequal lirse ; aperture circu- 
lar, augalate at carina, lip below horizontal ; columella smooth, 
rounded, arcuate. Alt. Ti, diam. 12 mill. 

Australia. 
Seems to be a young shell. 

A. PETROSUM Martyn, 1784. PL 64, figs. 65, Q6. 

Shell conic, imperforate, solid, greenish or cinereous ; whorls 6, 
above planulat^, obliquely radiately plicate or wrinkled ; periphery 
bicarinate, with two rows of" rather short radiating spines, about 12 
in number on the body-whorl in the upper row, smaller and more 
numerous in the lower ; base flattened, concave toward the center, 
concentrically densely squamose-lirate ; aperture transverse, white, 
pink or blue inside, channelled at the carina ; peristome crenulate, 
columella wide, with a slight semilunar groove and a denticle near 
the base, generally more or less purplish, pink or bluish. 

Alt. 30-35, diam. 32-40 mill. 

Viti and Haivaiian Is. ; New Caledonia; Indian Ocean.(f) 

Operculum (pi. 64, fig. 64) oval, rugose, outside, with a broad 
central curved callosity ; center excavated ; color usually the same 
as the columella. 

T. rJiodostomus Lam., and T. tuberosus Reeve (not Phil.) are syn- 
onyms. T. spinidosus Reeve is probably a depressed form of this 
species. 

Martyn's name has been overlooked by most authors, but I see 
no reason for rejecting it for that of Lamarck. His figures in the 
" Universal Conchology " are so superior as to compare favorably 
with modern work ; and represent unmistakably the typical form, 
Avith the two subequal rows of spines upon the j)eriphery. 

Var. C0XFRAC40SUM Gould, 1848. PI. 54, fig. 56. 

Shell low conical, rugose, the wrinkles small, rounded, irregular, 
oblique, slightly squamose here and there; whorls 6, somewhat 
shouldered above, declivous at the upper part, obtusely biangulate 
toward the base ; periphery angulate, stellate by the projection of 
folded ribs ; base plane, encircled with about eight squamose ridges. 

Dean's Is., Paumotus Groiq). 

[ have copied Gould's figure of this form and have added two 
which are identified by Dr. Fischer with it. These last are nmch 
more prominently plicate above, and have colored columella, a 
character not mentioned by Gould. 



ASTRALIUM. 235 

Var. PLicATOSPiNOsuM Pilsbry, 1888. PI. 54, figs. 59, 60. 

Rather low-conic, conspicuously radiately plicate above, the folds 
somewhat sigmoid and oblique, bearing a series of short rounded 
knobs above, and terminating in short spines, eighteen to twenty in 
number, at the carinated periphery ; base flat ; squamosely lirate ; 
aperture tinged with green, especially at the columella. 

Alt. 20-25, diam. 25-30 mill. 

Hawaiian Is. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 50) deep green, wrinkled. 

Var. viRESCENs Pease, 1869. PI. 49, fig. 50. 

Shell conoidal, slightly swollen at the middle ; whorls concave 
above, rudely irregularly rugosely plicate ; lower margin of whorls 
encircled by two rows of nodose contiguous scales ; upper whorls 
deeply pitted, the last acutely carinated at periphery ; base planu- 
late, with about nine concentric unequal squamose line. 

Alt. 25, diam. 25 mill. 

Ins. Tarawa, Polynesia. 

A. HENicus Watson, 1879. PI. 52, figs. 25, 26. 

Shell conical, elevated, light yellowish ruddy, paler below ; whorls 
7-8, apex round, first whorl flattened, upper three whorls radiately rib- 
bed, the following radiately slightly plicate in the direction of lines of 
growth, with a spiral series of rather large white separate beads upon 
the edge of the flattened shoulder below the suture, and six series of 
distinct small beads, separated by interstices of half their breadth 
upon the slope of the whorl ; periphery sharply bicarinate, the upjier 
carina stellate with sharp compressed hollow spines, about twelve in 
number on body-whorl ; lower carina with thirty to thirty-five vault- 
ed scales, becoming spines toward the aperture ; between the carinte 
there are four rows of beads ; base flat, with about ten concentric 
rows of very regular beads; fiperture oblique, white within ; colu- 
mella bluntly toothed below ; umbilical tract polished, slightly 
ridged, white. Alt. 20, diam. 25 mill. 

Matuka, Fiji, 315 /ms. in coral mud. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 59) oval, within flat, brown ; outside thick, 
white, granulose, Avith a slight flange on the outer margin. 

Differs from other species of the petrosam group in being granu- 
late instead of plicate on the upper surface. 

A. PREvosTi Sowerby Jr., 1886. PI. 63, fig. 38. 

Shell rather wide-conic, imperforate, green, brown tinged and 
banded ; Avhorls about six, subconve.K, sloping, encircled by minute 



236 ASTRALIUM. 

granulose liree, above nodose-plicate, last wliorl subacutely angled- 
below, the angle beainng square, thick vaulted scales ; base inibri- ' 
cately quadri-lirate ; ajDcrture suboblique ; columella arcuate, silvery,, 
umbilical callus white. 

Habitat unlaioxon.. 

"A trochiform S})ecies in -which the longitudinal ribs may be only 
faintly traced, leaving nodules at the top of the whorls, and strong 
obtuse square looking scales at the margin, while the whorls are en- 
circled in the middle with two or three rows of minute granules." 

Sowerby's description and figure are given. Compare A. tubero- 
sum Phil. p. 227. 

A. PAGODULUM Sowerby Jr., 1886. PI. 63, fig. 28. 

"Shell imperforate, conical, orange-drab; whorls slopingly convex^ 
obliquely wrinkled-plaited, plaits, rather large, swollen, basal margin 
of the whorls i:)rickly scaled, base scale-ridged around the callosity."' 

Habitat nnhiown. 

Trochus acaleatus Reeve (preoc.) is a synonym. 

The original figure and description are given. 

A. PAooDus Tenison- Woods, 1879. Unjigured. 

Shell narrowly pyramidal, thin, pale roseate, variegated with 
Avide longitudinal olive bands; whorls 6, concave, very acutely 
angular at the suture, armed with a regular row of short spines, and 
girdled wdtli four or five lines of indistinct granulose lirse ; spines 
numerous, obtusely angular, concave, 18 in number at the periphery 
of the last whorl ; apex acute ; aperture obliquely quadrate, de- 
l^ressed smooth inside, nacreous ; labrum acute ; columella curved,, 
truncate ; base quite Hat, spirally. Urate and very finely transversely 
striate, pale yellowish white and very faintly spotted with brown. 

Alt. 15, diam. 18 mill. (Tenison- Woods) 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 

The original description is giving above. I do not know the exact 
systematic i:)osition of the form. 

A. ii.T-MATRAGus Meuke. PI. 54, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell imperforate, pale ashen, elevated-conic, apex acute ; whorls 
7, planulate above, with radiating oblique folds, which are produced 
into short spines at the periphery ; last whorl carinated, with ten 
to twelve spines in a single series ; base plano-concave, concentrical- 



ASTRALIUM. 237 

ly squamose-Hrate ; aperture transverse, channelled at the carina; 
columella arcuate, purple or hlue margined, dentate at base. 

Alt. 27, diam. 32 mill. 

Japanese and Chinese Seas. 

T. columellaris Phil, and T. gratus Phil, are synonyms, and in 
part, perhaps, T. asteriscus Rve. 

Base more- concave than in ^1. j^&t^'osum, peripheral spines in a 
single series, and finer than in that species. 

A. HEXAGONUM Phil. PI. 64, figs. 44-46. 

tShell perfectly conic, imperforate, rjeddish-white, redder in the 
furrows, costate and obliquely rugose-sulcate, the ribs six in number, 
subcontinuous, terminating in small vaulted spines at the base ; per- 
iphery acute, anguiate, stellate, with twelve points ; base flat, squa- 
mosely eight or nine lirate ; aperture suborbicular, anguiate at out- 
er margin. Alt. 13, diam. 15 mill. 

• Habitat unknoivn. 

Philippi's description and figure are given. The species may be 
an immature form of .4. limmatragum. 

A. SEMic'OSTATU.Ai Kicner. PI. 63, figs. 15-18. 

Shell elevated-conic, solid, imperforate, olive-brown or cinereous, 
apex acute ; whorls 6-7, sharply carinated, upjier surface concave, 
longitudinally more or less finely and irregularly plicate below the 
sutures; coarsely plicate on the lower half of the whorls, the folds 
terminating in short nodes at the periphery, twelve to sixteen in 
number on the last whorl, and also scalloping the sutures; base 
flat, somewhat depressed around the middle, finely concentrically 
lirate and radiately striate, the lirJB about eight to sixteen in number ; 
aperture very oblique, suboval, white within, slightly channelled 
at the carina, but scarcely anguiate ; columella bluish, rosy or white, 
short, curved, dentate below ; base of aperture horizontal, sometimes 
Avith a submarginal row of minute tubercles within. 

Alt. 27, diam. 25 mill. 

Indian Ocean; Australia {1) 

This is Troch'us stellatus of Philippi and of Reeve. It may possi- 
bly be the stellatus of Gmelin. That species was said by him to be 
West Indian. 

In some specimens the peripheral sjjines are rather long and direct- 
ed outward. The liras of the base are sometimes coarser than the 
figures indicate ; and in fully matured individuals the outer ones be- 



238 ASTRALIUM. 

come obsolete ; finally, the base of the aperture acquires the arma- 
ture shown in fig. 18. 

A. BABELis Fischer, 1874. PI. 52, figs. 21, 22. 

Shell imperforate, conic, elevated, pale yellowish, apex acute ; 
Avhorls 7, slightly convex, obliquely radiately costate with -distant 
folds, which are prominently nodulose at the sutures and periphery; 
interstices smooth ; last whorl carinated, the carina bearing about 
eight nodules; base flat, smooth, with fine oblique incremental strife; 
aperture angalated; cohimellar region white, blue margined, uniden- 
tate at base. Alt. 20, diam. 19 mill. 

Habitat unhioivn. 

I have not seen this species. The original figures and description 
are given. 

T. barbells Sowb. is the same. 

A. HEiMBURGi Dunker, 1882. PI. 58, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell conic, imperforate ; whorls 5, flattened, subgranosely dense- 
ly lirate; peripheiy carinated, armed with comjiressed imbricated 
subdeflexed spines ; base plano-convex, ornamented with spiral 
subimbricated lirse ; columella with an oblong excavation at its ter- 
mination; aperture subrotund, silvery margaritaceous within ; shell 
whitish, subroseous at the base. Alt. 12, diam. 20 mill. 

Japan (J) 

Operculum and animal unknown. 

It is Uvanilla heimburgi, Dkr. I am undecided about the real 
position of this species, but do not believe it to belong to Uvanilla 
as restricted in this work. 

The following species have been placed in Uvanilla by Fischer; 
but they do not seem to be as nearly allied to U olivacea, the type 
of that group, as to Cyclocantha. The dentition is unknown in all 
of them. 
A. ROTULARiUM Lamaxck, 1822. PI. 54, fig. 55; pi. 64, figs. 50, 51. 

Shell subdepressed, conoid, Avhite, imperforate ; spire subacute; 
Avhorls 6, obliquely finely costulate ; with numerous prominent im- 
bricating laterally compressed plicae at the sutures ; last wdiorl cari- 
nated, carina plicate-nodose, base convex, squamosely concentrically 
lirate ; columella arcuate, white, not dentate ; aperture oblique. 

Alt. 25, diam. 36 rilill. 

Australian Seas (Reeve), 



ASTRA LIUM. 239 

A. NOBiLis Gray, 1847. PI. 63, fig. 37. 

" Shell^trochiform imperforate, pale white ; spire conical ; whorls 
nearly flat, smooth, the outer edge of the upper whorls being fui-- 
nished with a broad expanded margin, which is broadly plaited on 
the upper side ; the plaits becoming thicker and more prominent on 
the edge of the last whorl ; front [base] of last whorl with regulai* 
sj)iral ridges, each crossed with regular imbricate-arched scales, the 
second and third near the circumference largest, and those nearest 
to them closer together" aperture crenated, throat silvery pearly." 

Darnley Is., S. Pacific. 

The original description and figure are copied. I have not seen 
this species ; it is evidently closely allied to A. rotulariuvi. 

A. FiMBRiATUM Lam., 1822. PI. 54, figs. 46-54. 

Shell conic, more or less depressed, imperforate ; whorls 5-6 
flattened above, obliquely striate, generally more or less longitudi- 
nally finely plicate below the sutures, and spirally lirate ; periphery 
acutely carinated, the margin pinched out into a thin, generally 
undulating flange or rim, which is usually projecting above the sut- 
ures; last whorl generally descending; base slightly convex, spir- 
ally lirate and radiately striate ; aperture very oblique, transverse- 
oval, channelled at the outer angle, white or pinkish within ; colu- 
mella broad, flat ; color grayish, variegated above with brown, base 
lighter. Alt. 20, diam. 26 mill. 

Australian Seas ; Tasmania. 

An extremely mutable type. The following* varieties have been, 
considered distinct species, but I cannot find characters stable 
enough to separate them. 

Var. piLEOLUM Reeve, 1842. PL 54, figs. 53, 54. 

Shell grayish white ; sculpture obsolete above and nearly so be- 
low ; keel very broad and thin. Alt. 23, diam. 34 mill. 

T. limbij'erus Kiener is synonymous. Neither was ever described 
by their authors. 

The aperture is often more deeply deflected than in the specimen 
figured. The young are plicate above as in A. fimhriatum. 

Var. cucuLLATUM Kiener. PI. 54, figs. 50, 51. 

Shell conical ; whorls 7-8, somewhat plicate, and except the up- 
per ones, densely granose-lirate above and below. 

Alt. 35, diam. 46 mill. 

More conical and elevated than the type. 



240 ASTRALIUM. 

Var. SQUAMiFERus Koch. PI. 54, i^g. 52. 

Similar to the type ; but flange not exserted at the sutures, and 
scarcely undulating. Alt. 19, diam. 30 mill. 

A. TENTORiiFORME Jonas, 1845. PI. 53, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell elate-conic, imperforate, solid, pale yellowish, spire elevated, 
whorls 7-8, very obliquely finely wrinkled, flat above, base concave; 
periphery acutely cariuated, above the carina obscurely longitudi- 
nally folded ; base with numerous regular concentric squamose 
lirse; aperture very oblique, silvery within, angled at the carina, 
basal margin nearly straight, tinged with pink; columella short, 
wide, arcuate, sometimes pinkish, terminating in a tubercle below; 
parietal callus usually covering more than half the surface of the 
base, its margin often elevated. Alt. 35, diam. 35 mill. 

Australia . 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 46) oval, brown within with sublateral 
nucleus; outside white, with a curved sub-obsolete central rib and 
an obsolete short basal rib. 

Synonyms: T. urv'dlei Phil., T. f/eorgianus C^uoy, fide Kiener. 

Some specimens are more elevated, others more depressed than 
the figures. 

A. AUREUM Jonas, 1844. PI. 64, figs. 52-54. 

Shell small, dej^ressed-conic, solid, golden yellow or olive, imper- 
forate; spire low-conic; whorls 5, scarcely convex above, plicate at 
the sutures, the folds becoming fainter and frequently, bifurcating 
toward the periphery, spirally lirate, the lirse below rather coarse, 
beaded, above finer, cutting the folds more or less into granules; last 
whorl generall}" descending toward the aperture, compressed toward 
the periphery, which is subangular excej)t in large specimens ; aper- 
ture rather small, oblique, pearly white, columellar callus dilated 
over the umbilical region, and excavated there, and with an indis- 
tinct denticle near its base. Alt. 10-14, diam. 12-19 mill. 

Australia. 

A very attractive little species, quite distinct in aspect from its 
nearest allies. 

Subgenus U vanilla Gray 1850. 

Shell conic, imperforate, periphery sharply carinated, carina 
nodose, spinose or nearly smooth; whorls flattened above, flat or 



ASTRALIUM. 241 

concave below; operculum oblong, nucleus nearly on the margin, 
subterminal, outer face with two strong ribs. 

Panamic and Californian Provinces, 
Cariiildea Swains., in part, is a synonym. 

A. OLivACEUM Wood. PI. 53, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell conic, acute, imperforate, olive-green or brownish ; whorls 
6-7, slightly convex, obliquely finely striate, longitudinally finely 
plicate, the folds at right angles to the striaj, and interrupted one- 
third of the distance from the suture to the periphery by two spiral 
impressed furrows; suture undulating, linear; peripheral carina 
slightly nodose; l>ase concave, radiateiy finely lamellose striate, 
with a somewhat nodulose rib revolving midway between the pe- 
riphery and the center; aperture silvery white within, oblique, angled 
and channelled at outer side; base nearly straight; columella arched, 
deeply excavated at position of umliilicus, the whole umbilical area 
brilliant vermillion, with a black sj^iral rib. Alt. 55, diam. 65 mill. 

Central America to Gidf of California. 

Operculum (pi. 59, figs. 24, 25) oval, black to yellowish inside, 
with marginal apex, frequently concealed by growth of the last 
whorl; outside white, strongly bicostate. T. erythropthalmvs Phil, 
and T. brevispinosus Val. are synonyms. 

A. BuscHii Phil., 1844. PI. 53, figs. 37, 3cS. 

Shell conic, imperforate, solid, olivaceous brown, maculated ob- 
scurely above with brown, green or white; whorls 7, longitudinally 
costate below the sutures and above the j)eriphery, with two spiral 
series of tubercles around the middle of the flattened upper surface, 
or sometimes finely irregularly plicate over the whole upper surface; 
periphery acutely carinated, bearing numerous short compressed 
triangular radiating spines ; base flat, densely radiateiy lamellose- 
striate, with a strong rib revolving midway between periphery and 
center; aperture oblique, pearly white within, ti-ansversely ovate, 
deej^ly channelled at periphery ; columellar region white, strongly 
bicostate, deeply excavated at position of umbilicus ; parietal callus 
not much extended. Alt. 30-40, diam. 40-50 mill. 

Panama to the Gulf of California. 

Operculum (pi. 59, fig. 27) oblong, nucleus submarginal ; outside 
white, with a strong curved central rib, its terminations joined by 
a A-shaped ridge. 
16 



242 ASTRALIUM. 

T. breviapinosus Sowb., T. inermis Lam. and some authors, are syn- 
onymous. Differs from A. olivaceum in the white umbilical callus; 
from A. unguis in the sculpture of the base. 

A. UNGUIS Wood. PI. 53, ftgs. 34-36. 

Shell conic, solid, imperforate, brown or gray ; spire conic, acute ; 
whorls 6, above very obliquely striate and flattened, longitudinally 
inegularly plicate, sharply carinated at the periphery and produced 
into radiating compressed truncated digitations; base flat or concave, 
concentrically regularly and finely lirate, lirse about seven in number, 
radiately densely, finely lamellose-striate; aperture very oblique? 
silvery within, angular at periphery, lower margin nearly straight; 
columella oblique slightly concave, excf»vated at position of umbili- 
cus, with a spiral white rib; parietal callus covering over half the 
base of the shell. Alt. 40. diam. 50 mill. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

Operculum (pi. 59, fig, 17) white outside, excavated on each side 
of a strong granulose curved central rib, the terminations connected 
by a shorter ridge curved in the opposite direction. 

T. amictus Val. and T. multipes Phil, are synonymous. T. dir/ita- 
tiLS Desh. is a variety with strong longitudinal folds (fig. 34.) 

Subgenus Cookia Lesson, 1832. 

Shell large conical, imperforate; periphery rounded ; base con- 
cave ; umbilical tract concave, smooth ; operculum ovate, narrowed 
toward the distal extremity, nucleus subterminal, outside with two 
convex smootii ribs. 

Audralo-Zealandic Province. 

A. SULCATUM Martyn, 1784. PI. 64, fig. 55. 

Shell large, conic, imperforate, rather thin ; spire more or less 
elevated; sutures deeply impressed ; whorls 7, well rounded, with 
close lamellose incremental striae, and corrugated by obliquely des- 
cending subtuberculose folds ; periphery rounded, base flattened, 
bearing concentric densely squamose lirse, deeply concave in the cen- 
ter, and indented in the place of the umbilicus; aperture transverse- 
ly oval, very oblique, pearly and somewhat corrugated within; col- 
umella arcuate, thin ; umbilical region and part of base covered Avith 
a thin callus. Alt. 65-80, diam. 90 mill. 

New Zealand ; Chatham Is. 

Operculum (pi. 59, fig. 26) brownish or white outside. 



ASTRA LIUM. 243 

The synonyms are .Trochns cooksianus etc., Chemnitz, T. cookii 
'Gmel. and of most authors, Cookia nohilis Lesson. 

This species frequently exceeds the above dimensions. 

Yar. DAVisii Stowe, 1871. Unfigured. 
Whorls keeled at the perij^hery. 

Blmd Bay, N. Z. 

Subgenus Pomaulax Gray. 1850. 

Shell large, conic, solid, imperforate ; periphery carinated ; base 
flattened ; umbilical tract with a strong curved rib ; operculum ob- 
ovate, narrower toward the proximal extremity, nucleus terminal, 
outside with four strong granulose ribs radiating from the nucleus. 

Japonic and Cafifornian Provinces. 

A. UNDOSUM Wood, 1828. Tl. 58, figs. 69, 70. 

Shell large, conic, imperforate, white, covered with a strong ob- 
liquely lamellose corneous epidermis ; whoids 6-8, planulate, with 
oblique radiating tuberculate costa3 above ; periphery with an un- 
dulating nodose carina; base flattened, with thceetofive concentric 
corrugations ; aperture subovate, very oblique, angular, pearly wdth- 
in ; columella dilated, with a semicircular groove at the position of 
umbilicus, the umbilical tract bounded by a white grooved ridge. 

Alt. 80, diara. 110 mill. California. 

Operculum (pi. 59, figs. 18-20) o'bovate, slightly convex inside, 
nucleus terminal ; outside white, with four strong curved sharply 
granulose ribs radiating from the apex. 

T. gigas Anton, and T. baloenarum Val. are synonyms. 

T. rutilus C. B. Ad. is said to be a very young worn shell of this 
species. 

Specimens of this shell frequently attain much larger size than 
the dimensions above given. I have seen specimens of 130 mill. alt. 
135 mill. diam. Very large examples sometimes become I'ounded 
at the periphery, and acquire corrugated sculpture upon the last 
whorl, quite similar to that of A. sideatum Mart. 

A. jAPONicuM Dunker, 1845. PI. 58, figs. 63, 64. 

Shell large, depressed-conic, imperforate; pale yellowish; whorls 
6, planulate above, obliquely tuberculate-plicate ; periphery expand- 
•ed, compressed, carinated, bearing wide nodose spines ; base planu- 



244 ASTRA LIUM. 

late, with concentric tuberculate lirte ; umbilical tract white, callous, 
depressed ; aperture transversely dilated, subrhoniboidal, angulate. 

Alt. 65, diam. 95 mill. Japanese Seas. 

A rare species in collections. 

A. TAYLORiANUM E. A. Smith, 1880. PI. 63, fig. 31. 

Shell turbinate-conic, flattened below, imperforate, purple rose 
colored, marked with indistinct and very oblique strigations above,, 
below white ; spire short-conic, with rectilinear outlines ; whorl& 
about 8, subconcave above, slightly convex, Avith a subsutural sub- 
squamose carina, and encircled by numerous subequal granulose 
lirse ; last whorl acutely carinated below the middle, slightly exca- 
vated above and flat below the carina ; base white with an outer 
zone of purple red, concentrically ornamented with series of gran- 
ules ; umbilical I'egion with a white smooth callous, its margin stained 
with yellow. Columella arcuate, white calloused." 

Alt. 40, diam. 49 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The original figure and description are given. 

It probably does not belong to Pomaulax. The operculum is 
unknown. 

Subgenus Pachypoma Gray, 1850. 

Shell similar in form to Pomaulax, but umbilical tract scarcely 
ribbed ; operculum oblong, narrow, the nucleus terminal ; outside 
very convex, white, smooth, with a broad central convexity and ob- 
solete narrow side ribs. 

Californian Province. 

I restrict this subgenus to A. inequale, the first species mentioned 
by Gray in his description. A. ccelatum Gmel., usually classed here, 
belongs to a wholly different section of the genus. 

A. inequale Martyn, 1784. PI. 57, figs. 51, 52. 

Shell conic, imperforate, rather solid, with a chestnut brown cuti- 
cle, lighter beneath ; whorls 6-7, planulate above, sutures slightly 
impressed, bordered below by a series of obliquely descending cor- 
rugations, which are cut into granules by from one to five spiral 
furrows ; periphery carinate, subspinose on the upper whorls, usual- 
ly nearly smooth on body-whorl ; base nearly flat, concentrically 
lirate, the lira^ more or less tuberculate, five or six in numbei', their 
interstices regularly striate ; aperture subtriangular, white within. 



LEPTOTHYPvA. 245 

the lower margin fluted; columella arcuate, broad, excavated at 
position of tlie umbilicus, and terminating in a tooth-like promi- 
nence below. Alt. 45, diam. 55-62 mill. 

Western America, Acapulco to Vancouver Id. 

Operculum (pi. 60, figs. 68, 68a) inside deep brown, convex at up- 
per, concave toward lower margin ; outside smooth, or rugose at the 
distal extremity, and white, brownish toward the nucleus. 

Synonyms, Trochus glbherosus Zealandlce Novcc etc., Chemnitz, 
Trochus gibberosus (or Pachypoma gibberosum) "Chemnitz" of au- 
thors, (not Trochus inaequalis umbilieatus etc., Chemnitz,= jr. 
incequalis Gmel. a species of Trochid(e), T. diadematus Yal., and T. 
ochraceus Phil. 

The name inequalis Martyn, here adopted for this species, has four 
years priority over Chemnitz's name. Besides, the latter author 
was a polynomialist, and merely copies Martyn's excellent figures 
of the species. 

Genus LEPTOTHYEA (Carpenter^ Dall, 1871. 

Shell small or minute, globose-depressed, solid, compact; umbili- 
-cate or imperforate, whorls .S-7, spirally sculptured, the last generally 
somewhat deflexed at the aperture; aperture subcircular, white and' 
nacreous within; columella generally but not always bluntly den- 
ticulate near the base. Operculum subcircular, nearly flat or 
concavo-convex, inside with a very thin corneous layer, slightly 
convex, w'ith many gradually increasing wd^orls, the nucleus sub- 
-central; outside calcareous, subspiral, with a slightly convex con- 
centric elevation or ridge around the margin, most prominent at 
its termination, the middle portion concave and more or less rugose. 

The species are numerous, inhabiting nearl)^ all tropical and sub- 
tropical seas; but most numerous in the Pacific. 

The synonymy includes Collonia Gray (in part), Collonia of most 
authors, Leptonyx and Homalopoma. Carpenter (pi'eoc), Cantrainea 
Jeftreys, Ca.ntraiiieia Fischer, Anadema H. & A. Adams. The 
genus is very homogeneous, and neither of the subgenera proposed, 
(^Cantrainea Jeff", for L. carinata, and Anadema Ads. for L. coelata 
Ad. have sufficient characters for any systematic rank. 

The characters of the dentition are discussed on p. 188. The 
rank and position of this group has been the subject of considerable 
controversy; but partly, perhaps, on account of the minute size of 
the species, partly because of the scattered and inexact condition of 



246 LEPTOTHYRA. 

the literature relating to it, the grouj) has never been made an 
object of critical systematic study. Previous monographers have 
included the few species noticed at all in Turbo and Trochiis. 

As to the family affinities of Leptothyra, the totality of its charac^ 
ters seem to me to indicate that its position is at the end of the 
Turbiiiidce, rather than in the Trochidce, where it has been placed 
by Von Martens, Tryon and others. There is, in fact, no character 
save the ulultispiral operculum, which at all affiliates Leptothj/ra to 
the latter family; and, as I have shown, (p. 184), all the genera of 
Turbmidce possess in the very young stage, multispiral opercula 
precisely similar to that of Leptothyra ; so similar, indeed, that they 
are scarcely distinguishable from it. It is altogether probable that 
the Turbines are a divergent branch from the Trochid stem ; and 
that Leptothyra and Collonia .represent the primitive condition of 
the entire family. 

The more complex structure of the operculum in the Turhinidce 
and the reduction of the lateral teeth to five on either side, — a 
number frequently exceeded in the Trochidw, — indicate higher rank 
than the latter family. 

X am inclined to believe that the relationship of Leptothyra to 
Collonia is very close, I am not, however, autoptically acquainted 
with the latter genus ; and until we are in possession of fuller infor- 
mation regarding it, I deem it best to retain them separate, 

I will briefly recapitulate the history of the 

Genus Cqllonia Gray, 1850. 

" Operculum circular, of many gradually increasing whorls, with 
a convex external rib and central pit. Shell top-shaped, solid, 
spirally striated, imperforated ; aperture circular, contracted ; inner 
lip rather callous. Tyjie, C (^Delphinula) marguutta Lam." 
{Gray.) 

This genus was described from a Paris Basin Eocene fossil, but 
was evidently intended by its author to include also the recent spe- 
cies of the type of Turbo sanguineus L. In this "wider sense the 
name Avas used by most authors until 1864, when P. P. Carj^enter 
proposed for the recent shells the name Lejytonyx, which being pre- 
occupied was changed to Leptothyra. Dall, Fischer, and a few 
others, accepting this division, have restricted Collonia to the fossil 
forms. My information regarding the genus as thus restricted is 
derived from the original description copied above, and from the 
figures of operculum and shell of the type species given by Deshayes 



LEPTOTHYRA. 247 

and by Woodward. (PI. 00, figs. 61, 62.) I do not understand 
the discrepancy between the description of the operculum and De- 
shayes' figure of it. The main character distinguishing Gollonia 
from Leptothyra seems to be the peculiar peristome of the former. 
Fischer says of it: "peristome continu, epaissi, dilate, excepte sur le 
bord columellaire ; labre epais, parfois su])double on subreflechi. '■' 

^ ^ >!< 

Les coquilles de ce groupe ne paraissent pas avoir ete nacrees- 
Leur opercule ressemble a celui des Leptothyra, mais leur ouvertiire 
rappelle celle des Liotia." (Manuel de Conch., p. 812.) 

There are numerous Tertiary species. 

Note. The operculum of Leptothyra frequently otlers excellent 
specific characters, just as it does in Turbo and AstraUum ; and at- 
tention to these will often enable one to readily separate sj^ecies of 
which the shells exhibit considerable similarity. 

L. CARPENTER! Pilsbry, 1888. PI. 39a, figs. 26-29. 

Shell small, globose, very solid, imperforate, spire conic, more or 
less depressed ; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 5, slightly 
convex, the last decidedly deflected toward the aperture, encircled 
by about fifteen subequal spiral lira?, separated by interstices about 
as wide as the ridges ; incremental strire generally strongly devel: 
oped, causing the lirse to appear nodose or somewhat irregular, and 
the interstices to appear pitted ; aperture oblique, pearly white 
within, about half the length of shell ; columella arcuate, base ob" 
soletely uni- bi- or tri-dentate ; color red, ashen or purple. 

Alt. 8, diam. 8-9 milh ; dark form alt. 5, diam. 5 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. California to Vancouver Id. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. ^'o) rounded oval; outside much thinner 
and less elevated around the margins than that of X. sanguinea, 
slightly concave in the middle, nearly smooth. 

This is L. cocci neus of Troschel, not Miihlf., Ij. calijornicus von 
Martens, not of Philippi, L. sanguineus of Carpenter and authors 
generally, not of Linn., and vav. purjmreus Carpenter, (preoc). 

The Californian shells a})pear to me to be quite distinct from the 
Mediterranean species ; I have been unable to find, in the numerous 
specimens of the latter form which I have examined, any trace of 
the peculiar indentations in the grooves or of the uneven character of 
the lirae which are so conspicuous in the Californian species. The 
lirse ofX. Carpenteri ai-e genei-ally smaller and more numerous; 
about five or six are visible on the penultimate whorl ; and those 



248 LEPTOTHYRA. 

upon the base are but little, if at all, uarrower than the upper ones ; 
whilst iu L. sanguineus and X. sangarensis the difference in width is 
decided and constant. I have seen specimens of L. carpenteri 
strongly lirate both above and below. As to color, "the species is 
of all shades of crimson and purple, some specimens being banded 
with white, or having the red color of the ribs interrupted by ob- 
lique streaks of white ; some specimens, excepting the dark apex, 
being pure white." (Dall.) 

I did not adopt the varietal name pHrjnireus, proposed by Car- 
penter, because it has already been twice used in this genus. 

L. PAucicosTATA Dall, 1871. PI. 63, fig. 27. 

Shell small, depressed-globose, solid, imjjerforate ; whorls 4, rap- 
idly increasing, very strongly spirally lirate, the lirse seven to eight 
in number on the last whorl, separated by deep grooves, iu which 
incremental strife are evident ; sutui*es canaliculate ; aperture con- 
tracted, pearly white within ; columella ending in a callous tubercle; 
color rusty brown or rose-red, frequently with alternating white 
spots on the ribs, interstices generally lighter, sometimes })ui'e white. 

Alt. 4, diam. 4 mill. 

Monterey, Catalina Id. and San Diego, Cal. 

Most nearly allied to the preceding, but differing sufficiently in 
the extremely coarse prominent ribs. 

L. BACULA Carpenter, 1865. PI. 39«, fig. 33. 

Shell small, depressed-globose, solid, imperforate, rufous ashy ; 
whorls 4, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, obsoletely but regu- 
larly spirally striate ; aperture large, oblique, deflexed above. 

Alt. 4, diam. 5 mill. 

CoUoiiia paucicostata Sowb. (not Dall) is a synonym. 

Allied to L. carpenteri, but readily separated by the nearly obso- 
lete spiral sculpture. 
L. MAEGiNATA ("Nuttall") Rceve, 1848. PI. 58, figs. 51, 52. 

" Shell ovate, rather solid, imperforated, spirally striated, slightly 

grooved ; aperture small ; whitish stained and blotched with livid 

olive." {Reeve.) 

Upper California. 

I have copied Reeve's description aud the figures of Reeve and of 

Sowerby — the latter said to be twice the natural size. If this shell 

ever came from California, which is very improbable, it might be a 

form of L. hacula Cpr. It is not the T. maginatus Nuttall mss., 

which is a species of Trochidce. 



LEPTOTHYRA. 249 

L. cuNNiNGHAMi E. A. Smith, ]881. PI. 57, figs. 0(1, 57. 

Shell small, subglobose, perforate in the young state, when adult 
imperforate, of a rose-madder color ; whorls 42 , the apical one whit- 
ish, the rest convex, and finely spirally striated, also marked with 
faint oblique lines of growth ; suture rather deep; last whorl ob- 
li(piely descending near the lip, somewhat flattened beneath near 
the center ; aperture obliquely subcircular, iridescent Avithin ; colu- 
mella pearly, spread over the umbilicus ; labrum with a narrow 
pinkish margin within. Alt. 42 , diam. 5 mill. (Smith.) 

Port Rosario and Portland Bay, Patagonia. 

Operculum as usual in the genus. 

L. SANGuiNEA Linn., 1758. PI. 49, figs. 48, 49 ; pi. 64, figs. 60, 61. 

Shell small, very solid, orbicular, depressed, with conic spire; 
whorls 42-5, convex, strongl}^ spirally lirate, the linie smooth, about 
twelve in number on body-whorl, three on penultimate whorl, not j)er- 
ceptibly crenulated by the very subtle incremental stride ; above the 
lirse are coarse, smooth, and generally irregularly spaced, interstices 
smooth, as wide or wider than the ribs; below more finely lirate ; last 
whorl well rounded, deflected anteriorly ; aperture somewhat con- 
tracted, oblique, pearly white within, peristome rather thick, its ends 
not converging, columella short, slightly arcuate, thick and heavy, 
terminating below in an obtuse tubercle, base of aperture some- 
times bearing an inconspicuous dentiform callus at margin ; color 
deep crimson. Alt. 6, diam. 7 mill. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

The species has also been dredged ofl" the Atlantic Coast of France. 

Operculum (pi. 60, figs. 54, 55) inside slightly convex, light yel- 
low, with about ten very slowly and regularly increasing whorls, 
the last third of the outermost considerably widened ; outside 
calcareous, white, flat, concave in the central area and coarsely ru- 
gose, outer margins with a slightly elevated very finely radiately 
wrinkled concentric rib, which is slightly more elevated near its ter- 
mination. 

The synonyms are T. purpureus Risso, T. coccineus Miihlf, and 
T. helUa-i Payr. 

The diflerential characters of L. earpenteri, L. sanguinea and L. 
sangarensis are pointed out under the descriptions of the first and last 
species. There is not the slightest occasion for any longer confound- 
ing these three unfortunate species. The occurence of the real Z/. 
sanguinea Linn, in Japanese waters still requires confirmation. 



250 , I.EPTOTHYRA. 

L. sANGARENSis Sclireiick, 1861. PI. 47, figs. 27, 28 ; pi. 64, fig. 59. 

Shell small, turbinate-conic, almost trochiform, imperforate, solid, 
dark purplish-brown or reddish; sculpture consisting of fine crowd- 
ed spiral concentric lirfe on the base, which is very slightly convex, 
and coarse cord-like lirre above, about five or six in number on the 
body-whorl and with more or less minute lirulse between them : incre- 
mental striuhe visible nnder a lens ; spire elevated conic, subacute, the 
apical whorl white; suture deeply impressed ; whorls 4-5; last whorl 
but slightly descending, subcariuate below the middle ; aperture 
small, less than half the total length of shell, oblique, rounded, within 
pearly, and iridescent; outer lip rather thin ; columella obliquely 
arcuate, rather broad and flattened, very obtusely subtuberculate 
just below the middle. Alt. 7, diam. 6 mill. 

Japan, 

T. coralliuus Keeve (pi. 63, fig. 20) is probably synonymous. 

Quite variable in its proportions, according to Schrenck, one of his 
specimens measuring, alt. 7j, diam. 8 mill. 

This seems to be the shell which many authors have reported from 
Japan as T. sanguineus L. From that species it differs in the conic 
form, more finely lirate base, narrower ribs above, flatter base, etc. 
From L. amussitata the lack of distinct decussation will separate 
sangarensis. I was unfortunate enough to lose the only operculum 
of this form in my possession, before describing it. 

L. AMUSSITATA Gould. PL r)':,, figs. 71^ 72. 

Shell globose-conic, imperforate, solid, uniform deep crimson ; sut- 
ures deeply impressed ; whorls 5, convex, spirally lirate, the lirsfr 
large and prominent on middle portion of Avhorl, alternating with 
smaller intercalated riblets ; base very finely concentrically striate,, 
the whole surface decussated by numerous regular oblique impress- 
ed lines in the direction of incremental striae ; last whorl descending 
anteriorly; aperture subeircular, oblique, less than half the length 
of shell, silvery within ; columella slightly tuberculate at base. 

Alt. 8-10, diam. 8-10 mill. 

Japan. 

Operculum (pi. 60, figs. 51, 52.) 

CoUonia rubra A. Ad., mss. is a synonym according to Sowerby. 
A charming little shell, easily separated from its allies by the 
finely decussated surface. 



LEPTOTHYRA. 251 

L. RUBRA Duuker, 1882. PL 69, fig. 26. 

Shell small, solid, globose ; Avhorls 4-4^, rotund, marked with sub- 
grauose transverse costulse ; suture obvious; aperture rotund, irides- 
cent and pearly within ; lip thickened. 

Alt. scarcely 6, diani. 6-6 ^ mill. (Dunker.) 

Japan. 

Collonia rubra Dunker, Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 128, pi. 12, f. 7-9. 

Nearly allied to L. sangidnea L., but differing in the sculpture of 
the ribs. 

L. PURPURASCENS Dunker, 1882. PL 69, fig. 24. 

Shell globose, whorls 5, rounded, separated by subcanaliculate 
sutures, transversely sculptured by unequal graniferous costulse ; 
aperture rotund, sulcate within and pearly ; columella thickened. 

Alt. 8, diam. 9-10 mill. (Dunker.) 

Japan. 

Collonia purpu7-ascens Dkr., Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap., p. 129, pi. 12, 
f. 1-3. 

I have not seen this species, nor L. rubra Dkr. Both are allied 
to amiissitata Gould, and purpurascens may prove to be a synonym 
of that species. X. rubra seems to be distinct. 

L. PURPURATA Desh., 1863. PL 54, fig. 61. 

Shell minute, turbinate, subglobose, imperforate, somewhat de- 
pressed, vivid purple, white-fasciate in the middle; whorls 4, the 
first obtuse, the following convex, spirally sulcate, the last large; 
base a little depressed, white at center; aperture very oblique, cii'cu- 
lar, pearly within, margin thickened; columella arcuate, simple. 

Alt. IJ, diam. 2 mill. 

Mauritius. 
Var. TRiciNGULATA vou Martens, 1880. 

Subglobose, umbilicate; whorls 3, gradate, the last with three 
elevated contiguous cinguli; the upper one nodulous, brick-red, the 
basal white, encircled by a deep red band ; aperture circular, white, 
columellar margin thickened. {Martens.) 

Mauritius. 

L. ROSEociNCTA von Martens, 1880. PL 68, figs. 14-19. 

Shell globose, imperforate, smooth, white, apex rosy, peripheral 
fascia rather wide, frequently composite, rose-colored, basal fascia 
narrow; whorls 31, slightly convex, the last rotund ; suture super- 



:252 LEPTOTHYRA. 

ficial ; base slightly excavated at the position of tlie umbilicus ; aper- 
ture oblique, circular ; peristome white, thickened. 
. Alt. IJ, diam. 1] mill. (Martens.) 

Mauritius. 
L. FOLiNi Pilsbry, ] 888. PL 57, fig. 58. 

Shell minute, turbinate, subglobose, vivid blood red ; whorls 4, 
the first depressed, subcarinated, apical Avhorl subcostate, transverse- 
ly lirate, l.irse rounded, the wide interstices regularly minutely 
transversely striate ; last whorl large, umbilicate ; aperture sub- 
circular, right margin somewhat thickened, the left reflexed ; colu- 
mella simple, arcuate. Alt. 1*2, diam. 1'5 mill. 

3fauritius. 

This is Turbo sanc/ui)iei(s de Folin, (preoc.) 

L. sEMiLUGUBiiis Dcsh., 1863. PI. 58, fig. 52«. 

Shell small, turbinate, subglobose, white, marbled with black ; 
gpire somewhat obtuse ; whorls 5, declivous above, spirally deeply 
sulcate, the sulci subgranulose ; last whorl large, base perforate ; 
aperture circular, pearly within, very oblique ; columella arcuate, 
flat, truncate anteriorly. Alt. 3, diam. 3 mill. 

Mauritius. 
L. CAKiNATA Cantraine, 1835. PL 63, fig. 35. 

Shell subconie, thick, glabrous ; upper whorls carinated, the last 
depressed above, lightly striate in the median portion ; base smooth, 
shining. (Cantraine.') Alt. 10, diam. 11 mill. 

Mediterranean and Bay of Biscay, 125 to 7 SI fins. 

Also found in the Italian and Sicilian Tertiary. 

Troehus carinatus Cantr., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bruxelles, 1835, p. 387. 
(not Troehus carinatus Borson, Mem. Ac. Torino, 1822, which is ap- 
parently a species of Astralium.) 

Troehus glahratus Phil., Fauna Moll. SiciL, 1844, is synonymous. 

This deep water form of the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlan- 
tic, seems to be specifically identical with the Western Atlantic 
shells dredged by the Challenger and the Blake and describ- 
ed under the names T. indutiis Watson and L. albida Dall. I 
have before me specimens of the latter form which correspond very 
nearly .with Cantraine's figures. 

Var. peloritana Cantraine, 1835. PL 63, fig. 34. 

Shell subconie, thick, very lightly striate, transversely subcostate 
the costse subgranose ; whorls convex ; base shining, smooth. 

Alt. 12, diam. 13 mill. (Cantraine.) 

Troehus filosns Phil., 1844, is synonymous. 



LEPTOTHYRA. 255 

L. iNDUTA Watson, 1879. PL 63, %. 36. 

Small, couoidal, high, whorls tumid, base flattened ; color white- 
glossy ; whole surface faintly marked with remote spiral threads,, 
and very faintly scratched with closer microscopic striae ; whorl& 
bluntly angulated in the middle, and the last is so, besides, at the 
base below the j)eriphery ; this angulation meets the outer lip ; the 
the second and third whorls have two or three strong spiral threads , 
there are very many close unequal oblique lines of growth ; of these 
the strongest rise in close-set infra-sutural puckerings, which on the 
third whorl resemble small beads ; there is a glossy, thin ivory- 
white calcareous coat over a brilliant pearly white layer ; spire high, 
fine-pointed; apex blunt, the smooth rounded 11 whorl scarcely 
projecting ; whorls 6, of rapid increase, tumid, the penultimate ris- 
ing swollen out of the suture ; base a little flattened ; suture linear, 
not impressed, a little coarse, slightly marginated by the up-lap ot 
the succeeding on the preceding whorl and the slight tumidity 
caused by the infra-sutural puckerings ; aperture very oblique^ 
round, with a soft pearly nacre all round : outer lip very slightly 
descending, thick, bevelled outwards to a sharp edge; there is a 
broad thin hyaline pad spread over the body and connecting the 
outer lip and the pillar, which is broad, thick, shallowly excavated, 
with a slight external median horizontal tooth or ridge ; the edge is 
reverted and closely appressed. Alt. '27, diam. -25 inch. 

350 fins, in Pteropod ooze, off CiUebra Id., W. Indies^ 

Operculum small, thin, calcareous, flat, convex on the inside, 
where it shows 7i whorls; the last whorl close to its end begins 
suddenly to enlarge. ( Watso7i.) 

Although I have above expressed the opinion that this species a& 
well as the following one, is identical with L. carinata Cantraine, I 
have deemed it best to give the original description and figure. 

L. ALBiDA Dall, 1881. PI. 63, fig. 23, 24. 

" Shell stout solid, heavy, very nacreous, variable in form and 
sculpture, rather elevated for the genus, dead white or brownish ex- 
ternally, with the usual solid shelly operculum ; whorls 5, rounded, 
apex obtuse, suture distinct ; sculpture of stout revolving ribs vary- 
ing from three to six on the upper side of the whorl, crossed by 
slight plications, most noticeable just below the sutures, but distin- 
guishable also on the base; the ribs may be few and widely separat- 
ed, or numerous and close-set; they may near the sutures be nodu- 



254 LEPTOTHYRA. 

lated by the plications or not. The base is usually more finely 
sculptured and sometimes quite smooth except for lines of growth." 

{Ball.) 

Aperture very oblique, small, its upper margin produced forward 
and slightly deflected ; columella with a stout transverse tubercle 
about midway its length, and a minute denticle at the point of its 
junction with the basal lip ; parietal wall with a bright white callus. 

Alt. 7, diam. 6f mill. 
Gulf of Mexico {off Havana, etc.) 1 25-1002 /his. ; off' Cajie Hatteras, 
142 fais. 

Operculum inside pale yellow, multispiral ; outside calcareous, 
polished, white, nearly smooth, showing one whorl with a concen- 
tric convexity, much elevated at its termination, central area con- 
cave. 

" This shell is so variable that I should be disj^osed to think 
Watson's Turbo {Collonia) indutus a mere abnormally smooth spec- 
imen * * * it is very probable that they will turn out to be 
varieties of the same species." (DaU.) 

L. FiLiFER Desh., 1863. PI. 58, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell subgiobulose, solid, turbinate, perforate, rosy rubescent, 
variegated with castaneous and white ; spire short, obtuse ; whorls 
5, spirallv finely Urate, the last large; base subdepressed ; aperture 
lunate-circular, oblique, pearly within; columell.a callous below. 

Alt. 7, diam. 7 mill. 

Mauritius. 

L. ciOER (Menke) Phil., 1844. PI. 54, fig. 62. 

Shell small, globose-conic, solid, perforate, whitish, tessellated 
with purple-brown or reddish, the markings usually arranged in 
regular longitudinal series; spire conic ; whorls 4^-5, convex, with 
moderate sutures, somewhat flattened and sloping around the upper 
part, spirally coarsely and rather obscurely lirate; aperture oblique, 
slightly deflected above ; columella obsoletely dilated toward the 
base, umbilicus very narrow ; base finely lirate. 

Alt. 6-7, diam. 6-7 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

T. sanguineus Reeve = T. roseus Phil, may be synonymous with 
this species. At any rate no one can tell positively fi'om Reeve's 
■wretched description and figure what form he had before him. 



LEPTOTIIYRA. 255 

I.. coELATA A. Ad., 1854. PI. 48, fig. 38. 

Shell ovate-conoid, trochiform, thick, slightly elevated, below 
subdepressed, umbilicate ; spire obtuse ; whorls 5-6, slightly convex, 
longitudinally and obliquely striate, spirally granose-lirate ; suture 
impressed; last whorl obtusely angular at the middle, with 16-18 
spiral granose lirte, the granules small, close; aperture transversely 
ovate, silver}' within ; lip simple ; columella narrow, arcuate, thick- 
ened at the base ; umbilicus deep, with a spiral funicle inside ; co- 
lor reddish yellow. Alt. 11, diam, 16 mill. 

Mogador ; E. coast Africa. 
Operculum calcareous. 

This is the Omphallus coelaius A. Ad., and the Turbo MacAn- 
dreivi Morch, T. maca»drel Sby. It is the type of Anadema A. Ad., 
proposed as a subgenus of Omphalius, and characterized by the 
spiral funicle within the umbilicus. 

L. FRiCKii Crosse, 1865. Unfigured. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, depressed-turbinate, delphinuliform, 
r<omewhat thick, spirally finely striate, bicostate, white, more or less 
variegated with black ; suture subcrenulated ; whorls 4, (embryonic 
I2 smooth, white j, rapidly increasing, subplane at sutures, the last 
tri-costato-carinate, the costffi articulated with Avhite and black, 
slightly descending ; base somewhat convex, spirally granulose- 
striate ; aperture round, white, scarcely pearly, the basal margin 
thickened. Alt. 4, diam. 02 mill. 

Gnlf of California. 

Var. beta is gray, obscurely maculated with black. 

L. EUCHARis Crosse, 1865. Vtifignred. 

Shell narrowly perforate, turbinate, delphinuliform, rather thick, 
dirty white, spirally articulated with black and white, with longitu- 
dinal very fine suboblique impressed stria; and spiral costate, the 
central rib prominent, forming a carina ; apex obtuse, subplanulate • 
whorls 4i, (embryonic I2 smooth, white, flat,) rapidly increasing, 
convex, carinate, the last descending ; base slightly convex, concen- 
trically costulate and finely radiately striate; aperture round, 
Avhite, scarcely pearly, basal margin rather wide, subthickened. 

Alt. 6i, diam. 5^ mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



256 LEPTOTHYRA. 

Operculum calcareous Avith central nucleus ; outside subtly gran- 
ulose, concave in the center, with two prominent concentric costas. 

A variety has the dark color replaced by scarlet ; the spiral 
costse are articulated with white and scarlet. 

The above two descriptions are derived from the original ones of 
Crosse. 

L. MACULOSA Pease, 1862. PL 57, fig. 60. 

"Shell small, globose, umbilicate, rather thin, shining, concentric- 
ally irregularly ribbed, interstices grooved, concave, transversely 
very faintly striate, white, ribs spotted remotely with rose red" (Pwse). 

Alt. 2, diam. 1 1 mill. 

Ins. Panmotus. 

To Pease's description of this lovely species, I would add that the 
spire of adults is more obtuse than his figure, which I have copied^ 
indicates. The altitude is about equal to the diameter; the subsut- 
ural rib is frequently nodose ; and the umbilicus, as in the follow- 
ing species, is cu-enated within the margin. It is most nearly allied 
to L. pieta Pse. 

L. CANDIDA Pease, 1860. PI. 63, fig. 40. 

"Shell minute, thin, perforate, orbicular, ornamented with raised 
spiral striae (margins of upper whorls granose at the sutures?) inner 
lip callous ; aperture circular." (Pease). 

Sandwich Is. 

I have given Sowerby's miserable figure of this species. I have 
not seen specimens ; and so inadequate a description does not deserve 
recognition. 

L. PicTA Pease, 1868. PI. 69, fig. 35. 

Shell small, solid, globose, umbilicate, concentrically ribbed ; spire 

somewhat exsei-ted ; whorls angulated at their upper part ; aperture 

circular; columella slightly callous; wdiitish, striped on the upper 

part of the whorls longitudinally with reddish brown, below spotted. 

(Peage). Alt. 3, diam. 2i mill. 

Tahiti ; Paumotus. 

Operculum, pi. 60, ng. 63. 

The upper whorls of the spire are grannlose above. There is con- 
siderable variation in the prominence of the \irse on the central por- 
tion of the body-whorl ; the margin of the umbilicus is more or less 
plicate ; and the last whorl is slightly deflected toward the aperture. 



LEPTO'J'HYRA. 257 

I.. RUBRiciNCTA Migliels, 1845. PI. 39a, fig. 32. 

Shell minute, depressed-globose, perforate ; spire short, apex ob- 
tuse ; Avhorls 4, convex, encircled by coarse white spiral ribs, the in- 
terstices deep red ; base smooth, with concentric red stripes ; aper- 
ture large, rounded, oblique ; umbilicus narrow. 

Alt. Il', diam. If mill. Hawaiian Is. 

The synonyms are Turbo inHltllineata Garrett, Collonia rubrilin- 
eata and C. miiltistriata (Pse.) Sowerby, and Leptothyra ruhrilineata 
(Garrett) v. Martens. 

Some specimens are beaded below the sutures, and there is some 
variation in the width of the umbilical perforation. The revolving 
ribs are sometimes obsolete ; but so far as I know the red spiral 
stripes are constant ; of these there are usually eight to double that 
number on the body-whorl. 

Mr. Pease distributed this species under the name of "ruhrilineata 
Garrett." This fact probably accounts for the names quoted by 
Sowerby. 

L. EXiLis Philippi, (1849?) PL 62, figs. 3-5. 

"Intermediate between T. sanguineus and T. ruhricindus, and 
separated from both by its rather wide umbilicus ; there are 4 whorls, 
which are rapidly increasing and well rounded ; the spiral ridges are 
about 12 on the body-whorl, but vary in number ; they are subgran- 
ulose, and at the suture distinctly tuberculose. The border of the 
umbilicus is crenated ; aperture circular ; color bright carmine, some- 
what lighter in the furrows ; umbilical tract pure white ; aperture 
inside pale red." Alt. 3i mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This species is unknown to me. Tlie above paragraph contains 
all the information given by Philippi. 

L. VERRUCA Gould, 1845. PL 39a, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell small, short ovate-conic, solid, imperforate or narrowly um- 
bilicate, white with numerous revolving series of red or broAvn tessel- 
lations ; whorls 5, spirally lirate, the lira largest at middle of whorl, 
and sometimes causing a slight carina there ; last whorl slightly but 
abruptly deflected anteriorly; aperture circular, white, columella 
arcuate, wide, white, not dentate below ; base with a minute inter- 
nal denticle. Alt. 5, diam. 5 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 
17 



258 LEPTOTHYRA. 

Some specimens are almost entirely red ; others are white, with red 
spots at the periphery. There is some variation in form, also, and 
in the prominence of the spiral riblets. 

Turbo g/ariosa Gould is a synonym, according to Sowerby. I can- 
not find that Gould ever described such a species. 

An annoying tangle in the synonymy of this speeiesand L. rub ri- 
cincta Migh. resulted from the identiHcation of Gould's verruca with 
Mighel's species by Mr. Pease, and, following him by Von Martens,, 
who figures and describes rubricinda Migh., under the name rubri- 
liueata Garrett, aiid verruca Gld. under the name rubrioincta Mighels.. 

L. ROSEOPUNCTATA Angas, 1880. PL 57, figs. 54, 55. 

"Shell minute, narrowly and deeply umbilicated, globosely tui'bi- 
nate, solid, white, more or less dotted or flamed all over with bright 
rose color; whorls 4, convex, closely concentrically ridged througli- 
out ; aperture subcircular ; peritreme a little thickened and contract- 
ed." {Angas). Alt. 2^, diam. 3^r mill. 

Holdfast Bay, St. Vincents Gulf, Australia, (in shell sand).. 

L. PiLULA Dunker, 1860. PI. 58, fig. 59. 

Shell small, globose-conic, umbilicate, solid, dirty white, obscure- 
ly radiately maculated and spotted above and banded below Avith 
dull purplish brown; spire short, conic; whorls 4, the apical one al- 
most flat, the last not deflected anteriorly, spirally lirate, the line 
about 25 in number, unequal, finely transversely striate ; aperture 
subvertical, circular, peritreme thick ; columella excavated at the 
deep umbilicus, which bears internally a spiral callous rib ; margin 
of umbilicus crenulate or plicate. Alt. 4j, diam. 5-6 mill. 

Japan, 

Cyniscajaponica A. Ad., is synonymous. It is also the T. ( Colloniay 
pillula of Sowerby. Described originally as a Liotia. 

L. L.ETA Montrouzier, 1863. PI. 63, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell small, umbilicate, subconoid-globose, solid, spirally unecjual- 
ly lirate, upper whorls granulate and base sometimes slightly so, 
dull white, maculate, generally flammulate above with chestnut, ir- 
regularly spotted below ; spire short, apex obtuse ; whorls 4, suture 
impressed, the last whorl briefly deflexed anteriorly ; aperture round- 
ed, oblique, in adults crenulated within; columella excavated at the 
narrow deep umbilicus. Alt. 4}, diam. 5 mill. 

New Caledonian Archipelago; Viti and Solomon Is., Australia. 



LEPTOTHYRA. 259 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 65) inside yellowish, multispiral, nucleus 
somewhat excentric ; outside calcareous, white, concentrically coarse- 
ly striate and radiately marked, except on mai'gin of increment, 
which is smooth and elevated ; center subconcave and coarsely gran- 
ulose. 

The synonyms are T. costulosits Sowb., T. costulatus ("Gld") Sowb., 
and Trochus (Gibbula) swpragranosiis E. A. Smith. 

A well marked form, of wide distribution, of which I have before 
me many examples, all agreeing in the peculiar operculum. I can- 
not follow Sowerby's synonymy in this group ; beseems to have unit- 
ed species from a mere superficial likeness. Here, as in the typi- 
cal Turbo and Astralium, the characters derived from the opercula 
are of high specific value, and this organ should be examined before 
uniting the numerous described species. 

L. NANiNA Sowerbie, 1864. PL 58, figs. 5^, 56. 

Shell minute, umbilicate, suborbicular ; apex obtuse; spirally im- 
pressed-striate ; apex, subsutural tract and base with impressed ra- 
diating strife ; white, marked around the periphery with rosy equal- 
ly spaced spots ; whorls 5, convex ; aperture rounded ; columella 
thickened ; umbilicus narrow, deep, rounded, radiately plicate on 
the edge. Alt. 8, diam. 3 mill. 

Ins. Art, Archipelago of N. Caledonia. 

Evidently closely allied to L. Iceta. Operculum unknown. 

L. GRANULOSA Pease, 1868. PL 57, fig. 59. 

Shell small, solid, umbilicate, depressed orbicular, spire but slight- 
ly exserted, very obtuse ; whorls 4, the first planorboid, upper ones 
granulose, the last spirally lirate, the iirse about 25 in number, un- 
equal ; aperture subcircular, deflected above; umbilicus plicate 
within ; color whitish, painted with broad radiating stripes and 
spots of reddish brown ; white around the umbilicus. 

Alt. 3^, diam. 4 mill. 

Ins. Ponape. 

The spire is usually slightly shorter than in the figure. 

The aperture does not show the nainute lirre w'ithin its outer mar- 
gin, and teeth within the base which are found in L. Iceta, and is 
smaller and more oblique than in X.j9i7 ',</«. 

L. PLUCTUATA Hutton, 1884. PL 64, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell small, rather solid, spirally striated, not iridescent ; color 
yellowish white or pale brownish, with irregular waved longitudinal 



260 LEPTOTHYRA. 

bands of brown which are rather indistinct ; spire depressed, obtuse ; 
whorls 4, rounded, distinctly and closely spirally grooved, the um- 
bilical region smooth [or finely lirate] ; suture scarcely impressed ; 
umbilicus narrow, deep ; aperture subrotund ; peristome acute, not 
continuous, the lower lip thickened. (Hutton.) 
Alt. 21, diara. 3 mill. 

Foveaux Straits. 

Operculum inside as usual in the genus, showing about 6 closely- 
coiled whorls ; outside subvitreous and translucent, nearly smooth, 
calcareous, slightly concave in the center. 

It is Cyclostrema flactuata Hutton. 

Separated from L. ktta by the lack of spiral sculj)ture on the 
operculum and the somewhat smaller size. My figures are from 
sj^iecimens received from the author. 

L. pusio (Anton) Phil., (1849 ?) PI. 44, fig. 70. 

Shell minute, globose-conoid, narrowly umbilicate, yellowish, 
maculated and spotted with clear and dark brown flecks ; whorls 
5, the last with about sixteen, penultimate with six to eight spiral 
lirse, which are as broad as their interstices; umbilicus with cren- 
ate margin ; aperture circular, very smooth within. 

Alt. Al, diam. 5 mill. 

Habitat unL-noicn. 

I am unable to satisfactorily identify this form with any other 
known to me. Its sculpture and smooth aperture separate it from 
L. keta Montrouzier. 

L. cALiFORxrcA (Troschel) Phil, (1849 ?'). PI. 58, figs. .38, 54. 

Shell small, perforate, globose-conoid, very solid, white, variega- 
ted with purplish ; whorls 4, the last very closely transversely striate 
and obsoletely transversely costate ; aperture orbicular; lip inside 
densely crenulated. (Phi/ipjn.) Alt. 5, diam. 6 mill. 

'' California " (Philippi:) 

This species is apparently very nearly related to the T. sanguin- 
eus L., but is distinguished by the crowded transverse strise of the 
upper surface, by the narrowly but conspicuously umbilicate base, 
■by the plica^ within the outer lip, and finally by the coloration, 
which consists of large deep-red maculations above at the suture 
and in the middle of the lower side, and smaller paler flecks around 
the umbilicus and at the periphery. I see no tubercle ujion the 
columella. (Philippi.) 



LEPTOTHYRA. 261 

Von Martens (Xachriclitsbl. d. JNIal. GeselL, 1878, p. 88,) consid- 
ers this species the same as Leptothyra sanguinea Carp, {non Linn.) 
-= L. carpenteri Pilsbry. The al)ove description, translated from 
the original one of Philippi, shows it to belong to an entirely differ- 
ent group of species — tliat of L. Iceta Montrouzier ; and it may in- 
deed be nothing more than a bright colored example of that species. 
At all events, nothing of the sort has been found upon the Califor- 
nian coast. 

L. MUNDA A. Ad., 1873. PI. 57, fig. 53. 

Shell depressed turbinate, solid, narrowly umbilicate, white, stri- 
gate and maculate with pale fulvous ; whorls 4, convex, angulate 
above, finely striate, spirally lirate, the lirre larger at periphery; 
aperture circular, peristome varicose, deeply crenate ; base slightly 
convex ; umbilicus with a crenulate nuirgin. 

Alt. 4, diam. 4 mill. 

Persia/I, Guff. 

I have not seen this species. It is apparently related to the fol- 
lowing. 

L. ARsiNOEN.SLs Issel, 18Gi>. PI. 58, fig. 61. 

Shell small, rather solid, orbicular conoid, depressed, narrowly 
perforate, white, granulose above; spire very obtuse, apex planu- 
late ; suture slightly impressed; whorls 3o, the last angulate, en- 
circled by three conspicuous costa^ ; base minutely concentrically 
costulate ; aperture subrotuud, right margin arcuate, acute, columella 
nearly straight, much thickened ; umbilicus narrow, nearly closed, 
bounded by a crenulated margin. Alt. IV, diam. 21 mill. 

Bed Sea. 

My description is taken from Issel. He says : " Of this species I 
have seen but a single subfossil example." 

L. EROOPOLITANA Issel, 1869. PI. 58, fig. 60. 

Shell small, somewhat solid, orbicular-conoid, subj^erforate, white,, 
with very fine elevated longitudinal strife ; spirally costulate ; apex 
obtuse ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, angulate above, separated by 
a distinct suture, the last with three spiral lirse, obscurely angulate 
at base ; aperture subtetragonal, over half the length of shell ; base 
slightly convex, concenLrically cingulate ; operculum white, calca- 
reous, convex outside. Alt. 2-2, diam. 2i mill. 

Suez. 



262 LEPTOTHYRA. 

L. GLOBULA Philippi, 1848. PI. 62, figs. 10-12. pi. 64, fig. 56. 

Shell small, very thick and solid, white, radiately painted oi- 
sparsely spotted with pink, depressed, globose-conic ; "whorls 4—5, 
rounded, apex smooth and flattened, the followiug whorls spirally 
sculptured with closely beaded unequal lirte, of which there are 
about eight to twelve principal ones, and in the interstices between 
these (except on the base) several similar but much smaller beaded 
lirul?e revolve ; last whorl slightly descending anteriorly ; aperture 
subcircular, slightly ol)lique ; columella obsoletely subdentate at 
base ; umbilicus rather large, with a spiral scalloped rib inside its 
margin. Alt. 5, diam. 5 mill. 

Antilles (Philippi) ; Indian Ocean (Academy coll.). 

In this beautifully sculptured species the granulation Avhich 
marks the spires in the allied forms extends over the whole surface 
of the shell. 

L. TRAN8ENNA Watsou, 1879. PI. 52, figs. 23, 24. 

Low, conical, round with expanded base, sculptured, solid; cross- 
hatched by narrow impressed infersecting lines which cross the 
whorls obliquely and not (juite regularly nor uniformly, and which 
cut the surface into little diamonds resembling shagreen ; color dirty 
rusty wdiite ; spire rather low, but conical ; whorls of rather rapid 
increase, apparently about 6 ; suture linear, scarcely impressed ; 
mouth very oblique, round, nacreous to the very edge ; outer lip 
very patulous, sharp on the edge, with a thick nacreous layer bev- 
elled off to the edge above and in front, but on the base turned 
over and advancing in a rounded pad beyond the lip ; pillar lip 
consists of a rounded mass of nacre backed and above obscured by a 
considerable porcellanous deposit, wdiich is widely but thinly spread 
out over the body, so as to connect in a continuous sweep the outer 
and the pillar lips ; it is distinctly impressed with the scale-like 
pattern of the underlying sculpture; its edge abrupt and chipped. 

Alt. -87, diam. 11)4 inch. ( Watson.) 

Off Japan, in 565 fins. 

Operculum (pi. 60, fig. 56) thin, flat on the outside, highly por- 
cellanous with a translucent and slightly thinner central area ; 
inside yellow with many whorls, the nucleus nearly central. 

( Watson.) 
L. GESTROi Caramagna, PI. 6!>, figs 20, 80. 

Shell conoid, imperforate, -whitish, thick ; whorls 5, convex, separat- 
ed ))y slightly profound suture, all over obliquely minutely striate. 



LEPTOTHYRA. 263 

encircled by minutely granulose Yirve, with smaller ones intercalated ; 
three first whorls but little projecting, the fourth double the length 
of the first three, the last inflated ; penultimate and last whorls with 
a median series of reddish-brown quadrangular maculations or with 
the spiral lirse articulated with brown ; beneath with a less obvious 
zone of the same color; spiral line 7 to 8 on the penultimate, 15 
on the last whorl ; outer lip acute, slightly suleate, with dots of 
carmine ; inner lip arcuate, reflexed, planate ; aperture subrotund, 
pearly; operculum calcareous, pearly. Ait, 11, diam. 10 mill. 

( Carmnaffna.) 

Bed Sea at Assab. 

Collonla gestroi Caramagna, BuU. Soc. Mai. Ifal., xiii, 1888, p. 132 
t. 8, £10, 10a. 

Compare Turbo piistalatus Brocchi, a species with which L. gestroi 
may jjossibly prove synomymous. 
L. PYROPUS Reeve, 1848. PL 44, fig. 67. 

Shell somewhat depressly ovate, imperforated, sutures of the spire 
simple, whorls smooth, spirally encircled with striaj; whitish, lines 
bright red, interior silvered. {Reeve?) 

Habitat unknown. 

Known to me only by Reeve's description and figure. It may 
not be a Leptothyra. 

Doubtful, undetermined and spurious species of Leptothyra. 
A portion of the following species can be determined by an inspec- 
tion of the type specimens, in those cases where they can be found. 
The others or all of them, perhaps, had better be ignored. I have 
given the original descriptions. 

T. (collonia) marmoreus ("Pease") Sowerby, 1886. PI. 69, fig. 

Testa rainuta, ovata, imperforate, alba, pallide fusco-marmorata ; 
spire i)arva ; anfr. eonvexo-declives, ultimus leviter elevatus, infra 
medium obtuse angulatus ; apertura ol)lique ovata. (Sowerby.) 

Sandwich Is. f 

Said to be in the British Museum under the above name. The 
figure is from Sowerby. 

L. cosTATA Pease, 1869. 

Shell thick, solid, turbinate, nurrowly perforate; whorls 4, Irans- 
-versely ribbed, augulate at the middle, ribs largest at the angulation 



264 LEPTOTHYEA. 

and below, longitudinally finely striate ; aperture somewhat oblique,, 
nearly circular ; mottled and spotted with white black and brown,, 
apex white. 

Alt. 3, diam. 82 mill. (Pease.) Ins. Maui. 

Turbo murreus Reeve, 1848. PI. 58, fig. 62. 

Shell minute, somewhat orbicular, slightly umbilicated, smooth, 
polished, white neatly blotched with pale rose. (Reeve). 

Habitat luiknoirn. 

"A minute delicately colored porcelain shell." (Beeve.) 

Turbo (?) pulcheluus C. B. Ad., 1845. 

Testa minina, albida, raaculis rubris quadratis inequalibus, maj- 
oribus nigrescentibus, serie decurrentibus depositus, ornata ; sutura 
profunda ; anfr. 5, mediis carinatis, lineis elevatispluribus decurren- 
tibus instructis ; labro tenui ; umbilico nullo. Alt. 1'65, diam. "1 inch ; 
divergence of spire, 45°. (Adams.) 

Jamaica.. 

CoLLONiA STRIATA Gray, 1850. JJnfigurcd. 

"Shell red, white-marbled, striated. (Gray.) Africa.'^ 

Turbo (collonia) squamatus (A. Ad.) Sowerby, 1886. PI. 44, 
figs. 66, 66a. 

Testa ovato-conica, tenuiscula, im perforata, sordida ; spira acutius- 
cula; anfr. 5, supei'ne concavo declives, deinde obtuse angulati, 
spiraliter lirati, utrinque spiraliter minute striati, et striis obliquis- 
minutissime squamatis sculpti ; anfr. ultimus ad perij^heram angu- 
latus ; apertura parviuscula, subcircularis. Specimens in British 
Museum with name by A. Adams, but he does not seem to have 
published any description of the species. (Soiverby.) 

Habitat unknown. 

T. (collonia) armillatus (A. Ad.) Sowerby, 1886. 

Testa suborbicularis, imperfoi*ata, albida, flammulis obliquis anguS"- 
tis rubro-fuscus ornata ; spira depressiuscula ; anfr. rotundati, costis 
latiusculis confertis subplanulatis spiraliter cingulati. (Soiverby.) 

Australia^ 

Sowerby's figure of this species is reversed and wholly unrecog- 
nizable. 



LEPTOTHYRA. 265- 

COLLONIA LENTICULA Gould, 1861. 

Testa minuta, solida, alba, globoso-leuticularis, ubiqiie striis con- 
fertis tenuissimus cincta ; anfr, 4, depresso-convexis, cito crescentibus ; 
basi convexo, imperforate, callo copioso munito ; apertura parva,. 
circularis. Diam. 4, alt. 2 mill. ( Gould.) 

Chinese Seas- 

COLLONIA QUANTILLA Gould, 1861. 

Testa minuta, solida, depresso-orbicularis, rosacea, sulcis pallidior- 
ibus circ. 4 cincta ; anfr. 4, vix convexis, peripheria obtusa ; basi 
convexo, pallidiore, arete perforate; apertura circularis; labro 
crasso ; columella robusta declivi. Diam. 3, alt 2 -f- mill. (Gotilcl.) 

Simons Bay. 

Turbo nocturnus Gould, 1861. 

Testa parvula, globoso-conica, solida, rufo-fuscescente et rosaceo- 
alternatim strigata ; apice albo ; anfr. 5, convexis, sulcis equalibus 
aratis ; sutura impressa ; basi convexo, imperforate, concentrioe 
striate ; apeirtura subcircularis ; columella expansa, argentata, granu- 
lata, extus erecta. Operculum osseum, pauci-spirale, apice excentrico, 
extus granulate. Alt. 7 mill. (Gould.) 

Simoda, Japan. 

Evidently not a Leptothyra. Sewerby considers Collonia variegata 
A. Ad. a synonym ; and gives a figure of a Leptothyra. which might 
represent almost anything in the genus; but which, together with, 
his description, certainly has nothing to do with Gould's species. 



•266 DELPHINULA 

Family TROCHIDiE. 
Sub-family Delphinultn.e. 

Shell turbinate or subdiscoidal, umbiiicate, solid, pearly witliiu 
whorls loosely coiled, the last frequently free from the preceding, 
more or less angulated, rudely spirally lirate, scaly or spinose ; 
aperture circular, peristome sinuous on the columellar margin, acute, 
often slightly produced or subrostrate below. Operculum thin, 
corneous, multispiral. 

Animal with large foot ; epi2:>odial line bearing cirri ; without 
inter-tentacular lobes ; eyes on short peduncles at the outer bases of 
the tentacles ; tentacles long, slender ; mouth provided with jaws ; 
radula with the formula oo . 5-1-5 . oo , the central tooth broader 
than long, with a broadly reflected simple cusp, lateral teeth with 
cusps, the two outer very large; marginals with short simple cusps, 
the outermost with serrate cusps. 

The relations and limits of tliis subfamily will be more fully 
considered in the monograph of the Trochidcb in the next volume of 
the Manual. 



Synopsis of recent Genera. 

Genus DELPHINULA Lamarck, 1808. 

Shell rather large, solid, umbilicated, turbinate, the upper whorls 
flattened, the last descending, rudely spinose or scaly, more or less 
carinated, but slightly in contact with the preceding ; aperture cir- 
cular ; peristome usually sgmewhat produced at base. 

Angaria (Bolt. 1798) H. & A. Adams, 1858, is a synomyn. 

In this genus were formerly included the species now classed in 
Liotia, Collonia and some other genera. 

Subgenus Angarina Bayle, 1878. 
Shell depressed, discoidal, sinistral (?), widely umbiiicate, spirally 
lirate, aperture , rounded ; umbilical area bounded by a series of 
spines. Animal and operculum unknown. Delphinidopsis Wright, 
1878, (preoc.) is synomymous. Probably not a valid genus. 



Genus DELPHINULA, Lam., 1803. 

D. LAciNiATA Lamarck, 1819. PI. 67, figs. 1, 2, 4. 

Shell depressed-turbinate or nearly planorboid, solid, heavy, um- 
biiicate; whorls 42, the inner ones planulate, planorboid, apex 



DELPHINULA. 267 

minute; body-wliorl descending, frequently free or nearly free from 
the preceding, iu section subtriangular, angled below and less con- 
s])icuously so at the shoulder ; all over finely spirally Urate, the lira; 
either smooth, densely squamose or spinose ; perii^hery bearing 
large irregular more or less hollow foliated processes, which droop 
foreward or downward ; one or two series of smaller spines usually 
revolve about the middle of the last whorl ; base carinated, the 
carina usually nodose or irregular, bounding a circumumbilical 
tract usually acutely squamose ; the umbilicus proper is narrow 
and deep ; aperture rounded trigonal, inside perfectly circular, 
pearly, white or tinged with golden ; peristome irregular, acute, the 
columellar margin sinuous, the base more or less produced. Color 
whitish, pink or yellowish, the projecting processes and spinelets 
often redder or blackish. 

Alt. 55, diam. 70 mill. ; alt. 35, diani. oo mill. 

Lidian 0. ; E. Indies; Philippines ; Mergul Archipelago, etc. 

The following are synonyms : D. delphinnlm "Linn., D. forniosa 
Rve. (pi. 6o, fig. 9, 11; pi. 67, fig. 3), Z>. mem Reeve (pi. 66, fig. 16), 
D. nodosa Rve. (pi. 66, fig. 18), D. nodulosa (Gm.) Phil. D. ncu- 
leata Rve. (pi. 66, fig. 14) and I), euracanihra A. Ad. (pi. QQ, fig. 17) 
lire forms intermediate between the tyi)e and var. melanacantha. 

Turbo delphin.ul\is of Linn?eus, was undoubtedly the first binomial 
name applied to this form ; but since, it has been ignored by authors 
for more than a century, science would probably not be benefitted 
by an attempt to revive it. 

The variation in foi'm, sculpture and color iu Delphinula is very 
great. I am unable to distinguish the numerous species described 
by Reeve. The last whorl, in D. laciniata, may be deeply descend- 
ing, almost or quite free from the preceding at the aperture, or it 
may be but slightly descending, nearly planorboid. Its upper sur- 
face is plane or very obscurely radiately undulate. The peripheral 
spines in the typical form defined above, are large, foliated, and 
drooping ; but are nearly as frequently narrow and subsimple. The 
following varieties may, when typically developed, be distinguished ; 
but the transition forms are more numerous in collections than the 
typical ones. 

Var. ATEATA Reeve, 1842. PI. 66, fig. 15. 

Differs from the type in having the superior series of foliations or 
spines less conspicuous and those upon the middle and base of the 
whorl numerous and more developed ; peristome pink-margined 
within ; ground-color pink or grayish, lira; and spines black. 



208 DELPHINULA. 

Delphinus decrepltus and I)elphhw8 afratiis Chemnitz are identi- 
cal with this species. 

D. viartinii A. Adams, (pi. 66, fig. 19) from Padang differs only 
in the color. The spines are red or purplish on a pink ground. 

Var. MELAXACANTHA Reevc, 1842. PL Q^, figs. 6, 7. 

Whorls rounder, less carinated below than in the type; surmount- 
ed by a corona of slender long radiating or ascending spines ; um- 
bilicus wider. 

D. imperiaUs Reeve and I), distoiia Kiener (not Lam. nor Linn.) 
are synonymous. 

D. SPH-V.RULA Kiener. PI. 67, fig. 5 ; pi. 68, fig. 20. 

I know this form only by the description and figures given by 
Kiener. The latter are copied on my plates. In the simple, appar- 
ently very regular spines, the form is different from any specimens 

I have seen. 

Indian Ocean. 

D. DiSTORTA Linn, 1758. PI. 65, fig. 8 ; PI, 68, figs. 12, 13. 

In general form similar to D. laciniata. Upper surface of lohovh 
radiately conspicuously plicate, the folds terminating in solid knobs 
or short spines at the carina ; lirse rather coarser than in laciniata ,- 
base of body-whorl rounded or only obtusely carinated ; the sculpt- 
ure and color of the umbilical area not notably different from that 
of the whorl outside ; color white or pink, the line, spines and scales 
deep crimson; size smaller than laciniata. Alt. 30, diam. 40 mill, 
or less. 

, Indian ; Nicohar Is., etc. 

This is the Tarho distortm of Linn., Delphinula distorta Lam., 
and D. rugosa of Kiener's plates. 

Afc far as my material allows me to judge, this form does not in- 
tergrade with D. laciniata. 
D. TYRiA Reeve, 1842. PI. 66, figs. 12, 13. 

In general form like D. laciniata. Whorls angulate at the shoul- 
der, rounded or obtusely angular around the umbilicus, covered all 
over with densely and acutely squamose lirse ; upper surface of 
whorls plane or gently radiately undulating; color white, the um- 
bilical region and a subsutural spiral band, deep purple or purplish 

crimson. Alt. 45, diam. 50 mill. 

A^istralia. 

The fine uniformly scaled sculpture will distinguish this beautiful 

species. 



DELPHINULA. 269 



D. NiTiDA Verrill and Smith, 1885. PI. fi5, fig. 10. 

Shell t^mall. fragile, very delicate, with a slight .«ilvery iridescence. 
Our specimen which has lost the apex, consists of o gradually en- 
larging whorls, entirely disconnected with each other and nearly 
round in a cross section. When perfect the spire must have been 
rather elevated, gradually tapering to an acute tip. The surface is 
sculptured by thin elevated riblets, crossed by distinctly raised re- 
volving lines of about the same size, producing a pretty regularly 
cancellated or reticulated sculpture, in which the meshes are mostly 
elongated in the direction of tlie spire around the periphery, but in 
the opposite direction on the lateral and inner surfaces ; the trans- 
verse riblets are m^ist elevated on the uj^per sides of the whorls, 
where they rise into small thin lamellre ; they also form similar 
lamellae on the inner and lower surfaces ; the revolving lines are 
most consijicuous ai'ound the periphery ; minute but distinctly 
raised lines of growth also cross the intervals between the riblets. 
In a front view of the base the shell ajipears umbilicated, and the 
upper whorls can be partially seen within the umbilicus. Color 
silvery white, slightly iridescent. Alt. (of last three whorls) 5, 
diam. 4 mill. ; diam. of aperture, 1'6 mill. (Verrill.) 

Off' Chesapeake Bay, in. 1428 /»i6-. 

Animal unknown. The systematic position of this form is un- 
certain ; but tlie pearly structure of the shell indicates, as Verrill 
observes, that it belongs in the vicinity of Delphinula. although not 
I believe, strictly speaking, to tliat genus. 

Subgenus Angahina Bayle, 1878. 

A. LESOURDi B. Wright, 1878. PI. 6S, figs. 6-8. 

Sinistral, profoundly perviously umbilicate, depressed, suborbicu- 
lar, somewhat solid, transversely cbstate lirate, pale greenish, macu- 
lated with chestnut ; spire plane, suture profoundly impressed, 
broadly canaliculate ; whorls remaining 4-2, (the apex wanting,) 
spirally lirate, the costte about 14 in number; base bearing a series 
of short spines; umbilical area white within ; aperture round, pearly 
within, peristome simple, the columellar margin subexpanded. 

Diam. 41, alt. 24 mill. 

Japan. 

Described from a single young specimen, which has every appear- 
ance of being abnormal. Fischer surmises that the shell is really 



270 APPENDIX. 

dextral, instead of sinistral, as described by Wright, the spire im- 
mersed, forming a false umbilicus. Von Martens suggests that it is 
a distorted Turbo. ('ompare the sculpture with that of Turbo cor- 
nutus. 

APPENDIX. 

Neritina, subgenus Clithon ^NFontf., p, 63. 

N. NORDQuisTi AVesterlund, 1887. PI. 68, figs. 9-11. 

Ovate, semiglobose, closely striate, with incremental wrinkles, 
densely covered with spiral lines; black or rarely brownish-olive, 
concolored or painted with numerous black points in transverse series, 
black rhomboidal reticulations, or variously marked with pale yelloAV ; 
spire prominent but nearly always eroded ; body-whorl strongly de- 
pressed, subconcave at the suture ; suture appressed, anteriorly 
subdescending ; ajjerture bluish within, angular above ; outer lip 
slightly curved, basal margin arcuate, columella slightly sinuous, 
obtusely denticulate , columellar area grayish yellow, finely rugose 
and foveolate, its superior portion brown, sliining, punctate. 

Alt. 21, diam. lo mill. 

Japan. 

PHASiAXEr.LA, subgeuus Orthomesus, Pilsbry. 

P. splendida Philippi, 1849. PI. 39a, fig. 5. 

This form 1 inadvertently jilaced in the synomymy of P. variegatct 
Lam. (p. 179). It seems to be quite distinct from that species. I 
translate Philippi's description, Avliich applies perfectly to the speci- 
mens before me. 

" Shell ovate-oblong, conoid, very thin, very smooth and shining, 
olivaceous, sometimes varied by narrow milk-white fianuiiules marked 
Avith transverse red lines articulated with white dots ; aperture ovate, 
longer than the spire. 

" The shell is long-oval, conoidal, thin, very smooth and very 
shining. The whorls seven in number, are moderately convex The 
last occupies more than half the entire altitude. The two embryonic 
whorls are milk-white, and form a blunt apex. The aperature is 
rather broadly ovate. The color is olive-brown, verging on red, 
sometimes with narrow milk-white fiammules, always with evenly 
spaced red spiral lines, which are regularly interrupted by milk- 



APPENDIX. 271 

white points, and which are visible within the aperture. {Philippic 
in Kilst. Conch. Cab., ii, p. 8.) Alt. 10, diani. 7 mill. 

Red Sea.. 

P. hrongniartl Audonin is a synomym of this form, not of P. varie- 
gata. 

I neglected to state in the text that fine spiral capillary lines upon 
the shell are characteristic of the species of Orthomesiis, but are not 
found upon the true PhaslaneUa nor on TrlcoUa. Variable as is the 
coloration of shells of this family generally, these fine lines seem ta 
be most constant. 

P. MARMORATA Dufo. p. 183. 

I have identified with this form a series of shells from the Sey- 
chelles which I have received, but, unfortunately, too late to figure 
it in this volume of the Manual. The locality should read, Sey- 
chelles and Amirante Is. 

Turbo. 
T. magnificus Jonas, p. 192. 

The figure given on pi. 40, does not show the characters of this 
species as well as is desirable. The original figure given by Philippi 
is copied on pi. 69, fig. 21. 

T. militaris Reeve, 1848. PL 69, fig. 31. 

Tlie figure of this species in the Iconica led me to believe it aform 
of T. pefhnlatus. If Sowerby's figure, copied on my pi. 69, fig. 28, 
really belongs to militaris, I am inclined to think it distinct. Fig. 
29 is a copy of the original one of Reeve. 

P. 191, seventh line from bottom, read Senectus (Humph.) IT. 
and A. Ad((vis, not Senectus (Humph.) Swainson. The latter author 
applied this name to the typical Turbo. \ 

T. LAJONKAiRii Desh., p. 199. Delj)hinula ducalls Phil, is a 
synomym. 

T. HisTRio Rve., p. 201. This species was collected by the 'Alert' 
at African and Darros Is., Amirante group. 



NDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



PHASIANELLIN/E, TURBININ/E, DELPHINULIN/E. 



Aculeata (Delphinula), Rve. P. Z. S., 1842. 

= D. laciniuta, Lam. 267 

Aculeatus (Trochus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. Ed. xiii, p. 3600. 

= Astralium calcar, Linn. ' 232, 236 

Aethiopica ('Phasianella), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 12, . . 166 
Affinis (Phasianella), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 67, 

163, 170, 171 

Albida (Leptothyra), Dall. Bull. INIus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 48, 

252, 253 

Adamsi (Phasianella), Phil. :^ P. affinis, Ad. . . .170 

Alcyna A. Ad., . 181 

Alternata (Phasianella pulla, Linn, var.), Monts. II. Nat. Sicil. 

iii, p. 110. = Phasianella i)ulla, L. . 
Americanus (Trochus), Gmelin. Svst. Nat., ed xiii, p. 3581. 

= Astralium americanum. '. . . 186, 187, 224, 225 

Amussitatus (Turbo), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 

1861. = Leptothyra amussitata . . .188,250,251 

Amictus (Trochus), Val. Voy. de la Venus, pi. 2 bis, f. 2, . 242 

Amocnula (Phasianella), Phil. 180 

Amyxa, Troschel. =- Prisogaster Morch, .... 219 

Auadema Adams. = Lejjtothyra, 245 

Angaria Bolt. = Delphinula. 266 

Angarina Bayle, 266, 269 

Angasi (Phasianella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1864. p. 344, 

t. 13, f. 5, . . . 180 

Augasii (Phasianella), "Philippi." Sowb. 

= P. angasi, Crosse. ........ 180 

Anguis (Limax), Martyn. Univ. Conch., ii, t. 70. 

= Turbo porphyrites, Mart. 215 

Argyrostomus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. Ed. xii, p. 1236, 

' . . 185, 197, 198, 199 

Armatus (Trochus), Philippi. Zeitsch. f. Mai, 1848, p. 102. 

= Asti'alium longispiua, Lam. 222 

Arsinoensis (Turbo), Issel. Mai. INIar Rosso, p. 220. 

= Leptothyra arsinoensis ....... 261 

Artensis (Turbo), Montrouzier. Jour, de C(mch. 1860, p. 370, 196 
Articulatus (Phasianella), Anton. Verzeich. p. 60, . . 165 
Articulatus (Turbo), Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 39, 41, P. Z. 8. 

1848, p. 51. = T. intercostalis, Menke 202 

Armillata (CoUonia), Sowb. .- 264 

(272) 



233 

219 

990 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Asperatus (Trochus), Phil. =: A. stellare, .... 233 
A^teriscus (Trochus), Rve., = A. stellare, var. 

Astralium Link 186 

Aster (Trochus), Phil. = A. longispina, 

Assiniilis (Turbo), Kiener. Spec. Turbo, pi. 34, f. 1, 

= Turbo fluctuosus. Wood. . . . . . .211 

Atrata (Delphiuuln), Rve. Conch. Syst., ii, t. 212, f. 12. 

^= D. laciniata. Lam. ........ 267 

Aurantius (Turbo), Kiener. Spec. Gen. Turbo, pi. 27, f. 3. 

= Turbo argyi'ostonus L. var. . . . . . .198 

Australis (Buccinum), Gmelin. Svst. Nat. p. 3490. 

= Phasianella australis. . '. . . , 162, 164, 165 
Aurispignieutuni (Trochus), Jonas. = A. brevispina, . . 223 
Aureus, (Trochus), Jonas. Zeitschr. f. Mai., .... 240 

Babelis (Calcar), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 1874, p. 205, . 238 
Bacula (Leptothyra), Carpenter. Cal. Soc. Proc. iii, p. 177,188, 248 
BalKnaruni (Trochus), Val. Voy. de la Venus. 

=^ Astralium undosum, ....... 243 

Batillus Schum 185,191,210 

Bicarinatu (Phasianella), Dunker. Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1846, p. 

110, , .176 

Bicarinatus (Turbo), Sowerby. Tankerv. Cat., 121. 

= Trichotropis. 
Bicolor (Turbo), So^vb. Thes. Conch, pi. xliii, p. 198, pi. 4, f. 

33. = T. margaritaceus L. var. . . . . .198 

Bolina. = Bolma 229 

Bolma Risso 186, 229 

Brevis (Phasianella). d'Orb., Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 79, t. 20, f. 19, 

21, 178 

Brevis (Phasianella), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 67. 

= P. atlinis, Ad 170 

Brevis (Phasianella), Velaiu. Arch. Zool. Exper., vi, p. 117, 

t. 4, f. 3. --= P. munieri Velain. ..... 176 

Brevispinus (Trcchus), Lam. An. sans, vert., ed. Desh., ix, 

J). 125. ==r Astralium, brevispina, . . , .179, 222 
Brougniarti (Phasianella), Audouin. Expl. des pi. Savigny, 

Desc. Egypt., p. 81. := P. splendida, Phil. . . 179, 271 

Bulimoides (Phasianella), Lam. An. sans, vert., vii, p. 52. 

= Phasianella australis Gmel. ...... 165 

Buschi (Trochus), Philii)pi. Conch. Cab., ed. ii, p. 213, t. 32, 

f. 1. =r Astralium buschi, 223,241 

Caledonicus (Turbo). =:T. petholatus, var. .... 194 

Callopoma, Gray. ........ 185, 210 

Cantrainea Jeff'r. =; Leptothyra, ...... 245 

Cailleti (Turbo), Fischer & Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., v, p. 

294, t. 10, figs. 10-11, 205 

18 



^ J) 7.9 



274 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Calcar (Turbo), Linn., Svst. Nat. ed. x, p. 762. 

^ Astralium calcar, / 221,231 

Califbrnicus (Turbo), (Troschel), Philippi. Conch. Cab., p. 68. 

= Leptothyra californica, ...... 247, 260 

Candida (Collonia), Pease. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 436, . . .256 
Caualiculatus (Turbo), Ginel. Syst. Nat. p. 3594. 

=^ Turbo sparverius, Gniel. ...... 194 

Caualiculatus (Turbo), Kiener. Spec, genre Turbo, t. 21, f. 2. 

= Turbo crassus. Wood, ....... 194 

Capensis (Phasianella), Dunker. Zeitsch f. Mai, 1846, p. 

110, 163, 170 

Carpenteri (Leptothyra), Pilsbry, ...... 247 

Carinidea Swainson. = Uvanilla. . . . . .241 

Canthorbis Swainson. = Imperator INIontf. .... 227 

Carinatus (Troclius), Cantraiiie. = Leptothyra carinata. . 252 
Carduus (Turbo), Fischer, in Coq. Viv., p. il2, t. 42, f. 6. 

= T. argyrostomus, Linn. Var. . . . . . .198 

Castanea (Turbo). Gmelin. Syst Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3595, 

- ' 203, 204, 205 

Cateniferus (Turbo), Kiener. Spec, genre Turbo, pi. 31, fig. 1. 

= Troehidte. 
Cepoides (Turbo), E. A. Smith. Ann. ct :Mau-. Nat. Hist. 1880, 

p. 397, . . . . . . ^. . . .193 

Cernicus (Turbo), Sowerbv. Tlies. Conch., p. 197, pi. 4, f. 29, 

196, 167 
Chenmitzi (Trochus), Val. Voy de la Venus, t. 2 Ijis. 

= Astraliuni stellare, Gmel. var. ..... 233 

Chemnitzianus (Turbo), Keeve. • Conch. Icon., fig. 36. 

=^ Turbo radiatus, Guiel. ....... 200 

Chrysostomus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. xii., p. 1237, . 200 
Cicer (Turbo), Menke. Philippi, Conch. Cab. (Trochus), t. 29, 

f. 24. = Leptothyra cicer. 254 

Chromotis Ad 162, 176 

Cidaris (Turbo), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3596, . . 214 
Circularis (Turbo), Reeve. Conch. Icon. pi. 10, f. 46, P. Z. S. 

1848, p. 51, . .214 

Classarius (Sarmaticus), Gray. = Turbo sarmaticus, Linn. . 218 
Coccineus (Leptothyra), (Desh.) Troschel. = L. carpenteri, 

188, 247 
Coccineus (Turbo), Miihlf. Mag. Berl. Gesell. 1818, p. 9, t. 2, 

f. 15. = Leptothyi-a sjuiguinea, Linn. .... 247 
Coelatus (Turbo), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab. v, p. 33, pi. 162, fig. 

1536, 1537. = Astralium caelatum. Gmel. .... 224 
Coelatus (Omphalius), A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 39. 

= Leptothyra coelata. • 245, 255 

Collonia Gray, 246 

Columellaris (Trochus), Phil. Abbild. etc., ii, Trochus, t. 7, f. 

3. = Astralium ha?matragus, ...... 237 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 275 

PAGE. 

■Compta (Phasianella), Gould 163, 173 

Coucinna rPhasianella), C. B. Adams. Contr. (>onch., p. 69. 

:= Phasianella affinis, Ad 170 

•Coucinnus (Turbo), Phili])pi. Coucli. Cab. Ed. 2, p. 44, t. 2, f. 

6. = T. iiitercostalis, Menke * . 202 

Coucolor (Phasianella), C. B. Ad. = P. tessellata, . . 171 
Coufragosum (Turbo), Gould. U. S. Expl. Expd. p. 171, t. 12, 

f. 202. := Astralium petrosum, Martyn, var. . . . 234 
Cookii (Tui'bo), Quov and Gaiiu. Yov. de I'Astrolabe iii, p. 

224, pi. 60, f. 19-20. = Astralium sulcatum. Mart. 187, 221 
Cookia Lesson, ......... 242 

Cookianus (Turbo), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab. v, p. 36, t. 163, f. 

1540; t. 164, f. 1551. =-- Astralium sulcatum. Mart. . . 243 
Corallinus (Turbo), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 56, P. Z. S. 1848, p. 

50. -=: Leptothyra sangarensis, Schreuck. . . . 250 

Coreensis (Turbo coronatus, Gmel. var.) Recluz. Jour, de 

Conch., 1853, p. 245, t. 8, f. 2, . . . . . . 217 

Cornutus (Turbo), Gmelin. 8vst. Nat. ed. 13, p. 3593, 

....:.... 196, 210, 270 

Coronatus (Turbo), Gmel. Syst. Nat-, p. 3594, . 215, 216, 217 
Corolla (Trochus), Reeve. Con. Icon., f. 37. 

= A imbricatum, Gmel. ....... 227 

Costata (Leptothyra), Pse. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 70, . 263 

Costulatus (Trochus), Lamarck. An. sans Vert., ed. Desh., 

ix, p. 127. = Astralium longispinum. Lam. var. . 220, 222 

Costulosus (Collonia ), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 213, pi. 13, f. 

Kil. = Leptothvra ijeta, Montrouzier. .... 259 
Coturnix (Phasianella) (Koch), Phil. Conch. Cab. 1853, p. 13, 

t. 4, f. 2, _ . 166, 167 

Crassa (Eutropia), Brusina. Conch. Dalm. Ined., p. 23, Zool.- 

Bot. Yerein, xv. = Phasianella pulla, Linn. . . . 168 
Crassus (Turbo), Wood. Index, test, suppl., pi. 6, f. 43, 194, 195 
Creniferus (Turbo coronatus, Gmel. var.), Kiener. Spec. gen. 

Turbo, pi. 34, f. 3, . . 217 

Creniferus (Turbo), Chenu. INIanuel de Conch., i. 2544. 

= Turbo coronatus, Gmel. ....... 216 

Crenulatus (Turbo), Gmel. Syst. Kat. p. 3575. 

= Turb(i castaneus, Gmel. ...... 203 

Cubanus (Trochus), Philippi. Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1848, p. 104. 

= Astralium cubanum. ...... 225, 226 

Cucullata (Turbo). Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 

1877, p. 121, " . . . .208 

Cucullatus (Trochus), Kiener. Spec. Genre. Trochus, pi. 32, f. 

1. = Astralium fimbriatum, Lam. var 239 

Cumanensis (Turbo), Valenciennes. Coq. univ. mar. de I'Amer. 

p. 272. = Astralium rugosum, L. . . . . . 229 

Cunninghami (Collonia), E. A. Smith. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 33, 

pi. ij. 10, 10a, . . , 249 



276 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE„ 

Cyclocaiitlm Swainson, 230, 187, 189 

Cycdonema Hall, 162 

Cyclostomata (Eucosmia), Carp. Ann. Mag. Nilt. Hist., xiii, 
"1864, p. 476, 177 

Davisii (Iniperator), Stowe. Trans. N. Zeal. Inst., xiv, p. 218. 

■=r- Astraliuni sulcatum Martyn, var. ..... 243 

Deaniana (Phasianella), Pilsbry, ...... 169 

Decorata (Phasianella), Chenu. Manuel de Conch. 

= P. australis, Gmel. . . . . . . . .165 

Decrepitus (Delphinus), Chemnitz. = D. atrata. Eve. . . 268 
Delesserti (Turbo), Kiener. Spec. Gen. Turbo, t. 35, f. 1. 

= Turbo cidaris, Gmel. ...... 214 

Delessertii (Phasianella), Chenu, Manuel de Conch. 

= P. ventricosa, Q. et G. 165 

Delicatula (Phasianella), Tenisou-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasm. = P. australis juv. (?) ...... 174 

Delphinula Lam. ......... 266 

Delphinulus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Jfat. ed., x, p. 

= Delphinula laciniata, Lam. ...... 267 

Delphinulopsis, B. Wright. Jour, de Conch., 1878, p. 160, . 266 
Deplanatum (Astralium), Link. = A. costulatum Lam. . 220 
Depressum (Turbo fluctuatus var.) Carpenter. P. Z. S. 1848, 

p. 234, 211 

Digitatus (Turbo), Deshayes. Guerin Mag. de Zool., 1841, pi. 

36. = Astralium unguis, Wood. ..... 242 

Disjunctus (Turbo,) Anton. Verzeichn, ^. 59, J^o 2098. 

= T. intercostalis TMke 202 

Distorta (Delphinula), Lam. An. sans Vert., vol. vi, p. 231. 

= distorta, Linn 268 

Distortus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat., x, p 268 

Dubia (Phasianella), Pilsbry, 169 

Ducalis (Delphinula), Philippi. Zeitsch. f. Mai., 1845, p. 148. 

^ Turbo lajonkairii, Desh 217, 271 



Echinatus (Turbo), Gmelin. Syst, Nat. ed., xiii, p. 3591. 

= Astralium heliotropium, ^Nlartyn, .... 
Elatior (Phasianella), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xv, p 

180, 1865. = P. compta, var. ..... 

Elegans (Turbo), Philippi. Conch. Cab. ed., ii, p. 64, pi. 15 

fig. 5. = T. intercostalis, Menke, .... 
Elevatus (Turbo), Souleyet. Vov. de la Bonite, ii, p. 594, t 

37, f. 15-19, . . ' . . ' 

Elongata, (Phasianella), Krauss. Die Siidaf. Moll. p. 104, t 

6, f. 3. = Phasianella ]>ulla, Linn. var. 
Eroopolitanus (Turbo), Issel. Moll. Mar Rosso., p. 219. 

=; Leptothyra eroopolitana, ..... 

Erythropthalmus (Trochus), Phil. = A. olivaceum. 



228 

173 

202 

219 

168 

261 
241 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



277 



255 
177 

267 



Eucharis (Collonia), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, p. 56 
= Leptothyra eucharis, ...... 

Eucosmia C^arpenter, ....... 

Euracantha (Delphiuula), xVdams. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 51. 
== D. laciniata Lam. var. ...... 

Exiijua (PhasianeUa), Brusina. Zool. Bot. Verein., xv, p. 24, 168 

Exi'lis TLeptothyra), Phil 257 

Exquisitus (Turbo), Angas. P. Z. S. p. 175, pi. 26, f. 18, 1877, 207 

Ferruu'ineus (Turbo), Anton. Philippi Conch. Cab., ]>. 75, pi. 

17, f. 7 199 

Filifer (Turbo), Desh. Moil, de I'lle Reunion, p. 74, t. S, f. 

11-13. = Leptothvra filifer, 254 

Filosus (Turbo), Kieuer. Spec. Gen. Turbo, pi. 13, f. 2, 205, 209 
Filosus (Trochus), Phil. Fauna INIoU. Sicil. 

= Leptothyra peloritana, Cantr. ..... 252 

Fimbriatum (Torchus), Lam. An. sans. Yert. ed., vii, p. 12. 

= Astralium fimbriatum. ...... 231, 239 

Flammeus (PhasianeUa), Von Salis Reise ins Koen. Neap., p. 

377, pi. S, f. 11. = PhasianeUa pulla, Linn. . . .168 
Flammulata (PhasianeUa), Philippi. Zeitsch. f. IMal. 1848, p. 

18, ■ . . 168, 167, 180 

Flammulata TRissoa), Hutton. Jour, de Conch., xxvi, p. 28. 

= PhasianeUa huttoni, ....... 174 

Flava (PhasianeUa), Anton. Verzeich p. 60, . . . 184 

Fluctuata (Cvclostrema), Hutton. Trans. N. Z. Inst, xvi, 215, 

1883. ~ Leptothyra fluctuata, 259, 260 

Fluctuatus (Turbo), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 8, f. 34, pi. 9, f. 

3c. P. Z. S. 1848, p. 52. := Turbo fluctuosus, AYood, . . 211 
Fluctuosus (Turbo), AYood. Index test, suppl., pi. 6, fig. 44, 

196, 210 
Fokkesi (Turbo), Jonas in Philippi Abbild, i, t. 2, f. 1. 

= Turbo fluctuosus. Wood, 214 

Foliaceus (Turbo), Philippi. Conch. Cab. ed. 2, p. 41, t. 11 f. 

2-3, . 199, 201, 202 

Foliaceus (Turbo), Horabr. et Jacq. Yov. au Pole Sud., vol. 

V, ]x 60, pi. 14, f. 34-37. = Turbo foliaceus, Phil. 

Folini (Leptothyra), Pilsbry, 

Formosa (Delphinula) Rve. Conch. Icon., fig. 2. 

=: D. laciniata. Lam. ...... 

Fordiana (PhasianeUa), Pilsbry, .... 

Fricki (Collonia), Crosse. Joul*. de Conch., 1865, p. 45 
Fulgens (PhasianeUa), Koch. ..... 

Fulgurata (PhasianeUa), Rve. Conch Icon., f. 9. 

=: P. variegata. Lam. ...... 

Funiculosus (Turbo), Kiener. Spec, o-enre. Turbo, pi. 30, f. 

1, ..... . ^ 196 



201 
252 

267 
173 
255 
175 

179 



278 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGK.. 

Funiculiitus (Turbo) (Philippi), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 207. 
=: Turbo fluctuosus, Wood. 210 

Gemmatus (Turbo), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 62, P. Z, S. 1848, p. 

50, . . . . . . . . . . . 206 

Georgianus (Torchus), Quoy. Kiener. = A. tentoriiforme, 240 
Gestroi (Collonia), Caramagna, ...... 262 

Gibberosum (Calcar), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab. x, p. 287, f. 2.3. 

= Astralium inaequalis, Martyn ..... 245 

Gigas (Trochus), Anton. = A. undosum, Wood, . . . 243 
Glabratus (Trochus) PhiL Fauna, ^MolL J-^icil. 

= Leptotliyra carinata Cantr. ...... 252 

Glariosa (Collonia) (Gould), Sowb. Thes. Conch, p. 210. 

= Leptotliyra verruca, Gould. ...... 258 

Globulus (Trochus), Phil. Conch. Cab. = Leptotliyra giobula, 262 
GraefFei (Phasianella) Dunker. Mai. Bliitt xviii, p. 168, . . 181 
Granulatus (Turbo), Gnielin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 8601, var. 

of Turbo coronatus, Gmel. . . . . . . . 217 

Granosus (Turbo), Martyn. Univ. Conch. .... 213 

Granulosa (Collonia), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iv, p. 92, pi. 

ii, f. 4, . . . . . . . ... 259 

Granulosus (Turbo), Kiener. Spec. Gen. Turbo, pi. 28, f. 2. 

=3Turbo coronatus, Gmel. ....... 217 

Grata (Phasianella), Philippi. Kiist. Conch. Cab., t. 3, f. 8, . 179 
Gruneri (Turbo), Philinpi. Condi. Cab., ed. ii, p. 52, pi. 12, 

f. 7. == Turbo circularis, Rve. .... 214, 215 

Guadeloupense (Astralium), Crosse. .Tour, de Conch., 1865, p. 

36, pi. 1, f. 10, . . . . . . . . . 226 

Guildfordia Grav, * . . . 186, 228 

Guttata (Turbo)", A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. pi. 7, f. 68, . . 213 
Guttata (Phasianella), Phil 175 

Haematragus (Trochus), Menke. Cat. Coll. Malsb. p. 18, 

^= Astralium. ........ 236 

Heimburgi (Uvanilla), Dunker. Index Moll. Mar. Japan, p. 

130, t. 6,f. 6, 7, . . 238 

Heliacus (Trochus), Phil. = Astralium longispina. . . 222 
Helicinus (Turbo), Born. Test. Mus. Cues. Vindob., 1780. 

= Turbo smaragdus,-]Martyn. . . . . . .217 

Heliotropium (Astralium), ]\iartyn. Univ. Conch. . . 228 

Hernprichi (Turbo), Troschel. In Philippi Conch. Cab. ii, p. 

67, pi. 16, f. 1. = Turbo coronatus, Gmel. var. . . . 217 
Henicus (Turbo), AVatson. Moll. Challenger Exp. p. 73. 

= Astralium henicum ....... 235 

Heterocheilus (Turbo), Pilsbry. Sp. nov. .... 209 

Heteroclitus (Turbo), Kiener. Gen. Turbo pi. v, f. i. 

r= Turbo torquatus, Gmel, 209, 21 a 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 279 

PACK. 

Hexagonns (Trodius), Phil. Conch. Cab. No. 149, t. 22. 

= Astralium hexagouuiii. ....... 287 

Hippoeastanum (Turbo), Lamarck. An. sans. Vert. ed. 

Desh., ix, p. 198. = Turbo castaneus, Gmelin. . . 20^^ 

Histrio (Turbo), live. Conch. Icon., pi. 8, f. 32. 

=^ Turbo radiatus Gmel. var. ...... 201 

Histrio (Phasianella), Eve. Conch. Icon. f. 15, . . 166, 271 
Hoberti (Phasiauella puUa, Linn, var.), Brusina. Zool. Bot. 

Ver. XV, p. 24. =: P. pullus, L., var. 168 

Hoinalopoma, Carpenter. = Leptotlivra. .... 245 
Tluttoui (PhasianeUa) Pilsbry. . ' 147 

Inibricatus (Trochus), Gmelin. Syst. Xat. ed. xiii, p. 3581. 

= Astralium imbricatum. ....... 226 

Imperialis (Trochus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3576. 

= Astralium heliotropium, Martvn. .... 228 

Imperialis (Delphinula), Eve, F. Z. S. 1842. 

=: D. laciniata. Lam. var. . . . ... . . 268 

Imperator, Montf. ......... 227 

Imperialis (Turbo), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. 13, p. 3594, 192, 193 
Iniequale (Astralium), Martvn. ...... 244 

Incisa (Delphinula) Eve. P. Z. S. 1843. 

=- I), laciniata. Lam. var. ....... 267 

Incom[)arabilis (Phasianella pulla, var.), Monts. II. Nat. Sicil. 

iii, p. 111. = Phasianella pulla. L. . . . . . 168 

Induta (Leptothvra), Watson. 3Ioll. Challenger Exped., p. 

715, . . ' . . . . . . ^ . . 253, 254 

Inermis (Turbo), d'Orbigny. ^[oll. de Cuba, t. 2, p. 72. 

^- Astralium costulatum. Lam. ...... 222 

Inflata (Phasianella), Swainson. Esot. Conch, p. 38. . . 165 
Intercostalis (Turbo), Meuke. In Philippi Conch. Cab. ed. ii, 

p. 42, 68, pi. ii, f. 3, pi. 16, f. 4-5, . . . .201, 202 
Intermedia (Phasianella), Scacchi. Catal. Conch. Eegni. Neap. 

t. 25. f. 21. = Phasianella tenuis. Mich 168 

Japonicus (Trochus), Dunker. In Philippi Abbild., vol. i, pi. 

5, fig. 1. = Astralium japonicum. ..... 243 

Japonicus (Turbo), Eve. Ccmch. Icon. pi. 8, f. 33 ; P. Z. S. 

1848, p. 57, 196 

Japonicus (Turbo), Eve. Conch. Icon. t. 9, f. oob. ' 

= T. cornutus, Gmel. . . . . . . .210 

Jaspidea (Phasianella), Eve. Conch. Icon. fig. 11. 

= P. variegata. Lam. . . . . . . . .179 

Jobiensis (Turbo), Tapp.-Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova. 

xii, p. 97, 195 

Johnstoni (Delphinula), Beddome. Proc. Eoy. Soc. Tasm. 1882, 

p. 178. =z Caucellaria, Sp. 
Jourdani (Turbo). Kiener. Eev. Zool. 1839, p. 324, . 192, 193 



280 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Kochii (Pliasianella), Philippi. Krauss, Siidaf. Moll. p. 104, 

pi. 6, f. 4. . 163, 170 

Kochii (Phasianella), Philippi. Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1848, p. 17, . 170 

Laciuiata (Delphinula), ^jam. An. s. Vert. vol. vi, p. 130, 

266, 267, 268 

Laciniatus (Turbo), Gould. Post. Proc. 1849, p. 90, U. S. 

Expl. Expd. pi. 12, f. 204, = Astralium calcar, Linn. vur. 232 
Lietus (Turbo), Montrouzier. Jour, de Couch., 1865, p. 277, 

pi. xii, f. 2. = Leptothvra la3ta. 167,188,258,259,160,261 
Laetus (Turbo), Philippi. ' Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1848, p. 100, . 197 

Lajoukairii (Delphinula), Desh. Mag. de Zool. 1839, pi. 6. 

^ Turbo lajonkairii. ■ ..... .199,271 

Laniarcki (Turbo), Philippi. Conch. Cab. ed. ii, p. 55, pi. 13. 

f. 3. =- T. argyrostonuis, Linn. (?) 199 

Lamellosus (Turbo), Broderip. Zool. Journ. v, p. 331, Suppl. 

t. 49, f. 2. = Turbo staniineus, Mart. .... 213 

Lamellosus (Turbo), Philippi. Zeitsch. f. Malak. 1846, p. 98. 

= Turbo foliaceus, Philippi 201 

Laminiferus (Turbo), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 17. 

=: Turbo foliaceus, Philippi. ...... 201 

Lapillus (Trochus), Rve. . . . . . . .233 

Latispina (Trochus), Philippi. Abbild. vol. i, pi. 3, f. 2. 

= Astralium latispina. ....... 223 

Lehraanni (Phasianella), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl. p. 12, No. 

41. = P. australis, Gmel 165 

Lenticula (Collonia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. viii, p. 21, . 265 
Lentiginosa (Phasianella), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 10- 

;=: P. variegata. Lam. . . . . . . . .179 

Lepida (Alcyna), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. N. H. 1860, p. 488, 182 
Lesourdi (Delphinulopsis), B. AVright. Journ. de Conch. 1878. 

p. 161, pi. iii, f. 1. = Angarina lesourdi. .... 269 
Limbiferus (Trochus), Kiener. =: Astralium fimbriatum. . 239 
Lineata (Alcyna), Pease. Am. Journ. Conch., v, t. 1, p. 69, . 182 
Lineolata (Phasianella), Wood. Ind. test. Buppl. fig. 26. 

= P. variegata. Lam. . . . . . . 163, 179. 

Lithopoma, Gray, 186, 223 

Longispina (Trochus), Lamarck. An. sans. Vert. ed. Des- 

haves, ix, p. 122. := Astralium longispina, . 221, 222 

Ludus (Turbo), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. 13, p. 3601, no. 52. 

= Turbo undulatus, Gmel. • (Juv.) 215 

Lugubris (Turbo), King. Zool. Journ. vol. v, p. 345. 

:^ Chlorostoma ater, Less. (?) 219 

Lugubris (Turbo), Kiener. Spec. Turbo, pi. 28, f. 3. 

=; Turbo porphyrites Mart, var. . . . . . . 215 

Lugubris (Turbo), Rve. Conch. Icon. fig. 63, P. Z. S. 1848, p. 

50. = T. coronatus, Gmel. var. . . . . . .217 

Lymnreoides (Phasianella), Anton. Verzeich., p. 60, no. 2131. 

*= P. speciosa Miihlf. 167 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 281 

PAGE. 

Mac-Andrewi (Turbo), Morch. Am. Journ. Conch., iv, 1868, 

p. 46. = Leptothyra cielata, A. Ad 255 

INIaculosa (Collonia), Pease. Am. Jour. Coneli., iv, p. 91, 1. 11, 

f . 1 256 

^lagnificus (Turbo), Jonas. Zeitsch, f. ^lalak. 1844, p. 167, 

192. 193, 271 
!Margaritaceus (Turbo), Ivinn. 8yst. Nat., x. 

= T. argyrostonuis, Linn. var. ...... 198 

jNIargaritaceus (Turl>o), Kiencr. Spec. gen. Turbo, pi. 21, f. 1, 

^^= Turbo sparverius, Gniel. ....... 194 

Marginata (Delpliinula), Lam. ^=-- Collonia marginata, . 246 

Marginatus (Turbo), (Nuttall Mss.) Reeve, Conch. Icon., fig. 

57, . . 248 

ISIarmorata (Phasianella), Dufo. Ann. Sci. Nat., xiv, 1840, p. 

191, . . . . . . . . . . 183, 271 

^larmoratus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1234, 

191, 192, 193 
[Marmorostoma Swains, ....... 1.85, 215 

Martinii (Delphinula), A. Adams. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 42, pi. 27, 

f. 8. = D. laciniata. Lam. var. ...... 268 

IMauritiana (Phasiunella), Lam. An. sans vert, vii, p. 54. 

=: Littorina. 
^Melanacantha (Delphinula), Rve. Conch. Svst. ii, pi. 211, f. 

4, pi. 212, f. 10. = D. laciniata. Lam. var. . . . 268 

^Meleagris (Phasianella), Beck. .'...., 183. 

3Iespilus -(Turbo), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3(>01. 

=: Turbo porphvrites. Mart., var. . . . . . 215 

:\[ilitaris (Turbo),"' Reeve. Conch. Icon. pi. 9,"f. 40, P. Z. S. 

1848, p. 51, . . . .• 271 

Minima (Phasianella), Philipj)!. Atacama, p. 186, . . 178 

Minuta (Phasianella), Anton. Yerzeichniss p. 60, No. 2129. 

== P. tessellata, P. et M 171, 175 

Mit7.chii (Turbo) (Anton), Sowb. := Turbo saxosus, Wood. . 

Modelia Gray. . 185, 213 

Modesta (Eutropia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., viii, 

p. 18, 183 

Modestus fTrochus), Rve. P. Z. S. 1842, p. 185. 

=; Astralium modestum. ....... 229 

Modestus (Turbo) ("Philippi ") Sowb. Thes. Conch, p. 205. 

= T. coronatus, Gmel. . . . . . .217 

Moltkianus (Turbo), Gmel. Svst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3595, . 204 

Moluccensis (Turbo), Philippi." Zeitsch. f. ^lalak. 1846, p. 99, 203 
i\Iultilineata (Turbo), Garrett. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. i, p. 102. 

1857. ^^ Leptothvra rubricincta. ^Nliuh. .... 257 
Multipes (Trochus), Jonas in Phil. Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1849, p. 

119. = Astralium unguis. Wood. var. .... 242 
Multistriata (Collonia), (Pse.) Sowb. Thes. Conch, p. 212. 

;:= Leptothyra rubricincta, Mighels. ..... 257 



282 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE.. 

Munda (CoUonia), H. Ad. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 206, pi. 23, f. 6, . 261 
Munieri (Phasianella), Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper. ii, p. 116, 

pi. 10, f. 1-2, 176 

Murreus (Turbo), Rve.. Conch. Icon. pi. 12, fig. 54, . . 264 

Naninus (Turbo), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 1864, p. 263, 

pi. 10, fig. 6. = Leptothyra nanina. .... 209 

Natalensi.s (Turbo), Krauss. Die Siidaf. Mollusken, p. 101, ]>]. 

6, fig. 1, 218 

Natalensis (Turbo), Reeve. P. Z. S. 1842, p. 49, . . .218 
Neritina (Piiasianella), Dunker. Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1846, p. 110, 176 
Nic^eensi^ (Tricolia), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid. iv, p. 122. 

-^ Piiasianella speciosa, Miililf. ...... 167 

Niger (Turbo), Gray. Beechey's Voy. p. 143, pi. 36, fig. 1. 

. '. . ." . ' . . . . 186, 219 

Nigra (Amyxa), Troschel. Arch. f. Naturgesch., 1852, i, p. 

183. = Turbo niger, Gray 219 

Ninella, Gray. . . " 185,212 

Nitida (Delphinula), Verrill and Smith. Trans. Conn. Acad. 

vi, p. 424, pi. 44, f. 11, 269 

Nitzschii (Turbo), Anton. Verzeichniss. p. 59, No. 2104. 

= Turbo saxosus. Wood. . . . . . . .211 

Nivosa (Phasianella), Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 8. 

= P. variegata, var. ....... 163, 179 

Nivosus (Turbo) Rve. Conch. Icon. pi. 10, f. 43, 44, P. Z. S. 

1848, p. 51. = T. radiatus, Gmel 200 

Nobilis (Imperator) Gray. Voy. Flv., ii, p. 358, t. 2, f. 7, . . 269 
Nocturnus (Turbo), Gould. Otia, p.'l60, . . . .265 
Nodosa (Delphinula), Rve. = D. laciniata. .... 267 
Nodulosa (Delphinula), Phil. = D. laciniata. . . . 267 
Norrisi (Turbo), Desh. in Lain. An. sans vert., ed. ii, ix, p. 

221. = Trochiseus norrisi, Sowb. . . . . . 

Ocana, H. Adams. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 148, . . . .214 
Ocellata (Alcyna), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 18(i0, p. 

408, .'....,.'.... 182 
Olearius (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1235. 

=; Turbo marmoratus, Linn. ...... 192 

Olfersi (Trochus), Troschel in Philippi. Conch. Cab. ed. 2, p. 

126, pi. 22, fig. 1. = Astralium olfersii, . . . 225, 226 
Olivaceus (Trochus), Wood. Index, test. Suppl., pi. 5, fig. 3. 

= Astralium olivaceum, ...... 231, 241 

Orichalceus (Trochus), Koch. Zeitsch. f. Malak. 1848, p. 110. 

= Astralium longispina. Lam. ...... 222 

Orthomesus, Pilsbry, . . . . . .163,179,271 

Pachypoma Gray, 187, 244, 221 

Pagodus (Astralium), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, iv, p. 110, 23& 



INDEX AND 8YN0NTMV. 283 

PAGE. 

Pagodulus (Turbo), Sowb. Thes. Conch, p. 220, pi. 9, f. 100. 

= Astraliiim, 236 

Papillatum (Trochus), Potiez and Micbaud. Gal. des Moll, i, 

p. 537, pi. 30, figs. 10-11. == Astralium papillatum, 225, 226 
Patulus (Turbo), Phil. Zeitsch. f. Malak., 1848, p. 100, . 195 

Parvulus (Turbo). Philippi. Zeitsch. f. Malak. 1848, p. 189, 206 
Paucicostata (Turbo), Sowb. Thes. Conch. 

=:^ Leptothyra bacula. Carp.. ...... 248 

Paucicostata (Leptothyra), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 131, 248 
Peloritanus (Turbo), Cantraine. Bull. Soc. Roy. Sciences et 

Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles. 

= Leptothyra carinata Cantr. var. ..... 252 

Perdix (Phasianella), Gray. ....... 165 

Perforata (Phasianella), Phil. Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1848, p. 164, 

171, 172, 175, 178 
Petholatus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. xii, ]). 1233, 185, 193 
Petiti (Phasianella), Craven. Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. p. 18, ]d. 

ii, fig. a. b. c. . . . . . . . . . 169 

Petrosum (Astralium), Martyn, 234 

Phasianella(Turbo),C.B. Ad., Cat. Panama Shells, . . 178 
Phasianella Lam. ........ 162, 164 

Phasianellus (Turbo), Desh. IMoll. de ITle de la Reunion, p. 

74. =: Trochida>. 
Pillula (Collonia), Sowb. = Leptothyra pilula, Dkr. . . 258 
Picta (Collonia), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 91, pi. 11, 

figs. 2. 3, .256 

Picta (Phasianella), De Blainville. 

= Phasianella australis, Gmel. . . . 
Pictus (Turbo), Da Costa. British Conchology, t. viii, f. 3. 

= Pliasianella ])ulla, Linn. ....... 168 

Pileolum (Torchus), Reeve. Conch. Syst. pi. 217, fig. 5. 

= Astralium fimbriatum, Lam. var. ..... 239 

Pilula (Liotia), Dunker. Mai. Blatt. vi, 226. 

= Leptothyra pilula, 258, 259 

Planorbis (Astralium), Pilsbry, ...... 232 

Plicatospinosum (Astralium), Pilsbrv, ..... 235 

Pomaulax Gray ' . . . . 187, 243 

Porphyrites (Turbo), Martyn, 215 

Porcatus (Turbo), Reeve. Conch. Icon. pi. 11, fig. 52, P. Z. S. 

1848, p. 51. = T. porphyrites, Mart. var. . . . 215, 216 
Porphyrites (Turbo), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3602. 

= Turbo porphyrites, ]Martyn, ...... 185 

Preissii (Phasianella), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl. p. 12, no. 42. 

= Phas. australis Gmel. ....... 

Prevosti (Turbo), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 222, pi. 12, f. 134, . 235 
Princeps (Turbo), Philippi. Conch. Cab. ed. ii, p. 62. 

= Turbo argyrostomus, Lara. . . . . . .198 

Prisogaster, Morch 186, 219 



284 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Propiuquus (Turbo), Hupe in Gay, Hist. Fis. y Polit. de 

Chile, viii, p. Ill, pi. 4, f. 5. = Turbo elevatus, Soulevet. . 219 
Pulchella (Phasianella), Recluz. = Phasianella pulla, Linn. 168 
Pulchellus (Turbo), C. B. Adams. Proc. Best. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
2, p. 7, . . . . . . . . . . 264 

Pulchella (Pliasiauella), Tenison-Woods. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Tasm. 1876, p. 141. ^ P. delicatula, Tenison-Woods. . 174 

Pulcher (Turbo), Pwe. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 195, . 202, 203 
Pulla (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1233. 

= Phasianella pulla. ". . 163, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 173 
Pulloides (Phasianella), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, xy, 

1865, p. 180. = P. conipta, Gld. yar 173 

Punctata (Tricolia), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid. iy, p. 123. 
= Phasianella pulla, Linn. ...... 168 

Punctata (Eucosniia), Cpr. Ann. and ]Mag. Nat. Hist, xiii, 
1864, p. 475, . . . . ... . 173, 177 

Punetatus (Turbo), Anton. Verzeich. j). 58, No. 2081, 
Punctulata (Phasianella compta, yar.) C])r. Ann. and INIag. 
Nat. Hist., xy, 1865, p. 179, . . • . . • . 

Puri)urascens (Le])tothyra), Dkr. ...... 251 

Purpurata (Leptothyra), Desh 251 

Purpuratus (Turbo), Desh. Moll, de ITle de Reunion p. 73, 

})1. 9, f. 11, 12, = Leptothyra purpurata Desh. . . 251 

Purpureus (Leptonix sanguineus, L. yar.) Carpenter. Cal. 

Proc. iii, p. 176. =^ Leptothyra carpenter!, Pilsbry. . 247 

Purpureus (Turbo) Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. merid., iy, p. 116, 
f. 48. = Leptothyra sanguinea, Linn. .... 249 

Pusio (Turbo), Anton. In Phil. Conch. Cab. p. 71, pi. 16, f. 
10. = Leptothyra ])usio. ....... 260 

Pustulatus (Turbo), Reeyc. Conch. Icon. f. 59, P. Z. S. 1848, 

p. 50. n:^ T.subcastaneus, Pilsbry. . ; . . .205 
Pustulatus (Turbo), l^rocchi. Catal. di Coneli. raccolte presso 
la costa Afric. del Golfo Arab. p. 30, .... 207, 263 

Pygmaea (Phasianella), Philippi. Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1848, p. 18. 

"= P. tessellata, P. et M 174 

Pyropus (Turbo), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 61, P. Z. S. 1848, p. 
'50, . . . . . 263 

Quadriseriatus (Turbo), Anton. Verzeichn. p. 59, No. 2106. 
= T. castaneus, Gmel. yar. ...... 204 

Quantilla (Collonia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. yiii, p. 22, . 265 

Radiatus (Turbo), Rye. Couch. Icon. pi. 8, f. 31. 

= T. intercostalis, Menke 200, 202 

Radiatus (Turbo), Gnielin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3594, 

■;.... 185, 200, 201 

Eadiatus (Turbo), Anton. Verzeichn. p. 57, No. 2073, 1839. 

= Trochida\ 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 285- 

PAGE. 

Eeevei (Turbo", Pliilippi), Conchyl. Cub. ed. ii, p. 48, pi. 12, 

figs. 1-2. ^==: T. petholatus L. var. . . . . .194 

Regenfu!*si (Turbo), Desh., in Lam., ed. ii, t. ix, p. 222, . . 19S 
Regenfussi (Turbo), Phil. = T. marmoratus L. . . . 192 

Reticulata (Phasianella), Rve. Conch. Icon., fig. 7. 

= P. ventricosa Q. et G. var. . . . . . .166 

Rhodostomus (Trochus), Lam. An. 8ans Vert., ed. Desh. ix, 

p. 127. = Astralium petrosum Martyn. .... 234 
Roseocincta (Leptothyra), Mart., ^lobius Reise n. Mauritius, 

p. 294, t. 20, f. 22-25, 251 

Roseopunctata (Collonia), Angas. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 417, pi. 40, 

fig. 8, , • .258 

Rosens (Phasianella), Angas. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 114, pi. 13, f. 

24, 174 

Rosens (Turbo), Philippi. = Leptothyra cicer, Mice. . . 254 
Rotelliformis (Turbo), Jay. Catal. of Shells 3rd. Edit. 1839, 

p. 3, pi. 1, figs. 2-3. =: Trochiscus ISTorrisi, Sowb. 
Rotularius (Trochus), Lam. An. sans Vert., ed. Desh., ix, p. 

125. = Astralium rotularium, ...... 238 

Rubens (Phasianella), Lam. Encyc. Meth., pi. 449, fig. 2a, b, 

= P. variegata. Lam. . . . . . . . .179 

Rubicundus (Turbo), Chemnitz. Conchyl. Cab. v, p. 207, pi. 

181, f. 1803-1804'. = Turbo granulosus. Mart. . . . 213 
Rubicundus (Turbo), Rve. Conch. Syst. v, ii, pi. 220, figs. 11, 

12. ^^ Turbo granulosus, Mart. ..... 213 

Rubra (Leptothyra), Dkr 251 

Rubra (Phasianella), Pease. Rve. Couch, Icon. f. 18. 

= Alcyna rubra Pse 182 

Rubra (Tricolia), Risso. Hist. Xat. Eur. ]\Ierid. iv, p. 122. . 

== Phasianella speciosa, Muhlf. .... 
Rubra (Alcyna), Pease. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 436, 
Rubra (Collonia). = Leptothyra annissitata, Gould. . . 250 
Rubrieinctus (Turbo), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Hoc. 1845, vol. ii, 

p. 22. =; Leptothyra ruln-icincta, ..... 25T 
Rubrilineata (Leptothyra), Von. Mart. = L. rubrieincta, Migh. 257 
Rubrilineata (Collonia), (Pease), Sowb. 

= Leptothyra rubrieincta, Mighels, .... 257, 258 
Rugosus (Turbo), Linn. Svst. Nat. ed. xii, p. 1234, }io. 618. 

= Astralium ruirosum, ^ 186, 220, 229 

Rutilis (Turbo), C.^B. Ad., 243 

Sandwichensis (Turbo), Pease, ...... 207 

Sangarensis (Turbo), Schrenck. Bull, de la Acad. des. sc. dc 

St. Petersburgh, iv, p. 409, 248, 250 

Sanguinea (Phasianella), Rve. Conch. Icon. fig. 3. 

= P. ventricosa Q and G. Var. . . . . . .105 

Sanguineus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, p. 763. 

^=: Leptothyra sanguinea, ..... 246, 249, 260' 



286 IXDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Sanguineus (Turbo), Reeve. Conch. Icon. no. 

= Leptothyra cicer, Mke. ....... 254 

Sanguineus (Leptonyx), Carpenter. 

= Leptothyra carpenteri, Pilsbry, . . 247, 248, 249, 188 
Sanguineus (TurBo), Folin. Fonds de hi Mer. i, p. 86, no. 9, 

f. 11. = Leptothyra folini, Pilsbry, ..... 252 
Sarmaticus (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1235, 

186, 203, 218 
Saxosum (Callopoma), Gray. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 44, . .211 

Saxosus (Turbo), Kiener. Spec. Gen. Turbo, pL 17, fig. 2. 

= Turbo fluctuosus. Wood. . . . . . .211 

Saxosus (Turbo), Eve. P. Z. S. 1848, p. 49. 

= Turbo saxosus, AYood, . . . . . . .211 

Saxosus (Turbo), Wood. Index testae. suppL ph 6, f. 45, . 211 
Semicostatus (Trochus), Kiener. Spec. Gen. Troque, pi. 38, fig. 

1. =^ Astralium semicostatum, Kn. ..... 237 

.Semicostatus (Turbo), Pease. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 435, . . 206 
Semilugubris (Turbo), Desh. Conch, de ITle de la Reunion, 

p. 72, pi. 9, f. 9, 10. = Leptothyra semilugubris, . . 252 
Senectus H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll. . . . 185, 194 
Setosus (Turbo), Gmelin. Svst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3594, . . 195 
Shandi (Turbo), Huttou. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z. p. 35, .212 

Simsoni (Turbo), Tenison- Woods. Trans. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

1876, p. 141, \ . . . 216 

Sirius (Turbo), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, iii, p. 90; 

Wilkes Exped. f. 203. = Astralium sirius. . . . 233 

Smaragdus (Turbo), Martvn, Univ. Conch. . . . 217 

Smaragdus (Turbo), Gmel. Syst. Nat. ed. 13, p. 3595, No. 30, 185 
Smithi (Turbo), Sowb. Thes.' Conch., p. 230, pi. 14, f. 182, 

183, 206 

Solida (Helix), Born. ]\Ius. Caes. Yindobon., t. 13, f. 19, (1780.) 

( ^ Phasiauella.) . . . . . . . . 166 

Solida (Phasianella), (Desh.) Kiener. Spec. Gen. Phasiauella. 

= P. ventricosa, ......... 165 

Solidus (Turbo), Hanley. Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 201. 

= T. fluctuosus, Wood. . 

Sparverius (Turbo), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3594, No. 

43, ' 194, 195 

Speciosa (Phasianella), Miihlf. Verb. Berl. Gesell. i, ji. 214, 

pi. ii, f. 4 167 

Speciosus (Turbo), Reeve. Couch. Icon. pi. 8, f. 35, . 163, 201 
Speciosus (Turbo), Kiener. Spec. Gen. Turbo, pi. 33, f. 1. 

= Turbo radiatus, Gmel. ....... 200 

Spengleriauus (Turbo), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3595, 

No. 27, ^ . . 205, 208, 209, 210 

Sphtierula (Del]>hinula), Kiener. Coq. Viv. p. 5, pi. 3, f. 3, . 268 
Spinosum (Turbo), Kiener. Spec. Gen. Turbo, pi. 20. 

= Turbo radiatus, Gmel 200 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 287 

PAGE. 

Spiuosiis (Turbo), Grael. Syst. Nat. ed. 13, p. 3594. 

= Turbo radiatus, Guiel. ....... 200 

Spinulosus (Trocbus), Lam. An. sans. Vert., ed. Desh., p. 127. 

= Astraliuiu longispiuuin. Lam. var. . . . 186, 222 

Spinulosus (Trocbus), Reeve. Con. Icon. f. do. 

= A. petrosum, Mart. 234 

Spinulosus (Trocbus), Lam. Reeve. Concb. Icon. sp. 55, and 

Sowb. Tbes. Concb. p. 21 7. = Astraliuni petrosum. Mart. . 222 
Splendida (Pbasianella), Pbil. Zeitscb. f. Mai. 1840, p. 30, 

. . . ' . _ . ... . . . 180, 270 

Splendida (Pbasianella), Pbil. Kiister's Concb. Cab., Monog. 

Pbasiaella. 270 

Splendidulus (Turbo), Sowb. Tbes. Conch, p. 229, etc. 14, f. 

180, 181, 197 

Squamatus (Turbo), (A. Ad.) Sowb. Tbes. Concb. p. 210, pi. 

8, f. 88, 264 

Squamig-er (Turbo), Rve. P. Z. S. 1842, p. 186, . . .204 
Squamosus (Turbo), Grav. Yov. Flv. ii, p. 359, pi. 2, f. 8. 

= Turbo foliaceus, Pliil. .' .' 201 

vStamineus (Limax), Martyn. Uuiv. Concb., t. 71. 

= Turbo stain ineus. . .. . . . . .212 

Stellaris (Trocbus), Gnielin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3600, No. 

47. --= Astraliuni stellare. ' 232 

Stenogyrus (Turbo), Fiscber. Coq. Viv. p. 118, pi. 41, f. 3. . 205 
Stramineus (Turbo), AVood. = T. stamineus, jNIart. . . 212 
Striata (Pbasianella pulla, var.) Brusina. Zool. Bot. Ver. xv, 

p. 24. = P. pullus, L. var. . ... 

Striata (Alcyna), Pease. Am. Jour. Concb. v, p. 70, . . 182 

Striata (Collonia), Gray. 264 

Strigata ( Pbasianella),' Pbil. Concb. Cab. 1853, p. 15, t. 4, f. 

6. = P. pulla, L. var 168 

Strigata (Pbasianella), Rve. Concb. Icon. f. 19. 

= P. pullus, Linn. var. dubia, Pilsbry. .... 169 

Striulata (Pbasianella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., Xo. 283/>. 

= Turbo pbasianella, C. B. Ad. ..... 178 

Subangulata (Alcyna), Pease. ...... 182 

Subcastaneus (Turbo), Pilsbry. . . . . . . 204 

Subsanguinea (Pbasianella), Pilsbry. ..... 165 

Substriata (Eucosmia variegata, Cpr. var.) Cpr. Ann. and 

Mag. N. Hist, xiii, 1864, p. 475, .177 

Sulcata (Turbo torquatus, Gmel. var.), Rve. Con. Icon. i)l. 6. 

= Turbo stamineus, var. lamellosus, Brod. . . . 213 

Sulcatum (Astraliuni), Martyn. ...... 242 

Supragranosus (Trocbus), E. A. Smitb. 

= Leptotbyra beta, Alontr. ...... 259 

Taeniatus (Turbo), Sowerby. Tankerville Catal. App. p. xiii. 
= Pbotinula, 



288 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Tayloi-iaiuis (Turbo). Smitli. V. Z. S. 1880, pi. 48, f. 9, p. 483, 244 
Tentoriifornie (Trochus), Jonas. Zeitscli. f. Malak. 1845, p, 66. 

= Astralium tentoriifornie, ...... 231, 240 

Tenuis (Phasianella\ Michaud. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord. iii, p. 

270, f. 19, 20, 168 

Tenuis (Phasianella), Philippi. Zeitscli. f. Mai. 1844, p. 110, 

163, 168 

Tesselata (Phasianella), C. B. Adams. Contr. Coneh., p. 67, 

:== P. tessellata, P. et M 171 

Tessellata (Phasianella), Potiez et Mich. Galerie, i, p. 312, pi. 

29, f. 7-8 • 170 

Tessellata (Phasianella), Anton. Yerzeieh, p. 61, no. 2141, . 

= ? 
Tessellatus (Turbo fluctuosus. Wood, var.) Kiener. Spec. Turbo, 

pl- 9, fig. 2, 

Ticaonicus (Turbo), Rve. Proc. Zool. Soo. 1842, p. 185, 202, 203 
Torqnatus (Turbo), Gmel. Svst. Nat. ed. 13, p. 3597, no 106. 

= T. staminens, Mart. \ 212 

Transenna (Turbo), Watson, ....... 262 

Tricingulata (Leptothyra purpurata var.) INIart. ^Mcibius Reise 

n. Mauritius, p. 294^ . . . ' 251 

Tricolia Risso, Hist. Nat. I'Eur. Merid 167 

Tricoliella Monterosato, = Tricolia, . • . . .167 
Tricostatns (Turbo sniaragdus Martyn, var.) Hutton. Proc. 

Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, ix, p. 355, . . . . .217 
Tritonis (Eutropia) "Chenin." Auct. 

= Phasianella australis, Gmel 165 

Triumphans (Trochus), Philippi. Fiinftej" Jahr. des Ver. f. 

Naturk. zur Cassel, p. 8, 1841. = Astralium triumphans, 228 
Trochidre, . . . . . ... . . . 266 

Troehoides (Turbo), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pl. 12, f. oS, P. Z. S. 

1848, p. 50, 207 

Tuber (Turbo), Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. xii, p. 1230, no. 596. 

= Astralium tuber, 220, 223 

Tuberculatus (Turbo), Kiener. .Spec. Gen. Turbo, pl. 3, f. 2. 

= Turbo radiatus, Gmel 200 

Tuberculosus (Turbo), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. de I'Astrolabe, 

iii, p. 247, pl. 60, fig. 1-5. ^^ Turbo radiatus, Gmel. . . 200 
Tuberosus (Trochus), Phil. = Astralium tuberosum, . . 227 
Tuberosus (Trochus), Reeve. = Astralium petrosum. Mart. 234 
Tubicanthus Swains. = Bolma, ...... 229 

Tumidulus (Turbo), Rve. Conch. Icon. pl. 10, fig. 45, P. Z. S. 

1848, p. 51. = T. radiatus Gmel. var 202 

Turbininie, . . . . . . . . . .184 

Turbinidie, . . . . . . . . . .161 

Turbinopsis (Delphinula), Lamarck. An. sans Vert. ed. i,vi, 

p. 231. = Turbo turbinopsis, 198, 199 

Turbo Linn. Syst. Nat. X, p. 761 185,191,271 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



289 



Turcicus (Turbo), Rve. Conch. Icon. pi. 12, fig. 60, P. Z. S. 

1848, p. 50, 230 

Tursicus (Calcar), Fischer. Coq. Viv., p 230 

Turgida (PhasianeHa), PhiL Conch. Cab., p. 5, t. 2, f. 7-10, 165 
Tyria (Delphinuhi), Rve. P. Z. S. 1842, . . . .268 

Uml)ilicata (Phasianella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 77, t. 19, 

f. 32, 34. = affinis C. B. Ad 163, 171 

Undosum (Trochus), Wood. Index test, suppl., pi. 51, fig. 1. 

= Astralium undosum, . . . , . .187, 243 
Undulatus (Turl)o), Martyn. Univ. Conch., .... 216 
Unguis (Trochus), Wood. Index Test. Suppl. pi. 5, fig. 2. 

= Astralium unguis, ........ 242 

Unifascialis (Phasianella), Kiener. p. 7. pi. 4, fig. 2. . 166, 179 
Urvillei (Turbo), Phil. Conch. CJab. p. 215, pi. 32, f. 4. 

=:= Astralium tentoriiformis, Jonas, ..... 
Uvanilla Gray, 231, 240 



Varia (Phasianellaj, Lam. Ency. Meth. pi. 449, f. 1. 

^ Phasianella australis, Gmel. .."... 
Variabilis (Turbo), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 186. 

= T. petholatus, L. ....... , 

Variabilis (Phasianella), Pease. P. Z. S., 1860, p. 436. . 
Varians (Eudora), Leach. Syn. Moll. Gt. Brit. p. 200. 

-— Phasianella pulla, Linn. . . . . . . 

Viridis (Phasianelhi), Anton. Vezeieh, p. 60, . . . . 

Variegata (Eucosmia), Cpr. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, xiii, 1864, 

p. 475, . . . . . . . . 163, 177, 

Variegata (Phasianella), Lam. ...... 

Variegatus (Collonia), A. Ad. (Sowb). 

=^ Turbo nocturnus, Gould. ...... 

Veuosa (Phasianella), Rve. Conch. Icon., f. 5. 

= P. ventricosa, Q. and G. ...... 

Ventricosa (Phasianella), Swainson. Exot. Conch, p. 38, 1841. 

= P. ventricosa Q. et G 

Ventricosa (PhasianeHa), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. de I'Astrol. 

Zool. pi. 59, f. 8, 9, . '. . . . . " . 

^" ' " " Elem. Conch, i, p. 132, pi. 12, f. 



165 

194 
176 

168 



Zeitsch. f. Malak. 1845, p. 148. 



Venusta (Phasianella), Rve. 

58. = P. australis, Gmel 
Venustus (Turbo). Philippi. 

= T. saxosus, Wood. ....... 

Verruca (Trochus), Gld. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. ii, p. 27. 

= Leptothyra verruca. ....... 

Versicolor (Turbo), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. ed. xiii, p. 3599, No. 

43. = T. porphy rites. Mart, var 

Vieuxii (Phasianella) Payr. Cat. Moll. Corse, p. 146, pi. 7, f. 

5, 6. = P. speciosa, Miihlf. ...... 

19 



179 
179 

265 

165 

165 

165 

165 

211 

257 

215 

167 



290 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE, 

Virens (Turbo), Anton. Phil. Zeitsch. f. Malacol., 1848, p. 

99. = r. castaneus, Gmel 203 

Virescens (Pacliypoma), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., ji. 73, pi. 

8, f. 10. ^= Astralium petrosum, Mart. var. • . . 235' 
Virgo (Phasianellaj, Angas. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 115, pi. 13, f. 

25, 181 

Viridis (Phasianella), Anton. Verzeich. p. 60, No. 2135. 

= P. lineolata, Lam. . 17&^ 

Vitrea (Phasianella), Desh. Moll. I'lle Reunion, p. 76, pi. 8, 

f. 8, 169- 

Wisemanni (Phasianella), Baird. Voy. Curacoa, p. 436, pi. 
38, f. 3, 4, 181 

Zebra (Phasianella), Gray. mss. Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 4. 

= P. ventricosa, Q. et G. var. . . . . . .166 

Zebrina (Phasianella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 78, pi. 19, f. 

35, 37. = P. tessellata, P. et M 170 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



Plate 1. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

J. Neritopsis radula, Linn. Portion of radula. Fischer's 

Manual, f. 568, 12 

2. Navicella clypeolum. Dentition, Troscliel, Gebiss der 

Sehnecken ii, t. 16, f. 1, . . , . . .10 

3. Neritina reclivata. Say. Dentition. Ibid, ii, t. 16, f. 10, . 6 

4. Cyclostrema basistriatum, Jeffr. Dentition. Ibid, ii, t. 2, 

f. 3, . . . . U 

5. 6. Peltariou bilobatus, Desli. Operculum. Fischer's 

Manual, f. 569, 12 

7, 8. Neritopsis radula, Linn. Operculum, a, external face, 

b, internal face. Fischer's Manual, f. 570, . . .12 
9, 10. Neritina. Operculum, 9 internal, 10 external face. 

Fischer's Manual, f. 563, 561, . . . . .6 
11, 12. Navicella operculum, b, internal, a, external face. 

Ibid. f. 566, 10 

13. Naticopsis placida, Kon. Operculum. Ibid. f. 572, , 12 

14. Naticopsis planispira, Kon. Operculum. Ibid. f. 573, . 12 

15. Nerita peloronta, Linn. Showing absorption of inner 

walls. Ibid. £ 559, 18 

16. Neritina zigzag, Lam. Showing apophysis. Ibid. f. 562, 5 

17. Naticopsis ampliata, Koninck. Ibid. f. 571, . . .12 

18. Craspedostoma elegantulum, Lindstr. Ibid. f. 588, . 17 

19. 20. Crossostoma reflexilabrum, d'Orb. Ibid. f. 589, . 17 



Plate 2. 

21-23. Nerita albicilla, L. Reeve, Conch. Icon, f 64, 

24. Nerita venusta, Phil. ( = albicilla, L.) Phil. Abbild 

i, t. 1, f 11, 

25, 26. Nerita forskalii. Reel. (= albicilla.) Reeve, Nerita 
, f67, 

27. Nerita plexa, Chemn. Ibid. f. 12, . 

28. Nerita chlorostoma. Lam. ( = plexa, Chemn.) Ibid. f. 

32, 6, . . . . . . . 

29. Nerita exuvia, L. Ibid. f. 1, a, 

30. Nerita granulata, Rve. Ibid. f. 79, a, 
31-33. Nerita stella, Chemn. ( = chamaeleon.) Ibid, f 60, 
34-36. Nerita squamulata, Le Guill. (:= chamaeleon.) Ibid 

f 63 



Plate 3. 



19 

19 

19 
19 

19 
19 
20 
20 

20 



37. Nerita modesta Hombr. et Jacq. (= chamaeleon.) Voy. 

Astrol. et Zel. t. 16, £ 6, 20 

(291) 



292 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



(:^ cliamaeleoii). Concli. Icon. f. 



Ibid. f. 27, b, 
Ibid. f. 17, b, 



FIGURE. 

38. Nerita aiabica Rve. 

16, b, . . 

39. Nerita aimulata Rve. {= chamaeleon.) Ibid. f. 78, b 

40. Nerita oryzarum, Reel. Ibid. f. 46a. 

41. Nerita semirugosa, Reel. Ibid. f. 19a. 

42. Nerita histrio, Gmel. (= .«emirugosa.) 

43. Nerita maura, Reel. (= semirugosa.) 

44. 45. Nerita lougii. Reel. Ibid. f. 52, 

46, 47. Nerita hindsii. Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 7, f. 17 
18 

48. Nerita atropurpurea. (= planospira). Reeve, Conch 

Icon. f. 38a. . 

49. Nerita signata,. McCleay. •(= reticulata, Kars.) Ibid. f. 

44a. . . . ^ 

50. Nerita fragum, Rve. ( = 'reticulata, Kars.) Ibid. f. 41 

51. 52. Nerita unidentata, H. et J. (== patula.) Voy. Astrol 

etZel. t. 17, f. 6, 7, . ' . 
53, 54. Nerita patula. Reel. Reeve, Icon. f. 84, 
■"io. Nerita beaniaua, Reel. Ibid, f, 85 b. 

56. Nerita dombeyi. Reel. Ibid. f. 71 b. 

57. Nerita senegaleusis, Gmel. Ibid. f. 35, a. 

58. Nerita largillierti, Phil. (=^ senegalensis.) Specimen. 

Plate 4. 

59. Nerita argus, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 53, b. 

60. Nerita anthracina. Abbild. Neuer. Conch, i, t. 1, f. 9, 

61. Nerita maculata, Pse. Specimen. . 

62. Nerita fulgurans, Gmel. Conch. Icon. f. 51, b. 

63. Nerita pra}cognita, x\d. Ibid. f. 30, a. 

64. Nerita antillarum. Thes. Conch, f. 54, . 
Qo. Nerita albipunctata, Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 61, a, 
66, 67. Nerita l)ernhardi, Reel. Ibid. f. 57, 
()8. Nerita genur.na, Rve. Ibid. f. 77, b. 

69. Nerita bernhardi, Reel. Specimen. 

70. Nerita granulata (= Bernhardi). Concli. Icon. f. 7 

71. Nerita tessellata, Gmel. Ibid. f. 43, b, 

72. Nerita comma-notata, Rve. (= tessellata). Ibid. f. 

73. Nerita listeri, Reel. (=- tessellata.) Ibid. f. 36, a. 

74. Nerita nivosa, Rve. (= tessellata.) Ibid. f. 66 a. 

75. 76. Nerita peloronta, Linn. Thes. Conch, f. 30, 31, 

77. Nerita peloronta, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 8, b 

78, 79. Nerita versicolor, Gmel. Ibid. f. 56, 

Plate 5. 

80. Nerita versicolor, Gmel. Specimen. 

81, 82. Nerita plicata, L. Couch. Icon. f. 42, 

83. Nerita ringens, Rve. (= plicata.) Ibid. f. 75, 

84. Nerita costata, Chemn. Ibid. f. 6, b. 



9, a, 
72, b 



25 

27 
27 
97 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 293 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

85. Nerita grossa Linn. Ibid. f. 10, a .28 

86. Nerita quadricolor, Gmel. Ibid. f. 4, o. . . . .29 

87. Nerita leguillouana, Reel. (= iindata.) Ibid. f. 15, a. . 28 

88. Nerita savieana. Reel. Ibid. f. 87, h 28 

89. Nerita crassa. Old. Moll. Wilkes Exped. f. 195, a. . 28 

90. Nerita novse-guinea^, Less. Conch. Icon. f. 59, b. . .28 

91. Nerita chrysostoma, Reel. Ibid. f. 18, . . . .28 

92. Nerita aurantia, Reel. Ibid. f. 49, a, . . . .28 

93. Nerita grisea, Rve. Ibid. f. 19, « 28 

94. Nerita essingtoni, Rve. Ibid. f. 29, a, . . . .29 

95. Nerita funicula, Rve. Ibid. f. 9, 29 

Plate (3. 

96. 97. Nerita oleagina, Rve. ( = spenglei'iana). Conch 

Icon. f. 47, . 

98. Nerita spengleriana, Reel. Ibid. f. 73, a, 

99. Nerita incnrva, jMart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 8, f. 14, 
100. Nerita erubescens, Rve. (= striata). Conch. Icon. f. 54o 

1. Nerita neritopsoides, Rve. (^= striata.) Ibid. f. 69, b, 

2. Nerita grayana, Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 7, f. 10, 

3. Nerita grayana, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 33, a, 

4. Nerita annulata, Rve. (= chaniaeleon.) Ibid. f. 78, a, 

5. Nerita ornata, Sowb. (= scabricosta.) Ibid. f. 3, b, 

6. Nerita deshayesii, Reel. (= scabricosta.) Ibid. f. 7, a, 

7. Nerita polita, Linn. Ibid. f. 2, a, ... 
8-11. Nerita rumphii, Reel. Ibid. f. 62, 

Plate 7. 

12. Nerita polita, Linn. A^oy. Astrolabe, t. 65, f. 31, . 
13,. 14. Nerita polita, Linn. Conch. Icon. f. 2, 
15, 16. Nerita rumphii. Reel. Ibid. f. 62, . 

17. Nerita autiquata. Reel. Ibid. f. 5. b, . . . 

18. Nerita undaasiana, Krauss. Thes. Conch, f. 125, 

19. 20. Nerita orbignvana. Reel, (^polita.) Conch. Icon. f. 

58, a, . ^ '. . • 

21. Nerita aurora, Dkr. Abbild. i, t. 1, f. 12. 

22. Nerita guamensis, Quoy. (;= rumphii.) Voy. Astrol. t. 

65, f. 45, 

23. Nerita doreyana, Quoy. (.= rumphii.) Ibid. t. Qo, f. 43, 

24. Nerita maxima, Gmel. Conch. Icon. f. 18, b, 

25. Nerita obatia, Reel. Jour, de Conch, ii, t. 5, f. 4, . 

26. Nerita bisecta, Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 39, b, 

27. Nerita ascensionis, Chemn. Ibid. f. 14, b, 

28. Nerita alveolus, H. et J. (=^ fulginata,) Vov. Astrol. et 

Zel. t. 17, f. 8, ■. 

29. Nerita birmanica, Phil. (:== lineata.) Thes. Conch. 

82, .......... 32 



294 EEFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

30. Nerita punctata. Voy. Astrol. t. 65, f. 41, . . 29 

31. Nerita georgiua, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 74, b, . . .33 

Plate 8. 

32. Nerita lineata, Chemn. Conch. Icon. f. 13, a, . .32 

33. Nerita balteata, Rve. (= lineata.) Ibid. f. 28, a, . .32 

34. Nerita excavata. Thes. Conch, f. 84, . . . . 20 

35. Nerita filosa, Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 48, b, ... 32 

36. 37. Nerita cerostoma, Trosch. Archiv. fiir Naturg. t. 5, 

f. 5, 1852, 32 

38. Nerita gemmulata, Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 40, a, . .32 

39. Nerita Sfulginata, Rve. Ibid. f. 50, b, 32 

40. Nerita atrata, Rve. Ibid. f. 16, b, . . . .26 

41. Nerita carbonaria, Reel. (= morio.) Abbild. i, t. 1, f. 5, 33 

42. Nerita nigerrima, Chemn. Conch. Icon. f. 11, i, . . 23 

43. Nerita achatina, Rve. (= nigerrima.) Ibid. f. 68, a, . 23 

44. Nerita atramentosa, Rve. Ibid. f. 25, a, . . .26 

45. Nerita essingtoni, Reel. Jour, de Couch, i, t. 11, f. 9, . 33 

46. Nerita neritinoides, Rve. (=^ morio.) Conch. Icon. f. 17, 

b, 33 

47. Nerita picea. Reel. Ibid. f. 20, 6, 33 

48. Nerita iucerta, Busch. Abbild. i, t. 1, f. 6, . . . 25 

Plate 9. 

49. 50. Nerita samoensis Dkr. Couch. Icon. f. 80, . . 34 

51. Nerita afhnis Rve. Ibid. f. 81, 34 

52. Nerita obscura H. et J. (= picea.) Vov. Astrol. et Zel. 

t. 17, f. 2 ^. . . .33 

53. 54. Nerita vitieusis H. et J. (^= affiuis.) Ibid. t. 17, f. 3, 

4, 34 

55. Nerita voldii Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 82o, . . .27 

56. Nerita haustrum Rve. (= yoldii.) Ibid. f. 34, b, . .27 

57. Nerita peruviana Phil. (= yoldii.) Abbild, I. t. 1, f. 4,. 27 

58. Nerita japonica Dkr. (= pica.) Thes. Couch, f. 112, . 34 

59. 60. Nerita pica, Gould. Specimen, . . . .34 

61. Nerita vexillum Rve. Conch, Icon. f. Go, . . .34 

62. Nerita stricta Bd. Thes. Couch, f. 118, ... 34 

63. Nerita albipunctata. Ibid. f. 118, . . . .24 

64. 65. Nerita arcta Homo. et. Jacq. Voy. Astr. et Zel. t. 16, 

f. 12, 13, 34 

66. Nerita electrina Rve. (= chamreleon.) Conch Icon. f. 10, 20 

67, 68. Nerita uovpecaledonifeBd.(= stricta.) Vov- Curacoa, 

t. 38, f. 12, 13, '. . . 35 

69. Nerita scalpta. Conch. Icon. f. 31, b, . . . .24 

70. Nerita bullula Rve. (= picea.) Ibid. f. 76, . . 33 

71. Nerita helicinoides Rve. Ibid. f. 80, b, ... 25 

72. Nerita pellis-serpentis Rve. (= helicinoides.) Ibid f. 83, 25 

73. Nerita wiuteri Phil. Abbild. I, t. l,f. 10, . . . 25 



REFERENCE TO PLATES, 295 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

74. Nerita insculpta Rve. (= picea.) Conch. Icon. Neritiua, 

f. 70, 6, . 33 

75. Nerita morio Sowb. Ibid. Neritina, f. 43, h, . . 33 

76. Nerita rudis Pse. (= pica.) Am. Jour. Conch. III. t. 24, 

f. 4, 34 

Plate 10. 

77. Neritina gagates Lam. Kiister, Couch. Cab. t. 11, f, 12, 35 

78. Neritina gagates var. minor. Ibid. t. 10, f. 18, . . 35 

79. Neritina gagates var. subplanospira. Ibid. t. 13, f. 8, . 35 

80. Neritina uatalensis Rve. Ibid. t. 11, f. 11, ... 35 

81. Neritiini natalensis Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 75, h, . . 35 
82-84. Neritina variegata Lesson. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, 

f. 12,16,17, 35 

^5, 86. Neritina cuvieriana Reel. (= variegata.) Couch. 

Icon. f. 87, a,h, 36 

87. Neritina ziczac Sowb. Kiister, Conch Cab, t. 10, f. 20, . 36 

88, 89. Neritina ziczac Sowb. Ibid. t. 2, f. 6, 7, ' . . 36 

90. Neritina ziczac var. interstitialis. Ibid. t. 10, f. 23, . 36 

91. Neritiua serrulata, RecL (ziczac.) Conch. Icon. f. 55, . 36 

92. Neritina ziczac, Sowb. var. triangularis. Ibid. f. 32, a, . 36 

93. Neritina zebra, Brug. var. lineohita. Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 10, f. 1, 37 

94. Neritina zebra, Brug. Ibid. t. 10, f. 3, . . . . 37 

95. Neritina sobrina. Reel, (zebra.) Conch. Icon. f. 40, b, . 37 
^6. Neritina smithi, Sowb. Ibid. f. 42, a, . • . .37 
•97, 98. Neritina fulgurata, Desh. (= gagates.) Moll. Re- 
union, t. 10, f. 1, 2, 35 

Plate 11. 

99. Neritina aterrima, Koch. Couch. Icon. f. 78, . . 40 

100. Neritina aquatilis, Rve. (= ziczac.) Ibid. f. 73, b, . 36 

1. Neritina turrita, Chenni. Ibid. f. 31, 6, . . . . 37 

2, 3. Neritina turrita, Chemn. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 11, f. 

21,23, 37 

4. Neritina semiconica. Lam. Conch. Icon. f. 36, a, . . 37 

5. Neritina jovis, Reel. (=; ziczac.) Ibid. f. 117, a, . . 36 

6. Neritina plumbea, Martens (not Reel.) (= gagates). 

Kiister, Couch. Cab. t. 11, f. 13, . . . . .35 
'7, 8. Neritiua plumbea, Reel. Thes. Couch, ii, t. 112, f. 119, 

120, 37 

9. Neritina moquiuiaua, Reel. (= natalensis.) Jour, de 

Conch, i, t. 7, f. 9, 35 

10. Neritina roissyana, Reel. Kiister, Couch. Cab. t. 11, f. 

14, . . . . 38 

11. Neritiua cuprina, Reel. (= roissyana.) Conch. Icon. f. 

97, a, 38 



296 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

12. Neritina chrysocolla, Gkl. (= roissyana.) Moll. Wilkes 

Exped. f. 188, . . . _ . . . . . 3S 

13. Neritina navigatoria, Rve. (= roissyana.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 102, a, .38 

14. 15. Neritina turtoni. Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 13, f. 

1,5, . : . .38 

16. Neritina communis, Q. et G. Ibid. t. 2, f. 4, . . 38 

17-22. Neritina communis. Conch. Icon. f. 88, . . . 38 

Plate 12. 

23, 24. Neritina pulchra, Sowb. (= variegata.) Conch. Icon. 

f. Ill, a,b, 36 

25, 26. Neritina reclivata. Say. Thes. Conch, ii, t. 116, f. 

240,241, 39 

27. Neritina reclivata, Say. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 10, f. 10, 39 

28. Neritina striolata. Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 100, 6, . . 39 

29. Neritina floridana, Shutt. Ibid. f. 85, . . . . 39 

30. Neritina fulgetrum, Rve. Ibid. f. 103, . . . . -38 
31-35. Neritina virginea, Linn. Thes. Conch, ii, t. 114, f. 

232-239, 39 

36. Neritina listeri, Pfr. (= virginea.) Ibid, ii, t. 116, f. 

251, . . . . . . , . . .40 

37-42. Neritina virginea Linn. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 14, f. 
1-21, 39 

43. Neritina virginea Lam. Thes. Conch. II, t. 116, f. 38, . 39 

44, 45. Neritina elegantissima Hartm. (^ virginea.) Gastr. 
Schweiz, t. 78, f. 7, 11, 39 

46, 47. Neritina triserialis .Sowb. Conch. Icdn. f. 95, . . 40 
48. Neritina wallacei Dohrn. Zool. Proc. t. 26, f. 1, 1861, . 40 
49 Neritina poncheti Hombr. et Jacq. Vov. Astrol. et Zelee. 
t. 17, f. 11, . . . . ' . . . .40 



Plate 13. 

50. Neritina adansoniana Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 14, 
f. 22, 

51. Neritina adansoniana Reel. Thes. Conch. II, t. 116, f. 
254, ...... . ^ . • . • . 

52. 53. Neritina picta Sowb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 19, f. 22, 
24, 

54, 55. Neritina picta Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 101, a, b, 

56.' Neritina ualanensis Lesson. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 20 

f.5, 

57, 58. Neritina ualanensis var. Ibid. t. 20, f. 1, 7, 
59, 60. Neritina ualanensis var. Ibid. t. 20, f. 17, 19, 
61-63. Neritina ualanensis var. Ibid. t. 20, f. 9, 10, 12, 
64-66. Neritina ualanensis var. Ibid. t. 20, f. 13, 14, 15, 
67, 68. Neritina ualanensis var. Ibid. t. 20, f. 21. 23, 



40 

40 

41 
41 

41 
41 
41 
41 

41 

41 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 297 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

69, 70. Neritina nouletiana Gass. Moll Nouv. Caled. II, t. 

8, f. 5, 41 

71. Neritina modicella Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 10, f. 3, . 42 



Plate 14. 



42 

42 



42 
42 

42 

43 
43 



72. Xeritina pupa Linn. Conch. Icon. f. 93, h, 

73. Neritina pupa var. tristis d'Orb. Ibid. f. 93, e, 

74. Neritina tristis d'Orb. (= pupa L.) Moll. Cuba. t. 17 
f. 35, . 

75. 76. Neritina reticulata Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 121, a, h 
11. Neritina holoserica Garrett. Am. Jour. Conch. VII, t 

^ 19,f. 1, 

78, 79. Neritina godeffroyana Mouss. (= amoena.) Kiister 

Conch. Cab. t. 15, f. 4, 5, 

80. Neritina amoena, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped, f. 192, 

81. Neritina morosa, Gassies. Moll. Nouv. Caled. II, t. 8, f. 7, 43 

82. Neritina obtusa Bens. Kiister, Conch. Cab. 1. 15, f. 11, 43 

83. Neritina spiralis, Rve. (= obtusa.) Conch. Icon. f. 99. a, 43 

84. Neritina guerini Reel. (= amoena.) Ibid. f. 128, h. . 43 

85. Neritina guttulata, Gassies. Moll. Nouv. Caled. Ill, t. 4, 

f. 4, : .^ 43 

86. Neritina salmacida. Morel. Jour, de Conch, t. 12, f. 5, 

1879, _ . . . . . . . . . .43 

87. 88. Neritina Morchiana, Dkr. Moll. Novara Exped. t. 

2, f. 24, 43, 

89. Neritina incerta, Gassies. Moll. Nouv. Caled. iii, t. 4, f. 6, 44 
90-93. Neritina dubia, Chemn. Conch. Icon. f. 90, . . 44 

94. Neritina dubia, Chemn. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 12, f. 4, 44 

95. Neritina apiata. Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 98, b, . . .44 

96. Neritina cornea, Linn. Ibid. f. 7, &, . ". . . 44 

97. Neritina cornea, Linn. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 12, f. 18, 44 

98. Neritina subsulcata, 8owl). Conch. Icon. f. 10, h, . . 45 

99. Neritina subsulcata, Sowb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 12, f. 

11, 45 

100. Neritina chimmoi, Reeve, Ibid. t. 12, f. 8, . . . 45 
1. Neritina savesi, Gassies, (=; cornea L.) Moll. Nouv. 

Caled. iii, t. 3, f. 12, 45 

Plate 15. 

2-7. Neritina danubialis, Miihlf. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 3, 

f. 7-29, 45 

8. Neritina danubialis var. serratilinea, Zgl. Ibid. t. 22, f. 

3, 46 

9. Neritina danubialis var. chrysostoma, Kutsch. Ibid. t. 22, 

f. 1, . . . . ■ 46 

10. Neritina fluviatilis, Linn. Conch. Icon. f. 125, b, . . 46 
11-25. Neritina fluviatilis, Linn. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 21, 

f. 1-16; t. 3, f. 33, 46 



.298 reference to plates. 

Plate, 16. 

ariGURE. PAGE. 

26, 27. Neritina trausversalis, Zgl. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

22, f. 5, 7, 47 

28. Neritiua doriaj, Issei. Ibid. t. 21, f. 22, ... 47 

29, 30. Neritiua liturata, Eichw. Ibid. t. 21, f. 24-26, . 47 
31, 32. Neritina beldreichi, Schw. Ibid. t. 22, f. 9, 10, . 47 
33, 34. Neritina varia, Zglr. Ibid. t. 21, f. 17, 19, . . 47 
So, 36. Neritina meridionalis, Phil. Ibid. t. 22, f. 11, 13, . 48 

37. Neritina nigrocserulea, Parr. Ibid. t. 22, f. 14. . . 48 

38. Neritina elongatula, Morel. Ibid. t. 22, f. 16, . . 48 

39. Neritiua elongatula, var. violacea. Morel. Ibid. t. 22, f. 

18 48 

40. Neritina lutesta, Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 137a, ... 48 

41. Neritina hispalensis, v. Mart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 22, 

f. 20, 48 

42. 44. Neritina guadianensis. Morel. Ibid. t. 22, f. 22, 24, 49 

43. Neritina guadianensis, var. valentina, Graells. Ibid. t. 

22, f. 25, . . 49 

45. Neritina callosa, Desh. Ibid. t. 22, f. 27, . . . 49 

46. Neritina prevostiana. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 3, f. 3, . 48 

47. Neritina baetica, Lam. Ibid. t. 23, f. 1, . . .49 

48. Neritina sardoa, Mke. Ibid. t. 4, f. 21, . • . 49 

49. Neritina sardoa, Mke. Ibid. t. 23, f. 3, . . .49 

50. Neritina peloponnesia. Reel. Ibid. t. 3, f. 15, . . 50 

51. 52. Neritina numidica. Reel. Ibid. t. 23, f. 5, 8, . . 50 

Plate 17. 

■53. Neritina syriaca, Bourg. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 23, f. 9, 50 
54-56. Neritina hidalgoi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 11, f. 2, 

1880, . . " 49 

57. Neritina pallida, Dkr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 23, f. 11, 50 

-58-60. Neritina schultzii, Grimm. Ibid. t. 23, f. 13, 15, 17, 50 

61. Neritina panayana, Reel. Ibid. t. 23, f. 17, . . . 50 

62. Neritina baconi, Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 127, a, . . 51 

63. Neritina afi-icana. Parr. (= nilotica.) Ibid. f. 138, b, . 51 

64. Neritina nilotica, Rve. Ibid. f. 157, b, . . . .51 
■65. Neritina euphratica, Mouss. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15, 

f.9, 51 

66. Neritina jordani,Sowb. Ibid. t. 2, f. 15, ... 51 

67. Neritina jordani, Sowb. Couch. Icon. f. 129, a, . . 51 

68. Neritina anatolica var. hausknechti, Mart. Ibid. f. 148, a, 52 
•69. Neritina anatolica var. boissieri, INIart. Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 3, f. 5, 52 

70. Neritina anatolica var. olivieri. Mart. Ibid. t. 13, f. 18, . 52 

71. Neritina anatolica var. bellardii, Mart. Ibid. t. 13, f. 25, 52 
72-74. Neritina macrii, Reel. Ibid. t. 4, f. 12 ; t. 13, f. 13, 

28, 52 

75. Neritina mesopotamica, Mouss. Ibid. t. 13, f. 20, . . 52 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 299 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

76. Neritina cinctella, Martens. Ibid. t. 18, f. 22, . . 52 

77. Neritina perottetiana. Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 124, a, . 53 

78. Neritina colnber, Tliorpe. Conch. Incl. t. 157, f. 10, . 53 

79. Neritina jayana, Reel. Jour, de Conch, i, t. 7, f. 13, . 53 

50. Neritina neritoides. Zool. Proc. t. 33, f. 19, 1881, . . 56 

51, 82. Neritina showalterii, Lea. Obs. Gen. Unio. ix, t. 35, 

f. 78, . . ,53 

83. Neritina succinea, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 158, a, . . 54 

■84. Neritina rubida, Pse. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 23, f. 19, . 54 

Plate 18. 

85. Neritina rubida, Pse. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 23, f. 20, 54 

S6. Neritina consimilis, Mart. Ibid. t. 23, f. 25, . . . 54 

ST. Neritina nianoeli, Dohrn. Ibid. t. 23, f. 21, . . . 54 

SS. Neritina viridis, Linn. Conch. Icon. f. 153, a, . . 54 
<S9. Neritina rangiana. Reel. Ibid. f. 142, a, . . .55 

W. Neritina rangiana, Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 23, f. 27, 55 
^1, 92. Neritina viridissima, = rangiana. Ann. Mus. Geneva, 

xix, t. 1, f. 10, 11, 55 

D3. Neritina souverbiana, INIontr. Moll. Nouv. Caled. i, t. 8, 

f. 7, 55 

94, 95. Neritina pulcherrima, Angas, (^= souverbiana.) Zool. 

Proc. t. l,f. 25, 1871, 55 

96, 97. Neritina semen, Tap-Can. (^^= souverbiana.) Ann. 

Mus. Genova, xix, t. 1, f. 8, 9, 55 

■98. Neritina paulucciaua, Gassies. Moll. Nouv. Caled. ii, t. 

8, f. 6, 55 

99. Neritina paulucciana, Gassies. Specimens, . . .55 
100, 1. Neritina suavis, Gassies. Moll. Nouv. Caled. iii, t. 4, 

f. 10, 56 

2-5. Neritina glabrata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 134, 135, . 56 

6. Neritina canalis, Sowb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 1, f. 13, 57 

7. Neritina canalis, 8owb. Conch. Icon. f. 1, a, . . .57 

8. Neritina ovalis, Sowb. Ibid. f. 17, 6, . . . . 57 

9. Neritina larga, H. et J. (:^ pulligera.) Voy. Astr. et 

Zel. t. 17, f. 18 57 

10. Neritina pulligera, Linn. Voy. Astrol. t. 65, f. 1, . . 56 

11. Neritina pulligera, Linn. Conch. Icon. f. 9, a, . . 56 

12. Neritina petiti. Reel. Ibid. f. S, b, 57 

13. Neritina californica, Rve. Ibid. f. 20, b, . . .58 

Plate 19. 

14. Neritinaexpausa, Gassies. (= petiti.) Moll. Nouv. Caled. 

iii, t. 4, f. 3, 58 

15. Neritina bruguieri, Reel. (= petiti.) Conch. Icon. f. 46, b, 58 

16. Neritina knorri, Rve. (-= pulligera.) Kiister, Conch. Cab. 

t. 8, f. 4, 57 




300 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

17. Neritina beckii, Reel. (= pulligera, Var.) Conch. Icon. 

Ill, a, ......... 57 

18. Neritina cryptospira, Mart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 8, f. 

10, . . . . . . . . . . 57 

19. Neritina lenorniandi, Gassies. MolL Nouv. Caled. ii, t. 8, 

f. 2, 58 

20. 21. Neritina cornuta, Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 63, n, b, . 58 

22, 24. Neritina conglobata. Mart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

8, f. 7, 8, . . . . . . , . .57 

23. Neritina iris, Mouss. Ibid. t. 9, f. 5, . . . . 58 

25. Neritina knorri, Rve. (= Beckii Reel.) . . .58 

26. Neritina sangiiinea, Sowb. Conch. Icon. f. 44, a, . . 58^ 

27. Neritina squamipicta, Reel. Ibid. f. 4, a, . . .58- 

28. Neritina powisiana, Reel. Ibid. f. 76, b, ... 59- 

29. Neritina iramersa. Mart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 9, f. 18, 59' 

30. 31. Neritina aspernlata, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 45, a, b, . 59- 

Plate 20. 

32. Neritina arcifera, ^M/irch. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 9, f. 28, 59' 

33. Neritina piperina (= pennata). Conch. Icon. f. 19, b, . 5^ 

34. Neritina hieroglyphica, Watteb. Jour, de Conch, t. 3, f. 

1, 1886, . . . 59' 

35. Neritina solomonensis Rve. (= iiorcata.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 106, b, 

36. Neritina spiralis, Mart. (== sulculosa.) Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 8, f. 24, 

37. 38. Neritina punctnlata. Lam. Conch. Icon. f. 48, a, b, . 60 

39. Neritina eassiculum, Sowb. (= punctnlata.) Ibid. f. 118, 

b, • ... 60 

40. Neritina bahiensis. Reel. (= punctnlata.) Jour, de Conch. 

i, t. 7, f. 10, 60 

41. Neritina turbida, Morel. (-= punctnlata.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 133, b, .60 

42. Neritina listen, Rve. (= afra.) Ibid. f. 71, b, . . 61 

43. 44. Neritina rubricata, Morel. (= afra.) Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 13, f. 9, 11, 61 

45. Neritina fraseri. Reeve. Conclu Icon. f. 113, 6, . . 61 

46. Neritina sandalina. Reel. Ibid. f. 58, b, ... 61 

47. Neritina choleriea, Gld. (= sandalina.) Moll. Wilkes, 

Exped. f. 187, . . 61 

48. Neritina vanicorensis (= sandalina.) Vov. Astrol. et 

Zel. t. 17, f. 30, . . . . . ■ . . .61 

49. Neritina adumbrata, Rve. Couch. Icon. f. 57, a, . . 61 

50. Neritina marehionata, Rve. Ibid. f. 12, b, . . .62 

Plate 21. 

51. 52. Neritina granosa, Sowb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 1, f. 

1,2, . 63 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 301 

■FIGURE. PAGE. 

53. ISTei'itina labiosa, Sowl). Conch. Icon. f. 3, b, . . 62 

54, 55. Neritina planissima, IMouss. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

9, f. 1,2, . 62 

56, 57. Neritina macgillivrayi, Rve. Conch. Icon. f. 16, a, b, 62 

58, 59. Neritina auriculata. Lam. Ibid. f. 83, a, b, . . 73 

60. Neritina subauvicuhita, Reel. Ibid. f. 80, a, . . .73 

61, 62. Neritina rostrata, Rve. Ibid. f. 151, a, b, . . 73 

63. Neritina hiyardi, Rve. Ibid. f. 105, a, . . . . 73 

64, 65. Neritina rubicunda, Mart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

j3,f.21,22, 73 

66, 67. Neritina taheitensis Less. Conch. Icon. f. 62, a, b, . 73 

68, 69. Neritina christovalensis Rve. Ibid. f. 150, a, b, . 74 

'70. Neritina bicanaliculata Reel. Ibid. f. 79, b, . . 74 

Plate 22. 

71. Neritina vespertina Nntt. (^ tahitensis.) Conch. Icon. f. 

61, fl, . 73 

72. Neritina himarckii Desh. (= tahitensis.) Moll. Wilkes 

Exped. f. 180, 73 

73. Neritina sandwichensis, Rve. {= tahitensis.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 82, 6, ; . . . 73 

74. Neritina lecontei, Reel. Jour, de Conch, iv, t. 8, f. 3, . 74 

75. Neritina lecontei, Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 9, f. 22, 74 

76. Neritina novre caledoniee, Rve. (= lecontei.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 107, a 74 

77. 78. Neritina aciculata, iNIorch. Ibid. f. 108, a, b, . .74 
79-81. Neritina cariosa, Grav. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 6, f. 

1, 2; t. 4, f. 9, . : 75 

82. Neritina niauritii. Lesson. Ibid. t. 6, f. 8, . . .75 

83. Neritina lui^nibris, Sowb. r= cariosa.) Conch. Icon. f. 

mx . " . . . ^ 75 

84. Neritina lifouana, Gassies. Moll. Nouv. Caled, iii, t. 3, f. 

10,^ 75 

85. 86. Neritina dilatata, Brod. Couch. Icon. f. 81, a, b, . 75 

87. Neritina latissima, Brod. Ibid. f. 13, b, ... 76 

88. Neritina latissima, Brod. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 1, f. 6, 76 

89. Neritina intermedia, 8o\vb. Conch. Icon. f. 14, a, . . 76 

90. Neritina oweniaua. Gray. Ibid. f. 59, a, ... 76 

91. Neritina latissima, var. pilsbryi, Tryon. Specimen, . 76 



Plate 23. 

92, 93. Neritina Fontaiueana, d'Orb. Yoy. Amer. merid, t 

76, f. 14, 15, . . . . \ 

94. Neritina guayaquilensis, Sowb. (= fontaiuiana.) Conch 

Icon. f. 103, b, 

95-99. Neritina crepidularia, Lam. Thes. Conch, t. 113, f. 

139-143, 



76 

76 

77 



302 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

100. Neritina depressa, Bens. (= crepidularia.) Ibid. t. Ho, 

f. 147, .......... 77 

1. Neritina siquijorensis, Reel. (^ crepidularia.) Ibid. t. 

113, f. 145, . . . ^ 77 

2. Neritina montrouzieri, Gassies. (:= crepidularia.) Moll. 

Nouv. Caled. iii, t. 4, f. 7, 77 

2, 4. Neritina longispina, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 21, a, c, . 63 

5. Neritina mauritiana. Morel. Specimen, . . .63 

6. Neritina spinosa, Budgin. Conch. Icon. f. 52, a, . . 63 

7. Neritina spinosa, var. inermis. Kiister, Conch. Cab. 1. 15, 

f. 15, 64 

8. 9. Neritina souleyetana, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 115, a, b, 64 

10. Neritina recluziana, Guill. (= souleyetana.) Ibid. f. 53, b, 64 

11. Neritina madecassiua, Morel. Kiister, Couch. Cab. t. 16, 

f. 1, 64 

12. Neritina donovana. Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 25, a, . . 65 

13. Neritina donovana, (= diadema.) Ibid. f. 25 c, . . 65 

14. Neritina spiuifera, (= diadema.) Ibid. t. 49, a, . . 65 

15. Neritina diadema, Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 15, f. 24, 64 

16. Neritina corona, L. (^= brevispina.) Conch. Icon. f. 27, c, 65 

17. 18. Neritina subgranosa, Sowb. (= brevispina.) Ibid. f. 

24, 6, c, 65 

Plate 24. 

19. Neritina bi-evispina, Lam. Conch. Icon. f. 28, . . 65 

20. Neritina corona, L. (=: brevispina.) Ibid. f. 27, a, . 65 

21. 22. Neritina angulosa. Reel. Ibid. f. 51, a, b, . . 65 

23. Neritina pritchardi, Dohrn. (= brevispina.) Kiister, 

Conch. Cab. 1. 16, f. 24, 65 

24. Neritina discors. Mart. (= angulosa.) Ibid. t. 17, f. 8, . 65 

25. Neritina squamosa. Reel. (= squarrosa.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 56, t, ^ . . .65 

26. Neritina squarrosa, Reel. (= brevispina.) Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 36, f. 18, 65 

27. 28. Neritina rugata. Reel. (= brevispina.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 69, a, 6, 65 

29, 30. Neritina rhvtidophora, Tap.-Can. Ann. Mus. Genova 

xix, t. l,f. 5,6 66 

31, 32. Neritina ruginosa. Reel. (= angulosa.) Kuster, 

Conch. Cab. t. 16, f. 19, 23, 65 

33. Neritina aspersa, Reel. (= angulosa.) Concli. Icon. f. 

114, a, 65 

34. Neritina subrugata, Bd. (= angulosa.) Vov. Curacoa, 

t. 38, f. 7, '. . . 65 

35. 36. Neritina thermophila. Mart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

17, f. 12, 13, 66 

37. Neritina htemastoma, Mart. Ibid. t. 13, f. 6, . . . 66 

38, 39. Neritina chlorostoma, Brod. Conch. Icon. f. 94, a ,b, 66 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 303 

FIGURE. PAGE.. 

40. Neritina retropicta, Mart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 17, f. 

20, . . . ■ 67 

41. Neritina obtusa, Rve. (= retropicta.) Conch. Icon. f. 

116,6, 67 

42. Neritina castanea, Hombr. et Jacq. Kiister, Conch. Cab. 

t. 17, f. 21, , . .67 

43. 44. Neritina retusa. Morel. Jour, de Conch, iv, t. 11, f. 

9, 10, 67 

45. Neritina sowerbyana, Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 18, f. 

1, 67 

Plate 25. 

46, 47. Neritina sowerbyana. Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

18, f. 8, 4, 67 

48, 49. Neritina sowerbyana, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 89. a, e, 67 
50, 51. Neritina pulchella, Reel. (= sowerbyana.) Ibid. f. 

91, a, c, 67 

52. Neritina avellana, Reel. Ibid. f. 64, . . . . 68 
53-55. Neritina avellana. Reel. Kiister, Coneh. Cab. t 18, 

f. 5,7, 8, 68 

56. Neritina interrupta, Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 66, . . 68 

57-59. Neritina faba, 8owb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 18, f. 

14-16, 68 

60. Neritina faba 8owb. Thes. Conch, t. HS, f. 221, . . 68 

61. Neritina tritonensis, Guill. Conch. Icon. f. 68, b, . .69 

62. Neritina lentiginosa, Rve. (-chlorostoma.) Ibid. f. 110, 6, 66 

63. 64. Neritina nucleolus, Morel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 16, 

f. 4, 8 Q8 

65, 66. Neritina rarispina, Mouss. Moll. Java. t. 12, f. 6, 5, 69 

67. Neritina subpunctata. Reel. (= bicolor.) Conch. Icon. f. 

26, 6, 69 

68. Neritina bicolor, Reel. Ibid. f. 5, 6, . . . .69 

69. Neritina cajlata. Reel. (= bicolor.) Ibid. f. 67, a, . . 69 

70. Neritina subocellata, Schep. (=olivacea.) Notes Leyden 

Mus. vii, t. 4, f. 3, 70 



Plate 26. 



69 
70 
65 



71. Neritina olivaeea. Reel. Conch. Icon. f. 2, . 

72. Neritina dolium, Rve. Ibid. f. 15, b, . . . 

73. 74. Neritina obscurata, (= brevispina.) Ibid. f. 23, a, b. 

75. Neritina rugata, Gassies. CWallisii Mouss.) Moll. Nouv 

Caled. i, t. 8, f. 3, . 

76. Neritina flavovirens, Busch. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 19 

f . 1 

67. Neritina eyanostoma, Morel. Jour, de Conch, iv, t. 12, f. 

1<), 70 

78. Neritina spiniperda. Morel. Ser. Conch, ii, t. 6, f. 3, . 70^ 



69 
70 



304 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



FIGURE. 

79. Neritiua fuligiuosa, Buscb. Kiister, Concli. Cab. t, 19, f. 

18, 

80, 81. Neritiua aculeata, Gmel. Concb. Icon. f. 84, a, c, 

82. Neritina circumvoluta, Reel. Ibid. f. 35, h, . 

83. Neritini) siderea, Gld. (=r. cblorostoma.) MolL Wilkes 

Exped. f. 190, 

•84. Neritina dispar, Pse. (= cblorostoma.) Am. Jour. Concb 

III. t. 24, f. 3, 

^b. Neritina tristis, Rve. (= cblorostoma.) Concb. Icon. f. 

144, 

86. Neritina luctuosa, Reel. Kiister, Concb. Cab. t. 19, f. 21 
37. Neritina peguensis, Blanf. Ibid. t. 19, f. 10, . 

88. Neritina retifera, Bens. Thes. Conch, t. 116, f. 264, 

89. Neritina miebaudi, Reel. (= retifera.) Ibid. 1. 115, f. 217 

90. 91. Neritina dringi, Reel. Concb. Icon. f. 132, a, 6, 

92. Neritina flexuosa, Gassies. Moll. Nouv. Caled. Ill, t. 4 

f.5, . .■ 

1)3. Neritina unidentata. Reel. Jour, de Concb. I, t. 7, f. 8, 
.94, 95. Neritina comorensis. Morel. Ibid. t. 13, f. 156, 1877, 
dQ Nerita antbracina, Buscb. Pbil. Abbild. 1, t. 1, f. 7, 

Plate 27. 

1. Navicella laperousi. Reel. Kiister, Concb. Cab. t. 1, f. 1, 

2. Navicella porcellana, Rve. {^= borbonica.) Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 6, a, . 

3. Navicella elliptica, Lam. (= borbonica.) 

4. 5. Navicella cookii. Reel. (:= borbonica.) 

h, ....... 

6. Navicella bimaculata, Rve. (= borbonica.) 

7. Navicella api'ata, Sowb. (= borbonica.) Ibid. f. 22, b, . 

8. Navicella affinis, Rve. (= borbonica.) Ibid. f. 15, a, 

9. Navicella livida, Rve. (^ borbonica.) Ibid. f. 13, a, 

10. Navicella depressa. Lesson (=^ borbonica, var.) Kiister, 

Concb. Cab. t. 5, f. 3, . 

11. Navicella depressa. Lesson (= borbonica, var.) Reeve, 

Concb. Icon. f. 3, 6, 

12. Navicella baustrum, Rve. (= depressa.) Ibid. f. 18, a, . 

13. 14. Navicella sauguisuga, Rve. (= macroeepbala.) Ibid. 

f. 17, a, 6, 

15. Navicellla scaraba)us, Rve. (;== macroeepbala.) Ibid. f. 

V2,b, 

16. Navicella magnifica, Rve. (= macroeepbala.) Ibid. f. 

16,6, • . . 

17. 18. Navicella sculpta, v. Mart. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

2,f.5,6, . . . 



Ibid. f. 10, a, 
Ibid. f. 14, a, 



PAGE. 

70 
70 
71 

66 
71 

71 
71 
71 

72 

72 
72 

72 

99 



80 

78 

78 



. . 78 

Ibid. f. 2, h, 78 

78 

78 

78 

78 

78 

78 

79 
79 
79 
79 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 305 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

19. Navicella luzonica, Soul. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f.ll,b, . 79 

Plate 28. 

20. Navicella crepidaloiJes, Rve. (= luzonica.) Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. f. 19, a, . . ; . . . .79 

21. Navicella luzonica. Soul. var. compressa. Ki'ister, Conch. 

Cab. f. 18, 79 

22. Navicella luzonica, Soul. var. depressa. Ibid. t. 2, f. 11, 79 

23. 24. Navicella parva, Mouss. (= macxocephala.) Ibid. t. 

2, f. 20, 21, . 79 

25, 2(3. Navicella bougainvillei. Reel. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

f. 30, rt, c, 79 

27, 28. Navicella raacrocephala, Guill. Ibid. f. 28, a, c, . 79 

29. Navicella cumingiana. Reel. Ibid. f. 7, 6, . . . 80 

30, 31. Navicella janella, Reel. Ibid. f. 1, a, e, ... 80 

32. Navicella janella. Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 1, f. 18, 80 

33. Navicella lentiginosa, Rve. (= janella.) Reeve, Conch, 

Icon. f. 9, «, . ^ 80 

34. Navicella laperousi. Reel. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 5, f. 12, 80 

35. 36. Navicella lutea, Mart. Ibid. t. 6, f. 1, 3, . . 80 
37, 39. Navicella freycineti, Reel. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 4, 

a, b, c, . . . . . . . . .80 

40, 41. Navicella psittacea, Rve. (= freycineti.) Ibid. f. 23, 

a,b, 80 

42, 43. Navicella junc^huhni, Herklots. Kiister, Conch. Cab. 

t. 4,f. 13, 15', " 81 

Plate 29. 

44. Navicella suborbicularis, Sowb. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

(3, f. 7,_ 81 

45, 40. Navicella orlueularis. Reeve. (= suborbicularis). 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 5, a, b, . . . . . 81 
47, 48. Navicella variabilis. Reel. (= suborbicularis). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab. t. (3, f. 15, IG, 81 

49. Navicella apiata, Gull. Ibid. t. 7, f. 3, . . . .81 
50-52. Navicella clypeoluni, Reel. (= tessellata). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. f. 24, a-e, . . . . . .81 

53, 54. Navicella variabilis, Rve. (= tessellata). Ibid. f. 8, a, c, 81 

55. Navicella insignis, Rve. (= tessellata). Ibid. f. 21, b, 82 

56. Navicella pulchella, Rve. (= tessellata). Ibid. f. 25, a, 82 

57. Navicella tessellata, Lam. Ibid. f. 27, a, . : . 81 

58. Navicella lineata, Lam. Ibid. f. 31, 6, . . . .82 

59. Navicella eutrecasteauxi, Reel. (= tessellata). Ibid. f. 

32, 6, . . . . . . ... .82 

60. Navicella pictinata, Garrett. (= lineata). Specimen, . 82 

61. Navicella eximia, Rve. (=-- reticulata). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 26, 6, 82 

62. Navicella reticulata, Rve. Ibid. f. 20, a, . . . 82 

20 



306 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGP, 

63-65. Navicella cferulesceus, Reel. Ibid. f. 29, d, b, a, . 82 

66. Navicella orientalis, Rve. (= caerulescens). Ibid. f. 33, a, 82 

67. Navicella compressa, Bens. (= caerulescens). Kuster, 

Conch. Cab. t. 8, f. 30, . . . . . . .82 

68. Neritopsis radula, Linn. Woodward's Mannal, t. 8, f. 9, 82 

Peate 30. 

69. 70. Adeorbis plana, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, iii, t. 256, f. 

3,4 83: 

71. Adeorbis elegans, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 256, f. 1, . . . 85 

72. Adeorbis depressa, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 256, f. 14, . .83 

73. 74. Adeorbis striatella, Montr. Joui\ de Conch, t. 14, f. 

7, 1870, 83 

75. Adeorbis orbella, A. Ad. Thes Conch, t. 256, f. 16, . 83 

76. Adeorbis clausa, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 256, f. 14, . . . 83 

77. Adeorbis japonica, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 256, f. 10, . . 83 

78. Adeorbis adamsi, Fischer. Ibid. t. 256, f. 8, . . . 84 

79. Adeorbis seguenzianus, Trvon. Zool. Proc. t. 4, f. 8, 

1885, . . . . ■' 84 

80. Adeorbis fragilis, G. O. Sars. Moll. Arct. Norway, t. 22, 

f. 19, 84 

81. 82. Adeorbis prominula, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, f. 23, 24, 84 

83. Adeorbis nanula, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 32, . ... .84 

84. Adeorbis trochula, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 13, . . . .84 

85. 86. Adeorbis patruelis, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 35, 36, . . 84 
87, 88. Adeorbis subangulata, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 33, 34, . . 85^ 
89, 90. Adeorbis sinensis, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 21, 22, . . 85 
91, 92. Adeorbis nitida, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 9, 10, . . . 85 
93, 94. Adeorbis carinata, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 18, 19, . • 85 
95, 96. Adeorbis planorbula A. Ad. Ibid. f. 5, 6, . . 85 

97. Adeorbis subcarinata, Mont. Ibid, f . 7 85 

98. 99. Adeorbis angasi, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 37, 38, ... 85 

99. (/, b, Adeorbis scaber, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 1, 

f. 2, 86 

100. Adeorbis vincentiana, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 40, f. 9, 1880, 86 
1-3. Adeorbis tenuilirata. Smith. Specimen, . . .86 

4, 5. Archvtrea suturalis, A. Ad. Thes. Couch, f. 27, 28, . 87 

6. Archytiea delicatum, Phil. Moll. Pvei^^ Arct. Norv. t. 22, 

f. 18a, '^ . ._ . .87 

7. ArchytDea delicatum, var. expansuui, Sars. Ibid. t. 22, f. 

17, a, 87 

8. 9. Archvta^a corniculum, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, f. 29, 30, 87 
10, 11. Arciiytteadiaphaua, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 39, 40, . . 87 
12, 13. Archvttea exquisitum, JefF. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, ii, t. 

16, f. 8,' 1883, " . . .87 

14. xVrchytsea granuluni, Brugn. Misc. Malacol, f. 25, . 87 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 307 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

Plate 31. 

15, 16. Cyclostrenia anaglypta, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 255, 

f. 28, 29, 88 

17, 18. Cyclostrema micaiis, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 7, 27, . . 88 

19, 20. Cyclostrema piilchella, Dkr. Dunker, Moll. Jap. t. 

3, f. 5, . . . 88 

21, 22. Cyclostrema Calameli, Joiiss. Guerin's Mag. t. 19, 

f. 5,"1872, . , 88 

23, 24. Cyclostrema marchei, Joiiss. Ibid. t. 19, f. 3, . . 88 

25. Cyclostrema sculptilis, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 2, 

f. 15, 1873, 88 

26. Cyclostrema reeveana, Hinds. Thes. Conch, t. 255, f. 9, 88 

27. 28. Cyclostrema cancellata, Marr. Thes. Conch, t. 255, 

f. 5, 6, 89 

29, 30. Cyclostrema eburuea, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. 8oc. xliv, 

t. 8, f. 21, 22, 89 

31, 32. Cyclostrema alveolatum, Jouss. Guerin's Mag. t. 19, 

f. 4, 1872, 89 

33. Cyclostrema schrammi, Fischer. Thes. Conch, t. 255, f. 

26, 89 

34, 35. Cyclostrema ammonoceras, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 

255, f. 21, 22, 89 

36, 37. Cyclostrema excavata, Cpr. Ibid. f. 15, 16, . . 90 

38, 39. Cyclostrema atomus, Issel. Mar. Rosso, t. 2, f. 11, . 90 

40. Cyclostrema nevilli, H. Ad. Zool. Proc. t. 28, f. 17, 1868, 90 

41, 42. Cyclostrema militaris, Jouss. Guerin's Magazine, t. 

19, f. 6, 1872, . . . . . . . .90 

43-45. Cyclostrema areolatum, Sars. Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. 

t. 34, f. 6, 90 

46. Cyclostrema verrilli, Tryon. Trans. Conn. Acad, vi, t. 32, 

^ f. 14, 90 

47. Cyclostrema diaphana, Verrill. Ibid. t. 32, f. 16, . .90 

Plate 32. 

48. 49. Cyclostrema duukeri, Tryon. Thes. Conch, t. 255, f. 

23,24, 91 

50, 51. Cyclostrema philippii, Issel. Savigny, Moll. Egypte, 

t. 5, f. 33, '..':. 91 

52. Cyclostrema verreauxii, Fischer. Jour, de Conch, vi, t. 

10, f. 13, . . .91 

53, 54. Cyclostrema cingulata, Phil. Savigny, Moll. Esi'ypte, 

t. 5, f. 32, . ' '. . 91 

55. Cyclostrema kievis, Kiener. Thes. Conch, t. 255, f. 3, . 92 

56, 57. Cyclostrema biporcata, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 255. f. 30, 31, 92 
58. Cyclostrema duplicata, Lischke. Jap. Meeres Conch, iii, 

t. 3, f. 9, 92 



308 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

59, 60. Cyclostrema lactea, Jouss. (= Itevis.) Guerin's ISIag. 

t. 19, f. 1, 1872, 92 

,,61, 62. Cyclostrema Virginia?, Jouss. Ibid. t. 19, f. 2, 1872, . 92 

68. Cyclostrema beani, Fischer (= angulata, Ad.). Jour. 

de Conch, vi, t. 10, f. 12, 92 

64, >do. Cyclostrema angulata, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 255, 

f. 1, 2, . . ". . 92 

66-68. Cyclostrema tricarinata. Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 75, f. 

26, 1871, 93 

69. Cyclostrema sjihaeroides, S. Wood. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

Ix, t. 5, f. 3, 1842, . _ 98 

70. Cyclostrema roseotincta. Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 75, f. 27, 

'1871, 93 

71. Cyclostrema carinata, H. Ad. Il)id. t. 23, f. 8, 1873, . 93 

72. 73. Cyclostrema cingulifera, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 255, 

f. 13, 14, .93 

74, 74a. Cyclostrema tatei, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 54, f. 10, 

1878, 93 

75, 76. Cyclostrema tornata, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 255, f. 

19, 20, 94 

77, 78. Cyclostrema sulcata, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 255, f. 11, 12, . 94 
79, 80. Cyclostrema exigua, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. Del- 

phinula, t. 5, f. 16, . . . . . . .94 

81, 82. Cyclostrema watsoni, Tryon. Voy. Challenger, xv, 

t. 8,f. 11, . . . ' . . ' .■ . . .94 

Plate 33. 

83. Cyclostrema conica, Watson. Voy. Challenger, xv, t. 8, 

f. 9, . .■ . . ' 94 

84, 85. Cyclostrema archeri, Tryon. Specimen. . . 89 
87, 88. Cyclostrema diyisa, Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 255, f. 39, 

40,' 96 

89, 90. Cyclostrema nivea, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 35, 36, . . 96 
91, 92. Cyclostrema nigulosum, Jeff. Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. 

t. 21, 1. 1, 96 

93, 94. Cyclostrema basistriatum, Briignone. Moll. Reg. 

Arct. Norv. t. 8, f. 8, 96 

95. Cyclostrema minutum, JcfFr. Ann. Mas;. N. Hist. 5 ser. 

xi, t. 16, f. 1, . . . . ^ . . . 96 

96. Cyclostrema cutlerianum, Clark. Sowb. Ind. Brit Shells, 

t. 11, f. 24, 96 

97. Cyclostrema uitens, Phil. Ibid. t. 11, f. 23, ... 97 

98. 99. Cyclostrema trochoides, Jeff. Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. 

t. 8, f. 9, 97 

100. Cyclostrema dalli, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad, v, t. 57, 

f. 39, . . . . . . . . . .97 

1. Cyclostrema ornatum, Verrill. Ibid, vi, t. 32, f. 17, . 97 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 309 

FIGURK. PAGE. 

2, 3. Cvcloj^treraa bvtliinoides, JefF. Zool. Proc. t. 19, f. 0, 

18<S3, . . \ 97 

4. Cyclostrema proxinia, Tryon. Trans. Conn, vi, t. 32, f. 15, 98 

5. Cyclostrema affinis, Jeff'. Zool. Proc. t. 19, f. 5, 1883, . 97 

6. Cvclostrema tenera, Jeff'. Ibid. t. 19, f. 2, 1883, . . 98 

7. Cyclostrema similis, Jeff'. Ibid. t. 19, f. 4, 1883, . . 98 

8. Cyclostrema valvatoides, JefF. Ibid. t. 19, f. 3, 1883, . 98 

9. Cyclostrema josephi, Teuison-Woods. Specimen, . . 95 

10. Cyclostrema siisonis, Tenison-Woods. Specimen, . . 95 

11. Cyclostrema weldii, Tenison-Woods. Specimen. . . 95 

12. 13. Cyclostrema micra, Tenison-Woods. Specimen, . 95 
14, 15. Cyrdostrema corniiella, A. Ad. Thes. Concb. t. 255, 

f. 37, 38, . . . . 95 

16. Cyclostrema cyclotina, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 255, f. 34, . . 99 

17, 18. Cyclostrema subexcavata, Tryon. Voy. Challenger, 

XV, t. 8, f. 10, . . . ' . . ' . . . 99 

19. Cyclostrema semisulcata, Issel. Mar Rosso, t. 5, f. 6, . 99 

Plate 34. 

20, 21. Cyclostrema catenoides, Monts. Ann. Mus. Geneva, 

ix, 417, 99 

22. Cyclostrema semisulcata, Issel. Mar. Rosso, t. 5, f. 6, . 99 

23, 24. Cyclostrema octolyrata, Carp. Ibid. t. 5, f. 5, . . 99 
25, 26. Cvclostrema spirula, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 255, f. 

32,33, 100 

27. Cyclostrema subdisjuncta, H. Ad. Zool. Proc.t. 28, f. 18, 

1808, . . ' . . . . . . . .100 

28. Cyclostrema romettensis, Seguenza. Zool. Proc. t. 19, f. 7, 

1883, 100 

29. Cvcb)5treina nitidiuscida. Jeff. Ibid. t. 19, f. 9, 1883, . 100 

30. Cyclostrema pruinosa, Jeff. Ibid. t. 19, f. 8, 1883, . .100 

31. Vitrinella pura, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad, t.2, f. 13, 

1873, 101 

32. Vitrinella liricincta, Garrett. Ibid. t. 2, f. 14, 1873, . 101 

33. Vitrinella coelata, Garrett. Ibid. t. 2, f. 16, 1873, . 101 

34. Vitrinella nodosa Garrett. Ibid. t. 2, f. 17, 1873. . .101 

35. Vitrinella ponceliana Folin. Meleagrin, t. 5, f. 7, . 101 

36. Vitrinella parva C. B. Ad. Specimen, .... 101 

37. Vitrinella decussata, Carp. Specimen, .... 102 

38. Vitrinella monile, Carp. Specimen, . . . .102 

39. Vitrinella subquadrata. Carp. Specimen, . . . 102 

40. 41. Vitrinella helicoidea, C. B. Ad. Specimen, . . 102 
42, 43. Vitrinella striata, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 18, f. 29, 31, 102 
44, 45. Vitrinella anomala, d'Orb. Ibid. t. 18, f. 32, 33, . 102 
46, 47. Teinostoma politum, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 256, f. 

J3, 44, 103 

48, 49, Teinostoma punctatum, Jouss. Gueriu's Mag. t. 18, 

f. 5, 1872, 104 



310 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURK. PAGE. 

50, 51. Teiuostoma niorlieri, Jouss. Ibid. t. 18, f. 4, 1872, . 104 

Plate 35. 

52, 53. Teiuostoma caqjenteri, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 256, f. 

41, 42, 103 

54, 55. Teinostoma couceutricum A. Ad. Ibid. t. 265, f. 45, 

46, 103 

56, 57. Teinostoma radiatum, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 47, 48, . . 103 

58, 59. Teinostoma lucidum, A. Ad. Ibid. f. 49, 50, . . 104 

60, 61. Teinostoma amplectans. Carp. Ibid. f. 51, 52, . . 104 

62, 63. Teinostoma substriatnm, Cai-p. Ibid. f. 53, 54, . 104 
64, 65. Teinostoma diaphanum. Orb. Orb. Moll. Cnba, t. 18, 

f.23,24, . . . . • 104 

65«. Teinostoma tuberculosa. Ibid. t. 19, f. 29, . 

66, 67. Teinostoma carinatum, Orb. Ibid. t. 18, f. 26, 27, . 104 

68. Teinostoma solidum, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 75, f. 25, 

1871, 105 

69, 70. Teinostoma pusillum, C. B. Ad. Thes. Couch, t. 256, 

f. 55, 56, 105 

71-73, Teinostoma semistriata, d'Orb. Vov Cuba, t. 18, f. 

20-22 \ ... 105 

74. Teinostoma omalos, Foliu. Fonds de la Mer. I,.t. 23, f. 6, 105 

75. Teinostoma costulatum, Foliu. Ibid. I, t. 29, f. 4, . . 106 

76. 77. Teinostoma creuelliferum, A. Ad. Thes. Conch, t. 256, 

f. 41, 42, 106 

78. 79. Teinostoma obvoluta, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 255, f. 43, 44, 106 
80-82. Teinostoma moreleti, Fischer. Jour, de Conch, t. 4, f. 

I, 1877, 106 

83, 84. Teinostoma australis, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 5, f. 16, 

1877, 107 

85, 86. Leucorhynchia caledonica, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 

t. ll,f. 4, 1867, 106 

86«, 866. Leucorhynchia crossei, Tryon. Specimen, . . 106 

Plate 36. 

87. Liotia scalaroides, Rve. Conch. Icon. Delphinula, f. 

II, c, 108 

88. Liotia depressa, Rve. Ibid. f. 14, 6, .... 108 

89. Liotia varicosa, Rve. Ibid. f. 12, b, . . . . 108 

90. Liotia cidaris, Rve. Ibid. f. 27, 108 

91. 92. Liotia peronii, Kien. Coq. Viv. Dclphin. t, 3, f, 5, . 108 

93. Liotia hermauni, Dkr. r= peronii Ku.) Specimen. . 108 

94. Liotia crassibasis. Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 48, f. 10, 1880, . 108 

95. Liotia clathrata, Rve. Conch. Icon. Delph. f. 21, b, . 109 

96. Liotia o-ranulosa, Dkr. Siidafr. Moll. t. 5, f. 28, . . 109 

97. Liotia fenestrata. Carp. Thes. Conch, t. 478, f. 23, . 109 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 311 

•FIGURE. PAGE. 

98-100. Liotia semiclathratula, Schr. Ainurl. Moll. t. 16, f. 

19-21, . . 109 

1. Liotia acuticostata. Carp. Specimen. .... 109 

2. Liotia cobijeiisis, Rve. (= cancellata Gray.) Reeve, 

Delphiu. f. 22, " . . . 109 

3. Liotia discoidea, Rve. Ibid. f. 15, a. .... 109 

4. Liotia angasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 3d Ser. iv, t. 13, 

f. 4, 110 

5. Liotia speciosa, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 1, f. 26, 1871, . 110 

6. Liotia asteriscus, Gld. Specimen, . . . . .110 

7. 8. Liotia gowUandi, Brazier. Zool. Proc. t. 83, f. 1, 2, 

1874, 110 

9. Liotia radiata, Kn. Conch. Icon. Delphin. f. 24, «, . Ill 

10. Liotia siderea, Rve. Ibid. f. 23, h 110 

11. Liotia bellula, H. Ad. Zool. Proc. t. 23, f. 7, 1873, . Ill 

12. 13. Liotia crenata, Kn. Conch. Icon. Delphin. f. 19, . Ill 

14. Liotia cancellata, Kn. (= Kiener, Phil.) Ibid. f. 25, a, 111 

15. Liotia stellaris. Ads. & Reeve. Thes. Conch, t. 478. f. 14, 112 

16. 17. Liotia muricata, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Delphin. f. 18, 112 
18, 19. Liotia australis, Kien. Coq. Viv. Delphin. t. 4, f. 7, 112 

20. Liotia annulata, Tenison- Woods. Specimen, . . . Ill 

21. Liotia tamsiana, Dkr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. Delphin. t. 

5, f. 9, • .112 

Plate 37. 

22. 25. Phasianella australis, Gmel. Conch. Icon, xiii, f. la, 

19, . . . ■ 164 

23. Phasianella australis, Gmel. Coq. Viv. t. 1, f. \a, . . 164 

24. Phasianella venusta, Rve. (= austi-alis, Gmel.) Conch. 

Icon. f. 2a, . . . . . . . . . 165 

■26. Phasianella australis, Gmel. Ibid. f. le, . . .164 

27, 28. Phasianella australis, (operculum.) Coq. Viv. t. 1, f. 

a,h, . . . , . . . . . .164 

■29-32. Phasianella vieuxii, Pavr. (= speciosa Muhlf.) Ibid. 

t. 5, f. 2, . . / . . . . . .167 

33. Phasianella vieuxii, var. spirolineata, Moll. Rouss., t. 40, 

f. 14, 167 

34, 35. Phasianella histrio, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 15, . . 166 

36. Phasianella jaspidea, Rve. Ibid. f. 11, . . . . 177 

37, 38. Phasianella kochii, Phil. Ibid. f. 13, . . . 170 

Plate 38. 

39. Phasianella venosa, Rve. (= ventricosa.) Con. Icon. f. 

5a, .165 

40. Phasianella sanguinea, Rve. (= ventricosa.) Ibid. f. ob, 165 

41. Phasianella ventricosa, Q. et G. Ibid. f. 66, . . . 165 

42. Phasianella reticulata, Rve. (= ventricosa.) Ibid. f. 7, . 166 

43. Phasianella zebra, Rve. (= ventricosa.) Ibid. f. 4, .166 



812 REFERENCE TO PLATES, 

FIGURE. PAGE^ 

44. Phasianellajaspidea, Rve. Ibid. f. 11, . . . . 17& 

45. Phasiauella sangiiinea, Rve. (= veutricosa.) Ibid. f. 3a, 165 

46. Phasiauella bulimoides, Lam. (= australis.) Coq. Yiv. 

t. 1, f. 1, 164 

47. 48. Phasiauella rabeus, Lam. (= variegata Lam.) Ibid. 

t. 4, f. 4, 179 

49, 50. Phasiauella nivosa. Reeve. Con. Icon. f. 8a, 8e, . 179 

51. Phasianella lentiginosa, Rve. (^= variegata, Lam.) Ibid. 

f. 10a, 179 

52. Phasianella australis, var. siibsanguinea, Pils. Specimen, 165 

53. 54, Phasianella aethiopica, Phil. Con. Icon. f. V2b, 12c, 166 

55. Phasianella fulgurata, Rve. (= variegata.) Ibid. f. 9, . 179 

56, 58. Phasianella ])ulla, L. Ibid. £ 20, a, 5, e, . . . 168 
59, 60. Phasianella pulla, L. Coq. Viv. t. 5, f. 1. . . 168 

61, Phasiauella strigata, Rve. (= dubia.) Con. Icon. f. 19, . 169 

62. Phasiauella perforata, PhiL Ibid. f. 17, . . . .172- 

Plate 39. 

63-66. Phasianella brongniarti, And. (= splendida Phil.) 

Savigny, Moll. Egypte t. 5, f. 23, 24, . . . • 271 
67, 68. Phasianella angasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 1864, t. 

13, f. 5, . . , 180 

69-72. Phasiauella compta, Gould. Specimens, . . . 173 
73, 74. Phasianella wisemanni, Bd. Voy. Curacoa, t. 38, f. 

3, 4, 181 

75, 76. Phasianella his trio, Rve, Con. Icon. f. 15, a, b, .166 

77-80. Phasianella tenuis, Mich. Moll. Rouss, t. 39, f. 1, 2, 168 
81, 82. Phasiauella graeftei, Dkr. Specimen, . . . 181 

83, Phasianella vitrasa^ Desh. Moll. Is. Reunion, t. 8, f. 8, . 169 

84, 85. Phasiauella petiti. Craven. Bull. Soc. Mai. Belg. 

xvii, t. 11, f. 3, 169 

86-88. Phasiauella capensis, Dkr. Thes. Conch, t. 476, f. 

34-36, . . . .^ 170 

89, 90. Phasianella munieri, Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper. vi, 

t. 4, f. 1, 2, . 176. 

91. Phasiauella brevis, (= munieri.) Il)id. t. 4, f. 3, . .176 

92. Phasianella rosea, Angas. P. Z. S. 1867, t. 13, f. 24, . 174 

93. Phasianella virgo, Angas. Ibid. f. 25, .... 181 

94. Phasiauella aethiopica, Phil. Con. Icon. f. 12a, . . 166- 

95. Phasianella umbilicata, d'Orb. Specimen, . . . 171 

96. Phasiauella unifascialis Kn. Coq. A^iv. t. 4, f. 2, . . 179 

97. 98. Phasiauella variegata. Lam. Ibid. t. 4, f. 1, . . 179 
99, 100. Phasianella xebrina, d'Orb. (= tessellata P. et M.) 

Moll. Cuba, t. 19, f. 35, 36, 171 

1, 2. Phasianella affinis, C. B. Ad. Specimens, . . . 170 
3, 4. Phasianella umbilicata, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, 1. 19, f. 32, 

33, 171 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



313 



f.7, 



Plate 39a. 

FIGURE. 

5. Phasianella splendida, Phil. Conch. Cab. t. 3, f. 6, 

6, 7. Phasianella riibens, Lam. Ibid. t. 2, f. 11, 15, 

8. Phasianella ("Helix") solida, Boru. Test. Mus 

A^indob, t. 4, f. 2, 

9. Phasianella flamniulata, Phil 

10. Phasianella bicarinata, Dkr. 

11. Phasianella amoenula, Phil. 

12. Phasianella pei'forata, Phil. 

13. Phasianella strigata, Phil. Ibid. t. 4, f. 6, 

14. Phasianella grata, Phil. Ibid. t. 3, f. 8, . 

15. Phasianella ])ygmea, Phil. Ibid. t. 4, f. 11, 

16. Phasianella guttata, Phil. 

17. Phasianella coturnix, Phil. 

18. Phasianella fulgens, Koch. 

19. Phasianella inconspicun, Phil. Ibid. t. 4, f' 16, 

20. Phasianella pulchella, Reel. (= pulla, L.) Ibid, t 

21. 22. Phasianella variabilis, Pse. Specimen, 
23-25. Phasianella elongata, Krauss. Specimen, . 
26-29. Leptothyra carpenteri, Pilsbry. Specimen, 
30, 31. Leptothyra verruca, Old. Specimen, 

32. Leptothyra rubricincta, Migh. Specimen, 

33. Leptothyra bacula, Carp. Specimen, 

34. Turbo trochoides, Reeve. Con. Icon. f. 58, 



Conch. Cab. t. 4, f. 
Ibid. t. 4, f. 10, 
Conch. Cab. t. 7 
Ibid. t. 4, f. 14, , 



Ibid. t. 4, f. 15, 
Ibid. t. 4, f. 2, 
Ibid, t. 4, f. 13, 



Cc-es. 



5, f. 



179 

166 
180 
176 
180 
172 
168 
179 
174 
175 
166 
175 
175 
168 
176 
168 
247 
257 
257 
248 
207 



Plate 40. 

5. Phasianella fordiana, Pilsbry. Specimen, . . » • 173 

6, 7. x\lcyna rubra, Pse. Con. Icon. f. . . . . 182 
8, 9. Eucosmia brevis, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba. t. 20, f. 19, 20, 178 

10, 11. Phasianella neritina, Dkr. Specimen, . . , 176 

12. Alcyna occellata, A. Ad. Jour, de Conch. 1868, t. 4, f. . 182 

13. Turbo magnificus, Jonas. Con. Icon. f. 166, . . • 192 

14. Turbo petholatus, L. Ibid. f. 12, 193 

15. 16. Turbo variabilis, Rve. (=^ petholatus.) Ibid. f. 8, . 194 

17. Turbo sarmaticus, L. Ibid. f. 15, . . . _ . .218 

18. Turbo margaritaceus, Rve. (= argyrostomus.) Ibid. f. 29, 198 

19. Turbo chrysostomus, L. Ibid. f. 28, . . . . 200 

20. Astralium rugosum, L. Ibid. f. 26, .... 229 

21. 22. Trochus viridis, Gmel. Ibid. f. 79^. 796, . Vol. xi. 

Plate 41. 

23. Turbo marmoratus, L. Conch. Icon. f. 2, . . .191 

24. Turbo circularis. Reeve. Con. Icon. f. 466, . . . 214 

25. 26. Euchelus asper, Gmel. Coq. Viv. t. 94, f. 3, Vol. xi. 

27. Eutrochus scitulus, H. Ad. Ibid. t. 90, f. 3, . Vol. xi. 

28. Calliostoma eximia, Rve. Ibid. t. 64, f. 1, . Vol. xi. 

29. Calliostoma bicingulatum, Lam. 'Ibid. t. 64, f. 2, Vol. xi. 

30. Calliostoma granatum, Chem. Ibid. t. 15, f. 1, . Vol. xi. 



14 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



.•FIGURE. PAGE. 

31-33. Trocliiis caviniferus, Beck. Ibid. t. 75, f. 1, 2, Vol. xi. 

34. Calliostoiua doliariuui, Mart. Ibid. t. 16, f. 1, . Vol. xi. 

35. Calliostoma meyeri, Phil. Ibid. t. 17, f. 2, . Vol. xi. 

36. Calliostoma pellucida, Val. Ibid. t. 15, f. 2, . . Vol. xi. 

37. Calliostoma moniliferum. Lam. Ibid. 16, f. 2, . Vol. xi^ 

Plate 42. 



38. Turbo torquatus. (= stamineus.) Con. Icon. f. 256 

39. Turbo versicolor. (= porphyrites.) Ibid. f. 19, 

40. Turbo undulatus, Martyn. Ibid. f. 3rt, . 

41. Turbo argvrostomus, L. Ibid. f. 7, 

42. Turbo niger, Gray. Ibid. f. 49, 

43. Turbo s])englerianus, Gmel. Ibid. f. 20, 

44. Turbo nivosus. (= radiatus. ) Ibid. f. 43, 

45. Turbo canaliculatus, Rve. (= crassus. Wood.) Ibid. f. 

27, . . • • . • • • . • • • 

46. Turbo nivosus, Rve. (= radiatus, Gm.) Ibid. f. 44, 

47. Trochus liueatus. Lam. Coq. Viv. t. 28, f. 2, . Vol 

Plate 43. 

48. 49. Turbo fluctuosus, "Wood. Con. Icon. f. 
48a, Turbo tessellatus, (= fluctuosus.) Con. Icon. f. 18 

50. Turbo cornutus, Gmel. Ibid. f. 4, . 

51. Turbo ticaonicus, Rve. Ibid. f. 23, 
•52. Turbo japonicus, Rve. (== cornutus.) Ibid. f. 

53. Turbo imperialis, Gmel. Ibid. f. 6, 

54. Turbo lamellosus, (= foliaceus.) Ibid. f. 25, . 

55. Troclius surgillatus, Reeve. Ibid. f. 85, 

56. Euchelus gallina, Forbes. Coq. A-^iv. t. iii, f. 



212 
215 
216 
197 
219 
208 
200 

194 
200 
. xi. 



57 

58 
59. 
60 



Trochus tenebricus, Reeve. ( 

Icon. f. 81, ..... 

Trochus sacellum, Phil. Var. Ibid. f. 78, 
Trochus fastigiatus, Ad. Ibid. f. 88, . 
Trochus cumingi. Ad. Ibid. f. 87, 



sandwichensis. Soul.) Cc 



Vol. 
Vol. 
on. 
Vol. 
Vol. 
Vol. 
Vol. 
61, 62. Omphalius impressus, Jonas. Coq. Viv. t. 85, f. 2, 

Vol. 
Vol. 



210 
210 
210 
202 
210 
192 
201 

xi. 

xi. 

xi. 
xi. 
xi. 
xi. 

xi. 
xi. 



63. Ti'ochus textilis. Reeve. Con. Icon. f. 82, . 

Plate 44. 

64, 65. Turbo smithi, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 182, 183, . 206 

66. 66a. Turbo squamatus, Ad. Sowb. Ibid. f. 88, . . 264 

67. Turbo pyropus, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 61, . . . . 263 

68. Turbo gemmatus, Rve. Ibid. f. 62, .... 206 

69. Turbo gemmatus, Rve. Thes. Conch, f. 56, . . . 206 

70. Leptotiivra pusio, Anton. Conch. Cab. t. 16, f. 10, . 260 

71. Turbo bicolor, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 33, . . .198 

72. Turbo splendidulus, Sowb. Ibid. f. 181, . . . 197 

73. 74. Turbo parvulus, Phil. Conch. Cab. t. 19, f. 15, 16, . 206 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 315 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

75. Turbo L-etus, Phil. Ibid. t. 17, f. 1, . . . .197 

76. Turbo moluccensis, Phil. Ibid. t. 11, f. 5, . . . 203 

77. Turbo ferrugineus, Ant. Ibid. t. 17, f. 7, . . . 199 

78. Turbo cepoides, Smith. Thes. Couch, f. 65, . . . 193 

79. Turbo quadriseriatus, Ant. Conch. Cab. t. 17, f. 8, . 204 

80. Turbo pustulatus, Brocchi. Savignv, Desc. Egypte t. 5, 

f. 262, '..... 207 

SI. Turbo cernicus, Sowb. (=; Japonicus, Rve.) Thes. Conch. 

f. 29, 197 

Plate 45. 

m, 89. Turbo castaneus, Gm. Coq. Yiv. t. 27, f. 1, 2, . 203 

90. Turbo crenulatus (== castaneus.) Con. Icon. f. 38, . 203 

91, 92 Coq. Viv. t. 36, f. 5, 

93-95. Astralium sirius, Gld. AVilkes Exped. t. 12, f. 203, 233 

96. Turbo artensis, Monti-. Jour, de Conch. 1861, t. 11, f. 5, 196 

97. Turbo artensis, Montr. Coq. Viv. t. 37, f. 1, . . .196 

98. Turbo articulatus, Rve. Con. Icon. t. 39, . . . 202 

99. Turbo petholatus, var. caledonicus. Coq. Viv. t. 24, f. la, 199 
100. Turbo margaritaceus, (= argyrostomus.) Ibid. t. 37, f. 3, 197 

1. Phasiuella tessellata, var. concolor Ad. Specimen, . 171 

Plate 46. 

4. Turbo articulatus. Con. Icon. f. 41, . . . .202 

5, 6. Turbo elegans, Phil. (= T. intercostaiis.) Coq. Viv. t. 

41, f. 1, 202 

7. Turbo pulcher, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 9, . . . . 203 

8. Turbo argvrostomus, L. Coq. Viv. t. 7, f. 1, . . . 197 

9. Turbo lamelliferus, (=foliaceus.) Ibid. t. 28, f. 1, . . 201 

10. Turbo pustulatus, Rve. (= subcastaneus.) Con. Icon. f. 

59, 204 

11. Tnrbo subcastaneus, Pilsbrv. Specimen, . . . 204 

12. 13. Turbo elevatus, Souleyet. Coq. Viv. t. 41, f, . . 219 

14. Turbo elevatus, Souleyet. Vo}^ Bonite. t. 37, f. 15, . 219 

15. 16. Elenchus peroni, Phil. Coq. Viv. t. 50, f. 4, Vol. xi. 

17. Elenchus peroni, Phil. var. Ibid. t. 51, f. 3, Vol. xi. 

18. Turbo coronatus, var. Ibid. t. 28, f. 2, 216 

Plate 47. 

19. Turbo coronatus, var. coreensis Reel. Jour, de Conch. 

1853, t. 8, f. 3, . 217 

20. Turbo crassus, AVood. Coq. Viv. t. 11, f. 1, . . .194 
21.. Turbo canaliculatus, Kn. (— - crassus.) Ibid. t. 21, f. 2, . 194 

22. Turbo ticaonicus. Reeve. Ibid. t. 32, f. 2, . . . 202 

23. Turbo spinosus, Gmel (= radiatus.) Con. Icon. f. 74, . 200 

24. Turbo speciosus. Reeve. Coq. Viv. t. 33, f. 1, . . 201 

25. Turbo carduus, Fischer. Coq. Viv. t. 42, f. 6, . . 198 

26. Turbo sparverius, Gmel. Ibid. t. 21, f. 1, . . . 194 



316 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



FIGURE. PAGE. 

27. 28. Leptothyra, sangarensis Schrenck. Ibid. t. 39, f. 4, . 250 
29. Elenchus leucostigma, Mke. Ibid. t. 52, f. 1, Vol. xi.. 



30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 



42. 
43. 
44, 
46. 

47, 

48, 
50. 

51. 

52. 

53. 



54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 



59. 
60. 

61. 
62, 
64. 
65. 



Plate 48. 

Turbo aurantius, Kn. Coq. Viv. t. 27, f. 3, . . . 198 
Turbo saxosus. Wood. * Con. Icon. t. 14b, . . . 211 
Turbo saxosus, Wood. Coq. Viv. t. 16bis, f. 2, . .211 
Turbo funiculosus, Kn. Ibid. t. 30, f. 1, ... 196 

Turbo porcatus, Eve. Ibid. t. 35, f. 3, . . . .216 
Turbo tursicus, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 60, . . . . 230 
Turbo filosus, Kn. Coq. Viv. t. 13, f. 2, . . . . 205 
Turbo cailleti, F. et. B. Ibid. t. 38, f. 3, ... 205 

Leptothyra macandrewi, (= L. coelata.) Ibid. t. 39, f. 3, 255 
Turbo granosus, Martyn. Ibid. t. 12, f. 1, . . . 213 
Turbo regenfussi, Desh. Ibid. t. 18, f. 1, . . . 193 

Turbo japonicus, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 33, . . . 196' 

Plate 49. 

Turbo lajonkairii, De.sh. Coq. Viv. t. 17, f. 1, . . 199 

Turbo squamiger, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 21, . . . 204 

45. Turbo moltkianus. Specimen, ..... 204 
Turbo torquatus, (^ stamineus.) Vov. Astrol. t. 60, f. 

15, ' . . . . 212 

Turbo heteroclitus, Kn. (=-- lamellosus, Brod.) Coq. Viv. 

t. 5, f. 1 21.'^ 

49. Leptothyra sanguinea, L. Ibid. t. 39, f. 2, . . 249 
Astralium petrosum, var. virescens, Pse. Am. Jour. Conch. 

V, t. 8, f. 10, . . . . ._ . • ^. • ^ • 235 
Elenchus fulmineus, Kn. (peroni Pliil.) Coq. Viv. t. 50, 

f. 8, . . . .^ . . . . .. Vol. xi 

Elenchus nitidus, Kien. (=r gracilis, Anton.) Ibid. t. 

51, f. 2, Vol. xi 

Turbo jourdani, Kn. Coq. Viv. t. 18, .... 192 



Plate 50. 



Coq. Viv. t. 9, f. 2, 
Ibid. t. 34, f. 1, . 



Turbo fluctuosus, var. tessellatus, Kn 

Turbo assimilis, Kn. (= fluctuosus.) 

Turbo saxosus. Wood. Con. Icon. {'..... 

Turbo lugubris, Kiener. (-- porphyrites.) Coq. Viv. t. 

28, f. 3, . . . . ". 

Turbo porphyrites, Martyn. Ibid. t. 28, f. 2, . 

Turbo coronatus, Gmel. Con. Icon. f. 22, . . . 

Turbo creniferus, Kn. (= coronatus.) Coq. Viv. t. 34, f. 

Turbo coronatus, var. Ibid. t. 40, f. 4, . 

63. Turbo cidaris, Gmel. Ibid. t. 5, f. 2, . . . 

Turbo stenogyrus, Fischer. Ibid. t. 41, f. 3, . 

Turbo spenglerianus, Gmel. Ibid. t. 25, f. 1, . 



211 
211 
211 

215 

215 
216 

217 
21& 
214 
205 
208 



KEFEPvENCE TO PLATES. 



317 



Plate 51. 

FIGURE. PACK. 

1. Astralium lon!2;'ispma, Lam. Coq. Viv. t, 4, f. 1, . . 221 

2. Astralium longispina, Lam. Specimen, .... 221 

3. Astralium longispina, Lam. (juv.) Coq. Viv. t. 4, f. la, 221 

4. 5. Astralium longispina, var. costulosum. Ibid. t. 5, f. 2, 222 

6. Astralium longispina, var. spinulosum. Specimen, . . 222 

7. Astralium longispina, var. costulosum. Coq. Viv. t. 5, f. 

1, 

8, 9. Astralium longispina, (A. orichalceum, Phil.) Conch 

Cab. t. 41, f. 2, 

10, 11. Astralium armatum, Phil. Ibid. t. 41, f. 1, 

Plate 52. 

12, 13. Astralium brevispina. Lam. Coq. Viv. t. 7, f. 2, 

14, 15. Astralium papil latum, P. et. M. Ibid. t. 78, f. 3, 

16, 17. Astralium papillatum, P. et. M. Galerie Moll. t. 30 

f. 10, 11, 

18. 19. Astralium americanum, Gmel. Specimens, 

20. Astralium americanum, Gmel. Con. Icon. f. 31, 

21, 22. Astralium babelis, Fischer. Coq. Viv. t. 78, f. 2, 
23, 24. Leptothvra transenna, Watson. Challenger, Kept, t 

6, f. 12, ' 

25, 20. Astralium henicum, Watson. Il)id. t. 6, f. 11, .• 

27, 30. Astralium calcar, L. var. aculeatum. Coq. Viv. t. 23 

f. 1, 

28, 31. Astralium calcar, var. helicinum. Ibi<l. t. 23, f. 3, 

29, Astralium calcar, var. aculeatum. Con. Icon. f. 52c. 



222 

222 
222 



222 
225 

225 
224 
224 

238 

262 
235 



232 
232 
232 



32. 

33. 

34, 
35. 
37. 
38. 
39, 
41. 
42. 
43, 

45. 



46. 
47. 



Plate 53. 

laciniatuni, Gld. 



Coq. Viv. t. 79, 
Wilkes Exped. 



Astralium calcar, var. 

t. O, . ... 

Astralium calcar, var. laciniatum, Gld. 

Moll. t. 12, f. 204, 
36. Astralium unguis. Wood. Conch. Cub. t. 46, f. 2, 
Astralium unguis. Wood. Con. Icon. f. 50, 
Astralium buschi, Phil. Ibid. f. 42. . . . . 
Astralium buschi, Phil. Coq.. Viv. t. 14, f. 2, 
40. Astralium olivaceus, AVood. Ibid. t. 13, f. 2, . 
Astralium tentoriiforme, Jonas. Conch. Cab. t. 32, f. 4, . 
Astralium tentoriiforme, Jonas. Con. Icon. f. 43, . 
44. Astralium guadaloupense, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 

1865,"t. 1, f. 10, 11, ; 

iVstralium guadaloujDcnse, Crosse. S2:)ecimen, 



Plate 54. 



Astralium fimbriatum. Lam. 

Astralium fimljriatun, Lam. 

f. 6b, .... 



Coq. Viv. t. 32, f. 2a. " . 
Delessert, Recuel. etc. t. 34, 



939, 



232 
242 
242 
241 
241 
241 
240 
240 

226 
226 



239 
239 



318 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

48, 49. Astraliiini fimbriatum, Lam. Coq. Viv. t. 82, f. 2, . 23^ 

50, 61. Astraliiun fiaibriatum, Lam. Ibid. t. 82, f. 3, . . 239 

52. Astralium fimbriatum, var. s(]uamiferiim. Specimen, . 240 

53, 54. Astraliiim fimbriatum, var. pileolum. Coq. Viv. t. 

82, f. 1, 239 

55. Astralium rotuhirium, Lam. Con. Icon. f. 48, . . 238 

5Q. Astralium conf'ragosum, Gld. Wilkes Exped, t. 12, f. 

202, 234 

57, 58. Astralium litematragus. Coq. Viv. t. 78, f. 1, . . 236 
59, 60. Astralium plicatospinosum, Pilsbry. Specimen, . 235 

61. Leptothyra purpurata, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 9, f. 11, 251 

62. Leptothyra cicer, Menke. Conch. Cab. t. 29, f. 24, . 254 

Plate 55. 

63. Astralium modestum, Rve. Coq. Viv. t. 109, f. 1, . 229 

64. Astralium modestum, Rve. Ibid. t. 76, f. 1, . . . 229 

65. Astralium modestum, var. girgyllus. Con. Icon. f. 53, 230' 

66. Astralium chemnitzii, (=: stellare.) Moll. Voy. Venus, 

t. 2, bis, f. la, 233 

67. Astralium stellare, Gmel. Coq. Viv. t. 3, f. 2, . . 232 

68. Astralium stellare, Gmel. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 61, f. 5, . 232 

69. Astralium asterisous, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 44, . . . 233 

70. Astralium imbricatum, Gmel. Ibid. f. 37, . . . 226 

71. 72. Leptothyra amussitata, Gld. Specimen, . . . 250 

73. Turbo proj^inquus, Hupe (= elevatus Soul.) Hist. Chili, 

t. 45, f. 6, 219 

Plate oQ. 

74. Astralium calcai*. L. var. Specimen, .... 231 

75. 76. Astralium calcar, var. planorbis. Specimen, . . 232 

77. Astralium cubanum, Phil. Conch. Cab. t. 40, f. 5, . 225 

78. Astralium cubanum, Phil. Coq. Viv. t. 30, f. 2, . .225 

79. 80. Astralium tuber, L. Ibid. t. 35, f. 1, . . . 223 

81. Turbo cidaris. Ibid. t. 35, f. 1, 214 

82. Turbo gruneri, Phil. (= circularis Rve.) Conch. Cab. t. 

12, f. 7, . 214 

83. Turbo natalensis, Krauss. Coq. Viv. t. 42, f. 5, . . 218 

84. Turbo natalensis, Krauss. Con. Icon. t. 1, f. 1, . . 218 

85. Astralium rugosum, L. Coq. Viv. t. 15, f. 1, . . 229 
87. Astralium heliotropium, Martyu. Con. Icon. f. 30, . 228 

Plate 57. 

45, 46. Astralium coelatum, Gmel. Coq. Viv. t. 23, f. 1, . 224 

48, 49. Astralium olfersi, Phil. Conch. Cab. t. 22, f. 1, . 226 

47. Astralium olfersi Phil. Coq. Viv. t. 77, f. 1, . . . 226 

50. Turbo saxosum. Wood. Con. Icon. f. 14a, . . . 211 

51, 52. Astralium ina}quale, Martyn. Coq. Viv. t. 14, f. 1, . 244 
53. Leptothyra munda, A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1873, t. 23, f. 6, . 261 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 319" 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

54, 55. Leptothyra roseopiinctata, Angas. Ibid. 1880, t. 40, 

f. 8, . ' . . 258- 

56, 57. Leptothyra cunninghami, Smith. Ibid. t. 4, f. 10, . 249* 

58. Leptothyra sanguinea, Foliu, (r=: folini.) Fouds de la 

Mer., t. 9, f. 11, 252 

59. Leptothvra granulosa, Pse. Am. Jour. Conch, iv, t. 11, 

f. 4, "^ 259 

60. Leptothyra maculosa, Pse. Ibid, iv, t. 11, f. 1, . . 256 

Plate 58. 

51. Leptothyra marginata, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 57, . , 248 

52. Leptothyra marginata, Rve. Thes. Conch, f. 94, . . 248 
52a, Leptothyra semilugubris, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 9, 

f. 9, . . ' 252 

53. 54. Leptothyra californicus, Phil. Conch. Cab. 1. 16, f. 3, 260 

55, 56. Leptothyra nanina. Souverbie. Jour, de Conch. 1875, 

t. i3,f. 9, 259 

57, 58. Leptothyra filifer, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 8, f. 12, 

13, 254 

59. Leptothyra pilula, Dkr. Specimen, .... 258 

60. Leptothyra eroopolitanus. Savigny, Desc. Egypte, t. 5, f. 

27, . . . 261 

61. Leptothyra arsinoensis. Ibid. t. 5, f. 28, . . . 261 

62. Leptothyra nuirreus, Reeve. Con. Icon. f. 54, . . 264 

63. Astralium japonicuni, Dkr. Coq. Viv. t. 36, f. la, . 243 

64. Astralium ja^jonicum, Dkr. Con. Icon. f. 23, . . 243 
Go, 66. Astralium heimburgi, Dkr. Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap. t. 6, 

f. 5, 7, . . . 238 

67, 68. Astralium triuniphans, Phil. Coq. Viv. t. 9, f. 2, . 228 

69. Astralium undosum, Wood. Ibid. t. 12, f. 1, . . .243 

70. x\stralium undosum. Wood, (juv.) Specimen, . . 243 



Plate 59. (Opercula). 

1, 2. Turbo argyrostomus, L. Specimen, . 

3. Turbo smaragdus, Martyn. Specimen, . 

4. Turbo chrystomus, L. Specimen, . 

5. 6. Astralium heliotropium. Mart. Voy. Astrolabe, 

f. 3, 4, ' . 

7. Turbo argyrostomus, L. (juv.) Specimen, 

8. Turbo castaneus, Gmel. Specimen, 

10. Turbo lajonkairii, Desh. Specimen, 

11, 12. Turbo foliaceus, Phil. Voy. Astrol. et Zelee, t. 

36,37, .....'... 
13, 14. Turbo sarmaticus, L. Specimen. 
15, 16. Turbo stamineus, Mart. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 60, 

18, 

17. Astralium unguis, Wood. Specimen, 
18-20. Astralium undosum, Wood. Specimen, 



t. 61 , 
14, i 

f.n; 



197 
217 
200 

228 
197 
203 
199 

201 
218 

212 
242 
243 



S20 



EEFEREXCE TO PLATES. 



FIGURE. 

21. Turbo marmoratus, L. Coq. Yiv. t. 1, . 

22, 23. Astralium olfersii, Troschel. Ibid. t. 77, f. 1. la, 
24, 25. Astralium oHvaceum, Wood. Specimeu, . 

26. Astralium sulcatum, Mart. Specimen, . 

27. Astralium buscbii, Phil. Specimen, 

28. Asti'alium tentoriiforme, (see pi. 60, f. 46.) Specimen. 

29. Turbo fiuctuosus, Wood. Specimen, 

30. 31. Turbo saxosus, Wood. Specimen, 

32. Turbo crassus, Wood. Si^ecimen, .... 



PAGE. 

191 
226 
241 
242 
241 

210 
211 
194 



Plate 60. (Opercula and Radul.e.) 

33. Turbo cornutus, Gmel. Specimen, . 

34. Turbo cornutus, Gmel. (juv.) Specimen, 

35. Turbo s])englerianus, Gmel. Specimen, . 

36. 37. Turbo radiatus, Gmel. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 60, f. 4, 5 

38. Turbo tumidulus, Rve. Specimen, 

39, 40. Astralium rugosum, L. Specimen, . 

41. Turbo petliolatus, L. Specimen, 

42, 43. Astralium tuber, L. Specimen, 

44. Astralium ccx^latum, Gmel. Specimen, . 

45. Astralium americanum, Gmel. Specimen, 

46. Astralium tentoriiforme, Jonas. Specimeu, 

47. Turbo ticaonicus, Rve. Specimen, 

48. Astralium cul^anum, Phil. Specimen, 

49. Turbo porphyrites, Martyn. Specimen, . 

50. Astralium plicatospinosum, Pilsbry, 

51. 52. Leptothyra amussitata, Gld. Specimen, 

53. Turbo filosus, Kn. Specimen, 

54, 55. Leptothyra sang-uinea, L. Specimen, 

56. Leptothyra transenna, Watson. Chellenger, Rept, 

57, 58. Astralium longispiua. Lam. Specimen, . 

59. Astralium lienicum, Watson. Clialleuger Rept. t. f. lie, 

60. Astraluim triumphans, Phil. Ads. Gen. Rec. Moll. t. 44, 

61. Collonia margiiiata, Lam. (shell and operculum.) Desh. 

Coq. Foss. t. 23, f. 18, 20, ... . 

62. Collonia marginata. Lam. Woodwards' Manual, t. 10, f. 

15, 

63. Leptothyra picta, Pse. Am. Jour. Conch, t. 11, f. 3, 

64. Astralium chemnitzi, Val. Voy. Venus t. 2 bis, f. 1, 

65. Leptothyra lieta, IMontr. Specimen, . . . . 

66. Leptothyra carpenteri, Pilsbry. Specimen, 

67. Astralium stellare, Gmel. xlstrolabe, t. 61, f. 6, 7, 

68. 6Sa, Astralium insequale, Martyn. Specimen, 

69. Tricolia fordiana, Pilsbry (jaws.) Specimen, 

70. Orthomesus virgo, Angas. (central, 1st lateral, and 1st, 

2d and 3d marginal teeth.) Specimen, . . . 

71. Lithopoma americanum Gmel. (central tooth.) Specimen, 



210 
210 
208 
200 
202 
229 
193 
223 
224 
224 
240 
202 
225 
215 
235 
250 
205 
249 
262 
221 
235 
228 

246 

246 
256 
233 
258 
247 
232 
244 
163 

163 
.186 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



321 



der 



FIGURK. PAGE. 

72. Tricolia speciosa, Miihlf. (central, 1st lateral, 1st, 2d and 

3d marginal teeth.) Specimen, ..... 163 

73. Leptothyra carpenteri, Pilsbry. (central, 1st lateral, 6th, 

7th, 8th, 11th and 12th marginal teeth.) Specimen. . 188 

Plate 61. (Radul^.) 

1. Phasianella australis, Gmel. Troschel, Das Gebiss 

Schnecken ii, t. 18, f. 9, 

2. Tricolia pulla, L. Ibid. t. 18, f. 10, 

3. 4. Orthomesus lineolata. Lam. Ibid. t. 18, f. 1 

5. Turbo argyrostomus, L. Ibid. t. 19, f. 4, 

6. Turbo radiatus, Gm. Ibid. t. 19, f. 7a, . 

7. Sarmaticus sarmaticus, L. Ibid. t. 19, f. 14, 

8. Lithopoma tuber, Gmel. Ibid. t. 20, f. 13, 

9. Prisogaster niger. Gray. Ibid. t. 20, f. 6, 

10. Marmorostoma porphyrites, Gmel. Ibid. t. 20, f. 1, 

11. Pomaulax undosum. Wood. Specimen. 

12. Astraliura spinulosum. Lam. Specimen, 

13. Bolma rugosa, L. Specimen, . 

14. Cyclocantha plicatospinosa, Pilsbry. Specimen, 

15. Leptothyra sangarensis, Shrenck. Specimen, 

Plate 62. 



1. Turbo radiatus, Gmel. Coq. Viv. t. 20, f. 1, 

2. Turbo histrio. Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 32, 
3-5. Leptothyi'a e.xilis, Phil. Conch. Cab. t. 15, 

6. Turbo filosus, Kn. Specimen, 

7. Turbo intercostalis. Specimen, 

8. Turbo imperialis. Coq. Viv. t. 3, f. 1, 

9. Turbo turbinopsis. Lam. Ibid. t. 42, f. 4, 
10-12. Leptothyra globula, Phil. Specimen, 

13. Turbo smaragdus, Martyn. (^on. Icon. f. 13, 

14. Turbo speciosus, Rve. Ibid. f. 35, . 



f. 6, 



Plate 63. 



15, 16 

17. 18 



19 
20 

21 



162 
163 
163 
185 

185 
186 
186 
186 
185 
187 
186 
186 
187 
188 



200 
201 
257 
205 
201 
192 
199 
262 
217 
201 



Astralium semicostatum, Kn. Coq. Viv. t. 38, f. 1, . 237 
Astralium semicostatum, Kn. Specimens, . . 237 

Turbo semicostatus, Pse. Thes. Conch, t. 14, f. 199, . 206 
Turbo corallinus, Rve. (=^ Leptothyra sangarensis.) Con. 

Icon. f. 56, 250 

. 22. Astralium latispina, Phil. Coq. Viv. t. 31, f. 1, . 223 
23, 24. Leptothyra albida, Dall. Specimen, . . . 253 

25, 26. Turbo exquisiUis, Angas. P. Z. S. 1877, t. 26, f. 18, 207 

27. Leptothyra pancicostata, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch. 1872, 

t. 15, f. 10, 248 

28. Astralium aculeatum, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 62, . 

29. 30. Leptothyra laeta, Montr. Jour, de Conch. 1863, t. 

12, f. 2, 258 

21 



322 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PACK. 

31. Astralium taylorianum, Smith. P. Z. S. 1880, t. 48, f. 9, 244 

32. Turbo setosus, Gmel. Coq. Viv. t. . . . .195 

33. Turbo setosus, var. patulus, Phil. Conch. Cab. t. 17, f. 5, 195 

34. Leptothyra peloritana, Cantraine. Mai. Med. t. 6, f. 23, 252 

35. Leptothyra carinata, Cantraine. Ibid. t. 6, f. 22, . . 252 

36. Leptothyra induta, Watson. Challenger. Kept. t. 6, f. 1, 

a,h,c 253 

37. Astralium nobilis, Gray. Voy. H. M. S. Fly, t. 2, f. 7, . 239 

38. Astralium prevosti, Sowb. Thes. Conch, t. 12, f. 134, . 235 

39. Turbo guttatus, A. Ad. Ibid. t. 7, f. 68, ... 213 

40. Leptothyra Candida, Pse. Ibid. t. 13, f. 162, . . . 256 

Plate 64. 

40-43. Phasianella deaniana, Pilsbry. Specimens, . . 169 

44, 46. Astralium hexagonum, Phil. Conch Cab. t. 22, f. 6, 237 

47, 48. Leptothyra fluctuosa, Hutton. Specimens. . . 259 

49. Astralium lapillus, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 65, . , . 233 

50, 51. Astralium rotularium. Lam. Coq. Viv. t. 12, f. 2. . 238 

52. Astralium aureum, Jonas. Ibid. t. 104, f. 3, . . . 240 

53, 54. Asti-alium aureum, Jonas. Con. Icon. f. 58, 59, . 240 

55. Astralium sulcatum, Martvn. Coq. Viv. . . . 242 

56. Leptothyra globula, Phil. ^ Conch. Cab. t. 35, f. 3, . . 262 

57. 58. Astralium tuberosum, Phil. Ibid. t. 22, f. 2, . . 227 

59. Leptothyra sangarensis, Schrenck. Specimen, . . 250 

60, 61. Leptothyra sanguinea, Linn. Specimen, . . . 249 
62, 63. Astralium plicatulum, Phil. Conch. Cab. t. 32, f. 5, 227 
64-66. Astralium petrosum, Martyn. Specimen, . . . 234 

Plate 65, 

6. Delphinula imperalis, Rve. (= melanacantha.) Con. Icon. 

t\h, 268 

7. Delphinula distortaKn. (=:: melanacantha Rve.) Coq. Viv. 

t. 2, f. 2, 268 

8. Delphinula rugosa, Kn. (= distorta Lam.) Ibid. t. 3, f. 

4a, 268 

9. Delphinula formosa, Rve. (= laciniata.) Conch. Cab. t. 

1, f. 6, 267 

10. Delphinula (?) nitida, Verrill and Smith. Trans. Conn. 

Acad, vi, t. 44, f. 21, 269 

11. Delphinula formosa, Rve. (= laciniata.) Con. Icon. f. 26, 267 



Plate 66. 



268 



12, 13. Delphinula tyria, Rve. Con. Icon. f. 6, . 

14. Delphinula aculeata, Rve. (= laciniata.) Ibid. f. 3, . 267 

15. Delphinula atrata, Rve. Ibid f. 4, .... 267 

16. Delphinula incisa, Rve. (= laciniata.) Ibid. f. 5, . 267 

17. Delphinula euracantha, (= laciniata var.) Thes. Conch. 

t. 477, f. 8, 267 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 323 

FIGURK. PAGE. 

18. Delphinula nodosa, Rve. (:= laciniata.) Con. Icon. f. 

8, 267 

19. Delphinula martinii, A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1854, t. 27, f. 8, . 268 

Plate 67. 

1. Delphinula laciniata. Lam. Coq. Viv. t. 1, f. 1, . . 266 

2 Delphinula laciniata, Lam. Con. Icon, f, 9a, . . . 266 

8. Delphinula, formosa, Rve. Ibid. f. 2, . . . . 267 

4. Delphinula aculeata, var. /?. Rve. (~ laciniata.) Ibid.f. 

36, . . .267 

5. Delphinula sphserula, Kiener. Coq. Viv. t. 3, f. 3, . 268 

Plate 68. 

6-S. Angarina lesourdi, Wright. Jour, de Conch. 1898, t. 

3, f. 1, . 269 

9-11. Neritina nordquisti, Westrl. Vega Exped. t. 5, f. 

24, .' 270 

12, 13. Delphinula distorta. Lam. Specimen . . . 268 
14-19. Leptothyra roseocincta, Martens. Mobius Reise n. 

Mauritius, t. 20, f. 22-25 251 

20. Delphinula sphaerula, Kiener. Spec. Delphinula, t. 5, f. 3, 268 

Plate 69. 

21. Turbo magnificus, Jonas. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 14, f. 1, 192 

22. 23. Turbo heterocheilus, Pilsbry. Specimen, . . . 209 

24. Leptothyra purpurascens, Dkr. Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap, t. 

12, f. 2 251 

25. Leptothyra marmoreus, Pse. Thes. Conch, t. B. f. 171, . 263 

26. Leptothyra rubra, Dkr. Ind. Moll. Mar. Jap. t. 12, f. 9, 251 

27. Turbo tursicus. Reeve. Zool. H. M. S. ' Alert ' t. 44, f. u, 230 

28. Turbo militaris, Reeve. Thes. Conch, t. vii, f. 64, . . 271 

29. 30. Turbo gestroi, Caramagna. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. xiii, 

t. 8, f. 10, 262 

31. Turbo militaris. Reeve. Con. Icon. f. 40, ... 271 

32, 33. Turbo niger. Gray, (operculum.) Specimen, . . 219 
35. Leptothyra picta, Pease. Am. Jour, Couch. 1868, t. 11, 

f. 2. , . , 256 



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